UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Portraits of Peter : a study of trajectories in the early church Litke, Wayne Douglas 1985

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1985_A8 L58.pdf [ 19.23MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096509.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096509-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096509-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096509-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096509-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096509-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096509-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096509-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096509.ris

Full Text

PORTRAITS  OF  PETER:  TRAJECTORIES  IN THE  A STUDY EARLY  OF  CHURCH  By WAYNE B.A.,  DOUGLAS  LITKE  The U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , 1977 M . C . S . , Regent C o l l e g e , 1980  A THESIS  SUBMITTED  THE  IN  REQUIREMENTS  PARTIAL  FULFILLMENT  FOR  DEGREE  MASTER OF  THE  OF  ARTS  in THE  FACULTY  (Department  We a c c e p t to  THE  OF of  this  GRADUATE Religious  thesis  the required  UNIVERSITY  OF  August ® Wayne  Douglas  as  STUDIES Studies)  conforming  standard  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA 1985 Litke,  1985  OF  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It is  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l n o t be allowed without my w r i t t e n  permission.  Department o f The  'Re-Z^ious ^vfuo//g>5-  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  1956 Main M a l l  Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date fiticpst ZLb,  ABSTRACT  This  study  as t h e y e v o l v e d to the f i f t h in  which  concentrates  on t h e t r a d i t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g  i n the e a r l y church  century.  Peter  f r o m t h e New T e s t a m e n t  It i s suggested  i s portrayed  by  Peter period  t h a t t h e r e a r e many  the early  church  ways  w r i t e r s , and  these  p o r t r a i t s o f P e t e r a r e s t u d i e d w i t h e m p h a s i s on t h e s i t u a -  tions  i n the church  which  affected t h e i r e v o l u t i o n over  produced  these  p o r t r a i t s and  time.  A p o r t r a i t of Peter considered seminal  f o r the study of the  P e t r i n e t r a d i t i o n s i s t h a t o f P e t e r as a p o s t l e . Peter  takes  earthly moves  on t h e r o l e s o f m i s s i o n a r y  ministry from  and  which  resurrection.  In t h i s  and w i t n e s s Generally  the "actual" to the "ideal."  Thus  portrait  to Christ's  the t r a j e c t o r y Peter  becomes i n  the mind o f t h e c h u r c h t h e g r e a t e s t m i s s i o n a r y and t h e b e s t tolic  witness.  This process  of idealization  r e s u l t t h a t P e t e r came t o be r e g a r d e d Peter As  was  also considered  the Gentile church  primacy  groups,  often  cribed  over  considered  importance  among  became t h e most powerful  the apostles  with  the apostles.  of the  churches,  Thus by t h e f o u r t h  century  had become a x i o m a t i c .  Other  h e r e t i c a l by t h e o r t h o d o x  church,  t o o t h e r d i s c i p l e s o f C h r i s t and compared ii  the  as t h e i d e a l C h r i s t i a n .  pre-eminent  P e t e r was a d o p t e d a s i t s f i g u r e h e a d . Peter's  continued  apos-  asthem  i i i  to  Peter.  these  However,  other  to  are  the  and  wonderworker  also the  he  in  a  came  to  be  the  the idea  in  regarded full  tended  viewed  Peter  to  was  built.  Peter as  In  was  the  overpower  authority  of  Christ  thus  this  keys  for  bishop  the  and  in the  Rome,  that  of  the  ideal  foundation and  thus  the  Lord.  upon  which to  the  he  was  having  the  episcopacy,  and  as  of  guarantor  connected  kingdom,  doctrine  his  the but  founder  like as  most  exercising  viewed  the  the  the  was  capacity,  of  as  and  prophet  Peter  the  of  apostle  pre-eminent  bishop  regarded  and  ideal  noticably  a death  founder  possessing the  the  most  martyr,  be  the  represented  a  came t o  as  ideal  ideal  endured  tradition,  as  the  As  he  the  places,  as  Peter  him  Peter  many  that  apostolic  that  is  episcopacy.  martyr  church  church,  only  great  of  describe  the  Not  Similarly, of  trajectory  tradition  which  in  martyr.  universal  perfect  the  traditions  episcopacy  Peter  traditions.  Connected  eminent  the  discipline  of  the  church.  ized  It  is  concluded  and  in  a  It  is  church. conceived and  were  Peter, viewed  took  suggested  having  authority,  through who  as  sense  that  and  been thus  in the that  sent Christ  His  delegated  in  succession  all  these  place as  of  the  forth was  aspects Jesus  in  foremost  by  Christ  seen  as  Peter.  the  was mind  apostle with  working  representative, to  Peter  Thus,  and  His in  idealof  the  Peter  was  full the  through  apostolic  power church those succes-  i v  sion  from  Peter  with  Christ  connected  Himself.  the  beliefs  and  practices  of  the  church  T A B L E OF  CONTENTS Page  CHAPTER ONE: I. II. III.  INTRODUCTION  Relative Themes  Paucity  of  in Petrine  The Aim and Method  Research  on P e t e r  Study  4  of t h i s  Thesis  Notes  II. A. B. C. D. E. III. A. B.  C. IV.  6 9  C H A P T E R TWO: I.  1  PETER  THE  APOSTLE  AirooToAo/  13  Peter  18  the Missionary  A Missionary-Apostle: The P a u l i n e L e t t e r s The G r e a t M i s s i o n a r y : The G o s p e l s a n d A c t s The C h i e f H e r a l d o f t h e C h u r c h : Later Tradition The A p o s t l e t o t h e C i r c u m c i s i o n and F i r s t t o t h e Gentiles Summary  18 19 23  Peter  35  the Witness  27 34  Witness to the Resurrection Witness of C h r i s t ' s Earthly M i n i s t r y 1. An O r i g i n a l D i s c i p l e 2. A Member o f t h e I n n e r C i r c l e 3. The F i r s t C a l l e d 4. P e t e r ' s Gospel 5. Conclusion Summary  36 45 45 48 52 57 65 66  Peter  67  the Ideal  Apostle  A. B. C.  A p o s t o l i c R e p r e s e n t a t i v e and Spokesman The Type o f t h e C h r i s t i a n Summary  67 73 86  V.  Summary  86  and C o n c l u s i o n v  vi Page Notes CHAPTER  89  THREE:  P E T E R AMONG THE  I.  The P r i m a c y  Peter  106  A.  Paul  s Epistles  107  B. C. D. E. F.  The S y n o p t i c G o s p e l s The A c t s The F o u r t h G o s p e l Later Writings Summary  109 114 115 116 120  II. A.  B.  C.  D. E. F. III.  1  Peter  of  APOSTLES  and Other  Christian  "Heroes"  122  P e t e r and Paul 1. The P a u l i n e E p i s t l e s 2. The A c t s 3. Later Literature a. The P s e u d o - C l e m e n t i n e s and T h e i r b. Orthodox W r i t e r s c. Summary o f t h e L a t e r L i t e r a t u r e 4. Conclusion P e t e r and James t h e L o r d ' s B r o t h e r 1. T h e New T e s t a m e n t E v i d e n c e 2. Later Writings a. Orthodox W r i t i n g s b. Jewish-Christian Writings c. Gnostic Writings 3. Summary P e t e r and t h e B e l o v e d D i s c i p l e (John) 1. The F o u r t h G o s p e l 2. Other W r i t i n g s 3. Summary P e t e r and Mary Magdalene P e t e r a n d Thomas Summary  Sources  125 127 143 150 150 158 164 165 167 167 176 177 177 179 180 181 181 188 190 190 198 200  Conclusion  201  Notes  203  CHAPTER  FOUR:  P E T E R THE  PROPHET  the Prophet  AND WONDER  WORKER  I.  Peter  225  A.  Prophecy  225  B. C. D. E.  Receiver of Revelation Preacher Contender f o r the Faith Summary  227 236 238 239  vi i Page II. A. B. C. D. E. III.  Peter  t h e Wonder-Worker  Miracles The A c t s The A c t s o f The F a t h e r s Summary  240 242 246 247 248  Peter  Conclusion  249  Notes  250  CHAPTER F I V E : I.  240  Peter  P E T E R THE  B I S H O P AND MARTYR  the Bishop  256  A.  Bishop  256  B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I.  Jerusalem Caesarea Edessa Babylon Alexandria Corinth Antioch Rome 1. T h e New T e s t a m e n t 2. Later Literature a. The S e c o n d C e n t u r y b. The T h i r d t o F i f t h 3. Summary The I d e a l B i s h o p  258 258 260 260 262 264 267 274 275 279 279 293 296 300  J. II. A. B.  Peter The The 1. 2. 3. 4.  Centuries  the Martyr  305  Burial of Peter Martyrdom of Peter The F i r s t C e n t u r y The S e c o n d C e n t u r y Later Literature Conclusion  Notes  CHAPTER I. A. B.  SIX:  Peter Peter Peter  306 311 311 322 324 324 328  P E T E R THE  F O U N D A T I O N AND R U L E R OF THE CHURCH  the Foundation the P i l l a r t h e Rock  of t h e Church  346 346 347  vi i i Page C.  D. II. A. B. C.  Peter the Foundation 1. Upon T h i s Rock 2. Later Literature Summary  348 348 360 362  Peter  363  the Ruler  of the Church  The Keys o f t h e Kingdom Later Literature Summary  363 368 369  Notes  370  CHAPTER  SEVEN:  CONCLUSION  Notes  SELECTED  BIBLIOGRAPHY  APPENDIX Notes  377 384  386  422 434  ABBREVIATIONS AB  Anchor  Bible  Commentary  ANF  A l e x a n d e r R o b e r t s , James D o n a l d s o n and A l l a n M e n z i e s , e d s . , The A n t e - N i c e n e Fathers: T r a n s l a t i o n of the Writings of t h e F a t h e r s Down t o A . D . 3 2 5 , 1 9 0 8 .  BNTC  Black's  CBQ  Catholic  ECW  Maxwell S t a n i f o r t h , e d . and t r a n s . , ings: The A p o s t o l i c F a t h e r s , 1 9 6 8 .  FC  L u d w i g S c h o p p , e t a l . , e d s . , The New T r a n s l a t i o n , 1 9 4 8 - 1 9 6 9 .  New T e s t a m e n t Biblical  series.  Commentary  series.  Quarterly. Early  A  ICC  International  IDB  George A r t h u r B u t t r i c k , e t a l . , I n t e r p r e t e r ' s D i c t i o n a r y the B i b l e , N a s h v i l l e : Abingdon, 1962, 5 v o l s .  of  HTR  Harvard  JB  The J e r u s a l e m  JBL  Journal  JCSD1  E.P. Sanders, e d . , J e w i s h and C h r i s t i a n Self-Definition. Volume One: The S h a p i n g o f C h r i s t i a n i t y i n t h e S e c o n d and T h i r d C e n t u r i e s , London: S . C . M . P r e s s , 1980  JTS  Journal  NASB  New A m e r i c a n  NBD  J.D. D o u g l a s , e d . , The Eerdmans, 1962.  New B i b l e  NEB  The  1961-1970.  NHL  James 1977.  NICNT  New I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Theological  of  of  Biblical  1966-1968. Literature.  Theological Standard  Bible,  Robinson,  series.  Review  Bible,  New E n g l i s h M.  Commentary  of  Writ-  the Church:  Critical  Fathers  Christian  Studies. Bible,  1960-1971. Dictionary,  e d . , T h e N a g Hammadi  Commentary ix  Grand  Library  in  o n t h e New T e s t a m e n t  Rapids:  English,  series.  X  NIDCC  J.D. D o u g l a s , e t a l . , e d s . , T h e New I n t e r n a t i o n a l Dictionary of the C h r i s t i a n Church, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1974.  NIV  The H o l y  NPF1  Philip Schaff, e d . , A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the C h r i s t i a n Church, f i r s t series, 1888-1890.  NPF2  Philip Nicene second  NT  Novum  NTA  Edgar  NTS  New T e s t a m e n t  PS  G.R.S.  RSV  The H o l y  TDNT  Gerhard Kittel and Gerhard Friedrich, e d s . , Theological D i c t i o n a r y o f t h e New T e s t a m e n t , trans. Geoffrey W. B r o m i l e y , Grand R a p i d s : E e r d m a n s , 1 9 6 4 , 10 v o l s .  TNTC  Tyndale  ZNW  Zeitschrift  fur  die neutestamentliche  ZTK  Zeitschrift  fiir  Theologie  Bible:  New I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Version,  1973-1978.  S c h a f f and Henry Wace, e d s . , A S e l e c t L i b r a r y o f t h e and P o s t - N i c e n e Fathers of the C h r i s t i a n Church, series, 1904-1905. Testamentum. Hennecke,  Mead,  New T e s t a m e n t  Apocrypha,  1963-1965.  Studies. ed., Pistis  Bible:  Revised  New T e s t a m e n t  Sophia, Standard  Commentary  1963. Version,  1946-1972.  series.  und K i r c h e .  Wissenschaft.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  In my  the writing  supervisor  couraging  my  Dr.  Paul  I would  daughter  the writing  this  time.  provided in  a place  me f a i t h  begun  this  also  of  I must  P.  like  in Jesus  Anderson,  Dr. to  I would  N.  K.  this  thesis,  and w o r k ,  Christ,  my w i f e  encouraged  project.  xi  live  and e n -  supervisory  and D r .  Hanna  Carol  Ann a n d  a n d h e l p e d me with  me  during  t o my p a r e n t s - i n - l a w ,  a n d my p a r e n t s ,  without  acknowledge  o f my  Clifford,  b u t had t o  say thank-you  to  for his patience  acknowledge  who n o t o n l y  live  like  a s t h e members  Joy,  also  to  thesis  as w e l l  Mosca,  Kathryn  with  this  Charles  supervision,  committee, Kassis.  Dr.  of  which  I  would  who never  who  instilled have  CHAPTER  ONE  INTRODUCTION  I.  RELATIVE This  during ago,  P A U C I T Y OF thesis  the f i r s t  Floyd  V.  R E S E A R C H ON  deals five  with  the  centuries  Filson  PETER interpretation  of  the church.  of  Saint  Peter  Some  thirty  years  observed:  We p o s s e s s f e w t h o r o u g h studies of P e t e r ' s career position in the Church. Hundreds of l i v e s of Jesus a v a i l a b l e , and s c o r e s o f l i v e s o f P a u l , but t h e r e a r e t h o r o u g h p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e l i f e and work o f P e t e r , n o n e i s up t o d a t e . l Any  examination  today.  One  containing found  take  amazing  an X  perhaps  was  of  (1644-1655) Catholic  of  faith  Rome  quarter  of  one  shelf.  studies  on  Peter  is  concerning  part  His importance by  as  Roman  well  College  even  shelves Peter  are  Works  as  in  played  is reflected  in the  him t o  Church.3 1  be  supreme  Thus,  representative  communion,"2 as  quite  have  Catholicism. the  really  he m u s t  and i n t h e Church  i n t h e Roman  declared  out  complete  works  the important  held  in the Apostolic  five  this  sparse.  paucity  Peter  or  bears  while  a  of the c h u r c h .  bishop  of  than  library  four  Paul,  one c o n s i d e r s  toward  article  the  find  less  relative  when  attitude  Lord  theological  on S t .  up  the history  Peter  a  are e s p e c i a l l y  The  in  will  studies  to  English  of  and are few and  for  while leader  "that of  a l l time, Pope  the is  Innocent  and head  of  Introduction  The  lack  Paul,  can  probably  First  of  to  Paul  two  of  a l l the  research be  New  to  explained  r e j e c t e d as  Pauline  least  four  which  from  Galatians).4 criteria,  Peter,  "undoubtedly writing note  can  that  almost  the  a be  Peter,  New  hand  (Romans,  on  the  other  of  biblical  I  II  from  note  with  a  even  seems  to  the  that  Protestant  been  epistles  exercised  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .8  begun  here,  especially  scene  for a  long  to I  sub-  the  and  Peter  is  Testament  fifteen  should chapters  with  twelve  the  name a  at  critical  A l s o , one  i n the  heart  that  time.10  Reformation  dominated  Paul's  L u t h e r 7 who  began  emphasize  criti-  come  New  shares to  only  in  spotlight  few.  Hence  contribution  of  Peter.  has  scholarship  have  no  compared  Paul,  are  excluded,  while  Peter.  role,  points.  been  according  contains  Paul  on  Corinthians,  Thus  to  leading and  to  II  Peter,5  Apostles  John,  of  are  and  that  attributed  there  another  writing."6  the  itself  that  books  have  accepted  to  three  which  hand,  written  given  Philip,  studies  should  theology of  generally  of  while  Secondly,  One  or  are  have  Acts  more t h a n  biblical  time  confidently attributed  Testament  to  thirteen  i f those  one  pseudonymous  the  Stephen,  Paul  not  at  e x c l u s i v e l y concerned  which with  Paul's  could  compared  reference  contains  Even  cally  stantially  by  when  i s i n c l u d e d - - f o u r t e e n ) , while  Peter.  remain  Peter,  Testament  ( i f Hebrews  attributed  on  2  Protestant formed  a great The  of  of the  The  by  modern  basis  period  School,  this  for  the  of  course  the  work  dominated  school,  the  biblical  Germany,9 and  Tubingen of  the  recently,  scholarship.  i n f l u e n c e on  Lutheran  founder  until  F.C.  the  Baur,  Introduction  viewed  Paul  i t y . 11  The  still  be  must  as  in  early lic  that  position.  church  forms  succession  Dogmatic ter  noted  on  of  of  The  basis  the  Popes.  Constitution  on  of  Christian-  biblical  studies  can  dictum  that  "New  Testament  with  controversy.  study  Paul."12 is  the  fraught  Catholic  for  of  the  the  Church  First  Church  of  Peter  primacy  Catholic  The  the  history  over  doctrine  the  the  Paul  Peter  for  in  of  Neill's  Epistles  research  already  commanding  the  figure  dominance  Stephen  with  Finally, have  central  continued  seen  begin  the  3  of  occupies  Peter  doctrine  Vatican  Christ,  I  of  the  aposto-  Council  session  in  a  in  IV,  its chap-  2 states : T h e r e c a n be no d o u b t for anyone, and a l l t h e ages have f i r m l y b e l i e v e d , t h a t h o l y and b l e s s e d P e t e r , p r i n c e and head of t h e a p o s t l e s , p i l l a r of t h e f a i t h and foundation of the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , r e c e i v e d the keys of the kingdom of heaven from our Lord, Savior and Redeemer, Jesus Christ; and t h a t he c o n t i n u e s t o t h i s v e r y d a y t o live, p r e s i d e and e x e r c i s e j u d g m e n t t h r o u g h h i s s u c c e s s o r s , t h e bishops of the see o f Rome, founded by h i m a n d consec r a t e d b y h i s b l o o d ; i n s u c h a way t h a t w h o e v e r succeeds P e t e r i n t h i s c h a i r r e c e i v e s by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f C h r i s t h i m s e l f the primacy of Peter over the whole church.13  On  the  that  other  hand,  Christianity  authority  of  tionally Peter  has  is  at  Catholics studies  scholars  can  "be  For "open  centre  of  with  the  unscholarly, getting  Peter  fundamental  often  papacy,16 dogmatic involved  fact  this  and and in  that  .  without  attitude  even by  a potentially  in  Paul,  scholarly over  disputes have  the  between  disputes  may  is  tradi-  unlike  controversy  these  emotional,  .  Thus,  that  obscured  Protestantism .  rebel 1ion."15  The is  for  expressed  Catholics,  a  Protestants. on  principle  faithfully  Pope."14  the  research  from  fundamental  constituted  and  connection rather  the  a  can  his be  dissuaded  explosive  issue.  Introduction  II.  THEMES The  PETRINE  major  centrate ship  IN  studies  Paul.  discussion  of  the to  certain  church.18  not  to  the  Rome  ical  reconstruction,  Journet of  this  understand Otto to  Peter  see"  (1963)  a n d when  there  the  large.20 to  most for  example,  Pesch  (1980, was  he w e n t  and p r o b a b l y  extended  John  through truth  passed  Rome  the  of  leader  was  to the  Lowe  the  which of that  entire  church  from  times,  and that  a succession  has  with  of  generally  his  (1956),21  histor-  F.F.  Bruce  in English).23  Cath-  different.  restated the  of  limited  he c o n c l u d e d  conclusions  unavailable  concluded  of  scholarly  post-apostolic  i n agreement  basically  to  of  establishes  his "rationalization similarly  leadership  understandably  primacy  recent  Finally,  Cullmann's  scholars  core  was t h e  primacy  of  16  the  relation-  by t h e a p p e a r a n c e  Peter  his  age.19  "supernatural"  through  Karrer  of  at  f o r example,  a  while  and n ever  Matthew  continuing is  period  that  however,  (1954),  Peter's  that  with  and R u d o l f  reaction,  that,  at  con-  Discipie--Apostle--Martyr  Jerusalem,17  reaction  favourable,  (1979)22  Peter,  and h i s  But  was s t i m u l a t e d  the apostolic  been  primacy  centuries.  transfer  for the church  (see Appendix)  has been  was a d e v e l o p m e n t  to  Protestant  olic  in  w a s no e v i d e n c e  leaders  for  primacy  historical  connected  there  debate  church  English  course,  concluded  Also,  Jerusalem  of  in  Peter's  monograph,  Cullmann  primitive a  themes:  Peter's  Cullmann's  (1953).  available  Primacy,  Catholic-Protestant  Oscar  STUDY  on t w o b a s i c  to  4  Charles  the Catholic  view  Popes,24  concluding  Cullmann  could  the gospel  message."25  the primacy  he e s t a b l i s h e d  on h i s a u t h o r i t y  not  his  through  was  given  "primatial the " i m -  Introduction  position  of  concluded to  hands."26  that  in  vacate,27  his  was  Secondly, not  only,  tion  as  with  1860) was  marked  with  two  I  an  very or  party.30  Peter  to  Paul's  tended  see in  Baur's their  the  a  also  and,  history  view  load  in on  of  the  studies  while  explicitly  extent  reflected  church,  for  F.F.  Bruce  Karl  P.  and  conflict has of  and  (1979)38  and John  F.C.  and  springs  preoccupaBaur  (1762-  Christianity two  groups  The  Jewish-  or  Pauline  Christianity  opposed  freedom."31  every  the  between  text  Baur  and  for  Bigg  of  as  the  Paul  their  studies  party-conflict (1922),36  by  it  lain has  those  of  Other  writers,  Hans  emphasized and in  E . W . Barnes  headed  (1973).39  since  letters."33  still  and  subsequent  ever  example,  lead,  committee  Reumann  and  (1957).35  Baur's in  "has  Pauline  Brandon  Paul  Peter  influenced  Munck,  the  Peter,  ideas  Charles  and  Paul  between  and  greatly  of  S.G.F.  example,  Donfried  to  Gentile-Christian  Johannes  on  Baur's  about  Rome.28  Christianity:  virtually  following  Peter  of  was church  earliest  conflict  (1960)  Christianity.32  exposition  (1949)34  of  the  words  Lietzmann  relationship  of  whole  of  a Judaizing  in  Jesus  Protestant  Baur  "universalism  parties  the  influenced  not  of  conflict  respective  studies like  this  For  the  represented  Christianity  to  Leitmotiv  thus  Winter  successors in  and  and  the  influence  conceptions  party,  place  general  the  rift  the  relationship  the  from  Michael  over  his  Peter's  intense  Petrine  to  school.29  different  Christian  assumed  from  also  vein  authority  in  noted,  Tubingen  same  Peter  transferred  but  by  the  assumed  have  the  21  interest  Paul,  and  John  later  authority  in  5  to the  the some early  (1947),37  Raymond  Brown,  Introduction  III.  THE  A I M AND METHOD  Essentially, Reumann image  leave  or  this  off.  portrait  suggested  much  OF  thesis  They  of  THIS  Peter  t h e same  THESIS begins  suggest  where  that  in the early  thing  6  in  Brown,  there  Donfried  was more  church.40  and  than  one  Foakes-Jackson  1927:  In a sense there i s not one; there a r e many Peters. There i s the Peter of the G o s p e l s , the d i s c i p l e of Jesus C h r i s t o n E a r t h ; t h e P e t e r o f t h e A c t s who l e d t h e t w e l v e in the foundation of the C h r i s t i a n Church; the Peter of St. P a u l ' s e p i s t l e s ; the Peter of e a r l y C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n ; the Peter, the ideal bishop; the Peter of the City of Rome w i t h a l l t h e s a c r e d s p o t s a n d r e l i c s connected with him; the Peter of the Papacy; the Peter a s he appears today. His story i s in fact the history of Christianity, not of i t s theology, so much a s o f its activity, i t s authority, i t s i n f l u e n c e on t h e m i n d of man.41 This  is  picture Peter  Peter  actually  discover Brown,  in  the  study  intend early ities  to  rather  Donfreid of  to  example,  are with  the in  this  inevitable  are  in due  to  a course  simply  from  a  or  concept of  that  is  portraits  of  to  and t o  trajectories which  individual  the other.  trajectory:  I  also in  similar-  between  random  try  them.  trajectories  outlook  one t o  each It  painted  t h e use of  theological not  which  concept  idea  the  what  Peter  plurality,  to the church  on t h e  of  one  of  i t s own n e e d s .  in their  suggest  being  portrayal  describe  portraits,42  movements  one c a n t r a c e  to  The  there  portraits  a view  church  thesis.  i s based  differences writers  many  a n d Reumann Petrine  than  an a c c u r a t e  therefore,  relationship  Christianity  Christian  church  by t h e e a r l y  use  and  there  thesis,  their  Rather  constitutes  was,  this  painted  assessment.  which  by t h e e a r l y  aim of  Peter to  convincing  of  painted the  a  variety, Hence,  early but for  Introduction  7  from P a u l ' s t h e o l o g y to t h a t of the g r a d u a l l y b i f u r c a t i n g P a u l i n e s c h o o l , w i t h one s t r e a m m o v i n g v i a E p h e s i a n s t o 1 Peter, Luke-Acts, t h e P a s t o r a l s , a n d on t o o r t h o d o x y , the other v i a C o l o s s i a n s to V a l e n t i n u s , Basilides, Marcion, a n d on t o heresy.43 Thus  the  which, doxy  history  of  Christianity  especially after  and  heresy,  neccessary  by  "two  the  changing  Trajectories  in  a  streams  of  streams  of  religious  positions  a  which certain  meaning a  they  tion  be  period  differently,  movement  in  Peter  as  with  thesis  these  as  the  result  with  "most and  or  in  ortho-  position  the  made  passage  of  embracing  movement  the  specific  tradition  variant  trajectories"  original  up"  events,  At  function  in  the  more  within  eddy  the  within  mean  in  Also, to  the  therefore in  a  early  individual  Petrine  trajectory.47  and  overall  Petrine  of  a  wider broader  on  the  same  different, specific  the  trajectory  various will  be  trajectory  have  a  document  certain while  may  the  need  to  trajectories.46  various I in  at  func-  influence  trajectories  Christianity. trajectories  the  and  and  trajectories  movement,  overarching  examine  The  in  way,  the  documents  the  stages  certain  influence  way.  will  terms  certain  something  reference  individuals,  in  trajectory  general the  a  a certain  trajectories  understand  years,  the  caught  up.  a different  understood This  may  exercise  subsequent  to  intelligible  caught  document  or  both  specific  become are  of  on  current."45  light  only  hundred  religious  . . .  "strung  circumstances  is  specific  movement  this  apply  culture  cultural  In  in  whole "one  first  adjustments  time."44 which  the  is  will  portraits also  relation  Petrine examined  try to  of to the  trajectories as  well  with  Introduction  reference  to  the  church.  early In  ments and  this  are  of  Therefore,  study  the  I  I  of  Peter  by  of  Peter  I  situation  led  the  rise  and  the  The which  a  until  it  study to  purpose  particular reaches be  our  451),  period.51 with  are:  Peter  the  apostles  fathers);52 popular  and  56,  one  of ad  portraits the  apostle,  (his  most  the  ruler  be  whose  common  the  the  and  bishop  church.  these  their  Peter  date  as  he  picearly  Sitz  time  under  the  im  which discus-  of  of  is  for  of  Peter  early  the  deal  chief  wonder-worker,  the and  we  church  we w i l l  the  martyr;  epistle  Chalcedon  among  and  this  documents  the  in  expanded  Paul's  trajectories  epithet  those  a^ q u o  council  properly,  are  and  Christian  end-point  more  prophet53  peter of  or  them."48  From  terminus  earliest  Peter  faith  various  originates  probable  will  the  Peter  particular of  docu-  the  investigating  the  accepted of  be  Our  quern  in  of  in  used.49  form.  the  of  understand  was  Peter  Christian  person  that  heresy  produced  church.  at  will  of  which  the  to  and  reflection  portrait  it  I  final  A.D.  legends;54  foundation  which  generally  peter  church  which  t e r m i nus  The  early  attempt  the  for  on  early  interested  particular  its  about  the  the  portrait  Galatians,  have.50 (A.D.  the  trajectories  will  the  of  in  that  churches  am m o r e  will  orthodoxy  and  concentrating  been,  the  sion  expression  Christian  than  Leben, to  the  of  presuppose  have  painted  portraits  trajectories  will  early  rather  actually  tures  various  "primarily  life  may  the  8  of  church hero  Peter  of the  NOTES  iFloyd V. Filson, "Translator's Preface," in Oscar Cullmann, P e t e r Discipi e--Apostle--Martyr: A H i s t o r i c a l and Theological Study, trans. f - 1 o y d T. Fi I son (London : S.C.M. Press, 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 7. 2F. J . F o a k e s - J a c k s o n , P e t e r : P r i n c e of A p o s t l e s : A Study i n t h e H i s t o r y a n d T r a d i t i o n ~ b ~ f C h r i s t i a n i t y (New Y o r k : George TTT Doran, 1927 ) , p~i 1 5 1 ; see a l s o W i l l i a m W r i g h t B a r n e s , "The Place of Peter in the Early Church (Up to A.D. 451)" (Th.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Southern B a p t i s t T h e o l o g i c a l Seminary, 1 9 1 3 ) , p. 1. 3 c i t e d i n Teruo K o b a y a s h i , "The R o l e of P e t e r A c c o r d i n g t o the Theological Understanding of Paul, Mark, and Luke-Acts" ( P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , Drew U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 1 , n . 1. 4  See  A.  C.  Purdy,  "Paul  the  Apostle,"  in  _IDB,  vol.  3,  p.  683.  trans.  ^Werner Howard 6  Ibid.,  Georg Klimmel , Introduction t o t h e New Testament, C l a r k Kee ( N a s h v i l l e : A b i n g d o n , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 430. p.  424.  F. F. B r u c e , " T h e H i s t o r y o f New T e s t a m e n t S t u d y , " i n New Testament Interpretation: E s s a y s on P r i n c i p l e s a n d M e t h o d s , e d . "H Howard M a r s h a l l ( G r a n d Rapids: Eerdmans, 1977 ) , p~. 30"; See also, e.g., Kenneth Scott Latourette, C h r i s t i a n i t y Through the A g e s (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 1 6 9 ; W i l l i s t o n W a l k e r , A History of the Christian Church, third edition (New York: S c r i b n e r ' s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 3 0 9 . 7  Roland Bainton, Here ( N a s h v i l l e : Abingdon, 1950), 8  I p.  Stand: 331.  A  Life  of  Martin  Luther  Stephen Nei11, The Interpretation of the New Testament 1861-1961 (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 4 . 9  l°See Ibid., p. 27; (Oxford: Clarendon, 1975),  Horton p. 181.  Harris,  The  Tubingen  School  Usee e.g., Ferdinand Christian Baur, P a u l u s , der Apostel Jesu C h r i s t i : S e i n Leben und W i r k e n , seine Briefe und seine L e h r e , e d . Eduard Z e l l e r (Osnabruck: Otto Z e l l e r , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 19. 9  Introduction 1 2  Nei11 ,  p.  10  339.  1 3 c i t e d i n C h a r l e s J o u r n e t , The P r i m a c y o f P e t e r : From t h e Protestant and from the Catholic Point of View, trans. John Chapin (Westminster, Maryland: Newman, 1 9 5 4 ) , p . 105. 14john Kent, " C h r i s t i a n i t y : E n c y c l o p e d i a of L i v i n g F a i t h s , e d . 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 118.  the ed.  P r o t e s t a n t i s m , " i n The R.C. Zaehner ( B o s t o n :  Concise Beacon,  15T. C o r b i s h l e y , " C h r i s t i a n i t y : The C a t h o l i c C h u r c h S i n c e Reformation," i n The C o n c i s e E n c y c l o p e d i a o f L i v i n g Faiths, R.C. Zaehner ( B o s t o n : Beacon, 1959), p. 155. 16Filson,  "Peter,"  in  IDB,  vol.  3,  p.  756.  17oscar Cullmann, Peter, Disciple--Apostle--Martyr: A Historical and T h e o l o g i c a l S t u d y , trans., F l o y d \T. F i 1 s o n (LoncTon"! SCM P r e s s , 1 9 5 3 ) , p . 5 5 . ISibid.,  p.  229.  191bid . ,  p.  232.  1bid.,  p.  235.  2 0  21john  Lowe,  Saint  Peter  (Oxford:  Clarendon,  1956),  p.  61.  2 2 B r u c e , P e t e r , S t e p h e n , James and J o h n : Studies in Early N o n - P a u l i n e C h r i s t i a n i t y (Grand R a p i d s : Eerdmans, 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 29. 23Rudolf Pesch, Simon--Petrus: G e s c h i c h t e und g e s c h i c h t liche Bedeutung des ersten Ju'ngers Jesu ChristT (Stuttgart: Hiersemann, 1980). Unfortunately, t h i s v o l u m e was u n a v a i l a b l e t o me a t t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g . T h e r e f o r e , I have g a t h e r e d t h e i n f o r mation from the review in Stuart G. Hall, "First-century Studies," Journal of Ecclesiastical History 33(4, October, 1982): 586-589. Note a l s o , p r e v i o u s to C u l l m a n n , M a u r i c e Goguel , The P r i m i t i v e C h u r c h , t r a n s . H. C. Snape ( L o n d o n : Unwin, 1964), pp. 1 9 6 - 1 9 7 ; E r n e s t W i l l i a m B a r n e s , The R i s e o f C h r i s t i a n i t y (London: Longmans, Green and C o . , 1 9 4 7 ) , p . 188. 24journet, 2  51bid . ,  pp.  p.  60-62,  103-104.  133.  0tto Karrer, Peter and t h e C h u r c h : Cullmann's Thesi s, (Freiburg: Herder, 1963),  An E x a m i n a t i o n of pp. 100-101, 115.  27f/|ichael D a r t o n , Longman  the  2 6  28ibid., 29See  M. and pp.  Harris,  Winter, Saint Peter and Todd, 1960), pp. 24-25. 81, p.  230. 1.  Popes  (London:  Introduction W . Ward G a s q u e , A H i s t o r y o f t h e C r i t i c i s m o f A p o s t l e s (Grand Rapids"! Eerdmans, 1975), p. 27. 3 0  the  31johannes Munck, Paul trans. Frank C l a r k e (London-! " H i s t o r y , " p. 4 2 . 32Munck, 33ibid. 3  trans. 109.  Church p. 7 3 .  Paul ,  p.  the Acts  11 of  and the Salvation of Mankind, SCM P r e s s , 1959), pl 7T; Bruce,  70.  -  ^Hans Lietzmann, The B e g i n n i n g s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n C h u r c h , B e r t r a m Lee Woolf (New Y o r k : M e r i d i a n , 1949), pin 108-  35s. G. F. (London:  B r a n d o n , The F a l l o f J e r u s a l e m and t h e C h r i s t i a n SPCK, 1 9 5 7 ) , p p . 1 3 9 , 211; see a l s o Munck, P a u l ,  3 6 f j h a r l e s B i g g , A C r i t i c a l a n d E x e g e t i c a l C o m m e n t a r y on t h e E p i s t l e s of S t . Peter~a~nd S t . J u d e , I C C (New Y o r k : Scribner' s, 1922), pp. 161-162. 37Ernest  William Barnes,  38Bruce,  Peter,  pp.  p.  30-31.  39Raymond E. Brown, Karl e d s . , P e t e r i n t h e New T e s t a m e n t pp. 161-162. 40Brown,  et  a l . , p.  182.  P. Donfried and John Reumann, (Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1973),  163.  4lFoakes-Jackson, p. x; see a l s o p. 73; J. Alexander F i n d l a y , A P o r t r a i t of Peter (London: Hodder & S t o u g h t o n , 1936), pp. 13-14. 42Brown, 43james Through Early 10.  to  et  a l . , p.  163.  M. Robinson Christianity  and Helmut Koester, T r a j e c t o r i es (Philadelphia: Fortress" 1971), pT  44james M. R o b i n s o n , " J e s u s from E a s t e r t o t h e A p o s t l e s ' C r e e d ) , " JBL 101(1 , 1982) : 6 - 7 . 4 5  4 6  Robinson Ibid.,  47cf.  and K o e s t e r ,  p.  Brown,  pp.  13-14.  16.  et a l . , pp. 163, 167.  Valentinus  (or  Introduction  12  Karl Kundsin, "Primitive Christianity in the Light of Gospel R e s e a r c h , " i n Form C r i t i c i s m : Two E s s a y s on New T e s t a m e n t Research, trans. F r e d e r i c k C~. G r a n t (New Y o r k : Harper, 1962), p. 81. 4 8  4 9 s e e S t e p h e n H . T r a v i s , " F o r m C r i t i c i s m , " i n New T e s t a m e n t I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , p. 154. S e e a l s o E d g a r V . M c K n i g h t , What i s F o r m C r i t i c i sm? e d . Dan 0 . V i a ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : F o r t r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 20; R u d o l f BuTItmann, The H i s t o r y of the S y n o p t i c T r a d i t i o n , trans. John Marsh ( O x f o r d ! B l a c k w e l 1 , 1963) , p. 4 .  S.C.M.  50j. A. Press,  T. Robinson, 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 57.  Redating  the  New  Testament  51see e . g . , Henry B e t t e n s o n , e d . , Documents of t h e tian C h u r c h , second e d i t i o n (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y 1963), p. 1.  (London:  ChrisPress,  52j. B . M o r r i s , W. H . S i m c o x a n d G e o r g e S t e v e n s , e d s . trans., "The Homilies of St. John Chrysostom, Archbishop Constantinople on t h e Epistle of St. Paul to the Romans," NPF1, v o l . 11, p. 547, n . 1. 53see Ernst Eschatology," in Montague (London:  and of in  K a s e m a n n , "An A p o l o g i a f o r P r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n Essays on New T e s t a m e n t Themes, trans. W. J. SCM P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 187.  54wilhelm Schneemel cher and K. Scha'f e r d i e k , T h i r d Century Acts of A p o s t l e s : Introduction," in p. 176.  "Second and NTA, vol. 2,  CHAPTER PETER  I.  THE  APOSTLE  'ATTOOTOXO/  Central is  TWO  to  the concept  Peter  comes  56)1  and  speaking  the  of  from  is of  understanding  apostleship. the  of  with  his relations  Peter  in  The e a r l i e s t  Epistle  concerned  of  Paul  his  with  to  the  early  reference  the  the Jerusalem  we h a v e  Galatians  apostleship.  church  (c.  Paul  to A.D.  here  is  apostles:  T h e n t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r I w e n t up t o J e r u s a l e m t o b e c o m e acquainted with Cephas,2 and s t a y e d with him fifteen days. B u t I d i d n o t s e e any o t h e r o f t h e a p o s t l e s e x c e p t James t h e L o r d ' s b r o t h e r ( G a l a t i a n s 1 : 1 8 - 1 9 , NASB, emphasis mine). The  words  that one  which  there of  lar  were  or  only  occurs  in  used  to  divine  it  word  airoaxeXXaj w h i c h  refers  emphasized  apostles  Greek  mission  the  have  in  i n t h e above  Jerusalem  a n d he  quotation  indicate  identifies  Peter  as  them. The  verb  I  III  the  means  "send  the  New T e s t a m e n t that  The  to  its  14:6  (I  Hebrew  basic  forth"  " e m b a s s y . i n  Kings  prophet  message.4  is likely  takes  a s an  translate to  anoaToAo/  someone  the  Kings  meaning  English)  passive  participle  Ahijah  being  commissioned  Rabbinic  I7^<?W  onro'oToAo/5  a  the Christian  nd,  the  according  concept  13  is  of  on a  Septuagint  14:6,  apostle  the  particuonroatoAor  where  it  77-}!?U/, to  closest to  from  deliver parallel  some is a  is and a to  scholars, recasting  of  Jewish  f] ^ j>  founder  and head  of  Judaism  derived  (an of  the  authorized  board  of The  cerned  from  the j u r i d i c a l or  office  authority  by  the  t h e new c o m m u n i t y . 6  agent  teacher's  occasioned  was  b y whom  New T e s t a m e n t  b a s i c a l l y with  concept  it  not  of  the idea  of  death  of  of  the  Jesus,  at  14  the  office  in  plenipotentiary  a n d was b a s i c a l l y  exercised  was  idea  the Apostle  The a p o s t o l i c  representative)  which  Peter  the  "a  seat  form  of  the  appointed."7 the  apostle,  "being  therefore,  is  con-  sent:"  Fundamental to Jesus' c o n c e p t i o n o f h i s p e r s o n and work i s h i s sense o f b e i n g " s e n t " by t h e F a t h e r . I n t u r n , he " s e n d s o u t " h i s d i s c i p l e s w i t h h i s own a u t h o r i t y t o c o n t i n u e and e x t e n d h i s m i s s i o n . 8 It  has  been  in  the church  mainly  suggested as a term  t h e word  of  of  apostles  the  (cf.,  prevailing  with  sequently  a  is  of  at 2  duty  the  but  Hence,  must  it the  rather  preaching  were  probably  message  of  the  parousi a  of  the  the  acted  original  as m i s s i o n -  be c o n c l u d e d  New  Testament  the  used  congregations,  Probably  1 1  Jerusalem  of  o u t by  imminent  1:14-15).  onro'aToAor i n  the  that  is  gospel,  .  .  "the .  being  a  con-  missionary."13  A further apostle  1:8).I  sense  delegate  Mark  remain  Acts  and  was o r i g i n a l l y  the apostles  Christ-event  God  ?  Originally,  bringing  d i d not  (cf.  sent  apocalypticism,10  eschatalogicai Kingdom  apostle  f o r messengers  as m i s s i o n a r i e s . 9  messengers  aries  that  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  that  resurrection  (I  of  a witness  Corinthians  the  resurrection,  are  witnesses  of  being  in the  the  t h e New T e s t a m e n t  9:1;  words  historia  to  Acts of  Christ,  sacra;15  especially  1:22).14  Ernst  conception  As  Kasemann, "Apostles  a  witness  the are  to  of his to  apostles  guarantors  Peter  of  the  historia  facts,  founders  Being  a  as  of  groups  of  twelve)  the  of  His  the  doubtless  church.18 the  First  of  a l l ,  messengers who  them,  of  "Supreme  or  of  Apostles," Peter,  (however,  note  James  Testament,  these  were  leaders thians  members  also  had  15:7).  categories, not  unless  and  appear  there  describes  as  termed i t y . "20  his  are  "simple  of  "The  the  nowhere  own is  to the  of  the  a  or  the one  God  the  as  is  so  one  an  of  employed  there  was  does  in Two  I  equal  churches,"  of  Corin-  into  Timothy),  exactly  the  Jerusalem  2:12; fit  the  brother"  The  not  a  calls of  apostle  not.  as  was  Barrett  interpreted).  Barnabas, not  (perhaps  Lord's  (Galatians who  of  leaders  "the  designated  name  resurrection  effective  James  or  and  Then  or,  early  people  group  and  9)  the  the  Jesus  com-  Christ.17  of  under  by  the  was  and  original  2:  who  number  to  15  church."16  during  Jerusalem.  (e.g.,  "apostles  these who  do  either).  whom  Barrett  messengers."19  apostles  outstanding is  and  (but  delegates  Twelve"  1:19  Paul,  him  a  death  apostles  associates  relationship  "one  and  Twelve,  there  inferior  Finally,  The  their  Then  became  John, is  the  His in  by  going  the  (Galatians  Galatians  of  lists  recruited  after  who  church: that  was  church  "pillars"  Jerusalem  New  there  of  apostles  Testament  agents  the  many  Apostle  witnesses  identified  Barrett  New  are  authorized  a great  remained  founder-members group  fully  c.K.  in  ministry  smaller  as  they  tradition  resurrection  people  apostles.  because  doctrinal  apostle  were  the  and,  the  to  an  There years  of  witness  missioned  in  sacra  the  problems  regular  and of  the  Twelve  primitive  designation  in  has  been  Christianthe  gospels  Peter  referring  to  Twelve  are  Jesus,  they  appointed and  of  .  .  Acts  Jesus for  appointed might  so  be  group  that,  sent  to  be  .  3:14-16,  is  (Mark that  the  through  most  cast  part  out  a  to  him,  and  in  disappeared  and  the with  "And  out  to  he  preach  whom  he  surnamed  presumption  of  the  original  which so  demons: sent  16  Mark  fellowship  Simon  The  the  be  Apostle  In  2 1  of  out  to  demons:  were  process  period cast  RSV).22  Twelve  "a  apostles.  after  with  to  "  of  forth  authority  who,  the  original  twelve,  have  Peter  the  the  death  group  called  played  leadership  book  its  passed  by  part,"  to  a  wider  ci r c l e . 2 3 Recently, has an  been  stated  historic,  that  the  a l l ,  it  ated  One."26  notion  the  evolved  been  who  Also,  suggested  appeared  "He to  quoting  passage, twelve,"  the  reference  Corinthians Jesus:  have  to  to  15:5-7,  to  from  very  "all  repeated the  time  that  the  the  Twelve  Twelve  circle  of  Cephas, to  all  early  an  the then the  the even  the  Twelve  the  new the  twelve.  apostles"  seems  "Cephas"  to and  of  origin-  resurrected "apostles"  period.27  reference  the  thought  salvation  appelation  resurrection to  not  First  the  of  It  was  have  church.  later  pre-Pauline  elTa/en£ixa  apostles,"  that  is  some  early  of  account.  Apostles"  the  appearance  at  this  Rather,  in  suggested  the  then  the  "the  fact.24  Twelve  James, a  of  concerning  appeared  questioned  "representatives  a s  some  have  over  "experienced  transferred  earliest  is  that  post-Easter,25  community"  was  some  pre-crucifixion  concept has  however,  by  Paul  in  appearances .  .  .  (NASB).  formula.28 indicate "James"  The  of  then  He  Paul  here  j  this  that are  I  n  "the  mutually  Peter  exclusive  groups29  apostle  Paul  Lukan  by  has been  of  a  wider  narrow  thought  Over circle  reaction  to  the  the  evidence  "  .  .  .  however,  of  the  the  this  the scope  . is  of  this  the actual  nature  the  period  our  to  have  ties" to  of  of  apostles. been  and  of  distinguish  of  eKKXriaiSv ( n  13:2-4),  and a p o s t l e s  axoXof  X p i o t o o 'Inoou  Corinthians Peter  1:1;  1:1).37  II i  serious  individual apostles  Corinthians  believe  this  1:1;  a  scholars  are  played  because  by J e s u s  .  .  of of  ."  is  it  is  doubt."35 and c e r t a i n l y  find  a solution.  however, there  it  were  central  see  by  distinction  that  appear  of  authori-  is  possible  the  also  churches,  Acts  11:22;  Christ,  onro~  Galatians 1:1;  is  I  at  distinct  there  it  Jesus  2:7; Romans  two  board  by  What-  seems  Judaism  8:23;  Thessalonians  been  appointment  the  commissioned  out d i r e c t l y  a  occurred  the Twelve  communities,"36  Corinthians sent  have  to  and  century  the r e l i g i o u s  congrega-  and  to t r y to  documents  used  church,  problem,  the "Twelve,"  of  (I  the  was  may h a v e  other  that  in the  restricted  may  an  apostles.  various  the Twelve  as i n f i r s t  between  onrd'aToAoi  of  r  hand,  Judas,  simple  earliest  "apostles  of  of  thesis  Just  "apostles  a  by  which 0  as  "apostle"  became  no e v i d e n c e  beyond  not  term  other  leadership  .  out  17  called  especially  term  the  tradition  .  the  Paul,33  is  is  be i d e n t i f i e d  of  e t c . , "the appointment  historical  Later,  sent  the  Cephas  a development  on  there  ever  types  originally  him.34  in  that  to  missionaries  since  Clearly beyond  began  ascendancy  of  part  Matthias,  of  time,  that  special  that  note  1:18-19).  (the Twelve),32  independently convinced  Galatians the Twelve  group  tions.31  a  in  writings,30  It  (however,  the Apostle  Peter  crucial  for  1:1;  I  1:1;  II  under-  Peter  standing cially  the  as  tradition  it  relates  Without the  stated with  of  that  the  of  of  P E T E R THE have  noted  was  that  he  gospel,  that  portrait  A»  the  was a of  comes  again  Galatians.  had  been  as  a  "going" and  they  this  refer  an  to  to  he,  that  in  the  delegate  to  an  Anton and  this the  Peter  the  Peter,  espe-  examination  of  Fridrichsen  definite study  sense  begins  tradition,  has began  with  the  exhibits  the  Thus  we  from  seminal  that  with  to  the  same means  but to  now be  that  the  of  apos-  preaching  first  gospel to  Peter  as  the  examine  document, of  a  the  the  ("that  to  Peter  as  using  all  might  NASB). note three  go I  one  having  is  entrusted  having as  or  an  (v. to  will two  phrases  Hence,  epistle  he  say  7),  and  more  about  things. quoted  the  as  Gentiles,  First  above  apostleship with  been  (v.  8)  the  to  himself  u n c i rcumci sed  circumcised" we  9,  the  missionary-  Paul's  circumcised" just  us  one  will  to  speaks  let  thing.  duty  an  Letters  have  Paul  gospel  the I  Pauline  c i r c u m c i s e d , " v.  seems  had  reference  2:7-9  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  missionary-apostle.  The  "apostleship  later,  main  who  the  the  turn  full  Hence  circumcised  Paul  circumcised  its  the  passage  a l l ,  the  entrusted  to  in  missionary.  In  with  having  of  apostle.  above  earliest  "entrusted  us  apostle.  how  A Missionary-Apostle:  apostle  of  an  is,  painted  The  let  an  and  apostleship  18  MISSIONARY  I tle  then,  as  the  Apostle  Paul.  Peter."38  Peter,  characteristics  II.  ado  of  apostolate  calling of  that  Peter  "the  apostleship  to  further  portrait  concerning  the  to  gospel  to the to  Peter  the  c i r c u m c i s e d , which  cised.  In  among  the  Jews,39 v.  every  Gentiles  and  7).40  that  outreach  passage  Peter's  Turning comparing  he  has  with  brothers,  and  to  Peter,  like  implying  that  unlike  with  him  (irepiayeiv)  sage  again  rest  his  n  regards  I no  Cephas  and  letters  of  work  among  the  ("seeing,"  successful  in  one  right  the  this  mis-  particular  9:5,  to take  and  a  a  again  Christian the  Here takes  tours.41 as  Paul  and  NEB).  i s married  primarily  finds  apostles  evangelistic  Peter  his  converts is a  circum-  that work  19  of a m i s s i o n a r y - a p o s t l e .  Corinthians  him, o  "Have  the (I  that  show  Peter's  results:  Paul's  Peter:  Cephas?"  Paul  of  is primarily of  of  Apostle  goes t o t h e  to  is describing  part  another  me  similar  one  here  counterpart  Paul  the  role  to  is careful  had  what  on  himself  about  Paul i s the  Clearly,  sionary  wife  way  i n t u r n means t h a t  the  Lord's Paul  his  wife  in t h i s  travelling  is  pas-  mission-  ary. In  summary,  himself.  As  gospel  people  B.  to  The  Great  For Acts  of  ciples hew  the  the as  and  Galilee  (the  forth  (Mark  Peter  is  brother  make you  on  is  a  Gospels  portrayed  them:  fishers  are  converts.  canonical i s the  Mark, a  in  gospels call  passage  fishing  ( v . 17,  NIV).  and  by  which  disMatt-  From  the  Simon  the  Sea  Jesus The  the  the  terms.  "'Come, f o l l o w me,'  o f men'"  of  4:18-22).  missionary  found  the  Acts  1:16-20; Matthew  Andrew  calls  of  like  tours, bringing  winning  and  i n the  book  missionary-apostle  missionary  starting-point  i n the  follows  Jesus  The  painted our  i t i s found  his  Peter  c i r c u m c i s i o n ) , and  Apostles,  when  I will  goes  portrait  beginning  Peter  he  Paul,  Missionary:  basically  very  'and  such  for  of  said,  metaphor  Peter  "fishers and  o f men" i s from  Rabbinic  literature  connotation certainly tion  at  should of  of  may h a v e  to  Peter  as  this  Another  19;  Matthew  ary  aspect  the  miraculous, do.  is  and t o  aeiv"  a  of  (vv.  the verb  same  words  are  probably  come  Mark  for  purposes  list  of  go f o r t h  Luke  6:12-16). than  Luke  does  reads:  out  to  RSV).  while  the  metaphor occupa-  that  church  occupation  many  clearly,  would  this  from  be  passage the  very  stating  also  found  Luke  not  i n Mark  state  and have  what  i t s nominal "whom in  and were  he  some  reinserted  so d e s c r i b e d and i t  as a m i s s i o n a r y - a p o s t l e .  to  this  be  with  cast  out  Mark  into  Peter's i s clear  that  in  Mark,  (v.  3:14;  some name  mission  preserved  apostles" of  were  <npua~  of  and t h u s  named  stresses  aixob/  finding form  mission-  to  sense  is  3:13-  the Twelve  authority  texts  harmonization).46  the  twelve  and t h e  Luke,  (Mark  Matthew  "ontoo-TeXXp  preaching  gospels,  and p r e a c h  in the others;  Probably  by  synoptic  However,  The w o r d s  cntoaxeXXui t o  three  " A n d he a p p o i n t e d  preach  the act of  of  negative  in the l a t e r  asserts  to  from  the  and A n d r e w ' s  God."44  and  16:16)  with  and example  the Twelve  the apostles  regarded  of  20  calling.  apostleship.45  meaning  teaching  Jeremiah  to the future  all  14-15,  changed  relate  to  sent  to  Peter  common  however,  central  occurs  i t s meaning  missionary,  whereas  c l e a r l y make  by  The w o r d s  the reign  (e.g.,  caught.42  call,43  s t r e s s e d more  be  always  those  " b y whose  10:1-4;  Mark,  demons"  again  their  passage,  appointment  it  suggested  was h i s  the  these  of  experience  beginning,  the  been  disciples,  portrays  him,  on  n o t be i g n o r e d .  brought  to  where  judgment  the time  these  the Old Testament  the Apostle  texts heads  he i s  13; they of the here  Peter  One Peter Luke on  as  of  the  a  In  Markan  significant  the  some  variants  ting  of  more  examples  into  the  form  John  of  a  which  derived  story  does  two  indeed  reflects  in  which  described  in  lead-in  the  Lukan  to  account,  theologically  the  story in  retrojection Jesus  than  the  the  to  are  the  other  of  miracle  considerable  on  the  setting  concluded  that set-  there  ministry  think  that  of  the  story  from  that  the  Lukan  between  since  there  as  the we  post-  main  21  shall  the more  account as  a  theme  and  Christ. see,  of  miracle  basically risen  the  if  John  the  primarily  serving of  a  events.53 story,  the  are  material  His  differences  same  21  independently  the  constitutes  recognition  John  of  functions  hand,  in  Others  noting  the  the The  characteristics  detail,54  other  motivated.55  of  are  from  different  setting  fishes  disciples'  material  find  story  fishes.47  generally  context.50  than  variants  original  draught  of  in  added  post-resurrectional  typical some  has  have  criticism of  his  recorded  they  found  post-resurrectional  account,51  the  be  the  call  but  21  regarding  based  of  some  original  Johannine  call ,  that  story.48  gospel  his has  story  Apostle  gospels  of  draught  the  was  the  Luke  the  assert  of  appearance.52  miraculous  story  to  same  of  of  and  the  preserve  great  accounts  likely the  too  seems,  story  of  preserves the  not  resurrection  it  in  story  miraculous  this  the  the  post-resurrectional  account  stories  the  since  is  stories  scholars  21,49  ministry  in  Luke's  of  between  original  placed  passages  passage,  Matthean  event  prompted  preserved  this  and  similarities have  important  missionary-apostle  5:1-11.  the  most  the  is  is  as  a The  more  Peter  Luke, fishes  at  by  the  commission t i e s . 56 imply can  placing call  to  the  and  Luke),58  t  point  n e  the  story  in  the  risen  Lord,  "Do  not  the  21 in  from  These  words  miraculous  catch  of  the  the  to  call  in  Peter  trayed  as  outsiders. caused  to  as  in  made,  it  is  the  that  Peter  made  made  in  more  whole  the  book  to  by  converts  lifetime."6^  shall during He  early  "When  seen  mis-  call and  of mis-  intention  not only role  Peter  por-  a missionary  to  of  Acts.6*  chapters  early  a  speak  find  all  forced  those is  as  the  dominant of  and  10,  accounts  Jesus  we  words:  addressed,  the  Acts  the  be  are  of  (v.  the  the  book  church  remark: we  the  of  Jerusalem  presented  that  in  in  relating  at  in  for  story (as  men"  future  having  may  Whereas  pre-Easter  saw  reader  21  the  apostleship  words  By  a missionary  picture  likely  the  to  we  John  Jesus'  is  does  the  these  alone.  Peter  Luke  the  what  activi-  recognition  with  he  in  Jesus'  different.  Peter's  where  of  of  catching  that  grounded  Matthew,  be  be  to  draught  mission  disciples'  that  unlike  commentator  been  his  that  therefore,  one  story  are  and  play  The  clear  preparing  preacher  6 2  it  in  details  climaxes  will  indicating  here  but  story  the  sheep"  to  the  22  missionary  apostolic  symbolically  Peter  is  will  a  is  Mark  Luke  Turning,  has  of  disciples,  Peter,  which  Luke  Note  6 0  fish  my  seems  you  make  placing  success  Jesus.  Peter's to  by  disciples  sionary of  and  on  later  the  Apostle  i l l u s t r a t i o n of  various  in  the  now  d  miraculous  an  his  to  story  Luke  as  "feed  a n  climaxes  NASB).59  sionary,  to  apply  of  John  fear,  to  the  it  reflects  outreach,57  interpreted  of  uses  commission  missionary  be  story  Peter,  Peter  While  a  of  the  the  to  of  Acts  allowances  have  the days  preaching  conclusion than the  Paul first  Peter  evangelistic  sermon  about  thousand  three  represented 5:29-32; gospel  converts  as preaching  10:34-43).  by t h e r i s e n  8-10)  Peter  the  mission  the  cities  after  picture  of Judea  then  To  words  of  He  Karl  Kundsin,  n e t o f t h e Kingdom  C.  The C h i e f  missionary. the  first  Peter  12:17.66  continues  The F i r s t century  Epistle  (A.D.  6469  of  second  century  111-112),71  "Peter,  an a p o s t l e  1:1,  RSV).  generally  Galatia,  Although held  critical  Acts of  throughout taken  place  overwhelming activity. us  of the missionary.67  i  missionary,  with n  the  who c a s t s  Tradition Peter  in the role  written  A.D.  90-95,  either  purports  Asia,  that  be  of the  i s upheld work  on  by  Disper(I  by s o m e , 7 2 is  in  in the  written  and B i t h y n i a "  the  late  or early  To t h e e x i l e s  authorship is  to  of a  depending  7 0  is rejected),  Christ,  opinion  The  Peter,  Cappadocia,  Petrine  (note  present  paint  or  authorship  i n Pontus,  may h a v e  and A c t s  Later  to  or not Petrine  of Jesus  indi-  for i t s catch."68  whether  (A.D.  cases  and m i s s i o n a r y  i s "the great  o f Heaven  of the  as  as t r a v e l i n g  i n Acts  is  4:8-12;  a s an " i n s p e c t o r  which  the Gospels  he  Samaritans and  the gospel  travels  of the Church:  tradition  sion  seen  as t h e archetype  Herald  to Jews, of  on  (3:13-26;  i n some  preaching  then  23  winning  the bringing  capacity  also  prison  briefly,  the  Later  is  i s one o f i n t e n s e  of Peter  with  Spirit  1:8).64  (9:34-43), from  summarize  portrait  (Acts  From  occasions  i s connected  in a leadership  field."65  his release  several  f o r the expansion  Jesus  appears  and, incidentally,  (2:14-41).  of the Holy  the pattern  cated  on  Peter  and t h e coming  Gentiles,  a  o f t h e new c h u r c h ,  the Apostle  Peter the  pseudony-  Peter  mous.73 cal  However,  references  that  the  later  some  in  places  fathers  the  consider  epistle  mentioned  missionary  church  still  as w e l l ,  came  and p r e a c h e d  ple,  states:  in  with  likely  comprised  jhis  the  Hence,  the  histori-  it  area  24  may be  of  Peter's  c o n c l u s i o n was a c c e p t e d b y t h e  the addition  Rome.  that  are accurate.74  above  activity.75  it  the Apostle  Hippolytus  that  (died  afterwards c.  236),  he a l s o  for  exam-  Peter preached the Gospel in Pontus, and G a l a t i a , and Cappadocia and B e t a n i a , and I t a l y , and A s i a , a n d was a f t e r w a r d s c r u c i f i e d b y N e r o i n Rome w i t h h i s h e a d d o w n w a r d , a s he h a d h i m s e l f d e s i r e d t o s u f f e r i n t h a t m a n n e r ( A p p e n d i x on t h e T w e l v e A p o s t l e s I , ANF; n o t e a l s o Leo I , Sermon L X X I I , s e c t . v ) . Thus of  we s e e t h a t  Peter's  through  later  the F i r s t  Epistle  missionary  activity  traditions  also  of  Peter  the  became  fixed  in  tradition the  early  church. Other apostle. although (we  do  later  The G n o s t i c unknown, have  a  has P e t e r  Jesus  "Go t h e n  NHL).  The  could  Greek  t u r y ) , 76 to  Gospel be  of as  Mary, early  fragment  Peter  whose as  dating  and t h e o t h e r and p r e a c h  picture  date  the  from  apostles  the gospel  of  as a m i s s i o n a r y of  late  the  composition,  second  early  commanded  century  third by t h e  the kingdom"  cenrisen  (8:21-22,  disciples  were g r i e v e d . They wept g r e a t l y , s a y i n g , " H o w s h a l l we go t o t h e G e n t i l e s a n d p r e a c h t h e g o s p e l o f t h e k i n g d o m o f t h e Son o f Man? I f t h e y d i d n o t s p a r e h i m , how w i l l they spare us?" (9:7-13,NHL). After Peter and he  Mary  i s portrayed  asking is  words,  encourages  also  them,  they  i n a prominent  questions  (e.g.,  portrayed  as a m i s s i o n a r y .  as  go role  7:11-13), going  forth  forth in this  and  preach  document,  and as one o f and  the  preaching:  (19:2). speaking disciples in  other  Peter  The Syriac  that  to  the  Mesopotamia,^7  apostles  us might to It  is  commission  Lord  that  (with  a  the  sent  the  Peter  250 i n t h e  Christian and  regions which  author  of  fell  of  the to  this  to  that world,  his lot,  act,  para-  work  wishes  as  f u l f i l -  the l i s t )  the gospel  Gnostic  states  him" ( f i r s t  heading  by p r e a c h i n g  A.D.  romance,78  "divided  the  clear  the apostles  is  go t o t h e r e g i o n  which  about  25  the whole  world  missionary-apostles. work  sionary dates will  in  is  from  the  note  Epitome  journeys  about  this  in  II,  The  Tyre  sects,  works  each of  divided  is  we  and  view into  of  of two  a  have of  century  with  VII,  (original  as  that  Peter's  been  development the  church  i t s own p a r t i c u l a r  probably 7 9  We  and X I V , on  missionary  Berytus  (VII:9.1),  (XII:  11:144).  12.1),  From  role  in  do  not  and  the  this  Pseudo-  8 0  examining in the early developed emphasis.  the powerful  majority,  parts:  catholic  the  about  main  mis-  b u t f o r now we  Aradus  (Epitome  a  Syria).  XIII,  (VI1:6.1),  missionary. just  going  (VII:1.1),  Rome  in  later;  XII,  as  writing  century  VIII,  Sidon  Tripolis  prominently  document  portrayed  (VIIrl.1),  i s that  second  more  the third  important  Homilies  Peter  the mainstream the  appears  of  one c a n c o n c l u d e  Clementines  point  half  (XIII:1.3),  evidence  from  first  (VII:12.2),  Laodicea  Peter  P s e u d o - C I e m e n t i nes  that  in  Byblus  which  the  s a y more  should  out  other  NTA).  their  composed  Hellenistic-Oriental  nation  portray  A  in  the  probably  Northern  one o f  1,  ling as  of  and t h e  graph to  of  each  and  of Thomas,  church  variety Peter  Acts  the Apostle  church.  into  many  However,  the church or  come  "great"  was  to  us  Throughdifferent from  the  basically  church,  on t h e  Peter  one  hand,  other.81  and  the  The  above  tude."  With  sects,  condemned  catholic in  the  Mary  and  along  the  church two  "condemned writings increase  as in  full  with  Acts  the  there  with  of  is  no  picture  is  The  being  When  power  a  we  but  turn  to  orthodox of  the  writers  (by  "great"  in  the  him  that  Gospel  a  In  the  is  con-  however,  missionary  Fathers,  of  missionary,  story;  a  the  note  a missionary  this  Peter  as  great  missionary-preacher  e.g.,  Pamphilius  [c.  more  of  par  however,  sermon,  which  behalf  Christ"  (Augustine,  which  3000  Peter's  reminiscent  the  Peter  "uttered  dark,  a  voice  a  On  of like  scattered  a the  in  for  the  even a  seems,  great  (e.g.,  sermon  dawn  voice,  which  "so  believed  C a t e c h i sm 3 0 ) . of  was  third  on  the  and  the  the and  of  to  be  age.  great mist  a  John  cen-  mission-  Acts  was  Peter's  92:1, The  Great  in  terms  of  out of  on  NPF1),  Chrysostom  darkness  of  testimony  shining  of  (see,  Chapters  Nyssa, spoken  As  light and  of  a  of  the  divine  Gregory  new  of  the  portrayal  fathers  Gospel  came  the  by  fourth  as  book  Exposition  impressive  Pentecost  non-heretical,  predominance  it  250-310]  Particularly  the  Peter's  emphasis,  A.D.  mean  of  based  Acts).  make  church)  I  They a  to  which  ary.  from  as  Catholic  tended  and  other  predominance.  making  turies  of  as  multi-  leaving  (the  presented  character  the  at  the  the  to  26  different.  standards  the  looked  no  on  "condemned  interesting  with  actively  heretics  Catholicism  predominance  leading  at  is  is  Apostle  disappeared,  we  Peter  the  that  of  It  which  apostles,  attempt  excel 1ence.  from  control.  Peter's  of  eventually  Thomas)  other  his  in  writings  Pseudo-Clementines, sistent  come  heretics,  gnostic  the  multitude"  the  the  says: in  the whole  Peter  world  (The  mony at  Acts  from  Rome  middle  Acts  the  fourth of  9:4,  NPF1)  lem,  Catachetical  fathers a  summary,  Lectures  11:3,  writers  not  a missionary,  just  missionary  and  examination  of  the  the  a r e t w o more  traditions  Peter  the  to  apostle  D.  to  the  the  are  of  the  Again, cision  begins in  of of  by  termed  Second  I  the "the  Corinthians  (Cyril  also  of  Jerusa-  through  portrayed flowered  missionary,  Peter  Before  to  Peter among  who c h a r a c t e r i z e d  church.  which  Peter  really  greatest  of  or  the  need  to  of  Peter  as  as  chief  concluding  our  however,  be e x a m i n e d ,  and  the  the  Peter  as a m i s s i o n a r y ,  circumcised,  the  Peter  church.  with  that  exact  counterpart  first  Paul's  Galatians of  of  As  Peter  epistle  2:6-10,  Peter's.  to  those the  of  first  such  Paul  they  Gentiles  the circumcision  apostle  originating  Peter-as-missionary  the t r a d i t i o n  above  the  traditions  early  to the  as t h e a p o s t l e  him as  separate  within  preached  Thus  was b e i n g  t h e C i r c u m c i s i o n and F i r s t  description  sections tories  to  description  probably  the  testi-  Gentiles.  The A p o s t l e The  and  apostle  centuries  the  there  4:21).  On  from  century  trajectory  had  27  NPF2).  the  of  To t h i s  Peter  the church"  tradition  fourth but  Peter  tradition  the  preacher  of  of  and f o u r t h  orthodox  that  (Chrysostom,  herald  However,  NPF1).  Institutes  least  "chief  the t h i r d  missionary.  at  later  4,  conviction  world"  the  Homily  Divine  century  the  and t h e  of  the  Lactantius,  teacher  In  the Apostles,  was a d d e d  (e.g., of  chief  of  the Apostle  to in  are  the two  Gentiles different  minor  trajec-  trajectory.  as t h e a p o s t l e to  the  he  the  Galatians.  portrayed  However,  to  circum-  We  his mission  notes  that  noted as t h e  there  is  Peter  one  major  of  the  (the by  difference  gospel  entrusted  circumcision), God  sion). Paul  to  Paul It  8 2  or  8 3  racial  life.  to  any  rate,  with  ments  in  Galatians,  preach  to  Gentiles  It Peter  trying  of  is  Peter.  the  had is  make  a  It  incidents different  doubtful  "dividing that  his  up" own  God-ordained  is  his  in  Jewish the  own  mission  Gentile  speculation.  the  for  in  However,  that  that  territoribased  rest  on  have of  his  work  was  Paul's  probably  only  in  statedid  Paul,  as  an  apostle  we  do  the  Paul  to  for  it  the  not  is  to  in  be  his  his  situation noted  that  rank  Peter's  side  did  that  Paul.  is  area  was  It such  stressing as  as  influence  position  he  8 8  any  equally  own  Peter's own  equal  likely  Paul is  2:6-10  evidently  records  Rather  limits  real  is  than  is  of  have  Galatians  field.  enhance  who  not  apostleship  to  Galatians  by  Galatians, his  Thus  it  of  Peter  and  clearly  the  and  authoritative  What  Peter  Peter's  basis  a missionary-apostle  order  mission.  the  that  that  mission  and  area.  in of  as  that  would for  Jews  uncircumci-  territorially,  assume on  the  entrusted  either  Jerusalem  himself  epistle  the  field:"  division  way,  unfortunate  position  inely  some,  this  concept  of  last  at  (the  passage  perhaps  however,  in  this  preaching  gospel  Gentiles  28  8 7  recorded  that  from  decided  a l l .  case is  the  around  and  have  to  a  of  scholars  noted,  referred  to  most  at  be  preaching  or,  8 4  area  Jews,86  to  directed  the  Apostle  the  is  mission  The  the  ministries:  Peter  at  the  racially,  primarily  with  up  two  to  inferred  "divided  Peter  At  God  directed  been  simply  the  the  preponderance.86  relegated  is  by  while  is  has  somehow  a l l y ,  between  the  as  genu-  Peter's to  the  regards  is  a matter  of  Peter's  presence  in  Peter  Antioch  and  his behaviour  tain  men  from  have  h a d some At  this  of  any  rate, at  (cited  the  least  Dispersion"  technical  term  t i l e s . "89  word  for  it  written  been  taken  over  into  cate  that  while  they  exiled  from  their  later  tradition,  Peter  as  preached (e.g.,  the to  of  stands Peter the  in  and Paul and  of  Acts.  limit  his  to  Paul  in  For  he  may  the  world  to  Jews  that  among  the  (6ia~  being  Paul's  is a  the  Jewish  Genis  word  used  to  indi-  are  dispersed  the  case,  considered  the  that  salutation  3:1.2;  in has  characterization  in the  I  "exiles  epistle  Whatever  History  the  in  to  "Dispersion"  Christians  heaven.91  lead  salutation  technical  Peter  as  apostle  early  3:  Gentiles thing,  field  flatly  according  Gentiles.  missionary  is  work  synagogues  As in  to  to  of  Peter I  4.2;  the  tradition.  up" the m i s s i o n  the  i n the Jewish  the  named  another  to  that  Peter  Jerome,  1). of  one  "cer-  and i n a l l c a s e s  circumcision,  places  Men  to  The  vocabulary,90  this  of  Paul's  writing  suggested  that  shows  word  of  following  the  "divided  his  in  home  tradition  preaching  began  preaching  are  to  is  The  Ecclesiastical  contrast  Jews  Book  Paul  the  and  Christian  Illustrious  But  RSV).  coming  followed  extent.  Peter  has been  in the  Eusebius,  Lives  that  probably  Jews  NASB)  tradition  certain  the  29  mission.  "dispersion  Gentiles  apostle  to  in the Septuagint  the  However, to  a  (1:1,  fact  and  to  2:12,  Gentile  later  states  i s a frequent  airopa)  in the  some  above)  (previous  Galatians  interest  matter,  Peter  James,"  there  the Apostle  to  Acts  The  with  idea  Peter  Acts,  Paul  presents  there  the  every  that  going  contradicted  virtually  (wherever  circumcision  to  by  the  did  not  story,  city  by  was o n e , e . g . ,  Peter  13:5,14;  14:1;  describes custom"  preaching (17:2,  testified declares  far  Acts  Wolfgang  Even  Spirit  salistic  Then, are  that  intent  baptized for  commanded  to  who b e l i e v e s  the Holy  Spirit  his actions  God v i n d i c a t e d  that  Acts  Paul's  mes-  On t h e  other  the Jews, and a  is  staunch  in  is  God i s means  43,  upon  able  (11:2-3),  and  Gentile  Gen-  justify  his  o f God  preaches is  "Through  returns  b u t when  Romans Gentiles  to  t o go a n d do what  His  has r e -  1:16).  95  and they  Jerusalem  he e x p l a i n s  the  univer-  T O V TT l a x e u o v x a )  c f . ,  to  the  he d e l i v e r s  NASB,  indi-  refuses  to  language:  by g i v i n g  the  as the w i l l  the listening  Peter  greater to  not c a l l  house  (iTavxa  declaring,  and almost Peter  which  Pauline  his actions  he Acts  vision of  in Caesarea  message  When  by t h e S p i r i t  of  Cornelius'  sins"(10: falls  -jter  Peter  i n him  (10:44-48).  w r  hesitant  Cornelius  and even  of  is  Thus  goes  a  the people  demands  The G o s p e l  forgiveness  rebuked was  him. in  of  Peter  everyone  ceived  Himself  i n t h e house  to  Peter  that  Again,  w a s God who i n s t i g a t e d  (10:15,28).  (11:1-12).94  name  though  to  and 11)  receives  The  it  preaching  Acts  "Paul's  saying  28:28).  30  (15:7-11).  that  Israel.92 that  (e.g.,  Peter  i t ,  as  rejected  ( c h s . 10  mission  fact, as  NASB).  t h e Jews  to  In  synagogues  (20:21,  limited  puts  vision  unclean  Gospel  because  to the Gentiles  believing this  actions  and G r e e k s "  t e n and e l e v e n  the Holy  tiles  recorded  being  Dietrich  mission.93 go,  is  of the Gentile  In  by  Paul  to the Gentiles  from  apostle  supporter  cate  and  was o n l y  first  only  their  it  Peter,  etc.).  in  that  he t u r n e d  19:8,  Jews  Jews  hand  than  NASB),  18:4;  the  "both  that  as  to  to  sage  the  17:1-2,10,17;  the Apostle  he i s  that  he  he d i d ( 1 1 : 1 2 ) , a n d  the Gentiles  the  Holy  Peter  Spirit  just  c o s t , 96 God  as  they  has g r a n t e d  very  early  Gentile much  a  Weiss  is  of  piety98 however, since actions  story  the as  to  other  immediately  note not  did  here sent  mission  i t ,  suggested  the even  Jerusalem  note  this  Peter  story  before  also  is  the  probably  time  the  a  late  since  "the narrator  style  but a l s o  in the  point  originally  this  was a  that  largely  circumstances owing  included  story  looks  to  in  his  a  Brandon, accurate  because At  decisive  which  personal  substantially  (11:2-3).100  portrays  reveals  Peter).99  was c h a l l e n g e d  Christians  stands  that  out  to  the Gentiles  the by  in  of  (v.  19,  place  of h i s  any  event  Of  in  probably  course  it  Acts  Antioch  rate,  in  Since  took  the  but  reached  the  arose  persecution before the  Thus,  spreading  Antioch they  in  visit  story  We s h o u l d  rather,  Peter's  may b e t h a t  the  (11:19-21).  that  place  this  mission.  records  who f i r s t church,  after  has p l a c e d  the Gentile  persecution  NASB).  until  Acts  story  Jerusalem the  of  with  missionaries  the  Antioch  Cornelius.102  dealing  the Cornelius  because  take  the writer  stories  that  Stephen" not  that  likely  Pente-  (11:18).  well  church,  at  "to the Gentiles  the extraordinary  that  now  that  in the  very  that  after  Gospel  scattered with  of  Christians  31  of the c h u r c h . 1 ° 1  We m u s t  the  been  which  it  back  only  the  records by  history  of  told  story  Jewish  life"  received  not  has noted  it  prior  Acts  entered  (a  going  has  anecdote  Gentile  the  it  unto  has c o n c l u d e d  Jewish  view."97  the  God a n d c o n c l u d e  tradition  that  Him t o  repentance  author  simple  gave  glorify  Johannes  of  he  the Apostle  were "were  connection  to  Cornelius  had c e a s e d , Peter's  news  simply  visit  the to  had n o t  Peter  yet  reached Jerusalem  Cornelius  incident  Cornelius  incident  Acts  wishes  was  to  started  portrays itive  the  that not by  Gentile  community ,104  v.  situation 22).  before  first, but  the  (cf.,  show  Christianity,  of  But  at in  Antioch any  mission  to  "this  Gentile  mission  an  Peter,  the  mission and  anonymous  as  after  by  Antioch,  author  of  Hei1sgeschichte  growth  through  the the  the  in  32  placing  of  dispersed  apostle."103  natural  God-ordained  until  individual  first a  Apostle  case,  the  by  the  from  his  Thus  he  the  prim-  chosen  apos-  tles.105 Similarly, again as  portrayed  the  at as  initiator  of  the  "apostolic  a supporter  of  council"  the  (Acts  Gentile  15)  mission,  Peter and  is  indeed  it:  And a f t e r t h e r e h a d b e e n m u c h d e b a t e , P e t e r s t o o d up a n d s a i d t o t h e m " B r e t h r e n , y o u know t h a t i n t h e e a r l y days God made a c h o i c e among y o u , t h a t b y my m o u t h t h e Gentiles s h o u l d hear t h e word of the gospel and believe. And God, who knows the heart, bore witness to them, g i v i n g t h e m t h e H o l y S p i r i t , j u s t a s He a l s o d i d t o u s ; a n d He made no d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n us a n d t h e m , c l e a n s i n g t h e i r h e a r t s by f a i t h . Now t h e r e f o r e why d o y o u p u t God t o t h e t e s t by p l a c i n g upon t h e neck o f t h e d i s c i p l e s a y o k e w h i c h n e i t h e r o u r f a t h e r s n o r we h a v e b e e n a b l e t o bear? B u t we b e l i e v e t h a t we a r e s a v e d t h r o u g h t h e g r a c e o f t h e L o r d J e s u s , i n t h e same way a s t h e y a l s o a r e . " And a l l t h e m u l t i t u d e k e p t s i l e n t . And t h e y w e r e l i s t e n i n g t o B a r n a b u s and P a u l as t h e y were r e l a t i n g what s i g n s and wonders God had done t h r o u g h t h e m among t h e Gentiles. And after they had stopped speaking, James answered, saying, "Brethren, listen to me. Simeon has r e l a t e d how God f i r s t c o n c e r n e d H i m s e l f a b o u t t a k i n g f r o m among the Gentiles a people for His name" (15:7-14, NASB). Notice back for  up  that his  the  believers  Peter  speaks  statements  Gentile with  with  mission  the  need  first,  further  and to  while  the  observe  Paul  and  examples.  decision the  not  Jewish  Barnabas  The to law  simply  justification burden  is  Gentile  grounded  not  Peter  in  the  evident  rather 14,  in  cf.,  that  success  the  fact  that  Galatians  the  movement  of  with  tension,  which  Peter  briefly  commits  the  Foakes-Jackson t i nes  is  church but  to  made  and  now  up  of  as  to  of  Acts  Cyril  of  Jerusalem,  that  10,  with  Acts  in  only  an  on  but  Peter  wishes  (v.  to  the  show  Jews  orderly  carried  of  the  church,  and  a  reproof  to  Peter of  to  fashion  on  the is  the  Peter  work  is  the  Lectures On  gone  to  the  Gentiles"  he  says  rather the  been  elsewhere  of  God  the  Jewish  to  to  vision  was  believers  their intended  who  were  the  as  (e.g., Flight  Ephesians  since  as  the  Spirit,  not  free  on  Chrysostom  by  did  the  church.  Ambrose,  on  Thus in  Gentiles  4:21-29).  Gentiles  regarding  Christianity,  credited,  the  Peter  Gentile  Gentile  (Homilies  the  true  involved  instructed  that  II).  Pseudo-Clemen-  be  17:27;  Baptism,  (Epitome  church.108  generally  in  whom  Jewish  to  Gospel  not  go  with  that to  the  Jerusalem  he  to  the of  note  Gentile  Rome  of  seen  we  a  e s t a b l i s h i n g the  Augustine,  vision  at  founder  break  and  bringing  counsel  but  the no  as  object  had  the  the  church  the is  tradition,  portrayed  the  Catechetical  8:49;  have  is  James  point  with  However,  to  later  Fathers  "Peter,  instruction averse  the  made  well,  Church  World  would  NPF1).  of  33  enjoying,  began  place  Paul  that  to  the  basis  never  took  of  men who  the  states  are  concentration  that  Peter  attached  mission  the  author  from  Clement  that  In  from  to  considers  document  Gentile  Barnabas  mission  The  church  charge  show  remained this  whole  Gentiles  Pseudo-Clementines  Peter  in  the  and  Apostle  began.107  Turning the  the  the  on  real  Paul  2 : 9 ) . 106  concentration no  which  the  he  need  the  was  not  admission an  yet  6,  to  assurance unenlight-  Peter  ened cf.  to  this  Acts  been and  in  truth  11:4-18). favour  as l e a d i n g In  here.  with  Peter's bably  also  mission  mainly  to  of  to  mission,  probably church  tradition to the to  hold  apostle  role  him as t h e a p o s t l e  to  traditions  to  Peter's of  rather  Thus,  there  the Gentiles  Peter  as  traditions  Paul  Acts  Peter's  Gentile  ministry apostle was  no was  to  in the  the over-  Gentile  rising  enough,  prestige  the  Galatians  managed  can record  shortly  pro-  probably  but  priority  limited  the  was  the church  only  the church  of  Peter's  Eusebius  having  circumcision  ground  somewhat  Interestingly but  the  The w r i t e r  that of  into  i n which  as  so  tradition  tension. to  so  and 2 3 ,  always  two s e p a r a t e  however,  of  as  22  34  truth.  apostle  the influence  d i d not d i e o u t , in  we h a v e  h i s own.  tradition  large.  this  the Galatians,  later  under  at  t h e two  first  The  pictured  into  field  Homilies  the Gentiles  as  activity;  the  by t h e A c t s  the  to  mission  shadowed  in  Peter  enhance  the Jews.  influenced  brethren  Peter's  the  is  of  I believe  letter  Apostles,  Peter  entry  of  apostolic  dividing-up  Jews  then,  modified  in  limited  the free  Paul's  the  Thus,  1 0 9  tradition  role  of  h i s Jewish  summary, The  began  of  (Acts  the Apostle  somehow Peter  before  he  to the circumcision ( E c c l e s i a s t i c a l  as  refers History  2:3.3).  E.  Summary The  probably functioned letter  to  trajectory began as  during  in which Peter's  a missionary.  the Galatians,  Peter  i s portrayed  early This  although  is  ministry how P a u l  he l i m i t s  as a when views  missionary  he  actually  him i n t h e  his influence  to  the  Peter  Jews,  so  hanced.  that Peter's  itself  by  painted  the  in  and  to  Peter  the  Christian  III.  PETER  that  THE  for right  Gospels  of  both  and  the  church Acts  the church.  As  the founding  the apostle  the  would  and  with  apostle  to  as both  to  the  great  founder  of  be e n -  evidences  where part  the  is  this  Gentile  Gentiles,  the apostle  Gentiles.  both  he of  of the  to  in  the  branches  as  to the  Thus  missionary  18).H2 stated  That in  of a  History to which  the  choosing speech  opening  of  of  witness 5:  Peter  a s we h a v e  became  and t h e c o n t e n t  11.5;  (e.g.,  I  Jerome,  a  Jews the  was t o  chapter  the  himself  of  Judas. that  of  John  have  Book  of  t h e Gospel 1:1-3; of  was  Eusebi-  Illustrious  been  a  Acts,  Interestingly these  noted,  in the church a  Lives  the apostle  a successor to of  an a p o s t l e ,  Apostolicity  teachingHl  by t h e a p o s t o l i c  Men  in  in the early  i s seen  characteristic  Ecclesiastical  is  first  Gentiles  WITNESS  us,  it  Peter  he i s a n e y e w i t n e s s .  guaranteed  context  remains  becomes  Gentiles,  second  criterion  is  the  the  35  mission.HO  The is  in  credited  Paul  and t h e  with  prominence  missionary  Galatians,  circumcision sense  to  i s also  and w h i l e  claims  influence  portrayals  Peter  mission,  real  rise  as the great  portrayal  he  Paul's  the Apostle  criteria  witness in  the  enough, are  down : Therefore i t i s n e c c e s s a r y t o c h o o s e o n e o f t h e men w h o have been w i t h us t h e whole t i m e t h e L o r d J e s u s went i n a n d o u t among u s , b e g i n n i n g from J o h n ' s baptism to the t i m e when J e s u s w a s t a k e n up f r o m u s . F o r one o f t h e s e must become a w i t n e s s w i t h us o f h i s r e s u r r e c t i o n ( 1 : 2 1 22, NIV, emphasis m i n e ) .  laid  Peter  According  to  this  requirements: earthly  he  had  ministry  of  t i o n . 113  This  apostolic  witness,  from  the  is  office,  n i n g . 114  statement  Paul,  since on  Jesus  (I  Corinthians  apostolic  A.  tion, of  the  church  the  basis  is  have  have  to  as  with  limited  and  been  Peter,  one  to  who  the to  Jesus the  criteria exclude  from  the  apostolic  as  see,  shall  fully  all  of  Paul begin-  require-  by  meets  the  resurrec-  commissioned we  two  with  his  of  designed  the  historia  sacra,H6  of a  I  Corinthians  with that  the  the  his  the  witness  Peter's is  reference from  15:4-5  of  based  on  and  the  risen  is  por-  criteria  thus  of  Luke took  resurreca  position  place and  position  to  in the  concluded,  24:34,  being  "guaran-  witness  been  Peter,H9  his  the  Peter's  has  and  historical  to  being  it  resurrection  resurrected  comes  of  resurrection. H8  that  up  a witness  s a l v a t i o n ."117 result  the  first  resurrection  as  of  belief  of  apostle,  part,  "undisputedly"  appearance  an  content  in  of  bound  The  witness  been  satisfy  acquaintance  formulation  hand,  9:1).115  noted,  was,  concluded  church  a  to  36  Resurrection  factual  sacra  Christian day  the  a witness  tee  the  to  we  was  historia  not  seen  tradition  be  originally  other  having  first-hand  and  had  had  Apostle  witness.  Witness As  of  apostle  a later  he  the  those  the  Jesus  perhaps  to  in  have  probably  ments  trayed  to  an  the  on  that the  some  on the  third  scholars  in  the  early  granted  the  first  Christ.120  we  have  Paul's  first  to  Peter's  letter  to  the  witness  to  the  Corinthians:  First and f o r e m o s t , I h a n d e d on t o y o u t h e f a c t s which had been i m p a r t e d t o me: t h a t C h r i s t d i e d f o r our sins, i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e s c r i p t u r e s ; a n d t h a t he appeared  Peter  the  Apostle  37  to Cephas, and afterwards to the Twelve. Then he appeared to over f i v e hundred of our b r o t h e r s at once, most of whom a r e still alive, though some h a v e died. Then he a p p e a r e d to James, and a f t e r w a r d s to all the apostles. I n t h e e n d he a p p e a r e d e v e n t o me ( I Corinthians 15:3-8, NEB). Note,  first  tradition, to  him.  of but  The  a l l , rather  is  given  Paul  up  to  his  Christian  wished tion  to  "put  during his of  his  it  that  thus  does  at  contains Mark  Gospel  16:8 no  of  (the  Mark,  rest  resurrection  ending  the  lost  risen  Lord  Peter  in  of  to  14:28  has  at been  ending Peter. and  to  1 3 2  16:7:  for of  risen,  hence,  e x c e l 1ence  of  16  l o s t .  1 3 1  Mark  may  This  view  however, Thus,  based  has an on  to  Christ created factor  first  by one  C h r i s t i a n , 126 event.127 ending  scholars  contain is  the  later  it  by  commission  as  others  first  decisive  Gospel,128  Some  he  itself  first  a  that  concerning  him  Easter  being  narrative. 16:8;130  "the  the  in  informa-  Jesus  given  Peter  the  earliest  chapter  of  why  early  be  especially  apostolic  regards  was  obtain  appearance  his  this  may  and  Paul,  this  imparted  Peter"  It  and  was  if  with  appearance  Paul  our  wonders  Peter  the  it  of  f i r s t resurrection  the  distinction  that,  1 2 6  had  of  the  as  NIV).  Jesus  consists  par  o r i g i n a l l y ended  original that  Lord  witness  One  whether  clear  originator  acquainted  of  the  or  Christ."  the  the  The  upon"  that  1:18,  whether  is  is  get  the  tradition  ( i o - T o p e u o ) 121  apostleship  resurrected  and  (v.5).  lifetime,123  Peter's  know  Peter to  not  the  here  ministry  seal  status,124  the to  the  the  on  (Galatians  resurrection.122  Peter  is  point  Jerusalem  enquiry  regarding  his  to  life  make  Paul  passes  important  appearance "went  that  it  a d d i t i o n ) , 129 consider  assume been  that  that the  speculated  appearance the  as  of  references  the to  Peter  But a f t e r (14:28).  I  am r a i s e d  up,  I  will  But go, tell his disciples b e f o r e you to G a l i l e e ; t h e r e you ( 1 6 : 7 , RSV). Certainly  these  Galilee.  Joseph  an  account  Peter  as  Emmaus is  of  tive  thinks  the  that  it  The Peter:  is  At  "They with  of  to  Luke  found  them,  who  Simon!'"  regarded  as  indicating  this  Paul's  account  nature  of  the  the  account  who  that were  the  most  travellers) is  Bezae  the  two  verse  subjects  reads  Xeyovxer,  to  highly  this  from  j the  of  it the  the  Emmaus  n  who  and  has  said"  to who  is  thus  brevity  e  to  those  first,  of  confessional the  in  full  detail It  eleven  making  According  Jesus  passage  think  passage.  "who  of  indeed,  recorded  this  thus  since  specula-  and  however,  of  with  Galilee,  Peter  to  34 make  subjects.  travellers  risen  actually  the  the  is  together  some  Others,  road  presentation  Corinthians.134 by  contained  However, to  in  tradition.  appeared  attributed  Peter  Emmaus  Generally  precedes  the  it  RSV).  to  appearance  has  which  codex  then,  Lord  I  a  solid  is  them  38  Galilee  have  refers  special  Christ  of  may  the  to  gathered  'The  just  on  suggestion  appearance  However, two  a  eleven  manuscripts  with  up  on m o r e  in  ending  Jesus  this  records  that  to  appearance  explicitly  t r a d i t i o n . 135  of  noted  rely  you  p a r t i c i p a n t s . 133  (24:33-34,  been  recounting Emmaus  of  Mark  statement  has  lost  leading  said,  to  special  the  rate,  the  appeared  confirming  is  any  better  Gospel  and  Mark  incident.  a  principal  town  before  Apostle  and P e t e r that he i s going y o u w i l l s e e h i m , a s he t o l d  of  appearance  a Judean  and  were  Crehan  of  unlikely  Emmaus  hint  the  one  is  passages  go  the  is and  to  in be  those  (Xeyovxa/). "they"  (i.e.,  codex  Bezae,  announce  that  Peter  Jesus  appeared  to  "transcriptional  a  sidered Bezae  the  Simon  dent  thus  that (cf.,  is  in  on  the  travelers  it  as  (Against  mentary  on  Luke  records  the  or  Later  tradition,  Emmaus  account  recipient  of  It that  to  should  which  For  the  "Mary  met  them  the  thus,  be  (28:8-10). Mary  the  Gospel  Again,  ance  to  tion  appearances  refer  and  went  the  Magdalene  Peter  any  rate,  Emmaus,  Gospel  out  attached  least  in  some  the  the  other  Gospel  John  (20:14-18), to  the  and  Gospel  made  the of  to  account. to  the  Peter  the  the  the  in  to  appearance.  NASB),  summary Mark  here  tradition  first  from  ascribes  (Com-  Christ.  resurrection  returning  2:62,  Luke  name  contrary  (28:1,  the  Peter  Emmaus  of  the  to  appearance  sources,  a  Very  Alexandria  of  Simon's  ascribes Mary"  were of  is  first  Matthew  the  appearance  there  of  they  in  inci-  companion  of not  fleshed has  the  Cyril  the  appearing  Celsus  as  is  Peter  appended  to  Cleopas  referred  resurrection  that  as  to  was  Peter.  (Against  while  who  resurrection  to  road  to  he  Codex  Emmaus  to  special  at  noted  hen  Cleopas"  con-  Simon  of  the  a  seems,  first  Magdalene on  it  it  ascribes  example,  of  not  and  At  that  Christ w  22)141  Simon  tradition  whether  and  seems  72).142  of  Bezael39  Heresies  a different  thirdly,  have  that  prophecy  39  attributed  that  secondly,  His  appearance  codex  also  and  is  reading.137  first,  Emmaus;  Apostle  scholars  original  fulfilled  "Simon  was  Peter,  had  to  reading  some  things:  road  first  Tertullian  Cleopas  the  followed  the  three  14:28);138  Emmaus  says  implies  Bezae  but  be  Mark  Origen  of  to  Lord  fact  the  error,"136  the  likely  68).140  Usually  reading  companion  announced to  Simon.  Bezae  here  Cleopas'  to  the  appearance when empty  first of the  Jesus tomb  appear-  resurrecmid-second  Peter  century the on  (16:9-20)143  first the  to  first  lene,  from  spite  of  see  see  the  whom  the to  He  first  Him  First  by  a  the  group  witness  plays  a prominent of  Peter's plays  Christ name  prominent  of  Philip,  prominence other  of  so  said,  contrary  on  traditions  appearance role.  of  For  part  in  The  Mary, The of  apostles  various  of  Peter were  as  the  In  first  based  to  on  I  1:12.3).  appeared the  was  great  of  of a  by  the  to  leader  counted  faith,  of  worthy  not  to  be  (Homilies  on  witness is  witness  the  disciples  Epistula  to  The the  indicated  an  a  Peter appearHere a n  appears  both  d  he  in  a  Gnostic  and  Apostolorum,  The  The Pistis  Letter  of  Peter  Sophia.  The  resurrection, by  the as  and  (v.2)145  Peter  writings,  to  Tiberius.  present  James,146 and  Jesus  records of  Similarly  Peter, of  first  21  Sea  disciples  Mani,  present,  the  John  apocryphal  Apocryphon  Gospel  who  resurrected  story.  Apocalypse The  was  was  Magda-  NASB).  History  he  was  early  Mary  Jesus  which  example,  list the  as  in  the  the  in  risen  to  expectation"  Peter  heads  role  to  had  40  NPF1).  disciples  non-Gnostic: Gospel  have  the  a major  because  Magdalene  mostly  that  as  emphasis  to  says  "He  I  Peter  Ecclesiastical  even  Apostle  (v.9,  sway,144  faithful :  those  an  demons"  that  hold  He  appeared  most  38:5,  are  tradition  Mary  after  seven  to  that  first  resurrection  sight  Corinthians  out  344-407)  the  "Now  He  Eusebius  need,  Alongside  ance  the  the  and  had  resurrection  week,  continued  (c.  states  Jesus:  cast  (e.g.,  after  community see  the had  Jesus 15  confounded  to  of  Chrysostom  Peter  risen  however,  risen  Corinthians John  the  day  this,  specifically  the  Ignatius  even of  when  Antioch  Peter  (d.  117)  "to  those  FC;  quoted  these  when who  were  also  the  with  by  most  The only  ular  Jerome,  importance by  is  the  witnessing  in  the  appeal  preached  concerning  God  raised  death --a  the  fact  .  .  And  . to  up  to  .  Cornelius  the  of  "ear-  healing the  of  one  whom  witnesses" "The  witnesses  God of  the  he  at  these  In  a  all and  contain  Peter's  in  the  of  what  "This  Jesus (2:32,  paralytic:  "[you]  God  from  fathers things"  and  he  resurrec-  witnesses"  NASB),  on  constantly  the  raised  Acts  stress  a  states:  is  partic-  that  general  all  our  3:2,  resurrection  regarding  (3:15, of  16).  eye-witness"  are the  and  witness,  emphasize  and  particularly  which  the  speeches  we  five:  he  an  Men  prominence  with  to  are  are  line  Peter  Smyrnaeans  salvation.147  sermon  life,  to  traditions of  41  resurrection.  his  Pentecost  the  we  the  or  in  the  Apostle  to  important  witness  Peter's  being  to  an  to  facts  example,  his  chapter we  many  Christ,  after  which  And  of  again,  Prince  in  priority  his  in  Again,  council  to  Thus  NASB).  his  document,  repeated  tion.148  witness  coming  Illustrious  as  Peter's  a guarantee for  of  appears  also  Jesus  (Epistle  of  but  Apostles,  risen  Lives  important  stressed  the  Peter"  Peter  appearance,  witness of  describes  traditions,  perhaps  not  he  the  put  the  dead  before  raised (5:30-32,  up  to  the Jesus  NASB).  states:  God r a i s e d h i m up on t h e t h i r d d a y , a n d g r a n t e d t h a t He should become visible, not to all the people, but to w i t n e s s e s who w e r e c h o s e n b e f o r e h a n d b y G o d , t h a t i s , t o u s , who a t e a n d d r a n k w i t h Him a f t e r He a r o s e f r o m the dead ( 1 0 : 4 0 - 4 1 , NASB). All  of  witness,  these and  passages it  should  reflect be  noted  the  importance  that  in  his  of  Peter's  speech  to  being  a  Cornelius,  Peter  Peter  implies  that  were  specially  also  that  the  eye-witness  is  made  a  witness  to  of  the  significance  although  chosen  and  the  other  witnesses  specially Peter  of  the  the  commissioned  preaches  resurrection  to  is  (e.g.,  Gospel  Apostle  resurrection  (10:42).  based  on  2:32-36).  message  on  42  the  Note  his  being  Thus  Peter  basis  of  his  resurrection. New  of  Testament  the  letter  ment  written  in  this  letter  the  document  witness  purported  considered  Especially  the  which  guarantor  Another  a  and  gospel  an  Peter,  he  the  by  the  of to  most  interesting  have  the  to  the  to  be  the  be  an  the  a  by  is  Peter  docu-  century.149  eyewitness  of  II  (1:1),  pseudonymous  second  which  doctrinal  resurrection  written  of  passage  stresses  to  been  quarter  claims is  Peter  scholars  second  author  which  in  Christ.  reads:  F o r we d i d n o t f o l l o w c l e v e r l y d e v i s e d t a l e s when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we w e r e e y e w i t n e s s e s of His m a j e s t y . For when He r e c e i v e d honor and g l o r y f r o m God t h e Father, s u c h a n u t t e r a n c e a s t h i s was made t o Him b y t h e M a j e s t i c Glory, "This is My Beloved Son with whom I am w e l l pl e a s e d , " - - a n d we o u r s e l v e s heard this utterance made f r o m h e a v e n when we w e r e w i t h Him on t h e h o l y mountain. And s o we h a v e t h e p r o p h e t i c w o r d made m o r e s u r e (1:1619, NASB). Most  commentators  consider  t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n ;150 actually notes ment  refer  that with  contains Peter's  in  however,  to  a  many  references  passage  Karl  Goetz  resurrection  ways  a passage  question  this  in to  this the  concerning  has  passage  a  of  for  reference  suggested of  displays  the  it  may  that  verbal  which,  (e.g.,  Moses  to  Christ.151  close  Peter  transfiguration tents  be  appearance  Apocalypse  the  to  and  He  agree-  although  Ethiopic Elijah),  it 16-he  Peter  considers lypse  of  to  be  Peter  a  reference  passage  to  the  the  Apostle  resurrection.152  The  43  Apoca-  reads:  A n d my L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t , o u r K i n g , s a i d t o m e , " L e t us go i n t o t h e h o l y m o u n t a i n . " And h i s d i s c i p l e s w e n t w i t h him, praying . . . . And b e h o l d t h e r e came s u d d e n l y a v o i c e from heaven s a y i n g , " T h i s i s my S o n , whom I love a n d i n whom I h a v e p l e a s u r e , a n d my c o m m a n d m e n t s . . . . And t h e r e came a g r e a t a n d e x c e e d i n g l y w h i t e c l o u d o v e r o u r h e a d s and b o r e away o u r L o r d ( E t h i o p i c 15-17, NTA, e m p h a s i s mi n e ) . If  it  is  indeed  resurrection Apocalypse Peter's  the  appearance, of  Peter,  eyewitness  guarantee  case  of  the  that and  then  this if  we  apostolic  II  have  testimony  passage  to  Peter here  the  message  refers  is  case  resurrection even  a  referring  another  and  to  of  postto  in  the which  becomes  the  the  "prophetic  word." Whether Peter,  it  become  the  church, of  or  not  appears  that  guarantee  that  Antioch  we  of  makes  the  accept  Peter's of  at  bodily  this  Goetz's witness  least  to  one  clear  the  of  II  resurrection  did  doctrine  resurrection  abundantly  interpretation  of  when  in  the  Christ.153 he  early  Ignatius  says:  F o r my own p a r t , I k n o w a n d b e l i e v e t h a t He w a s i n a c t u a l human flesh, even after His resurrection. When He appeared to P e t e r a n d h i s c o m p a n i o n s , He s a i d t o them, " T a k e h o l d o f m e ; t o u c h m e , a n d s e e t h a t I am n o b o d i l e s s phantom." And they touched Him then and t h e r e , and believed, for they had had c o n t a c t w i t h t h e flesh-andblood r e a l i t y of Him. T h a t w a s how t h e y came b y t h e i r contempt for death, and p r o v e d themselves superior to it. M o r e o v e r , He a t e a n d d r a n k w i t h t h e m a f t e r He w a s r i s e n , l i k e a n y n a t u r a l m a n , t h o u g h e v e n t h e n He a n d t h e F a t h e r w e r e s p i r i t u a l l y one ( E p i s t l e t o t h e S m y r n a e a n s 3 , ECW). This who tics  became were  a major  doctrine  considered orthodox  (e.g.,  Tertullian,  The  of from  Body  the  church  those of  who  Christ  which  separated  those  were  considered  here-  5),154  and  it  is  quite  Peter  clear tion  that is  the  importance  bound  To  up  in  this  summarize,  important  witness  important  guarantor  church. and  In  apparently  an  appearance  earliest is  that  which as  having  that of  the  this  tradition  Peter's  witness  with  the  with  Peter  in  rate,  Peter ally  risen have  von  to  Paul  in  Lord.  the  sense  to  became  a  to  polemics very  the the  concerning  was  Peter  resurrec-  in  the  faith  understand against period  resurrection primary bodily  the  guarantor  to  whom  Certainly  the  of  Christ  the  first  one  mentioned  of  this,  and  the  also  21;  in  the  fact and  of  with  traces  of  be  Peter  in  "that  accord it  traditions  as  the  At a  was 1 5 7  as any  primary  result  doctrines,  Christ.158  of  began."  Peter.  importance  fact  priority  Christ  conflicting  church  show  Gospel  that  Risen  of  arose  tradition  stressed  resurrection  one  the  the  witness  of  of  tradition first  affairs"  Peter's  was  most  from  John  the  the  the  appearance 15  "must of  in  hence  the  concluded  state  most  Gospels  24:34;  has  the  granted.  is  resurrection  early  the  44  becomes  the  was  Because  5:1-11;  Easter  have  the  traditions  resurrection  narratives  Campenhausen  the  Peter  Corinthians  risen  that then  I  there  (Luke  to  a  and  historical  from  witness  testi