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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Protagonist moral development in children’s translated European war novels Hood, Robin Elizabeth 1985

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PROTAGONIST  MORAL  DEVELOPMENT WAR  IN CHILDREN'S NOVELS  TRANSLATED  by  ROBIN B . P . E . ,  A  ELIZABETH  U n i v e r s i t y .  THESIS THE  Of  SUBMITTED  HOOD  B r i t i s h  IN  REQUIREMENTS  PARTIAL FOR  MASTER  OF  THE  Columbia,  FULFILMENT DEGREE  OF  ARTS  i n THE  FACULTY  E n g l i s h  We  accept to  THE  OF  Education  t h i s  the  t h e s i s  r e q u i r e d  UNIVERSITY  OF  Apr  ©  GRADUATE  Robin  STUDIES  Department  as  conforming  s t a n d a r d  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1985  E l i z a b e t h  Hood,  1985  1980  OF  EUROPEAN  In  p r e s e n t i n g  requirements  for  C o l u m b i a ,  I  a v a i l a b l e  for  p e r m i s s i o n  t h i s an  advanced  agree  for  without  Department  of  21  the  and  study.  I  e x t e n s i v e granted  t h i s my  by  t h e s i s w r i t t e n  E n g l i s h  A p r i l , 1 9 8 5  c o p y i n g the  Head  It for  i s  t h i s  of  my  Education  Columbia  t h e s i s  g a i n  the  of  B r i t i s h  i t  f r e e l y  agree for  Department  understood  p e r m i s s i o n .  make  f u r t h e r  of  f i n a n c i a l  of  U n i v e r s i t y  r e f e r e n c e  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date:  at  s h a l l  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  a l l o w e d  degree  f u l f i l m e n t  L i b r a r y  or  of  p a r t i a l  the  may  p u b l i c a t i o n  in  that  purposes her  be  t h e s i s  that  that  s c h o l a r l y  or  by  copying  s h a l l  not  h i s or be  i  i  A b s t r a c t This (1975)  study  stages  e v a l u a t e d of  moral  c h i l d r e n ' s  t r a n s l a t e d  c o n s i s t i n g  of  European  war  The each  of  two  or  novels  more  e v a l u a t e d  the  p o s s i b l e  the  of  European  war  books,  was  p u b l i s h e d  a n a l y s i s  novels  by  moral  dilemmas  reasoning  fourteen  content the  moral  were  p r o t a g o n i s t s ' assignment  n o v e l s .  a  a l l  1984.  determined  the  moral  story  to  K o h l b e r g  sample  A  c h i l d r e n ' s  dilemmas  second  the  l e v e l  in  where  procedure  dilemma, and  of  sample,  s i t u a t i o n s  c o n f l i c t .  response of  as  and  i n  a  The  d e f i n e d  those  K o h l b e r g ' s  in  1950  i d e n t i f y i n g  i s s u e s  Lawrence  p r o t a g o n i s t s  between  f i r s t  and  stage  making of  moral  judgement. The F i r s t ,  c o l l e c t e d the  analyzed  i s s u e s  most  s e l e c t e d  war  and  Era  Sex  f i n d i n g s  out  of  Kohlberg  (Era  author  most  and  moral  I  and  that  of  i s s u e s  Sex  T r u t h .  the  m o r a l  were  Era  The  the II  In  those  s t a g e .  moral second  data  1963-1973,  and Era  p r o t a g o n i s t .  dilemmas  r e l a t e d  and  for  between  of  m o r a l  frequency.  moral  1952-1962,  s t e p s .  q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  evaluated  each  two  were and  were  w i t h  often  Mores,  c o n f l i c t s  Stages  r e l a t i o n s h i p  r e v e a l e d  were  arose  of  f o l l o w i n g  number,  Stages  p a i r e d  v a r i a b l e s :  M o r a l i t y  the  and  the  R o l e s ,  other  Issues  examined  novels  e v a l u a t e d  L e v e l s  f r e q u e n t l y  1974-1984), The  were  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  the  procedure  III  I s s u e s ,  for  a d d i t i o n ,  data  to  i n  i s s u e s  No  the  European  of  A f f i l i a t i o n  dilemma  s i t u a t i o n s  issues  of  r e p r e s e n t e d  at  Sex  or  l e a s t  Law.  A l l  once  i n  sample  was  sample. The  predominant  stage  of  moral  reasoning  in  the  i i i  Stage  2  ( s e r v i n g  one's  ( b l i n d  obedience  r o l e ) .  S i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  r e a s o n i n g 12  accounted  r e v e a l e d  r e a s o n i n g type  of  that  to  to  the  were  of  the  the  more  which  1 good  moral  a u d i e n c e ,  ages  r e p r e s e n t e d ,  r e s o l u t i o n s  f r e q u e n t l y  be  to the  r e s o l v e d  l e v e l s  may  8  they  p r o t a g o n i s t ,  s o p h i s t i c a t e d f a c t o r  Stage  g e n e r a l  p r o t a g o n i s t sex  by  ( p l a y i n g  reading  c h a r a c t e r s  i n  between  the  r e a l i s t i c  of  moral  l i n k e d  the  u n a f f e c t e d  (1963-1973)  and  p o r t r a y i n g  c h i l d r e n  p r o t a g o n i s t s dilemmas  Era  of  few  by  III  no  to  the  c h i l d  (1974-1984), i n  were  the  modern  p e r i o d s h i g h l y  w r i t t e n  dilemmas.  As  p r o t a g o n i s t s  i n  around  War  and  t r a d i t i o n a l  Books  moral  world  World  these  and  or  development  from  f i c t i o n .  f i c t i o n ,  from  moral  t r a n s i t i o n  c h i l d r e n ' s  c o n t a i n e d  i n s u l a t e d  r e l a t i v e l y  war.  fewer  a  3  r e f l e c t  stages  w i t h  f o l l o w e d  Stage  intended  regard  female,  r e f l e c t  r e a l i s m  t r a d i t i o n a l  moral  the  male  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  (1952-1962)  I,  and  stages  h i g h e r  With  d i d  c l o s e l y  s t o r y .  appeared  were  of  s i t u a t i o n s  than  The  modern  these  s u b s t a n t i a l l y  s i t u a t i o n s .  dilemma  needs),  a u t h o r i t y )  While  f o r  f i n d i n g s t h e i r  to  c a p a b i l i t i e s  y e a r s .  dilemma  own  I I .  them  Books however,  mode  of  encountered i n v o l v e d  i n  and  showed r e a l i s m . l a r g e and  r e a l i s m i n  Era  w i t h  i n  t o I  other  that  thus  w r i t t e n  Era  e r a  remained Era  evidence  II of  U n l i k e  Era  numbers  of  a f f e c t e d  by  the  i v  Table  A L L A  of  Contents  b s t r a c t i s t of Tables i s t of F i g u r e s cknowledgement  Chapter  i i v v i v i i  I  INTRODUCTION RESEARCH  1 QUESTION  SIGNIFICANCE PURPOSE  OF  DEFINITION Chapter REVIEW  OF  THE OF  1  THE  STUDY  3  STUDY  4  TERMS  5  II OF  THE  LITERATURE  6  INTRODUCTION KOHLBERG CONTENT THE  THEORY  AFFECTIVE  KOHLBERG ANALYSIS  OF  ANALYSIS  STEREOTYPES  IN  COGNITIVE  IN  THE  QUALITIES  MORAL  FIELD IN  CHILDREN'S  OF  DEVELOPMENT  CHILDREN'S  CHILDREN'S  EUROPEAN  7  LITERATURE .16 19  LITERATURE  LITERATURE  T H E O R Y OF M O R A L D E V E L O P M E N T OF C H I L D R E N ' S F I C T I O N  TRANSLATED Chapter  6  CHILDREN'S  21 APPLIED  LITERATURE  TO  THE 27 37  III  PROCEDURES  OF  THE  STUDY  43  INTRODUCTION  43  POPULATION  43  PROCEDURES  44  CONTENT  47  ANALYSIS  RELIABILITY  PROCEDURES  48  ANALYSIS  DATA  49  OF  V  Chapter  IV  FINDINGS , A  CONCLUSIONS ,  REVIEW  OF  THE  RECOMMENDATIONS  STUDY  . . .  50 50  FINDINGS  52  CONCLUSIONS  69  FUTURE  7 3  RESEARCH  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX  A  -  80 APPENDIX  86  vi  List  I.  K o h l b e r g ' s Ten  II.  Kohlberg's  III.  Representation  IV.  Distribution dilemmas  V.  Moral  Stages  of  of  of  of  Issues Moral  stages  165  Tables  45 Development  1-6  moral  among  issues  67  46 moral  among  67  decisions 52  moral 55  I s s u e s most f r e q u e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d s i x s t a g e s of moral r e a s o n i n g of  issues  and  stage  to  with  each  of  the 59  VI.  Relationship at stage  priority  of  issues 61  VII.  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n and f r e q u e n c y s t a g e s of m o r a l judgement as  VIII.  Moral  stage  and  sex  of  author  66  IX.  Moral  stage  and  sex  of  protagonist  66  of moral dilemmas and t h e y a p p e a r by e r a ....62  v i i  L i s t  1.  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n  2.  D i s t r i b u t i o n  of  of  of  Stages  moral  i s s u e s  F i g u r e s  53 56  Ac k n o w l e d q e m e n t  I  wish  to  members, advice I support  thank  my a d v i s o r  Mrs.  Marion  and  their  would and  help  also for  like  typing  Dr.  Ronald  Ralston, in to  the  Dr.  completion  thank  this  and  Jobe,  my  paper.  of  Roy  and  Bentley,  this  husband,  my  committee for  their  thesis.  Gregory,  for  his  1  I.  RESEARCH  QUESTION  This in  study  examined  c h i l d r e n ' s  a n a l y s i s , and  a n a l y s i s  The  t h e  has  two  of  moral  a n a l y s i s  development  i n  reasons  student  moral  c h a r a c t e r s ' C o l l i n s ,  growth  i n  B i s k i n was  A  to  2)  of  moral  both  t h i s  P a r r ,  dilemmas  i n d i v i d u a l  moral  judgement  t h e  use of  which  P i l l a r ,  both  had been  t o  a n a l y s e d .  Such  1)  an  c l a s s r o o m  d e v i s e One  the  of  with  t o  c a p a b i l i t i e s Such  s i t u a t i o n s  i d e n t i f i e d  s t o r y  (Rosenweig,  shown  most  i n c r e a s i n g  e x p e r i m e n t a l  was  moral  q u i d e l i n e s  of  goal  1979).  dilemma  p r o t a g o n i s t s  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  one  content  and c h a r a c t e r  problems  In  of  s e l e c t i o n .  the  moral  on  were  dilemmas  l i t e r a r y  1977;  s t o r y  book  t h e i r  moral  1983).  t o  t e a c h e r s :  i s  p r o t a g o n i s t s  methods  d i s c u s s i o n .  through  of  By  t e a c h e r s  a c t i v i t y  with  1977;  study  t h e  f a c i l i t a t e (Gosa,  1977;  a  d i s c u s s i o n  and  p r o t a g o n i s t  through  methods  of  a n a l y s i s . s i m i l a r  content  s e l e c t i o n ,  matching  that  enables  c l a s s r o o m  awareness  r e a s o n i n g  content  book  and  and H o s k i s s o n ,  based  moral  dilemmas,  e x p e r i e n c e s  of  judgements f o r  f o r  1980;  d i s c u s s i o n  moral  posed  i m p l i c a t i o n s  f o r  apparent  development  n o v e l s .  dilemmas  l i t e r a t u r e  q u e s t i o n s  moral  War  moral  subsequent  d i s c u s s i o n  the  European  both  t h e i r  and  INTRODUCTION  of  t h e  books  a n a l y s i s c h i l d r e n ' s they  read  a l s o  r e v e a l e d  l e v e l s ( S c h a r f e ,  of  i m p l i c a t i o n s  moral 1980;  i n  development R i h n ,  1980).  2  U n d e r l y i n g  t h i s  development cannot  of  c h i l d r e n reading  they  content  encounter  a n a l y s i s .  of  in  S p e c i f i c a l l y ,  Thus  he  a  the  moral  depends present  Reasoning  1977; dilemma  upon study  w i l l  has  a  one  stage  been  made  if  attempted  answer  Moral  of the  that  in  t h e i r  t h e i r  s i t u a t i o n s  Ten  in  own  1980).  s y s t e m a t i c  has  moral  i n d i v i d u a l s  exceeds  Rihn,  instruments  e v a l u a t i o n  than  which  K o h l b e r g ' s  as  that  d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  judgement  the  c o g n i t i v e  a s s e r t e d  c o n j e c t u r e  (Gosa,  of  of  more  s i m i l a r  u t i l i z i n g  t h i s  theory  judgements  use  The  by  Moral  which  c a p a b i l i t i e s  l i t e r a t u r e  a n a l y s i s  Stages  1975)  own.  e f f e c t i v e in  K o h l b e r g ' s  experience  reasoning  reasoning  i s  moral  t h e i r  may  The  an  (1967,  comprehend  advance  moral  notion  to  and  moral  method apply  Issues  content  and  of such Six  a n a l y s i s .  f o l l o w i n g  r e s e a r c h  q u e s t i o n s :  what  1. was  What t h e i r  moral i s s u e s frequency of  d i d the authors pose in c o n f l i c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in the sample?  and  2. What was t h e predominant stage of p r o t a g o n i s t moral reasoning? How d i d t h i s compare with the approximate development of the intended reading audience? 3. What i s s u e s were most f r e q u e n t l y p a i r e d with stages and how d i d these a s s o c i a t i o n s compare to h i e r a r c h y of v a l u e s at each stage?  the moral K o h l b e r g ' s  4. Are there d i f f e r e n c e s in the number or treatment moral dilemmas that c o u l d be c o r r e l a t e d to the Era in which books were w r i t t e n ? Does t h i s r e f l e c t the t r a n s i t i o n t r a d i t i o n a l to contemporary r e a l i s m in c h i l d r e n ' s f i c t i o n ? 5. In in which mora stages of p p r o t a g o n i s t h matur i t y ?  the l di r o t a ave  of the from  sample, d i d male and female authors w r i t e books lemmas are r e s o l v e d by e q u a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d g o n i s t moral reasoning? Did the sex of the any b e a r i n g on the story c h a r a c t e r ' s moral  3  SIGNIFICANCE  OF  THE  STUDY  I am r e p o r t i n g how I l i v e d through that time an s a w . . . nothing more. I was t h e r e . I was not me e y e w i t n e s s . I b e l i e v e d - and I w i l l never b e l i e v e Hans Peter R i c h t e r  The  f i n e s t  a n t i - w a r  the  s t o r i e s  through  t h e i r  war.  The  novels  i s  the  source  w a r -  of  who  torn  n a t i o n .  t o  that  c h i l d r e n ' s e f f e c t s  t h i s  of  group t o  North  e x p e r i e n c e  W e l l n e r  has  of  l i f e  remarked, the no  U n l i k e  the  t h e i r  North  American  hand  authors  w r i t e  c h i l d r e n ' s  (Egoff  t o  1981).  c h i l d r e n ' s c o n t i n u o u s  Their  books  e x p e r i e n c e  i s  knowledge  that  C h i l d r e n  novel  of  of  f o r  orders  p e r c e i v e " . ( 1 9 7 3 ,  awareness  part  w r i t i n g  convey  of  what  a  c o u n t e r p a r t s ,  i t  war  moved  about  to  system  c h i l d r e n  t h e i r  l i f e  h a s  d u r i n g  a n t i - w a r K e l l e y of  be  i n  World  messages  has  v a l u e s  c a n  world  that  i n  many War  the  t o  t o the  read  the  the  p o t e n t i a l  as  war  novel  consequences  c o n f l i c t i n g  values  and  of  may  human  b e l i e f s .  r e a s s e r t t h r e a t s  broaden c o n f l i c t . I t s  a  symbolic  . European  II  through  d e s c r i b e d  expected  response  i s  p . 9 2 )  who  p r e s e n t s  with  books  attempt  l e g i t i m i z a t i o n  w o r l d ; " a u t h o r s  war  evident  i n t e r e s t  yet  books  by  r e a l l y  Many of them were w r i t t e n by people who were w i t n e s s to events they d e s c r i b e . They have an immediacy which s t r a i g h t p r e s e n t a t i o n of f a c t s c a n h a v e . ( 1 9 8 2 , p . v i i )  f i r s t  they  and  a r e  deepen  p r e s e n t e d  have  these  to  i s  d e v a s t a t i n g  i n s i g h t  Of  n o v e l s  It  wish  and  themselves  European's  the  authors  experience both  war  p . 2 8 4 ) .  r e a c h i n g  of  c h i l d r e n  a  f a r  c h i l d r e n ' s  1981,  European  immediacy a  American  of  European  ( E g o f f ,  n o v e l s ,  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  w i t h i n  of  d what I rely an a g a i n . (1972)  ,  t h e i r The s t r o n g  4  moral the  dimension  Literature  is  a rich  resource  f o r the study  Program a s w e l l a s o t h e r  subject  of v a l u e s i n  areas  in the  i s the content  analysis  curriculum. Theof  specific  two a s p e c t s  European values  related  war  work by  the The  to  the  of t h i s  to  fiction.  which  encountered  concern  moral first  create  story  study  the  dimension  of  children's  factor  was t h e c o n f l i c t i n g  kinds  of  protagonists.  moral  The  dilemmas  second  i s the  determination  of the p r o t a g o n i s t s ' l e v e l  of m o r a l  response  those  t o them by t h e a u t h o r .  The  to  m o r a l dilemmas p o s e d  i n f o r m a t i o n y i e l d e d by t h i s  teachers  wishing  t o pursue  dilemmas p r e s e n t  analysis  the classroom  i n the European  will  reasoning  be  of  use  in  to  d i s c u s s i o n of the moral  war n o v e l .  .These a r e . books t o make young p e o p l e t h i n k , t o make them aware, t o make them weep, to make them understand. ( W e l l n e r , 1982, p . V I I I )  PURPOSE OF THE STUDY  The  purpose  moral dimension kinds  of  of t h i s  study  i s t o examine two a s p e c t s  o f c h i l d r e n ' s E u r o p e a n War n o v e l s .  moral  dilemmas  ascertained.  Secondly,  m o r a l dilemma  will  posed  First,  the  to story protagonists w i l l  the p r o t a g o n i s t s ' response  be a s s i g n e d  of the  a level  of moral  to the  reasoning.  be  given  5  DEFINITION  OF  S p e c i f i c  TERMS  terms  used  i n  t h i s  study  a r e  T r a n s l a t e d European C h i l d r e n ' s L i t e r a t u r e for c h i l d r e n , t r a n s l a t e d from a European  Moral Dilemmas : A Moral two or more moral i s s u e s Moral Judgement : judgement of v a l u e s Moral O r i e n t a t i o n of a concern f o r  below:  : L i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n language to E n g l i s h .  Content A n a l y s i s : "A r e s e a r c h technique s y s t e m a t i c and q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of of communication" ( B e r e l s o n , 1952, p . 1 8 ) . Moral Issues : Are value o b j e c t s such a c t i o n s which a r e endowed with (Kolhberg, 1975).  d e f i n e d  f o r the  the o b j e c t i v e , manifest content  as p e r s o n s , o b j e c t s and value by moral concerns  problem which a r i s e s (Kohlberg, 1975).  An e v a l u a t i o n of (Kohlberg, 1975).  : Forms of judgements w e l f a r e and j u s t i c e .  from  j u s t i c e  made  by  a  c o n f l i c t  based  on  i n d i v i d u a l s  of  the  out  Moral Stages : S i x i n v a r i a n t and s e q u e n t i a l stages of c o g n i t i v e moral growth which represent the s t r u c t u r a l development of i n c r e a s i n g l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d p a t t e r n s of thought.  6  I I .  REVIEW  OF  THE  be  areas  LITERATURE  INTRODUCTION  There  appears  r e l a t e d  to  reviews  the  theory  has  to  t h i s  study.  Kohlberg been  f o r  nature  c h i l d ' s  moral  the  of  the  The content  from  q u a l i t i e s these  w i t h i n  purposes  as  study  of  t h i s  the  l a t e i n  t h i s  1960's,  of  chapter  the  The  and  holds  developmental  K o h l b e r g ' s i n  a  l i t e r a t u r e ,  of  There moral  book  i s  of  n o t i o n  of  number  of  an  a  has  emphasis  f o r  development  the  new  i n  t h e  a  review  more  d i s c u s s i o n  of  books  f i e l d  the  recent  c h i l d r e n ' s  of  l i t e r a t u r e .  p o t e n t i a l l y  has produced been  a  c h i l d r e n ' s  r e l a t i v e l y  a l s o  and  p r e s e n t s  c h i l d r e n ' s  e v a l u a t e s  l i t e r a t u r e  s e l e c t i o n  chapter  f i e l d  Concern  c h i l d r e n ' s  s t u d i e s .  a n a l y s i s  the  of  d i r e c t l y  development.  a t t e n t i o n  t h e  a n a l y s i s  1960's. of  s e c t i o n  judgement.  s c i e n t i f i c a l l y  content  the  s i n c e  r e c e i v e d  s e c t i o n  which of  f i r s t  most  study.  a n a l y s i s  methods  r e s e a r c h  i n t e r e s t e d  moral has  of  c o g n i t i v e - m o r a l  s t u d i e d  i n c l u d i n g  second  Research  the  areas  present  of  educators  development  c u r r i c u l u m  The  theory  widely  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  two  by  d a t i n g a f f e c t i v e  m a j o r i t y  of  i n t e r e s t  f i c t i o n  f o r  l i t e r a r y  i n such  moral  dilemmas. A European Although  f u r t h e r  s e c t i o n  t r a n s l a t i o n s f o r e i g n  i n  of the  t h i s context  t r a n s l a t i o n s  have  chapter of  w i l l  b r i e f l y  c h i l d r e n ' s  r e c e i v e d  l i t t l e  d i s c u s s  l i t e r a t u r e . a t t e n t i o n  i n  7  p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a r y folk  l i t e r a t u r e ,  t r a d i t i o n .  t a l e s  boundaries p u b l i s h e d  KOHLBERG  and of  t o  date  C l o s e l y c o g n i t i v e moral  COGNITIVE  a l i g n e d  moral  and  c h i l d r e n ' s  t h e i r  present  l e v e l s  of  theory  t h e  evidence  come  from  enjoy  great  p o p u l a r i t y  MORAL  DEVELOPMENT  study  i s  By  a p p l y i n g  t e n  moral  study  i t s e l f ,  issues  and  t h e  theory stages  types  of  theory  t h e of  general  of of  instruments  r e a s o n i n g  review  i t s  1981).  s i x a s  no  t r a n s l a t i o n s  K o h l b e r g ' s  moral  K o h l b e r g ' s  knows  of  h i s  t h e  t r a n s l a t e d  ( E g o f f ,  examines  w i l l  of  t h e  number  t h e i r  s e c t i o n  shaped  t o  part  u n i v e r s a l i t y  p r o t a g o n i s t  This  t h e  The  t h i s  h i s  important  of  moral  found  i n  t h e o r e t i c a l  c o g n i t i v e  moral  i m p l i c a t i o n  f o r  i o n .  Most theory  the  which  development, educat  and  f i c t i o n .  background  t o  development.  a n a l y s i s ,  dilemmas  a s  t o  an  c o n t i n u e  c u l t u r e .  a t t e s t s  development  content  of  h a s  e l a b o r a t i o n  of  of  c h i l d r e n  the  use of  aged  s t o r i e s  t o  have  1975).  Kohlberg r e v e a l e d  F o l l o w i n g  t h e  produced  t e n that been  was  t o  1958  Kohlberg  posed  t h e  i n  of  dilemmas by  t h e  s u b j e c t ' s  c o g n i t i v e - s t r u c t u r a l  the  Important  moral  e x p e r i e n c e d  i n  s t u d i e s .  study  s i x t e e n .  i n t e r e s t e d  through  by  l o n g i t u d i n a l  h i s o r i g i n a l  l i k e l y  were  or  OF  form  C h i l d r e n  c l a s s i c s  time  THEORY  they  support These  of  an  judgements  t o  study  was  were  not  t h i s  which  of  responses  t r a d i t i o n  a r e  h i s  moral  h i s s u b j e c t s p a t t e r n s  of  ( W e i n r i c h ,  thought t o  P i a g e t ,  which them.  Kohlberg  8  subsequently These  were  c l a s s i f i e d  l a t e r  K o h l b e r g ' s a f t e r  he  s t u d i e s the  conducted and  U n i t e d  stage  r e s u l t s  of  U n i v e found c o g n i not not d d e v e l  of  idea  i n s p i r e d  development  and  of  ( W e i n r i c h ,  a  s o c i e t i e s  Mexico,  evident  with  1975;  has  there  and  some  i s  c l e a r  of  and  t h e o r y .  P i a g e t ' s  both  Such  S w i t z e r l a n d , Papago,  and  the  wider  nature  of  summarized  the  Much  d i s t i n c t that  the  and  of  G i b b s ,  e x t e n s i v e l y p a r a l l e l s work  P i a g e t ' s  P . 2 0 6 ) .  the  l i t e r a t u r e  that  and  shows  development  and  to  be  must  be  a  d i f f e r e n c e s  R o r v i k ,  t h i n k i n g ,  For  moral to  moral  1977;  was  and  r e s e a r c h  s i m i l a r i t i e s  K o h l b e r g ' s of  development"  c o g n i t i v e  of  concept  matter  ent may be e a formal gement do a s p e c t s do of moral  c o n s i d e r a t i o n  theory  1976;  t h i s  (1975,  i n  u n i v e r s a l  moral  important  e x t e n s i o n  i t "  in  t h e o r e t i c a l  Muuss,  are  c o n f i r m a t i o n  an  work  K o h l b e r g ' s  d i s c u s s e d  " i t  r e f u t i a t i o n  P i a g e t ' s  the  1969).  v e r i f i e d ,  Kohlberg  upon  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l ,  I s r a e l ,  the  p . 3 7 5 ) .  development.  e l a b o r a t e d  (Kohlberg,  " c o g n i t i v e  K o h l b e r g ' s  K o h l b e r g ' s  c o n c l u d e d  in  thought.  f o l l o w s :  of  i s  a s s e s s e s  p r e o c c u p a t i o n  that  by  • and  comprehension  W e i n r i c h  made  as  was  development  (1969,  r e s e a r c h  s t u d i e s  of  moral  l o n g i t u d i n a l ,  C h i n a ,  stage  of  stages  of  stages  r s a l and r e g u l a r age trends of developm in moral judgement, and these hav t i v e base. Many a s p e c t s of moral jud have such a c o g n i t i v e base, but these e f i n e u n i v e r s a l and r e g u l a r trends o p m e n t . ( p . 3 7 5)  i n i t i a l l y  between  of  s u b j e c t s  K o h l b e r g ' s  reviews  B e l g i u m ,  into  l e v e l s  s u b c u l t u r e s  development h i s  moral  number  on  n o t i o n  c r o s s - s e c t i o n  of  three  e d u c a t i o n a l  S t a t e s , His  p a t t e r n s  i n t o  a  c o n c e n t r a t e d  M a l a y s i a .  moral  d i v i d e d concept  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c ,  the  1980).  demonstrated made.  She  regarded rather  i n s t a n c e ,  there  than i s  as a an  9  agreement  that  d e v e l o p i n g  sense  K o h l b e r g ,  1969,  development stage  moral  judgement  and  i s  concerned  e v a l u a t i o n  1975).  Kohlberg  of  from  the  concept  of  P i a g e t i a n  idea  which  Furthermore,  c o g n i t i v e  development,  r e s u l t s  an  s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  assumption  i s  i n t e r a c t i o n the  that  for  stage c o g n i t i v e  and in  the  on  P i a g e t ' s  of  may  course  of  to  c r i t e r i a  framework  for  that  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  d i f f e r e n c e s  develop  in  development  in  i n v a r i a n t  become  i t  c o g n i t i v e  " d o c t r i n e  through  modes  of  thought.  sequence  i n c r e a s i n g l y  stages  and  complex  e x t e r n a l 1969).  i n  p o s i t i o n s t a g e s " .  summarized which  of  i s  modes t h e i r  as the  o r g a n i z e d  c h a r a c t e r i z e d  The  through  be  in  e x t e r n a l  the  t o ,  s e r i e s  c o g n i t i v e  the by  t h i s  changes  c o g n i t i v e  r e f e r  a  r e f l e c t i n g  Through  to  an  t e n d e n c i e s  represent  may  c h i e f of  developmental  development stages  r e s u l t  (Kohlberg,  of  moral  environment.  than  r e s t r u c t u r e d to  does  s t r u c t u r i n g  a p p l i e d  a p p l i e d  c o g n i t i v e  thought;  d i s t i n c t  an  be  c o g n i t i v e  p r o g r e s s i o n of  turn  the  a  p . 3 5 2 ) .  in  (1965)  are  which  stage  p o s i t i o n ' s  1969,  are  as  the  rather  they  K o h l b e r g ,  with  w o r l d ,  develop  stems  s t r u c t u r a l  development,  organisms  as  being  s t r e s s e s  s t r u c t u r e s  o u t s i d e  stages  p a t t e r n s  P i a g e t ' s  s t r u c t u r e s  the  which  A c c o r d i n g r e s t s  " c e r t a i n  c o g n i t i v e  t h i n k i n g  w o r l d ,  mental  development  developmental  d i r e c t l y " ( K o h l b e r g ,  i n t e r a c t i o n ,  the  c r i t e r i a  i n t e r a c t i o n  c o g n i t i v e -  b a s i c  between  one  simple  from  the  s t r u c t u r e s  e i t h e r  world  1960;  d e f i n i n g  c o g n i t i v e - m o r a l  development.  and  c h i l d ' s  (Piaget,  in  P i a g e t ' s  the  development. K o h l b e r g ' s  More  j u s t i c e  Furthermore,  adopted  with  of  by  thought  h i e r a r c h i c a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n  as  a  1  response  t o  As  i n t e r a c t i o n  made  c l e a r l y  e v i d e n t ,  rooted  development.  i n  the  environment  K o h l b e r g ' s P i a g e t ' s  This  " c o g n i t i v e - m o r a l  i n f l u e n c e  theory  i s  P i a g e t ,  t o moral  1969,  p a t t e r n s  of  about  moral  between c r i t e r i a  1975).  i s s u e s  a  e q u i l i b r i u m  B i s k i n thus  occur  t h i s  accommodate  thought  h e r  ( B i s k i n  g r e a t l y  moral  judgement  A c c o r d i n g  t o  i n  i s  stage  h i s d e s c r i p t i o n  To  of  K o h l b e r g ,  becomes  t h e  of  which 1965;  i n d i v i d u a l ' s concerned a r i s i n g  p a r a l l e l s  P i a g e t ' s  The  d i s e q u i l i b r i u m  i n d i v i d u a l  t o  achieve  (Kohlberg,  1975;  e q u i l i b r i u m  i n d i v i d u a l t o  of  c o n f l i c t  thought  moving  a  must  higher  and  rearrange stage  of  1977).  fundamental and extends  t h e  t h e  m o r a l l y  t h e  t h e  type  (Piaget,  r e - e s t a b l i s h  subsequently  development  t h i s  development  i n  c o n f l i c t  motivates  e x p e r i e n c e s ,  e l a b o r a t e s  stage  of  This  s t r u c t u r e  very  a  i n t e r a c t i o n .  1977).  by  b e l i e v e s  changes  r e s u l t  and H o s k i s s o n ,  these  theory  c o g n i t i v e  development  he/she  1975).  or  new  t h i n k i n g  D e s p i t e  a  i n t e r a c t i o n  and H o s k i s s o n ,  or  when  environmental  by  be  Furthermore,  (Kohlberg,  of  t o  c o g n i t i v e  and a s  c r e a t e d new  t o  thought  them  development  ght p r o c e s s e s . Moral t i o n s where unusual l i f e and t h e need f o r development suggests moral i s s u e s improve by Croghan and  Kohlberg  development  corresponds  K o h l b e r g ,  1969).  development".  S i m i l a r  c l o s e l y  moral  of  r e f l e c t e d  s e s organized thou o n making i n s i t u a a s s a n c t i t y of i n c o n f l i c t . And of t h i n k i n g about over t i m e . ( q u o t e d  i n  (Kohlberg,  of  concept  C o g n i t i v e s t r e s i n v o l v e s d e c i s i v a l u e s , such a u t h o r i t y come that p a t t e r n s q u a l i t a t i v e l y Croghan, 1980)  p r o g r e s s i o n  h i s  w i t h  0  s i m i l a r i t i e s , P i a g e t ' s  ( W e i n r i c h , P i a g i a n  four  1975;  moral  K o h l b e r g ' s stages  Muuss,  stages  of  1976).  were  not  11  c o n s i s t e n t  i n  e s t a b l i s h e d  (1969,  l o n g i t u d i n a l stages  of  l e v e l s  of  based  r e s e a r c h , moral  and  Kohlberg  On  P i a g e t ' s  stages  r e a s o n i n g .  Moral  moral  1976;  of  to  the  l e v e l  to  are  based  i n t e r p r e t e d  in  a t t a i n i n g l e s s  a  Level  e g o c e n t r i c  (Muuss,  1976).  d e s i r e  to  e x i s t i n g  meet  s o c i a l  and  I  h i s / h e r  terms  the  by  of  h i s  of  three  were  s i x  g e n e r a l  c o g n i t i v e l y c r i t e r i a  l e v e l s  for  of  for  development:  and  c o n t a i n s  forms  each  the two  stage  the  s i x  r e p r e s e n t s  moral  of  judgements and  p o s t -  of  of  w e l f a r e  development g e n e r a l  major  a  o r i e n t a t i o n . made  by  j u s t i c e  (Muuss,  The  d i s t i n c t ,  but  own  needs.  II  c o n v e n t i o n a l  in  o r i e n t a t i o n  these  Good  and  r e s i d e s  e x p e c t a t i o n s (Muuss,  of  h i s in  1976).  bad  the  b a s i c s o c i a l  o t h e r s  and  Level  ways  from  i s  one  p r i m a r i l y a c t s  (Muuss,  approach, in  the  in  approaches.  t h i n k e r  consequences  s o c i o c e n t r i c  for  advancement  p r e c o n v e n t i o n a l  p h y s i c a l  s t r u c t u r e .  are  c a t e g o r i e s  changes  of  more  T h i s  three  q u e s t i o n s .  Level  on  scheme  d e s c r i b e d  typology  more  r e p r e s e n t s  e g o c e n t r i c ,  stages  a d d i t i o n ,  moral  e t h i c a l  a  a  r e s u l t s  had  1972).  stages  of  at  d i v i d e d  l e v e l s  the  concern  of  another  approach  a  the  c o n v e n t i o n a l ,  In a  l e v e l s  approaching  between  are  1969,  three  c o n t r a s t  The  out  were these  these  p h i l o s o p h y ,  K o h l b e r g , The  of  of  o r i e n t a t i o n s  i n d i v i d u a l s  which  the  Each  d i s t i n c t  a r r i v e d  and  h i m s e l f  (1960).  d i s t i n g u i s h e s  c o n v e n t i o n a l .  Piaget  b a s i s  p r e v i o u s l y  development  moral  t h i s  Moreover,  p r e - c o n v e n t i o n a l ,  of  c r i t e r i a  Kohlberg  reasoning  met  stage  the  p . 3 7 5 ) .  development.  c o g n i t i v e  the  meeting  1976).  c h i l d  are In  becomes  O r i e n t a t i o n s c o n f o r m i t y ,  a  m a i n t a i n  the  III  the  i s  1 2  p o s t - c o n v e n t i o n a l longer  i n v o l v e s  and  even  can  be  and  a p p l i e d (such  a d u l t s  stages  of  i n  f i r s t  stage  of  more  each  W i t h i n  of  r e f l e c t s  if  i t  m o r a l l y (Muuss,  moral s o c i e t y  Muuss,  o t h e r s .  an  s o c i a l  r e s u l t  r i g h t  behavior  another i n  s e l f  i s based  s o c i a l i s  t h e  a r e  two  r e p r e s e n t s  1  makes t o  an  second i n t o  a t  b e n e f i t .  punishment  t h e t h e  Level  Thus,  II  p o i n t s  p e r c e i v e d  a r e  an  judgements  a v o i d  of  only  i n v o l v e s  moral  c o n t r a s t ,  i n d i v i d u a l  on what  The  entered  Stage  awareness i s  d i s t i n c t  1975).  need In  however,  They  a d o l e s c e n t s  p e r s p e c t i v e .  c h i l d  t h e  I I I  many  stage  l e v e l ,  i n c r e a s i n g  of  would  o f  1977).  e x i s t i n g  t h e development  1976).  This  The needs  of  i n  s e l f  c o n s i d e r e d  only  d e c i s i o n s  about  s a t i s f i e s  o n e ' s  needs  1976).  Stages "member  Each  The  autonomous  Level  there  (Kohlberg,  view.  awareness  (Gibbs,  no  1976).  l e v e l s  completes  b u t  may o v e r r i d e  (Muuss,  development  p e r s p e c t i v e  i n t e r e s t .  j u s t i c e  development.  1975;  of  II  o r i e n t a t i o n  c o n f o r m i t y  c o n s e q u e n t l y  p r e c o n v e n t i o n a l  p o i n t t o an  a t t a i n ;  s o p h i s t i c a t e d  of  of  a n d  t h e three  (Kohlberg,  view  t o  l e v e l  t h e  e g o c e n t r i c  s o c i a l  T h i s  a n d c o n f o r m i t y ) .  Level  moral  stage  a c c o r d i n g  a t  l e v e l .  p r i n c i p l e s  a s governance,  each  i n c r e a s i n g l y  o r  u n i v e r s a l l y  remain  W i t h i n  the  e g o c e n t r i s m  d i f f i c u l t  stage  autonomous  e x t e n t i a l i s t  systems most  o r  of  a t  s o c i e t y  d e c i s i o n s such  o r i e n t a t i o n  t h e  c o n v e n t i o n a l  p e r s p e c t i v e " . r e s i d e  i n  A t  s e e k i n g  a s peers  o r  a s  "goodboy"  t h e  l e v e l  f a m i l y .  mark  Stage  3  a p p r o v a l  Kohlberg - " g o o d g i r l "  t h e b e g i n n i n g t h e o f  of  a  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  small  h a s r e f e r r e d o r i e n t a t i o n  groups t o  i n t h i s  (1975).  13  The  motive  i s  completes a  to  t h i s  g r e a t e r  narrower  be  a c c e p t e d ,  conformity  awareness  to  r u l e s ,  Stages  at  the  Stage  5  human  mutual  o b l i g a t i o n s  However,  can  be  at  d i g n i t y  and  r u l e s  e t h i c a l a  to  f o r  m o r a l i t y  Kohlberg  t h i s  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s stage  as  that an  c l a r i f y i n g (1972)  but  h i s  development  to  an  p r i n c i p l e d . of  of  system  and  view  of  f l e x i b l e  laws.  l e g a l i s t i c  of  they  the  s o c i e t y  6  i s  beyond,  to  the  d e c i s i o n s  w i t h  j u s t i c e ,  i s  m i n d f u l  the  but 1976).  laws. made  e q u a l i t y of  a b i l i t y  the  out  a r e  a b s o l u t e ;  the to  of  not  may  out  respect  Gibbs  law  apply  i n d i v i d u a l  d i s o b e d i e n c e ,  l a w ,  i n d i v i d u a l  agreement  p o i n t s  example,  (Muuss,  important but  d e a l  For  concept  on  needs  a t t a i n e d  of  based  terms  not  i n d i v i d u a l  o u t l i n e d a r e  a r e  c e n t r a l  c i v i l  law  a  Stage  has  example  has  which  more  are  them.  the  1975).  a  c o l l e c t i v e  e s t a b l i s e d  than  has  at  The  p r a c t i s e  the  on  has  of  h i g h l y  i n  based  p r i n c i p l e s  1976).  a r e  which  4  i n s t e a d  c o n t r a c t u a l  Laws  the  p r i n c i p l e s  beyond  (Kohlberg,  Stage  view  a r e  D i f f e r e n t  4.  o r i e n t a t i o n  s o c i e t y  d e c i s i o n  In  meets  of  s o c i e t y  d e f i n e d  are  Stage  E t h i c a l  of  to  at  point  l e v e l  i n d i v i d u a l  i t  The  p r i n c i p l e s  r e f e r r e d  of  i f  (Muuss,  d i s r e s p e c t higher  one  e t h i c a l  and  make  1  s t a g e .  laws  i s  conform.  d e c i s o n s  1976).  Stage  1976).  t h i s  (Muuss,  a  whole  e q u a l i t y ,  d e c i s o n s  than  U n i v e r s a l  and  moral  changed  (Muuss,  and  s o c i a l l y  moral  judgement  d i g n i t y  the  o r i e n t a t i o n  duty  moral  and  the  p o s t - c o n v e n t i o n  r i g h t s ,  c o n s i d e r e d  to  a t t a i n i n g  Thus  o r i e n t a t i o n  At  by  f o r  p e r s p e c t i v e .  or  of  f o r  (1977)  a  has  e x t e n t i a l i s m . of  moral  a  number  not  only  i t s  stage  to  development,  of  t h e o r e t i c a l  the  understanding  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  W i t h i n  h i s  1 4  i n t r o d u c t i o n  to  Manual:  I  Part  i n t e r v i e w i n g (1975),  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  be  p e r s o n a l i t y " . development, passed most  b a s i c  by  of  r e a s o n i n g .  Kohlberg  has  i s  s o c i a l  i n ,  as  the  see  "systems  attainment  attainment i n d i v i d u a l s  the  of  a  to  a c h i e v e d ,  stage  of the  which  judge  The moral  i t  r e a s o n i n g  a  then  j u s t i c e  the  the what  of  " t o t a l  stages  of  of  and  to  the i s i s  c o n c r e t e  " c l e a r l y  the  Kohlberg  of  has  r e a s o n i n g .  a l l o w s  the  of  a  a  t o ,  moral  moral  e n a b l e s  a  t o the the  system.  c o r r e s p o n d i n g  s o c i a l p o i n t  a  J u s t  i n d i v i d u a l  that  a s  and  v a r i a b l e s ,  to  the  moral  termed  r e l a t e d  w i t h i n  i s  p r o g r e s s i o n  precedes  advance  development  l o g i c a l  dependant.  r e a s o n i n g upon  the  a g e - r e l a t e d ,  p e r c e p t i o n  whereupon  of  development  o t h e r s  growth  K o h l b e r g ,  r e l a t e d  s o c i a l  o v e r a l l of  stages  c l o s e l y  stage  s e t  (Kohlberg,  sequence o c c u r s  i n  p o s s i b l e  judgement to  to  stage  of  the  development  l o g i c a l  themselves  impetus  e n t i r e  a  stage  i s  moral  p e r s p e c t i v e ; a  w i t h i n  stages  depends  L o g i c a l  w o r l d " ,  view  moral  p r o v i d e s t o  of  of  because  of  f i r s t  r e a s o n i n g  advancement  attainment  the  i n t u i t i v e ,  moral  S c o r i n g  of  to  P i a g e t ' s the  advance  one  s e v e r a l  which  i n t e r m e d i a r y  the  i s  Stages  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  A c c o r d i n g  Important  or  of  o p e r a t i o n a l  i t s  (1975).  an  one  of  that  that  the  formal  p o s t u l a t e d  p e r c e p t i o n  f a c t o r  Once  upon  M o r a l  judgement  of  stages  r e a s o n i n g .  development  moral  i n d i v i d u a l .  the  ( p . 5 ) ,  l o g i c a l  stage  the  i n  i n d i c a t e d  i s  development  and  r e a s o n i n g " of  dvelopment  and  s e q u e n t i a l  of  s c o r i n g  context  these  The  o p e r a t i o n a l ,  p l a c e  the  moral  through  Kohlberg  the  In  and  of  p e r c e p t i o n view  from  1975).  development  h o r i z o n t a l l y ,  from  completed  l o g i c a l by  through  moral  t o  b e h a v i o r  1  (Kohlberg,  1975).  d i s t i n c t i o n and  moral  which  to  depend  upon  f a c t o r s ,  a c t i o n r a t h e r ,  Important development based  on  (Kohlberg, f a c t .  i s  and  A  to  (1975,  had two  As  a r e  m o r a l l y  content  more of  rather  of  the  by  a r e  upon  as  the  moral  a r e  made  the  term  a r e  s o c i a l value  of  l o g i c a l behavior  p r i n c i p l e s s i t u a t i o n a l  assignment behavior to  (1975,  of  judgements;  or  what but  of  stage  M o r a l s  of  a r e  judgements value  not  judgements  judgements  of  a  p . 7 ) .  moral  judgements  of  t a k e ,  idea  m o r a l .  f e a t u r e s  of  to  be  Kohlberg  a t t r i b u t i n g  (Kohlberg,  (see  these moral  made the  about  t a b l e  i s s u e s  moral  1975,  II  a  c o n c e r n ,  p.  of  l i k i n g  of or  to  moral  concern  a  f o r  moral made  p e r s o n ' s An  of A  of  o r i e n t a t i o n s  3 0 ) .  3 ) .  forms  judgement  Moral  i s s u e ,  chapter a  the  value  moral  c r e a t e s  i s  forms  " o r i e n t a t i o n s " .  concerned t e n  Thus  the  K o h l b e r g ' s  which  than  t h i n g s  judgements  moral  r e f l e c t  such  reasoning  p . 8 ) .  d e f i n e d  modes  i d e n t i f i e d or  they  d i s t i n c t i o n  i n s t i t u t i o n s  becomes  of  1980),  i n d i v i d u a l  concerns or  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  1976,  development  r e a s o n i n g s ,  judgement  1969,  f i n a l  an  the  c o n c e p t i o n  the  h i m s e l f / h e r s e l f  u n i v e r s a l  judgement. by  depend  important  moral  always to  an  represent  (1975).  c u l t u r a l l y  d u t i e s ,  p r e f e r e n c e  not  behind  Futhermore,  ought  owing  i s  c o g n i t i v e  by  not  there  s t a g e s ,  moral  imagines  to h i s  do  i n ,  does  i n d i v i d u a l reasons  and  p r e s s u r e s  development  the  moral  preceded  which  or  K o h l b e r g ,  stages  c o g n i t i v e  motives  an  a r e  b e l i e v e s  to  among  M o r a l  a c t i o n s  i n d i v i d u a l  of  made  and  U n l i k e  r e p r e s e n t s  stage  be  b e h a v i o r .  t h i n k i n g .  the  A c c o r d i n g  5  Kohlberg  c o n f l i c t  moral  a c t s  i n d i v i d u a l  which  dilemma.  or  It  between i s  i s s u e s  the i n  1 6  c o n f l i c t ,  which  development Thus i s  a  the  as  major  In  t h e  the  P i a g e t .  of  q u a l i t a t i v e l y  i n t e r a c t i o n  w i t h i s  development,  t h i s  i n d i v i d u a l  s t r u c t u r e . and  thus  concerns  CONTENT  The both  and  Content s i g n a l p . 3 ) .  or The  c o n f l i c t to  r e s u l t a  i s  more  IN  THE  a n a l y s i s  through  the  completes  p r o c e s s  to  stages  i t  c o n c e r n .  of  moral  of  a  case  a  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  e t h i c a l  q u e s t i o n s .  FIELD  CHILDREN'S  LITERATURE  one  human  r e c e i v e d of  being  encode theme,  nature  i n  t o  another  c h i l d r e n ' s  wording,  and  of  causes  c o g n i t i v e stage  of  moral  t r a n s m i t t e d ( P r a t t ,  books  1972,  c a n  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n ,  i n t e r p r e t e d ,  communication.  a  an  moral  moral  t o  the  of  which new  new  of  c o g n i t i v e  approach  OF  s t a g e .  r e s u l t  d i s e q u i l i b r i u m  development  development  L i k e  a t t a i n i n g  stages  each  the  and  e s t a b l i s h e d  l o g i c a l  i n  stage  the  i s s u e s .  by  moral  c o n c e r n ,  a t  of  37).  of  the  which  moral a  i s  stage  p.  c r i t e r i a  s o p h i s t i c a t e d  p l o t ,  Once  t h e  h i e r a r c h y  c o n f l i c t ,  to  authors  i l l u s t r a t i o n .  shape  s t r u c t u r e s  the  examines  from  messages  which  c r e a t e s  adapt,  object  corresponds  of  (1975,  d e t e r m i n i n g  development  through  c o n f l i c t  message  t r a n s m i t t e d  stage  i n the  c o g n i t i v e  subsequent  ANALYSIS  c o n t e n t ,  s t r u c t u r a l  thought  made  thought  c o g n i t i v e  the  of  K o h l b e r g ' s  new  movement  development  be  development  Furthermore,  the  of  s t r u c t u r a l M o r a l  t o  between  p a t t e r n s  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  p a t t e r n s  d i s t i n c t i o n  c o n c l u s i o n ,  r e f l e c t s  the  o b s e r v a b l e  r e l a t i o n s h i p  s t r u c t u r e ,  by  r e v e a l s  the  A c c o r d i n g  be and  reader t o  P r a t t ,  17  communication of  theory  communication  speech  and  s i g n a l  i s  i s  i n  i n  which  t r a n s m i t s r e c e i v e d  d e s t i n a t i o n  as  a  i t s a  i t by  form  "based  human  source  encodes  as  spoken  or  a  message  s i m p l e s t  a  human  when  i t  a  model  message  i n t o  w r i t t e n  r e c e i v e r  i s  a  upon  decoded  and i n t o  s i g n a l .  The  reaches  i t s  thought"  (1972,  p . 3) . B e r e l s o n technique  f o r  d e s c r i p t i o n p. 18). they  the  A r i s i n g  from  content about  c h i l d r e n ' s  r e s e a r c h  i n  l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e i n t e l l e c t ,  of  content  In  e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s  of  of  might  i s  et  a l ,  be  of  r e a d i n g  not  attempt  the  r e a d e r .  can  and  does  to  i n t e r p r e t  the  o b t a i n  have  has  encoded  stemmed  r e l a t i o n s h i p has  been  and  produced  to  v a l u e s ,  Beach,  By  d e t e r m i n i n g  the  l i t e r a t u r e  p r e d i c t i o n s  can  the  from  between  a t t i t u d e s ,  (Purvis  by  what  o b j e c t i v e l y  i n t e r e s t  c h i l d r e n ' s  1972).  q u a l i t a t i v e  authors  Evidence  c h i l d r e n ' s  U n l i k e  that  and  " r e s e a r c h  communication"(1952,  c h i l d r e n used  a  1972; nature  be  reader  made  ( P r a t t ,  1946).  r e a d i n g .  a f f e c t  t h i s  i n t e r p r e t e d  between  does  of  as  and  of  "messages"  development  made  does  been  a f f e c t  S a l t e r ,  f i e l d  how  reading  c h i l d r e n ' s  and  the  d i s t i n c t i o n  of  s o c i a l  i t  B e r e l s o n  of  Much  can  Weitzman  how  has  s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  and  1970;  1970;  kinds  reading  Kimmel,  r e g a r d i n g  the  content  about  a n a l y s i s  e f f e c t s  and  that  concern  a n a l y s i s  s y s t e m a t i c ,  manifest  books.  the  content  o b j e c t i v e ,  the  r e a d ,  the  d e s c r i b e d  of  i n f o r m a t i o n in  has  content the  to  l i t e r a t u r e  a n a l y s i s  l a t t e r  determine  and  an  r e s e a r c h  type  of  how  l i t e r a t u r e  Instead  i t  begins  a f f e c t  c h i l d r e n .  important  r e s e a r c h ,  w i t h  the  i n  the  content a c t u a l l y  assumption  Subsequently,  i t  18  sets an  out  to  impact.  Role  a n a l y s e This  c a n  S o c i a l i z a t i o n  C h i l d r e n .(1972) part  i n  w i t h  models  i t  b i a s e d  s e x - r o l e s .  authors  p r e d i c t e d  view they  a r e  expected recent  s e x i s m ,  has  that  t h e  i n i t i a l  d i s t o r t e d . assessment of  of  o p i n i o n  uncovering i t  When  t o  the  s u b j e c t i v e . a v a i l a b l e recent  method I t  i s  a d o l e s c e n t  s e a r c h  of  where  r e v e a l i n g l i s t e d of  t h e  i n  the  the  has t o  observe  t h e  CJIE  more  how  i s s u e s ,  such  This  has  p r o v i d e d  b i a s e d  or  enthusiasm  a n a l y s i s  been  t h a t - o f indexes of  only  has  c h i l d r e n ' s  nine  been and  t w e n t y - t h r e e  (1969-1984)  evidence  f o r  books,  i n f o r m a l  the  the realm  c h i l d r e n ' s  content  s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  them  can e l e v a t e  t h e  i n  showed  the w i l l  t r a d i t i o n a l  amid  a n a l y s i s  s i x t e e n  t o  not  method  a c t u a l l y  r o l e  c o n t a i n  a n a l y s i s ,  a r e  i s u e s  sex  1972).  content  term  of  o b j e c t i v i t y .  However,  content  only  More  of  provided  c h i l d r e n  convey  a  t h e i r  d i d  c o n t r o v e r s i a l  the  from  f a c t .  study  l i t e r a t u r e ,  p r o c e d u r e s .  done,  c o n t r o v e r s i a l  o f t e n  a r t i c l e s  ERIC  a n a l y s i s  that  d e a l  p l a y  assumptions,  how  a l ,  assumptions  books  of  p o t e n t i a l l y  remains  a p p l i e d ,  t h a t  e t  through  c a r e f u l l y  c h i l d r e n ' s  books  and moreover,  great  a c h i e v e d  a n a l y s i s  p i c t u r e  of  study,  and a r e  l i m i t  a n a l y s i s  s u c c e s s f u l l y s t u d y ' s  t h e i r  (Weitzman  been  about  might  behave  a  l e a r n  r o l e s  o t h e r s ,  r e q u i r e d  books  i n i t i a l  and  the  that  t h e i r  such  y e a r s ,  p i c t u r e  such  P r e s c h o o l  t o  t h a t  t o  a l ' s  and wrong,  In the  c o n t r i b u t e e t  C h i l d r e n  b e h a v i o r .  A c c o r d i n g  t o  f o r  r i g h t  that  may  Weitzman  assumed  v a l u e s , of  by  Books  authors  a s c e r t a i n e d  themselves  In as  was  which  e x e m p l i f i e d  s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  s o c i a l  models,  elements  P i c t u r e  The  environment, r o l e  be  i n  c h i l d r e n ' s  t h e  those  of  and  a  and  s p e c i f i c  s t u d i e s  were  19  e x p e r i m e n t a l ,  having  i n s t r u m e n t s .  The  f r e q u e n t l y  d i s c u s s e d  t h e  t h i s  books  underbrush  of  q u a l i t i e s  i n  i s  t h e  two  r e a d i n g  g e n e r a l  way  f i r m  Higgs  to have  i n t e r e s t e d  i n  p r e v a i l i n g  c a r e f u l l y  grounds  f i c t i o n . of  and H i g g s ,  of  i n  through  f a c t "  t h e  (1972,  Such  most  Stewig  a l ,  t h e  w i d e l y  t h i s of  1979;  d e a l area  and K n i p f e l ,  of  moral  q u a l i t i e s m a i n l y  has  i n w i t h  shown  that  ( B r o d e r i c k ,  1975)  1975;  be  r e s e a r c h e d  r a c i s m  Troy,  may  a f f e c t i v e  a n a l y s i s  a f f e c t i v e  elements e t  the  s t u d i e s i n  l i t e r a t u r e  study:  and  The  Research  C h a l l  1972;  of  p o t e n t i a l l y  c o n t a i n  1962;  c h i l d r e n ' s  areas  m a t e r i a l s .  books  i n  l i t e r a t u r e  c h a r a c t e r s .  Shephard,  (Stewig  r e s e a r c h  a n a l y s i s  c h i l d r e n ' s  1973;  the  c o n d i t i o n s h e r  evidence  and  r e s e a r c h e r  a n a l y s i s e v a l u a t i o n s  s u f f i c i e n t  Stewig  " t h e  h i s or  reach  c h i l d r e n ' s  t h e  s t e r e o t y p e d  has  t o  content  s u b j e c t i v e  of  made.  t h e  p i c k  c h i l d r e n ' s  i n  c h i l d r e n ' s  THE  of  were  l a c k  remarking,  a n a l y s i s i n t o  development  a l ,  by • a  and  .  c a t e g o r i z e d  some  must  o p i n i o n  Content  area  problem  d e s i g n  a r t i c l e s  c o n c l u s i o n s  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  c h i l d r e n ' s  p.47)  remaining  c h a r a c t e r i z e d  s u b s t a n t i a t e  unbiased  r e c o g n i z a b l e  and  sexism  Weitzman  et  1972).  AFFECTIVE  QUALITIES  IN  Concern  f o r  t h e  generated  t h e  m a j o r i t y  f i e l d .  Such  CHILDREN'S  p o t e n t i a l  s t u d i e s  of  impact  t h e  have  LITERATURE  of  content  m a i n l y  l i t e r a t u r e a n a l y s i s  examined  on  c h i l d r e n  r e s e a r c h  c h i l d r e n ' s  i n trade  20  books can  f o r  be  the  s a i d  to  c h i l d r e n .  share  of  the  Furthermore,  f o l l o w i n g e f f e c t s  presence  s e t of  of  s t e r e o t y p e d  c h a r a c t e r s .  assumption  that  they  assumptions  reading  and  a r e  the  reading  g e n e r a l l y  d e r i v e d  These  from  can  c h a r a c t e r i z e d  both  r e l a t i o n s h i p  s t u d i e s  r e s e a r c h  between  a f f e c t by i n  l i t e r a t u r e  the the and  s o c i a l i z a t i o n . F i r s t l y ,  i t  books  at  home  school  depends  has  been  assumed  and  at  s c h o o l .  on  the  t e x t b o o k s ,  and  the  environment  s c h o o l  (Croghan has a  and  been  that  major  1980; shape  a  Beach,  1972).  the  1974;  c h i l d ' s  s c h o o l  and  l i b r a r i a n s .  l e g i t i m i z e d 1978;  s e t t i n g  models,  Croghan  It and  and  been  et  and  A  have  and  been  l a r g e l y  e n t r u s t e d  been  a  assumption  t h i r d  c h i l d r e n  conveyed  1981).  the  by  second read  to  s c h o o l  part  of  assumption  to  them  and  w i l l  those  at  s o c i a l i z a t i o n  i n t e l l e c t  have  Croghan,  books  w i t h i n  as  1972).Moreover,  b e l i e f s ,  to  p i c t u r e b o o k s ,  (Croghan  of  knowledge  i n s t r u c t i o n  of  S e l e c t i o n  has  exposed  c o n s i d e r e d  1978).  a l ,  t h e i r  agent  read  a r e  r e a d e r s ,  s o c i a l i z a t i o n  Weitzman  s a n c t i o n e d  and  Anyon,  a t t i t u d e s ,  The  have  c h i l d r e n  t h e i r  of  b a s a l  primary  1980;  books i n  of  a  c h i l d r e n  Much  Books ,  Croghan,  the  r o l e  n o v e l s .  f a c t o r  K e l l e y ,  use  that  Croghan,  books  can  (Purvis  and  encounter the  that  a r e  teachers  the  books s e t t i n g  i n  v a l u e s ,  have  been  (Anyon,  21  STEREOTYPES  The  IN  CHILDREN'S  v a l u e s  r e f l e c t e d  and contemporary  and promoted  r e a d e r ' s  i n  a t t i t u d e s .  s t e r e o t y p e s  i n  unproductive  s o c i e t y .  a c c o r d i n g  t o  Dorothy  t h e  a t t i t u d e s K e l l e y  h a s  and  one  r e f e r r e d  r a c i s m  l i t e r a t u r e  sexism  i t  has  from  c h i l d r e n ' s  books"  of  c h i l d r e n , p r o v i d e d  such i t  humanity The not  a  books. U n i t e d  of  elements been  and  It  of  phenomenon h a s  S t a t e s ,  been  i n  c i r c u l a r  shown  been  t h e i r  p e r c e p t i o n s  and h a s  not  underway ( P r a t t ,  been  s i n c e  1972).  of  s o c i e t a l p . 1 1 7 ) .  l i n g u i s t i c  p . 9 1 ) . r e f l e c t e d have  t h e  i n been  through  t h e  content  impact have  may  of  have  themselves  on been the and  1972).  w r i t t e n  communication  l i m i t e d  World  views  part  which  a l ,  i n  of  c h i l d r e n  models  et  the  While  r o l e  Weitzman  of  a t t i t u d e s  a t t i t u d e s  p r e c i s e l y  that  s e t  books,  (1973,  (1973',  the  s i t u a t i o n  and  " k i n d  often  that  c h i l d r e n ' s  a  a  a  d i s t o r t e d  " i n  1977).  s t e r e o t y p e s  and Europe  have  g e n e r a t i o n s  r e s t r i c t i n g  examination  as  Such  documented  them  perpetuate  a d u l t s "  s o c i e t y  h a s not  a s s e r t e d  next"  p r o c e s s by  has  content  t h e  a r e  i n f l u e n c e  t o  to  t o  produced.  ( C a r m i c h a e l , 1 9 7 7 ;  recent  serve  ( C a r m i c h a e l ,  a t t i t u d e s  r a m i f i c a t i o n s  i n  p r e v i o u s  has  w i t h  c h i l d r e n  due t h e  t o  t h i s  and  t r a n s m i t t e d  a n a l y s i s  to  i s  s o c i e t y  may  conveying  d i c t a t e s  t o  and  p e r s i s t e n c e  books  a  present  B r o d e r i c k ,  the  of  (1977)  by  g e n e r a t i o n  addressed  Both  Their  s o c i e t y  books  from  behaviour  the  " t h e  books  a t t i t u d e s  and  w i t h i n  l i t e r a t u r e  c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l  s o c i e t y ,  events  C a r m i c h a e l  themselves  in  LITERATURE  War The  t o I  i n  i s  c h i l d r e n ' s Canada,  extent  of  t h e t h i s  22  r e s e a r c h  may  M a j o r i t y  and  L i t e r a t u r e one  of  M i n o r i t y  l a s t  contemporary f i n d i n g s  s t o r y  a n a l y s i s  of  c h a r a c t e r  showed  b e t t e r  m i n o r i t y  was  r o l e and  has  both to  the  g o a l s  determine  of  the  Shephard  (1962),  a  u n i t  whole  indexes of  of  Nearly  and  m i n o r i t y and  the  d i s t o r t i o n  c h a r a c t e r ,  c h a r a c t e r s  i t s  B e r e l s o n  as  the  of  for  of  a  a g a i n s t  number  only  sample,  c h a r a c t e r .  American  he  in  as  i l l - d e f i n e d  in  at  u n i t s  They  n a t i o n a l i t y ,  r e l i g i o n ,  p h y s i c a l  s t a t u s ,  standards  and  and  were  d i r e c t i o n s . p r e j u d i c e  found  c h i l d r e n ' s  a r r i v e d  c h a r a c t e r s  unfavourable  i n  as  c h i l d r e n ' s  treatment  appearance  of  c h a r a c t e r .  negative  s t o r y  to  not  t h e i r  p r e j u d i c i a l  c h a r a c t e r ,  c h a r a c t e r s  1969),  m i n o r i t y  of  treatment  c r i t i c i z e d  (Lowry,  of  c i t e d  books, In  f i c t i o n  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r e l a t e d  been  study  Magazine  magazine  for  d i r e c t l y  of  S a l t e r ' s  s t a t u s  every  than  index  f o r e i g n e r s  groups.  m i n o r i t y been  d e s c r i b e d  has  and  A n a l y s i s  c h i l d r e n ' s  made  of  the  S i m i l a r i l y , of  An  methodology.  An  c h a r a c t e r ,  B e r e l s o n  s t u d i e d  not  of  evidence  of  and  i t s  c h a r a c t e r s  be  study  found  groups.  to  While  s t u d i e s  but  authors  f i e l d s  t h i s  by  Americans:  The  groups.  l i t e r a t u r e ,  S a l t e r  e x e m p l i f i e d  (1946).  the  m i n o r i t y  be  books. and  h i s of  and  While  l i m i t e d  to  c o n c l u s i o n f a v o u r a b l e  c a t e g o r i z e d  The  d i f f e r e n t i a l  a t t i t u d e s r e s u l t s  of  n e g a t i v e  h i s  by  unfavourable  t h i s  to  s o c i o -  both  r a c e , economic  p o s i t i v e  study  treatment  books  a n a l y s i n g  a c c o r d i n g  in  sample  s i x t e e n  and  appearance,  treatment  show  of  and both  m i n o r i t y  c h a r a c t e r s . Gast  (1967)  found  a  " f a i r "  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  of  American  23  m i n o r i t y  p e o p l e s .  p u b l i s h e d  books  c h a r a c t e r s . of  The  (1945-1962)  Gast  used  for  h i s  comparison  s i m i l a r  methodology.  a s s e s s e d  as  a  g r e a t e r  c u l t u r e .  dominant  i n t e l l i g e n c e , between One t r e a t e d  in  of  G a s t ' s  the  i d e n t i t y .  In  B r o d e r i c k which  was  c o o p e r a t i o n ,  the  her  American  and  s u c c e s s ,  without as  u n d e r l y i n g Image  i m p l i e d  that  o b l i v i o u s  to  an  of  the i n  i d e n t i t i e s ,  one  not  A c c o r d i n g  B r o d e r i c k ,  that h i s  "the  s i n g l e  most  being  b l a c k " ( l 9 7 3 ,  The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  treatment t h e i r  of  o m i s s i o n  and  l a t e r  of  the  C h a l l b l a c k  to  m i n o r i t y and et  that  b a s i s a  sample  was  e q u a l i t y  and  Anglo-American  p o r t r a y e d such  that  as  as  having  k i n d n e s s ,  s i m i l a r i t i e s  a l l  d i s t i n c t i o n example  Black  of  in  G a s t ' s  the  c u l t u r a l  or  content  a n a l y s i s  C h i l d r e n ' s  F i c t i o n ,  a  need  was  to  that d i d a  be  r e q u i r e d  study  t h i s  of  groups  care  of  pretended  important  fact  in  has  a s s e s s e d  an  a t t i t u d e  r e t a i n  t h e i r  d i f f e r e n c e s not  b l a c k  d i d  acknowledge man's  l i f e  i s  p . 3 - 4 ) . of  r a c i s m c h a r a c t e r s  frequency a l  was  m i n o r i t i e s '  i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t .  h i s  s t r e s s i n g  assumptions  inherent the  a  A m e r i c a n s .  s e r v e s  The  were  v a l u e s ,  assumptions  almost  i n  as  u t i l i z e d  dominant  c h a r a c t e r s  c l a s s  primary  This  e s t a b l i s h i n g  study.  i n t e r g r o u p  m a j o r i t y  same,  t h e r e f o r e  more  the  American"  f i n d i n g s  f i c t i o n  work  and  S a l t e r ' s and  i n t o  f o r t y - t w o  "hyphenated  c h i l d r e n ' s  middle  m i n o r i t y  of  The  these  hard  and  study,  acceptance  Furthermore,  adopted  r a c i a l  own  c o n s i s t e d  c o n t a i n i n g  B e r e l s o n  p o r t r a y i n g  s o c i a l  p o p u l a t i o n  (1979),  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  of  in  in  c h i l d r e n ' s  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  conducted  not  a  f i c t i o n ,  L a r r i c k  q u a n t i t a t i v e  c h i l d r e n ' s  only  books.  In  the but  (1965), a n a l y s i s a d d i t i o n ,  24  both in  s t u d i e s  terms  of  examined minor  L a r r i c k ' s that  i l l u s t r a t i o n s S t a t e s  or  a  s i n g l e  b l a c k s  i n  L a r r i c k  and  were  i n  d e p i c t e d  contemporary  found  c h i l d r e n ' s  1963,  and  c o n c l u d e d  1964  that  by  or  the  In  b l a c k  c h a r a c t e r  i n d u s t r y - w i d e not  o u t s i d e  example,  64  p u b l i s h e r s  t e x t .  U . S .  Of  of  the  were  found  of  o f t e n  U n i t e d  60% 1%  books  6.7%  had  i n c l u d e d  were  q u a l i t a t i v e  d e p i c t i o n s  i n  5,200  only  t h o s e ,  and merely to  survey  r e p r e s e n t e d  For  a d d i t i o n  the  an  were  I I .  i l l u s t r a t i o n  A m e r i c a .  the  predominantly  War  o u t s i d e  through  books  d e p i c t e d  World  1962,  b l a c k  study  given  r o l e s .  i n  before  p u b l i s h e d  prominence  and major  1965  B l a c k s  the  s e t  i n  f i n d i n g s ,  s t e r e o t y p e d  and  b i a s e d . C h a l l 1973  et  and  1975  compared a s s e s s e d  t o  percentage  by  the  are  the and  many t h e i r  s t i l l  c o n t a i n e d  authors  of  and black  i n  the  ( p . 5 3 1 ) . that  a  In  be  the  have  a r e  the to  a  of  be  of  the  p o r t r a y e d  i n  s e t t i n g s .  had  " p l e a s u r e  s t u d i e s  been  m a j o r i t y  q u a l i t a t i v e l y ,  guarded  as  contemporary  et_  r e a d " .  stated,"Some  have  the  r e p r e s e n t e d  doubled C h a l l  t o  they  that i s  between  c h a r a c t e r  contemporary  s t e r e o t y p e s  these  black  i l l u s t r a t i o n s  a d d i t i o n , t o  t o  m i n o r i t i e s they  i n  remained by  In  of  p u b l i s h e d  one  b l a c k s  v a r i e t y  books  C e n t r a l  r e f l e c t i v e  (1962).  c h a r a c t e r s  e v a l u a t i o n s  books  l e a s t  found  sample.  of  that a t  6.7%  c h a r a c t e r i z e d  extent how  the  1973-1975  judged  d e c r i e d "  94%.  r o l e s  The  However,  (1979)  L a r r i c k ' s  books  s i g n i f i c a n t  a l  a l  long  been  concern  f o r  i n  l i t e r a t u r e  a t t i t u d e s  and  1 i v i n g . During  the  past  f i f t e e n  years  the  study  of  s t e r e o t y p e d  25  c h a r a c t e r s  i n c l u d e d  impact  r a c i s m  be  of  e q u a l l y  as  i d e n t i t y , 1972;  In Sexism  and  1971,  Higgs,  G i r l s  Grow  were  randomly  women  "not  that  sampled  were  books  the  S i m i l a r  presence sense  ( C a r m i c h a e l ,  that  r o l e s  s e x - r o l e s .  of  the  sexism  of  1977;  to  may  s e l f - w o r t h ,  Weitzman  et  a l ,  1972).  study,  women  of  c h i l d r e n ' s  L i t e r a t u r e ,  p r o f e s s i o n a l 154  t o  C h i l d r e n ' s  concluded  the  c h i l d r e n ' s  opportunity  t h e i r i n  i n  p o r t r a y a l  l i m i t i n g  and  Stewig  the  Up  to  Stewig d e p i c t e d  they  a r e  p i c t u r e  predominantly  be  and  i n  the  engaged  books  Mommies:  r i c h  i n  i n  Study  Higgs  of  (1972)  v a r i e t y  of  t o d a y " ( p . 4 9 ) .  Of  p u b l i s h e d  p o r t r a y e d  A  two  from of  the  1903  to  f o l l o w i n g  ways:  1. category  P r i m a r i l y as a housewife as doing e s s e n t i a l l y d u l l  2. In a p p r o p r i a t e This the  was  determined  P r o f e s s i o n a l  same were had This  a  r o l e s Men,  followup  p o r t r a y e d b e e n . s e m i -  books  authors  of  examination  a  of  a  survey  women;  the  study,  Stewig  some  t o t a l  of  at  from  between  503  C h i l d r e n ' s l i b r a r y  r o l e s  d e r i v e d  p u b l i s h e d  was  the  books Book  (Stewig an  the  U n i v e r s i t y  i n  a s  where and  1974,  Current  Centre, of  of  P r o f e s s i o n a l ,  (1975)  a  came  f a r  t o  as  of  they  1971).  100  s e l e c t e d  the  women  p r e v i o u s l y H i g g s ,  assessment and  i n c l u s i o n  M e n .  K n i p f e l  r o l e s  the  t h e  of  noted,  1972 i n  f o r  Homemaker,  p r o f e s s i o n a l  p r o f e s s i o n a l was  a n a l y s i s  and  the general t a s k s .  t y p i c a l l y c o n s i d e r e d 1973, p . 4 9 ) .  A c t i v i t i e s  Improvement  i n  c o n c l u s i o n  sampled  by  R e c r e a t i o n a l  c o n c l u s i o n s .  Cooperative  mother w i t h i n u n i n t e r e s t i n g  s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s f o r females (Stewig and Higgs,  f o l l o w i n g  In  and and  randomly from  C o l l e c t i o n  at  95 the  n o n - c i r c u l a t i n g  W i s c o n s i n .  26  One f i e l d  of  the  has  been  S o c i a l i z a t i o n et  which  had  been  award  i s  of  the  by  L i b r a r y  was  c a t e g o r i e s  the  l o c a t i o n  e x c l u d i n g  were  major  c h i l d r e n ' s  books  c h i l d r e n  t o  behaviour"  ( p . 1 1 2 6 ) .  i n  they  have  young over  assumptions c o n t a i n  a  ( p . 1 1 2 6 ) . a g a i n  by  was  s e l e c t e d  of  male  treatment  f o r  This of  p i c t u r e by  the  book  the  authors  and  parents  p i c t u r e  female  book  and  Among  sex  models,  t h e i r  given  t o  g i r l  the  " i m p r e s s i v e  t h i s  and  boy  books  c h a r a c t e r s .  and  was  i n  Medal.  educators  focus  a d u l t  r o l e s  Committee  notable  p o r t r a y a l  were  r o l e  conform  p r e - s c h o o l been  Role  l o c a t i o n  boy  and  a c t i v i t i e s  g i r l and  a s s e s s e d .  Three  r o l e  Sex  sex  d i s p l a y i n g  o c c u p a t i o n s ,  (1972),  C a l d e c o t t  a c t i v i t i e s ,  s i m i l a r  the  most  main  were  i n  C h i l d r e n  of  t e a c h e r s , books  and A  the  s t u d i e s  a l  S e r v i c e  sample  s e x - r o l e  o c c u p a t i o n s  c h a r a c t e r s ,  to  The  examined  ( i n d o o r / o u t d o o r ) .  treatment  that read  et  P r e s c h o o l  C h i l d r e n ' s  (p.1127).  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  t h e i r  the  t o  f o r  d i s t i n g u i s h e d  p a r t i c u l a r  c h i l d r e n  a n a l y s i s  Weitzman  the  the  b e l i e v e d  medal"  by  A s s o c i a t i o n ,  This  they  encouraged  the  awarded  content  Books  examined  given  because  gold  P i c t u r e  a l  year.  e x t e n s i v e  conducted  i n  Weitzman  American  more  to  adopted  " a c c e p t a b l e p i c t u r e  c h i l d r e n ' s f o r  F i n a l l y ,  c h i l d r e n ,  sex  the  books  t h e i r  which  most  F i r s t , encourage  standards  p l a y  an  books  because  values  a r e  read  of  important  s o c i a l i z a t i o n  s o c i e t a l  p i c t u r e  study.  s o c i a l  r o l e  a d d r e s s i n g  d u r i n g  the  p r e s c r i p t i o n s  Secondly,  v e h i c l e  f o r  to  the  over  and  i m p r e s s i o n a b l e  years  ( p . 1 1 2 7 ) . The  authors  c o n c l u d e d  that  women  and  g i r l  c h a r a c t e r s  27  r e c e i v e d G i r l s  a  g r e a t e r  were  women  p r o v i d e d  were  p o l i t i c s .  common  study t o  c h i l d r e n  turn  t h i s  t h e i r  sense  have  assumed  Evidence  the  of  p o t e n t i a l  KOHLBERG  THEORY  OF  the  i m p l i c a t i o n s  p r i m a r i l y  of  reading  MORAL  i n of  the  what i t  and  with  the  s p o r t s  or  sample. concern  stereotyped the  read  way  and  world  v i s i o n  a t  i n  content  of  i n  how  i n  l a r g e . treatment  a d v e r s e l y  p r e v a i l i n g  making  i n  d i s t o r t e d  may  t h e i r  engaged  l a r g e r  with  or  f i c t i o n  a  they  i n  because  C a l d e c o t t  been  b i a s e d  i n  on  i n  or  from  d e a l i n g  through  u s e f u l  homes  boys.  a f f e c t  humanity.  c h i l d r e n ' s a n a l y s i s .  p r e d i c t i o n s  books Such  about  the  c h i l d r e n .  DEVELOPMENT  APPLIED  TO  THE  ANALYSIS  OF  FICTION  W i t h i n  development  c o n d i t i o n s  been  impact  CHILDREN'S  s e l f - e s t e e m  produced  has  the  c h i l d r e n ' s  a c t u a l  o b j e c t i v e l y  i n f o r m a t i o n  moral  i n  that  t h e i r  has  a f f e c t  a s p i r a t i o n s "  r e p r e s e n t s  s t u d i e s  r e a l i t y  sense  be  s t e r e o t y p e s  expressed  d i d men a n d  excluded  women  the  c h i l d r e n ' s  can  l a r g e l y  those  than  " l o w  o u t s i d e  working  concern  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n  of  of  p e r c e i v e  may  s t u d i e s  and no  of  The  s t e r e o t y p i n g  models  s e x i s t  many  which  of  were  of  of  portrayed  p u r s u i t s  There  c h a r a c t e r s .  Most  r o l e  seldom  i n t e l l e c t u a l  The  degree  past of  f o r h e l d  development  ten  y e a r s ,  the  t h e  Kohlberg  t e a c h i n g  of  i m p l i c a t i o n s through  i n t e r e s t  i n  has  theory  been of  l i t e r a t u r e . two  l i t e r a t u r e  a r e a s :  shown  ( B i s k i n  the  c o g n i t i v e - m o r a l The  the  i n  theory  f a c i l i t a t i o n and  has of  H o s k i s s o n ,  28  1974,1977; and  Gosa,  the  a n a l y s i s  a d o l e s c e n t ' s Sharfe,  a n a l y s i s  and  h i s  with  suggestion i n  that a  t h i s  1977;  P i l l a r ,  d i s c u s s i o n depth  s t r u c t u r e d  1977;  and  B l a t t  the  does  a  the  a r e a s ,  use  dilemmas.  of  and 1977;  and  a  of  content  stages  of  to  moral  an  approach  have  While  s u b j e c t  i s  p r o m i s i n g  not  beginning  to  shown  can  be  a  i t s  ( B i s k i n Gosa,  s t r u c t u r e d I n -  to  i n c r e a s e  and  H o s k i s s o n ,  s a i d  r e s e a r c h a  f o r  c h a r a c t e r s .  ( B i s k i n i t  some  1977;  e n t a i l  story  been  1975).  been  e d u c a t i o n .  would  a b i l i t i e s  has  H a r r i s ,  f a c e d . b y  l i t e r a t u r e  p o t e n t i a l  moral and  One,  There  great  Rosenweig  dilemmas  t h i s  both  Chapter  holds  r e a s o n i n g  on  Gosa,  to  1977)  c h i l d r e n ' s  1974;  K o h l b e r g ' s  approach  Such  K o h l b e r g ,  i s  w i t h i n  d i s c u s s i o n s  l i t e r a t u r e  represent  on  moral  1977;  moral  moral  of  and  1979).  c h i l d r e n ' s  study,  component  1974,  of  Common  i n  H a r r i s ,  i s s u e s .  developmental  H o s k i s s o n ,  1980)  d i s c u s s e d  v a l u e s  and  development  H o s k i s s o n ,  present  moral  Rosenweig  and  modelled  p r e v i o u s l y  abounds  and  the  1979;  moral  R i h n ,  instrument  development As  to  the  ( B i s k i n  and  i n t e r e s t  P i l l a r ,  of  f i c t i o n  1977;  d i r e c t  uses  1977;  that  much  o r i e n t e d ,  r e l a t i v e l y  new  i t  area  of  study. D i s c u s s i o n  of  f a c i l i t a t i n g  moral  i n t e r a c t i o n  w i t h  development  of  K o h l b e r g ,  stage  i n  s u b s t a n t i a l  dilemmas  development. c o g n i t i v e  new  1977;  moral  advance moral  of  The the  changes  a  c h i e f  f a c t o r  i n  p r o v i d e s  o p p o r t u n i t y  f o r  a  p r o c e s s  n e c e s s a r y  the  s t r u c t u r e s  ( B i s k i n  c o n f l i c t ,  c o g n i t i v e 1973).  It  i s  examination i n d i v i d u a l ' s than  e i t h e r  of  and  moral  own, free  to  H o s k i s s o n ,  dilemmas,  produces d i s c u s s i o n  one more of  29  dilemmas  or  d i d a c t i c  K o h l b e r g ,  1977).  developmental ( B l a t t one of  and  i n s t e a d  approach  formal  i n s t r u c t i o n  l a t t e r  had  o f f e n s i v e  or  as  a r t i c l e s  Theory  (Gosa,  Before dilemmas  P i l l a r ,  be  t h e i r to that  own  meaningful  i t s  the  story  w h i l e  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  i d e n t i f y  subsequent p l a c e .  Both  c a t e g o r i e s stages P i l l a r ,  theory  of  m o d e l l e d moral  1979).  the  have  on  of  than  as  the e i t h e r  appears  f o r  the  l e v e l  best  take  that  i n  Kohlberg  of  i n  advance  i s  n e c e s s a r y  r e a s o n i n g ,  i s  a  can  need  the take  a p p l i c a t i o n  of  i s s u e s  and  H o s k i s s o n , an  i n  and  t o  fact  moral  such  so  d i s c e r n e d .  i s s u e s  the  of  be  there  of  they  cannot  ten  examples  p l a c e ,  c h i l d r e n  moral  moral  and  1977;  i t  c a n  i s s u e s  1974,  stage  d i s c u s s i o n  i n v o l v e d  ( B i s k i n  c a n  Therefore,  o b v i o u s ,  t h e i r  moral  one  d i s c u s s i o n  K o h l b e r g ' s  the  such  that  viewed  H o s k i s s o n ,  than  c o n f l i c t i n g  that  development One  more  f o r  the  i n d i c a t e s  c h a r a c t e r ' s  a n a l y s e s  course  p u b l i c  r a t i o n a l e  of  and  t h i n k i n g .  so  l e a s t  (1974),  reported  was  l i t e r a t u r e  ( B i s k i n  somewhat  dilemmas  at  s e c t a r i a n  i n d i c a t i o n s  d i s c u s s i o n  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  Furthermore,  a  c l i c h e s "  holds  g e n e r a l  they i t  Such  c h i l d r e n ' s  moral  1974  s i m i l a r  d e c i s i o n s  of  the  p r i m a r i l y  moral  n o n -  and  1979).  K o h l b e r g ' s  l e v e l  In  of  Hoskisson  to  because  P i l l a r ,  moral  determine  make  analysed  1979).  comprehend  m o r a l i t y .  a  ( B l a t t  a r e  approach  and  o b j e c t i o n a b l e  that  i n  This  B i s k i n  o b s o l e t e  1977; any  to  changes  p o s s i b l e  i n d o c t r i n a t i o n .  found  f i r s t  makes  e d u c a t i o n  l e a r n i n g  p . 1 5 3 ) .  i t  i n  become  other  must  1977,  l e s s  moral  " v e r b a l  According  i s  of  r e s u l t i n g  of  advantage,  i n s t r u c t i o n .  an  The  K o h l b e r g ,  other  forms  and  h i s  1974, a n a l y s i s  s i x 1977; has  30  been  developed In  s t o r y  1974  to  B i s k i n  B i s k i n  c h a r a c t e r s  procedure and  by  i d e n t i f y  dilemmas  and Hoskisson  and t h e  was r e f e r e n c e  H o s k i s s o n ,  1977,  the  p . 1 5 5 ) .  story  A c c o r d i n g  t o  K o h l b e r g ,  a  moral  a c c o r d i n g  a  story  forerunner t e s t  moral  of  t o  t h e  dilemmas  These  1977).  a  method  they  f a c e .  t e n moral  i s s u e s  a n a l y s i n g  Their  i s s u e s  c a t e g o r i e s  moral  of  make  ( B i s k i n  i t  which  f i r s t  p o s s i b l e  c r e a t e  t h e  c h a r a c t e r s . two  dilemma  i d e n t i f i e d  (1974,  produced  K o h l b e r g ' s  to  t h e  or  more  (1975).  Once  c h a r a c t e r ' s t o  the  the  of  t h e  moral  s i x moral  procedure  e f f e c t s  c o n f l i c t i n g  used  s t r u c t u r e d  dilemma  i s s u e s  h a s  development  s t a g e s .  i n  moral  B i s k i n  c a n  This a n d  d i s c u s s i o n s  been be  procedure H o s k i s s o n ' s  of  l i t e r a r y  dilemmas. In  B i s k i n  t h e  only  known  and Hoskisson  s t r u c t u r e d l i t e r a t u r e The  t o  c o n f l i c t i n g  d e t e r m i n e d ,  1977  moral  posed  c r e a t e  was  and Hoskisson  1975).  by  programs Their  s t r u c t u r a l  c h i l d r e n "  main  h a d  on  (1977, d i d  c o n c e n t r a t e d  on  developmental  the  moral  and l a r g e ,  i n  of  t h e i r  1974  moral  was an  was t o  by  moral  dilemmas  t h e  moral  r e a s o n i n g  Their  f i n d i n g s  i n  change assumption  moral  k i n d  found  i n  t h e  that  e d u c a t i o n  i s  of  of  t h e  authors t h e i n  (1974, that  c h i l d r e n ' s  that  growth.  The s u c c e s s  part  moral  " e f f e c t  elementary  t h e  that  a b i l i t y .  i n d i c a t e d  i n  d a t e ,  c h i l d r e n ' s  r e a s o n i n g  found  moral  t o  c o n j e c t u r e  determine  of  fact  t h i s  e l a b o r a t i o n  developed  o b j e c t i v e  K o h l b e r g ' s  program  study  dilemmas  c h i l d r e n ' s  p . 4 0 2 ) .  d i s c u s s i o n  v e r i f i e d  p r e v i o u s l y  d i s c u s s i o n  l i t e r a t u r e  of  i n c r e a s e  experiment,  e d u c a t i o n  (1977)  d i s c u s s i o n c o u l d  experimental  s c h o o l such study of  dependent  a on  31  the  r o l e - t a k i n g  1977,  p . 4 0 9 ) .  s t o r y  c h a r a c t e r s  The  o p p o r t u n i t i e s . that  o p p o r t u n i t y  m a t e r i a l  authors  p r o v i d e d This  used  was  to  to  encourage  ( p . 4 0 8 ) .  In  show  i n s t r u c t i o n a l moral  The  m a t e r i a l s  The program o f f e r s f does not r e l y on Kohlb m a t e r i a l s . The procedu about developmental psy s t r a t e g y that t e a c h e r s ca  f o l l o w e d of  study  i s  the  t h e i r  procedure  based  i s s u e s .  S t o r y  on  d i s c u s s i o n  d e s i g n e d  move  T h i s moral  to  procedure dilemmas  dilemmas  may  the  and be  have  to  Kohlberg  d i s c u s s i o n (1977, s t o r y s i x  q u e s t i o n s  be  in  wanted  to  " i d e n t i c a l "  h i s  normative  q u e s t i o n s  a n a l y s i s ,  the  or  toward  found  determined  in  and  based; moral  and  t h i s  moral the  they  are  s o l u t i o n s .  l a b e l l i n g  two  the  which  l i t e r a t u r e .  i d e n t i f y i n g  on  a n a l y s i s  ten  from  and the  to  content  are  making  c h i l d r e n ' s by  a  m a t e r i a l  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  based  R e l a t i v e  stages  problems  B i s k i n  a n a l y s i s ,  p . 4 0 9 ) .  moral  p a r t i c i p a n t s  i s s u e s  Hoskisson  " s t i m u l u s  o p p o r t u n i t y for r o l e - t a k i n g and e dilemmas for i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s only a modicum of knowledge and i n c l u d e s the use of a e e a s i l y and q u i c k l y . ( p . 4 0 9 )  p r o v i d e s  the  the  story  s t e p ,  i n v o l v e s  on  d i s c u s s i o n  p r o c e d u r e s :  K o h l b e r g ' s  r e f l e c t i v e -  of  d i s c u s s i o n s ,  d i s c u s s i o n  a n a l y s i s  and  a p p r o p r i a t e  e x p e r i m e n t a l  r e f l e c t i v e -  p r i n c i p a l  a c t i o n  not  by  generate  r e q u i r e d  remarked:  requent erg typ re r e q u i chology n a c q u i r  three  and  d i d  employed  authors  s t r u c t u r i n g  group  B i s k i n  c o n t e n t i o n  o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,  student  a d d i t i o n ,  dilemmas  ( p . 4 0 9 ) .  a n a l y s i s ,  and  with  r o l e - t a k i n g  R e s t ' s  p r o c e s s  m a t e r i a l "  s t o r y  to  the  r e q u i r e d  c o n s t r u c t i o n  c h a l l e n g e  H o s k i s s o n ,  for  to  s k i l l s  Hoskisson  m a t e r i a l  psychology  d i s e q u i l i b r i u m  In  d i r e c t  and  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  developmental  of  s t u d i e s  s u f f i c i e n t  the  r o l e - t a k i n g  degrees  those  that  ( B i s k i n  c r e a t e  of  to  p r o v i d e s  b e l i e v e d  a  knowledge  that  i t  or  of  Moral more  32  c o n f l i c t i n g authors  moral  story  i s s u e s  a n a l y s i s  ( B i s k i n  and  procedures  1. The story moral dilemma.  H o s k i s s o n ,  1977)  .  The  i n c l u d e d :  was read  t o  determine  i f  i t  c o n t a i n e d  2. If t h e story c o n t a i n e d a dilemma, t h e dilemma i d e n t i f i e d . 3. The moral i s s u e s at c o n f l i c t and the dilemmas on which t h e d i s c u s s i o n q u e s t i o n were are i d e n t i f i e d (1977, p . 4 0 9 ) . B i s k i n a n a l y z i n g  and  c h i l d r e n ' s  d i s c u s s i o n s . p r o c e s s moral  of  moral  of  s e l e c t i n g  1979).  In  l e v e l  these  have  elements  s u i t a b l e  t o  t h e  t o  may  a n a l y s i s  use  used  a  i n  s i m i l a r  r e a s o n i n g enable  t o  the  may be  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  own  t h e  i n  t h e  1977;  stages  of  c h a r a c t e r s  so  Knowledge  s e l e c t  moral  of  moral  H a r r i s ,  story  t o  moral based  r e a d e r ' s  a s s e s s e d .  teachers  was  means  t h e  a n d  a n a l y s i s ,  a p p l i e d  a  a n a l y s i s  t o  Rosenweig  s t o r y  a s  c o n d u c t i n g  a p p r o p r i a t e  1977;  been  moral  story i t s  l i t e r a t u r e  a d d i t i o n  of  f o r  have  (Gosa,  development t h e i r  used  f i c t i o n  Educators  development  P i l l a r ,  that  Hoskisson  a  l i t e r a t u r e  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  a b i l i t i e s . On contended to  s t o r y  t h e  b a s i s  that  c h i l d r e n  c h a r a c t e r s  development. eight  y e a r s ,  moral Doctor  In t h e  K o h l b e r g ' s w i l l  t o o  h e r  Shawn  i s  found  Gosa  comprehendable t o  be  King  i n d i c a t e d i n  books  s e v e r a l  (1974) that  t h e  p o s t - c o n v e n t i o n a l not  only  of  examples  c e n t r a l  t o  of  f o r p o i n t  terms. to  dilemmas  She t h e  h a s posed  l e v e l ages  of  two  t o  i n a p p r o p r i a t e  although  intended  i n a p p r o p r i a t e  (1977)  t h e i r  a p p e a l i n g  i n s t a n c e , was  Gosa moral  advance  of  For  theory,  comprehend  i n  a n a l y s i s  author  t h e  not  f a r  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  r e a d e r s ,  dilemma  of  B r i e n b u r g ' s c o n v e n t i o n a l would  only  a s s e s s e d  p i c t u r e  book  be t h e aged  33  c h i l d , the  but  Kohlberg  imply  moral of  of  the  in  concerns  e v o l v i n g  each  stage In  of  v a r i e d  used  l e v e l  c o r r e s p o n d i n g  in  the  e f f e c t s  g r e a t l y  c a t e g o r i e s  of  e x p e c t a t i o n s ,  of  s o c i a l  moral  r e v o l t ,  important Stages  5  to and  the  extent  have  at The  a  6 of  most  the stage  of  of  of  has  has  primary  a p p l i c a t i o n p r e v i o u s l y  By  one  d i f f e r e n t  to  stages  theory  i m p l i e d  s a l i e n t " ,  The  f i r s t  and  in  of  development a p p l i c a t i o n  the  at  to on  second  Sharfe  c r e a t e the i s  a t t a i n i n g  The  Kohlberg  d i s c u s s e d .  category  in  4.  the i s  of  based  three  d i s t i n c t l i t e r a t u r e  c o n v e n t i o n a l i s  l i t e r a t u r e  r e j e c t i o n  of  c o n v e n t i o n a l  l i t e r a t u r e  of  a f f i r m a t i o n ,  p o s t - c o n v e n t i o n a l  c a t e g o r i z i n g  been  knowledge  enable  development  s i g n i f i c a n t  there  by  a p p r e c i a t i o n  that  may at  p l a y e d  p . 1 0 2 ) .  moral  3  argued  e s p e c i a l l y  l i t e r a t u r e  Stage  and  are  s i g n i f i c a n c e  e x t e n s i v e  f i c t i o n  would  the  r o l e  K o h l b e r g ' s  those  acceptance  ( p . 1 0 3 ) .  given  c h i l d r e n ' s  L a s t ,  the  Thus  i n s t a n c e  that  the  from  the  l i t e r a t u r e  (1980,  s i g n i f i c a n t  thought.  ( p . 5 3 1 ) .  a p p r e c i a t e  c o n s c i e n c e  of  c o n c e r n s .  for  He  i s s u e s  o r i e n t a t i o n s  o r i e n t a t i o n s ,  not  t h i s  comprehension  contended  in  moral  moral  l i t e r a r y  moral  in  q u e s t i o n e d  l i t e r a t u r e .  d i f f e r e n c e s s o c i a l  a l s o  i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  taxonomy  would  a d o l e s c e n t ' s  development  h i s  the  has  Sharfe  " p a r t i c u l a r  w i l l i n g n e s s "  development  reader  a d o l e s c e n t  understand  a d u l t  s t o r y .  Sharfe  development.  t h a t ,  moral  that  Gosa,  moral  of  beyond  younger  development  b e t t e r of  the  concern L i k e  "almost  stages  that  moral  of  a l s o  of  l i t e r a t u r e  c e r t a i n may  of  conducted  be  the by  moral  r e a s o n i n g , in  t h i s  problems  way, may  determined. Kohlberg Rihn  taxonomy  (1980),  to  Kohlberg  34  Level  of  Winning date, of  M o r a l  Reasoning  F i c t i o n . Rihn  The  moral  c o u l d  be  r e p l i c a t e d  books  were  s e l e c t e d  they  represent  middle  to  reduced The  a  p r o t a g o n i s t of  attempt does  at  "a  a  random  set  of  c h i l d ' s  a  l e v e l  books,  one  that  Award  q u a l i t y This  winning  to  R i h n ,  l i t e r a t u r e  for  p o p u l a t i o n  was  sample.  behind where  t h e i r  R i h n ' s  the  own  m a t e r i a l s  or  content  Rihn  has  c o u l d  books  or  was  whether  r e a s o n i n g  predominant  which  w i t h  study  moral  While  q u e s t i o n ,  response  to  the  a c c o r d i n g  (p.380).  ( p . 3 8 0 ) .  such  of  r e s e a r c h  Newbery  because, group  Award  a s s e s s i n g  c h i l d r e n ' s  study  grades  near  of  r e s e a r c h .  read  f i c t i o n  or  answer  form  the  Newbery  a n a l y s i s  method  i n  f u t u r e  q u e s t i o n  r e a s o n i n g  to  matching  for  high  enjoy  i s  moral  r e a s o n i n g  i n  content  s y s t e m a t i c  s t r a t i f i e d  w i l l  P r o t a g o n i s t s known  widely  c e n t r a l  c h i l d r e n  a  for  a  j u n i o r  to  only  developed  p r o t a g o n i s t  of  of  h i g h e s t  stage  a n a l y s i s  i n d i c a t e d be  the  used  that  in  s e c t i o n s  cannot i t  r e s e a r c h , of  books"  ( p . 3 8 4 ) . The judges'  m e t h o d o l o g i c a l n a t u r e s  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n (p.380). judges  The  of  t r a i n i n g  in  e m u l a t i o n  by  were  and  the  t h e r e f o r e  the  act  j o i n t l y  study the  This  aspect  those  w i s h i n g  the  p o s s i b l e of to  the  stage  in  i s s u e s .  were  study  c a r e f u l l y  t r a i n i n g  moral  and  of  p r o t a g o n i s t ' s  r i g o r o u s  r e c e i v e d ,  books.  s t o r y  books  stages  examined  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  a  r e c e i v e d  Kohlberg  the  and  emphasis  sex  of  examine  of  the  i n f l u e n c e  the  moral  reasoning and  a p p l i c a t i o n  i n f l u e n t i a l the  s o u r c e s study  to  how  s e l e c t e d  the  The  was  judge, of  of  i n t e r - j u d g e  be  the  f a c t o r s  the  type  v a r i a b i l i t y  would  the  worthy  of in of  r e l i a b i l i t y  35  and  d i f f e r e n c e s  was  used  i n  measures. a c t u a l moral  between the  Of  study,  i n t e r e s t  procedure  t o  treatment  of  p r e v i o u s l y  d i s c u s s e d  was  by  made  to  the  i s s u e s  Moral  dilemmas  each  of  " S i t u a t i o n s " ,  and  c o n f l i c t s  course  of  Long  d i s c r e t e  dilemmas  arose  and  were  were  i s s u e s  and  i s  the  l e v e l s  somewhat  of  acted  moral  on  of  by  i s s u e s " ,  D i s c r e t e  i s s u e s  were  more  before  of  r e c u r r i n g  arose  and  the  c h o o s i n g where  a no  p r o t a g o n i s t  dilemmas,  than  d e s c r i b e " o v e r t l y "  e p i s o d e s  part  s t o r y .  " D i s c r e t e  those  the  the  i n  f o l l o w i n g  " a l t e r n a t i v e s "  on  ways  the  " c o n s c i o u s l y "  were  i n  from  dilemmas  three  upon  c l a s s i f i e d  i s s u e s " .  of  i s s u e s  dependant  a s s i g n i n g  based  measures:  c o n f l i c t  range  i n  d i f f e r e d  c a t e g o r i e s  s e t  and  however,  D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  range  treatment  c h a r a c t e r s .  S i t u a t i o n s  or  study  judges  p r o t a g o n i s t  a  a c t i o n .  o c c u r r e d . the  the  s t a t i s t i c a l  r e l i a b i l i t y  three  book  "Long  over  d e l i b e r a t i o n  the  dependant  where  d e l i b e r a t e s  by  s t u d i e s .  c o n f l i c t i n g  d e t a i l e d  present  moral  which  c a t e g o r i e s  the  story  c r e a t i n g  i n  A  t e s t i n g  f o l l o w e d  development The  books.  s i m i l a r  once  i n  t o the  n o v e l . ( p . 3 8 2 ) . Upon  the  comprehensive the  books,  r e c o r d  t h e i r  ( " 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 " ) f o l l o w i n g  c o m p l e t i o n t e s t  the  would  judges  d a t a . t o  that  t r a i n i n g , e v a l u a t e  r e c e i v e d  The  each  of  judges category  s i m p l i f i c a t i o n  of  an  and  t h e i r  e v a l u a t i o n  a s s i g n e d e v a l u a t e d  a  a f t e r  p a s s i n g  a  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  sheet  t o  four  on  which  d i g i t  c o r r e s p o n d i n g  score to  the  i n f o r m a t i o n :  1 . The "best guess" f o r stage of r e a s o n i n g t h e p r o t a g o n i s t used to r e s o l v e the dilemma. 2. Whether the judge was c e r t a i n of h i s guess or whether he/she f e l t another stage might be p r e s e n t .  36  3. of  The "second r e a s o n i n g .  4. Level (p.385). . Rihn moral  was  reasoning  r e l i a b i l i t y Large  a b l e  and  d i f f e r e n c e s  suggested  that  long  f o l l o w - u p issue In  for  be  i t  a  show  judges  that  Newbery  very  l i t t l e  were  found  be  a  which  to  be a  high  to  rate  degree  d i f f e r e n c e  of  ( p . 3 9 2 ) .  and  i t  was  r e s e a r c h .  were  more  recommended  s t a b l e be  p . 3 8 4 ) .  However,  a  to  a  l o n g  range  concluded  t h a t  the  beause  stage dilemma  t r a i n e d  to  measure  the  the  v a r i a b i l i t y  f u t u r e  were  1980,  a l s o  w i t h  s i t u a t i o n s  r e s o l u t i o n  was  c o u l d  book  for  r e s o l v e  i n t e r - j u d g e  among  and  necessary  to  books  subject  s u f f i c i e n t  dropped long  c o n f l i c t  stage  l e v e l  measures  i s  in  a  range  ( p . 3 8 4 ) .  of  r e a s o n i n g  r e a l l y  an  a l i a s  stage. Regarding  c o n c l u s i o n s to  to  i s s u e s  often  a d d i t i o n ,  would  used  s t u d y . ( R i h n n  i s  i f  reasoning  i s s u e s  range  guess"  of  the  t h i s  D i s c r e t e than  of  best  t h i s  the  have  (p.385).  to  a d d i t i o n ,  the  p o r t r a y e d  of  p o s t - 1 9 4 9  reasoning  i m p l i c a t i o n s  books  forms  The  sex for  of  than  t h i s  sample,  more  s o p h i s t i c a t e d R i h n ' s  i t  d i d would  study  for  era  study,  s e v e r a l  e d u c a t o r s .  than  marked  a  or  the  the  b e f o r e  reasoning  1949  those  w r i t t e n  r e s o l v e d  at  the  to male  higher  a u t h o r s  ( p . 3 9 6 ) .  While  seem  suggest  " t h a t  c r e a t e  d e c i s i o n s has  than  shown  women"  that  the  men  1949  r e a s o n i n g . I n  female to  l e s s  e g o c e n t r i c  appeared  dilemmas  l i m i t e d  a f t e r  from  I n t e r e s t i n g l y ,  the  c o n t a i n e d  " s o c i o - c e n t r i c " a l s o  of  Although  movement  author  e d u c a t o r s . who  in  w r i t t e n  c o n v e n t i o n a l  c h a r a c t e r s  reasoning  analysed  i m p l i c a t i o n s  sample,  s o p h i s t i c a t e d  books  have authors  stages  of  l i m i t e d  to  and  make  of  moral  ( p . 3 9 6 ) . Kohlberg  scheme  37  development s t o r y  c a n  of  of  book,  It  t h e  such  the  S t u d i e s R i h n ' s  the  Kohlberg  content  of  sex  f o r  more  future  the  and e r a  means  of  t e a c h i n g content  and  a s s e s s i n g of  a  p u b l i c a t i o n . (1977)  i s s u e s  not  the  i n t e r e s t  story  demonstrate  and moral  the  a  to  f o r  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of  a n a l y s i s  a n a l y s e s  i n  reasoning  i m p l i c a t i o n s  educators  e f f e c t i v e  r e s e a r c h  moral  has  and H o s k i s s o n ' s  stages Such  of  c h i l d r e n ' s  i n f l u e n c e  p r o t a g o n i s t  a n a l y s i s .  c o n t r i b u t i o n s b a s i s  B i s k i n  moral  t o  p r o v i d e s  authors'  (1980)  stages  a p p l i c a t i o n  which  l i k e  a s s i g n  s u i t a b l e  a l s o  f a c t o r s a s  t o  This  books  development.  and  used  c h a r a c t e r s .  s e l e c t i o n  some  be  t h e  a s  only  a n a l y s i s use  of  instruments  of  hold  p r a c t i s e s a n a l y s i s  p o t e n t i a l but  of  a l s o  the  c h i l d r e n ' s  books.  TRANSLATED  EUROPEAN  CHILDREN'S  LITERATURE  What matters to c h i l d r e n , i n t r a n s l a t i o n s , a s i n a l l t h e i r other l i t e r a t u r e , i s simply that t h e content and c h a r a c t e r s be r e c o g n i z a b l e t o them. ( S h e i l a European e s s e n t i a l  t r a n s l a t i o n s  body  of  s t r o n g  elements  enabled  c h i l d r e n  and  c u l t u r e ,  i n f l u e n c e  on  E n g l i s h of t o  but the  communication  with  formed  Language  t r a n s c e n d have  have f o r e i g n  t h e  and  t h e i r  c h i l d r e n ' s  p r o v i d e d c u l t u r e s  s m a l l  L i t e r a t u r e .  q u a l i t y of  have f o r e i g n  l a s t i n g  but Their  not  only  language  success  and  l i t e r a t u r e .  c h i l d r e n which  1981)  r e l a t i v e l y  boundaries  ensured of  a  E g o f f ,  C h i l d r e n ' s  u n i v e r s a l i t y  t r a d i t i o n  T r a n s l a t i o n s  have  A.  c a n  a  source  p o t e n t i a l l y  of h e l p  38  them  to  recognize  t h i s  reason  there  i n t e r n a t i o n a l of  the  of  u n i v e r s a l i t y  has  been  impetus  f o r  t h i s  idea  I I .  J e l l a  Lipman,  War  I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Youth  c h i l d r e n  d i f f e r e n t  each  other  i f  c h i l d r e n ' s  they  l i t e r a t u r e  advocated  that  i n f l u e n c e So  C h i l d r e n ' s  was  i n to  to  be  be  the  in  another  honor. given  most  Two  the of  the  F r i e d r i c h  (1973)  novels  examples  "a  a r e  l i t e r a t u r e these  from  n o v e l s  u n d e r s t a n d i n g Most  of  these  the  i n  award,  the  American of  the  of  Some  by  the  the  other  the  Munich  i d e a l of  that  f i g h t i n g  through  t h e i r  B a t c h e l d e r  t r a n s l a t i o n i n  those  L i b r a r y  A s s o c i a t i o n ,  books  an  B a t c h e l d e r of  a  would  c o u n t r i e s .  e s t a b l i s h e d  p u b l i s h e r  those  M i l d r e d  M i l d r e d  annual Award,  book  c o n s i d e r e d  o r i g i n a l l y  p u b l i s h e d  1979). examined  i n  what  t r a n s l a t o r  important  European l i v e d  (1972).  Anthea  B e l l  has  i n t e r e s t i n g  area  of  B e l l  speaking  e x p e r i e n c e under  Peter  War  p . 1 4 8 3 ) .  E n g l i s h  present  Hans  P e t r o s '  and  (1978,  the  Award,  of  authors"  each  19.66,  Z e i ' s ,  the  1978).  i n c a p a b l e  people  A l k i  a i d  be  to  through  and  w i l l  the  founder  American  The  Europe"  of  the  B a t c h e l d e r  p a r t i c u l a r i l y  promoting  generated  S t a t e s ,  books  D i v i s i o n  books  For  ( B e l l ,  was  would  e x p e r i e n c e .  1978).  of  ( N i s t ,  books  knowing  between  o u t s t a n d i n g  langauge of  r e c i p i e n t s  to  i n  committed  U n i t e d  c a u s e ,  S e r v i c e s  her  to  as  the  exchange  her  up  ( B e l l ,  communication  d e d i c a t e d  award  grown  i n the  was  c o u n t r i e s  had  S i m i l a r i l y ,  c h i l d r e n ' s  L i b r a r y ,  human  i n t e r e s t  of  World  from  of  exchange  e a r l i e s t  events  the  the  Nazi  World  regime  or  a r e  R i c h t e r ' s , Both  war  d e s c r i b e d t r a n s l a t e d  b e l i e v e s  c h i l d r e n  d u r i n g  study  i n War the  that t h e i r I I . German  39  o c c u p a t i o n s u f f e r e d have  and  d u r i n g  not  need the  those  w i t h  share to  them  the  s u r v i v e  face  of  the  of  theme  Swiss  the of  a  in  of  and  understood  war,  the  of  f a m i l y  they  c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e s  Many  theme  of  l o s s e s  speaking  remote.  d i s l o c a t i o n  ,  novel  of  these  s u r v i v a l ; and  that  s t o r y  c h i l d - l i k e  humor  the  home,  a l l e g o r y During were  c h i l d r e n ' s  a  the to  and  L i n d g r e n ' s ,  a  1981).  Other  had  f i r s t  h a l f  P i p p i  the  B e r n a ' s ,  Wyss',  of  a  in  t h e i r  by  the  of  a  t w e n t i e t h  as  Hundred  Longstockings  was  to  (1950.)  everyday  were  as  p r e s e n t i n g the in  moral  i t s  story  C a r r o l l  or  p . 2 7 8 ) . C e n t u r y , the  K a s t n e r ' s M i l l i o n  the  such  of  1981,  of  C h i l d r e n ' s  books,  Lewis  1814.  u n i v e r s a l  t h e i r  i n f u s i n g  c o n t r i b u t i o n s such  of  The  s e r i e s  " l i g h t e n e d "  ( E g o f f ,  of  A  i s  German  e f f e c t  "parody  Novels  s u r v i v a l  Robinson  o u t s i d e  MacDonald"  (1929),  Family  l i f e  George  make  the  E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e  l i t e r a t u r e  s i m i l a r i l y  the  through  Swiss  the  in  Johann  b e g i n n i n g  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  than  l i t e r a t u r e .  D e t e c t i v e s  to  (1892)  c h i l d r e n ' s  of  The  f a c t o r  i n s t a n c e ,  from  the  on  (Egoff,  rather  For  would,  impact  which  u n d e r l y i n g  t r a n s l a t i o n ,  r e p r e s e n t s  P i n n o c h i o  a  an  t r a n s l a t e d  c h i l d r e n  home  been  c h i l d r e n ' s  example,  the  in  and  f i r s t  take  t r a d i t i o n  the  so  t r a n s l a t i o n .  marked  to  C o l l o d i ' s ,  of  E n g l i s h  n e a r l y  always  European  For  novel  authors  c o n d i t i o n s  c o n d i t i o n s  not  t r a n s l a t i o n s  L i t e r a t u r e .  the  are  has  t h i s  have  c h i l d r e n  the  Robinson  c h i l d r e n ' s  e x i s t e n c e  While  s t a r v a t i o n ,  the  H i s t o r i c a l l y  f i r s t  times.  the  d e a t h .  Family  a p p e a l ,  convey  u n i v e r s a l l y  U n i v e r s a l i t y success  books  encountered  a s s o c i a t e d books  t h e i r  development ,  Emil  Francs c h i e f  other  and  (1957),  f o r c e s  in  40  expanding from  t h e  h o r i z o n s  c h i l d r e n ' s  of  c o n v e n t i o n a l  i n s t a n c e ,  brought  l i t e r a t u r e  e s t a b l i s h i n g  one  which  c h i l d r e n ' s  t h e  d e p i c t e d  behaviour  a  p a t t e r n  c h i l d r e n  a c t i n g  i n  true  i n  L i n d g r e n ' s  c o n c e r t "  f o r  as  r u l e s  humor  understood  p a s t .  s t o r y  d e p a r t i n g Kastner  i n t o  w r i t e r s  p . 2 8 0 ) .  t o  c h i l d r e n  f o l l o w ,  independent  This  c o n v e n t i o n a l  f o r  c h i l d r e n ' s  L o n g s t o c k i n g s .  of  by  and  r e s o u r c e f u l  1981,  P i p p i  a l l t h e  i s  a l s o  As  h e r  c h i l d h o o d " ;  ( E g o f f ,  1981,  a  p . 2 8 0 -  ) . While  have  c l a s s i c s  e x p e r i e n c e d  have  not  the  as  s e v e r a l  "wide  such  as  c o n t i n u e d  fared  suggested  P i n o c c h i o  p o p u l a r i t y ,  w e l l  (Egoff,  e x p l a n a t i o n s  f o r  range  and  volume"  S i m i l a r i l y ,  N i s t  has  i n d i c a t e d  p r o v i d e d  " f i n a n c i a l  the  p u b l i s h e r s C a l d e c o t t the  t h e  other  "happy,  (Egoff,  p r o t a g o n i s t s , " b r o k e  281  of  d e t e c t i v e - s u s p e n s e  c h i l d r e n  u n i v e r s a l l y  l i t e r a t u r e  other  books  change  E g o f f  of  i n  has  (1977).  from  d i f f i c u l t  f o r e i g n  emphasis  19 8 1 ,  p.281 ) . Despite book  t h i s ;  t h e  that  l a c k  market  i t  of  appears  apparent  a s  of t o  This a  cope i s  w i t h  because  s i m p l i s t i c  t h i s  h a s  not  has  not  t o  t h e  h a s  or  been  example, n o v e l " t h e  i t  s t y l e  i n  being  Newbery  For  "problem  c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s that  t h e  e x p l a n a t i o n  t h e  has  books.  accrued  p r e f e r e n c e s .  t r a n s l a t i o n s .  t h e i r  Egoff  t r a n s l a t i o n  such  p o s s i b l e  r i s e  and  most  s a l e s "  books  a b i l i t y  f a m i l i a r i t y  1977).  t h e  mass  t h e  t r a n s l a t i o n s  English-Language  reading  c h i l d r e n ' s  on  N i s t ,  that  f u r t h e r  L o n g s t o c k i n g s  contemporary  of  i n  P i p p i  1981;  winning  A  c h i l d r e n ' s  d e t r a c t e d  Language  award  s p e c u l a t e d  great  boon  or  t h e been  has more  p l a c e s  a  (Egoff,  E n g l i s h due  t o  41  the  a c t u a l  For  example,  has  q u a l i t y the  p r o v i d e d  t r a n s l a t i o n and a  impetus  (Huck,  i n t e n t  work  d e a l of  of  the  for  i t s  a  new as  the  p r o c e s s  of  a  problem  award  of  i s  be  an  conveyed  t r a n s l a t i o n  and  a u d i e n c e .  c r e a t i v e  a r t  r e q u i r i n g  a n a l y t i c a l  1981).  B a t c h e l d e r  o u t s t a n d i n g  u n d e r s t a n d i n g to  E g o f f ,  acknowledges  language  s y m p a t h e t i c ,  the  t r a n s l a t i o n ,  and  of  1977;  by  p u b l i s h i n g  This  t e x t  ( N i s t ,  encouraged  1979).  o r i g i n a l  foremost  only  to  s e n s i t i v i t y  The  t r a n s l a t i o n  t r a n s l a t i o n s  c o m p e t i t i o n  time-consuming  great  of  i s  the which  if  the  the  r e q u i r e s  r e - c r e a t i o n  but  and  r e a d e r .  has  a l s o  of  a  d e s c r i b e d  t r a n s l a t o r  r e a d e r ,  in  tone  the  P o l u s h k i n the  books  d i f f i c u l t  a r t  to  Award  to  a  be  not  competent  w r i t e r . I immerse myself in another w r i t e r ' s a r t , a n a l y s i n g every nuance; and then, I set about c r e a t e that work in what ammounts to a d i f f e r e n t t h i s c a s e , the E n g l i s h Language. (1977, p.284)  of  a  While  many  t r a n s l a t o r s  s t o r y ,  those  who  products  have  are  in  taken  that  p . 2 6 ) .  the  are  S i m i l a r i l y ,  Swedish  to  "overemphasis essence  observed; p l a y i n g  "a down  s t a n d a r d s ,  i s  she  E n g l i s h , of of  the  has  b a s i c  has  p l o t ,  tendency  of  that been  (1972, to  s e n s i b i l i t y European  are  in  which too  (in  (1963)  O r v i g ,  expense Other  by  profound"  that found  out"  problems  t h i n g s  o f t e n ,  end-  and 1972,  t r a n s l a t i o n s  the  p . 2 6 ) .  i t s  l i b e r t i e s  taken  such  at  smooth  or  the  and r e in  r e - c r e a t o r s  and  ommissions  o f t e n  as  B a t c h e l d e r  i n c i d e n t s  observed  book"  t y p i c a l l y  extent  such  r o l e  p r o c e s s  i n s t a n c e ,  of  there  the  constant of  For  t h e i r  the  the  removed,  n e c e s s i t y  view  s t u d i e d  q u e s t i o n e d  t r a n s l a t i o n .  " c h a r a c t e r s  q u e s t i o n e d  r e a l  often  have  may  p r o b i n g t r y i n g to medium -  from as  of  an the  d i f f i c u l t i e s  over"  and  "a  Anglo-American ( O r v i g ,  1972,  42  p . 2 6 ) . In  a d d i t i o n  q u a l i t i e s a l s o  a  of  need  to  so  that  and  c u l t u r e .  component  of  the  through  i t s  b r e a k i n g  the  work,  move  f r e e l y  Fenton  for  many  r e t a i n i n g  t r a n s l a t o r s  f a m i l i a r  a c r o s s  has  the  unique b e l i e v e  enough  to  c u l t u r a l there  i s  i t s  readers  of  language  boundaries  s t a t e d ,  y t r a n s l a t i o n i s only t r u l y s u c c e s s f u l if i t has of c r e d i t a b i 1 i t y , of i n e v i t a b i l i t y , of a u t h o r i t y . e the i m p r e s s i o n of having been w r i t t e n o r i g i n a l l y e of the reader (1977, p . 3 0 5 ) .  summary,  H i s t o r i c a l l y , shaping  can  concern  t r a n s l a t i o n s  Edward  r a r e s giv uag  a  o r i g i n a l make  they  A l i t e the q u a l i t i It has to in the lang In  an  to  the  the  t r a n s l a t e d  E n g l i s h  the  language  European  t r a d i t i o n  of  q u a l i t y boundaries  European body  t r a n s l a t i o n  c h i l d r e n ' s  and  of  i s  c h i l d r e n  an  c h i l d r e n ' s has  been  l i t e r a t u r e  u n i v e r s a l i t y ,  between  novel  has and  important l i t e r a t u r e .  i n f l u e n t i a l and  shown  f o r e i g n  in  moreover, promise c u l t u r e .  in  43  I I I .  PROCEDURES  OF  THE  STUDY  INTRODUCTION  Chapter used  i n  three  t h i s  p r o t a g o n i s t through s i x  study.  moral  t h e  stages  d e s c r i b e s The  moral  procedures  types  reasoning  a p p l i c a t i o n  of  the  of  of  moral  were  of  content  dilemmas  a n a l y s i s  and  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  K o h l b e r g ' s  ten  moral  l e v e l  of  i d e n t i f i e d  i s s u e s  and h i s  r e a s o n i n g .  POPULATION  The World  p o p u l a t i o n  War  II  of  novels  language  to  f i c t i o n ,  p u b l i s h e d  determined t h a t  had  been  Reference  t h e  i n c l u d e s  on  c h i l d r e n ' s and  i n  1950 of  from  a  the  War  books  c o m p i l e d  to p r i n t ,  II  be  c l a s s i f i e d  a s  I n i t i a l l y ,  of  j u v e n i l e  a l l  known A  language  A d u l t  L i t e r a t u r e  an  unpublished compiled  by  war  t o  Thematic  Guide  r e f e r e n c e  Dr.  n o v e l s  f i r s t t o  was Young  r e f e r e n c e  m a t e r i a l  s p e c i a l i s t s . l i s t i n g  was  E n g l i s h .  The  T h i s  f o r e i g n  t h i s  s o u r c e s .  1965-1981. a s  a  r e a l i s t i c  1984.  War:  World  c h i l d r e n ' s  from  f o r e i g n  to  a l l  t r a n s l a t e d  l i s t  two  a s  been  and  any  Witness  Young  was made  t r a n s l a t i o n s  c o u l d  formation  to  was d e f i n e d  have  between  W e l l n e r ' s ,  C h i l d r e n ' s r e f e r e n c e  and  made  L i t e r a t u r e  study  which  t r a n s l a t e d  was  Cathryn A d u l t  E n g l i s h  by  t h i s  of  Ronald  The  f o r second  j u v e n i l e ' s Jobe  at  t h e  44  U n i v e r s i t y Of  of  the  European  the  26  known  authors  T h e r e f o r e , as  B r i t i s h  a l l  Columbia. t r a n s l a t e d  and  c o u l d  war be  of  the  European  p o p u l a t i o n  for  the  n o v e l s ,  14  d e f i n e d  c h i l d r e n ' s  as  were  w r i t t e n  c h i l d r e n ' s  novels  were  by  books. s e l e c t e d  study.  PROCEDURES  I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n : r e a s o n i n g c o n f l i c t  present were  i s  c o n f l i c t  by  K o h l b e r g .  c o n f l i c t ,  f i r s t  In  i s  each  two  many  both  moral  the  development s i x  can  two  to  be  stages  of  by  f i g u r e  The  1).  e v a l u a t e d development  by  and  moral used  in to  p r o t a g o n i s t s '  (see  f i g u r e  a  to 2).  the  ten the  moral  moral  moral  judgement  ten  have  l e v e l  of  K o h l b e r g ' s  in to  d e f i n e d  f a c i n g  t h i s  s o l v e  the  i s s u e s  moral  s t o r y o c c u r ,  M o r a l ten  s i x  the  and  content  i s s u e s  moral  moral  moral  i s s u e s  p r o v i d e d  study.  K o h l b e r g ' s  i s s u e s  in there  o f „ p r o t a g o n i s t  K o h l b e r g ' s  t h i s  when  i d e n t i f y i n g  moral  l e v e l  moral  i s s u e s  occur  c h i l d ,  c o n f l i c t i n g the  p r o t a g o n i s t  dilemmas  the  development  r e f e r r i n g  r e f e r r i n g  of  of  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  determined.  instrument  i d e n t i f i e d  make  more  dilemma  n o v e l ,  s i t u a t i o n s  By or  l e v e l  M o r a l  more  story  upon  the  war  or  dilemma. where  o b t a i n  i d e n t i f i e d .  c a l l e d  s i t u a t i o n s  a n a l y s i s  in  between  subsequent  h i s  To  were  i s s u e s  (see  r e a s o n i n g  was  stages  of  moral  45  Table  What  I  -  K o h l b e r g ' s  1. P u n i s h m e n t and Blame. i s f a i r punishment?  2. P r o p e r t y . p r o p e r t y ? What  are  Ten  Should  l i f e  to i t  4. Law. Should c h a r a c t e r s i t i c s 5. L i fe. v a l u a b l e ?  someone obey and of a good law?  Should  someone  save  Issues  someone  Should someone g i v e , p r o p e r t y r i g h t s ?  3. A f f i 1 i a t i o n R o l e s . Should m a i n t a i n the o t h e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s in What are the motives and o b l i g a t i o n s f r i e n d ?  the  Moral  be  punished  t a k e ,  or  or  not?  exchange  someone h e l p another or a p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ? of a good f a m i l y memeber or  m a i n t a i n  a  l i f e  the  or  law?  not?  6. T r u t h . Should someone t e l l the t r u t h or a l l o w be d i s c l o s e d or not? What d e f i n e s t r u t h - t e l l i n g v a l u a b l e ?  What  What  the and  are  makes  t r u t h why i s  7. Governance. Should someone obey or accept the a u t h o r i t y of another p e r s o n . government. or r u l e - m a k i n g group? What are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e s of a good governor and a good c i t i z e n ? 8. C i v i l R i g h t s and S o c i a l J u s t i c e . Should someone v i o l a t e or uphold the p o l i t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l r i g h t s of another person or group? What a r e the b a s i c p o l i t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l r i g h t s ? 9 . S e x . Should someone have a sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p What i s the nature of a good e r o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p and v a l u a b l e ? 1 0 . M o r a l i t y and Mores. Should one f o l l o w o p i n i o n or c o n s c i e n c e when i t c o n f l i c t s w i t h law, i n t e r e s t What i s the nature of m o r a l i t y and b a s i s (Kohlberg  Part  II,  1975  p.1)  or why  not? i s i t  one's moral l o v e , or s e l f of v a l i d i t y ?  46  Table  Level  Level  I  II  II  -  K o h l b e r g ' s  III  of  Moral  Development  P r e c o n v e n t i o n a l Stage  1:  Stage  2:  Obedience and Punishment or i e n t a t ion N a i v e l y e g o i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n  C o n v e n t i o n a l Stage Stage  Level  Stages  3: 4:  Good-boy o r i e n t a t i o n A u t h o r i t y and s o c i a l order m a i n t a i n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n  P o s t c o n v e n t i o n a l Stage  5:  Stage  6:  (Kohlberg,  C o n t r a c t o r i e n t a Conscien or i e n t a  1975)  u a l l e g a l i s t i c t i o n c e or p r i n c i p l e d t ion  47  CONTENT  ANALYSIS  I. u n i t s  Each of  was  s u b j e c t e d  to  content  a n a l y s i s  using  two  two  or  a n a l y s i s :  U n i t more  book  1:  Story  moral  s i t u a t i o n s  i s s u e s  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  of  K o h l b e r g ' s  ten  moral  2:  The  U n i t the  dilemma  The  l e v e l  as  r e f e r e n c e  d i r e c t l y  the  i s s u e s  c o n f l i c t  i n v o l v i n g  was  immediate  stage  to  a  by  of  the  reference  to  p r o t a g o n i s t . c a t e g o r i e s  of  i s s u e s .  d e p i c t e d  and  c o n t a i n i n g  by  r e a c t i o n  s t o r y  of  a c t i o n ,  moral  c a t e g o r i e s  of  of  the  c h a r a c t e r  n a r r a t i o n ,  reasoning  K o h l b e r g ' s  was  faced  or  by  d i a l o g u e .  determined  s i x  stages  of  by moral  r e a s o n i n g .  II.  The  procedure  of  content  a n a l y s i s  used  for  each  novel  i n c l u d e d : (1)  An  (2) i d e n t i f y (a  An  i n t e n s i v e  each  s i t u a t i o n  s i t u a t i o n s (3) by  i n t r o d u c t o r y  which  The  moral to  W i t h i n  i d e n t i f i e d (5) p r o t a g o n i s t  c o n t a i n s  (the The  i s s u e s ten  each  l e v e l  the  each  c o u l d  be of  to  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  c l a s s i f i e d two  or  as  U n i t  more  1  moral  in  each  u n i t  were  s i t u a t i o n ,  U n i t  determined  i s s u e s . s t o r y  r e a c t i o n moral  U n i t  story  work.  p r o t a g o n i s t ) .  c o n t a i n e d  i d e n t i f i e d  of  e n t i r e  the  c o n f l i c t  moral  subsequent  w i t h i n  a  the  of  that  i n v o l v i n g  the  of  r e - r e a d i n g  s i t u a t i o n  d i r e c t l y  r e f e r e n c e (4)  story  r e a d i n g  2  of  the  judgement was  2  was  then  p r o t a g o n i s t ) . demonstrated  determined  by  by  the  r e f e r e n c e  to  48  the  s i x  moral  (6) an  For  s t a g e s . each  e v a l u a t i o n  RELIABILITY  To  in  t o  were  as  readers  Theory  the  were  study,  of and  f o l l o w .  2  t o  5  were  recorded  on  r e l i a b i l i t y  were  t r a i n e d  Each M o r a l the  t o  reader  the  a s s e s s  r e c e i v e d  Reasoning,  the  i n s t r u c t i o n  S p e c i f i c a l l y ,  of  data the  an  e v a l u a t i o n s  method  steps  of  the  taken  two made  i n t r o d u c t i o n  r e g a r d i n g  the  c o l l e c t i o n ,  t o  the  a n a l y s i s  used  procedures  they  by  each  reader  f o l l o w s :  (1)  Each  recorded  d a t a .  (2) of  t h e  r e s e a r c h e r .  Kohlberg  steps  c h a r t .  i n c r e a s e  the  e v a l u a t i o n ,  PROCEDURES  independent by  u n i t  While  every  reader  reading  c h a p t e r .  e v a l u a t i o n  c h a r t  r e c e i v e d  each  book,  Reference i n  a  a  the  then  c r o s s c h e c k  copy  of  t h e  readers  r e s e a r c h e r ' s  paused  at  the  end  was made  t o  the  c o r r e s p o n d i n g  assessment  of  t h e  r e s e a r c h e r ' s  a n a l y s i s . (3)  The  Agreed, by  t h e  (X)  D i s a g r e e d ,  then o r  a s s i g n e d  (?)  Questioned,  one t o  of  t h e  each  symbols,  a n a l y s i s  (+) made  r e s e a r c h e r .  This  i n f o r m a t i o n  r e s e a r c h e r ' s areas  readers  of  formed  c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,  d i s p u t e  determined  a  b a s i s  i n c l u d i n g by  the  of a l l  r e a d e r s .  comparison  f o r  v e r i f i c a t i o n s  the and  49  ANALYSIS  OF  The two  data  u n i t s  where  DATA  two  F i r s t l y ,  or  more  i s s u e s  Secondly,  Unit  c o n f l i c t i n g  I.  c a t e g o r i e s 2  The  data  was  Moral  (B)  the or  of  were  (C)  moral  analysed  number  each  I I .  The  made  t o  (B)  sex  of  Unit a r e  1  i n  and  and  content  was  K o h l b e r g ' s of  as  a n a l y s i s s t o r y  as  ten  the  dilemma, s i x  the  c o n f l i c t  p r o t a g o n i s t  determined  the  c o l l e c t e d  examined  as  f o r  s i t u a t i o n  moral  s t a g e s .  a n a l y s e  using  a s c e r t a i n e d  moral  q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  stages  Enumeration  with  to  were  number  methods  r e a c t i o n  taken  S i m i l a r i l y ,  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  of  K o h l b e r g ' s  Issues  o m m i s s i o n s ) ,  1984) .  was  i s s u e s  steps  (A) and  moral  c a t e g o r i e s  Two  by  a n a l y s i s .  t o  the  secured  of  r e f e r e n c e  to  was  by  by  i s s u e s . to  the  reference  d a t a .  f o l l o w s :  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  (types  frequency. of  Moral  Reasoning  were  a n a l y s e d  f o r  frequency.  was made  f o r  the  frequency  of  i s s u e s  used  v a r i a b l e s  were  Stage. R e l a t i o n s h i p s  the of  stages  of  author,  of  moral and  the  f o l l o w i n g  r e a s o n i n g : (C)  e r a  s e l e c t e d (A)  sex  (1952-1962,  of  p r o t a g o n i s t ,  1963-1973,  1974-  50  IV.  A  REVIEW  The  OF  THE  of  posed  to  judgements  i n  i d e n t i f i e d  was  to  examine  c h a r a c t e r s  European  a n a l y s e d  the f o r  war  by  and  the  t h e i r  n o v e l .  content  the  a c t i v i t y dilemmas story  of  that  the  types  of  moral  subsequent  moral  elements  were  Both  a n a l y s i s ,  l e v e l  as  d e s c r i b e d  i n  to  that  book  development The  Chapter  r e s e a r c h I I ,  c o g n i t i v e - m o r a l the  ten  of  s e l e c t i o n that  on  which  i n v o l v e d  a  development  understanding  of  The  of  of  This  a n a l y s i s  c h i l d r e n  the  books study  d i s c u s s i o n t o i t s  s i x  p r o v i d e  the  both  of  t h i s  the  moral  the  a p p l i c a t i o n  the  achieved of  by  moral i t  provide  matching  has some  c h i l d r e n ' s  read.  based,  of  be  by  Secondly, may  by  they i s  through  stages  a n a l y s i s .  f o r  t h i s  may  moral been  demonstrated  and  content  of  I,  has  s u c c e s s  a n a l y s i s  i s s u e s  of  there  f a c i l i t a t e d  r e a s o n i n g  type  t o  be  s i t u a t i o n s .  moral  t h i s  c a n  Chapter  theory  F i r s t ,  dilemmas.  moral  i n  Kohlberg  l i t e r a t u r e .  content  those  instruments  suggested  i n s i g h t  of  e s t a b l i s h e d the  growth  the  i n  of  moral  on  K o h l b e r g ' s  r e a s o n i n g  study,  of  moral  l i t e r a r y  c h a r a c t e r s  a p p l y i n g  the  t e a c h i n g  depends and  of  i m p l i c a t i o n s  suggestion  d i s c u s s i o n  to  study  story  s i g n i f i c a n c e  r e a s o n i n g  moral  the  the  and  d i s c u s s e d  been  RECOMMENDATIONS  I I I .  The  some  CONCLUSIONS,  STUDY  purpose  dilemmas  Chapter  FINDINGS,  the  as  reviewed  Kohlberg  background i n  content  theory  i n of  necessary a n a l y s i s .  51  F o l l o w i n g  t h i s  C h i l d r e n ' s context  that  Reference  European was  made  W e l l n e r ' s on  j u v e n i l e  U n i v e r s i t y  the  of  in  data  moral  instruments  of  stages The  of  data  .Issues  novels  to  the  two  to  War:  War  II  Issues  w i t h  examination v a r i a b l e s :  the of sex  in  for  of  was  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  used  war  a n a l y s i s  the  study  ,  was  d e f i n e d  Thematic  to  as  known  an  f i e l d  of  w i t h i n  the  a l l  c o m p i l e d  and  1984.  s o u r c e s :  Guide  by  t r a n s l a t e d  1950  to  Dr.  Cathryn  Young  u n p u b l i s h e d  Adult  l i s t i n g  Ronald  Jobe  of at  C o l u m b i a .  was  s t u d y , a s  c o l l e c t e d  posed  to  the  d e s c r i b e d by  a  in  Chapter  s y s t e m a t i c  story  III,  a n a l y s i s  p r o t a g o n i s t s  of  and  the  moral  r e a s o n i n g  in  t h e i r  response.  The  were  K o h l b e r g ' s  ten  moral  i s s u e s  h i s  and  r e a s o n i n g . f o l l o w i n g  two  Stages  were  number,  and  frequency.  were  e v a l u a t e d  Stages  L e v e l s the  the  study  between  only A  p r i n t ,  analysed  and  in  present  p u b l i s h e d  and  t h i s  a n a l y s i s  and  between  t h i s  that  moral  p l a c e  for  dilemmas  l e v e l  content  r e s e a r c h .  B r i t i s h  procedures  subsequent,  s i x  of  t r a n s l a t i o n s  r e s u l t e d both  World  of  to  Witness  L i t e r a t u r e  The  review  f i e l d  p o p u l a t i o n  c h i l d r e n ' s  the  a  L i t e r a t u r e ,  of  The  was  and  q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  S t a g e s .  r e l a t i o n s h i p  o f - p r o t a g o n i s t ,  s t e p s .  The  between sex  of  the  author,  for  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  frequency  second  the  a n a l y s e d  The for  F i r s t ,  s t e p  of  Issues  i n v o l v e d  data  and  and  e r a .  an  s e l e c t e d  52  FINDINGS  1.  - R e p r e s e n t a t i o n  Table  III  -  Stage  of  the  Stages  of  Moral  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of stages d e c i s i o n s  Content  of  Stage  Reasoning  1-6  (Right  Stage  1  (23.9%)  B l i n d obedience to a v o i d punishment.  Stage  2  (29.9%)  Serving o n e s own of exchange.  Stage  3  (22.4%)  P l a y i n g good r o l e , concern meets e x p e c t a t i o n s .  Stage  4  (5.9%)  O b l i g a t i o n to subject i v e .  Stage  5  (1.5%)  Upholding b a s i c of s o c i e t y .  Stage  6  (16.4%)  among  r i g h t s ,  Beyond c o n t r a c t l a w s , e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s .  and  d e a l s  c o n s c i e n c e ,  moral  i s . . . )  a u t h o r i t y  needs,  67  r u l e s ,  in  for  o t h e r s ,  c h o i c e  l e g a l  terms  i s  c o n t r a c t s ,  u n i v e r s a l  human  53  Figure  Stage  1  Stage  2  Stage  3  Stage  4  Stage  1  -  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n  of  Stages  >23.9% >29.9% >22.4% > 5 . 9%  5->1.5%  Stage  6  >16.4%  Di scuss i o n Because (29.9%), 76.2% the  the  Stage of  g e n e r a l  1  a l l  m a j o r i t y  (23.9%) moral  of  moral  8-12  g e n e r a l l y  operate  u n d e r s t a n d i n g  moral  those  a r e at  judgements An  the  use  of  than  Stages  of  Stage  t o  2  1  the  3, 6.  4  have  (5.9%)  At  (22.4%),  t h e  by  i n s t a n c e ,  i n  stages and  trend t h i s  5  p o i n t  to  study of  w i t h i n  the  a r e  reading 10  not  were  the  because above  t h e i r  Stage  3  frequency  of  r e a s o n i n g .  While  s u b s t a n t i a l l y  continue  there  of  sample.  was  moral  years  capable  comprehend the  f o r that  aged  stage  2  evident  intended  and  one  i n  (1.5%)  d i d  the  c h i l d r e n  t o  found  t h i s  i s  Furthermore,  p o t e n t i a l  1975)  i t  1975)  Stage  accounted  judgements of  a t t r a c t e d  the  r e a s o n i n g ,  sample,  (Kohlberg,  higher  t h i s  3  r e a s o n i n g .  r e s u l t  Stage 1  For  (Kohlberg,  important  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  through  2  moral  r e s o l v e d  c o g n i t i v e l y  stage  i n  of  c a p a b i l i t i e s  Stage  Stage  i n d i v i d u a l s  were  y e a r s .  at  Stage  dilemmas  reasoning  ages  stages  and  dilemmas  a u d i e n c e ,  own,  dominant  was  t o an  l e s s  decrease  i n c r e a s e  i n  54  frequency  to  Stages  1  showed  that  l e a s t that to  one the  16.4%,  a  3.  A  to  one-half  moral  s t o r y  c h a r a c t e r s ,  moral  dilemmas  ( R i c h t e r , Stages  2  3.  as  for  d i g n i t y  h i s  l e a p s  in  n o r m a l l y 1967,  h i s  in moral  reached  1975).  Stage  as  Stage  approach  the  6  of  was  Thus, was  to  forms  one  r e a s o n i n g  2  in  Gunther,  to  of  m i d - t w e n t i e s ,  be  In of  l i k e  The  fact  appears  aware  I  as  Was  that  at  to There  judgement where to  save  were the the  many  other  making  quantum  s o p h i s t i c a t i o n if  at  r e s o l u t i o n s  e f f o r t  p o r t r a y e d  degrees  c o n t a i n e d  i n c i d e n t h i s  of  d i s t r i b u t i o n  r e a s o n i n g  m a t u r i t y .  c h i e f  those  r e a s o n i n g .  c h i l d r e n ,  there  the  6  teachers  degrees  reasoning  sample  to  n o v e l s ,  u n t i l  the  to  t h e i r  Stage  warning  f r i e n d . the  by  of  by  i n s t a n c e ,  However,  a p p l i e d  p r o t a g o n i s t s  w e l l  i n  dominated  v a r y i n g  p r o t a g o n i s t of  r e s o l v e d  were  c l o s e  examination  books  (1980)  with  1972) and  the  dilemma  R i h n ' s  s u r p r i s i n g l y  c l o s e r of  r e s o l u t i o n s  r e f l e c t  r e s u l t  a l l  not  (Kohlberg,  55  2.  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n  Table  IV  -  and Frequency  D i s t r i b u t i o n  of  165  of  Moral  moral  I s s u e s  i s s u e s  among  67  moral  dilemmas  Issue  D e s c r i p t i o n  Punishment  Property  and Blame  (12.7%)  (5.5%)  A f f i l i a t i o n  R o l e s  a r e  Should O b i i g a t  Law  (0%)  L i f e  be  p r o p e r t y  someone  punished?  r i g h t s ?  h e l p  and  Should someone save a l i f e ? What makes i t v a l u a b l e ?  (16.3%)  Governance  another?  ions  Should someone obey m a i n t a i n t h e law?  (8.5%)  T r u t h  I ssue  Should someone What i s f a i r ?  What  (26.1%)  of  What  (8.5%)  d e f i n e s  t r u t h - t e l l i n g ?  Should someone a c c e p t t h e a u t h o r i t y of another person?  C i v i l R i g h t s and S o c i a l J u s t i c e (4.5%)  What a r e b a s i c p o l i t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l r i g h t s ?  Sex  Should someone have a r e l a t i o n s h i p or not?  (0%)  M o r a l i t y  and Mores  (15.7%)  Should someone own c o n s c i e n c e w i t h l a w , love  s e x u a l  f o l l o w t h e i r when i t c o n f l i c t o r s e l f - i n t e r e s t  56  F i g u r e  2  -  D i s t r i b u t i o n  Punishment and Blame Property A f f i l i a t i o n Roles Law  moral  i s s u e s  >12.7% > 5 . 5% >26.1%  0%  L i f e T r u t h Governance C i v i l R i g h t s Sex M o r a l i t y  of  >8.5% >16.5%  and  >8.5% >4.5%  0%  Mores  >15.7%  Di s c u s s i o n The sample  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n d i c a t e  s t o r i e s ' two  or  which  moral  more  i n  c o n f l i c t i n g of  war  before  about. c o u l d those  p r e c i s e l y  I n s t e a d , have  be  i t  been  r e s u l t  f i n d i n g  often  appears  posed  c a l l e d  upon  f o r m u l a t i n g noted  which  t h e  c h a r a c t e r  only  serves  p e r c e i v e d  by  i s s u e  dilemmas two  suggest  t h e  up  a  t o  four  judgements.  f i n d i n g  i s  not  an  given  dilemma,  m o r a l l y  concerned  those  i n d i v i d u a l  of  p r o t a g o n i s t s .  moral  become  t h e  than  evaluate  i n  i d e n t i f y an  t h e  t h i s  t o  t o  t o  t h e i r  that  moral  t o  more to  t h e  c o n f l i c t  of  dilemmas  chose  a  t h e  a t  author  from  were  i s s u e s  the  a r i s e  i n  w i t h i n  novels  were  of  appeared  t h e moral  moral  should  i s s u e s  i n s t a n c e s ,  t h e  i t  i s s u e  dilemmas  This  time  moral  many  c h a r a c t e r s  i n d i c a t i o n  given  i s s u e s .  one  of  In  Story  However,  a  Such  i s s u e s .  t h e  frequency  often  dilemmas.  moral  arose  c o m p l e x i t y  how  and  or  i s s u e s t h e  which  reader  i n  s i t u a t i o n s . The  concerns s u i t a b l e  i s s u e s  r e p r e s e n t e d  p r e s e n t e d t o  t h e  value  i n  t h e  i n  t h e war  p r i o r i t i e s  of  sample  r e f l e c t  novel  and  t h e  reading  t h e  g e n e r a l l y audience  moral appear aged  8  57  -  12  y e a r s ,  were for  who  the  i s s u e s  of  does  not  example,  u n t i l  Stage The  operate  5  and  most  A f f i l i a t i o n .  Questions  not  examine  m a i n t a i n  often  among  r e f l e c t i o n  or  enter  of  the  motives  may  a r i s e  one  of  s i d e  with  family  e i t h e r For  example,  d i s a p p r o v a l  of  o n - l o o k e r s  saved to  h i s  value  h i s  The and  l i f e .  a d u l t  who  i s  H o l o c a u s t . a s s e r t i o n have  Stage  J u s t i c e . aware  at  t h i n k i n g  of are  these which  a  of  ages,  moral  not  was  i s s u e  causes  the  of  h e l p  d i r e c t  encountered  by  the  the  war  of  having  to  enemy,  or  1970),  the  war  aware  of  War  8  of  of  judgement  had of,  once  and  C i v i l  such w i t h  and  12  had  R i g h t s an the  K o h l b e r g ' s years  p r i o r i t y  f u l l y  to  as  r i g h t s ,  r e s i d e s to  r e p a i d  ommission  II  c i v i l  the  individ.ua.ls.  keeping  them  d e s p i t e  who  i s s u e  of  other  p r o t a g o n i s t  was  i s s u e s  permit  someone  a  boy  ages  and  i s  sample,  of  in  f a m i l y  appear  Haar  i n d i v i d u a l ' s not  sample  s u r p r i s i n g  i s  the  the  p o s i t i o n  World  s t a g e s .  i s s u e  number  used  f i n d i n g  t h e r e f o r e  does  a  appear  between the  a  Law,  p e r s p e c t i v e  should  Russian  the  w i t h  i s s u e s  t h i s  c h i l d r e n  and  young  f r e q u e n t l y  the  in  time  should  the  p r i s o n e r  r o l e s  may  in  as  t h i s  (Ter  d e c i s i o n ,  It  of  concept  j u s t i c e  2  l e a s t  the  in  no  n o v e l s .  lower  t h i s  f r i e n d s ,  B o r i s  German  a f f i l i a t i o n  that  Furthermore,  a  in  t h i s  However,  l i t t l e  s o c i a l  In  authors  S o c i a l  to  That  at  s o c i a l  o b l i g a t i o n s such  o f t e n  the  i s s u e  problems  and  a n t a g o n i s t .  kindness  and ,  major  were  in  at  (1975)  dilemmas  the  they  of  p r i o r i t y  Kohlberg  moral  i n s t a n c e ,  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  e x p e c t a t i o n s ?  the  For  q u e s t i o n e d  value  to  p r o t a g o n i s t s :  act  1-3.  r e p r e s e n t e d  n o v e l  an  Sex the  a  A c c o r d i n g  f r i e n d s .  most  Stages  f r e q u e n t l y  to  or  Law  i s  i n d i v i d u a l  another  at  would or  to  of them.  c h i e f l y  i n  recognize  58  the  individual  this  issue  reasoning example,  part  of  did  arise  it  was  in  relation  to  in  I  Friedrich,  his  Youth  out  peers  as  Was  There  Jewish of  society usually the  concern  for  a  system.  the human  However,  approached  equality  (Richter,  friend,  or  of  1972), cruel  with  human  dignity.  Stage  rights.  Gunther  ridicule  of  where  his  6 For  spared Hitler  59  3.  Issues  Table  Most  V  -  F r e q u e n t l y  A s s o c i a t e d  w i t h  Stage.  I s s u e s most f r e q u e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h the s i x stages of moral r e a s o n i n g  Punishment  and  Blame  Stage  2  (42.9%)  Stage  2  and  Stage  3  (28.4%)  L i f e  Stage  6  (42.8%)  T r u t h  Stage  2  (53.6%)  Governance  Stage  1  (42.8%)  Stage  6  (45.4%)  Stage  3  (26.9%)  Property A f f i l i a t i o n  C i v i l  Roles  R i g h t s  M o r a l i t y  &  and  S o c i a l  J u s t i c e  Mores  each  3  of  (40.7%)  D i s c u s s i o n The stages  examination a l l o w s  some  ( i s s u e s ) .  Such  p a i r i n g  a  of  given  a s s e r t e d  t h a t  aware  o f ,  and  t h e i r  a b i l i t i e s  Kohlberg  of  f e a s i b l e s t a g e ,  of  moral i f  i s s u e  L i f e  a l t h o u g h  t o  a  a l l  i s s u e s ,  r e a s o n i n g .  they  e v a l u a t e s given  and  a r e  not  a  given For  Kohlberg be  to  p a i r e d  On of  p a r t i c u l a r  example,  Values  i t  with  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  the has  of  being  t h i s  i s s u e s  Stage  1.  the  not  i n  b a s i s ,  v a l u e s  would  by  of  d i f f e r e n c e s  them.  h i e r a r c h y  and  (1975)  capable  d i s t i n c t  approach  of  p l a u s i b i l i t y  may  a r e  i s s u e s  H i e r a r c h y  the  s t a g e .  there  f r e q u e n t l y  between  K o h l b e r g ' s  d e s c r i b e d  p r i o r i t i e s  were  to  i n d i v i d u a l s  understand has  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p  examination  v a l u i n g , to  the  comparison  while  (1975)  e x p l a n a t i o n stage  an  of  i n  at  each  be  very  At  t h i s  i n d i v i d u a l ,  60  Punishment, moral  issues.  until at  after  each A  often  G o v e r n a n c e and Law t a k e s  1 that  Stage  surprising associated  stage.  and  Liberty, finding  result  Rather,  it  followed  that  one of  • This issue moral  result  was  with Stage  all  is  all  s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t  takes  that  2.  precedence  over  it  all  other is  not  issues  More  of  indicate  to  the  is  not  by L i f e ,  most  a priority then  at  Property  i m p o r t a n t l y , however,  issue-stage  i n e a c h dilemma s i t u a t i o n reasoning assigned  issue  preceded f i r s t  hierarchy  appears to  Punishment and Blame was  That  by Law.  other  keeping with Kohlberg's 4)  Life  it  over  stage.  this  the  Furthermore,  precedence  relationships  were  value-priorities.(see that  in the  novels,  was a p p r o p r i a t e t o protagonist's  was in  table  at  least  the  form  resolution.  61  Table  VI  -  R e l a t i o n s h i p  of  i s s u e s  i s s u e s  Issue  a)  and  Stage  Punishment  R e l a t i o n s h i p  and  Blame  (Stage  b)  Property  c)  A f f i l i a t i o n  (Stages  d)  L i f e  e)  Governance  f)  C i v i l  g)  and  3)  (Stage  and  to  P r i o r i t y  p r i o r i t y  of  of  p r i o r i t y p r i o r i t y  Issue  at of  at  Stage  t h i s stage, Stage 1 .  At Stage 2 L i f e takes precedence, f o l l o w e d by P r o p e r t y At Stage 3 P r o p e r t y ranked a f t e r L i f e , A f f i 1 i a t i o n , L a w  L i f e Stage  1)  i s f i r s t 2 on.  p r i o r i t y  from  Pun i shment-Governance-Law u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and take p r i o over a l l other i s s u e s at Stage  and S o c i a l (Stage 6)  Mores (Stage  stage  High p r i o r i t y , a f f e c t i o n next a f t e r L i f e . A f f i l i a t i o n p o i n t of entry for Stage 3 r e a s o n i n g  3)  6)  R i g h t s  M o r a l i t y  2  and stage  Not a F i r s t  2)  R o l e s (Stage  (Stage  at  3)  J u s t i c e  From Stage 5 take p r i o r i t y over a l l other i s s u e s except  L  At Stage 3 A f f e c t i o n and c o n t r a c t u a l r i g h t s not d i f f e r e t i a t e d from M o r a l i t y . A f f e c t i o takes p r i o r i t y over a l l other i s s u e s but L i f e .  62  Relationship  Between E r a and M o r a l D e v e l o p m e n t .  T a b l e V I I - R e p r e s e n t a t i o n and f r e q u e n c y of m o r a l dilemmas and s t a g e s of m o r a l judgement as t h e y a p p e a r by e r a  (A)  Era  Dilemmas  Books  I  (1952-1962)  3  3  II  (1963-1973)  ' 3 7  7  III  (1974-1984)  29  4  (B) Era  Hi qhest  Lowest  Predominant  I  6 (50%)  2 (50%)  2 & 6 (50%)  II  6 (27.2%)  1 (16.2%)  2 & 6 (27.2%)  III  4 (10.3%)  1 (34.5%)  1 & 2 (34.5%)  Discussion The which  examination  appear  realistic  to  fiction;  the  remained almost during their  adult  the  reflect  1960's c h i l d r e n were from  of  novels  a  major  traditional  as  a  the  1960's  protagonists  and with  the a  these  (Egoff,  concept  of  Before the sheltered  characters around 1981).  decades t o f o l l o w , new  findings  children's  as b e i n g  occurring  happy e n d i n g s  in  realism.  portrayed  result  unchanged by t h o s e e v e n t s  always encountered  transition  t o modern  traditionally  world,  by E r a p r o d u c e d  them  often and  However,  a u t h o r s shaped  realism,  whereby  63  c h i l d r e n were  l i v e d  a f f e c t e d  Moreover, and  o f t e n  they  s t o r y  study and  each  i n  demonstrate  were  i n  w r i t t e n found The  one  I I .  to  For  i n s t a n c e , Rowan  posed  no  moral  s t o r i e s  mother,  were  the  from i n  Farm  dilemmas  had  l o s t  l e f t  of  post-war  dilemma  mode  c h i l d r e n  Era  of  r e a l i s m  s i t u a t i o n s  p r o t a g o n i s t s  to  II  were  a c t  p r o t a g o n i s t s .  remained  connected  i n w i t h  independantly  Era  I  of  war  novel War  The  Ark  B e n a r y - I s b e r t , The  c h i l d r e n w i t h  and  i n  t h e i r  resumed  a  r e l a t i v e l y  them.  c l e a r l y  departed  Era  Many  I. war  without  w h i l e  World  o p t i m i s t i c a l l y  the  the books  books,  together  s u r r o u n d i n g  evident  with  to  111(1974-1984)  Margot  removed  (1963-1973)  serve  t r a d i t i o n a l  p u b l i s h e d  her  they  dilemmas  c a n  r e a l i t i e s  and  both  s t r i k i n g  moral  the  a u t h o r ,  h a r d s h i p s  of  and  i n  the  r e a l i s m .  the  As  most  Era  modern  e a r l i e s t  homeless.  unaware  t r a d i t i o n a l  to  events  in  p e r s p e c t i v e ,  and  c h i l d r e n  f a t h e r  the  novels  two  of  and  i n  involvement  t h i s  of  t h e i r  l i f e ,  The  the  (1954),  f a m i l y  the  the  the  d i s t i n c t l y  h a l l m a r k s of  e v a l u a t e d  dilemmas  11(1963-1973)  p o r t r a y a l  i s o l a t i o n  were  m i s f o r t u n e  of  p r o t a g o n i s t s ' i n  e x p e r i e n c e s  t r a n s i t i o n  number  of  Viewed  Era  p o s s e s s  and  the  them.  d u r i n g  (1953)  these  of  t o t a l  such  books  One  number  1(1952-1962)  dominant of  The  extent  Era  the  t h e r e f o r e  encountered.  of  d i s t i n c t  development. i s  by  r e a l i t y The  a  and  they  a l t e r e d  1981).  change  around  be  the  r e f l e c t  e r a .  the  world  w r i t t e n  t h i s  worlds  s i t u a t i o n s  spared  to  u n p r o t e c t e d  c o u l d  (Egoff,  c h a r a c t e r  found  " r e a l "  not  appear  of  l i f e  c h a r a c t e r s  were  i n d i c a t o r s  those  the  outcomes  present  r e l a t i v e l y  by  t h e i r  unhappy  was  i n  and the  from  the  the  37  r e q u i r e d  the  quidance  or  of  64  p r o t e c t i o n R i c h t e r ' s ,  the  of  a d u l t .  F r i e d r i c h  main  because  an  F r i e d r i c h  i s  made  the  Without  the  growth. and who  had  p r o t a g o n i s t i n  f o r  been  Operating  at  o s t r a c i z e d  by  Modern p e r i o d  of  some  human  Stage  h i s  protagonist.s  were  p e r s e c u t e d Dutch  Nazi  order In  t o  of  p r i s o n e r  h i s  f a t h e r ' s  p o s i t i o n  a  d i f f e r e n t  of  as war  (Level  he  d i d  awareness  I,  not  h i s he  a  of  crowd  to  of  f r i e n d ,  d i d  a t  the  l i v e , a v o i d  Stage  1).  s u r v i v e  the  a c t e d  on  p e r s o n a l  s o c i a l  J e w i s h so  s h e l t e r  might  demonstrated  S t r e e t he camp.  4  Era by  War  j u s t i c e  H i t l e r  Youths  F r i e d r i c h . r i s k  and  which  of  being  i n  t h i s  p r e s s u r e  at  He  had h i s  i s  the  l i k e  t o  of  (1982),  s c h o o l  f a t h e r ' s  t o  h i s  (Level  Alex t o  p l a c e d  i n  I,  Yuri  s u r v i v e r e t u r n  p r o t o t y p i c a l  I I ,  by  the World  A r n o l d  a s s o c i a t i o n  l i e  dilemma  Era  a f f e c t e d  peer had  number  F r i e n d s  c i r c u m s t a n c e ,  awaited  and  own  harassment  (1984),  h i g h  h i s  he  Books  a n d ,  i n  Without  I I I . a  books  i n v o l v e d  The  i n  f u r t h e r  u n c e r t a i n t y  as  H a r t ' s  B i r d  r i g h t  s i t u a t i o n s  i n t o  i n  e q u a l l y  a v o i d  q u i t e  I s l a n d  29  s u p p o r t e r s .  compromising  h i s  s i m i l a r i l y  c h a r a c t e r i z e d  Evert  f o r  bomb  he  Peter  F r i e d r i c h  a  that  warden  In  Was T h e r e  6,  c o n t i n u e d  s i m i l a r i l y  In  Hans  pe.ers.  f i g u r i n g  I I .  so  broke-up  Level  t o f o r  s h e l t e r  growing  h a r a s s i n g  s i t u a t i o n s ,  War  I  v i c i o u s l y  r e a l i s m  were  the  d i g n i t y  I I ,  f i g h t  a r e  (1972).  entrance  s h e l t e r  i n  a  There  leave  dilemma  through  examples  Was  than  to  p r o t e c t i o n  Gunther,  concern  Rather  the  and  I  d e n i e d  from  The  own  and  d e c i s i o n  punishment  i n c i d e n t .  i s  J e w i s h .  p h y s i c a l  h i s  (1970)  c h a r a c t e r  he  T y p i c a l  w i t h  the  A r n o l d  i n  father Stage  months a  a i n  2 ) .  O r l e v ' s  from  i s  The of  German  c h a r a c t e r  of  65  c h i l d r e n ' s  modern  whereabouts  a  s e c r e t  moral  d e c i s i o n s  s t e a l ,  or In  take  regard  i n d i c a t i o n made.  The  are  not  of  moral  judgement  in  4.  of to  Era Era  III  to  the  there  p r e s e n t e d  around  the  them  in  l i f e  in  to  modern  as  the  Eras  I  Era  29  l e v e l s of  judgements  moral  extent e i t h e r  a  of  the  to  keep  made  h i s  numerous  whether  to  development  of  at  were  in  the Among  l i e ,  c h a r a c t e r s ' or  as  an  should  in  l e a s t  Stage  only  one as  may  of  three the  four  b e t t e r  involvement modern  each  h i g h  q u a n t i t y the  be  development  r e a s o n i n g  w h i l e  T h i s  t r a d i t i o n a l  p o i n t  moral  m o r a l  dilemmas,  dilemmas. the  -  f i n a l  c o n t a i n e d  moral  and  moral  s i g n i f i c a n t . 3  had  a n o t h e r .  r e a l i s m ,  II  he  s a f e t y  d i f f e r e n c e  i s  only  of  own,  army  own  frequency  III  h i s  save  that  and  the  on  German h i s  i n d i c a t e  w h i l e  were  the  a n a l y s i s  judgements  i l l u s t r a t e  world  man's  However, and  I  one  i n s t a n c e ,  l e f t  ensure  u s e f u l  For  dilemmas  to  f i n d i n g s as  from  trends  E r a .  Stage  r e a l i s m ;  6 as  moral books books serve in  s t o r y .  the  66  5.  R e l a t i o n s h i p s  between  Moral  Stage  and  Sex  of  Author,Sex  of  P r o t a g o n i s t  Table  _# o f  V I I I . -  Moral  stage  Moral  Stage  and  Authors  #_ 0_f  and  Sex  sex  of  Stage  6  6  Male  8  6  Table  IX  -  Moral  stage  _# of_ P r o t a g o n i s t s Female  4  Male  13  £  a n d  Judgements  sex  of_ S t a g e  author  Author  6  Female  of  of  6  p r o t a g o n i s t  Judgements  1  (8.4%) 1 1 ( 9 1 . 6 % )  D i s c u s s i o n In e q u a l l y  t h e  present  s o p h i s t i c a t e d  p r o t a g o n i s t s . c h a r a c t e r s Stage should  6  study  Women,  more  r e a s o n i n g be  forms  a  c o n t r a s t e d  male of  however,  f r e q u e n t l y by  both  female  moral wrote  r e s o l v e d  m a r g i n a l to  and  judgement books  dilemma  d i f f e r e n c e  R i h n ' s  study  authors  of of  i n  a s s i g n e d  to which  s i t u a t i o n s 16%.  Newbery  T h i s Award  t h e i r t h e i r w i t h f i n d i n g books  67  (1980). as  He  found  r e s o l v i n g  d i d  female As  a n a l y s i s author the  moral  R i h n ' s  would  show  the  involvement  i n  in  as  w r i t t e n  uphold  of  female  which  the the  obedience  of  World  o r g a n i z a t i o n s  books  that  f a c t o r  p o r t i o n  d i d  c h a r a c t e r s  r e a s o n i n g  to  a  male  War  II,  might  p r o t a g o n i s t , male  r e s u l t  of  the  many the  H i t l e r  than  example,  Hartman,  and  became  Since  a u t h o r i t y , moral  v a l u e s  e x p e c t e d ,  the  d i f f e r e n c e s  a l s o  be  used  accounted Stage  c o u n t e r p a r t s , r o l e s  s t o r i e s g r e a t e r  given  to  6  about  the  number  of  Nazi male  ways  b e l i e v e  in  and  meant  2.  standards  by  the  authors  in  t h e i r  of the  sex  of  of  s t o r y .  o f t e n  seems  in  own  o t h e r s .  type  War  in t h e i r  to  II.  o r g a n i z a t i o n s  p r o t a g o n i s t s  b l i n d  In  more  World  youth  the  c o n s i d e r e d  found  a  r e s i d i n g  and  d i f f e r e n c e d u r i n g  m i l i t a r y ,  the  r e a s o n i n g  t h i s males  for  such  r e f l e c t e d  as  p r o t a g o n i s t s and  in  the  regime,  1  needs  c h i l d r e n ' s  the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  Stages  a  in  to  Nazi  most  example,  p r o t a g o n i s t s  d e c i s i o n s  at  the  the  R i c h t e r  the  The  For  and  the  d e t e r m i n i n g  p a r t i c i p a t i o n  c o m p e l l e d  t h e i r  in  c l o s e r of  sample.  Youth,  the  c h a r a c t e r s  female  t h e i r  a  sex  c h r o n i c l e d  than  can  t h e i r  through  For  c a u s e .  be  type  a u t h o r s  J u n g v o l k ,  people  r a t h e r  i n f l u e n t i a l  the  the  that  the  s t o r y .  c h i l d r e n ' s  needs  more  than  of  powerful  of  other  appears  be  Grund,  German  be  i t  may  j u s t i c e ,  e x p l a i n  of  the  e v a l u a t i o n  the  stages  in  moral  While  t h e i r  p r o t a g o n i s t s  the  by  (1980),  may  the  P r e c o n v e n t i o n a l  As  p o r t r a y e d  higher  v a r i a b l e s  a u t h o r s .  Nazi  d e p i c t e d  p h y s i c a l  w i t h  study  c h a r a c t e r  m a t u r i t y  s i g n i f i c a n t  than  a u t h o r s  problems  w i t h  moral  male  a u t h o r s .  or  l a r g e r  that  the  than be  the  F i r s t , would sample,  68  s i n c e  such  S e c o n d l y ,  in  s u p e r v i s i o n own.  G i r l s  t h e i r  e l d e r s  deal  of  o r g a n i z a t i o n s most  of  and  thus  were and  the  n o v e l s ,  had  c h i e f l y  and  more  g i r l s  boys moral  p o r t r a y e d  t h e r e f o r e  independence  e x c l u d e d  in  were  the  had  to  young  o f t e n  d e c i s i o n s  subsequently  seldom  and  home not  make  to  without  a d u l t  make  t h e i r  under  on  the  a f f o r d e d moral  women.  care a  of  great  d e c i s i o n s .  69  CONCLUSIONS  On  the  d e c i s i o n s  b a s i s  made  developmental Story  i n  stages  of  1,2, of  audience  would  most  odedience  t o  Stage  (meeting  be  e x p e c t e d  Stage human  5  e t h i c a l  cannot  t h e i r  d e a l i n g  in  of  the  d e c i s i o n s  the  that  judgements the  a u t h o r s .  of  p r o t a g o n i s t  the  Stage  Second,  Furthermore,  of  a t  and i s  to i t  the i s  s t o r y ' s  the  6  the  novels  judgements  i n  suggests than  1-3  that  one  would  stage not  judgements  the  theme,  two  e x p e r i e n c e  messages  i n  as  a r e  be  found  of  such i t  p r o t a g o n i s t s '  that  might  high  example,  evident  and  as  importance For  ( b l i n d  ( u n i v e r s a l  may  more  moral  a n t i - w a r  p l o t ,  1  f i n d i n g  Stages 6  some  reading  as  moral  and  needs)  Stage  (1975)  t h e m s e l v e s .  judgements a  l e v e l  i n s t a n c e s  e s s e n t i a l  moral  5  dilemmas  Stage own  t h i s  t h i n k i n g  w i t h  the  and  theory  o p e r a t i n g  s e v e r a l  a p p r e c i a t i o n  higher  moral  a t  c h i l d r e n  c h i l d r e n  s t o r i e s  i n  were  F i r s t ,  the  moral  d e c i s i o n s  from  to  h i e r a r c h i c a l  ones  r i g h t s )  moral  w r i t t e n .  Furthermore,  i n c l u d e d  K o h l b e r g ' s  n o v e l s .  t o  ( s e r v i n g  were  of  intended  o p e r a t i n g  Stemming  comprehend  own,  of  t h e  n o v e l s  s i x  the  e x p e c t a t i o n s ) .  comprehending  c a p a b l e  to  2  they t h e i r  K o h l b e r g ' s  l e g a l i s t i c  Because  i n d i v i d u a l s  apparent  the  whom  r e s o l v e d  be  Stage  p r i n c i p l e s ) .  i n  sample.  many  l i k e l y  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  d i f f i c u l t y  above  of  Of  f o r  m a j o r i t y  c o r r e s p o n d  development,  o t h e r s '  (upholding  important  the  moral  a u t h o r i t y ) ,  many  readers  3.  the  c l o s e l y  f r e q u e n t l y  and  stages  f i n d i n g s ,  novels the  most  i n v a r i a n t  3  the  the  stages  p r o t a g o n i s t s  using  of  i s  moral  conveyed  by  comprehension  may  be  and  important c h a r a c t e r  70  development. While  the  d i s c u s s i o n that  the  novels  were  w i t h  c h i l d r e n  8-12  l a c k  of  judgements  would  o p e r a t i n g  at  t e a c h e r s  (1975)  moral  have  d e c i s i o n s i s  the  Not be so  one  most  do  a p p r o p r i a t e  The  content  n o v e l s  are  apart  from  sample  can  The  the be  dilemmas  e x c e p t i o n s ,  of and  were  v a r i o u s  stages  in  c h a r a c t e r s .  r e a l i s t i c  the  these  moral  i s s u e s  r e v e a l e d scope  of  that Stages  between  i s s u e s  authors'  of  moral  However, s i t u a t i o n s  stages to  the that  the  i t  remains  may  be,  to  development. in  the  T h e r e f o r e ,  dilemmas  in  p r o v i d e d  the  some p o r t r a y  very  comprised p r i o r i t i e s  that  but  p r i o r i t i e s  With  authors  t h e i r  them  need  r e a l i s t i c a l l y  which value  of  d i s c u s s i o n .  judgements.  i s s u e s  w i t h  t h i n k i n g  and  B l a t t moral  presented  the  c l a s s r o o m  a b i l i t y  c o n f l i c t i n g keeping  for  the  t h i n k i n g .  r e s o l u t i o n s ,  s u i t a b l e  and  growth.  of  i s s u e s  1-3  of  c a p a b i l i t i e s ,  stage  the  purpose  development  d e s c r i b e d  each  for  p r e f e r  moral  r e a s o n i n g  at  moral  students  d i s c u s s i o n  moral  has  c o n c l u d e d  Kohlberg  that  f a c i l i t a t i n g  p r o t a g o n i s t  subsequent  those  problems  t h e i r  of  in  Kohlberg  as  r e l a t i o n s h i p  v e r i f i c a t i o n  f a c t o r  c h a r a c t e r ' s  viewed  the  and  moral  the  for  c h i l d r e n .  own  moral  i n f o r m a t i o n  t h e i r  a n a l y s i s  w i t h i n  novel  be  those  above  c h i l d r e n ' s  to  for  important  war  to  c o n s c i e n c e )  c o g n i t i v e l y  i s s u e s .  give  to  c h a l l e n g e  o l d e r  may  c h i l d r e n  stages  to  moral  i n d i v i d u a l s  the  stage  in  i t  s u i t e d  that  e f f e c t i v e  only  do  growth  o l d ,  i s  the  w e l l  ( o b l i g a t i o n  This  use  shown  4  l i t t l e  3.  to  years  Stage  leave  Stage  w i s h i n g  promoting  many  g e n e r a l l y  the  few moral  of  had  a s s i g n e d  no  matter  s a l i e n c y  to  the to how  c h i l d r e n  71  w i l l  l a r g e l y  Rihn  (1980)  not  depend has  upon  q u e r i e d ,  c h i l d r e n  examination  development  and  t r a n s i t i o n  from  f i c t i o n  era  cannot  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  in  1980).  1960,  p r o t a g o n i s t s though,  to  t h i s  wherein  l i f e  mode  of  t h e i r  moral  m a t u r i t y .  a p p r e c i a t e  c h i l d ' s  r e a l i s m  p r o t a g o n i s t s  1984)  what  As  they  do  young  On authors moral  the of  types  in  I  those  in  o p e r a t i n g  of  sample  of  World  the  i s s u e s  Era  the  War  II.  II  s t o r y  the  i t  p o r t r a y e d  and  most 3  moral  r e a l i s m  to  and  r e s u l t  with  t h i s  i n c l u d e  r e a l i t y  few  or  Era  of  that be  t h e i r  were  by,  that  III  moral  of  evidence  event.  c h i l d  that  the  p r o t a g o n i s t s  moral  concern  r e a s o n i n g .  then,  many  c o n f l i c t s  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  l i k e l y  the  (1974-  war,  c o n c l u d e d  The  in  of  no  Furthermore,  may  1960's  s u r p r i s i n g l y  r e a l i s t i c a l l y .  c h a r a c t e r s  the  appears  encountered  were  would 1,2,  Not  t h e i r  a f f e c t e d  the  problems.  f i n d i n g s ,  n o v e l s  i t  a  (Egoff,  modern  were  (1963-1973)  III  By  a  o p p o r t u n i t y  involvement  the  and  was  r e s t r i c t e d  by  h i n d s i g h t :  moral  and  that  stages  w i t h ,  (1952-1962)  c a p a b i l i t i e s  by  at  II  r e p l a c e d  the  c h i l d r e n ' s  change  c h i l d h o o d .  Furthermore,  w r i t e r s  numerous  b a s i s  r e a s o n i n g  of  them.  Era  Eras  been  in  c h i l d r e n  t r a d i t i o n a l l y  c o n t a c t  p r o t a g o n i s t s '  the  encountered  in  t h i s of  moral  r e f l e c t s  r e a l i s m  of  p r o t e c t e d  between  which  modern  product  had  d u r i n g  encountered  the  of  p e r s p e c t i v e  w h i l e  dilemmas  realm  around  in  p a t t e r n  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n  provided  a  a  authors  l i v e d  e x i s t e n c e  dilemmas,  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p  to  A  p o r t r a y a l  events  work  1960's.  the  c h i l d r e n  the  the  t r a d i t i o n a l  the  Before  of  e s t a b l i s h e d  d u r i n g  of  i n d i v i d u a l ' s  know. The  the  the  of  the  c h i l d r e n  Subsequently,  72  they  p r i m a r i l y  someone  be  d e a l t  with  p u n i s h e d ? ) ,  A f f i l i a t i o n  Roles  Property  (Should  d e f i n e s  t r u t h - t e l l i n g ? ) ,  f o l l o w  t h e i r  Kohlberg moral  own  (1975),  r e a s o n e r s .  are  i s s u e s  and  Punishment  (What  someone  of  are  h e l p  M o r a l i t y  c o n s c i e n c e ? ) , i s s u e s  of  and  a l l  p r i o r i t y  of  and  Blame  property  a n o t h e r ? ) , Mores  among  r i g h t s ? ) , T r u t h  (Should  which stage  (Should  (What someone  a c c o r d i n g 1,2,  and  to 3  73  FUTURE  RESEARCH  The d e r i v e d  f o l l o w i n g from  The  1. r e g a r d i n g and  a  the  recommendations  f i n d i n g s  r e s u l t s  the  r e p r e s e n t e d  or  marked  r e l a t i o n s h i p demonstrate  t h e i r of  The  between  have  s t o r y ' s the  p o i n t  i n  to  l i t e r a t u r e .  i s  a  r a i s e d  a  moral  development  p l o t ,  and  i s  and moral  r e f l e c t e d study  these  the  of  the  f a c t o r s  may  understanding  s i g n i f i c a n t  development  q u e s t i o n  theme,  s t o r y ,  c h i l d r e n ' s  T h i s  been  study.  F u r t h e r  development  importance  have  p r o t a g o n i s t ' s  the  c h a r a c t e r .  moral  moral  a  n o v e l s ,  in  t h i s  p r o t a g o n i s t  of  t u r n i n g  change  r e s u l t s  comparative c h i l d r e n ' s dilemmas  War  era  c o u l d  genre,  in  of  t h i s  II  may of  of  as  used  both  f u r t h e r  c h i l d r e n ' s  provide  B r i t i s h ,  as  and  c o n s i d e r a t i o n a  r e s u l t  a n a l y s i s of  the  i n t e r e s t i n g  c r i t e r i a  s t u d i e d  for  r e a l i s t i c  the  p r e s e n t  study  are  an  i n v e s t i g a t i o n  of  l i m i t e d s u b j e c t s  and  of  and  to  While one  other  c o n t a c t the  War. development  wider the  c r o s s -  c o n c l u s i o n s  sample than  moral  about  moral a  a  European  those  the  examining  f i c t i o n .  for  p r o t a g o n i s t ' s  p r o t a g o n i s t  by  b a s i s  i n f o r m a t i o n  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n between  the  American,  content a  y i e l d  r e l a t i o n s h i p be  study  The  arose  treatment The  made  n o v e l s .  which  3.  s e c t i o n  of  examination war  World  a u t h o r ' s  and  a  study  of  r e s e a r c h  s e l e c t i o n . 2.  w i t h  a  p r o t a g o n i s t  book  t h i s  many  between  a p p r e c i a t i o n where  In  future  c o n c l u s i o n s  comprehension  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n .  theme,  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p  c h i l d ' s  d e c i s i o n  and  for  the  of  t h i s  War  would  74  serve  to  v e r i f y  modernism  the  stages  of  upon  experiment.  they  development  of  student  can  can  r e f l e c t  trends  of  l i t e r a t u r e . t h i s  study  p r o t a g o n i s t  c a t e g o r i z e d , an  r e s u l t s  e x p e r i m e n t a l  d i s c u s s i o n  moral  c h i l d r e n ' s  The  .4. for  in  that  of  the  moral  moral be  study  e f f e c t s  growth.  r e a s o n i n g  e a s i l y  provide  a  set  of  e v a l u a t e d  been for  m a t e r i a l s  l i t e r a r y  Because have  of  both  moral  i s s u e s  i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r  use  i n  and and such  75  ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY  76  Annotated  B e n a r y - I s b e r t , and R i c h a r d 1953.  Margot. Winston,  Along with the res best of the hard times s h a t t e r e d l i v e s , the f a without l o o k i n g b i t t e b e g i n n i n g s .  B e n a r y - I s b e r t , C l a r a I n c . ,  and 1953.  Margot.  R i c h a r d  B i b l i o g r a p h y  The Ark T r a n s l a t e d New York: H a r c o u r t ,  from German by Brace and World  C l a r a I n c . ,  t of the f a m i l y , Margaret must make the in post-war Germany. Amid the rubble and m i l y q u i c k l y r e - e s t a b l i s h e s l i f e together r l y at t h e i r time l o s t or t h e i r meager  Rowan  Winston,  Farm New  T r a n s l a t e d  York:  from  H a r c o u r t ,  German  Brace  and  by World  With t h e i r f a t h e r ' s recent r e t u r n from a R u s s i a n p r i s o n camp, M a r g a r e t ' s f a m i l y s l o w l y begins to enjoy a secure f a m i l y l i f e on Rowan F a r m . Margaret becomes an a c c o m p l i s h e d k e n n e l ma i d . o  Bruchner, K a r l . The Day of Frances Lobb, P r i n c e t o n , N . J . :  the Bomb T r a n s l a t e d from Van N o r s t r a n d , 1962.  German  by  Shigeo and h i s s i s t e r saw t h e bomb drop over H i r o s h i m a . They s u r v i v e d but d i d not know where t h e i r father was. One day the f a m i l y was r e u n i t e d and was happy and prosperous once a g a i n . Their f o r t u n e s change however when S h i g e o ' s l i t t l e s i s t e r becomes s e r i o u s l y i l l and d i e s .  Grund, L u c i l l e  C a r l . Never to be H a r r i n g t o n , Boston:  F r e e . Brown  School boys are d r a f t e d . h a r d s h i p s and h o r r o r s of war and  T r a n s l a t e d and L i t t l e ,  from 1970.  Together they come to q u e s t i o n  Hartman, E v e r t . War W i t h o u t F r i e n d s . T r a n s l a t e d Jan M i c h a e l , Rotterdam: L e n n i s c u t , 1982. O r i g i n a l A r n o l d f o l l o w s of the H i t l e r youth Dutch schoolmates.  German  d i s c o v e r the i t s purpose.  from Dutch by Dutch 1979.  h i s f a t h e r ' s guidance in being a d e s p i t e the p e r s e c u t i o n he r e c e i v e s  Holm, Ann. I Am D a v i d . T r a n s l a t e d from K i n g s l a n d , London: Methuen and Co. L t d . , D a n i s h ; David, Copenhagen: G l y d d a l , 1963.  by  Danish 1965.  supporter from h i s  by  L.W. O r i g i n a l  77  David has t h i r t y s e c o n d s t o e s c a p e an i n t e r n m e n t camp. sense of s u r v i v a l l e a d s him through a p a i n f u l d i s c o v e r y of on r o u t e to h i s n a t i v e Denmark.  His l i f e  Kotowoka, Monika. The B r i d g e to the Other S i d e . T r a n s l a t e d from P o l i s h by M a i a W o j c i e c h o w s k a , New Y o r k : Doubleday and Co. I n c . , 1970. O r i g i n a l P o l i s h M o s t Na D r u g a S t r o n e . Warsaw: C z y t e l n i k , 1963. The e x p e r i e n c e of war e f f e c t s , c h i l d r e n on a d a i l y b a s i s . Kotowoka's p r o t a g o n i s t s are a l l c h i l d r e n who demonstrate the very p e r s o n a l e f f e c t s that war h a s on t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l l i v e s .  O r l e v ,  U r i .  The  I s l a n d  on  B i r d  S t r e e t .  T r a n s l a t e d  by H i l l e l H a l k i n , Boston: Houghton, M i f f l i n Hebrew h a - I b i Rehov h a - t s p o r i m . 1981. Alex and h i o f f i c e r s f i n i s h d e s t i n a t i o n . A l A w a i t i n g h i s f a t to s u r v i v e l i f e -  C o . ,  1984.  from  Hebrew  O r i g i n a l  s father were l a s t together as the German e d s e l e c t i n g the P o l i s h workers for an unknown e x ' s f a t h e r a r r a n g e d for h i s s o n ' s e s c a p e . h e r ' s r e t u r n , Alex h i d e s in the g h e t t o , l e a r n i n g t h r e a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n s .  Pelgrom, E l s . The Time When W i n t e r was F r o z e n . T r a n s l a t e d from the Dutch by M a r y k a and R a p h a e l R u d n i k , New Y o r k : W i l l i a m Morrow and C o . , 1980. O r i g i n a l Dutch De K i n d e r e n v o n h e t A c h l s t e , 1977. During the f i n a l months of W o r l d War II in H o Everingens of Khaphek Farm s h e l t e r Noorje and refugees from Arnhem. Together they attempt to h e l p f a m i l y hidden i n _ the dugout house in nearby wood given the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c a r i n g for baby S a r a h , wh must remain a s e c r e t .  R i c h t e r , Hans P e t e r . F r i e d r i c h . K r o l l e , New Y o r k : H o l t , Rhinehart German D a m a l s Was es F r i e d r i c h . 1961 . F r i e d r i c h i s t h e g r a d u a l human R i c h t e r conveys working to d e p i c t to freedom and l i f and f i n a l l y h i s s h e l t e r .  R i c h t e r ,  Hans  T r a n s l a t e d fron German by E d i t and W i n s t o n , 1970. 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