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Reasons for not drinking and pressures to drink : a survey of adolescent abstainers Mangham, Colin Richard 1985

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REASONS FOR NOT DRINKING AND PRESSURES TO DRINK A SURVEY OF ADOLESCENT ABSTAINERS by COLIN R. MANGHAM B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department Of Mathematics And Science Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming* to t h e ^ - ^ g u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1985 © C o l i n R. Mangham, 1985 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Mathematics And Science Education The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: Jan 31, 1984 i i A b s t r a c t A l c o h o l use among ad o l e s c e n t s has been the subject of c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h . A burgeoning l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s i d e n t i f y i n g c o r r e l a t e s and f a c t o r s i n teenage d r i n k i n g . However, l i t t l e i s known about the a d o l e s c e n t a b s t a i n i n g from a l c o h o l . The t a r g e t of t h i s study was t h i s cohort of a b s t a i n i n g a d o l e s c e n t s . The reasons for not d r i n k i n g and the pressures to d r i n k p e r c e i v e d among a sample of middle a d o l e s c e n t (grade 9) non-drinkers was i n v e s t i g a t e d . The study was a survey administered i n three p a r t s . F i r s t , an a l c o h o l - u s e survey was a d m i n i s t e r e d to a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g grade 9 students i n two school d i s t r i c t s . A second q u e s t i o n n a i r e was administered to 72 s u b j e c t s r e p o r t i n g non-use of a l c o h o l on the i n i t i a l survey. T h i r t y of these ' s u b j e c t s were then i n t e r v i e w e d . Negative a t t i t u d e s toward a l c o h o l and d r i n k i n g , a concern about a l c o h o l ' s e f f e c t s on h e a l t h , and a d i s l i k e f o r the t a s t e of a l c o h o l i c beverages were among the s t r o n g e s t reasons f o r not d r i n k i n g given by the sample. The s u b j e c t s ' own a t t i t u d e s about a l c o h o l appear to be more important- f a c t o r s i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s to a b s t a i n than the d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e of peers, parents or o t h e r s . As i n previous s t u d i e s , r e l i g i o s i t y was a s t r o n g l y r e p o r t e d f a c t o r i n the abstinence of a number (25%) of the s u b j e c t s . I t appears that at l e a s t f o r t h i s sample of non-drinking a d o l e s c e n t s , the p e r c e i v e d pressure to d r i n k from peers, a d u l t s , the media or s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y i s very l i m i t e d . Table of Contents A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tables v Acknowledgement v i 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.2 The Research Problem 5 1.2.1 R a t i o n a l e / J u s t i f i c a t i o n For Studying Non-Drinkers 5 1.2.2 Research Questions Addressed 6 1.3 D e f i n i t i o n s Of Terms Used ...7 1.4 Scope Of The Study 8 1.4.1 Choosing The P o p u l a t i o n 8 1 . 5 Summary 9 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 11 2 .1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 11 2.2 Models Of Adolescent A l c o h o l Use 11 2.2.1 P a r e n t a l And Peer I n f l u e n c e s 13 2.2.2 Sex D i f f e r e n c e s 15 2.2.3 Self-Esteem 16 2.2.4 A t t i t u d e s And E x p e c t a t i o n s Regarding A l c o h o l .16 2.2.5 R e l i g i o s i t y 17 2.2.6 S t u d i e s Of Non-Drinking Adolescents 19 2 . 3 Summary 21 • 2.3.1 Trends In The S t u d i e s Reviewed 21 3 METHODOLOGY 24 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 24 3.2 S e l e c t i o n Of Subjects ....24 3.2.1 P o p u l a t i o n 24 3.2.2 Sample 25 3.3 Procedures 26 3.3.1 P i l o t Study 26 3.3.2 Instrumention 27 3.3.2.1 Alcohol-Use Survey 27 3.3.2.2 Second Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 28 3.3.2.3 Interviews 32 3.4 Data C o l l e c t i o n 33 3.4.1 C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y 33 3.4.2 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : A l c o h o l - U s e Survey 34 3.4.3 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : I n t e r v i e w s ...34 3.5 Data A n a l y s i s 34 3.5.1 A n a l y s i s : Alcohol-Use Survey 34 3.5.2 A n a l y s i s : Second Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 35 3.5.3 A n a l y s i s : Interviews 35 3.6 L i m i t a t i o n s Of The Study 35 4 RESULTS OF THE STUDY 37 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 37 4.2 Review Of Data A n a l y s i s . . .' 37 4.3 R e s u l t s : Reasons For Not D r i n k i n g 38 4.3.1 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e s u l t s .38 4.3.2 Interview R e s u l t s 39 4.4 D i s c u s s i o n : Reasons For Not D r i n k i n g 40 4.5 R e s u l t s : Pressures To Drink 43 4.5.1 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e s u l t s 43 4.5.2 Interview R e s u l t s 45 4.6 DISCUSSION: PRESSURES TO DRINK 47 4.6.1 Frequency In Which S i t u a t i o n s Were Experienced 47 4.6.2 Extent Of Pressure To Drink Reported 48 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 50 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 50 5.2 Reasons For Not D r i n k i n g 50 5.3 Pressure To Drink 52 BIBLIOGRAPHY 56 APPENDIX A: LETTER TO DISTRICT SUPERINTENDENTS 61 APPENDIX B: PARENTAL CONSENT FORMS 63 APPENDIX C: ALCOHOL USE SURVEY 66 APPENDIX D: SECOND QUESTIONNAIRE 70 APPENDIX E: SAMPLE TRANSCRIPTS FROM INTERVIEWS 81 APPENDIX F: INTERVIEW RESPONSE CATEGORIES 87 APPENDIX G: BREAKDOWN OF QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES 91 V L i s t of Tables 1. S c a l e s Used i n the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 30 2. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Response: Reasons f o r not D r i n k i n g In Rank order by Means (n=72) 38 3. F i v e Most F r e q u e n t l y Named Reasons For Not D r i n k i n g Given In Interviews (n=30) 39 4. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Response: Pressures to Drink In Rank Order By Means (n = 72) 43 5. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Response: Pressures to Drink (Extent Items) In Rank Order By Means (n = 72) 43 6. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Response: Pressures to Drink ( O v e r a l l Pressure Perceived) In Rank Order By Means (n=72) 45 7. Interview Responses: Pressures to Drink and Strongest Pressure to Drink P e r c e i v e d 45 v i Acknowledgement I would l i k e to express my gratitude to a number of individuals who have been instrumental in a s s i s t i n g me to complete th i s thesis. I wish to thank f i r s t of a l l my thesis advisor, Professor C.J. Anastasio for his guidance and continued support. I also wish to thank Dr. R.W. C a r l i s l e for his service on my thesis committee and for his advice and assistance. My gratitude goes also to the administrators, s t a f f , parents and students of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g school d i s t r i c t s , for their w i l l i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the study. Without their consent and assistance, the study would have been impossible. F i n a l l y , my thanks go to Reid Spencer for his computer services, and most of a l l , to my wife Sharon for her patience and assistance throughout the study. 1 Chapter 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Problems stemming from the use of beverage a l c o h o l c o n s t i t u t e some of the most s e r i o u s h e a l t h and s o c i a l i s s u e s i n the world today. Per c a p i t a consumption of a l c o h o l in North America has i n c r e a s e d almost every year s i n c e the repe a l of P r o h i b i t i o n (Rorabaugh, 198.1). The past two decades i n p a r t i c u l a r have been d e s c r i b e d as a p e r i o d of i n c r e a s i n g world consumption of beverage a l c o h o l . Moser (1981), i n a review of a l c o h o l consumption p a t t e r n s i n 25 n a t i o n s , r e p o r t s i n c r e a s e s i n per c a p i t a consumption of 1-14% from 1960 to 1970 and 30-500% from 1970 to 1975. In Canada, a 30% inc r e a s e i n per c a p i t a consumption i s repor t e d to have o c c u r r e d from 1970 to 1978 (Health and Welfare Canada, 1980). The same report l i s t s B r i t i s h Columbia as the province with the hig h e s t per c a p i t a consumption of alcohol-, and a l s o as the province with the h i g h e s t rate of in c r e a s e in consumption (38%) during t h a t p e r i o d . Changes i n d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s have been reported accompanying the general i n c r e a s e in a l c o h o l consumption (Room, 1981). Over the past few decades, i n c r e a s e s i n a l c o h o l - r e l a t e d problems have a l s o been r e p o r t e d . The Fourth S p e c i a l Report to  the U.S. Congress on A l c o h o l and Health (DeLuca, 1981), f o r example, r e p o r t s that 30% of s u i c i d e s , 50% of homicides, 60% of rapes and 80% of f i r e deaths i n that country are a l c o h o l -r e l a t e d . In Canada, one i n eleven deaths a n n u a l l y i s reported to 2 be d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y related to alcohol (Health and Welfare Canada, 1 9 8 4 ) . The same report states that alcohol i s linked to 4 5 - 5 4 % of motor vehicle crashes in thi s country. The effects of alcoholism on the physical and mental health of the individual and family are well documented (e.g., Fourth  Special Report to the U.S. Congress, 1 9 8 1 ) . In Canada in 1 9 8 0 , there were an estimated 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 a l c o h o l i c s - or 1 in 19 drinkers (Health and Welfare Canada, 1 9 8 4 ) . Changing patterns in adolescent drinking over the past decade are reported in numerous survey studies, such as those of Hollander and Davis ( 1 9 8 3 ) , Smart and Gray ( 1 9 8 1 ) , and Goodstadt and Sheppard ( 1 9 8 2 ) . These changes might be characterized in three dimensions, as follows. F i r s t , the percentage of adolescents reporting alcohol use has increased. For example, Hollander and Davis ( 1 9 8 3 ) report an increase in the percentage of adolescents in Vancouver schools reporting current alcohol use from 1974 to 1 9 7 8 , with evidence of a l e v e l l i n g off in reported consumption since that time. Second, studies report increases in the percentage of younger adolescents reporting alcohol use. The Hollander study records such an increase in the Vancouver area, from 6 9 . 4 % of students 14 and under reporting having used alcohol in 1 9 7 4 , to 8 0 . 0 % of students in the same age group reporting having used alcohol in the 1 9 7 8 survey. Smart and Murray ( 1 9 8 2 ) report a s i m i l i a r trend in a review of studies conducted in 8 countries (including Canada) during the 1970's. Third, there i s evidence that during the 1 9 7 0 ' s in p a r t i c u l a r there were increases in reported frequent and heavy consumption 3 of a l c o h o l among a d o l e s c e n t s . Goodstadt and =Sheppard (1982), f o r example, s t u d i e d development of trends i n a l c o h o l use among O n t a r i o secondary school students over a ten-year p e r i o d , from 1969 to 1979, and repo r t e d a trend toward more frequent and heavy consumption, with a l a r g e r e p o r t e d jump i n weekly consumption between 1970 and 1972. For example, i n 1970, 19.5% of grade 11 students r e p o r t e d weekly d r i n k i n g ; i n 1972, 27.5% re p o r t e d doing so. T h i s r i s e i n frequent d r i n k i n g was a t t r i b u t e d by Goodstadt and Sheppard l a r g e l y to a r e d u c t i o n of the d r i n k i n g age i n O n t a r i o from 21 to 19 years which o c c u r r e d d u r i n g that p e r i o d . In Canada, the o v e r a l l percentage of a d o l e s c e n t s over the age of 15 r e p o r t i n g at l e a s t monthly a l c o h o l use i s c u r r e n t l y about 60% (Health and Welfare Canada, 1984). Problems among ad o l e s c e n t s r e s u l t i n g from a l c o h o l consumption are d e s c r i b e d i n reviews of adolescent a l c o h o l and drug use (e.g., Kandel, 1980; Mayer and F i l s t e a d , 1981). While the exact number of teenage a l c o h o l i c s i s not known, i t i s estimated that the percentage i s probably the same as that r e p o r t e d f o r the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n ( A l c o h o l and Drug Commission, 1981). Other problems o c c u r r i n g among youth which are a t t r i b u t e d f r e q u e n t l y to a l c o h o l use i n c l u d e impediments i n the development of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , vandalism, s u i c i d e , and a c c i d e n t a l i n j u r i e s (Mayer and F i l s t e a d , 1981). Kandel (1980) reviews her own and other s t u d i e s which a s s o c i a t e adolescent a l c o h o l use with both subsequent use of other drugs and a higher 4 i n c i d e n c e of a l c o h o l problems l a t e r i n l i f e . Kandel r e p o r t s a drug use h i e r a r c h y in which a l c o h o l use among a d o l e s c e n t s i s seen to precede other drug use. Huba, Wingard, and B e n t l e r (1981) f o r example, conducted a two year study, r e l a t i n g f i r s t year use of a l c o h o l among s u b j e c t s to secondary use of marijuana. Cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s cannot be s t a t e d based on such s t u d i e s , but they do serve to r e i n f o r c e the commonly h e l d b e l i e f that a l c o h o l , f o r a d o l e s c e n t s , i s a "gateway" drug ( N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e on Drug Abuse, 1981). The a s s o c i a t i o n between a l c o h o l use i n adolescence, p a r t i c u l a r l y e a r l y adolescence, and l a t e r problems with a l c o h o l , i s r e p o r t e d i n numerous s t u d i e s (e.g., Cahalon & Room, 1974; Kleinmann, 1978; Greene, 1980; A d d i c t i o n Research Foundation, 1983). Such s t u d i e s a s s o c i a t e the age of onset of d r i n k i n g with l a t e r problems such as a l c o h o l i s m . Kandel (1981), i n reviewing s t u d i e s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of e a r l y a l c o h o l use and subsequent problems, r e p o r t s that " e a r l y i n i t i a t i o n t o a l c o h o l use i s a s s o c i a t e d with measured l i a b i l i t y , g r e a t e r subsequent abuse, a gre a t e r p r o b a b i l i t y of involvement with more s e r i o u s drugs, lower performance i n s o c i a l r o l e s , and g r e a t e r involvement i n d e v i a n t a c t i v i t i e s " (p.20). Again, a s s o c i a t i o n s t u d i e s such as these do not e s t a b l i s h cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . However, they do suggest that adolescent a l c o h o l use i s a s s o c i a t e d with other p o t e n t i a l l y harmful behaviours, and underscore a need to understand b e t t e r the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n a l c o h o l use and non-use among young people. The c u r r e n t study seeks to c o n t r i b u t e new i n f o r m a t i o n u s e f u l to those working i n the adolescent a l c o h o l abuse f i e l d , 5 through a study of adolescent a b s t a i n e r s . T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e s the reasons f o r not d r i n k i n g , among a sample of middle a d o l e s c e n t (grade 9) students r e p o r t i n g a b s t i nence from a l c o h o l . In the subsequent p a r t s of t h i s chapter the r e s e a r c h problem i s d e s c r i b e d , the s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s addressed are l i s t e d , terms used i n the study are d e f i n e d , and the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n f o r the study i s i d e n t i f i e d . 1.2 The Research Problem 1.2.1 R a t i o n a l e / J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r Studying Non-Drinkers A c o n s i d e r a b l e body of r e s e a r c h focuses on the nature, c o r r e l a t e s and p r e d i c t o r s of adolescent a l c o h o l use. Numerous review a r t i c l e s and textbooks on teenage d r i n k i n g have been p u b l i s h e d (e.g., Kandel, 1980, 1981, 1982; Gaines, 1982; Coombs and Dickson, 1981; Mayer and F i l s t e a d 1981; L e t t i e r i and Ludford, 1981). A review of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h however, on the adolescent a b s t a i n e r . Two reasons f o r seeking a c l e a r e r understanding of young non-drinkers are given below. F i r s t , a d o l e s c e n t a b s t a i n e r s comprise a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of the ad o l e s c e n t p o p u l a t i o n . The average age of f i r s t use of a l c o h o l i n Canada i s r e p o r t e d to be 12 years (Health and Welfare Canada, 1982). At t h i s age, - with r e g i o n a l v a r i a n c e - about 57% of the p o p u l a t i o n have s t i l l a b s t a i n e d from a l c o h o l use ( A d d i c t i o n Research Foundation, 1983). T h i s p r o p o r t i o n decreases throughout adolescence to about 9% by age 17. The need f o r f u l l comprehension of a l c o h o l r e l a t e d behaviour i n adolescence 6 demands a better understanding of the abstaining group, which obviously declines with age. Second, there i s evidence that the non-drinking cohort of adolescents - and adults - has declined in many countries over the past few decades (Smart & Murray, 1981). By age 14, persons who have abstained from alcohol use are a minority of the age-group population. To provide support for the non-drinker in a predominantly drinking society, the influences a f f e c t i n g this cohort need to be understood. This need to understand and to provide support for the non-drinker i s argued by Heather and Robertson (1983), two Scottish psychologists, as follows. "The chief reason for wishing to r a t i o n a l i z e the goal of abstinence i s that we believe i t to be an increasingly d i f f i c u l t behavioural pattern to sustain in a society where s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s supports for the role of t e e - t o t a l l e r are rapidly decaying... The truth i s that abstainers are deviants in most of the modern world, and the s o c i a l and psychological problems encountered as a consequence of deviance have been i n s u f f i c i e n t l y explored. Thus i t i s in the context of moderate drinking as a pervasive c u l t u r a l norm that special j u s t i f i c a t i o n s for abstinence a r i s e . " (p.144) 1.2.2 Research Questions Addressed This study focused on middle (grade 9) adolescents. The s p e c i f i c questions addressed in the study were as follows: 1) What are the reasons c i t e d for not drinking by middle adolescents reporting non-use of alcohol? 2) What pressures to drink, i f any, are c i t e d by middle (grade 9) adolescents reporting non-use of alcohol? 7 The f i r s t question was addressed to gain insight into the various reasons which a sample of middle adolescents name for their abstinence. While a few studies of adolescent alcohol use correlate non-drinking with such factors as r e l i g i o s i t y (Schlegal and Sandborne, 1979) and negative attitudes toward alcohol use (Skiffington and Brown, 1981; Reed, 1981), researchers have generally not questioned adolescents d i r e c t l y concerning their reasons for non-use of alcohol. The second research question was addressed to determine the pressures to drink, i f any, perceived by the sample. Various studies have reported positive relationships between alcohol use and peer alcohol use (Coombs and Dickson, 1980; Liccione, 1980), parental drinking (Coombs and Dickson, 1980), and one's own expectations about drinking ('Rohsenow, 1983). However, the factors pressures to drink which may be f e l t by the non-drinking adolescent have been the subject of l i t t l e research. (Studies of non-drinkers which have been conducted are reviewed in Chapter 2): 1.3 D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms Used The following terms were used in t h i s study as defined below: 1) ABSTAINER in t h i s study refers to the person who reports no alcohol use in his/her l i f e t i m e , or no use in the past year (other than as part of a r e l i g i o u s ceremony such as in communion), and who c l a s s i f i e s himself/herself as a non-drinker. This d e f i n i t i o n i s s i m i l i a r to that used by 8 Stumphauzer (1983), but d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from that of Margulies, Kessler, and Kandel (1977), who used the term to mean abstainers from d i s t i l l e d s p i r i t s . The term NON-DRINKER i s used synonymously with ABSTAINER in the current study. 2) MIDDLE ADOLESCENT refers to grade 9 students (mean age 14 years - and the mean age of the subjects in the study). A rationale for using members of t h i s population i s given in section 1.4.1. 3) PRESSURES to drink were defined as a c t i v i t i e s , events, behaviours, or attitudes which may be seen to encourage drinking or to make i t more d i f f i c u l t to not drink. 4) REASONS for not drinking were defined as factors which may be seen to reinforce, j u s t i f y , or support non-drinking. 1.4 Scope of the Study 1.4.1 Choosing the Population The population used for the study was the cohort of grade 9 students in two Vancouver area school d i s t r i c t s reporting non-use of alcohol. Parental consent was required to parti c i p a t e in the study. Abstaining subjects were selected using an alcohol use survey, which is described in Chapter 3. The abstinent cohort varies in composition among di f f e r e n t adolescent age groups. Figure 1, which i s based on a province-wide survey of Ontario secondary school students (Addiction Research Foundation, 1984), used e s s e n t i a l l y the same c r i t e r i a for abstinence as the current study - no reported alcohol use. in 9 the past year. As the graph shows, a s l i g h t majority (52.4%) of younger adolescents (age 13 or less) reported abstinence in the past year. Conversely, less than 10% of older adolescents (18 and over) reported abstinence from alcohol in the previous year. A steady decline of the abstinent cohort with age i s thus i l l u s t r a t e d . The younger group i s l i k e l y comprised of a great many individuals who simply have not yet begun to use alcohol, but soon w i l l . On the other hand, many of the older (18+) group are l i k e l y individuals who have maintained th e i r abstinence throughout adolescence in spite of continued opportunities to drink (Alexander & Campbell, 1967). The intermediate group (14-15; 16-17) i s a " t r a n s i t i o n " group, containing many persons who w i l l remain abstinent into adulthood, and many others who w i l l soon begin to drink. It can be argued, then, that the three groups are d i f f e r e n t in the i r composition. The middle, " t r a n s i t i o n " , group was the target of thi s study. 1.5 Summary Alcohol use, and problems stemming from the use and abuse of alcohol, are prevalent in society. The dominant focus in research regarding adolescent alcohol use has been upon the teenage drinker. Conversely, l i t t l e has been reported about the young non-drinker. This study investigates some of the reasons for not drinking and pressures to drink among a sample of non-drinking adolescents. Terms used in the study are defined, and the choice of a single age group population (grade 9) for the focus of the 10 study i s explained. In chapter 2, the research to date investigating the factors in use and non-use of alcohol among adolescents i s reported. 1 1 C h a p t e r 2 R E V I E W O F T H E L I T E R A T U R E 2 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n T o p r o v i d e a n a d e q u a t e b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e s t u d y , t h i s r e v i e w i s c o n d u c t e d i n f o u r m a i n s t a g e s . F i r s t , m o d e l s b a s i c t o c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h o n a d o l e s c e n t a l c o h o l u s e a r e d e s c r i b e d b r i e f l y . S e c o n d , s o m e o f t h e s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g d i f f e r e n t i n f l u e n c e s o n a d o l e s c e n t d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s i n g e n e r a l a r e r e v i e w e d . T h i r d , a n d m o r e s p e c i f i c t o t h e r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m a t h a n d , s t u d i e s f o c u s i n g o n t h e a d o l e s c e n t n o n - d r i n k e r a r e d i s c u s s e d . T h e r e v i e w i s s u m m a r i z e d i n t e r m s o f t h e m a j o r t r e n d s i n t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d . S u c h a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s n e c e s s a r y i n l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h o n a d o l e s c e n t a b s t a i n e r s h a s b e e n r e p o r t e d a n d n o p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e r e a s o n s f o r n o t d r i n k i n g a n d p r e s s u r e s t o d r i n k a m o n g t h i s g r o u p . 2 . 2 M o d e l s o f A d o l e s c e n t A l c o h o l U s e S e v e r a l m o d e l s h a v e b e e n p r e s e n t e d a t t e m p t i n g t o d e s c r i b e a d o l e s c e n t d r i n k i n g b e h a v i o u r . A l l o f t h e m o d e l s r e v i e w e d s u b s c r i b e t o s o c i a l - l e a r n i n g t h e o r y ( H i r s c h i , 1 9 6 9 ) - t h a t d r i n k i n g i s a l e a r n e d b e h a v i o u r l a r g e l y a s s i m i l a t e d f r o m p a r e n t s a n d p e e r s . T h r e e a r e d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y h e r e . Z u c k e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) p r e s e n t s a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i n f l u e n c e s o n d r i n k i n g b e h a v i o u r , p l a c i n g i n f l u e n c e s o n a d o l e s c e n t d r i n k i n g b e h a v i o u r i n t h r e e c l a s s e s : a ) s o c i a l -1 2 cultural/community influences (e.g., r e l i g i o n , e t h n i c i t y ) , b) family and peer influences (e.g., alcohol use by family and friends), c) i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l influences (e.g., one's own attitudes and b e l i e f s about drinking). These influences, in Zucker's structure, are seen to work together to influence the individual's pattern of use (or non-use) of alcohol. Gaines (1982) sums up the major factors he considers important in the development of adolescent drinking (or non-drinking) patterns very s i m i l a r l y to Zucker: a) s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , b) parental behaviour, c) peer behaviour, and d) physio-logical/psychological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the subject. Gaines also a t t r i b u t e s use or non-use of alcohol to one or more combinations of these factors. Mayer and F i l s t e a d (1980), in a review of their own and other research, c i t e peer pressure, parent modelling, and individual personality as the major factors in adolescent patterns of alcohol use - including abstinence. A l l of the studies which are reviewed in this chapter r e f l e c t the assumptions described above - that alcohol-related behaviour i s influenced by the individual's own personality and genetic predisposition, as well as by s i g n i f i c a n t others and by the broader soci o - c u l t u r a l milieu. 13 2.2.1 P a r e n t a l and Peer I n f l u e n c e s A number of s t u d i e s report p a r e n t a l and peer i n f l u e n c e s on a d o l e s c e n t d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s . Coombs and Dickson (1981) reviewed s t u d i e s on the i n f l u e n c e of parents on t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s d r i n k i n g and drug use behaviour. They d i s c u s s a " g e n e r a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t " , (p.2) i n which a d o l e s c e n t s use of not only a l c o h o l , but i l l i c i t substances as w e l l , c o r r e l a t e s p o s i t i v e l y with p a r e n t a l use of l e g a l substances ( a l c o h o l and t o b a c c o ) . Conversely, Coombs and Dickson r e p o r t that c h i l d r e n of a b s t a i n i n g parents i n the s t u d i e s reviewed were l e s s l i k e l y to use l i c i t or i l l i c i t substances. Walker, J a r i i n s k a , and Cornes (1978), in a review of r e s e a r c h on a d o l e s c e n t a l c o h o l use, a l s o c i t e p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s toward adolescent d r i n k i n g as the best p r e d i c t o r of teenage a l c o h o l use. T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with Coomb's review of p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e . However, other s t u d i e s report that peer i n f l u e n c e on a d o l e s c e n t d r i n k i n g appears to be stronger than that of parents (e.g., Smart & Gray, 1979; R i d d l e , Bank, and M a r l i n , 1980; Krohn, Akers, Radosevich, and Lonza-Laduce, 1982; Rooney, 1982/83). For example, Smart and Grey (1979), i n a survey of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of two O n t a r i o secondary s c h o o l s , r e p o r t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between parent and student a l c o h o l behaviours. They d i d , however, re p o r t a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between problem d r i n k i n g and a sense of i s o l a t i o n from f a m i l y and e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t r o l s . 1 4 B i d d l e , e t . a l . (1980) performed a path a n a l y s i s of data obtained i n i n t e r v i e w s (n=149) with a d o l e s c e n t s i n the midwestern U.S. P e r c e i v e d use of a l c o h o l by the samples' peers was r e p o r t e d to be a stronger p r e d i c t o r of use of a l c o h o l by the s u b j e c t s than p a r e n t a l d r i n k i n g , a trend r e p o r t e d to be more apparent with i n c r e a s i n g age. Parents with a t t i t u d e s (as p e r c e i v e d by t h e i r c h i l d r e n ) a g a i n s t a l c o h o l use were reported to be l i k e l y to have adolescent o f f s p r i n g who d i d not d r i n k . However, the s u b j e c t s ' own e x p e c t a t i o n s about d r i n k i n g were repor t e d to be the s t r o n g e s t p r e d i c t o r s of i n t e n t i o n to use a l c o h o l . Younger s u b j e c t s were r e p o r t e d to be more a f f e c t e d by p a r e n t a l norms than were o l d e r s u b j e c t s . Krohn, Akers, Radosevich, and Lonza-Kaduce (1982), surveyed grade 7-12 students (n=3,065) i n the midwestern U.S., h y p o t h e s i z i n g that normative c l i m a t e (the a t t i t u d i n a l norms of the s u b j e c t ' s parents, peers, and community) would c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y with a l c o h o l use by a d o l e s c e n t s . Three major " c l i m a t e s " were d e s c r i b e d : a) p r o s c r i p t i v e (no a l c o h o l or drug use sanctioned) b) p r e s c r i p t i v e (use sanctioned with g u i d l i n e s ) and c) p e r m i s s i v e (use sanctioned with no g u i d e l i n e s ) . Peer a l c o h o l use was c o r r e l a t e d most s t r o n g l y (r=.59) with use by s u b j e c t s . P a r e n t a l d r i n k i n g a l s o c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y (r=.37) with s u b j e c t use. The l e a s t r e p o r t e d use of a l c o h o l or any substance was i n the p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d as having a p r o s c r i p t i v e c l i m a t e . 15 Rooney (1982/83) i n v e s t i g a t e d i n f o r m a l c o n t r o l sources (parents/peers/community) on adolescent d r i n k i n g behaviour, using a survey of a l l grade 12 students from 30 no r t h e a s t e r n U.S. h i g h s c h o o l s (n=4,941). A l c o h o l (beer) use, and subsequent a l c o h o l problems were c o r r e l a t e d with the standards r e g a r d i n g a l c o h o l use of the su b j e c t s themselves and t h e i r peers, c l o s e f r i e n d s , other students, p a r e n t s , and other a d u l t s w i t h i n the community. The s t r o n g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s found were between a l c o h o l consumption by s u b j e c t s and a) the number of f r i e n d s d r i n k i n g (r=.442) and b) the su b j e c t s ' own standards r e g a r d i n g a l c o h o l use (r=.44l).. Rooney's f i n d i n g s are s i m i l a r to those of B i d d l e e t . a l . (1980). 2.2.2 Sex D i f f e r e n c e s Kandel (1982) c i t e d numerous s t u d i e s r e p o r t i n g d i m i n i s h i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n a l c o h o l consumption between ad o l e s c e n t males and with the p r o p o r t i o n of females r e p o r t i n g a l c o h o l use near i n g that of males. G e r s i c k (1981) a l s o reviewed r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d to sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n teenage d r i n k i n g , and concluded that sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n d r i n k i n g had become almost i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . Canadian surveys of a l c o h o l use among a d o l e s c e n t s such as those of H o l l a n d e r and Davis (1983), C l e a t h e r o (1982), and Goodstadt and Sheppard (1982), a l s o i n d i c a t e d i m i n i s h i n g sex d i f f e r e n c e s in r e p o r t e d consumption. One p o s s i b l e reason f o r such a d e c l i n e i n a b s t i n e n c e among females was d i s c u s s e d by K i e l (1978). In a household survey of women i n Pennsylvania, he re p o r t e d that younger women and those performing l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s , were more l i k e l y t o r e p o r t d r i n k i n g and d r i n k i n g more f r e q u e n t l y than 1 6 women performing more t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s . 2.2.3 Sel f - E s t e e m The r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f - e s t e e m and r e p o r t e d a l c o h o l and drug use among ad o l e s c e n t s has been examined i n a number of s t u d i e s . Reviews of the se l f - e s t e e m and drug use s u b j e c t (Kandel, 1982; G e r s i c k , 1981) report that a s t r o n g s e l f - i m a g e i s a " b u f f e r " a g a i n s t self-damaging behaviour (e.g., c h r o n i c heavy use of a l c o h o l ) . B u t l e r (1982), however, surveyed young a d o l e s c e n t s and found a b s t a i n e r s to score higher i n p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r bodies, behaviour, h e a l t h , p h y s i c a l appearance, s k i l l s , and s e x u a l i t y than d i d d r i n k e r s . Using the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale with a sample of grade 7-8 students (n=388), i n f r e q u e n t d r i n k e r s were, in t u r n , r e p o r t e d to score higher than frequent d r i n k e r s . S l a v i c (1981) a l s o compared s e l f - c o n c e p t scores of ad o l e s c e n t s with t h e i r r e p o r t e d a l c o h o l use. Using the same s e l f - c o n c e p t s c a l e as B u t l e r among a sample of secondary s c h o o l students i n the midwestern U n i t e d S t a t e s (n=167), he r e p o r t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between s u b j e c t ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t scores and the extent of t h e i r d r i n k i n g . 2.2.4 A t t i t u d e s and Ex p e c t a t i o n s Regarding A l c o h o l S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have examined the p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s about a l c o h o l use among a d o l e s c e n t s , with a c t u a l d r i n k i n g p a t t e r n s . 1 7 For example, Schwarz (1978) c o r r e l a t e d reported s e n s a t i o n -seeking behaviour with a l c o h o l use i n a sample of c o l l e g e students (n=242). D e s i r e f o r d i s i n h i b i t i o n , a s u s c e p t a b i l i t y to boredom, and seeking of t h r i l l i n g experiences were a l l p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with a l c o h o l use i n the sample (r=.59, .27, .32 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . S k i f f i r t g t o n and Brown (1981) compared a t t i t u d e scores of grade 11 students in Pennsylvania (n=3,568) with t h e i r r e p o r t e d use of a l c o h o l . The a b s t a i n e r s in the sample were repor t e d to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more negative in t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward a l c o h o l than d r i n k e r s . Reed (1981) a l s o s t u d i e d the a t t i t u d e s of a d o l e s c e n t s toward a l c o h o l , among the student p o p u l a t i o n of two secondary s c h o o l s i n the U.S. P a c i f i c Northwest (n=865). Sev e r a l v a r i a b l e s were used to p r e d i c t s u b j e c t s scores on L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e s of a t t i t u d e s toward a l c o h o l . The best p r e d i c t o r s of p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward a l c o h o l i n the study were parents' d r i n k i n g r a t e s , parents' p e r c e i v e d a t t i t u d e s toward d r i n k i n g , grade l e v e l (age), and p e r c e i v e d a t t i t u d e s of f r i e n d s . A l l were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with s u b j e c t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward a l c o h o l use, and together they accounted f o r 42% of the v a r i a n c e i n a t t i t u d e s c o r e s . 2.2.5 R e l i g i o s i t y R e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s have been r e p o r t e d as a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n moderating a l c o h o l use and a l s o as a f a c t o r i n a b s t i n e n c e . 18 Burkett (1977) surveyed a l l s e n i o r c l a s s e s i n three P a c i f i c Northwest high schools to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p of re p o r t e d r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i t i o n to d r i n k i n g . Church attendance, conformity to "worldly a u t h o r i t y " , and c o n v e n t i o n a l m o r a l i t y (e.g., i n t e g r i t y ) a l l c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y with a l c o h o l use by s u b j e c t s (r=-.32, -.45 and -.41 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . A l c o h o l use was most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d among youth r e p o r t i n g no church attendance. S c h l e g e l and Sandborne (1979) s t u d i e d secondary s c h o o l students in O n t a r i o , comparing r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n with r e p o r t e d a l c o h o l use. In the study, students belonging to fundamentalist denominations (e.g., B a p t i s t ) formed the h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n of a b s t a i n e r s . A l s o , there were both a lower percentage of d r i n k e r s and a lower percentage of heavy d r i n k e r s among the s u b j e c t s r e p o r t i n g r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , compared to the s u b j e c t s r e p o r t i n g no such involvement. Khavari and Harmon (1982) surveyed adult respondents i n the U.S. over a three-year p e r i o d from 1975 to 1978, a s s o c i a t i n g the degree of p r o f e s s e d r e l i g i o s i t y among the sample with r e p o r t e d drug use, i n c l u d i n g a l c o h o l . The use of a l c o h o l (and other drugs) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r the group r e p o r t i n g that they were not r e l i g i o u s . Khavari a l s o reported an a l c o h o l use h i e r a r c h y among the s u b j e c t s , ranging from the most d r i n k i n g among those who p r o f e s s e d to be not r e l i g i o u s at a l l to the l e a s t d r i n k i n g among those who con s i d e r e d themselves very r e l i g i o u s . 19 2.2.6 Studies of Non-Drinking Adolescents Studies focusing on non-drinking adolescents are few in number and do not appear to follow any d e f i n i t e pattern. Many report findings similar to some of the studies reviewed in the preceding sections. In a study of secondary school students in North Carolina (n=5,115), Alexander and Campbell (1967) reported relationships between the drinking patterns of subjects and a) their perceptions of drinking by friends and b) their perceptions of their parents' approval of drinking. Of the members of the sample whose parents reportedly did not approve of drinking whose best friends did not drink, 88% were abstainers. Conversely, only 11% of those in the sample whose parents approved of drinking and whose best friends drank were abstainers. These findings concur with those of the studies reviewed e a r l i e r reporting a r e l a t i o n s h i p between adolescents' alcohol use and the attitudes of their parents and peers toward drinking. Stacey and Davies (1973) surveyed a large urban sample of 14-17 year olds in Scotland, comparing personality attributes between abstainers and drinkers. They reported abstainers to have a r e l a t i v e lack of the a t t r i b u t e s of toughness and s o c i a b i l i t y - both argued to be desirable among adolescents by the researchers. Abstainers were also q u a l i t a t i v e l y described in the study as "staying at home most nights", "seldom going to part i e s " , (and being) "conventionally moral and conservative," 20 (p.319). Perhaps the best known study i n v o l v i n g adolescent non-d r i n k e r s i s that of J e s s o r and J e s s o r (1975). In t h i s study, a sample of a b s t a i n e r s s e l e c t e d from among 218 grade 9 students i n a school d i s t r i c t i n the western U n i t e d S t a t e s , were surveyed a n n u a l l y f o r three years, from 1969 to 1972. The purpose of the study was to observe the onset of d r i n k i n g among the sample and to examine d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l , and b e h a v i o u r a l a t t r i b u t e s between s u b j e c t s s t a r t i n g to dr i n k e a r l i e r , l a t e r , or not at a l l du r i n g the p e r i o d of the study. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e data was c o l l e c t e d from s u b j e c t s once a n n u a l l y . During the f i r s t year, 24 s u b j e c t s began d r i n k i n g , the second year, 48, and the t h i r d year, 60 - with 41% of the o r i g i n a l group remaining a b s t i n e n t at the end of the study. Jessor 1 and J e s s o r r e p o r t that the group remaining a b s t i n e n t throughout the study "showed the l e a s t i n c l i n a t i o n (of a l l s u b j e c t s i n the study) to problem behaviour, s t r o n g e s t p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l s a g a i n s t t r a n s g r e s s i o n , h i g h e s t degree of r e l i g i o s i t y , h i g h e s t reasons a g a i n s t d r i n k i n g , l e a s t p e r c e i v e d approval i n the environment of d r i n k i n g , lowest approval of d r i n k i n g by f r i e n d s , and the l e a s t amount of gen e r a l deviance." (p. 38) The other three groups were r e p o r t e d to be in t e r m e d i a t e on the above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , with those beginning to d r i n k i n the f i r s t year being most u n l i k e the p e r s i s t e n t a b s t a i n e r s on the measures used. 21 Using a sample of 492 grade 10-12 students i n C a l i f o r n i a , Noel (1979) a l s o compared d r i n k e r s and a b s t a i n e r s on p e r s o n a l i t y and a t t i t u d e measures. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between d r i n k e r s and non-drinkers were r e p o r t e d on the p e r s o n a l i t y measure used. However, on the a t t i t u d e measure, a b s t a i n e r s - i n c o n t r a s t to t h e i r d r i n k i n g peers - were reported to disapprove of both d r i n k i n g i n general and d r i n k i n g among teenagers. Mayer and F i l s t e a d (1980), i n a study comparing a b s t a i n i n g and d r i n k i n g 16 year o l d s i n C a l i f o r n i a , report f i n d i n g s s i m i l a r to those of Jessor and J e s s o r . Reported a l c o h o l use by s u b j e c t s in the study was compared to t h e i r scores on the C a l i f o r n i a P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory. A b s t a i n e r s i n the study were r e p o r t e d to score higher than d r i n k e r s on i n d i c e s of "sense of w e l l - b e i n g , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , s o c i a l i z a t i o n , s e l f c o n t r o l , t o l e r a n c e , and achievement v i a conformance", (p.155). 2.3 Summary 2.3.1 Trends i n the St u d i e s Reviewed In attempting to f i n d trends and to glean u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n from the p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s r e l a t i v e to t h i s study, i t should be remembered that a l l of the s t u d i e s reviewed i n the prev i o u s s e c t i o n s were a s s o c i a t i o n s t u d i e s . I t would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e then, to assume c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the f a c t o r s and i n f l u e n c e s on a d o l e s c e n t s d r i n k i n g and non-drinking d i s c u s s e d . However, there do appear to be c e r t a i n trends i n the data from the s t u d i e s reviewed, which are summed up as f o l l o w s . 1) Some s t u d i e s have re p o r t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between parents' 22 a t t i t u d e s and behaviour regarding a l c o h o l , and a l c o h o l use by t h e i r o f f s p r i n g . Parents of a b s t a i n e r s are reported to be more l i k e l y to be a b s t a i n e r s themselves or to disapprove of a l c o h o l , than parents of d r i n k i n g a d o l e s c e n t s . (Alexander and Campbell, 1967; Walker, e t . a l . , 1978; Krohn e t . a l . , 1979; Coombs and Dickson, 1981). 2) Some s t u d i e s have repo r t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between peer ( e s p e c i a l l y f r i e n d s ) a t t i t u d e s and behaviours r e g a r d i n g a l c o h o l and a l c o h o l use by i n d i v i d u a l a d o l e s c e n t s . A b s t a i n i n g teenagers are r e p o r t e d to be more l i k e l y than t h e i r d r i n k i n g peers to have f r i e n d s who do not d r i n k , or approve of d r i n k i n g themselves (Alexander & Campbell, 1967; Je s s o r & J e s s o r , 1975; Rooney, 1982/83). 3) There i s growing evidence that the p r o p o r t i o n of ado l e s c e n t female d r i n k e r s i s approaching that of t h e i r male pe e r s . R e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s of non-drinkers do not appear to have been r e p o r t e d . ( G e r s i c k , 1981; Kandel, 1982). 4) Some s t u d i e s have r e p o r t e d a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c t i v e r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n and a l c o h o l use/abuse by a d o l e s c e n t s . A few s t u d i e s have a l s o a s s o c i a t e d r e l i g i o s i t y and a b s t i n e n c e . ( J e s s o r & J e s s o r , 1975; Burkett, 1977; S c h l e g e l & Sandborne, 1979). 5) There i s no c l e a r t r e n d i n the f i n d i n g s of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h r e l a t i v e to the p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f -esteem and adolescent a l c o h o l use/abuse. However, a few s t u d i e s have r e p o r t e d c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s among a b s t a i n i n g s u b j e c t s such as stro n g p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l s a g a i n s t 23 t r a n s g r e s s i o n (Jessor & J e s s o r , 1975) and achievement v i a conformance (Mayer & F i l s t e a d , 1980). As noted e a r l i e r , i t would be unwarranted to c o n s i d e r the trends above to be d e f i n i t i v e statements regarding the broader a d o l e s c e n t non-drinking p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s evident a l s o , from the review, that l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has a c t u a l l y been conducted to gather i n f o r m a t i o n about the ado l e s c e n t non-drinker. Indeed, the f a c t remains that l i t t l e i s known about t h i s cohort of a d o l e s c e n t s . The c u r r e n t study seems to add to t h i s knowledge, i n v e s t i g a t i n g an area which does not appear to have been addressed p r e v i o u s l y - the reasons f o r not d r i n k i n g and the p e r c e p t i o n s of pres s u r e s to d r i n k given by a sample of adol e s c e n t a b s t a i n e r s . 24 Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction The method used in t h i s study was a survey consisting of the following three parts: 1) An alcohol-use survey administered to a l l students having parental permission to pa r t i c i p a t e in the study. 2) A second questionnaire administered to a sample of non-drinking subjects. 3) Interviews conducted with 30 members of the non-drinking sample. In t h i s chapter, the selection of subjects, development of survey instruments, and procedures for data c o l l e c t i o n and analysis are discussed. Also, l i m i t a t i o n s of the study are i d e n t i f i e d . 3.2 Selection Of Subjects 3.2.1 Population As discussed in chapter 1, the population for the study was middle adolescents; s p e c i f i c a l l y , the grade 9 population of two Lower Mainland school d i s t r i c t s . Letters were sent to the superintendents of several Lower Mainland school d i s t r i c t s explaining the study and s o l i c i t i n g the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of their d i s t r i c t s (Appendix A). 25 Permission was obtained from two school d i s t r i c t s to use t h e i r grade 9 p o p u l a t i o n s f o r the study, subject to the approval of i n d i v i d u a l school p r i n c i p a l s . I t was decided to conduct the survey i n both d i s t r i c t s i n order to o b t a i n as l a r g e a sample of non-drinking s u b j e c t s as p o s s i b l e . A l l nine of the secondary schools w i t h i n the two d i s t r i c t s agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e . One school was then s e l e c t e d i n which to conduct a p i l o t study. A l l grade 9 students i n the schools r e c e i v e d a consent form to be signed by a parent or guardian. T h i s form e x p l a i n e d the study i n g e n e r a l terms and o u t l i n e d the involvement r e q u i r e d of p a r t i c i p a n t s (Appendix B). A minimum of f i v e days was allowed f o r the r e t u r n of these forms. A t o t a l of 547 students (230 males, 312 females), or 32.7% of e l i g i b l e grade 9 students, obtained permission to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. T h i s number d i d not i n c l u d e students from the p i l o t s c h o o l . The p i l o t i s d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 3.3.1. 3.2.2 Sample To i d e n t i f y the students to be c o n s i d e r e d n o n - d r i n k e r s , the students having p a r e n t a l permission to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study were a d m i n i s t e r e d the a l c o h o l - u s e survey d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n 3.3.2.1. A student was c o n s i d e r e d to be a non-drinker i f he or she: a) r e p o r t e d no a l c o h o l use i n the l a s t year, and b) c l a s s i f i e d h i m s e l f or h e r s e l f as a non-drinker. 26 Among the 547 p a r t i c i p a t i n g students, 92 (16%) met the non-use c r i t e r i a . Although e f f o r t s were made to have a l l of these n o n - d r i n k i n g students complete the second q u e s t i o n n a i r e , 20 stu d e n t s d i d not do so. The remaining 72 no n - d r i n k i n g students formed the sample f o r the study. T h i s sample i n c l u d e d 21 males and 51 females and comprised 13% of the o r i g i n a l 547 p a r t i c i p a t i n g students i n the n o n - p i l o t s c h o o l s . T h i r t y students (15 males, 15 females) were chosen at random from the sample non-drinkers f o r i n t e r v i e w s . These s t u d e n t s were given a second p a r e n t a l consent form (Appendix B). F i v e d i d not obtain p a r e n t a l permission to be i n t e r v i e w e d , and were r e p l a c e d from the l i s t of remaining n o n - d r i n k i n g s u b j e c t s . 3.3 Procedures 3.3.1 P i l o t Study The purposes of the p i l o t study were as f o l l o w s : 1) To c o l l e c t data from which to t e s t the r e l i a b i l i t y of the second q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 2) To r e v e a l problems which the students might have i n understanding items i n the instruments. 3) To r e v e a l any problems i n the procedures used i n the study. 4) To provide an o p p o r t u n i t y to p r a c t i c e i n t e r v i e w i n g students and to r e v e a l any problems i n the i n t e r v i e w format. A t o t a l of 170 (83.3%) of 204 students e n r o l l e d i n the p i l o t s chool completed the a l c o h o l - u s e survey. A sample of 29 n o n - d r i n k i n g students completed the second q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and s i x p i l o t i n t e r v i e w s were conducted. The p i l o t had s e v e r a l 27 i n f l u e n c e s on the f i n a l study. For example, s e v e r a l items on the second q u e s t i o n n a i r e were r e v i s e d , based on the LERTAP a n a l y s i s d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n s 3.3.2.2. A l s o , p i l o t s u b j e c t s were encouraged to name anything which they d i d not understand on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . R e s u l t i n g from input by those s u b j e c t s , f o r example, an o r a l e x p l a n a t i o n of how to read and respond to the s c a l e d items on the second q u e s t i o n n a i r e and an e x p l a n a t i o n of the term c u l t u r e (item Number 1 9 , second q u e s t i o n n a i r e , Appendix D) were given i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n the f i n a l study. As f o r the i n t e r v i e w s , the responses of s u b j e c t s i n the p i l o t survey r e s u l t e d i n the a d d i t i o n of a reason f o r not d r i n k i n g on the second q u e s t i o n n a i r e ("I probably wouldn't do as w e l l i n school i f I drank"). The most s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e of the p i l o t i n t e r v i e w s , however, was the p r a c t i c e i t pro v i d e d the in t e r v i e w e r i n con v e r s i n g with s u b j e c t s while f o l l o w i n g the in t e r v i e w format. T h i s p r a c t i c e r e s u l t e d i n a higher degree of c o n s i s t e n c y i n i n t e r v i e w i n g the s u b j e c t s i n the f i n a l study. 3.3.2 Instrumention 3.3.2.1 Alcohol-Use Survey The a l c o h o l - u s e survey (Appendix C) was developed f o r the purpose of i d e n t i f y i n g n o n - d r i n k i n g s u b j e c t s from among the general grade 9 p o p u l a t i o n . E i g h t items were i n c l u d e d , s o l i c i t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about each student's age, gender, use of a l c o h o l , s e l f - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n regard to a l c o h o l use, and most important reasons f o r not d r i n k i n g (or d r i n k i n g ) . For the 28 purposes of the study, only the two b i o g r a p h i c a l items, (age, i n years, gender),the three a l c o h o l use items ( l i f e t i m e use, use i n past year, use i n past month) and the s e l f - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n item (I do not d r i n k , I o c c a s i o n a l l y d r i n k , etc.) were analyzed. The a l c o h o l use items were pat t e r n e d c l o s e l y a f t e r those from a drug-use survey developed by the World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n (Smart, e t . a l . 1980). Two approaches were used to determine the v a l i d i t y of responses to the survey. F i r s t , the s e l f - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n item was repeated on the second q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and the responses of the non-drinking s u b j e c t s to the item on both q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were compared. A l l of these s u b j e c t s gave the same answer ("I do not d r i n k " ) on both instruments, i n d i c a t i n g c o n s i s t e n c y of response. Second, i t was assumed that i f the sub j e c t s i n t e r v i e w e d were indeed n o n - d r i n k e r s , then the a l c o h o l - u s e survey had "done i t s job" c o r r e c t l y i n i d e n t i f y i n g them. This appeared to be the case, as a l l of the 30 s u b j e c t s interviewed confirmed t h e i r non-use of a l c o h o l . 3.3.2.2 Second Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The second q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix D) was developed with four s e c t i o n s - e x c l u d i n g three i n t r o d u c t o r y items (age, gender, and s e l f - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) . I t was developed through the consensus of a panel of s i x educators, i n c l u d i n g two f a c u l t y members of the Science Education department at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, two persons experienced in psychometrics and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , a j u n i o r - s e c o n d a r y school guidance c o u n s e l l o r , 2 9 and an experienced alcohol educator. For section I of the questionnaire, 22 items were developed which describe possible reasons that adolescents might give for not drinking. These included such reasons as one's personal attitudes toward alcohol (e.g., "I enjoy myself without i t " ) ; a concern for health (e.g., "I want to be healthy"); peer alcohol use and/or attitudes (e.g., "My friends do not drink"); r e l i g i o n (e.g., "Drinking i s against my re l i g i o u s b e l i e f s " ) ; and age (e.g., "I am too young to drink"). Three items were "gender-s p e c i f i c " , r e l a t i n g only to male or to female subjects. The 22 developed items were intended to cover a variety of reasons for not drinking, but were not considered to be an exhaustive l i s t . Opportunity to write in reasons was provided. For sections II and III, twenty "sit u a t i o n s " were i d e n t i f i e d in which i t was considered reasonable that pressure to drink could occur among adolescents. These included such potential influences as the media (e.g., seeing T.V. beer commercials), peer alcohol use (e.g., hearing other teenagers talking about how much fun they had drinking), and adult alcohol use and attitudes (e.g., seeing adults drink). Four gender-s p e c i f i c situations were developed (e.g., being encouraged to drink by a boy/girl (you) r e a l l y l i k e ) . In section II, subjects were asked how often they had been in each s i t u a t i o n and in section I I I , subjects were asked to record how much pressure they perceived in each of the same 30 situ a t i o n s . Section IV of the questionnaire was comprised of seven items in which subjects were asked to scale the " o v e r a l l " pressure they f e l t to drink from various sources. For each section, written instructions were provided. A paragraph was also included which explained the term pressure as i t was used in the study. This explanation i s e s s e n t i a l l y a re-statement of the d e f i n i t i o n of the term given in chapter 1. Uni-polar, Likert-type scales were chosen for the questionnaire items, and are l i s t e d in Table 1. Table 1 Scales Used in the Questionnaire Reasons for Not Drinking Very Strong Strong Somewhat of Very L i t t l e Not At A l l Reason Reason A Reason Of A Reason A Reason Value: 1 2 3 4 5 Frequency in Situations Very Often Often Sometimes Seldom Never Value: 1 2 3 4 5 Amount of Pressure Fe l t to Drink Very Strong Strong Moderate Weak None Value: 1 2 3 4 5 Five point scales were chosen because they would provide an adequate range of choices without confusing the subjects. Uni-polar, versus bipolar, scales were used because students' 31 a t t i t u d e s toward the items were not being sought. As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 1, the word s c a l e s used were valued from 1 to 5, 1 r e p r e s e n t i n g the stro n g e s t response and 5 the weakest response. The p i l o t data f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was analyzed using the LERTAP computer program, which p r o v i d e s Hoyt's Estimate of R e l i a b i l i t y , a measure of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . For a f f e c t i v e instruments, a r e l i a b i l i t y estimate of 0.70 or higher (maximum value 1.0) i s c o n s i d e r e d s a t i s f a c t o r y . The a n a l y s i s of the p i l o t data r e v e a l e d an estimate of r e l i a b i l i t y of 0.89. Since minor changes were made i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e subsequent to the p i l o t , the LERTAP a n a l y s i s was repeated on the data from the main study. R e l i a b i l i t y f o r that a n a l y s i s was 0.90. The face v a l i d i t y of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was assessed i n two ways; a) by consensus of the panel, and b) by asking students i n the p i l o t study to name any p a r t s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e which were not c l e a r or d i f f i c u l t to understand. The panel determined that the qu e s t i o n of c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y c o u l d be addressed best through a comparison of the items developed f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and the w r i t e - i n responses given by s u b j e c t s i n a) the spaces provided to do so, and b) i n the i n t e r v i e w s . I t was reasoned that i f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items were v a l i d , there should be some s i m i l i a r i t y between them and the unprompted responses of s u b j e c t s . 32 W r i t e - i n responses on the p i l o t study were extremely few, and the data was considered i n s u f f i c i e n t to use. The s u b j e c t s ' responses i n the i n t e r v i e w s , however, were s i m i l a r to the items on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see chapter 4 ) . For example, many of the reasons f o r not d r i n k i n g given i n i n t e r v i e w s were e s s e n t i a l l y the same as reasons on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . L i k e w i s e , the in t e r v i e w s u b j e c t s d i d not name any pr e s s u r e s not covered by the s i t u a t i o n s developed for the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 3.3.2.3 Interviews Several q u e s t i o n s were developed f o r the i n t e r v i e w s , and t e s t e d i n the p i l o t study. 1) "What are some of the reasons you do not d r i n k ? " 2) "What i s the most important reason you do not d r i n k ? " 3) "What p r e s s u r e s to d r i n k , i f any, have you f e l t ? " 4) "What i s the strongest pressure to d r i n k which you have f e l t ? " No s c a l e s were used with these q u e s t i o n s . Students responded i n t h e i r own words, without prompts. In the s i x p i l o t i n t e r v i e w s , p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was pa i d to the s u b j e c t s ' understanding of the q u e s t i o n . Each interviewee was asked t o i n d i c a t e whether he or she understood each q u e s t i o n , and whether there was anything he or she d i d not understand. 33 3.4 Data C o l l e c t i o n 3.4.1 C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y The importance of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i n c o l l e c t i n g s e n s i t i v e data such as i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g personal use of a l c o h o l has been d i s c u s s e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Seymour and Bradburn, 1983; Smart e t . a l . , 1980; De Gracie and V i c i n o , 1981). Steps were taken i n the study to maintain c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y while s t i l l p e r m i t t i n g the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of non-drinking s u b j e c t s f o r i n t e r v i e w s . Each copy of the a l c o h o l - u s e survey and second q u e s t i o n n a i r e was given a numerical code number, p l a c e d on both the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t s e l f and on an attached cover sheet. Students p l a c e d t h e i r names on the cover sheets, then detached these and turned them in s e p a r a t e l y . T h i s process permitted the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of students r e p o r t i n g non-use of a l c o h o l while a t the same time not r e q u i r i n g s t u d e n t s to put t h e i r names d i r e c t l y on t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . In e x p l a i n i n g the study to .students, i t was d e s c r i b e d i n g e n e r a l terms and not d i s c u s s e d as a study of n o n - d r i n k e r s . A l s o , to prevent school s t a f f from r e a d i l y i d e n t i f y i n g who were d r i n k e r s or non-drinkers, a number of students r e p o r t i n g a l c o h o l use on the i n i t i a l survey were administered the second q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n t e r v i e w e d along with the n o n - d r i n k i n g sample. No one was t o l d which of these i n d i v i d u a l s d i d and d i d not d r i n k . Data c o l l e c t e d from the d r i n k i n g students was not a n a l y z e d as part of the study. 34 3.4.2 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : Alcohol-Use Survey The a l c o h o l - u s e survey was adm i n i s t e r e d by classroom teachers i n each s c h o o l . Teachers were i n s t r u c t e d to e x p l a i n the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of the study, then to ask students to read the i n s t r u c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y and to answer the e i g h t items t r u t h f u l l y . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h i s survey r e q u i r e d only about ten minutes. 3.4.3 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : Interviews The time t a b l e f o r the i n t e r v i e w s was c o o r d i n a t e d through the school o f f i c e s t a f f , who ensured that students were not c a l l e d out of c l a s s d u r i n g examination p e r i o d s . A room f o r the i n t e r v i e w i n g was p r o v i d e d i n each school by the guidance s t a f f . S u bjects were allowed t o make themselves comfortable p r i o r to beginning the i n t e r v i e w s . Each q u e s t i o n was presented, and student responses recorded on audio-tape, (sample t r a n s c r i p t s , Appendix E) 3.5 Data A n a l y s i s 3.5.1 A n a l y s i s : Alcohol-Use Survey Student responses on the a l c o h o l - u s e survey were entered i n t o a computer f i l e by the i n d i v i d u a l student code numbers. The code numbers of the s u b j e c t s r e p o r t i n g no a l c o h o l use i n the past year and c l a s s i f y i n g themselves as non-drinkers were then e x t r a c t e d . 35 3.5.2 A n a l y s i s : Second Q u e s t i o n n a i r e As with the a l c o h o l - u s e survey, data from the second q u e s t i o n n a i r e was entered i n t o a computer f i l e by student code numbers. The responses of the non-drinking s u b j e c t s were analyzed using the SPSS-X FREQUENCY COUNT program. T h i s program provided the mean and standard d e v i a t i o n , as w e l l as the number and percentage of s u b j e c t s making each of the f i v e p o s s i b l e c h o i c e s , f o r each item. In chapter 4, the items f o r each s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e are l i s t e d i n rank order by means, and the f i v e items with the lowest and h i g h e s t means, r e s p e c t i v e l y , are i d e n t i f i e d . 3.5.3 A n a l y s i s : Interviews The i n t e r v i e w s were audio-recorded, f o r l a t e r a n a l y s i s . Responses of the s u b j e c t s were noted on paper d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s and l a t e r compared to the tapes. C a t e g o r i e s of responses were formed wherever more than one s u b j e c t made s i m i l a r statements. These c a t e g o r i e s c o n s i s t e d of a paraphrasing of a c t u a l statements made by s u b j e c t s . The c a t e g o r i e s and sample statements f o r each are given i n Appendix F. 3.6 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study There are two l i m i t a t i o n s to the study which should be noted. 1) The sample obtained may or may not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the non-drinking grade 9 students w i t h i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g d i s t r i c t s . The percentage of students w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study was only 32.7%. Moreover, 36 these students were, in e f f e c t , volunteers, and the relevant differences between these students and the rest of the school population are not known. It i s possible, for example, that students volunteering to parti c i p a t e and/or having parents w i l l i n g to allow them to par t i c i p a t e d i f f e r in some respects from the main body of students. Therefore, the findings of the study are not necessarily generalizable to the entire population of grade 9 abstainers in the school d i s t r i c t s involved. The reasons for not drinking and pressures to drink discussed in the study are lim i t e d to those which subjects could and did consciously i d e n t i f y . In the second questionnaire reasons for not drinking and pressures to drink were limited to those pre-determined by the panel. Other reasons for not drinking and pressures to drink may exist which subjects were not consciously aware of, or did not r e c a l l . Therefore, the findings of the study may not encompass a l l of the reasons for not drinking and pressures to drink e x i s t i n g among the subjects. 37 Chapter 4 RESULTS OF THE STUDY 4.1 Introduct ion This study was conducted to determine some of the reasons for not drinking and the pressures to drink, i f any, among a sample of middle (grade 9) adolescents abstainers. Data were c o l l e c t e d from 72 subjects reporting non-use of alcohol, as determined by an alcohol use survey developed for thi s study and described in Chapter 3. The reasons for non-drinking and the perceived pressures to drink were e l i c i t e d using two methods: A 76 item questionnaire administered to the whole sample, and interviews conducted with t h i r t y i n d i viduals. These procedures allowed the scaling of student responses on a pre-determined l i s t of items pertinent to each research question, and provided an opportunity for selected subjects to state, in the i r own words, their reasons for not drinking and perceived pressures to drink, i f any. In t h i s chapter, the methods of data analysis are reviewed and the findings of the study presented. Major trends in the data are described. 4.2 Review of Data Analysis On the questionnaire, students responded to each item on a five-point uni-polar scale matching the type of question asked. The descriptions and values of the choices for each questionnaire section are presented in Table 1 in chapter 3. 38 The mean response for each item was the c r i t e r i o n used to judge the strength of response given by the sample. As the values in Table 1 indicate, a lower mean corresponds to a  stronger response, and a higher mean to a weaker response. The questionnaire was analyzed using the SPSS-X FREQUENCY COUNT program, which provides the mean and standard deviation for each item, as well as the number and percentage of subjects marking each of the five choices. Only the mean response for each item i s tabulated in t h i s chapter. The data are presented more extensively in Appendix G. The responses of the subjects interviewed were recorded from the tapes made of the interviews. Where more than one subject gave very similar responses, statements of the subjects were categorized. 4.3 Results: Reasons for Not Drinking 4.3.1 Questionnaire Results The 19 reasons for not drinking given in Section I of the questionnaire, for which the entire samples' responses were analyzed, are l i s t e d in rank order from those with the lowest to those with the highest means. (Note that a lower mean indicates a stronger response by the sample.) As mentioned in Chapter 3, three reasons for not drinking given in the questionnaire were gender-specific. These reasons are l i s t e d at the end of Table 2 and are each marked with an asterix (*). 39 4.3.2 Interview R e s u l t s Table 2 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Response: Reasons f o r not D r i n k i n g In Rank order by Means (n=72) Rank Mean Item D e s c r i p t i o n 1 . 1 .63 I enjoy myself without a l c o h o l . 2. 1 .72 D r i n k i n g i s j u s t not f o r me. 3. 1 .89 I want to enjoy good h e a l t h . 4. 1.81 I do not l i k e the way people act when they have been d r i n k i n g 5. 2.13 I have seen someone e l s e s u f f e r i n g from h i s or her use of a l c o h o l . 6. 2.33 I probably wouldn't do as w e l l i n school i f I drank. 7. 2.46 I do not l i k e the t a s t e . 8. 2.50 I am too young to d r i n k . 9. 2.50 My parents do not allow me to d r i n k . 10. 2.56 My f a m i l y does not approve of d r i n k i n g . 1 1 . 2.67 A d u l t s would not approve of my d r i n k i n g . 12. ' 2.76 My f r i e n d s do not d r i n k . 13. 2.78 I t i s a g a i n s t the law f o r me to d r i n k . 14. 2.81 The parents of my f r i e n d s do not approve of d r i n k i n g by teenagers. 15. 3.24 Others i n my family do not d r i n k . 16. 3.61 Some of my f r i e n d s might thi n k l e s s of me i f I drank. 17. 3.64 I t i s a g a i n s t my r e l i g i o n to d r i n k . 18. 3.67 I am more popular because I do not d r i n k . 19. 4.10 D r i n k i n g i s not a part of my e t h n i c c u l t u r e . * • 3.60 Boys l i k e g i r l s more i f they do not d r i n k . ( g i r l s only) * • 3.78 D r i n k i n g i s not very feminine, ( g i r l s only) * • 3.54 G i r l s l i k e boys more i f they do not d r i n k . (boys only) The 30 s u b j e c t s interviewed were each asked two q u e s t i o n s about t h e i r reasons f o r not d r i n k i n g : a) What are some of the reasons you do not d r i n k ? b) What i s the most important reason f o r your not d r i n k i n g ? Where very s i m i l a r statements were made by two or more s u b j e c t s , 40 responses were categorized. These categories and sample responses for each are l i s t e d in Appendix F. Table 3 Five Most Frequently Named Reasons For Not Drinking Given In Interviews (n=30) Named As Times Strongest Reason Ment ioned Reason 1. I do not l i k e the taste 16 5 2. Drinking could injure my health 1 1 6 3. Drinking i s against my r e l i g i o n 8 3 4. My parents would not approve 7 3 5. My friends would not approve 5 1 Table 3 l i s t s the five most frequently given reasons for not drinking given in response to each of the two interview questions above. 4.4 Discussion: Reasons For Not Drinking This sample of non-drinking middle adolescents tended to name reasons related to their own attitudes toward alcohol as the strongest reasons for abstaining. The group as a whole appeared to feel that drinking i s "just not for them," and that they can enjoy themselves without i t . They reported a desire to enjoy good health, both on the questionnaires and in the interviews. Two of the strongest reasons from the questionnaire suggest also that many of these young abstainers do not l i k e what they have seen others doing when drinking. While r e l i g i o n was a low-ranked item on the questionnaire, i t remained a strong reason for not drinking for 25% of the sample, and was named as a reason by eight (26%) of the subjects interviewed. F i n a l l y , a 41 d i s l i k e f o r the t a s t e of a l c o h o l was a f r e q u e n t l y appearing reason f o r ab s t i n e n c e by the sample. Although i t d i d not appear on the top f i v e reasons on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( i t was 7 t h ) , i t was the most f r e q u e n t l y named reason from among the unprompted i n t e r v i e w responses. Of l e s s apparent importance to the sample as reasons f o r ab s t i n e n c e was the d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e of peers, and f a m i l y . The p o s s i b l e l o s s of p o p u l a r i t y from abstinence r e c e i v e d weak response as a reason f o r not d r i n k i n g , as d i d being thought l e s s of by f r i e n d s . The fe a r of not being l i k e d by the other sex f o r being an a b s t a i n e r a l s o ranked among the lowest i n mean response. D i s a p p r o v a l by parents a l s o r e c e i v e d weak response i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , although i t was named as a reason f o r abs t i n e n c e by seven (23%) of those i n t e r v i e w e d . Abstinence by other f a m i l y members was a l s o among the l e a s t s t r o n g l y c i t e d reasons f o r not d r i n k i n g . F i n a l l y , the r o l e of e t h n i c c u l t u r e was among the reasons with the lowest response. U n l i k e r e l i g i o n , i t was not mentioned at a l l i n the i n t e r v i e w s . The f i v e reasons f o r not d r i n k i n g with the lowest means are ranked numbers one to f i v e on Table 1. "I enjoy myself without d r i n k i n g " was the reason r e c e i v i n g the s t r o n g e s t response, and was r e p o r t e d as a str o n g to very s t r o n g reason f o r not d r i n k i n g by 63 (87.5%) of the s u b j e c t s . A s i m i l a r item, " D r i n k i n g i s j u s t not f o r me", was the item with the second lowest mean, with 60 s u b j e c t s (83.3% of the sample) r e p o r t i n g i t as a s t r o n g to very st r o n g reason f o r not d r i n k i n g . . " ! want to enjoy good h e a l t h " 4 2 w a s t h i r d , w i t h 5 5 s u b j e c t s ( 7 6 . 4 % o f t h e s a m p l e ) r e p o r t i n g i t a s a s t r o n g t o v e r y s t r o n g r e a s o n . "I d o n o t l i k e t h e w a y p e o p l e a c t w h e n t h e y h a v e b e e n d r i n k i n g " h a d t h e f o u r t h s t r o n g e s t r e s p o n s e , a n d w a s r e p o r t e d t o b e a s t r o n g t o v e r y s t r o n g r e a s o n f o r n o t d r i n k i n g b y 5 4 s u b j e c t s , o r 7 5 % o f t h e s a m p l e . T h e i t e m w i t h t h e f i f t h s t r o n g e s t r e s p o n s e , i n t e r m s o f m e a n s , w a s "I h a v e s e e n s o m e o n e e l s e s u f f e r i n g f r o m h i s o r h e r u s e o f a l c o h o l " , w h i c h 5 2 s u b j e c t s ( 7 3 . 3 % o f t h e s a m p l e ) r e p o r t e d t o b e a s t r o n g t o v e r y s t r o n g r e a s o n f o r n o t d r i n k i n g . T h e f i v e n o n - g e n d e r s p e c i f i c i t e m s w i t h t h e w e a k e s t r e p o n s e s b y t h e s a m p l e a r e r a n k e d n u m b e r 1 5 - 1 9 o n T a b l e 2 . O f t h e s e , t w o r e l a t e t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s a m p l e ' s p e e r s . T h e . 1 6 t h r a n k e d r e a s o n , " S o m e o f m y f r i e n d s w o u l d t h i n k l e s s o f m e i f I d r a n k " w a s r e p o r t e d a s a s t r o n g t o v e r y s t r o n g r e a s o n f o r n o t d r i n k i n g b y 2 4 s u b j e c t s ( 3 3 . 3 % o f t h e s a m p l e ) ; a n d t h e 1 8 t h r a n k e d r e a s o n , "I a m m o r e p o p u l a r b e c a u s e I d o n o t d r i n k , " w a s r e p o r t e d a s a s t r o n g t o v e r y s t r o n g r e a s o n f o r n o t d r i n k i n g b y 1 6 s u b j e c t s , o r 2 2 . 3 % o f t h e s a m p l e . T h e o t h e r t h r e e r e a s o n s w i t h t h e w e a k e s t o v e r a l l r e s p o n s e b y t h e s a m p l e w e r e : " O t h e r s i n m y f a m i l y d o n ' t d r i n k " , t h e 1 5 t h r a n k e d r e a s o n , w h i c h 2 4 s u b j e c t s ( 3 3 . 3 % o f t h e s a m p l e ) r e p o r t e d a s a s t r o n g t o v e r y s t r o n g r e a s o n f o r n o t d r i n k i n g ; " I t i s a g a i n s t m y r e l i g i o n t o d r i n k , " t h e 1 8 t h r a n k e d r e a s o n , w h i c h 1 8 s u b j e c t s ( 2 5 % o f t h e s a m p l e ) r e p o r t e d a s a s t r o n g t o v e r y s t r o n g r e a s o n f o r n o t d r i n k i n g ; a n d " D r i n k i n g i s n o t p a r t o f m y e t h n i c c u l t u r e , " t h e 1 9 t h r a n k e d i t e m w h i c h o n l y 1 4 s u b j e c t s ( 1 9 ; 7 % o f 43 the sample) reported as a strong to very strong reason for not drinking. A l l of the gender-specific items ranked among those with the weakest responses from the sample. For g i r l s , "Boys wouldn't l i k e me i f I drank" ranked 16th; and "It i s not feminine to drink" ranked 19th. For boys, the statement " G i r l s wouldn't l i k e me i f I drank" also ranked 19th in the ranking from lowest to highest mean. 4.5 Results: Pressures to Drink 4.5.1 Questionnaire Results As discussed in chapter 3, data r e l a t i v e to the perceived pressures to drink among the sample were coll e c t e d in Sections II, I I I , and IV of the questionnaire. These were: a) the frequency subjects reported being in certain situations in which pressure to drink might be experienced (frequency items), b) the extent of pressure reported in these same situations (extent items), and c) the overall extent of pressure perceived from various sources. Tables 4 and 5 l i s t the 16 non-gender s p e c i f i c frequency and extent items, respectively, in rank order from lowest to highest means. (Note again that a lower mean corresponds to a stronger response among the sample, and vice versa.) The four gender s p e c i f i c items are l i s t e d at the end of each table and are each marked with an asterisk (*). Table 6 l i s t s the seven items from Section IV of the questionnaire for which subjects reported the " o v e r a l l " pressure they f e l t from various sources. 44 Table 4 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Response: Pressures to Drink (Frequency Items) In Rank Order By Means (n=72) Rank Mean Item D e s c r i p t i o n 1 . 1 .47 Seeing T.V. commercials encouraging people to d r i n k a c e r t a i n brand of beer 2. 2 .06 Seeing people d r i n k i n g on popular T.V. shows 3. 2 . 1 4 Seeing or h e a r i n g about a d u l t s d r i n k i n g at p a r t i e s or g e t - t o g e t h e r s 4. 2 .26 Hearing other teenagers t a l k i n g about how much fun they had d r i n k i n g 5. 2 .31 Hearing students t a l k i n g about a recent p a r t y at which they drank 6. 2 .37 Hearing other students t a l k i n g about how funny someone looked and acted when he or she was drunk 7. 2 .49 Hearing an advertisement f o r beer on the r a d i o encouraging people to d r i n k 8. 2 .54 Seeing people d r i n k i n g at the park or beach 9. 2 .86 Hearing that some teenagers o l d e r than you were going to get together and d r i n k 10. 3 .06 Hearing someone say that "Everyone d r i n k s ! " 1 1 . 2 .67 Having wine, beer, or l i q u o r o f f e r e d to you at a meal or a s p e c i a l occasion 12. 3 .99 Being at a p a r t y or somewhere e l s e , and i t seemed that everyone but you was d r i n k i n g 13. 4 . 1 5 Seeing or he a r i n g a d u l t s showing acceptance or approval of d r i n k i n g by teenagers 14. 4 .26 Having peers t r y to get you to d r i n k with them 15. 4 .28 Being made fun of f o r not d r i n k i n g 16. 4 .60 Being encouraged to d r i n k by a f r i e n d at h i s or her home * • 3 .24 Being with a group of g i r l s who were bragging about t h e i r d r i n k i n g ( g i r l s only) * • 3 .92 Being with a group of boys who were bragging about t h e i r d r i n k i n g (boys only) *. 4 .71 Being encouraged to d r i n k by a boy you r e a l l y l i k e ( g i r l s only) *. 4 .76 Being encouraged to d r i n k by a g i r l you r e a l l y l i k e (boys only) 45 4.5.2 Interview R e s u l t s The 30 s u b j e c t s i n t e r v i e w e d were each asked two q u e s t i o n s about the p r e s s u r e s to d r i n k , i f any, which they f e l t . These Table 5 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Response: Pressures to Drink (Extent Items) In Rank Order By Means (n=72) Rank Mean Item D e s c r i p t i o n 1 . 3. 61 When I am at a f r i e n d ' s house and he or she wants me to d r i n k with him or her 2. 3. 65 When other people my age t r y to get me to d r i n k with them 3. 3. 71 When I am at a p a r t y or somewhere e l s e , and i t seems that I am the only one not d r i n k i n g 4. 3. 74 When others make fun of me f o r not d r i n k i n g 5. 4. 06 When I hear other students t a l k about how much fun they had d r i n k i n g 6. 4. 09 When wine, beer, or l i q u o r i s o f f e r e d to me at a meal or s p e c i a l o c casion 7. 4. 24 When I hear people say that "Everyone d r i n k s " 8. 4. 26 When I hear other teenagers t a l k i n g about a p a r t y at which they drank 9. 4. 27 When I see or hear a d u l t s a c c e p t i n g or approving of teenage d r i n k i n g 10. 4. 33 When I see or hear of a d u l t s d r i n k i n g at p a r t i e s or ge t - t o g e t h e r s 1 1 . 4. 34 When I hear other students t a l k i n g about how good they f e e l when they get drunk 12. 4. 35 When I see or hear about teenagers o l d e r than myself going out and d r i n k i n g 13. 4. 49 When I see T.V. commercials f o r beer 14. 4. 51 When I see people d r i n k i n g on popular T.V. shows 15. 4. 62 When I see people d r i n k i n g at the park or beach 16. 4. 64 When I hear advertisements f o r beer on the r a d i o *. 3'. 70 When a g i r l I r e a l l y l i k e wants me to d r i n k (boys only) * • 3. 93 When a boy I r e a l l y l i k e encourages me to d r i n k ( g i r l s only) * • 4. 05 When I am with a group of boys who are bragging about t h e i r d r i n k i n g (boys only) * • 4. 09 When I am with a group of g i r l s who are bragging about t h e i r d r i n k i n g ( g i r l s only) 4 6 w e r e : a ) " W h a t p r e s s u r e s t o d r i n k , i f a n y , h a v e y o u f e l t ? " , a n d , b ) " W h a t i s t h e s t r o n g e s t p r e s s u r e w h i c h y o u h a v e f e l t t o d r i n k ? " T a b l e 6 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e s p o n s e : P r e s s u r e s t o D r i n k ( O v e r a l l P r e s s u r e P e r c e i v e d ) I n R a n k O r d e r B y M e a n s ( n = 7 2 ) R a n k M e a n I t e m D e s c r i p t i o n 1 . 3 . 9 3 F r o m w a n t i n g t o b e l i k e d b y b o y s ( i f y o u a r e a g i r l ) o r b y g i r l s ( i f y o u a r e a b o y ) ? 2 . 4 . 0 6 F r o m t h e g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e o f d r i n k i n g i n o u r s o c i e t y ? 3 . 4 . 1 3 A s a r e s u l t o f h e a r i n g t h a t d r i n k i n g i s f u n o r e x c i t i n g ? 4 . 4 . 2 1 F r o m s e e i n g o r h e a r i n g a b o u t o t h e r t e e n a g e r s d r i n k i n g ? 5 . 4 . 2 6 F r o m m y f r i e n d s ? 6 . 4 . 4 4 F r o m T . V . o r r a d i o a d v e r t i s i n g f o r b e e r o r 1 w i n e ? 7 . 4 . 5 8 F r o m s e e i n g a n d h e a r i n g a b o u t a d u l t s d r i n k i n g ? T a b l e 7 I n t e r v i e w R e s p o n s e s : P r e s s u r e s t o D r i n k a n d S t r o n g e s t P r e s s u r e t o D r i n k P e r c e i v e d A . P R E S S U R E S T O D R I N K n 1 . I f e e l n o p r e s s u r e s t o d r i n k 2 . W h e n m y f r i e n d s w a n t m e t o d r i n k 3 . W h e n p e o p l e t a l k a b o u t t h e i r d r i n k i n g 4. W h e n I a m a t p a r t i e s w h e r e o t h e r s a r e d r i n k i n g 5 . W h e n I s e e m y p a r e n t s d r i n k 2 2 5 3 2 2 B . S T R O N G E S T P R E S S U R E T O D R I N K n F r o m m y f r i e n d s ( n o o t h e r r e s p o n s e g i v e n f o r s t r o n g e s t p r e s s u r e t o d r i n k ) 8 47 S u b j e c t s ' responses to these q u e s t i o n s are l i s t e d i n Table 7. Where two or more s u b j e c t s made s i m i l i a r responses, the statements are c a t e g o r i z e d , sample statements f o r each category are given i n Appendix F. 4.6 DISCUSSION; PRESSURES TO DRINK 4.6.1 Frequency in Which S i t u a t i o n s Were Experienced The group of non-drinking a d o l e s c e n t s s t u d i e d appears l a r g e l y to witness a l c o h o l use i n d i r e c t l y through seeing i t i n the media or hearing about other a d u l t s or other teenagers d r i n k i n g . Far l e s s f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d are s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g d i r e c t pressure to d r i n k , such as being at a p a r t y where others are d r i n k i n g , being encouraged to d r i n k by f r i e n d s , or being made fun of f o r not d r i n k i n g . The f i v e s i t u a t i o n s experienced most f r e q u e n t l y , i n terms of mean response by the sample, are ranked numbers 1 to 5 on Table 4. The two most f r e q u e n t l y experienced items r e l a t e to p o s s i b l e p r e s s u r e s to d r i n k from the media. Of the sample, 64 s u b j e c t s (88.8%) rep o r t e d having seen T.V. beer commercials o f t e n to very o f t e n , and 50 (69.4% of the sample) r e p o r t e d seeing people d r i n k on T.V. shows, o f t e n to very o f t e n . Two of the f i v e items most f r e q u e n t l y experienced were peer r e l a t e d : the f o u r t h ranked item, h e a r i n g other teenagers t a l k i n g about how much fun they had d r i n k i n g ; and the f i f t h ranked item, h e a r i n g students t a l k i n g about a recent party at which they drank. These items were r e p o r t e d l y experienced o f t e n to very o f t e n by 47 (65.3%) and 44 (61.1%) of the s u b j e c t s , 48 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The other item i n the f i v e most f r e q u e n t l y experienced s i t u a t i o n s was, "How o f t e n have you seen or heard about a d u l t s d r i n k i n g at p a r t i e s or get t o g e t h e r s ? , " (ranked t h i r d ) which 48 s u b j e c t s (66.7% of the sample) r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c i n g o f t e n to very o f t e n . Four of the f i v e s i t u a t i o n s l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y experienced by the sample i n v o l v e d pressure to d r i n k from p e e r s . These were: being at a pa r t y where everyone e l s e was d r i n k i n g (ranked 12th), which nine s u b j e c t s (12.5% of the sample) r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c i n g o f t e n to very o f t e n ; having peers t r y to get one to drink with them (ranked 14th), which four s u b j e c t s (5.6% of the sample) r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c i n g o f t e n to very o f t e n ; being made fun of f o r not d r i n k i n g (ranked 15th) which f i v e s u b j e c t s (7.0% of the sample) r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c i n g o f t e n to very o f t e n ; and being encouraged to d r i n k by a f r i e n d at h i s or her home (ranked 16th), which only two s u b j e c t s (2.8% of the sample) r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c i n g o f t e n or very o f t e n . 4.6.2 Extent of Pressure to Drink Reported As Tables 5, 6 and 7 show, the sample of non-drinking teenagers i n t h i s study r e p o r t e d very l i t t l e p r e s s u r e to d r i n k on both the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n the i n t e r v i e w s . The maximum number of s u b j e c t s r e p o r t i n g strong or very s t r o n g pressure to d r i n k i n any s i t u a t i o n was only f i v e (boys being encouraged to d r i n k by a g i r l they " r e a l l y l i k e " ) . The item w i t h the s t r o n g e s t response - being encouraged to d r i n k by a f r i e n d a t h i s or her 49 house - had a mean response of only 3.61 (moderate to weak p r e s s u r e ) . The seven items i n Table VI r e l a t i n g to the o v e r a l l p r e ssure to d r i n k p e r c e i v e d by the sample are a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by very high means and l i t t l e v a r i a n c e i n res p o n s e s . . I t appears that among the sample, not only was l i t t l e p r e s s u r e r e p o r t e d p e r t a i n i n g to s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s , but the r e p o r t e d o v e r a l l  pressure to d r i n k was l i m i t e d as w e l l . The i n t e r v i e w responses r e g a r d i n g p r e s s u r e s to d r i n k (Table 7), tend to r e i n f o r c e the r e s u l t s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Of the 30 s u b j e c t s i n t e r v i e w e d , 22 (76%) re p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c i n g no pressure to d r i n k . These s u b j e c t s made statements such as "I j u s t don't f e e l p r essure to d r i n k " , "I haven't ever been pressured t o d r i n k " , or "I don't want to d r i n k , so I don't f e e l p r e ssured t o " . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note, however, that the st r o n g e s t p r e s s u r e s named i n the i n t e r v i e w s a l l r e l a t e to the i n f l u e n c e of peers. Though the s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g d i r e c t p r essure from f r i e n d s or other teenagers were the l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y experienced by the sample, they generated the most - a l b e i t s t i l l a r e l a t i v e l y weak - pressure to d r i n k . The same i s true of the in t e r v i e w responses. A l l e i g h t s u b j e c t s r e p o r t i n g pressure to dr i n k c i t e d f r i e n d s as the s t r o n g e s t source of p r e s s u r e . 50 Chapter 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Introduct ion The c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations of t h i s study take i n t o account the l i m i t a t i o n s i n the sample. In f a c t , one recommendation i s to r e p l i c a t e the study with a l a r g e random sample, t a k i n g i n t o account such independent v a r i a b l e s as gender and e t h n i c i t y . 5.2 Reasons f o r Not D r i n k i n g The f i n d i n g s of the study suggest that at l e a s t f o r t h i s group of adolescent non-drinkers, a d i v e r s e range of reasons f o r not d r i n k i n g e x i s t , and there are no one or two s i n g l e reasons which can e x p l a i n t h e i r a b s t i n e n c e . Negative a t t i t u d e s toward a l c o h o l , however, are r e f l e c t e d s t r o n g l y i n both the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and in t e r v i e w data. A l l of the f i v e reasons most s t r o n g l y r e p o r t e d on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e f l e c t such a t t i t u d e s among the s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d . In a d d i t i o n , the int e r v i e w responses show such a t t i t u d e s (Appendix F ) . Sample responses i l l u s t r a t i n g n egative a t t i t u d e s toward a l c o h o l were "I j u s t do not l i k e d r i n k i n g , " "There i s nothing to be gained by d r i n k i n g , " " I t i s s t u p i d to d r i n k , " and "D r i n k i n g doesn't do anything good f o r you." Other s t u d i e s have suggested that adolescent a b s t a i n e r s are negative i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward a l c o h o l (e.g., J e s s o r and J e s s o r , 1975; S k i f f i n g t o n and Brown, 1981; Stumphauzer, 1983). 51 The findings of the current study suggest that for the sample studied, negative attitudes toward alcohol are indeed a major supporting factor for abstinence. Other major reported influences on the sample's abstinence are a concern over the potential i l l e f f e c t s of alcohol on health and a d i s l i k e for the taste of al c o h o l i c beverages. For some of the group, r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f i s a major reason for not drinking - a finding similar to the studies reviewed in Chapter 2 (e.g., Schlegel and Sandborne, 1979). Of less importance to the adolescents surveyed as reasons for abstaining are the influences of peers, f a m i l i e s , or others within the community. This i s not to say that these influences are not at a l l important to the sample, however. About 50% of the subjects named parental disapproval of drinking as a strong reason for their abstinence. It i s p a r t i c u l a r l y interesting that the group did not strongly report concern over popularity or loss of friends as a reason for not drinking. Judging from the res u l t s , t h i s sample of adolescent abstainers i s more motivated to abstain by their own feelings about drinking than by a desire to please or to be accepted by others. If the above pattern i s common within the general population of adolescent non-drinkers, then the inter-relationships in the pattern need to be determined. From where do the negative attitudes toward alcohol arise? Do they come as a result of abstinence, or are they learned from abstaining parents and friends? To what degree do they rein f o r c e , or are 52 they r e i n f o r c e d by, the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b stinence? I f fear of l o s s of p o p u l a r i t y i s indeed not a major f a c t o r i n adolescent a b s t i n e n c e , i s i t because most of the a b s t a i n e r ' s f r i e n d s and f a m i l y do not d r i n k themselves (e.g., J e s s o r and J e s s o r , 1975; Cooms and Dixon, 1981)? Could i t be that a d o l e s c e n t s such as those i n the study do not care about p o p u l a r i t y through d r i n k i n g , because they view a l c o h o l n e g a t i v e l y ? If the f a c t o r s i n abstinence determined i n the present study are found to be tr u e f o r the broader p o p u l a t i o n of adol e s c e n t a b s t a i n e r s , then these q u e s t i o n s need to be addressed, s i n c e the answers to them would provide a g r e a t e r understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the f o r c e s l e a d i n g to and r e i n f o r c i n g abstinence among young people. 5.3 Pres s u r e to Drink Judging from the data, the sample of non-drinking a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h i s study experienced s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g " i n d i r e c t " p r e s s u r e to d r i n k much more f r e q u e n t l y than they do s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g d i r e c t p r essure to d r i n k . That i s , they r e p o r t s e e i n g a l c o h o l used or a d v e r t i s e d i n the media and hear i n g about d r i n k i n g by t h e i r peers and a d u l t s i n the community, more o f t e n than they r e p o r t being a c t u a l l y encouraged to d r i n k by o t h e r s . The major f i n d i n g of t h i s study i n r e l a t i o n to the extent of p r e s s u r e t o d r i n k i n the sample i s that there i s a general lac k of p e r c e i v e d pressure to use a l c o h o l . The " s t r o n g e s t " p r e s s u r e - i f there was one - was r e p o r t e d to be from peers. Yet 5 3 peer related situations, such as being encouraged to drink by a friend or being at a party where everyone else was drinking, were the situations least frequently experienced by the sample. Since the pressures to drink among abstaining teenagers have not been the subject of much previous research, there i s no basis for a comparison of the findings of the present study. One possible explanation of the apparent lack of perceived pressure to drink in the sample studied, and the infrequency in which these individuals reported being in situations where they were d i r e c t l y encouraged to drink, l i e s in the reasons for abstaining discussed e a r l i e r . If these adolescents have a negative attitude toward alcohol, then they would naturally be less l i k e l y to be in situations where others around them would be drinking. They may well avoid 'such situations. It i s reasonable to suggest also that i f the members of the sample as a whole possess negative attitudes toward alcohol, they would fe e l less " p u l l " toward drinking behaviour - a behaviour which they see as undesirable. Therefore the "pressure" to drink - a sense of being made to want to or f e e l l i k e drinking - i s not perceived because there i s no internal desire to do so in the f i r s t place. Of course, such a scenario can only be suggested. As in the case of reasons for not drinking, the findings of the present study need to be confirmed, and the in t e r -relationships between the reasons for not drinking on the pressures perceived to drink determined. For example, i f abstainers do indeed f e e l l i t t l e or no pressure to drink, i t i s 54 important to determine whether that lack of pressure is a function of abstinence i t s e l f , or whether the infrequency of direct pressure to drink contributes to abstinence - since the "good e f f e c t s " of alcohol which may lead drinkers to drink are not often seen or experienced. . One way of illuminating these relationships would be to study adolescents l o n g i t u d i n a l l y - as did Jessor and Jessor (1975). Such an investigation would study the reasons for not drinking and pressures to drink reported over time as members of the i n i t i a l sample began to drink. Changes i f any in the perceived pressure to drink associated with the onset of drinking could be examined. This study has provided insights into, the reasons for not drinking and pressures to drink within a sample of abstaining middle (grade 9) adolescents. Though the r e s u l t s cannot necessarily be generalized to a larger population and gender-based differences were not examined, they do suggest several important patterns which need to be confirmed and investigated further. The non-drinking adolescent remains a r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e understood yet very important cohort within the population. To delineate c l e a r l y the forces leading to and reinforcing abstinence - and the rel a t i o n s h i p between these forces - is of c r i t i c a l importance. 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Vancouver: A l c o h o l and Drug Programs. 24. H i r s c h i , T. (1969) Causes of Delinquency. Berkeley: U. of C a l i f . Press. 25. Huba, G., Wingard, G., & B e n t l e r , P. (1981). I n t e n t i o n s to use drugs among a d o l e s c e n t s : a l o n g i t u d i n a l a n a l y s i s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of A d d i c t i o n s , 16, 2, 331-339. 26. J e s s o r , R., & J e s s o r , S. (1975). Adolescent development and the onset of d r i n k i n g . J o u r n a l of Studies on A l c o h o l , 36, J_. 58 2 7 . Johnston, Lloyd, e t . a l . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Highlights from student  drug use in America, 1 9 7 5 - 1 9 8 1 . Rockville, M.D.: National  Institute on Drug Abuse. 2 8 . Kandel, D. ( 1 9 8 0 ) Drug and Drinking behaviour among youth. Annual Review of Sociology, 1 9 8 0 , 6, 2 3 5 - 2 8 5 . 2 9 . Kandel, D. ( 1 9 8 1 ) Drug use by youth: an overview. In: L e t t i e r i , D & Ludford, J . , (eds.) Drug Abuse and the  American Adolescent. Washington: U.S. Government Prin t i n g O f f i c e . 3 0 . Kandel, D. ( 1 9 8 2 ) Epidemiological and psycho-social perspectives on adolescent drug use. Journal of American  Academy of C h i l d Psychiatry, ??, 2J_, 3 2 8 - 3 4 7 . 3 1 . K e i l , T.J. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Sex-role variations and women's drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 3 9 , 5, 9 5 7 - 9 6 7 . 3 2 . Khavari, K., & Harmon, T. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . The relationship between the degree of professed r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f and use of drugs. International Journal of Addictions, 1 7 , 5, 8 4 7 - 8 5 7 . . 3 3 . Krohn, M.D., Akers, R., Redosevich, M., & Lanza-Kaduce, L. ( 1 9 8 2 ) Norm q u a l i t i e s and adolescent drinking and drug behaviour: the effects of norm quality and reference groups on using and abusing alcohol and marijuana. Journal  of Drug Issues, 1 2 , 4, 3 4 3 - 3 5 9 . 3 4 . Liccione, W.G. ( 1 9 8 0 ) The r e l a t i v e influence of s i g n i f i c a n t others on adolescent drinking: an experimental study. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 2 6 , 4, 5 5 -6 2 . 3 5 . Margulies, R., Kessler, R., & Kandel, D. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . A longitudinal study of onset of drinking among high school students. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 3 8 , 5, 8 9 7 - 9 1 2 . 3 6 . Mayer, J.E., & F i l s t e a d , W. ( 1 9 8 2 ) Adolescence and alcohol: a theoretical model. In: Mayer & F i l s t e a d , (eds.) Adolescence and Alcohol. Cambridge, M.A.: Ballinger Pub. 3 7 . M i l l e r , J.D. ( 1 9 8 1 ) Epidemiology of drug use among adolescents. In: L e t t i e r i , D. & Ludford, J. (eds.) Drug  Abuse and the American Adolescent. Washington: U.S. Government Printing O f f i c e . 3 8 . M i t i c , W.R. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Alcohol use and self-esteem of adolescents. Journal of Drug Education, 1 0 , 3. 3 9 . Moser, J . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Prevention of alcohol-related problems: developing a broad spectrum programme. B r i t i s h Journal of  Addictions, 7 4 , 2, 1 3 1 - 1 4 0 . 59 40. N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e on Drug Abuse (1981). Prevention and  the Family, R o c k v i l l e , M.D.: N.I.D.A. 41. Noel, W.M. (1979). P e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s of male and female h i g h school d r i n k e r s and a b s t a i n e r s . Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U.S. I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y . 42. Reed, D.M.K (1981). The a t t i t u d e s of adolescent a l c o h o l u s e r s . Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon. 43. Rohsenow, D. (1983). D r i n k i n g h a b i t s and expectancies about a l c o h o l ' s e f f e c t s f o r s e l f and o t h e r s . J o u r n a l of  C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 57, 5, 752-756. 44. Room, R. (1982). Concepts and s t r a t e g i e s i n the p r e v e n t i o n of a l c o h o l - r e l a t e d problems. J o u r n a l of Drug Issues, 9, J_, 9-47. 45. Rooney, J . (1982/83). The i n f l u e n c e of i n f o r m a l c o n t r o l sources upon ad o l e s c e n t a l c o h o l use and problems. American  J o u r n a l of Drug and A l c o h o l Abuse, 9, 7, 233-245. 46. Rorabaugh, W.J. (1981). The A l c o h o l i c R e p u b l i c , New York: Oxford Press. 47. S c h l e g e l , R.P., & Sandborne, M.D. (1979). R e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n and adolescent d r i n k i n g . J o u r n a l of S t u d i e s on  A l c o h o l , 40, 7, 693-703. 48. Schwarz, R.M. (1978). Turning on or t u r n i n g o f f : s e n s a t i o n seeking and t e n s i o n r e d u c t i o n as m o t i v a t i o n a l determinants of a l c o h o l use. J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l  Psychology, 46, 5, 1144-1145. 49. S k i f f i n g t o n , E.W., & Brown, P. (1981). P e r s o n a l , home, and school f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to e l e v e n t h graders' drug a t t i t u d e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of A d d i c t i o n s , 16, 5, 879-892. 50. S l a v i c , J.L. Adolescent a l c o h o l use as r e l a t e d to s e l f -concept, par e n t s , and a c t i v i t i e s . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s  I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1981, J_, (9-B), 3404. 51. Smart, R., & Gray, G. (1979). P a r e n t a l and peer i n f l u e n c e s as c o r r e l a t e s of problem d r i n k i n g among hig h school students. I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of A d d i c t i o n s , 14, 905-917. 52. Smart, R., Aughes, P., Johnston, L., Anumonre, A., Khant, A., Mora, M., Navaratnam, V., Poshyachinda, V., Varma, V., & Wadud, K. (1980). A Methodology f o r Student Drug Use 60 Surveys, Geneva: World Health Organization. 5 3 . Smart, R., & Murray, G.T. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A review of trends in alcohol and cannabis use among young people. B u l l e t i n on  Narcotics, 3 3 , 7 7 - 9 0 . 5 4 . Stacey, B., & Davies, J. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . Teenagers and alcohol. Health B u l l e t i n , 3 1 , 6, 3 1 8 - 3 1 9 . 5 5 . Stumphauzer, J.S. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Learning not to drink: adolescents and abstinence. Journal of Drug Education, 1 3 , 1, 3 9 - 4 8 . 5 6 . Sudman, S., & Bradburn, N., ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Asking Questions. San Fransico: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 5 7 . Walker, B.A., Jasinska, J . , & Carnes, E. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Adolescent alcohol abuse: a review of the l i t e r a t u r e . Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 2 3 , J_, 5 1 - 6 5 . 5 8 . Wechler, H. & McFadden, M. Sex differences in adolescent alcohol and drug use: a disappearing phenomenon. In Mayer & F i l s t e a d (eds.) Adolescence and Alcohol. Cambridge: Ballinger Publishers, 1 9 8 0 . 5 9 . World Health Organization ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Alcohol Control P o l i c i e s : a public health issue r e v i s i t e d . WHO Chronicle, 3 7 , 5, 1 6 9 - 1 7 1 . 6 0 . Zucker, R.A. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . "Developmental aspects of drinking through the young adult years." In H. Blane & M. Chafretz (ed.), Youth, Alcohol, and Social Policy, New York: Plenum Press. APPENDIX A LETTER TO DISTRICT SUPERINTENDENTS APPENDIX B PARENTAL CONSENT FORMS 6 4 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FACULTY OF EDUCATION Dear Parent or Guardian: With the permission of your c h i l d ' s school, we are conducting a study of the supports for not drinking and the pressures to drink alcoholic beverages which may exist among Grade 9 teenagers. The study does not focus on teenage drinkers. Rather, we are seeking to gather information helpful to parents, schools, and youth in dealing successfully with the pressures to drink which teenagers may f e e l . It i s being conducted as part of a thesis for a Masters degree in Science (Health) Education by Colin R. Mangham, an experienced alcohol educator. P a r t i c i p a t i o n in thi s study i s completely voluntary and students may withdraw at any time, i f they wish. P a r t i c i p a t i n g students may be asked to complete two questionnaires. A l l students w i l l complete the f i r s t one, which asks several questions about alcohol use or non-use. Some pa r t i c i p a t i n g students w i l l be asked to complete a second questionnaire which deals with supports for not drinking and pressures to drink, such as peer pressure. This questionnaire takes about one hour to complete. The school has kindly agreed to provide time for the completion of these questionnaires. Student's answers w i l l be kept s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . They w i l l be read only by the persons conducting the study. In analyzing responses we are concerned with group data rather than individual responses. in a f i n a l part of the study, a small sample of students w i l l be interviewed. Written consent of those students' parents or guardians w i l l be obtained before interviews are conducted. At t h i s time we are requesting permission for your c h i l d to complete only the two questionnaires described above. Please indicate your consent or refusal in the space provided below. It would be helpful i f you could return t h i s l e t t e r to the school within the next few days. We appreciate your consideration of this request. Sincerely, C l i f f o r d J. Anastasiou, Ph.D. Colin R. Mangham, B.Ed. Professor of Science Education Graduate Student Student's name: I DO / DO NOT permit my c h i l d to complete the two questionnaires described above. Signature of parent or guardian 65 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FACULTY OF EDUCATION Dear Parent or Guardian: You may remember that with the cooperation of your c h i l d ' s school we are conducting a study of the supports for not drinking and pressures to drink alcoholic beverages among grade 9 teenagers. Thank you for permitting your c h i l d to complete the questionnaires we have administered. The f i n a l - and most important part of the study - i s to l i s t e n to what the students themselves have to say about these supports and pressures in interviews. We would l i k e to request your permission for your c h i l d to take part in such an interview. The interview w i l l be s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . Student responses w i l l be seen and heard only by the persons conducting the study. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s voluntary of course and students may withdraw at any time. The interviews w i l l l a s t about one hour and w i l l be conducted by Colin Mangham, one of the undersigned. The school has kindly agreed to release students from class for this period. If you have any questions about the interview, please feel free to phone the school. Would you and your c h i l d please indicate your consent or refusal for him/her to participate in an interview in the spaces provided below? It would be appreciated i f you would return t h i s l e t t e r to the school within the next few days. Thank you for your consideration of this request. Sincerly, C l i f f o r d J. Anastasiou, Ph.D. Colin R. Mangham, B.Ed. Professor of Science Education Graduate Student I DO / DO NOT agree to be interviewed. I DO / DO NOT consent for my c h i l d to be interviewed. (Both signatures are necessary) APPENDIX C ALCOHOL USE SURVEY 67 Dear Student: Your participation in the attached questionnaire is voluntary. You may withdraw at any time, if you wish. Before continuing, please print your name, school, and the date in the spaces provided below. Then, tear this sheet off and pass it in to the person administering the questionnaire. He or she will seal it in an envelope separate from your questionnaire. Your answers are confidential. This sheet, and your questionnaire, will be used only by the researchers. N A M E : SCHOOL: :  D A T E : 1-QUESTIONNAIRE D e a r S t u d e n t : T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e is d e s i g n e d to o b t a i n information about a l c o h o l u s e a n d n o n - u s e by p e r s o n s s u c h a s y o u r s e l f . Y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n is voluntary, a n d y o u r a n s w e r s will b e kept strictly c o n f i d e n t i a l . If y o u c o m p l e t e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w e will a s s u m e that y o u h a v e a g r e e d to p a r t i c i p a t e . W e a s s u r e y o u that t h e s h e e t y o u h a v e t u r n e d in, a n d y o u r q u e s t i o n n a i r e , will b e u s e d only by the r e s e a r c h e r s c o n d u c t i n g this study. T h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s h a v e no c o n n e c t i o n with the s c h o o l . W e h o p e y o u enjoy a n s w e r i n g the q u e s t i o n s , w h i c h s h o u l d t a k e l e s s t h a n 10 m i n u t e s to c o m p l e t e . P l e a s e turn t h e p a g e a n d b e g i n . 69 I n s t r u c t i o n s For this s u r v e y to b e h e l p f u l , it is important that y o u a n s w e r e a c h q u e s t i o n a s c a r e f u l l y a s p o s s i b l e . For e a c h q u e s t i o n , p l e a s e put a • in the box b e s i d e y o u r a n s w e r . 1. W h a t is y o u r p r e s e n t a g e ? • 12 • 13 • 14 • 15 D l 6 y e a r s 2. A r e y o u a m a l e or f e m a l e ? • male • female 3. H a v e y o u ever drunk a l c o h o l i c b e v e r a g e s (beer, w i n e , or spirits) other than a s part of a r e l i g i o u s c o m m u n i o n or c e r e m o n y ? • No • Yes 4. H a v e y o u drunk a n y a l c o h o l i c b e v e r a g e (beer, w i n e , or spirits) in <7?e past twelve months, other t h a n a s part of a r e l i g i o u s c o m m u n i o n or c e r e m o n y ? • No • Yes, • Yes, • Yes, • Yes, once or twice 3-9 limes 10-40 times over 40 times 5 . H a v e y o u drunk a n y a l c o h o l i c b e v e r a g e ( b e e r , w i n e , or spirits) in the past month, other t h a n a s part of a r e l i g i o u s c o m m u n i o n or c e r e m o n y ? • No • Yes, • Yes, • Yes, -. • Yes, once or twice 3-9 times 10-40 times over 40 times 6. W h i c h of the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s best fits y o u ? • I do not drink. • I seldom drink. • I drink occasionally. • I drink often. • I drink very often. 7. T h e r e are s e v e r a l r e a s o n s w h y m a n y y o u n g p e o p l e d o not drink. If y o u do not drink, w h i c h of the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b e s y o u r most important r e a s o n for not d r i n k i n g ? • I drink, so this question does not apply to me. • I do not like the taste. • Drinking is against my religious or cultural beliefs. • I am too young to drink. • None of the above describes my most important reason for not drinking. 8. If y o u do drink, w h i c h of the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s best d e s c r i b e s the major r e a s o n y o u d r i n k ? • I do not drink, so this question does not apply to me. • Most of my friends drink. • I like the taste. • To me, it is fun to drink. • None of the above describes my most important reason for drinking. E n d T h a n k y o u 1-APPENDIX D  SECOND QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Student: Your participation in the attached questionnaire is voluntary. You may withdraw at any time, if you wish. Before continuing, please print your name, school, and the date in the spaces provided below. Then, tear this sheet off and pass it in to the person administering the questionnaire. He or she will seal it in an envelope separate from your questionnaire. Your answers are confidential. This sheet, and your questionnaire, will be used only by the researchers. NAME : , , S C H O O L : _ DATE : , ;  2-QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Student: This questionnaire is part of a study to learn more about the reasons why some teenagers 'do not drink, and the pressures to drink which teenagers such as yourself may feel. Your honest answers will be helpful in gaining this information. This questionnaire is confidential. Your questionnaire and the cover sheet which you turned in will be used only by the researchers conducting the study. Remember—your participation is voluntary. You may withdraw at anytime. If you complete the questionnaire, we will assume that you have agreed to participate. Please follow the instructions carefully, and mark your answers clearly. We think you will enjoy working through the questionnaire, which should take less than an hour to complete. Please turn the page and begin. 73 Begin This is not a test. There are no "right" or "wrong" answers. Simply answer each question as honestly and as carefully as you can. Introduction For questions 1-3, please put a • beside your answer. 1. How old are you? • 12 • 13 • 14 • 15 D l 6 y e a r s 2. Are you a male or female? 3. Which of the following statements best fits you? • I do not drink. • I seldom drink. • I drink occasionally. • I drink often. • I drink very often. Section I Below are some reasons which might be given for not drinking. Following each reason, please mark with a • whether for you it is a very strong reason, a strong reason, somewhat of a reason, very little of a reason, or not at all a reason for your not drinking. example: I do not like the taste. • very strong • strong • somewhat • very little • not at all reason reason of a reason of a reason a reason To the person marking this answer, not liking the taste of alcoholic beverages is a strong reason for his or her not drinking. 4. I want to enjoy good health. • very strong • strong • somewhat • very little • not at all reason reason of a reason of a reason a reason • male • female 5. Others in my family do not drink. • very strong • strong reason reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 6. I do not like the taste. • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason Continue on next page.. 7. Some of my friends might think less of me if I drank. • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 8. It is against the law for me to drink. • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 9. I enjoy myself without alcohol. • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 10. My friends do not drink. • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 11.1 am too young to drink. • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 12. My parents do not allow me to drink. • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 13. Girls like boys more if they do not drink. • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 14.1 probably wouldn't do as well in school if I drank. • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 15. It is against my religion to drink. • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 16. Boys like girls more if they do not drink. • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 17. My family does not approve of drinking. • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 18. Drinking is not very feminine. • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 19. Drinking is not a part of my ethnic culture. • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason Continue on next page.. 75 2 0 . A d u l t s w o u l d not a p p r o v e of m y d r i n k i n g . • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 2 1 . D r i n k i n g is just not for m e . • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 2 2 . I d o not like the w a y p e o p l e a c t w h e n t h e y h a v e b e e n d r i n k i n g . • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 2 3 . T h e p a r e n t s of my f r i e n d s d o not a p p r o v e of d r i n k i n g by t e e n a g e r s . • very strong • strong • somewhat • very little reason reason of a reason of a reason • not at all a reason 24. I a m m o r e p o p u l a r b e c a u s e I d o not drink. • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 2 5 . 1 h a v e s e e n s o m e o n e e l s e s u f f e r i n g f r o m his or her u s e of a l c o h o l . • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason If y o u h a v e other r e a s o n s for not d r i n k i n g w h i c h h a v e not b e e n m e n t i o n e d , y o u m a y write t h e m in the s p a c e s b e l o w , a n d mark t h e m a s y o u did a b o v e . 2 6 . . , • very strong reason • strong reason • somewhat of a reason • very little of a reason • not at all a reason 27. • very strong • strong • somewhat • very little • not at all reason reason of a reason of a reason a reason 2 8 . • very strong • strong • somewhat • very little • not at all reason reason of a reason of a reason a reason Continue on next page.. 76 Please read carefully before answering Sections II and III: PRESSURE TO DRINK The last two sections of this questionnaire are about the "pressures" to drink which may or may not be felt by young people such as yourself. The pressure to drink can be direct, such as when one's friends want him or her to drink with them. It can also be less direct, such as when someone suggests that "most people drink." Some people have said that pressure to drink comes from friends or other people, T.V. or radio commercials for beer or wine, or many other situations where people drink, talk about drinking, or show approval of drinking. Pressures to drink are simply those things which may make us feel like drinking or to want to drink. We are very interested in learning whether people your age experience pressure to drink at certain times. In Section II, you will be given questions asking how often you have been in certain situations. Then, in Section III, you will be given a series of statements, and you will mark how strong a pressure, if any, you felt when in the situation. Section II Please read each question below and mark with a • how often you have been in the situation described, (very often, often, sometimes, seldom, never) example: How often have you heard someone say that "Everyone drinks!" • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never The person marking this answer has often heard someone say that "Everyone drinks!" 29. How often have you heard other teenagers talking about how much fun they had drinking? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 30. How often have you seen or heard about adults drinking at parties or get-togethers? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 31. How often have you seen people drinking at the park or beach? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 32. How often have other people your age tried to get you to drink with them? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 33. How often have you been at a party or somewhere else, and it seemed that everyone but you was drinking? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 34. How often have you seen people drinking on popular T.V. shows? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never Continue on next page.. 35. How often have you heard other students talking about how funny someone looked and acted when he or she was drunk? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 36. How often have you heard students talking about a recent party at which they drank? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 37. How often have you heard someone say that "Everyone drinks!"? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 38. How often has wine, beer, or liquor been offered to you at a meal or a special occasion? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 39. How often have you seen T.V. commercials encouraging people to drink a certain brand of beer? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 40. How often have you felt others were making fun of you for not drinking? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 42. How often have you seen or heard adults showing acceptance or approval of drinking by teenagers? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 43. How often have you heard an advertisement for beer on the radio encouraging people to drink? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 44. How often have you been encouraged to drink by a boy you really like? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 45. How often have you been with a group of girls who were bragging about their drinking? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 46. How often have you been at a friend's house and he or she wanted you to join in drinking some of the parents' beer, wine, or liquor? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 47. How often have you been with a group of boys who were bragging about their drinking? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 48. How often have you heard that some teenagers older than you were going to get together and drink? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never 49. How often have you been encouraged to drink by a girl you really like? • very often • often • sometimes • seldom • never Continue on next page.. 78 Section III Please read each of the statements below and mark with a • the answer which best tell how strong a pressure to drink you feel when in the situations described, (very strong, strong, moderate, weak, none at all) If you have NEVER been in the situation, simply leave the question blank. example: When I see people drinking on popular T.V. shows, the pressure to drink which I feel is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none The person marking this answer feels a moderate pressure to drink when he or she, sees people drinking on T.V. shows. 50. When I see or hear of adults drinking at parties or get-togethers, the pressure to drink which I feel is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 51. When I am with a group of boys who are bragging about their drinking, the pressure to drink which I feel is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 52. When other people my age try to get me to drink with them, the pressure to drink which I feel is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 53. When others make fun of me for not drinking, the pressure to drink which I feel is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 54. When I hear advertisements for beer on the radio, the pressure to drink which I feel is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 55. When I am with a group of girls who are bragging about their drinking, the pressure to drink which I feel is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 56. When I hear other teenagers talking about a party at which they drank, the pressure to drink which I feel is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 57. When I see people drinking at the park or beach, the pressure to drink which I feel is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 58. When I am at a party or somewhere else, and it seems that I am the only one not drinking, the pressure to drink which I feel is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none Continue on next page.. 5 9 . W h e n I h e a r other s t u d e n t s talk a b o u t h o w m u c h f u n t h e y h a d d r i n k i n g , the p r e s s u r e to drink w h i c h I f e e l is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 6 0 . W h e n I h e a r p e o p l e s a y that " E v e r y o n e d r i n k s , " the p r e s s u r e to drink w h i c h I f e e l i s : • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 6 1 . W h e n I s e e T.V. c o m m e r c i a l s for b e e r , t h e p r e s s u r e to drink w h i c h I feel is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 6 2 . W h e n a girl I really like w a n t s m e to drink, t h e p r e s s u r e to drink w h i c h I f e e l is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 6 3 . W h e n I s e e or h e a r a d u l t s a c c e p t i n g or a p p r o v i n g of t e e n a g e d r i n k i n g , the p r e s s u r e to drink w h i c h I f e e l is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 6 4 . W h e n a boy I really like e n c o u r a g e s m e to drink, the p r e s s u r e to drink w h i c h I f e e l is; • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 6 5 . W h e n I a m at a f r i e n d ' s h o u s e a n d he or s h e w a n t s m e to drink with him or her, the p r e s s u r e to drink w h i c h I f e e l is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 6 6 . W h e n I s e e p e o p l e d r i n k i n g o n p o p u l a r T.V. s h o w s , the p r e s s u r e to drink w h i c h I f e e l is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 67. W h e n I h e a r other s t u d e n t s t a l k i n g a b o u t h o w g o o d they feel w h e n they get drunk, the p r e s s u r e to drink w h i c h I f e e l is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 6 8 . W h e n w i n e , b e e r , or liquor is o f f e r e d to m e at a m e a l or s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n , the p r e s s u r e to drink w h i c h I f e e l is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 6 9 . W h e n I s e e or h e a r a b o u t t e e n a g e r s o l d e r t h a n myself g o i n g out a n d drinking, the p r e s s u r e to drink w h i c h I f e e l is: • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none Section IV In this s e c t i o n , y o u a r e a s k e d to rate t h e overall p r e s s u r e y o u f e e l to drink from different s o u r c e s . M a r k your a n s w e r with a • . 70. O v e r a l l , h o w m u c h p r e s s u r e to drink d o y o u f e e l from y o u r f r i e n d s ? • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 71. O v e r a l l , h o w m u c h p r e s s u r e to drink d o y o u f e e l from T.V. or r a d i o a d v e r t i s i n g for b e e r or w i n e ? • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none Continue on next page... 80 72. Overall, how much pressure to drink do you feel from seeing and hearing about adults drinking? • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 73. Overall, how much pressure to drink do you feel as a result of hearing that drinking is fun or exciting? • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 74. Overall, how much pressure to drink do you feel in wanting to be liked by boys (if you are a girl) or by girls (if you are a boy)? • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 75. Overall, how much pressure to drink do you feel from seeing or hearing about other teenagers drinking? • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none 76. Overall, how much pressure to drink do you feel from the general acceptance of drinking in our society? • very strong • strong • moderate • weak • none Now, if you can think of other places or times when you have felt "pressure" to drink, would you mind writing them in the space below or on the back of this sheet? Thank you! APPENDIX E SAMPLE TRANSCRIPTS FROM INTERVIEWS 82 Transcript from an Interview Interview # 1 School # 2 Gender: Male I = Interviewer S = Subject I: Thanks for taking time out of your class for t h i s interview. As you may know, I am studying the reasons for not drinking and pressures to drink among people your age. So we're going to talk about two things today. One thing we're going to talk about i s pressures to drink, and the other thing i s reasons for not drinking. This tape i s just to help me sort out information l a t e r . I may take some notes as we talk - that's to help me remember as well. So I ' l l just ask some questions and you answer in your own words. O.K.? S: Yeah. I: For you, what are some reasons you wouldn't drink? S: Well, uh, I don't l i k e the taste of booze, and, urn, I know that i t wouldn't be right cause I'm not old enough yet. I : Age? S: Yea, and I know that my parents wouldn't agree with i t eithe r . I: Uh, l i k e , by parents wouldn't agree, you mean they wouldn't approve of i t ? S: No, they wouldn't approve of i t at a l l . I: And you said ... Any other reasons? You've to l d me taste, parents' approval, age, ... S: Yes. I: Any other reasons you would give, that are important to you? S: Yea, well, most of my other friends don't drink. I: Most of your other friends? S: Yeah, so I don't think I should drink either. I: Of those reasons that you've told me, that i s the reasons you don't drink, what one of them would be most important to you - the strongest one? S: Knowing that my parents wouldn't agree with i t . 83 I: By that ... there are di f f e r e n t types of that ... one could be are you a f r a i d your parents would be angry, that your parents would be hurt, that your parents wouldn't trust you.... What do you mean? S: I think they would mainly be upset with me. (Pressures to Drink) I: By pressures to drink, what do you think I mean? S: Umm, somebody else trying to get you to drink. I: O.K. That's one of the things I am thinking of when I speak of pressures to drink. Just to help you understand what I mean by pressures to drink - i t could be direc t l i k e someone saying "Hey, Come drink with us t h i s weekend" - 'peer pressure'. But there are also pressures to drink which people fe e l from other sources. Anything - an influence - which may make a person want to drink, or f e e l expected to drink, or feel that they ought to drink. It's kind of the opposite to reasons for not drinking. I t ' s a pressure toward drinking. It doesn't mean that the person does i t ... they may f e e l that pressure but not do i t . They may f e e l an influence in which they f e e l that they ought to drink, or should drink, or want to drink, or l i k e to try i t . S: Yeah. I: We're talking about pressures to drink, then. Could you name any pressures that you have ever f e l t , maybe at a' s p e c i f i c circumstance or time. What pressures have you f e l t to drink? S: Well, we were at a dinner party once, and my cousin wanted to get me a drink, and I said - I just said no, I'm not t h i r s t y . I: And at that p a r t i c u l a r time, you f e l t that feeling we talked about. S: Yeah. (no other pressures reported) I: And, what i s the strongest pressure you have f e l t to drink? S: That time my cousin offered me booze. I thought he was going to keep on bugging me about i t but he didn't. 84 T r a n s c r i p t from an Interview Interview # 1 School # 2 Gender: Female I = Interviewer S = Subject I: Thanks f o r a g r e e i n g to be i n t e r v i e w e d . As you probably know, I am s t u d y i n g the reasons f o r not d r i n k i n g and pres s u r e s to dr i n k among people your age. T h i s tape i s j u s t to h e l p me s o r t out i n f o r m a t i o n l a t e r . So I am going to ask some qu e s t i o n s ... we are going to t a l k about two t h i n g s , one i s reasons f o r not d r i n k i n g and a l s o p r e s s u r e s to d r i n k . Those a r t the two t h i n g s . S: O.K. (Reasons f o r not d r i n k i n g ) I: For you, what would you have as some of the important reasons f o r your not d r i n k i n g ? S: The t a s t e . I: O.K. You j u s t don't l i k e the t a s t e ? S: Yeah. - And the way people r e a c t , you know, when they have ... are drunk. I: The way people a c t or react when they are drunk? S: Yes. -I: So you have seen the way people a c t when they are d r i n k i n g ? S: Uh. huh. I: A d u l t s ? Teenagers? S: Mainly a d u l t s . I: Mainly a d u l t s , eh. So you don't l i k e the way they a ct -t h a t ' s another reason f o r you? What e l s e ? S: W e l l , I have grown up not to d r i n k ? I: Pardon? S: My f a m i l y . I: Your f a m i l y ? You've been r a i s e d not to dr i n k - i s that what you are saying? 8 5 S: Yes. I: You say you have been raised not to drink, so your parents do not drink? S: No. I: Do you have brothers or si s t e r s ? S: Yea. I: They don't drink either? S: No. I: Are there any other reasons you would have, other than what you've named already? S: Religion. I: So, i s that a factor in your family not drinking? S: Yes. I: You've named "don't l i k e the taste, don't l i k e the way poeple act, your family doesn't drink - you've been raised not to drink, and you just don't believe in i t , i t ' s against the r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s of your family." Are there any other reasons you would have? S: No, I don't think so. I: Of a l l these things we are talking about, reasons for not drinking, what i s the one which i s the main one - the strongest? S: My family. I: Your family being...? S: Well, because my family doesn't drink and my parents don't believe in i t . I: Those sort of f i t together? S: Yes. (Pressures to drink) I: When I say "pressure to drink" what do you think I mean? S: If I have the urge to drink. I: W e l l , what I mean by pressure in our interview i s pressure 8 6 coming from outside. It's an influence that might make you fe e l that you want to drink, that you may feel that you ought to drink. Some people might say, when others are drinking, that that makes them fe e l odd for not drinking, ant that i t s kind of a pressure toward drinking. That doesn't mean they do i t , but they may feel pressure to. And I'm looking for those kind of things, that people might fe e l are pressures to drink. What are some pressures to drink, i f any, which you have f e l t ? Well, I haven't f e l t any. So, you would say you haven't f e l t pressure to drink? No. How would you explain that? Well, seeing as I don't l i k e drinking, and think i t ' s , l i k e , gross, I just don't have no pressures, when I see people, I think i t ' s dumb, they shouldn't be doing i t . APPENDIX F INTERVIEW RESPONSE CATEGORIES 88 Interview Response Categories: Reasons for Not Drinking Category I don't l i k e the taste I want to be healthy It i s against my r e l i g i o n My parents wouldn't approve My friends wouldn't approve I am too young to drink Sample Responses by Subjects "I hate the way i t tastes" Well, i t tastes gross." "I r e a l l y want to stay healthy" "It wouldn't be healthy" "We (members of my church) don't drink at a l l " "My church doesn't believe in drinking" "My dad would get r e a l l y upset!" I'm not allowed - my parents just wouldn't l e t me" "My friends don't drink either, and they wouldn't l i k e i t i f I drank" "My friends wouldn't l i k e i t . " "It would be wrong to do - I'm too young to drink." "I'm too young for one thing." I don't l i k e the way people act when drinking. I just do not l i k e drinking. Drinking doesn't do anything good There i s nothing to be gained by drinking "I don't l i k e what i t does to people. Sometimes they act violent or are not themselves." "I don't l i k e the way people act when they are drunk." "I just don't l i k e i t " "I don't f e e l l i k e drinking. Just don't want to." "It jsut doesn't do anything good for you" "Drinking doesn't do anything good for you" "There's not much use to i t " "There's nothing to be gained by i t " 89 It i s against the law I don't need to drink to have fun I have better things to do than drink "It i s i l l e g a l " " It's against the law for minors to drink." "It's more fun to be the way I am" "I don't see why people drink. I have fun without i t . " " I t's a waste of time and money, I have better things to do." "I have not time to drink. There are better things to do." I saw someone else"hurt by their drinking "My father was an a l c o h o l i c . I saw what i t did to him" "I've seen other friends messed up by drinking" It's stupid to drink I want to be in control of myself I think i t i s a disgusting habit "I don't want to throw away my l i f e . It's stupid." "It's stupid" "I wouldn't l i k e to come home drunk, and not know what I'm doing" "Iwant to know what I'm doing" "I think i t ' s a disgusting habit" "It's r e a l l y a bad habit" It costs too much "It costs too much" "It's expensive" 90 Interview Response Categories: Pressures to Drink Category When my friends want me to drink When I am at parties When people talk about t h e i r drinking Sample Responses by Subjects "From my friends wanting me to drink" "My friends talking about drinking and wanting me to" When I was at a party once with some friends." " Once when I was at a party" 'When my friends talk about drinking" "I have f e l t expected to -after a weekend when everybody was talking about i t " When I see my parents drink "Maybe a b i t by my parents, you know, because they're drinking and I say 'Why can't I ?' " "Sometimes when I see my parents drinking" 91 APPENDIX G  BREAKDOWN OF QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES 92 A. Reasons for Not Drinking (n=72) Rank Mean Item Description v. often often sometimes seldom never 1 . 1 .63 (1.04) I enjoy myself without alcohol, n 45 18 3 3 3 % . 62.5 25.0 4.2 4.2 4.2 2. 1 .72 (1.10) Drinking i s just not for me. n 41 19 6 3 3 % 56.9 26.4 8.3 4.2 4.2 3. 1.81 (1.10) I do not l i k e the way people act when they have been drinking n 40 14 13 2 3 % 55.6 19.4 18.1 2.8 4.2 4. 1 .89 (1.04) I want to enjoy good health, n 33 22 11 4 2 % 45.8 30.6 15.3 5.6 2.8 5. 2.13 ( 1 .33) I have seen someone else suffering from his or her use of alcohol. n 30 22 7 4 8 % 42.3 31.0 9.9 5.6 11.3 6. 2.33 (1.36) I probably wouldn't do as well in school i f I drank. n 28 15 13 9 7 % 38.9 20.8 18.1 12.5 9.7 7. 2.46 (1.38) I do not l i k e the taste, n 24 15 16 7 9 % 33.8 21.1 22.5 9.9 12.7 8. 2.5 (1 .36) I am too young to drink, n 21 22 9 12 8 % 29.2 30.6 12.5 16.7 11.1 9. 2.50 (1.56) My parents do not allow me to drink, n 23 13 20 9 7 % 31.9 18.1 27.8 12.5 9.7 10. 2.56 (1 .23) My family does not approve of drinking, n 16 22 19 8 7 % 22.2 30.6 26.4 11.1 9.7 1 1 . 2.67 (1.19) Adults would not approve of my drinking, n 14 19 21 13 5 % 19.4 26.4 29.2 18.1 . 6.9 93 Rank Mean Item Description v. often often sometimes seldom never 12. 2.76 (1.38) My friends do not drink, n 17 15 20 8 12 % 23.6 21.1 27.8 11.1 16.7 13. 2.78 (1.57) It is against the law for me to drink, n 22 14 11 8 17 % 30.6 19.4 15.3 11.1 23.6 14. 2.81 (1.33) The parents of my friends do not approve of drinking by teenagers. n 14 18 19 10 11 % 19.4 25.0 26.4 13.9 15.3 15. 3.24 (1 .43) Others in my family do not drink, n 10 14 19 7 22 % 13.9 19.4 26.4 9.7 30.6 16. 3.61 (1.43) Some of my friends might think less of me i f I drank. n 7 13 11 11 30 % 9.7 18.1 15.3 15.3 41.7 17. 3.64 (1.59) (51.4) It i s against my r e l i g i o n to drink, n 13 5 14 3 37 % 18.1 6.9 19.4 4.2 18. 3.67 (1.30) I am more popular because I do not drink, n 4 12 16 12 28 % 5.6 16.7 22.2 16.7 38.9 19. 4.10 (1.39) Drinking is not a part of my ethnic culture, n 5 9 7 3 47 % 7.0 12.7 9.9 4.2 66.2 * • 3.60 (1.33) Boys l i k e g i r l s more i f they do not drink, ( g i r l s only) n 4 8 9 12 17 % 8.0 16.0 18.0 24.0 34.0 * • 3.78 (1.46) Drinking i s not very feminine, ( g i r l s only) n 6 5 9 5 26 % 11.8 9.8 17.6 9.8 51.0 * • 3.54 (1.46) G i r l s l i k e boys more i f they do not drink, (boys only) n 1 3 3 3 11 % 4.8 14.3 14.3 14.3 52.4 94 B. Pressures to Drink (Frequency Items) Rank Mean Item D e s c r i p t i o n v. o f t e n o f t e n sometimes seldom never 1 . 1 .47 (0.86) How o f t e n have you seen T.V. commercials encouraging people to d r i n k a c e r t a i n brand of beer? n 50 14 5 2 1 % 69.4 19.4 6.9 2.8 1.4 2. 2.06 (1.02) How o f t e n have you seen people d r i n k i n g on popular T.V. shows? n 26 24 15 6 1 % 36.1 33.3 20.8 8.3 1.4 3. 2.14 (0.95) How o f t e n have you seen or heard about a d u l t s d r i n k i n g at p a r t i e s or g e t - t o g e t h e r s ? n 21 27 17 7 0 % 29.2 37.5 23.6 9.7 0.0 4. 2.26 (1.05) How o f t e n have you heard other teenagers t a l k i n g about how much fun they had d r i n k i n g ? n 18 29 15 8 2 % 25.0 40.3 20.8 11.1 2.8 5. 2.31 (1.02) How o f t e n have you heard students t a l k i n g about a recent p a r t y at which they drank? n 17 27 18 9 1 % 23.6 37.5 25.0 12.5 1.4 6. 2.37 (1.01) How o f t e n have you heard other students t a l k i n g about how funny someone looked and acted when he or she was drunk? n 15 26 22 7 2 % 20.8 36.1 30.6 9.7 2.8 7. 2.49 (1.21) How o f t e n have you heard an advertisement f o r beer on the r a d i o encouraging people to d r i n k ? n 16 26 1 5 9 6 % 22.2 36.1 20.8 12.5 8.3 8. 2.54 (1.20) How o f t e n have you seen people d r i n k i n g at the park or beach? n 13 21 24 14 0 % 18.1 29.2 33.3 19.4 0.0 9. 2.86 (1.12) How o f t e n have you heard that some teenagers o l d e r than you were going to get together and d r i n k ? n 8 21 21 17 5 % 11.1 29.2 29.2 23.6 6.9 95 Rank Mean Item Description v. often often sometimes seldom never 10. 3.06 (1.23) How often have you heard someone say that "Everyone drinks!"? n 7 18 22 12 12 % 9.9 25.4 31.0 16.9 16.9 1 1 . 2.67 (1.08) How often has wine, beer, or liquor been offered to you at a meal or a special occasion? n 4 7 14 32 14 % 5.6 9.7 19.4 45.8 19.4 12. 3.99 (1.81) How often have you been at a party or somewhere else, and i t seemed that everyone but you was drinking? n 3 6 14 15 34 % 4.2 8.3 19.4 20.8 47.2 13. 4.15 (0.83) How often have you seen or heard adults showing acceptance or approval of drinking by teenagers? n 0 3 11 30 28 % 0.0 4.2 5.3 41.7 38.9 14. 4.26 (0.99) How often have other people your age t r i e d to get you to drink with them? n 1 3 13 14 41 % 1.4 4.2 18.1 19.4 56.9 15. 4.28 (1.20) How often have you f e l t others were making fun of you for not drinking? n 1 4 10 16 41 % 1.4 5.6 13.9 22.2 56.9 16. 4.60 (0.78) How often have you been at friend's house and he or she wanted you to join in drinking some of the parent's beer, wine or liquor? n 1 1 2 18 50 % 1.4 1.4 2.8 25.0 69.4 * • 3.92 (1.07) How often have you been with a group of g i r l s who were bragging about their drinking? ( g i r l s only) n 1 4 13 13 20 % 2.0 7.8 25.5 25.5 39.2 96 Rank Mean Item D e s c r i p t i o n v. o f t e n o f t e n sometimes seldom never * • 3.24 (1.18) How o f t e n have you been with a group of boys who were bragging about t h e i r d r i n k i n g ? (boys only) n 2 3 7 6 3 % 9.5 14.3 33.3 28.6 14.3 * 4.71 (0.64) How o f t e n have you been encouraged to drink, by a boy you r e a l l y l i k e ( g i r l s only) n 0 0 5 7 56 % 0.0 0.0 7.4 10.3 82.4 * • 4.76 (0.54) how o f t e n have you been encouraged to d r i n k by a g i r l you r e a l l y l i k e (boys only) n 0 0 1 3 17 % 0.0 0.0 4.8 14.3 81.0 97 C. Pressures to Drink (Extent Items) Rank Mean Item Description v. often often sometimes seldom never 1 . 3.61 (1 .42) When I am at a friend's house and he or she wants me to drink with him or her, the pressure to drink which I feel i s : n 8 6 15 9 26 % 12.5 9.4 23.4 14.1 40.6 Never in Situation: 8 2. 3.65 (1.39) When other people my age try to get me to drink with them, the pressure to drink which I fe e l i s : n 6 9 11 11 25 % 9.7 14.5 17.7 17.7 40.3 Never in Situation: 10 3. 3.71 (1 .33) When I am at a party or somewhere else, and i t seems that I am the only one not drinking, the pressure to drink which I feel i s : n 7 5 12 17 24 % 10.8 7.7 18.5 26.2 36.9 Never in Situation: 7 4. 3.74 (1.53) When others make fun of me for not drinking, the pressure to drink which I feel i s : n 10 5 6 11 30 % 16.1 8.1 9.7 17.7 48.4 Never in Situation: 10 5. 4.06 (1.16) When I hear other sutdents talk about how much fun they had drinking, the pressure to drink which I feel i s : n 3 4 15 13 36 % 4.2 5.6 21.1 18.3 50.7 Never in Situation: 1 6. 4.09 (1.10) When wine, beer, or liquor i s offered to me at a meal or special occasion, the pressure to drink which I feel i s : n 1 6 1 5 " 12 36 % 1.4 8.6 21.4 17.1 51.4 Never in Situation: 2 7. 4.24 (1.17) When I hear people say that "Everyone drinks", the pressure to drink which I feel i s : n 3 5 7 1 1 42 % 4.4 7.4 10.3 16.2 61.8 Never in Situation: 4 98 Rank Mean Item Description v. often often sometimes seldom never 8. 4.26 (0.78) When I hear other teenagers talking about a party at which they drank, the pressure to drink which I f e e l i s : n 2 4 8 16 41 % 2.8 5.6 11.3 22.5 57.7 Never in Situation: 1 9. 4.27 (1.12) When I see or hear adults accepting or approving of teenage drinking, the pressure to drink which I feel i s : n 1 8 4 12 41 % 1.5 12.1 6.1 18.2 62.1 Never in Situation: 6 10. 4.33 ( 1 .05) When I see or hear of adults drinking at parties or get-togethers, the pressure to drink which I f e e l i s : n 3 2 7 16 44 % 4.2 2.8 9.7 22.2 61.1 Never in Situation: 0 1 1 . 4.34 (1.15) When I hear other students talking about how good they f e e l when they get drunk, the pressure to drink which I feel i s : n 4 2 8 9 48 % 5.6 2.8 11.3 12.7 67.6 Never in Situation: 1 12. 4.35 (1.00) When I see or hear about teenagers older than myself going out and drinking, the pressure to drink which I feel i s : n 2 3 6 17 43 % 2.8 4.2 8.5 23.9 60.6 Never in Situation: 1 13. 4.49 (0.81 ) When I see T.V. commercials for beer, the pressure to drink which I feel i s : n 0 2 18 15 47 % 0.0 2.8 11.1 20.8 65.3 Never in Situation: 0 14. 4.51 (0.87) When I see people drinking on popular T.V. shows, the pressure to drink which I fee l i s : n 1 2 6 13 50 % 1.4 2.8 8.3 18.1 69.4 Never in Situation: 0 99 Rank Mean Item Description v. often often sometimes seldom never 15. 4.62 When I see people drinking at the park or beach, the pressure to drink which I feel i s : n 1 2 1 14 510.78 % 1.4 2.9 1.4 20.3 73.9 Never in Situation: 3 16. 4.64 (0.79) When I hear advertisements for beer on the radio, the pressure to drink which I feel i s : n 1 1 5 9 56 % 1.4 1.4 6.9 12.5 77.8 Never in Situation: 0 * • 3.70 (1.59) When a g i r l I r e a l l y l i k e wants me to drink, the pressure to drink which I f e e l i s : (boys only) n 4 1 1 5 9 % 19.6 4.8 4.8 23.8 42.9 Never in Situation: 1 * • 3.93 (1 .42) When a boy I r e a l l y l i k e encourages me to drink, the pressure to drink which I fee l i s : ( g i r l s only) n 4 5 3 7 22 % 9.8 12.2 7.3 17.4 53.7 Never in Situa t i o n : 10 * • 4.05 (1.16) When I am with a group of boys who are bragging about their drinking, the pressure to drink which I f e e l i s : (boys only) n 1 1 4 5 10 % 4.8 4.8 19.0 23.8 47.6 Never in Situation: 0 * • 4.09 (1.20) When I am with a group of g i r l s who are bragging about their drinking, the pressure to drink which I f e e l i s : ( g i r l s only) n 2 4 5 9 23 % 4.7 9.3 11.6 20.9 53.5 Never in Situation: 8 100 D. Pressures to Drink (Overall Pressure Perceived) Rank Mean Item Description v. often often sometimes seldom never 1 . 3.93 (1.28) Overall, how much pressure to drink do you fe e l in wanting to be l i k e d by boys ( i f you are a g i r l or by g i r l s ( i f you are a boy)? n 3 11 9 13 3.5 % 4.2 15.5 12.7 18.3 49.5 2. 4.06 (1.25) Overall, how much pressure to drink do you fe e l from the general acceptance of drinking in our society? n 4 6 11 11 40 % 5.6 8.3 15.3 15.3 55.6 3. 4.13 (1.22) Overall, how much pressure to drink do you fe e l as a result of hearing that drinking i s fun or exciting? n 4 6 7 1 5 40 % 3 4 10 13 42 4. 4.21 (1.14) Overall, how much pressure to drink do you fe e l from seeing or hearing about other teenagers dri.nking? n 3 4 10 13 42 % 4.2 5.6 13.9 18.1 58.3 5. 4.26 (0.99) Overall, how much pressure to drink do you fe e l from your friends? n 1 5 7 20 39 % 1.4 6.9 9.7 27.8 54.2 6. 4.44 (0.89) Overall, how much pressure to drink do you fe e l from T.V. or radio advertising for beer or wine? n 0 4 7 14 46 % 0.0 5.6 9.9 19.7 64.8 7. 4.58 (0.70) Overall, how much pressure to drink do you fe e l from seeing and hearing about adults drinking? n 0 1 6 15 50 % 0.0 1.4 8.3 20.8 69.4 

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