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Of Rauschenberg, policy and representation at the Vancouver Art Gallery : a partial history 1966-1983 Harris, John Steven 1985

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OF RAUSCHENBERG, POLICY AND REPRESENTATION AT THE VANCOUVER ART GALLERY: A PARTIAL HISTORY 1966 - 1983 By JOHN STEVEN HARRIS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of F i n e A r t s )  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1985 0 John Steven H a r r i s , 1985  I n  p r e s e n t i n g  r e q u i r e m e n t s o f  B r i t i s h  i t  f r e e l y  a g r e e f o r  t h a t  t h i s f o r  a n  I  a v a i l a b l e  u n d e r s t o o d  t h a t  f i n a n c i a l  b y  h i s  t h a t  o r  b e  h e r o r  s h a l l  f u l f i l m e n t a t  t h e L i b r a r y  s h a l l  a n d  s t u d y .  I  c o p y i n g  g r a n t e d  b y  p u b l i c a t i o n b e  t h e  U n i v e r s i t y  t h e  o f  a l l o w e d  o f  t h i s o f  I t  i s  t h i s  w i t h o u t  m a k e  f u r t h e r  h e a d  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  n o t  o f  t h e  e x t e n s i v e  m a y  c o p y i n g  g a i n  d e g r e e  r e f e r e n c e  f o r  p u r p o s e s  o r  p a r t i a l  a g r e e  f o r  p e r m i s s i o n  s c h o l a r l y  i n  a d v a n c e d  C o l u m b i a ,  d e p a r t m e n t f o r  t h e s i s  t h e s i s m y  t h e s i s m y  w r i t t e n  p e r m i s s i o n .  D e p a r t m e n t  o f  T ~ ><^.e-  T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1 9 5 6 M a i n M a l l V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a  C o l u m b i a  V6T 1Y3  D a t e  tCO^Ue^^n^  /  ABSTRACT  My t h e s i s  examines the p o l i c y of the Vancouver  a f f e c t e d the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a r t '70s. I t  was  begun  in  A r t G a l l e r y (VAG)  i t s community  in  the  expansion i n  the a c t i v i t i e s  was r e a l i z e d  by means  out.  c u l t u r a l expenditure  by the f e d e r a l  t h i s o n l y made programmes p o s s i b l e , i t d i d not c a r r y them  D u r i n g the 1960s  the  Vancouver  Art  Gallery  gained  t h a t s i g n i f i e d i t s t r a d i t i o n a l p a t r o n a g e , Vancouver the s t r e e t " . VAG's new with  outreach  developments  programme in  c r i t i c a l s u c c e s s of h i s p o l i c y , VAG relative exclusion  of the  a  measure of  f o r i t s i n n o v a t i v e programming, which depended  a degree on the r e d e f i n i t i o n of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o  contemporary  an enormous  of t h e G a l l e r y . To some e x t e n t t h e e x p a n s i o n  of i n c r e a s e d  international recognition to  1960s and  i n o r d e r t o understand what determined the changes i n  p o l i c y as they were e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , which saw  government, but  as i t  was  the l o c a l , whether  a r t i s t s or the "man  not  unique,  but  in  i t was  o t h e r l o c a t i o n s . G i v e n the p o p u l a r and d i r e c t o r Tony  Emery pushed  i t t o the  more t r a d i t i o n a l type of g a l l e r y programme, i n  t h i s manner a n g e r i n g VAG's "more c o n s e r v a t i v e " a u d i e n c e . With the f i r s t government  began  indications  of  reining  public  in  a  fiscal  crisis  in  the  e x p e n d i t u r e , i n c l u d i n g t h a t on the  a r t s . There was f i r s t a f r e e z e on f u n d i n g t o the l a r g e r a r t s which by  now  ment s u p p o r t .  institutions,  i n c l u d e d t h e G a l l e r y , and then the slow w i t h e r i n g of governVAG's  p o s s i b l e through re-orientation  1970s, the  experiments  t h i s support, towards  more  in  programming,  became expendable, traditional  which  had  and t h e r e  programmes,  been made was soon a  accompanied  by  another r e d e f i n i t i o n p o l i c y and  of the  G a l l e r y ' s a u d i e n c e . The  programme were g r a d u a l l y  c o r p o r a t e model  or paradigm  transformed  Gallery  donors and  into  larger  quarters,  c o l l e c t o r s , and  be brought i n t o the c i t y . The  other  major s e c t i o n  would  VAG  in  1978.  of  the  current  examines the  f o r m a t i o n of  reputation  work which had which was  f o r VAG  after  to the new  T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , which was  one,  but  of what was by an  to 1963,  and  neither  the  looked  1963,  developed by  Solomon's  possibility  a private the 1976  h i s works  gallery,  and  retrospective  the promotion  and  reinforced  A l a n Solomon  of  of VAG.  in  nor  of  his even  i n 1963,  of l o o k i n g at one's reading  the r e c e p t i o n  by an a n a l y s i s of two only  of  1976,  G a l l e r y r o l e promoted by VAG's p a l a d i n s .  at.  e x a m i n a t i o n of  the r e p u t a t i o n  a p a r t i c u l a r r e a d i n g of h i s  Rauschenberg's works as c e l e b r a t i o n s of a way ment and  museums and  of a group of  apt f o r  depends on  become g e n e r a l i z e d  appropriate  on  an a r t i s t i n f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t  following  h i s work by the S m i t h s o n i a n made h i s work Rauschenberg's u s e - v a l u e  e x h i b i t i o n s to  w i t h government and G a l l e r y documents.  Rauschenberg was  of h i s  to move  be more a t t r a c t i v e to  literature  w i t h Vancouver t h r o u g h e x h i b i t i o n s of h i s work at the c o n s o l i d a t i o n  the p l a n  allow prestigious  Robert Rauschenberg, as i t bears on the r e c e p t i o n e x h i b i t e d at  increasingly  t h e s i s u n d e r t a k e s t o examine the v a g a r i e s of  government c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , and The  f i t an  change was  which  which would  G a l l e r y p o l i c y w i t h the a i d  to  structure,  i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e the e x t r a funds i t needed  t o remain s o l v e n t . A c r u c i a l a s p e c t of t h i s the  Gallery's  the  environaccepted  of Rauschenberg's a r t p r i o r  works, the  became  fixed  I  argue  that  most a c c u r a t e one.  1970s, c r i t i c s c o n f l a t e d Rauschenberg's e a r l i e r and  l a t e r work  i t is In  the  within  the  c o n t e x t of  Solomon's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , which has h a r d l y been expanded upon.  They have u s u a l l y work, based  t r i e d t o e s t a b l i s h an i d e n t i t y o f t h e  upon Solomon's of  e a r l i e r and l a t e r  r e a d i n g , where I am t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r  difference.  An a n a l y s i s  two of  Works from  Captiva exhibition  the works  a t VAG  which appeared  indicates  the d i f f e r e n c e s  e a r l i e r work and t h e s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of t h e i r i c o n o g r a p h y the G a l l e r y was a t t e m p t i n g t o promote.  i n t h e 1978  t o the  w i t h the new  role  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF FIGURES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1.  vii 1  WHAT'S IN A NAME? RAUSCHENBERG AT THE VAG R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s F i r s t Comeback The H i s t o r y of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s R e p u t a t i o n : From I r o n i s t t o P a t r i o t A Closing Circle R e t r i e v a l i n the Seventies Rauschenberg i n Vancouver Illustrations  14 32 34 40 52  CHAPTER 2.  THE VANCOUVER ART GALLERY 1966-74: SUCCESS AND FAILURE  65  CHAPTER 3.  THE VANCOUVER ART GALLERY 1975-83: "SUCCESS"  SELECTED  BIBLIOGRAPHY  7 8  113 143  VI  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure 1 2 3  4  5  6 7  8  9 10 11 12 13  Page C a s t e l l i S m a l l T u r t l e Bowl ( " C a r d b o a r d " ) , 1971 Leo C a s t e l l i G a l l e r y ( p h o t o : S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n )  52  1/2 GALS/AAPCO ( " C a r d b o a r d " ) , 1971 C o l l e c t i o n the a r t i s t ( p h o t o : S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n )  53  S t u d i e s f o r C u r r e n t s #27, 1970 C o l l e c t i o n the a r t i s t (photo: S t a a t l i c h e K u n s t h a l l e , Berlin)  54  Rebus, 1955 Mr. & Mrs. V i c t o r Ganz, New York ( p h o t o : Institution)  55  Smithsonian  Canyon, 1959 Anonymous c o l l e c t i o n , P a r i s ( p h o t o : Harry N. New Y o r k )  Abrams,  56  C r o c u s , 1962 Leo C a s t e l l i G a l l e r y ( p h o t o : S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n )  57  Monogram, 1955-59 Moderna Museet, Stockholm ( p h o t o : Harry N. New Y o r k )  58  Abrams,  Contemporanea ( " E a r l y E g y p t i a n S e r i e s " ) , 1973 Leo C a s t e l l i G a l l e r y ( p h o t o : S t a a t l i c h e K u n s t h a l l e , Berlin)  59  S y b i l ( " H o a r f r o s t " ) , 1974 C o l l e c t i o n the a r t i s t ( p h o t o : S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n )  60  Time cover (29 November ( p h o t o : Time)  61  1976)  Golden Grebe ( " S c a l e " ) , 1978 C o l l e c t i o n t h e a r t i s t ( p h o t o : Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y )  62  S o l a r T r i b u n e J r . ( " S p r e a d " ) , 1978 C o l l e c t i o n t h e a r t i s t ( p h o t o : Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y )  63  G i f t f o r A p o l l o , 1959 D r . Giuseppe Panza, M i l a n ( p h o t o : Harry N. New Y o r k )  64  Abrams,  The end of c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f on two o p p o s i t e s i d e s : the p r o j e c t of i t s s u p e r s e s s i o n i n total history, and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n as a dead o b j e c t i n s p e c t a c u l a r contemp l a t i o n . One of t h e s e movements has l i n k e d i t s f a t e t o s o c i a l c r i t i q u e , the o t h e r t o the defense of c l a s s power. - Guy Debord, S o c i e t y of the S p e c t a c l e S p e c i a l thanks t o Ann Rosenberg, w i t h whom I f i r s t t a l k e d over t h i s p r o j e c t , t o Nora B l a i r and t o Linda Harris For a l l of my enemies  INTRODUCTION  P r o b a b l y no more u s e l e s s public i n s t i t u t i o n , useless r e l a t i v e l y t o i t s c o s t , was ever d e v i s e d than t h a t popular ideal, the c l a s s i c a l b u i l d i n g of a museum of a r t , f i l l e d w i t h r a r e and c o s t l y o b j e c t s . - John C o t t o n Dana, A P l a n f o r a New Museum, 1920 I  o f f e r here  Vancouver A r t  an  analysis  and  G a l l e r y (VAG),  a  critique  i n the  o l d Courthouse.  however p r o v i s i o n a l , may be e d i f i c e of  bourgeois  s i t e on  i n the  a contribution  cial  art  of t h e '70s,  Georgia Street to  towards the  unmasking  of the  c u l t u r e , smashed as t h a t may sometimes appear. There  p a r l a n c e of  economists  P o l i c y Review Committee, which r e p o r t e d i n doubt t h i s .  policies  I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s c r i t i q u e ,  a r e s t i l l many who r e g a r d the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f a r t as m e r i t goods,  the  as they were pursued i n the 1960s and  and as they l e d t o t h e G a l l e r y ' s move from i t s expanded premises  of  good-in-themselves  -  (and of the F e d e r a l C u l t u r a l  1982). A p p a r e n t l y ,  no one may  S t r e s s here has been l a i d on the changing a s p e c t of a p r o v i n institution  negotiating  its  way  (which between  C h a r y b d i s of p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s autonomy t h a t c r e a t u r e of the  has ever  achieved the  national  Scylla  though  status  of government  this  metaphor  in  the 1960s)  f u n d i n g and the grants  VAG more  a c t u a l l y been the c a s e . I t i s more a c c u r a t e l y the  whirlpool,  raised  in  the  cave,  from  which  it  looks  l o v i n g l y at i t s o b l i v i o n . The t h e s i s  b e g i n s and  Works from C a p t i v a , an Luke  Rombout,  which  ends (more  or l e s s )  exhibition personally appeared  at  the  w i t h Robert R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s s u p e r v i s e d by  VAG d i r e c t o r  G a l l e r y i n 1978. I t a k e i t t o be  p a r a d i g m a t i c of Rombout, as  w e l l as  h i r i n g t o the  of e x h i b i t i o n s  b e i n g the  re-opening  examines the the a r t i s t  the k i n d  h i s t o r y of c o u l d be  r e p u t a t i o n , and  of  f a v o u r e d under  most a m b i t i o u s the  Gallery  used i n  as f o d d e r  a particular  f o r the  Rauschenberg's r e p u t a t i o n  1983.  i n the  The h i s t o r y  way t o  The  f i r s t chapter  b o l s t e r the G a l l e r y ' s launched i n 1978  the Courthouse.  in  The r e v i v a l of  1970s, which was based on an e a r l y  of h i s  his  i n o r d e r t o show how  c a p i t a l campaign  r e a d i n g , i s examined, as i s R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s l a t e r work.  show from t h e time of  Rauschenberg's r e p u t a t i o n ,  o r d e r t o r a i s e money f o r VAG's removal t o  in his  in  the t u t e l a g e of  accommodation t o  this  '60s  reading  r e l a t i o n s w i t h Vancouver  is  dis-  cussed b e f o r e l o o k i n g a t the 1978 e x h i b i t i o n , i t s works and i t s r e c e p t i o n . The second and t h i r d c h a p t e r s examine, r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e programmes p o l i c i e s of  the Vancouver  Art Gallery  Emery and Luke Rombout. Throughout the  local  vs.  national  which are d i s c u s s e d  the  and  under the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of Tony period there  runs a  (and i n t e r n a t i o n a l ) c o n c e r n s ,  d i a l e c t i c of  i n various  guises  i n the course of t h i s s e c t i o n . There was i n both c a s e s  a r e d e f i n i t i o n of VAG's audience (and t h e r e f o r e needs) a n t i t h e t i c a l t o the p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t i n g one. In E m e r y ' s c a s e , an i n f u s i o n " l i b e r a t e d " the  of government  G a l l e r y i n a sense from i t s dependence on l o c a l  funds  largesse;  VAG's programme c o u l d t h e r e f o r e be r e t h o u g h t . For some time he pursued two strategies:  the o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r e s t i g i o u s and p o p u l a r shows of contem-  p o r a r y a r t , and a s e r i e s of strong support the G a l l e r y ' s abandonment  of  of l o c a l search  for  innovations  on  the l o c a l  level.  Eventually,  a r t i s t s and experiments i n c u l t u r a l pedagogy, i n new,  non-specialized  audiences,  led  t o the  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s p e c t of h i s programme. T h i s was p a r t l y  the r e s u l t of widespread  the  if  institutionalization  half-hearted  1970s, i n an attempt t o be  strategy  of  an  avant-garde  position, a  of museums i n the l a t e  more r e s p o n s i v e  to t h e i r  1960s/early  communities, and t o  respond t o (and r e c u p e r a t e ) t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n . In VAG's c a s e , i t a l s o meant o p p o s i t i o n t o the l o c a l s t a t u s quo, as an of  the  incorporation  liberalism led into  of  avant-garde  distinctly  aspect of attitudes.  unliberal  t h e i n t e r n a l dynamic It  strategies  was  when  that  he  Emery's got i n t o  trouble. The  retrenchment  of  government  cultural  policy  i n the wake of  f i s c a l c r i s i s s i g n a l l e d t o some e x t e n t t h e r e p a t r i a t i o n of c u l t u r e l o c a l bourgeoisie,  its  t o the  though t h i s would never be as complete as i t was b e f o r e  the i n t r u s i o n of government  funding;  nor  did  anyone  desire  t h i s . The  r e p a t r i a t i o n was combined w i t h renewed i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t a m b i t i o n s and went h a n d - i n - h a n d w i t h t h e d r i v e t o get these  ends,  Rombout's  i n t o bigger  c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i c i e s e n t a i l e d the  of the G a l l e r y ' s s t r u c t u r e , c o r p o r a t e model  the G a l l e r y  p o l i c y and  or paradigm,  so t h a t  programme t o  q u a r t e r s . To transformation  f i t an  increasingly  i t c o u l d a p p e a l t o those i t sought  out f o r t h e e x t r a f u n d i n g i t needed, both t o expand and t o remain  solvent.  Works from C a p t i v a was the exemplary e x h i b i t i o n of t h i s p e r i o d . The b i b l i o g r a p h y  o f museums  and o t h e r  a r t i n s t i t u t i o n s i s not t h i c k ,  the h i s t o r y of a r t r e m a i n i n g p r i m a r i l y t h e h i s t o r y of a r t i s t s . analyses  with  a  sociological  emphasis  exist  on  Book-length  the A r t I n s t i t u t e  Chicago and t h e Akron A r t I n s t i t u t e , and t h e r e i s a u s e f u l survey i n character)  of American  museum p r a c t i c e s  1/ For a l l a r t i c l e s c i t e d , see  by K a r l  bibliography.  of  (liberal  M e y e r . [ 1 ] There are  a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t a r t i c l e s on major i n s t i t u t i o n s or the  Museum of  a r t i c l e s by  Modern A r t ,  Kenneth  Rosenberg on  as w e l l as good t h e o r e t i c a l or  Coutts-Smith,  the s i t u a t i o n  l i k e Beaubourg,  Jeff  Wall,  Max  speculative  Kozloff  and H a r o l d  of the contemporary a r t g a l l e r y i n the 1970s.  However, t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e o r e t i c a l i n s i g h t s particular institutions  the Tate  has r a r e l y  to concrete  been attempted  examples  of  except i n r e l a t i o n t o  major ( r e a d : e x c e p t i o n a l ) museums. I have chosen t o d i s c u s s the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of  the p o l i c y  of a p r o v i n c i a l a r t s i n s t i t u t i o n (and i t s e f f e c t s )  o r d e r t o a r t i c u l a t e the matrices  of  (Canadian)  power,  problems of  which  institution  s i b i l i t i e s of  impinge  has o p e r a t e d  a range  of o p t i o n s  a local  gallery in  on  our l i v e s ; how a p a r t i c u l a r  all  w i t h i n the  r e l a t i o n t o the  p o s s i b i l i t i e s and  and r e s t r i c t i o n s .  insights  gleaned  from  the  pertinent  discussions  museum p r a c t i c e , the s i t u a t i o n of these w i t h i n the  bibliography  on  Rauschenberg  on  the  Vancouver  u s e f u l l i t e r a t u r e , on the articles  by  Moira  Roth,  Art  artist Max  some of  contemporary the  local  i s f o r a l l i n t e n t s extremely  thin,  and here I have had t o r e l y on my own r e s o u r c e s sections  of  analysis  remains my own, as a p p r o p r i a t e or i l l - f i t t i n g as i t may The  impos-  Such s u c c e s s as was  a c h i e v e d was never guaranteed on i t s own t e r m s . W h i l e I have used the  in  Gallery. exists, Kozloff,  No  more  appear.  h e a v i l y than  i n the  adequate book, and  with and  of  the to  exception  little  of b r i e f  a lesser extent  Harold  Rosenberg and J e f f P e r r o n e . Rather t h e r e a r e a s e r i e s of a n t i - t e x t s t h a t  I  engage i n t h i s c h a p t e r , which i n c l u d e and grew out of A l a n Solomon's essay for  Rauschenberg's  Alloway's  essay  for  1963 the  retrospective. 1976  These  retrospective  include  also  Lawrence  - which r e a f f i r m s and r e -  inforces when  Solomon's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,  the  critical  establishment  making i t was  a r t i s t - as w e l l as a r t i c l e s by Leo  new as  rallying  i t were  a t a time  around the B i c e n t e n n i a l  Steinberg, Brian  O'Doherty,  Rosalind  K r a u s s , and a h o s t of o t h e r s so p i t i f u l they d o n ' t m e r i t a m e n t i o n . I q u e s t i o n e d t h e c r i t i c a l e l a b o r a t i o n of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  have  r e p u t a t i o n i n order  t o r e a c h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p a r t i c u l a r uses t o which h i s work was put i n Vancouver,  of how they converged w i t h G a l l e r y p o l i c y  The q u e s t i o n  arises:  a c c e p t a b i l i t y , of  why  Rauschenberg  course; for  first?  itself.  In  the  the same r e a s o n another c h a p t e r was b u r i e d  and t h e t h e s i s o f t h e t h e s i s submerged i n the t e x t . We have, large t a i l  wagging a  some t a k e  more n o t i c e  an i n t e r e s t i n g  not a t  a l l opportunist.  as i t i s because i t was about the  f o u n d a t i o n of  which he e n t e r s the l o c a l  c o n f i g u r a t i o n , and  of the paper than would o t h e r w i s e  been the c a s e , g i v e n the p r i o r i z i n g o f a famous a r t i s t seen i s  t h e n , a very  t r u n c a t e d dog somewhat unsure of i t s n a t u r e . By the  same t o k e n , t h e s e a d j u s t m e n t s make f o r might make  i n t e r e s t s of  - which  The c h a p t e r on Rauschenberg  necessary  to  make a  the a r t i s t ' s  p o i n t not  as can be i s as  otherwise  r e p u t a t i o n , which  have  large raised  i s the p o i n t a t  stage.  A p r o v i s o . I have made t h e d i r e c t o r s s t a n d i n f o r a complex  of  initia-  t i v e s and a s p i r a t i o n s , of which t h e i r d e c i s i o n s a r e an e x t e r n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n . In so doing I d o n ' t p o l i c y , though  mean  to  they  are  alone  in setting  of course i n a h i e r a r c h y they e x e r c i s e much a u t h o r i t y . Nor  do I mean t o d i m i n i s h t o r e a l work t h i s manner,  pretend  of o t h e r  s t a f f by  only to s i m p l i f y a complicated discussion  c o n t a i n i n g them i n - especially  since  much  of  my  thesis  concerns  external  relations  with  the government,  b u s i n e s s and the a r t w o r l d . This  paper  had  its  wrong" a t t h e G a l l e r y directors in  beginnings  i n the  1974-75; I  i n a d e s i r e t o understand what "went  1970s, over  was c o n f i d e n t  and above  t h e mere  change of  t h a t a m a t e r i a l i s t a n a l y s i s would  l a y bare t h e r e l a t i o n s and s t r u c t u r e s t h a t had  come t o  determine G a l l e r y  p o l i c y b o t h i n i t s more l i b e r a l phase and i n t h e p e r i o d of r e t r e n c h m e n t . I a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t a commitment t o e l u c i d a t i o n of  some of  the s t r u g g l e s  worthy and u s e f u l t a s k . Though I assumption, I  where one  s t i l l believe  am  was was  on the no  longer  i m p o r t a n t , t h a t an  l o c a l c u l t u r a l p l a n e was a so  confident  of e i t h e r  much of use r e m a i n s . " T h i s much I ' v e  i n t h e s e f i v e y e a r s i n what I ' v e  spent and e a r n e d . "  learned  7 CHAPTER 1 WHAT'S IN A NAME?  RAUSCHENBERG AT THE VAG Some v i e w e r s might imagine a r t i s worth i t s w e i g h t . A work which d e p i c t s t h a t e x p e c t a t i o n but which i s e s s e n t i a l l y l i g h t i s B r i l l i a n t & worthless. - Ed Dorn, " R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s U n t i t l e d (Early Egyptian S e r i e s [ l ] "  In September 1978, the e x h i b i t i o n of  Vancouver A r t  Robert R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  G a l l e r y organized  (then-)  r e c e n t work i n t h e  and " S c a l e s "  s e r i e s . The a r t i s t ' s r e p u t a t i o n , which has  his career,  was h i g h  not  received  p a r a d i g m a t i c of the Gallery in  Institute in  particularly  well  exhibition  policy  1976. The  by  f l u c t u a t e d during  Vancouver  local critics; i t is,  the l a t e r 1970s, and was i t s most a m b i t i o u s p r o d u c t . I t i s  not  s p e c t a c l e , an  for  it  enticement both  seems  to  f o r the  developed  by  the  however, Art  experience,  to provide have  been  a satisfying  To e l u c i d a t e  b o u r g e o i s and  f o r the p u b l i c - a t programme.  t h i s c o n n e c t i o n of s p e c t a c l e and " u s e - v a l u e " ,  how R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s work c o u l d the h i s t o r y  be used,  even w i l l i n g l y ,  of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  intel-  i n t e n d e d r a t h e r as a  l a r g e t o s u p p o r t t h e expansion of the G a l l e r y s i t e and i t s  must examine  exhibition  Vancouver  e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e show f a i l e d lectual  "Spreads"  f o l l o w i n g t h e t o u r of h i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e e x h i b i t i o n ,  o r g a n i z e d by the S m i t h s o n i a n was  and h o s t e d an  success,  s u c c e s s e s i n the l a t e r 1950s and the 1960s. The growing  and t o show  in this  way, we  including his  first  c o n f o r m i t y of the  1/ Edward Dorn, a poem from the sequence " F l y w h e e l P r o g r a m s , " H e l l o , La J o l l a ( B e r k e l e y : Wingbow P r e s s , 1978), p. 52.  in  a r t i s t ' s production w i t h the c r i t i c a l reading elaborated  in  the  early  1960s  r e p u t a t i o n i n the mid-1970s. was n o t i c e d  by few  -  in  the  work t h a t  had been  c r u c i a l t o t h e r e j u v e n a t i o n of  his  The f a c t t h a t Rauschenberg had g e l d e d h i s  art  c r i t i c s ; his  was, a " c e l e b r a t i o n " . The exhibition  was  of h i s  a r t had  decision  wake  of  to  become what they a s s u r e d us i t  organize  VAG's  own Rauschenberg  a b i g B i c e n t e n n i a l t r i u m p h , and w i t h t h e  G a l l e r y ' s planned c a p i t a l campaign fund i n mind -  was c o n t i n g e n t  on t h i s  f a c t and t h i s v i e w .  R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s F i r s t Comeback I want  to begin  by l o o k i n g  a t the  f i r s t comeback attempt i n 1971, Rauschenberg's success  because  i n the  work of 1955-64 compared  r e c e p t i o n accorded R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  1970s -  to that  it  reveals  a  good  d e a l about  about the d i s j u n c t i o n between the  current production,  v e r s u s the s i m i l a r  c r i t i c a l v o c a b u l a r y used t o encompass i t a l l . T h i s comeback e x h i b i t i o n was a show of the " C a r d b o a r d s "  and  opened Leo  SoHo g a l l e r y i n October 1971. The  C a s t e l l i ' s new  "Cardbirds"  series  which, a u s p i c i o u s l y ,  were used c a r d b o a r d boxes t o r n and a r r a n g e d , w i t h a minimum t o form  w a l l - p i e c e s . An  example f r e q u e n t l y  stapled  w i t h the  relatively  however,  look  b i t s of  b r i g h t paper  unmediated  "natural"  or  in  surface keeping  also  illustrated  in  Rauschenberg's  f l a t t e n e d box  t o make a c o n t r a s t i n g t e x t u r e next with  it.  Even  the a d d i t i o n s ,  what might have been the  c a r d b o a r d ' s former u s e . Another " C a r d b o a r d " , e n t i t l e d 2;  of a d d i t i o n s ,  reproduced i s C a s t e l l i S m a l l  T u r t l e Bowl ( F i g . 1 ) . On the l e f t h a n d s i d e or p a n e l of t h i s Rauschenberg  "Cardboards"  1/2GALS/AAPC0 ( F i g .  Smithsonian r e t r o s p e c t i v e c a t a -  logue), i s w a l l as  more t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l ,  though i t  as c l e a r l y  belongs on the  do most of the a r t i s t ' s e a r l i e r c o m b i n e - p a i n t i n g s . Here t h e r e a r e  no a d d i t i o n s t o the found m a t e r i a l s , but t h e i r a r t i s a l l i n ment of  t h e t o r n and reshaped boxes. Rauschenberg  has used many t i m e s i n h i s object that  breaks the  career,  the  i n t e g r i t y of  dangling  the surface  adds a s i m p l e d e v i c e he or  floor-based linked  and l e t s the p i e c e out  i n t o the v i e w e r ' s s p a c e . The " C a r d b i r d s " , companions t o were m u l t i p l e  editions printed  the  by one of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  these  "prints"  were  more  "Cardboards",  favourite firms,  Gemini G . E . L . , t o mimic the used boxes i n f r e s h m a t e r i a l s , that  the a r r a n g e -  w i t h the irony  c o m p l i c a t e d and c o s t l y t o make than the  o r i g i n a l s , though as d u p l i c a t e s they s o l d more c h e a p l y . There was no imagery i n t h e s e new works, o t h e r than t h e m a t e r i a l of the construction i t s e l f ,  or i t s  simulation i n  t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n s . The o b j e c t  was the image, t h e g e s t a l t or s i n g l e image the arrangement or m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h e  o b j e c t i t s e l f , r a t h e r than an o b j e c t m o d i f i e d i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r  o b j e c t s i n an assemblage or on c a n v a s , o r one reproduced as had  been the case i n R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  by s i l k s c r e e n s  e a r l i e r work. The " C a r d b o a r d s "  u n l i k e any of h i s p r e v i o u s a r t , e x c e p t i n g t h e e a r l y b l a c k chromes of  1955-64, i n  which a  out g r a p h l i k e f o r a t e n t a t i v e and  is s t i l l  b e s t known,  m u l t i p l i c i t y of "reading"[2]  ambiguous.  The  which  the combines  are  and w h i t e mono-  1951-52. A r u p t u r e e x i s t s between R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  t h a t f o r which he  -  1971 work and  and s i l k s c r e e n s  of  o b j e c t s and r e p r o d u c t i o n s were l a i d could only  only reading  be, however,  partial,  made from t h e " C a r d b o a r d s "  is  2/ R o s a l i n d K r a u s s , "Rauschenberg and the M a t e r i a l i z e d Image," A r t forum, v o l . 13 no. 4 (December 1974), p. 4 3 . For a d i s c u s s i o n of what " r e a d i n g " means i n t h i s c o n t e x t , see p. 19.  one, based on  their  f u n c t i o n i n g of  labels  and  the w a l l - p i e c e s ,  insignia, a function  e a r l i e r works, e n t i r e l y a e s t h e t i c .  The  that  is  peripheral  which i s , i n c o n t r a s t t o the  status  of  the  object  has been  changed, f o r i f , l i k e the combines i t i s s t i l l  c o n s t r u c t e d out of  i t i s also i c o n i c ,  with their  images, r a r e l y  which t h e  were. I t  e a r l i e r works,  to the  garbage,  m u l t i p l i c i t y of  d i d not t a k e l o n g , of c o u r s e , f o r R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  works i n the 1950s t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the mainstream of m o d e r n i s t a r t h i s t o r y , but most  their aesthetic  reviewers,  "Cardboards"  at  q u a l i t i e s were  least,  depend  upon  their  artworks, constructed  ( f r a i l ) c o m m o d i t i e s , w i t h o u t the that  for  first  appearance.  Whereas the  almost c o m p l e t e l y on the a r t f u l n e s s of t h e i r  ments (and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t on the are o n e - s h o t  not i m m e d i a t e l y apparent t o  Rosalind  Krauss  resonance of albeit with  element  of  t h e i r past  arrange-  u s e ) . They  modesty, and so e x i s t  duree,  as  of r e a d i n g - i n - t i m e ,  a l l o w e d R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s combines t o escape t h e  commodity s t a t u s of so much New York a r t w o r k of the 1950s and  '60s.[3]  For many c r i t i c s who r e v i e w e d R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s output of the 1970s, t h e r e was an  i n t e r r e g n u m between  t h e s i l k s c r e e n p a i n t i n g he abandoned i n  and t h e new t y p e of a r t p r o d u c t i o n i n i t i a t e d i n 1971. eye,  During t h i s  a l t h o u g h he  was  conceiving  and/or  w o r k i n g on  elaborate  3/  time he still  w i t h the  "Cardboard"  1964, series  seemed t o have d i s a p p e a r e d from the p u b l i c engaged  participating  in  technological  in  activities  performances, projects.[4]  in  several f i e l d s ,  making Gerrit  prints, Henry,  in  and his  Ibid.  4/ The p e r f o r m a n c e s , which took p l a c e p r i m a r i l y between 1964 and 1967, can be s e e n , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , as a f u n c t i o n of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s new s t a t u r e as a famous p e r s o n a l i t y . He r e c e i v e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l coverage  article entitled  "Personal  Retrenchment" (a  r e v i e w of  and " C a r d b i r d s " e x h i b i t i o n s ) , spoke of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s previous f i v e years.[5] value i m p l i e d  in his  There i s a q u a l i t a t i v e r a t h e r  Art  and  Artists,  "Cardboards"  " i n a c t i v i t y " f o r the than a q u a n t i t a t i v e  c r i t i c i s m t h a t can be l i n k e d t o the a r t i s t ' s s t a t e -  ment i n t h e c a t a l o g u e , which the two major r e v i e w s of in  the  and  by  Robert  t h e show,  by Henry  P i n c u s - W i t t e n i n A r t f o r u m , quoted  e x t e n s i v e l y . Rauschenberg wrote t h a t : For over f i v e y e a r s I have d e l i b e r a t e l y used every o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h my work t o c r e a t e a f o c u s on w o r l d problems, l o c a l a t r o c i t i e s and i n some r a r e i n s t a n c e s c e l e b r a t e man's a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s . [ 6 ] He  also  stated  that  his  technological  r e c o n c i l e a r t , s c i e n c e and b u s i n e s s ,  projects  were  an  attempt t o  t o b r i n g them t o g e t h e r f o r p r o d u c t i v e  ends, " i n a w o r l d t h a t i s r i s k i n g a n n i h i l a t i o n f o r t h e sake of a b u c k . [ 7 ] " following his t r i u m p h a t the V e n i c e B i e n n a l e i n 1964, i n c l u d i n g a r t i c l e s i n the mass-market newsweeklies Time, Newsweek and L i f e (and was a b a n doning t h e k i n d of work t h a t had enabled h i s s u c c e s s ) . Rauschenberg a l s o made s e v e r a l s c u l p t u r e s of moving p a r t s , i n which sounds and movement made by g a l l e r y - g o e r s t r i g g e r e d r e a c t i o n s from t h e p i e c e s ; they began w i t h O r a c l e i n 1965, and proceeded w i t h a more p r o f e s s i o n a l f i n i s h i n R e v o l v e r (1967), S o l s t i c e (1968), Soundings (1968), C a r n a l C l o c k s (1969), and Mud Muse ( 1 9 6 8 - 7 1 ) , the p i e c e de r e s i s t a n c e . The c o m p l i c a t e d n a t u r e of t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n , and the c o l l a b o r a t i o n ( w i t h e n g i n e e r s ) t h a t they e n t a i l e d , meant t h a t t h e i r making proceeded much more s l o w l y t h a n had R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s e a r l i e r work, a f a c t which h e l p e d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e a r t i s t ' s " a b s e n c e " i n t h e s e changing t i m e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o h i s o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , Rauschenberg made s e v e r a l s e r i e s of l i t h o g r a p h i c p r i n t s i n the l a t e r 1960s, i n c l u d i n g " B o o s t e r " ( 1 9 6 7 ) , " S t o n e d Moon" (1969), and " C u r r e n t s " (1970), of an increasingly t o p i c a l nature. 5/ G e r r i t Henry, " P e r s o n a l R e t r e n c h m e n t , " A r t and A r t i s t s , v o l . 6 no. 11 ( F e b r u a r y 1972), p. 44. 6/ Robert Rauschenberg, quoted by Robert P i n c u s - W i t t e n i n " R o b e r t Rauschenberg: C a r d b i r d s and C a r d b o a r d s , " A r t f o r u m , v o l . 10 no. 5 (January 1972), p. 80. 7/ I b i d .  By R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s t i o n , there  own d a t i n g , which c o r r e s p o n d s t o a s h i f t i n  had been  his  produc-  a d e l i b e r a t i o n , a more e x p l i c i t or c r i t i c a l  engage-  ment w i t h t h e w o r l d , i n h i s activity  was  the  unmediated l i f t s g r i e f s and  work s i n c e  "Currents" from c u r r e n t  traumas of  series  about 1966. of  prints,  newspapers t h a t  American s o c i e t y  The epitome  which were r e l a t i v e l y  detailed ("reported")  them. One  of t h e  even m a u d l i n , p r i n t s , e n t i t l e d S t u d i e s f o r C u r r e n t s #27  has l o s t  c o n t r o l ("caught  caption), while  of a  him, Mickey Mouse (as t h e S o r c e r e r ' s in a  w h i r l p o o l of  a u t h o r i t y seems  the  more s t r i k i n g ,  (Fig. 3),  a w e l t e r of images and t e x t s t u r n i n g around t h e photograph d e s p a i r . Below  this  i n 1970. L i k e t h e i r j o u r n a l i s t i c  s o u r c e s , they d i d so w i t h o u t e x p l a i n i n g  in utter  of  t o have  h i s own  contains man sunk  Apprentice)  making" reads t h e  s l i p p e d out of even the l e a d e r -  s h i p ' s c o n t r o l , r e p r e s e n t e d here by Pope P a u l and George Meany. A f t e r a w h i l e & t h e r e s i s t a n c e a d e s i r e b u i l t up i n me t o work i n a m a t e r i a l of waste and s o f t n e s s . Something y i e l d i n g w i t h i t s o n l y message a c o l l e c t i o n of l i n e s i m p r i n t e d l i k e a f r i e n d l y j o k e . A silent discussion of t h e i r h i s t o r y exposed by t h e i r new shapes. Labored commonly w i t h h a p p i n e s s . B o x e s . [ 8 ] This i s the " p e r s o n a l retrenchment" Henry's review,  that  is  the  s i l k s c r e e n s . However, between the o l d and to  do  title  of  a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no n e c e s s a r y c o n n e c t i o n i n t h e a r t i s t ' s  statement between the " C a r d b o a r d s " and R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  having  eponymous  with  b o t h Henry new t y p e s  e a r l i e r combines and  and P i n c u s - W i t t e n i n t e r p r e t an i d e n t i t y  of a r t ,  Rauschenberg's  v e r s u s what  came i n  the m i d d l e ,  renewed p e r s o n a l engagement w i t h h i s  m a t e r i a l s , r a t h e r t h a n w i t h t e c h n i c a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n and/or commitment. For Henry, R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s 8/ Rauschenberg,  r e j e c t i o n of  h i s t e c h n o c r a t i c p u r s u i t s of t h e l a t e  quoted by Henry, p. 43.  13 1960s meant a moving back t o p r e v i o u s c o n c e r n s , but a l s o a  new  aesthetics,  and  he  c a l l e d the " C a r d b o a r d s " R a u s c h e n b e r g s 1  a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g works i s s u e s and  engagement  involvement w i t h  to  date. [ 9 ] "  (retrenchment)  i c o n s w h i c h , a p p a r e n t l y , surpassed  He  linked  the  "most  r e t r e a t from  t o t h e new, s i m p l e f a c t u r e of t h e s e  even t h e o l d combines:  I t i s t h e g r e a t and s o l i d v i r t u e of Bob R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s new c a r d board-box c o l l a g e s t h a t they a r e , i n t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n s of contemp o r a r y j u n k , s i m p l y d e l i g h t f u l ; because they have been, and are b e i n g , c o n s i d e r e d , p o l i t i c a l , m o r a l , and c u l t u r a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s can a l l be put a s i d e , and i n t h e f a c e of h i s w h o l l y a r t i s t i c t r i u m p h no apology the l i k e s of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s c a t a l o g u e i n t r o d u c t i o n i s r e a l l y needed.[10] What i s r e a d here i s hedonism, the enjoyment of t h e i s i m p l i c i t l y read back i n t o R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s Robert  Pincus-Witten  believed  the  for  the  stature.[11]  critic  simply  too  e a r l i e r p r o d u c t i o n as w e l l .  " C a r d b o a r d s " t o be  b e s t works s i n c e t h e c o m b i n e - p a i n t i n g s of were  pure commodity, which  1958-62, even  facile  Rauschenberg's  i f some  f o r someone of  of them  Rauschenberg's  Though they were more c o n s t r u c t i v i s t t h a n t h e combines, t h e i r  continuity with  the e a r l i e r  work was  established i n  the use of s i m i l a r  m a t e r i a l s - ones Rauschenberg had abandoned i n the meantime - which s i g n i f i e d , to  P i n c u s - W i t t e n , both  ment of t o p i c a l i t y and  a r e t u r n t o work of q u a l i t y and an abandon-  technology.[12]  Why was i t i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e s e t h e work  of the  9/ Henry, p.  p a s t , and  to p o s i t  44.  10/ I b i d . 11/ P i n c u s - W i t t e n , p. 80. 12/ I b i d , p.  79.  c r i t i c s to  e s t a b l i s h an  identity with  a d i f f e r e n c e w i t h what preceded the  " C a r d b o a r d s " ? The l a t t e r were, of immediate p a s t ,  course,  a  negation  of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  c o n t e n t - l a d e n a r t w o r k , by t h e a r t i s t ' s own s t a t e m e n t . But  t h a t t h e s e s l i g h t works were meant t o c a r r y the burden of t h e more d i s t a n t past was  q u i t e another  p r o p o s i t i o n . In  ments i n R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s a r t 1978 VAG  exhibition -  t o t u r n f u r t h e r back Rauschenberg's  i n the  o r d e r t o understand the d e v e l o p -  1970's -  including his  and t h e i d e o l o g y s u r r o u n d i n g to  critical  the  past,  reception  to in  an  readings  them, i t i s  analysis  of  the 1950s and ' 6 0 s .  reached by 1963 i s the one, we s h a l l s e e , t h a t  works i n the necessary  the  stages i n  The consensus  d e t e r m i n e s most  subsequent  of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s a r t ; i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o know how and why i t was  formed, and why a c o n t i n u i t y between the a r t i s t ' s has been  so v i t a l  to e s t a b l i s h ,  p a s t and  present  works  d e s p i t e t h e i r o b v i o u s d i s c r e p a n c i e s . We  can t h e n g a i n some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e m o t i v e s f o r VAG's r e c e n t show, as w e l l as t h e d o n a t i o n s and purchase of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s works t h a t f o l l o w e d .  The H i s t o r y of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s R e p u t a t i o n : From I r o n i s t Rauschenberg's combine-paintings  of t h e  r e - e n t r y of t h e image i n t o contemporary Figurative painting York a r t i s t s who were avant-garde.  The  to P a t r i o t  1950s marked, i n a sense,  abstract painting,  through  junk.  was s t i l l b e i n g done, even by many of t h e younger gaining recognition,  but i t  older abstract-expressionist  was not  the  New  the t a r g e t e d  vanguard had been i n s t i t u -  t i o n a l i z e d by the e a r l y 1950s, but t h e r e was no one t o overcome or c o n t r a dict  it;  as  Thomas  Hess,  who  organized  a show of l e s s e r - k n o w n  a r t i s t s i n 1956, remarked, t h e r e was a t the time a d i s t r u s t of of the  young  the n o t i o n  a v a n t - g a r d e among young p a i n t e r s , because of the c o l l e c t i v e  nature  of vanguard groups and  because  of  their  political  s t i l l a t t a c h e d t o t h e work and p e r s p e c t i v e s of t h e i r Rauschenberg's  own  avant-garde  gestures,  a s s o c i a t i o n s , which elders.[13]  famous now, l i k e the b l a n k  w h i t e canvases e x h i b i t e d i n 1953, the  e r a s e d de  1953, or  i n 1954, though h i g h l y s y m b o l i c and  the "grass  p a i n t i n g " shown  Kooning drawing  c l e a r l y a n t a g o n i s t i c t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g p a i n t i n g s t y l e , seemed  a l s o of  a t the time  t o be the m a v e r i c k g e s t u r e s of a s i n g u l a r e n f a n t t e r r i b l e (as Frank O ' H a r a c a l l e d him  i n 1955).[14]  John Cage,  which was  His actual  " l i k e " an  performed  publicly,  t h e i r content - I Johns  -  though  were  as  am t h i n k i n g as  Moira  the c i r c l e around  a v a n t - g a r d e i n programme but a n t i - a v a n t -  garde sometimes i n s t r a t e g y , was l e s s or  association with  noticed. Their  o f t e n p r i v a t e , p a s s i v e and a l l u s i v e i n  here p r i m a r i l y  Roth  works, though shown  has  of Cage,  shown[15],  the  Rauschenberg and social conditions  m i l i t a t e d a g a i n s t an o r g a n i z e d , c o n f r o n t i v e a v a n t - g a r d e a t the t i m e . The Cage c i r c l e was more a time  "assemblage",  r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , was  as  c e n a c l e than  junk  sculpture  not unique  a public  came  group; a t  the same  t o be known when i t gained  t o Rauschenberg,  but i t  was an emerging  13/ Thomas B. Hess, " U . S . P a i n t i n g : Some Recent D i r e c t i o n s , " 25th A r t News Annual ( 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 176. There were 21 young p a i n t e r s r e p r e s e n t e d i n Hess a r t i c l e , i n c l u d i n g Rauschenberg. A s i d e from the l a t t e r , t h e r e were 9 a b s t r a c t and 11 f i g u r a t i v e p a i n t e r s i n c l u d e d . R o b e r t Goodnough, M i l t o n R e s n i c k , Joan M i t c h e l l , E r n e s t B r i g g s , F r i e d e l Dzubas, Stephen P a c e , H e l e n F r a n k e n t h a l e r , Hyde Solomon and M i c h a e l G o l d b e r g were t h e a b s t r a c t i o n i s t s ; t h e f i g u r a t i v e p a i n t e r s were F e l i x P a s i l i s , Wolf Kahn, N e l l B l a i n e , F a i r f i e l d P o r t e r , Gandy B r o d i e , L a r r y R i v e r s , L e l a n d B e l l , Robert D e N i r o , E l a i n e de K o o n i n g , Seymour Remenick and M i l e s F o r s t . 14/ F ( r a n k ) O ( ' H a r a ) , (January 1955), p. 47.  "Bob  Rauschenberg,"  15/ M o i r a R o t h , "The A e s t h e t i c of no. 3 (November 1977), pp. 4 6 - 5 3 .  Artnews, v o l . 53 no. 9  I n d i f f e r e n c e , " Artforum,  v o l . 16  scene i n 1954-55 - R i c h a r d S t a n k i e w i c z and John C h a m b e r l a i n were b e g i n n i n g t o e x h i b i t t h e i r s c u l p t u r e s a t the same time as Rauschenberg  was becoming  known.[16] By 1960, as I r v i n g S a n d l e r wrote t h e n , t h e r e were "thousands dreary o b j e c t s t h a t c l u t t e r New York  floor, wall  and c e i l i n g  space i n  of  dozens of  g a l l e r i e s . [ 1 7 ] " Though Rauschenberg d i d not a s s o c i a t e w i t h t h e s e  a r t i s t s so much as w i t h Cage, Johns and Merce Cunningham, he was l i n k e d t o t h e "movement"  dubbed "Neo-Dada"  t h a t was  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the B e a t s and  w h i c h , though never u n i f i e d , performed some of t h e f u n c t i o n s of  an a v a n t -  garde from the y e a r s 1958 t o 1962 (when Pop A r t was u n v e i l e d ) . "Neo-Dada" was more a c r e a t i o n of c r i t i c s a n x i o u s t o f i l l by t h e s u c c e s s (and was  a  legitimate  s e l f - d e m o l i t i o n ) of movement,  but  R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s combines t h a t might  junk be  the v o i d l e f t  abstract expressionism, sculpture called  shared  than i t  features with  anti-formalist:  humour, a  d e - h i e r a r c h i z i n g of m a t e r i a l s (which c o u l d be seen as e i t h e r a n e g a t i o n of p r e v i o u s a r t p r a c t i c e , or i t s " l i b e r a t i o n " ) , s o c i e t y , and  a soft  c r i t i q u e of American  the r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n of i c o n o g r a p h y , even i f t h i s was as hard  t o p i n down as R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s was. C r i t i c s were not used c o n s t r u c t i o n , and  s a i d so,  to t h i s  t y p e of  though w i t h i n a few y e a r s ("To many, however,  16/ I r v i n g Sandler, "Assemblage," i n The New York S c h o o l : The P a i n t e r s and S c u l p t o r s of the F i f t i e s (New Y o r k : Harper & Row, 1978), pp. 143-55. C h a m b e r l a i n was a f e l l o w s t u d e n t of Rauschenberg i n the e a r l y '50s a t B l a c k Mountain C o l l e g e . 17/ I r v i n g H e r s h e l S a n d l e r , " A s h Can R e v i s i t e d : a New York L e t t e r , " A r t I n t e r n a t i o n a l , v o l . 4 no. 8 (October 25, 1960), p. 30.  h i s work has  never  seemed  1  shocking'[18]")  they  were  celebrating i t s  " c l a s s i c " formal q u a l i t i e s . According to  Rosalind Krauss,  the way  Rauschenberg  guarantees " i t s c h a r a c t e r of d i s c o u r s e [ 1 9 ] " ;  sets  up h i s work  t h a t i s , t h e way he o r g a n i z e s  h i s imagery i n t o s i m p l e h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l g r i d s , t h e way we p e r c e i v e i t - must  perceive  heterogeneity -  it,  as " a  due  to  its  part-by-part  composition  k i n d of t e m p o r a l u n f o l d i n g [ 2 0 ] " ,  and i t s  i s s i m i l a r t o the  r e a d i n g of a sentence or t e x t . Except t h a t the grammar i s broken - we have no  way  to  make  sense  p r o c e s s encouraged t e n t a t i v e at  of  by the  a l l o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s . Any r e a d i n g , a o r g a n i z a t i o n of  the p a i n t i n g ,  i s p a r t i a l and  most; i f some images or o b j e c t s " a s s o c i a t e " , they do so i n a  l i m i t e d sense - t h e anti-coherent  in  "programme" i n its  intent,  i t s entirety  perhaps  f a i l s to  c o h e r e , or  is  speaking of the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of  d i s c o u r s e i n the t i m e of t h e i r making. There i s an argument among c r i t i c s as t o the p r i v a t e of  Rauschenberg's  artistic  products.  One i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , l i n k e d t o the  a r t i s t ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h John Cage, i s t h a t the p r i v a t e grammar  or code,  c o m b i n e - p a i n t i n g s have a  a v a i l a b l e t o a c i r c l e of f r i e n d s r a t h e r t h a n t o  the l a r g e r a r t p u b l i c . [ 2 1 ] T h i s c o u l d be t h e source f o r 18/ G.R. Swenson, "Rauschenberg no. 2 ( A p r i l 1963), p. 66. 19/ K r a u s s , 20/  p.  vs. p u b l i c nature  some of  the  sub-  p a i n t s a p i c t u r e , " Artnews, v o l . 62,  37.  Ibid.  21/ T h i s a t t i t u d e can be a t t r i b u t e d t o Roth and K r a u s s i n t h e i r a l r e a d y - c i t e d a r t i c l e s , and i s i m p l i e d i n Thomas H e s s ' remarks on " G . I . i s m " i n h i s " U . S . P a i n t i n g : Some Recent D i r e c t i o n s . "  v e r s i v e p o t e n t i a l of the p a i n t i n g s , f o r t h e p r i v a t e code i s a r e s e r v o i r misgivings,  of  a m b i g u i t y about  the s t a t e  of  of America i n the 1950s ( a m b i -  g u i t y , of c o u r s e , works more than one w a y [ 2 2 ] ) . . Another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s that the  combines are  not p r i v a t e  1 9 5 4 [ 2 3 ] ) , and t h a t t h e r e are p u b l i c ,  i s no  at a l l  (or become much l e s s so a f t e r  code c o n c e a l i n g  meanings.[24] The works  as they t a k e t h e i r m a t e r i a l s from the s t r e e t s of the c i t y and  r e - a p p l y them m o r e - o r - l e s s i n t a c t onto t h e c a n v a s . T h e i r p u b l i c meaning contained i n  the way  is  of l o o k i n g r e v e a l e d i n the p a r t i c u l a r j u x t a p o s i t i o n  of o b j e c t s ; the hand of the a r t i s t , a s u r e s i g n of i n d i v i d u a l i t y , has been attenuated to  a few s p l a s h e s and d r i b b l e s . Yet M o i r a Roth has l i n k e d t h i s  t o Cage and t h e c u l t i v a t i o n of the a r t i s t ' s  gesture i s  irony, distance  downplayed, as  w e l l as  d i s c o u r s e , and t o t h e n e g a t i o n of t h e a b s t r a c t In f a c t ,  the question  and i n t e l l i g e n c e , w h e r e i n t o t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y of  expressionist  brushstroke.  of i n t r o v e r s i o n v s . e x t r o v e r s i o n i n Rauschenberg' s  a r t - i n which each i s a cover f o r t h e o t h e r -  i n t i m a t e s both  a code and  i t s breakdown, works t h a t are b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , t h a t t a l k about the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of d i s c o u r s e . They seem with  chance  materials,  yet  are  knowing few. Rebus (1955; F i g . 4)  open  closed is a  and in  random,  are constructed  some r e s p e c t s t o a l l but a  touchstone here,  for i t s picture  22/ I t i s t h i s a m b i g u i t y t h a t has been e x p l o i t e d by many of berg ' s c r i t i c s t o c a s t a p o s i t i v e l i g h t on h i s p r o d u c t i o n s . 23/ A c c o r d i n g t o I r v i n g S a n d l e r , " R o b e r t R a u s c h e n b e r g , " 59 no. 2 ( A p r i l 1960), p. 14.  Rauschen-  Artnews, v o l .  24/ T h i s p o i n t of view i s r e p r e s e n t e d by S a n d l e r , i n t h e two c i t e d a r t i c l e s ; by, e s p e c i a l l y , A l a n Solomon, i n h i s c a t a l o g u e f o r t h e f i r s t Rauschenberg r e t r o s p e c t i v e a t the J e w i s h Museum i n 1963, and has undergone p e r m u t a t i o n s i n more r e c e n t a r t i c l e s by Leo S t e i n b e r g and B r i a n O'Doherty (see b i b l i o g r a p h y ) .  puzzle doesn't  add up  interpretation -  to anything  the l o n g  d e c i p h e r a b l e , though the elements f o r  g r i d of  images, the  associated references to  s p o r t and t o women - seem t o p r o v i d e the p o s s i b i l i t y . I t r e m a i n s ,  however,  p a s s i v e and opaque. Still,  r e a d i n g s can be a t t e m p t e d ; some  o t h e r s . Canyon  (Fig. 5),  from 1959,  works appear  more l e g i b l e than  i s a work of some coherence d e s p i t e  the f a c t t h a t , as n e a r l y a l w a y s , t h e c o n s t i t u e n t o b j e c t s and images remain discreet;  they  maintain  w o r l d . Photographs  (of a  their  i d e n t i t i e s as o b j e c t s r e t r i e v e d from the  young boy  raising his  arm t o  the s k y ,  of the  S t a t u e of L i b e r t y , of o u t e r space) a r e each framed by p a i n t e d b o r d e r s , the b l a c k e n e d e a g l e has the lower t h i r d of the canvas a l m o s t t o There i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n l i g h t n e s s and  of d a r k .  i n Canyon  between t h e  metal  itself.  a r e a s and  o b j e c t s of  What i s l i g h t ( f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e photo of L i b e r t y  from below, w i t h t h e sky around) i s ( u s u a l l y ) (the  and  sheeting),  though  not  There a r e images of w e i g h t l e s s n e s s  a i r y ; what i s dark  always ( o b s e r v a t o r y  or u p l i f t i n g : space,  photo of t h e boy  is  heavy  space). with his  hand r a i s e d up i n symmetry w i t h t h e S t a t u e of L i b e r t y ' s own, and the e a g l e too seems ready t o l e a v e i t s however,  by  the  perch.  accumulation  of  i n c l u d i n g the heavy m e t a l s h e e t . Yet sky  beneath,  which  is  "light".  The  eagle  paint  and  the m e t a l The  is  also  imagery h o v e r i n g over i t , i s analogous  i t pulls  perch on which i t  the e a g l e  rests.  t o t h e dark  p i l l o w d a n g l i n g below t h e p i c t u r e  frame i s " l i g h t " t o o , p a i n t e d w h i t e , but wrenched l i k e the former u s e ,  weighted down,  down and  m e t a l from i t s  o f f b a l a n c e , d e s t a b i l i z i n g the  There i s a p l a y then of dark and l i g h t - i n the sense of weight as w e l l as of  zones of  c o l o u r - which c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e p a i n t i n g ' s c o n t e n t . The  combine i s c a l l e d Canyon, and t h a t blackened, d i s h e v e l l e d  sense of  where t h e  eagle i s ,  and unable t o get i n t o the p a t t e r n e d sky above i t .  I t i s , l i k e many of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s f r u s t r a t i o n and  i s the  impotence, whose  c e n t r a l t o r n c o l l a g e of  works  at  this  time,  a  document of  w i d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e suggested  political  posters,  and  in  the  i n the  heady American  symbols of the e a g l e i t s e l f and the S t a t u e of L i b e r t y . Another  work,  Crocus  (1962;  Fig.  6),  silkscreen paintings, i s likewise a disturbing i s divided  i n t o three  one  c l u s t e r of  of t h e  been  Crocus  C u p i d . The  p a i n t i n g ' s image r e n d e r s i t p a s s i v e and t e n t a and w e i g h t . Cupid  v i s i b l e , though he i s r e p r o d u c e d , minus head and m i r r o r , i n the  lower r i g h t c o r n e r . The m i r r o r he h o l d s , which s h o u l d r e f l e c t Venus' has  first  l i k e the " X "  Venus and  t i v e , w h i l e the c l a r i t y of the t r u c k g i v e s i t a u t h o r i t y i s barely  images.  e q u a l z o n e s . A heavy army t r u c k ("X2"  below i t ) s q u a t s over a r e p r o d u c t i o n of V e l a s q u e z ' s faded p r e s e n t a t i o n  of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  obliterated  by  the  white  X  (or  crocus),  face,  the f o c u s of the  p a i n t i n g . What l o o k s l i k e a disembodied head, but i s t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n of a d e t a i l of a f o o t b a l l i n f l i g h t , h o v e r s between t h e t i r e of t h e v e h i c l e and the head of Venus: i t i s perhaps the head she misses i n t h e absent m i r r o r . Some  very  large  mosquitos  are  headed C u p i d ' s way. The elements of the  p a i n t i n g - the disagreeable mosquitos, of a r t ' s  (mirrored) s e l f  the d e c a p i t a t e d C u p i d , the n e g a t i o n  by t h e " c r o c u s " , t h e o p p r e s s i v e t r u c k - c o n t r i -  bute t o a f e e l i n g of d i s t u r b a n c e and even nausea, though they do a programme.  not form  How  then  were  these  pictures  received  at  t h e time of t h e i r f i r s t  appearance, and what c o u r s e d i d the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of tation  take?  These  questions  are  crucial  Rauschenberg's  repu-  f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the  a r t i s t ' s l a t e r works, and the r e c e p t i o n accorded them. The f i r s t r e v i e w s , i n pan. [25] Rauschenberg  Art Digest  and Artnews,  were s l i g h t  and d e a d -  appeared as a p a r o d i s t , and t h e r e v i e w e r s , who were  not sure of what he was up t o , were as i r o n i c as  they took  to  s o r t of a v a n t - g a r d e  be.  John  Ashbery  called  Rauschenberg  teau[26]", i . e . a gadfly, a d i l e t t a n t e . w i t h o u t extended Rauschenberg  "a  There was  t h e i r subject  admiration too,  Coc-  though  analysis. began  t o be known (and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h "Neo-Dada")  at the  t i m e of h i s a f f i l i a t i o n t o Leo C a s t e l l i ' s g a l l e r y i n 1958; one s i g n of  his  n o t o r i e t y was r e c o g n i t i o n by Newsweek, which r e v i e w e d h i s f i r s t show,  plus  the work of J a s p e r Johns and  1958  e n t i t l e d "Trend  to the  A l l a n Kaprow,  ' A n t i - A r t ' [ 2 7 ] " . By  T i l l i m , Robert C o a t e s , F a i r f i e l d took  various  sides  on  i n an  the  Irving  describing "the  though they  Rauschenberg's  art.  Sidney  v i r t u a l f i l t h and p r e d i c t a b l e i n s a n i t y of  25/ Reviews, t h a t i s , of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s p i c t u r e s d e s c r i b e d above. 26/ J ( o h n ) A(shbery), (March 1958), p. 40.  Sandler,  Sidney  were i n agreement t h a t t h e r e was an  element, even a predominant one, of p r o t e s t i n Tillim, in  March  1960, such c r i t i c s as  P o r t e r and  issue,  article in  "Robert  early production,  Rauschenberg,"  27/ " T r e n d t o t h e A n t i - A r t , " Newsweek, 1958), pp. 94 & 96.  vol.  his  not of t h e  Artnews, v o l . 57 no. 1 51  no.  13  (March 3 1 ,  objectsf28]", modern a r t a r e  wrote  in  especially  Rauschenberg.[29]"  Coates,  Arts  that  "the  c o n v e n t i o n s born of p r o t e s t  the  work  of  neo-Dadaist  in  evident  in  Robert  i n "The  ' B e a t ' Beat i n A r t " (The New Y o r k e r ) ,  wrote: All this i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y work of p r o t e s t , and, l i k e a l l p r o t e s t i n a r t , when h o n e s t , i s worthy of n o t i c e . I t ' s a p r o t e s t , I g a t h e r , a g a i n s t e v e r y t h i n g from i n f l a t i o n t o c r e d i t c a r d s and f a t - c a t i s m , and I t a k e no s i d e s i n the m a t t e r , merely p o i n t i n g out t h a t the a t t i t u d e e x i s t s and i s s p r e a d i n g . [ 3 0 ] F a i r f i e l d P o r t e r s a i d , i n The N a t i o n : He e x p r e s s e s a m o r a l i t y of p o v e r t y , inducing a monastic respect for things t h a t no one v a l u e s . He p r o t e s t s the waste i n t h i s s o c i e t y , where we t a k e f o r g r a n t e d t h a t a u t o m o b i l e s a r e d i s p o s a b l e , and t h a t our t r a s h cans a r e f i l l e d w i t h paper work. He c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s u c c e s s of i n d u s t r i a l i s m o p p o s i t e t o t h e way t h e Bauhaus d i d , which saw i n d u s t r i a l i s m as i t wished t o be s e e n . [ 3 1 ] And S a n d l e r wrote i n A r t I n t e r n a t i o n a l : The Neo-Dadas l o o k upon t h e c i t y as t h e i r l a n d s c a p e - dump would be more a c c u r a t e . The junk m a t e r i a l they use s u g g e s t s urban forms and images, metaphors f o r both the p o v e r t y and r i c h n e s s of c i t y life, its t e r r o r and a n x i e t y as w e l l as i t s p a r t i c u l a r s p e c t a c l e and rhythm.[32] These l a t t e r  remarks b l e e d  over i n t o  the more p o s i t i v e r e a d i n g s made  by l a t e r c r i t i c s , but they a l s o pay a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s a r t i n i t s a s p e c t o f negation. Sandler  and P o r t e r  were more  a t t e n t i v e to  28/ S ( i d n e y ) T ( i l l i m ) , " R o b e r t R a u s c h e n b e r g , " (May 1960), p. 58.  t h e a m b i g u i t i e s of  Arts,  vol.  34  no. 8  29/ I b i d . 30/ R o b e r t M. C o a t e s , "The ' B e a t ' Beat i n A r t , " The New Y o r k e r , v o l . 35 no. 46 (January 2, I 9 6 0 ) , p. 60. 31/ F a i r f i e l d P o r t e r , " A r t , " i n The 23, 1960), p. 372. .32/ S a n d l e r , "Ash Can R e v i s t e d , " p.  Nation, v o l .  28.  190 no.  17 ( A p r i l  t h e s e works  and t o some of t h e i r f o r m a l q u a l i t i e s t h a n o t h e r r e v i e w s t h a t  c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e i r p u b l i c or s e n s a t i o n a l a s p e c t s . T h i s i s the which,  as  Sandler  noted,  "Neo-Dadaist"  junk was f l o o d i n g the New York  g a l l e r i e s , i d e n t i f i e d by Coates and o t h e r s scenes, and  doing i t s e l f  few " g e n u i n e "  i n by  point at  w i t h the  Beat and c o f f e e h o u s e  v i r t u e of i t s very p o p u l a r i t y - though a  a r t i s t s , including  Rauschenberg, were  i d e n t i f i e d as t r a n -  s c e n d i n g t h e new k i t s c h . [ 3 3 ] At the  same t i m e ,  one of the reasons  f o r the p o p u l a r i t y of  "Neo-Dada"  was i t s immediate a c c e p t a n c e by t h e a r t e s t a b l i s h m e n t . C a s t e l l i had  signed  on Rauschenberg, Johns and o t h e r s i n 1957-58, and " p r o t e s t , " e s p e c i a l l y of as s o f t and ambiguous a v a r i e t y as was porated i n t o  t h e mainstream  of modern  Rauschenberg's, art experience.  was  easily  incor-  Time covered the  " l a t e s t d a r l i n g of t h e f a r - o u t a r t s e t [ 3 4 ] " i n A p r i l 1960, and a s k e d : Such p u b l i c demand f o r such p r i v a t e images i s one of the a r t boom's most f a s c i n a t i n g phenomena. Does i t r e f l e c t a s t a r v a t i o n d i e t of s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e amongst the mass of r i c h Americans? Or do people buy Rauschenberg t o share i n h i s q u i e t p r o t e s t a g a i n s t what they t h i n k i s a c e l l o p h a n e - w r a p p e d s o r t of w o r l d ? [ 3 5 ] The f i r s t museum purchase of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s Knox G a l l e r y  i n 1958.[36]  The Museum  of Modern  t y p e of a r t p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i t s 16 Americans 1959/60  featuring,  among  others,  L o u i s e N e v e l s o n . Martha J a c k s o n ' s  a r t was made by  A r t s a n c t i f i e d t h i s new  exhibition in  Rauschenberg,  the A l b r i g h t -  t h e w i n t e r of  S t a n k i e w i c z , Johns and  l a r g e New Media-New Forms  show f o l l o w e d  33/ I b i d . 34/ "The E m p e r o r ' s Combine", Time ( A p r i l 18, 1960), 35/ I b i d . 36/ P a i n t i n g With The Red L e t t e r S  (1957).  p. 92.  soon a f t e r 16 Americans, and f e a t u r e d Rauschenberg, J o h n s , Kaprow,  Chamberlain,  others, s o l i d i f y i n g  Claes  the t r e n d .  Oldenburg  MoMA capped  and  displayed  and,  in  the  Robert  M a l l a r y among  t h i s p r o c e s s w i t h i t s A r t of  Assemblage e x h i b i t i o n i n 1961, e s t a b l i s h i n g a work  Stankiewicz, Nevelson,  modernist pedigree  process,  changing  "assemblage"  now,  f o r the  the consensus on which  c r i t i c i s m of "Neo-Dada",  or  found i t s  j u s t i n p r e v i o u s dada c o n s t r u c t i o n s the l i k e s of  t r a d i t i o n not  Kurt Schwitters' but i n  (always a  the c o l l a g e  reference point  e x p e r i m e n t s of  was  based.[37]  Neo-Dada  f o r Rauschenberg c r i t i c i s m ) ,  Picasso h i m s e l f . Rauschenberg's  work,  which had seemed t o be r e s o l u t e l y a n t i - f o r m a l i s t , was now brought i n t o t h e c e n t r e of the g r e a t t r a d i t i o n of modern p a i n t i n g , as MoMA had so c a r e f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h i s i n i t s p e d a g o g i c a l work over t h e p r e v i o u s t h i r t y y e a r s . The consensus among c r i t i c s , who had i n f a c t  e s t a b l i s h e d "Neo-Dada"  as  an a v a n t - g a r d e , was breached a t the same time as the movement was a c c e p t e d by t h e a r t e s t a b l i s h m e n t , no more t h a n a year and h a l f a f t e r i d e n t i f i e d as sively  such. I t  negative  and  was no l o n g e r known as "Neo-Dada", political  connotations  of  this  i t was f i r s t f o r the e x c e s -  term  no  longer  a p p e a l e d . Nor d i d they seem t o a p p l y t o work which had been i d e n t i f i e d not as an o u t s i d e or v e s t i g i a l a t t a c k expressionism  had  so  c e n t r a l to the t r a d i t i o n developed out t a l k about  recently  on  the  tradition  (to  which a b s t r a c t  been  attached),  but as b e l o n g i n g t o or  of modernism  i t s e l f , as  t h i s was  seen t o have  of cubism. "Assemblage" was now t h e p r o f f e r e d t e r m , and any  "protest",  insofar  as  it  concerned  37/ W i l l i a m C. S e i t z , The A r t of Assemblage Modern A r t , 1961).  Rauschenberg's  a r t at  (New Y o r k : The Museum of  l e a s t , subsided t i e s . [38]  A  "negative"  i n favour  further  of d i s c u s s i o n  development  viewpoint  into  an  of h i s  excellent formal q u a l i -  was the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of h i s f o r m e r l y  entirely  "positive"  one,  since  i t was  conducted i n l i g h t of the " p o s i t i v e " developments and q u a l i t i e s of c u b i s m , f u t u r i s m , dada and s u r r e a l i s m (and never t h e i r dark  or n e g a t i v e  aspects).  The t w i n apogees of t h i s p r o c e s s were the c r i t i c a l c e l e b r a t i o n s around the 1963 Rauschenberg r e t r o s p e c t i v e a t t h e J e w i s h Museum i n New Y o r k , 1964 V e n i c e  Biennale, at  which an  American (Rauschenberg)  and the  won t h e grand  p a i n t i n g p r i z e f o r the f i r s t time. A l a n Solomon, who o r g a n i z e d t h e American  both the  J e w i s h Museum  r e t r o s p e c t i v e and  s e c t i o n f o r the V e n i c e B i e n n a l e , a l s o wrote t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y  essay f o r the r e t r o s p e c t i v e ' s c a t a l o g u e , which was one of t h e f i r s t l i g e n t extended  commentaries on R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  much l a t e r c r i t i c i s m  rested.  Solomon  c o n t i n u i t i e s between  the a r t  of t h e  also  intel-  a r t , and one upon w h i c h so  extended  and  developed t h e  r e c e n t p a s t and R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  own,  not o n l y c r e a t i n g a ( d i s p u t a b l e ) l i n k between t h e two most r e c e n t American avant-gardes, 1963), modern  abstract  "we a r e art  e x p r e s s i o n i s m and assemblage,  presently  since  the  Solomon was u n w i l l i n g t o developments, thus  experiencing invention  of  simply supply  c o n t e x t u a l i z i n g them  the  most  but s t a t i n g t h a t  radical  (in  alteration in  cubism.[39]" Unlike William S e i t z , a modernist  pedigree f o r current  and a b s o r b i n g them; he i n t e n d e d ,  38/ A r t i c l e s by G e r a l d Nordland and Donald Judd a t t h i s time (see b i b l i o g r a p h y ) , c o n s i d e r e d R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s new work i n e x c l u s i v e l y f o r m a l i s t t e r m s , an i n m p o s s i b l e c o n c e p t i o n p r i o r t o the s a n c t i f i c a t i o n of assemblage by MoMA. 39/ A l a n R. Solomon, R o b e r t Rauschenberg Museum, 1963). Solomon's essay was u n p a g i n a t e d .  (New  Y o r k : the J e w i s h  26 p o l e m i c a l l y speaking,  t o open a whole new e r a i n a r t h i s t o r y , a l t h o u g h h i s  polemics  assumptions  rested  on  derived  from t h e f o r m a l i s t a r t h i s t o r y  p r o s e l y t i z e d by i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e MoMA. Solomon based h i s i d e a o f a " r a d i c a l a l t e r a t i o n " notion that  o f modern  t h e a b s t r a c t e x p r e s s i o n i s t s and t h e assemblage a r t i s t s shared  an i n v o l v e m e n t i n " t h e deeper, i n e x p l i c a b l e c u r r e n t s o f shaped a r t ,  a " c a l c u l a t e d ambiguity"  f e e l i n g " t h a t now  that the assemblagists  t o t h e i r m a t e r i a l s . However, Solomon a l s o r e l a t e d t h i s of cubism,  a r t on t h e  extended even  to the ambiguities  an i n s i g h t t h a t undercut t h e c u r a t o r ' s promotion o f a new t y p e  of a r t p r a c t i c e : The b a s i s of Rauschenberg's p o s i t i o n l i e s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y c l o s e t o the e s t h e t i c o f P i c a s s o , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e sense t h a t both a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e t e n s i o n between t h e i l l u s i o n i s m o f p a i n t and t h e impinging presence o f fragments o f r e a l i t y . Both e x p l o i t t h e ambiguities of reading and meaning which such j u x t a p o s i t i o n s i n d u c e , and b o t h a r e caught up on t h e sheer v i s u a l d e l i g h t o f t h e c o n t r a s t s o f t e x t u r e and c o l o r which such a range o f m a t e r i a l s permits.[40] T h i s i s t r u e so  f a r as  i t goes, and both a r t i s t s were making o b j e c t s i n  t i m e s o f g r e a t n a t i o n a l c h a u v i n i s m , when  intense pressure  those h o l d i n g  the i n t e l l i g e n t a r t i s t  non-conformist a t t i t u d e s ;  h i s meanings i n a m b i g u i t i e s , ones  extended  even  to  was e x e r t e d on concealed  t h e making  works. Solomon goes f u r t h e r than t h a t , however, i n a d i r e c t i o n p o l e s from p r e v i o u s c r i t i c i s m o f Rauschenberg's a r t ;  he c o n t i n u e d ,  of the apart  i n t h e same  catalogue: There a r e no s e c r e t messages i n Rauschenberg, no program o f s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l discontent transmitted i n code, no h i d d e n r h e t o r i c a l commentary on t h e l a r g e meaning o f L i f e or A r t , no p r i v a t e symbolism a v a i l a b l e o n l y t o t h e i n i t i a t e . . . . T h e i r r e a l meaning i s c o n t a i n e d i n  40/  Ibid.  t h i s s i m p l e f a c t , s i n c e the more we l o o k , t h e more we a r e f a c e d w i t h c o m p l e x i t i e s of meaning. In t h i s way the p a i n t i n g s c o n s t a n t l y renew themselves; t h e i r r e a l v i r t u e l i e s i n t h e i r m u l t i p l i c i t y . . . the elements chosen never admit t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or e l u c i d a t i o n , e i t h e r i n themselves or i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t h i n g s w i t h which they have been combined.[41] So, Solomon t e l l s u s , Monogram ( F i g . 7 ) , " w i t h o u t a doubt one of  the most  e x t r a o r d i n a r y images of t h e c e n t u r y " , i s " e m i n e n t l y s a t i s f y i n g t o us, on a p u r e l y i n t u i t i v e and u t t e r l y i n e x p l i c a b l e p l a n e " ; the c o n v e n t i o n a l  s e n s e . " We  i n a moment, but  f o r now  delight"  of  the  formal  " i t has  no meaning,  in  s h a l l see where S o l o m o n ' s agenda l e a d s us t o  we can  see t h a t ,  arrangements  is  l i n k e d to a  the "sheer  deeper sense of  visual  unresolved  a m b i g u i t i e s , a m b i g u i t i e s t h a t , f o r Solomon, i f r e s o l v e d , would l e a d s i m p l y t o b a n a l i t y of s t a t e m e n t . He p e r c e i v e s no sense of d i s t u r b a n c e , but r a t h e r " a b s o l u t e t a c t and i m p e c c a b l e even t o  a limited  t a s t e . " Solomon  cannot a f f o r d  to e x p l a i n ,  e x t e n t , what t h o s e a m b i g u i t i e s a r e , and how they might  c o n t r i b u t e t o meaning;  meaning  is  rather  contained  l o o k i n g . Here we b e g i n t o t o u c h on Solomon's p o l i t i c a l  in  a  new  way of  programme:  Rauschenberg's a r t i s n e i t h e r p e j o r a t i v e , nor a c e l e b r a t i o n of c o r r u p t i o n . I t i s the h i g h e s t and most a f f i r m a t i v e statement of the q u a l i t y and d i g n i t y of d i r e c t human e x p e r i e n c e , of t h e v a l u e of the l e a s t and most degraded o b j e c t i n t h e environment, of t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r enrichment of the most hum-drum and deplorable c o n d i t i o n s of our e x i s t e n c e through a s p e c i a l way of l o o k i n g , f e e l i n g , and q u e s t i o n i n g . [ 4 2 ] In what  sense i s  t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p o l i t i c a l ? I t can be taken t o be  so by t h e immense i n f l u e n c e Solomon's essay w i e l d e d over o t h e r Rauschenberg s a r t , 1  41/ I b i d . 42/  Ibid.  c r i t i c s of  and by the uses t o which t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was p u t ,  e s p e c i a l l y a t the t i m e of t h e B i e n n a l e i n 1964, but the p r e s e n t  day. A  t r u l y consensual  arrangement was  n e a r l y every c r i t i c s u b s c r i b e d t o Solomon's wrote t h a t  Rauschenberg has  r e v e r b e r a t i n g down t o  "a classical  a c h i e v e d , by which  interpretation. J i l l  Johnston  consideration for distribution  and o r g a n i z a t i o n . [ 4 3 ] " Lawrence C a m p b e l l , a l s o w r i t i n g i n Artnews i n 1963, said: ...Rauschenberg has a f o r m a l , p l a s t i c q u a l i t y which u s u a l l y manages t o come through even h i s most outrageous e f f o r t s . He i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p a i n t e r . He has a r e a l f e e l i n g f o r arrangement, f o r c o l o r , and t h e s e v i r t u e s a r e a t h i s beck and c a l l i n the e x p r e s s i o n of a mood of g e n t l e , r o m a n t i c r e v e r i e . [ 4 4 ] G e o r g i n e O e r i agreed t h a t R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s b i l i t y [ 4 5 ] " ; Rosalind  Constable,  was " a p r i m a r i l y p a i n t e r l y s e n s i -  writing  in  Life  after  the B i e n n a l e ,  stated: F o r , r a t h e r u n e x p e c t e d l y , Rauschenberg has t u r n e d i n t o a p a i n t e r i n the t r u e t r a d i t i o n . He uses t h e r e c t a n g u l a r c o m p o s i t i o n s of cubism (which i n t u r n d e r i v e from Cezanne), the d r i p s and swoops of a b s t r a c t e x p r e s s i o n i s m , the s i l k s c r e e n photographs of t o d a y ' s news t o g i v e us a p i c t u r e of h i s A m e r i c a , which he l o v e s . Take a n o t h e r l o o k a t " u g l y " A m e r i c a , he seems t o be s a y i n g , there i s more beauty i n i t than meets your e y e . [ 4 6 ] This i s  the p o l i t i c a l  p o r t i o n of S o l o m o n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , w h i c h , though  he was t o o d i s c r e e t t o s t a t e i t i n h i s 1963  catalogue essay,  he put more  43/ J ( i l l ) J ( o h n s t o n ) , " R o b e r t R a u s c h e n b e r g , " Artnews, v o l . 62 no. 3 (May 1963), p. 12. 44/ L(awrence) C ( a m p b e l l ) , " R o b e r t no. 7 (November 1963), p. 12.  Rauschenberg,"  Artnews,  v o l . 62  45/ G e o r g i n e O e r i , "The O b j e c t of A r t , " Quadram, no. 16 ( 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 22. 46/ R o s a l i n d 1964), p. 68.  C o n s t a b l e , " A r t Pops I n , "  L i f e , v o l . 57 no. 2 ( J u l y 10,  b l u n t l y a t the t i m e of the B i e n n a l e (which he o r g a n i z e d , i n c i d e n t a l l y , f o r t h e U.S.  Information  Agency[47]):  American a r t i s t s a r e open t o a l l new e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e i r f o r c e has been t h e absence of t r a d i t i o n . There i s a new sense of beauty t h a t hinges not on n o s t a l g i a but on the a c c e p t a n c e of t h i n g s as they are.[48] C o n s t a b l e ' s comment i s not merely the most b a n a l  v a r i a n t of  r e a s o n i n g , but a c o m b i n a t i o n of two connected programmes: Rauschenberg as  a  "classical"  modernist,  and  his  t h i s l i n e of  the promotion of  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from  " p r o t e s t e r " t o c e l e b r a t o r of American l i f e . Even t h e most degraded of s o c i e t y were now, thanks t o R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s to e l e v a t i o n  on the  terms of  B i e n n a l e a r t i c l e on Rauschenberg  liberating  aspects  example, s u b j e c t  h i g h c u l t u r e ; as Time s t a t e d , i n i t s entitled  "Most  Happy  s o c i e t y and d o n ' t want t o l e a v e i t " , s a i d the s u b j e c t i n  Fella"  post-  ("I  like  question[49]):  Yet a t t h e h e a r t of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s work i s a c l e a r c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a h e i g h t e n e d o r d e r of t r u t h can be found i n e v e r y t h i n g and anywhere, even i n t h e garbage dump.[50] What  happened?  Rauschenberg's that i t  The  critics  seem  to  have  "solved"  t h e problem of  a r t , which had appeared d i s t u r b i n g and complex, by a g r e e i n g  offered a  p u r e l y p o s i t i v e r e a d i n g of A m e r i c a , i m p l i c a t e d even i n  t h e method of i t s making, which was i n t e r p r e t e d as " t h e l a t e s t f r e e d o m " t o 47/ The 1964 B i e n n a l e was the f i r s t i n which the U.S. government took a d i r e c t p a r t , here through t h e C I A - d i r e c t e d U.S. I n f o r m a t i o n Agency. P r e v i o u s l y , the American p a v i l i o n a t the B i e n n a l e had been run by t h e Museum of Modern A r t . 48/ Quoted by Newsweek i n " C a r n i v a l i n V e n i c e , " Newsweek, v o l . 64 no. 1 ( J u l y 6, 1964), p. 74. 49/ "Most Happy F e l l a , " Time, v o l . 84 no. 12 (September 18, 1964), 58. 50/  Ibid.  p.  use new ( r a t h e r , o l d ) m a t e r i a l s . The a r t was seen as r e p o r t a g e r a t h e r t h a n critique:  impossible  that  it  could  be  c r i t i c a l or n e g a t i v e , t h a t the  i n c o r p o r a t i o n of junk i n t o f i n e a r t was not a n e g a t i o n i n some sense, if it  was ambiguous;  or t h a t  ambiguity, here,  s o c i a l atmosphere i n which p u b l i c  statements  was not  that  even  a response t o a  were  not c e l e b r a t o r y  were n e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e t o make. The u n i f o r m i t y of the c r i t i c a l r e s p o n s e , e s p e c i a l l y by the e a r l y 1960s, i s h a r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d : why were t h e s e p e o p l e of  raising  Rauschenberg  up,  and  of,  enjoined i n  a common t a s k  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t u r n i n g him i n t o  something he had not been? E a r l i e r I t r i e d t o show, by a  limited analysis  of two works from t h i s p e r i o d , some of the n e g a t i v e q u a l i t i e s of b e r g ' s p r o d u c t i o n , a r e a d i n g t h a t can be e x t e n d e d , the works  made i n  they have  l i m i t e d themselves  to general  l i k e Solomon, they d e c l a r e t h e r e i s no meaning.[51]  work of Rauschenberg, w e l l as  t o most of  t h i s t i m e , w i t h an a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s .  T h i s the c r i t i c s have not done; statements o r ,  I believe,  Rauschen-  as of Cage, t h e r e i s of c o u r s e a p o s i t i v e  negation, which,  however, has  w i t h i n the  aspect  as  been i n f l a t e d and d i s t o r t e d i n an  e f f o r t t o f o r g e t , or dismember, t h e d a r k e r u n d e r t o n e s , these p o s i t i v i t i e s  In the  and t o i n c o r p o r a t e  l a r g e r p o s i t i v e sphere of modern p a i n t i n g ,  i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e b l a n d e s t l i g h t s . P o l i t i c a l  c r e t i n i s m begins  here f o r ,  as the Solomon quote ( a t t h e t i m e of t h e B i e n n a l e ) shows, such an approach  51/ An e x c e p t i o n t o the g e n e r a l t r e n d of Rauschenberg c r i t i c i s m a t t h e t i m e was Max K o z l o f f ' s p e r c e p t i v e column on t h e a r t i s t i n the December 7, 1963 i s s u e of The N a t i o n (pp. 4 0 2 - 0 3 ) . I have not used i t here because i t i s a p a r t from t h e c r i t i c i s m - a s - i d e o l o g y I have been d e s c r i b i n g .  becomes  an  instrument  curator to export  of  t h a t they  work, e s p e c i a l l y a f f i r m e d the  obverse (and b y p r o d u c t ) of society i n  s t a t e , used even c o n s c i o u s l y by the l a t e  propaganda.  Rauschenberg's e a r l y the e x t e n t  the  h i s combines,  were c r i t i c a l  to  garbage and waste of the c i t y , as the  the rampant  consumerism promoted  i n American  t h e 1950s. T h i s was not t h e American dream, o r i t was a t l e a s t  a skewed i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i t . The p r o d u c t i o n of  t h i s time  also mirrored  t h e s i t u a t i o n of a t y p i c a l l y p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n a r t i s t , who made a s e n s a t i o n out of t h e m a t e r i a l s a t hand i n the a l l e y s and byways of New York C i t y . He threw up  t h e s e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n the f a c e of an American a r t p u b l i c as y e t  unused t o dada g e s t u r e . But the form of t h e works, which i s the d e t a i l s  of t h e i r  i n t h e s e l e c t i o n of  enmeshed w i t h  making, and the method of c h o i c e (chance) materials, dilutes  their possible  operating  critical  content,  and made t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e more r e a d y , once t h e f i r s t shocks wore o f f . They were a l l t h e more welcome when i t was u n d e r s t o o d , acknowledged that  these  works  were  "celebrations"  s u b v e r t our r e c e i v e d n o t i o n s common sense  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  a l s o r e p r o d u c e s an American superficial  of a r t  level.  This  life,  ideology  or d e c i d e d  r a t h e r than c r i t i c i s m s . They may  ( a t one  t i m e , anyway),  but not our  f o r the " o p e n " or random c o m p o s i t i o n which  "celebratory"  only  version  really  operates  on a  of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  art's  c o n t e n t has been a c o n s i s t e n t theme i n c r i t i c i s m of h i s work i n as w e l l ;  the i d e n t i t y  of t h e  e a r l y and  d i f f e r e n c e between the e a r l y and the  late criticism,  present  s i m p l y c e l e b r a t o r y ) , i s what i n t e r e s t s us h e r e .  work  (the  t h e 1970s  i n view of the latter  is^ more  A Closing  Circle  The consensus  t h a t formed  around R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  1963 but a l r e a d y g e s t a t i n g s i n c e success i n  1961,  and  a r t , newly formed by  reinforced  by  the a r t i s t ' s  Europe t h e next y e a r , was the one m a i n t a i n e d ( r e v i v e d ? )  1970s, t h r o u g h the ups and downs of h i s c a r e e r . I t i s w i t h i n  t h i s context  t h a t t h e s l i g h t e r works of the 1970s were c e l e b r a t e d , f o r a l t h o u g h were r e v i e w i n g h i s l a t e s t i n t h e as they  were when d i s c u s s i n g  h i s p a s t a r t , t h a t on w h i c h t a t i o n as  various gallery  h i s 1976 r e t r o s p e c t i v e , r e a l l y t a l k i n g about his reputation  r e s t e d , and  about t h a t r e p u -  i t had c o a l e s c e d i n t h o s e s i x y e a r s between h i s f i r s t show w i t h  H a r o l d Rosenberg, 1977, a t t r i b u t e d  r u n n i n g out of  Rauschenberg  1964. New Y o r k e r  the c l o s i n g of c r i t i c a l r a n k s around Rauschenberg  of l i v i n g  contemporary s t a t e  of a r t ,  s o u r c e s of m a s t e r w o r k s [ 5 2 ] " ,  conceptual was  in  w r i t i n g about the r e t r o s p e c t i v e i n The  1970s t o an a n x i e t y about the  art  promoted not  and  the  shrivelling  r e p u t a t i o n he  c u r a t o r s were g e n e r a l and  t h a t accompanied both of  the  a r t market.  so much because of h i s c u r r e n t p r o d u c t i o n ,  to  sustained polemic  revive. on the  Kenneth  Coutts-Smith,  ossification  of  but  because  art  52/ H a r o l d Rosenberg, (16 May 1977), p. 128.  institutions  in  and  a more  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of a r t i n the  1970s, wrote i n 1978 i n t h e Canadian a r t j o u r n a l C e n t e r f o l d the  i n the  had enjoyed a dozen y e a r s b e f o r e , which c r i t i c s  attempting  in  " t h e t h r e a t of  which was c o l o u r e d f o r h i m s e l f and o t h e r s by h i s past s u c c e s s , of t h e  critics  e x h i b i t i o n s , they were,  C a s t e l l i , and h i s t r i u m p h (and abandonment of p a i n t i n g )  the r i s e  i n the  (now Fuse) of  and of the market, as t h e former  " S o u v e n i r s of an  A v a n t - G a r d e , " The  New Y o r k e r  f i r s t appropriated  the a v a n t - g a r d e ,  i t s works and heroes ( l i k e  b e r g ) , t h e n d e c l a r e d i t o v e r , and as t h e opportunity to  most of  a r t market  Rauschen-  closed i t s  doors  t h e new a r t i s t s coming out of t h e a r t s c h o o l s  of and  universities.[53] C o u t t s - S m i t h b e l i e v e d t h a t the p e r i o d of " a l l i a n c e " of the a r t i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h the avant-garde,  a c t i n g as the l a t t e r ' s " s u p p o r t  s y s t e m " , was no  more than 15 y e a r s or s o , the time i t took t o f u l l y a p p r o p r i a t e the a v a n t garde ( f o r  how can  an a v a n t - g a r d e  basis for opposition?[54]) opened up  i n the  of Rauschenberg, the  e x i s t w i t h no o p p o s i t i o n , and w i t h no  and t o s a t i s f y  the  new  art  t h a t had  l a t e 1950s.[55] We can observe t h i s p r o c e s s i n the case whose works were very r a p i d l y bought up by museums and by  b o u r g e o i s i e as soon as he had a f f i l i a t e d w i t h a r e p u t a b l e d e a l e r , and  as t h e c r i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l a p p a r a t u s e s went i n t o production i n  terms of  of understanding, market  stagnated,  as a as  of  inflation  and  gear t o  justify  his  the p a s t , and t o absorb i t i n t o i t s own framework " p o s i t i v e " accomplishment. opposition  to  it  c o n c e p t u a l a r t , and as t h e museums had t o face  market  governmental  e s t a b l i s h e d a r t i s t s who were  looked  was  r e o r g a n i z e and  as  1970s, as the  expressed  austerity to  In t h e  some  i n t h e form of r e t r e n c h i n the  programmes, kind  of  i t was the guarantee  s t a b i l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i f they were as " p o s i t i v e " as Rauschenberg 53/ Kenneth C o u t t s - S m i t h , " A r t and S o c i a l f o l d , v o l . 2 no. 4 ( A p r i l 1978), pp. 2 0 - 2 1 .  of  was t a k e n  Transformation,"  Center-  54/ J e f f W a l l has r e c e n t l y w r i t t e n a f i n e t h e o r e t i c a l a r t i c l e on t h e " d e a t h " of t h e a v a n t - g a r d e - i t s h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y , and the uses t o which such a n o t i o n i s put (see b i b i l i o g r a p h y ) . 55/ C o u t t s - S m i t h , pp. 19-20.  t o be,  and as the b e s t p r o d u c t s of an h i s t o r i c a l e r a ( o f the  avant-garde)  t h a t was now r e g a r d e d as a c l o s e d book.  R e t r i e v a l i n the S e v e n t i e s The " E a r l y E g y p t i a n " , " T a b l e t " , and " P y r a m i d " s e r i e s were v a r i a t i o n s on a " C a r d b o a r d s " theme: r e f u s e mounted or assembled i n t o i c o n s . For example, t h e " E a r l y E g y p t i a n " s e r i e s of c o n s t r u c t i o n s ( F i g . 8) c o n s i s t e d o f , o f t e n , c a r d b o a r d boxes covered i n a p l a i n , sandy substance used t o d i s g u i s e f e a t u r e s . [ 5 6 ] The s i d e f a c i n g colour that  r e f l e c t e d on  the g a l l e r y  w a l l was  i c o n s was  or Rauschenberg,  from (though s t i l l r e l a t e d While I  c a n ' t agree  Rauschenberg's  no meaning: the  with Rosalind  makes i t  c a n a , or t h e " j o y "  o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n of  t y p e of  a r t he  Krauss that  redeems  it  much more  of making  a r t t o commodity  make(s) a f e t i s h out of the o b j e c t , d i s t i n c t  t o ) the  e a r l i e r work  complexity there  i t had  reproduced w i t h o u t t h e i r c o n t e n t ) . A f a l s e mystery was  created e n t i r e l y i n keeping w i t h the s t a t u s . We,  a bright  t h a t w a l l , s u p p l y i n g t h e work w i t h a ready-made  a u r a , a l t h o u g h i t s meaning was h i d d e n (or r a t h e r , a u r a of  painted i n  their  from  made p r i o r  the element commodity  to  1964.  of duree i n  status[57],  the  than a s i m p l e c e l e b r a t i o n of A m e r i -  a r t . In  these ( f a l s e )  mysteries, there  is  none of t h a t c o m p l e x i t y . I n the y e a r s 1974-76 Rauschenberg no l o n g e r r e l i e d on c o n s i s t e d of  the  came out w i t h a new type of work t h a t  accumulation  several series  or  reconstruction  of  refuse.  of works, e n t i t l e d "Pages and F u s e s " ,  "Hoar-  56/ See the poem by Ed Dorn t h a t forms the e p i g r a p h t o t h i s e s s a y . 57/ K r a u s s ,  p. 4 3 .  It  f r o s t s " and "Jammers". Where the s e r i e s of the tic"  arrangements  frankly  gorgeous  of  the  fabrics  old and  cast-off papers.  e a r l y 1970s  were " a e s t h e -  m a t e r i a l s , t h e s e were works "Hoarfrosts"  (Fig.  9)  in  was the  i m p o r t a n t s e r i e s h e r e . As C a l v i n Tomkins s a i d i n 1980, they were t h e f i r s t s a l a b l e Rauschenbergs sumably  he  was  not  r e f e r r e d back t o as d i d  since the s i l k s c r e e n p a i n t i n g s referring  Rauschenberg's  the previous  (pre-  to m u l t i p l e e d i t i o n s ) . " H o a r f r o s t s " e a r l i e r work, not  s e r i e s , but  by imagery.  i n terms  each " H o a r f r o s t "  c o n s i s t e d of  also  of m a t e r i a l s  They were " l i k e " t h e s i l k -  s c r e e n p a i n t i n g s , but now he used r e a l s i l k as the background, f o r  of 1962-64[58]  ground ( f o r e g r o u n d and  s e v e r a l gauzy s h e e t s  laid  over one a n o t h e r , w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g l a y e r s of imagery i m p r i n t e d on them). He a l s o  made use  of t h e t r a n s f e r p r o c e s s he had u t i l i z e d i n the  and l i t h o g r a p h s of the e a r l y 1960s, though i n a more  drawings  s o p h i s t i c a t e d manner  here. The c r i t i c s  were, f o r  t h e most p a r t , t a k e n w i t h t h i s work, which they  saw, i n v a r i o u s f o r m u l a t i o n s , as  "a  m a t e r i a l s , o b j e c t s and i m a g e s [ 5 9 ] " ,  seductive  and f a n t a s y [ 6 1 ] " ,  " t h e s e gauzy  webs of  "Robert  twen-  and " r a v i s h i n g l y r i c i s m [ 6 2 ] " . Robert  58/ C a l v i n Tomkins, O f f the W a l l : Robert Rauschenberg World of Our Time (Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Doubleday & C o . , 1980), 59/ R o b e r t a S m i t h , (March 1975), p. 66.  of f a m i l i a r  " a diaphanous environment as s e d u c t i v e  as a v e i l dance i n a Hollywood k a s b a h [ 6 0 ] " , tieth-century fact  accumulation  Rauschenberg,"  60/ P h i l i p L a r s o n , " R o b e r t R a u s c h e n b e r g , " 8 ( A p r i l 1975), p. 78.  and the A r t p. 295.  A r t f o r u m , v o l . 13 no. 7  A r t s Magazine, v o l .  61/ F e n e l l a C r i c h t o n , " R o b e r t R a u s c h e n b e r g , " 19 no. 6 (June 15, 1975), p. 52.  49 no.  Art International, v o l .  Hughes, a r t c r i t i c f o r  Time,  from  e x t r a c t e d , read Rauschenberg's  whose  It  was  a  telling  title,  s c r a p i n g away a t a r t i s t i c norms no combines had  the  last  phrase was  new work as a k i n d of r e s u r r e c t i o n (not t h e  f i r s t i n t h e ' 7 0 s ) : the t i t l e of Hughes' 50."  article  even  a r t i c l e was though  "Enfant t e r r i b l e at  the image of t h e o u t s i d e r  longer applied  to  Rauschenberg;  themselves become norms of a r t i n t h e meantime. Hughes c o u l d  promote Rauschenberg as an aged " e n f a n t t e r r i b l e " because he seemed t r y i n g out  he was  known f o r  his  works, a s s i m i l a t e d  o l d e r , more  ( a l t h o u g h the " H o a r f r o s t s " were n o t h i n g of  the s o r t ) . Or r a t h e r , they l o o k e d the o l d  t o be  new media (though i n f a c t he was t u r n i n g t o o l d e r means he had  abandoned t e n y e a r s b e f o r e ) , and because they l o o k e d l i k e the d a r i n g work  his  into a  l i k e the  memories c r i t i c s  r e t a i n e d of  renewed c e l e b r a t o r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  oeuvre. The l a y e r i n g and m u l t i p l i c i t y of t h e imagery make  l e s s comprehensible  t h a n the  silkscreen paintings  the " H o a r f r o s t s "  were, and more p u r e l y  s p e c t a c l e . Rauschenberg might as w e l l have been r e a d i n g h i s own p r e s s , t h e s e works  a r e the  p r o d u c t of a more t r u l y " v e r n a c u l a r g l a n c e [ 6 3 ] "  the combines and s i l k s c r e e n s ever were, they  cannot  be  read,  they  can  r e j e c t e d ; t h a t i s , they stand o n l y 62/ Robert p. 60.  only on  or they be  a r e more  admired  aesthetic  far  for than  purely so.  For  or n o t , a c c e p t e d or  merits,  that  is  Hughes, " E n f a n t t e r r i b l e a t 5 0 , " Time (January 27,  as a 1975),  63/ The t i t l e of B r i a n O ' D o h e r t y ' s a r t i c l e i n t h e September-October 1973 i s s u e of A r t i n America i s " R o b e r t Rauschenberg and t h e V e r n a c u l a r G l a n c e . " O'Doherty here w r i n g s some changes on Leo S t e i n b e r g ' s " R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e S t a t e of C r i t i c i s m " ( A r t f o r u m , March 1972). Douglas Crimp has done the same more r e c e n t l y w i t h b o t h S t e i n b e r g and O'Doherty (D. Crimp, "On the Museum's R u i n s , " i n the Summer 1980 i s s u e of O c t o b e r ) .  commodity. Even  though they  a r e made  of a m u l t i p l i c i t y of images,  these  b l e n d i n t o each o t h e r f a r more t h a n t h e ( r e l a t i v e l y ) autonomous images and objects  of  the  d i f f e r e n t from p r o c e s s of  earlier the o t h e r  paintings.  They  are  single-image series  n o t , i n t h a t sense, of t h e  very  1970s. Perhaps  the  imagemaking took over from t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n and r e c o n s t i t u t i o n  of American  l i f e and  silkscreens.  Now,  trauma t h a t  these  recent  formed the works  f u n c t i o n as the o t h e r contemporary  only  works,  in  h e a r t of  the combines and  p e r f o r m the same b a n a l i z e d spite  of  the s u p e r f i c i a l  c o m p l e x i t y of t h e i r t r a n s f e r r e d images. The r i s e i n R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s c r i t i c a l f o r t u n e s , ever more remarked i n the y e a r s p r e c e d i n g t h e B i c e n t e n n i a l , took a spective at t h e show  to  Rauschenberg  Robert  Hughes  in  as  a  Time,  personality Benjamin  i n America,  even i n  John  Gruen  Art  the newsweeklies,  t i o n s of P e r r o n e and Rosenberg, argument.  Douglas and  Davis i n  John Gruen i n  Vogue, C h a r l e s  Stuckey  and by H a r o l d Rosenberg i n The New Y o r k e r , w i t h cover  s t o r i e s i n Time, Artnews, A r t f o r u m and major s p r e a d s ,  by  Forgey  Artnews, J e f f P e r r o n e i n A r t f o r u m , B a r b a r a Rose i n i n Art  with his r e t r o -  t h e S m i t h s o n i a n i n 1976. There were major a r t i c l e s devoted t o  and  Newsweek,  c a l c u l a t e d leap  said  they  already  in  America.  These  were a l l  and w i t h t h e d i s s e n t i n g e x c e p -  were i d e n t i c a l  i n sentiment  and i n  i n F e b r u a r y 1977, b e f o r e the r e t r o -  s p e c t i v e had opened a t t h e Museum of Modern A r t : J u d g i n g by t h e e x h i b i t i o n ' s p r e s s coverage Rauschenberg has emerged as A m e r i c a ' s most noteworthy and newsworthy a r t i s t - an e n f a n t t e r r i b l e who has come of age, and whose c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the ethos of  contemporary a r t has p l a c e d him i n a c c e p t a n c e and r e c o g n i t i o n . [ 6 4 ]  t h e f o r e f r o n t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  The p e r s o n a l i t y of Rauschenberg was t r e a t e d as much as the works i n exhibition, in  a c c o r d w i t h h i s s t a t u s as a s t a r and as a commodity i n h i s  own r i g h t . As J e f f appropriated  by  imagery.[65]  P e r r o n e remarked, Time,  as  he  Rauschenberg had  been k i t s c h e d and  h i m s e l f had p r e v i o u s l y a p p r o p r i a t e d media  The a r t i c l e s by Hughes, Rose and Gruen  pieces, p u b l i c i t y  profiles for  the S m i t h s o n i a n  were pure p e r s o n a l i t y  and MoMA. The Time cover  ( F i g . 10) w h i c h f e a t u r e d Rauschenberg was, i n a way, t y p i c a l : i t a picture  displayed  of t h e a r t i s t s t a n d i n g b e f o r e some of h i s works, w i t h t h e  "Rauschenberg  his  was h i m s e l f  his  most i m p o r t a n t c r e a t i o n , and as i f he was f u l l y i n c o n t r o l of h i s l i f e  and  career i n  a  r e f e r r e d to  by  Rauschenberg"  typically  below,  expansive,  the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l  as i f  American  the a r t i s t  title  way.  It  also,  of  course,  c o n t e n t so many found i n R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  a r t , and t o h i s tendency t o work i n s e r i e s , as i f t h e m o d e r n i s t e x t e n s i o n / e x p r e s s i o n of h i s l i f e . Time cover was w r i t t e n "The Joy of A r t "  works were  a post-  In the top r i g h t c o r n e r of the  which, with  t h e d e s c r i p t i v e term  " e x u b e r a n c e " , was r e p e a t e d e n d l e s s l y i n the coming months and a r t i c l e s . That  phrase,  "the  rounding Rauschenberg's Hughes and  joy  of  a r t " , a l s o incorporated the ideology  production  that  had  been  promoted  sur-  a l r e a d y by  o t h e r s i n t h e p r e c e d i n g y e a r s . Benjamin Forgey c o n t r i b u t e d h i s  ante t o the myth-making i n h i s remarks f o r Artnews: 64/ John Gruen, " R o b e r t Rauschenberg: v o l . 76 no. 2 ( F e b r u a r y 1977), p. 44. 65/ J e f f P e r r o n e , ( F e b r u a r y 1977), p. 27.  "Robert  An  audience of  Rauschenberg,"  one,"  Artnews,  A r t f o r u m , v o l . 15 no. 6  39 R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s g r e a t e f f o r t has been t o j u x t a p o s e t h i n g s , c o n t e x t s , c o n c e p t s from t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d , making a new c o n t e x t and new r e a l i t y i n the p l a y f u l p o e t i c , p a r a d o x i c a l i n t e r i o r d i a l o g u e t h a t has been h i s a r t . H i s work i n i t s e n t i r e t y i s h i s most amazing, amusing and moving c o l l a g e , a c o n t i n u o u s , ongoing process of adjustment between q u e s t i o n and answer, u n r e a l and r e a l , a r t and life.[66] Likewise, P h i l i p Smith, w r i t i n g  in Arts  Magazine two  months l a t e r ,  said  ( i n a somewhat m y s t i f y i n g t e x t ) : Robert Rauschenberg c o n t i n u e s t o s e t and work toward seemingly u n a t t a i n a b l e and as y e t u n e s t a b l i s h e d g o a l s . The e x i s t e n c e of an artist fully r e a l i z i n g i n t e n t i o n and p o t e n t i a l i s not o n l y o v e r whelming and humbling but t r u l y a s t o n i s h i n g . H i s prolificness stems from h i s r e a c t i o n t o and r e s p e c t f o r our e x p a n s i v e and b o u n t i f u l c i v i l i z a t i o n as w e l l as t h e unique w o r t h and i m p o r t a n c e of each i n d i v i d u a l i n the c r e a t i o n and advancement o f every human community.[67] These remarks, h a r d l y c r i t i c i s m s , Rauschenberg's  work  already  are  developed  contingent in  on  the  r e a d i n g of  p r e v i o u s a r t i c l e s , which was  complemented by W a l t e r Hopps' arrangement of the r e t r o s p e c t i v e t o resemble a ring  of achievement,  c o n t i n u i t y . The s p e c t a t o r  c i r c l i n g backwards began  his/her  and f o r w a r d s tour  with  i n a harmonious  R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s most  r e c e n t p r o d u c t i o n s , t h e l a r g e Rodeo P a l a c e i n s t a l l a t i o n , the "Jammers" and t h e " H o a r f r o s t s " , and worked h i s or white p a i n t i n g s . he f i g u r e s as one t i n u i t y that  her  way  backwards  to  the e a r l i e s t  And because Rauschenberg never e n t i r e l y r e p e a t s h i m s e l f , who i s  always t r a n s f o r m i n g  h i s work  within t h i s con-  i s as much h i s l i f e as h i s a r t . There i s no account t a k e n of  t h e fundamental d i s j u n c t i o n between h i s a r t 66/ Benjamin F o r g e y , "An no. 1 ( J a n u a r y 1977), p. 36.  a r t i s t for  of t h e  p a s t and  the present  a l l d e c a d e s , " Artnews, v o l . 76  67/ P h i l i p S m i t h , "To and about Robert R a u s c h e n b e r g , " v o l . 51 no. 7 (March 1977), p. 121.  A r t s Magazine,  production  which,  as  Perrone  says,  has no " f o r e g r o u n d " , i s o n l y b a c k -  ground, d e c o r a t i o n . [ 6 8 ] He i s t h u s s a f e c r i t i c s ; as  Rosenberg s a i d ,  t h e s e u n s t a b l e t i m e s . [ 6 9 ] And  he i s  as  well  one whom  P h i l i p Smith  as  interesting  c r i t i c s can r a l l y around i n can see  him not  B i c e n t e n n i a l a r t i s t , but as one f u l l y enshrouded i n t h e S t a r s Rauschenberg i s a g r e a t reaction  to  American  argument life,  for  which  liberal is  e n t i r e l y p o s i t i v e one. C a l v i n Tomkins,  t o the  democracy  o n l y as the 'n'  Stripes.  simply  by h i s  i n t h i s r e a d i n g as i n so many an writing  in  the  Canadian j o u r n a l  P a r a c h u t e , s t a t e d s i m p l y t h a t "Rauschenberg i s t h e American p o s s i b i l i t y i n art.[70]"  Rauschenberg i n Vancouver The h i s t o r y of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s 1967, when  exhibitions in  Vancouver d a t e s  back t o  Doug C h r i s t m a s f i r s t brought t h e a r t i s t t o h i s Douglas G a l l e r y  t o d i s p l a y t h e " B o o s t e r " s e r i e s of  prints. It  i s most  o f t e n t h r o u g h the  o f f i c e s of C h r i s t m a s t h a t Vancouver p a t r o n s have seen R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s The " S t o n e d Moon" s e r i e s of p r i n t s  were shown  a t the  work.  Douglas G a l l e r y i n  1969; t h a t year a l s o brought a more s u b s t a n t i a l Rauschenberg, A x l e  (1964),  t o Vancouver as p a r t of  by t h e  Vancouver A r t  the  New  York  G a l l e r y . Rauschenberg's  13  exhibition  a r t was  organized  not seen here a g a i n u n t i l  1973, when remakes of the e a r l i e s t w h i t e p a i n t i n g s were hung a t C h r i s t m a s '  68/ P e r r o n e , p. 3 1 . 69/ Rosenberg, p. 128. 70/ C a l v i n Tomkins, " R o b e r t temps 1977), p. 24.  Rauschenberg," Parachute,  no. 6 ( p r i n -  Ace G a l l e r y . Some of Ace, and  i n 1976  the " H o a r f r o s t s "  t r a v e l l e d here  Rauschenberg h i m s e l f  i n 1975,  a r r i v e d , f o r t h e f i r s t time s i n c e  t h a t o r i g i n a l 1967 show, t o choose the m a t e r i a l s and s u p e r v i s e of some L.A.,  the sewing  of t h e "Jammers" (he d i d the same f o r h i s Ace shows i n V e n i c e and  and f o r the  a l w a y s , shown  Castelli  a t the  Gallery  Ace G a l l e r y ,  in  New  York[71]).  These  were, as  which had b u i l t a l a r g e r e p e r t o i r e of  i m p o r t a n t American a r t i s t s . These e x h i b i t i o n s were those i n  again to  held concurrently with  C a l i f o r n i a and New Y o r k ; C h r i s t m a s had made a d e a l w i t h C a s t e l l i  and I l e a n a Sonnabend  to  divide  the  new  production  of  their artistic  s t a b l e , or a t l e a s t t h a t p a r t of i t which i n c l u d e d Rauschenberg says i t comprised " t r u s t " , so  about  ten  artists[72]),  a  regional  d i v i s i o n or  t h a t C h r i s t m a s would h o l d a monopoly on new work f o r the West  C o a s t , w h i l e C a s t e l l i would p l y t h e Europe. The  in  (Christmas  East  Coast,  and  Sonnabend  deal i n  arrangement was t o l a s t the d u r a t i o n of an e x h i b i t i o n , a t the  c o n c l u s i o n of which each d e a l e r would  be f r e e  to s e l l  h i s or  her goods  worldwide.[73] The next  showing of  forms the o b j e c t of Captiva, held  a t the  Rauschenberg's  this investigation:  a r t i n Vancouver was t h e one which Robert Rauschenberg:  Works from  Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y i n September-October 1978.  It  was, i n terms of i t s c o n c e p t i o n , not v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h e o t h e r e x h i b i t i o n s of new work shown a t Ace, f o r t h e s e were works i n R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  new  71/ "A C o n v e r s a t i o n between Robert Rauschenberg and A r t h u r P e r r y , " A r t m a g a z i n e , v o l . 10 no. 41 (November/December 1978), p. 32. 72/ Joan Lowndes, " A c e : no. 3 ( A p r i l 1977), p. 7. 73/ I b i d .  The West  Coast C a s t e l l i , " Vanguard, v o l . 6  "Spreads"  (wall-pieces)  and  "Scales"  t h a t i s , they were s i m p l y p a r t the  majority  of  which  (free-standing sculptures)  of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  had  been  made  in  latest f a l l  a  public  institution  rather  r e n d e r e d , as Kenneth  Coutts-Smith  t o r y [74]  in  (at  least  local  than  were premiered  a t a commercial g a l l e r y - and so  would  terms).  say,  instantly  into  way t o  On  Ace  was  a  number of  Rauschenberg  place  exhibition  p i e c e s shown  cognoscenti,  not  even f o r  as a  its  proper s p e c t a c l e , even  a t VAG  and, e . g . ,  13 " H o a r -  Ace i n 1 9 7 5 ) [ 7 6 ] . A r t P e r r y wrote l a t e r than " t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s  and hype were u n p a r a l l e l e d . The VAG h e i r to  for  works i n i t was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than a t an  Ace show ( t h e r e were 14 l a r g e f r o s t s " at  for Christ-  t h e o t h e r hand, the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y went out of  promote the  though the  his-  h i s g a l l e r y not as a p u b l i c space but as a showroom f o r the  l u x u r y l i n e s of a r t . artists.[75]  art  And t h i s was a p u b l i c e v e n t ; the  crowds, i f one c o u l d c a l l them t h a t , a t Ace were always t h i n , mas c o n c e i v e d  collection,  the s i x weeks p r e c e d i n g the  o p e n i n g . One i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n , however, was t h a t they at  series;  the c o u r t h o u s e . . . . [ 7 7 ] "  o f Works from C a p t i v a i n The Magazine, and  Maclean's  i t s e l f as  t h e proper  There were, f o r Vancouver, r a r e  P r o v i n c e , The  covered  74/ C o u t t s - S m i t h , pp.  was p r e s e n t i n g  i t in  Vancouver Sun,  i t s October  previews  and Vancouver  8 i s s u e . The G a l l e r y  20-21.  75/ Lowndes p o i n t s out t h a t , s i n c e the time C h r i s t m a s dropped Canadians from h i s s t a b l e , few l o c a l a r t i s t s went t h e r e (Lowndes, p. 7 ) . 76/ A r t P e r r y , " ' A n (June 13, 1975), p. 37. 77/ A r t 1980).  art exhibit  P e r r y , "Welcome  back, Mr.  t h a t i s a s t o u n d i n g ' , " The P r o v i n c e R.,"  The  P r o v i n c e (November  13,  could  count  to  a  great  extent  on  the  exposure from t h e  Smithsonian  r e t r o s p e c t i v e , which had t r a v e l l e d t o New Y o r k , B u f f a l o , San F r a n c i s c o and C h i c a g o , and  which had  j u s t concluded  i t s e l f and f o r t h i s e x h i b i t i o n i t gesture,  arising  p e r s o n a l i t y , and  out out  of of  the the  e a r l i e r i n 1978, as p u b l i c i t y f o r  was  mounting;  fame r e c e n t l y accorded positive  reading  e s p e c i a l l y been e m b e l l i s h e d i n the p r e c e d i n g Luke Rombout,  this  of  was  a calculated  Rauschenberg his  work  as a  t h a t had  years.  i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e c a t a l o g u e f o r the e x h i b i t i o n ,  r e f e r r e d t o t h e S m i t h s o n i a n r e t r o s p e c t i v e , as he saw i n t h e s e new p i e c e s a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of a l l t h a t Rauschenberg had a c c o m p l i s h e d u n t i l t h i s t i m e : S t i l l i n the s t u d i o , I r e f l e c t e d on the f a c t t h a t i n s p i t e of the major achievements c o n t a i n e d i n h i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e e x h i b i t i o n which t o u r e d the U n i t e d S t a t e s l a s t y e a r , I was c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a f u n d a mental f u r t h e r i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n of h i s visual vocabulary. I sensed an i n c r e a s i n g r e f i n e m e n t and e l e g a n c e , as w e l l as new i n v e n t i o n s - and I c o n c l u d e d t h a t the r i g o r o u s n e s s applied to h i s work over the l a s t twenty y e a r s or so had c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e s e new works. Exuding s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , t h a t k i n d o f sureness or T i g h t n e s s of t o u c h , was m a n i f e s t i n every p i e c e i n t h a t s t u d i o . I t was, s i m p l y , some of h i s most i m p r e s s i v e work I had seen t o d a t e . [ 7 8 ] "The s u r p r i s e about R a u s c h e n b e r g s 1  of magic  which surrounds  w o r k , " he s a i d , " i s  t h e m . [ 7 9 ] " On  the other  c r i t i c s who r e v i e w e d the show, the  a u r a was  mously, they  of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s  agreed on  the worth  wrote t h a t , i n the p a s t , "Rauschenberg  always the measure  hand, f o r many of t h e  unaccountably absent.  Unani-  past a r t . Art Perry  showed us t h a t not o n l y ^an a r t and  78/ Luke Rombout, "Works from C a p t i v a I s l a n d , " i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Robert Rauschenberg: Works from C a p t i v a (Vancouver: The Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , 1978), n.p. 79/ I b i d .  44 life live  t o g e t h e r but they can a l s o c e l e b r a t e t o g e t h e r . [ 8 0 ] " He had a l s o  written in  1977:  Rauschenberg has the i m p o r t a n c e , r e s p e c t and t a l e n t t o draw a s c a t t e r e d a r t p u b l i c back i n t o mainstream a r t i n v o l v e m e n t . H i s a p p e a l i s p o p u l a r enough ( c o u l d you imagine a Time cover s t o r y on a M i n i m a l i s t such as Judd or Andre?) t o t u r n contemporary a r t a g a i n i n t o a forum f o r mass p u b l i c i n t e r a c t i o n . [ 8 1 ] And he had "Jammers"  given at  effusive  their  praise  previous  disappointed w i t h these  new  to  Rauschenberg's  "Hoarfrosts"  Ace e x h i b i t i o n s . But he was works  in  1978:  "Something  and-  unquestionably is  unavoidably  absent from t h e s e new w o r k s , [ 8 2 ] " he s a i d . He wrote f u r t h e r : Personally, I f e e l Rauschenberg is becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y f o r m a l i z e d and " s u r f a c e " t o the p o i n t of l o s i n g any toughness or t e n s i o n i n h i s a r t . The rough edge has seemingly l e f t R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s a r t , and h i s b e a u t i f u l e s t h e t i c elegance has t a k e n o v e r . [ 8 3 ] T h i s was a common c r i t i c i s m , perhaps i n response buildup prior  t o the  show as  they were  exhibited at  the l a c k of any a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between those and the  1978 w o r k s . [ 8 4 ] berg ' s p a s t  public relations  much as t o t h e works t h e m s e l v e s , f o r P e r r y  admired the 1980 " C l o i s t e r s " works much more when Ace, d e s p i t e  t o the  P e r r y was  production to  t o o much  the u n c r i t i c a l  a d m i r e r of  Rauschen-  see t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n he was r e m a r k i n g on had  p r e v a i l e d f o r a very l o n g t i m e b e f o r e he became aware of i t .  His  comments  80/ A r t P e r r y , "Rauschenberg meets s t a n d a r d i n e x h i b i t i o n , " The P r o v i n c e (September 22, 1978), p. 14 (my e m p h a s i s ) . Mr. P e r r y here displays h i s usual o r i g i n a l t h i n k i n g . 81/ A r t P e r r y , " R o b e r t R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s P r o v i n c e ( F e b r u a r y 3, 1977), p. 11. 82/ P e r r y ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 83/ I b i d . 84/ P e r r y  (1980).  p.  14.  time  has come  a t l a s t , " The  on R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s c a p a c i t y t o i n d u c e a p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t on premises  the a r t i s t  had abandoned  i n the 1960s, f o r P e r r y  t h a t R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s use of everyday o b j e c t s high a r t  with art rested  made a  considered  p u b l i c communion w i t h  possible.  Andrew S c o t t , a l t h o u g h he l i k e d t h e p i e c e s a t VAG w e l l enough,  couldn't  shake h i s s k e p t i c i s m about the n a t u r e of the whole p r o d u c t i o n : Does t h i s k i n d of " w o r l d p r e m i e r e " , w i t h i t s a t t e n d a n t r a z z l e dazzle, o f f e r Vancouver audiences something they r e a l l y need, or i s i t s i m p l y s t a t u s - g a t h e r i n g f o r t h e g a l l e r y and i t s s t a f f ? [ 8 5 ] In terms  of the  Rauschenberg's  work i t s e l f , works  are  S c o t t wrote  frothy,  madhouse m i r r o r s . [ 8 6 ] " W h i l e t h i s criticism -  that "the  s u r f a c e d e t a i l s of  a l i g h t - h e a r t e d c a r n i v a l of c o l o r and was a  d e s c r i p t i o n and  not an i n t e n d e d  f o r S c o t t r e s e r v e d h i s c r i t i q u e f o r the a p p a r a t u s  surrounding  the e x h i b i t i o n - i t remained one f o r P e r r y and f o r o t h e r s who r e v i e w e d the show.  Rauschenberg  was  for  R.M.  C a m p b e l l , an a r t c r i t i c from S e a t t l e ,  merely a " b r i l l i a n t t e c h n i c i a n " ; Campbell missed " t h e heat of g e n i u s " so many  that  desired.[87]  Rauschenberg's studio assistants, a r t i s t with  were  well-crafted,  with  no  explicit  processed facture  works,  remaining  made l a r g e l y by to  connect t h e  h i s p r o d u c t . They had become more c o n c e p t u a l i z e d , or a t l e a s t  d i s t a n c e d from t h e person of the a r t i s t , even though t h e r e was no s t r e n g t h of i d e a s  i n the  works. David  M a c W i l l i a m noted  85/ Andrew S c o t t , "Rauschenberg Vancouver Sun (September 8, 1978). 86/  i n Vanguard, as had J e f f  h o l d s up a m i r r o r t o our  t i m e s , " The  Ibid.  87/ R.M. C a m p b e l l , "Rauschenberg - The Joy of S e a t t l e P o s t - I n t e l l i g e n c e r (25 September 1978).  F a c i l e B e a u t y , " The  P e r r o n e p r e v i o u s l y , t h a t the images  retreated  works, behind t h e i r g l a z e s , m i r r o r s and Many of  However, i n  the  same  paraphernalia  h i s assemblages.  i.e. tires, pails, q u i l t s , they  of the  as  his  constructed f o r the combine-paintings.  o p e r a t i o n of  t h r o u g h the  a l l e y s searching  parachutes,  wheels  and  quilts,  but,  excepting the  were bought new; they a r e as unblemished (and a n t i s e p t i c ) as they  chance t h a t  partly  due,  are  attached.  no  cannibalizing i t  doubt,  from  it  b e i n g the  f o r themes  and images.  to Rauschenberg's involvement w i t h h i s  r e t r o s p e c t i v e . Whether t h e a r t i s t i s p u t t i n g o f t e n had  Far  d e c i d e s t h e i r i n c l u s i o n , t h e o b j e c t s r e f e r back  t o R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s e a r l i e r work,  p r e v i o u s work  out junk t o  In 1978, he r e t u r n e d t o t h e same t y p e of o b j e c t ,  the c o n s t r u c t i o n s t o which  is  style  t h e 1950s t h e c h o i c e of o b j e c t s was based on t h e o p e r a t i o n of  chance, as Rauschenberg roamed  This  the  patterns.[88]  t h e p i e c e s Rauschenberg and h i s a s s i s t a n t s  exhibition displayed  add t o  behind  us on  is a  moot p o i n t ;  his  an edge of humour d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t i t s a u d i e n c e .  A l s o , the s l i c k n e s s of t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n here means t h a t i t i s hard  t o get  around or under t h e s u r f a c e of t h e works i n q u e s t i o n . The e a r l i e s t p i e c e s , t o o , were o f t e n i m p e n e t r a b l e , a c t i n g as  a private  code -  u n d e r s t a n d . The " S p r e a d s " code.  At  the  least,  modernist d i s j u n c t i v e  their  imagery  or seeming  and  to -  its  for a  arrangement  l i m i t e d audience to  and " S c a l e s " d o n ' t appear a t f i r s t t o  its  often  have  this  use  has  d e g e n e r a t e d , an a u t o m a t i c r e p l a y of  practice,  but  with  paraphernalia associated  w i t h the  an  affirmative  constructions -  88/ D a v i d M a c W i l l i a m , " C a p t i v a Reviewed: A guard , v o l . 7 no. 7 (October 1978), p. 11.  c o n t e n t . The  wheels, t i r e s , p a i l s ,  S c r u t i n y of  S t y l e , " Van-  etc. -  which once  seemed o b s e s s i v e  i n t h e i r r e p e t i t i o n , now seem merely-  r e p e t i t i o u s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n l i g h t of 15 year  h i a t u s , one  their "revival"  t h a t was c o - e x t e n s i v e w i t h R a u s c h e n b e r g s r e v i v a l of 1  some o t h e r of h i s o l d means, such as t h e t r a n s f e r There a r e  two  " S c a l e s " . The  after a  approaches  one  e a r l i e r combines  may  take  process.  towards  and s i l k s c r e e n  the  "Spreads"  and  p a i n t i n g s o f t e n seemed t o  have a " p o e t i c s " of r e f e r e n c e , even i f i t was not  i m m e d i a t e l y e v i d e n t , or  i f i t was q u i t e l i t e r a l l y broken up, as i n the c o l l a g i n g of p a r t i a l images or broken phrases and words. I n s u r f e i t of  images, and  the  1978  pieces,  code has  c l u e s , or i t has  images i n  collapsed:  there  is  no  code,  t o the  any manner w h a t s o -  no  "meaning",  only a  images.  t o t h e s c u l p t u r e s and w a l l - p i e c e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s  not n e c e s s a r i l y the c a s e ; t h e sheeny s u r f a c e s h i d e quite l e g i b l e .  part  e i t h e r become jso p r i v a t e as t o not even g i v e h i n t s or  d e c o r a t i v e p a t t e r n of Yet a t t e n t i o n  in  t o t h e i m p e n e t r a b l e n a t u r e of the s u r f a c e , i t can  seem i m p o s s i b l e t o r e a d or t o a s s o c i a t e the e v e r . The  due  a content  t h a t can be  For example, t h e s u r f a c e of Golden Grebe ( F i g . 11) i s  of images of f l i g h t , i n a d d i t i o n  t o the  is  full  parachute-like contraption fixed  t o i t s s i d e , which r e c a l l s so many l i k e d e v i c e s from t h e 1954 C h a r l e n e on. The images a l o n g the  here are  p l a c e d , as  s u r f a c e . At  the top  always, i n l e f t , the  grids i n  a "random" p a t t e r n  image i s r e p e a t e d of a r o l l e r -  c o a s t e r c a r a t t h e top of i t s a r c , and t h e n j u s t b e g i n n i n g i m i t a t i o n of  the d i v i n g  grebe, whose  t o descend,  in  image i s reproduced i n two s e t s on  t h e p a n e l s . Other images a s s o c i a t e themselves w i t h t h e s e : geese i n f l i g h t ; a horse  in f u l l  g a l l o p on  a r a c e t r a c k ; a rubber r a f t and a motorboat on  the w a t e r ; a g l a s s of w a t e r ; a winged e f f i g y upon d u c t i o n of  a monument;  the r e p r o -  what might be a l o n g beak or t u s k , l i k e t h a t of t h e longbeaked  g r e b e ; a j e t i n f l i g h t ; a g l i d e r ; a r a d a r i n s t a l l a t i o n . They can be l i n k e d a n a l o g i c a l l y t o the image of the watery b i r d . Some of  t h e imagery  i n Golden Grebe i s a l l u s i v e l y s e x u a l : the c a n d l e -  s t i c k next t o the f l o w e r s ( w i t h the f l o w e r e d f a b r i c n e a r b y , upon which t h e arc  of  the r o l l e r c o a s t e r i s p r i n t e d ) ; t h e g l a s s of w a t e r , a l o n g s t a n d i n g  symbol i n R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s o e u v r e ; t o the  edge, w i t h  and the  c o l o u r wheel/parachute attached  a p a i n t brush p r o t r u d i n g from i t s s i d e . The c o n n e c t i o n  of f l i g h t  and submersion  sexual, a  t r a i t or  i n the  c o n t e n t of  o b j e c t of so much  e a r l i e r work, the s e x u a l c o n t e n t was  t h e golden  grebe i s  largely  of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s o u t p u t . I n  associated with  urban imagery,  i s w i t h g r i t and r e f u s e , f r u s t r a t i o n and m a l a i s e . Now, s e x u a l i t y i s w i t h n a t u r e and n a t u r a l grebe  is  reproduced  images, w i t h in  the  t h e sun  yellow  bypassed  here,  although  images  t e c h n o l o g y t h a t i s reproduced i s more everyday l i f e :  this  linked  of t h e golden  of  i t is  lived daily  technology  e x o t i c than  is in a  remain.  But the  that normally  used i n  j e t s , y a c h t s , s a t e l l i t e d i s h e s . What i s used and d i s c a r d e d ,  what formed t h e elements of the combines, f i n d s l e s s of a p l a c e , in  that  p a t c h e s ) - t h e works a r e much more  s i m p l y a f f i r m a t i v e and h e d o n i s t i c . S o c i e t y as sense  (the colour  his  work.  The  sex-nature-pleasure  analogy  t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d means, b y p a s s i n g e a r l i e r work i n t h i s l i b e r a l n a t u r e - t e c h n o l o g y Another p i e c e  i n the  VAG e x h i b i t i o n ,  is  at l e a s t  a l s o produced i n a  the s o c i a l  c o n t e n t of  his  fusion.  e n t i t l e d Solar Tribune J r . ( F i g .  1 2 ) , r e c a l l s i n i t s t i t l e and imagery the 1959 G i f t f o r A p o l l o  (Fig.  13).  Solar Tribune  Jr. is  a wall-piece  t o which  three podia (tribunes?)  are  a t t a c h e d , d i v i d i n g t h e work i n t o two p a r t s . On top of t h e p o d i a r e s t t h r e e p a i l s , each w i t h a l i g h t e d b u l b h o v e r i n g j u s t i n s i d e i t s l i p . The G i f t f o r A p o l l o a l s o had a p a i l , a t t a c h e d w i t h a  chain to  Rauschenberg's  work  gift.  In  i t s e l f , was a b a t t e r e d , ambiguous t r i b u t e  the  earlier  ugly object  t o the  god of  the " c h a r i o t "  the  t h a t was,  t h a t was  p a i l , l i k e the c h a r i o t  at the  l e a s t , an i r o n i c ,  the sun and t h e a r t s . The p a i l , i n t h i s  work, p r o b a b l y doubles as a l i b a t i o n cup, and as a p a i l t o  douse t h e f i r e  of t h e sun s h o u l d i t get out of hand. I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t t h e " g i f t " a double-edged comment on t h e a r t i s t ' s  homosexuality, for  A p o l l o was t h e  f i r s t god t o f a l l i n l o v e w i t h a member of h i s own s e x . G i f t f o r A p o l l o h a r d l y a c e l e b r a t i o n of  the " j o y  of a r t " ,  but r a t h e r  is  a work  of  is  sexual  v i o l e n c e and f r u s t r a t i o n , c o n t r o l l e d or anchored i n t h i s case by t h e p a i l . Solar Tribune these  J r . , t o a l l i n t e n t s the o f f s p r i n g of G i f t f o r A p o l l o , i n  productions  iconography,  also  which  so  explicitly  f u n c t i o n s as  an "homage"  but i n t h i s c a s e , as i n Golden Grebe, The p a i l s  recall  i n an  Rauschenberg's  previous  t o the sun and t o s e x u a l i t y , e n t i r e l y a f f i r m a t i v e manner.  w i t h t h e i r d a n g l i n g b u l b s a r e the most e x p l i c i t l y s e x u a l a s p e c t  of t h e " S p r e a d " , but much of t h e r e a d a b l e imagery r e l a t e s c l o s e l y t o t h e s e o b j e c t s , which  are the  There a r e s e v e r a l images on, as  positive version of c a r s  ( c h a r i o t s ) , some  with their headlights  w e l l as o t h e r images of f l i g h t and movement, " r a n d o m l y "  on the s u r f a c e of t h e work. t a i l s of  of the b a t t e r e d bucket i n G i f t .  two l a r g e  These i n c l u d e  a i r p l a n e s , two  a skateboarder  t i g h t r o p e walkers  h e l i c o p t e r i n f l i g h t . The b l a d e s of the h e l i c o p t e r  reproduced  i n a c t i o n , the  i n the  sky, and a  are " l i k e "  the p e t a l s  of  the  flower  reproduced  below  it,  s k a t e b o a r d e r , and t h e r e a r e  other  images  f l o w e r s and  a meadow  or  the of  o u t s t r e t c h e d arras of t h e growth  as  well,  such as  ( f o r A p o l l o "made the f r u i t s of t h e e a r t h t o r i p e n "  i n h i s a s p e c t as t h e god of the s u n ) . Above  a car  with i t s  l i g h t s on, a  town c r e a t e s i t s own l i g h t a t t h e f o o t of a mountain i n w i n t e r . There  are  the  omnipresent  sports  images  b a s e b a l l , f o o t b a l l and t e n n i s ( i n c l u d i n g khamen's c o f f i n  Bjorn  here as w e l l , p i c t u r e s of Borg  in  a c t i o n ) . Tutan-  a l s o makes i t s appearance, f o r the Tutankhamen e x h i b i t i o n  was a l s o a p o p u l a r and o b v i o u s media event i n the l a t e 1970s. is  made  between  mass  culture  j u n c t u r e : h i g h c u l t u r e as ran c o n c u r r e n t l y  and  high  mass c u l t u r e .  w i t h the  culture  The l i n k a g e  most c l e a r l y a t t h i s  R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s own r e t r o s p e c t i v e  Tut e x h i b i t i o n  i n p l a c e s l i k e C h i c a g o , and i t  was a l s o , on i t s own t e r m s , an enormously s u c c e s s f u l e v e n t , one t h a t broke a t t e n d a n c e r e c o r d s a t the S m i t h s o n i a n and a t MoMA. T u t , t h e n , may r e f e r t o h i s own achievement a t t h i s time  and  to  his  own  status  as  a popular  f i g u r e , i f h i s s u c c e s s was not q u i t e as stupendous as the mummy's. There  may  be,  then,  at  least  o p e r a t i n g i n S o l a r T r i b u n e J r . One  two  significant  i s the  levels  a f f i r m a t i o n and  of meaning  c o n n e c t i o n of  s e x u a l a c t i v i t y , growth, movement and l i g h t . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , l i g h t has been connected t o r e a s o n , and r e a s o n i s a l s o an Tribune r e f e r s  back t o  Gift for  a t t r i b u t e of  Apollo i n  Apollo.  i t s iconography,  Although  consciously  p l u c k e d from t h e works i n the 1976 r e t r o s p e c t i v e , i t had shed the n e g a t i v e connotations the  e a r l i e r s c u l p t u r e r a i s e s . The second l e v e l of meaning a t  work i s r e l a t e d t h r o u g h the s p o r t s f i g u r e s , but of the  s t a t u s of  Rauschenberg as  an a r t i s t .  r a i s e s more  the q u e s t i o n  I t i s the r e l a t i o n of mass  c u l t u r e and h i g h c u l t u r e - a s - m a s s own  alignment  as  an  artist  c u l t u r e t h a t i n t e r e s t s him interested  in  mass  h e r e , and h i s  phenomena and w i t h a  r e l a t i v e l y mass a p p e a l , who i s f e t e d i n Time and Newsweek,  as w e l l  as  the a r t magazines. Thus A r t P e r r y was c o r r e c t t o say t h a t Rauschenberg  in was  one of the few a r t i s t s who c o u l d b r i n g the p u b l i c back i n t o an i n t e r a c t i o n with a r t ,  whatever t h a t  e n t a i l e d [ 8 9 ] . However, t o r e a c h t h i s p o s i t i o n of  i n f l u e n c e , t o be c e l e b r a t e d as t h e  Bicentennial a r t i s t ,  Rauschenberg  has  had t o f o r g e t h i s own past even as he i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e o b j e c t s and some of t h e t e c h n i q u e s of h i s e a r l i e r p r a c t i c e . H i s a r t has become as c e l e b r a t o r y , as a f f i r m a t i v e , 1960s and ' 7 0 s . works  have  become as what h i s  as h i s e a r l i e r work was p u r p o r t e d t o be by c r i t i c s i n the He has become  come  to  the o b j e c t  reflect  p r o c e s s e d and e a r l i e r output  f u l l of  Harrington  and h i s new  s l e e k as had been,  American m a n u f a c t u r e ,  the o p p o s i t e of  w i t h i t s n o i s e and d i s t r e s s . I n  c o u l d not  express himself  those  directly, his  r e p r e s s e d rage and of the garbage thrown up by American  s o c i e t y . That junk was Michael  own p r e s s ,  t h a t f a c t : not o n l y c e l e b r a t o r y , they have  days, even though or because he work was  of h i s  the d a i l y  called  then  s t u f f of "the  the u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d ,  of what  o t h e r A m e r i c a " . The " S p r e a d s "  " S c a l e s " d i s p l a y no such d i s c o r d , and as such they a r e  the happy  and  vehicles  f o r the promotion of the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y d e s i r e d by i t s d i r e c t o r and trustees.  89/ P e r r y  (1980).  52  Figure  1.  C a s t e l l i S m a l l T u r t l e Bowl ( " C a r d b o a r d " ) , 1971 Leo C a s t e l l i G a l l e r y ( p h o t o : S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n )  Figure  2.  ^GALS/AAPCO ( " C a r d b o a r d " ) , 1971 C o l l e c t i o n the a r t i s t (photo: Smithsonian  Institution)  Figure  3.  Studies  f o r Currents  Collection  the  artist  #27,  1970  (photo:  Staatliche Kunsthalle,  Berli  F i g u r e 5.  C a n y o n , 1959 Anonymous c o l l e c t i o n ,  Paris  ( p h o t o : H a r r y N. A b r a m s , New  York)  F i g u r e 6.  Crocus, Leo  1962  Castelli  Gallery  (photo: Smithsonian  Institution)  Figure  7.  Monogram, 1955-59 Moderna Museet, Stockholm  ( p h o t o : H a r r y N. A b r a m s , New  York)  59  F i g u r e 8.  C o n t e m p o r a n e a ( " E a r l y E g y p t i a n S e r i e s " ) , 1973 Leo C a s t e l l i G a l l e r y ( p h o t o : S t a a t l i c h e K u n s t h a l l e ,  Berlin)  Figure  9.  Sybil ("Hoarfrost"), 1974 C o l l e c t i o n the a r t i s t (photo:  Smithsonian  Institution)  Time c o v e r (29 November ( p h o t o : Time)  1976)  62  Figure  11.  G o l d e n G r e b e ( " S c a l e " ) , 1978 C o l l e c t i o n the a r t i s t (photo:  Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y )  63  Figure  12.  S o l a r Tribune J r . ("Spread"), 1978 C o l l e c t i o n the a r t i s t (photo: Vancouver A r t  Gallery)  Figure  13.  Gift  for Apollo.  1959  Dr. G i u s e p p e P a n z a , M i l a n  ( p h o t o : H a r r y N. A b r a m s , New  York)  65 CHAPTER 2 THE VANCOUVER ART GALLERY 1966-74:  The phases:  history  of  the  Vancouver  Art  the s t r i c t l y c i v i c p e r i o d from  e a r l y 1960s;  and a  its  c o m p l e x i t i e s of  founding  in  1931  u n t i l the  the 1960s  ' t i l the  t h e second p e r i o d , which bear most d i r e c t l y  correspond roughly  h e r e . There  a r e two  phases of  this  t o the t e n u r e s of VAG's two most r e c e n t  d i r e c t o r s , Tony Emery and Luke Rombout (and t o f e d e r a l government  can be d i v i d e d i n t o two  government, from  on t o d a y , a r e what I want t o d i s c u s s p e r i o d , which  Gallery  more a m b i t i o u s p e r i o d , when i t began t o r e c e i v e l a r g e  i n j e c t i o n s of c a s h from the f e d e r a l p r e s e n t . The  SUCCESS AND FAILURE  contemporaneous changes  p o l i c y ) , which made one o r a n o t h e r p o l i c y more or  a c c e p t a b l e . I would l i k e f i r s t t o d i s c u s s  the t r a n s i t i o n from  in less  a parochial  i n s t i t u t i o n t o a n a t i o n a l one, and t h e i m p e r a t i v e s t h a t caused i t . The Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y began, l i k e so many o t h e r c i v i c g a l l e r i e s , as an essay i n t o the c u l t u r a l l i f e of t h e c i t y by a group nessmen,  who  raised  the  initial  capital  for  of concerned b u s i -  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e  b u i l d i n g and f o r the p r o v i s i o n of a s m a l l , A n g l o p h i l i a c a r t c o l l e c t i o n . [ 1 ] 1/ I n i t i a l l y , $130,000 was r a i s e d from p r i v a t e s o u r c e s f o r t h i s purpose: $50,000 f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n and f u r n i s h i n g of the G a l l e r y , and $80,000 f o r the p r o v i s i o n of i t s c o l l e c t i o n . The s i t e was donated by t h e C i t y of Vancouver. The c h i e f o r g a n i z e r of t h e c a p i t a l campaign, and t h e G a l l e r y ' s f i r s t p r e s i d e n t , was H.A. Stone, p r e s i d e n t of G a u l t B r o s . , a l a r g e drygoods w h o l e s a l e r . Other l o c a l f o u n d e r s , who were i n t h e main merchants or u t i l i t i e s e x e c u t i v e s , i n c l u d e d W.H. M u r r i n , p r e s i d e n t of B.C. Power C o r p . and B.C. E l e c t r i c (now B.C. Hydro) s i n c e 1929; Gordon F a r r e l l , p r e s i d e n t of B.C. T e l s i n c e 1928; J o n a t h a n Rogers, a major c i t y d e v e l o p e r ; W.H. M a l k i n , owner of M a l k i n ' s , the l a r g e s t food w h o l e s a l e r i n the c i t y , and mayor of Vancouver i n 1928-29; C h r i s Spencer, p r e s i d e n t of S p e n c e r ' s (absorbed by E a t o n ' s i n 1949), one of V a n c o u v e r ' s t h r e e l a r g e department s t o r e s ; and Frank J . B u r d , managing d i r e c t o r s i n c e 1928 of The P r o v i n c e ,  As a p r i v a t e group of c i t i z e n s , the f o u n d e r s were a b l e t o ensure a c e n t r a l place f o r  themselves i n  the r u n n i n g of t h e i n s t i t u t i o n f o r many y e a r s t o  come, d o m i n a t i n g t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee e a r l y 1950s.[2]  At the  same t i m e ,  c o l l e c t i o n t o the c i t y ones p r o v i d i n g  the  VAG  Council  u n t i l the  the c e s s i o n of b u i l d i n g , p r o p e r t y and  ensured t h a t  f o r the  of  o p e r a t i o n of  the f o u n d e r s  would not  be the o n l y  the G a l l e r y i n p e r p e t u i t y ; the c i t y  has always p a i d a p o r t i o n of VAG's maintenance c o s t s s i n c e t h e n , though i t d i d not  assume t h e i r  f u l l burden (which i n 1981 amounted t o $419,316 out  of a t o t a l budget of $ 1 , 4 1 6 , 5 2 1 ) [ 3 ] i n p r i n c i p l e u n t i l  1966.  For many y e a r s the G a l l e r y f u n c t i o n e d on a v o l u n t a r i s t b a s i s , paid s t a f f ;  the C o u n c i l  and the  Women's A u x i l i a r y  w i t h few  p r o v i d e d most of t h e  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e a r e a s of e x h i b i t i o n , p u r c h a s e s , e d u c a t i o n , e v e n t s , and f u n d r a i s i n g . The  VAG i n  those y e a r s was a s t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n , w i t h w h i c h  then V a n c o u v e r ' s l a r g e s t newspaper. H.A. Stone went t o England w i t h C h a r l e s S c o t t , p r i n c i p a l of the Vancouver S c h o o l of A r t , t o choose the works f o r the G a l l e r y ' s i n i t i a l collection, i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y ' s d i r e c t o r . These were n e a r l y a l l minor E n g l i s h works. ( S o u r c e s : Tony R o b e r t s o n , "The F i r s t F i f t y Y e a r s : The Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , 1931-1983", Vanguard (October 1983), p. 12; Canadian Who's Who, various editions) 2/ S t o n e , M u r r i n and M a l k i n shared t h e p r e s i d e n c y from 1931 t o 1949, when i t was g i v e n over t o a v i c e - p r e s i d e n t of M u r r i n ' s i n B.C. E l e c t r i c , Thomas Ingledow, who s e r v e d as p r e s i d e n t from 1950 t o 1958. Of the o r i g i n a l f o u n d e r s , F a r r e l l , B u r d , M a l k i n and Spencer were a l l a c t i v e i n G a l l e r y a c t i v i t i e s as l a t e as 1952 ( F a r r e l l u n t i l 1958). A c c o r d i n g t o V e r a Zolberg, t h i s was the normal p a t t e r n f o r c i v i c a r t g a l l e r i e s i n t h e i r first, s e m i p r o f e s s i o n a l phase. Vera Z o l b e r g , " C o n f l i c t i n g V i s i o n s i n American Museums," Theory and S o c i e t y , v o l . 10 no. 1 ( J a n u a r y 1981), p. 105. Z o l b e r g ' s a r t i c l e i s based on her t h e s i s about t h e A r t I n s t i t u t e of C h i c a g o . See a l s o W i l l i a m S. Hendon's s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of the Akron A r t I n s t i t u t e , A n a l y z i n g an A r t Museum (New Y o r k : P r a e g e r , 1979), for a similar conclusion. 3/ The V ancouver A r t G a l l e r y Annual R e p o r t 1981,  n.p.  interested  amateurs  remained  for  p r o v i d e d by o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s , were f i x e d of A r t  many  l i k e the  e v e n t s , such as t h e B.C.  graduating e x h i b i t i o n ,  1955-56 season,  years.  Exhibitions  National Gallery  were o f t e n  i n Ottawa, or  A r t i s t s ' A n n u a l , the Vancouver  or the  B.C. Photography  School  show; d u r i n g t h e  f o r i n s t a n c e , o n l y $1,500 was budgeted f o r e x h i b i t i o n s of  a t o t a l budget of $ 6 1 , 3 5 9 . [ 4 ] The arrangement, as much s o c i a l as c u l t u r a l , began t o break down i n the l a t e 1950s,  when C o u n c i l was no l o n g e r a b l e t o r a i s e enough money t o keep  the i n s t i t u t i o n f u n c t i o n i n g . C i t y t i o n , which  ranged from  C o u n c i l would  $25,000(1957)  budget which hovered around $100,000 i n G a l l e r y was  not r a i s e  t o $30,000  i t s contribu-  (1961)-  these years[5]  - so  of a t o t a l l o n g as the  understood t o f u n c t i o n more as a c u l t u r e c l u b f o r i t s member-  s h i p than as a p u b l i c exhibitions since  museum.[6]  the 1958  A  paucity  of  interesting  or p o p u l a r  100 Years of B.C. A r t no doubt c o n t r i b u t e d t o  t h e c i t y ' s r e l u c t a n c e , a l a c k due as much  to disorganization  and l a c k of  4/ The Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y Annual Report 1955-56. 5/ 1957 T o t . Revs. $86,255 City 25,000 C.C. Members 29,500  1958 $89,310 25,000 11,000 33,556  1959 1960 $101,123 $98,043 27,000 30,000 13,500 10,000 47,973 45,705  (Source: VAG Annual R e p o r t s , f o u n d a t i o n s and from a d m i s s i o n s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o t a l revenue.) 6/ "How ' S h o w b i z ' saved 14 (24 J u l y 1965), p. 48.  1961 1962 $121,146 $101,232 30,000 45,500 5,200 4,000 42,823 32,309  1957-62. A d d i t i o n a l revenues from p r i v a t e not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s t a b l e , made up the  a Dying A r t G a l l e r y , " M a c l e a n ' s v o l . 78 no.  i m a g i n a t i o n as  t o a d e a r t h of f u n d s . [7] A l t h o u g h the VAG C o u n c i l r a i s e d a  s i g n i f i c a n t amount of d o n a t i o n s from the members d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s [ 8 ] , was not by  enough t o  it  t u r n a s i d e the t h r e a t of b a n k r u p t c y , which was looming  1962. The response  Simmins was  t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n was e x p a n s i o n . "Expand  or d i e . " R i c h a r d  h i r e d as a d i r e c t o r t o b r i n g more showmanship  to the G a l l e r y ,  which he d i d i n t h e few years of h i s t e n u r e , w i t h t h e Nude i n tion, a  s m a l l but  i n t e n s e l y p o p u l a r K i n g Tut e x h i b i t i o n , and e x h i b i t i o n s  of contemporary a r t from W i t h the  e a s t e r n Canada,  tremendous i n c r e a s e  1965 - Tut a l o n e drew 78,000 contribute a and the  l a r g e r sum  which were  i n attendance, i n 1965[9]  a novelty  which t r i p l e d  - City  C o u n c i l was  inspired to  t o the G a l l e r y ' s expenses on a c o n t i n u i n g  G a l l e r y ' s s h o r t - t e r m f u t u r e , a t l e a s t , l o o k e d more  and  f o r VAG.  from 1962 t o  professional  classes  a r t i s t s , of c o u r s e , always the j u n i o r 7/ The G a l l e r y ' s f i r s t 1959, but d u r i n g h i s t e n u r e a r t i s t s were q u i t e bad ( t h i s arrangement d i d not work out 1961.  with  its  artistic  partner.[10]  With  basis,  rosy.  VAG C o u n c i l had always r e p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f as an a l l i a n c e of business  Art e x h i b i -  Vancouver's  community, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of  o f f i c i a l d i r e c t o r , W i l l i a m D a l e , was h i r e d i n both s t a f f r e l a t i o n s and t h o s e w i t h a r e a was even noted i n 1 9 6 2 ' s annual r e p o r t ) . The t o a n y o n e ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n , and D a l e l e f t i n  8/ See Note 5. These t a i l e d o f f a f t e r 1961, as can be seen from the t a b l e . P r i v a t e d o n a t i o n s were u n u s u a l l y h i g h d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d of the financial crisis, due t o a f u n d r a i s i n g d r i v e among the members. U s u a l membership f e e s and d o n a t i o n s were c . $30,000 a n n u a l l y u n t i l the mid-1970s. 9/ M a c l e a n ' s  (24 J u l y 1965), p.  49.  10/ A r t i s t s C h a r l e s S c o t t , C h a r l e s Marega, John Vanderpant and Ross L o r t were among the f i r s t e l e c t e d t r u s t e e s , and J o c k Macdonald, W.P. Weston, Nan Cheney and Lawren H a r r i s s a t on C o u n c i l d u r i n g t h e 1930s and '40s (Harris d i r e c t e d t h e G a l l e r y ' s e x h i b i t i o n s c h e d u l e from the e a r l y  69 the Koerner f a m i l y , l o c a l p a t r o n s of degree of  the a r t s  had not  brought any  a e s t h e t i c knowledge or c u l t u r a l a m b i t i o n t o t h e i r p h i l a n t h r o p i c  d u t i e s w i t h VAG; t h i s was a that t h e i r  fundamentally s o c i a l  relation, in  Vancouver°s r u l i n g  duties  the l e a d i n g  c l a s s i n a l l a s p e c t s of community l i f e .  however, the t r a d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e G a l l e r y and began t o  the sense  a c t i v i t i e s a t VAG were not d i f f e r e n t i n k i n d from t h e i r  f o r the h o s p i t a l s or c h a r i t i e s . They were a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of r o l e of  great  its  When, patrons  break down i n the l a t e ' 5 0 s [ l l ] , VAG's o f f i c e r s were o b l i g e d ,  in  order t o c o n t i n u e t o f i n a n c e the G a l l e r y ' s a c t i v i t i e s , t o t u r n t o a source which promised  much: the  Canada C o u n c i l - which had earmarked some funds  f o r VAG s i n c e 1958, but which was bent on i t s own l a r g e s c a l e it solicited,  expansion  and won, supplementary moneys from P a r l i a m e n t t o complement  i t s l i m i t e d endowment  income.  The Canada C o u n c i l ' s emphasis on " e x c e l l e n c e " , a d j u d i c a t e d by the various practice a Vancouver  as  c u l t u r a l and professional Art  Gallery's  peers  in  academic spheres which i t h e l p e d f u n d , meant i n and  cosmopolitan  programmes  had  culture only  to  partly  which, related  say,  the  in  the  1940s t o the m i d - ' 5 0 s ) . However, a r t i s t s ' r e p r e s e n t a t i o n had d e c l i n e d by t h e e a r l y 1960s, so t h a t a f t e r Sam B l a c k and F r e d Amess f i n i s h e d t h e i r terms i n 1963, t h e r e were no a r t i s t s ' r e p s on C o u n c i l u n t i l Werner A e l l e n was e l e c t e d , on Tony E m e r y ' s a d v i c e , i n 1971. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t a r t i s t s ' presence on C o u n c i l from 1973 t o 1976 - the year i n which t h r e e artist-trustees r e s i g n e d . With t h e n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n of H a r r i s , who was w e a l t h y i n h i s own r i g h t , a r t i s t s were never granted e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s e x c e p t , b r i e f l y , d u r i n g the l a t e r y e a r s of E m e r y ' s t e n u r e . The E x e c u t i v e , which r e t a i n s C o u n c i l ' s i n f l u e n c e , has o t h e r w i s e been f i l l e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l and b u s i n e s s people (or t h e i r w i v e s ) . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t most of t h e a r t i s t s who s a t on C o u n c i l were a l s o a s s o c i a t e d with i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e U.B.C. or t h e Vancouver S c h o o l of A r t . 11/ I speak here of t h e f i n a n c i a l arrangement, by which VAG's p a t r o n s t r a d i t i o n a l l y bore a t l e a s t h a l f t h e c o s t of r u n n i n g t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n .  past.[12]  Where the p r o f e s s i o n a l t a i l e d  distinction in  into  the  amateur  -  an u n c l e a r  a town l i k e Vancouver, which i n the 1950s had v i r t u a l l y no  a r t market, and where o n l y a h a n d f u l of a r t i s t s were a b l e even the Canada  C o u n c i l was,  at that  to teach -  time, uninterested.  The Canada C o u n c i l  had, however, a n a t i o n a l mandate, i n the sense t h a t i t  was c o m b a t t i n g the  i n t r u s i o n of American mass c u l t u r e i n t o Canada ( e s p e c i a l l y w i t h t h e advent of t e l e v i s i o n ) , and where professional  artistic  it  could  culture  -  it an  encouraged endeavour  in  the  emergence  which  it  of a  succeeded  everywhere d u r i n g t h e 1960s.[13] There was, t h e n , a j u n c t u r e i n the e a r l y 1960s between civic gallery  which had  and a f e d e r a l government cultural l i f e .  chosen a  of a  new, h i g h e r - p r o f i l e r o u t e t o s u r v i v a l ,  d e s i r o u s of  The G a l l e r y ' s  the needs  an i n c r e a s e d  role in  the  nation's  c h o i c e meant t h a t i t would have t o seek out  12/ " E x c e l l e n c e " means, p r a c t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , a b i a s towards f u n d i n g the l a r g e r a r t s i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n C a n a d a ' s urban c e n t r e s ; t h a t i s , a tendency t o e x c l u d e amateur and r e g i o n a l e f f o r t s , though t h i s b i a s was r e d r e s s e d somewhat w i t h the " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n " push i n government c u l t u r a l a g e n c i e s i n t h e mid-1970s. Andre F o r t i e r , then-Canada C o u n c i l d i r e c t o r , j u s t i f i e d t h e b i a s by r e m a r k i n g t h a t , w i t h very l i m i t e d funds a t i t s d i s p o s a l , the Canada C o u n c i l had no c h o i c e but t o fund t h e " b e s t " (but what were the c r i t e r i a ? ) , i n t h e hope t h a t t h i s would s t i m u l a t e a mature Canadian c u l t u r e . The Canada C o u n c i l i t s e l f a g r e e d , i n a d i s c u s s i o n paper p u b l i s h e d i n 1977, t h a t a d e f i n i t i o n of " e x c e l l e n c e " was not a good i d e a , t h a t i t s d e f i n i t i o n would emerge i n the p r a c t i c e of j u d g i n g submissions though i t a d m i t t e d t h a t i t s p o l i c i e s r e s u l t e d i n the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of funds i n a few m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e s . See Andre F o r t i e r , "Dreams and Money: S u b s i d i z i n g the A r t s , " u n p u b l i s h e d Canada C o u n c i l mimeo (22 June 1973), p. 8; Twenty p l u s f i v e : A d i s c u s s i o n paper on the r o l e of t h e Canada C o u n c i l i n the a r t s a f t e r the f i r s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s (1957-1977), and over t h e next f i v e (Ottawa: The Canada C o u n c i l , 1977), p. 8. See a l s o S.M. C r e a n , Who's A f r a i d of Canadian C u l t u r e ? (Don M i l l s , O n t . : G e n e r a l P u b l i s h i n g , 1976), pp. 131-38. 13/ Report of the F e d e r a l C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee (Ottawa: Information Services, Department of Communications, Government of Canada, 1982), p. 15; F o r t i e r , i b i d .  new s o u r c e s of income, which i t s revamped programme was, i n p a r t , meant t o elicit;, cultural  at  the  same  time,  the f e d e r a l government was r e o r g a n i z i n g  a g e n c i e s , w i t h a m p l i f i e d budgets and a m b i t i o n s .  A l t h o u g h t h e Canada C o u n c i l a c t i v i t i e s and liberal  its  arts  income.[14]  i t s mandate scholarship  was founded  - to -  i n 1957,  f o r many  years  its  s u p p o r t " e x c e l l e n c e " i n t h e a r t s and i n  were  hampered  by  its  limited  endowment  S i n c e the C o u n c i l had l i t t l e ready c a s h , g a l l e r i e s and museums  r e c e i v e d m a r g i n a l amounts from  this  source  until  the  mid-1960s  - for  i n s t a n c e , VAG's i n i t i a l C o u n c i l g r a n t was $11,000 i n t h e f i r s t year of o p e r a t i o n (1958),  and was o n l y $17,810 by 1965 ( o f a  $ 2 0 7 , 0 0 0 ) , [ 1 5 ] though  i t more  t o t a l VAG  its  budget of  than doubled the f o l l o w i n g year and t h e r e -  after . However, cultural  there  policy  was begun  a  restructuring  in  1963  and  amplification  government c u l t u r a l  been s c a t t e r e d  of  hodge-podge  l i z e d under the a e g i s of t h e n a t i o n a l museums,  N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d , and  a g e n c i e s , which had  d i f f e r e n t d e p a r t m e n t s , were r a t i o n a -  Secretary  the N a t i o n a l  federal  by t h e new L i b e r a l government of L e s t e r  P e a r s o n . I n A p r i l 1963 the major in a  of  of  State  -  these  i n c l u d e d the  G a l l e r y , the Canada C o u n c i l , t h e CBC, the  the Queen's  P r i n t e r . [ 1 6 ] The  r o l e s of  most of  14/ The Canada C o u n c i l was o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d from the death d u t i e s of two w e a l t h y i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , M e s s r s . Dunn and K i l l a m , which amounted t o $100 m i l l i o n i n t o t a l . I t s u b s i s t e d e n t i r e l y on the i n t e r e s t from t h i s u n t i l 1965. B e r n a r d O s t r y , The C u l t u r a l C o n n e c t i o n : An Essay on C u l t u r e and Government P o l i c y i n Canada ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1978), p. 67. 15/ S o u r c e s : VAG Annual R e p o r t s , 1958 and 16/ O s t r y , p.  100.  1965.  t h e s e a g e n c i e s were expanded from 1963 succession  of  Secretaries  of  t o 1968  State.  d i r e c t i o n of a  In 1965, t h e Canada C o u n c i l began  receiving Parliamentary appropriations for i t to  under t h e  the f i r s t  t i m e , which a l l o w e d  expand i t s a r t s i n t e r v e n t i o n enormously f o r t e n y e a r s . [ 1 7 ]  congruent w i t h i t s expanded f u n d i n g  to  the  Vancouver  Art  T h i s was  Gallery  (and  o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s ) , b e g i n n i n g i n 1966.[18] The P a r l i a m e n t a r y  a p p r o p r i a t i o n s were asked f o r and r e c e i v e d a t a time  when t h e economic s u r p l u s seemed t o o f f e r t h e l a t i t u d e f o r on t h e p a r t of t h e government.[19]  such f i n a n c i n g  They were a l s o p a r t of a g e n e r a l p o l i c y  of i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o t h e c u l t u r a l and economic l i f e  of t h e  n a t i o n by the  Pearson government, a p o l i c y which was designed t o p r o v i d e a s t a b l e s o c i a l b a s i s f o r the c o n t i n u e d e x p a n s i o n of the economy The  creation  a d v i s o r y body was one  of  the  Economic  Council  with representatives  in  i n the  1963,  from b u s i n e s s ,  a  e a r l y 1960s.[20] consensus-creating  l a b o u r and government  s i g n of the L i b e r a l s ' commitment t o a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of economic  17/ O s t r y , i b i d . T h i s p e r i o d of the f i r s t o i l c r i s i s of 1973-74.  expansion came  t o an  end f o l l o w i n g  18/ The Canada C o u n c i l g r a n t t o VAG more than doubled from $17,500 i n 1965 t o $38,000 i n 1966, and r o s e t o $68,500 i n 1967. I t reached $230,366 by 1974, the h i g h p o i n t f o r VAG's Canada C o u n c i l g r a n t s (and a l s o t h e f i r s t year of N a t i o n a l Museums f u n d i n g ) . In t h a t year VAG r e c e i v e d t h e h i g h e s t f u n d i n g of any g a l l e r y or museum i n the c o u n t r y , o u t s i d e o f the f e d e r a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d museums i n O t t a w a . There a r e some d i s c r e p a n c i e s between t h e f i g u r e s used by VAG t o t o t a l i t s Canada C o u n c i l f u n d i n g , and t h o s e used by the agency i t s e l f , s i n c e they o p e r a t e on d i f f e r e n t f i s c a l y e a r s . I have used t h e f i g u r e s s u p p l i e d by t h e G a l l e r y i n i t s r e p o r t s . 19/ Reg W h i t a k e r , "Images of t h e s t a t e i n C a n a d a , " i n Leo P a n i t c h ( e d . ) , The Canadian s t a t e : p o l i t i c a l economy and p o l i t i c a l power ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1977), p. 6 1 . 20/ D a v i d W o l f e , "The s t a t e and economic p o l i c y i n Canada, i n P a n i t c h ( e d . ) , p. 258.  1968-75,"  goals w i t h i n were  a mixed  introduced  at  economy.[21] this  time,  The  Canada P e n s i o n  P l a n and M e d i c a r e  and unemployment i n s u r a n c e expanded,  o r d e r t o p r o v i d e more s e c u r i t y f o r the w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n . As wrote i n  in  Leo P a n i t c h  1977:  We a r e s p e a k i n g of p o l i c i e s d i r e c t e d a t t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of the subordinate classes in c a p i t a l i s t society either through the i n t r o d u c t i o n of r e f o r m s which promote s o c i a l harmony or through the c o - o p t a t i o n of w o r k i n g - c l a s s leaders....[22] The S t a t e came t o stand f o r , working  for,  the  whole  or  of  more  accurately  society.[23]  represented  By g r a n t i n g c e r t a i n r i g h t s  p r i v i l e g e s t o the l e s s p o w e r f u l , the s t a t e r e d r e s s e d secured t h e  i t s e l f as and  some i n j u s t i c e s , and  c o o p e r a t i o n (or a t l e a s t t h e a c q u i e s c e n c e )  of t h e  subordinate  classes,  i n the i n t e r e s t s of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n ; t h i s was i n d i s t i n c t i o n  to  policies  the  carried  out  by t h e p r e c e d i n g C o n s e r v a t i v e  which were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l i n g e r i n g r e c e s s i o n of Government c u l t u r a l p o l i c y d u r i n g social policies  t h i s period  government,  1958-62.[24]  was analogous  to other  e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e t i m e i n t h a t i t promised t o extend t h e  b e n e f i t s of a r t s a p p r e c i a t i o n and them; " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n " 21/ W o l f e , p.  higher  of c u l t u r a l  education  p o l i c y was  to  all  a keyword  who d e s i r e d w e l l i n t o the  259.  22/ Leo P a n i t c h , "The r o l e and P a n i t c h ( e d . ) , p. 19.  nature  of  the  Canadian  state,"  in  23/ Ian Gough, " S t a t e E x p e n d i t u r e i n Advanced C a p i t a l i s m , " New h e f t Review, no. 92 ( J u l y - A u g u s t 1975), pp. 6 4 - 6 5 . 24/ W o l f e , p.  259.  1970s, e s p e c i a l l y so a f t e r 1968.[25] Yet as t h e B o u r d i e u and  French s o c i o l o g i s t  o t h e r s have amply demonstrated, one a s p e c t of t h i s  t i z a t i o n " , p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t i s a p p l i e d t o museums tends  to  reinforce  the  attitudes  A c c o r d i n g t o i t , the g a l l e r y i s ultimate  freedom,  the  power  to  reserved f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  This  centred  a  and  asocial,  is  create freedom,  a place  socially.  However,  s o c i a l i z e d - the c u l t u r a l people w i t h  some a r t s  the  ability  p r o d u c t s of  to  - though t h a t power i s  usually  of  is the  always  individually  prevailing  or g a l l e r i e s  appreciate  modernism a r e  this  ideology, are r a r e l y freedom  is  " a v a i l a b l e " only to  t r a i n i n g . Those who a r e most f r e e i n s o c i e t y , w i t h  some l e g s up the l a d d e r , a r e those who a l s o have i n d i v i d u a l moments  society. of the  e s p e c i a l l y g i v e n t h a t e x h i b i t i o n s w i t h i n museums sited  of e x i s t i n g of freedom,  which  reproduction  "democra-  and p u b l i c g a l l e r i e s ,  and assumptions  promoted as  Pierre  of freedom,  the t o o l s  to appreciate  w h i l e the i g n o r a n t a r e condemned, even i n  25/ " D e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n " as a c u l t u r a l p o l i c y was adapted from UNESCO c u l t u r a l p o l i c y - though t h e " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n of c u l t u r e " ( v s . " c u l t u r a l democracy") was d i s c a r d e d a t symposia held i n Europe i n 1970 and 1972, c h i e f l y "because t h e p r i n c i p l e i t s e l f came t o be regarded as wrong" a f t e r t h e e v e n t s of May 1968. Stephen M e n n e l l , " S o c i a l Research and the Study of C u l t u r a l N e e d s , " i n J i r i Zuzanek ( e d . ) , S o c i a l Research and C u l t u r a l P o l i c y ( W a t e r l o o , O n t . : Otium P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1979), p. 15. In Canada, Secretary of S t a t e Gerard P e l l e t i e r o u t l i n e d the p r i n c i p l e s b e h i n d d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n two speeches a t L e t h b r i d g e i n 1969 and i n V e n i c e i n 1970 ( O s t r y , p. 118). C u l t u r e would no l o n g e r be r e s e r v e d f o r t h e "happy f e w " , a c c o r d i n g t o P e l l e t i e r , but would be made a c c e s s i b l e t o " a l l t a x p a y e r s " . These p r i n c i p l e s were c o n c r e t i z e d (and b u r e a u c r a t i z e d ) i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e N a t i o n a l Museums P o l i c y (NMP), announced by P e l l e t i e r i n March 1972. Dale McConathy, "The Canadian c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n : An a p p r a i s a l of the p o l i t i c s and economics of a r t , " a r t s c a n a d a , v o l . 32 no. 3 ( n o s . 200/201) (Autumn 1975), pp. 2 - 3 .  t h e i r own  eyes, to  "barbaric" inferiority•[26]  survey of the Canadian l e a s t income  museum p u b l i c  and e d u c a t i o n  those who p e r c e i v e d t h e  For  the  Vancouver  of  relations  e x p a n s i o n meant  a removal  cerns,  Gallery  as  the  (who a l s o  Gallery, and  between  attract federal  value i n  museums, though  professionalization  sought  entailed  i t s e l f from  i n an  expansion the t r a n s -  t r u s t e e s , s t a f f , and the community.  to  local cultural  But  i s s u e s and c o n -  e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l  i n i t s e l f , an abandonment of  funding; conversely,  the l o c a l ) , i n  s i n c e the G a l l e r y would no  l o n g e r have t o depend on l o c a l l a r g e s s e f o r i t s s u r v i v a l , to distance  w i t h the  museums l e a s t ) , were  s u r v i v a l meant e x p a n s i o n ,  from s t r i c t l y  (though t h i s d i d not s i g n i f y , order to  attended a r t  1974, t h o s e  sense.[27]  Art  meant p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n , formation  published i n  greatest s o c i a l  a b s t r a c t (not a p e r s o n a l )  It i s t e l l i n g that, in a  i t could afford  the whims of l o c a l b e n e f a c t o r s , even i f they  sat  on C o u n c i l . The r e l a t i o n s between t h e d i r e c t o r and still  formally  r e s p o n s i b l e were  the  Council  to  which  t r a n s f o r m e d , f o r the t r u s t e e s '  he was  own f u n d -  26/ P i e r r e B o u r d i e u , " O u t l i n e of a s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y of a r t perception," International s o c i a l science j o u r n a l , v o l . 20 no. 4 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 608-12; Kenneth C o u t t s - S m i t h , A r t and Social Transformation," C e n t e r f o l d , v o l . 2 no. 4 ( A p r i l 1978), pp. 2 0 - 2 1 ; C a r o l Duncan and A l a n Wallach, "The U n i v e r s a l Survey Museum," A r t H i s t o r y , v o l . 3 no. 4 (December 1980), pp. 456-57; C a r o l Duncan, "Who R u l e s the A r t World?", S o c i a l i s t Review, no. 70 ( J u l y - A u g u s t 1983), p. 106. 27/ B r i a n D i x o n , A l i c e E. C o u r t n e y , and Robert H. B a i l e y , The Museum and t h e Canadian P u b l i c ( T o r o n t o : C u l t u r c a n P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1974), p. 134. Those w i t h t h e l e a s t income and e d u c a t i o n were a l s o t h o s e who found the most d i f f i c u l t y w i t h museum s t r u c t u r e s , p e r s o n n e l and d i s p l a y s , and f o r whom museum v i s i t s p r o v i d e d the l e a s t s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p e r i e n c e .  r a i s i n g e f f o r t s p a l e d b e f o r e the amounts from governments and f o u n d a t i o n s . [ 2 8 ]  the d i r e c t o r  later),  now  that  s u r v i v a l , and now t h a t  it  VAG was  was  to r a i s e  With the r e d e f i n i t i o n of VAG's c i v i c  s t a t u s might have come a l o s s o f r o o t s i n the happen  was a b l e  no  l o c a l community  (as was t o  l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y t o the G a l l e r y ' s  a s p i r i n g to  a national  s t a t u s . T h i s was  combatted by Tony Emery and h i s a s s o c i a t e d i r e c t o r , D o r i s S h a d b o l t , w i t h a two-tiered l i b e r a l policy playing off national  and  American  federal generosity)  art.  They  the used  local  against  e x h i b i t i o n s of  t h e i r l i b e r t y ( o r dependence on  t o r e d e f i n e l o c a l concerns  r a t h e r than  abandon them,  l o o k i n g f o r d i f f e r e n t a u d i e n c e s t h a n the one t h e G a l l e r y had t r a d i t i o n a l l y s e r v i c e d , and v a l i d a t i n g t h e r e p u t a t i o n s of a g r e a t many young a r t i s t s . Of course,  during  with Vancouver's used  its  its  parochial  phase, VAG had m a i n t a i n e d c l o s e r e l a t i o n s  s m a l l a r t i s t i c community, and many amateur  premises  to  mount  annual  engaged i n promoting them n a t i o n a l l y and  s o c i e t i e s had  e x h i b i t i o n s , but i t had never been i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , as  the G a l l e r y  under Emery and S h a d b o l t sought t o do. VAG's l o c a l  emphasis took  a variety  of f o r m s , which depended c h i e f l y  upon t h e r e d e f i n i t i o n of i t s a u d i e n c e . I n v a r i o u s h i s tenure  interviews given  during  as d i r e c t o r , Emery e x t e m p o r i z e d on the audience he had g a i n e d ,  28/ I n 1974, Tony Emery p o i n t e d out t h a t d o n a t i o n s o n l y accounted f o r 5% of the G a l l e r y ' s revenue, a p o i n t c o r r o b o r a t e d by h i s s u c c e s s o r Luke Rombout i n 1976. ( I n t h a t y e a r , d o n a t i o n s accounted f o r o n l y $35,345 of a t o t a l income of $1,002,668. Source: VAG Annual R e p o r t , 1976.) Tony Emery, "My S i d e of the S t o r y , " M a c l e a n ' s (November 1974), p. 7; Luke Rombout, " E d i t o r i a l , " Vanguard, v o l . 5 no. 10 (Dec. 1976 - J a n . 1977), p. 2. By 1981, d o n a t i o n s ( e x c l u s i v e of the c a p i t a l campaign) had reached $148,060; a l t h o u g h t h i s was o n l y s l i g h t l y over 10% of the $1,416,521 budget, i t e q u a l l e d t h e Canada C o u n c i l c o n t r i b u t i o n f o r t h a t y e a r . I n s i m p l e r t i m e s , members' f e e s and d o n a t i o n s had accounted f o r $6,211 of t h e 1946/47 budget of $11,882; i n 1959, $47,973 of t h e $101,123 budget was r a i s e d p r i v a t e l y .  the  ones  he  hoped  to  attract,  and  the  one which had t o be a t l e a s t  p a r t i a l l y abandoned.[29]  There were f o u r  Emery wished  l i n k e d t o what he saw as a r e s u r g e n c e of i n t e r e s t  in  the  artists,  to serve,  arts  in  which  different  the  1960s.[30]  Three  Emery  identified  as  a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n contemporary a r t  were  Wyman i n  1971: "I  have a  co-extensive:  a  numbered about 1000 ( i n 1971); and V a n c o u v e r ' s  t o l d Max  of  the p u b l i c  Vancouver's  h i s primary p u b l i c ; p e o p l e w i t h an  issues,  which many young a r t i s t s i d e n t i f i e d i n  faces  group  which  he b e l i e v e d  c o u n t e r c u l t u r a l youth, with  the l a t e  1960s/early  1970s. Emery  much more genuine a u d i e n c e among the  s o - c a l l e d h i p p i e s , " than i n " t h e c u l t i v a t e d b o u r g e o i s a u d i e n c e , " believed  was  a  "myth"  so  far  amorphous p o t e n t i a l audience was accessible population  of the  as  Vancouver was c o n c e r n e d . [ 3 1 ]  the m a n - i n - t h e - s t r e e t ,  " t h e 94%  A more of the  Lower M a i n l a n d who have never - i f my rough  and ready c a l c u l a t i o n of a t t e n d a n c e can be r e l i e d upon Vancouver A r t  which he  G a l l e r y . [ 3 2 ] " Emery's  desire to  29/ Max Wyman, "Tony Emery: 'most Maclean's L e i s u r e Guide ( J u l y 1971), t r a v e l l e r , " The Vancouver Sun (22 August p l a c e l i k e home - Emery," The P r o v i n c e (1  set foot  i n the  b r i n g i n " t h e p e o p l e " was  a r t i c u l a t e man i n the c i t y ' , " p. 30; Jamie C r a i g , " A r t and our 1973); Bob A l l e n , " T h e r e i s no September 1973), p. 63.  30/ Ann Rosenberg, " P o r t r a i t of t h e A r t G a l l e r y D i r e c t o r . Tony Emery: What P l a n s ? " , The Vancouver Sun (18 August 1967), p. 5A. At t h a t t i m e , Emery s a i d " . . . . t h e f a c t was t h a t mass i n t e r e s t was a s t e p behind the advance g u a r d . I t ' s mass i n t e r e s t now and t h e r e ' s no doubt w e ' r e on our way." 31/ Wyman, op. c i t . , p. 30. 32/ Tony Emery, " D i r e c t o r ' s R e p o r t , " VAG Annual Report 1968,  n.p.  genuine[33],  though  g i v e n the  l i b e r a l parameters  of G a l l e r y p o l i c y [ 3 4 ] ,  33/ See d i s c u s s i o n of t h e v a r i o u s a t t e m p t s below. Emery t o l d Bob A l l e n i n 1973: "Our i n t e n t i o n has been t o r u n a ' p e o p l e ' s g a l l e r y ' - an i n t e n t i o n we have h o n e s t l y p u r s u e d . I s h a l l be very i n t e r e s t e d t o see whether our 'people's governments' w i l l support a ' p e o p l e ' s g a l l e r y ' . " ( A l l e n , op. c i t . ) . Emery was r e f e r r i n g t o the e l e c t i o n of r e f o r m i s t p a r t i e s i n 1972 - t h e New Democrats p r o v i n c i a l l y , and TEAM (The E l e c t o r s ' A c t i o n Movement) i n Vancouver. W h i l e t h e c i v i c government d i d i n c r e a s e i t s f u n d i n g t o VAG b e g i n n i n g i n 1974, p r o v i n c i a l a r t s f u n d i n g remained m i n i s c u l e u n t i l the r e t u r n of the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y i n 1975. The NDP has never had a c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , though i t i s a t t e m p t i n g t o form one a t p r e s e n t ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t t o VAG - out of t h e B.C. C u l t u r a l Fund, s u p p o r t e d by proceeds from l o t t e r y t i c k e t s a l e s - i n c r e a s e d from $50,400 i n 1975 ( t h e l a s t year i n which the NDP h e l d o f f i c e ) t o $160,000 i n 1976. I t was $285,000 i n 1981, the l a r g e s t g r a n t r e c e i v e d a f t e r the c i t y ' s own. 34/ The r e f u s a l t o i d e n t i f y a u d i e n c e s more c l o s e l y , which would i n e v i t a b l y e n t a i l a c l a s s a n a l y s i s o f the G a l l e r y ' s a u d i e n c e and i t s r o l e , was c o n v e n i e n t t o the i d e a of the " o p e n " g a l l e r y Emery was f o s t e r i n g , s i n c e t h i s i d e a was i t s e l f a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y . To t h i s end the G a l l e r y c o u l d not a f f o r d t o be " p o l i t i c a l " , t o make c h o i c e s based on such a n a l y s i s , though c h o i c e s were as i n e v i t a b l y made (which Emery l a t e r c a n d i d l y a d m i t t e d - see h i s r e m i n i s c e n c e s i n the " P e r s o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e s " s e c t i o n of VAG's Vancouver: A r t and A r t i s t s 1931-1983). I t would a l s o f o r c e t h e hand of an i n s t i t u t i o n almost e n t i r e l y funded by the s t a t e , and which was t o some e x t e n t i t s i n s t r u m e n t , i t s agent of l e g i t i m a t i o n , p r e c i s e l y t h r o u g h t h e degree of " o p e n n e s s " i t ( t h e n ) encouraged. See a l s o the d i s c u s s i o n below of the r o l e of the g a l l e r y i n contemporary s o c i e t y , and i t s c u l t i v a t i o n of l i n k s w i t h , and a b s o r p t i o n o f , the a v a n t - g a r d e , and e s p e c i a l l y the d i s c u s s i o n s i n t h e UNESCO j o u r n a l Museum, v o l . 24 no. 1 ( 1 9 7 2 ) . Even though the a r t museum was d e s c r i b e d t h e r e as the a v a t a r of freedom i n an u n f r e e w o r l d , the p l a c e " t o do away w i t h s o c i a l b a r r i e r s " ( p . 2 0 ) , t h e s e European a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a l s o made i t c l e a r t h a t : A t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be f o c u s s e d on t h e m i d d l e c l a s s e s (tertiary sector: white-collar workers, students, self-employed workers) r a t h e r t h a n on the w o r k i n g c l a s s e s . They have more c u r i o s i t y and a r e more w i l l i n g t o l e a r n about modern a r t , as w e l l as b e i n g more open t o e f f o r t s t o move them and arouse t h e i r c o n c e r n , ( p . 21) I n t h i s manner m a n i f e s t i n g the c o n t e n t of t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s , v s . the h i d d e n hand of Emery (who may not even have been aware of t h e p r o b l e m ) : s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e i r a r t i c l e was i l l u s t r a t e d by photos of VAG a c t i v i t i e s . See a l s o H a r o l d Rosenberg, "The Museum T o d a y , " i n The D e - d e f i n i t i o n of A r t : A c t i o n A r t t o Pop t o E a r t h w o r k s (New Y o r k : H o r i z o n P r e s s , 1972).  t h i s p o t e n t i a l a u d i e n c e c o u l d never be  scientifically identified;  a more  or l e s s b l i n d s e r i e s of i n i t i a t i v e s was made t o s o l i c i t i t . The means  by which  i t s n a t u r e . With t h e  an a u d i e n c e artists in  was t o be reached v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o  mind, Emery  and S h a d b o l t  i n c r e a s e d the  number and scope of e x h i b i t i o n s f o c u s s e d on l o c a l developments, beyond the r a t e of expansion undergone by t h e G a l l e r y ' s programme as a w h o l e . "We a r e a  validating  agent  for  the  artist,"  Emery  s e c u r i n g r e p u t a t i o n s and g r a n t s f o r l o c a l From  1967,  artists'  performances  said  i n 1973, h e l p f u l i n  artists in  e a s t e r n Canada.[35]  and  installations  were  organized  r e g u l a r l y , e i t h e r as p a r t of e x h i b i t i o n s , of t h e s p e c i a l e v e n t s s e r i e s , as p a r t  of the  I n t e r m e d i a weeks  which took  or  p l a c e a n n u a l l y from 1968 t o  1970.[36] The f o c u s of t h e G a l l e r y programme s h i f t e d i n s e r i e s of  the e a r l y  1970s, from a  h i g h - p r o f i l e shows b e g i n n i n g i n 1967 w i t h A r t s of the Raven and  ending i n 1971 w i t h  Sculpture/Inuit,  to  events,  to  the  a c t i v i t i e s of  s a t e l l i t e g a l l e r i e s o u t s i d e the VAG p r e m i s e s , and t o the mounting of s m a l l i n d i v i d u a l or e x h i b i t i o n . Two  group  showings  without  the  apparatus  of  a traditional  s e r i e s of e x h i b i t i o n s began i n 1972 which f o c u s s e d  either  35/ A l l e n , op. c i t . In 1967, Emery s t r e s s e d t h e r e p u t a t i o n younger Vancouver a r t i s t s were w i n n i n g a c r o s s the c o u n t r y , due i n p a r t t o the e f f o r t s VAG was making on t h e i r b e h a l f . For example, p a r t of VAG's P a i n t i n g '66 e x h i b i t i o n , which f e a t u r e d emerging l o c a l a r t i s t s , was t o u r e d n a t i o n a l l y by the NGC i n 1967. Emery, VAG Annual Report 1967, n.p. 36/ I n t e r m e d i a was the m a j o r , though not the o n l y , c o l l a b o r a t i v e a r t i s t s ' organization o p e r a t i n g i n Vancouver a t t h i s t i m e , and i t m a i n t a i n e d a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h VAG d u r i n g i t s a c t i v e l i f e . Werner A e l l e n , I n t e r m e d i a ' s d i r e c t o r f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , was t h e f i r s t of the a r t i s t s ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s Emery managed t o get on VAG C o u n c i l ; t h i s was i n 1971. A s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s w i t h former I n t e r m e d i a members i s included i n the " V o i c e s " s e c t i o n of Vancouver: A r t and A r t i s t s 1931-1983.  on e x p e r i m e n t a l a c t i v i t i e s or Space  was  an  occasional  the  emergence  series,  of  Space,  later  Exploratory  Space,  concurrently  in  the  outgrowth of t h e D i r e c t i o n s showcased t h e  two  show i n  had a  c o u p l e of  series,  which  annually  " b o o k " o f pamphlets) of photography  media, i n c l u d i n g many the  large salon  artists,  shows  from  1966  to  1972  Almanac ( 1 9 7 1 ) , an  by l o c a l a r t i s t s , and  of r e c e n t  works i n  a range of  events.  1967-74  period  VAG's  officers,  i n s t i t u t i o n s , c o n c e i v e d of t h e i r r o l e as area  artists'  a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n of two or t h r e e young a r t i s t s . T h i s was  P a c i f i c V i b r a t i o n s (1973), a  During  committee  s m a l l c e n t r a l g a l l e r i e s . They were an  i n a d d i t i o n t o s i g n i f i c a n t group e x h i b i t i o n s l i k e B.C. e x h i b i t i o n (and  which  VAG's ambiance.  was run by an a r t i s t s '  independent of the G a l l e r y , which always running  a r t i s t s . Alternate  o r g a n i z e d by the G a l l e r y s t a f f ,  a f f o r d e d e x p e r i m e n t a l a r t i s t s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o Free  new  combining  this  with  t h a t of  l i k e those of many a "support  arts  system"  for  an a p p e a l t o a w i d e r p u b l i c c o n s t i -  t u e n c y . As Kenneth C o u t t s - S m i t h , H a r o l d Rosenberg  and J e f f  demonstrated, the concept of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l " s u p p o r t  W a l l have each  system" f o r  was an i n s t r u m e n t f o r the r e c u p e r a t i o n of t h e a v a n t - g a r d e ,  at  artists  a t i m e when  t h e r e no l o n g e r appeared t o be an o b j e c t i v e b a s i s f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e of the l a t t e r . [ 3 7 ] C o u t t s - S m i t h has s a i d t h a t : I t may be q u i t e p o s s i b l e t o t a k e t h e view t h a t t h e r e was, in fact, no such i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a t a l l i n any r e a l sense, t h a t i t was a myth b e l i e v e d i n a l i k e , and f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d , by v a r i o u s 37/ C o u t t s - S m i t h , op. c i t . ; Rosenberg, op. c i t . ; J e f f W a l l , "The S i t e of C u l t u r e : C o n t r a d i c t i o n s , T o t a l i t y and t h e A v a n t G a r d e , " Vanguard, v o l . 12 no. 4 (May 1983), pp. 18-19. Each w r i t e r i s i n agreement on t h i s p o i n t , though t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s a r e o t h e r w i s e not i d e n t i c a l .  curators, critics, art-historians, teachers as w e l l as by p r a c t i c i n g a r t i s t s . [ 3 8 ] There was,  however, an  explicit identification  and  administrators  w i t h t h i s model by Emery  and S h a d b o l t . Emery has s a i d t h a t i t was h i s i n t e n t i o n t o use to b u i l d  a base  of s u p p o r t  f o r the  e x i s t i n g government p a t r o n a g e [ 3 9 ] , t h i s idea  was, e s p e c i a l l y  the G a l l e r y  l o c a l a r t i s t i c community beyond the  although  t i m e has  shown how u n t e n a b l e  s i n c e i t was c o n c e i v e d o u t s i d e of the e x i s t i n g  s t r a t u m of c o l l e c t o r s . An a s p e c t of the " s u p p o r t of European  s y s t e m " i d e o l o g y was  r a i s e d by  a collection  museum d i r e c t o r s w r i t i n g i n the UNESCO j o u r n a l Museum i n  (based on d i s c u s s i o n s  1972  i n 1969-70), who s a i d a t t h a t t i m e :  Today the museum has an a r t i s t i c and s o c i a l message t o convey. T h i s has brought about a d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n which has put a q u e s t i o n mark a g a i n s t t h e o l d museum s t r u c t u r e s , s t i l l based on the p r i n c i p l e of a r t i s t i c performance. Nowadays, w h i l e the a r t i s t i s s t i l l taken as t h e s t a r t i n g - p o i n t , a t t e n t i o n i s more and more f o c u s e d on the community....We must no l o n g e r r e g a r d t h e museum as j u s t an i n s t r u ment f o r o f f e r i n g a r t t o the p u b l i c . The museum has become more c r i t i c a l both of a r t and of i t s e l f , because i t has become aware of i t s f u n c t i o n o u t s i d e d a i l y l i f e . I t does indeed f u n c t i o n o u t s i d e t h e system, sets i t s e l f up i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the E s t a b l i s h m e n t , y e t c o n t i n u a l l y shows i t s e l f t o be an i n s t r u m e n t of t h e system. L i k e a r t it is a p l a c e of freedom, but of freedom which s t o p s a t the museum door....[AO] 38/ C o u t t s - S m i t h , p. 20. I t a k e i t t o mean t h a t s i n c e the a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e of the i n s t i t u t i o n s was not t r a n s f o r m e d , t h e appearance of t h e i r s h o r t - l i v e d " b e n e v o l e n c e " was a c h i m e r a . A l t h o u g h t h e r e are d i f f e r e n c e s between Canadian and American i n s t i t u t i o n a l models i n t h i s p e r i o d , due t o g r e a t e r government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the c u l t u r a l f i e l d i n Canada and a less-developed a r t market, among o t h e r f a c t o r s , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e i n degree r a t h e r than i n k i n d . But C o u t t s - S m i t h was, as W a l l i s , f a m i l i a r w i t h the w o r k i n g s of Canadian c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . 39/ Emery, Vancouver:  A r t and A r t i s t s 1931-1983, p.  257.  40/ " P r o b l e m s of the museum of contemporary a r t i n t h e West", Museum, v o l . 24 no. 1 ( 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 5-6. The museum d i r e c t o r s were P i e r r e G a u d i b e r t (deputy c u r a t o r , Musee d ' A r t Moderne, P a r i s ) ; Pontus H u l t e n ( e x - d i r e c t o r ,  It  i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h i s a r t i c l e c o n n e c t s , as Emery d i d , s e r v i c e t o t h e  a r t i s t with  service to  t h e community,  but what  i s more s t r i k i n g i s t h e  " a v a n t - g a r d e " p o s t u r e i t adopts of o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e  " s y s t e m " (though,  as  d i r e c t o r s of e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s , they a r e f u l l y aware of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n such an a t t i t u d e e m b o d i e s ) [ 4 1 ] , t i v e responses I n an  and  t o new s o c i a l and a r t i s t i c  a r t i c l e published  of the  necessity for innova-  developments.[42]  a f t e r h i s d e a t h , C o u t t s - S m i t h remarked on t h e  e s s e n t i a l i s m of the a v a n t - g a r d e a t t i t u d e , an a t t i t u d e i n  which t h e " o p e n "  c r e a t i v i t y of t h e p r o g r e s s i v e a r t i s t was posed a g a i n s t the " c l o s e d "  system  Moderna Museet, S t o c k h o l m ) ; M i c h a e l Kustow ( e x - d i r e c t o r , ICA, London); Jean Leymarie ( d i r e c t o r , Musee d ' A r t Moderne); F r a n c o i s Mathey ( c h i e f c u r a t o r , Musee des A r t s d e c o r a t i f s , P a r i s ) ; Georges H e n r i R i v i e r e ; H a r a l d Szeeman ( e x - d i r e c t o r , K u n s t h a l l e , B e r n ) ; Eduard de W i l d e ( d i r e c t o r , S t e d e l i j k , Amsterdam). A l l p o s i t i o n s as l i s t e d i n the a r t i c l e . 41/ As when, i n the p r e c e d i n g q u o t e , they " a n i n s t r u m e n t of t h e s y s t e m " , or f u r t h e r :  acknowledge t h a t  they a r e  T h i s i n n e r c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n the r o l e of the museum - t h a t i t i s the epitome of the system, but a t t h e same time r e l a t i v e l y f r e e t o criticize i t - is i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e museum of today and f o r i t s immediate f u t u r e . To put i t b l u n t l y , the i d e a l museum would be t h e one t h a t was c l o s e d by the a u t h o r i t i e s . The museum can o n l y f u n c t i o n towards promoting a r t i s t i c i n t e r e s t s p r o v i d e d i t i s o u t s i d e the r e s t r a i n t s of s o c i e t y . Because i t is none t h e l e s s s u b j e c t t o t h e r u l e s of s o c i e t y , i t f a l l s i n t o a p o s i t i o n of c o n f l i c t , which i s aggravated by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t i e s l i k e t o see h i g h l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l s u b j e c t s d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n an a r t c o n t e x t , because they a r e t h e r e b y r e n d e r e d h a r m l e s s , ( i b i d , p. 6) 42/ The a r t i c l e by M i c h a e l Kustow, " P r o f i l e s and s i t u a t i o n s of some museums of contemporary a r t , " t h a t f o l l o w e d the l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n c i t e d above, l o o k e d a t the programmes of some " p r o g r e s s i v e " European museums i n t h e l a t e 1960s, n o t a b l y those of the S t e d e l i j k i n Amsterdam and the Moderna Museet i n Stockholm. Innovations i n c l u d e d e x h i b i t i o n s at s i t e s i n t h e c i t y o u t s i d e of musuem p r e m i s e s , c o l l a b o r a t i v e p r o j e c t s w i t h a r t i s t s , events, e x h i b i t i o n s o r g a n i z e d i n museum space by independent a r t i s t s ' groups - ones s i m i l a r t o e x p e r i m e n t s a t the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y .  of b o u r g e o i s  l i f e and i d e o l o g y . [ 4 3 ]  antibourgeois p o l i t i c s vanguardism,  T h i s a t t i t u d e , when  (never w e l l - a r t i c u l a t e d ) of " t r a d i t i o n a l " a r t i s t i c  c o u l d be deployed i n the  Vancouver, w i t h  d i v o r c e d from t h e  a minimum  way i t  was u s e d ,  o p p o s i t i o n a l stance  for instance,  to the l o c a l  in  bourgeoisie,  combined w i t h an a p p e a l t o c o u n t e r c u l t u r a l s e n t i m e n t s (and f i n a n c e d by the f e d e r a l government - one of t h e means by which the government attempted t o defuse  oppositional  explicit political s e l v e s , a s t e p they t h e i r most  sentiments,  programmes[44]). would not  b e n e v o l e n t phase  be v e h i c l e s  prevent  a  programme  and c o u l d  Perhaps  of r e f o r m  of  from  hardening i n t o  By r e f u s i n g t o become p o l i t i c a l themnot t a k e ,  this  i n s t i t u t i o n s even i n  course  was  because  they c o n c e i v e d  (and t h u s not a v a n t - g a r d e a t a l l i n  any u s u a l sense of t h e term) r a t h e r than relations,  them  r e v e a l e d themselves t o be i n s t r u m e n t s of the  system they were c r i t i c i z i n g . themselves t o  or  they  of the  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s o c i a l  themselves  were  i n c a p a b l e of  43/ Kenneth C o u t t s - S m i t h , "Postbourgeois Ideology and V i s u a l C u l t u r e " , Open L e t t e r , F i f t h S e r i e s , nos. 5-6 (Summer-Fall 1983), p. 109. O r i g i n a l l y published i n P r a x i s 6 (1982). This issue of Open L e t t e r was e d i t e d by Bruce B a r b e r , and i s s u b t i t l e d " E s s a y s on (Performance) and Cultural Politicization." 44/ A s i m i l a r i n t e n t i n t h e c o n c e p t i o n of t h e L o c a l I n i t i a t i v e s P r o j e c t s ( L I P ) and O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Youth (OFY) programmes of t h e f e d e r a l government i s c r i t i q u e d by L o m e F. Huston, "The F l o w e r s of Power: A C r i t i q u e of OFY and L I P Programmes," Our G e n e r a t i o n , v o l . 8 no. 4 (October 1972), pp. 5 2 - 6 1 , and by M a r t i n Loney, A p o l i t i c a l economy of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , " i n P a n i t c h ( e d . ) , op. c i t . , pp. 446-72. As a r e s u l t , some a s p e c t s of the programmes were h e a v i l y c r i t i c i z e d by c o n s e r v a t i v e s , and they were s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o d i f i e d i n 1972, b e f o r e b e i n g abandoned a l t o g e t h e r . A s i g n of t h i s was the t r a n s f e r of the L I P programme from the Department of t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e , where i t had o r i g i n a t e d , t o Canada Manpower, the s t a t e employment agency. B e r n a r d O s t r y a l s o discusses these programmes, and t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s h a n d l i n g of them, as a n o t h e r a s p e c t of P e l l e t i e r ' s " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n " p o l i c y , broached a f t e r 1968. O s t r y , op. c i t . , p. 118.  carrying out.  Such a  s u p p o r t i n the m i d d l e l i k e the  n a i v e p r o j e c t as t h e b u i l d i n g of a base of  economic  class for  projects  area a r t i s t s ,  or " i n n e r  city"  s a t e l l i t e workshop g a l l e r i e s i n the c i t y ' s e a s t end i n the e a r l y  1970s, a r e examples of reforms  which  went  nowhere,  and  which  l e f t no  r e s i d u e i n the c i t y ' s s o c i a l f a b r i c . An e s s e n t i a l i s t  attitude led  n o v e l t y i n museum and g a l l e r y r e c u p e r a t i o n of  avant-garde  everywhere t o  programming; postures  C o u n c i l minutes i n May 1973 r e p o r t e d then-governing  beliefs  a stress  this  was  an  by i n s t i t u t i o n s . the views  on r e l e v a n c e , on aspect  of the  For i n s t a n c e , VAG  of D o r i s  S h a d b o l t on the  of t h e G a l l e r y , which she r e l a t e d t o t h e e x i s t e n c e  of an aware and s u p p o r t i v e  audience:  In her v i e w , t h e r e i s a new a u d i e n c e who want t o be i n v o l v e d and i s aware of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of a r t as e d u c a t i o n and a r t as s u r v i v a l . The G a l l e r y b e i n g s m a l l and f l e x i b l e i s able to take a moral stand i n response t o t h i s new awareness. The G a l l e r y ' s commitment t o accommodate t h e s e new senses of change are r e f l e c t e d i n the i n f o r m a l atmosphere, e l i m i n a t i o n of a d m i s s i o n charge, c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the permanent c o l l e c t i o n , c h o i c e of e x h i b i t i o n s , s p e c i a l e v e n t s and t h e e d u c a t i o n programmes.[45] In an  i n t e r v i e w conducted the same y e a r , S h a d b o l t i n d i c a t e d t h a t what was  most r e l e v a n t , r e v e l a t o r y , was  what was  most contemporary,  and t h a t t h e  G a l l e r y was i n v o l v i n g i t s e l f i n many p r o j e c t s which broke down t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i s t i c categories.[46]  Emery, R i c h a r d  Simmins,  and  Alvin Balkind  (the  45/ VAG C o u n c i l minutes (10 May 1973), p. 1. S h a d b o l t was a c t i n g d i r e c t o r a t t h e t i m e , w h i l e Emery was on s a b b a t i c a l . There i s e v i d e n c e i n the minutes of a g i t a t i o n among C o u n c i l members over both G a l l e r y f i n a n c e s ( t h e r e was a b i g g e r c r i s i s t h a n u s u a l i n 1973 over f u n d i n g ) , and over the d i r e c t i o n i n which VAG was h e a d i n g . S h a d b o l t was s p e a k i n g here at a d i n n e r meeting t o e x p l a i n t h e r a t i o n a l e behind G a l l e r y p o l i c i e s . 46/ " D o r i s S h a d b o l t and the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , " i n t e r v i e w by Marlene Karnouk ( V i c t o r i a : A u r a l H i s t o r y Programme, P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of B.C., 1973), p. 12. I t was t h i s a t t i t u d e t h a t Rosenberg c r i t i c i z e d in his  d i r e c t o r of t h e UBC F i n e A r t s G a l l e r y from 1962 t o 1973) , have a l l acknowl e d g e d t h i s was a p o p u l a r t h e most  s e r i o u s as  project  w e l l as  in  one  which guaranteed  the l a r g e s t a u d i e n c e s . [ 4 7 ]  This " m a s s i f i c a -  t i o n " of contemporary a r t p r o j e c t s i s and  one  which  remains  to  be  the  1960s,  a unique  phenomenon of  t h e 1960s,  a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n e d . There was, t h e n , a  p r a c t i c a l element t o t h e promotion of  contemporary a r t i s t i c developments:  as Emery s a i d , e x h i b i t i o n s l i k e New York 13 or L.A.  6 drew f a r more p e o p l e  i n t h e i r time than d i d t r a d i t i o n a l  t h e Group  Carr  or  even  wrote i n  1968:  the  prestigious  e x h i b i t i o n s of  of 7, E m i l y  A r t s of the Raven.[48] The t h e n - d i r e c t o r  My own view of a downtown g a l l e r y i s that i t s r o l e , although b e g i n n i n g by b e i n g guided from w i t h i n , i s f i n a l l y shaped - i f i t s t a y s awake - by the s u b t l e d i a l e c t i c of f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the e n v i r o n m e n t . It should so f a r as f i n a n c e s and m a t e r i a l and human r e s o u r c e s p e r m i t , be a s t o r e h o u s e , showwindow, r e l a y s t a t i o n , visual-information-exchange; it should encourage involvement, p a r t i c i p a t i o n , enjoyment; i t s h o u l d spread and f o s t e r the f e e l i n g t h a t i n a r t t h e r e may be many mansions, but a b s o l u t e l y no w a t e r 1972 a r t i c l e ( p .  235):  The plunge i n t o t h e stream of change has r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d t h e museum's e a r l i e r r e l a t i o n t o the p a s t and t o a r t as w e l l . Aware of i t s e l f as a medium of mass e d u c a t i o n i n n o v e l t y , i t p r e s e n t s works o f a l l t i m e s and p l a c e s as news, l a y i n g s t r e s s on t h e i r " r e l e v a n c e " t o t h e contemporary. I t was R o s e n b e r g ' s o p i n i o n t h a t t h i s k i n d o f museum p r a c t i c e t o l i q u i d a t e b o t h a r t h i s t o r y and the a v a n t - g a r d e .  was h e l p i n g  47/ For Emery, see Note 3 1 . R i c h a r d Simmins, " D i r e c t o r ' s R e p o r t , " VAG Annual R e p o r t , 1963, n . p . : "The f a c t remains t h a t i n terms of a t t e n d a n c e and coverage by p r e s s , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n , the g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t s t i l l l i e s i n the c o n t r o v e r s i a l f i e l d of contemporary a r t . " A l v i n B a l k i n d and Abe R o g a t n i c k , "An A s p i r a t i o n t o Get B e y o n d , " C r i t e r i a , v o l . 4 no. 2 ( F a l l 1978), p. 11. I n t e r v i e w conducted by David M a c W i l l i a m , c o n c e r n i n g the c o u p l e ' s a c t i v i t i e s i n Vancouver s i n c e t h e i r a r r i v a l i n 1955. 48/ Wyman, op. c i t . , p.  30.  t i g h t compartments: t h a t b r e a t h i n g and e a t i n g . [ 4 9 ] With the  breakdown  a r t i s t i c process,  of  art  is  as  traditional  and w i t h  t h a t was  conceptions  of  essential  as  what c o n s t i t u t e d  concern f o r  r e a c h i n g the  unaware of c u r r e n t a r t i s s u e s . E m e r y ' s  of a mass audience f o r the a r t s f o r o p i n i o n by  and  the m a s s i f i c a t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of  a v a n t - g a r d e a t t i t u d e s , came a l s o a new t h e community  natural  the f i r s t  t i m e was  b u l k of  perception  validated in  his  t h e i n c r e a s e d a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e G a l l e r y , though t h i s was never  as l a r g e as he  hoped  interested in "borderline"  for.[50]  His  audience  was  young,  e d u c a t e d , and  i n n o v a t i o n - or a t t h e l e a s t i n n o v e l t y . VAG's a t t e n t i o n t o activities,  o u t s i d e museum  as  c o n c e r n s , was  it  followed  linked to  artists  into  areas h i t h e r t o  i t s e v e n t s p o l i c y , an e n t e r p r i s e  i n t e n d e d t o b r i n g p e o p l e i n t o t h e G a l l e r y who had no a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h the v i s u a l a r t s , but who might be i n t e r e s t e d i n e f f o r t s i n o t h e r media. E v e n t s were one p a r t of a s e r i e s of i n i t i a t i v e s t h a t Emery undertook i n appeal  to  a  wider  constituency,  which  began  order to  t o dwarf t h e e x h i b i t i o n  s c h e d u l e i t s e l f i n the e a r l y 1970s. 49/ " D i r e c t o r ' s R e p o r t , VAG Annual R e p o r t , 1968,  n.p.  50/ Annual a t t e n d a n c e f o r t h e i n - h o u s e programme, which i n c l u d e d the s p e c i a l e v e n t s , reached 135,000 by 1969, and remained a t t h a t l e v e l f o r the next two y e a r s ( s o u r c e s : C o u n c i l minutes, 21 January 1971 and 27 January 1972), v s . an a t t e n d a n c e of 93,000 i n 1966 ( s o u r c e : C o u n c i l m i n u t e s , 21 November 1967). Rombout has c l a i m e d an a n n u a l a t t e n d a n c e of 250,000 a t t h e o l d VAG s i t e i n r e c e n t y e a r s ( s e e , f o r i n s t a n c e , R o c h e l l e van Halm, " H a r v e s t T i m e , " B.C. B u s i n e s s (September 1983), p. 76, an a r t i c l e timed t o c o i n c i d e w i t h VAG's r e - o p e n i n g ) , but t h i s seems e x a g g e r a t e d . The b a s i s f o r a t t e n d a n c e f i g u r e s b e f o r e 1973 was a d m i s s i o n f e e s , but s i n c e t h e s e were dropped, a l e s s r e l i a b l e method of c o u n t e r s s u p p l i e d t o each s e c u r i t y guard was u s e d , no doubt i n f l a t i n g the r e a l f i g u r e s .  The s p e c i a l events programme began i n s e r i e s (a  source of  expanded the  an " u n d e r g r o u n d "  c o n s t e r n a t i o n t o some of VAG's members)[51],  following  c l a s s i c a l and  1967 w i t h  year  popular music.  to  include  The noon-hour  weekly  noon-hour  and was  c o n c e r t s of  s e r i e s proved so p o p u l a r t h a t  i t was extended t o t h r e e days per week, i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e a t r e , dance, and p o e t r y which,  appearances by  they  usually  such f i g u r e s  Beek, J e a n - L u c Godard and  alone.[52] house of  film  r e a d i n g s , as w e l l as m u s i c . In 1969 e v e n i n g e v e n t s were added,  though  (many of  film  featured as Yvonne  Yevgeny  local  performers,  also included  R a i n e r , Deborah Hay, Stan Van Der  Yevtushenko.  By  1974,  27,000 people  them n e i g h b o u r i n g o f f i c e w o r k e r s ) were a d m i t t e d f o r (293) The amount of a c t i v i t y a t a l l the  VAG, which  was becoming  a r t s , meant almost c o n t i n u o u s coverage of i t s  events  known as a programme  51/ C o u n c i l minutes a r e peppered w i t h o p p o s i t i o n by Board members t o e v e n t s , t o g e t h e r w i t h c a l l s f o r a r e - e m p h a s i s on d i s p l a y of the permanent c o l l e c t i o n . These a r e e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t d u r i n g Emery's first and l a s t y e a r s as d i r e c t o r . The s e r i e s i n q u e s t i o n c o n t a i n e d some f i l m s of a sexually e x p l i c i t n a t u r e , which caused s e v e r a l members t o r e s i g n i n p r o t e s t (VAG C o u n c i l E x e c u t i v e Committee m i n u t e s , 28 March 1968, p. 2 ) . Recently ( F e b r u a r y 1984), D i r e c t o r Luke Rombout c a n c e l l e d t h e i n a u g u r a l show (by P a u l Wong and t h r e e o t h e r s ) i n t h e new V i d e o s p a c e , two days b e f o r e i t was t o open. The v i d e o s were i n t e r v i e w s r e g a r d i n g the r e s p o n d e n t s ' s e x u a l i t y , but c o n t a i n e d no e x p l i c i t f o o t a g e . Rombout defended h i s d e c i s i o n on a e s t h e t i c grounds: "These t a p e s a r e s i m p l y t h e f a c e s of people being i n t e r v i e w e d . This in itself does not c o n s t i t u t e a c r e a t i v e a c t . There i s no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h v i s u a l a r t . " John B e n t l e y Mays, " V i d e o too e x p l i c i t , VAG c a n c e l s show," The Globe and M a i l (23 February 1984), p. 18. 52/ VAG Annual R e p o r t , annual r e p o r t s , v a r i o u s years.  1974,  n.p.  F a c t s on e v e n t s c o l l a t e d from  i n the p r e s s [ 5 3 ] ,  a  fact  which  helped  make  the  Gallery  w i d e l y known  r e g a r d l e s s of i t s e x h i b i t i o n s c h e d u l e . In 1970  VAG made  another i n i t i a t i v e ,  launching a " s a t e l l i t e g a l l e r y "  f o r 3 months a t the r a c e t r a c k i n V a n c o u v e r ' s r e a c h some  of the  i n c o r p o r a t e d both t r a i n e d as  " 9 4 % " who exhibitions  had never and  e a s t end. I t was  been t o  workshops  intended to  the G a l l e r y i t s e l f , and  (its  staff  had  a l l been  G e s t a l t t h e r a p i s t s ) [ 5 4 ] . T h i s s u c c e s s f u l v e n t u r e was succeeded  by t h e E a s t End G a l l e r y , which was a n o t h e r converted church  shared w i t h  ment was begun a t t h e C a p i l a n o and supported  by the  ad hoc  Intermedia.[55] Stadium i n  venture, located  A more l o n g s t a n d i n g  1971, l a s t i n g  in a  experi-  f o r three years  Vancouver F o u n d a t i o n and by g r a n t s from t h e f e d e r a l  government's OFY and L I P programmes.[56]  Local  t e e n a g e r s were  h i r e d , and  53/ Emery, Vancouver: A r t and A r t i s t s (1983), p. 258. The 1972 Museum a r t i c l e c i t e d above mentioned t h i s development i n museum p r a c t i c e i n t h e 1960s, " s i n c e i t was o f t e n the o n l y p l a c e i n which new f i l m s , p l a y s and music were p r o d u c e d . " ( p . 11) 54/ VAG Annual R e p o r t , 1970, n.p. Report by Ray W a l k e r , t h e n - e d u c a t i o n o f f i c e r , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the R a c e t r a c k G a l l e r y programme. 55/ VAG C o u n c i l E x e c u t i v e Committee minutes (10 September 1970). T h i s " g a l l e r y " took workshops t o v a r i o u s s i t e s and groups i n the Lower M a i n l a n d 56/ See Note 46. A f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s ensued i n 1973 when VAG's L I P g r a n t a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the Stadium G a l l e r y was i n i t i a l l y r e j e c t e d , and when the Vancouver F o u n d a t i o n announced i t would no l o n g e r support i t e i t h e r . (VAG C o u n c i l E x e c u t i v e Committee m i n u t e s , 3 A p r i l and 14 June 1973). At t h i s p o i n t an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r i n c r e a s e d f u n d i n g from the B.C. C u l t u r a l Fund had a l s o been r e j e c t e d , as had a r e q u e s t f o r a b i g g e r g r a n t from the c i t y . D o n a t i o n s were a l s o a t a low p o i n t - o n l y $7,000 as of 14 J u n e . A l l of t h i s meant a d e f i c i t f i g u r e of $60,000 as of the m i d d l e of t h e y e a r , though an L I P e x t e n s i o n g r a n t d i d e v e n t u a l l y come t h r o u g h , and the c a n c e l l a t i o n of 6 e x h i b i t i o n s ( r e p l a c e d by the mammoth P a c i f i c V i b r a t i o n s ) meant t h a t the d e f i c i t was reduced t o a manageable f i g u r e . The c r i s i s was i n d i c a t i v e of a s h i f t i n government c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , and of a s e r i o u s l o s s of c o n f i d e n c e i n the G a l l e r y among i t s members.  a c t i v i t i e s were  coordinated  for  Gallery's site,  R i l e y Park,  was known  the time.[57] This  the  neighbourhood  youth;  the  Stadium  as a p a r t i c u l a r l y " t o u g h " a r e a a t  a u d i e n c e , l i k e t h o s e of p r i s o n e r s and  senior  citizens  s e r v i c e d by o t h e r p r o j e c t s , was f a r d i f f e r e n t from the one t h a t f r e q u e n t e d the G a l l e r y  premises.  The d i r e c t o r noted i n t h e 1973 been reached  by t h e  annual r e p o r t  Gallery that  t h a t 285,000  people had  year - 120,000 who v i s i t e d t h e G a l l e r y  f o r e x h i b i t i o n s and e v e n t s , and 165,000 who had t a k e n p a r t  i n the  outreach  satellites.[58]  programmes:  The A r t i n t h e i n t o the  extension,  i n - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n and  S c h o o l s programme  schools i n  the Lower  brought a r t i s t s Mainland, while  which began i n 1968 w i t h f u n d i n g from the a r t from  the VAG  communities ( a g a i n , included the  c o l l e c t i o n through mainly  to  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of  and e d u c a t o r s d i r e c t l y the extension  B.C. C u l t u r a l  many of  programme,  Fund[59],  toured  B . C . ' s i n t e r i o r and i s l a n d  schoolchildren). Vanguard as  various  Other  a monthly  outreach e f f o r t s events calendar  in  January 1971, which r e p l a c e d the o l d VAG B u l l e t i n . Vanguard,  originally  a newspaper  r a t h e r than a  f o r m a t , was  meant t o  be a  publicity vehicle  j o u r n a l , though C r i t e r i a , which began as a q u a r t e r l y i n s e r t i n Vanguard  in  in  1974, was more s u b s t a n t i a l . I t was d i s t r i b u t e d by t h e G a l l e r y but produced i n d e p e n d e n t l y , r a t h e r than o p e r a t i n g as  the  house  vehicle  Vanguard  was  57/ VAG C o u n c i l minutes (24 June 1971). T h i s meeting of C o u n c i l was h e l d a t t h e Stadium G a l l e r y , b e f o r e r e n o v a t i o n s were c o m p l e t e d . Karen McDiarmid, who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e programme, e x p l a i n e d the reasons f o r t h e new s a t e l l i t e and the problems i t f a c e d . 58/ VAG Annual R e p o r t , 1973,  n.p.  59/ A f t e r 1974, i t was supported by N a t i o n a l Museums f u n d i n g .  ( u n t i l December 1984). In gramme assisted  on  the  local  1972, VAG  cable  began a  channel,  i n t h e f o u n d i n g of t h e  all  of  these  P a c i f i c Cinematheque  efforts  Emery from  manner, one based on a  prove  institution in  s o c i e t y , and  of the  Gallery  demographic  the  liberal  never  P u b l i c , p u b l i s h e d f o r the A r t s and  been  of  the  of VAG's  role  of  an a r t  served and was meant t o  tabulated  survey  Culture  parameters  programme i n a s c i e n t i f i c  audience i t  has  f i l m s o c i e t y , which  s e r i o u s attempt t o r e a c h a  understanding  s e r v e . A l t h o u g h hard d a t a attendance,  the  a  c r y s t a l l i z i n g his  concrete  pro-  basement.[60]  s i g n i f i c a n t s e c t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n , p o l i c y prevented  arts  and i n t h a t same year the G a l l e r y  f o r some time showed i t s f i l m s i n VAG's Although  weekly h a l f - h o u r  for  Museums  Branch  of  Vancouver  Art  and  the Canadian  the  Secretary  of  S t a t e i n 1974, a n a l y z e d d a t a from a c r o s s the c o u n t r y gathered from 1968 t o 1974 - r o u g h l y statistics  t h e years of E m e r y ' s  from  B.C.  on  c a t e g o r i e s of museum p a t r o n ,  stint  general  and  art  museum  as VAG  d i r e c t o r . This  included  on a r t museum a t t e n d a n c e . Of a l l visitors  were  from  the b e s t -  e d u c a t e d , w e a l t h i e s t , most a c t i v e p a r t of the p o p u l a t i o n - a young, p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s of p e o p l e , c o m p r i s i n g about Emery's  "rough  8% of  urban,  the p o p u l a t i o n  (vs.  and r e a d y " 6%). [61] The f i g u r e s , which are c o r r o b o r a t e d  in  60/ Note the number of c o l l a b o r a t i v e v e n t u r e s h e r e . Another one, w i l l be r e c a l l e d , was t h e E x p l o r a t o r y Space s e r i e s of e x h i b i t i o n s .  it  61/ 8% of the t o t a l Canadian p o p u l a t i o n over age 14 was s a i d t o account f o r 49% of a l l a r t museum v i s i t s (Dixon e t a l , op. c i t . , p. 105). Museum a t t e n d a n c e was more g e n e r a l i z e d and more f r e q u e n t i n B.C. than i n o t h e r r e g i o n s of Canada ( i b i d , p. 107). E d u c a t i o n and income were the most c r u c i a l f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g museum a t t e n d a n c e , and t h e s e were " e x c e p t i o n a l l y s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e s " i n a r t museum p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o the report ( i b i d , p. 110). T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n combined w i t h t h e knowledge t h a t a r t museum v i s i t o r s tended t o go d u r i n g the week and d u r i n g t h e i r r e g u l a r  t h e s t u d i e s of P i e r r e B o u r d i e u i n F r a n c e , and of P a u l DiMaggio and M i c h a e l Useem i n t h e U . S . [ 6 2 ] , audience, despite were more  suggest  a  lack  participating  in  VAG's  c o n s t i t u e n c y ) , they  d i d not  reveals  underrepresentation  peoples i n  success  in  reaching  appearances, and d e s p i t e E m e r y ' s b e s t e f f o r t s . I f  hippies  a  of  serious  activities  (a  a new there  very v i s i b l e  g r e a t l y a l t e r the s t a t i s t i c a l p r o f i l e , which of  working-class  and  minority  museum, and e s p e c i a l l y art-museum, a t t e n d a n c e . S i n c e Emery and  S h a d b o l t o r i e n t e d t h e i r programme p r i m a r i l y t o the young, they were unable to  address  or  redress  remained c u l t u r a l l y  the  needs  of  d i s e n f r a n c h i z e d even  the  b u l k of the p o p u l a t i o n , who  during the  heyday of " d e m o c r a -  tization" .  If  Emery  had  pursued  t h i s " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n " of G a l l e r y p o l i c y a l o n e  d u r i n g h i s c a r e e r a t the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y ,  w i t h the  various  innova-  working year, indicates a specific class of p r o f e s s i o n a l s , who DiMaggio and Useem p o i n t out make up a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e p e r c e n t a g e of a r t museum a t t e n d a n c e (see Note 6 3 ) . 62/ B o u r d i e u , op. c i t . , f o r a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n ; see a l s o h i s L'Amour de l ' a r t ; l e s musees d ' a r t europeens e t l e u r p u b l i c , w r i t t e n w i t h A l a i n Darbel (Paris: Les E d i t i o n s de m i n u i t , 1969). P a u l DiMaggio and M i c h a e l Useem, " C u l t u r a l Democracy i n a P e r i o d of C u l t u r a l E x p a n s i o n : The S o c i a l Consumption of A r t s Audiences i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , " S o c i a l P r o b l e m s , v o l . 26 no. 2 (December 1978), pp. 188-89 (and T a b l e 4 ) . DiMaggio and Useem argue from t h e i r d a t a t h a t w h i l e a r t s a u d i e n c e s may have i n c r e a s e d s i n c e the e a r l y 1960s, they have not broadened s o c i a l l y . U s i n g t h e p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h of Boumol and Bowen, who conducted the f i r s t e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h on a r t s consumption i n t h e e a r l y 1960s, DiMaggio and Useem show t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s formed 65% of a r t s a u d i e n c e s i n 1963 and 56% i n 1975-76 ( v s . 15% of t h e w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n ) , w h i l e t h e i n d u s t r i a l w o r k i n g c l a s s formed 2.5% of t h e a r t s a u d i e n c e s i n the e a r l y 1960s, and 3% i n 1975-76 ( v s . 34% of the p o p u l a t i o n ) . Hendon, op. c i t . , pp. 57-59, a n a l y z e s t h e membership of t h e Akron A r t I n s t i t u t i o n f o r a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n . W h i l e t h e r e a r e i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a c c o u n t s of VAG's a u d i e n c e , no a c t u a l study was made of i t s c o m p o s i t i o n .  tions cited  above, he would have met s t i f f e r r e s i s t a n c e from VAG t r u s t e e s  much e a r l i e r t h a n he one i m p o r t a n t so f a r : major  d i d . There  a s p e c t of  it  congruence of  a t t e n t i o n VAG  organized  r e c e i v e d through  through  the s e r i e s of  1971.[63] VAG's r e p u t a t i o n was  perhaps premised on t h e s e e x h i b i t i o n s , though also focussed  their interests in  E m e r y ' s programme, which has o n l y been mentioned  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l exhibitions  was a  once g a i n e d ,  a t t e n t i o n was  on i t s i n n o v a t i o n s a t the l o c a l l e v e l . I t was not u n t i l the  1970s t h a t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e VAG programme became i n n o v a t i o n s of  more c o n c e r t e d ,  as the  the 1960s were c o n s o l i d a t e d , and when t h e r e was a p r o g r e s -  s i v e de-emphasis on " i n t e r n a t i o n a l " a r t from s o u t h of t h e b o r d e r . The s e r i e s of major shows VAG mounted began w i t h A r t s  of t h e  1967, which was a c t u a l l y o r g a n i z e d under R i c h a r d Simmins'  direction.  was  Coast  S h a d b o l t , which r e c e i v e d n a t i o n a l  art,  curated  coverage and which boosted f i r s t time,  by  Doris  the G a l l e r y  though a t t e n d a n c e  was not  exhibition  VAG's  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e Canadian c e n t e n n i a l Indian  an  Raven i n  into national as h i g h  a t t e n t i o n i t gathered during i t s four-months'  as was  of .Northwest  prominence f o r t h e w a r r a n t e d by the  run.[64]  63/ There were a number of a r t i c l e s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r t j o u r n a l s about V a n c o u v e r ' s a r t s c e n e , which c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h i s i n t e r e s t . These i n c l u d e d : P h i l i p L e i d e r , "Canada: The S t i r i n V a n c o u v e r , " a r t s c a n a d a , nos. 109/110 ( J u n e / J u l y 1967), supplement 4; Lucy L i p p a r d ^ "Vancouver," Artnews, v o l . 67 no. 5 (September 1968), pp. 26, 6 9 - 7 1 ; David Thompson, "A Canadian Scene: 1," S t u d i o I n t e r n a t i o n a l , v o l . 176 no. 904 (October 1968), pp. 152-57; P e t e r S e l z , w i t h A l v i n B a l k i n d , " V a n c o u v e r : Scene and U n s c e n e , " A r t i n A m e r i c a , v o l . 58 no. 1 ( J a n u a r y / F e b r u a r y 1970), pp. 122-26. See a l s o D o r i s Shadbolt's c o n t r i b u t i o n e n t i t l e d "The Vancouver Scene" t o W i l l i a m Townsend ( e d . ) , Canadian A r t Today (London: S t u d i o I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1970). 64/ 56,934 p e o p l e a t t e n d e d A r t s of t h e Raven from June t o September 1967, v s . t h e " n e a r l y " 21,000 who came t o see New York 13 d u r i n g i t s o n e month r u n e a r l y i n 1969. ( S o u r c e s : VAG C o u n c i l m i n u t e s , 19 October 1967  The next  t h r e e major  e x h i b i t i o n s , from  r e c e n t developments i n American a r t , and lation  of  the  influences  working  1968 t o 1970, c o n c e n t r a t e d on  were i n  some sense  on many younger  were: Los Angeles 6 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , c u r a t e d by John C o p l a n s , Museum of  Modern A r t ;  from  catalogue f o r  Henry G e l d z a h l e r  presided  elaborate grouping  Lucy L i p p a r d  the  including Jeff  New York over  assistance  Pasadena  Christmas  (Lippard  13, and M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum c u r a t o r  the  opening);  and  955,000  ( 1 9 7 0 ) , an  itself.[65]  955,000 was  - i t s t i t l e based on the p u r p o r t e d p o p u l a t i o n of  metropolitan W a l l and  here from S e a t t l e . The ( 1 9 7 1 ) , was  of the  These  of c o n c e p t u a l i n s t a l l a t i o n s and s i t e - s p e c i f i c a r t w o r k s  Lucy L i p p a r d  Vancouver  then  and Doug  found around the c i t y as w e l l as i n the G a l l e r y c u r a t e d by  local artists.  New York 13 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , o r g a n i z e d i n New York by D o r i s  Shadbolt, with assistance c o l l a t e d the  a recapitu-  area  -  who  added  several  local  artists,  I a i n B a x t e r , t o her e x h i b i t i o n when i t t r a v e l l e d last  again curated  of  the  by D o r i s  of t h e N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y  major  exhibitions,  Sculpture/Inuit  S h a d b o l t , and was o r g a n i z e d w i t h t h e in  Ottawa,  which  toured  this  pres-  tigious exhibition internationally.[66] These major shows h e l p e d e s t a b l i s h VAG as a s e r i o u s e x h i b i t i o n g a l l e r y , even l e a v i n g i t f r e e t o pursue  l e s s glamorous  p r o j e c t s once  i t s creden-  and 10 March 1969.) T h i s was one of t h e r a t i o n a l e s g i v e n by Emery f o r emphasis on t h e contemporary. See Wyman, op. c i t . , p. 30.  his  65/ An e a r l i e r e x h i b i t i o n , London: The New Scene, brought t o VAG from t h e W h i t e c h a p e l i n 1965, rounds out the range of i n f l u e n c e s younger Vancouver a r t i s t s were o p e r a t i n g under i n t h e mid-1960s. 66/ S c u l p t u r e / I n u i t t r a v e l l e d to Paris, Copenhagen, Moscow, London and P h i l a d e l p h i a as w e l l as t o c i t i e s i n Canada. op. c i t . , p. 12.  Leningrad, McConathy,  t i a l s were e s t a b l i s h e d . prestigious  They  individuals  were  beyond  all  connected  Vancouver,  with  which  i n s t i t u t i o n s or  ensured  coverage  a t t e n t i o n o u t s i d e as w e l l as w i t h i n the c i t y . W h i l e A r t s of the the f i r s t  or  Raven was  s i g n i f i c a n t show of t h i s t y p e , i t was the e x h i b i t i o n s of r e c e n t  American a r t t h a t were t h e most i n d i c a t i v e of  changes i n  Gallery policy,  and which were most p o p u l a r w i t h t h e c l a s s f r a c t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h VAG as t r u s t e e s and as c o l l e c t o r s . At l e a s t t h e f i r s t two of t h e b i g American e x h i b i t i o n s , 13, were  retrospective in  L.A.  6  and NY  c h a r a c t e r , r a t h e r than g i v i n g an i n d i c a t i o n of  c u r r e n t p u r s u i t s i n a r t . Los Angeles 6 gave a good  resume of  an a r t i s t i c  scene t h e n on the wane, as g a l l e r i e s were c l o s i n g up and a r t i s t s moving t o New Y o r k [ 6 7 ] ,  though New York 13  activities in  New Y o r k ,  presented  a  very  approximate  view of  c o n c e n t r a t i n g on a r t i s t s who, f o r t h e most p a r t ,  had made t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n s i n the l a t e 1950s or e a r l y 1960s.[68] New York 13 a t t r a c t e d more exhibition  in  the  Gallery's  public  attention  history,  i t s e l f lacked shared  only  p e r i o d was  Barnett  Newman,  new and  achievement  J o h n s , Donald J u d d ,  Ellsworth  Kenneth  any o t h e r  each major  its  exhibition in  cause f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of f u s s . The show  focus, with the  than  up t o the h o o p l a s u r r o u n d i n g  r e - o p e n i n g a t t h e Courthouse i n 1983 - a l t h o u g h the 1967-71  perhaps  of  o l d works a  Kelly,  Noland,  by 13  d i v e r s e a r t i s t s who  c e r t a i n l e v e l of r e p u t a t i o n : J a s p e r Roy  Claes  Lichtenstein, Oldenburg, Robert  67/ P e t e r P l a g e n s , Sunshine Muse: Contemporary A r t on (New Y o r k : P r a e g e r , 1974), p. 20.  Robert  Morris,  Rauschenberg, t h e West Coast  68/ Only ' R o b e r t M o r r i s c o u l d i n any sense have been c o n s i d e r e d "new" at the time, a l l pretensions to the c o n t r a r y .  James R o s e n q u i s t ,  George S e g a l , Frank S t e l l a and Andy  Warhol. I t  was t h e  s p e c t a c u l a r n a t u r e of a c o l l e c t i o n of a r t i s t s t h i s w e l l - k n o w n , r a t h e r than the i n s t r u c t i v e nature  of  though  prevent  this  did  not  such  a  juxtaposition,  reviewers  that  was a t t r a c t i v e ,  from c o n s t r u c t i n g c o n t i n u i t i e s  between a r t i s t s ' works where none e x i s t e d . VAG was c l o s e d f o r t h r e e weeks p r i o r t o the e x h i b i t i o n , i n o r d e r t o add an  air  of  mystery  and  anticipation  c u r a t o r Henry G e l d z a h l e r t e l e v i s i o n as  w e l l as  came  early,  t o t h e e v e n t . M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum to  be  interviewed  on  r a d i o and  i n the p r e s s w h i l e he was h e r e , and extended q u i t e  l a v i s h p r a i s e t o t h e show, i t s c u r a t o r , and the i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t it;  organized  i n h i s words " a museum much c l o s e r t o New York t h a n Vancouver would be  proud of t h i s s h o w . [ 6 9 ] " coverage p r i o r  t o the  There was i n g e n e r a l a tremendous amount of exhibition, for  t h e c o u r s e of i t s r u n . New than L.A.  6, a c c o r d i n g  York 13  o p e n i n g , pushing Leisure  for sales  supplement  to  the o p e n i n g , and r e c u r r i n g d u r i n g  was going  t o be  " b i g g e r and b e t t e r "  t o a p r e v i e w i n The P r o v i n c e . [ 7 0 ]  got t o w r i t e a l e n g t h y promotion f o r  The  of t h e  New  York  13  catalogue.[71]  Vancouver  press  Sun  also  the  Even Tony Emery week  before the  The cover s t o r y of the featured  t h e immanent  e x h i b i t i o n , i t s g r a p h i c a c o l l a g e of images from t h e show brought  together  69/ C h a r l o t t e Townsend, "New York E x p e r t P r a i s e s A r t Show," The Vancouver Sun (22 January 1969). Note t h e p a t r o n i z i n g tone of h i s comment. 70/ Joan Lowndes, "New York 1 3 " , The P r o v i n c e (3 J a n u a r y  1969).  71/ "New York 13 - by Anthony Emery", The P r o v i n c e (17 January  1969).  t o r e p r e s e n t New York C i t y . [ 7 2 ] some  of  the  especially for  artists  Apparently,  (Rosenquist  and  Vancouver was so s p e c i a l t h a t  Oldenburg)  i s good t o c o n t i n u e t o be  c e n t r e of t h i n g s . " He c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h e statement t h a t t h i s  a v a n t - g a r d e show"  was  "the  American a r t y e t shown i n The  c r e a t i n g works  t h i s e x h i b i t i o n . [ 7 3 ] R i c h a r d Simmins opened h i s p r e v i e w of  New York 13 f o r The P r o v i n c e w i t h the words: " I t at the  were  most  important  coverage,  which  was  uniformly  enthusiastic  Toronto c r i t i c considered  a  "motley" nature  included  Harry Malcolmson groundbreaking of t h e  of contemporary  Canada.[74]"  press  Toronto,  exhibition  "real  c o r r e s p o n d e n t s from S e a t t l e and  with  the  qualified  e x c e p t i o n of  - and t h e n o n l y i n comparison t o what he  L.A.  6  exhibition.[75]  This  d e s p i t e the  c o l l e c t i o n [ 7 6 ] , and t h e f a c t t h a t i t d i d not  up t o one of i t s two o s t e n s i b l e reasons f o r b e i n g ,  the r e c e n t n e s s  live  of t h e  72/ The Vancouver Sun (17 January 1969). These i n c l u d e d d e t a i l s of Don J u d d ' s modular u n i t s , W a r h o l ' s B r i l l o boxes, George S e g a l ' s E x e c u t i o n , Rauschenberg's A x l e , and (what c o u l d be more a p p r o p r i a t e ? ) O l d e n b u r g ' s S o f t Manhattan. 73/ E i l e e n Johnson, "New Y o r k ' s 13 Do T h e i r Thing f o r U s , " The Vancouver Sun (17 January 1969). R o s e n q u i s t s i t e d h i s A u r o r a B o r e a l i s here - a l t h o u g h a v e r s i o n had a l s o been i n s t a l l e d e l s e w h e r e . I t was one of the few p o o r l y r e c e i v e d p i e c e s i n t h e e x h i b i t i o n . O l d e n b u r g ' s Hard Saw was made here t o the a r t i s t ' s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s - one of h i s f i r s t manufactured o b j e c t s - and bought by VAG a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n of t h e show. 74/ R i c h a r d Simmins, " I t ' s New York 1 3 , " The P r o v i n c e (24 January 1969). D e s p i t e t h e g e n e r a l a c c l a i m NY 13 r e c e i v e d , Simmins was the o n l y one who went so f a r as t o l a b e l i t " a v a n t - g a r d e " ( s t i l l a v i r t u e t h e n ) . 75/ Harry Malcolmson, "Vancouver still has t h e c o u n t r y ' s l e a d i n g m u n i c i p a l a r t g a l l e r y , " Toronto D a i l y S t a r , n.d. This item i s found i n VAG's p r e s s clippings f i l e , which i s arranged c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , together w i t h o t h e r i t e m s c o n c e r n i n g NY 13. 76/ Lucy L i p p a r d ' s term i n t h e c a t a l o g u e she brought t o g e t h e r (VAG,  " E d i t o r ' s Note" 1969).  t o the  New York 13  work  shown:  some  of  Rauschenberg's Axle Brillo  boxes  the  of  pieces  1964,  weren't  even  o r i g i n a l manufacturer).[77]  were  or  several  Warhol's  produced  by  y e a r s o l d , f o r example  contributions the  ( a l t h o u g h the  a r t i s t , but came from t h e  But t h e p o i n t w a s n ' t  to e s t a b l i s h  a critical  d i a l o g u e about the work; so many d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s , a l l p r e s e n t e d n e u t r a l l y (though w i t h much f a n f a r e over the show as a whole) duced i n  the c a t a l o g u e ,  about each  artist  s t r a t e g i e s and  -  - a  procedure r e p r o -  which merely c o l l e c t e d v a r i o u s statements by and  tended  to  i n t e n t i o n s of  diminish  the v a r i o u s  the  differences  a r t i s t s , so t h a t each a r t i s t i c  statement comes t o h o l d t h e same v a l u e as the n e x t , or r a t h e r be d i s t i n g u i s h e d :  t h e whole  between the  they cannot  becomes a d a z z l i n g , or a numbing, s p e c t a c l e ,  depending upon o n e ' s degree of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the a r t shown. P o t e n t i a l l y d i s t u r b i n g or n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s by W a r h o l , S e g a l o r , i n d e e d , M o r r i s were subsumed i n a  general  gratitude that  spirit  we r e a l l y  of  celebration,  were so  s p e c i a l as  f o r e i g n masters shown i n our own town. The p r e s e n t e d as  a kind  matter of t a s t e f o l l o w e d on  or  of " f r e e choice  the nature  t o have  of  wonder and  the work of t h e s e  serious differences  e n t e r p r i s e " of competing  sense  here were  a r t i s t i c n e s s f 7 8 ] , simply a  brands  of  art.  The r e v i e w s  of the e x h i b i t i o n ; g i v e n t h e d i v e r s i t y of t h e a r t  on d i s p l a y and t h e i r own  limits  77/ Simmins, op. c i t . 78/ Simmins'  for  a  term; i b i d .  of  space,  they  merely  c h r o n i c l e d the  various  styles,  though  c o n s t r u c t i n g c o n t i n u i t i e s between a r t i s t s ' works  ( t h a t were i n e v i t a b l y f o r m a l i s t i c ) which made the d i s c u s s i o n s simpler.[79] 79/ For i n s t a n c e , Simmins, Townsend and S a l l y Hayman ( o f the S e a t t l e P o s t - I n t e l l i g e n c e r ) a l l began t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s of the works w i t h the f o r m a l i s t a r t i s t s , l i n k i n g them t h r o u g h c o l o u r and shape, b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o the s o - c a l l e d f i g u r a t i v e a r t i s t s l i k e Rauschenberg, Warhol and S e g a l . Simmins began h i s r e v i e w w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of shape and space i n Warhol's B r i l l o boxes, Judd's s t e e l boxes, Newman's w h i t e - o n - w h i t e canvas, Morris' s t e e l cubes g e o m e t r i c a l l y a r r a n g e d , and K e l l y ' s monochrome canvasses and s c u l p t u r e . A l l of t h e s e were d i s c u s s e d i n terms of p e r c e p t i o n and s e n s a t i o n ; f o r example, Simmins d e s c r i b e d Judd's work i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: "The p l e x i g l a s s i s a g o l d e n orange and the gleaming s t e e l t u r n s b l a c k and ominous as you r e c e d e . / / I t i s m o n o l i t h i c and s o l i d , y e t i t shimmers i n the light. I t i s a new form i n p e r f e c t e s t h e t i c b a l a n c e . " K e l l y ' s work was "unadulterated, sensuous, h e d o n i s t i c , " "a t o t a l l y s a t i s f y i n g e x p e r i e n c e . " The d i s c u s s i o n moves from Warhol's boxes t o Judd's boxes, from Judd's m o n o l i t h s t o Newman's m o n o l i t h , from Newman's s c a l e t o M o r r i s ' s c a l e , from M o r r i s ' modular u n i t s t o t h o s e of K e l l y . The w e i g h t of t h i s c h a i n of c o n t i n u i t i e s c o l l a p s e s a t the p o i n t where q u a l i t a t i v e judgments begin: Oldenburg i s " d i s t u r b i n g " but "disarming," Rauschenberg " n o b l e and v u l g a r , " R o s e n q u i s t " d i s a p p o i n t i n g , " and S e g a l , f i n a l l y , i s a "humanist". Townsend's r e v i e w b e g i n s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of c o l o u r , linking S t e l l a ' s " v i r t u o s o o p t i c s " t o K e l l y ' s p l a n e s u r f a c e s , which are about "pure c o l o r . " Then comes L i c h t e n s t e i n s f r a g m e n t a t i o n of c o l o u r , and Noland's l o n g s t r i p e s . A l l of t h e s e works are p l a y i n g w i t h the l i m i t a t i o n s of the picture surface, a c c o r d i n g t o Townsend; one of L i c h t e n s t e i n ' s works i s a dot p a i n t i n g of i t s o t h e r s i d e , w i t h s t r e t c h e r and s u p p o r t s . Johns' work i s "another attempt t o r e a c h a p u r e , f o r m l e s s c o l o r , c o l o r i n the a b s t r a c t . " Johns' e a r l i e r pop imagery i s n e x t used t o b r i n g up Warhol, whose boxes (and the two a r t i s t s ' a t t i t u d e s ) are d e s c r i b e d as deadpan, " a g a i n s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " T h i s a t t i t u d e i s used t o i n t r o d u c e the nond e s c r i p t works of Judd and M o r r i s ; The p r i m i t i v e form of l i n k a g e p r a c t i c e d b r e a k s down w i t h Rauschenberg, " a t some k i n d of o p p o s i t e e x t r e m i t y , " but the p r a c t i c e p e r s i s t s i n Townsend's l i n k i n g of Rauschenberg's and Warhol's mass media images, and R o s e n q u i s t ' s s i m i l a r pop s e n s i b i l i t y . Segal, a g a i n , i s seen as a humanist, more i t seems f o r h i s l i f e - s i z e f i g u r e s than anything e l s e . 1  S a l l y Hayman a l s o s t a r t s o f f w i t h the f o r m a l i s t a r t i s t s : "The s c u l p t u r e of R o b e r t M o r r i s and Donald Judd, and the p a i n t i n g s of E l l s w o r t h K e l l y , B a r n e t t Newman and Kenneth Noland share a mutual c o n c e r n f o r r i g o r o u s p u r i t y . They are s e a r c h i n g f o r the a r c h e t y p e s or essences t h a t Plato d e s c r i b e d as f o r m s . " A f t e r d e s c r i b i n g the g e s t a l t - l i k e works of t h e s e a r t i s t s , she d e s c r i b e s S t e l l a ' s "new d i r e c t i o n s " i n terms of o p t i c a l complexity. Then comes a b r e a k , w i t h S e g a l , Warhol, L i c h t e n s t e i n ,  The e f f e c t  d e s i r e d was  a c h i e v e d . New  appealed t o a l l the s e c t o r s  bearing  on  York 13 was an e x h i b i t i o n which the  Gallery's  existence: local  a r t i s t s and c o g n o s c e n t i ; c r i t i c s ; VAG members (and i t s C o u n c i l - Emery was offered a five-year C o u n c i l ; the  contract  l a r g e youth  out  of  this  a u d i e n c e ; many  exhibition)[80];  of the l a y c u r i o u s i n t r i g u e d by  t h e p u b l i c i t y s u r r o u n d i n g the show (which 21,000 a t t e n d e d ) ; c a n t t o our d i s c u s s i o n h e r e , V a n c o u v e r ' s In the  and, s i g n i f i -  art collectors.  l a t e 1960s, many of the p e o p l e who had been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  G a l l e r y on a l o n g - t e r m b a s i s dropped out of t i e s . [81] These  were, however,  served as a s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e who  t h e Canada  w i t h few  participation in  its  activi-  v e s t i g e s of the t i m e when the G a l l e r y had meeting p l a c e  f o r Vancouver's  old wealth,  exceptions exhibited l i t t l e f a m i l i a r i t y with profes-  Rauschenberg, Oldenburg and R o s e n q u i s t f o l l o w i n g o n . One of t h e f u n n i e s t t r a n s i t i o n s i s made by J e a n B a t i e of t h e S e a t t l e Times, who l i n k s L i c h t e n s t e i n ' s dot p a i n t i n g and the h o l e s i n J u d d ' s p e r f o r a t e d s t e e l , i n o r d e r i t seems t o l e a p t h e gap between t h e f o r m a l i s t and t h e pop a r t i s t s . Simmins, op. c i t . ; C h a r l o t t e Townsend, "About A r t . . . . , " The Vancouver Sun (31 January 1969); S a l l y Hayman, "Vancouver O f f e r s One-Stop New York G a l l e r y Tour," Seattle Post-Intelligencer, "Northwest Today" supplement (9 February 1969); Jean B a t i e , '"New York 1 3 ' Show i n V a n c o u v e r , " The S e a t t l e Times (9 F e b r u a r y 1969). By making l i n k s , one d i d not have t o account f o r t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s embodied i n t h e works, which were i n any case t r i v i a l i z e d by t h e whole p r o c e s s of the e x h i b i t i o n . 80/ VAG C o u n c i l minutes (17 A p r i l  1969).  81/ These i n c l u d e d many who had been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the G a l l e r y s i n c e the 1940s, i n c l u d i n g Mrs. J . P . F e l l , Iby (Mrs. O t t o ) K o e r n e r , a w e a l t h y and c u l t u r e d woman who had been i n the f o r e f r o n t of a r t s a c t i v i t y i n Vancouver f o r two decades; and past p r e s i d e n t s D.M. S t e w a r t , Thomas Ingledow, and P e t e r Downes. I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, a f t e r h i s t e n u r e began Luke Rombout l u r e d s e v e r a l people back t o t h e VAG C o u n c i l who had been i n v o l v e d w i t h VAG i n the e a r l y 1960s, i n c l u d i n g S t e w a r t , Doug Brown, Ron L o n g s t a f f e , D a v i d C a t t o n , and Dorothy Jane Boyce (who had been w i t h t h e Women's A u x i l i a r y i n t h e 1950s) - a l l presumably f o r t h e i r impeccable s o c i a l connections.  sional culture.  Many younger  p r o f e s s i o n a l and  themselves c o l l e c t o r s , were brought t o VAG  business  w i t h the  p e o p l e , who were  a m p l i f i c a t i o n of t h e  G a l l e r y ' s programme from the e a r l y 1960s, and they s u p p o r t e d the G a l l e r y ' s e x p a n s i o n i n t o t h e a r e a of contemporary, and e s p e c i a l l y A m e r i c a n , a r t . These i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l people who D e s i g n G a l l e r y i n the l a t e 1 9 5 0 s / e a r l y o u t l e t f o r contemporary a r t : Forest  Products;  architects  had  been  with  the New  1960s, when i t was V a n c o u v e r ' s  Ron L o n g s t a f f e , Geoff  associated  an e x e c u t i v e  only  w i t h Canadian  Massey and Ian D a v i d s o n ;  and Dorothy  A u s t i n . The New D e s i g n had been s t a r t e d by A l v i n B a l k i n d and Abe R o g a t n i c k upon t h e i r  arrival in  Vancouver i n 1955, when they r e a l i z e d t h e r e was no  Vancouver d e a l e r f o r l o c a l or Canadian contemporary a r t . [ 8 2 ]  By the e a r l y  1960s, d i r e c t i o n of the New D e s i g n had been passed over t o t h e above-named c o l l e c t o r s , who Christmas,  in  sold  their  exchange  for  floundering future  operation  credit  in  1966  t o Douglas  on purchases a t h i s Douglas  Gallery.[83] U n t i l t h e l a t e 1960s, c o l l e c t i o n s around  these c o l l e c t o r s  Vancouver a r t i s t s ,  Canadian a r t . T h i s was t h e f i e l d u n t i l 1970,  showing many  Michael Morris, 1967, he  of t h e  Iain Baxter,  a l s o began  in  and o t h e r s  and t o which  new c r o p  Gathie Falk,  concentrated t h e i r  a l e s s e r e x t e n t on e a s t e r n  Christmas  continued  to deal  of Vancouver a r t i s t s , such as and Glenn  Lewis. Beginning  in  t o d e a l i n American a r t , which d i s p l a c e d e x h i b i t i o n s  82/ B a l k i n d and R o g a t n i c k , op. c i t . , p. 8. 83/ I b i d , pp. 9-10; Joan Lowndes, " A c e : The Vanguard, v o l . 6 no. 3 ( A p r i l 1977), p. 8.  West Coast  Castelli,"  by l o c a l  a r t i s t s to  C h r i s t m a s had  an i n c r e a s i n g e x t e n t from 1969 t o 1971. [84] In  established contact  w i t h Robert  1967,  Rauschenberg, and brought  him t o Vancouver f o r an e x h i b i t i o n of h i s " B o o s t e r " p r i n t s , and f o r a g a l a p a r t y on a y a c h t r e n t e d f o r C h r i s t m a s made  the occasion.[85]  extensive t r i p s  t o New  C a s t e l l i ' s stable  l a s t Vancouver  a r t i s t to  of a r t i s t s . [ 8 6 ] be g i v e n  next three years,  Y o r k , c u l t i v a t i n g c o n t a c t s i n the  a r t w o r l d t h e r e , and e v e n t u a l l y s e c u r i n g t h e of Leo  F o r the  West Coast  r i g h t s to several  In 1971, M i c h a e l M o r r i s was the  space a t  Christmas'  gallery  (renamed  Ace G a l l e r y i n 1 9 7 0 ) . [ 8 7 ] C h r i s t m a s had 1967,  when  a l s o bought  Dwan  moved  to  out V i r g i n i a New  York,  and  Dwan's Los Angeles g a l l e r y i n gained  a  stable  of  L.A.  a r t i s t s [ 8 8 ] , as he had done w i t h t h e Vancouver a r t i s t s a t t a c h e d t o t h e New D e s i g n G a l l e r y . Thus C h r i s t m a s ' the L.A.  6 as  hand can be d i s c e r n e d  not t o o  f a r behind  w e l l as the New York 13 e x h i b i t i o n , though he was c r e d i t e d  84/ A l l t h e Douglas and Ace G a l l e r y e x h i b i t i ons are l i s t e d i n Vancouver: A r t and A r t i s t s , op. c i t . , i n t h e c h r o n o l o g i e s f o l l o w i n g each chapter. 85/ Lowndes, op. c i t . , p. 8. 86/ I b i d . In Lowndes' a r t i c l e , C h r i s t m a s r e v e a l s how he wants t o be t h e new C a s t e l l i , s i n c e the o l d one i s s l o w i n g down. Chapter I d e s c r i b e d how the p r e s e n t a t i o n of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s a r t i n Vancouver was shaped by C h r i s t m a s . Rauschenberg has undoubtedly been the a r t i s t C h r i s t m a s has most promoted, a l t h o u g h the e x - V a n c o u v e r i t e a l s o d e a l s e x t e n s i v e l y i n works by W a r h o l , F r a n k e n t h a l e r , S t e l l a , Sam F r a n c i s and R i c h a r d S e r r a , t o name but a few a t random. L a t e l y , he has been i n t r o d u c i n g a few younger (European) a r t i s t s into his repertory. 87/ Vancouver: A r t and A r t i s t s , p.  336.  88/ These i n c l u d e d a r t i s t s l i k e John McCracken and DeWain V a l e n t i n e . By 1977, C h r i s t m a s t o l d Lowndes he was " c a s t i n g them o f f " (Lowndes, op. c i t . , p. 8 ) , d e s p i t e t h e a d d i t i o n of a second g a l l e r y ( i n V e n i c e ) i n t h e L.A. a r e a .  102 f o r a s s i s t a n c e o n l y i n the l a t t e r ' s c a t a l o g u e . [ 8 9 ]  (In  an i n t e r v i e w Henry  G e l d z a h l e r gave a t t h e time of t h e NY 13 o p e n i n g , he s a i d t h a t what he knew of t h e Vancouver a r t scene was l a r g e l y due expansion  of  the  p a r a l l e l s Christmas'  Vancouver  Art  little  to Christmas.[90])  The  G a l l e r y ' s concerns s o u t h of the border  own e x p a n s i o n of a m b i t i o n s , as w e l l  as those  of  his  clients.[91] C h r i s t m a s became  t h e main  d e a l e r i n t h e 1970s f o r most of  major c o l l e c t o r s : L o n g s t a f f e , I r a  Young,  Davidson,  89/ New York 13 (Vancouver: VAG, 1969), 90/ Roy S t a r r s , "An P r o v i n c e (22 January 1969).  expert  sets  Massey,  Vancouver's A u s t i n , and  n.p.  the scene f o r New York 1 3 , " The  91/ G a r t h Stevenson p o i n t s out t h a t , s i n c e t h e r e i s no n a t i o n a l (or n a t i o n a l i s t ) b o u r g e o i s i e i n Canada, l e g i t i m a t i o n , even i n c u l t u r a l t e r m s , has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been sought by t h e r e g i o n a l b o u r g e o i s i e s by r e l a t i o n t o American r a t h e r t h a n t o Canadian models; t h e l i n k a g e i s N o r t h - S o u t h r a t h e r t h a n E a s t - W e s t , e s p e c i a l l y so i n B.C., and d e s p i t e the f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l e x p e n d i t u r e . The c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s i n Canada i s f r a c t i o n a l i z e d , and has tended t o p a r a l l e l i t s c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s w i t h i t s economic ones. See Garth Stevenson, " F e d e r a l i s m and the p o l i t i c a l economy of t h e Canadian s t a t e , " i n P a n i t c h ( e d . ) , op. c i t . ; see a l s o W a l l a c e Clement, "The c o r p o r a t e e l i t e , the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s , and t h e Canadian s t a t e , " i b i d . T h i s has c e r t a i n l y been t r u e i n B.C. i n t h e 1970s, as t h e r i s i n g b u s i n e s s c l a s s i n t h e p r o v i n c e , which i s i n many c a s e s i d e n t i c a l w i t h the prominent c o l l e c t o r s and t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h VAG as t r u s t e e s , has been e c o n o m i c a l l y a c t i v e e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e U.S. S u n b e l t , even i f s t i l l based i n Vancouver. See P e t e r C. Newman, The Canadian E s t a b l i s h m e n t , Volume Two: The A c q u i s i t o r s ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1981), which p r e s e n t s u n c r i t i c a l and a n e c d o t a l (but o f t e n i n f o r m a t i v e ) p o r t r a i t s of many of the B.C. s p e c u l a t o r s e x t r a o r d i n a i r e . VAG d i r e c t o r Luke Rombout worked hard t o g a i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the e n t i r e B.C. r u l i n g c l a s s s t r u c t u r e on the G a l l e r y board i n the l a t e 1970s and 1980s. But t h i s b o u r g e o i s i e was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the o l d (and more n a t i o n a l l y - m i n d e d ) B.C. r u l i n g c l a s s t h a t had founded and o r g a n i z e d t h e programme of VAG i n i t s e a r l i e r i n c a r n a t i o n , and so a l s o d i d i t have d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s . C h r i s t m a s was i d e a l l y s i t u a t e d to s e r v i c e these i n t e r e s t s , f o r a time.  F r e d Stimpson Christmas'  ( a l l of whom have s a t on VAG C o u n c i l a t some p o i n t ) . [ 9 2 ]  a m b i t i o n s exceeded  their earlier  the  locality,  his  clients  As  soon e c l i p s e d  p r e f e r e n c e f o r the p r o d u c t s of the l o c a l a r t i s t i c scene,  much so t h a t Vancouver c r i t i c Joan Lowndes wrote i n  so  1978:  The i n f l u e n c e of Ace has been q u i e t l y p e r v a s i v e . Although i t i s not t h e s o l e o u t l e t here f o r American a r t . . . i t i s the source of most American a r t i n p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s . . . . T h e c o l l e c t i o n s r e p r e sent f l a w l e s s d i s p l a y s of t a s t e w i t h i n s a f e p a r a m e t e r s . One has the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t o i n t r o d u c e a Canadian would be tantamount t o a faux p a s . [ 9 3 ] In  order  to  stimulate  local  i n t e r e s t i n contemporary American a r t ,  C h r i s t m a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e Contemporary Austin, Arthur  Erickson, B r i g i t t e  Art Society  Freybe, Janet  i n 1977  w i t h Dorothy  Ketcham and F r e d S t i m p -  s o n [ 9 4 ] , which aimed t o b r i n g a r t i s t s and c r i t i c s t o Vancouver on contemporary the  Gallery's  Vancouver by  art issues, premises.  and which  Christmas  1980, presumably  unpaid debts  and a  r e s i d u e of  c o n t i n u e s t o h o l d i t s s e s s i o n s on  himself  disappeared  to concentrate  branch on the l i e S a i n t L o u i s i n P a r i s  to l e c t u r e  on the  i n 1982,  entirely  from  opening of h i s new  and i n c i d e n t a l l y l e a v i n g  b i t t e r n e s s over h i s p a r t i n t h e Muckamuck  r e s t a u r a n t l a b o u r d i s p u t e , a b i t t e r n e s s shared by many of t h e r e s i d e n t s of V e n i c e , C a l i f o r n i a , s i t e of another o f C h r i s t m a s '  galleries.[95]  92/ L o n g s t a f f e has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the G a l l e r y s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1960s, and p l a y e d a l a r g e r o l e i n t h e r e - o r i e n t a t i o n of VAG d u r i n g the 1970s. D a v i d s o n , Massey and A u s t i n s e r v e d on C o u n c i l f o r l e n g t h y p e r i o d s , Young and Stimpson more b r i e f l y . 93/ Lowndes, " A c e , " p. 9. 94/ I b i d ; t h e n c a l l e d t h e "Contemporary A r t s C o u n c i l " . 95/ Persimmon B l a c k b r i d g e , "The C h r i s t m a s C o n n e c t i o n : An a r t i s t ' s impression," Kinesis (August 1978), p. 7. T h i s a r t i c l e i s a resume of Christmas' bad deeds, e s p e c i a l l y i n connection w i t h the Muckamuck  So the  emphasis by the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y on r e c e n t developments  in  American a r t was supported by a s i g n i f i c a n t s e c t i o n of G a l l e r y members and t r u s t e e s . Much was made of t h e c u l t i v a t i o n of c o n t a c t s s o u t h of t h e b o r d e r w i t h t h e l i k e s of P e t e r S e l z , purchase of  John  Coplans  contemporary American  s i t i o n funds was made  a priority  and  art with i n the  McCracken Gallery exhibited  and bought in  Robert  was purchased Irwin  Claes the  NY  from  l a t e 1960s.[96]  i n 1968, the  Oldenburg's 13  show,  from  Lippard,  L.A.  Hard  and t h e  the G a l l e r y ' s l i m i t e d a c q u i -  p r i n t s from t h e Douglas G a l l e r y ' s Rauschenberg a Frank S t e l l a canvas  Lucy  VAG bought two  e x h i b i t i o n i n 1967[97], as w e l l  as works  by John  6 e x h i b i t i o n . In 1969,  Saw,  manufactured  and  here  the and  t h e J a n i s G a l l e r y i n New York f o r  $9,000, and George S e g a l ' s E x e c u t i o n was purchased and  donated t o  VAG by  r e s t a u r a n t (of which he was a j o i n t owner), and h i s h a n d l i n g of the I n d i a n workers t h e r e and t h e i r u n i o n SORWUC. See t h i s a r t i c l e also for his c a v a l i e r t r e a t m e n t of the r e s i d e n t s of V e n i c e and t h e i r town c o u n c i l . 96/ Emery and S h a d b o l t recommended the p u r c h a s i n g of contemporary American a r t i n the l a t e 1960s, as works were " p r i c y but s t i l l a f f o r d a b l e , " and as a means of d e v e l o p i n g l i n k s south of t h e border (VAG C o u n c i l E x e c u t i v e Committee m i n u t e s , 3 May 1968). Max K o z l o f f , i n an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n 1971, p o i n t e d t o t h i s as a phenomenon not j u s t r e s t r i c t e d t o Canada: As the amount of p u r c h a s a b l e o l d e r a r t d e c l i n e s , or becomes e x o r b i t a n t f o r l i m i t e d a c q u i s i t i o n f u n d s , the museums a r e f o r c e d t o t u r n t o t h e open, h i g h - r i s k a r e a of a r t i n p r o g r e s s as t h e i r prime a r e a of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Max K o z l o f f , "Under t h e c o r p o r a t e w i n g , " A r t i n A m e r i c a , v o l . 59 no. 4 ( J u l y - A u g u s t 1971), p. 95. The s i t u a t i o n was s t i l l more complex f o r a s m a l l g a l l e r y , e x p a n s i v e though i t was, i n a remote a r e a of a n e i g h b o u r i n g country. 97/ VAG C o u n c i l Permanent 1967), p. 2.  C o l l e c t i o n Committee  minutes (7 September  105 t h e Diamond  f a m i l y of  Vancouver, i n  the midst  of t h e c a l c u l a t e d p u b l i c  h y s t e r i a engendered by t h a t show.[98]  The t u r n i n g away from t h i s " i n t e r n a t i o n a l " a s p e c t of t h e VAG e x h i b i t i o n p o l i c y , which progressive  was no  faction  supported Emery's  l o n g e r pursued of  the  a f t e r 1971, h e l p e d t o a l i e n a t e t h a t  local  bourgeoisie  which  had  i n general  p o l i c y because i t converged w i t h t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s i n  t a s t e and a c c u m u l a t i o n , and who a t t h e l e a s t had endured t h e s t e p s he took to e n l i s t  a wider  audience. I t  was when  he abandoned one a s p e c t of  programme, t o c o n c e n t r a t e more f u l l y on what he essential project,  t h a t he  got i n t o  conceived to  t r o u b l e , because  i n v o l v e d a r e j e c t i o n of the elements c o n s p i r i n g t o in their  own image;  desire to p a r t i c i p a t e i n effacement was federal  i n the  government  t h e i r own  policy  in  both  f u r n i s h VAG  c o l l e c t o r s had no  (cultural) liquidation,  larger interests  be the more  t h i s t u r n i n g away  found and  even t h e younger and more v i g o r o u s  his  even i f  this  of t h e i r c l a s s , as guaranteed by the  ideological  and  economic  s p h e r e s . [ 9 9 ] Emery h i m s e l f s a i d , i n a l a t e r r e f l e c t i o n :  98/ VAG C o u n c i l minutes (10 March 1969), p.  2.  99/ That i s , i n o r d e r t o s e r v e t h e g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t s of c a p i t a l , t h e s t a t e must o c c a s i o n a l l y t r a n s g r e s s t h e s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s of a p a r t i c u l a r f r a c t i o n of c a p i t a l . This is because the s t a t e needs t o be seen as independent of a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s i n o r d e r t o guarantee the c o n d i t i o n s of hegemony, and because the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s i s f r a c t i o n a l i z e d and unable t o always a c t i n i t s own l o n g t e r m i n t e r e s t ( e x c e p t i n t i m e s of c r i s i s ) . See Gough, op. c i t . , pp. 6 4 - 6 5 . I n Canada, t h e c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s i s f r a c t i o n a l i z e d more t h a n u s u a l due t o the s i z e of t h e c o u n t r y and t h e l a c k of i n t e g r a t i o n of c a p i t a l on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s . So the l e g i t i m a t i o n f u n c t i o n of t h e s t a t e i s h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t h e r e , though the mechanics of i t a r e being i n c r e a s i n g l y c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n i n t h e 1980s. See Clement, op. c i t . , p. 228. In t h i s sense, t h e Canada C o u n c i l f u n c t i o n e d as an agent of s t a t e hegemony, even w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g i t s " a r m s - l e n g t h " r e l a t i o n s h i p t o  106 I d i d n ' t l i k e c o l l e c t o r s p a r t i c u l a r l y because, t o my way of t h i n k i n g , they always use g a l l e r i e s t o v a l i d a t e t h e i r own guesses, t o get f r e e a d v i c e , t o put on shows which i n f l a t e the v a l u e of t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n . . 1 never thought i t was as l e g i t i m a t e an a s p i r a t i o n t o s e r v i c e t h e s e p e o p l e as t o t r y t o c r e a t e a whole new audience.[100] And f u r t h e r :  "The f a c t  i s t h e r e are t i m e s when you j u s t have t o make t h e  c h o i c e and t h a t was a time when you c o u l d n ' t have  both.[101]"  As upset as many t r u s t e e s were i n the e a r l y 1970s (and d o n a t i o n s t o VAG plummeted a t so l o n g  as  t h i s t i m e ) [ 1 0 2 ] , no s e r i o u s c o n f l i c t w i t h Emery was VAG's  policies  were  admired  and  supported  by  possible  government  a g e n c i e s . Not o n l y was t h e d i r e c t o r c o n t i n u i n g t o s e c u r e l a r g e g r a n t s t h e Canada C o u n c i l f o r h i s e x h i b i t i o n g e t t i n g other  and events  programmes,  but  from  he was  funds b o t h f o r t h e s a t e l l i t e g a l l e r i e s from t h e f e d e r a l L I P  and 0FY programmes, government.[103]  and  However,  for  the  extension  a combination  tours  from  the p r o v i n c i a l  of c i r c u m s t a n c e s began t o u n d e r -  mine h i s p o s i t i o n . the government i n power, and i t s s p e c i f i c programmes sometimes c o n t r a d i c t e d the p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s of c o l l e c t o r s . But even i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , the c o n t r a d i c t i o n was soon r e s o l v e d a f t e r a f a s h i o n , as t h e meaning of " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n " ( i n terms o f c u l t u r a l p o l i c y ) changed d u r i n g t h e 1970s. See a l s o Z u k i n and C o u t t s - S m i t h on the museums as a means of i n t e g r a t i o n and i n d o c t r i n a t i o n : Sharon Z u k i n , " A r t i n t h e Arms of Power: Market R e l a t i o n s and C o l l e c t i v e Patronage i n the C a p i t a l i s t S t a t e , " Theory and S o c i e t y , v o l . 11 no. 4 ( J u l y 1982), pp. 423-51; C o u t t s - S m i t h , " A r t and S o c i a l T r a n s f o r m a t i o n , " op. c i t . 100/ Emery, Vancouver: A r t and A r t i s t s , pp. 258-59. 101/ I b i d , p.  259.  102/ See note 57. 103/ The c i v i c government, of c o u r s e , was a l s o c o n t r i b u t i n g anywhere from o n e - q u a r t e r t o o n e - t h i r d of t h e budget a n n u a l l y , f o r s a l a r i e s and maintenance.  F o r r e a s o n s o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r (see pp. 72—7'4 a b o v e ) , the f e d e r a l ment had begun  talking  about  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n " soon i n 1968. The  "participation"  after Pierre  Secretary  of  State's  Trudeau's  and  govern-  " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and  e l e c t i o n as prime m i n i s t e r  department  conceived  of  the L o c a l  I n i t i a t i v e s P r o j e c t s ( L I P ) , O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Youth (OFY) and New H o r i z o n s (projects  for  senior  marginalized sectors  citizens) back i n t o  as  means  t h e mainstream  c o n c e p t u a l i z e d and c a r r i e d out by s m a l l p r o j e c t s approved  t u r n e d out  the  d i s a f f e c t e d or  of s o c i e t y , w i t h p r o j e c t s  ad hoc  g r o u p s . [ 1 0 4 ] Many  L I P and  OFY programmes  o f the  were e i t h e r  t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o s i m p l e employment programmes f o l l o w i n g the  near d e f e a t o f t h e L i b e r a l government i n 1972, have  drawing  t o be i n the a r e a of c u l t u r e , a l b e i t on the  amateur and r e g i o n a l l e v e l . When the e l i m i n a t e d or  for  Canada  Council  i t was  found d e s i r a b l e t o  c o n t i n u e many o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l  projects.[105]  Andre F o r t i e r , who became f i r s t head o f t h e A r t s and C u l t u r e branch o f the S e c r e t a r y of  State's  department,  then d i r e c t o r  1972, announced such a p o l i c y i n e a r l y 1974, the LIP.[106]  encouraged  governments  f o l l o w i n g the  in  e x p i r a t i o n of  I t was s t a t e d t h a t l a r g e a r t s i n s t i t u t i o n s would have t h e i r  CC g r a n t s f r o z e n t o a l l o w f o r were  of t h e Canada C o u n c i l  to  to  turn  to  make  up  the  this additional private  o u t l a y of  f u n d s , and they  c o r p o r a t i o n s or t o the p r o v i n c i a l  differences  between  their  needs  and CC  104/ See the a r t i c l e s by Huston M e i s e l , " S o c i a l Research and the P o l i t i c s op. c i t . , pp. 8 - 9 .  and Loney, op. c i t . ; a l s o John of C u l t u r e , " In Zuzanek ( e d . ) ,  105/ " A r t s Meisel, ibid.  The  groups  predict  cuts,"  106/ The P r o v i n c e (16 March 1974).  Province  (16 March 1974);  funding.[107]  According  h i s a m b i t i o n was t o corporations.  He  to Province  t r a n s f e r the wanted  to  r e p o r t e r Ray C h a t e l i n , " F o r t i e r s a i d  r o l e of  get  the  the Canada  large  Council to p r i v a t e  money  devourers  off  b a c k . [ 1 0 8 ] " The i m p l i c a t i o n was t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f b o u r g e o i s  his  culture  c o u l d / s h o u l d be l o o k e d a f t e r by t h e i r own k i n d , w h i l e the s t a t e would a i d the c u l t u r a l i n i t i a t i v e s  of  less-established  groups.  To  this  end the  C o u n c i l f o r B u s i n e s s and the A r t s i n Canada (CBAC) was e s t a b l i s h e d i n w i t h t h e a i d of  funds from  t h e Canada  Council[109]; i t  1974  was designed t o  persuade c o r p o r a t i o n s t o c h a n n e l more of t h e i r c h a r i t a b l e d o n a t i o n s t o the a r t s . Another s i g n of l e s s e n i n g emphasis on " e x c e l l e n c e " was t h e  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of  t h e N a t i o n a l Museums P o l i c y (NMP), announced by  the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e i n 1972, and  outreach  programming  which would  designed  p r o v i d e funds  longer e l i g i b l e  S h a d b o l t were loss  of 107/  changed i t s  funding  a f l e x i b l e b l o c k g r a n t t o a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t i n g f o r each show  and p r o j e c t , each s u b j e c t t o r e v i e w were no  for education  t o p o p u l a r i z e t h e museums.[110] T h i s  took e f f e c t i n 1974. C o n c u r r e n t l y , the Canada C o u n c i l p o l i c y from  or e l i t e c u l t u r e  f o r CC  funding.[111]  originally reluctant  autonomy,  the  CC  and a p p r o v a l ,  grant  to j o i n  so t h a t  some p r o j e c t s  W h i l e Tony Emery and  t h e NM  Doris  programme, f e a r i n g a  change made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n t i n u e  Ibid.  108/ Ray C h a t e l i n , "$$$ (22 March 1975). 109/ C r e a n , op. c i t . , p.  Freeze ' s t i n k s  of p o l i t i e s ' , "  The P r o v i n c e  117.  110/ McConathy, op. c i t . , pp.  2-3.  111/ VAG C o u n c i l E x e c u t i v e Committee minutes (15 October 1973)  p.  1.  w i t h o u t NM  f u n d i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n view of t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n of the L I P  OFY programmes;  they then a p p l i e d f o r a s s o c i a t e NM s t a t u s . [ 1 1 2 ]  These changes i n f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l f u n d i n g bureaucratization  of  "democratization  and  e f f e c t a f t e r 1972[113], which was c o n c r e t i z e d Council's CC's  Art  Bank, T o u r i n g  own source of f u n d s ,  for specific  projects in  O f f i c e and  p o l i c y were  was  accelerated  by  informed by t h e  decentralization" i n the  NMP and  Explorations  the f e d e r a l Parliament,  it,  as  the  The changes i n c u l t u r a l p o l i c y were  programme;  c r i s i s of  disastrous  " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . " The programmes,  even the  of  the  the  t h e 1970s,  government was d r i v e n t o seek more declined.  for  Emery, even though  VAG had been amply rewarded i n t h e p a s t f o r h i s i n n o v a t i o n s  LIP-OFY  took  the Canada  t h e e a r l y 1970s.[114] In a d d i t i o n , a l t h o u g h  a c c o u n t a b i l i t y f o r i t s spending when i t s own revenues  the  that  began earmarking moneys  tendency t o b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n preceded the economic it  and  e f f e c t of  establishment  of  i n t h e a r e a of  t h e c u r t a i l m e n t of t h e NMP, and of the  r e - o r i e n t a t i o n of the Canada C o u n c i l was t o c i r c u m s c r i b e t h e programmes of institutions like  VAG; f i r s t t h e s a t e l l i t e s and l a t e r s p e c i a l e v e n t s were  d i s p o s e d of because t h e i r f u n d i n g was r e j e c t e d by the l o n g t e r m  p r o j e c t of  from the l a r g e r  the Canada  institutions  112/ VAG C o u n c i l minutes  became  these a g e n c i e s .  And as  C o u n c i l to r e d i r e c t i t s funding clear,  with  (12 A p r i l & 22 November  the  away  expectation that  1973).  113/ " P a r t i c i p a t i o n was dead [by 1972]; o n l y t h e i n e l e g a n t words d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n remained and o n l y i n t h e p o l i c i e s of the N a t i o n a l Museums of C a n a d a . " O s t r y , op. c i t . , p. 118. 114/ Frank M i l l i g a n , "The A m b i g u i t i e s of t h e Canada Council," in Love and Money: The P o l i t i c s of C u l t u r e , e d . D a v i d H e l w i g (Ottawa: Oberon, 1980), pp. 7 5 - 7 6 .  c a p i t a l would  make up  the d i f f e r e n c e i n what was p e r c e i v e d t o be i t s own  c u l t u r a l t e r r i t o r y , the d i s g r u n t l e d VAG board  s e i z e d the  i n i t i a t i v e to  1973 a f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s had F o u n d a t i o n withdrew  b u s i n e s s people  ensued  i t s support  who remained  oust Emery. A l r e a d y i n the summer of at  VAG  f o r the  when  the  private  Vancouver  s a t e l l i t e programme.[115] Dona-  t i o n s had bottomed out a t a t o t a l of $7,000 so f a r f o r t h a t y e a r , c i t y refused  t h e major  The c r i s i s was papered scheduled f o r  the f a l l ,  V i b r a t i o n s , but i t q u e s t i o n of  on t h e  and t h e  i n c r e a s e i n i t s o p e r a t i n g budget VAG asked of i t . over  with  and the  exposed  the  s u b s t i t u t i o n of  Emery's  the o v e r e x t e n s i o n  cancellation  new  of the  of  six  exhibitions  the s u c c e s s f u l P a c i f i c  vulnerability,  and  G a l l e r y ' s resources  r a i s e d the  f o r the f i r s t  time. The b a l a n c e of power, t h e n , was the  "private  i t s e l f of  sector",  as  the  VAG's d i r e c t o r  f e d e r a l government  c u l t u r a l expenditure,  tinued f u l l  s h i f t i n g from  but t o  escape t h e  back t o  sought, not t o d i v e s t consequences  of c o n -  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n of c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .  In  so d o i n g , i t a l t e r e d i t s c u l t u r a l p o l i c y t o a l i g n i t  more c l o s e l y  corporate  " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n and  perspective.[116]  Even  the  meaning  of  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n " was changed d u r i n g t h e 1970s ( t h i s w i l l the next  with a  be d i s c u s s e d  in  c h a p t e r ) . W h i l e Emery had remained c r u c i a l t o t h e s u c c e s s of t h e  G a l l e r y u n t i l 1973, he was now  disposable i n  the f a c e  of p o l i c y changes  115/ VAG C o u n c i l E x e c u t i v e Committee minutes (3 A p r i l 1973). 116/ In p a r t , t h e s u b j e c t of an a r t i c l e by D a n i e l R o b b i n s , "The Development of the Museum P r o f e s s i o n a l , " i n Ted P o u l o s ( e d . ) , Conference P r o c e e d i n g s f o r 2001: The Museum and the Canadian P u b l i c (Ottawa: Canadian Museums A s s o c i a t i o n , 1977). See a l s o Robin E n d r e s , " A r t and a c c u m u l a t i o n : The Canadian s t a t e and the b u s i n e s s of a r t , " i n P a n i t c h ( e d . ) , pp. 417-45.  t h a t might  seem t o  f a v o u r h i s work, but which went a g a i n s t t h e c o n t i n u e d  e x p a n s i o n of f u n d i n g t o i n s t i t u t i o n s such as h i s . I n f a c t , t h i s was one of t h e major reasons  g i v e n by the t r u s t e e s f o r Emery's d i s m i s s a l i n 1974.  L o n g s t a f f e , a p a s t - p r e s i d e n t of  VAG C o u n c i l ,  that  thumb' a t the w e a l t h i e r group because  "Emery  figured a l l staffe  'almost  poked  t h e money  went  on  to  a  would come say  that  from t h e  "Canada  i n c r e a s e t h e i r support from the  Sun a t  t h a t time  Canada C o u n c i l ' . [ 1 1 7 ] "  Council  community  unable t o handle expanded b u d g e t s . "  t o l d the  Ron  'he  Long-  has asked a l l groups t o  because  the  council  w i l l be  I n a memo t h a t Emery c i r c u l a t e d t o the  VAG t r u s t e e s a f t e r h i s r e s i g n a t i o n , t h e d i r e c t o r s t a t e d t h a t t h e n p r e s i d e n t Gary B e l l  had made  i t known t o him t h a t h i s p o l i c i e s were p r e v e n t i n g VAG  from moving on, and t h a t o n l y D o r i s S h a d b o l t ' s  threat to  were  In the end, i t was  dismissed  prevented  his  d e c i s i o n t o go, f o r the t e n u r e his dismissal  o f f e r e d him  was  not  standing  d i r e c t o r , arguing that a a b i l i t i e s would  make h i s  c o n t r a c t . But Emery demanded the r e s i g -  trustees for  lack  Emery's  committee which had o r i g i n a l l y recommended  a new  n a t i o n s of t h r e e of the f o u r fourth  removal.[118]  r e s i g n i f Emery  who  had  re-election), of  confidence  work i m p o s s i b l e . [ 1 1 9 ]  urged and by  his  removal ( t h e  t h a t of the f i n a n c i a l the  Executive  in  his  The r e s i g n a t i o n s were not  117/ Harvey Southam, " L e t t e r bares a r t g a l l e r y f e u d , " The P r o v i n c e (2 November 1974). It is noted w i t h i r o n y t h a t VAG r e c e i v e d i t s l a r g e s t C o u n c i l g r a n t ever the year Emery was axed. 118/ Tony Emery, u n p u b l i s h e d memo t o  VAG t r u s t e e s  (24 August  1974),  p. 4. 119/ Tony Emery, "My S i d e of t h e S t o r y , " M a c l e a n ' s (November 1974), p. 7. Many of t h e members of C o u n c i l , among whom now numbered s e v e r a l a r t i s t s , were s y m p a t h e t i c t o Emery, but the m a c h i n a t i o n s of the t e n u r e committee and the E x e c u t i v e went on above t h e i r heads - i n d i c a t i v e of the  f o r t h c o m i n g , so  Emery b i d  planned move t o t h e aside at  h i s own  Courthouse meant  farewell in t h a t Emery  the summer would have  of 1974. The had t o s t e p  some t i m e , g i v e n t h e r e - o r d e r i n g of p r i o r i t i e s such a move would  r e q u i r e ; but t h e move was a l s o a s i g n of major changes i n c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , and more g e n e r a l l y i n t h e i d e o l o g i c a l s u p e r s t r u c t u r e of Canadian s o c i e t y .  r e a l r e l a t i o n s of power w i t h i n C o u n c i l . The t r u s t e e s i n q u e s t i o n were Gary B e l l , Ron L o n g s t a f f e and M i c h a e l Ryan ( t h e one not s t a n d i n g f o r r e - e l e c t i o n ) , a l l of whom were a c t i v e i n the campaign a g a i n s t Emery, and Werner A e l l e n , E m e r y ' s e r s t w h i l e p r o t e g e , who had a l s o v o t e d f o r t h e d i r e c t o r ' s removal.  113 CHAPTER 3 THE VANCOUVER ART GALLERY 1975-83: "SUCCESS"  T h e r e ' s been a k i n d of r e t u r n , a r e a c t i o n . . . t h i n g s have calmed down t o what they were b e f o r e . For i n s t a n c e , what t h e Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y i s now i s a r e f i n e d and s l i c k e r v e r s i o n of what i t was about f i f t e e n y e a r s ago. - Abe R o g a t n i c k , 1978[1] The  history  of  h i s t o r y of VAG's buildings,  a  the  move  feat  Vancouver  Art  to  its  new  which  was  f i n a l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d i n the F a l l of  P l a n n i n g f o r t h e move dominated a l l programming  during  G a l l e r y s i n c e 1975 i s r e a l l y the  location  considerations  that time; nevertheless,  than the d e t e r m i n i n g cause of a l l  in  the  of  former  Courthouse 1983.  G a l l e r y p o l i c y and  the move was a symptom r a t h e r  the changes  which have  taken place at  VAG. In t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l d e a l w i t h a number of r e l a t e d i s s u e s a f f e c t i n g the r e c e n t p o l i c y of the G a l l e r y , which i n e f f e c t s i g n i f i e d t i o n of  c u l t u r e t o the b u s i n e s s and p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s e s  the r e p a t r i a -  i n Vancouver,  l e a s t i n terms of v i s u a l a r t . The government had i n t i m a t e d t h a t i t l o n g e r prepared  to subsidize  c u l t u r e on  asked a r t s i n s t i t u t i o n s t o seek government  also  altered  developing, to a l i g n c a p i t a l . In  them  Vancouver,  it  the more  out  the s c a l e  alternate  criteria closely  was r e c o g n i z e d  i t had  sources  at  was no  been, and i t  of  f u n d i n g . The  f o r c u l t u r a l f u n d i n g i t had been to  the  needs  that donations  would not be f o r t h c o m i n g u n t i l t h e r e was a new s i t e  and  desires  of  t o the G a l l e r y  to adequately  display  1/ A l v i n B a l k i n d and Abe R o g a t n i c k , "An A s p i r a t i o n t o Get B e y o n d , " C r i t e r i a , v o l . 4 no. 2 ( F a l l 1978), p. 12. From an i n t e r v i e w w i t h David MacWilliam.  the wealth,  i n c l u d i n g the  d o n a t i o n of  c o l l e c t i o n s ; t h a t i s , moneys were  needed i n the s h o r t term t o b u i l d an adequate g a l l e r y , i n order funds from  t o secure  the " p r i v a t e s e c t o r " f o r i t s programme i n the l o n g t e r m . T h i s ,  as w e l l as the a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g need e x p a n s i o n of  Gallery a c t i v i t i e s  for  more  since the  space,  1960s, was  in  light  of the  behind the t r a n s -  f o r m a t i o n of t h e VAG programme, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and C o u n c i l membership. The p h y s i c a l space of f o r many  years to  the o l d  be i n a d e q u a t e ,  was not a new one; e a r l y museum  complex,  Georgia Street  and the i d e a of moving t o another  i n 1965  including  VAG had  its  b u i l d i n g was r e c o g n i z e d  even i n i t i a t e d  possibility  of  partnership  n e c e s s i t y of l a r g e r f a c i l i t i e s t h e i r audiences)  t h a t VAG  city  blocks  downtown,  contain  was u n d e r t a k i n g  and  VAG C o u n c i l r e j e c t e d  i n the K i t s i l a n o museum p r o j e c t [ 3 ] , the  to  when the p r o v i n c i a l government  of a  own f a c i l i t i e s , where V a n c o u v e r ' s museum  and p l a n e t a r i u m a r e l o c a t e d now.[2] A l t h o u g h i n 1966 the  the i d e a  site  all  of  the  a c t i v i t i e s (and  was becoming ever c l e a r e r . So  announced i t s  i n t e n t i o n to  r e d e v e l o p two  i n c o r p o r a t e a new p r o v i n c i a l c o u r t h o u s e  them, the q u e s t i o n was r a i s e d as t o whether  the o l d  Courthouse  into  buildings  would be s u i t a b l e f o r a g a l l e r y . The i n i t i a l  response was u n f a v o u r a b l e ; P.C. B a r t e r ( t h e n t h e G a l l e r y ' s  p r e s i d e n t ) , Ron L o n g s t a f f e and Committee  of  VAG  Council  on  D o r i s Shadbolt 15  January  reported to  1973 t h a t the b u i l d i n g s were  2/ VAG C o u n c i l , u n p u b l i s h e d memo (21 A p r i l recommended t h i s p r o j e c t on 25 F e b r u a r y 1965. 3/ 2-3.  VAG  Council  Executive  the E x e c u t i v e  1966).  VAG o r i g i n a l l y  Committee minutes (1 November 1966), pp.  u n s u i t a b l e p h y s i c a l l y , though t h e i r l o c a t i o n was 1975, soon  i d e a l . [ A ] In  October of  a f t e r h i s appointment, Luke Rombout expressed s e r i o u s  reserva-  t i o n s about the b u i l d i n g ' s i n t e r i o r , a l t h o u g h f o r him, a g a i n , the l o c a t i o n and a l s o t h e e x t e r i o r were " i d e a l " . [ 5 ] And i n March 1976, Rombout t o l d the E x e c u t i v e Committee of VAG C o u n c i l t h a t ,  in his  o p i n i o n , the  most p r a c -  t i c a l s o l u t i o n t o the problem of space would be a c o m p l e t e l y new b u i l d i n g , r a t h e r than t h e r e n o v a t i o n of t h e o l d But C i t y C o u n c i l feasibility  study  had of  adopted when they were  already the  site.[6]  appointed  Arthur  tabled i n  1976 ( h i s  f i r m went  on t o  d e s i g n the  the same  time i t  approved  r e n o v a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g proceeds from the s a l e of the  G e o r g i a S t r e e t p r o p e r t y . [ 8 ] The f u n d r a i s i n g campaign  make a  C i t y C o u n c i l f o r m a l l y approved  the s i t e f o r G a l l e r y use i n March 1978, and a t moneys f o r  to  Courthouse s i t e , and h i s recommendations were  a l t e r a t i o n s t o the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s ) . [ 7 ]  the f i r s t  Erickson  Gallery i t s e l f  i n 1978-79,  g r o s s e d $5 m i l l i o n i n d o n a t i o n s  conducted a  high p r o f i l e  c a l l e d Take t h e G a l l e r y t o C o u r t , which  ($A m i l l i o n from  corporations).[9]  A/ VAG C o u n c i l E x e c u t i v e Committee minutes (15 January 1973), p. 5/ T o n i Dabbs, "Luke Rombout: (October 1975), p. 2.  ' A r t cannot  be t a u g h t ' , "  6/ VAG C o u n c i l E x e c u t i v e Committee minutes (18 March 7/ " P r e s i d e n t ' s R e p o r t , " VAG Annual Report R e p o r t , " VAG Annual Report 1977, n.p.  1.  Performance  1976).  1976, n . p . ;  "Director's  8/ Dale R i c k a r d , "Humanizing Vancouver: VAG i n the C i t y C e n t r e , " Vanguard, v o l . 7 no. 8 (November 1978), p. A; R o c h e l l e van Halm, " H a r v e s t Time, B.C. B u s i n e s s (September 1983), p. 7 1 . The c i t y committed $2.6 m i l l i o n f o r the r e n o v a t i o n , p l u s $12 m i l l i o n gained from the s a l e of the o l d p r o p e r t y (which the c i t y owned) i n 1982. 9/ Van Halm, op. c i t . , p. 71.  116 Luke Rombout was h i r e d as d i r e c t o r o v e r s e e i n g the  in  mid-1975,  for  the  purpose of  changes e n v i s i o n e d f o r t h e G a l l e r y by i t s t r u s t e e s . [ 1 0 ]  was an a r t s b u r e a u c r a t who was a l r e a d y aware of the changes being government c u l t u r a l  p o l i c y , an  He  made i n  i n s i d e r ' s knowledge he used t o advantage.  Rombout wrote i n VAG's Annual Report of  1975:  The support from Ottawa s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n the n a t u r e and q u a l i t y of our programs. But whatever the e v a l u a t i o n s of our programs, tangible assistance will be tempered, i n the next few y e a r s , by r e s t r i c t i o n s on the budgets of the f u n d i n g a g e n c i e s . C u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and f u n d i n g a g e n c i e s alike will be s u b s t a n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d by t h e economic c o n d i t i o n s around us. There w i l l be a l e v e l l i n g o f f of f e d e r a l government financial assistance, which means t h a t more revenues have t o be sought and secured on t h e l o c a l l e v e l . To be s u r e , we have t o earn t h i s support, but I am c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h r o u g h r e s p o n s i b l e p r o gramming and management, i n c r e a s e d support w i l l be f o r t h c o m i n g . [ 1 1 ] Rombout's s p r i n g of  r e p o r t , which was p r e s e n t e d a t the annual g e n e r a l meeting i n the 1976, was  a manifesto  f o r the changes he had a l r e a d y made and  which would c o n t i n u e through 1976. H i s o t h e r argument, the government could i n address i n  any  r e d i r e c t i o n of case  be  Edmonton i n  f u n d s , was  dangerous; 1978, i n  for  l i n k e d to  t h a t of  t h a t r e l i a n c e on f e d e r a l funds instance,  Rombout  d e l i v e r e d an  which he c r i t i c i z e d the consequences  of  10/ Sean R o s s i t e r makes t h i s p o i n t i n h i s a r t i c l e on " t h e y e a r l o n g s p e c t a c l e of s t r i f e " f o l l o w i n g the d i s m i s s a l of P e t e r M a l k i n and the subsequent u n i o n i z a t i o n of the s t a f f i n 1979. Rombout r e i t e r a t e d i t a t the time of VAG's r e - o p e n i n g : "Someone l o o k e d a t my resume and s a i d ' L u k e , what you a r e i s a b u i l d e r ' , " he s a y s . "I l i k e d t h a t . " Sean R o s s i t e r , "The man behind t h e A r t G a l l e r y f u r o r , " Vancouver Magazine (March 1980); Eve Johnson, " L u k e , t h e a r t f u l b u i l d e r , " The Sun (15 October 1983), p. C I . P r i o r t o h i s appointment as VAG d i r e c t o r , Rombout had b e e n , r e s p e c t i v e l y , d i r e c t o r of t h e Owens A r t G a l l e r y i n S a c k v i l l e , N.B. ( 1 9 6 8 - 7 1 ) , D i r e c t o r of V i s u a l A r t s a t York U n i v e r s i t y ( 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 ) , d i r e c t o r of the A r t Bank ( 1 9 7 2 - 7 5 ) , and head of the v i s u a l a r t s s e c t i o n of the Canada C o u n c i l ( 1 9 7 4 - 7 5 ) ; the l a t t e r two p o s i t i o n s were h e l d c o n c u r r e n t l y . 11/ " D i r e c t o r ' s R e p o r t , " VAG Annual Report 1975,  n.p.  the  lack  of  a  coherent  arts  p o l i c y . [12]  He  s a i d t h e r e were s e v e r a l  problems as a r e s u l t of t h i s l a c k , i n c l u d i n g the c o n f l i c t between N a t i o n a l Museums and Canada C o u n c i l p o l i c i e s , which had not y e t been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e s o l v e d , and the undermining LIP  and  OFY  programmes,  of the  and  which  undermining of the concept of " t h e the " p o p u l a r i z a t i o n "  of the  CC's e f f o r t s  which began  w i t h the  had not y e t c e a s e d , e s p e c i a l l y the  p u r s u i t of  museums under  e x c e l l e n c e " as  the NMP.  opposed t o  C u l t u r a l p o l i c y was  now determined i n a range o f f e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e Department of  External Affairs,  t h e Canada F i l m Development C o r p o r a t i o n ,  the N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d , e t c . , and the Canada of s p l i t t i n g  i n t o separate  a r t s and  C o u n c i l was  CC  body  was  l a r g e r and l a r g e r d i r e c t which  it  would  diminished, parliamentary  inevitably  spent f a r more on  arts  c a p i t a l combined,  a situation  have  subsidies  i n the  process  r e s e a r c h c o u n c i l s . F o r Rombout, a l l  t h i s p o i n t e d t o a s u b t l e p o l i t i c i z a t i o n of the a r t s , as autonomous  NMP, the  to than  and  as  the power  of the  t h a t body i t s e l f r e c e i v e d  subsidies  each  year,  funds f o r  answer. The f e d e r a l government now did  the  provinces  and p r i v a t e  which was, a c c o r d i n g t o Rombout, as  impos-  s i b l e t o c o n t i n u e f i n a n c i a l l y as i t was dangerous i n terms of i n f l u e n c e . For Rombout (and, i n t e r e s t i n g l y , solution for  an a r t s  for funding,  which would  since i t  f o r the  i n s t i t u t i o n was  Canada C o u n c i l  to turn  a l l e g e d l y strengthen  itself),  t o a " v a r i e t y " of  the  sources  the r e c i p i e n t ' s p o s i t i o n ,  would no l o n g e r be as dependent upon a s i n g l e source of  The o t h e r s o u r c e s were two: t h e p r o v i n c i a l governments, which i n  funding. t h e case  12/ Luke Rombout, "The A r t of P o l i t i c s i n Canadian A r t s , " t e x t reproduced i n A r t m a g a z i n e , v o l . 9 nos. 38/39 (June 1978), a r t f o c u s s e c t i o n , pp. 2-6.  118 of B r i t i s h  Columbia had so f a r p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o c u l t u r a l m a t t e r s ;  and b u s i n e s s . point in  Kenneth Bagshaw, former  Gallery  president,  made  the same  1977:  The G a l l e r y , l i k e so many c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada, i s a c u t e l y aware of the s h i f t i n g p r o f i l e of f u n d i n g and t h e r i s k s which would f l o w from i t . I t i s apparent t h a t over the l a s t few y e a r s t h e r e has been a growing dependence by v i s u a l a r t s i n s t i t u t i o n s on government support f o r t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . There i s a p r i c e t o be p a i d . The more the government p r o v i d e s s u p p o r t , t h e l e s s the i n c l i n a t i o n or c a p a c i t y of the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , both c o r p o r a t e or otherwise, t o c o n t r i b u t e or match g r a n t s . The more government support grows, the g r e a t e r the r i s k of p o l i t i c i z a t i o n of the a r t s . The G a l l e r y c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y walk a f i n e l i n e and s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the consequences of the adage t h a t he who pays the p i p e r c a l l s the t u n e . We need g r e a t e r l o c a l support t o ensure a h e a l t h i e r b a l a n c e between a l l s o u r c e s of f u n d i n g . [ 1 3 ] Both Rombout  and Bagshaw  i n t e r p r e t what  o t h e r s o u r c e s o f f u n d i n g , g i v e n the d i t u r e , and  an o p p o r t u n i t y  was both a n e c e s s i t y t o t u r n t o  f r e e z i n g of  the f e d e r a l  t o r e d i r e c t G a l l e r y p o l i c y , g i v e n the g o v e r n -  m e n t ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e p a t r i a t e c u l t u r e t o the b u s i n e s s c l a s s e s , as  a question  ment s u b s i d y  of the a r t s . I t  had made  was g i v e n  t h a t the  p o s s i b l e , and  federal cultural policy  had even  sense, VAG had a l r e a d y been " p o l i t i c i z e d " , and o n l y an a c c e n t  on the  l o c a l , would  proper c o u r s e . C o n v i n c i n g b u s i n e s s t i a l l y to  t h e VAG  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  of the p o l i t i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e i n h e r e n t i n g o v e r n -  E m e r y ' s programme  funding, with  a r t s expen-  budget was  enforced i t ; i n t h i s a d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of  r e t u r n the  G a l l e r y to i t s  t h a t i t had to c o n t r i b u t e more  substan-  t h u s an i m p e r a t i v e . I t goes w i t h o u t  t h a t what Rombout and Bagshaw meant  by " l o c a l "  was of  a d i f f e r e n t order  than E m e r y ' s d e f i n i t i o n .  13/ " P r e s i d e n t ' s R e p o r t , " VAG Annual Report 1977,  saying  n.p.  C u r i o u s l y , the  p o i n t s made  even by government a g e n t s , w i t h c o u l d not  by Rombout, Bagshaw and o t h e r s were echoed the  recognition  that  further  be extended t o e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h o u t e l i m i n a t i n g g r a n t s  t o s m a l l e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , due t o t h e f r e e z i n g of t h e Canada revenue.[14]  There  was  a  turning  away  from  C o u n c i l c o u l d be a support system f o r the CC d i r e c t o r s  urged t h a t  the a r t s  n a t i o n . In an address g i v e n pleaded f o r  more p r i v a t e  in  arts in  find their  1976,  funding of  subsidy),  funds  had  s o u r c e s as p o s s i b l e . [ 1 5 ] " Here pleading  before  b u s i n e s s and t h e  a  corporate  arts,  along  to  C o u n c i l ' s own  the i d e a t h a t t h e Canada Canada, and s u c c e e d i n g  own base of support i n the  Council the a r t s ;  p u b l i c d i d not y e t see t h e a r t s as e s s e n t i a l (nor further  subsidies  director  Charles Lussier  s i n c e i n h i s o p i n i o n the t h e r e f o r e the  need f o r  "be  winkled  out of as many d i f f e r e n t  where  Lussier  was  audience the  lines  -  doing  some s p e c i a l  he advocated a p a r t n e r s h i p of promoted  by  the  (government-  14/ " A r t s groups p r e d i c t c u t s , " The P r o v i n c e (16 March 1974); Ray C h a t e l i n , "$$$ f r e e z e ' s t i n k s of p o l i t i e s ' , " The P r o v i n c e (22 March 1974) a r t i c l e s c o n c e r n i n g CC d i r e c t o r Andre F o r t i e r ' s announcement of a budget f r e e z e f o r l a r g e a r t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . See a l s o the Canada C o u n c i l , 18th Annual R e p o r t 1974-75, pp. 8 2 - 8 3 : We c a l c u l a t e d t h a t p r o v i d i n g " n o r m a l " c o s t of l i v i n g i n c r e a s e s t o the 19 l a r g e s t p e r f o r m i n g a r t s companies would r e q u i r e almost the e n t i r e increment i n the m u s i c , t h e a t r e and dance budgets, l e a v i n g no money f o r i n c r e a s e s t o s m a l l e r companies or f o r g r a n t s t o p r e v i o u s l y unsupported companies. T h i s c o m p e l l e d us t o i n t r o d u c e a p o l i c y of severe r e s t r a i n t on the i n c r e a s e s i n our g r a n t s t o t h e s e l a r g e r companies, a p o l i c y d e s c r i b e d by the p r e s s , i n a c c u r a t e l y but g r a p h i c a l l y , as a " f r e e z e " . I t can be seen t h a t though t h e r e was s t i l l an i n c r e m e n t a t t h i s t i m e , the C o u n c i l was a l r e a d y p r e p a r i n g f o r i t s f u t u r e e l i m i n a t i o n . 15/ C h a r l e s L u s s i e r , " P u b l i c - P r i v a t e Partnership (Ottawa: The Canada C o u n c i l , 7 May 1976), p. 5.  in  the  Arts,"  supported)  Council  for  Business  t o l d the audience t h a t a r t s proposals  "that  ment a g e n c i e s  organizations  can be s h o r t s i g h t e d , t o some  sought  s e c t i o n s of  with business;  i n the  s i o n s of i t , which This  in  have  itself  l a t e 1970s[18],  signified  between c l a s s e s t h a t the  a  private sector  up w i t h govern-  was  "more  - meaning,  of a  pre-  new r e l a t i o n  was not i n t e n d i n g t o abandon  maintained  at  the  time  of the  i t was r e f u s i n g any f u r t h e r e x t e n extensions  partial  government  come  He conceded t h a t  were i n d i c a t i v e  though i t  included further  to  the p o p u l a t i o n [ 1 7 ] "  the w e l f a r e s t a t e , as some commentators fiscal crisis  would  and t h a t the  i t s e l f . L u s s i e r ' s statements  government  the A r t s i n Canada (CBAC), and he  businessmen can u n d e r s t a n d . [ 1 6 ] "  c l o s e l y attuned sumably,  and  had  of  c u l t u r a l expenditure.  r e t r e a t from the r o l e of m e d i a t o r seemed t o  adopt i n  the  postwar  period.[19] In the  case of  c u l t u r a l expenditure,  very t r a d i t i o n a l n o t i o n s the  role  the  ruling  of t h e r o l e of c u l t u r e class  a r t s . I t was not s i m p l y t h a t "excellence"  was  the government  reaffirmed.  i n the  a cosmopolitan The  original  c u l t u r e based intentions  p.  17/ I b i d , p.  to  community, and of  had t r a d i t i o n a l l y p l a y e d i n p a t r o n i z i n g  C o u n c i l were m o d i f i e d de f a c t o by the i n t r o d u c t i o n 16/ I b i d ,  was r e t u r n i n g  on n o t i o n s of  the  the of  Canada  of a " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n "  9. 10.  18/ E.g. Reg W h i t a k e r , "Images of the s t a t e i n C a n a d a , " i n P a n i t c h ( e d . ) , op. c i t . , p. 62. T h i s i s of c o u r s e a more r e c e n t p r o j e c t of the new r i g h t , and has j u s t begun t o m a n i f e s t i t s e l f on the f e d e r a l l e v e l i n Canada. 19/  Ibid.  w h i c h was i t s e l f r e i n t e r p r e t e d t o l e n c e " was  still  the  alter  its  guidepost; Lussier  community should have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o This i s ,  however, a  i n t h e 1950s, who wish i t . [ 2 1 ] "  meaning.  s t a t e d i n 1977 t h a t " t h e e n t i r e p r o g r e s s towards  excellence.[20]"  s a i d : "The  b e s t must  be made  available to  one i m p l i e s  the  cultured  the  a subsidy  classes,  of c u l t u r a l  institutions i t  above. I t  funds.  It  i s however  " e x c e l l e n c e " , that is a  i s an  culture,  endeavours  for  the second statement i m p l i e s an  a c t i v e p r o p a g a n d i z a t i o n f o r " c u l t u r a l " v a l u e s i n the whole  s e r v i c e of  those who  Both s t a t e m e n t s are embedded i n n o t i o n s of e l i t i s t  of  "Excel-  very d i f f e r e n t statement from t h a t of V i n c e n t Massey  but w h i l e the e a r l i e r benefit  post-1968  s o c i e t y by the  a "democratization" i m p o s i t i o n of  w h o l l y i n the  c u l t u r a l values  r e j e c t i o n of democracy r a t h e r than i t s e x t e n s i o n ;  from  Lussier  makes t h i s p o i n t q u i t e e x p l i c i t l y : The problem i s t o f i n d a way t o b r i n g t h e b e s t people t o power and, once t h e r e , t o r e q u i r e them t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r e x c e l l e n c e and i n t e g r i t y . The p r i n c i p l e of the p u r s u i t of e x c e l l e n c e and i t s c o n c r e t e i m p l i c a t i o n s c o u l d n ' t be put more s u c c i n c t l y : t h a t whether i t be i n t h e r e a l m of p o l i t i c s or of a r t and c u l t u r e , the democ r a t i c s p i r i t f e e d s on t h o s e q u a l i t a t i v e v a l u e s t h a t i t i n t e n d s t o s e r v e and t o p l a c e a t t h e s e r v i c e of the whole community.[22] T h i s was i n f a c t the p o l i c y Rombout p r a c t i c e d the " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n "  of the  " p u r s u i t of  model which had confused s e r v i c e t o community was  l e f t behind,  local  in his  years i n  e x c e l l e n c e " . The artists  with  Vancouver:  "avant-garde"  service  t o the  but t h e G a l l e r y ' s r o l e was not i d e n t i c a l w i t h  20/ C h a r l e s L u s s i e r , "The Canada C o u n c i l : The P r i n c i p l e of E x c e l l e n c e and I t s Implications i n a Democratic S o c i e t y , " (Ottawa: The Canada C o u n c i l , 6 J u l y 1977), p. 4. 21/ I b i d . L u s s i e r was q u o t i n g from the Massey R e p o r t . 22/ L u s s i e r  ( 1 9 7 7 ) , pp. 13-14.  t h a t of i t s amateur  phase,  considered c r u c i a l  especially  to a t t r a c t  a very  in  of c u l t u r a l  f u n d i n g , but  and s o p h i s t i c a t e d p l a n e . " S u p p o r t " , support f o r  the l o c a l  one i t  that  passive)  it  was now  a u d i e n c e . VAG  had o c c u p i e d  p r i o r to  on a much l a r g e r , more a m b i t i o u s  as  we  a r t i s t i c scene,  t h e r e t r e n c h e d t r a d i t i o n a l programming  sense  l a r g e (but  had r e t r e a t e d t o a p o s i t i o n s i m i l a r t o the the e x p a n s i o n  the  shall  see,  no  l o n g e r meant  but the p a r a p h e r n a l i a - on-floor  surrounding  education, catalogues,  etc. One of  Rombout's  f u n d r a i s i n g on the contributions  immediate local  from  the  p r i o r i t i e s was t o r e d i r e c t e f f o r t s towards  level, B.C.  and  he  secured  increasingly  generous  C u l t u r a l Fund, which was s u p p o r t e d  through  p r o v i n c i a l l o t t e r y moneys, b e g i n n i n g i n 1976.[23] He a l s o began s o l i c i t i n g funds on  the c o r p o r a t e  l e v e l , a scheme begun upon h i s a r r i v a l , but which  reached f r u i t i o n o n l y by 1978, when d o n a t i o n s began f l o w i n g i n i n t i a l amounts  f o r the  G a l l e r y ' s programme,  substan-  f i r s t t i m e . [ 2 4 ] One can see a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the administration  and  trustee  membership  during the  f i r s t y e a r s of Rombout's t e n u r e , i n an e f f o r t t o make t h i s a r e a l i t y . The  rationale  for  p u b l i c l y was based on once h e l d  the a kind  transformation of Z e i t g e i s t  of  VAG's programme  approach; that  presented  what may have  t r u e was v a l i d no l o n g e r , t h e r e f o r e Emery's p o l i c i e s had become  23/ VAG C o u n c i l minutes (19 November 1975). The B.C. C u l t u r a l Fund g r a n t jumped from $50,400 i n 1975 t o $160,000 i n 1976, and was $285,000 by 1981. 24/ The VAG Annual Report f o r 1978 r e p o r t s t h a t t h e s u s t a i n i n g d r i v e reached i t s g o a l f o r the f i r s t time t h a t y e a r ; t h i s was d i s t i n c t from the c a p i t a l fund campaign which a l s o began t h a t y e a r .  a n a c h r o n i s t i c even b e f o r e he l e f t . [ 2 5 ] Rombout about t h i s  was a t  first conciliatory  ( e s p e c i a l l y g i v e n the p o p u l a r i t y of the Emery a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) ;  as he t o l d a Sun r e p o r t e r l a t e i n  1976:  "Tony Emery had a g r e a t i d e a f o r the 1960s and e a r l y ' 7 0 s , and i f I had been here then I hope I would have t r i e d the same s o r t of t h i n g , " Rombout e x p l a i n e d . " B u t t o d a y , and p a r t l y f o r f i n a n c i a l r e a s o n s , t h e r e i s a more - I h a t e t o use t h e word - c o n s e r v a t i v e a t t i t u d e t o i n v o l v i n g people w i t h the g a l l e r y . In terms of the p u b l i c ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e v i s u a l a r t s , t h i s can be a good thing.[26]" The " c o n s e r v a t i v e " a t t i t u d e was a gramme t o  i t s more  policy,  month  he  and  which  which  Rombout  tie  grants  to  specific  were no l o n g e r e l i g i b l e Rombout's o p i n i o n , "problems" gallery.[28]  of  the  G a l l e r y ' s pro-  However,  for subsidy.  art in  in  his  first  was a  the Canada  C o u n c i l had adopted  p r o j e c t s ; by 1976 such programmes as e v e n t s  because a c c o r d i n g  visual  suspended  never ceased t o c r i t i c i z e . [ 2 7 ] The " f i n a n c i a l  r e a s o n s " p r o b a b l y a l l u d e s t o the measures to  of  t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of e x h i b i t i n g works of a r t , and away  from the s p e c i a l e v e n t s here  re-orientation  the  memo  Such changes t o him  were a  good t h i n g i n  e d u c a t i o n of  the p u b l i c on  primary circulated  responsibility internally  25/ Dabbs, op. c i t . Rombout r e p e a t e d t h i s r a t i o n a l e VAG's r e - o p e n i n g i n October 1983; Johnson, op. c i t .  of  to a t the  an a r t  s t a f f and time of  26/ Wayne Edmonstone, " F a c e i t : w e ' r e t h i r d - r a t e , " The Vancouver (14 December 1976), p. 21.  Sun  27/ Joan Lowndes, "Tough but t e n s i l e - t h a t ' s Luke Rombout," The Vancouver Sun ( L e i s u r e S e c t i o n ) ( 5 September 1975), p. 4 a ; Dabbs, op. cit.; Max Wyman, "New promise and new problems f a c e Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , " P e r f o r m i n g A r t s i n Canada, v o l . 12 no. 3 ( F a l l 1975), p. 32; Edmonstone, op. c i t . , p. 21; Johnson, op. c i t . 28/ " V i d e o : The A u d i o - V i s u a l O f f i c e r & T h i n g s t o Come a t t h e VAG," Vanguard, v o l . 5 no. 2 (March 1976), p. 7; Edmonstone, op. c i t . ; Susan M e r t e n s , "The a r t g o s p e l a c c o r d i n g t o L u k e , " The Vancouver Sun (4 December  trustees e a r l i e r  i n 1976, Rombout was more c a n d i d about the reasons f o r a  change i n VAG p o l i c y ,  which amounted  to a  r e - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  the VAG  a u d i e n c e as i m p o r t a n t as the one Emery had made b e f o r e : I t was not c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d , i n my o p i n i o n , t h a t the s o c i a l m i l i e u t o which g a l l e r y e f f o r t s were d i r e c t e d changed ( i t took a more conservative course) and s e c o n d l y , the s o - c a l l e d conservative element i n t h i s community was, f o r a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s , a l i e n a t e d from the G a l l e r y . Today, we have t o come t o terms w i t h both of t h e s e problems as they r e l a t e d i r e c t l y t o the f u t u r e development of the G a l l e r y . [ 2 9 ] Rombout i s base f o r  the  w i t h e r i n g of  a r g u i n g two kind  of  p o i n t s h e r e : t h a t t h e r e was no l o n g e r a s o c i a l  programme  VAG  the c o u n t e r c u l t u r e ;  had  and t h a t  had founded and r u n t h e G a l l e r y had been t o the  problems he  had i d e n t i f i e d  p o l i c y t o what i t had been p r i o r t o As we  s h a l l see,  relations with  been  the s t r e e t "  Rombout's  d r i v e n away.  Rombout's  solution  was to e f f e c t a r e - o r i e n t a t i o n of VAG R i c h a r d Simmins'  each of  t e n u r e as d i r e c t o r .  E m e r y ' s f o u r t y p e s of p u b l i c art public,  and the  - were r e d e f i n e d t o v a r y i n g degrees i n t h e c o u r s e of  r e f o c u s s i n g of e f f o r t s  w i t h which  g i v e n the  t h e t r a d i t i o n a l audience t h a t  the c o u n t e r c u l t u r e , l o c a l a r t i s t s , the knowledgeable "man on  advocating,  VAG had  on the  " s o - c a l l e d conservative element"  t r a d i t i o n a l l y a l i g n e d i t s e l f . A r e f o c u s s i n g which was  o f c o u r s e t i e d t o G a l l e r y needs i n terms of f u n d i n g and of  the  long-range  p l a n f o r VAG's move c l o s e r downtown. To t h i s  end, many  y e a r s were abandoned or t h a t by  1976 o n l y  of the  Emery/Shadbolt  transformed i n  the extension  initiatives  the c o u r s e  of the  of the  previous  next y e a r ,  programme remained i n a n y t h i n g l i k e  1981), p. E l . 29/ Luke Rombout, u n p u b l i s h e d memo (21 A p r i l 1976), p. 2.  so its  p r e v i o u s f o r m . Rombout b e l i e v e d t h e r e were t h r e e " r o l e s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " f o r VAG:  to inform,  t o c o l l e c t , and t o p r e s e r v e . P r a c t i c a l l y , t h i s meant  "developing strong e x h i b i t i o n , a c q u i s i t i o n , p o l i c y focussed  and support  programs[30],"  on the o b j e c t s of a r t r a t h e r than on the v a r i o u s  e f f o r t s Emery had made, further objects  f o r the  with  the  hoped-for  c o l l e c t i o n , which  result  of  a  concentration  on  in-house  projects,  outreach  g a t h e r i n g of  a c c o r d i n g t o the new d i r e c t o r  had not been g i v e n enough a t t e n t i o n i n the r e c e n t p a s t . [ 3 1 ] a  a  I t a l s o meant  as VAG began t o see i t s e l f once  a g a i n as a t r e a s u r e house r a t h e r than a c e n t r e f o r a c t i v i t y . One of Rombout's was t o  cancel the  very f i r s t d i r e c t i v e s s p e c i a l events  s i o n a l a t the time - i t about s e a t i n g  for a  was r e l a t e d  arrival in  programme, a  1975  move which seemed p r o v i -  t o problems  w i t h the  the o l d  fire  p o l i c y . [ 3 2 ] The  marshall  weekly  tele-  on the l o c a l c a b l e c h a n n e l was c a n c e l l e d t o make way f o r  a v i d e o i n s t a l l a t i o n i n the G a l l e r y i n 1976; Videospace was which was  August  dance performance - but w h i c h has proved t o mean the  permanent demise of t h i s a s p e c t of v i s i o n programme  on h i s  a development  c o n s i d e r e d t o be a t t h e f o r e f r o n t of g a l l e r y i n n o v a t i o n s a t the  t i m e . [ 3 3 ] I n 1976, Vanguard was changed  30/ " D i r e c t o r ' s memo, p. 3.  from a  calendar i n t o  R e p o r t , " VAG Annual Report 1975, n . p . ;  a journal,  Rombout,  1976  31/ VAG Annual Report 1975; Lowndes, op. c i t . 32/ L a t e r , Rombout would say of t h i s i n c i d e n t : "The f i r s t change I made was t o v i r t u a l l y c a n c e l the S p e c i a l E v e n t s p r o g r a m . " From the " P e r s o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e s " s e c t i o n of Vancouver: A r t and A r t i s t s 1931-1983, p. 260. Compare w i t h VAG C o u n c i l E x e c u t i v e Committee minutes (11 September 1975), p. 6; a t t h i s t i m e , "Rombout emphasized t h i s a c t i o n does not i n d i c a t e i n t e n t t o e l i m i n a t e s p e c i a l e v e n t s i n the f u t u r e . . . . " 33/ Lowndes, op. c i t . , p. 5 a ; Wyman, op. c i t .  126 though s t i l l  i n newspaper  format f o r  the time  b e i n g , and i t s p u b l i c i t y  f u n c t i o n was e x t e n d e d , w i t h i t s c i r c u l a t i o n , o u t s i d e t h e education  department  was  also  turned  f u n c t i o n s ceded t o e x t e n s i o n , and i t s mational a c t i v i t y  around s p e c i f i c  c u t s and r e s i s t a n c e by the e d u c a t i o n Another a l t e r a t i o n of the  over  in  c i t y p r o p e r . The  1975, w i t h i t s  work r e s t r i c t e d  to on-floor  infor-  e x h i b i t i o n s , amid c o r r e s p o n d i n g  budget  staff.[34]  e x i s t i n g programme  was the  c a n c e l l a t i o n of  the two low-budget e x h i b i t i o n s e r i e s f e a t u r i n g l e s s e r - k n o w n l o c a l a c c o r d i n g t o a l o c a l newspaper  outside  artists;  account:  Here Rombout is b l u n t : "The A l t e r n a t e Space program has been scrapped. If the g a l l e r y is going t o show an a r t i s t , i t s h o u l d stand behind him, t r e a t him as a p r o f e s s i o n a l , mount h i s e x h i b i t i o n , p r e p a r e a c a t a l o g u e , pay him a f e e - t a k e a more s e r i o u s approach t o h i s work. I t h i n k we can s t i l l g i v e the unknowns as much of a chance as a n y o n e . [ 3 5 ] " The  director  said  that  while  e x h i b i t i o n s of l o c a l a r t i s t s ' work would  c o n t i n u e t o t a k e p l a c e , they would no l o n g e r be i n c o r p o r a t e d  i n t o the t o t a l programme.[36]  t i o n s was, however, e s p e c i a l l y site.[37]  There  be t o k e n  was  a  lean  in  corresponding  VAG's  e f f o r t s , but would  The number of t h e s e e x h i b i final  years  at  its  old  i n c r e a s e i n e x h i b i t i o n s of " i n t e r -  34/ VAG C o u n c i l E x e c u t i v e Committee minutes (13 November 1975), 3; "Programmes" ( r e p o r t by Ted L i n d b e r g ) , VAG Annual R e p o r t 1975, n.p.  p.  35/ Dabbs, op. c i t . 36/ " D i r e c t o r ' s R e p o r t , " VAG Annual Report 1975,  n.p.  37/ W h i l e B a l k i n d was r e t a i n e d as head c u r a t o r ( u n t i l 1978), t h e r e was s t i l l some a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o the l o c a l scene, but t h i s became n o t i c e a b l y absent from then on w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the l a t e M i s e - e n - S c e n e e x h i b i t i o n ( 1 9 8 2 ) . S t r e s s was r a t h e r l a i d on the Rauschenberg (1978) and S t e l l a (1979) shows, and an e x h i b i t i o n of a r t from West Germany, Forms of R e a l i s m Today ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The s c h e d u l e was a t t e n u a t e d as the time f o r the move drew c l o s e r , and B a l k i n d was never r e p l a c e d as head  n a t i o n a l " a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y of stable  (Rauschenberg,  Stella,  Twombly), or of E n g l i s h a r t i s t s These came  t o dominate  those Judd, like  avant-garde,  devote themselves and museums  to  i n the  were now  which  Joe  Tilson  i n the  was  and  Ruscha,  Richard Hamilton.  l a t e r '70s,  predicated  institutions  1960s, had  f r e e to  the C a s t e l l i - C h r i s t m a s  w h i l e they had  1977.  The change i n e x h i b i t i o n p o l i c y the  in  Mia W e s t e r l u n d , Oppenheim,  the programme  been v i r t u a l l y absent p r i o r t o  that  artists  on  the  understanding  had f e l t i t necessary  d i s a p p e a r e d ; as  a result  to  galleries  choose what a s p e c t s of contemporary a r t t o  f o c u s on and/or t o c o l l e c t . Rombout  was a l r e a d y  saying i n  1975, when he  had been w i t h VAG o n l y a few months: Now, however, the a v a n t - g a r d e has disappeared - everything i s a c c e p t a b l e - but o b j e c t making never d i s a p p e a r e d . I d o n ' t t h i n k the e x h i b i t i o n program has kept pace w i t h t h e s e changes.[38] The " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " t o r e f l e c t the r e t u r n t o o b j e c t - m a k i n g w h i c h f o l l o w e d the a l l e g e d  c o l l a p s e of  accompanied by  a rejection  i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of under Emery  the a v a n t - g a r d e  G a l l e r y ' s duty t o  it  was  t u r n of  the decade was  of the c l a i m s of l o c a l a r t i s t s t o have a p a r t  the programme  and S h a d b o l t .  at the  s i m i l a r to  Since there absolved,  t h a t which  they enjoyed  was no l o n g e r an a v a n t - g a r d e , and  local  artists,  the  despite t h e i r  r e c a l c i t r a n c e , had no f u r t h e r c l a i m t o e x e r c i s e : I don't f e e l t h e r e i s an a v a n t - g a r d e anymore. I hear a l o t about t h e a v a n t - g a r d e i n Vancouver, but not when I go t o New York or c u r a t o r , which made d i c t a t i o n of the e x h i b i t i o n s c h e d u l e e a s i e r f o r the d i r e c t o r . VAG t r i e d t o f a b r i c a t e a h i s t o r y of commitment t o the l o c a l w i t h i t s i n a u g u r a l show Vancouver: A r t and A r t i s t s 1931-1983. 38/ Dabbs, op. c i t .  Paris. I am a b s o l u t e l y f i r m i n s a y i n g t h a t t h i s g a l l e r y w i l l not be g i v e n over t o l o c a l a r t i s t s . [ 3 9 ] Rombout's arguments  are i n  p a r t an  accurate reading  t h e 1970s, and i n p a r t p r o j e c t i o n . As he s a i d i n  of developments  in  1976:  There i s a m i s t a k e n n o t i o n i n some p e o p l e ' s minds t h a t an a v a n t garde e x i s t s . I t d o e s n ' t ; an a v a n t - g a r d e o n l y e x i s t s when a r t i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s a r e r e j e c t e d . We a r e now i n a p e r i o d when e v e r y t h i n g i s accepted.[40] T h i s was a development t h a t g a l l e r i e s create; their  a t t e n t i o n to  and sympathy  l a t t e r ' s l i q u i d a t i o n when i t a c q u i e s c e d p o s i t i o n s of  l i k e VAG  had themselves  w i t h the to  helped to  a v a n t - g a r d e meant the  accommodation  from  those  in  power. As J e f f W a l l has s a i d , t h e s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the  i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h the a v a n t - g a r d e  meant t h a t  in practice  the l a t t e r was  " a l r e a d y u n i f i e d w i t h the s t r u c t u r e s of d o m i n a t i o n . [ 4 1 ] " The e f f e c t was t o n e u t r a l i z e both a r t and change i t s e l f ,  to " a l i e n a t e  i t in  a representa-  tion": I t would seem t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n s of b o u r g e o i s c u l t u r e need now e x p e r i e n c e no t h r e a t s from the body of contemporary a r t , f o r i t has the power over those who o p e r a t e d w i t h i n i t s own terms t o r e n d e r a l i v i n g a r t i s t i c statement i n s t a n t l y i n t o s a f e l y - f r o z e n a r t - h i s t o r y (Coutts-Smith).[42]  39/ A r t P e r r y , "Rombout dares a r t g a l l e r y t o be g r e a t , " The P r o v i n c e (16 August 1979), p. C I . 40/ S c o t t Macrae, " A r t f o r whose S e c t i o n ) ( 1 7 December 1976), p. 9 a .  s a k e ? " , The  Vancouver Sun  (Leisure  41/ J e f f W a l l , "The S i t e of C u l t u r e : C o n t r a d i c t i o n s , T o t a l i t y and t h e A v a n t - G a r d e , " Vanguard, v o l . 12 no. 4 (May 1983), p. 19. I t must be s a i d w i t h W a l l t h a t i t was t h e a v a n t - g a r d e ' s own weakened p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t made i t s c o - o p t i o n r e l a t i v e l y effortless. 42/ Kenneth C o u t t s - S m i t h , " A r t and S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , " C e n t e r f o l d , v o l . 2 no. 4 ( A p r i l 1978), p. 21.  So t h i s much was period  of  a c c o m p l i s h e d by  Emery's  tenure.  t h i n k i n g i n Rombout's that  was  But  there  understanding  convenient  to  the  the i n s t i t u t i o n s was  of the  also  of c u l t u r e  i n the  an element of w i s h f u l  death o f  the avant-garde,  one  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of VAG's programme. As J e f f  Wall w r i t e s : . . . t h e open p r o c l a m a t i o n of the ' d e a t h of the a v a n t - g a r d e ' t a k e s p l a c e i n a new p e r i o d , t h a t of the i n s t i t u t i o n s ' own f u r t h e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Those b e n e v o l e n t and innovative, structurallymodernized, almost s e l f - t r a n s c e n d i n g b u r e a u c r a c i e s of the 1960s and 70s are becoming r e s t o r a t i o n i s t i n s t r u m e n t s f o r commercial and c u l t i c values....The i d e a l of a dead vanguard i s t h e s u b j e c t i v e d e s i r e of t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s which a r e themselves now b e i n g t r a n s formed i n t o h i e r a r c h i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s of s o c i a l c o n t r o l . I t i s t h e i r m a n i f e s t o , t h e i r i n n e r tendency now b e i n g f o r c e d t o t h e s u r f a c e . [ 4 3 ] Thus VAG's programme was r e - o r i e n t e d t o e x h i b i t i o n s of nature; "support"  i n terms  of t o u r s ,  a more t r a d i t i o n a l  c a t a l o g u e s and Vanguard  (which was  t u r n e d i n t o a g l o s s y p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1979); and the b u i l d i n g of a permanent c o l l e c t i o n which,  s i n c e VAG had l i t t l e t o spare f o r such a p r o j e c t , meant  s o l i c i t i n g works only the  from p r i v a t e  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of  donors. F o r  the G a l l e r y  " i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r e d i b i l i t y " t h a t would cant  exhibitions,  c o l l e c t i o n s and "how I  donations could  i n new  premises would ensure  a l l o w the  against  which  be measured.  t h e VAG C o u n c i l ,  i m p o r t a t i o n of the  worth  Rombout s a i d  of  the  signifio n e ' s own  i n 1979  that  p e r c e i v e the g a l l e r y and how I want i t t o go i s l a r g e l y o u t s i d e  Canada.[44]" with  exhibitions  Rombout and  the  In o r d e r t o  notion  of  accomplish t h i s  i t was  necessary  to  of  have done  the a v a n t - g a r d e and the p r e v i o u s l y l o c a l l y - o r i e n t e d  p r o j e c t s , t o f i n i s h even the memory of t h e o l d G a l l e r y 43/ W a l l , op. c i t . 44/ P e r r y , op. c i t .  and i t s  programme;  130 a negation  which was  accomplished to  some e x t e n t  t h e e x h i b i t i o n s c h e d u l e d u r i n g the l a s t f o u r y e a r s s i t e [ 4 5 ] , and  the e l i m i n a t i o n  v a t i o n s i n Rombout's  first  of n e a r l y  by the a t t e n u a t i o n of a t the  every v e s t i g e  Georgia of Emery's  Street inno-  year.  The c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the G a l l e r y ' s programme, which w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l l y - f u n d e d e x t e n s i o n programme became f o c u s s e d  exclusively  on i n - h o u s e a c t i v i t y , was accompanied by a c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of  the G a l l e r y  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In  1976, Rombout  persuaded the VAG  C o u n c i l t o e l i m i n a t e the p o s i t i o n of f i n a n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r , director  solely  responsible  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , which was r a i s e d most  of the  a  to  holdover  money f o r  u n t e n a b l e one f o r Emery  the  and f o r  l e a v i n g the  board.[46]  ( T h i s s i t u a t i o n of d u a l  from  time  the G a l l e r y ' s  the  when  VAG members  o p e r a t i o n , had a l s o been an  interim director  Abe R o g a t n i c k . [ 4 7 ] )  a d d i t i o n , Rombout had t h e board e l i m i n a t e most of i t s s t a n d i n g  In  committees,  45/ As mentioned i n Note 39, the e x h i b i t i o n schedule grew very s l e n d e r i n the two y e a r s p r e c e d i n g the move. W h i l e the d i r e c t o r ' s a t t e n t i o n was n e c e s s a r i l y absorbed by t h e r e l o c a t i o n , I believe the concealed p o l i c y was t o t u r n the o l d VAG i n t o a ghost g a l l e r y , t o make i t s " r e b i r t h " a l l the more n e c e s s a r y and s p e c t a c u l a r . When the memory of the o l d VAG had been erased by the n e g l e c t of the p r e v i o u s f i v e y e a r s , the new VAG c o u l d l a y c l a i m t o a "community r o l e " i t had s e t about r e j e c t i n g i n i t s o l d q u a r t e r s , but of a d i f f e r e n t k i n d t h a n t h e one t h a t had been p r a c t i c e d before. 46/ VAG C o u n c i l E x e c u t i v e Committee minutes (9 October A s s o c i a t i o n g e n e r a l meeting minutes (31 March 1976), p. 1.  1975); VAG  47/ Emery asked f o r f i n a n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r P e t e r H e n d r i e ' s r e s i g n a t i o n a l o n g w i t h t h o s e of t h r e e t r u s t e e s a t the t i m e of h i s c o n t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n . Rogatnick a l s o expressed t h e o p i n i o n t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n t i n u e w o r k i n g w i t h H e n d r i e a t an E x e c u t i v e Committee meeting i n December 1974, a t which t i m e H e n d r i e r e s i g n e d . VAG C o u n c i l E x e c u t i v e Committee minutes (5 December 1974), p. 3. The f a c t t h a t he was never f o r m a l l y r e p l a c e d made the p o s i t i o n ' s e l i m i n a t i o n i n 1976 an easy t a s k .  arguing  that  their functions  s t a f f , and he urged  the t r u s t e e s  r a i s i n g . [48] Rombout and head  m e e t i n g s , as  S h a d b o l t had  S h a d b o l t had  and  to concentrate  also cancelled  always h e l d ,  administrative  had been superseded i n any case by the p a i d  the weekly  curator Alvin  B a l k i n d no  s t a f f meetings Emery had longer attended Council  curatorial  branches  of  VAG.[49]  channelled  Rombout c o n s u l t e d  about t h e  c u r a t o r s , and w i t h a s m a l l s e t of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e strative policy. Council  The d i r e c t o r  members  to  resign  would not  except in  through  1978  when  Gallery  and  representations  Rombout's  VAG's employees, f o l l o w i n g Peter  Malkin.  by  himself,  and  he would  not be put  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n was the 1979 u n i o n i z a t i o n of  the  firing  While  of  one  of  the  Gallery's  three  the t r u s t e e s had been e x t r a - c o n c i l i a t o r y  48/ VAG C o u n c i l minutes (19 September 49/ Lowndes,  about a d m i n i -  t h e s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n attempted t o  employees.[50]  of  through a  p e r m i t employees t o communicate  i n the p o s i t i o n of r e p o r t i n g t o h i s own result  power  assistants  saying that  curators,  Emery  programme o n l y w i t h h i s  nominate two of t h e i r own t o t h e b o a r d ,  One  While  encouraged a p r o c e s s of c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e s t a f f and w i t h  distinct hierarchy.  threatened  on f u n d -  under Emery, f u r t h e r i n g a d i v i s i o n between the  the a r t i s t i c community, Rombout now  with  their efforts  1975), p.  9.  op. c i t . , p. 5a.  50/ Max Wyman and Jan O ' B r i e n , "Art curator f i r e d for blasting b o s s , " Vancouver E x p r e s s (4 A p r i l 1979), p. A2. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s a c c o u n t , the main reason the s t a f f put f o r w a r d the n o m i n a t i o n s was t h a t they were not a t l i b e r t y t o d i s c u s s p o l i c y m a t t e r s w i t h C o u n c i l . A c c o r d i n g t o Lawrence A l l o w a y , t h i s was one of the primary r e a s o n s f o r u n i o n i z a t i o n i n o t h e r museums i n t h e 1970s, e . g . t h e Walker A r t C e n t e r and MoMA. Lawrence A l l o w a y , "Museums and U n i o n i z a t i o n , " A r t f o r u m , v o l . 13 no. 6 (February 1975), p. 48.  toward  the  employees  terminated d i r e c t intense pressure  following  contact  with  Emery's VAG  resignation,  s t a f f . [51]  When  a  liaison  committee  managed t o n i x t h i s i n i t i a t i v e as which  did  not  machinations i n  the  s t a f f , under  from Rombout and h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f , had withdrawn  t h e i r n o m i n a t i o n s f o r t h e VAG C o u n c i l i n 1978[52], establish  by 1976 they had  pass  offered to  t o f a c i l i t a t e communication, but Rombout w e l l , not  through h i m s e l f . [ 5 3 ]  Ben M e t c a l f e ' s  the C o u n c i l  column i n  w a n t i n g any  form of c o n t a c t  P e t e r M a l k i n exposed the Georgia  Straight  Rombout's (at that  time s t i l l an a l t e r n a t e newspaper), f o r which he was f i r e d when he r e f u s e d t o p u b l i c l y withdraw h i s VMREU, an  charges.[54]  independent u n i o n  The  s t a f f then  f o r c i t y workers.[55]  m e n t a t i o n of " f u n d a m e n t a l w o r k i n g p r o c e d u r e s and  voted to  j o i n the  G i v e n Rombout's  methods as  imple-  practiced in  51/ Soon a f t e r E m e r y ' s r e s i g n a t i o n , VAG C o u n c i l f o r m a l l y expressed a w i l l i n g n e s s t o m a i n t a i n good r e l a t i o n s w i t h the s t a f f , i n c l u d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n , and suggested that s t a f f members be i n v i t e d as o b s e r v e r s t o C o u n c i l . (VAG C o u n c i l m i n u t e s , 26 September 1974, p. 6.) But i n January 1976, r e s p o n d i n g t o a l e t t e r from t h e nascent VAG S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n , the E x e c u t i v e Committee moved t h a t " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s t a f f m a t t e r s r e s t s w i t h the D i r e c t o r and the E x e c u t i v e does not a n t i c i p a t e d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n . " (VAG C o u n c i l E x e c u t i v e Committee m i n u t e s , 15 January 1976, p. 4.) 52/ Ben M e t c a l f e , " C o o l Hand L u k e : Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y ' s Day o f the J a c k e l s , " G e o r g i a S t r a i g h t (16-22 March 1979), p. 34. 53/ I b i d , p. 3. 54/ M a l k i n s t a t e d p u b l i c l y t h a t Rombout had s a i d t h a t he put e t h i c a l considerations second t o f u n d r a i s i n g , and the c u r a t o r was f i r e d f o r r e f u s i n g t o r e t r a c t h i s s t a t e m e n t . Wyman and O ' B r i e n , op. c i t . , p. A l . 55/ Sean R o s s i t e r , "The man b e h i n d t h e A r t G a l l e r y f u r o r , " Vancouver Magazine (March 1980), p. 142; VAG Annual Report 1979, p. 2. the VMREU was c e r t i f i e d i n June 1979.  b u s i n e s s and  i n d u s t r y around  u s [ 5 6 ] , " which  began t h a t  same y e a r ,  this  s t e p would p r o b a b l y have been i n e v i t a b l e anyway. This l a s t  was one  more s t e p i n t h e p r o c e s s o f r e i f y i n g t h e G a l l e r y i n  the image of a c o r p o r a t i o n -  to  management  only  that  would  not  instil  a  confidence  in  a responsible  s t a b i l i z e the i n s t i t u t i o n i n u n c e r t a i n  t i m e s , but conduct i t towards g r e a t e r t h i n g s i n a c a u t i o u s and r e s p o n s i b l e fashion. After  the s c a n d a l  engendered by  M a l k i n ' s f i r i n g , w h i c h brought  Rombout's a u t h o r i t a r i a n t e n d e n c i e s t o p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n , z a t i o n and  the b u l l y i n g  of the  i n t h e VAG Annual Report f o r  union's  negotiating  a f t e r the u n i o n i team, Rombout wrote  1979:  There i s no q u e s t i o n i n my mind t h a t u n l e s s and u n t i l c u l t u r a l organizations adopt b u s i n e s s l i k e p r a c t i c e s , they w i l l not s u r v i v e i n the f a c e of i n f l a t i o n , l e v e l l i n g o f f of Government s u p p o r t , or worse, c u t b a c k s i n g r a n t s . I f s u p p o r t f o r s u s t a i n i n g funds from t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r has been tenuous, then we must seek t o improve i t . We can o n l y do so, however, i f we can prove and demonstrate t h a t we can handle our a f f a i r s , f i n a n c i a l l y and o t h e r w i s e , i n a r e s p o n s i b l e manner i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n n e c e s s a r y s u p p o r t from t h i s a r e a . [57] I n Rombout's  e f f o r t s to  secure a l t e r n a t e  financing for  t r a n s f o r m e d i t i n t o something i t had never y e t  the G a l l e r y , he  been: " W e ' r e  now b u i l d i n g  up an i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t measures up t o a c o r p o r a t i o n [ 5 8 ] , " he was quoted as s a y i n g i n B.C. B u s i n e s s a t the time o f  VAG's r e - o p e n i n g  i n October  1983.  In so d o i n g , the language used and the p r a c t i c e s imposed were a l i e n t o t h e t y p e of i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t VAG had been, but they were not so i t was  appealing to  f o r the  t o t h e people  10% or so d i f f e r e n c e they c o u l d make i n the  56/ " D i r e c t o r ' s R e p o r t , " VAG R o s s i t e r , op. c i t . 57/ VAG Annual Report 1979, p. 58/ Van Halm, op. c i t . , p. 73.  Annual 2.  Report  1979,  p.  2;  see a l s o  134 VAG  budget.  As  these  were  enlisted  i n e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g numbers on VAG  C o u n c i l i n t h e l a t e 1970s, the p r o c e s s was  i n t e n s i f i e d . [ 5 9 ] At  a museums  c o n f e r e n c e h e l d i n 1977, D a n i e l Robbins d e s c r i b e d the g e n e r a l s i t u a t i o n i n terms of museum p r a c t i c e a t about t h e same t i m e : The t r e n d toward i d e n t i f y i n g the most a c u t e problems i n a r t museums (and o t h e r c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s as w e l l ) w i t h management and d i s t r i b u t i o n i s not o n l y consonant w i t h a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n a p i n g t h e methods (and v a l u e s ? ) of i t s p e r i o d ' s exemplars of s u c c e s s , but i s t y p i c a l l y a case of s o l u t i o n s t o museum d i f f i c u l t i e s b e i n g d e v i s e d by board room p o l i c y makers, more or l e s s i n t h e i r own image.[60] Thus, w h i l e the programme r e t u r n e d i n a c e r t a i n sense t o what i t p r i o r to  1963 (though  had been  on an a m p l i f i e d s c a l e ) , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n reached  a new l e v e l of development not e n v i s i o n e d a t  a l l by  t h e f o u n d i n g members  of VAG, who had t r e a t e d i t as a p r i v a t e c l u b . The  new  gallery,  fund launched t o r a i s e p r o f i l e : the  on  the  o t h e r hand, or r a t h e r the c a p i t a l campaign  money f o r  s u p p o r t must  i t , was  be seen  t o be  determined t o  c r e d i b l e , t h e r e f o r e a new s i t e  was c r u c i a l t o the p r o j e c t , a s i t e which was a p l a c e where  the s p e c t a c l e  of g e n e r o s i t y  Arnold Edinborough, a r t s columnist f o r such  fundraising  campaigns,  to  be  the  be p u b l i c , h i g h  spectacle i n  c o u l d be  perpetuated i n s t y l e .  Financial  successful,  i t s e l f and a  must  Post, be  argued t h a t l e d by major  59/ Most of t h e t r u s t e e s from the a r t i s t i c community r e s i g n e d i n 1976, and were not r e p l a c e d . (There was a l s o an u n u s u a l l y h i g h number of s t a f f r e s i g n a t i o n s t h a t year - 21 i n a l l . ) B u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e s , a s opposed t o a r t i s t s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s , were encouraged onto the Board and dominated i t a g a i n by 1978, the year the c a p i t a l campaign fund was launched. 60/ D a n i e l R o b b i n s , "The Development of the Museum P r o f e s s i o n a l , " i n Ted P o u l o s ( e d . ) , Conference P r o c e e d i n g s f o r 2001: The Museum and the Canadian P u b l i c (Ottawa: Canadian Museums A s s o c i a t i o n , 1977), p. 8 9 .  c o r p o r a t i o n s , both  to give  the a p p e a l  a high  p r o f i l e ( g r a n t e d the good  s t a n d i n g i n which c o r p o r a t i o n s are a l w a y s - a l r e a d y h e l d ) , and s m a l l e r companies  financial  the s p o n s o r s ,  leaders  in  the  who a r e  e x e m p l i f i e d as  of  campaign went  million, including  on t o  community, i n  c o l l e c t $5.2  $250,000  from  also  tried  to  establish  a  his  Knudsen,  company.  (The  c . $1 m i l l i o n from  false  the o b j e c t i v e  "community" ( t h e r e  community i n  i s never  o n l y one  c o n f u s i o n , w h i l e not n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s c i o u s , community and  t o the  for  needs of  t h e whole  any one p l a c e ) . T h i s  reveals i t s e l f in  the a p p e a l s  the l o c a l , from t h e time o f E m e r y ' s " f i r i n g " on, by  the G a l l e r y ' s d i r e c t o r and t r u s t e e s . F o r precis  relation  the sense t h a t the s u b j e c t i v e d e s i r e s of t h e c l a s s f r a c t i o n  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h VAG were i d e n t i f i e d as  memoir  Calvert  citizens.[62])  Such a campaign  t o the  generosity.  M a c M i l l a n - B l o e d e l , c o - c h a i r i n g the c a p i t a l campaign, and  kicking i t off with a contribution  ordinary  both c u l t u r a l  community, and as f i g u r e s of  Such a scheme was u n v e i l e d i n Vancouver i n 1978-79, w i t h t h e n - c h a i r m a n of  encourage  t o donate ( d i t t o ) . [ 6 1 ] The e f f e c t i s p u b l i c i t y both f o r  the p r o j e c t and f o r and  to  VAG's  1983  opening  example, Ron show  Longstaffe, i n  his  c a t a l o g u e , e l i d e d t h e two  rather neatly: A d m i t t e d l y , some c o r p o r a t i o n s w i l l g i v e t o s h i n e up t h e i r own c o r p o r a t e image, but t h a t s h o u l d be viewed as an o p p o r t u n i t y - not as a t h r e a t . I f a museum cannot demonstrate the a b i l i t y t o r a i s e 61/ A r n o l d Edinborough, " U n i t y c o u l d mean s t r e n g t h i n r a i s i n g money f o r the a r t s , " The F i n a n c i a l P o s t (10 F e b r u a r y 1979), p. 26. Edinborough a l s o f u n c t i o n e d as a p a i d C o n s u l t a n t " f o r the CBAC s i n c e i t s 1974 f o u n d i n g ( i n w h i c h he was instrumental). 62/ See Note 9. Over $4 m i l l i o n was r a i s e d from c o r p o r a t i o n s .  136 s u b s t a n t i a l f i n a n c i a l patronage from s h o u l d government support i t ? [ 6 3 ] In 1981,  Rombout managed  the community  i t s e r v e s , why  the same e l i s i o n , s t i l l h a r p i n g on t h e need f o r  more d o n a t i o n s : I remain p e s s i m i s t i c about the a b i l i t y of the t h r e e l e v e l s of government t o i n c r e a s e c u l t u r a l f u n d i n g ; the r e a l i t y d u r i n g the next y e a r s t o come w i l l be t h a t those i n s t i t u t i o n s which can successfully fund r a i s e i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r a r e the ones t h a t w i l l s u r v i v e i n moderate h e a l t h . I t s i m p l y means t h a t we have t o e a r n , i n every sense, our p l a c e i n the community.[64] Rombout  and  others  reiterated  s e c t o r " ad i n f i n i t u m , as i f they existed outside  of the  the  would not  s t r a t a of  Sheldon C h e r r y , VAG p r e s i d e n t  l i n k of "community" t o the " p r i v a t e c o n c e i v e of  a community t h a t  the b u s i n e s s and p r o f e s s i o n a l  i n 1978-79,  perhaps r e v e a l e d  h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of those who had made the c a p i t a l campaign a  classes.  t h i s best  in  success:  I r e f e r here t o a l a r g e c r o s s s e c t i o n of p e o p l e and o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h a v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s and backgrounds - the p u b l i c a t l a r g e including c h i l d r e n , foundations, corporations, l a r g e and s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s , the p r o f e s s i o n s , e t c . - but a l l s h a r i n g a common v i s i o n of what a new G a l l e r y i n the h e a r t of the c i t y w i l l mean f o r t h e c i t i z e n s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . [ 6 5 ] Of c o u r s e , a l l of c l a s s base,  a fact  Cherry's  share  the same  he seems unaware o f . At the same t i m e , t h i s  confusion  of c a p i t a l w i t h community needs and  categories  acts to  except  children  p o l i t i c a l l y disable  the o t h e r s , whose  d e s i r e s , whose very e x i s t e n c e remains u n i d e n t i f i e d , and y e t who  a r e c o n t a i n e d w i l l y - n i l l y i n t h i s hegemonic d e f i n i t i o n of the community.  Art  63/ Ron L o n g s t a f f e , "Personal and A r t i s t s 1931-1983, p. 271.  Perspectives"  section  64/ " D i r e c t o r ' s R e p o r t , " VAG Annual Report 1981,  n.p.  65/ " P r e s i d e n t ' s R e p o r t , " VAG Annual Report 1979, p.  1.  of  Vancouver:  When Kenneth  Bagshaw w r i t e s ( i n 1977, w i t h an eye c a s t t o the new g a l l e r y  and i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s ) : W i t h o u t a s t r o n g and growing permanent c o l l e c t i o n and an a c t i v e e x h i b i t i o n programme i n c l u d i n g major i n t e r n a t i o n a l shows, i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the G a l l e r y t o o b t a i n the community s u p p o r t , both f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r w i s e , i t r e q u i r e s , [ 6 6 ] he i s  identifying a  p a r t i c u l a r programme, one which he a t t r i b u t e s t o the  community, but which has not a r i s e n t h e r e , and posed i n  such a  expulsion).[67] convinced  that  P a r t of the p r o c e s s t h r o u g h which the "community" would be it  wanted  C o u r t , and  berg e x h i b i t i o n , 1 ) , and  the  launching  Works from  the  the  capital  campaign,  Take the  1978 (and  d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  p u r c h a s e , through p u b l i c s u b s c r i p t i o n , of a r e c e n t  artist.[68]  It  was  a  promise  G a l l e r y : not l a r g e enough yet  of  Captiva, in  Works from C a p t i v a s t o o d f o r programme.  s p e c t a c u l a r shows VAG would a l l e g e d l y be  t h e p u b l i c i t y t h a t was r a i s e d around t h e Rauschen-  t h e subsequent  work by t h a t  not have been  way even by the G a l l e r y ' s p r e v i o u s o f f i c e r s (hence t h e i r  a b l e t o b r i n g i n was the G a l l e r y to  which would  first  time  a  number  of  what  to obviate  Rauschenberg  of  in  the  new VAG  would be made p o s s i b l e i n a new  t h e need had  elements  f o r new  premiered  his  66/ " P r e s i d e n t ' s R e p o r t , " VAG Annual Report 1977,  p r e m i s e s , i t was work i n a p u b l i c  n.p.  67/ W h i l e n e i t h e r Emery nor D o r i s S h a d b o l t were " f i r e d " , n e i t h e r s u r v i v e d t h e p e r i o d of r e t r e n c h m e n t . VAG p a i d S h a d b o l t o f f w i t h a t e s t i m o n i a l i n 1975 marking her 25 y e a r s w i t h the G a l l e r y , and she never worked there again. 68/ The 1981 campaign, c a l l e d Buy an Inch of Rauschenberg, was a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s p l o y f o l l o w i n g on t h e " s u c c e s s " of the 1978 Rauschenberg e x h i b i t i o n , and r e s u l t e d i n the purchase of one of R a u s c h e n b e r g ' s works, Rush #10, a " t r a n s f e r " i n the " C l o i s t e r " s e r i e s from a r e c e n t Ace show.  institution,  an  addendum  to  the  a r t i s t ' s recent touring r e t r o s p e c t i v e  t h a t had been so w i d e l y p u b l i c i z e d . I t was a gauge t h a t Rauschenberg  of Rombout's  had been persuaded t o p r e m i e r e h i s new p i e c e s i n a c i t y  so f a r from t h e c e n t r e of the a r t w o r l d ( a l t h o u g h , of had been  showing new  and a h i n t of h i s t o r y of  what c o u l d  be done  Rauschenberg's  a site  g i v e n the  exhibitions  steering  Rauschenberg  proper r e s o u r c e s .  i n the  c i t y made him p a r t i c u l a r l y role (for  i t was  a r o l e as  the  Gallery  in,  a sign  of t h e  d i r e c t i o n Rombout  towards a r e c o g n i z e d " i n t e r n a t i o n a l " a r t  f a m i l i a r a t l e a s t t o c o l l e c t o r s and t o members of C o u n c i l . W h i l e berg was  promoted as  the a l l - A m e r i c a n  a r t i s t i n t h e U.S.  h i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e (and more r e c e n t l y ) [ 6 9 ] , i m p o r t a n t here h i s very tinge,  his  Rauschen-  a t the time of  Americanness  was  not so  as h i s fame, even though h i s fame depended by t h i s time on  Americanness. R a t h e r , a  The l o n g  t h a t was b e i n g promoted). The e x h i b i t i o n s of new works by  t h i s prominent American a r t i s t was a l s o was  course,  work here f o r a very l o n g t i m e a t t h e Ace G a l l e r y ) ,  w e l l s i t u a t e d f o r the promotion of VAG's new much as  influence  transnational  rather  he l e n t  the Canadian  VAG a c o s m o p o l i t a n  than a p r o v i n c i a l a u r a , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e  h i s new works were seen h e r e f i r s t . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m worked  two ways:  69/ Yet another comeback was announced e a r l y i n 1983, as Rauschenberg u n v e i l e d new work s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a t the C a s t e l l i and Sonnabend G a l l e r i e s i n SoHo, and a t the Museum of Modern A r t . Robert Hughes opened h i s r e v i e w i n Time w i t h t h e words: " A t 57, R o b e r t Rauschenberg i s b a c k . . . . " Rauschenb e r g , i n h i s second P e o p l e p r o f i l e , was photographed b e f o r e one of h i s new c o n s t r u c t i o n s , which f e a t u r e d an American f l a g a t i t s c e n t r e . I t i s noted i n both a r t i c l e s t h a t " t h e a l l - A m e r i c a n bad boy of a r t " ( P e o p l e ) was i n a r t i s t i c d i f f i c u l t y i n the l a t e 1970s, t h e very t i m e o f h i s Vancouver e x h i b i t i o n . Robert Hughes, "The A r c a d i a n as U t o p i a n , " Time (24 January 1983), p. 7 4 . ; B a r b a r a Rowes, " P a i n t e r R o b e r t Rauschenberg t a k e s a t r i p t o C h i n a and pops back w i t h new shows and new v i t a l i t y , " P e o p l e (24 January 1983), pp. 8 2 - 8 3 .  Rauschenberg  could  be used  f o r the promotion of VAG i n the c i t y and o u t ,  t o help i t gain the high  p r o f i l e Rombout  cedented  Rombout  coup  such  as  g i v e VAG a presence  i n the  heyday i n  1960s, or  the l a t e  and C o u n c i l  d e s i r e d . An u n p r e -  had e n g i n e e r e d , modest as i t was, might  i n t e r n a t i o n a l arena  i t had  missed s i n c e  its  announce the presence i t would assume once  i t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n i t s new d i g s . Works from C a p t i v a was a l s o a t o u t e d by  museums i n  cipher  the 1970s,  for  the  an a t t i t u d e  s c r i b e d . By the 1970s Rauschenberg had  return  to  the object  t o which Rombout a l s o  become a  sub-  c o n s e r v a t i v e a r t i s t both  f o r m a l l y and i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y - as he was r e a d so had he been o b j e c t i f i e d . According to Harold r e t r o s p e c t i v e had  Rosenberg, been so  instance,  s u c c e s s f u l was  guarantee of s t a b i l i t y i n an f o r g o i n g the  for  p r o d u c t i o n of  art  scene  one  of  t h a t he which  o b j e c t s . For  reasons h i s  represented a c e r t a i n  until  VAG, an  the  recently  e x h i b i t i o n of t h e p u r -  p o r t e d s t a t u r e of Works from C a p t i v a would a l s o , by i t s p r e s t i g e , t h e d r i f t of Rombout's F i n a l l y , Works  from C a p t i v a was put t o a use s i m i l a r t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d  A r n o l d Edinborough  t o l e a d the way not even  t o impress  attend the  which,  a l m o s t any  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  advised that  i n fundraising  need t o  Rauschenberg's, t h a t of  i n order  upon people the  a new G a l l e r y , and t o i m p r e s s people " o f a l l w a l k s of l i f e "  g i v i n g t o t h e campaign, an a r t i s t much as  sanction  programme.  f o r community f u n d r a i s i n g p r o j e c t s : need f o r  had been  i f not  s t a t u r e was s e l e c t e d ,  w e l l - k n o w n c o r p o r a t i o n s be used  (even i n  this instance).  e x h i b i t i o n to a household  o t h e r contemporary  into  be impressed one, has  The p u b l i c d i d by a name l i k e  wider currency than  a r t i s t . H i s s i g n a t u r e has i t s e l f ,  like Picasso's, power and  become a c l i c h e of modern a r t , a s i g n i f i c a t i o n of a r t i s t i c  p r e s t i g e . An  e x h i b i t i o n such  "community s u p p o r t " f o r the o r was  meant t o  as t h i s  p r o j e c t , though  a c h i e v e was  was a means of  such s u c c e s s  i n spectacular  securing  as i t a c h i e v e d  terms r a t h e r than through a  r e a l l y d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the community. Rauschenberg because he  could  be  had become  used  for  an  works  were  commercial purpose  a p o s i t i v e i n t e r p r e t e r of s o c i e t y , s t a n d i n g i n f o r  the G a l l e r y ' s own ( d e s i r e d ) r o l e and his  essentially  opaque  but  t h a t of  charming,  i t s partisans.  although  To t h i s end  t h e i r necessary  f i c i a l i t y c o u l d not h e l p but d i s t u r b t h e c r i t i c s , a t l e a s t ,  who commented  upon them. Though few bothered t o do i t , an e l a b o r a t i o n of t h e of the "Spreads" scend  the  and the  and " S c a l e s " r e v e a l s  social  in  the  t e c h n o l o g y of  megalomania i n v o l v e d  pursuit  i n the  of  metaphysic f u s i n g s e x ,  was a l s o ,  I believe, old motifs  gorgeous s e t t i n g .  exhibition bare i n  VAG's r e - i n a u g u r a t i o n i n October  nature  a degree of and t h e p r e was a t  odds,  naturalizes  the s e r i e s  R a t h e r , the i c o n o -  these  of g a l a  i n t e n t i o n s and events p r e c e d i n g  1983.  of " i n t e r n a t i o n a l " show r e p r e s e n t e d by Works from C a p t i v a was  a l s o attempted under the York  to t r a n -  t h e i n t e n t i o n s or a m b i t i o n s o f those l e a d i n g t h e G a l l e r y on  a m b i t i o n s , which were l a i d  New  iconography  t h a t attempted  forms of mass c u l t u r e . None of t h i s  Rauschenberg's  The k i n d  a  c a n n i b a l i z a t i o n of  t o i t s r e - o p e n i n g i n 1983 i n a new, graphy  of  l e i s u r e . There  occupation with ( r i v a l ? ) however, w i t h  a content  super-  13  exhibition  previous regime, attests,  though  as my the  e x h i b i t i o n s of t h e l a t e 1970s were r e p e t i t i o n s i n  d i s c u s s i o n of  the 1969  Rauschenberg  and S t e l l a  a farcical  form of the  grandstanding  VAG  shows  from  1967  to  1971.  These  large spectacular  e x h i b i t i o n s were o n l y one p a r t of a t o t a l programme i n those y e a r s ; have  seen  it  f u e l l e d the  was  the  campaign  r e s i g n a t i o n . The  desire  for  for  them  relocation  o t h e r elements  t h a t drove out Tony Emery and  launched  about  its  earlier  interest  resurgent Council that h i r e d f u n d i n g from  t o escape the " c o n s e q u e n c e s " for  the  maintenance  of  Emery's p o l i c y t h a t the was  a  Luke  private capital  critique  with  local  Rombout,  its  programmes  -  system"  specific  i t s own  features  the hegemony of c a p i t a l i n a l l  secure more  implicitly  funding  criticizing  made p o s s i b l e .  It  in  the  the  museum w o r l d  changes t o G a l l e r y Canadian s i t u a t i o n ,  of  c o l l a p s e was  first  i n some sense  c r i s i s was the r e i n s t i t u t i o n o f  a s p e c t s of  health  r e p r e s s e d " c o n d i t i o n e d the whole decade l e a d i n g  to  i n k i n d from those of the economic c r i s i s  chief features  unsteady  as  i n any case  government  s e t of of  of the  the  was  ideology  t i e d . One  of)  seeking  a g e n c i e s had  which t h i s  because  his  a r t i s t i c developments. The in  f e l t everywhere i n the decade, t o o f the  of  t h e s e a g e n c i e s agreed a l l too h e a r t i l y . The  have brought  not d i f f e r e n t  t h a t had  of so heavy a r e l i a n c e on  which  p o l i c y r e g a r d l e s s of the which were  in  federal cultural  1970s would  time  f o r the o p e r a t i o n of the G a l l e r y - i n order  g e n e r a l c o l l a p s e of the " s u p p o r t d u r i n g the  the  of h i s programme had t o be r e p r e s s e d ,  he had b u r i e d t h o s e a s p e c t s most dear t o a f r a c t i o n transcended  as we  social l i f e ,  the  development  in spite  of  (or  economy. T h i s " r e t u r n of the of  Gallery  policy  i n the  up t o the c e l e b r a t i o n s u r r o u n d i n g the r e - o p e n i n g of VAG i n  1983, two y e a r s t o the day b e f o r e t h i s paper was f i n i s h e d .  142 I n s o f a r as t h e f u t u r e mined. I  would s t i l l  i s concerned,  claim that  the a n a l y s i s c o n t a i n e d h e r e i n .  i tis  the future  always h i s t o r i c a l l y  deter-  of t h e G a l l e r y depends upon  143 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY I  Background and Theory  B l a u g , Mark, ed. P r e s s , 1976.  The  Economics  of  t h e A r t s . B o u l d e r , C o l o . : Westview  B o u r d i e u , P i e r r e . " C u l t u r a l R e p r o d u c t i o n and S o c i a l R e p r o d u c t i o n , " i n R i c h a r d Brown ( e d . ) , Knowledge, E d u c a t i o n , and C u l t u r a l Change: Papers i n the S o c i o l o g y of E d u c a t i o n . London: T a v i s t o c k , 1973. . 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"Rauschenberg meets s t a n d a r d i n e x h i b i t i o n . " The P r o v i n c e (22 September 1978), p. 14. . "Welcome back, Mr. R."  The P r o v i n c e (13 November  1980).  . "Psst! Wanna buy a r e a l p i e c e of a r t ? " The P r o v i n c e (21 May 1981), p. B3. Rauschenberg - Works from C a p t i v a . I n t r o d u c t i o n by Luke Rombout. V a n c o u v e r : The Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , 1978.  161 S c o t t , Andrew. "Rauschenberg h o l d s Vancouver Sun (8 September 1978). S t a n l e y , Don. 1978).  " P a i n t i n g s out  up  of C a p t i v a . "  a  mirror  to  The Vancouver  our  t i m e s . " The  Sun (30 August  . "Have we enjoyed h a v i n g been h a d ? " The Vancouver Sun ( L e i s u r e S e c t i o n ) (15 September 1978), p. 6L.  

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