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The Native Brotherhood of British Columbia 1931-1950 : a new phase in native political organization O’Donnell, Jacqueline Patricia 1985

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THE  NATIVE A NEW  BROTHERHOOD OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA PHASE  IN NATIVE  1931-1950:  P O L I T I C A L ORGANIZATION  by  JACQUELINE B.A.,  A THESIS THE  Wilfrid  P.  0'DONNELL  Laurier  SUBMITTED  University,  IN PARTIAL  REQUIREMENTS  FOR  MASTER  OF  1983  FULFILLMENT  THE DEGREE  OF  ARTS  in THE  FACULTY  OF GRADUATE  Department  We  accept to  THE  this  of  UNIVERSITY  OF  June ©Jacqueline  History  thesis  t h e 'feqyixr-@4  STUDIES  as  conforming  standard  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1985  P. O ' D o n n e l l ,  1985  OF  In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  QUIV-KV*^  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956  Main M a l l  Van couve r, Canada V6T  1Y3  Date r ^ g ^  y> l&a  ii  Abstract  The and  purpose  activities  during  prior  dary  1931-1950  to native  t o and d u r i n g In  preparing  sources  this  thesis  in British  native  organizations.  the claims  Proceedings the  years  newspaper purposes  of the A l l i e d  appointed  Tribes,  Joint  was  specific submit-  as t h e Minutes  which  convened  during  Act. A  utilized  and  native  f o rthe  study.  composition  of British  yet, despite  and c u l t u r a l  differences  society  Columbia's  the geographic,  d i d develop.  coast  Voice  on  Indian  a report  also  The N a t i v e  of  secon-  i n 1927, t o i n q u i r e  as w e l l  Committee  Two  among  and p e r t a i n e d  organizations.  F o r example,  structure  which  an a b l e  provided  o r i e n t a t i o n of commercial  linguistic,  population social,  to the formation  po-  natives,  catalysts existed of  with-  native  a hierarchical leadership  leadership  fishing  Indian  the province's  important  extra-kin  mic  used  entitled of this  north  Committee  of the Special  organizations in  Joint  I have  focusing  the Indian  diverse,  litical  In a d d i t i o n ,  province  development  works  and  on numerous  1 9 4 6 , 1947 a n d 1948 t o r e v i s e  The is  and a l s o ,  i n the  drawn  the h i s t o r i c a l  Columbia  by t h e S p e c i a l  into  with  I have  Columbia  t h e impediments  organization  period.  the organization  of British  and t o e x p l o r e  this  dealing  i s t o examine  Brotherhood  extra-kin  policy  ted  study  of the Native  the years  incentives  of this  which  base  and t h e econo-  provided  t h e means  i i i  of  transportation  tate  the  other  growth  factors  and  and  to  second,  the  concept  sion  the  1930's.  of  were  pressing  two  the  resources.  One  of  native  hood  phase was  ral  lumbia  native  focused  which  natives.  The in  based  inferior  Pan-Indian  of  in  experience; the  Native  Brother-  geared  aboriginal  rights to  land  establishment  of  marked the  the of  aims  nature.  toward to  represent  in  Depres-  authorities  which  issues  and  the  the  time  Phase  Native  beginning  province.  first  socio-political the  prompted  organizations  1931  for  addition,  third,  the  facili-  Imperial  organization  range  Therefore,  and  to  which  organizations  and  loss  organization  a wider  In  historical  preceded  based  these  Furthermore, on  and  were  their  Columbia  a membership  nization  distinct  elite  organization.  British  of  welfare  a  aboriginal title;  Therefore,  representation. zation  for  necessary  organization.  P r o v i n c i a l , Dominion  and  new  of  an  both  t r i g g e r i n g mechanisms  First,  issue,  natives  of  the  of  organizations  single  compensate  therhood  as  organize.  The hood  success  acted  natives  communication,  The  Bro-  of  a  Brother-  sought p r o v i n c i a l a  relating  native to  p o s i t i o n of objectives  of  the  organigene-  British the  Co-  orga-  iv  Table  of  Contents  Acknowledgement  i  Introduction  ~  .  1  Chapter I  Indian Organizations and Incentives  in British  Columbia:  Impediments  II  The F i r s t Columbia: T r i b e s of  III  The S e c o n d P h a s e o f I n d i a n O r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h Columbia  41  IV  The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h A R e f l e c t i o n of Pan-Indianism  61  V  Conclusion  Phase of I n d i a n O r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h The N i s h g a L a n d C o m m i t t e e and t h e A l l i e d British Columbia  Columbia:  26  75  Bibliography Appendix a) C o n s t i t u t i o n of Columbia  6  79  the  Native  Brotherhood  of  British  82  V  List  of  Tables  Native Indian Language/Dialectic British Columbia  Groups  in  10  VI  List  I  Major  Ethnic  of  D i v i s i o n s Among  Figures  B.C.  Indians  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I w i s h t o t h a n k D r . A r t h u r Ray and D r . P a u l Tennant f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e , a s s i s t a n c e a n d many v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s during the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s thesis.  Jacqueline June  P.  12, 1985  O'Donnell  1  Introduction  Anthropologists, a  great  bia.  deal  Native  cribed  vity.  of information cultures  in detail.  received  only  nuel,  Posluns,  these  authors  dy  of literature  native  have  provided tions mine the As  area  terature these  with  Furthermore,  periods,  war y e a r s  of native  invite  British  three  Columbia  specific impeded  of; first,  of  dur-  o f auhave  organiza-  made  t o exaduring  Pan-Indian  nature.  a relatively re-  thesis will questions: native  elements  and others  Brotherhood  being  bo-  British  a number  i n the present  This  of  organization  has been  their  activity  further research.  by a d d r e s s i n g  within  no a t t e m p t  gaps  study  development  and assess  political  and Patterson. A l l  although  and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Native post  acti-  L a V i o l e t t e , Ma-  and second,  organizations,  of the h i s t o r i c a l  which has  political  the diversity  organization;  specific  des-  contributions t o a small  a comprehensive  native  Colum-  organization i n  Mitchell  examined  o f i n q u i r y , t h e above  gaps  factors  have  compiled  been  history  o f : Drucker,  Kopas,  and p r o v i d e d  specific  immediate a result  t h e works  have  to their  political  made v a l u a b l e  b u t none  overviews  t h e aims  cent  have  1890-1950.  dealt  during  of Indian  culture pertaining to extra-kin  the period  thors  native  have  of British  experiences  one a r e a  Tennant,  f a c t o r s impeding  within ing  Indians  the Indians  attention relates  include  Duff,  of  those  However,  investigating  Columbia  Columbia  about  and h i s t o r i c a l  limited  Studies  British  h i s t o r i a n s and j o u r n a l i s t s  body  of  focus  on  First,  l i -  what  organization?  2  Second, tained and  what  were  to extra-kin  objectives  were ted  they  therhood  Proceedings  second  Columbia  of the Special which  i s the "Native  of inquiry  The f i r s t Joint  Columbia were  and  selec-  to the Native  source  per-  t h e aims  Bro-  and a c t i v i t i e s  Committee  sat during  which  were  1890-1950  and i t s aims  Voice",  what  of British  The d a t e s  t h e scope  two s o u r c e s .  o f Commons  native culture  Brotherhood  i n nature?  to limit  through  House  of the Native  of British  within  organization?. Finally,  Pan-Indian  primarily  lated  the elements  as r e -  i s the Minutes o f t h e Senate  and  and  1946, 1947 a n d 1948 a n d t h e  the o f f i c i a l  newspaper  of the Bro-  therhood. As  early  initiating from  as t h e 1870's  protest  t h e advance  periodic  actions  of white  localized  a relatively  Nishga  Land  Tribes  of British  tial  rights.  House  decided  Tribes. that  British  that  wsa f o r m e d  Columbia  came  claim  Following five  the Indians  the matter  into  Joint  days  be c l o s e d .  Both  of these  of obtaining  Committee  a  set-  aborigi-  the claims  of hearings,  and  of the  t h e Committee  no c l a i m  the decision  of  ini-  o f t h e Senate  into  on a b o r i g n a l t i t l e After  developed  t h e 1890's t h e  f o rthe loss  to inquire  from  i n 1916 t h e A l l i e d  being.  had e s t a b l i s h e d  based  During  and l a t e r  t o compensation  was a p p o i n t e d  Columbia  of time.  were  arising  away  protest  f o r t h e purpose  I n 1927 a S p e c i a l  o f Commons  Allied  of  of their  Valley  by g r i e v a n c e s  to province-wide  o r g a n i z a t i o n s developed  tlement nal  precipitated  short period  Committee  o f t h e Nass  s e t t l e m e n t . The movement  protest  within  Indians  t o the lands  a n d recommended o f t h e Committee,  3  the  Allied  ferred  to  formed.  Tribes as  This  interest  to  The loped  to  native Land  the  many  elite  the  ganization. progression, and  was  as  the  beginning  nizations vince's its of  may  first  factors  as  native elements  ganizations,  for  the  sphere  economic  ticular  historical  of  of  The  deveby  a broad  to  Nishga  Native  a  or-  continuing  membership these  1931  a  language  time  Considering  the  British  that  can  base  basic be  activity  regar-  in  Brotherhood  on  They  the  and  the sig-  experience  of  diverse  did  coast  the  pro-  character  develop.  A  elements of  orga-  of  number within  British  Colum-  of  extra-kin  or-  leadership  structure  and  fishing. British  extra-kin given  development  a hierarchical  commercial  the  included  north  the  native  Columbia,  organizations  facilitated  example  same  political  the  of  province-wide  of  catalysts.  culture  at  which  dominated  single  prior  geography  Yet  were  a  issues  two.  in  physical  served  the  had  i t i s remarkable  population.  traditional These  phase  developed  divisive  native  bia.  ways  one  of  was  Columbia.  formed  formation  of  at  organization.  phase  the  claims  attempt  but  of  organizations  action  Brotherhood  organizations  range  British  re-  Columbia  organizations.  an  contrast,  Native  whereas  In  was  organization  a wider  in  issue  new  British  political  political  Tribes  sharp  representing  province, nals  the  Allied  the  of  on  Indians  single  a multi-purpose  differences ded  were  the  a  aboriginal rights  was  In  1931,  focused  extra-kin  with and  In  Brotherhood  different  initial  deal  and  Native  organization  Committee  group  collapsed.  In  addition,  Columbia  the  natives  par-  4  created nism  a  for  factors  number  acted  native  land  native  title  as  For  in  the  Native  for  of  cerned  with  issues  It  an  was  cial  and  s t i l l  Columbia  political  their  the  aims  fact  of  of  a  acted  phase-two  welfare  and  only  of  the  a  of  phase  a  trig-  the  Native  a l l  conIndians.  economic,  Indians,  were  of  organization,  identity.  which  and  organization  available to  i t was  specific  as  Finally,  native  Other  extinguishment  enlarging  goals  of  development  Columbia.  rights  and  that  the  toward  Indian  organization.  aboriginal title  the  general  opportunities  possessed  despite  geared  t r i g g e r i n g mecha-  Depression  was  the  a  development  lack  prompted the  as and  of  the  British  regarding  the  issue  creation  of  organization  Brotherhood nature,  the  British  maintaining  the  addition,  Brotherhood  Brotherhood  further  province, In  acted  activity  r e s u l t i n g from  the  mechanism  to  example,  claims  that  political  stimuli  organizations.  gering  grievances  extra-tribal  organizations.  one  of  so-  while  The  Native  pan-Indian  provincial  in  organi-  zation . This tical  activity  Chapter to  thesis  and  One  will  causes  bia.  Chapters  tive  political  of  the  lumbia  Nishga and  examined.  in  the  of  will  examine  British focus  on  Columbia the  Pan-Indian  Two  and  Three  Finally,  native  the  period  impediments  to,  factors  The The  Brotherhood  Chapter  of  during  will  Committee,  Native  development  political  organization. Land  the  Three  activity  discuss aims,  will  two  Tribes  British discuss  1890-1945. pertaining  British phases  objectives  Allied of  the  in  and  of  of  Columna-  activities  British  Columbia those  poli-  will  Cobe  theories  of  5  colonialism the  and  Pan-Indian  lumbia.  independence nature  of  the  movements Native  relevant  to  establishing  Brotherhood  of  British  Co-  6  Chapter  One  Indian Organizations in British Impediments and Incentives No  area  population tish  that  Columbia.  sical  and  the  first  dress from  to  issues this  In  part  of  on  velopment  of  discussion  groups  examined.  nisms  Columbia's  Native  begin  by  the  two  main  and  the  cultural  British  and  Chapter  One  encouraged  and  political  from causal  Those  within  will  Columbia,  or  the  be  phy-  this  cultu-  Columbia to  ad-  politi-  attempt of  factors  or  to  British the  organizations.  cultural  were  leaders  facilitated  native  factors  complex  will  that  the  Bri-  native  experience  on  of  native  historical  British  Inter-Mountain  the  despite  particular historical  areas:  of  native  natives  f o r e f r o n t of  scene.  province.  the  Indians  British  the  the  a  organizations  peoples  focusing  the  of  political  extra-kin by  Yet,  Indians  in  as  the  development  Diversity in In  of  lived.  native  been  groups  Finally,  provided  a  the  national  within  organizational  was they  to  have  effective  will  reflection  concern  native  included  this  extra-kin  aspects  i n Canada diverse  diversity,  the  size  culturally  i n which  develop  those  Columbia's  Indian  as  province  activity  tish  was  physical  identify  be  comparable  environment  ral  cal  of  Columbia:  de-  The  differences pertaining  culture  will  of  to then  t r i g g e r i n g mechaexperience  of  Bri-  identified.  Columbia anthropologists Northwest  Coast  usually or  distinguish  Maritime  I n t e r i o r Region."'" T h e s e  areas  Region were  in-  7  habited tures that  by independent  that  s h a r e d many  the groups  found  groups  of people  similarities. within  a given  -operated  or maintained friendly  ing  that  given  within  each  existed  ture.  As a means o f o r g a n i z i n g  and  complex  gists  have  includes  the  native  were  Coola,  were  were  This  location,  ethnic  always c o i s not surprisof ethnic  language  Columbia,  and four  the Haida,  Tsimshian,  (Nootka)  the Inland  and Coast  Tlingit,  division  interior. spoken  on  (Kwakiutl),  Salish.  Athapaskan,  diverse  S i x of these  i n the  Kwawgelth  cul-  anthropoloEach  culture.  divi-  and  t o a very  divisions.  and a s i m i l a r  cul-  d i d n o t mean  corresponded t o the languages  Nuu-chah-nulth  interior  area  a number  in British  on t h e c o a s t  which  culture  this  data pertaining  t e n major  language  found  divisions  coast  population  However,  area  i n geographic  recognized  a common  divisions Those  varying  had developed  relations.  culture  sions  who  Bella  Those  of the  Interior  Salish  2 and  Kootenay.  ther jor  Each  sub-divided dialects.  Indians refer  o f these major  into  In c o n t r a s t  themselves  group"  casionally  with  share  n o common  of language  i s frequently  used,  which  divisions single  to anthropological  recognize  t o the concept  "tribal  groups  ethnic  the later  languages  while  referring  furo r ma-  classifications,  or uniformly  or dialect  used,  c a n be  group.  the term  used The  term  "tribe"  to "clan"  term t o  i soc-  on t h e n o r t h  3  coast  and t o " v i l l a g e "  classificatory fact was  remains immense  system  that  o r "band" i s used  within  and a g r e a t e r  elsewhere.  R e g a r d l e s s o f what  or terminology i s adapted, the  British variety  Columbia  linguistic  of native  languages  diversity a r e spoken  8  here  than  language  in or  the  dialect  clearly  reveals  versity  was  groups  an  and In  British  of  the  Indian  ticular  those  political by  the  was  and  most  group  These who  is  commonly the  the  that  ronment;  within  the  of  this  their  furnished  were  are:  of  by  the  to  or  elaborate  culture  The  a  food  permanently  by  unit  of  shared areas.  house of  life which and  in  was  terms,  group  as  to  Three  general  cultural  traits  were  shared  and  well  its  waters  a  by  as  wealth  an envi-  fisheries  allowed  or  determined  these rich  was of  native  the  peo-  cul-  4 ture.  par-  They  possessed  the  develop  a  social  adapted the  unit  together  heredity,  region  highly  supply  political  i t inhabited,  coastal  teeming  a l l re-  v a r i e t y of  degree  kin  In  who  lineage,  concepts  in villages  by  lived  a  e x p l o i t a t i o n of  economy. stable  this  and  illustrated  resource  the  region  the  who  Indian  of  and  Kinsmen  clan,  province,  Maritime  was  people  di-  diversity  organization.  specific  achieved  geography  of  further  anthropologists  i t assigned  Indians  of  This  orgnizations. the  social  the  today  between  extra-kin  composition,  groups  owned  by  organization  settle  of  population  the  Throughout  rank.  to  native  year.  used  and  ple  growth  fundamental  importance  Pacific  the  listing  diversity.  communication  the  physical  crux  impeding  table  Columbia  linguistic  linguistic  r e f e r r e d to  culture  of  British  province,  the  areal  degree  in  political  the  unit.  found  following  and  dwelling  been  The  social  society  throughout  social  to  Columbia's  gions  but  high  addition  Canada.  groups  furthermore  differing  have  a  of  obstacle  their  of  rest  9  Figure  MAJOR  ETHNIC  Source:  1  D I V I S I O N S AMONG  Duff,  Wilson,  The  B.C.  INDIANS  Impact  o f the White  Man  10  Table  Native  North  Indian  Coast  c  c  c  West/Central Coast  Language/Dialectic  ^Gitksan )Nishga Haida )Tsimshian Haisa  a)  b) O  Coast  Bella Coola Heiltsuk k ) Kwawgelth )Nuu-chah-nulth  in British  Interior  Central and Southern Interior  Comox I s l a n d Cowichan Songish Fraser Halkomelem Sechelt Squamish Semiahmoo Puntlatch  " N o o t k a " has been r e j e c t e d i n the group's t r i b a l council. spelling  Groups  Northern  a  South  1  "Kwawgelth"  more  favour  correct  of  than  Columbia  Tlingit Kaska Tahltan Salteaux Beaver Sekani Slave Carrier Chilcotin Shuswap Lillooet Thompson Okanagan Kootenay  "Nuu-chah-nulth"  by  "Kwakiutl".  G i t k s a n , N i s h g a , T s i m s h i a n , whom a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s l a b e l " T s i m s h i a n " a r e p e r c e i v e d as s e p a r a t e g r o u p s by their members.  as  Source: Paul Tennant, "Native Indian P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n B.C., 1900-1969: A Response t o I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m "  in  11  groups tions  throughout  the coastal  region,  e x i s t i n g between geographic  social ship;  unit  defined  second,  transmission wealth;  according  a social  third,  localities;  based  and p r i v i l e g e ,  autonomous  k i n groups  slight first,  to a recognized  organization  of status  but with  modificawas  principle  upon  placing  the  by  basic  of  Kin-  hereditary  stress  organized  a  on  material  either  a  ma-  5  trilineal,'patrilineal coast  groups  trilineal female  distinct  descent,  line.*'  categories structure were  were  that  Within  i n which each  i s ,kinship  commoners  one  line  of descent.  i n recognizing  k i n groups,  of nobles,  not large  or b i l a t e r a l  chief  based  ties  were  traced  members  were  divided  and  was  heredity  North  slaves;  with  pre-eminent.  i n d i v i d u a l occupied  a  ma-  through  the  into the  leadership  Since  a precise  up  k i n groups  place  on  a  7  graded tive  scale  groups  of social  rank.  Shifting  of the west/central  coast  to a southern recognized  focus,  na-  bilateral  des-  8 cent  with  a patrilineal  bias,  and t h e r e f o r e  d i d not have d i s -  9 tinct Like  clans, their  villages  nor d i d they  northern  and were  place  neighbours,  similarly  native  also  organized  within  their  groups.  but  rather  ded  families."^ Reflecting this  rank.  into  social  natives  Philip  recognized  Drucker  heredity  by  Drucker:  "From  groups  units  natives  noted  were  based  not d i v i d e d  upon  type  a more  "true  of social  flexible  the degree  of various  the Columbia  importance  these  kin  southern  In the south,  a s much  coastal  heredity.  settled  into  clans,  kinship"  or  exten-  organization  assignment  areas.  in  independent  of importance  to the S t r a i t s  on  of  placed  According  of Georgia  the  social upon  to  the  basis  12  of  status  redity  was  was  stressed  There groups  a n d more cultural  f o r native  much  winters  more  time  although  differences region  Existence  groups.  In a d d i t i o n ,  i n the i n t e r i o r  gible  on  the hunting  the coast,  was  and those  were  of the  Inter-  was  t o those long  1 1  native  much  of the  and  severe,  h a d t o be e x p e n d e d  of land  of major  northward."  between  In c o n t r a s t  and energy  o f he-  i n the i n t e r i o r  the a d v e r s i t i e s of the environment  food.  the fact  as one p r o c e e d s  or Coastal  or I n t e r i o r region.  region,  thus  with  more  were major  difficult  coastal and  as i n t h e s o u t h  of the Maritime  -Mountain more  t h e same  in  coping  and i n t h e quest f o r mammals,  importance  which  i n the  was  negli-  interior,  12  13 and  as a r e s u l t  result cial  of these  structure  coastal by  interior  environmental of interior  groups.  social  through  natives  Rank  equality,  were nomadic  and economic  natives  and c l a s s  was  i n d i v i d u a l achievement,  simpler  than  were  and l e a d e r s h i p rather  As  differences,  distinctions  and p r e s t i g e  hunters.  than  a  the so-  that  of  characterized were  attained  by h e r e d i t y  and  wealth. In and  cultural  clearly in  summary,  differences  indicate  composition.  organizations ter  will  ment .  the geographic,  focus  that  among  the native  the total  Yet, despite d i d develop.  upon p r o v i d i n g  was  diversity,  following  social,  groups  population  this  The  linguistic,  i n the  extremely  native  sections  an e x p l a n a t i o n  political province diverse  extra-kin  of this  for this  chap-  develop-  13  Traditional Factors Pertaining Native Organizations There the  are  two  catalysts that  anization These  in  the  factors  traditional  both  the  stem  hierarchical mercial posed  to As  tinct  to  Tlingit ments modern  a  and  from  the  nature  of  applied  of  coast  native  organization  adaptable  chiefs  accorded  in to  their  deference  to  these  factors  orga-  society. because  culture.  economic  or-  1931.  social  coast  society  the  focus  The on  com-  favourably  by  structure  Tsimshian,  this the  within  and  extra-kin  1909  native  been  dis-  organization.  of  Inherent  have  north  the  native  extra-kin  to  traditional  to  with  of  seem  period  pre-contact  organizations  lineage  were  of  during  combined  easily  extra-kin  f a c t o r s which formation  been  divisions.  were  Formation  hierarchical leadership  social  ethnic  the  o r i e n t a t i o n of  north  formation  the  importance, tions  made  noted,  which  has  leadership  the  the  economic  directly  fishing  the  coast  r e l a t e d to  The they  to  north  and  term  important  led  nization  to  was  Haida  structure  leadership  north  coast  disand  were  ele-  patterns  society.  heirs  held  other  members  of Of  privileged posiof  their  kin  15 group  and  cally  possessed  them taint  as of  the  village. a  leaders. slave  leadership  number For  of  traits  a  in his are  members  status  example,  ancestry  status  These  of  traits  chief  had  native  in  typi-  which  distinguished  to  born  past."'"*' O t h e r  outlined  nobility  the  be key  with  no  features  of  following  passage.  C h i e f s s h o u l d be a b l e l e a d e r s , g o o d s p e a k e r s , h a u g h t y and p r o u d b e f o r e s t r a n g e r s , and humble and generous t o w a r d t r i b e s m e n . T h e i d e a l l e a d e r was an a b l e organ i z e r and s p e a k e r , and a m o d e l o f g o o d t a s t e and  14  c o n d u c t . A b o v e a l l , a c h i e f m u s t b e a b l e t o command w e a l t h and t o d i s t r i b u t e i t t o t h e b e n e f i t o f h i s tribesmen.17  While  the concept  structure  which  of hereditary  was  rank  produced  characteristically  of society,  leadership  distinguishable  other  members  i t d i d not produce  crats  who  exploited  i n d i v i d u a l s of lower  chief  was  a kinsman  t o other  members  a  a class  birth.  The  of h i s s o c i a l  from  of  aristo-  north unit;  coast they  18 were  his relatives Chiefs  body  o f men  roles  with  t o become  reditary north  chiefs  coast  as t h e i r  pand  their  leaders  for of  leaders  This  resource  to initiate  aboriginal rights of l i f e  leadership  explains  extra-kin  that  region.  area  i n which  could  be  changing  people.  chiefs  as  within  men  as  t o exand  administra-  progression  for a  the absence that  d i d not f i r s t  of hereditary their  better of such  a  probably  develop i n  the north  t o adapt  he-  f o r the protection  i n the i n t e r i o r  structure  today,  spokesmen  t o work  I t was  to the i n t e r i o r ,  enabling  world.  and a l s o  these  a logical  to fight  their  and r e s p e c t ,  Also,  i t was  organizations  the p o l i t i c a l  modern  areas,  structure  In c o n t r a s t  expanded,  t o become  organizations  for their  allowed  organizations. 19  Even  leaders  recognition  chiefs  to the land  hierarchical why  and r e s p e c t e d  an e x i s t i n g  t o expand  organizations.  capabilities  extra-kin  comprised  of influence  continued  as h e r e d i t a r y  of k i n group  condition  o f modern  are recognized  o f modern  chiefs  system  the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  influential  role  subjects.  the t r a d i t i o n a l  society.  well  tors  from  not h i s  coast  was  leaders  role  to a  an  15  In fishing  addition  to a hierarchical leadership,  on t h e n o r t h  development  coast  of extra-kin Indians  by n a t i v e s ,  organizations.  ing  to coastal  ric  relationship to the industry.  settlement,  many  traditional  economic  provided  was  features base  and s t i l l  a base  f o rthe  The i m p o r t a n c e  i s based  With  commercial  upon  t h e coming  of  their of  fishhisto-  European  of traditional  society  changed.  The  of subsistence  hunting  and f i s h i n g  no  20 longer  existed,  fishing. ing  was  fishing  having  F o r example, salmon was  gill  been  the primary  netting  distinct  partly  from  replaced  mode  on r i v e r  by  of early  estuaries.  commercial commercial This  fish-  method o f  lized large  techniques which u t i 21 weirs, t r a p s , spears and r e e f n e t t i n g . Furthermore, a p o r t i o n of native commercial fishermen d i d not f i s h i n  their  ancestral  areas,  the t r a d i t i o n a l  but rather  i n zones  i n close  proximity  to  22 the  canneries.  with  Although  the exception  greater  continuity  industries  fishing  dian  employment.  fish  and f i l l i n g  straight  lived tive  past  natives. was  with they  which  a cannery, were  often  than  native  on an a s s e m b l y  fishermen  commercial  one o f t h e most  were  built  d i d other  around  under  boats  upon  resource  commer-  areas  of In-  cleaning  paid  either  workers  the actual  worked  cannery  dependent  and were Cannery  entailed  period  important  line  changed,  fishing  women w o r k e d  basis.  generally using  practices  In the post-1870  In canneries, cans  fishing  practices 23  wages o r on a p i e c e - w o r k  commercial  thermore,  with  industry 24  i n shacks  contract  of the f u r trade,  employing  cial  traditional  often 25  plant.  some  form o f  and equipment.  advances  Na-  from t h e  Fur-  16  cannery  store  t o purchase  goods  required during  the fishing sea-  26 son.  Independent  native  boats,  became  numerous  to  more  1923, n a t i v e s  mediate  consumption  Dominion  number this ber  fishing.  licenses  were  only  they  made  were  their  t h e 1920's fish  unable  status  t o secure  to natives  own b o a t s  own  powered  and 1930's.  on t h e i r  i n 1923, salmon,  their  i n order  owning  of their  available  independence,  of stratagems  catch  However,  o f ' n a t i v e s owning  growing  during  and because  government,  commercial ing  could  fishermen,  Prior  reserves  f o rim-  as wards  of the  licenses for  h e r r i n g and s e i n -  and as a r e s u l t t h e 27  increased.  canneries  continued  to retain  the loyalty  Despite  t o employ  a num-  of a core of  28 fishermen. nery  worker  tence  try  North  that  and f i s h i n g  growth  now  able  With  t h e advent  travel seasons  fishermen  rather  of native commercial  with  As a r e s u l t  o f communication, until  the excep-  resource  indus-  than  f o r themselves.  fishing  f a c i l i t a t e d the  of larger  and communicate of the year.  powered  with  Thus,  of a scattered native  the developments  t o lessen the significance  people north  o f modern  coast  villages  Indian  populaorga-  technology 29  features.  n a t i v e s were  of other  trans-  collective  of geographic  boats,  can-  unse-  o f an e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n , namely,  impeded  were  still  or  subsis-  remained  f u n c t i o n i n g i n a modern  and communication.  was  connection  f o r l a r g e companies  aspects  fisherman  a modification of the traditional  and the slowness  nization  of a commercial  n a t i v e s were  were  and success  portation  a n d work  but the h i s t o r i c a l  coast  they  Two  tion  entailed  lifestyle,  vered. tion  The l i f e  able to during a l l  fishermen  17  possessed ized  t h e key t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication  vessels.  greater  Furthermore,  command  after  of the English  the turn  language  -.motor-  of the century,  provided  a  the potential 30  for  communication  initiation  among d i f f e r i n g  of the f i r s t  language  Duncan  i n 1857, m i s s i o n a r i e s  taught  English  an  emergence  command  to British  Columbia  wered  boats  i n their  north  coast  were  other  c o a s t a l communities,  base  f o r an e x t r a - k i n  use  of telephones,  the  means t h a t  of  to travel  were  essential  twentieth  taining  north  t o the development  hierarchical north  century  leadership  coast  as t h e t r i g g e r i n g  These  will  now b e  1930, t h e r e with  a  were  sufficient  In a time  commercial  with  period  f o r the recruitment  coast  of the  natives of  before  the  possessed  and  cohesion  orientation of  s o c i e t y was  of native  po-  membership  fishermen  t h e economic  with  fishermen  an i d e a l  was  a factor  per-  o r g a n i z a t i o n . While the  s t r u c t u r e and t h e economic o r i e n t a t i o n  s o c i e t y made  acted  By  Indians  Mr.  systematically  the commercial  and thus  coast  have  a c t i o n . Furthermore,  organization.  north  Since the  by t h e m i s s i o n a r y  and communicate  an o r g a n i z a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y  early  of  possession,  groups.  Indians.  of adult  forpolitical  able  classes  and t e a c h e r s  of a generation  of English  language  organization p o s s i b l e , other  mechanisms  examined.  prompting  natives  factors  to action.  18  Historical  Development  European the  last  Company  Chief  Governor  without  though  at Fort  authorities title,  title  century  when  James  h i s company  adopting  an  was  became  Under  policy  British  vested  Bay  I n 1851, t h e  Douglas,  Indian  until  t h e Hudson's  position.  the usual  to the land  Policy  Columbia  the area.  Victoria,  pursued  Indian  in British  for colonizing  relinquishing  Indian  absolute  d i d not occur  a grant  Factor  the c o l o n i a l  knowledged  Columbia's  of the eighteenth  given  Company's  las  contact  quarter was  of British  Doug-  which  view  ac-  that a l -  i n t h e Crown,  Indi-  31 ans  owned  Douglas  proprietory rights.  negotiated  northeastern treaties vince  into  Due  Treaty  i n which  altered. Indian  No  land,  render  of aboriginal  both  al  Government  be  having  the mainland  burdened  with  Island.  treaty  to purchase  Douglas,  Indian  pro-  treaty 32  of  ne-  that  to  h a d t o be purchase  authorized the  a s t h e new  petitioned land.  Bri-  Douglas's  policy  funds  of  n e g o t i a t i o n or the  the B r i t i s h  colonial  These  of the  formal  Indian  and V a n c o u v e r . I s l a n d ,  internal  i n the  the establishment  instituted  I n 1858,  stated that  surrenders  and t h e s e v e r i n g  was  without  office,  participated.  t h e u s e o f Company  title.  f o r funds  and the r e p l y  by  Bay Company  policy  in  quarter  the only  Indians  caused  Colony,  of reserves  of  denied  o f funds  a colonial  confirmation  of the north-east  t h e Hudson's  longer  title  years  of Vancouver  8 i n 1889, were  as a Crown  with  parts  the province's  to a lack  Columbia  connection  No.  his first  of aboriginal  and s o u t h e a s t e r n  and the i n c l u s i o n  gotiations  tish  a series  During  the  sur-  Governor Imperi-  His request  was  taxpayer should not 33 problems. Both the Vancouver  19  House  of  Assembly  and  the  Imperial  Government  argued  that  the  34 provision greement serves lage  of  funds  over  the  without  any  vernment  be  lands.  policy  was  standing lopment native  was tion  who  in of  were  the a  implemented in  1871  The  render  opposed  the  ones.  In  new  on  ability  was  based  after  of  re-  directed that  the  vil-  Columbia between  of  Douglas  satisfy  settlers  with  ignored  the  1870's  t r a n s f e r of stormy  go-  through and  British  and  of  the  provincial  upon  the  fact  that  local  the  1880's.  strong  an  refused  government after  also  to to  deveof  on  oppose  Confederation,  the  supported  land  size  i t  besurthe  of  ex-  officials 37  available.  federal the  any  federal  relations  government  make  au-  Confedera-  the  increase, i n the  Columbian  Indian  politicians  position  It  of  were  existence  to  a  government  With  affairs  treaty.  being  his  Indians  dominion-provincial a  further  question  1864,  provincial 36  Indian  adopted  reserves  response,  and  a  r e s u l t e d i n the  denied  by  the  in  that  This  or  Consolidated  with  and  the idea 35  term,  consequence  retirement  development.  of  Douglas's  deal  federal initiatives  The  disa-  formation  occurring  to  aboriginal title of  This  British  surrender  implemented,  f e d e r a l government  of  Douglas  how  which  period  establishment isting  of  during  and a  was  to  land.  the  throughout  formal  obsessed  way  to  or  led to  result,  Columbia,  the  policy  title  government, gan.  After  funds  defined  conflict  curtailed  thorities  a  responsibility.  Indians.  policy  federal-provincial Indian  and  British  Indian  As  clearly  officials  in  others  p r o v i s i o n of  negotiation  Within shift  the  treaties.  reserves  without  was  lands  plans which  20  Indians  would  surrender  were  legally  vested  i n the provincial  38 Crown.  I n 187 6,  dy  the problems  on  Indian  during  to  find  most  Commission's  vernment,  every the  the  the course Indian  of a l l Indian  new r e s e r v e were  cut-off.  Dominion  this  was  native  lands  land  bands  added  The r e p o r t  recommendations  would  federal-  Commission,  t h e number a n d of the  to testify.  reserves.  acres  of  to  After  I n most  However  o f t h e Commission  three  cases,  87,000  acres  existing  was r a t i f i e d  by  i n 1924. A t t h e t i m e ,  settlement  an e x i s t i n g  visited  and l i s t e n e d  was p u b l i s h e d .  governments  extinct.  t h e Commission  willing  This  become t h e  h a d become  C o l u m b i a . However,  disregarded  interest.  no l o n g e r  a n d 47,000  t h o u g h t t o be t h e f i n a l in British  a joint  completion  i n the province  existing  and P r o v i n c i a l  land  Upon  t h e band  i t s report  were  time,  reversionary  unless  centre  confirmed  governments  administration i n  of s e t t l i n g  of i t s investigation,  of deliberation,  years, 39  was t o b e c o n v e y e d t o t h e D o m i n i o n g o 40  reserve  population  stu-  laid out.  and p r o v i n c i a l  reserves.  to  Committee  forthirty  were  of Indian  the task  Indian  of the province,  both  to  reserves  a Joint  as t h e McKenna-McBride  o f any p r o v i n c i a l  Commission  lands  known  title  surrendered  testimony  years  of  free  that  property  inquiry  active  i n 1913. A t t h i s  and assigned  of the province's  During  was  t o the problems  commission  appointed  meant  Committee  C o l u m b i a was made  governments  by e s t a b l i s h i n g  second attempt by t h e f e d e r a l  -provincial  size  This  lands  of the province's  a solution  British  was  of Indian  Reserves.  which A  a n a t t e m p t was made b y b o t h  of questions the  relating  McKenna-McBride  p r o v i s i o n of the Indian  21  Act  which  the  consent  ethical serves by  stated  of adult  proprieties  land band  In  summary,  cial  government has had  cies  on  the basis  ally  sparked  tish  Columbia  ans.  They  issues  of the  political  with  tossed  reserve  re-  action  title  i n a manner one  were  conveyed  provin-  federal  poli-  reserves.  and c u t - o f f which  the natives  lands  eventu-  of  of Canadian  of t o t a l  level  British  The  and d i s c o n t e n t , regard,  of  as a t r i g g e r -  t r e a t i e s and  the majority  commissions  were  and a c t e d  of aboriginal  In t h i s  from  experience  of opposing  title,  grievances  action.  dealt  reserves  with  of native  organization.  history  are d i f f e r e n t from  were  firstly,  political  a long  Indian  native  were  they  secondly,  of  and e v e n t u a l  only  denial  the size  historical  of aboriginal  t h e two  were  Governmental  dissatisfaction  for extra-kin  Consequently,  reserves  Indians.  caused  the issues  cut-off  i n reducing  the d i s t i n c t  natives  mechanism  as;  be  members.  involved  Columbia  Columbia's  ample,  could  l e d to the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  British  ing  that  disregard.  BriIndiFor ex-  of government t o the established  but never  and  other  disbanded;  transferred;  and f i -  41 nally,  established Despite  tive  population  formed. within to  An  reserves  character  and c o m p o s i t i o n  in British  Columbia,  extra-kin  coast  a  leadership  chieftain  for their  native  the development  were  cut-off.  the diverse  explanation  north  were  formation  society  o f an e x t r a - k i n base  structure  provided  by  factors  of the na-  organizations  lies  i n the fact  existed  which  were that  pertained  organization.  These  a traditional  hierarchical  and the key elements  factors  of transportation  and  22  communication ing.  In  addition  experience nism,  of  of  prompted  Chapter  Two  to  the  prompting  concept so  provided  by  the  economic  sphere  these  two  factors,  the  province's  Indians  aboriginal  to  title  particular  acted  as  organize.  Other  factors,  and  the  a  Depression  development  as  to  relate  commercial  Indians  organizational they  of  and  will  historical  triggering  of be  fish-  mecha-  including  the  the  1930's, a l -  discussed in  specific organizations.  23  Chapter  One  -  Notes  W i l l m o t t , J i l l A. ( e d . ) , The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m bia: A Study-Discussion Text, ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n , 1963), p. 6. 2  Ibid.,  pp.  7-10.  3 Tennant, Paul, "Native Indian P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1900-1969: A Response t o I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m , " B.C. Studies, ( V o l . 55, A u t u m n 1 9 8 2 , pp. 3-49), p.9. 4 Drucker, P h i l i p , C u l t u r e s of the North P a c i f i c Coast, (San F r a n c i s c o : C h a n d l e r P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 9. 5 I b i d . , p . 4 6. W i l l m o t t , J i l l , A. ( e d . ) , The Study-Discussion T e x t , p. 10. 6  bia:  A  7  Drucker,  Philip,  Cultures  of  Indians  the  of  North  British  Pacific  Colum-  Coast,  p.  48. g Drucker, P h i l i p , "Rank, W e a l t h , a n d K i n s h i p i n N o r t h c o a s t S o c i e t y , " i n M c F e a t , Tom, (ed.), Indians of the North P a c i fic C o a s t , ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of W a s h i n g t o n PRess, 1960), p. 141. 9 1  Tennant, 0  Columbia:  Paul,  B.C.  p.  12.  Willmott, J i l l , A., ( e d . ) , The I n d i a n s A S t u d y - D i s c u s s i o n . T e x t , p. 10.  Drucker, P h i l i p , c o a s t S o c i e t y , " i n McFeat, fic C o a s t , p. 143. 1  Studies,  1  of  British  "Rank, W e a l t h a n d K i n s h i p i n N o r t h Tom, (ed.), Indians of the North P a c i -  12 Columbia: British  W i l l m o t t , J i l l , A. A Study D i s c u s s i o n  D u f f , W i l s o n , The Columbia P r o v i n c i a l  ( e d . ) , The I n d i a n s T e x t , p. 10.  of  I m p a c t o f t h e W h i t e Man, Museum, 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 12.  British (Victoria:  14 Columbia: 15  W i l l m o t t , J i l l , A., ( e d . ) , The I n d i a n s A Study-Discussion T e x t , p. 10.  Garfield, ans and T h e i r A r t s , 1966), p. 27.  of  British  V i o l a , and W i n g e r t , P a u l , The T s i m s h i a n Indi( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Press,  24  Ibid. Ibid. "I  o  Drucker,  Philip,  Cultures  of the North  Pacific  Coast,  49 1  9  Ibid.,  p . 50.  20 Native Books,  K n i g h t , R o l f , I n d i a n s a t Work: An I n f o r m a l H i s t o r y o f I n d i a n L a b o u r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( V a n c o u v e r : New S t a r 1 9 7 8 ) , p . 10. 21 I b i d . , P- 11. 22 23 24 25 26  Ibid. Ibid.,  P-  12 .  Ibid.,  P-  10.  Ibid.,  P-  12 .  Ibid.,  P-  78.  27  LaViolette, Forrest E d i a n C u l t u r e s and t h e P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c i n B r i t i s h Columbia, r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1973), p . 138.  (To-  28 Native  Indian 151.  K n i g h t , R o l f , I n d i a n s a t W o r k : An I n f o r m a l H i s t o r y o f I n d i a n L a b o u r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p . 12. 29 LaViolette, F o r r e s t E., The S t r u g g l e f o r S u r v i v a l : C u l t u r e s and t h e P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 30  Tennant,  Paul,  B.C.  Studies,  p. 29.  31 M a d i l l , Dennis, B r i t i s h Columbia Indian T r e a t i e s i n H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e , (Ottawa: Research Branch, Corporate P o l i c y , I n d i a n a n d N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 1 ) , p . 7. 32 I b i d . , p p . 9-32. 33 D r u c k e r , P h i l i p , The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d s : Modern I n t e r t r i b a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , (Washington: U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1958), p. 79. 34 M a d i l l , Dennis, B r i t i s h Columbia Indian T r e a t i e s i n H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e , p. 33.  25  F i s h e r , R o b i n , "Joseph T r u t c h and I n d i a n Land P o l i c y , " i n F r i e s e n , J . , a n d R a l s t o n , H. K., ( e d s ) , H i s t o r i c a l E s s a y s on B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( T o r o n t o : Gage P u b l i s h i n g L t d . , 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 257. 36 Historical 37 Conflicts, -JO  M a d i l l , Dennis, B r i t i s h P e r s p e c t i v e , p . 37.  Columbia  Indian  F r i d e r e s , James, Canada's I n d i a n s : ( T o r o n t o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l o f Canada, Tennant,  Paul,  B.C.  Studies,  p.  Treaties in  Contemporary 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 136.  14.  39 Duff,  (Toronto:  Wilson,  The  Impact  of  the White  Ibid. M c C u l l u m , Hugh a n d K a r m e l , T h i s A n g l i c a n Book C e n t r e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p .  Man,  L a n d i s Not 126.  p.  68.  f o r Sale,  26  Chapter  Two  The F i r s t P h a s e o f I n d i a n N i s h g a L a n d Committee and The first  Indians  extra-kin As  noted,  tified  on  the The  two  basis first  Land  Committee  were  geared  British  Columbia  began  p o l i t i c a l organizations  -1945.  zations.  of  Organization i n B r i t i s h Columbia: The The A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  distinct of  the  phase  phases  aims  and  the  Allied  toward  the  issue  of  of  to  the  time  of  British  the  between  development  objectives  Tribes  develop  i n Canada  of  corresponds  and  to  can  be  these of  the  and  iden-  organiNishga  Columbia,  aboriginal title  1890-  which  native  land  claims.  Phase  One:  The  The were  first  formed  based  upon  as the  tion  of  these  tion  of  the  Aboriginal ritorial but  range  site.  mise  of  Crown, to  be  organizations  expression  concept  of  of  was  of  I t was  clear  of  of  an  the  a  title  . For  was  Prior  land  substantiated  vested  absolute  to  an  being over  fixed  by  the  "a  a  fishing  to  examina-  necessary.  a  title  were  clarifica-  is  group  to  and  as  hunting,  title  Columbia  and  British  identifiable  not  clear  claims  aboriginal title  food-gathering,  acknowledged  land  British  definition  for  which  2  a  i n t e r p r e t e d by  Aboriginal  surrendered  basis  rights  area  native  in  aboriginal t i t l e .  organizations,  occupation yet  Committee  extra-kin  an  title  trapping.""'"  Land  historical  definable  nal  Nishga  wide and  occupatioBritish  land  in  prethe  a b o r i g i n a l t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s which example,  a  conquering  or  ter-  discovering  had  27  nation  could  assert  ginal  peoples  dered  t o t h e Crown.  colonization were was  in  specify  for  their  these  their  society.  intention  by whites.  F o r example,  were  them  of aboriginal  title  of the Proclamation  f o rthe a c q u i s i t i o n of  aside from  the Royal  surren-  o f 1763 d u r i n g t h e  and s e l f - s e r v i n g  to "protect" native  by s e t t i n g  insulate  but the abori-  they  Paternalistic  sought  loyalty  use, and thus  views  a procedure  the Proclamation  guarantee  until  the Proclamation  America,  grounds  the lands,  rights  i n l a w . The b a s i c  hunting  and  white  Under  of North  to effectively  nature,  over  retained property  enshrined  native  sovereignty  vast  peoples  tracts  the "evil"  Proclamation  of land  aspects of  stated:  It i s j u s t and reasonable, and e s s e n t i a l t o our i n t e r e s t , and t h e s e c u r i t y o f our c o l o n i e s , that the sever a l N a t i o n s o r T r i b e s o f I n d i a n s w i t h whom we a r e c o n n e c t e d , a n d who l i v e u n d e r o u r P r o t e c t i o n , s h o u l d n o t be m o l e s t e d o r d i s t u r b e d i n t h e P o s s e s s i o n o f s u c h P a r t s o f our Dominion and T e r r i t o r i e s as, n o t having b e e n c e d e d t o o r p u r c h a s e d b y Us, a r e r e s e r v e d t o them as t h e i r H u n t i n g Ground...3  Thus,  the result  ing  treaties  for  settlement.  aboriginal ence  of  with  aboriginal  T r e a t i e s were  title  major white  vincial  rights,  aboriginal focus  peoples  second,  policy;  supported  land  the existthe concept.  Columbia  due t o : f i r s t ,  t h e development  and t h i r d ,  denying  i n British  grievances  t o acquire  o f mak-  of the principle of  than  actually  claim  was a p r o c e s s  i n order  an e x t e n s i o n  they  rights  of Indian  settlement; Indian  Proclamation  and t h e r e f o r e , r a t h e r  of aboriginal The  the  of the Royal  became  t h e advance  of a distinct  the consequent  Federal-  pro-  28  -Provincial reserve  dispute  allotment.  over  As a r e s u l t  small  portion  areas  of the province  land  of southern  had never  the  century,  the  Nishga  lished claim  been  natives  t o press  over  the loss  cials  who  were  assigned  located  formed.  their  the task  i n only  a  i n other rights  to  the turn of  I t was  o f an  estab-  Indian  aboriginal  rights.  i n the northwest  point  lands.  Indian  and  a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body o f  of their  a focal  to the province's from  around  f o r a settlement  traditional  expelled  natives  Beginning  Valley,  made  territorial  V a l l e y was  had been  of their  the Nishga  their  f o r the loss  1881 t h e Nass  being  Island,  Committee,  t h e government  of the province,  when  Land  o f t h e Nass  t o compensation  opposition  that  extinguished.  tion  of  of treaties  Vancouver  claimed  the Nishga  Since  the recognition of aboriginal t i t l e  of Indian  The f i r s t  policy  homeland  por-  agitation  expression  occurred  i n 1887,  government  offi-  of surveying  and a s s i g n i n g r e -  4 serve gest  land.  and most  Further ders  went  Their  marked  stands  taken  to Victoria  title  ... ans and titl  event  unusual  a c t i o n was  legislators. ginal  •This  the beginning  taken  argument  a n d i s summed  by a n a t i v e  by t h e N i s h g a  i n an a t t e m p t was  o f one o f t h e l o n -  i n 1 8 8 7 , when  to present  based  group  upon  their  i n Canada. their case  the concept  up i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  leato the  of abori-  passage:  From t i m e immemorial, t h e Nass R i v e r N i s h g a I n d i possessed, o c c u p i e d and used t h e Nass R i v e r V a l l e y we h a v e n e v e r c e d e d o r e x t i n g u i s h e d o u r a b o r i g i n a l e. 5  29  It  was  during  the  1890's  Land  Committee.  I t was  tees  consisting  of  Committee  had  In  the  1909,  a  four  the  body  comprised  chiefs  power  the  that  to  Land  Nishga  from  elect  organized of  each  clan.  i t s own  Committee  five  A.  The  E.  Nishga  village  chairman  hired  the  commit-  Nishga and  Land  officers.  O'Meara,  a  6  law-  7 yer,  in  Upon  his  claims nada  order  obtain  a  recommendation,  in  and  the to  bable  that  which  was  have  to  form  the  of  the  drafted a  was in  opinion  Nishga  p e t i t i o n to  Secretary  O'Meara  possessed  a  legal  of  the 1913,  State  main for  knowledge  of  aboriginal  decided the for  of  this  British  to  time law.  their  General  Colonies. the  title.  submit  Governor the  author at  on  Nishga  It  of is  Capro-  Petition  few  natives  The  Nishga  would Petition  stated:  W h i l e we c l a i m t h e r i g h t t o b e c o m p e n s a t e d f o r t h o s e p o r t i o n s o f o u r t e r r i t o r y w h i c h we may agree to surr e n d e r , we c l a i m a s e v e n m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h e r i g h t t o r e s e r v e o t h e r p o r t i o n s p e r m a n e n t l y f o r our use and ben e f i t a n d b e y o n d d o u b t t h e p o r t i o n s w h i c h we d e s i r e s o t o r e s e r v e w o u l d i n c l u d e much o f t h e l a n d w h i c h has b e e n s o l d by t h e province... We c l a i m t h a t o u r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s h a v e b e e n g u a r a n t e e d by P r o c l a m a t i o n s o f K i n g G e o r g e T h i r d and recogn i z e d by A c t s o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f G r e a t B r i t a i n . 9  Upon viewed  by  Affairs.  Duncan Scott  tion  of  quer  Court  mittee  its arrival  Indian  of  conditions  of the to  Scott,  concluded title  his  Ottawa,  Deputy that  would  Canada, Privy  in  with  be  Nishga  Superintendent the to  right  Council.  the  best  way  submit of  appeal  However,  recommendations:  the  Scott  to  P e t i t i o n was General  of  resolve  the  claim to  the  to  the  reIndian quesExche-  Judicial  attached  a  Com-  number  of  30  1. T h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h a l l , b y t h e i r C h i e f s o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , i n a b i n d i n g way, a g r e e , i f t h e C o u r t , o r an a p p e a l , t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l , d e c i d e s t h a t they have a t i t l e t o lands o f t h e P r o v i n c e , t o s u r r e n d e r such t i t l e , r e c e i v i n g from t h e Dominion ben e f i t s t o be g r a n t e d f o r e x t i n g u i s h m e n t of t i t l e i n accordance w i t h p a s t usage o f t h e Crown i n s a t i s f y i n g the Indian c l a i m t o unsurrendered t e r r i t o r i e s , and t o a c c e p t t h e f i n d i n g o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia as approved by t h e Governments o f t h e Dominion and t h e P r o v i n c e as a f u l l a l l o t m e n t o f r e s e r v e l a n d s t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t as p a r t o f t h e compensation. 2. T h a t t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b y g r a n t i n g t h e s a i d r e s e r v e s as a p p r o v e d s h a l l be h e l d t o have s a t i s f i e d a l l claims of the Indians against the Prov i n c e . T h a t t h e r e m a i n n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h a l l be p r o v i ded and t h e c o s t t h e r e o f borne by t h e Government o f the Dominion o f Canada. 3. T h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h a l l b e r e p r e s e n t e d by c o u n s e l , t h a t t h e I n d i a n s s h a l l be r e p r e s e n t e d by c o u n s e l n o m i n a t e d and p a i d by t h e Dominion . 4. T h a t , i n t h e e v e n t o f t h e C o u r t o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i d i n g t h a t t h e I n d i a n s h a v e no t i t l e i n t h e lands o f the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, the p o l i c y of t h e D o m i n i o n t o w a r d t h e I n d i a n s s h a l l be g o v e r n e d by c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t . 10  When -Council, not  their  conditions  cision  i n their  natives'  Petition,  Indians,  riginal  rights  the  elder  was  claim,  support Indian  communicated Committee,  t o proceed.  disallowed favour,  vince's  As  and t h e Land  claim  perspective  Nishga  ment.  c o n d i t i o n s were  t o O'Meara  t o allow  posed  the  these  which  were was  adopted  statesmen  the Nishga opinion,  t h e c l a i m was  the profrom  a de-  From t h e  i n a no w i n situation."'"'''  However,  widely  circulated  as a g e n e r a l  Peter  decided  halted.  an o u t l i n e  mounted,  Order-in-  any b e n e f i t s t o be g a i n e d  therefore  they  In t h e i r  by an  among  statement  of the conditions Kelly,  o f t h e day"  Andrew 12  Paull  the pro-  o f t h e abofor a  settle-  a n d "many o f  recognized the  31  shortcomings  of  local  and  divided individual  grievances  and  in 13  1915  began In  summer, coast to  ted or  1916,  the  of at  at  Allied  joined with  being  heard  by  McKenna-McBride  this  meeting  Senjextee,  were,  Thompson  Tribes  held  i n opposition to  case the  The  a meeting  Nishga  groups  their  work  to.organize  the  Salish  proposed  River  Chilcotin,  Carrier,  Tahlton)  Tsimshian,  Gitskan,  Haida,  the  at and  Bella  and  Coola,  and  (the  Coast  early  north attached also to  groups  Lake  Kutenai,  (the  Cowichan,  the  represen-  Okanagan,  Lillooet,  the  the  other  Court  Interior  from  during  Indian  Couteau,  Columbia.  conditions  Exchequer  Commission.  from  British  i n Vancouver  Coast  the  of  Nishga,  and  Lower  Fra-  14 ser  or  Stalo).  At  tablished  which  sentative  bodies  delegates  from  meetings  and  Executive.  meeting  e l e c t e d i t s own were  each  to  community  provide  a  level,  which  while  an  Executive  officers,  instituted  Consequently,  organization, cal  this  at  were  the  remained  maintaining  Allied  link  Tribes  essentially a  highly  was  no  repre-  village  elected to  communication the  but  Committee formal level.  attend  an  Rather,  general  between  was  es-  village  elite  unorganized  based  at  s t r u c t u r e d and  and  the  lo-  formal  Ex-  15 ecutive. or  In  techniques  for  a d d i t i o n , the for  donations.  Executive expenses  These  members, of  the  Although they  fund  remained  o r g a n i z a t i o n had  raising  donations  to  pay  Nishga  independent  were  attorney's  organization."'" the  except  for  used  no  the to  fees  membership  practice  finance  and  to  of  asking  travel  cover  fees  by  general  6  were i n the  members  of  p u r s u i t of  the  Allied  their  Tribes,  claim.  O'Meara  32  continued port  to  heard the  the  by  ion  act  as  Privy  the  Lord  could  to  their  lawyer  and  Council  asking  that  Judicial  President  be  taken  of  on  Government,  the  in  the  Committee  of  the  Council  Privy  Petition  relayed  the  the  he  forwarded  Nishga  Privy  without  through  1915  the  Petition  Council.  stated  that  advice  Secretary  a  of  of  be  In  no  re-  reply  action  the  State  Domin-  for  the  17 Colonies. on  the  The  encouragement  Committee  would  nal  rights  had  drifted  their  own  of  the  by  the  submitted to  cut-offs  was  12,  report  of  that  1916  which  Act. the  the  by  claim, that  the  issue  1922  possibly  of  Judicial aborigi-  the  Nishga  p r e f e r r i n g to  Bill  by 13  the  and  the  removal  1919, to  fight  the  of  Dominion  between  no  the  of  Indian  the  to  the  the the  addifrom  Dominion Committee's of  lands  the  could  Indians  as  be  stipu-  Columbia  would  be  consent in  Provide  Government  Affairs  47,000  clause  Government Act  of  British  Indians  obtaining  "An  the  that  Government  Indian  neither  implement  consent  of  on  recommending  regarding  entitled  Differences  and  specified  consent of  Commission  moved  the  The  problem  proposed  the  upon  i t s report  arose  without  Indian  1920,  belief  Tribes,  reserves  Problems  the  their  However,  Allied  between  reserves  solution to  tlement  the  the  decide 18  P r o v i n c i a l Government  assurance  March  course  in  McKenna-McBride  acres  However,  "cut-off"  A  O'Meara,  in  9  Columbia  McKenna-McBride  ted  persisted  Columbia.  from  recommendations.  lated  due  the  87,000  reserves. nor  away  still  of  British  1916,  British  tion  in  in  claim."'"  In in  Nishga  of  wan-  obtained. to  the  1919.  On  for the  the  Set-  33  Dominion ing  o f Canada  Indian  Lands  and the Province  and C e r t a i n  Other  of B r i t i s h Indian  Columbia  Affairs  respect-  i n the  said  20 Province" was  was  intended  introduced t o empower  i n t h e House the Governor  ... d o , e x e c u t e , a n d f u l f i l thing necessary... for the f u a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e ing Indian lands and Indian  Shortly sent  a delegation  Members son;  after  Bill  t o Ottawa  of the delegation  Peter  O'Meara.  Kelly;  13 was  Chief  of Liberal  unable  t o stop  Members  the passage  Bill  i n Council to:  introduced,  included:  J . A.  of Parliament  the  Calder; Teit  i n gaining  of B i l l  the A l l i e d  t o oppose Peter  David;  The d e l e g a t i o n , s u c c e e d e d  number  This  every a c t , deed, matter o r l l and f i n a l adjustment o f s a i d Governments r e s p e c t a f f a i r s i n the Province.21  i n order  Basil  o f Commons.  legislation.  George  a n d A.  received  Mathe-  E.  the support  and S e n a t o r s ,  13, w h i c h  Tribes  of a  b u t was royal as-  22 sent  i n July  lied  Tribes  ted  back  ecutive  had l o s t  Although a major  t o the submission  Judicial firmed  o f 1920.  Committee  by  battle  i n Ottawa,  their  of the aboriginal t i t l e  of the Privy  a r e s o l u t i o n passed  Committee  the representatives  Council.  This  o f theA l focus  claim  objective  shif-  to the was  i n 1925 b y t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  stating:  In v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s have p a s s e d O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l c o n f i r m i n g t h e r e p o r t o f t h e Royal C o m m i s s i o n o n I n d i a n s A f f a i r s , we t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h Col u m b i a a r e more t h a n e v e r d e t e r m i n e d t o t a k e s u c h a c t i o n a s may b e n e c e s s a r y i n order that the Indian  conEx-  34  o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a may r e c e i v e j u s t i c e a n d a r e furthermore determined t o e s t a b l i s h the r i g h t s claimed b y them b y a j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y Tribes  C o u n c i l . 23  Finally, bringing  their  i n an a t t e m p t claim  before  t o secure  the Privy  government  Council,  assistance i n  the Allied  Tribes  24 presented tion  a petition  contained  t o Parliament  several  requests,  on June  t h e most  10, 1 9 2 6 . important  The p e t i being:  . . . t h a t s t e p s be t a k e n t o d e f i n e a n d s e t t l e t h e o u t standing i s s u e s between t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s ; t h e Prov i n c e a n d t h e D o m i n i o n ; ( w h a t was m o s t i m p o r t a n t a b o u t d e f i n i n g t h e i s s u e s was a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s were a p a r t y t o n e g o t i a t i o n s t h a t up t o t h a t t i m e h a d a l w a y s t a k e n p l a c e as a two-way a c t i o n b e tween t h e Dominion and t h e p r o v i n c e ) ; . . . t h a t s t e p s be t a k e n f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i n d e p e n dent proceedings o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and enabling t h e m b y s e c u r i n g r e f e r e n c e o f t h e P e t i t i o n now i n H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l and such other independent j u d i c i a l a c t i o n as s h a l l be f o u n d n e c e s s a r y t o s e c u r e judgement o f t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s Privy Council deciding a l l issues involved;' . . . t h a t t h i s P e t i t i o n and a l l r e l a t e d m a t t e r s be r e f e r r e d t o S p e c i a l Committee f o r f u l l consideration.^5  Essentially present the  the A l l i e d  their  reasonable  before c i l .  nature  By r e f e r r i n g  resolve  route  than  "Special  of the claim  court  a reference Joint  land  Government  the issue  public  controversy  f o r i t t o appear the Privy  to a Special  and l e s s  Committee.  o f t h e Senate  to  and demonstrate  an o p p o r t u n i t y  convenient  t o the Judicial  Committee  forum  Empire,  perceived  i n a more  f o rthe opportunity  and t h e need  i n the British  the Indian  the Federal  nally  was a s k i n g  t o an o f f i c i a l  the highest  mittee,  a  case  Tribes  a n d House  CounCom-  to f i expensive  Consequently, o f Commons  35  meeting lied  in  Joint  Tribes  of  Session  British  to  inquire into  Columbia"  was  the  Claims  convened  on  of  the  March  22,  Al1927  26 and  held  sittings  On Deputy  been and  the  the  point  properly  being  Committee  under  the  hearings, of  was  was  to  care  after.  the  annuity  minimize title  Scott's  victory.  against I t was  and  that  tionship  with  the  Finally,  regarding  asserted  that  any  opinion  Judicial  the  was  would  should  the be  there  were  differ-  other  pro-  his  presenta-  extinguishment  of  Indians  the  of  an  Indian  recommendations questioned  positive  i n the  Indians'  demands  Indians  Allied  be  have  expenditures. Tribes  refused.^®  or rela29  jeopardized.  f o r compensation,  might  had  Furthermore,  either  would  had  being  be  Government  that  of  Columbia's 2 8  a l l of  Government  Indians' the  the  main  Columbia  needs  of  to  d i s t i n g u i s h e d as  treaties.  that  The  essential  he  to  i n order 27  British  those  Scott,  asked  that  p o s s i b l e consequences  a l l that  ordinary  Committee  of  Commission  claims  was  Scott's  lack  the  intent of  was  their  which The  of  and  British  his belief  the  by  natives  that  Provincial  compensated  Department  significance  was  situation.  Indians  stated that  6.  Campbell  controversy  testimony  treaties,  their  McKenna-McBride  invalidated  his  stress  s u f f e r e d through  court  the  5 and  Affairs  general  the  payments.  the  and  Indian  4,  Duncan  of  Columbia's of  April  land  Scott  absence  cautioned  of  and  Indian  throughout  esentially  the  the  grasp  British  Scott  of  of  31  General  of  a  the  looked  aboriginal  not  history  between  vinces  day  30,  discrimination against  that  tion  first  emphasized no  ence  March  Superintendent  present  give  the  on  had In  request  were  Scott fully  addition, i t to  go  to  the  36  As present tation  the  an  hearings  oral  was  proceeded,  summary  wordy  and  of  the  A.  E.  O'Meara  documentary  repetitious,  causing  attempted  evidence. the  His  Committee  to presen-  to  be-  31 come e x a s p e r a t e d , Tribes third  case day  terior that  and  caused  and  Indians  question  of  the  the  of  Further  aboriginal  A.  title, the  damage  Mclntyre that  he  were  but  not  to  the  appeared  concerned  hunt  Allied on  Mclntyre  rather with  right  to  represented  T r i b e s d i d not.  Interior  and  D.  Committee  Allied  the  for irrigation  rude.  when Mr.  informed  Indians  the  water  was  i f not  fish  the  In-  stated  with  receiving  and  the  the more  unmoles-  32 ted.  This  Tribes  to  and  testimony  represent  t h e r e f o r e , must The  diminished  and  speak  have  the  authority  for a l l British  influenced  the  concluded  on  Committee  submitted  its final  r e p o r t . The  unanimous  decision  any or  claim to other  the  lands  title...  the  "...the of  matter  6 and  Columbia  should  Allied  Columbia  on  Indians  April  Committee  Petitioners  British  the  Committee.  hearings  that  April  of  have based  now  be  the  Committee  not on  regarded  11  came  the to  the  established aboriginal as  finally  33 closed." tion  of  The the  explanation given  Allied  Tribes claim  by  i s summed  up  for i t s rejec-  i n the  following  statement: . . . T r a d i t i o n f o r m s s o l a r g e a p a r t o f t h e I n d i a n ment a l i t y t h a t i f i n p r e - c o h f e d e r a t i o n days the Indians c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e y h a d an a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e t o t h e l a n d s of the P r o v i n c e , t h e r e would have been t r i b a l r e c o r d s of such b e i n g t r a n s m i t t e d from f a t h e r t o son, e i t h e r b y w o r d o f m o u t h or' i n some o t h e r c u s t o m a r y way...  37  The nition  British  payment  commended in  decision  of Scott's  between the  final  lieu  testimony  Columbia  of treaty  that  o f t h e Committee that  the only  Indians  reflected difference  and other  o f $100,000  o f a n n u i t i e s . The r e p o r t  a year  recog-  existing  Canadian  a n n u i t i e s . As a r e s u l t ,  a grant  a  Indians  was  t h e Committee r e -  be expended  annually  concluded:  I n c o n c l u d i n g , y o u r Committee w o u l d recommend t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n a r r i v e d a t s h o u l d b e made k n o w n a s c o m p l e t e l y as p o s s i b l e t o t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by d i r e c t i o n of the Superintendent General of Indian Aff a i r s , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may b e c o m e a w a r e o f t h e f i n a l i t y o f f i n d i n g s a n d a d v i s e d t h a t no f u n d s s h o u l d be c o n t r i b u t e d by them t o c o n t i n u e f u r t h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a c l a i m w h i c h h a s now b e e n disallowed.35  In  addition  mendment  was made  Parliament from  t o t h e Committee's  passed  Indians  recommendations,  t o the Indian  A c t on March  an a c t m a k i n g  i t an o f f e n s e  i n order  to bring  an I n d i a n  land  an i m p o r t a n t  3 1 . On t h i s  date  to receive claim  am-  funds  against the  36 Government. preted the  The d e c i s i o n  by t h e A l l i e d  organization The  Tribes  formation  of the Nishga  of British  vances  to the governing  group, tives  the Nishga while  Columbia  Land  were  were  defeat  was  inter-  and s h o r t l y  Committee  after  of the majority  T r i b e s was a n a t t e m p t  native  society.  grieHow-  o f one  language  to link  a l l na-  p r o t e s t . Both  as a r e s u l t  and t h e A l l i e d  t o present  was t h e v o i c e  in a unified  developed  Land  attempts  officials  Committee  the A l l i e d  of the province  nizations  as a t o t a l  Committee  disbanded.  Tribes  ever,  of the Special  of British  of these Columbia's  orga-  38  Indian  land  aboriginal mittee  of  policy rights  1927  organizations versity  from  was the  and  again.  However,  a  of  their was hood  of  zations peal, of  as  cast  experience  and  to  Federal to  left well  doubt.  a l l Indians.  and  the  Governments  a  wider  closed,  p o s s i b l y they  aims  and  of  time  Comthese  greater  needed  of  adto  re-  before  attempting  to  organize  native  organizations  provided  Indians  had  operated  pick  attempt  utility  faced  formation  learned  and  how  they  o r g a n i z a t i o n . The  would  settlement  Special Joint  the  Natives  g o v e r n m e n t s . What  large  Columbia  the  the  i n c e n t i v e f o r the  Columiba  these  toward  when  Now  initial  o f f . I t would as  issue  situation  and  administer  British  the  two  British  geared  Therefore,  in  their  these  grievances  how  claims.  were  Government  assess  organizations. vincial  they  pronounced  -group  base  and  up to  goals  where  which  to  a  the  new Pro-  present  had  not  Native  these  achieve  how  of  learned Brother-  early  larger  affected  organi-  mass  the  ap-  lives  39  Chapter  Two  -  Notes  F r i d e r e s , James, Canada's Conflicts, (Toronto: Prentice-Hall 1  Indians: Contemporary of Canada, 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 34.  Ibid.  2  3 4 (Toronto: 5  Ibid.,  p.  McCullum, Anglican Ibid.,  6  Ibid.  7  Ibid,  p.  20. Hugh B oooolk  and Karmel, T h i s Land C e n t r e , 1975), p. 127  i s Not  For  Sale,  129  g M i t c h e l l , D a r c y , Anne, "The A l l i e d T r i b e s o f British C o l u m b i a : A Study i n P r e s s u r e Group B e h a v i o r , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d MA T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , 1 9 7 7 ) , p . 29. Ibid.  9  Ibid.,  An I n d i a n 1974), p. 1  2  p.  3 2.  Manuel, George and Reality, (Toronto: 83. Ibid,  p.  P o s l u n s , M i c h a e l , The F o u r t h W o r l d : C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n , Canada, L t d . ,  84.  Ibid. 14 Columbia:  M i t c h e l l , D a r c y , Anne, "The A l l i e d T r i b e s o f A S t u d y i n P r e s s u r e G r o u p B e h a v i o u r , " p . 38.  British  Drucker, P h i l i p , The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d s : Modern I n t e r t r i b a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , (Washington: U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 16. 1  6  Columbia:  M i t c h e l l , D a r c y , Anne, "The A l l i e d T r i b e s o f A S t u d y i n P r e s s u r e ' G r o u p B e h a v i o u r , " p . 68.  17 Ibid., Ibid.  p.  40.  British  40  19 20 21 22 23 24 An  Indian 25  Ibid.,  p.  Ibid.,  pp.  Ibid.,  p.  Ibid.,  pp.  Ibid.,  p.  64. 41-44. 51. 57-58. 27.  Manuel, George and R e a l i t y , p . 87. Ibid.,  p.  Posluns,  Michael,  The  Fourth  World:  88  26  Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , Report o f the S p e c i a l Committee t h e S e n a t e a n d H o u s e o f Commons t o I n q u i r e i n t o t h e C l a i m s o f the A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, (Ottawa, 1927), 2. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s : S p e c i a l J o i n t C o m m i t t e e , 1927). 27 28 2  9  30 31 32 33 34 35 36  Ibid.  P-  3.  Ibid.  P-  10 .  Ibid.  P-  14 .  Ibid.  p.  77 .  Ibid.  p.  Ibid.  p.  Ibid.  p.  v i i i .  Ibid.  p.  xviii.  Ibid.  p.  xvii.  Ibid,  142. xi .  of p.  41  Chapter  Three  The S e c o n d P h a s e o f I n d i a n O r g a n i z a t i o n Native Brotherhood of B r i t i s h Columbia After bia  in  1927  province  the  a period  formed  tablishment  of  1931  the  For  marked the  range  first  of  a  greater hood. wide of  In  this  claims vince's  hood  and  idea  of  by  new  of  British  i n nature,  Indians the  were  the  before  natives  in  o r g a n i z a t i o n . The Columbia  welfare  by  successor  primary  sole  a  es-  in  and  wider  the  inferior  Griev-  concerned  Native  sought the  important,  and  and  the  of  on  Indians.  affected  Brotherhood  still  the  in native organization.  addressed  the  Although  longer  Colum-  Columbia  which  Native  was  British  organization focused general  The  of  British  phase  position  Native  Adams  Alaska.  had  leaders  other  who  a  two  a A  British  model  of  a  province  Allied  concern  of  a  Brother-  Tribes  aboriginal  Columbia  the  active  conventions  Native  i n the  himself,  later general  The  i d e a was  meeting  was  was  rights  the  pro-  founded  Brotherhood  Alaska  approved accepted  with  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l meeting  of  the  Columbia by  by  Brother-  presented  organization in British  Simpson.  at  citizens.  the  of  relatives  similar  Port and  on  had  attended  forming of  Brotherhood  (Haida),  Adams,  chiefs  nity  a  of  Columbia:  Indians. The  Alfred  of  the  regard,  no  Brotherhood  to  of  Tribes  elapsed  relating  Columbia.  were  years  native  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and  British  the  a  specific  number  Allied  extra-kin political  Native  time,  the  four  beginning  issues  more  of  new  the  socio-political ances,  c o l l a p s e of  in British  the  to  commu-  enthusiasm was  ( 42  scheduled Masset, and of  for  Hartley  adopted British  decisions ing  the  cided cers  mid-December  a  Bay,  resolution to  were  At  made;  purpose  and  be  this  aims  elected  Port  be  held  local  organization's  dition  one  more  actively and  recruit  Chief  Edward  traditional other  new  village  members.  Gamble  native  communities  of  system by  number  of  second  and  thus  in  an  and  Heber both  be  i t was  and  offi-  the  began  Clifton  of  of  rank  forceful  adto  Hartley in  Bay  the  leaders,  visited  to  persuade  them  these  efforts,  the  attempt  de-  estab-  leaders  high  specify-  third,  convention  (Vanarsdale),  Chief  organizational  drafted  to  met  Brotherhood  second,  were  from  Metlakatla  Native  annually;  Kitkatla,  boat,  a  branches  the  only  the  and  organization;  lished."'" A f t e r of  as  delegations  c o n s t i t u t i o n was  the  would  13,  Essington  meeting, a  of  and  December  organize  first,  conventions  would  on  Kitkatla,  Columbia.  that  and  to  2 join  the  zation had  Brotherhood.  slowly  become  Kispiyox, hood  had  first  panding  branches:  reached years  a  a  the  of  example,  Klemtu,  total  of  result  For  Skeena  membership, 3  Indian  Bella  by  Bella,  Crossing  membership  and of  organization's  general  1936  eight  Bella  474  men.  life  organization  The  Kitimat, Brother-  Essentially,  were  and  communities  Coola,  Hazelton.  organi-  the  limited  to  discussion  the exof  problems. In  lyzing  expanded.  Kitwanga,  five  As  addition  the  also  acted  hood  was  to  formation as  a  formed  those of  direct by  a  factors previously  native  organizations,  triggering  group  of  mechanism.  natives  discussed the  The  whose m a j o r  cata-  Depression Native  Brother-  occupation  was  43  commercial of  the  crash  fishing  Depression of  1929  and  whose  prompted  and  the  experiences  their  during  unification.  Depression  which  the  The  followed  early  years  stock  market  h i t the  salmon  4 industry the  very  1920's  fishing vanced sell  hard.  many  craft. by  the  their  In  a d d i t i o n , as  individual These  catches  fishermen  boats  cannery. to  has  were  were  mentioned,  purchasing  usually financed  Consequently, the  been  cannery  fishermen  i n order  that  by  their funds  were a  during own ad-  obligated  percentage  to of  5 their  earnings  Hence,  many  caused  added  plicated there in and  which  an  been  fishermen  fishermen  to  substantiation  1947.  a  founder  Joint  For  for  left  were  into  this of  Committee  example,  poorly  making  of  Gosnell  the  interest. Depression  labour  unrest For  Senate  example, strikes  bag,"  white  while 6  These  i n c e n t i v e needed  by  in his and  com-  fishermen's  catches.  i s provided  Brotherhood, the  the  Indians.  the big  and  extra-kin organization.  position the  when  coast  "holding  out  an  loans  organized  contributed to  unite  for  Furthermore,  for north  of  were  pay  h e a v i l y i n debt  more  number  undoubtedly  to  hardship.  even  Indians  Japanese  Special  a  deducted  were  economic  the  (Nishga),  be  fishermen  matters  had  ditions  could  House  Thomas  by  Indi-  Further Gosnell  testimony of  con-  to  Commons  states:  D u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n t i m e o f 1929 a n d 1930 things were v e r y b a d amongst t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e . The p r o v i n c i a l government i s s u e d r e l i e f t o c i t i z e n s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a n d t h e r e was n o t h i n g a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . . . An I n d i a n e i t h e r h a d t o b e s i c k o r t h e r e h a d t o b e some a m o u n t o f a c t u a l s t a r v a t i o n a n d d e s t i t u t i o n b e f o r e he c o m e s u n d e r r e l i e f ,  the in  44  w h i c h c a l l s f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y $4 a n d some o d d c e n t s . . . a month... D u r i n g o u r i n f o r m a l t a l k s a t t h e c o u n c i l meetings the question of h e l p i n g the Indians came u p . H e n c e , t h e b i r t h o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d started.  While  Indians  therhood,  those  shermen's  union.  unions  on t h e c e n t r a l Indians  f o r decades,  zations  on t h e n o r t h  and t h e i r  limited  Y e t , no a t t e m p t  1914,  when  the f i r s t  coast  had been  through  ions.  coast  their  were  Indian  forming  contact  with  i n white  was  Japanese  started  made  f i of  organi-  fishermen's was  Bro-  an I n d i a n  to the a c t i v i t i e s  a native union  union  organizing the  exposed  membership  t o form  were  7  un-  until  on t h e Skeena R i -  8 ver  b y W.  The  primary  compete  H.  Pierce, prupose  against  collapsed  when  successful  a missionary of this  union  the Japanese. P i e r c e was  union  was  of white-Tsimshian  parentage.  was  fishermen  However,  transferred  t h e Nass  River  Nishga  o r g a n i z a t i o n which 9  continued  number  of years.  union  Native  Fishermen's  southern vers  that  to  that  and Nootka, strike  native  a union.  week  time.  t o another  for quite  the Pacific  throughout  Indians  i n the Pacific  i n the entire  t h e 1936  i n debt.  of. t h e season,  effective  a  Coast  Upon  atR i fishing learning  had fished- a t the  local Coast  Kwakiutl  a  i n 1936 b y t h e  a disastrous strike  heavily  A more  Association,  itself  organized  and  mission.  i n existence  northern  i t t h e s t r o n g e s t and most  shortlived  Fishermen's  after  fishermen  Membership drew  was  Indian  i t was  calling  had l a s t e d  a n d some  the last  Association  making  Association  fishermen  during  form  men's  This  leaving  white  Inlet to  Kwakiutl  Inlet.  season,  Another  to help  Indians  decided  Native  Fisher-  linguistic  group,  native organization  45  The  amalgamation  Fishermen's Columbia native  Association  resulted  protest.  In  men  subject  considered his  farmer, Paull,  the  f o r the  the  who  had  united  the  first  Canadian  consequent  income  Coast  Brotherhood of  time,  that  Pacific  Native  of  British  income  need  Indian commercial  tax.  They  were  fisherman  r e s e r v e s h o u l d be  taxed,  while  a member  support  of  of  the  Allied  a l l coast  the  Indians  fisher-  who  in a  and made  native  tax-free."''"'"  Tribes,  on  united  incensed  native  l o g g e r c o n t i n u e d t o be  tax  for a  the  or  been  the  Native  and  i t discriminatory o f f the  of  imposition  to Canadian  cattleman,  the  and  fishermen  1942,  catches  gain  from  commercial  were  i n 1942,  Andrew  attempted  to  protest  12 against  the  tax.  I t s h o u l d be  Roman  Catholic  in this  Paull  received  strong  hood's  annual  Albert  Bay  Association With Andrew  Paull  support  persuaded  t o become a  predominantly  convention  and  new as  noted  at  Pacific  a branch  of  business  agent,  of  increased  ganized  branches  of  the  Brotherhood  and  also  in  Vancouver  Pacific the to  Coast  f o r the Native  Brotherhood, Ottawa  to  Coast  the  a period  communities,  a petition  to  at  the he  Brothervisited  Fishermen's  additional  the  Native  and  a  and  Brotherhood Paull  Salish  or-  and  small business  Moreover,  for a  funds  expansion.  i n some C o a s t  the  only  organization.  Native  Association  i t possible  the  Brotherhood.  established  organization.  making  present  strength  Fishermen's  was  C r o s s i n g . Next,  entered  Nootka  Protestant  l a b o u r - b a r g a i n i n g arm,  their  Paull  f o r h i s campaign  Skeena  the  that  office  the  treasury  was  transferred  delegation  Government  t o be  i n order  of  the to  sent to  46  oppose  t h e new  wealthier,  income  t a x law. Not o n l y  b u t t h e merger  within  the organization,  ential  representative  tion,  another  Brotherhood ward  factor  was  established making  agency  attitude  was  contributing  a stabilizing  extended  recognition  a labour  f o r Indian  The c a n n i n g  the Brotherhood bargaining  i t a more e f f e c t i v e  the conservative  bargaining.  was  force  fishermen."*"^  t o the growing character  companies  and  influ-  In  addi-  strength  of the  o f i t sa t t i t u d e t o -  recognized  i n the industry  to the organization  arm  that and  such  an  therefore,  as a l e g i t i m a t e b a r -  14 gaining the  agent.  Finally,  Brotherhood  interior were  t o once  to recruit  established During  represented  over  most  therhood  this  gally  the entire  revised  i n the  along  incorporation,  the coast  a result,  1940's coast  Cape  Mudge  up t h e S k e e n a , 15 interior.  step  was  taken  Columbia  with  was  specific  branches  came  as w e l l  Bro-  under t h e  A c t . As a  rights  and  as a  the Native  established  at  t o be  northward  incorporated  Societies  the Brotherhood  organization  when  of  and i n t h e  and t h e other  the organization from  leaders  t w o new  one a t G r e e n v i l l e  i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a n d was  of the B r i t i s h  chartered  travel  allowed  villages  1945 an i m p o r t a n t  requirements of  the early  membership  In  resources  new m e m b e r s . A s  of the Gitksan  scattered  again  on t h e Nass,  Kincolith.  in  increased  result  as a l e -  and o b l i g a -  16 tions.  This  the  methods  and  to attain  goals  from  move  suggests  of the majority recognition  industry  that  the organization  society  as w e l l  and Government  f o r good  as r e s p e c t officials.  was  public  utilizing  relations  f o r i t s aims and  47  Two the  major  Native  The  Committee lishment  which  Brotherhood's  consciousness tives.  events  and  first to  of  revise the  struggle to  clearly event  first  the  Indian  Indian  in  1946  achieve  demonstrate  was  the  occurred  the  were  a  collective  of  Act  second  the  newspaper,  a  special  entitled  was  objecJoint  the  "The  to  Indian  organization's  appointment and  important  estab-  Native  Voice." The  Special Joint  cial  awareness  cond  World  and  native  cation this the  War.  Indian  the  context, and  order  of  They  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  of  interest  in  returned  ways  House  was  participation  of  the  Parliament  Committee's inquiry.  public  veterans  about  Senate  and  Committee  of  to  estblished  reference  to  product  Indians i n the  Canada  world  Commons  the  with  than a  was  much  the  outlined eight  new  so-  more  the  sophisti-  war.  Indian major  Se-  impressive  Special Joint  revise  a  f o l l o w i n g the  war  before  of  Within  Committee Act.  The  categories  include:  t r e a t y r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s band membership the l i a b i l i t y o f I n d i a n s t o pay taxes the enfranchisement of Indians both v o l u n t a r i l y and involuntarily the e l i g i b i l i t y of Indians to vote at Dominion elections t h e e n c r o a c h m e n t o f w h i t e p e r s o n s on I n d i a n r e serves t h e o p e r a t i o n o f I n d i a n day and r e s i d e n t i a l schools any o t h e r m a t t e r o r t h i n g p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e social and e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f I n d i a n s and t h e i r a d v a n c e ment w h i c h , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e C o m m i t t e e , s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e r e v i s e d a c t . 1 7  of  48  The  Special  twenty-two three  Joint members  sessions  presented  by:  of  of  in  during  The  which  the  consisted  House  Parliament  of  from  22  of  1946  to  or  who  Senators  1948.  as  well  as  of  meetings  three  128  witnesses  were  heard  and  over  411  was  Indian  persons the  held  during  Testimony  interested in  Committee  and  convened  representatives  bands;  administration  twelve  Commons  officials;  a s s o c i a t i o n s and  Indian  Indians.  of  Government  organizations, volved  Committee  briefs  in-  condition years  were  re-  18 ceived. the  . Considerable  Committee  well  as  briefs  vernment Indians  and  lining  their  of  the  William  Scaw,  and  Thomas  presented  the  the  by  Rev.  of  a  tone  the  Peter the  for  and  white  as  groups,  relating  on  May  1,  included: of  1947,  Kelly  the  with  general Rev. the  Brotherhood;  of  Brotherhood  Goto  P.  R.  appeared  brief of  Mr.  Guy  they  desired  a l l their  aims  and  Kelly  refer-  Chief  Williams; 19  Brotherhood. the  out-  Kelly,  Brotherhood;  summarizes  Committee.  a  terms  changes  Special Joint  of  witnesses  subjects  Native  Committee the  Proceedings  Indian  Indian  special  and  life.  founder  regarding the  on  by  Committee's  delegation  Gosnell,  sets to  the  of  i n Ottawa  President  statement  and  experts  to  Minutes  statements various  Legislative  Organization  people  by  i n the  representing  response of  to  condition  Committee  Members  Chairman  the  and  delegation  the  lowing  submitted  their  before  Mr.  devoted  officials  A  ence.  was  space  The  fol-  feelings for  native  objectives notes:  of  as  49  ...I t h i n k t h e I n d i a n r e s e r v e s and v i l l a g e s a t one t i m e s e r v e d a f i n e p u r p o s e ; t h e y a c t e d as a p r o t e c t i o n for the people. I b e l i e v e t h e t i m e h a s come when t h e I n d i a n o f t o - d a y has j u s t marched a l i t t l e p a s t t h a t . T h e r e a s o n we a r e s t r e s s i n g s o much t h e n e c e s s i t y o f I n d i a n s a t t e n d i n g t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f t h e l a n d i s so t h a t t h e g r o w i n g g e n e r a t i o n w i l l meet w i t h t h e other c h i l d r e n and w i l l compete w i t h them - i f t h a t t e r m can be u s e d w i t h r e g a r d t o s c h o o l l i f e - and p l a y w i t h them; and w i l l d e v e l o p w i t h them and w i l l t h i n k as t h e y d o a n d s e e a s t h e y d o . A n d a s t h e y g r o w up I t h i n k t h e y w i l l be p r e p a r e d t o t a k e t h e i r p l a c e i n a f a r b e t t e r way than the Indian of to-day...^0  number pic  The  issue  of  Indians  addressed  Committee bers  in  ferred more, the  to by  by  that  good  of  the the  the  as  the  Brotherhood  native  population.  tion  topic  raised of  a  unjust,  of  of  due  country.  that  of  to  Their  the  the  great of  The  income their  had  average 10,000  and lack  objection  of was  family  at  to  the  the  a  of  "voice"  to-  the mem-  organization  five  Given  members,  that,  was  re-  Further-  the  25,000,  approximately  total the  half  the  and  one  which  presentation  was  taxa-  the  position  taxation i n the  substantiated  the  first  informed  Brotherhood  adopted  and  2,000 m a l e  had  time  their  forms  the  2,000 m e m b e r s .  people.  during  other  Kelly  women's  represented  Brotherhood  was  approximately  another  concern times  Peter  auxiliary had  membership  represented  Rev.  province  therefore  number  Indians.  imposition  an  represented  Native  A  and  Sisterhood  population  Brotherhood's  Committee.  Brotherhood  estimating  Brotherhood  Native  organization  standing  native  was  the  by  on  the  natives  affairs a  that  of  was  the  citation  of  the  22 British  principle  thermore,  the  "No  taxation  Brotherhood  based  without their  representation." opposition  on  the  Furwording  50  of  Article  the  13  Dominion  of  the  which  Terms  of  Union  between  British  Columbia  and  stated:  The c h a r g e o f t h e I n d i a n s , and t h e t r u s t e e s h i p and management o f l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r t h e i r use and b e n e f i t s h a l l be assumed by t h e d o m i n i o n g o v e r n m e n t , and a pol i c y as l i b e r a l as t h a t h i t h e r t o p u r s u e d by t h e B r i t i s h Columbia g o v e r n m e n t s h a l l be c o n t i n u e d b y t h e dominion government a f t e r union.23  It  was  concluded  province subject  by  d i d not to  the  pay  r e c e i v e d by  mother's  pension,  they  fairs  of  nities  should  that; other  social be  civil  that  to  first  union,  they  taxpayers,  such  adequate  they  service,  they  should  to  as:  homes  be  taxed  age  f o r the  the  never  same  old  in  be  the  social pensions,  aged;  se-  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the  should  public  natives  r e c e i v e the  a s s i s t a n c e and  third,  because  i f n a t i v e s were  extended  government;  i n the  prior  However,  requested  benefits  cond,  taxes  taxation.  Brotherhood  Brotherhood  be  works  given and  equal  other  af-  opportu-  forms  of  24 employment. Another dressed tion Act  was  that was  the  enfranchisement,  d i d not rights  right  land laws.  to  they As  which  and  wish  I t was  as  the  i t was  give  up  privilege  citizenship  solution,  Brotherhood's  because  desired the  a  their to  role  Indians Indian  vote.  by  i n the  f o r i n the became  ad-  under  and  they the  that  laws  the  here-  "craved"  formulation of  proposed  Indian  citizens.  identity  However,  living  Brotherhood  presentation  organization's convic-  provided  t h e r e f o r e , few  to  f o r the  naturally a  the  enfranchisement.  inadequate  Natives ditary  issue  of  the  those  rights  to  51  citizenship  be  extended  to  Indians,  without  the  necessity  of  25 their  enfranchisement. Further  cused  on  lation  the  New so  system  i n New  stitution  of  1943  full  members, ever,  the made  and  topic  of  96,939  but  not  or  of  and  was  Maoris  the  allotted  were  the  larger  f o l l o w i n g statement  the  support  aboriginal  i n the  choice  body  Their  four  permitted  members  given  by  fo-  Maori  popu-  f o r the i n 26  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n Canada.  retained their  for other  with  enfranchisement  Brotherhood's  representation i n Parliament.  h a l f - c a s t e s were  the  the  system  Maoris  Parliament.  Maoris  the  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n adopted  similar  the  numbered  Zealand  of  Zealand  a  Zealand, had  d i s c u s s i o n on  to  vote  country  of  New  for these  four  at  How-  Rev. New  a l -  in  i n the  large.  voting either 27  the  and  population  members  politic.  regarding  rights  In  Peter  Zealand  with  Kelly  system:  ...some o f t h e m e m b e r s ( M a o r i s ) h a v e r e a c h e d c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n s and one o f them has b e e n k n i g h t e d . T h e y h a v e advanced w o n d e r f u l l y . I would a l s o l i k e t o say t h a t u n d e r t h e c h a l l e n g e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h e y seem t o have t h r i v e d . 2 8  Kelly the  also  Maoris  these  makes and  reference  the  to  increase  of  population  was  the  Maoris  down  to  overall  in their  b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s . For  population  the  population  example,  i n New  "at  Zealand  42,113...;  in  general  one  was  1936  c o n d i t i o n of  as  a  result  time,  in  1874,  47,330,  in  1896  i t rose  to  of the the  82,327  and  29 in  1943  hospital  to  96,939."  care  and  a  This fine  i n c r e a s e was  school  system  attributed which  to  provided  better the  oppor-  52  tunity  of  university  vernment. tee's by  The  Essentially,  attention  comparing  nada's  to  Indians  would  which  elicited  education. of  three  1.  2.  3.  main  of  ry,  with  concluded  this  discussion  was  Federal  dependence  viewed  as  the  Brotherhood's  key  from  brief,  Indians,  by  as  trapped and to the  country of  Ca-  Government. stating  responsibility,  "minors",  Go-  Commit-  condition  the  c a t e g o r i e s of  the  Native  the  ditary  rights.  be  objective  the  backward  the  i n another  with  and  Zealand  drawing  accomplished  strongest response the  was  New  blame  ambivalence,  the  the  that  Canada's  within a  sys-  apathy. the  future  and  Brotherhood  there  was  was  discussion  follows:  . . . t h o s e who w i s h e d t o w i t h d r a w e n t i r e l y f r o m white c i v i l i z a t i o n and l i v e as I n d i a n s under, t h e wardship o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t w i t h , o f c o u r s e , more money a n d more l a n d g r a n t e d them. ...one f a c t i o n w i s h e d t o r e t a i n t h e R e s e r v e s and as f a r a s p o s s i b l e t h e i r o l d a n d s e g r e g a t e d way of l i f e , but w i t h s u f f i c i e n t e d u c a t i o n a l and federal b e n e f i t s t o a l l o w t h e m t o l i v e on a n e c o n o m i c p a r i ty with the whites, "separate but e q u a l " . . . . . . t h o s e who knew t h a t t h e o n l y s a l v a t i o n f o r t h e I n d i a n was e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g t h a t w o u l d p e r m i t h i m t o e n t e r t h e w h i t e c o m m u n i t y as an e q u a l , a n d be a s s i m i l a t e d w i t h i t . ^ O  Members but  been  "wards"  which  Within  had  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and  remain  area  f o r by  Brotherhood  placing  fostered  The  paid  embarrassingly  Brotherhood  political  which  the  n a t i v e s and  Native  the  what  i t to  without  tem  education  Brotherhood  qualification  They of  stood the  firm  Indians  belonged  that  the  third  natives maintain  in their as  to  well  catego-  their  belief  that  as  government  the  here-  " i t should by a l l  53  means  at their  disposal,  bring  a l lIndians  b y way  within  of education  the t h i r d  and o t h e r w i s e  category,  to the  to  realization 31  that  t o every  gard  to specific  the  position  freed that  phic  that  provincial  Indian  broken  employment to attain  third,  that  cations  a  age be  of teachers  be  suggestions  advanced  that  by  found  and t h e poor  regarding  should  they  be  felt as i n  the supervi-  presented years  the casual  Indian  and u n i v e r s i t y  a d h e r e d to.  t h e same  to eighteen  occasioned  second,  school be  should  a n d t h e r e f o r e , come u n d e r  of attendance  solution  Furthermore,  schools  i n s p e c t o r s . Other  high  With r e -  the Brotherhood  jurisdiction.  of parents;  mitted  duty."  and R e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s  i n Indian  the school period  changes,  Day  schools  of provincial that  i s a corresponding  educational  the curriculum  first, the  there  of denominational  other sion  right  children  education;  the i n f e r i o r  condition of native  were;  due  to  geograbe  per-  and qualifi-  educational  32 facilities. were  supported  situation  These by  existing  demands  f o r change  statistical in British  evidence Columbia,  i n the area outlining  of  the  as o f June,  education deplorable  1946. F o r  example: . . . 1 2 , 0 0 0 o r n e a r l y 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e I n d i a n populat i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e 17 y e a r s o f a g e o r u n d e r . I n t h e y e a r 1 9 4 5 - 4 6 o n l y 4,100 I n d i a n c h i l d r e n w e r e e n r o l l e d i n s c h o o l s . . . 1,200 I n d i a n c h i l d r e n w e r e r e c e i v i n g no e d u c a t i o n w h a t s o e v e r . Of t h o s e enrolled, o n l y 87 h a d r e a c h e d G r a d e V I I I , w h i l e 142 w e r e i n G r a d e V I I , 2 6 1 i n G r a d e V I a n d 382 i n G r a d e V. O n l y 24 I n d i a n p u p i l s were r e c e i v i n g h i g h s c h o o l education.33  54  Although nized ans,  as  problems  a major  the  i n the  contributor to  Brotherhood  contributing factor.  for  the  Committee  ans  of  could the  be  made  built  dians, tion  with  demonstrate  the  paid  were  States or  Government more  fixed  also  Indians,  term  natives  of of  equipped  r e p a i d out  Brotherhood in five  communities,' cannery  low  years. Alaska  As  years,  to  In  "had  the  and of  after  by  profits. some the  of  this  very  high  to  rating  in-  the  In-  Informa-  of  these in  United  to  groups  be  paid  as  an  native  economic  for  Government  supported  that  Indi-  which  of  loans  rates,  the  value  the  as  assistance  a d d i t i o n , the  result a  and  States  making  extend  interest a  to  Indi-  comparison  example,  revealed  owners.  agreed  at  up  a  advancements  United  locations,  being  off  the  drew  economic For  recog-  problems  Indians  the  extended  industries.  various  cost  Gosnell  were  c o n d i t i o n of  economic  Columbia  i n Alaska,  canneries  r e c e i v e d by  those  the  at  their  were  to  native  Indians  These  canneries  a  of  British  education  backward  Thomas  Government  of  canneries  $300,000.  ty  i n order  development  vestigation  between  i f a  the  of  a l s o acknowledged  another  Alaska,  domain  of  twen-  back  over  assistance,  productive  In-  34 dians."  The  similar nadian  arrangement Government.  possible along  for  the  beggars; ture  Native  of  the  Brotherhood between  They  same p a t t e r n . they  do  not  a business  British  noted  Canadian  to  the  Government  The  want  requested  to  Indians  the  Columiba  Indians  Committee: to of  deal  institution  "we  with  British  and  the  think  the  a Ca-  i t is  Indians  Columbia  beg; t h e y want s o m e t h i n g 35 proposition." By p o i n t i n g t o t h e  of  are  not  i n the life  of  na-  55  the a  Alaska  similar  Indian, race  consequently The  with  they  other  mittee range  by of  the  of  hood's  stand  of  on  also  aims  reserves, as  their  well  Joint  program  a  a  clearly  toward was  one  as  feelings  the  Native  of  newspaper  informing  activities,  formed  decline third,  were  return  i n the  the  i n need  of  to  shoulder  of  the  activities  newspaper  was  o u t l i n e d on  well  thought  Indians. justice,  The deve-  and  leaders a  dignity.  presentation in  1946  about  of  the  Erother-  articulates of  the  the  Brotherhood  newspaper,  i t was  need.  thousands  of  Indian  veterans;  i n d u s t r y due of  the  the  they  Brotherhood. page  of  could The  the  As  end  Special Joint  i n which  front  to  to  the  urgent  the  the  wide  an  forum of  and  a  Com-  i t became  fishing  a  only  for  natives  printing  appointment of  future  also clearly  that  the  not  establishment  1946  natives  Government  Special Joint  self-worth  the  s p r i n g of first,  the  Brotherhood's  about  and  and  opportunities, educational  time  war;  of  identity.  the  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  some  the  of  people  whites  group  articulated  Committee  and  talked for  cond,  and  to  shoulder  to  a better  had  of;  equal  demonstrate  o b j e c t i v e s . Although  sult  own,  presented  occupational  addition to  Voice",  the  goals  importance  organization's  until  asserting that  dignity  the  Brotherhood  envisioned  Special  "Native  to  Native  of  achievement,  the  stressing  i s s u e s , but  In  economic  feelings  recommendations  they  lopment  was  was  citizens.  statement  future  Brotherhood  achieved had  Indians  The  out  had  Brotherhood  assisting  the  of  not a  resethe  Committee, be  kept  purpose first  of  issue  inthe in  a  56  statement  made  by C h i e f  William  Scow, p r e s i d e n t  of the Native  Brotherhood:  T h r o u g h o u r " N a t i v e V o i c e " we w i l l c o n t i n u e t o t h e b e s t o f o u r a b i l i t y t o b i n d c l o s e r t o g e t h e r t h e many t r i b e s whom we r e p r e s e n t i n t o t h a t s o l i d N a t i v e V o i c e , a v o i c e t h a t w i l l w o r k f o r t h e a d v a n c e m e n t o f o u r common n a t i v e w e l f a r e . The "Native V o i c e " w i l l b r i n g about a c l o s e r relations h i p b e t w e e n o u r s e l v e s a n d o u r g o o d w h i t e f r i e n d s who we a l s o a p p e a l t o a t t h i s t i m e f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t i n our s t r u g g l e f o r advancement.36  The  feelings  of natives  "wards"  and "minors"  torial,  also  editorial, son,  also  i n Canada  appearing  written  regarding  was c l e a r l y  i n the f i r s t  by Jack  their  Beynon,  issue  position  manifested  as  i n an  edi-  o f t h e newspaper.  This  a Tsimshian  from  Port  d i s p l a y e d the o b j e c t i v e s of the Brotherhood.  Simp-  Beynon  notes:  ...we s u f f e r a s a m i n o r i t y r a c e a n d a s w a r d s , o r m i n o r s w i t h o u t a v o i c e i n r e g a r d t o o u r own w e l f a r e . We a r e p r i s o n e r s o f a c o n t r o l l i n g p o w e r i n o u r own c o u n t r y - a c o u n t r y w h i c h h a s s t o o d up u n d e r t h e c h a o s o f two w o r l d w a r s , b e n e a t h t h e g u i s e o f d e m o c r a c y a n d freedom, y e t keeping enslaved a n a t i v e people i n t h e i r own home l a n d . ...our Dominion i s n o t i n a p o s i t i o n t o p o i n t a f i n g e r of s c o r n a t t h e treatment meted o u t by o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t o t h e i r p e o p l e , u n t i l s h e l i b e r a t e s h e r own a b o r i g i nal and s u b j e c t e d r a c e . ...The " N a t i v e V o i c e " w i l l f o l l o w t h r o u g h w i t h their a i m s a n d o b j e c t i v e s w i t h t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e Government, as t h e y see f i t . Those aims a r e s t a t e d c l e a r l y by t h e Native Brotherhood o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Inc. i n t h e i r Constitution.37  57  The cause  i t was  amples The  publication  of  the  the  Native  newspaper  of  product  majority  Brotherhood as  "a  long  the of  "Native  a  new  Voice"  Indian  is significant  able  to  society to  express  viewed  establishment  awaited  the  stimulant  utilize  Indian  leading  aims of  to  a a  be-  the  and  ex-  ideas.  native better  way  3 8  of  life..."  that  their  Furthermore, newspaper;  non-political;  i t was  first,  second;  that  the  always  Brotherhood's  remain  i t always  intention  undenominational  cater  to  the  native  and people  39  of  the  tives  with  province; of  the  Canada  into  affairs  establishment  and  of  the  Brotherhood  decide  their  far  beyond  the  fact  lating  to  the  Voice" tion  to  change  welfare  a l l Indians.  geared  of the  Committee  that  the  aims  toward  the  social,  Indian  peoples,  Through as  the  and  a  both  high  the  of  quality  minority  status  as  status  the  by  the  control  and  on  these  the  events  Indian  topics  of  and  to re-  Brotherhood the  the  "Native organiza-  economic  ad-  p r e s e r v a t i o n of  In-  the  pre-  Brotherhood  organization,  Canadian  extended  Native  o b j e c t i v e s of  as  the  Brotherhood,  a l l Indians  political  well  Brotherhood  summary  to  establishment  and  of  the  na-  touch  pronouncement  of  p r e s e n t a t i o n of  the  in  i t s significance  to  speak  a  In  attempting  to  demonstrate  this  were  i t aspired  Special Joint  changing  was  unite them  lives.  organ  conclusion,  itself  Voice"  to  keeping 40  official  identity.  sented  their  natives  the  In  of  by  f u t u r e s . Moreover,  the  were  i t strive  body  affected  that  i t s being  that  that  solid  "Native  to  vancement dian  one  which  Native  own  third,  Indians.  recognized  that  dedicated In  order  natives  had  to  58  to  do a number o f t h i n g s .  identity; dence  upon  maintain make cal  second,  the majority  themselve activity;  known  native  and concerns  For  a gradual  example,  tration  of their  political  tive  was  was  tinct,  adopted  increase  affairs  a society  i n which  yet co-operate with  by newly  full  they  still  tribal  nations.  i n the adminissocial,  objective.  b y t h e two and economic their  remain  within  During  events equality special  the Brotherhood's  Indians could other groups  politi-  t o promote  i n some  retaining  I n summary,  had t o  t o a l l Na-  emerging  as t h e u l t i m a t e  political  and  of the steps to  control  as demonstrated  while  identity.  some  in participation  with  spheres  of society,  take  through  relevant  of the Brotherhood  their  o f depen-  had t o subordinate t h e i r  asking f o r social,  and I n d i a n  fourth,  and n a t i o n a l l y  are not unlike  been  had to  they  t o f o c u s on i s s u e s  the Brotherhood,  the rest  status  own  and economic  1940's  examined, with  they  self-determination have  situation  t o be i n d e p e n d e n t ;  The e f f o r t s  which  had t o m a i n t a i n  their  third,  provincially  independence  the  society;  and f i f t h ,  Canadians.  natives  had t o a l t e r  the i n i t i a t i v e  traditions tive  they  First,  objec-  culturally  the  totality.  dis-  59  Chapter  tribal States  Three  -  Notes  ^ D r u c k e r , P h i l i p , The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d s : Modern O r g a n i z a t i o n s on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , ( W a s h i n g t o n : Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1958), pp. 105-6.  InterUnited  Ibid.  2  3 Peter  M o r l e y , A l l a n , Roar of the B r e a k e r s : A B i o g r a p h y of Kelly, ( T o r o n t o : Ryerson P r e s s , 1967), p. 145. 4 D r u c k e r , P h i l i p , The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d s , p . 104.  s e t Band, 104. 6  S t e a r n s , Mary, L e e , H a i d a C u l t u r e i n C u s t o d y : The ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington P r e s s , 1981),  Drucker,  Philip,  The  Native  Brotherhoods,  p.  Masp.  105.  7 Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , M i n u t e s and P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e S p e c i a l J o i n t C o m m i t t e e o f t h e S e n a t e a n d H o u s e o f Commons t o R e v i s e t h e I n d i a n A c t , ( O t t a w a , 1946, 1947, 1948), p. 785. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as: S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee, 1946). 8 Drucker,  Philip,  The  Native  Brotherhoods,  p.  128.  Ibid.  9  1  0  Ibid.,  p.  129.  1  1  Ibid.,  p.  108.  Ibid. Peter  M o r l e y , A l l a n , Roar of the B r e a k e r s : A B i o g r a p h y of K e l l y , p. 145. 14 D r u c k e r , P h i l i p , The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d s , p. 109. 1  5  Ibid.,  p.  1  6  Ibid.,  pp.  110. 110-111.  17 Special  Joint  Committee,  1946,  p . 764.  1 ft 19 20  "Native  V o i c e , " June  Special  Joint  Ibid.,  p.  7 65.  1950,  Committee,  p.  1946,  2. p . 761.  60  2  1  22  I TbVi. -d^ . Ibid.  23 Ibid.,  p.  766 .  p.  804.  Ibid. 2  5  Ibid., Ibid.  27 2  ^  29  Ibid. Ibid.,  pp.  Ibid.,  p.  7 67.  Ibid.,  p.  833 .  p.  787.  p.  833.  7 6 6-767.  30  Ibid. 3  2  Ibid.,  33 Ibid.  J  J  3  4  Ibid.,  3  5  "Native Ibid.  37 Ibid. Ibid. 39 Ibid. Ibid.  Voice,"  December,  1946.  61  Chapter  Four  The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d of British A Reflection of Pan-Indianism The  aims  and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e n a t i v e s  therhood  of B r i t i s h  Canadian  s o c i e t y are not unlike  by  emerging  newly  context  the  organization's  with own  times  to achieve  have  been  had  t h e same  and  have  presents aims,  of this  Chicano,  sought  example  to enlarge  identity.  seek  "the expression  are  both  entities their  continent  m i n o r i t i e s who colonial of  of British During  have  peoples  self-  Columbia r e -  t h e 1940's, t h e  of the Brotherhood  were Pan-  the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s program of  t o Indians,  social  while  has been identity  of that  among  national  American  measure  in into  in controlling  subject  trend.  the economic,  o f a new  an e x p r e s s i o n  and Indian  of this  taken  c a n be  movement  various  role  a larger  been  Brotherhood  a growing  Brotherhood  Pan-Indianism  as,  have  Bro-  within  further insights  within  as f o r m e r l y  F o r example,  available  which  on t h e N o r t h  French  The N a t i v e  i n nature.  portunities Indian  has been  o b j e c t i v e s and a c t i v i t i e s  -Indian ideas  another  autonomy  o b j e c t i v e s and nature  to a meaningful  to actively  -determination.  steps  literature  minorities,  experiences  begun  native  By p l a c i n g t h e N a t i v e  there  Examples  Black,  of the Native  r e c o g n i t i o n as s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  legitimate claims destinies.  some  development,  racial-ethnic  structures  to enlarge  of "nationalistic"  In r e c e n t  colonized  Columbia  nations.  the  gained.  Columbia:  new  still  and p o l i t i c a l  op-  maintaining  their  defined  by Robert  Thomas  and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s  identity  and a f o s t e r i n g  which of  62  it."  2  Furthermore,  i t is  a  vital  social  movement  3 tionalistic ter tive  the  Brotherhood  those  relevant  and  is  forever  development  of  has  a  na-  4  flavour  understand  which  British  theories  of  changing.  Pan-Indian  Columbia,  that  seek  to  In  order  ideals  i t is useful explain  by to  modern  to  bet-  the  Na-  examine  independence  movements.  Internal  Colonialism:  Historically, those  conditions  A  Canadian  British  which  Bell  movements  in  the  emergence  of  nationalist  terized other  by  European Indian. tion:  first,  volved upon  Robert  a  the  forced  tered  by  final  element  the  of  experience  people  of  of  present  in  four of  the  basic  entry;  colonized  of  the  inferior.  to  different  an  These  to  have  of  the  four  political  culture,  and  i s an  be  were  inimpact peo-  adminis-  fourth,  perception  components  They  coloniza-  colonized to  that  exploited  the co-  exemplify  dominated  unit,  of  Canadian  generally  tend  power;  in  elements  of  there  the  the  charac-  the  components  group  Indians.  and  classic of  to  independence  inequities  history  dominant  external  race  gross  i s racism, 6  of  conducive  second,  of  conformed  is conditions  colonization  organization  the  be  a l l the  social  a l l Canadian  subject a  Moreover,  colonization are  to  and  involuntary  and  found  have  scholars  oppression  cites  representatives  graphically, a  or  members  peoples  have  beginnings  culture  third,  lonized  Blauner  the  ples;  are  Moskos,  that  colonialism.^  colonialism  Indians  movements:  subordination,  words,  Columbia and  Caribbean,  Perspective  governed  geoby  economically  63  in  terms  of  land  resources  and  raw  materials,  and  were  assigned  7 a  p o s i t i o n of  dependence  Robert  Blauner  gone  transition  a  termed  "internal  stitute  an The  to  the  an  native  that  Canada's  Indians  classic  colonization to For  example,  However, have  what  today  an  oppressed  notion  internal  colonialism  as  a  for  explanatory to  of  the  achieve  The  are  over  slowly natives  the  first  that  the  after political  neo-colonialism foreigners  was  suggests  colonies  in  study  roots  of  of  disappearing  by  to  Pablo  independence  internal  the  Canadi-  warrants  great  independence  a r i s e s with  approach  introduced  the  con-  majority.  relevant  self-determination  concept  Casanova  old  frameworks  been  Indians  than  of  under-  has  rather  Furthermore,  of  country.  minority  Casanova.  of  "mother"  colonialism."  initiatives  movements  tion  from  consideration.  Gonzalez  alism.  suggested  the  oppressed  search  careful  state  has  upon  coloni-  i s gained direct the  a  domina-  domination  g and  e x p l o i t a t i o n of  groups  and  played  by  some  classes the  sectors  old to  natives in  new  more  natives  nations  colonies  be  by  and  emerging.  play  this  Dominant  similar roles  new  oppression  i n t o l e r a b l e than  the  to  is  those  felt  continuation  by of  the  internal  co-  9 colonial  government.  lonialism dence  from  Canadian exception nally  in  a  Indians.  imposed,  assuming  Canadian  Europe  that  the  The  no  context  change  They  the  i s that  in  ruling  or  concept after  i n the  a  internally  immigrants  p o s i t i o n of  of  occurred  remained  i t became with  utility  the  gaining  status  s i t u a t i o n with rather  descendents  majority.  indepen-  subjugated  colonial imposed,  of  of  than  of the  exter-  immigrants  64  Sociologists digenous  peoples  of  For  ways.  warfare  or  ments...; dividual Fredrik  later  Barth,  sitions  and  formerly  have  breakdown  their  an  of  into  ethnic  patterns found  to  purposes."" "" " 1  1  suggested  by  in a  number  of  initial  messianic  personal  demoralization;  the  majority  society."  has  suggested  reject  identity  using  society,  or  Tennant.  and  an  alternative may  i t to  new  develop  i n those  response  in-  However,  1 0  developed  identified  Two  additional  These  responses  po-  sectors  Inadequately  this  move-  assimilation  activities  activities.  Paul  or  form  that- i n -  and  Furthermore,  main  colonialism  revitalization,  organize  in their  suggested  v i o l e n c e i n the  a m i n o r i t y who  includes three been  internal  anthropoligist,  emphasize  not  to  "organized  rebellion;  Members  to  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have  respond  assimilation  "choose  Barth  can  example:  social  response.  for  and  by  activities include:  1. S e l e c t i v e a d a p t a t i o n o f new c u l t u r e e l e m e n t s , as w e l l as d r o p p i n g o f o l d e l e m e n t s , f o r the purpose of f a c i l i t a t i n g group s u r v i v a l i n p o s t - c o n t r o l circumstances . 2. F o r m a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o emphasize group i d e n t i t y and t o conduct t r a n s a c t i o n s with the r u l i n g m a j o r i t y . 3. P u r s u i t o f m i n o r i t y u n i t i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n g r o u p i d e n t i t y and t o p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . 4. E s t a b l i s h i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e m a j o r i t y w h i c h a r e a b l e and w i l l i n g t o p r o v i d e r e s o u r c e s or support. 5. L o b b y i n g g o v e r n m e n t i n o r d e r t o d e f e n d a n d p r o m o t e group i n t e r e s t s . 1 2  The ing"  comprehensive  o r g a n i z a t i o n has  o r g a n i z a t i o n by  dichotomy  between  the  Barth,  due  minority  to  been  labelled  a  i t s f u n c t i o n of  group  and  the  Vdichotomizmaintaining  majority  a  society. ^ 1  65  In  addition,  rests  of  those  interests,  litical  the  the  minority  group  system  are  both  of  organization  and  then  within  the  through  the  majority  determines  group  political itself  society.  Paul  and  what  the  inte-  action  defends  within  the  Tennant  has  po-  desig14  nated  this  summary, ternal  response  i t is  as  the  evident  colonialism  in  that a  and  assimilation  choosing  the  strategy  reacting  where  in  Social  the  Scale The  from  their  British  to  middle and  of  of  study  entitled  of  Indian  theories  of  Bell  to  the  variations  addition, rical.  there  are  Interaction  Bell  also  in  a  react  two  way  in-  with  extremes.  se-  By  indigenous which  In  to  continuum  in  and  a  and  Charles  independence  in  to  Canada  Canadian  lies  Moskos,  groups some-  was  first  to  the  context.  of  individuals  concept  between  two  types  of  with  other  human b e i n g s  while  those  the  termed  historical  poli-  Boldt  interaction  scale:  the  Menno  native  gradation  the  groups.  the  social  in  understanding  is  in  derived  movements  Moskos  scale,  are  can  adaptation,  indigenous  contemporary past  a  the  relevant  Leaders  the  the  on  adaption.  continuum.  Canadian  theses  and  the  are  Bell-Moskos  refers  ways,  colonialism  political  the  Scale  groups  representing  Wendell  of  Indies  adaptation  political  Equality  studies  tical  of  political  internal  theses  West  of  of  indigenous  number  paration  are  strategy  of  in  discuss  Central  social  within  a  scale. society  and  referred  to  relationships  oriented  toward  16  Bell  and  Moskos  In  histo-  is  scale.  to  i n d i v i d u a l s . "*""*  contemporary  a  as  have  66  linked ment.  contemporary Philosophes  fraternalism, through  the  thermore, fying  serts  of  spread  of  that  with  kinds  barriers  questioning  long  as  will  had to  were  Enlighten-  spokesmen  the  those  effect  be  a  social organizations  of  Furidenti-  interaction  barriers.  for  scale  inclusiveness.  social  always  the  contemporary  social  philosophies of  to  and  of  century  increasing  equality  egalitarianism  as  philosophies  eighteenth and  Enlightenment  men's m i n d s  ideology  the  democracy  particular  opening  scale  and  Moskos  as-  change-provoking  exist  in  which  large  17 groups have  of  people  occupy  also  sought  to  measure  tradition,  the  dependence  movements.  extend scale rather the  Romanticist  historical was  closer  group.  not  For so  cultural traditions.  ries,  i t was  was  needed  trusion  ideals  feasibility.  and ment  an  increase  will  imperial  reorder  exposed  Romantic of  to  much  Thus  by  In  then  as  and  its relationship  the  defined  as  Romantics  spread  of  ancestral  served  colonial  minorities  expanded  the group  feasbile,  a  to  a  for  for  what  Colonial  groups'  perceives  high-  territo-  Enlightenment  minority  of  to  model  system.  desire  but  background  as  to  that  equality,  colonial  which  in-  claimed  the  of  to  seeking  endeavoured  case  Moskos  intellectual  consciously  i f a minority  in scale 19 result.  Bell  another  been  the  the  existing  ethnic  of  in  has  with  power  the  racial which  effect  example,  Romantics 18  light  positions.  movement,  interaction  Therefore,  the  the  Romanticism  scale.  increased,  by  subordinate  social its  in-  and images change  achieve-  67  Leaders believed be  that  maximized  than  the  society,  from  which  separating  them  Moskos  acknowledge  nority  groups  scale  provided  through  the formation  from  there  Indian  r e t a i n i n g an I n d i a n  of  feature  Romantic  crease  native  native  historical  tensity  contemporary scale.  stressing  an I n d i a n  was  assigned  being  niety the  of economic,  Native  ralized  social  Brotherhood  Indian  identity  ence  as a m i n o r i t y  from  this  status.  group  time  t oi n increasing the  native  heterogeneity  p o s i t i o n t o an e m p h a s i z e d  upon  deprivation.  a shared  activities  i n -  s o c i e t y and  homoge-  Leaders  inclusive,  historical  and a l l t h e i n e q u a l i t i e s  The program,  at the Another  increasing  a more  toward  manifestation  i n i t sattempt  Furthermore,  emphasizing  based  its  a t t h e same  and p o l i t i c a l  were  while  was  Indian  mi-  scale  geared  Brotherhood  the smaller  a secondary  society,  was  and  their  and i d e n t i t y .  was  bar-  by which  to increase  The B r o t h e r h o o d  identity.  Bell  commonality  scale  of r e l a t i o n s within  ideological  t h e 1940's i n  organization  The o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  phifrom  and s o c i a l  During  the majority  of the Native  ideology.  sought  o f an e x t r a - k i n  same  with  of society.  scale.  rather  learned  a r e a l t e r n a t i v e ways  leaders  e q u a l i t y with  leaders  members  could  Enlightenment  the p o l i t i c a l  to enlarge  full  notable  native  other  attaining time  natives  structure,  independence.  to question  can seek  Columbia,  political  Columbia  f r a t e r n a l i s m and democracy,  that  British  of B r i t i s h  of the province's  political  of equality,  guidelines  Brotherhood  the existing  complete  majority  riers  the social within  through  losophies  of the Native  that  of  gene-  experiderive  and o b j e c t i v e s  of the  68  Brotherhood, common  emphasized  concern.  indicate  that  siveness  was  Moreover,  a  gradual  taking  and  subordination  ing  symbol.  The  Bell  and  also  relevant  groups  is  an  tionhood." ded  that  ment  a  emerges  conscious exists  colonial  the  a  independence  of  and  by  Moskos of  a  these  of  third,  a  unify-  "decisions  two  scholars  of  local  leaders  and  fourth,  move-  people  "enlightened  i f local  na-  conclu-  independence of  is  indigenous  as  local  feasible;  which  Canadian  number  i f a  inclu-  exploitation  theses  political  significant  being  Pan-Indian  Nationhood"  r e f e r r e d to  situation,  as  a  a  organization  history  adaptation  conducted  equality;  the  shared  colonialism providing  i n e q u a l i t y ; second, to  of  shared  Bell  scheme  a  a l l natives  toward  "Decisions  political  research  committed  political  of  i f : first,  of  with  Theses:  the  which  objectives  internal  analytical  The in  place,  segment to  the  to  progression  under  Moskos  Another  issues  are  elite"  perceive i f  there  20 exists  a  nomic,  social  bined  core  with  nalistic  of and  and  who  makes  minority  are  to  them some  cultural  political  ideologies  decision-making tion"  local  model.  of  group  conscious extent  conditions  the  The  integrity.  modern leaders  leaders' actors  since  world to  World  have  adopt  of  a  a  the  set  War  II,  prompted  ecocom-  natio-  rational  "definition  within  manipulators  Furthermore,  of of  the  situa-  conditions,  present  and  creators  21 of  the  tions  future. which  must  "Decisions be  answered  of by  nationhood" leaders  are  based  a  series  upon  their  of  ques-  69  perceptions mines will  the economic, assume  survive do  of reality.  within  they  social  these  an e x i s t i n g  they  think  must  questions  and p o l i t i c a l  or the conditions  and t h i n k  what  How  necessary  nation.  become  i s the type  form  a  d o men  deter-  nation-state  f o r a minority  "What  i n order  a r e answered  think  group t o they  t o e s t a b l i s h and  of organization  called  a  must  maintain  nation-  22 -state?" a  According  single  lities  sujbective  i f different  to Bell, reality, leaders  t h e answer o r may  have  to this  be m u l t i p l e  different  question  may  subjective  perceptions  be  rea-  of the  23 situation. 1. 2.  4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  first  nation?" dent  ing only  decision,  "should  has p r i o r i t y ,  upon  ramount  "decisions  of nationhood" proposed  by B e l l a r e :  S h o u l d we b e c o m e a p o l i t i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t nation? How much n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n y s h o u l d t h e new n a t i o n have? What s h o u l d t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e new n a t i o n be? S h o u l d t h e s t a t e a n d t h e n a t i o n be c o t e r m i n o u s ? What f o r m o f g o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d t h e new n a t i o n have? What r o l e s h o u l d t h e g o v e r n m e n t p l a y i n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e s o c i e t y and o f t h e economy? What s h o u l d t h e new n a t i o n ' s e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s b e ? What t y p e o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s h o u l d t h e new n a t i o n have? What s h o u l d t h e new n a t i o n ' s c u l t u r a l traditions be? What s h o u l d t h e n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e new n a t i o n ' s people be?24  3.  The  The  t h e outcome  importance,  degrees  we  since  a l l decisions  of this'one.  t o groups  who  A l l have  The s e c o n d  decisions chosen  independent  following  a r e depen-  decision  due t o t h e i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t  of independence.  applicable  become a p o l i t i c a l l y  there  i s of paare  beyond  this  the path  of a  vary-  one a r e separate  70  autonomous  nation-state.  tionalism"  takes  independent that  state,  i t i s not  dependence  the  but  Although  form  the  of  refer and  of  limited  to  Furthermore,  full  independence  r e p r e s e n t s the  pursuit  the  of  of  a  level  of  on  "na-  politically  political  in-  conditions.  political  position  of  demonstrate  political  economic,  extreme  known m o d e l  nationhood"  to  a range  complete  best  active  "decisions  necessarily can  an  the  and  the  social  continuum  of  25 "more  or  groups  less"  can  decide  ceptions  of  sired  their  by  tical  the  and  form  a  to  be  a  of  social  short  of  the of  feasbile  option,  tion,  was  native  choice  was  selected  destinies,  the  as by  and  based  the  the but  Brotherhood  which  full  nor  an the  path  situation.  nation-state,  actions  create  nationistic  upon  kind  of  For  of  their  per-  future  was  de-  affected  their  was  the  not  most  Canadian  poli-  lives.  independence  i t deemed within  economic,  advantageous  society.  same  making  process  a  relevant of  and  therefore,  concept  the  within  Native  over  co-operation with  adapta-  as  other  the the  How-  "deCanadi-  Brotherhood  a politically  control  the  considered  political  decision  They  in  native  leaders  by  the  Columbia  expression of  increased  accomplished  British  Independence  establishment of was  over  independence  are  of  political  inequalities  nationhood"  not  to  nation-state.  Pan-Indianism  an  Native  demanding  ever,  of  of  e n l a r g e d autonomy  for correcting  cisions  range  institutions  separate  choose  a  i n order  means  groups  Therefore, minority  people.  goal  stopped of  upon  reality  Leaders pursued  autonomy.  independent  their the  their  own  lives  government  and of  71  the  majority  voured the  basic  their ces  by  s o c i e t y . The  leaders  of  fact  Indian  condition  was  their  geographical becoming tions  a  goals  were  no  doubt  poverty  lack  of  training.  geographical  and  due  to  a  lack  of  d i s p e r s i o n . There  l o c a t i o n where  they  could  nation-state. was  and  Brotherhood  dependence  separate  structures  not  a  As  feasible  have  a  influenced  and  pursued  option  Added  financial  was  result  fa-  of for  to  resour-  still  is  desires  these  by  no  of  condi-  leaders  of  the  Brotherhood. In  conclusion,  formed  ted,  of  independence  Native  was  of  the  political  as  through  -Indianism.  a  the  response  Native to  its activities Robert  Thomas  Brotherhood  internal and  has  of  British  c o l o n i a l i s m and  objectives  suggested  elements  that  Columbia  demonstraof  Pan-  Pan-Indianism  has  a  26 nationalistic tive other  people  flavour.  recognize  groups  in  structure  tion.  general  Hertzber 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  the  society  political The  This  of  goals  i s manifested  distinction  and  strive  society, of  to  between exercise  in order  Indian  when  to  a  themselves influence  change  nationalism  group  as  this  noted  of  na-  and on  the  distincby  Hazel  are: i n c r e a s e d e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l k i n d s on a l l age levels i m p r o v e d h e a l t h and g e n e r a l welfare r e t e n t i o n o f l a n d b a s e and a c c u m u l a t i o n o f more land e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e reserves true rather than nominal t r i b a l sovereignty... g r e a t e r p o l i t i c a l s o l i d a r i t y and s t r e n g t h i n o r d e r to exert s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r o l over t h e i r affairs m a i n t e n a n c e and d e v e l o p m e n t o f I n d i a n culture27  72  The  Native  goals only  Brotherhood  during half  problems  the and  Furthermore, tribal order they  native  the  were  not in  status  a  traditional  Columbia  Although  which  the  in  one  affected  to  create  their  a  new  minority  national  province,  the  fact  that  Indians, rights  they  while  and  identity  status.  Indian  expressed  organization  organization recognized  the of  British  population  concerns  change  Pan-Indian  dian  1940's.  loyalties to  nority  the  of  lives the  need  as  at  the  Therefore,  culture.  working same  represented  i t  addressed  a l l to  Indians. subordinate  Canadian  organization were  of  similar  Indians  in  even  though  they  were  still  to  change  time  the  maintaining  miIn-  73  Chapter  Toward Conn.:  Three  -  Notes  B o l d t , Menno, I n d i a n L e a d e r s i n C a n a d a : A t t i t u d e s E q u a l i t y , I d e n t i t y and P o l i t i c a l S t a t u s , (New Haven, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , 1973), p. 6. 2  Native Walker  T h o m a s , R o b e r t , K., " P a n - I n d i a n i s m , " i n The Emergent A m e r i c a n s : A Reader i n C u l t u r e C o n t a c t , ed. Deward E. J r . , ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , B r o w n , 1972, pp. 740-41), p. 739. 3  Ibid.,  p.  743.  4  Ibid.,  p.  739.  Boldt,  Menno,  5  Indian  Leaders  i n Canada,  p.  24.  B l a u n e r , R o b e r t , " I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m and G h e t t o Rev o l t , " S o c i a l P r o b l e m s , ( S p r i n g 1969, V o l . 16, No. 4, p . 396), p. 396. 6  7  Boldt,  Menno,  Indian  Leaders  i n Canada,  p.  25.  g Casanova, Pablo Gonzales, " I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m and N a t i o n a l Development," Studies i n Comparative I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t , ( V o l . 1, 1965, pp. 25-37), p. 27. Ibid.  9  Tennant, Paul, "Native Indian P o l i t i c a l Organization in British C o l u m b i a , 1900-1969: A Response t o I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m , " B.C. S t u d i e s , ( V o l . 55, A u t u m n 1 9 8 2 , p p . 3 - 4 9 ) , p . 6. I n t h i s a r t i c l e T e n n a n t t r a c e s and c o n s i l i d a t e s t h e c o n c e p t o f i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m and i t i s h i s f o r m a t w h i c h i s f o l l o w e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter Three.  Little,  Barth, F r e d r i k , E t h n i c Groups Brown and Co., 1969), p.33.  and  Boundaries,  (Boston:  12 Tennant, Paul, "Native Indian P o l i t i c a l Organization in British C o l u m b i a , 1900-1969: A Response t o I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m , " p p . 6-7 . 13 B a r t h , F r e d r i k , E t h n i c Groups and B o u n d a r i e s , p. 33. 14 Tennant, Paul, "Native Indian P o l i t i c a l Organization in British C o l u m b i a , 1900-1969: A Response t o I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l ism, " p . 7 . 15 B o l d t , Menno, I n d i a n L e a d e r s i n C a n a d a , p . 14.  74  Ibid. 17 dence ,  Moskos, C h a r l e s , The S o c i o l o g y o f P o l i t i c a l (Mass: Schenkman P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1967), p . 80.  1  9  20  Ibid.,  p. 81.  Ibid.,  p . 82.  Boldt,  Menno,  21 Indies,  Bell, ( M i Miss: s s :  22 23 " 24 25 26  Indian Leaders  i n Canada,  Indepen-  abstract.  W e n d e l l , The D e m o c r a t i c R e v o l u t i o n i n t h e West Schenkman P u b l i s h i n g Co. I n c . , 1967 ) , p  Ibid. Ibid. Ibid.,  pp.  Boldt,  Menno,  Thomas,  7-8. Indian Leaders  Robert,  K.,  i n Canada,  "Pan-Indianism,"  p.  9.  p. 743.  27 H e r t z b e r g , H a z e l , The S e a r c h f o r A m e r i c a n I n d i a n I d e n t i t y : Modern P a n - I n d i a n Movements, ( S y r a c u s e : S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), p . 72.  75  Conclusion  Despite tive in  diverse  character  and  in  British  Columbia,  i t was  population  Canada  The  the  to  produce  native  p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to  tain  them  tional ples. tary  social Within  without and  with  positions  the  sential  sphere of  in order  of  to  recruit  new  of  natives  possessing  will  not  historical a  this the  regard majority  tors ances  of  maintain  caused  the of  stemming  Canadian  by  British  Indians.  their  the  had  genuine been  Crown.  Columbia They  also  from  a  peo-  heredipoten-  two  es-  which as  even  Columbia,  were  well  potential  a  to a  as group  orga-  distinct  and  acted  organization.  were  unique  different not  from  of  griev-  set  them  without a l l  In  fac-  their  of  as  only  that  combination  tradi-  addition,  the  cause  possessed  concern  taken The  In  cohesion, just  main-  executive  dissatisfaction  o r g a n i z a t i o n but  lifestyle  compensation  of  of  leadership  communication  British  native  to  Indian  provided  for extra-kin political  Indians  from  In  legacy  assume  p r e d i s p o s i t i o n and so.  ability  organizations.  without  na-  province  acknowledged  to  fishing  the  organizations.  coastal  existing  structural  However,  the  mechanism  pertaining to  traditional  political  n e c e s s a r i l y do  experience  triggering  an  capabilities  commercial  members.  of  of  first  the the  clearly  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  to  nize  a f f e c t e d by  society a  native  and  organization  i n f l u e n c e and  elements  necessary  organizatons  doubt  coast  the  extra-kin political  structure provided  i n modern  economic  a  economic  north  leadership  tial,  the  were  form  composition  lands  and  payment these  76  factors the  e l i c i t e d the  formation  of  Native fered  from  tives. ring not  On  in  for  the  the  land  and  sole  claim.  the  The  of  land  organization  issue  their  of  claim  prevented action tween fore  heard  life group  from  hindered the  In  their  Also,  the  absence  and  purpose  of  of  leaders  and  membership  fees  were  to  build  of  British  a  and  The  of  the  However,  Judicial  Committee  their  since those  Allied a  they  localized  organization  white levied  could  had  and  the  aboriginal  the  a  to  was  on  have  Privy  Council  course  of  relations  get  and to  officials weak  uni-  decision  This  not  of  Indian  desire  of  membership  supporters.  formed  Governments  government  Tribes  were  the  satisfactory  Columbia  experi-  "philosophy  objectives. of  initial  Land  achieve  their  does  Nishga  Columbia  judicial  a  occur-  valuable  seeking  for  objec-  as  the  and  of  the  viewed  with  upon.  to  and  dif-  classification  settlement  addition  British  of  be  to  cause,  the  of  expertise  preservation  permission  can  base  incentive  achieving  and  through  1890-1950  primary  the  the  Dominion  threatened. base.  by  threatened  without  in  aboriginal title.  them  the  Tribes  claim,  ty  membership  progression  of  pursuing  the  between  method  rather  organization  provided  the  this  a base  Allied  formed  organizations  but  injustice" through  which  However,  purpose  p o l i t i c a l adaptation  structure,  these  providing later  of  organizations.  in  seprateness,  Committee for  basis  phases.  organizations ence  another  this  imply  native  organizations  one  two  response  be-  therecourt  whom  they  organizational structure  concentrated  Furthermore,  organization  in since  depended  the a  small no  77  entirely lem.  In  upon  donations  summary,  activity  weakness;  second,  sion to  activity; by  the  resolve  bia  Allied  more  a  of  of  in  the  highly  local  care,  Each  tion  annual  sentially resent  a  organizations torical  wider  The in  the  prob-  of  native  organizational sole  focus  commitment  Privy  aided  was  Council  coast  from the  experience,  the  as  to  as  of  a  deci-  a  method  British  Colum-  native whole  rather  pursue  well  as  the  while the  organization  by  of the  to  for  Indians, economic  affected while  white  It  and  vice-president general  Brotherhood i t s aim  by  a  the  advisors  Indians.  executive  the  abo-  Brotherhood  they  Columbia.  triggered  than  the  l e d by  i t s own  British  claim  Furthermore,  at  Although  was  of  therefore  and  both  and  improved  influenced  had  of  the  education  province. and  Brotherhood  Committee  objectives  meetings,  Brotherhood but  not  in  Native  Nishga  organized  branch  i t s own  the  range,  i n the  conventions.  north  Indians  as  improved  organization  local  held  did  franchise,  were  Brotherhood  and  phase  first,  activity  the  i t sought  the  and  of  Unlike  opportunities.  secretary  the  political  formation  1931.  Rather,  structured  held  native  a l l Indians  level.  claims  of  Brotherhood  organizations  Native  by:  s i n g l e minded  Committee  the  specific  lives  early the  health  employment  were the  title.  a  continual  the.first  characterized  third,  a  grievances.  with  Columbia  riginal  and  two  Tribes,  better  and  m o n e y was  within  aboriginal land  their  commenced  British  were  Judicial  Phase  funds,  organizations  political  their  for  was the  and  organizawas  was Like  es-  to  earlier  particular  stressing aboriginal  rep-  his-  rights  78  they  focused  their it  on t h e " p h i l o s o p h y  grievances.  caused  gering  native  mechanism  pression  political time  political their as  commercial  fishermen  f o r the formation adaptation  program  sought  their  procedures  minority  Canadian  status  Indians.  Indian  adapted  acted  hardship  as a f u r t h e r  to internal  the economic,  They  time  while  were  the majority  a n d a t t h e same  trig-  As an e x -  c o l o n i a l i s m , the  to Indians,  rights. from  and t h e  of the Brotherhood.  to enlarge  opportunities available  maintaining  as a b a s i s f o r  In a d d i t i o n , the Depression  of p o l i t i c a l  Brotherhood's  of injustice"  social  and  a t t h e same  utilizing  the  s o c i e t y t o change  ensure  their  survival  79  Bibliography  Primary  Sources  Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , Report o f t h e S p e c i a l Committee o f t h e S e n a t e a n d H o u s e o f Commons t o I n q u i r e i n t o t h e C l a i m s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, (Ottawa, 1927). Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , Minutes and Proceedings of the Special Joint C o m m i t t e e o f t h e S e n a t e a n d t h e H o u s e o f Commons A p p o i n t e d t o Examine a n d C o n s i d e r t h e I n d i a n A c t , (Ottawa, 1946, 1947, 1948). The  Native  Secondary  Voice,  B.C. N a t i v e  P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1-2,  1946-48.  Sources  B a r t h , F r e d r i k , E t h n i c Groups B r o w n a n d C o m p a n y , 19 6 9 ) .  and Boundaries,  (Boston:  Little,  B e l l , W e n d e l l , ( e d . ) , D e m o c r a t i c R e v o l u t i o n i n t h e West I n d i e s : Studies i n N a t i o n a l i s m , Leadership, and t h e B e l i e f i n Progress, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Schenkman P u b l i s h i n g Co. I n c . , 1967). B e r g e r , T h o m a s , R., " N a t i v e H i s t o r y , N a t i v e C l a i m s a n d S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n " , B . C . S t u d i e s , ( N o . 5 7 , S p r i n g '83, p p . 10-23) . Blauner, Robert, S o c i a l Problems,  " I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m and Ghetto Revolt", ( S p r i n g 1 9 6 9 , V o l . 1 6 , No. 4, p . 3 9 6 ) .  Boas, F r a n k , "The I n d i a n T r i b e s o f t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c C o a s t " , i n M c F e a t , Tom ( e d . ) , I n d i a n s o f t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c C o a s t , (Seattle: U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington Press, 1966). B o l d t , Menno, I n d i a n L e a d e r s i n C a n a d a ; A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d E q u a l i t y , I d e n t i t y a n d P o l i t i c a l S t a t u s , (New H a v e n , C o n n . : University, 1973). B o l d t , Menno, Composition", 15-33).  Yale  "Canadian Native Indian Leadership: Context and C a n a d i a n E t h n i c S t u d i e s , ( V o l . 12, 1980, p p .  B o l d t , Menno, " S o c i a l Native Indian Leaders Comparative P o l i t i c a l  C o r r e l a t e s o f N a t i o n a l i s m : A Study o f i n a Canadian I n t e r n a l Colony", S t u d i e s , ( V o l . 14, 1 9 8 1 , p p . 2 0 5 - 3 1 ) .  80  Casanova, P a b l o G o n z a l e z , " I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m and N a t i o n a l Development", S t u d i e s i n Comparative I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development, ( V o l . 1, 1 9 6 5 , p p . 25-37). Druckner, P h i l i p , Cultures of the North F r a n c i s c o : C h a n d l e r P u b l i s h i n g Company,  Pacific 1965).  Coast,  (San  D r u c k n e r , P h i l i p , The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d s : Modern I n t e r t r i b a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , ( W a s h i n g t o n : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1958). D r u c k n e r , P h i l i p , "Rank, W e a l t h , a n d K i n s h i p i n N o r t h w e s t C o a s t S o c i e t y " , i n M c F e a t , Tom (ed.), Indians of the North P a c i f i c Coast, ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Press, 1966). D u f f , W i l s o n , The Impact o f C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum,  t h e W h i t e Man, 1965, r e p r i n t ,  (Victoria: British 1973, 1977).  F i s h e r , R o b i n , "Joseph T r u t c h and I n d i a n Land P o l i c y " , i n F r i e s e n , J . , a n d R a l s t o n , H. K., (eds.), H i s t o r i c a l Essays B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( T o r o n t o : Gage P u b l i s h i n g L t d . , 1 9 8 0 ) .  on  F i s h e r , Robin, C o n t a c t and C o n f l i c t : I n d i a n - E u r o p e a n R e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1774-1890, ( V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Press, 1977). F r i d e r e s , James, Canada's I n d i a n s : C o n t e m p o r a r y (Scarborough, O n t a r i o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l of Canada,  Conflicts, 1974).  G a r f i e l d , V i o l a , and W i n g e r t , P a u l , The T s i m s h i a n I n d i a n s and Their Arts, ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Press, 1966). Hawthorn, B e l s h a w , J a m i e s o n , The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A Survey o f S o c i a l and Economic C o n d i t i o n s , A r e p o r t t o the M i n i s t e r o f C i t i z e n s h i p a n d I m m i g r a t i o n , ( V o l . 7, T h e University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955). H a w t h o r n , H. B., B e l s h a w , C. S., J a m i e s o n , S. M., The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia: A Study of Contemporary S o c i a l Adjustment, ( T o r o n t o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1960). H e r t z b e r g , H a z e l , W., The S e a r c h F o r an A m e r i c a n Indian I d e n t i t y : Modern P a n - I n d i a n Movements, ( S y r a c u s e : S y r a c u s e Press, 1971). Knight, Rolf, Indian Labour 1978).  I n d i a n s a t Work: An I n f o r m a l H i s t o r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( V a n c o u v e r : New  Univ.  of Native S t a r Books,  Kopas, L e s l i e , C l i f f o r d , P o l i t i c a l A c t i o n of t h e I n d i a n s of B r i t i s h Columbia, ( u n p u b l i s h e d MA T h e s i s , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , 1973).  81  L a V i o l e t t e , F o r r e s t , E . , The S t r u g g l e f o r S u r v i v a l : Indian C u l t u r e s and t h e P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c i n B r i t i s h Columbia, (Toronto: .University of Toronto Press, 1973). M a d i l l , Dennis, B r i t i s h Columbia Indian T r e a t i e s i n H i s t o r i c a l Perspective, (Ottawa: Research Branch, C o r p o r a t e P o l i c y , Indian and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s Canada, 1981). Manuel, George and Reality, (Toronto:  Posluns, Michael, Collier-Macmillan  M c C u l l u m , Hugh a n d K a r m e l , T h i s A n g l i c a n Book C e n t r e , 1 9 7 5 ) .  Land  The F o u r t h W o r l d : An Canada, L t d . , 1974). i s Not  For  Sale,  Indian  (Toronto:  M i t c h e l l , D a r c y , Anne, The A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : S t u d y i n P r e s s u r e G r o u p B e h a v i o r , ( u n p u b l i s h e d MA T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , 1977) . M o r l e y , A l l a n , Roar of the B r e a k e r s : a (Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1967). Moskos, C h a r l e s , The Schenkman P u b l i s h i n g  Sociology of Co., 1967).  Political  P o n t i n g , J . R. a n d G i b b i n s , R o g e r , O u t Socio-Political Introduction to Indian (Toronto: B u t t e r w o r t h s , 1980). Raunet, D a n i e l , the Nishga Land  Without Claims,  Biography  of  A  Peter  Kelly,  Independence,  (Mass:  of Irrelevance: A A f f a i r s i n Canada,  Surrender Without Consent: A H i s t o r y of (Vancouver: Douglas & Mclntyre, 1984).  S a n d e r s , D o u g , T h e H i s t o r y We L i v e W i t h : I n d i a n L a n d C l a i m s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, (Victoria: Victoria Indian Cultural Centre, 1960) . S t e a r n s , Mary, Lee., (Seattle: University  Haida Culture of Washington  i n C u s t o d y : The Press, 1981).  Masset  Band,  Tennant, Paul, "Native Indian P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1900-1969: A Response t o I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m " , B.C. S t u d i e s , ( V o l . 55, A u t u m n 1 9 8 2 , p p . 3-49). T h o m a s , R o b e r t , K., " P a n - I n d i a n i s m " , i n : Walker, Deward, E. J r . , The E m e r g e n t N a t i v e A m e r i c a n s , ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown a n d Company, 1972, p p . 739-746). W i l l m o t t , J i l l , A., ( e d . ) , The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : S t u d y - D i s c u s s i o n Text, (Vancouver: Department of U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1963).  A  82  Appendix  A  NATIVE  CONSTITUTION BROTHERHOOD OF B R I T I S H 1931-32  COLUMBIA  Preamble  W h e r e a s , we t h e N a t i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , o w i n g t o t h e keen c o m p e t i t i o n i n our e f f o r t s f o r an e x i s t e n c e , t h e t i m e has come w h e n we m u s t o r g a n i z e f o r t h e b e t t e r m e n t of our c o n d i t i o n s , s o c i a l l y , m e n t a l l y , a n d p h y s i c a l l y . To k e e p i n c l o s e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h one a n o t h e r t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h e a c h o t h e r and w i t h a l l the a u t h o r i t i e s , f o r t o f u r t h e r the i n t e r e s t s of the N a t i v e s . H e n c e we o r g a n i z e a s t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a whose o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be, t o s t i m u l a t e and i n c r e a s e l e a r n i n g among o u r n a t i v e s , a n d t o p l a c e t h e m o n e q u a l footing t o meet t h e e v e r i n c r e a s i n g c o m p e t i t i o n o f our times. T o c o o p e r a t e w i t h a l l who h a v e a t h e a r t t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e n a t i v e s and t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h the Government and i t s o f f i c i a l s f o r the betterment of a l l c o n d i t i o n s surrounding the life of the n a t i v e .  BYLAWS  1.  That hood  this organization shall of B r i t i s h Columbia.  be  known  as  the  Native  Brother-  2.  The p o w e r s o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a l l be L e g i s l a t i v e , Execut i v e and J u d i c i a l , i n s u c h t i m e as t h e C o n v e n t i o n shall from t i m e t o t i m e d i c t a t e , and a l l members s h a l l be g o v e r n e d by such c o n s t i t u t i o n s and laws adopted a t t h e s e conventions.  3.  I n o r d e r t h a t t h e r e be b e t t e r u n i t y t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a l l have power t o e s t a b l i s h b r a n c h e s i n a l l n a t i v e v i l l a g e s for the purpose of t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n .  4.  Conventions s h a l l be h e l d a n n u a l l y a n d a t s u c h t i m e s and p l a c e s as t h e p r e v i o u s c o n v e n t i o n s h a l l d e c i d e . Delegates s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d f r o m e a c h b r a n c h . The P r e s i d e n t , G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y and G e n e r a l T r e a s u r e r s h a l l a t t e n d a l l conventions .  83  Conventions s h a l l p a s s on a l l c r e d e n t i a l s and a u d i t a l l books, e l e c t o f f i c e r s and p r e p a r e r e s o l u t i o n s and a l l m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o the business of the Brotherhood. Officers of the Brotherhood s h a l l consist of President, V i c e -President, General Secretary, General Treasurer, Recording S e c r e t a r y , a n d an E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e t o be e l e c t e d , two f r o m each v i l l a g e o f the Brotherhood. Duties of the o f f i c e r s w i l l : P r e s i d e n t s h a l l p r e s i d e over a l l meetings o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n and a l l e x e c u t i v e meetings and s h a l l d i r e c t t h e p o l i c y o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , as a g r e e d on a t the c o n v e n t i o n and e x e c u t i v e meeting. F i r s t V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , i n event of the O f f i c e of President b e v a c a n t t o f i l l same, a n d t o h a v e f u l l e x e c u t i v e p o w e r s . The G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y , t o a t t e n d a l l c o n v e n t i o n s , t o k e e p a l l the accounts and r e c o r d s o f the General o r g a n i z a t i o n , t o be empowered t o r e c e i v e a n d e x p e n d m o n i e s on b e h a l f o f t h e organization. The T r e a s u r e r s h a l l h a v e c h a r g e o f t h e f u n d s o f t h e O r g a nization. A l lmonies r e c e i v e d by t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d s h a l l be d e p o s i t e d i n h i s c a r e . The R e c o r d i n g S e c r e t a r y s h a l l t a k e and keep a l l r e c o r d s o f a l l meetings.  

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