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Plans, schemas and affect Snodgrass, Jacalyn D. 1984

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PLANS,  SCHEMAS  AND  AFFECT  By  JACALYN D. SNODGRASS  THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL  FULFILLMENT  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF ARTS in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  (Department o f P s y c h o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s to  t h e s i s as conforming  the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1984 © J a c a l y n D. S n o d g r a s s ,  1984  In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (.3/81)  ii  Abstract:  It  person's  has  behavior  plans,  and  by  place;  but  the  previously  i n a place  h i s or  her  possible  have  not  particular  mood  be t h e g o a l  planning  mood.  may  It  response  is  to  alterations plans. liking her that  been  here  emotional  Not o n l y  that a person's  place  requires  i s decreased the  i f the person  errands judged In  In planning  reported the  i f i t does n o t f i t h i s o r  i s able the  here i n d i c a t e  increase  liking  t o modify t h e p l a n s . effects  of  planning  Three on two  e x p e r i m e n t o n e , s u b j e c t s who had j u s t a  route  higher  f o r completing  arousal  pleasure  a l i s t of  t h a n s u b j e c t s who had  t i m e r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e same  higher  of a  for liking  e x p e r i m e n t two, s u b j e c t s who e x e c u t e d t h e i r  reported  of the  be made i n h i s o r h e r  experiments reported  examined  places.  completed  emotional  i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e e x t e n t  d i m e n s i o n s o f m o o d - - p l e a s u r e and a r o u s a l - - a n d of  may a  h a s been g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t a p e r s o n ' s  but  experiments  o f these  o f a plan, but the process  some i n c o n g r u i t y may a c t u a l l y  place  by h i s o r h e r  response t o the  explored.  argued  a place  of a place  plan,  i s mediated  that a  a l s o produce changes i n t h e p l a n n e r ' s  the  It  suggested  interactive effects  influences  of  been  errands. own  plan  t h a n s u b j e c t s who e x e c u t e d a  iii  plan who  they  had  had  to  unexpected and  been g i v e n . alter  features  pleasure,~  subjects  and  In e x p e r i m e n t t h r e e ,  their  of a place increased  who  did  not  suggest  that  the  process  effects  on  mood  place-liking.  plans  and  to  accommodate  reported  liking  that  planning these  higher  of the  have t o r e - p l a n . of  subjects  has  effects  arousal  place  These  the  over  results  measureable influence  iv  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT.  i i  L I S T OF TABLES  vi  L I S T OF FIGURES  v i i  INTRODUCTION  1  EMOTION  5  SCHEMAS,  PLANS & EMOTION  8  Schemes and E m o t i o n  10  P l a n s a s Schemas  16  P l a n n i n g and E m o t i o n  21  OVERVIEW EXPERIMENT 1:  25 PLANNING WITHOUT EXECUTION  27  Method  28  Results.  30  Discussion  30  EXPERIMENT 2:  PLANNING WITH EXECUTION. .  .33  Method  33  Results  35  Discussion  35  V  EXPERIMENT 3:  RE-PLANNING  38  Method . . .  38  Results  42  Discussion  44  GENERAL DISCUSSION  49  REFERENCES  57  APPENDIX  60  LIST OF TABLES  TABLE l :  MEAN PLEASURE AND AROUSAL SCORES  vii  LIST OF FIGURES  FIGURE l :  MEAN MOOD RATINGS FOR EXPERIMENT 1 . . .  .32  FIGURE 2!  MEAN MOOD RATINGS FOR EXPERIMENT 2 . . . .37  FIGURE 3:  MEAN MOOD RATINGS FOR EXPERIMENT 3 . . .  .48  1  INTRODUCTION  In  their  1982  Ward  proposed  that  incorporated  A n n u a l Review a r t i c l e ,  a framework f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l a  person's  environment-behavior that  than  place.  assuming  might  want  restaurants The a  place  ,to  be  to  emotional  example,  consider  following  You  opportunity  understood  person  is  in  eating behavior,  people  usually  here i s the  response  one  go  r o l e of  to a place.  a person brings to a  that  response  i n New  plans to  may  the  plans It i s  but i t  influence  place. two  As  versions  to  offered  you  the  use  of  be  a  his  Y o r k f o r a month.  accept,  to  particular  person does t h e r e ;  your r e a c t i o n s to the  has  the  rather  scenario:  friend  condominium  point  eat.  explored  clear  person's  A)  plan  plans  c a n n o t be  cause that  emotional the  a mediator i n  They made t h e  the  i n f l u e n c e what t h e  also  Your  why  as  and  psychology  s t a t e d , t h i s means t h a t  consider  t o p i c t o be  will  should  Simply  when t h e y  that  of  restaurants  person's  obvious  the  interactions.  consideration  particular  in  plans  a person's response to a place  without  Russell  thinking  i t  "hibernate"  and  will  good  devote a l l your  the an of  2  energy  to  completing  able to f i n i s h B)  You  to  accept,  thinking i t will  arriving  condominium  You  would  reactions  of  a  maximize It  being  Y o r k you  part  to  be  is  "singles"  difficult  B,  to  various  and  course  interactions the  discrepancy  What the  are  reasons between  and  its the  come and  attributed  effects  For both place  to  going  person's  of these  the  the  most  by  expectations  affective violated  example,  your p l a n  there.  smaller  than  Often  arrive  the  about  i s much  a  smaller.  discrepancies  response to a place  enjoyable  and  on  place?  expectations  least who  the  dramatic  expectations  i s often  about t h a t  p r e s e n c e o f a crowd has  and  people  like  plan.  actual characteristics  person's  emotional  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a place  for a  go  activities.  different  person's f e e l i n g s i n or about the A  for  a l l s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v e such  between t h e  person's  place  not  the  complex  would p r o b a b l y  c a s e A where i t d i s r u p t s y o u r Of  life.  discover that  e x p e c t t o have v e r y A and  chance  night  p l a c e more i n c a s e B where i t f a c i l i t a t e s in  been  opportunities  drawn i n t o t h e  i n cases  a great  a n t i c i p a t i n g the  i n New  socializing. without  and  is  designed  haven't  here.  have some f u n , On  some work you  been named  aspect  there  place.  with  of the  as  same  different  (Norasch, Groner & K e i t i n g , 1979).  It  has  3  been  suggested  impaired  task  per  but  se,  density  p e r f o r m a n c e , a r e due n o t t o h i g h to  1979).  impaired  likely  plan  from be  where i t i s n o t e x p e c t e d  to  violated  their  they  current plan w i l l  quickly,  be d i s r u p t e d .  because t h e r e i s  they  may  be l e f t  without  result  in a  cannot a plan.  negative  state. Miller,  Galanter  suggesting behavior, without  person  the  a plan  influenced  mood  swings  that  plans  this  where  completely  are state  interacting  with  first  structuring o f being  becomes p l a n l e s s r a t h e r are  apt to occur:  emotional  (p. 114). response  i s one e n d o f a c o n t i n u u m o f mood  demands.  the  in  in  consequences  by t h e o n g o i n g p r o c e s s  plans  (I960),  "emotional.""  meet e n v i r o n m e n t a l  between  of  emotional  t o become  here  Pribram  " I f the person  marked  i s said  and  importance  a plan:  suggested without  the noted  suddenly,  for  I f people  I f a new p l a n  T h i s s t a t e o f p l a n l e s s n e s s may t h e n mood  result  i t , o r because a t t e n t i o n i s d i v e r t e d  t h e t a s k t o f o r m a new p l a n . formed  (Klein &  were n o t e x p e c t i n g , i t  task performance e i t h e r  guide  density  expectations  and n e g a t i v e mood?  circumstances  that  as  e x p e c t a t i o n s — t h a t i s , high  Why s h o u l d  T h i s may a f f e c t no  violated  performance  are faced with is  some e f f e c t s o f c r o w d i n g , s u c h  in a situation  Harris, in  that  the It i s  t o being changes  of adjusting plans to  A t t h e end o f t h e continuum disrupted,  o f the world  discrepancies  and t h e p e r s o n ' s  plans  i t a r e l a r g e , a r o u s a l i s h i g h , and  4  the  experience  is  negative.  continuum a r e t h e s l i g h t from  small  expectations mood  At the other  c h a n g e s i n mood t h a t may  discrepancies  between  the  and t h e a c t u a l e n v i r o n m e n t .  along  the  contimuum  defined  by  range from s l i g h t  increases  that  be  experienced  either  unpleasant,  to  the  unpleasant,  person's  degree  may  as  result  The c h a n g e s i n  discrepancy may  end o f t h e  high  of  i n arousal  pleasant arousal  or  state  accompanying complete p l a n d i s r u p t i o n . To  examine  responses, specified  the  the  of  affect  meant  by  an  questions  are  of  on  addressed  concept  i n more d e t a i l .  notion  plans  influence  is  of  on  must  emotional first  be  In t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , the In c l a r i f y i n g  response  raised regarding responses.  i n the later  emotion  defined.  emotional  these  of plans  to  a  what i s  place,  some  the possible influences Those q u e s t i o n s  s e c t i o n s o f t h e paper.  will  be  5  EMOTION  In  reviewing the diverse  l i t e r a t u r e concerned  the a f f e c t i v e q u a l i t i e s o f places, (in  R u s s e l l and  with  Snodgrass  p r e s s ) make some u s e f u l d i s t i n c t i o n s among t h e t e r m s  available  for  places.  They  different  phenomena  that  discussing point  confusion  for  mood  by  and  out when  that  in  relationship to  people often  they t a l k about  refer to  emotion,  i s b e s t a v o i d e d by u s i n g d i s t i n c t  separable  defined  emotion  sets  Russell affective  those terms w i l l  of  phenomena.  and  help c l a r i f y  terms  Two o f t h e t e r m s  Snodgrass  appraisal.  and  will  A brief  be u s e d  here:  discription of  the following  discussion.  MPQd At has  any  some  person neutral.  or  emotion-tinged  be happy, s a d , e x c i t e d ,  This  subjective  state  quality.  The  depressed,  mood  case  B  example state,  i t is  feeling  because  would  i t might  this  etc.--or  s u b j e c t i v e f e e l i n g i s r e f e r r e d t o here as  I n c a s e A o f t h e example o f a t r i p  your  be  i n time a person's  affective  may  mood.  point  probably  to  good  Although  a t t r i b u t e a cause  i s n o t always  the case.  determined.  In  i n this  t o t h e mood  Mood c a n a s e a s i l y  ( o r bad) f o r no known  mood i s m u l t i p l y  York,  be f r u s t r a t e d o r u p s e t .  be happy o r e x c i t e d . easy  t o New  reason—probably  6  It  has  been  shown  t h a t t h e v a r i o u s moods  experience  (happy, s a d , e x c i t e d , d e p r e s s e d ,  can  described  be  dimensions—pleasure Russell  &  of  consists  of  is  1983).  as  experienced  Affective  in  in  low  excitement  arousal;  relaxation  arousal;  depression  Although  the  underlying  mood  i nthe  dimensions  one o r b o t h  dimensions.  But i t  mind t h a t a c h a n g e i n a r o u s a l o r a  pleasure  or  changes  in  both  are a l l  a s a s i n g l e c h a n g e i n mood.  Appraisal  Judgments likeable,  and  appraisals. place  of  a  so  on a r e r e f e r r e d t o h e r e a s a f f e c t i v e  These to  place  mood.  To  one  expects  to feel  appraise  i t as pleasant high  attractive,  appraise  Again  a place as  excited there.  means one e x p e c t s  i n pleasure.  example, y o u r a f f e c t i v e would p r o b a b l y  pleasant,  alter  means  a mood t h e r e  as  a r e judgments about t h e a b i l i t y o f  exciting  case  1980, 1983;  and i t i s u s e f u l t o s p e a k o f a c h a n g e i n  kept  in  underlying  (Russell,  high  and  influence  change  be  change  In  two  a s a u n i t a r y phenomenon, s t i m u l i  may  a  angry, e t c . )  F o r example,  and  pleasure  independently,  the  arousal  on  o f d i s p l e a s u r e a n d low a r o u s a l .  environment  should  and  pleasure  experienced  mood  values  Ridgeway,  consists  consists  by  people  using  to experience the previous  appraisal of the place  be t h a t i t i s u n p l e a s a n t  B, y o u would p r o b a b l y  To  i n case A  or unsatisfying.  affectively  appraise the  7  place  as pleasant  Hood of  or likeable.  experienced  i n a p l a c e and a f f e c t i v e  the place are c l e a r l y  necessarily places  co-vary.  a  experiencing  any  true?  affective  Are  person's  mood  Probably prior  pleasant  This How  not.  finding much  have  on  effect  the  a variety of  But i s t h e converse independent appraisal  p l a c e s a s more  raises a series of interesting  influence  the  the affective  allows  Does p r e s e n t  mood  of  is  made?  pleasant. questions.  mood h a v e t h e same i s i nthe  a t t r i b u t a b l e to the place be  influenced?  between mood and a f f e c t i v e a p p r a i s a l  plans  For  example,  appraisal  independently, on a p p r a i s a l ?  of specific  in  place.  of plana  be  appraisal will  the formulation  role  of the  d o e s mood a t t h e t i m e o f a p p r a i s a l  on a p p r a i s a l w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e p e r s o n Must  without  (1980) h a s shown t h a t p e o p l e i n a  mood a p p r a i s e d  Distinguishing  the  time  place-liking?  place? before  i n mood. appraisals  the  Gifford  need n o t  s e r i e s o f photographs)  change  at  i n t e r t w i n e d , but they  A person can appraise  ( f o r example  appraisal  questions  concerning  the person's experience do  plans  influence  with  mood  a  and  o r d o e s mood m e d i a t e t h e e f f e c t  8  SCHEMAS. PLANS AND  The ways  following  in  appraisals  concept  of  between  the  places  expectations,  and  the  Pribram's (1982,  o f those  of  use  that  in  resolving  the  the  world  and  that  plans  resultant  mood.  introduced  along  plans  Miller,  R u s s e l l and Ward's  i n describing  (1984).  a  key  role  the  appraisal. in  concept  terms  of  schema  outcome  of  interactions  that t h i s  systems.  the a f f e c t i v e is  s e c t i o n s , some e x p l o r a t o r y  indicating  schemas  Secondly, the s t r u c t u r e  i n determining  reported  the  o f a schema i s  the r o l e of plans person-place  mood,  i n determining  M a n d l e r ' s argument t h a t  discussed  these  I t i s argued  can a l t e r  Thirdly,  Following  person-place  d i s c r e p a n c i e s between t h e s t a t e o f  with  is  G a l a n t e r and  H a n d l e r ' s work on t h e r o l e o f  First,  of  those  The i d e a s a r e drawn f r o m a  appraisal  play  affective  and  mood i n and a f f e c t i v e  and s c h e m a - d r i v e n e x p e c t a t i o n s  influence plans  person's  and f i n a l l y affective  plans  t h a t do o r do n o t meet  most n o t a b l y  of  utilizing  t o explore the  person's  (I960) d i s c u s s i o n o f p l a n s ,  interactions,  i n f l u e n c e mood o r  A framework  a  places.  sources,  1983)  schemas  might  of places.  expectations,  appraisals  o u t l i n e some o f t h e  a "schema" i s d e v e l o p e d  interrelationships  variety  will  which a p e r s o n ' s p l a n s  affective the  sections  EMOTION  discussed. research i s  i s a u s e f u l framework f o r  9  examining  these  interrelationships.  10  SCHEMAS AND  Mandler emotional between world. or are  (1984)  has p r e s e n t e d  experience a  can  person's  experience  expectations  world. the  and  an e v e n t  c a n be e i t h e r  i n the  positive  i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e view t h a t d i s c r e p a n c i e s  always experienced  structures  t h e argument t h a t an  a r i s e out o f the discrepancy  expectations  This emotional  negative,  EMOTION  are  negatively.  embodied  In Handler's  model,  by  schemas--cognitive  t h a t organize a person's  knowledge about t h e  A schema r e p r e s e n t s a s e t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s among components  description Mandler'a  of  object  schemas w i l l  are  schema  similar  an  or  event.  help c l a r i f y  A  their  brief role i n  theory.  Schemas single  of  economically  can  situations  structured  so  that  a  be a d a p t e d t o f i t any i n a c l a s s o f by  changing  details  i n t h e schema.  F o r e x a m p l e , a "room" schema c o u l d be a d a p t e d t o f i t a n y room  by  specified  changing by  abstraction  the of  the  dimensions  schema.  The  t h e many d i f f e r e n t  schema  i s an  rooms t h a t h a v e been  and  prototypical,  v a l u e s t h a t may be r e p l a c e d by t h e a c t u a l  A  schema  features  "room"  furnishings  experienced,  values detected  i t s  and  have  expected,  or  i n a room t h a t a c t i v a t e s t h e schema. specifies  component f e a t u r e s .  the  relationship  among i t s  T h e s e f e a t u r e s may be t h o u g h t  of as  11  tags  that  example,  specify  (or  point  a  desk  desks  can  probably  approximately  expectations  but the s p e c i f i c  details of  i n t h e " d e s k " schema. specify  the  For  a t a g f o r "desk."  schema g e n e r a t e s  t o be p r e s e n t ,  are represented  schema  subschemas.  t h e schema " o f f i c e " c o n t a i n s  Activation of the " o f f i c e " lor  to)  Any s i n g l e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among  7 +. 2 c o m p o n e n t s - - t h e number o f p i e c e s o f  information  that  can  be  held  i n consciousness  a t one  time. Related system.  schemas  For  may  example,  rooms s u c h a s a l i v i n g link  are  information-retrieval stimuli  do  not  network w i l l links  may  organized  schemas  room  also  hooked  network.  example,  i f  room  stimuli  in  the " l i b r a r y "  of  that  an  sensory  i s activated,  this  Such network  schema p o i n t e r s , o r  similar  features.  For  do n o t match t h e " o f f i c e "  i s a c t i v a t e d when y o u go i n t o a room,  i t may  schema, a r r i v e d a t t h r o u g h t h e g e n e r i c  schema. According  information state. many  together  a r e p l a c e m e n t schema.  t o schemas t h a t c o n t a i n  fit  types  I f the incoming  pointers  schema t h a t  schema  schema.  e i t h e r be t h r o u g h g e n e r i c  sensory  a  have p o i n t e r s  f i t t h e schema t h a t  provide  in  for specific  room o r o f f i c e  them t o t h e g e n e r i c Schemas  be  to  Handler,  trying  i n t o a schema c a n g i v e r i s e  to  f i t  t o an  sensory  emotional  T h i s h a p p e n s b e c a u s e schemas a r e a b s t r a c t i o n s o f previous  experiences,  and w i l l  rarely  f i t incoming  12  information exactly. incoming  stimuli  Handler  to  cognitive  processing  autonomic  nervous  definition  of  Snodgrass's  schema  and  slight,  assimilated  to  the  slightly.  fitting arousal  arousal  is  subjectively  i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e degree o f discrepancy  the  t h e incoming and  altered If  schema,  t h e incoming is  higher  stimuli  c a n be  i s larger,  discrepancy stimuli  I fthe  arousal i s increased  t o f i t t h e incoming  the  stimuli.  incoming  I f the discrepancy  higher.  ( I n R u s s e l l and  a c h a n g e i n mood i s e x p e r i e n c e d . )  is  be  component o f h i s  experience.  i f the  ongoing  c a u s e s an i n c r e a s e i n  system a r o u s a l - - o n e  discrepancy  can  schema i n t e r r u p t s  and a s s u c h  emotional  than  Arousal between  f i ta  terms,  perceivable,  argues t h a t the f a i l u r e o f  b u t t h e schema  stimuli,  arousal i s  c a n o n l y be r e s o l v e d by  to a different  still.  only  There  is  schema,  no e a s y  then  way t o  y  quantify it  is  degree o f discrepancy, as  the  search  schema t o match s e n s o r y  time  resolution  resolution,  with,  i s experienced the  stimuli  or negative. business  other  schema  component  among  of the discrepancy.  discrepancy  incoming  required to find  or a l t e r  other  A failure  as negative. that  of  emotional  things,  When t h e r e  i s finally  fitted  a  isa  t o the  positive  F o r e x a m p l e , s u p p o s e y o u ' v e been t o l d that  the  to resolve the  h a s a v a l u e t h a t may be e i t h e r  associate  a  input.  Pleasantness--the experience--varies  b u t one way t o t h i n k o f  by a  m e s s e n g e r i s on t h e way t o  13  deliver  a  contract  f o r you t o look over.  a r r i v e s and h a n d s y o u an e n v e l o p e the c o n t r a c t you a r e e x p e c t i n g . your  expectations  just  received  is  a  t h a t doesn't  look  like  I f the discrepancy  from  r e s o l v e d by d i s c o v e r i n g y o u have  check  value of the resolution  f o r a l a r g e sum o f money, t h e will  probably  On t h e o t h e r hand, i f t h e e n v e l o p e that  you  value in not it  are  will  being  be q u i t e  contains  be q u i t e n e g a t i v e .  As a l r e a d y  notification  positive  in  one  demonstrated  t o New Y o r k , t h e r e i s  n e c e s s a r i l y an a b s o l u t e v a l u e a t t a c h e d be  positive.  s u e d f o r a l a r g e sum o f money, t h e  t h e p r e v i o u s example o f a t r i p  may  A messenger  context  t o a schema;  and n e g a t i v e i n  another. Handler  (1984)  a l s o assumes t h a t t h e i n t e n s i t y o f  i  pleasure  varies  discrepancy. from  the  combined  the  degree  on  (i.e.,  of  experience evaluate. and  of  is If the  resolving  fitted  schema.  discrepancy.  produced  mood c h a n g e  resulting  discrepancies  First,  by  is  a  and t h e  arousal varies  The p l e a s a n t n e s s  of the  upon t h e v a l u e o f t h e f i t t e d  schema  I f a resolution  i n the world  arousal  arousal  the overall  arousal.  evidence  the  o f t h e degree o f discrepancy  depends  the  schema),  high  process  of  experience and  Thus,  function  meaning with  with  is  very  negative there quality  i s not achieved  d o e s n o t f i t any a c c e s s e d  h i g h and t h e q u a l i t y  of the  b e c a u s e t h e r e i s no meaning t o i s a resolution, of the experience  arousal i s less d e p e n d s on t h e  14  value of the f i t t e d An  example  outcomes  of  telegram  from  time,  the  schema.  might  this  help to i l l u s t r a t e  process.  If  a good f r i e n d  ringing  you  you  the p o s s i b l e  were e x p e c t i n g  haven't seen f o r a  long  o f y o u r d o o r b e l l would a c t i v a t e  your  schema f o r r e c e i v i n g  telegrams  you  a schema f r o m p r e v i o u s  have formed such  (presuming o f course  to  look  person. there, and  you  low  will  schema that  with  no  one  you  see  a  this  you  a  schema value  is  that  an  fits  and be  high  see  the  the  emphasized  because of the  that  expectations,  your  of  with  you  to  to find  a  are again  likely  (unless you're i n T h i s time  i t has  i n person,  high  your  a  your  positive  current It  heightened  you  i n pleasure.  t h a t has  friend).  should  but  you've  the* o t h e r hand,  i n a r o u s a l and  context  i n arousal  door,  friend  example o f a r e s o l u t i o n  within  one  answer y o u r  situation,  I f , on your  delivery  of a ringing doorbell  cleaner).  i n context.  door will  vacuum  your  i s no  unable  pleasure  (communicationg  violated  are  I f , when you  low  at  example o f f a i l u r e  situation  a r o u s a l and for  your  value  T h i s i s an  at the door.  market  experience This  a mood h i g h  a vacuum c l e a n e r s a l e s m a n , you  negative open  experience  congruity;  fits  experience  found  likely  telegram  answer t h e d o o r , t h e r e  i n pleasure.  schema  the  your s t e r e o t y p i c a l  I f , when you  achieve  to  like  that  experience).  T h i s schema i n c l u d e s e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e p e r s o n door  a  plan  should arousal  experience  be from  a more  15  intense  positive  feeling  at  announced v i s i t of your f r i e n d .  an  unannounced  vs.  an  16  PLANS AS  Ward and be  usefully  schemas.  Russell  on  R u s s e l l ' s concept  Minsky's  represent  knowledge  solving.  Building  Ward  and  plans to  is  be  in on  here t h a t w i l l  between  to  Schemas  analogies  some  a person's  as  several  u s e d by  types, place  state-change  schemas.  Place  be  of  problem  e s t a b l i s h e d by  some  analogies  schema-structured  form  the  theoretical  about  emotional  discrepant  the  Ward and of  R u s s e l l are which  action  then  are  separated of  present  schemas, types  of  used t o p r e s e n t  and  schemas a  d e s c r i p t i o n of a p o s s i b l e s t r u c t u r e f o r  fairly plans.  Schemas A  Any  to  and  Each o f t h e s e and  how  plans.  schemas,  described,  allow  b a s i s o f how  three  concern:  detailed  the  of  of the s t r u c t u r e of  predictions  p l a c e s on  places are with  be  planning  These for  models  description  can  o f schema i s b a s e d  the foundations  presented  background  will  computer  plans  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  discussion  a  perception.  into  (1975)  Russell,  drawn  reactions  (1983) have o u t l i n e d how  d e s c r i b e d as a h i e r a r c h i c a l  Ward and  largely  SCHEMAS  p l a c e schema r e f e r s t o a p l a c e o r t y p e  type  of place with  represented  as  a  which a person generic  schema  of  place.  i s familiar i n the  will  person's  17  memory.  For  earlier  is  a  prototypical rooms. as  an  example, generic  room  or  more  her  schema  place  discussed  representing  through  schema o r e v e n "Mr.  The  office  place  with  schemas s u c h  Smith's o f f i c e . "  office  schemas  the  experience  schemas a p e r s o n has  experience.  specific  schema  a l s o more s p e c i f i c  number o f s p e c i f i c his  "room"  abstracted  There are "office"  the  The  depends  w o r k e r would  than  would  on  have  a  small  shopkeeper.  Action  Schemas  An  action  action: may  a sequence of  also  objects  specify or  a place action  places.  schema may to)  Similarly, pointer possible  be  the  from  represented  represented relevant  schema  and  and  to  action  and  in  in  each  an  "no  tag.  i s s p e c i f i e d by represent  r e s u l t from t h i s  schemas.  required  features  for  schemas t h a t  "broken."  state-change  and  It  tags i d e n t i f y i n g (or  a c t i o n schema " h i t " has  "intact"  an  a result.  subactions  schemas  of the or  as  changes i n s t a t e from  as  components o f  objects  objects,  changes i n s t a t e t h a t  the  the  actor,  with the  actor,  result  example, t h e  results or  to  a c t s , an  As  the  the  specifies  prerequisite conditions  schema, t h e  pointing  For  schema  as  the  action.  i t s possible  pain"  These  a  to  "pain"  changes  are  18  State-change  Schemas  A c h a n g e i n s t a t e may For  example,  question the  breakage  being  may  state  result  will  have  have a s  schema.  points  back  to causal  person  to  both  actions  and  to formulate a plan  s t a t e as  from  their  pointers  state-change  of  possible the  h i t , dropped, p u l l e d apart,  a c t i o n frames t h a t  in  have s e v e r a l  The  to  causes.  object  etc.  A l l of  result this the  change  "intact/broken"  s t a t e - c h a n g e schema, i n  a c t i o n schemas.  p r e d i c t the  in  This  turn,  allows  the  consequences of h i s or  her  w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r change  i t s goal.  Plans A  person's  hierarchical together  plans  can  organization through  of  state--the  that  may  prerequisite generate this from  goal--points  be  selected conditions  a subgoal.  subgoal the  subgoal.  are  The  you  Your  "state-of-hunger"  schema " e a t "  as  one  schemas  various  Each  action  that  change schemas  state.  for  The  become  may  associated  be  sitting  aware  schema  that  points  may  achieving  a v a i l a b l e through the schema  a  linked  A desired  possible actions  again  when  as  schemas.  a goal.  achieve  of  i n a s e l e c t e d a c t i o n schema  example, you  suddenly  action  to the  to  state-change For  thought  state-change  s t a t e - c h a n g e schema r e p r e s e n t s in  be  pointers  with  i n your  this office  you  are  hungry.  to  the  action  r e s u l t i n g i n a change from hunger  to  19  satiation.  Your " e a t "  "•food." Your  This  "have  schemas "have  schema h a s a s a r e q u i r e d  generates  food"  a subgoal o f "acquire  state-change  .schema  f o r the possible actions food."  points  You m i g h t go t o a r e s t a u r a n t ,  supermarket, e t c .  the  has  i t s own s e t o f p r e r e q u i s i t e c o n d i t i o n s that  Obviously the one  plans  overall  can  structure  Subplans  and n e c e s s a r y  have many l e v e l s .  The p a r t o f  o f which t h e person  i s aware a t  are  represented  state  pointers  to  an a c t i o n schema o r s e v e r a l  may  state.  change  potentially Metaplans,  be  or  the  immediate  immediate  plan  through  associated  with  higher  level  thought  Miller,  beyond  the  representing  i n turn action  the  are  level  of  as  part  the  of  schema  fulfilled,  (1960).  awareness.  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e g o a l ,  that  both t h e  subplans can  f o l l o w i n g t h e usage o f  Pribram  current  plans  state-change  of the o v e r a l l plan  scope  schemas  to the  Until  intentions, &  have  linked  metaplans and t h e lower l e v e l  Galanter  constitute  higher  goal,  goal.  that  schema a s  t o achieve the desired  the  generated  that  schemas  used  as a s i n g l e  i n this  to  that  schemas  subgoals.  pointers  be  go home, go  t i m e - - t h e immediate p l a n - - i s r e p r e s e n t e d  schema.  to the  Each o f t h e s e a c t i o n  may g e n e r a t e f u r t h e r  food."  t h a t change t h e s t a t e  to  objects  object  structure, butare The  plan  Intentions  action  schema  specifies  the  the r e s u l t s , the various  20  subplans,  and  are  a l l  and  merely  necessary  levels.  point  Then  to  In  this  goals  and  your to  "sell  conditions w h i c h may  plans  your  goal  for  sharpener,  you  To  must c h a n g e  can  be f o r m e d  and  restrictions  i s t o be  schema.  hazy. modified  arise.  a successsful  For writer,  schema w o u l d  Among t h e  as  point  antecedent  t h i s schema i s t h e " w r i t e b o o k s " schema  eventually If  hazy,  schemas.  p l a n becomes more  w r i t e r " state-change  books" a c t i o n  subplan.  you can  l e a d you now  find  go  from  c h a n g e schema t o o t h e r a c t i o n condition  components  d e t a i l s o f t h e s u b p l a n become more  environmental  if  respective  of a subplan, the person  the  way,  "successful a  their  as the h i g h e r l e v e l  example,  These  r e p r e s e n t e d as t a g s which a r e r e l a t i v e l y  examine t h e d e t a i l s  clear  conditions.  "sharp."  back t o a " s h a r p e n y o u r s e l f without  pencil" a  the "sharp p e n c i l " schemas t h a t  result  pencil state i n the  21  PLANNING AND  Expectations  about  EMOTIONS  a place are represented  as p r e r e q u i s i t e c o n d i t i o n s o r r e q u i r e d o b j e c t s by  t h e a s s o c i a t e d a c t i o n schema.  be  explicit  developed  or a  implicit,  plan  in  consciously  expects  the  o r , the person  place,  only  a  general  expectations the  only  of  either  case,  person  must  replan.  there  isn't  a picnic  alter  your  plan  may  i f  by  The e x p e c t a t i o n s analogy  resolving any  these  any  of  not  expectations for  a  schema  available  she  with  expectations  are  deciding  looking  n o t met t h e  one?  and  the  Planning  i s i n t e r r u p t e d by In  on t h e  picnic.  i n a p l a n form  planning  You  elsewhere f o r a  t o have y o u r p i c n i c  discrepancies.  met.  In  example, what do you do i f  somehow--by  inherent  action  the desired s t a t e .  t a b l e where you e x p e c t e d  between  schema  are  or  the place doesn't f i t the  result  For  time ongoing behavior  that  he  have  a r r i v e at the place  g r o u n d , o r by d e c i d i n g n o t t o have a  the  that  may  f e a t u r e s t o be p r e s e n t i n  on d i s c o v e r i n g  schemas t h a t have a s t h e i r  table,  a person  may  s t r a t e g y and become aware o f h i s o r h e r  specifications  picnic  is  detail  certain  specified  These e x p e c t a t i o n s  that  such  i n plans  identifying  a r e used as t h e s t a r t i n g  the b a s i s of process  of  i s required expectations an  point i n a  object, search  t h a t m a t c h e s , o r c a n be a d a p t e d t o match.  22  events i n the world. on  input  schema s e l e c t i o n , and a r o u s a l  of  the  farther  In planning,  action  schema w i t h  starting  integrate with  partially as  a  in  actual  object  the current  a  search  stimulus-driven  function  ( i n t h e f o r m o f an  expectations)  a c t s as  f o r a schema t h a t  c o n d i t i o n s with  identification,  as a f u n c t i o n  i s from t h e s t a r t i n g  plan  i t sassociated  point  acts as a c o n s t r a i n t  increases  a m a t c h i n g schema  point.  a  Sensory  the current  schema  process,  of the d i f f i c u l t y  will  goal.  selection  and a r o u s a l  As  is  a  increases  i n finding a suitable  schema. As  an  example  consider  what  typically  particular  place.  This  is  plan  relevant  the  the  happens  You  in  to  come  form  to a place of  to  occur.  to  about t h e p l a c e  place  t o y o u r a c t i o n schema o r an a t t a c h e d  the the  you've  characteristics  don't  place  schema.  f i t , y o u have t h e same  identification.  You c a n a d a p t  a c t i o n schema t o t h e a c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e  place or  that  f i t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of that  a l t e r n a t i v e s as i n object your  a plan.  necessary f o r the  to,  the  try  with  an a c t i o n schema  come  If  you  As y o u l o o k  purpose,  when y o u a r r i v e a t a  s p e c i f i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the place action  present  a n d , f o r e x a m p l e , have y o u r p i c n i c on t h e g r o u n d ;  you c a n u s e y o u r a c t i o n schema a s a s t a r t i n g search  f o r a n o t h e r a c t i o n schema t h a t w i l l  acquisition  restaurant.  of  Here  your the  goal--for major  point i n result in  example,  constraints  on  go t o a schema  23  selection  are  state-change must in  that  i t must  schema  associated  to  with  e i t h e r f i t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or  other  place  unable t o c o n s t r u c t  a plan  some  you  must  that  generated  have  then  noted  the  leads  discovered  relevant  or  can g e t t o .  t o the type  is  not  first,  postponed as long As w i t h the  object  negative In  the  this fits  an  The  intended  Thus, world  replanning  the  of a Plan  subplan  i s not  smallest  possible  s u b p l a n s a r e t o be  change i n s t r a t e g y  identification, finding the  arousal a  i s t o be  increases  schema  experience  case o f o b j e c t , person o r event  on  plan  hierarchical  to  upon  with  f i tthe  i s positive or  d e p e n d s on t h e outcome o f t h e f i t t i n g  are  hierarchy  level  goal,  a s p o s s i b l e . " ( p . 114)  of  into current  depends  the  Whether  depends  plans  your c u r r e n t  o f bottom-up  feasible,  and  difficulty  constraints.  I f you a r e  "When i n t h e e x e c u t i o n  that  you're  g o a l , and s o on u n t i l y o u  substitutions of alternative t a c t i c a l attempted  y o u r g o a l , and i t  discrepancy.  et a l .  specified  of the place  to achieve  that particular  by M i l l e r  is  you  the  attempt t o r e v i s e t h e higher  eliminated  organization  it  lead  process.  identification,  t h e context--how t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  plans.  hierarchical  In t h e case o f organizations  how w e l l t h e p l a n  fits  planning—since of s u b p l a n s — i t  into the larger plan  o f which i t i s a p a r t . both  can  have  planning an  and  effect  identifying on  events i n the  a p e r s o n ' s mood.  Both  24  processes stored fit  can  schemas  given  adapting  be  characterized  f o r one t h a t f i t s  constraints.  of  satisfies  the  context  of  contributes  mood.  a  search  through  o r c a n be a d a p t e d t o  This process  requires effort  dimension  as  o f s e a r c h i n g and  and c o n t r i b u t e s  to the arousal  Once a schema h a s been f o u n d  constraints, higher  i t c a n be e v a l u a t e d  level  plans.  This  t o the q u a l i t y or pleasantness  that  i n the  evaluation dimension o f  mood. With the  this  planning  results the  in  act  mental  a  the  overriding  will  factors,  leave  Within  involved  there  as the planning  in  when  plan  predicted  because  to find  finding arousal  was  a  goals,  the  with  no  as p o s i t i v e .  a  you  effort  (or r e v i s i n g That  time c o n s t r a i n t s o r other finally  find  a suitable  y o u r p i c n i c more t h a n successful.  of  This i s  t h i n k i n g o f another  a p i c n i c table increases  suitable  person  component o f mood.  immediately the  the person's  making a p l a n  the arousal are  process  t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s , t h e more  t a b l e you a r e a p t t o e n j o y  your  place  As l o n g  c o n s i s t e n t with  planning  higher  provided  picnic  plan  feeling. effort  one), is,  process.  of  positive  if  a n a l o g y some p r e d i c t i o n s c a n be made a b o u t  y o u r a r o u s a l , and  t a b l e causes us t o e x p e r i e n c e  this  25  OVERVIEW  The an  experiments reported  here a r e t h e f i r s t  steps i n  e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p l a n ,  and  affect.  down  into  planning and  The h y p o t h e s i z e d  two t e s t a b l e h y p o t h e s e s : or  2)  replanning  the  liking  of  mood  the  Specifically, was  satisfactory  long  as  induced  by p l a n n i n g  that  that  having of  requires  will  influence  the  planning.  plan  a  would  would  and  cause  the  increase the  formation  this  arousal  of a to  be  I t was a l s o p r e d i c t e d t h a t , a s  satisfactory place  t o p l a n would  mood,  as p o s i t i v e .  unexpected  the process of  h a s m e a s u r a b l e e f f e c t s on mood,  place  component  experienced  1)  c a n be b r o k e n  b a s e d on t h e framework d e v e l o p e d h e r e , i t  predicted  arousal  interaction  place  plan  could  be l i k e d  be  formed,  an  more t h a n an e x p e c t e d  place. The  first  third  tests  where  a  compared had  just  two e x p e r i m e n t s t e s t one  person  condition is  same  ratings and  hypothesis  a b l e t o form  a plan.  1, and t h e 2--the  case  Experiment 1  t h e s e l f - r e p o r t e d mood r a t i n g s o f s u b j e c t s completed  s u b j e c t s who had j u s t the  of  hypothesis  materials. of  a planning completed  task  with  their  own p l a n  with  using  2 compared t h e mood  s u b j e c t s who had c o m p l e t e d  following  the ratings of  an e v a l u a t i o n t a s k  Experiment  who  a task  by making  t h e mood' r a t i n g s o f  26  subjects plan the  who had completed the same task by following a  they  were  given.  These two experiments separate  e f f e c t s on mood attributable to planning from those  attributable to execution of the plan. Experiment the  stages  compared  3 traced the mood of each subject through of  planning  subjects  and  executing  the plan, and  who are forced to re-plan with  who were not on measures of mood and place l i k i n g .  those  27  EXPERIMENT 1  PLANNING WITHOUT EXECUTION  Experiment in  the  the  resulting expects allowing  mood  positive  the  for  According  with  achieve to  effects  that  plan,  work  t o the present itself  was  studying  or  he  By  o r she has  pleasure  of planning  should  be  were a s s i m i l a r  the other  should  planning  on mood, two t a s k s as p o s s i b l e i n a l l  be p r i m a r i l y  component.  The p l a n n i n g  adapted from a t a s k developed human  planning  Goldin  Hayes-Roth,  1980;  1980c; H a y e s - R o t h & T h o r n d y k e , planning  a  task  by H a y e s - R o t h  (Hayes-Roth & Hayes-Roth,  1979;  &  a planning  require equivalent effort  Hayes-Roth, Hayes-Roth, Rosenschein,  involved  of the  her goals.  1978;  1980b,  even  c a u s e an i n c r e a s e  until  plan,  causes  how w e l l t h e p e r s o n  his  t h a t one s h o u l d  minimal  chosen  the  planning,  i n a l l cases.  while a  to  satisfactory  respects, except  with  whether  t h e p l e a s u r e dimension  vary  subject  required  task,  of  of the plan should  plan  a  test  were  i n mood.  should  each  developed  execution  Similarly,  the  to test  actual . planning ^ process  execution  arousal.  To  of  changes  framework,  in  was d e s i g n e d  absence  measureable  without  1  & Cammarata,  Hayes-Roth, 1980).  route f o r accomplishing  1980a,  This  task  a l i s t of  28  errands. Subjects with to  i n the planning condition were given a map  pictures of various types of shops on i t and asked plan  errands  the  order  (such  as  of doing a series of everyday-type "pick up medicine f o r the dog at the  vets") by drawing a route on the map. Subjects decide  i n the non-planning  whether  accomplished  the  same  list  condition were asked to of  errands  could  be  i n two hours by following a route already  drawn on t h e i r maps.  METHOD  SubTacts Subjects psychology  were  40 students enrolled i n undergraduate  courses  who  received  course  credit  for  partipating.  Materials Subjects with  various  errands. from  were  each given a map of a f i c t i c i o u s town  shops  Both  marked  on  i t , and a l i s t of ten  the map and the errand l i s t were taken  Hayes-Roth (1980c).  Rating Scales Mood  ratings  were  made  on  a  set of 12  9-point  29  bipolar scale  adjective  scales,  half comprising the arousal  and half comprising the pleasure scale  (Mehrabian  & Russell, 1974).  Procedure Subjects participated i n d i v i d u a l l y , and were t o l d the purpose of  of the study was to investigate the f e a s i b i l i t y  the plans that people make.  Planners Twenty subjects were given a map and l i s t of errands, and  t o l d to plan the most e f f i c i e n t route they could to  accomplish  a l l the errands on t h e i r l i s t and to draw i t  on the map. Raters Twenty  other  subjects  were  given the same l i s t of  errands and a map with a route drawn on i t by a planner. They to  were instructed to estimate how long i t would take complete the errands using t h e i r own experience as a  guideline,  and  to  judge  whether  or  not  they could  accomplish  a l l the errands on the l i s t i n two hours by  following the route on the map. Both  groups were allowed to work on the task as long  as they wished. the  same  respective  amount  Planners and raters spent approximately of time (30 minutes) completing t h e i r  tasks.  After  completing  the  subjects were asked to f i l l out a mood scale.  task a l l  30  RESULTS  If  planning  subjects  influences  mood by increasing arousal,  i n the planning group should report moods with  a higher score on the arousal dimension than subjects i n the non-planning group. the  neutral  for  both  success mean  point  groups on  raters  (pleasant as opposed to unpleasant) since  both  groups should  t h e i r respective tasks.  pleasure  Planners  Pleasure scores should be above  had  and  arousal  experience  Figure 1 shows the  scores f o r the two groups.  a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher arousal score than  (t=3.45,  p<.01),  but there was no s i g n i f i c a n t  difference on the pleasure scale (t=.13, n.s.).  DISCUSSION  These activity mood  support  the prediction  to a s i m i l a r task that does not involve  I t i s possible that t h i s increase i n arousal  due  to greater  planners,  but every  evaluative apprehension among the effort  was  made to make the-two  conditions equivalent i n t h i s respect. told  that the  of planning increases the arousal component of  relative  planning. was  results  Both groups were  that we were interested i n the amount of agreement  among people about the f e a s i b i l i t y of plans.  31  Although dimension  of  experiment, Since ratings  no  the  effects  mood  would  could be  planning  on the pleasure  was not s p e c i f i c a l l y tested i n t h i s  ratings one  of  were fail  expected  found to be the case.  consistent with predictions. on to  the  task, a l l pleasure  be p o s i t i v e .  Such was  32  9  PLANNER^  8  RATER  7 6 5 A 3 2  1r 0  to AROUSAL  gure 1.  PLEASURE  Mean mood r a t i n g s f o r Experiment 1,  33  EXPERIMENT 2  PLANNING WITH EXECUTION  Experiment  2  was designed to explore the e f f e c t s on  mood of forming and executing a plan. study  involved  interlocking group in  constructing  building blocks.  designed  a  The task f o r t h i s "building"  out of  Subjects i n the planning  and constructed a building and subjects  the non-planning  group  constructed  a building by  following a diagram they were given.  METHOD  Subjects Subjects  were  psychology  40 students enrolled i n undergraduate  courses  who  received  course  credit for  participating.  Rating Scales Mood  ratings were made on the same set of 12 9-point  bipolar adjective scales as used i n Experiment 1.  Procedure Subjects purpose  participated i n d i v i d u a l l y and were t o l d the  of the study  was  to investigate how people  34  follow  instructions.  either  the planning or non-planning  following  They  instructions:  very  loose  will  be  ask  some  questions  finished."  Subjects  building  "Some  instructions  given  were randomly assigned to group and given the  subjects  w i l l be given  f o r doing t h i s task, and some  very s p e c i f i c instructions.  blocks  and  about were given  the task seated  Then I ' l l  after  before  a demonstration  a  you've set of  of how the  pieces could be f i t t e d together. Planners Half the subjects were instructed to make a "building with  a  tower:  once  you've  them  apart  You can make i t any way you want, but  joined again,  two pieces together you can't take so  you might  want to plan i t out  before you begin." Followers The group  buildings were  followers. her  made  by the subjects i n the planning  diagramed, and given as instructions to the Each follower was given a plan from h i s or  counterpart  planner  i n a yoked design.  They were  instructed to build a building with a tower by following the diagram. Subjects  i n both groups were allowed to work as long  as  they wished, and spent approximately the same amount  of  time  (20 minutes) on t h e i r respective tasks.  Both  groups f i l l e d out mood scales after completing the task.  35  RESULTS  Figure for  2  shows the mean pleasure and arousal scores  the two  above  goups.  the neutral  scored  higher  difference  on  was  Again, mean pleasure scores were point  f o r both  pleasure  than  only  p<.10, two-tailed).  marginally  groups.  Planners  followers,  but t h i s  significant  (t=1.79,  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference  in arousal ratings.  DISCUSSION  The  difference  i n pleasure  ratings  suggests that  completing one's own plan may increase pleasure r e l a t i v e to and  completing a plan one has been given. 2,  taken  together, seem to indicate that planning  increases  arousal  increases  pleasure.  arousal  scores  sufficient arousal  whereas  completing  had  elapsed  2, after  mood ratings were made immediately  any  ratings  determine  presumably  l e v e l s to return to baseline.  experiment  2  plan  because  the planning for In experiment 1,  after planning, while  a plan was formed and executed  were made.  whether  one's  No differences were found i n the  i n experiment  time  in  Experiments 1  before  Therefore, i t i s impossible to  arousal increased and declined again  36  for  the  planners,  or  independently of arousal.  whether  pleasure  increased  37  33  9  PLANNER [\^  8  FOLLOWER  7  3  < 3 2  110 F i g u r e 2.  AROUSAL  PLEASURE  Mean mood r a t i n g s f o r Experiment  2,  38  EXPERIMENT 3  RE-PLANNING  Experiment 3 was designed to investigate what happens to  mood  effect  when  agents.  the  person has to change a plan, and what  t h i s change has on l i k i n g of the place.  experiment,  room  a  In t h i s  subjects were asked to pretend to be secret  Their task was to hide f i v e cassette tapes i n a  as  quickly  opportunity  as possible. to  A l l subjects were given  plan, but some were given accurate  information  about  tapes,  some were given inaccurate information. I t  was  and  hypothesized  because  of  the room  that  inaccurate  where they would hide the  subjects  who  expectations  had  to re-plan  would  experience  higher arousal than subjects with accurate expectations. Since no one could f a i l on t h i s task, pleasure should be above  the neutral  score  below  displeasure),  point  the  f o r both groups (a pleasure  neutral  but pleasure  point  would  indicate  should be more intense f o r  the group that experiences higher arousal.  METHOD  Subjects Subjects  were  40  students enrolled i n introductory  39  psycholgy  courses  who  recieved  course  credit, f o r  participating.  Rooms Subjects rooms up  hid the tapes  i n one of two rooms. The  were i d e n t i c a l i n s i z e and shape, but one was set  as  an  contents  office  of the two  approximately room.  and  the other as a store room. The rooms  were  adjusted to provide  the same number of hiding places i n each  Pretest  ratings  rooms to be approximately  of task d i f f i c u l t y showed the equal.  Rating Scales Hood  ratings  (1983),  a  9  on  Russell's  defined  dimensions—pleasure  and  arousal.  shown  made  correlated  by  made  grid  mood  9  were  ratings  on  by  Affect Grid  two  orthogonal  Russell's work has  t h i s grid to be r e l i a b l y  with mood ratings obtained on the 12 bipolar  adjective  scales used i n experiments 1 and 2.  was  f o r t h i s experiment because i t i s faster f o r  used  The grid  making multiple ratings.  Procedure Subjects told  again  the purpose  working arriving  under  participated  i n d i v i d u a l l y , and were  of the study was to investigate how  time pressure a f f e c t s people's mood.  f o r the experiment,  On  subjects were given the  40  instruction  booklet  rate  their  mood.  they  were  were  given  receive were  f o r the Affect Grid, and asked to They were then asked to imagine that f o r a 3 0 b as a secret agent.  applying a  code name (Agent 1 ) , and t o l d they would  further instructions from a hidden agent.  then  following  They  left  alone  They  i n the room and were read the  instructions  over  an  intercom  from  the  adjoining observation room:  "All this  r i g h t Agent 1. To test your aptitude f o r  job, we're  hypothetical you've  to c o l l e c t  country  cover's  been  country  quickly,  along  another  Please  successfully  foreign  pass  to see how you handle a  situation.  been  assignment  going  when  blown.  imagine  carrying  certain  out  that an  information i n a  you suddenly f i n d out your You have to get out of the  but before  you go you want to  the information you have gathered to  agent--in  case  you don't make i t . The  information you have gathered i s on the f i v e tapes you'll  find  before  you on the desk.  I t ' s been  arranged that y o u ' l l hide these tapes i n a certain room, them.  and In  another agent w i l l come l a t e r and f i n d the envelope under the tapes i s some  information about the room where you w i l l hide the tapes.  Please open i t now."  41  In the envelope were two pictures of one of the two rooms  used  f o r hiding  the tapes,  and the following  instructions:  "Here you'll  are some be  hiding  pictures of the room i n which the tapes.  I t i s a storeroom  (office) that i s not used very much, but people do come  i n unexpectedly,  fast  as  places  you  can.  so y o u ' l l need to work as There are s u f f i c i e n t hiding  f o r a l l f i v e tapes.  Please hide them i n  f i v e d i f f e r e n t places. "Take plan  a  your  proceed,  few minutes to study the pictures and strategy.  When  you  are ready  to  replace the pictures i n the envelope and  wait f o r further instructions."  After they  were  the subjects asked  expected  to do  rating.  They  to make (confidence were  then  had looked at the pictures, a  rating  of how well they  r a t i n g ) , and another mood instructed  to go  to the  appropriate room and hide the tapes. Subjects groups. their  Half  randomly  assigned  plans,  to one  of two  the subjects (the planners) carried out  plan i n the expected room.  subjects in  were  The other half of the  (the replanners) were t o l d there was a change and  they  would have to hide the tapes i n a  42  room two  they hod no information about. groups  "office" tapes,  of  subjects,  half  Within each of the  hid the tapes i n the  and half i n the "storeroom." they  After hiding the  again rated t h e i r mood, and also rated how  well they thought they had hidden the tapes and how much they liked the room i n which they hid them. In  sum,  measures  design  1=baseline 3=after  the experiment was a two-factor repeated with  three  levels  of  "Time"  (time  ratings, time 2=after i n i t i a l planning, time  task  completion),  and  two  levels of "Group"  (planners and replanners). The room used f o r hiding the tapes  was  group  hid the tapes i n the "storeroom" and half i n the  "office."  counterbalanced.  Half the subjects i n each  Within the replanning group half the subjects  saw  pictures  of the "storeroom" and actually  went to  the  " o f f i c e " , and half saw pictures of the " o f f i c e " and  went to the "storeroom."  RESULTS  A  repeated-measures  performed examine was  on  the mood  analysis ratings  of variance  at times  was  1 and 2 to  the e f f e c t s of i n i t i a l planning on mood.  There  a main e f f e c t of Time on arousal (F=S1.15, df=l/38,  p<.001), but not on pleasure. significant  interaction  As expected, there was no  between  Time  and  Group f o r  43  either  mood  dimension—the  two  groups  were  treated  i d e n t i c a l l y up to t h i s point. A second repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed  on  at times  2 and 3 to  examine the e f f e c t s of re-planning on mood.  There was a  marginal p=.08),  the mood  e f f e c t of Group on pleasure (F=3.201, df=l/38, but no  significant either  ratings  significant  interaction  mood  e f f e c t on arousal, and no  between  Time  dimension—although  a  and weak  Group f o r pattern i s  discernable. Figure  3  summarizes the changes i n mood.  Initial  ratings of pleasure and arousal were s i m i l a r f o r the two groups  (replanners  mean  arousal=4.8,  planners  arousal=4.95, mean pleasure=6.2 for both groups). the  mean After  i n i t i a l planning, arousal increased for both groups  (replicating remained  approximately  experiment  1).  increased slightly  the pattern of experiment 1), and pleasure the same  After  again . for  (as also happened i n  performing  the task, arousal  the replanners,  f o r the planners.  but decreased  Pleasure increased f o r both  groups, but more so for the replanners. After  the i n i t i a l planning, confidence ratings of  how well the subject expected two mean  groups  confidence=4.37),  differences of  (replanners  plans  between before  to do were similar for the  mean confidence=4.33, planners indicating  there  were  the groups i n the expected  the treatment  was  applied.  no  success These  44  confidence ratings were correlated with pleasure at time 2  (r=.28,  p=.04,  one-tailed)--as  expected—and  with  arousal at time 2 (r=.32, p=.02, one-tailed). Success higher  ratings taken at time 3 were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  for  the planners  than  f o r the replanners  (replanner mean success-3.45, planner mean t=2.43, combined arousal  p<.05,  two-toiled).  groups at  pleasure.  were  time  success=4.15,  Success ratings f o r the  not correlated with pleasure or  3,  or  with  changes  i n arousal and  However, tests f o r within group correlations  between success ratings and pleasure and arousal changes showed a c o r r e l a t i o n between success rating and increase in  arousal  from  time  1  to time 3 f o r the replanners  (r=.39, p=.04, one-tailed), and a marginally s i g n i f i c a n t correlation  between  pleasure  from  <r=.31,  p=.09,  correlations  time  success 2  to  rating time  one-tailed).  between  success  and  3  increase i n  f o r the replanners  There were no s i g n i f i c a n t rating  and  changes i n  arousal or pleasure f o r the planners. As greater  predicted, l i k i n g of the room was s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r those subjects who went to a room they were  not expecting (t=2.59, p=.01).  DISCUSSION  The  results  from  the t h i r d  experiment  support  45  several of the predictions made here. forced  to  alter  unexpected  their  features  plans  of a  Subjects who were  to accommodate the  place  reported  increased  arousal, increased pleasure, and increased l i k i n g of the place  over  subjects  who  were able to carry out their  plans unaltered. The  pattern  of mood  similar  to the pattern  Arousal  increased  experiment  changes i n experiment 3 was  found i n experiments 1 and 2.  after planning the f i r s t time--as i n  l--although  i t should be kept i n mind that  part  of the increase i n arousal i n experiment may have  been  due  to time  pressure.  More important,  arousal  sincreased again between time 2 and time 3 f o r the group who  had to replan during execution.  after  execution  Pleasure increased  as i n experiment 2, especially f o r the  replanners. The is  larger  consistent  increases pleasure  increase i n arousal f o r the replanners with  arousal, supports  intensifies  the hypothesis that changing plans and  the corresponding  the hypothesis  pleasure.  d i d not increase  increase  i n arousal,  execution  experiments execution—no experiment  at time  arousal  2 with the f i r s t  but an increase i n pleasure only  i s consistent  1 and 2.  this  I t i s somewhat surprising that  pleasure  after  that  increase i n  with  the findings of  In experiment l--planning without  change  i n pleasure  2—planning  with  was  found.  In  execution—pleasure  46  increased  after exectution f o r those who executed t h e i r  own plan. Although at  time  the mean pleasure scores did not increase  2, pleasure was correlated with the confidence  ratings made at time 2.  This suggests that pleasure may  have increased f o r those subjects who thought they had a good the  plan. fact  The mean pleasure scores probably that  many  subjects  t h e i r plans at time 2. task  was  beyond  experience,  were not s a t i s f i e d with  This i s not surprising since the  the realm  and  reflect  plans  of most people's everyday  would  be  expected  to be  correspondingly d i f f i c u l t to evaluate. In  further  support  of the hypothesis that plan  evaluation influences pleasure, increase i n pleasure was found  to be  correlated  with success ratings only f o r  those subjects who had to re-plan as they executed their plan.  For those subjects the success ratings probably  were the evaluations of t h e i r plans. planning time,  and the  execution expected  pleasure. execution,  expected  of the plan are separated i n success  However,  I t seems that when  when  of a planning  plan  influences  occurs  during  success and actual outcome may not  be separable. Nost  important,  expectations decreased experimental  experiment 3 showed that violated  about a place do not necessarily r e s u l t i n liking  of  the place.  Liking  of the  rooms actually increased f o r those subjects  47  who  went  t o a room  they  weren't  expecting.  48  9  8  7  6  5 A  3  2  1  P  L  A  N  N  E  R  R  E  P  L  A  N  N  E  R  I  N  E  A  F  T  R  O  U  S  A  L  P  O  O  ©  •  •  •  -  L  E  A  S  U  R  -  *  B  -  -  0 B  A  S  E  L  E  R  P L A N N I N G  F i g u r e 3.  A  F  T  E  R  E X E C U T I O N  Mean mood r a t i n g s f o r Experiment  E  3.  49  GENERAL DISCUSSION  The  results  of  these  three experiments showed a  consistent pattern of e f f e c t s of planning on mood over a variety  of  tasks.  feasibility Three  of pursuing  different  measurable  These e f f e c t s thus demonstrate the the framework presented  planning  effects  tasks were a l l found to have  on mood and. i n the case tested, on  a f f e c t i v e appraisal of a place. were  found  while  here.  The planning tasks used  to  increase the arousal dimension of mood,  executing  the plan showed a tendency to increase  the pleasure dimension. Table  1  experiments.  summarizes  the r e s u l t s  of  the  three  In experiments 1 and 3, mood ratings were  taken immediately a f t e r planning.  Both show an increase  in arousal immediately a f t e r planning, with experiment 3 suggesting  an  additional  r e s u l t of re-planning.  increment  i n arousal  as a  No increase i n arousal was found  for the planners i n experiment 2, perhaps because of the duration mood  of  ratings  after  the task were  completion  (approximately  obtained of  20 minutes).  No  i n t h i s experiment u n t i l  the t a s k - - s u f f i c i e n t time f o r the  arousal  caused by planning to d i s s i p a t e .  Comparison of  arousal  ratings  the  measures both  i n experiment  2  with  baseline  i n experiment 3 shows the arousal ratings f o r  planners  and  followers  are quite  close to the  50  arousal The  ratings of subjects on entering the experiment.  difference  followers one's  pleasure  i n experiment  own  completing trend  in  plan a  seems  plan  2  i s supported  planners  i s suggestive.  to  one  between  increase  Completing  pleasure, whereas  has been given does not.  by  and  This  a comparison with the baseline  measures  of pleasure obtained i n experiment 3--the mean  pleasure  rating  than  this  f o r planners  baseline  measure  i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (t=2.35,  p<.05), but the  difference  f o r followers  i s nonsignificant  indicating  that  increased  rather  pleasure  than decreased  <t=.65),  f o r the planners  f o r the followers.  Pleasure also  increased after plan execution i n experiment 3, but only f o r the replanners. An  intriguing  increase  explanation  of the  differential  i n pleasure between planners and replanners i n  experiment 3 i s suggested by the tendency of planners i n experiment were  2  to plan  instructed  began.  Host  pieces  to plan  a  their  buildings before they  subjects immediately started putting the  together,  completed  as they b u i l t , even though they  and  segment.  paused  occassionally  as  they  The increase i n pleasure under  these conditions, and i n experiment 3 where subjects had to  re-plan as they were executing the plan, may r e f l e c t  something during  especially  execution.  executing  the plan  pleasurable about adjusting plans For some  tasks,  may  the advantage that the  have  planning  while  51  constraints hence  it  on is  subplan easier  to  choose plan segments that are  likely  to  should  examine the differences i n mood between subjects  who  must  be  s e l e c t i o n are more obvious and  positively  first  subjects who  those  subjects the  subjects  who  completed  themselves conditions.  Miller,  Galanter,  regarding engineering:  seem  to  feel  doing  Pribram's  (I960)  objections  being  to  motion-study  workers may by  the  observation  not acquire  engineers--they  so t i g h t l y regimented and  that  the boss i s trying to e x p l o i t them  85)  Giving workers e x p l i c i t plans for  (p.  their  to  forming  pleasure ratings s i m i l a r to  possessed  object  unfairly."  the same plans without  "Unfortunately,  strategies  plan; those  This finding sheds some l i g h t on  and  people's  frequently  execute the plan, and  execute t h e i r own  gave  baseline  the  then  to experiment 2, pleasure increases only  who  plan  and  Future studies  must plan the same task as. they do i t .  According for  plan  evaluated.  job  may  well remove t h e i r major source of  enjoyment of the work. The present experiments only tested a subset of the possibilities  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , but  the  r e s u l t s suggest t h i s as a f r u i t f u l l i n e of inquiry.  The  planning arousal  of  plan-affect  tasks were found to have strong e f f e c t s on the component  of  mood,  and somewhat more complex  e f f e c t s on the pleasure dimension of mood. It i s not surprising that the pleasure dimension i s  52  more  complex,  framework,  since  on  satisfactory  the  plan  plans.  Subjects  ongoing  plans  i t i s dependent, i n the present individual's a b i l i t y  do  a  not completely give up t h e i r own  It i s relatively  expectations,  form  and on how the plan f i t s into larger  f o r the duration  experiment.  to  and  thus  of  the  psychology  easy  to  manipulate  force subjects to change t h e i r  plan; but i t i s less easy to predict t h e i r evaluation of the  resultant  the  revised  plans.  In  allowed  to  (although as  the  fits  this  set of at  into each person's own ongoing  each  experiments,  subjects were  task as long as they wished  i n experiment 3 they were encouraged to work as possible).  to  experience However,  plan  work  quickly  subjects  plan since the evaluation depends on how  form  the a  a  satisfactory  planning  subject  Presumably, t h i s allowed a l l  induced  plan,  and hence to  arousal  positively.  who comes into the experiment with  plan to get i t over with as quickly as possible may  evaluate  h i s or  her plan f o r hiding tapes d i f f e r e n t l y  than a subject who comes i n with the plan to do whatever i s asked as well as possible. The pleasure they  obvious i s to  will  be  test  of  the e f f e c t  of planning on  present subjects with a task f o r which  unable  to  form a s a t i s f a c t o r y plan.  success-failure  comparison  obviously  differences i n the evaluative dimension  of  mood,  show  difficult  to  in a  find  planning  A  i n the  task would  more  subtle  53.  manipulation all  used here where mean pleasure ratings were  positive.  Asking  subjects to perform a task for  which they are u n l i k e l y to formulate a s a t i s f a c t o r y plan should on  produce pleasure ratings below the neutral point  the scale.  The present framework would predict that  t h i s unpleasant mood would r e s u l t i n decreased l i k i n g of the place about which the planning f a i l u r e occurs. An that  alternate  of  the present r e s u l t s  cannot be ruled out at t h i s point i s that the mood  changes tasks  i n these experiments were due to the p a r t i c u l a r chosen  component.  rather More  planning  tasks  eliminated. similar  work before  However,  than  to the common  i s needed with s t i l l this  possibility  i t must  be  planning different can be  emphasized that a  pattern  of  r e s u l t s was found with three quite  types  of  planning  different suggests is  explanation  that  tasks.  This s i m i l a r i t y  i t is. the common planning component that  responsible f o r the findings.  Although concern with  being evaluated on task performance probably  contributed  to arousal increases, some such motivation i s i n t e g r a l l y related  to any  evaluated the  would  plans  experiments  of  plan.  The  goal  of being favorably  have been equally l i k e l y to be part of subjects  reported  i n any condition of the three here,  and  so  should  not be  responsible for d i f f e r e n t i a l increases i n arousal. Perhaps the most i n t e r e s t i n g finding i n t h i s set of studies  i s that unexpectedness may increase l i k i n g of a  54  place--a  finding  inconsistent  with  the  general  implications of Klein and Harris's (1979) interpretation of violated expectations as producing uniformly negative results.  The  produced  by  expectations themselves Novaco  assumption  incongruity and  seems  (1981)  that  negative  between  the s i t u a t i o n  e f f e c t s are  people's i n which  to be f a i r l y widespread.  define  plans they  or find  Stokols and  well-being as "the degree of f i t  (or  congruence) between human goals and a c t i v i t i e s , and  the  environmental  (p.  97)  case, the  context  i n which they are pursued."  Although t h i s may c e r t a i n l y sometimes be the  and  may always be the case at some high l e v e l of  person's  plan, a certain amount of incongruity may  actually enhance well-being. Strong conclusions must await further research, but the  results  Increased  of  the present  liking  of  the  research  are promising.  slightly  unexpected i s  consistent with Berlyne's two-factor theory of aesthetic judgment (1974), but that theory lacks an explanation of why  only  intermediate  valued.  The  positively or  she  place, 'may  degrees  of  unexpectedness are  present view predicts that a person  evaluate  i s able  the unexpected place as long as he  to adapt the current plan to f i t the  or adjust the place to f i t the plan.  supply  the missing  unexpectedness. intermediate  will  definition  Unexpectedness  of is  Thus plans  "intermdiate" beyond  the  range when the person can no longer adjust  55  h i s o r h e r p l a n s t o accommodate  it.  56  TABLE 1  MEAN PLEASURE AND AROUSAL SCORES AROUSAL  PLEASURE  EXPERIMENT 1 Planner  5.9  6.1  Rater  5.0  6.4  Planner  5.0  7.0  Follower  5.1  6.4  Baseline  4.8  6.2  After Planning  6.8  6.3  After Execution  7.6  7.1  Baseline  5.0  6.2  After Planning  6.9  5.8  After Execution  6.9  5.9  EXPERIMENT 2  EXPERIMENT 3 Replanner  Planner  57  REFERENCES  B a r t l e t t , F.C. Remembering.  Cambridge:  Cambridge  University Press, 1932. Berlyne, D.E.  Studies i n the New  Aesthetics:  Experimental  Steps Toward an Objective  Psychology of Aesthetic Appreciation. New York: G i f f o r d , R.  Halsted Press, 1974. Environmental d i s p o s i t i o n s and the  Evaluation of architectural i n t e r i o r s .  Journal  of Research i n Personality. 1980, 14. 386-399. Goldin, S. & Hayes-Roth, B.  Individual Differences i n  Planning Processes. N-1488-0NR, The Rand Corporation, June, 1980. Hayes-Roth, B.  F l e x i b i l i t y i n Executive Strategies.  N-1170-0NR, The Rand Corppration, September, 1980. Hayes-Roth, B.  Estimation of Time Requirements During  Planning; Interaction Between Motivation and Cognition. N-1581-0NR, The Rand Corporation, November, 1980. Hayes-Roth, B.  Human Planning Processes. R-2670-0NR,  The Rand Corporation, December, 1980. Hayes-Roth, B. & Hayes-Roth, F.  Cognitive Processes i n  Planning. R-2366, The Rand Corporation, December, 1978.  58  Hayes-Roth, B. & Thorndyke, P.W.  Decisionmaking During  the Planning Process. N-1213-0NR, The Rand Corporation, October, 1980. Hayes-Roth, B., Hayes-Roth, F. Rosenschein, S.J., & Cammarata, S.  Modeling Planning as an Incremental.  Opportunistic Process. N-1178-0NR, The Rand Corporation, June, 1979. Klein, K. & Harris, B.  Disruptive e f f e c t s of  disconfirmed expectancies about crowding. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1979, 37, 769-777. Mandler, G.  Mind and Body:  and Stress. New York: W.W.  Psychology of Emotion Norton & Company, 1984.  Mehrabian, A. & Russell, J.A. An Approach to Environmental Psychology. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1974. M i l l e r , G.A., Galanter, E., & Pribrim, K.H.  Plans and  the Structure of Behavior. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1960. Minsky, M.A.  A framework f o r representing knowledge.  In P.H. Winston, The Psychology of Computer Vision. New York: McGraw H i l l , 1975. Morasch, B., Groner, N., & Keating, J.P. Type of a c t i v i t y and f a i l u r e as mediators of perceived crowding. Personality and Social Psychology B u l l e t i n . 1979, 5, 223-226.  59  Russell, J.A.  A circumplex model of a f f e c t .  Journal  of Personality and Social Psychology. 1980,  39.  1161-1178. Russell, J.A. scale.  The a f f e c t g r i d :  A single item mood  Unpublished manuscript,  Russell, J.A. & Ridgeway, D.  1983.  Dimensions underlying  children's emotion concepts.  Developmental  Psychology. 1983, 19, 795-804. Russell, J.A. & Ward, L . M .  :  Environmental psychology.  Annual Review of Psychology. 1982, 33, 651-688. Stokols, D. & Novaco, R.W.  Transportation and  Well-being: An ecological perspective. In I. Altman, J . Wohlwill, & P. Everett (Eds.), Human Behavior and Environment:  Advances  in Theory and Research. Volume 5: Transportaion Environments.  New  York:  Plenum Press, 1981. Ward, L.N. & Russell, J.A.  Frames, plans and s c r i p t s  in environmental psychology. manuscript,  1983.  Unpublished  60  APPENDIX  PLANNER'S INSTRUCTIONS  You club.  have  finished working out at the health  You have to pick up your car at the Maple Street  garage, the  just  but f i r s t you have several errands to do.  most  these  Plan  e f f i c i e n t route you can f o r accomplishing a l l  errands  on  your errand l i s t .  the way to pick up your car.  Here's  Draw your route on the map.  RATER'S INSTRUCTIONS  You club. do  just  finished working out at the health  I t ' s 11:00 a.m., and you have several errands to  before  garage to  have  you  pick  at 2:00 p.m.  up  your  car at the Maple Street  Assuming i t takes about 15 minutes  walk across town i n either d i r e c t i o n , decide whether  or not you can complete the following l i s t of errands i n the map.  allotted  time by following the route marked on the  Here's your errand  list.  61  ERRAND  LIST  pick up medicine f o r dog at the veterinary o f f i c e buy fan belt f o r r e f r i g e r a t o r at appliance store buy fresh vegetables at grocery  12  9, 87  check out two of the three luxury apartments stop at one of the restaurants f o r coffee buy toy f o r dog at pet store  45  73, 91,  31, 39  28  pick up watch at watch repair special order book at bookstore  88 86, 32, 14  buy gardening magazine at newsstand  100  send flowers to f r i e n d i n hospital at flower shop 24  


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