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Of Rauschenberg, policy and representation at the Vancouver Art Gallery : a partial history 1966-1983 Harris, John Steven 1985

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OF RAUSCHENBERG, POLICY AND REPRESENTATION AT THE VANCOUVER ART GALLERY: A PARTIAL HISTORY 1966 - 1983 By JOHN STEVEN HARRIS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Fine A r t s ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1985 0 John Steven H a r r i s , 1985 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e h e a d o f m y d e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f T ~ ><^ .e-T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1 9 5 6 M a i n M a l l V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1Y3 D a t e tCO^Ue^^n^ / ABSTRACT My t h e s i s examines the p o l i c y of the Vancouver Art G a l l e r y (VAG) as i t a f f e c t e d the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a r t i n i t s community i n the 1960s and '70s. I t was begun i n order to understand what determined the changes i n p o l i c y as they were experienced during t h i s p e r i o d , which saw an enormous expansion i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the G a l l e r y . To some extent the expansion was r e a l i z e d by means of increased c u l t u r a l expenditure by the f e d e r a l government, but t h i s only made programmes p o s s i b l e , i t d i d not c a r r y them out. During the 1960s the Vancouver Art G a l l e r y gained a measure of i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n f o r i t s i n n o v a t i v e programming, which depended to a degree on the r e d e f i n i t i o n of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the l o c a l , whether that s i g n i f i e d i t s t r a d i t i o n a l patronage, Vancouver a r t i s t s or the "man i n the s t r e e t " . VAG's new outreach programme was not unique, but i t was contemporary w i t h developments i n other l o c a t i o n s . Given the popular and c r i t i c a l success of h i s p o l i c y , VAG d i r e c t o r Tony Emery pushed i t to the r e l a t i v e e x c l u s i o n of the more t r a d i t i o n a l type of g a l l e r y programme, i n t h i s manner angering VAG's "more c o n s e r v a t i v e " audience. With the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n s of a f i s c a l c r i s i s i n the 1970s, the government began r e i n i n g i n p u b l i c expenditure, i n c l u d i n g t h a t on the a r t s . There was f i r s t a freeze on funding to the l a r g e r a r t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , which by now included the G a l l e r y , and then the slow w i t h e r i n g of govern-ment support. VAG's experiments i n programming, which had been made p o s s i b l e through t h i s support, became expendable, and there was soon a r e - o r i e n t a t i o n towards more t r a d i t i o n a l programmes, accompanied by another r e d e f i n i t i o n of the G a l l e r y ' s audience. The G a l l e r y ' s s t r u c t u r e , p o l i c y and programme were gradually transformed to f i t an i n c r e a s i n g l y corporate model or paradigm i n order to secure the e x t r a funds i t needed to remain s o l v e n t . A c r u c i a l aspect of t h i s change was the plan to move the G a l l e r y i n t o l a r g e r q u a r t e r s , which would be more a t t r a c t i v e to donors and c o l l e c t o r s , and which would allow p r e s t i g i o u s e x h i b i t i o n s to be brought i n t o the c i t y . The t h e s i s undertakes to examine the vagaries of G a l l e r y p o l i c y w i t h the a i d of the current l i t e r a t u r e on museums and government c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , and w i t h government and G a l l e r y documents. The other major s e c t i o n examines the formation of the r e p u t a t i o n of Robert Rauschenberg, as i t bears on the r e c e p t i o n of a group of h i s works e x h i b i t e d at VAG i n 1978. Rauschenberg was an a r t i s t i n frequent contact with Vancouver through e x h i b i t i o n s of h i s work at a p r i v a t e g a l l e r y , and the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of h i s r e p u t a t i o n f o l l o w i n g the 1976 r e t r o s p e c t i v e of h i s work by the Smithsonian made h i s work apt f o r the promotion of VAG. Rauschenberg's use-value f o r VAG depends on a p a r t i c u l a r reading of h i s work which had become gen e r a l i z e d a f t e r 1963, and r e i n f o r c e d i n 1976, which was appropriate to the new G a l l e r y r o l e promoted by VAG's p a l a d i n s . This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , which was developed by Alan Solomon i n 1963, f i x e d Rauschenberg's works as c e l e b r a t i o n s of a way of l o o k i n g at one's envi r o n -ment and of what was looked a t . Solomon's reading became the accepted one, but by an examination of the r e c e p t i o n of Rauschenberg's a r t p r i o r to 1963, and by an a n a l y s i s of two of h i s works, I argue that i t i s n e i t h e r the only p o s s i b i l i t y nor even the most accurate one. In the 1970s, c r i t i c s c o n f l a t e d Rauschenberg's e a r l i e r and l a t e r work w i t h i n the context of Solomon's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , which has hardly been expanded upon. They have u s u a l l y t r i e d to e s t a b l i s h an i d e n t i t y of the e a r l i e r and l a t e r work, based upon Solomon's reading, where I am t r y i n g to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e . An a n a l y s i s of two of the works which appeared i n the 1978 Works from Captiva e x h i b i t i o n at VAG i n d i c a t e s the d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h the e a r l i e r work and the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of t h e i r iconography to the new r o l e the G a l l e r y was attempting to promote. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF FIGURES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 1. WHAT'S IN A NAME? RAUSCHENBERG AT THE VAG 7 Rauschenberg 's F i r s t Comeback 8 The H i s t o r y of Rauschenberg 's Reputa t i on : From I r o n i s t to P a t r i o t 14 A C l o s i n g C i r c l e 32 R e t r i e v a l i n the Sevent ies 34 Rauschenberg i n Vancouver 40 I l l u s t r a t i o n s 52 CHAPTER 2. THE VANCOUVER ART GALLERY 1966-74: SUCCESS AND FAILURE 65 CHAPTER 3. THE VANCOUVER ART GALLERY 1975-83: "SUCCESS" 113 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 143 VI LIST OF FIGURES F igure Page 1 C a s t e l l i Smal l T u r t l e Bowl ( "Cardboard " ) , 1971 Leo C a s t e l l i G a l l e r y (photo: Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n ) 52 2 1/2 GALS/AAPCO ( "Cardboard " ) , 1971 C o l l e c t i o n the a r t i s t (photo: Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n ) 53 3 S tud ies f o r Cur rents #27, 1970 C o l l e c t i o n the a r t i s t (photo: S t a a t l i c h e K u n s t h a l l e , B e r l i n ) 54 4 Rebus, 1955 Mr. & Mrs. V i c t o r Ganz, New York (photo: Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n ) 55 5 Canyon, 1959 Anonymous c o l l e c t i o n , P a r i s (photo: Harry N. Abrams, New York) 56 6 Crocus, 1962 Leo C a s t e l l i G a l l e r y (photo: Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n ) 57 7 Monogram, 1955-59 Moderna Museet, Stockholm (photo: Harry N. Abrams, New York) 58 8 Contemporanea ( " Ea r l y Egypt ian S e r i e s " ) , 1973 Leo C a s t e l l i G a l l e r y (photo: S t a a t l i c h e K u n s t h a l l e , B e r l i n ) 59 9 S y b i l ( " H o a r f r o s t " ) , 1974 C o l l e c t i o n the a r t i s t (photo: Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n ) 60 10 Time cover (29 November 1976) (photo: Time) 61 11 Golden Grebe ( " S c a l e " ) , 1978 C o l l e c t i o n the a r t i s t (photo: Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y ) 62 12 So l a r Tr ibune J r . ( " Sp read " ) , 1978 C o l l e c t i o n the a r t i s t (photo: Vancouver Ar t G a l l e r y ) 63 13 G i f t f o r A p o l l o , 1959 Dr. Giuseppe Panza, M i l a n (photo: Harry N. Abrams, New York) 64 The end of c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y man i fes t s i t s e l f on two oppos i te s i d e s : the p r o j e c t of i t s supersess ion i n t o t a l h i s t o r y , and the o r g a n i z a t i o n of i t s p r e s e r -v a t i o n as a dead ob jec t i n spec tacu l a r contem-p l a t i o n . One of these movements has l i n k e d i t s f a t e to s o c i a l c r i t i q u e , the other to the defense of c l a s s power. - Guy Debord, Soc ie ty of the Spectac le S p e c i a l thanks to Ann Rosenberg, w i th whom I f i r s t t a l k e d over t h i s p r o j e c t , to Nora B l a i r and to L inda H a r r i s For a l l of my enemies INTRODUCTION Probably no more use les s p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n , u se les s r e l a t i v e l y to i t s c o s t , was ever dev i sed than that popular i d e a l , the c l a s s i c a l b u i l d i n g of a museum of a r t , f i l l e d w i t h r a r e and c o s t l y o b j e c t s . - John Cotton Dana, A P l an f o r a New Museum, 1920 I o f f e r here an a n a l y s i s and a c r i t i q u e of the p o l i c i e s of the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y (VAG), as they were pursued i n the 1960s and '70s, and as they l e d to the G a l l e r y ' s move from i t s s i t e on Georg ia S t ree t to expanded premises i n the o l d Courthouse. I t i s hoped that t h i s c r i t i q u e , however p r o v i s i o n a l , may be a c o n t r i b u t i o n towards the unmasking of the e d i f i c e of bourgeois c u l t u r e , smashed as that may sometimes appear. There are s t i l l many who regard the i n s t i t u t i o n s of a r t as good- in-themselves -mer i t goods, i n the par lance of economists (and of the Fede ra l C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee, which repor ted i n 1982). Apparent ly , no one may doubt t h i s . S t re s s here has been l a i d on the changing aspect of a p r o v i n -c i a l a r t i n s t i t u t i o n (which achieved n a t i o n a l s t a tu s i n the 1960s) n e g o t i a t i n g i t s way between the S c y l l a of government funding and the Charybdis of p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s - though t h i s metaphor grants VAG more autonomy that has ever a c t u a l l y been the case. I t i s more a c cu r a t e l y the c rea tu re of the w h i r l p o o l , r a i s e d i n the cave, from which i t looks l o v i n g l y a t i t s o b l i v i o n . The t h e s i s begins and ends (more or l e s s ) w i t h Robert Rauschenberg 's Works from C a p t i v a , an e x h i b i t i o n pe r s ona l l y superv i sed by VAG d i r e c t o r Luke Rombout, which appeared at the G a l l e r y i n 1978. I take i t to be parad igmat ic of the k ind of e x h i b i t i o n s favoured under the t u te l a ge of Rombout, as w e l l as being the most ambit ious show from the time of h i s h i r i n g to the re-opening of the G a l l e r y i n 1983. The f i r s t chapter examines the h i s t o r y of Rauschenberg 's r e p u t a t i o n , i n order to show how the a r t i s t cou ld be used i n a p a r t i c u l a r way to b o l s t e r the G a l l e r y ' s r e p u t a t i o n , and as fodder f o r the c a p i t a l campaign launched i n 1978 i n order to r a i s e money f o r VAG's removal t o the Courthouse. The r e v i v a l of Rauschenberg 's r e p u t a t i o n i n the 1970s, which was based on an e a r l y '60s r ead ing , i s examined, as i s Rauschenberg 's accommodation to t h i s read ing i n h i s l a t e r work. The h i s t o r y of h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h Vancouver i s d i s -cussed before l ook i n g at the 1978 e x h i b i t i o n , i t s works and i t s r e c e p t i o n . The second and t h i r d chapters examine, r e s p e c t i v e l y , the programmes and p o l i c i e s of the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y under the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of Tony Emery and Luke Rombout. Throughout the pe r i od there runs a d i a l e c t i c of the l o c a l v s . n a t i o n a l (and i n t e r n a t i o n a l ) concerns, i n va r i ou s gu i ses which are d i scussed i n the course of t h i s s e c t i o n . There was i n both cases a r e d e f i n i t i o n of VAG's audience (and t he re f o re needs) a n t i t h e t i c a l to the p rev i ou s l y e x i s t i n g one. In Emery 's case, an i n f u s i o n of government funds " l i b e r a t e d " the G a l l e r y i n a sense from i t s dependence on l o c a l l a r ge s se ; VAG's programme cou ld t he re f o re be rethought. For some time he pursued two s t r a t e g i e s : the o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r e s t i g i o u s and popular shows of contem-porary a r t , and a s e r i e s of i nnova t i on s on the l o c a l l e v e l . E v e n t u a l l y , s t rong support of l o c a l a r t i s t s and experiments i n c u l t u r a l pedagogy, i n the G a l l e r y ' s search f o r new, n o n - s p e c i a l i z e d audiences, l e d to the abandonment of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l aspect of h i s programme. Th i s was p a r t l y the r e s u l t of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of an avant-garde p o s i t i o n , a widespread i f h a l f - h e a r t e d s t ra tegy of museums i n the l a t e 1960s/early 1970s, i n an attempt to be more respons ive to t h e i r communities, and to respond to (and recuperate) t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n . In VAG's case, i t a l s o meant oppo s i t i o n to the l o c a l s t a tu s quo, as an aspect of the i n t e r n a l dynamic of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of avant-garde a t t i t u d e s . I t was when Emery 's l i b e r a l i s m l e d i n t o d i s t i n c t l y u n l i b e r a l s t r a t e g i e s t ha t he got i n t o t r o u b l e . The retrenchment of government c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i n the wake of i t s f i s c a l c r i s i s s i g n a l l e d to some extent the r e p a t r i a t i o n of c u l t u r e to the l o c a l bou r geo i s i e , though t h i s would never be as complete as i t was before the i n t r u s i o n of government fund ing ; nor d i d anyone d e s i r e t h i s . The r e p a t r i a t i o n was combined w i t h renewed i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t ambit ions and went hand-in-hand w i t h the d r i v e to get the G a l l e r y i n t o b igger qua r t e r s . To these ends, Rombout's con se r va t i ve p o l i c i e s e n t a i l e d the t r an s fo rmat i on of the G a l l e r y ' s s t r u c t u r e , p o l i c y and programme to f i t an i n c r e a s i n g l y corporate model or paradigm, so that i t cou ld appeal to those i t sought out f o r the e x t r a funding i t needed, both to expand and to remain s o l v en t . Works from Cap t i v a was the exemplary e x h i b i t i o n of t h i s p e r i o d . The b i b l i o g r aphy of museums and other a r t i n s t i t u t i o n s i s not t h i c k , the h i s t o r y of a r t remaining p r i m a r i l y the h i s t o r y of a r t i s t s . Book- length analyses w i t h a s o c i o l o g i c a l emphasis e x i s t on the Ar t I n s t i t u t e of Chicago and the Akron A r t I n s t i t u t e , and there i s a u s e f u l survey ( l i b e r a l i n cha rac te r ) of American museum p r a c t i c e s by K a r l Meyer.[1] There are 1/ For a l l a r t i c l e s c i t e d , see b i b l i o g r a p h y . a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t a r t i c l e s on major i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e Beaubourg, the Tate or the Museum of Modern A r t , as w e l l as good t h e o r e t i c a l or s p e c u l a t i v e a r t i c l e s by Kenneth Cout t s - Smi th , J e f f W a l l , Max K o z l o f f and Haro ld Rosenberg on the s i t u a t i o n of the contemporary a r t g a l l e r y i n the 1970s. However, the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e o r e t i c a l i n s i g h t s to concrete examples of p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s has r a r e l y been attempted except i n r e l a t i o n to major ( read : e x cep t i ona l ) museums. I have chosen to d i s cu s s the determina-t i o n of the p o l i c y of a p r o v i n c i a l a r t s i n s t i t u t i o n (and i t s e f f e c t s ) i n order to a r t i c u l a t e the problems of a l o c a l g a l l e r y i n r e l a t i o n to the mat r i ces of power, which impinge on a l l our l i v e s ; how a p a r t i c u l a r (Canadian) i n s t i t u t i o n has operated w i t h i n the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and impos-s i b i l i t i e s of a range of opt ions and r e s t r i c t i o n s . Such success as was achieved was never guaranteed on i t s own terms. Whi le I have used some of the i n s i g h t s gleaned from the p e r t i n e n t d i s cu s s i on s of contemporary museum p r a c t i c e , the s i t u a t i o n of these w i t h i n the a n a l y s i s of the l o c a l remains my own, as app rop r i a te or i l l - f i t t i n g as i t may appear. The b i b l i o g r aphy on Rauschenberg i s f o r a l l i n t e n t s extremely t h i n , and here I have had to r e l y on my own resources more h e a v i l y than i n the s e c t i on s on the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y . No adequate book, and l i t t l e u s e f u l l i t e r a t u r e , on the a r t i s t e x i s t s , w i t h the except ion of b r i e f a r t i c l e s by Mo i ra Roth, Max K o z l o f f , and to a l e s s e r extent Harold Rosenberg and J e f f Perrone. Rather there are a s e r i e s of a n t i - t e x t s that I engage i n t h i s chapter , which i n c l ude and grew out of A lan Solomon's essay f o r Rauschenberg 's 1963 r e t r o s p e c t i v e . These i n c l ude a l s o Lawrence A l l o w a y ' s essay f o r the 1976 r e t r o s p e c t i v e - which r e a f f i r m s and r e -i n f o r c e s Solomon's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , making i t new as i t were at a time when the c r i t i c a l e s tab l i shment was r a l l y i n g around the B i c e n t e n n i a l a r t i s t - as w e l l as a r t i c l e s by Leo S te i nbe rg , B r i a n O 'Doherty, Ro sa l i nd Krauss, and a host of others so p i t i f u l they don ' t mer i t a mention. I have quest ioned the c r i t i c a l e l a b o r a t i o n of Rauschenberg 's r e p u t a t i o n i n order to reach an understanding of the p a r t i c u l a r uses to which h i s work was put i n Vancouver, of how they converged w i t h G a l l e r y p o l i c y i t s e l f . The ques t ion a r i s e s : why Rauschenberg f i r s t ? In the i n t e r e s t s of a c c e p t a b i l i t y , of course; f o r the same reason another chapter was bur ied and the t h e s i s of the t h e s i s submerged i n the t e x t . We have, then, a very l a r ge t a i l wagging a t runcated dog somewhat unsure of i t s na tu re . By the same token , these adjustments make f o r an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n , and might make some take more n o t i c e of the paper than would otherwise have been the case, g iven the p r i o r i z i n g of a famous a r t i s t - which as can be seen i s not at a l l o ppo r t un i s t . The chapter on Rauschenberg i s as l a r g e as i t i s because i t was necessary to make a po in t not otherwise r a i s e d about the foundat ion of the a r t i s t ' s r e p u t a t i o n , which i s the po in t at which he ente r s the l o c a l s tage. A p r o v i s o . I have made the d i r e c t o r s stand i n f o r a complex of i n i t i a -t i v e s and a s p i r a t i o n s , of which t h e i r d e c i s i o n s are an e x t e r n a l man i f e s t a -t i o n . In so doing I don ' t mean to pretend they are a lone i n s e t t i n g p o l i c y , though of course i n a h i e ra r chy they e x e r c i s e much a u t h o r i t y . Nor do I mean to d im in i s h to r e a l work of other s t a f f by con ta i n i n g them i n t h i s manner, only to s i m p l i f y a compl icated d i s c u s s i o n - e s p e c i a l l y s i n ce much of my t h e s i s concerns e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h the government, bus iness and the a r t w o r l d . Th i s paper had i t s beginnings i n a de s i r e to understand what "went wrong" a t the G a l l e r y i n the 1970s, over and above the mere change of d i r e c t o r s i n 1974-75; I was con f i den t that a m a t e r i a l i s t a n a l y s i s would l ay bare the r e l a t i o n s and s t r u c t u r e s that had come to determine G a l l e r y p o l i c y both i n i t s more l i b e r a l phase and i n the pe r i od of retrenchment. I a l s o be l i e ved tha t a commitment to where one was was important , t ha t an e l u c i d a t i o n of some of the s t r ugg l e s on the l o c a l c u l t u r a l plane was a worthy and u s e f u l ta sk . Though I am no longer so con f i den t of e i t h e r assumption, I s t i l l b e l i e v e much of use remains. " Th i s much I ' ve learned i n these f i v e years i n what I ' ve spent and ea rned . " 7 CHAPTER 1 WHAT'S IN A NAME? RAUSCHENBERG AT THE VAG Some viewers might imagine a r t i s worth i t s we ight . A work which dep i c t s that expec ta t i on but which i s e s s e n t i a l l y l i g h t i s B r i l l i a n t & wo r th l e s s . - Ed Dorn, "Rauschenberg ' s U n t i t l e d ( Ea r l y Egypt ian S e r i e s [ l ] " In September 1978, the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y organ ized and hosted an e x h i b i t i o n of Robert Rauschenberg 's ( then- ) recent work i n the "Spreads " and " S c a l e s " s e r i e s . The a r t i s t ' s r e p u t a t i o n , which has f l u c t u a t e d dur ing h i s c a r ee r , was h igh f o l l o w i n g the tour of h i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e e x h i b i t i o n , organ ized by the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t e i n 1976. The Vancouver e x h i b i t i o n was not r ece i ved p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l by l o c a l c r i t i c s ; i t i s , however, parad igmat ic of the e x h i b i t i o n p o l i c y developed by the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y i n the l a t e r 1970s, and was i t s most ambit ious product . I t i s not e s p e c i a l l y important tha t the show f a i l e d to prov ide a s a t i s f y i n g i n t e l -l e c t u a l exper ience, f o r i t seems to have been intended ra the r as a s p e c t a c l e , an enticement both f o r the bourgeois and f o r the p u b l i c - a t -l a r g e to support the expansion of the G a l l e r y s i t e and i t s programme. To e l u c i d a t e t h i s connect ion of s pec tac l e and " u s e - v a l u e " , and to show how Rauschenberg 's work cou ld be used, even w i l l i n g l y , i n t h i s way, we must examine the h i s t o r y of Rauschenberg 's success , i n c l u d i n g h i s f i r s t successes i n the l a t e r 1950s and the 1960s. The growing conformity of the 1/ Edward Dorn, a poem from the sequence " F l ywhee l Programs," i n H e l l o , La J o l l a (Be rke ley : Wingbow P re s s , 1978), p. 52. a r t i s t ' s p roduct ion w i t h the c r i t i c a l read ing of h i s work tha t had been e laborated i n the e a r l y 1960s was c r u c i a l to the r e j u vena t i on of h i s r e p u t a t i o n i n the mid-1970s. The f a c t that Rauschenberg had gelded h i s a r t was no t i ced by few c r i t i c s ; h i s a r t had become what they assured us i t was, a " c e l e b r a t i o n " . The d e c i s i o n to organ ize VAG's own Rauschenberg e x h i b i t i o n - i n the wake of a b i g B i c e n t e n n i a l t r iumph, and w i th the G a l l e r y ' s planned c a p i t a l campaign fund i n mind - was cont ingent on t h i s f a c t and t h i s v iew. Rauschenberg 's F i r s t Comeback I want to begin by l o o k i n g at the r e cep t i on accorded Rauschenberg 's f i r s t comeback attempt i n 1971, because i t r e vea l s a good dea l about Rauschenberg 's success i n the 1970s - about the d i s j u n c t i o n between the work of 1955-64 compared to tha t cu r ren t p roduc t i on , versus the s i m i l a r c r i t i c a l vocabulary used to encompass i t a l l . Th i s comeback e x h i b i t i o n was a show of the "Cardboards " and " C a r d b i r d s " s e r i e s which, a u s p i c i o u s l y , opened Leo C a s t e l l i ' s new SoHo g a l l e r y i n October 1971. The "Cardboards " were used cardboard boxes t o r n and arranged, w i t h a minimum of a d d i t i o n s , to form w a l l - p i e c e s . An example f r equen t l y reproduced i s C a s t e l l i Smal l  T u r t l e Bowl ( F i g . 1 ) . On the l e f t h and s i de or panel of t h i s f l a t t e n e d box Rauschenberg s t ap led b i t s of b r i g h t paper to make a c o n t r a s t i n g t e x tu re w i t h the r e l a t i v e l y unmediated su r face next i t . Even the a d d i t i o n s , however, look " n a t u r a l " or i n keeping w i t h what might have been the ca rdboa rd ' s former use. Another "Cardboard " , e n t i t l e d 1/2GALS/AAPC0 ( F i g . 2; a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d i n Rauschenberg 's Smithsonian r e t r o s p e c t i v e c a t a -l o gue ) , i s more t h ree -d imens i ona l , though i t as c l e a r l y belongs on the w a l l as do most of the a r t i s t ' s e a r l i e r combine-pa in t ings . Here there are no a d d i t i o n s to the found m a t e r i a l s , but t h e i r a r t i s a l l i n the a r range -ment of the t o r n and reshaped boxes. Rauschenberg adds a s imple dev ice he has used many t imes i n h i s c a r e e r , the dang l ing or f l o o r - b a s e d l i n k e d ob jec t t ha t breaks the i n t e g r i t y of the su r face and l e t s the p iece out i n t o the v i e w e r ' s space. The " C a r d b i r d s " , companions to the "Cardboards " , were m u l t i p l e e d i t i o n s p r i n t e d by one of Rauschenberg 's f a v o u r i t e f i r m s , Gemini G.E.L. , to mimic the used boxes i n f r e s h m a t e r i a l s , w i t h the i rony tha t these " p r i n t s " were more compl icated and c o s t l y to make than the o r i g i n a l s , though as d u p l i c a t e s they so ld more cheap ly . There was no imagery i n these new works, other than the m a t e r i a l of the c o n s t r u c t i o n i t s e l f , or i t s s i m u l a t i o n i n the r ep roduc t i on s . The ob jec t was the image, the g e s t a l t or s i n g l e image the arrangement or m o d i f i c a t i o n of the ob jec t i t s e l f , r a the r than an ob jec t mod i f ied i n r e l a t i o n to other ob jec t s i n an assemblage or on canvas, or one reproduced by s i l k s c r e e n s -as had been the case i n Rauschenberg 's e a r l i e r work. The "Cardboards " are u n l i k e any of h i s prev ious a r t , except ing the e a r l y b lack and whi te mono-chromes of 1951-52. A rupture e x i s t s between Rauschenberg 's 1971 work and tha t f o r which he i s s t i l l best known, the combines and s i l k s c r e e n s of 1955-64, i n which a m u l t i p l i c i t y of ob jec t s and reproduct ions were l a i d out g r aph l i k e f o r a " r e ad i n g " [ 2 ] which cou ld only be, however, p a r t i a l , t e n t a t i v e and ambiguous. The only read ing made from the "Cardboards " i s 2/ Rosa l i nd Krauss, "Rauschenberg and the M a t e r i a l i z e d Image," A r t - forum, v o l . 13 no. 4 (December 1974), p. 43. For a d i s c u s s i o n of what " r e a d i n g " means i n t h i s c on tex t , see p. 19. one, based on t h e i r l a b e l s and i n s i g n i a , t ha t i s p e r i p h e r a l to the f u n c t i o n i n g of the w a l l - p i e c e s , a f u n c t i o n which i s , i n con t r a s t to the e a r l i e r works, e n t i r e l y a e s t h e t i c . The s t a tu s of the ob jec t has been changed, f o r i f , l i k e the combines i t i s s t i l l cons t ruc ted out of garbage, i t i s a l s o i c o n i c , which the e a r l i e r works, w i t h t h e i r m u l t i p l i c i t y of images, r a r e l y were. I t d i d not take l ong , of course, f o r Rauschenberg 's works i n the 1950s to be i nco rpo ra ted i n t o the mainstream of modernist a r t h i s t o r y , but t h e i r a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s were not immediately apparent to most rev iewer s , at l e a s t , upon t h e i r f i r s t appearance. Whereas the "Cardboards " depend almost complete ly on the a r t f u l n e s s of t h e i r a r range -ments (and to a l e s s e r extent on the resonance of t h e i r past u se ) . They are one-shot a r tworks , cons t ruc ted a l b e i t w i t h modesty, and so e x i s t as ( f r a i l ) commodit ies, wi thout the element of duree, of r e a d i n g - i n - t i m e , that f o r Ro sa l i nd Krauss a l lowed Rauschenberg 's combines to escape the commodity s t a tu s of so much New York artwork of the 1950s and ' 60s . [3 ] For many c r i t i c s who reviewed Rauschenberg 's output of the 1970s, there was an interregnum between the s i l k s c r e e n p a i n t i n g he abandoned i n 1964, and the new type of a r t p roduct ion i n i t i a t e d w i t h the "Cardboard" s e r i e s i n 1971. Dur ing t h i s t ime he seemed to have disappeared from the p u b l i c eye, a l though he was s t i l l engaged i n a c t i v i t i e s i n s e ve r a l f i e l d s , conce i v i ng and/or p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n performances, making p r i n t s , and working on e l abo ra te t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o j e c t s . [ 4 ] G e r r i t Henry, i n h i s 3/ I b i d . 4/ The performances, which took p lace p r i m a r i l y between 1964 and 1967, can be seen, a t l e a s t i n p a r t , as a f u n c t i o n of Rauschenberg 's new s t a t u r e as a famous p e r s o n a l i t y . He rece i ved i n t e r n a t i o n a l coverage a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " Pe r s ona l Retrenchment" (a rev iew of the "Cardboards " and " C a r d b i r d s " e x h i b i t i o n s ) , spoke of Rauschenberg 's " i n a c t i v i t y " f o r the prev ious f i v e yea r s . [5 ] There i s a q u a l i t a t i v e r a t he r than a q u a n t i t a t i v e va lue i m p l i e d i n h i s c r i t i c i s m tha t can be l i n k e d to the a r t i s t ' s s t a t e -ment i n the ca ta logue , which the two major reviews of the show, by Henry i n A r t and A r t i s t s , and by Robert P i ncu s -W i t ten i n Ar t forum, quoted e x t e n s i v e l y . Rauschenberg wrote t h a t : For over f i v e years I have d e l i b e r a t e l y used every oppor tun i t y w i t h my work to c r ea te a focus on wor ld problems, l o c a l a t r o c i t i e s and i n some ra re i n s tances c e l e b r a t e man's accomplishments.[6] He a l s o s t a ted tha t h i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o j e c t s were an attempt to r e c o n c i l e a r t , sc ience and bus iness , to b r i ng them together f o r p roduc t i ve ends, " i n a wor ld that i s r i s k i n g a n n i h i l a t i o n f o r the sake of a b u c k . [ 7 ] " f o l l o w i n g h i s tr iumph at the Venice B ienna le i n 1964, i n c l u d i n g a r t i c l e s i n the mass-market newsweeklies Time, Newsweek and L i f e (and was aban-doning the k i nd of work that had enabled h i s succes s ) . Rauschenberg a l s o made s e ve r a l s c u l p t u r e s of moving p a r t s , i n which sounds and movement made by g a l l e r y - g o e r s t r i g g e r e d r e a c t i o n s from the p i e ce s ; they began w i t h Orac le i n 1965, and proceeded w i t h a more p r o f e s s i o n a l f i n i s h i n Revolver (1967), S o l s t i c e (1968), Soundings (1968), Ca rna l C locks (1969), and Mud  Muse (1968-71), the p iece de r e s i s t a n c e . The compl icated nature of t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n , and the c o l l a b o r a t i o n (w i th eng ineers) t ha t they e n t a i l e d , meant that t h e i r making proceeded much more s lowly than had Rauschenberg 's e a r l i e r work, a f a c t which helped c o n t r i b u t e to the a r t i s t ' s "absence" i n these changing t imes . In a d d i t i o n to h i s other a c t i v i t i e s , Rauschenberg made s e ve r a l s e r i e s of l i t h o g r a p h i c p r i n t s i n the l a t e r 1960s, i n c l u d i n g " Boo s t e r " (1967), "Stoned Moon" (1969), and " C u r r e n t s " (1970), of an i n c r e a s i n g l y t o p i c a l nature . 5/ G e r r i t Henry, " Pe r s ona l Retrenchment," A r t and A r t i s t s , v o l . 6 no. 11 (February 1972), p. 44. 6/ Robert Rauschenberg, quoted by Robert P i ncu s -W i t ten i n "Robert Rauschenberg: Ca rdb i rd s and Cardboards , " A r t forum, v o l . 10 no. 5 (January 1972), p. 80. 7/ I b i d . By Rauschenberg 's own d a t i n g , which corresponds to a s h i f t i n h i s produc-t i o n , there had been a d e l i b e r a t i o n , a more e x p l i c i t or c r i t i c a l engage-ment w i t h the wo r l d , i n h i s work s i nce about 1966. The epitome of t h i s a c t i v i t y was the " C u r r e n t s " s e r i e s of p r i n t s , which were r e l a t i v e l y unmediated l i f t s from cu r ren t newspapers t ha t d e t a i l e d ( " r epo r t ed " ) the g r i e f s and traumas of American s o c i e t y i n 1970. L i k e t h e i r j o u r n a l i s t i c sources, they d id so wi thout e x p l a i n i n g them. One of the more s t r i k i n g , even maudl in , p r i n t s , e n t i t l e d S tud ies f o r Cur rent s #27 ( F i g . 3 ) , conta in s a we l t e r of images and t e x t s t u r n i n g around the photograph of a man sunk i n u t t e r de spa i r . Below him, Mickey Mouse (as the S o r c e r e r ' s Apprent i ce ) has l o s t c o n t r o l ("caught i n a w h i r l p o o l of h i s own making" reads the c a p t i o n ) , wh i l e a u t h o r i t y seems to have s l i p p e d out of even the l e a d e r -sh ip ' s c o n t r o l , represented here by Pope Pau l and George Meany. A f t e r a wh i l e & the r e s i s t a n c e a d e s i r e b u i l t up i n me to work i n a m a t e r i a l of waste and s o f t ne s s . Something y i e l d i n g w i th i t s only message a c o l l e c t i o n of l i n e s impr in ted l i k e a f r i e n d l y j o k e . A s i l e n t d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r h i s t o r y exposed by t h e i r new shapes. Labored commonly w i t h happiness. Boxes.[8] Th i s i s the " pe r sona l retrenchment" t ha t i s the eponymous t i t l e of Henry ' s rev iew, a lthough there i s no necessary connect ion i n the a r t i s t ' s statement between the "Cardboards " and Rauschenberg 's e a r l i e r combines and s i l k s c r e e n s . However, both Henry and P i ncu s -W i t ten i n t e r p r e t an i d e n t i t y between the o l d and new types of a r t , versus what came i n the midd le , having to do w i t h Rauschenberg 's renewed persona l engagement w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l s , r a the r than w i t h t e c h n i c a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n and/or commitment. For Henry, Rauschenberg 's r e j e c t i o n of h i s t e c h n o c r a t i c p u r s u i t s of the l a t e 8/ Rauschenberg, quoted by Henry, p. 43. 13 1960s meant a moving back to prev ious concerns, but a l s o involvement w i t h a new a e s t h e t i c s , and he c a l l e d the "Cardboards " Rauschenberg 1 s "most a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l ea s i n g works to date . [ 9 ] " He l i n k e d the r e t r e a t from i s sues and engagement (retrenchment) to the new, s imple f a c t u r e of these i cons which, appa ren t l y , surpassed even the o l d combines: I t i s the great and s o l i d v i r t u e of Bob Rauschenberg 's new c a r d -board-box c o l l a g e s t ha t they a r e , i n t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n s of contem-porary junk, s imply d e l i g h t f u l ; because they have been, and are be ing , cons ide red , p o l i t i c a l , mora l , and c u l t u r a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s can a l l be put a s i d e , and i n the face of h i s whol ly a r t i s t i c tr iumph no apology the l i k e s of Rauschenberg 's cata logue i n t r o d u c t i o n i s r e a l l y needed.[10] What i s read here i s hedonism, the enjoyment of the pure commodity, which i s i m p l i c i t l y read back i n t o Rauschenberg 's e a r l i e r p roduct ion as w e l l . Robert P i ncu s -W i t ten be l i e ved the "Cardboards " to be Rauschenberg 's best works s i nce the combine-pa int ings of 1958-62, even i f some of them were f o r the c r i t i c s imply too f a c i l e f o r someone of Rauschenberg 's s t a tu re . [ 11 ] Though they were more c o n s t r u c t i v i s t than the combines, t h e i r c o n t i n u i t y w i t h the e a r l i e r work was e s t a b l i s h e d i n the use of s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s - ones Rauschenberg had abandoned i n the meantime - which s i g n i -f i e d , to P i n cu s -W i t t en , both a r e t u r n to work of q u a l i t y and an abandon-ment of t o p i c a l i t y and technology. [12] Why was i t important f o r these c r i t i c s to e s t a b l i s h an i d e n t i t y w i t h the work of the pas t , and to p o s i t a d i f f e r e n c e w i t h what preceded the 9/ Henry, p. 44. 10/ I b i d . 11/ P i n cu s -W i t t en , p. 80. 12/ I b i d , p. 79. "Cardboards"? The l a t t e r were, of course, a negat ion of Rauschenberg 's immediate pas t , con ten t - l aden ar twork, by the a r t i s t ' s own statement. But that these s l i g h t works were meant to ca r r y the burden of the more d i s t a n t past was q u i t e another p r o p o s i t i o n . In order to understand the deve lop -ments i n Rauschenberg 's a r t i n the 1970 's - i n c l u d i n g h i s works i n the 1978 VAG e x h i b i t i o n - and the ideo logy surrounding them, i t i s necessary to t u r n f u r t h e r back to the pas t , to an a n a l y s i s of the stages i n Rauschenberg 's c r i t i c a l r e c e p t i o n i n the 1950s and ' 60s . The consensus reached by 1963 i s the one, we s h a l l see, t ha t determines most subsequent readings of Rauschenberg 's a r t ; i t i s important to know how and why i t was formed, and why a c o n t i n u i t y between the a r t i s t ' s past and present works has been so v i t a l to e s t a b l i s h , de sp i te t h e i r obvious d i s c r e p a n c i e s . We can then ga in some i n s i g h t i n t o the motives f o r VAG's recent show, as w e l l as the donat ions and purchase of Rauschenberg 's works that f o l l o w e d . The H i s t o r y of Rauschenberg 's Reputa t i on : From I r o n i s t to P a t r i o t Rauschenberg 's combine-pa int ings of the 1950s marked, i n a sense, the r e - e n t r y of the image i n t o contemporary ab s t r a c t p a i n t i n g , through junk. F i g u r a t i v e p a i n t i n g was s t i l l being done, even by many of the younger New York a r t i s t s who were ga in ing r e c o g n i t i o n , but i t was not the ta rgeted avant -garde. The o l de r a b s t r a c t - e x p r e s s i o n i s t vanguard had been i n s t i t u -t i o n a l i z e d by the e a r l y 1950s, but there was no one to overcome or c o n t r a -d i c t i t ; as Thomas Hess, who organ ized a show of lesser-known young a r t i s t s i n 1956, remarked, there was at the time a d i s t r u s t of the no t i on of the avant-garde among young p a i n t e r s , because of the c o l l e c t i v e nature of vanguard groups and because of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , which s t i l l a t tached to the work and pe r spec t i ve s of t h e i r e l de r s . [ 13 ] Rauschenberg 's own avant-garde ges tures , famous now, l i k e the blank whi te canvases e x h i b i t e d i n 1953, the erased de Kooning drawing a l s o of 1953, or the " g ras s p a i n t i n g " shown i n 1954, though h i gh l y symbol ic and c l e a r l y a n t a g o n i s t i c to the p r e v a i l i n g p a i n t i n g s t y l e , seemed at the time to be the maverick gestures of a s i n g u l a r enfant t e r r i b l e (as Frank O'Hara c a l l e d him i n 1955).[14] H i s a c t u a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the c i r c l e around John Cage, which was " l i k e " an avant-garde i n programme but a n t i - a v a n t -garde sometimes i n s t r a t e g y , was l e s s n o t i c e d . The i r works, though shown or performed p u b l i c l y , were as o f t en p r i v a t e , pas s i ve and a l l u s i v e i n t h e i r content - I am t h i n k i n g here p r i m a r i l y of Cage, Rauschenberg and Johns - though as Moira Roth has shown[15], the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s m i l i t a t e d aga in s t an o rgan i zed, c o n f r o n t i v e avant-garde at the t ime. The Cage c i r c l e was more a cenac le than a p u b l i c group; at the same time "assemblage", as junk s cu l p t u re came to be known when i t gained r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , was not unique to Rauschenberg, but i t was an emerging 13/ Thomas B. Hess, "U.S. P a i n t i n g : Some Recent D i r e c t i o n s , " 25th A r t  News Annual (1956), p. 176. There were 21 young pa i n t e r s represented i n Hess a r t i c l e , i n c l u d i n g Rauschenberg. As ide from the l a t t e r , there were 9 a b s t r a c t and 11 f i g u r a t i v e p a i n t e r s i n c l u d e d . Robert Goodnough, M i l t o n Resn ick, Joan M i t c h e l l , E rnest B r i g g s , F r i e d e l Dzubas, Stephen Pace, Helen F rankentha le r , Hyde Solomon and M ichae l Goldberg were the a b s t r a c t i o n i s t s ; the f i g u r a t i v e p a i n t e r s were F e l i x P a s i l i s , Wolf Kahn, N e l l B l a i n e , F a i r f i e l d P o r t e r , Gandy B rod i e , La r r y R i v e r s , Le land B e l l , Robert DeNiro, E l a i n e de Kooning, Seymour Remenick and M i l e s F o r s t . 14/ F ( rank) O ( 'Ha ra ) , "Bob Rauschenberg," Artnews, v o l . 53 no. 9 (January 1955), p. 47. 15/ Moi ra Roth, "The A e s t h e t i c of I n d i f f e r e n c e , " Ar t forum, v o l . 16 no. 3 (November 1977), pp. 46-53. scene i n 1954-55 - R i chard S tank iewicz and John Chamberlain were beginning to e x h i b i t t h e i r s cu l p tu re s at the same time as Rauschenberg was becoming known.[16] By 1960, as I r v i n g Sandler wrote then, there were "thousands of dreary ob j e c t s t ha t c l u t t e r f l o o r , w a l l and c e i l i n g space i n dozens of New York g a l l e r i e s . [ 1 7 ] " Though Rauschenberg d i d not a s s o c i a t e w i t h these a r t i s t s so much as w i t h Cage, Johns and Merce Cunningham, he was l i n k e d to the "movement" dubbed "Neo-Dada" t ha t was i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the Beats and which, though never u n i f i e d , performed some of the f un c t i o n s of an avant -garde from the years 1958 to 1962 (when Pop A r t was u n v e i l e d ) . "Neo-Dada" was more a c r e a t i o n of c r i t i c s anxious to f i l l the vo i d l e f t by the success (and s e l f - d e m o l i t i o n ) of ab s t r a c t expres s ion i sm, than i t was a l e g i t i m a t e movement, but junk s cu l p t u re shared f ea tu re s w i t h Rauschenberg 's combines tha t might be c a l l e d a n t i - f o r m a l i s t : humour, a d e - h i e r a r c h i z i n g of m a t e r i a l s (which cou ld be seen as e i t h e r a negat ion of p rev ious a r t p r a c t i c e , or i t s " l i b e r a t i o n " ) , a s o f t c r i t i q u e of American s o c i e t y , and the r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n of iconography, even i f t h i s was as hard to p i n down as Rauschenberg 's was. C r i t i c s were not used to t h i s type of c o n s t r u c t i o n , and s a i d so, though w i t h i n a few years ("To many, however, 16/ I r v i n g Sandler , "Assemblage," i n The New York Schoo l : The  P a i n t e r s and S cu l p to r s of the F i f t i e s (New York: Harper & Row, 1978), pp. 143-55. Chamberlain was a f e l l o w student of Rauschenberg i n the e a r l y '50s at B lack Mountain C o l l e g e . 17/ I r v i n g Hershe l Sand ler , "Ash Can R e v i s i t e d : a New York L e t t e r , " A r t I n t e r n a t i o n a l , v o l . 4 no. 8 (October 25, 1960), p. 30. h i s work has never seemed 1 s h o ck i n g ' [ 1 8 ] " ) they were c e l e b r a t i n g i t s " c l a s s i c " fo rmal q u a l i t i e s . Accord ing to Ro sa l i nd Krauss, the way Rauschenberg set s up h i s work guarantees " i t s cha rac te r of d i s c o u r s e [ 1 9 ] " ; t ha t i s , the way he organ izes h i s imagery i n t o s imple h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l g r i d s , the way we perce i ve i t - must pe rce i ve i t , due to i t s p a r t - b y - p a r t compos i t ion and i t s heterogene i ty - as " a k i nd of temporal u n f o l d i n g [ 2 0 ] " , i s s i m i l a r to the read ing of a sentence or t e x t . Except tha t the grammar i s broken - we have no way to make sense of a l l of the c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s . Any read ing , a process encouraged by the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p a i n t i n g , i s p a r t i a l and t e n t a t i v e a t most; i f some images or ob jec t s " a s s o c i a t e " , they do so i n a l i m i t e d sense - the "programme" i n i t s e n t i r e t y f a i l s to cohere, or i s a n t i - c ohe ren t i n i t s i n t e n t , perhaps speaking of the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of d i s cour se i n the t ime of t h e i r making. There i s an argument among c r i t i c s as to the p r i v a t e vs . p u b l i c nature of Rauschenberg 's a r t i s t i c p roducts . One i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , l i n k e d to the a r t i s t ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i th John Cage, i s tha t the combine-pa int ings have a p r i v a t e grammar or code, a v a i l a b l e to a c i r c l e of f r i e n d s r a the r than to the l a r g e r a r t p u b l i c . [ 2 1 ] Th i s cou ld be the source f o r some of the sub-18/ G.R. Swenson, "Rauschenberg pa i n t s a p i c t u r e , " Artnews, v o l . 62, no. 2 ( A p r i l 1963), p. 66. 19/ Krauss , p. 37. 20/ I b i d . 21/ Th i s a t t i t u d e can be a t t r i b u t e d to Roth and Krauss i n t h e i r a l r e a d y - c i t e d a r t i c l e s , and i s imp l i ed i n Thomas Hess ' remarks on " G . I . i s m " i n h i s "U.S. P a i n t i n g : Some Recent D i r e c t i o n s . " v e r s i v e p o t e n t i a l of the p a i n t i n g s , f o r the p r i v a t e code i s a r e s e r v o i r of m i s g i v i ng s , of ambiguity about the s t a t e of America i n the 1950s (ambi-g u i t y , of course, works more than one way[22]). . Another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s that the combines are not p r i v a t e at a l l (or become much l e s s so a f t e r 1954[23]), and tha t there i s no code concea l i ng meanings.[24] The works are p u b l i c , as they take t h e i r m a t e r i a l s from the s t r e e t s of the c i t y and re -app ly them more-o r - le s s i n t a c t onto the canvas. The i r p u b l i c meaning i s conta ined i n the way of l o ok i n g revea led i n the p a r t i c u l a r j u x t a p o s i t i o n of o b j e c t s ; the hand of the a r t i s t , a sure s i gn of i n d i v i d u a l i t y , has been at tenuated to a few sp lashes and d r i b b l e s . Yet Mo i ra Roth has l i n k e d t h i s to Cage and the c u l t i v a t i o n of i r o n y , d i s t ance and i n t e l l i g e n c e , wherein the a r t i s t ' s gesture i s downplayed, as w e l l as to the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of d i s cou r s e , and to the negat ion of the ab s t r a c t e x p r e s s i o n i s t b ru sh s t roke . In f a c t , the ques t ion of i n t r o v e r s i o n vs . e x t r o v e r s i o n i n Rauschenberg ' s a r t - i n which each i s a cover f o r the other - i n t ima te s both a code and i t s breakdown, works that are both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , t ha t t a l k about the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of d i s c ou r s e . They seem open and random, are cons t ruc ted w i t h chance m a t e r i a l s , yet are c lo sed i n some respect s to a l l but a knowing few. Rebus (1955; F i g . 4) i s a touchstone here, f o r i t s p i c t u r e 22/ I t i s t h i s ambiguity that has been e x p l o i t e d by many of Rauschen-berg ' s c r i t i c s to cas t a p o s i t i v e l i g h t on h i s p roduc t i on s . 23/ Accord ing to I r v i n g Sand ler , "Robert Rauschenberg," Artnews, v o l . 59 no. 2 ( A p r i l 1960), p. 14. 24/ Th i s po in t of view i s represented by Sand ler , i n the two c i t e d a r t i c l e s ; by, e s p e c i a l l y , A lan Solomon, i n h i s cata logue f o r the f i r s t Rauschenberg r e t r o s p e c t i v e at the Jewish Museum i n 1963, and has undergone permutations i n more recent a r t i c l e s by Leo S te inberg and B r i a n O'Doherty (see b i b l i o g r a p h y ) . puzz le doesn ' t add up to anyth ing dec iphe rab le , though the elements f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n - the long g r i d of images, the a s soc i a ted re fe rences to sport and to women - seem to prov ide the p o s s i b i l i t y . I t remains, however, pass ive and opaque. S t i l l , read ings can be attempted; some works appear more l e g i b l e than o the r s . Canyon ( F i g . 5 ) , from 1959, i s a work of some coherence de sp i te the f a c t t h a t , as nea r l y a lways, the c o n s t i t u e n t ob jec t s and images remain d i s c r e e t ; they ma in ta in t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s as ob j e c t s r e t r i e v e d from the wo r l d . Photographs (of a young boy r a i s i n g h i s arm to the sky, of the Statue of L i b e r t y , of outer space) are each framed by pa inted borders , and the blackened eagle has the lower t h i r d of the canvas almost to i t s e l f . There i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n Canyon between the areas and ob jec t s of l i g h t n e s s and of dark. What i s l i g h t ( f o r i n s t ance , the photo of L i b e r t y from below, w i t h the sky around) i s ( u s u a l l y ) a i r y ; what i s dark i s heavy ( the metal s hee t i n g ) , though not always (observatory photo of space) . There are images of we ight le s snes s or u p l i f t i n g : space, the boy w i t h h i s hand r a i s e d up i n symmetry w i t h the Statue of L i b e r t y ' s own, and the eagle too seems ready to leave i t s perch. The eagle i s a l s o weighted down, however, by the accumulat ion of pa i n t and imagery hover ing over i t , i n c l u d i n g the heavy metal sheet . Yet the metal i s analogous to the dark sky beneath, which i s " l i g h t " . The p i l l o w dang l ing below the p i c t u r e frame i s " l i g h t " too , pa inted wh i t e , but wrenched l i k e the metal from i t s former use, i t p u l l s the eagle down and o f f ba lance, d e s t a b i l i z i n g the perch on which i t r e s t s . There i s a p lay then of dark and l i g h t - i n the sense of weight as w e l l as of zones of co l ou r - which c o n t r i b u t e s to the p a i n t i n g ' s content . The combine i s c a l l e d Canyon, and tha t i s the sense of where the eagle i s , b lackened, d i s h e v e l l e d and unable to get i n t o the patterned sky above i t . I t i s , l i k e many of Rauschenberg 's works a t t h i s t ime, a document of f r u s t r a t i o n and impotence, whose wider i m p l i c a t i o n s are suggested i n the c e n t r a l t o r n c o l l a g e of p o l i t i c a l po s te r s , and i n the heady American symbols of the eagle i t s e l f and the Statue of L i b e r t y . Another work, Crocus (1962; F i g . 6 ) , one of Rauschenberg 's f i r s t s i l k s c r e e n p a i n t i n g s , i s l i k e w i s e a d i s t u r b i n g c l u s t e r of images. Crocus i s d i v i d e d i n t o three equal zones. A heavy army t ruck ("X2" l i k e the "X " below i t ) squats over a r ep roduc t i on of Ve l a squez ' s Venus and Cup id. The faded p r e sen t a t i on of the p a i n t i n g ' s image renders i t pas s i ve and t e n t a -t i v e , wh i l e the c l a r i t y of the t ruck g ives i t a u t h o r i t y and weight. Cupid i s ba re l y v i s i b l e , though he i s reproduced, minus head and m i r r o r , i n the lower r i g h t co rner . The m i r r o r he ho lds , which should r e f l e c t Venus' f a c e , has been o b l i t e r a t e d by the whi te X (or c r o c u s ) , the focus of the p a i n t i n g . What l ooks l i k e a disembodied head, but i s the rep roduc t i on of a d e t a i l of a f o o t b a l l i n f l i g h t , hovers between the t i r e of the v e h i c l e and the head of Venus: i t i s perhaps the head she misses i n the absent m i r r o r . Some very l a r ge mosquitos are headed Cup i d ' s way. The elements of the p a i n t i n g - the d i sag reeab le mosquitos, the decap i ta ted Cup id, the negat ion of a r t ' s (mi r ro red) s e l f by the " c r o c u s " , the oppres s i ve t ruck - c o n t r i -bute to a f e e l i n g of d i s tu rbance and even nausea, though they do not form a programme. How then were these p i c t u r e s r ece i ved at the time of t h e i r f i r s t appearance, and what course d i d the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of Rauschenberg 's r epu -t a t i o n take? These quest ions are c r u c i a l f o r an understanding of the a r t i s t ' s l a t e r works, and the r e c e p t i o n accorded them. The f i r s t rev iews , i n A r t D iges t and Artnews, were s l i g h t and dead-pan. [25] Rauschenberg appeared as a p a r o d i s t , and the rev iewer s , who were not sure of what he was up t o , were as i r o n i c as they took t h e i r sub jec t to be. John Ashbery c a l l e d Rauschenberg " a s o r t of avant-garde Coc-t e a u [ 26 ] " , i . e . a g a d f l y , a d i l e t t a n t e . There was admi ra t i on too , though wi thout extended a n a l y s i s . Rauschenberg began to be known (and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h "Neo-Dada") a t the t ime of h i s a f f i l i a t i o n to Leo C a s t e l l i ' s g a l l e r y i n 1958; one s i gn of h i s n o t o r i e t y was r e c o g n i t i o n by Newsweek, which reviewed h i s f i r s t show, p lus the work of Jasper Johns and A l l a n Kaprow, i n an a r t i c l e i n March 1958 e n t i t l e d "Trend to the ' A n t i - A r t ' [ 2 7 ] " . By 1960, such c r i t i c s as Sidney T i l l i m , Robert Coates, F a i r f i e l d Po r t e r and I r v i n g Sandler , though they took va r i ou s s i de s on the i s s u e , were i n agreement that there was an element, even a predominant one, of p r o te s t i n Rauschenberg 's a r t . Sidney T i l l i m , i n d e s c r i b i n g " t he v i r t u a l f i l t h and p r e d i c t a b l e i n s a n i t y of h i s 25/ Reviews, t ha t i s , of Rauschenberg 's e a r l y p roduc t i on , not of the p i c t u r e s desc r ibed above. 26/ J(ohn) A ( shbery ) , "Robert Rauschenberg," Artnews, v o l . 57 no. 1 (March 1958), p. 40. 27/ "Trend to the A n t i - A r t , " Newsweek, v o l . 51 no. 13 (March 31, 1958), pp. 94 & 96. o b j e c t s f 2 8 ] " , wrote i n A r t s t ha t " t h e convent ions born of p r o te s t i n modern a r t are e s p e c i a l l y ev ident i n the work of neo-Dadaist Robert Rauschenberg.[29]" Coates, i n "The ' B e a t ' Beat i n A r t " (The New Yo r ke r ) , wrote: A l l t h i s i s fundamental ly work of p r o t e s t , and, l i k e a l l p r o te s t i n a r t , when honest, i s worthy of n o t i c e . I t ' s a p r o t e s t , I gather, aga in s t eve ry th ing from i n f l a t i o n to c r e d i t cards and f a t - c a t i s m , and I take no s ides i n the matter , merely p o i n t i n g out that the a t t i t u d e e x i s t s and i s spreading. [30] F a i r f i e l d Po r te r s a i d , i n The Na t i on : He expresses a m o r a l i t y of pover ty , i nduc ing a monastic respect f o r t h i ng s t ha t no one va lue s . He p r o t e s t s the waste i n t h i s s o c i e t y , where we take f o r granted that automobi les are d i s p o s -a b l e , and that our t r a s h cans are f i l l e d w i t h paper work. He c a l l s a t t e n t i o n to the success of i n d u s t r i a l i s m oppos i te to the way the Bauhaus d i d , which saw i n d u s t r i a l i s m as i t wished to be seen.[31] And Sandler wrote i n A r t I n t e r n a t i o n a l : The Neo-Dadas look upon the c i t y as t h e i r landscape - dump would be more accu ra te . The junk m a t e r i a l they use suggests urban forms and images, metaphors f o r both the poverty and r i chne s s of c i t y l i f e , i t s t e r r o r and anx ie t y as w e l l as i t s p a r t i c u l a r s pec tac l e and rhythm.[32] These l a t t e r remarks b leed over i n t o the more p o s i t i v e readings made by l a t e r c r i t i c s , but they a l s o pay a t t e n t i o n to t h i s a r t i n i t s aspect of nega t i on . Sandler and Po r t e r were more a t t e n t i v e to the amb i gu i t i e s of 28/ S( idney) T ( i l l i m ) , "Robert Rauschenberg," A r t s , v o l . 34 no. 8 (May 1960), p. 58. 29/ I b i d . 30/ Robert M. Coates, "The ' B e a t ' Beat i n A r t , " The New Yorker , v o l . 35 no. 46 (January 2, I960), p. 60. 31/ F a i r f i e l d P o r t e r , " A r t , " i n The Na t i on , v o l . 190 no. 17 ( A p r i l 23, 1960), p. 372. .32/ Sand ler , "Ash Can R e v i s t e d , " p. 28. these works and to some of t h e i r fo rmal q u a l i t i e s than other reviews tha t concentrated on t h e i r p u b l i c or s e n s a t i o n a l a spec t s . Th i s i s the po in t at which, as Sandler noted, "Neo-Dada i s t " junk was f l o o d i n g the New York g a l l e r i e s , i d e n t i f i e d by Coates and others w i t h the Beat and coffeehouse scenes, and doing i t s e l f i n by v i r t u e of i t s very p o p u l a r i t y - though a few "genu ine " a r t i s t s , i n c l u d i n g Rauschenberg, were i d e n t i f i e d as t r a n -scending the new k i t s c h . [ 3 3 ] At the same t ime, one of the reasons f o r the p o p u l a r i t y of "Neo-Dada" was i t s immediate acceptance by the a r t e s tab l i shment . C a s t e l l i had s igned on Rauschenberg, Johns and others i n 1957-58, and " p r o t e s t , " e s p e c i a l l y of as s o f t and ambiguous a v a r i e t y as was Rauschenberg ' s , was e a s i l y i n c o r -porated i n t o the mainstream of modern a r t exper ience . Time covered the " l a t e s t d a r l i n g of the f a r - o u t a r t s e t [ 3 4 ] " i n A p r i l 1960, and asked: Such p u b l i c demand f o r such p r i v a t e images i s one of the a r t boom's most f a s c i n a t i n g phenomena. Does i t r e f l e c t a s t a r v a t i o n d i e t of s u b j e c t i v e exper ience amongst the mass of r i c h Americans? Or do people buy Rauschenberg to share i n h i s qu i e t p r o te s t aga in s t what they t h i n k i s a cel lophane-wrapped s o r t of world?[35] The f i r s t museum purchase of Rauschenberg 's a r t was made by the A l b r i g h t -Knox G a l l e r y i n 1958.[36] The Museum of Modern A r t s a n c t i f i e d t h i s new type of a r t p roduct ion w i t h i t s 16 Americans e x h i b i t i o n i n the w in te r of 1959/60 f e a t u r i n g , among o the r s , Rauschenberg, S t ank i ew i c z , Johns and Lou i se Nevelson. Martha J ack son ' s l a r g e New Media-New Forms show fo l l owed 33/ I b i d . 34/ "The Emperor ' s Combine", Time ( A p r i l 18, 1960), p. 92. 35/ I b i d . 36/ P a i n t i n g With The Red L e t t e r S (1957). soon a f t e r 16 Americans, and fea tu red Rauschenberg, S t ank i ew i cz , Nevelson, Johns, Kaprow, Chamberla in, C laes Oldenburg and Robert Ma l l a r y among o the r s , s o l i d i f y i n g the t r e n d . MoMA capped t h i s process w i t h i t s A r t of  Assemblage e x h i b i t i o n i n 1961, e s t a b l i s h i n g a modernist pedigree f o r the work d i s p l a yed and, i n the process , changing the consensus on which c r i t i c i s m of "Neo-Dada", or "assemblage" now, was based.[37] Neo-Dada found i t s t r a d i t i o n not j u s t i n prev ious dada c on s t r u c t i on s the l i k e s of Kurt S c h w i t t e r s ' (always a re fe rence po in t f o r Rauschenberg c r i t i c i s m ) , but i n the c o l l a g e experiments of P i ca s so h i m s e l f . Rauschenberg 's work, which had seemed to be r e s o l u t e l y a n t i - f o r m a l i s t , was now brought i n t o the cent re of the great t r a d i t i o n of modern p a i n t i n g , as MoMA had so c a r e f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h i s i n i t s pedagog ica l work over the prev ious t h i r t y year s . The consensus among c r i t i c s , who had i n f a c t e s t a b l i s h e d "Neo-Dada" as an avant -garde, was breached at the same time as the movement was accepted by the a r t e s tab l i shment , no more than a year and h a l f a f t e r i t was f i r s t i d e n t i f i e d as such. I t was no longer known as "Neo-Dada", f o r the exce s -s i v e l y negat ive and p o l i t i c a l connotat ions of t h i s term no longer appealed. Nor d i d they seem to apply to work which had been i d e n t i f i e d not as an ou t s i de or v e s t i g i a l a t t a ck on the t r a d i t i o n ( to which a b s t r a c t express ion i sm had so r e c e n t l y been a t t a ched ) , but as be long ing to or c e n t r a l to the t r a d i t i o n of modernism i t s e l f , as t h i s was seen to have developed out of cubism. "Assemblage" was now the p r o f f e r e d term, and any t a l k about " p r o t e s t " , i n s o f a r as i t concerned Rauschenberg 's a r t at 37/ W i l l i a m C. S e i t z , The A r t of Assemblage (New York: The Museum of Modern A r t , 1961). l e a s t , subsided i n favour of d i s c u s s i o n of h i s e x c e l l e n t fo rmal q u a l i -t i e s . [38] A f u r t h e r development was the t r an s fo rmat i on of h i s fo rmer ly " n e g a t i v e " v iewpoint i n t o an e n t i r e l y " p o s i t i v e " one, s i nce i t was conducted i n l i g h t of the " p o s i t i v e " developments and q u a l i t i e s of cubism, f u t u r i s m , dada and s u r r ea l i sm (and never t h e i r dark or negat i ve a spec t s ) . The tw in apogees of t h i s process were the c r i t i c a l c e l e b r a t i o n s around the 1963 Rauschenberg r e t r o s p e c t i v e a t the Jewish Museum i n New York, and the 1964 Venice B i enna l e , at which an American (Rauschenberg) won the grand p a i n t i n g p r i z e f o r the f i r s t t ime. A lan Solomon, who organ ized both the Jewish Museum r e t r o s p e c t i v e and the American s e c t i o n f o r the Venice B i enna le , a l s o wrote the i n t r oduc t o r y essay f o r the r e t r o s p e c t i v e ' s ca ta logue , which was one of the f i r s t i n t e l -l i g e n t extended commentaries on Rauschenberg 's a r t , and one upon which so much l a t e r c r i t i c i s m r e s t e d . Solomon a l s o extended and developed the c o n t i n u i t i e s between the a r t of the recent past and Rauschenberg 's own, not only c r e a t i n g a ( d i s pu t ab l e ) l i n k between the two most recent American avant -gardes, a b s t r a c t express ion i sm and assemblage, but s t a t i n g tha t ( i n 1963), "we are p re sen t l y exper i enc ing the most r a d i c a l a l t e r a t i o n i n modern a r t s i n ce the i n v e n t i o n of cub i sm. [39 ] " U n l i k e W i l l i a m S e i t z , Solomon was u n w i l l i n g to s imply supply a modernist pedigree f o r cu r ren t developments, thus c o n t e x t u a l i z i n g them and absorbing them; he in tended, 38/ A r t i c l e s by Gera ld Nordland and Donald Judd at t h i s t ime (see b i b l i o g r a p h y ) , cons idered Rauschenberg 's new work i n e x c l u s i v e l y f o r m a l i s t terms, an inmposs ib le concept ion p r i o r to the s a n c t i f i c a t i o n of assemblage by MoMA. 39/ A lan R. Solomon, Robert Rauschenberg (New York: the Jewish Museum, 1963). Solomon's essay was unpaginated. 26 p o l e m i c a l l y speaking, to open a whole new era i n a r t h i s t o r y , although h i s polemics r e s t e d on assumptions derived from the f o r m a l i s t a r t h i s t o r y p r o s e l y t i z e d by i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e MoMA. Solomon based h i s idea of a " r a d i c a l a l t e r a t i o n " of modern a r t on the notion t h a t the a b s t r a c t e x p r e s s i o n i s t s and the assemblage a r t i s t s shared an involvement i n "the deeper, i n e x p l i c a b l e c u r r e n t s of f e e l i n g " that now shaped a r t , a " c a l c u l a t e d ambiguity" t h a t the assemblagists extended even to t h e i r m a t e r i a l s . However, Solomon a l s o r e l a t e d t h i s to the ambiguities of cubism, an i n s i g h t that undercut the c u r a t o r ' s promotion of a new type of a r t p r a c t i c e : The b a s i s of Rauschenberg's p o s i t i o n l i e s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y c l o s e to the e s t h e t i c of P i c a s s o , e s p e c i a l l y i n the sense that both are in v o l v e d i n the t e n s i o n between the i l l u s i o n i s m of pai n t and the impinging presence of fragments of r e a l i t y . Both e x p l o i t the ambi g u i t i e s of reading and meaning which such j u x t a p o s i t i o n s induce, and both are caught up on the sheer v i s u a l d e l i g h t of the c o n t r a s t s of t e x t u r e and c o l o r which such a range of m a t e r i a l s permits.[40] This i s t r u e so f a r as i t goes, and both a r t i s t s were making objects i n times of great n a t i o n a l chauvinism, when intense pressure was exerted on those holding non-conformist a t t i t u d e s ; the i n t e l l i g e n t a r t i s t concealed h i s meanings i n a m b i g u i t i e s , ones extended even to the making of the works. Solomon goes f u r t h e r than t h a t , however, i n a d i r e c t i o n poles apart from previous c r i t i c i s m of Rauschenberg's a r t ; he continued, i n the same catalogue: There are no secret messages i n Rauschenberg, no program of s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l d iscontent t r a n s m i t t e d i n code, no hidden r h e t o r i c a l commentary on the l a r g e meaning of L i f e or A r t , no p r i v a t e symbolism a v a i l a b l e only to the i n i t i a t e . . . . T h e i r r e a l meaning i s contained i n 40/ I b i d . t h i s s imple f a c t , s i n ce the more we look , the more we are faced w i t h c o m p l e x i t i e s of meaning. In t h i s way the p a i n t i n g s con s tan t l y renew themselves; t h e i r r e a l v i r t u e l i e s i n t h e i r m u l t i p l i c i t y . . . the elements chosen never admit the p o s s i b i l i t y of l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n or e l u c i d a t i o n , e i t h e r i n themselves or i n r e l a t i o n to the t h i ng s w i t h which they have been combined.[41] So, Solomon t e l l s us, Monogram ( F i g . 7 ) , "w i thout a doubt one of the most e x t r ao rd i na r y images of the c e n t u r y " , i s " eminent l y s a t i s f y i n g to us, on a pure ly i n t u i t i v e and u t t e r l y i n e x p l i c a b l e p l a n e " ; " i t has no meaning, i n the convent i ona l sense. " We s h a l l see where Solomon's agenda leads us to i n a moment, but f o r now we can see t h a t , l i n k e d to the " sheer v i s u a l d e l i g h t " of the formal arrangements i s a deeper sense of unreso lved amb i gu i t i e s , amb i gu i t i e s t h a t , f o r Solomon, i f r e s o l v e d , would l ead s imply to b a n a l i t y of statement. He perce i ves no sense of d i s t u rbance , but r a the r " ab so l u t e t a c t and impeccable t a s t e . " Solomon cannot a f f o r d to e x p l a i n , even to a l i m i t e d ex ten t , what those amb i gu i t i e s a r e , and how they might c o n t r i b u t e to meaning; meaning i s r a the r conta ined i n a new way of l o o k i n g . Here we begin to touch on Solomon's p o l i t i c a l programme: Rauschenberg 's a r t i s n e i t he r p e j o r a t i v e , nor a c e l e b r a t i o n of c o r r u p t i o n . I t i s the h ighest and most a f f i r m a t i v e statement of the q u a l i t y and d i g n i t y of d i r e c t human exper ience, of the va lue of the l e a s t and most degraded ob jec t i n the environment, of the p o t e n t i a l f o r enrichment of the most hum-drum and dep lo rab le c o n d i t i o n s of our ex i s t ence through a s p e c i a l way of l o o k i n g , f e e l i n g , and ques t i on ing . [42 ] In what sense i s t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p o l i t i c a l ? I t can be taken to be so by the immense i n f l u e n c e Solomon's essay wie lded over other c r i t i c s of Rauschenberg 1 s a r t , and by the uses to which t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was put, 41/ I b i d . 42/ I b i d . e s p e c i a l l y at the t ime of the B ienna le i n 1964, but r e ve rbe ra t i n g down to the present day. A t r u l y consensual arrangement was ach ieved, by which near l y every c r i t i c subscr ibed to Solomon's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . J i l l Johnston wrote tha t Rauschenberg has " a c l a s s i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n . [ 4 3 ] " Lawrence Campbel l , a l s o w r i t i n g i n Artnews i n 1963, s a i d : ...Rauschenberg has a f o rma l , p l a s t i c q u a l i t y which u s u a l l y manages to come through even h i s most outrageous e f f o r t s . He i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p a i n t e r . He has a r e a l f e e l i n g f o r arrangement, f o r c o l o r , and these v i r t u e s are a t h i s beck and c a l l i n the expres s ion of a mood of g en t l e , romantic r e v e r i e . [ 4 4 ] Georgine Oe r i agreed that Rauschenberg 's was " a p r i m a r i l y p a i n t e r l y s e n s i -b i l i t y [ 4 5 ] " ; Ro sa l i nd Cons tab le , w r i t i n g i n L i f e a f t e r the B i enna l e , s t a t e d : Fo r , r a the r unexpected ly , Rauschenberg has turned i n t o a pa i n te r i n the t rue t r a d i t i o n . He uses the r ec tangu l a r compos i t ions of cubism (which i n t u rn de r i ve from Cezanne), the d r i p s and swoops of a b s t r a c t expres s ion i sm, the s i l k s c r e e n photographs of t o d a y ' s news to g i ve us a p i c t u r e of h i s America, which he l o v e s . Take another look a t " u g l y " America, he seems to be say ing , there i s more beauty i n i t than meets your eye.[46] Th i s i s the p o l i t i c a l p o r t i o n of Solomon's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , which, though he was too d i s c r e e t to s t a t e i t i n h i s 1963 cata logue essay, he put more 43/ J ( i l l ) J (ohns ton ) , "Robert Rauschenberg," Artnews, v o l . 62 no. 3 (May 1963), p. 12. 44/ L(awrence) C (ampbe l l ) , "Robert Rauschenberg," Artnews, v o l . 62 no. 7 (November 1963), p. 12. 45/ Georgine O e r i , "The Object of A r t , " Quadram, no. 16 (1964), p. 22. 46/ Rosa l i nd Cons tab le , " A r t Pops I n , " L i f e , v o l . 57 no. 2 ( J u l y 10, 1964), p. 68. b l u n t l y at the t ime of the B ienna le (which he o rgan i zed , i n c i d e n t a l l y , f o r the U.S. In fo rmat ion Agency[47]): American a r t i s t s are open to a l l new exper iences . The i r f o r c e has been the absence of t r a d i t i o n . There i s a new sense of beauty that hinges not on n o s t a l g i a but on the acceptance of t h i ng s as they a re . [48 ] Con s t ab l e ' s comment i s not merely the most banal v a r i a n t of t h i s l i n e of reason ing , but a combinat ion of two connected programmes: the promotion of Rauschenberg as a " c l a s s i c a l " modern is t , and h i s t r an s fo rmat i on from " p r o t e s t e r " to c e l e b r a t o r of American l i f e . Even the most degraded aspects of s o c i e t y were now, thanks to Rauschenberg 's l i b e r a t i n g example, sub jec t to e l e v a t i o n on the terms of h igh c u l t u r e ; as Time s t a t e d , i n i t s p o s t -B ienna le a r t i c l e on Rauschenberg e n t i t l e d "Most Happy F e l l a " ("I l i k e s o c i e t y and don ' t want to leave i t " , s a i d the sub ject i n que s t i on [49 ] ) : Yet a t the hear t of Rauschenberg 's work i s a c l e a r c o n v i c t i o n tha t a heightened order of t r u t h can be found i n eve ry th ing and anywhere, even i n the garbage dump.[50] What happened? The c r i t i c s seem to have " s o l v e d " the problem of Rauschenberg 's a r t , which had appeared d i s t u r b i n g and complex, by agree ing tha t i t o f f e r e d a pure ly p o s i t i v e read ing of America, i m p l i c a t e d even i n the method of i t s making, which was i n t e r p r e t e d as " t h e l a t e s t freedom" to 47/ The 1964 B ienna le was the f i r s t i n which the U.S. government took a d i r e c t p a r t , here through the C I A - d i r e c t ed U.S. In format ion Agency. P r e -v i o u s l y , the American p a v i l i o n a t the B ienna le had been run by the Museum of Modern A r t . 48/ Quoted by Newsweek i n " C a r n i v a l i n V e n i c e , " Newsweek, v o l . 64 no. 1 ( J u l y 6, 1964), p. 74. 49/ "Most Happy F e l l a , " Time, v o l . 84 no. 12 (September 18, 1964), p. 58. 50/ I b i d . use new ( r a t h e r , o l d ) m a t e r i a l s . The a r t was seen as reportage r a the r than c r i t i q u e : impos s ib le that i t cou ld be c r i t i c a l or nega t i ve , that the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of junk i n t o f i n e a r t was not a negat ion i n some sense, even i f i t was ambiguous; or t ha t ambigu i ty , here , was not a response to a s o c i a l atmosphere i n which p u b l i c statements that were not c e l eb r a t o r y were nea r l y impos s ib le to make. The u n i f o r m i t y of the c r i t i c a l response, e s p e c i a l l y by the e a r l y 1960s, i s harder to understand: why were these people enjo ined i n a common task of r a i s i n g Rauschenberg up, and o f , s imu l taneous l y , t u r n i n g him i n t o something he had not been? E a r l i e r I t r i e d to show, by a l i m i t e d a n a l y s i s of two works from t h i s p e r i o d , some of the negat ive q u a l i t i e s of Rauschen-be rg ' s p r oduc t i on , a read ing tha t can be extended, I b e l i e v e , to most of the works made i n t h i s t ime , w i t h an a t t e n t i o n to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s . Th i s the c r i t i c s have not done; they have l i m i t e d themselves to genera l statements o r , l i k e Solomon, they dec l a re there i s no meaning.[51] In the work of Rauschenberg, as of Cage, there i s of course a p o s i t i v e aspect as w e l l as nega t i on , which, however, has been i n f l a t e d and d i s t o r t e d i n an e f f o r t to f o r g e t , or dismember, the darker undertones, and to i n co rpo ra te these p o s i t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the l a r g e r p o s i t i v e sphere of modern p a i n t i n g , i n t e r p r e t e d by the b landest l i g h t s . P o l i t i c a l c r e t i n i s m begins here f o r , as the Solomon quote (at the t ime of the B ienna le ) shows, such an approach 51/ An except ion to the genera l t rend of Rauschenberg c r i t i c i s m at the t ime was Max K o z l o f f ' s pe r cep t i ve column on the a r t i s t i n the December 7, 1963 i s s ue of The Nat ion (pp. 402-03). I have not used i t here because i t i s apart from the c r i t i c i s m - a s - i d e o l o g y I have been d e s c r i b i n g . becomes an instrument of the s t a t e , used even con sc i ou s l y by the l a t e cu ra to r to export propaganda. Rauschenberg 's e a r l y work, e s p e c i a l l y h i s combines, were c r i t i c a l t o the extent t ha t they a f f i rmed the garbage and waste of the c i t y , as the obverse (and byproduct) of the rampant consumerism promoted i n American s o c i e t y i n the 1950s. Th i s was not the American dream, or i t was at l e a s t a skewed i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i t . The product ion of t h i s t ime a l s o mi r ro red the s i t u a t i o n of a t y p i c a l l y p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n a r t i s t , who made a sensa t ion out of the m a t e r i a l s at hand i n the a l l e y s and byways of New York C i t y . He threw up these c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n the face of an American a r t p u b l i c as yet unused to dada ges tu re . But the form of the works, which i s enmeshed w i t h the d e t a i l s of t h e i r making, and the method of cho ice (chance) ope ra t i ng i n the s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s , d i l u t e s t h e i r p o s s i b l e c r i t i c a l content , and made t h e i r acceptance more ready, once the f i r s t shocks wore o f f . They were a l l the more welcome when i t was understood, acknowledged or decided tha t these works were " c e l e b r a t i o n s " r a the r than c r i t i c i s m s . They may subvert our r ece i ved not ions of a r t (at one t ime, anyway), but not our common sense understanding of l i f e , f o r the "open" or random compos i t ion a l s o reproduces an American ideo logy which only r e a l l y operates on a s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l . Th i s " c e l e b r a t o r y " v e r s i o n of Rauschenberg 's a r t ' s content has been a c on s i s t en t theme i n c r i t i c i s m of h i s work i n the 1970s as w e l l ; the i d e n t i t y of the e a r l y and l a t e c r i t i c i s m , i n view of the d i f f e r e n c e between the e a r l y and the present work ( the l a t t e r is^ more s imply c e l e b r a t o r y ) , i s what i n t e r e s t s us here. A C l o s i n g C i r c l e The consensus tha t formed around Rauschenberg 's a r t , newly formed by 1963 but a l ready ge s t a t i n g s i nce 1961, and r e i n f o r c e d by the a r t i s t ' s success i n Europe the next year , was the one mainta ined ( rev i ved ? ) i n the 1970s, through the ups and downs of h i s c a r ee r . I t i s w i t h i n t h i s context that the s l i g h t e r works of the 1970s were c e l e b r a t e d , f o r a l though c r i t i c s were rev iew ing h i s l a t e s t i n the va r i ou s g a l l e r y e x h i b i t i o n s , they were, as they were when d i s cu s s i n g h i s 1976 r e t r o s p e c t i v e , r e a l l y t a l k i n g about h i s past a r t , t ha t on which h i s r e p u t a t i o n r e s t e d , and about tha t r epu -t a t i o n as i t had coa lesced i n those s i x years between h i s f i r s t show w i t h C a s t e l l i , and h i s tr iumph (and abandonment of p a i n t i n g ) i n 1964. Harold Rosenberg, w r i t i n g about the r e t r o s p e c t i v e i n The New Yorker i n 1977, a t t r i b u t e d the c l o s i n g of c r i t i c a l ranks around Rauschenberg i n the 1970s to an anx ie t y about the contemporary s t a t e of a r t , " t h e t h r ea t of running out of l i v i n g sources of masterworks[52] " , t ha t accompanied both the r i s e of conceptua l a r t and the s h r i v e l l i n g of the a r t market. Rauschenberg was promoted not so much because of h i s cu r ren t p roduc t i on , which was co loured f o r h imse l f and others by h i s past success, but because of the r e p u t a t i o n he had enjoyed a dozen years be fo re , which c r i t i c s and cu ra to r s were at tempt ing to r e v i v e . Kenneth Cout t s - Sm i th , i n a more genera l and su s ta ined polemic on the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of a r t i n the 1970s, wrote i n 1978 i n the Canadian a r t j o u r n a l C e n t e r f o l d (now Fuse) of the o s s i f i c a t i o n of a r t i n s t i t u t i o n s and of the market, as the former 52/ Haro ld Rosenberg, " Souven i r s of an Avant -Garde, " The New Yorker (16 May 1977), p. 128. f i r s t appropr i a ted the avant-garde, i t s works and heroes ( l i k e Rauschen-berg ) , then dec la red i t over, and as the a r t market c l o sed i t s doors of oppor tun i ty to most of the new a r t i s t s coming out of the a r t schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s . [ 5 3 ] Cout t s - Smi th be l i e ved tha t the pe r i od of " a l l i a n c e " of the a r t i n s t i t u -t i o n w i t h the avant-garde, a c t i n g as the l a t t e r ' s " support system", was no more than 15 years or so, the time i t took to f u l l y app rop r i a te the avant -garde ( f o r how can an avant-garde e x i s t w i t h no o p p o s i t i o n , and w i th no ba s i s f o r oppos i t i on ? [54 ] ) and to s a t i s f y the new a r t market tha t had opened up i n the l a t e 1950s.[55] We can observe t h i s process i n the case of Rauschenberg, whose works were very r a p i d l y bought up by museums and by the bourgeo i s i e as soon as he had a f f i l i a t e d w i t h a reputab le d e a l e r , and as the c r i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l apparatuses went i n t o gear to j u s t i f y h i s p roduct ion i n terms of the pas t , and to absorb i t i n t o i t s own framework of unders tand ing, as a " p o s i t i v e " accomplishment. In the 1970s, as the market s tagnated, as oppo s i t i o n to i t was expressed i n the form of conceptua l a r t , and as the museums had to reo rgan i ze and re t rench i n the face of i n f l a t i o n and governmental a u s t e r i t y programmes, i t was the e s t a b l i s h e d a r t i s t s who were looked to as some k ind of guarantee of s t a b i l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i f they were as " p o s i t i v e " as Rauschenberg was taken 53/ Kenneth Cou t t s - Sm i th , " A r t and S o c i a l T r an s f o rmat i on , " Cen te r - f o l d , v o l . 2 no. 4 ( A p r i l 1978), pp. 20-21. 54/ J e f f Wa l l has r e c e n t l y w r i t t e n a f i n e t h e o r e t i c a l a r t i c l e on the " d e a t h " of the avant-garde - i t s h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y , and the uses to which such a no t i on i s put (see b i b i l i o g r a p h y ) . 55/ Cout t s - Sm i th , pp. 19-20. to be, and as the best products of an h i s t o r i c a l e ra (of the avant-garde) that was now regarded as a c l o sed book. R e t r i e v a l i n the Sevent ies The " E a r l y E g y p t i a n " , " T a b l e t " , and "Py ramid " s e r i e s were v a r i a t i o n s on a "Cardboards " theme: re fuse mounted or assembled i n t o i c o n s . For example, the " E a r l y E gyp t i an " s e r i e s of c o n s t r u c t i o n s ( F i g . 8) c on s i s t ed o f , o f t e n , cardboard boxes covered i n a p l a i n , sandy substance used to d i s gu i s e t h e i r f e a tu re s . [ 56 ] The s i de f a c i n g the g a l l e r y w a l l was pa inted i n a b r i g h t co lou r tha t r e f l e c t e d on tha t w a l l , supp ly ing the work w i t h a ready-made aura, a l though i t s meaning was hidden (or r a t h e r , i t had no meaning: the aura of i con s was reproduced wi thout t h e i r c o n t e n t ) . A f a l s e mystery was c reated e n t i r e l y i n keeping w i t h the o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n of a r t to commodity s t a t u s . We, or Rauschenberg, make(s) a f e t i s h out of the o b j e c t , d i s t i n c t from (though s t i l l r e l a t e d to ) the type of a r t he made p r i o r to 1964. Whi le I c a n ' t agree w i t h Ro sa l i nd Krauss tha t the element of duree i n Rauschenberg 's e a r l i e r work redeems i t from commodity s t a t u s [ 5 7 ] , the complex i ty there makes i t much more than a s imple c e l e b r a t i o n of Amer i -cana, or the " j o y " of making a r t . In these ( f a l s e ) mys te r i e s , there i s none of t ha t comp lex i t y . In the years 1974-76 Rauschenberg came out w i t h a new type of work tha t no longer r e l i e d on the accumulat ion or r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e f u s e . I t c on s i s t ed of s e ve r a l s e r i e s of works, e n t i t l e d "Pages and Fuses " , "Hoar -56/ See the poem by Ed Dorn that forms the epigraph to t h i s essay. 57/ Krauss, p. 43. f r o s t s " and "Jammers". Where the s e r i e s of the e a r l y 1970s were " a e s t h e -t i c " arrangements of the o l d c a s t - o f f m a t e r i a l s , these were works i n f r a n k l y gorgeous f a b r i c s and papers. " H o a r f r o s t s " ( F i g . 9) was the important s e r i e s here. As C a l v i n Tomkins s a i d i n 1980, they were the f i r s t s a l a b l e Rauschenbergs s i nce the s i l k s c r e e n p a i n t i n g s of 1962-64[58] ( p r e -sumably he was not r e f e r r i n g to m u l t i p l e e d i t i o n s ) . " H o a r f r o s t s " a l s o r e f e r r e d back to Rauschenberg 's e a r l i e r work, not i n terms of m a t e r i a l s as d i d the prev ious s e r i e s , but by imagery. They were " l i k e " the s i l k -screen p a i n t i n g s , but now he used r e a l s i l k as the ground (foreground and background, f o r each " H o a r f r o s t " c on s i s t ed of s e v e r a l gauzy sheets l a i d over one another, w i t h corresponding l a y e r s of imagery impr i n ted on them). He a l s o made use of the t r a n s f e r process he had u t i l i z e d i n the drawings and l i t h o g r a p h s of the e a r l y 1960s, though i n a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d manner here. The c r i t i c s were, f o r the most p a r t , taken w i t h t h i s work, which they saw, i n va r i ou s f o rmu l a t i o n s , as " a seduct i ve accumulat ion of f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l s , o b j e c t s and images [59] " , " a diaphanous environment as seduc t i ve as a v e i l dance i n a Hollywood kasbah[60] " , " these gauzy webs of twen-t i e t h - c e n t u r y f a c t and f a n t a s y [ 6 1 ] " , and " r a v i s h i n g l y r i c i s m [ 6 2 ] " . Robert 58/ C a l v i n Tomkins, Off the W a l l : Robert Rauschenberg and the A r t  World of Our Time (Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1980), p. 295. 59/ Roberta Smith, "Robert Rauschenberg," Ar t forum, v o l . 13 no. 7 (March 1975), p. 66. 60/ P h i l i p Lar son, "Robert Rauschenberg," A r t s Magazine, v o l . 49 no. 8 ( A p r i l 1975), p. 78. 61/ F e n e l l a C r i c h t o n , "Robert Rauschenberg," A r t I n t e r n a t i o n a l , v o l . 19 no. 6 (June 15, 1975), p. 52. Hughes, a r t c r i t i c f o r Time, from whose a r t i c l e the l a s t phrase was e x t r a c t e d , read Rauschenberg 's new work as a k i nd of r e s u r r e c t i o n (not the f i r s t i n the ' 7 0 s ) : the t i t l e of Hughes' a r t i c l e was "Enfant t e r r i b l e at 50 . " I t was a t e l l i n g t i t l e , even though the image of the ou t s i de r sc rap ing away at a r t i s t i c norms no longer app l i ed to Rauschenberg; h i s combines had themselves become norms of a r t i n the meantime. Hughes could promote Rauschenberg as an aged "en fant t e r r i b l e " because he seemed to be t r y i n g out new media (though i n f a c t he was t u r n i n g to o l de r means he had abandoned ten years b e f o r e ) , and because they looked l i k e the o l d e r , more dar ing work he was known f o r (a l though the " H o a r f r o s t s " were noth ing of the s o r t ) . Or r a t h e r , they looked l i k e the memories c r i t i c s r e t a i ned of the o l d works, a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o a renewed c e l e b r a t o r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s oeuvre. The l a y e r i n g and m u l t i p l i c i t y of the imagery make the " H o a r f r o s t s " f a r l e s s comprehensible than the s i l k s c r e e n p a i n t i n g s were, and more pure ly s p e c t a c l e . Rauschenberg might as w e l l have been read ing h i s own pres s , f o r these works are the product of a more t r u l y " v e r nacu l a r g l ance [63 ] " than the combines and s i l k s c r e e n s ever were, or they are more pure ly so. For they cannot be read, they can only be admired or not , accepted or r e j e c t e d ; t ha t i s , they stand only on a e s t h e t i c m e r i t s , t ha t i s as a 62/ Robert Hughes, " En fant t e r r i b l e at 50 , " Time (January 27, 1975), p. 60. 63/ The t i t l e of B r i a n O 'Dohe r t y ' s a r t i c l e i n the September-October 1973 i s s ue of A r t i n America i s "Robert Rauschenberg and the Vernacu lar G l ance . " O 'Doherty here wrings some changes on Leo S t e i n b e r g ' s " R e f l e c -t i o n s on the S tate of C r i t i c i s m " (A r t fo rum, March 1972). Douglas Crimp has done the same more r e c e n t l y w i t h both S te inberg and O'Doherty (D. Crimp, "On the Museum's R u i n s , " i n the Summer 1980 i s s ue of Oc tober ) . commodity. Even though they are made of a m u l t i p l i c i t y of images, these blend i n t o each other f a r more than the ( r e l a t i v e l y ) autonomous images and ob jec t s of the e a r l i e r p a i n t i n g s . They are not , i n t ha t sense, very d i f f e r e n t from the other s ing le - image s e r i e s of the 1970s. Perhaps the process of imagemaking took over from the c o n s t i t u t i o n and r e c o n s t i t u t i o n of American l i f e and trauma tha t formed the heart of the combines and s i l k s c r e e n s . Now, these recent works only perform the same bana l i zed f u n c t i o n as the other contemporary works, i n s p i t e of the s u p e r f i c i a l complex i ty of t h e i r t r a n s f e r r e d images. The r i s e i n Rauschenberg 's c r i t i c a l f o r t une s , ever more remarked i n the years preceding the B i c e n t e n n i a l , took a c a l c u l a t e d leap w i t h h i s r e t r o -s pec t i v e at the Smithsonian i n 1976. There were major a r t i c l e s devoted to the show and to Rauschenberg as a p e r s o n a l i t y by Douglas Dav i s i n Newsweek, Robert Hughes i n Time, Benjamin Forgey and John Gruen i n Artnews, J e f f Perrone i n Ar t forum, Barbara Rose i n Vogue, Char le s Stuckey i n A r t i n America, and by Harold Rosenberg i n The New Yorker , w i t h cover s t o r i e s i n Time, Artnews, Artforum and A r t i n America. These were a l l major spreads, even i n the newsweekl ies, and w i t h the d i s s e n t i n g excep-t i o n s of Perrone and Rosenberg, they were i d e n t i c a l i n sentiment and i n argument. John Gruen s a i d a l ready i n February 1977, before the r e t r o -s pec t i v e had opened at the Museum of Modern A r t : Judging by the e x h i b i t i o n ' s press coverage Rauschenberg has emerged as Amer i ca ' s most noteworthy and newsworthy a r t i s t - an enfant t e r r i b l e who has come of age, and whose c o n t r i b u t i o n to the ethos of contemporary a r t has p laced him i n the f o r e f r o n t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l acceptance and r e cogn i t i o n . [ 6 4 ] The p e r s o n a l i t y of Rauschenberg was t r e a t ed as much as the works i n h i s e x h i b i t i o n , i n accord w i t h h i s s t a tu s as a s t a r and as a commodity i n h i s own r i g h t . As J e f f Perrone remarked, Rauschenberg had been k i t s c h e d and appropr i a ted by Time, as he h imse l f had p r e v i ou s l y appropr i a ted media imagery.[65] The a r t i c l e s by Hughes, Rose and Gruen were pure p e r s o n a l i t y p i e c e s , p u b l i c i t y p r o f i l e s f o r the Smithsonian and MoMA. The Time cover ( F i g . 10) which f ea tu red Rauschenberg was, i n a way, t y p i c a l : i t d i sp l ayed a p i c t u r e of the a r t i s t s tand ing before some of h i s works, w i t h the t i t l e "Rauschenberg by Rauschenberg" below, as i f the a r t i s t was h imse l f h i s most important c r e a t i o n , and as i f he was f u l l y i n c o n t r o l of h i s l i f e and career i n a t y p i c a l l y expans ive, American way. I t a l s o , of course, r e f e r r e d to the au t ob i o g r aph i c a l content so many found i n Rauschenberg 's a r t , and to h i s tendency to work i n s e r i e s , as i f the works were a po s t -modernist ex tens ion/expres s ion of h i s l i f e . In the top r i g h t corner of the Time cover was w r i t t e n "The Joy of A r t " which, w i t h the d e s c r i p t i v e term "exuberance " , was repeated end le s s l y i n the coming months and a r t i c l e s . That phrase, " t h e joy of a r t " , a l s o i n co rpo ra ted the ideo logy s u r -rounding Rauschenberg 's p roduct ion that had been promoted a l ready by Hughes and others i n the preceding year s . Benjamin Forgey c on t r i bu ted h i s ante to the myth-making i n h i s remarks f o r Artnews: 64/ John Gruen, "Robert Rauschenberg: An audience of one, " Artnews, v o l . 76 no. 2 (February 1977), p. 44. 65/ J e f f Per rone, "Robert Rauschenberg," Ar t forum, v o l . 15 no. 6 (February 1977), p. 27. 39 Rauschenberg 's great e f f o r t has been to juxtapose t h i n g s , c on -t e x t s , concepts from the e x t e r n a l wo r ld , making a new context and new r e a l i t y i n the p l a y f u l p o e t i c , p a r adox i c a l i n t e r i o r d ia logue tha t has been h i s a r t . H i s work i n i t s e n t i r e t y i s h i s most amazing, amusing and moving c o l l a g e , a cont inuous, ongoing process of adjustment between ques t ion and answer, un rea l and r e a l , a r t and l i f e . [ 6 6 ] L i k ew i s e , P h i l i p Smith, w r i t i n g i n A r t s Magazine two months l a t e r , s a i d ( i n a somewhat m y s t i f y i n g t e x t ) : Robert Rauschenberg cont inues to set and work toward seemingly una t t a i nab l e and as yet unes tab l i shed goa l s . The ex i s t ence of an a r t i s t f u l l y r e a l i z i n g i n t e n t i o n and p o t e n t i a l i s not only o ve r -whelming and humbling but t r u l y a s t o n i s h i n g . H i s p r o l i f i c n e s s stems from h i s r e a c t i o n to and re spect f o r our expansive and b o u n t i f u l c i v i l i z a t i o n as w e l l as the unique worth and importance of each i n d i v i d u a l i n the c r e a t i o n and advancement of every human community.[67] These remarks, ha rd l y c r i t i c i s m s , are cont ingent on the read ing of Rauschenberg 's work a l ready developed i n prev ious a r t i c l e s , which was complemented by Walter Hopps' arrangement of the r e t r o s p e c t i v e to resemble a r i n g of achievement, c i r c l i n g backwards and forwards i n a harmonious c o n t i n u i t y . The spec ta to r began h i s/her tour w i t h Rauschenberg 's most recent p roduct i on s , the l a r g e Rodeo Pa lace i n s t a l l a t i o n , the "Jammers" and the " H o a r f r o s t s " , and worked h i s or her way backwards to the e a r l i e s t white p a i n t i n g s . And because Rauschenberg never e n t i r e l y repeats h imse l f , he f i g u r e s as one who i s always t rans fo rming h i s work w i t h i n t h i s con -t i n u i t y t ha t i s as much h i s l i f e as h i s a r t . There i s no account taken of the fundamental d i s j u n c t i o n between h i s a r t of the past and the present 66/ Benjamin Forgey, "An a r t i s t f o r a l l decades, " Artnews, v o l . 76 no. 1 (January 1977), p. 36. 67/ P h i l i p Smith, "To and about Robert Rauschenberg," A r t s Magazine, v o l . 51 no. 7 (March 1977), p. 121. product ion which, as Perrone says, has no " f o r eg round " , i s only back-ground, deco ra t i on . [ 68 ] He i s thus sa fe as w e l l as i n t e r e s t i n g to the c r i t i c s ; as Rosenberg s a i d , he i s one whom c r i t i c s can r a l l y around i n these uns tab le t imes . [69] And P h i l i p Smith can see him not only as the B i c e n t e n n i a l a r t i s t , but as one f u l l y enshrouded i n the S ta r s ' n ' S t r i p e s . Rauschenberg i s a great argument f o r l i b e r a l democracy s imply by h i s r e a c t i o n to American l i f e , which i s i n t h i s read ing as i n so many an e n t i r e l y p o s i t i v e one. C a l v i n Tomkins, w r i t i n g i n the Canadian j o u r n a l Parachute, s t a ted s imply t ha t "Rauschenberg i s the American p o s s i b i l i t y i n a r t . [ 7 0 ] " Rauschenberg i n Vancouver The h i s t o r y of Rauschenberg 's e x h i b i t i o n s i n Vancouver dates back to 1967, when Doug Chr istmas f i r s t brought the a r t i s t to h i s Douglas G a l l e r y to d i s p l a y the " Boo s te r " s e r i e s of p r i n t s . I t i s most o f t en through the o f f i c e s of Chr istmas tha t Vancouver patrons have seen Rauschenberg 's work. The "Stoned Moon" s e r i e s of p r i n t s were shown at the Douglas G a l l e r y i n 1969; that year a l s o brought a more s u b s t a n t i a l Rauschenberg, Ax le (1964), to Vancouver as par t of the New York 13 e x h i b i t i o n organized by the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y . Rauschenberg 's a r t was not seen here aga in u n t i l 1973, when remakes of the e a r l i e s t whi te p a i n t i n g s were hung at Chr i s tmas ' 68/ Perrone, p. 31. 69/ Rosenberg, p. 128. 70/ C a l v i n Tomkins, "Robert Rauschenberg," Parachute, no. 6 ( p r i n -temps 1977), p. 24. Ace G a l l e r y . Some of the " H o a r f r o s t s " t r a v e l l e d here i n 1975, aga in to Ace, and i n 1976 Rauschenberg h imse l f a r r i v e d , f o r the f i r s t t ime s i nce that o r i g i n a l 1967 show, to choose the m a t e r i a l s and superv i se the sewing of some of the "Jammers" (he d i d the same f o r h i s Ace shows i n Venice and L.A., and f o r the C a s t e l l i G a l l e r y i n New Yo rk [71 ] ) . These were, as a lways, shown at the Ace G a l l e r y , which had b u i l t a l a r ge r e p e r t o i r e of important American a r t i s t s . These e x h i b i t i o n s were he ld concu r ren t l y w i t h those i n C a l i f o r n i a and New York; Chr istmas had made a dea l w i t h C a s t e l l i and I l eana Sonnabend to d i v i d e the new product ion of t h e i r a r t i s t i c s t a b l e , or at l e a s t t ha t par t of i t which i n c l uded Rauschenberg (Chr istmas says i t comprised about ten a r t i s t s [ 7 2 ] ) , i n a r e g i o n a l d i v i s i o n or " t r u s t " , so that Chr istmas would ho ld a monopoly on new work f o r the West Coast, wh i l e C a s t e l l i would p l y the East Coast, and Sonnabend dea l i n Europe. The arrangement was to l a s t the du ra t i on of an e x h i b i t i o n , at the conc l u s i on of which each dea le r would be f r e e to s e l l h i s or her goods worldwide.[73] The next showing of Rauschenberg 's a r t i n Vancouver was the one which forms the ob jec t of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n : Robert Rauschenberg: Works from  C a p t i v a , he l d a t the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y i n September-October 1978. I t was, i n terms of i t s concept ion , not very d i f f e r e n t from the other e x h i b i -t i o n s of new work shown at Ace, f o r these were works i n Rauschenberg 's new 71/ "A Conversat ion between Robert Rauschenberg and Ar thur P e r r y , " Artmagazine, v o l . 10 no. 41 (November/December 1978), p. 32. 72/ Joan Lowndes, "Ace: The West Coast C a s t e l l i , " Vanguard, v o l . 6 no. 3 ( A p r i l 1977), p. 7. 73/ I b i d . " Spreads " ( w a l l - p i e c e s ) and " S c a l e s " ( f r e e - s t a n d i n g s cu l p tu re s ) s e r i e s ; t ha t i s , they were s imply par t of Rauschenberg 's l a t e s t f a l l c o l l e c t i o n , the m a j o r i t y of which had been made i n the s i x weeks preceding the opening. One important d i s t i n c t i o n , however, was that they were premiered at a p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n r a t he r than at a commercial g a l l e r y - and so rendered, as Kenneth Coutt s -Smi th would say, i n s t a n t l y i n t o a r t h i s -to ry [74] ( a t l e a s t i n l o c a l te rms ) . And t h i s was a p u b l i c event; the crowds, i f one cou ld c a l l them t h a t , a t Ace were always t h i n , f o r C h r i s t -mas conceived h i s g a l l e r y not as a p u b l i c space but as a showroom f o r the l uxu ry l i n e s of a r t . Ace was a p lace f o r cognoscent i , not even f o r a r t i s t s . [ 7 5 ] On the other hand, the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y went out of i t s way to promote the Rauschenberg e x h i b i t i o n as a proper s p e c t a c l e , even though the number of works i n i t was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y h igher than at an Ace show ( there were 14 l a r ge p ieces shown at VAG and, e . g . , 13 "Hoar -f r o s t s " at Ace i n 1975)[76]. A r t Per ry wrote l a t e r than " the expecta t i ons and hype were u n p a r a l l e l e d . The VAG was p re sent ing i t s e l f as the proper h e i r to the c o u r t h o u s e . . . . [ 7 7 ] " There were, f o r Vancouver, ra re previews of Works from Cap t i va i n The P r ov i n ce , The Vancouver Sun, and Vancouver  Magazine, and Mac lean ' s covered i t i n i t s October 8 i s s u e . The G a l l e r y 74/ Cout t s - Smi th , pp. 20-21. 75/ Lowndes po i n t s out t h a t , s i nce the time Chr istmas dropped Canadians from h i s s t a b l e , few l o c a l a r t i s t s went there (Lowndes, p. 7 ) . 76/ A r t Pe r r y , " ' A n a r t e x h i b i t t ha t i s a s t o u n d i n g ' , " The Prov ince (June 13, 1975), p. 37. 77/ A r t Pe r r y , "Welcome back, Mr. R.," The Prov ince (November 13, 1980). cou ld count to a great extent on the exposure from the Smithsonian r e t r o s p e c t i v e , which had t r a v e l l e d to New York, B u f f a l o , San F ranc i s co and Chicago, and which had j u s t concluded e a r l i e r i n 1978, as p u b l i c i t y f o r i t s e l f and f o r t h i s e x h i b i t i o n i t was mounting; t h i s was a c a l c u l a t e d ges tu re , a r i s i n g out of the fame r e c e n t l y accorded Rauschenberg as a p e r s o n a l i t y , and out of the p o s i t i v e read ing of h i s work tha t had e s p e c i a l l y been embel l i shed i n the preceding year s . Luke Rombout, i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to the cata logue f o r the e x h i b i t i o n , r e f e r r e d to the Smithsonian r e t r o s p e c t i v e , as he saw i n these new p ieces a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of a l l t ha t Rauschenberg had accomplished u n t i l t h i s t ime: S t i l l i n the s t u d i o , I r e f l e c t e d on the f a c t t ha t i n s p i t e of the major achievements conta ined i n h i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e e x h i b i t i o n which toured the Un i ted S ta tes l a s t year , I was conf ronted w i t h a f unda -mental f u r t h e r i n g and a r t i c u l a t i o n of h i s v i s u a l vocabu la ry . I sensed an i n c r e a s i n g ref inement and e legance, as w e l l as new i n ven t i on s - and I concluded tha t the r i gorousness app l i ed to h i s work over the l a s t twenty years or so had cu lminated i n these new works. Exuding s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , that k i nd of sureness or Tightness of touch, was mani fest i n every p iece i n t ha t s t u d i o . I t was, s imply , some of h i s most impres s i ve work I had seen to date.[78] "The s u r p r i s e about Rauschenberg 1 s work, " he s a i d , " i s always the measure of magic which surrounds them.[79] " On the other hand, f o r many of the c r i t i c s who reviewed the show, the aura was unaccountably absent. Unan i -mously, they agreed on the worth of Rauschenberg 's past a r t . A r t Per ry wrote t h a t , i n the pas t , "Rauschenberg showed us that not on ly ^an a r t and 78/ Luke Rombout, "Works from Cap t i v a I s l a n d , " i n t r o d u c t i o n to Robert  Rauschenberg: Works from Cap t i va (Vancouver: The Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , 1978), n.p. 79/ I b i d . 44 l i f e l i v e together but they can a l s o c e l e b r a t e t o g e t h e r . [ 8 0 ] " He had a l s o w r i t t e n i n 1977: Rauschenberg has the importance, respect and t a l e n t to draw a s c a t t e r ed a r t p u b l i c back i n t o mainstream a r t involvement. H i s appeal i s popular enough (cou ld you imagine a Time cover s to ry on a M i n i m a l i s t such as Judd or Andre?) to t u rn contemporary a r t aga in i n t o a forum f o r mass p u b l i c i n t e r a c t i o n . [ 8 1 ] And he had g iven e f f u s i v e p r a i s e to Rauschenberg 's " H o a r f r o s t s " and-"Jammers" at t h e i r p rev ious Ace e x h i b i t i o n s . But he was unquest ionably d i sappo in ted w i t h these new works i n 1978: "Something i s unavoidably absent from these new work s , [ 82 ] " he s a i d . He wrote f u r t h e r : P e r s o n a l l y , I f e e l Rauschenberg i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y forma-l i z e d and " s u r f a c e " to the po in t of l o s i n g any toughness or t en s i on i n h i s a r t . The rough edge has seemingly l e f t Rauschenberg 's a r t , and h i s b e a u t i f u l e s t h e t i c elegance has taken over. [83] Th i s was a common c r i t i c i s m , perhaps i n response to the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s bu i ldup p r i o r to the show as much as to the works themselves, f o r Per ry admired the 1980 " C l o i s t e r s " works much more when they were e x h i b i t e d at Ace, de sp i t e the l a c k of any app rec i ab l e d i f f e r e n c e between those and the 1978 works.[84] Per ry was too much the u n c r i t i c a l admirer of Rauschen-berg ' s past p roduct ion to see tha t the s i t u a t i o n he was remarking on had p r e v a i l e d f o r a very long t ime before he became aware of i t . H i s comments 80/ A r t Pe r r y , "Rauschenberg meets standard i n e x h i b i t i o n , " The  P rov ince (September 22, 1978), p. 14 (my emphasis). Mr. Perry here d i s p l a y s h i s u sua l o r i g i n a l t h i n k i n g . 81/ A r t P e r r y , "Robert Rauschenberg 's t ime has come at l a s t , " The  P rov ince (February 3, 1977), p. 11. 82/ Per ry (1978), p. 14. 83/ I b i d . 84/ Per ry (1980). on Rauschenberg 's c apac i t y to induce a p u b l i c involvement w i t h a r t r e s ted on premises the a r t i s t had abandoned i n the 1960s, f o r Per ry cons idered that Rauschenberg 's use of everyday ob jec t s made a p u b l i c communion w i t h h igh a r t p o s s i b l e . Andrew S c o t t , a l though he l i k e d the p ieces at VAG w e l l enough, c o u l d n ' t shake h i s s k ep t i c i sm about the nature of the whole p roduc t i on : Does t h i s k i nd of "wor ld p remie re " , w i t h i t s at tendant r a z z l e -d a z z l e , o f f e r Vancouver audiences something they r e a l l y need, or i s i t s imply s t a t u s - g a t he r i n g f o r the g a l l e r y and i t s s t a f f ? [ 8 5 ] In terms of the work i t s e l f , S co t t wrote t ha t " t h e su r face d e t a i l s of Rauschenberg 's works are f r o t h y , a l i g h t - h e a r t e d c a r n i v a l of c o l o r and madhouse m i r r o r s . [ 8 6 ] " Whi le t h i s was a d e s c r i p t i o n and not an intended c r i t i c i s m - f o r S co t t reserved h i s c r i t i q u e f o r the apparatus surrounding the e x h i b i t i o n - i t remained one f o r Perry and f o r o thers who reviewed the show. Rauschenberg was f o r R.M. Campbel l , an a r t c r i t i c from S e a t t l e , merely a " b r i l l i a n t t e c h n i c i a n " ; Campbell missed " t he heat of gen ius " t ha t so many des i red . [87 ] Rauschenberg 's were w e l l - c r a f t e d , processed works, made l a r g e l y by s t ud i o a s s i s t a n t s , w i t h no e x p l i c i t f a c t u r e remaining to connect the a r t i s t w i t h h i s product . They had become more c oncep tua l i z ed , or a t l e a s t d i s tanced from the person of the a r t i s t , even though there was no s t reng th of ideas i n the works. David MacWil l iam noted i n Vanguard, as had J e f f 85/ Andrew S c o t t , "Rauschenberg ho lds up a m i r r o r to our t i m e s , " The  Vancouver Sun (September 8, 1978). 86/ I b i d . 87/ R.M. Campbel l , "Rauschenberg - The Joy of F a c i l e Beauty , " The  S e a t t l e P o s t - I n t e l l i g e n c e r (25 September 1978). Perrone p r e v i o u s l y , t ha t the images r e t r e a t e d behind the s t y l e of the works, behind t h e i r g l a ze s , m i r r o r s and pa t te rn s . [ 88 ] Many of the p ieces Rauschenberg and h i s a s s i s t a n t s cons t ruc ted f o r the e x h i b i t i o n d i s p l a yed the same pa raphe rna l i a as h i s combine-pa in t ings . However, i n the 1950s the cho i ce of ob jec t s was based on the ope ra t i on of chance, as Rauschenberg roamed through the a l l e y s search ing out junk to add to h i s assemblages. In 1978, he returned to the same type of o b j e c t , i . e . t i r e s , p a i l s , parachutes, wheels and q u i l t s , but , except ing the q u i l t s , they were bought new; they are as unblemished (and a n t i s e p t i c ) as the c on s t r u c t i on s to which they are a t tached . Far from i t being the ope ra t i on of chance tha t dec ides t h e i r i n c l u s i o n , the ob jec t s r e f e r back to Rauschenberg 's e a r l i e r work, c a n n i b a l i z i n g i t f o r themes and images. Th i s i s p a r t l y due, no doubt, to Rauschenberg 's involvement w i t h h i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e . Whether the a r t i s t i s p u t t i n g us on i s a moot p o i n t ; h i s p rev ious work o f t e n had an edge of humour d i r e c t e d aga in s t i t s audience. A l s o , the s l i c k n e s s of the p re sen ta t i on here means that i t i s hard to get around or under the su r face of the works i n que s t i on . The e a r l i e s t p i e ce s , t oo , were o f t en impenetrab le , t h e i r imagery and i t s arrangement o f t e n a c t i n g as a p r i v a t e code - or seeming to - f o r a l i m i t e d audience to understand. The "Spreads " and " S c a l e s " d on ' t appear at f i r s t to have t h i s code. At the l e a s t , i t s use has degenerated, an automatic rep lay of modernist d i s j u n c t i v e p r a c t i c e , but w i t h an a f f i r m a t i v e content . The pa raphe rna l i a a s soc i a ted w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n s - wheels, t i r e s , p a i l s , 88/ David MacWi l l i am, " C a p t i v a Reviewed: A S c ru t i ny of S t y l e , " Van- guard , v o l . 7 no. 7 (October 1978), p. 11. e t c . - which once seemed obsess ive i n t h e i r r e p e t i t i o n , now seem merely-r e p e t i t i o u s . Th i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r ue i n l i g h t of t h e i r " r e v i v a l " a f t e r a 15 year h i a t u s , one tha t was co -ex ten s i ve w i t h Rauschenberg 1 s r e v i v a l of some other of h i s o l d means, such as the t r a n s f e r p rocess . There are two approaches one may take towards the "Spreads " and " S c a l e s " . The e a r l i e r combines and s i l k s c r e e n p a i n t i n g s o f t e n seemed to have a " p o e t i c s " of r e f e rence , even i f i t was not immediately e v i den t , or i f i t was q u i t e l i t e r a l l y broken up, as i n the c o l l a g i n g of p a r t i a l images or broken phrases and words. In the 1978 p i e ce s , due i n par t to the s u r f e i t of images, and to the impenetrable nature of the s u r f a ce , i t can seem impos s ib le to read or to a s s o c i a t e the images i n any manner whatso-ever . The code has e i t h e r become jso p r i v a t e as to not even g i ve h i n t s or c l u e s , or i t has c o l l a p s e d : there i s no code, no "meaning" , only a deco ra t i ve p a t t e r n of images. Yet a t t e n t i o n to the s cu l p t u r e s and w a l l - p i e c e s i n d i c a t e s tha t t h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the case; the sheeny su r faces h ide a content that can be qu i t e l e g i b l e . For example, the su r face of Golden Grebe ( F i g . 11) i s f u l l of images of f l i g h t , i n a d d i t i o n to the p a r a c h u t e - l i k e c on t r ap t i on f i x e d to i t s s i d e , which r e c a l l s so many l i k e dev ices from the 1954 Char lene on. The images here are p l a ced , as a lways, i n g r i d s i n a "random" pa t t e rn a long the s u r f a c e . At the top l e f t , the image i s repeated of a r o l l e r -coas te r car at the top of i t s a r c , and then j u s t beg inn ing to descend, i n i m i t a t i o n of the d i v i n g grebe, whose image i s reproduced i n two set s on the pane l s . Other images a s s o c i a t e themselves w i t h these: geese i n f l i g h t ; a horse i n f u l l g a l l o p on a r a c e t r a c k ; a rubber r a f t and a motorboat on the water; a g l a s s of water; a winged e f f i g y upon a monument; the r e p r o -duc t i on of what might be a long beak or tu sk , l i k e t ha t of the longbeaked grebe; a j e t i n f l i g h t ; a g l i d e r ; a radar i n s t a l l a t i o n . They can be l i n k e d a n a l o g i c a l l y to the image of the watery b i r d . Some of the imagery i n Golden Grebe i s a l l u s i v e l y s e xua l : the c and l e -s t i c k next to the f l ower s (w i th the f lowered f a b r i c nearby, upon which the arc of the r o l l e r coas te r i s p r i n t e d ) ; the g l a s s of water, a longs tand ing symbol i n Rauschenberg 's oeuvre; and the co lou r wheel/parachute attached to the edge, w i t h a pa i n t brush p ro t rud ing from i t s s i d e . The connect ion of f l i g h t and submersion i n the ob jec t of the golden grebe i s l a r g e l y s exua l , a t r a i t or content of so much of Rauschenberg 's output . In h i s e a r l i e r work, the sexua l content was a s soc i a ted w i t h urban imagery, t ha t i s w i t h g r i t and r e f u s e , f r u s t r a t i o n and ma la i se . Now, s e x u a l i t y i s l i n k e d w i t h nature and n a t u r a l images, w i t h the sun (the co lou r of the golden grebe i s reproduced i n the ye l l ow patches) - the works are much more s imply a f f i r m a t i v e and h e d o n i s t i c . Soc ie ty as i t i s l i v e d d a i l y i s i n a sense bypassed here, a l though images of technology remain. But the technology tha t i s reproduced i s more e x o t i c than tha t normal ly used i n everyday l i f e : j e t s , yacht s , s a t e l l i t e d i shes . What i s used and d i s ca rded , what formed the elements of the combines, f i n d s l e s s of a p l a c e , at l e a s t i n t h i s work. The sex -na tu re -p lea su re analogy i s a l s o produced i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d means, bypass ing the s o c i a l content of h i s e a r l i e r work i n t h i s l i b e r a l nature- techno logy f u s i o n . Another p iece i n the VAG e x h i b i t i o n , e n t i t l e d So la r Tr ibune J r . ( F i g . 12), r e c a l l s i n i t s t i t l e and imagery the 1959 G i f t f o r A p o l l o ( F i g . 13). So la r Tr ibune J r . i s a w a l l - p i e c e to which th ree podia ( t r i bune s ? ) are a t tached, d i v i d i n g the work i n t o two p a r t s . On top of the podia r e s t three p a i l s , each w i t h a l i g h t e d bulb hover ing j u s t i n s i d e i t s l i p . The G i f t f o r  Apo l l o a l s o had a p a i l , a t tached w i t h a cha in to the " c h a r i o t " t ha t was Rauschenberg 's g i f t . In the e a r l i e r work the p a i l , l i k e the c h a r i o t i t s e l f , was a b a t t e r e d , ugly ob jec t tha t was, a t the l e a s t , an i r o n i c , ambiguous t r i b u t e to the god of the sun and the a r t s . The p a i l , i n t h i s work, probably doubles as a l i b a t i o n cup, and as a p a i l t o douse the f i r e of the sun should i t get out of hand. I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t ha t the " g i f t " i s a double-edged comment on the a r t i s t ' s homosexual i ty , f o r Apo l l o was the f i r s t god to f a l l i n l o ve w i t h a member of h i s own sex. G i f t f o r Apo l l o i s ha rd l y a c e l e b r a t i o n of the " j o y of a r t " , but r a t he r a work of sexua l v i o l e n c e and f r u s t r a t i o n , c o n t r o l l e d or anchored i n t h i s case by the p a i l . S o l a r Tr ibune J r . , to a l l i n t e n t s the o f f s p r i n g of G i f t f o r A p o l l o , i n these product ions which so e x p l i c i t l y r e c a l l Rauschenberg 's p rev ious iconography, a l s o f un c t i o n s as an "homage" to the sun and to s e x u a l i t y , but i n t h i s case, as i n Golden Grebe, i n an e n t i r e l y a f f i r m a t i v e manner. The p a i l s w i t h t h e i r dang l ing bulbs are the most e x p l i c i t l y sexua l aspect of the " Sp read " , but much of the readable imagery r e l a t e s c l o s e l y to these o b j e c t s , which are the p o s i t i v e v e r s i o n of the ba t te red bucket i n G i f t . There are s e v e r a l images of ca r s ( c h a r i o t s ) , some w i t h t h e i r head l i g h t s on, as w e l l as other images of f l i g h t and movement, " randomly" reproduced on the su r face of the work. These i n c l u d e a skateboarder i n a c t i o n , the t a i l s of two l a r g e a i r p l a n e s , two t i g h t r o p e walkers i n the sky, and a h e l i c o p t e r i n f l i g h t . The blades of the h e l i c o p t e r are " l i k e " the p e t a l s of the f l ower reproduced below i t , or the ou t s t r e t ched arras of the skateboarder, and there are other images of growth as w e l l , such as f l ower s and a meadow ( f o r Apo l l o "made the f r u i t s of the ea r th to r i p e n " i n h i s aspect as the god of the sun). Above a car w i t h i t s l i g h t s on, a town c rea te s i t s own l i g h t at the f oo t of a mountain i n w i n t e r . There are the omnipresent spor t s images here as w e l l , p i c t u r e s of b a s e b a l l , f o o t b a l l and t e n n i s ( i n c l u d i n g B jo rn Borg i n a c t i o n ) . Tutan-khamen's c o f f i n a l s o makes i t s appearance, f o r the Tutankhamen e x h i b i t i o n was a l s o a popular and obvious media event i n the l a t e 1970s. The l i n kage i s made between mass c u l t u r e and h igh c u l t u r e most c l e a r l y at t h i s j u n c t u r e : h igh c u l t u r e as mass c u l t u r e . Rauschenberg 's own r e t r o s p e c t i v e ran concu r ren t l y w i t h the Tut e x h i b i t i o n i n p laces l i k e Chicago, and i t was a l s o , on i t s own terms, an enormously s u c c e s s f u l event, one tha t broke attendance records at the Smithsonian and at MoMA. Tut, then, may r e f e r to h i s own achievement a t t h i s t ime and to h i s own s t a tu s as a popular f i g u r e , i f h i s success was not q u i t e as stupendous as the mummy's. There may be, then, at l e a s t two s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l s of meaning opera t ing i n So la r Tr ibune J r . One i s the a f f i r m a t i o n and connect ion of sexua l a c t i v i t y , growth, movement and l i g h t . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , l i g h t has been connected to reason, and reason i s a l s o an a t t r i b u t e of A p o l l o . Although Tr ibune r e f e r s back to G i f t f o r Apo l l o i n i t s iconography, con sc i ou s l y plucked from the works i n the 1976 r e t r o s p e c t i v e , i t had shed the negat ive connotat ions the e a r l i e r s cu l p t u re r a i s e s . The second l e v e l of meaning a t work i s r e l a t e d through the spor t s f i g u r e s , but r a i s e s more the ques t ion of the s t a t u s of Rauschenberg as an a r t i s t . I t i s the r e l a t i o n of mass c u l t u r e and h igh cu l tu re -as -mass c u l t u r e that i n t e r e s t s him here, and h i s own al ignment as an a r t i s t i n t e r e s t e d i n mass phenomena and w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y mass appea l , who i s f e t ed i n Time and Newsweek, as w e l l as i n the a r t magazines. Thus A r t Per ry was c o r r e c t to say tha t Rauschenberg was one of the few a r t i s t s who cou ld b r i n g the p u b l i c back i n t o an i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a r t , whatever tha t e n t a i l e d [ 8 9 ] . However, to reach t h i s p o s i t i o n of i n f l u e n c e , to be ce l eb ra ted as the B i c e n t e n n i a l a r t i s t , Rauschenberg has had to f o r ge t h i s own past even as he i n co rpo ra te s the ob jec t s and some of the techn iques of h i s e a r l i e r p r a c t i c e . H i s a r t has become as c e l e b r a t o r y , as a f f i r m a t i v e , as h i s e a r l i e r work was purported to be by c r i t i c s i n the 1960s and ' 70s . He has become the ob jec t of h i s own pres s , and h i s new works have come to r e f l e c t t ha t f a c t : not only c e l e b r a t o r y , they have become as processed and s leek as American manufacture, the oppos i te of what h i s e a r l i e r output had been, w i t h i t s no i se and d i s t r e s s . In those days, even though or because he cou ld not express h imse l f d i r e c t l y , h i s work was f u l l of repressed rage and of the garbage thrown up by American s o c i e t y . That junk was the d a i l y s t u f f of the u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d , of what M ichae l Ha r r i ng ton c a l l e d then " t h e other Amer i ca " . The "Spreads " and " S c a l e s " d i s p l a y no such d i s c o r d , and as such they are the happy v e h i c l e s f o r the promotion of the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y de s i r ed by i t s d i r e c t o r and t r u s t e e s . 89/ Per ry (1980). 52 F i g u r e 1. C a s t e l l i S m a l l T u r t l e Bowl ("Cardboard"), 1971 Leo C a s t e l l i G a l l e r y ( p h o t o : S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n ) F i g u r e 2. ^GALS/AAPCO ("Cardboard"), 1971 C o l l e c t i o n the a r t i s t ( p hoto: S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n ) F i g u r e 3. S t u d i e s f o r C u r r e n t s #27, 1970 C o l l e c t i o n the a r t i s t ( p hoto: S t a a t l i c h e K u n s t h a l l e , B e r l i F i g u r e 5. Canyon, 1959 Anonymous c o l l e c t i o n , P a r i s ( p h o t o : H a r r y N. Abrams, New Y o r k ) F i g u r e 6. C r o c u s , 1962 Leo C a s t e l l i G a l l e r y ( photo: S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n ) F i g u r e 7. Monogram, 1955-59 Moderna Museet, Stockholm ( p h o t o : H a r r y N. Abrams, New Y o r k ) 59 F i g u r e 8. Contemporanea ( " E a r l y E g y p t i a n S e r i e s " ) , 1973 Leo C a s t e l l i G a l l e r y ( photo: S t a a t l i c h e K u n s t h a l l e , B e r l i n ) F i g u r e 9. S y b i l ( " H o a r f r o s t " ) , 1974 C o l l e c t i o n the a r t i s t ( p hoto: S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n ) Time c o v e r (29 November 1976) ( p h o t o : Time) 62 F i g u r e 11. Golden Grebe ( " S c a l e " ) , 1978 C o l l e c t i o n the a r t i s t ( p hoto: Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y ) 63 F i g u r e 12. S o l a r T r i b u n e J r . ("Spread"), 1978 C o l l e c t i o n the a r t i s t ( p hoto: Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y ) F i g u r e 13. G i f t f o r A p o l l o . 1959 Dr. Giuseppe Panza, M i l a n ( p h o t o : H a r r y N. Abrams, New Y o r k ) 65 CHAPTER 2 THE VANCOUVER ART GALLERY 1966-74: SUCCESS AND FAILURE The h i s t o r y of the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y can be d i v i ded i n t o two phases: the s t r i c t l y c i v i c pe r i od from i t s founding i n 1931 u n t i l the e a r l y 1960s; and a more ambit ious p e r i o d , when i t began to r e ce i ve l a r ge i n j e c t i o n s of cash from the f e d e r a l government, from the 1960s ' t i l the p resent . The comp lex i t i e s of the second p e r i o d , which bear most d i r e c t l y on today, are what I want t o d i s cu s s here . There are two phases of t h i s p e r i o d , which correspond roughly to the tenures of VAG's two most recent d i r e c t o r s , Tony Emery and Luke Rombout (and to contemporaneous changes i n f e d e r a l government p o l i c y ) , which made one or another p o l i c y more or l e s s a ccep tab le . I would l i k e f i r s t to d i s cus s the t r a n s i t i o n from a p a r o c h i a l i n s t i t u t i o n to a n a t i o n a l one, and the impera t i ve s t ha t caused i t . The Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y began, l i k e so many other c i v i c g a l l e r i e s , as an essay i n t o the c u l t u r a l l i f e of the c i t y by a group of concerned b u s i -nessmen, who r a i s e d the i n i t i a l c a p i t a l f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the b u i l d i n g and f o r the p r o v i s i o n of a s m a l l , A n g l o p h i l i a c a r t c o l l e c t i o n . [ 1 ] 1/ I n i t i a l l y , $130,000 was r a i s e d from p r i v a t e sources f o r t h i s purpose: $50,000 f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n and f u r n i s h i n g of the G a l l e r y , and $80,000 f o r the p r o v i s i o n of i t s c o l l e c t i o n . The s i t e was donated by the C i t y of Vancouver. The c h i e f o rgan i ze r of the c a p i t a l campaign, and the G a l l e r y ' s f i r s t p r e s i den t , was H.A. Stone, p re s ident of Gaul t B ro s . , a l a r g e drygoods who le sa l e r . Other l o c a l founders , who were i n the main merchants or u t i l i t i e s e xecu t i ve s , i n c l uded W.H. Mu r r i n , p re s ident of B.C. Power Corp. and B.C. E l e c t r i c (now B.C. Hydro) s i n ce 1929; Gordon F a r r e l l , p re s ident of B.C. Te l s i n ce 1928; Jonathan Rogers, a major c i t y deve loper ; W.H. M a l k i n , owner of M a l k i n ' s , the l a r g e s t food who lesa le r i n the c i t y , and mayor of Vancouver i n 1928-29; C h r i s Spencer, p re s ident of Spencer ' s (absorbed by Ea ton ' s i n 1949), one of Vancouver ' s th ree l a r ge department s t o r e s ; and Frank J . Burd, managing d i r e c t o r s i nce 1928 of The P rov i nce , As a p r i v a t e group of c i t i z e n s , the founders were ab le to ensure a c e n t r a l p lace f o r themselves i n the running of the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r many years to come, dominating the Execut i ve Committee of the VAG C o u n c i l u n t i l the e a r l y 1950s.[2] At the same t ime, the ce s s i on of b u i l d i n g , property and c o l l e c t i o n to the c i t y ensured tha t the founders would not be the only ones p r o v i d i n g f o r the opera t i on of the G a l l e r y i n p e r p e t u i t y ; the c i t y has always pa id a p o r t i o n of VAG's maintenance co s t s s i n ce then , though i t d i d not assume t h e i r f u l l burden (which i n 1981 amounted to $419,316 out of a t o t a l budget of $1,416,521)[3] i n p r i n c i p l e u n t i l 1966. For many years the G a l l e r y f unc t i oned on a v o l u n t a r i s t b a s i s , w i t h few pa id s t a f f ; the C o u n c i l and the Women's A u x i l i a r y prov ided most of the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the areas of e x h i b i t i o n , purchases, educat ion , events , and f u n d r a i s i n g . The VAG i n those years was a s t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n , w i t h which then Vancouver ' s l a r g e s t newspaper. H.A. Stone went to England w i t h Char le s S c o t t , p r i n c i p a l of the Vancouver School of A r t , to choose the works f o r the G a l l e r y ' s i n i t i a l c o l l e c t i o n , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y ' s d i r e c t o r . These were near l y a l l minor E n g l i s h works. (Sources: Tony Robertson, "The F i r s t F i f t y Years : The Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , 1931-1983", Vanguard (October 1983), p. 12; Canadian Who's Who, va r i ou s e d i t i o n s ) 2/ Stone, Mur r in and Ma l k i n shared the pres idency from 1931 to 1949, when i t was g iven over to a v i c e - p r e s i d e n t of M u r r i n ' s i n B.C. E l e c t r i c , Thomas Ingledow, who served as p re s ident from 1950 to 1958. Of the o r i g i n a l founders , F a r r e l l , Burd, Ma l k i n and Spencer were a l l a c t i v e i n G a l l e r y a c t i v i t i e s as l a t e as 1952 ( F a r r e l l u n t i l 1958). Accord ing to Vera Zo lbe rg , t h i s was the normal pa t t e rn f o r c i v i c a r t g a l l e r i e s i n t h e i r f i r s t , s em ip ro fe s s i ona l phase. Vera Zo lbe rg , " C o n f l i c t i n g V i s i o n s i n American Museums," Theory and S o c i e t y , v o l . 10 no. 1 (January 1981), p. 105. Z o l b e r g ' s a r t i c l e i s based on her t h e s i s about the A r t I n s t i t u t e of Chicago. See a l s o W i l l i a m S. Hendon's s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of the Akron A r t I n s t i t u t e , Ana l yz ing an A r t Museum (New York: Praeger , 1979), f o r a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n . 3/ The V ancouver Ar t G a l l e r y Annual Report 1981, n.p. i n t e r e s t e d amateurs remained f o r many year s . E x h i b i t i o n s were o f t en prov ided by other i n s t i t u t i o n s , l i k e the Na t i ona l G a l l e r y i n Ottawa, or were f i x e d events , such as the B.C. A r t i s t s ' Annual, the Vancouver School of A r t g raduat ing e x h i b i t i o n , or the B.C. Photography show; dur ing the 1955-56 season, f o r i n s t an ce , only $1,500 was budgeted f o r e x h i b i t i o n s of a t o t a l budget of $61,359.[4] The arrangement, as much s o c i a l as c u l t u r a l , began to break down i n the l a t e 1950s, when C o u n c i l was no longer ab le to r a i s e enough money to keep the i n s t i t u t i o n f u n c t i o n i n g . C i t y C o u n c i l would not r a i s e i t s c o n t r i b u -t i o n , which ranged from $25,000(1957) to $30,000 ( 1 9 6 1 ) - of a t o t a l budget which hovered around $100,000 i n these years [5] - so long as the G a l l e r y was understood to f u n c t i o n more as a c u l t u r e c lub f o r i t s member-sh ip than as a p u b l i c museum.[6] A pauc i t y of i n t e r e s t i n g or popular e x h i b i t i o n s s i nce the 1958 100 Years of B.C. A r t no doubt c on t r i bu ted to the c i t y ' s r e l u c t a n c e , a l a c k due as much to d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and l a c k of 4/ The Vancouver Ar t G a l l e r y Annual Report 1955-56. 5/ 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 To t . Revs. $86,255 $89,310 $101,123 $98,043 $121,146 $101,232 C i t y 25,000 25,000 27,000 30,000 30,000 45,500 C.C. - 11,000 13,500 10,000 5,200 4,000 Members 29,500 33,556 47,973 45,705 42,823 32,309 (Source: VAG Annual Report s , 1957-62. A d d i t i o n a l revenues from p r i v a t e foundat ions and from admiss ions, not i n c l uded i n t h i s t a b l e , made up the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o t a l revenue.) 6/ "How ' Showbiz ' saved a Dying A r t G a l l e r y , " Mac lean ' s v o l . 78 no. 14 (24 J u l y 1965), p. 48. imag ina t i on as to a dearth of funds. [7] Although the VAG Counc i l r a i s e d a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of donat ions from the members dur ing these yea r s [ 8 ] , i t was not enough to t u rn a s ide the t h rea t of bankruptcy, which was looming by 1962. The response to t h i s s i t u a t i o n was expans ion. "Expand or d i e . " R ichard Simmins was h i r e d as a d i r e c t o r to b r i n g more showmanship to the G a l l e r y , which he d i d i n the few years of h i s tenure , w i t h the Nude i n A r t e x h i b i -t i o n , a sma l l but i n t e n s e l y popular King Tut e x h i b i t i o n , and e x h i b i t i o n s of contemporary a r t from eas tern Canada, which were a nove l ty f o r VAG. With the tremendous i nc rea se i n attendance, which t r i p l e d from 1962 to 1965 - Tut a lone drew 78,000 i n 1965[9] - C i t y Counc i l was i n s p i r e d t o c o n t r i b u t e a l a r g e r sum to the G a l l e r y ' s expenses on a con t i nu i ng b a s i s , and the G a l l e r y ' s s ho r t - te rm f u t u r e , at l e a s t , looked more ro sy . VAG C o u n c i l had always represented i t s e l f as an a l l i a n c e of Vancouver ' s bus iness and p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s e s w i t h i t s a r t i s t i c community, w i th a r t i s t s , of course, always the j u n i o r pa r tne r . [ 10 ] With the except ion of 7/ The G a l l e r y ' s f i r s t o f f i c i a l d i r e c t o r , W i l l i a m Da le , was h i r e d i n 1959, but dur ing h i s tenure both s t a f f r e l a t i o n s and those w i t h area a r t i s t s were qu i t e bad ( t h i s was even noted i n 1962 's annual r e p o r t ) . The arrangement d i d not work out to anyone ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n , and Dale l e f t i n 1961. 8/ See Note 5. These t a i l e d o f f a f t e r 1961, as can be seen from the t a b l e . P r i v a t e donat ions were unusua l l y h igh dur ing the pe r i od of the f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s , due t o a f u n d r a i s i n g d r i v e among the members. Usual membership fees and donat ions were c . $30,000 annua l l y u n t i l the mid-1970s. 9/ Mac lean ' s (24 J u l y 1965), p. 49. 10/ A r t i s t s Char le s S c o t t , Cha r le s Marega, John Vanderpant and Ross Lo r t were among the f i r s t e l e c t e d t r u s t e e s , and Jock Macdonald, W.P. Weston, Nan Cheney and Lawren H a r r i s sat on Counc i l dur ing the 1930s and '40s ( H a r r i s d i r e c t e d the G a l l e r y ' s e x h i b i t i o n schedule from the e a r l y 69 the Koerner f a m i l y , l o c a l patrons of the a r t s had not brought any great degree of a e s t h e t i c knowledge or c u l t u r a l ambi t ion to t h e i r p h i l a n t h r o p i c du t i e s w i t h VAG; t h i s was a fundamental ly s o c i a l r e l a t i o n , i n the sense tha t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a t VAG were not d i f f e r e n t i n k i nd from t h e i r du t i e s f o r the h o s p i t a l s or c h a r i t i e s . They were a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the l ead i ng r o l e of Vancouver°s r u l i n g c l a s s i n a l l aspects of community l i f e . When, however, the t r a d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the G a l l e r y and i t s patrons began to break down i n the l a t e ' 5 0 s [ l l ] , VAG's o f f i c e r s were o b l i g e d , i n order to cont inue to f i nance the G a l l e r y ' s a c t i v i t i e s , to t u r n to a source which promised much: the Canada C o u n c i l - which had earmarked some funds f o r VAG s i nce 1958, but which was bent on i t s own l a r g e s c a l e expansion as i t s o l i c i t e d , and won, supplementary moneys from Par l i ament to complement i t s l i m i t e d endowment income. The Canada C o u n c i l ' s emphasis on " e x c e l l e n c e " , ad jud i ca ted by peers i n the va r i ou s c u l t u r a l and academic spheres which i t helped fund, meant i n p r a c t i c e a p r o f e s s i o n a l and cosmopol i tan c u l t u r e to which, say, the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y ' s programmes had only p a r t l y r e l a t e d i n the 1940s to the m i d - ' 5 0 s ) . However, a r t i s t s ' r ep re sen ta t i on had d e c l i n e d by the e a r l y 1960s, so tha t a f t e r Sam B lack and Fred Amess f i n i s h e d t h e i r terms i n 1963, there were no a r t i s t s ' reps on Counc i l u n t i l Werner A e l l e n was e l e c t e d , on Tony Emery 's a d v i c e , i n 1971. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t a r t i s t s ' presence on C o u n c i l from 1973 to 1976 - the year i n which th ree a r t i s t - t r u s t e e s r e s i gned . With the notab le except ion of H a r r i s , who was wealthy i n h i s own r i g h t , a r t i s t s were never granted execut i ve p o s i t i o n s except , b r i e f l y , dur ing the l a t e r years of Emery 's tenure . The Execu t i ve , which r e t a i n s C o u n c i l ' s i n f l u e n c e , has otherwise been f i l l e d by p r o f e s -s i o n a l and bus iness people (or t h e i r w i ve s ) . I t should be noted tha t most of the a r t i s t s who sat on Counc i l were a l s o a s soc i a ted w i th i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e U.B.C. or the Vancouver School of A r t . 11/ I speak here of the f i n a n c i a l arrangement, by which VAG's patrons t r a d i t i o n a l l y bore at l e a s t h a l f the cost of running t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n . past . [12] Where the p r o f e s s i o n a l t a i l e d i n t o the amateur - an unc lea r d i s t i n c t i o n i n a town l i k e Vancouver, which i n the 1950s had v i r t u a l l y no a r t market, and where only a handfu l of a r t i s t s were ab le even to teach -the Canada C o u n c i l was, at t ha t t ime, u n i n t e r e s t e d . The Canada Counc i l had, however, a n a t i o n a l mandate, i n the sense tha t i t was combatting the i n t r u s i o n of American mass c u l t u r e i n t o Canada ( e s p e c i a l l y w i t h the advent of t e l e v i s i o n ) , and where i t cou ld i t encouraged the emergence of a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t i c c u l t u r e - an endeavour i n which i t succeeded everywhere dur ing the 1960s.[13] There was, then , a j unc tu re i n the e a r l y 1960s between the needs of a c i v i c g a l l e r y which had chosen a new, h i g h e r - p r o f i l e route to s u r v i v a l , and a f e d e r a l government des i rous of an inc reased r o l e i n the n a t i o n ' s c u l t u r a l l i f e . The G a l l e r y ' s cho i ce meant tha t i t would have to seek out 12/ " E x c e l l e n c e " means, p r a c t i c a l l y speak ing, a b i a s towards funding the l a r g e r a r t s i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r gan i z a t i on s i n Canada 's urban cen t r e s ; t ha t i s , a tendency to exclude amateur and r e g i o n a l e f f o r t s , though t h i s b i a s was redressed somewhat w i t h the " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n " push i n government c u l t u r a l agencies i n the mid-1970s. Andre F o r t i e r , then-Canada C o u n c i l d i r e c t o r , j u s t i f i e d the b i a s by remarking t h a t , w i t h very l i m i t e d funds at i t s d i s p o s a l , the Canada C o u n c i l had no cho ice but to fund the " b e s t " (but what were the c r i t e r i a ? ) , i n the hope that t h i s would s t i m u l a t e a mature Canadian c u l t u r e . The Canada C o u n c i l i t s e l f agreed, i n a d i s c u s s i o n paper pub l i shed i n 1977, tha t a d e f i n i t i o n of " e x c e l l e n c e " was not a good i d e a , tha t i t s d e f i n i t i o n would emerge i n the p r a c t i c e of judg ing submiss ions -though i t admitted tha t i t s p o l i c i e s r e s u l t e d i n the concen t r a t i on of funds i n a few met ropo l i t an c en t r e s . See Andre F o r t i e r , "Dreams and Money: S u b s i d i z i n g the A r t s , " unpubl i shed Canada Counc i l mimeo (22 June 1973), p. 8; Twenty p lu s f i v e : A d i s c u s s i o n paper on the r o l e of the Canada Counc i l  i n the a r t s a f t e r the f i r s t t w e n t y - f i v e years (1957-1977), and over the  next f i v e (Ottawa: The Canada C o u n c i l , 1977), p. 8. See a l s o S.M. Crean, Who's A f r a i d of Canadian Cu l tu re ? (Don M i l l s , Ont.: Genera l P u b l i s h i n g , 1976), pp. 131-38. 13/ Report of the Fede ra l C u l t u r a l P o l i c y Review Committee (Ottawa: In fo rmat ion S e r v i c e s , Department of Communications, Government of Canada, 1982), p. 15; F o r t i e r , i b i d . new sources of income, which i t s revamped programme was, i n p a r t , meant to e l i c i t ; , a t the same t ime, the f e d e r a l government was r eo r gan i z i n g i t s c u l t u r a l agenc ies , w i t h a m p l i f i e d budgets and amb i t i ons . Although the Canada C o u n c i l was founded i n 1957, f o r many years i t s a c t i v i t i e s and i t s mandate - to support " e x c e l l e n c e " i n the a r t s and i n l i b e r a l a r t s s c ho l a r s h i p - were hampered by i t s l i m i t e d endowment income.[14] S ince the Counc i l had l i t t l e ready cash, g a l l e r i e s and museums rece i ved marg ina l amounts from t h i s source u n t i l the mid-1960s - f o r i n s t an ce , VAG's i n i t i a l C o u n c i l grant was $11,000 i n the f i r s t year of i t s ope ra t i on (1958), and was only $17,810 by 1965 (of a t o t a l VAG budget of $207,000),[15] though i t more than doubled the f o l l o w i n g year and t h e r e -a f t e r . However, there was a r e s t r u c t u r i n g and a m p l i f i c a t i o n of f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y begun i n 1963 by the new L i b e r a l government of Le s t e r Pearson. In A p r i l 1963 the major government c u l t u r a l agenc ies , which had been s c a t t e r ed i n a hodge-podge of d i f f e r e n t departments, were r a t i o n a -l i z e d under the aeg i s of the Secretary of S ta te - these i nc l uded the n a t i o n a l museums, the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , the Canada C o u n c i l , the CBC, the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, and the Queen's P r i n t e r . [ 1 6 ] The r o l e s of most of 14/ The Canada C o u n c i l was o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d from the death du t i e s of two wealthy i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , Messrs. Dunn and K i l l a m , which amounted to $100 m i l l i o n i n t o t a l . I t s ub s i s ted e n t i r e l y on the i n t e r e s t from t h i s u n t i l 1965. Bernard Os t r y , The C u l t u r a l Connect ion: An Essay on  C u l t u r e and Government P o l i c y i n Canada (Toronto: McC le l l and and Stewart, 1978), p. 67. 15/ Sources: VAG Annual Report s , 1958 and 1965. 16/ Os t r y , p. 100. these agencies were expanded from 1963 to 1968 under the d i r e c t i o n of a succes s ion of S e c r e t a r i e s of S t a t e . In 1965, the Canada C o u n c i l began r e c e i v i n g Pa r l i amentary app rop r i a t i o n s f o r the f i r s t t ime , which a l lowed i t to expand i t s a r t s i n t e r v e n t i o n enormously f o r ten years . [17] Th i s was congruent w i t h i t s expanded funding to the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y (and other i n s t i t u t i o n s ) , beginning i n 1966.[18] The Par l i amentary app rop r i a t i o n s were asked f o r and r e ce i ved at a time when the economic su rp lu s seemed to o f f e r the l a t i t u d e f o r such f i n a n c i n g on the par t of the government.[19] They were a l s o par t of a genera l p o l i c y of i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o the c u l t u r a l and economic l i f e of the na t i on by the Pearson government, a p o l i c y which was designed t o prov ide a s t a b l e s o c i a l bas i s f o r the cont inued expansion of the economy i n the e a r l y 1960s.[20] The c r e a t i o n of the Economic C o u n c i l i n 1963, a consensus -c reat ing adv i so ry body w i th r ep r e sen t a t i v e s from bus iness , labour and government was one s i g n of the L i b e r a l s ' commitment to a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of economic 17/ Os t ry , i b i d . Th i s pe r i od of expansion came to an end f o l l o w i n g the f i r s t o i l c r i s i s of 1973-74. 18/ The Canada C o u n c i l grant to VAG more than doubled from $17,500 i n 1965 to $38,000 i n 1966, and rose to $68,500 i n 1967. I t reached $230,366 by 1974, the h igh po in t f o r VAG's Canada C o u n c i l grants (and a l s o the f i r s t year of N a t i o n a l Museums fund ing ) . In that year VAG rece i ved the h ighest fund ing of any g a l l e r y or museum i n the count ry , ou t s i de of the f e d e r a l l y admin i s te red museums i n Ottawa. There are some d i s c repanc i e s between the f i g u r e s used by VAG to t o t a l i t s Canada Counc i l f und ing , and those used by the agency i t s e l f , s i n ce they operate on d i f f e r e n t f i s c a l yea r s . I have used the f i g u r e s s upp l i ed by the G a l l e r y i n i t s r e p o r t s . 19/ Reg Whitaker, "Images of the s t a t e i n Canada," i n Leo Pan i t ch ( e d . ) , The Canadian s t a t e : p o l i t i c a l economy and p o l i t i c a l power (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P re s s , 1977), p. 61. 20/ David Wol fe, "The s t a t e and economic p o l i c y i n Canada, 1968-75," i n P an i t ch ( e d . ) , p. 258. goals w i t h i n a mixed economy.[21] The Canada Pension P lan and Medicare were in t roduced at t h i s t ime, and unemployment insurance expanded, i n order to prov ide more s e c u r i t y f o r the working popu l a t i on . As Leo Pan i t ch wrote i n 1977: We are speaking of p o l i c i e s d i r e c t e d at the i n t e g r a t i o n of the subord inate c l a s s e s i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y e i t h e r through the i n t r o d u c t i o n of reforms which promote s o c i a l harmony or through the c o - o p t a t i o n of wo rk i ng - c l a s s l e a d e r s . . . . [ 2 2 ] The S tate came to stand f o r , or more a c cu r a te l y represented i t s e l f as working f o r , the whole of s o c i e t y . [ 2 3 ] By g ran t ing c e r t a i n r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s to the l e s s power fu l , the s t a t e redressed some i n j u s t i c e s , and secured the cooperat ion (or at l e a s t the acquiescence) of the subord inate c l a s s e s , i n the i n t e r e s t s of c a p i t a l accumulat ion; t h i s was i n d i s t i n c t i o n to the p o l i c i e s c a r r i e d out by the preceding Conservat i ve government, which were a s soc i a ted w i t h the l i n g e r i n g r e ce s s i on of 1958-62.[24] Government c u l t u r a l p o l i c y dur ing t h i s pe r i od was analogous to other s o c i a l p o l i c i e s e s t a b l i s h e d at the t ime i n tha t i t promised to extend the b e n e f i t s of a r t s a p p r e c i a t i o n and h igher educat ion to a l l who de s i r ed them; " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n " of c u l t u r a l p o l i c y was a keyword w e l l i n t o the 21/ Wolfe, p. 259. 22/ Leo P a n i t c h , "The r o l e and nature of the Canadian s t a t e , " i n Pan i t ch ( e d . ) , p. 19. 23/ Ian Gough, " S t a t e Expenditure i n Advanced C a p i t a l i s m , " New he f t  Review, no. 92 (Ju ly -August 1975), pp. 64-65. 24/ Wol fe, p. 259. 1970s, e s p e c i a l l y so a f t e r 1968.[25] Yet as the French s o c i o l o g i s t P i e r r e Bourdieu and others have amply demonstrated, one aspect of t h i s "democra-t i z a t i o n " , p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t i s a pp l i ed to museums and p u b l i c g a l l e r i e s , tends to r e i n f o r c e the a t t i t u d e s and assumptions of e x i s t i n g s o c i e t y . Accord ing to i t , the g a l l e r y i s promoted as a p lace of freedom, of the u l t i m a t e freedom, the power to c rea te - though tha t power i s u s u a l l y reserved f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Th i s freedom, which i s always i n d i v i d u a l l y centred and a s o c i a l , i s a r ep roduc t i on of the p r e v a i l i n g i deo logy , e s p e c i a l l y g iven tha t e x h i b i t i o n s w i t h i n museums or g a l l e r i e s are r a r e l y s i t e d s o c i a l l y . However, the a b i l i t y to app rec i a te t h i s freedom i s s o c i a l i z e d - the c u l t u r a l products of modernism are " a v a i l a b l e " only to people w i t h some a r t s t r a i n i n g . Those who are most f r e e i n s o c i e t y , w i t h some l eg s up the l adde r , are those who a l s o have the t o o l s to app rec i a te i n d i v i d u a l moments of freedom, wh i l e the i gnorant are condemned, even i n 25/ "Democra t i za t i on and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n " as a c u l t u r a l p o l i c y was adapted from UNESCO c u l t u r a l p o l i c y - though the " democ ra t i z a t i on of c u l t u r e " (v s . " c u l t u r a l democracy") was d i scarded at symposia he ld i n Europe i n 1970 and 1972, c h i e f l y "because the p r i n c i p l e i t s e l f came to be regarded as wrong" a f t e r the events of May 1968. Stephen Menne l l , " S o c i a l Research and the Study of C u l t u r a l Needs," i n J i r i Zuzanek ( e d . ) , S o c i a l  Research and C u l t u r a l P o l i c y (Water loo, Ont . : Otium P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1979), p. 15. In Canada, Secretary of S ta te Gerard P e l l e t i e r o u t l i n e d the p r i n c i p l e s behind democra t i za t i on and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n two speeches a t Lethbr idge i n 1969 and i n Venice i n 1970 (Os t ry , p. 118). Cu l t u re would no longer be reserved f o r the "happy few" , accord ing to P e l l e t i e r , but would be made a c c e s s i b l e to " a l l t a xpaye r s " . These p r i n c i p l e s were c o n c r e t i z e d (and bu reauc ra t i zed ) i n the es tab l i shment of the N a t i o n a l Museums P o l i c y (NMP), announced by P e l l e t i e r i n March 1972. Dale McConathy, "The Canadian c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n : An a p p r a i s a l of the p o l i t i c s and economics of a r t , " a r t scanada, v o l . 32 no. 3 (nos. 200/201) (Autumn 1975), pp. 2-3. t h e i r own eyes, to " b a r b a r i c " i n f e r i o r i t y • [ 2 6 ] I t i s t e l l i n g t h a t , i n a survey of the Canadian museum p u b l i c pub l i shed i n 1974, those w i t h the l e a s t income and educat ion (who a l s o attended a r t museums l e a s t ) , were those who perce ived the g rea te s t s o c i a l va lue i n museums, though i n an a b s t r a c t (not a per sona l ) sense.[27] For the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , s u r v i v a l meant expans ion, expansion meant p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n , and p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n e n t a i l e d the t r a n s -fo rmat ion of r e l a t i o n s between t r u s t e e s , s t a f f , and the community. But expansion meant a removal from s t r i c t l y l o c a l c u l t u r a l i s s ue s and con -ce rn s , as the G a l l e r y sought to e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l (though t h i s d i d not s i g n i f y , i n i t s e l f , an abandonment of the l o c a l ) , i n order to a t t r a c t f e d e r a l f und ing ; conver se l y , s i nce the G a l l e r y would no longer have to depend on l o c a l l a r ge s se f o r i t s s u r v i v a l , i t cou ld a f f o r d to d i s t ance i t s e l f from the whims of l o c a l bene fac to r s , even i f they sat on C o u n c i l . The r e l a t i o n s between the d i r e c t o r and the C o u n c i l t o which he was s t i l l f o rma l l y r e spon s i b l e were t ransformed, f o r the t r u s t e e s ' own f und -26/ P i e r r e Bourd ieu, " O u t l i n e of a s o c i o l o g i c a l theory of a r t p e r c e p t i o n , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i a l s c ience j o u r n a l , v o l . 20 no. 4 (1968), pp. 608-12; Kenneth Cout t s - Smi th , A r t and S o c i a l T r an s f o rmat i on , " C e n t e r f o l d , v o l . 2 no. 4 ( A p r i l 1978), pp. 20-21; C a r o l Duncan and A lan Wa l l ach , "The U n i v e r s a l Survey Museum," A r t H i s t o r y , v o l . 3 no. 4 (December 1980), pp. 456-57; Ca r o l Duncan, "Who Rules the A r t Wor ld? " , S o c i a l i s t Review, no. 70 (Ju ly -August 1983), p. 106. 27/ B r i a n D ixon, A l i c e E. Courtney, and Robert H. B a i l e y , The Museum  and the Canadian P u b l i c (Toronto: Cu l t u r can P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1974), p. 134. Those w i t h the l e a s t income and educat ion were a l s o those who found the most d i f f i c u l t y w i t h museum s t r u c t u r e s , personnel and d i s p l a y s , and f o r whom museum v i s i t s prov ided the l e a s t s a t i s f a c t o r y exper ience . r a i s i n g e f f o r t s paled before the amounts the d i r e c t o r was ab le to r a i s e from governments and foundat ions . [28 ] With the r e d e f i n i t i o n of VAG's c i v i c s t a t u s might have come a l o s s of r oo t s i n the l o c a l community (as was to happen l a t e r ) , now tha t i t was no longer necessary to the G a l l e r y ' s s u r v i v a l , and now tha t VAG was a s p i r i n g to a n a t i o n a l s t a t u s . Th i s was combatted by Tony Emery and h i s a s s o c i a t e d i r e c t o r , Do r i s Shadbolt , w i t h a t w o - t i e r e d l i b e r a l p o l i c y p l a y i n g o f f the l o c a l aga in s t e x h i b i t i o n s of n a t i o n a l and American a r t . They used t h e i r l i b e r t y (or dependence on f e d e r a l gene ro s i t y ) to r ede f i ne l o c a l concerns r a the r than abandon them, l ook i n g f o r d i f f e r e n t audiences than the one the G a l l e r y had t r a d i t i o n a l l y s e r v i c e d , and v a l i d a t i n g the r epu ta t i on s of a great many young a r t i s t s . Of course, dur ing i t s p a r o c h i a l phase, VAG had mainta ined c l o s e r e l a t i o n s w i t h Vancouver ' s sma l l a r t i s t i c community, and many amateur s o c i e t i e s had used i t s premises to mount annual e x h i b i t i o n s , but i t had never been engaged i n promoting them n a t i o n a l l y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , as the G a l l e r y under Emery and Shadbolt sought to do. VAG's l o c a l emphasis took a v a r i e t y of forms, which depended c h i e f l y upon the r e d e f i n i t i o n of i t s aud ience. In va r i ou s i n t e r v i e w s g iven dur ing h i s tenure as d i r e c t o r , Emery extemporized on the audience he had ga ined, 28/ In 1974, Tony Emery po inted out that donat ions only accounted f o r 5% of the G a l l e r y ' s revenue, a po in t cor roborated by h i s successor Luke Rombout i n 1976. ( In t ha t year , donat ions accounted f o r only $35,345 of a t o t a l income of $1,002,668. Source: VAG Annual Report , 1976.) Tony Emery, "My S ide of the S t o r y , " Mac lean ' s (November 1974), p. 7; Luke Rombout, " E d i t o r i a l , " Vanguard, v o l . 5 no. 10 (Dec. 1976 - Jan . 1977), p. 2. By 1981, donat ions ( e x c l u s i v e of the c a p i t a l campaign) had reached $148,060; a l though t h i s was on ly s l i g h t l y over 10% of the $1,416,521 budget, i t equa l l ed the Canada C o u n c i l c o n t r i b u t i o n f o r that year . In s imp ler t imes , members' fees and donat ions had accounted f o r $6,211 of the 1946/47 budget of $11,882; i n 1959, $47,973 of the $101,123 budget was r a i s e d p r i v a t e l y . the ones he hoped to a t t r a c t , and the one which had to be at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y abandoned.[29] There were four d i f f e r e n t faces of the p u b l i c Emery wished to se rve , l i n k e d to what he saw as a resurgence of i n t e r e s t i n the a r t s i n the 1960s.[30] Three were c o - e x t e n s i v e : Vancouver ' s a r t i s t s , which Emery i d e n t i f i e d as h i s primary p u b l i c ; people w i th an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n contemporary a r t i s s u e s , a group which he be l i e ved numbered about 1000 ( i n 1971); and Vancouver ' s c o u n t e r c u l t u r a l youth, w i t h which many young a r t i s t s i d e n t i f i e d i n the l a t e 1960s/early 1970s. Emery t o l d Max Wyman i n 1971: "I have a much more genuine audience among the s o - c a l l e d h i p p i e s , " than i n " t he c u l t i v a t e d bourgeois aud ience , " which he be l i e ved was a "myth" so f a r as Vancouver was concerned.[31] A more amorphous p o t e n t i a l audience was the m a n - i n - t h e - s t r e e t , " t h e 94% of the a c c e s s i b l e popu la t i on of the Lower Mainland who have never - i f my rough and ready c a l c u l a t i o n of attendance can be r e l i e d upon - set f oo t i n the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y . [ 3 2 ] " Emery 's d e s i r e to b r i ng i n " t h e peop le " was 29/ Max Wyman, "Tony Emery: 'most a r t i c u l a t e man i n the c i t y ' , " Mac lean ' s L e i s u r e Guide ( J u l y 1971), p. 30; Jamie C r a i g , " A r t and our t r a v e l l e r , " The Vancouver Sun (22 August 1973); Bob A l l e n , "There i s no p lace l i k e home - Emery," The P rov ince (1 September 1973), p. 63. 30/ Ann Rosenberg, " P o r t r a i t of the A r t G a l l e r y D i r e c t o r . Tony Emery: What P l a n s ? " , The Vancouver Sun (18 August 1967), p. 5A. At that t ime, Emery s a i d " . . . . t h e f a c t was tha t mass i n t e r e s t was a step behind the advance guard. I t ' s mass i n t e r e s t now and t h e r e ' s no doubt we ' r e on our way." 31/ Wyman, op. c i t . , p. 30. 32/ Tony Emery, " D i r e c t o r ' s Repo r t , " VAG Annual Report 1968, n.p. genuine[33] , though g iven the l i b e r a l parameters of G a l l e r y p o l i c y [ 3 4 ] , 33/ See d i s c u s s i o n of the va r i ou s attempts below. Emery t o l d Bob A l l e n i n 1973: "Our i n t e n t i o n has been to run a ' p e o p l e ' s g a l l e r y ' - an i n t e n t i o n we have hones t l y pursued. I s h a l l be very i n t e r e s t e d to see whether our ' p e o p l e ' s governments' w i l l support a ' p e o p l e ' s g a l l e r y ' . " ( A l l e n , op. c i t . ) . Emery was r e f e r r i n g to the e l e c t i o n of r e f o r m i s t p a r t i e s i n 1972 - the New Democrats p r o v i n c i a l l y , and TEAM (The E l e c t o r s ' A c t i o n Movement) i n Vancouver. Whi le the c i v i c government d i d i n c rea se i t s fund ing t o VAG beginning i n 1974, p r o v i n c i a l a r t s fund ing remained m in i s c u l e u n t i l the r e t u r n of the S o c i a l C r e d i t par ty i n 1975. The NDP has never had a c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , though i t i s a t tempt ing to form one at present (1984). The p r o v i n c i a l grant to VAG - out of the B.C. C u l t u r a l Fund, supported by proceeds from l o t t e r y t i c k e t s a l e s - i nc reased from $50,400 i n 1975 (the l a s t year i n which the NDP he ld o f f i c e ) to $160,000 i n 1976. I t was $285,000 i n 1981, the l a r g e s t grant r ece i ved a f t e r the c i t y ' s own. 34/ The r e f u s a l to i d e n t i f y audiences more c l o s e l y , which would i n e v i t a b l y e n t a i l a c l a s s a n a l y s i s of the G a l l e r y ' s audience and i t s r o l e , was convenient to the idea of the "open" g a l l e r y Emery was f o s t e r i n g , s i n ce t h i s i dea was i t s e l f a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of l i b e r a l i deo l ogy . To t h i s end the G a l l e r y cou ld not a f f o r d to be " p o l i t i c a l " , to make cho ices based on such a n a l y s i s , though cho ices were as i n e v i t a b l y made (which Emery l a t e r c and id l y admitted - see h i s remin i scences i n the " Pe r sona l Pe r spec -t i v e s " s e c t i o n of VAG's Vancouver: A r t and A r t i s t s 1931-1983). I t would a l s o f o r c e the hand of an i n s t i t u t i o n almost e n t i r e l y funded by the s t a t e , and which was to some extent i t s in s t rument , i t s agent of l e g i t i m a t i o n , p r e c i s e l y through the degree of "openness" i t (then) encouraged. See a l s o the d i s c u s s i o n below of the r o l e of the g a l l e r y i n contemporary s o c i e t y , and i t s c u l t i v a t i o n of l i n k s w i t h , and abso rp t i on o f , the avant -garde, and e s p e c i a l l y the d i s cu s s i on s i n the UNESCO j o u r n a l Museum, v o l . 24 no. 1 (1972). Even though the a r t museum was desc r ibed there as the avata r of freedom i n an unfree wo r l d , the p lace " t o do away w i th s o c i a l b a r r i e r s " (p. 20), these European a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a l s o made i t c l e a r t h a t : A t t e n t i o n should be focussed on the middle c l a s s e s ( t e r t i a r y s e c t o r : w h i t e - c o l l a r workers, s tudent s , se l f -employed workers) r a the r than on the working c l a s s e s . They have more c u r i o s i t y and are more w i l l i n g to l e a r n about modern a r t , as w e l l as being more open to e f f o r t s to move them and arouse t h e i r concern, (p. 21) In t h i s manner man i f e s t i n g the content of t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s , vs . the hidden hand of Emery (who may not even have been aware of the problem): s i g n i f i c a n t that t h e i r a r t i c l e was i l l u s t r a t e d by photos of VAG a c t i v i -t i e s . See a l s o Haro ld Rosenberg, "The Museum Today," i n The D e - d e f i n i t i o n  of A r t : A c t i o n A r t to Pop to Earthworks (New York: Hor izon P re s s , 1972). t h i s p o t e n t i a l audience cou ld never be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d ; a more or l e s s b l i n d s e r i e s of i n i t i a t i v e s was made to s o l i c i t i t . The means by which an audience was to be reached v a r i ed accord ing to i t s na tu re . With the a r t i s t s i n mind, Emery and Shadbolt i nc reased the number and scope of e x h i b i t i o n s focussed on l o c a l developments, beyond the r a t e of expansion undergone by the G a l l e r y ' s programme as a whole. "We are a v a l i d a t i n g agent f o r the a r t i s t , " Emery s a i d i n 1973, h e l p f u l i n secur ing r epu ta t i on s and grants f o r l o c a l a r t i s t s i n eas tern Canada.[35] From 1967, a r t i s t s ' performances and i n s t a l l a t i o n s were organized r e g u l a r l y , e i t h e r as par t of e x h i b i t i o n s , of the s p e c i a l events s e r i e s , or as pa r t of the Intermedia weeks which took p lace annua l l y from 1968 to 1970.[36] The focus of the G a l l e r y programme s h i f t e d i n the e a r l y 1970s, from a s e r i e s of h i g h - p r o f i l e shows beginning i n 1967 w i t h A r t s of the Raven and ending i n 1971 w i t h S c u l p t u r e / I n u i t , to events , to the a c t i v i t i e s of s a t e l l i t e g a l l e r i e s ou t s i de the VAG premises, and to the mounting of sma l l i n d i v i d u a l or group showings wi thout the apparatus of a t r a d i t i o n a l e x h i b i t i o n . Two s e r i e s of e x h i b i t i o n s began i n 1972 which focussed e i t h e r 35/ A l l e n , op. c i t . In 1967, Emery s t re s sed the r e p u t a t i o n younger Vancouver a r t i s t s were winning across the count ry , due i n par t to the e f f o r t s VAG was making on t h e i r beha l f . For example, par t of VAG's P a i n t i n g '66 e x h i b i t i o n , which f ea tu red emerging l o c a l a r t i s t s , was toured n a t i o n a l l y by the NGC i n 1967. Emery, VAG Annual Report 1967, n.p. 36/ Intermedia was the major, though not the on l y , c o l l a b o r a t i v e a r t i s t s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n opera t ing i n Vancouver at t h i s t ime, and i t main-t a i ned a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h VAG dur ing i t s a c t i v e l i f e . Werner A e l l e n , I n te rmed i a ' s d i r e c t o r f o r s e ve r a l years , was the f i r s t of the a r t i s t s ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s Emery managed to get on VAG C o u n c i l ; t h i s was i n 1971. A s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s w i t h former Intermedia members i s i n c l uded i n the " V o i c e s " s e c t i o n of Vancouver: A r t and A r t i s t s 1931-1983. on exper imenta l a c t i v i t i e s or the emergence of new a r t i s t s . A l t e r n a t e  Space was an o c ca s i ona l s e r i e s , organized by the G a l l e r y s t a f f , which a f f o rded exper imenta l a r t i s t s the oppor tun i ty to show i n VAG's ambiance. Free Space, l a t e r Exp lo ra to r y Space, was run by an a r t i s t s ' committee independent of the G a l l e r y , which always had a couple of a r t i s t s ' shows running concu r ren t l y i n the two sma l l c e n t r a l g a l l e r i e s . They were an outgrowth of the D i r e c t i o n s s e r i e s , which annua l l y from 1966 to 1972 showcased the a r t i s t i c p roduct ion of two or th ree young a r t i s t s . Th i s was i n a d d i t i o n to s i g n i f i c a n t group e x h i b i t i o n s l i k e B.C. Almanac (1971), an e x h i b i t i o n (and "book" of pamphlets) of photography by l o c a l a r t i s t s , and P a c i f i c V i b r a t i o n s (1973), a l a r ge sa lon of recent works i n a range of media, i n c l u d i n g many events . During the 1967-74 per iod VAG's o f f i c e r s , l i k e those of many a r t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , conceived of t h e i r r o l e as t ha t of a " support system" f o r area a r t i s t s , combining t h i s w i t h an appeal to a wider p u b l i c c o n s t i -tuency. As Kenneth Cout t s - Sm i th , Haro ld Rosenberg and J e f f Wa l l have each demonstrated, the concept of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l " support system" f o r a r t i s t s was an instrument f o r the r e cupe ra t i on of the avant-garde, a t a t ime when there no longer appeared to be an o b j e c t i v e ba s i s f o r the ex i s t ence of the l a t t e r . [ 3 7 ] Coutt s -Smi th has s a i d t h a t : I t may be qu i t e po s s i b l e to take the view tha t there was, i n f a c t , no such i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a t a l l i n any r e a l sense, that i t was a myth be l i e ved i n a l i k e , and f o r a short p e r i o d , by va r i ou s 37/ Cout t s - Sm i th , op. c i t . ; Rosenberg, op. c i t . ; J e f f W a l l , "The S i t e of C u l t u r e : C o n t r a d i c t i o n s , T o t a l i t y and the AvantGarde," Vanguard, v o l . 12 no. 4 (May 1983), pp. 18-19. Each w r i t e r i s i n agreement on t h i s p o i n t , though t h e i r pe r spec t i ve s are otherwise not i d e n t i c a l . c u r a t o r s , c r i t i c s , a r t - h i s t o r i a n s , teachers and adm in i s t r a t o r s as w e l l as by p r a c t i c i n g a r t i s t s . [ 3 8 ] There was, however, an e x p l i c i t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h i s model by Emery and Shadbol t . Emery has s a id tha t i t was h i s i n t e n t i o n to use the G a l l e r y to b u i l d a base of support f o r the l o c a l a r t i s t i c community beyond the e x i s t i n g government patronage[39] , a l though t ime has shown how untenable t h i s i dea was, e s p e c i a l l y s i nce i t was conceived ou t s i de of the e x i s t i n g stratum of c o l l e c t o r s . An aspect of the " support system" ideo logy was r a i s e d by a c o l l e c t i o n of European museum d i r e c t o r s w r i t i n g i n the UNESCO j o u r n a l Museum i n 1972 (based on d i s cu s s i on s i n 1969-70), who s a i d a t t ha t t ime: Today the museum has an a r t i s t i c and s o c i a l message to convey. Th i s has brought about a democra t i za t i on which has put a ques t ion mark aga in s t the o l d museum s t r u c t u r e s , s t i l l based on the p r i n c i p l e of a r t i s t i c performance. Nowadays, wh i l e the a r t i s t i s s t i l l taken as the s t a r t i n g - p o i n t , a t t e n t i o n i s more and more focused on the community....We must no longer regard the museum as j u s t an i n s t r u -ment f o r o f f e r i n g a r t to the p u b l i c . The museum has become more c r i t i c a l both of a r t and of i t s e l f , because i t has become aware of i t s f u n c t i o n ou t s i de d a i l y l i f e . I t does indeed f u n c t i o n ou t s i de the system, se t s i t s e l f up i n oppo s i t i on to the E s tab l i shment , yet c o n t i n u a l l y shows i t s e l f to be an instrument of the system. L i k e a r t i t i s a p lace of freedom, but of freedom which stops at the museum door. . . . [AO] 38/ Cout t s - Sm i th , p. 20. I take i t to mean tha t s i nce the a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e of the i n s t i t u t i o n s was not t ransformed, the appearance of t h e i r s h o r t - l i v e d "benevo lence" was a ch imera. Although there are d i f f e r e n c e s between Canadian and American i n s t i t u t i o n a l models i n t h i s p e r i o d , due to g reate r government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the c u l t u r a l f i e l d i n Canada and a l e s s -deve loped a r t market, among other f a c t o r s , the d i f f e r e n c e s are i n degree r a the r than i n k i n d . But Cout t s -Smi th was, as Wa l l i s , f a m i l i a r w i t h the workings of Canadian c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . 39/ Emery, Vancouver: A r t and A r t i s t s 1931-1983, p. 257. 40/ "Problems of the museum of contemporary a r t i n the West", Museum, v o l . 24 no. 1 (1972), pp. 5-6. The museum d i r e c t o r s were P i e r r e Gaudibert (deputy c u r a t o r , Musee d ' A r t Moderne, P a r i s ) ; Pontus Hu l ten ( e x - d i r e c t o r , I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t tha t t h i s a r t i c l e connects , as Emery d i d , s e r v i c e to the a r t i s t w i t h s e r v i c e to the community, but what i s more s t r i k i n g i s the " avan t - ga rde " posture i t adopts of oppo s i t i o n to the " sy s tem" (though, as d i r e c t o r s of e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s , they are f u l l y aware of the c o n t r a -d i c t i o n such an a t t i t u d e embodies)[41], and of the nece s s i t y f o r i nnova -t i v e responses to new s o c i a l and a r t i s t i c developments.[42] In an a r t i c l e pub l i shed a f t e r h i s death, Cout t s - Smi th remarked on the e s s e n t i a l i s m of the avant-garde a t t i t u d e , an a t t i t u d e i n which the "open" c r e a t i v i t y of the p rog re s s i ve a r t i s t was posed aga in s t the " c l o s e d " system Moderna Museet, Stockholm); M i chae l Kustow ( e x - d i r e c t o r , ICA, London); Jean Leymarie ( d i r e c t o r , Musee d ' A r t Moderne); F ranco i s Mathey ( c h i e f c u r a t o r , Musee des A r t s d e c o r a t i f s , P a r i s ) ; Georges Henr i R i v i e r e ; Hara ld Szeeman ( e x - d i r e c t o r , K u n s t h a l l e , Be rn ) ; Eduard de Wilde ( d i r e c t o r , S t e d e l i j k , Amsterdam). A l l p o s i t i o n s as l i s t e d i n the a r t i c l e . 41/ As when, i n the preceding quote, they acknowledge tha t they are "an instrument of the system", or f u r t h e r : Th i s i nner c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n the r o l e of the museum - t ha t i t i s the epitome of the system, but a t the same time r e l a t i v e l y f r e e to c r i t i c i z e i t - i s important f o r the museum of today and f o r i t s immediate f u t u r e . To put i t b l u n t l y , the i d e a l museum would be the one tha t was c l o sed by the a u t h o r i t i e s . The museum can only f u n c t i o n towards promoting a r t i s t i c i n t e r e s t s prov ided i t i s ou t s i de the r e s t r a i n t s of s o c i e t y . Because i t i s none the l e s s s ub jec t to the r u l e s of s o c i e t y , i t f a l l s i n t o a p o s i t i o n of c o n f l i c t , which i s aggravated by the f a c t that the a u t h o r i t i e s l i k e to see h i g h l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l s ub jec t s d i scussed w i t h i n an a r t con tex t , because they are thereby rendered harmless, ( i b i d , p. 6) 42/ The a r t i c l e by M ichae l Kustow, " P r o f i l e s and s i t u a t i o n s of some museums of contemporary a r t , " t ha t f o l l owed the lengthy d i s c u s s i o n c i t e d above, looked at the programmes of some " p r o g r e s s i v e " European museums i n the l a t e 1960s, notab ly those of the S t e d e l i j k i n Amsterdam and the Moderna Museet i n Stockholm. Innovat ions i n c l uded e x h i b i t i o n s at s i t e s i n the c i t y ou t s i de of musuem premises, c o l l a b o r a t i v e p r o j e c t s w i t h a r t i s t s , events , e x h i b i t i o n s organ ized i n museum space by independent a r t i s t s ' groups - ones s i m i l a r to experiments at the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y . of bourgeois l i f e and ideo logy . [43 ] Th i s a t t i t u d e , when d i vo rced from the an t i bou rgeo i s p o l i t i c s (never w e l l - a r t i c u l a t e d ) of " t r a d i t i o n a l " a r t i s t i c vanguardism, cou ld be deployed i n the way i t was used, f o r i n s t ance , i n Vancouver, w i t h a minimum o p p o s i t i o n a l stance to the l o c a l bou r geo i s i e , combined w i t h an appeal to c o u n t e r c u l t u r a l sent iments (and f i nanced by the f e d e r a l government - one of the means by which the government attempted to defuse o p p o s i t i o n a l sent iments, or prevent them from hardening i n t o e x p l i c i t p o l i t i c a l programmes[44]). By r e f u s i n g to become p o l i t i c a l them-s e l v e s , a step they would not and cou ld not t ake , i n s t i t u t i o n s even i n t h e i r most benevolent phase revea led themselves to be ins t ruments of the system they were c r i t i c i z i n g . Perhaps t h i s was because they conceived themselves to be v e h i c l e s of reform (and thus not avant-garde at a l l i n any u sua l sense of the term) r a the r than of the t r an s fo rmat i on of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , a programme of course they themselves were incapab le of 43/ Kenneth Cout t s - Smi th , "Pos tbourgeo i s Ideology and V i s u a l C u l t u r e " , Open L e t t e r , F i f t h S e r i e s , nos. 5-6 (Summer-Fall 1983), p. 109. O r i g i n a l l y pub l i shed i n P r a x i s 6 (1982). Th i s i s sue of Open L e t t e r was ed i t ed by Bruce Barber, and i s s u b t i t l e d "Essays on (Performance) and C u l t u r a l P o l i t i c i z a t i o n . " 44/ A s i m i l a r i n t e n t i n the concept ion of the L o c a l I n i t i a t i v e s P r o j e c t s (L IP) and Oppo r tun i t i e s f o r Youth (OFY) programmes of the f e d e r a l government i s c r i t i q u e d by Lome F. Huston, "The Flowers of Power: A C r i t i q u e of OFY and LIP Programmes," Our Genera t i on , v o l . 8 no. 4 (October 1972), pp. 52-61, and by Ma r t i n Loney, A p o l i t i c a l economy of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , " i n Pan i t ch ( e d . ) , op. c i t . , pp. 446-72. As a r e s u l t , some aspects of the programmes were h e a v i l y c r i t i c i z e d by con se r va t i v e s , and they were s u b s t a n t i a l l y mod i f i ed i n 1972, before being abandoned a l t o -gether . A s i gn of t h i s was the t r a n s f e r of the LIP programme from the Department of the Secretary of S t a t e , where i t had o r i g i n a t e d , to Canada Manpower, the s t a t e employment agency. Bernard Ostry a l s o d i scus ses these programmes, and the government 's hand l ing of them, as another aspect of P e l l e t i e r ' s " d emoc ra t i z a t i on and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n " p o l i c y , broached a f t e r 1968. O s t r y , op. c i t . , p. 118. c a r r y i n g out . Such a na ive p r o j e c t as the b u i l d i n g of a base of economic support i n the middle c l a s s f o r area a r t i s t s , or " i n n e r c i t y " p r o j e c t s l i k e the s a t e l l i t e workshop g a l l e r i e s i n the c i t y ' s east end i n the e a r l y 1970s, are examples of reforms which went nowhere, and which l e f t no re s i due i n the c i t y ' s s o c i a l f a b r i c . An e s s e n t i a l i s t a t t i t u d e l e d everywhere to a s t r e s s on r e l evance , on nove l ty i n museum and g a l l e r y programming; t h i s was an aspect of the r ecupe ra t i on of avant-garde postures by i n s t i t u t i o n s . For i n s t an ce , VAG C o u n c i l minutes i n May 1973 repor ted the views of Do r i s Shadbolt on the then-govern ing b e l i e f s of the G a l l e r y , which she r e l a t e d to the ex i s t ence of an aware and suppor t i ve audience: In her v iew, there i s a new audience who want to be i n vo l ved and i s aware of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a r t as educat ion and a r t as s u r -v i v a l . The G a l l e r y being sma l l and f l e x i b l e i s ab le to take a moral stand i n response to t h i s new awareness. The G a l l e r y ' s commitment to accommodate these new senses of change are r e f l e c t e d i n the i n f o r m a l atmosphere, e l i m i n a t i o n of admiss ion charge, c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the permanent c o l l e c t i o n , cho ice of e x h i b i t i o n s , s p e c i a l events and the educat ion programmes.[45] In an i n t e r v i e w conducted the same year, Shadbolt i n d i c a t e d tha t what was most r e l e v a n t , r e v e l a t o r y , was what was most contemporary, and tha t the G a l l e r y was i n v o l v i n g i t s e l f i n many p r o j e c t s which broke down t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i s t i c c a tego r i e s . [ 46 ] Emery, R i chard Simmins, and A l v i n Ba l k i nd (the 45/ VAG C o u n c i l minutes (10 May 1973), p. 1. Shadbolt was a c t i n g d i r e c t o r at the t ime, wh i l e Emery was on s a b b a t i c a l . There i s evidence i n the minutes of a g i t a t i o n among C o u n c i l members over both G a l l e r y f i nance s ( there was a b igger c r i s i s than usua l i n 1973 over f und ing ) , and over the d i r e c t i o n i n which VAG was heading. Shadbolt was speaking here at a d inner meeting to e x p l a i n the r a t i o n a l e behind G a l l e r y p o l i c i e s . 46/ " Do r i s Shadbolt and the Vancouver Ar t G a l l e r y , " i n t e r v i e w by Marlene Karnouk ( V i c t o r i a : Au ra l H i s t o r y Programme, P r o v i n c i a l A rch ives of B.C., 1973), p. 12. I t was t h i s a t t i t u d e that Rosenberg c r i t i c i z e d i n h i s d i r e c t o r of the UBC F ine A r t s G a l l e r y from 1962 to 1973) , have a l l acknow-ledged t h i s was a popular p r o j e c t i n the 1960s, one which guaranteed the most se r i ou s as w e l l as the l a r g e s t audiences. [47] Th i s " m a s s i f i c a -t i o n " of contemporary a r t p r o j e c t s i s a unique phenomenon of the 1960s, and one which remains to be adequately e xp l a i ned . There was, then, a p r a c t i c a l element t o the promotion of contemporary a r t i s t i c developments: as Emery s a i d , e x h i b i t i o n s l i k e New York 13 or L.A. 6 drew f a r more people i n t h e i r t ime than d i d t r a d i t i o n a l e x h i b i t i o n s of the Group of 7, Emi ly Car r or even the p r e s t i g i o u s A r t s of the Raven.[48] The t h e n - d i r e c t o r wrote i n 1968: My own view of a downtown g a l l e r y i s t ha t i t s r o l e , a l though beginning by being guided from w i t h i n , i s f i n a l l y shaped - i f i t s tays awake - by the s ub t l e d i a l e c t i c of f o r ce s ope ra t i ng w i t h i n the environment. I t should so f a r as f i nance s and m a t e r i a l and human resources permi t , be a s torehouse, showwindow, r e l a y s t a t i o n , v i s ua l - i n f o rmat i on -exchange ; i t should encourage involvement, p a r t i c i p a t i o n , enjoyment; i t should spread and f o s t e r the f e e l i n g that i n a r t there may be many mansions, but a b s o l u t e l y no wa te r -1972 a r t i c l e (p. 235): The plunge i n t o the stream of change has r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d the museum's e a r l i e r r e l a t i o n to the past and t o a r t as w e l l . Aware of i t s e l f as a medium of mass educat ion i n nove l t y , i t presents works of a l l t imes and p laces as news, l a y i n g s t r e s s on t h e i r " r e l e v a n c e " t o the contemporary. I t was Rosenberg ' s op i n i on tha t t h i s k i nd of museum p r a c t i c e was he lp i ng to l i q u i d a t e both a r t h i s t o r y and the avant -garde. 47/ For Emery, see Note 31. R ichard Simmins, " D i r e c t o r ' s Repo r t , " VAG Annual Report , 1963, n.p.: "The f a c t remains tha t i n terms of attendance and coverage by pres s , r ad i o and t e l e v i s i o n , the g rea te s t i n t e r e s t s t i l l l i e s i n the c o n t r o v e r s i a l f i e l d of contemporary a r t . " A l v i n Ba l k i nd and Abe Rogatn ick, "An A s p i r a t i o n to Get Beyond," C r i t e r i a , v o l . 4 no. 2 ( F a l l 1978), p. 11. I n te rv iew conducted by David MacWi l l i am, concerning the c o u p l e ' s a c t i v i t i e s i n Vancouver s i nce t h e i r a r r i v a l i n 1955. 48/ Wyman, op. c i t . , p. 30. t i g h t compartments: that a r t i s as n a t u r a l and e s s e n t i a l as b rea th ing and ea t i ng . [49 ] With the breakdown of t r a d i t i o n a l concept ions of what c o n s t i t u t e d a r t i s t i c process , and w i t h the m a s s i f i c a t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of avant-garde a t t i t u d e s , came a l s o a new concern f o r reach ing the bulk of the community tha t was unaware of cu r ren t a r t i s s u e s . Emery 's pe rcept ion of a mass audience f o r the a r t s f o r the f i r s t t ime was v a l i d a t e d i n h i s op i n i on by the i nc reased attendance at the G a l l e r y , though t h i s was never as l a r g e as he hoped f o r . [ 5 0 ] H i s audience was young, educated, and i n t e r e s t e d i n i nnova t i on - or a t the l e a s t i n n o v e l t y . VAG's a t t e n t i o n to " b o r d e r l i n e " a c t i v i t i e s , as i t f o l l owed a r t i s t s i n t o areas h i t h e r t o ou t s i de museum concerns, was l i n k e d to i t s events p o l i c y , an e n t e r p r i s e intended t o b r i n g people i n t o the G a l l e r y who had no acquaintance w i t h the v i s u a l a r t s , but who might be i n t e r e s t e d i n e f f o r t s i n other media. Events were one par t of a s e r i e s of i n i t i a t i v e s tha t Emery undertook i n order to appeal to a wider c on s t i t uency , which began to dwarf the e x h i b i t i o n schedule i t s e l f i n the e a r l y 1970s. 49/ " D i r e c t o r ' s Report, VAG Annual Report, 1968, n.p. 50/ Annual attendance f o r the in-house programme, which i nc l uded the s p e c i a l events , reached 135,000 by 1969, and remained at t ha t l e v e l f o r the next two years ( sources : Counc i l minutes, 21 January 1971 and 27 January 1972), vs . an attendance of 93,000 i n 1966 ( source: C o u n c i l minutes, 21 November 1967). Rombout has c la imed an annual attendance of 250,000 at the o l d VAG s i t e i n recent years (see, f o r i n s t an ce , Roche l l e van Halm, "Harvest T ime, " B.C. Bus iness (September 1983), p. 76, an a r t i c l e timed to c o i n c i d e w i t h VAG's r e -open ing ) , but t h i s seems exag-ge ra ted . The ba s i s f o r attendance f i g u r e s before 1973 was admiss ion f ee s , but s i n ce these were dropped, a l e s s r e l i a b l e method of counters supp l i ed to each s e c u r i t y guard was used, no doubt i n f l a t i n g the r e a l f i g u r e s . The s p e c i a l events programme began i n 1967 w i th an "underground" f i l m s e r i e s (a source of con s te rna t i on to some of VAG's members)[51], and was expanded the f o l l o w i n g year to i n c l ude weekly noon-hour concer t s of c l a s s i c a l and popular music. The noon-hour s e r i e s proved so popular t ha t i t was extended t o th ree days per week, i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e a t r e , dance, f i l m and poetry read ing s , as w e l l as music. In 1969 evening events were added, which, though they u s u a l l y f ea tu red l o c a l per formers, a l s o i nc luded appearances by such f i g u r e s as Yvonne Ra ine r , Deborah Hay, Stan Van Der Beek, Jean-Luc Godard and Yevgeny Yevtushenko. By 1974, 27,000 people (many of them neighbour ing o f f i c e workers) were admitted f o r (293) events a lone. [52] The amount of a c t i v i t y at VAG, which was becoming known as a house of a l l the a r t s , meant almost cont inuous coverage of i t s programme 51/ C o u n c i l minutes are peppered w i t h oppo s i t i o n by Board members to events, together w i t h c a l l s f o r a re-emphasis on d i s p l a y of the permanent c o l l e c t i o n . These are e s p e c i a l l y ev ident dur ing Emery 's f i r s t and l a s t years as d i r e c t o r . The s e r i e s i n ques t ion conta ined some f i l m s of a s e xua l l y e x p l i c i t na tu re , which caused s e ve ra l members to r e s i g n i n p r o te s t (VAG C o u n c i l Execut i ve Committee minutes, 28 March 1968, p. 2 ) . Recent ly (February 1984), D i r e c t o r Luke Rombout c a n c e l l e d the i naugu ra l show (by Pau l Wong and th ree o ther s ) i n the new Videospace, two days before i t was to open. The v ideos were i n t e r v i e w s regard ing the re spon-dent s ' s e x u a l i t y , but conta ined no e x p l i c i t footage. Rombout defended h i s d e c i s i o n on a e s t h e t i c grounds: "These tapes are s imply the faces of people being i n t e r v i e w e d . Th i s i n i t s e l f does not c o n s t i t u t e a c r e a t i v e a c t . There i s no connect ion w i t h v i s u a l a r t . " John Bent ley Mays, "V ideo too e x p l i c i t , VAG cance l s show," The Globe and M a i l (23 February 1984), p. 18. 52/ VAG Annual Report , 1974, n.p. Fac t s on events c o l l a t e d from annual r e p o r t s , va r i ou s year s . i n the p re s s [ 53 ] , a f a c t which helped make the G a l l e r y wide ly known r ega rd l e s s of i t s e x h i b i t i o n schedule. In 1970 VAG made another i n i t i a t i v e , launch ing a " s a t e l l i t e g a l l e r y " f o r 3 months at the r a ce t r a ck i n Vancouver ' s east end. I t was intended to reach some of the "94%" who had never been to the G a l l e r y i t s e l f , and i nco rpo ra ted both e x h i b i t i o n s and workshops ( i t s s t a f f had a l l been t r a i n e d as G e s t a l t t h e r a p i s t s ) [ 5 4 ] . Th i s s u c ce s s f u l venture was succeeded by the East End G a l l e r y , which was another ad hoc venture , l o ca ted i n a converted church shared w i t h Intermedia. [55] A more longstand ing e x p e r i -ment was begun at the Cap i lano Stadium i n 1971, l a s t i n g f o r th ree years and supported by the Vancouver Foundation and by grants from the f e d e r a l government 's OFY and LIP programmes.[56] L o c a l teenagers were h i r e d , and 53/ Emery, Vancouver: A r t and A r t i s t s (1983), p. 258. The 1972 Museum a r t i c l e c i t e d above mentioned t h i s development i n museum p r a c t i c e i n the 1960s, " s i n c e i t was o f t en the only p lace i n which new f i l m s , p lay s and music were produced. " (p. 11) 54/ VAG Annual Report , 1970, n.p. Report by Ray Walker, then-educa-t i o n o f f i c e r , r e spon s i b l e f o r the Racetrack G a l l e r y programme. 55/ VAG C o u n c i l Execut i ve Committee minutes (10 September 1970). Th i s " g a l l e r y " took workshops to va r i ou s s i t e s and groups i n the Lower Mainland 56/ See Note 46. A f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s ensued i n 1973 when VAG's L IP grant a p p l i c a t i o n f o r the Stadium G a l l e r y was i n i t i a l l y r e j e c t e d , and when the Vancouver Foundat ion announced i t would no longer support i t e i t h e r . (VAG C o u n c i l Execut i ve Committee minutes, 3 A p r i l and 14 June 1973). At t h i s po in t an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r i nc reased fund ing from the B.C. C u l t u r a l Fund had a l s o been r e j e c t e d , as had a request f o r a b igger grant from the c i t y . Donations were a l s o at a low po i n t - only $7,000 as of 14 June. A l l of t h i s meant a d e f i c i t f i g u r e of $60,000 as of the middle of the year , though an L IP ex tens ion grant d i d e ven tua l l y come through, and the c a n c e l l a t i o n of 6 e x h i b i t i o n s ( rep laced by the mammoth P a c i f i c V i b r a t i o n s ) meant that the d e f i c i t was reduced to a manageable f i g u r e . The c r i s i s was i n d i c a t i v e of a s h i f t i n government c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , and of a s e r i ou s l o s s of conf idence i n the G a l l e r y among i t s members. a c t i v i t i e s were coord inated f o r the neighbourhood youth; the Stadium G a l l e r y ' s s i t e , R i l e y Park, was known as a p a r t i c u l a r l y " tough " area at the t ime.[57] Th i s audience, l i k e those of p r i s one r s and sen io r c i t i z e n s s e r v i c ed by other p r o j e c t s , was f a r d i f f e r e n t from the one tha t f requented the G a l l e r y premises. The d i r e c t o r noted i n the 1973 annual r epo r t that 285,000 people had been reached by the G a l l e r y tha t year - 120,000 who v i s i t e d the G a l l e r y f o r e x h i b i t i o n s and events , and 165,000 who had taken par t i n the va r i ou s outreach programmes: e x ten s i on , i n - s c h o o l educat ion and s a t e l l i t e s . [ 5 8 ] The A r t i n the Schools programme brought a r t i s t s and educators d i r e c t l y i n t o the schoo l s i n the Lower Ma in land, wh i l e the ex tens ion programme, which began i n 1968 w i t h fund ing from the B.C. C u l t u r a l Fund[59], toured a r t from the VAG c o l l e c t i o n through many of B .C. ' s i n t e r i o r and i s l a n d communities ( aga in , mainly to s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ) . Other outreach e f f o r t s i n c l uded the es tab l i shment of Vanguard as a monthly events ca lendar i n January 1971, which rep laced the o l d VAG B u l l e t i n . Vanguard, o r i g i n a l l y i n a newspaper format, was meant to be a p u b l i c i t y v e h i c l e r a t he r than a j o u r n a l , though C r i t e r i a , which began as a q u a r t e r l y i n s e r t i n Vanguard i n 1974, was more s u b s t a n t i a l . I t was d i s t r i b u t e d by the G a l l e r y but produced independent ly , r a t he r than opera t ing as the house v e h i c l e Vanguard was 57/ VAG Counc i l minutes (24 June 1971). Th i s meeting of Counc i l was he ld a t the Stadium G a l l e r y , before renovat ions were completed. Karen McDiarmid, who was r e spon s i b l e f o r the programme, exp la ined the reasons f o r the new s a t e l l i t e and the problems i t f a ced . 58/ VAG Annual Report, 1973, n.p. 59/ A f t e r 1974, i t was supported by Na t i ona l Museums fund ing . ( u n t i l December 1984). In 1972, VAG began a weekly ha l f - hou r a r t s p r o -gramme on the l o c a l cab le channe l , and i n tha t same year the G a l l e r y a s s i s t e d i n the founding of the P a c i f i c Cinematheque f i l m s o c i e t y , which f o r some time showed i t s f i l m s i n VAG's basement.[60] Although a l l of these e f f o r t s prove a s e r i ou s attempt to reach a s i g n i f i c a n t s e c t i o n of the popu l a t i on , the l i b e r a l parameters of VAG's p o l i c y prevented Emery from c r y s t a l l i z i n g h i s programme i n a s c i e n t i f i c manner, one based on a concrete understanding of the r o l e of an a r t i n s t i t u t i o n i n s o c i e t y , and of the audience i t served and was meant to se rve . Although hard data has never been t abu l a ted f o r Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y attendance, the demographic survey Museums and the Canadian  P u b l i c , pub l i shed f o r the A r t s and Cu l t u r e Branch of the Secreta ry of S ta te i n 1974, analyzed data from across the country gathered from 1968 to 1974 - roughly the years of Emery 's s t i n t as VAG d i r e c t o r . Th i s i n c l uded s t a t i s t i c s from B.C. on genera l and on a r t museum attendance. Of a l l c a tego r i e s of museum pat ron , a r t museum v i s i t o r s were from the b e s t -educated, w e a l t h i e s t , most a c t i v e par t of the popu la t i on - a young, urban, p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s of people, compr i s ing about 8% of the popu la t i on (v s . Emery 's " rough and ready" 6%). [61] The f i g u r e s , which are cor roborated i n 60/ Note the number of c o l l a b o r a t i v e ventures here. Another one, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , was the Exp l o ra to r y Space s e r i e s of e x h i b i t i o n s . 61/ 8% of the t o t a l Canadian popu la t i on over age 14 was sa id to account f o r 49% of a l l a r t museum v i s i t s (Dixon et a l , op. c i t . , p. 105). Museum attendance was more gene ra l i z ed and more f requent i n B.C. than i n other reg ions of Canada ( i b i d , p. 107). Educat ion and income were the most c r u c i a l f a c t o r s i n determin ing museum attendance, and these were " excep -t i o n a l l y s t rong i n f l u e n c e s " i n a r t museum p a r t i c i p a t i o n , accord ing to the repo r t ( i b i d , p. 110). Th i s i n f o rma t i on combined w i th the knowledge that a r t museum v i s i t o r s tended to go dur ing the week and dur ing t h e i r r egu l a r the s t ud i e s of P i e r r e Bourdieu i n France, and of Pau l DiMaggio and M ichae l Useem i n the U.S. [62], suggest a l a c k of success i n reach ing a new audience, de sp i te appearances, and de sp i te Emery 's best e f f o r t s . I f there were more h i p p i e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n VAG's a c t i v i t i e s (a very v i s i b l e c o n s t i t u e n c y ) , they d i d not g r e a t l y a l t e r the s t a t i s t i c a l p r o f i l e , which r e vea l s a s e r i ou s under representa t i on of wo rk i ng - c l a s s and m ino r i t y peoples i n museum, and e s p e c i a l l y art-museum, attendance. S ince Emery and Shadbolt o r i e n t ed t h e i r programme p r i m a r i l y to the young, they were unable to address or redres s the needs of the bulk of the popu l a t i on , who remained c u l t u r a l l y d i s en f r anch i z ed even dur ing the heyday of "democra-t i z a t i o n " . I f Emery had pursued t h i s " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n " of G a l l e r y p o l i c y a lone dur ing h i s career at the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , w i t h the va r i ou s i nnova -working year, i n d i c a t e s a s p e c i f i c c l a s s of p r o f e s s i o n a l s , who DiMaggio and Useem po in t out make up a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e percentage of a r t museum attendance (see Note 63) . 62/ Bourd ieu, op. c i t . , f o r a genera l d i s c u s s i o n ; see a l s o h i s L'Amour de l ' a r t ; l e s musees d ' a r t europeens et l e u r p u b l i c , w r i t t e n w i t h A l a i n Darbe l ( P a r i s : Les E d i t i o n s de m i nu i t , 1969). Pau l DiMaggio and M ichae l Useem, " C u l t u r a l Democracy i n a Pe r i od of C u l t u r a l Expans ion: The S o c i a l Consumption of A r t s Audiences i n the Un i ted S t a t e s , " S o c i a l  Problems, v o l . 26 no. 2 (December 1978), pp. 188-89 (and Table 4 ) . DiMaggio and Useem argue from t h e i r data that wh i l e a r t s audiences may have inc reased s i nce the e a r l y 1960s, they have not broadened s o c i a l l y . Using the prev ious re search of Boumol and Bowen, who conducted the f i r s t ex ten s i ve re search on a r t s consumption i n the e a r l y 1960s, DiMaggio and Useem show tha t p r o f e s s i o n a l s formed 65% of a r t s audiences i n 1963 and 56% i n 1975-76 (v s . 15% of the working p o p u l a t i o n ) , w h i l e the i n d u s t r i a l working c l a s s formed 2.5% of the a r t s audiences i n the e a r l y 1960s, and 3% i n 1975-76 (vs . 34% of the p o p u l a t i o n ) . Hendon, op. c i t . , pp. 57-59, ana lyzes the membership of the Akron A r t I n s t i t u t i o n f o r a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n . Whi le there are i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c accounts of VAG's audience, no a c t u a l study was made of i t s compos i t i on . t i o n s c i t e d above, he would have met s t i f f e r r e s i s t a n c e from VAG t r u s t ee s much e a r l i e r than he d i d . There was a congruence of t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n one important aspect of Emery 's programme, which has only been mentioned so f a r : the i n t e r n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n VAG rece i ved through the s e r i e s of major e x h i b i t i o n s i t organ ized through 1971.[63] VAG's r e p u t a t i o n was perhaps premised on these e x h i b i t i o n s , though once ga ined, a t t e n t i o n was a l s o focussed on i t s i nnova t i on s a t the l o c a l l e v e l . I t was not u n t i l the 1970s t ha t oppo s i t i on to the VAG programme became more concer ted , as the i nnova t i on s of the 1960s were c o n s o l i d a t e d , and when there was a p rog res -s i v e de-emphasis on " i n t e r n a t i o n a l " a r t from south of the border . The s e r i e s of major shows VAG mounted began w i t h A r t s of the Raven i n 1967, which was a c t u a l l y organ ized under R i chard Simmins' d i r e c t i o n . VAG's c o n t r i b u t i o n to the Canadian c e n t e n n i a l was an e x h i b i t i o n of .Northwest Coast Ind ian a r t , curated by Dor i s Shadbolt , which rece i ved n a t i o n a l coverage and which boosted the G a l l e r y i n t o n a t i o n a l prominence f o r the f i r s t t ime, though attendance was not as h igh as was warranted by the a t t e n t i o n i t gathered dur ing i t s four-months ' run.[64] 63/ There were a number of a r t i c l e s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r t j o u r n a l s about Vancouver ' s a r t scene, which corresponded to t h i s i n t e r e s t . These i n c l u d e d : P h i l i p L e i d e r , "Canada: The S t i r i n Vancouver, " a r t scanada, nos. 109/110 (June/July 1967), supplement 4; Lucy L ippard^ "Vancouver, " Artnews, v o l . 67 no. 5 (September 1968), pp. 26, 69-71; David Thompson, "A Canadian Scene: 1," S tud io I n t e r n a t i o n a l , v o l . 176 no. 904 (October 1968), pp. 152-57; Peter S e l z , w i t h A l v i n B a l k i n d , "Vancouver: Scene and Unscene," A r t i n America, v o l . 58 no. 1 (January/February 1970), pp. 122-26. See a l s o Do r i s S hadbo l t ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n e n t i t l e d "The Vancouver Scene" to W i l l i a m Townsend ( e d . ) , Canadian A r t Today (London: Stud io I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1970). 64/ 56,934 people attended A r t s of the Raven from June to September 1967, vs . the " n e a r l y " 21,000 who came to see New York 13 dur ing i t s one-month run e a r l y i n 1969. (Sources: VAG C o u n c i l minutes, 19 October 1967 The next th ree major e x h i b i t i o n s , from 1968 to 1970, concentrated on recent developments i n American a r t , and were i n some sense a r e c a p i t u -l a t i o n of the i n f l u e n c e s working on many younger l o c a l a r t i s t s . These were: Los Angeles 6 (1968), curated by John Coplans, then of the Pasadena Museum of Modern A r t ; New York 13 (1969), organ ized i n New York by Dor i s Shadbolt , w i t h a s s i s t ance from Lucy L i ppa rd and Doug Chr istmas (L ippard c o l l a t e d the cata logue f o r New York 13, and M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum cu ra to r Henry Ge ldzah le r p res ided over the opening); and 955,000 (1970), an e l abo ra te grouping of conceptua l i n s t a l l a t i o n s and s i t e - s p e c i f i c artworks found around the c i t y as w e l l as i n the G a l l e r y i t s e l f . [ 6 5 ] 955,000 was curated by Lucy L ippard - i t s t i t l e based on the purported popu la t i on of the Vancouver met ropo l i t an area - who added s e ve ra l l o c a l a r t i s t s , i n c l u d i n g J e f f Wa l l and I a i n Bax te r , to her e x h i b i t i o n when i t t r a v e l l e d here from S e a t t l e . The l a s t of the major e x h i b i t i o n s , S c u l p t u r e/ I nu i t (1971), was aga in curated by Dor i s Shadbolt , and was organ ized w i t h the a s s i s t ance of the Na t i ona l G a l l e r y i n Ottawa, which toured t h i s p r e s -t i g i o u s e x h i b i t i o n i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . [ 6 6 ] These major shows helped e s t a b l i s h VAG as a s e r i ou s e x h i b i t i o n g a l l e r y , even l e a v i n g i t f r e e to pursue l e s s glamorous p r o j e c t s once i t s c reden -and 10 March 1969.) Th i s was one of the r a t i o n a l e s g iven by Emery f o r h i s emphasis on the contemporary. See Wyman, op. c i t . , p. 30. 65/ An e a r l i e r e x h i b i t i o n , London: The New Scene, brought to VAG from the Whitechapel i n 1965, rounds out the range of i n f l u e n c e s younger Vancouver a r t i s t s were opera t ing under i n the mid-1960s. 66/ S cu l p t u r e/ I nu i t t r a v e l l e d to P a r i s , Copenhagen, Len ingrad, Moscow, London and P h i l a d e l p h i a as w e l l as to c i t i e s i n Canada. McConathy, op. c i t . , p. 12. t i a l s were e s t a b l i s h e d . They were a l l connected w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n s or p r e s t i g i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s beyond Vancouver, which ensured coverage or a t t e n t i o n ou t s i de as w e l l as w i t h i n the c i t y . Whi le A r t s of the Raven was the f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t show of t h i s t ype , i t was the e x h i b i t i o n s of recent American a r t t ha t were the most i n d i c a t i v e of changes i n G a l l e r y p o l i c y , and which were most popular w i th the c l a s s f r a c t i o n a s soc i a ted w i t h VAG as t r u s t e e s and as c o l l e c t o r s . At l e a s t the f i r s t two of the b i g American e x h i b i t i o n s , L.A. 6 and NY 13, were r e t r o s p e c t i v e i n c ha r a c t e r , r a t he r than g i v i n g an i n d i c a t i o n of cu r ren t p u r s u i t s i n a r t . Los Angeles 6 gave a good resume of an a r t i s t i c scene then on the wane, as g a l l e r i e s were c l o s i n g up and a r t i s t s moving to New York [67 ] , though New York 13 presented a very approximate view of a c t i v i t i e s i n New York, concen t r a t i n g on a r t i s t s who, f o r the most p a r t , had made t h e i r r epu ta t i on s i n the l a t e 1950s or e a r l y 1960s.[68] New York 13 a t t r a c t e d more p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n perhaps than any other e x h i b i t i o n i n the G a l l e r y ' s h i s t o r y , up to the hoopla surrounding i t s re-opening a t the Courthouse i n 1983 - a l though each major e x h i b i t i o n i n the 1967-71 pe r i od was cause f o r a con s ide rab le amount of f u s s . The show i t s e l f l acked f ocu s , w i t h new and o l d works by 13 d i ve r se a r t i s t s who shared only the achievement of a c e r t a i n l e v e l of r e p u t a t i o n : Jasper Johns, Donald Judd, E l l s w o r t h K e l l y , Roy L i c h t e n s t e i n , Robert M o r r i s , Ba rnet t Newman, Kenneth Noland, C laes Oldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, 67/ Peter P lagens, Sunshine Muse: Contemporary A r t on the West Coast (New York: Praeger, 1974), p. 20. 68/ Only 'Robert Mo r r i s cou ld i n any sense have been cons idered "new" a t the t ime, a l l p re tens ions to the c on t r a r y . James Rosenquis t , George Sega l , Frank S t e l l a and Andy Warhol. I t was the spec tacu l a r nature of a c o l l e c t i o n of a r t i s t s t h i s wel l -known, r a the r than the i n s t r u c t i v e nature of such a j u x t a p o s i t i o n , t ha t was a t t r a c t i v e , though t h i s d i d not prevent rev iewers from c o n s t r u c t i n g c o n t i n u i t i e s between a r t i s t s ' works where none e x i s t e d . VAG was c l o sed f o r three weeks p r i o r to the e x h i b i t i o n , i n order to add an a i r of mystery and a n t i c i p a t i o n to the event. M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum cu ra to r Henry Ge ldzah le r came e a r l y , to be i n te r v i ewed on r ad i o and t e l e v i s i o n as w e l l as i n the press wh i l e he was here, and extended q u i t e l a v i s h p r a i s e to the show, i t s c u r a t o r , and the i n s t i t u t i o n tha t organized i t ; i n h i s words " a museum much c l o s e r to New York than Vancouver would be proud of t h i s show.[69]" There was i n genera l a tremendous amount of press coverage p r i o r to the e x h i b i t i o n , f o r the opening, and r e c u r r i n g dur ing the course of i t s run . New York 13 was going to be "b i gge r and b e t t e r " than L.A. 6, accord ing to a preview i n The P rov ince . [70 ] Even Tony Emery got to w r i t e a lengthy promotion f o r New York 13 the week before the opening, pushing f o r sa le s of the cata logue. [71 ] The cover s to ry of the Le i s u r e supplement to The Vancouver Sun a l s o fea tu red the immanent e x h i b i t i o n , i t s g raph ic a c o l l a g e of images from the show brought together 69/ C h a r l o t t e Townsend, "New York Expert P r a i s e s A r t Show," The  Vancouver Sun (22 January 1969). Note the p a t r o n i z i n g tone of h i s comment. 70/ Joan Lowndes, "New York 13 " , The P rov ince (3 January 1969). 71/ "New York 13 - by Anthony Emery", The P rov ince (17 January 1969). t o represent New York C i t y . [ 7 2 ] Apparent l y , Vancouver was so s p e c i a l t ha t some of the a r t i s t s (Rosenquist and Oldenburg) were c r e a t i n g works e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h i s e x h i b i t i o n . [ 7 3 ] R ichard Simmins opened h i s preview of New York 13 f o r The P rov ince w i t h the words: " I t i s good to cont inue to be at the cent re of t h i n g s . " He cont inued w i t h the statement tha t t h i s " r e a l avant-garde show" was " t he most important e x h i b i t i o n of contemporary American a r t yet shown i n Canada.[74] " The press coverage, which i nc l uded correspondents from S e a t t l e and Toronto, was un i fo rmly e n t h u s i a s t i c w i t h the q u a l i f i e d except ion of Toronto c r i t i c Harry Malcolmson - and then only i n comparison to what he cons idered a groundbreaking L.A. 6 e x h i b i t i o n . [ 7 5 ] Th i s de sp i t e the "mot l ey " nature of the c o l l e c t i o n [ 7 6 ] , and the f a c t t ha t i t d i d not l i v e up to one of i t s two o s t e n s i b l e reasons f o r be ing , the recentness of the 72/ The Vancouver Sun (17 January 1969). These i nc l uded d e t a i l s of Don Judd ' s modular u n i t s , Warho l ' s B r i l l o boxes, George S e g a l ' s E xecu t i on , Rauschenberg 's A x l e , and (what cou ld be more app rop r i a te ? ) O ldenburg ' s So f t Manhattan. 73/ E i l e e n Johnson, "New Y o r k ' s 13 Do The i r Thing f o r Us , " The  Vancouver Sun (17 January 1969). Rosenquist s i t e d h i s Aurora B o r e a l i s here - a l though a v e r s i o n had a l s o been i n s t a l l e d e lsewhere. I t was one of the few poor ly r e ce i ved p ieces i n the e x h i b i t i o n . O ldenburg ' s Hard Saw was made here to the a r t i s t ' s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s - one of h i s f i r s t manufactured ob jec t s - and bought by VAG at the conc lu s i on of the show. 74/ R i chard Simmins, " I t ' s New York 13 , " The P rov ince (24 January 1969). Desp i te the genera l a cc l a im NY 13 r e c e i v e d , Simmins was the only one who went so f a r as to l a b e l i t " a van t - ga rde " ( s t i l l a v i r t u e then ) . 75/ Harry Malcolmson, "Vancouver s t i l l has the c o u n t r y ' s l e ad i ng mun i c i pa l a r t g a l l e r y , " Toronto D a i l y S t a r , n.d. Th i s i tem i s found i n VAG's press c l i p p i n g s f i l e , which i s arranged c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , together w i t h other i tems concern ing NY 13. 76/ Lucy L i p p a r d ' s term i n the " E d i t o r ' s Note" to the New York 13 cata logue she brought together (VAG, 1969). work shown: some of the p ieces were s e ve r a l years o l d , f o r example Rauschenberg 's Ax le of 1964, or Warho l ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s (a l though the B r i l l o boxes weren ' t even produced by the a r t i s t , but came from the o r i g i n a l manufacturer ) . [77] But the po in t wasn ' t to e s t a b l i s h a c r i t i c a l d ia logue about the work; so many d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s , a l l presented n e u t r a l l y (though w i t h much f an f a r e over the show as a whole) - a procedure r e p r o -duced i n the ca ta logue , which merely c o l l e c t e d va r i ou s statements by and about each a r t i s t - tended to d im in i s h the d i f f e r e n c e s between the s t r a t e g i e s and i n t e n t i o n s of the va r i ou s a r t i s t s , so t ha t each a r t i s t i c statement comes to ho ld the same va lue as the next , or r a t he r they cannot be d i s t i n g u i s h e d : the whole becomes a d a z z l i n g , or a numbing, s p e c t a c l e , depending upon one ' s degree of a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the a r t shown. P o t e n t i a l l y d i s t u r b i n g or negat ive statements by Warhol, Segal o r , indeed, Mo r r i s were subsumed i n a genera l s p i r i t of c e l e b r a t i o n , a sense of wonder and g r a t i t u d e tha t we r e a l l y were so s p e c i a l as to have the work of these f o r e i g n masters shown i n our own town. The se r i ou s d i f f e r e n c e s here were presented as a k i nd of " f r e e e n t e r p r i s e " of a r t i s t i c n e s s f 7 8 ] , s imply a matter of t a s t e or cho i ce f o r competing brands of a r t . The rev iews f o l l owed on the nature of the e x h i b i t i o n ; g iven the d i v e r s i t y of the a r t on d i s p l a y and t h e i r own l i m i t s of space, they merely c h r o n i c l e d the 77/ Simmins, op. c i t . 78/ Simmins' term; i b i d . v a r i o u s s t y l e s , though c o n s t r u c t i n g c o n t i n u i t i e s between a r t i s t s ' works ( t h a t were i n e v i t a b l y f o r m a l i s t i c ) which made the d i s c u s s i o n s simpler.[79] 79/ For i n s t a n c e , Simmins, Townsend and S a l l y Hayman (of the S e a t t l e  P o s t - I n t e l l i g e n c e r ) a l l began t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s of the works with the f o r m a l i s t a r t i s t s , l i n k i n g them through colour and shape, before pro-ceeding to the s o - c a l l e d f i g u r a t i v e a r t i s t s l i k e Rauschenberg, Warhol and Segal. Simmins began h i s review w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of shape and space i n Warhol's B r i l l o boxes, Judd's s t e e l boxes, Newman's white-on-white canvas, M o r r i s ' s t e e l cubes g e o m e t r i c a l l y arranged, and K e l l y ' s monochrome canvasses and s c u l p t u r e . A l l of these were discussed i n terms of percep-t i o n and s e n s a t i o n ; f o r example, Simmins described Judd's work i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: "The p l e x i g l a s s i s a golden orange and the gleaming s t e e l turns black and ominous as you recede. / / I t i s m o n o l i t h i c and s o l i d , yet i t shimmers i n the l i g h t . I t i s a new form i n p e r f e c t e s t h e t i c balance." K e l l y ' s work was "unadulterated, sensuous, h e d o n i s t i c , " "a t o t a l l y s a t i s f y i n g experience." The d i s c u s s i o n moves from Warhol's boxes to Judd's boxes, from Judd's monoliths to Newman's monolith, from Newman's sc a l e to M o r r i s ' s c a l e , from M o r r i s ' modular u n i t s to those of K e l l y . The weight of t h i s chain of c o n t i n u i t i e s c o l l a p s e s at the point where q u a l i -t a t i v e judgments begin: Oldenburg i s " d i s t u r b i n g " but "disarming," Rauschenberg "noble and v u l g a r , " Rosenquist " d i s a p p o i n t i n g , " and Segal, f i n a l l y , i s a "humanist". Townsend's review begins with a d i s c u s s i o n of c o l o u r , l i n k i n g S t e l l a ' s " v i r t u o s o o p t i c s " to K e l l y ' s plane s u r f a c e s , which are about "pure c o l o r . " Then comes L i c h t e n s t e i n 1 s fragmentation of c o l o u r , and Noland's long s t r i p e s . A l l of these works are p l a y i n g w i t h the l i m i t a t i o n s of the p i c t u r e s u r f a c e , according to Townsend; one of L i c h t e n s t e i n ' s works i s a dot p a i n t i n g of i t s other s i d e , w i t h s t r e t c h e r and supports. Johns' work i s "another attempt to reach a pure, formless c o l o r , c o l o r i n the a b s t r a c t . " Johns' e a r l i e r pop imagery i s next used to b r i n g up Warhol, whose boxes (and the two a r t i s t s ' a t t i t u d e s ) are described as deadpan, "against i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " This a t t i t u d e i s used to introduce the non-d e s c r i p t works of Judd and M o r r i s ; The p r i m i t i v e form of l i n k a g e p r a c t i c e d breaks down w i t h Rauschenberg, "at some ki n d of opposite e x t r e m i t y , " but the p r a c t i c e p e r s i s t s i n Townsend's l i n k i n g of Rauschenberg's and Warhol's mass media images, and Rosenquist's s i m i l a r pop s e n s i b i l i t y . Segal, again, i s seen as a humanist, more i t seems f o r h i s l i f e - s i z e f i g u r e s than anything e l s e . S a l l y Hayman a l s o s t a r t s o f f w i t h the f o r m a l i s t a r t i s t s : "The s c u l p t u r e of Robert M o r r i s and Donald Judd, and the p a i n t i n g s of E l l s w o r t h K e l l y , Barnett Newman and Kenneth Noland share a mutual concern f o r r i g o r o u s p u r i t y . They are searching f o r the archetypes or essences that P l a t o described as forms." A f t e r d e s c r i b i n g the g e s t a l t - l i k e works of these a r t i s t s , she d e scribes S t e l l a ' s "new d i r e c t i o n s " i n terms of o p t i c a l complexity. Then comes a break, with Segal, Warhol, L i c h t e n s t e i n , The e f f e c t de s i r ed was ach ieved. New York 13 was an e x h i b i t i o n which appealed to a l l the sec to r s bear ing on the G a l l e r y ' s e x i s t e n c e : l o c a l a r t i s t s and cognoscent i ; c r i t i c s ; VAG members (and i t s C o u n c i l - Emery was o f f e r e d a f i v e - y e a r c on t r a c t out of t h i s e x h i b i t i o n ) [ 8 0 ] ; the Canada C o u n c i l ; the l a r g e youth audience; many of the l a y cu r i ou s i n t r i g u e d by the p u b l i c i t y surrounding the show (which 21,000 a t tended ) ; and, s i g n i f i -cant to our d i s c u s s i o n here , Vancouver ' s a r t c o l l e c t o r s . In the l a t e 1960s, many of the people who had been a s soc i a ted w i t h the G a l l e r y on a long- term ba s i s dropped out of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t s a c t i v i -t i e s . [81] These were, however, v e s t i g e s of the t ime when the G a l l e r y had served as a s em i - p r o f e s s i ona l meeting p lace f o r Vancouver ' s o l d wea l th , people who w i t h few except ions e x h i b i t e d l i t t l e f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h p r o f e s -Rauschenberg, Oldenburg and Rosenquist f o l l o w i n g on. One of the f u n n i e s t t r a n s i t i o n s i s made by Jean B a t i e of the S e a t t l e Times, who l i n k s L i c h t e n -s t e i n ' s dot p a i n t i n g and the ho les i n Judd ' s pe r fo ra ted s t e e l , i n order i t seems to leap the gap between the f o r m a l i s t and the pop a r t i s t s . Simmins, op. c i t . ; C h a r l o t t e Townsend, "About A r t . . . . , " The Vancouver Sun (31 January 1969); S a l l y Hayman, "Vancouver O f f e r s One-Stop New York G a l l e r y Tour , " S e a t t l e P o s t - I n t e l l i g e n c e r , "Northwest Today" supplement (9 February 1969); Jean B a t i e , ' "New York 13 ' Show i n Vancouver, " The S e a t t l e  Times (9 February 1969). By making l i n k s , one d i d not have to account f o r the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s embodied i n the works, which were i n any case t r i v i a -l i z e d by the whole process of the e x h i b i t i o n . 80/ VAG C o u n c i l minutes (17 A p r i l 1969). 81/ These i nc l uded many who had been a s soc i a ted w i t h the G a l l e r y s i nce the 1940s, i n c l u d i n g Mrs. J . P . F e l l , Iby (Mrs. Ot to ) Koerner, a wealthy and c u l t u r e d woman who had been i n the f o r e f r o n t of a r t s a c t i v i t y i n Vancouver f o r two decades; and past p re s i den t s D.M. Stewart , Thomas Ingledow, and Pete r Downes. I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, a f t e r h i s tenure began Luke Rombout l u r e d s e ve r a l people back to the VAG C o u n c i l who had been i n vo l ved w i t h VAG i n the e a r l y 1960s, i n c l u d i n g Stewart , Doug Brown, Ron L o n g s t a f f e , David Ca t t on , and Dorothy Jane Boyce (who had been w i t h the Women's A u x i l i a r y i n the 1950s) - a l l presumably f o r t h e i r impeccable s o c i a l connect ions . s i o n a l c u l t u r e . Many younger p r o f e s s i o n a l and bus iness people, who were themselves c o l l e c t o r s , were brought to VAG w i t h the a m p l i f i c a t i o n of the G a l l e r y ' s programme from the e a r l y 1960s, and they supported the G a l l e r y ' s expansion i n t o the area of contemporary, and e s p e c i a l l y American, a r t . These i n c l uded s e ve r a l people who had been a s soc i a ted w i t h the New Design G a l l e r y i n the l a t e 1950s/early 1960s, when i t was Vancouver ' s only o u t l e t f o r contemporary a r t : Ron Long s t a f f e , an execu t i ve w i t h Canadian Fores t P roduct s ; a r c h i t e c t s Geoff Massey and Ian Davidson; and Dorothy A u s t i n . The New Design had been s t a r t e d by A l v i n Ba l k i nd and Abe Rogatnick upon t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Vancouver i n 1955, when they r e a l i z e d there was no Vancouver dea le r f o r l o c a l or Canadian contemporary a r t . [ 8 2 ] By the e a r l y 1960s, d i r e c t i o n of the New Design had been passed over to the above-named c o l l e c t o r s , who so ld t h e i r f l o u n d e r i n g ope ra t i on i n 1966 to Douglas Chr i s tmas, i n exchange f o r f u t u r e c r e d i t on purchases at h i s Douglas G a l l e r y . [ 8 3 ] U n t i l the l a t e 1960s, these c o l l e c t o r s and others concentrated t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s around Vancouver a r t i s t s , and to a l e s s e r extent on eas te rn Canadian a r t . Th i s was the f i e l d i n which Chr i s tmas cont inued to dea l u n t i l 1970, showing many of the new crop of Vancouver a r t i s t s , such as M ichae l M o r r i s , I a i n Bax te r , Gath ie F a l k , and Glenn Lewis. Beginning i n 1967, he a l s o began to dea l i n American a r t , which d i s p l a ced e x h i b i t i o n s 82/ B a l k i n d and Rogatn ick, op. c i t . , p. 8. 83/ I b i d , pp. 9-10; Joan Lowndes, "Ace: The West Coast C a s t e l l i , " Vanguard, v o l . 6 no. 3 ( A p r i l 1977), p. 8. by l o c a l a r t i s t s to an i n c r e a s i n g extent from 1969 to 1971. [84] In 1967, Chr istmas had e s t a b l i s h e d contact w i t h Robert Rauschenberg, and brought him to Vancouver f o r an e x h i b i t i o n of h i s " Boo s te r " p r i n t s , and f o r a ga la par ty on a yacht rented f o r the occas ion. [85 ] For the next three years , Chr istmas made ex tens i ve t r i p s to New York, c u l t i v a t i n g con tac t s i n the a r t w o r l d t he r e , and e ven tua l l y secur ing the West Coast r i g h t s to s e ve r a l of Leo C a s t e l l i ' s s t a b l e of a r t i s t s . [ 8 6 ] In 1971, M i chae l Mo r r i s was the l a s t Vancouver a r t i s t to be g iven space at Ch r i s tmas ' g a l l e r y (renamed Ace G a l l e r y i n 1970).[87] Chr istmas had a l s o bought out V i r g i n i a Dwan's Los Angeles g a l l e r y i n 1967, when Dwan moved to New York, and gained a s t a b l e of L.A. a r t i s t s [ 8 8 ] , as he had done w i t h the Vancouver a r t i s t s a t tached to the New Design G a l l e r y . Thus Chr i s tmas ' hand can be d i scerned not too f a r behind the L.A. 6 as w e l l as the New York 13 e x h i b i t i o n , though he was c r e d i t e d 84/ A l l the Douglas and Ace G a l l e r y e x h i b i t i ons are l i s t e d i n Vancouver: A r t and A r t i s t s , op. c i t . , i n the ch rono log ie s f o l l o w i n g each chapte r . 85/ Lowndes, op. c i t . , p. 8. 86/ I b i d . In Lowndes' a r t i c l e , Chr istmas r e vea l s how he wants to be the new C a s t e l l i , s i nce the o l d one i s s lowing down. Chapter I desc r ibed how the p r e sen t a t i on of Rauschenberg 's a r t i n Vancouver was shaped by Chr i s tmas. Rauschenberg has undoubtedly been the a r t i s t Chr istmas has most promoted, a l though the ex-Vancouver i te a l s o deals e x t e n s i v e l y i n works by Warhol, F r anken tha le r , S t e l l a , Sam F r a n c i s and R ichard S e r r a , to name but a few at random. L a t e l y , he has been i n t r o d u c i n g a few younger (European) a r t i s t s i n t o h i s r e p e r t o r y . 87/ Vancouver: A r t and A r t i s t s , p. 336. 88/ These i n c l uded a r t i s t s l i k e John McCracken and DeWain V a l e n t i n e . By 1977, Chr istmas t o l d Lowndes he was " c a s t i n g them o f f " (Lowndes, op. c i t . , p. 8 ) , de sp i te the a d d i t i o n of a second g a l l e r y ( i n Ven ice) i n the L.A. a r ea . 102 f o r a s s i s t ance only i n the l a t t e r ' s ca ta logue. [89 ] ( In an i n t e r v i e w Henry Ge ldzah l e r gave at the time of the NY 13 opening, he s a i d t h a t what l i t t l e he knew of the Vancouver a r t scene was l a r g e l y due to Chr i s tmas . [90 ] ) The expansion of the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y ' s concerns south of the border p a r a l l e l s Ch r i s tmas ' own expansion of amb i t i ons , as w e l l as those of h i s c l i e n t s . [ 9 1 ] Chr istmas became the main dea le r i n the 1970s f o r most of Vancouver ' s major c o l l e c t o r s : L ong s t a f f e , I r a Young, Davidson, Massey, A u s t i n , and 89/ New York 13 (Vancouver: VAG, 1969), n.p. 90/ Roy S t a r r s , "An expert sets the scene f o r New York 13 , " The  P rov ince (22 January 1969). 91/ Garth Stevenson po i n t s out t h a t , s i nce there i s no n a t i o n a l (or n a t i o n a l i s t ) bou rgeo i s i e i n Canada, l e g i t i m a t i o n , even i n c u l t u r a l terms, has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been sought by the r e g i o n a l bou rgeo i s i e s by r e l a t i o n to American r a t he r than t o Canadian models; the l i n kage i s North-South r a the r than East-West, e s p e c i a l l y so i n B.C., and de sp i t e the f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l expend i tu re . The c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s i n Canada i s f r a c t i o n a l i z e d , and has tended to p a r a l l e l i t s c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s w i t h i t s economic ones. See Garth Stevenson, " Fede ra l i sm and the p o l i t i c a l economy of the Canadian s t a t e , " i n P an i t ch ( e d . ) , op. c i t . ; see a l s o Wal lace Clement, "The corporate e l i t e , the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s , and the Canadian s t a t e , " i b i d . Th i s has c e r t a i n l y been t r ue i n B.C. i n the 1970s, as the r i s i n g bus iness c l a s s i n the p rov i nce , which i s i n many cases i d e n t i c a l w i t h the prominent c o l l e c t o r s and those a s soc i a ted w i t h VAG as t r u s t e e s , has been economi-c a l l y a c t i v e e s p e c i a l l y i n the U.S. Sunbe l t , even i f s t i l l based i n Vancouver. See Pete r C. Newman, The Canadian E s tab l i shment , Volume Two:  The A c q u i s i t o r s (Toronto: McC le l l and and Stewart , 1981), which presents u n c r i t i c a l and anecdota l (but o f t en i n f o rma t i v e ) p o r t r a i t s of many of the B.C. s pecu l a to r s e x t r a o r d i n a i r e . VAG d i r e c t o r Luke Rombout worked hard to ga in a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the e n t i r e B.C. r u l i n g c l a s s s t r u c t u r e on the G a l l e r y board i n the l a t e 1970s and 1980s. But t h i s bourgeo i s i e was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the o l d (and more na t i ona l l y -m inded ) B.C. r u l i n g c l a s s t ha t had founded and organ ized the programme of VAG i n i t s e a r l i e r i n c a r n a t i o n , and so a l s o d i d i t have d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s . Chr istmas was i d e a l l y s i t u a t e d to s e r v i c e these i n t e r e s t s , f o r a t ime. Fred Stimpson ( a l l of whom have sat on VAG C o u n c i l a t some po i n t ) . [ 9 2 ] As Ch r i s tmas ' ambit ions exceeded the l o c a l i t y , h i s c l i e n t s soon e c l i p s e d t h e i r e a r l i e r p reference f o r the products of the l o c a l a r t i s t i c scene, so much so that Vancouver c r i t i c Joan Lowndes wrote i n 1978: The i n f l u e n c e of Ace has been q u i e t l y pe r va s i ve . Although i t i s not the s o l e o u t l e t here f o r American a r t . . . i t i s the source of most American a r t i n p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s . . . . T h e c o l l e c t i o n s r e p r e -sent f l a w l e s s d i s p l a y s of t a s t e w i t h i n sa fe parameters. One has the impress ion tha t to i n t r oduce a Canadian would be tantamount to a faux pas.[93] In order to s t imu l a t e l o c a l i n t e r e s t i n contemporary American a r t , Chr istmas e s t a b l i s h e d the Contemporary A r t Soc ie ty i n 1977 w i t h Dorothy A u s t i n , A r thur E r i c k s o n , B r i g i t t e Freybe, Janet Ketcham and Fred S t imp-son[94] , which aimed to b r i n g a r t i s t s and c r i t i c s to Vancouver to l e c t u r e on contemporary a r t i s s u e s , and which cont inues to hold i t s ses s ions on the G a l l e r y ' s premises. Chr istmas h imse l f d isappeared e n t i r e l y from Vancouver by 1980, presumably to concent rate on the opening of h i s new branch on the l i e Sa i n t Lou i s i n P a r i s i n 1982, and i n c i d e n t a l l y l e a v i n g unpaid debts and a re s i due of b i t t e r n e s s over h i s par t i n the Muckamuck re s tau ran t labour d i s pu te , a b i t t e r n e s s shared by many of the r e s i d e n t s of Ven ice , C a l i f o r n i a , s i t e of another of Chr i s tmas ' g a l l e r i e s . [ 9 5 ] 92/ Long s ta f fe has been a s soc i a ted w i t h the G a l l e r y s i nce the e a r l y 1960s, and p layed a l a r ge r o l e i n the r e - o r i e n t a t i o n of VAG dur ing the 1970s. Davidson, Massey and Au s t i n served on C o u n c i l f o r lengthy pe r i od s , Young and Stimpson more b r i e f l y . 93/ Lowndes, " A c e , " p. 9. 94/ I b i d ; then c a l l e d the "Contemporary A r t s C o u n c i l " . 95/ Persimmon B l a c kb r i d ge , "The Chr istmas Connect ion: An a r t i s t ' s i m p r e s s i o n , " K i n e s i s (August 1978), p. 7. Th i s a r t i c l e i s a resume of Ch r i s tmas ' bad deeds, e s p e c i a l l y i n connect ion w i t h the Muckamuck So the emphasis by the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y on recent developments i n American a r t was supported by a s i g n i f i c a n t s e c t i o n of G a l l e r y members and t r u s t e e s . Much was made of the c u l t i v a t i o n of con tac t s south of the border w i t h the l i k e s of Peter S e l z , John Coplans and Lucy L i p p a r d , and the purchase of contemporary American a r t w i t h the G a l l e r y ' s l i m i t e d a c q u i -s i t i o n funds was made a p r i o r i t y i n the l a t e 1960s.[96] VAG bought two p r i n t s from the Douglas G a l l e r y ' s Rauschenberg e x h i b i t i o n i n 1967[97], and a Frank S t e l l a canvas was purchased i n 1968, as w e l l as works by John McCracken and Robert I rw in from the L.A. 6 e x h i b i t i o n . In 1969, the G a l l e r y bought C laes O ldenburg ' s Hard Saw, manufactured here and e x h i b i t e d i n the NY 13 show, from the J a n i s G a l l e r y i n New York f o r $9,000, and George S e g a l ' s Execut ion was purchased and donated to VAG by r e s t au ran t (of which he was a j o i n t owner), and h i s hand l i ng of the Ind ian workers the re and t h e i r union SORWUC. See t h i s a r t i c l e a l s o f o r h i s c a v a l i e r treatment of the r e s i d e n t s of Venice and t h e i r town c o u n c i l . 96/ Emery and Shadbolt recommended the purchas ing of contemporary American a r t i n the l a t e 1960s, as works were " p r i c y but s t i l l a f f o r d -a b l e , " and as a means of deve lop ing l i n k s south of the border (VAG C o u n c i l Execut i ve Committee minutes, 3 May 1968). Max K o z l o f f , i n an a r t i c l e pub l i shed i n 1971, po inted to t h i s as a phenomenon not j u s t r e s t r i c t e d to Canada: As the amount of purchasable o lde r a r t d e c l i n e s , or becomes exo r -b i t a n t f o r l i m i t e d a c q u i s i t i o n funds, the museums are fo rced to t u r n to the open, h i g h - r i s k area of a r t i n progress as t h e i r prime area of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Max K o z l o f f , "Under the co rporate w i n g , " A r t i n Amer ica, v o l . 59 no. 4 ( Ju ly -Augus t 1971), p. 95. The s i t u a t i o n was s t i l l more complex f o r a sma l l g a l l e r y , expansive though i t was, i n a remote area of a neighbour ing count ry . 97/ VAG Counc i l Permanent C o l l e c t i o n Committee minutes (7 September 1967), p. 2. 105 the Diamond f a m i l y of Vancouver, i n the midst of the c a l c u l a t e d p u b l i c h y s t e r i a engendered by tha t show.[98] The t u r n i n g away from t h i s " i n t e r n a t i o n a l " aspect of the VAG e x h i b i t i o n p o l i c y , which was no longer pursued a f t e r 1971, helped to a l i e n a t e tha t p rog re s s i ve f a c t i o n of the l o c a l bou rgeo i s i e which had i n genera l supported Emery 's p o l i c y because i t converged w i t h t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s i n t a s t e and accumulat ion, and who at the l e a s t had endured the steps he took to e n l i s t a wider audience. I t was when he abandoned one aspect of h i s programme, to concentrate more f u l l y on what he conceived to be the more e s s e n t i a l p r o j e c t , t ha t he got i n t o t r o u b l e , because t h i s t u r n i n g away i n vo l ved a r e j e c t i o n of the elements c o n s p i r i n g to found and f u r n i s h VAG i n t h e i r own image; even the younger and more v igorous c o l l e c t o r s had no d e s i r e to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r own ( c u l t u r a l ) l i q u i d a t i o n , even i f t h i s effacement was i n the l a r g e r i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r c l a s s , as guaranteed by f e d e r a l government p o l i c y i n both the i d e o l o g i c a l and economic spheres.[99] Emery h imse l f s a i d , i n a l a t e r r e f l e c t i o n : 98/ VAG C o u n c i l minutes (10 March 1969), p. 2. 99/ That i s , i n order to serve the genera l i n t e r e s t s of c a p i t a l , the s t a te must o c c a s i o n a l l y t r an sg re s s the s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s of a p a r t i c u l a r f r a c t i o n of c a p i t a l . Th i s i s because the s t a t e needs to be seen as independent of a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s i n order to guarantee the c o n d i t i o n s of hegemony, and because the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s i s f r a c t i o n a l i z e d and unable to always act i n i t s own longterm i n t e r e s t (except i n t imes of c r i s i s ) . See Gough, op. c i t . , pp. 64-65. In Canada, the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s i s f r a c t i o n a -l i z e d more than usua l due to the s i z e of the country and the l a c k of i n t e g r a t i o n of c a p i t a l on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s . So the l e g i t i m a t i o n f u n c t i o n of the s t a t e i s h i g h l y important here, though the mechanics of i t are being i n c r e a s i n g l y c a l l e d i n t o ques t ion i n the 1980s. See Clement, op. c i t . , p. 228. In t h i s sense, the Canada Counc i l f unc t i oned as an agent of s t a t e hegemony, even w h i l e ma in ta i n i ng i t s " a rms - l eng th " r e l a t i o n s h i p to 106 I d i d n ' t l i k e c o l l e c t o r s p a r t i c u l a r l y because, to my way of t h i n k i n g , they always use g a l l e r i e s to v a l i d a t e t h e i r own guesses, to get f r e e adv i ce , to put on shows which i n f l a t e the va lue of t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n . . 1 never thought i t was as l e g i t i m a t e an a s p i r a -t i o n to s e r v i c e these people as to t r y to c r ea te a whole new audience.[100] And f u r t h e r : "The f a c t i s there are t imes when you j u s t have to make the cho i ce and tha t was a time when you c o u l d n ' t have bo th . [ 101 ] " As upset as many t r u s t e e s were i n the e a r l y 1970s (and donat ions to VAG plummeted at t h i s t ime) [102 ] , no se r i ou s c o n f l i c t w i t h Emery was po s s i b l e so long as VAG's p o l i c i e s were admired and supported by government agenc ie s . Not only was the d i r e c t o r c on t i nu i ng to secure l a r g e grants from the Canada C o u n c i l f o r h i s e x h i b i t i o n and events programmes, but he was g e t t i n g other funds both f o r the s a t e l l i t e g a l l e r i e s from the f e d e r a l L IP and 0FY programmes, and f o r the extens ion tour s from the p r o v i n c i a l government.[103] However, a combinat ion of c i rcumstances began to under-mine h i s p o s i t i o n . the government i n power, and i t s s p e c i f i c programmes sometimes c o n t r a -d i c t e d the p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s of c o l l e c t o r s . But even i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , the c o n t r a d i c t i o n was soon re so l ved a f t e r a f a s h i o n , as the meaning of " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n " ( i n terms of c u l t u r a l p o l i c y ) changed dur ing the 1970s. See a l s o Zuk in and Cout t s -Smi th on the museums as a means of i n t e g r a t i o n and i n d o c t r i n a t i o n : Sharon Zuk i n , " A r t i n the Arms of Power: Market R e l a t i o n s and C o l l e c t i v e Patronage i n the C a p i t a l i s t S t a t e , " Theory and  S o c i e t y , v o l . 11 no. 4 ( J u l y 1982), pp. 423-51; Cou t t s - Sm i th , " A r t and S o c i a l T r an s f o rmat i on , " op. c i t . 100/ Emery, Vancouver: A r t and A r t i s t s , pp. 258-59. 101/ I b i d , p. 259. 102/ See note 57. 103/ The c i v i c government, of course, was a l s o c o n t r i b u t i n g anywhere from one-quarter to o n e - t h i r d of the budget annua l l y , f o r s a l a r i e s and maintenance. For reasons o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r (see pp. 72—7'4 above), the f e d e r a l govern-ment had begun t a l k i n g about " p a r t i c i p a t i o n " and " democ ra t i z a t i on and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n " soon a f t e r P i e r r e Trudeau ' s e l e c t i o n as prime m i n i s t e r i n 1968. The Secreta ry of S t a t e ' s department conceived of the L o c a l I n i t i a t i v e s P r o j e c t s ( L I P ) , Oppo r tun i t i e s f o r Youth (OFY) and New Horizons ( p r o j e c t s f o r sen io r c i t i z e n s ) as means f o r drawing d i s a f f e c t e d or marg i na l i zed sec to r s back i n t o the mainstream of s o c i e t y , w i t h p r o j e c t s concep tua l i zed and c a r r i e d out by sma l l ad hoc groups.[104] Many of the p r o j e c t s approved turned out to be i n the area of c u l t u r e , a l b e i t on the amateur and r e g i o n a l l e v e l . When the LIP and OFY programmes were e i t h e r e l im i na t ed or transformed i n t o s imple employment programmes f o l l o w i n g the near defeat of the L i b e r a l government i n 1972, i t was found d e s i r a b l e to have the Canada C o u n c i l cont inue many of the i n d i v i d u a l p r o jec t s . [ 105 ] Andre F o r t i e r , who became f i r s t head of the A r t s and Cu l t u r e branch of the Secretary of S t a t e ' s department, then d i r e c t o r of the Canada Counc i l i n 1972, announced such a p o l i c y i n e a r l y 1974, f o l l o w i n g the e x p i r a t i o n of the L IP.[106] I t was s t a ted tha t l a r g e a r t s i n s t i t u t i o n s would have t h e i r CC grants f r o zen to a l l ow f o r t h i s a d d i t i o n a l ou t l a y of funds, and they were encouraged to t u rn to p r i v a t e co rpo ra t i on s or to the p r o v i n c i a l governments to make up the d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i r needs and CC 104/ See the a r t i c l e s by Huston and Loney, op. c i t . ; a l s o John M e i s e l , " S o c i a l Research and the P o l i t i c s of C u l t u r e , " In Zuzanek ( ed . ) , op. c i t . , pp. 8-9. 105/ " A r t s groups p r e d i c t c u t s , " The P rov ince (16 March 1974); M e i s e l , i b i d . 106/ The P rov ince (16 March 1974). funding. [107] Accord ing t o P rov ince r e p o r t e r Ray C h a t e l i n , " F o r t i e r s a i d h i s ambi t ion was to t r a n s f e r the r o l e of the Canada C o u n c i l to p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s . He wanted to get the l a r ge money devourers o f f h i s back . [ 108 ] " The i m p l i c a t i o n was tha t the i n s t i t u t i o n s of bourgeois c u l t u r e cou l d/ should be looked a f t e r by t h e i r own k i n d , wh i l e the s t a t e would a i d the c u l t u r a l i n i t i a t i v e s of l e s s - e s t a b l i s h e d groups. To t h i s end the Counc i l f o r Bus iness and the A r t s i n Canada (CBAC) was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1974 w i t h the a i d of funds from the Canada Counc i l [ 1 09 ] ; i t was designed to persuade co rpo ra t i on s to channel more of t h e i r c h a r i t a b l e donat ions to the a r t s . Another s i gn of l e s s en i ng emphasis on " e x c e l l e n c e " or e l i t e c u l t u r e was the es tab l i shment of the N a t i o n a l Museums P o l i c y (NMP), announced by the Secreta ry of S ta te i n 1972, which would prov ide funds f o r educat ion and outreach programming designed to popu l a r i z e the museums.[110] Th i s took e f f e c t i n 1974. Concu r ren t l y , the Canada Counc i l changed i t s fund ing p o l i c y from a f l e x i b l e b lock grant to a d e t a i l e d account ing f o r each show and p r o j e c t , each subject to rev iew and app rova l , so tha t some p r o j e c t s were no longer e l i g i b l e f o r CC funding. [111] Whi le Tony Emery and Dor i s Shadbolt were o r i g i n a l l y r e l u c t a n t to j o i n the NM programme, f e a r i n g a l o s s of autonomy, the CC grant change made i t impos s ib le to cont inue 107/ I b i d . 108/ Ray C h a t e l i n , "$$$ Freeze ' s t i n k s of p o l i t i e s ' , " The P rov ince (22 March 1975). 109/ Crean, op. c i t . , p. 117. 110/ McConathy, op. c i t . , pp. 2-3. 111/ VAG C o u n c i l Execut i ve Committee minutes (15 October 1973) p. 1. without NM fund ing , e s p e c i a l l y i n view of the c a n c e l l a t i o n of the L IP and OFY programmes; they then app l i ed f o r a s s o c i a t e NM s ta tus . [112 ] These changes i n f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l fund ing p o l i c y were informed by the b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n of " democ ra t i z a t i on and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n " that took e f f e c t a f t e r 1972[113], which was c o n c r e t i z e d i n the NMP and the Canada C o u n c i l ' s A r t Bank, Tour ing O f f i c e and E xp l o r a t i on s programme; even the CC ' s own source of funds, the f e d e r a l Pa r l i ament , began earmarking moneys f o r s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s i n the e a r l y 1970s.[114] In a d d i t i o n , a l though the tendency to b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n preceded the economic c r i s i s of the 1970s, i t was a c c e l e r a t e d by i t , as the government was d r i v en to seek more a c c o u n t a b i l i t y f o r i t s spending when i t s own revenues d e c l i n e d . The changes i n c u l t u r a l p o l i c y were d i s a s t r o u s f o r Emery, even though VAG had been amply rewarded i n the past f o r h i s i nnova t i on s i n the area of " democ ra t i z a t i on and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . " The e f f e c t of the cu r t a i lmen t of the LIP-OFY programmes, of the es tab l i shment of the NMP, and of the r e - o r i e n t a t i o n of the Canada C o u n c i l was to c i r cumsc r i be the programmes of i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e VAG; f i r s t the s a t e l l i t e s and l a t e r s p e c i a l events were disposed of because t h e i r fund ing was r e j e c t e d by these agenc ie s . And as the longterm p r o j e c t of the Canada C o u n c i l to r e d i r e c t i t s fund ing away from the l a r g e r i n s t i t u t i o n s became c l e a r , w i t h the expec ta t i on that 112/ VAG C o u n c i l minutes (12 A p r i l & 22 November 1973). 113/ " P a r t i c i p a t i o n was dead [by 1972]; only the i ne l egan t words democra t i za t i on and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n remained and only i n the p o l i c i e s of the N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada." Os t r y , op. c i t . , p. 118. 114/ Frank M i l l i g a n , "The Ambigu i t ie s of the Canada C o u n c i l , " i n Love and Money: The P o l i t i c s of C u l t u r e , ed. David Helwig (Ottawa: Oberon, 1980), pp. 75-76. c a p i t a l would make up the d i f f e r e n c e i n what was perce ived to be i t s own c u l t u r a l t e r r i t o r y , the d i s g r u n t l e d bus iness people who remained on the VAG board se i zed the i n i t i a t i v e to oust Emery. A l ready i n the summer of 1973 a f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s had ensued at VAG when the p r i v a t e Vancouver Foundat ion withdrew i t s support f o r the s a t e l l i t e programme.[115] Dona-t i o n s had bottomed out at a t o t a l of $7,000 so f a r f o r t ha t year, and the c i t y re fused the major i n c rea se i n i t s opera t ing budget VAG asked of i t . The c r i s i s was papered over w i th the c a n c e l l a t i o n of s i x e x h i b i t i o n s scheduled f o r the f a l l , and the s u b s t i t u t i o n of the s u c c e s s f u l P a c i f i c  V i b r a t i o n s , but i t exposed Emery 's new v u l n e r a b i l i t y , and r a i s e d the ques t ion of the overextens ion of the G a l l e r y ' s resources f o r the f i r s t t ime. The balance of power, then, was s h i f t i n g from VAG's d i r e c t o r back to the " p r i v a t e s e c t o r " , as the f e d e r a l government sought, not to d i v e s t i t s e l f of c u l t u r a l expend i tu re , but to escape the consequences of con -t i nued f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the ope ra t i on of c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . In so do ing, i t a l t e r e d i t s c u l t u r a l p o l i c y to a l i g n i t more c l o s e l y w i t h a corporate pe r spec t i ve . [116 ] Even the meaning of " d emoc r a t i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n " was changed dur ing the 1970s ( t h i s w i l l be d i scussed i n the next c h a p t e r ) . Whi le Emery had remained c r u c i a l to the success of the G a l l e r y u n t i l 1973, he was now d i sposab le i n the face of p o l i c y changes 115/ VAG C o u n c i l Execut i ve Committee minutes (3 A p r i l 1973). 116/ In p a r t , the sub ject of an a r t i c l e by Dan i e l Robbins, "The Development of the Museum P r o f e s s i o n a l , " i n Ted Poulos ( e d . ) , Conference  Proceedings f o r 2001: The Museum and the Canadian P u b l i c (Ottawa: Canadian Museums A s s o c i a t i o n , 1977). See a l s o Robin Endres, " A r t and accumulat ion: The Canadian s t a t e and the bus iness of a r t , " i n Pan i t ch ( ed . ) , pp. 417-45. t h a t might seem to favour h i s work, but which went aga in s t the cont inued expansion of fund ing to i n s t i t u t i o n s such as h i s . In f a c t , t h i s was one of the major reasons g iven by the t r u s t e e s f o r Emery 's d i s m i s s a l i n 1974. Ron Long s t a f f e , a pa s t - p re s i den t of VAG C o u n c i l , t o l d the Sun at that time t ha t "Emery ' a lmost poked a thumb' a t the w e a l t h i e r group because 'he f i g u r e d a l l the money would come from the Canada C o u n c i l ' . [ 1 1 7 ] " Long-s t a f f e went on to say tha t "Canada C o u n c i l has asked a l l groups to i nc rea se t h e i r support from the community because the c o u n c i l w i l l be unable to handle expanded budgets . " In a memo tha t Emery c i r c u l a t e d to the VAG t r u s t e e s a f t e r h i s r e s i g n a t i o n , the d i r e c t o r s t a ted tha t thenpres ident Gary B e l l had made i t known to him tha t h i s p o l i c i e s were p revent ing VAG from moving on, and tha t only Do r i s S hadbo l t ' s t h r ea t to r e s i g n i f Emery were d i smissed prevented h i s removal.[118] In the end, i t was Emery 's d e c i s i o n to go, f o r the tenure committee which had o r i g i n a l l y recommended h i s d i s m i s s a l o f f e r e d him a new c o n t r a c t . But Emery demanded the r e s i g -na t ions of th ree of the four t r u s t ee s who had urged h i s removal ( the f o u r t h was not s tand ing f o r r e - e l e c t i o n ) , and tha t of the f i n a n c i a l d i r e c t o r , argu ing tha t a l a c k of conf idence by the Execut i ve i n h i s a b i l i t i e s would make h i s work imposs ib le . [119 ] The r e s i g n a t i o n s were not 117/ Harvey Southam, " L e t t e r bares a r t g a l l e r y f e u d , " The Prov ince (2 November 1974). I t i s noted w i t h i r ony tha t VAG rece i ved i t s l a r g e s t C o u n c i l grant ever the year Emery was axed. 118/ Tony Emery, unpubl ished memo to VAG t r u s t e e s (24 August 1974), p. 4. 119/ Tony Emery, "My S ide of the S t o r y , " Mac lean ' s (November 1974), p. 7. Many of the members of C o u n c i l , among whom now numbered s e ve r a l a r t i s t s , were sympathetic to Emery, but the machinat ions of the tenure committee and the Execut i ve went on above t h e i r heads - i n d i c a t i v e of the fo r thcoming, so Emery b i d h i s own f a r e w e l l i n the summer of 1974. The planned move to the Courthouse meant t ha t Emery would have had to step a s i de at some t ime, g iven the r e - o r d e r i n g of p r i o r i t i e s such a move would r e q u i r e ; but the move was a l s o a s i gn of major changes i n c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , and more gene ra l l y i n the i d e o l o g i c a l s upe r s t ruc tu re of Canadian s o c i e t y . r e a l r e l a t i o n s of power w i t h i n C o u n c i l . The t r u s t e e s i n ques t ion were Gary B e l l , Ron Long s ta f fe and M ichae l Ryan ( the one not s tanding f o r r e - e l e c -t i o n ) , a l l of whom were a c t i v e i n the campaign aga in s t Emery, and Werner A e l l e n , Emery 's e r s t w h i l e protege, who had a l s o voted f o r the d i r e c t o r ' s removal . 113 CHAPTER 3 THE VANCOUVER ART GALLERY 1975-83: "SUCCESS" The re ' s been a k i nd of r e t u r n , a r e a c t i o n . . . th ing s have calmed down to what they were be fo re . For i n s t a n c e , what the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y i s now i s a r e f i n e d and s l i c k e r ve r s i on of what i t was about f i f t e e n years ago. - Abe Rogatn ick, 1978[1] The h i s t o r y of the Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y s i nce 1975 i s r e a l l y the h i s t o r y of VAG's move to i t s new l o c a t i o n i n the former Courthouse b u i l d i n g s , a f e a t which was f i n a l l y accomplished i n the F a l l of 1983. P lann ing f o r the move dominated a l l c on s i de ra t i on s of G a l l e r y p o l i c y and programming dur ing tha t t ime; neve r the l e s s , the move was a symptom ra the r than the determin ing cause of a l l the changes which have taken p lace at VAG. In t h i s chapter I w i l l dea l w i t h a number of r e l a t e d i s sue s a f f e c t i n g the recent p o l i c y of the G a l l e r y , which i n e f f e c t s i g n i f i e d the r e p a t r i a -t i o n of c u l t u r e to the bus iness and p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s e s i n Vancouver, at l e a s t i n terms of v i s u a l a r t . The government had i n t ima ted that i t was no longer prepared t o s ub s i d i z e c u l t u r e on the s c a l e i t had been, and i t asked a r t s i n s t i t u t i o n s to seek out a l t e r n a t e sources of fund ing . The government a l s o a l t e r e d the c r i t e r i a f o r c u l t u r a l funding i t had been deve lop ing , to a l i g n them more c l o s e l y to the needs and de s i r e s of c a p i t a l . In Vancouver, i t was recogn ized tha t donat ions to the G a l l e r y would not be forthcoming u n t i l there was a new s i t e to adequately d i s p l a y 1/ A l v i n B a l k i n d and Abe Rogatn ick, "An A s p i r a t i o n to Get Beyond," C r i t e r i a , v o l . 4 no. 2 ( F a l l 1978), p. 12. From an i n t e r v i e w w i t h David MacWi l l iam. the wea l th , i n c l u d i n g the donat ion of c o l l e c t i o n s ; that i s , moneys were needed i n the short term to b u i l d an adequate g a l l e r y , i n order to secure funds from the " p r i v a t e s e c t o r " f o r i t s programme i n the long term. T h i s , as w e l l as the a l ready e x i s t i n g need f o r more space, i n l i g h t of the expansion of G a l l e r y a c t i v i t i e s s i n ce the 1960s, was behind the t r a n s -fo rmat ion of the VAG programme, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and C o u n c i l membership. The p h y s i c a l space of the o l d Georg ia S t ree t b u i l d i n g was recognized f o r many years to be inadequate, and the idea of moving to another s i t e was not a new one; e a r l y i n 1965 VAG had even i n i t i a t e d the idea of a museum complex, i n c l u d i n g i t s own f a c i l i t i e s , where Vancouver ' s museum and p lanetar ium are l o ca ted now.[2] Although i n 1966 VAG C o u n c i l r e j e c t e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of pa r tne r sh ip i n the K i t s i l a n o museum p r o j e c t [ 3 ] , the nece s s i t y of l a r g e r f a c i l i t i e s to con ta i n a l l of the a c t i v i t i e s (and t h e i r audiences) that VAG was undertak ing was becoming ever c l e a r e r . So when the p r o v i n c i a l government announced i t s i n t e n t i o n to redevelop two c i t y b locks downtown, and i n co rpo ra te a new p r o v i n c i a l courthouse i n t o them, the ques t ion was r a i s e d as to whether the o l d Courthouse b u i l d i n g s would be s u i t a b l e f o r a g a l l e r y . The i n i t i a l response was unfavourab le; P.C. Ba r te r (then the G a l l e r y ' s p r e s i d e n t ) , Ron Longs ta f fe and Dor i s Shadbolt repor ted to the Execut i ve Committee of VAG Counc i l on 15 January 1973 that the b u i l d i n g s were 2/ VAG C o u n c i l , unpubl i shed memo (21 A p r i l 1966). VAG o r i g i n a l l y recommended t h i s p r o j e c t on 25 February 1965. 3/ VAG Counc i l Execut i ve Committee minutes (1 November 1966), pp. 2-3. un su i t ab l e p h y s i c a l l y , though t h e i r l o c a t i o n was i d e a l . [ A ] In October of 1975, soon a f t e r h i s appointment, Luke Rombout expressed se r i ou s r e s e r v a -t i o n s about the b u i l d i n g ' s i n t e r i o r , a l though f o r him, aga in , the l o c a t i o n and a l s o the e x t e r i o r were " i d e a l " . [ 5 ] And i n March 1976, Rombout t o l d the Execut i ve Committee of VAG C o u n c i l t h a t , i n h i s o p i n i o n , the most p r a c -t i c a l s o l u t i o n to the problem of space would be a complete ly new b u i l d i n g , r a the r than the renovat ion of the o l d s i t e . [ 6 ] But C i t y Counc i l had a l ready appointed Arthur E r i c k s on to make a f e a s i b i l i t y study of the Courthouse s i t e , and h i s recommendations were adopted when they were t ab led i n 1976 ( h i s f i r m went on to des ign the a l t e r a t i o n s to the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s ) . [ 7 ] C i t y C o u n c i l f o r m a l l y approved the s i t e f o r G a l l e r y use i n March 1978, and at the same time i t approved the f i r s t moneys f o r r enova t i on , i n c l u d i n g proceeds from the s a l e of the Georg ia S t r ee t p rope r t y . [ 8 ] The G a l l e r y i t s e l f conducted a h igh p r o f i l e f u n d r a i s i n g campaign i n 1978-79, c a l l e d Take the G a l l e r y to Court , which grossed $5 m i l l i o n i n donations ($A m i l l i o n from c o r p o r a t i o n s ) . [ 9 ] A/ VAG Counc i l Execut i ve Committee minutes (15 January 1973), p. 1. 5/ Toni Dabbs, "Luke Rombout: ' A r t cannot be t a u g h t ' , " Performance (October 1975), p. 2. 6/ VAG C o u n c i l Execut i ve Committee minutes (18 March 1976). 7/ " P r e s i d e n t ' s Repo r t , " VAG Annual Report 1976, n.p.; " D i r e c t o r ' s Repo r t , " VAG Annual Report 1977, n.p. 8/ Dale R i c k a r d , "Humanizing Vancouver: VAG i n the C i t y C e n t r e , " Vanguard, v o l . 7 no. 8 (November 1978), p. A; Roche l l e van Halm, "Harvest Time, B.C. Bus iness (September 1983), p. 71. The c i t y committed $2.6 m i l l i o n f o r the r enova t i on , p lus $12 m i l l i o n gained from the sa le of the o l d property (which the c i t y owned) i n 1982. 9/ Van Halm, op. c i t . , p. 71. 116 Luke Rombout was h i r e d as d i r e c t o r i n mid-1975, f o r the purpose of oversee ing the changes env i s i oned f o r the G a l l e r y by i t s t r u s t ee s . [ 10 ] He was an a r t s bureaucrat who was a l ready aware of the changes being made i n government c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , an i n s i d e r ' s knowledge he used to advantage. Rombout wrote i n VAG's Annual Report of 1975: The support from Ottawa suggests tha t there e x i s t s cons ide rab le i n t e r e s t i n the nature and q u a l i t y of our programs. But whatever the eva l ua t i on s of our programs, t a n g i b l e a s s i s t ance w i l l be tempered, i n the next few year s , by r e s t r i c t i o n s on the budgets of the fund ing agenc ies . C u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and fund ing agencies a l i k e w i l l be s u b s t a n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d by the economic c ond i t i o n s around us. There w i l l be a l e v e l l i n g o f f of f e d e r a l government f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , which means tha t more revenues have to be sought and secured on the l o c a l l e v e l . To be sure, we have to earn t h i s support, but I am con f i den t that through r e spon s i b l e p r o -gramming and management, inc reased support w i l l be forthcoming. [11] Rombout's r e p o r t , which was presented at the annual genera l meeting i n the sp r i ng of 1976, was a manifesto f o r the changes he had a l ready made and which would cont inue through 1976. H i s other argument, l i n k e d to tha t of the government r e d i r e c t i o n of funds, was that r e l i a n c e on f e d e r a l funds cou ld i n any case be dangerous; f o r i n s t ance , Rombout d e l i v e r e d an address i n Edmonton i n 1978, i n which he c r i t i c i z e d the consequences of 10/ Sean R o s s i t e r makes t h i s po in t i n h i s a r t i c l e on " t he year long spec tac l e of s t r i f e " f o l l o w i n g the d i s m i s s a l of Peter Ma l k i n and the subsequent u n i o n i z a t i o n of the s t a f f i n 1979. Rombout r e i t e r a t e d i t at the time of VAG's re -open ing : "Someone looked at my resume and s a i d ' Luke, what you are i s a b u i l d e r ' , " he says. "I l i k e d t h a t . " Sean R o s s i t e r , "The man behind the A r t G a l l e r y f u r o r , " Vancouver Magazine (March 1980); Eve Johnson, "Luke, the a r t f u l b u i l d e r , " The Sun (15 October 1983), p. C I . P r i o r to h i s appointment as VAG d i r e c t o r , Rombout had b e e n , r e s p e c t i v e l y , d i r e c t o r of the Owens Ar t G a l l e r y i n S a c k v i l l e , N.B. (1968-71), D i r e c t o r of V i s u a l A r t s at York U n i v e r s i t y (1971-72), d i r e c t o r of the A r t Bank (1972-75), and head of the v i s u a l a r t s s e c t i o n of the Canada Counc i l (1974-75); the l a t t e r two p o s i t i o n s were he ld c o n c u r r e n t l y . 11/ " D i r e c t o r ' s Repo r t , " VAG Annual Report 1975, n.p. the l a c k of a coherent a r t s p o l i c y . [12] He s a i d there were s e ve r a l problems as a r e s u l t of t h i s l a c k , i n c l u d i n g the c o n f l i c t between Na t i ona l Museums and Canada Counc i l p o l i c i e s , which had not yet been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e s o l v e d , and the undermining of the CC ' s e f f o r t s which began w i t h the L IP and OFY programmes, and which had not yet ceased, e s p e c i a l l y the undermining of the concept of " t he pu r s u i t of e x c e l l e n c e " as opposed to the " p o p u l a r i z a t i o n " of the museums under the NMP. C u l t u r a l p o l i c y was now determined i n a range of f e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the NMP, the Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , the Canada F i l m Development Co rpo ra t i on , the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, e t c . , and the Canada Counc i l was i n the process of s p l i t t i n g i n t o separate a r t s and research c o u n c i l s . For Rombout, a l l t h i s po inted to a s ub t l e p o l i t i c i z a t i o n of the a r t s , as the power of the autonomous CC body was d im in i shed , and as t ha t body i t s e l f r ece i ved l a r g e r and l a r g e r d i r e c t par l iamentary s ub s i d i e s each year , funds f o r which i t would i n e v i t a b l y have to answer. The f e d e r a l government now spent f a r more on a r t s s ub s i d i e s than d id the prov inces and p r i v a t e c a p i t a l combined, a s i t u a t i o n which was, accord ing to Rombout, as impos-s i b l e to cont inue f i n a n c i a l l y as i t was dangerous i n terms of i n f l u e n c e . For Rombout (and, i n t e r e s t i n g l y , f o r the Canada C o u n c i l i t s e l f ) , the s o l u t i o n f o r an a r t s i n s t i t u t i o n was to t u rn to a " v a r i e t y " of sources f o r fund ing , which would a l l e g e d l y s t rengthen the r e c i p i e n t ' s p o s i t i o n , s ince i t would no longer be as dependent upon a s i n g l e source of fund ing . The other sources were two: the p r o v i n c i a l governments, which i n the case 12/ Luke Rombout, "The Ar t of P o l i t i c s i n Canadian A r t s , " t e x t reproduced i n Artmagazine, v o l . 9 nos. 38/39 (June 1978), a r t f o c u s s e c t i o n , pp. 2-6. 118 of B r i t i s h Columbia had so f a r pa id l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n to c u l t u r a l mat te r s ; and bus iness . Kenneth Bagshaw, former G a l l e r y p re s i den t , made the same po i n t i n 1977: The G a l l e r y , l i k e so many c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada, i s a cu te l y aware of the s h i f t i n g p r o f i l e of fund ing and the r i s k s which would f l ow from i t . I t i s apparent that over the l a s t few years there has been a growing dependence by v i s u a l a r t s i n s t i t u -t i o n s on government support f o r t h e i r ope ra t i on s . There i s a p r i c e to be p a i d . The more the government prov ides support , the l e s s the i n c l i n a t i o n or c apac i t y of the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , both corporate or o therwi se , to c o n t r i b u t e or match g ran t s . The more government support grows, the greater the r i s k of p o l i t i c i z a t i o n of the a r t s . The G a l l e r y cou ld p o t e n t i a l l y walk a f i n e l i n e and s t r ugg l e aga in s t the consequences of the adage that he who pays the p iper c a l l s the tune. We need g reate r l o c a l support to ensure a h e a l t h i e r balance between a l l sources of funding. [13] Both Rombout and Bagshaw i n t e r p r e t what was both a nece s s i t y to t u r n to other sources of fund ing , g iven the f r e e z i n g of the f e d e r a l a r t s expen-d i t u r e , and an oppor tun i ty to r e d i r e c t G a l l e r y p o l i c y , g iven the govern-ment ' s w i l l i n g n e s s to r e p a t r i a t e c u l t u r e to the bus iness and p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s e s , as a ques t ion of the p o l i t i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e inherent i n govern-ment subsidy of the a r t s . I t was g iven that the f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l p o l i c y had made Emery 's programme p o s s i b l e , and had even enforced i t ; i n t h i s sense, VAG had a l ready been " p o l i t i c i z e d " , and only a d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of fund ing , w i t h an accent on the l o c a l , would r e t u r n the G a l l e r y to i t s proper course. Conv inc ing bus iness that i t had to c o n t r i b u t e more subs tan-t i a l l y to the VAG budget was thus an impe ra t i v e . I t goes wi thout say ing that what Rombout and Bagshaw meant by " l o c a l " was of a d i f f e r e n t order than Emery 's d e f i n i t i o n . 13/ " P r e s i d e n t ' s Repo r t , " VAG Annual Report 1977, n.p. C u r i o u s l y , the po i n t s made by Rombout, Bagshaw and others were echoed even by government agents, w i t h the r e c o g n i t i o n that f u r t h e r s ub s i d i e s cou ld not be extended to e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s w i thout e l i m i n a t i n g grants to sma l le r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , due to the f r e e z i n g of the Canada C o u n c i l ' s own revenue.[14] There was a t u rn i ng away from the i dea tha t the Canada C o u n c i l could be a support system f o r the a r t s i n Canada, and succeeding CC d i r e c t o r s urged tha t the a r t s f i n d t h e i r own base of support i n the n a t i o n . In an address g iven i n 1976, Counc i l d i r e c t o r Char le s L u s s i e r pleaded f o r more p r i v a t e fund ing of the a r t s ; s i n ce i n h i s op i n i on the p u b l i c d i d not yet see the a r t s as e s s e n t i a l (nor t he re f o re the need f o r f u r t h e r s ub s i d y ) , funds had to "be wink led out of as many d i f f e r e n t sources as p o s s i b l e . [ 1 5 ] " Here - where L u s s i e r was doing some s p e c i a l p lead ing before a corporate audience - he advocated a pa r tne r sh i p of bus iness and the a r t s , a long the l i n e s promoted by the (government-14/ " A r t s groups p r e d i c t c u t s , " The P rov ince (16 March 1974); Ray C h a t e l i n , "$$$ f r eeze ' s t i n k s of p o l i t i e s ' , " The Prov ince (22 March 1974) - a r t i c l e s concern ing CC d i r e c t o r Andre F o r t i e r ' s announcement of a budget f r eeze f o r l a r g e a r t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . See a l s o the Canada C o u n c i l , 18th Annual Report 1974-75, pp. 82-83: We c a l c u l a t e d that p rov i d i ng " no rma l " cost of l i v i n g i nc reases to the 19 l a r g e s t performing a r t s companies would r e q u i r e almost the e n t i r e increment i n the music, t hea t r e and dance budgets, l e a v i n g no money f o r i nc rea se s to sma l le r companies or f o r grants to p rev i ou s l y unsupported companies. Th i s compelled us to i n t roduce a p o l i c y of severe r e s t r a i n t on the i nc rea se s i n our grants to these l a r g e r companies, a p o l i c y desc r ibed by the pres s , i n a c c u r a t e l y but g r a p h i c a l l y , as a " f r e e z e " . I t can be seen tha t though there was s t i l l an increment at t h i s t ime, the Counc i l was a l ready prepar ing f o r i t s f u t u r e e l i m i n a t i o n . 15/ Char le s L u s s i e r , " P u b l i c - P r i v a t e Pa r tne r sh i p i n the A r t s , " (Ottawa: The Canada C o u n c i l , 7 May 1976), p. 5. supported) C o u n c i l f o r Bus iness and the A r t s i n Canada (CBAC), and he t o l d the audience that a r t s o r gan i z a t i on s would have to come up w i th proposa l s " t h a t businessmen can under s tand. [16 ] " He conceded that govern-ment agencies can be s ho r t s i g h t ed , and that the p r i v a t e sec to r was "more c l o s e l y attuned to some s e c t i o n s of the popu l a t i on [ 17 ] " - meaning, p r e -sumably, i t s e l f . L u s s i e r ' s statements were i n d i c a t i v e of a new r e l a t i o n government sought w i t h bus iness ; though i t was not i n tend i ng to abandon the we l fa re s t a t e , as some commentators mainta ined at the time of the f i s c a l c r i s i s i n the l a t e 1970s[18], i t was r e f u s i n g any f u r t h e r e x t en -s ions of i t , which i nc l uded f u r t h e r extens ions of c u l t u r a l expend i tu re . Th i s i n i t s e l f s i g n i f i e d a p a r t i a l r e t r e a t from the r o l e of mediator between c l a s s e s that the government had seemed to adopt i n the postwar per iod . [19 ] In the case of c u l t u r a l expend i tu re , the government was r e t u r n i n g to very t r a d i t i o n a l not ions of the r o l e of c u l t u r e i n the community, and of the r o l e the r u l i n g c l a s s had t r a d i t i o n a l l y p layed i n p a t r o n i z i n g the a r t s . I t was not s imply tha t a cosmopol i tan c u l t u r e based on not ions of " e x c e l l e n c e " was r e a f f i r m e d . The o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n s of the Canada C o u n c i l were mod i f ied de f a c t o by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n " 16/ I b i d , p. 9. 17/ I b i d , p. 10. 18/ E.g. Reg Whitaker, "Images of the s t a t e i n Canada," i n Pan i t ch ( e d . ) , op. c i t . , p. 62. Th i s i s of course a more recent p r o j e c t of the new r i g h t , and has j u s t begun to mani fest i t s e l f on the f e d e r a l l e v e l i n Canada. 19/ I b i d . which was i t s e l f r e i n t e r p r e t e d to a l t e r i t s post-1968 meaning. " E x c e l -l e n c e " was s t i l l the gu idepost ; L u s s i e r s t a ted i n 1977 that " t he e n t i r e community should have an oppor tun i ty to progress towards e x c e l l e n c e . [ 2 0 ] " Th i s i s , however, a very d i f f e r e n t statement from that of V incent Massey i n the 1950s, who s a i d : "The best must be made a v a i l a b l e to those who wish i t . [ 2 1 ] " Both statements are embedded i n not ions of e l i t i s t c u l t u r e , but wh i l e the e a r l i e r one i m p l i e s a subsidy of c u l t u r a l endeavours f o r the b e n e f i t of the c u l t u r e d c l a s s e s , the second statement i m p l i e s an a c t i v e propagand izat ion f o r " c u l t u r a l " va lues i n the whole s o c i e t y by the i n s t i t u t i o n s i t funds. I t i s however a " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n " whol ly i n the s e r v i c e of " e x c e l l e n c e " , that i s an i m p o s i t i o n of c u l t u r a l va lues from above. I t i s a r e j e c t i o n of democracy r a the r than i t s ex ten s i on ; L u s s i e r makes t h i s po in t q u i t e e x p l i c i t l y : The problem i s to f i n d a way to b r i ng the best people to power and, once t he re , to r equ i r e them to ma inta in t h e i r e x ce l l ence and i n t e g r i t y . The p r i n c i p l e of the pu r s u i t of e xce l l ence and i t s concrete i m p l i c a t i o n s c o u l d n ' t be put more s u c c i n c t l y : t ha t whether i t be i n the realm of p o l i t i c s or of a r t and c u l t u r e , the demo-c r a t i c s p i r i t feeds on those q u a l i t a t i v e va lues that i t in tends to serve and to p lace at the s e r v i c e of the whole community.[22] Th i s was i n f a c t the p o l i c y Rombout p r a c t i c e d i n h i s years i n Vancouver: the " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n " of the " p u r s u i t of e x c e l l e n c e " . The " avant - ga rde " model which had confused s e r v i c e to l o c a l a r t i s t s w i t h s e r v i c e to the community was l e f t behind, but the G a l l e r y ' s r o l e was not i d e n t i c a l w i th 20/ Char le s L u s s i e r , "The Canada C o u n c i l : The P r i n c i p l e of E xce l l ence and I t s I m p l i c a t i o n s i n a Democratic S o c i e t y , " (Ottawa: The Canada C o u n c i l , 6 J u l y 1977), p. 4. 21/ I b i d . L u s s i e r was quot ing from the Massey Report . 22/ L u s s i e r (1977), pp. 13-14. tha t of i t s amateur phase, e s p e c i a l l y i n the sense tha t i t was now cons idered c r u c i a l to a t t r a c t a very l a r g e (but pass i ve) audience. VAG had r e t r e a t e d to a p o s i t i o n s i m i l a r to the one i t had occupied p r i o r to the expansion of c u l t u r a l f und ing , but on a much l a r g e r , more ambit ious and s o p h i s t i c a t e d p lane. " Suppo r t " , as we s h a l l see, no longer meant support f o r the l o c a l a r t i s t i c scene, but the pa rapherna l i a surrounding the ret renched t r a d i t i o n a l programming - o n - f l o o r educat ion , cata logues , e t c . One of Rombout's immediate p r i o r i t i e s was to r e d i r e c t e f f o r t s towards f u n d r a i s i n g on the l o c a l l e v e l , and he secured i n c r e a s i n g l y generous c o n t r i b u t i o n s from the B.C. C u l t u r a l Fund, which was supported through p r o v i n c i a l l o t t e r y moneys, beginning i n 1976.[23] He a l s o began s o l i c i t i n g funds on the corporate l e v e l , a scheme begun upon h i s a r r i v a l , but which reached f r u i t i o n only by 1978, when donat ions began f l ow i n g i n i n subs tan -t i a l amounts f o r the f i r s t t ime. [24] One can see a t r an s fo rmat i on of the G a l l e r y ' s programme, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t r u s t e e membership dur ing the f i r s t years of Rombout's tenure , i n an e f f o r t to make t h i s a r e a l i t y . The r a t i o n a l e f o r the t r an s fo rmat i on of VAG's programme presented p u b l i c l y was based on a k i nd of Z e i t g e i s t approach; tha t what may have once he ld t rue was v a l i d no l onge r , t he re f o re Emery 's p o l i c i e s had become 23/ VAG C o u n c i l minutes (19 November 1975). The B.C. C u l t u r a l Fund grant jumped from $50,400 i n 1975 to $160,000 i n 1976, and was $285,000 by 1981. 24/ The VAG Annual Report f o r 1978 r epo r t s t ha t the s u s t a i n i n g d r i v e reached i t s goa l f o r the f i r s t t ime that year; t h i s was d i s t i n c t from the c a p i t a l fund campaign which a l s o began tha t year . a n a c h r o n i s t i c even before he l e f t . [ 2 5 ] Rombout was at f i r s t c o n c i l i a t o r y about t h i s ( e s p e c i a l l y g iven the p o p u l a r i t y of the Emery a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) ; as he t o l d a Sun r epo r t e r l a t e i n 1976: "Tony Emery had a great i dea f o r the 1960s and e a r l y ' 70s , and i f I had been here then I hope I would have t r i e d the same s o r t of t h i n g , " Rombout e xp l a i ned . "But today, and p a r t l y f o r f i n a n c i a l reasons, there i s a more - I hate t o use the word - con se rva t i ve a t t i t u d e to i n v o l v i n g people w i th the g a l l e r y . In terms of the p u b l i c ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n of the v i s u a l a r t s , t h i s can be a good t h i n g . [ 2 6 ] " The " c o n s e r v a t i v e " a t t i t u d e was a r e - o r i e n t a t i o n of the G a l l e r y ' s p r o -gramme to i t s more t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of e x h i b i t i n g works of a r t , and away from the s p e c i a l events p o l i c y , which Rombout suspended i n h i s f i r s t month here and which he never ceased to c r i t i c i z e . [ 2 7 ] The " f i n a n c i a l reasons " probably a l l u d e s to the measures the Canada Counc i l had adopted to t i e grants to s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s ; by 1976 such programmes as events were no longer e l i g i b l e f o r subs idy . Such changes were a good t h i n g i n Rombout's o p i n i o n , because accord ing to him educat ion of the p u b l i c on "prob lems" of v i s u a l a r t was the primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of an a r t g a l l e r y . [ 2 8 ] However, i n a memo c i r c u l a t e d i n t e r n a l l y to s t a f f and 25/ Dabbs, op. c i t . Rombout repeated t h i s r a t i o n a l e at the time of VAG's re-opening i n October 1983; Johnson, op. c i t . 26/ Wayne Edmonstone, "Face i t : we ' re t h i r d - r a t e , " The Vancouver Sun (14 December 1976), p. 21. 27/ Joan Lowndes, "Tough but t e n s i l e - t h a t ' s Luke Rombout," The Vancouver Sun ( Le i su re Sec t i on ) ( 5 September 1975), p. 4a; Dabbs, op. c i t . ; Max Wyman, "New promise and new problems face Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , " Performing A r t s i n Canada, v o l . 12 no. 3 ( F a l l 1975), p. 32; Edmonstone, op. c i t . , p. 21; Johnson, op. c i t . 28/ " V i deo : The Aud i o -V i s ua l O f f i c e r & Things to Come at the VAG," Vanguard, v o l . 5 no. 2 (March 1976), p. 7; Edmonstone, op. c i t . ; Susan Mertens, "The a r t gospel accord ing to Luke , " The Vancouver Sun (4 December t r u s t e e s e a r l i e r i n 1976, Rombout was more candid about the reasons f o r a change i n VAG p o l i c y , which amounted to a r e - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the VAG audience as important as the one Emery had made be fo re : I t was not c l e a r l y pe rce i ved , i n my o p i n i o n , that the s o c i a l m i l i e u to which g a l l e r y e f f o r t s were d i r e c t e d changed ( i t took a more con se r va t i ve course) and secondly, the s o - c a l l e d con se rva t i ve element i n t h i s community was, f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons, a l i e n a t e d from the G a l l e r y . Today, we have to come to terms w i t h both of these problems as they r e l a t e d i r e c t l y to the f u t u r e development of the G a l l e r y . [ 2 9 ] Rombout i s argu ing two po in t s here: that there was no longer a s o c i a l base f o r the k i nd of programme VAG had been advocat ing , g iven the w i t he r i n g of the c o u n t e r c u l t u r e ; and that the t r a d i t i o n a l audience tha t had founded and run the G a l l e r y had been d r i ven away. Rombout's s o l u t i o n to the problems he had i d e n t i f i e d was to e f f e c t a r e - o r i e n t a t i o n of VAG p o l i c y to what i t had been p r i o r to R ichard Simmins' tenure as d i r e c t o r . As we s h a l l see, r e l a t i o n s w i t h each of Emery 's four types of p u b l i c -the c o u n t e r c u l t u r e , l o c a l a r t i s t s , the knowledgeable a r t p u b l i c , and the "man on the s t r e e t " - were r ede f i ned to va ry ing degrees i n the course of Rombout's r e f o cu s s i n g of e f f o r t s on the " s o - c a l l e d con se rva t i ve element" w i t h which VAG had t r a d i t i o n a l l y a l i g ned i t s e l f . A r e f ocu s s i n g which was of course t i e d to G a l l e r y needs i n terms of fund ing and of the long-range p lan f o r VAG's move c l o s e r downtown. To t h i s end, many of the Emery/Shadbolt i n i t i a t i v e s of the prev ious years were abandoned or transformed i n the course of the next year, so tha t by 1976 on ly the extens ion programme remained i n anyth ing l i k e i t s 1981), p. E l . 29/ Luke Rombout, unpubl i shed memo (21 A p r i l 1976), p. 2. prev ious form. Rombout be l i e ved there were three " r o l e s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " f o r VAG: to i n f o rm, to c o l l e c t , and to p reserve . P r a c t i c a l l y , t h i s meant " deve lop ing s t rong e x h i b i t i o n , a c q u i s i t i o n , and support programs[30], " a p o l i c y focussed on the ob jec t s of a r t r a the r than on the va r i ou s outreach e f f o r t s Emery had made, w i t h the hoped-for r e s u l t of a gather ing of f u r t h e r ob jec t s f o r the c o l l e c t i o n , which accord ing to the new d i r e c t o r had not been g iven enough a t t e n t i o n i n the recent pas t . [31] I t a l s o meant a c oncen t r a t i on on in-house p r o j e c t s , as VAG began to see i t s e l f once aga in as a t rea su re house r a the r than a cent re f o r a c t i v i t y . One of Rombout's very f i r s t d i r e c t i v e s on h i s a r r i v a l i n August 1975 was to cance l the s p e c i a l events programme, a move which seemed p r o v i -s i o n a l at the time - i t was r e l a t e d to problems w i th the f i r e mar sha l l about s ea t i ng f o r a dance performance - but which has proved to mean the permanent demise of t h i s aspect of the o l d p o l i c y . [ 3 2 ] The weekly t e l e -v i s i o n programme on the l o c a l cab le channel was c a n c e l l e d to make way f o r a v ideo i n s t a l l a t i o n i n the G a l l e r y i n 1976; Videospace was a development which was cons idered to be at the f o r e f r o n t of g a l l e r y i nnova t i on s a t the t ime.[33] In 1976, Vanguard was changed from a ca lendar i n t o a j o u r n a l , 30/ " D i r e c t o r ' s Repo r t , " VAG Annual Report 1975, n.p.; Rombout, 1976 memo, p. 3. 31/ VAG Annual Report 1975; Lowndes, op. c i t . 32/ L a t e r , Rombout would say of t h i s i n c i d e n t : "The f i r s t change I made was to v i r t u a l l y cance l the S p e c i a l Events program." From the " Pe r sona l P e r s p e c t i v e s " s e c t i o n of Vancouver: A r t and A r t i s t s 1931-1983, p. 260. Compare w i t h VAG C o u n c i l Execut i ve Committee minutes (11 September 1975), p. 6; a t t h i s t ime, "Rombout emphasized t h i s a c t i o n does not i n d i c a t e i n t e n t to e l i m i n a t e s p e c i a l events i n the f u t u r e . . . . " 33/ Lowndes, op. c i t . , p. 5a; Wyman, op. c i t . 126 though s t i l l i n newspaper format f o r the time be ing , and i t s p u b l i c i t y f u n c t i o n was extended, w i t h i t s c i r c u l a t i o n , ou t s i de the c i t y proper . The educat ion department was a l s o turned over i n 1975, w i t h i t s ou t s i de f un c t i o n s ceded to ex ten s i on , and i t s work r e s t r i c t e d to o n - f l o o r i n f o r -mat i ona l a c t i v i t y around s p e c i f i c e x h i b i t i o n s , amid corresponding budget cu t s and r e s i s t a n c e by the educat ion s t a f f . [ 3 4 ] Another a l t e r a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g programme was the c a n c e l l a t i o n of the two low-budget e x h i b i t i o n s e r i e s f e a t u r i n g lesser-known l o c a l a r t i s t s ; accord ing to a l o c a l newspaper account: Here Rombout i s b l u n t : "The A l t e r n a t e Space program has been scrapped. I f the g a l l e r y i s going to show an a r t i s t , i t should stand behind him, t r e a t him as a p r o f e s s i o n a l , mount h i s e x h i b i t i o n , prepare a ca ta logue , pay him a fee - take a more se r i ou s approach to h i s work. I t h i n k we can s t i l l g i ve the unknowns as much of a chance as anyone.[35] " The d i r e c t o r s a i d that wh i l e e x h i b i t i o n s of l o c a l a r t i s t s ' work would cont inue to take p l a c e , they would no longer be token e f f o r t s , but would be i nco rpo ra ted i n t o the t o t a l programme.[36] The number of these e x h i b i -t i o n s was, however, e s p e c i a l l y l ean i n VAG's f i n a l years a t i t s o l d s i t e . [ 3 7 ] There was a corresponding i nc rea se i n e x h i b i t i o n s of " i n t e r -34/ VAG C o u n c i l Execut i ve Committee minutes (13 November 1975), p. 3; "Programmes" ( r epo r t by Ted L i ndbe r g ) , VAG Annual Report 1975, n.p. 35/ Dabbs, op. c i t . 36/ " D i r e c t o r ' s Repo r t , " VAG Annual Report 1975, n.p. 37/ Whi le Ba l k i nd was r e t a i n e d as head cu ra to r ( u n t i l 1978), there was s t i l l some a t t e n t i o n pa id to the l o c a l scene, but t h i s became n o t i c e -ab ly absent from then on w i th a few except i on s , i n c l u d i n g the l a t e Mise-en-Scene e x h i b i t i o n (1982). S t re s s was r a t he r l a i d on the Rauschen-berg (1978) and S t e l l a (1979) shows, and an e x h i b i t i o n of a r t from West Germany, Forms of Rea l i sm Today (1980). The schedule was at tenuated as the time f o r the move drew c l o s e r , and Ba l k i nd was never rep laced as head n a t i o n a l " a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y of those a r t i s t s i n the C a s t e l l i - C h r i s t m a s s t a b l e (Rauschenberg, S t e l l a , Judd, Mia Wester lund, Oppenheim, Ruscha, Twombly), or of E n g l i s h a r t i s t s l i k e Joe T i l s o n and R ichard Hami l ton. These came to dominate the programme i n the l a t e r ' 70s , wh i l e they had been v i r t u a l l y absent p r i o r to 1977. The change i n e x h i b i t i o n p o l i c y was p red i ca ted on the understanding tha t the avant-garde, to which i n s t i t u t i o n s had f e l t i t necessary to devote themselves i n the 1960s, had d i sappeared; as a r e s u l t g a l l e r i e s and museums were now f r e e to choose what aspects of contemporary a r t to focus on and/or to c o l l e c t . Rombout was a l ready say ing i n 1975, when he had been w i t h VAG only a few months: Now, however, the avant-garde has disappeared - eve ry th ing i s acceptab le - but ob jec t making never d i sappeared. I d o n ' t t h i n k the e x h i b i t i o n program has kept pace w i t h these changes.[38] The " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " to r e f l e c t the r e t u r n to object -making which f o l l owed the a l l e g e d c o l l a p s e of the avant-garde at the t u rn of the decade was accompanied by a r e j e c t i o n of the c l a ims of l o c a l a r t i s t s to have a par t i n the f o rmu l a t i on of the programme s i m i l a r to that which they enjoyed under Emery and Shadbol t . S ince there was no longer an avant -garde, the G a l l e r y ' s duty to i t was abso lved, and l o c a l a r t i s t s , de sp i te t h e i r r e c a l c i t r a n c e , had no f u r t h e r c l a i m to e x e r c i s e : I d o n ' t f e e l there i s an avant-garde anymore. I hear a l o t about the avant-garde i n Vancouver, but not when I go to New York or c u r a t o r , which made d i c t a t i o n of the e x h i b i t i o n schedule ea s i e r f o r the d i r e c t o r . VAG t r i e d to f a b r i c a t e a h i s t o r y of commitment to the l o c a l w i t h i t s i naugu ra l show Vancouver: A r t and A r t i s t s 1931-1983. 38/ Dabbs, op. c i t . P a r i s . I am a b s o l u t e l y f i r m i n say ing tha t t h i s g a l l e r y w i l l not be g iven over to l o c a l a r t i s t s . [ 3 9 ] Rombout's arguments are i n par t an accurate read ing of developments i n the 1970s, and i n par t p r o j e c t i o n . As he s a i d i n 1976: There i s a mistaken no t i on i n some peop l e ' s minds that an avant -garde e x i s t s . I t d oe sn ' t ; an avant-garde only e x i s t s when a r t i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s are r e j e c t e d . We are now i n a per iod when eve ry th ing i s accepted.[40] Th i s was a development that g a l l e r i e s l i k e VAG had themselves helped to c r e a t e ; t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to and sympathy w i t h the avant-garde meant the l a t t e r ' s l i q u i d a t i o n when i t acquiesced to accommodation from those i n p o s i t i o n s of power. As J e f f Wa l l has s a i d , the s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h the avant-garde meant that i n p r a c t i c e the l a t t e r was " a l r eady u n i f i e d w i t h the s t r u c t u r e s of domina t i on . [41 ] " The e f f e c t was to n e u t r a l i z e both a r t and change i t s e l f , to " a l i e n a t e i t i n a r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n " : I t would seem that the i n s t i t u t i o n s of bourgeois c u l t u r e need now exper ience no t h r ea t s from the body of contemporary a r t , f o r i t has the power over those who operated w i t h i n i t s own terms to render a l i v i n g a r t i s t i c statement i n s t a n t l y i n t o s a f e l y - f r o z e n a r t - h i s t o r y (Cout t s -Smi th ) . [42 ] 39/ A r t P e r r y , "Rombout dares a r t g a l l e r y to be g r e a t , " The P rov ince (16 August 1979), p. C I . 40/ Scot t Macrae, " A r t f o r whose sake? " , The Vancouver Sun ( Le i su re Sect ion ) (17 December 1976), p. 9a. 41/ J e f f W a l l , "The S i t e of C u l t u r e : C o n t r a d i c t i o n s , T o t a l i t y and the Avant -Garde, " Vanguard, v o l . 12 no. 4 (May 1983), p. 19. I t must be s a i d w i t h Wa l l t ha t i t was the avan t - ga rde ' s own weakened p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o s s i b i l i t y t ha t made i t s c o - op t i on r e l a t i v e l y e f f o r t l e s s . 42/ Kenneth Cout t s - Smi th , " A r t and S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , " Cen te r - f o l d , v o l . 2 no. 4 ( A p r i l 1978), p. 21. So t h i s much was accomplished by the i n s t i t u t i o n s of c u l t u r e i n the pe r i od of Emery 's tenure . But there was a l s o an element of w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g i n Rombout's understanding of the death of the avant-garde, one t ha t was convenient to the t r an s fo rmat i on of VAG's programme. As J e f f Wa l l w r i t e s : . . . t h e open proc lamat ion of the ' death of the avant -ga rde ' takes p lace i n a new p e r i o d , that of the i n s t i t u t i o n s ' own f u r t h e r t r an s f o rma t i on . Those benevolent and i n n o v a t i v e , s t r u c t u r a l l y -modernized, almost s e l f - t r a n s c e n d i n g bureaucrac ies of the 1960s and 70s are becoming r e s t o r a t i o n i s t inst ruments f o r commercial and c u l t i c va l ue s . . . .The i d e a l of a dead vanguard i s the s u b j e c t i v e de s i r e of the i n s t i t u t i o n s which are themselves now being t r a n s -formed i n t o h i e r a r c h i c a l ins t ruments of s o c i a l c o n t r o l . I t i s t h e i r man i fes to , t h e i r inner tendency now being f o r ced to the su r face . [43 ] Thus VAG's programme was r e - o r i e n t e d to e x h i b i t i o n s of a more t r a d i t i o n a l na tu re ; " s uppo r t " i n terms of t ou r s , cata logues and Vanguard (which was turned i n t o a g lossy p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1979); and the b u i l d i n g of a permanent c o l l e c t i o n which, s i nce VAG had l i t t l e to spare f o r such a p r o j e c t , meant s o l i c i t i n g works from p r i v a t e donors. For Rombout and the VAG C o u n c i l , only the es tab l i shment of the G a l l e r y i n new premises would ensure the " i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r e d i b i l i t y " t ha t would a l l ow the impo r t a t i on of s i g n i f i -cant e x h i b i t i o n s , e x h i b i t i o n s aga in s t which the worth of one ' s own c o l l e c t i o n s and donat ions cou ld be measured. Rombout s a i d i n 1979 tha t "how I pe rce i ve the g a l l e r y and how I want i t to go i s l a r g e l y ou t s i de of Canada.[44] " In order to accompl i sh t h i s i t was necessary to have done w i t h the no t i on of the avant-garde and the p rev i ou s l y l o c a l l y - o r i e n t e d p r o j e c t s , to f i n i s h even the memory of the o l d G a l l e r y and i t s programme; 43/ W a l l , op. c i t . 44/ Pe r r y , op. c i t . 130 a negat ion which was accomplished to some extent by the a t t e n u a t i o n of the e x h i b i t i o n schedule dur ing the l a s t four years a t the Georg ia S t r ee t s i t e [ 4 5 ] , and the e l i m i n a t i o n of nea r l y every v e s t i g e of Emery 's i n n o -va t i on s i n Rombout's f i r s t year . The c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the G a l l e r y ' s programme, which w i t h the except ion of the p r o v i n c i a l l y - f u n d e d extens ion programme became focussed e x c l u s i v e l y on in-house a c t i v i t y , was accompanied by a c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and r a t i o n a l i z a -t i o n of the G a l l e r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In 1976, Rombout persuaded the VAG C o u n c i l t o e l i m i n a t e the p o s i t i o n of f i n a n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r , l e a v i n g the d i r e c t o r s o l e l y r e spon s i b l e to the board.[46] (Th i s s i t u a t i o n of dual r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , which was a holdover from the time when VAG members r a i s e d most of the money f o r the G a l l e r y ' s o p e r a t i o n , had a l s o been an untenable one f o r Emery and f o r i n t e r i m d i r e c t o r Abe Rogatn ick . [47 ] ) In a d d i t i o n , Rombout had the board e l i m i n a t e most of i t s s tand ing committees, 45/ As mentioned i n Note 39, the e x h i b i t i o n schedule grew very s lender i n the two years preceding the move. While the d i r e c t o r ' s a t t e n -t i o n was n e c e s s a r i l y absorbed by the r e l o c a t i o n , I b e l i e ve the concealed p o l i c y was to t u rn the o l d VAG i n t o a ghost g a l l e r y , to make i t s " r e b i r t h " a l l the more necessary and s pec t a cu l a r . When the memory of the o ld VAG had been erased by the neg lec t of the prev ious f i v e years , the new VAG cou ld l a y c l a i m to a "community r o l e " i t had set about r e j e c t i n g i n i t s o l d qua r t e r s , but of a d i f f e r e n t k i nd than the one t ha t had been p r a c t i c e d be fo re . 46/ VAG C o u n c i l Execut i ve Committee minutes (9 October 1975); VAG A s s o c i a t i o n genera l meeting minutes (31 March 1976), p. 1. 47/ Emery asked f o r f i n a n c i a l adm in i s t r a t o r Peter Hend r i e ' s r e s i g n a -t i o n a long w i t h those of three t r u s t ee s at the t ime of h i s c on t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n . Rogatn ick a l s o expressed the op in i on t ha t i t was impos s ib le to cont inue working w i t h Hendrie at an Execut i ve Committee meeting i n December 1974, a t which t ime Hendrie r e s i gned . VAG C o u n c i l Execu t i ve Committee minutes (5 December 1974), p. 3. The f a c t t ha t he was never f o rma l l y r ep laced made the p o s i t i o n ' s e l i m i n a t i o n i n 1976 an easy t a s k . argu ing that t h e i r f unc t i on s had been superseded i n any case by the pa id s t a f f , and he urged the t r u s t ee s to concentrate t h e i r e f f o r t s on f u n d -r a i s i n g . [48] Rombout a l s o c a n c e l l e d the weekly s t a f f meetings Emery had always h e l d , and head cu ra to r A l v i n Ba l k i nd no longer attended Counc i l meetings, as Shadbolt had under Emery, f u r t h e r i n g a d i v i s i o n between the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c u r a t o r i a l branches of VAG.[49] Whi le Emery and Shadbolt had encouraged a process of c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the s t a f f and w i t h the a r t i s t i c community, Rombout now channe l led G a l l e r y power through a d i s t i n c t h i e r a r c h y . Rombout consu l ted about the programme only w i t h h i s c u r a t o r s , and w i t h a sma l l set of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t s about adm in i -s t r a t i v e p o l i c y . The d i r e c t o r would not permit employees to communicate w i t h Counc i l members except through r ep re sen ta t i on s by h imse l f , and threatened to r e s i g n i n 1978 when the s t a f f a s s o c i a t i o n attempted to nominate two of t h e i r own to the board, say ing that he would not be put i n the p o s i t i o n of r e p o r t i n g to h i s own employees.[50] One r e s u l t of Rombout's r e o r g a n i z a t i o n was the 1979 u n i o n i z a t i o n of VAG's employees, f o l l o w i n g the f i r i n g of one of the G a l l e r y ' s three c u r a t o r s , Peter M a l k i n . Whi le the t r u s t e e s had been e x t r a - c o n c i l i a t o r y 48/ VAG C o u n c i l minutes (19 September 1975), p. 9. 49/ Lowndes, op. c i t . , p. 5a. 50/ Max Wyman and Jan O ' B r i e n , " A r t cu ra to r f i r e d f o r b l a s t i n g bo s s , " Vancouver Express (4 A p r i l 1979), p. A2. Accord ing to t h i s account, the main reason the s t a f f put forward the nominations was tha t they were not at l i b e r t y to d i s cus s p o l i c y matters w i t h C o u n c i l . According to Lawrence A l loway, t h i s was one of the primary reasons f o r u n i o n i z a t i o n i n other museums i n the 1970s, e .g . the Walker A r t Center and MoMA. Lawrence A l loway, "Museums and U n i o n i z a t i o n , " Ar t forum, v o l . 13 no. 6 (February 1975), p. 48. toward the employees f o l l o w i n g Emery 's r e s i g n a t i o n , by 1976 they had terminated d i r e c t contact w i t h VAG s t a f f . [51] When the s t a f f , under i n ten se pressure from Rombout and h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f , had withdrawn t h e i r nominations f o r the VAG C o u n c i l i n 1978[52], the C o u n c i l o f f e r e d to e s t a b l i s h a l i a i s o n committee to f a c i l i t a t e communication, but Rombout managed to n i x t h i s i n i t i a t i v e as w e l l , not wanting any form of contact which d i d not pass through h imse l f . [ 53 ] Peter Ma l k i n exposed Rombout's machinat ions i n Ben M e t c a l f e ' s column i n the Georg ia S t r a i g h t (at that time s t i l l an a l t e r n a t e newspaper), f o r which he was f i r e d when he refused to p u b l i c l y withdraw h i s charges.[54] The s t a f f then voted to j o i n the VMREU, an independent union f o r c i t y workers. [55] Given Rombout's i m p l e -mentation of " fundamental working procedures and methods as p r a c t i c e d i n 51/ Soon a f t e r Emery 's r e s i g n a t i o n , VAG Counc i l f o rma l l y expressed a w i l l i n g n e s s to ma inta in good r e l a t i o n s w i t h the s t a f f , i n c l u d i n g oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r the exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n , and suggested tha t s t a f f members be i n v i t e d as observers to C o u n c i l . (VAG C o u n c i l minutes, 26 September 1974, p. 6.) But i n January 1976, responding to a l e t t e r from the nascent VAG S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n , the Execut i ve Committee moved tha t " r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s t a f f matters r e s t s w i th the D i r e c t o r and the Execu-t i v e does not a n t i c i p a t e d i r e c t contact w i t h the S t a f f A s s o c i a t i o n . " (VAG Counc i l Execut i ve Committee minutes, 15 January 1976, p. 4.) 52/ Ben M e t c a l f e , "Coo l Hand Luke: Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y ' s Day of the J a c k e l s , " Georg ia S t r a i g h t (16-22 March 1979), p. 34. 53/ I b i d , p. 3. 54/ Ma l k i n s t a ted p u b l i c l y t ha t Rombout had s a i d that he put e t h i c a l c on s i de r a t i o n s second to f u n d r a i s i n g , and the cu ra to r was f i r e d f o r r e f u s i n g to r e t r a c t h i s statement. Wyman and O ' B r i e n , op. c i t . , p. A l . 55/ Sean R o s s i t e r , "The man behind the A r t G a l l e r y f u r o r , " Vancouver  Magazine (March 1980), p. 142; VAG Annual Report 1979, p. 2. the VMREU was c e r t i f i e d i n June 1979. bus iness and i ndu s t r y around u s [ 5 6 ] , " which began that same year, t h i s s tep would probably have been i n e v i t a b l e anyway. Th i s l a s t was one more step i n the process of r e i f y i n g the G a l l e r y i n the image of a c o rpo r a t i on - to i n s t i l a conf idence i n a r e spon s i b l e management tha t would not only s t a b i l i z e the i n s t i t u t i o n i n unce r t a i n t imes , but conduct i t towards g reater th ings i n a cau t i ou s and r e spon s i b l e f a s h i o n . A f t e r the scanda l engendered by M a l k i n ' s f i r i n g , which brought Rombout's a u t h o r i t a r i a n tendenc ies to p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n , a f t e r the u n i o n i -z a t i o n and the b u l l y i n g of the u n i o n ' s n e g o t i a t i n g team, Rombout wrote i n the VAG Annual Report f o r 1979: There i s no ques t ion i n my mind that un less and u n t i l c u l t u r a l o r gan i z a t i on s adopt b u s i n e s s l i k e p r a c t i c e s , they w i l l not s u r v i ve i n the face of i n f l a t i o n , l e v e l l i n g o f f of Government support, or worse, cutbacks i n g ran t s . I f support f o r s u s t a i n i n g funds from the p r i v a t e sec to r has been tenuous, then we must seek to improve i t . We can only do so, however, i f we can prove and demonstrate that we can handle our a f f a i r s , f i n a n c i a l l y and o therw i se , i n a r e spon s i b l e manner i n order to ob t a i n necessary support from t h i s a r ea . [57] In Rombout's e f f o r t s to secure a l t e r n a t e f i n a n c i n g f o r the G a l l e r y , he transformed i t i n t o something i t had never yet been: "We ' re now b u i l d i n g up an i n s t i t u t i o n t ha t measures up to a c o r p o r a t i o n [ 5 8 ] , " he was quoted as say ing i n B.C. Bus iness at the time of VAG's re-opening i n October 1983. In so do ing, the language used and the p r a c t i c e s imposed were a l i e n to the type of i n s t i t u t i o n tha t VAG had been, but they were not so to the people i t was appea l ing to f o r the 10% or so d i f f e r e n c e they cou ld make i n the 56/ " D i r e c t o r ' s Repo r t , " VAG Annual Report 1979, p. 2; see a l s o R o s s i t e r , op. c i t . 57/ VAG Annual Report 1979, p. 2. 58/ Van Halm, op. c i t . , p. 73. 134 VAG budget. As these were e n l i s t e d i n e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g numbers on VAG C o u n c i l i n the l a t e 1970s, the process was i n t e n s i f i e d . [ 5 9 ] At a museums conference he ld i n 1977, Dan i e l Robbins desc r ibed the genera l s i t u a t i o n i n terms of museum p r a c t i c e at about the same t ime: The t rend toward i d e n t i f y i n g the most acute problems i n a r t museums (and other c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s as w e l l ) w i t h management and d i s t r i b u t i o n i s not only consonant w i th a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n aping the methods (and va lues ? ) of i t s p e r i o d ' s exemplars of success, but i s t y p i c a l l y a case of s o l u t i o n s to museum d i f f i c u l t i e s being dev ised by board room p o l i c y makers, more or l e s s i n t h e i r own image.[60] Thus, wh i l e the programme returned i n a c e r t a i n sense to what i t had been p r i o r to 1963 (though on an a m p l i f i e d s c a l e ) , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n reached a new l e v e l of development not env i s i oned at a l l by the founding members of VAG, who had t r e a t ed i t as a p r i v a t e c l u b . The new g a l l e r y , on the other hand, or r a the r the c a p i t a l campaign fund launched to r a i s e money f o r i t , was determined to be p u b l i c , h igh p r o f i l e : the support must be seen to be c r e d i b l e , t he re f o re a new s i t e was c r u c i a l to the p r o j e c t , a s i t e which was a spec tac l e i n i t s e l f and a p lace where the s pec tac l e of generos i t y cou ld be perpetuated i n s t y l e . Arno ld Edinborough, a r t s co lumni s t f o r the F i n a n c i a l Pos t , argued t ha t such f u n d r a i s i n g campaigns, to be s u c c e s s f u l , must be l e d by major 59/ Most of the t r u s t ee s from the a r t i s t i c community re s i gned i n 1976, and were not r e p l a c e d . (There was a l s o an unusua l ly h igh number of s t a f f r e s i g n a t i o n s that year - 21 i n a l l . ) Bus iness execu t i ve s , a s opposed to a r t i s t s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s , were encouraged onto the Board and dominated i t aga in by 1978, the year the c a p i t a l campaign fund was launched. 60/ Dan ie l Robbins, "The Development of the Museum P r o f e s s i o n a l , " i n Ted Poulos ( e d . ) , Conference Proceedings f o r 2001: The Museum and the  Canadian P u b l i c (Ottawa: Canadian Museums A s s o c i a t i o n , 1977), p. 89. c o r p o r a t i o n s , both to g ive the appeal a h igh p r o f i l e (granted the good s tand ing i n which co rpo ra t i on s are a lways -a l ready h e l d ) , and to encourage sma l l e r companies to donate ( d i t t o ) . [ 6 1 ] The e f f e c t i s p u b l i c i t y both f o r the p r o j e c t and f o r the sponsors, who are e xemp l i f i ed as both c u l t u r a l and f i n a n c i a l l eade r s i n the community, and as f i g u r e s of gene ro s i t y . Such a scheme was unve i l ed i n Vancouver i n 1978-79, w i t h C a l v e r t Knudsen, then-chairman of M a c M i l l a n - B l o e d e l , c o - c h a i r i n g the c a p i t a l campaign, and k i c k i n g i t o f f w i th a c o n t r i b u t i o n of $250,000 from h i s company. (The campaign went on to c o l l e c t $5.2 m i l l i o n , i n c l u d i n g c . $1 m i l l i o n from o rd ina ry c i t i z e n s . [ 6 2 ] ) Such a campaign a l s o t r i e d to e s t a b l i s h a f a l s e r e l a t i o n to the community, i n the sense that the s u b j e c t i v e de s i r e s of the c l a s s f r a c t i o n a s soc i a ted w i th VAG were i d e n t i f i e d as the o b j e c t i v e needs of the whole "community" ( there i s never only one community i n any one p l a c e ) . Th i s con fu s i on , wh i l e not n e c e s s a r i l y consc ious , r e vea l s i t s e l f i n the appeals to the community and the l o c a l , from the time of Emery 's " f i r i n g " on, by the G a l l e r y ' s d i r e c t o r and t r u s t e e s . For example, Ron Long s t a f f e , i n h i s memoir p r e c i s f o r VAG's 1983 opening show cata logue, e l i d e d the two r a the r n e a t l y : Admi t ted l y , some co rpo ra t i on s w i l l g i ve to sh ine up t h e i r own corporate image, but that should be viewed as an oppor tun i ty - not as a t h r e a t . I f a museum cannot demonstrate the a b i l i t y to r a i s e 61/ Arno ld Edinborough, "Un i t y cou ld mean s t reng th i n r a i s i n g money f o r the a r t s , " The F i n a n c i a l Post (10 February 1979), p. 26. Edinborough a l s o f unc t i oned as a pa id Consultant" f o r the CBAC s ince i t s 1974 founding ( i n which he was instrumental). 62/ See Note 9. Over $4 m i l l i o n was r a i s e d from c o r p o r a t i o n s . 136 s u b s t a n t i a l f i n a n c i a l patronage from the community i t se rves , why should government support i t ? [ 6 3 ] In 1981, Rombout managed the same e l i s i o n , s t i l l harp ing on the need f o r more donat ions : I remain p e s s i m i s t i c about the a b i l i t y of the th ree l e v e l s of government to i nc rea se c u l t u r a l f und ing ; the r e a l i t y dur ing the next years to come w i l l be that those i n s t i t u t i o n s which can s u c c e s s f u l l y fund r a i s e i n the p r i v a t e sec to r are the ones that w i l l s u r v i v e i n moderate h e a l t h . I t s imply means that we have to earn, i n every sense, our p lace i n the community.[64] Rombout and others r e i t e r a t e d the l i n k of "community" to the " p r i v a t e s e c t o r " ad i n f i n i t u m , as i f they would not conceive of a community that e x i s t e d ou t s i de of the s t r a t a of the bus iness and p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s e s . Sheldon Cherry , VAG p re s ident i n 1978-79, perhaps revea led t h i s best i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of those who had made the c a p i t a l campaign a success: I r e f e r here to a l a r g e c ros s s e c t i o n of people and o r gan i z a t i on s w i th a v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s and backgrounds - the p u b l i c at l a r g e i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n , foundat ions , c o r po r a t i on s , l a r g e and sma l l bus inesses , the p ro fe s s i on s , e t c . - but a l l shar ing a common v i s i o n of what a new G a l l e r y i n the heart of the c i t y w i l l mean f o r the c i t i z e n s of B r i t i s h Columbia.[65] Of course, a l l of C h e r r y ' s c a t ego r i e s except c h i l d r e n share the same c l a s s base, a f a c t he seems unaware o f . At the same t ime, t h i s con fu s ion of c a p i t a l w i t h community a c t s to p o l i t i c a l l y d i s a b l e the o the r s , whose needs and d e s i r e s , whose very ex i s t ence remains u n i d e n t i f i e d , and yet who are conta ined w i l l y - n i l l y i n t h i s hegemonic d e f i n i t i o n of the community. 63/ Ron Long s t a f f e , " Pe r s ona l P e r s p e c t i v e s " s e c t i o n of Vancouver:  A r t and A r t i s t s 1931-1983, p. 271. 64/ " D i r e c t o r ' s Repo r t , " VAG Annual Report 1981, n.p. 65/ " P r e s i d e n t ' s Repo r t , " VAG Annual Report 1979, p. 1. When Kenneth Bagshaw w r i t e s ( i n 1977, w i t h an eye cas t to the new g a l l e r y and i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s ) : Without a s t rong and growing permanent c o l l e c t i o n and an a c t i v e e x h i b i t i o n programme i n c l u d i n g major i n t e r n a t i o n a l shows, i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the G a l l e r y to ob ta i n the community support, both f i n a n c i a l and o therw i se , i t r equ i r e s , [ 6 6 ] he i s i d e n t i f y i n g a p a r t i c u l a r programme, one which he a t t r i b u t e s to the community, but which has not a r i s e n t he r e , and which would not have been posed i n such a way even by the G a l l e r y ' s prev ious o f f i c e r s (hence t h e i r e xpu l s i on ) . [ 67 ] Pa r t of the process through which the "community" would be convinced tha t i t wanted the spec tacu la r shows VAG would a l l e g e d l y be ab le to b r i n g i n was the launch ing of the c a p i t a l campaign, Take the G a l l e r y to Cour t , and the p u b l i c i t y that was r a i s e d around the Rauschen-berg e x h i b i t i o n , Works from C a p t i v a , i n 1978 (and d i scus sed i n Chapter 1 ) , and the subsequent purchase, through p u b l i c s u b s c r i p t i o n , of a recent work by tha t a r t i s t . [ 6 8 ] Works from Cap t i v a stood f o r a number of elements i n the new VAG programme. I t was a promise of what would be made po s s i b l e i n a new G a l l e r y : not l a r ge enough to obv ia te the need f o r new premises, i t was yet the f i r s t t ime Rauschenberg had premiered h i s work i n a p u b l i c 66/ " P r e s i d e n t ' s Repo r t , " VAG Annual Report 1977, n.p. 67/ Whi le ne i t he r Emery nor Do r i s Shadbolt were " f i r e d " , ne i t he r su rv i ved the pe r i od of retrenchment. VAG pa id Shadbolt o f f w i t h a t e s t i -monial i n 1975 marking her 25 years w i t h the G a l l e r y , and she never worked there aga in . 68/ The 1981 campaign, c a l l e d Buy an Inch of Rauschenberg, was a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s ploy f o l l o w i n g on the " s ucce s s " of the 1978 Rauschenberg e x h i b i t i o n , and r e s u l t e d i n the purchase of one of Rauschenberg 's works, Rush #10, a " t r a n s f e r " i n the " C l o i s t e r " s e r i e s from a recent Ace show. i n s t i t u t i o n , an addendum to the a r t i s t ' s recent t ou r i n g r e t r o s p e c t i v e t h a t had been so w ide ly p u b l i c i z e d . I t was a gauge of Rombout's i n f l u e n c e t ha t Rauschenberg had been persuaded to premiere h i s new p ieces i n a c i t y so f a r from the cent re of the a r t w o r l d (a l though, of course, Rauschenberg had been showing new work here f o r a very long t ime at the Ace G a l l e r y ) , and a h i n t of what cou ld be done g iven the proper re sources . The long h i s t o r y of Rauschenberg 's e x h i b i t i o n s i n the c i t y made him p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l s i t u a t e d f o r the promotion of VAG's new r o l e ( f o r i t was a r o l e as much as a s i t e tha t was being promoted). The e x h i b i t i o n s of new works by t h i s prominent American a r t i s t was a l s o a s i gn of the d i r e c t i o n Rombout was s t e e r i n g the G a l l e r y i n , towards a recogn ized " i n t e r n a t i o n a l " a r t f a m i l i a r at l e a s t to c o l l e c t o r s and to members of C o u n c i l . Whi le Rauschen-berg was promoted as the a l l - A m e r i c a n a r t i s t i n the U.S. a t the time of h i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e (and more r e c e n t l y ) [ 6 9 ] , h i s Americanness was not so important here as h i s fame, even though h i s fame depended by t h i s t ime on h i s very Americanness. Rather, he l e n t the Canadian VAG a cosmopol i tan t i n g e , a t r a n s n a t i o n a l r a the r than a p r o v i n c i a l au ra , e s p e c i a l l y s i n ce h i s new works were seen here f i r s t . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m worked two ways: 69/ Yet another comeback was announced e a r l y i n 1983, as Rauschenberg unve i l ed new work s imul taneous ly at the C a s t e l l i and Sonnabend G a l l e r i e s i n SoHo, and at the Museum of Modern A r t . Robert Hughes opened h i s rev iew i n Time w i t h the words: " A t 57, Robert Rauschenberg i s b a c k . . . . " Rauschen-berg , i n h i s second People p r o f i l e , was photographed before one of h i s new c o n s t r u c t i o n s , which fea tu red an American f l a g at i t s c e n t r e . I t i s noted i n both a r t i c l e s t ha t " t h e a l l - A m e r i c a n bad boy of a r t " (People) was i n a r t i s t i c d i f f i c u l t y i n the l a t e 1970s, the very t ime of h i s Vancouver e x h i b i t i o n . Robert Hughes, "The Arcad ian as U t o p i a n , " Time (24 January 1983), p. 74.; Barbara Rowes, " P a i n t e r Robert Rauschenberg takes a t r i p to China and pops back w i t h new shows and new v i t a l i t y , " People (24 January 1983), pp. 82-83. Rauschenberg cou ld be used f o r the promotion of VAG i n the c i t y and out , t o he lp i t ga in the h igh p r o f i l e Rombout and Counc i l d e s i r e d . An unpre-cedented coup such as Rombout had eng ineered, modest as i t was, might g i ve VAG a presence i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l arena i t had missed s i nce i t s heyday i n the l a t e 1960s, or announce the presence i t would assume once i t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n i t s new d i g s . Works from Cap t i v a was a l s o a c i phe r f o r the r e t u r n to the ob jec t touted by museums i n the 1970s, an a t t i t u d e to which Rombout a l s o sub-s c r i b e d . By the 1970s Rauschenberg had become a con se rva t i ve a r t i s t both f o rma l l y and i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y - as he was read so had he been o b j e c t i f i e d . Accord ing to Haro ld Rosenberg, f o r i n s t ance , one of the reasons h i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e had been so s u c ce s s f u l was tha t he represented a c e r t a i n guarantee of s t a b i l i t y i n an a r t scene which u n t i l r e c e n t l y had been f o r go i ng the p roduct ion of o b j e c t s . For VAG, an e x h i b i t i o n of the pu r -ported s t a t u r e of Works from Cap t i v a would a l s o , by i t s p r e s t i g e , s anc t i on the d r i f t of Rombout's programme. F i n a l l y , Works from Cap t i va was put to a use s i m i l a r to tha t desc r ibed f o r community f u n d r a i s i n g p r o j e c t s : i n order to impress upon people the need f o r a new G a l l e r y , and to impress people " o f a l l walks of l i f e " i n t o g i v i n g to the campaign, an a r t i s t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a t u r e was s e l e c t e d , much as Arno ld Edinborough adv i sed that wel l-known co rpo ra t i on s be used to l ead the way i n f u n d r a i s i n g (even i n t h i s i n s t a n c e ) . The p u b l i c d i d not even need to at tend the e x h i b i t i o n to be impressed by a name l i k e Rauschenberg ' s , wh ich, i f not a household one, has wider currency than tha t of almost any other contemporary a r t i s t . H i s s i gna tu re has i t s e l f , l i k e P i c a s s o ' s , become a c l i c h e of modern a r t , a s i g n i f i c a t i o n of a r t i s t i c power and p r e s t i g e . An e x h i b i t i o n such as t h i s was a means of secur ing "community suppor t " f o r the p r o j e c t , though such success as i t achieved or was meant to achieve was i n spec tacu l a r terms r a the r than through a r e a l l y d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to the community. Rauschenberg cou ld be used f o r an e s s e n t i a l l y commercial purpose because he had become a p o s i t i v e i n t e r p r e t e r of s o c i e t y , s tand ing i n f o r the G a l l e r y ' s own (de s i r ed ) r o l e and that of i t s p a r t i s a n s . To t h i s end h i s works were opaque but charming, a l though t h e i r necessary super-f i c i a l i t y cou ld not he lp but d i s t u r b the c r i t i c s , a t l e a s t , who commented upon them. Though few bothered to do i t , an e l a b o r a t i o n of the iconography of the " Spreads " and " S c a l e s " r e vea l s a content tha t attempted to t r a n -scend the s o c i a l i n the p u r s u i t of a metaphysic f u s i n g sex, nature and the technology of l e i s u r e . There was a l s o , I b e l i e v e , a degree of megalomania i n vo l ved i n the c a n n i b a l i z a t i o n of o l d mot i f s and the p r e -occupat ion w i th ( r i v a l ? ) forms of mass c u l t u r e . None of t h i s was at odds, however, w i t h the i n t e n t i o n s or ambit ions of those l e ad i n g the G a l l e r y on to i t s re-opening i n 1983 i n a new, gorgeous s e t t i n g . Rather , the i c o n o -graphy of Rauschenberg 's e x h i b i t i o n n a t u r a l i z e s these i n t e n t i o n s and amb i t i on s , which were l a i d bare i n the s e r i e s of ga l a events preceding VAG's r e - i n a u g u r a t i o n i n October 1983. The k ind of " i n t e r n a t i o n a l " show represented by Works from Cap t i va was a l s o attempted under the prev ious regime, as my d i s c u s s i o n of the 1969 New York 13 e x h i b i t i o n a t t e s t s , though the Rauschenberg and S t e l l a e x h i b i t i o n s of the l a t e 1970s were r e p e t i t i o n s i n a f a r c i c a l form of the grandstanding VAG shows from 1967 to 1971. These l a r g e spec tacu l a r e x h i b i t i o n s were only one par t of a t o t a l programme i n those year s ; as we have seen i t was the d e s i r e f o r them tha t drove out Tony Emery and f u e l l e d the campaign f o r r e l o c a t i o n launched about the time of h i s r e s i g n a t i o n . The other elements of h i s programme had to be repres sed, as he had bur ied those aspects most dear to a f r a c t i o n that had i n any case transcended i t s e a r l i e r i n t e r e s t i n l o c a l a r t i s t i c developments. The resurgent Counc i l tha t h i r e d Luke Rombout, i n seeking to secure more funding from p r i v a t e c a p i t a l f o r the opera t i on of the G a l l e r y - i n order to escape the "consequences" of so heavy a r e l i a n c e on government funding f o r the maintenance of i t s programmes - was i m p l i c i t l y c r i t i c i z i n g Emery 's p o l i c y tha t the f e d e r a l c u l t u r a l agencies had made p o s s i b l e . I t was a c r i t i q u e w i t h which these agencies agreed a l l too h e a r t i l y . The genera l c o l l a p s e of the " support system" ideo logy i n the museum wor ld dur ing the 1970s would have brought i t s own set of changes to G a l l e r y p o l i c y r ega rd le s s of the s p e c i f i c f ea tu re s of the Canadian s i t u a t i o n , which were not d i f f e r e n t i n k i nd from those of the economic c r i s i s f i r s t f e l t everywhere i n the decade, to which t h i s c o l l a p s e was i n some sense t i e d . One of the c h i e f f ea tu re s of the c r i s i s was the r e i n s t i t u t i o n of the hegemony of c a p i t a l i n a l l aspects of s o c i a l l i f e , i n s p i t e of (or because o f ) the unsteady h e a l t h of the economy. Th i s " r e t u r n of the r ep re s sed " cond i t i oned the whole development of G a l l e r y p o l i c y i n the decade l ead i ng up to the c e l e b r a t i o n surrounding the re-opening of VAG i n 1983, two years to the day before t h i s paper was f i n i s h e d . 142 I n s o f a r as the f u t u r e i s concerned, i t i s always h i s t o r i c a l l y d e ter-mined. I would s t i l l c l a i m that the f u t u r e of the G a l l e r y depends upon the a n a l y s i s contained h e r e i n . SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 143 I Background and Theory B laug , Mark, ed. The Economics of the A r t s . Bou lder , C o l o . : Westview P re s s , 1976. Bourd ieu, P i e r r e . 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