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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Training for fluency, flexibility and originality in native Indian children Parker, Donald John 1985

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TRAINING FOR FLUENCY, FLEXIBILITY AND ORIGINALITY IN NATIVE INDIAN CHILDREN by DONALD JOHN PARKER A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department OF E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL 1985 © Donald John Parker, 1985 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date DE-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT In the l a s t twenty years a great deal of research i n t o t r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y has been conducted (Blank, 1982). G u i l f o r d (1950, 1959, 1962) and Warren and Davis (1969) repor t e d that p r o d u c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e d with t r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y u s ing the morphological s y n t h e s i s technique. Research i n c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g has been concerned g e n e r a l l y with white middle c l a s s school c h i l d r e n . There has been no r e s e a r c h on t r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y i n Canadian Native Indians (Blank, 1982). The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y on f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y , and o r i g i n a l i t y of Canadian Native Indian c h i l d r e n . C h i l d r e n from the C h a h a l i s Indian Reserve of B r i t i s h Columbia (grades three through s i x ) were assigned to c o n t r o l (n=7) and experimental (n=7) groups. The c o n t r o l group r e c e i v e d no t r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y w h i l e , the experimental group experienced two weeks of t r a i n i n g (20 minutes per day) f o r c r e a t i v i t y with b l o c k s , s t i c k s , and tanagrams. Torrance T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g were used to assess c r e a t i v i t y . P r e - t r a i n i n g scores of the c o n t r o l .and experimental groups were compared using one-way ANOVAs. Group d i f f e r e n c e s were deemed n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that the assignment of c h i l d r e n to the groups was not b i a s e d i n favour of the more c r e a t i v e versus the l e s s c r e a t i v e and that the p o s t - t r a i n i n g r e s u l t s of the groups c o u l d be compared f o r gains i n p o t e n t i a l c r e a t i v i t y since both groups had e x h i b i t e d s i m i l a r l e v e l s of c r e a t i v i t y before t r a i n i n g . The r e s u l t s of p o s t - t r a i n i n g one-way ANOVAs i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t gains in o r i g i n a l i t y scores of the experimental group f o r the Incomplete F i g u r e s Test and the C i r c l e s T e s t . ANCOVAs, which i n c l u d e d p r e - t r a i n i n g scores as c o v a r i a t e s , had the same outcomes as p o s t - t r a i n i n g one-way ANOVAs. P a i r e d t - t e s t s comparing pre- and p o s t - t r a i n i n g scores w i t h i n groups i n d i c a t e d that there were no s i g n i f i c a n t improvements in c o n t r o l group t e s t s c o r e s . The experimental group showed s i g n i f i c a n t , improvements in f l e x i b i l i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y scores of the C i r c l e s Test and in o r i g i n a l i t y scores of the Incomplete F i g u r e s T e s t . F a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e d the r e s u l t s of t h i s study were d i s c u s s e d and suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h were given. In s p i t e of these f a c t o r s , the r e s u l t s of the data analyses i n d i c a t e d that c r e a t i v i t y of Native Indian c h i l d r e n w i l l improve with t r a i n i n g . Research S u p e r v i s o r : Dr. S.S. Blank i v TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose of the Study 3 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 3 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study 3 J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study 3 CHAPTER I I : LITERATURE REVIEW 4 Stu d i e s in C r e a t i v i t y 4 B r i e f D e s c r i p t i o n of the Purpose, Nature and the E v a l u a t i o n s of the Torrance T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g 6 Construct V a l i d i t y 7 Race, S o c i a l C l a s s and Achievement with Respect to TTCT 11 E f f e c t s of S o c i a l Climate, Teacher Role on Classroom C r e a t i v i t y 15 S o c i a l Climate and Performance 16 Climate, Teaching S t y l e and -Achievement 17 The Role of C r e a t i v e Reading and T h i n k i n g i n the Classroom 18' I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of C r e a t i v e T a l e n t 18 T r a i n i n g f o r C r e a t i v e T a l e n t 19 C r e a t i v i t y and I n t e l l i g e n c e 23 Native Canadian Studies in the Area of C r e a t i v i t y .... 24 To R e i t e r a t e and Conclude * 28 CHAPTER I I I : METHODOLOGY 30 Subjects 30 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 30 Fluency 30 F l e x i b i l i t y 30 O r i g i n a l i t y 30 A Tanagram 31 A Block 31 A S t i c k 31 The Paper 31 C r e a t i v i t y 31 Design of the Study 31 Sample 31 Test A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 31 V A n a l y s i s of the Data 32 Independent V a r i a b l e s 32 The Dependent V a r i a b l e 33 Fluency T r a i n i n g 34 Teaching Strategy 34 F l e x i b i l i t y T r a i n i n g 34 - Teaching Strategy 35 O r i g i n a l i t y ; 35 Teaching Strategy 35 F l e x i b i l i t y and O r i g i n a l i t y 35 Teaching Strategy 35 T r a i n i n g Sessions 35 Task Phase 36 Sessions and Schedule 36 P i c t u r e Completion Test 36 Teaching Strategy 36 CHAPTER IV: RESULTS 37 S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures 37 C i r c l e s Test ANCOVAs 38 Incomplete F i g u r e s Test ANOVAs 38 Pre- and P o s t - T r a i n i n g C i r c l e s Test T - t e s t s 39 Pre- and P o s t - T r a i n i n g Incomplete F i g u r e s Test . T - t e s t s • 39 Examination of the Research Question 40 CHAPTER V: SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 4 5 Summary 45 D i s c u s s i o n 47 T r a i n i n g P e r i o d and Test A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : L i m i t a t i o n s 47 Conclusi o n s 49 Recommendations f o r Furth e r Research 50 BIBLIOGRAPHY 51 APPENDIX I: DIRECTIONS TO TEACHERS 60 APPENDIX I I : DIRECTIONS FOR SCORING THE CIRCLES TEST . 67 APPENDIX I I I : PICTURE COMPLETION SCORING GUIDE 70 v i LIST OF TABLES Table 1: One-Way A n a l y s i s of Variance of the C i r c l e s Test Scores Comparing the C o n t r o l and Experimental Groups 4 1 Table 2: A n a l y s i s of Covariance of the P o s t - t r a i n i n g C i r c l e s Test Scores Comparing the C o n t r o l and Experimental Groups With P r e - t r a i n i n g Test Scores as a C o v a r i a t e 41 Table 3: One-Way A n a l y s i s of Variance of the Incomplete F i g u r e s Test Scores Comparing the C o n t r o l and Experimental Groups 42 Table 4: A n a l y s i s of Covariance of the P o s t - t r a i n i n g Incomplete F i g u r e s Test Scores Comparing the C o n t r o l and Experimental Groups With P r e - t r a i n i n g Test Scores as a C o v a r i a t e 42 Table 5: P a i r e d t - T e s t s Comparing the Pre- and P o s t - T r a i n i n g C i r c l e s Test Scores of the C o n t r o l Group 43 Table 6: P a i r e d t - T e s t s Comparing the Pre and P o s t - T r a i n i n g C i r c l e s Test Scores of the Experimental Group 43 Table 7: P a i r e d t - T e s t s Comparing the Pre- and P o s t - T r a i n i n g Incomplete F i g u r e s Test Scores of the C o n t r o l Group 44 Table 8: P a i r e d t - T e s t s Comparing the Pre- and P o s t - T r a i n i n g Incomplete F i g u r e s Test Scores of the Experimental Group 44 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 1. A m a s t e r s c a n d i d a t e c a n o n l y be a s good a s h i s e x a m i n i n g c o m m i t t e e . I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o D r . S.S. B l a n k , D r . A. Mor e , and D r . H. R a t z l a f f . 2 . To t h e N a t i v e p e o p l e s o f t h e C h e h a l i s R e s e r v e , a h e a r t f e l t t h a n k s . I t r u s t y o u w i l l a c c e p t t h i s i n t h e s p i r i t i n w h i c h i t was g i v e n . I t i s d e e p l y a p p r e c i a t e d . 3 . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k A l b e r t L a m o t h e , a t r u s t e d f r i e n d f o r o v e r 35 y e a r s , f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e f a b r i c a t i o n a n d p a i n t i n g o f t h e b l o c k s , s t i c k s a n d t a n a g r a m s . 4 . My t h a n k s t o D r . J o h n E v a n s , F . R . C . S . ( C ) , f o r k e e p i n g my two p i n s m o b i l e . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A great amount of work devoted to the subject of t r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y has been undertaken in the l a s t twenty years (Blank, 1982). G u i l f o r d (1950, 1959, 1962) and Warren and Davis (1969), f o r example, found that t r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y using the m o r p h o l o g i c a l s y n t h e s i s technique i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y . T r e f f i n g e r and Gowan (1962) and Parnes (1967) f u r t h e r s t a t e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of inducing c r e a t i v i t y in a classroom. Torrance and Myers (1970) conducted r e s e a r c h which i n c l u d e d 142 s t u d i e s and provided evidence that " c r e a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y can be i n c r e a s e d i f c h i l d r e n are f a m i l i a r i z e d with the nature of the c r e a t i v e process and taught the s t r a t e g i e s of i n q u i r y . " L e f r a n c o i s (1979) s t a t e s C r e a t i v i t y i s that s p e c i a l q u a l i t y i n students that other teachers i n other classrooms s t i f l e . Other teachers are r i g i d , rule-bound, and a u t h o r i t a r i a n . • ... They crush the j o y f u l i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s of young c h i l d r e n by not h e a r i n g or not answering t h e i r q u e s t i o n s . ... T h e i r generation i s of another age. But those are other teachers i n other classrooms. Today's teacher i s very d i f f e r e n t from the teacher d e s c r i b e d above. ... If i t were not f o r c r e a t i v i t y we would s t i l l be l i v i n g i n caves and k i l l i n g w i l d animals.or being k i l l e d by them. As the world's problems m u l t i p l y , the need fo r c r e a t i v i t y becomes evermore p r e s s i n g and more apparent. ... For t h i s reason i t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r teachers to l e a r n how s c h o o l s can c o n t r i b u t e to the development of c r e a t i v i t y i n students. And that goes c o n s i d e r a b l y beyond t a k i n g steps to ensure that c r e a t i v i t y i s not s t i f l e d ; i t must a l s o be encouraged (pp. 272-273). The search of the l i t e r a t u r e and Blank (1982) i n d i c a t e t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , the r e s e a r c h done i n the f i e l d of 2 c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g has been conducted with white middle c l a s s school c h i l d r e n . A search of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d that no attempt has been made to c a r r y out c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g research i n v o l v i n g c r e a t i v e l y g i f t e d n a t i v e Canadians (Blank, 1982). Whitworth (1970), i n r e f e r e n c e to the c u l t u r a l b i a s inherent i n the r e v i s i o n of the WISC-R, s t a t e d t h a t : "Changes in the t e s t ' s p i c t u r e s i n c l u d e Blacks but other m i n o r i t y groups are not represented." The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n procedure i n c l u d e d Blacks in the sample but not i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e q u a n t i t i e s in the U.S.A. M i n o r i t y groups of other non-white Americans such as Native Americans and Mexican Americans were not i n c l u d e d i n the sample (Whitworth, 1970). Hence the purpose of t h i s study was to develop a technique which can be used to t r a i n f o r three determinants of c r e a t i v i t y — flu e n c e y , f l e x i b i l i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y in Native Canadian c h i l d r e n , as assessed by the Torrance T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g . The study attempted, a l s o , to explore the nature and extent of the importance of t r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y and attempted to d i s c o v e r whether p r a c t i c e in c r e a t i v i t y with N a t i v e Canadian c h i l d r e n improved t h e i r c r e a t i v e behaviour p a r t i c u l a r l y in the areas of fl u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y . 3 Purpose of the Study To see i f t r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y using b l o c k s , s t i c k s , and tanagrams induces c r e a t i v i t y i n a s u b j e c t . L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study T h i s e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h was conducted on Native Canadians (grades three through s i x ) from B r i t i s h Columbia. The r e s u l t s are true only f o r t h i s sample and cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d to any other race, creed or c o l o u r . However, they can be g e n e r a l i z e d to any s i m i l a r Native Canadian t r i b e along the coast of B r i t i s h Columbia. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study One of the purposes of the study was to d i s c o v e r i f f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y can be i n c r e a s e d by t r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v e behaviours. The researcher analyzed those determinants of c r e a t i v e t r a i n i n g that he f e l t would be more advantageous, e.g., f i g u r a l f l u e n c y , f i g u r a l f l e x i b i l i t y or f i g u r a l o r i g i n a l i t y . The q u e s t i o n of whether t r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y w i l l produce gains i n f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y , and o r i g i n a l i t y must a l s o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study It i s important f o r people,to f i n d ways of improving c r e a t i v i t y . The most obvious way i s to p r a c t i s e . 4 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW STUDIES IN CREATIVITY Probably because there are numerous c r i t e r i a that can be used to d e f i n e c r e a t i v i t y , there are many d e f i n i t i o n s of c r e a t i v i t y . Most appear nebulous and somewhat t a n t o l o g i c a l (Blank, 1982). Among the more important d e f i n i t i o n s that were used i n t h i s study are those of Parnes and . Harding (1962) i n which they purport to measure three determinants of c r e a t i v i t y — f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y . Mednick (1964) d e f i n e s c r e a t i v i t y as a process i n v o l v i n g combinations of remote elements i n t o new and unique combinations. Mednick (1964) s t a t e d C r e a t i v i t y i s . . . the forming of a s s o c i a t i v e elements i n t o new combinations which e i t h e r meet s p e c i f i e d requirements or are i n some way u s e f u l , the more mutually c r e a t i v e the process of s o l u t i o n ( L e f r a n c o i s , 1979, p. 261). S t e i n i n Parnes and Harding (1962) assessed that C r e a t i v i t y i s a process which must be a p p r e c i a t e d by other people i f i t i s to be c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t . My d e f i n i t i o n of the term " c r e a t i v i t y " i s a coming to know or understand. I t i n v o l v e s both a p p r e c i a t i o n of f i g u r a l and w r i t t e n a r t and i t i s most important that one's i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s r e l e v a n t to d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g i s important to the i n d i v i d u a l (Parker, 1984). Many s t u d i e s have been i n i t i a t e d to examine the v a r i o u s determinants of c r e a t i v e behavior. L e f r a n c o i s (1979) c i t e s examples of how we can encourage c r e a t i v i t y i n 5 the classroom. He contends that any teacher can i n an i n t e l l e c t u a l way make an e f f o r t to recognize and reward c r e a t i v i t y i n students and provide subsequent o p p o r t u n i t i e s for i t to occur. Many educators a t t e s t to the f e a s i b i l i t y of inducing c r e a t i v i t y i n the classroom. Parnes (1972), f o r example, has c i t e d b i b l i o g r a p h i c searchers of the l i t e r a t u r e who d e s c r i b e e d u c a t i o n a l programs for a classroom s e t t i n g . Parnes had adopted a programme from a l i s t i n Osborn's (1977) book which d e s c r i b e s what to do with a c l a s s whose teacher cannot maintain d i s c i p l i n e . The i l l u s t r a t i o n s p r o v i d e d , which are not n e c e s s a r i l y s o l u t i o n s of any type, are r e a l l y suggestions f o r what can be done with a d i s r u p t e d c l a s s . For example, the c l a s s ' s energy can be put to other uses or can be adapted with ideas from other sources. T h i s can provide the groundwork for c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . Torrance and Meyers (1970) rep o r t e d on a study that looked at c r e a t i v i t y "from the pre-primary grades through the graduate school y e a r s " and concluded that students improved t h e i r a b i l i t y to develop o r i g i n a l and u s e f u l s o l u t i o n s to problems. T h i s study was more concerned with the Torrance T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g . T h i s study used h i s measuring instrument to measure three determinants of c r e a t i v i t y : f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y . There i s f u r t h e r evidence of the process of c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g , i . e . , u t i l i z i n g f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y and 6 o r i g i n a l i t y . One of the commonest techniques f o r promoting c r e a t i v i t y i s Osborn's (1957) brain s t o r m i n g technique. Deferred e v a l u a t i o n appears to be a key element in the production of worthwhile ideas in a bra i n s t o r m i n g s e s s i o n ( L e f r a n c o i s , 1979, pp. 286). Olton and C r u t c h f i e l d (1969) s t a t e d that The a b i l i t y and readiness to e f f e c t i v e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y use the c o g n i t i v e c a p a c i t i e s inherent in p r o d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g and problem s o l v i n g at any given stage of development can b e n e f i t s u b s t a n t i a l l y from t r a i n i n g (pp. 72). Jones, S i e g e l and G i l l i g a n t (1969) accumulated documented evidence that " c r e a t i v i t y can be f o s t e r e d and developed by d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h i n the l e a r n i n g environment." C r u t c h f i e l d (1969) i l l u s t r a t e d three types of personal i n t e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s which were c r u c i a l to c r e a t i v i t y and problem s o l v i n g . These were: 1. m o t i v a t i o n a l d i s p o s i t i o n s (showing the importance of a t t i t u d e and s e l f concept, e t c . ) ; 2. s p e c i f i c t h i n k i n g s k i l l s ; 3. a master t h i n k i n g s k i l l (the b a s i c s e l f a c t u a l i z e d s k i l l of hon e s t y ) . BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PURPOSE, NATURE AND THE  EVALUATIONS OF THE TORRANCE TESTS OF CREATIVE THINKING Among the numerous t e s t s that can be used to measure c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g the Torrance T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g (TTCT) was the one measure the researcher used to measure three determinants of c r e a t i v i t y . These determinants were fl u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y . The meanings of the i 7 above terms as d e f i n e d by Torrance are as f o l l o w s : Fluency: The number of r e l e v a n t responses F l e x i b i l i t y : The number of d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s of responses O r i g i n a l i t y : The number of unusual responses. Construct V a l i d i t y The l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n e d s e v e r a l s t u d i e s which compared scores on the TTCT with p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and pref e r e n c e s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e . Others measured the e f f e c t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s on TTCT sco r e s . Weisberg and Springer (1961) i n v e s t i g a t e d the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of 32 i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , and compared the h i g h l y c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n with the l e s s c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n . P e r s o n a l i t i e s were determined by p s y c h i a t r i c i n t e r v i e w s , Rorschach's and Draw-A-Family techniques. P e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of the h i g h l y c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n were d e s c r i b e d , but there was no i n d i c a t i o n whether these t r a i t s converged with high scores on the TTCT. S i m i l a r l y , Torrance (1962) compared p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of the most c r e a t i v e boy and g i r l i n grades one through s i x i n 23 classrooms, with l e s s c r e a t i v e c o n t r o l s . P e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s are d e s c r i b e d , but a g a i n , there i s no i n d i c a t i o n of convergence. Fleming and Weintraub (1962) found a negative c o r r e l a t i o n between r i g i d i t y , as measured by the 8 Frenkel-Brunswik Revised C a l i f o r n i a Inventory, and the TTCT o r i g i n a l i t y , f l e x i b i l i t y and f l u e n c e y s c o r e s . C o r r e l a t i o n s were -.37, -.40 and -.32 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Subjects were 68 g i f t e d elementary school c h i l d r e n . Among 50 black disadvantaged 10-12 year o l d s , A l s t o n (1970) found s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the Wyrick Test of Motor C r e a t i v i t y and v e r b a l and f i g u r a l c r e a t i v i t y on the TTCT. Torrance c l a i m s that s t u d i e s of growth in c r e a t i v i t y p r o v i d e evidence of c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . P a r t i c i p a t i o n in c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s leads to gains i n scores on the TTCT in over 71% of 144 s t u d i e s . Although no s t a t i s t i c a l data have been i n c l u d e d , " i n the author's o p i n i o n , t h i s mass of s t u d i e s g i v e s i n d i r e c t but powerful evidence of c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y f o r the t e s t s " (Torrance, 1974, p. 33). The b a t t e r y of The Torrance T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g i s composed of twelve t e s t s grouped i n t o v e r b a l , p i c t o r a l and a u d i t o r y b a t t e r i e s . A m o d i f i c a t i o n of the Torrance c i r c l e s and squares t e s t c o u l d be used to i d e n t i f y c r e a t i v e g i f t e d n e s s i n Native Canadians (Blank, 1982). Blank (1979) s t a t e s : " i t i s a c l o s e approximation to performance on the t o t a l t e s t s of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . " Torrance, (1961) s t a t e s that the c i r c l e s and squares forms of h i s C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g Test "were chosen d e l i b e r a t e l y because i t was b e l i e v e d that they c a l l i n t o p l a y d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of a u n i v e r s e of a b i l i t i e s that may be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as ' c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s . ' " 9 Most t e s t s of c r e a t i v i t y were normed and st a n d a r d i z e d on white, middle c l a s s , American students. Reschley (1979) s t a t e s that the s t u d i e s conducted using the Weschler t e s t s have i n v o l v e d only l i m i t e d samples of r a c i a l or e t h n i c groups. One study i n v o l v i n g a few Black Americans i n the sample r e s u l t e d in a bimodal d i s t r i b u t i o n . I t seems l i k e l y that the i n c l u s i o n of Native Canadians in a sample would produce analogous r e s u l t s . The WISC-R has never been normed or s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r the purposes of i d e n t i f y i n g g i f t e d Native Canadians. Some c u l t u r e s possess the necessary adaptive s k i l l s and h a b i t s that are* necessary to score h i g h l y on c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s . For example i t i s assumed that middle class- whites w i l l do w e l l on these t e s t s . One should examine the extent to which the Torrance t e s t can be r e l a t e d to the Native Canadian C h i l d ' s e x p e r i e n t i a l background. E f f o r t s have been made to str e a m l i n e the programs to f i t the needs of the students. T h i s work was done by Torrance (1962) and was based on a s e r i e s of summer workshops i n v o l v i n g the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c r e a t i v e l y g i f t e d , c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t students. T h i s simply i n v o l v e s a l i s t of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that may be employed i n h e l p i n g to i d e n t i f y g i f t e d Native Canadians. Torrance (1962) c a l l s these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c r e a t i v e p o s i t i v e s and he i n c l u d e s eighteen d i f f e r e n t items, Torrance (1962) s t a t e s : 10 I am t a l k i n g about a b i l i t i e s that can be observed with a high degree of frequency among c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t students. I have given the f o l l o w i n g l a b e l s to these c r e a t i v e p o s i t i v e s , but readers may be able to think of more a p p r o p r i a t e ones ( L e f r a n c o i s , 1979, p. 278). When d e a l i n g with the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of g i f t e d Native Canadians items such as a b i l i t y to improvise, a b i l i t y to express f e e l i n g s would have to be a l t e r e d ; many Canadian c u l t u r e s do not openly express f e e l i n g s and improvise in the same manner as whites (Vernon, 1973). There i s no doubt that the Torrance T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g c o u l d be used i n a m o d i f i e d form so that they i n c l u d e items and t e s t s that are common to Native Canadian c u l t u r a l e xperiences. In d e a l i n g with the i d e n t i f i c a t i i o n of g i f t e d Native Canadians the Torrance T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s c o u l d be one t e s t i n a b a t t e r y of t e s t s to i d e n t i f y one aspect of g i f t e d n e s s i n Native Canadians. To comprehensively i d e n t i f y g i f t e d n e s s i n Native Canadians we must use a d d i t i o n a l measures in other a r e a s . A n a s t a s i (1976) s t a t e s : " C r e a t i v e achievement i n any f i e l d of endeavour r e q u i r e s many complex p a t t e r n s and t r a i t s . " I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s such as the Wechsler t e s t and the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t were designed f o r the examinee who comes from a white Anglo-American s o c i e t y . They cannot be used as p r e d i c t o r s but i f we are to design a t e s t that would i d e n t i f y a g i f t e d Native Canadian we must use items that are part of the c u l t u r a l environment. If a Native Canadian 11 does do w e l l on a t e s t normed and s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r a white Anglo-American p o p u l a t i o n the NcTtrive Canadian may be thought to have adapted h i s c o n s t r u c t s to the s i t u a t i o n (Vernon, 1973). The researcher b e l i e v e s that the s t r e n g t h in c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s such as the G u i l f o r d A l t e r n a t e Uses and Torrance T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g l i e s i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y to detect a d a p t i v i t y . — ^ The TTCT has been designed to t e s t some determinants of c r e a t i v i t y . Test booklets are a t t r a c t i v e and should appeal to most c h i l d r e n . The d i r e c t i o n manuals are easy to read and c o n t a i n c l e a r d i r e c t i o n s f o r t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n to groups. The d i r e c t i o n s to teachers f o r t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are not as c l e a r c u t as the d i r e c t i o n s f o r s c o r i n g . D i r e c t i o n s f o r s c o r i n g are very c l e a r and e x p l i c i t , f a c i l i t a t i n g s c o r i n g by the u n t r a i n e d . RACE, SOCIAL CLASS AND ACHIEVEMENT WITH RESPECT TO TTCT A number of s t u d i e s have i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of r a c e / s o c i a l c l a s s and c r e a t i v i t y and the use of c r e a t i v i t y as a p r e d i c t o r of l a t e r achievement. Whitworth (1970), r e v i s i n g the WISC-R, came to these c o n c l u s i o n s c o v e r i n g the t e s t ' s c u l t u r a l b i a s : "Changes in the t e s t ' s p i c t u r e s to i n c l u d e Blacks but other m i n o r i t y groups are not represented." The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n procedure i n c l u d e d Blacks i n the U.S.A." M i n o r i t y groups from other non-white Americans such as Native Americans and Mexican Americans were not i n c l u d e d i n the sample. 1 2 The l i m i t e d s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g g i f t e d N a t i v e Canadians p a r t i a l l y accounted f o r the s i z a b l e amount of v a r i a b i l i t y r e g arding the kind of data and the i n c l u s i o n of g i f t e d N ative Canadians i n the t e s t samples. It was apparent i n reviewing the t e s t s that they were not designed to i d e n t i f y g i f t e d Native Canadians. P s y c h o l o g i s t s now r e a l i z e that to e f f e c t i v e l y i d e n t i f y g i f t e d n e s s in Native Canadians r e q u i r e s a t e s t i n g instrument that i s c u l t u r e f a i r (Reschly, 1979). S e v e r a l s t u d i e s (Jamieson & Sanford, 1928; Turner & Penfold, 1952; Wilson, 1952) were designed to assess the general i n t e l l i g e n c e of Native Canadian c h i l d r e n . F r a s e r (1969) s t a t e d that the s t u d i e s to date suggested there has been no attempt made to explore other areas of assessment beyond the measurement of I.Q. and Mental Age to analyze s p e c i f i c mental a b i l i t i e s of these c h i l d r e n . F r a s e r (1969) suggested that the l i n g u i s t i c f a c t o r i s one of the major reasons why n a t i v e c h i l d r e n do not do as w e l l as t h e i r white Anglo contemporaries on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s l i k e the Weschler and the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t . - C l e a r y , Humphries, Kendrick and Wesman (1975) note: "The l a r g e m a j o r i t y of s t u d i e s conducted thus f a r have d e a l t with Black Americans, although a few have i n c l u d e d other e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s . The problems of i d e n t i f y i n g a monority group such as g i f t e d N ative Canadians i s indeed d i f f i c u l t with the present t e s t i n g instruments we have at our d i s p o s a l . " i 1 3 Vernon (1966) c o r r o b o r a t e s t h i s c l a i m about the f a i l u r e of Native Canadians to do w e l l on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s . I t i s not only our t e s t r e s u l t s that suggest a ' b u i l t i n ' ( r a t h e r than inborn) d e f i c i t . The Canadian a b o r i g i n a l has seldom been repr e s s e d or s u f f e r e d from as much p r e j u d i c e as the American Negro, yet he has f a i l e d to produce anything l i k e the same p r o p o r t i o n of l e a d e r s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and other outstanding men as have Negroes. (Except in so f a r as he has i n t e r - m a r r i e d and becomes completely absorbed i n t o the White c u l t u r e . The main reasons for Native underachievement must s u r e l y l i e in the l i n g u i s t i c f a c t o r , the absence of any c l e a r avenue to economic progress and the t e n a c i t y with which many Native groups r e j e c t a c c u l t u r a t i o n (p. 192). It i s apparent then, that the major i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t e s t s r e f e r r e d p r e v i o u s l y are c u l t u r a l l y b i a s and are t h e r e f o r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e as t e s t i n g instruments. i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that because the Blacks were subjected to f a r more t e s t s than Native Canadians they would perform f a r b e t t e r on the t e s t s (Vernon, 1973). R a l t s o u n i s (1974) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of race, socioeconomic c l a s s and c r e a t i v i t y . The s u b j e c t s were 52 black and white e i g h t h grade c h i l d r e n of lower and middle socio-economic s t a t u s r e s p e c t i v e l y . They were given the Torrance F i g u r a l T e s t . The black lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r on f l u e n c y (p. 01) and o r i g i n a l i t y (p. 05). Although they a l s o performed b e t t e r on f l e x i b i l i t y , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . 1 4 Cooper and Richmond (1975) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e l l i g e n c e , c r e a t i v i t y and performance a b i l i t i e s of EMR students. Subjects were 217 c h i l d r e n , e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d among black, white, male and female. T h e i r ages ranged from 6-1 to 12-11 and t h e i r IQ's ranged from 50-85. They were given the Torrance F i g u r a l Test, the WISC and YEMR (Young Educable M e n t a l l y , Retarded Performance P r o f i l e ) . An ANOVA ( A n a l y s i s Of Variance) r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between i n t e l l i g n e c e and c r e a t i v i t y . In a d d i t i o n , these r e s e a r c h e r s c l a i m that c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y i s e q u a l l y or more important than i n t e l l i g e n c e in determining high b e h a v i o r a l a d a p t a b i l i t y . B r u i n i n k and Feldman (1970) i n v e s t i g a t e d the c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e and c r e a t i v i t y and explor e d the means of c r e a t i v i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e as p r e d i c t o r s of s e v e r a l measures of achievement among disadvantaged c h i l d r e n . The sample c o n s i s t e d of 36 boys and 36 g i r l s i n the p u b l i c schools of M e t r o p o l i t a n N a s h v i l l e - D a v i d s o n County, Tennessee. Approximately 80% were b l a c k . T h i s study i n d i c a t e d a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e and c r e a t i v i t y . 1 5 EFFECTS OF SOCIAL CLIMATE, TEACHER ROLE ON CLASSROOM CREATIVITY It i s the i n t e n t of the researcher to present both s i d e s of the l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t that s o c i a l c l i m a t e has on classroom performance. Denny (1966), found that a good classroom c l i m a t e was bas i c to c r e a t i v e enhancement. Working with t h i r t y Grade 6 l e v e l c l a s s e s he examined the behaviours which c o n t r i b u t e d to student gains in c r e a t i v i t y . In a s i g n i f i c a n t study of c r e a t i v i t y and s e l f concept with respect to teacher-student t r a n s a c t i o n s , Spaulding (1965) c o r r o b o r a t e d the importance of the classroom r e l a t i o n s h i p and c o n d i t i o n . A study' by Sisk (1966) expl o r e d the c a u s a l -r e l a t i o n s h i p s of classroom environments and the n u r t u r i n g of student self-knowledge and c r e a t i v i t y ( a f t e r the theory of Torrance, Maslow and Combs). Her s t u d i e s found a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between high s e l f - c o n c e p t and in c r e a s e d performance i n c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . B l a c k i n g t o n and Houston (1967) documented s i m i l a r evidence between student-teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t e n s i t y and teacher s t y l e . The evidence from t h i s r e s e a r c h c o r r o b o r a t e s other research which p l a c e s the i d e a l l e a r n i n g environment as l y i n g half-way between a teacher-dominated c l o s e d and c o v e r t classroom and the d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed l a i s s e z - f a i r e c h i l d - c e n t e r e d s e t t i n g . 16 Conversely an opposing body of data in the research l i t e r a t u r e i s noteworthy. T Smith (1965) c o u l d produce no evidence f o r the i n f e r r e d dependence of the emotional atmosphere of the classroom and the teacher c o n t r o l l e v e l . He p o s t u l a t e d that a s u p p o r t i v e s t r u c t u r a l atmosphere seemed to be more conducive to c r e a t i v e development. Taba (1967) c o r r o b o r a t e d the above f i n d i n g s and emphasized the importance of s t r u c t u r e in any c r e a t i v e environment. She a l s o s t a t e d that " f l e x i b i l i t y " of t e a c h i n g s t y l e i s i n t e g r a l to c r e a t i v e l e a r n i n g . Wodtke (1965) conducted a s i g n i f i c a n t study in which he examined the e f f e c t of d i r e c t teacher p r a c t i c e s and environment on c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . He found that warm per m i s s i v e teachers c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d by l e a r n i n g environments which u t i l i z e d f r e e movement i n t e r a c t i o n , c h o i c e d e c i s i o n making and d i s c u s s i o n while, c o l d c o n t r o l l i n g teachers had h i g h l y r e s t r i c t e d t e a c h e r - c e n t e r e d classrooms. He f u r t h e r found l i t t l e support f o r the p o s t u l a t e d on teaching s t y l e and classroom environment. SOCIAL CLIMATE AND PERFORMANCE Marburg (1970) d e s p i t e h i s hypothesis that s o c i a l c l i m a t e a f f e c t e d classroom c r e a t i v e performance, found no d i f f e r e n c e between open and c l o s e d classroom c l i m a t e s and c r e a t i v e performance. C r e a t i v e performance i n v o l v e s c r e a t i v e g i f t e d n e s s i n many areas. For example, students that are s o c i a l l y g i f t e d , k i n e s t e t i c a l l y g i f t e d , g i f t e d i n 17 the performing a r t s , and me c h a n i c a l l y g i f t e d . Classroom c r e a t i v i t y i n v o l v e s academic and c r e a t i v e g i f t e d n e s s . Rookey (1972) d i d a study where m o d i f i c a t i o n of a classroom atmosphere to the open-democratic concept was attempted. F i n d i n g s s i m i l a r to Marburg (1970) were found. Yamamoto (1963) conducted a study with 72 classrooms to prove h i s hypothesis that more c r e a t i v e teachers provide a b e t t e r environment and found that h i g h l y c r e a t i v e t e a c h e r s d i d not f o s t e r g r e a t e r student achievement. He a l s o found the s t u d i e s f a i l e d to i d e n t i f y any d i f f e r e n c e s between high and low c r e a t i v e teachers and he concluded that c r e a t i v i t y i n students and teach e r s does not g r e a t l y r e s u l t i n gre a t e r student achievement. T h i s study c o r r o b o r a t e s a e a r l i e r ' study by Yamatoto (1972) when he conducted a study with 461 grade f i v e students e x p l o r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s o c i a l adjustment of students to high or low l e v e l of teacher c r e a t i v i t y . He found that h i g h l y c r e a t i v e teachers d i d not f o s t e r g r e a t e r student achievement. CLIMATE, TEACHING STYLE AND ACHIEVEMENT Berderman (1964) d i d a study with 72 grade f i v e students and found no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between student achievement, p r o d u c t i v i t y and teaching s t y l e . He found, however, that the stud e n t - c e n t e r e d task o r i e n t e d teacher behaviour r e s u l t e d in higher student s e l f - c o n c e p t . These f i n d i n g s are admit t e d l y i n c l u s i v e as to the student achievement, teacher r a t e and c r e a t i v i t y but the 18 researcher b e l i e v e s they help to present and e x p l a i n the background and r e s e a r c h i n t o the many areas which are r e l a t e d to c r e a t i v i t y . THE ROLE OF CREATIVE READING AND THINKING IN THE CLASSROOM Research in the area of c r e a t i v e reading i s sketchy and c o n t r a s t i n g . Covington (1967), i n a study, hypothesized to the extent that the G.P.S.P. promotes the s k i l l s and d i s p o s i t i o n c o n s i d e r e d c e n t r a l to a l l higher thought, i t should f o s t e r not only i n n o v a t i v e problem-solving but t h o u g h t f u l a l e r t r e f e r e n c e s as w e l l (p.392). The study found that i n s p i t e of a d i v e r s i f i e d range of reading p r o f i c i e n c y , b e n e f i t s of d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n were noted when the r e a d i n g l e v e l was a d j u s t e d . Blank, Fox, and Nelson (1976) conducted a program with g i f t e d grade four students and they found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n reading achievement but noted that the s u b j e c t s experienced i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g . IDENTIFICATION OF CREATIVE TALENT One of the s i m p l e s t methods o r i g i n a l l y used by i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c r e a t i v e t a l e n t was to have a teacher r a t e each of the students. Another very simple method was to have i n d i v i d u a l students r a t e themselves. T a y l o r and Holland (1964) found t h i s a very e f f e c t i v e technique but i t o b v i o u s l y i s a very s u b j e c t i v e measure. 19 TRAINING FOR CREATIVE TALENT A widely used t e s t of c r e a t i v i t y i s G u i l f o r d ' s A l t e r n a t e Uses Test (1960). T h i s t e s t r e q u i r e s the t e s t e e to name as many a l t e r n a t e uses as he can f o r o b j e c t s such as (a) a b r i c k , (b) a needle, or (c) a hub cap. T h i s method of t e s t i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y was subsequently m o d i f i e d by other p s y c h o l o g i s t s . The Minnesota Test of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g was developed by Yamamoto (1964). T h i s form was adopted for use by Torrance and i n c l u d e s the four t a s k s : incomplete f i g u r e s , c i r c l e s , product improvement and unusual uses. The b a s i c assumption u n d e r l y i n g t h i s type of t e s t i s that c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y i s composed of many separate f a c t o r s that d e a l with f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y . The Minnesota Test of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g (Yamamoto, 1964) and Torrance's (1966) Test of C r e a t i v e Thinking deal with the same concepts that G u i l f o r d i n c l u d e d and these two t e s t s are c o n s i d e r e d c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s ( L e f r a n c o i s , 1979). The A l t e r n a t e Uses Test of G u i l f o r d (1960) i s o f t e n used to i d e n t i f y and i s o l a t e c r e a t i v e determinants in c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n . The tasks on the t e s t s have been designed such that they a l l o w the s u b j e c t to produce a v a r i e t y of responses, which can then be scored i n terms of f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y p l u s other f a c t o r s . Torrance o u t l i n e s three experimental approaches for d e v e l o p i n g c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s through language a r t s . i 20 The f i r s t experiment i n v o l v e d grades three, four, f i v e and s i x i n one elementary school d u r i n g a s i x week p e r i o d . The aim was to s t i m u l a t e . c h i l d r e n to r e c o r d t h e i r ideas and w r i t e on t h e i r own. They hoped to help youngsters recognize the value of t h e i r ideas and that others can enjoy and use them i f they are recorded. Each c h i l d was given a l a r g e envelope in which "to t r a p " h i s ideas f o r poems, s t o r i e s , jokes, songs, e t c . By j o t t i n g down a few words to remind him of h i s idea, he c o u l d l a t e r work out the d e t a i l s . On F r i d a y s he s e l e c t e d the idea he thought would be most enjoyed and submitted i t f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n t h e i r magazine Ideas of the Week. The s u b j e c t s were given a t e s t s t o r y to w r i t e at the beginning and end of the experiment. At the end of the experiment the c h i l d r e n were in t e r v i e w e d by the e d i t o r of the magazine and f i l l e d i n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r i d e a - w r i t i n g experiences. Torrance concluded that c h i l d r e n of these grades can be s t i m u l a t e d to r e c o r d ideas on t h e i r own, with t h i r d graders being the most p r o d u c t i v e . He f e l t that there was some evidence that these c h i l d r e n valued t h e i r own and t h e i r classmates' ideas more h i g h l y and o b j e c t e d to e d i t i n g because they f e l t i t was t h e i r ideas that were important. The second experiment i n v o l v e d twenty-one grade four, f i v e , an'd s i x c l a s s e s . T h e i r -teachers i n a two-hour workshop d i s c u s s e d a manual of ideas f o r developing 21 c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s through language a r t s a c t i v i t i e s . They agreed to t r y out as many suggestions as seemed reasonable. At the beginning and end of the experiment the p u p i l s of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g c l a s s e s as w e l l as those of four c o n t r o l teachers were adm i n i s t e r e d the same c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g t e s t s as used i n the f i r s t experiment. Language a r t a c t i v i t i e s were suggested to develop each of the e i g h t a b i l i t i e s thought to be i n v o l v e d i n c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . A s i x t y item c h e c k - l i s t was developed to determine the extent to which the a c t i v i t i e s were a p p l i e d . On the c h e c k - l i s t were items to determine: 1. I d e a t i o n a l Fluency ( b r a i n s t o r m i n g , word games, e t c . ) . 2. A s s o c i a t i o n a l Fluency (Roget's Thesaurus, synonyms, e t c . ) . 3 . Spontaneous F l e x i b i l i t y (new uses f o r a product, e t c . ) . 4 . Adaptive F l e x i b i l i t y ( w r i t i n g same message for d i f f e r e n t audience, e t c . ) . 5 . O r i g i n a l i t y (unusual t i t l e s , c a p t i o n s , e t c . ) . 6 . S e n s i t i v i t y ( c r i t i c a l r eading of comics to suggest r e a l i s t i c changes, e t c . ) . 7 . E l a b o r a t i o n ( o r i g i n a l p l a y s , books, extended w r i t i n g s ) . 8 . C u r i o s i t y ( a b i l i t y to ask good q u e s t i o n s , make good guesses, e t c . ) . 9 . General ("idea-trap" h a b i t , w r i t e r ' s c o r n e r, e t c . ) . The i n d i c a t i o n s were that teachers using the manual a p p l i e d a l a r g e r number of the a c t i v i t i e s suggested than 22 t h e c o n t r o l t e a c h e r s and t h e i r p u p i l s made g r e a t e r g a i n s i n t h e q u a l i t y of t h e i r c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g . A f t e r d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t l e s s t h a n n i n e p e r c e n t of l a n g u a g e a r t s o b j e c t i v e s were r e l a t e d t o c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , T o r r a n c e and h i s c o l l e a g u e s d e v e l o p e d a manual e n t i t l e d R e w a r d i n g C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g . They a l s o d e v e l o p e d s i x p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h t h e y u s e d i n an i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g p r o g ram; h e n c e , t h e t h i r d e x p e r i m e n t . The p r i n c i p l e s a r e : 1. T r e a t q u e s t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t . 2. T r e a t i m a g i n a t i v e , u n u s u a l i d e a s w i t h r e s p e c t . 3 . Show p u p i l s t h a t t h e i r i d e a s have v a l u e . 4 . G i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r a c t i c e o r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h o u t e v a l u a t i o n . 5 . E n c o u r a g e and e v a l u a t e s e l f - i n i t i a t d l e a r n i n g . 6 . T i e i n e v a l u a t i o n s w i t h c a u s e s and c o n s e q u e n c e s . The manual u s e r s were a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e and e v a l u a t e t h e i r own a t t e m p t s i n a p p l y i n g t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . Many t e a c h e r s f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o a p p l y t h e p r i n c i p l e s b u t many r e s p o n d e d f a v o r a b l y t o t h e manual's s u g g e s t i o n s . A l t h o u g h e v a l u a t i o n i s i n c o m p l e t e i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , as i n t h e p r e v i o u s two, i t a p p e a r e d t h a t s k i l l f u l a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e s i x p r i n c i p l e s c a n l e a d t o c r e a t i v e g r o w t h . 23 CREATIVITY AND INTELLIGENCE Although no c o n c l u s i v e statements can be made with r e f e r e n c e to the c o r r e l a t i o n of c r e a t i v i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e there has been a p l e t h o r a of re s e a r c h in t h i s area. G e t z e l s and Jackson (1962) found that c r e a t i v e students are not n e c e s s a r i l y the most i n t e l l i g e n t . They found that c r e a t i v i t y r e p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n from i n t e l l i g e n c e and, because of the d i f f e r e n c e i n the two concepts, they must be measured and i d e n t i f i e d by d i f f e r e n t techniques. Wallack and Kogan (1965) a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d the modes of t h i n k i n g i n young c h i l d r e n and they found that there was a wide range of a b i l i t i e s among school c h i l d r e n . The vast m a j o r i t y of students were not extreme i n thought and judgement. In a d d i t i o n , these general d e s c r i p t i o n s of school adjustment and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are simply general d e s c r i p t i o n s . The p o p u l a t i o n samples i n the above re s e a r c h d e a l t e x t e n s i v e l y with white m i d d l e - c l a s s Anglo-American s o c i e t y . Torrance (1962) s t a t e s that i f we were to i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n as g i f t e d simply on the b a s i s of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , we would e l i m i n a t e 70% of the most c r e a t i v e ( L e f r a n c o i s , 1979, p. 264). I t appears that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e l l i g e n c e and c r e a t i v i t y i s s t i l l a very d i s p u t e d s u b j e c t . Both c r e a t i v i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e seem to be a f u n c t i o n of an i n t e r a c t i o n between h e r e d i t y and environment (Jensen, 1970). 24 NATIVE CANADIAN STUDIES IN THE AREA OF CREATIVITY Studies concerning Native Canadian peoples of North America have been m i s i n t e r p r e t e d (Vernon, 1971). It should be noted that a great deal of e m p i r i c a l evidence i s the subject of controversy ( K o l s t o e , 1970). A number of p r e r e q u i s i t e s to the e l i m i n a t i o n of b i a s i n assessment can be i d e n t i f i e d . Reschly (1979) and Vernon ( 1969=)- conducted a s e r i e s of i n t e l l i g e n c e and c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s on Canadian Indians and Eskimo c h i l d r e n . Vernorf concludes from the r e s u l t s of h i s study that the Indian groups f a i r l y c l o s e l y resemble the Eskimos in many r e s p e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y in showing r e l a t i v e l y good s p e c t r a l performance, though on a m a j o r i t y of t e s t s t h e i r scores are around ten p o i n t s or so lower . . . i t c o u l d be argued that the s u p e r i o r performance of Eskimos i s due to n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n and s u r v i v a l of the f i t t e s t which have probably operated more s e v e r e l y i n the A r c t i c than i n p r a i r i e h a b i t a t s . But t h i s seems l e s s l i k e l y i n so f a r as the Indian scores do equal the Eskimos on c e r t a i n t e s t s — A r i t h m e t i c , Design Reproduction, Kohs, Posters and Drawing. Thus the most l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n s of s e r i o u s r e t a r d a t i o n i n other determinants of i n t e l l e c t u a l development among Indians i s the general maladjustment of the t r i b a l c u l t u r e s , and the i n a b i l i t y of white s o c i e t y to organize acceptable goals (p. 210). F r a s e r (1969) conducted f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h to study the mental a b i l i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia Indian c h i l d r e n to see i f Indian c h i l d r e n d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from white c h i l d r e n on a number of s p e c i f i c mental a b i l i t i e s . He notes that There have been s e v e r a l s t u d i e s designed to assess the g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e of Canadian Indian c h i l d r e n . I t seems however, that there has been no attempt to go beyond the measurement of mental age and I.Q. to analyse s p e c i f i c mental a b i l i t i e s of these c h i l d r e n (p. 42). 2 5 F r a s e r (1969) concluded from the r e s u l t s of Standard of I n t e l l i g e n c e a b i l i t y c a t e g o r i e s that Indian c h i l d r e n need l e s s e x t r a p r a c t i c e on tasks which seem to be r e l a t i v e l y strong a b i l i t i e s ; namely memory and d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , f i g u r a l content and pr o d u c t i o n of u n i t s and r e l a t i o n s (p. 47). In the part of the paper d e a l i n g with t e s t i n g instruments that may be used to i d e n t i f y g i f t e d Native Canadians, I s h a l l examine another system of assessment which I w i l l i n c l u d e i n a category c a l l e d " S i g n i f i c a n t Others." The System of M u l t i c u l t u r a l P l u r a l i s t i c Assessment (S.O.M.P.A.) i s a b a t t e r y of t e s t s developed to assess c h i l d r e n that come from c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d backgrounds and i s used to l a b e l and assess the mentally r e t a r d e d (Mercer, 1979). The S.O.M.P.A. i s a system which p r o v i d e s three major i n n o v a t i o n s concerning assessment p r a c t i c e s . The most c o n t r o v e r s i a l aspect of t h i s system i s the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of three models of assessment i n terms of assumption, a p p r o p r i a t e assessment and v a l u e s . Another i n n o v a t i o n i s the development of a P h y s i c a l D e x t e r i t y B a t t e r y (P.O.), Soc i o c u l t u r a l S c a l e s ( S . C ) , Health H i s t o r i e s Inventory (H.H.), and the Adaptive Behaviour Inventory f o r C h i l d r e n (A.B.I.C.). The S.O.M.P.A. t e s t s t h at r e q u i r e i n d i v i d u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are: The Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e s for C h i l d r e n (WISC-R) (Wechsler, 1974), The Bender G e s t a l l 26 Test, the P h y s i c a l D e x t e r i t y B a t t e r y , The S n e l l e n Test of V i s u a l A c u i t y , and a measure of weight and he i g h t . The t e s t s that r e q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n from the parents are: The Adaptive Behaviour Inventory f o r C h i l d r e n , the Health H i s t o r y I n v e n t o r i e s , and the S o c i o c u l t u r a l S c a l e s . Among other reasons f o r not using the S.O.M.P.A. i n i t s present form to i d e n t i f y g i f t e d N a t i v e Canadians i s that t h i s instrument was designed to i d e n t i f y the mental retarded and the c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d . There are, however, c e r t a i n p a r t s of the e v a l u a t i o n mode which I f e e l can be s u c c e s s f u l l y employed in the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of g i f t e d Native Canadians. The S.O.M.P.A. assesses the c h i l d i n s i x ways. F i r s t l y , there are three areas of input from parents. These areas are the Adaptive Behaviour Inventory f o r C h i l d r e n . T h i s c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of graded que s t i o n s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the c h i l d ' s performance of v a r i o u s s o c i a l r o l e s . S o c i o c u l t u r a l S c a l e s c o n s i s t of s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c h i l d ' s f a m i l y . H e a l t h H i s t o r y I n v e n t o r i e s which i n c l u d e q u e s t i o n s on past and present h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s which may be r e l a t e d to l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t h i n k the above areas of input from the parent g i v e s the t e s t o r an i n s i g h t i n t o the S.E.S. and C u l t u r a l m i l i e u form which the c h i l d comes. Wechsler (1974) w r i t e s that genius " i s something that i s i n f e r r e d from the way these a b i l i t i e s are manifested under d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s and 2 7 c i r c u m s t a n c e s . " Wechsler a l s o emphasized that the degree to which a subject answers on a t e s t may be a f f e c t e d or c o n d i t i o n e d by h i s c u l t u r a l and socioeconomic background but he does not take these f a c t o r s i n t o account in the design of h i s own t e s t i n g instrument (the WISC-R). The sources of input from the t e s t s are the measures which are administered dur i n g an i n d i v i d u a l examination of the c h i l d . These t e s t s i n c l u d e the Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c ale f o r C h i l d r e n , the Bender V i s u a l Motor G e s t a t t T e s t , and P e r c e p t u a l Motor T e s t s which i n c l u d e measures of p h y s i c a l d e x t e r i t y and v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n and a c u i t y . The above b a t t e r y of t e s t s g i v e s the t e s t o r a complete p i c t u r e of the p h y s i c a l , mental and emotional h e a l t h of the c h i l d and the c u l t u r a l and socioeconomic s t a t u s of the par e n t s . If t h i s method of assessment i s to be used s u c c e s s f u l l y with g i f t e d Native Canadiana the WISC-R must be e l i m i n a t e d due to the c u l t u r a l b i a s of the instrument and i t s e f f e c t on the Native Canadian ( i . e . , there i s too much l o a d i n g on the language and G f a c t o r s ) . In part two of t h i s paper we have d i s c u s s e d the reasons why the WISC-R cannot be employed to i d e n t i f y , g i f t e d Native Canadians. Two t e s t s that c o u l d be used i n place of the WISC-R to i d e n t i f y g i f t e d ' Native Canadians are (1) The Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test ( H a r r i s , 1963). When t h i s instrument i s used we must understand and adapt the marking c r i t e r i a of the t e s t such that i t i s completely r e l a t e d to the c u l t u r e and experiences of the Native 28 Canadian. For example, Native Canadians do not emphasize the same aspects of d e t a i l i n t h e i r a r t that i s i n d i c a t i v e of middle c l a s s Western s o c i e t y . The second t e s t i s the Torrance Test of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g . The G u i l f o r d A l t e r n a t e Uses Tests ( G u i l f o r d , 1960) and the Torrance T e s t s measure a d a p t a b i l i t y to change from one category to another and t h i s i s a most important f a c t o r i n i d e n t i f y i n g g i f t e d Native Canadians. TO REITERATE AND CONCLUDE The l i t e r a t u r e s u b s t a n t i a t e s the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s concerning t h i s study. 1. C r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g has been conducted on white middle c l a s s school c h i l d r e n . 2. C r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g encompasses a great many d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s of study (e.g., from reading to geometry) and i n v o l v e s many d i f f e r e n t types of thought f o r m a l i z a t i o n s from concept formation to d e c i s i o n making. 3. C r e a t i v e a b i l i t y i s a very necessary s k i l l f o r the Native Canadian (Blank, 1982). 4. The r e s u l t s of the r e s e a r c h are i n c o n c l u s i v e and c o n f l i c t i n g . The Torrance t e s t s were p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s study because of the comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n of the t e s t s . From the l i t e r a t u r e i t was r e a d i l y apparent that the Torrance T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g are the most a p p r o p r i a t e instruments to use i n the measurements of f i g u r a l c r e a t i v i t y . Since the researcher was i n t e r e s t e d i n 29 t r a i n i n g f o r the f i g u r a l f l u e n c y , f i g u r a l f l e x i b i l i t y and f i g u r a l o r i g i n a l i t y , the Torrance b a t t e r i e s were most a p p r o p r i a t e because they were designed to pr o v i d e a measure of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g a b i l i t y (as d e f i n e d by Torrance (1972)) The t e s t s assess the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of general a b i l i t i e s as w e l l as the p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s i n l i g h t of the n a t u r a l human process of problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and s o l u t i o n . 3 0 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Subjects The sample was s e l e c t e d from one of the schools in the Coast S a l i s h t r i b a l area. The sample was _ i d e n t i f i e d and randomly assigned to two groups. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms (Common useage i n the l i t e r a t u r e ) The measures of c r e a t i v i t y which were used in t h i s study were taken from the Torrance T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g . For the purpose of t h i s study the examiner adopted Torrance's d e f i n i t i o n s f o r f i g u r a l f l u e n c y , f i g u r a l f l e x i b i l i t y and f i g u r a l o r i g i n a l i t y . F l u ency. Fluency was d e f i n e d as the t o t a l number of responses given by the su b j e c t on the examinations. F l e x i b i l i t y . F l e x i b i l i t y i s a s h i f t i n a t t i t u d e , focus of approach and can be assessed by the number of d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s of response that are o u t l i n e d in the Torrance s c o r i n g manual. In t h i s study the examiner i l l u s t r a t e d what i s c o n s i d e r e d a f l e x i b l e p a t t e r n using s t i c k s , b l o c k s and tanagrams. O r i g i n a l i t y . O r i g i n a l i t y was d e f i n e d as the v a r i e t y or uniqueness of the s u b j e c t s ' examination responses. For the purposes of t h i s study the aspect of f i g u r a l o r i g i n a l i t y was c o n s i d e r e d to be the breaking out of the box p a t t e r n of the design using the s t i c k s , b l o c k s and tanagrams. T h i s was accomplished by e i t h e r r o t a t i o n or r e f l e c t i o n of the s t i c k s , b l o c k s and tanagrams. 31 A Tanaqram. A Tanagram i s the seven-piece p u z z l e whose majesty l i e s i n the v a r i e t y of ways i n which i t s pi e c e s can be put together. A Block. A Block i s any p i e c e of wood with f l a t s u r f a c e s . The blocks used in t h i s study are s i m i l a r to those used by c h i l d r e n as toy b u i l d i n g b l o c k s . ~"° r~ A S t i c k . A S t i c k i s a long slender piece of wood approximately three inches long and one-eighth of an inch wide. The Paper. The paper used was a t h i n f l e x i b l e m a t e r i a l t hat can be r e a d i l y cut i n t o d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s of shapes. C r e a t i v i t y . C r e a t i v i t y has.been d e f i n e d by Torrance (1972) as "a c o n s t e l l a t i o n of general a b i l i t i e s , p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s and problem-solving t r a i t s . " Design of the Study Sample. The sample c o n s i s t e d of f o r t y N a t i v e Canadian c h i l d r e n (grades three through s i x ) from the B r i t i s h Columbia area. The sample was s e l e c t e d from the a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n . Test A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g diagram i l l u s t r a t e s the design of t h i s study: 3 2 R 0, X 0, R 0 2 0 2 where: R = random assignment X = treatment 0, = p r e t e s t 0 2 = p o s t t e s t The t r a i n i n g i n v o l v e d twenty minutes at the same time each school day f o r two weeks. A n a l y s i s of the Data The examiner used the f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c a l procedure for the a n a l y s i s of the data. A separate ANOVA was performed f o r each of f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y , and o r i g i n a l i t y scores to compare the treatment and the c o n t r o l group on the p o s t t e s t . An ANCOVA was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the p o s t t e s t scores using the p r e - t e s t scores as c o v a r i a t e s . The p o s t - t r a i n i n g scores of the c o n t r o l and experimental group were t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . P a i r e d t - t e s t s were used to compare the p r e - t r a i n i n g and p o s t - t r a i n i n g scores of each group f o r s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n score f o r f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y , and o r i g i n a l i t y . Independent V a r i a b l e s Teachers took part i n a one hour workshop to acquaint them with the a p p l i c a t i o n of c o n d i t i o n s necessary i n the classroom f o r c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g . To ensure that the teacher of the c o n t r o l group c o u l d not gain any knowledge i 3 3 of the c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s two separate s e s s i o n s were conducted, one f o r the experimental group and one for the c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n . The teacher of the c o n t r o l group was given no i n s i g h t i n t o the treatment knowledge i n v o l v e d in c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g . The Dependent V a r i a b l e The three measures of c r e a t i v i t y — f i g u r a l f l u e n c y , f i g u r a l f l e x i b i l i t y and f i g u r a l o r i g i n a l i t y were obtained by a d m i n i s t e r i n g the Torrance Tests of C r e a t i v e Thinking (TTCT). The whole b a t t e r y of t e s t s c o u l d not be a d m i n i s t e r e d because the v e r b a l , p i c t o r i a l and a u d i t o r y b a t t e r i e s are dependent on the l i n g u i s t i c f a c t o r and the amount of education the s u b j e c t has. I t should be noted that a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the Torrance c i r c l e s , t e s t was used to i d e n t i f y c r e a t i v e g i f t e d n e s s i n Native Canadians. Blank (1979) s t a t e s " i t i s a c l o s e approximation to performance on the t o t a l t e s t s of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . " Torrance (1966) s t a t e s that the c i r c l e s and squares form of h i s c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g t e s t "were chosen d e l i b e r a t e l y because i t was b e l i e v e d that they c a l l i n t o p l a y d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of a u n i v e r s e of a b i l i t i e s that may be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as f i g u r a l c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s . " T h i s t e s t s t i l l i s used e x t e n s i v e l y i n t e s t i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y (Blank, 1982). 3 4 Fluency T r a i n i n g The t e s t t r a i n i n g f o r divergency was conducted using blocks, s t i c k s , and tanagrams. For f l u e n c y the c h i l d r e n were allowed to make any type of design they want to using the b l o c k s , s t i c k s and tanagrams. Try to arrange a new design every time you make a model. Don't repeat y o u r s e l f and t r y to use as many of the blocks, s t i c k s , and tanagrams as p o s s i b l e . Be sure to keep the b l o c k s , s t i c k s , and tanagrams i n three d i f f e r e n t boxes so they w i l l not be mixed up. Teaching S t r a t e g y (developed by the r e s e a r c h e r ) . The sub j e c t s answered typed q u e s t i o n s with respect to f l u e n c y t r a i n i n g . 1. "Here are f i v e b l o c k s . Put them together in any way you l i k e . " 2. "Make sure you put the bl o c k s together in new and d i f f e r e n t ways." The task of f l u e n c y was l i m i t e d to forming d i f f e r e n t designs with respect to c o l o u r or design'of block. F l e x i b i l i t y T r a i n i n g The task of f l e x i b i l i t y t r a i n i n g was d e f i n e d by Torrance (1966) as the number of d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s of responses. The task of f l e x i b i l i t y was l i m i t e d to rep e a t i n g designs and p a t t e r n s using b l o c k s and s t i c k s . These b l o c k s and s t i c k s must be i n d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s i n order that d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s and designs are made. 3 5 Teaching S t r a t e g y . The s u b j e c t s responded to statements or answered que s t i o n s of the f o l l o w i n g type: ( i ) Here are three b l o c k s , put them together so they form r e p e a t i n g p a t t e r n s . ( i i ) Would you arrange the blocks in a p a t t e r n that produces a d i f f e r e n t type of person, p l a c e or thing? O r i g i n a l i t y "Breaking out of the box p a t t e r n s " were s t r e s s e d . For example, unique and unusual ways of shaping b r i c k s . Three dimensional shaping was emphasized. Teaching S t r a t e g y . The s u b j e c t s responded to statements of the f o l l o w i n g format: ( i ) Try to b u i l d a totem pole using the b l o c k s . ( i i ) Try to c o n s t r u c t an a i r p l a n e . F l e x i b i l i t y and O r i g i n a l i t y Teaching S t r a t e g y . The s u b j e c t s responded . to statements of the f o l l o w i n g type: ( i ) B u i l d a house with the b l o c k s . ( i i ) Try to c o n s t r u c t a b u i l d i n g u sing the same b l o c k s . T r a i n i n g Sessions The design of t h i s study i n v o l v e d one treatment and one c o n t r o l group i n separate classrooms. The experimental s u b j e c t s were exposed to. c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g f o r twenty minutes each school day for two weeks. Both the experimental and c o n t r o l groups were given the Torrance C i r c l e s T e s t . The treatment group t r a i n e d every day while the c o n t r o l group was given no i n s t r u c t i o n . 3 7 CHAPTER IV RESULTS " S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures One-way analyses of c o v a r i a n c e were performed to determine i f there were any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the p o s t t e s t scores of the c o n t r o l ( n = 7 ) and experimental ( n = 7 ) groups. The c o n t r o l group t e s t scores f o r the Incomplete F i g u r e s Test from the p r e - t r a i n i n g p e r i o d were compared to the corresponding scores of the experimental group. Scores from the p o s t - t r a i n i n g p e r i o d as w e l l as the pre- and p o s t - t r a i n i n g C i r c l e s Test scores were analyzed in the same manner. The pre-.trai.ning ANOVAs pro v i d e d an i n d i c a t i o n of whether the students in the c o n t r o l and experimental groups, on average, possessed s i m i l a r a b i l i t i e s with regards to the tasks r e q u i r e d of them i n t h i s study. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s that appeared i n the p o s t - t r a i n i n g ANOVAs i n d i c a t e d p o s s i b l e t r a i n i n g e f f e c t s . To assess the e f f e c t that the spread in p r e - t r a i n i n g scores may have had on the outcome of the p o s t - t r a i n i n g ANOVAs, a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e (ANCOVA) was c a l c u l a t e d i n which p r e - t r a i n i n g scores were i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s as c o v a r i a t e s . In t h i s way the p o s t - t r a i n i n g scores of the c o n t r o l and experimental groups were a d j u s t e d f o r the students' p r e - t r a i n i n g c r e a t i v i t y . The dependent group's t - t e s t was used to examine d i f f e r e n c e s between the pre- and p o s t - t r a i n i n g scores of a group. 36 Task Phase. The t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s with the experimental group were concerned with the t r a i n i n g f o r f i g u r a l f l u e n c y , f i g u r a l f l e x i b i l i t y and f i g u r a l o r i g i n a l i t y . Each group . was given the s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s with the m a t e r i a l s and i l l u s t r a t i o n s of how to p r o p e r l y respond to q u e s t i o n s . Sessions and Schedule. I t i s important to note that a l l of the les s o n s and m a t e r i a l s were given to each of the two groups concomitantly and at the same time p e r i o d each s u c c e s s i v e day. The post t e s t (The Torrance C i r c l e s Test) was given i n the same time p e r i o d on F r i d a y of the same week. P i c t u r e Completion Test The r e s e a r c h e r i n c l u d e d the Torrance P i c t u r e Completion Test as i t was b e l i e v e d to i l l u s t r a t e that the subject adapted h i s thought c o n s t r u c t s to d i f f e r e n t aspects of a un i v e r s e o.f a b i l i t i e s . T h i s t e s t may be co n s i d e r e d e m p i r i c a l evidence that the t r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g has shown s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . Teaching S t r a t e g y . 1. What type of a p i c t u r e can we draw i f we complete t h i s f i g u r e ? 2 . Can you draw another p i c t u r e with the same f i g u r e ? 3. Think of an e x c i t i n g t i t l e f o r each p i c t u r e . 4 . Can you i l l u s t r a t e your idea with t h i s f i g u r e ? 3 8 C i r c l e s Test ANCOVAs The r e s u l t of the one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e for the C i r c l e s Test i s d i s p l a y e d i n Table 1. The r e s u l t for the a n a l y s i s of covariance i s given i n Table 2. Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s are a l s o r e p o r t e d . P o s t - t r a i n i n g mean flu e n c y (p<.003) and mean o r i g i n a l i t y (p<.00l) scores evidenced a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the c o n t r o l and experimental groups. The experimental group had a mean score of 6.00 which was higher than the mean of 2.14 rep o r t e d f o r the c o n t r o l group. The ANCOVA r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that with the p r e - t r a i n i n g scores i n c l u d e d as c o v a r i a t e s only o r i g i n a l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t . Fluency d i s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t c o v a r i a t e e f f e c t but there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the groups p o s t - t r a i n i n g s c o r e s . F l e x i b i l i t y had n e i t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t c o v a r i a t e or group e f f e c t s . Incomplete F i g u r e s Test ANOVAs The means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , and the r e s u l t of the ANOVA are t a b u l a t e d i n Table 3. Those f o r the ANCOVA are in Table 4. The experimental group had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (p<.05) mean (3.86) than the c o n t r o l group (1.86) f o r p o s t - t r a i n i n g o r i g i n a l i t y . P o s t - t r a i n i n g f l u e n c y and f l e x i b i l i t y as well as a l l p r e - t r a i n i n g ANOVAs d i d not have any s i g n i f i c a n t f - r a t i o s . These r e s u l t s agree with those d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4 f o r the ANCOVAs with the p r e - t r a i n i n g scores c o v a r i a t e s . O r i g i n a l i t y was the only dependent v a r i a b l e to have s i g n i f i c a n t group and c o v a r i a t e e f f e c t s . 3 9 Pre- and P o s t - T r a i n i n g C i r c l e s Test t - t e s t s Table 5 c o n t a i n s the r e s u l t of the dependent group's t - t e s t comparing the pre- and p o s t - t r a i n i n g C i r c l e s Test mean scores f o r the c o n t r o l group. Table 6 has the r e s u l t s f o r the experimental group. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t (p>.05) improvements or d e c l i n e s i n the p o s t - t r a i n i n g scores of the c o n t r o l group. There were, however, s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n the f l e x i b i l i t y (p<.0l) and the o r i g i n a l i t y (p<.0l) p o s t - t r a i n i n g C i r c l e s Test scores of the experimental group. Pre- and P o s t - T r a i n i n g Incomplete F i g u r e s Test t - t e s t s The r e s u l t of the dependent group's t - t e s t comparing the pre- and p o s t - t r a i n i n g Incomplete C i r c l e s Test mean scores f o r the c o n t r o l group are d i s p l a y e d i n Table 7. Table 8 c o n t a i n s the r e s u l t s f o r the Incomplete F i g u r e s Test experimental group. The c o n t r o l group provided no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (p>.05) between the pre- and p o s t - t r a i n i n g t e s t scores of the Incomplete F i g u r e s T e s t . The pre- and p o s t - t r a i n i n g scores of the experimental group f o r o r i g i n a l i t y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p<.0l), with the p o s t - t r a i n i n g mean being s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r than the p r e - t r a i n i n g mean. F l e x i b i l i t y scores were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p<.05) but f l u e n c y scores were bo r d e r i n g on s i g n i f i c a n c e (p=.052). 4 0 Examination of the Research Question The i n t e n t of t h i s study was to assess the e f f e c t t r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y would have on the- f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y , and o r i g i n a l i t y of Native Indian students. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e d the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t t r a i n i n g had on the o r i g i n a l i t y scores of the s u b j e c t s f o r both the C i r c l e s Test and the Incomplete F i g u r e s T e s t . In a d d i t i o n , f l e x i b i l i t y scores i n c r e a s e d with t r a i n i n g f o r the C i r c l e s T e s t. 41 Table 1: One-way A n a l y s i s of Variance of the C i r c l e s Test Scores Comparing the C o n t r o l and Experimental Groups C o n t r o l Mean 1 (SD) Expmtal Mean (SD) F- r a t i o 2 F--prob P r e - t r a i n i n g Fluency 11.71 (7.02) 11.86 (6.72) 0 .002 0 .9696 P o s t - t r a i n i n g Fluency 12.57 (6.27) 1 4.29 (2.81 ) 0 .436 0 .5216 P r e - t r a i n i n g F l e x i b i l i t y 6.43 (3.31) 6.86 (2.91) 0 .066 0 .8031 P o s t - t r a i n i n g F l e x i b i l i t y 6.71 (2.98) 10.71 (4.15) 4 .284 0 .0607 P r e - t r a i n i n g Or i g i n a l i ty 2.43 (1.13) 3.00 (1.73) 0 . 533 0 .4792 P o s t - t r a i n i n g Or i g i n a l i t y 2.14 (1.35) 6.00 ('1 .63) 23 .266 • 0 .0004 1 n=7 f o r c o n t r o l and experimental groups 2 df=1,12 f o r a l l F - t e s t s Table 2: A n a l y s i s of Covariance of the P o s t - t r a i n i n g C i r c l e s Test Scores Comparing the C o n t r o l and Experimental Groups With P r e - t r a i n i n g Test Scores as a C o v a r i a t e C o n t r o l Mean 1 (SD) Expmtal Mean (SD) F - r a t i o 2 F -prob P o s t - t r a i n i n g Fluency 12.57 (6.27) 14.29 (2.81) 0.842 0 .378 P o s t - t r a i n i n g F l e x i b i l i t y 6.71 (2.98) 10.71 (4.15) 3.966 0 .072 P o s t - t r a i n i n g O r i g i n a l i t y 2.14 (1 .35) 6.00 (1.63) 23.662 0 .000 1 n=7 f o r c o n t r o l and experimental groups 2 df=1,11 f o r a l l F - t e s t s 42 Table 3: One-way A n a l y s i s of Variance of the Incomplete F i g u r e s Test Scores Comparing the C o n t r o l and Experimental Groups C o n t r o l Mean 1 (SD) Expmtal Mean (SD) F- r a t i o 2 F--prob P r e - t r a i n i n g Fluency 9.00 (1.29) 7.14 (3.08) 2 . 1 67 0 . 1 668 P o s t - t r a i n i n g Fluency 8.86 (2.61) 9.43 (1.13) 0 .282 0 .6049 P r e - t r a i n i n g F l e x i b i l i t y 6.00 (3.32) 3.43 (3.36) 2 .077 0 .1751 P o s t - t r a i n ing F l e x i b i l i t y 6.57 (4.32) 6.14 (4.02) 0 .037 0 .8507 P r e - t r a i n i n g O r i g i n a l i t y 2.00 (1.00) 2.00 (2.31) 0 .000 1 .0000 P o s t - t r a i n i n g O r i g i n a l i t y 1 .86 (1.07) 3.86 • (1.57) 7 .73? 0 .0166 1 n=7 f o r c o n t r o l and experimental groups 2 df=1,12 f o r a l l F - t e s t s Table 4: A n a l y s i s of Covariance of the P o s t - t r a i n i n g Incomplete F i g u r e s Test Scores Comparing the C o n t r o l and Experimental Groups With P r e - t r a i n i n g Test Scores as a C o v a r i a t e C o n t r o l Mean 1 (SD) Expmtal Mean (SD) F - r a t i o 2 F -prob P o s t - t r a i n i n g Fluency 8.86 (2.61) 9.43 (1.13) 1 .471 0 .251 P o s t - t r a i n i n g F l e x i b i l i t y 6.57 (4.32) 6.14 (4.02) 0.001 0 .980 P o s t - t r a i n i n g Or i g i n a l i t y 1 .86 (1 .07) 3.86 (1.57) 17.154 0 .002 1 n=7 f o r c o n t r o l and experimental groups 2 df=1,11 f o r a l l F - t e s t s 4 3 Table 5: P a i r e d t - T e s t s Comparing the Pre- and P o s t - T r a i n i n g C i r c l e s Test Scores of the C o n t r o l Group Pre Post Mean T V a l u e 2 2 - T a i l Mean 1 Mean Di f ference Prob (SD) (SD) (SD) — Fluency 11.71 1 2. 57 -0.86 -0.51 0.626 (7.02) (6.27) (4.41 ) F l e x i - 6.43 6.71 -0.29 -0.15 0.888 b i l i t y (3.31) (2.98) (5.12) O r i g i n - 2.43 2.14 0.29 0.55 0.604 a l i t y (1.13) (1.35) (1.38) 1 n=7 for c o n t r o l group 2 df=6 f o r a l l T - t e s t s Table 6: P a i r e d t - T e s t s Comparing the Pre-and P o s t - T r a i n i n g C i r c l e s Test Scores of the Experimental Group Pre Post Mean T V a l u e 2 2 - T a i l Mean 1 Mean Di f ference Prob (SD) (SD) (SD) Fluency 1 1 .86 14.26 -2.43 -1 .38 0.216 (6.72) (2.81) (4.65) F l e x i - 6.86 10.71 -3.86 -4.12 0.006 b i l i t y (2.91) (4.15) (2.48) O r i g i n - 3.00 6.00 -3.00 -5.20 0.002 a l i t y ( 1 .73) (1.63) (1.53) 1 n=7 f o r c o n t r o l group 2 df=6 f o r a l l T - t e s t s 44 Table 7: P a i r e d t - T e s t s Comparing the Pre- and P o s t - T r a i n i n g Incomplete F i g u r e s Test Scores of the C o n t r o l Group Pre Post Mean T V a l u e 2 2 - T a i l Mean 1 Mean Di f ference Prob (SD) (SD) (SD) Fluency 9.00 8.86 0.14 0.19 0.859 (1.29) (2.61) (2.04) F l e x i - 6.00 6. 57 -0.57 -0.43 0. 685 b i l i t y (3.32) (4.32) (3.55) O r i g i n - 2.00 1 .86 0.14 0.31 0.766 a l i t y (1.00) ( 1 .07) (1.22) 1 n=7 f o r c o n t r o l group 2 df=6 f o r a l l T - t e s t s Table 8: P a i r e d t - T e s t s Comparing the Pre- and P o s t - T r a i n i n g Incomplete F i g u r e s Test Scores of the Experimental Group Pre Post Mean T V a l u e 2 2 - T a i l Mean 1 Mean Di f ference Prob (SD) (SD) (SD) Fluency 7.14 9.43 -2.29 -2.42 0.052 (3.08) (1.13) (2.50) F l e x i - 3.43 6. 14 -2.71 -1 .20 0.276 b i l i t y (3.36) (4.02) (5.99) O r i g i n - 2.00 3.86 -1 .86 -4.60 0.004 a l i t y (2.31) (1.57) (1.07) 1 n=7 f o r c o n t r o l group 2 df=6 f o r a l l T - t e s t s 4 5 CHAPTER V SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Summary T h i s study addressed the q u e s t i o n o f : " W i l l c r e a t i v i t y of N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n improve with t r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y ? " . Native Indian c h i l d r e n (grades three through s i x ) from the C h a h a l i s Indian Reserve of B r i t i s h Columbia were p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o two groups, c o n t r o l and experimental, p r i o r to the commencement of the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . The c o n t r o l group (n=7) r e c e i v e d no t r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y . They were allowed to pursue other a c t i v i t i e s such as watching f i l m s and rea d i n g . For twenty minutes each school day f o r two weeks, the experimental group (n=7) underwent t r a i n i n g f o r f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y , and o r i g i n a l i t y . P r i o r to and f o l l o w i n g the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d both groups were ad m i n i s t e r e d two t e s t s of c r e a t i v i t y : the Incomplete F i g u r e s Test and the C i r c l e s T e s t . The scores from these t e s t s were analyzed f o r gains i n c r e a t i v i t y with a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e and p a i r e d t - t e s t s . The r e s u l t s of the p r e - t r a i n i n g one-way ANOVAs i n d i c a t e d that there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y , and o r i g i n a l i t y between the two groups p r i o r to the t r a i n i n g of the experimental group. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that sampling b i a s had not occurred i n the assignment of c h i l d r e n to the groups. In other words, the most p o t e n t i a l l y c r e a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s had not been s i n g l e d out f o r placement i n the same group. i 46 A l s o , the n o n s i g n i f i c a n t p r e - t r a i n i n g ANOVA r e s u l t s imply that the p o s t - t r a i n i n g r e s u l t s of the groups can be compared f o r gains i n c r e a t i v i t y s i n c e both .groups e x h i b i t e d s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n s of t e s t scores before t r a i n i n g . The p o s t - t r a i n i n g , one-way ANOVAs were used as a t e s t for gains in p o t e n t i a l f o r c r e a t i v i t y by the experimental group. O r i g i n a l i t y scores of the experimental group were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the scores of the c o n t r o l group for both the Incomplete F i g u r e s Test and the C i r c l e s T e s t . T r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y had improved the o r i g i n a l i t y of t e s t responses. Even though the mean f l e x i b i l i t y and fluency scores of the experimental group were higher than the r e s p e c t i v e scores of the c o n t r o l group, t h e ' v a r i a n c e of the scores i n d i c a t e d s u f f i c i e n t -overlapping of the score d i s t r i b u t i o n s to preclude s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups. ANCOVAs, using p r e - t r a i n i n g scores as c o v a r i a t e s , were performed to compare the p o s t - t r a i n i n g scores of the c o n t r o l and experimental groups c o n t r o l l i n g for p r e - t r a i n i n g c r e a t i v i t y . The outcomes of these ANCOVAs were the same as found f o r the o r i g i n a l one-way ANOVAs. O r i g i n a l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r both t e s t s . Four s e t s of p a i r e d t - t e s t s were performed to compare the p o s t - t r a i n i n g scores with the p r e - t r a i n i n g s c o r e s . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n the t e s t scores of the c o n t r o l group fo r e i t h e r the Incomplete F i g u r e s Test or the C i r c l e s T e s t . The experimental group, however, d i d 4 7 e x h i b i t s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r p o s t - t r a i n i n g scores f o r both t e s t s . The f l e x i b i l i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y s cores of the C i r c l e s Test and the o r i g i n a l i t y scores of the Incomplete F i g u r e s Test were improved f o l l o w i n g the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d experienced by the experimental group. Di s c u s s i o n The r e s u l t s of the data a n a l y s e s suggested that the c r e a t i v i t y of Native Indian c h i l d r e n w i l l improve with t r a i n i n g . Athough these r e s u l t s appeared promising at f i r s t , upon f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n the researcher i d e n t i f i e d a number of f a c t o r s that i n f l u e n c e d the r e s u l t s such as the marking scheme used and the manner in which the t e s t s were ad m i n i s t e r e d . These and o t h e r f a c t o r s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n subsequent s e c t i o n s . T r a i n i n g P e r i o d and Test A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : L i m i t a t i o n s The observed gains i n p o t e n t i a l c r e a t i v i t y of the Native Indian c h i l d r e n may have been g r e a t e r i f the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d had been extended to one month ra t h e r than the two weeks used in t h i s study. C h i l d r e n who were slower to respond to t r a i n i n g may have shown g r e a t e r improvement with a longer t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . A l s o , with a longer time i n t e r v a l between t e s t i n g the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of boredom with the t e s t s and r e p e t i t i o n of responses from previous t e s t s would be reduced. However, with a longer t r a i n i n g p e r i o d there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y of the c h i l d r e n becoming bored with the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s . E f f o r t s must be made to s u s t a i n the i n t e r e s t of the c h i l d r e n i n the e x e r c i s e s i f 4 8 gains in c r e a t i v i t y r e s u l t i n g from t r a i n i n g are to be maximized. The manner in which the t e s t s were administered may have i n f l u e n c e d the r e s u l t s of t h i s study. Tests with imposed time l i m i t s given i n a classroom s e t t i n g c o u l d i n h i b i t the c r e a t i v i t y of Native Indian c h i l d r e n . The pressure of time l i m i t s , l o c a l environment, and p o s s i b l y peer competition may pose negative i n f l u e n c e s on the e x p r e s s i o n of c r e a t i v e t a l e n t . Peel (1968) has suggested that s e t t i n g time l i m i t s on tasks can depress the scores of some students, e s p e c i a l l y among Native Canadians. Reschly (1979) and Vernon (1969) have, rep o r t e d that Native Canadians d i s l i k e r i g o r o u s t e s t i n g i n a formal classroom s e t t i n g . A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n c o u l d be the general maladjustment of t r i b a l c u l t u r e s to white s o c i e t y and the f a i l u r e to o r g a n i z e a c c e p t a b l e goals f o r n a t i v e students. The researcher suggests that c h i l d r e n be allowed to complete the C i r c l e s Test and the Incomplete F i g u r e s Test in the home environment where p o s s i b l e negative f a c t o r s would be minimized. These f a c t o r s might i n c l u d e (1) time l i m i t s , (2) classroom d i s t r a c t i o n s , (3) peer behaviour, and (4) teacher presence. Ideas may "flow" more f r e e l y i n a s e t t i n g where the c h i l d f e e l s most comfortable. The s c o r i n g procedures s p e c i f i e d by the Torrance S c o r i n g Guide (Appendix I I I ) are i n my o p i n i o n too narrow and r i g i d to f a i r l y score the t e s t s of Native Indian 49 c h i l d r e n . The methods promoted by Blank (1982) are more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the s c o r i n g of the C i r c l e s Test when administered to Native Indian c h i l d r e n . A m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of the Blank s c o r i n g procedures c o u l d improve the r e s u l t s of Native Indian c h i l d r e n on the P i c t u r e Completion T e s t . The Blank s c o r i n g method allows a wider range of responses w i t h i n each category. For example, the Blank method denotes category #4 as " b u i l d i n g s " whereas, the Torrance procedure p r o v i d e s category #10 ( b u i l d i n g ) with an open-ended l i s t of a c c e p t a b l e responses such as bank, barn, and White House. I t i s p o s s i b l e that too h i g h a degree of s p e c i f i c i t y i s r e q u i r e d of the Native Indian c h i l d in the time permitted to complete the t e s t s . C o n c l u s i o n s The r e s u l t s of t h i s study demonstrated that c r e a t i v i t y of Native Indian c h i l d r e n w i l l improve with t r a i n i n g . O r i g i n a l i t y , i n p a r t i c u l a r . , was i n c r e a s e d . There were i n d i c a t i o n s a l s o that f l e x i b i l i t y responds favourably to coaching. The small sample s i z e (n=7) f o r both the c o n t r o l and experimental groups p r e c l u d e s drawing strong r e l i a b l e i n f e r e n c e s about Native Indian c h i l d r e n from other e d u c a t i o n a l , s e t t i n g s , c u l t u r a l backgrounds, and g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n Canada. 5 0 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research A much l a r g e r sample of Native Indian c h i l d r e n r e p r e s e n t i n g a c r o s s s e c t i o n of t r i b e s , g e o g r a p h i c a l areas and e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s from a c r o s s Canada need to exposed to the_ t r a i n i n g and t e s t i n g regime before strong c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn. With a l a r g e r sample other v a r i a b l e s (e.g., age, sex, i n d i v i d u a l teacher e f f e c t on t r a i n i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s , v a r i a b l e length of t r a i n i n g p e r i o d , t r i b a l / c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , e t c . ) c o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d ^ f o r or assessed as to the importance of t h e i r e f f e c t on the improvement of c r e a t i v i t y . The s c o r i n g procedures of the t e s t s need to be improved and r e f i n e d to r e f l e c t the types of responses r e c e i v e d from Native Indian C h i l d r e n . M o d i f i c a t i o n s . t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t s are a l s o recommended. The t r a i n i n g p e r i o d s should be i n c r e a s e d to one month and the c h i l d r e n allowed to take the t e s t s at home and administered by the p a r e n t s . 51 BIBLIOGRAPHY Adamson, P.V. and Vernon, D.F. (1977). The psychology and  education of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . 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The education of the g i f t e d and creati-ve .in the .U.S.A. G i f t e d C h i l d Q u a r t e r l y , 15(2), 109-116. P. (1974). R a t i o n a l e f o r f o s t e r i n g c r e a t i v e reading in the g i f t e d and c r e a t i v e . In M. Labuda (ed.), C r e a t i v e reading f o r g i f t e d l e a r n e r s : a  design f o r e x c e l l e n c e . Newark: I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n . K.H. and Wallen, N.E. (1965). Teacher classroom c o n t r o l , p u p i l c r e a t i v i t y , and p u p i l classroom behavior. J o u r n a l of Experimental Education, 3_4(1), 59-65. Yamamoto, K. (1962). A study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s of f i f t h grade teachers  and academic achievement. D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota. Yamamoto, K. (1963). R e l a t i o n s h i p s between c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s of f i f t h - g r a d e teachers and achievement and adjustment of p u p i l s . J o u r n a l of  Experimental Education, 3_2 ( 1 ) , 3-25. Yamamoto, K. (ed.). (1971). The c h i l d and h i s image: s e l f  concept i n the e a r l y years. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n . Witty, Witty, Wodtke, APPENDIX I DIRECTIONS TO TEACHERS 61 APPENDIX I DIRECTIONS TO TEACHERS We have been t r a i n i n g Native Canadian students f o r three aspects of c r e a t i v i t y as d e f i n e d by Torrance (1962); these are f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y . E f f o r t s have been made to a i d teachers in the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c r e a t i v e Native Americans (Torrance, 1962). T h i s simply i n v o l v e s a l i s t of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that may have been used to induce Native Canadians to t r a i n for c r e a t i v i t y under experimental c o n d i t i o n s . The teachers were t r a i n i n g students f o r three aspects of c r e a t i v i t y : that of f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y . Here i s the technique we have employed to attempt the experimental procedure. The teachers took part i n a h a l f - d a y workshop before the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s were undertaken in the i n d i v i d u a l classrooms. Two types of t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s were conducted: one f o r the c o n t r o l group and one f o r the experimental group. The c o n t r o l group was not exposed to any c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g . Instead, they were allowed to watch f i l m s and work with e l e c t r o boards. The experimental group r e c e i v e d the t r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y . The study s e s s i o n s planned by the teachers i n v o l v e d a t r a i n i n g f o r c r e a t i v i t y treatment f o r the experimental group and a treatment with no c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g f o r the c o n t r o l group. The s e s s i o n s f o r both groups occurred at the same time. The experimental groups were exposed to 62 c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g f o r twenty minutes, each day f o r two weeks, whereas, the students i n the c o n t r o l group were allowed to read and view f i l m s . The t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s with the experimental group were concerned with the t r a i n i n g f o r f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y . The experimental group was given s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n with the m a t e r i a l s on how to p r o p e r l y respond to q u e s t i o n s . Before c r e a t i v i t y t r a i n i n g was s t a r t e d the teachers administered the T.T.C.T. to students of both groups while the students were i n the same cl a s s r o o m . 1 The complete T.T.C.T. c o u l d not be admi n i s t e r e d because the v e r b a l , p i c t o r a l and a u d i t o r y b a t t e r i e s are dependent upon the l i n g u i s t i c f a c t o r and the amount of education the subject has. Blank (1979) s t a t e s " I t i s a c l o s e approximation to performance on the t o t a l t e s t of c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . " I t should be noted that a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the Torrance c i r c l e s was used to i d e n t i f y g i f t e d n e s s i n Native Canadians. Torrance (1966) s t a t e s that the c i r c l e s and squares form of h i s c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g t e s t was chosen d e l i b e r a t e l y because " i t was and s t i l l i s b e l i e v e d that they c a l l i n t o play d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of a un i v e r s e of a b i l i t i e s that may be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as f i g u r a l c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s . " 1 T h i s was done so that the teachers of the c o n t r o l and experimental c o n d i t i o n would not gain any pre-treatment knowledge of the other experimental c o n d i t i o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 63 The teachers seated the c h i l d r e n a c c o r d i n g to an a r b i t r a r y s e a t i n g p l a n . The s u b j e c t s were permitted to s i t anywhere in the classroom they d e s i r e d ( l a i s s e z - f a i r e a t t i t u d e ) . The f i v e c o l o u r e d blocks were p l a c e d on .the p u p i l ' s desk as the f i r s t t e s t . They were then followed by c o l o u r e d s t i c k s and tanagrams and f i n a l l y the p i c t u r e completion t e s t . Each set of t e s t m a t e r i a l s was p l a c e d on the p u p i l ' s desk j u s t - p r i o r to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t . The teacher d u r i n g the twenty minute l e s s o n s was to provide the t r a i n i n g f o r f l u e n c y . Fluency. As d e f i n e d by Torrance, f l u e n c y i s the the number of responses given by the s u b j e c t . The task of f l u e n c y a l l o w s any design r e g a r d l e s s of whether i t was a repeated design or not. Teaching S t r a t e g y : (Parker, 1984) 1. Here are f i v e b l o c k s . Put the f i v e b l o c k s together i n any way that s u i t s you. 2. Try to p l a c e the b l o c k s together i n new and d i f f e r e n t ways. 3. The f i v e b l o c ks c o n t a i n f i v e d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s ; can t h i s a f f e c t the arrangement of of the p a t t e r n ? F l e x i b i l i t y . F l e x i b i l i t y was designed as a s h i f t in a t t i t u d e focus or approach. T h i s can be assessed by the number of d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s of responses that have been o u t l i n e d i n the Torrance s c o r i n g manual. In essence, f l e x i b i l i t y i s a s h i f t of category, e.g., the subject 64 switched from the sketching of ca r s to the sketching of a i r p l a n e s . T h i s was i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e i r teacher and the l e a d i n g i n d u c t i v e q u e s t i o n s on the t h e s i s (Parker, 1984). Teaching S t r a t e g y : (Parker, 1984) 1. Here are f i v e b l o c k s . Put them together so that they form a repeating p a t t e r n . 2. Rearrange the blocks such that they make an o b j e c t . O r i g i n a l i t y O r i g i n a l i t y i s d e f i n e d as the breaking out of the box p a t t e r n . T h i s aspect of c r e a t i v i t y was s t r e s s e d by the teacher, e.g., the tepee i n v o l v e s the three aspects of c r e a t i v i t y : f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y . For example, the teacher t e l l s the c l a s s to make other three dimensionsal o b j e c t s such as persons, p l a c e s , or t h i n g s . These o b j e c t s could be a man, an a i r p l a n e , or a c a r . It was apparent that s i n c e each of these p u p i l ' s answers should i n v o l v e a d i f f e r e n t category of reponse, the subject should r e c e i v e a mark of two. Teaching S t r a t e g y : (Parker, 1984) 1. See i f you can b u i l d a house with f i v e b l o c k s . MARKS: Fluency - 1 mark; F l e x i b i l i t y - 2 marks; O r i g i n a l i t y - 2 marks 2. See i f you can b u i l d a tower. T h i s task i n v o l v e d a response (Fluency - 1 mark), no change ( F l e x i b i l i t y - 0 marks), and a new and unusual response ( O r i g i n a l i t y - 2 marks). 6 5 3. Try to c o n s t r u c t d i f f e r e n t b u i l d i n g s using the same f i v e b l o c k s . (Fluency - 1 mark; F l e x i b i l i t y - 0 marks; O r i g i n a l i t y - 2 marks) 4. I would l i k e you t o ' c o n s t r u c t a tepee. Is t h i s tepee a three dimensional s t r u c t u r e ? (Fluency - 1 mark; F l e x i b i l i t y - 0 marks; O r i g i n a l i t y - 2 marks) NOTE: The methodology of the q u e s t i o n s are almost i d e n t i c a l f o r the bl o c k s , s t i c k s , and tanagrams. Fluency, F l e x i b i l i t y and O r i g i n a l i t y The teaching s t r a t e g y f o r the incomplete f i g u r e s i n v o l v e s the same q u e s t i o n s and ped a g o g i c a l techniques as used f o r the blocks and s t i c k s . Teaching S t r a t e g y : (Parker, 1984) 1. Arrange the incomplete f i g u r e s ( F i g u r e 1) i n order that they produce a new and d i f e r e n t o b j e c t , i . e . , person, p l a c e , or t h i n g . 2. Try to produce a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n u s i n g F i g u r e 2. 3. Try to c o n s t r u c t a b u i l d i n g with the same f i g u r e i n a d i f f e r e n t way. The p u p i l s w i l l be given another handout of F i g u r e 2. 4. See i f you can use F i g u r e 4 to c o n s t r u c t an automobile. 5. Construct an antique automobile. Now c o n s t r u c t a sp o r t s c a r . 66 Tanagrams The use of tanagrams i s e x p l a i n e d on page 76 of Dr. S.S. Blank's book The Challenge (Blank, 1982). The teacher i l l u s t r a t e d how tanagrams can be put together i n new and unusual ways. Teaching S t r a t e g y : (Parker, 1984) 1. See i f you can form a p i c t u r e with the tanagram p i e c e s . 2. Use the tanagrams to b u i l d a b r i d g e . 3. Use the tanagrams to . make a number from our numeral system. APPENDIX II DIRECTIONS FOR SCORING THE CIRCLES TEST 68 APPENDIX II DIRECTIONS FOR SCORING THE CIRCLES TEST 2 Fluency The score f o r flu e n c y i s determined simply by counting the number of responses that the subject made; i . e . , the number of o b j e c t s drawn. Do not count the number of c i r c l e s used s i n c e o b j e c t s may have r e q u i r e d two or more c i r c l e s . F l e x i b i l i t y Give one p o i n t for each category r e f e r r e d to by a response ( i f a category appears twice or more - s t i l l count one poi n t f o r i t ) . If a response f i t s two c a t e g o r i e s give p o i n t s f o r each category. CATEGORIES 1. Animals 2. Animal faces 3. Animal p a r t s • . 4. B u i l d i n g s 5. B u i l d i n g p a r t s 6. Candy 7. Clocks and matches 8. Coins 9. Cont a i n e r s 10. Cooking u t e n s i l s 11. Covers of any kind 12. D e c o r a t i o n s 13. Designs 14. Devices - Audio V i s u a l 15. D i a l instruments 16. Flowers 17. F r u i t s 18. F u r n i t u r e 19. Games - p a r t s of 20. Heavenly bodies - a r t i f i c i a l 21. Heavenly bodies - n a t u r a l 22. Household items 23. Humans 24. Humans - fantasy 25. Humans - p a r t s 26. Human faces 27. Human faces - fantasy 2adapted from the Minnesota T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g by E. Paul Torrance (1964). 69 28. Human faces - p a r t s 29. Jewelry 30. K i t c h e n u t e n s i l s 31 . L e t t e r s 32. Mechanical equipment 33. M u s i c a l instruments 34. N a i l s , nuts, b o l t s , e t c . 35. Numbers 36. O p t i c a l instruments 37. P a s t r y 38. P l a n t s - other than flowers and t r e e s 39. School s u p p l i e s 40. Signs 41. Sp o r t s equipment 42. Symbols 43. Tableware 44. T o o l s 45. Toys 46. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n - means of 47. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n - means of (pa r t s ) 48. Trees, p a r t s of t r e e s 49. Vegetables 50. Weapons Or i g i n a l i ty The score f o r o r i g i n a l i t y i s made by cou n t i n g a l l of the responses with the ex c e p t i o n of these: Baloons (only toy baloons) B a l l s Buttons Donuts E a r t h , Moon, or Sun ( e x c l u d i n g models, globes, e t c . ) F r u i t s Human faces ( e x c l u d i n g d e f i n i t e l y e x p r e s s i v e or fantasy f a c e s ) Pans ( e x c l u d i n g pans with some co n t e n t s , such as f r i e d egg) T i r e s Wheels The two examples of g l a s s e s and j a c k - o - l a n t e r n s . In the case that an o r i g i n a l category of response ( b i c y c l e s , babies, numbers, hats, e t c . , i s repeated with l i t t l e or no m o d i f i c a t i o n , a l l repeated responses are not sc o r e d . An example would be the use of c i r c l e s i n c o n s t r u c t i n g the l e t t e r s , "p", "q", and "b", the category of response, l e t t e r s , i s repeated — thus, only the f i r s t response "p" would be regarded as o r i g i n a l . However, i f there i s a s h i f t i n s c r i p t s t y l e , or a change to c a p i t a l i z a t i o n , then a l l the responses are scored. APPENDIX III PICTURE COMPLETION SCORING GUI 71 APPENDIX III PICTURE COMPLETION SCORING GUIDE 3 Fluency The f l u e n c y score f o r P i c t u r e Completion i s obtained by counting the number of f i g u r e s completed. The maximum score i s 10. F l e x i b i l i t y The f l e x i b i l i t y score i s obtained by counting the number of d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s i n t o which the responses f a l l . Both the drawing and the t i t l e must be used i n determining the category. Below i s a l i s t of c a t e g o r i e s that w i l l best f i t approximately 99 per cent of the responses g i v e n . New c a t e g o r i e s should be c r e a t e d f o r responses which cannot be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o any of the c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d here. T h i s may be i n d i c a t e d on the s c o r i n g worksheet by "X1" f o r the f i r s t new category c r e a t e d , "X2" for the second new category, e t c . Rarely should t h i s be necessary, however. (These category numbers accompanying the zero and o n e - c r e d i t o r i g i n a l i t y responses may be entered on the s c o r i n g worksheet at the same time o r i g i n a l i t y weights are determined. The category number of the t w o - c r e d i t responses can then be looked up i n the l i s t below). 1. ACCESSORIES: b r a c e l e t , crown, g l a s s e s , hat, monocle, necklace, purse, e t c . 2. AIRCRAFT: a i r p l a n e s , bombers, j e t s , r o c k e t s , space s h i p s , e t c . 3. ANGELS: other heavenly forms, i n c l u d i n g angel wings 4 . ANIMALS: i n c l u d i n g animal faces and heads: ape, bear, b u l l , camel, c a t , c r o c o d i l e , dog ( i n c l u d i n g s p e c i f i c breeds, such as French Poodle, C o l l i e , e t c . ) , deer, elephant, f r o g , goat, horse, l i o n , mouse, p i g , s n a i l , e t c . 5. ANIMAL TRACKS 3The s c o r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s presented in t h i s appendix were quoted from the D i r e c t i o n s Manual and S c o r i n g Guide F i g u r a l Test Booklet A (1972 R e v i s i o n ) of the Torrance T e s t s of C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g . i 72 6. BALLS: b a s e b a l l , b a s k e t b a l l , beach b a l l , f o o t b a l l , mud b a l l , snow b a l l , e t c . 7. BALLOON: s i n g l y or in bunch 8. BIRD, FOWL: chicken, crane, duck, flamingo, hen, peacock, penguin, sea g u l l , swan, turkey, woodpecker, etc . 9. BOAT: canoe, house boat, s a i l boat, s h i p , e t c . 10. BODY PARTS: bone, ear, eye, f e e t , hands, heart, l i p s , mouth, nose, tongue, e t c . 11. BOOK: s i n g l y or in case, magazines, newspapers, e t c . 12. BOX: i n c l u d i n g packages, g i f t s , presents, e t c . 13. BUILDING: apartment house, bee house, animal house, church, h o t e l , house, o r i e n t a l house, pagoda, temple, e t c . 14. BUILDING MATERIAL: b r i c k , lumber, pipe, stone, e t c . 15. BUILDING, PARTS OF: door, f l o o r , w a l l s , r o o f , window, e t c . 16. CAMPFIRE 17. CANE: candy cane, walking cane, e t c . 18. CAR: automobile, r a c e r , t r a c t o r , truck, e t c . 19. CLOTHING: bathing s u i t , blouse, coat, d r e s s , hat, pants, s h i r t , s h o r t s , s k i r t , e t c . 20. CLOTHES LINE: washday and s i m i l a r uses of c l o t h e s l i n e s 21. CLOUD: any type of c l o u d or c l o u d formation, sky, e t c . 22. CONTAINER: b a r r e l , box, can, hat box, jug, tank, e t c . 23. CROSS: C h r i s t i a n Cross, Red Cross, e t c . 24. DESIGN OR DECORATION: any type of a b s t r a c t design which cannot be i d e n t i f i e d as an ob j e c t , mess, modern a r t , ribbon bow, e t c . 25. EGG: i n c l u d i n g E aster egg, f r i e d egg, egg c h a r a c t e r s such as Humpty Dumpty, e t c . 26. ENTERTAINMENT: c i r c u s , dancer, ringmaster, s i n g e r , e t c . 73 2 7 . FISH AND SEA ANIMALS: gold f i s h , guppies, whale, e t c . 2 8 . FLOWER: ca c t u s , d a i s y , t u l i p , e t c . 2 9 . FOOD: bread ( l o a f ) , cake, candy, donout, hot dog, hamburger,' i c e cream, l o l l i p o p , marshmallow, nuts, sucker, t o a s t , e t c . 3 0 . FOOTWEAR: boots, s l i p p e r s , shoes, e t c . 3 1 . FRUIT: apple, banana, bowl of f r u i t , c h e r r i e s , grapes, lemon, orange, pear, e t c . 3 2 . FURNITURE: bed, c h a i r , desk, t a b l e , TV, e t c . 3 3 . GEOGRAPHY: beach, c l i f f , l a k e , mountain, ocean, r i v e r , volcano, waves, e t c . 3 4 . GEOMETRIC FORMS OR DESIGNS: c i r c l e , cone, • cube, diamond, square, r e c t a n g l e , t r i a n g l e , e t c . 3 5 . HEAVENLY BODY: Big d i p p e r , c o n s t e l l a t i o n , e c l i p s e , moon, s t a r , sun, e t c . 3 6 . HOUSEHOLD ITEMS: bowl, broom, brush, c o f f e e pot, c l o c k , coat rack, d i p p e r , hanger', tea cup, tooth brush, s i l v e r w a r e , e t c . 3 7 . HUMAN BEING, HUMAN FORM: i n c l u d i n g human fa c e s , person, such as M i t c h M i l l e r , Zsa Zsa Gabor, e t c . , cowboy, e t c . 3 8 . INSECT: ants, bee, b e t t l e , bug, b u t t e r f l y , c a t e r p i l l a r , f i r e f l y , f l e a , f l y , p r a y i n g mantis, s p i d e r , t a r a n t u l a , worm, e t c . 3 9 . KITE 4 0 . LADDER 4 1 . LETTERS: of alphabet, s i n g l y or on blocks 4 2 . LIGHT: candle, f l o o d l i g h t , lamp, l a n t e r n , e l e c t r i c l i g h t , magic lamp, e t c . 4 3 . MACHINE: coke machine, robot, reducing machine, e t c . 4 4 . MUSIC: band instruments, b e l l s , cymbal, drum, harp, music stand, musical notes, piano, t r e b l e c l e f , v i o l i n , stem of v i o l i n , w h i s t l e , e t c . 4 5 . NUMERALS: s i n g l y or on b l o c k s 74 46. OFFICE AND SCHOOL SUPPLIES: envelope, paper, paper-weight, paper c l i p , notebook, e t c . 47. PLANT: grass , shrubbery, e t c . 48. RECREATION: f i s h i n g p o l e , t e n n i s , F e r r i s wheel, s l i d e , swing, s u r f board, r o l l e r c o a s t e r , swimming p o o l , s k i jump, e t c . 49. ROAD AND ROAD SYSTEM: b r i d g e , highway, road, road map, t u r n p i k e , e t c . 50. ROOM OR PART OF ROOM: f l o o r , corner of room, w a l l , e t c . 51. SHELTER (not house): farm shed, fox h o l e , t e n t , tepee, etc . 52. SNOWMAN 53. SOUND: radar waves, r a d i o sound waves, tuning f o r k , etc . 54. SPACE: space man, l a u n c h i n g pad, rocket man, e t c . 55. SPORTS: b a s e b a l l diamond, goal post, race, race t r a c k , etc . 56. STICK MAN (see HUMAN FORM: do not use a new category) 57. SUN AND OTHER PLANETS (see HEAVENLY BODIES, not a new category) 58. SUPERNATURAL BEINGS: A l a d d i n , d e v i l , ghost, D r a c u l a , f a i r y , H e r c u l e s , monster, outerspace c r e a t u r e , witch, e t c . 59. SURFACE TRANSPORTATION (see CAR: not a new category) 60. SYMBOL: badge, f l a g , q u e s t i o n mark, peace symbol, e t c . 61. TIMER: sand c l o c k , hour g l a s s , s u n d i a l , e t c . 62. TOOL: axe, claw hammer, hammer, rake, e t c . 63. TOY: jack-in-box, puppet, r o c k i n g horse, yo-yo, e t c . 64. TREE: A l l kinds of t r e e s , Christmas t r e e , h o l l y t r e e , etc . 65. UMBRELLA 75 66. WEATHER: l i g h t n i n g , r a i n , rainbow, r a i n drops, snow storm, tornado, e t c . 67. WEAPON: bow and arrow, cannon, gun, r i f l e , s l i n g s h o t , e t c . 68. WHEELS: inner tube, t i r e , c a r t wheel, wheel, e t c . O r i g i n a l i t y The guide f o r s c o r i n g o r i g i n a l i t y i s based on a t a b u l a t i o n of the responses submitted by 500 s u b j e c t s from kindergarten through c o l l e g e . A separate guide has been prepared for each of the ten f i g u r e s , s i n c e each tends to e l i c i t d i f f e r e n t common responses. Zero and one-point responses are l i s t e d below. A l l other responses showing imagination and c r e a t i v e s t r e n g t h w i l l be awarded two p o i n t s . To f a c i l i t a t e s c o r i n g for f l e x i b i l i t y , the category number has been p l a c e d i n parentheses at the l e f t of each response. 76 Fi g u r e 1 Zero p o i n t s (5% or more of responses) (24) A b s t r a c t design without, meaningful t i t l e (8) B i r d . . (37) Face or head (10) Heart ( i n c l u d e s v a l e n t i n e ) (37) Man ( e a r t h ) , i n c l u d e s boy One p o i n t (2% to 4.99%) (31) Apple(s) (21) Cloud (10) Eyebrows (1) G l a s s e s , eye (37) G i r l or woman (10) L i p s , mouth (58) Man (Mars, e t c.) (58) Monster Two p o i n t s ( l e s s than 2% of responses) Other responses showing c r e a t i v e s t r e n g t h . Look up category i n l i s t . 77 Fi g u r e 2 Zero p o i n t s (5% or more of responses) (24) A b s t r a c t d e sign without meaningful t i t l e (67) S l i n g s h o t (64) Trees One p o i n t (2% to. 4.99%) (37) Face (human) (28) Flower (37) G i r l (13) House (37) Man (boy) (37) Woman ( g i r l ) (60) Word (symbol, number, l e t t e r , e t c . ) Two p o i n t s ( l e s s than 2% of responses) Other responses showing c r e a t i v e s t r e n g t h . Determine category from l i s t . 78 Figure 3 Zero p o i n t s (5% or more of responses) (24) A b s t r a c t design without meaningful t i t l e (37) Face(s) One p o i n t (2% to 4.99%) (4) Animal (face or t o t a l ) (67) Bow and arrow (37) Boy (man) (37) G i r l (woman) (37) Man (boy, i n c l u d i n g s t i c k men) (35) Moon (48) S l i d i n g board (53) Sound waves Two p o i n t s ( l e s s than 2% of responses) Other responses showing c r e a t i v e s t r e n g t h . Look up c a t e g o r i e s in l i s t . \ F i g u r e 4 Zero p o i n t s (5% or more of responses) (24) A b s t r a c t design without meaningful t i t l e (4) Animal ( u n s p e c i f i e d ) (37) Face (37) Man's face (4) S n a i l One p o i n t (2% to 4.99%) (37) Body (man) (4) Cat (8) Duck (27) F i s h (37) G i r l (woman) (10) H a i r (37) Man (58) Monster (ghost, e t c .) (10) Nose (4) Snake (33) Water (waves, p o o l , e t c . ) (38) Worm Two p o i n t s ( l e s s than 2% of responses) Other responses r e q u i r i n g c r e a t i v e s t r e n g t h . Check l i s t f o r c a t e g o r i e s . F i g u r e 5 Zero p o i n t s (5% or more of responses) (24) A b s t r a c t design without meaningful t i t l e (9) Boat (or h u l l ) (9) Boat ( s a i l ) (36) Bowl (34) C i r c l e (37) Face or head One p o i n t (2% to 4.99%) (25) Egg(s) (48) Hammock (33) Mountains (10) Mouth (10) Smile ( l i p s ) (33) V a l l e y (33) Water (stream, p o o l , l a k e , wave, e t c . ) Two p o i n t s ( l e s s than 2% of responses) Other responses r e q u i r i n g c r e a t i v e s t r e n g t h . Look up c a t e g o r i e s i n l i s t . 81 F i g u r e 6 Zero p o i n t s (5% or more of responses) (24) A b s t r a c t design without meaningful t i t l e (37) Face (66) L i g h n i n g (15) Steps ( s t a i r c a s e ) One p o i n t (2% to 4.99%) (32) C h a i r (37) G i r l (woman) (37) Man (boy) (37) Man s k a t i n g (64) Tree Two p o i n t s ( l e s s than 2% of responses) Other responses r e q u i r i n g c r e a t i v e s t r e n g t h . Determine category from l i s t . F i g u r e 7 Zero p o i n t s (5% or more of responses) (24) A b s t r a c t design without meaningful t i t l e (18) C a r r i a g e (buggy) (60) Question mark(s) (4) Snake One p o i n t (2% to 4.99%) (18) Auto (37) Body (human) (36) Dipper (37) Face (36) Hook (36) Key (1) Pipe (smoker's) (62) S i c k l e (36) Spoon, dipper (60) Word ( l e t t e r , symbol, number) Two p o i n t s ( l e s s than 2% of responses) Other responses r e q u i r i n g c r e a t i v e s t r e n g t h . Look up c a t e g o r i e s i n l i s t . F i g u r e 8 Zero p o i n t s (5% or more of responses) (24) A b s t r a c t design without meaningful t i t l e (37) Man (head and body) (37) Man, men ( s t i c k ) One p o i n t (2% to 4.99%) (19) Dress (37) Face (37) G i r l (58) Monster (ghost) (67) S h i e l d (medieval, etc.) (64) Tree Two p o i n t s ( l e s s than 2% of responses) Other responses r e q u i r i n g c r e a t i v e s t r e n g t h . Look up c a t e g o r i e s i n l i s t . F i g u r e 9 Zero p o i n t s (5% or more of responses) (24) A b s t r a c t design without meaningful t i t l e (33) Mountain(s) (37) Nun (8) Owl (4) Rabbit (2) Rocket One p o i n t (2% to 4.99%) (4) Cat (4) Dog, dog face (37) Face (37) Man (33) Volcano (60) Word (number, symbol, l e t t e r s ) Two p o i n t s ( l e s s than 2% of responses) Other responses r e q u i r i n g c r e a t i v e s t r e n g t h . Check l i s t f o r c a t e g o r i e s . 85 Fi g u r e 10 Zero p o i n t s (5% or more of responses) (24) A b s t r a c t design without meaningful t i t l e (4) Anteater (8) Duck (37) Face (human) (37) Face (mouth and nose only) (64) Tree(s) One p o i n t (2% to 4.99%) (3) Angel (8) B i r d (4) Dog (37) F i g u r e (human) (37) G i r l (10) Nose (part of face) (8) Woody Woodpecker Two p o i n t s ( l e s s than 2% of responses) Other responses showing c r e a t i v e s t r e n g t h . Look up c a t e g o r i e s i n l i s t . 

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