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The Stikine : Tahltans, environmentalists, and B.C. Hydro Demchuk, Andrea Madelaine Katherine 1985

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THE STIKINE: TAHLTANS, ENVIRONMENTALISTS, AND B.C. HYDRO by ANDREA MADELAINE KATHERINE DEMCHUK B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of P o l i t i c a l Science We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 9, 1985 © Andrea Madelaine K a t h e r i n e Demchuk, 1985 ®0 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r ex t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of P o l i t i c a l Science The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 -Wesbrook Pl a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: October 9, 1985 A b s t r a c t The S t i k i n e and Iskut R i v e r s i n northwest B r i t i s h Columbia form one of the l a s t p r i s t i n e w i l d e r n e s s r i v e r systems i n North America. B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y has, as pa r t of i t s longterm development s t r a t e g y , plans to dam the r i v e r s some time e a r l y i n the next c e n t u r y . These plans are opposed by the T a h l t a n Indians f o r whom the S t i k i n e - I s k u t Basin i s an a n c e s t r a l home and by numerous environmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s t h e s i s analyzes the i n t e r a c t i o n of these o p p o s i t i o n groups i n l i g h t of the general l i t e r a t u r e on the Indian l a n d c l a i m s and environmental movements. T h i s i s accomplished i n four c h a p t e r s . The f i r s t chapter analyses Indian response to i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m through both the maintenance of the n a t i v e economy and the land c l a i m s movement and examines the h i s t o r y of the North American environmental movement i n terms of r e f o r m i s t and deep environmentalism. The two movements are found t o d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y over i s s u e s such as land use c o n t r o l and resource development. The second chapter t r a c e s T a h l t a n and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t attachments to the S t i k i n e , o u t l i n e s B.C. Hydro's plans and d e s c r i b e s how B.C. Hydro's p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s would themselves generate c o n t r o v e r s y . The t h i r d chapter d i s c u s s e s and compares T a h l t a n and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t o p p o s i t i o n to B.C. Hydro's p l a n s . The Tah l t a n o p p o s i t i o n i s expressed i n two forms, both through i i the p e r s i s t e n c e of the T a h l t a n economy, the adherents to which are not represented i n a f u l l y funded formal o r g a n i z a t i o n and the more predominant A s s o c i a t i o n of U n i t e d T a h l t a n s . The e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t o p p o s i t i o n i s f a l l s mainly i n the r e f o r m i s t stream of environmentalism. The predominant form of Tahltan o p p o s i t i o n and the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s are shown to have markedly d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s . The t h e s i s concludes that the case of the S t i k i n e i n d i c a t e s that there are many o b s t a c l e s to a l l i a n c e s between the f o r m a l l y d e f i n e d land c l a i m s movement and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . The most prominent of these o b s t a c l e s i s f e d e r a l comprehensive c l a i m s p o l i c y which encourages r e s o u r c e - e x t r a c t i v e development by p r o v i d i n g f o r resource r o y a l t i e s i n c l a i m s e t t l e m e n t s . However, the f i n d i n g s from the S t i k i n e a l s o i n d i c a t e there are numerous p o i n t s of common i n t e r e s t between Indians committed to the n a t i v e economy and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . Table of Contents A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgements v i I. LAND CLAIMS AND ENVIRONMENTALISM ..1 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 B. The Indian Land Claims and Environmental Movements 2 1. I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m ....3 2. Response to I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m 7 3. The S i e r r a Club: Reformist Environmentalism .16 4. Environmental Groups as I n t e r e s t Groups 26 C. I n c o m p a t a b i l i t y Between Two Movements 28 I I . THE STIKINE: WILDERNESS AND HYDROELECTRIC PLANS ...34 A. A P r i s t i n e R i v e r Basin 35 1. Ta h l t a n T i e s to the Basin 36 2. E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t Attachments 38 B. B.C. Hydro Development P o l i c y and the S t i k i n e ..39 1. E a r l y I n t e r e s t and Covert A c t i v i t y 41 2. The S t i k i n e - I s k u t Proposal ..41 3. P r o v i n c i a l Impetus 43 4. Proposed E f f e c t s .45 5. Planning A c t i v i t i e s 48 C. Summary 52 I I I . DIVIDED OPPOSITION 54 A. Two O p p o s i t i o n s 55 1. T a h l t a n O p p o s i t i o n Through the A.U.T 55 2. E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t O p p o s i t i o n ....60 3. O p p o s i t i o n I n t e r a c t i o n 65 i v B. The Energy P r o j e c t Approval Process: Two C r i t i q u e s 69 1. The Mechanics of the Process 69 2. The A.U.T. C r i t i q u e 74 3. The E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t C r i t i q u e 75 4. Incongruent C r i t i q u e s ....80 IV. CONCLUSIONS • 83 BIBLIOGRAPHY 88 1. Secondary Sources 88 2. Government P u b l i c a t i o n s and P u b l i c Documents 91 3. In t e r v i e w s 93 4. Theses and Unpublished Papers 94 5. E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t Newsletters 95 6. Newspapers • 96 7. M i s c e l l a n e o u s .97 v Acknowledgements There are numerous people to whom I would l i k e to express my h e a r t f e l t thanks: my committee, Don Blake, P h i l Resnick and Michael M'Gonigle for being e x c r u t i a t i n g l y p a t i e n t ; the U.B.C. Department of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , f o r p r o v i d i n g two teaching a s s i s t a n t s h i p s ; the Hamber Foundation, f o r a bursary; Anne Yandle of S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , f o r p r o v i d i n g the sanctuary of a c a r r e l l ; a l l the people (acknowledged i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y ) who consented to i n t e r v i e w s ; Jim McConnell f o r reading and r e - r e a d i n g p r e v i o u s d r a f t s ad  nauseam; Simon Dalby f o r c r i t i c a l b i b l i o g r a p h i c h i n t s ; my parents, Harry and C h r i s t i n e Demchuk, f o r funding the pro d u c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s ; my husband Mike Wallace, f o r a p p l y i n g h i s s k i l l with Textform to the pr o d u c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s and f o r be a r i n g with me when I was unbearable; my f r i e n d Kaye B r e a r l e y , f o r i n s i s t i n g t h a t I co u l d , should and would complete t h i s t h e s i s ; and my p a t e r n a l g r a n d f a t h e r , John Demchuk, f o r teaching me that p o l i t i c s i s something to be e x c i t e d about. v i Chapter I LAND CLAIMS AND ENVIRONMENTALISM A. INTRODUCTION As wi l d e r n e s s becomes an e v e r - s c a r c e r resource throughout the world, undeveloped lands become a coveted commodity. Canada i s a n a t i o n whose economy e x h i b i t s a marked r e l i a n c e on h i n t e r l a n d resource development. While much p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e has been concerned with the impetus behind f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l development p o l i c i e s , there has been l i t t l e w r i t t e n about the two movements which most f r e q u e n t l y oppose h i n t e r l a n d resource development, the n a t i v e land c l a i m s and environmental movements. As a consequence of the s c a r c i t y of work on these two movements, there has been v i r t u a l l y no examination of t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l study the i n t e r a c t i o n between member o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the Indian land c l a i m s and environmental movements i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to a major resource development. B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y (henceforth, B.C. Hydro) has, as part of i t s long-term development s t r a t e g y , made plan s to c o n s t r u c t dams on the S t i k i n e and Iskut R i v e r s i n the remote northwestern r e g i o n of B.C. I f implemented, these plans would d e s t r o y the S t i k i n e - I s k u t Basin's w i l d e r n e s s . B. C. Hydro's plans have been and continue to be s t r o n g l y opposed by both n a t i v e peoples and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . But d e s p i t e the unanimous o p p o s i t i o n of both groups to the Hydro 1 2 p r o p o s a l s , they have not formed a cohesive a l l i a n c e to strengthen t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n . The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to show that the i n a b i l i t y of the na t i v e groups and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s to form an a l l i a n c e r e f l e c t s the p a r t i a l d i s j u n c t i o n of p e r c e i v e d i n t e r e s t s between the Canadian land c l a i m s and environmental movements. The t h e s i s w i l l c o n s i s t of four c h a p t e r s . The remainder of t h i s f i r s t chapter w i l l d e s c r i b e the o r i g i n s of the two movements. The second chapter w i l l demonstrate that the St i'kine-I skut Basin i s valued by both n a t i v e peoples and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , and d e t a i l the ways i n which the B.C. Hydro p r o p o s a l s would transform the ecology, economy, and t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y of the r e g i o n . The t h i r d chapter w i l l compare and c o n t r a s t the p h i l o s o p h i e s behind and the t a c t i c s used by the two o p p o s i t i o n groups. F i n a l l y , the f o u r t h chapter w i l l argue that while there are many o b s t a c l e s to an o v e r a r c h i n g a l l i a n c e between member o r g a n i z a t i o n s , these do not t o t a l l y preclude the formation of a l l i a n c e s between n a t i v e peoples and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . B. THE INDIAN LAND CLAIMS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENTS No s i n g l e e x i s t i n g theory c o u l d e x p l a i n the o p p o s i t i o n t o B.C. Hydro's S t i k i n e - I s k u t p r o p o s a l . T h i s i s t r u e , not because a l l t h e o r i e s have t h e i r inherent l i m i t a t i o n s , but because the o p p o s i t i o n t o B.C. Hydro's proposal i s not m o n o l i t h i c ; i t c o n s i s t s of two types of groups, n a t i v e and 3 e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t . The two types of o p p o s i t i o n have separate h i s t o r i e s , p h i l o s o p h i e s and o b j e c t i v e s . They are the products of d i s p a r a t e t r a d i t i o n s . T h i s d i v i s i o n of o p p o s i t i o n p a r a l l e l s d i v i s i o n s i n other contemporary movements to oppose massive resource developments i n Canada's h i n t e r l a n d . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l argue that n a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n may be seen as a response to i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m , while environmental o p p o s i t i o n may be seen as a part of the North American c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t movement. 1. INTERNAL COLONIALISM I n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m i s the legacy of a process begun in Canada by the E n g l i s h and French some hundreds of years ago. The o b j e c t i v e of c o l o n i z a t i o n i s to b r i n g the undeveloped lands of a t e r r i t o r y under the p o l i t i c a l and economic c o n t r o l of a s p e c i f i e d s t a t e . In t h i s view, c o l o n i z a t i o n i s both an h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary phenomenon. Thus, Canada, with i t s enormous undeveloped h i n t e r l a n d , has yet to be f u l l y c o l o n i z e d . Many of the p o l i t i c a l and economic m a n i f e s t a t i o n s -of contemporary Canadian c o l o n i a l i s m r e s u l t d i r e c t l y from Canadian resource development p o l i c y . In order to demonstrate the r e l a t i o n s h i p between resource development p o l i c y and i n t e r n a l c o l o n i z a t i o n , t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l f i r s t , present a d e f i n i t i o n of i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m o f f e r e d by Paul Tennant, second, show how contemporary c o l o n i z a t i o n i s a by-product of northern resource development p o l i c i e s and t h i r d , examine 4 Peter Usher's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of northern resource development as the c l a s h of two economies. Paul Tennant summarizes the p e r t i n e n t aspects of i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m as i t i s d i s c u s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e : The e s s e n t i a l e m p i r i c a l f e a t u r e of i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m i s the c o n t i n u e d s u b j u g a t i o n of an indigenous people i n a p o s t - c o l o n i a l independent n a t i o n s t a t e . Subjugation w i l l i n every case i n v o l v e r e s t r i c t i o n of use of land and resources as w e l l as v a r y i n g degrees of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n , s o c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , suppression of c u l t u r e and d e n i a l of p o l i t i c a l and other r i g h t s and freedoms.... The moral c l a i m of indigenous peoples d i f f e r s from that of other subjugated groups i n that i t i n c l u d e s and r e s t s upon the fundamental c l a i m to la n d and use of r e s o u r c e s which d e r i v e s from p r i o r and r i g h t f u l occupancy. The f a c t of continued s u b j u g a t i o n of indigenous people takes i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e from the p e r c e p t i o n that the s u b j u g a t i o n has no g r e a t e r moral j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n an independent s t a t e than i n a c o l o n y . 1 I n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m , then, i s a form of oppression which c o n t r a d i c t s a moral c l a i m whose s t r e n g t h has not and cannot be a m e l i o r a t e d through the passage of time. I t i s a c o n t i n u i n g process d u r i n g which the s t a t e both broadens and c o n s o l i d a t e s i t s c o n t r o l over a t e r r i t o r y and i t s peoples. The most recent phase of Canada's c o l o n i z a t i o n , which began i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the century, has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an e x t e n s i o n of resource e x p l o i t a t i o n to Canada's n o r t h . 2 I t i s a by-product of contempory resource 1 Paul Tennant, "Native P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1910-1969:A Response to I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m , " B.C. S t u d i e s , 55 (1982): 3-4. Tennant's a r t i c l e c o n t a i n s an e x c e l l e n t review of the l i t e r a t u r e on the concept of i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m p r e c e d i n g h i s adaption of the concept to the B r i t i s h Columbia l a n d claims movement. 2 Donald Colborne and Norman Z l o t n i k , " I n t e r n a l Canadian I m p e r i a l i s m and the N a t i v e Peoples," Imperia1ism,  N a t i o n a l i s m , and Canada, John Saul and C r a i g Heron (eds.), (Toronto: New Hogtown Pr e s s , 1977), pp. 172-173. 5 development p o l i c y . The d e p l e t i o n of resources in southern Canada, coupled with the backing of American monopoly c a p i t a l , has made the e x p l o i t a t i o n of northern Canadian resources a more v i a b l e e n t e r p r i s e . The magnitude of these developments i s unprecedented. M e t r o p o l i t a n i n t e r e s t s encroach upon the h i n t e r l a n d : Because the h i n t e r l a n d i s an area that has been e f f e c t i v e l y a n a t i v e area the phenomenon can be d e s c r i b e d as an extension or completion of c o l o n i a l i s m , or as a process of i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m . 3 T h i s phase of c o l o n i z a t i o n has three p a r a l l e l s with e a r l i e r p e r i o d s of i n t e r n a l expansion." F i r s t , the r a t i o n a l e f o r expansion i s found o u t s i d e of n a t i v e communities. Second, the i n e q u a l i t y of n e g o t i a t i n g p o s i t i o n between the n a t i v e and non-native s e c t o r remains. T h i r d , there i s a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y t hat government p o l i c y toward n a t i v e groups w i l l c ontinue to r e s u l t i n t h e i r s u b j u g a t i o n . Of s a l i e n c e to the S t i k i n e c o n t r o v e r s y i s Peter Usher's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the contemporary i n c u r s i o n of major resource e x t r a c t i v e developments i n t o Canada's h i n t e r l a n d as the c l a s h of two economies, the n a t i v e and the i n d u s t r i a l . Of importance i s Usher's d e s c r i p t i o n of the n a t i v e economy as a f u n c t i o n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n r a t h e r than an h i s t o r i c a l a r t i f a c t . Usher argues that the contemporary n a t i v e economy, which l i k e i t s p r e - c o n t a c t predecessor, f u n c t i o n s mainly f o r 3 Douglas Sanders, Native People i n Areas of I n t e r n a l  N a t i o n a l Expansion:Indians and I n u i t i n Canada I n t e r n a t i o n a l Work Group f o r Indigenous A f f a i r s , Doc.14^ (Copenhagenrn.p., 1973), p. 4. • I b i d . , p.23. 6 s u b s i s t e n c e , has evolved to produce goods f o r exchange as opposed to trade i n s u r p l u s . Usher a s s e r t s that d e s p i t e the i n t r o d u c t i o n of cash, the n a t i v e economy has remained a c e n t r a l v e h i c l e f o r the maintenance of n a t i v e c u l t u r e . For example, the fur trade has been compatible with t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e land use and s o c i a l systems. Trappers and fishermen s t i l l needed s k i l l s i n the bush, women s t i l l needed to prepared c l o t h i n g and meals, and the extended household remained the b a s i c u n i t of p r o d u c t i o n . Thus, Usher e n v i s i o n s the n a t i v e economy as both r e t a i n i n g t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s and adding s i g n i f i c a n t l i n k a g e s with the e x t e r n a l economy. Usher p o s i t s that the recent i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of the north i s a much more r a d i c a l c h a l l e n g e to the n a t i v e economy than the fur t r a d e . In the era of the mega-project, the two economies are engaged i n an ever f i e r c e r c o m p e t i t i o n f o r p r o d u c t i v e f a c t o r s ; that i s , they are i n constant c o n f l i c t over land use, resources and a l l o c a t i o n of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e funds. As w e l l , they have ov e r l a p p i n g labour f o r c e s ; because of t h i s much i n i t i a t i v e and c r e a t i v i t y i s drawn out of the n a t i v e economy as n a t i v e people, e s p e c i a l l y young men, are encouraged to j o i n the i n d u s t r i a l workforce. T h i s i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y i s s a i d to weaken d i r e c t l y the n a t i v e economy d e s p i t e and because of growth in the i n d u s t r i a l economy. Usher suggests that u n r e s t r i c t e d northern i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n w i l l e v e n t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e the use of the north f o r s u b s i s t e n c e . Usher sees t h i s t r a n s i t i o n from one mode of pr o d u c t i o n to another as the most c r i t i c a l episode 7 in the h i s t o r y of n a t i v e s o c i e t y . An exodus from the n a t i v e economy i s seen as l e a d i n g to the demise of t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e . Economic and, t h e r e f o r e , c u l t u r a l c o n t r o l of the north moves from the h i n t e r l a n d to the m e t r o p o l i s : As trade and movement i n c r e a s e between the two ( i n c l u d i n g not only commodities but labour and c a p i t a l ) the more the domestic sector of the n a t i v e economy i s transformed by market f o r c e s and i n d u s t r i a l imperatives, the more dependent n a t i v e community and n a t i v e s o c i e t y become and the l e s s a b l e they are to defend t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s . 5 2. RESPONSE TO INTERNAL COLONIALISM A number of responses to i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m have been e m p i r i c a l l y observed among the indigenous peoples of new world s o c i e t i e s . 6 These have ranged from p a s s i v e acceptance to v i o l e n t o u t b u r s t s to d e m o r a l i z a t i o n to a s s i m i l a t i o n or f i n a l l y , to p o l i t i c a l a d a p t a t i o n . While a theory of i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m i s u s e f u l i n d e s c r i b i n g the p l i g h t of indigenous peoples i n new world s o c i e t i e s , i t has a very l i m i t e d a b i l i t y to p r e d i c t the responses of these peoples to t h e i r predicaments. To account f o r t h i s v a r i e g a t e d response we must i n t r o d u c e many i d i o s y n c r a t i c and c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s . Within B r i t i s h Columbia response has g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w e d two p a t t e r n s Hugh Brody has argued that an important response of B r i t i s h Columbia's Indians to i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m , has been 5 Peter J . Usher, "Canada's North: Two Economies, Two Ways of L i f e , " T r a n s i t i o n , 11 ( F a l l 1981): 7-11. 6 Tennant, "Native P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , " p.89. 8 the maintenance, e s p e c i a l l y i n the north, of the n a t i v e economy. 7 Indians m a i n t a i n i n g the n a t i v e economy have r e s i s t e d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n through t r a d i t i o n a l land use. They have e x p l i c i t l y r e j e c t e d the c o n s u m e r i s t i c v a l u e s of contemporary Western c u l t u r e . The n a t i v e economy, i s however, c o n s t a n t l y f a c i n g encroachment from resource e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s . I t i s not represented by any formal o r g a n i z a t i o n s at the l o c a l or p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s . In f a c t , i t s l a r g e s t u n i t of o r g a n i z a t i o n i s most f r e q u e n t l y the extended f a m i l y . The n a t i v e economy f u n c t i o n s l a r g e l y o u t s i d e formal p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s . Tennant argues that the Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia have responded to i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m with p o l i t i c a l a d a p t a t i o n . 8 In order to maintain t h e i r i d e n t i t y they have managed to work w i t h i n the immigrant m a j o r i t y ' s p o l i t i c a l system. Since B r i t i s h Columbia j o i n e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n a constant theme of Indian p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n has been a d e s i r e f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n of a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e to t r a d i t i o n a l t r i b a l l a n d s . In order to understand the s i t u a t i o n which produced t h i s response, t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l f i r s t show how B r i t i s h Columbia's t r a d i t i o n a l Indian lands have h i s t o r i c a l l y been the s u b j e c t of s t r a i n e d f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l 7 Hugh Brody, Maps and Dreams, (Vancouver: Douglas and M c l n t y r e , 1981) pp. 190-214. 8 Tennant, "Native P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , " p. 89; Paul Tennant, "Native P o l i t i c a l A c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969-1983", B.C. S t u d i e s , 57 (1983): 112-136; Canada, Dept. of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s , A H i s t o r y of  N a t i v e Land Claims Processes i n Canada, 1867-1979 , by R i c h a r d D a n i e l . (Ottawa: Dept. of Supply and S e r v i c e s , 1980); passim. 9 r e l a t i o n s , second, o u t l i n e the l a t e s t f e d e r a l s t r a t e g y to r e s o l v e these c l a i m s , and t h i r d , show the p r e c i s e nature of contemporary B r i t i s h Columbia Indian p o l i t i c a l a d a p t a t i o n . Since C o n f e d e r a t i o n , the Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia, or more p r e c i s e l y t h e i r l ands, have been the subject of much f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l c o n t e n t i o n . 9 The Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia, with the exception of a small number of t r i b e s on southern Vancouver I s l a n d and i n the n o r t h e a s t of the p r o v i n c e , have never t r e a t e d with the Crown. 1 0 The Indians argue that because they have not surrendered t h e i r lands through t r e a t y that t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s have not been e x t i n g u i s h e d . By c o n t r a s t , s u c c e s s i v e p r o v i n c i a l governments have argued a g a i n s t the concept of a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . In the words of Att o r n e y - G e n e r a l B r i a n Smith: . . . . i f n a t i v e t i t l e ever e x i s t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t was e x t i n g u i s h e d by p r e - c o n f e d e r a t i o n proclamations of the Governor and ordinances of the c o l o n i a l l e g i s l a t u r e r e s p e c t i n g the use and d i s p o s i t i o n of l a n d . 1 1 Any u n s e t t l e d lands o u t s i d e of r e s e r v e s are h e l d by the p r o v i n c e to be Crown lan d s . A c c o r d i n g l y , the Province has acted upon the assumption that i t alone has h e l d the p r e r o g a t i v e of the development of these u n s e t t l e d lands and a l l t h e i r r e s o u r c e s e x c l u d i n g the f i s h e r y . The f e d e r a l government, with i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Indians as s p e c i f i e d i n the The B r i t i s h North America Act,has been caught between these two opposing o p i n i o n s . 1 2 9 D a n i e l , A H i s t o r y , pp. 27-56, 193-219. 1 0 T h i s absence of t r e a t i e s i s r e l a t i v e l y uncommon i n the other p r o v i n c e s of Canada where t r e a t i e s were u s u a l l y made i n advance of s e t t l e m e n t . 1 1 B r i a n Smith, B r i t i s h Columbia A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , News Release, V i c t o r i a , March 6, 1984. 1 2 The f e d e r a l government c o u l d make t r e a t i e s between i t s e l f and n a t i v e groups on such i s s u e s as the f i s h e r y and self-government. Because the p r o v i n c e has c o n s t i t u t i o n a l 10 For more than a century the f e d e r a l government has employed a number of s t r a t e g i e s , none of which has succeeded i n s e t t l i n g any outstanding c l a i m s to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of both the Indians and the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. The c u r r e n t f e d e r a l government s t r a t e g y f o r the settlement of claims such as those of most B r i t i s h Columbia Indians was designed to accommodate the contemporary resource e x t r a c t i o n i n Canada's north and f o l l o w e d on the Nishga d e c i s i o n i n the Supreme Court of Canada. Ri c h a r d D a n i e l d e s c r i b e s the outcome of Calder vs. the Attorney-General of  B r i t i s h Columbia: The Nishgas narrowly l o s t t h e i r case, but the judgement gave g r e a t e r credence to a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s c l a i m s . Three of the seven judges r u l e d that the Nishgas h e l d an a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e to c e r t a i n lands i n the p r o v i n c e and that the t i t l e had not been e x t i n g u i s h e d . Three others accepted the concept of a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e but h e l d that i n t h i s case i t had been e x t i n g u i s h e d . The seventh and d e c i d i n g o p i n i o n r e j e c t e d the c l a i m on the t e c h n i c a l b a s i s that the c o u r t a c t i o n c o u l d not be brought with the a u t h o r i z a t i o n of the p r o v i n c e . In essence, the judgements l e n t c o n s i d e r a b l e support to the concept of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s but were d i v i d e d on what c o n s t i t u t e d ext i n g u i s h m e n t . 1 3 On August 8,1983, the M i n i s t e r of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s announced a p o l i c y on comprehensive claims which: . . . i n d i c a t e d the Government's w i l l i n g n e s s to n e g o t i a t e settlements with n a t i v e groups i n those areas of Canada where any n a t i v e r i g h t s based on t r a d i t i o n a l use and occupancy had not been e x t i n g u i s h e d by t r e a t y or superseded by law. While t h i s n a t i v e i n t e r e s t has never been d e f i n i t i v e l y r e c o g n i z e d or d e f i n e d i n Canadian law, i t r e l a t e s to t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e usage and occupancy of land i n these areas (the Yukon, 1 2 ( c o n t ' d ) a u t h o r i t y oyer crown lands and a l l resources e x c l u d i n g the f i s h e r y , the f e d e r a l government must s o l i c i t the p r o v i n c e ' s c o o p e r a t i o n f o r an e f f e c t i v e c l a i m s settlement. 1 3 D a n i e l , A H i s t o r y , p. 222. 11 Northern Quebec, most of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s ) . The p o l i c y r e c o g n i z e d that non-native occupancy of t h i s l a n d had not taken t h i s i n t e r e s t i n t o account, had not p r o v i d e d compensation f o r i t s gradual e r o s i o n , and had g e n e r a l l y excluded n a t i v e people from b e n e f i t t i n g from developments that might have taken p l a c e as a r e s u l t of non-native s e t t l e m e n t s . . . . 1 " The f e d e r a l government has chosen n e g o t i a t i o n as the mechanism by which to achieve the settlement of comprehensive c l a i m s . T h i s process of n e g o t i a t i o n has two s t a g e s . 1 5 In the f i r s t stage, n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s prepare and submit comprehensive claims to the O f f i c e of N a t i v e Claims. The c l a i m i s then a n a l y z e d by the Department of J u s t i c e f o r h i s t o r i c a l accuracy and l e g a l m e r i t . During t h i s stage r e s e a r c h i s funded through grants from the Department of Indians A f f a i r s t o the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e Indian group. In the second stage, the b a s i s f o r the c l a i m i s accepted or r e j e c t e d by the Department of Indian A f f a i r s . I f the b a s i s f o r the c l a i m i s accepted, the n a t i v e group may f u r t h e r prepare and begin n e g o t i a t i n g i t s c l a i m . At t h i s stage, a l l r e s e a r c h i s funded through loans from the Department of Indian A f f a i r s a g a i n s t any f u t u r e s e t t l e m e n t . At e i t h e r stage only one o r g a n i z a t i o n may be funded to r e s e a r c h a p a r t i c u l a r c l a i m and no i n d i v i d u a l may be p a r t y to more than one c l a i m . 1 4 I b i d . , i n t r o . , pp. i i - i i i . 1 5 Canada, Dept. Indian and Northern A f f a i r s , In A l l  F a i r n e s s (Ottawa: M i n i s t e r of Supply and S e r v i c e s , -1981), pp. 13-14. There i s no standard format f o r comprehensive cl a i m s s e t t l e m e n t s . The settlements w i l l vary along e i g h t d i m e n s i o n s . 1 6 F i r s t , agreements w i l l vary as to the d i s p o s a l of t r a d i t i o n a l lands. For example, they may or may not i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s f o r access by non-natives or they may or may not provide f o r p a r t i c i p a t o r y l a n d management s t r u c t u r e s . Second, they may or may not provide f o r w i l d l i f e management. T h i r d , they may a l l o c a t e subsurface r i g h t s to c l a i m a n t s or they may otherwise a l l o c a t e them. Fourth, they may p r o v i d e f o r v a r y i n g amounts of monetary compensation fo r a l i e n a t e d r i g h t s . F i f t h , they provide f o r v a r i e g a t e d s t r u c t u r e s to manage claimant a s s e t s . S i x t h , they may or may not i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s f o r exemption from t a x a t i o n . Seventh, they impinge d i f f e r e n t l y on e x i s t i n g government programs. F i n a l l y , they vary i n e l i g i b i l i t y requirements. That i s , b e n e f i t s may not be l i m i t e d to s t a t u s Indians, but are open to "...Canadian c i t i z e n s of n a t i v e descent from the claimed a r e a . " 1 7 Thus, many p o i n t s are open f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . One p r o v i s i o n which i s not open for n e g o t i a t i o n i s t h a t a l l settlements are f i n a l . F e d e r a l comprehensive c l a i m s p o l i c y , then, i s designed to both r e c o g n i z e a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e and to s e t t l e the q u e s t i o n so that development may proceed 1 6 I b i d . , pp. 23-25. 13 on t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e lands i n a l e g a l l y unambiguous f a s h i o n . The p o l i c y has encouraged n a t i v e groups to b r i n g f o r t h c l a i m s by p r o v i d i n g funding i n the forms of grants and l o a n s . To a degree, the design of the n e g o t i a t i o n process has shaped recent n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Tennant has argued that the predominant mode of contemporary Indian p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s unique in Canada. 1 8 The b a s i c p o l i t i c a l u n i t i s the t r i b a l group, as opposed to the band or province-wide o r g a n i z a t i o n . These t r i b a l groups f r e q u e n t l y have both s t a t u s and non-status membership. Both of these tendencies have been somewhat encouraged by f e d e r a l comprehensive c l a i m s p o l i c y . The t r i b e has become the focus f o r p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y as the O f f i c e of N a t i v e Claims has accepted 14 c l a i m s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n , 10 by t r i b a l groups and 4 by i n d i v i d u a l b a n d s . 1 9 In a d d i t i o n , the O f f i c e i s c o n s i d e r i n g a f u r t h e r 13 c l a i m s , of which a l l but 1 8 Tennant, "Native Indian P o l i t i c a l A c t i v i t y . " pp. 135-126. Tennant a l s o argues that these o r g a n i z a t i o n a l tendencies c o n t r a d i c t two l o n g s t a n d i n g f e d e r a l p o l i c i e s . Which are the s t r i c t d i v i s i o n of s t a t u s and non-status Indians and the r e c o g n i t i o n of the band as the b a s i c p o l i t i c a l u n i t . To a great extent however, these p o l i c i e s have now been superseded by the comprehensive c l a i m s p o l i c y . The band remains r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r o u t i n e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of r e s e r v e s but comprehensive c l a i m s p o l i c y a l l o w s Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c h o i c e of o r g a n i z a t i o n to pursue t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c l a i m s . As w e l l , e l i g i b i l i t y f o r comprehensive c l a i m b e n e f i t s i s not l i m i t e d to s t a t u s groups. 1 9 Canada, Dept. Indian and Northern A f f a i r s , " B r i t i s h Columbia Comprehensive Claims," O f f i c e of Native Claims Doc. no. 0015A(Vancouver:n.p.,Nov. 1984). 14 one are from t r i b a l groups. These 27 c l a i m s have each, to some extent, been f o s t e r e d through the p r o v i s i o n of r e s e a r c h funding. The u n i t y of s t a t u s and non-status Indians has been encouraged by the f a c t t h a t e l i g i b i l i t y f o r b e n e f i t s from comprehensive c l a i m s i s not l i m i t e d to s t a t u s Indians. F e d e r a l comprehensive c l a i m s p o l i c y has allowed the Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia to pursue c l a i m s as s e l f - p e r c e i v e d c u l t u r a l e n t i t i e s r a t h e r than as b u r e a u c r a t i c a l l y imposed Bands made up of l e g a l i s t i c a l l y d e f i n e d Indians. The Nishga Comprehensive Claim n e g o t i a t i o n s have been at the f o r e f r o n t of B r i t i s h Columbia comprehensive c l a i m s . No f u r t h e r B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a comprehensive c l a i m n e g o t i a t i o n s w i l l begin u n t i l t h i s settlement i s achieved. The Nishga n e g o t i a t i o n s , which have l a s t e d e i g h t years, have not been concluded due mainly to the c o n t i n u i n g r e f u s a l of the p r o v i n c i a l government both to r e c o g n i z e the l e g i t i m a c y of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s and to accept any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r compensation for t h e i r l o s s . 2 0 The p r o v i n c e observes but does not p a r t i c i p a t e i n these n e g o t i a t i o n s . Thus, f o r B r i t i s h Columbia's Indians, t h i s l a t e s t p o l i c y on comprehensive c l a i m s has encouraged p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y but has not f u r t h e r e d the r e s o l u t i o n of the 2 0 Dept. Indian A f f a i r s , In. A l l F a i r n e s s , p. 30. 1 5 problem of i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m . The Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia are engaged i n a s t r u g g l e f o r t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l a n ds. T h i s s t r u g g l e has taken two p r i n c i p a l forms. In the f i r s t , t r a d i t i o n a l land use and the n a t i v e economy are maintained. In the second land c l a i m s are sought with the framework of f e d e r a l comprehensive c l a i m s p o l i c y . As the l a t t e r form i s o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d and funded by the f e d e r a l government, i t has become more widely known and dominates the former. In a d d i t i o n , because the n a t i v e economy i s not represented i n any formal o r g a n i z a t i o n s , most r e l a t i o n s between Indians r e s i d e n t on t r a d i t i o n a l lands and o u t s i d e bodies such as governments and i n t e r e s t groups are t r a n s a c t e d through member o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the land c l a i m s movement. The land claims movement has not achieved i t s goals because of the r e f u s a l of the Pr o v i n c e to recognize unextinguished a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . While the i s s u e of t i t l e remains unresolved, the c o l o n i z a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia's h i n t e r l a n d i s f o s t e r e d through p r o v i n c i a l development p o l i c i e s . Thus, as s h a l l be shown i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s , o p p o s i t i o n to u n i n v i t e d development may be seen as a response to i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m . 16 3. THE SIERRA CLUB: REFORMIST ENVIRONMENTALISM While Canada's n a t i v e peoples view a l a r g e p a r t of Canada's h i n t e r l a n d as t h e i r r i g h t f u l h e r i t a g e , there are non-natives, a s i d e from d e v e l o p e r s , who would a l s o c l a i m an i n t e r e s t i n these same a r e a s . E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s would argue, i n the face of non-renewable resource e x t r a c t i o n , t h a t the undeveloped nature of Canada's h i n t e r l a n d i s . in i t s e l f a p r e c i o u s resource. As an e v e r - s m a l l e r area of Canada's h i n t e r l a n d remains undeveloped, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s c a l l f o r i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n as a w i l d e r n e s s l e g a c y . There has been l i t t l e academic a n a l y s i s of the environmental movement i n Canada. 2 1 The p a u c i t y of l i t e r a t u r e would i n d i c a t e , at f i r s t g l ance, that the movement i s v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . However, t h i s i n d i c a t i o n i s b e l i e d by frequent media r e p o r t s of environmental a c t i v i s m . In order to understand the t r a d i t i o n of 2 1 The task of w r i t i n g a comprehensive overview of the Canadian movement co u l d indeed prove daunting as the movement's membership i s heterogenous and c o n s t a n t l y e v o l v i n g . The l i t e r a t u r e i s thus l i m i t e d t o case s t u d i e s and u n d e t a i l e d overviews: W i l l i a m L e i s s ed., Ecology Versus  P o l i t i c s i n Canada (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1979) o f f e r s a c o l l e c t i o n of essays which d e s c r i b e the p h i l o s o p h i e s behind the movement but l i t t l e a n a l y s i s of i t s behaviour; D. A. C h a n t , " P o l l u t i o n Probe: F i g h t i n g the P o l l u t e r s With T h e i r Own Weapons," i n Pressure Group  Behaviour In Canadian P o l i t i c s A. Paul Pross ed., (Toronto:McGraw-Hill-Ryerson, 1975) pp.56-68 s t u d i e s the case of one group but makes no g e n e r a l a n a l y s i s of the movement; Timothy 0'Riordan,Environmentalism 2nd ed.,(London:Pion L i m i t e d , 1981) i s b r i e f i n i t s s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to the Canadian movement; A. Paul Pross, "Pressure Groups: T a l k i n g Chameleons" i n Canadian P o l i t i c s i n the 1 980's, Michael S. Whi t t i n g t o n and Glen W i l l i a m s eds., (Agincourt:Methuen, 1984), pp. 287-311 mentions the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the wi l d e r n e s s lobby at the f e d e r a l l e v e l i n parks maintenance. 1 7 environmental a c t i v i s m i n Canada, then, i t i s necessary to draw on two s o r t s of l i t e r a t u r e . The Canadian environmental movement may be seen both as a pa r t of the North American environmental movement and as a type of i n t e r e s t group i n the Canadian p o l i t i c a l system. T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l examine a prominent member of the contemporary North American environmental movement, the S i e r r a Club. The Club, as w i l l be shown i n l a t e r chapters, was the f o s t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t o p p o s i t i o n to the S t i k i n e - I s k u t p r o p o s a l s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s examination the next s e c t i o n w i l l p l a c e the Canadian environmental movement i n the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t groups i n the Canadian and B r i t i s h Columbian p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s . As w i l l be shown i n subsequently, the S i e r r a Club has been the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the North American environmental movement with the g r e a t e s t p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t a c t i c a l i n f l u e n c e on the environmental o p p o s i t i o n to the S t i k i n e - I s k u t p r o p o s a l . The is s u e s which i n s p i r e d the formation and growth of the S i e r r a Club o f f e r c l o s e p a r a l l e l s to the i s s u e s which spawned the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t o p p o s i t i o n to the S t i k i n e - I s k u t p r o p o s a l . Both groups were responses to impending t h r e a t s of environmental d e g r a d a t i o n . Both the Club and the S t i k i n e - I s k u t e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s f a l l w i t h i n what B i l l D e v a l l has termed the r e f o r m i s t stream of North American environmentalism. As w e l l , both f i t Mary Douglas and Aaron Wildavsky's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the S i e r r a 18 Club as an i n s t i t u t i o n concerned with o r g a n i z a t i o n a l maintenance to the detriment of r a d i c a l a c t i v i s m . The S i e r r a Club was founded i n 1892 by John Muir, the noted c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t and poet. The Club's i n i t i a l g o a l s were t o : To e x p l o r e , enjoy and render a c c e s s i b l e the mountain re g i o n s of the P a c i f i c Coast; to p u b l i s h i n f o r m a t i o n concerning them; to e n l i s t the support and c o o p e r a t i o n of the people and government i n p r e s e r v i n g the f o r e s t and other n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s of the S i e r r a Nevada... 2 2 In the years p r i o r to the Club's formation, Muir had been the most a c t i v e member of the s u c c e s s f u l movement to have Congress d e c l a r e the Yosemite N a t i o n a l Park. At the same time other c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s s u c c e s s f u l l y l o b b i e d f o r the establishment of Sequoia and General Grant N a t i o n a l Parks i n order to p r o t e c t the southern S i e r r a ' s l a r g e t r e e s . The c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s d i s c o v e r e d however, that t h e i r e f f o r t s were not over with the d e c l a r a t i o n of these parks. The parks were s t i l l t hreatened by sheep-grazing and f o r e s t f i r e s . Thus, the S i e r r a Club was formed to ensure the p r e s e r v a t i o n of these a r e a s . Wilderness was seen by Muir and the Club's membership as being of value i n and of i t s e l f . The means of e n s u r i n g t h i s p r e s e r v a t i o n were p u b l i c education and l o b b y i n g i n f l u e n t i a l p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s . 2 2 T e r r y Fleishman, "Major Evironmental Groups," EPA  J o u r n a l , 4(1978): 14-17; Stephen R. Fox, John Muir and H i s  Legacy, (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1981); Douglas H. Strong, "The S i e r r a Club A H i s t o r y Part 1: O r i g i n s and Outings," S i e r r a , 62: 8 (Oct. 1977) : 14-17; Douglas H. Strong, 'The S i e r r a Club: A H i s t o r y , Part two-Conservation," S i e r r a , 62: 9 (Oct. 1977): 16-20. 19 For many years, the Club was p u r e l y a v o l u n t e e r o r g a n i z a t i o n . U n t i l the Second World War, the bulk of i t s a c t i v i t y c e n t r e d on wil d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n i n the S i e r r a Nevada mountains. I t s membership grew slowly but s t e a d i l y due p r i m a r i l y to the a t t r a c t i o n of club-sponsored o u t i n g s . A f t e r the War, the Club broadened i t s e f f o r t s o u t s i d e of C a l i f o r n i a and consequently broadened i t s membership base. From the l a t e 1940's, the Club, l e d by a p a i d employee, ex e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r David Brower, fought i t s f i r s t l a r g e campaign o u t s i d e the S i e r r a Nevada. The s u c c e s s f u l campaign blocked the c o n s t r u c t i o n of Echo Park Dam i n Dinosaur N a t i o n a l Monument on the Colorado border. The campaign c o n s i s t e d of a number of t a c t i c s i n c l u d i n g r a f t t r i p s down the Yampa R i v e r to i n c r e a s e awareness of the beauty of the area, p u b l i c i t y such as b u l l e t i n s , f i l m s , a r t i c l e s , ads and l e t t e r s to the pre s s , and c o o p e r a t i o n with other c o n s e r v a t i o n groups such as the Wilderness S o c i e t y . In a d d i t i o n , Brower appeared before v a r i o u s c o n g r e s s i o n a l committees exposing flaws i n the dam plans, l i s t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s and arguing a g a i n s t the n e c e s s i t y of the p r o j e c t . The Dinosaur Monument campaign set the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d tone of f u t u r e Club campaigns. As of 1960 the S i e r r a Club had l o c a l c h a p t e r s i n n e a r l y a l l of the U n i t e d S t a t e s and i n over 15 other c o u n t r i e s i n c l u d i n g Canada. The Club expanded i t s a c t i v i t i e s to in c l u d e such i s s u e s as " . . . s o n i c booms from a i r p l a n e s , urban sprawl, e x c e s s i v e use of p e s t i c i d e s , p r o t e c t i o n of c o a s t a l 20 areas, a n a t i o n a l w i l d e r n e s s b i l l and a concern with the overuse and misuse of r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . " 2 3 While i t remains a c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n concerned with the t h r e a t s of dams and other wilderness endangering developments, the Club's a c t i v i t i e s have broadened to such an extent t h a t i t has become a p a r t of the North American environmental movement. Though the S i e r r a Club has evolved from a p u r e l y c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t to an e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t group, i t s popular image i s s t i l l t h a t of h i k i n g and outdoors c l u b . The bulk of a c t i v i t i e s c o ntinue to be p u b l i c education and p o l i t i c a l l o b b y i n g . The m a j o r i t y of the contemporary membership are p a s s i v e r a t h e r than h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d in Club a c t i v i t i e s . Most of the a c t i v e m i n o r i t y p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the Club's a c t i v i t i e s at the l o c a l l e v e l while p a i d s t a f f and the Club e x e c u t i v e g e n e r a l l y represent the Club at n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l • f u n c t i o n s and formulate n a t i o n a l p o l i c y . A s i d e from l o b b y i n g , the c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n s of the Club's n a t i o n a l o f f i c e are the p u b l i c a t i o n of a Club magazine, S i e r r a and the p u b l i c a t i o n a of s e r i e s of books on the environment. The group p r e s e n t l y has t a x - d e d u c t i b l e s t a t u s i n the U n i t e d State and Canada and r e c e i v e s a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of i t s income from donations. B i l l D e v a l l has developed a s a l i e n t d i s t i n c t i o n between two t e n d e n c i e s w i t h i n the environmental movement. These are the r e f o r m i s t and the deep e c o l o g i c a l . The f i r s t stream, the 2 3 Fleishman, "Major Evironmental Groups," p. 15. 21 ref o r m i s t : . . . i s f r e q u e n t l y seen as the attempt t o work only w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of c o n v e n t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l p rocesses of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s to a l l e v i a t e or m i t i g a t e some of the worst forms of a i r and water p o l l u t i o n d e s t r u c t i o n of indigenous w i l d l i f e , and some of the most s h o r t - s i g h t e d development schemes. 2 * By c o n t r a s t , the second stream, the deep e c o l o g i c a l : ...supports many of the r e f o r m i s t goals but i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y , seeking a new metaphysics, epistemology, cosmology and environmental e t h i c s of the p e r s o n / p l a n e t . 2 5 The fundamental d i f f e r e n c e between the two streams i s t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n with what deep e c o l o g i s t s r e f e r to as the dominant s o c i a l paradigm. The r e f o r m i s t i s content to work f o r incremental change w i t h i n an a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c s o c i a l system. The deep e c o l o g i s t seeks a r a d i c a l r e o r i e n t a t i o n of the the s o c i a l system from a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c i s m to b i o c e n t r i s m . That i s , the deep e c o l o g i s t e n v i s i o n s a s o c i e t y i n which man does not seek to dominate nature but to l i v e as a p a r t of i t . Timothy O'Riordan o f f e r s two terms, technocentrism and ecocen t r i s m which are congruent with the r e s p e c t i v e a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c and b i o c e n t r i c tendencies of D e v a l l ' s r e f o r m i s t s and deep e c o l o g i s t s . 2 6 O'Riordan f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e s these two streams but i t i s p o s s i b l e to compare t h e i r g e n e r a l a s p e c t s . T e c h n o c e n t r i s t s have a fundamental 2 4 B i l l D e v a l l and George S e s s i o n s , Deep Ecology: L i v i n g as  i f Nature Mattered, (Layton, Utah: P e r e g r i n e Smith Books, 1985) p.2. 2 5 B i l l D e v a l l , "The Deep Ecology Movement," N a t u r a l  Resources J o u r n a l , 2 (1980): 299. 2 6 O'Riordan,Environmentalism, p. 275. 22 b e l i e f i n man's a b i l i t y to pr o g r e s s . That i s , they b e l i e v e that given s u f f i c i e n t funding and resources that man's s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e can overcome most of the problems which he f a c e s . They b e l i e v e that e x p e r t i s e r a t h e r than p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the a p p r o p r i a t e t o o l f o r s o l v i n g s o c i e t y ' s problems. Some t e c h n o c e n t r i s t s , the accommodaters, would have a more q u a l i f i e d f a i t h i n man's a b i l i t y to p r o g r e s s . Accommodaters b e l i e v e that economic growth can c o n t i n u e assuming that there are s u i t a b l e economic adjustments, there are improvements made to l e g a l r i g h t s to a minimum l e v e l of environmental q u a l i t y and that there i s f u l l compensation f o r those who experience adverse environmental or s o c i a l e f f e c t s of development. They would accept the need f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o complement e x p e r t i s e i n p o l i t i c a l decision-making. They would argue f o r the p r o v i s i o n of e f f e c t i v e environmental management agencies at n a t i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l s . L i k e a l l t e c h n o c e n t r i s t s they have an o v e r r i d i n g f a i t h i n man's a b i l i t y to manage h i s way out of d i f f i c u l t i e s . By comparison, e c o c e n t r i s t s l a c k c o n f i d e n c e i n contemporary s o c i e t y . They b e l i e v e that man should l i v e as a p a r t of nature r a t h e r than as a master of i t . They do not g i v e much credence to l a r g e - s c a l e technology and the a s s o c i a t e d demands of e l i t e s t e x p e r t i s e , c e n t r a l s t a t e a u t h o r i t y and a n t i - d e m o c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . They r e j e c t the n o t i o n of man's innate a b i l i t y to progress because they f e e l i t i s grounded i n m a t e r i a l i s m . They i n s i s t on the i n t r i n s i c importance of nature f o r the humanity of 23 man and presuppose that e c o l o g i c a l laws should d i c t a t e m o r a l i t y . They contend that only w i t h i n the s m a l l - s c a l e community can democracy be t r u l y a c hieved. Thus, the t e c h n o c e n t r i c v i s i o n i s completely compatible with s o c i e t y as i t i s now s t r u c t u r e d . I t holds that man can manage h i s way out of any d i f f i c u l t y . By c o n t r a s t , the e c o c e n t r i c c r i t i q u e h olds that many of man's d i f f i c u l t i e s are symptoms of a flawed s o c i a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r u c t u r e . D e v a l l f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e s how the t e c h n o c e n t r i c and a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c f a i t h s of r e f o r m i s t s c o n s i s t e n t l y f r u s t r a t e s the achievement of t h e i r g o a l s : One s c e n a r i o f o r the environmental movements i s to continue with attempts at reforming some n a t u r a l resource p o l i c i e s . For example, e c o a c t i v i s t s can appeal a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n s to l e a s e massive areas of p u b l i c domain lands i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r mine r a l development, or o i l and gas development. They can comment on d r a f t Environmental Impact Reports; appeal t o p o l i t i c a n s to p r o t e c t the s c e n i c v a l u e s of the n a t i o n ; and c a l l a t t e n t i o n to the massive problems of t o x i c wastes, a i r and water p o l l u t i o n , and s o i l e r o s i o n . These p o l i t i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s c a l l to the need f o r he a l t h y ecosystems... However environmentalism i n t h i s s c e n a r i o tends to be very t e c h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d and only t o short-term p u b l i c p o l i c y i s s u e s of resource a l l o c a t i o n . Attempts are made to reform only some of the worst lan d use p r a c t i c e s without c h a l l e n g i n g , q u e s t i o n i n g or changing some of the b a s i c assumptions of growth and development. E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s who f o l l o w t h i s s c e n a r i o w i l l e a s i l y be l a b e l l e d as " j u s t another s p e c i a l i s s u e s group". In order to pl a y the game of p o l i t i c s they w i l l be f o r c e d to compromise on every p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n i n which they are i n t e r e s t e d . 2 7 D e v a l l s t a t e s that such r e f o r m i s t a c t i v i t y u s u a l l y b u i l d s on accomplishments such as land use or wi l d e r n e s s r e g u l a t i o n s . He a s s e r t s t h a t such work i s v a l u a b l e but can have 2 7 D e v a l l , Deep Ecology, p. 2. 24 l i m i t a t i o n s . Many of these l i m i t a t i o n s stem from the f a c t that i n arguing t h e i r case before p u b l i c o f f i c a l s , r e f o r m i s t s are f o r c e d to c o n f i n e t h e i r arguments to the language of resource economists f o r fear of being termed " . . . s e n t i m e n t a l , i r r a t i o n a l or u n r e a l i s t i c . . . " 2 8 Thus, r e f o r m i s t accomplishments are n e c e s s a r i l y compromises. Although D e v a l l p l a c e s some prominent members of the S i e r r a Club such as John Muir and David Brower w i t h i n the deep e c o l o g i c a l stream, he p l a c e s the o r g a n i z a t i o n as a whole w i t h i n the r e f o r m i s t stream. While the number of i s s u e s with which the S i e r r a Club concerns i t s e l f has i n c r e a s e d i n recent years, the Club's commitment to working w i t h i n the mainstream of North American s o c i e t y has i f anything s o l i d i f i e d . The Club q u e s t i o n s i n d i v i d u a l forms of environmental degradation r a t h e r than the s o c i e t y which i n t r i n s i c a l l y must produce them. The S i e r r a Club i s the p r o t o t y p i c a l r e f o r m i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n . While i t s c e n t r a l goal i s w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n , i t s a c t i v i s m i s d e l i m i t e d by the va l u e s of mainstream s o c i e t y . Douglas and Wildavsky p o i n t to the contemporary s t r u c t u r e of the S i e r r a Club as the most d e t e r m i n i s t i c f a c t o r i n i t s p e r c e p t i o n of environmental r i s k . They d e s c r i b e the Club's s t r u c t u r e as one i n which a small e l i t e p r e s i d e s over an i n e r t mass membership. 2 9 They suggest that t h i s tendency toward h i e r a r c h y d i f f e r e n t i a t e s the Club from 2 8 I b i d . 2 9 Aaron B. Wildavsky and Mary Douglas, Risk and C u l t u r e , (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, c. 1982), pp. 126-151. 25 other more g r a s s - r o o t s o r i e n t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as F r i e n d s of the E a r t h . In the terminology of Douglas and Wildavsky those f o r c e s which f u n c t i o n i n the mainstream of s o c i e t y are termed the c e n t r e and those f a r t h e r away from the mainstream are the border. O r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the S i e r r a Club w i l l tend to mimic the i n s t i t u t i o n s whose aims they purport to oppose: L i t t l e h i e r a r c h i e s speak and a c t l i k e b i g h i e r a r c h i e s . Though they may be intended to p r o t e c t nature from depredation t h e i r s i s not a true border v o i c e . The more the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t group i s organized as a h i e r a r c h y , the more i t b e l i e v e s there i s time f o r reform. I t seeks incremental changes and speaks f r a n k l y for i t s own p e r c e i v e d i n t e r e s t s . The more l i k e a h i e r a r c h y , the stronger i t s i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l and the l e s s i t s f e a r of subversion. The more h i e r a r c h i c a l the o r g a n i z a t i o n , the l e s s i t bears a message about c a t a s t r o p h e . 3 0 Thus, c r i t i c s of the S i e r r a Club have argued that the Club's success i n wilderness p r e s e r v a t i o n has been l i m i t e d by i t s c h o i c e of p o l i t i c a l t a c t i c s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . Having e s t a b l i s h e d that the Club and the environmental movement are one of many types of i n t e r e s t groups a c t i v e i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l system, i t i s u s e f u l to t u r n now to the r o l e of the environmental movement in the Canadian and B r i t i s h Columbian p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s . 3 0 I b i d . , p. 126. 26 4. ENVIRONMENTAL GROUPS AS INTEREST GROUPS While members of r e f o r m i s t environmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the S i e r r a Club may p e r c e i v e themselves as working w i t h i n the mainstream p o l i t i c a l system, i n Canada at l e a s t , t h e i r l o c a t i o n i n the p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n process i s p e r i p h e r a l i n comparison with other, more e s t a b l i s h e d , i n t e r e s t s . T h i s i s not to argue that the environmental movement has not been without i t s successes but t h a t i n t e r e s t s such as c o r p o r a t i o n s f i g u r e more i n f l u e n t i a l l y . 3 1 E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s are not a par t of Canada's n o t a b l y e l i t e dominated decision-making s t r u c t u r e but r a t h e r , as O'Riordan would argue, a d v e r s a r i e s f i g h t i n g to h o l d t h e i r g r o u n d . 3 2 In B r i t i s h Columbia, Jeremy Wilson a s s e r t s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s have i n f l u e n c e d the design of environmental r e g u l a t o r y s t r u c t u r e s but that these gains have not o b s t r u c t e d resource development. 3 3 O'Riordan has argued that the Canadian brand of environmental a c t i v i s m " . . . l i e s somewhere between the two p o l l s of p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t i v i s m found i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s 3 1 Fred Thompson and W. T. Stanbury, The P o l i t i c a l Economy  of I n t e r e s t Groups i n the L e g i s l a t i v e Process i n Canada, I n s t i t u t e f o r Research on P u b l i c P o l i c y O c c a s i o n a l Paper 9, (Montreal: n.p., May 1979) does not s p e c i f i c a l l y d i s c u s s environmental groups but would c l a s s them as i n t e r e s t s with l i t t l e or no r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the p o l i c y p r o c e s s ; Pross, "Pressure Groups," p. 289 mentions the r o u t i n e manner i n which w i l d e r n e s s groups are c o n s u l t e d on f e d e r a l parks i s s u e s but does not d i s c u s s the success of the environmental movement i n g e n e r a l . 3 2 O'Riordan, Environmentalism, p. 231. 3 3 R. Jeremy Wilson, "Environmentalism and B.C. N a t u r a l Resources P o l i c y : 1972-82," paper presented to the annual meetings of th Canadian P o l i t i c a l Science A s s o c i a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, June 5, 1983. 27 and B r i t a i n , but tends toward the American model..." 3 4 He d e s c r i b e s g r a s s - r o o t s a c t i v i s m as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the American p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e and suggests that i t i s no a c c i d e n t that environmental a c t i o n groups were spawned i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . By c o n t r a s t , he c h a r a c t e r i z e s B r i t a i n "...as a n a t i o n where the i n v i s i b l e p o l i t i c a l power of i n f l u e n c e through s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l connection i s f a r more t e l l i n g than the more dramatic placard-waving a n t i c s of p o l i t i c a l l y ephemeral environmental g r o u p s . . " 3 5 He concludes then t h a t : Environmental and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been "imported" i n t o Canada from i t s southern neighbor both i d e o l o g i c a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y through the immigration of American a c t i v i s t s . A number of d e d i c a t e d Canadian and American lawyers have been l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the mounting p r e s s u r e s on the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments to adopt l e g i s l a t i o n that would l e g a l l y s a n c t i o n p u b l i c involvement... 3 6 Wilson contends that the g r e a t e s t p a r t of the B r i t i s h Columbian movement's success has been the way i n which i t has i n f l u e n c e d the design of p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n and g u i d e l i n e s f o r c o a l , mining, f o r e s t r y p r a c t i c e s and of s p e c i a l relevance to t h i s t h e s i s , h y d r o - e l e c t r i c development. He notes however, that r a r e l y have such measures caused h a r d s h i p f o r r e s o u r c e - e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s . 3 7 As w e l l , the r e g u l a t o r y s t r u c t u r e s have been i n f l u e n c e d by i n t e r e s t s other than e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s and hence do not completely ensure that B r i t i s h Columbia's 3 4 0'Riordan,Environmental ism,p. 231. 3 5 I b i d . 3 6 I b i d . 3 7 Wilson, "Environmentalism and B.C.," pp. 1-2. 28 resources are developed i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . Thus, to a great extent, the Canadian environmental movement remains o u t s i d e the p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s . More o f t e n than not members w i l l oppose p o l i c y r a t h e r than i n i t i a t e i t . When environmental reforms are made they are almost never to the detriment of corporate i n t e r e s t s . C. INCOMPATABILITY BETWEEN TWO MOVEMENTS As the development of n a t u r a l resources i n Canada's h i n t e r l a n d may be simultaneously viewed both as the c o l o n i z a t i o n of a b o r i g i n a l t e r r i t o r y and environmental degradation, i t would be easy to assume the land c l a i m s movement and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s to be n a t u r a l a l l i e s i n the face of a common enemy. As the preceding s e c t i o n s have shown, however, the two movements have d i f f e r e n t m o t i v a t i o n s and r e s o u r c e s . Most b a s i c a l l y , they have d i f f e r e n t primary g o a l s . N a t i v e people a c t i v e i n the land c l a i m s movement are a s s e r t i n g t h e i r r i g h t to c o n t r o l t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l a n ds. Canada's e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s are seeking to p r o t e c t w i l d e r n e s s . Related to the d i f f e r e n c e between the goals of the two movements i s the d i s p a r i t y between t h e i r r e l a t i v e l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n with the p r e v a i l i n g system of s o c i a l and economic r e l a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , the types of resources which the two movements can b r i n g to bear i n f u r t h e r i n g t h e i r causes vary c o n s i d e r a b l y . 29 In a s s e r t i n g t h e i r r i g h t .to c o n t r o l t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s , Canada's n a t i v e peoples are c a l l i n g , by i m p l i c a t i o n , f o r a r i g h t to choose whether or not to develop these lands and as a consequence to choose whether or not to b e n e f i t from development. They may i n f a c t choose to manage t h e i r lands i n accordance with t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s or they may choose to develop resources and a c q u i r e r e s u l t i n g economic r e n t s . The l a t t e r may seem very a p p e a l i n g i f sub-surface r i g h t s are granted in a comprehensive c l a i m s agreement. From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , both resource development c o r p o r a t i o n s and environmental a c t i v i s m may be seen as d e t r a c t i n g from n a t i v e r i g h t s i n that they t h r e a t e n to r e s t r i c t n a t i v e freedom to choose. In seeking wilderness p r e s e r v a t i o n , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s are arguing f o r the r i g h t of mankind to u n s p o i l e d nature. U n l i k e the land claims movement, they are not a s s e r t i n g the r i g h t s of a c l e a r l y d e f i n a b l e body of people such as a t r i b e but r a t h e r a more amorphous community. While e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s may support the r e c o g n i t i o n of a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , they are a l s o somewhat i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n , p u t t i n g -f o r t h the case that a wider c r o s s - s e c t i o n of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n than Canada's n a t i v e peoples i s e n t i t l e d to enjoy the legacy of wilderness and p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n . As has been shown i n the preceding s e c t i o n s , the f e d e r a l comprehensive c l a i m s p o l i c y has shaped the p r e c i s e g o a l s of many o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the land c l a i m s movement. As 30 has a l s o been shown, the agreements may c o n t a i n v a r y i n g p r o v i s i o n s f o r land use d e s i g n a t i o n s such as parks, f o r e s t r y or m u l t i p l e use. Peter Burnet has p o i n t e d out that lands d e s i g n a t e d as " n a t i v e l a n d s " are not to be construed as being congruent with parks or w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v e s . Burnet i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s d i f f e r e n c e between the two movements: The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f ' n a t i v e lands i n a l a n d - c l a i m s agreement i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the d e s i g n a t i o n of s p e c i f i c land uses. I t i s the t r a n s f e r of land-use c o n t r o l over a c e r t a i n area to the indigenous a b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n . Because of t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to northern development p r o p o s a l s d u r i n g the l a s t decade, the a b o r i g i n a l peoples o f t e n are assumed to be opposed to development on t h e i r l a n d s . While i t c e r t a i n l y i s true that the p r e s e r v a t i o n of w i l d l i f e to support t r a d i t i o n a l hunting and f i s h i n g i s a major goal of a b o r i g i n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , these groups have always a s s e r t e d that they are not opposed to development. T h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to past p r o p o s a l s stems as much from t h e i r demand to share i n the c o n t r o l of and proceeds from development, as i t does from a d e s i r e to see the n o r t h maintained as a p r i s t i n e w i l d e r n e s s . 3 8 Burnet goes on to c i t e two cases where c o r p o r a t e s t r u c t u r e s entrenched i n comprehensive c l a i m s settlements have l e d to c o n f l i c t s between n a t i v e s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s : ...The experience of the Alaskan and James Bay s e t t l e m e n t s supports t h i s statement. The s i g n i n g of these two agreements was f o l l o w e d by s e v e r a l e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l undertakings by the b e n e f i c i a r i e s , sometimes on a very l a r g e s c a l e . The North Slope Borough of Alaska has become very wealthy through p r o p e r t y taxes from o i l development and i s h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d i n o i l development support f a c i l i t i e s . In Canada, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s o f t e n cooperate with n a t i v e groups to argue a g a i n s t i n d u s t r i a l developments, but, i n A l a s k a , i n d u s t r y and n a t i v e s have found themselves together t r y i n g to thwart attempts by c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s to have lan d withdrawn 3 8 Peter Burnet, "Parks and Native Claims/Land and Resource Withdrawal" i n The P u b l i c D i s p o s i t i o n of N a t u r a l Resources, N i g e l Bankes and J . Owen Saunders eds., ( C a l g a r y : Canadian I n s t i t u t e of Resources Law, 1984) p. 123. 31 from development. 3 9 Thus, as a p r a c t i c a l matter, contemporary land c l a i m s settlements may have e f f e c t s of r e a l i g n i n g the n a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s of s e l f - i n t e r e s t . The a b i l i t y to c o l l e c t r o y a l t i e s may enhance the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of development. Another major d i f f e r e n c e between the two movements i s r e l a t e d to t h e i r d i f f e r e n t g o a l s . They are unequally s a t i s f i e d with the c u r r e n t system of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . While i t i s arguable that the land c l a i m s movement i s not seeking to transform r a d i c a l l y the p r e v a i l i n g system of economic r e l a t i o n s , i t i s a l s o evident from recent d i s c u s s i o n s of n a t i v e self-government that the movement wishes to fundamentally a l t e r the c u r r e n t c o n f i g u r a t i o n of Canadian governmental i n s t i t u t i o n s . The r e f o r m i s t m a j o r i t y of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s do not q u e s t i o n the l e g i t i m a c y of the p r e v a i l i n g system of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s but r a t h e r would argue that i t c o u l d be improved with adjustments. In f a c t , the removal of the a u t h o r i t y of land use d e s i g n a t i o n from the Crown to n a t i v e groups may be p e r c e i v e d by e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s as a t h r e a t to w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n . Deep e c o l o g i s t s c e r t a i n l y seek to a l t e r the 'dominant s o c i a l paradigm'. However, they would probably d i f f e r with members of the land c l a i m s movement on the nature of the a p p r o p r i a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s o c i e t y . Deep e c o l o g i s t s would r e t u r n many of the c e n t r a l s t a t e ' s f u n c t i o n s to l o c a l community c o n t r o l without regard to e t h n i c i t y . 3 9 I b i d . 32 A f i n a l d i f f e r e n c e between the land c l a i m s and environmental movements i s the v a r y i n g l e v e l s and d i f f e r e n t types of resources a v a i l a b l e to them. As i l l u s t r a t e d e a r l i e r , the land c l a i m s movement has a major l e g a l resource i n the concepts of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t and t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s and a f i n a n c i a l resource i n funding from the Department of Indian A f f a i r s to pursue land c l a i m s . By comparison, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s have a weaker set of resources at t h e i r d i s p o s a l . There i s no s i n g l e concept of environmental r i g h t to p a r a l l e l the concept of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t . E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s must f i g h t t h e i r b a t t l e s with the piecemeal l e g a l r e s o u r c e s of s t a t u t e s , r e g u l a t i o n s and common law precedents. As w e l l , no matter how u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i t s l e v e l of s e r v i c e , the Department of Indian A f f a i r s i s f a r more a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y comprehensive than the c o n f u s i n g a r r a y of environmental agencies and funding programs at the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s of government. E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s must o f t e n spend a great deal of energy on f u n d r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s . To a t t r a c t donations they need c h a r i t a b l e tax s t a t u s and to maintain t h i s s t a t u s they must c o n s t r a i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . Thus, i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to h i n t e r l a n d resource development the Indian la n d c l a i m s and environmental movements may be seen as c o i n c i d e n t i n t e r e s t s r a t h e r than a u n i f i e d f o r c e . The next c h a p t e r s w i l l d e s c r i b e an area, the S t i k i n e - I s k u t B asin, claimed by an Indian t r i b e , the T a h l t a n s , and valued by e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , which faced the 33 prospect of a major r e s o u r c e - e x t r a c t i v e development. The S t i k i n e - I s k u t c o n t r o v e r s y i l l u s t r a t e s the p r a c t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s p e c t i v e among between the Indian l a n d c l a i m s and environmental movements. Chapter II THE STIKINE: WILDERNESS AND HYDROELECTRIC PLANS As noted i n the p r e v i o u s chapter, B.C. Hydro's plans f o r the S t i k i n e - I s k u t B a s i n have been the o b j e c t of much c o n t r o v e r s y . Vehement o p p o s i t i o n to the p r o p o s a l has come from two d i r e c t i o n s . The T a h l t a n Indians, who have r e s i d e d i n the Basin f o r thousands of years, p e r c e i v e the pro p o s a l as an attempt to c o l o n i z e t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s see the pro p o s a l as an imminent t h r e a t a g a i n s t a unique w i l d e r n e s s . Many of the f e a r s inherent i n both types of o p p o s i t i o n were not to be a l l a y e d by the decision-making process which l e d to the p r o p o s a l or by the manner i n which B.C. Hydro c a r r i e d out i t s t e c h n i c a l f i e l d w o r k . Despite the f a c t that both T a h l t a n s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s were faced with the same adversary, t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the s t r u g g l e would d i f f e r from the o u t s e t . The three s e c t i o n s of t h i s chapter w i l l t r a c e the development of t h i s c o n t r o v e r s y . The f i r s t w i l l o u t l i n e the h i s t o r y l e a d i n g to the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the S t i k i n e and e x p l a i n why the Basin i s v a l u e d both by T a h l t a n s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . The second w i l l d e s c r i b e B.C. Hydro's pl a n s f o r the area, t h e i r o r i g i n i n p r o v i n c i a l economic development p o l i c y f o r the Northwest of B r i t i s h Columbia and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l adverse e f f e c t s on the r e g i o n . The t h i r d w i l l demonstrate how B.C. Hydro exacerbated i t s o p p o s i t i o n by the way i n which i t proceeded with i t s p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . 34 35 A. A PRISTINE RIVER BASIN The S t i k i n e R i v e r r i s e s on northwestern B.C.'s S t i k i n e P l a t e a u . From i t s o r i g i n i t flows about 500 k i l o m e t r e s southwest to the B.C.-Alaska border; from the border i t flows a f u r t h e r 35 k i l o m e t e r s through the Alaska Panhandle to i t s D e l t a near Wrangell, A l a s k a . The Iskut R i v e r , the S t i k i n e ' s major t r i b u t a r y , flows from the south i n t o the S t i k i n e at approximately 61 kilo m e t e r s upstream of the B. C.-Alaska border. The r i v e r s pass through some of Canada's hi g h e s t mountains and through two d i s t i n c t c l i m a c t i c zones." 0 Of p a r t i c u l a r note i s the Grand Canyon of the S t i k i n e which has been c a l l e d the most s p e c t a c u l a r r i v e r canyon in North America. The canyon's w a l l s range between 800 and 1200 f e e t i n height and i t s channel can narrow to as l i t t l e as f i f t y f e e t . The R i v e r s are most remarkable f o r the f a c t that they have been l e f t v i r t u a l l y f r e e of human a l t e r a t i o n . The S t i k i n e and Iskut have remained w i l d r i v e r s because they are r e l a t i v e l y i n a c c e s s i b l e by comparison with other p a r t s of B.C. Because the S t i k i n e i s hidden behind the Alaska Panhandle i t s l e v e l of European settlement has remained low and i t s non-renewable resources have been l a r g e l y ignored by B.C.'s i n d u s t r i a l economy. T h i s la c k of resource development c o n t r a s t s g r e a t l y with the e x t e n s i v e 4 , 0 B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , Quick F a c t s About B.C.  Hydro's Proposed S t i k i n e ^ 1 s k u t H y d r o e l e c t r i c Development (Vancouver: n.p., 1982); Canada, Dept. of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s , The Future of the S t i k i n e Basin by John Faustmann (Vancouver: n.p., 1982), p.1. 36 resource e x p l o i t a t i o n i n the other p a r t s of B.C. Aside from sporadic mining e f f o r t s the l e v e l of non-renewable resource development has been l i m i t e d : The h i s t o r y of European settlement on the S t i k i n e i s a s t o r y of b i g plans that never panned out: min e r a l d e p o s i t s t h a t proved too small or too i n a c c e s s i b l e to mine, r a i l r o a d s begun but never completed, u n f i n i s h e d t e l e g r a p h l i n e s , and a Klondike g o l d rush t r a i l t h a t leads to nowhere." 1 1. TAHLTAN TIES TO THE BASIN The m a j o r i t y of r e s i d e n t s i n the S t i k i n e Basin are n a t i v e I n d i a n s . There are two Indian Bands. The Ta h l t a n Band, c e n t r e d i n Telegraph Creek, has a membership of over 500 T a h l t a n s , of whom roughly o n e - t h i r d l i v e on the res e r v e . The Iskut Band, l o c a t e d at Iskut, has a membership of about 350 Sekanis, of whom three q u a r t e r s l i v e on the r e s e r v e . The Bands' memberships are r e l a t e d . Both speak T a h l t a n , an Athapaskan language, and have s i m i l a r nomadic hunting p r a c t i c e s . " 2 Because the S t i k i n e - I s k u t Basin has remained w i l d e r n e s s , the Tahltans have r e t a i n e d many aspects of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l economy, which i n turn i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e i r c u l t u r e and a b o r i g i n a l i d e n t i t y . While d e f i n i t e l y a p o s t - c o n t a c t people, the Tahltans s t i l l r e l y on the S t i k i n e - I s k u t land base. T h e i r economy has many of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s c r i b e d to the n a t i v e economy by Peter Usher. A n t h r o p o l o g i s t S y l v i a A l b r i g h t u n d e r l i n e s " 1 Faustmann, The Future, p.5 " 2 B.C Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , S o c i a l and Economic  Impacts by Ben t l e y LeBaron (Vancouver: n.p., 1982) p. 6. 37 the importance of the i s o l a t i o n of the S t i k i n e - I s k u t Basin to the maintenance of the T a h l t a n economy: While the sequence of h i s t o r i c events on the S t i k i n e R i v e r was s i m i l a r to that o c c u r r i n g i n other areas of B r i t i s h Columbia, the i n f l u e n c e of d i r e c t European contact on t r a d i t i o n a l T a hltan c u l t u r e was f e l t much l a t e r than i n most areas. Throughout the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , T a h l t a n s have maintained strong t i e s to t h e i r land and aspects of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e r e l a t e d to a s u b s i s t e n c e economy" 3. An example of these t i e s i s the h a r v e s t i n g of f i s h and w i l d l i f e f o r food. A l b r i g h t r e l a t e s t h a t , i n order to understand past Tahltan use of f i s h and w i l d l i f e , in a d d i t i o n to the examination of a r c h e o l o g i c a l evidence, the o b s e r v a t i o n of present p r a c t i c e s was i n s t r u c t i v e : Research conducted at the Telegraph Creek area by the author has conc e n t r a t e d on observing and r e c o r d i n g t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s which are s t i l l c a r r i e d out by l o c a l T a h l t a n s . Salmon i s s t i l l a major economic resource of the Ta h l t a n people. While other methods of p r e s e r v a t i o n are now a v a i l a b l e , q u a n t i t i e s of salmon are s t i l l d r i e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e smokehouses f o r winter storage as they have been f o r hundreds and perhaps thousands of ye a r s . The hunting of w i l d game conti n u e s to provide a major p o r t i o n of the n a t i v e d i e t . The process and many of the t o o l s used i n tanning hides today f o r making mittens, moccassins and babiche, have remained unchanged s i n c e p r e h i s t o r i c times..."" Thus, the i s o l a t i o n of the S t i k i n e - I s k u t Basin from encroachment by the i n d u s t r i a l economy has allowed the Tah l t a n people to continue t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e p r a c t i c e s . By d e f a u l t the T a h l t a n s have been allowed to e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l over land use i n the S t i k i n e - I s k u t B a s i n . The Basin has remained a working p a r t of t h e i r c u l t u r e . " 3 S y l v i a A l b r i g h t , "An E t h n o a r c h e o l o g i c a l Study of Tahltan S u b s i s t e n c e and Settlement P a t t e r n s " (M.A. T h e s i s , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1982), p.29. "" I b i d . , p.43. 38 2. ENVIRONMENTALIST ATTACHMENTS The S t i k i n e ' s p r i s t i n e environment has, i n a d d i t i o n to a l l o w i n g the c o n t i n u a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l T a h l t a n p r a c t i c e s , i n s p i r e d the awe of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . As e a r l y as the 1880's, John Muir, the noted c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t and founder of the S i e r r a Club, v i s i t e d and was impressed by the S t i k i n e ' s Great G l a c i e r . " 5 A few non-natives have been so a t t r a c t e d to the Basin t h a t they have homesteaded th e r e . However, most non-natives who v i s i t the region are a t t r a c t e d f o r i t s outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s . U n t i l the nineteen s e v e n t i e s , most non-native r e c r e a t i o n took the form of big-game hunting. With the opening of Highway 34 and S p a t z i z i P r o v i n c i a l Park, l o c a l businesses expanded to serve t o u r i s t s who wished to engage i n r a f t i n g , f i s h i n g , h i k i n g , w i l d l i f e viewing and photography." 6 Marty Loken, of the Alaska Geographic, has summarized the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t attachment to the S t i k i n e : We have k i l l e d many of our great r i v e r s — d r a i n i n g , d i v e r t i n g , r e c h a n n e l i n g , damming, p o i s o n i n g — b u t the S t i k i n e remains, d e s p i t e present t h r e a t s , a l i v i n g watershed, part of the l a s t unmanipulated w i l d e r n e s s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and South E a s t e r n A l a s k a . " 7 " 5 Marty Loken, "The S t i k i n e R i v e r : Perhaps the L a s t Large Navigable Wilderness River i n North America", A l a s k a  Geographic, 6: 4, (1979): 7. " 6 Rosamund Pojar, " R e c r e a t i o n " , The Telkwa Foundation Newsletter, 3 : l ( S p r i n g 1980): 6. "' Loken, "The S t i k i n e R i v e r " , p. 7. 39 B. B.C. HYDRO DEVELOPMENT POLICY AND THE STIKINE In the f a l l of 1983, B.C. Hydro, faced with a mounting debt l o a d and a power s u r p l u s , anounced, amongst other c u t s , the postponement of the i n - s e r v i c e date of the f i r s t i n s t a l l a t i o n on the S t i k i n e from the 1990's u n t i l w e l l i n t o the t w e n t y - f i r s t c e n t u r y . " 8 While i t may be tempting to think of a twenty year postponement as a c a n c e l l a t i o n , i t i s important to r e a l i s e that B.C. Hydro cont i n u e s to view the h y d r o - e l e c t r i c development of the S t i k i n e as i t s p r e r o g a t i v e . " 9 In l a t e 1984, B.C. Hydro compiled an I n t e r i m Assessment Report on the S t i k i n e which was intended to summarize a l l B.C. Hydro f i n d i n g s about the S t i k i n e i n the event they would r e q u i r e d f o r f u t u r e p r o j e c t implementation. Nowhere does t h i s r e p o r t i n d i c a t e t hat the p r o p o s a l has been abandoned. 5 0 I t assumes that one day the p r o v i n c e ' s l e v e l of energy consumption w i l l grow past a v a i l a b l e supply and t h a t c o n s t r u c t i o n of new h y d r o - e l e c t r i c i n s t a l l a t i o n s w i l l be necessary. In B.C. Hydro's longterm development i t i n e r a r y , c o n s t r u c t i o n on the S t i k i n e i s scheduled to begin some time a f t e r the completion of S i t e C on the Peace R i v e r . 5 1 In " 8 "B.C. Hydro Forsees F u r t h e r Cuts i n C a p i t a l P r o j e c t s as Growth Slows", Globe and M a i l , Sept.26, 1983, p. B-1. 4 9 B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , S t i k i n e - I s k u t Development Int e r i m Assessment Report, Report no.H1693 (Vancouver:n.p., Dec. 1983). 5 0 I b i d . 5 1 B.C. Hydro, E l e c t r i c System P l a n s , (Vancouver: n.p., 1980) t h i s r e p o r t p l a c e s S i t e C f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by Hat Creek and then the S t i k i n e ; however Hat Creek has s i n c e been t o t a l l y removed from the i t i n e r a r y ; "Hat Creek Abandoned," Province(Vancouver), Aug. 22, 1982. 40 1983, a f t e r some 18 months of h e a r i n g s , the B.C. U t i l i t i e s Commission r e j e c t e d S i t e C as economically u n v i a b l e and thus, S i t e C, along with other long term plans such as the S t i k i n e - I s k u t , was p o s t p o n e d . 5 2 However, i n August of t h i s year, Premier B i l l Bennett announced at the opening of the Revelstoke Dam, that B.C. was a g g r e s s i v e l y n e g o t i a t i n g long term power exports to C a l i f o r n i a , and that c o n s t r u c t i o n on S i t e C c o u l d begin w i t h i n a y e a r . 5 3 Although no agreement has yet been reached, Bennett has a l r e a d y seen the removal of one o b s t a c l e i n that the B o n n e v i l l e Power A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , which owns the t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s necessary to transmit any B.C. Hydro exports, has agree to c o n s i d e r g r a n t i n g B.C. Hydro permis s i o n to use the l i n e s . Thus, the S t i k i n e - I s k u t p r o p o s a l r e t a i n s immediacy. I t s implementation w i l l be pushed ahead i f S i t e C i s developed e a r l i e r than was p r e d i c t e d a year ago. The S t i k i n e - I s k u t p r o p o s a l has f o s t e r e d c o ntroversy f o r a number of reasons. F i r s t , i t s implementation would have an undeniably adverse e f f e c t on the ecology of the S t i k i n e - I s k u t B a s i n . Second, the power which would have been generated by the dams c o u l d not be j u s t i f i e d by present or f u t u r e or l o c a l or p r o v i n c i a l energy requirements. T h i r d , was the manner in which B.C. Hydro proceeded with i t s p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The o p p o s i t i o n 5 2 " S i t e C dam go-ahead c a l l e d f o o l i s h by SPEC," Sun (Vancouver), Sept. 11, 1985. 5 3 "New Hope f o r Dams," Sun(Vancouver), Aug. 29, 1985; "Bennett heads south on s a l e s t r i p , " Sun(Vancouver), Sept. 16, 1985; "Fast a c t i o n sought on power pact," Sun(Vancouver), Sept. 17, 1985; "Bennett h a i l s power breakthrough," Sun(Vancouver), Sept. 18, 1985. 41 would f a u l t B.C. Hydro f o r i t s secrecy and l a c k of compliance with r e g u l a t i o n s . 1. EARLY INTEREST AND COVERT ACTIVITY B.C. Hydro and the p r o v i n c i a l government have had an i n t e r e s t i n developing the S t i k i n e and Iskut r i v e r s f o r some t i m e . 5 " A 1961 p u b l i c a t i o n of the B.C. Lands S e r v i c e gave estimates of the h y d r o e l e c t r i c p o t e n t i a l of the two r i v e r s . By 1964 the B.C. Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch had i d e n t i f i e d p o t e n t i a l damsites and, l a t e r i n that year, p r o v i n c i a l Orders-in-Counci1 h e l d lands near the s i t e s i n r e s e r v e , r e s t r i c t i n g mining a c t i v i t y . F i n a l l y , i n the summer of 1971 B r i n c o L i m i t e d , the company which had b u i l t Newfoundland's C h u r c h i l l F a l l s p r o j e c t , was i n a d v e r t e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d by t o u r i s t s to be engaged i n survey work near the S t i k i n e , some si x years before a formal p r o p o s a l was made. B r i n c o at f i r s t denied, but l a t e r admitted i t s a c t i v i t y . By the s p r i n g of 1972, f u r t h e r lands had been r e s e r v e d f o r f l o o d i n g . 2. THE STIKINE-ISKUT PROPOSAL B.C. Hydro's f i r s t f u l l p r o p o s a l f o r the S t i k i n e - I s k u t i n c l u d e d a group of four p r o j e c t s : a) " S t i k i n e Canyon", b) " T a n z i l l a " on the S t i k i n e , c) "Iskut Canyon", and d) "More C r e e k " . 5 5 The S t i k i n e Canyon p r o j e c t , which would have an i n s t a l l e d g e nerating c a p a c i t y of 915 Mw., would c o n s i s t of a dam 270 meters high c r e a t i n g a r e s e r v o i r 103 km. l o n g with 5 " Faustmann, The Future, p.7. 5 5 B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , Quick F a c t s . 42 an area of 12,700 h e c t a r e s . The T a n z i l l a p r o j e c t , to generate another 915 Mw., would c o n s t r u c t a dam 193 m. high with a r e s e r v o i r 25 km. long and f l o o d 900 ha. The Iskut Canyon p r o j e c t would generate 780 Mw. with a dam 158 m. hi g h , and a r e s e r v o i r 25 km. long f l o o d i n g 3800 ha. F i n a l l y , the More Creek p r o j e c t would generate a f u r t h e r 155 Mw. from two dams: a 135 m. one with a 25 km., 4100 ha. r e s e r v o i r ; and, to d i v e r t F o r r e s t Kerr Creek i n t o the headwaters of More Creek, a second 37 m. dam. The combined g e n e r a t i n g c a p a c i t y of the proposed dams on the S t i k i n e - I s k u t would be approximately 2800 Mw., or about one t h i r d of B.C. Hydro's g e n e r a t i n g c a p a c i t y i n 1982. In a d d i t i o n to the dams the p r o p o s a l s i n c l u d e d t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s to d e l i v e r the power to the p r o v i n c i a l g r i d . 5 6 At the time the p r o p o s a l was postponed two p o s s i b l e systems were under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The f i r s t was f o r a 500,000 v o l t (500kV) l i n e from the s i t e to the c i t y of T e r r a c e . The second would have seen the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a 765kV l i n e from the s i t e to P r i n c e George. The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s alone would have i n v o l v e d development unprecedented i n northwest B.C. Bearing i n mind that the complete S t i k i n e - I s k u t p r o p o s a l would have p r o v i d e d power i n excess of 2800Mw., i t i s p o s s i b l e t o conclude that e l e c t r i c i t y consumption i n the B a s i n , or f o r that matter i n a l l of the northwest, would not have warranted a development of t h i s magnitude. As of 1980 5 6 B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , Progress Report on  F e a s i b i l t y S t u d i e s , (Vancouver:n.p.~ 1980) pp. 2-9. 43 (the year i n which B.C. Hydro f i r s t acknowledged i t s i n t e r e s t i n developing the B a s i n ) , the e n t i r e g e n e r a t i n g c a p a c i t y on the S t i k i n e P l a t e a u was 3.25 Mw. 5 7 At that time, peak demand f o r a l l Hydro customers i n the northwest was only 308Mw. Thus, a development of the magnitude envisaged i n the p r o p o s a l s would only be j u s t i f i e d i f the power were exported from the region or i f a customer of unprecedented magnitude was a t t r a c t e d to the a r e a . 3. PROVINCIAL IMPETUS P r o v i n c i a l government r e p o r t s suggest that both s c e n a r i o s would have been necessary f o r the p r o p o s a l to be e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e . A 1982 p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y of Industry and Small Business Development report on development prospects f o r northwest B.C. s t a t e s that the r e g i o n ' s p o t e n t i a l r e s t s on the e x p l o i t a t i o n of yet undeveloped mineral d e p o s i t s . 5 8 The r e p o r t a l s o notes that t h i s e x p l o i t a t i o n would be l i m i t e d by a general la c k of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n the form of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , m u n i c i p a l f a c i l i t i e s , and low-cost power. 5 9 However, the r e p o r t goes on to note that even f u l l m i n eral development of the region 5 7 B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , E l e c t r i c i t y i n  Northwestern B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver:n.p., 1981), p.7-8; A l l e l e c t r i c i t y on the S t i k i n e P l a t e a u i s now p r o v i d e d by d i e s e l g e n e r a t o r s . 5 8 B r i t i s h Columbia, M i n i s t r y of Industry and Small Business Development, The Northwest Region ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1982) pp. 130-133. See a l s o B r i t i s h Columbia, M i n i s t r y of Economic Development, The Northwest Report 77 ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1977). 5 9 The p r o p o s a l s would c e r t a i n l y have remedied t h i s l a c k . A s i d e from producing power, h y d r o e l e c t r i c developments produce s p i n o f f s i n the form of roads and t o w n s i t e s . 44 would not r e q u i r e the e n t i r e p o t e n t i a l of the S t i k i n e - I s k u t p r o p o s a l , and that a d e c i s i o n to b u i l d would have to be based on p r o v i n c i a l r a t h e r than r e g i o n a l needs. The r e p o r t concludes by n o t i n g that r e g i o n a l power needs c o u l d be served by the More Creek development alone, the s m a l l e s t component of the e n t i r e p r o p o s a l , and that t h i s o p t i o n would be l e s s l i k e l y to provoke environmental and n a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n . A 1983 i n t e r - m i n i s t e r i a l r e p o r t i n response to the 1982 re p o r t i d e n t i f i e d 3 major mineral c l a i m s which i t saw as v i a b l e before the end of the d e c a d e . 6 0 One of these, Mount Klappan, an a n t h r a c i t e c o a l mine owned by Gulf Canada Resources, underwent e x t e n s i v e f i e l d t e s t i n g i n the summer of 1984. Another development deemed v i a b l e , S t i k i n e Copper, would have r e q u i r e d much of the power from More Creek. In ge n e r a l , the r e p o r t s t r o n g l y suggested that while l o c a l hydro or d i e s e l g e n e r a t i o n would be the best o p t i o n to provide power f o r mineral development, t h i s development by i t s e l f would not j u s t i f y proceeding with the e n t i r e S t i k i n e - I s k u t p r o p o s a l . Given that there was (and i s ) a s u r p l u s i n the p r o v i n c i a l g r i d , the r e p o r t was a t a c i t admission that the f u l l p r o p o s a l would be i n a d v i s a b l e . I t a l s o lends support to the view that the proposal was framed with p r o v i n c i a l r a t h e r than r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s i n mind. 6 0 B r i t i s h Columbia, M i n i s t r y of Industry and Small Business Development, Summary Report: Task Force on Northwest  Economic Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s " ( v i c t o r i a : Q u e e n ' s P r i n t e r , 1983), pp. 35-39. 45 4. PROPOSED EFFECTS The proposed development would have d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r e d the ecology of the S t i k i n e - I s k u t B a s i n . The dams and t h e i r i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a lone, even l e a v i n g a s i d e any f u r t h e r development they f o s t e r e d , would have transformed the region from i t s c u r r e n t w i l d e r n e s s s t a t e . 6 1 The dams would have reduced the f i s h and w i l d l i f e r e s ource and d e t r a c t e d from the region's scenery. These e f f e c t s , i n t u r n , would have r e s u l t e d i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of the Tah l t a n s u b s i s t e n c e economy, and the a l t e r a t i o n of the way of l i f e now enjoyed by many people i n the re g i o n , and the l o s s of many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r wil d e r n e s s r e c r e a t i o n . The e f f e c t s on f i s h and w i l d l i f e would have been marked. Although the e f f e c t s on the f i s h e r y would be d i f f i c u l t t o c a l c u l a t e p r e c i s e l y due to a lack of b a s e l i n e data, both B.C. Hydro and o p p o s i t i o n concur that the dams would have adverse e f f e c t s i n at l e a s t two ways. 6 2 F i r s t , the dams would s t a b i l i z e the seasonal flow regime and thereby reduce the salmon f r y r e a r i n g h a b i t a t and sockeye spawning h a b i t a t . Second, short-term f l u c t u a t i o n s i n r i v e r d i s c h a r g e , r e s u l t i n g from h o u r l y , d a i l y and weekly changes i n power demand, would i n t e r r u p t mainstem spawning by exposing reeds and s t r a n d i n g f i s h . The adverse e f f e c t s on w i l d l i f e would have two p r i n c i p a l causes. F i r s t , the f l o o d i n g of 17,000 ha. of h a b i t a t would d i s p l a c e moose, goats, bears and other mammals. Second, i n c r e a s e d access due 6 1 Bentley LeBaron, S o c i a l and Economic, p. 150. 6 2 B.C. Hydro, S t i k i n e - I s k u t I n t e r i m , pp. 6-8. 46 to the c o r r i d o r s made by t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s would i n c r e a s e hunting p r e s s u r e s . The s c e n i c value of the region would have been s e v e r e l y d i m i n i s h e d by p r o j e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . 6 3 For example, the S t i k i n e ' s Grand Canyon, thought by many to be of i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , would be f l o o d e d . B.C. Hydro has s t a t e d t h a t i t would not be c o s t - f e a s i b l e to p r e - l o g r e s e r v o i r s so snags w i l l mar t h e i r beauty and render them dangerous f o r b o a t e r s . 6 " As another example, one p o s s i b l e route f o r the t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e i s along Highway 37, now a design a t e d wilderness highway. The T a h l t a n s u b s i s t e n c e economy, and t h e r e f o r e the e n t i r e T a h l t a n way of l i f e , would be destroyed by the implementation of the B.C. Hydro p r o p o s a l . As B.C. Hydro's Int e r i m Assessment p o i n t e d out: Recent s t u d i e s i n other areas i n d i c a t e that l a r g e - s c a l e development has proven to have f a r more adverse e f f e c t s on n a t i v e people than those a s s o c i a t e d with e i t h e r the fur trade or the g o l d r u s h . 6 5 The r e p o r t suggested that these e f f e c t s r e s u l t from the r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n the non-native p o p u l a t i o n , the r e l a t i v e permanence of development, the d i f f e r e n c e between value systems and the a l i e n a t i o n of w i l d e r n e s s . A s m a l l number of non-natives have moved to the S t i k i n e in order to enjoy a way of l i f e that i s only p o s s i b l e i n the w i l d e r n e s s . These people g e n e r a l l y make t h e i r l i v i n g o u t s i d e 6 3 I b i d . , p. 80. 6 " P o j a r , " R e c r e a t i o n , " p.6. 6 5 B.C. Hydro, The S t i k i n e - I s k u t Interim, pp.V:211-212. 47 the wage economy by a combination of homesteading, market gardening, f i s h i n g and tourism. Although they do not have the a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t to the land base claimed by the T a h l t a n s , t h e i r l i v e s would be as a f f e c t e d by the dams as would the T a h l t a n s ' . B.C. Hydro's r e p o r t d e s c r i b e s how development would c l a s h with the ways of l i f e l e d by the Tah l t a n s and homesteaders: ...the p r o j e c t would be b e n e f i c i a l f o r those people who are pa r t of the wage economy and who p e r c e i v e that h y d r o - e l e c t r i c development s i g n i f i e s p rogress. For those people who depend on the su b s i s t e n c e economy or who pl a c e high value on the wi l d e r n e s s , the p r o j e c t would r e q u i r e s i g n i f i c a n t adjustments. The i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n and corresponding i n c r e a s e i n c o m p e t i t i o n f o r land and resources (eg. f i s h , w i l d l i f e and a g r i c u l t u r a l land) would i n c r e a s e c o n f l i c t with the present l i f e s t y l e s . Moreover, the iss u e of land c l a i m s and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the development remains c r i t i c a l . The i s s u e has i m p l i c a t i o n s not only because of i t s . p r i o r i t y f o r l o c a l and r e g i o n a l n a t i v e people but a l s o because of the p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l c o m p l e x i t i e s i t ' r e p r e s e n t s . 6 6 Tourism i s a growing p a r t of the economy i n the S t i k i n e . Both T a h l t a n and non-native e n t e r p r i s e s would be a f f e c t e d by B.C. Hydro's p l a n s . Because i t i s not e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e from any major p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e , much of the S t i k i n e ' s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s f o r t o u r i s t s has been i t s u n s p o i l e d w i l d e r n e s s . B.C. Hydro has argued that while the S t i k i n e - I s k u t development would r a d i c a l l y a l t e r the S t i k i n e , i t would a l s o make the region more a c c e s s i b l e to t o u r i s t s and thereby i n c r e a s e r e g i o n a l income from tourism and r e c r e a t i o n . 6 7 O p p o s i t i o n groups would argue that much of the 6 6 I b i d . , pp. V:3-4. 6 7 I b i d . , p. 8. 48 S t i k i n e ' s present r e c r e a t i o n a l value i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the region's i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y and that any r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t y r e s u l t i n g from the dams would be "...a miserable a l t e r n a t i v e to the p r e s e n t " . 6 8 Thus, the S t i k i n e - I s k u t dams would s p e l l the end of the S t i k i n e - I s k u t Basin as a w i l d e r n e s s . I t would fo r c e the i n t e g r a t i o n of Tahltans and homesteaders i n t o the wage economy. No measure of m i t i g a t i o n which B.C. Hydro c o u l d o f f e r would adequately o f f s e t t h i s l o s s . 5. PLANNING ACTIVITIES At the time of the p r o j e c t ' s postponement, B.C. Hydro had spent over $50 m i l l i o n on f i e l d w o r k . 6 9 T h i s l a r g e expenditure had i t s e l f a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the s p a r s e l y populated a r e a . These p r e l i m i n a r y a c t i v i t i e s of sampling and design work gave r e s i d e n t s a f o r e t a s t e of the e f f e c t s of dam c o n s t r u c t i o n . Henry Tashoots of the Iskut Band spoke at the 1982 B.C. U t i l i t i e s Commission Rate Hearings on the i n t r u s i v e nature of Hydro's p r e l i m i n a r y work in the S t i k i n e - I s k u t B a s i n : You see, the t r a d i t i o n a l t r a p p i n g ways of our people express that the t r a p p i n g i n the winter was harvested more or l e s s with care, as to the p o p u l a t i o n s they are t r a p p i n g . Now d u r i n g the summer months the animals i n the area have a chance to r e e s t a b l i s h i t s t r a d i t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . So that i t was always r e g u l a t e d . Now i f you s t a r t s t i c k i n g - - i f you s t a r t p u t t i n g h e l i p a d s , h e l i c o p t e r pads or 6 8 P o j a r , " R e c r e a t i o n , " p. 6. 6 9 John Dawson and W. Graham N i c h o l l s , B.C. Hydro Community R e l a t i o n s O f f i c e r , i n t e r v i e w , Vancouver, Dec. 10, 1984. 49 l a n d i n g areas i n the surrounding area where there i s a p o p u l a t i o n o f — l e t ' s say mink f o r i n s t a n c e - - a f u r - b e a r i n g animal c a l l e d mink—Now, these are very shy animals—Now, what i s going to happen i s that they're j u s t going to migrate to another area, an area more or l e s s where they are not i n tune with the environment. So what happens d u r i n g the winter? They don't know where to f i n d food and they d i s s i p a t e r a t h e r q u i c k l y . 7 0 B.C. Hydro and i t s p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s would be c r i t i c i s e d i n three major ways, by both T a h l t a n s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . F i r s t , as Henry Tashoots recounted, the p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s were very d i s r u p t i v e . Second, the c o r p o r a t i o n was f a u l t e d f o r being s e c r e t i v e with i t s f i n d i n g s . T h i r d , Hydro was c o n s i s t e n t l y c a s u a l about complying with land use r e g u l a t i o n s . B.C. Hydro's community r e l a t i o n s department has i t s e l f admitted t h a t i t f a i l e d to meet i t s o b j e c t i v e of p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n : ...owing to inadequate s t a f f resources and i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b i l i t y , and to a l a c k of r e c o g n i t i o n by Hydro of the extent of communications and t r a v e l problems i n the study a r e a . . . . Hydro's i n i t i a l r e l i a n c e upon news r e l e a s e s and b r i e f Information B u l l e t i n s i n a region where newspapers and r a d i o were v i r t u a l l y n o nexistent were no s u b s t i t u t e f o r e a r l y c o n s i s t e n t p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t with l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . 7 1 In 1981 the c o r p o r a t i o n i n c r e a s e d s t a f f , arranged p u b l i c meetings and disseminated more i n f o r m a t i o n but p u b l i c resentment remained and u s e f u l i n t e r a c t i o n was i n h i b i t e d . In 1982 the Northern P r o j e c t s J o u r n a l was mailed to every 7 0 B r i t i s h Columbia U t i l i t i e s Commission, I_n the Matter of  the U t i l i t i e s Commission Act and i n the Matter of an  A p p l i c a t i o n by the B.C. Hydro and Power Author i t y Proceeding  no.48, Vancouver, June 1, 1982, pp. 94-97. 7 1 B.C. Hydro, S t i k i n e - I s k u t I n t e r i m , p. 11:22. 50 household i n northern B.C., but apprehension p e r s i s t e d u n t i l p r o j e c t postponement: While i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b i l i t y and p u b l i c d i a l o g u e improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a t e i n the study program, " c o n s u l t a t i o n " i n the sense of the p r o j e c t team r e c e i v i n g and s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r i n g i n f o r m a l advice and comment from the p u b l i c , never r e a l l y b e g a n . 7 2 The problems of access to i n f o r m a t i o n and non-compliance were both evident d u r i n g B.C. Hydro's p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s in 1980 through 1982. 7 3 At t h i s stage because B.C. Hydro had yet to make formal a p p l i c a t i o n to b u i l d the dams, the c o r p o r a t i o n had to apply to the M i n i s t r y of Lands to c o n s t r u c t access roads and sewage f a c i l i t i e s on a s i t e by s i t e b a s i s . O p p o s i t i o n groups found a number of i r r e g u l a r i t i e s . F i r s t , permits from the M i n i s t r y of Lands were inadequately monitored f o r compliance. For example, a campsite at S i t e Z was occupied long before i t was p e r m i t t e d and long a f t e r the permit e x p i r e d . Second, a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r land tenure were o f t e n t r a n s a c t e d and granted v e r b a l l y by B.C. Hydro and Lands o f f i c i a l s . The c a s u a l nature of these t r a n s a c t i o n s denied the p u b l i c access to i n f o r m a t i o n about B.C. Hydro's a c t i v i t i e s . T h i r d , procedures f o r l a n d tenure a p p l i c a t i o n s were c o n s t a n t l y being r e v i s e d without n o t i c e so the p u b l i c was never f u l l y aware of the r e g u l a t i o n s with which B.C. Hydro had to comply. F o u r t h , when B.C. Hydro f i n a n c e d a t h i r d p a r t y such 7 2 I b i d . ; In B.C. Hydro's c o r p o r a t e terminology, " p u b l i c . c o n s u l t a t i o n " i s l i m i t e d t o such i s s u e s as compensation and impact m i t i g a t i o n and does not encompass j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the p r o j e c t per se. 7 3 Tom B u r i , "Prelude to Power", The Telkwa Foundation  Newsletter, 6:1 (Spring 1983), pp. 9-11. 51 as a mining company to c a r r y out e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , the p u b l i c had no access whatsoever to i n f o r m a t i o n about the a c t i v i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n to the above i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , o p p o s i t i o n groups were f r u s t r a t e d by the f a c t that because B.C. Hydro had not a p p l i e d to c o n s t r u c t the dams i t was not r e q u i r e d and refused t o p u b l i c l y d i s c u s s whether or not the p r o j e c t was j u s t i f i e d . The M i n i s t r y of Lands had no j u r i s d i c t i o n to i n v e s t i g a t e the c o s t s of B.C. Hydro's a c t i v i t i e s or whether a c t i v i t i e s such as d r i l l i n g and road access were a c t u a l l y p l a n n i n g as opposed to c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . O p p o s i t i o n groups have argued that because B.C. Hydro's a c t i v i t i e s were not subject to due process that they c o u l d not be e f f e c t i v e l y s c r u t i n i z e d by the p u b l i c . In the next chapter e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t groups w i l l be shown to have had some success i n urging the M i n i s t r y of Lands to be more s t r i c t i n i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of r e g u l a t i o n s . B.C. Hydro has suggested that no matter how much i t had spent on p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s or how w e l l i t had complied with lan d use r e g u l a t i o n s , t h a t the c o r p o r a t i o n ' s a c t i v i t i e s would s t i l l have been g r e a t l y resented 7 " . C e r t a i n l y the end r e s u l t of the planning was b i t t e r l y opposed by Tahltans and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . Much c r i t i c i s m of B.C. Hydro's corpora t e secrecy and f a i l u r e to comply with r e g u l a t i o n s was n e c e s s a r i l y confused with c r i t i c i s m of the p r o j e c t ' s j u s t i f i c a t i o n . I t i s d o u b t f u l then that the l e g i t i m a c y of B.C. Hydro's a c t i v i t i e s i n the S t i k i n e would ever be 7* Dawson, i n t e r v i e w . 52 acknowledged by the o p p o s i t i o n . C. SUMMARY T h i s chapter has d i s c u s s e d the sparse i n d u s t r i a l development of the S t i k i n e and e x p l a i n e d t h i s i n terms of the area's r e l a t i v e geographic i s o l a t i o n . The S t i k i n e " s l a c k of development has in turn allowed the T a h l t a n people to le a d t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l way of l i f e and has made the Basin p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e to e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . The S t i k i n e ' s unique land base i s threatened by B.C. Hydro's proposal t o dam the S t i k i n e and Iskut R i v e r s . I t should come as no s u r p r i s e t h a t , given the strong sentiments i n favour of keeping the S t i k i n e i n i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e and given the magnitude of B.C. Hydro's pr o p o s a l and indeed, B.C. Hydro's plann i n g a c t i v i t i e s , t h a t the p r o p o s a l should have met with c o n t r o v e r s y from i t s i n i t i a l announcement. A great part of the c o n t r o v e r s y has been due to the f a c t t h a t B.C. Hydro's p r o p o s a l s were not the product of p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n . The p r o p o s a l s were s t i m u l a t e d by p r o v i n c i a l economic development p o l i c y , which i n turn was based on ca b i n e t and t e c h n o c r a t i c decision-making rather than on open d e l i b e r a t i o n . T h i s i s not to argue that no r e s i d e n t s of the S t i k i n e or members of the g e n e r a l p r o v i n c i a l p u b l i c would favour the dams but r a t h e r that the prop o s a l was imposed upon r a t h e r than i n i t i a t e d by the l o c a l or general p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n . The p r o p o s a l i s not 53 compatible with many c u r r e n t uses of the Basin and as has been shown, there are strong sentiments in favour of keeping the S t i k i n e and Iskut R i v e r s f r e e of impoundments. This b a s i c divergence of o p i n i o n has shaped the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the T a h l t a n s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s i n t o an uneasy c o e x i s t e n c e . Chapter III DIVIDED OPPOSITION The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the A s s o c i a t i o n of Un i t e d Tahltans ( h e n c e f o r t h , the A.U.T.) and the S t i k i n e - I s k u t e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t o p p o s i t i o n e x h i b i t s many of the c o n f l i c t s which, as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter One, permeate the general r e l a t i o n s h i p between the land c l a i m s and environmental movements. The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to d e s c r i b e the t a c t i c s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l m o t i v a t i o n s of the A.U.T. and the S t i k i n e - I s k u t e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t o p p o s i t i o n and show how these have i n t u r n a f f e c t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two o p p o s i t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , the f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter w i l l r e i n f o r c e the understanding of the d i v i s i o n between the two oppostions by examining and c o n t r a s t i n g t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward the r e g u l a t o r y process, which i s c e n t r a l to contemporary h y d r o e l e c t r i c development i n B r i t i s h Columbia. G e n e r a l l y , the A.U.T. may be seen as a member of the B r i t i s h Columbia Indian land claims movement, while the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t o p p o s i t i o n may be seen as committed to r e f o r m i s t s o l u t i o n s to the problem of wil d e r n e s s d e p l e t i o n through r e s o u r c e - e x t r a c t i v e development. 54 55 A. TWO OPPOSITIONS 1. TAHLTAN OPPOSITION THROUGH THE A.U.T. The T a h l t a n s have been f i g h t i n g f o r a r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r land claims s i n c e the t u r n of the c e n t u r y . The f o l l o w i n g passage i n d i c a t e s that they were aware of i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m long before the phrase was c o i n e d : DECLARATION OF THE TAHLTAN TRIBE, 1910 We, the undersigned members of the Tahltan t r i b e , speaking fo r o u r s e l v e s , and our e n t i r e t r i b e , hereby make known to a l l whom i t may concern, that we have heard of the Indian Rights movement among the Indian t r i b e s of the Coast, and of the southern i n t e r i o r of B.C. A l s o , we have read the D e c l a r a t i o n made by the c h i e f s of the southern i n t e r i o r t r i b e s at Spences Bridge on the 16th J u l y l a s t , and we hereby d e c l a r e our... i n t e n t i o n to j o i n with them in the f i g h t f o r our mutual r i g h t s , and that we w i l l a s s i s t i n the f u r t h e r a n c e of t h i s o b j e c t i n every way we can, u n t i l such time as a l l these matters of moment to us are f i n a l l y s e t t l e d . We f u r t h e r d e c l a r e as f o l l o w s : F i r s t l y — W e c l a i m the sovereign r i g h t of a l l the country of our t r i b e - - t h i s country of ours which we have h e l d i n t a c t from the encroachments of other t r i b e s , from time immemorial, at the c o s t of our own blood. We have done t h i s because our l i v e s depended on our country. To l o s e i t meant we would l o s e our means of l i v i n g , and t h e r e f o r e our l i v e s . We are s t i l l , as h e r e t o f o r e , dependent f o r our l i v i n g on our country, and we do not intend to g i v e away the t i t l e to any part of same without adequate compensation. We deny the B.C. government has any t i t l e or r i g h t of ownership in our c o u n t r y . We have never t r e a t e d with them, nor given them any such t i t l e . (We have only very l a t e l y l e a r n e d the B.C. government makes t h i s c l a i m , and that i t has f o r long c o n s i d e r e d as i t s p r o p e r t y a l l the t e r r i t o r i e s of the Indian t r i b e s i n B.C.) Secondly--We d e s i r e t h a t a part of our country, c o n s i s t i n g of one or more l a r g e areas (to be s e l e c t e d by u s ) , be r e t a i n e d by us f o r our own use, s a i d lands, and a l l thereon to be acknowledged by the government as our a b s o l u t e p r o p e r t y . The r e s t of our t r i b a l l a n d we are w i l l i n g to r e l i n q u i s h to the B.C. government f o r adequate compensation. T h i r d l y — W e wish i t known that a s m a l l p o r t i o n of our lands at the mouth of the T a h l t a n R i v e r , was 56 set apart a few years ago by Mr. Vowell as an Indian r e s e r v a t i o n . These few acres are the only r e s e r v a t i o n made f o r our t r i b e . We may s t a t e we never a p p l i e d f o r the r e s e r v a t i o n of t h i s p i e c e of l a n d , and we had no knowledge why the government set i t a p a r t f o r us, nor do we know e x a c t l y why. F o u r t h l y — W e d e s i r e that a l l q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g our lands, hunting, f i s h i n g , e t c . , and every matter concerning our w e l f a r e , be s e t t l e d by t r e a t y between us and the Dominion and B.C. governments. F i f t h l y - - W e are of the o p i n i o n i t w i l l be b e t t e r f o r o u r s e l v e s , a l s o b e t t e r f o r the governments and a l l concerned, i f these t r e a t i e s are made with us at a very e a r l y date, so a l l f r i c t i o n , and misunderstanding between us and the whites may be avoided, f o r we hear l a t e l y much t a l k of white settlement in t h i s r e g i o n , and the b u i l d i n g of r a i l w a y s , e t c . , i n the near f u t u r e . Signed at Telegraph Creek, B.C., t h i s e i g h t e e n t h day of October, ninteen hundred and ten, by NANOK Chief of the T a h l t a n s , NASTULTA a l i a s L i t t l e Jackson, GEORGE ASSADZA, KENETL A l i a s B ig Jackson, and e i g h t y other members of the t r i b e . 7 5 The contemporary T a h l t a n s t r u g g l e f o r r e c o g n i t i o n of c l a i m s i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the s t r u g g l e which i s d e s c r i b e d i n the 1910 D e c l a r a t i o n . The contemporary p e r i o d has some remarkable p a r a l l e l s with the e a r l i e r . In both cases the T a h l t a n s were part of p r o v i n c i a l Indian movements, faced r e c a l c i t r a n t p r o v i n c i a l governments, had yet to s i g n t r e a t i e s , had not been compensated f o r l o s s e s of l a n d , f e l t wronged by the small s i z e of t h e i r r e s e r v e s and wished f o r s e t t l e m e n t s i n the face of massive developments. The most prominent s i m i l a r i t y between the p e r i o d s i s the T a h l t a n a s s e r t i o n of t i e s to the l a n d . The contemporary p e r i o d though, i s not completely i n d e n t i c a l with the p a s t . Today, the T a h l t a n a s s e r t i o n of 7 5 Marty Loken, "The S t i k i n e R i v e r : Perhaps the L a s t Large N a v i g a b l e Wilderness R i v e r i n North America,"Alaska  Geographic, 6:4 (1979): 46. 57 t i e s to the land takes two p a r t i a l l y o v e r l a p p i n g but nonetheless d i s t i n c t forms. In the past these t i e s were a s s e r t e d mainly by the c o n t i n u i n g t r a d i t i o n a l use of the S t i k i n e supplemented with sporadic p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . Today t r a d i t i o n a l land use c o n t i n u e s but p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y has become much more i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d than i n the p a s t . B.C. Hydro's proposals aroused o p p o s i t i o n throughout the Tahltan community. B.C. Hydro's p r e l i m i n a r y work, which began before any o f f i c i a l announcements, was i n i t s e l f a d i s r u p t i v e f a c t o r . T a h l t a n o p p o s i t i o n to the dams was based on a number of p o i n t s . 7 6 F i r s t and foremost was the fear t h a t the dams would a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t the salmon f i s h e r y . Second, was the apprehension that i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c access d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n of the dams would pressure w i l d l i f e . T h i r d , was the resentment over d e c i s i o n s being made about the Basin by i n d i v i d u a l s who knew nothing s u b s t a n t i v e about i t . Fourth, was a m i s t r u s t of B.C. Hydro, r e i n f o r c e d by i t s c o r p o r a t e s e c r e c y . As noted i n the second chapter, the undeveloped nature of the S t i k i n e - I s k u t Basin has allowed many T a h l t a n s to continue i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l uses of the S t i k i n e . As w e l l , some Tahltans have, as i n d i v i d u a l s , taken o p p o r t u n i t i e s to express t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to B.C. Hydro's p r o p o s a l i n forums o u t s i d e the c l a i m s n e g o t i a t i o n p r o c e s s . Among these responses has been (as p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d ) attendance at B.C. 7 6 Canada, Dept. of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s , The Future  of the S t i k i n e Basin, by John Faustmann (Vancouver: n.p., 1982T7 p. 13. 58 U t i l i t i e s Commission r a t e hearings, the submission of a b r i e f to the Pearse Commission on F i s h e r i e s and Oceans, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Lands Branch hearings on B.C. Hydro's a p p l i c a t i o n f o r an access road. A major purpose of these appearances has been to encourage p u b l i c understanding of the importance of wilderness to Ta h l t a n l i v e l i h o o d s . 7 7 T h i s response to i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m has taken plac e l a r g e l y o u t s i d e formal o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The T a h l t a n s c l a i m some 50,000 square m i l e s as opposed to the 2,000 acres of land which are now reserved f o r them. 7 8 In keeping with the tendency, noted by Tennant, of B r i t i s h Columbia Indian p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y to c e n t r e on the t r i b e , the A.U.T., formed i n 1975, represents both the Ta h l t a n and Iskut Bands i n t h e i r l a n d c l a i m n e g o t i a t i o n s . The A.U.T. borrows monies a g a i n s t f u t u r e Tahltan c l a i m s from the Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s to r e s e a r c h land c l a i m i s s u e s . In 1980, the f e d e r a l government accepted the T a h l t a n c l a i m f o r n e g o t i a t i o n . To date, these n e g o t i a t i o n s have not commenced because, as mentioned i n Chapter One, the f e d e r a l government i s - a w a i t i n g the r e s u l t of some e i g h t years of n e g o t i a t i o n s with the Nishgas and the A.U.T. i s s t i l l r e s e a r c h i n g the Ta h l t a n c l a i m . 7 9 77 " T n e r i v e r s have always been t h e i r s , " Sun (Vancouver), Sept. 5, 1980. 7 8 I b i d . 7 9 Canada, Dept. of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s , I_n A l l F a i r n e s s , (Ottawa: M i n i s t e r of Supply and S e r v i c e s , 1982), p.30; George Asp, A.U.T. land c l a i m s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , phone i n t e r v i e w , Smithers, May 3, 1985. 59 While the background work on the Tahltan c l a i m was w e l l underway when B.C. Hydro f i r s t p u b l i c l y acknowledged i t s i n t e r e s t i n the S t i k i n e - I s k u t Basin, B.C.Hydro's proposal s t i l l s erved to h i g h l i g h t the urgent need f o r a settlement. In a d d i t i o n to i t s land c l a i m s a c t i v i t i e s the A.U.T. has a l s o t r i e d to strengthen i t s case a g a i n s t the dams by conducting i t s own independent study of resource use i n the Basin. The S t i k i n e Basin Resource A n a l y s i s was funded f o r two f i s c a l years by the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development under a s p e c i a l program to study the e f f e c t s of major resource developments on t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e lands. T h i s program was unusual because i t allowed the study of lands o u t s i d e of r e s e r v e s . 8 0 Although c o n s t r a i n e d by funding l i m i t a t i o n s , the S t i k i n e Basin Resource A n a l y s i s was an e f f o r t t o catalogue the resources on Tahltan a b o r i g i n a l lands and to c a l c u l a t e the op p o r t u n i t y c o s t s of proceeding with the c o n s t r u c t i o n of B.C. Hydro's p r o p o s a l s . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of these resources or " s e t t i n g a b a s e l i n e " was seen as a f i r s t s t e p i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r development and u s e . 8 1 The A.U.T. i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t s ex e c u t i v e i s e l e c t e d by the membership at l a r g e . For the most p a r t , between e l e c t i o n s A.U.T. p o l i c y and e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s are developed and c a r r i e d out by members of the ex e c u t i v e and t h e i r c o n s u l t a n t s . The A.U.T. 8 0 Ada Tuck, Department of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s , phone i n t e r v i e w , Vancouver, Sept. 24, 1984. 8 1 Asp, i n t e r v i e w ; a c c o r d i n g to Asp the A.U.T. r e c e i v e d approximately $250,000 f o r t h i s purpose. 60 o f f i c e i s l o c a t e d at Dease Lake which i s some geographic d i s t a n c e from Tahltan r e s e r v e s at Iskut and Telegraph Creek. Members of the executive tend t o spend most of t h e i r time on la n d c l a i m s a c t i v i t i e s and hence, at l e a s t d u r i n g t h e i r terms, are prevented from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the t r a d i t i o n a l T a h l t a n economy. Thus, Tahltan o p p o s i t i o n to B.C. Hydro's proposal may be seen as t a k i n g two forms. The f i r s t , the maintenance of the t r a d i t i o n a l T a h l t a n economy l a c k s the f i n a n c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l resources of the second, the A.U.T. In f a c t , T a h l t a n s who make t h e i r l i v i n g from the land do not have a formal o r g a n i z a t i o n to promote t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s . Hence, the A.U.T. and to a l e s s e r extent the Band C o u n c i l s , are f r e q u e n t l y delegated, i f mainly by d e f a u l t , to represent T a h l t a n s i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s with e x t e r n a l bodies such as governments, c o r p o r a t i o n s and environmental groups. For t h i s reason, t h i s t h e s i s c o n c e n t r a t e s on r e l a t i o n s between the A.U.T. and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . 2. ENVIRONMENTALIST OPPOSITION The two Canadian non-native o p p o s i t i o n groups are the F r i e n d s of the S t i k i n e and Residents f o r a Free Flowing S t i k i n e . The groups o r i g i n a t e d at a workshop on B.C. Hydro's S t i k i n e - I s k u t proposal i n January of 1980. 8 2 The workshop, sponsored by the S i e r r a Club of B r i t i s h Columbia and h e l d at U.B.C, brought together n a t i v e groups and non-natives from 8 2 Tom B u r i , "Who Are We?" F r i e n d s of the S t i k i n e  N e w s l e t t e r , 1 (Jan. 1981): 1. 61 n o r t h and south B.C. and A l a s k a . A f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g the p o t e n t i a l environmental and s o c i a l e f f e c t s of the dams, the workshop p a r t i c i p a n t s v o i c e d t h e i r unanimous o p p o s i t i o n to them. The p a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o d e c i d e d to e s t a b l i s h committees i n Vancouver and Telegraph Creek " . . . t o develop p u b l i c awareness of the S t i k i n e and a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s f o r managing i t i n keeping with w i l d e r n e s s c h a r a c t e r and the a s p i r a t i o n s of the n a t i v e p e o p l e " . 8 3 The committee at Vancouver became F r i e n d s of the S t i k i n e and the committee at Telegraph Creek became Residents f o r a Free-Flowing S t i k i n e . 8 • The two groups have remained i n f a i r l y c l o s e communication. Most contact has been through the l e t t e r s and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of n e w s l e t t e r s and by l o n g - d i s t a n c e telephone c a l l s . As w e l l , members of the Residents have an ' open i n v i t a t i o n to a t t e n d F r i e n d s meetings when they are v i s i t i n g the Lower Mainland, and s e v e r a l have taken advantage of the i n v i t a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , two former members of the e x e c u t i v e of F r i e n d s have moved to Northwest B.C. and one former member of Residents now l i v e s i n Vancouver and serves as l i a i s o n between the two groups. With a few exc e p t i o n s then i t i s f r u i t f u l to d i s c u s s the two groups as a s i n g l e e n t i t y . 8 5 8 3 I b i d . 8 " May Murray, S e c r e t a r y of F r i e n d s of the S t i k i n e , phone i n t e r v i e w , Vancouver, Mar. 24, 1984; Tannis F i s c h e r , Board Member of Residents f o r a Free-Flowing S t i k i n e , phone i n t e r v i e w , Vancouver, May 23, 1985. 8 5 The only s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups i s the o c c u p a t i o n a l composition of t h e i r memberships. Members of F r i e n d s are l a r g e l y members of the p r o f e s s i o n a l urban 62 The two groups r e f l e c t t h e i r o r i g i n s i n the S i e r r a Club. T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y no a c c i d e n t as F r i e n d s shared the S i e r r a Club's c h a r i t a b l e tax s t a t u s number f o r four years u n t i l i t obtained i t s own i n the summer of 1984. Both F r i e n d s and Residents have remained l a r g e l y v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s that use r e f o r m i s t p o l i t i c a l t a c t i c s and at l e a s t t a c i t l y , accept the dominant s o c i a l p a r a d i g m . 8 6 Although i n d i v i d u a l members in e i t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n might have deep e c o l o g i c a l tendencies, the a c t i v i t i e s of both o r g a n i z a t i o n s themselves r e f l e c t a w i l l i n g n e s s to work w i t h i n the mainstream p o l i t i c a l system. Ne i t h e r group has engaged i n , or o f f i c i a l l y sponsored, v i o l e n t or n o n - v i o l e n t d i r e c t a c t i o n . To a great extent t h i s c h o i c e of t a c t i c s has been p r e s c r i b e d by f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n which l i m i t s the amount of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n which a t a x - d e d u c t i b l e c h a r i t y may engage and by the r e l i a n c e of R e s i d e n t s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , on small but e s s e n t i a l f e d e r a l government grants to keep i t s o f f i c e o p e n . 8 7 In keeping with t h e i r i n i t i a l mandate "to enhance p u b l i c awareness" about the S t i k i n e , most of F r i e n d s and Residents p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s have been e d u c a t i o n a l . These 8 5 ( c o n t ' d ) m i d d l e - c l a s s . Members of Residents are almost e x c l u s i v e l y homesteaders in the S t i k i n e . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e has not, however, l e d to any s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s of philosophy or t a c t i c s . 8 6 The only major d i f f e r e n c e between the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s ' o p p o s i t i o n and the S i e r r a Club i s that a l l of the p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s of both F r i e n d s and Residents are made by v o l u n t e e r s . The two o r g a n i z a t i o n s are so small that they cannot support p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f s and must r e l y on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t h e i r memberships, a l b e i t small a c t i v e subsets of t h e i r memberships. 8 7 F i s c h e r , i n t e r v i e w . 63 a c t i v i t i e s have i n c l u d e d the p r o d u c t i o n by F r i e n d s of a semi-annual i n f o r m a t i o n a l n e w s l e t t e r , the s a l e of a s p e c i a l S t i k i n e i s s u e of Alaska Geographic, the c i r c u l a t i o n of a videotape on the S t i k i n e c o n t r o v e r s y , the s a l e of a s c e n i c poster and postcards and the s p o n s o r s h i p of a May 1985 workshop in Telegraph Creek on land use p l a n n i n g i n the B a s i n . 8 8 In a d d i t i o n , the groups have kept i n c l o s e communication with sympathetic groups such as the South East Alaska Conservation C o u n c i l and the S i e r r a Club. The p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s of F r i e n d s and Residents have been l i n k e d with t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Both maintain m a i l i n g l i s t s of sympathetic p o l i t i c i a n s and a p p r o p r i a t e government o f f i c i a l s at the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s and in A l a s k a . Wherever p o s s i b l e they have taken the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n p u b l i c f o r a such as the Pearse Commission and the U t i l i t i e s Commission rate i n c r e a s e h e a r i n g s . 8 9 Much e f f o r t has been put toward reforming environmental r e g u l a r i t y s t r u c t u r e s which have i n c l u d e d at v a r i o u s times the Land Act, the U t i l i t i e s Commission Act or the F o r e s t A c t . 8 8 "Skeena Broadcasters Make S t i k i n e F i l m , " F r i e n d s of the  S t i k i n e Newsletter, 4 (Dec. 1981); "Framed S t i k i n e P o s t e r s , " F r i e n d s of the S t i k i n e Newsletter, 9 (Oct. 1983); " N e w s f l a s h — S t i k i n e Workshop Planned," F r i e n d s of the  S t i k i n e Newsletter, 11 (Mar. 1985): 4. 8 9 "The S t i k i n e Dam—Hydro's Search f o r G r a v e l , " F r i e n d s of  the S t i k i n e Newsletter, 4 (Dec. 1981): 3. "F. 0. S. Writes to M i n i s t e r on Energy C e r t i f i c a t e Approval Process," F r i e n d s  of the S t i k i n e Newsletter, 9 (Oct. 1983): 2-3; "Logging on the Lower S t i k i n e , " F r i e n d s of the S t i k i n e Newsletter, 10 (Apr. 1984): 1-4. 64 A 1980 and 1981 campaign by F r i e n d s and Residents o f f e r s an example of t h e i r e f f o r t s to reform environmental r e g u l a t i o n s . As noted i n the p r e v i o u s chapter, much o p p o s i t i o n to B.C. Hydro's p r o p o s a l had been engendered by the manner i n which B.C. Hydro's p l a n n i n g i n the S t i k i n e was r e g u l a t e d by the M i n i s t r y of Lands. An a c t i v e l e t t e r w r i t i n g campaign by both environmental groups s u c c e s s f u l l y pressured the M i n i s t e r of Lands to order that B.C. Hydro h o l d two p u b l i c meetings, one at Dease Lake and the other at Terrace, on February 23 and 24, 1982 so that there c o u l d be an i n f o r m a t i o n exchange between B.C. Hydro and the p u b l i c . 9 0 Each meeting began with a B.C. Hydro p r e s e n t a t i o n of about an hour and a h a l f i n d u r a t i o n . In both cases, t h i s was f o l l o w e d by a p u b l i c q u e s t i o n p e r i o d d u r i n g which much animosity was expressed a g a i n s t the M i n i s t r y of Lands. Most of t h i s animosity stemmed from the f a c t that the meeting was a d i s c u s s i o n between B.C. Hydro and the p u b l i c r a t h e r than an a d j u d i c a t e d r e g u l a t o r y h e a r i n g . Success i n t h i s case was, as i s o f t e n the case i n r e f o r m i s t environmental a c t i v i s m , mixed. B.C. Hydro was awarded i t s road access permit. As c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l environmental r e g u l a t i o n s have f a i l e d to h a l t major r e s o u r c e - e x t r a c t i v e developments such as l o g g i n g on the Lower S t i k i n e and a n t h r a c i t e mining at Mount Klappan, many e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s have come to the c o n c l u s i o n that these r e g u l a t o r y processes are both too l i m i t e d and too d i f f u s e to p r o t e c t the wilderness of the 9 0 Tom B u r i , "Prelude to Power," Telkwa Foundation  Newsletter, 16:1 (Spring 1983): 9-11. 65 S t i k i n e - I s k u t B a s i n . In a d d i t i o n , they have come to the c o n c l u s i o n that the Comprehensive Claims process has proven to be i n e f f e c t i v e i n B r i t i s h Columbia and that by the time the T a h l t a n Comprehensive Claim i s n e g o t i a t e d , i t may be too l a t e to p r o t e c t the S t i k i n e . Thus, there i s a growing sentiment among e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s t h a t the S t i k i n e should be given some s o r t of park d e s i g n a t i o n . 9 1 Thus, both F r i e n d s and Residents have continued i n the c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t and r e f o r m i s t t r a d i t i o n s of the S i e r r a Club. Although they o f f i c i a l l y support the r e s o l u t i o n of the T a h l t a n Comprehensive c l a i m , t h e i r primary o b j e c t i v e i s the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the S t i k i n e - I s k u t Basin as a w i l d e r n e s s . The next s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter w i l l examine how t h i s o b j e c t i v e a f f e c t s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the A.U.T. and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . 3. OPPOSITION INTERACTION The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two types of o p p o s i t i o n has never been a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y c l o s e and has r e c e n t l y grown d i s t a n t . Both the A.U.T. and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s f e l t t hreatened by the B.C. Hydro proposal but n e i t h e r t h e i r reasons f o r being threatened nor t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n a c t i v i t i e s were, as has been shown, i d e n t i c a l . T h i s s e p a r a t i o n can be e x e m p l i f i e d by c o n t r a s t i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n between the two o p p o s i t i o n s at two p u b l i c meetings at which both were o f f i c i a l l y represented, the January 1980 S i e r r a Club 9 1 Telegraph Creek Convention, News Release, Telegraph Creek, B.C.: May 22-23, 1985, photocopy with author. 66 Workshop at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and the May 1985 Telegraph Creek convention. The growing d i s t a n c e between the two o p p o s i t i o n s has been the product of three p r i n c i p l e f a c t o r s . F i r s t , B.C. Hydro announced the postponement of the S t i k i n e - I s k u t p r o p o s a l i n 1983. Th i s postponement weakened both Tahltan and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t p e r c e p t i o n s of the t h r e a t to the S t i k i n e and as a consequence weakened t h e i r i n c e n t i v e to work as a u n i t e d o p p o s i t i o n . Second, both the A.U.T. and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s have, s i n c e the January 1980 workshop, reviewed and r e f i n e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s on the d e s i r e d f u t u r e of the S t i k i n e . The A.U.T. has made the settlement of the Tahl t a n comprehensive c l a i m t h e i r primary o b j e c t i v e . The e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s have made the p r o t e c t i o n of the wilderness of the S t i k i n e - I s k u t Basin t h e i r c e n t r a l g o a l . T h i r d , the two o p p o s i t i o n s have d i f f e r e n t and perhaps incompatible decision-making s t r u c t u r e s . At the January 1980 workshop, that i s the founding workshop of F r i e n d s and Residents mentioned e a r l i e r , there were T a h l t a n s i n attendance. A l l those who attended the workshop were able to support the r e s o l u t i o n condemning the dam p r o p o s a l , r e a f f i r m i n g the value of the S t i k i n e as a wil d e r n e s s and urging the respect of the n a t i v e c l a i m . The Tahl t a n s i n attendance were not s p e c i f i c a l l y a u t h o r i z e d by the A.U.T. or t h e i r Band C o u n c i l s to support the r e s o l u t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l w i l l i n g n e s s to support i t i n d i c a t e d t h e i r eagerness to seek the support and 67 c o o p e r a t i o n and to recognize the i n t e r e s t of groups such as the S i e r r a Club i n the p r o t e c t i o n of the S t i k i n e B a s i n . T h i s w i l l i n g n e s s on the part of i n d i v i d u a l T a h l t a n s was l a t e r r e f l e c t e d i n j o i n t submissions by Ta h l t a n s and Residents and f r i e n d s to p u b l i c hearings such as the Pearse Commission and the U t i l i t i e s Commission Rate Hearings. The receding t h r e a t of the dams would r a i s e the prominence of the Comprehensive Claim process i n the Tahltan community and n e c e s s a r i l y that of the A.U.T. while d e c r e a s i n g the apparent n e c e s s i t y of working with e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . By c o n t r a s t , with the January 1980 workshop, the May 1985 Telegraph Creek Convention would not f o s t e r unanimity. The convention, sponsored by F r i e n d s and Resi d e n t s , was attended by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the A.U.T., and the South East Alaska Conservation C o u n c i l and f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l government o f f i c i a l s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of both T a h l t a n Bands had been i n v i t e d but d e c l i n e d to a t t e n d i n deference to r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the A.U.T. In response to t h e i r i n v i t a t i o n s , A.U.T. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s t a t e d that they would atte n d as observers and would not support any r e s o l u t i o n s . The A.U.T. submission i n d i c a t e d t hat the Ta h l t a n s d i d not recognize the l e g i t i m a c y of the f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l governments and would not a c t i v e l y support the c r e a t i o n of any park i n the S t i k i n e u n t i l the r e s o l u t i o n of the T a h l t a n c l a i m . 9 2 The convention recommendation, supported only by 9 2 Hugh T a y l o r , Researcher f o r the A.U.T., "A D i s c u s s i o n of the P o s s i b l e Options and I n f l u e n c e s Concerning the P r o t e c t i o n and Management of the S t i k i n e R i v e r Watershed,"submission to the Telegraph Creek Convention, 68 the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t d e l e g a t e s , i n c l u d e d statements f a v o u r i n g the immediate c r e a t i o n of parks i n the S t i k i n e and a moratorium on r e s o u r c e - e x t r a c t i v e development at the S t i k i n e headwaters pending the settlement of the T a h l t a n c l a i m . 9 3 The f i n a l recommendation from the meeting r e v e a l s the s e p a r a t i o n between the o p p o s i t i o n . T h i s recommendation c a l l e d f o r the media in c o v e r i n g events on the S t i k i n e to p r o p e r l y d i s t i n g u i s h between Residents and the A.U.T. The convention was s i g n i f i c a n t because i t c l e a r l y d i s p l a y e d the c o n f l i c t i n g goals of the o p p o s i t i o n s . A f i n a l f a c t o r i n the d i s u n i t y between the two o p p o s i t i o n s has been t h e i r d i v e r g e n t decision-making s t r u c t u r e s . The A.U.T. r e l i e s on h i r e d e x p e r t s and a f u l l - t i m e e x e c u t i v e f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n of p o l i c y . I t does not welcome the g r a s s - r o o t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n of T a h l t a n s . In that i t i s f i n a n c e d by government r a t h e r that i t s membership, the A.U.T. has l i t t l e need to s o l i c i t the o p i n i o n s of i t s membership and might w e l l be more i n f l u e n c e d by f e d e r a l comprehensive c l a i m s p o l i c y than i t s membership. By c o n t r a s t , F r i e n d and Residents r e l y h e a v i l y on membership a c t i v i s m . They do not have the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s or l a r g e government grants to delegate policy-making to a permanent p a i d s t a f f or f u l l - t i m e e x e c u t i v e . In order to maintain t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s they must be re s p o n s i v e to the wishes of 9 2 ( c o n t ' d ) Telegraph Creek, B.C., May 21-23, 1985, copy with author. 9 3 Telegraph Creek Convention, News Release; Lynn Thunderstorm, SUN(Vancouver), l e t t e r to the e d i t o r , Aug. 13, 1985, p. 5. 69 t h e i r memberships. Hence, the A.U.T. can be i n h e r e n t l y l e s s r e s p o n s i v e to membership and f l e x i b l e i n f o r m u l a t i n g p o l i c y than can the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . B. THE ENERGY PROJECT APPROVAL PROCESS: TWO CRITIQUES 1. THE MECHANICS OF THE PROCESS In B r i t i s h Columbia, B.C. Hydro and the other u t i l i t i e s o b t a i n the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y to b u i l d major energy p r o j e c t s such as the S t i k i n e - I s k u t , through procedures e s t a b l i s h e d i n the U t i l i t i e s Commission Act. The Act, passed i n August of 1980 c r e a t e d the U t i l i t i e s Commission ( h e n c e f o r t h the B.C.U.C.). Of immediate relevance to t h i s t h e s i s i s the B.C.U.C.'s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to b r i n g under review a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r p ermission to c o n s t r u c t major energy p r o j e c t s . 9 " The approval process i s c e n t r a l to the S t i k i n e c o n t r o v e r s y because i t i s the framework w i t h i n which B.C. Hydro, government departments and o p p o s i t i o n groups must a c t . The approval process determines the r i g h t s and resources a v a i l a b l e to both u t i l i t y and o p p o s i t i o n . 9 " I t should be noted that the approval process i s p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c . That i s , there i s no comparable review of B.C. Hydro's o v e r a l l system p l a n n i n g . The U t i l i t i e s Commission Act does p r o v i d e f o r review of r a t e i n c r e a s e a p p l i c a t i o n s by the B.C.U.C. but t h i s review l i k e the energy p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l process does not c o n s t i t u t e a r e g u l a r p u b l i c review of B.C. Hydro's system pla n n i n g and the assumptions on which t h i s p l a n n i n g i s based. Thus, an energy p r o j e c t i s the s u b j e c t of a great d e a l of i n t e r n a l c o r p o r a t e decision-making before i t i s sub j e c t to the approval p r o c e s s . 70 U l t i m a t e l y the process should ensure that any energy development i s t r u l y i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . L i k e other a s p e c t s of the S t i k i n e - I s k u t c o n t r o v e r s y , the approval process does not generate a unaminity of o p i n i o n or u n i t y of a c t i o n among o p p o s i t i o n groups. The remainder of the c hapter w i l l d e s c r i b e the approval process and compare and c o n t r a s t i t s T a h l t a n and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t c r i t i q u e s . The M i n i s t r y of Energy. Mines and Petroleum Resources (h e n c e f o r t h the M i n i s t r y of Energy) has d e s c r i b e d the p a r t s of the U t i l i t i e s Commission Act d e a l i n g with major energy p r o j e c t approval in i t s Guide to the Energy P r o j e c t Approval  Process. 9 5 During the " P r e - a p p l i c a t i o n Phase" the u t i l i t y p r e p a r e s i t s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the M i n i s t e r of Energy. P r i o r to making the formal a p p l i c a t i o n the a p p l i c a n t i s encouraged f i r s t t o prepare a prospectus c o n t a i n i n g a general p r o j e c t d e s c r i p t i o n and schedule, p r o j e c t r a t i o n a l e and a d e s c r i p t i o n of proposed p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s . T h i s p r o s p e c t u s 9 5 B r i t i s h Columbia, M i n i s t r y of Energy Mines and Petroleum Resources, Guide to the Energy P r o j e c t Approval Process, ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1982), pp. 4-16. A major energy p r o j e c t as d e f i n e d by the Act would i n c l u d e 1) t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s 500 KV or higher, 2) p i p e l i n e s t r a n s p o r t i n g 16 p j s energy per year, 3) transhipment or storage f a c i l i t i e s capable of s t o r i n g 3 p j s of energy, 4) h y d r o - e l e c t r i c or thermal e l e c t r i c p l a n t s generating 20 or more megawatts Thus, the S t i k i n e - I s k u t p r o p osals would have come under purview of the Act i n three ways. F i r s t , the p r o p o s a l as an e n t i r e t y would have exceeded the 20 or more megawatt requirements f o r e l e c t r i c g e n e r a t i o n . Second, any of the four p r o j e c t s of which the S t i k i n e - I s k u t Proposal was composed would i n d i v i d u a l l y have exceeded the 20MW minimum. T h i r d , the S t i k i n e - I s k u t t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e p r o p o s a l s would have exceeded the 500 KV minimum necessary f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n under the A c t . 71 w i l l be reviewed by the Energy P r o j e c t C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee which c o n s i s t s of the Head of the P r o j e c t A n a l y s i s D i v i s i o n at the M i n i s t r y of Energy, a B.C.U.C. s t a f f member and the Head of the Assessment Branch of the M i n i s t r y of Environment. A f t e r the review of the prospectus the a p p l i c a n t prepares a P r e l i m i n a r y Planning Report which c o n s i s t s of an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and assessment of f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , a p r e l i m i n a r y procurement p l a n , terms of re f e r e n c e of proposed j u s t i f i c a t i o n s t u d i e s , a d e s c r i p t i o n of a p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n program and a p r e l i m i n a r y l i s t of ap p r o v a l s , l i c e n c e s and permits r e q u i r e d . T h i s P r e l i m i n a r y Planning Report i s then f u r t h e r reviewed by a p p r o p r i a t e governmental committees. D i s c u s s i o n at t h i s stage i s l a r g e l y between a p p l i c a n t and government o f f i c i a l s and documents may be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l . During the " A p p l i c a t i o n Phase" which f o l l o w s on the " P r e - A p p l i c a t i o n Phase" the a p p l i c a n t prepares the A p p l i c a t i o n . T h i s document b u i l d s upon and i s a refinement of the "Prospectus" and " P r e l i m i n a r y Planning R e p o r t s " . The a p p l i c a t i o n must c o n t a i n a d e s c r i p t i o n of the a p p l i c a n t , the p r o j e c t d e s c r i p t i o n i n c l u d i n g i t s purpose, a t i m e t a b l e and r e q u i r e d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , environmental and socio-economic impact assessment, p r o j e c t j u s t i f i c a t i o n , a l i s t of a n c i l l a r y a p p l i c a t i o n s and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n program and subsequent response. F i n a l l y , the a p p l i c a t i o n i s reviewed by government agencies f o r compliance with r e g u l a t i o n s . D i s c u s s i o n at t h i s stage i s 72 s t i l l l a r g e l y at the inter - a g e n c y l e v e l . While the a p p l i c a n t i s r e q u i r e d to i n i t i a t e and re p o r t on a p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n program, much i n f o r m a t i o n exchanged between the u t i l i t y and government agencies may continue to be h e l d c o n f i d e n t i a l . Once a formal a p p l i c a t i o n has been made to c a b i n e t there are three c h o i c e s as to i t s d i s p o s i t i o n . In the f i r s t case the M i n i s t e r ' of Energy with the concurrence of the M i n i s t e r of Environment may send the a p p l i c a t i o n to the B.C.U.C. f o r review under Part 2 of the Act with terms to be s p e c i f i e d by the M i n i s t e r s . The B.C.U.C. w i l l conduct a p u b l i c h e a r i n g under i t s own procedures and r e p o r t i t s f i n d i n g s and recommendations back t o c a b i n e t . The Cabinet w i l l then decide whether or not to award the a p p l i c a n t an Energy P r o j e c t C e r t i f i c a t e . In the event the Energy P r o j e c t C e r t i f i c a t e i s awarded, the a p p l i c a n t must comply with the s p e c i f i e d terms and c o n d i t i o n s and demonstrate t h i s compliance t o c a b i n e t i n order to r e c e i v e an Energy Oper a t i o n C e r t i f i c a t e . In the second case i f the a p p l i c a t i o n i s from a p u b l i c u t i l i t y the M i n i s t e r of Energy may r e f e r the a p p l i c a t i o n to the B.C.U.C. f o r a review and d e c i s i o n under Part 3 of the U t i l i t i e s Commission Act which s p e c i f i e s t h a t any p u b l i c u t i l i t y o p e r a t i n g i n B.C. must o b t a i n a C e r t i f i c a t e of P u b l i c Convenience and N e c e s s i t y from the B.C.U.C. i n order to c o n s t r u c t a major energy p r o j e c t . The B.C.U.C. may, at i t s d i s c r e t i o n , h o l d a hea r i n g on the a p p l i c a t i o n . I f the a p p l i c a t i o n i s accepted by the B.C.U.C. the a p p l i c a n t must meet any terms and c o n d i t i o n s s p e c i f i e d 73 by the B.C.U.C. and any a p p l i c a b l e s t a t u t o r y requirements. In the t h i r d case the M i n i s t e r of Energy with the concurrence of the M i n i s t e r of the Environment may exempt the a p p l i c a t i o n from some or a l l of the p r o v i s i o n s of the U t i l i t i e s Commission Act and may permit the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the energy p r o j e c t s u b j e c t to s p e c i f i e d terms and c o n d i t i o n s . In sum, the d i s p o s i t i o n of the a p p l i c a t i o n determines whether an a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l be s u b j e c t to p u b l i c s c r u t i n y through a h e a r i n g before the B.C.U.C. Two general c r i t i q u e s of the approval process may be i d e n t i f i e d . The c r i t i q u e s are d i v i d e d on the same l i n e s as the o p p o s i t i o n to the S t i k i n e p r o p o s a l . The f i r s t , the A.U.T. c r i t i q u e , i s i m p l i c i t r a t h e r than e x p l i c i t . T h i s c r i t i q u e may be deduced from A.U.T. p o l i c y on other r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e s s e s . The second, the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t , f o l l o w s from the general l i t e r a t u r e on p u b l i c involvement i n energy p l a n n i n g and i s openly a r t i c u l a t e d . A f t e r a d i s c u s s i o n of these c r i t i q u e s t here w i l l be a d e s c r i p t i o n of the resources which the two types of o p p o s i t i o n groups would be able to b r i n g to bear i n o p p o s i t i o n to a B.C. Hydro a p p l i c a t i o n and how these resources i n turn might be r e f l e c t e d i n the d i f f e r i n g c r i t i q u e s of the approval p r o c e s s . 74 2. THE A.U.T. CRITIQUE An A.U.T. c r i t i q u e of the Approval Process may be deduced from the A.U.T. p o s i t i o n on v a r i o u s other F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l management options f o r the S t i k i n e - I s k u t B a s i n . The c r i t i q u e would be two-sided. On the one hand the process would be seen as a p r o v i n c i a l encroachment on T a h l t a n r i g h t s to the S t i k i n e - I s k u t Basin which would " . . . f u r t h e r p r e j u d i c e and complicate t h e i r c l a i m " . 9 6 The A.U.T. would deny the l e g i t i m a c y of the proc e s s : The T a h l t a n cannot and do not reco g n i z e the assumed mandate of the F e d e r a l or P r o v i n c i a l government to plan or manage any aspect of l i f e w i t h i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y . T h i s p o s i t i o n w i l l be maintained u n t i l the Tahltan have achieved the d e s i r e d a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s s e t t l e m e n t . 9 7 On the other hand, while the A.U.T. would vehemently deny the r i g h t of the f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l governments to j u r i s d i c t i o n over the S t i k i n e - I s k u t Basin they would a l s o r e c o g n i z e " p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s " which would n e c e s s i t a t e t h e i r working i n c o o p e r a t i o n with the f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l governments. The A.U.T. p o s i t i o n on the appro v a l process i s a response to yet another form of i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m . The r e g u l a t o r y framework f o r major energy p r o j e c t s can only be a p p l i e d to the S t i k i n e - I s k u t Basin on the assumption that the p r o v i n c e r a t h e r than the Tahltan people as represented by the A.U.T., has a r i g h t to c o n t r o l the f u t u r e of the 9 6 T a y l o r , "A D i s c u s s i o n , " p. 15. 9 7 I b i d . ; In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n one may r e c a l l t h a t i n d i v i d u a l T a h l t a n s have indeed appeared with e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t groups before the B.C.U.C. r a t e h e a r i n g s . 75 B a s i n . The assumption, no matter how i t i s j u s t i f i e d , that the r i g h t to manage the Basin l i e s o u t s i d e the hands of the Tahl t a n s i s p e r c e i v e d by the T a h l t a n s to be as predatory as B.C. Hydro's p l a n s to dam the S t i k i n e and Iskut R i v e r s . While i t has been p o i n t e d out that the A.U.T. would f i g h t f o r the r i g h t s of Tahltans w i t h i n an i l l e g i t i m a t e framework generated by " p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s " they would a l s o argue that t h e i r u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e i s a r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r c l a i m to the S t i k i n e - I s k u t B a s i n : The p o i n t that needs to be made f i r m l y and o f t e n whether the Ta h l t a n .are a d d r e s s i n g bureaucrats, p o l i t i c i a n s , developers or c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s ; i s that when they are r e f e r r i n g to the S t i k i n e B a s i n , they are d e a l i n g with the core of Tahltan t e r r i t o r y and u n t i l a Land Claim Settlement i s achieved, the Ta h l t a n have to play a dominant r o l e i n any p l a n n i n g or management process c r e a t e d or o n g o i n g . 9 8 3. THE ENVIRONMENTALIST CRITIQUE The e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t c r i t i q u e , as i t has been l a b e l l e d , i s a composite of the views h e l d by F r i e n d s and Residents which was b u i l t i n tu r n on the experience of i n t e r v e n e r s at B.C. Hydro's S i t e C a p p l i c a t i o n and to some extent the land use permit p r o c e s s . 9 9 U n l i k e the A.U.T. c r i t i q u e , the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t c r i t i q u e grounded as i t i s i n the r e f o r m i s t t r a d i t i o n , would not c h a l l e n g e the fundamental l e g i t i m a c y of the a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s . Rather, the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t would 9 8 I b i d , i n t r o d u c t i o n . 9 9 Indeed as Wilson argues (as c i t e d i n the f i r s t chapter) that the f o r m u l a t i o n of the process came about l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t p r e s s u r e . 76 suggest measures to improve the approval process so as to put the i n t e r v e n o r on a more equal f o o t i n g with the u t i l i t y . As has been mentioned i n an e a r l i e r chapter, the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s h o l d the o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n that the ought not be developed u n t i l the settlement of the Tahltan Claim, but they a l s o h o l d an even dearer p r i n c i p l e that the Basin should be maintained i n i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e and that the T a h l t a n c l a i m w i l l be worthless i n the i n t e r i m i f t h i s n a t u r a l s t a t e i s not preserved. The e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s would thus welcome the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e f o r m a l l y i n the f u t u r e of the B a s i n . The E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t c r i t i q u e of the approval process has c e n t r e d on one or another aspects of the i n e q u i t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p the process f o s t e r s between the u t i l i t y and the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t e r v e n o r . While p u b l i c h e a r i n g s may be h e l d under the p r o v i s i o n s of the U t i l i t i e s Commission Act, meaningful p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g e n e r a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s s t i l l q u i t e l i m i t e d . The r e g u l a t o r y process does l i t t l e to r e c t i f y the d i s p a r i t y of resources between u t i l i t y and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t e r v e n o r . 1 0 0 The major c r i t i c i s m s of the process are i n four areas; f i r s t , of the l a c k of compulsory funding of i n t e r v e n o r s ; second, of the f a c t t h a t the u t i l i t y ' s a c t i o n s are not open to p u b l i c s c r u t i n y p r i o r to the formal a p p l i c a t i o n ; t h i r d , of the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p r o j e c t j u s t i f i c a t i o n and m i t i g a t i o n i n the same hearing; 1 0 0 Melody Hessing, "Production of the P u b l i c V o i c e : P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Hearing Process as Contemporary Democracy," (PhD T h e s i s , U.B.C, 1984). 77 f o u r t h , of the amount of c a b i n e t d i s c r e t i o n inherent in. B r i t i s h Columbia's energy p r o j e c t approval process. The e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t c r i t i q u e argues that the f i r s t and most c r u c i a l problem with the major energy p r o j e c t approval process i s the lack of any s t a t u t o r y or r e g u l a t o r y o b l i g a t i o n at e i t h e r the U t i l i t y or the B.C.U.C. to fund p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t e r v e n o r s . 1 0 1 O r i g i n a l l y there had been a p r o v i s i o n under S e c t i o n 133 of the U t i l i t i e s Commission Act for the B.C.U.C. at i t s d i s c r e t i o n to award c o s t s to i n t e r v e n o r s . T h i s funding c o u l d only have been awarded a f t e r a formal a p p l i c a t i o n from an energy p r o j e c t c e r t i f i c a t e made by the u t i l i t y . A f t e r the S i t e C h e a r i n g , even t h i s d i s c r e t i o n a r y p r o v i s i o n was removed by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l so that p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t e r v e n o r s c o u l d only make submissions with t h e i r own funds. Thus, the u t i l i t y cannot be e f f e c t i v e l y c r i t i c i z e d i n i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n of complex t e c h n i c a l i s s u e s . A p a r t i c i p a n t i n the S i t e C hearings f e l t very s t r o n g l y about the i s s u e : A h e a r i n g without i n t e r v e n o r funding i s a f a r c e , and at l e a s t as dishonest and u n f a i r as no hearing at a l l . Proponents of l a r g e energy p r o j e c t s are i n e v i t a b l y tax-payer s u b s i d i z e d while the taxpaying i n t e r v e n o r s must "peddle p i e s f o r pennies" to cover t h e i r c o s t s . Without funding p u b l i c i n t e r e s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d to t r i v i a l or s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d i n t e r v e n t i o n s and the l a r g e r resource i s s u e s cannot be addressed. Intervenor funding i s e s s e n t i a l t o a f a i r h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . 1 0 2 101 "F .o.S. Wr i t e s , " F r i e n d s , pp. 2-3; Adrienne Peacock,"Improving Energy Decisionmaking and Planning i n B r i t i s h Columbia," submission to the Peoples Commission f o r P o l i c y A l t e r n a t i v e s , Vancouver, B.C., Dec. 15, 1984; Copy with author. 1 0 2 P e a c o c k , "Improving Energy," p. 5. 78 The second part of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t c r i t i q u e which was a l l u d e d to i n the pr e v i o u s chapter notes that a u t i l i t y ' s e n g i n e e r i n g and p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s are not f u l l y open to p u b l i c s c r u t i n y or r e g u l a t i o n p r i o r to the formal a p p l i c a t i o n f o r an energy p r o j e c t c e r t i f i c a t e . Since the S t i k i n e - I s k u t p r o p o s a l s never went past the " P r e - A p p l i c a t i o n Phase" of the process, the p u b l i c never had a chance to d i s c u s s the p r o j e c t as a comprehensive u n d e r t a k i n g . 1 0 3 T h i s l a c k of p u b l i c s c r u t i n y or r e g u l a t i o n presented two major d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r the i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c . F i r s t , while the amount spent by B.C. Hydro on p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s on the S t i k i n e - I s k u t had pronounced economic, environmental and s o c i a l e f f e c t s on the s p a r s e l y i n h a b i t e d r e g i o n , the a f f e c t e d p u b l i c had almost no r e g u l a t o r y or l e g a l means to re d r e s s any r e s u l t a n t g r i e v a n c e s . Second, B.C. Hydro was under no o b l i g a t i o n to r e l e a s e any of the r e s u l t s of i t s s t u d i e s to i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s . T h e r e f o r e , Chot only d i d p u b l i c i n t e r v e n o r s lack funding to c a r r y out t h e i r own s t u d i e s , they a l s o lacked access to the r e s u l t s of B.C. Hydro's s t u d i e s . Linked to the notion that p l a n n i n g and e n g i n e e r i n g s t u d i e s should be r e g u l a t e d from t h e i r e a r l i e s t stages i s the t h i r d c r i t i c i s m which i s of the present p r a c t i c e of p l a c i n g both the i s s u e s of p r o j e c t j u s t i f i c a t i o n and of m i t i g a t i o n and compensation under d i s c u s s i o n at the same 1 0 3 B u r i , " P r e l u d e to Power," pp. 9-11; "F.O.S. W r i t e s " F r i e n d s , pp. 2-3. 79' h e a r i n g . 1 0 4 As has been noted $43 m i l l i o n was spent on the S t i k i n e - I s k u t before the p r o j e c t was ever j u s t i f i e d . The separate c o n s i d e r a t i o n of both types of i s s u e s has been seen as advantageous fo r the f o l l o w i n g reasons. F i r s t , both'types of i s s u e s are more e f f i c i e n t l y d i s c u s s e d , i f the d i s c u s s i o n of one i s not c o l o u r e d with c o n t r o v e r s y over the o t h e r . Second, i f the u n d e r l y i n g q u e s t i o n of p r o j e c t j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s addressed and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s not l e f t s o l e l y to matters of m i t i g a t i o n and compensation, p u b l i c c o n f i d e n c e i n the approval process w i l l be heightened. T h i r d , r e a l a l t e r n a t i v e s to p r o j e c t c o n s t r u c t i o n can only be p r o p e r l y examined with separate c o n s i d e r a t i o n of j u s t i f i c a t i o n . F i n a l l y , should a p r o j e c t be found to be not j u s t i f i e d then the c o s t s of p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s would be saved. The methods by which t h i s separate c o n s i d e r a t i o n c o u l d be achieved are e i t h e r through a two-stage h e a r i n g process or through r e g u l a r hearings i n t o B.C. Hydro's system p l a n n i n g . F i n a l l y , a fundamental e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t c r i t i c i s m of the approval process i s the amount of m i n i s t e r i a l d i s c r e t i o n i t a f f o r d s . 1 0 5 F i r s t , the c a b i n e t d e c i d e s whether or not there w i l l be a h e a r i n g on a p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n . In f a c t , the c a b i n e t may decide to e n t i r e l y exempt the a p p l i c a t i o n from the p e r u s a l of the B.C.U.C. Second, the m i n i s t e r s make the f i n a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r hearings without p u b l i c i n p u t . T h i r d , there 1 0 4 Andrew Thompson et a l , Energy P r o j e c t Approval i n  B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: Westwater, 1981), pp. 52-53. 1 0 5Peacock, "Improving Energy," p. 5. 80 are no q u a l i f i c a t i o n requirements f o r the panels p r e s i d i n g over p u b l i c hearings; that i s , the cabin e t may appoint v i r t u a l l y anybody r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r l e v e l of a p p r o p r i a t e e x p e r t i s e or a c c e p t a b i l i t y to both a p p l i c a n t and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t e r v e n o r s . Fourth, the ca b i n e t i s under no o b l i g a t i o n to re l e a s e the B.C.U.C.'s report or to fo l l o w i t s recommendations. Thus, the c a b i n e t i s given u n l i m i t e d d i s c r e t i o n i n complex t e c h n i c a l matters and i s under no o b l i g a t i o n to even c o n s i d e r the arguments of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t e r v e n o r s . 4. INCONGRUENT CRITIQUES As we have seen, the A.U.T. and E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s would p a r t on the premise that the approval process would have any l e g i t i m a t e a p p l i c a t i o n to the management of the S t i k i n e - I s k u t Basin. T h i s d i v i s i o n stems from two f a c t o r s . F i r s t , the two types of o p p o s i t i o n have d i f f e r e n t v i s i o n s of the f u t u r e of the S t i k i n e . Second, the two types of o p p o s i t i o n have d i f f e r e n t r i g h t s and resources with which to make t h e i r case a g a i n s t the dams. In the f i r s t case, i t would not be i n c o n s i s t e n t with the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t p o s i t i o n to pl a c e the S t i k i n e - I s k u t Basin under the r e g u l a t i o n of a p r o v i n c i a l body such as the B.C.U.C. as long as t h i s r e g u l a t i o n l e f t adequate room f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The p r o t e c t i o n of the B a s i n , by whatever means, i s of paramount concern to the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . The A.U.T., somewhat p a r a d o x i c a l l y , 81 values i t s c o n t r o l over the management of the Basin more than the e c o l o g i c a l p r o t e c t i o n of the Basin through r e g u l a t i o n s o u t s i d e the land c l a i m s p r o c e s s . In the second case, the d i f f e r e n c e of c r i t i q u e might stem not only from an u l t i m a t e disagreement on ends but a l s o from an unequal l e v e l of r e s o u r c e s . The A.U.T. has two s o r t s of resources which are u n a v a i l a b l e to e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . F i r s t , the Tahltans as noted e a r l i e r have a s t r o n g p o t e n t i a l l e g a l c l a i m to the S t i k i n e Basin based on a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s . Second, as a consequence of t h i s strong p o t e n t i a l c l a i m , the A.U.T. has access to funds borrowed a g a i n s t a f u t u r e c l a i m s settlement and to s p e c i a l Indian A f f a i r s funds to study the impact of resource development. Thus, while the A.U.T., l i k e the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , c o u l d not o b t a i n B.C.U.C. funds to oppose a B.C. Hydro a p p l i c a t i o n , they have had other e q u a l l y u s e f u l types of funding at t h e i r d i s p o s a l . In f a c t , were the A.U.T. s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s comprehensive c l a i m , the c l a i m settlement i t s e l f might i n c l u d e an o u t r i g h t p r o h i b i t i o n o f , or r i g h t of the A.U.T. to c o n t r o l the s o r t of development which B.C. Hydro proposed. In c o n t r a s t to the A.U.T., which would have the d e s i r e and p o t e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t y to circumvent the approval process, the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s would see the approval process, i f f a i r l y conducted, as a means of e f f e c t i v e l y opposing B.C. Hydro. In essence, the A.U.T. cannot a f f o r d to accept the l e g i t i m a c y of the appro v a l process while the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s cannot a f f o r d to deny i t . 82 The c u r r e n t f o r m u l a t i o n of the appro v a l process does l i t t l e to a m e l i o r a t e the di s c r e p a n c y of e f f i c a c y between u t i l i t y and o p p o s i t i o n . The a l t e r n a t e c r i t i q u e s of the process would c h a r a c t e r i z e i t as e i t h e r e n t i r e l y a p p r o p r i a t e or merely inadequate. The d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n between the A.U.T. and the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s stems, as has been shown i n e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s , from a fundamental disagreement over which community should have the r i g h t to c o n t r o l the f u t u r e of the S t i k i n e . As w e l l , the d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n might stem from the a c t u a l l e v e l s of i n f l u e n c e the A.U.T. and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s can b r i n g to bear on the approval process. In any case the l e v e l s of resources a v a i l a b l e i n the approval process to e i t h e r the A.U.T. or e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s would pale i n comparison to B.C. Hydro's $50 m i l l i o n expenditure on p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s . Chapter IV CONCLUSIONS The p r e v i o u s chapters have examined, f i r s t , the general i n t e r a c t i o n between the Indian l a n d claims movement and environmental movements, and, second, a s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . The two movements have been shown to have d i f f e r e n t g o als and, as a consequence, t h e i r member o r g a n i z a t i o n s have a l s o been shown to face d i f f i c u l t i e s i n forming c l o s e a l l i a n c e s . The case examined i n d e t a i l i n t h i s t h e s i s , the o p p o s i t i o n to B.C. Hydro's S t i k i n e - I s k u t p r o p o s a l s , e x h i b i t e d many of these d i f f i c u l t i e s . The fundamental d i f f e r e n c e between the A.U.T. and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s was over which community should have the r i g h t to c o n t r o l the S t i k i n e B a s i n . On the one hand, the A.U.T. argued that i t was t h e i r s o l e r i g h t to c o n t r o l such use u n t i l the settlement of t h e i r comprehensive c l a i m . E x t e r n a l l a n d use d e s i g n a t i o n s such as parks were viewed as in f r i n g e m e n t s of t h e i r r i g h t s . On the other hand, the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s were prepared to use whatever s t a t u t o r y or r e g u l a t o r y means a v a i l a b l e ( i n c l u d i n g park d e s i g n a t i o n ) to maintain the S t i k i n e w i l d e r n e s s . These d i f f e r e n c e s thwarted the formation of an o f f i c i a l a l l i a n c e between the two o p p o s i t i o n s i n s p i t e of c o o p e r a t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l T a h l t a n s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . Throughout t h i s t h e s i s there has been a d e l i b e r a t e d i s t i n c t i o n between the Indian l a n d c l a i m s movement and the t o t a l i t y of Indian response to i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m . As 83 84 w e l l , there has been a d i s t i n c t i o n made between A.U.T. p o l i c y and views h e l d by i n d i v i d u a l T a h l t a n s . While i n recent years the land claims i s s u e has been the most prominent f a c e t o f Indian p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, (due i n l a r g e part to the ready a v a i l a b i l i t y of funding f o r that purpose), other i s s u e s such as the n a t i v e f i s h e r y have remained important. With t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i n mind i t should a l s o be noted that because the Indian land claims movement i s so prominent, i t w i l l i n e v i t a b l y a f f e c t other forms of Indian p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . Thus, while c o a l i t i o n s between member o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the Indian land c l a i m s and environmental movements may face the s o r t of o b s t a c l e s so c l e a r l y present i n the S t i k i n e - I s k u t case, these should not be p e r c e i v e d as insurmountable b a r r i e r s to a l l i a n c e s between e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s and Indians who are committed to the n a t i v e economy. The bases f o r t h i s a s s e r t i o n are t w o f o l d . F i r s t , there have r e c e n t l y been formed c l o s e a l l i a n c e s between n a t i v e s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s i n o p p o s i t i o n to the threatened l o g g i n g of Meares I s l a n d and the S t e i n R i v e r V a l l e y . Second, many Indians continue to pursue t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e economy as i t i s d e s c r i b e d by Peter Usher. The ^Imtjor reason why B r i t i s h Columbia has not seen more examples o f t h i s s o r t of a l l i a n c e between e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s and Indians who perpetuate the n a t i v e economy l i e s with the nature of f e d e r a l comprehensive land claims p o l i c y . 85 As Usher has shown, the n a t i v e economy i s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n s t i t u t i o n i n the Canadian n o r t h . Indians who have made t h e i r l i v i n g i n a s u b s i s t e n c e economy and who wish to co n t i n u e t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s have a v i t a l i n t e r e s t i n w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n . Large r e s o u r c e - e x t r a c t i v e developments i n e v i t a b l y have adverse e f f e c t s on f i s h and w i l d l i f e . As w e l l , they a t t r a c t labour and i n i t i a t i v e away from the n a t i v e economy. Thus, i t i s l o g i c a l that Indians committed to the t r a d i t i o n a l economy should oppose such forms of development. T h e i r primary goal i s the p r o t e c t i o n of t h e i r l a n d base, rather than the l e g a l r e c o g n i t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l c l a i m s or the establishment of formal t i t l e . I n s o f a r as the land claims movement focusses on such l e g a l g o a l s , and pursues them w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of f e d e r a l land c l a i m s p o l i c y , the movement does not support the n a t i v e economy. As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 1, there are two asp e c t s of f e d e r a l l a n d c l a i m s p o l i c y which would tend to make development more a t t r a c t i v e to c l a i m a n t s than w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n . F i r s t , the p o l i c y allows f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t r e s o u r c e r o y a l t i e s w i l l be part of the s e t t l e m e n t . Second, i t r e q u i r e s that groups with c l a i m s accepted f o r n e g o t i a t i o n borrow money a g a i n s t f u t u r e c l a i m s e t t l e m e n t s . The f i r s t p r o v i s i o n encourages those groups i n v o l v e d i n land c l a i m s n e g o t i a t i o n s to commit t h e i r f u t u r e t o the i n d u s t r i a l r a t h e r than the t r a d i t i o n a l economy. The second p o l i c y ensures t h a t i n p r a c t i c e s e t t l e m e n t s w i l l c o n t a i n a cash 86 component, e i t h e r i n compensation f o r a l i e n a t e d lands or resource development r o y a l t i e s . The comprehensive c l a i m s p o l i c y was designed to f a c i l i t a t e northern resource e x t r a c t i v e development and c o n t a i n s no p r o v i s i o n f o r the maintenance of the t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e economy. The Indians who d e s i r e to maintain a n a t i v e economy may have to look o u t s i d e the land c l a i m s movement to environmental groups f o r support. L i k e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , proponents of the n a t i v e economy do not have the com p a r a t i v e l y high l e v e l of resources a v a i l a b l e to the land c l a i m s movement. As demonstrated e a r l i e r , t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d s may i n f a c t be endangered by development f o s t e r e d by f e d e r a l comprehensive claims p o l i c y . In that i t i s compatible with w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n , the n a t i v e economy may be come a f o c a l p o i n t f o r Indian and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t c o o p e r a t i o n . In f a c t , f o r p r a c t i c a l reasons such as a shortage of cash, proponents of the n a t i v e economy may have no c h o i c e but to cooperate with the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s to e f f e c t i v e l y oppose environmental t h r e a t s . In the S t i k i n e the Ta h l t a n Comprehensive C l a i m i s c u r r e n t l y the centre of most T a h l t a n p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . However, there i s a l s o , as d e s c r i b e d by A l b r i g h t and c i t e d i n Chapter 1, a t h r i v i n g s u b s i s t e n c e economy. As catalogued by Faustmann and c i t e d i n Chapter 3, the T a h l t a n s ' i n i t i a l r e j e c t i o n of B.C. Hydro's i n i t i a l plans was a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the dams' p o s s i b l e adverse e f f e c t s on f i s h and w i l d l i f e . Although i t has become l e s s v o c a l with the 87 receding t h r e a t of B.C. Hydro's p l a n s , a s i g n i f i c a n t segment of the T a h l t a n p o p u l a t i o n has "voted with i t s f e e t " to maintain the n a t i v e economy. The sentiments of these Tahltans are not f u l l y represented in the p o l i c i e s of the A.U.T. They lack the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l resources of t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the A.U.T. T h i s lack of resources c o u l d e i t h e r completely discourage them from f i g h t i n g f o r the r i g h t to continue i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l ways or i t c o u l d encourage them to look f o r support from outside the A.U.T. Because these Tahltans were a c t i v e when the B.C. Hydro p l a n s posed an imminent t h r e a t i t can be argued that t h e i r sentiments w i l l r e s u r f a c e in the event B.C. Hydro's plans are r e - a c t i v a t e d . In c o n c l u s i o n , there are very r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the goals of the Indian land c l a i m s and environmental movements. Indian s o c i e t y i s not single-minded. The goals of the land c l a i m s movement as they are d e l i m i t e d by f e d e r a l land c l a i m s p o l i c y are not unanimously subs c r i b e d to by a l l Indians. Thus, while i n the case of the S t i k i n e a l l i a n c e s between Indians and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s never went beyond the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , the w i l l f o r c o o p e r a t i o n has n e v e r t h e l e s s s u r f a c e d from time to time. Indians who make t h e i r l i v i n g from the l a n d and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s have a common respect f o r the value of w i l d e r n e s s . BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. SECONDARY SOURCES A l l i n , C r a i g W. The P o l i t i c s of Wilderness P r e s e r v a t i o n . Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1982. B a s s e t t , Lamont. "River f o r the Taming." Harrowsmith 53 (Feb./Mar. 1984): 32-45. Brody, Hugh. Maps and Dreams. Vancouver: Douglas and M c l n t y r e , 1981. Burnet, P e t e r . 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Board Member of Residents f o r a , Free-Flowing S t i k i n e . Phone Interview. Vancouver, May 23, 1985. Murray, May. S e c r e t a r y of F r i e n d s of the S t i k i n e . Phone 94 Interview. Vancouver, Mar. 24, 1984. Tuck, Ada. Dept. Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. Phone Interviews. Vancouver, Sept. 13 and Sept. 24, 1 984. Wilson, Jim. Former B.C. Hydro E x e c u t i v e . I n t e r v i e w . U.B.C, May 2, 1985. 4. THESES AND UNPUBLISHED PAPERS A l b r i g h t , S y l v i a . "An E t h n o a r c h e o l o g i c a l Study of T a h l t a n S u b s i s t e n c e and Settlement P a t t e r n s . " M.A. T h e s i s , Simon Fr a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1982. Fra g g a l o s c h , A . C "The I n s t i t u t i o n a l B a r r i e r s to P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n In E l e c t r i c a l Energy Planning i n B.C.: Case Study of Cheekeye-Dunsmuir." M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1981. Hawkes, David T. "An A n a l y s i s of the Demographic Data D e a l i n g With Unemployment and Residence P a t t e r n s i n Two Indian Communities of Telegraph Creek and I s k u t , B r i t i s h Columbia." B.A. Essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966. Hessing, Melody. "Production of the P u b l i c V o i c e : P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Hearing Process as Contemporary Democracy." M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985. 95 T a y l o r , Hugh. Researcher f o r the A.U.T. "A D i s c u s s i o n of the P o s s i b l e Options and I n f l u e n c e s Concerning the P r o t e c t i o n and Management of the S t i k i n e R i v e r Watershed." Submission to the Telegraph Creek Convention, Telegraph Creek, B.C., May 21-23, 1985. Peacock, Adrienne. "Improving Energy Decision-making and P l a n n i n g . " Submission to the Peoples' Commission for P o l i c y A l t e r n a t i v e s , Vancouver, B.C., Dec. 15, 1984. Photocopy with author. Wilson, R. Jeremy. "Environmentalism and B.C. N a t u r a l Resources P o l i c y , 1972-1983." Paper presented to the Annual Meeting of the Canadian P o l i t i c a l S cience A s s o c i a t i o n , U.B.C., June 5, 1983. 5. ENVIRONMENTALIST NEWSLETTERS B u r i , Tom. "Prelude to Power. "Telkwa Foundaiton Newsletter 6:1 (Spring 1983): 9-11. . "Who Are We?" F r i e n d s of the S t i k i n e Newsletter 1 (Jan. 1981): 1. "F.O.S. Writes to M i n i s t e r on Energy C e r t i f i c a t e Approval Process." F r i e n d s of the S t i k i n e Newsletter 9(Oct. 1983): 2-3. "Framed S t i k i n e P o s t e r s . " F r i e n d s of the S t i k i n e Newsletter 9 (Oct. 1983). 96 "Logging on the Lower S t i k i n e . " F r i e n d s of the S t i k i n e  Newsletter 1(D(Apr. 1984): 1-4. " N e w s f l a s h - - S t i k i n e Workshop Planned." F r i e n d s of the  S t i k i n e Newsletter 11 (Mar. 1985). P o j a r , Rosamund. " R e c r e a t i o n . " Telkwa Foundation Newsletter 3:1 (Spring 1980): 6. Skeena Broadcasters Make S t i k i n e F i l m . " F r i e n d s of the  S t i k i n e Newsletter 4(Dec. 1981). "The S t i k i n e Dam—Hydro's Search f o r G r a v e l . " F r i e n d s of the  S t i k i n e Newsletter 4 (Dec. 1981): 3. Strong, Douglas H. "The S i e r r a Club A H i s t o r y Part 1: O r i g i n s and Outings." S i e r r a 62:8 (Oct.1977): 10-14. Strong, Douglas H. "The S i e r r a Club: A H i s t o r y Part t w o — C o n s e r v a t i o n . " S i e r r a 62:9 (Nov.-Dec. 1977): 16-20. 6. NEWSPAPERS "B.C. Hydro f o r e s e e s f u r t h e r c u t s i n c a p i t a l p r o j e c t s as growth slows." Globe and M a i l , Sept. 26, 1984, pp. B1-2. "Bennett h a i l s power breakthrough." Sun(Vancouver), Sept. 18, 1985. "Bennett heads south on s a l e s t r i p s . " Sun(Vancouver), Sept. 16, 1985. 97 Bohn, Glenn. "400 Scale Heights i n B i d to Save S t e i n . " Sun(Vancouver), Sept. 3, 1985. "Fast a c t i o n sought on power pact." Sun(Vancouer), Sept. 17, 1985. "New hope f o r dams." Sun(Vancouver), Aug. 29, 1985. " S i t e C dam go-ahead c a l l f o o l i s h by SPEC." Sun(Vancouver), Sept. 11, 1985. "The r i v e r s have always been t h e i r s . " Sun(Vancouver), Sept. 5, 1980. Thunderstorm, Lynn. Sun (Vancouver), l e t t e r t o the e d i t o r , Aug. 13, 1985, p. 5. 7. MISCELLANEOUS Telegraph Creek Convention. News Release, Telegraph Creek, B.C., May 22-23, 1985. Photocopy with author. 

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