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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The effects of classroom environment on creativity and question asking in grade seven science classes Dahl, Waldemar Werner 1985

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THE EFFECTS OF CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT ON CREATIVITY AND QUESTION ASKING IN GRADE SEVEN SCIENCE CLASSES by WALDEMAR WERNER DAHL B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1959 B.A. i n Ed., Western Washington U n i v e r s i t y , 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES The Department o f Mathematics and S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA September 1985 © Waldemar Werner D a n i , 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Mathematics and S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date September 9, 198 5 i i ABSTRACT C u r r e n t e v a l u a t i o n s i n s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h o f d i s c o v e r y based s c i e n c e programs g i v e no c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f the m e r i t o f t h e s e new s c i e n c e p rog rams . G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n ' s s t u d i e s i n c r e a t i v i t y s u g ge s t t h a t p e r m i s -s i v e and a u t h o r i t a r i a n f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t s may i n f l u e n c e deve lopment o f c r e a t i v i t y and IQ r e s p e c t i v e l y i n c h i l d r e n . I t was r ea soned t h a t f i n d i n g s r e l a t i n g f a m i l y and s c h o o l e n v i r o n -ments t o c r e a t i v i t y c o u l d have r e l e v a n c e i n s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n where d i s c o v e r y based s c i e n c e programs a r e h a v i n g a p r o f o u n d e f f e c t on a l t e r i n g s c i e n c e c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t p e r m i s s i v e s c i e n c e c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t s wou ld p roduce s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r p o s t t e s t c r e a t i v i t y means than the c o n t r o l . S i n c e a c u r r e n t s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n goa l i s t o enhance s t u d e n t q u e s -t i o n a s k i n g s k i l l ( e . g . I n q u i r y T r a i n i n g ) and s i n c e f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e q u e s t i o n a s k i n g s t y l e s a r e r e l a t e d to a p t i t u d e s , i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t h i g h c r e a t i v e and h i g h p e r m i s s i v e g roups w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r f a c t u a l and y e s - n o q u e s t i o n s c o r e means whereas h i gh i n t e l l i g e n c e and low p e r m i s s i v e g roups w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s c o r e means. C r e a t i v i t y t e s t s used i n t h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e G u i l f o r d ' s Uses T e s t and the Q u e s t i o n T e s t f r om T o r r a n c e ' s A s k - and -Gue s s T e s t . The Q u e s t i o n T e s t a l s o y i e l d s f a c t u a l , y e s - n o , and e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s c o r e s . To a s se s s c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t , the C l a s s r o o m Env i r onment S c a l e was d e v e l o p e d . I tem c h o i c e s were c l a s s i f i e d by seven j u d g e s i n t o the t h r e e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a t e g o r i e s . i i i The sample c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r grade seven c l a s s e s , t h r e e e x p e r i -mental and one c o n t r o l . E x p e r i m e n t a l groups were t a u g h t the ESS u n i t , B a t t e r i e s and B u l b s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l groups i n c l u d e d a s e m i p e r m i s s i v e group which was t a u g h t t h e u n i t a c c o r d i n g t o s u g g e s t i o n s i n the t e a c h e r ' s g u i d e , and the p e r m i s s i v e and a u t h o r i t a r i a n groups w h i c h , r e s p e c t i v e l y , had l e s s and more t e a c h e r c o n t r o l o f c l a s s r o o m environment than the semi-p e r m i s s i v e group. E x p e r i m e n t a l groups were shown t o have s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t means i n the d i r e c t i o n e x p e c t e d . Data f o r t e s t i n g hypotheses o f t h i s p r o j e c t came from a f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t and a f i e l d s t u d y . For the f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t a b e f o r e and a f t e r d e s i g n was used, a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e b e i n g employed on the group p o s t c r e a t i v i t y means w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t c o v a r i a t e s d e r i v e d from step-down r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s o f p r e t e s t d a t a . A l l s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s a r e a t the 5% l e v e l . R e s u l t s o f the f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t i n d i c a t e t h a t f o r the more v a l i d c r e a t i v i t y t e s t , the Uses T e s t , the group p o s t c r e a t i v i t y means o f the p e r m i s s i v e and a u t h o r i t a r i a n groups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r than the c o n t r o l group p o s t mean. With the Q u e s t i o n T e s t , which l a c k e d d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y i n r e g a r d to i n t e l l i g e n c e , o n l y the a u t h o r i t a r i a n group p o s t c r e a t i v i t y mean was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r than the c o n t r o l p o s t mean. For the f i e l d s t u d y h i g h and low groups were formed u s i n g medians o f c r e a t i v i t y , i n t e l l i g e n c e and c l a s s r o o m e n vironment as c u t o f f s , w i t h i v a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and the F - t e s t used to d e t e c t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences i n means o f q u e s t i o n s c o r e s o r q u e s t i o n g a i n s o f t h e s e h i g h and low groups. When q u e s t i o n g a i n d a t a showed n o n - n o r m a l i t y the C h i - s q u a r e t e s t was used w i t h s i g n i f i c a n c e a t 1%. F i e l d s t u d y r e s u l t s show t h a t the h i g h c r e a t i v e group had s i g n i f i -c a n t l y h i g h e r mean yes-no and f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s c o r e s than the low c r e a t i v e g roup, whereas the h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e group had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s c o r e than the low i n t e l l i g e n c e group. C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i v e r g e n c e i n f a c t u a l and e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n g a i n s f o r low and h i g h p e r m i s s i v e g roups. For a p t i t u d e - e n v i r o n m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n low a p t i t u d e - l o w p e r m i s s i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e most t o d i v e r g e n c e o f f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n g a i n s and h i g h a p t i t u d e - l o w p e r m i s s i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e most t o d i v e r g e n c e o f e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n g a i n s . S t r o n g e s t d i v e r g e n c e s i n group q u e s t i o n g a i n s came from i n t e l l i g e n c e e nvironment i n t e r a c t i o n . V TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES i x LIST OF DIAGRAMS x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i i i C h a p t e r I GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 The Problem 5 Statement o f t h e Problem 5 State m e n t o f Hypotheses 5 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 8 C r e a t i v i t y and I n t e l l i g e n c e 9 C r e a t i v i t y F a c t o r s .9 C l a s s r o o m Environment 10 Q u e s t i o n A s k i n g 10 D e s c r i p t i o n o f the C l a s s r o o m Environments 11 The E x p e r i m e n t a l C l a s s e s 11 Semi p e r m i s s i v e C l a s s r o o m 11 The A u t h o r i t a r i a n Environment 12 The P e r m i s s i v e Environment 12 Importance o f t h e Problem 13 Endnotes - C h a p t e r I 15 v i C h a p t e r I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 17 Cla s s r o o m Environment and C r e a t i v i t y 17 Ap t i t u d e s . , Environment and Q u e s t i o n A s k i n g 21 Endnotes - C h a p t e r I I 24 I I I MATERIALS AND TESTS USED 25 Course M a t e r i a l s and C o n t e n t 25 The T e s t s 25 Q u e s t i o n T e s t 26 R e l i a b i l i t y 26 V a l i d i t y 28 The Uses T e s t 29 R e l i a b i l i t y 30 V a l i d i t y 31 The C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e 32 Endnotes - C h a p t e r I I I 34 IV METHODOLOGY 35 V a l i d a t i o n o f C r e a t i v i t y T e s t s 35 Q u e s t i o n T e s t C r o s s - V a l i d a t i o n 35 Uses T e s t V a l i d i t y U s i n g Extended S u b t e s t Timing 36 D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Sample 36 E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups 36 The C o n t r o l Group 37 D e s c r i p t i o n o f E x p e r i m e n t a l Design 38 F i e l d Study 38 D e f i n i t i o n o f Groups i n the F i e l d Study 38 v i i C h a p t e r IV D e f i n i t i o n o f Groups U s i n g One Independent V a r i a b l e a t a Time 39 D e f i n i t i o n o f Groups U s i n g Two Independent V a r i a b l e s a t a Time 40 Proposed Methods o f Data A n a l y s i s i n t h e F i e l d Study 40 The F i e l d E x p e r i m e n t 41 Proposed Methods o f Data A n a l y s i s from the F i e l d E x p e r i m e n t 42 Endnotes - C h a p t e r IV 44 V REPORT OF FINDINGS 45 V a l i d i t y o f C r e a t i v i t y T e s t s 45 The Sample 47 A n a l y s i s o f C l a s s r o o m Environment Data 48 The Backward S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s 50 C o v a r i a t e s f o r A n a l y s i s o f P o s t Q u e s t i o n T e s t Group Means 50 C o v a r i a t e s f o r A n a l y s i s o f P o s t Uses T e s t Group Means 51 A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f P o s t Group C r e a t i v i t y Means 51 A n a l y s i s o f F i e l d Study Data 56 A n a l y s i s o f Q u e s t i o n Score Means o f High and Low A p t i t u d e Groups 56 A n a l y s i s o f Q u e s t i o n S c o r e s i n Terms o f C l a s s r o o m Environment 60 VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 69 Endnotes - C h a p t e r VI 76 BIBLIOGRAPHY r 77 APPENDIX A - The Q u e s t i o n T e s t 80 vi i i APPENDIX B - The Uses Test 88 APPENDIX C - Classroom Environment Scale 93 i x LIST OF TABLES T a b l e 2- 1 D i s t i n g u i s h i n g F a m i l y Environment C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f High C r e a t i v e and High I n t e l l i g e n c e S u b j e c t s i n a Study by G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n 20 3- 1 R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f C r e a t i v i t y F a c t o r S c o r e s and C r e a t i v i t y S c o r e s O b t a i n e d on P a r a l l e l Forms o f t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t G i v e n i n Immediate S u c c e s s i o n 27 3-2 R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f the Q u e s t i o n Scores O b t a i n e d by t h e C o n t r o l U s i n g the R e t e s t Methods w i t h a S i x Week I n t e r v a l 28 3-3 V a l i d i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t C a l c u l a t e d A g a i n s t T e a c h e r R a t i n g s o f C r e a t i v e A b i l i t y and Uses T e s t C r e a t i v i t y S c o r es 29 3-4 R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f C r e a t i v i t y F a c t o r S c o r e s and C r e a t i v i t y S c o r e s o f the Uses T e s t U s i n g S u b t e s t s as P a r a l l e l Forms i 30 3-5 Convergent and D i s c r i m i n a n t V a l i d i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f the Uses T e s t as Determined by G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n U s i n g C o r r e l a t i o n s o f the Uses T e s t Scores A g a i n s t S c o r e s on an I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t and Other C r e a t i v i t y T e s t s 31 5-1 C o n c u r r e n t Convergent V a l i d i t i e s o f the Q u e s t i o n T e s t C r e a t i v i t y F a c t o r S c o r e s Determined on P r e t e s t s and f o r C r e a t i v i t y S c o r e s Determined on P r e t e s t s and P o s t t e s t s U s i n g Uses T e s t C r e a t i v i t y F a c t o r Scores and T o t a l C r e a t i v i t y S c o r e s as C r i t e r i o n Measures 45 5-2 C o n c u r r e n t D i s c r i m i n a n t V a l i d i t i e s o f the Q u e s t i o n T e s t C r e a t i v i t y F a c t o r S c o r e s and T o t a l C r e a t i v i t y S c o r e U s i n g I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t Scores A v a i l a b l e i n S t u d e n t Records as the C r i t e r i o n Measure 46 5-3 Convergent and D i s c r i m i n a n t V a l i d i t i e s o f the Uses T e s t and O t h e r C r e a t i v i t y T e s t s U s i n g Three D i f f e r e n t Times f o r the T e s t s 47 5-4 The Breakdown o f the Sample by Groups 47 5-5 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f C l a s s r o o m Environment Means o f t h e Three E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups 49 X T a b l e 5-6 The S i g n i f i c a n t C o v a r i a t e s o f the Backward S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s f o r P o s t t e s t C r e a t i v i t y S c o r e s o f t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t 50 5-7 The S i g n i f i c a n t C o v a r i a t e s o f the Backward S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s f o r P o s t t e s t C r e a t i v i t y S c o r e s o f t h e Uses T e s t 51 5-8 A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f the Four Group Means o f P o s t C r e a t i v i t y S c o r e s f o r the Q u e s t i o n T e s t 52 5-9 A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f the Four Group Means o f P o s t C r e a t i v i t y S c o r e s f o r the Uses T e s t 52 5-10 A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e Between A l l P o s s i b l e P a i r s o f th e Four Group Means o f C r e a t i v i t y O b t a i n e d from t h e P o s t Q u e s t i o n T e s t 53 5-11 A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e Between A l l P o s s i b l e P a i r s o f the Four Group Means o f C r e a t i v i t y O b t a i n e d from the P o s t Uses T e s t 55 5-12 Q u e s t i o n S c o r e Means o f High and Low C r e a t i v i t y Groups and High and Low IQ Groups 57 5-13 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f F a c t u a l Q u e s t i o n Means 58 5-14 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f Yes-No Q u e s t i o n Means from P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t Data 59 5-15 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f E x p l a n a t i o n Q u e s t i o n Means from P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t Data 59 5-16 T o t a l Group G a i n s and Mean Group Gains i n Q u e s t i o n A s k i n g from P r e t e s t t o P o s t t e s t f o r P^ and P^ Groups 61 5-17 A n a l y s e s o f V a r i a n c e f o r Q u e s t i o n G a i n Means o f P^ and P^ Groups 62 5-18 C h i - s q u a r e A n a l y s i s o f T o t a l Q u e s t i o n Gains o f P„ and P L Groups 63 5-19 Q u e s t i o n Gain Means f o r Four Groups D e f i n e d i n Terms o f C r e a t i v i t y and C l a s s r o o m Environment Medians 64 5-20 C h i - s q u a r e A n a l y s i s o f Q u e s t i o n Gains o f C r e a t i v i t y -E nvironment Groups 65 x i T a b l e 5-21 Q u e s t i o n G a i n Means f o r Four Groups D e f i n e d i n Terms o f I n t e l l i g e n c e and C l a s s r o o m Environment Medians 66 5-22 C h i - s q u a r e A n a l y s i s o f Q u e s t i o n Gains o f I n t e l l i g e n c e -Environment Groups 67 x i i LIST OF DIAGRAMS Diagram 4-1 A s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m i l l u s t r a t i n g the method o f p a r t i t i o n i n g groups d e f i n e d i n terms o f two in d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ; c r e a t i v i t y and c l a s s -room e n v i r o n m e n t 40 6-1 C r e a t i v i t y growth c u r v e 73 x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t e f u l a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. G.H. Cannon f o r a d v i c e and s u g g e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n o f t h i s s t u d y , t o Dr. C. G i l l e s p i e f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the use o f yes-no q u e s t i o n s i n the s c i e n c e c l a s s r o o m ; and t o Dr. John F r i e s e n f o r h i s f r e q u e n t w i l l i n g n e s s t o l i s t e n t o y e t a n o t h e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank Mr. Ken Beck o f the O l i v e r E l e m e n t a r y School and Mr. P e t e r P e r e p e l k i n o f the Midway E l e m e n t a r y School f o r t h e i r w i l l i n g and c o o p e r a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l o n g w i t h t h e i r s c i e n c e c l a s s e s i n t h i s p r o j e c t . 1 CHAPTER I GENERAL INTRODUCTION I n t r o d u c t i o n A number o f new s c i e n c e programs have been d e v e l o p e d i n t h e l a t e 1950's and d u r i n g the I 9 6 0 ' s . Many o f t h e s e new programs have been compared w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n c e programs i n an a t t e m p t t o e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e new programs i n p r o d u c i n g g a i n s i n knowledge, under-s t a n d i n g , and c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . A s u r v e y o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s , however, t h a t t h e r e i s no c o n s i s t e n t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e v a r i o u s new s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l a i n a f f e c t i n g g a i n s 1 2 3 4 5 6 i n knowledge, ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g , ' and c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . ' In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e s t u d i e s t h a t throw doubt on the n o t i o n t h a t the t e c h n i q u e s o f the new s c i e n c e programs show i n c r e a s e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p r o m o t i n g i n t e r e s t , p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward s c i e n c e , r e t e n t i o n o f s c i e n c e know-7 8 9 l e d g e , and problem s o l v i n g . ' ' That s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l a must be r e v i s e d from t i m e t o t i m e t o keep pace w i t h the f o r e f r o n t s o f s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h , t h e r e i s g e n e r a l agree-ment. That the t e c h n i q u e s o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e v i s e d s c i e n c e p r o -grams must a l s o be r e v i s e d , t h e r e i s l e s s g e n e r a l agreement and t h i s a s p e c t o f program r e v i s i o n i s open t o the k i n d s o f p e d a g o g i c a l i n v e s t i -g a t i o n s c i t e d above. However, i n the l i g h t o f the f i n d i n g s o f such e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h , we a r e s t i l l l e f t w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n as t o what the new p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r m a t s o f the r e v i s e d s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l a do b e t t e r than 2 the p r e s e n t a t i o n methods o f c o n v e n t i o n a l s c i e n c e programs. I f one t a k e s a t o u r t hrough the book p u b l i s h e r s ' d i s p l a y s a t t e a c h e r s ' c o n v e n t i o n s , o r b e t t e r s t i l l , a t s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s ' c o n v e n t i o n s , one f i n d s p h r a s e s i n the p r e f a c e s o f new s c i e n c e t e x t s such as " i n d u c t i v e t e a c h i n g , " " t h e d i s c o v e r y approach," " a c t i v i t y based," " l a b - c e n t e r e d , " " n o n - d i r e c t e d " and " i n q u i r y - t r a i n i n g " used i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the programs. I t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o f a c t o r o ut o f such terms the common emphasis on i n c r e a s e d s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n and e x p l o r a t i o n as p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g s c i e n c e . For i n s t a n c e , t he s t u d e n t , i n r e c e n t s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n s such as CHEM Study and B i o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s C u r r i c u l u m S t u d y , i s encouraged t o p e r f o r m as a s c i e n t i s t e m p i r i c a l l y e x p l o r i n g h i s en v i r o n m e n t . Of c o u r s e , e x p l o r a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t t he e x p l o r e r i s o p e r a t i n g i n new,unknown t e r r i t o r y . I f the t e r r i t o r y i s known, i t i s e a s i e r and more e f f i c i e n t t o use a map o r ask d i r e c t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , e x p l o r a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t t he a c t i v i t i e s o f the e x p l o r e r a r e s e l f - d i r e c t e d . I f i t were not s o , we would c a l l an e x p l o r e r ' s e x p e d i t i o n a guid e d t o u r . W h i l e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o argue t h a t the e x p l o r e r metaphor can be a p p l i e d t o the w o r k i n g s c i e n t i s t , t h e r e a r e many reasons which m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t t h e use o f the same metaphor f o r the s c h o o l s c i e n c e s t u d e n t . Some o f the most p r o f o u n d f a c t o r s which work a g a i n s t s c e i n c e s t u d e n t s o p e r a t i n g h o n e s t l y as s c i e n t i s t s o r e x p l o r e r s a r e t h a t s t u d e n t s know th e y a r e n o t f i n d i n g t h e i r way through " t e r r i t o r i e s " f o r which t h e r e a r e no "maps," and t h a t u l t i m a t e l y they a r e rewarded f o r knowing w e l l t he " l a n d -marks" o f h e r t o f o r e d i s c o v e r e d a r e a s . Why, t h e n , do we p e r s i s t i n t r y i n g t o i n c o r p o r a t e the e x p l o r a t i o n 3" metaphor i n t o s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l a , when i t can be shown t h a t most s c i e n c e c o u r s e s a r e a t b e s t i n t e r e s t i n g o r f a s c i n a t i n g " g u i d e d t o u r s " o f i n f o r -m a t i o n a l r e a d y d i s c o v e r e d ? Such a q u e s t i o n c a n , p e r h a p s , b e s t be answered i n two p a r t s . In t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e , i t would appear t h a t d i s c o v e r y a c t i v i t i e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y s e c t i o n s o f s c i e n c e c o u r s e s , c o n v e n t i o n a l o r r e v i s e d , as a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t r a i n i n g f o r p o t e n t i a l s c i e n t i s t s . In the second i n s t a n c e , the o r i e n t a t i o n o f s c i e n c e r e v i s i o n s t o t h e d i s c o v e r y approach i s an a t t e m p t t o cope w i t h t h e g r o w i n g awareness t h a t i n a l l p e r s o n s t h e human i n t e l l e c t has the c a p a c i t y not o n l y t o know, but a l s o t o c r e a t e . W h i l e d i s c o v e r i n g and c r e a t i n g a r e not synonymous, d i s c o v e r i n g becomes more f r u i t f u l i f a s c i e n t i s t d e v e l o p s the c a p a c i t y f o r g e n e r a t i n g o r c r e a t i n g many o r i g i n a l hunches o r h y p o t h e s e s . One o f t h e c u r r e n t l y i n - v o g u e p r o c e s s e s f o r f o s t e r i n g the genera-t i o n o f many o r i g i n a l i d e a s i s the group " b r a i n s t o r m i n g " t e c h n i q u e . One o f the e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f b r a i n s t o r m i n g t h a t f a v o u r s the p r o d u c t i o n o f a s t r o n g f l o w o f i d e a s i s the s u s p e n s i o n o f c r i t i c i s m . Anderson con-c u r s w i t h b r a i n s t o r m i n g a d v o c a t e s f o r he p o s t u l a t e s t h a t an a c c e p t i n g e n v ironment i s one o f t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r the growth o f c r e a -t i v i t y . ^ Anderson's argument i s t h a t an atmosphere o f a c c e p t a n c e such as i s p o s s i b l e i n a g e n u i n e l y d i s c o v e r y - o r i e n t e d s c i e n c e program t o l e r -a t e s , a l l o w s , and even encourages d i v e r g e n t o r c r e a t i v e p r o d u c t i o n . P e r h a p s , t h e n , an answer t o the q u e s t i o n o f what the s c i e n c e p r o -grams which are d e s c r i b e d as u s i n g t h e d i s c o v e r y a p p r o a c h , or b e i n g l a b -c e n t r e d o r a c t i v i t y - b a s e d , do b e t t e r than t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n c e programs i s t h a t they enhance the development o f c r e a t i v i t y , namely, the f o r m u l a t i o n 4 and t e s t i n g o f many o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s e s . By c o n t r a s t , i n t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n c e programs, a u t h o r i t a r i a n o r t e a c h e r - d o m i n a t e d l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s p r e v a i l . In such l e a r n i n g s i t u a -t i o n s , t h e r e i s t o l e r a t i o n and r e i n f o r c e m e n t p r i m a r i l y f o r the " r i g h t " answer w h i c h G u i l f o r d d e f i n e s as c o n v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n . In t r a d i t i o n a l programs c o n v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n i s s t r o n g l y f a v o u r e d and d i v e r g e n t o r c r e a t i v e p r o d u c t i o n i s v e r y o f t e n d i s c o u r a g e d o r s i m p l y not r e i n f o r c e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , R i c h a r d Suchman, 1 1 i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " P u t t i n g I n q u i r y i n t o S c i e n c e , " d e s c r i b e s a program i n which the f o l l o w i n g s t a g e s a r e f o l l o w e d : (1) p r e s e n t the pr o b l e m ; (2) ask s t u d e n t s f o r t h e o r i e s t o a c c o u n t f o r f a c t s ; (3) s t u d e n t s ask yes-no q u e s t i o n s t o t e s t t h e o r i e s p r e s e n t e d ; (4) t a p e i n q u i r y s e s s i o n s ; (5) r e f i n e t h e o r i e s ; (6) a n a l y z e s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n s by r e p l a y i n g the t a p e . Suchman's L e a r n i n g Development Program w h i c h h i g h l i g h t s i n q u i r y t r a i n i n g by e n c o u r a g i n g s t u d e n t s t o ask yes-no q u e s t i o n s t o t e s t t h e o r i e s p r e s e n t e d , r e c o g n i z e s t h a t yes-no q u e s t i o n s a r e hypotheses w h i c h can.be a c c e p t e d o r r e j e c t e d from an answer o f y e s o r no. D a h l , i n an u n p u b l i s h e d 12 s t u d y o f c r e a t i v i t y and q u e s t i o n a s k i n g , was a b l e t o show t h a t yes-no q u e s t i o n s have .50 c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h o r i g i n a l i t y s c o r e s on c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s . In t h e same s t u d y he was a b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e a c o n s i s t e n t s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between c r e a t i v i t y and the f r e q u e n c y w i t h which s t u d e n t s asked yes-no q u e s t i o n s . I t a p p e a r s , t h e n , t h a t r e s e a r c h i n t o s c i e n c e c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t s , as i t a f f e c t s c r e a t i v i t y and q u e s t i o n a s k i n g b e h a v i o u r , would throw some l i g h t on the dynamics t h a t a r e o p e r a t i v e i n some o f the r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p e d s c i e n c e programs. 5 The Problem Statement of the Problem The purpose of this study is to investigate some of the relation-ships that classroom environment has to creativity and question asking in science students. The study will try to focus on a possible relation-ship between the amount of perceived teacher direction in the classroom and the creativity of science students. Put in another way: Do permis-sive science classrooms tend to foster increased creativity in students? As .well, an attempt will be made to confirm some earlier findings regarding the links aptitudes (intelligence and creativity) and classroom environment have with question asking behaviour or style. However, preliminary to a l l this work will be the cross-validation of the Question Test specifically developed for use in this project against a f a i r l y standard Uses Test of creativity. Statement of Hypotheses All significance levels will be at the 5% level unless noted. 1. Cross-validation of the Question Test: Nul1: Creativity factor scores, namely, fluency, f l e x i b i l i t y and origin-a l i t y scores, as well as total creativity scores obtained with the Question Test on the pretest of the project sample will show no significant corre-lation with: (a) creativity factor scores of the Uses Test; (b) total creativity scores of the Uses Test; and (c) intelligence scores obtained on the Henmon-Nelson Tests of Mental Ability. Alternate: Creativity factor scores, namely, fluency, f l e x i b i l i t y and originality scores, as well as total creativity scores obtained with the 6 Q u e s t i o n T e s t on the p r e t e s t o f t h e p r o j e c t sample w i l l show s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h : (a) c r e a t i v i t y f a c t o r s c o r e s o f t h e Uses T e s t ; (b) t o t a l c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s o f t h e Uses T e s t and w i l l show no s i g n i f i -c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on the Henmon-Nelson T e s t s o f Mental A b i l i t y . 2. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f C l a s s r o o m E n v i r o n m e n t : N u l l : The t h r e e grade seven s c i e n c e c l a s s e s i n t h e O l i v e r E l e m e n t a r y School w i l l show no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n c l a s s means o f s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on t h e C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e g i v e n a t the end o f t h i s p r o j e c t . A n t e r n a t e : Each o f t h e t h r e e c l a s s means o f s c o r e s o b t a i n e d from the C l a s s r o o m Environment S c l a e w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r i n the d i r e c t i o n i n t e n d e d . 3. The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f C l a s s r o o m Environment and C r e a t i v i t y : Nul1: There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l a s s means o f p o s t -t e s t c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s among t h e t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups and one con-t r o l group as measured by the Q u e s t i o n T e s t and Uses T e s t . A l t e r n a t e : There w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l a s s means o f p o s t c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s as d e t e r m i n e d by: (a) t h e Uses T e s t ; and (b) the Q u e s t i o n T e s t w i t h c l a s s e s showing s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r c l a s s means on the C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e a l s o showing s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r p o s t c r e a t i v i t y c l a s s means. 4. A p t i t u d i n a l and E n v i r o n m e n t a l L i n k s t o Q u e s t i o n A s k i n g ( u s i n g one i ndependent v a r i a b l e a t a t i m e ) : Nul1: (1) The group o f s u b j e c t s above and the group o f s u b j e c t s below th e median o f c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s w i l l show no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n 7 the means of: (a) factual question scores; (b) yes-no question scores; and (c) explanation question scores. (2) The group of subjects above and the group of subjects below the median of intelligence scores will show no significant difference in the means of: (a) factualquestion scores; (b) yes-no question scores; and (c) explanation question scores. (3) The group of subjects above and the group of subjects below the median of the classroom environment score will show no significant difference in the means of: (a) factual-question gains; (b) yes-no question gains; and (c) explanation question gains. Alternates: (1) The group of subjects above the median of creativity will have significantly higher: (a) factual question means; and (b) yes-no question means; than the group of subjects below that median. (2) The group of subjects above the median of intelligence scores will have significantly higher explanation question means than the group of subjects below that median. (3) (a) The group of subjects above the median of the classroom environment scores will have significantly greater means of: (i) factual question gains; and ( i i ) yes-no question gains, than the group of subjects below that median. (b) The group of subjects below the median of the classroom environment scores will have a significantly greater mean of explanation question gains than the group of subjects above that median. 5. Interaction Effects of Aptitudes and Classroom Environment on Question Asking: Null: (1) The four groups, namely, C..P,, (high creativity, high permis-8 s i v e ) , C H P L ( h i g h c r e a t i v i t y , low p e r m i s s i v e ) , ( l o w c r e a t i v i t y , h i g h p e r m i s s i v e ) , and C L P L (low c r e a t i v i t y , low p e r m i s s i v e ) , d e f i n e d by a p p l y i n g medians o f the p o s t c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s and c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t s c o r e s t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p o r t i o n o f t h e sample w i l l show no s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the means o f : (a) f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n g a i n s ; (b) yes-no q u e s t i o n g a i n s ; and ( c ) e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n g a i n s . (2) T h e . f o u r g r o u p s , namely, I H P H ( h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e , h i g h p e r m i s -s i v e ) , I^P^ ( h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e , low p e r m i s s i v e ) , I^P^ (low i n t e l l i g e n c e , h i g h p e r m i s s i v e ) , and I^P^ (low i n t e l l i g e n c e , low p e r m i s s i v e ) , d e f i n e d by a p p l y i n g medians o f i n t e l l i g e n c e s c o r e s and c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t s c o r e s t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p o r t i o n o f t h e sample w i l l show no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e means o f : (a) f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n g a i n s ; (b) yes-no q u e s t i o n g a i n s ; and ( c ) e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n g a i n s . No a l t e r n a t e s w i l l be proposed f o r t h e s e hypotheses as t h i s a s p e c t o f the s t u d y i s e x p l o r a t o r y . In the i n s t a n c e t h a t q u e s t i o n a s k i n g g a i n d a t a show a non-normal d i s t r i b u t i o n w hich i s so skewed as t o mask s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between means when a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i s a p p l i e d , t h e hypotheses o f s e c t i o n s 4 and 5 above w i l l be t e s t e d f o r group d i v e r g e n c e i n t o t a l q u e s t i o n a s k i n g g a i n s from t o t a l e x p e c t e d q u e s t i o n a s k i n g g a i n s . In t h i s t e s t a 1% l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e w i l l be r e q u i r e d . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms In t h e s t a t e m e n t o f the hypotheses a number o f terms have been used t h a t r e q u i r e d e f i n t i o n o r d e s c r i p t i o n i n o p e r a t i o n a l terms. 9 C r e a t i v i t y and I n t e l l i g e n c e G u i l f o r d , one o f the major c o n t r i b u t o r s t o c o g n i t i v e r e s e a r c h , has o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d c r e a t i v i t y as d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n which i n G u i l -f o r d ' s c o n t e x t i s the g e n e r a t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f words, i d e a s , o r t h i n g s i n r e sponse t o problems such as: "How many uses can you t h i n k o f f o r a t i n can?" These re s p o n s e s a r e e v a l u a t e d n o t i n terms o f some c o n v e n t i o n -a l l y d e s i g n a t e d c o r r e c t answer, but r a t h e r i n terms o f the t o t a l number o f r e s p o n s e s , c l e v e r n e s s o f r e s p o n s e s , and o r i g i n a l i t y o f r e s p o n s e s . D i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n i s one o f t h e f i v e o p e r a t i o n s o f the i n t e l l e c t 13 i n G u i l f o r d ' s S t r u c t u r e o f the I n t e l l e c t , a model he proposes f o r gen-e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . T h i s model w i l l be assumed t o be v a l i d i n t h i s s t u d y . The o t h e r f o u r o p e r a t i o n s i n t h i s model a r e c o g n i t i o n , memory, c o n v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n . T e s t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , such as the Henmon-Nel s o n T e s t s o f Mental A b i l i t y , w hich w i l l be used i n t h i s s t u d y , would measure many o f the f a c t o r s t h a t make up the G u i l f o r d o p e r a t i o n s o f c o g n i t i o n , memory, and c o n v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n . T e s t s o f c r e a t i v i t y such as the Uses T e s t and t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t would measure the f a c t o r s t h a t make up d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n o r c r e a t i v i t y . C r e a t i v i t y F a c t o r s The d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n o p e r a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f a number o f f a c t o r s . The most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e , a c c o r d i n g t o G u i l f o r d , a r e f l u e n c y , f l e x i -b i l i t y , o r i g i n a l i t y , and e l a b o r a t i o n . 1 4 G u i l f o r d d e f i n e s f l u e n c y as the a b i l i t y t o p r o d u c e , i n a g i v e n t i m e , many i d e a s , u s e s , a s s o c i a t i o n s , o r improvements. F l e x i b i l i t y i s t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f many d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f u s e s , i d e a s , improvements o r a s s o c i a t i o n s i n a g i v e n t i m e . O r i g i n a l i t y 10 a p p l i e s e i t h e r t o t h e c l e v e r n e s s o f a response o r t o the number o f i n f r e q u e n t responses on a c r e a t i v i t y t e s t . ( I n the p r e s e n t s t u d y the l a t t e r d e f i n i t i o n o f o r i g i n a l i t y w i l l be used.) E l a b o r a t i o n i s the a b i l i t y t o f i l l i n d e t a i l s o f a b a s i c p l a n , o r t o b u i l d o n t o a b a s i c i d e a so as t o make i t more i n t e r e s t i n g o r t e l l more o f a s t o r y . C l a s s r o o m Environment C l a s s r o o m e n vironment w i l l be a s s e s s e d i n terms o f the amount o f t e a c h e r d i r e c t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s as p e r c e i v e d by t h e - s t u d e n t . A measure o f the amount o f t e a c h e r d i r e c t i o n i n a c l a s s r o o m w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e s on the C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e . Q u e s t i o n A s k i n g In a s t u d y t o work o u t s c o r i n g t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t , Dahl r e p o r t s t h a t f a c t u a l and yes-no q u e s t i o n s c o r e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e -l a t e w i t h c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s and e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s c o r e s a s s o c i a t e 15 s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e s c o r e s . In t h i s s t u d y the same c a t e g o r i e s o f q u e s t i o n t y p e s w i l l be used as were used i n the s t u d y c i t e d above. These c a t e g o r i e s a r e : (a) f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n : q u e s t i o n s which r e q u i r e s i m p l e f a c t s f o r answers, e.g., Q. What i s the name o f t h a t y e l l o w f l o w e r ? A. A d a n d e l i o n . (b) yes-no q u e s t i o n s ; q u e s t i o n s w h i c h r e q u i r e yes o r no f o r an answer, e.g., Q. Is t h a t a d a n d e l i o n g r o w i n g on the lawn? A. Yes. (c) e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s : q u e s t i o n s which r e q u i r e a r e a s o n o r e x p l a n -a t i o n f o r an answer. 11 e.g., Q. Why a r e d a n d e l i o n s c a l l e d c o m p o s i t e s ? A. D a n d e l i o n s a r e c a l l e d c o m p o s i t e s because t h e y have f l o w e r heads composed o f c l u s t e r s o f s m a l l f l o w e r s . D e s c r i p t i o n o f the C l a s s r o o m Environments There w i l l be f o u r grade seven s c i e n c e c l a s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y , t h r e e i n the O l i v e r E l e m e n t a r y School and one i n t h e Midway Elemen-t a r y S c h o o l . The t h r e e c l a s s e s i n O l i v e r w i l l s e r v e as e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . In each o f t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups the amount o f t e a c h e r d i r e c t i o n w i l l be d i f f e r e n t . In t h e Midway c l a s s r o o m , which w i l l s e r v e as a c o n t r o l , no a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o a f f e c t the amount o f t e a c h e r d i r e c t i o n . The E x p e r i m e n t a l C l a s s e s S e m i p e rmi s s :i v e C l a s s r o o m T h i s e n v i r o n m e n t w i l l be a p r o d u c t , as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e , o f the approaches and t e c h n i q u e s s u g g e s t e d i n the t e a c h e r ' s g u i d e t o the Elemen-t a r y S c i e n c e Study (ESS) u n i t , B a t t e r i e s and B u l b s : ^ [The t e a c h e r w i l l ] s e r v e as a g u i d e through the i n t r i c a t e w o r l d o f b a t t e r i e s , b u l b s and w i r e s , as a p r o v i d e r o f equipment, as a g i v e r o f s i m p l e m e c h a n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n s (such as how t o use a w i r e s t r i p p e r ) , as a p o s e r o f q u e s t i o n s and, h o p e f u l l y , as an e n t h u s i a s t i c p a r t i c i p a n t . 1 7 The c l a s s w i l l be a l l o w e d t o f o l l o w any d i v e r t i n g s i d e p a t h t h a t may 18 i n t e r e s t i t . The c h i l d r e n w i l l be encouraged t o make t h e i r own p r e d i c -t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r own c r i t e r i a o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n s and p r e d i c t i o n s h e e t s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s u n i t w i l l n ot be used as t e s t s but 19 as g a m e - l i k e a t t e m p t s a t s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n . 12 The A u t h o r i t a r i a n Environment The t e a c h e r , books and mimeographed i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t s w i l l be s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s group. The d i r e c t i o n the development o f t h e c o n t e n t w i l l t a k e w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d (a) by the d i r e c t i o n t a k e n i n t h e semi p e r m i s s i v e group, and (b) by the s u g g e s t i o n s i n t h e ESS u n i t . L a b o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a r e t o c o n f i r m i n f o r m a t i o n sup-p l i e d by the t e a c h e r o r r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s . Q u e s t i o n s a r e t o be s e t on l a b o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e s , t e a c h e r demonstra-t i o n s , on i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by the t e a c h e r , and on r e a d i n g a s s i g n m e n t s . The w r i t t e n answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s w i l l be graded f o r t h e i r c o r r e c t -n e s s . Each l e s s o n w i l l b e g i n w i t h a 5-10 minute r e v i e w o f the p r e v i o u s day's l e s s o n . The o r a l answers w i l l be j udged r i g h t o r wrong by the t e a c h e r . The main emphasis i n t h i s e nvironment w i l l be t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n by the t e a c h e r and r e c e i v e d i n s t u d e n t answers and comments. The P e r m i s s i v e Environment The s t u d e n t s i n t h i s group w i l l r e c e i v e a l l the b o o k l e t s , m a t e r i a l s , and a p p a r a t u s used by the semi p e r m i s s i v e group. Q u e s t i o n s s t u d e n t s ask w i l l be t u r n e d back to them by remarks such as: " W e l l , what do you t h i n k ? " No a s s i g n m e n t s w i l l be g i v e n ; no p l a n n e d c o u r s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be t a u g h t o r examined. Nor w i l l any f o r m a l o r semi f o r m a l d i s c u s -s i o n s be h e l d . S t u d e n t s w i l l be a l l o w e d t o e l e c t not t o do p a r t s o f , o r a l l o f the B a t t e r i e s and B u l b s s e r i e s . As much as p o s s i b l e s t u d e n t i n i t i a t e d i n t e r e s t s and s c i e n c e p r o j e c t s w i l l be accommodated. Radio-and t e l e v i s i o n r e p a i r shops w i l l be s o l i c i t e d f o r a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and equipment f o r s t u d e n t p r o j e c t s . 13 Importance of the Problem Many s c i e n c e e d u c a t o r s and c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s f e e l i n t u i t i v e l y t h a t s c i e n c e programs l i k e E l e m e n t a r y S c i e n c e Study a re b e t t e r than t r a d i t i o n a l programs. So f a r , however, t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h t h a t c o n s i s t e n t l y i n d i c a t e s t h e ESS program, o r programs l i k e i t , a c h i e v e a g i v e n e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l b e t t e r than t r a d i t i o n a l programs. I f programs such as ESS a r e t o r e p l a c e t r a d i t i o n a l s c i e n c e programs, w h i c h a r e a l l e g e d t o be l e s s e f f e c t i v e , we must be a b l e t o argue f o r such r e p l a c e m e n t on the b a s i s o f e v i d e n c e t h a t such new s c i e n c e programs meet a g i v e n c r i t e r i o n b e t t e r than t r a d i t i o n a l programs. T h i s s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t t o do j u s t t h a t , namely, t o show t h a t ESS, because the l e a r n i n g environment i t c r e a t e s , enhances d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than do t r a d i -t i o n a l programs. L e t us now l o o k a t t h e pro b l e m i n a n o t h e r way. Through the work o f 20 21 G u i l f o r d and T o r r a n c e , c r e a t i v i t y has become an o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d and measurable c o n s t r u c t . We can now r e a l i s t i c a l l y a t t e m p t t o f i n d ways o f m a x i m i z i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l . I f i t can be shown t h a t a p e r m i s s i v e e n v i r o n m e n t f o s t e r s development o f c r e a t i v i t y , n ot o n l y w i l l t h e v a l u e o f programs l i k e ESS become more e v i d e n t , but more gener-a l l y a t e c h n i q u e f o r c r e a t i v i t y development w i l l have been e s t a b l i s h e d . In a d d i t i o n , i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o note from t h i s s t u d y t h e o p t i -mum amount o f d i r e c t i o n needed t o o b t a i n maximum development o f q u e s t i o n a s k i n g b e h a v i o u r . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t may be p o s s i b l e t o g a i n some i n s i g h t as t o the r o l e o f the t e a c h e r : must he a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y d i r e c t s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g ; must he 14 s e r v e as a g u i d e f o r the l e a r n i n g s t u d e n t ; o r must he s e r v e as an a s s i s -t a n t i n s t u d e n t i n i t i a t e d l e a r n i n g f o r maximum c r e a t i v i t y development? F i n a l l y , i n h e l p i n g t o e l u c i d a t e the n a t u r e o f the l i n k s t h a t c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t and c o g n i t i v e a p t i t u d e s , such as i n t e l l i g e n c e and c r e a t i v i t y have w i t h q u e s t i o n a s k i n g s t y l e s , t h i s s t u d y w i l l have found a few more i n d i c a t o r s t e a c h e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s might use t o know t o what degree t h e s e c o g n i t i v e a p t i t u d e s a r e b e i n g enhanced by the c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t s t e a c h e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s c r e a t e . That i s , knowing t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t i n c r e a s e s e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n a s k i n g may i n d i c a t e t h a t s t u d e n t t h e o r i z i n g and i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t i e s a r e b e i n g d e v e l o p e d ; whereas, knowing t h a t a c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g i n c r e a s e s a s k i n g f a c t u a l and yes-no q u e s t i o n s may i n d i c a t e t h a t h y p o t h e s i z i n g and c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s a r e b e i n g f o s t e r e d . 15 Endnotes - C h a p t e r I James Joseph A l t e n d o r f , "A Study o f S t u d e n t Achievement i n High School C h e m i s t r y U s i n g CHEM Study and C o n v e n t i o n a l Approaches," D i s s e r - t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , v o l . 27, 1965, p. 45. 2 Mary L o u i s e Lance, "A Comparison o f Gains i n Achievement Made by S t u d e n t s o f BSCS High School B i o l o g y and S t u d e n t s o f a C o n v e n t i o n a l Course i n B i o l o g y , " D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , v o l . 25, 1964, pp. 2814-15. 3 Glenn Howard Crumb, "A Study o f U n d e r s t a n d i n g S c i e n c e . D e v e l o p e d i n High School P h y s i c s , " D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , v o l . 26, 1965, pp. 1506-07. 4 John Henry T r e n t , " A t t a i n m e n t o f the Concept ' U n d e r s t a n d i n g S c i e n c e ' U s i n g C o n t r a s t i n g P h y s i c s C o u r s e s , " D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , v o l . 26, 1964, p. 162. 5 Ken D. George, " E f f e c t o f BSCS and C o n v e n t i o n a l B i o l o g y on C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g , " J o u r n a l o f Research i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , v o l . 3, 1965, pp. 293-99. ' E a r l Wesley B r a k k e r , "An A n a l y s i s o f the I n t e l l e c t u a l F a c t o r s O p e r a t i v e i n PSSC and C o n v e n t i o n a l High School P h y s i c s , " D i s s e r t a t i o n  A b s t r a c t s , v o l . 25, 1964, pp. 5103-04. ^ L l o y d M o r r i s B e n n e t t , "A Study o f the Comparisons o f Two I n s t r u c -t i o n a l Methods: t h e F i e l d Method and the C l a s s r o o m Method I n v o l v i n g S c i e n c e C o n t e n t i n E c o l o g y f o r t h e Seventh Grade," D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , v o l . 25, 1963, p. 318. o W i l l a r d F r a n c i s Reese, "A Comparison o f I n t e r e s t L e v e l and Problem S o l v i n g A c c u r a c y G e n e r a t e d by S i n g l e Concept I n d u c t i v e and D e d u c t i v e F i l m s , " D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , v o l . 27, 1966, p. 2954. g W i l l i a m C. S c h e f f l e r , "A Comparison Between I n d u c t i v e and I l l u s -t r a t i v e L a b o r a t o r i e s i n C o l l e g e B i o l o g y , " J o u r n a l o f Research i n S c i e n c e  E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 3, 1965, pp. 218-23. ^ H a r o l d H. A n d e r s o n , "On the Meaning o f C r e a t i v i t y , " C r e a t i v i t y i n  C h i l d h o o d and A d o l e s c e n c e , ed. H a r o l d H. Anderson ( P a l o A l t o : S c i e n c e and B e h a v i o r Books, 1965), pp. 46-61, 48. ^ J . R i c h a r d Suchman, P u t t i n g I n q u i r y i n t o S c i e n c e : L e a r n i n g D e v e l -opment Program ( C h i c a g o : S c i e n c e Research A s s o c i a t e s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 4. Endnotes - Chap. I 16 12 W.W. D a h l , "A R e p o r t o f E x p l o r a t i o n s and Research i n t o C r e a t i v i t y Measurement and Q u e s t i o n - A s k i n g B e h a v i o r : P a r t I I I The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Q u e s t i o n - A s k i n g B e h a v i o r t o C r e a t i v i t y , I n t e l l i g e n c e , and Achievement i n S c i e n c e , " u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , p. 34. 13 J.P. G u i l f o r d , "A P s y c h o m e t r i c Approach t o C r e a t i v i t y , " C r e a t i v -i t y i n C h i l d h o o d and A d o l e s c e n c e , ed. H a r o l d H. Anderson ( P a l o A l t o : S c i e n c e and B e h a v i o r Books, 1965), pp. 1-19. 1 4 I b i d . , p. 15. 15W.W. D a h l , op. c i t . , pp. 32-57. 1 6 B a t t e r i e s and B u l b s , Books 1, 2 and 3 (Watertown: P u b l i s h e d by the E l e m e n t a r y S c i e n c e Study o f E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s I n c . , 1966). 1 7 B a t t e r i e s and B u l b s , Book 1, " C i r c u i t s I , " p. 2. 1 8 I b i d . , p. 3. 1 9 I b i d . 2 0 I b i d . , pp. 6-11. 21 E. Paul T o r r a n c e , G u i d i n g C r e a t i v e T a l e n t (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1962), pp. 16-17. 17 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE C l a s s r o o m Environment and C r e a t i v i t y Donald J . S c h m i d t , 1 a f t e r showing t h a t methods o f l a b d i s c u s s i o n , programmed i n s t r u c t i o n , and l e c t u r e d i s c u s s i o n produced no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n achievement and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , c o n c l u d e s i n h i s paper e n t i t l e d "Can We Teach" t h a t we can t e a c h p r o v i d e d we e v a l u a t e o u r s u c -c e s s under a n o n - a u t h o r i t a r i a n system. "We must," he s a y s , "reward the s t u d e n t f o r o r i g i n a l i t y , c r e a t i v e n e s s arid i n q u i r y . C o n f o r m i t y t o group o p i n i o n s h o u l d not be the major component o f s u c c e s s . " He argues t h a t we encourage d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n but p r e s e n t s no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h i s i s a v a l i d d i r e c t i o n f o r s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n t o proceed i n . There i s a need f o r such e v i d e n c e and t h i s need i s echoed i n Nathan S. Washton's s t r o n g 2 p l e a t h a t c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n be g i v e n t o r e s e a r c h i n s c i e n c e c r e a t i v i t y . I t i s p r e c i s e l y such r e s e a r c h t h a t i s t h e c o n c e r n o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s the p o i n t o f t h i s s t u d y t h a t d i v e r g e n t produc-t i o n i n s c i e n c e c l a s s e s can be enhanced by the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the l e a r n -i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . M a c k l e r has i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between en v i r o n m e n t and the d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t s t u d e n t s . He has been a b l e t o show, u s i n g T o r r a n c e ' s Ask-and-Guess T e s t , among o t h e r t e s t s , t h a t s t i m u l a t i n g a r t s t u d e n t s w i t h p i e c e s o f a r t and d e s t i m u l a t i n g them w i t h a drab e n v i r o n m e n t produced m e a s u r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r c r e a -3 t i v i t y . H i s s t u d y was a b l e t o show t h a t a s t i m u l a t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t produces more d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n . 18 Walker has also made a study of environment and creativity. His investigation involved two traditional schools and two highly creative schools. He found that teachers were less authoritarian, and that students exhibited more initiating behaviour in the highly creative schools than in the traditional schools. However, paper and pencil tests of creativity failed to show any difference in divergent production 4 between traditional and creative schools. It should be noted, however, that when the environment is an unmanipulated variable, or uncontrolled as i t was in this study, differences in creativity, great enough to be noted by paper and pencil tests of creativity may not occur. Nevertheless, this study does suggest that schools considered creative have a more permissive atmosphere. It is precisely this point, the relationship between permissiveness and divergent production, which needs greater grounding in fact. In Chapter I, i t was noted that Anderson stresses that the propi-tious environment for creativity has two characteristics: (1) acceptance and (2) stimulation. Mackler, as indicated above, has shown that stimu-lation enhances divergent production. Walker has suggested that there is a relationship between acceptance or permissiveness and creativity, but has been unable to quantify this relationship with creativity tests. With more carefully controlled environmental conditions the present study hopes to establish such a quantitative relationship. However, investigators who attempt to quantify the parameters that pertain to the relationship between creativity and classroom environment might ultimately have to take note of the methods of Getzels and Jackson who identified two groups of students as follows: 19 (1) The High Creativity Group. These were subjects in the top 20% on creativity measures when compared to students of the same age and sex, but below the top 20% in IQ. (2) The High Intelligence Group. These were subjects in the top 20% in IQ when compared with students of the same age and sex, but 5 below the top 20% on the creativity measures. Then in order to generate hypotheses on possible differences in family environment between the high creativity group and high i n t e l l i -gence group, Getzels and Jackson used a Parent Questionnaire and a Parent Interview to obtain data on the following variables. 1. Education and occupation of the parents. 2. Age of the parents. 3. Mother's recollection of her own family situation when she was her child's age. 4. Reading interests of the family, at least as represented by the number and type of magazines taken. 5. Parental satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the child and his school. 6. Parental satisfaction and dissatisfaction with their own child rearing practices. 7. Mother's description of the kinds of friends preferred for her child.6 Getzels and Jackson then subjected the data in relation to the above variables to Chi-square analysis to discover divergence from expected frequency of response of parents of the children of the two different cognitive groups. The results of this analysis are summarized in Table 2-1 below (see p. 20). After a considerable discussion of these findings, Getzels and Jackson tentatively suggest that "authoritarian" family environments may favour the development of "convergent thinking" or "conservative cogni-tion," and "permissive" family environments may favour the development 20 Tab l e 2-1: D i s t i n g u i s h i n g F a m i l y Environment C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f High C r e a t i v e and High I n t e l l i g e n c e S u b j e c t s i n a Study by G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n ? , V a r i a b l e High IQ (N = 24) High c r e a t i v e (N=24) C h i -square P 1. Number o f p a r e n t s who were c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s F a t h e r Mother 21 16 15 12 2.78 .77 .10 ns 2. Number o f p a r e n t s h a v i n g g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g F a t h e r Mother 19 13 13 5 2.34 4.36 .20 .05 3. O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s . F a t n e r : u r v j v > t e a c h i n g , r e s e a r c h , e d i t i n g b u s i n e s s m e d i c i n e , law 15 4 5 7 11 6 4.56 .05 Mother: h o u s e w i f e o n l y f u l l / p a r t time work 18 6 11 13 3.14 .10 4. Age d i f f e r e n c e between p a r e n t s 0 - 1 y r . 4 2 o r more y r s . 20 13 11 5.83 .02 (N= 22) (N= 18) 5. F i n a n c i a l s t a t u s and p o v e r t y i n d e s c r i p t i o n o f own home 1 i f e by mothers Mention o f f i n a n c e s Emphasis on p a s t p o v e r t y 16 9 7 1 3.36 4.48 .10 .05 6. Number o f magazines 6 o r fewer 7 o r more 7 15 12 6 3.52 .10 (N= 23) (N= 19) 7. Number o f u n f a v o u r a b l e q u a l i t i e s o b s e r v e d i n 1 o r l e s s 2 o r more 13 10 17 2 4.02 .05 c h i l d r e n by mothers [ c o n t i n u e s ] 21 T a b l e 2-1 c o n t i n u e d V a r i a b l e High IQ (N = 22) High c r e a t i v e (N=19) C h i -square P 8. Number o f u n f a v o u r a b l e 1 o r l e s s 7 12 s c h o o l q u a l i t i e s 3.27 .10 o b s e r v e d by 2 o r more 16 7 mothers 9. Mother's o p i n i o n s a t i s f i e d 17 8 o f own t r a i n i n g 3.15 .10 p r a c t i c e d i s s a t i s f i e d 6 11 10. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r e f e r r e d f o r c h i l d r e n ' s f r i e n d s - E x t e r n a l - s p e c i f i c ( e . g . good f a m i l y , manners, s t u d i o u s ) - I n t e r n a l - g e n e r a l ( e . g . sense o f v a l u e s , i n t e r e s t s , open-n e s s ) Mean s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r High IQ group t = 2.56 p < .02 Mean s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r f o r High C r e a t i v e group t = 2.13 p < .05 o f " d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g " o r " c o n s t r u c t i v e c o g n i t i o n . " What t h i s s t u d y i n t e n d s t o do i s t o e x t e n d the G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n h y p o t h e s i s t o the 8 r e l a t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t and c r e a t i v i t y . A p t i t u d e s , Environment and Q u e s t i o n A s k i n g In a s u r v e y o f the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e on q u e s t i o n a s k i n g , i t q u i c k l y becomes a p p a r e n t t h a t a major p o r t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h e f f o r t has gone i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n a s k i n g b e h a v i o u r o f t e a c h e r s r a t h e r than i n t o the q u e s t i o n a s k i n g s t y l e o r b e h a v i o u r o f s t u d e n t s . However, work on the r e l a t i o n o f t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n a s k i n g t o s t u d e n t c r e a t i v i t y has begun t o appear. F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e s t u d i e s o f G a l l a g h e r and A r c h e r show t h a t even a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s ' 22 " h i g h e r t h i n k i n g t y p e q u e s t i o n s " c a l l e d " d i v e r g e n t q u e s t i o n s " y i e l d a l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n s t u d e n t s ' d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n . Such q u e s t i o n s as "What would happen i f t h e U.S. had been c o l o n i z e d from t h e west c o a s t t o the e a s t c o a s t i n s t e a d o f v i c e v e r s a ? " s t i m u l a t e d o r e l i c i t e d as many as f i f t e e n o r twenty r e s p o n s e s , each r e l a t e d t o t h e d i v e r g e n t o r c r e a t i v e 9 p r o d u c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f the s t u d e n t s . E f f o r t s i n the d i r e c t i o n o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n ask-i n g comes from R i c h a r d Suchman whose a t t e m p t s a t p u t t i n g i n q u i r y i n t o s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n have l e d him t o d e v e l o p a program w h i c h encourages s t u d e n t t h e o r i z i n g and h y p o t h e s i z i n g . 1 ^ In Suchman's program, s t u d e n t h y p o t h e s i z i n g i s d e v e l o p e d by a l l o w i n g o n l y yes-no q u e s t i o n s o f s t u d e n t s t o t e s t t h e o r i e s they have posed t o a c c o u n t f o r the f a c t s o f a problem s e t by the t e a c h e r . The Suchman i n q u i r y t r a i n i n g methods a r e i n t e r e s t i n g when viewed t o g e t h e r w i t h one o f Dahl's f i n d i n g s , c i t e d e a r l i e r , namely, t h a t qeus-t i o n a s k i n g s t y l e o f s t u d e n t s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o the a p t i t u d e s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and c r e a t i v i t y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , D a h l's i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i t h a Q u e s t i o n T e s t r e v e a l e d t h a t the amount o f e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n a s k i n g by s t u d e n t s i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o s t u d e n t I Q . 1 1 Seen i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Dahl's r e s u l t s , Suchman's emphasis on t h e o r i z i n g t o e x p l a i n the f a c t s o r d a t a r e l a t e d t o a problem may be a way t o s t i m u l a t e t h e growth o f s t u d e n t i n t e l l i g e n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s s i m i l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g t o view Suchman's t e c h -n i q u e s o f p r o m o t i n g s t u d e n t ' h y p o t h e s i z i n g i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h D a h l ' s d i s c o v e r y o f a m o d e r a t e l y s t r o n g and h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n o f 12 s t u d e n t yes-no q u e s t i o n s w i t h o r i g i n a l i t y and c r e a t i v i t y . I t seems 23 r e a s o n a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t o s u g g e s t t h a t , perhaps Suchman has found a way o f r a i s i n g students;' c r e a t i v i t y i n s c i e n c e by g i v i n g them e x p e r i e n c e a t a s k i n g yes-no q u e s t i o n s . As w e l l , i t may be r e a s o n a b l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t c r e a t i v i t y i n s c i e n c e may have something t o do w i t h the f r u i t f u l -ness o f h y p o t h e s i z i n g . By j u x t a p o s i n g the r e s u l t s o f G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n which show a r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a m i l y environment and c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s w i t h the f i n d i n g s o f D a h l , which i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between a p t i t u d e s and q u e s t i o n a s k i n g s t y l e s , i t has become p o s s i b l e t o h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t i f a u t h o r i t a r i a n c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t s promoted t h e development o f i n t e l l i -g ence, t h e y may f a v o u r s t u d e n t s a s k i n g more e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s . I t has l i k e w i s e become p o s s i b l e t o h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t i f p e r m i s s i v e c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t s enhance c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y t h e y c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e number o f yes-no and, p e r h a p s , f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s a sked. 24 Endnotes - C h a p t e r I I Donald J . S c h m i d t , "Can We Teach?" J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n S c i e n c e  T e a c h i n g , v o l . 4, 1966, pp. 175-77. ? Nathan S. Washton, "Teaching S c i e n c e f o r C r e a t i v i t y - N e e d e d R e s e a r c h , " J o u r n a l o f Research i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , v o l . 4, 1966, pp. 182-84. 3 B. M a c k l e r , " C r e a t i v i t y and L i f e S t y l e s , " D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , v o l . 24, 1963, pp. 5571-72. W.J. W a l k e r , " C r e a t i v i t y and High School C l i m a t e , " D i s s e r t a t i o n  A b s t r a c t s , v o l . 25, 1964, p. 5657. 5 Jacob W. G e t z e l s and P h i l l i p W. J a c k s o n , C r e a t i v i t y and I n t e l l i - gence (New York: John W i l e y and Sons, 19 ), p. 20. 6 I b i d . , pp. 61-62. 7 I b i d . , pp. 62-72. 8 I b i d . , p. 76. g James G a l l a g h e r and Mary Jane A r c h e r , "A P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t on C l a s s r o o m I n t e r a c t i o n , " M e r r i l l - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y o f B e h a v i o r and Develop- ment, J u l y 1963, p. 183. ^ J . R i c h a r d Suchman, op. c i t . , p. 4. 1]W.W. D a h l , op. c i t . , pp. 47-53. 1 2 I b i d . , pp. 34, 41-46. 25 CHAPTER I I I MATERIALS AND TESTS USED Course M a t e r i a l s and C o n t e n t The ESS u n i t B a t t e r i e s and B u l b s w i l l s e r v e as the b a s i c c o n t e n t f o r a l l t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s . As t h e ESS u n i t s a r e p a r t o f a non-s e q u e n t i a l , a c t i v i t y o r i e n t e d program d e v e l o p e d p r i m a r i l y t o p r o v i d e c h i l d r e n w i t h s t i m u l i t o e x p l o r e , t h e . s e m i p e r m i s s i v e group which i s t o use t h e B a t t e r i e s and Bul b s u n i t , as s u g g e s t e d i n the t e a c h e r ' s g u i d e , may a t t i m e s d i g r e s s from t h e main d i r e c t i o n o f t h e u n i t . When such spontaneous changes i n c o u r s e d i r e c t i o n o c c u r , the c o n t e n t o f the d i g r e s -i o n s w i l l be worked i n t o t he c o n t e n t t o be l e a r n e d by the a u t h o r i t a r i a n group. As the a u t h o r i t a r i a n group i s t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e l a r g e s t amount o f t e a c h e r d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l and the l e a s t amount o f p e r s o n a l e x p l o r a -t i o n , t h e B a t t e r i e s and B u l b s u n i t f o r the a u t h o r i t a r i a n group w i l l be f a c t o r i e n t e d and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t e x t books and t e a c h e r l e c t u r e / d e m o n -s t r a t i o n methods. Mimeographed, i l l u s t r a t i v e l a b o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e s , as w e l l as mimeographed i n f o r m a t i o n and q u e s t i o n s h e e t s w i l l be p r e p a r e d . The t h r e e s t u d y g u i d e s p r o v i d e d i n the u n i t w i l l be used as t e x t s . The p e r m i s s i v e group may use the s t u d e n t b o o k l e t s and m a t e r i a l s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e u n i t B a t t e r i e s and B u l b s . Other m a t e r i a l s and i n f o r m a t i o n open t o t h i s group w i l l v a r y w i t h i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t and i n i t i a t i v e , and w i l l o n l y be l i m i t e d by what i s s a f e and a v a i l a b l e . As mentioned e a r l i e r , t h e p e r m i s s i v e group w i l l have a c c e s s t o d i s c a r d e d 26 r a d i o s and t e l e v i s i o n s e t s g l e a n e d from l o c a l r a d i o and t v r e p a i r shops. The T e s t s Q u e s t i o n T e s t The Q u e s t i o n T e s t , a copy o f w h i c h i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix A, has been adapted from T o r r a n c e ' s Ask-and-Guess T e s t ^ o f c r e a t i v i t y as one-of th e d e v i c e s f o r m e a s u r i n g d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n and q u e s t i o n a s k i n g b e f o r e and a f t e r the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t s . The Q u e s t i o n T e s t y i e l d s f o u r c r e a t i v i t y f a c t o r s c o r e s , namely, f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y , e l a b o r a t i o n , and o r i g i n a l i t y , as w e l l as t h r e e s o c r e s o f q u e s t i o n a s k i n g b e h a v i o u r . The q u e s t i o n a s k i n g s c o r e s a r e c o u n t s o f t h e numbers o f f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s , yes-no q u e s t i o n s , and e x p l a n -a t i o n q u e s t i o n s a s k e d . The t e s t c o n s i s t s o f a sample p i c t u r e and t h r e e t e s t p i c t u r e s . The f i r s t t e s t p i c t u r e shows two men who a r e p l a y i n g a c h e c k e r - l i k e game, b e i n g i n t e r r u p t e d by s o l d i e r s . The second p i c t u r e i s o f a b a l l o o n a t t a c h e d t o the top o f a s o f t d r i n k b o t t l e w i t h hot w a t e r b e i n g run o v e r t h e b o t t l e . The l a s t p i c t u r e d e p i c t s a scene i n the making o f a b u t t e r c a n d l e . A l l t h r e e p i c t u r e s have a degree o f open-endedness and a r e , t h e r e f o r e , open t o a number o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s c o r i n g o f the Q u e s t i o n T e s t i s e x p l a i n e d f u l l y i n A ppendix A. The o n l y a d d i t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i v e a s p e c t s o f the t e s t t o be i n c l u d e d here a r e t e c h n i c a l d a t a , such as c o e f f i c i e n t s o f r e l i a -b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . R e ! i a b i l i t y I t has been p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f the t o t a l 27 c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e as w e l l as the r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f the f o u r c r e a t i v i t y f a c t o r s c o r e s d e r i v e d from t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t by c o n s i d e r i n g the s u b t e s t s o f the Q u e s t i o n T e s t as p a r a l l e l forms a d m i n i s t e r e d i n immediate s u c c e s -s i o n . T h i s has been done w i t h two d i f f e r e n t samples o f grade 7 s t u d e n t s . As seen from T a b l e 3-1, f a c t o r s o f f l u e n c y and e l a b o r a t i o n , as w e l l as t h e c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s o f the s u b t e s t s show v e r y s i m i l a r r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r t h e two samples. F u r t h e r m o r e , f l e x i b i l i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y have shown c o n s i d e r a b l y improved r e l i a b i l i t y w i t h a l a r g e r sample. However, compared w i t h r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e : and achievement t e s t s , w h i c h range i n t h e ,80's and .90's, t h e s e c r e a t i v i t y r e l i a b i l i t i e s a r e low. N e v e r t h e l e s s , 2 they a r e t y p i c a l o f c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s . T a b l e 3-1: R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f C r e a t i v i t y F a c t o r S c o r e s and C r e a t i v i t y S c o r e s O b t a i n e d on P a r a l l e l Forms o f t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t G i v e n i n Immediate S u c c e s s i o n S c o r e R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s Grand F o r k s (N = 78) O l i v e r (N =122) F l u e n c y .63 .66 F l e x i b i l i t y .35 .58 E l a b o r a t i o n .37 .44 O r i g i n a l i t y .41 .67 C r e a t i v i t y s c o r e .63 .60 F u r t h e r m o r e , the r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f the q u e s t i o n s c o r e s have been d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f r e t e s t w i t h a s i x week i n t e r v a l between t e s t s , u s i n g t h e c o n t r o l group as t h e smaple. The c o n t r o l group has been used as a sample because no e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n -ment have been a p p l i e d t o i t . A l t h o u g h t h e sample i s s m a l l , the use o f 28 the e n t i r e p r e t e s t / p o s t t e s t s c o r e s a l l o w s the i n c l u s i o n o f a l a r g e r number o f r e s p o n s e s than does t h e method o f p a r a l l e l forms u s i n g s u b t e s t s o f the Q u e s t i o n p r e t e s t s as was done f o r c r e a t i v i t y r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i -c i e n t s above. The c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e l a r g e r numbers o f r e s p o n s e s u s i n g t h e p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s c o n t r i b u t e s t o more s t a b l e c o r r e l a t i o n and h e l p s t o o f f s e t the s m a l l n e s s o f t h e s a m p l e . ( s e e T a b l e 3-2). T a b l e 3-2: R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e Q u e s t i o n Scores O b t a i n e d by the C o n t r o l U s i n g the R e t e s t Methods w i t h a S i x Week I n t e r v a l (N = 2 4 ) S c o r e R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t F a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s .78 Yes-no q u e s t i o n s .61 E x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s .71 The q u e s t i o n s c o r e s show somewhat h i g h e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s than some o f the c r e a t i v i t y f a c t o r s . However, what i s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r t h e purposes o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s o f q u e s t i o n t y p e s shown i n T a b l e 3-2 are c a p a b l e o f r e p e a t a b l e measurement. V a l i d i t y When c o n s i d e r i n g the v a l i d i t y o f the Q u e s t i o n T e s t as a measure o f c r e a t i v i t y , two c o r r e l a t i o n s o f Q u e s t i o n T e s t c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s w i t h o t h e r i n d e p e n d e n t e s t i m a t e s o f c r e a t i v i t y show t h a t the Q u e s t i o n T e s t does g i v e a measure o f what i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be c r e a t i v i t y . One o f t h e s e e s t i m a t e s i s a t e a c h e r r a t i n g o f s t u d e n t c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y . The t e a c h e r r a t i n g s o f 3 c r e a t i v i t y o b t a i n e d on the Grand F o r k s sample show, as i s e v i d e n t from T a b l e 3-3, a low but s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t s c o r e s 29 o f c r e a t i v i t y . T a b l e 3-3: V a l i d i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t C a l c u l a t e d A g a i n s t Teacher R a t i n g s o f C r e a t i v e A b i l i t y and Uses T e s t C r e a t i v i t y S c o r es C r i t e r i o n V a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t P T e a c h e r r a t i n g s .23 (N = 78) < .05 Uses T e s t s c o r e s .68 (N .= 122) < .01 A second independent e s t i m a t e o f c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y i s d e r i v e d u s i n g the Uses T e s t d u r i n g the p r e t e s t o f t h e O l i v e r - M i d w a y sample o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y . In the l i g h t o f v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e Uses T e s t a g a i n s t o t h e r c r e a t i v i t y measures (see T a b l e 3 -5), the v a l i d i t y c o e f f i -c i e n t o f .68 f o r the Q u e s t i o n T e s t a g a i n s t the Uses T e s t i s q u i t e sub-s t a n t i a l . More w i l l be s a i d on the m a t t e r o f the v a l i d i t y o f the Q u e s t i o n T e s t i n C h a p t e r V when r e s u l t s i n v o l v i n g the c r o s s r v a l i d a t i o n o f the Ques-t i o n T e s t are p r e s e n t e d . The Uses T e s t A second c r e a t i v i t y t e s t t o be used i n t h i s s t u d y i s the Uses T e s t , a sample o f which can be found i n Appendix B. The Uses T e s t has been 4 5 used as a c r e a t i v i t y measure by G u i l f o r d , G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n , and W a l l a c h and Kogan,^ among o t h e r s . The t e s t asks the examinee t o w r i t e down as amny d i f f e r e n t uses as he can t h i n k o f i n a g i v e n t i m e f o r a g i v e n common o b j e c t . Examinees a r e encouraged t o w r i t e down any use t h a t comes to mind no m a t t e r how s t r a n g e the use may seem. 30 In t h i s s t u d y t h r e e c r e a t i v i t y f a c t o r s w i l l be s c o r e d on t h e Uses T e s t . These a r e f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y , and o r i g i n a l i t y . F o r an account o f s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s on t h e Uses T e s t , see Appendix B. R e l i a b i l i t y The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f the Uses T e s t , as d e t e r m i n e d by G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n , u s i n g the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y method i s .86. 7 A l t h o u g h p s y c h o m e t r i c i a n s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y as a measure o f the degree o f homogeneity o f a t e s t , a measure which has some 8 r e l e v a n c e t o i t s c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o see the c o r r e l a -t i o n o f s u b t e s t s c o r e s a g a i n s t t o t a l s c o r e s ( i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ) as ah i n d i c a t o r o f r e l i a b i l i t y as w e l l . A second measure o f the r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e Uses T e s t has been o b t a i n e d by u s i n g the s u b t e s t s o f t h e Uses T e s t as p a r a l l e l forms. Cor-r e l a t i o n s ranged from .30 t o .80. T a b l e 3-4 shows means o f t h e s e c o r r e -l a t i o n s f o r the t h r e e c r e a t i v i t y f a c t o r s and the t o t a l c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e t o be o f the same r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h as the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d f o r the Q u e s t i o n T e s t . T a b l e 3-4: R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f C r e a t i v i t y F a c t o r S c o r e s and C r e a t i v i t y S c o r e s o f the Uses T e s t U s i n g S u b t e s t s as P a r a l l e l Forms. C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r C r e a t i v i t y F a c t o r s a r e Means o f A l l S u b t e s t C o r r e l a t i o n s S c o r e R e l i a b i l i t y FI uency F l e x i b i l i t y O r i g i n a l i t y C r e a t i v i t y .58 .55 .55 .69 31 V a l i d i t y The v a l i d i t y o f the Uses T e s t has been checked by G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n by c o r r e l a t i n g t h e Uses T e s t s c o r e s a g a i n s t the s c o r e s o f f o u r o t h e r c r e a t i v i t y measures t o o b t a i n i n d i c a t o r s o f c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y , and a g a i n s t i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s c o r e s f o r i n d i c a t o r s o f d i s c r i m i n a n t 9 v a l i d i t y . From T a b l e 3-5, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t i e s o f the Uses T e s t , namely, t h o s e v a l i d i t y c o r r e l a t i o n s o f Uses T e s t s c o r e s w i t h o t h e r c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s c o r e s which would be e x p e c t e d t o show a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , a re o f the same magnitude as the v a l i d i t i e s f o r the Q u e s t i o n T e s t . T a b l e 3-5: Convergent and D i s c r i m i n a n t V a l i d i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s o f the Uses T e s t as Determined by G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n U s i n g C o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e Uses T e s t Scores A g a i n s t Scores on an I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t and Other C r e a t i v i t y T e s t s ] 0 C r i t e r i o n measure V a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t (N = 533) 1. Word a s s o c i a t i o n .37 2. Hidden shapes .20 3. F a b l e s .25 4. Make-up-problems .23 5. I n t e l l i g e n c e (IQ) .17 W h i l e most r e s e a r c h e r s i n t o c r e a t i v i t y m a i n t a i n t h a t c r e a t i v i t y i s a d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y from i n t e l l i g e n c e ( I Q ) , the low but s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n o f the Uses c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e w i t h IQ, shown i n T a b l e 3-5, i s i n s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e o f d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y f o r the Uses T e s t . T h e r e f o r e , i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y the time g i v e n f o r each Uses 32 s u b t e s t w i l l be i n c r e a s e d from t h r e e m i n u t e s , as i n the G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n s t u d y , t o f i v e m i n u t e s t o reduce the s i m i l a r i t y o f c r e a t i v i t y measurement w i t h t h a t o f t i m e d i n t e l l i g e n c e measurement. W a l l a c h and Kogan have shown t h a t by making t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y measures, which i n c l u d e d t h e Uses T e s t , s t r i c t l y power t e s t s , t h e y were a b l e t o o b t a i n s t r o n g e r c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t i e s as w e l l as a near z e r o d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y f o r c r e a t i v i t y measures a g a i n s t i n t e l l i g e n c e . 1 1 The C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e The C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e , a copy o f which has been i n c l u d e d i n Appendix C, i s an i n s t r u m e n t t h a t has been d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s s t u d y t o d e t e c t t h e amount o f t e a c h e r d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l s t u d e n t s o f the t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s p e r c e i v e d a t the end o f the s i x week i n t e r v a l o f t h i s s t u d y . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s c a l e w i l l be used t o v e r i f y t h a t t h e amount o f t e a c h e r d i r e c t i o n i n each e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s r o o m was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e o t h e r two i n the d i r e c t i o n i n t e n d e d . The C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e c o n s i s t s o f e l e v e n i t e m s . These item s c o v e r such a r e a s as c o n t e n t r e q u i r e d , m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d e d , amount o f t i m e t h e t e a c h e r t a l k e d , t e a c h e r q u e s t i o n i n g methods, approach t o e x p e r i -ments, t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s , t e a c h e r r e i n f o r c e m e n t , and t e a c h i n g methods. Each o f the e l e v e n i t e m s o f the s c a l e have t h r e e t o f i v e c h o i c e s , r a n g i n g i n t h e amount o f t e a c h e r d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l from p e r m i s s i v e t o a u t h o r i t a r i a n . In o r d e r t o v a l i d a t e t h a t t h e s e c h o i c e s f o r each i t e m on the s c a l e a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f p e r m i s s i v e , s e m i - p e r m i s s i v e o r a u t h o r i t a r i a n c l a s s r o o m s , seven t e a c h e r s were asked t o c a t e g o r i z e the c h o i c e s i n t o the t h r e e e x p e r -33 i m e n t a l c a t e g o r i e s . In o r d e r f o r a p a r t i c u l a r i t e m c h o i c e t o be c l a s s -i f i e d i n an e n v i r o n m e n t c a t e g o r y , the number o f j u d g e s s e l e c t i n g t h a t 12 c h o i c e f o r a g i v e n c a t e g o r y had t o exceed the 95% c o n f i d e n c e l i m i t s . These c o n f i d e n c e l i m i t s were c a l c u l a t e d i n terms o f the number o f j u d g e s ' s e l e c t i o n s f o r a l l c h o i c e s o f an i t e m i n a g i v e n c a t e g o r y . D e t a i l s o f t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n can be found i n Appendix C. Of t h e 42 c h o i c e s i n c l u d e d i n the C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e , t h e number o f c h o i c e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y s e l e c t e d f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l c a t e g o r i e s was 17 c h o i c e s and 18 c h o i c e s r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the a u t h o r i t a r i a n and p e r m i s s i v e groups and 7 c h o i c e s f o r the semi p e r m i s s i v e group. In o r d e r t o s c o r e t h i s s c a l e , each p e r m i s s i v e c h o i c e w i l l r e c e i v e t h r e e p o i n t s , each semi p e r m i s s i v e c h o i c e two. p o i n t s , and each a u t h o r i -t a r i a n c h o i c e one p o i n t . A s s i g n i n g p o i n t s i n t h i s way, the C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e y i e l d s a c l a s s r o o m e n vironment s c o r e . 34 Endnotes - Chapter III E. Paul Torrance, Guiding Creative Talent (Englewood C l i f f s : P rent ice -Ha l l , 1962), pp. 222-230. 2 Michael A. Wallach and Nathan Kogan, Modes of Thinking in Young  Children (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965), pp. 12-13. 3 Waldo W. Dahl, "A Report of Explorations and Research into Crea-t i v i t y Measurement and Question-Asking Behaviour," 1968, p. 30, unpublished manuscript. 4 J . P . Gui l ford et a l . , "Current Summary of Structure of I n te l l ec t Factors and Suggested Tests," Reports from the Psychological Laboratory (Los Angeles), no. 3, Dec. 1963, pp. 5-7. 5 Jacob W. Getzels and P h i l l i p W. Jackson, Creat i v i ty and I n t e l l i - gence: Explorations with Gifted Students (London: John Wiley and Sons, 1963), pp. 200-201. ^Michael A. Wallach and Nathan Kogan, op. c i t . , pp. 28-37. ^Jacob W. Getzels and P h i l l i p W. Jackson, op. c i t . , p. 201. o Anne Anastasi, Psychological Testing (New York: Macmillan Publ i sh-ing Co., 1968), p. 155. Q D.T. Campbell and D.W. Fisk, "Convergent and Discriminant Va l ida-t ion by M u l t i t r a i t and Multimethod matrix," Psychological B u l l e t i n , vo l . 56, 1959, pp. 81-105. ^Jacob W. Getzels and P h i l l i p W. Jackson, op. c i t . , p. 20. ^Michael A. Wallach and Nathan Kogan, op. c i t . , p. 55. 12 George W. Snedecor and Will iam G. Cochran, S t a t i s t i c a l Methods (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1967), pp. 210-211. 35 CHAPTER IV METHODOLOGY V a l i d a t i o n o f C r e a t i v i t y T e s t s In t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s i n C h a p t e r I I I , d a t a were g i v e n r e g a r d i n g the v a l i d i t y o f the two c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s t o be used. However, f o r t h e newly d e v e l o p e d Q u e s t i o n T e s t , the needed c r o s s - v a l i d a -t i o n d a t a w i l l be d e r i v e d from p r e t e s t d a t a o f the p r o j e c t sample. As w e l l , d e t e r m i n a t i o n s w i l l be made f o r both the Q u e s t i o n T e s t and Uses T e s t o f c o n v e r g e n t and d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y u s i n g p r e t e s t d a t a . Q u e s t i o n T e s t C r o s s - V a l i d a t i o n I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t e s t v a l i d i t y be computed on a d i f f e r e n t sample o f per s o n s from t h a t on which the s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s were d e v e l -oped. T h i s c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n i s done on the assumption t h a t the v a r i a n c e o f chance f a c t o r s which may have e n t e r e d t o g i v e a s p u r i o u s v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t on the f i r s t sample w i l l f a l l away when v a l i d i t y i s d e t e r -mined on a second s a m p l e . 1 Thus, f o r the Q u e s t i o n T e s t , c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n w i l l be a c c o m p l i s h e d by c a l c u l a t i o n s on p r e t e s t d a t a o f the sample o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y , c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y b e i n g d e r i v e d from c o r r e l a t i o n s o f c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s o f t he Q u e s t i o n T e s t a g a i n s t p r e t e s t c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s o f t h e Uses T e s t , and d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y b e i n g d e r i v e d from c o r r e l a t i o n o f p r e t e s t c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s o f t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t a g a i n s t t h e Henman-Nelson i n t e l -l i g e n c e t e s t s c o r e s a v a i l a b l e from s t u d e n t r e c o r d s . 36 Uses T e s t V a l i d i t y U s i n g Extended S u b t e s t T i m i n g As p o i n t e d o u t i n C h a p t e r I I I i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the Uses T e s t , t h e c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t i e s o f the Uses T e s t ( c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r c r e a t i v i t y measures) are low when t h r e e minutes a r e a l l o c a t e d p e r sub-t e s t . A s ' w e l l , t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y ( c o r r e l a t i o n o f uses s c o r e s a g a i n s t i n t e l l i g e n c e s c o r e s ) i s too h i g h when t h r e e minutes p e r s u b t e s t a r e used. W a l l a c h and Kogan have shown t h a t such d e f i c i e n c i e s i n v a l i d i t y can be c o r r e c t e d by a d m i n i s t e r i n g c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s i n d i v i d u a l l y and by removing t i m e c o n s t r a n t s . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y an a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o improve t h e v a l i d i t y o f the Uses T e s t by e x t e n d i n g the t i m e p e r sub-t e s t from t h r e e m inutes t o f i v e m i n u t e s . Success a t i m p r o v i n g the Uses T e s t v a l i d i t i e s w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by r a i s i n g i t s c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y 3 from t h e .20 s o f the G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n s t u d y t o t h e .40's o f t h e 4 W a l l a c h and Kogan work, and by l o w e r i n g d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y from the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l o f the G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n d a t a t o the s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l o f the W a l l a c h and Kogan d a t a . D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Sample The sample i n t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t s o f f o u r grade seven c l a s s e s . Three o f t h e s e c l a s s e s a r e l o c a t e d i n O l i v e r , B r i t i s h C olumbia and one i n Midway, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The t o t a l sample c o n s i s t s o f 132 s t u d e n t s . E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups Ac c e s s t o t h e O l i v e r p o r t i o n o f the sample has come about as a r e s u l t o f d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h Mr. Ken Beck, head o f the s c i e n c e department i n t h e O l i v e r E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , w h i l e he was a t a s c i e n c e t e a c h e r s ' 37 c o n f e r e n c e here a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n t h e f a l l o f 1967. As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s , he has o f f e r e d t h r e e o f h i s grade seven s c i e n c e c l a s s e s as p a r t o f t h e sample f o r t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . Mr. Beck has d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f w i l l i n g t o t e a c h the ESS u n i t B a t t e r i e s and B u l b s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t s o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r . A t t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 8 ) , c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h Mr. Beck i n d i c a t e t h a t he has a l r e a d y t a u g h t s e v e r a l ESS u n i t s , namely, Smal1  T h i n g s , K i t c h e n P h y s i c s , and B e h a v i o u r o f Mealworms, t o t h e s e t h r e e grade seven s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . Having t a u g h t s c i e n c e by c o n t e n t o r i e n t e d , t r a d i -t i o n a l methods e a r l i e r i n h i s c a r e e r , Mr. Beck i s w e l l - e q u i p p e d t o t e a c h B a t t e r i e s and B u l b s by p e r m i s s i v e as w e l l as a u t h o r i t a r i a n a p p r o a c h e s . A l s o , o f c o u r s e , t h e O l i v e r s t u d e n t s have a l l , by now, had e x p e r -i e n c e w i t h p e r m i s s i v e and a u t h o r i t a r i a n c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e s e t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s w i l l have a r e l a t i v e l y easy t i m e becoming accustomed t o the p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t w i l l be a s s i g n e d t o them. The C o n t r o l Group The c o n t r o l group i s a grade seven c l a s s i n the Midway E l e m e n t a r y School i n Midway, B r i t i s h C o l u mbia. Mr. P e t e r P e r e p e l k i n , the grade seven s c i e n c e t e a c h e r , has k i n d l y p e r m i t t e d the p r e - and p o s t t e s t i n g o f h i s c l a s s a t t i m e s t h a t c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e t e s t i n g o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . From d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h Mr. P e r e p e l k i n and from v i s i t s t o t h e c l a s s r o o m d u r i n g s c i e n c e l e s s o n s , i t would appear t h a t the c o n t r o l group i s r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c i e n c e u s i n g the s t a n d a r d B.C. Department o f E d u c a t i o n t e x t and c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e . 38 D e s c r i p t i o n o f E x p e r i m e n t a l Design F i e l d Study K e r l i n g e r d i v i d e s e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h i n t o f o u r m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s , namely, l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s , f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t s , 5 f i e l d s t u d i e s , and s u r v e y s t u d i e s . Under such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n the p r e s e n t s t u d y i s , i n p a r t , a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f an e a r l i e r e x p l o r a t o r y f i e l d s t u d y by Dahl on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the a p t i t u d e s o f c r e a t i v i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e t o q u e s t i o n a s k i n g s t y l e s . T h e r e f o r e , an a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p -t i o n o f t h a t p a r t o f the p r e s e n t work t h a t has t o do w i t h q u e s t i o n a s k i n g i s t h a t o f a h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g f i e l d s t u d y . Because o f t h e ex p o s t f a c t o r c h a r a c t e r o f the f i e l d s t u d y , s t a t e -ments o f t h e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d i n such s t u d i e s a r e weaker than s t a t e m e n t s o f c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s d e r i v e d from e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h . There-f o r e , t h e f i e l d s t u d y a s p e c t o f the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h w i l l s e r v e i n t h e r o l e o f c l a r i f i c a t i o n and s u p p o r t o f t h e f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t and measureable changes i n c r e a t i v i t y . D e f i n i t i o n . o f . . G r o u p s i n . t h e F i e l d Study The f i e l d s t u d y a s p e c t o f t h i s p r o j e c t has t a k e n i t s d i r e c t i o n from t h e work o f G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n , r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r , i n w h i c h two d i f f e r -e n t groups were d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : (1) the h i g h c r e a t i v e g r o u p , composed o f s t u d e n t s who s c o r e d i n the t o p 20% on c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s , but d i d n o t s c o r e i n the t o p 20% on i n t e l -l i g e n c e t e s t s ; (2) the h i g h IQ group composed o f s t u d e n t s who s c o r e d i n the t o p 20% on 39 IQ t e s t s , but d i d n o t s c o r e i n the t o p 20% on c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s . These two groups were then s t u d i e d by G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n i n ex p o s t f a c t o f a s h i o n u s i n g C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s f o r the most p a r t . As i n the case o f G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n t h e f i e l d s t u d y a s p e c t o f t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l s t a r t w i t h the o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the dependent v a r i a b l e s , namely, q u e s t i o n a s k i n g s c o r e s and r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y s t u d y t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , c r e a t i v i t y , and c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h e i r p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s on q u e s t i o n a s k i n g s c o r e s . However, i n s t e a d o f s t u d y i n g t h e top 20% o f the sample w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i -a b l e , the method here w i l l be t o d e f i n e groups i n terms o f t h e upper h a l f and l o w e r h a l f o f the sample w i t h r e s p e c t t o the median o f a g i v e n , i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . D e f i n i t i o n o f Groups U s i n g One  Independent V a r i a b l e a t a Time P r o c e e d i n g w i t h groups d e f i n e d i n t h i s manner, i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o t e s t hypotheses r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a p t i t u d e s such as i n t e l -l i g e n c e and c r e a t i v i t y t o q u e s t i o n a s k i n g . For t e s t i n g t h e s e hypotheses the e n t i r e sample w i l l be used. Fo r hypotheses r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t to q u e s t i o n a s k i n g o n l y t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p a r t o f the sample w i l l be used. The reason f o r l i m i t i n g the sample to the e x p e r i m e n t a l p o r t i o n o f the sample on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e i s t h a t the most d i s t i n c t and i n t e n t i o n a l m a n i p u l a t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t has o c c u r r e d i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e sample. 40 D e f i n i t i o n o f Groups U s i n g Two  Independent V a r i a b l e s a t a Time To d e t e c t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s such as p o s s i b l e c o n s i s t e n t e f f e c t s o f the c o m b i n a t i o n o f h i g h c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y w i t h a h i g h p e r m i s s i v e e n v i r o n m e n t (C^P^) on q u e s t i o n a s k i n g , f o u r d i s t i n c t groups w i l l be s e g r e t a t e d u s i n g the medians o f c r e a t i v i t y and c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t , as shown i n Diagram 4-1. h i g h c r e a t i v i t y low c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t G H P H C P L H C H P L C P L L median o f c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s (Uses T e s t ) median o f c l a s s r o o m environment s c o r e s Diagram 4-1: A s c h e m a t i c d i a g r a m i l l u s t r a t i n g the method o f p a r t i t i o n -i n g groups d e f i n e d i n terms o f two i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ; c r e a t i v i t y and c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t . In a s i m i l a r way, groups w i l l be formed f o r s t u d y o f p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s o f c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e on q u e s t i o n a s k i n g . Proposed Methods o f Data  A n a l y s i s i n the F i e l d Study In the a n a l y s i s o f d a t a d e r i v e d from the f i e l d s t u d y p a r t o f t h i s p r o j e c t , a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and the F - t e s t w i l l be used. One o f the c r i t e r i a f o r the use o f a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i s t h a t the d a t a show a 41 normal o r near normal d i s t r i b u t i o n . The f a c t u a l and yes-no q u e s t i o n a s k i n g s c o r e s have been shown i n an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y , r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r t o have a normal o r near normal d i s t r i b u t i o n . ^ F u r t h e r m o r e , i n samples g r e a t e r than 15 a c e r t a i n l a c k o f n o r m a l i t y can be t o l e r a t e d by a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e p r o c e d u r e s . 7 In s i t u a t i o n s where t h e F - t e s t d e t e c t s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among f o u r groups , as i n the i n t e r a c t i o n g r o u p s , t h e t - t e s t c a l c u l a t e d i n terms o f t h e l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e w i l l be used t o d e t e c t between w h i c h o f t h e f o u r groups s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t . The f i e l d s t u d y a n a l y s i s d e s c r i b e d above w i l l be done f o r p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t d a t a i n r e g a r d t o the hypotheses o f a p t i t u d e s o f i n t e l l i -gence and c r e a t i v i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o q u e s t i o n a s k i n g . However, i n the a n a l y s i s o f q u e s t i o n a s k i n g as i t r e l a t e s t o groups d e t e r m i n e d by the c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t v a r i a b l e and as i t r e l a t e s t o groups d e t e r m i n e d by i n t e r a c t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t and a p t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s , o n l y the changes i n q u e s t i o n a s k i n g from p r e t e s t t o p o s t t e s t w i l l be a n a l y z e d . As i n d i c a t e d i n C h a p t e r I , s h o u l d q u e s t i o n g a i n d a t a show non-n o r m a l i t y t h a t i s s t r o n g enough to cause s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n . group means o f q u e s t i o n g a i n s t o be o b s c u r e d i n a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , C h i -square a n a l y s i s o f d i v e r g e n c e o f group q u e s t i o n g a i n s from e x p e c t e d group q u e s t i o n g a i n s w i l l be c a l c u l a t e d w i t h the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s e t a t 1%. The F i e l d E x p e r i m e n t The f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t o f t h i s p r o j e c t s e t s out t o t e s t h y p otheses r e l a t i n g s c i e n c e c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t s and c r e a t i v i t y . In a t r u e e x p e r -iment t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r has the power t o a s s i g n s u b j e c t s t o e x p e r i m e n t a l 42 p groups o r t o a s s i g n e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t s t o groups a t random. From the e a r l i e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f the sample, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t s e v e r a l p r a c t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s w i l l make i t n e c e s s a r y t o l i m i t r a ndomiza-t i o n o f the t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t s t o t h e t h r e e O l i v e r grade seven c l a s s e s . One o f t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s has t o do w i t h the need t o c o n t r o l f o r g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n c r e a s e d s e n s i t i z a t i o n due t o p r e t e s t , the p r e s e n c e f r o m time t o time o f a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t , and the l i k e l y d i s c u s s i o n among s t u d e n t s o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c o n t e n t o f t h e i r s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . With a l l t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups i n one p l a c e r e c e i v i n g a c o u r s e i n B a t t e r i e s  and B u l b s , e x p e r i m e n t a l s e n s i t i z a t i o n may be k e p t t o a minimum. A f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n w h i c h l e d t o l o c a t i n g a l l t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups i n O l i v e r had t o do w i t h the p r a c t i c a l i t y o f d e t e r m i n i n g w i t h one t e a c h e r t h e ways i n w h i c h c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t s would be implemented. U l t i m a t e l y , however, l i m i t i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups t o t h e O l i v e r c l a s s e s has had t o do w i t h need t o c o n t r o l r e a c t i v e measures as Campbell c a l l s t h e s e n s i t i z a t i o n due t o t h e awareness o f b e i n g p a r t o f an e x p e r i -. 10 ment. Proposed Methods o f Data A n a l y s i s  from the F i e l d E x p e r i m e n t S i n c e i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h group e q u i v a l e n c e among t h e f o u r groups on the b a s i s o f c r e a t i v i t y p r e t e s t s and o t h e r r e l e -v a n t v a r i a b l e s , a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e comes t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s a s s i s -t a n c e . Through t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n t r o l group d i f f e r e n c e s s t a t i s t i c a l l y by removing from the dependent v a r i a b l e sum o f s q u a r e s t h a t p a r t due t o the r e l a t i o n between the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e and dependent v a r i a b l e . 1 1 .4.3 In o r d e r t o d e t e c t such s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t e s o f c r e a t i v i t y ( t h e dependent v a r i a b l e ) , a backward s t e p - w i s e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s w i l l be 12 c o n d u c t e d . The v a r i a b l e s w i t h which t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s w i l l s t a r t w i l l be IQ, age, s e x , p r e t e s t c r e a t i v i t y f a c t o r s c o r e s , and p r e t e s t q u e s t i o n a s k i n g s o c r e s . Such r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s t o g e t h e r w i t h the r e l a t e d a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e w i l l be c onducted f o r t h e group means o f t h e p o s t Uses T e s t s and p o s t Q u e s t i o n T e s t s o f c r e a t i v i t y . The c o m p u t a t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s w i l l f o r t h e most p a r t be c o n d u c t e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Computing C e n t r e . 44 Endnotes - C h a p t e r IV C . I . M o s i e r , "Problems and D e s i g n s o f C r o s s - V a l i d a t i o n , ! ' . Educa- t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement, 11, 1951, pp. 5-11. 2 M i c h a e l A. W a l l a c h and Nathan Kogan, Modes o f T h i n k i n g i n Young  C h i l d r e n (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 24. 3 J a c o b W. G e t z e l s and P h i l l i p W. J a c k s o n , C r e a t i v i t y and I n t e l l i - gence: E x p l o r a t i o n s w i t h G i f t e d S t u d e n t s (London: John W i l e y and Sons, 1963), p. 20. 4 M i c h a e l A. W a l l a c h and Nathan Kogan, op. c i t . , p. 55. 5 F r e d N. K e r l i n g e r , F o u n d a t i o n s o f B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1964), p. 375. 6Waldo W.'Dahl, "A Rep o r t o f E x p l o r a t i o n s and R e s e a r c h i n t o C r e a -t i v i t y and Q u e s t i o n - A s k i n g B e h a v i o u r , " u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , 1968, p. 40. 7G.E.P. Box, "N o n - N o r m a l i t y and T e s t s on V a r i a n c e s , " B i o m e t r i k a , 40, 1953, pp. 318-335. Q F r e d N. K e r l i n g e r , op. c i t . , p. 291. 9 I b i d . , p. 294. 1 0 D . C a m p b e l l , " F a c t o r s R e l e v a n t t o the V a l i d i t y o f E x p e r i m e n t s i n S o c i a l S e t t i n g s , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 54, 1957, pp. 298-299. 1 1 F r e d N. K e r l i n g e r , op. c i t . , p. 350. George W. Snedecor and W i l l i a m G. C o c h r a n , S t a t i s t i c a l Methods (Ames: Iowa S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967), p. 413. 45 CHAPTER V REPORT OF FINDINGS V a l i d i t y o f C r e a t i v i t y T e s t s R e f e r e n c e has a l r e a d y been made i n C h a p t e r I I I t o t h e low, but s i g n i f i c a n t v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f .23 f o r the Q u e s t t i o n T e s t u s i n g t e a c h e r r a t i n g s o f c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y as t h e c r i t e r i o n measure. T h i s r e s u l t was o b t a i n e d on t h e sample on which s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s o f the Q u e s t i o n T e s t were d e v e l o p e d . In t h e v a l i d a t i o n o f the Q u e s t i o n T e s t on a second sample u s i n g the Uses T e s t as an i n d e p e n d e n t measure o f c r e a t i v i t y , c o r r e l a t i o n s o f .68 and .54 were o b t a i n e d f o r p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . These s u b s t a n t i a l c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t i e s a r e s t r o n g i n d i c a t o r s t h a t the Q u e s t i o n T e s t measures t h e d i v e r g e n t produc-t i o n G u i l f o r d has o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d i n h i s S t r u c t u r e o f the I n t e l -l e c t Model and measured w i t h the Uses T e s t among o t h e r s . ( s e e T a b l e 5-1). T a b l e 5-1: C o n c u r r e n t C o nvergent V a l i d i t i e s o f t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t C r e a t i v i t y F a c t o r Scores Determined on P r e t e s t s and f o r C r e a t i v i t y S c o r e s Determined on P r e t e s t s and P o s t t e s t s U s i n g Uses T e s t C r e a t i v i t y F a c t o r S c o r e s and T o t a l C r e a t i v i t y S c o r e s as C r i t e r i o n Measures T e s t t o be v a l i d a t e d C r i t e r i o n measure Q u e s t i o n T e s t F l u e n c y F l e x i b i l i t y Uses T e s t O r i g i n a l i t y T o t a l s c o r e P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t FIuency F l e x i b i l i t y O r i g i n a l i t y T o t a l s c o r e .52 .46 .51 .68 .54 46 A l t h o u g h t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t appears t o e x h i b i t s a t i s f a c t o r y con-v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y , i t i s e v i d e n t from T a b l e 5-2 t h a t the Q u e s t i o n T e s t a l s o appears t o be measuring some o f t h e c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s u s u a l l y measured by i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . The l o w , but s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f the Q u e s t i o n T e s t c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e and f a c t o r s c o r e s ( e x c e p t o r i g i n a l i t y ) do not a l l o w the as s u m p t i o n t h a t the Q u e s t i o n T e s t measures o n l y d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n . T a b l e 5-2: C o n c u r r e n t D i s c r i m i n a n t V a l i d i t i e s o f t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t C r e a t i v i t y F a c t o r S c o r e s and T o t a l C r e a t i v i t y S c o r e U s i n g I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t S c o r e s (Henmon-Nelson T e s t o f Mental A b i l i t y ) A v a i l a b l e i n S t u d e n t R e c o r d s ) as the C r i t e r i o n Measure T e s t t o be v a l i d a t e d C r i t e r i o n measure (N = P 122) Q u e s t i o n T e s t I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s c o r e s F l u e n c y .19 < .05 F l e x i b i l i t y .32 < .01 E l a b o r a t i o n .18 < .05 O r i g i n a l i t y .16 ns T o t a l c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e .21 < .05 T h i s f a i l u r e t o d e t e c t o n l y c r e a t i v e o r d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n w i l l be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t when i n t e r p r e t i n g the p a r t o f the f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t w h i c h i n v o l v e s t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t d a t a . T u r n i n g now t o the v a l i d i t i e s o f the Uses T e s t , i t appears from T a b l e 5-3 t h a t the use o f a l o n g e r t i m e per s u b t e s t g i v e s the Uses T e s t t h e c a p a c i t y t o measure c r e a t i v i t y as d e f i n e d i n G u i l f o r d ' s S t r u c t u r e o f t h e I n t e l l e c t and a l s o g i v e s i t t h e c a p a c i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s o f d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n from t h o s e c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s measured by i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . 47 T a b l e 5-3: Convergent and D i s c r i m i n a n t V a l i d i t i e s o f the Uses T e s t and O t h e r C r e a t i v i t y T e s t s U s i n g Three D i f f e r e n t Times f o r t h e T e s t s G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n 3 min. s u b t e s t W a l l a c h and Kogan no time c o n s t r a i n t P r e s e n t s t u d y t e s t 5 min. s u b t e s t C o n vergent V a l i d i t y r p .26 .01 mean o f 4 c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s v s . Uses T e s t r p .41 .01 mean o f 45 r ' s i n c l u d i n g t he Uses T e s t r P .61 .01 mean o f 2 r ' s o f Uses T e s t v s . Q u e s t i o n T e s t D i s c r i m i n a n t V a l i d i t y .17 .01 Uses v s . IQ .09 ns 100 r ' s o f c r e a t i v -i t y s c o r e s v s . IQ .08 ns Uses v s . IQ From a r e v i e w o f t h e v a l i d a t i o n d a t a p r e s e n t e d above, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e j e c t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s d e a l i n g w i t h the v a l i d a t i o n o f the Q u e s t i o n T e s t . However, i t i s o n l y p o s s i b l e t o a c c e p t t h a t p a r t o f the c o r r e s p o n d -i n g a l t e r n a t e h y p o t h e s i s d e a l i n g w i t h c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y . The Sample Once a l l d a t a had been c o l l e c t e d t h e e n t i r e sample c o n s i s t e d o f 122 s t u d e n t s f o r whom co m p l e t e s e t s o f d a t a were a v a i l a b l e . The breakdown by groups can be seen i n T a b l e 5-4. T a b l e 5-4: The Breakdown o f the Sample by Groups Group Number o f s t u d e n t s P e r m i s s i v e 34 Semi p e r m i s s i v e 31 A u t h o r i t a r i a n 33 C o n t r o l 24 T o t a l 122 48 The C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d on a day f o l l o w i n g p o s t t e s t i n g . . On t h a t day the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups had the f o l l o w i n g numbers: p e r m i s s i v e 32, semi p e r m i s s i v e 29, and a u t h o r i t a r i a n 31. A l t h o u g h most o f the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s were done a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Computing C e n t r e , a few a n a l y s e s such as the a n a l y s i s o f c l a s s r o o m environment d a t a o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups were done by hand. For ease o f a n a l y s i s each e x p e r i m e n t a l , group was made e q u i v a l e n t i n num-ber t o t h e semi p e r m i s s i v e group by randomly d e l e t i n g t h r e e s t u d e n t s from the p e r m i s s i v e group and two from the a u t h o r i t a r i a n group. T h i s would p e r m i t a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h samples o f eq u a l s i z e . A n a l y s i s o f C l a s s r o o m Environment Data In t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t d a t a , t h e C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e used w i t h the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups was w r i t t e n i n terms o f B a t t e r i e s and Bulb s e x p e r i e n c e s . To m i n i m i z e s e n s i t i z i n g t he c o n t r o l g r o u p , the c l a s s r o o m environment o f the c o n t r o l group was a s s e s s e d by two c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s u s i n g a p a r a l l e l form o f t h e s t u d e n t v e r s i o n o f the C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e but p r e p a r e d f o r g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n . The form o f the C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e used on the c o n t r o l group had e l e v e n i t e m s . However, t h e t e a c h e r s were asked t o s e l e c t o n l y one c h o i c e p e r i t e m . U s i n g the method o f w e i g h t i n g a p p l i e d on the C l a s s -room Environment S c a l e f o r s t u d e n t s (one p o i n t f o r . a n a u t h o r i t a r i a n c h o i c e , two p o i n t s f o r a semi p e r m i s s i v e c h o i c e , and t h r e e p o i n t s f o r a p e r m i s s i v e c h o i c e ) , a c o m p l e t e l y a u t h o r i t a r i a n s e t o f c h o i c e s would y i e l d a s c o r e o f 11, a t o t a l l y s e m i p e r m i s s i v e s e t o f c h o i c e s would g i v e a s c o r e o f 22, and a t o t a l l y p e r m i s s i v e s c o r e would be 33. With t h i s p r o c e d u r e 49 one c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s c o r e d t h e c o n t r o l group a t 13 and the o t h e r t e a c h e r s c o r e d the group a t 16, i n d i c a t i n g a c l a s s r o o m e n vironment between a u t h o r i t a r i a n and semi p e r m i s s i v e . In t h e s t u d e n t v e r s i o n o f the C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e used t o a s s e s s t h e c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , s t u d e n t s were not r e s t r i c t e d t o one c h o i c e p e r i t e m as were the t e a c h e r s a s s e s s i n g t h e c o n t r o l group. The w e i g h t i n g o f c h o i c e s was done as f o r the c o n t r o l . The a n a l y s i s o f the c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t d a t a shown i n T a b l e 5-5 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group means o b t a i n e d on the C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r a t w e l l below t h e 1% l e v e l , t hus a l l o w i n g t h e r e j e c t i o n o f the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e group means. F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a c c e p t t h e a l t e r n a t e h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -f e r e n c e s i n e x p e r i m e n t a l group means on t h e C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e . T a b l e 5-5: A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f C l a s s r o o m Three E x p e r i m e n t a l Groups Environment Means o f the Source d f SS MS F P Between 2 9062 4531 320.9 <.005 W i t h i n 84 1186 14.12 MEANS Group Mean SD P e r m i s s i v e 38.7 2.66 Semi p e r m i s s i v e 29.7 4.21 A u t h o r i t a r i a n 24.1 3.92 L e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( 1 % l e v e l ) 50 The Backward S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s F o r r e a s o n s i n d i c a t e d i n C h a p t e r IV, i t has been i m p o s s i b l e to match each o f the f o u r groups i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y on a l l c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s r e l e v a n t t o t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y a t the o u t s e t o f the e x p e r i m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e a n a l y s i s o f the group p o s t means o f c r e a t i v i t y d e r i v e d f o r t h e f o u r groups from s c o r e s on the Q u e s t i o n T e s t and Uses T e s t has been done by a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e . The s i g n i f i c a n t c o v a r i a t e s f o r the group p o s t means o f c r e a t i v i t y have been d e t e r m i n e d by a backward s t e p -w i s e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s u s i n g age, IQ, p r e t e s t c r e a t i v i t y f a c t o r s c o r e s , p r e t e s t c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s , and q u e s t i o n s c o r e s as p o s s i b l e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s and t h e p o s t c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s as the dependent v a r i a b l e . , C o v a r i a t e s f o r A n a l y s i s o f P o s t  Q u e s t i o n T e s t Group Means The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s o f t h e p o s t c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s o b t a i n e d from the p o s t Q u e s t i o n T e s t used age, IQ, p r e t e s t c r e a t i v i t y f a c t o r s c o r e s , and Uses p r e t e s t c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s as p o s s i b l e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . From T a b l e 5-6 i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t the p r e t e s t c r e a t i v i t y f a c t o r s o f e l a b o r a -t i o n and o r i g i n a l i t y and the p r e t e s t f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s c o r e t u r n e d o u t t o T a b l e 5-6: The S i g n i f i c a n t C o v a r i a t e s o f t h e Backward S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s f o r P o s t t e s t C r e a t i v i t y S c o r es o f the Q u e s t i o n T e s t P r e t e s t v a r i a b l e C o e f f i c i e n t S t a n d a r d e r r o r F - r a t i o p E l a b o r a t i o n 1.3905 0.3880 12.84 .0006 O r i g i n a l i t y 1.1210 0.3512 10.19 .002 F a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s 0.7525 0.2831 7.07 .009 R 2 = .51 51 be s i g n i f i c a n t c o v a r i a t e s and e x p l a i n a b o u t 5 1 % o f the v a r i a t i o n i n t h e p o s t Q u e s t i o n T e s t s c o r e s . C o v a r i a t e s f o r A n a l y s i s o f  P o s t Uses T e s t Group Means A second s t e p down r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d . T h i s t i m e t h e p o s t Uses T e s t c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s s e r v e d as the dependent v a r i a b l e w i t h age, IQ, p r e t e s t c r e a t i v i t y f a c t o r s c o r e s o f both the Q u e s t i o n T e s t and Uses T e s t as w e l l as p r e t e s t q u e s t i o n s c o r e s s e r v i n g as p o s s i b l e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . The r e s u l t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t c o v a r i a t e s o f t h e p o s t Uses T e s t c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s a r e t h e p r e t e s t f a c t u a l and yes-no q u e s t i o n s c o r e s and the o r i g i n a l i t y s c o r e o f t h e Uses p r e t e s t . These t h r e e c o v a r i a t e s a c c o u n t f o r 36% o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n t h e p o s t Uses T e s t c r e a t i v -i t y s c o r e s . ( s e e T a b l e 5-7). T a b l e 5-7: The S i g n i f i c a n t C o v a r i a t e s o f the Backward S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s f o r P o s t t e s t C r e a t i v i t y S c o r e s o f the Uses T e s t P r e t e s t v a r i a b l e C o e f f i c i e n t S t a n d a r d e r r o r F - r a t i o p O r i g i n a l i t y ( Uses) 1.2610 0.2681 22.12 .0000 F a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s 0.4835 0.1649 8.60 .0041 Yes-no q u e s t i o n s 0.6129 0.1853 10.94 .0014 R 2 = .36 A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f P o s t Group C r e a t i v i t y Means Having d e t e r m i n e d the s i g n i f i c a n t c o v a r i a t e s f o r each o f the two s e t s o f p o s t c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s , the n e x t s t e p was t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r -i a n c e t o d e t e r m i n e any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the p o s t t e s t 52 c r e a t i v i t y means o f the f o u r groups i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y . From an e x a m i n a t i o n o f T a b l e s 5-8 and 5-9 i t becomes c l e a r t h a t t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the means o f c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s o f the f o u r groups. However, i t i s a p p a r e n t from a c u r s o r y l o o k a t the a d j u s t e d means f o r b o t h t e s t s t h a t t he means f o r p e r m i s s i v e and a u t h o r i t a r i a n groups do n o t show s i m i l a r t r e n d s . T a b l e 5-8: A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f t h e Four Group Means o f P o s t C r e a t i v i t y S c o r e s f o r t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t (p < .05, F = 3.92, p < .01, F = 5.84) -S o u r c e d f SS MS F P Group 3 885.8 295.3 7.33 <. .01 E r r o r 115 4633.7 40.3 ADJUSTED MEANS (based on s t a n d a r d s c o r e s ) Group: P e r m i s s i v e Semi p e r m i s s i v e A u t h o r i t a r i a n C o n t r o l -2.27 0.68 3.99 -2.68 T a b l e 5-9: A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f t h e Four Group Means o f P o s t C r e a t i v i t y S c o r e s from the Uses T e s t Source d f SS MS F P Group E r r o r 3 115 289.2 94.6 2033.1 17.7 5.45 < .05 ADJUSTED MEANS Group: P e r m i s s i v e Semi p e r m i s s i v e A u t h o r i t a r i a n C o n t r o l 2. .52 -0.55 -0.52 -2.02 53 These s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the group means o f both t e s t s now demand a f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e between each p a i r o f group means, u s i n g t h e c o v a r i a t e s employed i n the a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e among the means. T h i s a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e between p a i r s o f group means a l l o w s one t o ' make" a judgement r e g a r d i n g the a l t e r n a t e hypotheses c o n c e r n i n g c l a s s r o o m environment and c r e a t i v i t y s e t down a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h i s s t u d y (see T a b l e 5-10). T a b l e 5-10: A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e Between A l l P o s s i b l e P a i r s o f the Four Group Means o f C r e a t i v i t y O b t a i n e d from the P o s t Q u e s t i o n T e s t Group p a i r Source •df SS MS F P P e r m i s s i v e Group 1 -118.4 118.4 2.18 ns vs. S e m i p e r m i s s i v e E r r o r 58 3145.1 54.2 P e r m i s s i v e Group 1 585.5 585.5 17.13 < .01 vs. A u t h o r i t a r i a n E r r o r 62 2119.4 34.2 P e r m i s s i v e Group 1 16.1 16.1 0.44 ns vs. C o n t r o l E r r o r 55 2004.9 36.5 S e m i p e r m i s s i v e Group 1 123.9 123.9 2.76 ns vs. A u t h o r i t a r i a n E r r o r 57 2554.8 44.8 S e m i p e r m i s s i v e Group 1 187.0 187.0 3.90 ns vs. C o n t r o l E r r o r 50 2395.7 47.9 A u t h o r i t a r i a n Group 1 573.0. 573.0 21.43 < .01 vs. C o n t r o l E r r o r 54 1443.8 27.7 54 The a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e between p a i r s o f group means o f p o s t Q u e s t i o n T e s t c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s b r i n g s o u t , as can be seen from T a b l e 5-10, t h a t the a u t h o r i t a r i a n group mean o f c r e a t i v i t y i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than both the p e r m i s s i v e and c o n t r o l group means o f c r e a t i v i t y . I t appears t h a t f o r t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s u g g e s t -i n g no d i f f e r e n c e among c r e a t i v i t y means can be r e j e c t e d , but the a l t e r -n a t e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t c l a s s e s showing s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r c l a s s means on the C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e would show s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r c l a s s means o f c r e a t i v i t y c o u l d not be a c c e p t e d . In f a c t , t h e magnitudes o f group means o f c r e a t i v i t y from t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t s u g g e s t t h e r e v e r s e o f the o r d e r o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t from t h a t proposed i n t h e a l t e r n a t e h y p o t h e s i s . However, once a l l t h e f i n d i n g s o f the s t u d y a r e r e p o r t e d a c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s unexpected r e v e r s a l may be p o s s i b l e . A s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e o f p a i r s o f group means o f p o s t Uses T e s t c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s r e v e a l s . tT.aW.e:.5-VI) t h a t the p e r m i s s i v e group mean o f c r e a t i v i t y i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than the semi p e r m i s s i v e and c o n t r o l group means o f c r e a t i v i t y . As w e l l * the a u t h o r i t a r i a n group mean o f c r e a t i v i t y i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than the c o n t r o l group mean o f c r e a t i v i t y . As t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the group means o f the p o s t Uses T e s t , t h e n u l l hypotheses r e l a t i n g c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t means and p o s t group means o f c r e a t i v i t y can be r e j e c t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , from t h e o r d e r o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a n a l y s i s o f a l l p o s s i b l e p a i r s o f p o s t Uses means shown i n T a b l e 5-11, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a c c e p t the a l t e r n a t e h y p o t h e s i s f o r t h e p e r m i s s i v e group e x c e p t i n r e l a t i o n t o th e a u t h o r i t a r i a n group as t h e r e i s l a c k o f a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 55 T a b l e 5-11: A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e Between A l l P o s s i b l e P a i r s o f the Four Group Means o f C r e a t i v i t y O b t a i n e d from t h e P o s t Uses T e s t Group p a i r Source d f SS MS F P P e r m i s s i v e Group 1 162.5 162.5 6.77 < .05 vs . S e m i p e r m i s s i v e E r r o r 58 1391.2 24.0 P e r m i s s i v e Group 1 83.2 83.2 3.51 ns v s . A u t h o r i t a r i a n E r r o r 62 1469.3 23.7 P e r m i s s i v e Group 1 261.2 261.2 11.36 < .01 vs . C o n t r o l E r r o r 55 1264.4 23.0 S e m i p e r m i s s i v e Group 1 0.2 0.2 0.01 ns v s . A u t h o r i t a r i a n E r r o r . 57 708.5 12.4 S e m i p e r m i s s i v e Group 1 32.0 32.0 3.02 ns vs . C o n t r o l E r r o r 50 2529.6 10.6 A u t h o r i t a r i a n Group 1 73.6 73.6 8.79 < .01 vs . C o n t r o l E r r o r 54 451.9 8.4 between means o f t h e p e r m i s s i v e group and a u t h o r i t a r i a n group.. In both a n a l y s e s , namely, f o r the Q u e s t i o n T e s t and the Uses T e s t , t h e a u t h o r i -t a r i a n t r e a t m e n t shows an unexpected f l o u r i s h i n c r e a t i v i t y . In a d d i t i o n and a l s o c o n t r a r y t o h y p o t h e s i z e d e x p e c t a t i o n , the s e m i p e r m i s s i v e group shows means on both p o s t t e s t s t h a t a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y no d i f f e r e n t from t h e c o n t r o l group. 56 A n a l y s i s o f F i e l d Study Data The reason f o r i n c l u d i n g hypotheses c o n c e r n i n g q u e s t i o n a s k i n g i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y o f c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t and c r e a t i v i t y i s t h a t t h e f r e q u e n c y o f a s k i n g f a c t u a l , yes-no and e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s has been shown by D a h l , i n an u n p u b l i s h e d e x p l o r a t o r y . f i e l d s t u d y , t o be s i g n i f i -c a n t l y and s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e a p t i t u d e s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and c r e a t i v i t y . The a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t i f one can c o n f i r m the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the t h r e e q u e s t i o n s c o r e s t o a p t i t u d e s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and c r e a t i v i t y shown t o e x i s t i n t h e e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y c i t e d above,"then s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n q u e s t i o n s c o r e s between groups exposed t o p e r m i s s i v e and a u t h o r i t a r i a n t r e a t m e n t s c o u l d s e r v e as s u p p o r t i v e o r c l a r i f y i n g e v i d e n c e f o r t h e f i n d i n g s i n the f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t r e p o r t e d above. A n a l y s i s o f Q u e s t i o n S c o r e Means  o f High and Low A p t i t u d e Groups For t h e a n a l y s i s o f the q u e s t i o n s c o r e means the sample was formed i n t o groups h i g h and low i n i n t e l l i g e n c e s c o r e s and i n t o groups h i g h and low i n c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s u s i n g medians o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s as c u t o f f s f o r f o r m i n g the g r o u p s . The q u e s t i o n s c o r e means o f t h e s e h i g h and low a p t i t u d e groups were then s u b j e c t e d t o a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . These a n a l y s e s were done f o r p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t d a t a f o r the sake o f e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s . P r e l i m i n a r y t o t h e s e a n a l y s e s , i t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o examine the q u e s t i o n s c o r e means o f h i g h and low c r e a t i v i t y groups and h i g h and low i n t e l l i g e n c e groups shown i n T a b l e 5-12. A l l the means show c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d s i n terms o f p r e - and p o s t t e s t d a t a . As w e l l , a l l means e x c e p t 57 T a b l e 5-12: Q u e s t i o n S c o r e Means o f Hi g h and Low C r e a t i v i t y Groups and High and Low IQ Groups. S u b j e c t s i n a High Group Are Above the Median o f IQ o r C r e a t i v i t y ; S u b j e c t s i n a Low Group Are Below the Median of IQ o r C r e a t i v i t y . Means Are Based on S t a n d a r d Scores IQ ! C r e a t i v i t y (Uses T e s t ) P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t Low High Low High Low High Low High F a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s 0.42 -0.46 0.39 -0.43 -0.49 0.49 -0.84 0.84 Yes - no q u e s t i o n s -0.60 0.66 0.28 0.31 -0.58 0.58 -0.88 0.88 E x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s -0.67 0.74 0.44 0.48 -0.39 0.39 -0.19 0.19 f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n means o f the h i g h and low i n t e l l i g e n c e groups a re con-s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r i n the h i g h a p t i t u d e group. However, i n f a c t u a l ques-t i o n means o f groups h i g h and low i n i n t e l l i g e n c e an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n s i s -t e n t r e v e r s a l o f the above p a t t e r n i s e v i d e n t . The subsequent a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o f the f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n means o f the h i g h and low a p t i t u d e groups i n d i c a t e s , as e v i d e n t from T a b l e 5-13, a s t r o n g , d i r e c t and c o n s i s t e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n means and h i g h and low c r e a t i v i t y . However, the i n v e r s e r e l a -t i o n s h i p o f f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n means w i t h h i g h and low i n t e l l i g e n c e groups comes c o n s i s t e n t l y c l o s e , but does n o t r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s . Thus the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n means o f the high and low c r e a t i v i t y groups can be r e j e c t e d and the a l t e r n a t e h y p o t h e s i s , which proposes t h a t groups h i g h i n c r e a t i v i t y w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r 58 T a b l e 5-13: A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f F a c t u a l Q u e s t i o n Means. Medians f o r Groups High and Low i n C r e a t i v i t y and High and Low i n IQ a r e from P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t Data C o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y Source d f SS MS F P PRETEST IQ Group E r r o r 1 120 23.60 751.38 23.60 6.26 3.77 0.052 ( n s ) C r e a t i v i t y Group E r r o r 1 120 29.88 745.10 29.88 6.21 4.81 0.029 POSTTEST IQ Group E r r o r 1 120 20.48 804.1.6 20.48 6.70 3.06 0.079 (ns) C r e a t i v i t y Group E r r o r 1 120 86.92 717.23 86.92 6.03 14.14 0.000 f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n means than groups low i n c r e a t i v i t y , can be a c c e p t e d . A s i m i l a r n u l l h y p o t h e s i s f o r f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n means and h i g h and low i n t e l l i g e n c e groups c a n , o f c o u r s e , not be r e j e c t e d . From t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o f yes-no q u e s t i o n means p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5-14, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e j e c t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n yes-no q u e s t i o n means o f groups h i g h and low i n c r e a t i v i t y . Moreover, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a c c e p t the a l t e r n a t e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the group h i g h i n c r e a t i v i t y w i l l , o n t he a v e r a g e , a s k more yes-no q u e s t i o n s than the group low i n c r e a t i v i t y . However, a s i m i l a r n u l l h y p o t h e s i s f o r the yes-no q u e s t i o n means o f h i g h and low i n t e l l i g e n c e groups cannot be r e j e c t e d . In t he a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o f e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n means the p a t -t e r n f o r a s k i n g e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s i s the r e v e r s e o f t h a t s e t f o r f a c t u a l and yes-no q u e s t i o n s . On ex a m i n i n g T a b l e 5-15 one f i n d s t h a t t h e 59 T a b l e 5-14: A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f Yes-No Q u e s t i o n Means from P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t Data. Means Are o f Groups High and Low i n C r e a t i v i t y and High and Low i n IQ C ° K - i - l ! e Source d f SS MS F p a b i l i t y PRETEST IQ . Group 1 48.03 48.03 9.15 0.003 E r r o r 120 629.83 5.23 C r e a t i v i t y Group 1 41.33 41.33 7.79 0.006 E r r o r 120 636.53 5.30 POSTTEST IQ Group 1 10.-75 10.75 1 .77 0.183 ( n s ) E r r o r 120 729.07 6.08 C r e a t i v i t y Group 1 94.44 94.44 17.56 0.000 E r r o r 120 645.39 5.38 T a b l e 5-15: A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f E x p l a n a t i o n Q u e s t i o n Means from P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t Data. Means A r e o f Groups High and Low i n C r e a t i v i t y and High and Low i n IQ S ° " r " d f SS HS F p PRETEST IQ Group 1 60.51 60.51 10.51 0.002 E r r o r 120 690.94 5.76 C r e a t i v i t y Group 1 18.19 18.1.9 2.98 0.083 (ns) E r r o r 120 733.27 6.11 POSTTEST IQ Group 1 25.94 ]5.94 4.29 0.038 E r r o r 120 726.01 6.05 C r e a t i v i t y Group 1 4.32 4.32 0.69 0.412 ( n s ) E r r o r 120 747.63 6.23 h i g h IQ group c o n s i s t e n t l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s k e d , on t h e a v e r a g e , more e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s than t h e low IQ group. However, the e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n means o f h i g h and low c r e a t i v i t y groups show no s i g n i f i c a n t 60 d i f f e r e n c e . From t h e c o n s i s t e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d s o f e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n means i t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e j e c t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s r e l a t i n g e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n means w i t h groups h i g h and low i n i n t e l l i g e n c e and t o a c c e p t the a l t e r n a t e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e groups h i g h i n i n t e l l i g e n c e w i l l , o n t he a v e r a g e , ask s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s thart the group low i n i n t e l l i g e n c e . A s i m i l a r n u l l h y p o t h e s i s r e l a t i n g e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n means and groups h i g h and low i n c r e a t i v i t y c o u l d not be r e j e c t e d . In summary, the r e s u l t s o f t h e above a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n the sample o f . t h i s s t u d y t h e h i g h c r e a t i v i t y g r o u p s , on t h e a v e r a g e , c o n s i s - . t e n t l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y asked more f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s and yes-no q u e s t i o n s than t h e low c r e a t i v i t y g r o u p s . In a d d i t i o n , the a n a l y s e s show t h a t the h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e group c o n s i s t e n t l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y asked more e x p l a n -a t i o n q u e s t i o n s , on the a v e r a g e , than t h e low i n t e l l i g e n c e group.. There i s a l s o a c o n s i s t e n t though n o t q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d f o r t h e low i n t e l l i g e n c e group t o a s k , on t h e a v e r a g e , more f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s than the h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e group. A n a l y s i s o f Q u e s t i o n S c o r e s i n  Terms o f C l a s s r o o m Environment Having a n a l y z e d the p a t t e r n s o f q u e s t i o n a s k i n g i n terms o f c r e a -t i v i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e , t h i s s t u d y proposes i n i t s h y p o t h e s e s , the assessment o f the t h r e e q u e s t i o n s c o r e s i n terms o f p e r m i s s i v e and a u t h o r i t a r i a n e n v i r o n m e n t s . I t i s assumed t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e mean f r e q u e n c y o f a s k i n g a g i v e n q u e s t i o n t y p e by groups under d i f f e r e n t c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t s may shed some a d d i t i o n a l l i g h t on which a p t i t u d e s , i n t e l l i g e n c e o r c r e a t i v i t y , a r e b e i n g a f f e c t e d by the g i v e n 61 c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t . In t he e x p e r i m e n t a l groups t h e r e were 88 s t u d e n t s f o r whom complete s e t s o f d a t a , i n c l u d i n g c l a s s r o o m environment d a t a , were a v a i l a b l e . The median on the C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e f o r t h i s sample (31.5) s e r v e d as t h e c u t o f f s c o r e f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f a group h i g h i n p e r m i s s i v e c h a r a c t e r and a group low i n p e r m i s s i v e c h a r a c t e r . The groups w i l l be d e s i g n a t e d ( h i g h p e r m i s s i v e ) and P L (low p e r m i s s i v e ) t o a v o i d c o n f u -s i o n w i t h groups d e s i g n a t e d p e r m i s s i v e and a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n the f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t r e p o r t e d above. The means o f q u e s t i o n s c o r e g a i n s from p r e t e s t t o p o s t t e s t f o r P^ and P^ groups a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 5-16. F o r a l l t h r e e q u e s t i o n s c o r e s t h e P. group appears t o show t h e g r e a t e s t g a i n s . T a b l e 5-16: T o t a l Group G a i n s and Mean Group G a i n s i n Q u e s t i o n A s k i n g from P r e t e s t t o P o s t t e s t f o r P H ( H i g h P e r m i s s i v e ) and P. (Low P e r m i s s i v e ) Groups P H group (N = 44) P L group (N = 44) T o t a l g a i n Mean g a i n SD T o t a l g a i n Mean g a i n SD F a c t u a l q u e s t i o n 208 4.73 9.88 314 7.14 6.53 Yes-no q u e s t i o n 136 2.93 7.22 181 4.11 7.73 E x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n -3 -0.07 4.94 75 1.70 5.20 In C h a p t e r IV, a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was proposed f o r t e s t i n g hypo-t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g t h e q u e s t i o n g a i n means o f the P^ and P^ g r o u p s . However, the l a r g e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e s e means does not a l l o w the assumption 62 o f n o r m a l i t y o r near n o r m a l i t y o f t h e d a t a from which t h e s e means a r e d e r i v e d . W h i l e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i l l be used, as p r o p o s e d , the masking o f p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s due t o non-normal d i s t r i b u -t i o n i s p r o b a b l e . Thus, i f t h e l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mean g a i n s o f q u e s t i o n s c o r e s from p r e t e s t t o p o s t t e s t s f o r P H and P L groups a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t , the n o n - p a r a m e t r i c C h i - s q u a r e t e s t w i l l be used t o t e s t whether t h e t o t a l g a i n s i n q u e s t i o n s c o r e s f o r P^ and P^ groups d i v e r g e s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t the 1% l e v e l from g a i n s e x p e c t e d i f mean g a i n s were e q u i v a l e n t f o r both g r o u p s . T a b l e 5-17: A n a l y s e s o f V a r i a n c e f o r Q u e s t i o n G a i n Means o f P„ Groups . M and P L Source d f SS MS 1 F P F a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s Between groups , W i t h i n groups 1 86 128 6032 128 1 70.1 .8 ns Yes-no q u e s t i o n s Between groups W i t h i n groups 1 86 23 4816 23 0 56 .41 ns E x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s Between groups W i t h i n groups 1 86 69 2214 69 2 25.7 .68 ns The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o f q u e s t i o n g a i n means d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 5-17 i n d i c a t e s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the q u e s t i o n g a i n means o f P^ and P L groups even though t h e a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the P^ and P^ means appear t o be c o n s i d e r a b l e . . On t h e b a s i s o f a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s r e l a t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n g a i n means o f P^ and P^ groups c o u l d not be r e j e c t e d . However, a C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s o f t o t a l q u e s t i o n g a i n s f o r P^ and P. groups i n d i c a t e s , as shown i n T a b l e 5-18, t h a t the P. group d i s p l a y e d 63 T a b l e 5-18: C h i - s q u a r e A n a l y s i s o f T o t a l Q u e s t i o n Gains o f P H and P Groups ( S i g n i f i c a n c e L e v e l s e t a t 1 % ) T o t a l q u e s t i o n P H P L g a i n s f F f. F x 2 d f P F a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s 208 261 314 261 21.52 1 < .005 Yes-no q u e s t i o n s 136 158.5 181 158.5 6.40 1 ns E x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s -3 36 75 36 84.50 1 < .005 a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t o t a l g a i n i n f a c t u a l and e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s c o r e s t h a n the P^ group. These g r o u p s , however, showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on the C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s o f t o t a l yes-no q u e s t i o n g a i n s . Thus when t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s r e l a t i n g t o q u e s t i o n s c o r e g a i n s i s t e s t e d i n terms o f d i v e r g e n c e o f t o t a l g a i n s f o r P^ and P^ groups from e x p e c t e d t o t a l g a i n s f o r P^ and P^ g r o u p s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e j e c t a t t h e 1% s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l t he n u l l h y p o t h e s i s f o r t o t a l f a c t u a l and e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n g a i n s f o r P^ and P^ groups but not f o r yes-no ques-t i o n g a i n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the a l t e r n a t e h y p o t h e s i s f o r t o t a l e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n g a i n s which proposes s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r g a i n s f o r the P^ group can be a c c e p t e d . The a l t e r n a t e h y p o t h e s i s f o r t o t a l f a c t u a l ques-t i o n g a i n s w h i c h proposed t h a t t h e P^ group would make s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r g a i n s i n t o t a l f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n g a i n s c o u l d n o t be a c c e p t e d . The f i n a l s e t o f hypotheses l i s t e d i n C h a p t e r I were c o n c e r n e d w i t h the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s o f c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t and a p t i t u d e s ( c r e a t i v i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e ) on q u e s t i o n a s k i n g g a i n s . In C h a p t e r IV i t was 64 i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e hypotheses would be t e s t e d by f o r m i n g two s e t s o f f o u r e n v i r o n m e n t - a p t i t u d e groups from the . e x p e r i m e n t a l sample, namely, f o u r e n v i r o n m e n t - c r e a t i v i t y groups and f o u r e n v i o r n m e n t - i n t e l l i g e n c e g r o u p s . The f o u r e n v i r o n m e n t - a p t i t u d e groups o f each s e t were d e f i n e d i n terms o f t h e medians o f c l a s s r o o m environment s c o r e s and a p t i t u d e s c o r e s . Thus, f o r example, t h e group above the medians o f c r e a t i v i t y and e n v i r o n m e n t s c o r e s would be d e s i g n a t e d as C^P^. F o r each group N = 22. T a b l e 5-19 g i v e s t he q u e s t i o n g a i n means f o r the f o u r groups d e f i n e d i n terms o f c r e a t i v i t y and environment medians. The o n l y groups t h a t come c l o s e t o showing any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n means o f ques-t i o n g a i n s a r e the and C^P^ groups i n r e g a r d t o e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n g a i n s . T a b l e 5-19: Q u e s t i o n Gain Means f o r Four Groups D e f i n e d i n Terms o f C r e a t i v i t y and C l a s s r o o m Environment Medians. A l s o I n c l u d e d i s t h e L e a s t S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e (LSD) a t the 5% L e v e l f o r Any P a i r o f These Means ( e . g . CMPM—High C r e a t i v e , High P e r m i s s i v e ) Q u e s t i o n t y p e Mean g a i n s f o r group LSD (.05) C P VH CHPL CLPH CLPL F a c t u a l q u e s t i o n 5.33 6.55 4.55 7.73 5.28 Yes-no q u e s t i o n 3.09 4.27 3.09 3.95. 4.73 E x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n 0.05 2.95 -0.18 0.45 3.15 65 As w i t h t h e e a r l i e r a n a l y s e s ' o f q u e s t i o n g a i n means th e non-normal-i t y o f q u e s t i o n g a i n s i s a p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n some o f t h e marked d i f f e r e n c e s i n group q u e s t i o n g a i n means. In a subse-quent a n a l y s i s o f the c r e a t i v i t y - e n v i r o n m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t on q u e s t i o n g a i n s u s i n g the C h i - s q u a r e , t h e c r e a t i v i t y - e n v i r o n m e n t groups show h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i v e r g e n c e i n f a c t u a l and e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n g a i n s from g a i n s e x p e c t e d . From T a b l e 5-20 i t would appear t h a t the groups c o n t r i b u t i n g t h e g r e a t e s t amounts o f d i v e r g e n c e i n the f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n g a i n s a r e the low c r e a t i v i t y groups w i t h t h e C^P^ group w e l l below and C^P^ group w e l l above the e x p e c t e d f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n g a i n s , i n d i c a t i n g , p e r h a p s , t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t have t h e i r most p r o f o u n d e f f e c t on low c r e a t i v e s i n terms o f a s k i n g f a c t u a l ques-t i o n s . T a b l e 5-20: C h i - S q u a r e A n a l y s i s o f Q u e s t i o n Gains o f C r e a t i v i t y -E nvironment Groups Q u e s t i o n t y p e Observed f r e q u e n c y f o r group F d f x 2 P r P H H C H P L C L P H CLPL F a c t u a l q u e s t i o n 108 144 100 170 130.5 3 24.36 < .01 Yes-no q u e s t i o n 68 94 68 87 79.3 3 6.65 ns E x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n 1 65 -4 10 18.0 3 169.22 < .01 66 F u r t h e r m o r e , i n terms o f e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s , the h i g h p e r m i s s i v e e n v i r o n m e n t appears t o have had a d e p r e s s i n g e f f e c t on both h i g h and low c r e a t i v e s i n e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n a s k i n g . However, the low p e r m i s s i v e e n v i r o n m e n t appears t o have i n f l u e n c e d o n l y the h i g h c r e a t i v e s i n t o i n c r e a s e s i n e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n a s k i n g . In terms o f t h e C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g q u e s t i o n g a i n s o f t h e f o u r c r e a t i v i t y - e n v i r o n m e n t . g r o u p s c o u l d be r e j e c t e d f o r f a c t u a l and e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n g a i n s but n o t f o r yes-no q u e s t i o n g a i n s . T u r n i n g now t o the a n a l y s i s o f q u e s t i o n g a i n s i n terms o f i n t e l l i -g e n ce-environment i n t e r a c t i o n shown i n T a b l e 5-21, t h e o n l y p a i r o f group mean q u e s t i o n g a i n s t h a t shows a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i s the mean g a i n i n e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s o f the 1^ P L and I L P H groups. I t appears t h a t the d i f f e r e n t i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t i n the a s k i n g o f e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s . T a b l e 5-21: Q u e s t i o n G a i n Means f o r Four Groups D e f i n e d i n Terms o f I n t e l l i g e n c e and C l a s s r o o m Environment Medians. A l s o I n c l u d e d i s the L e a s t S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e (LSD) a t the 5% L e v e l f o r Any P a i r o f t h e s e Means Q u e s t i o n t y p e Mean g a i n s f o r group LSD (.05) VH VL JLPH ll Pl F a c t u a l q u e s t i o n 5.33 6.55 4.55 7.73 5.28 Yes-no q u e s t i o n 3.09 4.27 3.09 3.95 4.73 E x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n 0.05 2.95 -0.18 0.45 3.15 67 S u b j e c t i n g the q u e s t i o n g a i n s o f t h e f o u r groups formed on the b a s i s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and c l a s s r o o m environment s c o r e medians t o C h i -s q u a r e a n a l y s i s , one f i n d s , as e v i d e n t from T a b l e 5-22, t h a t group g a i n s i n f a c t u a l and e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by i n t e r -a c t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and e n v i r o n m e n t . In •terms o f f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s , low i n t e l l i g e n c e groups c o n t r i b u t e most t o d i v e r g e n c e from e x p e c t e d g a i n s w i t h t h e low i n t e l l i g e n c e group i n t h e more p e r m i s s i v e e n v i r o n m e n t w e l l below the e x p e c t e d g a i n and t h e low i n t e l l i g e n c e group i n the l e s s permis-s i v e e n v ironment w e l l above t h e e x p e c t e d g a i n i n f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s . T a b l e 5-22: C h i - S q u a r e A n a l y s i s o f Q u e s t i o n G a i n s o f I n t e l l i g e n c e -Environment Groups Q u e s t i o n t y p e Observed f r e q u e n c y f o r group F d f x 2 P T P T P T P T P H H H L L H 11 F a c t u a l q u e s t i o n Yes-no q u e s t i o n E x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n 128 142 80 172 130.5 3 33.80 <.01 57 95 79 86 79.3 3 10.79 ns -20 62 17 13 18.0 3 189.22 <.01 As t o g a i n s i n e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s , i t appears t h a t changes i n c l a s s r o o m environment have t h e i r e f f e c t p r i m a r i l y on the h i g h i n t e l l i -gence groups w i t h the more p e r m i s s i v e e n v i r o n m e n t d e p r e s s i n g the a s k i n g o f e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s and t h e l e s s p e r m i s s i v e e n vironment e n c o u r a g i n g t h e a s k i n g o f e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s . Thus, as w i t h the C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s e s o f q u e s t i o n g a i n s o f c r e a t i v -i t y - e n v i r o n m e n t g r o u p s , the C h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s e s o f t h e q u e s t i o n g a i n s o f 68 t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e - e n v i r o n m e n t groups i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e n u l l hypotheses w i t h r e g a r d t o q u e s t i o n g a i n s c o u l d be r e j e c t e d f o r f a c t u a l and e x p l a n -a t i o n q u e s t i o n g a i n s , but n o t f o r yes-no q u e s t i o n g a i n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , from t h e s i z e and d i r e c t i o n o f the d i v e r g e n c e s i n q u e s t i o n g a i n s , i t appears t h a t the i n t e l l i g e n c e - e n v i r o n m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n i s s t r o n g e r than the c r e a t i v i t y e n v i r o n m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n . 69 CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS A t the o u t s e t o f t h i s s t u d y i t was noted t h a t the c u r r e n t e v a l u a -t i o n o f the newly emerging, d i s c o v e r y based s c i e n c e programs g i v e s no c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r m e r i t i n terms o f some d e f i n a b l e g o a l . How-e v e r , c o n c u r r e n t w i t h the s c h o o l s c i e n c e c u r r i c u l u m e v o l u t i o n from c o n t e n t o r i e n t e d t o p r o c e s s o r i e n t e d , t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s e i n the p s y c h o m e t r i c a t t e n t i o n t o t h e parameters o f c r e a t i v i t y measurement and an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n making c r e a t i v i t y development an e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l . 1 I t t h e r e f o r e seemed t o make s y n e r g i s t i c sense t o e v a l u a t e one o f t h e s e new s c i e n c e programs i n terms o f how i t m e a s u r a b l y a f f e c t s s t u d e n t c r e a t i v i t y . One such s c i e n c e program, the E l e m e n t a r y S c i e n c e Study (ESS) has managed t o o r g a n i z e i t s u n i t s around n a t u r a l phenomena t h a t have been shown t o be o f i n t e r e s t t o c h i l d r e n and have got c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d i n e x p l o r i n g t h e s e phenomena. As ESS u n i t s n o t i c e a b l y a l t e r s c i e n c e c l a s s -room e n v i r o n m e n t s , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n s c i e n c e c l a s s -room en v i r o n m e n t s would produce measurable d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l a s s means o f c r e a t i v i t y . Thus, u s i n g the ESS u n i t ; B a t t e r i e s and B u l b s as t h e b a s i c s c i e n c e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l , i t was p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h t h r e e v e r i f i a b l y d i f f e r e n t s c i e n c e c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t s , i n t h r e e grade seven c l a s s e s a t O l i v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u mbia. These t h r e e s e p a r a t e c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t s , l a b e l l e d p e r m i s s i v e , s e m i p e r m i s s i v e and a u t h o r i t a r i a n , v a r i e d w i t h r e g a r d 70 t o t h e amount o f t e a c h e r d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l and s e r v e d as the e x p e r -i m e n t a l groups o f t h i s s t u d y . A f o u r t h grade seven c l a s s in Midway, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , which was t a u g h t the s t a n d a r d B r i t i s h Columbia c u r r i c -ulum and had an a s s e s s e d c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t between a u t h o r i t a r i a n and semi p e r m i s s i v e , s e r v e d as the c o n t r o l . As a r e s u l t o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n o f s c i e n c e c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t d e s c r i b e d above, the s e m i p e r m i s s i v e t r e a t m e n t in which c l a s s -room en v i r o n m e n t was t o r e f l e c t t h e t e a c h i n g s u g g e s t i o n s in t h e t e a c h e r ' s g u i d e o f B a t t e r i e s and B u l b s appeared on t h e two c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s used i n t h i s s t u d y , namely, t h e Uses T e s t and Q u e s t i o n T e s t , t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y no d i f f e r e n t from t h e c o n t r o l group i n p o s t group means o f c r e a t i v i t y . However, the p e r m i s s i v e group w h i c h had s i g n i f i c a n t l y the l e a s t amount o f t e a c h e r d i r e c t i o n o f a l l t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t s , had a p o s t Uses T e s t mean s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than a l l groups e x c e p t t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n group. A l t h o u g h t h e p e r m i s s i v e group p o s t Uses c r e a t i v i t y mean was l a r g e r than t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n group p o s t mean, i t was n o t s i g -n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . On t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t t h e p e r m i s s i v e and c o n t r o l groups p o s t c r e a t i v i t y means were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , an un e x p e c t e d and u n h y p o t h e s i z e d r e s u l t was the a u t h o r i t a r i a n group's achievement o f p o s t Uses T e s t and p o s t Q u e s t i o n T e s t means o f c r e a t i v i t y t h a t were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than t h e c o n t r o l group's p o s t means o f c r e a t i v i t y . In f a c t , t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n group's p o s t Q u e s t i o n T e s t mean o f c r e a t i v i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than the p e r m i s s i v e p o s t Q u e s t i o n T e s t mean o f c r e a t i v i t y . Thus f a r , t h e n , i t would appear t h a t p e r m i s s i v e and a u t h o r i t a r i a n t r e a t m e n t s . c o n t r i b u t e t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r p o s t mean s c o r e s o f 71 c r e a t i v i t y . However, i n the assessment o f c r e a t i v i t y t e s t v a l i d i t i e s , i t was found t h a t , w h i l e the Uses T e s t d e monstrated both c o n v e r g e n t and d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y , t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t , w h i l e adequate i n c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y , showed a l o w , but s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e s c o r e s and thus l a c k e d d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y . On t h e b a s i s o f the more v a l i d c r e a t i v i t y t e s t o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e Uses T e s t , t h e p e r m i s s i v e and a u t h o r i t a r i a n groups a c h i e v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r p o s t mean c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e s than the c o n t r o l group. In an a t t e m p t t o f u r t h e r e l u c i d a t e t h e e f f e c t c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t has on c r e a t i v i t y , h ypotheses r e l a t i n g s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n a s k i n g s t y l e s t o a p t i t u d e s such as c r e a t i v i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e were t e s t e d . I t was fo u n d t h a t t h e more c r e a t i v e s t u d e n t s a s k e d , on the a v e r a g e , s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f a c t u a l and yes-no q u e s t i o n s and t h a t the more i n t e l l i g e n t s t u d e n t s a s k e d , on t h e a v e r a g e , s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s . In terms o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y the q u e s t i o n was then asked: "What d i f f e r e n c e s i n g a i n s were t h e r e i n the t h r e e k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n s asked by s t u d e n t s i n the more p e r m i s s i v e e n v i r o n m e n t compared w i t h s t u d e n t s i n t h e l e s s p e r m i s s i v e e n v i r o n m e n t ? " I t t u r n e d out t h a t i n t h i s s t u d y , s t u d e n t s i n t h e l e s s p e r m i s s i v e e n v i r o n m e n t showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r g a i n i n e x p l a n a t i o n and f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s than s t u d e n t s i n t h e more p e r m i s s i v e e n v i r o n m e n t . However, no such s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n g a i n s o f yes-no q u e s t i o n s c o u l d be shown between the more p e r m i s s i v e l y and l e s s p e r m i s s i v e l y t r e a t e d p a r t s o f t h e sample. One p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n o f the f a c t t h a t more i n t e l l i g e n t s t u d e n t s ask s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s and o f t h e f a c t t h a t g a i n i n e x p l a n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s i s g r e a t e r i n s t u d e n t s i n 72 the less permissive environment is that perhaps the less permissive' environment favours the growth of cognitive factors measured by i n t e l l i - • gence tests. However, because factual questions and yes-no questions (which are types of questions which more creative students asked significantly more of) did not both show significant gains in a particular environment, i t is impossible to clearly draw the implication from question gains that a particular environment favours growth in creativity. Finally, i t has been instructive from this study to learn how the degree of classroom permissiveness affects question asking behaviour at various levels of creative a b i l i t y and intellectual a b i l i t y . In Chapter V of this study i t was reported that factual question gains of the low creativity group and of the low intelligence group were most affected by the degree of permissiveness, with the low creative group and the low intel1igence groups in more permissive environments showing greatest divergence below expected gains and the low creative and low intelligence groups in the less permissive environment showing the greatest diver-gence above the expected gains. For the high creative group as well as the high intelligence group, in the more permissive environment, there is a divergence in explanation question gains well below expected gains, whereas for the high creative group as well as the high intelligence group in the less permissive environment, there is a divergence in explan-ation question gains well above expected gains. In a general overview of the aptitude-environment effects in this study, i t appears from the size and direction of the divergences in 73 q u e s t i o n g a i n s t h a t t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e - e n v i r o n m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n has been s t r o n g e r i n a f f e c t i n g q u e s t i o n g a i n s t h a n the c r e a t i v i t y - e n v i r o n m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n has been. Thus f a r i n t h i s s t u d y the a s s u m p t i o n has been t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s , be t h e y f a m i l y o r c l a s s r o o m , a r e p r i m a r y to t h e development o f c r e a t i v i t y . However, T o r r a n c e has shown t h a t t h e r e i s a p a t t e r n i n the development o f c r e a t i v i t y u s i n g f l u e n c y (number o f q u e s t i o n s asked i n the Ask-and-Guess T e s t ) as a measure o f c r e a t i v i t y . The c u r v e from grade one t h r o u g h grade t w e l v e has a d e c l i n e i n the f o u r t h grade and the s e v e n t h grade as seen i n Diagram 6-1. Of i n t e r e s t i s the d e c l i n e i n the f r e q u e n c y o f q u e s t i o n a s k i n g from grade s i x t o grade seven. I t i s , p e r h a p s , because o f t h i s n a t u r a l d e c l i n e i n t h e f r e q u e n c y o f a s k i n g ques-t i o n s t h a t a l l t h e group q u e s t i o n g a i n s i n the more p e r m i s s i v e e n v i r o n -ments showed, d i v e r g e n c e s w e l l below the e x p e c t e d q u e s t i o n g a i n s , whereas t h r o u g h t e a c h e r d i r e c t i o n and m o t i v a t i o n i n the l e s s p e r m i s s i v e e n v i r o n -ment t h i s n a t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l d e c l i n e i s c o u n t e r e d . 13 -' 12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -1 3 4 5 Grade Diagram 6-1: C r e a t i v i t y growth c u r v e 6 7 2 8 9 10 11 12 a d u l t 74 F u r t h e r m o r e , i n r e s e a r c h t h a t c e n t r e s on a s i n g l e age gro u p , as the p r e s e n t s t u d y has done, t h e r e a r i s e s t he q u e s t i o n o f how g e n e r a l i z -a b l e t h e r e s u l t s a r e . Having n o t e d how p i v o t a l grade seven i s w i t h r e a g a r d t o the mean f r e q u e n c y o f q u e s t i o n a s k i n g , i t can be argued t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s p r o j e c t i s the s t u d y o f a s p e c i a l c a s e . However, M e r r i f i e l d , u s i n g G u i l f o r d ' s t e s t s o f d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g , was a b l e t o show t h a t G u i l f o r d t e s t s such as the Uses T e s t do d i f f e r e n -t i a t e s e v e n t h grade c h i l d r e n i n ways s i m i l a r t o t h e i r r e s u l t s w i t h 3 a d u l t s . M e r r i f i e l d ' s f i n d i n g would s u g g e s t t h a t the r e s u l t s w i t h the Uses T e s t i n r e l a t i o n t o c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t and c r e a t i v i t y a r e perhaps more g e n e r a l i z a b l e than the c o n c l u s i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y t h a t a r e based on the Q u e s t i o n T e s t . Of c o u r s e , such d i s t i n c t i o n o f g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y between d a t a o f the Uses T e s t and d a t a o f the Q u e s t i o n T e s t s t a n d s so l o n g as i t i s assumed t h a t c r e a t i v e f l u e n c y based on the f r e q u e n c y o f q u e s t i o n a s k i n g f o l l o w s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l c u r v e t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t from f l u e n c y d e r i v e d from the f r e q u e n c y o f g i v i n g uses o f a common o b j e c t . In f a c t , the d i f f e r i n g r e s u l t s w i t h the Uses T e s t and the Q u e s t i o n T e s t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m e n v i -r o n m e n t - c r e a t i v i t y e x p e r i m e n t o f t h i s s t u d y would f i t w i t h an i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n o f d i f f e r i n g d e velopmental c u r v e s f o r the f r e q u e n c y o f q u e s t i o n a s k i n g and the f r e q u e n c y o f o t h e r p a t t e r n s o f e x p r e s s i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f such d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l c u r v e s has y e t t o be e s t a b l i s h e d . Thus f a r , based on t h e work o f M e r r i f i e l d and o f T o r r a n c e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t the r e s u l t s w i t h Uses T e s t i n r e l a t i o n t o c l a s s r o o m environment and c r e a t i v i t y a r e , p e r h a p s , more g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o 75 p o p u l a t i o n s o f o t h e r ages than the b a l a n c e o f the r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y d e r i v e d from d a t a from the Q u e s t i o n T e s t . G i v e n t h a t t h i s i s the c a s e , namely, t h a t the c o n c l u s i o n s based on d a t a o f t h e Q u e s t i o n T e s t be viewed more t e n t a t i v e l y because o f the unique d e v e l o p m e n t a l n a t u r e o f q u e s t i o n a s k i n g f o r grade seven s t u d e n t s , t h e work done on q u e s t i o n a s k i n g i n t h i s s t u d y i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , a t i m e l y c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s c i e n c e e d u c a t i o n and c o g n i t i v e r e s e a r c h . I t i s r e s e a r c h w h i c h i n e l u c i d a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f q u e s t i o n a s k i n g s t y l e s t o a p t i t u d e s and c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t b e g i n s t o shed l i g h t i n t o a r e a s t h a t s h o u l d be.of i n t e r e s t t o t h e s c i e n c e e d u c a t o r , and t o the s t u d e n t o f t h e c o g n i t i v e domain.. 76 Endnotes - Chapter VI William Burton Michael, Teaching f o r Creative Endeavor: Bold New  Venture (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1968), p. 114. 2 E.P. Torrance, Guiding Creative Talent (Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice-H a l l , 1962), p. 93. P.R. M e r r i f i e l d , "Aptitudes and Personality Measurement Related to C r e a t i v i t y in the Seventh Grade," Reports from the Psychological Laboratory, 28, January 1964, p. 4. 77 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l t e n d o r f , James Jo s e p h . "A Study o f St u d e n t Achievement i n High S c h o o l C h e m i s t r y U s i n g CHEM Study and C o n v e n t i o n a l Approaches." D i s s e r - t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , v o l . 27, 1965, p. 45. A n a s t a s i , Anne. P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t i n g . New York: M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1968. Anders o n , H a r o l d H. "On t h e Meaning o f C r e a t i v i t y . " In C r e a t i v i t y i n  C h i l d h o o d and A d o l e s c e n c e , ed. H a r o l d H. Anderson. P a l o A l t o : S c i e n c e and B e h a v i o r Books, 1965, pp. 46-61. B a t t e r i e s and B u l b s , Books 1, 2 and 3. Watertown: E l e m e n t a r y S c i e n c e ••- Study o f E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s , 1966. B e n n e t t , L l o y d M o r r i s . "A Study o f the Comparisons o f Two I n s t r u c t i o n a l Methods; t h e F i e l d Method and the C l a s s r o o m Method I n v o l v i n g S c i e n c e C o n t e n t i n E c o l o g y f o r the Seventh Grade." D i s s e r t a t i o n  A b s t r a c t s , v o l . 25, 1963, p. 318. Box, G.E.P. "N o n - N o r m a l i t y and T e s t s on V a r i a n c e s . " B i o m e t r i k a , v o l . 40, 1953, pp. 318-335. B r a k k e r , E a r l Wesley. "An A n a l y s i s o f t h e I n t e l l e c t u a l F a c t o r s O p e r a t i v e i n P S S C and C o n v e n t i o n a l High School P h y s i c s . " D i s s e r t a t i o n  A b s t r a c t s , v o l . 25, 1964, pp. 5103-5104. C a m p b e l l , D.T. " F a c t o r s R e l e v a n t t o t h e V a l i d i t y o f E x p e r i m e n t s i n S o c i a l S e t t i n g s . " P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , v o l . 54, 1957, pp. 298-299. C a m p b e l l , Glenn Howard. "A Study o f U n d e r s t a n d i n g P h y s i c s Developed i n High School P h y s i c s . " D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s , v o l . 26, 1965, pp. 1506-1507. D a h l , Waldo W. "A R e p o r t o f E x p l o r a t i o n s and Res e a r c h i n t o C r e a t i v i t y Measurement and Q u e s t i o n - A s k i n g B e h a v i o r . " U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t . G a l l a g h e r , James and A r c h e r , Mary J a n e . "A P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t on C l a s s -room I n t e r a c t i o n . " M e r r i l l - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y o f B e h a v i o r and  Development, J u l y 1963, pp. 160-193. George, Ken D. " E f f e c t o f BSCS and C o n v e n t i o n a l B i o l o g y on C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g . " J o u r n a l o f Research i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g , v o l . 3, 1965, pp. 293-299. G e t z e l s , J a c o b W. and J a c k s o n , P h i l l i p W. C r e a t i v i t y and I n t e l l i g e n c e : E x p l o r a t i o n s w i t h G i f t e d S t u d e n t s . London: John W i l e y and Sons, 1963. 78 G u i l f o r d , J.P., and Hoefner, R. "Current Summary of Structure of I n t e l l e c t Factors and Suggested Tests." Reports from the  Psychological Laboratory, no. 3, December 1963. Gu i l f o r d , J.P. "A Psychometric Approach to C r e a t i v i t y . " In C r e a t i v i t y  in Childhood and Adolescence, ed. Harold H. Anderson. Palo Alt o : Science and Behavior Books, 1965, pp. 1-19. Kerlinger, Fred N. Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964. Lance, Mary Louise. "A Comparison of Gains in Achievement Made by Students in BSCS High School Biology and Students of a Conventional Course in Biology." Dissertation Abstracts, v o l . 25, 1964, pp. 2814-2815. : : Mackler, B. " C r e a t i v i t y and L i f e Styles." Dissertation Abstracts, v o l . 24, 1963, pp. 5571-5572. ~ " M e r r i f i e l d , P.R., Gardner, S.F. and Cox, A.B. "Aptitudes and Personality Measurement Related to C r e a t i v i t y in the Seventh Grade." Reports from the Psychological Laboratory, no. 28, January 1964. Michael, William Burton. Teaching for Creative Endeavour: Bold New  Venture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1968. Mosier, C.I. "Problems and Designs of Cross Validation." Educational  and Psychological Measurement, v o l . 11, 1951, pp. 5 - l T Reese, Willard Francis. "A Comparison of Interest Level and Problem Solving Accuracy Generated by Single Concept Inductive and Deductive Films." Dissertation Abstracts, v o l . 27, 1966, p. 2954. Sch e f f l e r , William C. " A Comparison Between Inductive and I l l u s t r a t i v e Laboratories in College Biology." Journal of Research in Science  Education, v o l . 3, 1965, pp. 218-221: Schmidt, Donald J . "Can We Teach?" Journal of Research in Science  Teaching, v o l . 4, 1966, pp. 175-177. Snedecor, George W. and Cochran, William G. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1967. Suchman, J. Righard. Putting Inquiry into Science: Learning Development  Program. Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1965. Torrance, E. Paul. Guiding Creative Talent. Englewood C l i f f s : Prentice-H a l l , 1962. Treat, John Henry. "Attainment of the Concepts 'Understanding Science' Using Contrasting Physics Courses." Dissertation Abstracts, v o l . 26, 1964, p. 162. Walker, W.J. " C r e a t i v i t y and High School Climate." Dissertation  Abstracts, v o l . 25, 1964, p. 5657. Wallach, Michael A. and Kogan, Nathan. Modes of Thinking in Young  Children., New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965. Washton, Nathan S. "Teaching Science f o r Creativity-Needed Research. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, v o l . 4, 1966, pp. 182-APPENDIX A The Question Test 81 THE QUESTION TEST -The purpose of t h i s t e s t i s to f i n d . o u t how cu r i o u s you s r e . The t e s t c o n s i s t s of three p i c t u r e s . For each p i c t u r e you w i l l be gi v e n f i v e minutes to w r i t e as many questions as you can. The questions must be about items i n the p i c t u r e . They must be questions that cannot be answered by l o o k i n g at the p i c t u r e . - Now, look at the sample p i c t u r e below. Study the questions asked about items i n the p i c t u r e , and t h i n k of some of your own. SAMPLE QUESTIONS .- 1) What i s the co l o u r of the horse? 2) Why does the r i d e r not have s t i r r u p s ? 3) What does the r i d e r have under his arm? Are there more than f i v e people chasing the r i d e r ? 5) V/hat i s the sex of the horse? 6) Is the horse wearing horseshoes? Write three q u e s t i o n s you have thought o f ? 1. 2. 1 .^ Are a l l of your q u e s t i o n s , ones you could not answer by l o o k i n g at the p i c t u r e ? Now, turn the page, and wait to be s t a r t e d . :QUESTION TSST 1 82 Write as many questions about items i n the p i c t u r e above. These questions must be ones that cannot be answered by simply l o o k i n g at the p i c t u r e . '-. Now, begin. (5 minutes) 1_ . 2 ; l - - • ix . c 83 QUESTION TEST - 2 84 Write as many questions about items i n the p i c t u r e above. These questions must be ones that cannot be answered by simply l o o k i n g at the p i c t u r e . _ " Now, begin. (5 minutes) 1 2 . 3 [ :  •k . : . 5 ; : 6 ~ :  7 8 9 ' 10 QUESTION TEST 3 85 Write as many questions about items i n the p i c t u r e above. These questions must be ones that cannot be answered by simply l o o k i n g at the p i c t u r e . Now, begin. (5 minutes) 86 S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s f o r the Q u e s t i o n T e s t F l u e n c y . In each s u b t e s t the count o f a l l q u e s t i o n s asked y i e l d s t h e f l u e n c y s c o r e . The t o t a l f l u e n c y s c o r e i s t h e sum o f a l l t h r e e sub-t e s t f l u e n c y s c o r e s . F l e x i b i l i t y . As f l e x i b i l i t y i s a measure o f the a b i l i t y t o s h i f t f r om c a t e g o r y t o c a t e g o r y , the method o f s c o r i n g f l e x i b i l i t y i s t o c a t e -g o r i z e q u e s t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f i r s t two words o f each q u e s t i o n . Thus q u e s t i o n s b e g i n n i n g w i t h "What i s . . . ? " b e l o n g t o one c a t e g o r y and ques-t i o n s b e g i n n i n g w i t h "What c o l o u r . . . ? " would b e l o n g t o a n o t h e r c a t e g o r y . The s u b t e s t f l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e i s the number o f c a t e g o r i e s p e r p i c t u r e w i t h t h e t o t a l f l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e b e i n g the sum o f s u b t e s t f l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e s . E l a b o r a t i o n . S i n c e e l a b o r a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as t h e number o f d e t a i l s o r i d e a s added t o a s i n g l e s t a r t i n g s t i m u l u s , t h e e l a b o r a t i o n s c o r e i s d e t e r m i n e d by c o u n t i n g o n l y q u e s t i o n s t h a t r e f e r t o a g i v e n i t e m i n a p i c t u r e a s e c o n d , t h i r d , f o u r t h , e t c . t i m e . The sum o f a l l t h e s e c o u n t s f o r each p i c t u r e y i e l d s a s u b t e s t e l a b o r a t i o n s c o r e and t h e sum o f sub-t e s t e l a b o r a t i o n s c o r e s y i e l d s the t o t a l e l a b o r a t i o n s c o r e . O r i g i n a l i t y . As o r i g i n a l i t y i s d e f i n e d here i n terms o f the number o f uncommon q u e s t i o n s a s k e d , the q u e s t i o n s asked about a p i c t u r e by a l l examinees i n t h e sample a r e t a b u l a t e d . From t h i s l i s t a l l q u e s t i o n s t h a t a ppear more than once a r e w r i t t e n on a s e p a r a t e l i s t . The examinee i s t h e n g i v e n one p o i n t f o r each q u e s t i o n t h a t does n o t appear on t h e l i s t o f common q u e s t i o n s . The t o t a l o r i g i n a l i t y s c o r e i s t h e sum o f a l l sub-t e s t s c o r e s . 87 Total c r e a t i v i t y score. In order to ca l c u l a t e the t o t a l c r e a t i v -i t y score the four total factor scores are converted to standard scores and then summed. APPENDIX B The Uses Test FORM A Uses for Things Given below i s a common object. Your task i s to write down as many d i f f e r e n t uses as you can f o r the object. Several examples are given, you w i l l have approximately 5 minutes. Write down anything that comes to mind, no matter how strange i t may seem. Do not begin u n t i l t o l d to do so. COMMON OBJECT: TIN CAN Samples of uses: 1. pencil holder 2. drum. Begin (Time 5 min) 1. 16. 2. ; 17. 3. "' 18. "_ 4. 19. 5. : 20. 6. 21. 7: 22. 8. [ 23. 9. ; 24. 10. 25. 11. ; 26. 12. 27. 13. 28. 14. 29. 15. 30. Do NOT turn the page u n t i l t o l d to do so. FORM A COMMON OBJECT: CORK Samples of uses: .1. close bottles 2. f i s h i n g f l o a t Begin (Time 5 min) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7._ 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 15. 30. 90 FORM B Uses f o r T h i n g s G i v e n below i s a common o b j e c t . Your t a s k i s t o w r i t e down as many d i f f e r e n t uses as you can f o r the o b j e c t . S e v e r a l examples a r e g i v e n . You w i l l have a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 m i n u t e s . W r i t e down a n y t h i n g t h a t comes t o mind, no m a t t e r how s t r a n g e i t may seem. Do n o t b e g i n u n t i l t o l d t o do so. COMMON OBJECT: SHOE Sample o f u s e s : 1. wear on y o u r f e e t 2. p l a y game o f h o r s e s h o e s B e g i n (Time 5 min)^ 1. : : 16. 2. ; 17. 3. 18. 4. 19. 5. 20. 6. ; 21. 7. : 22. 8. ' 23. 9. 24. 10. 25. 11. 26. 12. 27. 13. 28. 14. 29. 15. 30. Do NOT t u r n the page u n t i l t o l d t o do so. r 91 FORM B COMMON OBJECT: BUTTON Sample of uses: 1. keep your s h i r t buttoned 2. a counter i n a game Begin (Time 5 min) 1. ; 16. 2. 17. 3. 18. 4. " 19. 5. 20. 6. 21. 7. _ 22. 8. : 23. 9. 24. 10. . 25. 11. 26. 12. 27. 13. \ 28. 14. ' 29. 15. 30. 92 S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s f o r the Uses T e s t F l u e n c y . F o r each common o b j e c t t h e s c o r e o f f l u e n c y i s the c o u n t o f a l l uses l i s t e d . The t o t a l f l u e n c y s c o r e i s the sum o f the two sub-t e s t f l u e n c y s c o r e s . F l e x i b i l i t y . F l e x i b i l i t y i s a s s e s s e d i n terms o f the number o f c a t e g o r i e s o f uses proposed f o r each common o b j e c t . When o n l y one s c o r e r i s a v a i l a b l e , use a t h e s a u r u s as a f i n a l a r b i t e r f o r d e c i d i n g whether a g i v e n use be l o n g s t o a c a t e g o r y . When two o r more s c o r e r s a r e a v a i l a b l e , a t t e m p t t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n t o r e a c h a consensus as t o what c a t e g o r i e s e x i s t f o r each common o b j e c t . Then have each s c o r e r s e p a r -a t e l y s c o r e a randomly chosen sample o f t e s t s and p r e p a r e an i n t e r s c o r e r r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n as a check o f consensus on uses c a t e g o r i e s . As w i t h f l u e n c y , the t o t a l f l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e i s t h e sum o f the two s u b t e s t f l e x i b i l i t y s c o r e s . O r i g i n a l i t y . O r i g i n a l i t y i s s c o r e d i n terms o f the uncommonness o f the uses f o r each common o b j e c t . To do t h i s , a l l uses g i v e n by t h e examinees o f the sample f o r a common o b j e c t a r e l i s t e d . From t h i s l i s t a second l i s t i s p r e p a r e d c o n s i s t i n g o f uses g i v e n more tha n once i n the sample. The examinee's s u b t e s t o r i g i n a l i t y s c o r e i s the co u n t o f a l l uses f o r t h e common o b j e c t t h a t do not appear on t h e common uses l i s t . The t o t a l o r i g i n a l i t y s c o r e i s t h e sum o f the two s u b t e s t o r i g i n a l i t y s c o r e s . T o t a l c r e a t i v i t y s c o r e . In o r d e r t o c a l c u l a t e t he t o t a l c r e a t i v -i t y s c o r e , t h e t h r e e t o t a l f a c t o r s c o r e s a r e c o n v e r t e d t o s t a n d a r d s c o r e s and th e n summed. APPENDIX C Cl a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e C i r c l e t h e l e t t e r o r l e t t e r s t h a t c o r r e s p o n d t o the a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e i n each i t e m . A l l t h e s e i t e m s have t o do w i t h what o c c u r r e d i n y o u r s c i e n c e c l a s s r o o m d u r i n g the u n i t B a t t e r i e s and B u l b s . 1. In t h e u n i t on B a t t e r i e s and B u l b s , w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g were r e q u i r e d o f you? A. work s h e e t s B. p r e d i c t i o n s h e e t s C. t a k i n g notes from the board D. t e s t s E. none o f t h e s e 2. What m a t e r i a l s d i d you use i n t h i s u n i t ? A. t h o s e t h e t e a c h e r p r o v i d e d B. m a t e r i a l s you br o u g h t from home C. m a t e r i a l s o t h e r s brought D. m a t e r i a l s from t h e s t o r e r o o m w h i c h you s e l e c t e d E. no m a t e r i a l s 3. D u r i n g most o f t h e c l a s s e s on B a t t e r i e s and B u l b s d i d you t e a c h e r t a l k t o t h e c l a s s A. more than h a l f o f the tim e ? B. h a l f o f the tim e ? C. much l e s s than h a l f o f the t i m e , say 5 m i n u t e s ? D. none o f the tim e ? 4. D i d y o u r t e a c h e r ask q u e s t i o n s A. t h a t were based m a i n l y on i n f o r m a t i o n he had a l r e a d y t a u g h t ? B. t h a t were based on t o p i c s the t e a c h e r had asked you t o i n v e s t i g a t e ? C. on t o p i c s you had d e c i d e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e ? D. on none o f the work you had d e c i d e d to. do? 5. In the e x p e r i m e n t s on t h i s u n i t t h e t e a c h e r A. t o l d you what t o do most o f the t i m e B. t o l d you what t o do some o f the time C. d i d not t e l l you what t o do most o f t h e time 94 6. The t e a c h e r gave A. p r e d i c t i o n s h e e t s and q u i z z e s which were graded o r marked B. . p r e d i c t i o n s h e e t s which were n o t t e s t s and were n o t marked C. no t e s t s and d i d not mark any o f y o u r work 7. The t e a c h e r A. approved o f c o r r e c t answers and d i s a p p r o v e d o f wrong answers B. a c c e p t e d any i d e a s you put f o r w a r d C. d i d A and B a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s 8. The t e a c h e r s u p p l i e d A. most o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n y ou l e a r n e d B. some o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n you l e a r n e d C. l i t t l e o r none" o f ' t h e i n f o r m a t i o n you l e a r n e d , t h a t i s , you d e c i d e d most o f the ti m e what you w i s h e d t o l e a r n 9. D i d the t e a c h e r work w i t h A. the whole c l a s s most o f the tim e ? B. the whole c l a s s some o f t h e ti m e and s m a l l groups some o f the ti m e ? C. s m a l l groups and i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s ? D.„ you l i t t l e o r none o f t h e t i m e ? 10. ..What t e a c h i n g methods d i d the t e a c h e r use? A. l e c t u r e B. q u e s t i o n and answer C. d i s c u s s i o n i n which no one seemed t o be t h e l e a d e r D. d i s c u s s i o n i n which the t e a c h e r seemed t o be t h e l e a d e r E. c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. 11. The t e a c h e r A. i n s i s t e d t h a t you keep a n e a t notebook o f y o u r work which had to be handed i n f o r marking B. d i d not i n s i s t on you k e e p i n g a notebook C. asked you t o keep a r e c o r d o f y o u r r e s u l t s but d i d not mark i t 95 Development o f S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e f o r C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e The seven t e a c h e r - j u d g e s were asked t o p r e p a r e a p r o f i l e o f c h o i c e s f o r each e n v i r o n m e n t c a t e g o r y . The j u d g e s ' c h o i c e s f o r each c a t e g o r y were then c o l l a t e d and t h e 95% c o n f i d e n c e l i m i t s u s i n g p ±1.96/ pq / n were c a l c u l a t e d t o d e t e r m i n e how many s e l e c t i o n s p er c h o i c e were needed i n terms o f t h e t o t a l number o f s e l e c t i o n s i n an i t e m i n a g i v e n c a t e g o r y . U s i n g i t e m one as an example, p r o f i l e s o f c h o i c e s f o r each c a t e g o r y were as f o l l o w s : A u t h o r i t a r i a n S e m i p e r m i s s i v e P e r m i s s i v e Item 1 A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E 5 1 7 6 0 2 6 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 7 n = 19 n = 12 n = 9 . For a l l c a t e g o r i e s p = .2, q = .8 I f s e l e c t i o n s were randomly d i s t r i b u t e d each c h o i c e i n the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s would be as f o l l o w s : A u t h o r i t a r i a n 19/5 = 3.8 S e m i p e r m i s s i v e 1 2 / 5 = 2 . 4 P e r m i s s i v e 9/5 = 1.8 The 95% c o n f i d e n c e l i m i t s i n i t e m one by c a t e g o r y a r e : A u t h o r i t a r i a n = 3.8 ± 18% = 3.11 t o 4.48 S e m i p e r m i s s i v e = 2.4 ± 23% = 1.85 t o 2.95 P e r m i s s i v e = 1.8 ± 26% = 1.33 t o 2.27 T h e r e f o r e s e l e c t i o n s beyond the 95% c o n f i d e n c e l i m i t s a r e f o r i t e m one by e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a t e g o r y : A u t h o r i t a r i a n A C D S e m i p e r m i s s i v e B (D e x c l u d e d by d e f i n i t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t ) P e r m i s s i v e E 96 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Item Choices  by Environmental Category Item Authoritarian Semi permissive Permissi 1 A C D B E 2 A B C D 3 A B - C D 4 A B C D 5 A B C 6 A B C 7 A C B 8 A B C -9 A B C D 10 A B D C E 11 A C B Items were scored by assigning three points to a permissive choice, two points to a semi permissive choice, and one point to an authoritarian choice. These points were then summed to give a classroom environment score. 97 C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e ( Teacher Form) C i r c l e t he l e t t e r o f the a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e i n each i t e m . Make o n l y one c h o i c e p e r i t e m . 1. The t e a c h e r asks A. q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r e based m a i n l y on i n f o r m a t i o n s t u d e n t s have a l r e a d y been t a u g h t B. q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r e based on t o p i c s s t u d e n t s a r e t o i n v e s t i g a t e o r have i n v e s t i g a t e d C. no q u e s t i o n s D. o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 2. The t e a c h e r s u p p l i e s A. a major p o r t i o n o f the c o n t e n t t o be l e a r n e d B. i n s t r u c t i o n s p r i m a r i l y on b a s i c t e c h n i q u e s ( e . g . "How t o use a w i r e s t r i p p e r " ) C. no i n f o r m a t i o n D. o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 3. The l a b o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e s a r e A. d i r e c t e d B. p a r t l y n o n - d i r e c t e d , and p a r t l y d i r e c t e d C. n o n - d i r e c t e d D. o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 4. The l a b o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e s a r e A. i l l u s t r a t i v e o f c o n c e p t s a l r e a d y s t u d i e d B. d i s c o v e r y - b a s e d C. d i s c o v e r y - b a s e d w i t h some g u i d e d d i s c o v e r y p r e s e n t D. o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 5. T e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s : A. l e c t u r e B. t e a c h e r dominated d i s c u s s i o n C. t e a c h e r i n i t i a t e d q u e s t i o n - a n s w e r r e v i e w s o r i n s t r u c t i o n D. d i s c u s s i o n i n wh i c h the t e a c h e r i s a n o n - e v a l u a t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t E. g u i d a n c e by s u g g e s t i o n o r p r o v o c a t i v e q u e s t i o n F. o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) R e i n f o r c e m e n t : A. a p p r o v a l f o r c o r r e c t answers and c o m m e n t s — w r i t t e n o r o r a l B. d i s a p p r o v a l f o r a l l i n c o r r e c t answers and c o m m e n t s — w r i t t e n o r o r a l C. a c c e p t a n c e o f a l l s u g g e s t i o n s , i d e a s and d i s c o v e r i e s w i t h e x p r e s s i o n s l i k e : " t h a t ' s f i n e " D. t o s t u d e n t s s e e k i n g the t e a c h e r ' s o p i n i o n o f t h e i r c o r r e c t -n ess: " L e t ' s t r y i t " o r " Try i t " E. t o s t u d e n t s s e e k i n g the t e a c h e r ' s o p i n i o n o f t h e i r c o r r e c t -n ess: " T ry i t " o r "What do you t h i n k " F. o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) The t e a c h e r A. c l o s e l y s u p e r v i s e s l a b o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e s B. p a r t i c i p a t e s i n l a b o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e s t o a s s i s t and show s t u d e n t s c o r r e c t p r o c e d u r e s C. p a r t i c i p a t e s as a c u r i o u s i n v e s t i g a t o r i n a c t i v i t i e s D. n e i t h e r p a r t i c i p a t e s n o r s u p e r v i s e s E. o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) The t e a c h e r A. i n s i s t s s t u d e n t s pursue a c t i v i t i e s a s s i g n e d B. a l l o w s s t u d e n t s t o pursue any a c t i v i t y t h e y w i s h ( e x c e p t a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h endanger l i f e o r p r o p e r t y ) C. o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) A ssignments a r e : A. w r i t t e n l a b o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e s and/or q u i z z e s B. g a m e l i k e p r e d i c t i o n s h e e t s C. n o t g i v e n D. o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) E v a l u a t i o n : A. l a b o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e s and q u i z z e s a r e graded by the t e a c h e r B. g a m e l i k e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n on p r e d i c t i o n s h e e t s — n o t e a c h e r g r a d i n g C. no e v a l u a t i o n o f any k i n d D. o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) The t e a c h e r i n i t i a t e s l e s s o n s by A. announcing what i s t o be s t u d i e d B. a s k i n g a q u e s t i o n which provokes d i s c u s s i o n and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n e.g. "How can you make a compass n e e d l e move?" G. l e t t i n g s t u d e n t s pursue i n v e s t i g a t i o n s s t a r t e d the p r e v i o u s day D. m e r e l y p u t t i n g out m a t e r i a l s E. r e v i e w i n g c o n t e n t a l r e a d y t a u g h t F. o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 99 S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e f o r t h e Teacher Form  o f t h e C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f i t e m c h o i c e s i n t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a t e g o r i e s was a c h i e v e d by the same methods as f o r the s t u d e n t f o r m . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Item C h o i c e s  by E n v i r o n m e n t a l C a t e g o r y Item A u t h o r i t a r i a n Semi p e r m i s s i v e P e r m i s s i v e 1 A B - • C 2 A -B C 3 A B C 4 A C B 5 A B C •E D 6 B A C D E 7 A B C D 8 A B 9 A B C 10 A B C 11 A E B C D Items a r e s c o r e d by w e i g h t i n g t h e c h o i c e s f o r the t e a c h e r form as was done i n the s t u d e n t form. However, s i n c e o n l y one c h o i c e per i t e m i s p e r m i t t e d the range o f s c o r e s i s from 11 t o 33, w i t h 22 as the median. To a s s e s s a c l a s s r o o m s c o r e i n t o one o f t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , the f o l l o w -i n g range o f s c o r e s can be used: A u t h o r i t a r i a n 11 - 14.5 Semi p e r m i s s i v e 14.6 - 29.4 P e r m i s s i v e 29.5 - 33 Where " o t h e r " c h o i c e i s s p e c i f i e d , i t w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o e n v i -ronmental c a t e g o r i e s by consensus o f t h r e e j u d g e s and s c o r e d as above. 

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