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The dialectics of exploitation and discrimination in the labour market : toward a Marxist theory of racial.. 1985

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THE DIALECTICS OF EXPLOITATION AND DISCRIMINATION IN THE LABOUR MARKET: TOWARD A MARXIST THEORY OF RACIAL CONFLICT By STUART B. WHITNEY B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of D u b l i n , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRE- MENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g .to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1985 ©Stuart Whitney, 1985 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada Department V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) i i ABSTRACT S i n c e the c o n j o i n t development of c a p i t a l i s m and the n a t i o n - s t a t e i n e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y Europe, the p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l problems of socio-economic r e p r o d u c t i o n and s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l o r d e r have c o n f r o n t e d s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s of a l l i l k s as d i f f e r e n t s i d e s of the same c o i n . In i t s i n f a n c y , s o c i o l o g y drew i t s f o r m a t i v e i n s p i r a t i o n from c l a s s i c a l p o l i t i c a l economy, and l o n g a f t e r the new d i s c i p l i n e had c a r v e d out i t s own n i c h e from the t h e o r e t i c a l vacuum c r e a t e d by the r i s e of n e o c l a s s i c a l economics, the d i a l o g u e between s o c i a l and economic t h e o r y p e r s i s t e d , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n the M a r x i s t t r a d i t i o n . Nowhere i s t h i s s y m b i o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p more apparent than i n the f i e l d of l a b o u r market s t u d i e s . The l a b o u r market c o n s t i t u t e s a microcosm of c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y where the r e l a t e d problems of economic r e p r o d u c t i o n and s o c i a l o r d e r a r e m a n i f e s t i n t h e i r m y r i a d , c o n t r a d i c t o r y forms. One such form i s the dyad of r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y and c o n f l i c t . T h i s t h e s i s f o c u s e s on how r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i s c o n c e i v e d i n the contemporary M a r x i s t , n e o c l a s s i c a l economic and Weberian l i t e r a t u r e , and examines the c o n t r i b u t i o n of r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y t o a M a r x i s t t h e o r y of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . The purpose i s t o meet the c h a l l e n g e extended by a r e c e n t , neo- Weberian c r i t i q u e and r e f o r m u l a t i o n of c l a s s t h e o r y as a u n i f i e d , t h e o r e t i c o - m e t h o d o l o g i c a l framework f o r a r t i c u l a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r a c i a l groups and s o c i a l c l a s s e s , r a c i a l c o n f l i c t and c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n the l a b o u r market, community, s t a t e and i n t e r n a t i o n a l system. I t c o n c l u d e s t h a t r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y r e p r e s e n t s an i m p o r t a n t d e p a r t u r e from p r e v i o u s M a r x i s t approaches t o r a c e and c l a s s . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y b r e a k s w i t h M a r x i s t t r a d i t i o n by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g group forms of d o m i n a t i o n l i k e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , from c l a s s forms l i k e e x p l o i t a t i o n , and by r e l a t i n g group and c l a s s , market and p r o d u c t i o n r e l a t i o n s t o r a c i a l c o n f l i c t and c l a s s s t r u g g l e . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i s the attempt t o a p p l y a non- r e d u c t i o n i s t c l a s s a n a l y s i s t h a t s i t u a t e s the r a c e - c l a s s nexus i n the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t of c o l l e c t i v e s t r u g g l e s i n a dynamic, open-ended c l a s s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e s e t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i r e c t i v e s f o r M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s of r a c e , c l a s s and the S t a t e a r e c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d , and a n o n - r e d u c t i o n i s t model of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i s p r o f f e r e d as a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p toward a M a r x i s t t h e o r y of i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t . i v Acknowledgement I am i n d e b t e d t o N e i l Guppy f o r t a k i n g over such an u n w i e l d y p r o j e c t i n m i d - c o u r s e , and g u i d i n g i t t h r o u g h t o c o m p l e t i o n w i t h e n d l e s s p a t i e n c e , a d v i c e and e n t h u s i a s m . A s p e c i a l t h a n k s goes t o D a v i d S c h w e i t z e r f o r h i s c o n s i s t e n t s u p p o r t , t o T i s s a Fernando f o r h i s f r i e n d s h i p , t o Bob R a t n e r f o r h i s humour, and t o John McMullan f o r h i s encouragement. I am g r a t e f u l t o numerous c o l l e a g u e s and f r i e n d s who have s u f f e r e d t h r ough a d i f f i c u l t b i r t h and c o n t r i b u t e d i d e a s and c r i t i c i s m . L a s t , but not l e a s t , I thank L u c i l l e f o r b e l i e v i n g and c a r i n g . V T a b l e of C o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t i Acknowledgements i v Chapter 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter 2 Racism or C l a s s i s m ? M a r x i s t T h e o r i e s of Race and C l a s s 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 19 2.2 The c o n c e p t s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ....20 2.3 Racism or c l a s s i s m ? 24 2 . 3 . i . I n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m 25 2 . 3 . i i C l a s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n 30 2 . 3 . i i i World c a p i t a l i s t system 36 2 . 3 . i v Summary 42 Chapter 3 The Economics of D i s c r i m i n a t i o n : N e o c l a s s i c a l and Dual Labour Market Theory 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 44 3.2 N e o c l a s s i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r i e s 47 3 . 2 . i Human c a p i t a l t h e o r y 49 3 . 2 . i i R a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t h e o r i e s 52 3 . 2 . i i . a Employer model 53 3 . 2 . i i . b White c a r t e l model 54 v i 3 . 2 . i i . c Employee model 55 3 . 2 . i i . d S t a t i s t i c a l model 56 3 . 2 . i i i Summary of n e o c l a s s i c a l t h e o r i e s 57 3.3 Dual l a b o u r market t h e o r y 58 3 . 3 . i Economic d u a l i s m 60 3 . 3 . i i Market d u a l i s m 61 3. 3. i i i Market outcomes 63 3 . 3 . i v Concept of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n 64 3.3.v C r i t i q u e of d u a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y 65 Chapter 4 The D i a l e c t i c s of E x p l o i t a t i o n and D i s c r i m i n a t i o n : R a d i c a l Labour Market Theory 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 70 4.2 R a d i c a l d u a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y 74 4 . 2 . i Worker r e s i s t a n c e 74 4.2. i i Employer s t r a t e g i e s 76 4 . 2 . i i i C e n t r e - p e r i p h e r y r e l a t i o n s 78 4 . 2 . i v Concept of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n 79 4.3 R a d i c a l segmented l a b o u r market t h e o r y 81 4 . 3 . i The system of c o n t r o l 82 4 . 3 . i i S t r u c t u r a l c o n t r o l 83 4 . 3 . i i . a T e c h n i c a l c o n t r o l 83 4 . 3 . i i . b B u r e a u c r a t i c c o n t r o l 84 4 . 3 . i i i Segmented markets and d i v i d e d workers 85 4 . 3 . i v Concept of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n 87 4.4 S p l i t l a b o u r market t h e o r y 89 v i i 4 . 4 . i P r i c e of l a b o u r ..90 4 . 4 . i i D i s p l a c e m e n t of l a b o u r 92 4 . 4 . i i i R e a c t i o n s t o d i s p l a c e m e n t 93 4 . 4 . i v Concept of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n 96 4.5 C r i t i q u e of r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y 98 4.6 The d i a l e c t i c s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a i o n ..102 Chapter 5 The P o l i t i c s of E x p l o i t a t i o n : C l a s s and S t a t e i n R a d i c a l Labour Market and Group Power T h e o r i e s 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 108 5.2 C l a s s t h e o r y and l a b o u r market models 112 5.3 The s t a t e and l a b o u r market t h e o r y 119 5 . 3 . i I n s t r u m e n t a l i s t approach 120 5 . 3 . i i S t r u c t u r a l i s t a pproach 120 5 . 3 . i i i C l a s s t h e o r e t i c a l approach 121 5 . 3 . i v C a p i t a l l o g i c a pproach 122 5.3. v Toward a c l a s s c o n f l i c t t h e o r y of the S t a t e 123 5.4 Group power approaches t o c l a s s , s t a t e and r a c i a l c o n f 1 i c t 126 5 . 4 . i P a r k i n ' s b o u r g e o i s c r i t i q u e 127 5 . 4 . i i C l a s s and forms of s o c i a l c l o s u r e 128 5 . 4 . i i i C l a s s f o r m a t i o n , power and t h e S t a t e 131 5 . 4 . i v E x p l o i t a t i o n and r a c i a l c o n f l i c t 134 5.4. v C o n c l u s i o n 138 Chapter 6 v i i i Beyond the Labour M a r k e t : C l a s s F o r m a t i o n , C l a s s S t r u g g l e and R a c i a l C o n f l i c t 6.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 140 6.2 M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n 142 6.3 A c l a s s c o n f l i c t t h e o r y of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n 146 6.3.i C l a s s 146 6 . 3 . i i C l a s s s t r u g g l e 148 6.3. i i i Hegemony 150 6.4 Toward a c l a s s c o n f l i c t model of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . . . 1 5 2 6.5 Beyond the l a b o u r market 158 6.5.i The s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n 160 6 . 5 . i i C u l t u r e s of r e s i s t a n c e and the concept of community 162 6 . 5 . i i i Labour m i g r a t i o n and l i b e r a t i o n a r y movements ....164 6.6 C o n c l u s i o n 166 B i b l i o g r a p h y 169 1 CHAPTER 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n An eminent rac e r e l a t i o n s t h e o r i s t r e c e n t l y h e r a l d e d the " d e c l i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e of r a c e " as opposed t o c l a s s i n e x p l a i n i n g i n e q u a l i t y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . D i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h r e e broad s t a g e s i n the h i s t o r y of U.S. race r e l a t i o n s , W. J . W i l s o n (1978) argued t h a t , w h i l e orthodox Marxism o f f e r s the most c o n v i n c i n g account of the ' r a c i a l - c a s t e o p p r e s s i o n ' d u r i n g the ' p r e i n d u s t r i a l p e r i o d ' , and s p l i t l a b o u r market t h e o r y the be s t e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the ' r a c i a l o p p r e s s i o n ' of the ' i n d u s t r i a l p e r i o d ' , n e i t h e r approach i s a p p l i c a b l e t o the 'modern i n d u s t r i a l p e r i o d ' which marks a ' p r o g r e s s i v e t r a n s i t i o n ' from the ' r a c i a l o p p r e s s i o n of a l l b l a c k s ' , t o the ' c l a s s s u b o r d i n a t i o n of a b l a c k u n d e r c l a s s ' . C i t i n g e m p i r i c a l data on r e c e n t economic m o b i l i t y and i n c r e a s i n g s t r a t i f i c a t i o n among b l a c k s , W i l s o n (1978) p r e d i c t s w i d e n i n g c l a s s c l e a v a g e s i n the b l a c k community, the emergence of d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l agendas, and d e c l i n i n g r a c i s m a g a i n s t b l a c k s as a whole. Moreover, he c o n c l u d e s t h a t : "Whereas the r a c i a l antagonism i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d of i n d u s t r i a l r a c e r e l a t i o n s (such as the J i m Crow s e g r e g a t i o n movement i n the South and the r a c e r i o t s i n the n o r t h e r n c i t i e s ) tended t o be e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o l a b o u r market c o n f l i c t s , r a c i a l antagonism i n the p e r i o d of modern i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s tends t o o r i g i n a t e o u t s i d e of the economic o r d e r and t o have l i t t l e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h l a b o u r - m a r k e t s t r i f e " ( I b i d : 15). 2 W i l s o n ' s (1978) f i n d i n g s p r e c i p i t a t e d a storm of p r o t e s t from b l a c k academics who were d u b i o u s about the e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e of b l a c k m o b i l i t y , and spurned the c l a i m t h a t r a c i s m was no l o n g e r u b i q u i t o u s i n the l a b o u r market ( H i l l , 1978; W i l l h e l m , 1983). C o n v e r s e l y , the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t c l a s s r a t h e r than r a c i a l o p p r e s s i o n was the c h i e f v a r i a b l e i n contemporary b l a c k i n e q u a l i t y won a p p r o v a l from w h i t e M a r x i s t s f o r a c k n o w l e d g i n g the economic b a s i s f o r b l a c k i n e q u a l i t y (see W i l l i e , 1979). Subsequent events however, soon re n d e r e d W i l s o n ' s p r o v o c a t i v e t h e s i s a dead l e t t e r . The ascendancy of the p o l i t i c a l R i g h t d u r i n g the r e c u r r i n g economic c r i s e s i n western c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e s s i n c e the l a t e 1970s has u s h e r e d i n an e r a of u n precedented f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t , unemployment, w e l f a r e and e d u c a t i o n c u t b a c k s , and a s s a u l t s on c i v i l and l a b o u r r i g h t s . I t has a l s o w i t n e s s e d a r e s u r g e n c e of c o n s e r v a t i v e , r e l i g i o u s f u n d a m e n t a l i s t , r a c i s t and n e o - f a s c i s t i d e o l o g i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a l l of which have c o n t r i b u t e d t o growing r a c i a l u n r e s t . R i o t i n g and p o l i c e and m i l i t a r y r e p r e s s i o n i n the r a c i a l l y and e t h n i c a l l y s e g r e g a t e d urban e n c l a v e s i n the U.S., B r i t a i n and South A f r i c a , and s p o r a d i c o u t b r e a k s of r a c i a l v i o l e n c e i n T o r o n t o , Vancouver and o t h e r Canadian c i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t the 1980s has t e s t i f i e d t o the ' e n d u r i n g r e a l i t y ' of r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y and c o n f l i c t i n w e s t e r n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y , and the inadequacy of p r e v a i l i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s . 3 The c o n t r o v e r s y o ver W i l s o n ' s (1978) s t u d y , a l b e i t s h o r t - l i v e d , s e r v e d t o b r e a t h e new l i f e i n t o the r a c e - c l a s s , d ebate, and drew c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n t o two key i s s u e s t h a t s o c i o l o g i c a l r a c e r e l a t i o n s and M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t a l i k e had f a i l e d t o s e r i o u s l y c o n f r o n t . F i r s t , t h e r e i s the g e n e r a l i s s u e of whether a c l a s s t h e o r y of i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t i s f e a s i b l e , or as W i l l h e l m (1980) t e r s e l y conveys the dilemma: "Can Marxism e x p l a i n r a c i a l c o n f l i c t ? " Second, t h e r e i s the more s p e c i f i c i s s u e of whether the l a b o u r market s t i l l c o n s t i t u t e s the p r i m a r y source o f , and b a s i s f o r r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . These two fundamental i s s u e s , h i g h l i g h t e d by t h e t r a g i c e v e n t s of L i b e r t y C i t y , Miami i n May of 1980, and B r i x t o n , South London i n A p r i l of 1981, i n f o r m e d the i n c e p t i o n of t h i s s t u d y . 1 My response t o b oth q u e s t i o n s i s a f f i r m a t i v e f o r reasons which I w i l l now e l a b o r a t e , a l o n g w i t h the main argument, and an o u t l i n e of the t h e s i s . In t h e p a s t when M a r x i s t s have a d d r e s s e d r a c i a l , e t h n i c , or gender group c o n f l i c t s a t a l l , they have tended t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i s t o r i c a l and d e t e r m i n i s t i c a n a l y s e s of the c l a s s - group nexus. Western Marxism has been e s p e c i a l l y c u l p a b l e of ' e x p l a i n i n g away' rac e by f o c u s i n g on ' r a c i s m ' , c o n c e i v e d as an exogenous form of d o m i n a t i o n o u t s i d e the parameters of c l a s s a n a l y s i s p r o p e r , or as a ' s u p e r s t r u c t u r a l ' element or i d e o l o g y t h a t can be 'added on' t o c l a s s c a t e g o r i e s 1 Both of t h e s e ' r i o t s ' t r i g g e r e d u p r i s i n g s i n o t h e r U.S. and B r i t i s h c i t i e s i n the months t h a t f o l l o w e d . See M a rable (1980b) on the Miami r e b e l l i o n , and Sivanandan (1982) and 'Notes and documents' on r i o t s i n B r i t a i n i n Race & C l a s s 23: 2/3, pp. 223-232, 1981/82. 4 a t the t h e o r i s t ' s c o n v e n i e n c e . The problem of d e t e r m i n i s m has a l s o a r i s e n from the M a r x i s t p r o p e n s i t y f o r c o n c e i v i n g s o c i a l c l a s s as an ' o b j e c t i v e ' economic r e l a t i o n , r e n d e r i n g c l a s s a n a l y s i s the a n a l y s i s of c l a s s s t r u c t u r e , and c l a s s s t r u g g l e the c o n f l i c t between c l a s s e s ' a l w a y s - a l r e a d y - f o r m e d ' by the ' o b j e c t i v e ' r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . M i s s i n g from many M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s i s any c o n c r e t e c o n c e p t i o n of human agency a t the i n t r a - c l a s s l e v e l , and the sweeping h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s by which c l a s s e s form, deform and r e f o r m i n the s t r u g g l e s engaged i n by c o l l e c t i v e a g e n t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , M a r x i s t approaches t o r a c i a l c o n f l i c t have, more o f t e n than n o t , been marred by s t a t i c , r e d u c t i o n i s t and f u n c t i o n a l i s t a n a l y s e s which t e n d t o reduce r a c e t o c l a s s , or c l a s s t o r a c e , and c o n f l a t e groups w i t h c l a s s e s and v i c e v e r s a (Geschwender, 1978; P a r k i n , 1979; W i l l h e l m , 1980; Sivanandan, 1982). A l t h o u g h c l a s s s t r u g g l e i s u s u a l l y assumed t o be the 'motor of h i s t o r y ' , c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent from M a r x i s t d i s c o u r s e has been the r o l e of i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t s i n r e l a t i o n t o c l a s s s t r u g g l e and c l a s s f o r m a t i o n . P r e c i s e l y what c r i e s out f o r e x p l a n a t i o n — t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r a c e and c l a s s , r a c i a l c o n f l i c t and c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n the h i s t o r i c a l r e p r o d u c t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of r a c i a l groups and s o c i a l c l a s s e s — r e m a i n s u n c h a r t e d t e r r i t o r y . There i s a p r e s s i n g need t h e n , f o r a r e a p p r a i s a l of the race - c l a s s debate w i t h i n Marxism, and a c r i t i q u e t h a t p r o p e l s a n a l y s i s beyond the p o l a r i z e d c u l - d e - s a c s of r a c i a l autonomism and c l a s s r e d u c t i o n i s m . As W a l l e r s t e i n (1981: 5) has o b s e r v e d : 5 " t o debate the primacy of race or c l a s s i s not merely t o be s c h o l a s t i c , i t i s t o m i s l e a d us p o l i t i c a l l y i n a c r i t i c a l way." The f i r s t i s s u e i s not s i m p l y a case of ' b l a c k ' v e r s u s 'white' Marxism as i t i s t o p i c a l t o assume, 2 nor i s i t a matter of whether Marxism can ' e x p l a i n ' r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , a t l e a s t not i n the p o s i t i v i s t sense of p r e d i c t i o n and c o n t r o l . The i s s u e here I b e l i e v e , i s t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l ; the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a n o n - r e d u c t i o n i s t , n o n - f u n c t i o n a l i s t , M a r x i s t t h e o r y of r a c i a l , i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t . So l o n g as race and c l a s s a r e reg a r d e d as m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s , or as s u b s e t s of one a n o t h e r , r a t h e r than as a n a l y t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t , but h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n t i n g e n t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , the t h e o r i e s g e n e r a t e d t o e x p l a i n r a c i a l c o n f l i c t w i l l remain a h i s t o r i c a l and t a u t o l o g i c a l . The c h a l l e n g e b e f o r e Marxism i s t o c o n c e i v e a u n i f i e d t h e o r e t i c o - m e t h o d o l o g i c a l framework f o r a r t i c u l a t i n g the h i s t o r i c a l l y t r a n s f o r m i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s between race and c l a s s w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of a g l o b a l economy. Such a mode of c l a s s a n a l y s i s would, i d e a l l y , have m u l t i f o c a l and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o o t h e r forms of communal group c o n f l i c t . 2 I am g r a t e f u l t o P r o f e s s o r C h r i s M u l l a r d of the U n i v e r s i t y of London f o r i n t r o d u c i n g me t o the contemporary b l a c k M a r x i s t l i t e r a t u r e , and e x p l a i n i n g what d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from w h i t e Marxism. P e r s o n a l l y , I b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s not the c o l o u r or sex of the o b s e r v e r so much as t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e ^ t h a t l e a d s t o r a c i s t or s e x i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . T h i s t h e s i s "may speak from and t o the s o - c a l l e d 'white M a r x i s t ' t r a d i t i o n of Western Europe and N o r t h A m e r i c a , but t h a t does not mean I hope, t h a t i t s c o n c l u s i o n s a r e i n e v i t a b l y r a c i s t ! 6 The second • i s s u e i s over the a p p r o p r i a t e f o c u s f o r a M a r x i s t t h e o r y of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . A c c o r d i n g t o W i l s o n (1978), "economic c l a s s t h e o r i e s which a s s o c i a t e l a b o u r market c o n f l i c t s w i t h r a c i a l antagonism have l i t t l e a p p l i c a t i o n t o the p r e s e n t p e r i o d " ( I b i d : 16), because the " c e n t r e of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t has s h i f t e d from the i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r t o the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l o r d e r " ( I b i d : 150). While 'prima f a c i e ' t h i s may be t h e c a s e , I have s e v e r a l r e s e r v a t i o n s about t h i s l i n e of r e a s o n i n g , and w i l l argue on the c o n t r a r y , t h a t l a b o u r market t h e o r y i s a n e c e s s a r y , i f not s u f f i c i e n t , s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r a M a r x i s t t h e o r y of r a c i a l c o n f 1 i c t . F i r s t , i f i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y and r a c i a l c o n f l i c t a r e h i s t o r i c a l l y and t h e o r e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d i n terms of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s of d o m i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n , t h e n , s i n c e the l a b o u r market i s s t i l l a f undamental b a s i s of r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y , i t remains a p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , i f no l o n g e r the p r i m a r y l o c u s of t h a t c o n f l i c t . W i l s o n ' s (1978) ' b l a c k u n d e r c l a s s ' may be 'de f a c t o ' o u t s i d e the l a b o u r market, but i t s m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n and permanent d i s p l a c e m e n t from c a p i t a l i s t exchange and p r o d u c t i o n r e l a t i o n s can o n l y be grasped from the c o n t e x t of the dynamics of a l a b o u r market t h a t has h i s t o r i c a l l y been r a c i s t . Second, r a c i s m may have been impor t e d i n t o the l a b o u r market, but i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y the l a b o u r market has been one of the main l o c i f o r the r e p r o d u c t i o n of r a c i s m t h r o u g h the p r a c t i c e of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s and c o l l e c t i v i t i e s , as w e l l as the S t a t e . R a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n may 7 not have d e c l i n e d as W i l s o n (1978) s a n g u i n e l y presumes, but i n s t e a d changed i n form, making i t more d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c e r n by means of c o n v e n t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s . T h i r d , the apparent s h i f t i n r a c i a l c o n f l i c t from the l a b o u r market t o the community and s t a t e may owe as much t o changes i n s i d e , as t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o u t s i d e the w o r k p l a c e and l a b o u r market. The l a b o u r market i s an arena of i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t 'par e x c e l l e n c e ' , where the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of c l a s s and group forms of d o m i n a t i o n and s t r u g g l e i s a c c e n t u a t e d . In a sense, the l a b o u r market c o n s t i t u t e s a microcosm of c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y , c o m p r i s i n g the i n t e r f a c e of c l a s s , i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n , exchange, and d i s t r i b u t i o n t h a t s t r u c t u r e the s t r u g g l e s among c o l l e c t i v e human agents which, i n t u r n , a f f e c t the f o r m a t i o n of c l a s s e s , c l a s s f r a c t i o n s and communal groups. The community^based s t r u g g l e s of the b l a c k , urban poor f o r b e t t e r j o b s , h o u s i n g , p o l i c i n g and e d u c a t i o n a r e a f f e c t e d by, and have r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r , s t r u g g l e s i n s i d e the w o r k p l a c e and l a b o u r market. Hence, a M a r x i s t t h e o r y of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t must commence w i t h p r o d u c t i o n and market r e l a t i o n s , but s h o u l d a l s o l i n k c o n f l i c t i n the l a b o u r market t o c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s a t the community, s t a t e and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l s . R a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y , a g e n e r i c term used t o denote the o f f s p r i n g of n e o c l a s s i c a l economic, Weberian and M a r x i s t approaches t o s t r u c t u r a l i n e q u a l i t y and r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t a i n d u r i n g the 1970s, marks an i m p o r t a n t move i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . The work of B o n a c i c h (1972), 8 R e i c h e t a l (1973), Friedman (1977), Edwards (1979) and Gordon e t a l (1982) r e p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t d e p a r t u r e from p r e v i o u s M a r x i s t t r a d i t i o n by f o c u s i n g on the l a b o u r market as w e l l as t h e l a b o u r p r o c e s s , and a t t e m p t i n g t o r e l a t e r a c e and c l a s s r e l a t i o n s d i a l e c t i c a l l y , i n the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t of c o l l e c t i v e s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t both c l a s s and group forms of d o m i n a t i o n . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y , r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y a t t e m p t i n g a n o n - r e d u c t i o n i s t c l a s s a n a l y s i s t h a t I have d e s i g n a t e d a ' c l a s s c o n f l i c t ' a p p r o a c h . 3 A c l a s s c o n f l i c t p e r s p e c t i v e of the l a b o u r market a t t e n d s t o the e f f e c t s of the c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s of c o l l e c t i v e human ag e n t s on the p r o c e s s e s of l a b o u r market segmentation and w o r k i n g c l a s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . A p p l y i n g an h i s t o r i c a l , r e l a t i o n a l method of M a r x i s t p o l i t i c a l economy t o n e o c l a s s i c a l economic and Weberian t h e o r i e s of the l a b o u r market, and M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s of the l a b o u r p r o c e s s , a c l a s s c o n f l i c t approach produces a s y n t h e t i c h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s of c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n t h e w o r k p l a c e as i t m e d i a t e s , and i s mediated by, i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t s i n the l a b o u r market. A c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s t h e r e f o r e s i t u a t e s the r a c e - c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t of c o l l e c t i v e s t r u g g l e s i n a dynamic, open-ended c l a s s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s , i n c o n t r a s t t o an i n e r t c l a s s s t r u c t u r e d e t e r m i n e d by ' o b j e c t i v e ' p r o d u c t i o n 3 The c o n c e p t i o n of a ' c l a s s c o n f l i c t ' a n a l y s i s here i s d e r i v e d from R e i c h (1981: 186-203) whose ' c l a s s c o n f l i c t model of the economic p r o c e s s ' r e c o g n i z e s i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n and c l a s s s t r u g g l e . I have added the c a t e g o r y of i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t t o t h e model t o account f o r c o m p e t i t i o n and c o n f l i c t between and among c l a s s f r a c t i o n s and communal groups. 9 r e l a t i o n s . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y b r e a k s w i t h M a r x i s t t r a d i t i o n by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g group forms of d o m i n a t i o n l i k e r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n from c l a s s forms l i k e e x p l o i t a t i o n , and r e l a t i n g them t o both r a c i a l c o n f l i c t and c l a s s s t r u g g l e . In so d o i n g , i t i n t e g r a t e s a n e o c l a s s i c a l economic concept of ' i n d i v i d u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' w i t h a Weberian n o t i o n of 'group c o m p e t i t i o n ' and a M a r x i s t concept of ' c l a s s e x p l o i t a t i o n ' i n t o a c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s t h a t r e l a t e s race and c l a s s i n the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t of c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the p r o c e s s e s by which the w o r k p l a c e i s o r g a n i z e d , and the l a b o u r market formed. R a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y t h e r e f o r e c o n c e i v e s the r a c e - c l a s s nexus I s u g g e s t , i n terms of the ' d i a l e c t i c s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' . T h i s t h e s i s c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e s the t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s i m p o r t a n t d e p a r t u r e f o r a M a r x i s t a n a l y s i s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i n p a r t i c u l a r , and i n t e r - group c o n f l i c t i n g e n e r a l . I n the endeavour t o t e a s e out a c l a s s c o n f l i c t p e r s p e c t i v e on r a c i a l c o n f l i c t t h a t r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y h i n t s a t , but never a r t i c u l a t e s , t h e m y r i a d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between and among c l a s s e s and groups, the l a b o u r p r o c e s s and t h e l a b o u r market, p r o d u c t i o n and market r e l a t i o n s , d o m i n a t i o n and a p p r o p r i a t i o n a r e e x p l o r e d and c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n terms of contemporary M a r x i s t and Weberian t h e o r i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h i s i s not an e m p i r i c a l study of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t and c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n the l a b o u r market, so much as a t h e o r e t i c a l t r e a t i c e on how c l a s s s t r u g g l e and r a c i a l c o n f l i c t 1 0 ar e c o n c e i v e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e , and how perhaps, they ought t o be c o n c e i v e d i f M a r x i s t t h e o r y i s t o have any r e l e v a n c e t o the s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s posed by contemporary r a c i a l , and o t h e r i n t e r - group c o n f l i c t s . As such, a number of c a v e a t s and d i s c l a i m e r s s h o u l d be e n t e r e d b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h an o u t l i n e of the t h e s i s . S i n c e t h e 'modus o p e r a n d i ' I chose was t o s c r u t i n i z e r e c e n t M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s of r a c e and c l a s s and the l a b o u r market, and c o n t r a s t them t o a neo-Weberian c r i t i q u e and a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m u l a t i o n o f f e r e d by P a r k i n (1979), numerous a l l i e d approaches which were e i t h e r not congruent w i t h , or o u t s i d e of t h i s narrow spectrum, a r e r e f e r r e d t o o n l y i n p a s s i n g , or o m i t t e d a l t o g e t h e r . Cases i n p o i n t here i n c l u d e the s o - c a l l e d f i e l d of 'race r e l a t i o n s ' t h e o r y ( G l a z e r & Moynihan, 1963, Gordon, 1964, Banton, 1967; van den Berghe, 1967; Rex, 1970/83; Schermerhorn, 1970; Newman, 1971), o t h e r neo-Weberian approaches l i k e Giddens (1973) and Rex (1978; 1981b), the r a d i c a l s c h o o l of i n d u s t r i a l s o c i o l o g y ( C l e g g and D u n k e r l e y , 1980; H i l l , 1981), M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s of s l a v e r y ( W i l l i a m s , 1966; Genovese, 1974; F o g e l and Engermann, 1974), the B r i t i s h p o s t - S t r u c t u r a l i s t s c h o o l ( H a l l et a l , 1978; H a l l , 1980), contemporary w r i t i n g s on b l a c k r e s i s t a n c e ( S i v a n andan, 1982; M a r a b l e , 1980; 1981; H a l l e t a l . , 1976), and t h e o r i e s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i n s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t i e s (Lane, 1971). In a d d i t i o n , many e c l e c t i c t h e o r i e s u ndoubtedly f a l l i n t o the grey a r e a s between the t y p o l o g i e s adopted t o r e p r e s e n t each t h e o r e t i c a l camp. 11 A n other s i l e n c e i n the t h e s i s p e r t a i n s t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r a c i a l c o n f l i c t and e t h n i c and gender forms of i n t e r - group c o n f l i c t . Here the s t a n d a r d p l e a of ' l i m i t e d scope' i s l e s s c o n v i n c i n g because r a c i a l and e t h n i c groups a r e more e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t h e o r y than i n p r a c t i c e , and the s i t u a t i o n i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by gender r e l a t i o n s which c r o s s - c u t a l l o t h e r c o m m u n a l i s t i c b o u n d a r i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s i m p l i f y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s a r e a n e c e s s a r y e v i l , and i t i s t h e o r y a f t e r a l l , t o which t h i s s t u d y i s a d d r e s s e d . T h e r e f o r e , I have assumed t h a t : ( i ) r a c i a l c o n f l i c t can be a n a l y t i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from o t h e r forms of communal group c o n f l i c t , ( i i ) r a c e , e t h n i c i t y and gender a r e a l l forms of a s c r i p t i v e s t a t u s , t h a t i s , a r e a l l s o c i o - c u l t u r a l y d e f i n e d group c a t e g o r i e s , " and m a n i f e s t s i m i l a r forms of c o n f l i c t , and ( i i i ) a model of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t can be p i t c h e d a t a l e v e l of a b s t r a c t i o n such t h a t i t may be a p p l i c a b l e , t o some e x t e n t , t o a l l forms of i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t . And f i n a l l y , two r e l a t e d c a v e a t s s h o u l d be acknowledged. I t w i l l be o b s e r v e d t h a t l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o the r o l e i d e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s p l a y i n s t r u c t u r i n g the c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s of c o l l e c t i v e agents i n the l a b o u r market, and p a r a d o x i c a l l y f o r 4 S e t t i n g a s i d e the i n t e r e s t i n g i s s u e s r a i s e d by s o c i o b i o l o g y (see Van den Berghe, 1981), rac e and e t h n i c i t y a r e assumed here t o be s o c i a l r a t h e r than p r i m o r d i a l c a t e g o r i e s . Both a r e r e p r o d u c e d by the a s s i g n a t i o n of communal group s t a t u s t o p e r s o n s s h a r i n g the same i n h e r i t e d p h y s i c a l , or s o c i a l i z e d c u l t u r a l , t r a i t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Hence, r a c e and e t h n i c i t y a r e a n a l y t i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e i n terms of o r i g i n , but t e n d t o be c o n c r e t e l y r e l a t e d s i n c e b i o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e not autonomous. 12 a n o n - r e d u c t i o n i s t M a r x i s t t h e o r y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r a c e and c l a s s appears c a s t i n a d e t e r m i n i s t i c dyad of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . F i r s t , the b i a s towards economic and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s i s q u i t e d e l i b e r a t e , but does not c o m p l e t e l y p r e c l u d e i d e o l o g y . 5 I t i s i n t e n d e d t o c o u n t e r b a l a n c e the M a r x i s t tendency t o c o n c e i v e r a c e as an i d e o l o g i c a l epiphenomenon of c l a s s s t r u g g l e , and t o u n d e r s c o r e the r e p r o d u c t i o n of r a c i s t i d e o l o g y t h r o u g h the p r a c t i c e of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Second, the r e d u c t i o n i s t g u i s e of c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s i s a c t u a l l y more semantic than r e a l . Employing Marx's r e f l e x i v e methodology which has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a p r o c e s s of knowledge p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e e d i n g from the ' a b s t r a c t t o the c o n c r e t e ' (Oilman, 1971; I s r a e l , 1979) the m u l t i f a r i o u s economic, p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s between r a c i a l c o n f l i c t and c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n the l a b o u r market are a b s t r a c t e d and i d e a l i z e d i n t o the ' s i m p l i s t d e t e r m i n a t i o n s ' , and p l a c e d w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of a ' c o n c r e t e t o t a l i t y ' . The d i a l e c t i c s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n do not p u r p o r t t o r e p r e s e n t the 'essence' of the r a c e / c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p , but r a t h e r a more c o n c r e t e way of c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g the complex c h a i n of i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between and among s o c i a l c l a s s e s and r a c i a l groups i n the l a b o u r market of c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . 5 M i l e s (1982: 167-181) f o r example, argues t h a t ' r a c i a l c a t e g o r i z a t i o n ' i s an i d e o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s t h a t i s s t r u c t u r e d by, and i n t u r n , has e f f e c t s on, economic and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n and between c l a s s e s . 1 3 The t e r r a i n f o r a c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i s surveyed i n Chapter Two by i n t r o d u c i n g a conceptual framework f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of labour market theory, and p r o v i d i n g a background c r i t i q u e of M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s of race and c l a s s . Key terms l i k e r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , communal group, c l a s s f r a c t i o n , i n t r a - c l a s s c o n f l i c t , and c l a s s s t r u g g l e are s p e c i f i e d , and f o l l o w i n g r a d i c a l labour market theory, the concepts of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n are p o s i t e d as the concrete s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s s t r u c t u r i n g r a c i a l c o n f l i c t s i n the labour market. Working d e f i n i t i o n s of c l a s s e x p l o i t a t i o n and r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n are d e v i s e d such that both concepts are c o n c e p t u a l l y grounded i n economic, p o l i t i c a l , and i d e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n , exchange and d i s t r i b u t i o n . M a r x i s t s o f t e n c r i t i c i z e s o c i o l o g i c a l race r e l a t i o n s t h e o r i e s f o r emphasizing i n t e r - g r o u p r e l a t i o n s and processes at the expense of c l a s s r e l a t i o n s and c l a s s s t r u g g l e , but seldom recognize that the reverse a l s o holds f o r Marxist t h e o r i e s of race and c l a s s . A c r i t i c a l review of ' i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m ' , ' c l a s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ' and 'world c a p i t a l i s t system' t h e o r i e s suggests that inadequate M a r x i s t conceptions of race and c l a s s have l e a d to e i t h e r 'racism' (autonomist) or ' c l a s s i s m ' ( r e d u c t i o n i s t ) p o s i t i o n s , both e q u a l l y d e t e r m i n i s t i c . T h i s problem i s a t t r i b u t e d to the f a i l u r e to c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h between c l a s s and group r e l a t i o n s of domination, and the lack of both a systematic c o n c e p t i o n of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and a mode of c l a s s a n a l y s i s that focuses more on concrete s t r u g g l e s i n the h i s t o r i c a l process of c l a s s formation, than a b s t r a c t 1 4 s t r u g g l e imposed on s t a t i c c l a s s s t r u c t u r e s . The f o u n d a t i o n f o r a c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i s l a i d i n Chapters Three and Four by t r a c i n g the c a r e e r of the economic concept of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n through n e o c l a s s i c a l and dual i n t o r a d i c a l labour market t h e o r i e s , where i t i s married with a concept of e x p l o i t a t i o n . The n e o c l a s s i c a l economic underpinnings of r a d i c a l labour market t h e o r y 6 and the concept of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n are c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d i n Chapter Three. The two main n e o c l a s s i c a l economic approaches to r a c i a l c o n f l i c t - - h u m a n c a p i t a l theory, and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n theory--both expand the simple m a r g i n a l i s t model of the labour market, but I argue, even w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s of the n e o c l a s s i c a l paradigm, n e i t h e r proposes a c o n s i s t e n t and p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . Dual labour market theory tenders an i n t e r e s t i n g c h a l l e n g e to orthodoxy, yet does not I contend, move beyond the i n d i v i d u a l - b a s e d , market-centred, n e o c l a s s i c a l model to embrace a c o l l e c t i v i t y - b a s e d , p r o d u c t i o n - c e n t r e d , c o n f l i c t approach to r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . ' R a d i cal d u a l ' , ' r a d i c a l segmented', and ' s p l i t ' labour market t h e o r i e s are reviewed i n Chapter Four, and d i f f e r e n t f o c i of s t r u g g l e are i d e n t i f i e d as the c l a s s dynamics reproducing, and being reproduced by, r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . The concept of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s regarded as emerging from the r a d i c a l 6 One of the unspoken themes addressed i n Chapter Three, and running through t h i s t h e s i s i s the h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between economic and s o c i o l o g i c a l theory. See C l a r k e (1982) f o r a t h o u g h t f u l rendering of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the 'marginalism r e v o l u t i o n ' and 'modern s o c i o l o g y ' . 1 5 l i t e r a t u r e in a p a r t i c u l a r class form, in the context of the d i a l e c t i c s of 'resistance and control' in the labour process, and 'displacement and reaction' in the labour market. Radical labour market theories suggest that, while r a c i a l discrimination has become less d i r e c t , overt or intentional behaviour, i t has not declined so much as i t has become ' i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d ' in the so c i a l organization of the workplace, and in the structure and formation of the labour market under monopoly capitalism. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between r a c i a l c o n f l i c t and class struggle, l e f t untheorized in r a d i c a l labour market theory is then conceived in terms of the ' d i a l e c t i c s of exploitation and discrimination'. Racial c o n f l i c t in the labour market, I atte s t , tends to c r y s t a l l i z e around the interface of class relations of appropriation and domination, and group relations of competition and domination. It i s d i f f i c u l t to theorize about because r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , although always inter-group by d e f i n i t i o n , may also assume i n t r a - c l a s s or even i n t e r - c l a s s forms, contingent on the h i s t o r i c a l conjuncture of market, class and state formation processes. It i s the complex, overlapping forms of struggle manifest in r a c i a l c o n f l i c t that the notion of the d i a l e c t i c s of exploitation and discrimination attempts to capture. A s k e l e t a l framework and some conceptual landscaping for a class c o n f l i c t analysis of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t are i n i t i a t e d in Chapters Five and Six by exploring some of the th e o r e t i c a l and methodological implications of r a d i c a l labour market theory for Marxist theories of class and state, contrasting them to 1 6 P a r k i n ' s (1979) neo-Weberian r e v i s i o n , c o n s t r u c t i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e , c l a s s c o n f l i c t model of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , and e x t e n d i n g i t beyond the l a b o u r market t o i n c l u d e community-based s t r u g g l e s and T h i r d World l i b e r a t i o n movements. The p r o c e s s e s of market and c l a s s f o r m a t i o n d e s c r i b e d by r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n Chapter F i v e from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the 'boundary problem' of M a r x i s t c l a s s t h e o r y . The c o n t r i b u t i o n of r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y , I m a i n t a i n , i s not a r e s o l u t i o n t o the 'boundary problem' p r e s e n t e d by the 'new m i d d l e c l a s s ' , but a mode of c l a s s a n a l y s i s t h a t f o c u s e s a t t e n t i o n on c o n c r e t e c l a s s , i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p s t r u g g l e s i n the c l a s s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s . The a b b r e v i a t e d t r e a t m e n t of the S t a t e i n r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y i s r e g a r d e d as a c r i t i c a l l i a b i l i t y , and i s compared t o contemporary M a r x i s t ' i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t ' , ' s t r u c t u r a l i s t ' , ' c l a s s t h e o r e t i c a l ' , and ' c a p i t a l l o g i c ' t h e o r i e s of the S t a t e . W i t h some q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , t h e c l a s s t h e o r e t i c a l v a r i a n t i s endorsed as most c o m p a t i b l e w i t h a c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s a t t e n d i n g more t o the p r o c e s s e s of c l a s s and s t a t e f o r m a t i o n than s t r u c t u r e s ( G r a m s c i , 1971). P a r k i n ' s (1979) r e c e n t t h e o r y of communal c o n f l i c t i s then c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d on t h e b a s i s of h i s c l a i m t o e x p l a i n c l a s s s t r u g g l e and r a c i a l c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the same c o n c e p t u a l framework. He i s c r e d i t e d w i t h r e c o g n i z i n g the c e n t r a l i t y of e x p l o i t a t i o n t o an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , but f a u l t e d f o r r e f o r m u l a t i n g the c o n c e p t w h o l l y i n terms of d o m i n a t i o n , and n e g l e c t i n g the r e l a t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t i o n t h a t c o n s t i t u t e 17 e x p l o i t a t i o n . I c o n c l u d e t h a t P a r k i n ' s (1979) model of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n has s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s e x p l a n a t o r y p o t e n t i a l than the nascent c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s of r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y . In Chapter S i x a t h e o r y of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n , i m p l i c i t i n r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r i e s , i s o u t l i n e d by drawing from i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the B r i t i s h h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s t s c h o o l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h E.P. Thompson (1963; 1975; 1978a,b). F o l l o w i n g Thompson, c l a s s i s c o n c e i v e d as an h i s t o r i c a l ' r e l a t i o n s h i p ' and ' p r o c e s s ' ; c l a s s f o r m a t i o n as an open-ended p r o c e s s whereby c l a s s e s form, deform and r e f o r m t h r o u g h c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s ; c l a s s a n a l y s i s as ' c l a s s s t r u g g l e a n a l y s i s ' ; and c l a s s s t r u g g l e as s t r u g g l e s 'about c l a s s ' as w e l l as 'between or among c l a s s e s ' ( P r z e w o r s k i , 1977; Wood, 1982; Kaye, 1983). A s i m p l e c l a s s c o n f l i c t model of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i n the l a b o u r market i s then c o n s t r u c t e d around the d i a l e c t i c s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . T h i s model s p e c i f i e s the agents and t h e i r s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s , t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , and the outcomes of c o n c r e t e r a c i a l c o n f l i c t s w h i c h , I a r g u e , comprise a n e c e s s a r y , but not s u f f i c i e n t framework f o r a c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s . F i n a l l y , an attempt i s made t o e x t r a p o l a t e from the model t o account f o r r a c i a l c o n f l i c t o u t s i d e the l a b o u r market by b r i e f l y r e v i s i t i n g M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s of race and c l a s s . Concepts from each type a r e r e j u v e n a t e d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s l i n k i n g r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i n s i d e the w o r k p l a c e , t o community-based s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t the S t a t e , and a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t s t r u g g l e s i n the T h i r d W o r l d . 18 In the c o n c l u d i n g remarks, c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s i s t o u t e d as a t e n t a t i v e s t e p towards a rapprochement between b l a c k and w h i t e Marxism, t h a t p r o f f e r s a p r o m i s i n g t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l framework f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n on q u e s t i o n s of r a c i a l and o t h e r i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t s i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . 19 • Chapter 2 Racism or C l a s s i s m ? : M a r x i s t T h e o r i e s of Race and C l a s s " . . . t h e L e f t ' s r e c e n t w r i t i n g s on the s u b j e c t of r a c i a l p o l i t i c s remain p a r a l y z e d by an i n a b i l i t y t o c o n c e i v e r a c e and c l a s s as r e l a t e d . Race i s e i t h e r shorn of a l l d e t e r m i n a c y and a l l o w e d t o ascend t o the r a r i f i e d h e i g h t s of i d e o l o g i c a l autonomy, from where i t ' o n l y s u b s e q u e n t l y ' i n t e r v e n e s a t the l e v e l of the economy, or i t i s subsumed e n t i r e l y by c l a s s . The e x p e r i e n c e of r a c i a l d o m i n a t i o n i s so d i s t o r t e d t h a t i t s c l a s s c h a r a c t e r e v a p o r a t e s " ( G i l r o y , 1981: 208- 209) . 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t w o f o l d . F i r s t , t o i n t r o d u c e some c o n c e p t u a l parameters f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of l a b o u r market t h e o r y i n C h a p t e r s Three and F o u r , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t o d e v i s e w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n s f o r some key c o n c e p t s l i k e c l a s s e x p l o i t a t i o n and r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . And second, t o p l a c e t h a t d i s c u s s i o n a g a i n s t the backdrop of a M a r x i s t p o l i t i c a l economy of r a c e . F o l l o w i n g r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y , two c o n c e p t s a r e p o s i t e d i n s e c t i o n 2.2, as the most i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s s t r u c t u r i n g c o n c r e t e r a c i a l c o n f l i c t s i n the l a b o u r market. F i r s t , the e n d l e s s debate w i t h i n Marxism over the concept of e x p l o i t a t i o n i s d u l y n o t e d , but s e t a s i d e i n f a v o u r of W r i g h t ' s (1982) compromise d e f i n i t i o n as ' c l a s s r e l a t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t i o n and d o m i n a t i o n ' . And second, the concept of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s d e f i n e d i n a p r e l i m i n a r y f a s h i o n i n terms of group r e l a t i o n s of economic, p o l i t i c a l , and i d e o l o g i c a l d o m i n a t i o n . Race and c l a s s a r e thus c o n c e p t u a l l y grounded i n dynamic economic, p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s of 20 p r o d u c t i o n , exchange and d i s t r i b u t i o n . Three main types of Ma r x i s t race and c l a s s t h e o r i e s are i d e n t i f i e d i n s e c t i o n 2.3, and b r i e f l y c r i t i c i z e d i n order to adumbrate some of the major problems with c l a s s analyses of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . T h e o r i e s of ' i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m ' , ' c l a s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ' and 'world c a p i t a l i s t systems' each h i g h l i g h t key a s p e c t s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , but a l l tend to s u f f e r from ' r e d u c t i o n i s t ' or ' f u n c t i o n a l i s t ' analyses i n which e x p l o i t a t i o n i s e i t h e r subsumed by d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , or d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by e x p l o i t a t i o n . The i n t e n t i o n here i s to p r o v i d e a c r i t i c a l c o n t r a s t f o r a n o n - r e d u c t i o n i s t c l a s s a n a l y s i s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t d e r i v e d from r a d i c a l labour market theory. 2.2 The concepts of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n T h i s study covers an e x t e n s i v e amount of l i t e r a t u r e , and spans s e v e r a l paradigms i n s o c i a l theory, making a c o n s i s t e n t and coherent conceptual framework d i f f i c u l t to s u s t a i n throughout. Consequently, an e f f o r t has been made to keep d e f i n i t i o n s as general and c o n c i s e as p o s s i b l e , and allow the p i v o t a l concept of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , to evolve with the t e x t . E x p l o i t a t i o n , on the other hand, i s d e f i n e d p r a g m a t i c a l l y from the o u t s e t , and i s unchanged at the c l o s e . Other key terms f r e q u e n t l y encountered along the way a l s o m erit some comment. R a c i a l c o n f l i c t , to which t h i s t h e s i s i s addressed, r e f e r s to forms of i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t between members of d i f f e r e n t r a c i a l groups. R a c i a l groups are c o l l e c t i v i t i e s that have been assigned, or have assigned themselves, s t a t u s based on shared p h y s i c a l t r a i t s l i k e s k i n 21 c o l o u r . Communal g r o u p s a r e c o l l e c t i v i t i e s whose a s c r i b e d s t a t u s i s b a s e d on some commom o r i g i n , whether t e r r i t o r i a l o r c u l t u r a l . I n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t s i g n i f i e s c o n s c i o u s s t r u g g l e s between and among c o l l e c t i v i t i e s o v e r p o l i t i c a l power, s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s , v a l u e s , and i d e o l o g i e s . B o t h maximal and m i n i m a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f c o n f l i c t a r e e m p l o y e d . R a c i a l c o n f l i c t i s assumed t o i n v o l v e n o n - l e g a l forms of c o e r c i o n , a s w e l l a s l e g i t i m a t e f o r m s o f c o m p e t i t i o n . The d i s t i n c t i o n i s a l s o made between ' c o m p e t i t i o n ' , o r s t r u g g l e s w i t h i n an e s t a b l i s h e d framework of l a w s , norms and c o n v e n t i o n s , and ' c o n f l i c t ' , or s t r u g g l e s o u t s i d e t h e law i n v o l v i n g v i o l e n c e , i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h between i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p c o m p e t i t i o n f o r s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s , and i n t e r - g r o u p and c l a s s s t r u g g l e s f o r p o l i t i c a l power. I n t r a - c l a s s c o n f l i c t d e n o t e s s t r u g g l e s between and among c l a s s f r a c t i o n s , t h e M a r x i s t d e s i g n a t i o n f o r market o r d i s t r i b u t i v e g r o u p s s u c h as o c c u p a t i o n o r i n c o m e . Community-based s t r u g g l e s a r e s o - c a l l e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e c e n t r e d on a p a r t i c u l a r t e r r i t o r i a l domain l i k e an u r b a n d i s t r i c t , r a t h e r t h a n any s i n g l e c o l l e c t i v i t y . F i n a l l y , c l a s s s t r u g g l e r e f e r s t o s t r u g g l e s between o r among c o l l e c t i v i t i e s p u r s u i n g c l a s s i n t e r e s t s , a s w e l l a s between o r among o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l c l a s s e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between r a c e and c l a s s i n M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s i s u s u a l l y ^ p r e d i c a t e d on ' e x p l o i t a t i o n ' (a c l a s s r e l a t i o n ) , and ' r a c i s m ' (a g r o u p r e l a t i o n ) . The d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n i s t h a t t h e one i s t r e a t e d a s s i m p l y an ec o n o m i c r e l a t i o n , w h i l e t h e o t h e r i s r e d u c e d t o an i d e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n 22 which i s e i t h e r subsumed by c l a s s , or autonomous from c l a s s . In r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y the f o c u s i s s h i f t e d t o c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e , and the r e l a t i o n s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t h a t a f f e c t , and a r e a f f e c t e d by, c l a s s s t r u g g l e and r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . R a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s c o n c e i v e d as the ' p r a c t i c e of r a c i s m ' , and as p r i m a r i l y an economic and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n of d o m i n a t i o n between or among r a c i a l g roups. T h i s more dynamic and h i s t o r i c a l c o n c e p t i o n of the r a c e / c l a s s nexus remains l a r g e l y i m p l i c i t however, s i n c e n e i t h e r c oncept i s d e f i n e d , and the ' d i a l e c t i c of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' i s never t h e o r i z e d . Working d e f i n i t i o n s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a r e t h e r e f o r e r e q u i s i t e b e f o r e any t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s can p r o c e e d . One of t h e o l d e s t debates w i t h i n Marxism c o n c e r n s the r e l e v a n c e of the l a b o u r t h e o r y of v a l u e i n g e n e r a l , and the concept of e x p l o i t a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r , as a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r s o c i a l c l a s s . The t h e o r e t i c a l d i s p u t e s c o n t i n u e between the ' c l a s s i c i s t s ' (e. g., F i n e and H a r r i s , 1979; Weeks, 1981; D o s t a l e r , 1982) who a c c e p t , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , the l a b o u r t h e o r y of v a l u e , and the ' n e o - R i c a r d i a n r e v i s i o n i s t s ' (e. g., M o r i s h i m a , 1973; Meek, 1977; Bose, 1975) who, f o l l o w i n g S r a f f a ( 1 9 60), r e j e c t l a b o u r v a l u e t h e o r y , but a f f i r m the c e n t r a l i t y of e x p l o i t a t i o n t o s o c i a l c l a s s . C l a s s i c i s t s t e n d t o c o n c e i v e e x p l o i t a t i o n i n the M a r x i a n t r a d i t i o n as the a p p r o p r i a t i o n of s u r p l u s v a l u e from d i r e c t p r o d u c e r s by the owners of the means of p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s s u r p l u s v a l u e e x t r a c t i o n from one c l a s s by an o t h e r o c c u r s a t the 23 macro l e v e l ( s o c i e t y as a whole) i n the p r o c e s s of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . R e v i s i o n i s t s a r e more l i k e l y t o c o n c e i v e e x p l o i t a t i o n i n terms of the a p p r o p r i a t i o n of ownership and c o n t r o l of p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s c l a s s d o m i n a t i o n o c c u r s a t the m i c r o l e v e l i n the l a b o u r p r o c e s s . Some r e c e n t r e v i s i o n s of e x p l o i t a t i o n i n c l u d e i n i t i a t i v e s t o expand th e concept t o encompass unequal exchange, monopoly p r i c i n g , and s t a t e t r a n s f e r s (Yago and B l e e , 1982), and t o c r e a t e a g e n e r a l t h e o r y based w h o l l y on p r o p e r t y r e l a t i o n s (Roemer, 1982). Without a t t e m p t i n g t o u n r a v e l the Gordian knot of l a b o u r v a l u e t h e o r y , e x p l o i t a t i o n w i l l be d e f i n e d here by i n c o r p o r a t i n g elements from both p o s i t i o n s i n the manner of W r i g h t (1982). In a c r i t i q u e of Roemer (1982), W r i g h t contends t h a t t h e concept of e x p l o i t a t i o n cannot be reduced t o an economic r e l a t i o n , because i t combines economic r e l a t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t i o n ( e x t r a c t i o n of s u r p l u s p r o d u c t ) , and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s of d o m i n a t i o n ( c o n t r o l of p r o d u c t i o n ) . "The M a r x i s t account of c l a s s subsumes b o t h of these images of c l a s s r e l a t i o n s t h r o u g h the c o n c e p t of e x p l o i t a t i o n . C l a s s r e l a t i o n s are the u n i t y of a p p r o p r i a t i o n r e l a t i o n s (the M a r x i s t way of t h e o r i z i n g c a t e g o r i e s of d i s t r i b u t i o n ) and d o m i n a t i o n . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s view of c l a s s r e l a t i o n s r e s t s on two arguments. F i r s t , w i t h i n p r o d u c t i o n r e l a t i o n s , d o m i n a t i o n w i t h o u t a p p r o p r i a t i o n and a p p r o p r i a t i o n w i t h o u t d o m i n a t i o n a r e u n r e p r o d u c i b l e s t r u c t u r e s of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . Second, the c o i n c i d e n c e of d o m i n a t i o n and a p p r o p r i a t i o n w i t h i n p r o d u c t i o n r e l a t i o n s p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o l l e c t i v e a c t o r s i n the e p o c h a l p r o c e s s e s of s o c i a l c o n f l i c t and s o c i a l change" ( W r i g h t , 1982: 333). W h i l e e s s e n t i a l l y an economic r e l a t i o n r e f e r r i n g t o the p r i m a r y 24 d i v i s i o n of the s o c i a l p r o d u c t , 1 e x p l o i t a t i o n a l s o subsumes a p o l i t i c a l d i m e n s i o n , the c l a s s d o m i n a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n c a p i t a l i s t wage l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s . Thus c o n c e i v e d , t h e concept of e x p l o i t a t i o n a l l o w s c l a s s a n a l y s i s t o e x p l a i n the r e p r o d u c t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y as a dynamic p r o c e s s . The c o n c e p t of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w i l l be d e f i n e d here as any form of economic, p o l i t i c a l or i d e o l o g i c a l d o m i n a t i o n of members of one r a c i a l group, by members of o t h e r s . 2 A g a i n , d o m i n a t i o n here denotes a s y m m e t r i c a l power r e l a t i o n s , but i n t h i s c a s e , between or among groups, and not r e s t r i c t e d t o the realm of p r o d u c t i o n . In C h a p t e r s Three and Four r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s d e f i n e d more n a r r o w l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the l a b o u r market, and the e v o l u t i o n of the concept i s t r a c e d from n e o c l a s s i c a l t h r o u g h d u a l t o r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y . 2.3 Racism or c l a s s i s m ? T u r n i n g t o M a r x i s t e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y and c o n f l i c t we a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a broad, amorphous range of t h e o r i e s and models a l l p u r p o r t i n g t o d i s c l o s e the ' o b j e c t i v e ' 1 S o c i a l p r o d u c t r e f e r s here t o the t o t a l w e a l t h produced by a s o c i e t y , t h a t i s , the v a l u e of the 'economic p i e ' t o be d i v i d e d between and among the s o c i a l c l a s s e s . 2 The con c e p t of d o m i n a t i o n i s used r a t h e r p e r m i s c u o u s l y by M a r x i s t s , and c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e not always made between c l a s s and group forms. A l t h o u g h i t o f t e n c a r r i e s the c o n n o t a t i o n of ' o p p r e s s i o n ' , l i k e the concept of power t o which i t i s a l l i e d , I am u s i n g d o m i n a t i o n i n a n e u t r a l , r e l a t i o n a l sense of 'h a v i n g c o n t r o l o v e r ' . Domination t h e n , can be d e f i n e d as ' s t r u c t u r e d , a s y m m e t r i c a l power r e l a t i o n s w h ich, w h i l e c o n d u c i v e t o c o e r c i o n and c o n f l i c t , a l s o c o n t a i n the p o t e n t i a l f o r t r a n s f o r m i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s ' . 25 r e l a t i o n s h i p between r a c i s m and c a p i t a l i s m . Two c r i t i c a l s h o r t c o m i n g s s u r f a c e i n t h i s l i t e r a t u r e , however, which p r o v i d e i n i t i a l benchmarks f o r t y p o l o g i z a t i o n and c r i t i q u e . The f i r s t , ' r e d u c t i o n i s m ' or ' d e t e r m i n i s m ' , r e f e r s t o two o f t e n r e l a t e d t e n d e n c i e s of M a r x i s t a n a l y s e s . One i s the p r o p e n s i t y t o reduce the s o u r c e of r a c i s m t o a homogeneous r a c e or c l a s s , and the o t h e r i s the p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o reduce s o c i a l c l a s s t o an economic r e l a t i o n . The second i s ' f u n c t i o n a l i s m ' w hich d e s i g n a t e s the p r o c l i v i t y f o r e x p l a i n i n g r a c i s m t a u t o l o g i c a l l y , by r e f e r e n c e t o the ' f u n c t i o n s ' i t s e r v e s f o r the dominant c l a s s or r a c i a l group. Both themes a r e i n d i c a t i v e of the same f l a w i n M a r x i s t c l a s s a n a l y s e s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t ; an i n a b i l i t y t o r e l a t e r a c e and c l a s s because of s t a t i c c o n c e p t s which f a i l t o c a p t u r e the h i s t o r i c a l dynamics of c o n c r e t e c l a s s and i n t e r - group s t r u g g l e s . A l t h o u g h i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m , c l a s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and w o r l d systems t h e o r i e s have each made unique t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , none c o n c e i v e s r a c i s m s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n terms of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and a l l s u f f e r t o some e x t e n t from r e d u c t i o n i s t and f u n c t i o n a l i s t c l a s s a n a l y s e s which y i e l d s t a t i c and a h i s t o r i c a l t h e o r i e s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . 2 . 3 . i I n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m " B l a c k p e o p l e a r e a s t o l e n p e o p l e h e l d i n a c o l o n i a l s t a t u s on s t o l e n l a n d , and any a n a l y s i s which does not acknowledge the c o l o n i a l s t a t u s of b l a c k p e o p l e cannot hope t o d e a l w i t h the r e a l problem" ( C l e a v e r , 1969: 61 ) . I n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m has been, and c o n t i n u e s t o be a most p o w e r f u l p o l i t i c a l t o o l , not o n l y because of i t s e m o t i v e 26 n a t i o n a l / c u l t u r a l a p p e a l , but a l s o because i t c o n f r o n t s a ' r e a l problem' and proposes a s o l u t i o n . The main t h r u s t of the t h e o r y i s t h a t r a c i s m i s a form of ' n e o - c o l o n i a l i s m ' , a wider system of economic e x p l o i t a t i o n , c u l t u r a l d o m i n a t i o n , and p o l i t i c a l o p p r e s s i o n of a b l a c k , c o l o n i z e d n a t i o n by a w h i t e c o l o n i z i n g n a t i o n . The e x p l o i t a t i o n and s e g r e g a t i o n of b l a c k s i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n e n c l a v e s of U n i t e d S t a t e s i s r e g a r d e d as q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s , or the working c l a s s as a whole. Racism, not s i m p l y a p l o y of the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s , i s endemic t o w h i t e l a b o u r who share a m a t e r i a l i n t e r e s t i n the r a c i a l l y s t r a t i f i e d economic system. B l a c k l i b e r a t i o n t h e r e f o r e can o n l y be a c h i e v e d by n a t i o n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , by some form of b l a c k autonomy t h a t w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be r e s i s t e d by a l l w h i t e s r e g a r d l e s s of c l a s s . The ' b l a c k n a t i o n ' or 'submerged n a t i o n ' t h e s i s was i n i t i a l l y c o n c e i v e d by b l a c k n a t i o n a l i s t s who had j o i n e d the American Communist P a r t y d u r i n g the 1920s. L a t e r i t was endorsed and promoted by Moscow u n t i l World War I I when i t was g r a d u a l l y eschewed i n f a v o u r of a b l a c k p r o l e t a r i a t p e r s p e c t i v e (Geschwender, 1978: 70-79). I t r e s u r f a c e d i n the 1960s under the g u i s e of ' i n t e r n a l c o l o n y ' , a concept employed by n a t i o n a l i s t s who d i s a g r e e d w i t h the Communist P a r t y ' s p o s i t i o n t h a t b l a c k m i g r a t i o n from the a g r a r i a n South t o the i n d u s t r i a l N o r t h had undermined the b l a c k n a t i o n t h e s e s , and r e j e c t e d the a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t b i a s of s o c i o l o g i c a l r a c e r e l a t i o n s . 27 E q u a t i n g the ' T h i r d World w i t h i n ' w i t h urban g h e t t o s r a t h e r than the S o u t h e r n B l a c k B e l t ; economic e x p l o i t a t i o n w i t h absentee l a n d l o r d s and d i r t y work; c u l t u r a l d o m i n a t i o n w i t h w h i t e e d u c a t i o n and media; and p o l i t i c a l o p p r e s s i o n w i t h w h i t e p o l i c e and s t a t e b u r e a u c r a c y , t h e o r i s t s l i k e C l a r k (1965), C a r m i c h a e l & H a m i l t o n (1967), A l l e n (1970), Tabb (1970), and B l a u n e r (1972) a l l s t r e s s e d the d i s t i n c t i v e r a c i a l d i m e n s i o n of U.S. c a p i t a l i s m . T h e i r argument i s p r o v o c a t i v e and encompasses the e n t i r e spectrum of b l a c k e x p e r i e n c e , but as a M a r x i s t t h e o r y of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i t p r e s e n t s s e v e r a l problems. B l a u n e r ' s (1972) c l a s s i c s t u d y h i g h l i g h t s some of these d i f f i c u l t i e s . The most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e w h i c h pervades R a c i a l O p p r e s s i o n i n America i s a m b i g u i t y . B l a u n e r (1972) b e g i n s by a r g u i n g f o r c e f u l l y t h a t a " f o c u s on c o l o n i a l i s m i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a t h e o r y t h a t can i n t e g r a t e r a c e and r a c i a l o p p r e s s i o n w i t h a l a r g e view of American s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e " ( I b i d : 12). He then i m m e d i a t e l y concedes t h a t the c o l o n i a l p e r s p e c t i v e "tends t o miss the t o t a l s t r u c t u r e , t h e c o n t e x t of advanced i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m i n which our r a c i a l arrangements a r e embedded." Furthermore he acknowledges t h a t h i s own study l a c k s a " s y s t e m a t i c e x p o s i t i o n of c a p i t a l i s t s t r u c t u r e and dynamics" ( I b i d : 13). On the one hand B l a u n e r wants t o r e f u t e the " i d e a t h a t r a c i s m and r a c i a l o p p r e s s i o n a r e not independent f o r c e s but a r e u l t i m a t e l y r e d u c i b l e t o o t h e r c a u s a l d e t e r m i n a n t s " ( I b i d : 2 ) , y e t on the o t h e r hand he a s s e r t s t h a t , " c l a s s i c a l c o l o n i a l i s m of the i m p e r i a l i s t e r a and American r a c i s m both 28 d e v e l o p e d out of the same h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n and r e f l e c t e d a common w o r l d economic and power s t r a t i f i c a t i o n " ( I b i d ; 8 3 ) . Paradoxes of t h i s k i n d abound. The c o n c e p t s of ' c o l o n i a l i s m ' and ' i m p e r i a l i s m ' a r e used u n c r i t i c a l l y (as i f they were ' f a c t s ' • r a t h e r than t h e o r i e s ) , and o f t e n i n t e r c h a n g a b l y . The M a r x i a n c o n c e p t of e x p l o i t a t i o n i s used i n a wider ' r a c i a l ' sense which i n c r e a s e s i t s d e s c r i p t i v e range, but a t the c o s t of a n a l y t i c r i g o u r , l e a v i n g i t f l o a t i n g r o o t l e s s l y above u n s p e c i f i e d r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . What i s s p e c i f i c a l l y ' c o l o n i a l ' about ' r a c i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n ' , and how i t d i f f e r s from the c l a s s r e l a t i o n s of i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m i s never c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d . The h i s t o r i c a l r o l e of human agency i n M a r x i s t t h e o r y p l a y e d by c l a s s s t r u g g l e i s s u b o r d i n a t e d t o c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s of d o m i n a t i o n t h a t s u p p o s e d l y r e s t upon c a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , but somehow o c c u r between homogeneous r a c i a l or n a t i o n a l e n t i t i e s . A l t h o u g h B l a u n e r (1972) c l a i m s t o be s t u d y i n g " r a c i s m as an o b j e c t i v e phenomenon, l o c a t e d i n the a c t u a l e x i s t e n c e of d o m i n a t i o n and h i e r a r c h y " ( I b i d ; 10), h i s vague c o n c e p t i o n of ' r a c i a l c a p i t a l i s m ' founded on an i m p r e c i s e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the c o l o n i a l and c a p i t a l i s t modes of p r o d u c t i o n , p r e c l u d e s the t h e o r e t i c a l l i n k a g e of r a c e and c l a s s t h a t he s e e k s . T h i s makes the q u e s t i o n of who b e n e f i t s from r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p r e d e t e r m i n e d as opposed t o g e n u i n e l y h i s t o r i c a l i n n a t u r e . "Whether or not p a r t i c u l a r r a c i s t p r a c t i c e s a r e f o l l o w e d c o n s c i o u s l y i n o r d e r t o b e n e f i t w h i t e s i s not the i s s u e . Whatever t h e i n t e n t , the system b e n e f i t s a l l s t r a t a of the w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n , a t l e a s t i n the 29 s h o r t run - the l o w e r and w o r k i ng c l a s s e s as w e l l as the m i d d l e and upper c l a s s e s " ( I b i d : 2 2 ) . I f the w h i t e m a j o r i t y g a i n s from r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y , and "presumably w i l l d e f e n d t h e s e p r i v i l e g e s as r a t i o n a l and o b j e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s " ( I b i d : 4 4 ) , then b l a c k independence B l a u n e r a d m i t s , i s p r o b a b l y not a v e r y v i a b l e o p t i o n . I n s t e a d , he seems t o suggest a wider arena of s t r u g g l e i n s t i g a t e d by " T h i r d World m i l i t a n c y " , but once a g a i n the s p e c i f i c r a c e and c l a s s r e l a t i o n s between ' F i r s t ' and ' T h i r d ' w o r l d s never e n t e r s the d i s c o u r s e . W i t h the c l a s s c o n t e n t of e x p l o i t a t i o n e c l i p s e d by r a c i a l forms of d o m i n a t i o n , i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m remains a t the l e v e l of a n a l o g y , which i r o n i c a l l y does not d i v e r g e d r a m a t i c a l l y from mainstream r a c e r e l a t i o n s t h e o r y . T h i s i s not t o say t h a t more r i g o u r o u s and d i a l e c t i c a l c o n c e p t i o n s of the model a r e not p o s s i b l e , or t h a t i t i s i n a p p l i c a b l e t o c a s e s where non- c a p i t a l i s t modes of p r o d u c t i o n s u r v i v e . L a t e l y the concept of i n t e r n a l c o l o n y has been i n v o k e d i n more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a n a l y s e s by H e chter (1975), Wolpe (1 9 7 5 ) , B a r r e r a (1977), and H i l l (1980) t o account f o r the ' s u p e r e x p l o i t a t i o n ' 3 of C e l t s i n the U n i t e d Kingdom; b l a c k s i n S. A f r i c a ; C h i c a n o s i n the b a r r i o s , and b l a c k s i n the g h e t t o s , of American c i t i e s . However, i t appears t h a t the more r i g o u r o u s l y the model r e l a t e s r a c e t o c l a s s r e l a t i o n s i n N o r t h America a t l e a s t , the g r e a t e r t h e tendency t o p e r c e i v e the c o m p l i c i t y of the w h i t e w o r king c l a s s w i t h i n the 3 The concept r e f e r s t o a h i g h e r r a t e of e x p l o i t a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from the c o i n c i d e n c e of r a c i a l / e t h n i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 30 c o n t e x t of c l a s s s t r u g g l e , and the l e s s the s i t u a t i o n assumes a c o l o n i a l c h a r a c t e r so much as the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of segmented l a b o u r m a r k e t s . 4 The model seems most u s e f u l f o r d e s c r i b i n g the p l i g h t of the n a t i v e p e o p l e s of N o r t h , C e n t r a l and South America whose c o l o n i a l s t a t u s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t i o n and dependency on s t a t e b u r e a u c r a c i e s (Gonzalez-Casanova, 1965; A b e r l e , 1969; W a t k i n s , 1977). A w e l l known r a c e r e l a t i o n s s c h o l a r p r o f f e r s t h i s s u c c i n c t summary: " . . . i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m d e s c r i b e s the p o s i t i o n of Am e r i n d i a n s q u i t e w e l l , of C h i c a n o s somewhat, of b l a c k s p o o r l y , of A p p a l a c h i a n w h i t e s h a r d l y a t a l l , and of women, o l d p e o p l e , homosexuals, and c o n v i c t s o n l y by the most f a n c i f u l s t r e t c h of the academic i m a g i n a t i o n .... I n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m i s but one of many ways of g e t t i n g the s h o r t end of the s t i c k " (van den Berghe, 1978: 271-2). 2 . 3 . i i C l a s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n T h e o r i e s of t h i s genre a r e u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as 'orthodox M a r x i s t ' because they t e n d t o c o n c e i v e c l a s s as an economic c a t e g o r y , and t o concur t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the e x p l o i t a t i o n of b l a c k s d i f f e r s i n degree, but not i n k i n d , from t h a t of o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s and the w h i t e w o r k i n g c l a s s . Racism i s regard e d as so i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o the h i s t o r i c a l development of c a p i t a l i s m t h a t the n o t i o n of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n becomes almost an i n s t r u m e n t a l f e a t u r e of c a p i t a l i s t e x p l o i t a t i o n . The premium p l a c e d on c l a s s as opposed t o r a c i a l forms of d o m i n a t i o n can be viewed as a response t o both n e o - c o l o n i a l and b o u r g e o i s s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s which a r e p e r c e i v e d as undermining the See Chapter Four 31 r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o t e n t i a l of the b l a c k p r o l e t a r i a t (e. g., Win s t o n , 1973). Racism, i t i s h e l d , i s a c a p i t a l i s t i d e o l o g y o r i g i n a l l y produced by European i m p e r i a l i s t s t o j u s t i f y s l a v e r y and c o l o n i a l s u b j u g a t i o n , and l a t e r employed by the b o u r g e o i s i e t o r a t i o n a l i z e the e x p l o i t a t i o n of cheap l a b o u r and d i v i d e the wo r k i n g c l a s s i n t o competing r a c i a l f a c t i o n s . Racism f u n c t i o n s t o r eproduce c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n , and r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by the w h i t e w o r k i ng c l a s s r e p r e s e n t s the ' f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s ' t h a t a l l w h i t e s have a m a t e r i a l s t a k e i n the r a c i a l s t a t u s quo, which a l l b l a c k s and o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s are t h r e a t e n i n g . 5 The c r i t i c a l a ssumption t h a t the c h i e f b e n e f i c i a r i e s of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a r e the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s l e a d s l o g i c a l l y t o the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t b l a c k l i b e r a t i o n can o n l y be a c h i e v e d by the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s o c i a l i s m , but t h e r e i s no o r g a n i z a t i o n a l consensus on how t h i s i s t o be a c h i e v e d . Some e n v i s i o n a b l a c k r e v o l u t i o n a r y vanguard, o t h e r s argue t h a t w h i t e w o r k i n g c l a s s l e a d e r s h i p s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d ; some view working c l a s s u n i t y w i t h hope, w h i l e o t h e r s a r e more p e s s i m i s t i c and view w h i t e w o r kers w i t h s u s p i c i o n . N e a r i n g (1929/69) was one of the f i r s t t o r e j e c t the submerged n a t i o n t h e s i s i n f a v o u r of an orthodox c l a s s model, but the work of O.C. Cox (1948) remains the benchmark f o r M a r x i s t a n a l y s i s of race and c l a s s . " . . . r a c i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n i s me r e l y one a s p e c t of the problem of p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n of l a b o u r , r e g a r d l e s s of 5 See P e r l o (1975) f o r an extreme v e r s i o n of t h i s p o s i t i o n . 32 the c o l o u r of the l a b o u r e r . Hence, r a c i a l a ntagonism i s e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l - c l a s s c o n f l i c t . The c a p i t a l i s t e x p l o i t e r , b e i n g o p p o r t u n i s t i c and p r a c t i c a l , w i l l u t i l i z e any conv e n i e n c e t o keep h i s l a b o u r and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s f r e e l y e x p l o i t a b l e . He w i l l d e v i s e and employ r a c e p r e j u d i c e when t h a t becomes c o n v e n i e n t . As a ma t t e r of f a c t , the w h i t e p r o l e t a r i a t of every c a p i t a l i s m had t o endure burdens of e x p l o i t a t i o n q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e which many c o l o u r e d p e o p l e s must bear today" ( I b i d ; 333). T h i s t r a d i t i o n a l approach has changed so remar k a b l y l i t t l e t h a t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s l a t e r a prominent European st u d y o b s e r v e d : " t h e r e i s no e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the p r e j u d i c e towards c o l o u r e d immigrants and t h e p r e j u d i c e towards n o n - c o l o u r e d immigrant groups i n Western Europe. Most d e f i n i t i o n s of r a c i a l i s m would f i t b o t h s i t u a t i o n s . Both have s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c a u s e s " ( C a s t l e s and Kosack, 1973: 457) . A f t e r t h e C o l d War, Baran and Sweezy (1966) updated Cox's c r i t i q u e by n o t i n g t h a t t h e 'economic o l i g a r c h y ' had c o o p t e d a 'token' b l a c k b o u r g e o i s i e t h r o u g h p u b l i c s e c t o r employment, but a t the expense of the u n s k i l l e d b l a c k p r o l e t a r i a t . S i n c e t h e n , the e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n — w h o b e n e f i t s from r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ? — h a s been o b f u s c a t e d t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t by the t h e o r e t i c a l problem of a s s i g n i n g a unique p o s i t i o n f o r the b l a c k p r o l e t a r i a t i n the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e of c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . In a s t u d y of c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n D e t o i t , L e g g e t t (1968) d e s c r i b e d b l a c k workers as a p o t e n t i a l l y m i l i t a n t ' m a r g i n a l w o r k i n g c l a s s ' who s u f f e r e d the d u a l e x p l o i t a t i o n of p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n and r a c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n . Braverman (1974) supplemented Baran and Sweezy's t r u n c a t e d a n a l y s i s w i t h Marx's n o t i o n of t h e ' r e l a t i v e s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n ' or ' i n d u s t r i a l r e s e r v e army', a r g u i n g t h a t b l a c k s , women, and o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s who e x p e r i e n c e h i g h r a t e s of unemployment a r e a n e c e s s a r y 33 byproduct of monopoly c a p i t a l i s m t h a t c r e a t e s i t s own p o o l of cheap l a b o u r ( I b i d : 386-401), For Oppenheimer (1974) the ' s u b p r o l e t a r i a t ' c o m p r i s e s a p o p u l a t i o n of ' d a r k s k i n n e d ' workers who a r e c o n f i n e d t o ' d i r t y work' i n what O'Connor (1973) c a l l s the ' c o m p e t i t i v e s e c t o r ' of monopoly c a p i t a l i s m . The o r d e a l of the b l a c k community i n A t l a n t a r e c e n t l y prompted a s i m i l a r response from Headley (1981). "The u l t i m a t e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the A t l a n t a k i l l i n g s l i e s i n the r e a l i t y t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s w i t h i n A t l a n t a (as i n a number of major U.S. c i t i e s ) a v a s t u n d e r c l a s s and s u b p r o l e t a r i a t who ... have been permanently t r a p p e d i n t o a lumpen g h e t t o e x i s t e n c e , and unable t o e x e r c i s e any c o n t r o l over t h e i r own communities, become prey t o t e r r o r , v i o l e n c e , and e x p l o i t a t i o n .... The y o u t h f u l males w i t h i n the u n d e r c l a s s are merely p a r t of a redundant l a b o u r f o r c e , v a l u a b l e t o the system o n l y as a r e s e r v e of cheap l a b o u r ; c o n s e q u e n t l y they a r e viewed as p h y s i c a l l y expendable" ( I b i d : 82-84). On the q u e s t i o n of who b e n e f i t s , c l a s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n t h e o r i s t s t e n d t o assume t h a t a l l c a p i t a l i s t s b e n e f i t from r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the w h i t e w o r k i n g c l a s s has a m a t e r i a l i n t e r e s t i n r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y — w i d e l y h e l d by i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s t s - - h a s been h o t l y c o n t e s t e d by some q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h on monetary g a i n s from r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ( R e i c h , 1972; 1981; D o w d a l l , 1974; Syzmanski, 1976). These s t u d i e s m a i n t a i n t h a t " r a c i s t p o l i c i e s a g a i n s t b l a c k s do not b e n e f i t a l l w h i t e s e q u a l l y ; as w i t h o t h e r i s s u e s i n American i n e q u a l i t y , g a i n s a c c r u e more r a p i d l y t o those a t t h e t o p .... Most w h i t e s , i n c l u d i n g manual w o r k e r s , p r o b a b l y g a i n l i t t l e from b l a c k s u b o r d i n a t i o n d i r e c t l y " ( D o w d a l l , 1974: 182). 34 Of c o u r s e d i r e c t monetary g a i n may not be the o n l y advantage s e r v e d by r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and the h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e of w h i t e union c o l l u s i o n w i t h employers a g a i n s t b l a c k and o t h e r m i n o r i t y workers i s e x t e n s i v e t o say the l e a s t ( D ubois, 1935; J acobson, 1968; M a r s h a l l , 1965; 1974; Foner, 1974; A l l e n , 1975; C a s t l e s and Kosack, 1973). In a wry p a r a p h r a s i n g of Marx, K i l l e n s (1973: 283) n o t e s t h a t "the whole h i s t o r y of the American l a b o u r movement has been a h i s t o r y of w h i t e r a c i s m and a p a r t h e i d . " Even i f we r e f e r t o the p e r c e p t i o n o f , r a t h e r than (or as w e l l as) a c t u a l g a i n s by w h i t e w o r k e r s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n t h i s w i t h the n o t i o n of ' f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s ' so p r e v a l e n t i n orthodox t h e o r i e s . The problem i s t h a t the primacy a c c o r d e d t o c l a s s d e t e r m i n a t i o n r e s u l t s i n r a c e b e i n g t r e a t e d as e i t h e r ' r a c i s m ' , a c a p i t a l i s t i d e o l o g y , or ' r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' , a c a p i t a l i s t s t r a t e g y t o d i v i d e and r u l e the w o r k i n g c l a s s . Both l e a d w i l l y - n i l l y t o a h i s t o r i c a l , f u n c t i o n a l i s t a n a l y s e s i n which the r o l e of c l a s s and community- based s t r u g g l e s i n the r e p r o d u c t i o n of r a c i s m and r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n among the working c l a s s i s l a r g e l y i g n o r e d . F a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s c l e a r l y a r e s i d u a l concept s l o t t e d i n t o the t h e o r y t o e x p l a i n a phenomenon which the t h e o r y i t s e l f c a n n o t . Based on a crude correspondence t h e o r y of knowledge, t h i s n o t i o n of i d e o l o g y a c c e p t s the b a s e / s u p e r s t r u c t u r e d i s t i n c t i o n as ' c o n c r e t e ' r a t h e r than merely ' a n a l y t i c a l ' . Orthodox t h e o r i e s a r e t h e r e f o r e c o n s t r a i n e d t o assume t h a t w h i t e workers must be 'duped', o t h e r w i s e why would they embrace r a c i s t 35 p o l i c i e s t h a t do not r e f l e c t t h e i r ' o b j e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s ' ? P a r a d o x i c a l l y t h e n , the one c l a s s e n t r u s t e d w i t h t h e w o r l d h i s t o r i c a l m i s s i o n t o t o p p l e the c a p i t a l i s t system becomes the o n l y v i c t i m of i t s i d e o l o g y ! That the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s (howsoever d e f i n e d ) a l o n e b e n e f i t s from r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i s more o f t e n assumed by the t h e o r y than e m p i r i c a l l y d emonstrated. The u s e f u l concept of ' s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n ' which f o r Marx was an h i s t o r i c a l tendency s u g g e s t e d by the l o g i c of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n , becomes i n s t e a d a f u n c t i o n of t h e r a c i s t s t r a t e g i e s of the r u l i n g c l a s s . I f the concept i s t o be more than d e s c r i p t i v e , then i t must i t s e l f be p e r c e i v e d as the h i s t o r i c a l outcome of c l a s s s t r u g g l e and i n t r a - c l a s s c o n f l i c t , and not s i m p l y the i n g e n i o u s d e s i g n of b i g o t e d c a p i t a l i s t s . The c harges of 'economism' o f t e n c i t e d a g a i n s t o r t h o d o x Marxism may be u n f a i r t o some t h e o r i e s of t h i s t y p e , but the p r o c l i v i t y f o r h y p o s t a s i z i n g c l a s s s t r u g g l e has downplayed the importance of b l a c k c u l t u r e and c o n s c i o u s n e s s . S i n c e t h e b l a c k community i s seldom p e r c e i v e d as a p o l i t i c a l f o r c e i n i t s own r i g h t , the o rthodox model has not been p a r t i c u l a r l y f e r t i l e ground f o r g e r m i n a t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e r e v o l u t i o n a r y programs. There have been attem p t s t o t r a n s c e n d the a u t o n o m i s t / r e d u c t i o n i s t dilemma by e c l e c t i c t h e o r i e s which combine a s p e c t s of both i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m and c l a s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n models. I n v a r i a b l y t h e s e t e n d t o s l i p back i n t o the c l a s s camp as does W i l s o n ' s (1978) ' h i s t o r i c a l s t a g e s ' t h e o r y mentioned e a r l i e r , and Geschwender's (1978) u n s u c c e s s f u l 36 merger of r a c e and c l a s s i n t o the concept of " n a t i o n - c l a s s " . 6 Even W i l l h e l m ' s (1980: 98) c r i t i q u e of M a r x i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s as "unable t o concede and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e an economics of u s e l e s s n e s s i n which l a r g e numbers of b l a c k s a r e permanently unemployed", p o i n t s t o a g e n e r a l m a l a i s e of the orthodox approach r a t h e r than t o a r a d i c a l new d e p a r t u r e . To argue t h a t b l a c k s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e " d e c l a s s e d p e r s o n s inasmuch as they h o l d no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the means of p r o d u c t i o n and t h e r e f o r e cannot p o s s e s s a c l a s s p o s i t i o n " ( I b i d : 108), i s t o s u b s c r i b e t o the same presumably s u s p e c t c o n c e p t i o n of s o c i a l c l a s s . Once a g a i n , w i t h o u t a d i a l e c t i c a l a n a l y s i s t h a t f o c u s e s on c l a s s s t r u g g l e and r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , t he r e l a t i o n s h i p between rac e and c l a s s g e t s o v e r l o o k e d i n t h e p o l e m i c a l f r a y . 2 . 3 . i i i World C a p i t a l i s t System The view of c a p i t a l i s m as a worl d - e m b r a c i n g economic system i s of c o u r s e not p a r t i c u l a r l y n o v e l . Luxembourg, B u k h a r i n , L e n i n , and T r o t s k y have expounded on the e x p a n s i o n a r y n a t u r e of the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n i n an e f f o r t t o e x p l a i n European c o l o n i a l i s m and the Gre a t War t h a t f o l l o w e d i n i t s wake. The contemporary r e j u v e n a t i o n of i n t e r e s t i n i m p e r i a l i s m by the ' d e p e n d e n t i s t a s ' ( F r a n k , 1967; Cardoso, 1972; Dos San t o s , 6 Geschwender (1978: 264) c l a i m s t o be combining t h e two models, but h i s usage of the term ' n a t i o n ' a c t u a l l y has l i t t l e i n common w i t h the n o t i o n of i n t e r n a l c o l o n y . As W i l l h e l m (1980: 105) n o t e s , he i s r e a l l y " w r e s t l i n g w i t h the concept of r a c e w i t h i n a c l a s s a n a l y s i s " , and s i n c e t h a t a n a l y s i s i s b a s i c a l l y an orth o d o x one, the concept of ' n a t i o n - c l a s s ' does not c o n s t i t u t e a t h e o r e t i c a l advance. 37 1973), and the 'world-system' proponents (Emmanual, 1972; W a l l e r s t e i n , 1974; Amin, 1974), has been a d d r e s s e d t o the q u e s t i o n of 'underdevelopment' m y s t i f i e d by the i d e o l o g i c a l emphasis on the u n i l i n e a r e v o l u t i o n of c a p i t a l i s m by l i b e r a l , R ostowian m o d e r n i z a t i o n t h e o r y , and c l a s s i c a l t h e o r i e s of i m p e r i a l i s m a l i k e . The most v o c i f e r o u s c r i t i c s of both p e r s p e c t i v e s have come from the p o s t - S t r u c t u r a l i s t ' a r t i c u l a t i o n i s t ' s c h o o l (Dupre and Rey, 1973; Hin d e s s and H i r s t , 1975; T a y l o r , 1979; H a l l , 1980), wherein underdevelopment i s c o n c e i v e d of as the r e s u l t of the complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the dominant c a p i t a l i s t , and v a r i o u s n o n - c a p i t a l i s t modes of p r o d u c t i o n . As C h e v a l i e r (1982) has commented, the underdevelopment and a r t i c u l a t i o n i s t approaches r e p r e s e n t "two extreme n o t i o n s of c a p i t a l i s m : one which embraces a l l r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n and exchange found i n the w o r l d - s y s t e m , and [ t h e ] o t h e r which produces a r i g i d l y - e r o d e d model t o which e v e r y t h i n g e l s e i s e x t e r n a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d " ( I b i d : 9 2 ) . There i s no p o i n t here i n e n t e r i n g the ongoing 'modes of p r o d u c t i o n ' debate ( H i l t o n , 1976; F o s t e r - C a r t e r , 1978), but a r e c a p of the b a s i c f e a t u r e s of underdevelopment t h e o r i e s , and the by now f a m i l i a r c r i t i q u e of t h e i r mutual weaknesses ( L a c l a u , 1971/77), i s a u s e f u l p r e l i m i n a r y e x e r c i s e f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on t h e o r i e s of r a c e and c l a s s . As a r e c e n t overview of the f i e l d put i t : "Because w o r l d - s y s t e m t h e o r y i s i n most ways merely a N o r t h American a d a p t i o n of dependency t h e o r y , t h e r e i s l i t t l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h them from each o t h e r as t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s " ( C h i r o t and H a l l , 1982: 9 0 ) . Both p e r s p e c t i v e s attempt t o e x p l a i n how 38 "one and the same h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s of e x p a n s i o n and development of c a p i t a l i s m t hroughout the w o r l d has s i m u l t a n e o u s l y g e n e r a t e d — a n d c o n t i n u e s t o g e n e r a t e - both economic development and s t r u c t u r a l underdevelopment" (Frank, 1967: 13). The main f a c e t s of underdevelopment t h e o r y , and c o n c o m i t a n t l y i t s most s e r i o u s f l a w s , are e p i t o m i z e d by W a l l e r s t e i n ' s (1974) s e m i n a l m a c r o s o c i o l o g y . The 'modern w o r l d - system' he a s s e r t s , e v o l v e d w i t h the f i r s t s i g n s of m e r c a n t i l e c a p i t a l i n s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y Europe. Not o n l y d i d c a p i t a l i s m emerge a t t h i s t i m e , but i t p r o s p e r e d , and soon became the dominant mode of p r o d u c t i o n . The key t o i t s s u c c e s s we a r e t o l d i s t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t e d "a new form of s u r p l u s a p p r o p r i a t i o n ... based not on d i r e c t a p p r o p r i a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l s u r p l u s i n the form e i t h e r of t r i b u t e (as had been the case f o r w o r l d - e m p i r e s ) or of f e u d a l r e n t s (as had been the system of European f e u d a l i s m ) . I n s t e a d what would d e v e l o p now i s the a p p r o p r i a t i o n of a s u r p l u s which was based on more e f f i c i e n t and expanded p r o d u c t i v i t y ( f i r s t i n a g r i c u l t u r e and l a t e r i n i n d u s t r y ) by means of a w o r l d market mechanism w i t h the " a r t i f i c i a l " ( t h a t i s nonmarket) a s s i s t of s t a t e m a c h i n e r i e s , none of which c o n t r o l l e d the w o r l d market i n i t s e n t i r e t y " (1974: 37-8). A c c o r d i n g t o W a l l e r s t e i n , t h e r e were t h r e e main f e a t u r e s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e d the nascent w o r l d - s y s t e m from the w o r l d - empires t h a t preceded i t : t e r r i t o r i a l e x p a n s i o n ; a more e x t e n s i v e d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r ; and the s e p a r a t i o n of p o l i t y from economy. The f i r s t r e s u l t e d from a c o n j u n c t u r e of h i s t o r i c a l r e a s o n s , but s i z e , W a l l e r s t e i n (1974) n o t e s , " i s a f u n c t i o n of the s t a t e of t e c h n o l o g y , and i n p a r t i c u l a r of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t r a n s p o r t and communication" ( I b i d : 349). W i t h e x p a n s i o n , an 39 i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r d e v e l o p e d a t the g e o g r a p h i c a l as w e l l as the o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l . As he d e p i c t s i t , c a p i t a l i s m i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h many d i f f e r e n t 'modes of l a b o u r c o n t r o l ' r a n g i n g from serfdom and s l a v e r y , t o f r e e wage-labour, a l l r e g u l a t e d by the o p e r a t i o n of the w o r l d market which, i n t u r n , f o s t e r e d r e g i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of economic r o l e s (I b i d : Chap. 2 ) . In s h o r t , t h e r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s which a r o s e from e c o l o g i c a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , were e x a c e r b a t e d by the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n , and the t h i r d f a c t o r , the r o l e of the n a t i o n - s t a t e . "The s t a t e s do not d e v e l o p and cannot be u n d e r s t o o d except w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of the development of the wo r l d - s y s t e m " ( W a l l e r s t e i n , 1974: 6 7 ) . The growth of s t r o n g s t a t e a p p a r a t u s e s f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the w o r l d market on b e h a l f of ' n a t i o n a l ' i n t e r e s t s c r e a t e d c o n d i t i o n s of 'unequal exchange', and l e d t o the d i v i s i o n of the w o r l d - s y s t e m i n t o ' c o r e ' ( c e n t r e / m e t r o p o l i s ) , ' s e m i - p e r i p h e r y ' , and ' p e r i p h e r y ' ( h i n t e r l a n d / s a t e l l i t e ) a r e a s ( I b i d : Chap.5). Thus, c a p i t a l i s m f o r W a l l e r s t i e n e n t a i l s not o n l y the e x p l o i t a t i o n of d i r e c t p r o d u c e r s , but a l s o the t r a n s f e r of s u r p l u s from the p e r i p h e r y t o the c o r e . T h i s i s the fundamental 'zero-sum' l o g i c u n d e r l y i n g what Frank c a l l s t he 'development of underdevelopment'. The v i r t u e s of w o r l d - s y s t e m t h e o r y a r e m a n i f e s t i n i t s d r a m a t i c impact on, and 'new paradigm' s t a t u s i n , the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . N o n e t h e l e s s , i t shares w i t h dependency t h e o r y some r a t h e r d u b i o u s a s s u m p t i o n s which d i m i n i s h i t s t h e o r e t i c a l punch. 40 W a l l e r s t e i n ' s b r o a d , market-based c o n c e p t i o n of c a p i t a l i s m denotes an e x e r c i s e i n r e v i s i o n i s m which, w h i l e i n t e r e s t i n g , i s h a r d l y an a u t h o r a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s t o r y . The h i s t o r i c a l d e t erminancy of the r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n i n M a r x i s t t h e o r y , i s d i s p a t c h e d from the p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s t o the c i r c u l a t i o n p r o c e s s , a l l o w i n g him t o m a i n t a i n the dominance of the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n l o n g b e f o r e the advent of i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m . The end r e s u l t i s a c a p i t a l subsumption t h e o r y l a c k i n g i n h i s t o r i c a l s p e c i f i c i t y ( L a c l a u , 1977). The l o g i c of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n supposedly subsumes s e v e r a l d i v e r s e forms of c a p i t a l , l a b o u r e x p l o i t a t i o n , and the S t a t e , a l l d e t e r m i n e d i n some way by an emerging w o r l d market. The t r e a t m e n t of p r e - c a p i t a l i s t modes of p r o d u c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r i l y s k e t c h y . "The g e n e r a l tendency t o lump a l l p r e c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s i n t o two s i m p l e t y p e s (and " m i n i - s y s t e m s " a r e an even more s i m p l i s t i c type than " w o r l d - e m p i r e s " ) , i s p e r i l o u s l y c l o s e t o t h e a h i s t o r i c a l e u r o c e n t r i s m t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s m o d e r n i z a t i o n t h e o r i e s " ( C h i r o t and H a l l , 1982: 9 9 ) . D i f f e r e n c e s i n development between c o r e and p e r i p h e r y a r e a s are d e t e r m i n e d l a r g e l y by r e l a t i o n s of unequal exchange c r e a t e d by the a c t i o n s of i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s t a t e s s e e k i n g advantage i n the t r a n s n a t i o n a l m a r k e t p l a c e . A p a r t from the d i s c u s s i o n of c o r e s t a t e s ( W a l l e r s t e i n , 1974: Chap. 5 ) , t h e r e i s p r e c i o u s l i t t l e a n a l y s i s of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l a s s f o r m a t i o n and forms of s t r u g g l e between c o r e and p e r i p h e r y . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t the s u c c e s s f u l development of the c o r e i s the r e s u l t of the a p p r o p r i a t i o n of economic s u r p l u s from the p e r i p h e r y , which 41 l e a v e s the nexus between a s t a t e ' s ' s t r e n g t h ' and i t s ' l o c a t i o n ' u n e x p l a i n e d . T h i s i n d u c e s one t o query a l o n g w i t h Brenner (1977) whether dependency i s not so much the 'cause' as an ' e f f e c t ' of economic backwardness. Most would agree w i t h W a l l e r s t e i n t h a t , " i f w o rld-systems a r e the o n l y r e a l s o c i a l systems ( o t h e r than t r u l y i s o l a t e d s u b s i s t e n c e economies), then i t must f o l l o w t h a t the emergence, c o n s o l i d a t i o n , and p o l i t i c a l r o l e s of c l a s s e s and s t a t u s groups must be a p p r e c i a t e d as elements of t h i s w o r l d - s y s t e m " (1974: 351). However, w i t h i n t h i s macro p e r c e p t i o n r a c i a l and e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s l i k e the c l a s s s t r u g g l e i t s e l f , tend t o be overshadowed by a g l o b a l economic p r o c e s s i n which the p r i n c i p a l a c t o r s a r e n a t i o n - s t a t e s , t r e a t e d as more or l e s s homogeneous i d e a l - t y p e s . Moreover, p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l d o m i n a t i o n i s r e l e g a t e d t o a s u p p o r t i n g r o l e as a p r e - c a p i t a l i s t a t t r i b u t e , and r e c e i v e s l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n . As Rex (1981a) p o i n t s o u t : " T h i s i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . W h i l e i t i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e t h a t empires e v e n t u a l l y fade away and t h a t c o l o n i a l i s m c o n t i n u e s t h r o u g h e x p l o i t a t i o n by m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s , the a c t u a l p o s i t i o n s of v a r i o u s e t h n i c g r oups, segments, and c l a s s e s w i t h i n the t o t a l i m p e r i a l system i s o n l y e x p l i c a b l e i n terms of t h e i r s u b j e c t i o n t o power o t h e r than t h a t of a s i m p l e market t y p e " ( I b i d : 362). The b e n e f i c i a r y of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e p r e d e t e r m i n e d by the e s s e n t i a l l y d u a l i s t i c d i v i s i o n of the w o r l d i n t o e x p l o i t e r s and e x p l o i t e d . The concept of e x p l o i t a t i o n i s r e d e f i n e d from the p o i n t of c i r c u l a t i o n , and p r o j e c t e d onto a g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n t e x t as a r e l a t i o n of d o m i n a t i o n between ' s t r o n g ' c o r e s t a t e s and 'weak' p e r i p h e r y a r e a s . S i m i l a r l y , 42 r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s c o n s i g n e d the f u n c t i o n of e i t h e r a means o f , or a j u s t i f i c a t i o n ( r a c i s m ) f o r , the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the ' b l a c k ' p e r i p h e r y by the 'whi t e ' c o r e t h r o u g h the w o r l d market. " G l o b a l unequal exchange, the s t r u c t u r a l antinomy of c o r e and p e r i p h e r y , i s i n t e g r a l t o the f u n c t i o n i n g of c a p i t a l i s m . Racism i s then the i d e o l o g i c a l l e g i t i m a t i o n of t h i s mechanism" ( W a l l e r s t e i n , 1981: 51 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , f o r W a l l e r s t e i n "the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t r a c i s m , the s t r u g g l e f o r n a t i o n a l r i g h t s , i s an i n e s c a p a b l e c e n t r e p i e c e of the s t r u g g l e f o r s o c i a l i s m " which r e p r e s e n t s the o n l y ' a l t e r n a t i v e world-system' ( I b i d : 5 1). P o l e m i c s a s i d e , how s o c i a l i s m i s t o be a c h i e v e d i n the c o r e remains i n the realm of c o n j e c t u r e , w h i l e i n the p e r i p h e r y t h i s l o g i c smacks of n a t i o n a l i s m and a u t a r k y . 2 . 3 . i v Summary In summary, these t h r e e t y p e s of M a r x i s t r a c e and c l a s s t h e o r i e s e x h i b i t some i n t e r e s t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i v e r g e n c e s . A l t h o u g h they share much of the same c o n c e p t u a l nomenclature, w o r l d systems t h e o r y a c t u a l l y has l e s s i n common w i t h i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m , than i t does w i t h c l a s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n approaches. Both orthodox Marxism and w o r l d systems t h e o r i e s t e n d t o reduce r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t o c l a s s e x p l o i t a t i o n , a l b e i t from v e r y d i f f e r e n t c l a s s a n a l y s e s . I n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m , w h i l e i t may be q u i t e apt f o r d e s c r i b i n g the c o l o n i a l s t a t u s of A m e r i n d i a n s , d i s p l a y s an e q u a l l y p r o b l e m a t i c tendency t o reduce e x p l o i t a t i o n t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and c l a s s r e l a t i o n s t o group r e l a t i o n s . In none of t h e s e t h e o r i e s do we get a c l e a r sense of how c l a s s and 43 r a c e a r e h i s t o r i c a l l y r e l a t e d i n the ongoing s t r u g g l e s of human age n t s a g a i n s t e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The reason f o r t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l s h o r t c o m i n g seems t o be not o n l y t h e way race i s c o n c e i v e d , as ' r a c i s m ' , but a l s o the way s o c i a l c l a s s i s c o n c e i v e d as s t r i c t l y an economic r e l a t i o n . M a r x i s t a n a l y s e s of r a c e and c l a s s l a c k a co n c e p t of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n grounded i n group r e l a t i o n s , and a mode of c l a s s a n a l y s i s f o c u s i n g on c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s i n the p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than c l a s s s t r u c t u r e . The economic c o n c e p t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s examined i n the next c h a p t e r by t r a c i n g i t s e v o l u t i o n t h r o u g h n e o c l a s s i c a l and d u a l l a b o u r market t h e o r i e s . M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s of race and c l a s s a r e r e v i s i t e d i n Chapter S i x t o i n t e g r a t e some i n s i g h t s from each type i n t o an o u t l i n e f o r a n o n - r e d u c t i o n i s t c l a s s a n a l y s i s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . 44 Chapter 3 The Economics of D i s c r i m i n a t i o n : N e o - c l a s s i c a l and Dual Labour Market Theory "Though r a c i a l p r i v i l e g e pervades a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s , i t i s e x p r e s s e d most s t r a t e g i c a l l y i n the l a b o u r market and the s t r u c t u r e of o c c u p a t i o n s .... I f t h e r e i s any one key t o the s y s t e m a t i c p r i v i l e g e t h a t u n d e r g i r d s a r a c i a l c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y , i t i s the s p e c i a l advantage of the w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n i n the l a b o u r market" ( B l a u n e r , 1972: 2 3 ) . 3 .1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Labour markets a r e s e t s of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s which o p e r a t e t o a l l o c a t e workers or l a b o u r power t o p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s ( L o v e r i d g e and Mok, 1979). They can be s p e c i f i e d i n terms of t h e i r ( i ) a g e n t s , ( i i ) s t r u c t u r e s , ( i i i ) modes of f o r m a t i o n and ( i v ) outcomes. How t h e s e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and the c o n c e p t s which s p e c i f y them a r e c o n c e i v e d i s l a r g e l y c o n t i n g e n t on the t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of the o b s e r v e r . Hence, f o r n e o c l a s s i c a l economic t h e o r i s t s l a b o u r markets a r e c o n c e i v e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n terms of r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l s , w h i l e f o r Weberians they a r e r e l a t i o n s between groups, and f o r M a r x i s t s t h e y a r e r e l a t i o n s between c l a s s e s and s t a t e s . A ' c l a s s c o n f l i c t ' p e r s p e c t i v e of the l a b o u r market e c l e c t i c a l l y borrows from a l l t h r e e approaches t o o f f e r a b roader v i e w p o i n t . C l a s s c o n f l i c t t h e o r y assumes t h a t the a gents i n v o l v e d a r e i n d i v i d u a l s , g roups, c l a s s e s and s t a t e s , i n c l u s i v e l y r a t h e r than e x c l u s i v e l y . Labour market s t r u c t u r e s denote the dynamic s e t of i n s t i t u t i o n s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s t h r o u g h which l a b o u r power i s exchanged (bought and s o l d ) , and d i s t r i b u t e d ( a l l o c a t e d t o 45 p o s i t i o n s ) . By modes of f o r m a t i o n i s meant the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s by which l a b o u r market s t r u c t u r e s form, de-form and re - f o r m under c o n d i t i o n s of s t r u g g l e . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s the f o r m a t i o n of submarkets or 'segments', each w i t h i t s own r u l e s and c o n v e n t i o n s g o v e r n i n g exchange. Labour market outcomes s p e c i f y p a t t e r n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e such as income d i s t r i b u t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n , and communal d i v i s i o n s of l a b o u r . Communal d i v i s i o n s of l a b o u r r e f e r t o v a r i o u s groups and c o l l e c t i v i t i e s i n the l a b o u r f o r c e who a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a s c r i p t i v e a t t r i b u t e s l i k e r a c e and sex, communal a f f i n i t i e s l i k e e t h n i c i t y and r e l i g i o n , or l e g a l s t a t u s l i k e c i t i z e n s h i p . The concept of ' d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' — t h e unequal t r e a t m e n t of i n d i v i d u a l s or groups a s c r i b e d t o such s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s - - i s u s u a l l y a p p l i e d t o account f o r d i f f e r e n t i a l outcomes a c c r u i n g t o d i f f e r e n t communal groups i n t h e l a b o u r market. The economic t h e o r y of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was deve l o p e d by n e o c l a s s i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r i s t s as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r p e r s i s t e n t p o v e r t y and r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y amidst the a f f l u e n c e of post-war U n i t e d S t a t e s . C o n s i d e r i n g i t s b o u r g e o i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h i n t e r - p e r s o n a l and i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the concept l e a d s a r a t h e r shadowy e x i s t e n c e i n M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s of race and c l a s s . S i g n i f i c a n t l y however, r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n has e n t e r e d M a r x i s t d i s c o u r s e i n the emerging r a d i c a l or c l a s s c o n f l i c t paradigm which combines a s p e c t s from n e o c l a s s i c a l economic, Weberian and M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s of the l a b o u r market. The next two c h a p t e r s a n a l y s e 46 the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the market outcome of r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y , and the a g e n t s , s t r u c t u r e s , and modes of f o r m a t i o n of the l a b o u r market as they a r e p r e s e n t e d i n contemporary t h e o r y . As a f i r s t s t e p , the n e o c l a s s i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s of r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y , and i n p a r t i c u l a r the concept of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , a re c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d . The two main approaches of n e o c l a s s i c a l economic t h e o r y t o r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y and c o n f l i c t i n the l a b o u r market a r e d e s c r i b e d and c r i t i c i z e d i n s e c t i o n 3.2. 'Human c a p i t a l ' t h e o r y and ' d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' t h e o r y a r e p i o n e e r i n g approaches which de v e l o p e d i n d i v i d u a l - b a s e d e x p l a n a t i o n s l i m i t e d by the assumptions of the n e o c l a s s i c a l model. N e i t h e r can be s a i d t o o f f e r a l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t and e m p i r i c a l y p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the p e r s i s t e n c e of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . The c h a l l e n g e of 'dual l a b o u r market' t h e o r y t o the s t a t i c , a b s t r a c t , n e o c l a s s i c a l model i s examined i n s e c t i o n 3.3. A l t h o u g h i t draws a t t e n t i o n t o the i n f l u e n c e o f market s t r u c t u r e and f o r m a t i o n on i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e , and p r o v i d e s a more e m p i r i c a l and dynamic c o n c e p t i o n of the l a b o u r market, d u a l t h e o r y s t o p s s h o r t of embracing a c o n f l i c t e x p l a n a t i o n . I n s t e a d of t r a n s c e n d i n g i t s t h e o r e t i c a l h e r i t a g e , d u a l t h e o r y ends up s t r a d d l i n g the fence between the o l d n e o c l a s s i c a l and the new r a d i c a l , or c l a s s c o n f l i c t paradigms of the l a b o u r market. A c a v e a t s h o u l d be e n t e r e d here t h a t t h i s t r u n c a t e d r e v i e w of major t h e o r i e s cannot presume t o be comprehensive, nor t o speak t o the m e r i t s of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s . 47 3.2 N e o c l a s s i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r i e s N e o c l a s s i c a l economics c o n c e r n s i t s e l f w i t h the a l l o c a t i o n of s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s by the p r i c e mechanism which o p e r a t e s t h r o u g h the a t o m i s t i c b e h a v i o u r of i n d i v i d u a l economic agents i n more or l e s s c o m p e t i t i v e markets. The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r r a c i a l c o n f l i c t t h e r e f o r e , tends t o be sought i n i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p r e j u d i c e , and m o t i v e s c o n d u c i v e t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which i s assumed t o be a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of temporary market i m p e r f e c t i o n s . "Economic e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n or o t h e r phenomena te n d t o run i n i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c terms .... E c o n o m i s t s ask what m o t i v a t e s an employer or an i n d i v i d u a l worker. They t e n d not t o a c c e p t as an e x p l a n a t i o n a statement t h a t employers as a c l a s s would g a i n by d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , f o r they ask what would p r e v e n t an i n d i v i d u a l employer from r e f u s i n g t o d i s c r i m i n a t e i f he p r e f e r s and t h e r e b y p r o f i t " (Arrow, 1972: 9 9 ) . The s o - c a l l e d ' c o m p e t i t i v e model' of the l a b o u r market i s an i d e a l t y pe which r e s t s on f i v e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s : ( i ) employers and workers a r e r a t i o n a l economic a c t o r s , ( i . e . , they a c t t o maximize p r o f i t s or wages); ( i i ) a c t o r s have ' p e r f e c t knowledge' about the market; ( i i i ) a c t o r s o p e r a t e i n d i v i d u a l l y , and each c o m p r i s e s such a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of demand or s u p p l y t h a t t h e i r d e c i s i o n s have no i n f l u e n c e over wages; ( i v ) l a b o u r i s a homogeneous and i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e commodity; and (v) l a b o u r i s f r e e l y m o b i l e ( c f . L i p s e y and Sparks and S t e i n e r , 1979; L o v e r i d g e and Mok, 1979). 48 Wages a r e d e t e r m i n e d l i k e the p r i c e of any commodity, by the f o r c e s of s u p p l y and demand o p e r a t i n g l i k e M a r s h a l l ' s " b l a d e s of a s c i s s o r " . S i n c e f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the demand f o r l a b o u r a r e assumed t o be s h o r t - r u n a b e r r a t i o n s , the e q u i l i b r i u m or m a r k e t - c l e a r i n g p r i c e f o r l a b o u r i s t h e r e f o r e d e t e r m i n e d by the m a r g i n a l p r o d u c t i v i t y of l a b o u r . 1 T h i s i s known as the 'queue' t h e o r y , s o - c a l l e d because the f i r m ' s demand f o r l a b o u r i s c o n c e i v e d by e c o n o m i s t s as a l i n e of workers queued a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r m a r g i n a l p r o d u c t i v i t i e s . In i t s pure form, the model c o n s t i t u t e s a microeconomic a n a l y s e s of market b e h a v i o u r which i s a h i s t o r i c a l , n o n i n s t i t u t i o n a l and s u p p o s e d l y , u n i v e r s a l . What d i s t i n g u i s h e s ' l i b e r a l ' from ' c o n s e r v a t i v e ' e c o n o m i s t s i s the degree t o which the assumptions of the c o m p e t i t i v e model a r e r e l a x e d t o account f o r i m p e r f e c t i o n s or ' d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s ' , l i k e r a c i a l income i n e q u a l i t y i n a c t u a l l a b o u r markets. C o n s e r v a t i v e s t e n d t o be m i c r o t h e o r i s t s and m o n e t a r i s t s who m a i n t a i n t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n w i l l e l i m i n a t e r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y i n the l o n g - r u n , and eschew s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n . L i b e r a l s t e n d t o be macro t h e o r i s t s and K e y n e s i a n s who a r e i n c l i n e d t o be s k e p t i c a l about the a b i l i t y of the market t o erode r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y , (Keynes famous d i c t u m b e i n g ' i n the l o n g - r u n we a r e a l l d e a d ! ' ) , and t o be a d v o c a t e s of p u b l i c p l a n n i n g . C o n s e r v a t i v e views were s u p p o r t e d by the s t r u c t u r a l - 1 P r o d u c t i v i t y i s a concept of n e o c l a s s i c a l c o s t theory which d e a l s with the e f f i c i e n c y of p r o d u c t i o n . 'Marginal p r o d u c t i v i t y ' i s the r a t e of "change in t o t a l product r e s u l t i n g from the use of one u n i t more of the v a r i a b l e f a c t o r " ( L i p s e y , Sparks and S t e i n e r , 1979). 49 f u n c t i o n a l i s t s c h o o l of American s o c i o l o g y which h e l d t h a t r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y would d i m i n i s h as s o c i e t y e v o l v e d from gemeinshaft t o g e s e l l s h a f t ; from t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s based on a s c r i p t i o n , t o modern r o l e s based on achievement. I r o n i c a l l y , c o n f l i c t t h e o r i s t s ( i n c l u d i n g M a r x ) , who s u b s c r i b e d t o a c l a s s p o l a r i z a t i o n t h e s i s , were e q u a l l y c u l p a b l e of i g n o r i n g communal c l e a v a g e s i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . The i d e o l o g i c a l complacency of a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t t h e o r i e s of e i t h e r p o l i t i c a l p e r s u a s i o n was r u d e l y s h a t t e r e d by the c i v i l r i g h t s movement, b l a c k power, and the urban u p r i s i n g s d u r i n g the 1960s. Economists were suddenly f o r c e d t o e x p l a i n the p e r s i s t e n c e of r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y i n ' c o m p e t i t i v e ' l a b o u r markets which was not e x p l i c a b l e s i m p l y i n terms of p r o d u c t i v i t y . The n e o c l a s s i c a l response t o t h i s anomaly was t h e o r i e s of human c a p i t a l and r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and- l a t e r , v a r i o u s d u a l l a b o u r market models. 3. 2 . i Human c a p i t a l t h e o r y Human c a p i t a l t h e o r y , p i o n e e r e d by Becker (1964; 1967), a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n group income d i s p a r i t i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n terms of the unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of 'human c a p i t a l ' , or o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s and e d u c a t i o n . I t marked a c l e a r advance over the s i m p l e n e o c l a s s i c a l model by r e l a x i n g the assumption of the homogeneity of l a b o u r , and making i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e e d u c a t i o n endogenous t o the l a b o u r market, w h i l s t m a i n t a i n i n g the n o t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l o p t i m i z i n g b e h a v i o u r . A c c o r d i n g t o the t h e o r y , wages a r e a ' r e t u r n t o inv e s t m e n t i n human c a p i t a l ' . The o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t of e d u c a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d comparable t o 50 the c o s t i n c u r r e d by t h e f i r m f o r j o b t r a i n i n g s i n c e both r e p r e s e n t c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t s t o r a i s e p r o d u c t i v i t y . T h i s ' r a t e of r e t u r n ' a p p r o a c h assumes a c h a i n of p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s l i n k i n g c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s , e d u c a t i o n and p r o d u c t i v i t y . I t a l s o assumes t h a t t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l r e q u i r e m e n t s of advanced i n d u s t r i a l economies are c o n s t a n t l y c l i m b i n g , and t h e r e f o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between human c a p i t a l and the l a b o u r market, the demand f o r l a b o u r , i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d . Hence, the e n d u r i n g gap between b l a c k and w h i t e incomes was e x p l i c a b l e i n terms of t h e low p r o d u c t i v i t y of b l a c k workers r e s u l t i n g from the lower s t o c k of human c a p i t a l t h a t they b r i n g t o the l a b o u r market. The o b v i o u s s o l u t i o n t o b l a c k income i n e q u a l i t y was t o i n c r e a s e b l a c k s k i l l l e v e l s and p r o d u c t i v i t y by e x p a n d i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Human c a p i t a l t h e o r y remains the f o u n d a t i o n of c o n v e n t i o n a l n e o c l a s s i c a l wisdom, but i t s c e n t r a l p o s t u l a t e s , shared by s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l i s t t h e o r i e s of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , have been g r a d u a l l y d i s c r e d i t e d by c o n f l i c t t h e o r y and the f a i l u r e of l i b e r a l p o l i c y e f f o r t s d u r i n g the 1970s. The c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s p o s i t e d between e d u c a t i o n and income, i t s c r i t i c s a rgue, a r e s p u r i o u s s i n c e the t h e o r y n e g l e c t s the n o n - c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n s of the e d u c a t i o n system. A s i d e from i t s i n s t r u m e n t a l r o l e , e d u c a t i o n may a l s o f u n c t i o n as a ' s c r e e n i n g d e v i c e ' ( C o l l i n s , 1971), a ' s i g n a l ' (Spence, 1974), or a ' c r e d e n t i a l i n g system' ( B e r g , 1970) f a c i l i t a t i n g employers' s e l e c t i o n s of d e s i r e a b l e ' s t a t u s c u l t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s ' . 51 Other s t u d i e s have contended t h a t the emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the s u p p l y - s i d e g e n e r a l l y , tends t o 'blame the v i c t i m ' , and i g n o r e s i m p o r t a n t s t r u c t u r a l and demand-side e f f e c t s on income d i s t r i b u t i o n . O r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o r i s t s have demonstrated t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l v a r i a b l e s have more pronounced e f f e c t s on income than human c a p i t a l ( B i b b and Form, 1977). S i m i l a r l y , d u a l l a b o u r market approaches have suggested t h a t d i f f e r e n t r e t u r n s t o human c a p i t a l a c c r u e i n d i f f e r e n t s e c t o r s of the l a b o u r market (Gordon, 1972; P i o r e , 1973; Osterman, 1975). The assumption of r i s i n g demand f o r t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s has been s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d by the ' d e g r a d a t i o n of l a b o u r ' t h e s i s of M a r x i s t l a b o u r p r o c e s s t h e o r y (Braverman, 1974; M a r g l i n , 1974; Clawson, 1980). E v i d e n c e of d e c l i n i n g r e t u r n s t o e d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ( B e r g , 1970), and i n Canada (Goyder, 1980) suggest t h a t i t i s the abundance of s u p p l y , r a t h e r than the r i s i n g demand f o r s k i l l s t h a t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n f l a t i n g t he e d u c a t i o n a l c u r r e n c y . And f i n a l l y , l i b e r a l p o l i c i e s of e d u c a t i o n a l e x p a n s i o n d u r i n g the l a s t decade have come under a t t a c k by r a d i c a l s and c o n s e r v a t i v e s a l i k e . S t u d i e s l i k e J e n c k ' s et a l . , (1972) have reached v e r y p e s s i m i s t i c c o n c l u s i o n s about p r o s p e c t s f o r r e d u c i n g r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y by e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m s based on s k i l l a l l o c a t i o n r a t h e r than income r e d i s t r i b u t i o n . The c o n t r i b u t i o n of Marxism t o t h e debate has been l a r g e l y t o s t r e s s the r e p r o d u c t i v e f u n c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n , and the i d e o l o g i c a l n a t u r e of human c a p i t a l t h e o r y i t s e l f . I n t h e i r 52 • orthodox c r i t i q u e Bowles and G i n t i s (1975) argue t h a t "by r e s t r i c t i n g i t s a n a l y s i s t o the i n t e r a c t i o n of exogenously g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s , raw m a t e r i a l s ( i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t i e s ) , and a l t e r n a t i v e p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g i e s , human c a p i t a l t h e o r y f o r m a l l y e x c l u d e d the r e l e v a n c e of c l a s s and c l a s s c o n f l i c t i n the e x p l i c a t i o n of l a b o u r market phenomena" ( I b i d ; 75) . The f o c u s on i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the r e s i d u e of t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e t e r m i n i s m a c t u a l l y b o i l down, Bowles and G i n t i s c o n c l u d e , t o an a n a l y s i s of f e t i s h i z e d exchange r e l a t i o n s . "The t h e o r y of human c a p i t a l l i k e the r e s t of n e o c l a s s i c a l economics, u l t i m a t e l y l o c a t e s the s o u r c e s of human h a p p i n e s s and m i s e r y i n the i n t e r a c t i o n of human n a t u r e ( p r e f e r e n c e s and ' a b i l i t i e s ' ) w i t h n a t u r e i t s e l f ( t e c h n o l o g i e s and r e s o u r c e s ) . T h i s framework p r o v i d e s an e l e g a n t apology f o r almost any p a t t e r n of i n e q u a l i t y (under c a p i t a l i s m , s t a t e s o c i a l i s m or w h a t e v e r ) , f o r i t u l t i m a t e l y a t t r i b u t e s s o c i a l or p e r s o n a l i l l s e i t h e r t o the short c o m i n g s of i n d i v i d u a l s or the u n a v o i d a b l e t e c h n i c a l r e q u i s i t e s of p r o d u c t i o n " ( I b i d ; 8 2 ) . 3 . 2 . i i R a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t h e o r i e s The o t h e r approach of n e o c l a s s i c a l t h e o r y t o the problem of r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y i n the l a b o u r market was from the demand s i d e , e mploying m a r g i n a l u t i l i t y 2 r a t h e r than m a r g i n a l p r o d u c t i v i t y a n a l y s i s . The concept of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s employed i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n why workers w i t h the same m a r g i n a l p r o d u c t i v i t i e s r e c e i v e unequal rewards. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n may be m a n i f e s t i n the form of unequal wages ( p o s t - e n t r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) , or unequal j o b s ( p r e - e n t r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) . The n e o c l a s s i c a l models 2 U t i l i t y i s a key concept of n e o c l a s s i c a l consumer t h e o r y which a t t e m p t s t o index the e f f e c t of commodity consumption on the s u b j e c t i v e e s t i m a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l w e l f a r e . The ' m a r g i n a l u t i l i t y ' of a commodity i s the change i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s t o t a l u t i l i t y c r e a t e d by a one u n i t change i n h i s or her consumption of t h a t commodity, c e t e r i s p a r i b u s ( C o l e , 1973: 38-41). 53 p r e s e n t e d here a r e p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h forms of wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and i t was l e f t t o d u a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y t o a r t i c u l a t e a model of j o b d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 3 . 2 . i i . a Employer model The f i r s t attempt t o d e v e l o p a t h e o r y of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w i t h i n a n e o c l a s s i c a l framework was once a g a i n by Becker (1957/71). B e c k e r ' s n o v e l c o n t r i b u t i o n was t o i n t r o d u c e a ' c o e f f i c i e n t of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' from the employer's u t i l i t y f u n c t i o n i n t o the wage d e t e r m i n a t i o n p r o c e s s . In h i s s i m p l e two c o u n t r y model of i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e , w h i t e employers a r e assumed t o have a ' t a s t e f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' based on a h y p o t h e t i c a l d i s l i k e f o r p h y s i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h b l a c k s . C o n s i d e r i n g the c e n t r a l importance of the ' t a s t e ' n o t i o n , Becker's a c c o u n t of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r e f e r e n c e f o r m a t i o n i s not v e r y c o m p e l l i n g . "Becker's c o n c e p t u a l framework wasn't so much wrong as i t was empty; t a s t e s f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a r e not an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r b e h a v i o u r but merely a ghost t h a t g e t s blamed f o r ob s e r v e d e v e n t s " (Samuelson, 1973 i n R e i c h , 1981: 8 3 ) . I f a l l employers shared the same d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , then B e c k e r ' s model p r e d i c t s t h a t w h i t e employers w i l l a c t u a l l y l o s e , and w h i t e workers g a i n , from r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . However, r e l a x t h i s assumption and employers w i t h lower c o e f f i c i e n t s w i l l p o s s e s s a c o m p e t i t i v e edge, and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t b l a c k workers w i l l t end t o d i s a p p e a r i n the l o n g - r u n . I n o t h e r words, as Arrow (1972b: 192) p o i n t s o u t , the employer model " p r e d i c t s the absence of the phenomenon t h a t 54 i t was d e s i g n e d to e x p l a i n " . S i n c e a l l employers a r e not e q u a l l y p r e j u d i c e d and r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y p e r s i s t s , Becker c o n c l u d e s t h a t immunity from c o m p e t i t i o n i s the r e a l problem, and a n t i - m o n o p o l i s t i c p o l i c y the s o l u t i o n , t o r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t o n i n the l a b o u r market. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t h a t c o m p e t i t i v e i n d u s t r i e s a r e l e s s d i s c r i m i n a t o r y than m o n o p o l i s t i c ones i s not f o r t h c o m i n g , and seems t o run c o n t r a r y t o B e c k e r ' s (1957: 38-46) e x p e c t a t i o n s i n any case (see Shepard, 1970; F l a n a g a n , 1973; Kaufman and Daymont, 1981). 3 . 2 . i i . b White c a r t e l model B u i l d i n g on B ecker's p i o n e e r i n g e f f o r t s , Krueger (1963) and Thurow (1969) contend t h a t the predominant motive f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s not exogenous i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s , but 'economic g a i n ' . They argue t h a t a l l w h i t e s b e n e f i t from d i s c r i m i n a t o r y c o l l u s i o n t h a t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e x c l u d e s b l a c k s from r e c e i v i n g the f u l l v a l u e of t h e i r m a r g i n a l p r o d u c t s under c o m p e t i t i v e c o n d i t i o n s . The model s u g g e s t s t h a t the p r e v a i l i n g f a i t h i n s e l f - i n t e r e s t and c o m p e t i t i v e markets t o e l i m i n a t e r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the l o n g - r u n , was unfounded and a c t u a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o b l a c k underdevelopment Thurow's (1969) a n a l y s i s which i n c o r p o r a t e s seven d i f f e r e n t forms of w h i t e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , was p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p e a l i n g t o b l a c k n a t i o n a l i s t s because i t l e n t t h e o r e t i c a l s u p p o r t t o t h e i r c a l l s f o r b l a c k independence and s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . N e i t h e r the p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y nor t h e economic model i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n v i n c i n g . A l t h o u g h Thurow (1969) p r e s e n t s a g g r e g a t e d a t a t o 55 e s t i m a t e w h i t e g a i n s from d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , the a s s e r t i o n t h a t a l l w h i t e s b e n e f i t from m o n o p o l i s t i c p r a c t i s e s i s never e m p i r i c a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e d . Moreover, the p r a c t i c a l problems of f o r m i n g and p o l i c i n g a s y s t e m a t i c w h i t e c a r t e l seem i n s u r m o u n t a b l e i n the absence of f o r m a l s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t c a r t e l - b r e a k e r s ( l i k e a p a r t h e i d p o l i c y ) . D e s p i t e t h e s e s h o r t c o m i n g s the w h i t e c a r t e l model does i n t r o d u c e macroeconomic and c o l l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y i n t o the a n a l y s e s , w i t h the i m p l i c i t a ssumption t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c t o r s l i k e t he S t a t e may h e l p t o e x p l a i n d i s c r i m i n a t o r y market b e h a v i o u r . 3 . 2 . i i . c Employee model Another d e p a r t u r e from B e c k e r ' s i n i t i a t i v e was the 'employee d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' model d e v e l o p e d by Welch (1967) and Arrow (1972b). I n s t e a d of w h i t e employers i t i s w h i t e workers who a r e assumed t o d i s l i k e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h b l a c k s . Becker had p r e d i c t e d a t r a d e - o f f ; worker d i s c r i m i n a t i o n would r e s u l t i n r a c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n , but not wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The employee model assumes t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n between b l a c k s and w h i t e s i n the wo r k p l a c e c r e a t e s c o n f i c t which r e s u l t s i n a l o s s of p r o d u c t i v i t y . I n Welch's (1967) model the c o s t of w h i t e worker d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s absorbed by b l a c k s , l e a v i n g the incomes of w h i t e w o r kers and employers u n a f f e c t e d . Arrow (1972b) m o d i f i e s t h i s p o s i t i o n s l i g h t l y by assuming t h a t w h i t e workers must be compensated f o r wo r k i n g w i t h b l a c k s , i m p l y i n g a t r a n s f e r of income from b l a c k s t o some ( s k i l l e d ) w h i t e workers l e a v i n g the incomes of o t h e r ( u n s k i l l e d ) w h i t e s and employers unchanged. 56 The employee model has i n t u i t i v e a p p e a l because i t h o l d s t h a t r a c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n and wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n can occur s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n c o m p e t i t i v e markets, and i t does seem t o d e s c r i b e r a c i s t b e h a v i o u r by w h i t e w o r k e r s . On the o t h e r hand, i t r e s t s on the c r i t i c a l assumption t h a t r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i n the w o r k p l a c e i s caused by w h i t e w o r k e r s , i n s u p p o r t of which n e i t h e r a u t h o r p r o v i d e s any c o n c r e t e e v i d e n c e . 3 S i n c e the data p r e s e n t e d by competing t h e o r i e s l i k e Bergmann's (1971) 'crowding' t h e s e s , and D o e r i n g e r and P i o r e ' s (1971) ' d u a l l a b o u r market' seemed t o suggest t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n and wage d i s c r i m i n a t i o n were s t r u c t u r a l l y and i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d , e c onomists q u e s t i o n e d the r e l e v a n c e of the employee model, and l o o k e d t o more s o p h i s t i c a t e d demand-side e x p l a n a t i o n s . 3 . 2 . i i . d S t a t i s t i c a l model Recent t h e o r i e s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n have taken t h e i r cues from the management and employment r e l a t i o n s t h e o r i e s t h a t have e v o l v e d a l o n g s i d e the ' r e v i s e d t h e o r y of the f i r m ' based on ' c o s t m i n i m i z a t i o n ' s t r a t e g i e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , P h e l p s (1972) and Arrow (1972a) r e g a r d r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as an e x i g e n c y of the r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s of employers s e e k i n g t o m i n i m i z e t h e i r l a b o u r c o s t s i n a c o m p e t i t i v e market. One of these c o s t s i s t h a t of p r o c u r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r o d u c t i v i t y of p r o s p e c t i v e employees. Race, so the t h e o r y goes, i s a r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e t r a i t t h a t conveys g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n about p r o d u c t i v i t y t o 3 There i s , of c o u r s e , an abundance of e v i d e n c e of w h i t e union d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (see Chapter Two, s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . i i i f o r r e f e r e n c e s ) , but u n i o n s and o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e e x c l u d e d from t h i s i n d i v i d u a l - b a s e d model. 57 c o s t - c o n s c i o u s managers. S i n c e b l a c k s as a group a r e known t o p o s s e s s a lower s t o c k of human c a p i t a l than w h i t e s , i t i s more pa r s i m o n i o u s t o assume lower p r o d u c t i v i t y than t o o b t a i n s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n about any i n d i v i d u a l b l a c k worker. Hence, the ' s t a t i s t i c a l ' model combines elements from th e employer model, the queue, human c a p i t a l and s i g n a l i n g t h e o r i e s . By r e l a x i n g the assumption of ' p e r f e c t knowledge' t h e n , the s t a t i s t i c a l model e x p l a i n s the p e r s i s t e n c e of r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y i n a way t h a t c o n v e n i e n t l y e x o n e r a t e s employers and management from p e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n and c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . However, t h e model p o s i t s the h i g h c o s t of d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y of b l a c k w o r k e r s , and assumes t h a t a l l employers share the same r a c i a l s t e r e o t y p e s . Both seem r a t h e r dubious e x p e c t a t i o n s g i v e n c o m p e t i t i v e market c o n d i t i o n s . The m a r g i n a l revenue d e r i v e d from c h a n g i n g i n e f f i c i e n t r a c i s t h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s s h o u l d , c e t e r i s p a r i b u s , exceed the m a r g i n a l c o s t of o b t a i n i n g a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n i n the l o n g - r u n . S i n c e s t a n d a r d p e r s o n n e l p r o c e d u r e s i n c l u d e d e t a i l e d a p p l i c a t i o n s , resumes, r e f e r e n c e s , t r a i n i n g and p r o b a t i o n p e r i o d s the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by r a c e i s l a r g e l y s u p e r f l u o u s , u n l e s s employers do harbour r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e . As a l r e a d y n o t e d , the second assumption i s i r r a t i o n a l g i v e n the supposed economic i n c e n t i v e s t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i v i t y and m i n i m i z e c o s t s . 3 . 2 . i i i Summary of n e o c l a s s i c a l t h e o r i e s To summarize, t h e r e have been two predominant n e o c l a s s i c a l approaches t o r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y i n t h e l a b o u r market, one employing m a r g i n a l p r o d u c t i v i t y t h e o r y (human c a p i t a l ) , and the 58 o t h e r m a r g i n a l u t i l i t y t h e o r y ( d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) . Both extend the s i m p l e model of the l a b o u r market by a cknowledging numerous d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s , but even on t h e i r own terms, n e i t h e r succeeds i n p r e s e n t i n g a l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t and e m p i r i c a l l y p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n ( M a r s h a l l , 1974). M a r x i s t c r i t i q u e s ( R e i c h , 1971; 1981; C h e r r y , 1977) have a t t a c k e d the i d e o l o g i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s of n e o c l a s s i c a l economics, and the consequent n e u t r a l income d i s t r i b u t i o n i m p l i c a t i o n s of most of the models. As R e i c h (1981: 113) has c o u n t e r p o s e d , "none of t h e s e models p r e d i c t s t h a t r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y p roduces i n c r e a s e d i n e q u a l i t y among w h i t e s . " N o n e t h e l e s s , M a r x i s t s who have d i s m i s s e d the concept of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as p a r t of a w h o l e s a l e r e j e c t i o n of b o u r g e o i s t h e o r y , have done so a t t h e p e r i l of a c l a s s t h e o r y of r a c i a l c o n f 1 i c t . 3.3 Dual l a b o u r market t h e o r y Market segmentation has had as l o n g and c h e r i s h e d a c a r e e r i n n e o c l a s s i c a l economic as i t has i n s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y . " E c o n o m i s t s s i n c e M a r s h a l l (1927/61) have q u e s t i o n e d the a s sumption of a homogeneous l a b o u r market, and i d e n t i f i e d d i s c r e t e o c c u p a t i o n a l , l o c a l - r e g i o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l submarkets w i t h i n any g i v e n n a t i o n a l l a b o u r market. These segments a r e t r e a t e d as s h o r t - r u n i m p e r f e c t i o n s t o which the u s u a l p a r t i a l e q u i l i b r i u m a s sumptions a p p l y . The s o c i a l / d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of market segments can then be t r a n s l a t e d c e t e r i s p a r i b u s , i n t o f a m i l i a r m a r g i n a l i s t v a r i a b l e s , or 4 Examples a r e Weber's (1978) n o t i o n of ' s o c i a l c l o s u r e ' and Durkheim's ( i 9 6 0 ) n o t i o n of ' o c c u p a t i o n a l group'. 59 a t t r i b u t e d t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s exogenous t o the a n a l y s i s . The major c o n t r i b u t i o n of 'dual l a b o u r market' t h e o r y has been the i n t e g r a t i o n of ( i ) the concept of 'dual economy' ( A v e r i t t , 1968), ( i i ) the o b s e r v a t i o n s of the American ' i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s t s ' (Dunlop, 1944; Ross, 1948; K e r r , 1954), and ( i i i ) s o c i o l o g i c a l n o t i o n s of m o b i l i t y and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , i n t o l a b o u r market r e s e a r c h i n an e f f o r t t o e x p l a i n the s t r u c t u r e and f o r m a t i o n of l a b o u r markets, and the e f f e c t s of market outcomes l i k e income d i s t r i b u t i o n . B r a c k e t i n g many of the fundamental t e n e t s of n e o c l a s s i c a l o r t h o d o x y , d u a l t h e o r y f o c u s e s on the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the market, t h a t i s , the m a t r i x of s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of j o b s , f i r m s , and i n d u s t r i e s t h a t d e t e r m i n e wages and income d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h i s s h i f t from i n d i v i d u a l t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s not complete however, and f a l l s s h o r t of an o v e r h a u l of n e o c l a s s i c a l t h e o r y . U l t i m a t e l y , t h e d u a l approach p r e s e n t s a new 'queue' t h e o r y i n which workers a r e p e r c e i v e d as queued a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r market segment. The c o n c e p t i o n of the d u a l l a b o u r market emerged from s e v e r a l s t u d i e s of l o c a l l a b o u r markets i n the b l a c k e n c l a v e s of Boston ( D o e r i n g e r e t a l . , 1969), Chicago (Baron and Hymer, 1968), D e t r o i t ( B l u e s t o n e , 1970; W a c h t e l , 1970), and Harlem ( V i e t o r i s z and H a r r i s o n , 1970). At t h a t time i t posed a d i r e c t c h a l l e n g e t o human c a p i t a l , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and s t a t u s a t t a i n m e n t e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s by r e v e a l i n g i m p o r t a n t s t r u c t u r a l s o u r c e s of income i n e q u a l i t y . A 60 p r o l i f e r a t i o n of d u a l a n a l y s e s d e v i s e d by economists (and i n c r e a s i n g l y by s o c i o l o g i s t s h e r a l d i n g a new p a r a d i g m ) , f o l l o w e d t h e s e benchmark s t u d i e s , but over a decade l a t e r the p e r s p e c t i v e has y e t t o d e l i v e r the s y s t e m a t i c t h e o r y and methodology t h a t i t s p r o p o n e n t s promised (see K a l l e b e r g and S orensen, 1979). In the absence of a consensus, the d u a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s o f t e n •rendered as a s e r i e s of p o s t u l a t e s r e l a t i n g the s t r u c t u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s on i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e s and p r e f e r e n c e s t o the p r o c e s s e s of income d e t e r m i n a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n (e. g., Gordon, 1972) . Perhaps the b e s t known and most complete v e r s i o n of d u a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y i s t h a t of D o e r i n g e r and P i o r e (1971). The f o l l o w i n g p o s t u l a t e s ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of ' d u a l economy'), c o n c e p t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and c r i t i q u e of d u a l i s m a r e based l o o s e l y on t h e i r model. 3. 3 . i Economic d u a l i s m Many d u a l t h e o r i s t s p o s t u l a t e the h i s t o r i c a l tendency of advanced c a p i t a l i s t economies t o b i f u r c a t e i n t o d i s t i n c t economic s e c t o r s r e f e r r e d t o v a r i o u s l y as the ' c o r e ' , 'monopoly' or 'primary' s e c t o r , and the ' p e r i p h e r y ' , ' c o m p e t i t i v e ' or 'secondary' s e c t o r of p r o d u c t i o n ( A v e r i t t , 1968; B l u e s t o n e , 1970; G a l b r a i t h , 1973; Beck et a l . , 1978). H i g h b a r r i e r s t o e n t r y i n t o t h e c o r e s e c t o r a r e assumed, and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o r e and p e r i p h e r y i s u s u a l l y s p e c i f i e d as one of 5 Some M a r x i s t s have added a t h i r d ' s t a t e ' s e c t o r t o the d u a l economy model co m p r i s e d of forms of p u b l i c p r o d u c t i o n (O'Connor, 1973; Hodson, 1978). 61 i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . 5 A p l e t h o r a of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s used t o e m p i r i c a l l y index t h e two s e c t o r s , r a n g i n g from market power, f i r m s i z e , p r o f i t l e v e l s , c o n c e n t r a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form, t o p l a n n i n g c a p a b i l i t y , u n i o n i z a t i o n , i n t e r n a l l a b o u r markets and s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n . S i n c e some of t h e s e f e a t u r e s a r e germane t o f i r m s , w h i l e o t h e r s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of i n d u s t r i e s , t h e r e i s an ongoing debate over which i s the ' a p p r o p r i a t e u n i t of a n a l y s i s ' . Much of the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i s based on the f i r m ( A v e r i t t , 1968; Baron & B i e l b y , 1980), w h i l e most of the e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h u t i l i z e s an i n d u s t r i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n (Beck e t a l . , 1978; T o l b e r t e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . 6 3 . 3 . i i Market d u a l i s m Dual economy t h e o r i s t s argue t h a t a d u a l i z e d l a b o u r market r e s u l t s from d i f f e r e n c e s i n the demand f o r l a b o u r g e n e r a t e d by t h e c o r e and p e r i p h e r y s e c t o r s . Dual (and m u l t i - s e g m e n t e d ) market t h e o r i e s on the o t h e r hand, p o s i t the d i v i s i o n of the l a b o u r market i n t o two (or more) segments w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y assuming an i s o m o r p h i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o d u c t i o n and market s t r u c t u r e s ( D o e r i n g e r & P i o r e , 1971; P i o r e , 1975; Freedman, 1976). Each segment e x h i b i t s d i s t i n c t wage and j o b a l l o c a t i o n mechanisms governed by s e p a r a t e r u l e s and p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h o p e r a t e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t l y . The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of ' p r i m a r y ' and 'secondary' markets t h e r e f o r e becomes one of 'good' v e r s u s 'bad' j o b s , r a t h e r than the orthodox ' s k i l l e d ' 6 There are e x c e p t i o n s . See C l a i r m o n t , MacDonald and Wien (1980) f o r a Canadian example. 62 v e r s u s ' u n s k i l l e d ' w o r k e r s . 'Primary j o b s ' a r e those w i t h r e l a t i v e l y h i g h wages, s t a t u s , s e c u r i t y , o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advancement, r e t u r n s t o human c a p i t a l and good working c o n d i t i o n s . 'Secondary j o b s ' t e n d t o have lower wages, s t a t u s and r e t u r n s t o human c a p i t a l , fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o m o t i o n , h i g h t u r n o v e r , and l e s s a t t r a c t i v e w orking c o n d i t i o n s . Workers a r e p e r c e i v e d as g e t t i n g ' t r a p p e d ' i n secondary j o b s , and the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r p o v e r t y and r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y i s thought t o l i e i n t h i s r e s t r i c t e d m o b i l i t y . E x t e n d i n g K e r r ' s (1954) n o t i o n of ' s t r u c t u r e d ' and ' u n s t r u c t u r e d ' markets, D o e r i n g e r and P i o r e (1971: 39-46) c o n c e i v e the l i m i t e d m o b i l i t y between p r i m a r y and secondary segments i n terms of ' i n t e r n a l ' and ' e x t e r n a l ' l a b o u r m a r k e t s . In the l a t t e r , market f u n c t i o n s a r e l a r g e l y d i c t a t e d by c o m p e t i t i v e f o r c e s . The i n t e r n a l market, c o n s t i t u t e d a t the f i r m or i n d u s t r y l e v e l , a r o s e out of the c o m p e t i t i v e market by d e v e l o p i n g s e p a r a t e wage r a t e s , j o b a l l o c a t i o n and j o b t r a i n i n g f u n c t i o n s w i t h r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s or ' p o r t s of e n t r y ' , c o n t r o l l e d by employers or p r i v i l e g e d workers i n p r o t e c t e d j o b s . The h a l l m a r k of the i n t e r n a l market i s j o b s t a b i l i t y , and the s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of p r i m a r y j o b s the a u t h o r s s u g g e s t , i s ' b e h a v i o u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s ' . The i n c r e a s i n g importance of e n t e r p r i s e - s p e c i f i c s k i l l s , o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g and custom ( a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r u l e s ) has r a i s e d the c o s t of l a b o u r t u r n o v e r and f o s t e r e d d i f f e r e n t b e h a v i o u r a l t r a i t s i n i n t e r n a l m a r k e t s . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l e v o l u t i o n of t e c h n o l o g y , work o r g a n i z a t i o n , u n i o n i z a t i o n and w e l f a r e l e g i s l a t i o n have a l s o been c o n d u c i v e t o 63 e n c o u r a g i n g employment s t a b i l i t y i n i n t e r n a l l a b o u r markets, and c o n c o m i t a n t l y , i n s t a b i l i t y i n e x t e r n a l l a b o u r m arkets. 3 . 3 . i i i Market outcomes The d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r t h a t ensues from d u a l l a b o u r markets has d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y . The e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t b l a c k s , women, and youth a r e o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n the secondary market i s e x p l a i n e d by D o e r i n g e r and P i o r e (1971) by means of the p r o v e r b i a l 'queue' metaphor. Workers a re p e r c e i v e d as queued t o e n t e r the p r i m a r y market ranked a c c o r d i n g t o the c o s t of t r a i n i n g them f o r more or l e s s permanent employment. Race, gender and age f u n c t i o n as i n e x p e n s i v e and c o n v e n i e n t ' s c r e e n s ' f o r d e s i r e a b l e b e h a v i o u r a l t r a i t s l i k e ' r e l i a b i l i t y ' . B l a c k s , women and o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s who t e n d t o b e g i n t h e i r w o r k i n g c a r e e r s i n secondary j o b s may f i n d t h e i r a c c e s s t o pr i m a r y j o b s b l o c k e d , not s i m p l y because they may l a c k the s k i l l s , e d u c a t i o n and b e h a v i o u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , but a l s o because they a r e p e r c e i v e d t o p o s s e s s ' u n s t a b l e work h i s t o r i e s ' . A v i c i o u s c y c l e i s c r e a t e d i n which secondary market e x p e r i e n c e c o n f e r s the sti g m a of ' u n r e l i a b i l i t y ' on workers which employers i n t he p r i m a r y market p e r c e i v e as i n d i c a t i v e of u n d e s i r e a b l e b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h secondary work h a b i t s and l i f e s t y l e s . Thus, i n d u a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s seen as p e r p e t u a t i n g a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g forms of s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y . 64 3 . 3 . i v Concept of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n A l t h o u g h a l l of the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n models re v i e w e d above a r e d i s c e r n i b l e i n d u a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y , D o e r i n g e r and P i o r e (1971) r e l y m a i n l y on the 'employer' and ' s t a t i s t i c a l ' models t o e x p l a i n r a c i a l and gender i n e q u a l i t y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e between d u a l and n e o c l a s s i c a l t r e a t m e n t s of the phenomenon i s t h a t w h i l e b o t h wage and j o b d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c o e x i s t i n a d u a l l a b o u r market s i t u a t i o n , u n l i k e o r t h o d o x t h e o r i e s , the f o c u s i s p r i n c i p a l l y on the l a t t e r . T h i s emphasis on p r e - e n t r y forms p r o v i d e s a more o b j e c t i v e , d y a c h r o n i c measurement of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n than i n d i v i d u a l p r e j u d i c e , and r e v e a l s s e r i o u s shortcomings i n the human c a p i t a l a c c o u n t , i n t h a t v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y s t a t u s may i n v i t e s y s t e m a t i c d e v a l u a t i o n of s k i l l s , c r e d e n t i a l s and human c a p i t a l g e n e r a l l y t h r o u g h employers' a c t u a r i a l assessments. Moreover, another c o n c e p t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i m p l i c i t i n d u a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y , but never e l a b o r a t e d beyond K e r r ' s (1954) a n a l y s i s , i s what c o u l d be c a l l e d ' i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and p r a c t i c e s ' . T h i s embryonic model r e f e r s t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s whereby j o b s t h a t t e c h n i c a l l y can be p e r f ormed i n e i t h e r segment tend t o become ' r o o t e d ' i n t h e secondary market through the e v o l u t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s l i k e s u b c o n t r a c t i n g and union c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Once such a s h i f t i n j o b a l l o c a t i o n o c c u r s , the r e s u l t a n t t e c h n i c a l d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r , i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s become i n e r t , and hence, e x p e n s i v e and d i f f i c u l t t o change. To some e x t e n t t h i s n o t i o n foreshadows a s p e c t s of t h e 65 d e g r a d a t i o n of l a b o u r t h e s i s , and r e p r e s e n t s perhaps the f i r s t h i n t of a concept of ' i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' advanced l a t e r by r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y . 3.3.v C r i t i q u e of d u a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y As Gordon (1972: 52) p r e d i c t e d , d u a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y was t o have a " s h o r t h a l f - l i f e as an i n t e g r a l paradigm i n economics." On the one hand, i t s r e b u t t a l of the as s u m p t i o n of market homogeneity, and emphasis on the s t r u c t u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s on i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e were g r a d u a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the n e o c l a s s i c a l framework, w h i l e on the o t h e r hand, the b u r n i n g q u e s t i o n of s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y i t l e f t u n r e s o l v e d l e d some of the o r i g i n a l d u a l i s t s t o i n t e g r a t e the p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h M a r x i s t p o l i t i c a l economy. The n e o c l a s s i c a l c r i t i q u e of d u a l t h e o r y (see W a c h t e l , 1974; C a i n , 1976), r e c e n t l y r e i t e r a t e d by s o c i o l o g i s t s ( K a l l e b e r g and Sorensen, 1979; Kaufman e t a l . , 1981; Hodson and Kaufman, 1982), p o i n t e d out some s e r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d e f i c i e n c i e s , many of which were a l s o v o i c e d by, but u n c r i t i c a l l y a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o , the emerging r a d i c a l paradigm. Perhaps the c h i e f c r i t i c i s m of the d u a l p e r s p e c t i v e has been i t s i n a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p a r i g o r o u s and s y s t e m a t i c t h e o r e t i c a l model, l e a v i n g the a n a l y s i s a t the l e v e l of t y p o l o g y and taxonomy. "The t h e o r i e s a r e s k e t c h y , vague, and d i v e r s e i f not i n t e r n a l l y c o n f l i c t i n g . D e s c r i p t i o n , n a r r a t i v e s and taxonomies crowd out model development" ( C a i n , 1976: 1221 ). Key c o n c e p t s l i k e 'primary j o b s ' , ' b e h a v i o u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s ' and ' d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' remain l o o s e l y d e f i n e d and i n c o n s i s t e n t l y 6 6 r e l a t e d . An example i s the premium t h a t D o e r i n g e r and P i o r e (1971) p l a c e on ' j o b s t a b i l i t y ' as a s o u r c e of market d i v i s i o n . The problems of measuring j o b s t a b i l i t y which i s as much a s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n as an o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i o n , make the p o s t u l a t e of d u a l market f o r m a t i o n v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s . Another a r e a of c o n t e n t i o n has been the d u a l economy p r o p o s i t i o n or assumption of ' p a r a l l e l i s m ' . Economic d u a l i s m , i t s c r i t i c s a r g u e , m i s r e p r e s e n t s the c o m p l e x i t y of advanced i n d u s t r i a l economies, and the m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of economic s e g m e n t a t i o n . R e l a t i o n s of i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e between f i r m s a l o n e cannot account f o r d u a l f o r m a t i o n , and i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t a d u a l i z e d economic s t r u c t u r e w i l l be m i r r o r e d i n the l a b o u r market. The c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between c o r e and p e r i p h e r y s e c t o r s , good and bad j o b s , and dominant and s u b o r d i n a t e s o c i a l groups has been more o f t e n a s s e r t e d than t h e o r e t i c a l l y d e f i n e d and e m p i r i c a l l y demonstrated. "A d u a l mold cannot be f o r c e d on e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y w i t h o u t any a l l o w a n c e f o r t r a n s i t o r y , anomalous, or r e s i d u a l c a t e g o r i e s . The r e i f i c a t i o n of what a r e r i g h t f u l l y a n a l y t i c c o n s t r u c t s , even when the a n a l y t i c c o n s t r u c t s a r e v a l i d ones, l e a d s t o a s t i f l i n g of t h e o r e t i c a l development and an i n a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a t e new knowledge" (Hodson and Kaufman, 1982: 732). Weak c o n c e p t u a l l i n k a g i n g and i m p r e c i s e c r i t e r i a f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between s e c t o r s and segments has made d u a l t h e o r y s u s c e p t i b l e t o charges of c i r c u l a r i t y . A c u r r e n t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l debate i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e rages over the p r o p r i e t y of combining c a u s a l and outcome v a r i a b l e s t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e independent 67 v a r i a b l e s g e n e r a t e d by d u a l h y p o t h e s e s . 7 C o n f u s i o n r e i g n s over the r e l a t i o n s h i p between j o b and i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c a u s a l outcome v a r i a b l e s i n d e f i n i n g l a b o u r market s e g m e n t a t i o n . T h e o r i e s which b i f u r c a t e the market i n terms of j o b c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s suggest a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous i n t r a s e c t o r a l c o m p o s i t i o n of workers, w h i l e t h e o r i e s which c o n c e i v e d u a l i s m i n terms of i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t e n d t o equate d i c h o t o m i z a t i o n w i t h a d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r by r a c e , e t h n i c i t y and gender. R e s o l v i n g these d i f f i c u l t i e s p r e s e n t s a c l a s s i c d o u b l e - b i n d s i t u a t i o n . F u r t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l r e f i n e m e n t a w a i t s e m p i r i c a l i n p u t , but e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s i s confounded by the p r o b l e m a t i c n a t u r e of t e s t i n g d u a l hypotheses on t h e t e r r a i n of n e o c l a s s i c a l t h e o r y and methodology. In f a c t , the e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e of d u a l i s m t h u s f a r has been r a t h e r i n c o n c l u s i v e . S t u d i e s s u p p o r t i v e of d u a l i s m ( A n d r i s a n i , 1973; Beck e t a l . , 1978; 1980; O s t e r , 1979) have r e s t e d on the dubious grounds a f o r e m e n t i o n e d , w h i l e c o u n t e r v a i l i n g e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t i n g the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of economic and market segmentation has been c o m p i l e d by r e c e n t r e s e a r c h ( B r i d g e s , 1980; Kaufman and Daymont, 1981; W a l l a c e and K a l l e b e r g , 1981; Zucker and R o s e n s t e i n , 1981). 7 An example i s the use of both i n d u s t r i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as f i r m s i z e (a c a u s a l v a r i a b l e ) , and l a b o u r f o r c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as wage l e v e l (an outcome v a r i a b l e ) t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e a d u a l economy h y p o t h e s i s . See Hodson and Kaufman (1981) f o r c r i t i q u e , and Horan e t a l (1981) f o r c o u n t e r - argument . 68 The M a r x i s t c r i t i q u e of d u a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y s i m p l y argues t h a t i t i s an h y p o t h e s i s b e r e f t of an e x p l i c i t t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and h i s t o r i c a l methodology. The d i s t i n c t i o n between p r i m a r y and secondary markets can e a s i l y be i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of c l a s s , c o n f l i c t and s o c i a l change, y e t these c o n c e p t s a r e c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent from the d u a l a n a l y s i s . "The d u a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y , however much i t emphasizes the dynamics of change, does not p r o v i d e an e x p l i c i t a n a l y s i s of c o n f l i c t and i t i s not o r i e n t a t e d toward l o o k i n g f o r t h e s o u r c e s and e f f e c t s of c o n f l i c t i n s o c i e t y " (Gordon, 1972: 8 7 ) . In the p r o c e s s of s a c r i f i c i n g the r i g o r o u s hypotheses of an a b s t r a c t s t a t i c model i n f a v o u r of the s p e c u l a t i v e hypotheses of a more e m p i r i c a l and dynamic c o n c e p t i o n of the l a b o u r market, d u a l t h e o r y f a i l s t o t r a n s c e n d the narrow c o n f i n e s of the n e o c l a s s i c a l paradigm. " I t s most i m p o r t a n t hypotheses a r e e x p l i c i t l y h i s t o r i c a l ; they c o n c e r n t h e dynamics and d i a l e c t i c s of changes i n j o b s , p e o p l e and l a b o u r market o p e r a t i o n s over a p e r i o d of f i f t y or more y e a r s . Most of t h e s e hypotheses have not a r i s e n from h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h however, but have been adduced from l o c a l l a b o u r market i n v e s t i g a t i o n and c r o s s - s e c t i o n a n a l y s i s . The d u a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y suggests a methodology, i n o t h e r words, which i t s p r o p o n e n t s have not been a p p l y i n g i n i t s c o n c e p t i o n " (Gordon, 1972: 52) . From a s o c i o l o g i c a l p o i n t of v i e w , d u a l t h e o r y poses the q u i n t e s s e n t i a l q u e s t i o n of a c o n f l i c t p e r s p e c t i v e — c u i b o n o ? — but h a v i n g done so, never a d e q u a t e l y a d d r e s s e s i t . Whether or not d u a l t h e o r y r e p r e s e n t s a " c o n c e p t u a l p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e ... r a t h e r than ... a t h e o r e t i c a l d e s t i n a t i o n " (Beck e t a l . , 69 1980), i t marks a t r a n s i t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n i n the p a r a d i g m a t i c s h i f t from an i n d i v i d u a l - b a s e d , m a r k e t - c e n t r e d , n e o c l a s s i c a l view of the l a b o u r market, t o a c l a s s - b a s e d , p r o d u c t i o n - c e n t r e d c o n f l i c t a pproach. The next two c h a p t e r s p r e s e n t a c r i t i c a l r e v i e w of r a d i c a l o r c l a s s c o n f l i c t l a b o u r market t h e o r y . 70 Chapter 4 The D i a l e c t i c s of E x p l o i t a t i o n and D i s c r i m i n a t i o n ; R a d i c a l Labour Market Theory "Whereas the w o r k i n g c l a s s sees i t s e l f e x p l o i t e d as a c l a s s and comes f a c e t o f a c e w i t h i t s e x p l o i t e r c a p i t a l , the c a p i t a l i s t e x p l o i t a t i o n of b l a c k s i s v e i l e d by r a c i a l o p p r e s s i o n . As a r e s u l t , they a r e caught up i n a t w o - f o l d c o n s c i o u s n e s s : as a c l a s s and as a r a c e , each of which o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t s the o t h e r w i t h o u t a f f o r d i n g a s y n t h e s i s " (Sivanandan, 1982: 7 5 ) . 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Over the p a s t decade or so a M a r x i s t p o l i t i c a l economy model of the l a b o u r market has emerged from the c o n f l u e n c e of t h r e e d i s p a r a t e t h e o r e t i c a l t r a d i t i o n s . The nascent r a d i c a l or ' c l a s s c o n f l i c t ' paradigm draws e c l e c t i c a l l y from ' i n d i v i d u a l / j o b s k i l l ' , 'group power' and ' c l a s s s t r a t e g y ' approaches t o the l a b o u r m a r k e t . 1 Each type of l a b o u r market t h e o r y c o n c e i v e s the c o n c e p t s of agency, s t r u c t u r e , f o r m a t i o n and outcomes from d i f f e r i n g , but o f t e n complementary s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . F i r s t , n e o c l a s s i c a l and d u a l l a b o u r market models are c o n c erned w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l and j o b - s p e c i f i c s k i l l s t h a t workers b r i n g t o exchange, and how t h e s e d e t e r m i n e market outcomes, and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , market f o r m a t i o n . As a r u l e , the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r r a c i a l c o n f l i c t p r o v i d e d by t h e s e t h e o r i e s tends t o be based on i n d i v i d u a l m o t i v e s f o r p r e - e n t r y and p o s t - e n t r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i n f l u e n c e d by s t r u c t u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l 1 T h i s i s a s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of F i n d l a y ' s (1983) t y p o l o g y . 71 c o n s t r a i n t s . 2 Second, 'group power' ap p r o a c h e s , d e r i v e d from the Weberian t r a d i t i o n of l a b o u r market a n a l y s i s , f o c u s on the a b i l i t y of groups of workers t o promote t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s through u n i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . D i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s assumed t o be a form of d o m i n a t i o n a r i s i n g from i n t e r - g r o u p c o m p e t i t i o n over the s o c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of j o b s , wages, and hence income. Labour market s e g m e n t a t i o n , s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s t r u e d as the consequences of c o l l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y t o monopolize s k i l l s and j o b s by e x e r c i s i n g what the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s t s c a l l ' b a r g a i n i n g power' (Dunlop, 1944; Ross, 1948; K e r r , 1954), o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o r i s t s r e f e r t o as ' o c c u p a t i o n a l power' (Form and Huber, 1976) or 'worker power' ( K a l l e b e r g e t a l . , 1981), and the neo-Weberians d e s i g n a t e ' m o b i l i t y c l o s u r e ' (Giddens, 1973) or ' s o c i a l c l o s u r e ' ( P a r k i n , 1979). T h i r d , M a r x i s t p o l i t i c a l economy has r e c e n t l y been r e j u v e n a t e d by l a b o u r p r o c e s s t h e o r y (e. g., Braverman, 1974; Stone, 1974; M a r g l i n , 1974; Burawoy, 1979; Clawson, 1980), and extended i n t o l a b o u r market a n a l y s i s by r a d i c a l segmentation t h e o r y ( R e i c h e t a l . , 1973; Edwards, 1979; Gordon et a l . , 1982). For ' c l a s s s t r a t e g y ' t h e o r i e s the s t a r t i n g p o i n t i s not an a b s t r a c t i n d i v i d u a l or m a r k e t p l a c e ' s u i g e n e r i s ' , but the c a p i t a l i s t 'mode of p r o d u c t i o n ' , c o n c e i v e d as an h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c s e t of s o c i a l as w e l l as t e c h n i c a l r e l a t i o n s . S o c i a l 2 F o l l o w i n g C a i n (1976), I am i n c l u d i n g d u a l t h e o r y i n t h i s type because, a l t h o u g h i t c h a l l e n g e s n e o c l a s s i c a l economic t h e o r y , i t f a i l s t o t r a n s c e n d the paradigm. 72 r e l a t i o n s a r e p e r c e i v e d not merely as f r e e exchange between or among i n d i v i d u a l s , or c o m p e t i t i o n between or among groups, but as u n e q u a l , e x p l o i t a t i v e and f u n d a m e n t a l l y a n t a g o n i s t i c c l a s s r e l a t i o n s . Labour market r e l a t i o n s a r e t h e r e f o r e c l a s s r e l a t i o n s , and market segmentation and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n the h i s t o r i c a l outcomes of c l a s s s t r u g g l e and i n t r a - c l a s s c o n f l i c t . C l a s s s t r u g g l e a t the p o i n t of p r o d u c t i o n t a k e s the form of employer s t r a t e g i e s t o c o n t r o l the l a b o u r p r o c e s s v e r s u s worker s t r a t e g i e s t o r e s i s t c o n t r o l . R a c i a l c o n f l i c t tends t o be c o n c e i v e d as ' i n t r a - c l a s s ' (between or among c l a s s f r a c t i o n s ) c o n f l i c t r e p r o d u c e d by employers use of 'impera et d i v i d e ' t a c t i c s t o m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l and ensure c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . Each t r a d i t i o n h i g h l i g h t s i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , but ta k e n i n d i v i d u a l l y , none i s a b l e t o account f o r how r a c i a l c o n f l i c t a f f e c t s and i s a f f e c t e d by, the s t r u c t u r e s , modes of f o r m a t i o n , and outcomes i n the l a b o u r market. The s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s between and among i n d i v i d u a l s , groups and c l a s s e s f o r i n s t a n c e , remain t h e o r e t i c a l l y u n s p e c i f i e d . R a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y a t t e m p t s t o i n t e g r a t e n e o c l a s s i c a l n o t i o n s of s k i l l and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w i t h Weberian n o t i o n s of c o m p e t i t i o n and a u t h o r i t y , and M a r x i s t n o t i o n s of c l a s s and e x p l o i t a t i o n by means of an h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s of c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n the w o r k p l a c e , as i t mediates and i s mediated by, i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t s i n the l a b o u r market. T h i s s y n t h e t i c ' c l a s s c o n f l i c t ' p e r s p e c t i v e i s r e p r e s e n t e d here by a t r i o of t h e o r i e s which d i f f e r somewhat i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the l a b o u r market and r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , but ten d t o share a M a r x i s t 73 c o n c e p t i o n of c l a s s , and an emphasis on the h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s of c l a s s s t r u g g l e , r a c i a l c o n f l i c t and the p r o c e s s e s of l a b o u r market segmentation and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . The ' r a d i c a l d u a l ' , ' r a d i c a l segmented' and ' s p l i t ' l a b o u r market t h e o r i e s r e v i e w e d i n s e c t i o n s 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4 r e s p e c t i v e l y , each i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n t f o c i of s t r u g g l e as the c l a s s dynamics r e p r o d u c i n g and b e i n g r e p r o d u c e d by, r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . The concept of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r e a p p e a r s i n a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s form, i n the c o n t e x t of the d i a l e c t i c s of ' r e s i s t a n c e and c o n t r o l ' i n t h e l a b o u r p r o c e s s , and 'di s p l a c e m e n t and r e a c t i o n ' i n the l a b o u r market. R a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n may have become l e s s o v e r t , or i n t e n t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r i n the l a b o u r market, but i t has p r o b a b l y not d e c l i n e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y as W i l s o n (1978) a n t i c i p a t e d . I n s t e a d , r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r i e s suggest t h a t i t has become ' i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d ' , i n g r a i n e d i n the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the l a b o u r p r o c e s s , and i n the s t r u c t u r e and f o r m a t i o n of the l a b o u r market i t s e l f under monopoly c a p i t a l i s m . A c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y i s p r e s e n t e d i n s e c t i o n 4.5, h i g h l i g h t i n g the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of each approach t o r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . F i n a l l y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c l a s s s t r u g g l e and r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n s e c t i o n 4.6 i n terms of the ' d i a l e c t i c s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' . R a c i a l c o n f l i c t , i t i s argued, tends t o a r i s e a t the i n t e r f a c e of c l a s s r e l a t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t i o n and d o m i n a t i o n , and group r e l a t i o n s of c o m p e t i t i o n and d o m i n a t i o n . C o n c r e t e r a c i a l c o n f l i c t s a r e aways i n t e r - g r o u p 74 by d e f i n i t i o n , but may a l s o assume e i t h e r i n t e r - c l a s s or i n t r a - c l a s s forms, depending on the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s of market, s t a t e , 3 and c l a s s 4 f o r m a t i o n . 4.2 R a d i c a l d u a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y A l t h o u g h developed i n B r i t a i n as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r r e g i o n a l economic d i s p a r i t i e s , and c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y preceded by the o t h e r r a d i c a l models, Friedman's (1977) t h e o r y of ' c e n t r e - p e r i p h e r y r e l a t i o n s ' has become an exemplar of the c l a s s c o n f l i c t paradigm. I t combines i n s i g h t s from i n d i v i d u a l / j o b s k i l l , group power and c l a s s s t r a t e g y approaches i n t o a t h e o r y which resembles a r a d i c a l v e r s i o n of D o e r i n g e r and P i o r e (1971). T h i s h e r i t a g e makes i t an a p p r o p r i a t e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y , and a c c o u n t s f o r i t s t h e o r e t i c a l importance as w e l l as i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . 4 . 2 . i Worker r e s i s t a n c e Friedman (1977) b e g i n s from a c l a s s s t r a t e g y p e r s p e c t i v e a n a l y z i n g c l a s s s t r u g g l e a t the p o i n t of p r o d u c t i o n , but the premium p l a c e d on the r o l e of worker r e s i s t a n c e t o e x p l o i t a t i o n l e a d s t o c o n c l u s i o n s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h group power t h e o r i e s . "Worker r e s i s t a n c e must be seen as a f o r c e ... which a f f e c t s c a p i t a l i s t development, r a t h e r than s i m p l y a f o r c e which may e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n " (Friedman, 1977: 49). 3 See Chapter F i v e . 4 See Chapter S i x 75 The homogenization of wages and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s p r e d i c t e d by Marx and a s s e r t e d by Braverman (1974) has never a c t u a l l y o c c u r r e d under monopoly c a p i t a l i s m a c c o r d i n g t o Friedman (1977). D i f f e r e n t i a l s based on r a c e , e t h n i c i t y , sex and age p e r s i s t , he a r g u e s , due t o a c o m b i n a t i o n of r e l a t e d f a c t o r s ; c u l t u r a l customs, the s i z e of the i n d u s t r i a l r e s e r v e army, and most c r u c i a l l y , worker r e s i s t a n c e . "Unequal worker r e s i s t a n c e and s t r a t e g i c m a n a g e r i a l c o u n t e r p r e s s u r e i n the l a b o u r p r o c e s s g e n e r a t e a p a t t e r n of d i s p a r i t y among workers which has been a fundamental f e a t u r e of c a p i t a l i s m a t l e a s t s i n c e t h e b e g i n i n g s of Modern I n d u s t r y " ( I b i d : 108). Labour market segmentation and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n a r e t h e r e f o r e seen as the h i s t o r i c a l outcomes of the uneven development of worker r e s i s t a n c e t o e x p l o i t a t i o n i n the form of d o m i n a t i o n or c o n t r o l i n the w o r k p l a c e . Friedman (1977: 56) i d e n t i f i e s two major t r e n d s i n worker r e s i s t a n c e s i n c e the advent of monopoly c a p i t a l i s m t o augment t h i s argument. F i r s t , w i t h the e x p a n s i o n of u n i o n i z a t i o n worker r e s i s t a n c e has become i n c r e a s i n g l y c e n t r a l i z e d , i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d and l e s s m i l i t a n t . Second, w i t h t h e post-war s h r i n k i n g of the r e s e r v e army, combined w i t h the growth i n f i r m s i z e and i n t e r n a l l a b o u r m arkets, worker r e s i s t a n c e has been r e a s o n a b l y s u c c e s s f u l i n r a i s i n g r e a l wages and i m p r o v i n g w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . U n i o n i z a t i o n has l e d t o c o o p t a t i o n , a t l e a s t t o the e x t e n t of a t a c i t a c c e p t a n c e of c a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s as embodied i n the r o l e of ' p o l i c i n g ' c o l l e c t i v e agreements. Moreover, o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r i s c l e a r l y i m p l i c a t e d i n l a b o u r market d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 76 "In p a r t the a t t i t u d e towards women, u n s k i l l e d workers and immigrants r e f l e c t s deep s o c i a l p r e j u d i c e s , but i n p a r t i t r e f l e c t s a b a s i c economic m o t i v e t h a t has u n d e r l i n e d much t r a d e u n i o n a c t i v i t y " ( F r i e d man, 1977: 75) . 4 . 2 . i i Employer s t r a t e g i e s The p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n s of management a r e ' c o o r d i n a t i o n ' of p r o d u c t i o n and ' c o n t r o l ' of p r o d u c t i o n , t h e l a t t e r d e f i n e d as the ' e x e r c i s e of a u t h o r i t y over workers' ( I b i d : 7 7 ) . C o n t r o l , Friedman n o t e s , i s an a m b i v a l e n t n o t i o n p e c u l i a r t o c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n . W h i l e employers purchase l a b o u r power and the r i g h t t o e x p l o i t i t and i t s p r o d u c t s , t h e i r ' a b s o l u t e c o n t r o l ' i s h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n s t r a i n e d by the d i c t a t e s of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n and the degree of worker r e s i s t a n c e ( ' r e l a t i v e c o n t r o l ' ) . Management, as he sees i t , i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h two a l t e r n a t i v e approaches t o c o n t r o l of the w o r k p l a c e . They can choose e i t h e r c o e r c i v e or a d a p t i v e c o n t r o l s which he c a l l s ' D i r e c t C o n t r o l ' and ' R e s p o n s i b l e Autonomy' r e s p e c t i v e l y . B oth s t r a t e g i e s a re e f f e c t i v e w i t h i n l i m i t s , and have been a p p l i e d t hroughout the h i s t o r i c a l c l a s s s t r u g g l e t o d i f f e r e n t groups of w o r k e r s . D i r e c t c o n t r o l has assumed many forms from the d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n of the e a r l y e n t r e p r e n e u r , t o d e s p o t i c foremen, r e g r e s s i v e p i e c e - r a t e s , machine p a c i n g and s c i e n t i f i c management. A l l r e p r e s e n t c o e r c i v e a t t e m p t s t o overcome ' s o l d i e r i n g ' (work slowdowns) under c o n d i t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and weakly o r g a n i z e d r e s i s t a n c e . T a y l o r i s m , p r o moting what Braverman (1974) c a l l e d t h e ' s e p a r a t i o n of c o n c e p t i o n from e x e c u t i o n ' , r e p r e s e n t s the epitome o f d i r e c t c o n t r o l s t r a t e g i e s f o r Friedman. However, s c i e n t i f i c management 77 he c l a i m s , was l i m i t e d by i t s own c o n t r a d i c t i o n s which produced i n f l e x i b l e c o n t r o l . By e x t e n d i n g the d e t a i l e d d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r , d e s k i l l i n g and r e d u c i n g worker autonomy, i t had the o p p o s i t e e f f e c t t o t h a t i n t e n d e d ; worker d i s c o n t e n t and s o l i d a r i t y were m a g n i f i e d . W h i l e workers were p o o r l y o r g a n i z e d and t h e r anks of the r e s e r v e army were s w o l l e n , d i r e c t c o n t r o l was a p r o f i t a b l e s t r a t e g y , but as t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s changed under monopoly c a p i t a l i s m more f l e x i b l e s t r a t e g i e s were needed. In the p o s t - 1945 e x p a n s i o n a r y p e r i o d of monopoly c a p i t a l i s m , i n c r e a s i n g l y o r g a n i z e d worker r e s i s t a n c e a l o n g w i t h the growth i n f i r m s i z e and market power, and g r e a t e r f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e s made l o n g - r u n c o r p o r a t e p l a n n i n g and r e s p o n s i b l e autonomy the f a v o u r e d approaches. The l a t t e r r e p r e s e n t s s t r a t e g i e s t o i n s t i l l the same l o y a l t y and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h company g o a l s i n manual w o r k e r s , t h a t were p r e v i o u s l y the b e h a v i o u r a l t r a i t s of mental or w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s . The examples Friedman c i t e s a r e the 'human r e l a t i o n s ' s c h o o l s of i n d u s t r i a l s o c i o l o g y a t H a r v a r d and C h i c a g o , and the B r i t i s h T a v i s t o c k I n s t i t u t e . (Recent ' q u a l i t y of work' and 'job e n r i c h m e n t ' s t u d i e s would no doubt a l s o f a l l under t h i s r u b r i c ) . P r o p onents of t h e s e approaches encouraged management t o improve w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and r e l i n q u i s h a degree of c o n t r o l by r e o r g a n i z i n g work t o i n c r e a s e worker autonomy and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , w h i l e a t the same time d i m i n i s h i n g worker s o l i d a r i t y , and m a i n t a i n i n g s t e a d y p r o f i t s . The c l a s s i c example i s t h e 'group assembly' concept i n t r o d u c e d i n the Swedish auto p l a n t d u r i n g the 1960s. But r e s p o n s i b l e autonomy, Friedman 78 a l l o w s , remains • an i d e a l approach t h a t o n l y c o n c e a l s e x p l o i t a t i o n , and i s o n l y f e a s i b l e w h i l e the f i r m i s p r o f i t a b l e . D u r i n g p e r i o d s of r e c e s s i o n the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s q u i c k l y become v i s i b l e i n l o n g - r u n s t r a t e g i e s t o f o s t e r company l o y a l t y t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r i l y p r e d i c a t e d on j o b s e c u r i t y . 4 . 2 . i i i C e n t r e - p e r i p h e r y r e l a t i o n s The c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n h e r e n t i n b o t h management s t r a t e g i e s i s t h e i r i n f l e x i b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o the c h a n g i n g economic and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c l i m a t e and forms of worker r e s i s t a n c e . N e i t h e r s t r a t e g y a l o n e i s an a p p r o p r i a t e method of c o n t r o l l i n g p r o d u c t i o n i f i t i s a p p l i e d t o a l l workers u n e q u i v o c a l l y . I n s t e a d Friedman (1977) c o n t e n d s , " s p l i t t i n g workers i n t o v a r i o u s groups and a p p l y i n g d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of m a n a g e r i a l s t r a t e g i e s toward t h e s e groups r e p r e s e n t s a major method whereby f l e x i b i l i t y i s g a i n e d , and the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n i t s e l f i s m a i n t a i n e d " ( I b i d : 108). Management d i s t i n g u i s h e s between ' c e n t r e ' and ' p e r i p h e r y ' c a t e g o r i e s of workers i n i t s l a b o u r f o r c e , and a p p l i e s r e s p o n s i b l e autonomy approaches t o the former, and d i r e c t c o n t r o l t o the l a t t e r . T h i s b i f u r c a t i o n of the l a b o u r f o r c e i n t o c e n t r e - p e r i p h e r y r e l a t i o n s , i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l l a b o u r m arkets, " a r i s e s out of s t r u g g l e , out of a c o m b i n a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t i a l worker r e s i s t a n c e and m a n a g e r i a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r c o u n t e r - p r e s s u r e . I t i s not s i m p l y a f u n c t i o n of a t t r i b u t e s such as d i f f e r e n c e s i n r a c e , sex, c o l o u r , n a t i o n a l i t y or s k i l l s " ( I b i d : 117). C e n t r e workers t h e r e f o r e tend t o be t h o s e who a r e l e a s t e x pendable; s t r o n g l y o r g a n i z e d w o r k e r s , those w i t h s c a r c e t e c h n i c a l or c r a f t s k i l l s , and t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n s u p e r v i s o r y 79 p o s i t i o n s . T h i s amounts to an i n t e r n a l labour market of s k i l l e d , white, male n a t i o n a l s who enjoy more autonomy at work, higher wages, and gr e a t e r job s e c u r i t y . The e x t e r n a l labour market of p e r i p h e r y workers comprises the u n s k i l l e d , semi- s k i l l e d , lower c l e r i c a l , women, b l a c k s and immigrants who " w i l l g e n e r a l l y be p e r i p h e r a l l a r g e l y because of the lack of s o l i d a r i t y with them on the part of male, white n a t i v e workers, r e f l e c t i n g g eneral p r e j u d i c e i n s o c i e t y " ( I b i d ; 111). C e n t r e - p e r i p h e r y r e l a t i o n s between firms of d i f f e r e n t monopoly power ( s u b c o n t r a c t i n g ) , and between c o u n t r i e s of d i f f e r i n g economic wealth (unequal exchange), can a l s o be viewed as s t r a t e g i e s f o r i n c r e a s i n g managerial f l e x i b i l i t y to accommodate o r g a n i z e d worker r e s i s t a n c e ( I b i d : Chaps. 8,9). 4.2.iv Concept of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n T y p i c a l of many M a r x i s t a n a l y s e s , the concept df d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s i m p l i c i t i n r a d i c a l d u a l labour theory. Race and other a s c r i p t i v e group a t t r i b u t e s remain exogenous to c l a s s s t r u c t u r e , but i n c o n t r a s t , not to c l a s s s t r u g g l e . Friedman i s c r i t i c a l of both labour process t h e o r i e s that ignore c l a s s s t r u g g l e , and ' c o n s p i r a t o r i a l ' labour segmentation t h e o r i e s that p e r c e i v e i n c r e a s i n g s t r a t i f i c a t i o n under monopoly c a p i t a l i s m as perpetuated by con s c i o u s employer s t r a t e g i e s to d i v i d e the working c l a s s . "Systematic d i v i s i o n s on the b a s i s of sex, rac e , s k i l l or other e d u c a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s not only predate Monopoly C a p i t a l i s m , but a l s o they predate c a p i t a l i s m . C e r t a i n l y t h e r e was no golden age of harmony before c a p i t a l i s m among people from whom s u r p l u s product was e x t r a c t e d " ( I b i d : 114). 80 The f a i l u r e of c l a s s s t r a t e g y t h e o r i e s he s u g g e s t s , i s i n u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g the s t r e n g t h of worker r e s i s t a n c e which has always been unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d . W h i l e employers do encourage and t a k e advantage of r a c i a l d i v i s i o n s i n the l a b o u r market, th e r e p r o d u c t i o n of r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y t h r o u g h the o p e r a t i o n of a d u a l i z e d market s h o u l d be comprehended i n terms of c e n t r e - p e r i p h e r y r e l a t i o n s . For Friedman (1977: 5 4 ) , the key t o e x p l a i n i n g t h i s dynamic, and t h e r e f o r e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i s the c o n t r a d i c t o r y n a t u r e of worker r e s i s t a n c e which a c t s as a "double-edged sword". On the one hand, workers r e s i s t m a n a g e r i a l c o n t r o l , w h i l e on the o t h e r they endeavour t o p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s from r e s e r v e army p r e s s u r e s . T h i s b a s i c c o n t r a d i c t i o n between what L e n i n c a l l e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y and t r a d e union c o n s c i o u s n e s s , r e s u l t s i n the r e s i s t a n c e of o r g a n i z e d groups of p r i v i l e g e d ( c e n t r e ) w o r k e r s t a k i n g the form of b o t h p r e - e n t r y and p o s t - e n t r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t o t h e r f i r m s , r e g i o n s and c o u n t r i e s . "The r e l a t i o n between c e n t r e and p e r i p h e r y workers i s t h a t c e n t r e workers a r e a b l e t o e x c l u d e o t h e r s from c e r t a i n t a s k s ; they a r e a b l e t o p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s , i n the s h o r t - r u n , from the r e s e r v e army of l a b o u r ; they a r e a b l e ( w i t h m a n a g e r i a l encouragement), t o d i v i d e the w o r k i n g c l a s s i n t o non-competing groups" ( I b i d : 129) . T h i s t r a n s l a t e s i n t o a n o t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as group b e h a v i o u r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n i n t e r n a l l a b o u r market s t r u c t u r e and f o r m a t i o n , and f o r g e d i n the c l a s s s t r u g g l e between C a p i t a l and a l a b o u r a r i s t o c r a c y . C r u d e l y s t a t e d , j o b s t a b i l i t y and b e h a v i o u r a l t r a i t s remain c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s of Friedman's 81 i n t e r n a l l a b o u r market, but a r e superseded as c a u s a l f a c t o r s i n d u a l i z a t i o n by worker r e s i s t a n c e , s h i f t i n g the p r i m a r y source of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ( s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r a M a r x i s t t h e o r y ) from t h e employer t o p r i v i l e g e d w o r k e r s . 4.3 R a d i c a l segmented l a b o u r market t h e o r y R a d i c a l segmented or ' l a b o u r s e g m e n t a t i o n ' t h e o r y i s the i n f l u e n t i a l work of s e v e r a l d u a l l a b o u r market t h e o r i s t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s who g r a v i t a t e d towards a M a r x i s t p e r s p e c t i v e d u r i n g the 1970s ( R e i c h et a l . , 1973; Edwards, 1975; 1979; R e i c h , 1981; Gordon et a l . , 1982). A l t h o u g h i t borrows elements from both i n d i v i d u a l s k i l l and group power t r a d i t i o n s , r a d i c a l segmented l a b o u r market t h e o r y i s a c l a s s s t r a t e g y approach par e x c e l l e n c e . I t s i n t e l l e c t u a l l i n e a g e may be more pronounced, but i t tends t o d e p a r t from Friedman (1977) more i n emphasis than s u b s t a n c e ; t o complement r a t h e r than c o n t r a d i c t . In the most complete statement of the t h e o r y Edwards (1979: 17) l i k e Friedman, d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the ' c o o r d i n a t i o n ' of p r o d u c t i o n and i t s ' c o n t r o l ' ; the l a t t e r i n v o l v i n g c o e r c i o n w h i l e the former need n o t . L i k e Braverman (1974) however, he n o t e s t h a t c o o r d i n a t i o n under c a p i t a l i s m n e c e s s a r i l y assumes a 'top-down' form, and hence the d i s t i n c t i o n i s one of degree r a t h e r than k i n d . The s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the f i r m he equates w i t h the "system of c o n t r o l " , or the manner i n which the " d i r e c t i o n of work t a s k s , e v a l u a t i o n of worker performance, and d i s c i p l i n e or reward a r e c o o r d i n a t e d " (Edwards, 1979: 18). Edwards' f o c u s i s on the system of c o n t r o l and how i t e v o l v e s from the h i s t o r i c a l c l a s s s t r u g g l e a t the p o i n t of p r o d u c t i o n . 82 4 . 3 . i The system of c o n t r o l For Edwards, c o n t r o l i s the p r i m a r y f e a t u r e of c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n , and t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y n a t u r e of c a p i t a l i s m i s i t s a b i l i t y t o r e s t r u c t u r e the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the l a b o u r p r o c e s s i n o r d e r t o muzzle worker r e s i s t a n c e and m a i n t a i n c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . T h i s ' r e s t r u c t u r i n g ' p r o c e s s i s c o n t i n g e n t on the s i z e of the f i r m , the type of p r o d u c t i o n , market c o n d i t i o n s and the l e v e l of worker r e s i s t a n c e . D u r i n g n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o m p e t i t i v e c a p i t a l i s m the predominant system was ' s i m p l e c o n t r o l ' , the d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n of workers by o w n e r - o p e r a t o r s ( ' e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c o n t r o l ' ) , or t h e i r foremen ( ' h i e r a r c h i c a l c o n t r o l ' ) . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s i m p l e c o n t r o l was g r a d u a l l y undermined by the mutual i n c r e a s e i n the s c a l e and c o m p l e x i t y of the f i r m , and the o r g a n i z a t i o n of worker r e s i s t a n c e . W hile e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e s l i k e w e l f a r e c a p i t a l i s m , s c i e n t i f i c management and company un i o n s throughout the f i r s t h a l f of the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , the 'core' f i r m s of monopoly c a p i t a l d e v e l o p e d more s o p h i s t i c a t e d systems of ' s t r u c t u r a l c o n t r o l ' t o s u b j u g a t e worker r e s i s t a n c e . The n o t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l c o n t r o l r e c o g n i z e s what r e s p o n s i b l e autonomy cannot; the system of c o n t r o l has been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the t e c h n i c a l and/or s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of work, making i t more d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y w i t h the r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . The t h r e e main systems of c o n t r o l a c c o r d i n g t o Edwards ( 1 9 7 9 ) — s i m p l e , t e c h n i c a l and b u r e a u c r a t i c — c o r r e s p o n d r o u g h l y t o p r o g r e s s i v e s t a g e s i n the development of the c a p i t a l i s t mode 83 of p r o d u c t i o n , but s i n c e t h a t development has been uneven, a l t e r n a t i v e forms have tended t o c o e x i s t w i t h i n the g e n e r a l h i s t o r i c a l t r e n d s . Simple c o n t r o l p e r s i s t s i n the c o m p e t i t i v e p e r i p h e r y s e c t o r s of the economy, w h i l e v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s of s t r u c t u r a l c o n t r o l a r e p r a c t i s e d i n the monopoly s e c t o r s . The c r i t e r i o n i s the same; accommodating worker r e s i s t a n c e t o ensure c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . 4. 3 . i i S t r u c t u r a l c o n t r o l 4 . 3 . i i . a T e c h n i c a l c o n t r o l The concept of t e c h n i c a l c o n t r o l acknowledges Braverman's (1974) a s s e r t i o n t h a t s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y a r e i m p l i c a t e d i n the r e p r o d u c t i o n of r e l a t i o n s of d o m i n a t i o n i n the w o r k p l a c e . " T e c h n i c a l c o n t r o l i n v o l v e s d e s i g n i n g machinery and p l a n n i n g the f l o w of work t o m i n i m i z e the problem of t r a n s f o r m i n g l a b o u r power i n t o l a b o u r , as w e l l as t o maxmize the p u r e l y p h y s i c a l l y based p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a c h i e v i n g e f f i c i e n c i e s . Thus a s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n , the i n h e r e n t c l a s s n a t u r e of c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n i s added t o the e v o l u t i o n of t e c h n o l o g y " (Edwards, 1979: 112). I t i s r e l a t e d t o , but d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from machine p a c i n g , n u m e r i c a l c o n t r o l , and the v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s of s c i e n t i f i c management which may i n c r e a s e the e x p l o i t a t i o n of l a b o u r w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y t r a n s f o r m i n g the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n as a whole. The example Edwards (1979: 117) c i t e s i s c o n t i n u o u s - f l o w p r o d u c t i o n f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d i n the meatpacking i n d u s t r y , and l a t e r i n t r o d u c e d i n t o a u t o m o b i l e p r o d u c t i o n by Henry F o r d . 84 Each system of c o n t r o l i n v a r i a b l y c r e a t e s i t s own c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . The r o u t i n i z a t i o n of work homogenized the work f o r c e and s o c i a l i z e d the l a b o u r p r o c e s s , s h i f t i n g the l o c u s of worker r e s i s t a n c e from the i n d i v i d u a l w o r k p l a c e t o the e n t i r e f i r m . T e c h n i c a l c o n t r o l t h e r e f o r e h e l p e d f o s t e r the p r e c o n d i t i o n s f o r i n d u s t r i a l (as opposed t o c r a f t ) u n i o n i z a t i o n , by i n t e g r a t i n g b o t h the l a b o u r f o r c e and the p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s of each i n d u s t r y . W h i l e i n c r e a s i n g l y u s e f u l f o r c o n t r o l l i n g u n o r g a n i z e d , n o n - p r o d u c t i o n workers (e. g. C l e r i c a l ) , i t became l e s s e f f e c t i v e i n accommodating o r g a n i z e d r e s i s t a n c e from p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s . 4 . 3 . i i . b B u r e a u c r a t i c c o n t r o l S i n c e the p o s t - 1945 p e r i o d of monopoly c a p i t a l i s m a new form of s t r u c t u r a l c o n t r o l has e v o l v e d a l o n g s i d e t e c h n i c a l forms t o m i t i g a t e t h e i r v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o o r g a n i z e d r e s i s t a n c e . B u r e a u c r a t i c c o n t r o l , Edwards c o n t e n d s , was d e v i s e d i n the p u b l i c and c o r p o r a t e b u r e a u c r a c i e s and then a p p l i e d t o the p r o d u c t i o n sphere w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s . "In i t s most fundamental a s p e c t , b u r e a u c r a t i c c o n t r o l i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d the e x e r c i s e of h i e r a r c h i c a l power w i t h i n the f i r m . The d e f i n i t i o n and d i r e c t i o n of work t a s k s , the e v a l u a t i o n of worker p e r f o r m a n c e s , and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of rewards and i m p o s i t i o n of punishments a l l came t o depend upon e s t a b l i s h e d r u l e s and p r o c e d u r e s , e l a b o r a t e l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y l a i d o u t " ( I b i d : 131). The e f f e c t s of b u r e a u c r a t i c c o n t r o l on the l a b o u r f o r c e a r e e x a c t l y the o p p o s i t e of t e c h n i c a l c o n t r o l . E x t e n s i v e h i e r a r c h i e s of j o b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s s p e c i f y i n g wages, j o b autonomy, s u p e r v i s o r y power, s e c u r i t y and advancement g r e a t l y 85 enhance s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , now based on s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s r a t h e r than d i f f e r e n c e s i n s k i l l or a b i l i t y t o r e s i s t . In sum, i t promotes c o m p e t i t i o n among workers and " e s t a b l i s h e s the a p p a r a t u s f o r the employer's model ... of the i n t e r n a l l a b o u r market" (Edwards, 1979: 183). L i k e r e s p o n s i b l e autonomy, b u r e a u c r a t i c c o n t r o l aims at i n c u l c a t i n g company l o y a l t y and b o u r g e o i s v a l u e s i n the l a b o u r f o r c e . The l o n g - r u n n a t u r e of the system a l s o r e q u i r e s j o b s e c u r i t y and c r e a t e s the same problems f o r m a n a g e r i a l f l e x i b i l i t y . P r o d u c t i v i t y s u f f e r s , and i n c r e a s i n g 'work t o r u l e ' and w i l d c a t r e s i s t a n c e t e s t i f y t o the f a i l u r e t o c o n c e a l e x p l o i t a t i o n . V a r i a b l e c o s t s t e n d t o become more f i x e d , p r o m p t i n g m u l t i n a t i o n a l s t o move o p e r a t i o n s t o cheap l a b o u r c o u n t r i e s . And f i n a l l y , the t r a d e - o f f between j o b s e c u r i t y and m a n a g e r i a l f l e x i b i l i t y has i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n , t r a n s f o r m i n g the c o r p o r a t i o n and o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r i n t o ' s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ' , and t h e r e b y d i s p l a c i n g the c l a s s s t r u g g l e over c o n t r o l of p r o d u c t i o n i n t o n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l a r e n a s . Hence, b u r e a u c r a t i c c o n t r o l , Edwards (1979: 162) c o n c l u d e s , has r e s o l v e d the problem of c o n t r o l a t the l e v e l of the f i r m o n l y a t the r i s k of r e u n i t i n g i t w i t h the c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . 4 . 3 . i i i Segmented markets and d i v i d e d workers I f the h i s t o r i c a l t r e n d d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was toward the h o m o g e n i z a t i o n of l a b o u r , t h e n , Edwards (1979: 163) a r g u e s , the dominant tendency of monopoly c a p i t a l i s m has been the ' r e d i v i s i o n ' of the w o r k i n g c l a s s i n t o ' e nduring f r a c t i o n s ' 86 t h r o u g h the o p e r a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , segmented l a b o u r m a rkets. He r e j e c t s the i n d i v i d u a l / j o b s k i l l and group power e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r market segmentation based on e i t h e r monopoly buyers of l a b o u r power ( m o n o p s o n i s t s ) , or monopoly s e l l e r s ( u n i o n s ) as c o n t r a d i c t o r y and i m p l a u s i b l e (Edwards, 1979: 164- 165). I n s t e a d , Edwards m a i n t a i n s t h a t s e g m e n t a t i o n has o c c u r r e d not through exchange r e l a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s ( t h e buying and s e l l i n g of l a b o u r power), but through t h e d i f f e r e n t systems of c o n t r o l i n the l a b o u r p r o c e s s (the consumption of l a b o u r power). R e f e r r i n g t o d u a l l a b o u r market r e s e a r c h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , he t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e d i s t i n c t market segments, each a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r market s t r u c t u r e s and outcomes, and a predominant system of c o n t r o l . "Thus the fundamental b a s i s f o r d i v i s i o n i s t o be found i n the w o r k p l a c e , not i n t h e l a b o u r market; so t o d e f i n e the t h r e e market segments we now have a s i n g l e c r i t e r i o n — t h e type of c o n t r o l s y s t e m — r a t h e r than s i m p l y a c l u s t e r of market b e h a v i o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " ( I b i d : 178). (a) The 'secondary market' e n t a i l s c a s u a l j o b s i n p r o d u c t i o n and n o n p r o d u c t i o n a r e a s where s k i l l s , wages and s e c u r i t y a r e m i n i m a l , advancement p r a c t i c a l l y n i l , and v o l u n t a r y t u r n o v e r r e l a t i v e l y h i g h . Most secondary j o b s a r e found i n the c o m p e t i t i v e p e r i p h e r y s e c t o r of monopoly c a p i t a l i s m where s i m p l e c o n t r o l c o n t i n u e s t o p r e v a i l . B l a c k s , h i s p a n i c s , f e m a l e s , y o u t h and i l l e g a l a l i e n s t e n d t o be h e a v i l y o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n what Edwards denotes the 'working poor' ( I b i d : 167). (b) The ' s u b o r d i n a t e p r i m a r y market' i n c l u d e s both p r o d u c t i o n and n o n p r o d u c t i o n j o b s which t e n d t o be u n i o n i z e d . These j o b s u s u a l l y have r e a s o n a b l y h i g h wages and s e c u r i t y , but advancement 87 i s l i m i t e d , t a s k s r o u t i n e , and work s u b j e c t t o t e c h n i c a l c o n t r o l . T h i s segment Edwards (1979) a s s o c i a t e s w i t h the ' t r a d i t i o n a l p r o l e t a r i a t ' c o m p r i s e d of male i n d u s t r i a l manual w o r k e r s , and female c l e r i c a l and f a c t o r y o p e r a t i v e s ( I b i d : 170). (c) The 'independent p r i m a r y market' c o n s i s t s of s k i l l e d j o b s i n l o w e r - l e v e l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , t e c h n i c a l and s u p e r v i s o r y a r e a s , u p p e r - l e v e l i n d u s t r i a l and c r a f t work, and the p r o f e s s i o n s . P u b l i c s e c t o r employees c o m p r i s e a l a r g e and growing p r o p o r t i o n of t h i s segment where wages, b e n e f i t s , j o b s e c u r i t y and advancement a r e o f t e n h i g h , and b u r e a u c r a t i c c o n t r o l u s u a l l y the norm. F o l l o w i n g Braverman, Edwards r e f e r s t o t h i s group as the 'middle l a y e r s ' ( I b i d : 174). 4 . 3 . i v Concept of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n The concept of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n Edwards' (1979) a n a l y s i s i s more e x p l i c i t and complex than i n r a d i c a l d u a l t h e o r y , and the l i n e of argument appears t o be r e v e r s e d . Edwards (1979: 163) contends t h a t "both exogenous d i v i s i o n s ( e x p e c i a l l y r a c i a l and s e x u a l ones) and new d i s t i n c t i o n s of c a p i t a l i s m ' s own making have become embedded i n the s t r u c t u r e of soc i e t y " . A c knowledging t h a t v a r i o u s o v e r t forms of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c o n t i n u e t o be p r a c t i s e d w i t h i n each market segment, he c l a i m s t h a t " i n t e n t i o n a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n remains i m p o r t a n t , but i n c r e a s i n g l y i t has been s u p p l a n t e d by i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .... Thus i n p r o b i n g the causes of segmented l a b o u r m a r k e t s , we seek i n p a r t t o u n d e r s t a n d how r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and s e x u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n have become i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s of l a b o u r markets" ( I b i d : 178). 88 The l a b o u r market however, i s not the o n l y l o c u s of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and s i n c e i t tends t o c r o s s - c u t a l l market segments, t h e p r o c e s s of market f o r m a t i o n can o n l y p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y . ' B l a c k s , and o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s and women come t o c o n s t i t u t e y e t f u r t h e r f r a c t i o n s of the wor k i n g c l a s s , because r a c i a l and s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s c o n t i n u e t o d e v e l o p a c c o r d i n g t o d i s t i n c t p r o c e s s e s of development or ' s e p a r a t e d i a l e c t i c s ' " ( I b i d : 194). Race c o n s t i t u t e s a 's e p a r a t e c o n s c i o u s n e s s ' , a ' s p e c i a l s t a t u s ' f o r Edwards which i s not s i m p l y a d e r i v a t i v e of the a c c u m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the "growing r e s e a r c h on the r o l e s of women and b l a c k s i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y s u g g e s t s one c e n t r a l c o n c l u s i o n : change i n t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s has o c c u r r e d m o s t l y i n response t o the i n t e r a c t i o n of the d i a l e c t i c s of race and sex w i t h t h a t of c a p i t a l i s t development" ( I b i d : 196) . In sum t h e n , systems of c o n t r o l i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n a l forms of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n l i k e i n t e r n a l l a b o u r m a r k e t s , produce market segm e n t a t i o n t h a t o p e r a t e s t o reproduce r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y . These tend t o appear as endemic t o s o c i e t y , but i n a c t u a l i t y , they a r e i n t e g r a l f e a t u r e s of l a b o u r market s t r u c t u r e under monopoly c a p i t a l i s m . W h i l e a l l ag e n t s i n the l a b o u r market a r e i m p l i c a t e d , because the p r i m a r y s o u r c e of segmentation i s i n the l a b o u r p r o c e s s , the onus of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i n t h e l a b o u r market must be assumed by the c l a s s which u l t i m a t e l y p r o f i t s from i t . 89 4.4 S p l i t l a b o u r market t h e o r y S p l i t l a b o u r market t h e o r y , f o r m u l a t e d by B o n a c i c h (1972; 1975; 1976; 1979; 1980) i s d i s t i n c t i v e f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . F i r s t , i t i s the o n l y c l a s s c o n f l i c t approach t h a t i s avowedly a t h e o r y of "race and e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s which emphasizes the m a t e r i a l bases of race and e t h n i c antagonism" ( B o n a c i c h , 1979: 17). Second, i t was c o n c e i v e d by a s o c i o l o g i s t , r a t h e r than an economist. Hence the term 'antagonism', a s o c i o l o g i c a l concept which i n c l u d e s a l l forms of i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t from i n t e n t i o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , t o r a c i s t b e l i e f s and i d e o l o g i e s . And f i n a l l y , i t f o c u s e s on i n t e r - g r o u p c o m p e t i t i o n i n the l a b o u r market i n the c o n t e x t of s o c i e t a l c l a s s s t r u g g l e , as opposed t o s t r u g g l e a t the p o i n t of p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t d i s t i n g u i s h e s s p l i t l a b o u r market t h e o r y from the o t h e r two c l a s s c o n f l i c t models, a l t h o u g h i t s c o n c l u s i o n s a r e v e r y s i m i l a r t o the r a d i c a l d u a l model, and i n d e e d , some group power t h e o r i e s . B o n a c i c h b e g i n s w i t h the assumptions t h a t r a c e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a ' p o l i t i c a l c o n s t r u c t ' , and t h a t r a c i a l antagonism o r i g i n a t e s i n a l a b o u r market d i v i d e d a l o n g r a c i a l l i n e s . The c e n t r a l t e n e t of s p l i t market t h e o r y i s t h a t r a c i a l c o n f l i c t can be e x p l a i n e d by economic c l a s s p r o c e s s e s , the most i m p o r t a n t of which i s the ' p r i c e of l a b o u r ' . The h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t a l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e i n the p r i c e of l a b o u r a l o n g r a c i a l l i n e s w i l l f o s t e r i n t e r - g r o u p antagonism, and c o n v e r s e l y , d e c r e a s i n g p r i c e d i f f e r e n t i a l s w i t h i n the wo r k i n g c l a s s w i l l t e n d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g r a c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n and w o r k i n g c l a s s 90 s o l i d a r i t y . In the complex dynamic of c l a s s s t r u g g l e , r a c i a l d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the w o r k i n g c l a s s t h e r e f o r e c o n c e a l the c o n c r e t e m a t e r i a l d i v i s i o n between ' h i g h - p r i c e d ' , w h i t e l a b o u r and 'cheap', b l a c k l a b o u r . Of c o u r s e , B o n a c i c h (1979: 34-5) i s aware t h a t " r a c e i s not the o n l y l i n e a l o n g which a d i v i s i o n i n t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s based on p r i c e of l a b o u r d i f f e r e n c e s i s drawn. Sex and n a t i o n a l i t y mark o t h e r i m p o r t a n t i n s t a n c e s .... Race, sex and n a t i o n a l i t y become the symbolism i n which the c o n f l i c t i s e x p r e s s e d , but they a r e not i n themselves i t s cause. Nor i s i t i n e v i t a b l e t h a t r a c e , sex, e t c . , s h o u l d mark a p r i c e of l a b o u r d i s t i n c t i o n .... Race i s i m p o r t a n t o n l y so l o n g as i t i s r o o t e d i n c l a s s p r o c e s s e s . " Her argument proceeds from an h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s of the d e t e r m i n a n t s of the p r i c e of l a b o u r , the p r o c e s s of ' d i s p l a c e m e n t ' of e x p e n s i v e by cheap l a b o u r , and the r e a c t i o n s of h i g h - p r i c e d l a b o u r t o the t h r e a t of d i s p l a c e m e n t i n the s t r u g g l e w i t h c a p i t a l and the S t a t e . 5 4 . 4 . i P r i c e of l a b o u r B o n a c i c h (1979: 20) r e a d i l y concedes t h a t " e t h n i c and r a c i a l c o n f l i c t and d i v i s i o n a r e h i g h l y complex phenomena which cannot be reduced t o a s i n g l e f a c t o r . " Nor does she h o l d t h a t the p r i c e of l a b o u r i s t h e o n l y c l a s s i s s u e u n d e r l y i n g r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i n the l a b o u r market; o n l y t h a t i t i s t h e most fun d a m e n t a l one. The p r i c e of l a b o u r i s d e f i n e d as " l a b o u r ' s t o t a l c o s t t o the employer, i n c l u d i n g not o n l y wages, but the c o s t of r e c r u i t m e n t , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , room and b o a r d , e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h c a r e ( i f t h e employer must bear t h e s e ) , and the c o s t of l a b o u r u n r e s t " ( B o n a c i c h , 1972: 549). 5 See B o n a c i c h (1975; 1976) f o r a n a l y s i s of b l a c k s i n the l a b o u r market i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . 91 As such, i t i s a c a t c h - a l l concept encompassing n o t i o n s of the p r i c e of l a b o u r power, worker r e s i s t a n c e , and worker c o n t r o l of p r o d u c t i o n . The causes u n d e r l y i n g a r a c i a l p r i c e d i f f e r e n t i a l i n the l a b o u r market a r e i d e n t i f i e d as the l e v e l of economic development, i m p e r i a l i s m , m i g r a t i o n , and middlemen ( B o n a c i c h , 1979: 2 0 ) . Economic development tends t o have an upward e f f e c t on the p r i c e of i n d i g e n o u s l a b o u r , w h i l e i m p e r i a l i s m , m i g r a t i o n and middlemen te n d t o d r i v e the p r i c e down. For B o n a c i c h , economic development i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h r e e i n t e r r e l a t e d p r o c e s s e s : ( i ) the development of the f o r c e s of p r o d u c t i o n , i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y , and a r i s i n g s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g accompanied by ( i i ) p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n spawning c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s and worker o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o i n c r e a s e b a r g a i n i n g power, and ( i i i ) the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a r e l a t i v e l y autonomous c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g w e l f a r e f u n c t i o n . T h i s m o d e r n i z a t i o n s c e n a r i o has not been r e p r o d u c e d as s u c c e s s f u l l y i n the T h i r d World however, because c a p i t a l i s m i n Western Europe and l a t e r i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , l e d t o i m p e r i a l i s m . I m p e r i a l i s m B o n a c i c h (1979) a s s o c i a t e s w i t h 'white d o m i n a t i o n ' , 'underdevelopment' and huge r e s e r v e a r m i e s of l a b o u r , a l l of w hich have downward e f f e c t s on the p r i c e of l a b o u r i n the h i n t e r l a n d . The p e r i o d of i m p e r i a l i s m was one of massive demographic change. F i r s t the m i g r a t i o n of s e t t l e r s , s l a v e s and i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r t o the c o l o n i e s , f o l l o w e d l a t e r by the m i g r a t i o n of l a b o u r from the h i n t e r l a n d t o the m e t r o p o l i s . M i g r a t i o n l o w e r s 92 the p r i c e of immigrant l a b o u r r e l a t i v e t o i n d i g e n o u s workers i n s e v e r a l ways. Immigrant l a b o u r i s more prone t o e x p l o i t a t i o n because i t o f t e n f a c e s l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l p r o b l e m s , and i t s c i t i z e n s h i p r i g h t s a r e l i m i t e d by the terms of e n t r a n c e d i c t a t e d by the h o s t c o u n t r y . The phenomenon of ' s o j o u r n i n g ' — t e m p o r a r y workers who p l a n t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n the h i n t e r l a n d — a l s o p l a c e s downward p r e s s u r e on the p r i c e of immigrant l a b o u r . S t i l l a n o t h e r f a c t o r i s the r o l e of 'middlemen' who a c t as i n t e r m e d i a r i e s between c a p i t a l and immigrant l a b o u r i n l a b o u r c o n t r a c t i n g and s u b c o n t r a c t i n g ( B o n a c i c h , 1979). 4 . 4 . i i D i s p l a c e m e n t of l a b o u r B o n a c i c h assumes t h a t , g i v e n a p r i c e d i f f e r e n t i a l between two groups of w o r k e r s , c e t e r i s p a r i b u s , c a p i t a l w i l l attempt t o s u b s t i t u t e the cheaper l a b o u r f o r the more e x p e n s i v e , thus p e r m i t t i n g a h i g h e r degree of e x p l o i t a t i o n and l a r g e r p r o f i t s . The s i m p l e s t type of d i s p l a c e m e n t r a r e l y o c c u r s now because i t i s a c t i v e l y r e s i s t e d by o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r ( i t i s a l s o i l l e g a l ! ) , but B o n a c i c h (1979: 25) i n s i s t s t h a t the ' t h r e a t of d i s p l a c e m e n t ' i s s t i l l r e a l , and p r e s e n t s s i x more s u b t l e p r o c e s s e s of d i s p l a c e m e n t t h a t c a p i t a l employs t o u n d e r c u t h i g h - p r i c e d l a b o u r . The ' d e s k i l l i n g ' p r o c e s s which Braverman (1974) d e s c r i b e s i s an i n d i r e c t form of d i s p l a c e m e n t t h a t aims t o r e p l a c e h i g h - p r i c e d , s k i l l e d l a b o u r w i t h l e s s e x p e n s i v e , s e m i - s k i l l e d l a b o u r . The d i s p l a c e m e n t of p e t i t b o u r g e o i s , o w n e r - o p e r a t o r s ( s m a l l f a r m e r s ) by monopoly p r o d u c e r s ( a g r i b u s i n e s s ) i s another i n d i r e c t form. The 'maintenance of d e p r e s s e d p o c k e t s ' through 93 j o b or s e c t o r s e g r e g a t i o n i s a l s o i n d i r e c t d i s p l a c e m e n t . ' D i r t y work' performed by g a s t a r b e i t e r s i n Europe, farmworkers i n N o r t h America and i l l e g a l a l i e n s everywhere e x i s t s because employers a r e a l l o w e d a c c e s s t o s o u r c e s of cheap l a b o u r , and h i g h - p r i c e d l a b o u r has the o p t i o n of w e l f a r e . P e t i t b o u r g e o i s middlemen m i n o r i t i e s can t h r e a t e n h i g h - p r i c e d l a b o u r w i t h d i s p l a c e m e n t by d r i v i n g u n i o n i z e d c o m p e t i t o r s out of b u s i n e s s u n l e s s the l a t t e r reduce l a b o u r c o s t s . The two most r e c e n t and i m p o r t a n t i n d i r e c t forms of d i s p l a c e m e n t are by 'cheap i m p o r t s ' and the 'runaway shop'. The m u l t i n a t i o n a l s i n c o l l u s i o n w i t h the r u l i n g c l a s s e s i n the T h i r d World can choose t o import m anufactured items from, or produce them r i g h t i n , the cheap l a b o u r c o u n t r i e s who compete among themselves t o a t t r a c t f o r e i g n c a p i t a l . "Thus i m m i g r a t i o n and the runaway shop are e s s e n t i a l l y o p p o s i t e s i d e s of the same c o i n , and s h o u l d be so a n a l y s e d . The p a r t i c u l a r form d i s p l a c e m e n t t a k e s u n d o u b t e d l y c o r r e s p o n d s t o s t a g e s of c a p i t a l i s t development, and a l s o t o the d i a l e c t i c of c l a s s s t r u g g l e . Thus, as h i g h - p r i c e d l a b o u r a c h i e v e s a r e s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem, c a p i t a l d e v i s e s a new way t o r e a c h and e x p l o i t the w o r l d ' s cheap l a b o u r " ( B o n a c i c h , 1979: 30). 4 . 4 . i i i R e a c t i o n s t o d i s p l a c e m e n t As l o n g as a s u p p l y of cheap l a b o u r i s a v a i l a b l e i t poses a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o h i g h - p r i c e d l a b o u r . "While the p r o c e s s of d i s p l a c e m e n t of h i g h - p r i c e d w i t h cheaper l a b o u r may o c c u r f o r economic rea s o n s a l o n e , i t has i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l consequences, namely, i t undermines the c l a s s s t r u g g l e between c a p i t a l and ( h i g h - p r i c e d ) l a b o u r . The t h r e a t of d i s p l a c e m e n t a c t s as a damper on the c l a s s s t r u g g l e , a f a c t t h a t c a p i t a l makes use of t o keep l a b o u r subdued" ( I b i d : 2 5 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o B o n a c i c h (1979: 3 0 ) , h i g h - p r i c e d l a b o u r has two 94 a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the problem. They can e i t h e r o b s t r u c t c a p i t a l ' s a c c e s s t o cheap l a b o u r u s i n g p o l i t i c a l means t o a v e r t d i s p l a c e m e n t , or they can attempt t o r a i s e the p r i c e of cheap l a b o u r , and t h e r e b y remove the grounds f o r a s p l i t l a b o u r market and the t h r e a t of dispacement. Attempts t o b l o c k c a p i t a l ' s a c c e s s t o cheap l a b o u r v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o the type of d i s p l a c e m e n t t h r e a t e n e d , the so u r c e of the cheap l a b o u r , and the p o l i t i c a l c l o u t of h i g h - p r i c e d l a b o u r . T y p i c a l of t h e s e approaches are e x c l u s i o n movements, r a c i a l ' c a s t e ' systems, and p r o t e c t i o n i s m . I f the sour c e of cheap l a b o u r i s o u t s i d e the c o u n t r y the most e f f e c t i v e means of e x c l u s i o n i s t o e n l i s t the S t a t e t o impose i m m i g r a t i o n c o n t r o l s . R e s t r i c t i o n s on o r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , and the 'white A u s t r a l i a ' p o l i c y a r e examples of the p o l i t i c a l power of w h i t e l a b o u r t o p r o t e c t i t s e l f . When e f f o r t s t o b l o c k the e n t r y of cheap l a b o u r a r e not s u c c e s s f u l , as i n the case of i l l e g a l a l i e n s from M e x i c o , l o b b y i n g o c c u r s f o r r e p a t r i a t i o n and d e p o r t a t i o n measures. R a c i a l ' c a s t e ' systems d e v e l o p when 'white' t r a d e u n i o n s r e s t r i c t the e n t r y of n o n - o r g a n i z e d b l a c k l a b o u r i n t o c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i e s , f i r m s or j o b s , c r e a t i n g c o l o u r b a r s , p r i c e d i f f e r e n t i a l s and a d u a l i z e d l a b o u r market. The r a c i a l d i v i s i o n s of l a b o u r i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and South A f r i c a a r e l a r g e l y , B o n a c i c h b e l i e v e s , a p r o d u c t of t h i s h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s . 95 P r o t e c t i o n i s m r e f e r s t o p o l i c i e s t o r e s t r i c t cheap i m p o r t s by e r e c t i n g t a r i f f w a l l s , import q u o t a s , and a d v e r t i s i n g campaigns t o buy n a t i o n a l b r a n d s . L a t e l y , B o n a c i c h n o t e s , p r o t e c t i o n i s m has been d i r e c t e d more a t the runaway shop by demanding the r e p e a l of t a r i f f s t h a t p e r m i t m u l t i n a t i o n a l s t o escape duty c h a r g e s on commodities produced by s u b s i d i a r i e s i n cheap l a b o u r c o u n t r i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , r e c e n t p r o t e c t i o n i s t s l o g a n s have tended t o a p p e a l t o n a t i o n a l i s t r a t h e r than r a c i a l s o l i d a r i t y . The problem f a c i n g h i g h - p r i c e d l a b o u r i s t h a t i t s s h o r t - r u n p r o p h y l a c t i c e f f o r t s p a r a d o x i c a l l y m a i n t a i n a r a c i a l p r i c e d i f f e r e n t i a l , and t h e r f o r e p e r p e t u a t e a s p l i t l a b o u r market i n the l o n g - r u n . The a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o r a i s e the p r i c e of cheap l a b o u r by o r g a n i z i n g t h o s e w o r k e r s , p u t t i n g p r e s s u r e on the S t a t e t o e s t a b l i s h minimum l a b o u r s t a n d a r d s f o r a l l w o r k e r s , and t o s u p p o r t the o p p r e s s e d workers i n cheap labour, c o u n t r i e s . A l t h o u g h e q u a l i z i n g the p r i c e of l a b o u r o f f e r s the o n l y l o n g - r u n s o l u t i o n , such s t r a t e g i e s by h i g h - p r i c e d l a b o u r have been more o f t e n the e x c e p t i o n than the r u l e . E x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s dilemma B o n a c i c h (1979) a r g u e s , t e n d t o p o i n t t o the ' f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s ' and c o o p t a t i o n of h i g h - p r i c e d l a b o u r i n s t e a d of the enormous d i f f i c u l t i e s c o n f r o n t i n g l o n g - r u n s t r a t e g i e s . " . . . t h e f a i l u r e of e q u a l i z i n g s t r a t e g i e s by h i g h - p r i c e d l a b o u r i s not o n l y a p r o d u c t of t h e i r own f a i l i n g s (though t h e s e may be c o n s i d e r a b l e ) , but a l s o of t h e s t r u c t u r e and dynamics of s p l i t l a b o u r markets which make e q u a l i z i n g s o l u t i o n s d i f f i c u l t t o a c h i e v e . P r o t e c t i o n i s m of v a r i o u s s o r t s i s f a r more s i m p l e and d i r e c t , p r o v i d i n g immediate r e l i e f . I t i s p r i m a r i l y f o r t h i s reason t h a t i t p r e d o m i n a t e s " ( I b i d ; 34). 96 4.4.iv Concept of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n B o n a c i c h argues t h a t i n the uneven development of c a p i t a l i s m , and c h i e f l y because of c o l o n i a l i s m , the r o l e of cheap l a b o u r has been most o f t e n p l a y e d by 'non-white' p e o p l e s , and women. The r e s i s t a n c e of h i g h - p r i c e d l a b o u r t o c a p i t a l ' s a t tempts t o d i s p l a c e i t w i t h cheaper l a b o u r has r e s u l t e d i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by t r a d e u n i o n s , e x c l u s i o n a r y movements and p r o t e c t i o n i s m . White, male workers have tended t o monopolize j o b s , s k i l l s , and p o l i t i c o - l e g a l r e s o u r c e s a t the expense of b l a c k s , e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s , women and o t h e r l e s s p o w e r f u l groups i n the l a b o u r market. The d u a l i z e d l a b o u r market s t r u c t u r e c r e a t e d by the d i s p l a c e m e n t - r e a c t i o n c y c l e of the c l a s s s t r u g g l e has a l l o w e d c a p i t a l t o s u p e r e x p l o i t cheap l a b o u r , s t r a t i f y i n g the working c l a s s i n t o competing r a c i a l , e t h n i c and s e x u a l f a c t i o n s . "In sum, t h i s approach s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a r e two d i s t i n c t t y p e s of r a c i a l - n a t i o n a l o p p r e s s i o n , one stemming from c a p i t a l , and the o t h e r from l a b o u r " ( B o n a c i c h , 1980: 14). B o n a c i c h i s c r i t i c a l of i n d i v i d u a l / j o b s k i l l and c l a s s s t r a t e g y approaches t o r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i n the l a b o u r market. "In c o n t r a s t t o d u a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y , s p l i t l a b o u r market t h e o r y sees t h e p r i c e of l a b o u r of d i f f e r e n t groups of workers as r o o t e d i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s . S t a b i l i t y i n the j o b market i s o n l y one of the f a c t o r s which a f f e c t s p r i c e . The p r i c e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e not so much a p r o d u c t of the s e c t o r i n which workers a r e co n g r e g a t e d as of the b a r g a i n t h e y a re a b l e t o s t r i k e up w i t h employers. " R a c i a l " d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p r i c e of l a b o u r a r e m a t e r i a l l y based i n the h i s t o r y of t h e group i n q u e s t i o n and not merely a handy v i s i b l e t o o l upon which employers make an a c t u a r i a l p r e d i c t i o n " ( B o n a c i c h , 1979: 3 6 ) . 97 She a g r e e s w i t h r a d i c a l segmented t h e o r y t h a t market segmentation and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n a r e the h i s t o r i c a l outcomes of the uneven development of c a p i t a l i s m , but c h a l l e n g e s the assumption t h a t r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s more a "product of m a n i p u l a t i o n by c a p i t a l than a r a t i o n a l p u r s u i t of s e l f - i n t e r e s t by w h i t e l a b o u r " ( I b i d ). "For what s p l i t l a b o u r market t h e o r y t r i e s t o do i s t o show how the m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s of w h i t e workers produced by i m p e r i a l i s m d i s t o r t the p r o g r e s s i v e c l a s s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t c a p i t a l i n t o a r e a c t i o n a r y s t a n c e on the r a c e q u e s t i o n " ( B o n a c i c h , 1979: 40). S p l i t l a b o u r market t h e o r y t h e n , comes c l o s e s t t o the r a d i c a l d u a l p o s i t o n on r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and l i k e Friedman (1977), B o n a c i c h (1979: 40) c o n c l u d e s t h a t the "white w o r k i n g c l a s s has o f t e n been among t h e more r e a c t i o n a r y f o r c e s i n the modern w o r l d . " The main d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t s p l i t l a b o u r market t h e o r y borrows more from group power t h e o r y , f o c u s i n g on the d i s p l a c e m e n t - r e a c t i o n d i a l e c t i c i n the l a b o u r market, r a t h e r than the c o n t r o l - r e s i s t a n c e d i a l e c t i c i n the l a b o u r p r o c e s s . While i t may be f a u l t e d f o r t h i s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o d u c t i o n r e l a t i o n s and market r e l a t i o n s , and among c l a s s s t r u g g l e , i n t r a - c l a s s c o n f l i c t and r a c i a l , i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t i s more c l e a r l y t h e o r i z e d t h a n i n e i t h e r t h e r a d i c a l d u a l or r a d i c a l segmented models. S p e c i f i c a l l y , a r e l a t i o n s h i p between worker r e s i s t a n c e and r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y and e m p i r i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d by h i s t o r i c a l l y l i n k i n g " r a c i s m (and sexism) t o the c l a s s s t r u g g l e as i t i s made more complex by i m p e r i a l i s m " ( I b i d : 3 7 ) . 98 4.5 C r i t i q u e of r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y S i n c e , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of B o n a c i c h (1972), t h e s e t h e o r i e s t e n d t o f o c u s on c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n the c o n t e x t of l a b o u r market as opposed t o c l a s s f o r m a t i o n , t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r r a c i a l c o n f l i c t a r e a t b e s t t e n t a t i v e , and v u l n e r a b l e t o c r i t i c i s m . I n s t e a d of l e n g t h y c r i t i q u e s t h e n , a few, p o i n t s on each t h e o r y w i l l s u f f i c e b e f o r e c o n t e m p l a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c l a s s s t r u g g l e and r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i n the p r o c e s s of market f o r m a t i o n s u g g e s t e d , but l e f t u n t h e o r i z e d by r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y . Friedman's (1977) c o n c e r n i s t o demonstrate t h a t r a c i a l d i v i s i o n s i n the l a b o u r market a r e c o n d u c i v e t o d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of worker r e s i s t a n c e w h i c h , i n t u r n , produce d i f f e r e n t forms of m a n a g e r i a l c o n t r o l i n the l a b o u r p r o c e s s , r a t h e r than v i c e v e r s a . I t i s the c o m b i n a t i o n of c e n t r e worker r e s i s t a n c e and m a n a g e r i a l s t r a t e g i e s t o accommodate i t t h a t d u a l i z e s the l a b o u r market and reproduces s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . T h i s e f f o r t t o r e i n t r o d u c e c l a s s , i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p s t r u g g l e s w i t h i n a M a r x i s t a n a l y s i s i s l a u d a t o r y , but g i v e n the m a n a g e r i a l p r e r o g a t i v e as the p u r c h a s e r s of l a b o u r power ('a b s o l u t e c o n t r o l ' ) , and the r o l e of the S t a t e i n ' b u t t r e s s i n g m a n a g e r i a l a u t h o r i t y ' , the p o t e n c y of worker r e s i s t a n c e ( ' r e l a t i v e c o n t r o l ' ) i s o v e r e s t i m a t e d , and tends t o be i n t e r p r e t e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n an economic sense. (There a r e a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n , but no r e s i s t a n c e t o , r e s p o n s i b l e autonomy s t r a t e g i e s ! ) 99 The p o i n t t h a t worker r e s i s t a n c e t o e x p l o i t a t i o n has always been unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d i s h i s t o r i c a l l y founded, y e t a s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n i s never f o r t h c o m i n g . S o c i a l p r e j u d i c e and the l a c k of s o l i d a r i t y among workers a r e not s u f f i c i e n t c r i t e r i a f o r the p e r s i s t e n c e of r a c i a l and o t h e r communal group c o n f l i c t s because they a re them s e l v e s h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n t i n g e n t on c o n c r e t e c l a s s , i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p s t r u g g l e s . Indeed, they a r e as much the outcomes as the s o u r c e s of market s t r u c t u r e and modes of f o r m a t i o n i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s . M i s s i n g from t h i s t h e o r y a r e s y s t e m a t i c a c c o u n t s of the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the w o r k p l a c e , and the forms of i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t s i n the l a b o u r market t h a t m ediate, and a r e mediated by, c l a s s s t r u g g l e . 6 The c o n t r i b u t i o n of r a d i c a l segmentation t h e o r y i s the concept of the 'system of c o n t r o l ' which e x p r e s s e s the dominance of c o n t r o l over c o o r d i n a t i o n , and the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s over the t e c h n i c a l r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . The c e n t r a l t e n e t t h a t the consumption r a t h e r than the exchange of l a b o u r power reproduces market s e g m e n t a t i o n , s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i s i n s i g h t f u l and p r o v o c a t i v e . The system of c o n t r o l r e f e r s t o the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the work p l a c e t h a t e v o l v e s from the 6 The e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e of d u a l i s m i s a l s o i n c o n c l u s i v e . Friedman (1977) uses case s t u d i e s of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y h a b e r d a s h e r y , -and the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a u t o m o b i l e i n d u s t r i e s i n sup p o r t of h i s t h e o r y , but the e v i d e n c e of d u a l i s m i n the B r i t i s h l a b o u r market ( L o v e r i d g e and Mok, 1979; B l a c k b u r n and Mann, 1979; H i l l , 1981), has been j u s t as c o n t e n t i o u s as the U.S. r e s e a r c h . S i m i l a r l y , s t u d i e s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between u n i o n i s m ( a l b e i t o n l y one form of i n t e r n a l m a r k e t ) , and r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y do not seem t o su p p o r t r a d i c a l d u a l i s m ( A s h e n f e l t e r , 1972; L e i g h , 1978; R e i c h , 1981). 100 i n t e r f a c e of c l a s s s t r u g g l e and i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t s . I t i s a ' c o n t e s t e d t e r r a i n ' , and a t the same t i m e , a s t r u c t u r e of c l a s s d o m i n a t i o n . Perhaps as a r e s u l t of t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n , Edwards (1979) tends t o downplay the r o l e of the w h i t e w o r k i n g c l a s s i n r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the l a b o u r market, p l a c i n g most of the onus on c a p i t a l . For Edwards (1979), uneven worker r e s i s t a n c e i s not assumed on the b a s i s of a heterogeneous l a b o u r f o r c e , but l i k e the w o r k i n g c l a s s , i s i t s e l f a c o n t r a d i c t o r y outcome of c l a s s s t r u g g l e and i n t r a - c l a s s c o n f l i c t ; b o t h c o n s t i t u t i v e of the system of c o n t r o l , and i t s p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t . The problem w i t h t h i s c l a s s s t r a t e g y f o r m u l a t i o n i s what i t o m i t s . Edwards (1979) i s i n c l i n e d t o i n t e r p r e t worker r e s i s t a n c e i n p o l i t i c a l terms, and does not g i v e e q u a l p l a y t o the economic c o m p e t i t i o n between and among c l a s s f r a c t i o n s and communal groups i n the l a b o u r market. R a c i a l c o n f l i c t i s acknowledged as one of the f o r c e s a f f e c t i n g market f o r m a t i o n and outcomes, but i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c l a s s s t r u g g l e , and hence, the system of c o n t r o l , i s never e m p i r i c a l l y or t h e o r e t i c a l l y s p e c i f i e d . Even i f we were t o ac c e p t t h a t the system of c o n t r o l i s the paramount f a c t o r c a u s i n g s e g m e n t a t i o n , the e f f e c t s of c l a s s , i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p s t r u g g l e s on market outcomes a r e not f u l l y a p p r a i s e d . The dynamics of s p l i t l a b o u r markets seems t o e x p l a i n the h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e of many r a c i a l and e t h n i c groups i n N o r t h 101 American l a b o u r m a r k e t s , 7 and u n d o u b t e d l y , o r g a n i z e d worker r e s i s t a n c e t o the t h r e a t of d i s p l a c e m e n t does account f o r some market outcomes and r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . However, the need t o emphasize the c o l l e c t i v e power of o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r r e s u l t s i n t h e d e p i c t i o n of c a p i t a l ' s r o l e v i s a v i s cheap l a b o u r as a ' l i b e r a l , p a t e r n a l i s t i c ' one, i g n o r i n g the d o m i n a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n the wage l a b o u r r e l a t i o n , and the d e s p e r a t e s t r u g g l e s of t h o s e groups engaged i n cheap l a b o u r . L i k e Friedman, B o n a c i c h ' s (1972) c o n c e p t i o n of c l a s s s t r u g g l e i s l i m i t e d t o economic i n t e r e s t s , and r e d u c i b l e t o s t r u g g l e s between c a p i t a l and a l a b o u r a r i s t o c r a c y . T h i s makes i t p r o b l e m a t i c t o e x p l a i n the l a t e development of the l a b o u r movement i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , and t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the l a b o u r f o r c e u n i o n i z e d . I t a l s o d e n i e s the i d e o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n s of r a c e and c l a s s , l e a d i n g t o the c u r i o u s assumption t h a t the w o r k i n g c l a s s p r a c t i s e s r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , w i t h o u t a c t u a l l y h a r b o u r i n g r a c i s m . T h i s p a r a d o x i c a l p o s i t i o n seems t o e x o n e r a t e b o t h c a p i t a l and l a b o u r from any r a c i s t m o t i v a t i o n , s i n c e r a c i s m i s not endemic t o e i t h e r c l a s s , but merely an h i s t o r i c a l e x i g e n c y of c l a s s s t r u g g l e as i t i s m a n i f e s t i n the l a b o u r market. In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the c o n c l u s i o n reached by s p l i t l a b o u r t h e o r y and shared by r a d i c a l d u a l and some group power a p p r o a c h e s , 8 i s u n t e n a b l e . T h e o r i e s based on group c o m p e t i t i o n 7 See B o n a c i c h (1975; 1976) and W i l s o n (1978) on the e x p e r i e n c e of b l a c k s i n the U.S. l a b o u r market, and Chan (1983), Ward (1978), and H i l t o n (1977) f o r o r i e n t a l s i n the Canadian and U.S. l a b o u r m a r k e t s . 8 See c r i t i q u e of P a r k i n (1979) i n Chapter F i v e . 1 0 2 or monopoly s e l l e r s of l a b o u r power, p r o v i d e a u s e f u l f i t f o r some e m p i r i c a l market outcomes, but a r e m a r k e t - c e n t r i c , and do not a l o n e c o n s t i t u t e an adequate e x p l a n a t i o n f o r r a c i a l c o n f l i c t or modes of f o r m a t i o n i n the l a b o u r market. 4.6 The d i a l e c t i c s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n The m e r i t s of r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y l i e not i n what i t a c c o m p l i s h e s so much as what i t a t t e m p t s ; a d i a l e c t i c a l c l a s s a n a l y s i s of r a c i a l i n e q u a l i t y and c o n f l i c t i n the l a b o u r market. I t i n t e g r a t e s a n e o c l a s s i c a l economic n o t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w i t h a Weberian n o t i o n of group c o m p e t i t i o n , and a M a r x i s t n o t i o n of c l a s s e x p l o i t a t i o n i n t o a dynamic, h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s t h a t encompasses the a g e n t s , s t r u c t u r e s , modes of f o r m a t i o n and outcomes of c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s i n the l a b o u r p r o c e s s and market. T h i s c l a s s c o n f l i c t approach su g g e s t s t h a t race and c l a s s a r e r e l a t e d i n the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t of c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the p r o c e s s e s by which the w o r k p l a c e i s o r g a n i z e d and the l a b o u r market i s formed. Or c o n v e r s e l y , r e l a t i o n s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a r e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s w hich shape and l i m i t t he c l a s s and r a c i a l s t r u g g l e s t h a t a f f e c t the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the l a b o u r p r o c e s s , and market f o r m a t i o n . Hence, r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y p o s i t s the r a c e / c l a s s nexus as a ' d i a l e c t i c of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' . The t h r e e t y p e s of r a d i c a l t h e o r y r e v i e w e d above concur on two p o i n t s . F i r s t , the p r o c e s s of market f o r m a t i o n r e p r o d u c e s r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and ' v i c e v e r s a ' , and second, the form of 1 0 3 r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the l a b o u r market has s h i f t e d from d i r e c t , i n t e n t i o n a l p o s t - e n t r y ^ f o r m s , t o p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n d i r e c t , p r e - e n t r y , i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d forms under monopoly c a p i t a l i s m . T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n has o c c u r r e d t h r o u g h c o n c r e t e c l a s s , i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p s t r u g g l e s i n the p r o c e s s of l a b o u r market s e g m e n t a t i o n . Each t h e o r y i s concerned w i t h d i f f e r e n t f o c i of s t r u g g l e i n the c o u r s e of market f o r m a t i o n . In r a d i c a l d u a l and segmented t h e o r i e s the r e l a t i o n s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a r e c o n c e i v e d i n terms of the d i a l e c t i c of r e s i s t a n c e and c o n t r o l i n the l a b o u r p r o c e s s , but from d i f f e r e n t c l a s s vantage p o i n t s . For Friedman (1977) the c r u x of market f o r m a t i o n i s the uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of worker r e s i s t a n c e t o e x p l o i t a t i o n which has l e a d t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r e s i s t a n c e , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d forms of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t t h o s e groups e x c l u d e d from i n t e r n a l l a b o u r m a r k e t s . Edwards (1979) a l t e r s the p e r s p e c t i v e by f o c u s i n g on the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the l a b o u r p r o c e s s , c o n c e i v e d i n terms of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c o n t r o l which has been c o n d u c i v e t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d forms of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Both t h e o r i e s t e n d t o c o n c e i v e e x p l o i t a t i o n from the c o n t e x t of c l a s s d o m i n a t i o n , as the c o n t r o l of workers' time and r e s o u r c e s i n the w o r k p l a c e , f o r which c l a s s a p p r o p r i a t i o n i s the assumed r a t i o n a l e . For s p l i t l a b o u r market t h e o r y the key t o market f o r m a t i o n i s the d i a l e c t i c of d i s p l a c e m e n t and r e a c t i o n i n the market i t s e l f . B o n a c i c h (1972) contends t h a t economic and p o l i t i c a l c l a s s s t r u g g l e c r e a t e s c o m p e t i t i o n among groups of workers i n 1 04 the l a b o u r market which r e s u l t s i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d forms of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n from both c a p i t a l and l a b o u r . The co n c e p t of e x p l o i t a t i o n i n s p l i t t h e o r y remains i m p l i c i t i n t h e n o t i o n of c l a s s s t r u g g l e , but seems t o r e f e r more t o c l a s s a p p r o p r i a t i o n , t h a t i s , the p r i m a r y d i v i s i o n of t h e s o c i a l p r o d u c t between c a p i t a l and l a b o u r . None of the s e t h e o r i e s makes much comment on the r o l e of the S t a t e i n market f o r m a t i o n and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h a t r o l e i s acknowledged. 9 R a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y s u g g e s t s t h e r e f o r e , t h a t r a c i a l c o n f l i c t has tended t o c r y s t a l l i z e around the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . C l a s s e x p l o i t a t i o n was d e f i n e d i n Chapter Two as the u n i t y of economic • r e l a t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s of d o m i n a t i o n a t the p o i n t of p r o d u c t i o n . R a d i c a l t h e o r i e s t e n d t o f o c u s on the l a t t e r , but not t o the e x c l u s i o n of the former. I t remains o n l y t o c h a r a c t e r i z e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n terms of i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p r e l a t i o n s of c o m p e t i t i o n and d o m i n a t i o n . F o r b o t h Marx and Weber r e l a t i o n s of c o m p e t i t i o n e p i t o m i z e i n t e r n a l c l a s s r e l a t i o n s i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . In r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y c o m p e t i t i o n denotes the economic r e l a t i o n s between or among c l a s s f r a c t i o n s and communal groups competing f o r a c c e s s t o j o b s , income and s t a t u s . C o m p e t i t i o n t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t s a 9 See d i s c u s s i o n of the S t a t e i n Chapter F i v e , s e c t i o n 5.3. Sivanandan (1982) c a t a l o g u e s the r o l e of the S t a t e i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the B r i t i s h l a b o u r market i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Race, C l a s s and the S t a t e " . 1 05 secondary d i v i s i o n of the s o c i a l p r o d u c t , r e l a t e d t o , and c o n t i n g e n t on, c l a s s r e l a t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t i o n . 1 0 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n was d e f i n e d i n i t i a l l y as any r e l a t i o n of d o m i n a t i o n which s p e c i f i e s a s y m m e t r i c a l power r e l a t i o n s between or among members of communal groups. In r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y the concept i s extended t o i n c l u d e r e l a t i o n s between or among d i s t r i b u t i v e g r o u p i n g s ( c l a s s f r a c t i o n s ) , as w e l l as communal gro u p s , and c o n c e i v e d as p r i m a r i l y a p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n of d o m i n a t i o n a r i s i n g out of economic r e l a t i o n s of c o m p e t i t i o n . R a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n becomes i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n the s t r u c t u r e of the l a b o u r p r o c e s s and market when dominant c l a s s f r a c t i o n s and communal groups use the S t a t e t o p o l i t i c a l l y and l e g a l l y s e c u r e the advantages g a i n e d i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h o t h e r groups, and i n s t r u g g l e w i t h c a p i t a l , and i s r e p r o d u c e d t h r o u g h the o p e r a t i o n of segmented l a b o u r m arkets. And c o n v e r s e l y , r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o the r e p r o d u c t i o n of market s e g m e n t a t i o n , and i n d i r e c t l y , t o c l a s s d o m i n a t i o n and a p p r o p r i a t i o n i n the p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s . I f r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i n the l a b o u r market does g e r m i n a t e a t the i n t e r f a c e of c l a s s r e l a t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t i o n and d o m i n a t i o n , and group r e l a t i o n s of c o m p e t i t i o n and d o m i n a t i o n , then i t can be d e f i n e d as ' c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and/or e x p l o i t a t i o n of members of one r a c i a l group by members of another or o t h e r s ' . I n the r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r i e s r e v i e w e d , c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e i n the p r o c e s s of 1 0 Secondary d i v i s i o n s of the s o c i a l product r e f e r to d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n s o c i a l c l a s s e s . 106 market f o r m a t i o n t y p i c a l l y assumes t h r e e forms: c l a s s , i n t e r - group and i n t r a - c l a s s . C l a s s s t r u g g l e u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t s forms of c o n f l i c t between or among o r g a n i z e d c l a s s f o r c e s , and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e x p l o i t a t i o n ; c l a s s r e l a t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t i o n and d o m i n a t i o n . I n t e r - g r o u p s t r u g g l e a r e forms of c o n f l i c t between or among communal groups, the h a l l m a r k of which i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ; r e l a t i o n s of group c o m p e t i t i o n and d o m i n a t i o n . I n t r a - c l a s s s t r u g g l e s a r e forms of c o n f l i c t between or among c l a s s f r a c t i o n s , and are a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e d by r e l a t i o n s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . R a c i a l c o n f l i c t has been t r e a t e d t h u s f a r a s , by d e f i n i t i o n , i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t . However, r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y s u g g e s t s t h a t , s i n c e i t i s s t r u c t u r e d by r e l a t i o n s of c l a s s e x p l o i t a t i o n as w e l l as group d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and because d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t r a n s c e n d s c l a s s b o u n d a r i e s , r a c i a l c o n f l i c t can assume the form of any, or a l l of these t h r e e t y p e s . Indeed, i t would seem t h a t a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i s the o v e r l a p p i n g of i n t e r - g r o u p , i n t r a - c l a s s and c l a s s s t r u g g l e s i n the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i n the l a b o u r market. I t i s t h i s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of d i f f e r e n t forms of s t r u g g l e t h a t a r e d e s i g n a t e d the ' d i a l e c t i c s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' . The d i a l e c t i c s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n do not c o n s t i t u t e a t h e o r y of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , nor the s y n t h e s i s t o which Sivanandan (1982) a l l u d e s i n the opening q u o t a t i o n . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s i n t e n d e d as a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p i n t h e o r i z i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r a c e and c l a s s , r a c i a l c o n f l i c t and c l a s s 107 s t r u g g l e i n the l a b o u r market f u r t h e r by examining some of market t h e o r y f o r M a r x i s t and s t a t e . . Chapter F i v e t a k e s the a n a l y s i s the i m p l i c a t i o n s of r a d i c a l l a b o u r Weberian t h e o r i e s of c l a s s and 108 Chapter 5 The P o l i t i c s of E x p l o i t a t i o n : C l a s s and S t a t e i n R a d i c a l Labour Market and Group Power T h e o r i e s "There i s something t o be s a i d i n f a v o u r of a s i n g l e framework of i d e a s and a common v o c a b u l a r y w i t h which t o conduct t h e d i s c o u r s e on s t r u c t u r a l i n e q u a l i t y i n a l l i t s f a m i l i a r g u i s e s . A l l t h i s amounts t o a g e n e r a l d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t i n t e r n a l c l a s s d i v i s i o n s s h o u l d be a c c o r d e d as much t h e o r e t i c a l a t t e n t i o n as the 'boundary problem' i t s e l f ; o r , more c o r r e c t l y , t h a t the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c l a s s and communal b o u n d a r i e s s h o u l d be regarded as a s p e c t s of a s i n g l e problem and s h o u l d be a n a l y s e d as such" ( P a r k i n , 1979: 42). 5. 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n In the p o s t s c r i p t t o h i s w e l l known work on c l a s s t h e o r y , Giddens (1980) i d e n t i f i e s f o u r s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e s r a i s e d by Weber and p r o p o n e n t s of the New L e f t t h a t s h o u l d be ' d i r e c t l y c o n f r o n t e d ' by a M a r x i s t c l a s s a n a l y s i s . These a r e : "1. The r e l a t i o n between Marx's c o n c e p t i o n of c l a s s and the a n a l y s i s of c l a s s as 'market s i t u a t i o n ' . 2. The p r o b l e m of the 'new m i d d l e c l a s s ' i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . 3. The r e l a t i o n between c a p i t a l i s t development and b u r e a u c r a c y . 4. The n a t u r e of the c a p i t a l i s t S t a t e and i t s r e l a t i o n t o c l a s s c o n f l i c t " ( I b i d : 296). The f i r s t , r e l a t i o n s between groups and c l a s s e s , and the importance of the market as a 'medium' of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i s d i r e c t l y i f not c o n c l u s i v e l y c o n f r o n t e d by r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y . The c l a s s c o n f l i c t approach t o the l a b o u r market draws from both M a r x i a n and Weberian t h e o r i e s of c l a s s t o e x p l i c a t e t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n of c a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s t h r o u g h c l a s s s t r u g g l e , and i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t s . The ' p o l i t i c a l ' b i a s of Marx's a b s t r a c t , p r o d u c t i o n - b a s e d , 109 t h e o r e t i c a l model of c l a s s i n which c l a s s s t r u g g l e tends t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as t r a n s f o r m a t i v e r a t h e r than r e p r o d u c t i v e , i s b a l a n c e d by t h e 'economic' b i a s of Weber's e m p i r i c a l , market- based, d e s c r i p t i v e model which assumes t h a t group c o n f l i c t i s waged over th e d i s t r i b u t i o n of m a t e r i a l and s y m b o l i c r e w a r d s . 1 R a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y p o s i t s r e l a t i o n s between c l a s s e s and g r o u p s , p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n r e l a t i o n s , c l a s s s t r u g g l e and group c o n f l i c t , i n terms of the ' d i a l e c t i c s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' . I t p r o v i d e s a l i m i t e d view of the p r o c e s s e s of c l a s s and market f o r m a t i o n by means of an h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s of the f o r m a t i o n of c l a s s f r a c t i o n s or market segments i n the l a b o u r market. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between c l a s s and market f o r m a t i o n s u g g e s t s a t h e o r y of c l a s s 'qua p r o c e s s ' as w e l l as ' s t r u c t u r e ' , a theme which i s touched on i n s e c t i o n 5.2, and r e t u r n e d t o i n Chapter S i x . The t h i r d i s s u e , t h e r o l e of a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s and b u r e a u c r a c y i n c a p i t a l i s t development i s a d d r e s s e d i n r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y by i n t e g r a t i n g a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of b u r e a u c r a t i c d o m i n a t i o n w i t h an a n a l y s i s of c l a s s and group forms of d o m i n a t i o n , both i n the w o r k p l a c e and i n the l a b o u r market. The d i a l e c t i c s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r e l a t e c l a s s s t r u g g l e over c o n t r o l of the l a b o u r p r o c e s s and i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t and c o m p e t i t i o n over s o c i a l 1 T h i s i s an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n which i s not t o deny t h a t b oth a b s t r a c t and c o n c r e t e models of c l a s s (and c a p i t a l i s m ) a r e e x t a n t i n t h e w r i t i n g s of Marx and Weber, but o n l y t o g e n e r a l i z e about r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y ' s d e b t s t o the M a r x i s t and Weberian t r a d i t i o n s of c l a s s t h e o r y . 110 d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the l a b o u r market, t o the p r o c e s s e s of l a b o u r market segmentation and working c l a s s f r a c t i o n a l i z a t i o n . B u r e a u c r a t i c d o m i n a t i o n i s c o n c e i v e d as s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s t h a t s t r u c t u r e c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s over c o n t r o l of the workplace and d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the l a b o u r market which a f f e c t the p r o c e s s e s of market and c l a s s f o r m a t i o n . 2 The second and f o u r t h i s s u e s a r e o n l y d e a l t w i t h o b l i q u e l y by r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y , and r e q u i r e more e x p l i c i t comment h e r e . As e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r market f o r m a t i o n , and embryonic t h e o r i e s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n , r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y c o n t r i b u t e s i n d i r e c t l y t o the r e c u r r i n g debates w i t h i n Marxism over the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the 'new m i d d l e c l a s s ' , and the r o l e of the S t a t e i n c l a s s s t r u g g l e . These a r e not i s s u e s of academic i n t e r e s t t o M a r x i s t and Weberian s c h o l a r s a l o n e , but of v i t a l i m portance t o L e f t p o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e i n g e n e r a l , and s t r a t e g i c a l l i a n c e s between r a c i a l , e t h n i c and gender groups and c l a s s f r a c t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the p r e s e n t c r i s i s of the l i b e r a l - d e m o c r a t i c s t a t e i n Western s o c i e t i e s . There w i l l be no attempt made here t o r e s o l v e any major t h e o r e t i c a l or p o l i t i c a l impasses. The purpose i s t o s e t up the c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter S i x by e x p l o r i n g some of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y f o r M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s of c l a s s and s t a t e , and comparing them t o a r e c e n t and c o n t r o v e r s i a l group power approach. In s e c t i o n 5.2 the p r o c e s s e s of market and c l a s s 2 See d i s c u s s i o n of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , c l a s s s t r u g g l e and c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i n Chapter S i x . 111 f o r m a t i o n p o s i t e d by r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y a re viewed from the c o n t e x t of the 'boundary problem' (See Walker, 1978) of M a r x i s t c l a s s t h e o r y . The p o l a r i z e d ' p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n ' and ' e m b o u r g e o i s i f i c a t i o n ' p o s i t i o n s assumed by t h e o r i s t s of the 'new m i d d l e c l a s s ' a r e c o n s i d e r e d m i s l e a d i n g s i n c e b oth t e n d e n c i e s can be e m p i r i c a l l y d i s c e r n e d i n the p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i n the l a b o u r market. The c o n t r i b u t i o n of l a b o u r market t h e o r y t o c l a s s t h e o r y i s not a r e s o l u t i o n of the boundary problem, i t i s argued, but a mode of c l a s s a n a l y s i s t h a t f o c u s e s on c l a s s f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as c l a s s s t r u c t u r e . In s e c t i o n 5.3 the p e r f u n c t o r y t r e a t m e n t of the S t a t e i s i d e n t i f i e d as a c r i t i c a l s i l e n c e i n r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y , and compared t o contemporary M a r x i s t ' i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t ' , ' s t r u c t u r a l i s t ' , ' c l a s s t h e o r e t i c a l ' and ' c a p i t a l l o g i c ' t h e o r i e s of the S t a t e . A q u a l i f i e d case i s made f o r the c l a s s t h e o r e t i c a l approach whose h i s t o r i c a l , n o n - r e d u c t i o n i s t c o n c e p t i o n of the S t a t e i s most c o m p a t i b l e w i t h a c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s f o c u s i n g more on c l a s s and s t a t e f o r m a t i o n than on s t r u c t u r e . And f i n a l l y , i n s e c t i o n 5.4 P a r k i n ' s (1979) p r o v o c a t i v e , neo-Weberian t h e o r y of communal c o n f l i c t i s c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d from a c l a s s c o n f l i c t p e r s p e c t i v e , on the b a s i s of h i s c l a i m t o e x p l a i n c l a s s s t r u g g l e and group c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the same c o n c e p t u a l framework. P a r k i n (1979) i s applauded f o r r e c o g n i z i n g the importance of e x p l o i t a t i o n t o an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , but f a u l t e d f o r r e d e f i n i n g t h e concept s o l e l y i n terms of d o m i n a t i o n , and i g n o r i n g the r e l a t i o n s of 1 12 a p p r o p r i a t i o n t h a t c o n s t i t u t e e x p l o i t a t i o n . The model of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n he p r e s e n t s u l t i m a t e l y f a i l s t o supersede the d e v e l o p i n g c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s of r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y . 5.2 C l a s s t h e o r y and l a b o u r market models A common c r i t i c i s m of Marx's 'pure' model of s o c i a l c l a s s i s the d i f f i c u l t y i t p r e s e n t s i n r e c o n c i l i n g r e l a t i o n s t o the means of p r o d u c t i o n w i t h h i s t o r i c a l forms of c l a s s s t r u g g l e and p r o c e s s e s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n ; t h a t i s , t r a n s l a t i n g the s t a t i c , a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s of c a p i t a l and l a b o u r i n t o dynamic, c o n c r e t e h i s t o r i c a l a g e n t s . The 'boundary problem' f a c i n g M a r x i s t t h e o r y , a phrase c o i n e d by P o u l a n t z a s (1975), e x p r e s s e s two r e l a t e d a s p e c t s of the same p r o b l e m a t i c ; namely, t h a t of i d e n t i f y i n g p r e c i s e l y who be l o n g s t o the w o r k i n g c l a s s under monopoly c a p i t a l i s m . F i r s t , t h e r e i s the t a s k of t h e o r e t i c a l l y and e m p i r i c a l l y d e m a r c a t i n g the 'two g r e a t h o s t i l e camps', and second, t h a t of l o c a t i n g and e x p l a i n i n g the p o s i t i o n s of ' i n t e r m e d i a t e c l a s s e s ' or ' s t r a t a ' , as w e l l as the v a r i o u s c l a s s f r a c t i o n s w i t h i n each of the main p r o t a g o n i s t s . I t i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the ' a b s t r a c t ' and ' c o n c r e t e ' models of c l a s s i n g e n e r a l , and the second a s p e c t i n p a r t i c u l a r , around w h i c h the c u r r e n t debate over the new m i d d l e c l a s s t u r n s . S i n c e Marx d i d not l e a v e a s y s t e m a t i c f o r m u l a t i o n of c l a s s t h e o r y t o p o s t e r i t y , orthodox c l a s s a n a l y s i s has adhered t o an a b s t r a c t model d e r i v e d l a r g e l y from C a p i t a l , and r e s t i n g on the q u e s t i o n a b l e d i s t i n c t i o n between ' p r o d u c t i v e ' ( s u r p l u s v a l u e g e n e r a t i n g ) , and ' u n p r o d u c t i v e ' ( s u r p l u s v a l u e consuming) 1 1 3 l a b o u r . T h i s t w o - c l a s s model c o r r e s p o n d e d c o n c r e t e l y to i n d u s t r i a l workers ( i n p r o d u c t i o n ) and s e r v i c e workers ( i n c i r c u l a t i o n and the s t a t e s e c t o r ) r e s p e c t i v e l y . F o l l o w i n g Marx's n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n s , o r t h o d o x t h e o r y assumed the i n c r e a s i n g p o l a r i z a t i o n of the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e , and h o m o g e n i z a t i o n of the w o r k i n g c l a s s p r o c e e d i n g from the g r a d u a l a b s o r p t i o n of the p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s i e and a l l u n p r o d u c t i v e l a b o u r i n t o the p r o l e t a r i a t , and the d i s s o l v i n g of communal t i e s l i k e r a c e , e t h n i c i t y and n a t i o n a l i t y by the p r o g r e s s i v e f o r c e s of c a p i t a l i s m . In the p o s t World War Two p e r i o d of monopoly c a p i t a l i s m t h i s a b s t r a c t d e f i n i t i o n of the w o r k i n g c l a s s , or ' p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n ' t h e s i s had the d u b i o u s v i r t u e of c o n s i g n i n g the f a s t e s t growing and most p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e s e c t i o n of the l a b o u r f o r c e t o the t r a n s i t i o n a l f a t e of an ' i n t e r m e d i a t e s t r a t a ' i n the o r thodox scheme. B o u r g e o i s s o c i o l o g y , f o l l o w i n g Weber's c o n c r e t e model of c l a s s , was l e s s r e t i c e n t i n p r o c l a i m i n g the s u r v i v a l of t h e p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s i e , and i n i d e n t i f y i n g i n the expanding s e r v i c e s e c t o r a new m i d d l e c l a s s of e d u c a t e d , w h i t e - c o l l a r , non-manual w o r k e r s . The c u r r e n t debate w i t h i n Marxism, a b e l a t e d r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s phenomenon, i s over the e x a c t l o c a t i o n of the new m i d d l e c l a s s on the c l a s s map, t h e i r p r o b a b l e d e s t i n a t i o n , and the n a t u r e of t h e i r c l a s s i n t e r e s t s . In a sense t h e n , i t poses a dilemma s i m i l a r t o the problem of r a c e i n orthodox M a r x i s t t h e o r y . 3 3 See Chapter 2, s e c t i o n 2.3. 1 14 The ' p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n ' t h e s i s was updated d u r i n g the 1960s by the French M a r x i s t s B e l l e v i l l e (1963), M a l l e t (1963/1975) and Gorz (1967) who s t u d i e d a new t e c h n i c a l s t r a t u m of the wo r k i n g c l a s s they d e s i g n a t e d ' l a n o u v e l l e c l a s s e o u v r i e r e ' . A decade l a t e r a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d defence was advanced i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s by Braverman (1974) and o t h e r l a b o u r p r o c e s s t h e o r i s t s . Both approaches however, waived the l a b o u r t h e o r y of v a l u e and s t r e s s e d the c o n c r e t e c o n d i t i o n s of non-ownership, wage l a b o u r , d e s k i l l i n g and l o s s of c o n t r o l over the l a b o u r p r o c e s s as the o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a of p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n of the 'middle l a y e r s ' under monopoly c a p i t a l i s m . Wh i l e the s o c i o l o g i c a l v i s i o n of the 'post i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y ' ( T o u r a i n e , 1972; B e l l , 1973) h e r a l d e d the f i n a l demise of the two c l a s s model, the a b s t r a c t d e f i n i t i o n of the wo r k i n g c l a s s was a l s o b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d by a d i v e r s e group of M a r x i s t s v a r i o u s l y r e f e r r e d t o as the 'new mi d d l e c l a s s ' or ' e m b o u r g e o i s i f i c a t i o n ' t h e o r i s t s . Supplementing the orthodox c r i t e r i o n of c l a s s d e t e r m i n a t i o n w i t h c o n c r e t e p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between mental and manual l a b o u r , p r o d u c t i v e and r e p r o d u c t i v e f u n c t i o n s , dominant and s u b o r d i n a t e r o l e s i n p r o d u c t i o n , and wage and revenue components, they argued t h a t the e x i g e n c i e s of monopoly c a p i t a l i s m have c r e a t e d a new mi d d l e c l a s s a l o n g s i d e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s i e . The s i z e and c o m p o s i t i o n of the new c l a s s v a r i e s from one t h e o r i s t t o the n e x t , and t h e r e i s l i t t l e consensus as t o i t s d e s t i n y . For the E h r e n r e i c h s (1978) the ' P r o f e s s i o n a l - 1 1 5 M a n a g e r i a l C l a s s ' c o n s t i t u t e s a s e p a r a t e c l a s s w i t h i t s own d i s t i n c t i n t e r e s t s , w h i l e f o r P o u l a n t z a s (1975) t h e 'new p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e ' remains a r e s i d u a l ( a l b e i t a l a r g e o n e), and a m b i v a l e n t s t r a t u m i n the h i s t o r i c a l c l a s s s t r u g g l e . T h i s i d e a i s d e v e l o p e d by C a r c h e d i (1977) f o r whom the 'new m i d d l e c l a s s ' p e r f orms both the ' f u n c t i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e worker' and the ' g l o b a l f u n c t i o n of c a p i t a l ' , and s t i l l f u r t h e r by Wri g h t (1978) who contends t h a t the o b j e c t i v e b o u n d a r i e s of the new middle c l a s s a re i n d e t e r m i n a t e s i n c e i t o c c u p i e s a ' c o n t r a d i c t o r y c l a s s l o c a t i o n ' w i t h i n the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . The f u r t h e r one moves away from the heat of t h e debate the more the s i m i l a r i t i e s of t h e p o s i t i o n s seem t o e c l i p s e the d i f f e r e n c e s . A p a r t from t h e E h r e n r e i c h s ( 1 9 7 8 ) , p a r t i c i p a n t s on both s i d e s m a i n t a i n the o r t h o d o x , t w o - t i e r e d c l a s s model, now d e f i n e d l a r g e l y i n terms of c o n c r e t e c r i t e r i a , and c o n c e i v e the problem i n terms of the s t r u c t u r a l l o c a t i o n of t h e new c l a s s , r a t h e r than i t s mode of f o r m a t i o n . W i t h few e x c e p t i o n s the t h e o r i e s t e n d t o s u f f e r from s t a t i c , f u n c t i o n a l and a h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s which v i t i a t e s t h e importance they a s s i g n t o c l a s s s t r u g g l e . None makes more than p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e t o the i n f l u e n c e of market r e l a t i o n s or phenomena o u t s i d e t h e workplace on c l a s s f o r m a t i o n , and as a c o r o l l a r y , n e i t h e r s i d e sheds much l i g h t on the r o l e of r a c i a l and o t h e r i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t s i n the p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n . With r e s p e c t t o the g e n e r a l r e l i a n c e on c o n c r e t e c l a s s d e t e r m i n a n t s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h some of these t h e o r i e s from c o n f l i c t s o c i o l o g y , a p o i n t made r a t h e r s a r d o n i c a l l y by P a r k i n (1979: 2 5 ) . 1 16 "The f a c t t h a t t h e s e n o r m a l l y a l i e n c o n c e p t s of a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s , l i f e - c h a n c e s , and market rewards have now been c o m f o r t a b l y a b s orbed by contemporary M a r x i s t t h e o r y i s a handsome, i f unacknowledged, t r i b u t e t o the v i r t u e s of b o u r g e o i s s o c i o l o g y . I n s i d e e v e r y n e o - M a r x i s t t h e r e seems t o be a Weberian s t r u g g l i n g t o get o u t . " R a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y does not appear t o o f f e r any d r a m a t i c s o l u t i o n s t o the c l a s s e q u a t i o n , and c o u l d a l s o be i m p l i c a t e d i n P a r k i n ' s a c c u s a t i o n . Friedman's (1977: 29) o n l y r e f e r e n c e t o c l a s s b o u n d a r i e s i s a t r u n c a t e d and i n c o n c l u s i v e f o o t n o t e t o the e f f e c t t h a t ' c e n t r e ' workers who do not e x p l o i t ' p e r i p h e r a l ' workers a r e p a r t of the w o r k i n g c l a s s , w h i l e those whose f u n c t i o n i t i s t o e x e r c i s e a u t h o r i t y (and ' i n d i r e c t l y e x p l o i t ' w o r k e r s ) are n o t . We a r e l e f t w i t h e s s e n t i a l l y two f r a c t i o n s of the working c l a s s and an ambiguous m i d d l e s t r a t u m . B o n a c i c h (1979: 24) s t a t e s t h a t " t y p i c a l l y a s p l i t l a b o u r market has p r e s e n t t h r e e c l a s s e s : c a p i t a l , h i g h - p r i c e d l a b o u r , and cheap l a b o u r . " A l t h o u g h the d i s t i n c t i o n between c l a s s , group and c a s t e i s never e x p l i c i t l y made, one assumes from i t s a n t a g o n i s t i c r e l a t i o n t o c a p i t a l i n t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e t h a t h i g h - p r i c e d l a b o u r i s a f r a c t i o n of the w o r k i n g c l a s s . Once a g a i n the b o u n d a r i e s a r e v e r y vague, and j u s t as l i k e l y t o r e s t on r a c i a l as c l a s s d e t e r m i n a n t s . Edwards (1979) i s the o n l y r a d i c a l t h e o r y t h a t p r e s e n t s a model of c l a s s s t r u c t u r e , d e s c r i b i n g t h r e e c l a s s f r a c t i o n s and e x p l a i n i n g t h e b o u n d a r i e s of the 'middle l a y e r s ' by r e f e r e n c e t o W r i g h t ' s (1978) n o t i o n of ' c o n t r a d i c t o r y c l a s s l o c a t i o n s ' (Edwards (1979: 240). In c o n t r a s t t o the r a d i c a l d u a l and s p l i t 1 17 t h e o r i e s which suggest the e m b o u r g e o i s i f i c a t i o n of a l a b o u r a r i s t o c r a c y or m i d d l e s t r a t u m , r a d i c a l segmented t h e o r y f i r m l y backs the p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n t h e s i s ( I b i d : 108). The c o n t r a d i c t o r y p o s i t i o n s t a k e n by r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r i e s r e g a r d i n g the d e s t i n a t i o n of the m i d d l e c l a s s e s , r a t h e r than c l o u d i n g the i s s u e , a c t u a l l y p r o v i d e an e x i t from a debate t h a t has g e n e r a t e d more heat than l i g h t . As the ma t t e r s t a n d s , both p a r t i e s r e c o g n i z e i n t e r n a l d i v i s i o n s i n the wo r k i n g c l a s s , the e x i s t e n c e of a l a r g e m i d d l e stratum,' and by d e f a u l t , the a n a c h r o n i s t i c n a t u r e of the s i m p l e two c l a s s model. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , n e i t h e r c o n s i d e r s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t h o m o g e n i z a t i o n and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n might c o e x i s t as complementary t e n d e n c i e s i n the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n , r eproduced by the uneven development of g l o b a l c a p i t a l i s m (Wright and Singlemann, 1982). R a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y s u g g e s t s t h a t each tendency r e p r e s e n t s a p o t e n t i a l outcome of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n the w o r k p l a c e and the l a b o u r market, c o n t i n g e n t on c l a s s s t r u g g l e , and i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t s . G e n e r a l i z i n g about h i s t o r i c a l t r e n d s can h i d e t h e i r c o n c r e t e e f f e c t s on s p e c i f i c groups l i k e b l a c k s , women, and e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s w h ich, a l t h o u g h they may comprise the m a j o r i t y of the w o r k i n g c l a s s (Wright e t a l . , 1982), t e n d t o get l o s t i n o b j e c t i v e c l a s s c a t e g o r i e s . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t contemporary M a r x i s t and Weberian d e s c r i p t i o n s of c l a s s s t r u c t u r e have been c o n v e r g i n g . N e i t h e r Marx nor Weber was as g u i l t y of r e i f y i n g c l a s s t h e o r y as t h e i r a c o l y t e s . As a r u l e , t hey d i d not c o n f u s e t h e i r a n a l y t i c models 118 of c l a s s w i t h c o n c r e t e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s because t h e i r p r i m a r y concerns were the r o l e s of human agents i n h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s . R a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y i n t e g r a t e s M a r x i s t c l a s s s t r a t e g y and Weberian group power approaches w i t h n e o c l a s s i c a l economic t h e o r y i n t o what has been c a l l e d a ' c l a s s c o n f l i c t ' p e r s p e c t i v e . I t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o c l a s s t h e o r y i s not a t h e o r e t i c a l or e m p i r i c a l r e s o l u t i o n t o the boundary problem as such, but an e c l e c t i c c o n c e p t u a l framework, and an h i s t o r i c a l method f o r a n a l y s i n g c o n c r e t e s o c i a l c l a s s e s i n terms of an a b s t r a c t model; c l a s s as dynamic ' p r o c e s s ' as w e l l as ' s t r u c t u r e ' . R a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y p r o v i d e s a r a t h e r l i m i t e d , e c o n o m i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d view of t h e h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n by a n a l y s i n g s t r u g g l e s between or among c l a s s e s i n the l a b o u r p r o c e s s as they m ediate, and a r e mediated by, i n t r a - c l a s s ( c l a s s f r a c t i o n ) and i n t e r - g r o u p ( r a c i a l , e t h n i c , gender, e t c . , ) c o n f l i c t i n t h e l a b o u r market. The d i a l e c t i c s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a way of c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g how p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n r e l a t i o n s shape and l i m i t t he s t r u g g l e s of c o n c r e t e a gents t h a t t r a n s f o r m the l a b o u r p r o c e s s , segment the l a b o u r market, and s t r a t i f y the w o r k i n g c l a s s . Absent from r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y i s the p o l i t i c a l d i m e n s i o n of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n as a d i s c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s of s e l f - o r g a n i z a t i o n b o t h o u t s i d e and i n s i d e the w o r k p l a c e . A more e x p l i c i t and s y s t e m a t i c c l a s s c o n f l i c t t h e o r y of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter S i x t o e x p l a i n the p r o c e s s whereby c l a s s e s form, de-form and r e - f o r m i n c o n c r e t e c l a s s and community-based s t r u g g l e s (Thompson, 1963; P r z e w o r s k i , 1977; 1 1 9 Wood, 1982; T h e r b o r n , 1983). 5.3 The s t a t e and l a b o u r market t h e o r y A v i t a l i s s u e r a i s e d by Weber's a n a l y s i s of b u r e a u c r a c y and the m i d d l e c l a s s , Giddens (1980) n o t e s , i s the r o l e of the S t a t e i n c a p i t a l i s t development and c l a s s s t r u g g l e . Acknowledgement of the p r o b l e m a t i c n a t u r e of the S t a t e has l e d t o r e c u r r i n g debate w i t h i n contemporary Marxism over a ' g e n e r a l t h e o r y of the c a p i t a l i s t S t a t e ' (Gold e t a l . , 1975; P a n i t c h , 1977; J e s s o p , 1982). The u n a b a t i n g c r i s i s of w o r l d c a p i t a l i s m over the p a s t decade has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b o t h L e f t and R i g h t as a ' c r i s i s of the S t a t e ' . The r e v i v a l of b o t h r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l economy and c o n s e r v a t i v e monetary p o l i c y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d has drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the n e g l e c t e d r o l e of the S t a t e , and f i l l e d a t h e o r e t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l vacuum c r e a t e d by the absense of l i b e r a l - p l u r a l i s t a n a l y s e s of t h e s i t u a t i o n . R ather than a t t e m p t i n g t o c a t a l o g u e the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of M a r x i s t l i t e r a t u r e on the S t a t e , o n l y b r i e f summaries of f o u r i m p o r t a n t p e r s p e c t i v e s a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e . The ' i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t ' , ' s t r u c t u r a l i s t ' , ' c l a s s t h e o r e t i c a l ' and ' c a p i t a l l o g i c ' v a r i a n t s a r e each c o n s i d e r e d here on the b a s i s of t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the S t a t e and c l a s s , i n t r a - c l a s s , and i n t e r - g r o u p s t r u g g l e s . The r a t h e r i n a d e q u a t e account of the S t a t e i n r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y i s r e c o g n i z e d , then c o n t r a s t e d t o t h e s e f o u r v a r i a n t s , and a c l a s s c o n f l i c t a p p r o a c h t o the S t a t e i s t e n t a t i v e l y advanced. 1 20 5 . 3 . i I n s t r u m e n t a l i s t approach C o n t r a r y t o p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n s , i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s argue t h a t the S t a t e i s the d i r e c t i n s t r u m e n t of c l a s s r u l e (Domhoff, 1967; M i l i b a n d , 1969; Quinney, 1977). In ac c o r d a n c e w i t h the M a n i f e s t o ' s c a r i c a t u r e of the S t a t e as an ' e x e c u t i v e committee of t h e b o u r g e o i s i e ' , t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e h o l d s t h a t t h o s e w i t h economic power a r e a l s o t h o s e w i t h p o l i t i c a l power. Res e a r c h u s u a l l y assumes the form of t r a c i n g f a m i l i a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among members of the economic, p o l i t i c a l and j u d i c i a l e l i t e s , and l i n k a g e s between the dominant c l a s s and the v a r i o u s command p o s t s i n the S t a t e . The l a t t e r i s d e f i n e d as a system of i n s t i t u t i o n s c o m p r i s i n g t h e "government, the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the m i l i t a r y and p o l i c e , the j u r i d i c a l b r a n c h , s u b - c e n t r a l government and p a r l i a m e n t a r y a s s e m b l i e s " ( M i l i b a n d , 1969: 5 0 ) . The o p e r a t i o n a l autonomy of t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s i s c o n s i d e r e d l a r g e l y a sham. E x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the f u n c t i o n i n g of the S t a t e on b e h a l f of the dominant c l a s s a r e couched i n a ' p o s i t i o n a l ' t h e o r y of power, which tends t o reduce p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n t o the m o t i v a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l and group agents who, because they have demonstrably s i m i l a r backgrounds, a r e assumed t o s h a r e c l a s s i n t e r e s t s . As dynamics of s o c i a l change, c l a s s s t r u g g l e and i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t s e n t e r the p i c t u r e i n f r e q u e n t l y i f a t a l l . 5 . 3 . i i S t r u c t u r a l i s t approach The s t r u c t u r a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e t a k e s a c o m p l e t e l y o p p o s i n g p o s i t i o n . The S t a t e i s not a system of i n s t i t u t i o n s , nor can i t be s i m p l y equated w i t h the incumbents of command p o s t s . I t i s 121 an ' o b j e c t i v e s t r u c t u r e ' , and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the dominant c l a s s i s an ' o b j e c t i v e r e l a t i o n ' d e termined by the s t r u c t u r a l c o n s t r a i n t s on i t t o a c t on b e h a l f of the e n t i r e dominant c l a s s ( P o u l a n t z a s , 1973) . The S t a t e t h e r e f o r e i s ' r e l a t i v e l y autonomous', and a c t s as the ' f a c t o r of c o h e s i o n ' r e p r o d u c i n g the r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n by c o u n t e r a c t i n g dominant c l a s s d i s u n i t y on the one hand, and working c l a s s s o l i d a r i t y on the o t h e r . Hence, the S t a t e i s d e f i n e d f u n c t i o n a l l y , and s i n c e i t s f u n c t i o n s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y i d e o l o g i c a l , the ' I d e o l o g i c a l S t a t e A p p a r a t u s e s ' i n c l u d e p r a c t i c a l l y a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n s o c i e t y ( A l t h u s s e r , 1971). Not a l l s t r u c t u r a l approaches s u b s c r i b e t o t h i s broad d e f i n i t i o n of the S t a t e , and f o r some the concept of r e l a t i v e autonomy i s q u a l i f i e d by empha s i z i n g the economic and c o e r c i v e f u n c t i o n s of the c a p i t a l i s t S t a t e (O'Connor, 1973; O f f e , 1975; P a n i t c h , 1977). In a l l these f u n c t i o n a l i s t t h e o r i e s the r o l e of c l a s s and community-based s t r u g g l e s i s c u r i o u s l y a b s e n t , and human agency, i f not v i g o r o u s l y d e n i e d , tends t o be r e p l a c e d by s t r u c t u r a l c r i s e s i n the economy. 5 . 3 . i i i C l a s s t h e o r e t i c a l approach The c l a s s t h e o r e t i c a l v a r i a n t i s d e r i v e d from Gramsci (1971) whose work i s not so much a t h e o r y of the S t a t e as i t i s a t h e o r y of p o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e . H i s t h e o r e t i c a l musings are r a t h e r l o o s e l y c onnected by the g e n e r a l theme of 'hegemony', and emphasize human agency and c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n the c l a s s s t r u g g l e t o g a i n and h o l d s t a t e power. Gramsci (1971) conceded the primacy of the economic, but viewed the r e l a t i o n s between base and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e , c i v i l s o c i e t y and s t a t e , as complex and 1 22 dynamic r a t h e r than o b j e c t i v e and d e t e r m i n a n t ( W i l l i a m s , 1978). He r e c o g n i z e d the c o e r c i v e c h a r a c t e r of the S t a t e , but f o c u s e d on i t s i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n as the ' a r c h i t e c t of consensus', l e g i t i m a t i n g c l a s s r u l e by o r g a n i z i n g an i d e o l o g i c a l hegemony around the s t r u c t u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s of c a p i t a l . Hegemony i s a c h i e v e d by s t a t e c o n t r o l of the a p p a r e n t l y autonomous i n s t i t u t i o n s and a g e n c i e s of c i v i l s o c i e t y - - f a m i l y , c h u r c h e s , media, s c h o o l s , u n i o n s , p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s — a n d m a i n t a i n e d more by l e a d e r s h i p than by d o m i n a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , c l a s s s t r u g g l e f o r i d e o l o g i c a l supremacy of c i v i l s o c i e t y t a k e s precedence over the p o l i t i c a l b a t t l e f o r s t a t e power. Counter-hegemonic f o r c e s i n the s u b o r d i n a t e c l a s s e s d e v e l o p o r g a n i c a l l y r a t h e r than a r i s i n g s p o n t a n e o u s l y or from o b j e c t i v e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n the economy. C l a s s i n t e r e s t s a r e o r g a n i z e d f i r s t on the i d e o l o g i c a l l e v e l t h r o u g h c l a s s i n s t i t u t i o n s , then e x p r e s s e d p o l i t i c a l l y through c l a s s p a r t i e s . T h i s e v o l u t i o n of c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h r o u g h s t r u g g l e n e c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l s m e d i a t i n g c o n f l i c t s between or among groups and f r a c t i o n s of the s u b o r d i n a t e c l a s s e s , and f o r g i n g an ' h i s t o r i c a l b l o c ' w i t h i n c i v i l s o c i e t y and the S t a t e . The l a t t e r can o n l y be grasped t h e r e f o r e by the a n a l y s i s of s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l c o n j u n c t u r e s and the c l a s s f r a c t i o n s , groups, a l l i a n c e s and s t r u g g l e s f o r s t a t e power. 5 . 3 . i v C a p i t a l l o g i c approach The m a t e r i a l i s t or c a p i t a l l o g i c t h e o r y of the S t a t e has i t s o r i g i n s i n the German ' s t a t e d e r i v a t i o n ' debate which began w i t h a c r i t i q u e of c l a s s t h e o r e t i c a l approaches f o r f a i l i n g t o 1 23 r e l a t e p o l i t i c s , i d e o l o g y and c u l t u r e t o the c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n (Holloway and P i c c i o t t o , 1978). Gramsci i s f a u l t e d f o r not e x p l o r i n g the s t r u c t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s imposed on the S t a t e by c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n , and f o r not b e i n g a b l e t o e x p l a i n the development of s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c a l forms. By means of a h i g h l y a b s t r a c t 'form a n a l y s i s ' , the proponents of c a p i t a l l o g i c attempt t o r e l a t e h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and a c c u m u l a t i o n t o p a r t i c u l a r forms of c l a s s s t r u g g l e and the S t a t e . The S t a t e ' s form and i t s p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n a r e r e g a r d e d as c o n t i n g e n t on the r e l a t i o n between s t r u c t u r a l changes i n the economy and c l a s s s t r u g g l e , and v i c e v e r s a . Thus, the S t a t e i s not merely an i n s t r u m e n t of the dominant c l a s s , an o b j e c t i v e l y d e t e r m i n e d s t r u c t u r e , or an o r g a n i z e r of hegemony, but an h i s t o r i c a l form of p o l i t i c a l d o m i n a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r s e c u r i n g c o n t i n u o u s c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . By d e n y i n g the autonomy of the ' p o l i t i c a l i n s t a n c e ' however, the c a p i t a l l o g i c v a r i a n t i s unable t o a v o i d the e c o n o m i s t i c r e d u c t i o n of the S t a t e t o i t s form, and c l a s s and community-based s t r u g g l e s t o the laws of motion of c a p i t a l . 5.3.v Towards a c l a s s c o n f l i c t t h e o r y of the S t a t e C o n s i d e r i n g the impact of the modern s t a t e on c l a s s and market f o r m a t i o n as r e g u l a t o r and employer i n the l a b o u r market and l a b o u r p r o c e s s , not t o mention i t s p o l i t i c o - l e g a l j u r i s d i c t i o n over w e l f a r e (Gough, 1979), i m m i g r a t i o n (Kubat, 1979), and r a c i a l / e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s (Sivanandan, 1982), i t r e c e i v e s s c a r c e l y any a t t e n t i o n i n r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y . In p a r t t h i s f a i l i n g can be a t t r i b u t e d t o p r a g m a t i c l i m i t a t i o n s 1 24 of s c a l e , but i t i s no doubt a l s o due t o the p r o b l e m a t i c n a t u r e of d e f i n i n g and t h e o r i z i n g about the S t a t e . In any c a s e , Friedman's (1977: 130) comments a r e r e s e r v e d f o r a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s h i f t i n the S t a t e ' s approach t o ' b u t t r e s s i n g m a n a g e r i a l a u t h o r i t y ' from a c o e r c i v e r o l e t o a c o o p t i v e one, p a r a l l e l i n g t h e change from d i r e c t t o r e s p o n s i b l e autonomy forms of c o n t r o l . Why t h i s o c c u r r e d we a r e not t o l d , nor does Friedman a d d r e s s the i s s u e of ' u n p r o d u c t i v e ' s t a t e w o r k e r s , so we can o n l y s u r m i s e t h a t t h e s e c o n c e r n s f a l l o u t s i d e the p a l e of c e n t r e - p e r i p h e r y r e l a t i o n s . B o n a c i c h (1979) p e r c e i v e s the S t a t e as an "arena of c l a s s s t r u g g l e , and v a r i o u s p o l i c i e s as p r o d u c t s of c l a s s s t r u g g l e , o f t e n e n t a i l i n g p e c u l i a r compromises" s t r u c k between the S t a t e and c l a s s f r a c t i o n s . The problem here i s t h a t the a n a l y s i s i s p i t c h e d a t such a d e s c r i p t i v e l e v e l t h a t the S t a t e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the dominant c l a s s i s never d i r e c t l y b roached, nor i t s p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n s taken i n t o a c c o u n t . Edwards (1979) a l s o p e r c e i v e s the S t a t e as i n c r e a s i n g l y p a r t of the ' c o n t e s t e d t e r r a i n ' , and h i s more e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s r e l a t e s c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n and b u r e a u c r a t i c c o n t r o l t o the p o l i t i c i z a t i o n of the c l a s s s t r u g g l e , the development of ' c l a s s f r a c t i o n p o l i t i e s ' , and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n the d e m o c r a t i c form of the S t a t e ( I b i d : pp. 200-216). S t i l l , t h e r e i s h a r d l y what one c o u l d c a l l a c o h e r e n t t h e o r y of the S t a t e i n r a d i c a l segmented t h e o r y , and the e f f e c t s of s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n on the p r o c e s s e s of c l a s s and market f o r m a t i o n remain u n t h e o r i z e d . 1 25 A l t h o u g h the S t a t e has been e s s e n t i a l l y b r a c k e t e d out as a c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r , f e a t u r e s of a l l f o u r v a r i a n t s of s t a t e t h e o r y are c l e a r l y d i s c e r n i b l e i n r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y . I f the d i a l e c t i c s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a r e r e g a r d e d as a c l a s s a n a l y s i s of c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s i n the p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i n the l a b o u r market, then a c l a s s t h e o r e t i c a l approach, q u a l i f i e d by the c a p i t a l l o g i c c r i t i q u e , would p r o b a b l y p r o v i d e the best f i t f o r a c l a s s c o n f l i c t t h e o r y of the S t a t e . The c l a s s t h e o r e t i c a l and c a p i t a l l o g i c v a r i a n t s t e n d t o e r r a t complementary extremes, not u n l i k e group power and c l a s s s t r a t e g y approaches t o the l a b o u r market. C l a s s t h e o r e t i c a l t h e o r i e s t e n d t o be dynamic, and f o c u s b r o a d l y on the human agents i n v o l v e d i n c o n c r e t e p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e s i n the p r o c e s s e s of c l a s s and s t a t e f o r m a t i o n , w h i l e c a p i t a l l o g i c t h e o r i e s t e n d t o be more s t a t i c and concerned w i t h the economic d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the forms of c l a s s s t r u g g l e and the S t a t e by the p r o c e s s of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . A c l a s s c o n f l i c t t h e o r y of t h e S t a t e s h o u l d f a l l somewhere between t h e s e two v a r i a n t s , but c l o s e r t o a c l a s s t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n . N e i t h e r approach p e r c e i v e s the S t a t e as a r e l a t i v e l y autonomous s e t of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h i t s own f o r m a t i v e p r o c e s s e s and i n t e r e s t s a r i s i n g from i t s c o n t r a d i c t o r y r o l e s as b o t h an agent i n c l a s s and community-based s t r u g g l e s , and the h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c o - l e g a l c o n d i t i o n s under which they a r e f o u g h t . How the S t a t e m e d i a t e s , and i s mediated by, c l a s s s t r u g g l e and c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d a g a i n i n Chapter S i x , s e c t i o n 6.3, i n the c o n t e x t of a c l a s s c o n f l i c t model of r a c i a l 1 26 c o n f 1 i c t . 5.4 Group power approaches t o c l a s s , s t a t e and r a c i a l c o n f l i c t A r e c e n t e x p l a n a t i o n f o r communal c o n f l i c t t h a t a d d r e s s e s Giddens' f o u r s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e s w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of a c l a s s f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y i s P a r k i n ( 1 9 7 9 ) . P a r k i n ' s ' c l o s u r e ' t h e o r y was chosen t o r e p r e s e n t t h i s genre o v e r Giddens' (1973; 1979) account of ' c l a s s s t r u c t u r a t i o n ' f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . F i r s t , i t i s e x p l i c i t l y a group power t h e o r y which d e f i n e s c l a s s i n terms of 'modes of c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n ' , w h i l e Giddens' (1973) sees c l a s s more c o n v e n t i o n a l l y as emerging from the d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r . Second, P a r k i n ' s (1979) t h e o r y r e s t s on a p o l e m i c a l c r i t i q u e d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y a t M a r x i s t c l a s s t h e o r y , and a c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Weber which i m p l i c i t l y r e f u t e s o t h e r neo-Weberians l i k e Dahrendorf (1959) and Giddens (1973). T h i r d , and more i m p o r t a n t , P a r k i n (1979) p l a c e s a premium on the r o l e of communal groups and ' i n t r a - c l a s s ' c o n f l i c t i n the p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n , and a r g u e s " i n f a v o u r of a s i n g l e framework of i d e a s and a common v o c a b u l a r y w i t h which t o conduct the d i s c o u r s e on s t r u c t u r e d i n e q u a l i t y i n a l l i t s f a m i l i a r g u i s e s " ( I b i d ; 4 2 ) . And f i n a l l y , P a r k i n ' s (1979) c o n c e p t i o n of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i s i n t r i c a t e l y meshed w i t h a t h e o r y of the S t a t e , and h i s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t c l a s s power and s t a t e power s h o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d as s e p a r a t e forms of d o m i n a t i o n demands s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . H i s u n i f i e d approach t o s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y , based on Weber's n o t i o n of ' s o c i a l c l o s u r e ' i s s c r u t i n i z e d below from a c l a s s c o n f l i c t p e r s p e c t i v e , and found t o s u f f e r from a malady common t o Weberian r e f o r m u l a t i o n s ; an 1 27 abundance of d e s c r i p t i o n , but a d e a r t h of e x p l a n a t i o n . 5 . 4 . i P a r k i n ' s b o u r g e o i s c r i t i q u e P a r k i n (1979) has two p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i o n s t o ' n e o - M a r x i s t ' c l a s s t h e o r i e s . The f i r s t i s t h a t Marxism c o n c e i v e s c l a s s as an o b j e c t i v e s e t of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , and emphasizes c l a s s s t r u c t u r e and l o c a t i o n above c l a s s f o r m a t i o n and a c t i o n . "The human raw m a t e r i a l of c l a s s a n a l y s i s t h a t Weberian usage d e s i g n a t e s as ' a c t o r s ' , t h e r e b y s i n g l i n g out the r o l e of c o n s c i o u s agency and v o l i t i o n , i s t r a n s f o r m e d by M a r x i s t usage i n t o the s t a t u s of 'embodiments' o r r e p o s i t o r i e s of s y s t e m i c f o r c e s " ( I b i d : 4 ) . The second i s t h a t the pri m a c y of p r o d u c t i o n over d i s t r i b u t i o n r e l a t i o n s i n M a r x i s t c l a s s a n a l y s i s does not p r o v i d e an adequate b a s i s from which t o e x p l a i n t h e convergence of c a p i t a l i s t and s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t i e s , or the ' r e n a i s s a n c e ' of r a c i a l and e t h n i c c o n f l i c t i n the ' h e a r t l a n d s of Western c a p i t a l i s m ' . "The M a r x i s t p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the realm of p r o d u c t i o n , i n c r e a s i n g l y h e l d up as i t s mark of t h e o r e t i c a l r i g o u r , o b s c u r e s from view any r e c o g n i t i o n of the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t some l i n e of c l e a v a g e o t h e r than t h a t between c a p i t a l and l a b o u r c o u l d c o n s t i t u t e t h e p r i m a r y source of p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l antagonism" ( P a r k i n , 1979: 5 ) . There i s a f a m l i a r r i n g t o P a r k i n ' s argument. Both of thes e themes have a l r e a d y been t r e a t e d more i n t e n s i v e l y i n contemporary M a r x i s t c r i t i q u e s . (The same b a s i c c r i t i c i s m s have been r e i t e r a t e d t hroughout t h i s s t u d y w i t h r e s p e c t t o orthodox and f u n c t i o n a l i s t M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s ) . The o b j e c t i o n here i s not h i s argument so much as the way i t i s e x p r e s s e d , and the i d e o l o g i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s of t h e a u t h o r ' s c o n c l u s i o n s . By means of a p r o c r u s t e a n r e view of M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s , P a r k i n (1979) 1 28 c r e a t e s s t r u c t u r a l i s t e f f i g i e s of Marxism which are then r a z e d i n a r i t u a l p o l e m i c p r e v i e w i n g h i s own r e s u r r e c t i o n of Weberian c l a s s a n a l y s i s . The c r i t i q u e i s merely window d r e s s i n g ; the t h e o r y however, w a r r a n t s c l o s e r a t t e n t i o n . 5 . 4 . i i C l a s s and forms of s o c i a l c l o s u r e S o c i o l o g i c a l c l a s s t h e o r y can be r e c o u n t e d as a s u c c e s s i o n of Weberian r e v i s i o n s of Marxism i n s e a r c h of a s u p e r i o r model t h a t c a p t u r e s both s t r u c t u r e and c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n c l a s s f o r m a t i o n . Hence, C.W. M i l l s (1951) employed the concept of ' s t a t u s ' , Dahrendorf '(1959) the concept of ' a u t h o r i t y ' , and l a t e r Giddens (1973), the concept of ' m o b i l i t y c l o s u r e ' t o e x p l a i n c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i n Western c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . In the l a t e s t a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e eminent r a n k s , P a r k i n (1979) s e i z e s on the h i t h e r t o obscure n o t i o n of ' s o c i a l c l o s u r e ' t o p r o v i d e the f o u n d a t i o n f o r another a l t e r n a t i v e t o M a r x i s t c l a s s a n a l y s i s . "By s o c i a l c l o s u r e Weber means the p r o c e s s by which s o c i a l c o l l e c t i v i t i e s seek t o maximize rewards by r e s t r i c t i n g a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a l i m i t e d c i r c l e of e l i g i b l e s . T h i s e n t a i l s the s i n g l i n g out of c e r t a i n s o c i a l or p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s as the j u s t i f i c a t o r y b a s i s of e x c l u s i o n " ( P a r k i n , 1979: 4 4 ) . For Weber, c l o s u r e d e s c r i b e d the c o l l e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s of dominant communal groups t o 'monopolize economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s ' by e x c l u d i n g s u b o r d i n a t e groups from c o m p e t i t i o n . P a r k i n (1979) l o g i c a l l y e x t e n d s the concept t o i n c l u d e not o n l y ' e x c l u s i o n a r y c l o s u r e ' , but a l s o forms of c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n by s u b o r d i n a t e groups aimed a t ' u s u r p i n g ' r e s o u r c e s from below. " E x c l u s i o n and u s u r p a t i o n may t h e r e f o r e be r e g a r d e d as the two main g e n e r i c t y p e s of s o c i a l c l o s u r e , the 1 29 l a t t e r always b e i n g a consequence o f , and c o l l e c t i v e response t o , the former" ( I b i d : 4 5 ) . W i t h s o c i a l c l o s u r e t h u s d e f i n e d , the way i s now c l e a r f o r P a r k i n (1979), i n a consummate f e a t of t h e o r e t i c a l l e g e r d e m a i n , t o r e f o r m u l a t e s o c i a l c l a s s such t h a t c l a s s f o r m a t i o n , power, e x p l o i t a t i o n and i n t e r n a l c l a s s d i v i s i o n s a r e a l l r e l a t e d i n terms of c l o s u r e s t r u g g l e s over s o c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . " ...the f a m i l i a r d i s t i n c t i o n between b o u r g e o i s i e and p r o l e t a r i a t ... may be c o n c e i v e d as an e x p r e s s i o n of c o n f l i c t between c l a s s e s d e f i n e d not s p e c i f i c a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r p l a c e i n the p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s but i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r p r e v a l e n t modes of c l o s u r e , e x c l u s i o n and u s u r p a t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y " ( I b i d : 4 6 ) . E x c l u s i o n a r y s t r a t e g i e s a r e the p r i n c i p a l modes of c l o s u r e by which the dominant c l a s s m o b i l i z e s power i n a 'downward d i r e c t i o n ' t o form and reproduce i t s 'monopoly of o p p o r t u n i t i e s ' . A c c o r d i n g t o P a r k i n (1979), the two main forms of e x c l u s i o n a r e ' p r o p e r t y ' (as c a p i t a l ) , and ' c r e d e n t i a l s ' ( c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l ) . "Each r e p r e s e n t s a s e t of l e g a l arrangements f o r r e s t r i c t i n g a c c e s s t o rewards and p r i v i l e g e s ; p r o p e r t y ownership i s a form of c l o s u r e d e s i g n e d t o p r e v e n t g e n e r a l a c c e s s t o the means of p r o d u c t i o n and i t s f r u i t s ; c r e d e n t i a l i s m i s a form of c l o s u r e d e s i g n e d t o c o n t r o l and monitor e n t r y t o key p o s i t i o n s i n the d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r " ( I b i d : 47-8). E x c l u s i o n a r y p r a c t i c e s may combine both forms, and a r e f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n terms of ' i n d i v i d u a l i s t ' and ' c o l l e c t i v i s t ' c r i t e r i a , s i m i l a r t o P a r s o n i a n achievement and a s c r i p t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y . C o l l e c t i v i s t t y p e s of e x c l u s i o n a r e those based on a s c r i p t i v e a t t r i b u t e s l i k e r a c e , and t e n d t o s u b o r d i n a t e 1 30 communal groups marked by a t o t a l n e g a t i v e s t a t u s such as a p a r t h e i d . I n d i v i d u a l i s t t y p e s a r e t h o s e based on achievement c r i t e r i a , and t e n d t o produce a s u b o r d i n a t e group c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the s t a t u s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and s o c i a l f r a g m e n t a t i o n t y p i c a l of a m e r i t o c r a c y . U s u r p a t i o n a r y c l o s u r e d e s c r i b e s the r e s p o n s e s of s u b o r d i n a t e groups to t h e i r n e g a t i v e l y a s c r i b e d s t a t u s and c o l l e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e of d o m i n a t i o n and e x c l u s i o n . Examples i n c l u d e l a b o u r ' s s t r u g g l e s w i t h c a p i t a l , r a c i a l and e t h n i c s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and women's s t r u g g l e s f o r e q u a l i t y . As s u c h , i t tends t o d i f f e r from e x c l u s i o n a r y c l o s u r e i n some i m p o r t a n t ways. For P a r k i n (1979) u s u r p a t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n of power i n an 'upward d i r e c t i o n ' . R e g a r d l e s s of t h e s c a l e of u s u r p a t i o n a r y a c t i o n , i t i s t h e r e f o r e g e n e r a t e d by " a l t e r n a t i v e s t a n d a r d s of d i s t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e " ( I b i d : 7 4 ) . I t must r e l y more on ' s o l i d a r i s t i c ' t a c t i c s l i k e s t r i k e s , d e m o n s t r a t i o n s and s y m b o l i c r i t u a l s than on t h e l e g a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l endorsement e n j o y e d by t h e e x c l u s i o n a r y d e v i c e s of t h e dominant c l a s s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , u s u r p a t i o n a r y c l o s u r e poses a c h a l l e n g e not o n l y t o the l e g a l o r d e r , but a l s o t o the system of d i s t r i b u t i o n and the i d e o l o g y of s o c i a l j u s t i c e u n d e r l y i n g i t . The n o t i o n of 'dual c l o s u r e ' r e c o g n i z e s the importance of ' i n t r a - c l a s s ' c o n f l i c t , and d e s c r i b e s the " e x c l u s i o n s t r a t e g i e s ... employed by one segment of the s u b o r d i n a t e c l a s s a g a i n s t a n o t h e r , most u s u a l l y on the b a s i s of r a c e , sex, e t h n i c i t y , or some o t h e r c o l l e c t i v i s t a t t r i b u t e " ( I b i d : 8 9 ) . Thus, o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r may be i n v o l v e d i n two forms of c l o s u r e ; u s u r p a t i o n a r y 131 s t r a t e g i e s a g a i n s t c a p i t a l and/or the S t a t e , and e x c l u s i o n a r y c l o s u r e a g a i n s t l e s s p o w e r f u l groups of w o r kers l i k e i m m i g r a n t s , women and r a c i a l m i n o r i t i e s . "For d e f i n i t i o n a l p u r p o s e s , t h e n , the dominant c l a s s i n a s o c i e t y can be s a i d t o c o n s i s t of t h o s e s o c i a l groups whose share of r e s o u r c e s i s a t t a i n e d p r i m a r i l y by e x c l u s i o n a r y means; whereas the s u b o r d i n a t e c l a s s c o n s i s t s of s o c i a l groups whose p r i m a r y s t r a t e g y i s one of u s u r p a t i o n , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the o c c a s i o n a l r e s o r t t o e x c l u s i o n as a supplementary s t r a t e g y " ( I b i d : 93). What i s perhaps most s t r i k i n g about t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s the unabashed c i r c u l a r i t y of the argument, and the s o p h i s t r y of i t s a u t h o r who promises c l a s s a n a l y s i s , but d e l i v e r s o n l y a d e s c r i p t i o n of group c o m p e t i t i o n . " A l though P a r k i n p u r p o r t s t o d e f i n e c l a s s e s i n terms of d i s t i n c t i v e modes of s o c i a l c l o s u r e , i t i s apparent t h a t t h e s e modes of s o c i a l c l o s u r e a r e t h e m s e l v e s d e f i n e d by the c l a s s e s t o which they r e f e r .... W i t h i n the c i r c l e of t h i s t a u t o l o g y the meaning of the concept of s o c i a l c l a s s e v a p o r a t e s " ( B u r r i s , 1983: 118-119). C l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p P a r k i n (1979) assumes between c l a s s f o r m a t i o n and group power r e l a t i o n s , and between e x p l o i t a t i o n and i n t e r n a l c l a s s d i v i s i o n s r e v e a l s more c i r c u l a r i t y , and the k i n d s of i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and e l i p t i c a l t h i n k i n g a s s o c i a t e d i n h i s c r i t i q u e w i t h the 'wastelands of p o l i t i c a l economy'. 5 . 4 . i i i C l a s s f o r m a t i o n , power and t h e S t a t e C l a s s r e l a t i o n s f o r P a r k i n (1979) a r e power r e l a t i o n s , and i t i s o n l y f i t t i n g t h a t modes of s o c i a l c l o s u r e be d e f i n e d as " d i f f e r e n t means of m o b i l i z i n g power f o r the purpose of engaging i n d i s t r i b u t i v e s t r u g g l e " ( I b i d : 4 6 ) . Power, we a r e t o l d , i s a 1 32 " b u i l t - i n a t t r i b u t e of c l o s u r e " , so the two a r e i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d . The main problem w i t h P a r k i n ' s (1979) t h e o r y of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i s the i n i t i a l assumption ( t h a t c l a s s f o r m a t i o n r e s u l t s from group power r e l a t i o n s ) t h a t n e c e s s i t a t e s the c o n c e p t u a l l i n k a g e between power and s o c i a l c l o s u r e . The source of power on the one hand, and the way i t i s e x e r c i s e d on the o t h e r , a r e not always c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the o r i g i n a l d e f i n i t i o n , and i n f a c t , when the argument i s not c i r c u l a r or p r e d i c a t e d on the S t a t e , the concept of power remains a vague ' m e t a p h o r i c a l n o t i o n ' c o n s t a n t l y a l l u d e d t o , but never e x p l a i n e d . The i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t r o l e of the S t a t e i n c l a s s f o r m a t i o n seems t o c o n t r a d i c t P a r k i n ' s (1979: pp. 119-141) i n s i s t e n c e t h a t c l a s s power and s t a t e power be c o n c e i v e d as d i s t i n c t t y p e s of dominat i o n . U s u r p a t i o n a r y c l o s u r e , r e l y i n g p r i m a r i l y on s o l i d a r i s t i c a c t i o n t o i n f l u e n c e employers and the S t a t e , seems t o comply w i t h the c o n c e p t u a l l i n k a g e of power and c l o s u r e . The i n f e r e n c e i s t h a t the power m o b i l i z e d i n u s u r p a t i o n emanates from the c l a s s or group i t s e l f and i t s r e s o u r c e s , r a t h e r than from o u t s i d e i t , or merely conducted by i t . P a r k i n (1979) s u g g e s t s t h a t the ' u s u r p a t i o n a r y c a p a c i t y ' of the wo r k i n g c l a s s depends on two r e s o u r c e s : "the a b i l i t y t o command r e s o u r c e s on t h e b a s i s of s k i l l and market c a p a c i t y , and the a b i l i t y t o command r e s o u r c e s on the b a s i s of ' d i s r u p t i v e p o t e n t i a l ' " ( I b i d : 8 0 ) . Where t h e s e r e s o u r c e s come from, and why t h e y s h o u l d be p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e s of power m o b i l i z e d s o l i d a r i s t i c a l l y r a t h e r than l e g a l i s t i c a l l y i s never p r o p e r l y a d d r e s s e d . To do so would 133 r e q u i r e recourse, t o s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s exogenous t o c l a s s - f o r m i n g c l o s u r e and c l a s s r e l a t i o n s c o n c e i v e d s o l e y i n terms of d i s t r i b u t i o n . The e t a t i s t account of e x c l u s i o n a r y c l o s u r e b e l i e s t h e n o t i o n of power as a ' b u i l t - i n a t t r i b u t e ' of c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n . Power i s not seen t o r e s i d e i n p r o p e r t y or c r e d e n t i a l s t h e m s e l v e s , but i n t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n a l and l e g a l forms backed by the ' c o e r c i v e a u t h o r i t y of the S t a t e ' . Nor does i t r e s i d e i n the b o u r g e o i s c l a s s formed by e x c l u s i o n a r y c l o s u r e , a p o i n t P a r k i n (1979: 48,50,52,57-8,138) r e i t e r a t e s numerous t i m e s . Even the power m o b i l i z e d i n d u a l c l o s u r e by "one group of workers a g a i n s t a n o t h e r i s u s u a l l y f a c i l i t a t e d by the p a s t o r p r e s e n t p o l i c i e s of the s t a t e " ( I b i d : 9 5 ) . In s h o r t , a l l r e l a t i o n s of d o m i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n a r e those so d e f i n e d by the S t a t e . " I n e f f e c t , arguments such as P a r k i n ' s propose ... t h a t the power m o b i l i z e d i n c l a s s f o r m a t i o n be u n d e r s t o o d t o have i t s source and not s i m p l y i t s s a n c t i o n i n the s t a t e a p p a r a t u s , r a t h e r than i n t h e c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n of the c l a s s group i t s e l f . The n o t i o n of s o c i a l c l o s u r e can s t i l l be r e l e v a n t t o such an a c c o u n t of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n , but i t would be a supplementary s i g n i f i c a n c e o n l y " ( B a r b a l e t , 1982: 488) . The prominent r o l e of p o l i t i c o - l e g a l r e l a t i o n s i n c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y p e r t i n e n t t o a t h e o r y of communal c o n f l i c t , but i t i s h a r d l y n o v e l , and appears a t odds w i t h P a r k i n ' s (1979: 136) d i s t i n c t i o n between c l a s s power and s t a t e power. He argues t h a t the M a r x i s t p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r t h e o r i z i n g about the r e l a t i o n between the S t a t e and the dominant c l a s s 134 s h o u l d be abandoned, and t h a t c l a s s and s t a t e be acknowledged as s e p a r a t e forms of d o m i n a t i o n . Yet p a r a d o x i c a l l y , the c o n c e p t of r e l a t i v e autonomy i s eschewed, and we a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h e s s e n t i a l l y a m o d i f i e d i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t v e r s i o n of the c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e . "The c l o s u r e model c o n c e p t u a l i z e s the s t a t e as an agency t h a t b u t t r e s s e s and c o n s o l i d a t e s the r u l e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s of e x c l u s i o n g o v e r n i n g a l l r e l a t i o n s of d o m i n a t i o n and s u b j e c t i o n . Indeed, a c l a s s , r a c e , sex, or e t h n i c group o n l y a c c o m p l i s h e s d o m i n a t i o n t o the e x t e n t t h a t i t s e x c l u s i o n a r y p e r o g a t i v e s a r e backed by the p e r s u a s i v e i n s t r u m e n t s of the s t a t e " ( I b i d : 138). In f a c t , P a r k i n (1979: 140) seems t o emphasize th e c l a s s n a t u r e of the S t a t e by r e m i n d i n g us t h a t " d i r e c t a c c e s s t o s t a t e power i s not governed by e x c l u s i o n a r y c r i t e r i a t h a t d i f f e r i n any i m p o r t a n t way from the means by which the dominant c l a s s i t s e l f i s c o n s t i t u t e d . " D i s t i n g u i s h i n g between c l a s s and s t a t e power i n t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n i s tenuous a t b e s t , and i t i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y r e a s s u r i n g t o l e a r n t h a t the problem i s o n l y c o n c e p t u a l and not c o n c r e t e . L i k e p a t t e r n s of c l o s u r e and communal c o n f l i c t , r e l a t i o n s between s t a t e and dominant c l a s s a r e presumably " ' j u s t so' h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s , not ... e v e n t s t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o some jumbo s o c i a l t h e o r y " ( I b i d : 114). 5 . 4 . i v E x p l o i t a t i o n and r a c i a l c o n f l i c t P a r k i n ' s (1979) o b j e c t i v e i s t o c r e a t e a s i n g l e c o n c e p t u a l framework t o f a c i l i t a t e the a n a l y s i s of ' i n t r a - c l a s s ' r e l a t i o n s as " c o n f l i c t phenomena of the same g e n e r a l o r d e r as i n t e r - c l a s s r e l a t i o n s , and not as mere d i s t u r b a n c e s or c o m p l i c a t i o n s w i t h i n a 'pure' c l a s s model" ( I b i d : 113). H i s s o l u t i o n i s t o r e d e f i n e 135 the concept of e x p l o i t a t i o n i n terms of e x c l u s i o n a r y c l o s u r e , such t h a t " e x p l o i t a t i o n o c c u r s w i t h i n the s u b o r d i n a t e c l a s s as w e l l as a g a i n s t i t " ( I b i d ; 8 9 ) . "That i s , i n so f a r as e x c l u s i o n a r y forms of c l o s u r e r e s u l t i n t h e downward use of power, hence c r e a t i n g s u b o r d i n a t e s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s , they can be r e g a r d e d by d e f i n i t i o n as e x p l o i t a t i v e . E x p l o i t a t i o n here d e f i n e s the nexus between c l a s s e s or o t h e r c o l l e c t i v i t i e s t h a t s t a n d i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p of dominance and s u b o r d i n a t i o n , on whatever s o c i a l b a s i s " ( I b i d : 4 6 ) . A l l c l a s s , i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p r e l a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d o m i n a t i o n a r e t h e r e f o r e d e f i n e d as e x p l o i t a t i v e i n t h i s 'neo-Weberian sense'. •Given t h a t the e x e r c i s e of power i n e x c l u s i o n a r y c l o s u r e i s a n e c e s s a r y and s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r e x p l o i t a t i o n , P a r k i n (1979: 46) c l a i m s t h a t the a p p r o p r i a t i o n of s u r p l u s v a l u e i n p r o d u c t i o n i s but one form of e x c l u s i o n . T h i s makes the d i s t i n c t i o n between r e l a t i o n s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a m a t t e r of s e m a n t i c s . I f b o t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and s o c i a l c l o s u r e a r e c o n c e i v e d as the r e s t r i c t i o n of a c c e s s t o d e s i r e d goods and s e r v i c e s on the b a s i s of some a s c r i b e d c r i t e r i o n , then they a r e forms of what Weber (1978: 38,341-42) c a l l e d group ' c o m p e t i t i o n ' . However, c o m p e t i t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n , a c c e s s and a p p r o p r i a t i o n , s i g n i f y q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s which may r e s u l t i n d i f f e r e n t outcomes f o r those s u b j e c t t o them. 4 "Both c o m p e t i t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n a re means of s o c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . C o m p e t i t i o n , though, cannot c r e a t e the 4 See Chapter Two, s e c t i o n 2.2 f o r p r i m a r y d i v i s i o n s , and Chapter F o u r , s e c t i o n 4.6 f o r secondary d i v i s i o n s of the s o c i a l p r o d u c t . 1 36 m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s i t d i s t r i b u t e s ; i n a s i g n i f i c a n t sense e x p l o i t a t i o n can .... The e x p l o i t a t i o n of one c l a s s by a n o t h e r . . . e n t a i l s an a p p r o p r i a t i o n of p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t i e s and t h e r e f o r e the s o c i a l c r e a t i o n of m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s ...'and not merely the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o use them" ( B a r b a l e t , 1982: 490). E x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n may be h i s t o r i c a l l y r e l a t e d as r a d i c a l l a b o u r market p o s i t s , but e x c l u s i o n a r y c l o s u r e i s c l e a r l y a form of the l a t t e r , not the former. E x p l o i t a t i o n can e x i s t w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v i n g e x c l u s i o n , and e x c l u s i o n may o c cur w i t h o u t l e a d i n g d i r e c t l y t o e x p l o i t a t i o n . C o n f l a t i n g t h e s e two s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s as P a r k i n (1979) does, o n l y c o n f u s e s the two d i s t i n c t , but r e l a t e d l e v e l s of a b s t r a c t i o n t o which they speak. Both e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s i n g u l a r l y , and i n r e l a t i o n , a f f e c t c l a s s f o r m a t i o n , but the one i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c l a s s r e l a t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t i o n and d o m i n a t i o n t h a t o p e r a t e a t the s o c i e t a l l e v e l , w h i l e the o t h e r i s a p p l i c a b l e t o i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p r e l a t i o n s of c o m p e t i t i o n and d o m i n a t i o n o p e r a t i n g a t the l e v e l of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. The c o n c e p t u a l b l u r r i n g r e s u l t s from P a r k i n ' s (1979) p r o c l i v i t y f o r c o n c e i v i n g p r o d u c t i o n r e l a t i o n s i n terms of d i s t r i b u t i o n r e l a t i o n s , and t r a n s l a t i n g s t r u c t u r a l i n e q u a l i t y i n t o ' l i f e c h ances'. " I t i s s i m p l y inadequate t o r e g a r d e x p l o i t a t i o n as p r i v i l e g e d a c c e s s t o l i f e - c h a n c e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h d i m i n i s h e d l i f e - c h a n c e s f o r the e x p l o i t e d .... E x p l o i t a t i o n r e l a t i o n s a r e c o n c erned not j u s t w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n of l i f e - c h a n c e s , but w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n of the means of p r o d u c t i o n of l i f e - c h a n c e s " ( B a r b a l e t , 1982: 491-492). By r e d u c i n g c l a s s e x p l o i t a t i o n t o a form of group d o m i n a t i o n 1 37 P a r k i n (1979) p r e c l u d e s any e x p l a n a t i o n f o r how s t r u c t u r a l i n e q u a l i t y i s r e p r o d u c e d o r t r a n s f o r m e d . He l e a v e s us w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of a v o l u n t a r i s t i c w o r l d p o p u l a t e d by groups p o s i n g as s o c i a l c l a s s e s , e x e r c i s i n g power t h a t has no apparent s t r u c t u r a l b a s i s , and c o m p e t i n g f o r goods and s e r v i c e s t h a t a r e never produced. S i n c e e x p l o i t a t i o n i s not synonymous w i t h e x c l u s i o n a r y c l o s u r e , P a r k i n ' s (1979) r a t i o n a l e f o r t r e a t i n g c l a s s , i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p r e l a t i o n s as q u a l i t a t i v e l y t h e same i s not s u s t a i n a b l e . E x c l u s i o n a r y c l o s u r e does e x p l a i n i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t i n terms of r e l a t i o n s of c o m p e t i t i o n and d o m i n a t i o n , and t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , w o r k i n g c l a s s f r a g m e n t a t i o n . However, i t i s d o u b t f u l whether i t advances our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the e f f e c t s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t on the p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n beyond th e c o n t r i b u t i o n of r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y . B o n a c i c h (1972) has argued t h a t r a c i a l e x c l u s i o n a r y s t r a t e g i e s by o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r s h o u l d be s t u d i e d i n the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t of c l a s s s t r u g g l e as d i s c r i m i n a t o r y r e a c t i o n s t o t h r e a t s of c o m p e t i t i o n from cheap l a b o u r . P a r k i n (1979: 57) i n f a c t c o n c u r s t h a t i n t r a - c l a s s e x c l u s i o n has been a r a t i o n a l response t o e x p l o i t a t i o n by c a p i t a l , so i t i s h a r d l y p e r s u a s i v e then t o s u g g e s t , g i v e n the l e g a l and economic v u l n e r a b i l i t y of immigrant l a b o u r ( I b i d : 9 6 ) , t h a t e x c l u s i o n by i n d i g e n o u s l a b o u r c o n s t i t u t e s ' e x p l o i t a t i o n by p r o x y ' ( I b i d : 7 0 ) . 138 5.4.v C o n c l u s i o n P a r k i n (1979) i s c o r r e c t i n ' p l a c i n g e x p l o i t a t i o n at the heart of c l a s s a n a l y s i s ' , and i n c o n c e i v i n g i t as a f e a t u r e of asymmetrical power r e l a t i o n s . His neo-Weberian r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of s o c i a l c l a s s however, s t r i p s a p p r o p r i a t i o n from c l a s s domination, reduces e x p l o i t a t i o n to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and severs the concept from any concrete h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s f o r c l a s s f ormation. "Non-Marxist accounts of c l a s s s t r e s s e i t h e r d i s t r i b u t i o n ( a p p r o p r i a t i o n ) or domination, but not the u n i t y of these two w i t h i n a concept of c l a s s e x p l o i t a t i o n . The M a r x i s t attempt to combine these two elements w i t h i n a s i n g l e concept produces a much more powerful t h e o r e t i c a l t o o l , both i n terms of a n a l y z i n g the c o n d i t i o n s of the e x i s t e n c e of c l a s s e s (the r e l a t i o n a l requirements of t h e i r r e p r o d u c t i o n ) and i n terms of a n a l y z i n g the c o n d i t i o n s f o r epochal s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " (Wright, 1982: 335). Consequently, P a r k i n ' s (1979) t h e o r i e s of c l a s s and s t a t e are never c o n c e p t u a l l y i n t e g r a t e d , and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a p p l i e d . As a d e s c r i p t i v e concept, s o c i a l c l o s u r e e n r i c h e s c l a s s theory by h i g h l i g h t i n g i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p r e l a t i o n s of c o m p e t i t i o n and domination; as an a n a l y t i c concept i t becomes a t h e o r e t i c a l c u l - d e - s a c because i t f a i l s to e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s between c l a s s and s t a t e , t h e i r r e p r o d u c t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . I r o n i c a l l y , i t graces a model of c l a s s formation almost as s t a t i c as the M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s i t was intended to m o t h b a l l . With resp e c t to Gidden's (1980) second and f o u r t h i s s u e s with M a r x i s t c l a s s a n a l y s i s then, P a r k i n ' s (1979) group power theory has demonstrably l e s s e xplanatory p o t e n t i a l than the c l a s s c o n f l i c t approach of r a d i c a l labour market theory. As Mackenzie 1 39 (1980: 584) has o b s e r v e d , the " u s e f u l n e s s of the n o t i o n of s o c i a l c l o s u r e l i e s not i n i t s a b i l i t y t o r e p l a c e the framework of P o l i t i c a l Economy, but i n the ease w i t h which i t can be i n c o r p o r a t e d by i t . " The t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y f o r a t h e o r y of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t a r e pursued i n Chapter S i x . The broad o u t l i n e s of a c l a s s c o n f l i c t t h e o r y of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n t h a t encompasses c l a s s s t r u g g l e and i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t s a r e d e l i n e a t e d by drawing on the d i a l e c t i c s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the l a b o u r market, and the M a r x i s t t r a d i t i o n of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y r e p r e s e n t e d by Thompson (1963). 1 40 Chapter 6 Beyond the Labour M a r k e t : C l a s s F o r m a t i o n , C l a s s S t r u g g l e And R a c i a l C o n f l i c t "Though f o r the s o c i a l a n a l y s t ' r a c e ' and c l a s s are n e c e s s a r y a b s t r a c t i o n s a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , b l a c k c o n s c i o u s n e s s of r a c e and c l a s s cannot be e m p i r i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d . The c l a s s c h a r a c t e r of b l a c k s t r u g g l e s i s not the r e s u l t of the f a c t t h a t b l a c k s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y p r o l e t a r i a n , though t h i s i s t r u e . I t i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the f a c t t h a t t h e i r s t r u g g l e s f o r c i v i l r i g h t s , f o r freedom from s t a t e harassment or as waged workers a r e i n s t a n c e s of the p r o c e s s by which the w o r k i n g c l a s s i s c o n s t i t u t e d p o l i t i c a l l y , i s o r g a n i z e d i n p o l i t i c s " ( G i l r o y , 1981: 219). 6. 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n A l b e i t from d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , P a r k i n (1979) and the r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r i s t s share an i n t e r e s t i n e x p l a i n i n g the e f f e c t s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t on c l a s s f o r m a t i o n . Both r e j e c t s t a t i c , f u n c t i o n a l i s t c l a s s a n a l y s e s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t t h a t deny human agency, and t e n d t o c o n c e i v e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c l a s s e x p l o i t a t i o n and r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the c o n t e x t of a dynamic c l a s s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s . And b oth i d e n t i f y the problem of d e t e r m i n i s m i n M a r x i s t a n a l y s e s not o n l y i n terms of the t h e o r e t i c a l r e d u c t i o n of r a c e t o an a d j u n c t of c l a s s , but e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t , the r e d u c t i o n of c l a s s t o an economic c a t e g o r y . In each approach t h e n , c l a s s a n a l y s i s i t s e l f i s i n t e r r o g a t e d . In the case of r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y t h i s c r i t i q u e i s o n l y p a r t i a l , and c e n t r e s on the n e g l e c t of the r o l e of c l a s s , i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p s t r u g g l e s i n c l a s s f o r m a t i o n , w h i l e f o r P a r k i n (1979) t h i s q u e s t i o n i n g i s t o t a l , and l e a d s t o a neo-Weberian r e v i s i o n of c l a s s a n a l y s i s . N e i t h e r approach c o n s t i t u t e s an 141 adequate c l a s s a n a l y s i s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t however, because n e i t h e r p o s i t s a s y s t e m a t i c t h e o r y of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n l i n k i n g economic, p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n s i d e the w o r k p l a c e or l a b o u r market w i t h t h o s e s t r u g g l e s c a r r i e d on i n the community. Which i s not t o i m p l y t h a t "race can be m i r a c u l o u s l y h i t c h e d on l i k e an e x t r a r a i l w a y c a r r i a g e t o the l o c o m o t i v e of n o n - r e d u c t i o n i s t marxism" ( G i l r o y , 1981: 209), but o n l y t h a t w i t h o u t a t h e o r y of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n u n d e r g i r d i n g i t , any c l a s s a n a l y s i s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t w i l l f a l l s h o r t of the ' s i n g l e framework' t h a t P a r k i n (1979) s e e k s , and the c l a s s c o n f l i c t model t h a t r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y h o l d s i n p r o m i s e . Two t r a d i t i o n s of M a r x i s t c l a s s f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y , the c l a s s i c a l and the B r i t i s h h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s t s c h o o l s , a r e compared i n s e c t i o n 6.2, and a c l a s s c o n f l i c t t h e o r y i s o u t l i n e d i n s e c t i o n 6.3 from i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the second t r a d i t i o n , e p i t o m i z e d by the work of E.P. Thompson (1963; 1975; I978a,b). F o l l o w i n g Thompson, c l a s s i s c o n c e i v e d as an h i s t o r i c a l ' r e l a t i o n s h i p ' and ' p r o c e s s ' ; c l a s s f o r m a t i o n as an open-ended p r o c e s s whereby c l a s s e s form, de-form and r e - f o r m i n the c r u c i b l e of c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s . C l a s s a n a l y s i s i s ' r e - c o g n i z e d ' as ' c l a s s s t r u g g l e a n a l y s i s ' ; c l a s s s t r u g g l e as s t r u g g l e s 'about c l a s s ' as w e l l as 'between or among c l a s s e s ' ; and hegemony as a c o n t e s t e d c u l t u r a l and i d e o l o g i c a l o r d e r (Kaye, 1983; Palmer, 1981; P r z e w o r s k i , 1977; T h e r b o r n , 1983; Wood, 1982). 1 42 The t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of a c l a s s c o n f l i c t t h e o r y of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n a r e p u r s u e d i n s e c t i o n 6.4, and a c l a s s c o n f l i c t model of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i n the l a b o u r market i s t e a s e d out around the d i a l e c t i c s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . T h i s s i m p l e model s p e c i f y i n g the a gents and t h e i r s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s , the h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , and the outcomes of c o n c r e t e r a c i a l c o n f l i c t s r e p r e s e n t s a n e c e s s a r y , i f not s u f f i c i e n t , framework f o r a n o n - r e d u c t i o n i s t c l a s s a n a l y s i s . Coming f u l l c i r c l e , ways of e x t e n d i n g the s i m p l e model t o account f o r r a c i a l c o n f l i c t o u t s i d e the l a b o u r market a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n s e c t i o n 6.5 by r e e x a m i n i n g the race and c l a s s t h e o r i e s c r i t i c i z e d i n Chapter Two, from a c l a s s c o n f l i c t p u r v i e w . Some key c o n c e p t s and n o t i o n s from each type a r e r e t r i e v e d and r e v i t a l i z e d by a c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s t h a t l i n k s r a c i a l c o n f l i c t s i n s i d e the l a b o u r market t o community- based s t r u g g l e s and T h i r d W o r l d l i b e r a t i o n movements. By way of c o n c l u s i o n , c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s i s t o u t e d as a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p i n b r i d g e b u i l d i n g between b l a c k and w h i t e Marxism, t h a t o f f e r s a p r o m i s i n g t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l framework f o r r e s e a r c h and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n on q u e s t i o n s of r a c e and c l a s s i n contemporary c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . 6.2 M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n An e x p l i c i t t h e o r y of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i s never a r t i c u l a t e d i n r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y , but c o n t r a r y t o P a r k i n (1979), c l a s s f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y has a v e n e r a b l e p e d i g r e e i n M a r x i s t d i s c o u r s e , and i s c u r r e n t l y emerging from over a decade of S t r u c t u r a l i s t e c l i p s e t o f o c u s a t t e n t i o n once a g a i n on the r o l e 1 43 of human agency i n the r e p r o d u c t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , t h e r e have been two d i s t i n c t t r a d i t i o n s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y w i t h i n Marxism, d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s of c l a s s . The c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n d a t e s from the Second I n t e r n a t i o n a l and the debates among r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e o l o g u e s over the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c a p i t a l i s t development and the r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the European w o r k i n g c l a s s (Luxembourg, L e n i n , K a u t s k y , L u k a c s ) . The concept of c l a s s assumed by the c l a s s i c a l t h e o r i s t s was by and l a r g e , the orth o d o x n o t i o n p r e d i c a t e d on Marx's a n a l y t i c d i s t i n c t i o n between c l a s s as an o b j e c t i v e , economic s t r u c t u r e ( ' i n - i t s e l f ' ) , and c l a s s as a s u b j e c t i v e , p o l i t i c a l - i d e o l o g i c a l i d e n t i t y ( ' f o r - i t s e l f ' ) i n the P o v e r t y of P h i l o s o p h y . The p r o b l e m a t i c of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n was the need t o e x p l a i n the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n or l a c k t h e r e o f , from the former t o the l a t t e r ; e i t h e r w o r k i n g c l a s s r e v o l u t i o n i s m or refor m i s m . C l a s s i c a l t h e o r i e s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n c o n s e q u e n t l y t e n d t o be e i t h e r ' h i s t o r i c i s t ' ( c l a s s i d e n t i t y a r i s e s s p o n t a n e o u s l y from the r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n ) w i t h t e l e o l o g i c a l o v e r t o n e s , or ' v o l u n t a r i s t ' ( c l a s s i d e n t i t y must be im p o r t e d from an o u t s i d e a g e n c y ) . Contemporary s t r a i n s of t h i s t r a d i t i o n a re d i s c e r n i b l e i n t h e o r i e s of hegemonic v e r s u s c o r p o r a t i s t w o r k i n g c l a s s e s , and i n ' d e r a d i c a l i z a t i o n 1 t h e o r i e s t h a t e x p l a i n w o r k i n g c l a s s ' reformism' by employing L e n i n ' s concept of ' l a b o u r a r i s t o c r a c y ' ( F o s t e r , 1974; Moorhouse, 1978). The d e r a d i c a l i z a t i o n or c o r p o r a t i s t t h e s i s has been f o i s t e d on c l a s s f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y i n 1 44 p a r t by the orthodox concept of c l a s s which r e n d e r s the working c l a s s a c o n t i n u o u s h i s t o r i c a l s u b j e c t d e t e r m i n e d o n c e - a n d - f o r - a l l by the o b j e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . M i s s i n g from the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n t h e r e f o r e i s any c o n c e p t i o n of t h e p o l i t i c a l d i m e n s i o n of c l a s s as a d i s c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s of o r g a n i z a t i o n . "The debate about d e r a d i c a l i z a t i o n i s a d d r e s s e d t o an i n c o r r e c t l y f o r m u l a t e d problem. What i t p r e s u p p o s e s ... i s t h a t t h e r e was some g l o r i o u s p a s t i n w h i c h the wor k i n g c l a s s was m i l i t a n t .... H i s t o r y of the working c l a s s i n the now d e v e l o p e d c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s i s a h i s t o r y of o r g a n i z a t i o n on t h e o n l y t e r r a i n i n which such an o r g a n i z a t i o n was not c o m p l e t e l y r e p r e s s e d and a t the same time was t o some e x t e n t e f f e c t i v e - - t h e t e r r a i n of b o u r g e o i s i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t i s a h i s t o r y of o r g a n i z a t i o n , not of " d e r a d i c a l i z a t i o n " ( P r z e w o r s k i , 1977: 383). The second t r a d i t i o n of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e v e r a l B r i t i s h M a r x i s t h i s t o r i a n s - - n o t a b l y Hobsbawm, H i l l , H i l t o n and Thompson—whose p r a c t i c e has been avowedly t o r e s c u e h i s t o r y 'from below', t h a t i s , t o re n d e r the f o r m a t i o n of the working c l a s s v i s i b l e as an a c t i v e h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s p u n c t u a t e d w i t h human s t r u g g l e s (Kaye, 1983). E.P. Thompson (1963; 1975; I978a,b) i s perhaps most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the B r i t i s h h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s t s . A l t h o u g h h i s work has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s l a c k of t h e o r e t i c a l development (Johnson, 1979; Anderson, 1980; H a l l , 1981), Thompson has r e p e a t e d l y c h a l l e n g e d the orthodox concept of c l a s s and t h e c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y . Rather than r e d u c i n g c l a s s t o e i t h e r a s t r u c t u r e or an i d e n t i t y , he i n v i t e s us t o c o n c e i v e c l a s s as an a c t i v e , s t r u c t u r e d p r o c e s s of ' s e l f - m a k i n g ' . For Thompson (1963) the d i s t i n c t i o n between the o b j e c t i v e and 1 45 s u b j e c t i v e d i m e n s i o n s of c l a s s s e r v e s as an analogy t o d i s t i n g u i s h two modes of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n , or h i s t o r i c a l s t a g e s i n t he ' s e l f - m a k i n g ' of a c l a s s . The concept m e d i a t i n g between the two modes i s the c a t e g o r y of ' e x p e r i e n c e ' , by which Thompson r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the e x p e r i e n c e of economic, p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l d o m i n a t i o n . " C l a s s f o r m a t i o n s ... a r i s e a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of d e t e r m i n a t i o n and s e l f - a c t i v i t y : t he w o r k i n g c l a s s "made i t s e l f as much as i t was made". We cannot put " c l a s s " here and " c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s " t h e r e , as two s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s , t he one s e q u e n t i a l upon the o t h e r , s i n c e b o t h must be taken t o g e t h e r — the e x p e r i e n c e of d e t e r m i n a t i o n , and the " h a n d l i n g " of t h i s i n c o n s c i o u s ways. Nor can we deduce c l a s s from a s t a t i c " s e c t i o n " ( s i n c e i t i s a becoming over t i m e ) , nor as a f u n c t i o n of t h e mode of p r o d u c t i o n , s i n c e c l a s s f o r m a t i o n s and c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( w h i l e s u b j e c t t o d e t e r m i n a t e p r e s s u r e s ) e v e n t u a t e i n an open-ended p r o c e s s of r e l a t i o n s h i p — of s t r u g g l e w i t h o t h e r c l a s e s — o v e r t i m e " (Thompson, 1978a: 106). A c c o r d i n g l y , the p r o b l e m a t i c of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i s not wo r k i n g c l a s s r e f o r m i s m or r e v o l u t i o n i s m per se, but r a t h e r the l o g i c of the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s whereby c l a s s e s form, de-form and r e - f o r m themselves i n c o n c r e t e c l a s s and community-based s t r u g g l e s . Thompson (1963) p r o f f e r s a t h e o r y of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n which, u n l i k e the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n , i s not c l a s s - b o u n d . C l a s s f o r m a t i o n i s c o n c e i v e d as a complex p r o c e s s i n which outcomes a r e d e t e r m i n e d as much by the mundane a c t i v i t i e s , s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s and s t r u g g l e s of the h i s t o r i c a l agents i n v o l v e d , as by the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e d by the mode of p r o d u c t i o n . As a c o r o l l a r y t h e n , the p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n may be shaped and l i m i t e d as much by n o n - c l a s s as by c l a s s r e l a t i o n s , which a l l o w s f o r a c l a s s a n a l y s i s t h a t can 146 accommodate t h e e f f e c t s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t on c l a s s f o r m a t i o n , w i t h o u t r e i f y i n g e i t h e r r a c e or c l a s s . 6.3 A c l a s s c o n f l i c t t h e o r y of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n The r e l e v a n c e of the second t r a d i t i o n l i e s not i n the h i s t o r i o g r a p h y so much as the t h e o r e t i c a l and p o l i t i c a l p r i o r i t y p l a c e d on h i s t o r i c a l s p e c i f i c i t y and human agency, and the c o n c o m i t a n t r e f u s a l t o r e l e g a t e the p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n t o a r e a l m of s u b j e c t i v e c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s c o n t i n g e n t on o b j e c t i v e c l a s s s t r u c t u r e s . E s p e c i a l l y p e r t i n e n t a re some r e c e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of c l a s s , c l a s s s t r u g g l e and hegemony g e r m i n a t i n g p r i m a r i l y from Thompson's (1963) study of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n (Kaye, 1983; Wood, 1982; P r z e w o r s k i , 1977). 6. 3 . i C l a s s In o p p o s i t i o n t o s o c i o l o g i c a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and S t r u c t u r a l i s t c l a s s t h e o r i e s which he argues t e n d t o r e i f y c l a s s i n terms of ' c a t e g o r i e s ' or ' p o s i t i o n s ' , Thompson (1963; 1978a) m a i n t a i n s t h a t c l a s s i s an ' h i s t o r i c a l phenomenon', and hence always a d i a l e c t i c a l ' r e l a t i o n s h i p ' and ' p r o c e s s ' . "The c o n c e p t of c l a s s as r e l a t i o n s h i p and p r o c e s s s t r e s s e s t h a t o b j e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s t o the means of p r o d u c t i o n a re s i g n i f i c a n t i n s o f a r as they e s t a b l i s h a ntagonisms and g e n e r a t e c o n f l i c t s and s t r u g g l e s ; t h a t t h e s e c o n f l i c t s and s t r u g g l e s shape s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e " i n c l a s s ways", even when they do not e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s i n c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s and c l e a r l y v i s i b l e f o r m a t i o n s ; and t h a t over time we can d i s c e r n how th e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s impose t h e i r l o g i c , t h e i r p a t t e r n , on s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s " (Wood, 1982: 5 9 ) . 147 C l a s s as ' r e l a t i o n s h i p ' Wood (1982: 59) s u g g e s t s , i n f a c t i n v o l v e s two h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; one between c l a s s e s , and one among members of the same c l a s s . The a n t a g o n i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between or among c l a s s e s p o s i t e d by Marxism i s a n e c e s s a r y , but not s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n t o d e f i n e a c l a s s , s i n c e c l a s s r e l a t i o n s a re not r e d u c i b l e t o p r o d u c t i o n r e l a t i o n s . We must a l s o s p e c i f y the r e l a t i o n s among heterogeneous groups o c c u p y i n g s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n s i n the r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n which a r e not g i v e n d i r e c t l y by the p r o d u c t i o n or a c c u m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s e s . C l a s s f o r Thompson (1963) denotes something more than j u s t the c o n d i t i o n s of c l a s s . The h i a t u s between c l a s s c o n d i t i o n s and the c l a s s i t s e l f i n the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n i s f i l l e d by Thompson w i t h the m e d i a t i o n of e x p e r i e n c e — a common, l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e of e x p l o i t a t i o n , c o m p e t i t i o n , c o n f l i c t and s t r u g g l e — t h a t can shape a common i d e n t i t y and m o b i l i z e common i n t e r e s t s e x p r e s s e d i n c u l t u r a l forms, i n t o the ' d i s p o s i t i o n t o behave as a c l a s s ' . C o n s t r u c t e d from the h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l of human e x p e r i e n c e , c l a s s e s f o r Thompson a r e t h e r e f o r e always s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l f o r m a t i o n s , s t r u c t u r e d as much by p o l i t i c a l , i d e o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s as by economic ones. "The burden of the t h e o r e t i c a l message c o n t a i n e d i n the concept of " e x p e r i e n c e " i s , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t the o p e r a t i o n of d e t e r m i n i n g p r e s s u r e s i s an h i s t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e i m m e d i a t e l y an e m p i r i c a l one" (Wood, 1982: 6 2 ) . C l a s s as ' p r o c e s s ' i n c o r p o r a t e s the dynamic of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i n t o the ve r y concept of c l a s s . C l a s s f o r m a t i o n i s reg a r d e d as a complex and d i s c o n t i n u o u s ' s t r u c t u r e d p r o c e s s ' 1 48 which i s n e i t h e r w h o l l y d e t e r m i n e d nor c o m p l e t e l y a r b i t r a r y i n outcome. I t i s a s o c i a l p r o c e s s whereby h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a t e economic, p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e s among heterogeneous g r o u p i n g s of human ag e n t s which, i n t u r n , g i v e r i s e t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n , d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n or r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h o s e agents i n t o c o n s c i o u s f o r m a t i o n s , as w e l l as changes i n the o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n s . "The n o t i o n of c l a s s as " s t r u c t u r e d p r o c e s s " ... acknowledges t h a t w h i l e t h e s t r u c t u r a l b a s i s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i s t o be found i n the a n t a g o n i s t i c r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n , the p a r t i c u l a r ways i n which the s t r u c t u r a l p r e s s u r e s e x e r t e d by t h e s e r e l a t i o n s a c t u a l l y o p e r a t e i n the f o r m a t i o n of c l a s s e s remains an open q u e s t i o n t o be r e s o l v e d e m p i r i c a l l y by h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . Such a concept of c l a s s a l s o r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h i s i s where the most i m p o r t a n t and p r o b l e m a t i c q u e s t i o n s about c l a s s l i e , and t h a t t h e u s e f u l n e s s of any c l a s s a n a l y s i s ... r e s t s on i t s a b i l i t y t o account f o r the p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n " ( I b i d ; 6 3 ) . 6 . 3 . i i C l a s s s t r u g g l e The h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n a r e the p a r t i c u l a r forms of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s t h a t s t r u c t u r e the p r o c e s s , but a c e n t r a l t e n e t of Thompson's (1963) t h e o r y i s t h a t c l a s s e s a r e never the ' p a s s i v e v i c t i m s ' of o b j e c t i v e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , but c o n s c i o u s a g e n t s , the h i s t o r i c a l b e a r e r s of t r a d i t i o n s , v a l u e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . The outcome of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e u l t i m a t e l y dependent on the ' s e l f - a c t i v i t y ' or s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s of t h e c l a s s e s i n - t h e - m a k i n g . Hence the p i v o t a l r o l e of c l a s s s t r u g g l e , which Thompson (1978b) contends must l o g i c a l l y e x i s t p r i o r t o c o n s c i o u s c l a s s f o r m a t i o n s . T h i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l p o s i t i o n i s shared by P r z e w o r s k i (1977: 370) who c o n c u r s t h a t " c l a s s e s a r e not a datum p r i o r t o the h i s t o r y of 1 49 c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s " . A c c o r d i n g t o P r z e w o r s k i (1977) c l a s s e s are not d e t e r m i n e d d i r e c t l y by the r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n because they c o n s t i t u t e the " e f f e c t s " of c o n t i n u o u s s t r u g g l e s among h i s t o r i c a l agents whose p r i m a r y g o a l and p o t e n t i a l outcome, i s the o r g a n i z a t i o n , d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n or r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of c l a s s e s . As the c o n f l i c t i n g s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s of c o n c r e t e a g e n t s , c l a s s s t r u g g l e s themselves a r e not u n i q u e l y d e t e r m i n e d by the r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . " C l a s s s t r u g g l e s a r e n e i t h e r epiphenomenal nor f r e e from d e t e r m i n a t i o n . They a r e s t r u c t u r e d by the t o t a l i t y of economic, p o l i t i c a l , and i d e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s ; and have an autonomous e f f e c t upon the p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n " ( I b i d : 367). The ' s t r u c t u r i n g ' or ' c o n d i t i o n i n g ' of c l a s s s t r u g g l e s r e f e r s t o the s h a p i n g and l i m i t i n g of the 'form of s t r u g g l e s ' or ' o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s ' by o b j e c t i v e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s which P r z e w o r s k i (1977: 377) d e f i n e s as the " s t r u c t u r e of c h o i c e s " p r e s e n t e d i n each c o n j u n c t u r e t o the i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e a g e n t s engaged i n c l a s s f o r m a t i o n . These o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s a r e i n t u r n themselves a l t e r e d i n the c o u r s e of c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s . " . . . t h e r o l e of s t r u g g l e s w i t h r e g a r d t o the p r o c e s s e s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i s t w o f o l d . F i r s t , c l a s s s t r u g g l e s t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n each c o n j u n c t u r e have e f f e c t s upon economic, p o l i t i c a l , and i d e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s and hence i n d i r e c t l y upon subsequent p r o c e s s e s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n . Second, g i v e n the p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r e of economic, i d e o l o g i c a l , and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s , c l a s s s t r u g g l e s a f f e c t d i r e c t l y the c l a s s o r g a n i z a t i o n of p e r s o n s l o c a t e d d i f f e r e n t i a l l y i n the system of p r o d u c t i o n . The i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s of c l a s s s t r u g g l e s have consequences f o r the e n t i r e c l a s s s t r u c t u r e , s i n c e t hey modify the system of p r o d u c t i o n out of w h i c h c l a s s e s a r e formed" ( I b i d : 397). 150 From t h i s s t a n d p o i n t , i f c l a s s s t r u g g l e s have an autonomous e f f e c t on the p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n , and c l a s s e s are the outcomes of h i s t o r i c a l s t r u g g l e s , then i t f o l l o w s t h a t c l a s s s t r u g g l e p r e c e d e s c l a s s i n the sense t h a t economic, p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e s a r e always s t r u g g l e s 'about c l a s s f o r m a t i o n ' b e f o r e they are s t r u g g l e s 'between or among c l a s s e s ' . " . . . c l a s s s t r u g g l e s cannot be reduced t o s t r u g g l e s between or among c l a s s e s . Or, t o put i t d i f f e r e n t l y , c l a s s e s - i n - s t r u g g l e a r e an e f f e c t of s t r u g g l e s about c l a s s .... The c o n c r e t e a c t o r s who appear at the phenomenal l e v e l , " i n s t r u g g l e " i n a p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n , need not c o r r e s p o n d t o p l a c e s i n b r o a d l y c o n c e i v e d r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n , p r e c i s e l y because they are an e f f e c t of s t r u g g l e s about c l a s s f o r m a t i o n .... Thus, i n each c o n c r e t e c o n j u n c t u r e s t r u g g l e s t o o r g a n i z e , d i s o r g a n i z e or r e o r g a n i z e c l a s s e s a r e not l i m i t e d t o s t r u g g l e s between or among c l a s s e s " ( I b i d : 386). 6 . 3 . i i i Hegemony The concept of hegemony which Thompson (1974; 1978b) uses t o d e s c r i b e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l a n d , a l s o r e f l e c t s h i s t h e o r y of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n . Hegemony denotes n e i t h e r s o c i a l consensus nor c l a s s d o m i n a t i o n , but a c o n t e s t e d s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l o r d e r p e r p e t u a l l y r e s i s t e d , r e n e g o t i a t e d and reproduced w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y b r e a k i n g down i n t o an open r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e f o r s t a t e power (Kaye, 1983: 180). " I t i s , as Thompson and Genovese seem t o a g r e e , a way of d e f i n i n g the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e n t of c l a s s s t r u g g l e d u r i n g t i m e s of apparent q u i e s c e n c e " (Palmer, 1981: 88) . The p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i s , a t the same ti m e , a p r o c e s s of f o r m a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l l y counter-hegemonic s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s , i d e o l o g i e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s and v a l u e s out of the l e g a c y of p a s t , and the e x p e r i e n c e of p r e s e n t s t r u g g l e s . Thompson's penchant 151 f o r s t u d y i n g c u l t u r a l forms of w o r k i n g c l a s s r e s i s t a n c e i s a way of g r a p p l i n g e m p i r i c a l l y w i t h t h i s v e r y h i s t o r i a l p r o c e s s , and i s " i n t e n d e d t o p e r m i t the r e c o g n i t i o n of " i m p e r f e c t " or " p a r t i a l " forms of p o p u l a r c o n s c i o u s n e s s as a u t h e n t i c e x p r e s s i o n s of c l a s s and c l a s s s t r u g g l e , v a l i d i n t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s even i f "wrong" from the s t a n d p o i n t of l a t e r developments" (Wood, 1982: 69) . L i k e Gramsci (1971), hegemony f o r Thompson (1974; 1978b) i s an ' a t t r i b u t e of S t a t e power' which ' i m p l i e s c l a s s s t r u g g l e s and has no meaning a p a r t from them'. In summary, not o n l y has Thompson been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n r e c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g c l a s s , c l a s s s t r u g g l e and hegemony qua c l a s s f o r m a t i o n , he has a l s o , i n a sense, c o n t r i b u t e d t o the r e f o r m u l a t i o n of c l a s s a n a l y s i s as ' c l a s s s t r u g g l e a n a l y s i s ' (Kaye, 1983: 181), and t o the redundancy of the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y . "A complex view of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n which g i v e s e q u a l weight t o the s t r u g g l e t o o r g a n i z e c l a s s e s i n p o l i t i c s t a k e s us f a r beyond the s i m p l i s t i c ' c l a s s i n i t s e l f / c l a s s f o r i t s e l f dichotomy. I t poses the q u e s t i o n of forms of s t r u g g l e and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " ( G i l r o y , 1981: 212). C l a s s s t r u g g l e i s c o n c e i v e d as c o n f l i c t over the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of c l a s s r e l a t i o n s , which i n c l u d e r e l a t i o n s among members of the same c l a s s as w e l l as r e l a t i o n s between or among c l a s s e s . ' C l a s s s t r u g g l e a n a l y s i s ' c o n s e q u e n t l y d i r e c t s our a t t e n t i o n t o the h i s t o r i c a l a g ents and t h e i r s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s , the o b j e c t i v e economic, p o l i t i c a l , i d e o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s , and the o b j e c t i v e outcomes of c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s over c l a s s f o r m a t i o n and between or among c l a s s e s . 1 52 T h i s i s not t o a s s e r t t h a t a l l c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s t h a t a f f e c t c l a s s f o r m a t i o n a r e t h e r e f o r e by d e f i n i t i o n c l a s s s t r u g g l e s , or t h a t a l l s o c i a l change i s d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o c l a s s s t r u g g l e . C l a s s s t r u g g l e a n a l y s i s argues t h a t c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s l i k e r a c i a l c o n f l i c t a r e o n l y e x p l i c a b l e i n the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t of the r e p r o d u c t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of c a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s when a n a l y s e d as the e f f e c t s o f , and i n t u r n , h a v i n g an e f f e c t on, the p r o c e s s by which c l a s s e s a r e formed, de-formed and re-formed. For P r z e w o r s k i (1977: 385) t h i s s tands as a ' m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p o s t u l a t e ' f o r c l a s s a n a l y s i s which " d i r e c t s us t o a n a l y z e the o b j e c t i v e d e t e r m i n a n t s of the p r a c t i c e s of c o n c r e t e h i s t o r i c a l a c t o r s w i t h r e g a r d t o the p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n " . 6.4 Towards a c l a s s c o n f l i c t model of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t The p a r a l l e l s between Thompsonian ' c l a s s s t r u g g l e a n a l y s i s ' and the nascent ' c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s ' of r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y a r e s t r i k i n g . Both s u b s c r i b e t o m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l models of c l a s s and a r e c r i t i c a l of s t a t i c , f u n c t i o n a l i s t a n a l y s e s t h a t u n d e r p l a y the importance of human agency i n the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s r e p r o d u c i n g and t r a n s f o r m i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . Both t e n d t o a n a l y s e the o b j e c t i v e economic, p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s d e t e r m i n i n g the p r a c t i c e s of c o n c r e t e h i s t o r i c a l a g ents i n the p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n . And both t e n d t o foc u s on c l a s s - f o r m i n g s t r u g g l e s s t r u c t u r e d by r e l a t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t i o n , d o m i n a t i o n and c o m p e t i t i o n , and share d i r e c t t h e o r e t i c a l l i n k s t o , or a t l e a s t c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h , c l a s s t h e o r e t i c a l t h e o r i e s of t h e S t a t e . A l t h o u g h r a d i c a l 1 53 l a b o u r market t h e o r y l a c k s an e x p l i c i t t h e o r y of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n , i t does attempt an analogous h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s of the r o l e of c l a s s , i n t r a - c l a s s and i n t e r - g r o u p s t r u g g l e s over the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n and exchange r e l a t i o n s i n the p r o c e s s e s of l a b o u r market s e g m e n t a t i o n and w o r k i n g c l a s s f r a g m e n t a t i o n . I t has been f a u l t e d e a r l i e r f o r p r e s e n t i n g a t r u n c a t e d and o v e r l y s t r u c t u r a l , economic view of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s i n c l i n e d to r e s t r i c t a l l economic, p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e s to t h e realm of p r o d u c t i o n . Thompsonian c l a s s f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y on the o t h e r hand, has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r r e l y i n g t o o h e a v i l y on s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e and c u l t u r a l f o r m a t i o n s t o the n e g l e c t of t h e o r i z i n g s t r u c t u r a l economic d e t e r m i n a t i o n s (Johnson, 1979; Anderson, 1980; H a l l , 1981). The t h e o r y of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n o u t l i n e d above i s a p r e l i m i n a r y attempt t o compensate f o r the complementary f a i l i n g s of both approaches. The mode of c l a s s a n a l y s i s emerging from t h i s t h e o r y s h a l l c o n t i n u e t o be d e s i g n a t e d ' c l a s s c o n f l i c t ' a n a l y s i s f o r reasons of c o n s i s t e n c y , and i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h c o n c e p t u a l l y between c o n c r e t e ' c o n f l i c t s ' t o o r g a n i z e c l a s s i n t e r e s t s , and c o n c r e t e ' s t r u g g l e s ' between or among o r g a n i z e d c l a s s f o r c e s . The t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s c l a s s c o n f l i c t approach a r e s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a c l a s s t h e o r y of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . F i r s t , the r a c e / c l a s s nexus i s c o n c e i v e d d i a l e c t i c a l l y i n terms of r e l a t i o n s h i p and p r o c e s s w i t h i n a 1 54 c o n c r e t e t o t a l i t y . 5 R a c i a l c o n f l i c t s a r e n e i t h e r d i r e c t l y d e t e r m i n e d by, nor t o t a l l y autonomous from, c l a s s r e l a t i o n s . They a r e h i s t o r i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n the sense t h a t r a c i a l c o n f l i c t s a r e a f f e c t e d by, and have an e f f e c t on, t h e p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n . Second, s i n c e c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i s a complex s o c i a l p r o c e s s w i t h i n d e t e r m i n a n t outcomes, and r a c i a l c o n f l i c t s occur a t d i f f e r e n t c o n j u n c t u r e s i n d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s , any a n a l y s i s r e l a t i n g r a c i a l c o n f l i c t and c l a s s f o r m a t i o n would never approach the s t a t u s of a ' g e n e r a l t h e o r y ' . And t h i r d , i t f o l l o w s t h a t any g e n u i n e l y non- r e d u c t i o n i s t c l a s s t h e o r y of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t must be c o n c e i v e d as an h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c model mapping what Thompson (1978a: 291) c a l l s the ' l o g i c of s o c i a l p r o c e s s ' . A c l a s s c o n f l i c t model of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t r e p r e s e n t s an a b s t r a c t , i d e a l i z e d mode of apprehending the r o l e of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i n the c l a s s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s , , which p r o v i d e s a c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r a c l a s s a n a l y s i s of c o n c r e t e c o n f l i c t s , but does not i t s e l f c o m p r i s e a c l a s s t h e o r y . The n e c e s s a r y , i f not s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s f o r a c l a s s c o n f l i c t model are t h a t i t s p e c i f i e s ( i ) the r e l a t i o n s between and among the h i s t o r i c a l a g e n t s and t h e i r s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s , ( i i ) the o b j e c t i v e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , and ( i i i ) the outcomes of c o n c r e t e c o n f l i c t s . C o n s t r u c t i n g such a model f o r the l a b o u r market w i l l be 5 Marxism r e j e c t s p o s i t i v i s t i c ( h o l i s m ) and n o m i n a l i s t i c (atomism) n o t i o n s of t o t a l i t y which d u a l i z e s u b j e c t and o b j e c t , i n f a v o u r of a ' c o n c r e t e t o t a l i t y ' mediated by human a c t i v i t y . S o c i a l phenomena are c o n c e i v e d as i n t e r d e p e n d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a dynamic p r o c e s s of c o n f l i c t and change (see Oilman, 1971; I s r a e l , 1979; M i r k o v i c , 1980). 1 55 attempted i n a r a t h e r programmatic f a s h i o n below by b r i e f l y f i l l i n g i n each c a t e g o r y . ( i ) A c l a s s c o n f l i c t model of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i n the l a b o u r market s h o u l d s p e c i f y the r e l a t i o n s among the h i s t o r i c a l a g ents i n v o l v e d and t h e i r s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s . S i n c e r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i s not r e d u c i b l e t o economic s t r u g g l e a l o n e , the a g e n t s may i n c l u d e any of those engaged i n the p r o c e s s of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n . Thus i n d i v i d u a l s and c o l l e c t i v i t i e s r a n g i n g from v a r i o u s s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d r a c i a l groups l i k e A s i a n s , B l a c k s or C a u c a s i a n s , t o heterogeneous c l a s s f r a c t i o n s or d i s t r i b u t i v e g r o u p i n g s , t o sundry i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e t r a d e u n i o n s , p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , c h u r c h e s , s c h o o l s , and media a r e a l l p o t e n t i a l a g e n t s . The S t a t e i s both an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t , and t h e p o l i t i c o - l e g a l r e l a t i o n s t r u c t u r i n g r a c i a l c o n f l i c t s i n t h e l a b o u r market. The c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n h e r e n t i n the the S t a t e ' s r o l e s as both the g u a r a n t o r of i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e r i g h t s , and the p o l i t i c o - l e g a l s a n c t i o n f o r a l l r e l a t i o n s of d o m i n a t i o n , c o m p e t i t i o n and a p p r o p r i a t i o n , means t h a t whether th e S t a t e champions the v i c t i m s of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , or a c t s t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s c o n t i n g e n t on the s e l f - a c t i v i t y of those agents i n v o l v e d i n s t r u g g l e . The ' s e l f - a c t i v i t y ' of h i s t o r i c a l a g e n t s can be c o n c e i v e d i n terms of t h e i r s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s . P r a c t i c e s a r e i n t e n t i o n a l , i n d i v i d u a l , and c o l l e c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s whose o b j e c t and p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t i s the r e p r o d u c t i o n or t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of n a t u r e (economic p r a c t i c e s ) , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s ( p o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e s ) or human 1 56 e x p e r i e n c e ( i d e o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e s ) . 6 The d i s t i n c t i o n s between t y p e s of p r a c t i c e s i s an a n a l y t i c a l one t h a t emphasizes the p r i n c i p a l e f f e c t of a p r a c t i c e on s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . C o n crete s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s l i k e l a b o u r a r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y economic, p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l i n t h e i r e f f e c t s . R a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , f o r example, i s p r i m a r i l y a p o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e r e p r o d u c i n g r e l a t i o n s of d o m i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n , but i t i s a l s o an economic p r a c t i c e a f f e c t i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l p r o d u c t , and an i d e o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e r e p r o d u c i n g r a c i s t views of soc i e t y . ( i i ) A c l a s s c o n f l i c t model of t h e l a b o u r market s h o u l d s p e c i f y the c o n c r e t e modes of e x p l o i t a t i o n i n the l a b o u r p r o c e s s and forms of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h e l a b o u r market, and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of the s e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . The o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t a r e the c o n c r e t e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s among h i s t o r i c a l agents t h a t s t r u c t u r e the s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s of thos e a g e n t s . A g a i n , a n a l y t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between economic, p o l i t i c a l , and i d e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s can be made c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the major e f f e c t of those r e l a t i o n s on s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s . A c l a s s c o n f l i c t model p o s i t s t h a t r a c i a l c o n f l i c t has tended t o c r y s t a l l i z e around r e l a t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t i o n , c o m p e t i t i o n and d o m i n a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Four as the ' d i a l e c t i c s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' . . C l a s s e x p l o i t a t i o n and r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a r e b o t h o b j e c t i v e s o c i a l 6 T h i s combines L a r r a i n e ' s (1979) concept of ' r e p r o d u c t i v e p r a x i s ' w i t h W r i g h t ' s (1978) concept of ' p r a c t i c e ' as t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . 1 57 r e l a t i o n s , and s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s which shape and l i m i t the p r a c t i c e s of human agents engaged i n s t r u g g l e . E x p l o i t a t i o n i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y an economic r e l a t i o n between or among c l a s s e s r e s u l t i n g from the a p p r o p r i a t i o n of s u r p l u s v a l u e from those a g e n t s t h a t s e l l t h e i r l a b o u r power, by those t h a t own the means of p r o d u c t i o n . However, i t a l s o subsumes a p o l i t i c a l d i m e n s i o n , the c l a s s r e l a t i o n s of d o m i n a t i o n a t both the p r o d u c t i o n and s t a t e l e v e l s , which m a i n t a i n a p p r o p r i a t i o n and a r e r e p r o d u c e d by i t ( W r i g h t , 1982). R a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n d e f i n i n g r e l a t i o n s of d o m i n a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n between or among r a c i a l groups, but i t a l s o e n t a i l s an economic r e l a t i o n , namely group c o m p e t i t i o n over a c c e s s t o the s o c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of j o b s and wages i n the l a b o u r market. R e l a t i o n s of c o m p e t i t i o n r e p r e s e n t secondary d i v i s i o n s of the s o c i a l p r o d u c t which may reproduce group r e l a t i o n s of d o m i n a t i o n , but are h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n t i n g e n t on c l a s s r e l a t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t i o n . Both e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n subsume i d e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s among h i s t o r i c a l a g e n t s l i k e r a c i s m , which may c o n c e a l the c o n c r e t e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s s t r u c t u r i n g t h e i r s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s , and t h e r e b y o p e r a t e i n the i n t e r e s t s of the dominant c l a s s or group ( U r r y , 1981; L a r r a i n e , 1979). ( i i i ) And f i n a l l y , a c l a s s c o n f l i c t model s h o u l d s p e c i f y the o b j e c t i v e outcomes of c o n c r e t e r a c i a l c o n f l i c t s . A l t h o u g h the r e a l m of p o t e n t i a l outcomes or e f f e c t s of c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s i s d e t e r m i n e d by the h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , more than one outcome t o any c o n f l i c t i s always p o s s i b l e . Outcomes may be d i r e c t or 1 58 i n d i r e c t , r e p r o d u c t i v e or t r a n s f o r m a t i v e . C o n c r e t e r a c i a l s t r u g g l e s i n the l a b o u r market may have d i r e c t e f f e c t s on the r e l a t i o n s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and on the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r a c t i c e s of h i s t o r i c a l a g e n t s , and t h e r e f o r e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s on o t h e r c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s i n t h e p r o c e s s by which the wo r k i n g c l a s s i s o r g a n i z e d , d i s o r g a n i z e d o r r e o r g a n i z e d . And c o n v e r s e l y , c l a s s s t r u g g l e s may have d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s on r a c i a l c o n f l i c t s i n the l a b o u r market. A r e p r o d u c t i v e e f f e c t o c c u r s when a s u b o r d i n a t e r a c i a l group or c l a s s f r a c t i o n engaged i n s t r u g g l e f a i l s t o a l t e r the r e l a t i o n s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . When the s u b o r d i n a t e group or c l a s s f r a c t i o n succeeds i n cha n g i n g the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s s t r u c t u r i n g the c o n f l i c t , then a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e e f f e c t has o c c u r r e d . 6.5 Beyond t h e l a b o u r market The h i g h l y a b s t r a c t model s k e t c h e d i n above r e p r e s e n t s one p o s s i b l e way of f r a m i n g a c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i n the l a b o u r market. E x t e n d i n g t h i s model t o account f o r r a c i a l c o n f l i c t o u t s i d e the l a b o u r market however, would be merely a f o r m a l e x e r c i s e a t t h i s e a r l y s t a g e i n t h e o r e t i c a l development. A more f r u i t f u l approach would be t o review the t y p o l o g y of M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s of rac e and c l a s s e n c o u n t e r e d i n Chapter Two, and r e j u v e n a t e a few key c o n c e p t s from a c l a s s c o n f l i c t p e r s p e c t i v e . 159 To r e c a p the c r i t i q u e , c l a s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and w o r l d c a p i t a l i s t systems t h e o r i e s , w h i l e u n d e r s c o r i n g the importance, of r e l a t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t i o n t o an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the p e r s i s t e n c e of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y , a r e i n c l i n e d t o reduce a l l n o n - c l a s s forms of d o m i n a t i o n l i k e r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t o c l a s s e x p l o i t a t i o n , t h e r e b y d e v a l u i n g the r o l e of c l a s s and community-based s t r u g g l e s i n the c l a s s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s . I n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m on the o t h e r hand, a c c e n t u a t e s the p o l i t i c o - l e g a l , c u l t u r a l and i d e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s of r a c i a l d o m i n a t i o n a t the expense of r e l a t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t i o n , e x h i b i t i n g a tendency t o c o n f l a t e c l a s s e s w i t h groups, and e x p l o i t a t i o n w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , which e f f e c t i v e l y s t r a n d s a n a l y s i s a t t h e l e v e l of a n a l o g y and d e s c r i p t i o n . ( I r o n i c a l l y , P a r k i n ' s (1979) neo-Weberian t h e o r y of c l a s s f o r m a t i o n and r a c i a l c o n f l i c t a l s o f a l l s i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y ) . I n sum, t h e c e n t r a l problems of M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s of r a c e and c l a s s a r e not o n l y the r e d u c t i o n of r a c e t o an a d j u n c t of c l a s s and v i c e v e r s a , but e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t , the r e d u c t i o n of c l a s s t o an economic r e l a t i o n . Both stem from the f a i l u r e t o p e r c e i v e c l a s s f o r m a t i o n as an h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s , the outcome of w h i c h i s c o n t i n g e n t on c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s t o o r g a n i z e c l a s s e s as w e l l as s t r u g g l e s between or among o r g a n i z e d c l a s s e s . R e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r f l a w s , each type adumbrates s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t s of the r a c e / c l a s s nexus which c o n t r i b u t e t o a c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s l i n k i n g r a c i a l c o n f l i c t s i n s i d e the w o r k p l a c e w i t h r a c i a l c o n f l i c t s i n the community and l i b e r a t i o n a r y movements i n T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s . 1 60 6.5.i The s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n A c r i t i c a l element of r e c e n t r a c i a l c o n f l i c t s o u t s i d e the l a b o u r market i n western c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s i s the c r i s i s c o n f r o n t i n g b l a c k youth t h a t W i l l h e l m (1980) has c o i n e d the 'economics of u s e l e s s n e s s ' . B l a c k s a r e not o n l y o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n the secondary l a b o u r m arkets, they a r e a l s o more s u s c e p t i b l e than w h i t e workers t o temporary or permanent e x c l u s i o n from the l a b o u r market, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n p e r i o d s of c o n t i n u o u s r e c e s s i o n . A l t h o u g h they remain members of the w o r k i n g c l a s s b r o a d l y d e f i n e d , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a v o i d the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the l a b o u r power i n the r i o t - t o r n b l a c k e n c l a v e s of B r i t i s h and U.S. c i t i e s has become l a r g e l y expendable t o c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n . Sivanandan (1982) has d e s c r i b e d the s i t u a t i o n i n h i s i n i m i t a b l e s t y l e . "They a r e not the unemployed, but the never employed. They have n o t , l i k e t h e i r p a r e n t s , had j o b s and l o s t them--and so become d i s c i p l i n e d i n t o a r o u t i n e and a c u l t u r e t h a t p r e s e r v e s the s t a t u s quo. They have not been o r g a n i z e d i n t o t r a d e u n i o n s and had t h e i r p o l i t i c s d i s c i p l i n e d by a l a b o u r a r i s t o c r a c y . They have not been on the marches of the d i s - e m p l o y e d , so v a l i a n t l y r e c a l l e d by Labour from the hunger marches of the 1930s. T h e i r s i s a d i f f e r e n t hunger--a hunger t o r e t a i n the freedom, the l i f e - s t y l e , the d i g n i t y which they have c a r v e d out from the s t o n e of t h e i r l i v e s " ( I b i d : 49). The c o n c e p t of i n d u s t r i a l r e s e r v e army or ' s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n ' i s u s e f u l f o r a n a l y z i n g the s i t u a t i o n of b l a c k s and o t h e r communal groups whose l a b o u r power has become m a r g i n a l i z e d or s e p a r a t e d from any form of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n . In orthodox M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s t h e c o n c e p t tends t o be c o n c e i v e d f u n c t i o n a l l y as e v i d e n c e of the r a c i s t s t r a t e g i e s 161 of the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s t o r e g u l a t e wages and d i v i d e the working c l a s s a l o n g r a c i a l l i n e s . In a c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s the s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n becomes a dynamic concept r e l a t e d t o the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n and c l a s s f o r m a t i o n . The l o g i c of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n Marx n o t e d , promotes c o m p e t i t i o n among c a p i t a l s , a s e a r c h f o r h i g h e r p r o d u c t i v i t y and i n c r e a s e s i n the o r g a n i c c o m p o s i t i o n of c a p i t a l . As i t d e v e l o p s , c a p i t a l i s m d i s p l a y s a tendency t o d i s p l a c e l a b o u r power from p r o d u c t i o n i n t o a r e s e r v e , but the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s s u r p l u s l a b o u r power i s not d e t e r m i n e d d i r e c t l y by the r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . F o l l o w i n g P r z e w o r s k i (1977), G i l r o y (1981) argues t h a t the form of o r g a n i z a t i o n of s u r p l u s l a b o u r i s a d i r e c t e f f e c t of c l a s s s t r u g g l e . "At the s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n l e v e l , t h i s l a b o u r power i s a c t u a l men and women e x p e l l e d from p r o d u c t i o n - - ' b l a c k ' , ' u n s k i l l e d ' , ' o l d ' , 'young'. But t h e r e a r e i n t e n s e p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e s over the c o m p o s i t i o n of t h i s s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s never d e t e r m i n e d m e c h a n i s t i c a l l y by the o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s (development of p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s , phase of a c c u m u l a t i o n , e t c . ) , which o n l y d e l i n e a t e the range of p o s s i b l e outcomes" ( I b i d ; 211). Thus, from a c l a s s c o n f l i c t p e r s p e c t i v e , members of c a p i t a l i s m ' s s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n s a r e h i s t o r i c a l a g e n t s whose c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s must be a c c o u n t e d f o r i n terms of t h e i r s e l f - o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t h e i r e f f e c t s on the p r o c e s s e s of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n and c l a s s f o r m a t i o n . R a c i a l groups t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n s can t h e r e f o r e o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d ' d e c l a s s e d ' i n W i l l h e l m ' s (1980) sense, from the c o n t e x t of an orthodox c l a s s a n a l y s i s which c o n c e i v e s c l a s s e s as e c o n o m i c a l l y 162 d e t e r m i n e d p o s i t i o n s i n the r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . 6 . 5 . i i C u l t u r e s of r e s i s t a n c e and the concept of community I n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m f o c u s e s more on the p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l and i d e o l o g i c a l d o m i n a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d by b l a c k s than on t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n , r e m i n d i n g us t h a t r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the l a b o u r market i s o n l y one form of r a c i a l o p p r e s s i o n , and t h a t a c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n may be p r e r e q u i s i t e t o b l a c k l i b e r a t i o n . A c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s p o s i t s the f u s i o n of race and c l a s s e x p e r i e n c e s mediated by c o n c r e t e economic, p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the community as w e l l as the w o r k p l a c e . I t i s more c o n c e r n e d w i t h the r o l e of c u l t u r e i n the i d e o l o g i c a l hegemony of the c a p i t a l i s t S t a t e , and the e f f e c t s of r a c i a l s t r u g g l e s on the e n s u i n g p r o c e s s e s of c l a s s and s t a t e f o r m a t i o n . Contemporary b l a c k M a r x i s t w r i t i n g s on b l a c k r e s i s t a n c e i n B r i t a i n ( H a l l e t a l . , 1976; G i l r o y , 1981; Sivanandan, 1982), and the U n i t e d S t a t e s ( M a r a b l e , 1980a; 1981) come c l o s e s t t o a c l a s s c o n f l i c t p e r s p e c t i v e i n t h e i r a n a l y s e s of b l a c k s e l f - o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the f u s i o n of r a c e and c l a s s s t r u g g l e s i n t o community-based s t r u g g l e s . Sivanandan (1982) and G i l r o y (1981) have a d d r e s s e d the 'unique d i a l e c t i c of race and c l a s s ' s t r u c t u r i n g c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n B r i t a i n t o e x p l a i n the r i o t s t h a t exploded i n B r i x t o n i n J u l y 1981 and q u i c k l y s p r e a d throughout the slums of numerous c i t i e s t h a t summer. G i l r o y (1981) contends t h a t r a c i a l s t r u g g l e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e of b l a c k y o u t h , have had p r o f o u n d e f f e c t s on c l a s s s t r u g g l e and c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i n B r i t a i n t h a t have been 163 v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e d by w h i t e M a r x i s t s . " I t i s p r e c i s e l y because r a c e b i n d s the p r o c e s s e s by which e t h i c o - p o l i t i c a l hegemony i s p r e s e n t l y r e p r o d u c e d t h a t f o c u s i n g a n a l y s i s around i t o f f e r s a p r i v i l e g e d view of u n f o l d i n g s t a t e a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , t h e s t a g e of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n and the b a l a n c e of f o r c e s i n p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g g l e " ( I b i d : 208). F o l l o w i n g Sivanandan (1982) and C a b r a l (1973), he l o c a t e s r a c i a l s t r u g g l e s i n a ' p e r s p e c t i v e of c u l t u r e as a t e r r a i n of c l a s s c o n f l i c t s ' . B l a c k c u l t u r e becomes an e x p r e s s i o n of r e s i s t a n c e t o e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n f o r a p e o p l e d e n i e d a c c e s s t o the i n s t i t u t i o n s of t h e i r c l a s s , and t o the economic and p o l i t i c a l systems of t h e i r adopted c o u n t r i e s . ' C u l t u r e s of r e s i s t a n c e ' l i k e R a s t a f a r i , f o r G i l r o y (1981) a r e forms of c l a s s s t r u g g l e " i n and t h r o u g h r a c e " w hich a f f e c t c l a s s f o r m a t i o n . " B l a c k s t r u g g l e s t o r e f u s e and t r a n s f o r m s u b j u g a t i o n a r e no ready answer t o c l a s s s e g m e n t a t i o n , but because they a r e ' a g a i n s t c a p i t a l i s m , a g a i n s t r a c i s m ' , they do attempt t o c o n s t i t u t e the c l a s s i n p o l i t i c s where 'r a c e ' i s no l o n g e r r e l e v a n t ; whereas the r a c i s t i d e a s and p r a c t i c e s of the w h i t e w o r king c l a s s become ways i n which the c l a s s as a whole i s d i s o r g a n i z e d " ( I b i d : 210). The l o c u s of b l a c k s t r u g g l e s and the r e p r o d u c t i o n of c u l t u r e s of r e s i s t a n c e , Sivanandan and G i l r o y p o i n t o u t , i s not the w o r k p l a c e so much as the b l a c k community. " L o c a l i z e d s t r u g g l e s over e d u c a t i o n , r a c i s t v i o l e n c e and p o l i c e p r a c t i c e s c o n t i n u a l l y r e v e a l how b l a c k p e o p l e have made use of n o t i o n s of community t o p r o v i d e the a x i s a l o n g which t o o r g a n i z e t h e m s e l v e s . The c oncept of community i s c e n t r a l t o the view of c l a s s s t r u g g l e p r e s e n t e d h e r e . For i t l i n k s d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l p o l i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n s — w h i c h have a t e r r i t o r i a l d i m e n s i o n — t o c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n and c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and o p e r a t e s w i t h i n the r e l a t i o n s of 'economic p a t t e r n s , p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y , and uses of space'. The i d e a of a r a c i a l l y demarcated c o l l e c t i v i t y of t h i s t y pe u n d e r l i n e s the f a c t t h a t 164 community cannot be viewed as e i t h e r s t a t i c or as de t e r m i n e d by the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c l a s s or c l a s s f r a c t i o n s which have come t o c o n s t i t u t e i t " ( G i l r o y , 1981: 212). The concept of community d e v e l o p i n g i n b l a c k M a r x i s t w r i t i n g s i s a u s e f u l u n i t of a n a l y s i s , not o n l y f o r d i s c l o s i n g the ' t e r r i t o r i a l i z a t i o n ' of s o c i a l c o n t r o l by the c a p i t a l i s t S t a t e e p i t o m i z e d - by the n o t o r i o u s 'Sus' laws and 'community p o l i c i n g ' i n B r i t a i n , but a l s o f o r the t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s i t p o s i t s between r a c i a l c o n f l i c t and the s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n , and T h i r d World l i b e r a t i o n s t r u g g l e s , f o r a c l a s s c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s . 6 . 5 . i i i Labour m i g r a t i o n and l i b e r a t i o n a r y movements The main c o n t r i b u t i o n of w o r l d systems t h e o r y i s t o p l a c e the a n a l y s i s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t i n the c o n t e x t of d e v e l o p i n g g l o b a l c a p i t a l i s m , and the r o l e of the S t a t e . I t f o c u s e s on the r e l a t i o n s between the i m p e r i a l i s t ' c e n t r e ' and c o l o n i z e d ' p e r i p h e r y ' s t a t e s i n the c r e a t i o n of a w o r l d d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r which has h i s t o r i c a l l y c o i n c i d e d w i t h a r a c i a l d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r . A l t h o u g h the assumption t h a t r a c i a l o p p r e s s i o n i s merely a means of i m p e r i a l i s t or comprador e x p l o i t a t i o n t e n d s t o b l u r the d i s t i n c t i o n between r a c i a l and c l a s s forms of d o m i n a t i o n , i t does s e r v e t o h i g h l i g h t the complex i n t e r m e s h i n g of r a c i a l , c l a s s , n a t i o n a l and r e l i g i o u s s t r u g g l e s i n the l i b e r a t i o n a r y movements of the p e r i p h e r y , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c l a s s s t r u g g l e and c l a s s f o r m a t i o n i n the c e n t r e . A c l a s s c o n f l i c t approach might a c c e p t the premise of c e n t r e - p e r i p h e r y r e l a t i o n s i n a w o r l d c a p i t a l i s t system, but would a n a l y s e t h e r e l a t i o n s between c l a s s and community-based s t r u g g l e s i n t h e c e n t r e , and l i b e r a t i o n s t r u g g l e s i n the 165 p e r i p h e r y i n terms of t h e i r e f f e c t s on c l a s s and s t a t e f o r m a t i o n , and the r a c i a l d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r i n the system. Some p r e l i m i n a r y work a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s has a l r e a d y commenced, but i t remains fragmentary and t h e o r e t i c a l l y undeveloped. Recent s c h o l a r l y work a t t e m p t s t o i n t e g r a t e a w o r l d systems p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y and a t h e o r y of the c a p i t a l i s t S t a t e i n t o a model t o account f o r t h e emergence of i n t e r n a t i o n a l m i g r a t i o n as a l a b o u r s u p p l y system, and f o r the r o l e of cheap l a b o u r t h a t immigrant groups have t r a d i t i o n a l l y p l a y e d i n the l a b o u r p r o c e s s e s a t the c e n t r e ( M i l e s , 1982; F r o b e l et a l . , 1980; Sassen-Koobe, 1980; 1981; P o r t e s and W a l t e r , 1981; P i o r e , 1979; P o r t e s , 1978; 1979; J e n k i n s , 1978; Burawoy, 1976; C a s t e l l s , 1975). Drawing from t h i s l i t e r a t u r e , B o n a c i c h (1980) p r e s e n t s a s i m p l i f i e d model of ' e t h n i c * r e l a t i o n s i n an i m p e r i a l i s t w o r l d system which maps the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n and between i m p e r i a l i s t and c o l o n i z e d s t a t e s , s t r u c t u r i n g forms of n a t i o n a l s t r u g g l e i n t h e p e r i p h e r y . She c o n c l u d e s t h a t n a t i o n a l i s t movements e v o l v e from " c l a s s r e l a t i o n s g e n e r a t e d by the development of c a p i t a l i s m and i m p e r i a l i s m , and r e p r e s e n t e f f o r t s t o c r e a t e a l l i a n c e s a c r o s s c l a s s l i n e s , o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , t o pr e v e n t a l l i a n c e s from d e v e l o p i n g w i t h i n major c l a s s e s a c r o s s n a t i o n a l l i n e s " ( I b i d : 21 ) . As a c o u n t e r p o i n t , i n h i s a n a l y s i s of ' i m p e r i a l i s m i n the s i l i c o n age', Sivanandan (1982) argues t h a t i m p e r i a l i s t p e n e t r a t i o n of the p e r i p h e r y has produced " d i s o r g a n i c development: an economic system a t odds w i t h the c u l t u r a l and 1 66 p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of the p e o p l e i t e x p l o i t s " , and hence t h a t l i b e r a t i o n a r y movements i n the t h i r d w o r l d a r e o f t e n 'mass' movements, but r a r e l y ' c l a s s ' movements. " R e v o l u t i o n s i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s are not n e c e s s a r i l y c l a s s , s o c i a l i s t , r e v o l u t i o n s - - t h e y do not b e g i n as such anyway. They ar e mass movements w i t h n a t i o n a l and r e v o l u t i o n a r y c omponents—sometimes r e l i g i o u s , sometimes s e c u l a r , o f t e n b o t h , but always a g a i n s t the r e p r e s s i v e p o l i t i c a l s t a t e and i t s i m p e r i a l b a c k e r s " ( I b i d : 159). 6.6 C o n c l u s i o n T h i s s t u d y was i n t e n d e d as a c r i t i c a l , e x p o s i t o r y t r e a t m e n t of two fundamental i s s u e s a r i s i n g from the r a c e - c l a s s debate w i t h i n contemporary Marxism; the f e a s i b i l i t y of a non- r e d u c t i o n i s t c l a s s t h e o r y of r a c i a l , i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t , and the a p p r o p r i a t e f o c u s f o r such a t h e o r y . The purpose was not so much t o p r o v i d e a c r i t i c a l o v e r v i e w of the f i e l d , as t o promote a c l a s s c o n f l i c t mode of c l a s s a n a l y s i s , as opposed t o a group power approach, and t o encourage more d i a l o g u e w i t h i n the M a r x i s t wing of s o c i o l o g y . To summarize, the c r i t i q u e of t h r e e i m p o r t a n t t y p e s of r a c e and c l a s s t h e o r y adumbrated some s e r i o u s f l a w s i n the M a r x i s t approach t o r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . The c r i t i c a l r e v i ew of n e o c l a s s i c a l , d u a l and r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r i e s h i g h l i g h t e d the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s between groups and c l a s s e s , c l a s s s t r u g g l e and r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i j i the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s of market and c l a s s f o r m a t i o n . An e v a l u a t i o n of t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of r a d i c a l l a b o u r market t h e o r y y i e l d e d some d i r e c t i v e s f o r M a r x i s t t h e o r i e s of c l a s s and t h e S t a t e , and a 167 c l a s s , c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t t h a t c o u l d be e x t r a p o l a t e d beyond the l a b o u r market t o i n c l u d e community-based and T h i r d World l i b e r a t i o n s t r u g g l e s . R e g a r d i n g the f i r s t i s s u e , i t was argued t h a t M a r x i s t c l a s s a n a l y s i s c o u l d be f r u i t f u l l y a p p l i e d t o r a c i a l c o n f l i c t , w i t h o u t r e s o r t i n g t o r e d u c t i o n i s t or f u n c t i o n a l i s t e x p l a n a t i o n s . On the second i s s u e , i t was r e s o l v e d t h a t the l a b o u r market c o n s t i t u t e d a n e c e s s a r y , but not s u f f i c i e n t f o c u s f o r a M a r x i s t t h e o r y of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t . The a b s t r a c t , c l a s s c o n f l i c t model of r a c i a l c o n f l i c t was proposed as c o n c e p t u a l s c a f f o l d i n g f o r a M a r x i s t t h e o r y of i n t e r - g r o u p c o n f l i c t t h a t would s i t u a t e r a c i a l , e t h n i c and gender c o n f l i c t w i t h i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t of g l o b a l c l a s s f o r m a t i o n . F u r t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l development i n s e v e r a l a r e a s i s p r e r e q u i s i t e t o p a r l a y i n g t h i s model i n t o a u n i f i e d t h e o r e t i c o - m e t h o d o l o g i c a l framework f o r r e s e a r c h on i n t e r - g r o u p . c o n f l i c t . To note but a few, the l i n k a g e between the c o n c r e t e s t r u g g l e s of c o l l e c t i v e a g e n t s , and t h e economic, p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s t h a t shape and l i m i t them, c o u l d be more a d e q u a t e l y s p e c i f i e d by, p e r h a p s , i n c o r p o r a t i n g a concept of ' c o n t r a d i c t i o n s ' i n the mode of p r o d u c t i o n . C o n c o m i t a n t l y , the c o n t r a d i c t o r y r o l e s of t h e S t a t e , and the s t a t e system i n r a c i a l c o n f l i c t and c l a s s f o r m a t i o n c a l l f o r more a t t e n t i o n than they a r e a c c o r d e d h e r e . And f i n a l l y , more t h e o r e t i c a l r e f i n e m e n t of the h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c a p i t a l i s m , c o l o n i a l i s m and r a c i a l c o n f l i c t would h e l p t o e x p e d i t e t h i s p r o j e c t . 1 68 T h i s study was a l s o c o n c e i v e d as a b r i d g e - b u i l d i n g e x e r c i s e t o promote d i a l o g u e between ' b l a c k ' and 'white' Marxism, and t o demonstrate t h a t r a c i s t , s e x i s t and e t h n o c e n t r i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e more o f t e n the p r o d u c t s of inadequate t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l bases, than the r a c e , sex or e t h n i c i t y of the a n a l y s t . 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