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A strategy for increasing employment and crisis housing options for women Nielsen, Carol 1985

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A STRATEGY FOR INCREASING EMPLOYMENT AND CRISIS HOUSING OPTIONS FOR WOMEN by CAROL NIELSEN B . A . , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to t,he r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September , 1985 © Caro l N i e l s e n , 1985 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s , S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date O c t o b e r 8 , 1985 DE-6 (3/81) i i A B S T R A C T T h i s t h e s i s examines the s t r a t e g y of community economic development (CED) to p o t e n t i a l l y a l l e v i a t e some of the h a r d s h i p s women e x p e r i e n c e in o b t a i n i n g both adequate income t h r o u g h employment and a c c e s s to t r a n s i t i o n a l ( c r i s i s ) h o u s i n g . These two d i s t i n c t y e t i n t e r - r e l a t e d problems have been s e l e c t e d to p r o v i d e a manageable scope f o r t h i s t h e s i s and as a r e s u l t of my own keen i n t e r e s t and invo lvement in t h e s e two a r e a s : employment and c r i s i s h o u s i n g f o r women. Indeed , as a comprehens ive development s t r a t e g y , CED may p r o v i d e the means to e f f e c t i v e l y deal wi th the b roader complex of d i s a d v a n t a g e s such as s o c i a l and economic dependency , m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n by p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r independence and s o c i a l c h a n g e . Women are c o n c e n t r a t e d in low pa id o c c u p a t i o n s , earn 62% of what men earn (1980 ) , e x p e r i e n c e h igh unemployment and a number o f employment b a r r i e r s i n c l u d i n g s u b t l e a n d / o r o v e r t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and a doub le burden of work and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Women earn 30% (1980) o f the t o t a l income i n B . C . , e x p e r i e n c e a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of p o v e r t y as i n d i v i d u a l s and as s i n g l e parent f a m i l y h e a d s , and are tw ice as l i k e l y as men to r e p o r t government t r a n s f e r payments as our main s o u r c e of income. In a d d i t i o n , one i n ten women who are m a r r i e d or i n a l i v e - i n r e l a t i o n s h i p wi th a l o v e r i s b a t t e r e d , and o n l y 50% have a c c e s s to a t r a n s i t i o n house or h o s t e l which a c c p e p t s women who are b a t t e r e d . Due to f u l l c a p a c i t i e s , t h o s e houses tha t do e x i s t r e g u l a r l y must r e f u s e a c c e s s . i i i CED i s a very s i m p l e concept i n t e n d e d to a d d r e s s very s e r i o u s and complex economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . The u l t i m a t e goal i s to improve the q u a l i t y of l i f e of community members th rough community i n i t i a t e d and s u p p o r t e d economic and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y which g e n e r a t e s employment, w e a l t h , community b e n e f i t and a g r e a t degree o f s e l f - e s t e e m . Community i s d e f i n e d here as women who share a common view or i d e o l o g y and i n t e r e s t in employment and c r i s i s hous ing p r o v i s i o n s . Through the development of women's e n t e r p r i s e s , employment may be genera ted and p r o f i t s c h a n n e l l e d to the c r e a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of t r a n s i t i o n h o u s e s . CED p r o v i d e s a means f o r i n c r e m e n t a l change through p l a n n i n g , and s p e c i f i c a l l y , women p l a n n i n g f o r women to take g r e a t e r c o n t r o l o f our l i v e s . Having e n t e r e d a "new r e a l i t y " w i t h i n t h i s p r o v i n c e comple te wi th r e s t r a i n t and p r i v a t i z a t i o n and i n c r e a s i n g unemployment wi th a s s o c i a t e d economic and s o c i a l c o s t s , CED appears i n c r e a s i n g l y f a v o u r a b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r women. Unemployment and v i o l e n c e i s i n c r e a s i n g w h i l e r e s o u r c e s and s o l u t i o n s l a c k i n g . The o p p o r t u n i t y to examine the p o t e n t i a l of CED to meet the o b j e c t i v e s as s t a t e d i s p r o v i d e d through the development of a p o t e n t i a l s c e n a r i o and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which must be made to i n c r e a s e the p r o b a b i l i t y of s u c c e s s . I f women are to exper iment wi th CED, thorough p l a n n i n g must o c c u r w i t h i n a l o n g - t e r m development s t r a t e g y . CED i s not easy and p r o v i d e s no q u i c k - f i x s o l u t i o n to the d i s a d v a n t a g e s women e x p e r i e n c e . When c o n s i d e r -a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , c a p a c i t y l e v e l s and o t h e r i v f a c t o r s r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s i s u n d e r t a k e n , in a d d i t i o n to a r e a l i s t i c examina t ion of the p o t e n t i a l and o b s t a c l e s f o r CED^good r e s u l t s may o c c u r . CED s h o u l d be approached both e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y and c a u t i o u s l y . It i s my hope t h a t women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l t ake up the c h a l l e n g e and t e s t the p o t e n t i a l . T A B L E OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e of C o n t e n t s v L i s t of T a b l e s v i L i s t of F i g u r e s v i i Acknowledgements v i i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Notes 5 Chapter One: Problem D e f i n e d 6 Employment and Income 6 Labour Market P a r t i c i p a t i o n 6 I n d i c a t o r s of D i s a d v a n t a g e 14 I n d u s t r i a l and O c c u p a t i o n a l C o n c e n t r a t i o n 14 Unequal Economic Returns 16 Unemployment 19 B a r r i e r s 21 Income 23 C r i s i s Housing f o r Women 24 I n c i d e n c e of B a t t e r i n g 25 O b j e c t i v e s of T r a n s i t i o n Houses 26 S u p p l y and Supp ly S h o r t a g e s of T r a n s i t i o n Houses 27 Notes 29 Chapter Two: I n t r o d u c t i o n to a S t r a t e g y 33 Community Economic Development 34 Community Development C o r p o r a t i o n s 38 R a t i o n a l e 47 Notes 52 C h a p t e r T h r e e : S t r a t e g y R e f i n e d : CED f o r I n c r e a s i n g Employment and C r i s i s Housing O p t i o n s f o r Women 54 S e t t i n g the S t a g e : A S c e n a r i o 54 Model Development 58 A c t i v i t y and C a p a c i t y L e v e l s 63 Requi rements f o r S u c c e s s 66 P o t e n t i a l and O b s t a c l e s 69 C r i t e r i a f o r E v a l u a t i o n 72 E v a l u a t i o n 73 Notes 74 Chapter F o u r : C o n c l u s i o n s 75 Bi b l i ography 77 L I S T OF T A B L E S Page T a b l e 1. Female P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rate by Age G r o u p , B . C . , 1978 - 1983 9 T a b l e 2 . Employment by I n d u s t r y and Sex: B . C . , 1983 15 T a b l e 3 . Average Employment Income in B . C . by Major O c c u p a t i o n ( F u l l t i m e , F u l l y e a r , 1980) 17 T a b l e 4 . Average Income f o r B . C . by Sex by H i g h e s t Level of S c h o o l i n g , 1980 18 T a b l e 5 . A c t u a l Unemployment Rate by S e x , B . C . 1970 and 1980 20 T a b l e 6 . P r o p o r t i o n of T o t a l Income by S e x , B . C . 1970 - 1980 23 T a b l e 7 . Compara t ive Advantages of Community Development C o r p o r a t i o n s 41 T a b l e 8 . C D C ' s : A c t i v i t i e s Ever Engaged In 43 T a b l e 9 . CDC Development: A c t i v i t i e s and C a p a c i t y L e v e l s 65 Tab le 10 . P o t e n t i a l and O b s t a c l e s f o r A c h i e v i n g CED 70 T a b l e 11 . C r i t e r i a f o r E v a l u a t i o n 72 v i i L I S T OF F I G U R E S Page F i g u r e 1. Percen tage of T o t a l B . C . Labour Force by S e x , 1972 - 1984 8 F i g u r e 2 . P a r t i c i p a t i o n R a t e , F e m a l e , B . C . {%) 1972 - 1984 10 F i g u r e 3 . P a r t i c i p a t i o n R a t e , M a l e , B . C . {%) 1972 - 1984 11 F i g u r e 4 . S t r u c t u r e of F a m i l i e s wi th C h i l d r e n At Home: B . C . 13 F i g u r e 5 . B a s i c CDC S t r u c t u r e 39 F i g u r e 6 . CDC S t r u c t u r e 60 F i g u r e 7 . Development System 64 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank the many women's groups i n t h i s P r o v i n c e who have put up wi th my r a t h e r p e r s i s t e n t d i s c u s s i o n s of community economic d e v e l o p m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e who have taken up the c h a l l e n g e . To my f a m i l y who have p r o v i d e d much needed s u p p o r t , p a t i e n c e and encouragement . To Henry Hightower and Pe te r Boothroyd of U . B . C . School of Community and Reg iona l P l a n n i n g , f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m and p a t i e n c e . To the S o r o p t o m i s t F o u n d a t i o n , Western Canada Region f o r t h e i r generous award in 1983. L a s t l y , to C . M . H . C . f o r two y e a r s of f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . Without i t , I may never have l e a r n e d what p l a n n i n g was r e a l l y a l l a b o u t , or the p o t e n t i a l of community economic d e v e l o p m e n t . 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N P l a n n i n g through community economic development (CED) wi th the prime goal of i n c r e a s i n g employment and c r i s i s hous ing o p t i o n s f o r women i s the f o c u s of t h i s t h e s i s . The purpose i s to c o n s i d e r the concept o f CED and i t s p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s to de te rmine the v i a b i l i t y of meet ing these p a r t i c u l a r g o a l s . T h i s task w i l l be a c c o m p l i s h e d by drawing on the B . C . and Canadian e x p e r i e n c e wi th CED as r e f l e c t e d in r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e , d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e and o b s e r v a t i o n of the B . C . women's movement, and th rough the development of a t h e o r e t i c a l , a l t h o u g h r e a l i s t i c s c e n a r i o and r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r CED s u c c e s s . The b a s i c argument to be d e v e l o p e d i s t h a t CED i s a s t r a t e g y worthy of s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n and a p p r o p r i a t e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n by o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s p e c i f i c a l l y women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p l a n n e r s who are at p r e s e n t or sometime in the f u t u r e f o c u s i n g o r g a n i z e d e f f o r t s in t h i s area of economic development and hous ing p r o v i s i o n . These two d i s t i n c t y e t i n t e r - r e l a t e d problems have been s e l e c t e d to p r o v i d e a manageable scope f o r t h i s t h e s i s and as a 2 r e s u l t of my own keen i n t e r e s t and invo lvement in employment and c r i s i s hous ing p r o v i s i o n f o r women. Indeed , as a comprehens ive development s t r a t e g y , CED may a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d as a s t r a t e g y to deal w i th m u l t i p l e i s s u e s or problems e x p e r i e n c e d by women, e . g . economic dependence , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , sexual h a r a s s m e n t , p o w e r l e s s n e s s and i s o l a t i o n . CED i s d e f i n e d by t h i s t h e s i s as a " s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t r a t e g y of b u i l d i n g a l l a s p e c t s of the communi ty" ! f o r the purpose of " c r e a t i n g a g r e a t e r degree of l o c a l c o n t r o l over communi t ies and economies by r e d u c i n g l o c a l unemployment, r a i s i n g c a p i t a l to f i n a n c e community based s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , and d e c r e a s i n g e x t e r n a l d e p e n d e n c y . " 2 It i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y an economic approach u s i n g b u s i n e s s s t r u c t u r e s and t e c h n i q u e s to meet the s o c i a l needs of a g iven community . The community may be a f u n c t i o n a l communi ty , community of i n t e r e s t , or a g e o g r a p h i c u n i t . Community w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of t h i s t h e s i s r e f e r s to a f u n c t i o n a l community o f i n t e r e s t w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n : women in Canada , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Whi le p r o v i d i n g j o b s and income f o r community members, p r o f i t may be c h a n n e l l e d to p r i o r i t y s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , f o r example , c r i s i s h o u s i n g . Women have been chosen as a t a r g e t group f o r c o n s i d e r i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n of CED because we are a d i s a d v a n t a g e d segment of t h i s s o c i e t y . By f o c u s i n g on women the d i s a d v a n t a g e e x p e r i e n c e d by o t h e r s i n c l u d i n g d i s t i n c t groups such as n a t i v e I n d i a n s , y o u t h , and the d i s a b l e d are not be ing i g n o r e d or u n d e r v a l u e d . By d e s i g n , 3 women have been chosen f o r p r i o r i t y a t t e n t i o n as a means to f o c u s d i s c u s s i o n and as a r e s u l t of the a u t h o r ' s past and ongoing commitment to i s s u e s of c r i t i c a l s o c i a l concern to women. The c o n c e p t of a p p l y i n g CED to meet the economic and s o c i a l c o n c e r n s of o t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e d communi t ies shou ld prove to be u s e f u l to t h o s e whose a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s e d e l s e w h e r e . C h a p t e r One w i l l p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t f o r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n by e l a b o r a t i n g on the s p e c i f i c d i f f i c u l t i e s women e x p e r i e n c e i n o b t a i n i n g both adequate income th rough employment, equal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l a b o u r market and a c c e s s to t r a n s i t i o n h o u s i n g . The p o s i t i o n of women in the l a b o u r market w i l l be a n a l y z e d by c o n s i d e r i n g l a b o u r market p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n d i c a t o r s of d i s a d v a n t a g e such as i n d u s t r i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n , unequal economic r e t u r n s , unemployment r a t e s , b a r r i e r s to adequate employment and income d i f f i c u l t i e s . The problem of t r a n s i t i o n hous ing s h o r t a g e s to meet the needs of abused women and t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i l l be a n a l y z e d by i d e n t i f y i n g the i n c i d e n c e of b a t t e r i n g , and the c r i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between s u p p l y and r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s . C h a p t e r Two i n t r o d u c e s the concept o f CED f o r p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n to women's groups who are i n t e r e s t e d i n employment g e n e r a t i o n through community e n t e r p r i s e development and t r a n s i t i o n house p r o v i s i o n . D e f i n i t i o n s and examples of CED a c t i v i t i e s are p r e s e n t e d in a d d i t i o n to a d i s c u s s i o n of one common CED s t r u c t u r e , 4 the community development c o r p o r a t i o n ( C D C ) . A r a t i o n a l e f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of CED as a t o o l f o r women i s a l s o p r o v i d e d . C h a p t e r Three i l l u s t r a t e s through example the a p p l i c a t i o n of CED th rough a CDC to meet the needs a l r e a d y i d e n t i f i e d . A s c e n a r i o , complete with a p o t e n t i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and model i s d e v e l o p e d , f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n of a c t i v i t i e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c a p a c i t y , and f a c t o r s r e q u i r e d f o r CED s u c c e s s . The p o t e n t i a l and o b s t a c l e s to meet t h i s p o t e n t i a l are forwarded in a d d i t i o n to a set of c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n and a b r i e f e v a l u a t i o n . The f i n a l c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s the c o n c l u s i o n by r e a l i s t i c a l l y a d d r e s s i n g the p o t e n t i a l of t h i s s t r a t e g y to meet the goa ls of t h i s t h e s i s . 5 NOTES I N T R O D U C T I O N ^Stewart P e r r y , CED: An I n t r o d u c t i o n to an Amer ican S t r a - tegy ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : I n s t i t u t e f o r New E n t e r p r i s e Deve lopment , T 9 8 0 ) , p. 1 2 . ^Susan Wismer and David P e l l , Community P r o f i t ( T o r o n t o : Is F i v e P r e s s , 1 9 8 1 ) , I n t r o d u c t i o n . 6 C H A P T E R 1 P R O B L E M D E F I N E D Two d i s t i n c t y e t i n t e r - r e l a t e d problems e x p e r i e n c e d by women are c o n s i d e r e d in t h i s t h e s i s 1) the problem of o b t a i n i n g adequate income th rough employment and l a b o u r market p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; and 2) the problem of a c c e s s i n g t r a n s i t i o n hous ing a f t e r a v i o l e n t a s s a u l t has o c c u r r e d . Wi th in t h i s c h a p t e r , each problem w i l l be examined s e p a r a t e l y . EMPLOYMENT AND INCOME The f i r s t problem to be a d d r e s s e d by t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t of low income th rough employment and equal p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the l a b o u r m a r k e t . T h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a c o n t e x t f o r t h i s d i s c u s s i o n by i d e n t i f y i n g the p o s i t i o n of women in the l a b o u r market and o u t l i n e s some of the i n d i c a t o r s of d i s a d v a n t a g e by i d e n t i f y i n g s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s which d i f f e r e n t i a t e women from men in the economic s p h e r e . L a b o u r M a r k e t P a r t i c i p a t i o n Women are p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the B . C . and Canadian l a b o u r markets i n unprecedented numbers and p r o p o r t i o n s . T h i s t r e n d has become one of the most d r a m a t i c developments in Canadian economic h i s t o r y and p r o j e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e tha t soon women w i l l make up c l o s e to h a l f of the l a b o u r f o r c e . 1 Recent e s t i m a t e s a l s o show tha t 70% of the growth of C a n a d a ' s l a b o u r f o r c e i n the 1980 's w i l l 7 be the r e s u l t of a d u l t women e n t e r i n g the work f o r c e . 2 In B . C . as in Canada t h i s p a t t e r n of i n c r e a s e d female l a b o u r market p a r t i c i p a t i o n has s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r e d the c o m p o s i t i o n of the l a b o u r f o r c e . In 1983, the 577,000 women in the l a b o u r market r e p r e s e n t e d 42% of a l l persons a c t i v e in the p r o v i n c i a l l a b o u r f o r c e , a f i g u r e t h a t was up from 39% in 1979, 35% in 1972 and 22% in 1953. F i g u r e 1 i l l u s t r a t e s the i n c r e a s e in female and d e c r e a s e i n male l a b o u r f o r c e a c t i v i t y s i n c e 1972.3 Over the past f i v e y e a r s , the average annual growth i n the female l a b o u r f o r c e has been 4.2% ( a l t h o u g h d u r i n g the most r e c e n t two y e a r s the average has d ipped to 2 .0%). T h i s c o n t r a s t s wi th an annual e x p a n s i o n of the male work f o r c e a v e r a g i n g 2.1% f o r each of the past f i ve y e a r s . 4 U n d e r l y i n g the growth in the female share of t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e i s the growth in female p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . T h i s r a t e ( d e f i n e d as the p r o p o r t i o n of the work ing age p o p u l a t i o n who have j o b s or are l o o k i n g f o r work) has r i s e n each y e a r in Canada s i n c e 1953, and d u r i n g t h i s t i m e , has more than d o u b l e d . In B . C . , 40.4% of women age 15 or over in 1972 compared to 52.6% in 1984 (January to August average) p a r t i c i p a t e d , a 12.2% i n c r e a s e . For the same t ime p e r i o d , p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r men d e c r e a s e d 1.9% from 77.5 to 5 6 75.6%. F i g u r e s 2 and 3 i l l u s t r a t e t h e s e r a t e s . An e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e s e r a t e s f o r women by s p e c i f i c age groups over a f i v e y e a r p e r i o d r e v e a l s a r a p i d i n c r e a s e among the age c o h o r t s 25 to 54 . For example , the ra te f o r women aged 25 to F i g u r e 1 P e r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l B . C . L a b o u r F o r c e b y S e x 1 9 7 2 t o 1 9 8 4 ( a v . f r o m J a n u a r y t o A u g u s t ) • • 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 Years Female Male 00 9 34 has r i s e n from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60% in 1978 to 68% in 1983. T a b l e 1 p r o v i d e s a b r e a k d o w n . 7 T a b l e 1 F e m a l e P a r t i c i p a t i o n R a t e b y A g e G r o u p B . C . , 1 9 7 8 - 1 9 8 3 Age Group 1978 1982 1983 15-19 52.3 57.1 55.5 20-24 70.7 71.3 71.7 25-34 60.4 66.6 68.1 35-44 62.7 68.3 67.9 45-54 54.3 59.8 62.5 55-64 31.6 34.4 32.2 65+ 2.9 3.1 2.8 TOTAL 48.7 52.4 52.4 In Canada , f o r 1983, the average p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r c o h o r t s 25-54 was 66%. By 1990, some p r o j e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e tha t t h i s f i g u r e w i l l r i s e to 75% as a r e s u l t of "more w idespread implemen-t a t i o n of a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n p r o g r a m s , improved s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s such as day c a r e , and i n c r e a s e d f l e x i b i l i t y in work a r r a n g e -ments ."8 The reasons f o r the d r a m a t i c and s teady i n c r e a s e in female p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s are many. One e x p l a n a t i o n i s the chang ing F i g u r e 2 P a r t i c i p a t i o n R a t e , F e m a l e , B . C . (%) 1 9 7 2 - J a n u a r y t o A u g u s t A v e r a g e 1 9 8 4 1972 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 Years 82 83 84 ( a v . ) F i g u r e 3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n R a t e , M a l e , B . C . (%) 1 9 7 2 - J a n u a r y t o A u g u s t A v e r a g e 1 9 8 4 p a r t i c 80 i P 79 a t 78 i 0 77 n 76 R a 75 t e 74 1972 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 ( a v . ) Years 12 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f a m i l y and impact of d e c r e a s e d f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s on the l a b o u r f o r c e a c t i v i t y of women of c h i l d -b e a r i n g and c h i l d r e a r i n g a g e s . The c l e a r e s t i n d i c a t o r of a change i n t h i s f a c t o r i s the s teady d e c l i n e of f e r t i l i t y r a t e s . The absence of c h i l d r e n or r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r fewer c h i l d r e n means t h a t the l a b o u r f o r c e a c t i v i t y o f women wi th t r a d i t i o n a l m o t h e r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , i s l e s s l i k e l y to be i n t e r r u p t e d , or may be i n t e r r u p t e d f o r a s h o r t e r p e r i o d o f t i m e . There i s a l s o e v i d e n c e to suggest a t r e n d toward i n c r e a s e d l a b o u r f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by women wi th c h i l d r e n . L o o k i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y at h u s b a n d / w i f e f a m i l i e s , 43.3% of mothers wi th p r e -schoo l c h i l d r e n were in the l a b o u r f o r c e in 1981, a very s u b s t a n -t i a l i n c r e a s e from 24.4% ten y e a r s e a r l i e r . 9 Women who may p r e v i o u s l y have been r e s t r a i n e d from l a b o u r f o r c e a c t i v i t y by t r a d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are now p a r t i c i p a t i n g more f r e q u e n t l y and making a l t e r n a t i v e arrangements f o r c h i l d c a r e , or are a b l e to m a i n t a i n c h i l d care a c t i v i t i e s through p a r t - t i m e or f l e x i b l e work h o u r s . It s h o u l d be n o t e d , t h o u g h , tha t a s t r o n g n e g a t i v e c o r r e -l a t i o n between the p r e s e n c e of young c h i l d r e n at home and the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women s t i l l e x i s t s . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e on the c h i l d c a r e arrangements of m a r r i e d work ing mothers in 1973 i n d i c a t e d tha t o f t h o s e i n B . C . who wished to work but were not do ing s o , 32% c i t e d i n a b i l i t y to make s a t i s f a c t o r y c h i l d care arrangements as t h e i r reason f o r not j o i n i n g the l a b o u r f o r c e . 1 0 13 E x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the r i s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s of women i n c l u d e both monetary and non-monetary f a c t o r s . For many women, the non-monetary f a c t o r s i n c l u d e the s o c i a l b e n e f i t s of i n c r e a s e d independence and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , " f r a t e r n i z i n g wi th c o - w o r k e r s and a c q u i r i n g new s k i l l s and knowledge . " H Of prime impor tance in any e x p l a n a t i o n of the i n c r e a s e i n female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the need f o r i n c o m e . There i s an i n c r e a s e in s i n g l e female parent f a m i l i e s , t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l i e s r e q u i r i n g two income e a r n e r s and women l i v i n g a l o n e . To e l a b o r a t e , the number of f a m i l i e s headed by s i n g l e female p a r e n t s a lmost doub led in number from 33,395 in 1971 to 64,180 in 1981. The p r o p o r t i o n in 1981 of a l l B . C . f a m i l i e s wi th c h i l d r e n was 14.1%. I l l u s t r a t e d in F i g u r e 4 i s the change in f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e between 1971 and 1981: i t shows tha t over the d e c a d e , the f r e q u e n c y of the o n c e -t y p i c a l f a m i l y (two p a r e n t s - o n e wage e a r n e r ) d e c l i n e d about 18%, w h i l e the f r e q u e n c y of two e a r n e r c o u p l e s i n c r e a s e d about 13%.I 2 F i g u r e 4 S t r u c t u r e o f F a m i l i e s w i t h C h i l d r e n a t H o m e : B . C . One earner couple S ing le 9.5 female parent S ing le female parent Two earner 3 couple S ing le .paren t :male. S ing ! male parent One earner couple Two" earner couple 1971 1981 14 I n c r e a s i n g numbers of two income e a r n e r s in f a m i l i e s are r e q u i r e d to cope wi th i n f l a t i o n , consumer d e b t , hous ing and s u p p o r t c o s t s . The l a r g e i n c r e a s e in d i v o r c e d , s e p a r a t e d , widowed and never m a r r i e d women has meant t h a t the number of women l i v i n g a lone as s o l e income e a r n e r s has i n c r e a s e d . Whi le the mature female popu-l a t i o n (15 y e a r s of age and over ) of B . C . i n c r e a s e d by 36.9% between 1971 and 1981, the number of women l i v i n g by t h e m s e l v e s i n c r e a s e d by a lmost 100% from 67,405 to 133,455.13 I n d i c a t o r s o f D i s a d v a n t a g e While women have d r a m a t i c a l l y i n c r e a s e d t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the l a b o u r m a r k e t , the matching of s i g n i f i c a n t improvements i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the l a b o u r f o r c e has not o c c u r r e d . I n d i c a -t o r s of d i s a d v a n t a g e i n c l u d e i n d u s t r i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n c e n -t r a t i o n , unequal economic r e t u r n s , h igh unemployment, and b a r r i e r s to equal and p r o d u c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n d u s t r i a l a n d O c c u p a t i o n a l C o n c e n t r a t i o n A h igh degree of i n d u s t r i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n has been and c o n t i n u e s to be a predominant f e a t u r e of women's employment . In 1983, women were h e a v i l y c o n c e n t r a t e d in t h r e e major o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s : m a n a g e r i a l / p r o f e s s i o n a l / a d m i n -i s t r a t i o n , c l e r i c a l and s e r v i c e . In t o t a l , 79% of women in the l a b o u r f o r c e were in t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n a l a r e a s . When s a l e s o c c u p a t i o n s are a d d e d , n ine out of ten women in B . C . are covered 15 by t h e s e f o u r major g r o u p s , a p r o p o r t i o n t h a t i s v i r t u a l l y unchanged from f i v e y e a r s e a r l i e r . 1 4 T a b l e 2 p r o v i d e s e s t i m a t e s of employment by i n d u s t r y f o r both female and male workers d u r i n g 1 9 8 3 . * 5 T a b l e 2 E m p l o y m e n t b y I n d u s t r y a n d S e x : B . C . - 1 9 8 3 Female Employment Male Employment O c c u p a t i o n ( 0 0 0 ' s ) % ( 0 0 0 ' s ) % A g r i c u l t u r e 13 Other pr imary i n d u s t r i e s 7 M a n u f a c t u r i n g 28 C o n s t r u c t i o n 8 T r a n s p o r t a t i on/Communi-c a t i o n / O t h e r U t i l i t i e s 33 Trade 97 F i n a n c e / I n s u r a n c e / R e a l E s t a t e 41 S e r v i c e 246 P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 30 TOTAL 503 2.6 20 2.9 1.4 46 6.6 5.6 123 17.7 1.6 63 8.9 6.6 91 13.1 19.3 114 16.4 8.2 33 4 .8 48.9 155 22.3 6.0 51 7.3 100.2 644 100.0 As i l l u s t r a t e d i n the t a b l e , i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s of employment are markedly d i f f e r e n t f o r women and men. Men o u t -number women i n a l l the pr imary and secondary i n d u s t r i e s . A l -though i n c r e a s i n g numbers of women are work ing in n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l a r e a s , the f a c t remains tha t most c o n t i n u e to f i n d employment in t r a d i t i o n a l a r e a s . I n d u s t r i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n da ta i s impor tan t because i t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e a f f e c t i n g wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s 16 between women and men, and r e f l e c t s a l a b o u r s e g r e g a t i o n or dual l a b o u r market in o p e r a t i o n . U n e q u a l E c o n o m i c R e t u r n s A l t h o u g h women are now more a c t i v e in the l a b o u r market than ever b e f o r e , they c o n t i n u e to earn s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than men. In 1980, B . C . women working f u l l t ime earned 62<f to every d o l l a r earned by men work ing f u l l t i m e . In 1970, t h i s f i g u r e was lower at 57.6<f to the d o l l a r . T a b l e 3 examines income by major o c c u p a -t i o n a l c a t e g o r y f o r i n d i v i d u a l s who worked f u l l - t i m e f o r the f u l l y e a r .16 Even in the o c c u p a t i o n s where 90% of women in B . C . are c o n c e n t r a t e d , they earn from 56.9% to 70.2% of what men e a r n . With regard to employment income and e d u c a t i o n , the r e t u r n s f o r men f a r exceeded those f o r women in a l l e d u c a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . For example , in 1980, a man wi th no h igh schoo l d ip loma earned more on average than a woman wi th a u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e . T a b l e 4 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t . i 7 T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y can be e x p l a i n e d by a number of f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of women in low pa id o c c u p a t i o n s ment ioned e a r l i e r and by the i n c l u s i o n in the data of both p a r t -t ime and f u l l - t i m e work. S i n c e women in 1983 he ld 71.7% of a l l p a r t - t i m e p o s i t i o n s in B . C . 1 8 i t s tands to reason tha t t h e r e would be a downward impact on female income a v e r a g e s , but even when T a b l e 3 A v e r a g e E m p l o y m e n t I n c o m e i n B.C. b y M a j o r O c c u p a t i o n ( F u l l - t i m e , F u l l Y e a r , 1 9 8 0 ) Female Rate as Percen t of Male O c c u p a t i on Male Female 1980 1970 Manageri al 32,434 18,747 57 .8 48 .9 N a t u r a l S c i e n c e E n g i n e e r i n g & Mathemat ics 27,433 18,978 69 .2 65 .4 S o c i a l S c i e n c e & R e l a t e d 31,773 17,757 55 .9 59 .3 T e a c h i n g & R e l a t e d 26,894 20,201 75 .1 74 .4 M e d i c i n e & H e a l t h 37,323 18,132 48 .6 40 .2 C l e r i c a l and R e l a t e d 19,557 13,727 70 .2 65 .1 Sal es 24,501 13,931 56 .9 50 .3 S e r v i c e 18,602 11,157 60 .0 53 .3 P r o c e s s i ng 22,339 14,839 66 .4 61 .9 Mach inery & R e l a t e d 22,442 16,260 72 .5 N . . A . P roduc t F a b r i c a t i o n 21,842 11,639 53 .3 52 .6 C o n s t r u c t i o n Trades 22,359 16,074 71 .9 N. A . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n E q u i p -ment O p e r a t o r s 23,236 14,159 60 .9 55 .2 A l l O c c u p a t i o n s 23,850 14,723 61 .7 57 .6 N .A . - not a v a i l a b l e T a b l e 4 A v e r a g e I n c o m e f o r B . C . b y S e x b y H i g h e s t L e v e l o f S c h o o l i n g , 1 9 8 0 Male Female Leve l of S c h o o l i n g $ $ Less than Grade 9 14,299 6,401 Grade 9-13 15,547 7,188 (w i thout c e r t i f i c a t e ) Grade 9-13 (wi th c e r t i f i c a t e ) 17,809 8,841 Trades C e r t i f i c a t e or N o n - u n i v e r s i t y Dip loma 20,590 9,819 Some U n i v e r s i t y 19,455 10,313 U n i v e r s i t y Degree 29,437 15,124 p a r t - t i m e i s e x c l u d e d , s t u d i e s by S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1980) i n d i c a t e t h a t wages f o r men s t i l l exceed those f o r women. At the b a c h e l o r ' s degree l e v e l , f o r i n s t a n c e , the median female s a l a r y was $14,150 compared to the median male s a l a r y of $ 1 5 , 3 9 0 . Male e a r n i n g s exceeded female e a r n i n g s i n al 1 f i e l d s of s t u d y , wi th the e x c e p t i o n of ' o t h e r med ica l and denta l s e r v i c e s ' f o r t w o - y e a r d ip loma h o l d e r s where average female e a r n i n g s exceeded t h o s e of men by ten d o l 1 a r s .19 As C a r o l e Swan i n d i c a t e s in her 1981 s t u d y , Women in the  Canad ian Labour M a r k e t , " a f t e r a c c o u n t i n g f o r m a l e - f e m a l e d i f f e r -ences in the work y e a r , o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , e x p e r i e n c e and e d u c a t i o n , an u n e x p l a i n e d d i f f e r e n t i a l between male and female wages p e r s i s t s . "20 T h i s d i f f e r e n t i a l has been q u a n t i f i e d at 30 to 40% and i n c l u d e s a t t i t u d e s of employers and women t h e m s e l v e s , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and o t h e r u n s p e c i f i e d f a c t o r s . 2 1 19 U n e m p l o y m e n t U n t i l 1982, female unemployment r a t e s f o r Canada have c o n -s i s t e n t l y exceeded those of men every y e a r s i n c e 1969.22 For the past t h r e e y e a r s of the r e c e s s i o n t h i s t r e n d has been r e v e r s e d and can be e x p l a i n e d by a number of f a c t o r s . One such f a c t o r i s t h a t " the i n d u s t r y s e c t o r s in which women's jobs are c o n c e n t r a t e d , such as the s e r v i c e s e c t o r , have been l e s s hard h i t by the r e c e s s i o n than i n d u s t r y s e c t o r s employ ing p r i m a r i l y men."23 T a b l e 5 i l l u s -t r a t e s the unemployment s t a t i s t i c s from 1972 f o r B . C . Of i n t e r e s t to t h i s t h e s i s i s the f a c t t h a t i t i s expected tha t the d e c l i n i n g ra te f o r women w i l l s t a r t moving back to i t s h i s t o r i c a l gap above the r a t e f o r men .24 / \ s s u c n i t i s of s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r e s t to c o n s i d e r a number of a l t e r n a t i v e s to c r e a t e employment, e . g . , community economic d e v e l o p m e n t , which w i l l b e n e f i t women i n the p r e s e n t and long t e r m . Some economic a n a l y s t s 2 5 p r e d i c t tha t in the long term computer t e c h n o l o g y and o f f i c e changes w i l l d r a s t i c a l l y c u r t a i l c l e r i c a l job o p p o r t u n i t i e s , wi th few new j o b s open ing up and some r e d u c t i o n i n e x i s t i n g j o b s . In o t h e r job areas dominated by women, i t i s a l s o expected tha t j o b s are u n l i k e l y to i n c r e a s e f a s t enough to accommodate the p o t e n t i a l l a b o u r f o r c e g r o w t h . 20 T a b l e 5 A c t u a l U n e m p l o y m e n t R a t e b y S e x , B . C . 1 9 7 2 - 1 9 8 4 (%) TOTAL MEN WOMEN 1972 7.8 7.1 9.2 1973 6.7 5.8 8 .5 1974 6.2 5.7 7.1 1975 8.5 8 .0 9.4 1976 8.6 7.4 10.5 1977 8.5 7.3 10.5 1978 8.3 7.3 9.7 1979 7.6 6.5 9 .3 1980 6.8 5.6 8 .5 1981 6.7 6.0 7.7 1982 12.1 12.4 11.7 1983 13.8 14.5 12.9 1984 J a n . - A u g . Average 15.0 15.9 13.7 21 In c o n s i d e r i n g p r o s p e c t s f o r the s h o r t t e r m , most s p e c i f i -c a l l y , 1985, t h e s e same a n a l y s t s p r e d i c t economic r e c o v e r y and an a s s o c i a t e d l a b o u r market r e c o v e r y . Dur ing t h i s r e c o v e r y phase they s t a t e t h a t " i t i s h i g h l y l i k e l y t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l l y male j o b s w i l l be showing b e t t e r employment p r o s p e c t s than the t r a d i t i o n a l a reas of women. These l a t t e r , e s p e c i a l l y h e a l t h c a r e , e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and c l e r i c a l f i e l d s , w i l l be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by P r o v i n c i a l Government r e s t r a i n t 1 e g i s i a t i o n . " 2 6 A s a r e s u l t t h e r e w i l l be a c o m p a r a t i v e d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the female unemployment r a t e . B a r r i e r s A number of b a r r i e r s e x i s t which l i m i t the equal and p r o d u c -t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women, i n c l u d i n g s u b t l e and o v e r t d i s c r i -m i n a t i o n , the doub le burden of f a m i l y and employment r e s p o n s i b i l i -t i e s , and inadequa te c h i l d c a r e . The f a c t o r s are impor tan t t o i d e n t i f y because they are s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s which d i f f e r e n t i a t e women from men a n d , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , make women's p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the l a b o u r market e s p e c i a l l y v u l n e r a b l e and l i m i -t e d . S u b t l e and o v e r t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f in a number of ways from sexual harassment to s e x i s t and h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s . For example , in two s e p a r a t e s t u d i e s on sexual h a r a s s m e n t , the i n c i d e n c e ranged from 15^7 to 90%.28 The wide v a r i a n c e may be a t t r i b u t e d to the d e f i n i t i o n s of sexual harassment u s e d . G e n e r a l -22 i z i n g from the survey r e s u l t s wi th the lower range to a l l Cana-d i a n s , 15% or 1.2 m i l l i o n women, and 4% or 300,000 men b e l i e v e they had been s e x u a l l y h a r a s s e d i n the workp lace .29 Recent s t a t i s t i c s from the now d e f u n c t B . C . Human R i g h t s Commission r e v e a l an i n c r e a s e in t h e i r sexual harassment case load from 12.5% in 1982, 13.2% in 1983, to 2.4% i n the f i r s t q u a r t e r of 1 9 8 4 . 3 0 Examples of sex d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c o m p l a i n t s lodged by women a p p l y i n g f o r or working i n t r a d e j o b s i n d i c a t e the depth of d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n problems f o r women. Women have been r e f u s e d j o b s as l a b o u r e r s even though they passed the n e c e s s a r y med ica l t e s t s (and s m a l l e r , l i g h t e r men had been a c c e p t e d ) . Women have been sub-j e c t e d to v a r i o u s forms of harassment from male c o - w o r k e r s who r e f u s e d to c o o p e r a t e ; q u a l i f i e d women have been r e q u i r e d to q u a l i f y at s t a n d a r d s much h i g h e r than t h o s e f o r men; e t c . 3 1 P a r t i c u l a r groups of women f a c e a d d i t i o n a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s in the l a b o u r market b e s i d e s t h a t of s e x . D i s a b l e d women, l e s b i a n s , n a t i v e women and immigrant women o f t e n f i n d themse lves in t h i s p o s i t i o n . For example , d i s a b l e d women f a c e h i g h e r unemployment r a t e s than d i s a b l e d men and r e c e i v e lower incomes .32 L e s b i a n s are o f t e n f i r e d by employers or r e f u s e d employment once t h e i r sexua l o r i e n t a t i o n i s known.33 A l t h o u g h the double burden of f a m i l y and employment r e s p o n -s i b i l i t i e s f o r women i s not as p r e v a l e n t wi th the d e c l i n e in f e r t i l i t y r a t e s , and ad justment of t r a d i t i o n a l m a l e / f e m a l e r o l e s , housework and the c a r e o f c h i l d r e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f a l l much 23 harder on women than men .34 i t i s s t i l l p r i m a r i l y women who a d j u s t t h e i r l a b o u r market commitments to accommodate f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s th rough such methods as p a r t - t i m e work and j o b s w i th no o v e r t i m e demands. Women a l s o g e n e r a l l y bear the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f i n d i n g s u b s t i t u t e c a r e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n when they e n t e r the l a b o u r f o r c e . 3 5 F i n d i n g q u a l i t y , a f f o r d a b l e c h i l d c a r e i s a l s o a s e r i o u s problem f o r many women thus l i m i t i n g the o p t i o n s g e n e r a l l y a v a i l -a b l e wi th the l a b o u r m a r k e t . As ment ioned e a r l i e r , a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f women wi th c h i l d r e n who wanted to work but were unab le to do s o , c i t e d i n a b i l i t y to make s a t i s f a c t o r y c h i l d c a r e a r r a n g e -ments as t h e i r r e a s o n . I n c o m e Comparing the d o l l a r v a l u e of income r e c e i v e d by women and men, T a b l e 6 shows tha t in 1970 income r e p o r t e d by females was l e s s than 23% of t o t a l income; a decade l a t e r i t was n e a r l y 30%.36 T a b l e 6 P r o p o r t i o n o f T o t a l I n c o m e b y S e x B . C . , 1 9 7 0 a n d 1 9 8 0 Male Female 1970 1980 77.6% 70.8% 22.4% 29.2% 24 A c c o r d i n g to the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of We l fa re in t h e i r 1981 r e p o r t on the work ing poor in Canada , women run a g r e a t e r r i s k of p o v e r t y than men. Three in every ten s i n g l e women are p o o r ; among u n a t t a c h e d men, o n l y two in every ten are p o o r . The d i f f e r e n c e s are even more pronounced f o r f a m i l y heads wi th c h i l d r e n . F o r t y -s i x p e r c e n t of female s i n g l e p a r e n t s , are more than s i x t imes as l i k e l y to l i v e in p o v e r t y than men in s i n g l e or t w o - p a r e n t f a m i -l i e s . 37 Poor i s d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g to S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a ' s low-income c u t - o f f where both s i z e of area of r e s i d e n c e and number of pe rsons i n the f a m i l y are taken i n t o a c c o u n t . L o o k i n g at average incomes f o r s i n g l e female paren t f a m i l i e s in 1970 and 1980, they earned 46.9% and 42.1% r e s p e c t i v e l y of what h u s b a n d / w i f e f a m i l i e s e a r n e d . 3 8 Look ing at major s o u r c e s of income by s e x , women are a lmost t w i c e as l i k e l y to r e p o r t government t r a n s f e r payments as t h e i r major s o u r c e of income.39 These t r a n s f e r payments i n c l u d e income s u p p l e m e n t s , unemployment i n s u r a n c e , and o l d age p e n s i o n s . C R I S I S H O U S I N G FOR WOMEN The second problem to be addressed in t h i s t h e s i s i s the s h o r t a g e of c r i s i s hous ing to meet the s h o r t term needs of abused women and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . When c r i s i s hous ing i s r e f e r r e d t o , i t i s i n t e n d e d to mean tha t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of h o u s i n g known commonly as t r a n s i t i o n h o u s e s , r e f u g e s , or s h e l t e r s . When abused women are r e f e r r e d t o , i t i n c l u d e s women who have been v i c t i m s o f a l l forms 25 of v i o l e n t a b u s e , i n c l u d i n g r a p e , and b a t t e r i n g , but f o r the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s , f o c u s e s p r i m a r i l y on b a t t e r e d women. T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l o u t l i n e the i n c i d e n c e of b a t t e r i n g , the o b j e c t i v e s of t r a n s i t i o n h o u s e s , the c u r r e n t s u p p l y of t r a n s i t i o n h o u s e s , and the c r u c i a l need f o r an i n c r e a s e in s u p p l y to meet the needs of abused women. I n c i d e n c e o f B a t t e r i n g To c l a r i f y how w i f e b a t t e r i n g , or b a t t e r i n g w i l l be used t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t h e s i s , the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n w i l l be a d o p t e d . Wife b a t t e r i n g i s v i o l e n c e , p h y s i c a l a n d / o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l , e x p r e s s e d by a husband or a male l i v e - i n l o v e r toward h i s w i f e or l i v e - i n l o v e r , to which the woman does not c o n -s e n t , and which i s d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y condoned by the t r a d i t i o n s , l a w s , and a t t i t u d e s p r e v a l e n t in the s o c i e t y i n which i t o c c u r s . 4 0 The best e s t i m a t e s on the i n c i d e n c e of b a t t e r i n g in Canada i s t h a t every y e a r , one in ten women who are m a r r i e d or i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i th a l i v e - i n l o v e r are b a t t e r e d . 4 1 T h i s f i g u r e was e s t i m a t e d by f i r s t combin ing known s t a t i s t i c s on the number o f women who were in t r a n s i t i o n houses because they were b a t t e r e d wi th the number of women who f i l e d f o r d i v o r c e on grounds o f p h y s i c a l c r u e l t y . Then t h e s e f i g u r e s were a d j u s t e d to r e p r e s e n t t o t a l numbers s i n c e houses were not l o c a t e d in a l l p r o v i n c e s o r r e g i o n s . F i n a l l y , the sum of t h e s e t o t a l s were e x p r e s s e d as a p r o p o r t i o n of the m a r r i e d female p o p u l a t i o n . As L i n d a McLeod s t a t e s in her 1980 s t u d y e n t i t l e d Wife B a t t e r i n g in Canada: The V i c i o u s Ci r c l e , 26 T h i s e s t i m a t e w i l l g i v e a rough i n d i c a t i o n of i n c i d e n c e , but an i n d i c a t i o n which i s g i v e n c r e d i b i l i t y both by more i n - d e p t h s t u d i e s of i n c i d e n c e in i n d i v i d u a l Canadian towns and c i t i e s , and by recen t U . S . househo ld s u r v e y s on the i n c i d e n c e and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of w i f e b a t t e r i n g . The f i g u r e s u g g e s t s we are d e a l i n g p r e s e n t l y wi th o n l y the t i p o f the i c e b e r g . 4 2 In a more l o c a l c o n t e x t , i t has been e s t i m a t e d tha t 4,000 to 5,000 women are beaten to the p o i n t of s e r i o u s i n j u r y each y e a r in the Lower M a i n l a n d of B . C . 4 3 O b j e c t i v e s o f T r a n s i t i o n H o u s e s T r a n s i t i o n houses are opera ted by women who emphasize c e r -t a i n v a l u e s such as s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , s e l f - h e l p , s e l f - w o r t h and c o - o p e r a t i v e c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t . 4 4 The o b j e c t i v e s of a t r a n s i t i o n house i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : 4 ^ - to p r o v i d e a re fuge f o r women who have been p h y s i c a l l y a s s a u l t e d , t h r e a t e n e d or h a r a s s e d , i n c l u d i n g temporary accommodat ion , f o o d , and o t h e r n e c e s s i t i e s on an emergency bas i s - to o f f e r c r i s i s c o u n s e l l i n g so tha t a woman may ga in a p e r s p e c t i v e on her s i t u a t i o n and c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e s and o p t i o n s - to suppor t whatever d e c i s i o n s she makes - to o f f e r p r a c t i c a l he lp and i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t she may make r e a l i s t i c p l a n s about her l i f e - to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r community and p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a g e n c i e s on the problem of w i f e b a t t e r i n g and the needs of b a t t e r e d women and t h e i r f a m i l i e s - to p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e r e f e r r a l s and e s t a b l i s h c o n t a c t w i th community a g e n c i e s and r e s o u r c e s - to p r o v i d e advocacy on b e h a l f of women in t h e i r d e a l i n g s wi th the c o u r t s y s t e m , w e l f a r e and hous ing a u t h o r i t i e s 27 C u r r e n t S u p p l y a n d S u p p l y S h o r t a g e s o f T r a n s i t i o n H o u s e s There are c u r r e n t l y 36 t r a n s i t i o n houses in B . C . and 158 in Canada.46 A l though t h i s i s a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e from the 9 i n B . C . and 71 in Canada r e p o r t e d in 1979,47 j t i s an i n s u f f i c i e n t number to meet the n e e d . As s t a t e d in a number of sources48 a n c j m o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , by b a t t e r e d women t h e m s e l v e s , immediate p h y s i c a l p r o t e c t i o n f o r women and t h e i r c h i l d r e n i s a top p r i o r i t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , adequate p r o t e c t i o n has not o c c u r r e d . T h i s s ta tement i s not new, and i s a problem t h a t has p e r s i s t e d over t i m e . For example , in 1978, 12,000 women r e q u e s t e d he lp from t r a n s i t i o n houses i n C a n a d a . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , o n e - t h i r d or 4,000 c o u l d not be accommodated due to s h e l t e r s be ing f u l l to c a p a c i t y . 4 9 In 1983, from January to O c t o b e r , the Vancouver T r a n s i t i o n House had to r e f u s e r e q u e s t s f o r accommodation from over 1,000 women and c h i l d r e n . In the 10 y e a r s t h a t the house has been in o p e r a t i o n , 10,000 b a t t e r e d women and c h i l d r e n were t u r n e d away.50 F u r t h e r documenta t ion r e v e a l s s i m i l a r s t a t i s t i c s th roughout a number of r e g i o n s i n C a n a d a . Regina T r a n s i t i o n House t u r n s away 2.5 f a m i l i e s f o r every 6 f a m i l i e s i t a c c e p t s . A p r e l i m i n a r y s tudy of the then 33 o p e r a t i n g s h e l t e r s in O n t a r i o in 1981 (one has s i n c e c l o s e d ) shows t h a t they accommodated 10,332 women and c h i l d r e n in the f i r s t 10 months of tha t y e a r and r e f u s e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 0 , 0 0 0 . Regroupement p r o v i n c i a l des maisons d 'hebergement et de t r a n s i t i o n e s t i m a t e s t h a t member emer-gency s h e l t e r s i n Quebec s e r v e on ly 12% of the women and c h i l d r e n i n Quebec who need these s e r v i c e s . In 1981 Byrony House in H a l i f a x s h e l t e r e d 200 women and 291 c h i l -dren but r e c e i v e d 500 d i s t r e s s c a l l s . 5 1 28 E s t i m a t e s are t h a t about one h a l f the female p o p u l a t i o n does not have a c c e s s to a t r a n s i t i o n house or h o s t e l which a c c e p t s women who are b a t t e r e d . 5 2 Those t h a t do e x i s t are c o n c e n t r a t e d in l a r g e r m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e s in the s o u t h . If t r a n s i t i o n houses e x i s t e d a c r o s s C a n a d a , at l e a s t 24,000 would r e q u e s t he lp from them because they were b a t t e r e d by t h e i r husbands .53 T h i s f i g u r e does not r e p r e s e n t a l l women who are b a t t e r e d , but i s a c o n s e r v a -t i v e e s t i m a t e of t h o s e who would use them i f they were a v a i l a b l e . G iven t h a t t h i s f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s b a t t e r e d women o n l y and not o t h e r women who r e q u i r e a re fuge as a r e s u l t of r a p e , emot iona l c r i s i s , h a r a s s m e n t , e t c . , t h i s i s a very c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e i n d e e d . About 40% of women who t u r n to t r a n s i t i o n houses are not b a t t e r e d women as i m p l i e d by the d e f i n i t i o n o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r , but are women who have e x p e r i e n c e d o t h e r forms of v i o l e n c e . 5 4 29 C H A P T E R 1 ^ C a r o l e Swan, Women i n the Canad ian Labour M a r k e t , T e c h n i c a l Study 36, Labour Market Development Task F o r c e , T e c h n i c a l S t u d i e s S e r v i c e s , CEIC (Ot tawa: n . p . , J u l y 1981) , p . 4 . ^ M i n i s t r y of Labour Women's O f f i c e , " F a c t S h e e t : Women in the B . C . Labour F o r c e , " ( N . p . [ 1 9 8 3 ] ) , p. 1. 3 s t a t i s t i c s Canada , "Month ly Labour F o r c e Data f o r B . C . , A c t u a l , August 1984" ( N . p . : P r o v i n c e of B . C . Data D i s s e m i n a t i o n , n ,d . ) . ^ P a t r i c k S t a n t o n , Women i n the Labour Market 1983, ( V i c -t o r i a : B . C . M i n i s t r y of Labour Women's P rograms , 1983) , p . 2 . 5 S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , 1984. 6 l b i d . ^ S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , "Labour F o r c e Annual A v e r a g e s " ( C a t . 7 1 - 5 2 9 ) . ^Employment and Immigrat ion Canada , Labour Market D e v e l o p - ment in the 1 9 8 0 ' s , (Ot tawa: n . p . , J u l y 1981) , p . 5 7 . ^ M i n i s t r y of Labour Women's Programs, Women i n B . C . : 1971- 1981 , ( V i c t o r i a : n . p . [August 1 9 8 4 ] ) . ^ s t a t i s t i c s Canada , The Labour F o r c e (Ottawa [September 1 9 7 5 ] ) , p . 8 6 . H-Marnie M i t c h e l l , "Recent Trends in Women's Labour F o r c e A c t i v i t y in B . C . , " Labour R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n ( N . p . [ J u l y 1 9 7 9 ] ) , p . 26 . ^ M i n i s t r y o f Labour Women's Programs [August 1984 ] . 1 3 I b i d . l ^ s t a n t o n , Women in the Labour Market 1983, p. 3 . 1 5 1 b i d . , p . 4 . 1 6 I b i d . , p. 5 . 1 7 I b i d . , p . 2 . 30 1 8 1 b i d . , p . 3 . l 9 S w a n , p. 5 0 . 2 0 I b i d . , p . 53 . 21|_udwig A u e r , Reg iona l D i s p a r i t i e s o f P r o d u c t i v i t y and  Growth i n Canada ( N . p . : Economic C o u n c i l of C a n a d a , 1979) , p. 17, as c i t e d i n S t a n t o n , "Women in the Labour M a r k e t — I n d u s t r i e s , O c c u p a t i o n s and E a r n i n g s , " Labour Reasearch B u l l e t i n ( N . p . [August 1 9 7 9 ] ) , p . 19 . 2 2 S w a n , p. 4 1 . 2 3 V a n c o u v e r C i t y S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Depar tment , S o c i a l Impacts  o f Changes i n the Economy ( V a n c o u v e r : n . p . , June 1984) , p . 3 . 2 4 E m p l o y m e n t and Immigrat ion Canada , Reg iona l Economic S e r -v i c e s B r a n c h , B . C . / Y u k o n R e g i o n , CEIC and T a r g e t Groups ( N . p . [March 1 9 8 4 ] , p. 4 . 2 5 I b i d . , p . 3 . 2 6 i b i d . , p p . 3 - 4 . 2 7 C a n a d i a n Human R i g h t s C o m m i s s i o n , Unwanted Sexua l A t t e n - t i o n and Sexual Harassment : R e s u l t s o f a Survey o f Canad ians ( N . p . LMarch 1 9 8 3 J ) , p. 5 . 2 8 B . C . F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour Women's R i g h t s Committee and the Vancouver Women's Research C e n t r e , Sexual Harassment i n the Work- p l a c e : A D i s c u s s i o n Paper (VancouveT: n . p . [March 1 9 8 0 J ) , p . 1 0 . 2 9 C a n a d i an Human R i g h t s C o m m i s s i o n , p . 6 . • ^ P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , December 18 , 1984, from Norma E d e l m a n , P r o j e c t O f f i c e r , B . C . M i n i s t r y of Labour Women's P r o -grams . 3 1 S a s k a t c h e w a n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n and Regina P l a i n s Com-muni ty C o l l e g e , Repor t on P r e - T r a d e s T r a i n i n g f o r Women ( R e g i n a : n . p . , [May 1 9 7 9 ] ) , as c i t e d in Swan, p. 70. 3 2 S w a n , p. 70 . 3 3 N y m Hughes, Yvonne Johnson and Yve t te P e r r e a u l t , S t e p p i ng  Out o f L i n e : A Workbook on L e s b i a n i s m and Feminism ( V a n c o u v e r : P r e s s Gang P u b l i s h e r s , August 1984 ) ) , p . 107. 3 4 S w a n , P« 6 5 . 31 3 5 I b i d . ^ M i n i s t r y of Labour Women's Programs [August 1984 ] . 37|\ | a t i onal C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e , The Working Poor (Ot tawa: n . p . , March 1981) , p . 122. 3 8 M i n i s t r y of Labour Women's Programs [August 1984] . 3 9 1 b i d . ^ A d a p t e d from L inda MacLeod , Wife B a t t e r i n g in Canada: The  V i c i o u s C i r c l e (Ottawa: Canadian A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on the S t a t u s of Women, J a n u a r y 1980 ) , p. 7 . 4 1 I b i d . , p . 2 1 . 4 2 1 b i d . , p . 16. 4 3 B a t t e r e d Women Support S e r v i c e s , "Wife B a t t e r i n g in B . C . : A Fac t S h e e t , " i n M i n i s t r y of Labour Women's Programs and M i n i s t r y of the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , I n f o r m a t i o n R e l a t i n g to Wife A s s a u l t in  B . C . ( N . p . [ January 1985 ] ) , p . l . 4 4 F l o r a MacLeod, T r a n s i t i o n House: How to E s t a b l i s h a  Refuge f o r B a t t e r e d Women" ( V a n c o u v e r : U n i t e d Way of the Lower M a i n l a n d , June 1982 ) , p. 11 . 4 5 1 b i d , p p . 11 , 13 . 4 ^ F r o m the f i l e s o f Vancouver Rape R e l i e f and Women's S h e l -t e r , J a n u a r y 30 , 1985. 4 ? L i n d a MacLeod, p . 4 9 . 4 8 E . g . , I b i d . ; S t a n d i n g Committee on H e a l t h , W e l f a r e , and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , Repor t on V i o l e n c e i n the F a m i l y : Wife B a t t e r i n g (Ot tawa: n . p . [May 1982] ) ; Murray A . S t r a u s s , R i c h a r d J . G e l l e s and Suzanne K. S t e i n m e t z , Behind C l o s e d D o o r s : V i o l e n c e i n the  Amer ican F a m i l y (Garden C i t y , N . Y . : Anchor B o o k s , 1980 ) . 4 9 L i n d a MacLeod, p. 1 7 . 5 0 " P r i v i t i z a t i o n : A Step Backward , " K i n e s i s (Vancouver S t a t u s o f Women), November 1983, p. 2 . 5 1 S t a n d i n g Committee on H e a l t h , W e l f a r e , and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , p . 10 . 5 2 L i n d a MacLeod , p. 17 . 5 3 i b i d 5 4 i b i d 33 C H A P T E R 2 I N T R O D U C T I O N TO A S T R A T E G Y As s t a t e d in the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , women face a number of d i s a d v a n t a g e s in the economic and s o c i a l s e c t o r . We are c o n c e n -t r a t e d i n low pa id o c c u p a t i o n s , earn 62% of what men earn (1980 ) , e x p e r i e n c e h igh unemployment and a number of employment b a r r i e r s i n c l u d i n g s u b t l e a n d / o r o v e r t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and have the double burden of work and f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . We earn 30% (1980) o f the t o t a l income in B . C . , e x p e r i e n c e a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of p o v e r t y as i n d i v i d u a l s and as s i n g l e parent f a m i l y h e a d s , and are t w i c e as l i k e l y as men to r e p o r t government t r a n s f e r payments as t h e i r main s o u r c e of i n c o m e . In a d d i t i o n , one i n ten women who are m a r r i e d or in a l i v e - i n r e l a t i o n s h i p wi th a l o v e r i s b a t t e r e d and o n l y 50% have a c c e s s to a t r a n s i t i o n house or h o s t e l which a c c e p t s women who are b a t t e r e d . Due to f u l l c a p a c i t i e s t h o s e houses t h a t do e x i s t r e g u l a r l y must r e f u s e a c c e s s . The i n t e n t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r i s to i n t r o d u c e the concept of community economic development (CED) as a p o t e n t i a l t o o l f o r women's groups who are i n v e s t i g a t i n g a l t e r n a t e methods of s e c u r i n g hous ing f o r women and t h e i r c h i l d r e n at t imes of c r i s i s w h i l e p r o v i d i n g employment, s t a b i l i t y and o t h e r b e n e f i t s f o r t h e i r "communi ty ." Through a comprehens ive development s t r a t e g y such as CED, i t i s expec ted t h a t the e x i s t i n g h a r d s h i p s f o r women 34 a r t i c u l a t e d above w i l l be d e c r e a s e d . In a d d i t i o n , CED may p r o v i d e the means to e f f e c t i v e l y deal w i th the b roader complex o f d i s a d v a n t a g e s such as s o c i a l and economic dependency , m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n . COMMUNITY ECONOMIC D E V E L O P M E N T Community economic development i s a very s i m p l e concept i n t e n d e d to a d d r e s s very s e r i o u s and complex economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . The u l t i m a t e goal i s to improve the q u a l i t y of l i f e o f community members th rough community i n i t i a t e d and s u p p o r t e d economic and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y which g e n e r a t e s employment, weal th and community b e n e f i t , and a s t r o n g degree o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no one s t a n d a r d d e f i n i t i o n of community economic development (CED) nor type of s t r u c t u r e or a c t i v i t y , i t p r o v i des e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d groups d i r e c t a c c e s s t o , c o n -t r o l over a n d , to some e x t e n t , ownership of l o c a l r e s o u r -ces—means o f p r o d u c t i o n i f you w i l l . . . It i s p a r t i c u -l a r l y c o n c e r n e d wi th e n s u r i n g t h a t low income and unem-p l o y e d persons a c q u i r e and l e a r n how to use the t o o l s -o r g a n i z a t i o n s , inves tment money, t e c h n o l o g y , equ ipment , above a l l , knowl e d g e - - t h a t they need to produce more of t h e i r own goods and s e r v i c e s , and so reduce t h e i r e x c e s -s i v e dependence on o u t s i d e s o u r c e s of goods and income, be t h e s e p r i v a t e employers or g o v e r n m e n t . ! The goods and s e r v i c e s are p r o v i d e d f o r the community , "wi th s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d g o a l s of p r o d u c t i o n and employment c o n t r o l l e d and o p e r a t e d by community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and e n t e r p r i s e w o r k e r s . " 2 CED has a s t r o n g economic d imens ion and i s i n t e g r a t e d wi th s o c i a l 35 and c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e s . As suggested e a r l i e r , i t i s a h o l i s t i c s t r a t e g y f o r b u i l d i n g a l l a s p e c t s of the community . At a r e c e n t seminar hosted by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Review C o u n c i l o f B . C . i n V a n c o u v e r , a number of c r i t e r i a were i d e n t i f i e d as e lements in any d e f i n i t i o n of community economic d e v e l o p m e n t . These were: - r e s p o n s i v e to and under the c o n t r o l of the community a n d / o r workers - l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e ; l o c a l job and b u s i n e s s c r e a t i o n - e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s e n s i t i v e - s o c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e - use of a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y - g e n e r a t e s p r o f i t f o r l o c a l r e i n v e s t m e n t (community b e n e f i t ) - b u s i n e s s s u i t a b l e f o r the s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s of l o c a l r e s i d e n t s (community members) - p o t e n t i a l f o r n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and p r a c t i c e s 3 To t h e s e p o i n t s the f o l l o w i n g may be added: - l ong term v e r s u s s h o r t term approach - development towards s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y Other terms which are o f t e n used synonymously wi th CED and imply s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e l o c a l economic i n i t i a t i v e s , community i n i t i a t i v e s , community s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , com-munity d e v e l o p m e n t , c o o p e r a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t , l o c a l e n t e r p r i s e development and t h i r d s e c t o r a c t i v i t i e s . For the purposes o f t h i s t h e s i s , any of the above terms would s u f f i c e , but f o r s i m -p l i c i t y s a k e , CED has been s e l e c t e d as the g e n e r i c l a b e l . What i s 36 of pr ime impor tance i s not the name by which t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s are known, but the type of a c t i v i t i e s s e l e c t e d , by whom, and f o r whose b e n e f i t . To c l a r i f y the term f u r t h e r , CED may be d i s a g g r a g a t e d i n t o two p a r t s , ' communi ty ' and ' economic d e v e l o p m e n t . ' The term com-m u n i t y , w i d e l y used and a b u s e d , i s known by a l l . In t h i s c o n t e x t , i t i s d e f i n e d i n two ways . F i r s t , as a g e o g r a p h i c u n i t to i d e n t i f y a p a r t i c u l a r n e i g h b o u r h o o d , town, r e g i o n or some o t h e r p h y s i c a l a r e a , and s e c o n d , as a f u n c t i o n a l , s o c i a l u n i t or commu-n i t y of i n t e r e s t . A l t h o u g h the former d e f i n i t i o n appears most o f t e n in the l i t e r a t u r e and in the p r a c t i c e of CED, i t i s the l a t t e r which i s p r i m a r i l y but not s o l e l y used in t h i s work. S i n c e any community of i n t e r e s t must have a p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n from which to base t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , the most a c c u r a t e p o r t r a y a l here would be a c o m b i n a t i o n of both d e f i n i t i o n s , i . e . a t a r g e t t e d s o c i a l group w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d g e o g r a p h i c a r e a . A c c o r d i n g to Gregory McLeod, "a community i s a p l a c e whose r e s i d e n t s share the view t h a t t h e i r d e s t i n i e s are l i n k e d t o g e t h e r . Whether the s o l i d a r i t y comes from a common t r a d i t i o n , a common enemy or a common problem i t c r e a t e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of work ing t o g e t h e r . " 4 ' Economic deve lopment 1 i s seen as the p r o c e s s of i n c r e a s i n g the number and v a r i e t y of i n s t i t u t i o n s in the community . Community-based econo-mic development i s concerned wi th v i r t u a l l y a l l the f u n c -t i o n s i n v o l v e d in what may be termed ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' econo-mic a c t i v i t y , as wel l as the same o b j e c t i v e s - - m o r e j o b s , b e t t e r h o u s i n g , improved community s e r v i c e s - - t h e commun- i t y - b a s e d a s p e c t in a d d i t i o n g i v e s equal weight to o t h e r 37 o b j e c t i v e s : s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , e q u i t y , empowerment, p a r -t i c i p a t i o n in the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , and rep lacement of c o r p o r a t e branch p l a n t s (absentee l a n d l o r d s ) w i th l o c a l l y owned, and i n some c a s e s community owned, c a p i t a l l a n d and b u s i n e s s . 5 In s h o r t , what d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t r a d i t i o n a l economic a c t i v i t y from CED i s t h a t the economic base i s p l a c e d in the c o n t r o l of t h o s e most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by i t , i . e . , the peop le i n the community . CED be longs to the ' t h i r d s e c t o r ' of economic a c t i v i t y , f o r i t i s n e i t h e r p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e nor government s p o n s o r e d , but may i n c l u d e e lements of b o t h . CED p r o j e c t s l i k e p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e , use the ' m a r k e t -p l a c e ' as a s o u r c e of r e v e n u e . They a l s o use p u b l i c money from government programs as ' s e e d m o n e y ' - - o r f o r r e s e a r c h and t r a i n i n g p u r p o s e s . However, u n l i k e p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e or p u b l i c programmes, CED p r o j e c t s o r g a n i z e t h e m s e l v e s around the s o c i a l , economic and c u l t u r a l problems of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s . 6 To c o i n another p h r a s e , CED i s an ' a i d e d s e l f - h e l p ' p r o c e s s where i n i t i a t i v e s are taken by a s p e c i f i c community w i th the suppor t o f both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s u n t i l such t ime as s e l f - s u f f i -c i e n c y i s a c h i e v e d and the e x t e r n a l suppor t i s no l o n g e r r e q u i r e d . C u r r e n t CED a c t i v i t i e s are numerous and v a r i e d . A c r o s s the c o u n t r y communi t ies have o r g a n i z e d such e n t e r p r i s e s as a jam f a c t o r y , d e n t a l c l i n i c , t h r i f t s t o r e , g a r a g e , s i l k - s c r e e n i n g b u s i n e s s , h a n d c r a f t e d q u i l t s , bakery and women's c r e d i t u n i o n . In a r e c e n t Canada wide s tudy by H i g h l a n d R e s o u r c e s , a s u b s i d i a r y of New Dawn E n t e r p r i s e s i n Sydney Nova S c o t i a , one o f the f i r s t community development c o r p o r a t i o n s in Canada , 153 groups were i d e n t i f i e d (4 in B . C . ) which met two of f o u r b a s i c c r i t e r i a . 38 i ) The group must be owned by the r e s i d e n t s of the community and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n must be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of tha t community; the group must not be d i r e c t e d by a p o l i t i c a l b o d y . i i ) The c e n t r a l board must be n o n - p r o f i t , a l t h o u g h s u b s i d -i a r i e s may be p r o f i t m a k i n g . i i i ) The group must not r e p r e s e n t a s i n g l e p r o j e c t or be s i n g l e i s s u e f o c u s e d ; i t must be a c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c o - o r d i -n a t i n g a m u l t i t u d e of l o c a l p r o j e c t s or b u s i n e s s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a comprehensi ve development a p p r o a c h . i v ) The mandate of the group must be comprehens ive community development of which the economy i s an e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t . 7 CED may be o r g a n i z e d through a v a r i e t y of s t r u c t u r e s , e . g . a c o - o p e r a t i v e , a community b u s i n e s s , a community development c o r -p o r a t i o n , a n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n , or a h y b r i d of these f o r m s . The H i g h l a n d Resources s tudy f o c u s e s a t t e n t i o n on the community development c o r p o r a t i o n ( C D C ) , and p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to i n t r o d u c e a key o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t o o l f o r CED and the breadth of a c t i v i t i e s they may encompass . COMMUNITY D E V E L O P M E N T C O R P O R A T I O N S An American i m p o r t , the CDC i s a n o t - f o r - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d to a c t as a c a t a l y s t f o r CED. The CDC may encompass a v a r i e t y of f u n c t i o n s , the most s i g n i f i c a n t one be ing a s t r o n g 39 b u s i n e s s d i v i s i o n which enab les the a c t u a l i z a t i o n of a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l g o a l s . F i g u r e 5 i l l u s t r a t e s the most b a s i c s t r u c t u r e . F i g u r e 5 B a s i c CDC S t r u c t u r e CDC For P r o f i t A c t i v i t i e s E . g . : - b u i l d , r e h a b i l i t a t e , manage housi ng - m a n u f a c t u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s - s e r v i c e - c r e d i t union - j o i n t ven ture inves tments N o n - P r o f i t A c t i v i t i e s E . g . : c r i s i s h o u s i n g s e c o n d - s t a g e hous ing d a y - c a r e employment c o u n s e l l i n g c o u n s e l l i n g The CDC i s the e n a b l i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , or c a t a l y s t , as empha-s i z e d a b o v e , f o r some CED. As opposed to s i n g l e p r o j e c t p u r s u i t s , f o r example , a s i l k - s c r e e n i n g b u s i n e s s p r o v i d i n g employment and c a p i t a l to s u p p o r t a n o n - p r o f i t d a y c a r e , the CDC has the c a p a c i t y to d e v e l o p and manage a number of p r o j e c t s and programs to a c h i e v e both economic and s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s . The CDC becomes the l o c a l v e h i c l e f o r p r i o r i t y s e t t i n g and s u p p o r t f o r both p r o f i t and non-p r o f i t a c t i v i t y . The CDC has the c a p a c i t y , or i s ab le to o b t a i n the e x p e r t i s e , f o r a s s e s s i n g adequate c a p i t a l or c a p i t a l r e p l a c e -ment , and the n e c e s s a r y l e g a l , management, t e c h n i c a l and t r a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d . T a b l e 7 i d e n t i f i e s the c o m p a r a t i v e advantages of o r g a n -i z i n g th rough a CDC as opposed to l o c a l government and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . Through the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of un ique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s e v e r a l of the e lements i d e n t i f i e d e a r l i e r in the d e f i n i n g of CED are r e i n f o r c e d . As i d e n t i f i e d in the H i g h l a n d Resources s t u d y , 53 of the 153 groups surveyed r e p o r t e d a number of a c t i v i t i e s from new h o u s i n g development to r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . T a b l e 8 l i s t s c u r r e n t and p r e v i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . 9 T a b l e 7 C o m p a r a t i v e A d v a n t a g e s o f C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Use pr iva te development techniques for pub l ic purposes. Target benef i ts to com-munities and i n d i v i d u -a ls in need. Local Government Not involved d i r e c t l y in many kinds of development implementation. Can encourage, but often admin is t ra t ive ly or p o l i -t i c a l l y d i f f i c u l t to do so; cannot implement ac tu -al development. Ref lec t loca l i n i t i a -t i v e , p r i o r i t i e s . Link pro jects within strategy in complemen-tary manner. Good, but sca le is often a problem; c i t i e s often represent la rger scale -i n t e r e s t s , rural l o c a l i -t i e s smal ler s c a l e . Can p l a n , but not imple-ment, ce r ta in p r o j e c t s . Co-ord inat ion within large government departments of -ten d i f f i c u l t . Pr ivate Business Pr ivate i n t e r e s t i s p r i -mary concern . Not organizat iona l g o a l . Not d i r e c t l y accountable to community. Not high p r i o r i t y . Usual ly implements with l i t t l e reference to over-a l l community development s t ra tegy . Range of a c t i v i t i e s 1 imi ted. CDCs Takes d i r e c t development r o l e , d i r e c t l y accoun-tab le to community as a whole. CDCs c o n t r o l l e d by target communities. CDC e s t a b l i s h e s target area to f i t the commu-n i t y , and then i s d i r e c t -l y accountable to i t . E x p l i c i t g o a l . Comprehensive development approach i s essen t ia l to CDC m i s s i o n . Pro jec ts can b u i l d o n , r e i n f o r c e each o ther . Long-term approach to development of commu-n i t y . Link planning with implementation. P o l i t i c a l const ra in ts often compel short- term approaches. Administra-t i ve change can d isrupt process . Co-ord inat ion can be ad-m i n i s t r a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t in l a rger government departments. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Local Government Pr ivate Business CDCs Link a c t i v i t i e s within same p r o j e c t . Can work with both pub-l i c and pr iva te sec -tors . Can f a c i l i t a t e , c o - o r d i -nate, but not implement many p r o j e c t s . Often cannot operate with s u f f i c i e n t speed or f l e x -i b i l i t y to work with p r i -vate s e c t o r . Are e l i g i b l e to a t t rac t both publ ic and pr iva te resources in a var ie ty of r o l e s . A b i l i t y to work with small bus inesses . Incentives for pro-gramme d e l i v e r y e f f i -c i e n c y . Large e n t i t i e s need decen-t r a l i z e d approach to reach small f i r m s . Future programme cont inua-t ion not usua l ly dependent on programme d e l i v e r y e f -f i c i e n c y . L i t t l e incent ive to do s o . Sometimes cannot meet publ ic sector requ i re -ments for e l i g i b i l i t y and/or pub l i c b e n e f i t . Access to pub l i c resour-ces e x c e l l e n t . Can face legal and admin is t ra t ive d i f f i c u l t i e s in some development r o l e s . Information and t ransac -t ion costs present bar-r i e r s . Often re invests revenues outside community, espec-i a l l y i f not l o c a l l y owned. Limited involvement pro-gram d e l i v e r y . General ly not engaged in range of community and economic development ac-t i v i t i e s . Co -ord ina t ion and imple-mentation are f e a s i b l e , part of CDC g o a l s . Understands processes of both pub l i c and pr iva te s e c t o r s ; has great legal f l e x i b i l i t y . F o r - p r o f i t status l i m i t s e l i g i b i l i t y to rece ive p u b l i c resources . Can reach and address the needs of small f i r m s . Always re invests in com-munity . Can re ta in revenues for program expansion and reinvestment in other p r o j e c t s . T ransfer f e a s i b l e . Transfer of capaci ty among programme d e l i -very a c t i v i t i e s . Administ rat ive s t ructure often i n h i b i t s t r a n s f e r , e s p e c i a l l y in la rger gov-ernment departments. Reinvestment of resour- Seldom cont ro ls project ces in community. revenues. Source: Highland Resources L t d . Community Based Economic Development in Canada, V o l . I I , (Sydney /Ha l i fax , Nova S c o t i a : Highland Resources, J u l y , 1983), p . p . 8-9 43 T a b l e 8 CDC's: A c t i v i t i e s E v e r E n g a g t d In C u r r e n t l y Engaged In P r e v i o u s l y Engaged In £ £ 10 Housing development 8 10 Housing r e h a b i l i t a t i o n 10 20 Job t r a i n i n g program 15 19 Other e d u c a t i o n a l / t r a i n i n g 14 25 S t a r t i n g a new b u s i n e s s 19 18 Operate a b u s i n e s s 10 11 I n d u s t r i a l s i t e development 10 19 B u i l d i n g a community f a c i l i t y 17 15 R e c r e a t i o n a l program 12 15 S o c i a l s e r v i c e s 12 4 H e a l t h program 4 13 C u l t u r a l program 10 25 B u s i n e s s t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e 17 17 Other t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e 8 15 Loans and i n v e s t m e n t s 7 26 O r g a n i z i n g community groups 19 32 Research p r o j e c t s 19 13 Other 2 44 On a more l o c a l l e v e l , a f a l l 1984 i n v e n t o r y of CED a c t i v i -t i e s done by S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Review C o u n c i l SPARC of B . C . i d e n t i f i e d 36 p r o j e c t s around the p r o v i n c e . 1 0 A l t h o u g h the i n v e n t o r y does not r e p r e s e n t a l l such a c t i v i t i e s , i t p r o v i d e s a good sample of the c u r r e n t s c o p e . Not a l l are c o n s i d e r e d community development c o r p o r a t i o n s , but twenty- two were c a t e g o r i z e d as n o n - p r o f i t a s s o c i a t i o n s ( i n c o r p o r a t e d and u n i n c o r p o r a t e d s o c i e t i e s and development c o r p o r a t i o n s ) e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the e x p r e s s purposes of l o c a l employment c r e a t i o n and b u s i n e s s d e v e l o p m e n t . "These a s s o c i a t i o n s are ma in ly in the b u s i n e s s of f a c i l i t a t i n g l o c a l economic i n i t i a t i v e s . They may p r o v i d e a d v i c e on a l l a s p e c t s of b u s i n e s s development and some may p r o v i d e i n i -t i a l c a p i t a l or ac t as a l e v e r a g e agent f o r c a p i t a l d e v e l o p -ment . "11 In s h o r t , they are e n a b l e r s f o r CED and thus serve as C D C s . Of the remain ing p r o j e c t s l i s t e d , t h r e e were p r i m a r i l y c o n -ce rned wi th r e s e a r c h , p l a n n i n g and network ing in suppor t of CED. Four were w o r k e r s ' c o o p e r a t i v e s . Three were b a r t e r and exchange o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Four were v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d i n g com-muni ty s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and t r a i n i n g a n d / o r employment d e v e l o p m e n t . The goods and s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by these p r o j e c t s are numer-o u s , and i n c l u d e : ^ • a sa lmono id enhancement • a f i t n e s s c e n t r e program • d a y c a r e s e r v i c e s • a t o u r i s t camps i te • a c h a u f f e r / 1 i m o s i n e • a c o o p e r a t i v e bakery s e r v i c e • a c o o p e r a t i v e r e s t a u r a n t • a jam c o o p e r a t i v e • a r e c y c l i n g s e r v i c e • a f i s h fa rming p r o j e c t 45 • m o b i l e h a i r d r e s s i n g • h a n d c r a f t e d q u i l t s • o i l d i a g n o s t i c and t rea tment • a squab farm • a wood p r o d u c t s f i r m • B . C . d i s t r i b u t o r f o r s e r v i c e f o r t r a n s f o r m e r s • an o p t i c a l company • a w h o l e s a l e food coop • l e g a l s e r v i c e s • a garden produce coop • downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n • s e r v i c e s f o r s e n i o r s candy • t h r i f t s t o r e • f a m i l y s e r v i c e s • food bank • a woodmoulding b u s i n e s s • baby needs s t o r e • auto machine shop • job t r a i n i n g , job s e a r c h and p lacement In a May, 1985 p u b l i c a t i o n e n t i t l e d " B . C . CED P r o j e c t s , " SPARC of B . C . i d e n t i f i e d s i x a d d i t i o n a l p r o j e c t s in t h e i r second of p o t e n t i a l l y many i n v e n t o r y u p d a t e s . * 3 Of t h e s e f o r t y - t w o o r g a n i z a t i o n s , f i v e were o r g a n i z e d by women f o r the d i r e c t b e n e f i t of women. These were EMMA's J a m b r o s i a , C r e s c e n t V a l l e y , Every Woman's R i g h t in K o l l e c t i v e A c t i o n ERIKA, V a n c o u v e r , Ne lson Women's C e n t r e , N e l s o n , P ress Gang P r i n t e r s and P u b l i s h e r s , Vancouver and Wi ld West O r g a n i c H a r v e s t C o o p , R ichmond. Many o t h e r s are in e x i s t e n c e , f o r example , Women's Work: A S i l k S c r e e n i n g C o l l e c t i v e in V a n c o u v e r , but have not y e t been f o r m a l l y i n v e n t o r i e d . An i n t e r e s t i n CED among women a c r o s s the c o u n t r y i s i n c r e a s i n g . Among the new developments i s a London , O n t a r i o o r g a n i z a t i o n , Women's Community E n t e r p r i s e s , which i s e s t a b l i s h i n g a Resource C e n t r e to se rve as a f o c u s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n - s h a r i n g , r e s o u r c e exchange and ne twork ing f o r i n t e r e s t e d women a c r o s s Canada.14 i n Burnaby , B . C . , Women's S k i l l s * 5 have d e v e l o p e d a p r o j e c t "Economic Opt ions f o r Women" to encourage the p a r t i c i p a -t i o n of women in p l a n n i n g and o p e r a t i n g c o o p e r a t i v e b u s i n e s s e s , as 46 independent s t r u c t u r e s or as e n t e r p r i s e s sponsored by a community group or c e n t r e . A l t h o u g h s t i l l i n the f o r m a t i v e s t a g e , the p r o j e c t w i l l i n v o l v e the f o l l o w i n g ; 1 6 1. I n f o r m a t i o n about f u n d i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s , t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and p u b l i c p o l i c y . 2 . Ongoing r e s e a r c h and e v a l u a t i o n of e x i s t i n g c o o p e r a t i v e e n t e r -p r i s e s i n v o l v i n g women. 3 . P r e s e n t a t i o n of community workshops to s t i m u l a t e d i s c u s s i o n and development of c o o p e r a t i v e economic o p t i o n s f o r women. 4 . E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a network of women and groups i n t e r e s t e d i n c r e a t i n g c o o p e r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s f o r women. 5 . Development of s t r a t e g i e s to i n c r e a s e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f women in c o o p e r a t i v e b u s i n e s s e s . 6 . S p o n s o r s h i p of c o o p e r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s i n v o l v i n g women. A 1985 p u b l i c a t i o n from Ot tawa , A T h i r d Way: CED, i n v e n t o r -i e s l o c a l CED and p r o v i d e s t h r e e case s t u d i e s , two of which are women's p r o j e c t s . 1 7 j n e l i s t c o u l d go o n , but what i s apparent from the l i t e r a t u r e i s t h a t many women are t a k i n g c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n th rough a l t e r n a t i v e methods of o r g a n i z i n g to deal w i th e x i s t i n g economic and s o c i a l h a r d s h i p s . For example , the M u l t i -c u l t u r a l Women's C e n t r e in Ottawa was founded to he lp immigrant women f i g h t t h e i r economic and s o c i a l problems by marke t ing t h e i r s k i l l s . They now have a d r o p - i n and t h r e e b u s i n e s s e s wi th twenty -t h r e e s t a f f . EMMA'S J a m b r o s i a , a jam f a c t o r y in B . C . , grew out o f the West Kootenay Women's A s s o c i a t i o n as a s o l u t i o n to c h r o n i c unemployment and a d e s i r e to c r e a t e a work envi ronment t h a t was 47 n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l and based on f e m i n i s t p r i n c i p l e s . They have r e c e n t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e i r market share of the p roduc t and are h i r i n g more s t a f f . When they are in a p r o f i t p o s i t i o n , a c e r t a i n p e r c e n t a g e w i l l be channe led t o women's s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the Kootenay r e g i o n . R A T I O N A L E CED i s "an a c t i o n p lan to break the c y c l e of d e p r i v a t i o n by t h o s e who have endured i t . " 1 8 For women, the f o c u s f o r the a p p l i -c a t i o n of CED i n t h i s t h e s i s , t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y the c a s e . A l -though not w i thout c a v e a t s , CED p r o v i d e s a v e h i c l e f o r change i n a reas where t r a d i t i o n a l mechanisms have not s u c c e e d e d . Depending on how the t o o l i s a c c e s s e d and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d , t h e r e i s p o t e n -t i a l f o r a marked change in the l i v e s of many women who are c u r -r e n t l y d e n i e d a c c e s s to t h o s e b a s i c r e s o u r c e s and c o n d i t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r an adequate s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g : decent j o b s , ade-quate d a y c a r e , and an everyday l i v i n g env i ronment w i t h i n and o u t -s i d e of the home f r e e from a b u s e . CED i s not a panacea f o r d e a l i n g e f f e c t i v e l y wi th the p r o b -lems of unemployment, underemployment and v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t women. The r o o t s of t h e s e problems are deep and complex , wi th no q u i c k f i x s o l u t i o n at h a n d . CED p r o v i d e s a means f o r i n c r e m e n t a l change th rough p l a n n i n g , and s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of t h i s t h e s i s , women p l a n n i n g f o r women to take g r e a t e r c o n t r o l over our 1i v e s . 48 Set w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the post 1982 economic downturn and the r e s u l t i n g i n c r e a s e i n unemployment and a s s o c i a t e d economic and s o c i a l c o s t s , I 9 i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t peop le are becoming more e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l . For some, t h i s e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l d i r e c t i o n has been t r a n s l a t e d to i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s , f o r o t h e r s , c o l l a b o r a t i v e community a c t i v i t i e s . A major commonal i ty f o r both i s a d e s i r e to s u r v i v e and ga in g r e a t e r c o n t r o l d u r i n g a t ime of major change and i n s e c u r i t y . In a d i s c u s s i o n p a p e r , M ichae l C lague s t a t e s tha t the wor ld i n genera l and the i n d u s t r i a l wor ld i n p a r t i c u l a r has e n t e r e d a p e r i o d of p ro found s t r u c t u r a l changes in our e c o n o m i e s , c u l t u r e , s o c i a l l i v e s , and b a s i c p a t t e r n s i n the way we t h i n k and f e e l . . . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s , be-cause of our p o s t - w a r p r o s p e r i t y have f e l t the economic j o l t e s p e c i a l l y s h a r p l y . There i s growing w i d e - s p r e a d acknowledgement t h a t t h i s i s more than a d i p i n the e s t a -b l i s h e d economic rhy thms . For B r i t i s h Columbians t h i s means t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s of our w e a l t h - - o u r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s - - a n d the p r o c e d u r e s we use f o r e x p l o i t -i n g t h i s w e a l t h , are no l o n g e r s e c u r e . Whole o c c u p a t i o n a l groups and communit ies f a c e d i s l o c a t i o n . More peop le are f a c i n g the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and m a t e r i a l r e a l i t i e s of a lower s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g . 2 0 Given the h i s t o r i c p o s i t i o n of women as r e f l e c t e d i n C h a p t e r One, t h i s new r e a l i t y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y f r i g h t e n i n g . B a r r i e r s to l a b o u r market p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o n t i n u e to e x i s t c o i n c i d e n t w i th fewer jobs a v a i l a b l e . V i o l e n c e a g a i n s t women c o n t i n u e s wi th even g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y 2 * w h i l e governments i n s t i t u t e p o l i c i e s of " r e -s t r a i n t " and p r i v a t i z a t i o n wi th h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e and q u e s t i o n a b l e c o n t r a c t s u p p o r t . 2 2 49 Women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the t r a d i t i o n a l and h i g h l y v a l u e d s p o n s o r s o f t r a n s i t i o n houses are no l o n g e r n e c e s s a r i l y the r e c i -p i e n t s of government f i n a n c i a l suppor t f o r the o p e r a t i o n of t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s . In a recen t c a s e , the M i n i s t r y of Human Resources awarded a c o n t r a c t to the S a l v a t i o n Army and a s o c i e t y c a l l e d Act II to p r o v i d e some of the s e r v i c e s once p r o v i d e d ( f o r over ten y e a r s ) at the Vancouver T r a n s i t i o n House . Women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t r a n s i t i o n house w o r k e r s , and b a t t e r e d women themse lves have r a l -l i e d in s u p p o r t of the Vancouver T r a n s i t i o n House , but to no a v a i l . Women have l o s t c o n t r o l over an e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e . The i s s u e of impor tance here i s not o n l y l o s s of c o n t r o l , but a change i n the q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d f o r b a t t e r e d women, the types of s u p p o r t and the env i ronment w i t h i n which the suppor t i s g i v e n . A b a s i c f e m i n i s t premise t h a t t r a n s i t i o n houses o p e r a t e d and c o n -t r o l l e d by women are an e s s e n t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of any p r o g r e s -s i v e , s o c i a l l y c o n s c i o u s s o c i e t y has been r e p l a c e d by a t r a n s i t i o n house as c h a r i t y a t t i t u d e . R e f l e c t i v e of t h i s a t t i t u d e i s a com-ment made to newspaper r e p o r t e r s by the M i n i s t e r of Human Resources when d i s c u s s i n g the S a l v a t i o n Army c o n t r a c t , " S h o u l d n ' t c h a r i t y beg in in a c h u r c h ? " 2 3 T r a n s i t i o n houses have not been o r g a n i z e d as i n s t r u m e n t s of c h a r i t y , nor of any p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e . The i n t e n t i o n of the o r g a n i z e r s of t r a n s i t i o n houses was to p r o v i d e a s a f e , s u p p o r t i v e env i ronment where women have the power to choose and c o n t r o l t h e i r own f u t u r e s . Not o n l y are more t r a n s i t i o n houses r e q u i r e d , but houses which are o p e r a t e d 50 a c c o r d i n g to the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s s t a t e d in the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r . The r a t i o n a l e f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of CED f o r women i s f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d by c o n s i d e r a t i o n of o t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e f o r women i n t e r e s t e d in employment g e n e r a t i o n and c r i s i s h o u s i n g . As an example of the c u r r e n t d i f f i c u l t y in a c c e s s i n g and l i m i t a t i o n s of programs c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e , f e d e r a l government invo lvement w i l l be b r i e f l y o v e r v i e w e d . The reader i s c a u t i o n e d t h a t i t i s not w i t h i n the scope of t h i s t h e s i s to p r o v i d e an i n - d e p t h a n a l y s i s , but to h i g h l i g h t the most s a l i e n t p o i n t s . For t h o s e who d e s i r e t h i s , o t h e r m a t e r i a l s are a v a i l a b l e . ? 4 W i t h i n the f e d e r a l s p h e r e , t h e r e are a number of programs a v a i l a b l e which attempt to address the p a r t i c u l a r d i s a d v a n t a g e s e x p e r i e n c e d by women. They i n c l u d e Canada Works, Job C o r p s , C a r e e r A c c e s s , to some e x t e n t Loca l Employment A s s i s t a n c e and Development (LEAD) p rogram, and the summer s t u d e n t p rogram, C h a l -l enge ' 8 5 . Each are d e s i g n a t e d to c o u n t e r a c t c y c l i c a l , s e a s o n a l and s t r u c t u r a l unemployment but wi th the e x c e p t i o n of LEAD, are s h o r t - t e r m m e a s u r e s . Guarantees of permanent , s a t i s f y i n g j o b s are not promoted as par t of the p a c k a g e . The new Canadian Jobs s t r a -t e g y , to be i n t r o d u c e d in the f a l l of 1985, o f f e r s promises o f t r a i n i n g and an i n c r e a s e d p r o b a b i l i t y of l o n g - t e r m l a b o u r market p a r t i c i p a t i o n but has y e t to be implemented and e v a l u a t e d . Sponsors may a p p l y to the Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r -p o r a t i o n (CMHC) under the n o n - p r o f i t hous ing program f o r t r a n s i -t i o n a l h o u s i n g , but the f u n d i n g i s l i m i t e d , d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n , 51 and the need remains g r e a t . CMHC has r e c o g n i z e d the need to s u p -por t a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e s e types of d e v e l o p m e n t , but as E . D. F o x , A c t i n g D i r e c t o r of the S o c i a l Housing D i v i s i o n c a n d i d l y s t a t e s , " the i n t e r e s t s and c o n c e r n s of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group (abused women) have to be l o o k e d at a g a i n s t the needs of f a m i l i e s , s e n i o r c i t i z e n s , and o t h e r s p e c i a l purpose groups — and the f a c t t h a t we have a r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d and f i x e d s u b s i d y budget each y e a r has to be taken i n t o a c c o u n t . " 2 5 Given the d i f f i c u l t y of a c c e s s i n g government f u n d i n g f o r t r a n s i t i o n hous ing and the l i m i t a t i o n s of F e d e r a l employment programs to p r o v i d e l o n g - t e r m employment f o r women, CED appears i n c r e a s i n g l y f a v o u r a b l e . When problems are i d e n t i f i e d and e x p e r i e n c e d wi th t r a d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s of l i m i t e d suppor t u n a v a i l a b l e or u n a c c e p t a b l e , f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s are s o u g h t . E x p e c t a t i o n s f o r CED are h i g h , but t h e r e i s "no harm in dreaming wi th y o u r f e e t on the g r o u n d " . 2 6 The next c h a p t e r w i l l at tempt to d e v e l o p the ground upon which an a p p l i c a t i o n of CED f o r women w i l l be c o n c r e t e l y c o n s i d e r e d . 52 C H A P T E R 2 iKen B a t t l e , i n R .M. N o v i c k , e d . , F u l l Employment: S o c i a l  Q u e s t i o n s f o r P u b l i c P o l i c y , ( T o r o n t o : S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l o f Metro T o r o n t o , November, 1979) , p. 78 . 2 C i t y of Toron to P l a n n i n g and Development Depar tment , A S e l e c t i v e Economic Development S t r a t e g y , ( T o r o n t o : C i t y of T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g and Deve lopment , J a n u a r y , 1980 ) , p . p . 128 - 129. ^Michae l C l a g u e , "Community Economic Development in B . C . : Repor t on a P r o v i n c i a l Seminar Held November, 1984" , ( V a n c o u v e r : S . P . A . R . C . J a n u a r y 1, 1985 ) , p . 8 . ^Gregory MacLeod , " C D C ' s : Theory and P r a c t i c e , " C r i t e r e , #25, ( N . p . [ 1 9 7 9 ] ) , p. 182. ^ H i g h l a n d Resources L t d . , Community Based Economic  Development in C a n a d a , v o l . I, ( S y d n e y / H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a : H i g h l a n d R e s o u r c e s , J u l y , 1983) , p . 2 . ^Susan Wismer and David P e l l , Community P r o f i t , ( T o r o n t o : Is F i v e P r e s s , 1981 ) , p. 1. 7 H i g h l a n d Resources L t d . , v o l . I, p. 7. 8 I b i d . , vo l . I I , p . p . 8 - 9 . 9 I b i d . , vo l . I, p . 33 1 0 M i c h a e l C l a g u e , p . 4 . 1 1 I b i d . 1 2 l b i d . , p . 5 1 3 S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Review C o u n c i l of B . C . , B . C . CED  P r o j e c t s : L o c a l Economic I n i t i a t i v e s , 2nd E d i t i o n , ( V a n c o u v e r : S . P . A . R . C . Of B . C . , May 17, 1985) , p . p . 2 - 6 . ^ w o m e n ' s Community E n t e r p r i s e s , S t e . 212 - 424 W e l l i n g t o n S t . , L o n d o n , O n t a r i o , N6A 3P3. 1 5 W o m e n ' s S k i l l s Development S o c i e t y , #9 - 4443 Irmin S t . , B u r n a b y , B . C . , V5J 1X8. ^ W o m e n ' s S k i l l s " I n f o r m a t i o n P a c k a g e " , ( B u r n a b y , Women's S k i l l s , 1985 ) . 53 1 7 D e b b i e B a r t o n , et a l . , A T h i r d Way. CED, (Ot tawa: A . C . E . , J u n e , 1984) , p . p . 16 - 26 and p . p . 35 - 4 2 . 18 E r i c T r i s t , "New D i r e c t i o n s of H o p e " , Human F u t u r e s , ( N . p . [Autumn, 1 9 7 9 ] ) , p . 8 . 1 9 S e e , Coro S t r a n b e r g , " C a n a d a ' s Unemployed: In Search of a F u t u r e , " ( U n i v e r s i t y of B . C . , J u n e , 1984 ) , p . p . 20 - 2 5 . 2 0 M i c h a e l C l a g u e , " S p e c u l a t i o n About the Nature and Scope of S o c i o - e c o n o m i c and CED i n B . C . " , A D i s c u s s i o n Paper f o r the  S . P . A . R . C . B o a r d , ( V a n c o u v e r : S . P . A . R . C . of B . C . , September 13, 1984 ) , p. 1. 2 l F or example , "Educated Women V i c t i m s of Wage Gap, S t a t s c a n S a y s " , G lobe and M a i l , ( T o r o n t o : F r i d a y , March 22 , 1985 ) , p . 1. "The number of women raped i n c r e a s e d by 29 percen t to 10.2 i n every 100,000 women in 1982, from 7.9 in 1976." 2 2 F or example , two newspaper a r t i c l e s r e p o r t t h a t a c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t may have o c c u r r e d in the awarding o f a c o n t r a c t to the S a l v a t i o n Army f o r the o p e r a t i o n of a s h o r t - t e r m emergency s h e l t e r f o r women. Grace M c C a r t h y , B . C . M i n i s t e r of Human Resources i s a member of the n a t i o n a l a d v i s o r y board of the S a l v a t i o n Army and approached the group to submit a t e n d e r . " C o n f l i c t Charged in S h e l t e r C o n t r a c t s " , The Vancouver S u n , ( V a n c o u v e r : August 7, 1985) , p . A - 3 . "Women's Groups P r e s s f o r S h e l t e r P l a n D e t a i l s " , The Vancouver S u n , ( V a n c o u v e r : August 8, 1985) , p . A - 1 9 . 2 3 " W o m e n ' s Groups P r e s s f o r S h e l t e r P lan D e t a i l s " , The Vancouver S u n , ( V a n c o u v e r : August 8 , 1985) , p. A - 1 9 . 2 4 F or example , See Coro S t r a n b e r g , 1984. T h i s paper r e v e a l s the i n a b i l i t y of s h o r t - t e r m d i r e c t j o b c r e a t i o n to r e d r e s s c o n t i n u e d unemployment. 2 5 E . D . F O X , quoted i n , C a t h e r i n e A l l e n , "Refuge from the S torm: T r a n s i t i o n a l Housing f o r B a t t e r e d Women", H a b i t a t , 25 , #4 (Ot tawa: C . M . H . C . , 1982) , p . 4 . 2 6 G u y Dauncey , quoted i n , Ian M o r r i s o n , "Notes from C o n f e r e n c e Summary: R e t h i n k i n g P o l i t i c s , R e c r e a t i n g Community, F e b r u a r y 14 - 16 , 1985, V a n c o u v e r , ( V a n c o u v e r , n . p . [ 1 9 8 5 ] ) , p. 2 . 54 C H A P T E R I I I S T R A T E G Y R E F I N E D : CED FOR I N C R E A S I N G EMPLOYMENT AND C R I S I S HOUSING O P T I O N S FOR WOMEN The p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s have: 1) i d e n t i f i e d s p e c i f i c d i s a d v a n t a g e s t h a t women e x p e r i e n c e in both the economic and s o c i a l s e c t o r s ; and 2) p r o v i d e d an i n t r o d u c t i o n to community economic d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l at tempt to i l l u s t r a t e t h r o u g h example the a p p l i c a t i o n of CED to meet women of the employment and c r i s i s hous ing needs of women. Through the development of a s c e n a r i o , p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , and a CED m o d e l , an e v a l u a t i o n may be done to de te rmine the p o t e n t i a l f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r g o a l s . T h i s c h a p t e r i s i n t e n d e d to demonstra te to the p o t e n t i a l o f CED f o r women and i s not a comprehens ive "how to" or p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s handbook. Other r e s o u r c e s are a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s purpose .1 S e t t i n g t h e S t a g e : A S c e n a r i o A r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g a wide v a r i e t y of women's groups e x p r e s s e s c o n c e r n about a number of problems i m p a c t i n g on i n d i v i d u a l women and groups and the l a c k of p l a n n i n g to e f f e c t i v e l y deal wi th them. As a r e s u l t of t h e s e c o n c e r n s , agreements are made to beg in a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s which w i l l enab le the o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s member groups to e f f e c t the g r e a t e s t p o s i t i v e c h a n g e . 55 The f o l l o w i n g gu ide i s a d o p t e d : 2 C o m m u n i t y C h a n g e : A G u i d e f o r A n a l y s i s a n d P l a n n i n g T h i s gu ide i s d e s i g n e d as a work ing t o o l f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and groups w i s h i n g to under take community change e f f o r t s . It o u t l i n e s a s i x - s t e p p l a n f o r a c t i o n . Not every a c t i o n e f f o r t w i l l r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of every q u e s t i o n a s k e d , nor w i l l i t a lways proceed in the g iven s e q u e n c e . It i s to be used as a gu ide f o r thought and d i s c u s s i o n , a worksheet f o r c h a r t i n g your p r o g r e s s , and as a r e c o r d which may be used in e v a l u a t i n g your a c t i o n e f f o r t s . S T E P ONE - D E T E R M I N A T I O N OF G O A L S AND P R I O R I T I E S C o m m u n i t y C o n c e r n s From your i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , i d e n t i f y the major c o n c e r n s / i s s u e s / p r o b l e m s i n y o u r communi ty . Number these on the b a s i s of i m p o r t a n c e , or y o u r p r i o r i t y . C o n s i d e r i n g community p r i o r i t i e s , the i n t e r e s t s and c a p a b i l i t i e s of your g r o u p , w r i t e a s ta tement of the s p e c i f i c problem area f o r a c t i o n . G o a l s What are your o b j e c t i v e s or what do you hope to a c c o m p l i s h ? S T E P TWO - A N A L Y S I S AND C L A R I F I C A T I O N A n a l y s i s o f t h e P r o b l e m Why s h o u l d the problem be s o l v e d ? Why do y o u / y o u r group want to s o l v e the problem? Who i s a f f e c t e d by the problem and how do they p e r c e i v e i t ? Who w i l l be in f a v o u r of change? How w i l l they show i t ? Who i s not in f a v o u r of change? How w i l l they show i t ? Are t h e r e o t h e r groups in the community concerned about the problem and how are they work ing on i t ? How can you work wi th them? What a d d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s w i l l be needed to take a c t i o n ? What are the t ime and f i n a n c i a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g any a c t i on? What a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n do you need? Do you need to r e d e f i n e the problem? C l a r i f i c a t i o n o f G o a l The D e s i r e d Outcomes: Do you f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d the g o a l ? 56 Is the goal r e a l i s t i c ? p r a c t i c a l ? t i m e l y ? Do you have the s k i l l s and r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n you to do i t a l o n e , or s h o u l d you c o o p e r a t e wi th o t h e r s in a c h i e v i n g the g o a l ? Is i t something you b e l i e v e i n and r e a l l y want to do? S T E P THREE - R E V I E W OF A L T E R N A T I V E S A l t e r n a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s L i s t the p o s s i b l e a c t i o n s t r a t e g i e s and the consequences of each ( c o n s i d e r as many as p o s s i b l e ) . A c t i on Consequences D e s i r a b l e U n d e s i r a b l e From t h i s l i s t of a l t e r n a t i v e s , de te rmine t e n t a t i v e p lan of a c t i o n . E v a l u a t e y o u r a c t i o n p lan by answer ing these q u e s t i o n s : Are y o u / y o u r group committed to the proposed a c t i o n s t r a t e g y ? Is the p lan r e a l i s t i c ? p r a c t i c a l ? t i m e l y ? W i l l the a c t i o n s t r a t e g y p r o v i d e a means to meet the g o a l s ? How w i l l you de te rmine when the g o a l s have been met? S T E P FOUR - C O M M U N I C A T I O N AND I N V O L V E M E N T R e l e v a n t G r o u p s What o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s or groups need to be i n v o l v e d in the a c t i o n p l a n and what i s the bes t way to i n v o l v e them? What i s the n a t u r e of the i n v o l v e m e n t ? I n d i v i d u a l s or Groups Type o f Involvement Have you i n c l u d e d t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s or groups tha t you f e e l may not s u p p o r t the a c t i o n p lan? (or agree wi th the g o a l s ? ) Have you s o l i c i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n from i n d i v i d u a l s or groups who have a c o n t r i b u t i o n to make but were not r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d ? How and when w i l l you communicate the p lan to them? How do o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s and groups see the problem and the a c t i o n s t r a t e g y ? Does the goal a n d / o r a c t i o n s t r a t e g y need to be r e d e f i n e d and m o d i f i e d ? How? 57 S T E P F I V E - A C T I O N P r o c e d u r e s L i s t the s teps in the a c t i o n p l a n , the i n d i v i d u a l or group r e s p o n s i b l e , and the t i m e t a b l e f o r i t s c o m p l e t i o n . A c t i on Respons i b i 1 i ty Date to be Completed Do t h e s e a s s i g n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s make the best use o f r e s o u r c e s and a b i l i t i e s ? How and when w i l l p r o g r e s s and problems be a s s e s s e d ? How can the a c t i o n s t r a t e g y be m o d i f i e d i f n e c e s s a r y ? What g u a r a n t e e s can be b u i l t i n t o the a c t i o n to ensure i t s c o n t i n u a n c e e . g . t r a i n i n g , f i n a n c e s ? S T E P S I X - R E F L E C T I O N AND F O L L O W - U P O u t c o m e s What happened? What were the p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s ? What were the n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s ? W i l l the programme be c o n t i n u e d ? With m o d i f i c a t i o n ? By whom? What f u t u r e outcomes may be a n t i c i p a t e d ? F o l l o w - U p What new c o n c e r n s / i s s u e s / p r o b l e m s were i d e n t i f i e d ? What next s t e p s s h o u l d be taken? What l e a r n i n g s about problems and s t r a t e g i e s may be drawn from your e x p e r i e n c e ? A f t e r much d e l i b e r a t i o n , a d e c i s i o n i s made to c o n c e n t r a t e on CED as a s t r a t e g y f o r d e a l i n g wi th t h r e e key p r o b l e m s : unemployment, l a c k of c r i s i s f a c i l i t i e s to p r o v i d e d i r e c t and immediate p r o t e c t i o n f o r abused women, and dependence on e x t e r n a l f u n d i n g f o r women's group o p e r a t i o n s and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of p r i o r i t y p r o g r a m s . The s e l e c t i o n of CED must o c c u r w i t h i n a comprehens ive p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s to ensure t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t r a t e g y i s the 58 best a l t e r n a t i v e f o r d e a l i n g wi th the problems i d e n t i f i e d . In t h i s s c e n a r i o , the r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n has c o n s i d e r e d a l l the f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , f o r example , F e d e r a l government programmes, and g i v e n the g o a l s of i n c r e a s i n g unemployment, c r i s i s hous ing o p t i o n s and economic i n d e p e n d e n c e , has opted f o r CED. For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , c o n c e n t r a t i o n w i l l o c c u r on s tep f i v e , the development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a s t r a t e g y and t a c t i c s p lan f o r CED u s i n g the CDC m o d e l . W i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t , development of the m o d e l , r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s u c c e s s , p o t e n t i a l , o b s t a c l e s , and c r i t e r i a f o r CED e v a l u a t i o n w i l l be o u t l i n e d . F i n a l l y , an e v a l u a t i o n w i l l be a t t e m p t e d . M o d e l D e v e l o p m e n t As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , CED may o c c u r th rough a number of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r m s : a community development c o r p o r a t i o n ( C D C ) , a n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n , a community b u s i n e s s , a c o - o p e r a t i v e , or a h y b r i d . Common to a l l i s the a r t i c u l a t i o n and p u r s u i t o f both s o c i a l and economic o b j e c t i v e s . Any model or s t r u c t u r e adopted f o r CED must e n a b l e the o r g a n i z a t i o n to implement and manage a c t i v i t i e s most e f f e c t i v e l y . The s t r u c t u r e must b e : 3 (a) f u n c t i o n a l , i n tha t i t promotes e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e work; (b) f l e x i b l e , so t h a t i t can r o l l w i th the ( u s u a l l y ) f r e q u e n t punches; 59 (c) o p e n , so t h a t i t a l l o w s f o r as much d i s t i n c t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and as much a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g as p o s s i b l e ; and (d) u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , so t h a t peop le w i l l not f e e l t h r e a t e n e d or d i s t u r b e d by i t . The CDC s t r u c t u r e has been chosen f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n p u r p o s e s . As an u m b r e l l a o r g a n i z a t i o n which f a c i l i t a t e s CED i t i s one o f the most common s t r u c t u r e s and can meet the above c r i t e r i a . CDC's have the c a p a c i t y to i n v o l v e a number o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n a c o o r d i n a t e d f a s h i o n to p lan and implement a v a r i e t y of n o n - p r o f i t development a c t i v i t i e s . In c o n t r a s t to o t h e r CED s t r u c t u r e s , f o r example "community b u s i n e s s and most c o - o p s , where an a c t i v i t y i s a means f o r a c h i e v i n g s o c i a l , economic and c u l t u r a l g o a l s a l l at o n c e , CDC o f t e n i d e n t i f y s e p a r a t e n o t - f o r - p r o f i t ' a c t i v i t i e s ' in each ' g o a l ' a r e a . " 4 G iven the s c e n a r i o and g o a l s to be a c h i e v e d , the CDC s t r u c t u r e would look s i m i l a r to the fo l1owi ng : 60 F i g u r e 6 CDC S t r u c t u r e CDC Communi ty E n t e r p r i se Communi t y E n t e r p r i se Communi t y E n t e r p r i se Communi ty P r o j e c t For P r o f i t S e c t o r P r o f i t R e i n v e s t e d Not f o r P r o f i t S e c t o r A Community P a r t i c i p a t i o n 61 The CDC d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g body i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a c o o r d i n a t i n g c o l l e c t i v e encompassing r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of women's groups w i t h i n the r e g i o n . The community e n t e r p r i s e s w i t h i n the f o r - p r o f i t s e c t o r are b u s i n e s s e s owned and c o n t r o l l e d by members of the community which p r o v i d e employment f o r women and a r e a s o n a b l e l i k e l i h o o d of s u f f i c i e n t p r o f i t to s u p p o r t the n o t - f o r -p r o f i t community p r o j e c t . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r example , the community p r o j e c t w i t h i n the n o t - f o r - p r o f i t s e c t o r r e p r e s e n t s t r a n s i t i o n h o u s e s , a g a i n , owned, c o n t r o l l e d and opera ted by women a c c o r d i n g to the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s i d e n t i f i e d e a r l i e r . An example of a f o r - p r o f i t community b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z e d to a c h i e v e a number of ends i s a c h i l d r e n ' s s t o r e s e l l i n g goods i n c l u d i n g b o o k s , c l o t h i n g and t o y s . It c o u l d : i ) p r o v i d e employment at a r e a s o n a b l e wage to a number o f women; i i ) f u n c t i o n as a pre-employment f a c i l i t y where women c o u l d be t r a i n e d in s p e c i f i c t ypes of b o o k k e e p i n g , c l e r i c a l , management and s a l e s a c t i v i t i e s , thus i n c r e a s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f employment e l s e w h e r e ; i i i ) he lp to f i n a n c e the t r a n s i t i o n h o u s e ( s ) from p r o f i t s g e n e r a t e d ; i v ) p r o v i d e space f o r the exchange of i n f o r m a t i o n ; and v) p r o v i d e c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s f o r shoppers or extend the s e r v i c e on a more l o n g - t e r m f e e - f o r - s e r v i c e b a s i s at a l a t e r da te when e x p a n s i o n of the e n t e r p r i s e was p o s s i b l e . 62 The c o o r d i n a t i n g c o l l e c t i v e which has a major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the smooth f u n c t i o n i n g of the CDC and i t s s u b s i d i a r y p r o j e c t s must ensure tha t an adequate s u p p o r t network i s a v a i l a b l e in the p r e - p l a n n i n g of the revenue p r o d u c i n g p r o j e c t s and the t r a n s i t i o n house (s ) in a d d i t i o n to management and c o n t r o l s once the p r o j e c t s are f u n c t i o n i n g . S i n c e i t i s u n l i k e l y tha t one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body w i l l have a l l the r e q u i r e d r e s o u r c e s at h a n d , a suppor t network must be d e v e l o p e d from a number of s o u r c e s i n c l u d i n g o t h e r s p o n s o r s of CED, government , p r i v a t e s e c t o r and community r e s o u r c e s . In a d d i t i o n to the development of a network to p r o v i d e l e g a l , management, t e c h n i c a l and t r a i n i n g s u p p o r t , adequate avenues f o r c a p i t a l f o r m a t i o n and rep lacement must be f o u n d . T r a d i t i o n a l and i n n o v a t i v e t a c t i c s are r e q u i r e d to f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t CED i n i t i a t i v e s . These i n c l u d e : Bank and C r e d i t Union l o a n s Government g r a n t s C h u r c h , f o u n d a t i o n or c o r p o r a t e g i f t s Membership or share purchase fees Rents from c r i s i s h o u s i n g Revenue from f o r - p r o f i t b u s i n e s s Union p e n s i o n funds Reduced i n t e r e s t a c c o u n t s Community d o n a t i o n s 63 Informal economy, e . g . b a r t e r s y s t e m / i n - k i n d s e r v i c e s Fund r a i s i n g Community ven ture c a p i t a l fund from c r e d i t un ion member d o n a t i o n s th rough reduced i n t e r e s t p a y - o u t s F i g u r e 7 i l l u s t r a t e s a development system f o r CED th rough a CDC d e s i g n e d to min imize dependence on e x t e r n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r s u p p o r t and m o d i f i e d from a n a t i o n a l framework deve loped by P . D . B r o d h e a d , M. Dec to r and K. Svenson in 1981.5 A c t i v i t y a n d C a p a c i t y L e v e l s To a c h i e v e t h i s l e v e l of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l development r e q u i r e s a b u i l d i n g of c a p a c i t y and a c t i v i t i e s over a number o f y e a r s . As an example , T a b l e 9 l i s t s p o t e n t i a l s tages of t h i s development to the p o i n t of a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i n g CDC. T h i s t a b l e has been adapted from the work of P . D . B r o d h e a d , M. D e c t o r and K. S v e n s o n . 6 64 F i g u r e 7 D e v e l o p m e n t S y s t e m Other Community L i nkages S u p p & r t / P a r t i c i p a t i on Suppor t Network Lega l Management Techn i ca l T r a i ni ng R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from R e g i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s E n a b l i n g V e h i c l e PI ann ing Suppor t c o s t r e c o v e r y c o n t r a c t e d and donated s u p p o r t F i n a n c i a l Resources c o s t r e c o v e r y f i n a n c i a l packag i ng ven ture c a p i t a l 1 oans d o n a t i ons Communi ty Government F i nanci al I n s t i t u t i ons Informal economy Fund r a i s i n g I n n o v a t i o n s P r o f i t Rei nves ted < > Communi ty E n t e r p r i se Communi ty E n t e r p r i se Communi t y P r o j e c t Communi ty P r o j e c t For P r o f i t N o t - F o r P r o f i t Community P a r t i c i p a t i o n 65 Table 9 CDC Development:  A c t i v i t i e s and Capacity Levels Level 1 P r e - p l a n n i n g : problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , s t r a t e g y s e l e c t i o n Community s u p p o r t development Group f o r m a t i o n S t r u c t u r e s e l e c t i o n L i m i t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c a p a c i t y 2 A c q u i r e s seed c a p i t a l to conduct r e s o u r c e , m a r k e t i n g and f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s . Suppor t systems d e v e l o p e d and u t i l i z e d B u s i n e s s p lan development and approva l C a p i t a l f o r m a t i o n I n i t i a t e s a community e n t e r p r i s e Demonstra tes i n i t i a l community a c c e p t a n c e L i m i t e d management and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a b i l i t y L i m i t e d t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t y 3 Demonstrates a b i l i t y to p lan and manage a s i n g l e community e n t e r p r i s e Demonstrated community a c c e p t a n c e P r o p o s a l to c r e a t e a comprehens ive development p lan Development of a community development p lan 4 Has an approved development p lan wi th community suppor t CDC f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l w i th r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i ons L i n k a g e s w i th o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e i n f o r c e d F i n a n c i a l package f o r f i r s t s tage of p lan 5 Has p lanned and o p e r a t e d 2 or more community e n t e r p r i s e s e f f e c t i v e l y C o n t i n u e s b u s i n e s s d e v e l o p m e n t , p l a n n i n g , management and f i n a n c i a l packag ing Makes p r o f i t s a p r imary goal Deve lops community p r o j e c t from p r o f i t s and o t h e r f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s C o o r d i n a t i o n between community e n t e r p r i s e s , p r o j e c t s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s in CDC 6 As above wi th s i g n i f i c a n t e q u i t y c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n Employment genera ted T r a n s i t i o n house (s ) s u p p o r t e d 66 7 CDC and community p r o j e c t ( s ) t o t a l l y s u p p o r t e d from e n t e r p r i s e a c t i v i t y ( s e l f - s u p p o r t e d ) As an example , T a b l e 9 i l l u s t r a t e s a f a i r l y smooth and l i n e a r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p lan f o r CED s u c c e s s . O b v i o u s l y , o r g a n i z a t i o n s as o r g a n i c e n t i t i e s d e a l i n g wi th numerous ex t raneous v a r i a b l e s w i l l be unab le to p roceed i n t h i s p r e c i s e manner . As an i l l u s t r a t i o n , i t i s i n t e n d e d to revea l i m p o r t a n t p r o c e s s e s f o r CED t h a t must be under taken to a c h i e v e , f o r example , employment and c r i s i s hous ing f o r women o r g a n i z e d by women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s which i s as independent of e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l as r e a l i s t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e . Acknowledged i s the f a c t tha t l e v e l s , and a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n them, w i l l change a c c o r d i n g to the groups i n v o l v e d . T a b l e 9 may be u s e f u l as a g u i d e . R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r S u c c e s s To i n c r e a s e the p r o b a b i l i t y of s u c c e s s in CED, a number of f a c t o r s must be c o n s i d e r e d . Through an e x a m i n a t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e by Canadian CED p r a c t i o n e r s and t h e o r i s t s , a l i s t of s u g g e s t i o n s i s p o s s i b l e . By c o n t r i b u t o r s , they a r e : 1. Adhere to g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s when c o n s i d e r i n g C E D : 7 i ) p roceed wi th an i n t e g r a t e d approach to d e v e l o p m e n t . The g o a l s of CED are never s o l e l y e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l or c u l t u r a l . CED must be o r g a n i z e d in the i n t e r e s t s of the whole community, and a c c o r d i n g l y , the g o a l s and s t r a t e g i e s must r e l a t e to i t s s o c i a l , economic and c u l t u r a l e l e m e n t s ; i i ) ensure p r o f i t s are used f o r the c o l l e c t i v e b e n e f i t of the communi t y ; 67 i i i ) ensure p r o f i t s are d e v e l o p e d and p r o f i t s used or r e i n v e s t e d f o r c o l l e c t i v e r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l g a i n ; i v ) ensure l o c a l c o n t r o l . S e l f - r e l i a n c e can o n l y be a t t a i n e d th rough a p r o c e s s of development which i s l o c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . Others may be i n v o l v e d in terms of g i v i n g a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e , but the l a s t i n g b e n e f i t s of a community e n t e r p r i s e w i l l be much g r e a t e r when f i n a l d e c i s i o n s are made w i t h i n the community by i t s own members; v) r e c o g n i z e tha t peop le have the c a p a c i t y to manage t h e i r own a f f a i r s and u n d e r s t a n d the b e n e f i t s of work ing t o g e t h e r ; v i ) ensure democracy i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; v i i ) u n d e r s t a n d t h a t smal l l o c a l e f f o r t s are v i a b l e . The i d e a l community e n t e r p r i s e i s l o c a l in a l l r e s p e c t s , i . e . , owned and managed l o c a l l y , l o c a t e d i n i t s own community , p r o v i d e s w o r k - p a i d or v o l u n t a r y f o r l o c a l p e o p l e , uses l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s and s e r v e s l o c a l n e e d s ; v i i i ) ensure a b a l a n c e of s o c i a l and economic needs ; i x ) ensure t h a t l o c a l s e l f - r e l i a n c e i s a p r i o r i t y . For e x a m p l e , i t means p r o v i d i n g j o b s or s e r v i c e s , but wi th d e c r e a s i n g dependence on o u t s i d e s o u r c e s of g o o d s , s e r v i c e s and f u n d i n g ; and x) s i n c e CED i s l o n g - t e r m in o r i e n t a t i o n , ensure t h a t a s t r o n g ' b a s i s of u n i t y ' i s e s t a b l i s h e d which r e f l e c t s the g o a l s and p h i l o s o p h y of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , c o n s i s t e n c y , c l a r i t y and c o n t i n u i t y may be a c h i e v e d over t i m e . 68 2 . Ensure t h e r e i s : i ) a s o l i d base of l o c a l community s u p p o r t ; i i ) s k i l l e d l e a d e r s h i p ; i i i ) ( o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ) a b i l i t y to under take both b u s i n e s s development and the d e l i v e r y of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s ; i v ) a b i l i t y to work c o o p e r a t i v e l y w i t h / b u t i n d e p e n d e n t l y of government; v) c r e d i b i l i t y among the l o c a l b u s i n e s s community; v i ) a b i l i t y to genera te funds from a v a r i e t y of s o u r c e s ; v i i ) a b i l i t y to r e l a t e b u s i n e s s , s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c o n c e r n s ; and v i i i ) a b i l i t y to s t r u c t u r e and p lan a h e a d . 3 . Ensure r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n c l u d e : 9 i ) seed c a p i t a l to conduct needs and r e s o u r c e s t u d i e s and m a r k e t i n g and f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s of b u s i n e s s v e n t u r e s . O p e r a t i n g c a p i t a l to a s s i s t the o r g a n i z a t i o n to b u i l d a v i a b l e s t r u c t u r e to conduct a c t i v i t i e s wi th both p r o f i t and n o n - p r o f i t s e c t o r s . Investment c a p i t a l to l aunch or expand b u s i n e s s v e n t u r e s t h e m s e l v e s ; i i ) p r o v i s i o n of space and f a c i l i t i e s on l o w - c o s t , n o - c o s t or shared b a s i s ; i i i ) l o a n g u a r a n t e e s , i n t e r e s t s u b s i d i e s and o t h e r f i n a n c i a l advantages such as d e f e r r e d payments , l o a n s at f a v o u r a b l e i n t e r e s t r a t e s w i th advantageous i n t e r e s t p l a n s ; and 69 i v ) p r o v i s i o n o f , or a c c e s s t o , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , management and t r a i n i n g r e s o u r c e s and e x p e r t i s e . 4. B u i l d l o c a l c a p a c i t y in terms of s k i l l s , e x p e r t i s e and c a p i t a l so t h a t the community can begin to dea l wi th i t s own problems .10 T h i s l i s t i s not e x h a u s t i v e , but p r o v i d e s a good i n d i c a t i o n of the v a r i e d and numerous f a c t o r s r e q u i r e d f o r CED to be s u c c e s s f u l . I f women are to p a r t i c i p a t e in CED through CDC's or a n o t h e r type of s t r u c t u r e , c a p a c i t y l e v e l s , a c t i v i t i e s , r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s u c c e s s i n a d d i t i o n to the p o t e n t i a l of CED and the o b s t a c l e s f o r a c h i e v i n g t h i s p o t e n t i a l must be c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d . P o t e n t i a l a n d O b s t a c l e s There are many e s t a b l i s h e d and d e v e l o p i n g CED p r o j e c t s in t h i s c o u n t r y , but the l o n g - t e r m v i a b i l i t y has ye t to be d e t e r m i n e d . As a r e l a t i v e l y new s t r a t e g y b e i n g a p p l i e d to d i s a d v a n t a g e d groups and d e p r e s s e d communi t ies in Canada , i t i s a " t e n d e r f l o w e r " . T a b l e 10 i l l u s t r a t e s some examples of both the p o t e n t i a l of CED and o b s t a c l e s which l a y in the path of a c h i e v i n g s u c c e s s . I f o b s t a c l e s cannot be m i t i g a t e d or overcome e n t i r e l y , CED as a s t r a t e g y must be q u e s t i o n e d . Through an awareness o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s , the p r o b a b i l i t y of p l a n n i n g to a n t i c i p a t e and e f f e c t i v e l y dea l wi th them i s i n c r e a s e d . To approach CED n a i v e l y i s to c o u r t major d i f f i c u l t i e s and perhaps d i s a s t e r . 70 T a b l e 10 P o t e n t i a l a n d O b s t a c l e s f o r A c h i e v i n g CED P o t e n t i al 1. P r o f i t s g e n e r a t e d by community e n t e r p r i s e can suppor t n o n - p r o f i t programmes. 2 . L o n g - t e r m s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and community c o n t r o l over p r i o r i t y programmes. 3 . Communit ies can c o o r d i n a t e the d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s they requ i r e . 4 . Use of government f u n d i n g to c r e a t e permanent j o b s th rough CED p r o c e s s as opposed to temporary j o b s : permanent j o b s O b s t a c l e s High r i s k of new b u s i n e s s f a i l u r e e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e which are c r e a t e d to a c h i e v e both s o c i a l and economic g o a l s . Complex p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i a l env i ronment i n which CED o p e r a t e s c o n f l i c t i n g demands. D i f f i c u l t i e s o b t a i n a p p r o p r i a t e government s u p p o r t . Time l a g between i n i t i a l b u s i n e s s development and v i a b l e b e n e f i t s of n o n - p r o f i t programmes. R e - o r i e n t a t i o n o f what may be s p o n s o r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s top p r i o r i t y e . g . b u s i n e s s d e v e l o p m e n t , i n c r e a s i n g employment v e r s u s p r i o r i t y programmes. S e e d , inves tment and o p e r a t i n g c a p i t a l d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n . S c a r c i t y of e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and management s k i l l s in d i s a d v a n t a g e d and d e p r e s s e d c o m m u n i t i e s . Community needs may exceed r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . D i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t . May c r e a t e d e p e n d e n c y . 71 add 10% to the wage b i l l w h i l e temporary j o b s r e s u l t in net economic l o s s as l a r g e as 4 0 % . 1 1 5 . O f f e r s p o s s i b i l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y . 6 . Promotes c o - o p e r a t i o n . 7 . O p p o r t u n i t y f o r women to i n c r e a s e knowledge of b u s i n e s s development and management. 8. I n c r e a s e sense o f worth and w e l l - b e i n g amont p a r t i c i p a n t s 9 . Autonomy and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n c r e a s e s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s o c i a l c h a n g e , i . e . a c t i v i t i e s are not l i m i t e d as a r e s u l t of f u n d e r r e q u i r e m e n t s . Goals and o b j e c t i v e s may be c o - o p t e d . P s y c h o s o c i a l b a r r i e r s to e f f e c t i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n among i n d i v i d u a l s . Economic system s o c i a l i z e s towards i n d i v i d u a l i s m and c o m p e t i t i o n , and not towards c o l l e c t i v i s m and c o - o p e r a t i o n . S o c i a l i z a t i o n of sex ism r e i n f o r c e s i d e a t h a t women i n c a p a b l e of s u c c e e d i n g : l e a d s to s e l f - d o u b t and r e d u c t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t y . G iven the s c e n a r i o d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r a number of e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a may be d e v e l o p e d to de te rmine the r e l a t i v e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e of CED at the v a r i o u s c a p a c i t y and a c t i v i t y l e v e l s . The same c r i t e r i a may a l s o be used to gauge the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m i t i g a t i n g or overcoming a number of o b s t a c l e s . With the r e s u l t s of ongo ing e v a l u a t i o n s , the women's CDC may c e l e b r a t e t h e i r a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s , a l t e r t h e i r p r o c e s s a c c o r d i n g l y , seek a s s i s t a n c e , or abor t t h e i r e f f o r t s . 72 C r i t e r i a f o r E v a l u a t i o n For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a must be d e v e l o p e d from the f a c t o r s r e q u i r e d f o r CED s u c c e s s , and the g o a l s as s t a t e d t h r o u g h the s c e n a r i o d e v e l o p m e n t , namely: i ) i n c r e a s i n g employment f o r women; i i ) i n c r e a s i n g s u p p l y o f women's c r i s i s f a c i l i t i e s ; and i i i ) women's group s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . T a b l e 11 l i s t s some of the c r i t e r i a , many of which w i l l not be r e l e v a n t u n t i l c e r t a i n l e v e l s of c a p a c i t y have been a c h i e v e d . T a b l e 11 C r i t e r i a f o r E v a l u a t i o n 1. Are p r o f i t s f o r c o l l e c t i v e b e n e f i t ? 2 . Is c o n t r o l m a i n t a i n e d by the community? 3 . Is d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g done d e m o c r a t i c a l l y ? 4 . Is t h e r e a b a l a n c e between economic and s o c i a l needs? 5 . Has a g o a l s and p h i l o s o p h y s ta tement been c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d ? 6 . Is t h e r e s o l i d community s u p p o r t ? If n o t , why n o t , and i f s o , to what e x t e n t ? 7 . Is t h e r e s k i l l e d l e a d e r s h i p ? 8 . Have funds been genera ted from a v a r i e t y of s o u r c e s ? 9 . Has the CDC been a b l e to p lan ahead? 10 . Has a t e c h n i c a l suppor t system been d e v e l o p e d ? 11 . Has l o c a l c a p a c i t y in terms of s k i l l s , knowledge and c a p i t a l been improved? 12 . How many community b u s i n e s s e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d ? 13 . Are b u s i n e s s e s managed w e l l , e . g . has t h e r e been adherence to or v a r i a n c e from f i n a n c i a l p lan? 14. i ) How many j o b s have been c r e a t e d ? i i ) Are the wages r e a s o n a b l e ? i i i ) Is t h e r e a p o s i t i v e work env i ronment? 15 . Has the number of peop le i n v o l v e d in community a c t i v i t i e s i n c r e a s e d , d e c r e a s e d or remained the same? Why? 16. i ) How many t r a n s i t i o n houses have been d e v e l o p e d ? i i ) Are they f i n a n c i a l l y s t a b l e ? i i i ) How many women and c h i l d r e n have used the a v a i l a b l e s p a c e s ? 73 i v ) What s e r v i c e s have been o f f e r e d ? 1 7 . Is t h e r e good communicat ion between the CDC and s u b s i d i a r y p r o j e c t s and e n t e r p r i s e s ? 18 . How much revenue has been genera ted? 19. Have women i n v o l v e d i n c r e a s e d t h e i r knowledge of b u s i n e s s p r a c t i se? 20 . Are the b u s i n e s s e s e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y sound? 2 1 . Has s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y o c c u r r e d ? Why? 22 . "How f a r do t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s produce q u a l i t y peop le and t h e r e f o r e a b e t t e r s o c i e t y as wel l as one which mere ly manages to s u r v i v e e c o n o m i c a l l y " .12 2 3 . Has CED e f f o r t s i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l a c t i o n e f f o r t s ? How? 24 . Have s u p p o r t l i n k a g e s been formed wi th o t h e r communi t ies which share s i m i l a r g o a l s and p h i l o s o p h y ? E v a l u a t i o n A l l of Chapter 3 has been based on a t h e o r e t i c a l , a l b e i t r e a l i s t i c s c e n a r i o . The impor tance and u s e f u l n e s s of t h i s e x e r c i s e i s t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n tha t CED can be used as a s t r a t e g y to meet some of the employment and c r i s i s hous ing needs of women, i t can o n l y succeed under very p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I f women are to exper iment wi th t h i s s t r a t e g y , thorough p l a n n i n g must o c c u r w i t h i n a l o n g - t e r m development s t r a t e g y . CED i s not easy and p r o v i d e s no q u i c k - f i x s o l u t i o n to the economic and s o c i a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s a r t i c u l a t e d e a r l i e r . I f u t i l i z e d by c o n s i d e r i n g the model d e v e l o p m e n t , r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s u c c e s s , p o t e n t i a l , o b s t a c l e s and c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t the p r o b a b i l i t y , o f s u c c e s s w i l l i n c r e a s e . 74 C H A P T E R 3 ISee f o r example: Susan Wismer and David P e l l , Community P r o f i t . T o r o n t o : Is F i v e P r e s s , 1981. Employment and Immigrat ion C a n a d a / I n d i a n and Nor thern A f f a i r s C a n a d a , CED i n Rura l Canada: Handbook f o r P r a c t i t i o n e r s . Ot tawa: Supp ly and S e r v i c e s Canada , 1981. 2 A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y Women, "The Blue Book f o r A n a l y s i s and P l a n n i n g " , n . p . [ ' R e p r i n t f o r S o c i a l Work' 543 , U n i v e r s t i y of B . C . , 1984 ] . 3 S u s a n Wismer and David P e l l , Community P r o f i t , ( T o r o n t o : Is F i v e P r e s s , 1981 ) , p . 6 3 . 4 I b i d . , p. 6 6 . 5p . D . B r o d h e a d , M ichae l Dec to r and Ken S v e n s o n , Community - Based Deve lopment : A Development System f o r the 1 9 8 0 ' s , T e c h n i c a l S tudy 3, Labour Market Development Task F o r c e , (Ot tawa: C . E . I . C . , J u l y , 1981) , p. 5 9 . 61 b i d . , p . 34, ( m o d i f i e d e x t e n s i v e l y ) . 7 S u s a n Wismer and David P e l l , 1981, ( m o d i f i e d ) . 8G r e g o r y MacLeod, " C D C ' s : Theory and P r a c t i s e , C r i t e r e , 25 ( n . p . [ 1 9 7 9 ] ) , p. 184. 9 H i g h l a n d Resources L t d . , Community Based Economic Development in Canada , v o l . I and I I , ( H a l i f a x / S y d n e y , N . S . : n .p [ J u l y , 1 9 8 3 ) ) , p . 14. 1 0 P . D . B r o d h e a d , Michae l Dec to r and Ken S v e n s o n , 1981, Appendix p. 19. 11 Ib id . , p . 61 1 2 E r i c T r i s t , "New Dimensions of H o p e " , Human F u t u r e s , ( N . p . [Autumn, 1 9 7 9 ] ) , p. 9 . 75 C H A P T E R 4 C O N C L U S I O N S T h i s t h e s i s has c o n s i d e r e d the i d e a and p o t e n t i a l of community economic development to s a t i s f a c t o r i l y and e f f e c t i v e l y dea l wi th very s p e c i f i c problems e x p e r i e n c e d by women. Whether or not CED th rough community development c o r p o r a t i o n s or a n o t h e r s t r u c t u r e can i n c r e a s e employment and c r i s i s h o u s i n g f o r women i s not p r e c i s e l y known s i n c e i t has never been a t t e m p t e d . What i s known i s t h a t unemployment and v i o l e n c e i s i n c r e a s i n g , w h i l e s o l u t i o n s and r e s o u r c e s are l a c k i n g . CED may not be a p a n a c e a , but t h i s s t r a t e g y does p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y to a l l e v i a t e some of the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l and economic h a r d s h i p s e x p e r i e n c e d by women through a comprehens ive development p l a n . If thorough p l a n n i n g i s under taken wi th c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , c a p a c i t y l e v e l s and o t h e r f a c t o r s r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s , in a d d i t i o n to a r e a l i s t i c e x a m i n a t i o n o f the p o t e n t i a l and o b s t a c l e s f o r CED, good r e s u l t s may o c c u r . CED s h o u l d be approached both c a u t i o u s l y and e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y , f o r the u l t i m a t e goal of improv ing the q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r many women through t h i s community i n i t i a t e d and s u p p o r t e d economic and s o c i a l s t r a t e g y i s p o s s i b l e , but d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n . Indeed , as a comprehens ive development s t r a t e g y , CED 76 may p r o v i d e the means to e f f e c t i v e l y deal wi th the b roader complex o f d i s a d v a n t a g e s such as s o c i a l and economic d e p e n d e n c y , m a r g i n a l i z a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n by p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r independence and s o c i a l c h a n g e . Many communi t ies in B . C . and Canada have e s t a b l i s h e d or are d e v e l o p i n g p r o j e c t s . It i s my hope tha t women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l t ake up the c h a l l e n g e to t e s t the p o t e n t i a l of CED and c r e a t e employment and c r i s i s hous ing which thus f a r has been w o e f u l l y l a c k i n g . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e r e i s "no harm in dreaming wi th your f e e t on the g r o u n d " , but i t i s even b e t t e r to ac t to make dreams come t r u e . 77 B I B L I O G R A P H Y Adams, I k e . "Economic Deve lopment : What 's the P r o b l e m . " A n t i - t r u s t Law and Economic Review 13 ( 1 , 1981 ) : 9 3 - 1 0 2 . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n C o n s o r t i u m on Economic D i s l o c a t i o n . "Community I n i t i a t i v e s . " A B . C . C . E . D . D i g e s t 1 ( 1 , Summer 1985 ) . A l e x a n d e r , J u d i t h A . Equal Pay f o r Equal Work L e g i s l a t i o n i n  Canada: D i s c u s s i o n Paper #252. Ot tawa: Economic C o u n c i l of C a n a d a . [March 1984J . A l l e n , C a t h e r i n e . 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