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Three opéras comiques of the 1830s : Fra Diavolo, Zampa and Le pré aux clercs and the placement of… Regaudie-McIsaac, Francine Yvonne 1985

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THREE OPERAS COMIQUES OF THE 1830s: ERA DIAVOLO, ZAMPA AND LE PRE AUX CLERCS and THE PLACEMENT OF MUSICAL SOLI WITHIN THE DRAMA By FRANCINE YVONNE JREGAUDIE-MCISAAC A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS HISTORICAL MUSICOLOGY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o-f Music) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as con-forming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1985 Fr a n c i n e Yvonne Regaudie-McIsaac, 1985 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Music The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A p r i l 1985 DE-6 (3/81) i i A b s t r a c t In the 1830s the opera-comique genre evolves from the simple "comedies melee d ' a r i e t t e s " to a t r u e o p e r a t i c -form with musico-dramatic s i g n i f i c a n c e . One primary area of development i s -found i n the placement and dramatic f u n c t i o n of s o l o forms which begin to p l ay a markedly d i f f e r e n t r o l e than they had i n operas comiques of e a r l i e r p e r i o d s . Despite the evidence suggesting s i g n i f i c a n t musico-dramatic development, few s c h o l a r s have attempted to i d e n t i f y the prac-t i c e s governing the placement and f u n c t i o n of musical s o l i i n the operas comiques of the 1830s. For t h i s reason we have undertaken a d e t a i l e d study of these elements i n three l i b r e t t i : Fra Diax/olo (1830), Zampa (1831) and Le Pre aux Clercs (1832). In a p r e l i m i n a r y examination, these l i b r e t t i were found to e x h i b i t t r a i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of many works of the p e r i o d . Our research has led us to conclude that s o l o forms are employed in one or more of the f o l l o w i n g four dramatic s i t u a -t i o n s : (1) to convey background i n f o r m a t i o n to the p l o t or to c h a r a c t e r s , or to r e v e a l p r e - c u r t a i n events; (2) to p a i n t a c h a r a c t e r ' s t r u e p e r s o n a l i t y ; (3) to expose a c h a r a c t e r ' s emotional s t a t e of mind or t r a i n of thought at a given moment; and (4) to d i s t r i b u t e the number of s o l i through the opera in a manner that r e f l e c t s a c h a r a c t e r ' s importance i n the drama. Although such uses of s o l o forms are not unique to the 1830s, the extent to which they were employed r e p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t departure from e a r l i e r p r a c t i c e . T h i s t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e c hapters. The f i r s t i i 1 chapter--by way of i n t r o d u c t i D n - - c o n t r a 5 t s the r o l e s of musical numbers in 1830s operas comiques with those o-f t h e i r prede-c e s s o r s . It a l s o d i s c u s s e s the l i t e r a r y and musical conventions o-f the works o-f t h i s p e r i o d . The second chapter - f i r s t p r e s e n t s a s y n o p s i s of S c r i b e ' s and Auber's opera comique Frat Diavolo, and a view o-f the well-made p l a y elements as d i s p l a y e d i n the l i b r e t t o , be-fore -focusing on a d i s c u s s i o n o-f the placement o-f musical s o l i i n the drama. S i m i l a r l y , chapters three and -four d i s c u s s M e l e s v i l i e ' s and Herold's Zampa, ou la Fiancee de marbre and Planard's and Herold's Le Pre aux Clercs r e s p e c t i v e l y . The •final chapter o u t l i n e s the p r a c t i c e s observed i n the placement and dramatic -function of s o l i in the three s e l e c t e d operas and r e l a t e s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these p r a c t i c e s to the genre's deve1opment. i v CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgement . . . . v Chapter I: I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter I I : Fra DiawoLo 13 The L i b r e t t o Synopsis . 1 4 The Well-Made Pl a y Elements i n Fra. Dfavolo 19 Musical S o l i 23 Chapter I I I : Zampa, ou la Fiancee de marbre 40 The L i b r e t t o Synopsis 40 The Weil-Made Pl a y Elements i n Zampa . . . . . . . . 47 Musical Sol i 50 Chapter IV: Le Pre aux Clercs 68 The L i b r e t t o 69 Synopsis 71 The Well-Made P l a y Elements i n Le Pre aux Clercs . . 75 Musical S o l i . 80 Chapter V: Co n c l u s i o n 90 B i b l i o g r a p h y 96 V Acknowledgement I extend my deepest a p p r e c i a t i o n to the -following people: P r o f . H. Robert Cohen, my t h e s i s a d v i s o r , -for the guidance he provided throughout t h i s p r o j e c t ; P r o f . D i m i t r i Conomos -for p r o o f r e a d i n g the -final d r a f t and f o r h i s h e l p f u l suggestions; P r o f . K a r i n S. Pendle f o r her help in l o c a t i n g l i b r e t t i of the 1830s; and my f r i e n d s in Vancouver and throughout O n t a r i o f o r t h e i r encouragement. I e s p e c i a l l y thank my husband, David, f o r h i s constant support and understanding i n times of need, and f o r the time he spent p r o o f r e a d i n g my work. 1 I. I n t r o d u c t i o n The year 1830 marks a new dawn i n many f a c e t s of French musical l i f e , and opera-cornique i s no exc e p t i o n . In no other p e r i o d are so many operas comiques composed and, most impor-t a n t l y , are i t s l i b r e t t i of such high l i t e r a r y q u a l i t y and i t s music of such importance to the drama than d u r i n g the e a r l y 1830s. In f a c t , the e a r l y 1830s mark a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the development of opera-comique; i t i s a p e r i o d d u r i n g which s i g -n i f i c a n t changes are e f f e c t e d to the genre's musical and l i t e r -ary c o n s t i t u e n t s . The b o u r g e o i s i e of the 1830s d i s p l a y s such a v o r a c i o u s appe-t i t e f o r t h i s genre that the Theatre de 1'Opera-Cornique's admin-i s t r a t i o n i s f o r c e d to present new operas at what i s at times a b a r e l y manageable r a t e . More than 45 operas comiques were cr e a t e d and produced from 1830 to 1835 alone. Although not a l l of these p r o d u c t i o n s are comparable i n grandeur and magnificence to contemporary French grand operas, a few c e r t a i n l y are. T h i s p e r i o d sees the c r e a t i o n of many of the genre's masterpieces: Ara Dt'ax/olo, ou I'/Vt> teI l e r i e de Terracine (1830) by l i b r e t t i s t Eugene S c r i b e and composer D.F.E. Auber, Zampa, ou la Fiancee de marbre (1831) by A.H.J. M e l e s v i l l e and L.-F. Herold, Le Pre aux Clercs (1832) by Eugene de Planard and L.-F. Herold, Le Chalet (1834) by Eugene S c r i b e and Adolphe Adam, Le Che\yal de bronze (1834) by Eugene S c r i b e and D.F.E. Auber, and L'Eclair (1835) by l i b r e t t i s t s Eugene de Planard and J u l e s Vernoy de Saint-Georges and composer J.F.E. Halevy. No other works of t h i s genre had, to t h at time, a t t a i n e d the success achieved by these 1830s operas. S e v e r a l r e c e i v e d well over 100 performances w i t h i n the 2 • f i r s t t h ree years o-f e x i s t e n c e , and continued to be performed throughout the century. Le Pre aux Clercs was performed f o r the lOOOth time, at the Theatre de 1'Opera-Comique, on October 10 1871, 1 l e s s than 40 years a f t e r i t s premiere. Though the s c h o l a r l y s t u d i e s t r e a t i n g n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y opera-comique as a whole are i n no way comparable ( i n number at l e a s t ) to those on French grand opera, the opera-comique has not been e n t i r e l y n e g l e c t e d . Several important s t u d i e s are a v a i l -a b l e . 2 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, these have not devoted adequate a t t e n t i o n to an important c o n s t i t u e n t of the e a r l y 1830s operas comiques: the placement of musical numbers in the dramatic act i o n . 3 I. The Role of Music i n E a r l y 1830s Operas Comiques The equal p r o p o r t i o n s of spoken and sung elements in the operas comiques of the e a r l y 1830s c o n t r a s t markedly with the preponderance of spoken d i a l o g u e as apposed to sung passages i n those of preceding times. A f u r t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of the l a t e r works i s the use of a v a r i e t y of musical f o r r o s — b a r c a -r o l l e s , romances, c o u p l e t s , and other s o l o forms i n t e r m i n g l e d with duets, l a r g e r ensembles, and choruses. By way of compari-son, the operas comiques of the preceding e r a are g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by three or f o u r simple musical f o r r o s — a r i e t t a s , o c c a s i o n a l duets, and small ensembles. During no other p e r i o d in the e a r l y h i s t o r y of the genre has the l i b r e t t o been more e s s e n t i a l to dramatic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . When comparing the contents and s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of B o i e l d i e u ' s Ben i ovtsk i (1800) and Auber's Fra DiavoLo (1830) ( d i s p l a y e d in the c h a r t below), one can c l e a r l y see the prepon-3 derance of d i a l o g u e as opposed to music i n the former opera, c o n t r a s t i n g with the almost equal p r o p o r t i o n s of d i a l o g u e and music i n Auber's work. The d i v e r s i t y of musical forms f e a t u r e d in Fra Diax/olo i s a l s o made apparent by the ch a r t below, as i s the extreme s i m p l i c i t y of Beniowsk i'*s musical t e x t u r e . The v a r i e t y of s o l o forms i a i r s , couplets, romances, b a r c a r o l l e s ) , small and larg e ensembles, and choruses d i s p l a y e d i n Fra Diax/olo c l e a r l y c o n t r a s t s with the four ariettes, the duet and t r i o , the b r i e f morceau d'ensemble, and the b r i e f choruses of i t s prede-cessor . Beniowski <1800) L a c a t i on I, i i i i i i i v v-v 1 v i i v i i i - i x x Form Air — Spoken mono 1ogue Spoken d i a l o g u e Air — Spoken d ial o g u e Spoken d i a l o g u e Chorus B r i e f chorus Spoken Spoken Spoken Spoken FINALE d i alogue monologue d i a1ogue di a l o g u e -Comments The scene begins with a b r i e f air and i s f o l l o w e d by a spoken passage. Most of the scene i s conducted i n speech i n t e r -rupted by a b r i e f air. Spoken d i a l o g u e f a l l o w e d by a very b r i e f c h o r a l r e f r a i n . A c h o r a l r e f r a i n i n t e r -rupted by b r i e f sung and spoken exclamations. Spoken passages f o l l o w e d by the FINALE which i n c l u d e s a c h o r a l r e f r a i n and b r i e f a r i e t tes. I I , i Chorus, Air, --Spoken d i a l o g u e i i Spoken d i a l o g u e T r i o i i i - i v Spoken d i a l o g u e v Spoken monologue with chorus v i Spoken d i a l o g u e v i i Spoken monologue v i i i Ensemb1e ix Spoken d i a l o g u e Choral r e f r a i n framing an ariette which i s f o l l o w e d by spoken d i a l o g u e . Spoken passage f o l l o w e d by a sung t r i o . Spoken monologue i n t e r r u p t e d by a c h o r a l r e f r a i n . Includes sung d i a l o g u e and c h o r a l r e f r a i n . 4 x x i x 11 Spoken monologue Spoken d i a l o g u e -Ariette with chorus Spoken d i a l o g u e -followed by a sung duet. Brie-f sung monologue with c h o r a l re-frain. I l l , i i l i i i i v v - v i i v i i i-x i i Spoken monologue --f)orceau d'ensemble — Spoken d i a l o g u e Spoken d i a l o g u e Spoken monologue Sung d i a l o g u e --Spoken d i a l o g u e Spoken d i a l o g u e Ensemb1e Spoken monologue -followed by a brie-f morceau d'ensemble (chorus, r e c i t a t i v e ) , then spoken d i a l o g u e . Includes choruses, r e c i t a -t i v e s , (sung d i a l o g u e ) , spo-ken dialogue, and the f i n a l chorus. Fra Di avoid (1830) Locat i on I , i - i i i i i i v v v1-v1 1 v i i i - i x i x-x I I , i i i i i i i v v v i v i i -x Form In t roduc t i on Spoken d i a l o g u e -Coup l e t s Qui ntet Spoken d i a l o g u e -Coup l e t s Spoken d i a l o g u e Duet — T r i o ( T r i o ) — FINALE Air Tr i o Spoken monologue with barcarolle Spoken d i a l o g u e Spoken d i a l o g u e -Air — T r i o Spoken Spoken FINALE d i alogue d i a1ogue Comments Includes choruses, r e c i t a -t i v e s , a i r s , ensembles, and spoken d i a l o g u e . Spoken passages f o l l o w e d by a t h r e e - s t a n z a song. (Completely sung.) Spoken passages f o l l o w e d by a t h r e e - s t a n z a song. (Spoken scenes.) A duet f o l l o w e d immediately by a t r i o ( i n s c . i x ) . The t r i o i s i n t e r r u p t e d by spoken d i a l o g u e , then f o l l o w s a sung FINALE which i n c l u d e s choruses, and FINALE i s rec i t a t i ve, ensembles. (The e n t i r e l y sung.) Sung monologue. Spoken monologue f o l l o w e d by a two-stanza barcarolle. Spoken d i a l o g u e f o l l o w e d by an air which i s i n t e r r u p t e d by speech, and a t r i o . T h i s long scene concludes with speech. Spoken passage f o l l o w e d by a sung FINALE which i n c l u d e s r e c i t a t i v e and ensembles. 5 I I I , i Air -- Spoken monologue Chorus -- Sung d i a -logue with chorus and ensemble Spoken d i a l o g u e Romance — Spoken monologue A sung monologue -followed by a b r i e f spoken monologue. i i - 111 1 v v i - v i i v 11 1 -v i x Spoken d i a l o g u e FINALE A two stanza romance - f o l -lowed by a b r i e f spoken mono-1ague. (Two b r i e f spoken scenes.) Includes choruses, r e c i t a -t i v e s , ensembles, and b r i e f spoken i n t e r r u p t i o n s . Although the q u a n t i t y and v a r i e t y of musical forms f e a t u r e d in 1830s operas comiques play an important part i n s e t t i n g these operas apart from t h e i r predecessors, the primary d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r i n these works i s the p u r p o s e f u l use of music, the way i n which music a c t u a l l y f u r t h e r s the dramatic a c t i o n r a t h e r than simply supplementing i t . A c l o s e r i n t e r a c t i o n between drama and music (a r e l a t i o n s h i p not yet seen i n the development of the genre) i s c l e a r l y observed in the e a r l y 1830s operas comiques. Rather than having music merely express any on-stage c h a r a c t e r ' s emotions or merely p r o v i d e an atmospheric complement to a scene, we see speech i n t e n s i f i e d by song under s t r e s s of emotion. In other words, music a r i s e s from the dramatic s i t u a t i o n s and not merely from emotions p r e v a l e n t at a given moment or f o r purely musical reasons. The important element to note here i s the f a c t that music i s introduced i n t o the a c t i o n f o r dramatic reasons and not merely f o r musical entertainment. For example, a c h a r a c t e r may see the f u t u r e f o r e t o l d i n the words of a song, and as a r e s u l t a l t e r h i s behavior or a c t i o n s i n order to avoid unpleasant consequences. Perhaps none of these musical conven-t i o n s i s wholly unique to the 1930s, but the extent to which they were employed then r e p r e s e n t s a departure from e a r l i e r 6 p r a c t i c e . In t h i s study, we concern o u r s e l v e s with the t e x t s of musical numbers, and t h e i r i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the drama. These t e x t s can be d i v i d e d i n t o four p r i n c i p l e c a t e g o r i e s . The - f i r s t c ategory o-f dramatic music c o n s i s t s o-f musical numbers i n which the t e x t i n v o l v e s a c o n v e r s a t i o n , begun i n spoken -form, -furthered to i t s climax through music, that i s to say, a spoken c o n v e r s a t i o n , c a r r y i n g a c e r t a i n i n t e n s i t y , usu-a l l y r e a c h i n g i t s peak i n a musical s e t t i n g . The second catego r y o-f dramatic music i n v o l v e s drama i n t e n s i f i e d i n t o music under s t r e s s o-f emotion: a s e r i e s o-f s t a t i c r e - f l e c t i o n s growing out o-f a dramatic s i t u a t i o n o-f high emotional i n t e n s i t y , or e l a b o r a t i o n s o-f ideas i n s t i g a t e d by or i n a spoken c o n v e r s a t i o n which are -further developed i n music. These songs di-f-fer -from those o-f the - f i r s t category i n that they s p e c i f i c a l l y develop, in a musical s e t t i n g , the emotions or ideas presented in a spo-ken c o n v e r s a t i o n , r a t h e r than f u r t h e r i n g the c o n v e r s a t i o n i t s e l f through musical g e s t u r e s . The t h i r d category i s represented by musical numbers of which the t e x t s serve as a i d s to c h a r a c t e r -i z a t i o n . The in f o r m a t i o n r e v e a l e d i n the words of such songs i s o f t e n c r u c i a l to the p o r t r a y a l of a c h a r a c t e r , and o f t e n has d i r e c t b e a r i n g on the outcome of the p l o t , a l t e r i n g the l o g i c a l course of a c t i o n . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that t h i s r o l e of c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l i s most o f t e n f u l f i l l e d by s o l o forms, as are the f u n c t i o n s o u t l i n e d in the second and f o u r t h c a t e g o r i e s of dramatic music. The f o u r t h and f i n a l category of dramatic music i n v o l v e s those musical numbers i n which the words do not seem, i n t h e i r t e x t u a l contents, to be in any way r e l a t e d to the dramatic a c t i o n . These songs appear at f i r s t glance to be 7 introduced i n t o the l i b r e t t o -for reasons of s t r u c t u r a l balance--•for example, to balance the number of s o l o s sung by two primary characters--and as such would seem to serve no dramatic purpose. However, a c l o s e r look at t h e i r s u b j e c t matter ( u s u a l l y love s t o r i e s , legends or other f a n t a s t i c s u b j e c t s ) f r e q u e n t l y r e v e a l s an a l t e r n a t i v e purpose to these seemingly non-dramatic songs. The s t o r i e s r e l a t e d i n such songs o f t e n p a r a l l e l t h a t of the dramas, and not u n f r e q u e n t l y foreshadow the outcome of the p l o t s . T h i s use of musical numbers d i s t i n g u i s h e s the operas comiques of the 1930s from t h e i r p redecessors, and, i n f a c t , s i g n a l a new e r a in the development of the opera-comique genre. I I . The L i b r e t t o and Musical Conventions of the 1830s Operas Com i ques While s c h o l a r s of opera-cornique have devoted much time to t r a c i n g l i t e r a r y and musical sources and i n f l u e n c e s , s t u d y i n g r e c u r r i n g l i t e r a r y themes (marriage, love, b a n d i t s ) , and r e -s e a r c h i n g b i o g r a p h i e s , few attempts have been made to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between music and t e x t . Consequently, the d r a -matic p r a c t i c e s or m o t i v a t i o n s which guided the placement of musical numbers in the 1830s operas comiques have not been a s u b j e c t of s c h o l a r l y concern. The l i b r e t t i themselves represent a l a r g e and, f o r the most p a r t , unexplored body of documents which not only r e f l e c t one important element of the 1830s operas comiques, but a l s o pro-v i d e , i n t h e i r i n t e r n a l musical and dramatic s t r u c t u r e s , c l u e s to the manner in which musical numbers were i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the opera-cornique dramas, and how s i g n i f i c a n t t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n was to the development of the genre i t s e l f . We f i n d , i n modern l i t -e r a t u r e on techniques of dramatic w r i t i n g , s e v e r a l passages a t -8 t e s t i n g to the importance of t h i s musi co-dramat i c development.* As K a r i n S. Pendle s t a t e s , "opera-comique too was changing from a work in which drama was primary, and the music secondary to one i n which the two enjoyed equal s t a t u s . " 0 T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s supported by many ninet e e n t h - c e n t u r y w r i t e r s , poets and com-posers. Antoine Reicha, -for example, e x p l a i n s , i n h i s L'Art du Compositeur dramatique (1833), how tout ce qui e s t l e p l u s i n t e r e s s a n t dans un poeme ou 1'on chante et ou 1 * on p a r l e a l t e r n a t i v e m e n t , d o i t e t r e mis en musi que sans e x c e p t i o n . C'est une f a u t e impardonnabl e de l a p a r t du Compositeur et de l a p a r t du Poete de p l a c e r un mor-ceau de musique hors de 1'action, c ' e s t - a - d i r e , l a ou un evenement d'une importance quelconque v i e n t de se terminer. Dans ce cas, un morceau de musique ne peut qu'ennuyer, parce q u ' i l r a l e n t i t i n u t i l e m e n t l a marche de l ' a c t i o n elle-meme q u ' i l f a u t mettre en musique. 4 As composers and l i b r e t t i s t s sought t h i s p a r i t y o-f drama and music, they a l s o r e a l i z e d that " l e succes d'un opera, depend l e p l u s souvent de l a bonte et de l ' i n t e r e t du poeme, s u r t o u t en France." 5* In an attempt to achieve a higher l i t e r a r y q u a l i t y and more s t r u c t u r e d l i b r e t t o most contemporary l i b r e t t i s t s adapted, in t h e i r own manner, Eugene S c r i b e ' s dramatic technique as a p p l i e d to h i s well-made p l a y s and l i b r e t t i . Six -features c h a r a c t e r i z e a well-made l i b r e t t o : (1) a d e l a y e d - a c t i o n p l o t whose p o i n t and whose c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r s t r u g g l e s to overcame o b s t a c l e s ( u s u a l l y to love and marriage); (2) a p a t t e r n a-f i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e n s e a c t i o n and suspense c a r e - f u l l y prepared by e x p o s i t i o n which estab-l i s h e s c e r t a i n -facts -for the s p e c t a t o r and causes him to a n t i c i p a t e each s i g n i f i c a n t event ( t h i s p a t t e r n i s supported throughout the p l a y by c o n t r i v e d e x i t s and entrances, l e t -t e r s and other d e v i c e s f o r conveying these f a c t s to c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r s while keeping them s e c r e t from o t h e r s ) ; (3) a t e e t e r - t o t t e r arrangement of i n c i d e n t s to c r e a t e s u c c e s s i v e ups and downs in the f o r t u n e of the hero caused by h i s con-f l i c t with one or more opponents and l e a d i n g to h i s u l t i m a t e triumph or f a i l u r e ; (4) the counterpunch of p e r i p e t e i a or upset f o l l o w e d by scene a /aire or o b l i g a t o r y scene, in which the hero i s v i c t o r i o u s because of the r e l e a s e to h i s opponent of the f o r m e r l y withheld s e c r e t s (these have on the l a t t e r a d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t ) ; (5) a c e n t r a l misunderstanding or guiproquo, made obvious to the s p e c t a t o r but withheld •from the p a r t i c i p a n t s ; and (6) the r e p r o d u c t i o n i n m i n i a t u r e o-f the o v e r a l l d e l a y e d - a c t i o n p a t t e r n i n the i n d i v i d u a l a c t s . 3 In a d d i t i o n to the improvements made to the opera-cornique l i b r e t t o , l i b r e t t i s t s and composers a l s o reviewed t h e i r t r e a t -ment of music, namely i t s r o l e and placement i n the drama. The evidence a t t e s t i n g to t h i s new treatment of music i s to be found p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h i n the contents and s t r u c t u r e o-f the well-made l i b r e t t i . Thus on l y through the l a t t e r elements can one attempt to understand thoroughly the dramatic r o l e of musical -forms in e a r l y 1830s operas comiques. For t h i s reason t h i s study not on l y examines the r o l e and placement o-f musical -forms i n the drama, but a l s o e x p l o r e s the v a r i o u s l i b r e t t o elements o-f the operas comiques o-f t h i s p e r i o d . Given the monumental task that would e n t a i l a d i s c u s s i o n o-f each l i b r e t t o element and musical -form present i n every opera comique premiered i n the e a r l y 1930s we have chosen to l i m i t our study i n two ways. On the one hand, our study o-f the e a r l y 1830s operas comiques -focuses on the musical p r a c t i c e s e x h i b i t e d by solo musical -forms only. For the purpose o-f t h i s study, the term " s o l o " r e f e r s to any song sung by one or more c h a r a c t e r s , and of which each s t a n z a i s sung by only one s i n g e r at a time. For example, the th r e e stanzas of a s t r o p h i c c o u p l e t c o u l d be shared by two c h a r a c t e r s : one s i n g i n g the f i r s t two stanzas, the other the t h i r d , but never do the two c h a r a c t e r s s i n g simultane-o u s l y . On the other hand, we have r e s t r i c t e d our d e t a i l e d study of s o l o forms to three operas comiques r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s p e r i o d : Fra Diavolo, ou I' Htttel l e r i e de Terrac ine (January 1830: S c r i b e and Auber), Zampa, ou la Fiancee de maribre (May 1831: 10 M e l e s v i l l e and H e r o l d ) , and Le Pre aux Clercs (December 1832: de Planard and H e r o l d ) . The reasons governing the scope o-f our study are as -follows. S o l o forms, while r e p r e s e n t i n g one of the primary areas of musical development of the operas comiques of t h i s p e r i o d , are a l s o the most f r e q u e n t l y confronted musical t e x t u r e . For example, 7 of 17 musical numbers i n Fra Diax/olo are s o l i , the remaining ten c o n s t i t u t i n g a v a r i e t y of other musical f o r m s — duets, t r i o s , ensembles, choruses; s i m i l a r l y 10 of 20 musical numbers i n Zampa are s o l i . Moreover, s o l o forms have always been a p a r t of opera-cornique musical t e x t u r e , while other forms ( t r i o s , q u a r t e t s , or morceaux cf'ensemble, f o r instance) have not n e c e s s a r i l y been i n c l u d e d . L a s t l y and most importantly, the s o l i c o n t r i b u t e a great deal to the u n f o l d i n g of the dramatic a c t i o n ; they c a r r y most, i f not a l l , of the e x p o s i t o r y informa-t i o n e s s e n t i a l to the p l o t , a s s i s t i n c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , and pr o v i d e much of the m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e behind the a c t i o n . As f o r the aforementioned operas, they have been s e l e c t e d , in p a r t , because of t h e i r contemporaneous merit and popular appeal; because they c o l l e c t i v e l y amalgamate, i n t h e i r musical and dramatic t e x t u r e s , the musical forms and dramatic p r a c t i c e s of the p e r i o d ; and because they r e f l e c t the s u b j e c t matter, p l o t s , c h a r a c t e r types, s e t t i n g s , and l i b r e t t o elements e x h i b i t e d in operas comiques of t h i s p e r i o d . They have a l s o been s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r v a r i e d dramatic s i t u a t i o n s which permit the study of s o l o forms i n a wide d i v e r s i t y of dramatic c o n t e x t s . F i n a l l y , we have focused on these works because of the c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e they exerted on other operas comiques, and because t h e i r d i f f e r i n g a u t h o r s h i p enables 11 us to observe the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o-f p r a c t i c e s -from l i b r e t t i s t to l i b r e t t i s t and -from composer to composer. However, d e s p i t e our c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the three aforementioned operas comiques, we have s t u d i e d a l l but a few of the opera-comique l i b r e t t i of t h i s p e r i o d * i n order to ensure that the l i t e r a r y and musical p r a c t i c e s observed i n the three s e l e c t e d operas were indeed those e x h i b i t e d i n the remaining operas comiques of the p e r i o d . Each opera was examined f o r both l i t e r a r y and musical f e a t u r e s : s u b j e c t matter, c h a r a c t e r type, s e t t i n g , l i b r e t t o s t r u c t u r e , types of musical forms used, and the placement of musical forms. Because knowledge of the l i b r e t t i and t h e i r components i s necessary f o r a thorough understanding of the musical conven-t i o n s of e a r l y 1830s operas comiques, the f o l l o w i n g study f o c u s e s not o n l y on the musical p r a c t i c e s and conventions of s o l o forms in the operas comiques of t h i s p e r i o d but a l s o — b y way of i n t r o d u c t i o n — o n b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n s of the s u b j e c t matter and well-made l i b r e t t o f e a t u r e s of each s e l e c t e d opera l i b r e t t o . 12 Notes 1. Gustave Chouquet, Histoire de Is musique dramat ique en France ( P a r i s : F i r m i n Didot F r e r e s , - f i l s et C i e , 1873), p. 261. 2. W. Borner, Die Opern \son Daniel-Franfois-Esprit Auber ( L e i p -z i g , 1962); M. Cooper, Opera-Comique (London, 1949); R. Dumes-n i l , L'Opera et I'opera-comique ( P a r i s , 1947); Octave Fouque, Histoire du Theatre Uentadour 1829-1879 ( P a r i s , 1881); Emile Genest, L 'Opera-Cornique connu et inconnu ( P a r i s , 1925); Jean Gourret, Histoire de I'Opera-Cornique ( P a r i s , 1978); K a r i n S. Pendle, Eugene Scribe and French Opera of the Nineteenth Century (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1979); P. J . Smith, The Tenth Muse', A Histor-ical Study of the Opera Libretto (New York-London, 1970); A. Thurner, Les Transformation de I'Opera-Comique ( P a r i s , 1865). 3. One s c h o l a r ' s work i s an e x c e p t i o n to the r u l e . In one chap-t e r of her volume e n t i t l e d Eugene Scribe and French Opera of the Nineteenth Century (1979), K a r i n S. Pendle d i s c u s s e s the r e l a -t i o n s h i p between words and music i n S c r i b e ' s opera comique l i b r e t t i . I t should be noted that our d i s c u s s i o n o-f the p l a c e -ment o-f musical s o l i in S c r i b e ' s Fra Diavolo di-f-fers -from Pendle's both i n -focus and d e t a i l . Furthermore, Pendle makes l i t t l e attempt to i s o l a t e any apparent trends i n the placement o-f the musical numbers in the v a r i o u s l i b r e t t i she examines. 4. See note 2 above. 5. K a r i n S. Pendle, Eugene Scribe and French Opera of the Nine-teenth Century, p. 49. 6. Antoine Reicha, L'Art du Compositeur dramatique ( P a r i s , 1833), p. 11. 7. Ibid. 8. Steven S. Stanton, English Drama and the French Ufell-ffade Play, 1815-1915 (Ann Arbor, Mich.: U n i v e r s i t y Micro-films I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Research Press, 1955), pp. 41-42, quoted i n K a r i n S. Pendle, Eugene Scribe and French Opera of the Nineteenth Cen-tury, p. 85 n. 1. 9. A t o t a l o-f 65 operas comiques, a l l premiered between January 1830 and December 1835, were examined -for t h i s paper. Among these are: Adolphe Adam's DaniIowa (1830); Labarre's Les deux families (1831); Herold's Le Grand Prix (1831); Cara-fa's Le Li\/re de I'ermite (1831); Herold's La Medecine sans medecin (1832); Cara-fa's Le Prison d'Edimbourg (1833); Berton - f i l s * Le Chateau d'Urtuby (1834); Auber's Lestocq (1834); Adam's Le Chalet (1834); Auber's Le Cheval de bronze (1835); Monpou's Les Deux Peines (1835); and Halevy's L'Eclair (1835). 13 I I . Fra Diavolo, ou I'HttteI l e r i e de Terracine The s u b j e c t of Fra Diavolo was not unknown to the P a r i s i a n p u b l i c when Eugene S c r i b e and D.F.E. Auber's opera-comique appeared at the Theatre de 1'Opera-Cornique in 1830. In f a c t , •for many, the legend o-f the infamous Neapolitan bandit Michel Pezzo, a l i a s F r a D i a v o l o , r e c a l l e d the n o t - s o - d i s t a n t past. Larousse recounts the b a n d i t ' s l i f e : II q u i t t a l e metier de f a b r i c a n t de bas pour se j o i n d r e a une troupe de b r i g a n s dont i l ne t a r d a pas a devenir l e chef et qui r e p a n d i t l a t e r r e u r dans l e s Calabres. Sa t e t e f u t mise a p r i x . Cependant, lorsque l e c a r d i n a l Ruffo e n t r e p r i t de c o n t r a i n d r e l e s F r a n c a i s a evacuer l e royaume de Naples en 1799, F r a D i a v o l o o b t i n t son pardon, f u t employe par l e c a r d i n a l et reeut un brevet de c o l o n e l ou de chef de bande insurgee. A l a t e t e de sa troupe, i l f i t l a guerre aux Francjais, c o n t i n u a a se l i v r e r a des a c t e s d'odieuse cruau-te , se r e f u g i a dans l e s Calabres, apres l a conquete du royaume de Naples, par Bonaparte, y e x c i t a des sou 1evements, passa dans l ' f l e de Capree, p u i s debarqua a Sperlonga avec une troupe nombreuse, s i g n a l a son passage par des v o l s , des a s s a s s i n a t s , des i n c e n d i e s , et f i n i t par tomber e n t r e l e s mains des F r a n p a i s , qui l u i f i r e n t e x p i e r ses crimes sur l e g i b e t (1806)... S c r i b e a p o e t i s e l e hideux bandit et en a f a i t l e heros d'un opera-comique. 1 Fra Diavolo ou I' Ht> te I ler i e de Terracine, performed on 28 January 1830, remained in the r e p e r t o i r e of the Theatre de 1'Opera-Cornique throughout the 19th century and well i n t o the 20th century. By 1911 i t had a t t a i n e d i t s 909th performance. An i n t e r n a t i o n a l f a v o r i t e , i t was performed in B r u s s e l s , B e r l i n , Vienna, Budapest, St. Petersburg, London, Copen-hagen, Zagreb, Prague, Warsaw, and New York d u r i n g i t s f i r s t year-and-a-half of l i f e , and was sung not only i n French, but a l s o i n German, Hungarian, Russian, I t a l i a n , E n g l i s h , Danish and Czech. Made i n t o a f i l m i n 1931, recorded in the 1950s, i t i s o c c a s i o n a l l y performed even today and i s thus one of the few works from the French musical stage of i t s time to show such remarkable l o n g e v i t y , . . . 2 14 Th» L i b r e t t o : Part I: Synopsis S c r i b e ' s t h r e e - a c t opera i s s e t i n the c o u n t r y s i d e of I t a l y , in an inn near T e r r a c i n a , near Naples. The time i s u n s p e c i f i e d , but undoubtedly meant to be the recent p a s t — j u d g -ing by the a c t i o n and c h a r a c t e r s . The n>ise-en-scene does not change d r a s t i c a l l y throughout the opera, moving from w i t h i n the inn i n Act I to the surrounding grounds i n Act I I I . Nonetheless the s p e c t a t o r ' s i n t e r e s t and a t t e n t i o n are captured and held by the v a r i e t y of dramatic s i t u a t i o n s , c h a r a c t e r s and musical i n t e r e s t . The v a r i e t y of dramatic s i t u a t i o n s and musical content w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . As f o r the c h a r a c t e r s , they are t y p i c a l of those found in 19th-century operas comiques: a v i l l a i n , an innocent maiden, an h e r o i c l o v e r , s o l d i e r s , peasants, and so on. The v i l l a i n and p r i n c i p l e c h a r a c t e r , D i a v o l o , " i s a l a d i e s ' man, well p r a c t i c e d i n c o u r t l y manner, i n c l u d i n g s i n g i n g to the accompaniment of h i s g u i t a r (Act I, sc. i i i ) , . . ." He i s the se1 f - c e n t e r e d and s e l f - r i g h t e o u s seducer-bandit of many 19th-century operas. H i s accomplices, Giacomo and Beppo, " e x h i b i t the standard p r o p o r t i o n s of brawn to b r a i n common i n most 'thug' types i n present day t e l e v i s i o n dramas." 3 The young, sweet, innocent and much i n love maiden i s por-trayed by Z e r l i n e . D espite her g e n e r a l l y submissive nature, her st r o n g c h a r a c t e r i s not to be underestimated. Lorenzo, her beloved, i s the f a i t h f u l hero, "brave, p a r t i c u l a r l y so s i n c e he f e e l s he has nothing to l i v e f o r i f Z e r l i n e m a r r i e s another.'"* The E n g l i s h couple, Lord and Lady Cokbourg ( a l s o r e f e r r e d to as mil o r d and Pamela), although c h a r a c t e r s of secondary importance, 15 p r o v i d e a m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e f o r the i n t r i g u e , and the E n g l i s h accent o-f t h e i r spoken French s u p p l i e s some measure o-f comic r e l i e f . M i l o r d ' s j e a l o u s y and g u l l i b i l i t y p r o v i d e the Marquis with e x p l o i t a b l e weaknesses. As f o r Pamela, her youth and c o q u e t t i s h nature make her a prime v i c t i m f o r the Marquis's f l i r t a t i o u s advances. Despite the comic r e l i e f p r ovided by the E n g l i s h couple, D i a v o l o ' s accomplices--Giacomo and Beppo—reroain the primary sources of comic r e l i e f because of t h e i r clumsiness and h a l f - w i t t e d remarks. As f o r the s o l d i e r s , "those f a v o r i t e s of both S c r i b e ' s and h i s bourgeois a u d i e n c e " , 0 they supply the 'mass* scenes so important in contemporary o p e r a t i c p r o d u c t i o n s . Two other secondary c h a r a c t e r s r e q u i r e b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n s : Z e r l i n e ' s f a t h e r — t h e innkeeper Matheo—and Francesco, the o l d neighbourhood "fogey", who i s to marry Z e r l i n e u n l e s s Lorenzo f i n d s h i s f o r t u n e q u i c k l y . Although these secondary c h a r a c t e r s p r o v i d e an o b s t a c l e to the marriage of Lorenzo and Z e r l i n e , n e i t h e r c h a r a c t e r p l a y s an important r o l e i n the opera. T h i s c o n t r a s t of p e r s o n a l i t i e s g i v e s r i s e to a wide d i v e r s -i t y of i n t r i g u e s which S c r i b e works out with h i s usual mastery. Adapting the s i x fundamental f e a t u r e s of the well-made play (discussed i n Chapter I ) , he u n f o l d s an i n t e r e s t i n g and s t i m u l a -t i n g s e r i e s of events. Nonetheless, d e s p i t e S c r i b e ' s r i g i d adherence to the well-made p l a y elements and h i s usual w e l l - f o r -matted s t r u c t u r e in the c r e a t i o n of the l i b r e t t o , the m u l t i t u d e and r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n of dramatic events may well have the f i r s t -time s p e c t a t o r somewhat confused. S c r i b e enjoyed m i s l e a d i n g the s p e c t a t o r with f a l s e i n f o r m a t i o n , d i s g u i s e d i d e n t i t i e s and unexplained events; he took p l e a s u r e i n w i t h h o l d i n g important f a c t s from h i s audience, thus p r e v e n t i n g the f u l l comprehension 16 of a s i t u a t i o n . G l i s s a n t avec adresse entre une s i t u a t i o n i n t e r e s s a n t e et une autre de f r a n c comique, i l n'aborde reeE131ement ni l'une ni 1'autre, se contentant de f a i r e p r e s s e n t i r ce q u ' i l ne d i t p o i n t . II aime s u r t o u t a tromper l e s p e c t a t e u r , a l u i donner des a f f e c t i o n s q u ' i l prend e n s u i t e p l a i s i r a d e t r u i r e , a l u i f a i r e c r o i r e a des evenemenCt3s qui n'ar-r i v e n t p o i n t , . . .* The opera begins i n the dining-room h a l l of an inn. A detachment of Roman s o l d i e r s has stopped to r e s t and eat there. I t s b r i g a d i e r , Lorenzo, has chosen t h i s l o c a t i o n because i t i s the home of h i s beloved Z e r l i n e , the innkeeper's daughter. The s o l d i e r s have been pursuing b a n d i t s and t h e i r infamous leader, D i a v o l o , who have been t e r r o r i z i n g the c o u n t r y s i d e with a s s a s s i -n a t i o n s , t h e f t s , and v a r i o u s other c o n s p i r a c i e s . An E n g l i s h couple, the Cokbourgs, a r r i v e s at the inn i n a s t a t e of a g i t a -t i o n , and h u r r i e d l y e x p l a i n to the innkeeper t h a t , while en route to Livourne, they were robbed by b a n d i t s ( D i a v o l o ' s men) who, a f t e r t a k i n g a l l t h e i r v a l u a b l e s , f l e d i n t o the f o r e s t . With t h i s new "signalement", the s o l d i e r s leave i n p u r s u i t of the b a n d i t s . Moments l a t e r the mysterious Marquis de San-Marco —who i s none other than D i a v o l o in d i s g u i s e — a r r i v e s at the inn in a l u x u r i o u s c a r r i a g e . The mystery of the "highway" robbery u n r a v e l s as we are t o l d of the Marquis, who, having departed from Naples at the same time as Lord and Lady Cokbourg, had lodged where they had, and had t r a v e l l e d the same routes. While c o u r t i n g milady, he had d i s c o v e r e d t h e i r intended route, as well as i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the l o c a t i o n of her m a g n i f i c e n t jewelry case c o n t a i n i n g diamonds, and of 500,000 f r a n c s which m i l o r d was to d e p o s i t at Livourne. (The money was to be i n the form of c o i n s , not b i l l s . ) D i a v o l o l e a r n s , upon h i s a r r i v a l at the inn, that 17 h i s bandit -friends were unsuc c e s s f u l at r e t r i e v i n g the c o i n s . What i s the reason -for t h i s u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt? Mi l o r d e x p l a i n s to the Marquis that the c o i n s were converted to bank notes and sewn to the l i n i n g of h i s f r o c k - c o a t . What an ingenious idea! D i a v o l o now f i n d s a new i n c e n t i v e to complete h i s previous p l a n , thus g i v i n g r i s e to new dramatic s i t u a t i o n s . Lorenzo, who had l e f t in p u r s u i t of the robbers, now r e t u r n s with milady's j e w e l r y box and diamonds for which a reward has been o f f e r e d . Lorenzo r e f u s e s the reward money, but Z e r l i n e , knowing that t h i s sum w i l l assure t h e i r marriage, accepts in h i s p l a c e . Thus ends Act I: the b a s i c i n t r i g u e i s s e t , c o n f l i c t s have been e s t a b l i s h e d , and m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s f o r the a c t i o n have been implemented. As Act II opens Z e r l i n e , v o i c i n g her "goodnight" to the guests, prepares to r e t i r e for the n i g h t . D i a v o l o and h i s two accomplices have, by now, i n f i l t r a t e d her room and hidden in her c l o s e t . The f o l l o w i n g monologue ( i n t e r r u p t e d by the bandit t r i o , in song) r e p r e s e n t s a dramatic h i g h p o i n t in the p o r t r a y a l of Z e r l i n e ' s c h a r a c t e r , and p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t example of S c r i b e ' s ensemble w r i t i n g with s o l o . While p r e p a r i n g f o r bed, Z e r l i n e s i n g s of her upcoming wedd i ng to Lorenzo and comments on her good f o r t u n e . T h i s e x p r e s s i o n of v a n i t y prompts an o u t b u r s t from the hidden t r i o . Pausing momentarily to l i s t e n , she then continues her t r a i n of thought. As she s l i p s i n t o bed she p l a c e s the reward money under her p i l l o w f o r s a f e k e e p i n g , a p l a c e not e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to the robbers. Assured that she i s asleep, the t r i o emerges from the c l o s e t , and a f t e r a moment of h e s i t a t i o n they decide to k i l l her to avoid c o m p l i c a t i o n s while r e t r i e v i n g the money from under her p i l l o w and robbing the IS Cnkbourgs' in the adjacent room. Lorenzo and h i s men r e t u r n j u s t in time to save Z e r l i n e . The b a n d i t s , s t a r t l e d , q u i c k l y r e t r e a t to the c l o s e t . Z e r l i n e awakens. As she descends to prepare refreshments f o r the s o l d i e r s , m i l o r d emerges from h i s room to i n q u i r e as to the cause of the commotion. A noise i s heard in Z e r l i r . e ' s room. As Lorenzo prepares to e n t e r , D i a v o l o , as the Marquis of San-Marco, of course, e x i t s , under the pre-tense of having had a rendez-vous with Z e r l i n e , or so he t e l l s Lorenzo. To m i l o r d , he whispers that he was r e a l l y there to meet milady. F u r i o u s , Lorenzo c h a l l e n g e s the Marquis (Diavolo) to a duel at dawn. The second act ends on t h i s note of suspense and t e n s i o n . In Act I I I , F r a Diavolo f i n a l l y appears dressed as a ba n d i t . He w i l l not keep h i s rendez-vous f o r the d u e l , but instead has sent h i s men to ambush and k i l l h i s opponent. Before Lorenzo's departure f o r the rendez-vous, unexpected events occur which change the course of a c t i o n . Z e r l i n e overhears the i n e b r i a t e d G i acomo and Beppo ( D i a v o l o ' s c l o s e t accomplices of the f o r e n i g h t ) r e c a l l i n g the words she u t t e r e d the night before in her chamber. Knowing that she alone should know these thoughts and words, she suspects f o u l p l a y , and n o t i f i e s Lorenzo of her s u s p i c i o n . The two men are stopped and searched. A small note i s found on Giacomo's person r e v e a l i n g D i a v o l o ' s i n t e n t i o n to rob the Cokbourgs while everyone attends the wedding. Lorenzo s e t s h i s own t r a p , in t u r n , to capture the infamous bandit, and f o r c e s G i a c c o to g i v e D i a v o l o the agreed s i g n a l . D i a v o l o i s ambushed and a r r e s t e d a f t e r a p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by a peasant once held c a p t i v e by D i a v o l o ' s band. There i s general r e j o i c i n g as a l l c o n f l i c t s are s a t i s f a c t o r i l y 19 r e s o l v e d , and the young l o v e r s are r e u n i t e d . The t r a d i t i o n a l wedding o-f operas comiques does not take p l a c e on stage, but i s nevetheless i m p l i e d . Part I I : The We 1 1 -Made Play Elements in Fra Diavolo The well-made p l a y -features can nowhere be b e t t e r seen than in the s t r u c t u r e and content o-f the opera Fra Diavolo. The use o-f the d e l a y e d - a c t i o n p l o t i s obvious -from the s t a r t . As the c u r t a i n r i s e s the primary c o n f l i c t s and i n t r i g u e s which are to be r e s o l v e d in the remainder of the opera are a l r e a d y set in motion: D i a v o l o and h i s b a n d i t s are being pursued by Lorenzo and h i s men; Lorenzo's happiness i s threatened i f Z e r l i n e i s f o r c e d to marry Francesco? Pamela has been courted by the s o - c a l l e d Marquis (Diavolo in d i s g u i s e ) , and has unknowingly r e v e a l e d the whereabouts of her and her husband's v a l u a b l e s to her courter5 and the E n g l i s h couple has consequently been robbed. In the form of n a r r a t i v e s , the background i n f o r m a t i o n , e x p l a i n i n g a l l o-f the p r e - c u r t a i n events, i s exposed in the f i r s t f i v e scenes of the opera. Nonetheless, a few elements remain a s e c r e t f o r the time being. We s h a l l see l a t e r how some musical s o l i f u l f i l e x p o s i t o r y r o l e s in the drama. The p l o t u n f o l d s with i n c r e a s i n g t e n s i o n through c o n t r i v e d entrances and e x i t s . Each r e v e l a t i o n or turn of events i s an-t i c i p a t e d , l a r g e l y because of the info r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n the f i r s t scenes of Act I. For example, no one i s s u r p r i s e d when Lorenzo recovers the E n g l i s h couple's v a l u a b l e s , and thus assures h i s marriage to Z e r l i n e ; or f o r that matter, when the Marquis's true i d e n t i t y i s revealed at the climax of the opera. The r e s o l u t i o n of these c o n f l i c t s p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r 20 camp 1 i c a t i o n s in the p l a t which, i n turn, are r e s o l v e d i n not-so-unexpected ways; f o r example, F r a D i a v o l o ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n to complete the u n s u c c e s s f u l robbery e v e n t u a l l y leads to the r e v e l a t i o n of h i s t r u e i d e n t i t y and h i s d o w n f a l l . T h i s downfall i s a s s i s t e d by the usual c o n t r i v e d entrances and e x i t s (e.g., the appearance of a peasant f o r m e r l y held c a p t i v e by D i a v o l o ' s band, who can i d e n t i f y D i a v o l o ) ; l e t t e r s (e.g., the note found on Giacomo's person r e v e a l i n g D i a v o l o ' s p l a n s ) ; and "other d e v i c e s f o r conveying these f a c t s to c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r s while keeping them s e c r e t from others" 3* (e.g., Z e r l i n e ' s d i s c o v e r y of Giacoma and Beppo's whereabouts of the f o r e n i g h t ) . As we s h a l l see, some s o l i a l s o occupy such dramatic r a l e s by s e r v i n g as de v i c e s f o r the enhancement of a scene (e.g., the s i g n a l from Di a v o l o to h i s accomplices in Act I I , scene 3), and/or s u p p l y i n g m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s towards other events i n the p l o t (e.g., Z e r l i n e ' s couplets i n Act I, scene 4). The ups and downs i n the hero's f o r t u n e are a l s o obvious throughout the l i b r e t t o . As Fra Diavolo begins, Lorenzo i s about to lose Z e r l i n e because of h i s lack of f o r t u n e . To assure h i s daughter's w e l l - b e i n g Matheo has promised her to Francesco, the o l d neighbourhood m i l l e r . Lorenzo's good f o r t u n e i s q u i c k l y r e e s t a b l i s h e d as he r e t r i e v e s the E n g l i s h couple's s t o l e n v a l u -a b l e s and consequently earns the promised reward money. Yet, once again, h i s f a t e changes f o r the worst as he i s deceived by Diav o l o i n t o b e l i e v i n g in Z e r l i n e ' s i n f i d e l i t y . E m o t i o n a l l y p a i n s t r i c k e n , he c h a l l e n g e s the Marquis (Diavolo) to a du e l , thus seemingly a s s u r i n g h i s own death, f o r w e — t h e a u d i e n c e — know of the ambush planned by Dia v o l o a g a i n s t Lorenzo. As i f by d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n , a note found on the person of Giacomo 21 r e v e a l s D i a v o l o ' s c o n s p i r a c y to rob the Cokbourgs when a l l the guests leave to a t t e n t the wedding. Our hero consequently s e t s up h i s own ambush f o r the bandit, and h i s success once again assures h i s happiness and good f o r t u n e . The most s t r i k i n g -feature o-f the well-made l i b r e t t o and of t h i s opera, and one which p r e v a i l s throughout the l i b r e t t o u n t i l the climax in Act I I I i s the c e n t r a l quiproquo. The d i s g u i s e d i d e n t i t y of the b a n d i t — a f a v o r i t e element of many 19th-century operas such as Fidelia — Dia v o l o as the Marquis de San Marco pr o v i d e s the opera with i t s c e n t r a l quiproquo. S e v e r a l s o l i are creat e d because of t h i s f e a t u r e . Some s o l i are c r e a t e d to help introduce the idea of a d i s g u i s e d i d e n t i t y ; o t h e r s are used to develop the idea; and others s t i l l , to u n v e i l i t s e x i s t e n c e . We s h a l l examine how Z e r l i n e ' s couplets (Act I, scene 4) i n t r o d u c e s the element of concealed i d e n t i t y , and how a subsequent s o l o confirms t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . The t u r n i n g p o i n t and scene s faire of the p l o t — t h e reve-l a t i o n of the Marquis's t r u e i d e n t i t y (Act I I I , scene 12), and the subsequent a r r e s t of the bandit by L o r e n z o — a r e both con-t a i n e d w i t h i n Act I I I . The t u r n i n g p o i n t leads to the r e s o l u -t i o n of a l l c o n f l i c t s : Lorenzo's happiness i s assured as he w i l l marry Z e r l i n e ; the Cokbourgs have been saved from a second rob-bery; and the infamous bandit D i a v o l o and h i s band have been apprehended, thus a s s u r i n g the s a f e t y of the c o u n t r y s i d e . The s i x t h f e a t u r e of the well-made play r e s t s i n the s t r u c t u r e of the l i b r e t t i , that i s , each i n d i v i d u a l a c t d i s p l a y s a s t r u c t u r e s i m i l a r to that of the whole opera, though in mini a t u r e . (See the diagram on the f o l l o w i n g page.) T h i s i s an important element i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the well-made l i b r e t t o , Fra Diavolo'. O v e r a l l Dramatic Scheme Prob1 ems -* R e s o l u t i o n * Act I Act, II Act, I I I  Prob1 ems Reso1utions| |Prob1ems Reso1ut i ons| j Prob1ems Reso1ut ions| Band i t s rob the Cks. Z i s to marry Fr due to L's poor -for-tune. Entrance o-f D as the M de S-M. -> (Search -for b a n d i t s continues.) - -* -Bandits a r r e s t e d . L r e c o v e r s sto1 en j ewe 1s, and assures h i s mar r i age to Z. -D' s true i dent i t y unve i1ed; bandit a r r e s t e d . Z's 1 i-f e threatened by b a n d i t s . L to duel with D. -Z saved by a r r i v a l o-f so1d i e r s . Ambush set -for at duel s i t e . D's men p l o t to rob Cks agai n. -L d i s c o v e r s p l o t to ambush him and rob Cks. L s e t s own ambush -for band i t s . Note: Cks=Cokbourgs> L=Lorenzo5 Z=Zerline; D=Diavolo; Fr=Francesco5 M de S-M=Marquis de San-Marco 23 though not s p e c i f i c a l l y c r u c i a l to our study of the musical so 1 i . As i n d i c a t e d i n the preceding diagram each act i n t r o d u c e s a s e r i e s of c o n f l i c t s , one or more of which are r e s o l v e d by the end of the act, while the others await r e s o l u t i o n i n a subsequent act. In a d d i t i o n , f u r t h e r c o n f l i c t s are a l s o put f o r t h f o r r e s o l u t i o n in subsequent a c t s . U l t i m a t e l y , a l l c o n f l i c t s aim to the f i n a l and d e f i n i t e climax in Act I I I , where they are r e s o l v e d . Each act r e f l e c t s , in m i n i a t u r e , the problem-resolution format e x h i b i t e d by the opera's o v e r a l l dramatic s t r u c t u r e . Important i n the c r e a t i o n of any opera i s the c o l l a b o r a t i o n of p l a y w r i g h t and musician. The f i r s t c h a r t below c l e a r l y ex-h i b i t s the v a r i e t y of musical e x p r e s s i o n a f f o r d e d to Auber by S c r i b e ' s d i v e r s i t y of c h a r a c t e r s and dramatic s i t u a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n i t a l s o d i s p l a y s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the musical forms throughout the opera, and helps p l a c e the s o l i , the focus of our study, i n t o the s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the opera. The second c h a r t i s o l a t e s the s o l i and s u p p l i e s , f o r each s o l o , a b r i e f summary of the dramatic s i t u a t i o n in which i t i s s i t u a t e d . Musical S o l i M u s ical D i s t r i b u t i o n in Fra Diavolo Locat ion Number Musical forms and c h a r a c t e r s I, 1-2 1 INTRO: s o l d i e r s , Matheo, Z e r l i n e , Lorenzo, Lord and Pamela Cokbourg. Includes choruses, r e c i t a t i v e , a i r s , and ensembles. 3 2 Couplets, Je voulais bienZ Stanzas 1 and 2 4 3 sung by Lord Cokbourg; s t a n z a 3, by Pamela. Qui n t e t , Un landau qui s'arreteZ Matheo, Lord and Pamela Cokbourg, Z e r l i n e , and the Marquis of San-Marco. 24 5 4 Couplets, Voyez, sur cette roche: Stanzas 1 and 2 sung by Z e r l i n e ; s t a n z a 3, by the Marqu i s. 8- 9 5 Duo, Qui, je vais commander'. Pamela and the Marquis; to T r i o : Marquis, Lord Cokbourg and Pamela. 9- 10 6 F i n a l e : Lord and Pamela Cokbourg, the Marquis, Beppo, Giacomo, Z e r l i n e , Lorenzo, the s o l d i e r s . Includes choruses, r e c i t a t i v e s , a i r s , ensembles. I I , 1 7 [ R e c i t a t i v e and] a i r , Ne craignez rien milord.': Z e r l i n e . 2 3 T r i o : Z e r l i n e , Lord and Pamela Cokbourg. 3 9 B a r c a r o l l e , Agnes la joui/enceI le: the Marquis. 4 10 Scene du coucher, Qui c'est demain: Z e r l i n e , the Marquis, Beppo, Giacomo. Includes an a i r with ensemble i n t e r l u d e s a prayer, r e c i t a t i v e and a r i o s o passages. 7- 9 11 F i n a l e : Lorenzo, Lord and Pamela Cokbourg, the Marquis, Beppo, Giacomo, Z e r l i n e . Includes r e c i t a t i v e , ensembles, a i r s . I l l , 1 12 [ R e c i t a t i v e and! a i r , Je vois marcher sous mes bannieres: the Marquis. 2-3 13 Chorus with s o l o i n t e l u d e s f o r Giacomo, Beppo, and Matheo. 5 14 Romance, Pour toujours, d i s a i t - e l l e : Lorenzo. 8- 9 15 F i n a l e : a l l p r i n c i p a l s , v i l l a g e r s , s o l d i e r s Includes r e c i t a t i v e , a r i o s o , spoken seg-ments, choruses, ensembles. Solo numbers in Fra Diavolo L o c a t i o n Number Cast Synops i s 1, 1 Fame 1 a Lord Cokbourg, Pame1 a Ze r 1 i ne, fiarqu is the B r i e f a i r : Pamela expresses her a g i t a t i o n a f t e r the at t a c k of the b a n d i t s . Couplets, Je voulais bienl m i l o r d ' s j e a l o u s y i s aroused by milady's f l i r t a t i o n s with the Marquis. Couplets, Voyez, sur cette roche D i a v o l o ' s s t o r y i s t o l d . I I , 1 Z e r l i n e Marqu i s A i r , Ouel bonheur.': Z e r l i n e ' s dreams of her forthcoming marriage to Lorenzo. B a r c a r o l l e , Agnes la j ouvenceIle 25 10 Z e r 1 i ne IEeppo, Giacomo, and the Marquis! Scene du coucher". ( a i r w i t h i n an ensemble)--Zer1ine p r e p a r i n g to r e t i r e , e xpresses her joy, while the hidden robbers p l o t the i r c r ime. I l l 12 14 Marqui s Lorenzo [ R e c i t a t i v e and] a i r , Je vois marcher sous mes bannieres: a monologue on h i s l i f e . Romance, Pour toujours. . .'. Lorenzo, saddened by Z e r l i n e ' s a l l e g e d p e r f i d y , expresses h i s despai r . Keeping in mind he above c h a r t - - e s p e c i a l l y the second which d i s p l a y s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o l i throughout the o p e r a - - l e t us f i r s t examine the s o l i which seem i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l , at f i r s t glance, to the u n f o l d i n g of the drama, but which r e v e a l upon c l o s e r examination some dramatic purpose. We s h a l l see how such seemingly non-dramatic s o l i help balance the musical s t r u c t u r e of the opera as a whole. There are two such s o l i i n Fra Diavolo: D i a v o l o ' s b a r c a r o l l e , Agnes la Jouvencelle (Act I I , scene 3), and Lorenzo's romance, Pour toujours, d i s a i t - e l l e , (Act I I I , scene 5). As Pendle e x p l a i n s , from the dramatic p o i n t of view [these] musical numbers could be e l i m i n a t e d without harm to the p l o t . . . . The b a r c a r o l l e i s supposedly a s i g n a l to Giacomo and Beppo, but even in an opera b u f f a such a purpose might have been served by such stock dramatic d e v i c e s as lowering a c u r t a i n , open-ing a window, l i g h t i n g a lamp, and the l i k e . Lorenzo s i n g s h i s romance to express h i s b i t t e r n e s s at the d i s c o v e r y of Z e r l i n e ' s a l l e g e d p e r f i d y , something he has a l r e a d y expressed i n speech and song (Act II f i n a l e ) . I t thus serves no dramatic purpose." At f i r s t glance i t would seem, as Pendle has concluded, that these s o l i could be e l i m i n a t e d "without harm to the p l o t " , and yet at a deeper l e v e l each s o l o r e v e a l s i t s raison d'etre. The Marquis has planned to complete the p r e v i o u s l y unsuc-c e s s f u l robbery of the 500,000 f r a n c s b elonging to the Cok-bourgs, and, at the same time, to s t e a l Lorenzo's reward money 26 now hidden under Z e r l i n e ' s p i l l o w . The Marquis has made arrangements with h i s men, Giacomo and Beppo, that upon the agreed s i g n a l (the b a r c a r o l l e ) they are to j o i n him, and t o -gether they are to c a r r y out t h e i r crime. Although the song t e x t speaks o-f - f i c t i t i o u s l o v e r s , and thus r e l a t e s i n no way to the immediate s t o r y , i t nonetheless h i n t s at c e r t a i n upcoming events: La n u i t cachera t e s pas; Et j e s u i s s e u l e , h e l a s ! C'est ma voix qui t'appele, Ami, n'entends-tu pas? L ' i n s t a n t est s i prospere! Ami n'entends-tu pas? The two c a l l s of the maiden to her love s t r a n g e l y suggests Dia-v o l o ' s c a l l to h i s accomplices who are tardy at making t h e i r appearance. The song's n a r r a t i v e , in some small way, thus par-a l l e l s the dramatic a c t i o n simultaneously u n f o l d i n g . To a l e s s e r extent there a l s o seems to be an u n d e r l y i n g purpose to Lorenzo's romance. His pain and b i t t e r n e s s t r i g g e r s an outburst of great pathos, which appears to act as a motivat-ing f o r c e f o r h i s upcoming duel with the Marquis. More impor-tant i s the f a c t t h at t h i s s o l o not only permits Lorenzo t h i s o utburst of emotions, but a l s o allows him, the hero, to stand in the musical s p o t l i g h t i f only f o r a moment. A glance at the second t a b l e w i l l r e v e a l . the reasons f o r these two numbers. Lorenzo, although the hero of the opera and as such an important f i g u r e in a l l the c e n t r a l ensembles of the works, has no s o l o number which i s not part of a larger p i e c e . The romance g i v e s him a chance to s i n g alone, to c l a i m m u s i c a l l y what he otherwise o f t e n holds d r a m a t i c a l l y : the center of the stage, the spot 1i ght. *" While the above-mentioned purpose of each s o l o seems reason 27 enough -for t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , a n o t h e r rs/son d'etre emerges when one e x a mines t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o-f s o l i t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e o p e r a — n a m e l y m u s i c a l b a l a n c e . . . . T h e r e i s s t i l l a n o t h e r r e a s o n -for t h e e x i s t e n c e of L o r e n z o ' s romance which i s e a s i l y s e e n when c o n s i d e r i n g i t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e M a r q u i s ' b a r c a r o l l e . The M a r q u i s , w h i l e not a h e r o , i s t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n t h e p l o t and as s u c h i s g i v e n a l e n g t h y and s k i l l f u l l y composed monologue t o open A c t I I I . Why s h o u l d he t h e n have a s e c o n d , d r a m a t i c -a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t and m u s i c a l l y i n f e r i o r s o l o number? A g a i n t h e t a b l e p r o v i d e s a c l u e t o t h e answer. A u b e r ' s s c o r e abounds i n a v a r i e t y of e n s e m b l e s , f r o m duo t o l a r g e s c e n e s i n v o l v i n g a l l members of t h e c a s t . By way of c o n t r a s t , e a c h a c t i s p r o v i d e d w i t h t w o — a n d o n l y t w o — s o l o p i e c e s , e ach b a l a n c i n g t h e o t h e r . . . . 1 0 T h e r e f o r e , a s o b s e r v e d t o by P e n d l e , D i a v o l o ' s b a r c a r o l l e and L o r e n z o ' s romance s e r v e some d r a m a t i c p u r p o s e i n r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e o p e r a as a whole, i f not i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e p l a t . T h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s t h u s s u p p o r t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n made i n C h a p t e r I c o n c e r n i n g t h e g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f m u s i c i n o p e r a s comiques o f t h e 1830s. The r e m a i n i n g s o l i p r e s e n t a d i f f e r e n t and more f u n c i o n a l r o l e t h a n t h e two f o r m e r s o l i . G i v e n t h a t " t h e p l a y d e a l s w i t h t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f a l o n g s t o r y , t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f w h i c h has o c c u r r e d b e f o r e t h e c u r t a i n goes up . . . [and g i v e n t h a t ] t h e a c t i o n i s t h r o u g h e x p o s i t i o n a l w a y s d e l a y e d u n t i l t h e f o r e g o i n g e v e n t s have been r e l a t e d f o r t h e a u d i e n c e ' s b e n e f i t . . . , " 1 1 t h e f i r s t few s c e n e s s e r v e as v e h i c l e s f o r r e l a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a bout c h a r a c t e r s and e v e n t s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , i n t u r n , p r e p a r e s t h e outcome of t h e a c t i o n and h e l p s t h e a u d i e n c e a n t i c i p a t e t h e f i n a l r e v e l a t i o n o f t h e s e c r e t . S c r i b e and Auber have s e t much of t h i s i n f o r m a t i v e m a t e r i a l i n t o n a r r a t i v e t e x t and s o l o m u s i c a l f o r m s , r a t h e r t h a n e n s e m b l e s . We s h a l l examine t h e two t y p e s of e x p o s i t o r y n a r r a t i v e s f o u n d i n t h i s o p e r a : t h e 28 one i s concerned with events, the other with c h a r a c t e r s and con-sequently c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . Pamela's b r i e f air (No. 1, Act I, scene 1) and Lord Cok-bourg's couplets (No.2, Act I, scene 3), both p a r t o-f the larger-sung I n t r o d u c t i o n , r e v e a l j o i n t l y most o-f the background i n f o r -mation concerning p r e - c u r t a i n events and c h a r a c t e r s important to the immediate a c t i o n surrounding them. The E n g l i s h couple has j u s t a r r i v e d at Matheo's inn. Pamela, in a s t a t e of f r e n z y , immediately expresses her f e e l i n g s on what has j u s t happened to them. But what has happened? We are informed of the presence of a bandit, one who i s in no way a gentleman. There are h i n t s of a robbery f o r she r h e t o r i c a l l y asks the whereabouts of her v a l u a b l e s . We are t o l d no more of the event u n t i l l a t e r in Act I. Through Pamela's s i r we a l s o d i s c o v e r f o r the f i r s t time that the a c t i o n takes p l a c e in I t a l y ("Je n'avais p l u s l ' e n v i e de r e v o i r l ' l t a l i e " ) , and that she and her husband are v i s i t o r s there ("Ah! quel abominable voyage. / Je v o u l a i s , j e l e j u r e , / Plus voyagez avec vous"). It i s evident that S c r i b e has no i n t e n t i o n of r e v e a l i n g the mystery a l l at once, but r a t h e r intends to t a n t a l i z e the audience's c u r i o s i t y by u n v e i l i n g the past l i t t l e by l i t t l e . In a d d i t i o n to making t h i s s i r an agent of e x p o s i t i o n , S c r i b e a l s o s u b t l y r e v e a l s c e r t a i n shades of milady's p e r s o n a l i t y : she i s naive, simple and of a noble innocence, has a great love f o r wealth and wordly posses s i o n s , and i s e a s i l y a g i t a t e d . M i l o r d ' s couplets Je voulais bien, je voulais hien f o l l o w in scene i i i , p r o v i d i n g s t i l l more i n s i g h t i n t o the mystery of p r e - c u r t a i n events. We are t o l d of a stranger who has been f o l -lowing them and a l s o f l i r t i n g with milady. Here m i l o r d 29 expresses h i s disenchantment with the whole a - f f a i r . He f i n d s the 'seducer' s u s p i c i o u s , but does not suspect him of anything more than t r y i n g to gain h i s wife's f a v o r . Thus, with m i l o r d ' s coup lets, we l e a r n of another p r e - c u r t a i n event: the presence of a s u s p i c i o u s yet noble s t r a n g e r — t h i s i s a l l r e v e a l e d in the f i r s t s tanza. The second and t h i r d stanzas serve p r i n c i p a l l y to p o r t r a y the c h a r a c t e r s of mil o r d and Pamela r e s p e c t i v e l y . M i l o r d appears as a j e a l o u s yet f a i r husband f o r he s t a t e s that he i s w i l l i n g to spend a l l h i s wealth in order that Pamela may have the l a t e s t f a s h i o n s . On the other hand, he i s t o t a l l y a g a i n s t being "un mari a l a mode"--one b l i n d to a l l h i s wife's a c t i v i t i e s . Pamela, i n t e r r u p t i n g her husband, s i n g s the song's t h i r d stanza, thus emphasizing the same innocence and n a i v e t e as revealed in her air in scene 1. L i k e Pamela's air, m i l o r d ' s couplets u n v e i l more d e t a i l s of past events while l e a v i n g others a mystery. The p e r s o n a l i t i e s of Lady and Lord Cokbourg are exposed as they w i l l remain throughout the opera, f o r there i s l i t t l e c h a r a c t e r development in Fra Diavolo. Moreover, the coup lets serve as a m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e f o r the p l o t by p u t t i n g i n t o play the elements of s u s p i -c i o n and j e a l o u s y , u n l i k e Pamela's air which merely exposes the d e t a i l s of past events and c h a r a c t e r i z e s Pamela. There i s no c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of the s t r a n g e r ' s i d e n t i t y , or of h i s i n t e n -t i o n s , which, f o r the time being, seem harmless. These elements can not help but t r i g g e r the audience's c u r i o s i t y . In a d d i t i o n , m i l o r d ' s d i s p l a y of j e a l o u s y presents a f u r t h e r element f o r e x p l o i t a t i o n , f o r h i s j e a l o u s y o f f e r s much o p p o r t u n i t y f o r fu t u r e c o n f r o n t a t i o n s with the s t r a n g e r . The Marquis's p e r s i s t e n t f l i r t a t i o u s episodes with Pamela may in time t r i g g e r 30 enough o-f L o r d C o k b o u r g ' s anger t o g i v e r i s e t o an i n t e r e s t i n g tete-3.-tete between t h e two men. T h e r e f o r e , t h r o u g h t h e two s o l i of t h e f i r s t t h r e e s c e n e s of t h e o p e r a S c r i b e p r e s e n t s a number of s u s p e n s e f u l e v e n t s - - t h e p r e s e n c e o f a s u s p i c i o u s s t r a n g e r whose i n t e n t i o n s r e m a i n unknown, a n a i v e w i f e whose i n n o c e n c e makes her t h e o b j e c t of a s t r a n g e r ' s a d v a n c e s , and a j e a l o u s husband whose b e h a v i o r and r e a c t i o n t o s u r r o u n d i n g e v e n t s a r e u n p r e d i c t a b 1 e - - a n d e s t a b l i s h e s a means by which t o m o t i v a t e t h e drama. In t h i s manner, S c r i b e c r e a t e s i n t r i g u e , and t a n t i 1 i z e s t h e a u d i e n c e ' s c u r i o s i t y f r o m t h e o u t s e t o f t h e o p e r a . The d r a m a t i c m o t i v a t i o n c r e a t e d by m i l o r d ' s couplets i s m i n u t e when compared w i t h Z e r l i n e ' s couplets w h i c h f o l l o w i n s c e n e v. In t h e l a t t e r , we f i n d t h e answer t o many q u e s t i o n s and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r i n c i p a l i n t r i g u e . The c o n f l i c t s , w hich t h e r e u p o n emerge, a r e a l m o s t a l l g e n e r a t e d by Z e r l i n e ' s coup l e t s . The M a r q u i s o f San-Marco f i n a l l y makes h i s a p p e a r a n c e i n s c e n e v. H i s g r a n d e n t r a n c e i n a l u x u r i o u s c a r r i a g e a n n o u n c e s more m y s t e r y and a c t i o n . The a d v e n t u r e s of D i a v o l o , a b o u t which a song, \Joyex sur- cette roche, has been w r i t t e n , s p r i n g up i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n between t h e M a r q u i s and Matheo. Z e r l i n e , a t t h e M a r q u i s ' s r e q u e s t , s i n g s two of t h e s o n g ' s 22 s t a n z a s . The Mar-q u i s , i n t e r r u p t i n g Z e r l i n e , adds a t h i r d s t a n z a o f h i s own, w hich d e a l s w i t h t h e b a n d i t ' s use of d i s g u i s e s t o i n f i l t r a t e i n n o c e n t young m a i d e n s ' homes. Z e r l i n e ' s coup l e t s , Voyex sur cette roche, s e r v e s e v e r a l d r a m a t i c f u n c t i o n s , a n s w e r i n g some q u e s t i o n s on t h e one hand, end a n t i c i p a t i n g upcoming c o n f l i c t s on t h e o t h e r . K a r i n P e n d l e 31 e x p l a i n s how S c r i b e makes d r a m a t i c u s e Df t h i s s o l o : "Voyez s u r c e t t e r o c h e " . . . i s c o n s t r u c t e d i n s u c h a way and p l a c e d a t s u c h a p o i n t w i t h i n t h e u n f o l d i n g o-f t h e drama t h a t i t s e r v e s s e v e r a l p u r p o s e s . The major - f u n c t i o n o f t h e p i e c e i s n a r r a t i v e , t o a c q u a i n t t h e l i s t e n e r s w i t h t h e n a t u r e and a d v e n t u r e s of F r a D i a v o l o , and as s u c h i t p o i n t s t h e s p o t l i g h t a t a c h a r a c t e r who i s d e s e r v i n g o f t h e s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s t h a t m u s i c p r o v i d e s . The n a r r a t i v e a s p e c t of t h e song a l s o s e r v e s t h e ends of t h e well-made l i b r e t t o , f i r s t p r e p a r i n g t h e a u d i e n c e f o r t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e b a n d i t , t h e n p r o v i d i n g t h e f i r s t c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t D i a v o l o i s i n d e e d a l r e a d y p r e s e n t and i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e M a r q u i s de San-Marco. In t h i s f u n c t i o n i t i s not j u s t a s t a t i c n a r r a t i o n but a t t h e same t i m e a m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e i n t h e o p e r a . T h i s i s e m p h a s i z e d m u s i c a l l y by a s s i g n i n g t h e t h i r d s t a n z a t o t h e M a r q u i s even though i t c o u l d have been sung by Z e r l i n e w i t h no damage t o d r a m a t i c l o g i c . 1 2 As P e n d l e s t a t e s t h i s s o l o a p p r o p r i a t e l y s e r v e s t h e "ends of t h e well-made l i b r e t t o . " A s i d e from a n t i c i p a t i n g u p coming e v e n t s by t h e c o n t r i v e d e n t r a n c e of t h e M a r q u i s and t h e e x i t o f t h e Eng-l i s h c o u p l e , i t a l s o e s t a b l i s h e s t h e o p e r a ' s c e n t r a l quipraquo — D i a v o l o ' s d i s g u i s e d i d e n t i t y . D i a v o l o ' s h i d d e n i d e n t i t y i n t u r n y i e l d s much c o n f u s i o n , m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and c o n f l i c t s among t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n c l u d i n g a d u e l between L o r e n z o and D i a v o l o a t t h e end of A c t I I . The c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l of D i a v o l o i s f u r t h e r e n h a n c e d i n t h e M a r q u i s ' monologue, Je x/ois marcher sous mes hann ieres, which opens A c t I I I . T h i s s o l o t r a c e s t h e t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s of t h e b a n d i t D i a v o l o and i s o l a t e s D i a v o l o on s t a g e , t h u s p e r m i t -t i n g a c l o s e r v i e w o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . In a r e c i t a t i v e D i a v o l o a n n o u n c e s t h a t h i s p l a n t o r o b t h e C o k b o u r g s and Z e r l i n e i s abo u t t o m a t e r i a l i z e . What then f o l l o w s i s a m i x t u r e o f s t a t i c r e f l e c t i o n s on immediate t h o u g h t s and n a r r a t i v e s o f p a s t c o n -q u e s t s . T h i s monologue, t e x t u a l l y a m u 1 t i - s e c t i o n a l number, b e g i n s w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s f a i t h f u l comrades of v a r i o u s n a t i o n a l -32 i t i e s and s o c i a l backgrounds. He r e f l e c t s on t h e i r f e a r and obedience of him, as well as the f e a r he arouses of himself i n a l l who surround him. In the f a l l o w i n g s e c t i o n ("On m'amene un banquier: . . . " to "et pour s u i s ton chemin") D i a v o l o p o r t r a y s himself as a kind of Robin Hood t a k i n g gold from a banker, a noble l o r d , and a businessman f o r whom robbery i s j u s t i c e , and g i v i n g i t to the poor. In the next t e x t u a l segment ("La c'est une f i l l e t t e ! . . . " to "Je ne s u i s qu'une pauvre enfant") the Marquis conducts a d i a l o g u e with himself in a r e c o n s t r u c t e d con-f r o n t a t i o n with young g i r l s who, in f e a r of him, beg f o r t h e i r l i v e s . But the ban d i t i s not without kindness and sympathy as he r e a s s u r e s h i s audience: "Nous ne demandons r i e n aux b e l l e s : / L'usage est de l e s epargner: / Mais t o u j o u r s nous recevons d ' e l l e s / Ce que leur coeur veut nous donner". Then, q u i t e enchanted with h i s c o n d i t i o n , he r e a l i z e s he must attend to present business; but f i r s t he momentarily s l i p s back to h i s r e v e r i e s and r e c a l l s h i s e x p l o i t s with women. He t e l l s of h i s a b i l i t y to e x c i t e l a d i e s " hearts with love while s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n c i t i n g f e a r and j e a l o u s y i n t h e i r husbands, thus making the one revere him and the other plead f o r mercy. H i s dream i s i n t e r r u p t e d , and he r e t u r n s to h i s r e f r a i n , s t a t i n g h i s present business upon which depends the r e a l i z a t i o n of h i s daydreams. T h i s n a r r a t i v e of r e f l e c t i v e and a c t i v e s t a t e s of mind exposes on the one hand the ba n d i t ' s thoughts at a given moment in the drama, and on the other, given the t e x t u a l content, i t r e v e a l s the d e t a i l s and s u b t l e r shades of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . Never do we know Di a v o l o b e t t e r than a f t e r t h i s monologue. In terms of D i a v o l o ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n t h i s scene r e p r e s e n t s a dra-matic h i g h p o i n t . 33 A s i m i l a r glimpse at c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l i s o-f-fered by the remaining two s o l i , both sung by Z e r l i n e . T h i s f i r s t of the two opens Act I I . I t subsides the a g i t a t e d mood of Act I and s e t s a more rela x e d atmosphere f o r Act I I . T h i s s o l o f i r s t begins with a small amount of a c t i o n , then s e t t l e s down i n t o a s t a t e of s t a t i c r e f l e c t i o n s . As Z e r l i n e prepares her guests' rooms, she r e j o i c e s at being alone, r e f l e c t s on the day's commotion, and dreams of her beloved Lorenzo, and of how much she loves him. She concludes her b r i e f s i r while s l i p p i n g i n t o a s t a t e of r e v e r i e about Lorenzo. Quel bonheur! j e r e s p i r e . Oui, j e s u i s s e u l e i c i ; On me l a i s s e un moment: qu'au moins i l s o i t pour l u i ! As b r i e f as t h i s a i r may be, i t serves s e v e r a l dramatic f u n c t i o n s . As was mentioned above, one of i t s r o l e s i s to p a i n t Z e r l i n e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y ; but t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s merely a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the true c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l which comes in the next s i r four scenes l a t e r in scene v. What then i s i t s primary purpose? In a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d manner, t h i s a i r e s t a b l i s h e s the l o c a t i o n and atmosphere f o r the upcoming scenes. In a d d i t i o n i t i s o l a t e s Z e r l i n e f o r her grsnde scene du coucher i n scene v, j u s t as her coup lets Uoyez sur cette roche i n Act I scene v, prepare the r e f i n e d c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l presented in D i a v o l o ' s monologue in Act I I I , scene i . Aside from i t s evident r o l e of c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l , Z e r l i n e ' s grsnde scene du coucher o f f e r s an e x c e l l e n t example of ensemble w r i t i n g i n v o l v i n g a mixture of s o l o and ' t r i o ' musical forms. A f t e r having b i d her guests goodnight, Z e r l i n e r e t i r e s to her bedroom where she prepares h e r s e l f f o r bed. Unaware that three men are h i d i n g i n her c l o s e t , she leaves the c l o s e t door 34 open and begins to undress while r e f l e c t i n g on the events of the next day, her marriage to Lorenzo. Her s t a t i c r e f l e c t i o n s are in t e r m i n g l e d with the bandit t r i o ' s p l o t to rob and murder. Let us examine in d e t a i l how t h i s s o l o of s t a t i c r e f l e c t i o n s forms a framework around which a small amount of a c t i o n takes p l a c e . The s t a t i c - a c t i v e element which p e r s i s t s throughout t h i s long scene i s at f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d in speech as Z e r l i n e prepares to r e t i r e f o r the n i g h t . While Z e r l i n e pauses to contemplate her f a t e and the reward money which has assured her happiness and which she p l a c e s under her p i l l o w , the b a n d i t s p l o t t h e i r next move. She s l i p s deeper and deeper i n t o her daydream as she begins her cavatine, Out c'est demain . . . . T h i s f i r s t major s e c t i o n of Z e r l i n e ' s s o l o i s i n t e r s p e r s e d with commentary by the three hidden b a n d i t s . Looking forward to her marriage on the next day, Z e r l i n e vows that she and Lorenzo w i l l make "un m e i l -leur menage / Que c e t t e A n g l a i s e et son epouxj / Car Lorenzo n'est pas volage, / II ne s e r a jamais j a l o u x . " . Her thought i s i n t e r r u p t e d as she p r i c k s her f i n g e r . T h i s o c c a s i o n s the f i r s t comment from the c l o s e t as Beppo remarks on her beauty, only to be hushed by D i a v o l o . Z e r l i n e q u i c k l y resumes her a i r c o n f i d e n t that her husband t r u s t s her. J o y f u l l y she r e i n t o n e s her r e f r a i n , a f t e r which she pursues her t r a i n of thought: she has not Pamela's elegance or her looks, but Lorenzo has nothing to complain about, because f o r a servant g i r l she has q u i t e a good f i g u r e . T h i s e x p r e s s i o n of v a n i t y prompts an o u t b u r s t of laugh-te r from the c l o s e t , t h i s one heard by Z e r l i n e . T h i n k i n g that the noise comes from the Cokbourgs' room, she once more takes up her j o y f u l r e f r a i n . Thus concludes the f i r s t p o r t i o n of t h i s long scene, in which Z e r l i n e ' s s t a t i c r e f l e c t i o n s form the 35 musical framework -for a small amount o-f u n f o l d i n g a c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e p r o v i d e s a s t r u c t u r a l summary of the scene's f i r s t p a r t . O u t l i n e of No.10, S e c t i o n 1 A i r a "Oui c'est demain" 2 r e j o i c e s at her upcoming marriage, ( s t a t i c ) A i r b "Nous fe r o n s bien 2 and L w i l l be a mei1leur menage b e t t e r match than the Cockbourgs. ( s t a t i c ) I n t e r r u p t i o n 1 " E l l e est j o l i e " Comments from the c l o s e t , ( a c t i v e ) A i r a' "C'est demain" V a r i a t i o n of the r e f r a i n , ( s t a t i c ) A i r b "Pour moi, j e n'ai 2 compares h e r s e l f pas l'elegance" to milady, ( s t a t i c ) A i r c "Quoi v o i l a pour un E x p r e s s i o n of v a n i t y . s e r v a n t e " ( s t a t i c ) I n t e r r u p t i o n 2 "Ah! ah! c'est o r i g i n a l " Outburst of laughter from the c l o s e t . (act i ve) A i r a" "C'est demain" Reassured, 2 repeats her r e f r a i n , ( s t a t i c ) A change of pace occurs at t h i s p o i n t , emphasized by a dra-matic pause in Auber's score, and we move to Z e r l i n e ' s prayer, and the second s e c t i o n of t h i s scene. The s t a t i c - a c t i v e a l t e r -n ation i s nonetheless r e t a i n e d . Intermingled in a prayer to the V i r g i n f o r Lorenzo's s a f e t y , Z e r l i n e intones a warm goodnight to her absent beloved, and f a l l s a s leep. The b a n d i t s f i n a l l y emerge from the c l o s e t to c a r r y out t h e i r p l a n . While d i s -c u s s i n g t h e i r plan to rob m i l o r d they r e a l i z e the danger Z e r l i n e r e p r e s e n t s to them, and they decide to k i l l her. A c c o r d i n g to the revealed plan and the manner in which the drama has unfolded, t h i s should be the p o i n t at which Z e r l i n e i s murdered, and the c u l m i n a t i o n of the scene; but somehow the audience knows that Z e r l i n e w i l l not d i e . Her prayer f o r p r o t e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a glimpse of hope of an unexpected rescue. Indeed, a q u i t e 3 6 unexpected element saves her l i f e : in her sle e p Z e r l i n e repeats her prayer to the V i r g i n , which s t a r t l e s the b a n d i t s u n t i l Lorenzo's appearance. T h i s -final i n t o n a t i o n o-f the prayer b r i n g s the second s e c t i o n of t h i s grands scene du coucher to a c l o s e . F e a t u r i n g l a r g e r and more important a c t i o n - f i l l e d segments, i t i s d r a m a t i c a l l y more complex than the pr e c e d i n g s e c t i o n , as the f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e d i s p l a y s . O u t l i n e of No.10, S e c t i o n 2 a Prayer b I n t e r l u d e a' Prayer v T r i o "Lorenzo que ton doux souven i r " . . . . ...0 Vierge s a i n t e . . "Bonsoir, bonsoir mon am i " "0 V i e r g e s a i n t e . . . " Z intones a prayer to t he V i r g i n. Z b i d s L goodn i ght. The prayer- i s p a r t i a l l y repeated as she f a l l s as 1eep. The b a n d i t s d i s c u s s t h e i r p l a n . More d i s c u s s i o n . "Que l a prudence guide nos pas" d T r i o - D i a l o g u e " E l l e d o r t . . . " c" T r i o "Oui l a prudence..." d' T r i o - D i a l o g u e "Et c e t t e jeune f i l l e " B a n d i t s d e c i d e Z's c' T r i o "Oui l a prudence..." a Prayer "0 Vi e r g e s a i n t e . . . " f a t e . In her s l e e p Z repeats her prayer, T h i s second s e c t i o n i s fo l l o w e d by a t h i r d and more ensem-b l e - l i k e s e c t i o n , i n v o l v i n g the chorus of s o l d i e r s , Lorenzo, and the three b a n d i t s . Upon hearing the noise of the approaching s o l d i e r s , the b a n d i t s q u i c k l y r e t i r e to Z e r l i n e ' s c l o s e t , and not a moment too soon f o r Z e r l i n e awakens from her s l e e p . The a c t i o n continues as Lorenzo requests food and dr i n k f o r h i s s o l d i e r s . The grande scene du coucher then smoothly moves on to a f u l l - f l e d g e d ensemble. As demonstrated above, Z e r l i n e ' s s o l o p a r t i n the l a r g e scene, the most d r a m a t i c a l l y complex of a l l s o l i i n the opera, not o n l y s p o t l i g h t s Z e r l i n e as a c h a r a c t e r , and r e v e a l s the 37 s u b t l e r shades of her p e r s o n a l i t y , but a l s o p r o v i d e s a p o i n t around which a small amount o-f a c t i o n p i v o t , a c t i o n which i s c r u c i a l to the r e s t of the p l o t . Z e r l i n e ' s moments of r e f l e c t i o n act as a framework f o r the u n f o l d i n g a c t i o n of the b a n d i t s ' crime. Despite the a l t e r n a t i o n of a c t i o n and r e p o s e / r e a c t i o n , the presence of the b a n d i t s , t h e i r p l a n , and a l l other movement in t h i s scene, the s p o t l i g h t remains f i x e d on Z e r l i n e . In a d d i t i o n to the purposeful c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of t h i s scene, t h i s s o l o a l s o helps to b r i n g the audience up-to-date on the marriage i s s u e , thus r e s o l v i n g the events and primary c o n f l i c t of Act I. Simultaneously i t a l s o g i v e s r i s e to new c o n f l i c t s , and so a c t s as a m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e f o r Act II as well as Act I I I . As an opera, Fra Diavolo has and musical p e r s o n a l i t y than many Le Macon (1323), Leocadie (1824), f a r g r e a t e r impact, i n t e r e s t , of S c r i b e ' s other works, e.g., or even Le Chalet (1834). I t s s ubject i s more i n v i t i n g , i t s music more v a r i e d and c o l o r f u l . Important changes have taken p l a c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y in the work of Auber as a composer, but more important f o r present purposes are the elements that remain co n s t a n t : the dramatic s t r u c t u r e of [ t h e ! l i b r e t t o , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the musical numbers, the s i t u a t i o n s i n which music i s r e q u i r e d and used, the types of music i n v o l v e d . These are elements which I. . .3 recur c o n s i s t e n t l y in S c r i b e ' s operas comiques, and they are items that set the pace and the conventions f o r opera comique d u r i n g S c r i b e ' s p r o d u c t i v e 1 i f e . 1 3 We have observed four dramatic s i t u a t i o n s i n which s o l i are used: (1) where background info r m a t i o n on p r e - c u r t a i n events and/or c h a r a c t e r s was needed (Nos.l fk 2, and No. 4; Act I, scenes 1, 3, and 5, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) ; (2) f o r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n — h e r e usu-a l l y t a k i n g the form of n a r r a t i v e s o l i (Nos.4, 10 and 12; Act I, scene 5, Act I I , scene 5, and Act I I I , scene 1, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) ; (3) to expose an emotional s t a t e of mind, or t r a i n of thought of 38 a c h a r a c t e r at a given moment in the s t o r y (Nos.7, 10, 14; Act II , scenes 1 and 5, and Act I I I , scene 5, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) ; and (4) to d i s t r i b u t e the number o-f s o l i through the opera i n a manner that allows a c h a r a c t e r to occupy h i s a p p r o p r i a t e musical p o s i -t i o n w i t h i n the context o-f the drama (Nos. 9 and 14; Act I I , scene 3, and Act I I I , scene 5, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . As s t a t e d in the above quotat i o n , the t r a i t s e x h i b i t e d in Fra Diavolo were to appear in many other operas comiques premiered d u r i n g S c r i b e ' s p r o d u c t i v e l i f e t i m e , and were to "set the pace and the conven-t i o n s . . ." f o r the opera-cornique genre. We s h a l l observe s i m i -l a r t r a i t s e x h i b i t e d in the s o l i Df two other contemporary operas comiques: Zampa, ou la Fiancee de marbre and Le Pre aux Clercs, ( l i b r e t t i w r i t t e n by M e l e s v i l l e and E. de Plana r d , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . 39 N o t e s 1. P. Larousse, Grand Dictionnaire un/verseIle du x / x~ s/ecle, v o l . 8 ( P a r i s , 1866), p. 697. 2. K a r i n Pendle, Eugene Scribe and French Opera in the Nine-teenth Century, (1979), p. 140. 3. Ibid. 4. Ibid. 5. Ibid., p. 143. 6. J.-F. F e t i s , " Opera-Conn i que. L'Htoteller/e de Terracine," Revue musicale (1830), p. 11. 7. S. Stanton, Camille and Other Plays, (1957), x v i i i . 8. K. Pendle, Eugene Scribe and French Opera in the Nineteenth Century, p. 150. 9. Ibid. 10. Ibid. 11. S. StantDn, Camille and Other Plays, (1957), x v i i i . 12. K. Pendle, Eugene Scribe and French Opera in the Nineteenth Century, p. 156. 13. Ibid., p. 172. 40 I I I . Z aim pa, ou la Fiancee de marhre Zampa, ou la Fiancee de marhre (music by L o u i s - F e r d i n a n d H e r o l d , words by A.H.L. M e l e s v i l l e 1 ) was p e r f o r m e d a t t h e T h e a t r e de 1'Opera-Cornique on 3 May 1831. L i k e t h a t of Fra Diavolo, i t s s u c c e s s was immense, as a t t e s t e d t o by c o n t e m p o r a r y r e v i e w s , box o f f i c e r e c e i p t s and number o f p e r f o r m a n c e s . In f a c t , Zampa was p r o d u c e d o v e r 100 t i m e s a t t h e Opera-Cornique d u r i n g t h e f o u r y e a r s f o l l o w i n g i t s p r e m i e r e . 2 M o r e o v e r , t h e work's p o p u l a r i t y e x t e n d e d a b r o a d where i t was p e r f o r m e d i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s i n c l u d i n g R u s s i a n . 3 I t s g r e a t e s t s u c c e s s , however, was a c h i e v e d i n Germany. R a o u l Duhamel a t t r i b u t e s Zampa*s p o p u l a r i t y t h e r e t o i t s "ame german i que t h e same r e a s o n g i v e n by A d o l p h e Adam 76 y e a r s e a r 1i e r . Zampa a eu un p r o d i g i e u x s u c c e s en A l l e m a g n e , ou on l e r e g a r d e a j u s t e t i t r e comme l e c h e f - d ' o e u v r e de son a u t e u r . En F r a n c e , nous ne p e n s o n s pas de meme, e t l e Pre aux Clercs o b t i e n t l a p r e f e r e n c e : c e l a e s t t o u t n a t u r e l . Zampa, p l u s s e v e r e , c o n v i e n t mieux A 1 ' i m a g i n a t i o n un peu sombre des A l l e r n a n d s ; l e Pre aux Clercs, ou l e s m e l o d i e s s o n t p l u s f r a n c h e s , q u o i q u e p e u t - e t r e m a i n s d i s t i n g u e e s , a p l u s d ' a t -t r a i t s pour n o t r e gout.* 3 The L i b r e t t o : P a r t I: S y n o p s i s The s u b j e c t o f Zampa, s i m i l a r Fra Diavolo's, was t r u l y a f a v o r i t e o f t h e p u b l i c of t h e 1830s: a N e a p o l i t a n b a n d i t t e r r o r -i z e s a c o u n t r y s i d e w i t h t h e f t s and a s s a s s i n a t i o n s . U n l i k e S c r i b e ' s s t o r y , M e l e s v i l l e ' s i s not b a s e d on any p r e - e x i s t i n g s o u r c e or l e g e n d . N o n e t h e l e s s i t d o e s s h a r e c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s w i t h a s t o r y w e l l - k n o w n t o t h e P a r i s i a n p u b l i c o f t h e t i m e , t h a t of M o z a r t ' s Don Giovanni w i t h which i t not o n l y s h a r e s s i m i l a r i -41 t i e s of s e t t i n g , b u t a l s o o-f p l o t . Zampa n * e s t d ' a u t r e , en e-f-fet, qu'un don Juan c o r s a i r e q u i p our s'emparer de l a -f i 1 1 e - f a i t j e t e l e per-e en p r i s o n e t l e menace de mort s i l a - f i l l e l u i r e s i s t e . C y n i q u e m e n t , i l v i e n t b r a v e l a s t a t u e v e n e r e e d * une j e u n e -femme q u ' i l a j a d i s s e d u i t e e t d e l a i s s e e ; m a i s - f i n a l e m e n t , au moment ou i l s ' a p p r e t e a commettre un nouveau - f o r f a i t , i l s e t r o u v e dans l e s b r a s de l a s t a t u e de marbre, q u i s ' e n g l o u t i t a v e c l u i . * G i v e n i t s s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h M o z a r t ' s o p e r a , what t h e n a r e t h e l i b r e t t o e l e m e n t s which d i s t i n g u i s h e d i t and i m p e l l e d H e r o l d t o s e t i t t o m u s i c ? Duhamel e x p l a i n s t h a t . . . "ce s u j e t , a l a f o i s l y r i q u e e t f a n t a s t i q u e , d e v a i t s e d u i r e H e r o l d p a r c e l a meme q u ' i l a b o n d a i t en situations musicales."^ I n d e e d , M e l e s v i l l e ' s l i b r e t t o a f f o r d s a m u l t i t u d e and g r e a t d i v e r s i t y o f d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s : a l o v e p l o t i n t e r r u p t e d by a v i l l a i n who i n t e n d s t o c l a i m b o t h t h e young maiden and her f a t h e r ' s w e a l t h , a b e t r a y e d f o r m e r f i a n c e e now dead but whose p r e s e n c e i s f e l t and p r o j e c t e d i n t h e a n i m a t i o n o f a m a r b l e s t a t u e e r e c t e d i n h e r memory; a r e t a l i a t i o n p l o t combined w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l o r m y s t i c a l happen-i n g s ; a s e r i e s o f f e s t i v i t i e s , r e u n i o n s , and a c l i m a c t i c r e s o l u -t i o n w hich c o m b i n e s b o t h s u p e r n a t u r a l , f a n t a s t i q u e and m o r a l -i z i n g e l e m e n t s . "Le c o t e f a n t a s t i q u e y e s t t r a i t e a v e c t o u t e 1 ' i n g e n i o s i t e p o s s i b l e ; l ' e s p r i t y abonde, e t l e s s c e n e s de p a s -s i o n y s o n t d e v e l o p p e e s dans un s t y l e e n t r a t n a n t . " ° Zampa7s c h a r a c t e r s , a n a l o g o u s t o Fra Diavolo's, p r e s e n t e d H e r o l d w i t h a g r e a t d i v e r s i t y of p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Zampa, t h e d e b o n a i r e ' c o r s a i r e ' whose l i f e c o n s i s t s o f d e b a u c h e r y and c r i m e , m a n i f e s t s a p e r s o n a l i t y of c o l o r f u l and o f t e n c o n t r a s t i n g t r a i t s : a t t i m e s he seems c r u d e and c r u e l ; a t o t h e r s , however momentary, s i n c e r e , g e n t l e and l o v i n g . Above a l l , a m y s t i c a l q u a l i t y s u r r o u n d s Zampa, one which e n t a n g l e s w i t h i n i t s e l f b o t h t h e s p e c t a t o r and t h e o t h e r two p r i m a r y c h a r a c t e r s : C a m i l l e and 42 A l p h o n s e . C a m i l l e , l i k e S c r i b e ' s Z e r l i n e , i s t h e young i n n o c e n t v i c -t i m a t t h e mercy o-f t h e b a n d i t ' s e v e r y w i s h . Her p e r s o n a l i t y i s one o f p u r e i n n o c e n c e , g e n t l e n e s s , l o v e and, above a l l , f i d e l i t y a s i s a p p a r e n t i n A c t I I I when s h e c o n v i n c e s Zampa, her husband by t h a t p o i n t i n t i m e , t o a l l o w h e r t o e n t e r a c o n v e n t i n o r d e r t o r e m a i n f a i t h f u l t o her b e l o v e d A l p h o n s e . A l p h o n s e , t h e h e r o " n o n - h e r o " and C a m i l l e ' s b e l o v e d , l i k e S c r i b e ' s L o r e n z o i n f r a Diavolo, i s a b r i g a d i e r i n p u r s u i t o f t h e l e g e n d a r y Zampa. He i s a h e r o i n t h a t he d e f e n d s t h e v i c t i m a g a i n s t t h e b a n d i t and i n e v i t a b l y t r i u m p h s i n t h e end; a "non-hero" i n t h a t he does not d o m i n a t e t h e s t a g e as t r a d i t i o n a l o p e r a t i c h e r o e s do b u t i n s t e a d s t e p s a s i d e and y i e l d s t h e s t a g e t o t h e v i l l a i n . F u r t h e r m o r e , A l p h o n s e i s not d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Zampa's d o w n f a l l . The b e t r a y e d f i a n c e e — t h e m a r b l e s t a t u e — l i k e M o z a r t ' s Commandatore, b r i n g s on t h e v i l l a i n ' s j u s t d o w n f a l l , and t h u s s a v e s C a m i l l e f r o m t h e same s e d u c t i o n and b e t r a y a l s h e s u f f e r e d a t t h e hands of t h e v i 1 l a i n . T h r e e s e c o n d a r y c h a r a c t e r s add t o t h e i n t r i g u e : R i t t a , D a n i e l , and D a n d o l o . R i t t a , C a m i l l e ' s c o n f i d a n t e , i s but a by-s t a n d e r f o r much of t h e f i r s t a c t . However, w i t h t h e a r r i v a l o f D a n i e l , her l o n g - l o s t husband whom sh e b e l i e v e d drowned, R i t t a t r i g g e r s new c o n f l i c t s . Her p e r s i s t e n c e and c u r i o s i t y s o l v e s many m y s t e r i e s f o r t h e s p e c t a t o r s , a s w i l l be s e e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s y n o p s i s o f t h e p l o t . D a n i e l , who p o r t r a y s t h e "good gone a s t r a y " , i s n o n e t h e l e s s s t i l l f e a r f u l o f God's judgement. CWe f i n d no c o u n t e r p a r t f o r t h i s c h a r a c t e r i n S c r i b e ' s Fra Diavolo.1 D a n d o l o , R i t t a ' s c o u r t e r , p r o v i d e s much o f t h e comic r e l i e f t h r o u g h h i s c o w a r d l y p e r s o n a l i t y and a c t i o n s . 43 D e s p i t e t h e d i v e r s i t y o f p e r s o n a l i t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d by M e l e s v i l l e ' s c h a r a c t e r s , t h e r e i s no s u b s t a n t i a l c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e l i b r e t t o . The p e r s o n a l i t i e s r e m a i n t h r o u g h -o u t t h e s t o r y a s t h e y a r e i n i t i a l l y p r e s e n t e d . M e l e s v i l l e m e r e l y e x p o s e s d i f f e r e n t f a c e t s o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s f r o m v a r i o u s v i e w p o i n t s . Zampa's s e t t i n g d i f f e r s f r o m t h a t of Fra Diavolo i n t h a t i t i n v o l v e s t h e c a s t l e o f a r i c h nobleman, and n o t t h e c o u n t r y i n n of an u n d i s t i n g u i s h e d p e a s a n t . W h i l e t h e l i b r e t t i d i f f e r i n t h e s o c i a l c l a s s e s t h e y p o r t r a y , b o t h s t o r i e s u n f o l d i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s of N a p l e s , and t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y t h e same, i f one o v e r l o o k s t h e t h e a t r i c a l e l e m e n t s ( e . g . , t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e v e n g e f u l s t a t u e i n Zampa). In Zampa, as i n Fra Diavolo, t h e p l o t d e a l s w i t h an i n f a m o u s N e a p o l i t a n b a n d i t who, a l t h o u g h p u r s u e d by t h e law, i n d u l g e s i n t e r r o r i z i n g and s e d u c i n g young women, be t h e y m a r r i e d o r n o t . F u r t h e r m o r e , b o t h v i l l a i n s f i n d t h e i r j u s t f a t e w h i l e s e e k i n g t h e i r f o r t u n e a t t h e e x p e n s e of i n n o c e n t p e o p l e . The f o l l o w i n g s y n o p s i s of M e l e s v i l l e ' s Zampa w i l l r e v e a l i t s s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h S c r i b e ' s Fra Diavolo. Zampa, a famous b a n d i t who has s p r e a d t e r r o r t h r o u g h o u t t h e kingdoms o f N a p l e s and S i c i l y , i s a r r e s t e d by t h e v i c e r o y ' s g u a r d s and condemned t o d e a t h . F o r f e a r he may e s c a p e a g a i n — a s he has many t i m e s b e f o r e — Z a m p a ' s d e s c r i p t i o n has been s e n t t o e v e r y government o f f i c e r . A c t I r e v e a l s Zampa's t r u e i d e n t i t y : he i s o f a n o b l e f a m i l y once f a v o r e d by t h e S t a t e ; he b e a r s t h e t i t l e o f t h e Count o f Monza; and has a you n g e r b r o t h e r named A l p h o n s e whom he has n e v e r known and s u s p e c t s i n no way t o be h i s o p p o n e n t . A l p h o n s e , an army o f f i c e r , e n t e r s a m i d s t t h e 44 f e s t i v i t i e s o f h i s wedding day t o r e n d e z - v o u s w i t h h i s f i a n c e e C a m i l l e , d a u g h t e r o f t h e r i c h Lugano. Young g i r l s g a t h e r a r o u n d t o c o n g r a t u l a t e t h e handsome c o u p l e , as A l p h o n s e o f f e r s g i f t s t o h i s g u e s t s . In t h e c a s t l e ' s c o u r t y a r d , where t h e f i r s t s c e n e u n f o l d s , a m a r b l e s t a t u e o f A l i c e de M a n f r e d i c a n be s e e n . A l i c e , a v i c t i m o f s e d u c t i o n and d e c e p t i o n , was 'murdered* by t h e t r e a c h e r y o f her l o v e r < l a t e r r e v e a l e d t o be Zampa). Her s t o r y i s t o l d by C a m i l l e i n a complainte, D'une haute naissance. C a m i l l e , l i k e a l l young g i r l s on t h e eve o f t h e i r n u p t i a l engagement, w i l l l a t e r i n v o k e A l i c e as her g u a r d i a n a n g e l (Saint A l i c e , V e i l l e z sur nous). As t h e a c t i o n c o n t i n u e s , A l p h o n s e i s m y s t e r i o u s l y summoned t o t h e c a s t l e g a t e s by horsemen. T h i n k i n g t h a t h i s c a l l e r s a r e h i s i n v i t e d f r i e n d s , he e x i t s and d i s a p p e a r s f o r some t i m e . I t i s Zampa who a p p e a r s , b e a r i n g a l e t t e r a d d r e s s e d t o C a m i l l e f r o m her f a t h e r . Lugano, her f a t h e r , b e g s her t o g r a n t t h e b a n d i t a l l he may d e s i r e i n r e t u r n f o r h i s s a f e r e l e a s e f r o m p r i s o n a b o a r d Zampa's s h i p . Zampa, happy t o f i n d no r e s i s t a n c e , o b j e c t s t o t h e p l a n n e d n u p t i a l and demands t h a t C a m i l l e be h i s b r i d e . As a f r i g h t e n e d C a m i l l e r e t i r e s t o h e r chamber, Zampa and h i s band c e l e b r a t e t h e i r f i r s t v i c t o r y w i t h a g r a n d i o s e f e a s t . The f e s t i v i t i e s a r e a b r u p t l y i n t e r r u p t e d a t t h e s i g h t o f t h e m a r b l e s t a t u e w h i c h seems t o watch o v e r Zampa w i t h a venge-f u l e y e . The s u p e r s t i t i o u s D a n i e l , Zampa's r i g h t - h a n d man, r e c -o g n i z e s t h e s t a t u e as Zampa's l a s t N e a p o l i t a n v i c t i m , A l i c e de M a n f r e d i . To mock D a n i e l ' s f e a r , Zampa d e f y i n g l y a p p r o a c h e s t h e s t a t u e and p l a c e s h i s engagement r i n g on her f i n g e r v o w ing e t e r -n a l f i d e l i t y , a t l e a s t t o t h e n e x t day. L a u g h t e r b r e a k s Dut and t h e s i n g i n g i s resumed. Ye t t h e u n u s u a l e v e n t i s n o t ended. 45 Be-fore t a k i n g l e a v e -from h i s - f r i e n d s , Zampa a t t e m p t s t o r e t r i e v e h i s r i n g -from t h e s t a t u e ' s - f i n g e r . The s t a t u e however w i t h d r a w s i t s hand h o l d i n g -fast t h e r i n g . Zampa i s sh a k e n d e s p i t e h i s ca l m e x t e r i o r a p p e a r a n c e , w h i l e h i s a c c o m p l i c e s - f a l l t o t h e grou n d i n t e r r o r . T h i s coup de theatre b r i n g s A c t I t o a s u s -pense-ful c l i m a x . As A c t I I opens, t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s -for Zampa and Cami l i e ' s w e d d i ng a r e underway. The s t a g e u n v e i l s a s e a s h o r e panorama where women a r e p r a y i n g be-fore t h e madonna. N o t h i n g i s more p e a c e f u l t h a n t h i s s c e n e a f t e r t h e v i o l e n t e m o t i o n s o f A c t I and of t h e f i r s t s c e n e o f A c t I I i n which Zampa s i n g s h i s f o r c e f u l c a v a t i n a Toi dont la grace seduisante . . . II faut souscrire a mes lot's. A b r i e f c o m i c a l e n c o u n t e r between D a n i e l and Zampa f o l l o w s . A f t e r Zampa's e x i t , R i t t a , o b s e r v i n g f r o m a f a r , seems t o r e c o g n i z e D a n i e l a s her husband, a b s e n t now f o r t e n y e a r s . At h e r e x p r e s s i o n o f h a p p i n e s s and c o n s t a n t f i d e l i t y , D a n i e l d e n i e s b e i n g h er a b s e n t husband, t h u s s e e k i n g t o u n c o v e r her t r u e f e e l i n g s f o r him. However h i s a n g e r i s t r i g g e r e d when D a n d o l o a r r i v e s and annou n c e s t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f h i s and R i t t a ' s m a r r i a g e banns. T h i s e p i s o d e p r o v i d e s r e l i e f and v a r i e t y f r o m t h e p r i m a r y i n t r i g u e , and i s most e f f e c t i v e b e c a u s e o f i t s p l a c e m e n t i n t h e p l o t . A l p h o n s e f i n a l l y r e a p p e a r s . He e x p l a i n s t o R i t t a t h a t h i s c a l l t o t h e c a s t l e g a t e s was a t r a p l a i d by Zampa's men f r o m whom he s u c c e e d e d i n e s c a p i n g . He q u i c k l y l e a r n s o f C a m i l i e ' s i n t e n t i o n t o m a r r y t h e s t r a n g e r whom he r e c o g n i z e s a s t h e i n f a -mous Zampa. As A l p h o n s e a t t e m p t s t o a r r e s t Zampa, a messenger a r r i v e s w i t h t h e v i c e r o y ' s p a r d o n and r e q u e s t f o r t h e b a n d i t ' s s e r v i c e s i n t h e S t a t e Navy. T h r o u g h t h e v i c e r o y ' s l e t t e r 46 A l p h o n s e d i s c o v e r s t h a t Zampa i s h i s m i s s i n g b r o t h e r . U n a b l e t o a l t e r t h e e v e n t s , A l p h o n s e b r e a k s h i s sword i n -fury and w a l k s away as t h e p r i e s t b l e s s e s t h e u n i o n o-f Zampa and C a m i l l e . As i n A c t I, and a g a i n t o Zampa's s u r p r i s e and h o r r o r , t h e s t a t u e makes a s e c o n d u n e x p e c t e d a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e c h a p e l . The c u r t a i n f a l l s . D u r i n g A c t I I I t h e s p e c t a t o r i s p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e b a n d i t ' s f a t e , b u t b e f o r e s a t i s f y i n g t h e a u d i e n c e ' s u n s a t i a b l e t h i r s t f o r j u s t i c e , M e l e s v i l l e i n t r o d u c e s two new e v e n t s . F i r s t , a p l a i n t i v e n o c t u r n e ( i n t h e f o r m of a b a r c a r o l l e ) i s h e a r d , s u n g by A l p h o n s e who i s e x p r e s s i n g h i s f a r e w e l l t o h i s b e l o v e d . T h i s i s answered by C a m i l l e who s e e k s t o c o n s o l e him w h i l e m o u r n i n g her own f a t e . Then f o l l o w s a c h a r m i n g s e r e n a d e , s u n g by t h e c h o r u s which e x p r e s s e s i t s good w i s h e s t o t h e newly m a r r i e d c o u p l e . U n a b l e t o s t a n d t h e p a i n any l o n g e r , and knowing t h e r e a s o n f o r C a m i l l e ' s a c t i o n , A l p h o n s e i n f i l t r a t e s t h e n u p t i a l chamber w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n of c o n v i n c i n g C a m i l l e t o e s c a p e w i t h him. Her m o r a l c o n s c i e n c e p r e v e n t s her f r o m com-p l y i n g . At t h i s moment, Zampa and h i s men e n t e r t h e chamber and s e i z e A l p h o n s e . Zampa's t r e a t m e n t of A l p h o n s e t r i g g e r s a c o n -f r o n t a t i o n between Zampa and C a m i l l e . Upon t h e f o r m e r ' s f o r c e -f u l a p p r o a c h e s , C a m i l l e s e e k s r e f u g e i n t h e a l c o v e . Zampa p u r -s u e s her o n l y t o f i n d h i m s e l f i n t h e arms of t h e i c y s t a t u e w i t h w h i c h he d i s a p p e a r s a m i d s t f l a m e s . A f i n a l t a b l e a u shows C a m i l l e , her f a t h e r , and A l p h o n s e r e u n i t e d on t h e s e a s h o r e . The c h o r u s i n t o n e s t h e p r a y e r t o t h e madonna, sung i n A c t I I . Thus ends M e l e s v i l l e ' s s t o r y w i t h t h e t r i u m p h o f good o v e r e v i l , and t h e r e e s t a b 1 i s h m e n t o f h a p p i n e s s and c a l m . 47 P a r t I I : The Well-Made P l a y E l e m e n t s i n Zampa. S c r i b e ' s i n f l u e n c e on t h e o p e r a - c o r n i q u e l i b r e t t o i s most o b v i o u s i n t h e s t r u c t u r a l - f e a t u r e s o-f M e l e s v i l l e ' s l i b r e t t o -for Zampa. L i k e Fra Diavolo and most o-f S c r i b e ' s d r a m a t i c works, Zampa e x h i b i t s t h e s i x -fundamental - f e a t u r e s o-f S c r i b e ' s w e l l -made p l a y : (1) a d e l a y e d - a c t i o n p l o t ; (2) a p a t t e r n o-f i n c r e a s -i n g t e n s i o n and s u s p e n s e ; (3) ups and downs i n t h e h e r o ' s -for-t u n e ; (4) a scene a fairef <5) a quiproquo, o r m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g ; and <6) t h e r e - f l e c t i o n o-f t h e o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e o-f t h e p l a y w i t h i n e a c h a c t . O-f a l l t h e s e - f e a t u r e s , t h e most o b v i o u s i n Zampa i s t h e d e l a y e d - a c t i o n p l o t . As t h e c u r t a i n r i s e s , t h e a c t i o n i s a l r e a d y i n m o t i o n : Cami l i e and A l p h o n s e have - f a l l e n i n l o v e and a r e now p r e p a r i n g t o be wedded; Lugano, C a m i l i e ' s - f a t h e r , has been t a k e n p r i s o n e r by Zampa's men and h e l d c a p t i v e •for ransom on b o a r d t h e b a n d i t ' s s h i p ; R i t t a ' s husband, D a n i e l , presumed dead -for t e n y e a r s , i s s e e n amongst Zampa's men s e e k i n g h i s -fortune t h r o u g h c r i m e ; and D a n d o l o i s a b o u t t o m a r r y R i t t a . As we have s e e n i n Fra Diavolo, and w i l l s e e below, much o-f t h e b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e v e a l e d i n t h e t e x t o f m u s i c a l num-b e r s , e s p e c i a l l y s o l o s o n g s . A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of t h e i n c r e a s e i n t e n s i o n and s u s p e n s e i n t h i s l i b r e t t o i s p r o v i d e d by t h e r e p e a t e d a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e t h r e a t e n i n g m a r b l e s t a t u e . One c a n n o t h e l p b u t wonder and s p e c u l a t e , w i t h e a c h a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e s t a t u e , what t h e outcome o f her v e n g e a n c e w i l l be, and how i t w i l l a f f e c t t h e p r i m a r y i n t r i g u e . C a m i l i e ' s dilemma and her s e e m i n g l y i n e v i -t a b l e f a t e a t t h e hands of Zampa a l s o p r o v i d e g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e s i n t e n s i o n and s u s p e n s e , as each new o b s t a c l e o r c o n f l i c t l e s s e n s any hope o f r e s c u e . 48 The ups and downs i n t h e h e r o ' s f o r t u n e a r e n o t as p r o -nounced i n Zampa as t h e y a r e i n Fra Diavolo. T h i s i s p r i m a r i l y due t o A l p h o n s e ' s a b s e n c e t h r o u g h a l a r g e p a r t o-f t h e u n f o l d i n g drama. N o n e t h e l e s s c e r t a i n e v e n t s i n t h e drama may be i s o l a t e d a s h i g h o r low p o i n t s i n h i s f o r t u n e . At t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e s t o r y A l p h o n s e i s e x p e r i e n c i n g a d e f i n i t e h i g h p o i n t when he i s abo u t t o wed h i s b e l o v e d C a m i l l e . He has a l s o g a i n e d t h e f a v o u r of h er f a t h e r who has a s s u r e d A l p h o n s e h a p p i n e s s and w e a l t h . F o r much o f t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e o p e r a A l p h o n s e s u f f e r s a s e r i e s of s e t b a c k s : he i s ambushed by p i r a t e s ; f i g h t s h i s way t o f r e e d o m o n l y t o d i s c o v e r t h a t h i s b e l o v e d i s ab o u t t o marry someone e l s e who i n c i d e n t a l l y happens t o be h i s i l l - r e p u t e d b r o t h e r ; and t o add i n s u l t t o i n j u r y , t h e l a t t e r i s g r a n t e d p a r d o n and p r o t e c t i o n by t h e v i c e r o y , t h u s p r e v e n t i n g A l p h o n s e f r o m a r r e s t i n g him and r e g a i n i n g C a m i l l e . The o n l y g l i m p s e o f hope o c c u r s when A l p h o n s e , r e c o g n i z i n g t h e s t r a n g e r t o be t h e i n f a m o u s Zampa, a t t e m p t s t o a r r e s t him, and r e g a i n C a m i l l e . T h i s b r i e f moment o f hope i s t h w a r t e d by t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e l e t t e r o f p a r d o n . From t h i s p o i n t on a s e c o n d p e r i o d o f d e s p a i r s e t s i n as A l p h o n s e d i s a p p e a r s a g a i n o n l y t o r e a p p e a r i n C a m i l l e ' s n u p t i a l chamber i n an a t t e m p t t o c o n v i n c e her t o e s c a p e w i t h him. H i s p r o l o n g e d p r e s e n c e t h e r e l e a d s t o h i s d i s c o v e r y by Zampa and h i s men, who d r a g him o u t w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f k i l l i n g him. The u l t i m a t e t r i u m p h o f good o v e r e v i l , and t h e e n s u i n g happy e n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l l o p e r a s c o m i q u e s o f t h e p e r i o d a r e not p r o v i d e d by t h e h e r o , A l p h o n s e , o r by an e v e n t a r i s i n g f r o m h i s a c t i o n s , as i s t h e norm i n t h e s e works. I n s t e a d , t h i s v i c t o r y r e s u l t s d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e f i n a l a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y v i c t i m i z e d A l i c e de M a n f r e d i , i n 49 t h e f o r m of t h e commemorative m a r b l e s t a t u e , who s e i z e s Zampa and d r a g s him down a m i d s t -flames. The d e s t r u c t i o n o-f t h e v i l l a i n by t h i s means i s r e s p o n s i b l e -for r e s t o r i n g t h e e l e m e n t s — c a l m , o r d e r and h a p p i n e s s — u s u a l l y r e i n s t a t e d by t h e s t o r y ' s h e r o . In t h i s s e n s e A l p h o n s e , t h e s o - c a l l e d h e r o o f t h e s t o r y , i s n o t r e a l l y a h e r o . I t i s p o s s i b l y f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t t h e ups and downs i n h i s f o r t u n e a r e n o t a s p r o n o u n c e d a s t h o s e of o t h e r o p e r a - c o r n i q u e h e r o s s u c h a s L o r e n z o i n Fra Diavolo. In Zampa t h e scene a faire~-t\r\e s t a t u e c a r r y i n g Zampa o f f a m i d s t i n f e r n a l f l a m e s — i s much more s p e c t a c u l a r t h a n t h a t i n Fra Diavolo. T h i s s c e n e r e p r e s e n t s a t r u e coup de theatre. R e m i n i s c e n t of M o z a r t ' s l a s t s c e n e i n Don Giovanni, t h i s s c e n e c o u l d n ot h e l p b u t a s t o u n d t h e P a r i s i a n p u b l i c o f t h e p e r i o d . L i k e many o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e well-made p l a y , t h e qui-proquo i n Zampa i s not o b s e r v e d a s s t r i c t l y a s i n S c r i b e ' s o p e r a s . Zampa's d i s g u i s e d i d e n t i t y i s r e v e a l e d mid-way t h r o u g h t h e o p e r a i n A c t I I r a t h e r t h a n a t t h e o p e r a ' s c l i m a x a s i n Fra Diavolo. One may s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s d e p a r t u r e l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t Zampa's s e c r e t i d e n t i t y i s n o t as c r u c i a l t o t h e p l o t a s D i a v o l o ' s i s i n S c r i b e ' s o p e r a . Zampa's t r u e i d e n t i t y i s s u s p e c t e d f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g and i s c o n f i r m e d v e r y e a r l y i n t h e o p e r a a s C a m i l i e r e a d s her f a t h e r ' s l e t t e r i n f o r m i n g her o f h i s dilemma and t h e name of h i s o p p r e s s o r . A l t h o u g h Zampa's t r u e i d e n t i t y i s not r e v e a l e d t o o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s u n t i l A c t I I , t h e a u d i e n c e i s aware of i t . The r e l a t i v e u n i m p o r t a n c e g i v e n t h i s quiproquo by M e l e s v i l l e i s a t t e s t e d t o by t h e f a c t t h a t , a s Zampa's t r u e i d e n t i t y i s r e v e a l e d — a n e v e n t w h i c h would n o r m a l l y r e s o l v e a l l c o n f l i c t s and b r i n g t h e o p e r a t o an e n d — n e w c o n f l i c t s emerge t o c a r r y on 50 t h e u n f o l d i n g o-f t h e drama. The r e v e l a t i o n o-f Zampa's t r u e i d e n t i t y t h u s seems t o have no n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on t h e c o n t i n u a -t i o n o f t h e drama o r i t s c o n c l u s i o n . The d r a m a t i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e whole l i b r e t t o a s w e l l as t h a t o f each i n d i v i d u a l a c t i s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t o f f r a Dia-volo. E a c h a c t b e g i n s by e x p o s i n g a s e r i e s o f c o n f l i c t s , one o r more o f which a r e r e s o l v e d a t t h e c l i m a x o f t h e a c t . The r e m a i n i n g c o n f l i c t s a r e c a r r i e d t h r o u g h ; t h e s e a r e r e s o l v e d e i t h e r i n t h e n e x t a c t , o r a t t h e c l i m a x of t h e l a s t a c t where a l l c o n f l i c t s a r e r e s o l v e d . The c h a r t on t h e n e x t page o u t l i n e s t h e s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of Zampa. I t r e v e a l s t h e work's o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f c o n f l i c t s ( p r o b l e m s ) and r e s o l u t i o n s and t h o s e o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l a c t . M u s i c a l S o l i Whereas S c r i b e a p p l i e d a s e t number t h e o r y i n t h e d i s t r i b u -t i o n o f t h e m u s i c a l numbers i n Fra Diavolo, M e l e s v i l i e ' s d i s t r i -b u t i o n seems t o be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e c o u r s e o f t h e u n f o l d i n g a c t i o n . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e a p p r o a c h M e l e s v i l i e u s e d i n h i s p l a c e m e n t of m u s i c a l numbers, he s t i l l w a r r a n t e d f o r t h i s a s p e c t o f h h i s work p r a i s e f r o m n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c r i t i c s . F e t i s , i n f a c t , seems t o s i n g l e o u t M e l e s v i l i e ' s drama f r o m o t h e r contemp-o r a r y works: . . Un m e r i t e a s s e z r a r e e t a s s e z r e m a r q u a b l e de ce drame e s t c e l u i de l a p o s i t i o n des morceaux de musique q u i s o n t en g e n e r a l b i e n amenes. E n f i n Zampa me semble a l a l e t t r e un f o r t bon poeme d ' o p e r a . * Zampa.: O v e r a l l D r a m a t i c Scheme P r o b l e m s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - > Remo 1 u t ions A c t I A c t I I A c t , I I I IProb1 ems Reso1ut i o n s 1 IProb1 ems Reso1ut i o n sl IProb1 ems Reso1ut i onsI L e m p r i s o n e d - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -\_ r e l e a s e by Z. t Z and men - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Z a r r e s t e d s o u g h t by t h e n law. p a r d o n n e d . Z i n t e r v e n e s - - - - - - - » z m a r r i e s - - - - - -->-C p l e a d s M a r r i a g e o-f Z i n m a r r i a g e C. w i t h Z f o r and C a n n u l l e d C and A l . r e l e a s e . U n i o n o-f A l and C. f A l ambushed - He e s c a p e s . •» A l a t t e m p t s - -Z's down-fall a t c a s t l e t o a r r e s t Z. b r o u g h t on by g a t e s by Z's Z p a r d o n e d . s t a t u e , men . A de M now s t a t u e a p p e a r s - - - - 4 - S t a t u e i n -)Z d i s a p p e a r s a s t a t u e i n c h a p e l . a l c o v e . w i t h s t a t u e p r e p a r e s her a m i d s t -flames, v e n g e a n c e . Note: Z=Zampa; C = C a m i l l e ; A l = A l p h o n s e ; A de M= A l i c e de M a n f r e d i ; L=Lugano; R = R i t t a ; D=Daniel; Da=Dandolo husband D. J Da and R t o - -Da acc be m a r r i e d . r e u n i a and R. 52 Comments l i k e F e t i s ' and t h e f o l l o w i n g by L a r o u s s e , i n which Zampa. and Le Pre aux Clercs a r e compared, i m p l y t h a t t h e drama Zampa d e s e r v e d s p e c i a l m e r i t not n e c e s s a r i l y a t t r i b u t e d t o o t h e r o p e r a s c o m i q u e s of i t s t i m e : . . au p o i n t de vue du s t y l e , de l a m a n i e r e d ' e c r i r e , de l a f e c o n d i t e d e s r e s s o u r c e s m u s i c a l e s , de l a c l a r t e du d i s c o u r s m e l o d i q u e s , Zampa o f f r e un ensemble de q u a l i t e s s u p e r i e u r e s . L e s s i t u a t i o n s d r a m a t i q u e s y s o n t a c c u s e e s p a r l e m u s i c i e n a v e c p l u s de f e r m e t e que t o u s s e s a u t r e s ou-v r a g e s , . . . 1 0 T h i s c o m p a r i s o n c o u l d be made w i t h s e v e r a l o t h e r c o n t e m p o r a r y o p e r a s and Zampa's d r a m a t i c m e r i t would s t i l l s t a n d o u t . The m u s i c a l q u a l i t y 0 + t h e s c o r e may not c o n c e r n us h e r e , b u t t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o-f t h e m u s i c a l -forms t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s d o e s . The f a l l o w i n g c h a r t d i s p l a y s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e m u s i c a l numbers i n Zampa. L o c a t i o n Number I, 1 2 4 7 8 9 13 14 I I , 1 1 4 8 11 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 M u s i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n Form Inc i p i t s INTRO: C h o r u s , A i r Coup l e t s "Dans c e s p r e s e n s " "A c e supreme bonh e u r " "Mes bons a m i s " C o m p l a i n t e ( B a l l a d e ) "D'une h a u t e n a i s s a n c e " T r i o Q u a t u o r FINALE: C h o r u s Coup 1 e t s C h o r u s P r i e r e (a 5 v o i x ) C a v a t i ne Duo D u o - T r i o FINALE: C h o r u s Ronde C h o r u s " Q u ' a s - t u done?" "Le v o i l a que mon ame e s t emue" "Au s i g n a l . . . " "Que l a vague ecumante" "Au p l a i s i r . . ." "Aux p i e d s de l a madone" " T o i d o n t l a g r a c e s e d u i s a n t e " " J u s t e c i e l ! . . " P o u r q u o i v o u s t r o u b 1 e r " "L'echo de nos montagnes" "Douce j o u v e n c e l l e " "Que v o i s - j e . . ." 53 I I I , 1 11 B a r c a r o l l e "00. v a s - t u p a u v r e g o n d o l i e r " 3 12 S e r e n a d e (en Choeur) "La n u i t p r o f o n d e " 7 13 FINALE: Ensemble "Que v o i s - j e " 8 C a v a t i n e " C ' e s t un amant q u i vous s u p p l i e " 8 Duo . "D'ou v i e n s c e t t e f r a y e u r s u b i t e " The above c h a r t e n a b l e s us t o view t h e m u s i c a l s o l i i n t e r m s o f t h e o p e r a ' s e n t i r e m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e m u s i c a l s o l i i n o p e r a s c o m i q u e s o f t h e p e r i o d — and Zampa, i s no e x c e p t i o n — a r e o f t e n c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e f i r s t few s c e n e s o f t h e f i r s t a c t ; t h e r e m a i n i n g s o l i a r e g r o u p e d i n t h e o p e n i n g s c e n e s o f s u b s e q u e n t a c t s w i t h one s o l o b e i n g r e s e r v e d f o r t h e f i n a l e o f e a c h a c t . The e x p o s i t o r y n a t u r e o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e s o l i o f A c t I and t h e r o l e of c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l o f t h e o p e n i n g s o l i o f A c t s I I and I I I e x p l a i n t h e i r p l a c e m e n t i n t h e o p e n i n g s c e n e s o f each a c t , as we s h a l l d i s c u s s l a t e r i n more d e t a i l . The r e s p e c t i v e l o c a t i o n and d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s o f e a c h s o l o a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r t . M u s i c a l S o l i L o c a t i o n Number C a s t 1 , 1 l a C am i 1 1 e I, 2 l b A l p h o n s e 1 , 4 2 C a m i l i e 1,13 5 Zampa I I , 1 7 Zampa S y n o p s i s A I R : C a m i 1 l e , overwhelmed w i t h h a p p i n e s s , a w a i t s her f i a n c e A l p h o n s e . COUPLETS: A l p h o n s e i n v i t e s e v e r y o n e t o h i s wedd i ng. COMPLAINTE: C a m i l l e t e l l s t h e s t o r y of A l i c e de Manf r e d i . COUPLETS: Zampa s i n g s t o e n t e r t a i n h i s c o m p a n i o n s . RECITATIVE/CANTABILE/ CAVATINE: Zampa, a w a i t i n g C a m i l l e a s she p r a y s a t t h e c h a p e l , f o r c e f u l l y s t a t e s h i s i n t e n t i o n s . 54 11,11 10 Zampa RONDE: Zampa, a w a i t i n g C a m i l i e , e n t e r t a i n s h i s f r i e n d s . I l l , 8 I I I , 1 13 11 A l p h o n s e / BARCAROLLE: A l p h o n s e Cami l i e has come t o s a y - f a r e w e l l t o h i s b e l o v e d . Zampa CAVATINE: Zampa t r i e s t o r e s u s c i t a t e C a m i l i e who has - f a i n t e d . As t h e c u r t a i n r i s e s -for A c t I, r e v e a l i n g a g o t h i c room where a c e l e b r a t i o n i s underway, we a r e soon made aware o-f t h e d a y ' s e v e n t s . A c h o r u s o-f young m a i d e n s in-forms t h e s p e c t a t o r o-f an upcoming wedding, t h a t o-f Cami 1 l e and her b e l o v e d - f i a n c e whose name i s not r e v e a l e d . C a m i l i e , a n x i o u s l y a w a i t i n g t h e a r r i v a l o-f her h u s b a n d - t o - b e , s i n g s a b r i e - f stir- i n w h i c h s h e e x p r e s s e s her e m o t i o n a l and m e n t a l s t a t e s . T h i s s o n g , A ce supreme bonheur ( N o . l a : A c t I, s c . 1 ) , not o n l y s e r v e s t o i n t r o -duce Cami l i e a s t h e c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r o-f t h e l o v e p l o t , b u t a l s o e x p o s e s her s t a t e o-f mind, and r e v e a l s some p r e - c u r t a i n e v e n t s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e p l o t . E ach s e c t i o n o-f t h i s r o n d e a u -form s o l o (ABAC w i t h a c h o r a l r e f r a i n p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g i t ) r e v e a l s a s m a l l p i e c e o f t h e u n f o l d i n g p u z z l e . In t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n (A) C a m i l i e s e n s e s an o v e r w h e l m i n g j o y , y e t one i n w h i c h s h e d a r e s not b e l i e v e when her b e l o v e d i s a b s e n t . The f i r s t c o n t r a s t i n g segment ( B ) , Idole de mon pere, t a k e s C a m i l i e one s t e p i n t o t h e p a s t and away f r o m her immediate e m o t i o n a l s t a t e t o i n f o r m us t h a t her f a t h e r ' s f u l l c o n s e n t t o t h i s m a r r i a g e has been g i v e n , and t h i s t o C a m i l i e ' s g r e a t c o n t e n t m e n t b e c a u s e "L'epoux que j e p r e f e r e / E s t c e l u i q u ' i l c h o i s i t . . .". T h i s g l a n c e i n t o t h e r e c e n t p a s t i s b u t momentary f o r C a m i l i e soon r e t u r n s t o her d r e a m - l i k e r e f r a i n ( A ) . S e c t i o n C, Mais quand je i/ois Alphonse, r e v e a l s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e name o f her b e l o v e d . In a d d i -t i o n , t h r o u g h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c a l m i n g e f f e c t h i s p r e s e n c e 55 i m p r e s s e s upon h e r , h i s g e n t l e , f a i t h f u l and s t r o n g c h a r a c t e r i s a l s o r e v e a l e d . The r e f r a i n i s not r e p e a t e d a f t e r t h i s c o n t r a s t -i n g s e c t i o n ? i n s t e a d M e l e s v i l i e has c h o s e n t o move ahead t o t h e n e x t s c e n e t o A l p h o n s e ' s couplets, /les boms amis (No. l b : A c t I, s c . 1 ) , by way o-f a b r i e f c h o r u s . In h i s s t r o p h i c s o n g , A l p h o n s e e x t e n d s h i s i n v i t a t i o n t o h i s f r i e n d s t o a t t e n d h i s wedding. W h i l e C a m i l l e ' s sir m e r e l y i n t r o d u c e d A l p h o n s e and p r e p a r e d h i s a r r i v a l , A l p h o n s e ' s couplets u n v e i l more r e f i n e d t r a i t s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r and s t a t u s i n l i f e : he i s not r i c h , y e t g e n e r o u s and k i n d , g r a t e f u l f o r L u g a no's g e n e r o s i t y , and most o f a l l madly i n 1 ove. B o t h s o l i a r e p a r t o f a l a r g e r e n t i t y c a l l e d t h e " I n t r o d u c -t i o n " — a t e r m o f t e n u s e d i n o p e r a s c o m i q u e s Df t h e p e r i o d and one which u s u a l l y encompasses t h e f i r s t t h r e e o r f o u r s c e n e s o f t h e f i r s t A c t . As shown above, t h e s e s o l i p i e c e s s e r v e t o : (1) i n t r o d u c e two c h a r a c t e r s who a r e e s s e n t i a l t o t h e p l o t ; (2) e x p o s e p a r t s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t i e s and p r e s e n t s t a t e s o f mind; (3) r e v e a l some b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o t h e u n f o l d i n g drama; and (4) i n t r o d u c e t h e l o v e and m a r r i a g e theme w h i c h w i l l p r e v a i l , i n one f o r m o r a n o t h e r , t h r o u g h o u t t h e drama. Thus, t h e s e f i r s t two s o n g s s e r v e a d u a l p u r p o s e : t h a t of " i n t r o d u c t i o n " and of " e x p o s i t i o n " . One must n o t u n d e r e s t i m a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e two s o l i , f o r , a l t h o u g h t h e y r e v e a l but a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e n e c e s s a r y b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e y a r e n o n e t h e l e s s i n s t i g a t i n g f o r c e s i n p r o p e l l i n g t h e drama f o r w a r d . L i k e S c r i b e , M e l e s v i l i e u n v e i l s t h e e l e m e n t s o f h i s drama i n a v e r y g r a d u a l manner, on one hand t a n t a l i z i n g t h e s p e c t a t o r ' s c u r i o s i t y and t h u s d r a w i n g him f u r t h e r i n t o t h e s t o r y , and on t h e o t h e r , s a t i s f y i n g p a r t of h i s 56 a p p e t i t e i n o r d e r t o a p p e a s e any g r e a t a n x i e t y . W ith t h e t h i r d s o l o C a m i l l e ' s complainte, D'une haute nais-sance (No.2: A c t I, s c . 2 ) , M e l e s v i l i e c a p t u r e s t h e a u d i e n c e ' s c u r i o s i t y and t h e drama b e g i n s t o u n f o l d . A s o u r c e o-f p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t and o-f d e f i n i t e s u s p e n s e and m y s t e r y i s u n v e i l e d as C a m i l l e s i n g s o f a young b e t r a y e d maiden i n whose memory her p e o p l e have r a i s e d a m a r b l e s t a t u e . At t h e u r g i n g o f A l p h o n s e whose c u r i o s i t y i s k i n d l e d a t t h e m e n t i o n of t h e madonna's name, C a m i l l e n a r r a t e s i n h e r b a l l a d e - l i k e complainte t h e s t o r y of A l i c e de M a n f r e d i , her s e d u c t i o n , and her c o n s e q u e n t f a t e . The s t r o p h i c song w i t h r e f r a i n t e l l s o f a young 1 6 - y e a r - o l d F l o r e n -t i n e g i r l of n o b l e b i r t h , whose i n n o c e n c e and b e a u t y charmed a l l men and made her t h e v i c t i m o f d e c e p t i o n and s e d u c t i o n a t t h e hands o f a m y s t e r i o u s s t r a n g e r . A p r a y e r t o t h e madonna f o r p r o t e c t i o n a c t s as a r e f r a i n t o t h e n a r r a t i v e : Ah! s o y e z - n o u s p r o p i c e S a i n t e A l i c e V e i l l e z s u r nous; Nous p r i e r o n s D i e u pour v o u s ! T h i s s o l o i s o b v i o u s l y of a n a r r a t v e n a t u r e . At t h i s p o i n t i n t h e l i b r e t t o i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s , f o r i t i s o n l y l a t e r t h a t we d i s c o v e r (1) t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e s e d u c e r , Zampa;, (2) t h a t he i s A l p h o n s e ' s o l d e r b r o t h e r ; and (3) t h e r e a s o n why t h e s t a t u e , y e a r n i n g f o r r e v e n g e . . Semble t o u j o u r s g e m i r ! Quand, l a n u i t , on 1 ' a s s u r e , Le v e n t g r o n d e en f u r e u r . Ce marbre e n c o r murmure E t nomme l e t r o m p e u r ! Thus, t h i s s e e m i n g l y s e c o n d a r y s o l o a c t s as a m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e f o r t h e o p e r a ' s p r i m a r y i n t r i g u e . I t i n t r o d u c e s t h e c h a r a c t e r of Zampa by name, t h u s a n t i c i p a t i n g h i s a p p e a r a n c e , r e v e a l s an 57 u n r e s o l v e d p o r t i o n o f h i s p a s t which may r e t u r n t o haunt him, and p r e p a r e s t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e s t a t u e and t h e f a t e s h e p r e p a r e s f o r her b e t r a y e r . (The i d e n t i t y o f t h e s e d u c e r , as A l p h o n s e ' s b r o t h e r , t h e Count o f Monza, i s r e v e a l e d by A l p h o n s e i n a d i a l o g u e w i t h C a m i l l e , i m m e d i a t e l y - f o l l o w i n g t h e l a t t e r ' s n a r r a t i on. ) Zampa has now been i n t r o d u c e d , a l t h o u g h i n a m y s t e r i o u s and s u s p e n s e - f u l manner, and t h e -fundamental t r a i t s o f h i s p e r s o n a l i -t y have a l s o been u n v e i l e d t h r o u g h t h e n a r r a t i o n o f A l i c e de M a n f r e d i ' s s t o r y . But h i s f u l l p o r t r a i t i s f a r f r o m c o m p l e t e . T h i s t a s k i s r e s e r v e d f o r two o t h e r s o l i , b o t h s u n g by t h e i n f a -mous b a n d i t h i m s e l f : t h e f i r s t i s a l e n g t h y monologue which opens A c t I I (No. 7: Toi que la grace seduisante) , and t h e s e c o n d i s a b r i e f p l e a t o C a m i l l e t o l i s t e n t o him i n A c t I I I s c e n e 8 (No. 13: C'est un am ant qui vous supplie). A t h i r d s o l o c a n a l s o be a t t r i b u t e d a s i m i l a r r o l e o f c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l : Zampa's couplets i n A c t I ' s F i n a l e s c e n e 13 (No.5: Que la vague ecu-man te) . F o r t h e moment, l e t us c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e f i r s t two s o l i m e n t i o n e d above. The c u r t a i n r i s e s on a s e a s h o r e p l a i n a t t h e f o o t o f t h e m o u n t a i n r a n g e o f t h e Val-Demone. Near t h e g o t h i c c h a p e l where C a m i l l e and t h e women a r e p r a y i n g , Zampa p a t i e n t l y a w a i t s h i s b r i d e - t o - b e . In t h e r e c i t a t i v e , w hich s e t s t h e t o n e f o r h i s monologue, Zampa e x p r e s s e s h i s u n e a s i n e s s i n f e e l i n g t e n d e r n e s s f o r C a m i l l e . The cantabile which f o l l o w s c l e a r l y shows t h e h o l d w h i c h C a m i l l e has on him. T o i que l a g r a c e s e d u i s a n t e , P o r t e en mes s e n s l e t r o u b l e e t l e bonheur V i e n s , que t a v o i x douce e t t o u c h a n t e R e t e n t i s s e e n c o r e a mon c o e u r ! 58 N o n e t h e l e s s , a s any t e r r o r i s t who d e s i r e s t o be a l w a y s i n c o n -t r o l , he q u i c k l y d i s m i s s e s t h e s e weak f e e l i n g s i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e c a n t a b i l e . B e a u t e f a i b l e e t c r a i n t i v e , Te v o i l a ma c a p t i v e ! De 1'amour de Zampa R i e n ne t e s a u v e r a ! H i s p r i d e t a k e s o v e r a s he p u r s u e s t h i s t r a i n o f t h o u g h t i n h i s r e f r a i n , II faut souscrire a mes loisf L i k e D i a v o l o ' s monologue Je vois marcher sous mes bannieres i n A c t I I I o f S c r i b e ' s Fra Diavolo, Zampa's monologue t r a c e s t h e b a n d i t ' s t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s a t a g i v e n moment i n t h e o p e r a , t h u s p e r m i t t i n g a c l o s e r view o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . The t e x t a l t e r n a t e s between s t a t i c r e f l e c t i o n s and more d i r e c t n a r r a t i v e p o r t i o n s . In t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n , w h i c h s e r v e s as a r e f r a i n , Zampa p a i n t s h i m s e l f a s a vrai forban who a l w a y s g e t s h i s l a d y . The n e x t s e c t i o n r e c a l l s L e p o r e l l o ' s C a t a l o g u e A r i a i n M o z a r t ' s Don Giovanni. Zampa l i s t s h i s l o v e c o n q u e s t s i n I n d i a , I t a l y , S p a i n , A r a b i a , and E n g l a n d . A f t e r t h e r e f r a i n Zampa t e l l s how he would k i d n a p any b e a u t i f u l woman and f l e e w i t h h e r . He e x p l a i n s h i s c a p t i v e ' s g r a d u a l s u b m i s s i o n . A mes a c c e n s son c o e u r e s t s o u r d Le p r e m i e r j o u r , M a i s d e s l e s e c o n d , l a p a u v r e t t e Ne p l e u r e p l u s a u t a n t . . . E t l e t r o i s i e m e . . . en s o u p i r a n t , J e l ' e n t e n d s q u i r e p e t e : II f a u t s o u s c r i r e a s e s l o i s ! . . The r e f r a i n i s t h e n r e p e a t e d . In t e r m s o f Zampa's c h a r a c t e r t h i s s c e n e r e p r e s e n t s a d r a m a t i c h i g h p o i n t . Never do we know him b e t t e r t h a n a f t e r t h i s monologue. Thus, g i v e n i t s p l a c e m e n t i n t h e drama, t h i s cavatine p r o v i d e s a m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e f o r Zampa's a c t i o n and mo r e o v e r f o r t h e p r i m a r y i n t r i g u e . 59 A d i f f e r e n t f a c e t of Zampa's c h a r a c t e r m o m e n t a r i l y emerges i n A c t 111 s c e n e 8 when C a m i l i e f a i n t s a s A l p h o n s e i s d r a g g e d out o f t h e n u p t i a l s u i t e by Zampa's men. Zampa h e r e d i s p l a y s g e n u i n e s i n c e r i t y and c o n c e r n f o r C a m i l i e as he a t t e m p t s t o r e v i v e h e r . C ' e s t un amant q u i v o u s s u p p l i e , Ne t r e m b l e z p l u s a u p r e s de moi! Vous a d o r e z , v o i l a ma v i e ; Vous o b e i r , v o i l a ma l o i ! . . T h e s e f e e l i n g s o f c o n c e r n and t e n d e r n e s s s h o u l d not come as a t o t a l s u r p r i s e , f o r t h e y were a n t i c i p a t e d i n t h e c o n f u s i o n and a n x i e t y t h e b a n d i t f e l t i n A c t I I s c e n e 1 and were e x p r e s s e d i n h i s c a v a t i n e (No.7). In f a c t , Zampa's c a v a t i n e e m p h a s i z e s t h e weakest a s p e c t o f h i s c h a r a c t e r which i s ". . . r e s p e c t u e u s e e t p r e s q u e c r a i n t i v e comme un p r e m i e r aveu d'amour. 1 , 1 1 In t e r m s o f t h e drama, t h e c a v a t i n e ' s s t r e n g t h c a n n o t be d e n i e d : "La p u i s s a n c e d r a m a t i q u e de c e morceau e t son e x p r e s s i o n p a s s i o n n e e an t f a i t c r o i r e a b i e n des p e r s o n n e s que 1'opera de Zampa a u r a i t mieux co n v e n u a l a s a l l e de l a r u e L e p e l l e t i e r t t h e O p e r a ! qu'a 1 ' O p e r a - C o m i q u e . " l z Zampa s i n g s two o t h e r s o l o s o n g s i n t h e o p e r a , b o t h o f w h i c h a r e p a r t o f F i n a l e s : t h e f i r s t i s a b a l 1 a d e - c o u p l e t s i n s c e n e 13 o f A c t I (No.5) , t h e s e c o n d , a ronde i n s c e n e 11 of A c t I I ( N o . l O ) . B o t h s o l i a r e sung as d i v e r t i s s e m e n t s , t h a t i s , as e n t e r t a i n m e n t f o r h i s wedding g u e s t s . The f i r s t i s sung a f t e r Zampa has s u c c e s s f u l l y o v e r t a k e n L u gano's c a s t l e and i n t e r f e r e d w i t h C a m i l i e ' s wedding p l a n s . I t i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d e s t h e f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e of t h e s t a t u e i n v o l v i n g t h e i n c i d e n t w i t h t h e r i n g . The f i r s t few l i n e s o f t h e f i r s t s t a n z a s u b t l y f o r e s h a d o w Zampa's f a t e . 60 Que l a vague ecumante, Me l a n c e v e r s l e s c i e u x ; Que l ' o n d e m u g i s s a n t e , S ' e n t r o u v e s o u s mes yeux! (The s p e c t a t o r , o-f c o u r s e , i s not aware o-f t h i s c l u e u n t i l l a t e r i n t h e o p e r a when t h e p r e s e n c e o-f t h e s t a t u e i s - f u r t h e r ex-p l a i n e d . ) Zampa t h e n i n t o n e s a t o a s t , a r e f r a i n r e p e a t e d by a c h o r u s o f men, which m a n i f e s t s Zampa's n o n c h a l a n t n a t u r e . He r a i s e s h i s g l a s s t o good t i m e s . Quand d ' a u s s i bon v i n Mon v e r r e e s t p l e i n . . . Buvons, c a r p e u t - e t r e un n a u f r a g e F i n i r a demain N o t r e d e s t i n . He d o e s n o t seem t o be c o n c e r n e d a b o u t h i s a c t i o n s , tomorrow o r d y i n g f o r t h a t m a t t e r . The s e c o n d s t a n z a e m p h a s i z e s t h i s c a r e f r e e n a t u r e a s he s t a t e s h i s i n d i f f e r e n c e a t a l a d y ' s i n f i d e l i t y . T h i s b a l l a d e t h u s r e v e a l s Zampa as a f e a r l e s s , c a r e f r e e , i n d i g n a n t and u n f a i t h f u l i n d i v i d u a l . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e r o l e of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , t h i s b a l l a d e a l s o a n t i c i p a t e s t h e d i s c l o s u r e of Zampa's i d e n t i t y a s A l i c e de M a n f r e d i ' s s e d u c e r . Above a l l , t h i s s o l o ' s p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n i s t o m u s i c a l l y s p o t l i g h t Zampa f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e s i n c e t h e o p e n i n g c u r t a i n , and a s s u c h s e r v e s t o i n t r o d u c e t h e p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p l o t . T h i s b a l l a d e a l s o p r e p a r e s t h e c l i m a x of A c t I. As B e l -l a i g u e c o n f i r m s , A c t I ' s F i n a l e w i t h t h e s o l o a f f o r d s a g r e a t o u t p o u r i n g o f e m o t i o n s and p a s s i o n s w i t h t h e s t a t u e ' s a p p e a r a n c e and t h e r e s u l t a n t a c t i o n . . . . f e s t i n de p i r a t e s i t a l i e n s - - g r a n d i o s e e c l a t . Quel debordement de p a s s i o n s , d ' i n s t i n c t s e f f r e n e s ! . . L e s b r i -g a nds b o i v e n t en genti1hommesj c ' e s t une f e t e de g r a n d s s e i -g n e u r s p l u s qu'une o r g i e de b a n d i t s . Zampa l a n c e son c o u -p l e t b a c h i q u e d'une v o i x q u i ne t r e m b l e p a s . I I f a u t e t r e m a t t r e de s o i p o u r l e v e r a u s s i son v e r r e , pour r y t h m e r a u s s i 61 f i e r e m e n t un t o a s t magn i f i que. I I y a q u e l q u e c h o s e de B y r o n dans c e p e r s o n n a g e de Zampa e t dans ce b r i n d i s i de p a t r i c i e n . 1 3 The b a r c a r o l l e o-f A c t I I (No.10), l i k e t h e p r e v i o u s b a l -l a d e , i s a l s o an i n v i t a t i o n t o Zampa's wedding. As Zampa a g a i n a w a i t s Cami l i e — t h i s t i m e -for t h e wedding i t s e l - f — he s i n g s t o e n t e r t a i n h i s - f r i e n d s . Zampa's b a r c a r o l l e e m p h a s i z e s t h e c a r e - f r e e n a t u r e o-f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y s e e n i n o t h e r s o l i . A l t h o u g h t h e s p o t l i g h t i s once a g a i n on Zampa, i t does not r e v e a l a n y t h i n g new o-f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . What t h e n i s i t s p u r p o s e ? A o c a r e - f u l l o o k a t t h e t e x t r e v e a l s a c e r t a i n p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e immediate a c t i o n : t h e t e x t - f i r s t c a l l s upon t h e "douce j o u v e n -c e l l e " t o come, t h e n r e a s s u r e s her t h a t even . . . S i t o n c o e u r n'aime d e j a , S o i s moins - f i e r e M a i n s s e v e r e , C a r b i e n t o t t o n t o u r v i e n d r a . L i k e t h e j o u v e n c e 1 1 e ' s s e d u c e r , Zampa c a l l s upon C a m i l i e s e v e r a l t i m e s t o g i v e i n t o him, r e a s s u r i n g her t h a t one day she w i l l a c c e p t h e r -fate and even p o s s i b l y l o v e him. The s e c o n d s t a n z a s e e s t h e young g i r l d r e a m i n g o-f a young husband and o-f h a p p i -n e s s . To her y e a r n i n g t h e echo a n s w e r s P a t i e n c e E t c o n s t a n c e , C a r b i e n t o t t o n t o u r v i e n d r a . T h i s l a s t e x p r e s s i o n o-f r e a s s u r a n c e a n t i c i p a t e s Cami l i e ' s e v e n -t u a l r e s c u e -from t h e g r i p s o-f t h e b a n d i t . O-f c o u r s e , one can o n l y s p e c u l a t e on t h i s d e e p e r meaning o f t h e t e x t , f o r t h e r e i s no way t o p r o v e t h a t s u c h a p a r a l l e l was i n d e e d i n t e n d e d by t h e l i b r e t t i s t . N o n e t h e l e s s s u c h s p e c u l a t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s c a n n o t be e n t i r e l y d i s m i s s e d f o r s i m i l a r p a r a l l e l s have been o b s e r v e d i n s o l i o f o t h e r o p e r a s c o m i q u e s o f t h e p e r i o d . 1 * * 62 S u p e r f i c i a l l y , Zampa's b a r c a r o l l e may be s a i d t o o c c u r -for r e a s o n s o f m u s i c a l b a l a n c e . The - f i n a l e o-f e a c h a c t c o n t a i n s a s o l o w h i c h i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n an ensemble number and which i s sung by Zampa: A c t I s c e n e 8 due la vague ecumante, A c t I I s c e n e 9 Douce jouvence1le, and A c t I I I s c e n e 8 C'est un amant qui vous supplie. I-f one compares t h i s l i b r e t t o ' s s t r u c t u r e t o a s o n a t a f o r m , whereby A c t I i s t h e e x p o s i t i o n , A c t I I t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , and A c t I I I t h e r e c a p i t u l a t i o n w i t h Coda, we can s e e t h a t Zampa's s o l i a l s o o c c u p y t h e most i m p o r t a n t and s t r a t e g i c p o i n t s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e . H i s f i r s t s o l o ends t h e E x p o s i t i o n w i t h m o t i -v a t i o n and a c e r t a i n c l i m a x . The Development c o n s i s t s o f Zampa's l o n g monologue and b a r c a r o l l e ( t h e o n l y two s o l i i n t h e e n t i r e a c t ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e two s o l i expand d r a m a t i c i d e a s i n t r o d u c e d i n A c t I, t h u s s u p p o r t i n g t h e i d e a o f A c t I I as a de-v e l o p m e n t s e c t i o n . The R e c a p i t u l a t i o n r e u n i t e s A l p h o n s e and C a m i l l e a s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f A c t I, t h e E x p o s i t i o n , w h i l e t h e Coda b e g i n s w i t h a b r i e f c a v a t i n e by Zampa and c l i m a x e s w i t h an ensemble number a c c o m p a n y i n g Zampa's d e s t r u c t i o n . The r e m a i n i n g s o l o i s s h a r e d by C a m i l l e and A l p h o n s e , t h e two l o v e r s , and opens A c t I I I . " C ' e s t une b a r c a r o l l e [ l a b e l l e d nocturne i n t h e l i b r e t t o ! p l a i n t i v e c h a n t e e p a r A l p h o n s e , q u i s ' e l o i g n e , e t p a r C a m i l l e , q u i c h e r c h e a l e c o n s o l e r t o u t en g e m i s s a n t s u r s a p r o p r e d e s t i n e e . " 1 0 With t h e e x c e p t i o n o f h i s b r i e f air i n A c t I s c e n e 2 ( p a r t o f t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n ) , A l p h o n s e has no o t h e r s o l o d e s p i t e h i s p o s i t i o n as Zampa's c h i e f r i v a l . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s s h o u l d be r e a s o n enough t o a s s i g n him t h i s s o l o and t o p l a c e him i n t h e m u s i c a l s p o t l i g h t , b u t M e l e s v i l i e has a n o t h e r m o t i v e i n mind. F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n t h e o p e r a , he p e r m i t s us t o o b s e r v e d A l p h o n s e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t 63 t h a t he does n o t p o s s e s s " l ' a l l u r e c h e v a l r e s q u e [de Zampa]", he n e v e r t h e l e s s d i s p l a y s g r e a t e m o t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l when ". . . i l soup i r e au t r o i s i e m e a c t e une d e l i c i e u s e b a r c a r o 1 1 e . " . l * T h i s b a r c a r o l l e t r u l y r e v e a l s h i s k i n d , c a r i n g and l o v i n g p e r s o n a l -i t y . I t i s w orth n o t i n g , however, t h a t A l p h o n s e ' s b a r c a r o l l e c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d w i t h o u t c a u s i n g harm t o t h e drama. He has come t o e x p r e s s h i s f a r e w e l l t o C a m i l i e , s o m e t h i n g w h i c h c o u l d have been more b r i e - f l y c o n v e y e d i n s p e e c h o r by a l e t t e r . H i s s t a n z a s i m p l y e x p r e s s e s h i s - f a r e w e l l t o h i s c o u n t r y and home-l a n d , o f c o u r s e , c o n t a i n i n g an i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o C a m i 1 l e . C a m i l i e , r e c o g n i z i n g h i s v o i c e f r o m i n s i d e t h e c a s t l e , t a k e s o v e r i n t h e number, and r e a s s u r e s him o f her e t e r n a l f a i t h f u l n e s s and l o v e as s h e a l s o s i n g s her f a r e w e l l . The s o l o r e v e a l s n o t h i n g e x c e p t f o r t h e l o v e and h u r t o f t h e l o v e r s . A l p h o n s e ' s s u b s e q u e n t e s c a l a d e t o C a m i l i e ' s chamber t r i g g e r s more t e n s i o n and s u s p e n s e t h a n d o e s t h i s s o l o . The n o c t u r n e i t s e l f t h u s s e r v e s no d r a m a t i c p u r p o s e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n p e r h a p s o f p r o v i d i n g a m u s i c a l s p o t l i g h t f o r A l p h o n s e . Many s i m i l a r i t i e s can be s e e n between t h e u s e s o f s o l i i n M e l e s v i l l e ' s Zampa and t h o s e i n S c r i b e ' s Fra Diavolo. F o r i n s t a n c e , A l p h o n s e ' s b a r c a r o l l e c o u l d be compared t o L o r e n z o ' s n o n - d r a m a t i c n o c t u r n e i n A c t I I I o f Fra Diavolo. They a r e b o t h u t i l i z e d t o s p o t l i g h t t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e dramas ( a l t h o u g h n e i t h e r A l p h o n s e nor L o r e n z o a r e p r e v a i l i n g f i g u r e s ) and f o r m u s i c a l b a l a n c e between t h e number o f s o l i a s s i g n e d t o t h e a n t a g o n i s t s and t h o s e g i v e n t o t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s . O t h e r more s i g n i f i c a n t p a r a l l e l s a r e m a n i f e s t e d by t h e o t h e r s o l i . As i n Fra Diavolo, Zampa's s o l i f i t i n t o f i v e d i s t i n c t i v e d r a m a t i c a l l y f u n c t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s : (1) e x p o s i t o r y 64 s o l i w h i c h r e v e a l b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n on p r e - c u r t a i n e v e n t s and c h a r a c t e r s — E X P O S I T O R Y s o l i ( N o s . l and 2 i n Fra Diavolo and Nos. 1 and 2 i n Zampa) j (2) t h o s e u s e d -for c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , r e v e a l i n g s t r o n g as w e l l a s s u b t l e r s h a d e s o f p e r s o n a l i t i e s (No. 4 i n Fra Diavolo X/ayez sur cette rocfte, and No. 7 i n Zampa)', (3) t h o s e e x p o s i n g a c h a r a c t e r ' s t h o u g h t s and i d e a s a t a g i v e n moment i n t h e o p e r a (No.12 i n Fra Diavolo and No.10 i n Zampa)\ (4) t h o s e r e v e a l i n g t h e e m o t i o n a l s t a t e and/or s t a t e of mind o f a c h a r a c t e r a t a g i v e n moment ( Z e r l i n e ' s s o l i i n A c t I I o f Fra Diavolo' Nos.7 and 10, and t h e two f i r s t s o l i o f A c t I i n Zampa)", and (5) t h o s e used p u r e l y f o r m u s i c a l b a l a n c e , o r f o r t h a t p u r p o s e i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h one of t h e above f o u r p u r p o s e s (Nos.9 and 14 i n Fra Diavolo, and No.11 i n Zampa). O t h e r n o t e d t r e n d s w hich emerge i n t h e s t u d y o f o p e r a -comique s o l o f o r m s a p p e a r i n t h e p l a c e m e n t of c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s o f s o l i w i t h i n an o p e r a . F o r example, i t was p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d i n o u r d i s c u s s i o n of s o l i nos. l a , l b and 2 o f Zampa and s o l i nos. 1, 2 and 4 of Fra Diavolo t h a t e x p o s i t o r y s o l i o c c u r w i t h i n t h e f i r s t f i v e s c e n e s o f t h e f i r s t a c t o f b o t h o p e r a s . T h i s would seem t o be t h e p r a c t i c e common t o o t h e r o p e r a s o f t h e p e r i o d . 1 5 " S i m i l a r l y , i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e t h i r d a c t s o f t h e s e two o p e r a s o f t e n b e g i n w i t h l e n g t h y monologues sung by t h e p r i n c i p l e a n t a g o n i s t s of e a c h o p e r a . T h i s a p p e a r s t o be t h e p r a c t i c e i n t h r e e - a c t o p e r a s c o m i q u e s o f t h e 1830s. M o r e o v e r , t h e s e t h i r d - a c t monologues r e p r e s e n t d r a m a t i c h i g h p o i n t s i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e a n t a g o n i s t s . One f u r t h e r f e a t u r e of t h e s e t h i r d - a c t monologues i s t h e f a c t t h a t n a r r a t i v e s i n f i l t r a t e t h e s o l i t e x t u r e s . E x p o s i t o r y s o l i a l s o o f t e n e x h i b i t n a r r a t i v e t e x t u r e s , as do some s e e m i n g l y n o n - d r a m a t i c 65 s o l i i n which n a r r a t i v e s a r e u s e d t o e n t e r t a i n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s ( i . e . , D i a v o l o ' s b a r c a r o l l e Agnes Is jouwencelle and Zampa's Douce jouvenceIIe). Thus, one c a n b e g i n , t h r o u g h t h e r e c u r r e n c e o-f c e r t a i n s o l i i n c e r t a i n d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s , t o i s o l a t e common t r e n d s e x h i b i t e d i n 1830s o p e r a s comiques--common d r a m a t i c p r a c t i c e s w h i c h a p p e a r i n Le Pre sux Clercs (as we s h a l l s e e i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r ) and i n o t h e r works s u r v e y e d b u t not h e r e i n d i s c u s s e s . 66 N o t e s 1. A.H.J. M e l e s v i l l e i s a pseudonym f o r Anne Honore J o s e p h D u v e y r i e r <17S7-1865). 2. A l b e r t S o u b i e s , Soixante-Neuf Ans a 1'Opera-Comique en deux pages ( P a r i s , 1894). 3. An a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n Le Menest re 1 i n 1834 r e a d s : " L ' o p e r a Zampa, de H e r o l d , v i e n t d ' e t r e t r a d u i t en r u s s e e t r e p r e s e n t s a v e c un s u c c e s immense au t h e a t r e de Moscou." " C h r o n i q u e s , " Le Menestrel (6 A p r i l 1834), p. 4. 4. R a o u l Duhamel, "L'Opera-Cornique au x i x " s i e c l e . F e r d i n a n d H e r a l d , " Revue Musicale (November 1933), p. 283. 5. A d o l p h e Adam, Souvenirs d'un musicien ( P a r i s , 1857), p. 14. 6. R a o u l Duhamel, "L'Opera-Cornique au x i x " s i e c l e . F e r d i n a n d H e r a l d , " Revue Musicale (November 1933), p. 283. 7. Ibid. 8. O c t a v e Fouque, H i s t o i r e du Theatre Ventadour <1829-1879> ( P a r i s , 1881), pp. 46-47. 9. F . J . F e t i s , " T h e a t r e de 1'Opera-Cornique. P r e m i e r e r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n de Zampa, Revue Musicale (May 7 1831), p. 112. 10. P. L a r o u s s e , "Zampa," Grand Dictionnaire universel du xix" siecle v o l . 15 ( P a r i s , 1866), p. 1454. 11. C a m i l i e B e l l a i g u e , Un s i e c l e de musique francaise. L'Opera-Comique d'Herold a Bizet ( P a r i s , 1886), p. 168. 12. P. L a r o u s s e , "Zampa," Grand Dictionnaire universel du xix" s i e c l e , v o l . 15, p. 1454. 13. C a m i l i e B e l l a i g u e , Un s i e c l e de musique f r a n f a i s e . L'Opera-Corn i que d'Hero Id a Bizet, p. 168. 14. E v i d e n c e o-f s u c h n a r r a t i v e s o l i a p p e a r s i n works s u c h a s : S c r i b e ' s Fra Diavolo (1830) as m e n t i o n e d above; V i a l and D u p o r t ' s Danilowa ( 1 8 3 0 ) : E l i s k a ' s ronde "Des que nos f o r e t s " ( I I , i i ) ; E. de P l a n a r d ' s Les deux f a m i l i e s ( 1 8 3 1 ) : F a b i o ' s cou-plets " A n t o n i a , t r i s t e e t d o l e n t e " ( I I , i v ) ; S c r i b e ' s Lestocq ( 1 8 3 4 ) : C a t h e r i n e ' s couplets "Le p a u v r e I v a n " ( I I , i ) ; and de P l a n a r d ' s L ' E c l a i r ( 1 8 3 5 ) : L i o n e l ' s s o n g " F i n i r ma p e i n e " ( I I , v) ; t o name but a -few. 15. P. L a r o u s s e , "Zampa," Grand Dictionnaire universel du xix" s i e c l e , v o l . 15, p. 1454. 16. C a m i l i e B e l l a i g u e , Un s i e c l e de musique franeaise. L'Opera-Comique d'Hero Id a Bizet, p. 168. 67 17. A l m o s t e v e r y o p e r a comique examined p r e s e n t e d i t s ' e x p o s i -t o r y ' s o l i w i t h i n t h e f i r s t few s c e n e s o f i t s f i r s t a c t . F o r example, t h e 3 e x p o s i t o r y s o l i i n he o n e - a c t o p e r a comique Le Chalet (1834) a r e f o u n d w i t h i n t h e f i r s t s i x s c e n e s o f t h e f i r s t a c t ; 3 i n t h e f i r s t 5 s c e n e s of Les deux f a m i l i e s (1831); 4 i n t h e f i r s t 7 o f Le L ii/re de I'ermite (1832); and 2 i n t h e f i r s t 4 of L ' E c l a i r ( 1 8 3 5 ) . 68 I V : Le Pre aux Clercs Ce -fut pour l ' a r t f r a n g c a i s un g r a n d j o u r que c e l u i q u i v i t n a t t r e l e c h e f - d ' o e u v r e de H e r o l d , q u i e s t a u s s i l e c h e f - d ' o e u v r e de 1 ' opera-comique. Un s e u l o u v r a g e , s u r n o t r e s e c o n d e s c e n e l y r i q u e , p e u t e t r e oppose a Zampa, c ' e s t le Pre aux Clercs, ou l a donnee s e -r i e u s e du drame a f o u r n i a 1 ' i n s -p i r a t i o n du m u s i c i e n l ' o c c a s i o n de s ' e l e v e r j u s q u ' a u x d e r n i e r e s l i m i t e s p e r m i s e s p a r l e g e n r e . 1 O c t a v e Fouque (1881) The d r a m a t i c q u a l i t y o f Eugene de P l a n a r d ' s l i b r e t t o Le Pre aux Clercs was p r a i s e d r e p e a t e d l y by n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c r i t i c s . Of t h e work, F e t i s , i n 1832, w r o t e : On v o i t q u ' i l y a de l ' i n t e r e t dans l e s u j e t : . . . L e s c a r a c t e r e s s o n t b i e n d e s s i n e s ; . . . M. P l a n a r d a d ' a i l l e u r s l e m e r i t e d ' a v o i r t r a c e de b e l l e s s i t u a t i o n s m u s i c a l e s e t d ' a v o i r b i e n s e r v i l e g e n i e du c o m p o s i t e u r . Tous l e s morceaux de musique s o n t b i e n p l a c e s e t b i e n c o u p e s ; e n f i n , a man s e n s , l e Pre aux Clercs e s t un des m e i l l e u r s drames l y r i q u e s q u i a i t e n t e t e donnes d e p u i s l o n g - t e m p s a 1'Opera-Corn i que. 2 F i f t y t o s i x t y y e a r s l a t e r an u n s i g n e d a r t i c l e i n L a r o u s s e ' s Grand Dictionnaire du xix— s i e c l e r e s t a t e d t h e same p r a i s e : " L " i n s p i r a t i o n du c e l e b r e c o m p o s i t e u r f r a n e a i s a e t e p r o v o q u e e e t s o u t e n u e p a r un e x c e l l e n t 1 i v r e t . " 3 Le Pre aux Clercs was p r e m i e r e d a t t h e T h e a t r e de 1'Opera-Comique on 15 December 1832. I t i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y g a i n e d p u b l i c f a v o r , was p e r f o r m e d more t h a n 150 t i m e s i n i t s f i r s t t h i r t e e n months o f e x i s t e n c e , * * and r e m a i n e d i n t h e Opera-Corn i que' s r e p e r t o i r e w e l l i n t o 2 0 t h c e n t u r y . L i k e Zampa i t s r e p u t a t i o n q u i c k l y s p r e a d t o many p a r t s of E u r o p e and N o r t h A m e r i c a . 69 The L i b r e t t o P a r t I: D r a m a - C h a r a c t e r s - S y n o p s i s P l a n a r d ' s l i b r e t t o p r e s e n t s a s k i l f u l a r r a n g e m e n t o-f c e r -t a i n e p i s o d e s d e r i v e d -from Merimee's La Chron i que du regne de Charles IX, p u b l i s h e d i n 1829. A b s e n t -from P l a n a r d ' s s t o r y a r e t h e p a s s i o n a t e o u t b u r s t s o f Merimee's c h a r a c t e r s , and t h e ex-t r e m e l y s e n s u o u s and c r u e l e l e m e n t s o f t h e s t o r y . N o n e t h e l e s s Le Pre aux Clercs s k i l f u l l y c o m b i n e s . . . d e s s o u r c e s d ' i n t e r e t e t d'agrement: une i n t r i g u e romanesque c o n d u i t e p a r une r e i n e c o m p l a i s a n t e aux amants, l ' y d i l l e p e u p l e ( N i c e t t e e t G i r o t ) a c o t e de l ' y d i l l e c o u r ( I s a b e l l e e t M e r g y ) , l a s e n t i m e n t a l i t e de 1'honnete I s a b e l l e , 1'amour c h e v a l r e s q u e de Mergy, l e s f a n f a r o n n a d e s de Comminge, l a p o l t r o n n e r i e e t l e s f a u t e s de f r a n i z a i s de l ' e s p i o n C a n t a -r e l l i , l ' a i m a b l e j e u de l a s o u b r e t t e N i c e t t e ; p o u r e n c a d r e r l ' a c t i o n d'un r e a l i s m e a s s e z p i t t o r e s q u e d e s s c e n e s d'au-b e r g e , des e p i s o d e s de c h a s s e , une mas c a r a d e au L o u v r e -C h a r l e s Ix dans l e l o i n t a i n ; e n f i n un denouement ou i l y a deux m a r i a g e s e t une mart . . ,° Of t h e t h r e e o p e r a l i b r e t t i s t u d i e d h e r e i n , Le Pre aux Clercs e x h i b i t s a w i d e r v a r i e t y o f c h a r a c t e r t y p e s and d r a m a t i c s i t u a -t i ons. The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n P l a n a r d ' s l i b r e t t o i s f a r s u p e r i o r t o t h a t o f e i t h e r o f t h e two o t h e r l i b r e t t i p r e v i o u s l y d i s -c u s s e d . The p r i m a r y d i f f e r e n c e between them l i e s n o t s o much i n a g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y o f c h a r a c t e r t y p e s , b u t r a t h e r i n t h e r e -f i n e m e n t and h i s t o r i c a l a c c u r a c y o f t h e c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l . C a m i l l e B e l l a i g u e r e m a r k e d , i n 1886: dans de m o i n d r e s p r o p o r t i o n s Le Pre aux Clercs e s t un t a b l e a u d ' h i s t o i r e d i g n e des Huguenots, q u ' i l a p r e c e d e s , e t comme a n n o n c e s : meme v e r i t e d'ensemble e t de d e t a i l s ; p a s un p e r s o n n a g e q u i ne p a r t e l e c a c h e t du temps. L e s r a l e s s e c o n -d a i r e s meme s o n t c a r a c t e r i s e s . L a r e i n e a l ' e s p r i t , l a m a l i c e de Margot, comme e l l e a i m a i t d ' e t r e a p p e l e e , a v e c une e x q u i s e nuance de r e v e r i e e t de d o u c e u r . . . .* As was t h e c a s e i n Fra Diavolo and Zampa, t h e r e i s l i t t l e c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n Le Pre aux Clercs. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t s 70 d r a m a t i s p e r s o n a e a r e much more complex t h a n S c r i b e ' s o r M e l e s -v i l l e ' s , d i s p l a y i n g a g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y o f e m o t i o n s and s t a t e s of mind. In I s a b e l l e , f o r example, we s e e sweet i n n o c e n c e m i n g l e d t o g e t h e r w i t h p e r s e v e r a n c e and even o b s t i n a n c e ; i n Mergy, t e n d e r n e s s , c h i v a l r y , a n g e r and d e f i a n c e ; i n M a r g u e r i t e , c u n n i n g , r e v e r i e and g e n t l e n e s s ; i n Comminge, v a n i t y and b r u t a l -i t y ; i n C a n t a r e l l i , t i m i d i t y and c o w a r d i c e ; and i n N i c e t t e and G i r o t , i n n o c e n c e and a s s e r t i v e n e s s , and impudence and a c a r e f r e e n a t u r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The c o n f l i c t s o f s u c h p e r s o n a l i t i e s a s Mergy and Comminge, and t h e c o n c o r d a n c e o f o t h e r s s u c h a s I s a -b e l l e and Mergy, and M a r g u e r i t e and I s a b e l l e , e nhance s e v e r a l of t h e d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s by a d d i n g t o t h e m o u n t i n g s u s p e n s e and t e n s i o n o f a s i t u a t i o n , o r by r e l a x i n g e x i s t i n g a n x i e t i e s . T h i s v a r i e t y o f p e r s o n a l i t i e s o r a t l e a s t t h e i n t e r e s t c r e a t e d by t h i s c o l o r f u l a r r a y o f c h a r a c t e r s i s , i n l a r g e p a r t , due t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e s t o r y . B o t h Fra Diavolo and Zampa a r e s t a g e d i n c o n t e m p o r a r y s u r r o u n d i n g s — e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h -c e n t u r y I t a l y - - w h e r e a s Le Pre r e c a l l s s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y F r a n c e , more s p e c i f i c a l l y P a r i s o f 1582. Thus t h e d e c o r o f Le Pre aux Clercs i s c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t t o t h a t of t h e o t h e r two o p e r a s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e f o r e s t and c o u n t r y s c e n e s o f P l a n a r d ' s drama t a k e p l a c e n o t i n any f o r e s t o r c o u n t r y s i d e c l e a r i n g , b u t r a t h e r i n a t r u e Pre aux Clercs where l e m a t i n , quand i l e t a i t a peu p r e s d e s e r t , c ' e t a i t l e l i e u de r e n d e z - v o u s d e s d u e l l i s t e s ; l e s o i r e t aux b e l l e s h e u r e s de l a j o u r n e e , c ' e t a i t l a promenade ou g r a n d s s e i g n e u r s , o f f i c i e r s e t b e l l e s dames ne c r a i g n a i e n t p a s de v e n i r s e m e l e r a l a j e u n e s s e t o u j o u r s un peu t u r b u l e n t e d e s e c o l e s . The l i b r e t t o ' s h i s t o r i c a l n a t u r e g i v e s Le Pre aux Clercs i t s u n i q u e n e s s o f p l o t and a c e r t a i n d r a m a t i c r e f i n e m e n t . 71 U n l i k e t h e o t h e r two l i b r e t t i w h i c h d e a l t w i t h l i g h t e r and more amusing s u b j e c t s , Le Pre's s t o r y l i n e i s o-f a more s e r i o u s n a t u r e , i n t r o d u c i n g a new q u a l i t y t o t h e o p e r a - c o r n i q u e g e n r e — one w h i c h a n t i c i p a t e d t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n o-f t r a g i c e l e m e n t s i n l a t e r o p e r a s c o m i q u e s l i k e B i z e t ' s Carmen. L i k e i t s p r e d e c e s -s o r s , P l a n a r d ' s l i b r e t t o p o s s e s s e s a happy e n d i n g , b u t u n l i k e them i t s i n t r i g u e s n e i t h e r i n v o l v e - f a n t a s i e s , nor a r e t h e y l i g h t - h e a r t e d o r s i m p l y amusing. They embrace a s e r i o u s and s e r e n e n a t u r e r a r e l y - f e a t u r e d i n o p e r a s c o m i q u e s o-f t h e p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n s . Be-fore e x a m i n i n g t h e u s e o-f s o l o -forms i n Le Pre aux Clercs, we s h a l l - f i r s t o f f e r a s y n o p s i s o f t h e a c t i o n and t h e n b r i e f l y d i s c u s s t h e d r a m a t i c s t r u c t u r e o f P l a n a r d ' s 1i b r e t t o . Synops i s P l a n a r d ' s drama t e l l s t h e s t o r y o f how M a r g u e r i t e de V a l o i s , C h a r l e s I X ' s s i s t e r , b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e m a r r i a g e o f I s a -b e l l e de B e a m and t h e young B a r o n Mergy, H e n r i I l l ' s m e s s e n g e r . As t h e c u r t a i n ' s a s c e n t d i s p l a y s a c o u n t r y i n n a t l e P r e aux C l e r c s , we a r e t o l d o f t h e upcoming wedding between M a r g u e r i t e ' s g o d d a u g h t e r N i c e t t e and t h e i n n k e e p e r G i r o t . In a d u e t sung by N i c e t t e and G i r o t , Les rendez-x/ous de noble compagnie, t h e P r e aux C l e r c s ' s r e p u t a t i o n as a p l a c e f o r l o v e r s and f o r t h o s e e n g a g i n g i n d u e l s i s r e v e a l e d . I t i s a t G i r o t ' s i n n t h a t Mergy - - t h e h e r o — a r r i v e s , e x h a u s t e d f r o m h i s l o n g t r i p . He has been s e n t t o C h a r l e s I X ' s c o u r t by H e n r i I I I t o r e t r i e v e t h e l a t t e r ' s w i f e M a r g u e r i t e de V a l o i s and her l a d y - i n - w a i t i n g , I s a b e l l e . Soon a f t e r Mergy's e n t r a n c e on t h e s c e n e , t h e k i n g ' s g u a r d s and C a n t a r e 1 1 i - - t h e c o u r t ' s c o n c e r t o r g a n i z e r — a p p e a r . Mergy 72 d i s c r e t e l y i n q u i r e s f r o m C a n t a r e l l i o-f t h e w h e r e a b o u t s o-f t h e Queen and I s a b e l l e . As Mergy and C a n t a r e l l i r e m i n i s c e a b o u t a p a s t e n c o u n t e r , Coram i n g e - - t h e r u t h l e s s and a r r o g a n t c a p t a i n o-f t h e g u a r d s and M ergy's p r i n c i p l e r i v a l - - e n t e r s i n a f u r y . He has been k e p t -from j o i n i n g t h e r o y a l hunt by an i m p e r t i n e n t and • f o o l i s h young man who d a r e d c h a l l e n g e him t o a d u e l . Comminge c a l m l y d e s c r i b e s how h e — i m p a t i e n t and u n a b l e t o t o l e r a t e s u c h i m p e r t i nence — h a d k i l l e d t h e young man be-fore t h e a p p o i n t e d d u e l t i m e . T i r e d o-f - f o l l o w i n g t h e hunt, Queen M a r g u e r i t e and her l a d y I s a b e l l e seek r e s t a t t h e i n n . T h e r e , t h e Queen c o n - f r o n t s her l a d y w i t h h e r c o n c e r n o-f her w e l l - b e i n g . She i n q u i r e s a s t o t h e r e a s o n s f o r I s a b e l l e ' s u n h a p p i n e s s and d i s r e g a r d f o r t h e c o u r t ' s g e n t l e m e n who have been making a d v a n c e s . I s a b e l l e r e p l i e s t h a t t h e r e a s o n f o r her r e c l u s i v e b e h a v i o r i s her l o n g i n g t o r e t u r n home: "madame, quand j e v o u s s u i v i s a P a r i s , v ous n'y d e v i e z r e s t e r que peu de j o u r s , vous d e v i e z r e t D u r n e r a u p r e s du r o i , v o t r e epoux, e t me ramener dans l e c h a t e a u ou j e s u i s nee. . .". To r e c a l l her p a s t h a p p i n e s s , I s a b e l l e o f t e n dreams o f t h e homeland she d e s c r i b e s i n her couplets, Souvenirs du Jeune age. A s u n g d i a l o g u e between M a r g u e r i t e and I s a b e l l e f o l l o w s t h e l a t t e r ' s s ong, i n w h i c h M a r g u e r i t e i n f o r m s I s a b e l l e of t h e k i n g ' s i n t e n t i o n t o marry her t o Comminge. I s a b e l l e ' s h o r r i f i e d c r y b r i n g s f o r t h Mergy, who r u n s t o embrace h i s b e l o v e d . M a r g u e r i t e now u n d e r s t a n d s I s a b e l l e ' s u n h a p p i n e s s and vows t o h e l p them, b u t f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g t h e i r l o v e must r e m a i n a s e c r e t t o a l l and e s p e c i a l l y t o Comminge who comes r u n n i n g i n . Mergy i s i n t r o d u c e d a s H e n r i I l l ' s m e ssenger, and n o t h i n g i s s a i d o f Mergy's a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h I s a b e l l e . In an a t t e m p t t o l i g h t e n t h e mood and change t h e s u b j e c t , N i c e t t e i n f o r m s her 73 godmother, M a r g u e r i t e de V a l o i s , o-f her upcoming m a r r i a g e , and t h e l a t t e r i n v i t e s h e r and her h u s b a n d - t o - b e t o t h e L o u v r e t o c l a i m her dowry. In M a r g u e r i t e ' s i n v i t a t i o n t o N i c e t t e t h e r e i a h i n t o-f m y s t e r y : M a r g u e r i t e s e e s i n N i c e t t e ' s v i s i t a p l a n t o h e l p u n i t e I s a b e l l e and Mergy. At t h i s p o i n t we can o n l y be s u r e t h a t M a r g u e r i t e has a p l a n i n mind, but n o t h i n g more i s r e v e a l e d . As a l l p a r t company, t h e c u r t a i n f a l l s . A c t I I t a k e s p l a c e i n C h a r l e s I X ' s p a l a c e a t t h e L o u v r e . A l o n e , I s a b e l l e s i n g s of h e r l o v e f o r Mergy i n t h e m a g n i f i c e n t a i r , O jours d' innocence. In s c e n e 2, M a r g u e r i t e ' s p l a n i s r e v e a l e d : she w i l l a r r a n g e t o s e c r e t l y marry t h e young l o v e r s i an o b s c u r e c o u n t r y c h a p e l and t h e n , w i t h C a n t a r e l l i ' s h e l p , w i l m a s t e r m i n d t h e i r e s c a p e . To o b t a i n C a n t a r e l l i ' s c o - o p e r a t i o n , M a r g u e r i t e must b l a c k m a i l him w i t h a l e t t e r t o M. de G u i s e — a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by an u n i d e n t i f i e d p e r s o n — i n w hich C a n t a r e l 1 i has s c r i b b l e d s o m e t h i n g i n c r i m i n a t i n g . (The e x a c t c o n t e n t s o f t h e l e t t e r a r e n e v e r d i s c l o s e d . ) M a r g u e r i t e e x p l a i n s t h e p l a n . D u r i n g t h e masquerade, C a n t a r e l l i i s t o b r i n g Mergy t o t h e back d o o r o f M a r g u e r i t e ' s chamber. From t h e r e , t h e y - - a l o n g w i t h Mar g u e r i t e - - a r e t o p r o c e e d t o t h e c o u n t r y c h a p e l . A f t e r Margue-r i t e ' s e x i t , t h e t e r r i f i e d C a n t a r e l 1 i comes f a c e t o f a c e w i t h Comminge, t h e one he has been f o r c e d t o b e t r a y . Comminge, a n g e r e d by j e a l o u s y , vows t h a t i f he d i s c o v e r s a c o n s p i r a c y t o u n i t e Mergy and I s a b e l l e , a l l i n v o l v e d w i l l f a c e h i s w r a t h . In o r d e r t o a p p e a s e Comminge and e x p l a i n Mergy's p r e s e n c e i n Mar-g u e r i t e ' s chamber, C a n t a r e l l i d e c e i v e s Comminge i n t o b e l i e v i n g i n a l o v e a f f a i r between Mergy and t h e Queen. A l l seems w e l l ; t h e p l a n i s i n m o t i o n . But s u d d e n l y a change o f e v e n t s o c c u r s t o shed gloom o v e r t h e l o v e r s ' f a t e . H e n r i I l l ' s r e q u e s t i s 74 p a r t i a l l y r e f u s e d : M a r g u e r i t e may r e t u r n home but i s not t o be a c c o m p a n i e d by I s a b e l l e . The news has a d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t on a l l c o n c e r n e d . To f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e m a t t e r s , I s a b e l l e i s unex-p e c t e d l y summoned by t h e k i n g and g i v e n i n m a r r i a g e by him t o Comminge, and Mergy i s o r d e r e d t o l e a v e . At t h i s p o i n t , Comminge, b e l i e v i n g t h a t Mergy w i s h e s tD s e c r e t l y meet w i t h t h e Queen b e f o r e he l e a v e s , o f f e r s t o h e l p . Mergy, o f f e n d e d by what he b e l i e v e s t o be Comminge's s a r c a s t i c b e h a v i o u r , c h a l l e n g e s t h e l a t t e r t o a d u e l a t dawn a t t h e P r e aux C l e r c s . B e f o r e t h e c u r t a i n f a l l s , Mergy i s g i v e n a n o t e by N i c e t t e i n f o r m i n g him o f M a r g u e r i t e ' s i n t e n t i o n t o p u r s u e h e r p l a n t o u n i t e him w i t h I s a b e l l e . The wedding i s t o t a k e p l a c e a f t e r t h e vows a r e g i v e n by N i c e t t e and G i r o t . The c u r t a i n f a l l s on a n o t e o f hope f o r t h e young l o v e r s . A c t I I I t a k e s p l a c e a t t h e P r e aux C l e r c s . N i c e t t e and G i r o t ' s wedding c e l e b r a t i o n s a r e underway a t t h e i n n . At t h e c h a p e l , Mergy and I s a b e l l e have been u n i t e d and Mergy now a t t e m p t s t o d i v e r t I s a b e l l e and M a r g u e r i t e ' s a t t e n t i o n away f r o m t h e s i t e b e f o r e Comminge's a r r i v a l . The d u e l has been k e p t a s e c r e t f r o m a l l . C a n t a r e l l i a r r i v e s b r e a t h l e s s , w i t h p a s s p o r t s o u t o f t h e c i t y f o r t h e c o u p l e . He must h u r r y f o r he must s e r v e as s e c o n d t o Comminge's d u e l w i t h Mergy. C a n t a r e l l i ' s announcement of Comminge's imminent a r r i v a l g i v e s an e x c u s e f o r b o t h Mergy t o h i d e and f o r t h e women t o j o i n t h e f e s t i v i t i e s a t t h e i n n . A r e n d e z - v o u s f o r t h e e s c a p e i s s e t f o r e i g h t o ' c l o c k . Mergy's d u e l w i t h Comminge f o r c e s t h e " c a t o u t o f t h e bag": i t i s n ot M a r g u e r i t e he l o v e s b u t I s a b e l l e . T h i s t r i g g e r s Comminge's a n g e r , b u t t h e news o f t h e l o v e r s ' s e c r e t m a r r i a g e i s t h e l a s t s t r a w , and t h e b a t t l e grows more v i o l e n t . Comminge i s 75 k i l l e d , and, as c u s t o m a r y w i t h dead o p p o n e n t s i n d u e l s , h i s body i s t r a n s p o r t e d by b o a t t o t h e c h u r c h o f C h a i l l o t where t h e monks w i l l d i s p o s e o-f t h e body. As C a n t a r e l l i r u n s i n t o i n f o r m t h e g u e s t s t h a t Comminge's a d v e r s a r y i s Mergy, t h e b o a t c a r r y i n g a body comes i n t o s i g h t on t h e r i v e r . A l l b e l i e v e Mergy t o be t h e v i c t i m , b u t t h e l a t t e r ' s e n t r a n c e r e a s s u r e s a l l . As t h e wedding f e s t i v i t i e s c o n t i n u e , I s a b e l l e and Mergy makes good t h e i r e s c a p e w i t h C a n t a r e l l i as t h e i r g u i d e . The f i n a l c u r t a i n f a l l s ; e v i l i s d e s t r o y e d , and v i r t u e r e w a r d e d . P a r t I I : The Well-Made P l a y E l e m e n t s i n Le Pre aux Clercs So f a r we have s e e n t h a t P l a n a r d ' s l i b r e t t o d i f f e r s f r o m S c r i b e ' s and M e l e s v i l l e ' s i n p l o t , s e t t i n g and i n t e n s i t y o f c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e a l s o e x t e n d s t o t h e l i -b r e t t o ' s d r a m a t i c and s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s . L i k e M e l e s v i l l e ' s , P l a n a r d ' s l i b r e t t o d i v e r g e s i n some a s p e c t s f r o m S c r i b e ' s w e l l -made p l a y f e a t u r e s . The d e l a y e d - a c t i o n p l o t i s made o b v i o u s by t h e f o l l o w i n g p r e - c u r t a i n e v e n t s : N i c e t t e and G i r o t have a l r e a d y met, f a l l e n i n l o v e and a r e now p r e p a r i n g t h e i r w e d d ing c e l e b r a t i o n ; M a r g u e r i t e de V a l o i s and I s a b e l l e have t r a v e l l e d t o t h e c o u r t of C h a r l e s IX and a r e now h e l d t h e r e a g a i n s t t h e i r w i l l s ; Mergy has been s e n t t o t h e L o u v r e by H e n r i I I I t o r e t r i e v e t h e two women; and t o we a r e l e d t o s u s p e c t Mergy's l o v e f o r I s a b e l l e . T h e s e p r e - c u r t a i n e v e n t s do n o t seem t o have t h e impact of t h o s e e n c o u n t e r e d i n Fra Diavolo o r Zampa. They m e r e l y a ppear t o s e t up t h e immediate a c t i o n , and do n o t have any c r u c i a l b e a r i n g on t h e u n f o l d i n g a c t i o n o r i t s outcome. They do not seem t o embody t h e m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e w h i c h Z e r l i n e ' s coup l e t s Voyez sur cette roche o r P a m e l a ' s b r i e f a i r Ah quel 76 abominable voyage, f o r i n s t a n c e , have i n t e r m s o-f t h e drama i n Fra Diavolo. The i n t e n s e e m o t i o n a l d r i v e i s m i s s i n g f r o m t h e f i r s t s c e n e s o f i e Pre aux Clercs i n which t h e s e p r e - c u r t a i n e v e n t s a r e i n t r o d u c e d . I t i s not u n t i l t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f A c t I, a f t e r t h e e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e p l o t , t h a t t h e t e n s i o n b e g i n s t o mount. Thus P l a n a r d does not u t i l i z e t h e p r e - c u r t a i n e v e n t s w i t h t h e same i n t e n s i t y o r w i t h t h e same i n t e n t i o n s as S c r i b e and M e l e s v i l l e : i n s t e a d of s e r v i n g as p r i m a r y m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s f o r t h e drama, t h e s e e v e n t s m e r e l y s e r v e t o i n t r o d u c e t h e c h a r a c t e r s and s e t t h e drama i n m o t i o n . They do n o t p o s s e s s o r c r e a t e t h e i n i t i a l o u t b u r s t of e m o t i o n s p r e s e n t i n t h e f i r s t s c e n e s o f t h e o t h e r two o p e r a s d i s c u s s e d . P l a n a r d p r e f e r r e d t o c r e a t e t e n s i o n g r a d u a l l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e f i r s t a c t . In t h i s manner, A c t I i s a l m o s t e n t i r e l y e x p o s i t o r y i n n a t u r e and c o n t e n t : i n t r o d u c i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s and t h e p r i m a r y i n t r i g u e s of t h e drama. In Le Pre aux Clercs t h e s e c o n d f e a t u r e of t h e well-made p l a y — " a p a t t e r n o f i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e n s e a c t i o n and s u s p e n s e c a r e f u l l y p r e p a r e d by e x p o s i t i o n which e s t a b l i s h e s c e r t a i n f a c t s f o r t h e s p e c t a t o r and c a u s e s him t o a n t i c i p a t e e a c h s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t " s - - p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t example o f P l a n a r d ' s u n d e r s t a n d -i n g o f S c r i b e ' s d r a m a t i c t e c h n i q u e . U n l i k e S c r i b e and M e l e s v i l l e ' s l i b r e t t i i n w hich t h e s u s p e n s e and t e n s i o n c o n s t a n t l y f l u c t u a t e a f t e r a d r a m a t i c and i n t e n s e o p e n i n g , P l a n a r d ' s work opens i n a much more subdued and r e l a x e d a t m o s p h e r e , a l l o w i n g room f o r e m o t i o n a l and d r a m a t i c e x p a n s i o n . W i t h e a c h new s c e n e and e a c h newly i n t r o d u c e d c h a r a c t e r t h e t e n s i o n mounts as t h e a c t i o n becomes more complex, and c o n f l i c t s b e g i n t o i n t e r t w i n e . 77 Each new s i t u a t i o n i s c l e a r l y a n t i c i p a t e d by a p r e v i o u s e v e n t , a c o n t r i v e d e x i t o r e n t r a n c e , o r by a n o t h e r d r a m a t i c d e v i c e . F o r example, Comminge's r i v a l r y w i t h Mergy comes as no s u r p r i s e o nce we a r e t o l d o-f t h e two men's l o v e -for I s a b e l l e . E ach s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t i s a n t i c i p a t e d i n one way o r a n o t h e r , and s u p p o r t e d by d r a m a t i c d e v i c e s o f v a r i o u s k i n d s . F o r example, t h e c o n s p i r a c y t o h e l p t h e l o v e r s e n t a i l s e l e m e n t s of s e c r e c y , m y s t e r i o u s l e t t e r s (one u s e d t o b l a c k m a i l C a n t a r e l l i and a n o t h e r t o i n f o r m Mergy o f t h e p l a n ) , and c o n t r i v e d e x i t s and e n t r a n c e s . T h i s l a t t e r f e a t u r e i s f r e q u e n t l y employed i n A c t I I when t h e p l a n i s a l r e a d y i n m o t i o n , and i s c o m p l i c a t e d by u n e x p e c t e d e n t r a n c e s o f v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s . M o r e o v e r , t h e p l a n i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d w h e n — d u e t o t h e e l e m e n t o f s e c r e c y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e c o n s p i r a c y — v a r i o u s p i e c e s of t h e p l a n a r e r e v e a l e d t o d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r s a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s , t h u s l e a v i n g M a r g u e r i t e t h e o n l y p e r s o n t o know t h e whole p l a n . A c t I I i n d e e d p r e s e n t s -a- maze o f e x c i t i n g s i t u a t i o n s : I s a -b e l l e i s summoned by t h e k i n g and i n f o r m e d by him t h a t s h e i s t o m a r r y Comminge, Mergy's r i v a l ; M e rgy's r e q u e s t f o r t h e r e l e a s e of t h e Queen and I s a b e l l e i s d e n i e d , and he i s o r d e r e d t o l e a v e t h e c o u r t i m m e d i a t e l y ; C a n t a r e l l i d e c e i v e s Comminge i n t o b e l i e v i n g i n t h e l o v e o f t h e Queen f o r Mergy; Mergy, who i s t o meet M a r g u e r i t e s e c r e t l y i n her chamber i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h Comminge; t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n s between Mergy and Comminge i n v o l v e an a r r a y o f m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , and l e a d t o a d u e l between t h e two men; and I s a b e l l e i s t h e l a s t t o be i n f o r m e d o f h a p p e n i n g s . Thus t h e t e n s i o n and s u s p e n s e g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e a s t h e p l o t grows more and more complex. As f o r t h e t h i r d f e a t u r e o f t h e well-made p l a y — t h e f l u c t u -78 a t i o n s i n t h e h e r o ' s f o r t u n e — i t i s more p r o n o u n c e d i n Le Pre > aux Clercs t h a n i n t h e o t h e r two o p e r a s . T h i s - f a c t o r i s p r i m a r i l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t Mergy, t h e h e r o , a p p e a r s on s t a g e much more f r e q u e n t l y and p l a y s a more a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e u n f o l d i n g drama t h a n do L o r e n z o o r A l p h o n s e i n Fra Diavolo o r Zampa, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The o p e r a o p e ns w i t h Mergy a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e : h i s b e l o v e d has been t a k e n from him, and he now wonders i f t i m e has changed her h e a r t . To f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e h i s p o s i t i o n , we a r e t o l d by M a r g u e r i t e , t h a t t h e K i n g , C h a r l e s IX, p l a n s t o g i v e I s a b e l l e i n m a r r i a g e t o Comminge. A r a y o f hope emerges as t h e l o v e r s a r e r e u n i t e d a t t h e i n n , and f i n d i n M a r g u e r i t e a f r i e n d and s a v i o r . Mergy's good f o r t u n e seems a s s u r e d t h r o u g h t h e Queen's p r o t e c t i o n and p l a n t o u n i t e t h e l o v e r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , an o b s t a c l e a r i s e s w hich c r e a t e s an a t m o s p h e r e of gloom, t h i s d e s p i t e t h e Queen's s u c c e s s f u l p l a n and t h e c o n s e q u e n t u n i o n o f t h e c o u p l e . Mergy c h a l l e n g e s Comminge t o a d u e l , a d u e l f r o m w h i c h Mergy i s s u r e l y t o emerge t h e v i c t i m f o r Comminge has n e v e r been d e f e a t e d . The p r i n c i p a l o b s t a c l e r e m a i n s t o be c o n q u e r e d ; Comminge must be d e f e a t e d t o a s s u r e t h e c o u p l e ' s h a p p i n e s s . Our h e r o ' s s u c c e s s and t h e r i v a l ' s d e a t h a s s u r e t h e c o u p l e ' s s a f e e s c a p e f r o m t h e c i t y , and t h u s r e s t o r e p e a c e and good f o r t u n e i n our h e r o ' s l i f e . The scene at / a i r e i n Le Pre aux Clercs i s o f an u n u s u a l n a t u r e . I t o c c u r s a f t e r t h e Mergy's m a r r i a g e t o I s a b e l l e , and as s u c h a f t e r t h e p r i n c i p a l r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e l o v e i n t r i g u e . I t c o n s i s t s , as i n most o p e r a s c o m i q u e s , o f t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f " e v i l " . In Fra Diavolo t h e v i l l a i n was a r r e s t e d a f t e r h a v i n g been i d e n t i f i e d by a f o r m e r v i c t i m ; t h u s , S c r i b e e n s u r e d t h e s a f e t y of t h e c i t i z e n s , t h e i n e v i t a b l e m a r r i a g e o f t h e happy 79 c o u p l e , t h e good f o r t u n e o f L o r e n z o , and as a r e s u l t , made p o s -s i b l e t h e happy e n d i n g . S i m i l a r l y , i n Zampa, t h e a n t a g o n i s t meets h i s j u s t f a t e a t t h e hands o-f a -former v i c t i m who, a s t h e Commandatore i n M o z a r t ' s Don Giovanni, embraces t h e v i l l a i n and d i s a p p e a r s w i t h him i n t o t h e i n f e r n a l f l a m e s . By t h i s t u r n of e v e n t s — t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of Z a m p a — C a m i l l e i s f r e e t o m a r r y A l p h o n s e , and t h e s a f e t y of t h e p e o p l e i s a s s u r e d . In Le Pre t h e r e i s no r e a l o p p r e s s o r . Comminge i s i n d e e d M e r g y ' s r i v a l and, a s s u c h , p r e s e n t s a t h r e a t t o t h e c o u p l e ' s h a p p i n e s s . But h i s d e s t r u c t i o n i s o n l y an added s e c u r i t y f o r t h e young c o u p l e s i n c e Comminge's d e a t h o c c u r s a f t e r t h e i r m a r r i a g e . N o t h i n g c a n r e v e r s e t h e c h u r c h ' s s a c r a m e n t . The v i l l a i n ' s d e s t r u c t i o n m e r e l y a s s u r e s t h e s u c c e s s of t h e c o u p l e ' s e s c a p e f r o m P a r i s and, i n d i r e c t l y , t h e i r m a r r i a g e o r h a p p i n e s s f o r t h a t m a t t e r . T h e r e f o r e , o f t h e t h r e e o p e r a s , t h i s scene a f a i r e i s p o s s i b l y t h e weakest i n te r m s o f i t s impact on t h e outcome o f t h e drama. S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e i s no p r e v a i l i n g quiproquo, a t l e a s t n ot i n t h e same s e n s e a s f o u n d i n t h e o t h e r two o p e r a s : t h e r e i s no s i n g l e d i s g u i s e which r u n s t h r o u g h t h e p l o t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e a r e s e c r e t s and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s which i n t e r t w i n e w i t h i n t h e drama, c o m p l i c a t i n g i t s c o u r s e and outcome. F o r example, Mergy and I s a b e l l e ' s l o v e f o r e a c h o t h e r i s k e p t a s e c r e t f r o m t h e i r r i v a l Comminge, as i s M a r g u e r i t e ' s p l a n t o m a r r y them and h e l p them e s c a p e . F u r t h e r m o r e , an i m p o r t a n t m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a r i s e s between Mergy and Comminge, i n A c t I I , as Comminge o f f e r s t o h e l p Mergy meet h i s ' b e l o v e d * whom Comminge b e l i e v e s t o be th e Queen. Mergy, c e r t a i n t h a t Comminge i s a l l u d i n g t o I s a b e l l e and a s s u c h i s m o c k i n g him, c h a l l e n g e s h i s r i v a l t o a d u e l . T h i s m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s f i n a l l y r e s o l v e d a t t h e P r e aux C l e r c s 30 a t t h e a p p o i n t e d t i m e o f t h e d u e l when Mergy d e c l a r e s : "Mais j e vous b r a v e t o u s , l e s t r a l t r e s , l e s j a l o u x , v o t r e c o u r s i p e r f i d e ! . . C e l l e que j ' a i m e e s t a moi pour j a m a i s ! e t l a mort s e u l e p e u t me s e p a r e r d* I s a b e l l e ! " T h i s l a s t r e v e l a t i o n t h e n n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e scene a f a i r e . Comminge's e l i m i n a t i o n becomes c r u c i a l t o c o u p l e ' s h a p p i n e s s , f o r t h e a n g e r e d Comminge now vows t o k i l l h i s opponent whom he was p r e v i o u s l y p r e p a r e d t o s p a r e . D e s p i t e t h e l a c k o f a p r e v a l e n t quipr-oquo, t h i s m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g adds as much s u s p e n s e and t e n s i o n t o t h e u n f o l d i n g drama as do t h e d i s g u i s e s o f t h e v i l l a i n s i n Fra Diavolo and Zampa. G i v e n t h e d r a m a t i c c o m p l e x i t y i n Le Pre aux Clercs and t h e numerous i n t e r t w i n i n g s i t u a t i o n s , t h e d r a m a t i c s t r u c t u r e o f e a c h a c t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h a t of t h e whole i s not as c l e a r - c u t a s t h e s t r u c t u r e s o b s e r v e d i n Fra Diavolo and Zampa. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a s w i t h t h e o t h e r two l i b r e t t i , a s i m i l a r a l 1 - e n c o m p a s s i n g s t r u c t u r e can be o b s e r v e d : e a c h a c t p r e s e n t s i t s c o n f l i c t s and s o l u t i o n s , w hich i n t u r n i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e whole as d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e d i a g r a m on t h e f o l l o w i n g page. Musical Sol 1 P l a n a r d ' s p r i m a r y u s e o f t h e m u s i c a l s o l o f o r m s i s t h a t o f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . T h i s l a t t e r c a t e g o r y of s o l i may be s u b d i v -i d e d i n t o two d i s t i n c t s u b - c l a s s e s : t h e f i r s t a dds t o c h a r a c t e r -i z a t i o n t h e r o l e o f e x p o s i t i o n , r e l a t i n g p r e - c u r t a i n e v e n t s o r i n t r o d u c i n g c h a r a c t e r s ; and t h e s e c o n d c o m b i n e s w i t h a d e e p e r l e v e l o f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n t o p r e s e n t t h e e m o t i o n a l and m e n t a l s t a t e s o f a c h a r a c t e r a t a g i v e n moment i n t h e drama. B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g e ach m u s i c a l s o l o and i t s r o l e i n Le Pre aux Clercs l e t us e s t a b l i s h , by t h e u s e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g two c h a r t s , t h e Le Pre aux Clercs: O v e r a l l D r a m a t i c Scheme Prob1ems 4 R e s o l u t i o n s Act I Act II Act III 'Problems R e s o l u t i o n s 1 1 Prob1 ems R e s o l u t i o n s ' 'Prob1ems Reso1ut i o n s I N and G t o be m a r r i e d . -» -N and G marr i ed. M comes t o r e t r i eve H I l l ' s w i f e and I s . C d e s i r e s t o marry I s . I s homesi ck» • a l s o mil M. - I s and M reun i t e d . C becomes M's c h i e f r i v a l . Ma p l a n s t o u n i t e I s and M. -> M o r d e r e d t o l e a v e . I s p r o m i s e d t o C. t -» K i n g p r o m i s e s I s t o C. -> Duel between-C and M. P l a n j e o p a r -d i z e d by K i n g ' s I s r e t u r n s home w i t h M. C k i1 l e d 5 I s f r e e d . -* -M and I s marr i ed. -> -Duel -*M t h r e a t e n s M's l i f e . d e f e a t s C . o r d e r s . -> P l a n s u c c e e d s and I s and M u n i t e d . I s and M e s c a p e . Note: I s = I s a b e l l e ; M=Mergy; C=Comminge; Ma=Marguerite de V a l o i s ; N = N i c e t t e j G=Girot5 H I I I = H e n r i I I I . 82 m u s i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h i s o p e r a and t h e p l a c e m e n t o-f t h e s o l i w i t h i n t h e drama. M u s i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n i n L L o c a t i o n Number Form I, I, i v I, v i -v i i i I, x i i -xv 1 INTRO: C h o r u s Sung D i a l o g u e C h o r u s 2 Duo 3 A i r 4 Ensemble 5 FINALE: Romance Sung D i a l o g u e Ensemb1e e Pre aux Clercs I n c i p i t s "Ah q u e l beau j o u r " " L es r e n d e z - v o u s de n o b l e compagnie" "0 ma t e n d r e amie" " A l i e n s , a t a b l e " " S o u v e n i r du j e u n e age" I I , i 6 A i r "0 j o u r s d ' i n n o c e n c e " I I , i i i 7 Tr i o "Vous me d i s i e z " I I , v i - 8 Ensemb1e "Chantons, d a n s o n s " v i i i I I , x i i - 9 FINALE: "Tout e s t d i t . . . " ( c h o r u s , a i r , ensemb1e) I I I , i l O C h o r u s / S u n g "Pour b i e n p a s s e r D i a l o g u e l a v i e " Romance "A l a f l e u r du j e u n e age" C h o r u s I I I , i i i 1 1 Tr i o " C en e s t f a i t ! " I I I , v i 12 FINALE: ( a i r , c h o r u s , ensemb1e) M u s i c a l S o l i i n Le Pre aux Clercs L o c a t i o n I, i v I, x i i I I , i I I I , i Number 3 6 lO C a s t Mergy I s a b e l l e I s a b e l i e N i c e t t e S ynops i s AIR: Mergy a r r i v e s a t t h e i n n . He dreams o-f h i s b e l o v e d . ROMANCE: I s . e x p l a i n s t o M a r g u e r i t e t h e r e a s o n f o r her u n h a p p i n e s s . AIR: A l o n e I s . p l e d g e s her l o v e t o Mergy. RONDE: N i c e t t e e n t e r t a i n s her wedding g u e s t s w i t h a sung s t o r y o-f l o v e . 33 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e a r e two i s o l a t e d s o l i , w h i c h a r e not i n c l u d e d w i t h i n a l a r g e r ensemble c o n t e x t , i n Le Pre aux Clercs. The f i r s t o c c u r s i n A c t I s c e n e 1 4 and i s s u n g by Mergy (No. 3 ) , t h e male p a r t y t o t h e l o v e i n t r i g u e ; t h e s e c o n d o c c u r s i n A c t I I s c e n e 1 and i s sung by I s a b e l l e (No. 5 ) , t h e f e m a l e p a r t y . B oth s o l i a r e a i r s , and b o t h d e a l w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r s ' p a s t and l o v e f o r one a n o t h e r . Mergy's a i r , O ma tendre amie (No.3), l i k e t h a t o f I s a -b e l l e , i s a sung monologue. The r e c i t a t i v e w h i c h p r e c e d e s t h e a i r e x p r e s s e s Mergy's a g i t a t i o n i n a r r i v i n g "dans c e t t e v i l l e immense / Qui m'a r a v i t o u t mon b o n h e u r " . H i s a g i t a t i o n c h a n g e s t o hope and memories o f j o y as t h e a i r b e g i n s . In t h e c o n t r a s t i n g s e c t i o n o f t h i s t e r n a r y f o r m , Mergy wonders i f t i m e has changed h i s b e l o v e d ' s f e e l i n g s f o r him. T h i s moment of doubt i s b u t s h o r t - l i v e d f o r , a s Mergy r e p e a t s t h e o p e n i n g melody, he o p t i m i s t i c a l l y b e l i e v e s t h a t he w i l l s e e h e r . F u n c t i o n a l l y , t h i s s o l o s e r v e s f i r s t t o i n t r o d u c e Mergy as a p r i m a r y c h a r a c t e r t o t h e p l o t , and doe s so by i s o l a t i n g him on s t a g e . On a d e e p e r l e v e l , t h i s s o l o a l s o s e r v e s two o t h e r p u r p o s e s : t h a t o f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and o f e x p o s i t i o n . In t h e f o r m e r r o l e , i t r e v e a l s Mergy's m e n t a l and e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s a t t h i s g i v e n moment i n t h e drama. I t doe s s o by t r a c i n g h i s p r e s e n t t r a i n of t h o u g h t , w h i c h r e v e a l s h i s c a r i n g and l o v i n g n a t u r e , a s w e l l a s h i s f a i t h f u l d e v o t i o n t o h i s b e l o v e d . On t h e e x p o s i t i o n l e v e l , t h r e e e l e m e n t s f r o m h i s p a s t a r e uncov-e r e d : 1) t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a l o v e d one i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d ; 2) t h e r e i s an h i n t o f a p a s t t r a u m a t i c s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e l o v e r s ; and 3) t h e l o c a t i o n of h i s b e l o v e d i s a l s o a l l u d e d t o i n t h e f o l l o w i n g words: " M a l g r e l e v a i n d e l i r e / Des p l a i s i r s de l a 84 c o u r , . . .". As i s t h e c a s e i n most e x p o s i t o r y s o l i o f t h i s n a t u r e , t h e d e t a i l s o-f e a c h i t e m a l l u d e d t o r e m a i n u n c l e a r . F o r example, we do not know t h e p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n o f t h e b e l o v e d , her name o r even t h e c a u s e o-f t h e s e p a r a t i o n . I s a b e l l e ' s a i r (No. 6 ) , O jours d' innocence, which opens A c t I I , a l s o t r a c e s t h i s c h a r a c t e r ' s t r a i n o-f t h o u g h t a t a g i v e n moment i n t h e drama. In her so n g , I s a b e l l e r e c a l l s her m i s t r e s s ' s r e a s s u r i n g words o-f p r o t e c t i o n and h e l p . She a l s o e x p r e s s e s her deep l o v e and d e v o t i o n t o Mergy. T h i s s o l o , l i k e Mergy's, i s s t a t i c i n n a t u r e , m a r k i n g a moment o-f r e - f l e c -t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a c t i o n , and t h u s p e r m i t s a g l i m p s e a t t h e s u b t l e r s h a d e s o-f I s a b e l l e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . In a d d i t i o n t o t r a c i n g I s a b e l l e ' s t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s , t h i s s o n g a l s o s e r v e s t o s e t t h e a t m o s p h e r e o-f t e n s i o n and t h e theme o-f hope o-f t h e s e c o n d a c t which r e v o l v e s a r o u n d t h e p l a n t o u n i t e t h e l o v e r s . The r e m a i n i n g two s o l i a r e b o t h e n c l o s e d w i t h i n l a r g e r e n s e m b l e s . The - f i r s t s o l o , I s a b e l l e ' s romance (No. 3) Souvenirs du jeune age, b e l o n g s t o t h e l a r g e r - f i n a l e e n s emble o-f A c t I. I t s p r i m a r y p u r p o s e , l i k e t h a t of t h e e n t i r e - f i r s t a c t , i s e x p o s i t o r y ; i t i n t r o d u c e s I s a b e l l e a s a p r i n c i p l e c h a r a c t e r i n t h e p l o t . The a c t i o n u n f o l d s on t h e s h o r e s of t h e r i v e r S e i n e , n e a r t h e L o u v r e . M a r g u e r i t e de V a l o i s i s h e l d p r i s o n e r a t t h e c o u r t o-f C h a r l e s IX, her b r o t h e r . With h e r , M a r g u e r i t e r e t a i n s a young B e a r n a i s e g i r l named I s a b e l l e . M a r g u e r i t e i s happy a t her b r o t h e r ' s c o u r t , b u t s u c h i s not t h e c a s e w i t h I s a b e l l e her a t t e n d a n t , who does not s h a r e t h e same e a s e and c o n t e n t m e n t as her m i s t r e s s . I s a b e l l e ' s i n d i f f e r e n c e t oward g e n t l e m e n c a l l e r s and her r e c l u s i v e b e h a v i o r have a t t r a c t e d t h e r o y a l f a m i l y ' s d i s p l e a s u r e . They, 85 i n t u r n , have r e q u e s t e d M a r g u e r i t e t o i n q u i r e as t o t h e c a u s e o-f I s a b e l l e ' s u n h a p p i n e s s . I s a b e l l e ' s r e s p o n s e t a k e s t h e -form o f t h e f o l l o w i n g romance i n which sh e r e c a l l s t h e b e a u t i e s o f h e r homeland f o r w h i c h she l o n g s . ROMANCE P r e m i e r c o u p l e t S o u v e n i r s du j e u n e age S o nt g r a v e s dans mon coeur5 E t j e p e n s e au v i l l a g e Pour r e v e r l e bonheur. Ah! ma v o i x v o u s s u p p l i e D ' e c o u t e r mon d e s i r : Rendez-moi ma p a t r i e , Ou l a i s s e z - m o i r n o u r i r . Deuxieme c o u p l e t De nos b o i s l e s i l e n c e , L e s b o r d s d'un c l a i r r u i s s e a u , L a p a i x e t 1 ' i n n o c e n c e Des e n f a n t s du hameau... Ah! v o i l a mon e n v i e , V o i l a mon s e u l d e s i r : Rendez-moi ma p a t r i e , Ou l a i s s e z - m o i rnourir. T h r o u g h t h i s r e f l e c t i v e s o n g we d i s c o v e r I s a b e l l e ' s d e e p l y e m o t i o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y and t h e g r a v e d e s p a i r she f e e l s by b e i n g away f r o m her b e l o v e d homeland. U n l i k e I s a b e l l e ' s r e f l e c t i v e a i r w h i c h f o l l o w s i n A c t I (No. 6 d i s c u s s e d a b o v e ) , t h i s s o l o , by i t s p l a c e m e n t w i t h i n t h e drama and by i t s v e r y n a t u r e as a r e p l y t o M a r g u e r i t e , i n v o l v e s a s m a l l amount of a c t i o n . F u r -t h e r m o r e , i t a l s o a c t s as a m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e f o r t h e u n f o l d i n g drama: her p l e a t o M a r g u e r i t e , "Rendez-moi ma p a t r i e , / Ou l a i s s e z - m o i rnourir", c a n n o t h e l p b u t t o u c h t h e c o m p a s s i o n a t e Queen and i n s p i r e h e r t o h e l p t h e young l o v e r s . The s e c o n d s o l o e n c a s e d i n an ensemble i s N i c e t t e ' s rande i n A c t I I I s c e n e 1 (No. l O ) . W i t h i n t h e d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t i n w h i c h i t i s f o u n d , t h i s r-ande a c t s as an accompaniment t o a 86 d a nce p e r f o r m e d by t h e wedding g u e s t s ; as s u c h i t c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d w i t h o u t c a u s i n g harm t o t h e drama. I t i s n o n e t h e -l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e s o n g ' s t e x t s u p e r -f i c i a l l y a p p e a r s t o be t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d t o t h e immediate drama, t h e n a r r a t e d s t o r y s t r a n g e l y p a r a l l e l s i n mood and n a t u r e t h e e v e n t s o f t h e p r i n c i p a l l o v e i n t r i g u e between Mergy and I s a b e l l e : a young man meets a f a i r maiden a t a c o u r t b a l l ; t h e y f a l l i n l o v e ; and, b e c a u s e o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g them, t h e y must keep t h e i r l o v e a s e c r e t . We have p r e v i o u s l y e n c o u n t e r e d two s u c h n a r r a t i v e s — t o l d a t t h e u r g i n g of o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s - - i n Fra Diavolo and Zampa. In a l l t h r e e c a s e s , t h e s o l i s e r v e d as e n t e r t a i n m e n t p i e c e s , and as s u c h a l l t h r e e c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e l i b r e t t o w i t h o u t i l l e f f e c t t o t h e p l o t . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e i r p l a c e m e n t i n t h e drama and more i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e i r s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t i v e t e x t s would seem t o p r o p o s e a f o r e s h a d o w i n g r o l e , a n t i c i p a t i n g t h e c o n c l u s i o n o r outcome of t h e u n f o l d i n g drama i n most c a s e s . In a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e o b s e r v e d i m p o r t a n c e g i v e n t o c h a r -a c t e r p o r t r a y a l by P l a n a r d , t h e s o l i i n Le Pre aux Clercs a c t p r i m a r i l y as a g e n t s Df c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , e x p o s i n g not o n l y t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s b u t a l s o m e n t a l and e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s of i n d i v i d u a l s a t g i v e n moments i n t h e drama. T h i s f a c t o r of i n t e n s e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n — c o m b i n i n g t h e r o l e of c h a r a c t e r i z a -t i o n w i t h o t h e r d r a m a t i c f u n c t i o n s — r e p r e s e n t s t h e p r i m a r y a s p e c t i n w h i c h P l a n a r d ' s u s e o f s o l o m u s i c a l f o r m s d i f f e r s f r o m t h a t o f S c r i b e and M e l e s v i l l e . N o n e t h e l e s s , l i k e c e r t a i n s o l i e n c o u n t e r e d i n Fra Diavolo and Zampa, some s o l i i n Le Pre a l s o s e r v e s i n g l e f u n c t i o n s , s u c h a s i n t r o d u c i n g t h e p l o t ' s c h a r a c t e r s , and u n c o v e r i n g s u b t l e r s h a d e s of p e r s o n a l i t i e s . •i 87 Another category of s o l i encountered i n a l l three operas i s that of s o l i of " e x p o s i t i o n " . Although Planard uses Mer-gy's air and I s a b e l l e ' s romance i n Act I to c l a r i f y pre-c u r t a i n events and/or elements of the dramatic s i t u a t i o n , h i s use of e x p o s i t o r y s o l i i s l i m i t e d in comparison with that of S c r i b e and M e l e s v i 1 l e . F i r s t l y , Planard only uses two such s o l i in h i s opera, as opposed to four i n Fra Diavolo and three in Zampa. Secondly, Planard's e x p o s i t o r y s o l i are s i t u a t e d at some d i s t a n c e from one another i n the drama, thus l i m i t i n g t h e i r cumulative e x p o s i t o r y e f f e c t . In Fra Diavolo and Zampa, the e x p o s i t o r y s o l i are concentrated w i t h i n the f i r s t f i v e scenes of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i r s t a c t . Als o , Planard's s o l i do not r e v e a l the same wealth of background i n f o r m a t i o n as do those of S c r i b e and M e l e s v i l i e , these s o l i ' s primary purpose being c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and not e x p o s i t i o n . T herefore, in the category of e x p o s i t i o n , we observe on one hand that such s o l i i n i e Pre aux Clercs share two funda-mental f e a t u r e s with those of the two p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d operas namely, the e x p o s i t i o n of d e t a i l s of past events important to the immediate a c t i o n , and the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the p l o t ' s p e r s o n a l i t i e s . On the other hand, they d i f f e r from t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s in one fundamental way. Des p i t e the f a c t that Planard's e x p o s i t o r y s o l i serve, to some extent, an " i n t r o d u c t o r y " purpose, t h e i r primary task i s that of charac-t e r i z a t i o n . In both Fra Diavolo and Zampa, c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n remains the secondary f u n c t i o n of the e x p o s i t o r y s o l i . In t h i s fundamental d i s t i n c t i o n may l i e the reason f o r the unusual placement of Planard's s o l i i n Act I. Despite the above d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s , one category of S D I i 88 does a p p e a r i n a l l t h r e e o p e r a s : t h e s e e m i n g l y n o n - d r a m a t i c s o l o u s e d as an e n t e r t a i n m e n t p i e c e , and/or as a -foreshadowing a g e n t . We have s e e n how D i a v o l o ' 5 b a r c a r o l l e , Agnes la jou-vencelle iFra Diavolo'. A c t I I , 3 ) , a n t i c i p a t e s t h e b a n d i t ' s c r i m e and t h e a r r i v a l o-f h i s a c c o m p l i c e s ; and how Zampa's b a r c a r o l l e , Douce jouvencelle iZsmps'. A c t I I , 1 0 ) , -foreshadows C a m i l l e ' s e v e n t u a l r e s c u e -from t h e v i l l a i n ' s g r i p . In t h e same manner, N i c e t t e ' s ronde, A Is f l e u r du jeune sge (Le Pre sux Clercs'. A c t I I I , 1 ) , p a r a l l e l s t h e l o v e i n t r i g u e between Mergy and I s a b e l l e by means o-f i t s e m p h a s i s on t h e two p r i m a r y e l e m e n t s , s e c r e c y and t r u e l o v e . In summary, Le Pre sux Clercs p r e s e n t s c a t e g o r i e s o-f s o l i s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b s e r v e d i n Prs Diavolo and Zampa, and t h u s con-firms our p r e v i o u s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o-f t h e s o l i i n t o - f i v e d i s t i n c t i v e - f u n c t i o n a l g r o u p s : s o l i u sed -for <1) t h e e x p o s i -t i o n o-f p r e - c u r t a i n e v e n t s and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o-f t h e c a s t ; <2) c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n ; <3) t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f t h e t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s o r t h e e m o t i o n a l s t a t e o-f an i n d i v i d u a l a t a g i v e n moment i n t h e drama; and (4) t h e -foreshadowing o-f upcoming e v e n t s and, i n some c a s e s , (5) -for m u s i c a l b a l a n c e . The c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r which - f o l l o w s w i l l b r i e - f l y summarize t h e use o-f s o l o -forms o b s e r v e d i n t h e t h r e e examined o p e r a s c o m i q u e s and t h u s as p r a c t i c e d by t h r e e d i f f e r e n t l i b r e t t i s t s o f t h e 1830s; i t w i l l a l s o d e a l w i t h t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e p r a c t i c e s i n t e r m s o f t h e o p e r a - c o r n i q u e ' s d e v e l o p m e n t . 89 N o t e s 1. O c t a v e Fouque, H i s t o i r e du Theatre Uentadour <1829-1879> ( P a r - i s , 1881), p. 46. 2. F . J . F e t i s , " T h e a t r e de 1'Opera-Cornique. Le Pre aux Clercs," Revue Mus i cale (December 29 1832) , 380. 3. P. L a r o u s s e , Grand Dict ionnaire universel du x ix** s i e c l e , ( P a r i s , 1866), v o l . 13, p. 39 4. A l b e r t S o u b i e s , Soixante Ans a I'Opera-Comique en deux pages, ( P a r i s , 1894). 5. R a o u l Duhamel, "L'Opera-Comique au xix» s i e c l e . F e r d i n a n d H e r o l d , " Revue flusicale (November 1933), p. 283. 6. C a m i l l e B e l l a i g u e , Un S i e c l e de musique franpaise. L'Opera-Comique d'Herold a Bizet ( P a r i s , 1886), p. 169-70. 7. P. L a r o u s s e , Grand Dietionnaire universel du xZx~ s i e c l e , vo1. 13, p. 39. 8. S t e v e n S. S t a n t o n , English Drama and the French Weil-Made Play, 1815-1915 (Ann A r b o r , M i c h . , 1955)5 q u o t e d i n K.S. P e n d l e , Eugene Scribe and French Opera in the Nineteenth Century (Ann A r b o r , M i c h . , 1979), p. 85, n l . 90 \/i C o n c l u s i o n As s e e n by t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t h r e e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s , Fra Diavolo, Zampa, and Le Pre aux Clercs e x h i b i t — i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p l a c e m e n t o-f m u s i c a l s o l i w i t h i n t h e drama--t r a i t s w h ich a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o-f o p e r a s c o m i q u e s o-f t h e p e r i o d . Our b r i e - f s t u d y o-f o t h e r 1830s Q p e r a - c o m i q u e l i b r e t t i s u p p o r t s o u r h y p o t h e s i s t h a t c e r t a i n p r a c t i c e s were i n d e e d used by o t h e r c o n t e m p o r a r y l i b r e t t i s t s i n t h e p l a c e m e n t o-f m u s i c a l numbers w i t h i n t h e drama. More i m p o r t a n t , however, i s t h e -fact t h a t t h e s e e x h i b i t e d - f e a t u r e s , p e c u l i a r t o t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h -c e n t u r y o p e r a s c o m i q u e s , a r e not u s u a l l y o b s e r v e d i n works o-f t h e p r e c e d i n g c e n t u r y . One must a t t r i b u t e t h e c r e d i t -for t h e s e c h a n g e s t o A u g u s t i n - E u g e n e S c r i b e . In t h e h i s t o r y o-f F r e n c h o p e r a o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e l i b r e t t i o-f Eugene S c r i b e r e p r e s e n t an a r e a o-f s t a b i l i t y and c o n t i n u i t y w h i c h spanned t w o - a n d - a - h a l f d e c a d e s . In h i s c r a f t S c r i b e c r o s s e d g e n e r i c l i n e s by b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r a number of c o n s i s t e n t s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s and a p p l y i n g them w i t h n e c e s s a r y m o d i f i c a t i o n s and g r e a t t e c h n i c a l s k i l l t o a v a r i e t y of t h e a t r i c a l g e n r e s i n c l u d i n g t h o s e o f t h e m u s i c a l t h e a t r e . S c r i b e ' s o p e r a s and o p e r a s c o m i q u e s not o n l y had a s t r o n g b a s i s i n t h e p a p u l a r t h e a t e r , b u t t h i s p a p u l a r t h e a t e r i t s e l f was i n good p a r t t h e r e s u l t o f S c r i b e ' s own c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n h i s cornedies-vaudevi 1 les. *• S c r i b e ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o b o t h F r e n c h Grand O p e r a and o p e r a comique i s not o n l y q u a n t i t a t i v e , b u t a l s o q u a l i t a t i v e . H i s t r e m endous o u t p u t of d r a m a t i c works c o u l d not h e l p b u t e x e r c i s e a c o n s i d e r a b l e impact on t h e P a r i s i a n s t a g e s . What was t o have an even g r e a t e r e f f e c t on d r a m a t i c works Df t h e p e r i o d , however, were h i s w r i t i n g t e c h n i q u e s and d r a m a t i c c o n v e n t i o n s . C h a n g i n g t i m e s meant c h a n g i n g s t y l e s , b ut t h e b a s i c s t r e n g t h and v a l i d i t y of S c r i b e ' s w r i t i n g t e c h n i q u e s i s d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t h i s i n f l u e n c e can be t r a c e d i n t h e works o f l a t e r w r i t e r s . B e c a u s e S c r i b e p r o v i d e d l i b r e t t i f o r t h e most p o p u l a r o p e r a s and o p e r a s c o m i q u e s of h i s day, works t h a t were p e r f o r m e d w i t h r e p e a t e d s u c c e s s l o n g a f t e r h i s d e a t h , h i s example was e v e r p r e s e n t i n t h e w o r l d o f F r e n c h 91 o p e r a . M o r e o v e r , t h i s i n f l u e n c e e x t e n d e d not o n l y beyond h i s own t i m e , b u t beyond t h e b o u n d a r i e s o-f h i s own c o u n t r y . C r e a t o r o f a t r a d i t i o n , S c r i b e s u s t a i n e d t h i s t r a d i t i o n f o r y e a r s and i n i t p r o v i d e d a f o u n d a t i o n f o r modern l i b r e t t o t e c h n i q u e s . z Indeed, s e v e r a l of S c r i b e ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s a d o p t e d e l e m e n t of h i s w r i t i n g s t y l e , i n t e g r a t i n g them i n t o t h e i r works. We have s e e n how S c r i b e ' s use and t r e a t m e n t of m u s i c a l s o l i i n h i s o p e r a comique l i b r e t t o i n f l u e n c e d b o t h M e l e s v i l l e ' s and P l a n a r d ' s works. We have a l s o o b s e r v e d how t h e s o l i o f Fra Diavolo, Zampa and Le Pre aux Clercs can be g r o u p e d i n t o f i v e " f u n c t i o n a l " c a t e g o r i e s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r p l a c e m e n t and r o l e i n t h e drama. The s o l i o f t h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y - - t h o s e u s e d f o r e x p o s i t i o n -u s u a l l y d e l a y t h e a c t i o n and i t s u n f o l d i n g . Most f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n t h e f i r s t f o u r o r f i v e o p e n i n g s c e n e s , t h e y s e r v e t o e x p o s e b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n on a p e r s o n o r e v e n t , a n d / o r t o e l a b o r a t e on i n f o r m a t i o n r e v e a l e d i n s p e e c h . The r e l a t e d e v e n t s a r e most o f t e n p r e - c u r t a i n h a p p e n i n g s h a v i n g d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on t h e outcome o f t h e o p e r a ' s p r i m a r y c o n f l i c t T h e s e e x p o s i t o r y s o l i a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y n a r r a t i v e t e x t s : a s t o r y t o l d a t t h e u r g i n g o f o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s . An e x c e l l e n t example of t h i s t y p e o f s o l o i s Z e r l i n e ' s b a l l a d e [/oyex sur cette roche (Fra Diavolo: A c t IV, s c e n e 4) i n w h i c h Z e r l i n e , a t t h e u r g i n g of Matheo and t h e M a r q u i s ( D i a v o l o i n d i s g u i s e ) , des c r i b e s t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f t h e i n f a m o u s b a n d i t D i a v o l o — i n f o r m a -t i o n e s s e n t i a l t o t h e u n f o l d i n g drama. The s e c o n d t y p e o f s o l o d e a l s w i t h c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . A i r s c a v a t i n e s and o t h e r b r i e f s o n g s a r e u s u a l l y u s e d i n s u c h d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s where c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a y a l i s t h e key o b j e c -t i v e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e s o l i a r e f r e q u e n t l y s t a t i c and r e f l e c 92 t i v e in nature, t r a c i n g the progress of a s i n g l e i d e a as viewed by a c h a r a c t e r . For example, Zampa's c a v a t i n e , 7oi dant la grace seduisante, p a i n t s a very c l e a r p i c t u r e o-f Zampa's person-a l i t y by r e c o u n t i n g h i s past a c t i v i t i e s , and thus e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s r e p u t a t i o n . The s o l i of the t h i r d type u s u a l l y expose the t r a i n of t h o u g h t — i n t i m a t e thoughts—o-f a c h a r a c t e r at a given moment in the drama; those o-f the f o u r t h are more concerned with the i n d i -v i d u a l ' s emotional s t a t e . These two aspects o-f a c h a r a c t e r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y are o f t e n found w i t h i n a s i n g l e s o l o and f o r t h i s reason, i t i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t to view the two c a t e g o r i e s as separate from one another. Nonetheless, s o l i of the more "cere-b r a l " or i n t e l l e c t u a l genre can be observed in dramatic s i t u a -t i o n s i n which the c h a r a c t e r , u s u a l l y alone on the stage, r e c a l l s h i s / h e r past l i f e . For example, in h i s c a v a t i n e (Zampa Act I I , scene 1) Zampa f i r s t d e s c r i b e s himself as a vrai ior-han who always gets h i s way, and then r e c a l l s h i s love conquests in In d i a , I t a l y , Spain, A r a b i a , and England. In terms of Zampa's c h a r a c t e r , t h i s s o l o r e p r e s e n t s a dramatic h i g h p o i n t . A s i m i l a r s o l o appears in Act I I I scene 1 of Fra Diavolo where D i a v o l o recounts, in a sung monologue, h i s l i f e as a b a n d i t . As i n Zampa, t h i s s o l o a l s o r e p r e s e n t s a h i g h p o i n t i n terms of d e s c r i b i n g the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c h a r a c t e r . In operas comiques of the 1830s the most f r e q u e n t l y encountered s o l i are those of a r e f l e c t i v e and i n t e n s e l y emotional nature. T h i s type of musical number i s p r i m a r i l y used to express a c h a r a c t e r ' s sentiments about a s i t u a t i o n presented in the course of the u n f o l d i n g a c t i o n . These r e f l e c t i o n s of sentiment are o f t e n the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t of a past event (e.g., 93 an i n f l i c t e d s e p a r a t i o n o+ two l o v e r s , a p r e - a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e ( t o t h e d i s f a v o u r o-f one l o v e r ) , u n r e q u i t e d l o v e , and so on) and D f t e n o c c u r - f o l l o w i n g a d i s t u r b i n g e v e n t which t r i g g e r s t h e memory and/or t h e e m o t i o n s . An e x c e l l e n t example o-f s u c h a s o l o i s -found i n A c t I o-f P l a n a r d ' s Le Pre aux Clercs where I s a b e l l e , c o n f r o n t e d w i t h her Queen's q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g her u n h a p p i n e s s , e x p r e s s e s her deep d e s p a i r i n b e i n g k e p t p r i s o n e r i n a f o r e i g n l a n d , and her d e s i r e t o r e t u r n home. The f i f t h c a t e g o r y c o m p r i s e s t h e more " n o n - d r a m a t i c " s o l i : (a) t h o s e o f which t h e t e x t s a r e i n d i r e c t l y l i n k e d t o t h e drama; and (b> t h o s e w h i c h m e r e l y e x i s t f o r t h e m u s i c a l b a l a n c e of t h e o p e r a . In t h e t h r e e o p e r a s c o m i q u e s examined, and i n many o t h e r s s u r v e y e d , a t l e a s t one s o l o number o f t h i s f i f t h c a t e g o r y was f o u n d . T h e s e s o l i a r e most f r e q u e n t l y used t o f o r e s h a d o w upcoming e v e n t s o r even t o a n t i c i p a t e t h e r e s o l u t i o n of t h e p r i m a r y i n t r i g u e by s i m p l y r e l a t i n g , u s u a l l y i n n a r r a t i v e f o r m , a s t o r y p a r a l l e l t o t h a t of t h e immediate drama. F o r example, N i c e t t e ' s Ronde ( A c t I I I s c e n e 11 o f Le Pre aux C l e r c s ) , w h i l e r e l a t i n g t h e s t o r y o f two young l o v e r s w h o — f o r c e d t o h i d e t h e i r l o v e f o r one a n o t h e r f o r some t i m e — t r i u m p h i n t h e end, a n t i c i p a t e s t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p l a n t o u n i t e t h e two l o v e r s and e n s u r e t h e i r f u t u r e h a p p i n e s s . D e s p i t e t h e s u b t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e t e x t s of some s u c h s o l i , o t h e r s i m i l a r n a r r a t i v e s o l i m e r e l y s e r v e as d r a m a t i c d e v i c e s o r e n t e r t a i n e m e n t p i e c e s . F o r example, D i a v o l o ' s b a r c a r o l l e i n A c t I I of f r a Diavolo a c t s as a s i g n a l t o h i s a c c o m p l i c e s , and Zampa's couplets, Que la vague ecumante, i n A c t I o f Zampa, s e r v e t o e n t e r t a i n h i s comrades and wedding g u e s t s on t h e eve o f h i s wedding day. The a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d p r a c t i c e s i n t h e use and p l a c e m e n t o f 94 m u s i c a l s o l i s i g n i - f y an i m p o r t a n t d e v e l o p m e n t i n t e r m s o-f t h e g e n r e ' s h i s t o r y . T h e r e i s a c l e a r breakaway -from t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y opera-corn i que c o n v e n t i o n s . I n s t e a d o-f t h e d e c o r a t i v e o r m e r e l y e l a b o r a t i v e s o l i o-f t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y o p e r a s c o m i q u e s — s o l i w h ich m e r e l y " c o l o u r e d " - f a c t s a l r e a d y e x p o s e d i n s p e e c h , and c o n s e q u e n t l y p r o v i d e d no e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t t o t h e u n f o l d i n g drama--we o b s e r v e , i n works o-f t h e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y , m u s i c a l s o l i w h i c h s e r v e a m u l t i t u d e o-f d r a m a t i c p u r p o s e s . C o n t r a s t i n g w i t h t h e l a r g e l y n o n - d r a m a t i c m u s i c a l numbers o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y o p e r a s c o m i q u e s a r e t h e more d r a m a t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and p u r p o s e f u l s o l i c o n t r i v e d by S c r i b e and c o p i e d by h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s : t h e m u s i c a l s o l i of n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y o p e r a s c o m i q u e s h e l p move t h e drama f o r w a r d , add d e p t h t o c e r t a i n d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s by r e v e a l i n g s u b t l e r s h a d e s o f c h a r a c t e r s , e x p l a i n e v e n t s c r u c i a l t o t h e outcome o f t h e p l o t , a n d/or a c t as s t r u c t u r a l d e v i c e s i n b a l a n c i n g t h e m u s i c a l c o n t e n t s o f an o p e r a . They a r e no l o n g e r s i m p l y d e c o r a t i v e and e n t e r t a i n i n g p i e c e s . The a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d d e v e l o p m e n t s , which emerge i n t h e 1820s w i t h La Dame blanche and became s t a n d a r d f e a t u r e s i n t h e works of S c r i b e , P l a n a r d and M e l e s v i l l e (as w e l l as i n t h e works o f o t h e r 1830s l i b r e t t i s t s ) , t r u l y mark a new e r a i n t h e o p e r a -comique g e n r e . As we have s e e n , o p e r a s c o miques o f t h e 1830s become d r a m a t i c a l l y more s t r u c t u r e d and c o n s i s t e n t , and g a i n new m u s i c o - d r a m a t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . 95 N o t e s 1. K a r i n P e n d l e , Eugene Scribe and French Opera in the Nineteeth-Century, p. 535. 2. Ibid. 96 S e l e c t B i b l i o g r a p h y Aube de L a s s u s , L.. Boieldieu. P a r i s , 1908. B e l l a i g u e , C a m i l i e . Un s i e c l e de musique f r a n c s i s e . L'Opera-Comique d'Herold a Bizet. P a r i s , 1886. B e r t h e l o t , M.. Ferdinand Herald. P a r i s , 1882. B o r n e r , W. . Die Opern von DanieI-Franco i s - E s p r i t Auber. L e i p z i g , 1962 C houquet, G u s t a v e . H i s t o i r e de la musique dramat i que en France de puis ses origines jusqu'a nos jours. P a r i s : F i r m i n D i d o t F r e r e s , F i l s e t C i e , 1873. C o o p e r , M a r t i n . Opera-Comique. London: Max P a r r i s h 8c Co., L t d . , 1949. D u m e s n i l , R.. L'Opera et I'opera-comique. P a r i s : P r e s s e s u n i v e r -s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1947. F a v r e , G.. Boieldieu, sa vie et son oeuvre. 2 v o l s . P a r i s : D r o z , 1944-45. F e t i s , J . - F . "Opera-Comique. L ' H o t e l l e r i e de Terracine," Revue musicale ( 1 8 3 0 ) . . " T h e a t r e de 1'Opera-Cornique. P r e m i e r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n de Zampa," Revue musicale (May 7 1831). . " T h e a t r e de 1 *Opera-Comique. Le Pre aux Clercs," Revue musicale (December 29 1832). . Biogrsphie universeIle des musiciens et bibIiogrsphie generate de la musique. Second e d i t i o n , r e v i s e d and e n l a r g e d . 9 v o l s . B r u s s e l s : C u l t u r e e t C i v i l i s a t i o n , 1963. Fouque, O c t a v e . H i s t o i r e du Theatre Ventadour 1829-1879. P a r i s : G. F i s c h b a c h e r , 1881. G a u t i e r , T h e o p h i l e . H i s t o i r e de I'art dramatique en France depuis vingt-cinq ans. 6 v o l s . L e i p z i g : H e t z e l , 1858-59. G e n e s t , E m i l e . L'Opera-Comique connu et inconnu. P a r i s : L i b r a i -r i e F i s c h b a c h e r , 1925. G o u r r e t , J e a n . H i s t o i r e de I'Opera-Comi que. P a r i s : P u b l i c a t i o n s u n i v e r s i t a i r e s , c. 1978. J o u v i n , B. J . B.. D.F.E. Auber, sa vie et ses oeuvres. P a r i s , 1864. . Herold: sa vie et ses oeuvres. P a r i s , 1868. 97 Koon, H e l e n e and S w i t z e r , R i c h a r d . Eugene Scribe. B o s t o n ! Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , A D i v i s i o n o-f G.K. H a l l & Co., 1980. Lang, P a u l Henry. "The L i t e r a r y A s p e c t s o-f t h e H i s t o r y o-f t h e O p e r a i n F r a n c e " Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1934. L a r o u s s e , P i e r r e . Grand Dictionnaire universel du xix" s i e c l e . 15 v o l s . P a r i s , 1876. L o n g y e a r , Rey Morgan. Daniel-Esprit-F ransrois Auber <1782-1871>. A Chapter in French Opera-Comique. Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : UMI R e s e a r c h P r e s s , 1957. M e l e s v i l i e CAnne Honore J o s e p h D u v e y r i e r ] . Zampa, DU la Fiancee de marbre. Opera-cornique i n 3 a c t s . L i b r e t t o . P a r i s : R i g a , 1831. P e n d l e , K a r i n S.. Eugene Scribe and French Opera of the Nine-teenth Century. Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o - f i l m s I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h P r e s s , 1979. P l a n a r d , Eugene, l e Pre aux Clercs. Opera-cornique i n 3 a c t s . L i b r e t t o . P a r i s : T r e s s e e t S t o c k , 1889. P o u g i n , A r t h u r . Soieldieu, sa vie et ses oeuvres. P a r i s : C h a r -p e n t i e r , 1875. . Adolphe Adam. P a r i s , 1877. P r u n i e r e s , H., H. de C u r z o n , P. T i e r s o t , R. Duhamel, M. d ' O l l o n e , and A. S o u b i e s . "L'Opera-Comique au x i x " s i e c l e , " Pevue musicale XIV/140 (November 1933): 244-320. R e i c h a , A n t o i n e . I'Art du Compositeur. P a r i s , 1833. S c r i b e , Eugene. Fra Diavolo, ou I' Htt te I ler ie de Terracine. Opera-cornique i n '3 a c t s . L i b r e t t o . P a r i s : A r n o u l d de V r e s s e , 1860. . Oeuvres completes. 76 v o l s . P a r i s : A r n o u l d de V r e s s e , I860. S m i t h , P. J . . The Tenth Muse. A H i s t o r i c a l Study of Opera Libretto. New Y o r k : Kop-f - London: G o l l a n c z , 1970. S o u b i e s , A l b e r t . Soixante-Neuf Ans a 1'Opera-Comique en deux pages. P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e F i s c h b a c h e r , 1894. S t a n t o n , S t e v e n S.. English Drama and the French Well-Made Play, 1815-1915. Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o - f i l m s I n t e r -n a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h P r e s s , 1955. . Camille and Other Plays. Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h P r e s s , 1957. 98 T h u r n e r , A.. Les Transformations de I'Opera-Camique. P a r i s : C a s -t e l , 1865. 

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