UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Robert Herrick and the poetical book Gorelik, Peter 1985

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1985_A8 G67.pdf [ 6.08MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096481.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096481-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096481-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096481-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096481-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096481-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096481-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096481-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096481.ris

Full Text

R O B E R T H E R R I C K A N D T H E P O E T I C A L B O O K B y P E T E R G O R E L I K . A . , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 8 0 . A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S i n T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S ( D e p a r t m e n t o f E n g l i s h ) W e a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A A u g u s t , 1 9 8 5 ( c ) P e t e r G o r e l i k , 1 9 8 5 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of . . E N G L I S H The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A u g u s t 3 0 , 1 9 8 5 . i i ABSTRACT Robert H e r r i c k ' s complete works appeared i n one l a r g e volume of p o e t r y e n t i t l e d H e s p e r i d e s : or the Works b o t h Humane and  D i v i n e ( 1 6 4 8 ) . The number and range of H e r r i c k ' s poems are a s t o n i s h i n g . H e r r i c k ' s more than one thousand "humane" poems range i n s u b j e c t matter and verse form from the carpe diem l y r i c and p o l i t e compliment to m e d i t a t i o n s on death and i m m o r t a l i t y , from the s a t i r i c a l and m o r a l i s t i c epigram to the formal ode and e p i t h a l a -mium. A c r i t i c a l problem a r i s e s here: i s there any u n i t y among a l l t h i s d i v e r s i t y , or i s Hesperides j u s t a haphazard c o l l e c t i o n of l y r i c a l gems? H e r r i c k ' s s t a t u s as a poet and p l a c e i n E n g l i s h poetry depends very much on the answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n . T h i s s t u d y s e t s out t o demontrate t h a t H e s p e r i d e s i s a w e l l wrought p o e t i c a l book. H e r r i c k had behind him an a n c i e n t and w e l l - d e f i n e d t r a d i t i o n when he u n d e r t o o k the composition of Hesperides. Horace and the L a t i n e l e g i s t s provided him with c l a s s i c a l models of the p o e t i c a l book, while H e r r i c k ' s own master Ben Jonson e s t a b l i s h e d a precedent f o r the p o e t i c a l book i n E n g l i s h with The Fo r e s t and Epigrams. Indeed, the f a c t t h at the "Meta-p h y s i c a l s " Herbert, Crashaw and Vaughan composed p o e t i c a l books demonstrates that the t r a d i t i o n of the p o e t i c a l book transcends the f a m i l i a r dichotomy between "Metaphysical" and " C a v a l i e r . " H e r r i c k makes poetry and h i s book one of h i s major s u b j e c t s . He c a l l s h i s book, among other t h i n g s , an "expansive Firmament" and an "immensive Sphere" - metaphors which suggest that Hesperides was conceived as a microcosm which r e f l e c t s the d i v e r s i t y - i n - u n i t y i i i of the Renaissance world-view. H e r r i c k a l s o regards h i s book, as the poems on fame demonstrate, as a bulwark a g a i n s t m u t a b i l i t y and h i s p e r s o n a l guarantee of i m m o r t a l i t y . He i s thus not the s i n g e r of t r a n s i e n c e , as h i s popular image would have i t , but a poet who c e l e b r a t e s permanence and cosmic or d e r . H e s p e r i d e s i s s t r u c t u r e d a c c o r d i n g to a Neo-Platonic s c a l e of l o v e , which ascends step-by-step from profane to sacred l o v e . H e r r i c k ' s amatory i d e a l harmonizes profane and sacred love i n the paradox of " c l e a n l y - w a n t o n n e s s e . " H e r r i c k sees h i m s e l f as a p o e t - p r i e s t c e l e b r a t i n g a "Poetick L i t u r g i e " and performing the r i t e s of "Loves R e l i g i o n . " Many of h i s poems d i s p l a y a s u b t l e use of b i b l i c a l a l l u s i o n and l i t u r g i c a l symbolism. T h e r e f o r e , H e r r i c k ' s poems are not, as the t i t l e - p a g e of Hesperides suggests, e n t i r e l y "humane," but r a t h e r r e p r e s e n t a s y n t h e s i s of the "humane" and the " d i v i n e " i n a u n i f i e d world-view. H e r r i c k ' s a e s t h e t i c i d e a l o f " w i l d e c i v i l i t y , " l i k e h i s amatory i d e a l , b a l a n c e s freedom and d i s c i p l i n e . H e r r i c k sees h i m s e l f as b o t h an i n s p i r e d v a t e s , or " L y r i c k Prophet," and a r e s p o n s i b l e craftsman. His i d e a of decorum a l l o w s f o r s l i g h t d e v i a t i o n s i n syntax, rhythm and p h r a s i n g . T h e r e f o r e , h i s verses d i s p l a y g r e a t e r freedom and s u b t l e t y i n t h e i r design than Jonson's. H e r r i c k i s no s l a v e of h i s master Jonson, but has h i s own unique v o i c e and s e n s i b i l i t y . In c o n c l u s i o n , H e r r i c k should be ranked with Jonson, Donne and Herbert and not with the " C a v a l i e r s . " In f a c t , H e r r i c k i s not as f a r removed from H e r b e r t as i s u s u a l l y thought. T h i s i v t h e s i s , then, attempts a r e e v a l u a t i o n of H e r r i c k by t r e a t i n g Hesperides as a complex but u n i f i e d whole, a p o e t i c a l book, and by c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n to the "metaphysical" dimension of h i s v e r s e . V ACKNOWLEDGMENT A s p e c i a l debt of g r a t i t u d e i s due to my s u p e r v i s o r P r o f e s s o r Lee M. Johnson f o r h i s o u t s t a n d i n g guidance, encouragement and p a t i e n c e through every stage of the p r e p a r a t i o n and w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . v i TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgment v Chapter I. I n t r o d u c t i o n : Hesperides and the T r a d i t i o n of the P o e t i c a l Book 1 Chapter I I . Hesperides as Microcosm: H e r r i c k ' s Quest f o r Permanence . . 20 Chapter I I I . H e r r i c k ' s Amatory Verse: "Cleanly-Wantonnesse" and the S c a l e of Love 54 Chapter IV. H e r r i c k ' s P o e t i c s : the Beauty of "Wilde C i v i l i t y " 84 Notes 117 CHAPTER I Introduction: Hesperides and the Tradition of the P o e t i c a l Book R o b e r t H e r r i c k ' s p l a c e i n E n g l i s h poetry has long been a m a t t e r o f c o n s i d e r a b l e c r i t i c a l d e b a t e . 1 Forgotten f o r more than a century a f t e r h i s death, H e r r i c k was f i n a l l y r e d i s c o v e r e d at the t u r n of the nineteenth century. The c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of H e r r i c k d u r i n g that century i s not n o t a b l e f o r i t s c o n s i s -t e n c y . We f i n d him e i t h e r damned f o r h i s coarse epigrams and o c c a s i o n a l "lewdness," or l a v i s h e d with u n c r i t i c a l and f u l s o m e p r a i s e . Robert Southey, who i n 1831 was s c a n d a l i z e d by the r e c e n t r e p u b l i c a t i o n of the c o m p l e t e works, a t t a c k e d H e r r i c k as "a c o a r s e - m i n d e d and b e a s t l y w r i t e r , whose d u n g h i l l , when the few f l o w e r s t h a t grew t h e r e i n had been t r a n s p l a n t e d , ought never been d i s t u r b e d . " 2 Swinburne, on the other hand, h a i l e d H e r r i c k i n h i s rapturous p r e f a c e to P o l l a r d ' s e d i t i o n of The Hesperides & Noble  Numbers as "the g r e a t e s t song-writer - as s u r e l y as Shakespeare i s the g r e a t e s t d r a m a t i s t - ever born of E n g l i s h r a c e . "3 Nineteent h -c e n t u r y c r i t i c i s m , v a c i l l a t i n g between the p o l e s of o p i n i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by Southey and Swinburne, was never q u i t e able to decide whether H e r r i c k was gross or r e f i n e d , h i s v e r s e s c o n t r i v e d or s p o n t a n e o u s . But a l l commentators were unanimous about at l e a s t one t h i n g - H e r r i c k was e s s e n t i a l l y an elegant t r i f l e r who e x a l t e d form above c o n t e n t and wrote r a t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l , even t r i v i a l poems. He was "the i d l e s i n g e r of an empty day." The a n t h o l o g i s t s c u l l e d h i s few l y r i c a l f l o wers from the mass of h i s i n f e r i o r work, f i n d i n g i t necessary, on o c c a s i o n , to bowdlerize 1 them to avoi d o f f e n d i n g d e l i c a t e V i c t o r i a n t a s t e . 4 Even the most a p p r e c i a t i v e V i c t o r i a n c r i t i c s , w h i l e a d m i r i n g H e r r i c k ' s f i n e c r a f t s m a n s h i p and e x q u i s i t e l y r i c i s m , found h i s verses l a c k i n g the "high s e r i o u s n e s s " r e q u i s i t e f o r p o e t r y of the h i g h e s t o r d e r . H e r r i c k thus r e c e i v e d the somewhat dubious d i s t i n c t i o n of being r a t e d as the best of the " C a v a l i e r s . " H e r r i c k ' s r e p u t a t i o n as " t r i v i a l " and " c a v a l i e r " went v i r t u a l l y unchallenged u n t i l about the middle of t h i s c entury. C r i t i c s who n o t i c e d h i s preoccupation with death and decay began to q u e s t i o n the r e c e i v e d view of H e r r i c k as the c a r e f r e e s i n g e r of c o u n t r y j o y s , f l o w e r s and d a i n t y m i s t r e s s e s , h i s s t a t u s as "the l a s t E l i z a b e t h a n . " 5 A man who wrote a poem c a l l e d "His Winding-sheet", i n which he c e l e b r a t e s h i s b u r i a l shroud as the i n s p i r a t i o n of a l l t h a t he has w r i t t e n , c o u l d h a r d l y be judged " C a v a l i e r " or unconcerned with the darker aspects of human experience. But a f u l l e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of H e r r i c k ' s s e r i o u s n e s s had to await the New C r i t i c s , whose c l o s e a t t e n t i o n to t e x t s enabled them t o d e t e c t v e r b a l wit and s u b t l e a m b i g u i t i e s beneath the p o l i s h e d s u r f a c e s of h i s d e c e p t i v e l y s i m p l e v e r s e s . C l e a n t h Brooks' e s s a y 6 on "Corinna's going a Maying," to take a prime example, focused on H e r r i c k ' s s u b t l e h a n d l i n g of imagery, h i s complex interweaving of C h r i s t i a n and pagan themes, and the c o n f l i c t s , a m b i g u i t i e s and i r o n i e s of a poem o f t e n taken as a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d statement of the carpe diem theme. And Sydney Musgrove, i n a monograph with the c h a l l e n g i n g t i t l e The Universe of Robert H e r r i c k , ? demonstrated that H e r r i c k , no l e s s than M i l t o n , Donne and M a r v e l l , b e l o n g s 3 t o the m a i n s t r e a m C h r i s t i a n Humanist t r a d i t i o n of h i s a g e . Musgrove's c l o s e r e a d i n g s of s e v e r a l a p p a r e n t l y simple l y r i c s showed how they resonate with metaphysical overtones, and r e f l e c t the great Renaissance system of analogy and correspondence known to students of M i l t o n and Donne. Musgrove argued that H e r r i c k ' s work, f a r from being " t r i v i a l " or "pagan," r e p r e s e n t s i n f a c t a unique e x p r e s s i o n of the Renaissance world-view and i t s v i s i o n of c o s m i c o r d e r . E v i d e n t l y , e a r l i e r c r i t i c s had read H e r r i c k f a r too simply, i g n o r i n g h i s complex s e n s i b i l i t y and a r t i s t r y as w e l l as the h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l context of h i s work. Recent c r i t i c i s m has continued to view H e r r i c k as a " s e r i o u s " poet, s t r e s s i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r the importance of ceremony and a r t i n H e s p e r i d e s . 8 Yet i t s t i l l cannot be s a i d that H e r r i c k has been f u l l y r e h a b i l i t a t e d , or that h i s p l a c e i n E n g l i s h poetry has been at a l l adequately d e f i n e d . When The New P e l i c a n Guide to  E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e j u d g e s him as o v e r r a t e d and as "a poet of c h a r m i n g l y f a n c i f u l but s i m p l e s e n s i b i l i t y , " 9 one must wonder whether H e r r i c k ' s u n f o r t u n a t e r e p u t a t i o n as the b e s t of the " C a v a l i e r s " has been f i n a l l y e x o r c i z e d and put to r e s t . The o l d V i c t o r i a n view i s no doubt perpetuated i n a n t h o l o g i e s and c l a s s -rooms. But even those c r i t i c s who t r e a t H e r r i c k as a s e r i o u s and important poet are i n sharp disagreement, i f not u n c e r t a i n t y , about h i s s t a t u s as a l i t e r a r y f i g u r e - i s he to be ranked with Donne, H e r b e r t and h i s master Jonson, or i s he u l t i m a t e l y a s u p e r i o r L o v e l a c e or s u p e r - r e f i n e d Rochester? What e x a c t l y were h i s i n t e n t i o n s i n composing Hesperides, and by what standards i s 4 h i s achievement to be judged? No consensus has been reached on these q u e s t i o n s , and very few attempts have been made i n recent years to t a c k l e them. H e r r i c k s t u d i e s have c l e a r l y reached the stage where a f r e s h look at h i s work i s demanded and a r e e v a l u a t i o n of h i s t o t a l achievement warranted. Perhaps the key c r i t i c a l problem concerns H e r r i c k ' s i n t e n t i o n s i n composing Hesperides. Did he i n t e n d h i s work to be no more than a c o l l e c t i o n of s h o r t poems i n v a r i o u s genres, a p o e t i c a l m i s c e l l a n y , or d i d he s e t out to compose a c o h e r e n t and w e l l -o r g a n i z e d book? The New C r i t i c i s m , w i t h i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s r e g a r d f o r the l a r g e r context of s h o r t poems, r a r e l y addressed t h i s q u e s t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s e v e r a l attempts have been made to s o l v e the problem, none with much success. But before we review the main t h e o r i e s advanced f o r or a g a i n s t the u n i t y of Hesperides, i t must be emphasized that H e r r i c k ' s s t a t u s as a poet depends very much on whether or not we view Hesperides as a u n i f i e d work. I f H e r r i c k composed h i s book without regard to the arrangement of h i s poems, then he can be admired as an e x q u i s i t e m i n i a t u r i s t who can be best a p p r e c i a t e d by h i s f i n e s t l y r i c a l gems. In t h i s c a s e , even H e r r i c k ' s g r e a t e s t admirers would h a r d l y c l a i m the s t a t u s "major" f o r him. I f , on the other hand, H e r r i c k intended H e s p e r i d e s as a u n i f i e d work, w i t h i n d i v i d u a l poems arranged a c c o r d i n g to a formal or conceptual scheme, then a case f o r h i s s t a t u s as a "major" poet can be made. Of c o u r s e , the terms "major" and "minor" are n o t o r i o u s l y d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e , which does not prevent them, however, from being u s e f u l and widely-used l a b e l s . T.S. E l i o t , i n an i n f l u e n t i a l essay e n t i t l e d "What i s Minor P o e t r y ? " 1 0 attempted to e s t a b l i s h a c r i t i c a l touchstone by which a poet's work might be judged "major" or "minor". E l i o t was w i l l i n g to c o n s i d e r any poet "major" who e i t h e r wrote a f i r s t - r a t e long poem, such as Samuel Johnson's V a n i t y of Human Wishes, or "a number of s h o r t poems" which taken together "has a u n i t y of u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n . " 1 1 George Herbert, a c c o r d i n g to E l i o t ' s c r i t e r i o n , i s w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n a "major" poet, s i n c e "The Temple i s something more than a number of r e l i g i o u s poems by one author: i t was, as the t i t l e i s meant to imply, a book c o n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o a p l a n ... [a book] which i s more than the sum of i t s p a r t s . " 1 2 I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, H e r r i c k appears i n E l i o t ' s essay as the exemplar of the "minor" poet and as a f o i l to the "major" Herbert. E l i o t found that Hesperides d i s p l a y s "no such c o n t i n u o u s c o n s c i o u s p u r p o s e " as does The  Temple. E l i o t ' s standards of e v a l u a t i o n here are sound, but h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of H e s p e r i d e s as a haphazard c o l l e c t i o n of poems i s c e r t a i n l y open to debate. I t can be argued that l i k e Herbert, H e r r i c k had a "continuous c o n s c i o u s p u r p o s e " b e h i n d h i s book; that both poets sought, i n d i f f e r e n t modes, to c o n s t r u c t books i n which the whole i s "more than the sum of i t s p a r t s . " S e v e r a l t h e o r i e s have been advanced t o a c c o u n t f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of Hesperides. The f i r s t such theory, p o s i t e d by Edward Hale i n 1892, and r e a f f i r m e d by F l o r i s D e l a t t r e i n 1911 and L.C. M a r t i n i n h i s 1956 e d i t i o n of the complete works, views Hesperides as r e f l e c t i n g a kind of c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r i n g : H e r r i c k 6 wrote the e a r l i e r poems i n h i s y o u t h , the l a t t e r ones i n h i s maturity.13 T h i s approach n a t u r a l l y encouraged s p e c u l a t i o n about H e r r i c k ' s p o e t i c development as i t can be f o l l o w e d i n the arrangement of h i s poems. L.C. M a r t i n , f o r example, argued that the poems i n the f i r s t h a l f of the volume r e f l e c t the heavy i n f l u e n c e of Horace and O v i d , but t h a t as H e r r i c k matured he moved to the t e r s e r s t y l e of M a r t i a l and T a c i t u s . I 4 The f a c t i s , however, that t e r s e epigrams appear throughout Hesperides and the i n f l u e n c e of Horace i s a l l - p e r v a s i v e . Moreover, there i s no s i g n i n Hesperides of the e v o l u t i o n from a l e s s to more mature p o e t i c s t y l e ; one i s s t r u c k , r a t h e r , by the c o n s i s t e n t e x c e l l e n c e of the poems. H e r r i c k ' s s t y l e , d e s p i t e the great d i v e r s i t y of h i s verse forms and themes, remained remarkably uniform throughout h i s c a r e e r of t h i r t y odd y e a r s . The most s e r i o u s f l a w i n t h i s approach i s the attempt to c o n s t r u c t H e r r i c k ' s biography from the supposed c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r i n g of the volume. According to t h i s view, Hesperides i s a k i n d of p o e t i c d i a r y , r e f l e c t i n g H e r r i c k ' s l i f e f i r s t as a young Son of Ben i n the t a v e r n s of London, then as an aging A n g l i c a n p r i e s t i n the c o u n t r y s i d e , and f i n a l l y as an embittered and d i s p o s s e s s e d l o y a l i s t d u r i n g the Commonwealth p e r i o d . But H e s p e r i d e s i s not a u t o b i o g r a p h y : the e a r l i e r c r i t i c s ignored the important d i s t i n c t i o n between the poet as a persona and the poet as a man, something much c l e a r e r i n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p o e t r y t han i n modern v e r s e . The t h e o r y of the c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r i n g of H e s p e r i d e s , which o n l y l e a d s t o misreadings, can s a f e l y be d i s c a r d e d . I t i s based on s c a n t t e x t u a l e v i d e n c e , and a r g u e s f o r an e x t e r n a l and a r t i f i c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the volume which the c r i t i c h i m s e l f imposes on what appears to him as a haphazard c o l l e c t i o n of poems. I t i s perhaps not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the e a r l i e r c r i t i c i s m viewed Hesperides as a k i n d of p o e t i c a l hodgepodge. The volume at f i r s t s i g h t appears much more remarkable f o r i t s v a r i e t y than f o r any formal u n i t y i t might have. We f i n d i n Hesperides v i r t u a l l y every minor c l a s s i c a l verse form, ranging from s a t i r i c a l epigrams and a n a c r e o n t i c d r i n k i n g songs to formal odes and e p i t h a l a m i a ; we f i n d s t r i k i n g m e t r i c a l d i v e r s i t y , as evidenced by iambic monometer poems and l y r i c s w r i t t e n i n the most complex p o e t i c a l t e x t u r e , combining epicurean, s t o i c , C h r i s t i a n and f o l k l o r i c themes and i d e a s . What, then, does one make of the arrangement (or apparent d i s a r r a y ) of the poems, where one f i n d s a coarse epigram o f t e n f o l l o w e d by a d e l i c a t e l o v e l y r i c , or a f a i r y poem on Mab by a c l a s s i c a l carpe diem l y r i c ? Add to t h i s the sheer dimension of Hesperides (1130 poems i n a l l ) , and one may w e l l understand the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n t r y i n g to d i s c o v e r the u n i t y of the volume. Many r e a d e r s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s a method to t h i s apparent madness, and that H e r r i c k took some c a r e o v e r the arrangement of h i s poems. They p o i n t out that H e r r i c k s t r a t e -g i c a l l y p l a c e s h i s coarse epigrams so as to a v o i d c l o y i n g m e l l i -f l u e n c e , t h a t he a r t f u l l y a l t e r n a t e s the c y n i c a l and the s e r i o u s , the e r o t i c and the chaste i n order to r e f l e c t h i s i d e a l of balanced 8 m o d e r a t i o n and "cleanly-wantonnesse."*5 A f t e r a l l , Renaissance a e s t h e t i c s allows f o r a d i s c o r d i a concors, an ordered d i s o r d e r , something which must have appealed to H e r r i c k with h i s t a s t e f o r "sweet d i s o r d e r " and "wilde c i v i l i t y , " phrases which suggest the a r t which conceals a r t . Obviously, H e r r i c k would not have been a b l e to c r e a t e an ordered d i s o r d e r i n h i s book, or make s u b t l e l i n k s among poems, i f he had arranged h i s poems i n a t h e m a t i c sequence o r a c c o r d i n g to some other formula. The argument f o r the p l e a s i n g d i s o r d e r of Hesperides, d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t those who c h a r a c t e r i z e i t as a formless work, i s v a l i d as f a r as i t goes; i t does n o t , however, t o u c h upon more g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s of o r d e r i n g , nor can i t by i t s e l f account f o r the u n i t y of the volume. That u n i t y i s to be found, i t has been argued, i n H e r r i c k ' s c o n c e p t i o n of h i m s e l f as a poet, i n h i s l i t e r a r y persona. Roger B. R o l l i n , i n h i s book-length study of H e r r i c k , f i n d s the u n i t y of Hesperides " c r y s t a l l i z e d i n H e r r i c k ' s conception of h i m s e l f as a p a s t o r a l poet and i n h i s c r e a t i o n of a p a s t o r a l world, a 'Sacred  Grove.'"16 H e r r i c k then uses t h i s i d e a l " p a s t o r a l world" as an o v e r t or c o v e r t c r i t i c i s m of "the r e a l world."-'-? But p a s t o r a l poems, although important i n Hesperides, make up o n l y a p a r t of the volume. H e r r i c k c o u l d , f o r example, j u s t as e a s i l y be c a l l e d a " s o c i a l poet" f o r h i s numerous epigrams of p r a i s e . Moreover, R o l l i n has i n mind something more l i k e a u n i t y of " v i s i o n " than the u n i t y of a l i t e r a r y t e x t ; t h e r e f o r e , h i s theory does l i t t l e to e l u c i d a t e the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the book. But R o l l i n ' s i n s t i n c t that Hesperides i s something more than the sum of i t s p a r t s , and should be read as a whole, c e r t a i n l y d e s e r v e s a t t e n t i o n ; h i s approach i s more l i k e l y to y i e l d v a l u a b l e c r i t i c a l r e s u l t s than the o l d e r approach which views Hesperides as a d i s o r d e r l y c o l l e c t i o n of m i n i a t u r e s . John L. Kimney, too, argues t h a t the u n i t y of Hesperides i s based on H e r r i c k ' s poet-persona, whose aging, growth i n wisdom and s o b r i e t y and death p r o v i d e the u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n of the volume.18 The poet-persona c e l e b r a t e s wine, women and song i n the e a r l i e r poems; but as he ages and r e f l e c t s on the ravages of time, he adopts the pose of a p h i l o s o p h e r and prepares f o r h i s death and the i m m o r t a l i t y of h i s p o e t r y . Corresponding to t h i s s h i f t to more s e r i o u s s u b j e c t matter i s a change i n p r e f e r r e d verse forms: around the m i d d l e of the volume we f i n d a "movement from the l y r i c a l to the h o m i l e t i c , from the song to the epigram."19 T h i s theory i s s u p e r i o r to R o l l i n ' s , s i n c e i t p o s i t s a s t r u c t u r a l p l a n f o r Hesperides and attempts to account f o r the g e n e r a l l a y o u t of the poems. I t a l s o makes the c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between H e r r i c k and h i s poet-persona, which the e a r l i e r c r i t i c s d i d not, and t h e r e f o r e does not f a l l i n t o the e r r o r of viewing Hesperides as concealed autobiography. But Kimney focuses too narrowly on the poet-persona as the major o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e of the book, and ignores the s u b t l e i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s among poems. No one, f o r example, would say t h a t the u n i t y of The Temple i s based on Herbert's poet-persona; h i s book d i s p l a y s much deeper and more g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s of o r d e r i n g than t h a t . S i m i l a r l y , we do H e r r i c k l e s s than j u s t i c e i f we t r y to d i s c o v e r the u n i t y of h i s 10 book i n some simple formula based on a s e l e c t i v e r e a d i n g of h i s poems. The few t h e o r i e s advanced f o r the u n i t y of Hesperides s u f f e r from these s h o r t c o m i n g s . What i s needed i s a g e n e r a l c o n c e p t i o n which w i l l e x p l a i n the u n i t y - i n - d i v e r s i t y of Hesperides, one t h a t takes account of a l l h i s poems. Did H e r r i c k have a plan when he set out to compose h i s book, and i f so, where d i d he get i t ? What ki n d of models and precedents might he have had of coherent and w e l l - o r g a n i z e d books of sh o r t poems? What was H e r r i c k ' s r e l a t i o n to the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n ? The w e l l - o r g a n i z e d poetry book, i n f a c t , was an e s t a b l i s h e d way of w r i t i n g i n c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y , as recent s t u d i e s have demon-s t r a t e d . 2 ^ We can expect that H e r r i c k , immersed as he was i n the c l a s s i c s , would have regarded the a n c i e n t poetry book as a model f o r h i s own work. H e r r i c k c r i t i c i s m i s s i l e n t about t h i s t r a d i t i o n of the c l a s s i c a l poetry book, and u n f o r t u n a t e l y has a r a t h e r l i m i t e d view of H e r r i c k ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n g e n e r a l , f o c u s s i n g too narrowly on h i s borrowings from the L a t i n poets. But t h i s approach, with a l l i t s shortcomings, has demon-s t r a t e d that H e r r i c k was i n t i m a t e l y acquainted with the c l a s s i c s , b e i n g e s p e c i a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by Horace and the Roman e l e g i s t s , without, however, s l a v i s h l y i m i t a t i n g them, but r a t h e r weaving t h e i r themes, s i t u a t i o n s and l i n e s i n t o h i s own unique p o e t i c s t a t e m e n t s . 21 In a d d i t i o n , H e r r i c k o f t e n interweaves B i b l i c a l a l l u s i o n and E n g l i s h f o l k l o r e with c l a s s i c a l m a t e r i a l , which g i v e s h i s "smooth" s u r f a c e s a very complex t e x t u r e . But such s t u d i e s do 11 l i t t l e to i l l u m i n a t e H e r r i c k ' s p l a c e i n the Western p o e t i c t r a d i -t i o n . C l e a r l y , H e r r i c k ' s " c l a s s i c i s m " cannot be d e f i n e d o n l y by h i s use of c l a s s i c a l q u o t a t i o n and a l l u s i o n , or by h i s treatment of the c a r p e diem l y r i c or Roman b u r i a l poem. I t s essence i s r a t h e r to be found i n the major a r t i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s which inform h i s work, i n h i s p o e t i c s . The proper p l a c e to begin the study of the q u e s t i o n of the u n i t y of Hesperides, i t s form and o r g a n i z a t i o n , i s f i r s t to examine the nature of the c l a s s i c a l poetry book, then to d e t e r m i n e whether s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e f u r n i s h e s examples of t h i s genre other than Hesperides• F o r t u n a t e l y , c l a s s i c i s t s have r e c e n t l y r e d i s c o v e r e d the t r a d i t i o n of the an c i e n t p o e t i c a l book, and have d e s c r i b e d i t s main f e a t u r e s and conventions. The w e l l - o r g a n i z e d p o e t i c a l book was a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d form i n L a t i n poetry: V i r g i l ' s Eclogues, H o r a c e ' s Odes, C a t u l l u s ' Carmina, and the works of the e l e g i a c poets a r e a l l examples of w e l l wrought p o e t i c a l books. The a n c i e n t Greek p o e t s appear to have been the c r e a t o r s of the p o e t i c a l book; at any r a t e , c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p has demonstrated t h a t the Romans r e c e i v e d the t r a d i t i o n from the A l e x a n d r i a n poets. John Van S i c k l e , i n h i s p i o n e e r i n g study of the conventions of the a n c i e n t p o e t i c a l book, has shown how these conventions were d e r i v e d i n l a r g e p a r t from the p h y s i c a l nature of the an c i e n t b o o k - r o l l . 2 2 The p h y s i c a l format of the b o o k - r o l l , r e q u i r i n g the reader g r a d u a l l y to u n f o l d the t e x t with h i s r i g h t hand w h i l e c l o s i n g what he has a l r e a d y read with h i s l e f t , made i t v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o s k i p back and f o r t h t h r o u g h o u t the book. The 12 reader would r a t h e r make a s e q u e n t i a l r e a d i n g , from beginning to end, w h i l e n o t i c i n g the l i n k s , c o n t r a s t s and framing of poems w i t h i n the book. Moreover, the s i z e of the book as w e l l as the l e n g t h of i n d i v i d u a l poems were p a r t l y determined by convenience of r e a d i n g and the format of the b o o k - r o l l . The H e l l e n i s t i c e d i t o r s of the Homeric books, f o r example, d i v i d e d them i n t o twenty-four books each, w i t h the a v e r a g e l e n g t h of a book a t 500/650 l i n e s . T h i s e d i t o r i a l work, as w e l l as the o l d e r A l e x a n d r i a n l i n e p r e f e r e n c e of 1000/2000 l i n e s , had a momentous i n f l u e n c e on l a t e r poets. C o l l e c t i o n s of s h o r t poems always made up a p o e t i c ensemble and were d i s t i n g u i s h e d by s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t e r n a l o r d e r i n g . In o t h e r words, such c o l l e c t i o n s , however random t h e i r arrangement might at f i r s t appear, were c a r e f u l l y planned works. E.J. Kenney, f o r i n s t a n c e , argues that " C a t u l l u s ' L e s b i a poems, even though d i s t r i b u t e d through the corpus i n an a p p a r e n t l y random o r d e r , make such a marked impression, as a group, on most readers ... t h a t they alone s u f f i c e to e x p l a i n the genesis of the i d e a of a planned c y c l e of poems c e n t e r i n g on a s i n g l e woman."23 Kenney's c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t " f o r the L a t i n p o e t , the p l a n n e d c o l l e c t i o n of s h o r t poems w i t h a t o t a l 'message' was a l r e a d y an accepted and w e l l u n d e r s t o o d form."24 Indeed, the conventions and p r i n c i p l e s of o r d e r i n g of the p o e t i c a l book were f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d by good readers i n the Augustan Age; poet and reader thus shared a common ground. As Van S i c k l e puts i t : "Good readers, i n p a r t prepared by A l e x a n d r i a n example and the experiments of o l d e r f r i e n d s , i n 13 p a r t no doubt i n t r i g u e d by the n o v e l t y of new work, would respond to s e q u e n t i a l v a r i a t i o n , enjoy the p l a y of c o n t r a s t i n r e t u r n of theme, admire a f e l i c i t o u s change, sense the import of p o s i t i o n i n g - p r o x i m i t i e s and d e f e r r a l s , b e g i n n i n g s , a r t i c u l a t i o n s , ends. Such conventions of the b o o k - r o l l would be an u n s t a t e d p r e m i s e f o r both readers and w r i t e r . " 2 5 A l l of t h i s can be h i g h l y r e l e v a n t f o r seventeenth-century poetry, i f i t can be shown t h a t the R e n a i s s a n c e r e c o v e r y of c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n c l u d e d a l s o a r e d i s c o v e r y of the c l a s s i c a l p o e t i c a l book. S i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l i t e r a t u r e shows nothing comparable to the c l a s s i c a l p o e t i c a l book: p o e t i c a l m i s c e l l a n i e s and sonnet sequences abound, but the w e l l - o r g a n i z e d c o l l e c t i o n of s h o r t poems seems not to have been an e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n d u r i n g the e a r l i e r Renaissance. Ben Jonson, with h i s crusade to set E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e on a s o l i d c l a s s i c a l b a s i s , appears to have been the f i r s t to recover the t r a d i t i o n of the c l a s s i c a l p o e t i c a l book f o r E n g l i s h p o e t r y . The recent c r i t i c a l r e v i v a l of Jonson i s beginning to g i v e equal time to the non-dramatic poetry, f i n d i n g that i t s i n f l u e n c e on s u b s e q u e n t s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p o e t r y was much g r e a t e r than f o r m e r l y t h o u g h t . 2 ^ Richard C. Newton has argued that Jonson took great care i n a r r a n g i n g h i s works i n t o a d e f i n i t i v e canon: he was the f i r s t author i n E n g l i s h to e s t a b l i s h the n o t i o n of a " c l a s s i c t e x t " , a t e x t which i s s t a n d a r d i z e d and c l o s e d , u n l i k e the incomplete, or open, t e x t s of the s i x t e e n t h century which o f t e n e x i s t i n s e v e r a l v e r s i o n s . 2 7 Ben Jonson's example, 14 i n t h i s as i n so many other ways, was to have a profound impact on E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e and i t s subsequent development. Jonson's non-dramatic books of poetry, The F o r e s t , Underwoods and E pigrams are now r e c e i v i n g a t t e n t i o n as w e l l - o r g a n i z e d and coherent books. The F o r e s t , to which Jonson h i m s e l f gave a foremost p l a c e i n h i s canon, i s c e r t a i n l y Jonson's best work of non-dramatic poetry, e s p e c i a l l y when i t i s c o n s i d e r e d as a "book" r a t h e r than a m i s c e l l a n y . A l a s t a i r Fowler has c o n v i n c i n g l y argued that The  F o r e s t , f a r from being what the e a r l i e r c r i t i c s c a l l e d a m i s c e l l a n y , i s i n f a c t a w e l l wrought book of poetry which must be read as a u n i f i e d whole. 2** Fowler argues t h a t a s c a l e of l o v e frames the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of volume - the sequence begins with a p a l i n o d e renouncing the e a r t h l y l o v e of Cupid, and ends with a poem addressed "To Heaven." T h i s ascent to heaven, however, i s f r a u g h t w i t h m a n i f o l d temptations and o b s t a c l e s . The songs, f o r example, are e x p r e s s i o n s of the v a r i o u s degrees of l u s t , from the c o a r s e to the r e f i n e d , which are o n l y overcome by the chaste l o v e c e l e b r a t e d i n F o r e s t 11. Furthermore, Fowler notes that "many of the poems are i n f a c t connected by themes of r e t i r e m e n t and r e l i g i o u s a s p i r a -t i o n . "29 The c o u n t r y - e s t a t e poems, f o r example, c e l e b r a t e the v i r t u e s of country l i f e as opposed to the v i c e s of the c o u r t and c i t y , thereby p r e p a r i n g the way f o r a more d i r e c t condemnation of the world i n F o r e s t 4, "To the World: A F a r e w e l l f o r a Gentleman, V i r t u o u s and Noble." The climax of the volume i s , of course, "To Heaven," which has as i t s s u b j e c t the l o v e of God. T h i s i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of an a s c e n t , a c c o r d i n g to Fowler, i s matched by an 15 e x t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e : f o r " f i f t e e n (the number of poems) c o n v e n t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i e d a s c e n t to heaven."30 The F o r e s t , then, d e s p i t e i t s v a r i e t y of matter and a p p a r e n t l y m i s c e l l a n e o u s arrangement, i s a v e r y c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d and w e l l - e x e c u t e d p o e t i c ensemble, the f i r s t work of i t s k i n d i n E n g l i s h p o e t r y . But Fowler's essay i s marred by a s e r i o u s flaw. Instead of viewing The F o r e s t as belonging to the t r a d i t i o n of the p o e t i c a l book, he p l a c e s i t w i t h i n the s i l v a t r a d i t i o n . S u r e l y t h i s m i n i m i z e s J o n s o n ' s a c h i e v e m e n t , s i n c e the s i l v a was a r a t h e r minor genre both i n c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y and the R e n a i s s a n c e . According to Renaissance genre theory, the s i l v a i s "a c o l l e c t i o n form, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by v a r i e t y , " 3 1 w r i t t e n i n a p l a i n s t y l e and u s u a l l y c o n s i s t i n g of o c c a s i o n a l poems. S t a t i u s ' S i l v a e , a c c o r d i n g to Fowler, was the major c l a s s i c a l model f o r the R e n a i s s a n c e . But The F o r e s t s h o u l d be p l a c e d a l o n g s i d e the great p o e t i c a l books of the Augustan Age, r a t h e r than compared with S t a t i u s ' S i l v a e . Even though The F o r e s t d i s p l a y s mixed genres, u n l i k e such one-genre c o l l e c t i o n s as Horace's Odes or M a r t i a l ' s Epigrams, i t s t i l l shares a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s of the a n c i e n t poetry book: i t s poems a r e w e l l - o r g a n i z e d , bound by numerous l i n k s , balances and a n t i t h e s e s , and arranged i n accordance with a general formal scheme. The a n c i e n t poetry book was by no means always a one-genre c o l l e c t i o n : most of the H e l l e n i s t i c poetry books, f o r example, were mixed c o l l e c t i o n s . Moreover, the crowded l i s t s and d i v e r s e m a t e r i a l i n the poems of The F o r e s t which Fowler f i n d s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s i l v a form are not i n c l u d e d simply f o r the 16 sake of v a r i e t y or d i v e r s i t y . The l i s t s i n the country e s t a t e poems, f o r example, are ordered a c c o r d i n g to a s c a l e of C r e a t i o n . Fowler's approach i s f r e s h and pathbreaking. But he would have made a f a r b e t t e r c a s e i f he had argued that The F o r e s t i s a p o e t i c a l book, comparable to the g r e a t examples of a n t i q u i t y , r a t h e r than p a r t of a minor and somewhat vague s i l v a t r a d i t i o n . Ben Jonson, then, e s t a b l i s h e d the t r a d i t i o n of the p o e t i c a l book f o r seventeenth-century E n g l i s h poetry. The example of h i s non-dramatic books of poetry, i t i s worth n o t i n g , extended beyond h i s own s c h o o l , i n f l u e n c i n g "metaphysical" poets who are u s u a l l y opposed to the "Sons of Ben." Vaughan, Crashaw and H e r b e r t , "metaphysical" and r e l i g i o u s poets, a l l wrote p o e t i c a l books. The Temple, of course, i s the most outst a n d i n g example among the " M e t a p h y s i c a l s , " and has l o n g been r e g a r d e d as a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d and u n i f i e d work.32 Indeed, the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of The Temple bears comparison with The F o r e s t , f o r both works have as t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n an ascent to heaven. T h i s s t r u c t u r e i s even more obvious i n The Temple than i n The F o r e s t , not l e a s t of a l l because Jonson i s u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a n o n - r e l i g i o u s p o e t . Herbert begins h i s work with a long d i d a c t i c poem, "The Church-Porch," which c o n t a i n s numerous adages of p r a c t i c a l wisdom, many of them c l a s s i c a l commonplaces; i t ends, however, with the d i v i n e wisdom of "Love ( I I I ) " and "The Church M i l i t a n t . " C o r r e s -ponding to Jonson's p a l i n o d e s on Cupid are Herbert's r e n u n c i a t i o n s of e a r t h l y love found, f o r example, i n the sonnets "Love ( I ) " and "Love ( I I ) . " Both works a l s o move from a p u b l i c and d i d a c t i c 17 domain to a more i n t i m a t e and p e r s o n a l mode. Many of Herbert's poems are l i n k e d by a t y p o l o g i c a l frame of r e f e r e n c e : l a t e r poems o f t e n f u l f i l l t h e i r e a r l i e r t y p e s . In a s i m i l a r manner, the e a r l i e r poems of The F o r e s t , such as F o r e s t 1, p r e f i g u r e the chaste and d i v i n e love which i s to be c e l e b r a t e d l a t e r . A l o n g with l i n e a r s c a l e s , both works a l s o d i s p l a y c i r c u l a r , or c h i a s t i c , schemes of o r g a n i z a t i o n . For example, the country e s t a t e s poems ( F o r e s t 2 & 3) c l e a r l y balance the long e p i s t l e s addressed to noblemen ( F o r e s t 12 & 13): both groups are w r i t t e n i n the same verse form (iambic pentameter c o u p l e t s ) and c e l e b r a t e the v i r t u e s of model a r i s t o c r a t s . S i m i l a r framings and c a l c u l a t e d d i s c o n -t i n u i t i e s are to be found i n The Temple: the two massive d i d a c t i c poems framing The Church are obvious i n s t a n c e s , as i s the s t r a t e g i c s p a c i n g of the poems on e a r t h l y and d i v i n e l o v e , "Love ( I ) , " "Love ( I I ) " and "Love ( I I I ) . " A l l of t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t the p o e t i c a l book, a c l a s s i c a l i d e a , was shared by the competing s c h o o l s i n seventeenth-century E n g l i s h p o e t r y which were l a t e r to be l a b e l l e d " C a v a l i e r " and " M e t a p h y s i c a l " . Indeed, Herbert's Temple i s i n many ways more l i k e Hesperides than The F o r e s t . The t r a d i t i o n of the well-arranged c o l l e c t i o n of s h o r t poems - the p o e t i c a l book - thus c u t s a c r o s s the f a m i l i a r d i s t i n c t i o n between "Metaphysical" and " C a v a l i e r . " H e r r i c k , t h e r e f o r e , had numerous precedents both i n a n t i q u i t y and i n h i s own age when he set out to compose a volume of sh o r t poems. And given the f a c t that H e r r i c k i s u n i v e r s a l l y acknowledged as the prime Son of Ben, i t i s w e l l - n i g h i m p o s s i b l e that he would 18 have n e g l e c t e d h i s m a s t e r ' s example by composing a p o e t i c a l m i s c e l l a n y . In absence of evidence to the c o n t r a r y , i t i s reasonable to argue that Hesperides should be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n of the p o e t i c a l book. To sum up: Hesperides i s not a p o e t i c a l m i s c e l l a n y , as e a r l i e r c r i t i c s m e r e l y assumed, but a coherent and u n i f i e d work. The c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p which has recovered the t r a d i t i o n of the p o e t i c a l book g i v e s us a convenient framework i n which to examine the q u e s t i o n of the u n i t y of the volume and the arrangement of i t s poems. H e r r i c k c r i t i c i s m has had nothing to say about t h i s t r a d i t i o n ; moreover, i t s t h e o r i e s of the u n i t y of Hesperides are a l l flawed i n one way or another. The frequent d e n i g r a t i o n of H e r r i c k as a "minor" and " t r i v i a l " poet, a superb s i n g e r who had nothing s e r i o u s to say, can e a s i l y be r e f u t e d by p l a c i n g Hesperides i n the t r a d i t i o n of the p o e t i c a l book, a t r a d i t i o n which i n c l u d e s , among o t h e r m a s t e r p i e c e s , H o r a c e ' s Odes and Ben Jonson's The  F o r e s t . A case can thus be made f o r ranking H e r r i c k as a "major" poet. Furthermore, H e r r i c k was doing nothing novel or e c c e n t r i c when he set out to compose a p o e t i c a l book; the f a c t t h a t the " M e t a p h y s i c a l " p o e t s wrote i n t h i s form demonstrates that the p o e t i c a l book was a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n i n the seventeenth cen t u r y . One of the reasons why Hesperides has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a random c o l l e c t i o n of poems i s due to the l o s s of t h i s t r a d i t i o n . H e r r i c k , i n f a c t , appears to be the l a s t master who c o n s c i o u s l y wrote w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n of the p o e t i c a l book. T h i s study c o n s i d e r s j u s t how s u c c e s s f u l Hesperides i s as a p o e t i c a l book. The f o l l o w i n g chapter o u t l i n e s the gen e r a l h i e r a r -c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the volume, and examines H e r r i c k ' s own metaphors f o r h i s book and h i s concept of fame; the t h i r d chapter focuses on H e r r i c k ' s amatory verse and the s c a l e of lov e which (as i n The  Temple and The F o r e s t ) u n d e r l i e s Hesperides; the f i n a l chapter i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h H e r r i c k ' s p o e t i c s and i d e n t i f i e s some of the i n t e r n a l sequences which form the t e x t u r e of the volume. In a study of t h i s k i n d , i t i s imp o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y a l l the s i g n i f i c a n t s e q uences o r do more than sample the wealth of H e r r i c k ' s more than one thousand poems. The poems chosen f o r a n a l y s i s , t h e r e f o r e , a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of b a s i c themes, t r e n d s and techniques i n H e s p e r i d e s , and are o f f e r e d as su p p o r t i n g evidence f o r general o b s e r v a t i o n s about the whole book. H e r r i c k ' s l y r i c s , with t h e i r superb a r t i s t r y and nuances of meaning, deserve c l o s e a t t e n t i o n . H e r r i c k c r i t i c i s m has o f t e n gone a s t r a y ©n j u s t t h i s p o i n t . And the best c r i t i c a l s t u d i e s of H e r r i c k to d a t e , such as B r o o k s ' e s s a y i n The W e l l Wrought Urn and Musgrove's The Universe of  Robert H e r r i c k , are p r e c i s e l y those which probe the s u b t l e t i e s of H e r r i c k ' s v e r s e , thereby showing him to be a much more s o p h i s t i c a t e d poet than u s u a l l y thought. Rather than examine many poems super-f i c i a l l y , t he c o u r s e adopted h e r e i s to t r y t o read some of H e r r i c k ' s key poems r a t h e r c l o s e l y . Only i n t h i s way can one make an adequate assessment of H e r r i c k ' s s t a t u r e . CHAPTER II Hesperides as Microcosm: Herrick's Quest for Permanence Hesperides, l i k e Horace's Odes, Jonson's F o r e s t and Herbert's Temple, i s a s p l e n d i d example of the w e l l wrought p o e t i c a l book. T h i s t h e s i s , a d m i t t e d l y , i s somewhat no v e l , s i n c e Hesperides i s most o f t e n regarded as a s i n g l e - a u t h o r m i s c e l l a n y , or at best a loose c o l l e c t i o n of s i l v a poems. 3 3 But to read H e r r i c k ' s volume as a haphazard c o l l e c t i o n of s h o r t poems r a t h e r than as a l a r g e - s c a l e p o e t i c a l ensemble i s to i n v i t e s e r i o u s misunderstanding about h i s b a s i c i n t e n t i o n s , and to promote h i s l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d yet t o t a l l y undeserved r e p u t a t i o n as an elegant t r i f l e r . H e r r i c k t e l l s us, i n poem a f t e r poem, that h i s work i s a "Book" which, as he warns the "soure Reader", must be read "unto the end" ( H - 6 , 3 ) . 3 4 The f i r s t nine poems of the volume (a k i n d of p r e f a c e i n v e r s e ) announce the p o e t ' s i n t e n t i o n to w r i t e a "Book," o u t l i n e i t s "Argument" and s p e c i f y "When he would have h i s verse read" (H-8). H e r r i c k e v i d e n t l y t a k e s great pains to ensure that h i s reader knows how to read h i s "Book," i n s t r u c t i n g him, f i r s t and foremost, that Hesperides i s an ordered and u n i f i e d work. In the opening d e d i c a t i o n to the P r i n c e of Wales, H e r r i c k e x t o l s the young Ch a r l e s as h i s "Works C r e a t o r " and d e s c r i b e s the poems as "Morne, and E v e n i n g S t a r s " which shine i n the u n i v e r s e of the "Book." E l s e w h e r e , H e r r i c k c a l l s h i s "Book" an " e x p a n s i v e Firmament" (H-516,2) and an "immensive Sphere" (H-685,2). These c o s m i c metaphors demonstrate that H e r r i c k intended h i s "Book" to be a microcosm which r e f l e c t s the macrocosm of God and embodies the 20 21 d i v e r s i t y - i n - u n i t y of the Renaissance world-view. No Renaissance p o e t c o u l d be expected to make such a c l a i m f o r the r e l a t i v e l y minor genre of the s i l v a , and most c e r t a i n l y not f o r a p o e t i c a l m i s c e l l a n y . C r i t i c s have long noted the tremendous d i v e r s i t y of matter and genre which make up Hesperides but have been l e s s s e n s i t i v e to i t s u n i t y . I f H e r r i c k i s no longer regarded as an e x q u i s i t e l y r i c i s t who has nothing important to say, he i s now sometimes f a u l t e d f o r having too much to say. D i v e r s i t y , beyond a c e r t a i n l i m i t , becomes incoherence. And, at f i r s t s i g h t , Hesperides i s indeed more remarkable f o r i t s v a r i e t y than f o r u n i t y . One set of l y r i c s marks H e r r i c k as a hedonist and pagan, whose philosophy does not r i s e above the carpe diem sentiment; another demonstrates t h a t h i s main theme i s the i m m o r t a l i t y of fame r a t h e r than t r a n s i t o r y p l e a s u r e ; a t h i r d sampling puts H e r r i c k back i n t o the A n g l i c a n Church, showing h i s u l t i m a t e c o n c e r n s t o be n e i t h e r e p i c u r e a n p l e a s u r e nor pagan fame. H e r r i c k has many s t r i n g s to h i s l y r e , and the reader can never be f u l l y sure who i s p l a y i n g - H e r r i c k the "pagan," H e r r i c k the " c a v a l i e r " or H e r r i c k the " p r i e s t . " One might w e l l ask what kind of u n i t y such a medley of v o i c e s , ideas and g e n r e s can p o s s i b l y have. No wonder t h a t the p e r e n n i a l c r i t i c a l debate over whether H e r r i c k i s f i n a l l y " s e r i o u s " o r " t r i v i a l , " " C h r i s t i a n " or "pagan" has never been r e s o l v e d , or that the m u l t i p l i c i t y of H e r r i c k ' s v o i c e s has l e d some to conclude that Hesperides l a c k s u n i t y of purpose. We s h a l l argue, however, t h a t H e r r i c k ' s many v o i c e s are e s s e n t i a l to the design of h i s 2 2 work, and that h i s world-view allows him to accommodate, and even harmonize, profane and sacred spheres of e x p e r i e n c e . Moreover, the p l a y f u l treatment of s e r i o u s p h i l o s o p h i c a l themes i s a hallmark of H e r r i c k ' s w i t , h i s g e n t l e m a n l y s p r e z z a t u r a , h i s sense of decorum and even h i s r e l i g i o u s f a i t h . There i s method and u n i t y behind H e r r i c k ' s apparent " D e l i g h t i n D i s o r d e r . " To regard Hesperides as a m i s c e l l a n y i s , i n e v i t a b l y , to miss the f u l l range of H e r r i c k ' s v o i c e s , and to mistake h i s paradoxes and antinomies f o r i n c o n s i s -t e n c i e s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . Let us begin, then, by c o n s i d e r i n g what H e r r i c k h i m s e l f has to say about h i s "Book." In t h i s r e s p e c t , H e r r i c k i s h i s own best e x p l i c a t o r , s i n c e he d e f i n e s the nature of h i s "Book" and g i v e s p r e c i s e i n s t r u c t i o n s on how i t i s to be read. A supremely s e l f -c onscious a r t i s t , H e r r i c k makes poetry and h i s "Book" one of h i s major s u b j e c t s : h i s "Book," i n f a c t , becomes a complex symbol, an "immensive Sphere" which c o n t a i n s and i s i d e n t i f i e d with the key images, metaphors and ideas of h i s p o e t i c a l u n i v e r s e . There i s a b s o l u t e l y no need to impose a p a t t e r n of one's own d e v i s i n g on the seeming d i s a r r a y of Hesperides, s i n c e H e r r i c k h i m s e l f o f f e r s abundant c l u e s about h i s schemes of o r g a n i z a t i o n . We have s u g g e s t e d that H e r r i c k p r i m a r i l y conceives of h i s "Book" as a microcosm or u n i v e r s e which i s the a r t i s t i c image of the C r e a t i o n . T h i s key-metaphor, s u i t a b l y enough, i s developed i n the opening poem of the volume, the d e d i c a t i o n to the P r i n c e of Wales: 2 3 WE11 may my Book come f o r t h l i k e Publique Day, When such a L i g h t as You are leads the way: Who are my Works C r e a t o r , and alone The Flame of i t , and the Expansion. And look how a l l those heavenly Lamps a c q u i r e L i g h t from the Sun, that inexhausted F i r e : So a l l my Morne, and Evening S t a r s from You Have t h e i r E x i s t e n c e , and t h e i r I n f l u e n c e too. F u l l i s my Book of G l o r i e s ; but a l l These By You become Immortall Substances. The correspondences i n t h i s epigram of p r a i s e are, f o r a r o y a l i s t , p e r f e c t l y c o n v e n t i o n a l : C h a r l e s , occupying as h e i r - e l e c t to the throne the apex of the p o l i t i c a l h i e r a r c h y , i s the image of God on e a r t h , and b l a z e s l i k e the "Sun" with the "Flame" and " L i g h t " of g o d - l i k e majesty. The a l l u s i o n s to the c r e a t i o n a c c o u n t i n Genesis are unmistakable. C h a r l e s , the "Creator" of the world of Hesperides, c a l l s H e r r i c k ' s "Morne, and Evening S t a r s , " or poems, i n t o " E x i s t e n c e , " and p l a c e s these "heavenly Lamps" to shine i n the firmament, or "Expansion" of the Book. (Note the expansion of " E x p a n s i o n " i n t o four s y l l a b l e s , an example of p r o s o d i c wit which H e r r i c k shares with Donne). H e r r i c k ' s p o e t i c a l u n i v e r s e , then, has by analogy a kind of d i v i n e beginning, and r e f l e c t s the order, v a r i e t y and p l e n i t u d e of the C r e a t i o n . The form and imagery of the d e d i c a t i o n impart power to t h i s harmonious v i s i o n . The "Sun", " S t a r " and " G l o r i e s " a r e a l l images of the sphere (a key one i n H e s p e r i d e s ) , which t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e p r e s e n t s completeness, p e r f e c t i o n and e t e r n i t y . The r e f e r e n c e to "Morne, and Evening S t a r s " suggests a d i u r n a l c y c l e , with the " S t a r s " perhaps s e t t i n g to become "Immortall Substances." Thus, the i m m o r t a l i t y of poetry, one of H e r r i c k ' s main s u b j e c t s , i s 24 here u n d e r l i n e d by h i s c h o i c e of s p h e r i c a l imagery. Moreover, the c h i a s t i c design of the poem, i n which the l a s t c o u p l e t m i r r o r s the f i r s t , the penultimate the second, with the c o u p l e t d e s c r i b i n g the "Sun" standing i n the c e n t r e , i s a s p l e n d i d formal e x p r e s s i o n of H e r r i c k ' s b e l i e f i n cosmic o r d e r . Indeed, every aspect of the poem, the cosmic and s p h e r i c a l imagery, the L a t l n a t e d i c t i o n , the p e r f e c t b l e n d i n g of form and c o n t e n t , and i t s e x a l t e d t o n e , c o n t r i b u t e s t o the m a j e s t i c statement of cosmic, p o l i t i c a l and a r t i s t i c o r d e r . H e r r i c k o b v i o u s l y conceived h i s "Book" as the a r t i s t i c embodiment of t h i s m u l t i - l e v e l e d o r d e r . Besides being an exuberant statement of the D i v i n e Right of K i n g s , the d e d i c a t o r y v e r s e s i l l u s t r a t e H e r r i c k ' s a n a l o g i c a l mode of thought, h i s h a b i t of r e l a t i n g the s e c u l a r and e a r t h l y to a metaphysical or c e l e s t i a l p a t t e r n . In one way, the d e d i c a t i o n i s a s e c u l a r or (as H e r r i c k would put i t ) "humane" poem, an extravagant, though c o n v e n t i o n a l , compliment to a member of the r o y a l f a m i l y . But i n a l e s s obvious though more s e r i o u s way, H e r r i c k acknowledges the " d i v i n e " i n s p i r a t i o n of h i s poetry, and i m p l i e s t hat he has a higher Muse than those of the c l a s s i c a l s i s t e r h o o d . H e r r i c k , of course, does not s t a t e t h i s : h i s method, as always, i s to show r a t h e r than t e l l , t o h i n t by metaphor, image and a l l u s i o n . Hesperides, t h e r e f o r e , i s not an e n t i r e l y "humane" work as i t s t i t l e - p a g e would s u g g e s t . The poems ar e "humane" t o the e x t e n t t h a t they d e a l w i t h c l a s s i c a l themes, genres and conventions, e r o t i c l o v e , s o c i a l c o n c e r n s and o t h e r e a r t h l y m a t t e r s . But H e r r i c k , u s u a l l y i n v e r y s u b t l e ways, 25 t w i s t s these conventions to r e l a t e e a r t h l y matters to a metaphysical or s a c r e d c o n t e x t . His v e r s e , i n i t s imagery, d i c t i o n and purport i s o f t e n ambiguous and can be understood i n both a profane and sacred sense. Far from b e t r a y i n g a c o n f l i c t between H e r r i c k the "pagan" and H e r r i c k the " p r i e s t " such a m b i g u i t i e s and paradoxes ar e n a t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n s of H e r r i c k ' s wit and Renaissance Neo-Platonism. The "Argument t o h i s Book" (H-l) extends the metaphor of H e s p e r i d e s as a microcosm by d e f i n i n g the poet's r o l e as the s i n g e r of the whole of C r e a t i o n , o f a l l t h i n g s "humane" and " d i v i n e . " H e r r i c k ' s scope i s t r u l y u n i v e r s a l , j u s t i f y i n g the e p i c "I s i n g " with which he opens the poem. In f a c t , t h i s s o n n e t - l i k e epigram i s designed as a s c a l e of C r e a t i o n , which a s c e n d s i n o r d e r l y degrees from the n a t u r a l realm of "Brooks" and "Blossomes" to the d i v i n e realm of "Heaven" and " H e l l " : I Sing of Brooks, of Blossomes, B i r d s , and Bowers: Of A p r i l , May, of June, and J u l y - Flowers. I s i n g of May-poles, Hock-carts, W a s s a i l s , Wakes, Of Bride-grooms, B r i d e s , and of t h e i r B r i d a l l - c a k e s . I w r i t e of Youth, of Love, and have Accesse By these, to s i n g of c l e a n l y - Wantonnesse. I s i n g of Dewes, of Raines and p i e c e by p i e c e Of Balm, of Oyle, of Sp i c e , and Amber - Greece. I s i n g of Times t r a n s - s h i f t i n g ; and I w r i t e How Roses f i r s t came Red, and L i l l i e s White. I w r i t e of Groves, of T w i l i g h t s , and I s i n g The Court of Mab, and of the F a i r i e - K i n g . I w r i t e of H e l l ; I s i n g (and ever s h a l l ) Of Heaven, and hope to have i t a f t e r a l l . The "Argument" i s a remarkably accurate and we l l - d e s i g n e d catalogue of H e r r i c k ' s main themes and p o e t i c forms: p a s t o r a l v e r s e, "youth" and " l o v e , " the b r e v i t y of l i f e , e p i t h a l a m i a , country ceremonies, 2 6 f a i r y l o r e and sacred song. Within the ov e r a r c h i n g scheme of the "Great Chain of Being" are s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t minor sequences. For i n s t a n c e , the f i r s t l i n e comprises a m i n i a t u r e s c a l e of nature, a s c e n d i n g from inanimate matter ("brooks") to p l a n t and animal l i f e ("blossomes" and " b i r d s " ) and ending i n the human realm, or nature humanized ("bowers"). A s i m i l a r p r o g r e s s i o n can be observed i n the f o u r t h c o u p l e t , which moves " p i e c e by p i e c e " from the "dewes" and " r a i n s " of n a t u r e t o " s p i c e " and "Amber-Greece," products of a r t designed f o r human use. Moreover, the sequence suggests a transmutation of the n a t u r a l i n t o the sacramental (so t y p i c a l of H e r r i c k ) , s i n c e balm, o i l , s p i c e s and perfume, i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r everyday uses and amatory f u n c t i o n , have sacred a s s o c i a t i o n s . The n a t u r a l and the human, the s e c u l a r and the s a c r e d a r e viewed as d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f the same continuous v e r t i c a l s c a l e . The "Argument" a l s o d e f i n e s man's pl a c e w i t h i n the s c a l e of C r e a t i o n , h i s middle s t a t i o n as being at once p a r t of and above n a t u r e . H e r r i c k thus shares the Renaissance view of man as a microcosm, an epitome of the whole c r e a t i o n , "humane" and " d i v i n e . " However, t h i s i d e a i s not v e r b a l i z e d , j u s t as the n o t i o n of the un i v e r s e as a s c a l e of C r e a t i o n i s not. Rather, the non-verbal, formal elements of the poem, the i m p l i e d correspondences i n the sequences of nouns, develop a p i c t u r e of man as encompassing the whole of C r e a t i o n . F i r s t of a l l , H e r r i c k emphasizes man's oneness with nature by r e l a t i n g h i s l i f e to the n a t u r a l c y c l e of growth and decay, and human a c t i v i t i e s to the seasonal c y c l e : 27 Of A p r i l , M a y , o f J u n e , and J u l y - F l o w e r s . I s i n g o f M a y - p o l e s , H o c k - c a r t s , W a s s a i l s , Wakes . . . . One o f t h e most f r e q u e n t t r o p e s i n H e s p e r i d e s i s t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f l o w e r s a n d man ( i n f a c t , u s u a l l y w o m a n ) . Human l i f e i s a l m o s t a s b r i e f and f r a g i l e a s " J u l y - F l o w e r s " - b o t h p e o p l e and f l o w e r s a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e same n a t u r a l l aw o f g r o w t h , d e c a y and d e a t h . S i m i l a r l y , t h e r u r a l f e s t i v i t i e s o f " M a y - p o l e s " a n d " W a s s a i l s " s u g g e s t t h e harmony o f human l i f e w i t h t h e s e a s o n a l c y c l e . T r a n s i e n c e and m o r t a l i t y a r e , o f c o u r s e , k e y t h e m e s i n H e s p e r i d e s . E v e n t h o u g h u s u a l l y s o f t e n e d by an a m a t o r y o r p a s t o r a l s e t t i n g ( a s i n t h e " A r g u m e n t " ) , t h e i r s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r human l i f e i s n e v e r q u e s t i o n e d o r u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . B u t man i s a b l e , i n i m p o r t a n t w a y s , t o t r a n s c e n d t e m p o r a l l i m i t s and s t a n d o u t s i d e n a t u r e . A b o v e a l l , i t i s c e r e m o n y , r i t u a l and a r t w h i c h e l e v a t e u s t o a r e a l m o f s t a s i s and p e r m a n e n c e ; t h e y h a v e t h e s a c r a m e n t a l f u n c t i o n o f m e d i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e "humane" and t h e " d i v i n e " , t i m e and e t e r n i t y . So a f t e r p l a c i n g man w i t h i n a p a s t o r a l s e t t i n g , where t h e n a t u r a l and t h e human a r e i n h a r m o n y , H e r r i c k e n d s t h e f i r s t q u a t r a i n b y s h i f t i n g t o t h e s a c r e d d i m e n s i o n o f human e x p e r i e n c e . He w i l l a l s o s i n g : Of B r i d e - g r o o m s , B r i d e s , and o f t h e i r B r i d a l l - c a k e s . . . . H e r e t h e n a t u r a l c y c l e s o f g r o w t h and d e c a y a n d t h e c h a n g e o f s e a s o n s g i v e way t o t h e t i m e l e s s r e a l m o f t h e s a c r e d . ( N o t e t h a t t h e B r i d e and groom a r e u n i t e d h e r e b y t h e B r i d a l l - c a k e , a c i r c u l a r i m a g e . A l s o , t h e b a l a n c i n g o f t h e t h r e e n o u n s s u g g e s t s h a r m o n y 28 and u n i t y , r a t h e r than the sequences and c y c l e s suggested by the rows of f o u r nouns or a d j e c t i v e s i n the p r e v i o u s l i n e s ) . For H e r r i c k , ceremony and r i t u a l , b e s i d e s forming the b a s i s of c i v i l i z a -t i o n , h e l p d e f i n e and express man's permanent and i n d e s t r u c t i b l e nature, h i s l i n k with the transcendent. H e r r i c k , i n the t r a d i t i o n of Renaissance C h r i s t i a n Humanism, r e c o g n i z e s a dual nature i n man, the m o r t a l and i m m o r t a l , and seeks to harmonize r a t h e r than oppose them. In the "Argument," he begins by l o c a t i n g man i n the n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t and ends with a p e r s o n a l hope f o r s a l v a t i o n : once again, the v i s i o n of a graduated s c a l e of being d i s s o l v e s p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s between man's "humane" and " d i v i n e " natures. For H e r r i c k , as f o r S i r Thomas Browne, man i s " t h a t g r e a t and t r u e Amphibium, whose n a t u r e i s d i s p o s e d to l i v e ... i n d i v i d e d and d i s t i n g u i s h e d w o r l d s . " 3 5 In f a c t , H e r r i c k ' s h u m a n i s t i c outlook values the v a r i e t y and r i c h n e s s of man's nature, provided that t h i s many-si d e d nature i s f a s h i o n e d i n t o a harmony. Thus, H e r r i c k ' s h e r o i c i d e a l , developed i n h i s epigrams of p r a i s e , i s the s e c u l a r or " c i v i l " " S a i n t , " whose p u b l i c and p r i v a t e v i r t u e s and accomplish-ments, s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s natures, are p e r f e c t l y r e c o n c i l e d . S i m i l a r l y , H e r r i c k ' s i d e a l of l o v e , the paradox of " c l e a n l y -wantonnesse", suggests a concord between man's higher and lower n a t u r e s . T h i s paradox i s not a p u r e l y f a n t a s t i c c a p r i c e , an e r o t i c daydream, p o s s i b l e only i n the imaginary world of H e r r i c k ' s H e s p e r i d e a n garden. Instead, " c l e a n l y - wantonnesse" r e p r e s e n t s the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of "profane" and "sacred" l o v e , the governing 2 9 of human impulses and d e s i r e s by the higher imperative of c h a s t i t y . As we s h a l l see, H e r r i c k ' s e r o t i c l y r i c s u s u a l l y extend i n t o a sacred dimension, o f t e n e x e m p l i f y i n g the i d e a l of "cleanly-wanton-nesse" i n a very w i t t y manner. H e r r i c k ' s v i s i o n of the cosmos and man, of time and e t e r n i t y , o u t l i n e d by the "Argument" i s l a r g e l y i n s p i r e d by R e n a i s s a n c e N e o - P l a t o n i s m . In f a c t , the r e l a t i o n of time to e t e r n i t y can, without exaggeration, be s a i d to be H e r r i c k ' s major p h i l o s o p h i c a l problem i n Hesperides. Perhaps the g r e a t e r number of h i s poems are m e d i t a t i o n s , i n one way or another, on how to meet the c h a l l e n g e of the d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s of time. In one sense, Hesperides i s the re c o r d of H e r r i c k ' s v a r i o u s attempts to a f f i r m l i f e i n the face of m u t a b i l i t y . Sometimes he c h e e r f u l l y accepts the H e r a c l i t e a n f l u x , making i t a p r e t e x t f o r the c a r p e diem argument; l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , h i s mood i s one of S t o i c r e s i g n a t i o n . However, these s o l u t i o n s to the t h r e a t of m u t a b i l i t y are t r i e d and u l t i m a t e l y d i s c a r d e d . H e r r i c k ' s dominant quest i s f o r the grounds of permanence and i m m o r t a l i t y . He announces t h i s quest i n the "Argument" when he p r o m i s e s t o " s i n g o f Times t r a n s - s h i f t i n g . " T h i s s t r i k i n g phrase has u s u a l l y been g l o s s e d as " t r a n s i e n c e . H o w e v e r , the p r e f i x " t r a n s , " as w e l l as the context of the l i n e , i n d i c a t e a s h i f t from one o n t o l o g i c a l mode to another, from the temporal to the e t e r n a l dimension of the "Great Chain of Being." S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the phrase forms the v o l t e of the sonnet-epigram, which s i g n a l s the t r a d i t i o n a l P e t r a r c h a n s h i f t from a p r o f a n e t o a sa c r e d 30 c o n t e x t . Indeed, the s e s t e t of the "Argument", with i t s symbolic " r o s e s " and " l i l l i e s " i n c o n t r a s t to the n a t u r a l f l o w e r s of the octave, i t s sacred "groves" and m y t h o l o g i c a l f i g u r e s , and i t s men t i o n of " H e l l " and "Heaven" corresponds to the t r a d i t i o n a l Petrarchan p a t t e r n . Such a s h i f t from the temporal to the e t e r n a l , however, i s un o b t r u s i v e , and perhaps can only be i n f e r r e d from the form of the poem. In any c a s e , H e r r i c k c e r t a i n l y i s not the s i n g e r of t r a n s i e n c e , of decaying flowers and aging m i s t r e s s e s , as h i s popular image would have us b e l i e v e . His purpose, i n s t e a d , i s t o trans c e n d time, through ceremony, sacrament and a r t - to " t r a n s - s h i f t " from the temporal realm of change and decay to the metaphysical realm of permanence. We have d e a l t a t l e n g t h w i t h the "Argument" because i t a r t i c u l a t e s the major ideas which u n d e r l i e H e r r i c k ' s verse, and hence p r o v i d e s a welcome framework f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Of these, the n o t i o n of a h i e r a r c h i c a l s c a l e of valu e s i s perhaps the most c r u c i a l . In h i s amatory v e r s e , H e r r i c k i s ab l e to r e c o n c i l e profane and sacred l o v e s i n c e both belong to the same continuous v e r t i c a l s c a l e ; so long as the v i s i o n of t h i s cosmic s c a l e i s not d i s t o r t e d , "wantonnesse" and human l o v e have t h e i r a c c e p t e d p l a c e . The p r i n c i p l e of h i e r a r c h y i s a l s o c e n t r a l to the conception and o r g a n i z a t i o n of H e r r i c k ' s book. H e r r i c k promises to s i n g of a l l l e v e l s of C r e a t i o n and w r i t e of a l l spheres of human experience. H e s p e r i d e s , l i k e the "Argument," i s s t r u c t u r e d t o r e f l e c t a development from the temporal to the permanent. For example, the f i n a l poem of Hesperides, "The P i l l a r of Fame," i s a triumphant 31 a s s e r t i o n of c o s m i c o r d e r and H e r r i c k ' s e v e r l a s t i n g fame, a monument of h i s f i n a l v i c t o r y o v e r the f o r c e s of m u t a b i l i t y . Along with t h i s ascent from a temporal to an e t e r n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , we f i n d a movement toward g r e a t e r formal s t a b i l i t y , s i m p l i c i t y and o r d e r . L i k e much R e n a i s s a n c e a r t , Hesperides, t h e r e f o r e , d i s p l a y s a dynamic s t r u c t u r e , a movement toward i n c r e a s e d c l a r i t y and o r d e r . H e r r i c k , of course, employs metaphors other than the cosmic to d e f i n e t h e n a t u r e of h i s book. H i s book i s (among o t h e r t h i n g s ) a g a r d e n , a temple, and a commonwealth of v e r s e . The garden metaphor i s r e f l e c t e d i n the t i t l e of the work and i s g r e a t l y e l a b o r a t e d by H e r r i c k ' s complex f l o r a l and p l a n t imagery. H e r r i c k e n v i s i o n s h i s book as a " r i c h P l a n t a t i o n " (H-392,4) i n which the " c h a s t e S p i r i t s " of h i s worthies w i l l grow to " L i f e e t e r n a l " , and a "Sacred Grove" (H-265,3), which, l i k e the f a b l e d garden of the Hesperides, i s at once e a r t h l y and c e l e s t i a l . In a r c h i t e c t u r a l terms, Hesperides i s a "White Temple" (H-496,1) of "Heroes" and a " C o l l e d g e " (H-983,1) of worthies. H e r r i c k never seems to t i r e of the H o r a t i a n n o t i o n of p o e t r y as an e t e r n a l monument. He a l s o s t y l e s h i m s e l f the " P r i n c e l y Poet" (H-166,12), and imagines t h a t he r u l e s over a commonwealth of patrons, a r t i s t s , s o l d i e r s , s c h o l a r s , m a g i s t r a t e s , and other Renaissance heroes. And t h i s "vast Dominion" (H-592,4), he t e l l s us, w i l l o u t l a s t a l l e a r t h l y monarchies. But perhaps the most s t r i k i n g images of a l l are the l i t u r g i c a l and r e l i g i o u s metaphors. H e r r i c k , as p o e t - p r i e s t , c e l e b r a t e s a 32 " P o e t i c k L i t u r g i e " (H-510-4) i n which he commemorates h i s "r a r e S a i n t - s h i p s " (H-496,3), expounds the d o c t r i n e s and r i t e s of "Loves  R e l i g i o n " (H-38,5), and p e r f o r m s the m i r a c l e whereby decaying n a t u r e i s t r a n s f i g u r e d i n t o immutable a r t . L i k e the Book of Common Prayer, Hesperides c o n t a i n s i t s hymns, ceremonies, sacraments and h i g h - p o i n t s , a l l p e r f o r m e d i n due and comely o r d e r . The s a c r e d d i m e n s i o n of H e s p e r i d e s i s well- e v i d e n c e d by H e r r i c k ' s abundant use of b i b l i c a l a l l u s i o n and C h r i s t i a n r i t e , which are v e r y s u b t l y woven i n t o the f a b r i c of h i s "humane" ve r s e . In f a c t , the order of Hesperides p a r a l l e l s i n s i g n i f i c a n t ways the order of the Book of Common Prayer, as evidenced by the numerous e u c h a r i s t i c overtones i n the f i n a l s e c t i o n of the volume. H e r r i c k ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of Hesperides as a "Po e t i c k L i t u r g i e , " t h e r e f o r e , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p t , s i n c e t h i s e p i t h e t sums up h i s b l e n d i n g of c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n images, i d e a s and t r a d i t i o n s , and h i s g o a l of r e c o n c i l i n g the "humane" and the " d i v i n e " i n a u n i f i e d world-view. Whatever terras and metaphors he u s e s , whether he c a l l s H e s p e r i d e s a "Testament" (H-977,4) and " P s a l t e r " (H-604,12), an " e t e r n a l l Coronet" (H-789,2) or a "Colledge" of "Heroes", H e r r i c k always conceives of h i s book as u n i f i e d , permanent and, i n some sense, s a c r e d . H e r r i c k ' s e p i t h e t s f o r h i s book are the key-metaphors which g i v e shape to the volume and b i n d t o g e t h e r i t s v a r i o u s s t r a i n s o f imagery, p a t t e r n s of thought and even sequences of poems. The n o t i o n o f Hesperides as a "Sacred Grove" or " r i c h P l a n t a t i o n " , f o r example, w o n d e r f u l l y i l l u m i n a t e s H e r r i c k ' s 33 complex p l a n t and f l o r a l imagery. And the i d e a of the book as a microcosm, a "Spacious Sphere" (H-804,7) which m i r r o r s the d i v i n e order of the C r e a t i o n , helps c l a r i f y the p r o g r e s s i o n from the t e m p o r a l t o the permanent which u n d e r l i e s the s t r u c t u r e of H e s p e r i d e s . The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among H e r r i c k ' s p a t t e r n s of imagery are a l s o governed by H e r r i c k ' s o v e r a r c h i n g conception of h i s book. We f i n d , f o r example, a movement from v e g e t a t i v e t o a r c h i t e c t u r a l imagery as we read through Hesperides, a movement which corresponds with a s h i f t from the realm of Nature to that of A r t , and from a p a s t o r a l to a s o c i a l s e t t i n g . ( T h i s i s f o r e -shadowed, as we saw, i n the "Argument"). In f a c t , H e r r i c k ' s main id e a i s , i n many ways, the book i t s e l f : the i d ea which c o n t r o l s and orders the m u l t i f o r m d e t a i l s of a 1,130 - poem c o l l e c t i o n of v e r s e . H e r r i c k ' s book c o n t a i n s a l l t h i n g s because i t i s the a r t i s t i c r e f l e c t i o n of the cosmos; i t i s u n i f i e d b e cause i t embodies a v i s i o n of w o r l d harmony; i t i s s a c r e d because i t c e l e b r a t e s the d i v i n e order of the C r e a t i o n . H e r r i c k , as we have noted, does not make a s t r i c t s e p a r a t i o n between sacred and s e c u l a r dimensions of experience, but t y p i c a l l y attempts t h e i r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . So although H e r r i c k w r i t e s w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n of c l a s s i c a l e r o t i c poetry, the t r a d i t i o n of Anacreon, Horace and the L a t i n e l e g i s t s , i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to f i n d a "sacred" undercurrent i n h i s "humane" ve r s e . In one of h i s many addresses "To h i s Muse" (H-84) H e r r i c k o f f f e r s to g i v e "Baptime" to h i s Muse: he a p p r o p r i a t e s the c l a s s i c a l l y r i c t r a d i t i o n and f i t s i t i n t o the framework of C h r i s t i a n r i t u a l and b e l i e f . Even 34 i f one g rants that H e r r i c k does not e n t i r e l y succeed i n b a p t i z i n g the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n of l y r i c poetry, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to deny th a t he s u b j e c t s i t to an abundant s p r i n k l i n g of h o l y w a t e r . H e r r i c k ' s own d i s t i n c t i o n between h i s "humane" and " d i v i n e " verse i s , t h e r e f o r e , somewhat a r t i f i c i a l , and must be t r e a t e d as such by the c r i t i c of Hesperides. For H e r r i c k , poetry, music, c i v i l i z e d manners, f u n e r a l r i t e s and "Loves R e l i g i o n " are a l l forms of r i t u a l and, t h e r e f o r e , e s s e n t i a l l y sacred i n content. It i s not s u r p r i s i n g , then, t h a t H e r r i c k regards h i s own work and a r t as s a c r e d . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , H e r r i c k sees h i s r o l e as a c l a s s i c a l vates i n s p i r e d by wine or the muses, a p o e t - p r i e s t who c e l e b r a t e s a " P o e t i c k L i t u r g i e , " and a " L y r i c k Prophet" (H-365, 3) who w r i t e s a " P s a l t e r " , a book of p r a i s e . The n o t i o n that Hesperides i s a k i n d of sacred t e x t or work appears i n numerous c o n t e x t s ; i t i s the s u b j e c t of one of H e r r i c k ' s emblem poems, "To L a u r e l s " (H-89): A F u n e r a l l stone, Or Verse I covet none; But onely crave Of you, that I may have A sacred L a u r e l s p r i n g i n g from my grave: Which being seen, B l e s t with p e r p e t u a l l greene, May grow to be Not so much c a l l ' d a t r e e , As the e t e r n a l l monument of me. T h i s poem i s an e x p r e s s i o n of H e r r i c k ' s main d e s i r e i n Hesperides: p o e t i c fame and e t e r n a l l i f e . The standard c l a s s i c a l t r o p e of the i m m o r t a l i t y of poetry and i t s power to e t e r n i z e the s u b j e c t of i t s p r a i s e undergoes every p o s s i b l e modulation i n Hesperides. In sheer volume of r e f e r e n c e and v a r i a t i o n s on t h i s trope, Hesperides 35 no doubt surpasses a l l other c o l l e c t i o n s of v e r s e . A f a c t that i s l e s s w e l l - r e c o g n i z e d and needs to be s t r e s s e d i s the pervas i v e n e s s i n H e s p e r i d e s o f H e r r i c k ' s m e d i t a t i o n s on d e a t h , an o b v i o u s concern of "To L a u r e l s . " H e r r i c k ' s sense of the decay of nature and the constant t h r e a t of death, however muted and c o n t r o l l e d by the d e l i c a c y of h i s verse, i s s u r e l y as st r o n g as Donne's. True, we f i n d no medieval images of r o t t i n g corpses or the dance of death. I n s t e a d , H e r r i c k f o r e t e l l s h i s own end i n the w i t h e r i n g of a d a f f o d i l or the furrow i n h i s m i s t r e s s ' brow - and h i s sense of m o r t a l i t y i s no l e s s acute f o r t h a t . I f H e r r i c k f i n a l l y wins the v i c t o r y over m u t a b i l i t y and death i n "The P i l l a r of Fame", i t i s onl y a f t e r having taken f u l l account of the d e s t r u c t i v e power of time over man and nature. In "To L a u r e l s , " H e r r i c k ' s hope f o r i m m o r t a l i t y i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d to h i s conception of h i s book and h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of fame. The l a u r e l , of course, i s the c l a s s i c a l emblem of p o e t i c fame. U n l i k e other men who are commemorated by the " F u n e r a l l s t o n e " or by " V e r s e , " H e r r i c k , l i k e a l l a r t i s t s , wishes to be remembered f o r h i s work. The " F u n e r a l l stone" i s inadequate to h i s d e s i r e f o r i m m o r t a l i t y - only the "sacred L a u r e l " of p o e t i c fame can e n s u r e him e v e r l a s t i n g l i f e . T h i s " s a c r e d L a u r e l " s p r i n g i n g from H e r r i c k ' s grave i s nothing other than h i s book. The one-couplet epigram e n t i t l e d simply "To h i s Book" s e t s t h i s down i n unambiguous terms: THou a r t a p l a n t sprung up to wither never, But l i k e a L a u r e l l , to grow green f o r ever. (H-240) 36 So f a r , H e r r i c k ' s n o t i o n of i m m o r t a l i t y h e r e does not d i f f e r markedly from the c l a s s i c a l n o t i o n as represented, say, by Horace - the poet's work keeps h i s name a l i v e to a l l p o s t e r i t y . T h i s i s the o n l y k i n d of i m m o r t a l i t y which Horace c o u l d hope f o r ; i t i s o b v i o u s l y impersonal and d i f f e r e n t i n kind and q u a l i t y from the P l a t o n i c and e s p e c i a l l y the C h r i s t i a n understanding of e t e r n a l l i f e . H e r r i c k does something very c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n "To L a u r e l s " : he begins with a c l a s s i c a l concept, i n t h i s i n s t a n c e the c l a s s i c a l understanding of p o e t i c fame, and c o n v e r t s i t i n t o a C h r i s t i a n i d e a . In other words, H e r r i c k ' s understanding of the i m m o r t a l i t y of fame i s more C h r i s t i a n than c l a s s i c a l - i t both c o n t a i n s and t r a n s c e n d s the c l a s s i c a l i d e a . The f u s i n g of c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e s on a s u b j e c t i s , i n d e e d , a h a l l m a r k o f H e r r i c k ' s s t y l e , and can be d i s c e r n e d i n h i s h a n d l i n g of imagery and formal and prosodie e f f e c t s . "To L a u r e l s " c o n t a i n s an i n t e r e s t -ing mixture of c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n d i c t i o n and imagery. T h i s appears most c l e a r l y i n the k e y - l i n e of the poem, i n which H e r r i c k " c r a v e s " a "sacred L a u r e l " that w i l l be " b l e s t " with e v e r l a s t i n g l i f e . A sacred L a u r e l s p r i n g i n g from my grave .... O s t e n s i b l y , the d e s i r e here i s f o r l a s t i n g fame, the p r a i s e of f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s f o r H e r r i c k ' s work. But a v e i l e d a l l u s i o n to the C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f i n the R e s u r r e c t i o n i s not d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c e r n i n the image of the " s a c r e d L a u r e l " " s p r i n g i n g " from H e r r i c k ' s "grave." We f i n d here a " t r a n s - s h i f t i n g " from a humanistic 37 to a C h r i s t i a n understanding of fame as a type of p e r s o n a l im-m o r t a l i t y , a s h i f t from a h i s t o r i c a l to a metaphysical d e f i n i t i o n of fame. Moreover, the c h i a s t i c d e sign of the l i n e b e a u t i f u l l y u n d e r l i n e s H e r r i c k ' s understanding of fame as something immutable and e t e r n a l . The m o d i f i e r s and nouns e n c i r c l i n g the p a r t i c i p l e , " s p r i n g i n g " , i d e n t i f y the verse as a golden l i n e - an apt formal e x p r e s s i o n of order and permanence. H e r r i c k even r e i n f o r c e s t h i s c h i a s t i c p a t t e r n by the assonance of the words "sacred" and "grave." These a r e the k i n d s of e f f e c t s H e r r i c k d e l i g h t e d i n , s u b t l e e f f e c t s of grammar, d i c t i o n , image and a l l u s i o n . Such d e v i c e s o f t e n r e p r e s e n t d e v i a t i o n s from c l a s s i c a l c o n v e n t i o n s , as when H e r r i c k m o d i f i e s the carpe diem theme, or when, as i n "To L a u r e l s " , he m o d i f i e s a c l a s s i c a l concept to f i t i n t o h i s C h r i s t i a n Humanist world-view. And these are the d e v i c e s which the reader of H e r r i c k must f a m i l i a r i z e h i m s e l f w i t h i f he i s to see the complexity o f t e n u n d e r l y i n g the a p p a r e n t l y simple s u r f a c e s of h i s l y r i c s . The development of imagery i n "To L a u r e l s " i s r a t h e r c u r i o u s , b r i n g i n g together as i t does two dominant s t r a i n s of imagery, the v e g e t a t i v e and a r c h i t e c t u r a l , which are u s u a l l y kept apart i n Hesper i d e s . H e r r i c k b e g i n s by r e j e c t i n g the " f u n e r a l stone", c r a v i n g i n s t e a d a "sacred L a u r e l " which w i l l grow i n t o an " e t e r n a l l monument" r a t h e r than i n t o a " t r e e " . T h i s s h i f t from o r g a n i c to i n o r g a n i c imagery, from terras of N a t u r e to t h o s e of A r t , i s r a t h e r common i n Hesperides. We must, then, say a few words here about the values a s s o c i a t e d with H e r r i c k ' s main s t r a i n s of imagery, and h i s understanding of 38 the key Renaissance concepts of Nature and A r t . Stated b r i e f l y , Nature i n Hesperides r e p r e s e n t s the realm of time and m u t a b i l i t y ; A r t , the realm of e t e r n i t y and permanence. In the n a t u r a l p er-s p e c t i v e , time u n d e r l i e s the never-ending c y c l e of growth, aging and death; i t both "hastens on/things to p e r f e c t i o n " (H-767,15-16) and b r i n g s e v e r y t h i n g " i n t o the grave" (H-467,18). Nothing can a l t e r the f l u x of time or avoid the c e r t a i n f a t e of death. The p o s s i b i l i t y of s u r v i v a l beyond the grave i s q u i t e dim a c c o r d i n g to the n a t u r a l i s t i c viewpoint. P h i l o s o p h i c a l n a t u r a l i s m u n d e r l i e s most of H e r r i c k ' s carpe diem l y r i c s , and g i v e s r i s e to an epicurean e t h i c . Indeed, H e r r i c k has been taken by many to be a seventeenth-century pagan, so p o w e r f u l l y does he make the case f o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l n a t u r a l i s m and epicureanism i n many of h i s best-known and b e s t - l o v e d l y r i c s . The n a t u r a l images of f l o w e r s and p l a n t s , which pervade the volume, almost always r e p r e s e n t the n a t u r a l c y c l e of growth and decay, and o f t e n s e r v e as memento mori. L i k e S i r Thomas Browne, H e r r i c k i s an adept reader of the Book of Nature, and can see h i s own end i n the w i t h e r i n g of a d a f f o d i l (see H-107) or i n the f a l l of a blossom. In the f i n a l stanza of "To Blossoms," (H-467), the blossoms become leaves i n the Book of Nature, which teaches t h a t a l l t h i n g s , "though ne'r so brave," must d i e : 3. But you are l o v e l y Leaves,where we May read how soon t h i n g s have T h e i r end, though ne'r so brave: And a f t e r they have shown t h e i r p r i d e , L i k e you a w h i l e : They g l i d e Into the Grave. 39 There i s no suggestion here of permanence beyond the grave. "To Blossoms", l i k e much of H e r r i c k ' s f l o r a l v e r s e , i s a bare statement of the f a c t s of m u t a b i l i t y and death. A r c h i t e c t u r a l images, i n c o n t r a s t to those drawn from the n a t u r a l world, always suggest a realm of permanence above the f l u x of time and the decay of nature. Stones, p i l l a r s , b u i l d i n g s and monuments are a l l images of i m m u t a b i l i t y i n Hesperides. At the end of h i s volume, when H e r r i c k wishes to a s s e r t the im m o r t a l i t y of h i s book, he can do no b e t t e r than w r i t e an emblem poem i n the shape of a p i l l a r . In P l a t o n i c nomenclature, H e r r i c k ' s a r c h i t e c t u r a l images r e p r e s e n t immutable and e t e r n a l a b s t r a c t f o r m s . For H e r r i c k , the u n i v e r s e i s d i v i d e d i n t o the lower realm of time and Nature, and the higher realm of e t e r n i t y and A r t , o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with, r e s p e c t i v e l y , v e g e t a t i v e and a r c h i t e c t u r a l imagery. The d i v i s i o n i s not a b s o l u t e , however, s i n c e A r t i s a l s o understood i n i t s widest sense to i n c l u d e a l l forms of r i t u a l which u n i t e the realms of time and e t e r n i t y . These two meanings of A rt are not c o n t r a d i c t o r y , s i n c e A r t , whether c o n s i d e r e d as sacred or as an a b s t r a c t form, i s always above the f l u x of time. T h i s v i s i o n of the world g i v e s H e r r i c k a dual p e r s p e c t i v e , and helps us e l u c i d a t e h i s imagery. For example, H e r r i c k ' s many m i s t r e s s e s and v i r g i n s are commonly i d e n t i f i e d with f l o w e r s , and, t h e r e f o r e , a r e seen from the n a t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e of growth and decay. On the other hand, H e r r i c k views h i s worthies from a metaphysical p e r s p e c t i v e and o f f e r s them e t e r n a l l i f e i n Hesperides. In these epigrams of p r a i s e , a r c h i t e c t u r a l imagery predominates. One may note, t o o , 40 that H e r r i c k evokes h i s m i s t r e s s e s i n s h o r t l y r i c s w i t h v a r i e d l i n e - l e n g t h s and s h o r t m e t r e s , w h i l e h i s worthies are always honoured i n i a m b i c p e ntameter c o u p l e t s - the h e r o i c m e t r e . H e r r i c k ' s book, t o o , r e f l e c t s a general development from the realm of Nature to the realm of A r t . The form of "To L a u r e l s " r e f l e c t s i n m i n i a t u r e the broad development of the volume from Nature to A r t . The two senses of Art which we have noted are present here: the r i t u a l i s t i c sense, i n the e p i t h e t "sacred L a u r e l " , and the P l a t o n i c sense, i n the e p i t h e t " e t e r n a l l monument." H e r r i c k i s saying that h i s p o e t i c a l book i s a "sacred L a u r e l l " which grows i n t o an " e t e r n a l l monument." T r a n s l a t e d i n t o p l a i n prose, h i s book has i t s o r i g i n i n time but f i n d s i t s end i n e t e r n i t y . The b i l a t e r a l symmetry of the poem r e f l e c t s t h i s dualism. The f i r s t h a l f c o n c e n t r a t e s on the poet's p e r s o n a l hope f o r i m m o r t a l i t y and the second h a l f with i t s f u l f i l l -ment. The a c t i v e v o i c e and nominative " I " with i t s d e s i r e s g i v e way i n the second p a r t to the p a s s i v e v o i c e and the o b j e c t i v e pronoun "me". The " e t e r n a l l monument," that i s , H e r r i c k ' s p o e t i c a l book, takes the p l a c e of the ego a f t e r i t passes out of time. "To L a u r e l s " i s an emblem poem, a genre which H e r r i c k u s u a l l y r e s e r v e s f o r h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l verse, such as "His P o e t r i e , h i s P i l l a r " and "The P i l l a r of Fame." Though l e s s d e f i n i t i v e i n i t s t y p o g r a p h i c a l shape than these, "To L a u r e l s " o b v i o u s l y belongs to the same c l a s s of v e r s e . The ha n d l i n g of l i n e - l e n g t h s i s q u i t e v i r t u o s i c . In the f i r s t p a r t , the "Funeral stone" and " V e r s e " a r e incommensurate w i t h the poet's d e s i r e f o r im m o r t a l i t y and 4 1 appear i n s h o r t dimeter and t r i m e t e r l i n e s . The poet's hope f o r e v e r l a s t i n g l i f e can o n l y be answered by the "sacred L a u r e l " , which appears i n the h e r o i c l i n e . The f i r s t two c o u p l e t s a r e r e a l l y i a m b i c pentameter l i n e s , broken by rhyme. T h e i r formal i n s t a b i l i t y i s r e s o l v e d i n the f i f t h l i n e which, f o r m a l l y and grammatically, i s the most r e g u l a r and s t a b l e verse i n the f i r s t p a r t . The second p a r t f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n . T h i s t i m e , however, H e r r i c k r e v e r s e s the p a t t e r n of imagery, b e g i n n i n g with an o r g a n i c image and ending with an a r c h i t e c t u r a l image. The s h o r t l i n e s are now given to the " l a u r e l " and the " t r e e " , an inadequate emblem of H e r r i c k ' s fame, which can only be immortalized by the " e t e r n a l l monument" of the l a s t h e r o i c l i n e . Thus, the long l i n e s , e q u a l l i n g fame, are r e s e r v e d f o r the L a u r e l , H e r r i c k and h i s book. H e r r i c k ' s h a n d l i n g of sound p a t t e r n s i s no l e s s v i r t u o s i c - one may note, f o r example, how the r e p e t i t i o n of the t e r m i n a l sound i n " F u n e r a l l " , " L a u r e l l " , " p e r p e t u a l l " and " e t e r n a l l " h e lps impart f o r m a l u n i t y to the poem, or how the l o w - p i t c h e d o' s and a' s which dominate the f i r s t h a l f g i v e way t o the l o n g §_'s which make f o r a most c o n f i d e n t and resonant c o n c l u s i o n . A l l i n a l l , H e r r i c k d i s p l a y s i n "To L a u r e l s " , as i n innumerable other poems, h i s powers of compression and economy, h i s a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s the s u b l i m e and the h e r o i c w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of a s h o r t poem, and complete mastery over a l l aspects of h i s a r t . The development of thought and the form of the poem f i t l i k e hand i n g l o v e . 42 The hope f o r i m m o r t a l i t y expressed i n "To L a u r e l s " i s u l t i m a t e l y f u l f i l l e d i n the f i n a l poem of the volume, "The P i l l a r of Fame." T h i s poem i s the grand f i n a l e of the volume, and i s H e r r i c k ' s s t r o n g e s t a s s e r t i o n of cosmic o r d e r . The poem may w e l l be modelled on George Herbert's " A l t a r " , at l e a s t i n i t s emblematic form. At any r a t e , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the two poets' p o e t i c a l books d i s p l a y an almost o p p o s i t e development. Herbert begins h i s book with a poem shaped as an a l t a r ; t h i s p h y s i c a l a l t a r i s u l t i m a t e l y s p i r i t u a l i z e d i n the h e a v e n l y banquet t a b l e o f "Love ( I I I ) . " When H e r r i c k wishes to a s s e r t a metaphysical order, he employs a r c h i t e c t u r a l images and a d e f i n i t i v e emblematic form. L i k e Herbert's " a l t a r " , H e r r i c k ' s " p i l l a r of Fame" i s both a c l a s s i c a l p i l l a r and a b i b l i c a l a l t a r , and thus an apt v i s u a l symbol of h i s C h r i s t i a n Humanist w o r l d - v i e w . The c l a s s i c a l n o t i o n o f the p i l l a r and the H o r a t i a n t r o p e o f " e x e g i monumenturn" a r e , of course, primary here. But as i n "To L a u r e l s " , i t i s p o s s i b l e to d e t e c t a s a c r e d u n d e r c u r r e n t b e n e a t h the e x t e r n a l c l a s s i c a l form. For example, the p i l l a r i s presumably the a l t a r on which H e r r i c k i s s a c r i f i c e d i n "The Muses Martyrdome" (H-1128,4) men-ti o n e d i n the preceding poem. The p i l l a r , e r e c t e d o n l y a f t e r H e r r i c k ' s symbolic death, i s a ki n d of metaphysical p i l l a r which, l i k e H e r r i c k ' s fame, i s i n c o r r u p t i b l e . H e r r i c k ' s a s s e r t i o n that h i s p i l l a r i s not s u b j e c t to the s l i g h t e s t decay, t h a t i t w i l l o u t l a s t kingdoms, the rage of the "seas" and "storms" and other a p o c a l y p t i c events, demonstrates c o n c l u s i v e l y that h i s concept of fame transcends the Ho r a t i o n n o t i o n . T h i s poem a l s o r e p r e s e n t s 43 the c u l m i n a t i o n of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t r a i n of imagery i n Hesperides, which i s developed p r i n c i p a l l y i n H e r r i c k ' s epigrams of p r a i s e . Much of the d i c t i o n i n these poems i s b i b l i c a l , which accords w e l l with H e r r i c k ' s goal of b u i l d i n g a "white Temple of Heroes," a k i n d of Church of " r a r e S a i n t - s h i p s . " Or as H e r r i c k puts i t i n an e a r l i e r poem, addressed to "the most l e a r n e d , wise, and Arch-Antiquary, Master John Selden" (H-365): A C i t y here of Heroes I have made, Upon the rock, whose f i r m foundation l a i d , S h a l l never s h r i n k , where making t h i n e abode, L i v e thou a Selden, t h a t ' s a Demi-god. (11.9-12) Such words as " p i l l a r " , "rock", "foundation" and " c i t y " are key b i b l i c a l images, u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with the b u i l d i n g of the C h u rch i n the P a u l i n e e p i s t l e s and the g o s p e l s . S t . P a u l , f o r example, c a l l s the Church the " p i l l a r and ground of the t r u t h " (1 Timothy 3:15) and t a l k s of the Church being b u i l t on "the foundation of the a p o s t l e s and prophets" (Ephesians 2:20). These b i b l i c a l overtones are present i n most of H e r r i c k ' s epigrams of p r a i s e as w e l l as i n the d i c t i o n of "The P i l l a r of Fame", and help emphasize H e r r i c k ' s i d e a of Hesperides as a k i n d of "Temple" or "Testament." T h i s f u s i o n of c l a s s i c a l and b i b l i c a l d i c t i o n and ideas g i v e s H e r r i c k ' s verse a complex t e x t u r e , which i s l o s t on the c a s u a l reader who i n s i s t s on seeing H e r r i c k as a "pagan" or " C a v a l i e r " poet. F i r s t , we should note that "The P i l l a r of Fame" i s p a r t of an eight-poem epi l o g u e (H-1123-H-1130) which p a r a l l e l s an eight-poem prologue (H-l-H-8). The main s u b j e c t of both prologue and e p i l o g u e , i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, i s H e r r i c k ' s "Book. " The prologue c o n c e n t r a t e s 44 on p r e p a r i n g the reader f o r what i s to f o l l o w , g i v i n g him i n s t r u c -t i o n s on how to a p p r o a c h the book, and a d v i s i n g him to read H e r r i c k ' s l y r i c s i n a c h e e r f u l and f e s t i v e mood: IN sober mornings, doe not thou reherse The holy i n c a n t a t i o n of a verse .... (H-8,1-2) By c o n t r a s t , the e p i l o g u e i s more concerned with H e r r i c k ' s p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s Book. The book i s now i d e n t i f i e d with h i s posthumous l i f e , s i n c e i t i s the guarantee of h i s e t e r n a l fame. The book j_s "the p i l l a r of Fame" which, b e i n g grounded on a "Firme and w e l l f i x t f o u n d a t i o n , " w i l l never " D e c l i n e or waste at a l l . " The prologue and the e p i l o g u e mainly d i f f e r , then, i n the one being concerned with p r a c t i c a l advice on how the book should be read, and the other with an a s s e r t i o n of the v i c t o r y over time and death. H e r r i c k ' s book i s well-"bound" i n two senses: f i r s t , by being framed by a c l e a r beginning, middle and end, and second by being a " C i t y of Heroes" walled o f f from the t h r e a t of m u t a b i l i t y : THe bound (almost) now of my book I see, But yet no end of those t h e r e i n or me .... (H-1019,1-2) H e r r i c k f i n a l l y r e v e a l s h i m s e l f , not as the s i n g e r of t r a n s i e n c e , of decaying flowers and aging v i r g i n s , but as a poet who c e l e b r a t e s the permanent t h i n g s . One may note h e r e s e v e r a l c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e s between the prologue and e p i l o g u e . H e r r i c k ' s d i s m i s s a l of h i s "Book" (H-3) c l e a r l y p a r a l l e l s "To h i s Book" (H-1125) i n the e p i l o g u e . And h i s statement " I l ' e w r i t e no more of Love" (H-1124,1) i s a d i r e c t 45 r e c a n t a t i o n of h i s promise i n the "Argument" to "w r i t e of Youth, of Love" (H-1,5). Approaching h i s own end, H e r r i c k takes o c c a s i o n to r e c a n t h i s f o l l y (as he puts i t i n "His l a s t request to J u l i a " ) of c h a f i n g "o're much the V i r g i n s cheek or eare" (H-1095,2.). L i k e Chaucer's T r o i l u s i n the f i n a l stanzas of T r o i l u s and C r i s e y d e , H e r r i c k i s e n l i g h t e n e d about the f o o l i s h n e s s and u l t i m a t e un-importance of a l l e a r t h l y l o v e . H e r r i c k ' s c o n f e s s i o n here of the u l t i m a t e precedence of o t h e r w o r l d l y over worldy val u e s may a l s o be compared with C h r i s t ' s r e n u n c i a t i o n of human wisdom i n Pa r a d i s e  Regained. As a C h r i s t i a n Humanist, H e r r i c k ' s scheme of v a l u e s i n t h i s r e s p e c t h a r d l y d i f f e r s from M i l t o n ' s . The o t h e r w o r l d l y , medieval viewpoint i s s t i l l f o r them, when a l l i s s a i d and done, the p i n n a c l e of wisdom. H e r r i c k ' s f i n a l r e n u n c i a t i o n of the world and h i s repentance f o r the e x t r a v a g a n c e of h i s " j o c o n d " muse, a r e the n a t u r a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r "pious p i e c e s " i n Noble  Numbers: IL'e w r i t e no more of Love; but now repent Of a l l the times that I i n i t have spent .... (H-1124) The s e r i o u s tone of these l a s t poems i s q u i t e u n l i k e the "sacred O r g i e s , " f e a s t i n g and merrymaking counseled i n "When he would have h i s ve r s e s read." (H-8). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to compare H e r r i c k ' s c h o i c e of imagery i n the prologue and e p i l o g u e . N a t u r a l and p a s t o r a l images dominate the p r o l o g u e . In the "Argument", H e r r i c k promises to s i n g of "Brooks, of Blossomes, B i r d s , and Bowers" (H-1,1) and of the ceremonial a c t i v i t i e s of the human and semi-human ("Mab" and the 4 6 " F a i r i e - K i n g " ) i n h a b i t a n t s of the c o u n t r y s i d e . In the a d d r e s s "To h i s Muse" (H-2) H e r r i c k a d v i s e s h i s "Mad maiden" to shun "Courts" and " C i t i e s " and remain content with the p a s t o r a l p l e a s u r e s of the country, where "No C r i t i c k haunts the Poore martfCell." (1.22) The p o e t i c forms mentioned her e a r e the t r a d i t i o n a l p a s t o r a l genres which, from the time of V i r g i l , were c o n s i d e r e d the pro v i n c e of the young and a s p i r i n g poet: And with thy Eclogues i n t e r m i x e Some smooth, and harmlesse B e u c o l i c k s .... (11.9-10) F i n a l l y , the l a s t poem of the prologue, "When he would have h i s v e r s e s r e a d " (H-8) p r e s e n t s us with a t r a d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h manorial h a l l e mbellished with c l a s s i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s such as the " L a u r e l l " and the "Thyrse." T h i s c l a s s i c i z e d E n g l i s h landscape i s the background f o r most of H e r r i c k ' s l y r i c s . In the f i r s t h a l f of the volume, the t h r e a t of m u t a b i l i t y - the major enemy of t h i s s e m i - i d e a l i z e d landscape - i s always present, and becomes more i n s i s t e n t as H e r r i c k approaches h i s symbolic death at the end of Hesperides. But Nature i s g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e and l i f e - e n h a n c i n g i n the e a r l i e r poems. The argument of time i s used p r i n c i p a l l y to persuade men, and e s p e c i a l l y women, to take advantage of the innocent p l e a s u r e s o f f e r e d by the Hesperidean garden of "youth" and " l o v e " . Not to partake of the sprin g t i m e f e s t i v i t i e s and p l e a s u r e s i s , as H e r r i c k t e l l s Corinna, a " p r o f a n a t i o n " and a " s i n " (H-178). In c o n t r a s t to the p r o l o g u e , the e p i l o g u e i s dominated mainly by a r t i f i c i a l and a r c h i t e c t u r a l imagery. H e r r i c k changes "The L a u r e l l Crowne" f o r one "Not s u b j e c t to c o r r u p t i o n " (H-1123). 47 His " P i l l a r of Fame" i s set on an e t e r n a l and " w e l l f i x t f oundation" which w i l l never succumb to the ravages of "seas" and "storms." Nature, seen here as a d e s t r o y e r , i s the realm not only of change but a l s o of decay, c o r r u p t i o n and death. A r t , represented by H e r r i c k ' s " p i l l a r " of words ( t h a t i s , h i s book), i s now a symbol of i m m u t a b i l i t y and i m m o r t a l i t y . Throughout Hesperides, Nature and A r t are u s u a l l y seen as complementary: the l i l y i s enhanced by i t s c h r y s t a l c o v e r i n g , j u s t as J u l i a ' s beauty i s magnified by her s i l k s and j e w e l s . Art r e f i n e s , adorns and redeems the imper-f e c t i o n s of Nature. But i n the e p i l o g u e , Nature and Art are set a p a r t as a b s o l u t e i r r e c o n c i l a b l e s i n a manner that reminds one of Y e a t s ' B y z a n t i u m poems. The reason f o r t h i s k i n d of dualism, a l i e n to most of H e r r i c k ' s thought and verse, i s t h a t a f t e r h i s symbolic death i n the "Muses Martyrdome" (H-1128) Nature has been transcended and i s now seen as of l i t t l e importance. The context of "The p i l l a r of Fame" i s thus t r a n s c e n d e n t a l and o t h e r w o r l d l y -another i n d i c a t i o n t h a t H e r r i c k ' s concept of fame i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the pagan n o t i o n of fame as the unending p r a i s e of p o s t e r i t y . "The p i l l a r of Fame" b r i n g s to i t s climax a s t r a i n of a r c h i t e c -t u r a l imagery which i s i n c r e a s i n g l y prominent i n the second h a l f of Hesperides• We have a l r e a d y mentioned the P a u l i n e echoes i n the epigrams of p r a i s e , appearing i n such words as "rock", "stone", " p i l l a r " and " f o u n d a t i o n " . Indeed, s e v e r a l of the e a r l i e r poems on the i m m o r t a l i t y of poetry foreshadow H e r r i c k ' s f i n a l a s s e r t i o n of e v e r l a s t i n g fame. The " e t e r n a l l monument" of "To L a u r e l s " (H-89), as a l r e a d y noted, i s none other than H e r r i c k ' s book. In 48 " S a f e t y to look to ones s e l f e " (H-209) H e r r i c k a s s e r t s that h i s busin e s s i s not to worry about h i s neighbour but to ensure that "Firm be my fou n d a t i o n " (1.4). The "foundation" i s , as we l e a r n i n a poem on the f o l l o w i n g page, H e r r i c k ' s p o e t i c book. "His P o e t r i e h i s P i l l a r " (H-211) i s c l e a r l y a companion poem to "The p i l l a r of Fame". The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two i s that between hope and f u l f i l l m e n t , the d e s i r e f o r immortal fame and i t s f i n a l bestowal. The " p i l l a r " of poetry that H e r r i c k i s r e a r i n g i s the only defense a g a i n s t the tyranny of time. The l a s t three stanzas are a f r e e a d a p t a t i o n of Horace's exegi monumentum: How many l y e f o r g o t In V a u l t s beneath? And piece-meale r o t Without a fame i n death? Behold t h i s l i v i n g stone, I r e a r e f o r me Ne'r to be thrown Downe, envious Time by thee. P i l l a r s l e t some set up, ( I f so they p l e a s e ) Here i s my hope, And my Pyramides. The " l i v i n g stone" ( t h a t i s , H e r r i c k ' s book) can never, l i k e the r o t t i n g c o r p s e s i n " V a u l t s b e n e a t h " , be t o u c h e d by "e n v i o u s Time". The " l i v i n g stone" i s e q u i v a l e n t to the "sacred L a u r e l " which grows i n t o the " e t e r n a l l monument" of H e r r i c k (H-89). I t i s yet another b i b l i c a l a l l u s i o n (I Pe.2.4). A r c h i t e c t u r a l images here t a k e on the q u a l i t i e s of l i f e , w h i l e n a t u r a l and or g a n i c images are a s s o c i a t e d with decay and death. T h i s r e f l e c t s H e r r i c k ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f A r t w i t h e t e r n i t y , and N a t u r e w i t h t i m e . 49 H e r r i c k ' s p i l l a r of "poetry" w i l l be h i s second, immortal l i f e . I t w i l l a l s o be h i s "Pyramides" - h i s own f u n e r a l pyre (as the f a l s e etymology s u g g e s t s ) 3 ? on which he must be s a c r i f i c e d b e f o r e he wins e t e r n a l l i f e . H e r r i c k ' s concept of fame i n "His P o e t r i e h i s P i l l a r " does not d i f f e r a p p r e c i a b l y from the pagan n o t i o n c e l e b r a t e d by the L a t i n p o e t s . The humanistic understanding of fame, of course, was a l s o p r e v a l e n t d u r i n g the Renaissance, and r e c e i v e s a pure f o r m u l a t i o n i n poems such as Shakespeare's famous sonnet "Not marble, nor the g i l d e d monuments." C l e a r l y , t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of fame i s important i n Hesperides. H e r r i c k ' s heroes are c e l e b r a t e d f o r t h e i r humanistic achievements as statesmen, s o l d i e r s , s c h o l a r s and a r t i s t s , and f o r the v i r t u e s that win them a "name" i n the "white Temple" of Hesperides. But i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r c u l t u r a l accomplishments and c l a s s i c a l and c i v i c v i r t u e s , H e r r i c k ' s " r i g h t e o u s r a c e " (H-859,1.2) a l s o d i s p l a y the h i g h e r r e l i g i o u s v i r t u e s . They are c a l l e d " r a r e S a i n t - s h i p s " (H-496,1.3) and are commemorated i n H e r r i c k ' s " e t e r n a l l Calender" of " S a i n t s " (H-545). In other words, they are examples of the good C h r i s t i a n humanist which was H e r r i c k ' s h e r o i c i d e a l . T h e r e f o r e , H e r r i c k ' s concept of fame i s not s o l e l y humanistic. I t can mean at one and the same time fame on e a r t h and fame i n heaven. As M i l t o n w r i t e s i n L y c i d a s , "Fame i s no p l a n t t h a t grows on mortal s o i l " (1. 78). H e r r i c k ' s h i e r a r -c h i c a l v i s i o n of the cosmos does not permit him to make any sharp d i s t i n c t i o n between the " s e c u l a r " and the "sacred." Indeed, the 5 0 modern i d e a of s e c u l a r i s m , which makes a f i r m d i s t i n c t i o n between c u l t u r e and r e l i g i o n , i s completely a l i e n to H e r r i c k ' s world-view. There i s , then, no r e a l c o n f l i c t between these two senses of fame, the humanistic and the C h r i s t i a n . But the ideat of fame as e t e r n a l l i f e i s s t r e s s e d i n the " o t h e r w o r l d l y " c o n t e x t of the e p i l o g u e . H e r r i c k here s u f f e r s i n "The Muses Martyrdom" (H-1128) - another of those many p h r a s e s which c o n f l a t e c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n a s s o c i a t i o n s . Of course, martyrdom i s the very negation of egoism and p r i d e . By i d e n t i f y i n g the w r i t i n g of v e r s e w i t h s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , H e r r i c k c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t hat h i s quest f o r fame i s not motivated by a d e s i r e f o r p e r s o n a l g l o r y . As a s a c r i f i c i a l a l t a r , "The P i l l a r of Fame" has the same f u n c t i o n and p l a c e as does " T h i s Crosse-Tree here" (N-268) i n Noble Numbers - an example of one of the many c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e s between H e r r i c k ' s two p o e t i c a l books: FAmes p i l l a r here, at l a s t , we s e t , Out-during Marble, Brasse or J e t , Charm'd and enchanted so, As to withstand the blow Of overthrow: Nor s h a l l the seas, Or O U T R A G E S Of storms orebear What we up-rear, Tho Kingdoms f a l , T h i s p i l l a r never s h a l l D e c l i n e or waste at a l l ; But stand f o r ever by h i s owne Firme and w e l l f i x t f o u n d a t i o n . There are a number of deserve comment. F i r s t the poem, i n which the p r o s o d i c and p o e t i c e f f e c t s h e r e t h a t , n o t i c e the p e r f e c t b i l a t e r a l symmetry of second p a r t i s a p e r f e c t m i r r o r image of 51 the f i r s t p a r t . The l o n g t e t r a m e t e r and t r i m e t e r l i n e s are a s s o c i a t e d with s t a b i l i t y and permanence. The f i r s t and the l a s t l i n e s are c l o s e l y l i n k e d by t h e i r c o n t e n t and sound p a t t e r n s . Both are s t r o n g statements of the e t e r n i t y of fame, have a s i m i l a r a u r a l shape, and c o n t a i n r h y t h m i c s u b s t i t u t i o n s i n the f i r s t f o o t . On the other hand, the s h o r t dimeter l i n e s are a s s o c i a t e d with the "outrages" which t h r e a t e n the s t a b i l i t y of the p i l l a r : the "seas" and "storms", or the d e s t r u c t i v e power of time. E a r t h l y kingdoms, such as the S t u a r t monarchy destroyed by the "storms" of the C i v i l War, w i l l a l l d i s s o l v e and wither away. The a p o c a l y p t i c events of the middle l i n e s w i l l wipe away a l l t r a c e s of b o t h N a t u r e and c i v i l i z a t i o n . Yet the p i l l a r w i l l stand. On the formal l e v e l , we can see how the longer l i n e s p r o v i d e a framework which c o n t a i n s the chaos and "outrages" s e t i n the middle of the poem. T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o the l a r g e r framework o f o r d e r and s t a b i l i t y which the prologue and e p i l o g u e p r o v i d e f o r the book as a whole. Here, too, the t h r e a t s to the H e s p e r i d e a n garden -time, aging, death - are countered and defeated by the t r a n s c e n d e n t a l and immutable realm represented by A r t . "The p i l l a r of Fame" i s thus a s p l e n d i d and f i t t i n g c o n c l u s i o n to the volume. I t r e p r e s e n t s the f u l f i l l m e n t of H e r r i c k ' s quest f o r i m m o r t a l i t y which i s h i s major j o u r n e y i n H e s p e r i d e s . I t i s the goal of the "wearied p i l g r i m " (H-1088,1) who walks " L i f e ' s p i l g r i m a g e " (H-519) i n Hesperides (See a l s o H-306 & H-617). F i n a l l y , as H e r r i c k puts i t i n "To Crowne i t " , the end of h i s book i s "The Haven reacht to which I f i r s t was bound" (H-1127). Indeed, the e p i l o g u e c o n t a i n s 52 i r r e f u t a b l e evidence that H e r r i c k c o n s i d e r e d h fs work as a u n i f i e d and complete p o e t i c a l book. F i n a l l y , "The P i l l a r o f Fame," i t should be noted, i s a masterpiece of v e r s i f i c a t i o n and p o e t i c form. The l i n e s are c a s t i n H e r r i c k ' s b e s t epigrammatic and "monumental" s t y l e . N o t i c e the l o n g o' s which c o n t r i b u t e t o the expansive, sonorous and a s s e r t i v e tone of t h i s t r i u m p h a l poem (See the t r i p l e - r h y m e "so / blow / overthrow," and "Tho" and "owne"). Or c o n s i d e r the heavy a l l i t e r a t i o n and assonance which make the l a s t l i n e the most r e s o n a n t i n the whole poem. The m e t r i c a l e x p a n s i o n of "fo u n d a t i o n " makes i t the key-word of poem, and a p p r o p r i a t e l y so, s i n c e t h i s i s the "f o u n d a t i o n " of t r u t h on which H e r r i c k ' s fame and the whole e d i f i c e of h i s "white Temple" (H-496,1) r e s t s . The b i b l i c a l overtones of t h i s word are u n m i s t a k a b l e (See I s a i a h 28:16; 1 Cor. 3:10 & Eph 2:20). But the sound p a t t e r n which g i v e s most resonance i s the re c u r r e n c e of the "or" and "ar" sound. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h i s i s a sound which dominates the e p i l o g u e , o c c u r r i n g more o f t e n than the t ' s and d's which end a good number of the rhymes. We l i s t here i t s major o c c u r r e n c e s : " l a b o u r " , " L a u r e l l " , and " c o r r u p t i o n " (H-1123); "more" (H-1124); " f o r t h " , " f o r t u n a t e " and " h a r b o u r " (H-1125); "work" and "Anchor" (H-1126); "wearied" and "Barke" (H-1127); "worke", " c u r i e s " , "Coronet" and "comfort" (H-1128). In "The P i l l a r of Fame" t h i s sound i s heard i n almost every l i n e . O b viously, the ep i l o g u e i s t i g h t l y u n i f i e d by i t s imagery and sound p a t t e r n s . The image of the crown and coronet, f o r 53 example, r e c u r s throughout the e p i l o g u e . H e r r i c k exchanges the " L a u r e l l Crowne" of e a r t h l y fame f o r the " M i r t l e Coronet" of "the Muses Martyrdome." In t h i s way, he hopes to be rewarded with a crown "Not s u b j e c t to c o r r u p t i o n " (H-1123,6). Then there i s the image of the s h i p which, h a v i n g r e a c h e d the s a f e "Haven" f o r which i t was "bound" , i s a b l e to c a s t i t s "Anchor" be f o r e i t resumes i t s j o u r n e y i n Noble Numbers. (H-1126). The s h i p i s i d e n t i f i e d with H e r r i c k and h i s book - he hopes that a "kinsman" or " f r i e n d " w i l l "harbour" h i s "book" while h i s " f a t e s neglected l y e " (H-1125). The j u x t a p o s i t i o n of the n a u t i c a l and crown imagery i n "To Crowne i t " (H-1127) makes H e r r i c k ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with h i s book un e q u i v o c a l : MY wearied Barke, 0 Let i t now be Crown'd! The Haven reacht to which I f i r s t was bound. One c o u l d go on to d i s c o v e r many more such i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s , i n image, word, and sound, which bind the e i g h t poems of the e p i l o g u e i n t o a complex u n i t y . I t h i n k , though, that i t i s c l e a r by now t h a t none of H e r r i c k ' s poems can be r e a d i_n vacuo, but must always be read i n the context of the e n t i r e volume. Any c l o s e r e a d i n g s which ignore or minimize t h i s o v e r a l l context are bound to be p a r t i a l and inadequate. CHAPTER III Herrick's Amatory Verse: "Cleanly-Wantonnesse" and the Scale of Love In t h i s chapter we s h a l l c o n s i d e r H e r r i c k ' s amatory verse, and c h a l l e n g e the r e c e i v e d view of H e r r i c k as a s e c o n d - r a t e lo v e poet. We s h a l l r e v i e w some of the n e g a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s of the amatory verse, and then go on to demonstrate that Hesperides, l i k e Jonson's F o r e s t and Herbert's Temple, i s s t r u c t u r e d a c c o r d i n g to a s c a l e of l o v e . J u s t as H e r r i c k u n i t e s humanistic and C h r i s t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e s i n h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of fame, so he harmonizes profane and sacred aspects of lov e i n the paradox of " c l e a n l y -wantonnesse." Profane l o v e , the image of the d i v i n e l o v e which i s i t s u l t i m a t e source, can s e r v e as a s t e p p i n g - s t o n e t o the realm of the s a c r e d . The sequence of H e r r i c k ' s l o v e poems r e f l e c t s t h i s s c a l e of l o v e : we f i n d a gen e r a l movement from a "profane" to a "sacred" context, from an understanding of lov e as a human pa s s i o n t o one t h a t views l o v e as a k i n d o f s a c r a m e n t . The e x t e n s i v e r e l i g i o u s and l i t u r g i c a l imagery i n the l a t t e r p a r t of Hesperides s i g n a l s t h i s " t r a n s - s h i f t i n g , " as H e r r i c k puts i t i n "The Argument", from the red rose of e a r t h l y l o v e to the white l i l y of s p i r i t u a l l o v e (see H - l , 10). H e r r i c k ' s book, l i k e "The Argument", thus d i s p l a y s a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e , a p r o g r e s s i o n from the e a r t h l y to the o t h e r w o r l d l y . H e r r i c k , however, i s not u s u a l l y thought of as an i n s p i r i n g love poet, at l e a s t when measured a g a i n s t most readers' notions about what makes good lo v e p o e t r y . We f i n d i n Hesperides none 54 55 of the p a s s i o n and f e r v o u r of Donne, l i t t l e of the h i g h - f l o w n i d e a l i s m of Spenser, Sidney and the E l i z a b e t h a n sonneteers, or even the genuine e r o t i c p a s s i o n of Ovid, C a t u l l u s and the L a t i n e l e g i s t s . There i s something r a t h e r c o o l and d i s t a n t i n H e r r i c k ' s approach to e r o t i c l o v e , which reminds one of Anacreon and Horace, the c l a s s i c a l p o e t s on whom H e r r i c k models h i s persona as the aging and "wisely-wanton" l o v e r (H-289). H e r r i c k ' s m i s t r e s s e s , t o o , bear scant resemblance to r e a l women. They are not meant to. His J u l i a s , Antheas, C o r i n n a s , Sapphos, E l e c t r a s and the r e s t are pure c r e a t u r e s of the i m a g i n a t i o n , and possess a grace, comeliness and e t h e r e a l i t y found nowhere i n t h i s nether sphere. H e r r i c k i s the connoisseur of t h i s gorgeous t r a i n of l a d i e s , not t h e i r l o v e r ; he most o f t e n remains content to admire them a t a s a f e d i s t a n c e as ob j e t s d' a r t , w h i l e he p r a i s e s t h e i r p a r t s , p r o p o r t i o n s , d r e s s , manners and accomplishments. T h i s i s not t o deny t h a t a s t r o n g e r o t i c element e x i s t s i n H e r r i c k ' s v e r s e . The m i s t r e s s e s and nymphs who i n h a b i t h i s "Sacred Grove" are i n c r e d i b l y a l l u r i n g i n t h e i r sensuous s i l k s , r i c h perfumes and jewel-bedecked a t t i r e . Yet, c u r i o u s l y enough, they seem to present to H e r r i c k l i t t l e i n t e r e s t beyond the a e s t h e t i c dimension. E r o t i c p a s s i o n has been sublimated, or (to use H e r r i c k ' s s u p e r b p h r a s e ) " t r a n s - s h i f t e d " t o the r e a l m of a r t . Indeed, H e r r i c k appears to make no r e a l d i s t i n c t i o n between e r o t i c p a s s i o n and a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y . "No l u s t t h e r e s l i k e to Poetry" (H-336,112) says H e r r i c k to " h i s p e c u l i a r f r i e n d , Master John Wickes" i n a l o n g H o r a t i a n ode on o l d age and the good l i f e . Apparently, 56 H e r r i c k i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n wooing the Muses than h i s m i s t r e s s e s , who t h e m s e l v e s a r e l i t t l e more than embodiments of a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s and aspects of the p o e t i c c r a f t . 3 8 The l i t e r a r y nature of H e r r i c k ' s l o v e s i s , of c o u r s e , f a r from unique i n seventeenth-century p o e t r y . What perhaps d i s t i n -guishes H e r r i c k i s that he r e v e l s i n such a r t i f i c e and always l e t s h i s reader i n on the joke that h i s l y r i c s are the amorous daydreams of an aging b a c h e l o r e x i l e d to "the d u l l c o n f i n e s of the d r o o p i n g West" (H.713,1). Even h i s most b l a t a n t l y e r o t i c poems t u r n out to be c o n f e s s i o n s of h i s inadequacy as a l o v e r . In "The V i s i o n " (H-142) - and, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , H e r r i c k ' s most e r o t i c poems almost always take the form of a v i s i o n or dream -H e r r i c k makes a f o o l i s h and hopeless attempt to k i s s the "tempting nakedness" of a D i a n a - l i k e wood nymph, only to be warded o f f by her m y r t l e wand and the reproach: " H e r r i c k , thou a r t too coorse to l o v e " (H-142, 22). E v i d e n t l y , H e r r i c k denies h i m s e l f e r o t i c f u l f i l l m e n t even i n h i s v i s i o n s and dreams. Nor does h i s s e l f -c o n f e s s e d l a c k of e x p e r i e n c e i n the a r s a m a t o r i a do much to enhance h i s r e p u t a t i o n as a l o v e poet: To h i s Book's end t h i s l a s t l i n e he'd have p l a c ' t , Jocond h i s Muse was; but h i s L i f e was c h a s t . (H-1130) To the reader weaned on Romantic lo v e poetry who expects a l y r i c t o v o i c e the p o e t ' s i n n e r b e i n g and p a s s i o n s , t h i s c o n t r i v e d s e p a r a t i o n between l i f e and a r t must appear d i s a p p o i n t i n g . Such verse i s o f t e n dismissed as " r h e t o r i c a l " , by which i s u s u a l l y meant " c e r e b r a l " and " i n s i n c e r e " . But even t h o s e r e a d e r s who 57 f i n d H e r r i c k ' s p e r s i s t e n t self-mockery, h i s many d i a t r i b e s a g a i n s t l o v e and marriage, and h i s persona as the "wisely-wanton" l o v e r q u i t e w i t t y and e n t e r t a i n i n g might conclude that H e r r i c k (perhaps because of h i s wit and p l a y f u l n e s s ) need not be taken s e r i o u s l y as a l o v e poet. Worse s t i l l , the well-worn e p i t h e t s of " t r i v i a l " and " c a v a l i e r " are only too ready at hand to e x p l a i n the apparent shortcomings of H e r r i c k ' s amatory v e r s e . H e r r i c k has never been ranked high as a l o v e poet; he has, however, r e c e i v e d more than an adequate share of c r i t i c a l abuse f o r the a p p a r e n t l a c k o f p a s s i o n and i n s i n c e r i t y of h i s love l y r i c s . Some c r i t i c s f i n d H e r r i c k ' s l y r i c s v o y e u r i s t i c , the product of an o l d l e c h e r who t i t i l l a t e s h i m s e l f with h a l f - u n d r e s s i n g h i s imaginary harem of m i s t r e s s e s , s u f f e r s from a f e t i s h f o r p e t t i c o a t s , s i l k s , b r a c e l e t s and other feminine adornments, and who ( i n George M e r e d i t h ' s p h r a s e ) f i d d l e s " harmonics on the s t r i n g s o f s e n s u a l i s m . " J.B. Broadbent, f o r i n s t a n c e , regards H e r r i c k as a decadent Spenserian whose love poems l a c k s e x u a l i t y ; he f i n d s h i s " p r e t t y l e w d n e s s " 3 9 b o r i n g and h i s p e r s o n a l i t y "nasty."40 j n the same v e i n , John Press c h a r a c t e r i z e s H e r r i c k as a "pure s e n s u a l i s t " whose e r o t i c poems, however, a r e " f a i n t l y u n p l e a s a n t because h i s s e n s u a l i t y i s lukewarm and a d u l t e r a t e d w i t h s e l f - c o n s c i o u s roguishness." Press a l s o judges H e r r i c k ' s c o a r s e e p i g r a m s not o n l y " p o i n t l e s s and d u l l " but " d i r t y " as well.41 Most c r i t i c i s m , of course, does not go to such extremes i n f i n d i n g f a u l t w i t h H e r r i c k ' s l o v e p o e t r y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , H e r r i c k has o f t e n been taken to task f o r h i s l a c k of ardour and 58 lukewarm e r o t i c i s m . Even Douglas Bush, whose comments on H e r r i c k a r e always s e n s i b l e and w e l l - c o n s i d e r e d , c o n s i d e r s H e r r i c k a " c o o l - h e a r t e d " l o v e r whose poems seldom r i s e to true p a s s i o n or "enshrine the i d e a l a t t i t u d e of the c a v a l i e r . " 4 2 Since Hesperides i s by and l a r g e a c o l l e c t i o n of l o v e poems, such adverse c r i t i c i s m has no doubt harmed H e r r i c k ' s r e p u t a t i o n and promoted the common view t h a t h i s p o i s e d and g r a c e f u l l y r i c s are d e f i c i e n t i n b o t h p a s s i o n and i n t e l l e c t u a l content. Any defense, then, of Hesperides as an important and s e r i o u s p o e t i c a l book must come to g r i p s with the problem of the love l y r i c s , and answer the charges t h a t have f r e q u e n t l y been l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t them. F i r s t of a l l , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d i s p e l the n o t i o n that good lo v e poetry must somehow r e f l e c t the p o e t ' s own p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s , t h a t i t must be an a u t h e n t i c r e c o r d of h i s own r a p t u r e or d e s p a i r as a l o v e r . To the s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r e a d e r t h e i d e a t h a t a l o v e l y r i c must be " n a t u r a l " or " s i n c e r e " would appear strange indeed; he may w e l l have regarded an outpouring of p e r s o n a l p a s s i o n as a mark of i m m a t u r i t y and bad t a s t e . The poet's purpose was to d i s p l a y h i s t a l e n t and v i r t u o s i t y i n the a r t f u l and w i t t y h a n d l i n g of t r a d i t i o n a l themes, conventions and s i t u a t i o n s - something at which H e r r i c k , by any reckoning, e x c e l s . The modern reader ( e s p e c i a l l y when readi n g Jonson and h i s Sons) would do w e l l not to impose h i s own a t t i t u d e s about l o v e and poetry on Renaissance amatory v e r s e . I t should be remembered, too, t h a t the word " a r t i f i c i a l " d i d not have the c o n n o t a t i o n s of " i n s i n c e r i t y " and "phoniness" 59 t h a t surround i t today. An " a r t i f i c i a l " poem was one t h a t was " w e l l wrought;" an " a r t i f i c i a l " poet was one who was s k i l l f u l i n h i s c r a f t . According to Renaissance a e s t h e t i c s , the " a r t i -f i c i a l " and the " n a t u r a l " were complementary: A r t , f a r from opposing Nature, a c t u a l l y heightens and r e f i n e s i t . 4 3 H e r r i c k , with h i s g i f t f o r b r e v i t y , s t a t e s s u c c i n c t l y the R e n a i s s a n c e t h e o r y t h a t A r t h e l p s Nature by smoothing out i t s rough spots and c o r r e c t i n g i t s i m p e r f e c t i o n s : ART quickens Nature; Care w i l l make a f a c e :  Neglected beauty p e r i s h e t h apace. (H-234) An assumed p a s s i o n or mask i n lov e poetry can "quicken" Nature, and r e f i n e and i d e a l i z e t hought and f e e l i n g - something that the a n t i - t r a d i t i o n a l l o v e poet who r e l i e s on h i s own l i m i t e d i n n e r r e s o u r c e s and t r i e s to w r i t e " n a t u r a l " verse perhaps cannot do. T r a d i t i o n , convention and a r t i f i c e , i n s t e a d of being i n h i b i t i n g , can open to the a r t i s t means of e x p r e s s i o n and technique beyond the grasp of the a n t i - t r a d i t i o n a l o r " n a t u r a l " a r t i s t . What music a l form i s more a r t i f i c i a l than opera, which n e v e r t h e l e s s i s the i d e a l m u s i c a l v e h i c l e f o r the d r a m a t i z a t i o n and c e l e b r a t i o n of romantic love? To d i s m i s s H e r r i c k because h i s amatory verse i s a r t i f i c i a l , c o n v e n t i o n a l or impersonal simply w i l l not do. There i s a more c o n v i n c i n g e x p l a n a t i o n f o r why H e r r i c k ' s l o v e poetry i s i m p e r s o n a l : H e r r i c k i s the " c o o l - h e a r t e d " and impersonal l o v e r because h i s amatory verse i s t r a d i t i o n a l , p h i l o s o -p h i c a l and, t h e r e f o r e , u n i v e r s a l . H e r r i c k i s f a r more i n t e r e s t e d i n e l a b o r a t i n g a philosophy of l o v e i n Hesperides than i n r e c o r d i n g 60 h i s shortcomings as a l o v e r or h i s e r o t i c f a n t a s i e s . Now, t o c a l l H e r r i c k a p h i l o s o p h i c a l poet may come as something of a s u r -p r i s e ; i t c e r t a i n l y c h a l l e n g e s the r e c e i v e d c r i t i c a l view t h a t H e r r i c k ' s verse i s d e f i c i e n t i n i n t e l l e c t u a l c o ntent. N e v e r t h e l e s s , h i s amatory verse and h i s understanding of love are demonstrably indebted to the Renaissance philosophy of l o v e , which i t s e l f i s an amalgam of C h r i s t i a n , Neo-Platonic and A r t i s t o t e l i a n elements. We s h a l l , t h e r e f o r e , b r i e f l y o u t l i n e the Renaissance theory of l o v e here to provide a background f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of H e r r i c k ' s amatory v e r s e . 4 4 The F l o r e n t i n e Neo-Platonist's, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e i r i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s of P l a t o ' s Phaedrus and Symposium, d e v e l o p e d the theory that the s o u l can be ennobled and l e d upward by the contem-p l a t i o n of a woman's beauty to the contemplation of a b s t r a c t and i n t e l l e c t u a l beauty. The u l t i m a t e goal of t h i s s p i r i t u a l ascent i s , of course, the knowledge and the l o v e of God. E a r t h l y beauty i s a r e f l e c t i o n of heavenly beauty; human love a s tepping-stone to d i v i n e l o v e . I t i s important to note that profane and sacred love are not opposed here, but are understood as lower and higher l e v e l s of the same s c a l e or ladder of l o v e . T h i s theory of l o v e was an important p a r t of the i n t e l l e c t u a l background of the age, and had a profound and l a s t i n g impact on Western poetry . I t i s f u l l y s e t f o r t h i n C a r d i n a l Bembo's i n f l u e n t i a l d i s c o u r s e on love i n C a s t i g l i o n e ' s The Book of the C o u r t i e r , and r e c e i v e s i t s f i n e s t p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n i n E n g l i s h i n Spenser's Fowre Hymmes. For a b r i e f statement of the theory, we can do no b e t t e r than 61 quote M i l t o n ' s Raphael who i n s t r u c t s Adam, i n t h e manner of a F l o r e n t i n e N e o - P l a t o n i s t , that a true and r a t i o n a l l o v e of Eve can l i f t him to the p i n n a c l e of "heav'nly l o v e " : ... Love r e f i n e s The thoughts, and heart e n l a r g e s , hath h i s seat In Reason, and i s j u d i c i o u s , i s the s c a l e By which to heav'nly l o v e thou may'st ascend ... (PL, Bk. V I I I , 589-92) The theory r e s t e d on t h e b e l i e f t h a t man has a d u a l n a t u r e , sensuous and i n t e l l e c t u a l , and that the apprehension of sensuous beauty i s a necessary p r e p a r a t i o n f o r enjoyment of the unchanging and e t e r n a l b e a u t y which can o n l y be apprehended by the mind. I t was, t h e r e f o r e , one which o b v i o u s l y h e l d great appeal f o r poets and a r t i s t s , who found i n the t h e o r y a ready-made j u s t i f i c a -t i o n f o r t h e i r works. H e r r i c k , a d m i t t e d l y , nowhere s t a t e s the theory d i d a c t i c a l l y as do Spenser or M i l t o n , nor does he adopt the f a s h i o n a b l e and a b s u r d poses of the " P l a t o n i c k Lover" who earned the scorn and r i d i c u l e o f such m i d - c e n t u r y p o e t s as C l e v e l a n d and H e r b e r t of Cherbury. We f i n d i n Hesperides no s t r u g g l i n g s o u l s imprisoned i n f l e s h l y houses of c l a y , awakened by the beauty of t h e i r m i s t r e s s to ascend a l a d d e r of l o v e ending at the gates of heaven, there to be enraptured by a v i s i o n of heavenly beauty. For t h i s reason, H e r r i c k cannot, s t r i c t l y speaking, be c a l l e d a P l a t o n i c poet, as can Spenser or the Cambridge P l a t o n i s t Henry More. What must be s t r e s s e d , however, i s that H e r r i c k a p p r o p r i a t e s the metaphysics of the Renaissance theory of l o v e , r e i n t e r p r e t i n g i t w i t h i n the c o n v e n t i o n s , images and i d e a s of c l a s s i c a l amatory v e r s e . In 62 t h i s sense, H e r r i c k i s the exact o p p o s i t e of a poet l i k e S h e l l e y , who adopts i n h i s love poetry the imagery and poses of Neo-Platonism and the " P l a t o n i c k Lover", while r e j e c t i n g N e o - P l a t o n i c meta-p h y s i c s . H e r r i c k ' s c e n t r a l paradox of "cleanly-wantonnesse," which c o l o u r s n e a r l y a l l of h i s amatory v e r s e , means much more than j u s t the i n n o c e n t p l e a s u r e t h a t i s p o s s i b l e i n the t i m e l e s s A r c a d i a of h i s Hesperidean garden. The concept at f i r s t appears to be based on the Epicurean e t h i c that p l e a s u r e i s the h i g h e s t good. And, on one l e v e l , "cleanly-wantonnesse" does indeed mean e r o t i c d e s i r e f r e e d from s t r i c t moral r e s t r a i n t . One can d e t e c t a k i n d of polemic here a g a i n s t the P u r i t a n s , most apparent when H e r r i c k warns the "soure Reader" and " r i g i d Cato" at the o u t s e t t h a t h i s verse i s not f o r them. The P u r i t a n and the l i b e r t i n e , both e x t r e m i s t s , would put a b l i g h t on n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t s , one by r e p r e s s i n g them and the o t h e r by p e r v e r t i n g them. " C l e a n l y -wantonnesse," t h e n , r e p r e s e n t s i n n o c e n t n a t u r a l d e s i r e which s u f f e r s from n e i t h e r the o p p r e s s i v e l e g a l i s m of the P u r i t a n nor the p r u r i e n c e of the l i b e r t i n e . Sometimes H e r r i c k t r e a t s " c l e a nly-wantonnesse" as a k i n d of mean between s t r a i t - l a c e d v i r t u e and inhuman p u r i t y , on the one hand, and m o r a l l a x i t y and u n d i s c i p l i n e d "wantonnesse" on the o t h e r . H e r r i c k would have h i s m i s t r e s s "Pure enough, though not P r e c i s e " (H-665, 4 ) . She i s n e i t h e r the u n a p p r o a c h a b l e and e t h e r e a l m i s t r e s s worshipped by the " P l a t o n i c k L o v e r " , nor the s l i g h t l y demure but w i l l i n g m i s t r e s s wooed by the c y n i c a l 63 c a v a l i e r s . She i s n e i t h e r a s a i n t nor a "wanton." H e r r i c k h e r e d i s p l a y s a r e f i n e m e n t o f e t h i c a l p e r c e p t i o n , a r e j e c t i o n of the e i t h e r / o r m e n t a l i t y not s h a r e d by many of h i s contem-p o r a r i e s . H e r r i c k , t h e n , i s n e i t h e r s t r i c t l y i d e a l i s t i c nor s t r i c t l y r e a l i s t i c i n h i s amatory v e r s e : h i s lov e l y r i c s d i s p l a y t h a t d i a l e c t i c of " A r t " and "Nature", order and freedom, which g i v e s them t h e i r "wilde c i v i l i t y . " But " c l e a n l y - w a n t o n n e s s e , " l i k e so many of H e r r i c k ' s key-concepts, has a double-sense and must be i n t e r p r e t e d as b o t h a n a t u r a l i s t i c and m e t a p h y s i c a l i d e a . " C l e a n l y - w a n t o n n e s s e , " as w e l l as s i g n i f y i n g i n n o c e n t p l e a s u r e o r the mean between o v e r - r i g i d s e x u a l m o r a l i t y and l i c e n t i o u s n e s s , r e p r e s e n t s a union o f s a c r e d and p r o f a n e modes of l o v e . A t y p i c a l image of t h i s u n i o n o f c h a s t i t y and e r o t i c p a s s i o n i s the marriage of the l i l y and the rose (H-124). The paradox, i n f a c t , presupposes a Neo-Platonic s c a l e of l o v e . J u s t as man occupies the c e n t r a l s t a t i o n on the s c a l e of nature, u n i t i n g i n h i s person the c o r p o r e a l nature of the beasts and the i n t e l l e c t u a l nature of the angels, so "cleanly-wantonnesse" occupies an analogous p o s i t i o n on the s c a l e of l o v e . I t i s the type of lo v e b e s t - s u i t e d to man with h i s dual nature, the type of lo v e which best balances the claims of t h i s world and the next. T h e r e f o r e , H e r r i c k ' s Neo-Epicureanism, h i s c onstant i n j u n c t i o n s to s e i z e the day and enjoy l i f e to the f u l l are i n no e s s e n t i a l c o n f l i c t with the higher imperatives of sacred love or the C h r i s t i a n l o v e c e l e b r a t e d i n Noble Numbers -64 p r o v i d e d , however, that each k i n d of l o v e observes i t s due p l a c e on a u n i v e r s a l s c a l e of l o v e . That H e r r i c k does not r e g a r d p r o f a n e and sacred l o v e as at odds i s demonstrated by the extent of l i t u r g i c a l symbolism and s c r i p t u r a l a l l u s i o n i n h i s amatory v e r s e . T h i s mixing of the s a c r e d and the profane, which might w e l l have seemed blasphemous t o many seventeenth-century readers, H e r r i c k a p t l y c a l l s "Loves  R e l i g i o n " (H-38, 5 ) . Most l i k e l y , t h i s n o t i o n of a r e l i g i o n of l o v e i s i n p a r t d e r i v e d from the medieval t r a d i t i o n of c o u r t l y l o v e , and i n p a r t from the f a s h i o n a b l e P l a t o n i z i n g which invaded E n g l i s h l e t t e r s a f t e r H e n r i e t t a Maria i n t r o d u c e d a P l a t o n i c c u l t o f l o v e t o the E n g l i s h c o u r t . 4 5 Whatever i t s source, "Loves  R e l i g i o n " admirably sums up H e r r i c k ' s a t t i t u d e to l o v e as a power which can p u r i f y , e l e v a t e and b r i n g one to the t h r e s h o l d of the s a c r e d . E r o t i c p a s s i o n and e a r t h l y l o v e , a c c o r d i n g to t h i s view, can shadow f o r t h and serve as stepping-stones to the d i v i n e l o v e which i s t h e i r u l t i m a t e source. As we s h a l l see, a g e n e r a l movement from profane to sacred l o v e can be observed i n Hesperides• The l a t t e r poems e x h i b i t an abundance of sacred and l i t u r g i c a l i magery. J u l i a , no l o n g e r the "wanton" she had once been, i s now a p r i e s t e s s e and s a i n t i n "Loves R e l i g i o n . " H e r r i c k ' s a t t i t u d e to l o v e has changed as w e l l . Love i s no longer a game, or a form of r e f i n e d l u s t , but a power which can promote s p i r i t u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n . H e r r i c k (as a persona) has matured throughout Hesperides, now s e e i n g l o v e as a u n i v e r s a l and d i v i n e power. He has l e f t b e h i n d the l i m i t e d 65 vi e w p o i n t of the " c a v a l i e r " l o v e r who was wrapped up i n h i s e r o t i c f a n t a s i e s or l o v e - s i c k n e s s . In f a c t , H e r r i c k begins to c e l e b r a t e s a c r i f i c i a l love i n these l a t t e r poems, he hi m s e l f now b e i n g p u r i f i e d by the " f i r e and martyrdom of l o v e " (H-449, 4 ) . U l t i m a t e l y , H e r r i c k r e t r a c t s e a r t h l y l o v e , i n t h e manner of a good medieval C h r i s t i a n , as he prepares f o r h i s symbolic death i n the "Muses martyrdom": I Have been wanton, and too b o l d I f e a r e , To chafe o're much the V i r g i n s cheek or eare .... (H-1095, 1-2) and, echoing the thematic catalogue of the "Argument": IL'e w r i t e no more of Love; but now repent Of a l l those times that I i n i t have spent .... (H-1124, 1-2) Having repented of the l i n e s "pen'd" by h i s "wanton Wit" ( N - l , 3) H e r r i c k i s ready to s i n g of d i v i n e l o v e i n Noble Numbers. These l a t t e r poems d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t H e r r i c k had a p l a n f o r h i s volume a l l along - to cover the whole extent of "humane" l o v e , up to the p o i n t where i t i s u l t i m a t e l y superseded by " d i v i n e " l o v e . The end of Hesperides i s , i n the sense, the beginning of Noble Numbers; as H e r r i c k puts i t i n one of the c o u p l e t s of the e p i l o g u e , "Part of the worke remains*" (H-1126, 1). H e r r i c k ' s own journey through h i s book, which he l i k e n s to a p i l g r i m a g e , ends at the h i g h e s t grade of r e a l i t y where e a r t h l y l o v e and, indeed, nature are l e f t f a r behind. The p e r s p e c t i v e here i s u n i v e r s a l and "metaphysical." T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n of the book a c c o r d i n g to a 66 s c a l e of being and a s c a l e of love allows one to c a l l H e r r i c k ( i n some sense) a " p h i l o s o p h i c a l " or "metaphysical" poet. But whatever l a b e l we use to d e s c r i b e H e r r i c k , we should be aware t h a t these t r o p e s and ideas are i n s e p a r a b l e from the s t r u c t u r e of the book. H e r r i c k ' s ideas are worked i n t o the very t e x t u r e and s t r u c t u r e of v e r s e . In a l l s u c c e s s f u l verse, form and content, of course, are i n s e p a r a b l e . But one f e e l s t h i s i s true of H e r r i c k with e s p e c i a l f o r c e . A l y r i c which e x e m p l i f i e s H e r r i c k ' s amatory i d e a l at i t s hi g h e s t l e v e l i s "A Ring Presented to J u l i a " (H-172). The poem i s a m a r r i a g e p r o p o s a l t o J u l i a , and t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t s a departure from H e r r i c k ' s t y p i c a l a n t i - m a r r i a g e stance, a b r e a c h of h i s vow t o "never take a wife / To c r u c i f i c my l i f e " (H-31, 3-4). L i k e many of H e r r i c k ' s poems, t h i s l y r i c i s based on a submerged paradox. The paradox here i s what H e r r i c k elsewhere c a l l s "Freedome i n C a p t i v i t y , " (H-169, 10) and i s worked out i n the extended comparison between the r i n g and i d e a l l o v e : J U l i a , I b r i n g To thee t h i s Ring, Made f o r thy f i n g e r f i t ; To shew by t h i s , That our lov e i s (Or sho'd be) l i k e to i t . Close though i t be, The j o y n t i s f r e e : So when Love's yoke i s on, It must not g a l l , Or f r e t at a l l With hard o p p r e s s i o n . But i t must play S t i l l e i t h e r way; And be, too, such a yoke, 67 As not too wide, To o v e r - s i d e ; Or be so s t r a i t to choak. So we, who beare, T h i s beame, must reare Our s e l v e s to such a h e i g h t : As that the stay Of e i t h e r may Create the burden l i g h t . And as t h i s round Is no were found To flaw, or e l s e to sever: So l e t our l o v e As endless prove; And pure as Gold f o r ever. Two d i f f e r e n t but e q u a l l y one-sided a t t i t u d e s to l o v e are brought together here and r e s o l v e d i n the t e n s i o n of a paradox. The f i r s t views l o v e as a form of s l a v e r y , a yoke of "hard oppres-s i o n . " Throughout H e s p e r i d e s we f i n d images of bondage and s l a v e r y , o f t e n i n a humorous context, a p p l i e d to l o v e and marriage. At times, H e r r i c k i s bound to h i s m i s t r e s s by no more than a b r a c e l e t or r i n g l e t of h a i r (H-876, 7). We a l s o f i n d the c l a s s i c a l view of l o v e as a type of d i s e a s e or madness (e.g., H-157), a " f i r e " which f r i e s the "house of f l e s h " (H-61), a " f i e n d " who "marres" the r e s t of l o v e r s and makes them "wring" t h e i r "hands and weep" (H-289). Love, a c c o r d i n g to t h i s view, i s an i r r a t i o n a l f o r c e which d e s t r o y s the contented mind, s u b v e r t s the "merry h e a r t " (H-289), and r e p r e s e n t s the i n t r u s i o n of chaos i n t o the i n d i v i d u a l s o u l and the s o c i a l o r d e r . I t i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h r a t i o n a l s e l f - c o n t r o l or any of the higher p h i l o s o p h i c v i r t u e s : "No man at  one time, can be wise, and l o v e " (H-10, 8). And Cupid's arrow i s most l i k e l y to s t r i k e those who are not about some u s e f u l employ-68 ment: "The l a z v e man the most d o t h l o v e " (H-147, 1 4). T h i s a t t i t u d e to lov e i s almost e n t i r e l y n e g a t i v e , r e g a r d i n g i t as something perhaps unavoidable but n e v e r t h e l e s s u n d e s i r a b l e . Opposed to the n o t i o n of lov e as an u n c o n t r o l l a b l e p a s s i o n i s what we can c a l l the c a v a l i e r a t t i t u d e to l o v e . Here lo v e i s seen as a game, or even a r t , r e q u i r i n g g r e a t s k i l l i n the r h e t o r i c a l s t r a t e g i e s o f s e d u c t i o n . The "wounded" heart and s e l f - l a c e r a t i o n s of the enslaved l o v e r a r e out o f o r d e r h e r e . Wit and i n t e l l e c t , i n s t e a d , are e s s e n t i a l . The burning heart of the enslaved l o v e r i s r e p l a c e d by the i c e - c o l d h eart of the c y n i c o r c a v a l i e r . S e v e r a l of H e r r i c k ' s carpe diem l y r i c s and i n v i t a t i o n s to lov e express the c a v a l i e r a t t i t u d e . H e r r i c k ' s more t y p i c a l pose, however, i s that of the s l i g h t l y jaded and c y n i c a l l o v e r who i s " w i s e l y wanton" , an a d m i r e r o f " d a i n t y " m i s t r e s s e s who i s as "Cold as i c e " (H-289,10). The "wisely wanton" l o v e r a c t u a l l y understands love as a form of r e f i n e d l u s t , and as the d i s i n t e r e s t e d p u r s u i t of p l e a s u r e . Freedom i s h i s catchword - freedom from the agonies of the "wounded heart" and freedom to ind u l g e h i s t a s t e f o r v a r i e t y . The c a v a l i e r l o v e r i s a l s o v i o l e n t l y a n t i - m a r r i a g e i n accordance with h i s own i r o n - c l a d l o g i c : For why? that man i s poore, Who hath but one of many; But crown'd he i s with s t o r e , That s i n g l e may have any. (H-422, 13-16) But b o t h t y p e s o f l o v e , l o v e as o p p r e s s i v e s l a v e r y and lo v e as l a w l e s s l i b e r t y , are one-sided and inadequate. H e r r i c k ' s amatory i d e a l , i n common with h i s a e s t h e t i c , moral and p o l i t i c a l 69 i d e a l s , balances freedom and r e s t r a i n t , and d i s c o v e r s l i b e r t y under the law. The d i a l e c t i c between freedom and c a p t i v i t y t h a t r u n s t h r o u g h o u t H e s p e r i d e s can o n l y be r e s o l v e d by the k i n d of paradox we f i n d i n "A Ring Presented to J u l i a . " L e t us now take a c l o s e r look at the imagery and language of the poem to see how H e r r i c k develops the paradox of "Freedom i n C a p t i v i t y . " To begin with, the key image of the r i n g has a m u l t i p l e range of r e f e r e n c e . F i r s t , there i s the c o n v e n t i o n a l symbolism, by which the r i n g r e p r e s e n t s the union of s o u l s i n holy wedlock and t h e i r vows of l o v e and f i d e l i t y . Such ceremonial and sacramental overtones are r a r e l y absent from H e r r i c k ' s l o v e l y r i c s . In f a c t , the poem i t s e l f i s a k i n d of r i t u a l - a sacrament i n verse - i n which the l o v e r s prepare to assume " l o v e ' s Yoke." Second, the r i n g r e p r e s e n t s an i d e a l of p e r f e c t love which the l o v e r s should s t r i v e to approximate. L i k e the golden r i n g , t h e i r l o v e should be, or t r y to be, "pure" and "endless" and w i t h o u t " f l a w . " The c i r c l e i s , of c o u r s e , a c o n v e n t i o n a l symbol of e t e r n i t y and p e r f e c t i o n i n the seventeenth century, and appears i n v a r i o u s g u i s e s throughout H e r r i c k ' s v e r s e . The couplet-epigram "Love what i t i s " (H-29) i s only a more a b s t r a c t s t a t e m e n t of what i s s a i d i n the f i n a l s t anza of "A Ring Presented to J u l i a : " LOve i s a c i r c l e t h a t doth r e s t l e s s e move In the same sweet e t e r n i t y of l o v e . (Note how the c h i a s t i c design of the c o u p l e t and the submerged image of the "unmoved Mover" of the A r i s t o t e l i a n - P t o l e m a i c u n i v e r s e underscore the e t e r n i t y and u n i v e r s a l i t y o f l o v e ) . The r i n g , 70 then, r e p r e s e n t s an a b s t r a c t , metaphysical archetype, a model of p e r f e c t l o v e , which the l o v e r s should s t r i v e to i m i t a t e . Only by doing so can they transcend the d u a l i s m of l o v e - a s - b o n d a g e or love-as-anarchy, and achieve the paradox of "Freedom and C a p t i v i t y " i n l o v e . The main comparison i n the poem i s that between the r i n g , a symbol of i d e a l l o v e , and "Love's yoke," a symbol of s l a v e r y . At f i r s t s i g h t , t h i s would appear to be an incongruous j u x t a p o -s i t i o n of images. For how can one who i s e n s l a v e d e n j o y the freedom which i s n a t u r a l l y an a t t r i b u t e of i d e a l and p e r f e c t love? The answer appears i n the f o u r t h s tanza, where the paradox of "Freedom i n C a p t i v i t y " i n l o v e i s i d e n t i f i e d with C h r i s t i a n l o v e . T h i s i s the s a c r i f i c i a l l o v e i n which he who l o s e s h i s l i f e s h a l l g a i n i t . The s p e c i f i c b i b l i c a l a l l u s i o n i s to Matthew 11:30, where C h r i s t t e l l s h i s d i s c i p l e s t h a t "my yoke i s easy, and my burden i s l i g h t . " By b e a r i n g one anothers' burdens, the l o v e r s can d i s c o v e r a freedom that i s w e l l beyond the grasp o f the l i b e r t i n e c a v a l i e r or the p u r i t a n i c a l s c o r n er of l o v e . "A Ring Presented to J u l i a , " l i k e so many of H e r r i c k ' s poems, presents us with a composite of c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n images, ideas and a l l u s i o n s , and demonstrates that H e r r i c k ' s a t t i t u d e to love i s by no means s u p e r f i c i a l or simple. We need to say h e r e a few words about H e r r i c k ' s superb a r t i s t r y i n "A Ring Presented to J u l i a . " E v e r y a s p e c t of the poem - i t s v e r s i f i c a t i o n , grammar, form and v i s u a l shape - i s p e r f e c t l y f i t t e d t o i t s s u b j e c t . Note f i r s t the emblematic 71 shape of the l y r i c , i n which the long t r i m e t e r l i n e s o b v i o u s l y r e p r e s e n t a r i n g e n c l o s i n g a f i n g e r . To modern re a d e r s , Renaissance emblematic poetry might appear to be the product of a quaint and e c c e n t r i c age. And a glance at the numerous o d d i t i e s i n Witt' s  R e c r e a t i o n (1650), a m i s c e l l a n y c o n t a i n i n g , among other poems by H e r r i c k , "A R i n g P r e s e n t e d to J u l i a , " can o n l y s u p p o r t t h i s a t t i t u d e . But as i n Herbert's emblematic poems, H e r r i c k ' s shaping of l i n e l e n g t h s i s not j u s t a quaint d e v i c e or p r e t t y d e c o r a t i o n but always f u n c t i o n a l . For example, the long l i n e s of the l y r i c g e n e r a l l y suggest the d i s c i p l i n e and r e s t r a i n t t h a t are necessary to H e r r i c k ' s amatory i d e a l . Words s u g g e s t i n g d i s c i p l i n e and bondage tend to predominate i n the longer l i n e s : words such as "yoke", "oppression", "choak" and "burden". The v e r s i f i c a t i o n of these l i n e s a l s o suggests the c o n s t r i c t i o n of the yoke, as i n the wonderful l i n e : Or be so s t r a i t ^ to choak The s h o r t m o n o s y l l a b l e s and d e n t a l and g l o t t a l s t o p s r e f l e c t the content of this l i n e . A s i m i l a r e f f e c t i s produced i n the l i n e : With hard o p p r e s s i o n Here the m e t r i c a l e x p a n s i o n , s u i t a b l y enough, g i v e s a d o u b l e s t r e s s t o the word " o p p r e s s i o n . " A l s o , the placement of the longer l i n e s at the t h i r d and l a s t l i n e of each stanza, producing an a l t e r n a t i o n of c o u p l e t s and e n c l o s e d rhymes, i s a formal e x p r e s s i o n of "Freedom and C a p t i v i t y . " C o n t r a r i w i s e , the s h o r t e r l i n e s a r e g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with freedom and r e l a x a t i o n . Take, f o r example, the c o u p l e t : 72 Close though i t be The j o y n t i s f r e e The rhythmic s u b s t i t u t i o n i n the f i r s t f o o t i s a n o t h e r s u b t l e p r o s o d i e e f f e c t which accords with the sense of the l i n e : t h a t i s , the v i o l a t i o n of the metre suggests, i n t h i s case, the oppres-s i o n " of "Love's Yoke". But the r e t u r n to m e t r i c a l r e g u l a r i t y i n the second l i n e suggests the r e t u r n to a norm of order and freedom. A l s o , the open rhymes of the s h o r t l i n e s ("be/free"; "play/way"; "stay/may") are i n obvious c o n t r a s t to the c l o s e d rhymes of the long l i n e s . The r e s u l t i s that the s h o r t l i n e s , i n t h e i r content and a u r a l shape, suggest the freedom of the f i n g e r while the long l i n e s suggest the bounds of the r i n g . Or, to put i t another way, the s h o r t l i n e s r e p r e s e n t "Freedom" i n love and the longer l i n e s " C a p t i v i t y " i n l o v e . One c o u l d go on and on d e s c r i b i n g such s u b t l e e f f e c t s by examining the g e n e r a l c h i a s t i c shape of the poem o r such grammatical d e v i c e s as the use of the i n f i n i t i v e , which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p t i n the f i n a l s t a n z a . However, the p o i n t , I t h i n k , i s c l e a r : manner and matter are here a b s o l u t e l y i n s e p a r a b l e . These v e r b a l minutiae, though o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o analyze and d e s c r i b e , are never a d v e n t i t i o u s , but r a t h e r i n t e g r a l to the "meaning" of the poem. And H e r r i c k ' s mastery of nuance and sound, h i s refinement of statement and complexity of thought, should never allow one to a t t a c k h i s v e r s e s f o r t h e i r a p p a r e n t " s i m p l i c i t y " or " s u p e r f i c i a l i t y . " We have argued t h a t H e s p e r i d e s i s s t r u c t u r e d a c c o r d i n g to a s c a l e of l o v e , a step-by-step p r o g r e s s i o n from e r o t i c l o v e 73 to s a c r i f i c i a l l o v e . T h i s i s , of course, somewhat of an o v e r -s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . "A R i n g Presented to J u l i a " i s an e a r l y poem (H-172) which d e f i n e s an i d e a l of p e r f e c t and s a c r i f i c i a l l o v e which the l o v e r s a r e c a l l e d upon to s t r i v e f o r and i m i t a t e . And i n a l a t e poem, "Upon J u l i a ' s washing her s e l f i n the r i v e r " (H-939), H e r r i c k watches i n r a p t u r e as a half-naked J u l i a washes h e r s e l f i n the brook. T h i s seems to be an example of H e r r i c k ' s v o y e u r i s t i c and e r o t i c v e r s e . I t i s only seemingly so, because these streams are the waters of p u r i f i c a t i o n , as the images of the "purest pebbles", the " L i l l i e s " and "Lawne" (always symbols of c h a s t i t y i n H e r r i c k ) make q u i t e c l e a r . And the case i s f u r t h e r complicated by the f a c t t h a t most of H e r r i c k ' s l o v e l y r i c s express t h a t r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of profane and s a c r e d l o v e which he c a l l s "cleanly-wantonnesse." N e v e r t h e l e s s , the s a c r e d ceremonies and r i t e s of "Love's  R e l i g i o n " become more s e r i o u s and prominent i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the volume. No l o n g e r i s l o v e seen m e r e l y as a c a v a l i e r pastime or pagan god. Even though the c l a s s i c a l pagan context i s not a b s o l u t e l y renounced u n t i l "His Prayer f o r A b s o l u t i o n " (N-2) i n Noble Numbers, a s a c r i f i c i a l , o r C h r i s t i a n , understanding of l o v e c l e a r l y predominates i n the second h a l f of Hesperides. H e r r i c k ' s m i s t r e s s ' are now " s a i n t s " and " p r i e s t e s s e s " i n " t h i s P o e t i c k L i t u r g i e . " Whereas H e r r i c k wishes to " l i e i n one devoted bed" (H-12, 2) with S i l v i a at the b e g i n n i n g of the volume, he d e s i r e s the p r o t e c t i o n of her "pure hand" i n the second h a l f : 74 I Am hol y , while I stand Circum-crost by thy pure hand; But when that i s gone; Again, I, as o t h e r s , am Prophane. (H-651) The "wanton" l o v e of many of the e a r l i e r l y r i c s , n e v er a bad t h i n g i n i t s own context, has been r e f i n e d and p u r i f i e d through what H e r r i c k c a l l s the "martyrdom of l o v e " (H-449, 4) and the s a c r e d f i r e o f "Loves R e l i g i o n . " Now H e r r i c k i s ready, a f t e r h i s c o n f e s s i o n and a b s o l u t i o n , to s i n g of d i v i n e l o v e i n Noble  Numbers. To g i v e an i d e a of how H e r r i c k ' s a t t i t u d e to lov e changes throughout Hesperides l e t us compare two short l o v e l y r i c s which appear at v i r t u a l l y o p p o s i t e ends of the volume. The two poems are "Love perfumes a l l p a r t s " (H-155) and "The T r a n s f i g u r a t i o n " (H-819). The t i t l e s alone suggest the tremendous change that has occurr e d i n H e r r i c k ' s t h i n k i n g about love i n the course of the volume. "Perfumes" are s t a p l e items i n c l a s s i c a l e r o t i c v e r s e ; " p a r t s " r e f e r here, of course, to Anthea's b o d i l y " p a r t s " , her " l i p " , "hands", " t h i g h s " and " l e g s . " The t i t l e i d e n t i f i e s t h i s as an e r o t i c poem. But "The T r a n s f i g u r a t i o n , " from i t s t i t l e a l o n e , would appear to belong i n Noble Numbers. Anthea i n the f i r s t poem i s a ki n d of goddess of l o v e ; she i s , i n f a c t , compared to the pagan goddesses I s i s and Juno. J u l i a i n the second poem i s l i k e Dante's B e a t r i c e , and r e f l e c t s on e a r t h the heavenly g l o r y and " i n c o r r u p t e d l i g h t " which s h a l l surround her when she i s f i n a l l y crowned on her " r e f u l g e n t T h r o n e l e t . " 7 5 But the two l o v e s , profane and sacred, are r e a l l y one and the same - they are one lov e appearing i n d i f f e r e n t dimensions. The lower i s a type of the hig h e r , and i s , i n f a c t , a necessary stage t o t h e d i v i n e l o v e which i s i t s s o u r c e . For H e r r i c k , the C r e a t i o n i s good. The Manichean tendency, e v i d e n t i n some seventeenth-century r e l i g i o u s v e r s e , has no p l a c e i n Hesperides. S p i r i t and f l e s h are not seen as i r r e c o n c i l a b l e enemies, nor i s e r o t i c p a s s i o n c o n s i d e r e d an e v i l . T h i s i s why there i s no e s s e n t i a l c o n f l i c t between H e r r i c k ' s s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s v e r s e . H e r r i c k ' s e x t e n s i v e use of l i t u r g i c a l and r e l i g i o u s imagery i n h i s amatory verse i s , t h e r e f o r e , r e a d i l y understandable. Ceremony and r i t u a l r e f i n e and p u r i f y e r o t i c p a s s i o n i n t o "cleanly-wanton-nesse" - H e r r i c k ' s i d e a of c h a s t i t y - and e v e n t u a l l y i n t o s a c r i f i c i a l l o v e . C r i t i c s who do not bear H e r r i c k ' s r e l i g i o u s o utlook i n mind are apt to f i n d h i s verse pagan and h i s C h r i s t i a n i t y i n s i n c e r e . Thus, the V i c t o r i a n c r i t i c s , n o t o r i o u s f o r t h e i r Manichean outlook, were n a t u r a l l y squeamish about H e r r i c k ' s p o e t r y . Robert Southey found H e r r i c k "a b e a s t l y w r i t e r " , 4 6 a n ( j Palgrave deemed i t necessary i n The Golden Treasury to change the t i t l e of the p e r e n n i a l f a v o u r i t e "To V i r g i n s to Make Much of Time," perhaps an i n v i t a t i o n to m i s c h i e f , to "Counsel to G i r l s . " 4 ? V i c t o r i a n a n t h o l o -g i s t s r e g u l a r l y b o w d l e r l i z e d Hesperides, l e a v i n g the " o f f e n s i v e " l y r i c s and epigrams to the convenience of an a p p e n d i x . 4 8 They exonerated H e r r i c k ' s l a p s e s o f " t a s t e " , j u s t as th e y e x c u s e d Shakespeare, as the i n e v i t a b l e by-products of the barbarous age i n which they l i v e d . H e r r i c k , of course, answers these c r i t i c i s m s 76 i n s c o r e s of epigrams which e x c o r i a t e the P u r i t a n m e n t a l i t y , or t r y to persuade Cato, Brutus, "the soure Reader" and other c e n s o r i o u s c r i t i c s to read t h i s book with due a t t e n t i o n . I t i s not hard to see that H e r r i c k ' s t a r g e t i s o f t e n P u r i t a n a n t i - s a c r a r a e n t a l i s m , and P u r i t a n s u s p i c i o n o f c l a s s i c a l and f o l k c u l t u r e . (Whether t h i s assessment i s h i s t o r i c a l l y accurate or not i s d e b a t a b l e ) . H e r r i c k appears d e l i b e r a t e l y to r e v e l i n the v e r y t h i n g s the P u r i t a n s a b h o r r e d : may-day f e s t i v i t i e s , f a i r i e s and f o l k s u p e r s t i t i o n s , church r i t u a l and the King, and a l l the innocent pastimes and p l e a s u r e s of the merry England of h i s youth. And he says t h a t t h e s e a r e not o n l y i n n o c e n t and good, but e s s e n t i a l . Corinna w i l l " s i n " by s t a y i n g indoors on may-day and not p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n "the h a r m l e s s f o l l i e o f the time." For H e r r i c k , not to use the good t h i n g s of l i f e w i s e l y i s impious and a s i n a g a i n s t the C r e a t i o n and God. A l l of t h i s i s perhaps obvious, and need not be o v e r - s t r e s s e d . Yet the r e c e i v e d c r i t i c a l view i s s t i l l that H e r r i c k i s a pagan and h e d o n i s t , who perhaps s p r i n k l e d h i s v e r s e s with "holy water" to appease h i s conscience or to a v o i d o f f e n d i n g h i s more "pious" r e a d e r s . Before condemning the V i c t o r i a n c r i t i c s , whose i n h i b i t i o n s were ad m i t t e d l y d i f f e r e n t from ours, we must remember that H e r r i c k ' s r e l i g i o u s o utlook i s j u s t as or even more a l i e n to many modern re a d e r s . The Manichean dualism of s p i r i t versus f l e s h , though now t a k i n g mainly a s e c u l a r r a t h e r than r e l i g i o u s form, i s arguably more p r e v a l e n t today than almost any other time i n h i s t o r y . T h i s i s p e r h a p s why what a p p e a r s as a c o n f l i c t between H e r r i c k ' s 77 paganism and C h r i s t i a n i t y f o r many c r i t i c s 4 ^ was no great problem f o r H e r r i c k or h i s like-minded seventeenth-century r e a d e r s . And perhaps, too, the f a c t t h at H e r r i c k does not solemnly preach from a p u l p i t , but r a t h e r concerns h i m s e l f with the f o l l i e s of l o v e , has more than anything e l s e supported h i s r e p u t a t i o n as a l i g h t w e i g h t and the best of the " C a v a l i e r s . " "Cleanly-wantonnesse" i s e v i d e n t l y a very d i f f i c u l t concept f o r the modern mind to understand. The f i r s t of the poems i n our comparison p r e s e n t s a k i n d of epitome of "cleanly-wantonnesse." I t s approach to l o v e and i t s imagery are t y p i c a l of many of the l o v e l y r i c s i n the f i r s t h a l f of H e s p e r i d e s . P r o f a n e and sacred l o v e o v e r l a p here. On one l e v e l , the poem can be read as a profane, or e r o t i c , l o v e l y r i c . But the imagery of the "Phenix nest", the " A l t a r " and "Incense" c e r t a i n l y q u a l i f i e s and expands t h i s r e a d i n g , and f o r c e s us to understand profane l o v e as a lower form of s a c r e d l o v e . The d o u b l e - m e a n i n g s and a m b i g u i t i e s i n t h i s l y r i c are t y p i c a l of H e r r i c k ' s technique and wit: IF I k i s s e Anthea's b r e s t , There I s m e l l the Phenix nest: If her l i p , the most s i n c e r e A l t a r of Incense, I s m e l l t h e r e . Hands, and t h i g h s , and l e g s , are a l l R i c h l y A r o m a t i c a l l . Goddesse I s i s can't t r a n s f e r Musks and Ambers more from her: Nor can Juno sweeter be, When she l y e s with Jove, then she. N o t i c e the a m b i g u i t i e s of t h i s s l y poem, which a r e r e i n f o r c e d by the ambiguous a n a c r e o n t i c metre. Is "nest" a verb or noun? Does " s i n c e r e " modify " a l t a r " or " l i p " ? Is Anthea merely "sweeter" 78 than Juno when she d i s r o b e s f o r J o v e , o r i s the i m p l i c a t i o n a l s o t hat Anthea i s a paramour of the poet, who has assumed the g u i s e of Jove? The grammar of the l a s t c o u p l e t does not allow a c l e a r answer. Nor does the poet say that he has k i s s e d or w i l l attempt to k i s s "Anthea's b r e s t . " The c o n d i t i o n a l " i f " can r e f e r to a h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n : the poet may merely be s p e c u l a t i n g about what h i s response would be " i f " he k i s s e d Anthea's " b r e s t " or " l i p s " , and l a t e r , by i m p l i c a t i o n , her "hands", " t h i g h s " and " l e g s . " Or he might be s a y i n g that he knows what h i s response w i l l be from h i s past e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s hard to know, t h e n , whether the p o et i s d e s c r i b i n g an e r o t i c daydream or a r e a l s i t u a t i o n . H e r r i c k a l s o p l a y s w i t h the r e a d e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s i n a s u b t l e f a s h i o n , as can be observed i n the f i r s t c o u p l e t : IF I k i s s e Anthea's b r e s t , There I s m e l l the Phenix nest .... The f i r s t l i n e , by i t s e l f , might appear to be the i n t r o d u c t i o n to a long e r o t i c f a n t a s y i n the manner of Carew or R o c h e s t e r . But the second l i n e i n t r o d u c e s sacred overtones which seem out of keeping with t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . (The Phoenix, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , i s the b i r d of i m m o r t a l i t y and, i n C h r i s t i a n symbolism, a symbol of the R e s u r r e c t i o n ) . In the second c o u p l e t , H e r r i c k transforms the "profane" k i s s i n t o a "sacred" k i s s by comparing Anthea's " l i p " to an " A l t a r . " The t h i r d c o u p l e t , with i t s climax i n the t r i - c o l o n c r e s c e n d o of "hands, and t h i g h s , and l e g s " r e t u r n s the reader to an e r o t i c c o n t e x t . The hyperbole of the 79 f i n a l two c o u p l e t s , where Anthea's f r a g r a n c e and sweetness a r e s a i d to surpass that of I s i s and Juno, makes one wonder about the s i n c e r i t y of the poet's compliment. The tone here i s mock-heroic. The p o i n t i s , however, that Anthea may have bad b r e a t h , wear the cheapest and most malodorous perfume and s t i l l be t h e most " r i c h l y A r o m a t i c a l l " being i n the u n i v e r s e because "Love perfumes a l l p a r t s . " Love s u p p l i e s the perfume, and a l s o the incense and the a l t a r . Perfume i n Hesperides o f t e n has a d o u b l e - r e f e r e n c e : i t i s at once what the b i o l o g i s t s c a l l a pheronome and a s p i r i t u a l essence. In t h i s l y r i c , the poet i s unable c l e a r l y to d i s t i n g u i s h perfume from incense. The l o v e which i d e a l i z e s , t h at i s "perfumes" the b e l o v e d , has a sacred source, even though the poet i n h i s present s t a t e can only apprehend and express i t as overpowering e r o t i c p a s s i o n . " C l e a n l y - w a n t o n n e s s e " h e r e i s a perhaps not e n t i r e l y innocent, and i s o n l y f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d when H e r r i c k ( t h a t i s , h i s persona i n Hesperides) l e a r n s about the nature of s a c r i f i c i a l l o v e . The c o n t e n t and images of "The T r a n s f i g u r a t i o n " (H-819) are o v e r t l y r e l i g i o u s . J u l i a i s now no longer the tempting m i s t r e s s of s u c h e a r l i e r poems as "Upon J u l i a ' s C l o t h e s , " but r a t h e r a s a i n t who r e f l e c t s the uncreated and " i n c o r r u p t e d l i g h t " of the T r a n s f i g u r a t i o n . T h i s v i s i o n i s almost i d e n t i c a l with Dante's v i s i o n of B e a t r i c e , and has n o t h i n g of the e r o t i c i s m or even " c l e a n l y - w a n t o n n e s s e " of H e r r i c k ' s numerous e a r l i e r v i s i o n s . "The T r a n s f i g u r a t i o n " would have been out of p l a c e i f i t were, say, p l a c e d r i g h t a f t e r "Love Perfumes a l l P a r t s . " The p o e t - p r i e s t 80 of the " P o e t i c k L i t u r g i e " of Hesperides would have been unprepared f o r such an e x a l t e d v i s i o n a t t h a t s t a g e o f h i s development. Now, i n the order of the book, he i s p r e p a r i n g f o r h i s own death and e n t r y i n t o h i s " e t e r n a l l Mansion": IMmortall c l o t h i n g I put on, So soone as J u l i a I am gon To mine e t e r n a l l Mansion. Thou, thou are here, to humane s i g h t C l o t h ' d a l l with i n c o r r u p t e d l i g h t ; But yet how more admir'dly b r i g h t W i l t thou appear, when thou a r t s e t In thy r e f u l g e n t T h r o n e l e t , That s h i n ' s t thus i n thy c o u n t e r f e i t ? As i n "Lover Perfumes a l l P a r t s , " t h i s poem says more about the speaker, the " I " of the l y r i c , than i t does about h i s beloved. H i s c o m p l a i n t i s t h a t he has t o wait u n t i l he reaches heaven u n t i l he can "put on" h i s "Immortal c l o t h i n g , " while J u l i a a l r e a d y " s h i n ' s t " with " i n c o r r u p t e d l i g h t " on e a r t h . How much g r e a t e r , then, w i l l she appear than her c o u n t e r f e i t here when she i s crowned i n heaven. But when he says t h a t J u l i a i s g l o r i o u s t o "humane s i g h t , " he r e f e r s to h i s own p u r i f i e d s i g h t . B e f o r e , J u l i a ' s c l o t h e s and s i l k s were enticements, and the s u b j e c t of h i s e r o t i c f a n t a s i e s . At that stage i n h i s s p i r i t u a l development, the persona had only a l i m i t e d and imperfect concept of beauty. Now the s i g h t of J u l i a ' s c l o t h e s leads him to thoughts of heaven and p e r f e c t beauty. J u l i a on e a r t h i s a copy or " c o u n t e r f e i t " of i d e a l beauty. The P l a t o n i c term i s almost exact. Love of e a r t h l y beauty has l e d to the l o v e of heavenly beauty, which i s e x a c t l y 81 the substance of the Renaissance theory of love which we o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r i n the chapter. By l o o k i n g a t " L o v e r Perfumes a l l P a r t s " and "The Trans-f i g u r a t i o n " s i d e by s i d e , I t h i n k we can see t h e development of H e r r i c k ' s understanding of l o v e i n Hesperides. B r i e f l y put, the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n begins with e r o t i c p a s s i o n , i s then r e f i n e d i n t o " c l e a n l y - w a n t o n n e s s e " and ends with sacred l o v e . In the l a t t e r poems, f o r example, J u l i a has become a p r i e s t e s s i n "Loves  R e l i g i o n " : she prepares with H e r r i c k a beast f o r " s a c r i f i c e " as they wear t h e i r "pure S u p l i c e s " (H-870); she s p r i n k l e s the " A l t a r " of l o v e with "holy waters" and " b a p t i z e s " H e r r i c k b e f o r e they go to perform the s a c r i f i c i a l r i t e s " i n innocence" (H-974); and she i n t e r c e d e s f o r H e r r i c k ' s s i n i n c h a f i n g "o're much the V i r g i n s cheek or eare" (H-1095). And a poem such as "Comfort to a youth t h a t had l o s t h i s l o v e " (H-1024) s i g n a l s the u l t i m a t e s e p a r a t i o n between the "humane" and " d i v i n e " which i s made at the end of Hesperides and the beginning of Noble Numbers. Here the departed m i s t r e s s i s among "the race/Of S a i n t s " ( l i n e s 3-4) and beyond a l l e a r t h l y j o y and sorrow. The context here i s o t h e r w o r l d l y . The same general p a t t e r n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the metamorphoses t h a t the c e n t r a l image of f i r e undergoes i n the course of the volume. E a r l y i n Hesperides, " f i r e " r e f e r s most o f t e n to i r r a t i o n a l p a s s i o n , whether e r o t i c p a s s i o n or the f r e n z y of p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n . So H e r r i c k w r i t e s i n "The S c a r - f i r e " (H-61): WAter, water I d e s i r e Here's a house of f l e s h on f i r e .... 82 T h i s i s the " f i r e " of l o v e , but the image of the "house of f l e s h " makes i t c l e a r that l o v e and l u s t are v i r t u a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e here. But i n the middle poems we f i n d the suggestion that the poet i s undergoing a k i n d of s p i r i t u a l p u r i f i c a t i o n by f i r e . In "Upon Love" (H-635), C u p i d b r i n g s H e r r i c k a " C h r i s t a l l V i o l l " s u p p o s e d l y c o n t a i n i n g a remedy a g a i n s t l o v e . H e r r i c k g r e e d i l y d r i n k s the j u i c e , only to d i s c o v e r that the "deadly draught" of love i s l i k e "the f i r e of h e l l . " The torments of l o v e here are o b v i o u s l y d i f f e r e n t i n nature from the torments of l u s t H e r r i c k s u f f e r e d i n "The S c a r - f i r e . " In "To Groves" (H-449), f o r i n s t a n c e , H e r r i c k speaks of "the f i r e , and martyrdome of l o v e " (1.4). And i n the l a t t e r poems, " f i r e " appears as a sacred flame. In "To E l e c t r a " (H-836), lo v e i s c a l l e d a "consuming f i r e " - a d i r e c t a l l u s i o n to S t . Paul's d e s c r i p t i o n of God as a "consuming f i r e " (Heb. 12:29). And i n "The S a c r i f i c e " (H-870), H e r r i c k a d v i s e s J u l i a t o p r e p a r e the " A l t a r c l e a n e , no f i r e prophane" (1.6). O b v i o u s l y , t h i s s a c r e d f i r e does not i n c i t e the p a s s i o n s but r a t h e r p u r i f i e s them. As always, H e r r i c k ' s poems and key images must be read i n con t e x t . J u s t as the coronet of pagan love and poetry i s transformed i n t o an i n c o r r u p t i b l e "crown" at the end of Hesperides (H-1123, 6), so the image of " f i r e " i s " t r a n s - s h i f t e d " from a profane to a sacred c o n t e x t . In summary, H e r r i c k ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f l o v e i s by no means s i m p l e . " C l e a n l y - w a n t o n n e s s e " i t s e l f i s a concept with r i c h c o n n o t a t i o n s , sometimes suggesting innocent p l e a s u r e , sometimes d e s i r e f r e e d from moral s t r i c t u r e s and, l a t e r i n the volume, 83 an image or type of sacred l o v e . H e r r i c k ' s task was to r e h a b i l i t a t e the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n of e r o t i c v e r s e, or, as he puts i t , to "baptime" h i s Muse. (H-84,1). The R e n a i s s a n c e t h e o r y of the s c a l e of l o v e , p r o g r e s s i n g step-by-step from profane to sacred l o v e , p r o v i d e d H e r r i c k with a conceptual and s t r u c t u r a l framework f o r h i s amatory v e r s e . Profane and sacred l o v e are not opposed, but r e l a t e d to one another i n the l i t u r g i c a l and r e l i g i o u s symbolism of "Loves R e l i g i o n . " H e r r i c k ' s book thus r e f l e c t s a h i e r a r c h y of v a l u e s , as i t d e v e l o p s g r a d u a l l y ( l i k e "The Argument") from a mundane to a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l c o n t e x t . H e r r i c k ' s r e t r a c t i o n of p r o f a n e l o v e i n " H i s l a s t request to J u l i a " (H-1095) and "His Prayer f o r A b s o l u t i o n " (N-2) f o r h i s "unbaptized Rhimes" (1.1) c l e a r the ground f o r h i s "pious p i e c e s " and l y r i c s of d i v i n e l o v e i n Noble Numbers. In h i s amatory v e r s e , H e r r i c k thus occupies a c u r i o u s p o s i t i o n i n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y v e r s e . He i s n e i t h e r s t r i c t l y a " C a v a l i e r " poet l i k e S u c k l i n g , nor s t r i c t l y a r e l i g i o u s poet l i k e Herbert, but something of both. T h i s paradox i s c e n t r a l i n Hesperides, and i s w e l l - s t a t e d i n i t s f i n a l l i n e : Jocond h i s Muse was: but h i s L i f e was c h a s t . CHAPTER IV Herrick's Poetics: the Beauty of "Wilde C i v i l i t y " In t h i s chapter our major concern i s to examine H e r r i c k ' s a e s t h e t i c s , p o e t i c s and h i s view of h i s r o l e as a poet. H e r r i c k i s one of the most s e l f - c o n s c i o u s of a r t i s t s , and makes p o e t r y and a r t one of the main s u b j e c t s of h i s volume. The c r a f t of verse has always been a major i n t e r e s t to a l l c l a s s i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d poets. And t h i s i n t e r e s t has always been f a r more p r a c t i c a l than t h e o r e t i c a l . H orace's Ars P o e t i c a , Jonson's Timber, B o i l e a u ' s L ' A r t poetique and Pope's Essay on C r i t i c i s m are as much p r a c t i c a l guidebooks as m a n i f e s t o e s o f c l a s s i c a l v a l u e s . And a l t h o u g h H e r r i c k wrote no p o e t i c credo, h i s book i s packed with o b s e r v a t i o n s on the a r t of p o e t r y , the f u n c t i o n of the poet and nature of beauty and decorum. Of course, h i s a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s cannot be separated from h i s p r a c t i s e as a poet. His p r a i s e of John Harmar's verse as "most s o f t , t e r c e , sweet, and p e r p o l i t e " (H-966 , 2) i s set i n l i n e s which embody e x a c t l y those q u a l i t i e s . And the s t y l i s t i c hallmark of h i s verse i s the "wilde c i v i l i t y " which i n h i s m i s t r e s s ' a t t i r e moves him to r a p t u r e . H e r r i c k ' s c r i t i c i s m and p o e t i c s , then, are a b s o l u t e l y i n t e g r a l to h i s a c t i v i t y as a poet. I t need not be s t r e s s e d how much t h i s concept of c r i t i c i s m d i f f e r s from modern c r i t i c i s m . H e r r i c k , o f c o u r s e , i n h e r i t s h i s a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s from the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . H is own p o e t i c p r a c t i s e i s m o d e l l e d on Jonson and the L a t i n p o e t s , e s p e c i a l l y Horace. His major v e r s e forms a r e a l l c l a s s i c a l : ode, l y r i c , epigram (both mel 84 85 and f e l ) , epithalamium, e r o t i c elegy (the Sack poems), country l i f e poems, and so f o r t h . 5 ^ What he i n h e r i t s from the n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n i s always brought under c l a s s i c a l c o n t r o l . The exuberance of the E l i z a b e t h a n l y r i c i s m , though present i n H e r r i c k , has been subordinated to the c l a s s i c a l impulse toward r e s t r a i n t and economy of e x p r e s s i o n . "To D a f f a d i l l s , " although f o r m a l l y a kind of ornate b a l l a d , i s c l o s e r i n s p i r i t and e x e c u t i o n to Horace than the n a t i v e E n g l i s h b a l l a d or E l i z a b e t h a n song. P o s t e r i t y has always admired H e r r i c k most f o r h i s l y r i c gems and songs. Yet, s t r a n g e l y enough, H e r r i c k ' s f a v o u r i t e v e r s e form - and one i n which he e x c e l l e d - a p p e a r s to have been the c l a s s i c a l e p i g r a m . H i s a f f i n i t y f o r M a r t i a l i s g r e a t , and H e s p e r i d e s c e r t a i n l y owes something i n plan and general s t r u c t u r e to the Epigrams. H e r r i c k r e s e r v e s the epigram f o r h i s most important d i d a c t i c statements, the p r a i s e of h i s c u l t u r a l heroes, and h i s a s s e r t i o n of permanent and e t e r n a l v a l u e s . His l y r i c s , on the other hand, are u s u a l l y c a r p e diem poems taken up with t r a n s i t o r y v a l u e s . The g r e a t e r prominence of the e p i g r a m i n the f i n a l s e c t i o n of Hesperides suggests the importance H e r r i c k attached to the genre. H e r r i c k ' s deep r e s p e c t f o r t r a d i t i o n i s perhaps the most a b i d i n g f e a t u r e of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . He d i s p l a y s u n q u a l i f i e d d e v o t i o n to the c l a s s i c a l p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n , the A n g l i c a n t r a d i t i o n (as d e f i n e d by Hooker and the A n g l i c a n a p o l o g i s t s ) and the r o y a l i s t p o l i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n . His c l a s s i c a l theory of l i b e r t y under t h i s law u n d e r l i e s h i s p o e t i c s no l e s s than h i s p o l i t i c s : 86 MEn must have Bounds how f a r r e to walke; f o r we Are made f a r r e worse, by l a w l e s s l i b e r t y . (H-990) And what he s a y s of the p o l i t i c a l n o n - c o n f o r m i s t might have been a p p l i e d to the l i t e r a r y i n n o v a t o r : WHo v i o l a t e s the Customes, h u r t s the Health Not of one man, but a l l the Common-wealth. (H-1041) Of a l l the major mid-seventeenth century poets, H e r r i c k i s the only one who w r i t e s as i f Donne never e x i s t e d . As f a r as H e r r i c k i s concerned, the c l a s s i c a l p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n extending from the a n c i e n t s to Ben Jonson i s the s o l e t r a d i t i o n of Western l i t e r a -t u r e . And i t i s w i t h i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n t h a t he i s content to p r e f e c t h i s "sweet" and "noble" numbers. T h e r e f o r e , none of H e r r i c k ' s ideas about poetry or a r t i s new or u n c o n v e n t i o n a l . He would have c o n s i d e r e d i t an i n s u l t t o be c a l l e d " o r i g i n a l " i n the modern sense of the word. But H e r r i c k does not s u f f e r i n the l e a s t from the " a n x i e t y of i n f l u e n c e " or the "burden of the p a s t " which we a r e t o l d plagued l a t e r E n g l i s h poets. His a d d r e s s e s to h i s " F a t h e r J o n s o n " a r e a l l marked by reverence, g r a t i t u d e and h u m i l i t y . He prays to " S a i n t Ben" to a i d him, and o f f e r s him h i s " L y r i c k " on h i s knees (H-604). And Jonson r e c e i v e s a d u l a t i o n as the model poet whom h i s Sons can i m i t a t e but never match: THou had'st the wreath b e f o r e , now take the Tree; That h e n c e f o r t h none be L a u r e l crown'd but Thee. (H-383) 8 7 T r a d i t i o n , f o r H e r r i c k , i s always p o s i t i v e and l i b e r a t i n g , and never regarded as a hindrance to c r e a t i v i t y . To say that H e r r i c k ' s poetry i s t r a d i t i o n a l i s by no means to deny that he has h i s own p o e t i c v o i c e . H e r r i c k ' s s t y l e can never be mistaken f o r any o t h e r ' s . His treatment of t r a d i t i o n a l themes and conventions i s unique and i n i m i t a b l e . That a poet can be both " p e r s o n a l " and " t r a d i t i o n a l " i s no paradox, but a v e r i f i e d f a c t o f l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y . One i s n a t u r a l l y reminded here of T.S. E l i o t ' s theory about " T r a d i t i o n and the I n d i v i d u a l T a l e n t . " As a poet, E l i o t d e l i b e r a t e l y c u l t i v a t e d i m p e r s o n a l i t y ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , he i s a very p e r s o n a l p o e t . 5 1 The same i s t r u e of H e r r i c k - i n a d i f f e r e n t way. And an a n a l o g y which N o r t h r o p F r y e has made between music and l i t e r a t u r e i n The Great Code b e a u t i f u l l y c aptures t h i s paradox. Frye w r i t e s : I f we a r e l i s t e n i n g t o music on the l e v e l of say, Schumann and T c h a i k o v s k y , we a r e l i s t e n i n g t o h i g h l y s k i l l f u l c r a f tsmanship by a d i s t i n g u i s h e d and o r i g i n a l composer. I f then we l i s t e n t o , say, the " K y r i e s " of the Bach B Minor Mass or the Mozart Requiem, a c e r t a i n i m p e r s o n a l element e n t e r s . What we hear i s s t i l l " s u b j e c t i v e " i n the sense t h a t i t i s o b v i o u s l y Bach or M o z a r t , and co u l d not p o s s i b l y be anyone e l s e . At the same time t h e r e i s a sense of l i s t e n i n g to the v o i c e of music i t s e l f . 5 2 H e r r i c k ' s l y r i c s are " s u b j e c t i v e , " but they a l s o have the same k i n d o f " i m p e r s o n a l e l e m e n t " which F r y e n o t i c e s i n the music of Bach and Mozart. We f e e l that we are l i s t e n i n g to the v o i c e of p o e t r y when we read H e r r i c k . We sense an "impersonal element" t h a t i s not apparent i n most modern v e r s e . 88 H e r r i c k made the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n so t h o r o u g h l y h i s own t h a t h i s verse appears unlaboured and spontaneous. Of course, they o n l y appear so - t h i s i s always the a r t that c o n c e a l s a r t . H e r r i c k ' s r e l a t i o n to t r a d i t i o n i s never p a r a s i t i c , but f r e e and u n h i n d e r e d . "Upon h i s V e r s e s " (H-681) suras up h i s a t t i t u d e toward the p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n : WHat o f f - s p r i n g other men have got, The how, where, when, I q u e s t i o n not. These are the C h i l d r e n I have l e f t ; Adopted some; none got by t h e f t . But a l l are toucht ( l i k e l a w f u l l p l a t e ) And no Verse i l l e g i t i m a t e . Whatever he may have borrowed from h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s , H e r r i c k i s the l e g i t i m a t e f a t h e r of a l l h i s v e r s e s . H e r r i c k ' s a e s t h e t i c ideas are, i n t h e i r b a s i c o u t l i n e , f i r m l y based on the p r a c t i c e of h i s p o e t i c f o r b e a r s . The v i r t u e s of c l a r i t y , s i m p l i c i t y , balance, moderation, decorum, order are a l l h i s . F o r i n s t a n c e , the c l a s s i c a l theory of the golden mean i s s t a t e d and r e s t a t e d i n the epigrams, such as "Moderation" (H-1038): LEt moderation on thy passions waite Who l o v e s too much, too much the l o v ' d w i l l hate. The v i r t u e of the golden mean i s the main theme of the country l i f e poems. In "A Country L i f e " (H-106), H e r r i c k c o u n s e l s h i s b r o t h e r to " c o n f i n e d e s i r e s " and l i v e w i s e l y i n accordance with "golden measure" so that he may be rewarded with "the contented mind." T h i s i s c l a s s i c a l e t h i c a l theory at i t s p u r e s t , with the 89 combined a u t h o r i t y of A r i s t o t l e , the S t o i c s and the E p i c u r e a n s behind i t . But t h i s p h i losophy of r e s t r a i n t and moderation i s i n l i t t l e evidence elsewhere i n Hesperides, i n e i t h e r H e r r i c k ' s e t h i c s or h i s a e s t h e t i c s . H e r r i c k , i n f a c t , r e v i s e s the c l a s s i c a l n o t i o n of b e a u t y as a g o l d e n mean or as a harmony of p a r t s with the whole. "The D e f i n i t i o n of Beauty" (H-102) i s the c l e a r e s t and most c o n c i s e s t a t e m e n t o f h i s a e s t h e t i c s , and a c l u e to h i s a c t u a l p o e t i c p r a c t i c e : BEauty, no other t h i n g i s , than a Beame F l a s h t out between the Middle and Extreme. The beauty of the golden mean i s c o r r e c t , but perhaps a l i t t l e b o r i n g . The extremes of too much order or too l i t t l e d i s c i p l i n e are a l s o to be avoided. But the "beame" which f l a s h e s out "between the Middle and Extreme" i s the beauty which s t a r t l e s and p l e a s e s the reader w i t h i n the bounds of decorum. S l i g h t d e v i a t i o n s and i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n p h r a s i n g , d i c t i o n and rhythm enhance decorum, j u s t as the rhythmic s u b s t i t u t i o n s and i r r e g u l a r caesura do i n the above c o u p l e t . As H e r r i c k p u t s i t i n "A r e q u e s t t o the Graces" (H-914): Numbers ne'r t i c k l e , or but l i g h t l y please  Unlesse they have some wanton c a r r i a g e s . (11.8-9) H e r r i c k ' s a e s t h e t i c of "wilde c i v i l i t y " i s v i r t u a l l y unique i n seventeenth-century p o e t r y . One has to tu r n to the h i s t o r y of music to f i n d an analogous a t t i t u d e to form and decorum. Couperin 90 and the French c l a v e n c i n i s t s with t h e i r m i n i a t u r i s m and love of the note i n e g a l e , f a n c i f u l t i t l e s , s l i g h t l y o f f - c e n t r e harmonies, and e l a b o r a t e but s t r i c t oranamentation share H e r r i c k ' s b a s i c a e s t h e t i c . For both H e r r i c k and Couperin a l l s l i g h t i r r e g u l a r i t i e s are h e l d i n check and enhanced by a powerful sense of order and decorum. I t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t H e r r i c k ' s a e s t h e t i c s and e t h i c s o v e r l a p . "Cleanly-wantonnesse" i s i n the e t h i c a l s p h e r e what "wilde c i v i l i t y " i s i n the a e s t h e t i c sphere. To w r i t e s t r i c t l y a c c o r d i n g to the r u l e s may be " c o r r e c t " and admirable but r a t h e r d u l l and l i f e l e s s . To l i v e s t r i c t l y a c c o r d i n g to sound moral prece p t s and the moderate path may make one v i r t u o u s but a l s o the most mi s e r a b l e of c r e a t u r e s . But to w r i t e and l i v e with gentlemanly ease and s p r e z z a t u r a , and yet remain w i t h i n the bounds of v i r t u e and decorum i s the r e s u l t of r e f i n e d t a s t e and high c i v i l i z a t i o n . H e r r i c k ' s verses (more so than the Ch a r l e s Cotton he p r a i s e s ) are marked by "wit without o f f e n c e " (H-947,1). The wit - i n v e n t i o n , a d r o i t n e s s - i s there i n abundance, but never gets out of c o n t r o l or o f f e n d s the standards of good w r i t i n g and t a s t e . "What k i n d of M i s t r e s s e he would have" (H-665) i s a poem which, l i k e " D e l i g h t -in D i s o r d e r " (H-83), embodies H e r r i c k ' s a e s t h e t i c and e t h i c a l i d e a l . The " o r d e r i n a sweet n e g l e c t " (1.?) which H e r r i c k d e s i r e s i n h i s m i s t r e s s ' dress i s i d e n t i c a l to the "wilde c i v i l i t y " he p r a i s e s i n the e a r l i e r poem. Order, f o r H e r r i c k , i s tempered and sweetened by a s l i g h t i n f u s i o n of d i s o r d e r : 91 BE the M i s t r e s s e of ray c h o i c e , Cleane i n manners, c l e e r e i n v o i c e : Be she w i t t y , more then wise; Pure enough, though not P r e c i s e : Be she shewing i n her dresse, L i k e a c i v i l l Wilderness; That the c u r i o u s may de t e c t Order i n a sweet neglect? Be she ro w l i n g i n her eye, Tempting a l l the passers by: An each R i n g l e t of her h a i r e , An Enchantment, or a Snare, For to c a t c h the Lookers on; But her s e l f h e l d f a s t by none. Let her Lucrece a l l day be, Thais i n the n i g h t , to me. Be she such, as n e i t h e r w i l l Famish me, nor o v e r - f i l l . T h i s poem e x h i b i t s that s l y mixture of c l e a n l i n e s s and roguishness which i s one of H e r r i c k ' s h a l l m a r k s . H i s i d e a l m i s t r e s s i s c i v i l but not s t i f f ; c l e v e r b ut no p h i l o s o p h e r ; m o r a l b ut no p r e c i s i a n ; a coquette but no t r o l l o p e . She e n t h r a l l s a l l men, yet remains f r e e h e r s e l f . She i s the p e r f e c t balance between L u c r e t i a , the model of f a i t h f u l n e s s , and T h a i s , Greek courtesan and m i s t r e s s of Alexander the Great. In other words, she i s a p e r f e c t specimen of H e r r i c k ' s n o t i o n of beauty as a "beame" f l a s h i n g out "between the Middle and Extreme." T h i s beauty i s glamourous and enchanting, without being t a s t e l e s s or gauche. I t s excesses are a l l refinements or "snares" to engage and d e l i g h t the " c u r i o u s " reader. H e r r i c k ' s v e r s e , l i k e the c a l c u l a t e d d i s o r d e r of h i s m i s t r e s s ' d r e s s , i s always h e l d i n check by h i s u n e r r i n g sense of decorum. F i r s t , n o t i c e how the a n a c r e o n t i c metre p e r f e c t l y s u i t s the content of the poem. As always, H e r r i c k ' s c h o i c e o f metre i s not a r b i t r a r y , but i n s e p a r a b l e from the content of "meaning" 9 2 of the poem. The o p p o s i t i o n s here are not set apart as unresolved c o n t r a r i e s but are each u n i t e d i n a d i s c o r d i a concors. H e r r i c k ' s i d e a l m i s t r e s s can be both L u c r e t i a and Thais - c l e a r l y a d i f f i c u l t paradox. Her dress i s a " c i v i l W ilderness", the p e r f e c t harmony of A r t and Nature, order and d i s o r d e r . (The phrase i s a n o t h e r example of H e r r i c k ' s fondness f o r oxymoron). And the tone of the l y r i c i s ambivalent throughout: i t i s hard to t e l l i f the m i s t r e s s i s more Thais than L u c r e t i a , more w i l d than c i v i l . The a n a c r e o n t i c metre, with i t s ambivalent s t a t u s as n e i t h e r s t r i c t l y iambic nor t r o c h a i c , i s the p e r f e c t formal v e h i c l e f o r the s l y , ambivalent tone of t h i s s m a l l "enchantment." On the s u r f a c e , the poem with i t s c a r e f u l l y balanced phrases and c o u p l e t s may appear to be the epitome of r e g u l a r i t y and "order." But the " c u r i o u s " reader can e a s i l y " d e t e c t " a "sweet n e g l e c t " behind the outward facade of o r d e r and p r e c i s i o n . For example, th e f i r s t two c o u p l e t s , which form the f i r s t f o u r - l i n e u n i t of the l y r i c , are perhaps f o r m a l l y and s y n t a c t i c a l l y the most r e g u l a r i n the poem. The second l i n e i s p e r f e c t l y balanced, with a caesura between the f o u r t h and f i f t h s y l l a b l e s . The grammatical p a r a l l e l i s m i s r e i n f o r c e d by the a l l i t e r a t i o n and assonance of "cleane" and " c l e a r e . " And r i g h t l y so, s i n c e the m i s t r e s s ' "manners" and s i n g i n g s h o u l d o b s e r v e p e r f e c t p r o p o r t i o n and harmony. L i n e three i s a l s o balanced by a mid-point caesura, but the p a r a l l e l i s m here i s not p e r f e c t . In the f o u r t h l i n e , H e r r i c k i n t r o d u c e s a s l i g h t i r r e g u l a r i t y by moving the caesura back to l i e between the t h i r d and f o u r t h s y l l a b l e s and having the imperfect rhyme of " p r e c i s e " 93 and "wise." T h i s l a s t c o u p l e t i n i t s d e s i g n i s , e x a c t l y l i k e H e r r i c k ' s m i s t r e s s , "Pure enough, though not P r e c i s e . " T h i s i s the k i n d of nuance of phr a s i n g of which H e r r i c k i s a past master. The second u n i t of two c o u p l e t s i s l e s s r e g u l a r , a l i t t l e " w i l d e r , " than the f i r s t two c o u p l e t s . The p o l y s y l l a b l e " w i l d e r n e s s " i n l i n e s i x g i v e s t h i s l i n e a b r i s k s k i p , an i r r e g u l a r i t y p e r f e c t l y i n keeping with i t s content. The next c o u p l e t , the k e y - l i n e s i n which H e r r i c k d e f i n e s h i s a e s t h e t i c s , l o o k s something l i k e a golden l i n e thrown out of k i l t e r : N V That the c u r i o u s may d e t e c t N m N Order i n a sweet n e g l e c t .... The key-word "order" r e c e i v e s a double-emphasis by being preceded by the rhyme-word and verb " d e t e c t " and f o l l o w e d by a weak p y r r h i c . The c o u p l e t , i n i t s design and rhythm, embodies that mixture of "order" and "sweet n e g l e c t " which i s H e r r i c k ' s a e s t h e t i c i d e a l . The s e c ond h a l f of the l y r i c i s a l m o s t , but not q u i t e , p a r a l l e l to the f i r s t h a l f . The t h i r d u n i t of the poem (11.9-14) i s extended by an e x t r a c o u p l e t , thus breaking the p a t t e r n e s t a b -l i s h e d i n the f i r s t e i g h t l i n e s . Here the ve r s e , by H e r r i c k ' s u s u a l s t a n d a r d s , becomes r a t h e r l u x u r i a n t as he d e s c r i b e s the a l l u r i n g temptations of h i s m i s t r e s s ' person. In h i s enthusiasm over these "enchantments", H e r r i c k extends the s e c t i o n by a c o u p l e t . But order i s r e s t o r e d i n the l a s t l i n e . The c l i p p e d monosyllables and p l a i n a s s e r t i v e tone stand i n marked c o n t r a s t to the preceding l i n e s : 94 But her s e l f h e l d f a s t by none.... Ju s t as H e r r i c k ' s m i s t r e s s tempts but does not f a l l h e r s e l f , so h i s v e r s e r e e s t a b l i s h e s r e g u l a r i t y and decorum b e f o r e i t reaches an extreme of l u x u r i a n c e o r n e g a t e s t h e b a s i c f o r m a l d e s i g n . A l s o n o t i c e that the f i n a l c o u p l e t of the poem r e e s t a b l i s h e s the s t r i c t r e g u l a r i t y of the f i r s t c o u p l e t . The i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of the i n n e r c o u p l e t s , t h e r e f o r e , a r e c o n t a i n e d by a s t r i c t framework of ord e r . Manner and matter are here i n s e p a r a b l e : the poem embodies i n i t s d e s i g n and e x p r e s s i o n the d i a l e c t i c of d i s c i p l i n e and freedom which i s i t s s u b j e c t . In "What Kind of M i s t r e s s e he would have" the edge i s given to freedom over d i s c i p l i n e . One s u s p e c t s here t h a t H e r r i c k ' s i m a g i n e d m i s t r e s s , while remaining w i t h i n the bounds of v i r t u e and decorum, i s n e v e r t h e l e s s a l i t t l e too e a g e r l y and dangerously s e e k i n g out the l i m i t s and extremes of "wilde c i v i l i t y . " In a l a t e r poem, " L e p r o s i e i n houses" (H-1004), H e r r i c k acknowledges t h i s danger when he f i n d s i n the house: The Daughters w i l d and loo s e i n dresse; T h e i r cheekes u n s t a i n ' d with shamefac ' tnesse .... (11.7-8) J u s t as he renounces profane l o v e i n t h e l a s t s e c t i o n of the volume, so H e r r i c k begins to sound here l i k e a p u r i t a n on the s u b j e c t of d r e s s . In " L e p r o s i e i n Clo a t h e s " (H-1010), a companion poem to " D e l i g h t i n D i s o r d e r , " H e r r i c k r e t r a c t s h i s e a r l i e r p h i l o s o p h y of c l o t h e s and a e s t h e t i c s of "wilde c i v i l i t y " : 95 So p l a i n e and simple c l o a t h e s doe show Where vertue walkes, not those that flow. (11.9-10) These l i n e s , i t a l i c i z e d to emphasize t h e i r d i d a c t i c content, t y p i f y the p l a i n , e p igrammatic and even austere s t y l e of many of the l a t e r poems. When the c h i p s are on the t a b l e , H e r r i c k i s on the s i d e of "vertu e , " p l a i n n e s s and " c i v i l i t y . " "Cleanly-wantonnesse" and "wilde c i v i l i t y " have t h e i r l e g i t i m a t e p l a c e o n l y i n t h e e a r l i e r , p r o f a n e s e c t i o n of Hesperides. We f i n d , t h e r e f o r e , a g r e a t e r d i s c i p l i n e , economy and order i n the poems i n the f i n a l s e c t i o n of the volume. In other words, there i s a gen e r a l movement away from "Nature" toward g r e a t e r " A r t " i n Hesperides. T h i s can be seen by comparing " D e l i g h t i n D i s o r d e r " (H-83) with i t s companion p i e c e "Art above Nature, to J u l i a . " (H-560). Both are based on Ben Jonson's " S t i l l to be neat, s t i l l t o be d r e s t . " H e r r i c k ' s poems, however, are n e i t h e r s t r i c t i m i t a t i o n s nor p a r o d i e s , but f r e e i n v e n t i o n s based on the Art versus Nature theme of Jonson's l y r i c . Moreover, H e r r i c k ' s a e s t h e t i c s d i f f e r s a p p r e c i a b l y from Jonson's - h i s concept of decorum and h i s p o e t i c s permit a good d e a l more freedom and i r r e g u l a r i t y than h i s master would. Jonson's l y r i c , as l o v e l y and w e l l wrought as i t i s , sounds somewhat s t i f f and even austere when compared to H e r r i c k ' s " D e l i g h t i n D i s o r d e r " and " A r t above N a t u r e . " Douglas Bush captures t h i s d i f f e r e n c e when he says that i n H e r r i c k "the b r i c k l a y e r has, so to speak, given p l a c e to the goldsmith's a p p r e n t i c e , the master of f i l i g r e e . " 5 3 96 We quote here Jonson's song from The S i l e n t Woman to g i v e an i d e a o f how H e r r i c k ' s s t y l e d i f f e r s from h i s m a s t e r ' s . The b a l a n c e d p h r a s e s , l u c i d i t y and noble " s i m p l i c i t i e " of Jonson's l y r i c are t y p i c a l of the " b r i c k l a y e r ' s " a r t . Even though the poem p r e f e r s Nature over A r t , i t s design i s p a l p a b l y a r t f u l and w e l l wrought. Indeed, i t s monumental s t y l e and neat p a r a l l e l i s m s can j u s t l y be compared to the o r d e r l y arrangement of b r i c k s i n a w a l l : S T i l l to be neat, s t i l l to be d r e s t , As you were going to a f e a s t ; S t i l l to be pou'dred, s t i l l perfum'd: Lady, i t i s to be presum'd, Though a r t s h i d causes are not found, A l l i s not sweet, a l l i s not sound. Give me a looke, g i v e me a face That makes s i m p l i c i t i e a grace; Robes l o o s e l y f l o w i n g , h a i r e as f r e e : Such sweet n e g l e c t more taketh me, Then a l l t h ' a d u l t e r i e s of a r t . They s t r i k e mine eyes, but not my heart.54 These c o u p l e t s a r e more r e g u l a r than any H e r r i c k wrote, but s t i l l not as d i s c i p l i n e d as Pope's h e r o i c c o u p l e t . Now here i s H e r r i c k ' s v e r s i o n of the Nature above Art theme. T h i s b l a z o n poem (H-83) c o n t a i n s an element of "sweet d i s o r d e r " and "wilde c i v i l i t y " not apparent i n Jonson's song. I t s c o u p l e t s , more highly-wrought than Jonson's, s t i l l d i s p l a y g r e a t e r freedom and suppleness. The m i s t r e s s a l s o e x h i b i t s f a r g r e a t e r "wanton-nesse". The e l a b o r a t e f i l i g r e e of t h i s l y r i c i s the work of the goldsmith: 97 A Sweet d i s o r d e r i n the dresse K i n d l e s i n c l o a t h e s a wantonnesse: A Lawne about the shoulders thrown Into a f i n e d i s t r a c t i o n : An e r r i n g Lace, which here and there E n t h r a l l s the Crimson Stomacher: A C u f f e n e g l e c t f u l l , and thereby Ribbands to flow c o n f u s e d l y : A winning wave (d e s e r v i n g Note) In the tempestuous p e t t i c o t e : A c a r e l e s s e s h o o e - s t r i n g , i n whose tye I see a wilde c i v i l i t y : Doe more bewitch me, then when Art Is too p r e c i s e i n every p a r t . Where Jonson's l a d y ' s "robes" are " l o o s e l y f l o w i n g " , H e r r i c k ' s m i s t r e s s ' " r i b b a n d s " " f l o w c o n f u s e d l y . " Where Jonson l o o k s f o r a n a t u r a l " s i m p l i c i t i e " i n h i s l a d y ' s d r e s s , H e r r i c k has as h i s i d e a l a "wilde c i v i l i t y . " I r r e g u l a r i t i e s of syntax, rhythm, rhyme, and l o g i c (e.g., the l i s t of oxymorons) v i o l a t e the " c l a s s i -c a l " norm of order and moderation represented by Jonson's song. The imperfect golden l i n e s , the p a r t i a l rhymes, the expansion of s y l l a b l e s and piquant d i c t i o n ( f o r example, " k i n d l e s , " " e r r i n g " and "bewitch") are e f f e c t s c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent i n " S t i l l to be neat." Only the l a s t c o u p l e t e x e m p l i f i e s the "too p r e c i s e " order which H e r r i c k f i n d s u n i n t e r e s t i n g . H e r r i c k ' s a t t i t u d e to decorum i s o b v i o u s l y d i f f e r e n t from Jonson's, which i s more t y p i c a l of the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . The tone and execution of " D e l i g h t i n D i s o r d e r , " so d i f f e r e n t from Jonson's song, are ample proof that H e r r i c k was a d i s c i p l e but no s l a v e of h i s master. In " A r t above N a t u r e , t o J u l i a " (H-560) H e r r i c k p r e s e n t s us with the f l i p s i d e of the c o i n : the r e g u l a r i t y and order o f A r t a r e now p r e f e r r e d to the " d i s o r d e r " of Nature. T h i s poem 98 foreshadows the g r e a t e r emphasis l a i d on A r t and o r d e r i n the second h a l f of Hesperides. But even here H e r r i c k ' s v e r s e s are more e l a b o r a t e and more " c u r i o u s l y " wrought than Jonson's l i n e s i n " S t i l l to be neat." The poem d i v i d e s i n t o two equal p a r t s , each c o n t a i n i n g two q u a t r a i n s . The main grammatical c l a u s e i s delayed u n t i l a f i n a l a d d i t i o n a l c o u p l e t , which s t a t e s the moral and serves as a ki n d of coda. Thus, the b a s i c s t r u c t u r a l o u t l i n e i s f a r more r e g u l a r than that of "What k i n d of M i s t r e s s e he would have." The anaphora s i g n a l e d by the r e p e t i t i o n of the phrase "When I" r e i n f o r c e s t h i s s t r u c t u r a l r e g u l a r i t y : WHen I behold a F o r r e s t spread With s i l k e n t r e e s upon thy head; And when I see that other Dresse Of flowers s et i n comlinesse: When I behold another grace In the ascent of c u r i o u s Lace, Which l i k e a P i n n a c l e doth shew The top, and the t o p - g a l l a n t too. Then, when I see thy Tresses bound Into an O v a l l , square, or round; And k n i t i n knots f a r more than I Can t e l l by tongue; or t r u e - l o v e t i e : Next, when those Lawnie Filmes I see Play with a w i l d c i v i l i t y : And a l l those a i r i e s i l k s to flow, A l l u r i n g me, and tempting so: I must confesse, mine eye and heart Dotes l e s s on Nature, then on A r t . L i k e " D e l i g h t i n D i s o r d e r , " t h i s poem i s a blazon which surveys the l a d y ' s person and d r e s s . But H e r r i c k focuses here o n l y on J u l i a ' s h a i r - s t y l e and lawns and s i l k s , a l t e r n a t i n g h i s glance from one to the ot h e r . There i s no mention of the la d y ' s under-garments as i n the e a r l i e r poem, and the " a i r i e s i l k s , " although s a i d to be " a l l u r i n g " "and "tempting," do not b e t r a y any g r e a t 99 "wantonnesse." J u l i a ' s charms appeal c h i e f l y t o the "eye" and not t o the " h e a r t " and d e s i r e as i n " D e l i g h t i n D i s o r d e r . " H e r r i c k ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n of h i s m i s t r e s s h e r e i s a k i n t o p u r e , d i s i n t e r e s t e d a e s t h e t i c contemplation. The tone and imagery of "Art above Nature" are e t h e r e a l . N o t i c e the c l e a r development of imagery from images of Nature to images and terms of A r t . F i r s t , J u l i a ' s b r a i d e d h a i r and dress are d e s c r i b e d i n n a t u r a l images. Her head i s a " F o r r e s t " made up of " s i l k e n t r e e s " , and her dress i s composed "of fl o w e r s set i n comlinesse." Her " l a c e " ascends l i k e a c r a w l i n g v i n e or p l a n t . But t h i s i s nature methodized: the " s i l k e n t r e e s " and "f l o w e r s " are c l e a r l y a r t i f i c i a l . Then her l a c e i s compared to the s t r u c t u r e of a s h i p , with i t s masts and " p i n n a c l e , " and her " t r e s s e s " to g e o m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n s . These p a t t e r n s are s e t i n a t r i - c o l o n crescendo, ascending from the l e s s to the more p e r f e c t forms: Into an O v a l l , square, or round.... F i n a l l y , J u l i a ' s " a i r i e s i l k s , " f r e e of any t r a c e of m a t t e r or n a t u r a l d r oss, are d e s c r i b e d i n e n t i r e l y a b s t r a c t terras as p l a y i n g with a " w i l d c i v i l i t y . " But u n l i k e " D e l i g h t i n D i s o r d e r , " the emphasis here i s more on " c i v i l i t y " r a t h e r than w i l d n e s s . T h i s movement from concr e t e to a b s t r a c t imagery makes the c o n c l u s i o n h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g and, i n d e e d , i n e v i t a b l e : J u l i a ' s dress and h a i r s t y l e cause H e r r i c k to dote " l e s s on Nature, then on A r t . " 100 The design of the c o u p l e t s and t h e i r v e r s i f i c a t i o n u n d e r l i n e the emphasis on b a l a n c e , o r d e r and a r t . The high p r o p o r t i o n of balanced phrases and p a r a l l e l i s m s c o n t r i b u t e s to the o v e r a l l r e g u l a r i t y . Phrases are n e a t l y balanced i n do u b l e t s , as i n "top" and " t o p - g a l l a n t , " "eye and h e a r t " , " a l l u r i n g " and tempting," and the f i n a l a n t i t h e s i s of "Nature" and " A r t . " The p a r a l l e l i s m of the f o l l o w i n g l i n e i s r e i n f o r c e d by symmetrical a l l i t e r a t i o n and sound p a t t e r n s . Can t e l l by tongue; or t r u e - l o v e t i e . . . . And, i n s t e a d of the i m p e r f e c t l y r e a l i z e d golden l i n e s of " D e l i g h t i n D i s o r d e r , " we f i n d a p e r f e c t golden c o u p l e t i n "Art above Nature": m N V Next, when those Lawnie Filmes I see V m N Play with a w i l d c i v i l i t y : Compare t h i s with the f i r s t c o u p l e t of " D e l i g h t i n D i s o r d e r " : m N N A Sweet d i s o r d e r i n the dresse V N N K i n d l e s i n c l o a t h s a wantonnesse .... The reader expects a m o d i f i e r b e f o r e the f i n a l noun "wantonnesse," but i s i n s t e a d o f f e r e d a k i n d of d e c e p t i v e cadence. The flawed golden l i n e p e r f e c t l y d e s c r i b e s the "sweet d i s o r d e r " which i s the a e s t h e t i c i d e a l d e f i n e d by the poem. There i s a g r e a t e r t o l e r a n c e of a p l e a s i n g d i s o r d e r here than i n " A r t above Nature." 101 In " A r t above Nature", the high p r o p o r t i o n of l i g h t , f r o n t a l consonants and s i b i l a n t s ( f ' s , 1's, t ' s and s's) and long vowels (long o's, e's, i ' s and a's) makes i t s l i n e s e x c e p t i o n a l l y smooth and l i g h t , even by H e r r i c k ' s usual standards. The f o l l o w i n g l i n e b est i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s m e l l i f l u o u s q u a l i t y : And a l l those a i r i e s i l k s to flow.... The long vowels, l i g h t consonants and s i b i l a n t s p e r f e c t l y i m i t a t e the f l o w i n g of the " a i r i e s i l k s . " Most of the rhymes, too, are p e r f e c t , and a l l end with the same vowel q u a l i t y - a n o t a b l e c o n t r a s t to the imperfect rhymes of " D e l i g h t i n D i s o r d e r " . "Art above Nature", then, i s not merely an i n f e r i o r v e r s i o n of " D e l i g h t i n D i s o r d e r , " but i s c l e a r l y intended to be read as a companion poem e x e m p l i f y i n g the o p p o s i t e s i d e of the a r t - v e r s u s -n a t u r e c o n t r o v e r s y . The s e r i e s of poems on t h i s theme c l e a r l y form an i n n e r sequence w i t h i n the volume. Such d i s c o n t i n u o u s s e q u e n c e s were not uncommon i n a n c i e n t p o e t r y b o o k s . 5 5 But l i m i t s of space prevent us from examining the many such sequences i n Hesperides. The two Sack poems, "His P o e t r i e h i s P i l l a r " and "The P i l l a r o f Fame," the epigrams of p r a i s e which compose an " e t e r n a l l C a l e n d e r " (H-545, 10), the a n a c r e o n t i c l y r i c s , the sequences of poems e n t i t l e d "To h i s Book" and "On h i m s e l f " are notable examples which s p r i n g to mind. Sometimes companion poems can be widely separated, as are "To Perenna" (H-16) and "To the handsome M i s t r e s s e Grace P o t t e r " (H-992), the f i r s t d e f i n i n g b e a u t y i n an e a r t h l y and the second i n an i d e a l c o n t e x t ; or 102 s i m i l a r l y , the two epigrams on l o v e (H-29 and H-839) which d e s c r i b e the l a r g e r c i r c l e of l o v e i n which the volume i s c o n t a i n e d . The p o i n t i s t h a t the apparent d i s o r d e r of Hesperides i s a c a l c u l a t e d d i s o r d e r , a " d e l i g h t i n d i s o r d e r " which avoids the monotony which a s i m p l e r p a t t e r n would undoubtedly impose. To the " c u r i o u s " reader who i s not content with the r e c e i v e d view of Hesperides as a formless mass of poems on overworked and hackneyed themes, H e r r i c k ' s powers of c o n s t r u c t i o n on the l a r g e s c a l e must appear t r u l y f o r m i d a b l e . T h i s alone p l a c e s him at a l e v e l f a r beyond the reach of the " C a v a l i e r s . " How d i d H e r r i c k conceive h i s r o l e as a poet? Did he regard h i m s e l f as p r i m a r i l y a c r a f t s m a n , or as an i n s p i r e d b a r d o r p r o p h e t ? What were the r e l a t i v e v a l u e s H e r r i c k a s s i g n e d to " c r a f t " and " a r t " and i n s p i r a t i o n ? These ques t i o n s about s e l f -c o n ception are b a s i c to poets of a l l ages and c u l t u r e s . Nor can they be answered i n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , u n e q u i v o c a l way. Even the most s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a r t i s t s d e c l a r e that the r u l e s of good cr a f t s m a n s h i p are i n s u f f i c i e n t to produce good poetry . Pope, f o r example, sums up the c l a s s i c a l view i n An Essay on C r i t i c i s m t h at there i s "a grace beyond the reach of a r t . " S i m i l a r l y , even the most " i n s p i r e d " bard cannot dispense with the r u l e s or hard work i f he hopes at a l l to communicate with h i s r e a d e r s . E a r l y manuscript v e r s i o n s o f " i n s p i r e d " Romantic l y r i c s expose the myth of the untutored genius who s i n g s i n v o l u n t a r y hymns under the i n f l u e n c e of the d i v i n e a f f l a t u s . The s a f e s t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n that one can perhaps make i s that the c l a s s i c a l poets a t t a c h more importance 103 to c r a f t , and the Romantics more to i n s p i r a t i o n . However, t h i s i s not a hard-and-fast d i s t i n c t i o n , but only a d e s c r i p t i o n of the g e n e r a l t e n d e n c i e s of t h o s e d i f f i c u l t and t r o u b l e s o m e terms, " C l a s s i c " and "Romantic." In the Renaissance, the poet was viewed both as a craftsman and teacher, and as a prophet and v a t e s . From P l a t o , the Renaissance i n h e r i t e d the idea of the poet as a madman who s u f f e r e d from a f u r o r p o e t i c u s . T h i s , however, was a d i v i n e madness given by the gods, or as H e r r i c k puts i t i n "His f a r e - w e l l to Sack," a "sacred madnesse." The b e l i e f was s t i l l s t r o n g that the poet was i n s p i r e d by an o u t s i d e f o r c e , u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d with the c l a s s i c a l Muses, or, i n the case of M i l t o n , with the "Heav'nly Muse" who r e s i d e s f a r above " t h ' Aonian Mount." But, f o l l o w i n g A r i s t o t l e , the poet was regarded a l s o as an i m i t a t o r of nature. For the Renaissance, t h i s meant nature as d i s c o v e r e d and understood by the a n c i e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , the i m i t a t i o n of n a t u r e i m p l i e d the i m i t a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l genres, themes and poets. According to t h i s view, the poet's f u n c t i o n was to educate h i s readers i n v i r t u e by p r e s e n t i n g them with models of heroism and e x c e l l e n c e . His task was t h a t o f the e d u c a t o r and o r a t o r - " t o t e a c h and d e l i g h t . " Here, he i s not an i n s p i r e d v a t e s , but p r i m a r i l y a craftsman whose duty i s to c i v i l i z e h i s r e a d e r s . Both t h e o r i e s about p o e t r y and the f u n c t i o n of the poet a r e t o be found i n H e s p e r i d e s . H e r r i c k reminds h i s reader i n s e v e r a l e p igrams t h a t h i s f u n c t i o n i s to " t e a c h " as w e l l as " d e l i g h t . " For example, i n "To h i s Booke" (H-603) he a s s e r t s 104 t h a t there i s a d i d a c t i c content i n Hesperides. Even the c e n s o r i o u s reader who does not enjoy h i s v e r s e s might s t i l l l e a r n something, pr o v i d e d he reads with understanding: BE b o l d my Booke, nor be abasht, or f e a r e The c u t t i n g Thumb-naile, or the Brow severe. But by the Muses sweare, a l l here i s good, I f but w e l l read; or i l l read, understood. And e v e r y l i n e of H e s p e r i d e s t e s t i f i e s to the importance with which H e r r i c k regarded h i s r o l e as a craftsman. In "A Vow to Minerva" (H-530,1), H e r r i c k says "Goddesse, I began an A r t , " a l i n e which few p o e t s c o u l d u t t e r w i t h as much j u s t i f i c a t i o n . P oetry i s an a r t which r e q u i r e s "noble D i s c i p l i n e " (H-657, 3); i t r e q u i r e s a l l the l o v e and p a t i e n c e of the most f a s t i t i d i o u s craftsman. One r e a l l y has to go back to Horace to f i n d another poet who d i s p l a y s such great care i n g i v i n g every word and s y l l a b l e i t s proper "Euphonie, and weight" (H-947, 6 ) . But H e r r i c k ' s more t y p i c a l s e l f - c o n c e p t i o n i s t h a t of the v a t e s o r " L y r i c k P r o p h e t . " H e r r i c k s t r e s s e s again and again t h a t p o e t r y and song a r e of d i v i n e o r i g i n and t h a t the poet i s i n s p i r e d by a "sacred madnesse." He w r i t e s a s e r i e s of i n v o c a -t i o n s to the Muses, A p o l l o , Bacchus, the Graces and " S a i n t Ben." Poetry i s d i v i n e and, t h e r e f o r e , able to immortalize the poet and h i s c u l t u r a l heroes. The d i v i n e v i g o u r of the c e l e s t i a l i c h o r sack "Work'st more then Wisdom^ A r t , or N a t u r e can" (H-128, 2 4 ) . W i t h o u t the s a c r e d i n s p i r a t i o n of Bacchus and h i s v i n e , H e r r i c k ' s verse " s h a l l s m e l l of the Lamp." (H-128, 5 4 ) . " H i s 105 F a r e - w e l l to Sack" (H-128), indeed, i s a c l a s s i c statement of the theory of f u r o r p o e t i c u s . Of c o u r s e , H e r r i c k i s no e n t h u s i a s t , and he hymns A p o l l o (e.g. H-388; H-871) j u s t as o f t e n as he c h a n t s the p r a i s e of B a c c h u s . He r e q u e s t s the g r a c e s t o "ponder" h i s v e r s e s and ensure that they observe decorum: POnder my words, i f so that any be Known g u i l t y here of i n c i v i l i t y : L et what i s g r a c e l e s s , discompos'd and rude, With sweetness, smoothness, s o f t n e s s , be endu'd .... (H-914, 1-4) The Graces r e p r e s e n t the c o n s c i o u s and r a t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s , as opposed to the d i v i n e and s u p r a r a t i o n a l o r i g i n of poetry i d e n t i f i e d with the Muses and Bacchus. In f a c t , the Graces are a s s o c i a t e d with something as seemingly mundane as r e v i s i o n : For I know you have the s k i l l Vines to prune, though not to k i l l . . . . (H-569, 13-14) H e r r i c k i m p l i e s t h a t b o t h A p o l l o and Bacchus, the G r a c e s and the Muses, Horace and Anacreon are complementary. I n s p i r a t i o n and hard work, i n v e n t i o n and r e s t r a i n t , form a necessary p a r t n e r -s h i p . J u s t as H e r r i c k r e c o n c i l e s profane and sacred love i n the paradox of "cleanly-wantonnesse", so he u n i t e s Bacchus and A p o l l o i n h i s a e s t h e t i c i d e a l of "wilde c i v i l i t y . " The d i v i n e o r i g i n of song i s a theme f u l l y developed i n the s e r i e s of poems on music. H e r r i c k conceives of h i m s e l f as a bard who s i n g s h i s p r a i s e s to the gods "to the t e n s i o n of the s t r i n g " (H-332, 1). He c a l l s upon the gods to i n s p i r e him with song and 106 allow him to hear the music that comes from above. His i n v o c a t i o n "To A p o l l o " , (H-871) the god of harmony and music, i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of h i s view of music: THou mighty Lord and master of the Lyre Unshorn A p o l l o , come, and r e - i n s p i r e My f i n g e r s so, the L y r i c k - s t r i n g s to move That I may p l a y , and s i n g a Hymne to Love. Music i s an image of the d i v i n e order of the cosmos, and can with i t s magical and c e l e s t i a l p r o p e r t i e s impose order on chaos: MUsick, thou Queen of Heaven, Care-charming-spel, That s t r i k ' s t a s t i l n e s s e i n t o h e l l : (H-254, 1-2) F i n a l l y , music i s a m e d i c i n e and "charm" which can c u r e the d i s o r d e r s of the body and s o u l . (H-227; H-244). Music i s thus a g i f t from above, the f o u n t of a l l p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n , the s u s t a i n e r of the order of the cosmos and the s o u l , and the ladd e r which s t r e t c h e s from heaven to e a r t h . The d i v i n e o r i g i n of music i s the s u b j e c t of one of H e r r i c k ' s most b e a u t i f u l and i n t r i c a t e l y r i c s , "To Musique, to becalme h i s F e v e r . " (H-227). As i n Herbert's "Church-musick," music r a i s e s the i l l poet up to the gates of heaven. H e r r i c k invokes music to "charm" him i n t o " e a s i e slumbers": s l e e p and death, as i n much Renaissance v e r s e , are c l o s e l y l i n k e d throughout the poem. The "whispers of m o r t a l i t y , " the sacred aura and r e l i g i o u s imagery, and the broken b a l l a d stanza make t h i s poem a c l o s e c o u s i n of another great l y r i c , "To D a f f a d i l l s " (H-316). The p a t t e r n i n g of 107 l i n e s i n " T o M u s i q u e " , h o w e v e r , i s e v e n more i n t r i c a t e t h a n t h a t o f t h e l a t t e r poera: 1. CHarm me a s l e e p , and m e l t me s o W i t h t h y D e l i c i o u s N u m b e r s ; T h a t b e i n g r a v i s h t , h e n c e I goe Away i n e a s i e s l u m b e r s . E a s e my s i c k h e a d , And make my b e d , T h o u Power t h a t c a n s t s e v e r F rom me t h i s i l l : And q u i c k l y s t i l l : T h o u g h t h o u n o t k i l l My F e v e r . T h o u s w e e t l y c a n s t c o v e r t t h e same From a c o n s u m i n g f i r e , I n t o a g e n t l e - l i c k i n g f l a m e , And make i t t h u s e x p i r e . T h e n make me weep My p a i n e s a s l e e p ; And g i v e me s u c h r e p o s e s , T h a t I, p o o r e I, May t h i n k , t h e r e b y , I l i v e and d i e ' M o n g s t R o s e s . F a l l on me l i k e a s i l e n t dew, O r l i k e t h o s e M a i d e n s h o w r s , W h i c h , b y t h e p e e p e o f d a y , doe s t r e w A B a p t i m e o ' r e t h e f l o w e r s . M e l t , m e l t my p a i n e s , W i t h t h y s o f t s t r a i n e s ; T h a t h a v i n g e a s e me g i v e n , W i t h f u l l d e l i g h t , I l e a v e t h i s l i g h t ; And t a k e my f l i g h t F o r H e a v e n . The b a s i c p a t t e r n i s t h e l y r i c o r b a l l a d s t a n z a w i t h a l t e r n a t i n g t e t r a m e t e r and t r i m e t e r l i n e s and a l t e r n a t e r h y m e s . B u t t h e t r i m e t e r l i n e s a l l end w i t h f e m i n i n e r h y m e s . T h e s e c a d e n c e s b e a u t i f u l l y c a p t u r e t h e s e n s e o f r e p o s e and " s l u m b e r " w h i c h t h e poem s e e k s t o c o n v e y . In t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f e a c h s t a n z a , t h e b a s i c p a t t e r n 2 . 3. 108 i s broken and v a r i e d , much as the v a r i a t i o n s or " s t r a i n s " i n E l i z a b e t h a n music. The shortened l i n e s and b u i l d i n g up of rhymes s l a c k e n the o v e r a l l p ace. And the d e l a y e d rhyme between the s e v e n t h and l a s t l i n e s o f each s t a n z a makes the f i n a l rhyme doubly emphatic. T h i s r e f l e c t s the sense of t e n s i o n and repose which u n d e r l i e s the poem. With i t s abundant a l l i t e r a t i o n , assonance, broken l i n e s , r e p e t i t i o n s , balanced phrases and verbs, the poem i s an e x c e p t i o n a l l y musical statement. These vers e s "charm" the ear as " D e l i c i o u s Numbers" and " s o f t s t r a i n e s . " The b a s i c metaphor here i s that s l e e p equals death, a common trope i n seventeenth-century r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y . But the equation, nowhere s t a t e d d e f i n i t e l y , i s only h i n t e d a t . The music from above which can convert the burning f e v e r i n t o a " g e n t l e - l i c k i n g f l a m e " and make i t " e x p i r e " can a l s o " e x p i r e " the "flame" of l i f e . H i n t s of m o r t a l i t y appear throughout the poem: the "bed might be a deathbed, and the "Power" of music might be able to "sever" the s o u l from the " i l l " body; H e r r i c k does not know whether he i s to " l i v e or d i e " among roses; and f i n a l l y he leaves " t h i s l i g h t " ( t h a t i s , the world) to t r a v e l on the wings of music to "Heaven." As i n c l a s s i c a l mythology, music guides the departed s o u l to i t s e v e r l a s t i n g abode. Because of i t s d i v i n e o r i g i n music can serve as an i n t i m a t i o n of i m m o r t a l i t y and g i v e a f o r e t a s t e of the " f u l l d e l i g h t " of "Heaven." E a r t h l y music i s an echo of c e l e s t i a l music. In k e e p i n g with t h i s theme, there i s a high p r o p o r t i o n of r e l i g i o u s d i c t i o n and imagery here. Music i s a p o s t r o p h i z e d as 109 a "Power," a member of the n i n e f o l d h i e r a r c h y of a n g e l s . T h i s i s a p e r f e c t l y c o n v e n t i o n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n Renaissance poetr y . Then music i s s a i d t o "convert" the "consuming f i r e " of the f e v e r " i n t o a g e n t l e - l i c k i n g flame." The f e v e r here, though, r e p r e s e n t s both the i l l s of the body and the s o u l , and so t h i s f i r e i s one of p u r i f i c a t i o n . L a t e r i n the volume, H e r r i c k c a l l s l o v e a "consuming f i r e " (H-836, 8 ) . So i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that H e r r i c k h i n t s at a k i n d of repentance when he c a l l s upon the power of music to "make me weep/My pains s l e e p . " The f e v e r h e r e i s as much s p i r i t u a l as p h y s i c a l . But the r e l i g i o u s imagery i s c l e a r e s t i n the f i n a l stanza where H e r r i c k takes h i s " f l i g h t / F o r Heaven." Here t h e d e s c e n t of music and i t s s o o t h i n g q u a l i t i e s a r e compared t o such an unob t r u s i v e and i m p e r c e p t i b l e n a t u r a l p r o c e s s as the f a l l i n g of dew. (Not i c e the e f f e c t i v e use of f a l l i n g rhythms i n the f i r s t f o o t and the b i s y l l a b i c words): F a l l on me l i k e a s i l e n t dew, Or l i k e those Maiden showrs, Which, by the peepe of day, doe strew A Baptime o're the f l o w e r s . The s o u r c e of the music, l i k e the dew, i s from the heavens. But t h i s "dew" has s p i r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e s i n c e i t s a n c t i f i e s the " f l o w e r s " with "Baptime." H e r r i c k uses e x a c t l y t h i s image i n the f i n a l s t a n z a of "To D a f f a d i l l s " (H-316), where t h e r e l i g i o u s imagery i s even more u n o b t r u s i v e than i n the e a r l i e r poem. Here, however, the "dew" r e p r e s e n t s the s o u l , which w i l l r e t u r n t o i t s h e a v e n l y 110 homeland j u s t as "the p e a r l e s of Mornings dew" a r e e v a p o r a t e d by the morning s u n. That the dewdrops are " p e a r l e s " suggests permanence r a t h e r then ephemerality. T h i s i s yet another i n s t a n c e of H e r r i c k ' s i n t i m a t i o n s of i m m o r t a l i t y : We d i e , As your hours doe, and d r i e Away, L i k e to the Summers r a i n e ; Or as the p e a r l e s of Mornings dew Ne'r to be found againe. (11. 15-20) The "dew" of "To Musique" a l s o has a heavenly source, and i s thus able not only to "becalme" the f e v e r but a l s o to r e s t o r e order t o the s o u l . So when H e r r i c k u r g e n t l y implores the music to "melt, melt my p a i n s " he p r i n c i p a l l y means h i s s p i r i t u a l "paines" which must be p u r i f i e d and "eased" before he can be c a r r i e d to "Heaven." "To Musique," t o o , b e a r s a c l o s e r e s e m b l a n c e t o a poem l i k e " H i s L e t a n i e , to the Holy S p i r i t " (N-41) i n Noble Numbers where the context i s unambiguously r e l i g i o u s and s a c r e d . Here H e r r i c k c a l l s upon the "Sweet S p i r i t " which, l i k e the music of the e a r l i e r poem, can heal h i s b o d i l y and s p i r i t u a l i l l s : When I l i e w i t h i n my bed, S i c k i n heart, and s i c k i n head, And with doubts di s c o m f o r t e d , Sweet S p i r i t comfort me! (11. 5-8) T h i s i s j u s t a n o t h e r p r o o f t h a t H e r r i c k ' s works "humane" and " d i v i n e " do not d i f f e r as much as the t i t l e - p a g e of Hesperides would seem to suggest. H e r r i c k i m p l i e s i n a "humane" poem l i k e I l l "To Musique" that h i s song has a higher source than the c l a s s i c a l muse. And H e r r i c k regards h i m s e l f i n Hesperides not j u s t as a s e c u l a r or "humane" poet, but as a p o e t - p r i e s t who b r i n g s together c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n s . In "An Hymne to the Muses" (H-778), he c a l l s upon the "sweet Maids ( t h r i c e t h r e e ) " (1.5) to "crown" h i s " P r i e s t - h o o d " with "bayes." (1.11). There i s no s t r i c t s e p a r a t i o n between the world of Hesperides and the world of Noble Numbers. H e r r i c k , then, regards song and verse as of d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n , a view he shares with V i r g i l , Dante, M i l t o n and the great t r a d i t i o n of Western p o e t r y . But t h i s does not leave the poet to be merely an i n v o l u n t a r y s e c r e t a r y , or o r a c l e , of the d i v i n e a f f l a t u s . As we suggested b e f o r e , H e r r i c k a s s e r t s that both A p o l l o (reason) and Bacchus ( i n s p i r a t i o n ) a r e e s s e n t i a l to the c r e a t i o n of good v e r s e . I n s p i r a t i o n must come f i r s t , and then the d i f f i c u l t task of r e v i s i n g , p o l i s h i n g and reworking l i n e s to meet the s t r i n g e n t demands of decorum. The poet must keep h i s "wit" or f a c u l t y of i n v e n t i o n under c o n t r o l , and not become i n e b r i a t e d under the wine of p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n . Pegasus must be b r i d l e d i f the poet i s to mount Parnasus. And although H e r r i c k espouses an a e s t h e t i c of "wilde c i v i l i t y , " there i s no doubt that h i s verses are f a r more c i v i l than w i l d . That the poet r e c e i v e s h i s i n s p i r a t i o n from the muses does not absolve him from being a c a r e f u l and r e s p o n s i b l e craftsman. H e r r i c k ' s model poet i s , of course, h i s master Ben Jonson. For H e r r i c k , as f o r h i s c e n t u r y , Jonson i s the Horace of h i s age, i t s l i t e r a r y d i c t a t o r and a r b i t e r of c l a s s i c a l s t a n d a r d s . He i s the poet who p e r f e c t l y balances i n s p i r a t i o n and d i s c i p l i n e , "wit" and l e a r n i n g . H e r r i c k acknowledges h i s debt to Jonson i n s e v e r a l poems, and e x p r e s s e s h i s g r a t i t u d e to the master who taught him h i s c r a f t . He o f f e r s h i s l y r i c s t o h i s p a t r o n " S a i n t Ben" , who makes "the way smooth" f o r him (H-604). And H e r r i c k a d m i t s , i n "A Bacchanalian Verse" (H-653), t h a t though he can q u a f f e " n i n e " "mighty" bowles of wine to h i s "Johnsons s o u l e , " he can never " t h r i v e i n f r e n z i e " l i k e the master. T h i s p r o f o u n d r e s p e c t f o r h i s p o e t i c f o r b e a r s and h u m i l i t y before t r a d i t i o n i s q u i t e u n l i k e the a n x i e t y from which the Romantic or modern poet supposedly s u f f e r s i n h i s d r i v e f o r o r i g i n a l i t y and h i s need to cut out h i s own c r e a t i v e space. The Romantics, f o r i n s t a n c e , n e ver d i s p l a y as much r e s p e c t f o r M i l t o n as H e r r i c k does f o r h i s p o e t i c f a t h e r . H e r r i c k ' s l a s t and b e s t t r i b u t e to Jonson i s undoubtedly "An Ode f o r him" (H-911). Here he commemorates, at the end of the volume, h i s p o e t i c f a t h e r , j u s t as he p a i d h i s r e s p e c t s at the tomb of h i s n a t u r a l f a t h e r near i t s b e g i n n i n g (H-82). In i t s two s t a n z a s , the poem d e f i n e s and d r a m a t i z e s the "wilde c i v i l i t y " which i s H e r r i c k ' s a e s t h e t i c i d e a l . H e r r i c k d i s p l a y s g e n u i n e n o s t a l g i a f o r the v i t a bona of good company, abundant wine and food and high c u l t u r e that Jonson and h i s Sons enjoyed i n the taverns of London. But Jonson and h i s "Guests," as much as they must have drunk, were "nobly w i l d , not mad" (1.7). These " L y r i c k F e a s t s " were more b a c c h a n a l i a of poetry than of wine. And 113 Jonson, the epitome of the i n s p i r e d poet here, i s s t i l l the model of c r a f t and d i s c i p l i n e . H e r r i c k c a l l s upon Jonson i n the second st a n z a to teach h i s d i s c i p l e s how "wisely to husband" (1.16) the "p r e c i o u s s t o c k " of "wit" they i n h e r i t e d from him. As a p o e t i c s a i n t , Jonson i s able to dispense h i s superogatory m e r i t s to h i s Sons. They l i v e o f f h i s s u r p l u s "wit," and must adopt a p o l i c y of r e s t r a i n t b e f o r e i t d e p r e c i a t e s : AH Ben! Say how, or when S h a l l we thy Guests Meet at those L y r i c k F e a s t s , Made at the Sun The Dog, the t r i p l e Tunne? Where we such c l u s t e r s had, As made us nobly w i l d , not mad; And yet each Verse of t h i n e Out-did the meate, o u t - d i d the f r o l i c k wine. My Ben Or come agen: Or send to us, Thy wi t s great o v e r - p l u s ; But teach us yet Wisely to husband i t ; L e s t we that T a l l e n t Spend: And having once brought to an end That p r e c i o u s stock; the s t o r e Of such a wit the world sho'd have no more. Ben i s viewed as a k i n d of p o e t i c god here who d i s p e n s e s h i s " w i t s g r e a t o v e r - p l u s " t o h i s d i s c i p l e s . He i s t h e i r master to whom th e y must a c c o u n t , as the a l l u s i o n s t o the b i b l i c a l p a r a b l e s o f the wise husbandman and the t a l e n t suggest. A f t e r h i s death, Jonson has been d e i f i e d and made s o l e monarch of "wit." Post-Jonsonian poets must l i v e o f f the " p r e c i o u s s t o c k " he has l e f t them. 114 H e r r i c k d i s p l a y s g r e a t i n g e n u i t y i n h i s m e t r i c s i n t h i s ode. The p y r a m i d a l shape, d e s c e n d i n g from the raonometer of the f i r s t l i n e to the pentameter, w o n d e r f u l l y r e f l e c t s the content and tone of the poem. The f i r s t l i n e of each stanza i s a s i g h of r e g r e t ; the l a s t l i n e the h e r o i c l i n e a s s o c i a t e d with the s t a t u r e and scope of Jonson's wit and v e r s e . Examples of m e t r i c a l "wit" can be found i n the handl i n g of l i n e l e n g t h s and the placement of caesurae. Take, f o r i n s t a n c e , the l a s t three l i n e s of the f i r s t s t a n z a : As made us nobly w i l d , // not mad; And yet each Verse of t h i n e Out-did the meate, // o u t - d i d the f r o l i c k wine. The caesura i n the f i r s t l i n e , where the d r i n k e r s a r e " n o b l y w i l d " but "not mad," a p p e a r s i n an i r r e g u l a r p o s i t i o n a f t e r the s i x t h s y l l a b l e . But t h e l a s t p e n tameter l i n e , w i t h i t s r e p e t i t i o n o f the v e r b , i t s p a r a l l e l i s m and r e g u l a r l y p l a c e d caesura, suggests the massive a u t h o r i t y and s t a b i l i t y of Jonson's v e r s e as compared to "the f r o l i c k wine." Or take the l i n e s on Jonson's "wit" i n the second s t a n z a . The h e a v i l y accented s y l l a b l e s of l i n e f o u r , c o n c e r n i n g J o n s o n ' s " o v e r - p l u s " of " w i t , " are f o l l o w e d by s h o r t l i n e s d e s c r i b i n g the husbanding of that "wit." The f i n a l l i n e s , on the other hand, suggest a c o n t r a s t between the " p r e c i o u s s t o c k " b equeathed t o the Sons and t h e m a s s i v e " s t o r e " belonging to the f a t h e r : And having once brought to an end That p r e c i o u s stock; // the s t o r e Of such a wit the world sho'd have no more. 115 The s t r o n g caesura i n the second l i n e , emphasized by a semi-colon, h i g h l i g h t s the p h r a s e "That p r e c i o u s s t o c k . " The l a s t f o o t runs over to the f o l l o w i n g l i n e , with which i t forms a s y n t a c t i c u n i t . T h i s s e r i e s of monosyllables makes t h i s a very capacious statement. Moreover, the symmetry of the sound p a t t e r n s make i t a l s o a most resonant c o n c l u s i o n to the ode: the s t o r e / Of such a wit the world sho'd have no more. As always, H e r r i c k d e l i b e r a t e l y and " w i s e l y " p l a c e s every s y l l a b l e of the poem to produce the maximum e f f e c t . To conclude, H e r r i c k ' s a e s t h e t i c s and p o e t i c s are b a s i c a l l y t h o s e of the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . But h i s p o e t i c p r a c t i c e i s somewhat i d i o s y n c r a t i c i n h i s love of the d i s c o r d i a concors and " d e l i g h t i n d i s o r d e r . " He p r e f e r s "wilde c i v i l i t y " to the c l a s s i c a l d e f i n i t i o n of beauty as a golden mean. He views h i s own f u n c t i o n as both that of a vates and a r e s p o n s i b l e craftsman, and c o n s i d e r s "Nature" and " A r t " both to be of importance i n the c r e a t i o n of v e r s e . H e r r i c k ' s v e r s e i s more e l a b o r a t e and l e s s " r e g u l a r " than Jonson's, and f a r l e s s r i g i d than that of a n e o - c l a s s i c a l poet l i k e Pope. His verse d i s p l a y s that same "Freedome i n C a p t i v i t y " which i s h i s e t h i c a l , p o l i t i c a l and amatory i d e a l . In other words, H e r r i c k ' s world-view i s of a p i e c e : the content and s t y l e of h i s v e r s e , m a t t e r and manner, a r e p e r f e c t l y u n i t e d i n h i s work. T h i s i s more t r u e of H e r r i c k than of most other poets. H e r r i c k ' s c l a s s i c i s m , t o o , i s q u a l i f i e d by h i s b a s i c a l l y "metaphysical" and r e l i g i o u s world-view. His fondness f o r paradox, oxymoron and e x t e n s i v e use of r e l i g i o u s imagery and b i b l i c a l a l l u s i o n i s something we u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e with the "Metaphysicals." Indeed, H e r r i c k may not be so f a r apart from h i s contemporary, George H e r b e r t , as i s u s u a l l y assumed. Both a r e consummate l y r i c i s t s who wrote w e l l wrought p o e t i c a l books, both s t r e s s the importance of r i t u a l and sacrament i n t h e i r v e r s e, and both share the common body of assumptions of t h e i r age. There i s much more th a t u n i t e s than d i v i d e s them. If anything, H e r r i c k ' s range i s more e x t e n s i v e than H e r b e r t ' s , s i n c e he covers both "sacred" and "profane" l e v e l s of e x i s t e n c e . His p l a c e i n seventeenth-century l i t e r a t u r e i s r e a l l y on a l e v e l with Jonson, Donne and H e r b e r t and not with the " C a v a l i e r s . " And h i s primary d i s t i n c t i o n i s as the author of the most e l a b o r a t e and s o p h i s t i c a t e d p o e t i c a l book of h i s age. NOTES ^ S u r v e y s of H e r r i c k c r i t i c i s m and H e r r i c k ' s r e p u t a t i o n are E l i z a b e t h H. Hageman , R o b e r t H e r r i c k : a R e f e r e n c e Guide ( B o s t o n : G.K. H a l l , 1983), pp. xv-xix; J . Max P a t r i c k , "'Poetry  perpetuates the Poet': Richard James and the Growth of H e r r i c k ' s R e p u t a t i o n , " i n " T r u s t t o Good Verses" : H e r r i c k Tercentenary  Essays, ed. Roger B. R o l l i n and J . Max P a t r i c k ( P i t t s b u r g h : Univ. of P i t t s b u r g h Press, 1978), pp. 221-34; L.C. M a r t i n , ed., The P o e t i c a l  Works Of Robert H e r r i c k (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956), pp. x v i i -x x i . For a p e r c e p t i v e review a r t i c l e of recent H e r r i c k c r i t i c i s m , see Joseph A. G l a s e r , "Recent H e r r i c k C r i t i c i s m : S i g h t i n g i n on One of the Most E l u s i v e of Poets," CLAJ, 20 (1976), 292-302. 2 R o b e r t Southey, L i v e s of Uneducated Poets, to Which are  Added Attempts i n V e r s e by John Jones (London: John Murray, 1831), p.85. ^Algernon C h a r l e s Swinburne, P r e f . , The Hesperides & Noble  Numbers, ed. A l f r e d W. P o l l a r d , 2 v o l s . (London: Lawrence & B u l l e n , 1891), p . x i . 4 F o r example, see Henry Morley, ed., Hesperides: or, Works  both Human and D i v i n e of Robert H e r r i c k (London and New York: George Routlege & Sons, 1884). Morley i n d i c a t e s i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t hat he has omitted eighteen pages of poems which "would i n t e r f e r e with the f r e e r e a d i n g of H e r r i c k i n our E n g l i s h homes." 5 T h e s u b t i t l e of an o u t d a t e d b i o g r a p h i c a l and c r i t i c a l study, Leon Mandel, Robert H e r r i c k : the La s t E l i z a b e t h a n (Chicago: Argus Press, 1927). For an e a r l y a r t i c l e which r e c o g n i z e s H e r r i c k ' s c o n c e r n w i t h m o r t a l i t y , see Alan H. G i l b e r t "Robert H e r r i c k on Death," MLQ, 5(1944), 61-68. b C l e a n t h B r o o k s , "What Does P o e t r y Communicate?," i n The  Well Wrought Urn: Stud i e s i n the S t r u c t u r e of Poetry (New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1947), pp. 62-73. 7Sydney Musgrove, The Universe of Robert H e r r i c k , Auckland U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e B u l l e t i n , no. 38, E n g l i s h S e r i e s , no. 4 (Auckland: Pelorus P r e s s ) , pp. 1-34. ee e s p e c i a l l y , L e i g h A. DeNeef, "This P o e t i c k L i t u r g i e " :  Robert H e r r i c k ' s Ceremonial Mode (Durban, N.C.: Duke Univ. Press, 1974); and Robert H. Deming, Ceremony and A r t : Robert H e r r i c k ' s  Poetry (The Hague and P a r i s : Mouton, 1974). 117 118 ^ G e o f f r e y Walton, "The C a v a l i e r Poets," i n From Donne to  M a r v e l l , V o l . I l l of The New P e l i c a n Guide to E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , ed. B o r i s Ford (Harraondsworth: Penguin Books, 1982), p.210. 1 0 T . S . E l i o t , "What Is Minor P o e t r y ? , " i n On Poetry and  Poets (London: Faber and Faber, 1957), pp.34-51. 1 : L I b i d . , p.47. 1 2 I b i d . , p.45. l^Edward E v e r e t t H a l , J r . , D i e C h r o n o l o g i s c h e Anordung  der Dichtungen Robert H e r r i c k s , D i s s , H a l l e 1892 ( H a l l e : Hofbuch-d r u c h e r i e von C.A. Kaemmerer & Co., 1892); F l o r i s D e l a t t r e , R o b e r t H e r r i c k : C o n t r i b u t i o n a l'etude de l a poesie l y r i q u e en  A n g l e t e r r e au d i x - s e p t i e m e s i e c l e ( P a r i s : F e l i x A l c a n , 1911), pp.482-91; and L.C. M a r t i n , ed., The P o e t i c a l Works of Robert  H e r r i c k (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956), pp. x x x v i - x l . M a r t i n , p.xxxix. l ^ F o r example, see R i c h a r d L. C a p w e l l , " H e r r i c k and the A e s t h e t i c P r i n c i p l e of V a r i e t y and C o n t r a s t , " South A t l a n t i c  Q u a r t e r l y 71 (1972), 488-95. 1 6 R o g e r B. R o l l i n , Robert H e r r i c k (New York: Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , 1966), p.9. 1 7 I b i d . , p.9. 1 8 J o h n L. Kimney, "Order and Form i n H e r r i c k ' s Hesperides," JEGP 70 (1971), 255-68. 1 9 I b i d . , p.259. 2 0 S e e the e s s a y s i n the i s s u e e n t i t l e d "Augustan Poetry Books" i n Arethusa, 13, No. 1 (1980). 2 1 F o r H e r r i c k ' s c l a s s i c a l sourses, see P a u l i n e Aiken, The  I n f l u e n c e of the L a t i n E l e g i s t s on E n g l i s h L y r i c Poetry, 1600- 1650, with P a r t i c u l a r Reference to the Works of Robert H e r r i c k , Univ. of Maine S t u d i e s , 2nd s e r . , No.22 (Orono: Univ. of Maine P r e s s , 1932; r p t . New York: Phaeton Press, 1970); and Kathryn Anderson McEuen, C l a s s i c a l I n f l u e n c e upon the T r i b e of Ben (Cedar Rapids: Torch Press, 1939; r p t . New York: Octagon Books, 1968). 119 2 2 J o h n Van S i c k l e , "The Book-Roll and Some Conventions of the P o e t i c Book," Arethusa 13, No.l (1980), 5-42. T h i s and the f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h a r e based on Van S i c k l e ' s a n a l y s i s of the format and provenance of the a n c i e n t poetry book. 2 3 E . J . Kenney, " C a l c u l a t e d D i s c o n t i n u i t i e s , " CQ 26 (1976), 28-30, as quoted i n Van S i c k l e , p.16. 2 4 I b i d . , p.16. 2 5 I b i d . , p.16. 2 6 S e e the r e c e n t s t u d i e s , C l a s s i c and C a v a l i e r : Essays on Jonson and the Sons of Ben, ed. Claude J . Summers and Ted-Larry Pebworth ( P i t t s b u r g h : U n i v . of P i t t s b u r g h P r e s s , 1982); and C l a u d e J . Summers and T e d - L a r r y Pebworth, Ben Jonson (Boston: Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , 1979). 2 7 R i c h a r d C. Newton, "Jonson and the (Re-) I n v e n t i o n of the Book," i n C l a s s i c and C a v a l i e r , pp.31-55. 2 8 A l a s t a i r F o w l e r , "The S i l v a T r a d i t i o n i n Jonson's The  F o r r e s t , " i n P o e t i c T r a d i t i o n s of the E n g l i s h Renaissance, ed., Maynard Mack and George deForest Lord (New Haven and London: Yale Univ. Press, 1982), pp.163-180. 2 9 I b i d . , p.171. 3 0 I b i d . , p.173. S l l b i d . , p.164. T h i s i s the Renaissance c r i t i c S c a l i g e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n of the s i l v a genre. 3 2 S e e , f o r example, the c l a s s i c study by Joseph Summers, George Herbert: His R e l i g i o n and Art (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1968). 3 3 A l a s t a i r F o w l e r , R o b e r t H e r r i c k P r o c . o f the B r i t i s h Academy, V o l . LXVI (London: O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) , pp. 243-264. Fo w l e r d e f i n e s H e s p e r i d e s as a s i l v a c o l l e c t i o n , i n f a c t , " a p r i m a r i l y epigram s i l v a , " (p.245). 3 4 A 1 1 q u o t a t i o n s from H e r r i c k are f o l l o w e d by "H" (Hesperides) and poem numbers and l i n e s from The Complete Poetry of Robert  H e r r i c k , ed. J . Max P a t r i c k (New York: Doubleday, 1963). 3 ^ S i r Thomas Browne, R e l i g i o M e d i c i i n S i r Thomas Browne: The Major Works, ed. C.A. P a t r i d e s (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1977), p.103. 120 3 6 F o r example, J . Max P a t r i c k , ed. , The Complete Poetry  of Robert H e r r i c k , p.11. 3 7 S e v e n t e e n t h - C e n t u r y Verse and Prose, ed. Helen C. White et a l . (New York: MacMillan, 1951) p.252. 3 8 S e e Achsah G u i b b o r y "'No l u s t t h e r e s l i k e to Poetry': H e r r i c k ' s Passion f o r Poetry" i n "Trust to Good Verses," pp.79-87. Guibbory argues that " i n Hesperides, there i s a c l o s e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y p o e t r y , and what H e r r i c k c a l l s ' l u s t . ' " (p.79). 3 9 J o h n B a r c l a y B r o a d b e n t , P o e t i c Love (London: Chatto & Windus, 1964), pp.245-46. 4 0 I b i d . , p.248. 4 1 J o h n Press, Robert H e r r i c k , W r i t e r s and T h e i r Work, No. 132. (London and New York: Longmans, 1961), p.9. 4 2 D o u g l a s Bush, E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e i n the E a r l i e r Seventeenth  C e n t u r y , 1600-1660, 2nd ed. ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1962), p.116. 4 3 A f u l l study of the Nature and Art c o n t r o v e r s y i n Renaissance l i t e r a t u r e i s Edward W i l l i a m T a y l e r , Nature and Art i n Renaissance L i t e r a t u r e (New York and London: Columbia Univ. Press, 1964). 4 4 F o r g e n e r a l s t u d i e s of the Renaissance theory of l o v e , see J e f f e r s o n B u t l e r F l e t c h e r , The R e l i g i o n of Beauty i n Women,  and Oth e r E s s a y s on P l a t o n i c Love i n Poetry and S o c i e t y (New York: H a s k e l l House, 1966); and A . J . Smith, "The M e t a p h y s i c of Love" i n A M i r r o r f o r Modern S c h o l a r s , ed., L e s t e r A. B e a u r l i n e (New York: Odyssey Press, 1966), pp.140-155. 4 5 S e e J.B. F l e t c h e r , " P r e c e i u s e s at the Court of Cha r l e s I," i n The R e l i g i o n of Beauty i n Woman, pp.166-205. 4 6 R o b e r t Southey, L i v e s of Uneducated Poets, p.85. 4 7 F r a n c i s T u r n e r P a l g r a v e , The Golden T r e a s u r y (London: MacMillan and Co., 1861), p.70. 4 8 A V i c t o r i a n e d i t i o n with a detachable appendix i s A l f r e d W. P o l l a r d , ed., The Hesperides and Noble Numbers 2 V o l s . (London: Lawrence and B u l l e n , 1891). 121 4 9 S e e , f o r example, Harold Roland Swardson, J r . , " H e r r i c k and the Ceremony of M i r t h " i n Poetry and the Fountain of L i g h t :  O b s e r v a t i o n s on the C o n f l i c t Between C h r i s t i a n and C l a s s i c a l  T r a d i t i o n s i n S e v e n t e e n t h - C e n t u r y P o e t r y (Columbia: Univ. of M i s s o u r i Press, 1962), pp.40-63. Swardson argues t h a t H e r r i c k " f e l t the sense of o p p o s i t i o n between h i s poetry and h i s r e l i g i o n " ( p . 42), Also j Anthony Low, Love's A r c h i t e c t u r e : D e v o t i o n a l Modes  i n S e v e n t e e n t h - C e n t u r y Poetry (New York: New York Univ. Press, .1978). Low s e e s H e r r i c k d e v e l o p i n g a " r e l i g i o n of p l e a s u r e ; " however, " H e r r i c k ' s l o v e of beauty and p l e a s u r e i n the s e r v i c e of r e l i g i o n " l e a d s him " t o s u r r e n d e r t o E p i c u r e a n i s m " ( p . 2 1 4 ) . H e r r i c k thus s o l v e s the c o n f l i c t between h i s C h r i s t i a n i t y and c l a s s i c i s m by r e v e r t i n g to "paganism." In Low's view, few of H e r r i c k ' s poems "could not have been w r i t t e n by a Roman S t o i c or Epicurean" (p.208). 5 < ^ F o r d i s c u s s i o n s of the h i e r a r c h y of c l a s s i c a l genres i n H e s p e r i d e s , see R o s a l i e L. C o l i e , The Resources of Kind' Genre- T h e o r y i n the R e n a i s s a n c e , ed. B a r b a r a IC Lewalski (Berkeley: U n i v . of C a l i f o r n i a P ress, 1973), p.25-26; and A l a s t a i r Fowler K i n d s of L i t e r a t u r e : An I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Theory of Genres  and Modes (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1982), pp.229-30. 5 1 S t e p h e n Spender, E l i o t (New York: The V i k i n g Press, 1976), pp.4-5. Spender w r i t e s , "... there i s no c o n t r a d i c t i o n between a poet w r i t i n g i n rhythms and u s i n g images that are unique to h i s s e n s i b i l i t y and h i s w r i t i n g p o e t r y t h a t does not express h i s c o n f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y . " L i k e E l i o t , H e r r i c k a b j u r e s " s e l f -e x p r e s s i o n " i n h i s poetry, but i s n e v e r t h e l e s s "a very p e r s o n a l poet." 5 2 N o r t h r o p F r y e , The Great Code: The B i b l e and L i t e r a t u r e (Toronto: Academic Press Canada, 1981) pp.216-17. 5 3 D o u g l a s Bush, E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e i n the E a r l i e r Seventeenth  Century, 1600-1660, p.115. 5 4 T h e Complete Poetry of Ben Jonson, ed., W i l l i a m B. Hunter, J r . (New York: New York Univ. Press, 1963), p.353. 5 5 S e e E . J . Kenney, " C a l c u l a t e d D i s c o n t i n u i t i e s , " C£ 26 (1976), 28-30. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096481/manifest

Comment

Related Items