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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Native Brotherhood of British Columbia 1931-1950 : a new phase in native political organization O’Donnell, Jacqueline Patricia 1985

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THE NATIVE BROTHERHOOD OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1931-1950: A NEW PHASE IN NATIVE POLITICAL ORGANIZATION by JACQUELINE P. 0'DONNELL B.A., W i l f r i d L a u r i e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f H i s t o r y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e 'feqyixr-@4 s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1985 © J a c q u e l i n e P. O ' D o n n e l l , 1985 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of QUIV-KV*^ The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Van couve r, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date r ^ g ^ y> l&a i i A b s t r a c t The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o examine t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1931-1950 and t o e x p l o r e t h e impe d i m e n t s and i n c e n t i v e s t o n a t i v e e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e p r i o r t o and d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . In p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s I have drawn on numerous s e c o n -d a r y s o u r c e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f I n d i a n p o l i c y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and a l s o , works f o c u s i n g on s p e c i f i c n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , I have u s e d a r e p o r t s u b m i t -t e d by t h e S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee a p p o i n t e d i n 1927, t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e c l a i m s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , as w e l l as t h e M i n u t e s and P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee w h i c h c o n v e n e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1946, 1947 and 1948 t o r e v i s e t h e I n d i a n A c t . A n a t i v e newspaper e n t i t l e d The N a t i v e V o i c e was a l s o u t i l i z e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y . The c o m p o s i t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i s d i v e r s e , y e t , d e s p i t e t h e g e o g r a p h i c , l i n g u i s t i c , s o c i a l , po-l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e p r o v i n c e ' s n a t i v e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i d d e v e l o p . Two i m p o r t a n t c a t a l y s t s e x i s t e d w i t h -i n n o r t h c o a s t s o c i e t y and p e r t a i n e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f n a t i v e e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F o r example, a h i e r a r c h i c a l l e a d e r s h i p s t r u c t u r e w h i c h p r o v i d e d an a b l e l e a d e r s h i p b a s e and t h e e c o n o -mic o r i e n t a t i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h e means i i i o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n , b o t h n e c e s s a r y t o f a c i l i -t a t e t h e g r o w t h and s u c c e s s o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , o t h e r f a c t o r s a c t e d as t h e t r i g g e r i n g mechanisms w h i c h prompted n a t i v e s t o o r g a n i z e . F i r s t , a d i s t i n c t h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e ; s e c o n d , t h e c o n c e p t o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e ; and t h i r d , t h e D e p r e s -s i o n o f t h e 1930's. The two o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h p r e c e d e d t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r -hood were s i n g l e i s s u e , e l i t e b a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s g e a r e d t o w a r d p r e s s i n g t h e P r o v i n c i a l , D o m i n i o n and I m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o compensate n a t i v e s f o r t h e i r l o s s o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s t o l a n d and r e s o u r c e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t Phase One o f n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e N a t i v e B r o -t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1931 marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new p h a s e o f n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e . The B r o t h e r -hood was a membership b a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h s o u g h t p r o v i n c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e a n a t i v e o r g a n i -z a t i o n f o c u s e d on a w i d e r r a n g e o f i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e gene-r a l w e l f a r e and i n f e r i o r s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n o f B r i t i s h Co-l u m b i a n a t i v e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e aims and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e o r g a -n i z a t i o n were P a n - I n d i a n i n n a t u r e . i v T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s Acknowledgement i I n t r o d u c t i o n ~ . 1 C h a p t e r I I n d i a n O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : Impediments 6 and I n c e n t i v e s I I The F i r s t Phase o f I n d i a n O r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h 26 C o l u m b i a : The N i s h g a Land Committee and t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I I I The Second Phase o f I n d i a n O r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h 41 C o l u m b i a : The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a IV The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : 61 A R e f l e c t i o n o f P a n - I n d i a n i s m V C o n c l u s i o n 75 B i b l i o g r a p h y 79 A p p e n d i x a) C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 82 V L i s t o f T a b l e s N a t i v e I n d i a n L a n g u a g e / D i a l e c t i c Groups i n 10 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V I L i s t o f F i g u r e s I M a j o r E t h n i c D i v i s i o n s Among B.C. I n d i a n s v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w i s h t o t h a n k Dr. A r t h u r Ray and Dr. P a u l Tennant f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e , a s s i s t a n c e and many v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . J a c q u e l i n e P. O ' D o n n e l l June 12, 1985 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , h i s t o r i a n s and j o u r n a l i s t s have c o m p i l e d a g r e a t d e a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h Colum-b i a . N a t i v e c u l t u r e s and h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s have been d e s -c r i b e d i n d e t a i l . However, one a r e a o f I n d i a n h i s t o r y w h i c h has r e c e i v e d o n l y l i m i t e d a t t e n t i o n r e l a t e s t o t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a c t i -v i t y . S t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n c l u d e t h e works o f : D r u c k e r , L a V i o l e t t e , Ma-n u e l , P o s l u n s , D u f f , T e n n a n t , Kopas, M i t c h e l l and P a t t e r s o n . A l l o f t h e s e a u t h o r s have made v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o a s m a l l bo-dy o f l i t e r a t u r e b u t none have examined t h e d i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n s and p r o v i d e d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y o f ; f i r s t , t h o s e f a c t o r s i m p e d i n g n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n ; and s e c o n d , e l e m e n t s w i t h i n n a t i v e c u l t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n d u r -i n g t h e p e r i o d 1890-1950. F u r t h e r m o r e , a l t h o u g h a number o f au-t h o r s have d e a l t w i t h s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and o t h e r s have p r o v i d e d o v e r v i e w s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f o r g a n i z a -t i o n s d u r i n g s p e c i f i c p e r i o d s , no a t t e m p t has been made t o e x a -mine t h e aims and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d d u r i n g t h e immediate p o s t war y e a r s and a s s e s s t h e i r P a n - I n d i a n n a t u r e . As a r e s u l t o f n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y b e i n g a r e l a t i v e l y r e -c e n t a r e a o f i n q u i r y , t h e above gaps i n t h e p r e s e n t body o f l i -t e r a t u r e i n v i t e f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l f o c u s on t h e s e gaps by a d d r e s s i n g t h r e e s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s : F i r s t , what f a c t o r s w i t h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a impeded n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n ? 2 Second, what were t h e e l e m e n t s w i t h i n n a t i v e c u l t u r e w h i c h p e r -t a i n e d t o e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n ? . F i n a l l y , what were t h e aims and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and were t h e y P a n - I n d i a n i n n a t u r e ? The d a t e s 1890-1950 were s e l e c -t e d p r i m a r i l y t o l i m i t t h e scope o f i n q u i r y t o t h e N a t i v e B r o -t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and i t s aims and a c t i v i t i e s as r e -l a t e d t h r o u g h two s o u r c e s . The f i r s t s o u r c e i s t h e M i n u t e s and P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee o f t h e Se n a t e and House o f Commons w h i c h s a t d u r i n g 1946, 1947 and 1948 and t h e s e c o n d i s t h e " N a t i v e V o i c e " , t h e o f f i c i a l newspaper o f t h e B r o -t h e r h o o d . As e a r l y as t h e 1870's I n d i a n s o f t h e Nass V a l l e y were i n i t i a t i n g p r o t e s t a c t i o n s p r e c i p i t a t e d by g r i e v a n c e s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e advance o f w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t . The movement away f r o m p e r i o d i c l o c a l i z e d p r o t e s t t o p r o v i n c e - w i d e p r o t e s t d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . D u r i n g t h e 1890's t h e N i s h g a L a n d Committee wsa fo r m e d and l a t e r i n 1916 t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a came i n t o b e i n g . B o t h o f t h e s e i n i -t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f o b t a i n i n g a s e t -t l e m e n t o f t h e i r c l a i m t o c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e l o s s o f a b o r i g i -n a l r i g h t s . In 1927 a S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee o f t h e S e n a t e and House o f Commons was a p p o i n t e d t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e c l a i m s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s . F o l l o w i n g f i v e days o f h e a r i n g s , t h e Committee d e c i d e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s had e s t a b l i s h e d no c l a i m t o t h e l a n d s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b a s e d on a b o r i g n a l t i t l e and recommended t h a t t h e m a t t e r be c l o s e d . A f t e r t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e Committee, 3 t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s c o l l a p s e d . In 1931, a new o r g a n i z a t i o n r e -f e r r e d t o as t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was f o r m e d . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n f o c u s e d on a w i d e r r a n g e o f i s s u e s o f i n t e r e s t t o many d i f f e r e n t I n d i a n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The i n i t i a l e x t r a - k i n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h d e v e -l o p e d t o d e a l w i t h a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m s were d o m i n a t e d by a n a t i v e e l i t e and were s i n g l e i s s u e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The N i s h g a L a n d Committee was t h e p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n o f a s i n g l e l a n g u a g e g r o u p and t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s was an a t t e m p t a t p r o v i n c e - w i d e o r -g a n i z a t i o n . In s h a r p c o n t r a s t , b u t a t t h e same t i m e a c o n t i n u i n g p r o g r e s s i o n , t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d had a b r o a d membership b a s e and was a m u l t i - p u r p o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r m e d p r i o r t o 1931 c a n be r e g a r -ded as r e p r e s e n t i n g phase one o f t h e p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n t h e p r o v i n c e , whereas t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d s i g -n a l s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f phase two. In may ways i t i s r e m a r k a b l e t h a t n a t i v e e x t r a - k i n o r g a -n i z a t i o n s f i r s t d e v e l o p e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , g i v e n t h e p r o -v i n c e ' s d i v i s i v e p h y s i c a l g e o g r a p h y and t h e d i v e r s e c h a r a c t e r o f i t s n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . Y e t o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i d d e v e l o p . A number o f f a c t o r s s e r v e d as c a t a l y s t s . They i n c l u d e d e l e m e n t s w i t h i n t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e c u l t u r e on t h e n o r t h c o a s t o f B r i t i s h Colum-b i a . T h e s e e l e m e n t s f a c i l i t a t e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e x t r a - k i n o r -g a n i z a t i o n s , f o r example a h i e r a r c h i c a l l e a d e r s h i p s t r u c t u r e and t h e e c o n o m i c s p h e r e o f c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g . In a d d i t i o n , t h e p a r -t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n a t i v e s 4 c r e a t e d a number o f g r i e v a n c e s t h a t a c t e d as a t r i g g e r i n g mecha-n i s m f o r e x t r a - t r i b a l p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n . O t h e r f a c t o r s a c t e d as s t i m u l i t o f u r t h e r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F o r example, t h e i s s u e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e and n a t i v e l a n d c l a i m s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e l a c k o f e x t i n g u i s h m e n t o f n a t i v e t i t l e i n t h e p r o v i n c e , p r o m p t e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f phase one o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e D e p r e s s i o n a c t e d as a t r i g -g e r i n g mechanism f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e p hase-two o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F i n a l l y , t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was a n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n -c e r n e d w i t h i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g t h e g e n e r a l w e l f a r e o f a l l I n d i a n s . I t was an o r g a n i z a t i o n g e a r e d t o w a r d e n l a r g i n g t h e e c o n o m i c , s o -c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o I n d i a n s , w h i l e s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r I n d i a n r i g h t s and i d e n t i t y . The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d p o s s e s s e d aims and g o a l s w h i c h were p a n - I n d i a n i n n a t u r e , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t i t was o n l y a p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i -z a t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l examine t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e p o l i -t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1890-1945. C h a p t e r One w i l l f o c u s on t h e i m p e d i m e n t s t o , f a c t o r s p e r t a i n i n g t o and c a u s e s o f P a n - I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h Colum-b i a . C h a p t e r s Two and T h r e e w i l l d i s c u s s t h e two p h a s e s o f na-t i v e p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The aims, o b j e c t i v e s and a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e N i s h g a L a n d Committee, The A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h Co-l u m b i a and t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i l l be e x a m i n e d . F i n a l l y , C h a p t e r T h r e e w i l l d i s c u s s t h o s e t h e o r i e s o f 5 c o l o n i a l i s m and i n d e p e n d e n c e movements r e l e v a n t t o e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e P a n - I n d i a n n a t u r e o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h Co-l u m b i a . 6 Chapter One I n d i a n O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a :  Impediments and I n c e n t i v e s No a r e a o f c o m p a r a b l e s i z e i n Canada i n c l u d e d a n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n t h a t was as c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e as t h e n a t i v e s o f B r i -t i s h C o l u m b i a . In p a r t t h i s was a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e complex phy-s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e d . Y e t , d e s p i t e t h i s c u l t u -r a l and p h y s i c a l d i v e r s i t y , t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were t h e f i r s t t o d e v e l o p e x t r a - k i n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o ad-d r e s s i s s u e s o f c o n c e r n t o n a t i v e p e o p l e s and n a t i v e l e a d e r s f r o m t h i s p r o v i n c e have been i n t h e f o r e f r o n t o f n a t i v e p o l i t i -c a l a c t i v i t y on t h e n a t i o n a l s c e n e . C h a p t e r One w i l l a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e a s p e c t s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s n a t i v e g r o u p s t h a t e n c o u r a g e d and f a c i l i t a t e d t h e de-v e l o p m e n t o f e f f e c t i v e e x t r a - k i n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The d i s c u s s i o n w i l l b e g i n by f o c u s i n g on t h e c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f I n d i a n g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e . Those f a c t o r s p e r t a i n i n g t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m w i t h i n n a t i v e c u l t u r e w i l l t h e n be e x a m i n e d . F i n a l l y , t h e c a u s a l f a c t o r s o r t r i g g e r i n g mecha-nis m s p r o v i d e d by t h e p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f B r i -t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s I n d i a n s w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d . N a t i v e D i v e r s i t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s u s u a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h two main c u l t u r a l a r e a s : t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t o r M a r i t i m e R e g i o n and t h e I n t e r - M o u n t a i n o r I n t e r i o r Region."'" These a r e a s were i n -7 h a b i t e d by i n d e p e n d e n t g r o u p s o f p e o p l e who had d e v e l o p e d c u l -t u r e s t h a t s h a r e d many s i m i l a r i t i e s . However, t h i s d i d n o t mean t h a t t h e g r o u p s f o u n d w i t h i n a g i v e n c u l t u r e a r e a a l w a y s c o -- o p e r a t e d o r m a i n t a i n e d f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s . T h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s -i n g g i v e n t h a t w i t h i n e a c h c u l t u r e a r e a a number o f e t h n i c d i v i -s i o n s e x i s t e d v a r y i n g i n g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n , l a n g u a g e and c u l -t u r e . As a means o f o r g a n i z i n g d a t a p e r t a i n i n g t o a v e r y d i v e r s e and complex n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a n t h r o p o l o -g i s t s have r e c o g n i z e d t e n major e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s . E a c h d i v i s i o n i n c l u d e s a common l a n g u a g e and a s i m i l a r c u l t u r e . S i x o f t h e s e d i v i s i o n s were f o u n d on t h e c o a s t and f o u r i n t h e i n t e r i o r . T h ose d i v i s i o n s w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e l a n g u a g e s spoken on t h e c o a s t were t h e H a i d a , T s i m s h i a n , Kwawgelth ( K w a k i u t l ) , B e l l a C o o l a , N u u - c h a h - n u l t h (Nootka) and C o a s t S a l i s h . Those o f t h e i n t e r i o r were t h e I n l a n d T l i n g i t , A t h a p a s k a n , I n t e r i o r S a l i s h 2 and K o o t e n a y . E a c h o f t h e s e m a j o r e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s c a n be f u r -t h e r s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o g r o u p s w h i c h s h a r e s i n g l e l a n g u a g e s o r ma-j o r d i a l e c t s . In c o n t r a s t t o a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s r e c o g n i z e no common o r u n i f o r m l y u s e d t e r m t o r e f e r t o t h e c o n c e p t o f l a n g u a g e o r d i a l e c t g r o u p . The t e r m " t r i b a l g r o u p " i s f r e q u e n t l y u s e d , w h i l e t h e t e r m " t r i b e " i s o c -c a s i o n a l l y u s e d , w i t h t h e l a t e r r e f e r r i n g t o " c l a n " on t h e n o r t h 3 c o a s t and t o " v i l l a g e " o r "band" e l s e w h e r e . R e g a r d l e s s o f what c l a s s i f i c a t o r y s y s t e m i s u s e d o r t e r m i n o l o g y i s a d a p t e d , t h e f a c t r e m a i n s t h a t w i t h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y was immense and a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f n a t i v e l a n g u a g e s a r e spo k e n 8 h e r e t h a n i n t h e r e s t o f Canada. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e l i s t i n g t h e l a n g u a g e o r d i a l e c t g r o u p s f o u n d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o d a y c l e a r l y r e v e a l s a h i g h d e g r e e o f l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y . T h i s d i -v e r s i t y was an o b s t a c l e i m p e d i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n between I n d i a n g r o u p s and f u r t h e r m o r e t h e g r o w t h o f e x t r a - k i n o r g n i z a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n t o l i n g u i s t i c c o m p o s i t i o n , t h e d i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e i r d i f f e r i n g s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . In a l l r e -g i o n s o f t h e p r o v i n c e , t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l u n i t o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y was t h e g r o u p o f p e o p l e who l i v e d t o g e t h e r t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . T hese g r o u p s were Kinsmen who s h a r e d a p a r -t i c u l a r d w e l l i n g and who owned s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e a r e a s . They have been r e f e r r e d t o by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s by a v a r i e t y o f t e r m s , b u t t h o s e u s e d most commonly a r e : c l a n , l i n e a g e , house g r o u p o r s o c i a l u n i t . T h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e , t h e d e g r e e o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a c h i e v e d by t h i s k i n u n i t was d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p h y s i c a l g e o g r a p h y o f t h e r e g i o n i t i n h a b i t e d , as w e l l as t h e i m p o r t a n c e i t a s s i g n e d t o t h e c o n c e p t s o f h e r e d i t y , w e a l t h and r a n k . I n d i a n s o f t h e M a r i t i m e o r c o a s t a l r e g i o n p o s s e s s e d an a r e a l c u l t u r e t h a t was e l a b o r a t e and h i g h l y a d a p t e d t o i t s e n v i -ronment; w i t h i n t h i s c u l t u r e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e f i s h e r i e s was t h e c r u x o f t h e i r economy. The t e e m i n g l i f e i n t h e w a t e r s o f t h e P a c i f i c f u r n i s h e d a s t a b l e f o o d s u p p l y w h i c h a l l o w e d t h e s e peo-p l e t o s e t t l e p e r m a n e n t l y i n v i l l a g e s and d e v e l o p a r i c h c u l -4 t u r e . T h r e e g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l t r a i t s were s h a r e d by n a t i v e 9 F i g u r e 1 MAJOR ETHNIC DIVISIONS AMONG B.C. INDIANS S o u r c e : D u f f , W i l s o n , The Impact o f t h e White Man 10 T a b l e 1 N a t i v e I n d i a n L a n g u a g e / D i a l e c t i c Groups i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a N o r t h C o a s t W e s t / C e n t r a l C o a s t S o u t h C o a s t c ^ G i t k s a n c ) N i s h g a H a i d a c ) T s i m s h i a n H a i s a B e l l a C o o l a H e i l t s u k k ) Kwawgelth a ) N u u - c h a h - n u l t h Comox I s l a n d Cowichan S o n g i s h F r a s e r Halkomelem S e c h e l t Squamish Semiahmoo P u n t l a t c h N o r t h e r n I n t e r i o r C e n t r a l and S o u t h e r n I n t e r i o r T l i n g i t K aska T a h l t a n S a l t e a u x B e aver S e k a n i S l a v e C a r r i e r C h i l c o t i n Shuswap L i l l o o e t Thompson Okanagan K o o t e n a y a) b) O " N o o t k a " has been r e j e c t e d i n f a v o u r o f " N u u - c h a h - n u l t h " by t h e g r o u p ' s t r i b a l c o u n c i l . s p e l l i n g "Kwawgelth" more c o r r e c t t h a n " K w a k i u t l " . G i t k s a n , N i s h g a , T s i m s h i a n , whom a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s l a b e l as " T s i m s h i a n " a r e p e r c e i v e d as s e p a r a t e g r o u p s by t h e i r members. S o u r c e : P a u l T e n n a n t , " N a t i v e I n d i a n P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n i n B.C., 1900-1969: A Response t o I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m " 11 g r o u p s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o a s t a l r e g i o n , b u t w i t h s l i g h t m o d i f i c a -t i o n s e x i s t i n g between g e o g r a p h i c l o c a l i t i e s ; f i r s t , was a b a s i c s o c i a l u n i t d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o a r e c o g n i z e d p r i n c i p l e o f K i n -s h i p ; s e c o n d , a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n b a s e d upon t h e h e r e d i t a r y t r a n s m i s s i o n o f s t a t u s and p r i v i l e g e , p l a c i n g s t r e s s on m a t e r i a l w e a l t h ; t h i r d , autonomous k i n g r o u p s o r g a n i z e d by e i t h e r a ma-5 t r i l i n e a l , ' p a t r i l i n e a l o r b i l a t e r a l l i n e o f d e s c e n t . N o r t h c o a s t g r o u p s were d i s t i n c t i n r e c o g n i z i n g h e r e d i t y b a s e d up ma-t r i l i n e a l d e s c e n t , t h a t i s , k i n s h i p t i e s were t r a c e d t h r o u g h t h e f e m a l e l i n e . * ' W i t h i n k i n g r o u p s , members were d i v i d e d i n t o t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f n o b l e s , commoners and s l a v e s ; w i t h a l e a d e r s h i p s t r u c t u r e i n w h i c h one c h i e f was p r e - e m i n e n t . S i n c e k i n g r o u p s were n o t l a r g e e a c h i n d i v i d u a l o c c u p i e d a p r e c i s e p l a c e on a 7 g r a d e d s c a l e o f s o c i a l r a n k . S h i f t i n g t o a s o u t h e r n f o c u s , na-t i v e g r o u p s o f t h e w e s t / c e n t r a l c o a s t r e c o g n i z e d b i l a t e r a l d e s -8 c e n t w i t h a p a t r i l i n e a l b i a s , and t h e r e f o r e d i d n o t have d i s -9 t i n c t c l a n s , n o r d i d t h e y p l a c e as much i m p o r t a n c e on h e r e d i t y . L i k e t h e i r n o r t h e r n n e i g h b o u r s , t h e s e n a t i v e a l s o s e t t l e d i n v i l l a g e s and were s i m i l a r l y o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n t k i n g r o u p s . In t h e s o u t h , g r o u p s were n o t d i v i d e d i n t o c l a n s , b u t r a t h e r i n t o s o c i a l u n i t s b a s e d upon " t r u e k i n s h i p " o r e x t e n -ded f a m i l i e s . " ^ R e f l e c t i n g t h i s t y p e o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e s o u t h e r n n a t i v e s r e c o g n i z e d a more f l e x i b l e a s s i g n m e n t o f s o c i a l r a n k . P h i l i p D r u c k e r n o t e d t h e d e g r e e o f i m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d upon h e r e d i t y by n a t i v e s o f v a r i o u s c o a s t a l a r e a s . A c c o r d i n g t o D r u c k e r : "From t h e C o l u m b i a t o t h e S t r a i t s o f G e o r g i a t h e b a s i s 12 o f s t a t u s was t h e same as i n t h e s o u t h a l t h o u g h t h e f a c t o f he-r e d i t y was s t r e s s e d more and more as one p r o c e e d s n o r t h w a r d . " 1 1 T h e r e were major c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between n a t i v e g r o u p s o f t h e M a r i t i m e o r C o a s t a l r e g i o n and t h o s e o f t h e I n t e r -- M o u n t a i n o r I n t e r i o r r e g i o n . E x i s t e n c e i n t h e i n t e r i o r was much more d i f f i c u l t f o r n a t i v e g r o u p s . In c o n t r a s t t o t h o s e o f t h e c o a s t a l r e g i o n , w i n t e r s i n t h e i n t e r i o r were l o n g and s e v e r e , and t h u s much more t i m e and e n e r g y had t o be e x p e n d e d i n c o p i n g w i t h t h e a d v e r s i t i e s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and i n t h e q u e s t f o r f o o d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e h u n t i n g o f l a n d mammals, w h i c h was n e g l i -12 g i b l e on t h e c o a s t , was o f major i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e i n t e r i o r , 13 and as a r e s u l t i n t e r i o r n a t i v e s were nomadic h u n t e r s . As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e e n v i r o n m e n t a l and e c o n o m i c d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e s o -c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r i o r n a t i v e s was s i m p l e r t h a n t h a t o f c o a s t a l g r o u p s . Rank and c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s o c i a l e q u a l i t y , and p r e s t i g e and l e a d e r s h i p were a t t a i n e d t h r o u g h i n d i v i d u a l a c h i e v e m e n t , r a t h e r t h a n by h e r e d i t y and w e a l t h . In summary, t h e g e o g r a p h i c , l i n g u i s t i c , s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e n a t i v e g r o u p s i n t h e p r o v i n c e c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was e x t r e m e l y d i v e r s e i n c o m p o s i t i o n . Y e t , d e s p i t e t h i s d i v e r s i t y , n a t i v e e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i d d e v e l o p . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p -t e r w i l l f o c u s upon p r o v i d i n g an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s d e v e l o p -ment . 13 T r a d i t i o n a l F a c t o r s P e r t a i n i n g t o t h e F o r m a t i o n o f  N a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n s T h e r e a r e two i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s w h i c h seem t o have been t h e c a t a l y s t s t h a t l e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f n a t i v e e x t r a - k i n o r -a n i z a t i o n i n t h e n o r t h c o a s t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1909 t o 1931. T h e s e f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o t h e n a t u r e o f t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l o r g a -n i z a t i o n and t h e e c o n o m i c o r i e n t a t i o n o f n o r t h c o a s t s o c i e t y . The t e r m t r a d i t i o n a l has been a p p l i e d t o t h e s e f a c t o r s b e c a u s e t h e y b o t h stem d i r e c t l y f r o m p r e - c o n t a c t n a t i v e c u l t u r e . The h i e r a r c h i c a l l e a d e r s h i p c ombined w i t h t h e e c o n o m i c f o c u s on com-m e r c i a l f i s h i n g made n o r t h c o a s t n a t i v e s o c i e t y f a v o u r a b l y d i s -p o s e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n . As n o t e d , a h i e r a r c h i c a l l e a d e r s h i p s t r u c t u r e was d i s -t i n c t t o t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e T s i m s h i a n , H a i d a and T l i n g i t e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s . I n h e r e n t i n t h i s s t r u c t u r e were e l e -ments w h i c h were e a s i l y a d a p t a b l e t o t h e l e a d e r s h i p p a t t e r n s o f modern e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n n o r t h c o a s t s o c i e t y . Of i m p o r t a n c e , l i n e a g e c h i e f s and t h e i r h e i r s h e l d p r i v i l e g e d p o s i -t i o n s and were a c c o r d e d d e f e r e n c e by o t h e r members o f t h e i r k i n 15 g r o u p and t h e v i l l a g e . T hese members o f n a t i v e n o b i l i t y t y p i -c a l l y p o s s e s s e d a number o f s t a t u s t r a i t s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e d them as l e a d e r s . F o r example, a c h i e f had t o be b o r n w i t h no t a i n t o f s l a v e a n c e s t r y i n h i s past."'"*' O t h e r key f e a t u r e s o f l e a d e r s h i p s t a t u s t r a i t s a r e o u t l i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e . C h i e f s s h o u l d be a b l e l e a d e r s , good s p e a k e r s , h a u g h t y and p r o u d b e f o r e s t r a n g e r s , and humble and g e n e r o u s t o w a r d t r i b e s m e n . The i d e a l l e a d e r was an a b l e o r g a -n i z e r and s p e a k e r , and a model o f good t a s t e and 14 c o n d u c t . Above a l l , a c h i e f must be a b l e t o command w e a l t h and t o d i s t r i b u t e i t t o t h e b e n e f i t o f h i s t r i b e s m e n . 1 7 W h i l e t h e c o n c e p t o f h e r e d i t a r y r a n k p r o d u c e d a l e a d e r s h i p s t r u c t u r e w h i c h was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m o t h e r members o f s o c i e t y , i t d i d n o t p r o d u c e a c l a s s o f a r i s t o -c r a t s who e x p l o i t e d i n d i v i d u a l s o f l o w e r b i r t h . The n o r t h c o a s t c h i e f was a k i n s m a n t o o t h e r members o f h i s s o c i a l u n i t ; t h e y 18 were h i s r e l a t i v e s n o t h i s s u b j e c t s . C h i e f s f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t e m c o m p r i s e d an e x i s t i n g body o f men w i t h t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f i n f l u e n c e t o expand t h e i r r o l e s t o become l e a d e r s o f modern o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Even t o d a y , he-r e d i t a r y c h i e f s a r e r e c o g n i z e d and r e s p e c t e d l e a d e r s w i t h i n n o r t h c o a s t s o c i e t y . T h i s c o n t i n u e d r e c o g n i t i o n and r e s p e c t , as w e l l as t h e i r i n f l u e n t i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s a l l o w e d t h e s e men t o ex-pand t h e i r r o l e as h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f s t o become spokesmen and l e a d e r s o f modern e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A l s o , as a d m i n i s t r a -19 t o r s o f k i n g r o u p r e s o u r c e a r e a s , i t was a l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n f o r c h i e f s t o i n i t i a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o f i g h t f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s t o t h e l a n d and a l s o t o work f o r a b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n o f l i f e f o r t h e i r p e o p l e . I t was t h e a b s e n c e o f s u c h a h i e r a r c h i c a l l e a d e r s h i p s t r u c t u r e i n t h e i n t e r i o r t h a t p r o b a b l y e x p l a i n s why e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i d n o t f i r s t d e v e l o p i n t h a t r e g i o n . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e i n t e r i o r , t h e n o r t h c o a s t was an a r e a i n w h i c h t h e p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f h e r e d i t a r y l e a d e r s c o u l d be expanded, e n a b l i n g c h i e f s t o a d a p t t h e i r r o l e t o a c h a n g i n g modern w o r l d . 15 In a d d i t i o n t o a h i e r a r c h i c a l l e a d e r s h i p , c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g on t h e n o r t h c o a s t by n a t i v e s , p r o v i d e d a b a s e f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f f i s h -i n g t o c o a s t a l I n d i a n s was and s t i l l i s b a s e d upon t h e i r h i s t o -r i c r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i n d u s t r y . W i t h t h e coming o f E u r o p e a n s e t t l e m e n t , many f e a t u r e s o f t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y c h a n g e d . The t r a d i t i o n a l e c o n o m i c b a s e o f s u b s i s t e n c e h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g no 20 l o n g e r e x i s t e d , h a v i n g been p a r t l y r e p l a c e d by c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g . F o r example, t h e p r i m a r y mode o f e a r l y c o m m e r c i a l f i s h -i n g was salmon g i l l n e t t i n g on r i v e r e s t u a r i e s . T h i s method o f f i s h i n g was d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h u t i -21 l i z e d w e i r s , t r a p s , s p e a r s and r e e f n e t t i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f n a t i v e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r m e n d i d n o t f i s h i n t h e i r a n c e s t r a l a r e a s , b u t r a t h e r i n zones i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o 2 2 t h e c a n n e r i e s . A l t h o u g h t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g p r a c t i c e s changed, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e f u r t r a d e , c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g e n t a i l e d g r e a t e r c o n t i n u i t y w i t h p a s t p r a c t i c e s t h a n d i d o t h e r r e s o u r c e 23 i n d u s t r i e s e m p l o y i n g n a t i v e s . In t h e p o s t - 1 8 7 0 p e r i o d commer-c i a l f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y was one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t a r e a s o f I n -24 d i a n employment. In c a n n e r i e s , n a t i v e women worked c l e a n i n g f i s h and f i l l i n g c a n s on an a s s e m b l y l i n e and were p a i d e i t h e r s t r a i g h t wages o r on a p i e c e - w o r k b a s i s . C a n n e r y w o r k e r s o f t e n 25 l i v e d i n s h a c k s w h i c h were b u i l t a r o u n d t h e a c t u a l p l a n t . Na-t i v e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r m e n g e n e r a l l y worked u n d e r some f o r m o f c o n t r a c t w i t h a c a n n e r y , u s i n g c a n n e r y b o a t s and e q u i p m e n t . F u r -t h e r m o r e , t h e y were o f t e n d e p e n d e n t upon a d v a n c e s f r o m t h e 16 c a n n e r y s t o r e t o p u r c h a s e goods r e q u i r e d d u r i n g t h e f i s h i n g s e a -2 6 s o n . I n d e p e n d e n t n a t i v e f i s h e r m e n , owning t h e i r own powered b o a t s , became more numerous d u r i n g t h e 1920's and 1930's. P r i o r t o 1923, n a t i v e s c o u l d o n l y c a t c h f i s h on t h e i r r e s e r v e s f o r im-m e d i a t e c o n s u m p t i o n and b e c a u s e o f t h e i r s t a t u s as wards o f t h e D o m i n i o n government, t h e y were u n a b l e t o s e c u r e l i c e n s e s f o r c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g . However, i n 1923, salmon, h e r r i n g and s e i n -i n g l i c e n s e s were made a v a i l a b l e t o n a t i v e s and as a r e s u l t t h e 27 number o f ' n a t i v e s owning t h e i r own b o a t s i n c r e a s e d . D e s p i t e t h i s g r o w i n g i n d e p e n d e n c e , c a n n e r i e s c o n t i n u e d t o employ a num-b e r o f s t r a t a g e m s i n o r d e r t o r e t a i n t h e l o y a l t y o f a c o r e o f 2 8 f i s h e r m e n . The l i f e and work o f a c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r m a n o r c a n -n e r y w o r k e r e n t a i l e d a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s -t e n c e l i f e s t y l e , b u t t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n n e c t i o n r e m a i n e d u n s e -v e r e d . N o r t h c o a s t n a t i v e s were s t i l l f i s h e r m e n w i t h t h e e x c e p -t i o n t h a t t h e y were now f u n c t i o n i n g i n a modern r e s o u r c e i n d u s -t r y and f i s h i n g f o r l a r g e companies r a t h e r t h a n f o r t h e m s e l v e s . Two a s p e c t s o f n a t i v e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g f a c i l i t a t e d t h e growth and s u c c e s s o f an e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n , namely, t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n . As a r e s u l t o f a s c a t t e r e d p o p u l a -t i o n and t h e s l o w n e s s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , n a t i v e c o l l e c t i v e o r g a -n i z a t i o n was impeded u n t i l t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s o f modern t e c h n o l o g y 29 were a b l e t o l e s s e n t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f g e o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s . W i t h t h e a d v e n t o f l a r g e r powered b o a t s , n a t i v e s were a b l e t o t r a v e l and communicate w i t h p e o p l e o f o t h e r v i l l a g e s d u r i n g a l l s e a s o n s o f t h e y e a r . Thus, n o r t h c o a s t I n d i a n f i s h e r m e n 17 p o s s e s s e d t h e key t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n -.motor-i z e d v e s s e l s . F u r t h e r m o r e , a f t e r t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , a g r e a t e r command o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e p r o v i d e d t h e p o t e n t i a l 30 f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n among d i f f e r i n g l a n g u a g e g r o u p s . S i n c e t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t l a n g u a g e c l a s s e s by t h e m i s s i o n a r y Mr. Duncan i n 1857, m i s s i o n a r i e s and t e a c h e r s have s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t a u g h t E n g l i s h t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n s . By 1930, t h e r e was an emergence o f a g e n e r a t i o n o f a d u l t I n d i a n s w i t h a s u f f i c i e n t command o f E n g l i s h f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , w i t h po-wered b o a t s i n t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n , t h e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r m e n o f t h e n o r t h c o a s t were a b l e t o t r a v e l and communicate w i t h n a t i v e s o f o t h e r c o a s t a l c o m m u n i t i e s , and t h u s were an i d e a l membership b a s e f o r an e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n . In a t i m e p e r i o d b e f o r e t h e use o f t e l e p h o n e s , n o r t h c o a s t c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r m e n p o s s e s s e d t h e means t h a t were e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e r e c r u i t m e n t and c o h e s i o n o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e ec o n o m i c o r i e n t a t i o n o f e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y n o r t h c o a s t s o c i e t y was a f a c t o r p e r -t a i n i n g t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . W h i l e t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l l e a d e r s h i p s t r u c t u r e and t h e ec o n o m i c o r i e n t a t i o n o f n o r t h c o a s t s o c i e t y made o r g a n i z a t i o n p o s s i b l e , o t h e r f a c t o r s a c t e d as t h e t r i g g e r i n g mechanisms p r o m p t i n g n a t i v e s t o a c t i o n . T h e s e w i l l now be examined. 18 H i s t o r i c a l D evelopment o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s I n d i a n P o l i c y E u r o p e a n c o n t a c t d i d n o t o c c u r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a u n t i l t h e l a s t q u a r t e r o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y when t h e Hudson's Bay Company was g i v e n a g r a n t f o r c o l o n i z i n g t h e a r e a . I n 1851, t h e Company's C h i e f F a c t o r a t F o r t V i c t o r i a , James D o u g l a s , became G o v e r n o r w i t h o u t r e l i n q u i s h i n g h i s company p o s i t i o n . Under Doug-l a s t h e c o l o n i a l a u t h o r i t i e s p u r s u e d an I n d i a n p o l i c y w h i c h a c -k n o w l e d g e d I n d i a n t i t l e , a d o p t i n g t h e u s u a l B r i t i s h v i e w t h a t a l -t h o u g h a b s o l u t e t i t l e t o t h e l a n d was v e s t e d i n t h e Crown, I n d i -31 ans owned p r o p r i e t o r y r i g h t s . D u r i n g h i s f i r s t y e a r s i n o f f i c e , D o u g l a s n e g o t i a t e d a s e r i e s o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e s u r r e n d e r s i n t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n and s o u t h e a s t e r n p a r t s o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . These t r e a t i e s and t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e n o r t h - e a s t q u a r t e r o f t h e p r o -v i n c e i n t o T r e a t y No. 8 i n 1889, were t h e o n l y f o r m a l t r e a t y ne-32 g o t i a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e p r o v i n c e ' s I n d i a n s p a r t i c i p a t e d . Due t o a l a c k o f f u n d s c a u s e d by t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f B r i -t i s h C o l u m b i a as a Crown C o l o n y , and t h e s e v e r i n g o f D o u g l a s ' s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e Hudson's Bay Company I n d i a n p o l i c y had t o be a l t e r e d . No l o n g e r h a v i n g t h e use o f Company f u n d s t o p u r c h a s e I n d i a n l a n d , a c o l o n i a l p o l i c y was i n s t i t u t e d t h a t a u t h o r i z e d t h e c o n f i r m a t i o n o f r e s e r v e s w i t h o u t t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n o r t h e s u r -r e n d e r o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . In 1858, D o u g l a s , as t h e new G o v e r n o r o f b o t h t h e m a i n l a n d and V a n c o u v e r . I s l a n d , p e t i t i o n e d t h e I m p e r i -a l Government f o r f u n d s t o p u r c h a s e I n d i a n l a n d . H i s r e q u e s t was d e n i e d and t h e r e p l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e B r i t i s h t a x p a y e r s h o u l d n o t 33 be b u r d e n e d w i t h i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l p r o b l e m s . B o t h t h e V a n c o u v e r 19 House o f A s s e m b l y and t h e I m p e r i a l Government a r g u e d t h a t t h e 34 p r o v i s i o n o f f u n d s was t h e o t h e r s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h i s d i s a -greement o v e r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f f u n d s l e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f r e -s e r v e s w i t h o u t t r e a t i e s . As a r e s u l t , D o u g l a s d i r e c t e d t h a t v i l -l a g e r e s e r v e s be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h o u t any n e g o t i a t i o n o r f o r m a l s u r r e n d e r o c c u r r i n g between go-v ernment o f f i c i a l s and I n d i a n s . W i t h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a f t e r D o u g l a s ' s t e r m , a f u r t h e r s h i f t i n I n d i a n p o l i c y was i m p l e m e n t e d , t h e c o n s e q u e n c e b e i n g a f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l c o n f l i c t on how t o d e a l w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f I n d i a n l a n d s . A f t e r t h e r e t i r e m e n t o f D o u g l a s i n 1864, h i s I n d i a n p o l i c y was c u r t a i l e d t o s a t i s f y s e t t l e r s and l o c a l government au-t h o r i t i e s who were o b s e s s e d w i t h t h e i d e a t h a t I n d i a n s were 3 5 s t a n d i n g i n t h e way o f d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n t h e d e v e -lopment o f a p o l i c y w h i c h i g n o r e d o r d e n i e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f any n a t i v e t i t l e t o l a n d . C o n s o l i d a t e d by p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n s i t 3 6 was i m p l e m e n t e d d u r i n g t h e 1870's and 1880's. W i t h C o n f e d e r a -t i o n i n 1871 and t h e t r a n s f e r o f I n d i a n a f f a i r s t o t h e f e d e r a l government, a p e r i o d o f s t o r m y d o m i n i o n - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s b e -gan. The f e d e r a l government a d o p t e d a s t r o n g p o s i t i o n on t h e s u r -r e n d e r o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e t h r o u g h t r e a t y . I t a l s o s u p p o r t e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f new r e s e r v e s and an i n c r e a s e , i n t h e s i z e o f ex-i s t i n g o n e s . In r e s p o n s e , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n government o f f i c i a l s 37 o p p o s e d f e d e r a l i n i t i a t i v e s and r e f u s e d t o make l a n d a v a i l a b l e . The a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l government t o oppose f e d e r a l p l a n s was b a s e d upon t h e f a c t t h a t a f t e r C o n f e d e r a t i o n , t h e l a n d s w h i c h 20 I n d i a n s w o u l d s u r r e n d e r were l e g a l l y v e s t e d i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l 3 8 Crown. In 187 6, an a t t e m p t was made by b o t h g o v e r n m e n t s t o s t u -dy t h e p r o b l e m s o f I n d i a n l a n d s by e s t a b l i s h i n g a J o i n t Committee on I n d i a n R e s e r v e s . T h i s Committee was a c t i v e f o r t h i r t y y e a r s , 39 d u r i n g w h i c h most o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s r e s e r v e s were l a i d o u t . A s e c o n d a t t e m p t by t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g o vernments t o f i n d a s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f I n d i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was made i n 1913. A t t h i s t i m e , a j o i n t f e d e r a l -- p r o v i n c i a l c o m m i s s i o n known as t h e McKenna-McBride Commission, was a p p o i n t e d and a s s i g n e d t h e t a s k o f s e t t l i n g t h e number and s i z e o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s I n d i a n r e s e r v e s . Upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e Co m m i s s i o n ' s i n q u i r y t i t l e was t o be c o n v e y e d t o t h e Dom i n i o n go-40 vernment, f r e e o f any p r o v i n c i a l r e v e r s i o n a r y i n t e r e s t . T h i s meant t h a t s u r r e n d e r e d r e s e r v e l a n d w o u l d no l o n g e r become t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e p r o v i n c e , u n l e s s t h e band had become e x t i n c t . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e Comm i s s i o n v i s i t e d e v e r y I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e i n t h e p r o v i n c e and l i s t e n e d t o t h e t e s t i m o n y o f a l l I n d i a n bands w i l l i n g t o t e s t i f y . A f t e r t h r e e y e a r s o f d e l i b e r a t i o n , i t s r e p o r t was p u b l i s h e d . In most c a s e s , t h e C o m m i s s i o n c o n f i r m e d e x i s t i n g r e s e r v e s . However 87,000 a c r e s o f new r e s e r v e l a n d s were added and 47,000 a c r e s o f e x i s t i n g l a n d s were c u t - o f f . The r e p o r t o f t h e Commission was r a t i f i e d by b o t h D o m i n i o n and P r o v i n c i a l g o vernments i n 1924. A t t h e t i m e , t h i s was t h o u g h t t o be t h e f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t o f q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o n a t i v e l a n d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . However, t h e McKenna-McBride r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s d i s r e g a r d e d an e x i s t i n g p r o v i s i o n o f t h e I n d i a n 21 A c t w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t l a n d c o u l d be c u t - o f f r e s e r v e s o n l y w i t h t h e c o n s e n t o f a d u l t band members. G o v e r n m e n t a l d e n i a l o f t h e e t h i c a l p r o p r i e t i e s i n v o l v e d i n r e d u c i n g t h e s i z e o f n a t i v e r e -s e r v e s l e d t o t h e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and e v e n t u a l p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n by B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n s . In summary, t h e d i s t i n c t h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s n a t i v e s c a u s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and a c t e d as a t r i g g e r -i n g mechanism f o r e x t r a - k i n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The p r o v i n -c i a l g overnment has had a l o n g h i s t o r y o f o p p o s i n g f e d e r a l p o l i -c i e s on t h e i s s u e s o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , t r e a t i e s and r e s e r v e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e two i s s u e s o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e and c u t - o f f l a n d s were t h e b a s i s o f I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s and d i s c o n t e n t , w h i c h e v e n t u -a l l y s p a r k e d n a t i v e a c t i o n . In t h i s r e g a r d , t h e n a t i v e s o f B r i -t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e m a j o r i t y o f C a n a d i a n I n d i -a n s . They were d e a l t w i t h i n a manner o f t o t a l d i s r e g a r d . F o r ex-ample, t h e y were t o s s e d f r o m one l e v e l o f government t o t h e o t h e r a s ; f i r s t l y , r e s e r v e c o m m i s s i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d and d i s b a n d e d ; s e c o n d l y , r e s e r v e s were c o n v e y e d b u t n e v e r t r a n s f e r r e d ; and f i -41 n a l l y , e s t a b l i s h e d r e s e r v e s were c u t - o f f . D e s p i t e t h e d i v e r s e c h a r a c t e r and c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e na-t i v e p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s were f o r m e d . An e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e i r f o r m a t i o n l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t w i t h i n n o r t h c o a s t n a t i v e s o c i e t y f a c t o r s e x i s t e d w h i c h p e r t a i n e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n . T hese f a c t o r s were a l e a d e r s h i p b a s e p r o v i d e d by a t r a d i t i o n a l h i e r a r c h i c a l c h i e f t a i n s t r u c t u r e and t h e key e l e m e n t s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and 2 2 c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e e conomic s p h e r e o f c o m m e r c i a l f i s h -i n g . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e two f a c t o r s , t h e p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s I n d i a n s a c t e d as a t r i g g e r i n g mecha-nism, p r o m p t i n g I n d i a n s t o o r g a n i z e . O t h e r f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e and t h e D e p r e s s i o n o f t h e 1930's, a l -so p r o m p t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r Two as t h e y r e l a t e t o s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 23 C h a p t e r One - N o t e s W i l l m o t t , J i l l A. ( e d . ) , The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h Colum-b i a : A S t u d y - D i s c u s s i o n T e x t , ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Department o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n , 1963), p. 6. 2 I b i d . , pp. 7-10. 3 T e n n a n t , P a u l , " N a t i v e I n d i a n P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1900-1969: A Response t o I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m , " B.C. S t u d i e s , ( V o l . 55, Autumn 1982, pp. 3-49), p.9. 4 D r u c k e r , P h i l i p , C u l t u r e s o f t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c C o a s t , (San F r a n c i s c o : C h a n d l e r P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1965), p. 9. 5 I b i d . , p. 4 6. 6 W i l l m o t t , J i l l , A. ( e d . ) , The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h Colum-b i a : A S t u d y - D i s c u s s i o n T e x t , p. 10. 7 48. D r u c k e r , P h i l i p , C u l t u r e s o f t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c C o a s t , p. g D r u c k e r , P h i l i p , "Rank, W e a l t h , and K i n s h i p i n N o r t h -c o a s t S o c i e t y , " i n McFeat, Tom, ( e d . ) , I n d i a n s o f t h e N o r t h P a c i -f i c C o a s t , ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n PRess, 1960), p. 141. 9 T e n n a n t , P a u l , B.C. S t u d i e s , p. 12. 1 0 W i l l m o t t , J i l l , A., ( e d . ) , The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a : A S t u d y - D i s c u s s i o n . T e x t , p. 10. 1 1 D r u c k e r , P h i l i p , "Rank, W e a l t h and K i n s h i p i n N o r t h -c o a s t S o c i e t y , " i n McFeat, Tom, ( e d . ) , I n d i a n s o f t h e N o r t h P a c i -f i c C o a s t , p. 143. 12 W i l l m o t t , J i l l , A. ( e d . ) , The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a : A S t u d y D i s c u s s i o n T e x t , p. 10. D u f f , W i l s o n , The Impact o f t h e W hite Man, ( V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1965), p. 12. 14 W i l l m o t t , J i l l , A., ( e d . ) , The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a : A S t u d y - D i s c u s s i o n T e x t , p. 10. 15 G a r f i e l d , V i o l a , and W i n g e r t , P a u l , The T s i m s h i a n I n d i -ans and T h e i r A r t s , ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1966), p. 27. 24 I b i d . I b i d . "I o D r u c k e r , P h i l i p , C u l t u r e s o f t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c C o a s t , 1 9 I b i d . , p. 50. 2 0 K n i g h t , R o l f , I n d i a n s a t Work: An I n f o r m a l H i s t o r y o f  N a t i v e I n d i a n L a b o u r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( V a n c o u v e r : New S t a r Books, 1978), p. 10. 49 21 I b i d . , P- 11. 22 I b i d . 23 I b i d . , P- 12 . 24 I b i d . , P- 10. 25 I b i d . , P- 12 . 26 I b i d . , P- 78. 27 L a V i o l e t t e , F o r r e s t E d i a n C u l t u r e s and t h e P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , (To-r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1973), p. 138. 2 8 K n i g h t , R o l f , I n d i a n s a t Work: An I n f o r m a l H i s t o r y o f  N a t i v e I n d i a n L a b o u r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p. 12. 2 9 L a V i o l e t t e , F o r r e s t E., The S t r u g g l e f o r S u r v i v a l :  I n d i a n C u l t u r e s and t h e P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p. 151. 30 T e n n a n t , P a u l , B.C. S t u d i e s , p. 29. 31 M a d i l l , D e n n i s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n T r e a t i e s i n  H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e , (Ottawa: R e s e a r c h B r a n c h , C o r p o r a t e P o l i c y , I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s Canada, 1981), p. 7. 32 I b i d . , pp. 9-32. 33 D r u c k e r , P h i l i p , The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d s : Modern  I n t e r t r i b a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , ( W a s h i n g t o n : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1958), p. 79. 34 M a d i l l , D e n n i s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n T r e a t i e s i n  H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e , p. 33. 25 F i s h e r , R o b i n , " J o s e p h T r u t c h and I n d i a n L a n d P o l i c y , " i n F r i e s e n , J . , and R a l s t o n , H. K., ( e d s ) , H i s t o r i c a l E s s a y s on  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( T o r o n t o : Gage P u b l i s h i n g L t d . , 1980), p. 257. 3 6 M a d i l l , D e n n i s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n T r e a t i e s i n  H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e , p. 37. 37 F r i d e r e s , James, Canada's I n d i a n s : C o n t e m p o r a r y  C o n f l i c t s , ( T o r o n t o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l o f Canada, 1974), p. 136. - J O T e n n a n t , P a u l , B.C. S t u d i e s , p. 14. 39 D u f f , W i l s o n , The Impact o f t h e W h i t e Man, p. 68. I b i d . M c Cullum, Hugh and K a r m e l , T h i s L a n d i s Not f o r S a l e , ( T o r o n t o : A n g l i c a n Book C e n t r e , 1975), p. 126. 26 C h a p t e r Two The F i r s t Phase o f I n d i a n O r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : The  N i s h g a L a n d Committee and The A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a began t o d e v e l o p t h e f i r s t e x t r a - k i n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Canada between 1890--1945. As n o t e d , two d i s t i n c t p h a s e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t c a n be i d e n -t i f i e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e aims and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s e o r g a n i -z a t i o n s . The f i r s t p h ase c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e t i m e o f t h e N i s h g a L a n d Committee and t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h i c h were g e a r e d t o w a r d t h e i s s u e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e and n a t i v e l a n d c l a i m s . Phase One: The N i s h g a L a n d Committee The f i r s t e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were f o r m e d as an e x p r e s s i o n o f n a t i v e l a n d c l a i m s and were b a s e d upon t h e c o n c e p t o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . P r i o r t o an e x a m i n a -t i o n o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n and c l a r i f i c a -t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e i s n e c e s s a r y . A b o r i g i n a l t i t l e was i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e B r i t i s h as b e i n g "a t e r -r i t o r i a l r a n g e o f r i g h t s o f an i d e n t i f i a b l e g r o u p o v e r a wide b u t d e f i n a b l e a r e a f o r f o o d - g a t h e r i n g , h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and trapping.""'" I t was n o t a c l e a r l a n d t i t l e t o a f i x e d o c c u p a t i o -n a l s i t e . A b o r i g i n a l t i t l e was s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e B r i t i s h p r e -m i s e o f o c c u p a t i o n w h i c h v e s t e d a b s o l u t e t i t l e t o l a n d i n t h e Crown, y e t a c k n o w l e d g e d a b o r i g i n a l t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s w h i c h had 2 t o be s u r r e n d e r e d . F o r example, a c o n q u e r i n g o r d i s c o v e r i n g 2 7 n a t i o n c o u l d a s s e r t s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r t h e l a n d s , b u t t h e a b o r i -g i n a l p e o p l e s r e t a i n e d p r o p e r t y r i g h t s u n t i l t h e y were s u r r e n -d e r e d t o t h e Crown. Under t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n o f 1763 d u r i n g t h e c o l o n i z a t i o n o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , t h e s e v i e w s o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e were e n s h r i n e d i n law. The b a s i c i n t e n t i o n o f t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n was t o e f f e c t i v e l y s p e c i f y a p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f n a t i v e h u n t i n g g r o u n d s by w h i t e s . P a t e r n a l i s t i c and s e l f - s e r v i n g i n n a t u r e , t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n s o u g h t t o " p r o t e c t " n a t i v e p e o p l e s and g u a r a n t e e t h e i r l o y a l t y by s e t t i n g a s i d e v a s t t r a c t s o f l a n d f o r t h e i r u s e , and t h u s i n s u l a t e them f r o m t h e " e v i l " a s p e c t s o f w h i t e s o c i e t y . F o r example, t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n s t a t e d : I t i s j u s t and r e a s o n a b l e , and e s s e n t i a l t o o u r i n t e -r e s t , and t h e s e c u r i t y o f o u r c o l o n i e s , t h a t t h e s e v e -r a l N a t i o n s o r T r i b e s o f I n d i a n s w i t h whom we a r e c o n -n e c t e d , and who l i v e u nder o u r P r o t e c t i o n , s h o u l d n o t be m o l e s t e d o r d i s t u r b e d i n t h e P o s s e s s i o n o f s u c h P a r t s o f o u r Do m i n i o n and T e r r i t o r i e s a s , n o t h a v i n g b e en c e d e d t o o r p u r c h a s e d by Us, a r e r e s e r v e d t o them as t h e i r H u n t i n g Ground...3 Thus, t h e r e s u l t o f t h e R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n was a p r o c e s s o f mak-i n g t r e a t i e s w i t h a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s i n o r d e r t o a c q u i r e l a n d f o r s e t t l e m e n t . T r e a t i e s were an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e and t h e r e f o r e , r a t h e r t h a n d e n y i n g t h e e x i s t -e n c e o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s , t h e y a c t u a l l y s u p p o r t e d t h e c o n c e p t . The a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a became t h e m a j o r f o c u s o f I n d i a n g r i e v a n c e s due t o : f i r s t , t h e advance o f w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t ; s e c o n d , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a d i s t i n c t p r o -v i n c i a l I n d i a n p o l i c y ; and t h i r d , t h e c o n s e q u e n t F e d e r a l -28 - P r o v i n c i a l d i s p u t e o v e r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e and r e s e r v e a l l o t m e n t . As a r e s u l t o f t r e a t i e s b e i n g made i n o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f s o u t h e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , n a t i v e s i n o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e p r o v i n c e c l a i m e d t h a t t h e i r t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s t o l a n d h a d n e v e r been e x t i n g u i s h e d . B e g i n n i n g a r o u n d t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , t h e N i s h g a L a n d Committee, a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body o f t h e N i s h g a n a t i v e s o f t h e Nass V a l l e y was f o r m e d . I t was e s t a b -l i s h e d t o p r e s s t h e government f o r a s e t t l e m e n t o f an I n d i a n c l a i m t o c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e l o s s o f t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . S i n c e 1881 t h e Nass V a l l e y , l o c a t e d i n t h e n o r t h w e s t p o r -t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e , had been a f o c a l p o i n t o f I n d i a n a g i t a t i o n o v e r t h e l o s s o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s . The f i r s t e x p r e s s i o n o f o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p r o v i n c e ' s I n d i a n p o l i c y o c c u r r e d i n 1887, when t h e N i s h g a e x p e l l e d f r o m t h e i r h omeland government o f f i -c i a l s who were a s s i g n e d t h e t a s k o f s u r v e y i n g and a s s i g n i n g r e -4 s e r v e l a n d . • T h i s e v e n t marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f one o f t h e l o n -g e s t and most u n u s u a l s t a n d s t a k e n by a n a t i v e g r o u p i n Canada. F u r t h e r a c t i o n was t a k e n by t h e N i s h g a i n 1887, when t h e i r l e a -d e r s went t o V i c t o r i a i n an a t t e m p t t o p r e s e n t t h e i r c a s e t o t h e l e g i s l a t o r s . T h e i r argument was b a s e d upon t h e c o n c e p t o f a b o r i -g i n a l t i t l e and i s summed up i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e : ... From t i m e i m m e m o r i a l , t h e Nass R i v e r N i s h g a I n d i -ans p o s s e s s e d , o c c u p i e d and u s e d t h e Nass R i v e r V a l l e y and we have n e v e r c e d e d o r e x t i n g u i s h e d o u r a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . 5 29 I t was d u r i n g t h e 1890's t h a t t h e N i s h g a o r g a n i z e d t h e N i s h g a L a n d Committee. I t was a body c o m p r i s e d o f f i v e v i l l a g e commit-t e e s c o n s i s t i n g o f f o u r c h i e f s f r o m e a c h c l a n . The N i s h g a L a n d Committee had t h e power t o e l e c t i t s own c h a i r m a n and o f f i c e r s . 6 In 1909, t h e L a n d Committee h i r e d A. E. O'Meara, a law-7 y e r , i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a l e g a l o p i n i o n on a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . Upon h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , t h e N i s h g a d e c i d e d t o s u b m i t t h e i r c l a i m s i n t h e f o r m o f a p e t i t i o n t o t h e G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l o f Ca-nada and t o t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r t h e C o l o n i e s . I t i s p r o -b a b l e t h a t O'Meara was t h e main a u t h o r o f t h e N i s h g a P e t i t i o n w h i c h was d r a f t e d i n 1913, f o r a t t h i s t i m e few n a t i v e s w o u l d have p o s s e s s e d a knowledge o f B r i t i s h law. The N i s h g a P e t i t i o n s t a t e d : W h i l e we c l a i m t h e r i g h t t o be c o m p e n s a t e d f o r t h o s e p o r t i o n s o f o u r t e r r i t o r y w h i c h we may a g r e e t o s u r -r e n d e r , we c l a i m as even more i m p o r t a n t t h e r i g h t t o r e s e r v e o t h e r p o r t i o n s p e r m a n e n t l y f o r o u r use and b e -n e f i t and b e y o n d doubt t h e p o r t i o n s w h i c h we d e s i r e so t o r e s e r v e w o u l d i n c l u d e much o f t h e l a n d w h i c h has b e e n s o l d by t h e p r o v i n c e . . . We c l a i m t h a t o u r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s have been g u a r a n -t e e d by P r o c l a m a t i o n s o f K i n g George T h i r d and r e c o g -n i z e d by A c t s o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f G r e a t B r i t a i n . 9 Upon i t s a r r i v a l i n Ottawa, t h e N i s h g a P e t i t i o n was r e -v i e w e d by Duncan S c o t t , Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . S c o t t c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e b e s t way t o r e s o l v e t h e q u e s -t i o n o f I n d i a n t i t l e w o u l d be t o s u b m i t t h e c l a i m t o t h e E x c h e -q u e r C o u r t o f Canada, w i t h r i g h t o f a p p e a l t o t h e J u d i c i a l Com-m i t t e e o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . However, S c o t t a t t a c h e d a number o f c o n d i t i o n s t o h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s : 30 1. The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h a l l , by t h e i r C h i e f s o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , i n a b i n d i n g way, a g r e e , i f t h e C o u r t , o r an a p p e a l , t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l , d e c i d e s t h a t t h e y have a t i t l e t o l a n d s o f t h e P r o v i n c e , t o s u r r e n d e r s u c h t i t l e , r e c e i v i n g f r o m t h e D o m i n i o n b e -n e f i t s t o be g r a n t e d f o r e x t i n g u i s h m e n t o f t i t l e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h p a s t usage o f t h e Crown i n s a t i s f y i n g t h e I n d i a n c l a i m t o u n s u r r e n d e r e d t e r r i t o r i e s , and t o a c c e p t t h e f i n d i n g o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as a p p r o v e d by t h e G o v e r n -ments o f t h e D o m i n i o n and t h e P r o v i n c e as a f u l l a l -l o t m e n t o f r e s e r v e l a n d s t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t as p a r t o f t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n . 2. T h a t t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by g r a n t i n g t h e s a i d r e s e r v e s as a p p r o v e d s h a l l be h e l d t o have s a t i s f i e d a l l c l a i m s o f t h e I n d i a n s a g a i n s t t h e P r o -v i n c e . T h a t t h e r e m a i n n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h a l l be p r o v i -ded and t h e c o s t t h e r e o f b o r n e by t h e Government o f t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada. 3. T h a t t h e Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h a l l be r e p r e s e n t e d by c o u n s e l , t h a t t h e I n d i a n s s h a l l be r e -p r e s e n t e d by c o u n s e l n o m i n a t e d and p a i d by t h e Domin-i o n . 4. T h a t , i n t h e e v e n t o f t h e C o u r t o f t h e P r i v y Coun-c i l d e c i d i n g t h a t t h e I n d i a n s have no t i t l e i n t h e l a n d s o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e p o l i c y o f t h e D o m i n i o n t o w a r d t h e I n d i a n s s h a l l be g o v e r n e d by c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and f u t u r e d e v e -l o p m e n t . 10 When t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s were communicated by an O r d e r - i n -- C o u n c i l , t o O'Meara and t h e Land Committee, t h e N i s h g a d e c i d e d n o t t o a l l o w t h e i r c l a i m t o p r o c e e d . In t h e i r o p i n i o n , t h e p r o -p o s e d c o n d i t i o n s d i s a l l o w e d any b e n e f i t s t o be g a i n e d f r o m a de-c i s i o n i n t h e i r f a v o u r , t h e r e f o r e t h e c l a i m was h a l t e d . From t h e n a t i v e s ' p e r s p e c t i v e t h e y were i n a no win situation."'"''' However, t h e N i s h g a P e t i t i o n , w h i c h was w i d e l y c i r c u l a t e d among t h e p r o -v i n c e ' s I n d i a n s , was a d o p t e d as a g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t o f t h e abo-r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m , an o u t l i n e o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r a s e t t l e -ment. As s u p p o r t mounted, P e t e r K e l l y , Andrew P a u l l and "many o f 12 t h e e l d e r I n d i a n s t a t e s m e n o f t h e day" r e c o g n i z e d t h e 31 s h o r t c o m i n g s o f l o c a l and d i v i d e d i n d i v i d u a l g r i e v a n c e s and i n 13 1915 began t o . o r g a n i z e The A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In 1916, a t a m e e t i n g h e l d i n V a n c o u v e r d u r i n g t h e e a r l y summer, t h e N i s h g a j o i n e d w i t h C o a s t S a l i s h and o t h e r n o r t h c o a s t g r o u p s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p r o p o s e d c o n d i t i o n s a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r c a s e b e i n g h e a r d by t h e E x c h e q u e r C o u r t and a l s o t o t h e work o f t h e McKenna-McBride C o m m i s s i o n . I n d i a n g r o u p s r e p r e s e n -t e d a t t h i s m e e t i n g were, from t h e I n t e r i o r ( t h e Okanagan, Lake o r S e n j e x t e e , Thompson R i v e r a t C o u t e a u , L i l l o o e t , K u t e n a i , C h i l c o t i n , C a r r i e r , T a h l t o n ) and f r o m t h e C o a s t ( t h e N i s h g a , T s i m s h i a n , G i t s k a n , H a i d a , B e l l a C o o l a , C o w i c h a n , and Lower F r a -14 s e r o r S t a l o ) . A t t h i s m e e t i n g an E x e c u t i v e Committee was e s -t a b l i s h e d w h i c h e l e c t e d i t s own o f f i c e r s , b u t no f o r m a l r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e b o d i e s were i n s t i t u t e d a t t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l . R a t h e r , d e l e g a t e s f r o m e a c h community were e l e c t e d t o a t t e n d g e n e r a l m e e t i n g s and t o p r o v i d e a c o m m u n i c a t i o n l i n k between v i l l a g e and E x e c u t i v e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s was an e l i t e b a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h r e m a i n e d e s s e n t i a l l y u n o r g a n i z e d a t t h e l o -c a l l e v e l , w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d and f o r m a l Ex-15 e c u t i v e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n had no membership f e e s o r t e c h n i q u e s f o r f u n d r a i s i n g e x c e p t f o r t h e p r a c t i c e o f a s k i n g f o r d o n a t i o n s . T h e s e d o n a t i o n s were u s e d t o f i n a n c e t r a v e l by E x e c u t i v e members, t o pay a t t o r n e y ' s f e e s and t o c o v e r g e n e r a l e x p e n s e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . " ' " 6 A l t h o u g h t h e N i s h g a were members o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , t h e y r e m a i n e d i n d e p e n d e n t i n t h e p u r s u i t o f t h e i r c l a i m . O'Meara 32 c o n t i n u e d t o a c t as t h e i r l a w y e r and i n 1915 he f o r w a r d e d a r e -p o r t t o t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l a s k i n g t h a t t h e N i s h g a P e t i t i o n be h e a r d by t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . In r e p l y t h e L o r d P r e s i d e n t o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l s t a t e d t h a t no a c t i o n c o u l d be t a k e n on t h e P e t i t i o n w i t h o u t t h e a d v i c e o f t h e Domin-i o n Government, r e l a y e d t h r o u g h t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r t h e 17 C o l o n i e s . The N i s h g a s t i l l p e r s i s t e d i n t h e i r c l a i m , p o s s i b l y on t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f O'Meara, i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e J u d i c i a l Committee w o u l d i n due c o u r s e d e c i d e upon t h e i s s u e o f a b o r i g i -18 n a l r i g h t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . However, by 1922 t h e N i s h g a had d r i f t e d away f r o m t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , p r e f e r r i n g t o f i g h t t h e i r own claim."'" 9 In 1916, t h e McKenna-McBride Co m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s u b m i t t e d i t s r e p o r t recommending t h e a d d i -t i o n o f 87,000 a c r e s t o r e s e r v e s and t h e r e m o v a l o f 47,000 f r o m r e s e r v e s . However, between 1916 and 1919, n e i t h e r t h e D o m i n i o n nor t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government moved t o implement t h e Committee's r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . P r o b l e m s a r o s e r e g a r d i n g t h e c l a u s e o f t h e M cKenna-McBride r e p o r t w h i c h s p e c i f i e d t h a t no l a n d s c o u l d be " c u t - o f f " r e s e r v e s w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e I n d i a n s as s t i p u -l a t e d by t h e I n d i a n A c t . The Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a wan-t e d a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e I n d i a n s w o u l d be o b t a i n e d . A s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f o b t a i n i n g I n d i a n c o n s e n t t o t h e c u t - o f f s was p r o p o s e d by t h e D o m i n i o n Government i n 1919. On March 12, 1920, B i l l 13 e n t i t l e d "An A c t t o P r o v i d e f o r t h e S e t -t l e m e n t o f t h e D i f f e r e n c e s between t h e Government o f t h e 33 D o m i n i o n o f Canada and t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e s p e c t -i n g I n d i a n Lands and C e r t a i n O t h e r I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n t h e s a i d 20 P r o v i n c e " was i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e House o f Commons. T h i s B i l l was i n t e n d e d t o empower t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l t o : ... do, e x e c u t e , and f u l f i l e v e r y a c t , deed, m a t t e r o r t h i n g n e c e s s a r y . . . f o r t h e f u l l and f i n a l a d j u s t m e n t o f a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s a i d Governments r e s p e c t -i n g I n d i a n l a n d s and I n d i a n a f f a i r s i n t h e P r o v i n c e . 2 1 S h o r t l y a f t e r B i l l 13 was i n t r o d u c e d , t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s s e n t a d e l e g a t i o n t o Ottawa i n o r d e r t o oppose t h e l e g i s l a t i o n . Members o f t h e d e l e g a t i o n i n c l u d e d : P e t e r C a l d e r ; George Mathe-son; P e t e r K e l l y ; C h i e f B a s i l D a v i d ; J . A. T e i t and A. E. O'Meara. The d e l e g a t i o n , s u c c e e d e d i n g a i n i n g t h e s u p p o r t o f a number o f L i b e r a l Members o f P a r l i a m e n t and S e n a t o r s , b u t was u n a b l e t o s t o p t h e p a s s a g e o f B i l l 13, w h i c h r e c e i v e d r o y a l a s -22 s e n t i n J u l y o f 1920. A l t h o u g h t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e A l -l i e d T r i b e s had l o s t a maj o r b a t t l e i n Ottawa, t h e i r f o c u s s h i f -t e d b a c k t o t h e s u b m i s s i o n o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e c l a i m t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . T h i s o b j e c t i v e was c o n -f i r m e d by a r e s o l u t i o n p a s s e d i n 1925 by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s Ex-e c u t i v e Committee s t a t i n g : I n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s have p a s -s e d O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l c o n f i r m i n g t h e r e p o r t o f t h e Ro-y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n s A f f a i r s , we t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h Co-l u m b i a a r e more t h a n e v e r d e t e r m i n e d t o t a k e s u c h a c -t i o n as may be n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t h a t t h e I n d i a n 34 T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia may r e c e i v e j u s t i c e and are f u r t h e r m o r e d e t e r m i n e d t o e s t a b l i s h the r i g h t s c l a i m e d by them by a j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l . 23 F i n a l l y , i n an a t t e m p t t o s e c u r e government a s s i s t a n c e i n b r i n g i n g t h e i r c l a i m b e f o r e t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l , t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s 24 p r e s e n t e d a p e t i t i o n t o P a r l i a m e n t on June 10, 1926. The p e t i -t i o n c o n t a i n e d s e v e r a l r e q u e s t s , t h e most i m p o r t a n t b e i n g : . . . t h a t s t e p s be t a k e n t o d e f i n e and s e t t l e t h e o u t -s t a n d i n g i s s u e s between t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s ; t h e P r o -v i n c e and t h e D o m i n i o n ; (what was most i m p o r t a n t a b o u t d e f i n i n g t h e i s s u e s was a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s were a p a r t y t o n e g o t i a t i o n s t h a t up t o t h a t t i m e had a l w a y s t a k e n p l a c e as a two-way a c t i o n be-tween t h e D o m i n i o n and t h e p r o v i n c e ) ; . . . t h a t s t e p s be t a k e n f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i n d e p e n -d e n t p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s and e n a b l i n g them by s e c u r i n g r e f e r e n c e o f t h e P e t i t i o n now i n H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l and s u c h o t h e r i n d e p e n d e n t j u -d i c i a l a c t i o n as s h a l l be f o u n d n e c e s s a r y t o s e c u r e judgement o f t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i d i n g a l l i s s u e s i n v o l v e d ; ' . . . t h a t t h i s P e t i t i o n and a l l r e l a t e d m a t t e r s be r e -f e r r e d t o S p e c i a l Committee f o r f u l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . ^ 5 E s s e n t i a l l y t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s was a s k i n g f o r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t t h e i r c a s e t o an o f f i c i a l p u b l i c f orum and d e m o n s t r a t e t h e r e a s o n a b l e n a t u r e o f t h e c l a i m and t h e ne e d f o r i t t o a p p e a r b e f o r e t h e h i g h e s t c o u r t i n t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e , t h e P r i v y Coun-c i l . By r e f e r r i n g t h e I n d i a n l a n d c o n t r o v e r s y t o a S p e c i a l Com-m i t t e e , t h e F e d e r a l Government p e r c e i v e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o f i -n a l l y r e s o l v e t h e i s s u e i n a more c o n v e n i e n t and l e s s e x p e n s i v e r o u t e t h a n a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee. C o n s e q u e n t l y , a " S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee o f t h e S e n a t e and House o f Commons 35 m e e t i n g i n J o i n t S e s s i o n t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e C l a i m s o f t h e A l -l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " was c o n v e n e d on March 22, 1927 2 6 and h e l d s i t t i n g s on March 30, 31 and A p r i l 4, 5 and 6. On t h e f i r s t day o f t h e h e a r i n g s , Duncan C a m p b e l l S c o t t , D e p uty S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s was a s k e d t o p r e s e n t t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e I n d i a n l a n d c o n t r o v e r s y i n o r d e r t o 27 g i v e t h e Committee a g r a s p o f t h e g e n e r a l s i t u a t i o n . The main p o i n t e m p h a s i z e d t h r o u g h o u t S c o t t ' s t e s t i m o n y was t h a t t h e r e had been no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h a t u n d e r t h e c a r e o f h i s D epartment t h e i r needs were b e i n g p r o p e r l y l o o k e d a f t e r . S c o t t s t a t e d t h a t t h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r -e nce between B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s n a t i v e s and t h o s e o f o t h e r p r o -v i n c e s was t h e a b s e n c e o f t r e a t i e s , w h i c h he d i s t i n g u i s h e d as b e i n g e s e n t i a l l y a n n u i t y payments. The i n t e n t o f h i s p r e s e n t a -t i o n was t o m i n i m i z e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e e x t i n g u i s h m e n t o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e and s t r e s s t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s I n d i a n s had 2 8 n o t s u f f e r e d t h r o u g h t h e i r l a c k o f t r e a t i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , S c o t t c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t t h e p o s s i b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f an I n d i a n c o u r t v i c t o r y . I t was h i s b e l i e f t h a t a l l o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e McKenna-McBride Commission w o u l d be e i t h e r q u e s t i o n e d o r i n v a l i d a t e d and t h a t a l l t h a t was p o s i t i v e i n t h e I n d i a n s ' r e l a -29 t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government w o u l d be j e o p a r d i z e d . F i n a l l y , r e g a r d i n g t h e I n d i a n s ' demands f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n , S c o t t a s s e r t e d t h a t any c l a i m s t h e I n d i a n s m i g h t have ha d were f u l l y c o m p e n s a t e d by o r d i n a r y Government e x p e n d i t u r e s . I n a d d i t i o n , i t was S c o t t ' s o p i n i o n t h a t t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s r e q u e s t t o go t o t h e J u d i c i a l Committee s h o u l d be refused.^® 36 As t h e h e a r i n g s p r o c e e d e d , A. E. O'Meara a t t e m p t e d t o p r e s e n t an o r a l summary o f t h e d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e . H i s p r e s e n -t a t i o n was wordy and r e p e t i t i o u s , c a u s i n g t h e Committee t o b e -31 come e x a s p e r a t e d , i f n o t r u d e . F u r t h e r damage t o t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s c a s e was c a u s e d when Mr. A. D. M c l n t y r e a p p e a r e d on t h e t h i r d day and i n f o r m e d t h e Committee t h a t he r e p r e s e n t e d t h e I n -t e r i o r I n d i a n s and t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s d i d n o t . M c l n t y r e s t a t e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e I n t e r i o r were n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , b u t r a t h e r w i t h r e c e i v i n g more w a t e r f o r i r r i g a t i o n and t h e r i g h t t o h u n t and f i s h unmoles-32 t e d . T h i s t e s t i m o n y d i m i n i s h e d t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s t o r e p r e s e n t and speak f o r a l l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n s and t h e r e f o r e , must have i n f l u e n c e d t h e Committee. The h e a r i n g s c o n c l u d e d on A p r i l 6 and on A p r i l 11 t h e Committee s u b m i t t e d i t s f i n a l r e p o r t . The Committee came t o t h e unanimous d e c i s i o n t h a t " . . . t h e P e t i t i o n e r s have n o t e s t a b l i s h e d any c l a i m t o t h e l a n d s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b a s e d on a b o r i g i n a l o r o t h e r t i t l e . . . t h e m a t t e r s h o u l d now be r e g a r d e d as f i n a l l y 33 c l o s e d . " The e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n by t h e Committee f o r i t s r e j e c -t i o n o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s c l a i m i s summed up i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : . . . T r a d i t i o n f o r m s so l a r g e a p a r t o f t h e I n d i a n men-t a l i t y t h a t i f i n p r e - c o h f e d e r a t i o n days t h e I n d i a n s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e y had an a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e t o t h e l a n d s o f t h e P r o v i n c e , t h e r e w o u l d have been t r i b a l r e c o r d s o f s u c h b e i n g t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m f a t h e r t o son, e i t h e r by word o f mouth or' i n some o t h e r c u s t o m a r y way... 37 The f i n a l d e c i s i o n o f t h e Committee r e f l e c t e d a r e c o g -n i t i o n o f S c o t t ' s t e s t i m o n y t h a t t h e o n l y d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t i n g between B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n s and o t h e r C a n a d i a n I n d i a n s was t h e payment o f t r e a t y a n n u i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , t h e Committee r e -commended t h a t a g r a n t o f $100,000 a y e a r be e x p e n d e d a n n u a l l y i n l i e u o f a n n u i t i e s . The r e p o r t c o n c l u d e d : I n c o n c l u d i n g , y o u r Committee w o u l d recommend t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n a r r i v e d a t s h o u l d be made known as c o m p l e t e l y as p o s s i b l e t o t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by d i -r e c t i o n o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t G e n e r a l o f I n d i a n A f -f a i r s , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may become aware o f t h e f i -n a l i t y o f f i n d i n g s and a d v i s e d t h a t no f u n d s s h o u l d be c o n t r i b u t e d by them t o c o n t i n u e f u r t h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a c l a i m w h i c h has now been d i s a l l o w e d . 3 5 In a d d i t i o n t o t h e Committee's r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , an i m p o r t a n t am-mendment was made t o t h e I n d i a n A c t on March 31. On t h i s d a t e P a r l i a m e n t p a s s e d an a c t making i t an o f f e n s e t o r e c e i v e f u n d s f r o m I n d i a n s i n o r d e r t o b r i n g an I n d i a n l a n d c l a i m a g a i n s t t h e 3 6 Government. The d e c i s i o n o f t h e S p e c i a l Committee was i n t e r -p r e t e d by t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s as a t o t a l d e f e a t and s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n d i s b a n d e d . The f o r m a t i o n o f t h e N i s h g a L a n d Committee and t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were a t t e m p t s t o p r e s e n t n a t i v e g r i e -v a n c e s t o t h e g o v e r n i n g o f f i c i a l s o f t h e m a j o r i t y s o c i e t y . How-e v e r , t h e N i s h g a L a n d Committee was t h e v o i c e o f one l a n g u a g e g r o u p , w h i l e t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s was an a t t e m p t t o l i n k a l l na-t i v e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e i n a u n i f i e d p r o t e s t . B o t h o f t h e s e o r g a -n i z a t i o n s were d e v e l o p e d as a r e s u l t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s 3 8 I n d i a n l a n d p o l i c y and t h e y were g e a r e d t o w a r d t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m s . T h e r e f o r e , when t h e S p e c i a l J o i n t Com-m i t t e e o f 1927 p r o n o u n c e d t h e i s s u e c l o s e d , t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s was c a s t i n d o u b t . Now N a t i v e s f a c e d g r e a t e r a d -v e r s i t y f r o m t h e Government and p o s s i b l y t h e y n e e ded t i m e t o r e -- g r o u p and a s s e s s t h e i r s i t u a t i o n b e f o r e a t t e m p t i n g t o o r g a n i z e a g a i n . However, t h e s e two i n i t i a l n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d e d a b a s e o f e x p e r i e n c e and t h e i n c e n t i v e f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f new o r g a n i z a t i o n s . B r i t i s h C o l u m i b a I n d i a n s had l e a r n e d how t h e P r o -v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l Governments o p e r a t e d and how t o p r e s e n t t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s t o t h e s e governments. What t h e y had n o t l e a r n e d was how t o a d m i n i s t e r a l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The N a t i v e B r o t h e r -hood o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d p i c k up where t h e s e e a r l y o r g a n i -z a t i o n s l e f t o f f . I t w o u l d a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e a l a r g e r mass ap-p e a l , as w e l l as w i d e r aims and g o a l s w h i c h a f f e c t e d t h e l i v e s o f a l l I n d i a n s . 39 C h a p t e r Two - N o t e s 1 F r i d e r e s , James, Canada's I n d i a n s : C o n t e m p o r a r y  C o n f l i c t s , ( T o r o n t o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l o f Canada, 1974), p. 34. 2 I b i d . 3 I b i d . , p. 20. 4 McCullum, Hugh and K a r m e l , T h i s L a n d i s Not F o r S a l e , A n g l i c a n Bool I b i d . , p. 129 ( T o r o n t o : k C e n t r e , 1975), p. 127 5 6 I b i d . 7 I b i d , g M i t c h e l l , D a r c y , Anne, "The A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A S t u d y i n P r e s s u r e Group B e h a v i o r , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d MA T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f P o l i -t i c a l S c i e n c e , 1977), p. 29. 9 I b i d . I b i d . , p. 3 2. M a n u e l , George and P o s l u n s , M i c h a e l , The F o u r t h W o r l d : An I n d i a n R e a l i t y , ( T o r o n t o : C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n , Canada, L t d . , 1974), p. 83. 1 2 I b i d , p. 84. I b i d . 14 M i t c h e l l , D a r c y , Anne, "The A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A S t u d y i n P r e s s u r e Group B e h a v i o u r , " p. 38. D r u c k e r , P h i l i p , The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d s : Modern I n -t e r t r i b a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , ( W a s h i n g t o n : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1958), p. 16. 1 6 M i t c h e l l , D a r c y , Anne, "The A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A S t u d y i n P r e s s u r e ' G r o u p B e h a v i o u r , " p. 68. 17 I b i d . , p. 40. I b i d . 40 19 20 21 22 23 24 I b i d . , p. 64. I b i d . , pp. 41-44. I b i d . , p. 51. I b i d . , pp. 57-58. I b i d . , p. 27. M a n u e l , George and P o s l u n s , M i c h a e l , The F o u r t h W o r l d :  An I n d i a n R e a l i t y , p. 87. 25 26 I b i d . , p. 88 Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , R e p o r t o f t h e S p e c i a l Committee o f  t h e S e n a t e and House o f Commons t o I n q u i r e i n t o t h e C l a i m s o f  t h e A l l i e d I n d i a n T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , (Ottawa, 1927), p. 2. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s : S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee, 1927). 27 28 2 9 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 I b i d . I b i d . I b i d . I b i d , I b i d . I b i d . I b i d . I b i d . I b i d . I b i d . P-P-P-3. 10 . 14 . p. 77 . p. 142. p. x i . p. v i i i . p. x v i i i . p. x v i i . 41 C h a p t e r T h r e e The S e c o n d Phase o f I n d i a n O r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : The  N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A f t e r t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h Colum-b i a i n 1927 a p e r i o d o f f o u r y e a r s e l a p s e d b e f o r e n a t i v e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e f o r m e d a new e x t r a - k i n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The e s -t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1931 marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new phase i n n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , a n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o c u s e d on a w i d e r r a n g e o f i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e g e n e r a l w e l f a r e and t h e i n f e r i o r s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n s . G r i e v -a n c e s , more s p e c i f i c i n n a t u r e , w h i c h a f f e c t e d and c o n c e r n e d a g r e a t e r number o f I n d i a n s were a d d r e s s e d by t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r -hood. In t h i s r e g a r d , t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d s o u g h t a p r o v i n c e wide r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and was t h e s u c c e s s o r o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A l t h o u g h s t i l l i m p o r t a n t , a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m s were no l o n g e r t h e p r i m a r y and s o l e c o n c e r n o f t h e p r o -v i n c e ' s I n d i a n s . The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was f o u n d e d by A l f r e d Adams ( H a i d a ) , on t h e model o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f A l a s k a . Adams, who had r e l a t i v e s a c t i v e i n t h e A l a s k a B r o t h e r -hood and had a t t e n d e d two c o n v e n t i o n s h i m s e l f , p r e s e n t e d t h e i d e a o f f o r m i n g a s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o t h e c h i e f s o f P o r t Simpson. The i d e a was a p p r o v e d by t h e commu-n i t y l e a d e r s and a t a l a t e r m e e t i n g was a c c e p t e d w i t h e n t h u s i a s m by o t h e r c i t i z e n s . A g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e e t i n g was ( 42 s c h e d u l e d f o r mid-December and on December 13, d e l e g a t i o n s f r o m M a s s e t , H a r t l e y Bay, K i t k a t l a , P o r t E s s i n g t o n and M e t l a k a t l a met and a d o p t e d a r e s o l u t i o n t o o r g a n i z e as t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A t t h i s m e e t i n g , a number o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s were made; f i r s t , a c o n s t i t u t i o n was d r a f t e d s p e c i f y -i n g t h e p u r p o s e and aims o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ; s e c o n d , i t was de-c i d e d t h a t c o n v e n t i o n s w o u l d be h e l d a n n u a l l y ; and t h i r d , o f f i -c e r s w o u l d be e l e c t e d and l o c a l b r a n c h e s were t o be e s t a b -li s h e d . " ' " A f t e r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s s e c o n d c o n v e n t i o n and t h e ad-d i t i o n o f o n l y one more v i l l a g e ( V a n a r s d a l e ) , l e a d e r s began t o a c t i v e l y r e c r u i t new members. C h i e f Heber C l i f t o n o f H a r t l e y Bay and C h i e f Edward Gamble o f K i t k a t l a , b o t h o f h i g h r a n k i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e s y s t e m and t h u s f o r c e f u l l e a d e r s , v i s i t e d o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s by b o a t , i n an a t t e m p t t o p e r s u a d e them t o 2 j o i n t h e B r o t h e r h o o d . As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e e f f o r t s , t h e o r g a n i -z a t i o n s l o w l y e x p a n d e d . F o r example, by 1936 e i g h t c o m m u n i t i e s had become b r a n c h e s : K l e m t u , B e l l a B e l l a , B e l l a C o o l a , K i t i m a t , K i s p i y o x , K i t w a n g a , Skeena C r o s s i n g and H a z e l t o n . The B r o t h e r -hood ha d r e a c h e d a t o t a l membership o f 474 men. E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e f i r s t f i v e y e a r s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s l i f e were l i m i t e d t o ex-p a n d i n g membership, g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f 3 I n d i a n p r o b l e m s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e f a c t o r s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d c a t a -l y z i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e D e p r e s s i o n a l s o a c t e d as a d i r e c t t r i g g e r i n g mechanism. The N a t i v e B r o t h e r -hood was f o r m e d by a g r o u p o f n a t i v e s whose m a j o r o c c u p a t i o n was 43 c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g and whose e x p e r i e n c e s d u r i n g t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e D e p r e s s i o n p r o m p t e d t h e i r u n i f i c a t i o n . The s t o c k m a r k e t c r a s h o f 1929 and t h e D e p r e s s i o n w h i c h f o l l o w e d h i t t h e salmon 4 i n d u s t r y v e r y h a r d . In a d d i t i o n , as has been m e n t i o n e d , d u r i n g t h e 1920's many i n d i v i d u a l f i s h e r m e n were p u r c h a s i n g t h e i r own f i s h i n g c r a f t . T h e s e b o a t s were u s u a l l y f i n a n c e d by f u n d s a d -v a n c e d by t h e c a n n e r y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , f i s h e r m e n were o b l i g a t e d t o s e l l t h e i r c a t c h e s t o t h e c a n n e r y i n o r d e r t h a t a p e r c e n t a g e o f 5 t h e i r e a r n i n g s c o u l d be d e d u c t e d t o pay f o r l o a n s and i n t e r e s t . Hence, many f i s h e r m e n were h e a v i l y i n d e b t when t h e D e p r e s s i o n c a u s e d added e c o n o m i c h a r d s h i p . F u r t h e r m o r e , l a b o u r u n r e s t com-p l i c a t e d m a t t e r s e v e n more f o r n o r t h c o a s t I n d i a n s . F o r example, t h e r e had been a number o f p o o r l y o r g a n i z e d f i s h e r m e n ' s s t r i k e s i n w h i c h t h e I n d i a n s were l e f t " h o l d i n g t h e b a g , " w h i l e w h i t e and J a p a n e s e f i s h e r m e n were o u t making b i g c a t c h e s . 6 T h e s e c o n -d i t i o n s u n d o u b t e d l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n c e n t i v e n e e ded by I n d i -an f i s h e r m e n t o u n i t e i n t o an e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n . F u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t i o n f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n i s p r o v i d e d by Thomas G o s n e l l ( N i s h g a ) , a f o u n d e r o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d , i n h i s t e s t i m o n y t o t h e S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee o f t h e S e n a t e and House o f Commons i n 1947. F o r example, G o s n e l l s t a t e s : D u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n t i m e o f 1929 and 1930 t h i n g s were v e r y bad amongst t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e . The p r o v i n -c i a l g o vernment i s s u e d r e l i e f t o c i t i z e n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t h e r e was n o t h i n g a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e I n -d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . . . An I n d i a n e i t h e r had t o be s i c k o r t h e r e had t o be some amount o f a c t u a l s t a r -v a t i o n and d e s t i t u t i o n b e f o r e he comes u n d e r r e l i e f , 44 w h i c h c a l l s f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y $4 and some odd c e n t s . . . a month... D u r i n g o u r i n f o r m a l t a l k s a t t h e c o u n c i l m e e t i n g s t h e q u e s t i o n o f h e l p i n g t h e I n d i a n s came up. Hence, t h e b i r t h o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d s t a r t e d . 7 W h i l e I n d i a n s on t h e n o r t h c o a s t were o r g a n i z i n g t h e B r o -t h e r h o o d , t h o s e on t h e c e n t r a l c o a s t were f o r m i n g an I n d i a n f i -s hermen's u n i o n . I n d i a n s had been e x p o s e d t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f u n i o n s f o r d e c a d e s , t h r o u g h t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h J a p a n e s e o r g a n i -z a t i o n s and t h e i r l i m i t e d membership i n w h i t e f i s h e r m e n ' s un-i o n s . Y e t , no a t t e m p t t o f o r m a n a t i v e u n i o n was made u n t i l 1914, when t h e f i r s t I n d i a n u n i o n was s t a r t e d on t h e Skeena R i -8 v e r by W. H. P i e r c e , a m i s s i o n a r y o f w h i t e - T s i m s h i a n p a r e n t a g e . The p r i m a r y p r u p o s e o f t h i s u n i o n was t o h e l p I n d i a n f i s h e r m e n compete a g a i n s t t h e J a p a n e s e . However, i t was s h o r t l i v e d and c o l l a p s e d when P i e r c e was t r a n s f e r r e d t o a n o t h e r m i s s i o n . A more s u c c e s s f u l u n i o n was t h e Nass R i v e r F i s h e r m e n ' s A s s o c i a t i o n , a N i s h g a o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h c o n t i n u e d i n e x i s t e n c e f o r q u i t e a 9 number o f y e a r s . A n o t h e r u n i o n c a l l i n g i t s e l f t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t N a t i v e F i s h e r m e n ' s A s s o c i a t i o n was o r g a n i z e d i n 1936 by t h e s o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l and Nootka, a f t e r a d i s a s t r o u s s t r i k e a t R i -v e r s I n l e t . T h i s s t r i k e had l a s t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1936 f i s h i n g s e a s o n , l e a v i n g n a t i v e f i s h e r m e n h e a v i l y i n d e b t . Upon l e a r n i n g t h a t w h i t e f i s h e r m e n and some n o r t h e r n I n d i a n s had f i s h e d - a t t h e I n l e t d u r i n g t h e l a s t week of. t h e s e a s o n , l o c a l I n d i a n s d e c i d e d t o f o r m a u n i o n . Membership i n t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t N a t i v e F i s h e r -men's A s s o c i a t i o n drew i n t h e e n t i r e K w a k i u t l l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p , m aking i t t h e s t r o n g e s t and most e f f e c t i v e n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o t h a t t i m e . 45 The a m a l g a m a t i o n i n 1942, o f t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t N a t i v e F i s h e r m e n ' s A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f C a n a d i a n income t a x on n a t i v e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r m e n and t h e c o n s e q u e n t need f o r a u n i t e d p r o t e s t . I n 1942, f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , I n d i a n c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r -men were s u b j e c t t o C a n a d i a n income t a x . They were i n c e n s e d and c o n s i d e r e d i t d i s c r i m i n a t o r y t h a t t h e n a t i v e f i s h e r m a n who made h i s c a t c h e s o f f t h e r e s e r v e s h o u l d be t a x e d , w h i l e t h e n a t i v e f a r m e r , c a t t l e m a n , o r l o g g e r c o n t i n u e d t o be tax-free."''"'" Andrew P a u l l , who had b een a member o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , a t t e m p t e d t o g a i n t h e u n i t e d s u p p o r t o f a l l c o a s t I n d i a n s i n a p r o t e s t 12 a g a i n s t t h e t a x . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t P a u l l was t h e o n l y Roman C a t h o l i c i n t h i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y P r o t e s t a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n . P a u l l r e c e i v e d s t r o n g s u p p o r t f o r h i s campaign a t t h e B r o t h e r -hood's a n n u a l c o n v e n t i o n a t Skeena C r o s s i n g . Next, he v i s i t e d A l b e r t Bay and p e r s u a d e d t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t N a t i v e F i s h e r m e n ' s A s s o c i a t i o n t o become a b r a n c h o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d . W i t h a new l a b o u r - b a r g a i n i n g arm, a d d i t i o n a l f u n d s and Andrew P a u l l as t h e i r b u s i n e s s a g e n t , t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d e n t e r e d a p e r i o d o f i n c r e a s e d s t r e n g t h and e x p a n s i o n . P a u l l o r -g a n i z e d b r a n c h e s o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d i n some C o a s t S a l i s h and N o o t k a c o m m u n i t i e s , and a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d a s m a l l b u s i n e s s o f f i c e i n V a n c o u v e r f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . M o r e o v e r , t h e t r e a s u r y o f t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t N a t i v e F i s h e r m e n ' s A s s o c i a t i o n was t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e B r o t h e r h o o d , making i t p o s s i b l e f o r a d e l e g a t i o n t o be s e n t t o Ottawa t o p r e s e n t a p e t i t i o n t o t h e Government i n o r d e r t o 46 o ppose t h e new income t a x law. Not o n l y was t h e B r o t h e r h o o d w e a l t h i e r , b u t t h e merger e s t a b l i s h e d a l a b o u r b a r g a i n i n g arm w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , making i t a more e f f e c t i v e and i n f l u -e n t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a g e n c y f o r I n d i a n fishermen."*"^ I n a d d i -t i o n , a n o t h e r f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e g r o w i n g s t r e n g t h o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d was t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f i t s a t t i t u d e t o -ward b a r g a i n i n g . The c a n n i n g companies r e c o g n i z e d t h a t s u c h an a t t i t u d e was a s t a b i l i z i n g f o r c e i n t h e i n d u s t r y and t h e r e f o r e , e x t e n d e d r e c o g n i t i o n t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n as a l e g i t i m a t e b a r -14 g a i n i n g a g e n t . F i n a l l y , i n c r e a s e d r e s o u r c e s a l l o w e d l e a d e r s o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d t o once a g a i n t r a v e l a l o n g t h e c o a s t and i n t h e i n t e r i o r t o r e c r u i t new members. As a r e s u l t , two new b r a n c h e s were e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e Nass, one a t G r e e n v i l l e and t h e o t h e r a t K i n c o l i t h . D u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1940's t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n came t o be r e p r e s e n t e d o v e r t h e e n t i r e c o a s t f r o m Cape Mudge n o r t h w a r d and i n most o f t h e G i t k s a n v i l l a g e s up t h e Skeena, as w e l l as a 15 s c a t t e r e d membership i n t h e i n t e r i o r . I n 1945 an i m p o r t a n t s t e p was t a k e n when t h e N a t i v e B r o -t h e r h o o d r e v i s e d i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n and was i n c o r p o r a t e d u n d e r t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S o c i e t i e s A c t . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s i n c o r p o r a t i o n , t h e B r o t h e r h o o d was e s t a b l i s h e d as a l e -g a l l y c h a r t e r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h s p e c i f i c r i g h t s and o b l i g a -16 t i o n s . T h i s move s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was u t i l i z i n g t h e methods o f t h e m a j o r i t y s o c i e t y f o r good p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and t o a t t a i n r e c o g n i t i o n as w e l l as r e s p e c t f o r i t s aims and g o a l s f r o m i n d u s t r y and Government o f f i c i a l s . 47 Two m a j o r e v e n t s w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n 1946 were i m p o r t a n t t o t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d ' s s t r u g g l e t o a c h i e v e a c o l l e c t i v e I n d i a n c o n s c i o u s n e s s and c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s o b j e c -t i v e s . The f i r s t e v e n t was t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a s p e c i a l J o i n t Committee t o r e v i s e t h e I n d i a n A c t and t h e s e c o n d was t h e e s t a b -l i s h m e n t o f t h e f i r s t I n d i a n newspaper, e n t i t l e d "The N a t i v e V o i c e . " The S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee was t h e p r o d u c t o f a new s o -c i a l a w a r e n e s s and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n I n d i a n s f o l l o w i n g t h e Se-c o n d W o r l d War. I n d i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e war was i m p r e s s i v e and n a t i v e v e t e r a n s r e t u r n e d t o Canada w i t h much more s o p h i s t i -c a t i o n a b o u t t h e ways o f t h e w o r l d t h a n b e f o r e t h e war. W i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t , P a r l i a m e n t e s t b l i s h e d a S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee o f t h e S e n a t e and House o f Commons t o r e v i s e t h e I n d i a n A c t . The C o mmittee's o r d e r o f r e f e r e n c e o u t l i n e d e i g h t m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s o f i n q u i r y . They i n c l u d e : 1. t r e a t y r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s 2. b a n d membership 3. t h e l i a b i l i t y o f I n d i a n s t o pay t a x e s 4. t h e e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t o f I n d i a n s b o t h v o l u n t a r i l y and i n v o l u n t a r i l y 5. t h e e l i g i b i l i t y o f I n d i a n s t o v o t e a t D o m i n i o n e l e c t i o n s 6. t h e e n c r o a c h m e n t o f w h i t e p e r s o n s on I n d i a n r e -s e r v e s 7. t h e o p e r a t i o n o f I n d i a n day and r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s 8. any o t h e r m a t t e r o r t h i n g p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f I n d i a n s and t h e i r a d v a n c e -ment w h i c h , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e Committee, s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e r e v i s e d a c t . 1 7 48 The S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee c o n s i s t e d o f t w e l v e S e n a t o r s and t w e n t y - t w o members o f t h e House o f Commons who c o n v e n e d d u r i n g t h r e e s e s s i o n s o f P a r l i a m e n t f r o m 1946 t o 1948. T e s t i m o n y was p r e s e n t e d by: Government o f f i c i a l s ; r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a s s o c i a t i o n s and b a n d s ; as w e l l as p e r s o n s i n -v o l v e d i n I n d i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o r i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e c o n d i t i o n o f I n d i a n s . The Committee h e l d 128 m e e t i n g s o v e r t h r e e y e a r s d u r i n g w h i c h 22 w i t n e s s e s were h e a r d and 411 b r i e f s were r e -18 c e i v e d . . C o n s i d e r a b l e s p a c e i n t h e M i n u t e s and P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Committee was d e v o t e d t o s t a t e m e n t s by I n d i a n w i t n e s s e s as w e l l as b r i e f s s u b m i t t e d by v a r i o u s I n d i a n and w h i t e g r o u p s , Go-v e rnment o f f i c i a l s and e x p e r t s on s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s r e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n s and t h e i r c o n d i t i o n o f l i f e . A d e l e g a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d a p p e a r e d b e f o r e t h e Committee i n Ottawa on May 1, 1947, w i t h a b r i e f o u t -l i n i n g t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o t h e Committee's g e n e r a l t e r m s o f r e f e r -e n c e . Members o f t h e d e l e g a t i o n i n c l u d e d : Rev. P. R. K e l l y , C h a i r m a n o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Committee o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d ; C h i e f W i l l i a m Scaw, P r e s i d e n t o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d ; Mr. Guy W i l l i a m s ; 19 and Mr. Thomas G o s n e l l , a f o u n d e r o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d . The f o l -l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t by Rev. P e t e r K e l l y summarizes t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e c h a n g e s t h e y d e s i r e d f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e and s e t s t h e t o n e f o r a l l t h e i r aims and o b j e c t i v e s as p r e s e n t e d t o t h e S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee. K e l l y n o t e s : 49 . . . I t h i n k t h e I n d i a n r e s e r v e s and v i l l a g e s a t one t i m e s e r v e d a f i n e p u r p o s e ; t h e y a c t e d as a p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e p e o p l e . I b e l i e v e t h e t i m e has come when t h e I n d i a n o f t o - d a y has j u s t m arched a l i t t l e p a s t t h a t . The r e a s o n we a r e s t r e s s i n g so much t h e n e c e s s i t y o f I n d i a n s a t t e n d i n g t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f t h e l a n d i s so t h a t t h e g r o w i n g g e n e r a t i o n w i l l meet w i t h t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n and w i l l compete w i t h them - i f t h a t t e r m c a n be u s e d w i t h r e g a r d t o s c h o o l l i f e - and p l a y w i t h them; and w i l l d e v e l o p w i t h them and w i l l t h i n k as t h e y do and see as t h e y do. And as t h e y grow up I t h i n k t h e y w i l l be p r e p a r e d t o t a k e t h e i r p l a c e i n a f a r b e t t e r way t h a n t h e I n d i a n o f t o - d a y . . . ^ 0 The i s s u e o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d ' s membership and t h e number o f I n d i a n s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d was t h e f i r s t t o -p i c a d d r e s s e d by t h e Committee. Rev. P e t e r K e l l y i n f o r m e d t h e Committee t h a t t h e B r o t h e r h o o d had a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2,000 male mem-b e r s i n good s t a n d i n g and an a u x i l i a r y women's o r g a n i z a t i o n r e -f e r r e d t o as t h e S i s t e r h o o d had a n o t h e r 2,000 members. F u r t h e r -more, by e s t i m a t i n g t h a t t h e a v e r a g e f a m i l y h a d f i v e members, t h e B r o t h e r h o o d r e p r e s e n t e d 10,000 p e o p l e . G i v e n t h a t , t h e t o t a l n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e a t t h e t i m e was 25,000, t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f t h e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . A t o p i c o f g r e a t c o n c e r n t o t h e B r o t h e r h o o d and one w h i c h was r a i s e d a number o f t i m e s d u r i n g t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n was t a x a -t i o n o f I n d i a n s . The B r o t h e r h o o d a d o p t e d t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f income and o t h e r forms o f t a x a t i o n on n a t i v e s was u n j u s t , due t o t h e i r l a c k o f a " v o i c e " i n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e c o u n t r y . T h e i r o b j e c t i o n was s u b s t a n t i a t e d by a c i t a t i o n o f t h e 22 B r i t i s h p r i n c i p l e "No t a x a t i o n w i t h o u t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . " F u r -t h e r m o r e , t h e B r o t h e r h o o d b a s e d t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n on t h e w o r d i n g 5 0 o f A r t i c l e 13 o f t h e Terms o f U n i o n between B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e D o m i n i o n w h i c h s t a t e d : The c h a r g e o f t h e I n d i a n s , and t h e t r u s t e e s h i p and ma-nagement o f l a n d s r e s e r v e d f o r t h e i r use and b e n e f i t s h a l l be assumed by t h e d o m i n i o n government, and a po-l i c y as l i b e r a l as t h a t h i t h e r t o p u r s u e d by t h e B r i -t i s h C o l u m b i a government s h a l l be c o n t i n u e d by t h e do-m i n i o n government a f t e r u nion.23 I t was c o n c l u d e d by t h e B r o t h e r h o o d t h a t b e c a u s e n a t i v e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e d i d n o t pay t a x e s p r i o r t o u n i o n , t h e y s h o u l d n e v e r be s u b j e c t t o t a x a t i o n . However, i f n a t i v e s were t o be t a x e d t h e B r o t h e r h o o d r e q u e s t e d t h a t ; f i r s t t h e y r e c e i v e t h e same s o c i a l b e n e f i t s r e c e i v e d by o t h e r t a x p a y e r s , s u c h a s : o l d age p e n s i o n s , m o t h e r ' s p e n s i o n , s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and homes f o r t h e aged; s e -c o n d , t h e y s h o u l d be e x t e n d e d a d e q u a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e a f -f a i r s o f g overnment; t h i r d , t h e y s h o u l d be g i v e n e q u a l o p p o r t u -n i t i e s i n t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e , p u b l i c works and o t h e r forms o f 24 employment. A n o t h e r i s s u e w h i c h t h e B r o t h e r h o o d ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n ad-d r e s s e d was e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t . I t was t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s c o n v i c -t i o n t h a t e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t , as i t was p r o v i d e d f o r i n t h e I n d i a n A c t was i n a d e q u a t e and t h e r e f o r e , few I n d i a n s became c i t i z e n s . N a t i v e s d i d n o t w i s h t o g i v e up t h e i r I n d i a n i d e n t i t y and h e r e -d i t a r y r i g h t s f o r t h e p r i v i l e g e t o v o t e . However, t h e y " c r a v e d " t h e r i g h t t o c i t i z e n s h i p b e c a u s e by l i v i n g u n d e r t h e laws o f t h e l a n d t h e y n a t u r a l l y d e s i r e d a r o l e i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h o s e l a w s . As a s o l u t i o n , t h e B r o t h e r h o o d p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e r i g h t s t o 51 c i t i z e n s h i p be e x t e n d e d t o I n d i a n s , w i t h o u t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f 25 t h e i r e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t . F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on t h e t o p i c o f e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t f o -c u s e d on t h e s y s t e m o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a d o p t e d by t h e M a o r i popu-l a t i o n i n New Z e a l a n d and t h e B r o t h e r h o o d ' s s u p p o r t f o r t h e i n -2 6 s t i t u t i o n o f a s i m i l a r s y s t e m o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n Canada. In New Z e a l a n d , t h e M a o r i s r e t a i n e d t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s and a l -so had f u l l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n P a r l i a m e n t . T h e i r p o p u l a t i o n i n 1943 numbered 96,939 and was a l l o t t e d f o u r members i n t h e New Z e a l a n d P a r l i a m e n t . M a o r i s were p e r m i t t e d t o v o t e f o r t h e s e f o u r members, b u t n o t f o r o t h e r members i n t h e c o u n t r y a t l a r g e . How-e v e r , h a l f - c a s t e s were g i v e n t h e c h o i c e o f v o t i n g e i t h e r w i t h 27 t h e M a o r i s o r w i t h t h e l a r g e r body p o l i t i c . Rev. P e t e r K e l l y made t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t r e g a r d i n g t h e New Z e a l a n d s y s t e m : ...some o f t h e members ( M a o r i s ) have r e a c h e d c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n s and one o f them has been k n i g h t e d . They have a d v a n c e d w o n d e r f u l l y . I would a l s o l i k e t o s a y t h a t u n d e r t h e c h a l l e n g e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h e y seem t o have t h r i v e d . 2 8 K e l l y a l s o makes r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o v e r a l l g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e M a o r i s and t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f t h e s e b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s . F o r example, " a t one t i m e , i n 1874, t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e M a o r i s i n New Z e a l a n d was 47,330, i n 1896 t h e p o p u l a t i o n was down t o 42,113...; i n 1936 i t r o s e t o 82,327 and 29 i n 1943 t o 96,939." T h i s i n c r e a s e was a t t r i b u t e d t o b e t t e r h o s p i t a l c a r e and a f i n e s c h o o l s y s t e m w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h e o p p o r -52 t u n i t y o f u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n p a i d f o r by t h e New Z e a l a n d Go-v e r n m e n t . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e B r o t h e r h o o d was d r a w i n g t h e Commit-t e e ' s a t t e n t i o n t o what had been a c c o m p l i s h e d i n a n o t h e r c o u n t r y by c o m p a r i n g i t t o t h e e m b a r r a s s i n g l y b a c k w a r d c o n d i t i o n o f C a -nada's n a t i v e s and p l a c i n g blame w i t h t h e F e d e r a l Government. The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d c o n c l u d e d t h i s d i s c u s s i o n by s t a t i n g t h a t w i t h o u t p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , Canada's I n d i a n s w o u l d r e m a i n "wards" and " m i n o r s " , t r a p p e d w i t h i n a s y s -tem w h i c h f o s t e r e d a m b i v a l e n c e , dependence and a p a t h y . The a r e a w h i c h was v i e w e d as t h e key t o t h e f u t u r e and w h i c h e l i c i t e d t h e s t r o n g e s t r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e B r o t h e r h o o d was e d u c a t i o n . W i t h i n t h e B r o t h e r h o o d ' s b r i e f , t h e r e was d i s c u s s i o n o f t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s o f I n d i a n s , as f o l l o w s : 1. . . . t h o s e who w i s h e d t o w i t h d r a w e n t i r e l y f r o m w h i t e c i v i l i z a t i o n and l i v e as I n d i a n s under, t h e w a r d s h i p o f t h e government w i t h , o f c o u r s e , more money and more l a n d g r a n t e d them. 2. ...one f a c t i o n w i s h e d t o r e t a i n t h e R e s e r v e s and as f a r as p o s s i b l e t h e i r o l d and s e g r e g a t e d way o f l i f e , b u t w i t h s u f f i c i e n t e d u c a t i o n a l and f e d e r a l b e n e f i t s t o a l l o w them t o l i v e on an e c o n o m i c p a r i -t y w i t h t h e w h i t e s , " s e p a r a t e b u t e q u a l " . . . 3. . . . t h o s e who knew t h a t t h e o n l y s a l v a t i o n f o r t h e I n d i a n was e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g t h a t w o u l d p e r m i t him t o e n t e r t h e w h i t e community as an e q u a l , and be a s s i m i l a t e d w i t h i t . ^ O Members o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d b e l o n g e d t o t h e t h i r d c a t e g o -r y , b u t w i t h t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n t h a t n a t i v e s m a i n t a i n t h e i r h e r e -d i t a r y r i g h t s . They s t o o d f i r m i n t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t " i t s h o u l d be t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e I n d i a n s as w e l l as t h e government by a l l 53 means a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l , by way o f e d u c a t i o n and o t h e r w i s e t o b r i n g a l l I n d i a n s w i t h i n t h e t h i r d c a t e g o r y , t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n 31 t h a t t o e v e r y r i g h t t h e r e i s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d u t y . " W i t h r e -g a r d t o s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n g e s , t h e B r o t h e r h o o d a d h e r e d to. t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t I n d i a n Day and R e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s s h o u l d be f r e e d o f d e n o m i n a t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y f e l t t h a t t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n I n d i a n s c h o o l s s h o u l d be t h e same as i n o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l s and t h e r e f o r e , come u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i -s i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l i n s p e c t o r s . O t h e r s u g g e s t i o n s p r e s e n t e d were; f i r s t , t h a t t h e s c h o o l age be a d v a n c e d t o e i g h t e e n y e a r s due t o t h e b r o k e n p e r i o d o f a t t e n d a n c e o c c a s i o n e d by t h e c a s u a l g e o g r a -p h i c employment o f p a r e n t s ; s e c o n d , t h a t I n d i a n c h i l d r e n be p e r -m i t t e d t o a t t a i n h i g h s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n ; and t h i r d , t h a t a s o l u t i o n be f o u n d r e g a r d i n g t h e i n f e r i o r q u a l i f i -c a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s and t h e p o o r c o n d i t i o n o f n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l 32 f a c i l i t i e s . T h e s e demands f o r change i n t h e a r e a o f e d u c a t i o n were s u p p o r t e d by s t a t i s t i c a l e v i d e n c e o u t l i n i n g t h e d e p l o r a b l e s i t u a t i o n e x i s t i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , as o f June, 1946. F o r example: ...12,000 o r n e a r l y 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e I n d i a n p o p u l a -t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e 17 y e a r s o f age o r u n d e r . In t h e y e a r 1945-46 o n l y 4,100 I n d i a n c h i l d r e n were e n r o l l e d i n s c h o o l s . . . 1,200 I n d i a n c h i l d r e n were r e -c e i v i n g no e d u c a t i o n w h a t s o e v e r . Of t h o s e e n r o l l e d , o n l y 87 h a d r e a c h e d Grade V I I I , w h i l e 142 were i n Grade V I I , 261 i n Grade VI and 382 i n Grade V. O n l y 24 I n d i a n p u p i l s were r e c e i v i n g h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . 3 3 54 A l t h o u g h p r o b l e m s i n t h e domain o f e d u c a t i o n were r e c o g -n i z e d as a m a j o r c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h e b a c k w a r d c o n d i t i o n o f I n d i -ans, t h e B r o t h e r h o o d a l s o a c k n o w l e d g e d e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s as a n o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r . Thomas G o s n e l l drew a c o m p a r i s o n f o r t h e Committee between B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n s and t h e I n d i -ans o f A l a s k a , i n o r d e r t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e advancements which c o u l d be made i f a Government e x t e n d e d e c o n o m i c a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e i n d u s t r i e s . F o r example, a f t e r an i n -v e s t i g a t i o n o f I n d i a n s i n A l a s k a , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Government b u i l t c a n n e r i e s a t v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s , up t o t h e v a l u e o f $300,000. T h e s e c a n n e r i e s were e q u i p p e d and s u p p o r t e d by t h e I n -d i a n s , w i t h t h e i r c o s t b e i n g r e p a i d o u t o f t h e p r o f i t s . I n f o r m a -t i o n r e c e i v e d by t h e B r o t h e r h o o d r e v e a l e d t h a t some o f t h e s e c a n n e r i e s were p a i d o f f i n f i v e y e a r s , making t h e n a t i v e i n t h o s e communities,' c a n n e r y owners. In a d d i t i o n , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Government a l s o a g r e e d t o e x t e n d l o a n s t o g r o u p s o f twen-t y o r more I n d i a n s , a t low i n t e r e s t r a t e s , t o be p a i d back o v e r a f i x e d t e r m o f y e a r s . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s e c o n o m i c a s s i s t a n c e , t h e n a t i v e s o f A l a s k a "had a v e r y h i g h r a t i n g as p r o d u c t i v e I n -34 d i a n s . " The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d r e q u e s t e d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f a s i m i l a r a r r a n g e m e n t between B r i t i s h C o l u m i b a I n d i a n s and t h e Ca-n a d i a n Government. They n o t e d t o t h e Committee: "we t h i n k i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r t h e C a n a d i a n Government t o d e a l w i t h t h e I n d i a n s a l o n g t h e same p a t t e r n . The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e n o t b e g g a r s ; t h e y do n o t want t o beg; t h e y want s o m e t h i n g i n t h e n a -3 5 t u r e o f a b u s i n e s s p r o p o s i t i o n . " By p o i n t i n g t o t h e l i f e o f 5 5 t h e A l a s k a I n d i a n , t h e B r o t h e r h o o d was a s s e r t i n g t h a t p e o p l e o f a s i m i l a r r a c e had a c h i e v e d e conomic g o a l s e q u a l t o w h i t e s and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e y had f e e l i n g s o f d i g n i t y and g r o u p i d e n t i t y . The B r o t h e r h o o d was s t r e s s i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e Government a s s i s t i n g I n d i a n s t o s t a n d on t h e i r own, s h o u l d e r t o s h o u l d e r w i t h o t h e r c i t i z e n s . The r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d t o t h e S p e c i a l J o i n t Com-m i t t e e by t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d d e m o n s t r a t e n o t o n l y a wide r a n g e o f i s s u e s , b u t a l s o a c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d and w e l l t h o u g h t o u t s t a t e m e n t o f aims t o w a r d a b e t t e r f u t u r e f o r I n d i a n s . The f u t u r e t h e y e n v i s i o n e d was one c h a r a c t e r i z e d by j u s t i c e , d e v e -lopment o f r e s e r v e s , o c c u p a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t , as w e l l as f e e l i n g s o f s e l f - w o r t h and d i g n i t y . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n 1946 o f t h e " N a t i v e V o i c e " , a newspaper i n f o r m i n g n a t i v e s about t h e E r o t h e r -hood's p r o g r a m and a c t i v i t i e s , a l s o c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s o b j e c t i v e s . A l t h o u g h l e a d e r s o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d had t a l k e d f o r some t i m e a b o u t p r i n t i n g a newspaper, i t was n o t u n t i l t h e s p r i n g o f 1946 t h a t i t became an u r g e n t need. As a r e -s u l t o f ; f i r s t , t h e r e t u r n o f t h o u s a n d s o f I n d i a n v e t e r a n s ; s e -c o n d , t h e d e c l i n e i n t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y due t o t h e end o f t h e war; and t h i r d , t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f t h e S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee, n a t i v e s were i n n e e d o f a forum i n w h i c h t h e y c o u l d be k e p t i n -f o r m e d o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d . The p u r p o s e o f t h e newspaper was o u t l i n e d on t h e f r o n t page o f t h e f i r s t i s s u e i n a 56 s t a t e m e n t made by C h i e f W i l l i a m Scow, p r e s i d e n t o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d : T h r o u g h o u r " N a t i v e V o i c e " we w i l l c o n t i n u e t o t h e b e s t o f o u r a b i l i t y t o b i n d c l o s e r t o g e t h e r t h e many t r i b e s whom we r e p r e s e n t i n t o t h a t s o l i d N a t i v e V o i c e , a v o i c e t h a t w i l l work f o r t h e advancement o f o u r com-mon n a t i v e w e l f a r e . The " N a t i v e V o i c e " w i l l b r i n g a b o u t a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n -s h i p between o u r s e l v e s and o u r good w h i t e f r i e n d s who we a l s o a p p e a l t o a t t h i s t i m e f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t i n o u r s t r u g g l e f o r advancement.36 The f e e l i n g s o f n a t i v e s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n as "wards" and " m i n o r s " i n Canada was c l e a r l y m a n i f e s t e d i n an e d i -t o r i a l , a l s o a p p e a r i n g i n t h e f i r s t i s s u e o f t h e newspaper. T h i s e d i t o r i a l , w r i t t e n by J a c k Beynon, a T s i m s h i a n f r o m P o r t Simp-son, a l s o d i s p l a y e d t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d . Beynon n o t e s : ...we s u f f e r as a m i n o r i t y r a c e and as wards, o r m i -n o r s w i t h o u t a v o i c e i n r e g a r d t o o u r own w e l f a r e . We a r e p r i s o n e r s o f a c o n t r o l l i n g power i n o u r own c o u n -t r y - a c o u n t r y w h i c h has s t o o d up un d e r t h e chaos o f two w o r l d wars, b e n e a t h t h e g u i s e o f democracy and fr e e d o m , y e t k e e p i n g e n s l a v e d a n a t i v e p e o p l e i n t h e i r own home l a n d . ...our D o m i n i o n i s n o t i n a p o s i t i o n t o p o i n t a f i n g e r o f s c o r n a t t h e t r e a t m e n t meted o u t by o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t o t h e i r p e o p l e , u n t i l she l i b e r a t e s h e r own a b o r i g i -n a l and s u b j e c t e d r a c e . ...The " N a t i v e V o i c e " w i l l f o l l o w t h r o u g h w i t h t h e i r aims and o b j e c t i v e s w i t h t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e Go-vernm e n t , as t h e y see f i t . T hose aims a r e s t a t e d c l e a r l y by t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I n c . i n t h e i r C o n s t i t u t i o n . 3 7 57 The p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e " N a t i v e V o i c e " i s s i g n i f i c a n t be-c a u s e i t was t h e p r o d u c t o f a new I n d i a n a b l e t o u t i l i z e t h e ex-amples o f t h e m a j o r i t y s o c i e t y t o e x p r e s s I n d i a n aims and i d e a s . The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d v i e w e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a n a t i v e newspaper as "a l o n g a w a i t e d s t i m u l a n t l e a d i n g t o a b e t t e r way 3 8 o f l i f e . . . " F u r t h e r m o r e , i t was t h e B r o t h e r h o o d ' s i n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e i r newspaper; f i r s t , a l w a y s r e m a i n u n d e n o m i n a t i o n a l and n o n - p o l i t i c a l ; s e c o n d ; t h a t i t a l w a y s c a t e r t o t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e 3 9 o f t h e p r o v i n c e ; and t h i r d , t h a t i t s t r i v e t o u n i t e t h e n a -t i v e s o f Canada i n t o one s o l i d body by k e e p i n g them i n t o u c h 40 w i t h t h e a f f a i r s w h i c h a f f e c t e d t h e i r l i v e s . I n summary t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e " N a t i v e V o i c e " was a pronouncement by t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d t h a t n a t i v e s were a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n t r o l and d e c i d e t h e i r own f u t u r e s . M o r e o v e r , i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e e x t e n d e d f a r b e y o n d i t s b e i n g t h e o f f i c i a l o r g a n o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d , t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t a s p i r e d t o speak t o a l l I n d i a n s on t o p i c s r e -l a t i n g t o t h e w e l f a r e o f a l l I n d i a n s . In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d t o t h e S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee and e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e " N a t i v e V o i c e " d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e aims and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a -t i o n were g e a r e d t o w a r d t h e s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and e conomic ad-vancement o f I n d i a n p e o p l e s , as w e l l as t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f I n -d i a n i d e n t i t y . T h r o u g h b o t h o f t h e s e e v e n t s t h e B r o t h e r h o o d p r e -s e n t e d i t s e l f as a h i g h q u a l i t y I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n , d e d i c a t e d t o c h a n g i n g t h e m i n o r i t y s t a t u s o f C a n a d i a n I n d i a n s . In o r d e r t o change t h i s s t a t u s t h e B r o t h e r h o o d r e c o g n i z e d t h a t n a t i v e s had 58 t o do a number o f t h i n g s . F i r s t , n a t i v e s had t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r i d e n t i t y ; s e c o n d , t h e y had t o a l t e r t h e i r s i t u a t i o n o f depen-dence upon t h e m a j o r i t y s o c i e t y ; t h i r d , t h e y had t o t a k e and m a i n t a i n t h e i n i t i a t i v e t o be i n d e p e n d e n t ; f o u r t h , t h e y h a d t o make t h e m s e l v e known p r o v i n c i a l l y and n a t i o n a l l y t h r o u g h p o l i t i -c a l a c t i v i t y ; and f i f t h , t h e y had t o s u b o r d i n a t e t h e i r t r i b a l t r a d i t i o n s and c o n c e r n s t o f o c u s on i s s u e s r e l e v a n t t o a l l Na-t i v e C a n a d i a n s . The e f f o r t s o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d t o promote n a t i v e s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n a r e n o t u n l i k e some o f t h e s t e p s t o i n d e p e n d e n c e w h i c h have been a d o p t e d by newly e m e r g i n g n a t i o n s . F o r example, a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n o f t h e i r own a f f a i r s w i t h f u l l c o n t r o l i n some s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c s p h e r e s as t h e u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e . D u r i n g t h e 1940's t h e B r o t h e r h o o d , as d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e two e v e n t s e xamined, was a s k i n g f o r s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and eco n o m i c e q u a l i t y w i t h t h e r e s t o f s o c i e t y , w h i l e s t i l l r e t a i n i n g t h e i r s p e c i a l s t a t u s and I n d i a n i d e n t i t y . In summary, t h e B r o t h e r h o o d ' s o b j e c -t i v e was a s o c i e t y i n w h i c h I n d i a n s c o u l d r e m a i n c u l t u r a l l y d i s -t i n c t , y e t c o - o p e r a t e w i t h o t h e r g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e t o t a l i t y . 59 C h a p t e r T h r e e - N o t e s ^ D r u c k e r , P h i l i p , The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d s : Modern I n t e r -t r i b a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , ( W a s h i n g t o n : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1958), pp. 105-6. 2 I b i d . 3 M o r l e y , A l l a n , Roar o f t h e B r e a k e r s : A B i o g r a p h y o f  P e t e r K e l l y , ( T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1967), p. 145. 4 D r u c k e r , P h i l i p , The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d s , p. 104. S t e a r n s , Mary, Lee, H a i d a C u l t u r e i n C u s t o d y : The Mas-s e t Band, ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1981), p. 104. 6 D r u c k e r , P h i l i p , The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d s , p. 105. 7 Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , M i n u t e s and P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e  S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee o f t h e S e n a t e and House o f Commons t o  R e v i s e t h e I n d i a n A c t , (Ottawa, 1946, 1947, 1948), p. 785. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s : S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee, 1946). 8 D r u c k e r , P h i l i p , The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d s , p. 128. 9 I b i d . 1 0 I b i d . , p. 129. 1 1 I b i d . , p. 108. I b i d . M o r l e y , A l l a n , Roar o f t h e B r e a k e r s : A B i o g r a p h y o f  P e t e r K e l l y , p. 145. 14 D r u c k e r , P h i l i p , The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d s , p. 109. 1 5 I b i d . , p. 110. 1 6 I b i d . , pp. 110-111. 17 S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee, 1946, p . 764. 1 ft " N a t i v e V o i c e , " June 1950, p. 2. 19 S p e c i a l J o i n t Committee, 1946, p . 761. 20 I b i d . , p. 7 65. 60 2 1 T V . - ^ I b i d . 22 I b i d . 23 I b i d . , p. 766 . I b i d . 2 5 I b i d . , p. 804. I b i d . 27 I b i d . 2 ^ I b i d . , pp. 7 6 6-767. 29 I b i d . , p. 7 67. 30 I b i d . , p. 833 . I b i d . 3 2 I b i d . , p. 787. 33 J J I b i d . 3 4 I b i d . , p. 833. 3 5 " N a t i v e V o i c e , " December, 1946. I b i d . 37 I b i d . I b i d . 39 I b i d . I b i d . 61 C h a p t e r F o u r The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A R e f l e c t i o n o f P a n - I n d i a n i s m The aims and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e n a t i v e s o f t h e N a t i v e B r o -t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o e n l a r g e n a t i v e autonomy w i t h i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y a r e n o t u n l i k e some s t e p s w h i c h have been t a k e n by n ewly e m e r g i n g n a t i o n s . By p l a c i n g t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f " n a t i o n a l i s t i c " l i t e r a t u r e f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t , o b j e c t i v e s and n a t u r e c a n be g a i n e d . In r e c e n t t i m e s t h e r e has been a g r o w i n g movement among c o l o n i z e d r a c i a l - e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s , w i t h i n v a r i o u s n a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s t o a c h i e v e r e c o g n i t i o n as s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l e n t i t i e s w i t h l e g i t i m a t e c l a i m s t o a m e a n i n g f u l r o l e i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r own d e s t i n i e s . Examples o f t h i s on t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o n t i n e n t have been B l a c k , C h i c a n o , F r e n c h and I n d i a n m i n o r i t i e s who have had t h e same e x p e r i e n c e s as f o r m e r l y s u b j e c t c o l o n i a l p e o p l e s and have begun t o a c t i v e l y seek a l a r g e r measure o f s e l f -- d e t e r m i n a t i o n . The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e -p r e s e n t s a n o t h e r example o f t h i s t r e n d . D u r i n g t h e 1940's, t h e aims, o b j e c t i v e s and a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d were Pan-- I n d i a n i n n a t u r e . F o r example, t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s p r o g r a m o f i d e a s s o u g h t t o e n l a r g e t h e e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l op-p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o I n d i a n s , w h i l e s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r I n d i a n i d e n t i t y . P a n - I n d i a n i s m has been d e f i n e d by R o b e r t Thomas a s , " t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f a new i d e n t i t y and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h a r e b o t h an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h a t new i d e n t i t y and a f o s t e r i n g o f 62 2 i t . " F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s a v i t a l s o c i a l movement w h i c h has a n a -3 4 t i o n a l i s t i c f l a v o u r and i s f o r e v e r c h a n g i n g . In o r d e r t o b e t -t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f P a n - I n d i a n i d e a l s by t h e Na-t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t i s u s e f u l t o examine t h o s e r e l e v a n t t h e o r i e s t h a t s eek t o e x p l a i n modern i n d e p e n d e n c e movements. I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m : A C a n a d i a n P e r s p e c t i v e H i s t o r i c a l l y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n s have c o n f o r m e d t o t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h B e l l and Moskos, s c h o l a r s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e movements i n t h e C a r i b b e a n , have f o u n d t o be c o n d u c i v e t o t h e emergence o f n a t i o n a l i s t movements: t h a t i s c o n d i t i o n s c h a r a c -t e r i z e d by s u b o r d i n a t i o n , o p p r e s s i o n and g r o s s i n e q u i t i e s i n o t h e r words, c o l o n i a l i s m . ^ M o r e o v e r , a l l t h e c l a s s i c e l e m e n t s o f E u r o p e a n c o l o n i a l i s m a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e C a n a d i a n I n d i a n . R o b e r t B l a u n e r c i t e s f o u r b a s i c components o f c o l o n i z a -t i o n : f i r s t , t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f c o l o n i z a t i o n have g e n e r a l l y i n -v o l v e d a f o r c e d o r i n v o l u n t a r y e n t r y ; s e c o n d , t h e r e i s an i m p a c t upon t h e c u l t u r e and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c o l o n i z e d peo-p l e s ; t h i r d , members o f t h e c o l o n i z e d g r o u p t e n d t o be a d m i n i s -t e r e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e dominant power; and f o u r t h , t h e f i n a l e l e m e n t o f c o l o n i z a t i o n i s r a c i s m , t h e p e r c e p t i o n t h a t c o -l o n i z e d p e o p l e s a r e i n f e r i o r . 6 T h e s e f o u r components e x e m p l i f y t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a l l C a n a d i a n I n d i a n s . They were d o m i n a t e d geo-g r a p h i c a l l y , s u b j e c t t o an e x t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l u n i t , g o v e r n e d by a p e o p l e o f a d i f f e r e n t r a c e and c u l t u r e , e x p l o i t e d e c o n o m i c a l l y 6 3 i n t e r m s o f l a n d r e s o u r c e s and raw m a t e r i a l s , and were a s s i g n e d 7 a p o s i t i o n o f dependence upon t h e "mother" c o u n t r y . However, R o b e r t B l a u n e r has s u g g e s t e d t h a t Canada's I n d i a n s have u n d e r -gone a t r a n s i t i o n f r o m c l a s s i c c o l o n i z a t i o n t o what has been t e r m e d " i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m . " F o r example, t o d a y I n d i a n s c o n -s t i t u t e an o p p r e s s e d m i n o r i t y r a t h e r t h a n an o p p r e s s e d m a j o r i t y . The n o t i o n o f i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m as a r e l e v a n t a p p r o a c h t o t h e s e a r c h f o r e x p l a n a t o r y frameworks i n t h e s t u d y o f C a n a d i -an n a t i v e i n i t i a t i v e s t o a c h i e v e s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n w a r r a n t s c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The c o n c e p t was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d by P a b l o G o n z a l e z C a s a n o v a . C a s a n o v a s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e g r e a t i n d e p e n d e n c e movements o f t h e o l d c o l o n i e s a r e t h e r o o t s o f i n t e r n a l c o l o n i -a l i s m . F u r t h e r m o r e , a f t e r p o l i t i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e i s g a i n e d a s t a t e o f n e o - c o l o n i a l i s m s l o w l y a r i s e s w i t h t h e d i r e c t domina-t i o n o f f o r e i g n e r s o v e r n a t i v e s d i s a p p e a r i n g t o t h e d o m i n a t i o n g and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f n a t i v e s by n a t i v e s e m e r g i n g . Dominant g r o u p s and c l a s s e s i n new n a t i o n s p l a y s i m i l a r r o l e s t o t h o s e p l a y e d by t h e o l d c o l o n i e s and t h i s new o p p r e s s i o n i s f e l t by some s e c t o r s t o be more i n t o l e r a b l e t h a n t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e 9 c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t . The u t i l i t y o f t h e c o n c e p t o f i n t e r n a l c o -l o n i a l i s m i n a C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t i s t h a t a f t e r g a i n i n g i n d e p e n -dence f r o m E u r o p e no change o c c u r r e d i n t h e s u b j u g a t e d s t a t u s o f C a n a d i a n I n d i a n s . They r e m a i n e d i n a c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t i t became i n t e r n a l l y imposed, r a t h e r t h a n e x t e r -n a l l y imposed, w i t h i m m i g r a n t s o r t h e d e s c e n d e n t s o f i m m i g r a n t s a s s u m i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f r u l i n g m a j o r i t y . 64 S o c i o l o g i s t s and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t - i n -d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s c a n r e s p o n d t o i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m i n a number o f ways. F o r example: " o r g a n i z e d v i o l e n c e i n t h e f o r m o f i n i t i a l w a r f a r e o r l a t e r r e b e l l i o n ; r e v i t a l i z a t i o n , o r m e s s i a n i c move-ments...; s o c i a l breakdown and p e r s o n a l d e m o r a l i z a t i o n ; and i n -d i v i d u a l a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o t h e m a j o r i t y s o c i e t y . " 1 0 However, F r e d r i k B a r t h , an a n t h r o p o l i g i s t , has s u g g e s t e d an a l t e r n a t i v e r e s p o n s e . Members o f a m i n o r i t y who r e j e c t a s s i m i l a t i o n may " c h o o s e t o e m p h a s i z e e t h n i c i d e n t i t y u s i n g i t t o d e v e l o p new po-s i t i o n s and p a t t e r n s t o o r g a n i z e a c t i v i t i e s i n t h o s e s e c t o r s f o r m e r l y n o t f o u n d i n t h e i r s o c i e t y , o r I n a d e q u a t e l y d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e i r purposes."" 1"" 1" F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s r e s p o n s e i d e n t i f i e d by B a r t h i n c l u d e s t h r e e main a c t i v i t i e s . Two a d d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s have been s u g g e s t e d by P a u l T e n n a n t . T h e s e r e s p o n s e s i n c l u d e : 1. S e l e c t i v e a d a p t a t i o n o f new c u l t u r e e l e m e n t s , as w e l l as d r o p p i n g o f o l d e l e m e n t s , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f f a c i l i t a t i n g g r o u p s u r v i v a l i n p o s t - c o n t r o l c i r c u m -s t a n c e s . 2. F o r m a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e o r g a -n i z a t i o n t o e m p h a s i z e g r o u p i d e n t i t y and t o c o n d u c t t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h t h e r u l i n g m a j o r i t y . 3. P u r s u i t o f m i n o r i t y u n i t i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n g r o u p i d e n t i t y and t o p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . 4. E s t a b l i s h i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e majo-r i t y w h i c h a r e a b l e and w i l l i n g t o p r o v i d e r e s o u r c e s o r s u p p o r t . 5. L o b b y i n g government i n o r d e r t o d e f e n d and promote g r o u p i n t e r e s t s . 1 2 The c o m p r e h e n s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n has been l a b e l l e d a V d i c h o t o m i z -i n g " o r g a n i z a t i o n by B a r t h , due t o i t s f u n c t i o n o f m a i n t a i n i n g a d i c h o t o m y between t h e m i n o r i t y g r o u p and t h e m a j o r i t y s o c i e t y . 1 ^ 65 In a d d i t i o n , t h e m i n o r i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n d e t e r m i n e s what t h e i n t e -r e s t s o f t h e g r o u p a r e and t h e n t h r o u g h p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n d e f e n d s t h o s e i n t e r e s t s , b o t h w i t h i n t h e g r o u p i t s e l f and w i t h i n t h e po-l i t i c a l s y s t e m o f t h e m a j o r i t y s o c i e t y . P a u l T e n n a n t has d e s i g -14 n a t e d t h i s r e s p o n s e as t h e s t r a t e g y o f p o l i t i c a l a d a p t i o n . In summary, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t i n d i g e n o u s g r o u p s c a n r e a c t t o i n -t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m i n a number o f ways, on a c o n t i n u u m w i t h s e -p a r a t i o n and a s s i m i l a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e two e x t r e m e s . By c h o o s i n g t h e s t r a t e g y o f p o l i t i c a l a d a p t a t i o n , i n d i g e n o u s g r o u p s a r e r e a c t i n g t o i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m i n a way w h i c h l i e s some-where i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e c o n t i n u u m . S o c i a l S c a l e and E q u a l i t y The t h e s e s o f W e n d e l l B e l l and C h a r l e s Moskos, d e r i v e d f r o m t h e i r s t u d i e s o f p o l i t i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e movements i n t h e B r i t i s h West I n d i e s a r e a l s o r e l e v a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p o l i -t i c a l a d a p t a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n i n d i g e n o u s g r o u p s . Menno B o l d t i n a s t u d y e n t i t l e d I n d i a n L e a d e r s i n Canada was t h e f i r s t t o d i s c u s s t h e B e l l - M o s k o s t h e s e s i n a C a n a d i a n n a t i v e c o n t e x t . C e n t r a l t o t h e t h e o r i e s o f B e l l and Moskos i s t h e c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l s c a l e . S c a l e r e f e r s t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n a s o c i e t y and t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n s o c i a l g r a d a t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s . "*""* I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e two t y p e s o f s c a l e : c o n t e m p o r a r y and h i s t o -r i c a l . I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r human b e i n g s i s r e f e r r e d t o as c o n t e m p o r a r y s c a l e , w h i l e t h o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r i e n t e d t o w a r d 16 t h e p a s t a r e t e r m e d h i s t o r i c a l s c a l e . B e l l and Moskos have 66 l i n k e d c o n t e m p o r a r y s c a l e w i t h p h i l o s o p h i e s o f t h e E n l i g h t e n -ment. P h i l o s o p h e s o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y were spokesmen f o r f r a t e r n a l i s m , d emocracy and i n c r e a s i n g c o n t e m p o r a r y s c a l e t h r o u g h t h e s p r e a d o f e q u a l i t y and s o c i a l i n c l u s i v e n e s s . F u r -t h e r m o r e , E n l i g h t e n m e n t p h i l o s o p h i e s had t h e e f f e c t o f i d e n t i -f y i n g p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s o f b a r r i e r s t o s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and o p e n i n g men's minds t o q u e s t i o n i n g t h o s e b a r r i e r s . Moskos a s -s e r t s t h a t e g a l i t a r i a n i s m w i l l a l w a y s be a c h a n g e - p r o v o k i n g i d e o l o g y as l o n g as s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x i s t i n w h i c h l a r g e 17 g r o u p s o f p e o p l e o c c u p y s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n s . B e l l and Moskos have a l s o s o u g h t t o measure t h e e f f e c t o f a n o t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n , t h e R o m a n t i c i s t movement, i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o i n -d e pendence movements. R o m a n t i c i s m has been d e f i n e d as s e e k i n g t o e x t e n d h i s t o r i c a l s c a l e . F o r example, t h e R o m a n t i c s c l a i m e d t h a t s c a l e was i n c r e a s e d , n o t so much by t h e s p r e a d o f e q u a l i t y , b u t r a t h e r by c l o s e r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e a n c e s t r a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e g r o u p . T h e r e f o r e , R o m a n t i c s c o n s c i o u s l y e n d e a v o u r e d t o h i g h -18 l i g h t c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s . In t h e c a s e o f c o l o n i a l t e r r i t o -r i e s , i t was t h e i m p e r i a l power w h i c h s e r v e d as a model f o r what was n e e d e d t o r e o r d e r t h e e x i s t i n g c o l o n i a l s y s t e m . C o l o n i a l i n -t r u s i o n e x p o s e d r a c i a l e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s t o E n l i g h t e n m e n t and R o m a n t i c i d e a l s w h i c h t h e n e xpanded t h e m i n o r i t y g r o u p s ' images o f f e a s i b i l i t y . Thus i f a m i n o r i t y g r o u p p e r c e i v e s s o c i a l change and an i n c r e a s e i n s c a l e as f e a s b i l e , a d e s i r e f o r i t s a c h i e v e -19 ment w i l l r e s u l t . 67 L e a d e r s o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s o c i a l s c a l e o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s n a t i v e s c o u l d be m a x i m i z e d w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e , r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h c o m p l e t e p o l i t i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e . E n l i g h t e n m e n t p h i -l o s o p h i e s o f e q u a l i t y , f r a t e r n a l i s m and democracy, l e a r n e d f r o m t h e m a j o r i t y s o c i e t y , p r o v i d e d n a t i v e l e a d e r s w i t h i d e o l o g i c a l g u i d e l i n e s f r o m w h i c h t o q u e s t i o n t h e p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l b a r -r i e r s s e p a r a t i n g them f r o m o t h e r members o f s o c i e t y . B e l l and Moskos a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e r e a r e a l t e r n a t i v e ways by w h i c h m i -n o r i t y g r o u p s c a n seek t o e n l a r g e s c a l e . D u r i n g t h e 1940's i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I n d i a n l e a d e r s s o u g h t t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r s c a l e t h r o u g h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f an e x t r a - k i n o r g a n i z a t i o n g e a r e d t o w a r d a t t a i n i n g f u l l e q u a l i t y w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y s o c i e t y , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e r e t a i n i n g an I n d i a n c o m m o n a l i t y and i d e n t i t y . A n o t h e r n o t a b l e f e a t u r e o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d was i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f R o m a n t i c i d e o l o g y . The o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n i t s a t t e m p t t o i n -c r e a s e n a t i v e c o n t e m p o r a r y s c a l e was a t t h e same t i m e i n c r e a s i n g n a t i v e h i s t o r i c a l s c a l e . The B r o t h e r h o o d was i n c r e a s i n g t h e i n -t e n s i t y o f r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s m a l l e r I n d i a n s o c i e t y and s t r e s s i n g an I n d i a n i d e n t i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , n a t i v e h e t e r o g e n e i t y was b e i n g a s s i g n e d a s e c o n d a r y p o s i t i o n t o an e m p h a s i z e d homoge-n i e t y o f e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l d e p r i v a t i o n . L e a d e r s o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d were e m p h a s i z i n g a more i n c l u s i v e , gene-r a l i z e d I n d i a n i d e n t i t y b a s e d upon a s h a r e d h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i -e n ce as a m i n o r i t y g r o u p and a l l t h e i n e q u a l i t i e s t h a t d e r i v e f r o m t h i s s t a t u s . The program, a c t i v i t i e s and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e 6 8 B r o t h e r h o o d , e m p h a s i z e d i s s u e s t o w h i c h a l l n a t i v e s s h a r e d a common c o n c e r n . M o r e o v e r , t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t a g r a d u a l p r o g r e s s i o n t o w a r d a P a n - I n d i a n i n c l u -s i v e n e s s was t a k i n g p l a c e , w i t h a s h a r e d h i s t o r y o f e x p l o i t a t i o n and s u b o r d i n a t i o n u nder i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m p r o v i d i n g a u n i f y -i n g s y m b o l . The B e l l and Moskos T h e s e s : " D e c i s i o n s o f N a t i o n h o o d " A n o t h e r segment o f t h e B e l l and Moskos t h e s e s w h i c h i s a l s o r e l e v a n t t o t h e p o l i t i c a l a d a p t a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n i n d i g e n o u s g r o u p s i s an a n a l y t i c a l scheme r e f e r r e d t o as " d e c i s i o n s o f na-t i o n h o o d . " The r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d by t h e s e two s c h o l a r s c o n c l u -ded t h a t i n a c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n , a p o l i t i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e move-ment emerges i f : f i r s t , a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f l o c a l p e o p l e a r e c o n s c i o u s o f i n e q u a l i t y ; s e c o n d , i f a l o c a l " e n l i g h t e n e d e l i t e " e x i s t s c o m m i t t e d t o e q u a l i t y ; t h i r d , i f l o c a l l e a d e r s p e r c e i v e p o l i t i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e as b e i n g f e a s i b l e ; and f o u r t h , i f t h e r e 20 e x i s t s a c o r e o f l o c a l c u l t u r a l i n t e g r i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , e c o -nomic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s s i n c e W o r l d War I I , com-b i n e d w i t h i d e o l o g i e s o f t h e modern w o r l d have prompted n a t i o -n a l i s t i c and m i n o r i t y g r o u p l e a d e r s t o a d o p t a r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g m o d e l . The l e a d e r s ' " d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s i t u a -t i o n " makes them c o n s c i o u s a c t o r s w i t h i n a s e t o f c o n d i t i o n s , who a r e t o some e x t e n t m a n i p u l a t o r s o f t h e p r e s e n t and c r e a t o r s 2 1 o f t h e f u t u r e . " D e c i s i o n s o f n a t i o n h o o d " a r e a s e r i e s o f ques-t i o n s w h i c h must be a n swered by l e a d e r s b a s e d upon t h e i r 69 p e r c e p t i o n s o f r e a l i t y . How t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e answered d e t e r -mines t h e e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f o r m a n a t i o n - s t a t e w i l l assume o r t h e c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r a m i n o r i t y group t o s u r v i v e w i t h i n an e x i s t i n g n a t i o n . "What do men t h i n k t h e y must do and t h i n k t h e y must become i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n what t h e y t h i n k i s t h e t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l e d a n a t i o n -22 - s t a t e ? " A c c o r d i n g t o B e l l , t h e answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n may be a s i n g l e s u j b e c t i v e r e a l i t y , o r may be m u l t i p l e s u b j e c t i v e r e a -l i t i e s i f d i f f e r e n t l e a d e r s have d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e 23 s i t u a t i o n . The " d e c i s i o n s o f n a t i o n h o o d " p r o p o s e d by B e l l a r e : 1. S h o u l d we become a p o l i t i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n ? 2. How much n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n y s h o u l d t h e new n a t i o n h a ve? 3. What s h o u l d t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e new n a t i o n be? 4. S h o u l d t h e s t a t e and t h e n a t i o n be c o t e r m i n o u s ? 5. What f o r m o f government s h o u l d t h e new n a t i o n h a v e ? 6. What r o l e s h o u l d t h e government p l a y i n t h e a f -f a i r s o f t h e s o c i e t y and o f t h e economy? 7. What s h o u l d t h e new n a t i o n ' s e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s be? 8. What t y p e o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s h o u l d t h e new na-t i o n h a ve? 9. What s h o u l d t h e new n a t i o n ' s c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s be? 10. What s h o u l d t h e n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e new n a -t i o n ' s p e o p l e b e ? 2 4 The f i r s t d e c i s i o n , " s h o u l d we become a p o l i t i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n ? " has p r i o r i t y , s i n c e a l l d e c i s i o n s f o l l o w i n g a r e depen-d e n t upon t h e outcome o f t h i s ' o n e . The s e c o n d d e c i s i o n i s o f p a -ramount i m p o r t a n c e , due t o t h e i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e v a r y -i n g d e g r e e s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e . A l l d e c i s i o n s b e y o n d t h i s one a r e o n l y a p p l i c a b l e t o g r o u p s who have c h o s e n t h e p a t h o f a s e p a r a t e 70 autonomous n a t i o n - s t a t e . A l t h o u g h t h e b e s t known model o f "na-t i o n a l i s m " t a k e s t h e f o r m o f an a c t i v e p u r s u i t o f a p o l i t i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t s t a t e , t h e " d e c i s i o n s o f n a t i o n h o o d " d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d t o t h e l e v e l o f p o l i t i c a l i n -d e pendence b u t c a n r e f e r t o a r a n g e o f p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , f u l l and c o m p l e t e e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l i n d e p e n d e n c e r e p r e s e n t s t h e extreme p o s i t i o n on t h e c o n t i n u u m o f 25 "more o r l e s s " autonomy. T h e r e f o r e , m i n o r i t y and n a t i o n i s t i c g r o u p s c a n d e c i d e upon a r a n g e o f a c t i o n s b a s e d upon t h e i r p e r -c e p t i o n s o f r e a l i t y i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e t h e k i n d o f f u t u r e de-s i r e d by t h e i r p e o p l e . L e a d e r s o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p u r s u e d t h e g o a l o f e n l a r g e d autonomy o v e r t h e e c o n o m i c , p o l i -t i c a l and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h a f f e c t e d t h e i r l i v e s . They s t o p p e d s h o r t o f demanding f u l l p o l i t i c a l i n d e p e n d e n c e i n t h e f o r m o f a s e p a r a t e n a t i o n - s t a t e . I n d e p e n d e n c e was n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be a f e a s b i l e o p t i o n , n o r was i t deemed t h e most a d v a n t a g e o u s means f o r c o r r e c t i n g i n e q u a l i t i e s w i t h i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . How-e v e r , P a n - I n d i a n i s m as an e x p r e s s i o n o f n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l a d a p t a -t i o n , was s e l e c t e d by t h e same d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s as o t h e r g r o u p s c h o o s e t h e p a t h o f i n d e p e n d e n c e and t h e r e f o r e , t h e "de-c i s i o n s o f n a t i o n h o o d " a r e a r e l e v a n t c o n c e p t w i t h i n t h e C a n a d i -an n a t i v e s i t u a t i o n . F o r l e a d e r s o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d t h e i r c h o i c e was n o t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a p o l i t i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n - s t a t e , b u t was i n c r e a s e d c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r own l i v e s and d e s t i n i e s , a c c o m p l i s h e d by c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e government o f 71 t h e m a j o r i t y s o c i e t y . The p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s and g o a l s f a -v o u r e d by l e a d e r s o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d were no d o u b t i n f l u e n c e d by t h e b a s i c f a c t o f I n d i a n p o v e r t y and l a c k o f t r a i n i n g . Added t o t h e i r c o n d i t i o n o f dependence due t o a l a c k o f f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r -c e s was t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s p e r s i o n . T h e r e was and s t i l l i s no g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n where t h e y c o u l d have p u r s u e d d e s i r e s o f b e c o m i n g a s e p a r a t e n a t i o n - s t a t e . As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e c o n d i -t i o n s i n d e p e n d e n c e was n o t a f e a s i b l e o p t i o n f o r l e a d e r s o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d . In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was f o r m e d as a r e s p o n s e t o i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m and d e m o n s t r a -t e d , t h r o u g h i t s a c t i v i t i e s and o b j e c t i v e s e l e m e n t s o f Pan-- I n d i a n i s m . R o b e r t Thomas has s u g g e s t e d t h a t P a n - I n d i a n i s m has a 26 n a t i o n a l i s t i c f l a v o u r . T h i s i s m a n i f e s t e d when a g r o u p o f n a -t i v e p e o p l e r e c o g n i z e t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y and s t r i v e t o e x e r c i s e i n f l u e n c e on t h e p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y , i n o r d e r t o change t h i s d i s t i n c -t i o n . The g e n e r a l g o a l s o f I n d i a n n a t i o n a l i s m as n o t e d by H a z e l H e r t z b e r a r e : 1. i n c r e a s e d e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l k i n d s on a l l age l e v e l s 2. i m p r o v e d h e a l t h and g e n e r a l w e l f a r e 3. r e t e n t i o n o f l a n d b a s e and a c c u m u l a t i o n o f more l a n d 4. e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e r e s e r v e s 5. t r u e r a t h e r t h a n n o m i n a l t r i b a l s o v e r e i g n t y . . . 6. g r e a t e r p o l i t i c a l s o l i d a r i t y and s t r e n g t h i n o r d e r t o e x e r t s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r a f f a i r s 7. m a i n t e n a n c e and d e v e l o p m e n t o f I n d i a n c u l t u r e 2 7 72 The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e x p r e s s e d s i m i l a r g o a l s d u r i n g t h e 1940's. A l t h o u g h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y h a l f t h e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n i n one p r o v i n c e , i t a d d r e s s e d p r o b l e m s and c o n c e r n s w h i c h a f f e c t e d t h e l i v e s o f a l l I n d i a n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n r e c o g n i z e d t h e n e e d t o s u b o r d i n a t e t r i b a l l o y a l t i e s t o c r e a t e a new i d e n t i t y as C a n a d i a n I n d i a n s i n o r d e r t o change t h e i r m i n o r i t y s t a t u s . T h e r e f o r e , even t h o u g h t h e y were n o t a n a t i o n a l I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e y were s t i l l P a n - I n d i a n i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y were w o r k i n g t o change t h e m i -n o r i t y s t a t u s o f I n d i a n s , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e m a i n t a i n i n g I n -d i a n t r a d i t i o n a l r i g h t s and c u l t u r e . 73 C h a p t e r T h r e e - N o t e s B o l d t , Menno, I n d i a n L e a d e r s i n Canada: A t t i t u d e s  Toward E q u a l i t y , I d e n t i t y and P o l i t i c a l S t a t u s , (New Haven, Conn.: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , 1973), p. 6. 2 Thomas, R o b e r t , K., " P a n - I n d i a n i s m , " i n The Emergent  N a t i v e A m e r i c a n s : A Reader i n C u l t u r e C o n t a c t , e d . Deward E. W a l k e r J r . , ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown, 1972, pp. 740-41), p. 739. 3 I b i d . , p. 743. 4 I b i d . , p. 739. 5 B o l d t , Menno, I n d i a n L e a d e r s i n Canada, p. 24. 6 B l a u n e r , R o b e r t , " I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m and G h e t t o Re-v o l t , " S o c i a l P r o b l e m s , ( S p r i n g 1969, V o l . 16, No. 4, p . 396), p. 396. 7 B o l d t , Menno, I n d i a n L e a d e r s i n Canada, p. 25. g C a s a n o v a , P a b l o G o n z a l e s , " I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m and N a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t , " S t u d i e s i n C o m p a r a t i v e I n t e r n a t i o n a l  D e v e l o p m e n t, ( V o l . 1, 1965, pp. 25-37), p. 27. 9 I b i d . T e n n a n t , P a u l , " N a t i v e I n d i a n P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1900-1969: A R e s p o n s e t o I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l -i s m , " B.C. S t u d i e s , ( V o l . 55, Autumn 1982, pp. 3-49), p. 6. I n t h i s a r t i c l e T e n n a n t t r a c e s and c o n s i l i d a t e s t h e c o n c e p t o f i n -t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m and i t i s h i s f o r m a t w h i c h i s f o l l o w e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n C h a p t e r T h r e e . B a r t h , F r e d r i k , E t h n i c Groups and B o u n d a r i e s , ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown and Co., 1969), p.33. 12 T e n n a n t , P a u l , " N a t i v e I n d i a n P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1900-1969: A Response t o I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l -i sm, " pp. 6-7 . 13 B a r t h , F r e d r i k , E t h n i c Groups and B o u n d a r i e s , p. 33. 14 T e n n a n t , P a u l , " N a t i v e I n d i a n P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1900-1969: A Response t o I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l -i sm, " p . 7 . 15 B o l d t , Menno, I n d i a n L e a d e r s i n Canada, p. 14. 74 I b i d . 17 Moskos, C h a r l e s , The S o c i o l o g y o f P o l i t i c a l I n d e p e n -dence , (Mass: Schenkman P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1967), p. 80. I b i d . , p. 81. 1 9 I b i d . , p. 82. 20 B o l d t , Menno, I n d i a n L e a d e r s i n Canada, a b s t r a c t . 21 B e l l , W e n d e l l , The D e m o c r a t i c R e v o l u t i o n i n t h e West Miss: I b i d . I n d i e s , ( i s s  Schenkman Publishing Co. Inc., 1967 ), p 22 23 " I b i d . 24 I b i d . , pp. 7-8. 25 B o l d t , Menno, I n d i a n L e a d e r s i n Canada, p. 9. 2 6 Thomas, R o b e r t , K., " P a n - I n d i a n i s m , " p. 743. 2 7 H e r t z b e r g , H a z e l , The S e a r c h f o r A m e r i c a n I n d i a n I d e n -t i t y : Modern P a n - I n d i a n Movements, ( S y r a c u s e : S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i -t y P r e s s , 1971), p. 72. 75 C o n c l u s i o n D e s p i t e t h e d i v e r s e c h a r a c t e r and c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e n a -t i v e p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t was t h e f i r s t p r o v i n c e i n Canada t o p r o d u c e n a t i v e e x t r a - k i n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o f o r m o r g a n i z a t o n s and t h e a b i l i t y t o m a i n -t a i n them were w i t h o u t a doubt a f f e c t e d by t h e l e g a c y o f t r a d i -t i o n a l s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c o a s t a l I n d i a n peo-p l e s . W i t h i n n o r t h c o a s t s o c i e t y a c l e a r l y a c k n o w l e d g e d h e r e d i -t a r y l e a d e r s h i p s t r u c t u r e p r o v i d e d an e x i s t i n g l e a d e r s h i p p o t e n -t i a l , w i t h t h e i n f l u e n c e and c a p a b i l i t i e s t o assume e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n modern n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e e c o n o m i c s p h e r e o f c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g p r o v i d e d t h e two e s -s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n w h i c h were n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n s t r u c t u r a l c o h e s i o n , as w e l l as t o r e c r u i t new members. However, w i t h o u t j u s t c a u s e e v e n a g r o u p o f n a t i v e s p o s s e s s i n g t h e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n and p o t e n t i a l t o o r g a -n i z e w i l l n o t n e c e s s a r i l y do s o . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a d i s t i n c t h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e c a u s e d n a t i v e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and a c t e d as a t r i g g e r i n g mechanism f o r e x t r a - k i n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . In t h i s r e g a r d t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e m a j o r i t y o f C a n a d i a n I n d i a n s . They p o s s e s s e d n o t o n l y f a c -t o r s p e r t a i n i n g t o o r g a n i z a t i o n b u t a l s o a u n i q u e s e t o f g r i e v -a n c e s stemming f r o m t h e i r g e n u i n e c o n c e r n t h a t t h e i r l a n d s and t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e had been t a k e n f r o m them w i t h o u t payment o f c o m p e n s a t i o n by t h e Crown. The c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l l t h e s e 76 f a c t o r s e l i c i t e d t h e r e s p o n s e o f p o l i t i c a l a d a p t a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . N a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h f o r m e d between 1890-1950 d i f -f e r e d f r o m one a n o t h e r i n s t r u c t u r e , membership b a s e and o b j e c -t i v e s . On t h i s b a s i s t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s c a n be v i e w e d as o c c u r -r i n g i n two p h a s e s . However, t h i s method o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n does n o t i m p l y s e p r a t e n e s s , b u t r a t h e r p r o g r e s s i o n w i t h t h e i n i t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d i n g a b a s e o f e x p e r t i s e and v a l u a b l e e x p e r i -e n ce f o r t h e l a t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n t o b u i l d upon. The N i s h g a L a n d Committee and t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were fo r m e d f o r t h e s o l e p u r p o s e o f p u r s u i n g a s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l l a n d c l a i m . The l a n d c l a i m , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e " p h i l o s o p h y o f i n j u s t i c e " p r o v i d e d t h e p r i m a r y i n c e n t i v e t o a c h i e v e I n d i a n u n i -t y t h r o u g h o r g a n i z a t i o n and f o r s e e k i n g a j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n on t h e i s s u e o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . However, t h e i r d e s i r e t o have t h e i r c l a i m h e a r d by t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l p r e v e n t e d them f r o m a c h i e v i n g t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s c o u r s e o f a c t i o n t h r e a t e n e d t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s be-tween t h e D o m i n i o n and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Governments and t h e r e -f o r e h i n d e r e d t h e i r c a u s e , s i n c e t h e y c o u l d n o t g e t t o c o u r t w i t h o u t t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f t h o s e government o f f i c i a l s whom t h e y t h r e a t e n e d . A l s o , t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s had a weak o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a s e . In t h e a b s e n c e o f a l o c a l i z e d membership s t r u c t u r e t h e l i f e and p u r p o s e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n a s m a l l g r o u p o f l e a d e r s and w h i t e s u p p o r t e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e no membership f e e s were l e v i e d and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n depended 7 7 e n t i r e l y upon d o n a t i o n s f o r f u n d s , money was a c o n t i n u a l p r o b -lem. I n summary, o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e . f i r s t p h a s e o f n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: f i r s t , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l weakness; s e c o n d , a b o r i g i n a l l a n d c l a i m s as t h e s o l e f o c u s o f t h e i r a c t i v i t y ; and t h i r d , a s i n g l e m inded commitment t o a d e c i -s i o n by t h e J u d i c i a l Committee o f t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l as a method t o r e s o l v e t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s . Phase two o f n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h Colum-b i a commenced w i t h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1931. U n l i k e t h e N i s h g a Committee and t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s , t h e B r o t h e r h o o d d i d n o t p u r s u e t h e c l a i m t o abo-r i g i n a l t i t l e . R a t h e r , i t s o u g h t i m p r o v e d e d u c a t i o n f o r I n d i a n s , b e t t e r h e a l t h c a r e , t h e f r a n c h i s e , as w e l l as i m p r o v e d economic and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d were more s p e c i f i c and w i d e r i n r a n g e , t h e r e f o r e t h e y a f f e c t e d t h e l i v e s o f a l l I n d i a n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , w h i l e t h e e a r l y o r g a n i z a t i o n s were a i d e d and i n f l u e n c e d by w h i t e a d v i s o r s t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d was o r g a n i z e d and l e d by I n d i a n s . I t was a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n b o t h a t t h e e x e c u t i v e and t h e l o c a l l e v e l . E a c h l o c a l b r a n c h had i t s own v i c e - p r e s i d e n t and s e c r e t a r y and h e l d i t s own m e e t i n g s , w h i l e t h e g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a -t i o n h e l d a n n u a l c o n v e n t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e B r o t h e r h o o d was e s -s e n t i a l l y a n o r t h c o a s t n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i t s aim was t o r e p -r e s e n t I n d i a n s f r o m t h e whole o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L i k e e a r l i e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h e B r o t h e r h o o d was t r i g g e r e d by a p a r t i c u l a r h i s -t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , b u t r a t h e r t h a n s t r e s s i n g a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s 78 t h e y f o c u s e d on t h e " p h i l o s o p h y o f i n j u s t i c e " as a b a s i s f o r t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e D e p r e s s i o n and t h e h a r d s h i p i t c a u s e d n a t i v e c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r m e n a c t e d as a f u r t h e r t r i g -g e r i n g mechanism f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d . As an ex-p r e s s i o n o f p o l i t i c a l a d a p t a t i o n t o i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m , t h e B r o t h e r h o o d ' s p r o g r a m s o u g h t t o e n l a r g e t h e e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o I n d i a n s , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r I n d i a n r i g h t s . They were u t i l i z i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s a d a p t e d from t h e m a j o r i t y s o c i e t y t o change t h e i r m i n o r i t y s t a t u s and a t t h e same t i m e e n s u r e t h e i r s u r v i v a l as C a n a d i a n I n d i a n s . 79 B i b l i o g r a p h y Primary Sources Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , R e p o r t o f t h e S p e c i a l Committee o f t h e S e n a t e and House o f Commons t o I n q u i r e i n t o t h e C l a i m s o f t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , (Ottawa, 1 9 2 7 ) . Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , M i n u t e s and P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e S p e c i a l J o i n t  Committee o f t h e S e n a t e and t h e House o f Commons A p p o i n t e d t o  Examine and C o n s i d e r t h e I n d i a n A c t , (Ottawa, 1946, 1947, 1948). The N a t i v e V o i c e , B.C. N a t i v e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1-2, 1946-48. Secondary Sources B a r t h , F r e d r i k , E t h n i c Groups and B o u n d a r i e s , ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 19 6 9 ) . B e l l , W e n d e l l , ( e d . ) , D e m o c r a t i c R e v o l u t i o n i n t h e West I n d i e s :  S t u d i e s i n N a t i o n a l i s m , L e a d e r s h i p , and t h e B e l i e f i n P r o g r e s s , (Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : Schenkman P u b l i s h i n g Co. I n c . , 1967). B e r g e r , Thomas, R., " N a t i v e H i s t o r y , N a t i v e C l a i m s and S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n " , B.C. S t u d i e s , (No. 57, S p r i n g '83, pp. 10-23) . B l a u n e r , R o b e r t , " I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m and G h e t t o R e v o l t " , S o c i a l P r o b l e m s , ( S p r i n g 1969, V o l . 16, No. 4, p. 3 9 6 ) . Boas, F r a n k , "The I n d i a n T r i b e s o f t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c C o a s t " , i n Mc F e a t , Tom ( e d . ) , I n d i a n s o f t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c C o a s t , ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1 9 66). B o l d t , Menno, I n d i a n L e a d e r s i n Canada; A t t i t u d e s Toward  E q u a l i t y , I d e n t i t y and P o l i t i c a l S t a t u s , (New Haven, Conn.: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 73). B o l d t , Menno, " C a n a d i a n N a t i v e I n d i a n L e a d e r s h i p : C o n t e x t and C o m p o s i t i o n " , C a n a d i a n E t h n i c S t u d i e s , ( V o l . 12, 1980, pp. 1 5 - 3 3 ) . B o l d t , Menno, " S o c i a l C o r r e l a t e s o f N a t i o n a l i s m : A St u d y o f N a t i v e I n d i a n L e a d e r s i n a C a n a d i a n I n t e r n a l C o l o n y " , C o m p a r a t i v e P o l i t i c a l S t u d i e s , ( V o l . 14, 1981, pp. 205-31). 80 C a s a n o v a , P a b l o G o n z a l e z , " I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m and N a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t " , S t u d i e s i n C o m p a r a t i v e I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e velopment, ( V o l . 1, 1965, pp. 2 5 - 3 7 ) . D r u c k n e r , P h i l i p , C u l t u r e s o f t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c C o a s t , (San F r a n c i s c o : C h a n d l e r P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 6 5 ) . D r u c k n e r , P h i l i p , The N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d s : Modern I n t e r t r i b a l  O r g a n i z a t i o n s on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , ( W a s h i n g t o n : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 8). D r u c k n e r , P h i l i p , "Rank, W e a l t h , and K i n s h i p i n N o r t h w e s t C o a s t S o c i e t y " , i n M c F e a t , Tom ( e d . ) , I n d i a n s o f t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c  C o a s t , ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) . D u f f , W i l s o n , The Impact o f t h e White Man, ( V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum, 1965, r e p r i n t , 1973, 1977). F i s h e r , R o b i n , " J o s e p h T r u t c h and I n d i a n L a n d P o l i c y " , i n F r i e s e n , J . , and R a l s t o n , H. K., ( e d s . ) , H i s t o r i c a l E s s a y s on  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( T o r o n t o : Gage P u b l i s h i n g L t d . , 1 9 8 0 ) . F i s h e r , R o b i n , C o n t a c t and C o n f l i c t : I n d i a n - E u r o p e a n R e l a t i o n s  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1774-1890, ( V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s , 1977). F r i d e r e s , James, Canada's I n d i a n s : C o n t e m p o r a r y C o n f l i c t s , ( S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l o f Canada, 1974). G a r f i e l d , V i o l a , and W i n g e r t , P a u l , The T s i m s h i a n I n d i a n s and  T h e i r A r t s , ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1 9 66). Hawthorn, Belshaw, J a m i e s o n , The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A  S u r v e y o f S o c i a l and Economic C o n d i t i o n s , A r e p o r t t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f C i t i z e n s h i p and I m m i g r a t i o n , ( V o l . 7, The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 5 5 ) . Hawthorn, H. B., Belshaw, C. S., J a m i e s o n , S. M., The I n d i a n s o f  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A S t u d y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y S o c i a l A d j u s t m e n t , ( T o r o n t o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 60). H e r t z b e r g , H a z e l , W., The S e a r c h F o r an A m e r i c a n I n d i a n  I d e n t i t y : Modern P a n - I n d i a n Movements, ( S y r a c u s e : S y r a c u s e U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 71). K n i g h t , R o l f , I n d i a n s a t Work: An I n f o r m a l H i s t o r y o f N a t i v e  I n d i a n L a b o u r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( V a n c o u v e r : New S t a r Books, 1 9 7 8 ) . Kopas, L e s l i e , C l i f f o r d , P o l i t i c a l A c t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n s o f  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( u n p u b l i s h e d MA T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p t . o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , 1 9 73). 81 L a V i o l e t t e , F o r r e s t , E., The S t r u g g l e f o r S u r v i v a l : I n d i a n  C u l t u r e s and t h e P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( T o r o n t o : . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 73). M a d i l l , D e n n i s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n T r e a t i e s i n H i s t o r i c a l  P e r s p e c t i v e , (Ottawa: R e s e a r c h B r a n c h , C o r p o r a t e P o l i c y , I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s Canada, 1981). M a n u e l , George and P o s l u n s , M i c h a e l , The F o u r t h W o r l d : An I n d i a n  R e a l i t y , ( T o r o n t o : C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n Canada, L t d . , 1974). McCullum, Hugh and K a r m e l , T h i s L a n d i s Not F o r S a l e , ( T o r o n t o : A n g l i c a n Book C e n t r e , 1975). M i t c h e l l , D a r c y , Anne, The A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A  S t u d y i n P r e s s u r e Group B e h a v i o r , ( u n p u b l i s h e d MA T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Dept. o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , 1977) . M o r l e y , A l l a n , Roar o f t h e B r e a k e r s : a B i o g r a p h y o f P e t e r K e l l y , ( T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1 9 67). Moskos, C h a r l e s , The S o c i o l o g y o f P o l i t i c a l I n d e p e n d e n c e , (Mass: Schenkman P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1967). P o n t i n g , J . R. and G i b b i n s , Roger, Out o f I r r e l e v a n c e : A  S o c i o - P o l i t i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n t o I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n Canada, ( T o r o n t o : B u t t e r w o r t h s , 1980). Raunet, D a n i e l , W i t h o u t S u r r e n d e r W i t h o u t C o n s e n t : A H i s t o r y o f  t h e N i s h g a L a n d C l a i m s , ( V a n c o u v e r : D o u g l a s & M c l n t y r e , 1 984). S a n d e r s , Doug, The H i s t o r y We L i v e W i t h : I n d i a n L a n d C l a i m s i n  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( V i c t o r i a : V i c t o r i a I n d i a n C u l t u r a l C e n t r e , 1960) . S t e a r n s , Mary, L e e . , H a i d a C u l t u r e i n C u s t o d y : The M a s s e t Band, ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1 9 81). T e n n a n t , P a u l , " N a t i v e I n d i a n P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1900-1969: A Response t o I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m " , B.C.  S t u d i e s , ( V o l . 55, Autumn 1982, pp. 3-49). Thomas, R o b e r t , K., " P a n - I n d i a n i s m " , i n : W a l k e r , Deward, E. J r . , The Emergent N a t i v e A m e r i c a n s , ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1972, pp. 739-746). W i l l m o t t , J i l l , A., ( e d . ) , The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A  S t u d y - D i s c u s s i o n T e x t , ( V a n c o u v e r : Department o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 3 ) . 82 A p p e n d i x A CONSTITUTION NATIVE BROTHERHOOD OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1931-32 Preamble Whereas, we t h e N a t i v e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , owing t o t h e keen c o m p e t i t i o n i n o u r e f f o r t s f o r an e x i s t e n c e , t h e t i m e has come when we must o r g a n i z e f o r t h e b e t t e r m e n t o f o u r c o n d i t i o n s , s o c i a l l y , m e n t a l l y , and p h y s i c a l l y . To keep i n c l o s e r communica-t i o n w i t h one a n o t h e r t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h e a c h o t h e r and w i t h a l l t h e a u t h o r i t i e s , f o r t o f u r t h e r t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e N a t i v e s . Hence we o r g a n i z e as t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a whose o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be, t o s t i m u l a t e and i n c r e a s e l e a r n i n g among o u r n a t i v e s , and t o p l a c e them on e q u a l f o o t i n g t o meet t h e e v e r i n c r e a s i n g c o m p e t i t i o n o f o u r t i m e s . To c o o p e r a t e w i t h a l l who have a t h e a r t t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e n a t i v e s and t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e Government and i t s o f f i -c i a l s f o r t h e b e t t e r m e n t o f a l l c o n d i t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e l i f e o f t h e n a t i v e . BYLAWS 1. T h a t t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a l l be known as t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r -h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 2. The powers o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a l l be L e g i s l a t i v e , E x e c u -t i v e and J u d i c i a l , i n s u c h t i m e as t h e C o n v e n t i o n s h a l l f r o m t i m e t o t i m e d i c t a t e , and a l l members s h a l l be g o v e r n e d by s u c h c o n s t i t u t i o n s and laws a d o p t e d a t t h e s e c o n v e n t i o n s . 3. In o r d e r t h a t t h e r e be b e t t e r u n i t y t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a l l have power t o e s t a b l i s h b r a n c h e s i n a l l n a t i v e v i l l a g e s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . 4. C o n v e n t i o n s s h a l l be h e l d a n n u a l l y and a t s u c h t i m e s and p l a c e s as t h e p r e v i o u s c o n v e n t i o n s h a l l d e c i d e . D e l e g a t e s s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d f r o m e a c h b r a n c h . The P r e s i d e n t , G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y and G e n e r a l T r e a s u r e r s h a l l a t t e n d a l l con-v e n t i o n s . 83 C o n v e n t i o n s s h a l l p a s s on a l l c r e d e n t i a l s and a u d i t a l l b o o k s , e l e c t o f f i c e r s and p r e p a r e r e s o l u t i o n s and a l l m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e b u s i n e s s o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d . O f f i c e r s o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d s h a l l c o n s i s t o f P r e s i d e n t , V i c e -- P r e s i d e n t , G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y , G e n e r a l T r e a s u r e r , R e c o r d i n g S e c r e t a r y , and an E x e c u t i v e Committee t o be e l e c t e d , two f r o m e a c h v i l l a g e o f t h e B r o t h e r h o o d . D u t i e s o f t h e o f f i c e r s w i l l : P r e s i d e n t s h a l l p r e s i d e o v e r a l l m e e t i n g s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n and a l l e x e c u t i v e m e e t i n g s and s h a l l d i r e c t t h e p o l i c y o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , as a g r e e d on a t t h e c o n v e n t i o n and e x e c u t i v e m e e t i n g . F i r s t V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , i n e v e n t o f t h e O f f i c e o f P r e s i d e n t be v a c a n t t o f i l l same, and t o have f u l l e x e c u t i v e powers. The G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y , t o a t t e n d a l l c o n v e n t i o n s , t o keep a l l t h e a c c o u n t s and r e c o r d s o f t h e G e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t o be empowered t o r e c e i v e and e x p e n d monies on b e h a l f o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The T r e a s u r e r s h a l l have c h a r g e o f t h e f u n d s o f t h e O r g a -n i z a t i o n . A l l monies r e c e i v e d by t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e B r o t h e r -hood s h a l l be d e p o s i t e d i n h i s c a r e . The R e c o r d i n g S e c r e t a r y s h a l l t a k e and keep a l l r e c o r d s o f a l l m e e t i n g s . 

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