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Gnomes of the Oresteia : lyrical reflection and its dramatic relevance Cooper, Craig Richard 1985

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GNOMES OF THE ORESTEIA: LYRICAL REFLECTION AND ITS DRAMATIC RELEVANCE By C r a i g R i c h a r d Cooper B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of C l a s s i c s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Oct o b e r 1 9 8 5 ,© C r a i g R i c h a r d Cooper, 1 9 8 5 In p r e s e n t i n g this thesis in partial f u l f i l m e n t of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e at t h e University of British C o l u m b i a , I agree that the Library shall make it freely available f o r reference a n d study. I further agree that p e r m i s s i o n for e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f this thesis f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the h e a d of my d e p a r t m e n t o r by his o r her representatives. It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of this thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t of The U n i v e r s i t y of British C o l u m b i a 1956 M a i n M a l l V a n couver, C a n a d a V6T 1Y3 D ate Oct.// '??r DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT One o f the most d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f A e s c h y l u s ' p o e t i c s t y l e i s t h e c h o r a l odes. The odes can g e n e r a l l y be d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s : l y r i c a l n a r r a t i v e and l y r i c a l r e f l e c t i o n . The n a r r a t i v e s e c t i o n s m o t i v a t e t h e main a c t i o n o f the drama, o f t e n r e l a t i n g p a s t e v e n t s and c a u s e s . The l y r i c a l r e f l e c t i o n i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e n a r r a t i v e p a r t s by i t s o v e r t m o r a l i z i n g t h a t l i f t t h e d r a m a t i c a c t i o n from the p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e u n i v e r s a l . W i t h i n t h e s e s e c t i o n s o f the ode, a r e c l u s t e r s o f moral g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o r gnomes, d e a l i n g w i t h a v a r i e t y o f t o p i c s b u t always o f a d i s t i n c t i v e l y m o r a l n a t u r e . These gnomes f a r from b e i n g u n r e l a t e d , i n f a c t , g i v e l o g i c t o the d r a m a t i c e v e n t s , e x p l a i n i n g the r e a s o n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t and p r e s e n t i n g t h a t e vent i n u n i v e r s a l terms, i n terms, l e t us s a y , o f the j u s t i c e o f Zeus or t h e w o r k i n g o f F a t e . I n f a c t , t h e gnomes move a l o n g two d i r e c t i o n s o f the drama. They r e f l e c t upon and a n t i c i p a t e i t s e v e n t s . The c o n f l i c t s i n , and r e s o l u t i o n s t o the drama a r e o f t e n worked out a t the l y r i c a l l e v e l . I t i s the purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e n , t o s t u d y the gnomes of the O r e s t e i a and t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g gnomic p a s s a g e s , t o examine t h e i r meaning w i t h i n t h e i r immediate c o n t e x t , and t o see how and t o what e x t e n t t h e gnomes r e l a t e t o t h e d r a m a t i c a c t i o n s . - i i -ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I - AGAMEMNON CHAPTER I I - CHOEPHORI CHAPTER I I I - EUMENIDES CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE i i i v 1 6 67 1 0 0 1 3 0 132 - i i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wou l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my th a n k s t o P r o f e s s o r Anthony P o d l e c k i and P r o f e s s o r H a r r y E d i n g e r f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m . - i v -NOTE FROM THE AUTHOR Due t o c e r t a i n t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , t h e Greek c o n t a i n s no t e r m i n a l sigma, no upper c a s e l e t t e r s and the o m i c r o n a p p e a r s as b. - v -INTRODUCTION When one re a d s the O r e s t e i a , one i s s t r u c k by the number o f p a s s a g e s w i t h i n the l y r i c s t h a t a r e r e f l e c t i v e . The Chorus w i l l n a r r a t e a c e r t a i n e v e n t , t h e n pause and r e f l e c t upon what t h e y have j u s t s a i d . T h i s p a t t e r n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e i n Agamemnon. I n the parodos o f t h a t p l a y , the Chorus r e l a t e t he e v e n t s o f A u l i s . They r e c a l l t he omen t h a t appeared t o t h e A t r e i d a e and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i v e n by C a l c h a s . However, b e f o r e the Chorus r e l a t e t he consequences o f C a l c h a s ' p r o p h e c y , the d e a t h o f I p h i g e n i a , t h e y t u r n t h e i r t h o u g h t s t o Zeus and r e f l e c t upon h i s h a r s h r u l e and t h e law o f " l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g . " T h i s p a t t e r n i s r e p e a t e d f o r each ode o f Agamemnon and f o r s e v e r a l odes o f C h o e p h o r i and Eumenides. These l y r i c a l s e c t i o n s a r e marked o f f from the r e s t o f the ode by t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e m o r a l i z i n g . W i t h i n t h e s e r e f l e c t i v e s t a n z a s a r e c l u s t e r s o f m o r a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o r gnomes. When i t comes t o d e f i n i n g a gnome, we can b e g i n by s a y i n g t h a t gnomes always m o r a l i z e . I n A e s c h y l u s gnomes a l w a y s d e a l w i t h j u s t i c e , w i t h what i s r i g h t o r wrong, w i t h s i n and d i v i n e punishment. "The man who k i c k s o v e r the a l t a r o f D i k e cannot escape punishment," i s an A e s c h y l e a n gnome; but "the u n j u s t a r e always p u n i s h e d , " i s n o t . Gnomes a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d from s i m p l e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s by c e r t a i n l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s w h i c h t h e y c o n t a i n . I f we r e t u r n t o the gnome j u s t g i v e n , we note the p r e s e n c e o f a l l e g o r y and metaphor. A b s t r a c t n o t i o n s such as j u s t i c e o r r u i n a r e p e r s o n i f i e d as the f i g u r e s D i k e and A t e . O f t e n the a l l e g o r y s e r v e s as a t y p e o f a n a l o g y on a c o n c e p t . What - 1 -i s j u s t i c e ? I t i s l i k e a s c a l e upon w h i c h D i k e measures o u t so r r o w . A g l a n c e a t the o p e n i n g s t r o p h e - p a i r o f the f i r s t s t a s i m o n o f Agamemnon r e v e a l s an abundance o f such p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s ( 3 8 2 , 3 8 3 , 3 8 5 , 3 8 6 ) . C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o a l l e g o r y i s the use o f metaphor. i n our gnome, s a c r i l e g e i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the image o f k i c k i n g o v e r an a l t a r . The metaphor can be b o t h s i m p l e o r e l a b o r a t e . A man's p r i d e can be d e s c r i b e d as " b l o w i n g w i n d , " where t h e image i s s i m p l y c a p t u r e d by the v e r b pneo (Agm. 7 6 ) . Or d e s t i n y can be compared t o a s h i p f o u n d e r i n g i n a stormy s e a , where t h e Chorus d e v e l o p t h e p i c t u r e f o r s e v e r a l l i n e s (Agm. 1005-14 ). O f t e n metaphor and a l l e g o r y mix as i n " H y b r i s b e g e t s hybrids," where t h e b i r t h - i m a g e r y becomes a metaphor f o r t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f e v i l . Two o t h e r l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s , though n o t f o r m a l l y p a r t o f the gnomes, n o n e t h e l e s s a r e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d i n t h a t t h e y a r e r e l a t e d t o metaphor and a l l e g o r y . These a r e s i m i l e and p a r a b l e . A n o t e w o r t h y o c c u r r e n c e o f the use of s i m i l e comes i n t h e o p e n i n g a n t i s t r o p h e o f the f i r s t s t a s i m o n o f Agamemnon ( 3 9 0 f ) . The u n j u s t man i s f i r s t compared t o a bad p i e c e o f b r o n z e and t h e n t o a boy c h a s i n g a b i r d . The second s i m i l e , e s p e c i a l l y , i s comparable t o the n a t u r e o f p a r a b l e s , w h i c h draw more on common d o m e s t i c images t h a n do gnomes. The p a r a b l e o f the l i o n - c u b (Agm. 717-36) b e g i n s w i t h the d o m e s t i c p i c t u r e o f a man n u r s i n g a cub. However, t h e p a r a b l e soon d e p a r t s from i t s s i m p l e n a r r a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n . By the c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e p a r a b l e the cub i s p e r s o n i f i e d as the p r i e s t o f A t e . The cub t u r n s i n t o an "unconquerable g r i e f " and a " g r e a t bane." The p a r a b l e a t t h i s p o i n t e x h i b i t s d i s t i n c t i v e gnomic f e a t u r e s . The p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n and a b s t r a c t i o n d e p a r t from - 2 -the s i m p l e n a r r a t i v e s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p a r a b l e s . The same p a t t e r n i s e v i d e n t i n t h e s i m i l e s . The d e s c r i p t i v e image o f a boy c h a s i n g a b i r d i s n o t s u s t a i n e d . A t 396 the Chorus b e g i n t o m o r a l i z e : "The gods do not l i s t e n t o the p r a y e r s o f the u n j u s t man". The s i m i l e , a t t h i s p o i n t , v e r g e s on metaphor. No s h a r p d i s t i n c t i o n i s m a i n t a i n e d by A e s c h y l u s between metaphor and s i m i l e o r between p a r a b l e and a l l e g o r y . J u s t as an a l l e g o r y o f t e n forms an a n a l o g y t o a c o n c e p t w i t h i n a gnome, so a p a r a b l e can o f t e n i l l u s t r a t e d e s c r i p t i v e l y a gnomic c o n c e p t . The p a r a b l e o f the l i o n - c u b i l l u s t r a t e s t he i d e a o f " i n h e r i t e d e t h o s " s u g g e s t e d i n the b i r t h - m e t a p h o r o f the gnomes. S i n c e the p a r a b l e s and s i m i l e s s e r v e as i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f what the gnomes p r e s e n t c o n c e p t u a l l y , we w i l l d i s s c u s s them a l o n g w i t h the gnomes. Myth, l i k e s i m i l e s and p a r a b l e s , a l s o accompanies the gnomes t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r meaning. " L e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g " i s seen as a l a w based on Zeus' e x p e r i e n c e i n Prometheus, where h i s own v i o l e n t n a t u r e becomes tempered by l e a r n i n g and p e r s u a s i o n . The u n n a t u r a l p a s s i o n s o f women a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n C h o e p h o r i by the myths o f S c y l l a , A l t h e a and the Lemnian women (Cho. 6 0 2 f . ) . L i k e s i m i l e , p a r a b l e and ext e n d e d metaphor, myth i s a l i t e r a r y d e v i c e o f t e n used i n t h e gnomic p a s s a g e s . As we t u r n t o the a c t u a l language o f the gnomes, c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s s t a n d o u t . N o t i c e a b l e a r e assonance and w o r d - p l a y . P a t h e i mathos i s t y p i c a l l y gnomic. "afjaXbv oio/vaxdv JanaXe//&v (Cho. 54; c f . Agm. 768-69) i s t o o e l a b o r a t e , b u t i t s t i l l a c h i e v e s the assonance common t o gnomes. The word-p l a y a l s o can be s i m p l e o r complex; as s i m p l e as n a e e T v T&\> c p ^ a v x a , "the - 3 -doer i s done i n " ; o r as e l a b o r a t e as £IK<X i ' c n ' a X X a -np^ypa e n t e r a l f5X«3acf/np\a a X X a i a e n r a v o i f f i /yciipoa (Agm. 1 5 3 5 - 3 6 ) , where t h e p l a y on Qi\rtxoi\ et)r*va\a\ and "oXXfc "aXXoaa a l s o s u g g e s t s the i d e a o f " l i k e f o r l i k e . " N o r m a l l y a gnome i s s i m p l y e x p r e s s e d , f o r example i n the words n o e c T v T J V "cp£aVTa. However, we cannot o v e r l o o k the o t h e r passage because o f what i t c o n t r i b u t e s t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f " l i k e f o r l i k e . " As w e l l , t h e passage d i s p l a y s c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f t h e gnomes, such as p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , metaphor and assonance. The d e c i s i o n whether a passage i s gnomic, i n the sense o f r e s e m b l i n g a gnome, depends on whether or- not i t d i s p l a y s t h o s e l i t e r a r y f e a t u r e s d i s c u s s e d above. The d i s c u s s i o n i s m a i n l y d i r e c t e d t o the gnomic s e c t i o n s o f t h e odes, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the f i n a l kommos o f Agamemnon and t h e g r e a t komraos o f C h o e p h o r i . One c h a p t e r i s d e v o t e d t o each o f t h e t h r e e p l a y s . For each p l a y , the meaning o f the gnomes and t h e i r r e l e v a n c e t o the d r a m a t i c a c t i o n a re examined. S i n c e we a r e f o r c e d t o d e p a r t from a s t r i c t c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence t o d i s c u s s the w i d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s the gnomes have f o r t h e a c t i o n , the r e a d e r i s asked t o f o l l o w c l o s e l y i n the Greek t e x t . The Greek i s c i t e d w i t h o r w i t h o u t a t r a n s l a t i o n . Whenever a t r a n s l a t i o n i s g i v e n , i t i s p a r t l y the w r i t e r ' s own and p a r t l y borrowed from F r a e n k e l , D e n n i s t o n - P a g e and Smyth. The o v e r a l l purpose o f the work, t h e n , i s t o r e l a t e t h e gnomes t o the a c t i o n o f the O r e s t e i a , t o see what i m p l i c a t i o n s t h e y have f o r the d r a m a t i c a c t i o n . O f t e n images and p a t t e r n s d e v o l p e d i n the gnomes appear i n t h e drama. " T r a m p l i n g u n d e r f o o t , " a metaphor f o r s a c r i l e g e i n the f i r s t s t a s i m o n o f Agamemnon, l a t t e r d e s c r i b e s Agamemnon's s a c r i l e g e i n t h e c a r p e t - s c e n e . - 4 -Through the e a r l y s cenes o f Eumenides the E r i n y e s become c l o s e l y i d e n t i f e d w i t h O r e s t e s , i n h i s s i n and s u f f e r i n g . T h i s p a t t e r n i s c o n f i r m e d i n t h e gnomes o f the f i r s t s t a s i m o n . The gnomes r e f l e c t , t h e n , on what has happen and a n t i c i p a t e what w i l l happen. The c o n f l i c t s i n , and r e s o l u t i o n s t o , the t r i l o g y a r e p l a y e d o u t a t the l y r i c a l l e v e l . Even as e a r l y as the Hymn t o Zeus the r e s o l u t i o n t o t h e whole t r i l o g y i s f o r e s e e n . The gnome " l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g " r e v e a l s t h a t b a l a n c e between v i o l e n c e and knowledge, s y m b o l i z e d i n t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between the E r i n y e s and A t h e n a . - 5 -CHAPTER I - Agamemnon The gnomes o f the p a r o d o s , f o r the most p a r t , a re r e s t r i c t e d t o the "Hymn t o Zeus" ( 1 6 0 - 8 3 ) , whose tone i s d i s t i n c t from the r e s t o f the l y r i c s . I n t he f i r s t p a r t o f the parodos ( 1 0 4 - 5 1 9 ) , the Chorus d e s c r i b e the p o r t e n t t h a t a p p ears t o the A t r e i d a e on t h e i r way t o T r o y and C a l c h a s ' ominous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t . For some f i f t y l i n e s , the Chorus n a r r a t e t h e s e two e v e n t s . A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f C a l c h a s ' s prophecy, t h e Chorus a b r u p t l y break o f f from t h e i r n a r r a t i o n and a d d r e s s Zeus i n p r a y e r . The break i s marked by a change i n meter and s u b j e c t , a change from " r o l l i n g i a m b o - d a c t y l s " t o t r o c h e e s ^ , and a change from n a r r a t i v e t o r e f l e c t i o n . The Hymn t o Zeus i s couched i n h i g h l y gnomic l a n g u a g e , a g a i n e m p h a s i z i n g the d e p a r t u r e from t h e 2 n a r r a t i o n w i t h i t s " l u x u r i a n t d e t a i l s . " The Hymn becomes more a g e n e r a l t h e o l o g i c a l s t a t e m e n t on Zeus' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a n a p r a y e r f o r a c t u a l g u i d a n c e o r h e l p . B e f o r e we d i r e c t our a t t e n t i o n t o the gnomes o f the Hymn, we must f i r s t l o o k f o r a moment a t one s e c t i o n o f the a n a p a e s t s ( 6 7 - 7 1 ) . T h e r e , the c e n t r a l gnomic t h o u g h t o f t h e Hymn, " l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g , " i s c l e a r l y a n t i c i p a t e d . By way o f r e f l e c t i o n , the Chorus o f f e r t h i s t h o u g h t on the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e T r o j a n war: ECTTI S ' ^ n r i i V\JV/£OT\, xeXe'iToci 5' e a x& nenpujjtvbv b\J9' u n d K o t i w v b\)9' a n d X e ( p u v / a n j p a i v \tpS\/bp y)ia c t x e v e v a n a p a 9 e X t ; e i 6 7 - 7 1 ) . ^ What a r e t h e e v e n t s t h a t w i l l be f u l f i l l e d a c c o r d i n g t o f a t e ? The f a l l o f T r o y , o b v i o u s l y . But the Chorus' words i m p l y more th a n the o b v i o u s . I n t h e p r e c e d i n g s i m i l e ( 4 9 - 5 9 ) , the A t r e i d a e a r e compared t o a - 6 -p a i r o f v u l t u r e s who have been robbed o f t h e i r n e s t l i n g s . As Zeus sends an E r i n y s a g a i n s t the t r a n s g r e s s o r s o f the n e s t , so (duxw 6 0 ) he d i s p a t c h e s the sons o f A t r e u s a g a i n s t A l e x a n d e r " i n o r d e r t o b r i n g many s t r u g g l e s upon b o t h the Greeks and T r o j a n s " (n&XXa naXoia//oTo. . .en^wv Aa\)adi<n\> xpucri c / 4 Q'b(jb\dia 6 3 - 6 7 ) . Here, we see the g r e a t e r purpose o f t h e war; t o b r i n g s u f f e r i n g upon mankind. The t h o u g h t a n t i c i p a t e s the Hymn, where i t i s s a i d t h a t Zeus has e s t a b l i s h e d f o r m o r t a l s , as a r u l e o f l i f e , " l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g . " I n f a c t , "TTeXaicr//aTa eh'ff"v" i s s i m p l y a v a r i a t i o n o f what we f i n d i n the Hymn t o Zeus: x&v n a e e i fjaQba B E ' V T U ( 1 7 7 - 7 8 ) . Ti 'en/n i s echoed and TTaXai'cr^aTa a n t i c i p a t e s the d e s c r i p t i o n o f Zeus as a w r e s t l e r (Tp\aKTrtp&a 1 7 3 ) . B e h i n d the T r o j a n war o p e r a t e s the law o f " l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g . " What i s f a t e d {xi nenpw^evdv) f o r mankind i s s u f f e r i n g . There seems t o be a f u s i n g o f Zeus' j u s t i c e w i t h F a t e , here r e p r e s e n t e d i n xb nenpw/vcvSv. T h i s thought i s c o n f i r m e d l a t e r i n the second s t a s i m o n . T h e r e , t h e Chorus speak o f D i k e as " d i r e c t i n g e v e r y t h i n g t o i t s p r o p e r end" ( n S v S ' e n i xcpfja vw/;a\ 7 8 1 ) . T h i s seems t o be a v a r i a t i o n o f what we have i n the p a r o d o s , e s p e c i a l l y i f t e p ^ a can s u b s t i t u t e f o r TeXba. D i k e , t h e f u l f i l l e r (-ceXe\&a 1 4 3 2 , a t i t l e a l s o a s c r i b e d t o Zeus and F a t e ( c f . 9 7 3 ; Cho. 3 0 7 ; Eum. 2 8 ) , " d i r e c t s e v e r y t h i n g t o i t s d e s t i n e d end," and t h a t end i m p l i c i t l y means s u f f e r i n g . T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s s u g g e s t e d f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t D i k e m e t a p h o r i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t s the law o f " l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g . " She h o l d s the b a l a n c e and "measures out l e a r n i n g t o t h o s e who have s u f f e r e d " ( A \ K a Se xl>\o fjtv na9c.ucf\v /vaOeTv i n i p p e n e i 2 5 0 - 5 1 ) . What i s f a t e d f o r T r o y i s t h e - 7 -j u s t i c e o f Zeus, t h a t d i r e c t s e v e r y t h i n g t o i t s p r o p e r end. A g a i n s t t h e " r e l e n t l e s s p a s s i o n " o f t h i s f a t e , no form o f s a c r i f i c e a v a i l s ( 6 9 - 7 1 ) . ^ W i t h t h e s e p r e l i m i n a r y remarks i n mind, l e t us now t u r n t o t h e Hymn t o Zeus^ and the gnome p a t h e i mathos. The Hymn a r i s e s f r o m t h e Chorus' u n c e r t a i n t y about C a l c h a s ' prophecy. The Chorus' a n x i e t y o v e r the e v e n t s a t A u l i s prompts them t o t u r n t o Zeus i n p r a y e r . He a l o n e can remove " t h e v a i n burden from one's h e a r t " ( 1 6 5 - 6 6 ) . What t h a t burden p e r t a i n s t o i s u n d e r s t o o d from what the Chorus say l a t e r i n the Hymn: <rTa£ei a'ev y'^nvux npS KapS\a<j/pMr\ainr)//wv n&v&a 1 7 9 - 8 0 1 ) . I t i s "the t o i l o f remembering p a s t p a i n s . " I n t h e c o n t e x t o f the p a r o d o s , t h i s r e f e r s t o what happened a t A u l i s . The s o r r o w and a n x i e t y t h a t come over the Chorus when t h e y r e c a l l t h o s e e v e n t s a r e what t h e y seek t o d i s p l a c e from t h e i r h e a r t . However, t h e i r f a i l u r e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e rea s o n f o r I p h i g e n i a ' s d e a t h i s o n l y a c c o u n t e d f o r w i t h Zeus. H i s j u s t i c e " d i r e c t s e v e r y t h i n g t o an end" ( 7 8 1 ) . The s t r e s s b o t h here and i n the gnome from the second s t a s i m o n i s on p a n t a . E v e r y t h i n g , and t h a t i n c l u d e s what happened t o I p h i g e n i a , can o n l y be e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f Zeus and h i s j u s t i c e . The Chorus can compare the e v e n t s o f A u l i s t o n o t h i n g e l s e e x c e p t Zeus ( & u * «JX« n p a a e i K a a a i nXryv A i b a 6 3 - 6 5 ) . * * E v e r y t h i n g 9 must be measured a g a i n s t Zeus and t h a t i m p l i e s measurement a g a i n s t h i s law. The law e s t a b l i s h e d by Zeus t o d i r e c t t he a f f a i r s o f men i s e x p r e s s e d i n the f a m i l i a r gnome p a t h e i mathos. I t has been s e t down as a v a l i d l aw ( e e v r a Kypicoff I E X E I V 1 7 8 ) t o g u i d e men t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g (T & V 4>pc.vev\> Pp& T&uff j S w a a v i a 1 7 6 - 7 7 ) . The v a l i d i t y o f t h a t law i s c o n f i r m e d a t the m y t h o l o g i c a l l e v e l . - 8 -i n the second s t a n z a o f t h e Hymn ( 1 6 7 - 7 5 ) , . t h e Chorus a l l u d e t o Zeus' s u c c e s s i o n t o the t h r o n e . 1 ^ The d e t a i l s o f t h a t myth a r e n o t g i v e n here b u t a r e found i n Prometheus, where we see Zeus l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g . The c o n n e c t i o n between the gnome p a t h e i mathos and t h e s u c c e s s i o n myth become c l e a r i n l i g h t o f Prometheus. A n o t h e r gnome a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d by the myth, and one t h a t a l s o g a i n s t h e m a t i c i m p o r t a n c e i n Prometheus, i s " l i k e f o r l i k e . " I n the same way t h a t Uranus was d e t h r o n e d by C ronus, so was Cronus by Zeus. " L i k e f o r l i k e " i s a r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n o f vengeance i n t h e d i v i n e f a m i l y . T h i s t r i a d o f s u c c e s s i o n p r e f i g u r e s the f a m i l y o f A t r e u s where vengeance a l s o e x t e n d s over t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s . O n l y i n t h e f i n a l g e n e r a t i o n does O r e s t e s escape the f a t e of h i s f a t h e r and g r a n d f a t h e r and emerge the v i c t o r , as d i d Zeus. E x a c t l y why i t ends w i t h t h e t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n i s n o t s p e l l e d o u t i n the Hymn, but as we s h a l l see from the e v e n t s of the T r i l o g y and e s p e c i a l l y from Prometheus t h e r e a s o n has t o do w i t h " l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g . " I n Prometheus Bound we f i n d t h a t Zeus h i m s e l f was once bound t o t h e same f a t e as h i s f a t h e r : he was t o be d e t h r o n e d by h i s own son as Cronus was b e f o r e him. A t one p o i n t i n t h e p l a y , we l e a r n t h a t the M o i r a e and "the m i n d f u l E r i n y e s " a r e u l t i m a t e l y i n c o n t r o l o f t h i n g s . They a r e the helmsmen o f n e c e s s i t y ( o v a y K n 5 1 5 - 1 6 ) and even Zeus i s s u b j e c t t o t h e i r power. C o n s e q u e n t l y , he cannot escape t h e n e c e s s i t y f a t e d f o r him (xriv nenpco/vevnv 5 1 8 ) . Whereas i n Agamemnon the w i l l o f Zeus and F a t e f u s e t o g e t h e r , i n Prometheus Bound t h e y a r e a t odds. S i n c e he i s t h e weaker, Zeus must obey the law of F a t e , as much as the men o f the O r e s t e i a must obey h i s f a t e d w i l l . E x a c t l y what i s - 9 -d e s t i n e d f o r Zeus Prometheus does not d i s c l o s e t o the Chorus o f O c e a n i d s a t f i r s t . However, l a t e r on i n the p l a y , t h e y f i n d o ut t h a t t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r Zeus i s t h e same as t h a t w h i c h was f a t e d f o r h i s f a t h e r . The c u r s e o f Cronus i s upon him ( 9 1 0 - 1 2 ) . I f he p e r s i s t s i n h i s s t u b b o r n a t t i t u d e and goes ahead w i t h h i s m a r r i a g e , he w i l l be c a s t down from the t h r o n e j u s t as h i s f a t h e r was b e f o r e him ( 9 0 8 - 1 0 ) . Zeus w i l l have a son by T h e t i s who w i l l p r ove i r r e s i s t i b l e ( 9 2 0 - 2 2 ) . We see, t h e n , t h a t the n e c e s s i t y t o w h i c h Zeus i s bound i s " l i k e f o r l i k e , " a law o f F a t e and a c u r s e w o r k i n g i t s way t h r o u g h the f a m i l y l i n e . 1 1 Throughout Prometheus Bound, Zeus i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a young t y r a n t , 12 p r e s e n t e d t o us t h r o u g h h i s s e r v a n t s K r a t o s and B i a . He i s h e a d s t r o n g (au9a&hff •pcvuv 9 0 8 ) . He s i t s upon h i s t h r o n e i n a r r o g a n c e (G-apcrcov KaBY]a9u 9 1 6 ) . Hermes, h i s l a c k e y , i s s a i d by Prometheus t o be " s w o l l e n w i t h p r i d e " (4pbvr)fjaTba nXecocr 9 5 3 ) and we can w e l l imagine t h a t Prometheus i m p l i e s t h i s o f Zeus as w e l l . Zeus b o a s t s t h a t he " i n h a b i t s a rock beyond the r e a c h o f g r i e f " {iiKz'xrc t>t\ v a i u v oneven nepya/y' 9 5 5 - 5 6 ) . But t h e T i t a n knows d i f f e r e n t l y . He has a l r e a d y seen two t y r a n t s c a s t down and r i g h t l y e x p e c t s t h a t t h e same t h i n g w i l l happen t o the t h i r d ( 9 5 7 - 5 9 ) . I n c o n t r a s t t o Prometheus, Zeus l a c k s f o r e s i g h t . "He has power but n o t i n t e l l i g e n c e . " 1 ^ He i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by v i o l e n c e and s t r e n g t h , b u t not by knowledge and wisdom. He needs t o l e a r n t o b a l a n c e s t r e n g t h w i t h knowledge, b r u t e f o r c e w i t h p e r s u a s i o n . I n f a c t , t he Zeus o f Prometheus Bound i s l i k e t he Uranus o f the Hymn. Th e r e , Uranus i s d e s c r i b e d as a sea "teeming w i t h u n c o n q u e r a b l e a r r o g a n c e " ( c f . TIO/7/JOXUI epoccfEi P p y u v 1 6 9 ) . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n compares w e l l - 10 -w i t h the Zeus o f the Prometheus Bound, a Zeus who s i t s upon h i s t h r o n e s w o l l e n w i t h a r r o g a n c e and p r i d e . I n t h e case o f Uranus, h i s h y b r i s l e d t o h i s d o w n f a l l . Now, i t appears t h a t Zeus w i l l f a l l f o r the same r e a s o n and w i l l s u f f e r l i k e Cronus and Uranus. Y e t , Zeus i s not o v e r t h r o w n . I n Agamemnon, we see him s e c u r e l y e n t h r o n e d . Presumably, Zeus a t some p o i n t r e l e n t s . He i s r e c o n c i l e d t o Prometheus and r e l e a s e s him from h i s i m p r i s o n m e n t . What e v i d e n c e we do have 14 from the s e q u e l , Prometheus Unbound, would s u g g e s t such a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . 15 The Chorus c o n s i s t e d o f f e l l o w - T i t a n s . E v i d e n t l y , t h e y were r e l e a s e d by Zeus. T h e i r p r e s e n c e on s t a g e would r e f l e c t h i s c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e . T h e i r r e l e a s e a n t i c i p a t e s the f i n a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between Zeus and Prometheus. I n t h a t e v e n t , Zeus g a i n s the n e c e s s a r y knowledge about h i s i n t e n d e d m a r r i a g e and p r e v e n t s h i s own d o w n f a l l . What we see, t h e n , i s Zeus l e a r n i n g from e x p e r i e n c e ( p a t h o s ) . Throughout Prometheus Bound t h e r e a r e h i n t s t h a t Zeus, i n t i m e , w i l l come t o the p o i n t o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g . I n s e v e r a l p l a c e s , Prometheus p r e d i c t s t h a t Zeus w i l l be humbled (Taneiv&<r 9 0 8 ) , t h a t he w i l l f a l l i n t o e v i l f rom w h i c h he w i l l l e a r n ( n x o i a o x ae x w i i e npc-ff K O K U I fj<xQr\azra\ 9 2 6 ) , and t h a t " e v e r - a g i n g t i m e " w i l l t e a c h Zeus t o say " a l a s " (w/y&i.. .cxXX' E K i i i o a K E i nave' b yrwctaKusv Xpb\ba 9 8 1 - 8 2 ) . A l t h o u g h Zeus does f a l l i n t o the e x a c t m i s f o r t u n e Prometheus p r e d i c t s , we can r i g h t l y s u s p e c t t h a t p a r t o f the prophecy does come t r u e : Zeus does come t o t h e p o i n t o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g . He r e a l i z e s t h e f o l l y o f s t u b b o r n n e s s and l e a r n s from h i s e x p e r i e n c e t h a t - 11 -v i o l e n c e and f o r c e a l o n e cannot r e s o l v e a c o n f l i c t . H i s v i o l e n c e i s tempered by knowledge and p e r s u a s i o n . T h i s change p r e v e n t s t h e c u r s e o f Cronus from b e i n g f u l f i l l e d and w i t h i t the n e c e s s i t y o f s u f f e r i n g " l i k e f o r l i k e . " 1 7 None o f what has been s a i d i n r e g a r d t o the P r o m e t h e u s - s t o r y i s mentioned i n the Hymn t o Zeus. Y e t t h e a u d i e n c e would have been f a m i l i a r enough t o u n d e r s t a n d an a l l u s i o n t o t h e myth h e r e i n t h e Hymn. The c o n n e c t i o n between the law o f " l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g " and t h e s u c c e s s i o n myth makes sense i n l i g h t o f the P r o m e t h e u s - s t o r y . Zeus draws from h i s own e x p e r i e n c e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s l aw f o r men. The gnome xb n a S e i (jaQbo r e f l e c t s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e , an example o f v i o l e n c e tempered by knowledge. As a law, i t i s v a l i d n ot o n l y because Zeus has i n s t i t u t e d i t , b u t a l s o because i t has p r o v e n t r u e i n h i s own e x p e r i e n c e . H i s l e a r n i n g p r e v e n t e d the f u l f i l l m e n t o f " l i k e f o r l i k e . " The s u c c e s s i o n myth and the gnome t o p a t h e i n mathos a n t i c i p a t e t h e f i n a l r e s o l u t i o n t o t h e t r i l o g y , where O r e s t e s i s a c q u i t t e d and t h e E r i n y e s a r e r e c o n c i l e d t o A t h e n a . A common a n t i t h e s i s runs t h r o u g h b o t h Eumenides and Prometheus. L e a r n i n g and s u f f e r i n g , p e r s u a s i o n and f o r c e a r e p a r t o f t h e same a n t i t h e s i s f ound i n the two p l a y s . I n f a c t , Prometheus forms an analogue t o Eumenides. Zeus r e s e m b l e s the F u r i e s , who a r e a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r v i o l e n c e and h o t temper. bpyt\ emerges as a key word i n b o t h p l a y s d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r n a t u r e s . (PV. 8 0 , 190 c f . Eum. 8 4 7 , 9 3 7 ) . Yet i n b o t h c a s e s , the c o n f l i c t s a r e r e s o l v e d . The temper o f the F u r i e s i s s o f t e n e d by - 12 -Athena's s o o t h i n g p e r s u a s i o n . Prometheus p r e d i c t s t h a t someday Zeus w i l l s o f t e n h i s temper (j/aXaKc-YVw/yoiv 1 8 8 ) and calm h i s p a s s i o n (XIYV &' oTEpa/jvbv ffxapeaoa &P Y H V 1 9 0 ) . As Zeus forms t h e analogue o f t h e F u r i e s , s o does Prometheus o f A t h e n a . L i k e the goddess, he r e p r e s e n t s knowledge and wisdom. By b e i n g r e c o n c i l e d t o Prometheus, Zeus l e a r n s . The r e c o n c i l i a t i o n s y m b o l i z e s the a n t i t h e s i s , e x p r e s s e d i n the gnome t o p a t h e i mathos, a f u s i o n o f knowledge w i t h f o r c e . P e r s u a s i o n a g a i n seems t o e f f e c t t he change. W i n n i n g t o n - I n g r a m o b s e r v e s t h a t a t t u r n a f t e r t u r n t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f 18 p e r s u a s i o n meets us i n PV." P e r s u a s i o n r e s o l v e s what f o r c e c o u l d n o t : "Words a r e the m e d i c i n e o f temper" (fcpYhff v i a ^ u ^ T * e i a i v l o x p a i X & Y d i 3 7 8 ) , w h i c h cannot be overcome by v i o l e n c e ( K a i fjt) ff+piyuMTa QvtJbv icrxvouvni / 19 p i a i 3 8 0 ) . T h i s t r u t h i s borne out not o n l y i n the Prometheus s t o r y but a l s o i n the O r e s t e i a . The pro b l e m o f the house of A t r e u s i s not r e s o l v e d t h r o u g h the c o n t i n u e d v i o l e n c e o f r e t r i b u t i o n . A t the d i v i n e l e v e l t he s o l u t i o n t o the p r o b l e m i s s y m b o l i z e d i n Athena's words and the F u r i e s ' l e a r n i n g . A p o l l o ' . s abuse o f the E r i n y e s does not work. O n l y P e i t h o and Zeus A g o r a i o s , Zeus o f the c i t y - s t a t e , t he Zeus of rea s o n and p e r s u a s i o n , can p r e v a i l (Eum. 9 7 0 f . ) . I t i s perhaps t o Zeus A g o r a i o s t h a t t h e Zeus o f Prometheus e v o l v e s . I n h i s new a s p e c t he a c h i e v e s a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h P r o m e t h e u s . ^ But n e i t h e r Zeus nor the E r i n y e s l a y a s i d e t h e i r f o r c e . The E r i n y e s s t i l l c o n t i n u e t o p u n i s h the w i c k e d . The j u s t i c e o f Zeus i s s t i l l known f o r i t s v i o l e n c e {Xap\a 0 i a i & a ) . F o r c e becomes b e n e f i c i a l l y b a l a n c e d w i t h knowledge and p e r s u a s i o n . T h i s b a l a n c e i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e gnome " l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g , " w h i c h foreshadows the r e s o l u t i o n t o O r e s t e i a . The v i o l e n t E r i n y e s do j o i n hands w i t h w i s e A t h e n a . The v i o l e n c e o f " l i k e f o r l i k e " does end w i t h O r e s t e s , who a l s o l e a r n s from e x p e r i e n c e . - 13 -I t i s c l e a r from Prometheus t h a t t he purpose o f the law xa n a 9 c \ fjaQba i s t o g u i d e men t o a p o i n t o f l e a r n i n g so t h a t t h e y can change from t h e i r r e c k l e s s c o u r s e and so escape the n e c e s s i t y o f s u f f e r i n g " l i k e f o r l i k e . " I n the Hymn t o Zeus, the f i r s t r e a s o n i s c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d : Zeus has e s t a b l i s h e d the law i n o r d e r t o d i r e c t men a l o n g the r i g h t p a t h t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( x & v • P & V E W gp&x&uff &&coaa\>xa 1 7 6 - 7 7 ) . The second r e a s o n i s a l l u d e d t o i n the myth and a l s o i s s u g g e s t e d e l s e w h e r e . I n the t h i r d s t a s i m o n , t h e Chorus compare the d e s t i n y o f man t o a s h i p t h a t has s t r u c k a h i d d e n r e e f ( 1 0 0 5 - 0 7 ) . The e x c e s s i v e p o s s e s s i o n s s t o r e d up i n the s h i p w i l l cause i t t o s i n k , u n l e s s a p a r t o f the c a r g o i s t o s s e d o v e r b o a r d ( 1 0 0 8 - 1 4 ) . The p o i n t o f the metaphor i s t h a t t h r o u g h m i s f o r t u n e and s u f f e r i n g , a man can r e a l i z e h i s f o l l y and abandon h i s dangerous c o u r s e . I n the metaphor, t h e c a p t a i n o f t h e s h i p does come t o h i s s e n s e s . He r e a l i z e s t he da n g e r s o f e x c e s s ; he ad o p t s t h e way o f m o d e r a t i o n , t h r o w i n g o v e r b o a r d a p a r t o f t h e c a r g o . He r e s c u e s h i s f o u n d e r i n g s h i p from a sea o f d i s a s t e r ; t he s u f f e r i n g he e x p e r i e n c e s p r o v e s t o be a god-sent g r a c e . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the t h i r d s t a s i m o n h e l p s us i n our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the Hymn t o Zeus, p a r t i c u l a r l y t he d i f f i c u l t l i n e s 1 8 3 - 8 4 : &ai//dMuv 6e n d u ( n & u ) Xap f flioada ( P i a i w a ) at\/ja a e ^ v & v t\(jtvu\. Does c h a r i s come from 21 the gods or n o t ? I n answer we need o n l y t o l o o k a t the e v e n t s o f A u l i s : t he change o f wind g r a n t e d by A r t e m i s i n r e t u r n f o r t h e s a c r i f i c e o f I p h i g e n i a c o n s t i t u t e s a " d i v i n e f a v o u r " i n the r e l i g i o u s sense o f the word. In the c o n t e x t o f the Hymn and i n l i g h t o f the t h i r d s t a s i m o n , " l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g " i s a v i o l e n t g r a c e . That t h e law o f Zeus f a l l s i n t o t he - 14 -c a t e g o r y o f d i v i n e f a v o u r t h r o u g h v i o l e n c e i s c l e a r from 180f.: K a i n a p ' a K d v x a f f nXGe a w $ p c - v E i v . S o p h r o n e i n , however we u n d e r s t a n d i t s p r e c i s e meaning, r e s t a t e s and d e f i n e s mathos, w h i l e n a p ' a K & v T a a r e s t a t e s n a 9 E i . S o p h r o n e i n , t o the Greek mind, i s al w a y s something p o s i t i v e . So when bestowed upon man by the gods, i t would n a t u r a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d a c h a r i s . n a p ' aKc.\>Taa p a r a l l e l s t he p a s s i v e meaning o f fiiaidaThe l e a r n i n g o f d i s c r e t i o n i s a d i v i n e f a v o u r t h a t comes p e r f o r c e . I n a d d i t i o n , two p a r a l l e l images a t the b e g i n n i n g ( a S a i a a v x a 176) and a t the end o f the s t r o p h e (aeX/va n.£/E\iw\> 183) c o n n e c t the two gnomic t h o u g h t s t o g e t h e r . B o t h images c a r r y t h e i d e a o f g u i d a n c e . The c h a r i s o f the gods, as e p i t o m i z e d by the law o f Zeus, d i r e c t s men t h r o u g h a t u r b u l e n t sea o f s u f f e r i n g t o the shore o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g . What men l e a r n i s prudence and o b e d i e n c e . aw$p&\>Eiv a t t a c h e s t o " l e a r n i n g " a m o r a l a s p e c t t h a t perhaps i s not p r e s e n t i n e i t h e r npa^pSvwcr (174) • P E V U V (175) or • P S V E I V ( 1 7 6 ) , but whose meanings a r e shaded 23 by i t . I n the t h i r d s t a s i m o n , the man o f the ship-metaphor l e a r n s m o d e r a t i o n ; i n t h a t c a s e , s o p h r o n e i n would come c l o s e t o the i d e a o f temperance. I n the c o n t e x t o f the Hymn, t h e word t r a n s l a t e s i n t o s o m e t h i n g 24 v e r y c l o s e t o t h e meaning of "obedience and r e v e r e n c e f o r the gods." S o p h r o n e i n , o r " d i s c r e t i o n , " always seems t o be c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h the i d e a o f r e v e r e n c e f o r the gods. A c o n t r a s t seems t o be p r e s e n t e d between npc-$pdvwa (174) and a K b v T a a (180) and between the e x p r e s s i o n T t y U x a i •P E V C O V \ ^ T xb n a v (175) and t)XBt o w f p a v E W ( 1 8 1 ) . The one t h a t w i l l i n g l y honours Zeus has sense or " d i s c r e t i o n . " The o t h e r i s u n w i l l i n g , u n w i l l i n g t o h a i l Zeus as - 15 -v i c t o r w i t h an open and ready mind (np&$pbvua); so " d i s c r e t i o n " i s b r o u g h t t o bear upon him. The c o n t r a s t between ripd<frpavucx and aK&vTaa s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e 2 5 one who l e a r n s " d i s c r e t i o n " was once u n w i l l i n g t o r e v e r e t h e gods. He must l e a r n t o do so under c o m p u l s i o n . The law o f Zeus w i l l g u i d e him t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t men s h o u l d a c t p r u d e n t l y and r e v e r e n t l y towards t h e gods, f o r t h e y g o v e r n t h e l i v e s o f men w i t h v i o l e n c e . Through s u f f e r i n g he l e a r n s t o show d e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r e x a l t e d p o s i t i o n and t o h i s l o w l y s t a t i o n . A l l t h e o c c u r r e n c e s o f s o p h r o n e i n i n Agamemnon s u g g e s t the meaning o f d i s c r e t i o n and o b e d i e n c e . I n each case (Agm. 1 4 2 5 , 1 6 2 0 ; c f . a l s o Eum. 5 2 1 ) the word i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e gnomic i d e a o f " l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g . " i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e C l y t e m e s t r a t e l l s the Chorus t h a t t h e y w i l l l e a r n t h e l e s s o n o f d i s c r e t i o n i f t h e y p e r s i s t w i t h t h e i r t h r e a t s o f banishment ( r ^ w c r u & I £ C I X 9 E \ C T b^t Y & V J ^ x\ ffW+paveTv 1 4 2 5 ) . She i s p r e p a r e d no l e s s t h a n t h e y t o u t t e r t h r e a t s , but she a c t u a l l y has the power t o c a r r y them o u t . O n l y t h e one who c o n q u e r s her by f o r c e w i l l r u l e her ( 1 4 2 3 - 2 4 ) . So the Chorus a r e warned t o be d i s c r e e t and d e f e r t o h e r . L a t e r A e g i s t h u s a l s o t h r e a t e n s the Chorus w i t h punishment i f t h e y do n o t obey him; t h e y w i l l l e a r n how h a r d a t h i n g i t i s f o r an o l d man t o be t a u g h t " d i s c r e t i o n " : r v u f f t n ycpun wv ua &\SaaKecreaa fSap\j xux xr)\\Kb\jX0i\, ffU+pS»t?\) e i p l W v & v ( 1 6 1 9 - 2 0 ) . T h i s i s an o b v i o u s echo o f what C l y t e m e s t r a has j u s t s a i d . I n b o t h c a s e s yxyvuoKu, ii&aaKaj and au<^pb\>£u a r e r e p e a t e d . The thought i s t h e same i n b o t h : the weaker must r e c o g n i z e the power o f t h e s t r o n g e r and l e a r n t o be d i s c r e e t and r e v e r e n t towards them. T h i s i s how - 1 6 -ffw$pdveiv s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d i n the Hymn t o Zeus. The gods a r e i n c o n t r o l , and so m o r t a l s must show r e s p e c t and o b e d i e n c e t o t h e i r power. A e g i s t h u s ' words p r o v i d e an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t o f c o m p a r i s o n f o r the Hymn: not o n l y do t h e y echo the gnome p a t h e i mathos but t h e y a l s o echo t h e i m agery o f t h e Hymn. A e g i s t h u s compares th e Chorus t o a crew w h i c h i s s e a t e d on t h e r o w i n g benches and h i m s e l f t o the helmsman ( 1 6 1 7 - 1 8 ) . T h i s r e c a l l s the image o f t h e Hymn where the gods a r e s a i d t o be s e a t e d upon t h e i r d r e a d e d benches i n v i o l e n c e ( 1 8 2 - 8 3 ) . The image d e f i n e s p r e c i s e l y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e gods and men, between the s t r o n g e r and weaker. They a r e i n c o n t r o l o f t h i n g s ; men a r e n o t . What men l e a r n from t h e i r laws i s s i m p l y o b e d i e n c e and d i s c r e t i o n , a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r e x a l t e d p o s i t i o n and men's l o w l y s t a t i o n , and a w i l l i n g n e s s t o show due r e v e r e n c e . Zeus has e s t a b l i s h e d t h e law o f " l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g " t o l e a d man t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o the gods. A c c o r d i n g t o G a g a r i n , "the word s o p h r o n e i n i s a p p l i e d t o the a b i l i t y t o know one's p l a c e 2 6 and s t a y i n i t . " To l e a d men t o a p l a c e o f d i s c r e t i o n and o b e d i e n c e i s what the law o f Zeus i s a l l about and what pr o v e s t o be i n a m y s t e r i o u s way a v i o l e n t f a v o u r . The Chorus a r e c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h i s law i s a t work i n t h e e v e n t s o f A u l i s . The s u f f e r i n g t h e r e i s f o r a p u r p o s e . They a r e a l s o c o n f i d e n t t h a t the law w i l l h o l d t r u e f o r the f u t u r e . I n t h e f i n a l a n t i s t r o p h e o f the p a r o d o s , t h e Chorus a s s e r t t h e c e r t a i n t y o f t h i s law i n t h e f a c e o f the u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f t h e f u t u r e : t\Ka &e xbxa ptv naQb\>ax\) fjaeztv e n i p p c n e i " xb £ieXX&\> &' e n e i yzvbxx' a\ K X y d i a ( 2 5 0 - 5 3 ) . Here, f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , we a r e i n t r o d u c e d t o the f i g u r e o f D i k e . She m e t a p h o r i c a l l y - 17 -r e p r e s e n t s t h e law o f Zeus. She d o l e s out t o some men ( T i u r //EV ) l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g . S t r u c t u r a l l y , xb\a A/EV i s b a l a n c e d by xb vzWbv S t . ^ 7 One would e x p e c t the Chorus t o say t h a t D i k e measures out t o some one t h i n g and t o o t h e r s something d i f f e r e n t . Y e t , the l o g i c o f t h e A / E V - & E' c o n t r a s t b r e a k s down. I n s t e a d o f the e x p e c t e d c o n t r a s t , the c h o r u s s a y , "you s h a l l hear about the f u t u r e when i t happens." On t h e s u r f a c e , t h i s gnome i m p l i e s n o t h i n g more than t h a t "you w i l l l e a r n about t h i n g s soon enough." ("So do n ' t w o r r y about them.") A n t i c i p a t i n g t he f u t u r e " i s l i k e mourning f o r i t i n advance" (iad\> &E T U I npbaxzvcw 2 5 3 ) . The Chorus' remark r e s e m b l e s a gnome commonly e x p r e s s e d i n t h e I l i a d : "even t h e f o o l o r c h i l d l e a r n s a f t e r t h e f a c t " ( 1 7 . 3 2 ) . xb uzWbv Y E V J I T resembles P E X S E V , w h i l e K X u M a r e c a l l s E y v u . I n Homer, we have the b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e gnome t o p a t h e i mathos, b u t w i t h o u t any moral i m p l i c a t i o n s . The Homeric gnome i m p l i e s no more t h a n we l e a r n from our m i s t a k e s . A c h i l d l e a r n s not t o t o u c h the f i r e once he i s b u r n t . However, i n A e s c h y l u s the gnome t a k e s on a moral d i m e n s i o n by becoming the j u s t i c e o f Zeus, a j u s t i c e t h a t d i r e c t s e v e r y e v e n t t o a p r e d i c t a b l e end. The Chorus r e f u s e t o t h i n k about the f u t u r e because t h e y know what i s i n s t o r e . D i k e i s b a l a n c i n g the s c a l e and w i l l soon measure o u t s u f f e r i n g t o t h o s e who d e s e r v e i t . The e v e n t s o f A u l i s have a l r e a d y c o n f i r m e d t h a t l e a r n i n g comes t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g , t h a t the g r a c e o f t h e gods i s v i o l e n t . I n v i e w o f t h i s , one can e x p e c t the same f o r t h e f u t u r e . W i t h t h i s sad c o n f i d e n c e the Chorus c o n c l u d e t h e p a r o d o s . Now we must w a i t and see i f the e v e n t s t o come prove the t r u t h o f t h e i r a s s e r t i o n . - 1 8 -The f i r s t s t a s i m o n a r i s e s i n response t o C l y t e m e s t r a ' s r e p o r t o f t h e f a l l o f T r o y . The d e s t r u c t i o n of T r o y c o n f i r m s the Chorus' b e l i e f t h a t Zeus' law d i r e c t s e v e r y e v e n t . A t T r o y , t h e y can say "the blow o f Zeus." " T h i s one t h i n g can be f u l l y t r a c e d o u t " ( 3 6 8 ) . The language r e c a l l s t h a t o f t h e Hymn t o Zeus. I n the e v e n t s o f A u l i s , t h e Chorus can count on one t h i n g a l o n e when t h e y weigh out e v e r y t h i n g ; t h i s one t h i n g i s Zeus. Here t o o , h a v i n g t h o r o u g h l y (t£) t r a c e d out the e v e n t s a t T r o y , t h e y come t o the same c o n c l u s i o n -- Zeus. He has a c c o m p l i s h e d what he has d e c r e e d ( e n p a S e M wa €Kpa\>ev 3 6 9 ) . I n the Chorus' mind, he i s b o t h t h e a u t h o r and f i n i s h e r o f a l l t h a t goes on i n human a f f a i r s ( c f . 1 4 8 5 - 8 9 ) . What has been d e c r e e d and a c c o m p l i s h e d a t T r o y i s s u f f e r i n g . The v a l u a b l e l e s s o n s l e a r n t f r o m T r o y ' s e x p e r i e n c e a r e e x p r e s s e d by the Chorus i n a s e r i e s o f gnomic t h o u g h t s w h i c h e x t e n d t h r o u g h t h e f i r s t s t r o p h e - p a i r ( 3 6 7 - 4 0 2 ) and a r e t a k e n up a g a i n i n t h e f i n a l a n t i s t r o p h e o f the ode ( 4 5 6 - 7 4 ) . The one t h i n g t h a t the d e s t r u c t i o n o f T r o y has t a u g h t the Chorus i s t h a t the gods do i n f a c t p u n i s h t h o s e who o f f e n d them. The Chorus a r e m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h the o f f e n c e s o f s a c r i l e g e and b l o o d s h e d . The theme of s a c r i l e g e , t a k e n up i n the f i r s t s t r o p h e , i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e image o f " t r a m p l i n g down" what i s s a c r e d . I n the c o n t e x t o f the f a l l o f T r o y , the image r e f e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y t o the d e s e c r a t i o n of the t e m p l e s and a l t a r s o f t h e gods. I n the f i n a l a n t i s t r o p h e , murder and b l o o d s h e d become t h e t o p i c o f t h e gnomes. I n each c a s e , the Chorus a f f i r m t h a t t h e r e i s no escape from punishment f o r such wrong-doing. The m o t i f o f "no e s c a p e " runs t h r o u g h o u t the ode i n v a r i o u s gnomic f o r m u l a s , l i n k i n g up the d i f f e r e n t themes o f the - 19 -gnomes. I n a d d i t i o n , the theme e s t a b l i s h i n g the r e a s o n f o r such b l o o d s h e d committed a t T r o y a r e o n l y and w e a l t h . of e x c e s s runs t h r o u g h o u t t h e ode wrong-doing. The s a c r i l e g e and the a r e s u l t o f a man's e x c e s s i v e t h i n k i n g The f i r s t s t r o p h e i s a r r a n g e d i n a c l e a r c h i a s m u s . The image o f t r e a d i n g down "the g r a c e o f u n t o u c h a b l e t h i n g s " ( 3 6 9 - 7 2 ) i s b a l a n c e d a t the end by the image o f " k i c k i n g the a l t a r o f D i k e " ( 3 8 3 - 8 4 ) . The two images use the same metaphor o f " t r a m p l i n g u n d e r f o o t " t o s y m b o l i z e s a c r i l e g e . O c c u p y i n g the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f the s t r o p h e ( 3 7 5 - 8 0 ) i s a c o n t r a s t between e x c e s s and m o d e r a t i o n . " S u r f e i t " i s e x p r e s s e d by two metaphors from n a t u r e . The wind imagery ( 3 7 4 ) r e p r e s e n t s a man's mental e x c e s s , w h i l e t h e sea imagery ( 3 7 7 - 7 8 ) r e p r e s e n t s m a t e r i a l e x c e s s . These images a r e b a l a n c e d c h i a s t i c a l l y a t l i n e s 3 7 9 (anapKeTv) and 3 8 0 ( n p a n i i w v X O O C & V T I ) . The j u s t man i s c o n t e n t w i t h v e r y l i t t l e and has o b t a i n e d f o r h i s l o t good s e n s e . By c o n t r a s t , the u n j u s t man i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i s l a c k o f m o d e r a t i o n and good s e n s e , w h i c h a r e d i s p l a y e d i n h i s i m p i e t y towards the gods. The image o f " t r a m p l i n g u n d e r f o o t " becomes an i m p o r t a n t metaphor f o r 2 8 s a c r i l e g e t h r o u g h o u t the t r i l o g y . A t t h i s p o i n t , t h e C h o r u s ' words r e f e r o n l y t o t h e i r r e v e r e n c e w h i c h P a r i s showed toward Zeus X e n i o s by a b d u c t i n g H e l e n . However, the image o f " t r a m p l i n g u n d e r f o o t " more r e a d i l y s u g g e s t s Agamemnon's i m p i e t y . The odes o f t e n b e g i n w i t h a d i r e c t condemnation o f P a r i s o r H e l e n , y e t , as t h e y p r o c e e d , the Chorus' condemnation t u r n s t o Agamemnon. The f i r s t s t a s i m o n i s no e x c e p t i o n . A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f i t , t he - 2 0 -/ J / 1 Chorus p r a y not t o be a s a c k e r o f c i t i e s (ur\x' e i n v TTT&XITT&Pen.fr 4 7 2 ) . Here t h e n , i s a d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o Agamemnon, who i s a d d r e s s e d by t h i s t i t l e t h r o u g h o u t the p l a y . Y e t , even b e f o r e t h i s , t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s images i n the ode s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the gnomes r e f e r more t o Agamemnon tha n P a r i s . The m o t i f o f " t r a m p l i n g u n d e r f o o t " i s one such image w h i c h encourages the a u d i e n c e t o t h i n k o f Agamemnon. In f a c t , t h e image a l l u d e s t o the s a c r i l e g e Agamemnon commits a t T r o y , and a l s o a n t i c i p a t e s t he same s a c r i l e g e he l a t e r s y m b o l i c a l l y commits when he t r a m p l e s down the p u r p l e t a p e s t r i e s : <oi t&ia&e /v' e/jPcavc-v©' a\b\>PYZo\v eeuv/on Titr np&ffueev bpfjaxba &a\b\ tQbvbe ( 9 4 6 - 4 7 ) . These v e r s e s from the c a r p e t - s c e n e make i t c l e a r t h a t Agamemnon i s c o m m i t t i n g - s o m e t h i n g s a c r i l e g i o u s . He acknowledges t h a t he i s t r e a d i n g upon t h i n g s he s h o u l d n o t ("the g r a c e o f u n t o u c h a b l e t h i n g s " ) , and h i s a c t i o n i s p r e c i s e l y t h e t y p e t h a t t h e gods watch. He hopes t h a t "no e n v i o u s eye w i l l s t r i k e him from a f a r " but h i s p r a y e r amounts t o an a d m i s s i o n t h a t he i s d o i n g s o m e t h i n g t o ar o u s e the gods' s u s p i c i o n . A t t h e c l o s e o f t h a t scene, when Agamemnon e n t e r s the house, he uses p r e c i s e l y t h e same image the Chorus uses i n t h e gnomes t o d e s c r i b e a l l forms o f s a c r i l e g e : txfj'ca £a'//"v ^ e X a S p a n a p ^ v p a a naxwv ( 9 5 7 ) . To emphasize even f u r t h e r t he s a c r i l e g e i n v o l v e d i n h i s a c t i o n . Agamemnon's words a r e p e r v e r s e l y echoed by C l y t e m e s t r a : she would have vowed th e t r a m p l i n g o f many garments (naXXuM i\art\o(jbv a v nuSa/'nv 9 6 3 ) . These echoes c l e a r l y l i n k t he gnomic thought o f the f i r s t s t a s i m o n t o Agamemnon's a c t i o n i n t h e c a r p e t scene. S t e p p i n g upon t h e t a p e s t r i e s s y m b o l i z e s , i n d r a m a t i c g e s t u r e s , t h a t i m p i e t y w h i c h the Chorus o p e n l y condemn i n the f i r s t s t a s i m o n . . - 21 -To t r a m p l e down "the g r a c e o f u n t o u c h a b l e t h i n g s " a l s o r e f e r s t o d e s e c r a t i o n t h a t o c c u r s a t T r o y . I n t h e c a r p e t - s c e n e , Agamemnon s y m b o l i c a l l y d i s p l a y s t h e same s a c r i l e g e he shows a t T r o y . A t C l y t e m e s t r a ' b i d d i n g , he s t e p s down from h i s c h a r i o t and e n t e r s t h e house " w i t h o u t s e t t i n g upon t h e ground h i s f o o t w h i c h has s a c k e d T r o y " ( e K 0 a i v ' annvriff xr\a6t,pr\ Xa/zoti T i e t i a / r a v a&v nil,', cova£, \ x i & u nbpBnrbpa 906-07). That f o o t t h a t t r a m p l e d down Troy i s the same one t h a t now t r a m p l e s down t h e t a p e s t r i e s . I n e f f e c t t h e n , C l y t e m e s t r a ' s words l i n k t he sack o f T r o y w i t h the imagery o f t h e f i r s t 29 s t a s i m o n . I t i s p r e c i s e l y w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e f a l l o f T r o y , and what t h a t e n t a i l s , t h a t the m o t i f o f " t r e a d i n g u n d e r f o o t " i s i n t r o d u c e d i n the f i r s t p l a c e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the image comes t o s t a n d f o r t h e s a c r i l e g e i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f b o t h the c i t y ' s t e m p l e s and i t s i n n o c e n t i n h a b i t a n t s . Agamemnon, as we s h a l l s e e , i s g u i l t y o f b o t h . I t i s l i k e l y , t h e n , t h a t when t h e Chorus i n t r o d u c e t h e image o f s a c r i l e g e i n t h e f i r s t s t r o p h e , t h e y have i n mind the d e s t r u c t i o n o f T r o y a l o n g w i t h i t s t e m p l e s and a l t a r s . I n her speech j u s t b e f o r e the ode, C l y t e m e s t r a d e s c r i b e s her v i s i o n o f T r o y ' s d o w n f a l l and e x p r e s s e s her c o n c e r n o v e r how the Gr e e k s may a c t toward the gods o f T r o y : e i &'eu<rePduffi xb\jo nb\\aaduX&uef 9ed\jcr Xb\ja XT\a a\b()0r\a Yhff 9 e G v 9' l i p u / v o T a b\j Tov cXavTCa avQxo av9aXai£:\) Ja\T epwcf i e pt\ T i a npaxepcJV tfjn\nxY\a a x p a x w \ ndp9e'iv a //n XPh'» K e p & e c f i v viKoo/vEMbuc ( 3 3 8 - 4 2 ) - 22 -To p l u n d e r what one must n o t i s one i d e a b e h i n d t h e image o f " t r a m p l i n g u n d e r f o o t the g r a c e o f u n t o u c h a b l e t h i n g s . " S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e Greeks s h o u l d not p l u n d e r t e m p l e s , and t h e gnomic image o f k i c k i n g the a l t a r o f D i k e , i t s e l f a v a r i a t i o n o f the m o t i f o f " t r a m p l i n g u n d e r f o o t , " p r o b a b l y a l l u d e s t o t h i s ( 3 8 1 - 8 4 ) . I n v i e w o f what C l y t e m e s t r a has j u s t s a i d , t h e images o f the f i r s t s t r o p h e more r e a d i l y a p p l y t o Agamemnon and h i s s a c r i l e g e a t T r o y . T h i s a p p l i c a t i o n i s soon c o n f i r m e d by the H e r a l d . He a r r i v e s , a n n o u n c i n g t h a t Agamemnon has dug up T r o y w i t h the mattock o f Zeus and has " t h o r o u g h l y worked the l a n d " w i t h i t s t e m p l e s and a l t a r s ( 5 2 4 - 2 8 ) . Such s a c r i l e g e does n o t go u n p u n i s h e d ; T h i s i s the c o n v i c t i o n t h e Chorus e x p r e s s i n t h e i r n e x t gnomic thought ( 3 7 4 - 7 5 ) . The man who c l a i m s t h a t the gods show l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n m a t t e r s so g r a v e as s a c r i l e g e i s s i m p l y i m p i o u s ( 3 7 2 ) . R a t h e r , r u i n a w a i t s the. man who i m a g i n e s such t h i n g s , who " b r e a t h e s w i t h a p r i d e g r e a t e r t h a n j u s t " : r r e ^ a v T a i S 'iyyi\b\a/+axb\fjr\xoiv a > f it t i / ( / t, / \ apri+/m>E&v-cu>\> p e i t c - v h &\Ka\wa/4>XedvTw\> ato^axwv ynepifceu/unep xb t i P e X r i a T d v ( 3 7 4 - 7 7 ) . The p e r f e c t t e n s e ne$a\>Tai s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e Chorus p r i m a r i l y have the d e s t r u c t i o n o f T r o y i n mind. The f a l l o f T r o y c o n f i r m s t h a t punishment has, and does, come t o men l i k e P a r i s . T h i s much sense a t l e a s t can be d i s c e r n e d i n t h e c o r r u p t t e x t . One d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n zyybvbxa. To whom o r what does i t r e f e r ? How does the f a l l o f T r o y c o n f i r m t h a t punishment has appeared t o the c h i l d r e n ' s c h i l d r e n ? I s t h e r e something o f the i d e a t h a t god v i s i t s " t he i n i q u i t y o f t h e f a t h e r s upon the c h i l d r e n unto the t h i r d and f o u r t h - 23 -g e n e r a t i o n ? " Some such i d e a as t h i s i s p r o b a b l y s u g g e s t e d by E Y Y d v d i o r . There i s p r o b a b l y a v e i l e d r e f e r e n c e t o Agamemnon and the c u r s e o f A t r e u s he b e a r s . As we have a l r e a d y s e e n , i t i s not u n u s u a l f o r t h e gnomes t o t r a n s c e n d t h e i r immediate c o n t e x t . The i d e a o f i n h e r i t e d g u i l t i s o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g Agamemnon's s i n and punishment. A l t h o u g h no g r e a t s t r e s s i s p l a c e d upon i t i n t h e e a r l i e r p a r t o f t h e p l a y , t h e r e i s , as i n t he case o f the s u c c e s s i o n myth, a p r o b a b l e a l l u s i o n t o i t h e r e . ^ A f u r t h e r t e x t u a l d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n a s c e r t a i n i n g t h e e x a c t meaning o f t h e d i s p u t e d t e x t , +axb\pr\xui\ apri+. Does otpri s t a n d as t h e s u b j e c t o f n t ^ o M T o i , o r s h o u l d i t be a c c e n t e d as opn and so s t a n d as t h e d i r e c t o b j e c t o f nve&vTwv i n the sense o f " b r e a t h i n g f o r t h A r e s ? A major p r o b l e m , however, a r i s e s from the l a t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . We a r e l e f t w i t h o u t a s u b j e c t f o r t h e se n t e n c e and i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o f i n d one i n axb\fjt)xuv. I n f a c t , axbk(ji\xuiv s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d s i n c e i t r e c a l l s t he i n t o l e r a b l e t h o u g h t s t h a t Agamemnon b r e a t h e s f o r t h a t A u l i s (TTV'EWM . . . x i navxaraX/yav *p J v t ? v 219-21). As i n t h e paro d o s , wind imgery i s used i n d e s c r i b i n g a man's a r r o g a n t and p r o u d t h i n k i n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y , nvEdv-rwv fjt\{,bv can s t a n d a l o n e i n the sense o f • P ^ V E I V yzya, and we can compare E u r i p i d e s f o r a s i m i l a r u se: b\ yap n v E d v T E f f fjtyaXa (Andr 189 c f . Bach 6 4 0 ) . " B r e a t h i n g f o r t h A r e s " i s s i m p l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e sense demanded by the imagery. I t i s b e s t t o u n d e r s t a n d the opr{ i n t h e sense o f "bane" o r "harm."^ 1 There i s some e v i d e n c e w i t h i n the ode i t s e l f t o s u g g e s t t h i s meaning. The language o f l i n e s 374-75 p a r a l l e l s t h a t o f l i n e s 387-88. I n b o t h p l a c e s t h e imagery o f l i g h t (TTE<J>a\>Tca 374 c f . n p E n e i 389) i s used t o denote t h e punishment w h i c h o p e n l y - 24 -and c l e a r l y b e f a l l s a man: a woe s h i n e s f o r t h l i k e a h o r r i d l i g h t . otpr/ seems t o c o r r e s p o n d t o a\\ba i n meaning and i n imagery. There seems t o be a r e w o r k i n g o f themes from the s t r o p h e i n the a n t i s t r o p h e . I n the s t r o p h e apry n ^ o x i T o i i s the p o s i t i v e s i d e o f the gnome a u e a x i v t f r t a X ^ i a . To a f f i r m t h a t t h e r e i s no d e f e n c e f o r the u n j u s t i s t o i m p l y t h a t some harm w i l l b e f a l l him. T h i s same c o u p l i n g o f gnomes o c c u r s i n the a n t i s t r o p h e . The gnome o K j a n a v / / o T a i i v w h i c h t a k e s up the theme o f "no d e f e n c e " i s a l s o e x p r e s s e d p o s i t i v e l y i n rtpenei oivba. A woe s h i n e s f o r t h a g a i n s t w h i c h " e v e r y remedy i s v a i n . " T h i s t h e m a t i c p a r a l l e l i s m s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t apr\ s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d and u n d e r s t o o d i n the sense i n w h i c h we t a k e i t . We can f i n d f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e f o r r e t a i n i n g a p o i n a p a r a l l e l p assage from Eumenides. The imagery and t h e m a t i c c o n t e n t o f the t h i r d a n t i s t r o p h e o f the second s t a s i m o n ( 5 3 8 - 4 9 ) a r e v e r y s i m i l a r , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t i s a c o n s c i o u s r e w o r k i n g o f our p r e s e n t passage. There t h e F u r i e s b i d O r e s t e s " t o r e v e r e the a l t a r o f Di k e and not t o d i s h o n o u r i t w i t h a g o d l e s s f o o t ; f o r punishment w i l l f o l l o w " : to xd rrSv abx X^YW/Pco/zav a i & e a o a i i K a a , /v\-\hz v\v KEpSdff J i i u \ ) deiu\ n i S i / X o t t a x i a n i f f ' n j i v o y a p e r t e a x a i ( 5 3 8 - 4 3 ) . The image o f " t r a m p l i n g u n d e r f o o t " i s r e c a l l e d . The p o i n t o f t h a t passage i s a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h what the Chorus o f Agamemnon have t o say: s a c r i l e g e does n o t go u n p u n i s h e d . The F u r i e s s p e c i f y t he forms o f i m p i e t y w h i c h d i s h o n o u r D i k e , namely, d i s h o n o u r towards p a r e n t s and s t r a n g e r s ( 5 4 5 - 4 9 ) . I t i s w i t h t h e l a t t e r t h a t t h e Chorus o f e l d e r s a r e c h i e f l y c o n c e r n e d . A l t h o u g h t h e p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n s o f the two Choruses d i f f e r , t h e r e i s a common b e l i e f : o f f e n d e r s o f Di k e a r e , o r a t l e a s t s h o u l d be, p u n i s h e d . Vengeance - 25 -and r e t r i b u t i o n f o l l o w s such o f f e n d e r s . n j i v a , as a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the E r i n y e s ' o f f i c e ( c f . Eum. 323), d e s c r i b e s the punishment o f the c u r s e , an i d e a a l s o s u g g e s t e d i n the f i r s t s t a s i m o n by tyybvb\a. T h i s c o n s i s t e n c y i n gnomic thought f u r t h e r s u p p o r t s the r e t e n t i o n o f apt\ o r a s i m i l a r word t o denote punishment. The gnome t h e r e f o r e t r a n s l a t e s : "a punishment f o r deeds not t o be d a r e d appears upon the d e s c e n d a n t s o f tho s e who pant w i t h a p r i d e g r e a t e r t h a n j u s t . " The c o n t i n u i t y o f thought between the two passages c a r r i e s even f u r t h e r . The E r i n y e s s u ggest t h a t w o r l d l y g r e e d s p u r s a man on t o s a c r i l e g e . "He has h i s eye upon p r o f i t " {Ktp&bo 5 4 1 ) . Greed, C l y t e m e s t r a b e l i e v e s , w i l l encourage the Greeks t o p l u n d e r what t h e y ought n o t : epua &e vt\ x\a npbxtpbv t(/n(nxt\i axpaxQ\/nbpQz\\  (a /JT\ Xph, KepSeaiv \>iKW£/e\>du<* (Agm. 3 4 1 - 4 2 ) . T h i s same i d e a i s a l s o p i c k e d up i n the f i r s t s t a s i m o n o f Agamemnon: by yap E U T I V €na\(,\a/n\b(jXb\j npba Kb'pbv a v S p l / X a K T i a a v t i pzyav AiKacf/Pw^av c\a a$d\>eiav ( 3 8 1 - 8 4 ) . There seems t o be a d e f i n i t e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p e x p r e s s e d here between s u r f e i t and s a c r i l e g e . The phrase n X i u f b u npba Kj'pJv can be v a r i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d , but i n k e e p i n g w i t h the i d e a t h a t g r e e d l e a d s i n t o s i n , i t i s b e t t e r t o see npba Kbpbv i n an a d v e r b i a l sense where i t p a r a l l e l s Ktp&ba \iwv i n m e a n i n g . ^ I t i s i n a s u r f e i t o f w e a l t h t h a t a man k i c k s a g a i n s t t h e a l t a r o f D i k e . Here, as i n Eumenides, t h e Chorus p r o v i d e a m o t i v e f o r a man's s i n , e x c e s s . Two metaphors from n a t u r e e x p r e s s t h i s i d e a o f e x c e s s , c o m p l e t i n g the gnomic t h o u g h t o f l i n e s 3 7 4 - 7 5 : "harm i s r e v e a l e d on t h e o f f s p r i n g o f - 26 -t h o s e who pant w i t h a p r i d e g r e a t e r t h a n i s j u s t , when t h e i r house teems i n e x c e s s beyond what i s b e s t " ( 3 7 4 - 7 8 ) . The wind imagery d e s c r i b e s the m e n t a l e x c e s s o f an u n j u s t man, h i s a r r o g a n t t h i n k i n g o r vfipxo; the sea imagery d e s c r i b e s t h e e x c e s s i v e w e a l t h s t o r e d away i n h i s house. No d i r e c t c a u s a l r e l a t i o n between the two i s e x p r e s s e d by the Chorus. P o s s i b l y , we a r e t o see a l o n g g e n e a l o g y h e r e , where s u r f e i t b r e e d s u P p i a ( a r r o g a n t t h i n k i n g ) , w h i c h i n t u r n b r e e d s i m p i e t y and t h e n A t e or r u i n . A l l t h e i n g r e d i e n t s a r e p r e s e n t i n the s t r o p h e but t h e Chorus do n o t s e t out a p r e c i s e r e l a t i o n s h i p among them. However, t h e y seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t s a c r i l e g e i s a symptom o f a man's e x c e s s . The one who s a y s t h a t t h e gods o v e r l o o k t h o s e who t r a m p l e down what i s s a c r e d i s i m p i o u s ( 3 6 9 - 7 2 ) . He i s " p a n t i n g w i t h a p r i d e g r e a t e r t h a n j u s t . " He i s a l s o the one who k i c k s o ver the a l t a r o f D i k e from a s u r f e i t o f w e a l t h ( 3 8 2 - 8 4 ) . I n each c a s e , t h e c o n n e c t i o n between s a c r i l e g e and e x c e s s i s c l e a r l y marked. As we s h a l l see, i t i s e x c e s s i v e w e a l t h and t h i n k i n g t h a t s p u r s Agamemnon on t o commit s a c r i l e g e . The wind imagery not o n l y r e c a l l s the stormy weather a t A u l i s b u t 34 a l s o Agamemnon's own stormy frame o f mind: v / r\ t QpbVbO TTVEWV duffffEPfl Tp&TTalaV O V O Y V S V a v i E p d v ,xa9ev T& TToVTbT bkfJbV • P & V E V V ^ E T E T V U ' f}pbxb\jO Gpoffyvei Y « P 0L\aXphfJt\x\a T a X a i V a TTapaK&TTa TTpWTanh^wVeTXa i'dyV 9uTr |P YEVEff9al 9uYO"Cp ha . . . ( 2 1 8 - 2 2 5 ) - 27 -I t i s c l e a r from t h e s e v e r s e s t h a t the wind imagery becomes a metaphor v i v i d l y d e s c r i b i n g Agamemnon's t u r b u l e n t mind and a r r o g a n t t h i n k i n g : "he b r e a t h e s f o r t h a change o f mind w h i c h i s i m p i o u s , u n h o l y and impure, and from t h a t moment he changes t o t h i n k u t t e r r e c k l e s s n e s s . " I n c o n t e m p l a t i n g I p h i g e n i a ' s d e a t h , an i m p i o u s t h o u g h t , Agamemnon "pants w i t h a p r i d e g r e a t e r t h a n i s j u s t . " From h i s i m p i o u s t h o u g h t s i s s u e an i m p i o u s deed. From h i s t h o u g h t s o f r e c k l e s s n e s s (xb na\>-cdTaX*/oc\>) i s s u e s a r e s o l v e (exXo) t o k i l l h i s d a u g h t e r . The r e p e t i t i o n o f t o l m a - r o o t words i n d i c a t e s p o e t i c a l l y t h a t Agamemnon's a c t i o n r e f l e c t s h i s own t h i n k i n g . "As a man t h i n k e t h i n h i s h e a r t so i s he" i s a maxim t r u e f o r Agamemnon. A man's e x c e s s a l s o a p p ears i n h i s m a t e r i a l w e a l t h . "The house teems i n e x c e s s o f what i s b e s t " ( 3 7 7 - 7 8 ) . Such a s u r f e i t o f w e a l t h l e a d s a man t o t r a m p l e what i s s a c r e d ( 3 8 1 - 8 4 ) . The sea imagery comes t o be s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the e x t r a v a g a n c e of the house o f Agamemnon. I n the c a r p e t - s c e n e , C l y t e m e s t r a uses t h i s same imagery t o d e s c r i b e the abundant w e a l t h w i t h i n t h e i r house. The s e a , she s a y s , "produces an e v e r renewed gush o f p u r p l e i n which the house abounds" ( 9 5 9 - 6 2 ) . T h e i r "house knows no t how t o be poor" ( 9 6 2 ) ; the i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t no one c o u l d d r a i n i t d r y any more than the v a s t s e a . The w a s t e f u l e x t r a v a g a n c e , h e r e r e p r e s e n t e d by the t a p e s t r i e s t h a t a r e l a i d on the ground, c l e a r l y s u g g e s t s t h a t Agamemnon's house teems w i t h more w e a l t h t h a n i s p r o p e r . The themes o f s a c r i l e g e and e x c e s s , c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i n the f i r s t s t a s i m o n , a r e here c o n f l a t e d i n t o one v i s i b l e symbol. The c a r p e t r e p r e s e n t s the e x c e s s i v e w e a l t h o f Agamemnon's house, w h i l e the s p o i l i n g o f i t r e p r e s e n t s the s a c r i l e g e w h i c h a s u r f e i t o f w e a l t h encourages a man t o commit. - 28 -I t i s common i n gnomic discourse to present a strong p o l a r i z a t i o n : the excess of the unjust i s contrasted w i t h the moderation of the j u s t . Such a con t r a s t i s seen i n the next gnomic thought (378-80). The f a c t that the Chorus see an i n e v i t a b l e f a t e b e f a l l i n g an unjust man f o r h i s excesses n a t u r a l l y leads them to approve of moderation. They pray f o r "what i s not harmful" and contentment with that p o r t i o n (caxco fi 'anru<«vx&v ,uax' inapKeTv t\j nponiSuv XaXdvxi 378-80). aTTriA/avx&v i s somewhat ambiguous. What does not cause harm? C e r t a i n l y i t i s a moderate p o r t i o n of wealth as opposed to a s u r f e i t of i t . This thought i s confirmed i n the ship-metaphor of the t h i r d stasimon. Too much wealth causes the ship to sink . However, through caution and well-measured j e t t i s o n i n g of i t s possessions, the ship does not sink under the burden of excess (1005-14). The cautious and well-measured j e t t i s o n i n g s are metaphors f o r the moderation and good sense that c h a r a c t e r i z e the j u s t man. He has obtained f o r h i s l o t good sense (eu npaniSuv XoXbvxi 380), which teaches him to be content w i t h l i t t l e . In h i s moderation and sense, he can f i n d defense against misfortune. But f o r the unjust man there i s no defense (381), and every remedy i s i n v a i n (387). The reason i s given at l i n e s 385-86: "the i r r e s i s t i b l e c h i l d of Ate i s bearing down upon him" ( P i a x o i 6'o xaXotwa ITeieu,/npb^b'\j\b\j n a u a<frepx&cr axocf 385-86). The gnome describes i n a l l e g o r i c a l terms the senseless mind of the unjust. While the j u s t man i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i s good sense and the moderation, the unjust man i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i s i n f a t u a t i o n and excess. - 29 -The gnome o f 3 8 5 f . r e c a l l s Agamemnon's i n f a t u a t i o n a t A u l i s . The reas o n f o r h i s own e x c e s s i v e t h i n k i n g i s g i v e n by the Chorus i n much t h e same a l l e g o r i c a l terms as i n the s t a s i m o n : "a w r e t c h e d , i l l - c o u n s e l l i n g i n f a t u a t i o n has g i v e n him b o l d n e s s " [Gpbxb\)o Qpaa^ti yap CXICTXPa^nTia/TaXai\>a n o p a K j r t a npanraTTri/vwv 2 2 2 - 2 3 ) . The echoes o f a\aXpbpT\x\a and X o X o i v o s u g g e s t t h a t the gnome i s a r e w o r k i n g o f t h e p a r o d o s . I n each c a s e , t h e i n f a t u a t e d s t a t e o f mind i s p e r s o n i f i e d and e x t e r n a l i z e d , c o n c e i v e d as a f o r c e o u t s i d e a man's c o n t r o l . The same d e l u s i o n t h a t t a k e s c o u n s e l a g a i n s t the u n j u s t man o f the s t a s i m o n , t a k e s c o u n s e l a g a i n s t Agamemnon. I t p e r s u a d e s him t o k i l l h i s d a u g h t e r and l a t e r t o t r a m p l e down the t a p e s t r i e s . I n the c a r p e t - s c e n e , 35 C l y t e m e s t r a embodies the " i r r e s i s t i b l e c h i l d o f A t e . " She has l o n g t a k e n c o u n s e l f o r t h i s moment ( n p & P d u X a f f c f . 1 3 7 7 ) . Now, t h r o u g h c r a f t y argument and r h e t o r i c , she f o r c e s Agamemnon t o a c q u i e s c e . A t l i n e 9 4 3 , a t t h e end o f her argument, t h e s e words come w i t h s t a r t l i n g f o r c e : "be p e r s u a d e d " ( n i 6 d u ) < A t t h e s e words, Agamemnon g i v e s i n and commits the s a c r i l e g e o f t r a m p l i n g down the t a p e s t r i e s . Agamemnon s t i l l seems t o be under the power o f A t e . The gnome o f 3 8 5 f . p r o v e s t r u e f o r him. The c h i l d o f A t e i s i r r e s i s t i b l e . We have a l r e a d y begun our d i s c u s s i o n o f the a n t i s t r o p h e by l o o k i n g a t A t e and her r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e m o t i f o f "no esc a p e . " There i s no d e f e n c e f o r the u n j u s t because "the i r r e s i s t i b l e c h i l d o f A t e b e a r s down upon him" ( 3 8 5 - 8 6 ) , t h u s f o r c i n g him t o h i s doom. T h i s gnomic t h o u g h t i s c o n t i n u e d i n t o t h e a n t i s t r o p h e , where the m o t i f o f "no escape" i s t a k e n up once a g a i n a t l i n e 3 8 7 , now e x p r e s s e d i n a m e d i c a l image: a~Kbo 6e n S v / / a T o i i v ( 3 8 7 ) . "Every remedy i s v a i n " because A t e c l o u d s a man's t h i n k i n g so t h a t he c a n n o t - 30 -f ind any means o f escape from disaster. As we have already seen, the motif o f "no escape" i s also expressed i n pos i t ive terms: "a woe shines f o r t h " (388). This sequence i s repeated again a t l i ne 395f. The gods do not l i s t e n t o the prayer o f the unjust, but rather tear him down. The negative side describes the dilemma brought on by a man's own infatuat ion; the pos i t i ve side describes the inev itable punishment i n store for such a man. I n the s imiles that f o i l ow a t 390, the Chorus deal with the pos it ive side o f the motif, the punishment i n store for the unjust. The unjust man ( • U T ' aSiKdv 398) i s f i r s t compared t o bad bronze that becomes badly discoloured when battered (KaKaQ ie XaXK&u fp i nbv /xp xc Ka\ TXpba^bXa\a/fjz\afjrxarr]a neXei 390-92), and then t o a young boy who brings destruction upon his c i t y and i s then brought t o ju s t i ce ( S u c o i w e c i i r , c r r e i / i i w K e i nolo naxavov a'pv iv ,/ndXe\ npboxp\fj(ja etxa aftpxbv 393-95). The s imi les add the important point t h a t punishment i s re t r ibu t i ve . The unjust man receives " l i k e f o r l i k e . " This idea i s suggested by the word play wi th in the s im i le . Tp i(3os\ (391), which i s i n f l i c t e d upon the man, corresponds t o rip d'axp\fjfja (395), which he i n f l i c t s upon the c i t y , while i i K a i w S e i a corresponds t o &\<&cci. The juxtapos it ion o f the two verbs mirrors pe r fec t l y t h e word-play contained within the gnome " l i k e f o r l i k e , " the play on t h e active and passive: na9eTv Td\> £?p£ctVTa (1564). "The doer i s done i n . " The prosecutor i s prosecuted. I n view o f th i s word play, i i u K t o probably acquires i t s lega l meaning here. - 31 -The l e g a l imagery i s f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d by the f a c t t h a t t he s i m i l e a l l u d e s t o Agamemnon and h i s punishment o f T r o y . The p r o v e r b i a l image of a boy c h a s i n g a b i r d ^ i s adapt e d by A e s c h y l u s t o r e c a l l t h e e x p e d i t i o n t o T r o y by way o f the omen t h a t a p p ears t o Agamemnon a t A u l i s . The ambiguous n a t u r e of the word d p v i o f a c i l i t a t e s such an a l l u s i o n . I n p u r s u i t o f an omen (&pviff) Agamemnon s e t s o f f t o p u n i s h T r o y and b r i n g d e s t r u c t i o n upon t h a t c i t y . That t h e boy has br o u g h t an a f f l i c t i o n upon t h e c i t y s u g g e s t s a f u r t h e r a l l u s i o n t o Agamemnon and t h a t the e x p e d i t i o n i t s e l f i s d e s c r i b e d as a l a w - s u i t a g a i n r e i n f o r c e s t he a l l u s i o n ( c f . 41 and 4 5 0 ) . A l t h o u g h the Chorus i n s i s t t h a t t h e s i m i l e s r e f e r t o P a r i s , t h a t he i s such as t h e y have d e s c r i b e d t he u n j u s t man ( f t i d a K O \ n d t p i a ) , i t i s c l e a r from t h i s v e i l e d r e f e r e n c e t o the T r o j a n e x p e d i t i o n and from t h e o t h e r a l l u s i o n s t o Agamemnon t h a t the gnomes o f t h i s s t r o p h e - p a i r a p p l y as much t o him as t o P a r i s . C e r t a i n images c o n t a i n e d i n the gnomes l o o k back t o h i s a c t i o n s a t A u l i s and Troy and f o r w a r d t o the c a r p e t - s c e n e . The i m p r e s s i o n l e f t w i t h t he r e a d e r i s t h a t Agamemnon f a l l s i n t o t h i s g e n e r i c c l a s s o f u n j u s t men f o r whom t h e r e i s no es c a p e , o n l y punishment o f " l i k e f o r l i k e . " The gods do not l i s t e n t o one who i s c o n v e r s a n t w i t h such t h i n g s as s a c r i l e g e and t he d e s t r u c t i o n o f c i t i e s . R a t h e r , t h e y t e a r him down j u s t as he has 37 t o r n down t h e i r temples and a l t a r s ( 3 9 6 - 9 8 ) . W i t h the mention o f P a r i s ( 3 9 9 ) , t he Chorus n a t u r a l l y t u r n t h e i r t h o u g h t s t o the a b d u c t i o n o f H e l e n . The so r r o w t h a t her t h e f t has c a u s e d f o r Menelaus and A r g o s becomes t h e s u b j e c t o f the n e x t t h r e e s t a n z a s ( 4 0 5 - 5 5 ) . - 32 -However, t h e Chorus a r e m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h the c i t y , f o r i t s s o r r o w s f a r exceed t h o s e o f Menelaus ( 4 2 8 ) . As we l e a r n , many men have d i e d on a c c o u n t of one a d u l t e r o u s woman. The c r y " f o r a n o t h e r man's w i f e " i s m u t t e r e d low th r o u g h o u t the c i t y and t h e r e seems t o be a gro w i n g sense o f rese n t m e n t toward the A t r e i d a e because o f the war. T h i s s o r r o w and resentment n a t u r a l l y l e a d t h e Chorus t o condemn war. They c o n c l u d e the ode w i t h a f i n a l s e r i e s o f gnomes t h a t warn a g a i n s t the i n j u s t i c e s and dangers o f war. The f i r s t danger o f war i s t h e angry t a l k o f t h e p e o p l e ( P o p e T d i'offTuv iaxio a v v <ixu\ ( 4 5 6 ) . W i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the p r e c e d i n g s t a n z a s , the gnome r e f e r s t o the resentment g r o w i n g w i t h i n t he c i t y a g a i n s t the A t r e i d a e : <f>ec.vepd\> i ' ^ n ' aXybo e p n e i n p a & \ K a i f f axpt\la\a ( 4 0 5 - 5 1 ) . The A t r e i d a e a r e c a l l e d " a d v o c a t e s , " a term t h a t c o n t i n u e s t h e l e g a l imagery o f the f i r s t a n t i s t r o p h e , where Agamemnon i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e u n j u s t man who has b r o u g h t an a f f l i c t i o n upon h i s c i t y and i s then b r o u g h t t o j u s t i c e . The a f f l i c t i o n caused by Agamemnon i s t w o f o l d : he has br o u g h t d e s t r u c t i o n upon T r o y , but has a l s o b r o u g h t g r i e f upon A r g o s . I n t h i s a s p e c t he can be compared w i t h P a r i s . The many d e a t h s he has caused a r e b o t h T r o j a n and Greek; but i t i s t h e anger and resentment over the l a t t e r w h i c h t h e Chorus f e e l a r e most dangerous. And, i n the end, what l i e s c l o s e s t t o home p r o v e s t o be the d e a d l i e s t f o r Agamemnon. The w e i g h t o f the p e o p l e ' s t a l k c o n s i s t s i n the t h e c u r s e t h e y may pronounce upon t h e i r l e a d e r s : &r)(jbKpa\>xb\j i ' a p S V T I V E I Xpzba ( 4 5 8 ) . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d e x a c t l y what the Chorus mean. How can "the v o i c e o f - 33 -the p e o p l e pay the debt demanded o f a c u r s e ? " C e r t a i n l y t h e i r a n g r y resentment and t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g c a l l f o r punishment amount t o a c u r s e . There would be l e s s c o n f u s i o n i f x i v e w i c o u l d c a r r y t h e sense o f " e x a c t i n g " o r "demanding" t h e payment o f d e b t . A t any r a t e , t h e r e i s s u r e l y a c e r t a i n i r o n y i n t h e Chorus' u s i n g the word &X)fjb<pa»T:ba w i t h i t s s u g g e s t i o n o f 38 "democracy." The p e o p l e may p u b l i c l y pronounce a c u r s e but t h e y a r e p o w e r l e s s t o e x a c t i t s due. I n a s o c i e t y dominated by f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s whose m o r a l i t y r e s t s on v e n d e t t a and p e r s o n a l vengeance, the v o i c e o f the g e n e r a l p u b l i c amounts t o v e r y l i t t l e . T h i s p o i n t c o u l d not be made more f o r c e f u l l y t h a n when the Chorus f e e b l y t r y t o t h r e a t e n C l y t e m e s t r a w i t h banishment and the heavy h a t r e d o f t h e p e o p l e (vGv tJtv &iKaC.Ei«r e« naXtwa ^ u Y h v tylX Ka\ fjTaba aaxli\ l>r\fjbQpb\ja x ' t x e i v apaa 1 4 1 2 - 1 3 ) . T h e i r t h r e a t s a r e a s e r i e s o f c u r s e s pronounced by t h e p e o p l e (&n/>&9p b\jo op a s ) . The echoes from the s t a s i m o n a r e u n m i s t a k a b l e (&t\fjb'epb\jo apaa 1 4 1 3 c f . 6riA ,&KpaVxa u apaa 4 5 7 ; fjxaba b&p\pbv aoTb"\o 1 4 1 1 c f . C a p e T a OOTWV a^v K J T U I 4 5 6 ) . The v o i c e o f t h e p e o p l e , now r e p r e s e n t e d i n the Chorus, t r i e s t o e x a c t i t due, but f a i l s . The f a c t t h a t i n C h o e p h o r i C l y t e m e s t r a a p p e a r s f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d i n power c o n f i r m s t h a t the v o i c e o f the p e o p l e i s p o w e r l e s s . I t remains f o r O r e s t e s , the i n d i v i d u a l , t o p u n i s h c l y t e m e s t r a . As Gantz remarks, " n e i t h e r t h e Chorus nor t h e community a t l a r g e p o s s e s s e s t h e power 39 t o impose j u s t i c e . " The Chorus' impotence i n c o n t r a s t t o C l y t e m e s t r a ' s 40 a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l the e v e n t s of t h e drama e n f o r c e s t h e p o i n t . A t the c r i t i c a l moment the Chorus f a i l t o a c t , t o respond d e c i s i v e l y t o Agamemnon's de a t h c r y . T h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n about how t o r e a c t t o the c r y t h e y hear w i t h i n the p a l a c e o n l y p a r o d i e s the d e l i b e r a t i o n o f an a c t u a l c o u n c i l . T h e i r - 34 -i n a b i l i t y t o d e c i d e what t o do c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e d e c i s i v e ( i f not unanimous) judgement o f t h e Areopagus. O n l y i n Eumenides, when j u d i c i a l power has passed t o a c i t i z e n body, can the v o i c e o f the p e o p l e e x a c t the debt o f t h e i r 4 1 c u r s e . I n t h e m o r a l i t y o f Agamemnon, w i t h i t s s t r e s s on v e n d e t t a and p e r s o n a l vengeance, t h e E r i n y e s p l a y the i m p o r t a n t r o l e . They avenge t h e wrongs done t o i n d i v i d u a l s . The E r i n y e s and n o t the v o i c e o f t h e p e o p l e " e x a c t t h e de b t o f c u r s e s . " They "watch f o r men o f b l o o d s h e d and i n ti m e render them f a i n t and dim" ( 4 6 1 - 6 8 ) . The c u r s e s r a i s e d a g a i n s t the A t r e i d a e a r e o v e r the dead, and t h i s f a c t a l o n e e x p l a i n s t h e mention o f t h e E r i n y e s a t 4 6 3 , whose v e s t e d o f f i c e i s t o avenge the dead. Among the many d a n g e r s C l y t e m e s t r a f o r e s e e s f o r t h e Greeks a t T r o y i s t h e s u f f e r i n g t he dead w i l l awaken a g a i n s t them: eedTcr i'avo//nXoKr)Tdff e i oxpdxi>a/cypr\ybpio x\ nf\pa ( 3 4 5 - 4 7 ) . A l t h o u g h the Gr e e k s may a r r i v e home w i t h o u t o f f e n d i n g t h e gods, t h e y may s t i l l have t o r e c k o n w i t h the dead and t h e g r i e f t h o s e d e a t h s have caused. On b o t h c o u n t s , t h e y , o r a t l e a s t Agamemnon, i s g u i l t y . They have committed s a c r i l e g e a g a i n s t t h e Olympians by t r a m p l i n g u n d e r f o o t t h e i r a l t a r s and have o f f e n d e d t h e E r i n y e s by p u t t i n g many t o d e a t h . The Chorus have a l r e a d y d e a l t w i t h t h e pro b l e m o f s a c r i l e g e i n t h e o p e n i n g s t r o p h e ; now t h e y t u r n t o t h e problem o f b l o o d s h e d and t h e i n e v i t a b l e punishment o f t h e g u i l t y a t the hands o f the E r i n y e s . The E r i n y e s p u n i s h the man o f b l o o d : xQ\ nb\\jKx£\)uv yap b\)< o d K j n J i Q£b(,tceXai\iot\ i ' e p i v u e a X Pd'vwi. . . T i 0 e U J ' a*;aupo\> ( 4 6 1 - 6 6 ) . I n Agamemnon, - 3 5 -t h e r e e x i s t s a c o o p e r a t i o n between the Olympians ( 9 e d O and t h e E r i n y e s . The gods t a k e n o t e o f b l o o d s h e d and the E r i n y e s p u n i s h t h o s e g u i l t y . T h i s p a t t e r n o f c o o p e r a t i o n i s seen i n the v u l t u r e - s i m i l e . Zeus h e a r s t h e c r y o f the v u l t u r e s and d i s p a t c h e s a " l a t e - a v e n g i n g E r i n y s " a g a i n s t t h e r o b b e r s o f the n e s t . I n Agamemnon, the E r i n y e s emerge as the a g e n t s o f t h e j u s t i c e o f Zeus, whose own s u c c e s s i o n was based on r e t r i b u t i o n and revenge. Even Agamemnon's d e a t h i s a r e s u l t o f the f a c t t h a t Zeus and t h e E r i n y e s work t o g e t h e r (1481-88). The type o f punishment t h e y d e a l o u t t o Agamemnon and a l l t h o s e g u i l t y o f b l o o d s h e d i s " l i k e f o r l i k e . " As i n the s i m i l e s o f the o p e n i n g a n t i s t r o p h e , t h e r e i s a c l e a r s u g g e s t i o n i n t h e gnomes o f the f i n a l a n t i s t r o p h e t h a t j u s t i c e i s r e t r i b u t i v e . The two gnomic passages a r e l i n k e d i n t h o u g h t t h r o u g h v e r b a l echoes. o\>eu &\Kaa (464) p i c k s up on I X S I K & V (398) w h i l e xpi(3ai (465) r e c a l l s TpiPcoi (391). The word p l a y on xp\gw\ and np&cxTp i/y/va s u g g e s t s the i d e a o f " l i k e f o r l i k e . " The same t h i n g i s i n f l i c t e d on the u n j u s t man as he has i n f l i c t e d upon the c i t y . The same th o u g h t i s f e l t i n the word p l a y on nctXivTuXET ( 465) and TuXhP&v (464). The man who p r o s p e r s w i t h o u t j u s t i c e f a l l s i n t o a m i s f o r t u n e t h a t m i r r o r s h i s former p r o s p e r i t y as i t s e x a c t r e v e r s e . T h i s t r a i n o f thought c o n t i n u e s i n t o l i n e s 466-67, where ev a\axbia xeXeeavTbff b a l a n c e s T T & X U K T & V W V. The i m p l i c a t i o n b e h i n d the c o n t r a s t i s t h a t t h o s e who k i l l a r e t h e m s e l v e s k i l l e d . "To r e n d e r one f a i n t and dim" ( T i e e i V ' oc/;a\jPci'v) i s an o b v i o u s euphemism f o r murder and d e a t h , a t h o u g h t w h i c h i s n a t u r a l l y u n d e r s t o o d from the n e x t s e n t e n c e where "the unseen" o b v i o u s l y r e f e r s t o t h e dead. Throughout t h e ode, t h e n , t h e r e i s t h e u n s e t t l i n g - 36 -f e e l i n g t h a t r e t r i b u t i o n i s e x a c t l y meted o u t t o the u n j u s t by Zeus and the E r i n y e s . "No one can b o a s t t h a t what he has done i s g r e a t e r t h a n what he has s u f f e r e d " ( 5 3 3 ) , a t r u t h l a t e r c o n f i r m e d by t h e d e a t h o f Agamemnon ( c f . 1 5 6 0 f . ) From t h e s e t h o u g h t s , the Chorus t u r n t o t h e theme o f " e x c e s s " , a c o n c e r n o f t h e i r s i n the f i r s t s t r o p h e . The c o r o l l a r y o f e x c e s s i v e w e a l t h i s e x c e s s i v e p r a i s e , w h i c h can a l s o be dangerous ( 4 6 8 - 6 9 ) . For t h i s r e a s o n , the Chorus p r e f e r " p r o s p e r i t y w i t h o u t envy" (Kpivw &'<x$9dVd\> d X 0 d v 4 7 1 ) . I n the J/ concept o f b\6bo more tha n m e r e l y w e a l t h i s u n d e r s t o o d ; i t i n c l u d e s the honour and p r a i s e t h a t go a l o n g w i t h w e a l t h and can be j u s t as dangerous when ta k e n t o e x c e s s : T& a' vTttpKbnuo KX^CW) Ev> (3opu ( 4 6 8 - 6 9 ) . Y e t " p r o s p e r i t y " ('bX&bo) i n i t s e l f i s no c r i m e . I n the n e x t s t a s i m o n the Chorus go t o g r e a t l e n g t h s t o s t r e s s t h a t w e a l t h and p r o s p e r i t y a r e not t h e cause o f a man's d o w n f a l l , b u t r a t h e r i m p i e t y and h y b r i s ( 7 5 8 - 7 1 ) . Here t h e y a r e c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r t h o u g h t . O n l y the man who p r o s p e r s w i t h o u t j u s t i c e ("c uXripav J/ it ' avT'aveu 5\Ka<r 464 ) i s p u n i s h e d . O n l y "when h i s house teems i n e x c e s s beyond a l l decency" or "when p r a i s e o v e r s t e p s a l l bounds" ( y n e p Kd'nwa) i s phthonos prov o k e d . E x c e s s i v e p r o s p e r i t y a l w a y s i m p l i e s w r o n g - d o i n g , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e s i n i s o f t e n c o n c e i v e d i n terms o f " g o i n g t o o f a r , " " o v e r s h o o t i n g t h e mark," " e x c e e d i n g the bounds o f what i s r i g h t and p r o p e r . " C o n s e q u e n t l y , e x c e s s i v e p r o s p e r i t y i m p l i e s w e a l t h and p r a i s e t h a t have been a c q u i r e d u n l a w f u l l y . Phthonos i s the anger and envy p r o v o k e d i n the gods a g a i n s t a man o f e x c e s s . Too much p r a i s e i s dangerous because "a t h u n d e r b o l t i s h u r l e d down - 37 -from the eye o f Zeus" upon the e x c e s s i v e ( 4 6 9 - 7 0 ) . For t h i s r e a s o n , t h e Chorus a d v i s e m o d e r a t i o n , " p r o s p e r i t y w i t h o u t envy." I n a d d i t i o n , phthonos i s t he i n d i g n a t i o n t h a t s o c i e t y f e e l s towards s u c h men, t h e a n g e r e d resentment f e l t a g a i n s t t h e A t r e i d a e f o r the war (QQbvzpbv akyba 4 5 0 ) . The c o n n e c t i o n between t h e gnomes d e a l i n g w i t h e x c e s s ( 4 6 8 - 7 1 ) and t h e e a r l i e r s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the angry t a l k o f the p e o p l e a g a i n s t such e v i l , i s brought o u t by means o f v e r b a l echoes. I n |3apv ( 4 6 9 ) we have an echo o f 3apE?a ( 4 5 6 ) and i n " o ^ e a v a v ( 4 7 1 ) o f tebvzpbv  Ja.\yba ( 4 5 0 ) . E x c e s s , whether i n p r a i s e , w e a l t h or murder, i s dangerous because i t p r o v o k e s t h e anger o f the p e o p l e , who c u r s e the o f f e n d e r s . The gnomes a r e a g a i n r e l e v a n t t o Agamemnon. I n t h e c a r p e t - s c e n e , i t i s Agamemnon's f e a r o f phthonos i n b o t h i t s a s p e c t s t h a t c a u s e s him mo m e n t a r i l y t o h e s i t a t e when C l y t e m e s t r a p e r s u a d e s him t o walk on t h e t a p e s t r i e s . W i t h words t h a t echo the o p e n i n g l i n e s o f t h i s a n t i s t r o p h e ( 4 5 6 ) , Agamemnon acknowledges t h a t " t he v o i c e o f the p e o p l e i s g r e a t i n power" (•h^h yt fjZMxb\ inA'dOp b\ja /jtya OQZMZX 9 3 8 ; c f . • a x i c r . . . S n ^ & K p a v T d u 4 5 6 - 6 7 ) . That the i d e a o f phthonos i s uppermost i n h i s mind i s a p p a r e n t from C l y t e m e s t r a ' s immediate r e p l y : b 6' a$9c»vriTctcf y' b\jK zn\l,t)\ba T T E ' X E I ( 9 3 9 ) . Not o n l y does Agamemnon f e a r the resentment o f t h e p e o p l e , b u t he a l s o f e a r s t h e envy o f t h e gods. As he s t e p s down o n t o t h e t a p e s t r i e s , an honour r e s e r v e d f o r t h e gods, he p r a y s t h a t "no e n v i o u s eye may s t r i k e him": fjt\ x u npbauQzv bufjafbo &a\b\ tBbvbo ( 9 4 7 ) . The envy t h a t Agamemnon f e a r s i s c o n c e i v e d as a m e t a p h o r i c a l b o l t t h a t s t r i k e s from a f a r . H i s words, t h e n , c a r r y an echo o f the l i g h t n i n g b o l t , h u r l e d down by Zeus - 38 -upon the excessive: P a X X e x a i Y « P a i K a i f f t\iet\ KepoyVd'a ( 4 6 9 - 7 0 ) . I f we re ta in baah\a of the manuscripts instead of a f f c M a , the p a r a l l e l s between the two passages are even more s t r i k i n g . ^ ifwoLTba @aXat p r e c i s e l y r e c a l l s P o t X X e x a i a a a a i f f . That the Chorus are a l so concerned with phthonos i s apparent from the words immediately fo l lowing: K p i v u S ' a ^ G a v a v a X P a v ( 4 7 1 ) . These p a r a l l e l s from the carpet-scene again remind the reader that Agamemnon can be seen as the subject of the gnomes. The Chorus conclude the f i n a l ant is trophe with an open condemnation of war ( 4 7 2 - 7 4 ) . I t i s wi th in the context of the war that the gnomes should 44 be understood. In war a man can prosper without j u s t i c e ; he can be c a r r i e d to excess i n committing s a c r i l e g e and i n shedding b lood. The one crime evokes the anger of the gods; the other the anger of the people. The one i s punished by the gods d i r e c t l y ; the other by the Erinyes responding to the cry of the people. Throughout the ode there i s the assurance that such i n j u s t i c e s are not overlooked. There i s no escape for the g u i l t y ; every remedy i s v a i n . The t ru th of t h i s b e l i e f i s soon confirmed. The Herald arr ive s announcing the des truc t ion of the f l e e t i n a storm caused by the wrath of the gods ( 6 4 9 ) . The desecrators of the temples have met t h e i r doom. Now we must wait i n f e a r f u l a n t i c i p a t i o n for the Er inyes to act through 45 Clytemestra. In the second stasimon, the gnomes are r e s t r i c t e d to the f i n a l three l y r i c a l sect ions ( 7 5 0 - 8 1 ) , character ized by t h e i r overt g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , t h e i r numerous abs trac t ions and t h e i r dec idedly moral tone. I t i s to these - 39 -sections that our d i s cuss ion turns . However, no examination of the gnomes would be complete without some reference to the parable of the l i o n -cub ( 7 1 7 - 3 6 ) . Since the parable a l so has a d i d a c t i c purpose, i t i s c l o s e l y akin to the nature of the gnomes. Besides t h i s , there i s a s t r i k i n g number of p a r a l l e l s between the two sect ions i n thematic context, language and imagery. The echoes suggest that each of the two should be understood i n l i g h t of the other . The parable d e s c r i p t i v e l y i l l u s t r a t e s what the gnomes state metaphor ica l ly . The Chorus begin the gnomic sec t ion by in troduc ing an opin ion they read i ly r e j e c t : naXai'$aTc.ff 5 ' ev CpdTd'ia yepwv X O Y S O ' / T C T V J K T O ' I , / V E Y C V T E X E / o e e v T a • u x d f f a X P a v / T C K V d u a e a i ' a n a l 6 a e v n ' i f f K E i V / E K S'aYaOaff TyXacr Yevei/3XaffTa \>eiv a K d p e a T d v M C u ^ ( 7 5 0 - 5 6 ) . The ancient s tory runs "that prosper i ty begets c h i l d r e n and from good fortune springs an i n s a t i a b l e woe to the race ." But the Chorus are of a d i f f e r e n t mind (6iX°< i ' a X X w v £/d\>d$pdwv z\y\ ( 7 5 7 - 5 8 ) . Great prosper i ty does not beget ru in but impiety (T& S y a a P e a epYdV 7 5 8 ) and hybr i s ( $ i X c T fie T I K T E I V u 0 p i a / / y e v n a X a i i v e a / C d u a a v e\> KeKb\a e p d T w v / u p p i v . . . 7 6 3 - 6 5 ) . E v i l , not wealth, provokes d iv ine envy. The thought i s consistent with the f i r s t stasimon. Only the man who prospers without j u s t i c e i s punished by the Erinyes ( 4 6 4 ) . Only when he "breathes with a pride greater than just" and "when h i s house teems i n excess beyond what i s best ," does harm appear ( 3 7 4 - 7 8 ) . Always the image of excess c a r r i e s the i m p l i c a t i o n of s i n , of going too far or overstepping the bound, an idea that 46 seems o r i g i n a l l y to be behind the meaning of h y b r i s . - 40 -I t i s d i f f i c u l t to define hybr is p r e c i s e l y . C l e a r l y some idea of excess i s behind i t s meaning, and so i t forms the opposite of au^p&veiv. As "temperance" i s c l o s e l y t i e d to reverence and p i e t y , so hybr i s i s to impiety . The p a r a l l e l imagery between the two stanzas suggests such an a s s o c i a t i o n . TIKTO) i s repeated (759 c f . 763), and <x*ETepoa eiKdxa Y £ V M « I (760) of the antistrophe i s picked up i n txibytvao- xbKt^aw (771) of the strophe. Impiety begets many c h i l d r e n af ter i t , and one of them may be h y b r i s . I t i s c l ear from the f i r s t stasimon that excess and impiety go hand i n hand (376-78; 382-84). The former leads to the l a t t e r . At A u l i s , Agamemnon's recklessness (xb navxbxXfjbv •p&veTv 221) leads him r e c k l e s s l y to murder Iphigenia , an impious deed. Excessive th inking i s one aspect of hybr i s and one that encourages impiety . But we do see a prec i se genealogy here, where hybris or excess begets impiety?' ' 7 Probably not . Aeschylus elsewhere s tates that hybr is i s the c h i l d of impiety (c f . Eum. 533-34). Th i s i s the order presented i n the second stasimon. Impiety begets many c h i l d r e n a f t er i t s kind (758-60), and one of them i s h y b r i s . A l l that can be sa id with c e r t a i n t y i s that ' the two go hand i n hand. Together, they lead to a man's r u i n . At l i n e 761f., the Chorus begin a contrast between impiety and j u s t i c e , which i s taken up at a greater length i n the next s t r o p h e - p a i r . The contrast cons i s t s in the d i f f e r e n t c h i l d r e n each parent produces. The one begets e v i l o f f s p r i n g , the other good o f f s p r i n g . "The dest iny of a house which uses j u s t i c e ar ight cons i s t s i n f a i r o f f s p r i n g " : J U U M yap eieu&iKwv KaXXinaia n&xvbo axzi (761-62). At t h i s po in t , the Chorus add an important - 41 -new element t o the g e n e a l o g i c a l scheme. Not o n l y does D i k e produce f u r t h e r deeds o f j u s t i c e , b u t a l s o a f a i r d e s t i n y . So, c o n v e r s e l y , n o t o n l y does a man's i m p i e t y beget f u r t h e r a c t s o f i m p i e t y , b u t a l s o h i s e v e n t u a l r u i n [nbXfjba). The b i r t h - m e t a p h o r a t t h i s p o i n t b e g i n s t o d e s c r i b e more t h a n j u s t t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f e v i l , where one i m p i o u s deed p r o d u c e s many a f t e r i t s k i n d (758-60), or h y b r i s b e g e t s more h y b r i s ( 7 6 3 f . ) . I t s u g g e s t s t h a t a man's d e s t i n y , a l t h o u g h p a r t l y d e t e r m i n e d by h i s own a c t i o n s , i s a l s o p a r t l y i n h e r i t e d . The f a t e o f a f a m i l y c o n t i n u e s from g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n . There seems t o be an u n u s u a l s t r e s s p l a c e d upon the house, as opposed t o the i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s i s marked by the r e p e a t e d o c c u r r e n c e o f words l i k e (>bfjba, ' 3 / 1 yzvba, b\Kba, ^eXa9pa t h r o u g h o u t t h e p a r a b l e and the gnomes o f the ode. I n the f i r s t s t a s i m o n , t h e Chorus emphasize t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e u n j u s t and j u s t man; now t h e y emphasize the d i f f e r e n t i n h e r i t a n c e s o f each h o u s e h o l d . For the one, t h e r e i s d e s t i n y t h a t a l w a y s has f a i r o f f s p r i n g , f o r the o t h e r , an i n s a t i a b l e woe. a K f t p E f f T d v a\c.u\> e x p r e s s e s t h e c o n v e r s e o f ' / 48 K a X X t n a i a nbXfJbo. The i n h e r i t a n c e o f an i m p i o u s house i s a woe t h a t i s i n s a t i a b l e t o a r a c e ( 7 5 5 ) , t h a t e x t e n d s from one g e n e r a t i o n t o the n e x t and t h a t s t r e t c h e s beyond the d e a t h o f a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l t o i n c l u d e t h e c h i l d r e n . T h i s i d e a o f i n h e r i t e d g u i l t i s e x p r e s s e d by the b i r t h metaphor. The paradox t h a t a man's d e s t i n y i s b o t h d e t e r m i n e d by h i s own a c t i o n s and i n h e r i t e d from h i s p a r e n t s i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t a man's p r o p e n s i t y t o do wrong or good i s a l s o i n h e r i t e d . I n c l u d e d , t h e n , i n our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f nbxybo i s t h e gnome a s c r i b e d t o H e r a c l i t u s : ^Qba ovGpwnoii / 49 Sai/yuv. A man's c h a r a c t e r , h i s i n h e r i t e d d i s p o s i t i o n , i s h i s f a t e . I n - 42 -th i s sense, a man's dest iny i s i n h e r i t e d and passed on. The fate that b e f e l l h is parents w i l l a l so b e f a l l him because he too d i sp lays the i r charac ter . This idea i s brought out in the parable . The l i o n - c u b , despi te i t s upbringing, eventual ly d i sp lays the t\9bo of i t s parents by becoming a great bane upon the house. There i s an obvious contrast i n the parable between the rfedff the l i o n has from i t s parents (n.9dff xb npba xbKt'av 7 2 7 - 2 8 ) and the xpbbt) i t receives from o u t s i d e . ^ In the end, i t i s the savage nature i n h e r i t e d by b i r t h that determines the l i o n ' s v i o l e n t behavior . Th i s idea of i n h e r i t e d ethos i s c a r r i e d over into the gnomic sect ion ( 7 6 3 - 7 1 ) and i s expressed by the b i r t h metaphor. "An o l d hybr is begets a younger one l i k e i t s parents" {z\&bfjivaa xbxzQow 7 7 1 ) . The s i n f u l nature i s passed on by b i r t h . The verbal echoes between the two passages ( 7 2 7 - 3 5 , c f . 7 6 3 - 7 1 ) suggest that the gnomes restate i n a l l e g o r i c a l terms what the parable presents i n d e s c r i p t i v e terms. %xz xb tcupidv fjb\t\\ 4<ibo ( 7 6 6 - 6 7 ) r e c a l l s XpbvxaBtia ( 7 2 7 ) of the parable . zi&bvzvaa TdKe{?criv ( 7 7 1 ) echoes xb npia xbKzuv ( 7 2 8 ) ; (jz\aQpb\o\v faxao ( 7 7 0 ) r e c a l l s axaa lbfjb\a 51 -T\ / ( 7 3 5 ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t\9ba and nbxpba, hered i tary s i n and g u i l t , i s a l so expressed genea log i ca l l y . Not only does hybr is beget more 52 h y b r i s , but a l so Ate , and both o f f s p r i n g are l i k e t h e i r parents . That the image of one e v i l breeding another i s something more than jus t a metaphor for the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of e v i l i s apparent from the family of Atreus where s i n l i t e r a l l y breeds and passes from generation to generat ion. Agamemnon, l i k e Atreus before him, k i l l s innocent c h i l d r e n . Helen and Clytemestra are both g u i l t y of a d u l t e r y . Agamemnon and Clytemestra are both k i l l e d by c lose - 43 -r e l a t i o n s . Even Orestes seems to d i s p l a y that e v i l propensi ty of the race by murdering h i s mother. He i s the snake born of Clytemestra , the amphisbaena (Agm. 1 2 3 3 ) . Aeschylus i s not excusing h i s characters from t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y when he int imates that t h e i r e v i l nature i s i n h e r i t e d . Rather, he i s present ing a paradox: man v o l u n t a r i l y commits h i s own wrongs, but at the same time has a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to repeat the wrongs of h i s parents . This paradox i s emphasized throughout the l a t t e r part of the p l a y . When the Chorus confront Clytemestra with the murder of Agamemnon, she blames the "ancestral A l a s t o r " that has sprung from Atreus into her form ( 1 4 9 5 - 1 5 0 4 ) . Although the Chorus do not allow her to deny r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the k i l l i n g ( 1 5 0 5 - 0 6 ) , at the same time they do recognize that there i s a " s p i r i t of vengeance" wi th in the fami ly , which i n time may pass from the father in to the form of Orestes ( 1 5 0 7 ) . There i s a curious mixture of personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i n h e r i t e d s i n or ethos now represented as a daemon working i t s way through the family l i n e and assuming the form of i t s d i f f e r e n t members. The same paradox i s true for Agamemnon. The parodos and the opening stasimon reveal h i s own personal g u i l t for the war and the murder of Iphigenia . Yet , from the second stasimon, on h i s crime and subsequent punishment are i n c r e a s i n g l y seen in the context of the s ins of the past . In the Cassandra-scene t h i s becomes most e x p l i c i t . Again , i n h e r i t e d ethos i s expressed i n terms of some daemonic force that prompts each member of the - 44 -family to commit the s i n of the past . That the daemon (or A l a s t o r or Er inys ) i s cons i s t en t ly descr ibed as belonging to the race and abid ing wi th in the house further suggests that i t represents the idea of i n h e r i t e d ethos. At one point i n her v i s i o n , Cassandra sees a band of "kindred Erinyes" w i th in the house: tcu/jbo tv L\b/jb\a / / cv .e i . . . avjYYdvwv epivjuv ( 1 1 8 9 - 9 0 ) . They s ing of Ate who began i t a l l (npuxapxav arnv 1 1 9 2 ) "and i n turn vent t h e i r loath ing upon the one who tramples on h i s brother ' s bed" ( 1 1 9 2 - 9 3 ) . There i s a c lear a s soc ia t ion between the past s ins and those of Agamemnon's, whose own mind i s deluded by "a madness that began the woe" ( n o p o K j n a npuTdnn/>wv 2 2 3 ) . His s i n i n the carpet-scene i s of the same character as that of Thyestes, who also tramples down what i s sacred (T W I naT3 u vxi 1 1 9 3 ) . With prophet ic c l a r i t y , Cassandra sees the s i n and fate of Agamemnon i n the l i g h t of the past . His s i n i s both of h i s own choosing and a r e s u l t of a hered i tary ethos. In the second stasimon, the idea of i n h e r i t e d ethos i s represented by the birth-metaphor. Hybris begets h y b r i s . As we examine the genealogica l record of hybr i s i n d e t a i l , we discover that the text of the strophe ( 7 6 3 - 7 1 ) i s cons iderably c o r r u p t . According to Page's text , the daemon of l i n e 7 6 8 i s a separate f igure from the "younger h y b r i s . " It re fers to Ate of l i n e 7 7 0 . The genealogical development of the passage would be l o s t i f we take &oa/vd\>ct and a l l that fol lows i n appos i t ion to U 3 P 1 ^ ( 7 6 6 ) . ^ I t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine how hybr i s and Ate could be one and the same t h i n g . What we have, rather , i s the t r a d i t i o n a l a s soc ia t ion between the two, where excess (hybris ) leads to "ruin" f a T r i ) . Furthermore, we have seen that impiety produces many - 45 -c h i l d r e n af ter i t . In a sense, then, what we have here i s the genealogical record of the abundant o f f s p r i n g of impiety. Since the strophe i s a development of the ant i s t rophe , the " i r r e s i s t i b l e daemon" born of hybr i s i s i d e n t i c a l to the " insa t ia te woe" that springs from impiety ( 7 5 6 ) . In t h i s case, Ate acquires the sense of "ruin" 54 and i s qu i te d i s t i n c t i n meaning from h y b r i s . However, as metaphor, Ate resembles her parent i n character [z\&b(Jtvao xaKEyaiv 7 7 1 ) . This resemblance i s emphasized by the p e r i p h r a s i s for her name, oviepav Bpaaba //eXa(vacr eSfxaa ( 7 6 9 - 7 0 ) . I t i s i n her over-weening boldness that the Ate most resembles her parent, ©pooracr and uPpia are c l o s e l y l inked i n meaning. The hybr i s of Uranus i s seen i n h i s swel l ing boldness (nappaxux Bpdaz\ 0 p y w v 1 6 9 ) . The hybris ot Agamemnon i s d i sp layed i n h i s excessive th inking (xa novxaxaX/>av • paveiv 2 2 1 ) and bold i n f a t u a t i o n : Qpbxbuv ©poffyvei yap a i c r X P d'^nxier x a X o a v a n a p o K j n a npuxanr^wv ( 2 2 2 - 2 3 ) . The language used t o descr ibe Agamemnon's i n f a t u a t i o n suggests the "unholy boldness" that charac ter i zes Ate . a\>\epav Qpaabo ( 7 6 4 ) c l e a r l y r e c a l l s a\>\ep&\>. . . e p a a u v £ i of the parodos. His hybr i s s o o n turns to a des truc t ion ( a x n ) , equal ly b o l d . Agamemnon i s k i l l e d by Clytemestra, who i s h e r s e l f compared to Ate ( 1 2 2 9 - 3 0 ) . Like Agamemnon, she i s bold i n character (xaiayxa xaX^oi 1 2 3 1 ) , reckless i n nature (h navxaxaX/vacf 1 2 3 7 ) and breathes f o r t h Ares upon her loved ones (opn $;Xaiff nveauaav 1 2 3 5 - 3 6 c f . 4 8 ) . The bold murderer becomes b o l d l y murdered. In genealogical terms, the metaphor expresses t h i s idea of " l ike for l i k e . " hybr is begets Ate who resembles her parents . - 46 -No gnomic d i s q u i s i t i o n on hybris would be complete without a cons iderat ion of the t r a d i t i o n a l contrast with Dike. The f i n a l ant is trophe i s an expansion of the theme of the "jus t -ab id ing house" (aitcwv, E U G U S I K U V 7 6 1 - 6 2 ) , i n the same way as the strophe was a development of the theme of "impiety begett ing more impiety" ( 7 5 8 - 6 0 ) . ^ What q u a l i f i e s a household as jus t i s s p e c i f i e d , but i n a rather unusual and paradoxica l way. What we would expect to be a house blessed by Dike i s not . She frequents the most u n l i k e l y p laces : "she shines wi th in sooty dwell ings" ( 7 7 2 - 7 3 ) , but departs from mansions g l i t t e r i n g with gold ( 7 7 6 - 7 8 ) . The paradox i s one of outward and inward appearances. "Man looketh upon the outward appearance but God upon the heart ." Although a house may outwardly shine, inwardly i t may not . There may be f i l t h upon the hands. A man's p r o s p e r i t y i s no gauge for measuring h i s moral i n t e g r i t y . What does count i s the jus t l i f e ( E v a i ' a ^ y j v ( 3 \ & v 7 7 5 - 7 6 ) . ^ I t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine exact ly what i\>a(a\fjba means. It i s glossed in Tr as T d v i i K a i d v . The moral sense of the word i s understood from the a n t i t h e s i s that fol lows in a\jv n\\ut\ xcpwv, a metaphor for impiety and p o l l u t i o n . The fac t that Dike leaves with her eyes averted and seeks what i s holy re in forces the r e l i g i o u s overtone. In one sense then, E v o i a i ^ J a 3 \ & a i s the opposite of &\jaozfir\a P i & c . However, e v o a a i / y d a may r e t a i n some of i t s t r a d i t i o n a l meaning of "due measure." I t i s p r e c i s e l y i n t h i s sense that Agamemnon uses the word, when he bids Clytemestra to pra i se him i n a manner that i s proper and in due measure ( E V O U I W aive'iv 9 1 6 ) , and forb ids her to pamper him as a woman ( 9 1 8 ) , to t rea t him as a barbar ian ( 9 1 9 ) , or to spread garments over h i s pathway ( 9 2 1 ) . A l l these tokens of pra i se bear the mark of excess and, as we have learned, excessive pra i se i s - 47 -dangerous ( 4 6 8 - 6 9 ) . Agamemnon i s wel l aware that such pra i se i n c i t e s the envy of Gods ( 9 2 1 ) . What i s f i t t i n g i s pra i se in moderation. So then, the l i f e that i s e v a i a i ^ a a i s one that never exceeds the bounds of what i s r i g h t and proper. It i s t h i s l i f e that Dike honours. In contrast the theme of "excess" i s touched upon i n the second h a l f of the ant is trophe ( 7 7 6 - 8 1 ) . "Dike does not reverence the power of wealth f a l s e l y stamped with pra i se": &u\iot//iv a u azQbyjaa. n\b()Xb\} napdarwbv a i v u i ( 7 7 9 - 8 0 ) . This thought forms the contrast to "Dike honours the l i f e of due measure." In l o g i c a l contras t , the wealth not honoured by Dike exceeds the bounds of what i s r ight and proper. To be f a l s e l y stamped with p r a i s e , then, i s to receive more pra i se than one's mortal s t a t i o n and one's r e a l worth deserve. A man's wealth often b e l i e s h i s moral i n t e g r i t y . There i s often f i l t h upon hands, p o l l u t i o n wi th in the house. Again the Chorus make the t r a d i t i o n a l a s soc ia t ion between excessive wealth, symbolized here by the golden mansions, and wrong-doing, which i s symbolized by the s o i l e d hands. In acqu ir ing h i s wealth, the unjust man steps beyond the bounds of what i s proper and r i g h t and commits s i n . With these remarks, the Chorus answer what could be an u n s e t t l i n g quest ion: why do the wicked prosper? The answer i s , they d o n ' t . In f a c t , the Chorus may be chal leng ing any such moral i ty that would suggest that the just are always r i c h and prosperous. As we have seen, a man's wealth i s no rea l measure of h i s r ighteousness . J u s t i c e even res ides i n the decrep i t shambles of the poor. The Chorus are emphatic, though, that the house where - 48 -j u s t i c e abides i s blessed with a f a i r fortune {Ka\\\na\a nit/jbo). But in what sense could a man's dest iny be f a i r i f he i s poor? Real prosper i ty i s not defined i n terms of wealth and r iches alone. As Herodotus' Solon says, "a very wealthy man i s not more blessed (oXBioixepda) than the one who has enough for the day" (Hdt. 1 . 3 2 . 5 ) . Misfortune can f a l l upon the r i c h and poor a l i k e . What rea l p r o s p e r i t y i s the Chorus do not say. Perhaps they bel ieve with Solon that a blessed man i s one who l i v e s and ends h i s l i f e happi ly (Hdt. 1 . 3 2 . 7 ) . This i s the d e f i n i t i o n of p r o s p e r i t y Agamemnon i r o n i c a l l y gives jus t before he i s led o f f to h i s death by Clytemestra dXfliffcti i c xph P i&v xcXeuTriffavT' cv EutaTM • i X r n ( 9 2 8 - 2 9 ) . "Count no man happy u n t i l he ends his l i f e i n welcome prosper i ty" seems to be the t r u t h confirmed by Agamemnon's v i o l e n t death. Presented with the p o s s i b i l i t y that Agamemnon may be murdered, the Chorus themselves adopt the same a t t i t u d e . At the end of Cassandra's prophecy, the Chorus f i n a l l y recognize that Agamemnon's l i f e i s in danger ( 1 3 3 1 - 4 2 ) . Although the gods have granted him Troy and a safe re turn , there i s s t i l l the p o s s i b i l i t y of h i s dy ing . The c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s u n s e t t l i n g to them. If Agamemnon must pay with h i s own l i f e for the blood of those who have died beforehand ( 1 3 3 8 - 4 0 ) , "what man could boast that he i s born with a dest iny free from harm?" ( x u &v e £ e u £ a i T d (3pox2\> a a i v e T &a\(jb\\ • y V a i ) 1 3 4 1 - 4 2 ) . His death w i l l b e l i e the fact that he was prosperous. "Count no man happy u n t i l h i s death" i s the only conc lus ion they can draw. However, what Herodotus leaves to the whim of chance (TuXri) i n determining a man's fate and des t iny , Aeschylus assigns to r\9ia. The character a man i n h e r i t s from his parents decides the road of des t iny he chooses. - 49 -In the t h i r d stasimon, the second strophe ( 1 0 0 1 - 1 7 ) forms the main gnomic sec t ion of the ode. It i s marked o f f by c l ear r ing-compos i t ion . The c o l l o c a t i o n of words n&XXSff xbi...\babe i s repeated at the end of the strophe i n n d X X a -ed! . . .v&ffdv. The xb\, which i s not iceably absent i n other gnomic sect ions of the p lay , here s igna l s to the reader that the Chorus i s enter ing a r e f l e c t i v e mode.^ 7 The subject of the gnomes i s excess and moderation. This i s emphasized by the r e p e t i t i o n of words suggesting t h i s idea (/yaXa 1 0 0 1 ; n d X X a V 1 0 0 1 ; b<vb<i 1 0 0 9 ; t^ntxpb\) 1 0 1 0 ; n\X\apb\aa ylfjuiM o y a v 1 0 1 2 ) . Whereas i n the previous odes the Chorus emphasized the inescapable punishment which re su l t s from excess, now they s tress that i t i s remediable. From the dangers of c e r t a i n excesses an escape can be found through moderation. As we s h a l l see, t h i s thought forms an important contrast to the second ant i s trophe where the irredeemable nature of death i s emphasized. The Chorus begin with a medical analogy to express t h e i r ideas on the theme of excess. It i s common i n gnomes to draw on a v a r i e t y of images and analogies to express a s ing le theme. So here, the Chorus begin with a medical image, then s h i f t to n a u t i c a l imagery and conclude with an a l l u s i o n to a g r i c u l t u r e . Each suggests something on the theme of excess. However, exact ly what i s suggested by the medical analogy i s not c e r t a i n . According 58 to Denniston-Page, the text i s "incurably corrupt" at l i n e s 1 0 0 1 - 2 2 . There i s no metr i ca l responsion between the strophe and ant is trophe at the beginning. The soundness i n the meter and text of the ant is trophe suggests that the corrupt ion l i e s i n the strophe. "That good heal th has i t s l i m i t and when c u l t i v a t e d to extremes turns to i l l - h e a l t h , " seems to be the g i s t of - 50 -what the Chorus i s saying: pd\a yap t j i xaa naXXaff vyizxaa/aKbpzoxbv x i p p a ' \baba r a p / Y E i T w v a/vdTdiXaff epei&e\ ( 1 0 0 1 - 0 4 ) . The substance of the image comes from a common medical theory that "good condi t ion ing at i t s peak i s 59 dangerous, i f i t has gone to extremes" (Hippocrates, Aphorisms 1 . 3 ) . The point being made by the analogy i s that excess i s harmful . Th i s i s consonant with what i s suggested below and elsewhere: too many possessions w i l l lead to the s ink ing of the ship ( 1 0 1 1 - 1 2 ) . Too much praise i s dangerous ( 4 6 8 - 6 9 ) . Yet, o K a ' p E f f x a f f ( 1 0 0 1 ) poses some problem to our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , unless the Chorus i s a c t u a l l y suggesting that man cannot have enough of a good th ing . No one can have too much good health because s ickness always presses in ( 1 0 0 4 ) . No one can have too much good fortune because of the constant misfortune of l i f e . This idea ant i c ipa te s what the Chorus w i l l say i n regard to Agamemnon. Although he has been blessed by the gods with a safe return ( 1 3 3 5 - 3 7 ) , s t i l l , death threatens. Consequently, the Chorus conclude that man cannot have enough of good fortune: xb pzv C y n p a a a c i v a e K d p e a T a v J<L$\j T T o a i f3p a x e-Taw ( 1 3 3 1 - 3 2 ) . No one bars i t from the door, saying "don't come in" ( 1 3 3 - 3 5 ) . aKbpzaxba i s used in p r e c i s e l y the same sense i n both p laces . The two passages are s t r i k i n g l y p a r a l l e l in thought. The Chorus begin the t h i r d stasimon by expressing t h e i r secret fears for Agamemnon's safe ty . "A f r i g h t constant ly f l u t t e r s before t h e i r prophet ic heart" ( 9 7 5 - 7 7 ) . Although they have witnessed with t h e i r own eyes the safe home-coming of t h e i r king ( 9 8 8 - 8 9 ) , "their heart wi th in sings the unwelcome dirge of an Erinys" ( 9 9 0 - 9 1 ) . This c o n t r a d i c t i o n between what i s a c t u a l l y seen and what i s foreboded p a r a l l e l s the c o n f l i c t i n g emotions the Chorus f e e l - 51 -after Cassandra's prophecy. In both places they form the same conc lus ion: man cannot have enough of good fortune. In the t h i r d stasimon good hea l th i s a metaphor for good fortune and sickness for misfortune. At l i n e 1 0 0 4 , the Chorus s h i f t from medical to n a u t i c a l imagery. In the f i r s t part of the image ( 1 0 0 5 - 7 ) , the Chorus describe the uncer ta in ty of human fortune, emphasized by the unseen reef upon which a ship s t r i k e s . Even though a man's dest iny (nbxpba) may s a i l s t r a i g h t on course, i t can founder upon the reef of unexpected d i s a s t e r . nixpbo € u © v n & P w v r e c a l l s nbxpba Z\>Q\)1>(KUV of the second stasimon. The echo may suggest that the verb Z\)Q\jT\bptu has a d i s t i n c t i v e l y moral meaning and does not s imply mean "unswerving." We can compare P indar ' s seventh Olympian for a s i m i l a r use of the word and comparable t h e o l o g i c a l ideas . There Pindar s tates that Diagoras "keeps a s t r a i g h t course along the path that abhors hybr i s" : E T T E I v&p\ba cX©pav didv e u e undpe7 ( 9 1 - 9 2 ) . ^ But despite Diagoras' upr ight walk, unexpected misfortune can s t r i k e . The breezes of calamity s h i f t r a p i d l y from one d i r e c t i o n to another: E V i t p\a\ pb\pa\ Xp&vdu a X X a f cxXX&Tai i i a i 9 \ j a a & i a i v a u p a i ( 9 4 - 9 5 ) . In man's a l l o t t e d por t ion of time, fortune changes from good to bad. These p a r a l l e l s confirm that i n gnomic d iscourse Eu9\jn&pEW was commonly understood i n a moral sense, and that i t was commonly bel ieved that calamity struck suddenly and unexpectedly even the j u s t . Yet such misfortune i s not i r r e v o c a b l e . "Through well-measured j e t t i s o n s of a part (xb ptv) of the possessions, the house does not sink under the burden of a s u r f e i t of wealth ( 1 0 0 7 - 1 2 ) . The image of a crew - 52 -caut ious ly (aKvaa) throwing overboard i t s excess cargo becomes a metaphor for moderation. Through moderation, the sens ib le man can r ight the wrongs caused by excess. Disaster teaches him that there i s no defense i n a s u r f e i t of wealth (c f . 3 8 0 - 8 4 ) , only i n moderation. He w i l l i n g l y parts with some of h i s possessions i n order to save h i s house. Denniston-Page exp la in the meaning of eu/>€TpoU ; because jus t the r ight measure, ne i ther more nor l e s s , should be j e t t i s o n e d . " ^ This idea continues the thought from Hippocrates , where not only excessive good-health i s considered dangerous but i t s reduct ion when taken to extremes (Aphorisms, 1 . 3 ) . I f too much of the cargo i s tossed overboard, the ship w i l l caps ize . Again the idea of caut ion and moderation underscores the imagery. That misfortune can be remedied i s emphasized as we l l i n the f i n a l gnome of the strophe. Famine can be averted by an ample g i f t from the hands of Zeus ( 1 0 1 5 - 1 8 ) . The suggestion that Zeus grants r e l i e f from d i s a s t e r marks a d e f i n i t e departure i n a t t i t u d e from the f i r s t stasimon, where the gods do not heed the prayers of the unjust , but tear him down ( 3 9 6 - 9 8 ) . The gods respond d i f f e r e n t l y because of the d i f f e r e n t character d i sp layed by each. The man of the f i r s t stasimon i s regarded as unjust (o&iKdv 3 9 8 ) . He i s the t h r a l l of s u r f e i t ; he i s b l inded by Ate and has committed s a c r i l e g e at the a l t a r of Dike. But here the man i s character ized as j u s t . He d i r e c t s the course of h i s dest iny along a s t r a i g h t path; he exerc ises caut ion and moderation, and he recognizes the f o l l y of excess. Consequently, the gods respond to h i s prayer for help and rescue him from h i s t roub le . - 53 -However, there i s one excess from which man cannot escape. The unjust man of the f i r s t stasimon can f i n d no remedy because of the countless murders he commits. The gods do not overlook those who shed much blood (461-62). Death marks the point of no re turn; i t i s the one th ing that cannot be remedied. This point i s made c l ear at the beginning of the f i n a l ant i s trophe: Td 6 ' E T T I yav nealv anaS ©avaffiA/ov nponap avSpdff ptXav ciipa Tiff av TtaXiv ayKaXeffaiT* ETiaei&uv; "once blood has f a l l e n upon the ground, who can c a l l i t up again?" The answer to the quest ion comes i n the a l l u s i o n to the myth of A s c l e p i u s . That death i s an i rrevocab le fac t i s confirmed when Zeus prevents Asc lep ius from r a i s i n g the dead (1022-24). By d iv ine w i l l , the l i m i t of excess i s f ixed at k i l l i n g (cf . Eum. 647-51). Once a man has stepped beyond these bounds and committed murder, he cannot escape. He cannot c a l l up the dead and r i g h t h i s wrongs. Every remedy proves, at t h i s p o i n t , v a i n . The Chorus's quest ion an t i c ipa te s Choephori , where the theme of bloodshed and the motif of "blood upon the ground" i s f u l l y developed. In the parodos, the Chorus of s lave g i r l s ask much the same quest ion as the Chorus of e lders do: T I yap X^TpoV nzobwbo axpaxba nc&di; (Cho. 48). The ir quest ion i s answered by the events of the drama. The Chorus i s dispatched by Clytemestra to o f fer l i b a t i o n s to the dead Agamemnon. Yet the o f f er ings and 62 incanta t ions , intended to appease h i s wrath, have the opposite e f f e c t . Orestes i s roused to vengeance and the Queen i s put to death by her own son. The t r u t h of what the Chorus of e lders i s saying i n Agamemnon i s confirmed. No atonement can be found for s p i l t b lood. Incantations (cnatiSuM) cannot ra i se the dead. They can only arouse i t s wrath. - 54 -The dilemma of what atones for blood leads the Chorus of s l a v e - g i r l s to conclude that blood alone atones for blood: a X X a vtpha pzv Qbvxaa axotydvotcr XvfJtvaa neiav a X X o npboa\xz'\\> aifja (Cho. 4 0 0 - 0 2 ) . "Once blood has been s p i l t upon the ground i t demands more b lood ." I t demands something equal ly irredeemable to compensate. I t demands more b lood. This i s the d i r e c t i o n i n which the e l d e r s ' thoughts are a l so l e a d i n g . Faced with the r e a l i t y of Agamemnon's death, they too can only conclude " l ike for l i k e " ( 1 5 6 0 - 6 4 ) . "Like for l i k e " becomes the d r i v i n g p r i n c i p l e of Choephori and Agamemnon. We conclude our d i scuss ion with a look at the f i n a l kommos of Agamemnon, where the gnome i s f u l l y formulated, presented to us i n terms of a curse , fate and the j u s t i c e of Zeus. Agamemnon's death, which c l e a r l y exemplif ies the law of " l ike for l i k e , " throughout the kommos i s a t t r i b u t e d to some e v i l s p i r i t haunting the house. As we have already seen, the daemon represents in supernatural terms what ethos represents i n b i o l o g i c a l terms. The "Alastor of A t r e u s , " the "kindred Erinyes" and "inher i ted ethos" are a l l expressions of the curse . Agamemnon k i l l s Iphigenia because of the e v i l s t r a i n he receives at b i r t h . Clytemestra murders Agamemnon because the "Alastor of Atreus" has assumed her body ( 1 5 0 0 f . ) . The two ideas are too c l o s e l y interwoven to be separated. Like a bad gene, the curse i s transmitted through the fami ly l i n e ; as an e v i l s p i r i t , i t continues to haunt the house, encouraging each generation to murder. Always underly ing the curse i s the idea of " l ike for l i k e . " The A l a s t o r that springs from Atreus , "the c r u e l f eas ter ," repeats the act i n each generat ion. In s a c r i f i c i n g Iphigenia , Agamemnon imi tates h i s f a t h e r ' s - 55 -s i n . But along with s i n , Agamemnon i n h e r i t s the g u i l t . The daemon of Atreus punishes him by "offer ing him up as a fu l l -grown s a c r i f i c e " ( T & V £ ' anexeiaev xeXebN) v e a p d i a eniGuaoa 1503-04). Agamemnon receives " l ike for l i k e . " As a curse , " l ike for l i k e " i s assoc iated with the E r i n y e s . This a s soc ia t ion i s c l e a r l y expressed i n Eumenides, where the Er inyes become the ch i e f advocates of the law. The connection i s h inted at i n Agamemnon by the household A l a s t o r who embodies the curse of A t r e u s . Another important f igure associated with the law of " l ike for l i k e " and the Erinyes i s Moira . There i s one place in the kommos where the connection i s c l e a r l y brought out: A I K O 6 'in' "aXXa npay//a Gryy - E T a i (3Xa0aa npSa ^otXXctiff 9r)Yavaia\ /v&ipaff (1535-36). There i s some confusion i n the manuscripts . It i s d i f f i c u l t to decide whether / / J i p o of the manuscripts should be reta ined and A\KC< and Qr\yzxa\ a l t er e d to AiKaa and GhYavei according ly (c f . Fraenke l ' s t e x t ) . We can look to a p a r a l l e l passage in Choephori for poss ib le suggestions. There, des t iny (Aisa) i s seen forging the sword of vengeance on the a n v i l of j u s t i c e : A\Kao &' epei&e-tciY n^Qfj^ , npbXaXKt^tx &' a\aa taayavbuPYba (646-47 ) . So here i t i s more l i k e l y that Moira , an equivalent f igure to A i s a , a c t i v e l y sharpens Dike, the law of vengeance, "upon d i f f e r e n t whetstones for d i f f e r e n t deeds of harm." The gnomic passage c a r r i e s a c l ear suggestion of " l ike for l i k e . " GfiYavri i s a rare word i n the O r e s t e i a ; i t only occurs elsewhere i n Eumenides, where i t i s used metaphorical ly i n the sense of " incent ive ." Athena bids the Fur ies not to cast incent ives for bloodshed upon her c i t i z e n s (Eum., 858-59). - 56 -In view of Agamemnon's murder, the idea of bloodshed i s prominent here. With each act of bloodshed, Moira i n c i t e s Dike to a corresponding deed of harm. Each murder proves an incent ive for the next. The cxXXa-oXXd combination dr ives home the notion of " l ike for l i k e " now seen as an e terna l p r i n c i p l e of fate that has become a law of j u s t i c e (Dike) . When the gnome i s f i n a l l y formulated ( 1 5 6 0 - 6 6 ) , i t i s presented i n terms of the curse , fa te , and the j u s t i c e of Zeus. In the case of Agamemnon, the Chorus conclude that "reproach has met reproach;" "the plunderer has been plundered;" the murderer, murdered." "The doer must s u f f e r , " i s seen as an eternal law i r r e v o c a b l y f i x e d . "As long as Zeus remains upon the throne, i t remains": fj\(jvz\ It £ I I £ / V O \ > T & < T evepdvon Aida naeelv tdv ep^avTa" Qzofjxbv yap ( 1 5 6 3 - 6 4 ) . As an "abiding order" (Qzopbo),63 " l ike for l i k e " supersedes even the j u s t i c e of Zeus. This i s c l e a r from Prometheus, where Zeus himsel f i s bound to fa te , the necess i ty of s u f f e r i n g " l ike for l i k e . " As we hear from the E r i n y e s ; t h i s ordinance, the o f f i c e of avenging the dead, has been ordained by fate (zpbQ K X U W V Qzaybv x d v / /Mp d K p e x v x d v Eum. 3 9 1 - 9 2 ) . Yet i t s a s soc ia t ion with Zeus i s c l e a r . As long as Zeus i s on the throne, " l ike for l i k e " abides as an e terna l law. The law of fate i s now incorporated in to the dispensat ion of Zeus. Elsewhere i n the p lay , Zeus i s seen as the a l l -encompassing one, responsible for a l l , doer of a l l ( 1 4 8 5 - 8 6 ) . These words are spoken i n regard to Agamemnon's death. As i n the events of A u l i s , the Chorus see Zeus behind what has jus t happened. The law of " l ike for l i k e " which Agamemnon's death exemplif ies must sure ly be a t t r i b u t e d to Zeus as w e l l . "For what i s f u l f i l l e d among men without Zeus?" "What i s not ordained - 5 7 -by God ( 1 4 8 7 - 8 8 ) ? " Agamemnon must suffer the consequences of h i s a c t i o n s . Such i s the abid ing law of fate and Zeus' j u s t i c e . /yeveiv i s a l so used by Aeschylus to descr ibe the abid ing consequences of the curse wi th in the race of A t r e u s . ^ The "kindred Erinyes" remain wi th in the house and cannot be dr ive out ( 1 1 8 9 - 9 1 ) . The Chorus do not conclude the passage without some a l l u s i o n to the curse . "Who can expel the seed of a curse from the house?" ( x i a a v Y & V O ^ a p o T a v E K P O X & I Sd / ;u\>i; 1 5 6 5 ) . The obvious answer i s no one. "The race i s glued to des truct ion" (KEKbXXrtToi ycvoff npba atod 1 5 6 6 ) . Since the law of " l ike for l i k e " i s seen e x c l u s i v e l y in terms of the family and the r e t r i b u t i o n one family member exacts from another, i t i s natura l to see i t as a curse . That t h i s curse i s c a r r i e d in the family seed i s here suggested by ybvav; t h i s r e c a l l s the b ir th - imagery of the second stasimon, a metaphor for i n h e r i t e d s i n . The s i n f u l nature that Agamemnon receives by b i r t h from h i s father he transmits to h i s son. Orestes murders Clytemestra; she receives her due. The inexorable law of " l i k e for l ike" i s f u l f i l l e d by the curse wi th in the fami ly . - 58 -NOTES FOR CHAPTER I Eduard Fraenke l , Agamemnon (Oxford: At The Clarendon Press , 1 9 5 0 ) , I I , p . 1 1 2 . I b i d . The text , unless otherwise s p e c i f i e d , i s from Denys Page, A e s c h y l i  Tragoediae (Oxford: At The Clarendon Press , 1 9 7 2 ) . The future p a r t i c i p l e ( e r i f f u v ) with a verb of motion [niuncx 6 1 ) ind ica te s purpose. Herbert Smyth, Greek Grammar (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1 9 6 3 ) , 3 d ed. , s e c . 2 0 6 5 , p . 4 8 5 . (See Fraenke l ' s t r a n s l a t i o n , I , p . 1 0 5 . ) The subject of bpyao a x e v c i a i s unexpressed. Whose passion i s i t ? The gods'? Denniston-Page, Agamemnon (Oxford: At The Clarendon Press , 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 7 5 . There maybe a poss ib le reference to Artemis who u n y i e l d i n g l y demands the s a c r i f i c e of Iphigenia. bpyt) l a t e r i s echoed i n the parodos in connection with the s a c r i f i c e she demands: na\jaavtfjb\j yap G u f f i a f f / n c < p 6 E v i a \ j 9'axpaxba bp-yax nzpxbpyux a $ ' e n i e v / ^ E v v QCfjxa ( 2 1 4 - 1 7 ) . The emphatic doubl ing of ipya'x n e p i & p Y W i suggests the "re lent less passion and anger" of the gods. That Artemis i s the subject of inx&v/jcxv cannot be ruled out . She i s angry ( 1 3 1 ) and her name has been sounded as the cause of the dilemma ( n p a + e p u v a p x e/vi\>). That Qtfjxa pos s ib ly plays on her name, further suggest Artemis as the subject . See, R . P . Winnington-Ingram, Studies in Aeschylus (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1 9 8 3 ) , p p . 8 4 - 8 5 . For contrary views, c f . Fraenke l , I I , p p . 1 2 4 - 2 6 ; K . J . Dover, "Some Neglected Aspects of Agamemnon's Dilemma" JHS, 93 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 6 4 - 6 5 ; Mark Edwards, "Agamemnon's Dec i s ion: Freedom and F o l l y i n Aeschylus" C a l i f o r n i a  Studies i n C l a s s i c a l A n t i q u i t y , 1 0 , ( 1 9 7 8 ) 2 5 ; N . G . L . Hammond, "Personal Freedom and Its L i m i t a t i o n s i n the O r e s t e i a , " JHS, 8 5 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , 4 7 . It i s a l so poss ib le to speak of fate (xd n c n p o o / v c v a M ) as unbending and u n y i e l d i n g . The Greeks t r a d i o n a l l y saw fate as a r i g i d necess i ty from which man could not escape. oxeveTa appropr ia te ly describes the Erinyes as w e l l . In Eumenides they r e l e n t l e s s l y pursue Orestes . Their connection with the j u s t i c e of Zeus i s suggested here in the v u l t u r e - s i m i l e . Zeus dispatches them against Troy i n the form of the A t r e i d a e . The ir passion for vengeance i s not e a s i l y p a c i f i e d . The l i b a t i o n s sent by Clytemestra f a i l to appease the dead Agamemnon and his avenging E r i n y e s . She i s k i l l e d by Orestes . I t seems that no form of s a c r i f i c e can appease t h e i r r e l e n t l e s s pass ion . - 59 -For the actual placement of the Hymn within the parodos, see R.D. Dawe, "The Place of the Hymn to Zeus in Aeschylus' Agamemnon," Eranos, 64 (1966), 1-21, who rejects the t r a d i t i o n a l order; c f . L e i f Bergson, "The Hymn to Zeus i n Aeschylus' Agamemnon," Eranos, 65 (1967), 12-24, who accepts the t r a d i t i o n a l placement. Since the accusative object and dat ive of comparison i s l e f t unexpressed for np bat\Kaoa.\, some take the verb to mean "to guess" or "to conjecture ." However, i t s use elsewhere in the p lay c l e a r l y suggests comparison: & u KbpixdaaXfj' a\> BtoQaTuv yvuvuv a t c pba/t i v a i , Kaicuh &e T W I rip boe iKa£w T a i t (1130-31). The Chorus are not experts i n prophecy, but they understand that something bad i s foreboded by Cassandra. "I l i k e n these words of yours to some e v i l " i s the c l ear meaning. But, in the parodos, what and to what are the Chorus comparing? Within the context , i t i s c l e a r l y the s a c r i f i c e of Iphigenia they are comparing to Zeus. They can only understand what happened at A u l i s in reference to him. They cannot compare the death of Iphigenia to anything e lse but Zeus. nXnv Aida serves as the dat ive to which something i s compared. If one t r u l y wants to remove the burden of the heart , compare a l l to Zeus. For a d e t a i l e d study of npbot\Kar,u, see Peter Smith, On the Hymn to Zeus i n  Aeschylus' Agamemnon, (Ann Arbor: Edwards Brothers , I n c . , 1980), pp.7-14. Both Fraenke l , I I , pp.101-02 and Denniston-Page, pp.83-84, take du&ev as the understood object of comparison "I cannot compare anything to Zeus." Zeus balances everything i n the scale (ndvx' inxaxaBfjuttJZvba). navxa i s a key word. That Zeus i s the sum of a l l i s too s o p h i s t i c a thought for Aeschylus . However, the poet i s not far from the idea when he says Zeus i s responsible for a l l , the doer of a l l : & i a \ A l d < r / n a V a l T i d y r t a v e p y C T a / T l yap PpbXbxo a\>Cu Alda T e X e ? T a l ; T l TwvS ' b{) eedKpavxdv ecfxiv; (1485-88). The thoughts in the two passages are p a r a l l e l . Zeus i s responsible for Agamemnon's as we l l as Iphigenia 's death. avcy Aider p a r a l l e l s nXnv Aid'cr. What i s there without Zeus? What i s there to compare to except Zeus? Everything i s through Zeus ( i i a i Aid'cr). He i s the d i a . The d i f f e r e n t prepos i t ions emphasize the al l -completeness of Zeus. The pun on Zeus' name (S ia \ Ai&'cr), the play on the d i f f e r e n t p r e p o s i t i o n s , the r e p e t i t i o n of rrSS) emphasizing t h i s al l -completeness of Zeus are the types of word play i n the gnomes of Aeschylus . For the view that the Hymn does not a l lude to the success ion myth, see A . J . Bea t t i e , "Aeschylus, Agamemnon 160-83," CQ, ns . 5 (1955), 13-28. "Like for l i k e " i s c o n s i s t e n t l y represented in Prometheus and the Oreste ia as a r i g i d p r i n c i p l e of fate or necess i ty , and a law of the Erinyes c l o s e l y t i e d to the curse wi th in a fami ly . I t predates the dispensat ion of Zeus and the law of "learning through s u f f e r i n g . " That law arose subsequently from Zeus' own experience with the necess i ty of fa te . In Eumenides, the t r i a l of Orestes represents at - 60 -t h e i d e o l o g i c a l l e v e l a c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e t w o l a w s , b e t w e e n t h e E r i n y e s , who r i g i d l y d e m a n d " l i k e f o r l i k e , " a n d A t h e n a , who r e p r e s e n t s Zeus a n d h i s c i v i l i z i n g l a w . W i n n i n g t o n - I n g r a m , S t u d i e s i n A e s c h y l u s ( C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 8 3 ) , p . 1 7 7 . W i l l i a m C. G r e e n e , M o i r a ; F a t e , G o o d a n d E v i l i n G r e e k T h o u g h t (New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 1 2 3 . T h i s a s s u m e s t h a t t h e l o s t L u o m e n o s f o r m e d t h e s e q u e l t o D e s m o t e s . T h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d e b a t e w h e t h e r t h e P r o m e t h e u s s t o r y f o r m e d a t r i l o g y o r " d i l o g y , " o r e v e n w h e t h e r D e s m o t e s s h o u l d b e r e g a r d e d a s j u s t a m o n o d r a m a . Y e t , a p l a y t h a t p r e s e n t s a n i r r e c o n c i l a b l e c o n f l i c t a n d h i n t s a t f i n a l r e s o l u t i o n d e m a n d s a s e q u e l n o l e s s t h a n Agamemnon. W i n n i n g t o n - I n g r a m , p . 1 8 5 . T h e m i s r e v e a l e d t o P r o m e t h e u s t h a t i n b a t t l e b e t w e e n t h e T i t a n s a n d Zeus, t h e v i c t o r w o u l d p r e v a i l , n o t t h r o u g h f o r c e , b u t g u i l e . (u<x a u t c a T ' iffXuv o u i e TTpda xi K a p T E p d v / X p e i r t , 6 a X w i &E xb\)a vj nEP f fXavToa K p a r e i v 2 1 2 - 1 3 ) . I t s e e m s t h a t Zeus m u s t r e l e a r n t h i s t r u t h t h a t k n o w l e d g e a l o n g w i t h f o r c e i s n e e d e d . D e c e i t i s a f o r m o f k n o w l e d g e t h a t i s p o s i t i v e l y e x p r e s s e d i n P e i t h o . D e c e i t may h a v e w o r k e d o n t h e o t h e r T i t a n s b u t g e n u i n e p e r s u a s i o n i s n e e d e d f o r P r o m e t h e u s . T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m d e c e i t t o p e r s u a s i o n i s p a r a l l e d i n t h e O r e s t e i a . C l y t e m e s t r a u s e s g u i l e to p e r s u a d e Agamemnon t o t r a m p l e t a p e s t r i e s a n d e n t e r t o h i s d e a t h . H o w e v e r , h e r v i c t o r y d o e s n o t s t o p t h e c y c l e o f b l o o d s h e d ; i t o n l y p r e c i p i t a t e s i t . O n l y A t h e n a ' s p e r s u a d i n g o f t h e E r i n y e s s t o p s t h e v i o l e n c e a n d r e s o l v e s t h e c o n f l i c t . " P e r s u a s i o n " i s a t h e m e w o r k e d o u t i n P r o m e t h e u s B o u n d a l o n g s i d e t h e t h e m e o f " l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g . " T h a t t h e n a t u r e o f Zeus e v o l v e s a n d c h a n g e s , o r a t l e a s t A e s c h y l u s ' c o n c e p t i o n o f h i m e v o l v e s f r o m P r o m e t h e u s t o O r e s t e i a , s e e G.M.A. G r u b e , "Zeus i n A e s c h y l u s , " AJP, 91 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 4 3 - 5 1 . For t h e c o n t r a r y v i e w , c f . Hugh L l o y d - J o n e s , "Zeus i n A e s c h y l u s , " JHS, 76 ( 1 9 5 6 ) , 5 5 - 6 7 ; a n d L l o y d - J o n e s , The J u s t i c e o f Zeus ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Press , 1 9 8 3 ) , 2 d e d . , p p . 9 5 - 9 6 . W i n n i n g t o n - I n g r a m , p . 1 8 6 . T h i s i s a l s o t r u e o f O r e s t e i a a n d e s p e c i a l l y o f E u m e n i d e s . A t h e n a a t t r i b u t e s h e r v i c t o r y t o p e r s u a s i o n a n d Z e u s A g o r a i o s (Eum. 9 7 0 f . ) . The w o r d s "be p e r s u a d e d " r i n g t h r o u g h o u t h e r a p p e a l t o t h e E r i n y e s . S h o r t l y a f t e r O c e a n u s s a y s , " W o r d s a r e t h e m e d i c i n e o f t e m p e r , " h e s a y s t h a t P r o m e t h e u s ' m i s f o r t u n e i s a t e a c h e r ( r i at\, rip o/Jh.9eG*ff, v u / j ^ p c i i i iaaaKXoa 3 9 1 ) . The c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n " l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g " a n d p e r s u a s i o n i s a l s o made b y t h e C h o r u s : " S e e k w i s e c o u n s e l a n d b e p e r s u a d e d ( e p e u v S v xnv aa+nv Ev / P S u X t a v n i 9 d C 1037-38; c f . e'/mQdv T O & E . . .tn'eoiv 552-60). Th i s same connection between the two themes emerges i n Eumenides, between Athena's admonitions that the Furies "be persuaded" li~pb\ n\etaQt 794; a u ct'Cuni©nff e/voi 829), and t h e i r r e f r a i n s about t h e i r s u f f e r i n g (noetTv 837,870). There i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that the re so lu t ion reached i n the Prometheus s tory has a p o l i t i c a l context p a r a l l e l i n g that of the O r e s t e i a . Zeus changes from a tyrant to a patron of the p o l i s l i k e Athena. Like the F u r i e s , Prometheus i s i n v i t e d to take up res idency i n Athens, where he was a c t u a l l y worshipped. Maurice Pope, "Merci fu l Heavens? A quest ion i n Aeschylus ' Agamemnon," JHS, 94 (1974), 100-13. Pope argues at length for accenting ndu and understands the quest ion to be r h e t o r i c a l : an as ser t ion that there i s no grace from the gods. However, he f a i l s to r e a l i z e that wi th in the context of the Hymn, " learning" cons t i tu tes a "violent grace." Denniston-Page, p .85. |3icadff i s not found in the manuscripts , but i s Turnebus' emendation. Whether we accept the adject ive as opposed to the adverb to a large extent depends on whether the word i s t rans la ted p a s s i v e l y or a c t i v e l y . The p a r a l l e l passages suggest pass ive ly (c f . Cho. 549; Eum. 555). The second example i s p a r t i c u l a r l y re levant because of the p a r a l l e l imagery: "The unjust man w i l l lower h i s s a i l per force , against h i s w i l l " ( p i o i w a ) . I f the word c a r r i e s a passive sense, 0 \a\'us must be ammended to Pica off. The gods do not s i t upon t h e i r benches against t h e i r w i l l , but t h e i r w i l l and favor i s forced on mortals . fi\<x\ba r e a d i l y p a r a l l e l s n a p ' " a K d v T a f f . " D i s c r e t i o n , " the grace of Zeus, comes per force . See N.B. Bopth, "Zeus Hypsistos Megistos: An argument for e n c l i t i c n&u In Aeschylus' Agamemnon 182," CQ, ns. 26 (1976), 220-28. •pjvtui can have a comparatively neutra l meaning, "be conscious" or "think" (Pope, JHS, 94, 108-10), but i t a l so can mean "understand" or "be s ens ib l e ," and so comes c lose to the meaning of su^pivcu; c f . Booth, CQ, ns. 26, 225. Michael Gagarin , Aeschylean Drama " (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press , 1976), pp.143-49. That a K o v x a f f suggests "unwil l ing the fact that n o p ' o K d v x a a can learner" and p a r a l l e l s p i a i o f f in two l e v e l s . Q p . c r t , p .143. to revere Zeus" does not discount a l so mean "against the w i l l of the meaning. The word i s working on Denniston-Page, p .92. Anne Lebeck, The Ores te ia : A Study in Language and S t r u c t u r e , (Washington D . C . : the Center for H e l l e n i c Studies , 1971), p .74. - 62 -2 9 . I b i d , p . 7 5 . 3 0 . c f . yxfjvtx Y « P • a 3 e p a ntxXxvbpibo/bxKbvbubo obXxa, yvdvuv / j f y u i a T E K V d ' n d i v a a ( 1 5 4 - 5 5 ) . Calchas i s obvious ly a l l u d i n g to the curse , to the "kindred band of Erinyes" who always abide wi th in the house (cv ibubxa (jzvcx 1 1 8 9 ; c f . / v i y v e i . . . bxKbvbfjba) and cannot be dr iven out . Wrath, the wrath of the Erinyes i s ever mindful (c f . K O K W V xe /yvn/vavea ae/jva\ Eum. 3 8 3 ) . I t keeps a r i s i n g afresh (naXivapxaa) to avenge the s l a i n c h i l d r e n of the house. xeKvanaivaff re fers not only to Iphigenia but a l so to the c h i l d r e n of Thyestes, whose deaths Agamemnon must a l so pay for (cf . 1 5 0 0 - 0 4 ) . See Fraenke l , I I , p p . 9 3 - 9 4 . 3 1 . The word occurs elsewhere i n Suppl . 84 where i t i s g lossed by the s c h o l i a as 6 X a P n . Denniston-Page, p . 1 0 2 . 3 2 . Even i f we r e t a i n opn as the d i r e c t object of nvedvxoov, the gnome s t i l l app l i e s to Agamemnon, who i s descr ibed i n such terms i n the parodos. He "loudly clamours for war" {pZyaX'ZK Gu/ydu KXaCavxea apn.. 4 8 ) . The gnome a lso a n t i c i p a t e s Cassandra's d e s c r i p t i o n of Clytemestra , who, as the mother of Hades, breathes Ares upon her loved-ones. Capri $ i X d i a nvedycrav 1 2 3 5 - 3 6 ) . 3 3 . See Fraenke l , I I , p . 1 9 9 , c f . Denniston-Page, p . 1 0 3 and H . J . Rose, A Commentary on the Surv iv ing Plays of Aeschylus (Amsterdam: Noord-Hollandsche Uitgevers Maatschappij , 1 9 5 8 ) , I I . p . 3 2 . 3 4 . On wind imagery, see W i l l i a m C. Scot t , "Wind Imagery i n the ' O r e s t e i a ' , " TAPA, 97 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , 4 5 9 - 7 1 . 3 5 . Robert Goheen, "Aspects of Dramatic Symbolism, "AJP, 7 6 ( 1 9 5 5 ) , 1 2 6 - 3 2 ; c f . Winnington-Ingram, p p . 1 0 6 - 0 7 . 3 6 . Rose, I I , p . 3 3 . 37 . XixaS) S ' a K d u E i vzv ifatxa Gewv/xdv &'cnurxpd$a\> xuv/^ux' a&iKdv K a G a i p £ i . xwv i s somewhat vague. I t probably refers to a l l p r i o r mentions of e v i l , such as trampling down what i s sacred, k i c k i n g the a l t a r of Dike, or br ing ing d e s t r u c t i o n upon the c i t y . 3 8 . The manuscripts a c t u a l l y give f>t\fjbKpa.Tb\j; the voice of "democracy" exacts the debt of a curse . Porson amends the text to ih/voKpavxau; which the metre requ ires . 3 9 . Timothy Gantz, "The Chorus of A i s c h y l o s ' Agamemnon," HSCPh, 87 ( 1 9 8 3 ) , 8 4 . 4 0 . On the contrast between the Chorus and Clytemestra see Winnington-Ingram, p p . 2 0 8 - 2 1 6 . - 6 3 -4 1 . The t r a n s i t i o n begins with Orestes , who submits himself to A p o l l o ' s j u r i s d i c t i o n . "Thus the i n d i v i d u a l begins to recognize the need for judgment by a party external to h imse l f ." Gantz, HSCPh, 87 ( 1 9 8 3 ) , 8 5 . 4 2 . Winnington-lngram, p . 1 6 0 . For the view that Zeus i s not responsible for Agamemnon's death, c f . Joseph Frontenrose, "Gods and Men i n the O r e s t e i a , " TAPA, 1 0 2 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 7 1 - 1 0 9 . 4 3 . Fraenke l , I I , p . 2 3 7 . 4 4 . For a f u l l d i s cuss ion on the e f f ec t s of war upon Agamemnon, see Winnington-lngram, p p . 7 8 - 1 0 0 . 4 5 . Throughout the t r i l o g y , Clytemestra i s repeatedly i d e n t i f e d with the E r i n y e s , both as t h e i r agent of vengeance and as an ac tua l incarnat ion of an E r i n y s . She descr ibes h e r s e l f as the A l a s t o r of Atreus (Agm. 1 5 0 1 ) . The Chorus see her as an Erinys maddened by the bloody murder of Agamemnon ( 1 4 2 8 ) . Blood dr ips from her eyes. ( X i 0 o c r en' ipfjaxuv o i / z o t j a e/ynpcnei 1 4 2 9 ) . Their d e s c r i p t i o n a n t i c i p a t e s the P y t h i a ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the Fur ies at the opening of Eumenides. She sees wi th in the temple of A p o l l o a detestable band of women from whose eyes d r i p a loathsome pus (etc i'oA^aTwv \z\fSbva\ &\)0$\\r\ X i ( B a Eum. 5 4 ) . Like Clytemestra , the Furies have gone mad at the s ight of b lood. Both suf fer the same fa te . In the same passage, the-Chorus warn Clytemestra that she w i l l suffer dishonor and pay " l ike for l i k e " : O C T I E T & V J £ T I at X P H oxtpbytvav • i X u v x^fjfja x\)(jpa.x\ xzxaax ( 1 4 2 9 - 3 0 ) . O T I / V O < T a l so describes the fate of the Er inyes who pursue l o t s of dishonor (Ji.x\p' a.x\zxa S i J ^ t v a i XotXn Eum. 3 8 5 - 8 6 ) . They too suffer for t h e i r act of vengeance. 4 6 . Greene, p . 1 8 n 4 5 ; 2 2 . 47 . For a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n on the genealogy of h y b r i s , see Richard Doyle, ATH: I ts Use and Meaning, (New York: Fordham U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1 9 8 4 ) , p p . 3 5 - 4 8 . 4 8 . o K a p e a T d c r descr ibes the e f fec t of the curse wi th in the house of Atreus; c f . 1 4 8 4 , where i t i s connected with the daemon of the race , and 1 1 1 7 , where i t i s associated with the d i s c o r d wi th in the race . Both refer to the curse , something c l o s e l y t i e d to the idea of i n h e r i t e d d e s t i n y . The curse of Atreus forces Agamemnon to commit the s i n of past and so to suffer the punishment of the past . 4 9 . For a s i m i l a r thought, see Pindar Nem 5.40 nhXfjba i t Kpive i c r u Y Y E v v r i f f " E P Y W V n tp i navxuv. I t i s Pytheas' "inborn destiny" that decides every i s sue . For P indar , an a t h l e t e ' s heroic her i tage determines h i s v i c t o r y i n the games. The fame of an uncle or father i s continued i n the nephew or son. In t h i s sense, an a t h l e t e ' s dest iny and fame i s inborn, a r e s u l t of the ethos he has i n h e r i t e d . Pindar and Aeschylus thus share t h i s not ion . - 64 -5 0 . P e r a d o t t o , "The Omen o f t h e E a g l e s a n d t h e T\Bba o f Agamemnon," P h o e n i x , 23 ( 1 9 6 9 ) , 2 5 6 , 1 6 0 . 5 1 . B e r n a r d K n o x , "The L i o n i n t h e H o u s e , " C P , 47 ( 1 9 5 2 ) , 1 7 - 2 5 . 5 2 . T h e g e n e a l o g y r u n s a s f o l l o w s : O l d h y b r i s b e g e t s a y o u n g e r h y b r i s ( v e o C o v e n M \j(3piv 7 6 4 - 6 6 ) "when t h e d a y o f d e l i v e r y c o m e s (%xt x a K v J p i o v A/oXru •cider x & K d u 7 6 6 - 6 7 ) , a n d " a n u n c o n q u e r a b l e d a e m o n " ( S a i / y i v o X E xcxv a/yoXov 7 6 8 ) , " t h e i m p i o u s a r r o g a n c e o f b l a c k A t e " ( a v i e p d v e p a a d a / y E X a i v o f f oxacr 7 6 9 - 7 0 ) . &pa.obo axacx s e e m s t o b e i n o p p o s i t i o n t o i a i / y o v a , w h e r e a x a a i s t h e g e n i t i v e s i n g u l a r a n d e i i a ^ E v o c f i s t h e a c c u s a t i v e p l u r a l i n o p p o s i t i o n t o b o t h v 6 p i v a n d 5 3 . T o t h e c o n t r a r y , s e e F r a e n k e l , I I . p . 3 5 3 . 5 4 . D o y l e , p . 4 0 . 5 5 . I b i d . 5 6 . P a g e ' s t e x t r e m o v e s 3 i a v a t 7 7 5 . H o w e v e r , t h e e m p h a s i s w i t h i n t h e a n t i s t r o p h e i s u p o n a b s t r a c t a n d t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f " b i o n " i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e t o n e o f t h e s t a n z a , x i e i 0 i ' a v p a r a l l e l s SvVajjw &4 {TE3O U O-OL. T h e c o n t r a s t w o u l d be l e s s e f f e c t i v e i f t h e t e x t w e r e c h a n g e d . 5 7 . D e n n i s t o n , T h e G r e e k P a r t i c l e s ( O x f o r d : A t C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 4 ) , 2 d e d . , p . 5 4 2 - 4 3 . "The t e n s e i s u s u a l l y p r e s e n t o r g n o m i c a o r i s t . " A t l i n e 1 0 0 1 ECJXI i s u n d e r s t o o d a n d a t 1 0 1 5 t h e a o r i s t ( g n o m i c ) o f b\\\jv\ a p p e a r s . 5 8 . D e n n i s t o n - P a g e , p . 1 5 7 . 5 9 . I b i d ; p . 1 5 7 c f . R o s e , I I , p . 7 2 . 6 0 . E ueuTTopE /w, w h e n i t m e a n s " t o h o l d a s t r a i g h t c o u r s e , " g e n e r a l l y t a k e s a c o g n a t e a c c u s a t i v e . c f . S p o ^ a v C\)e\jnbpr\aa\ P i n d a r _ l . 5 . 6 0 . P e r h a p s 1 0 0 6 o r i g i n a l l y c o n t a i n e d a n a c c u s a t i v e t o c o m p l e t e t h e v e r b : " F o r t u n e s a i l i n g s t r a i g h t a l o n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s e a . " 6 1 . D e n n i s t o n - P a g e , p . 1 5 8 . 6 2 . T h e kommos o f C h o e p h o r i c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f i n c a n t a t i o n s r a i s e d b y E l e c t r a , O r e s t e s a n d t h e C h o r u s o v e r t h e g r a v e . T h e s e i n c a n t a t i o n s a c c o m p a n y t h e l i b a t i o n s p o u r e d o v e r t h e g r a v e t o t h e d e a d . 6 3 . F r a e n k e l , I I I , p . 7 3 7 . 6 4 . T h e r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s , i n e f f e c t , a m o u n t t o a s e r i e s o f g n o m e s . N o t h i n g i s f u l f i l l e d w i t h o u t Z e u s . E v e r y t h i n g i s d e c r e e d b y G o d . - 65 -Zeus i s seen as the ul t imate cause, the d i a . There i s an obvious pun on h i s name (fi iai Aider). His t i t l e nava ix ida , c l o s e l y resembles a t i t l e ascr ibed to fate by the Erinyes ( S i o v t a u Eum. 3 3 4 ) . Fate and Zeus are the d i a of a l l . The ir w i l l s converge to determine the outcome of the drama. So when " l ike for l i k e " i s seen as a k ind of fa te , i t i s often associated with Zeus. The mighty fates f u l f i l l j u s t i c e according to the^ w i l l of Zeus: itXX' & fjtra\a\ fjb\pa\, Ai&'eev xnSe xeXtuTov, rir x& SiKai&v /;eTa3aivei (Cho. 3 0 6 - 0 8 ) . xeXei&a picked up here i n XEXe^xav i s as much a t i t l e of fate as i t i s of Zeus (cf . Agm. 9 7 3 ; Eum. 2 8 ) . The d e s c r i p t i o n of Zeus and Moira blend together as one. Zeus i s f a t e . Fate i s Zeus. Together they b r i n g about Agamemnon's death. Together they resolve the dilemma of the t r i l o g y by r e c o n c i l i n g the Erinyes (Eum. 1 0 4 5 - 4 6 ) . Fraenkel , I I I , p . 7 3 7 . - 66 -CHAPTER II - Choephori We concluded our d i s c u s s i o n of Agamemnon with a look at the gnome " l ike for l i k e , " i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the curse of Atreus , to Dike as a d i v i n e law of Zeus, and to Moira as a un iversa l p r i n c i p l e of f a t e . In Choephori the gnome i s associated with a l l three f i g u r e s . However, i t i s l e s s often seen as a necess i ty of fate or a law of Zeus than as as a law of vengeance, i n e x t r i c a b l y l inked to the curse and the Erinyes that embody that curse . Running p a r a l l e l with t h i s movement from a u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e to an exc lus ive law of the E r i n y e s , i s the move to define the gnome wi th in the s p e c i f i c terms of "blood for b lood ." That bloodshed demands more bloodshed emerges as the centra l gnomic idea of the p lay . Although the gnome i s not f u l l y formulated u n t i l the kommos, an important quest ion i s ra i s ed i n the parodos whose answer a n t i c i p a t e s i t : "what can atone for blood once i t has f a l l e n to the ground" ( T I yap XyTp&v ncoivxb aHpaxla nt&bi; 48). The Chorus' quest ion introduces two important gnomic mot i f s , that of "no remedy" and "blood upon the ground." The l a t t e r forms an important element i n the gnomic formula "blood for b lood ." Once blood has f a l l e n on the ground i t demands more blood (400-2). Already the c e n t r a l gnomic thought of the play i s a n t i c i p a t e d . The dilemma of what can atone for bloodshed i s seemingly resolved i n terms of that gnome. Only blood can atone for b lood. - 67 -This t ru th i s borne out i n the events of the f i r s t two p l a y s . The l i b a t i o n s are the atonement sent out by Clytemestra to appease the dead Agamemnon. They prove use less . E l e c t r a and the Chorus turn them against her and invoke the a i d of Agamemnon. Only when Clytemestra i s s l a i n i s h i s wrath appeased. Clytemestra i n h e r i t s the dilemma that once faced Agamemnon. The Chorus' quest ion at 48 r e c a l l s a s i m i l a r quest ion ra i sed by the Chorus of e lders i n the preceding play : xa 5'eru y S v n c a a v a n a C eavaaiphv/npSnap avipdff v'tXav aiva r\a av/naXiv ayKaXtaaXX'inatdav; (Agm. 1 0 1 9 - 2 1 ) . Th i s i s the f i r s t place where the motif of "blood upon the ground" i s mentioned i n connection with the theme of "no remedy." The Chorus fear that there i s no remedy for bloodshed except more bloodshed. No one can c a l l up the dead; Agamemnon i s i n danger because he cannot change the events at A u l i s by r a i s i n g h i s daughter back to l i f e . Agamemnon's death confirms t h e i r f e a r s . I t exemplif ies the pattern of " l ike for l i k e " (Agm. 1 5 6 0 f . ) . The same conclus ion i s a n t i c i p a t e d i n the Chorus' quest ion of Choephori 4 8 . "No remedy' i s the second motif introduced by the quest ion. I t forms the cen tra l theme of the gnomes of the parodos, which are r e s t r i c t e d to the f i n a l three stanzas ( 5 5 - 7 4 ) . In the parodos the motif f inds expression i n terms of "no atonement" or "cleansing." Bloodshed i s conceived as a p o l l u t i o n that cannot be washed away. This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of bloodshed i s an important step towards re so lv ing the dilemma that Orestes i n h e r i t s from h i s fami ly . How can he cleanse the s t a i n of blood upon h i s hands? The answer comes i n Eumenides, where Orestes presents himself p u r i f i e d through s u f f e r i n g , and h i s a c q u i t t a l confirms h i s p u r i f i c a t i o n . - 68 -The Chorus open the second ant is trophe by saying that "the unconquerable unbending unbeaten reverence of o l d , sounded i n a l l men's ears , i n a l l hearts has shrunk away" ( 5 5 - 5 8 ) . The elaborate a l l i t e r a t i o n on a/uaXov, a & d V a T d v , OTTOXEA/OV i s t y p i c a l of gnomic statements. Exact ly why t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l reverence has faded away i s given i n the next gnome: x l 4 ' C U T U X C I M , x a S ' e v 0pSTdTcr Qtia x e Ko\ Qtby TTXEOV ( 5 9 - 6 0 ) . Men have made "good fortune" t h e i r god. This gnomic thought i s cons is tent with what i s expressed i n the f i r s t stasimon of Agamemnon: excessive wealth and prosper i ty lead to sacr i l ege (Agm. 3 8 2 - 8 4 ) . Excess i s impl ied here by the fact that good fortune has become more than a god. When success, wealth and anything e l se connected with the idea of "good fortune" demand a man's l o y a l t y , a l l sense of reverence for t r a d i t i o n a l values i s l a i d as ide . Clytemestra fears that what w i l l prompt the Greeks to plunder the temples at Troy i s greed (Agm. 3 4 1 - 4 2 ) . The Furies be l ieve that what causes a son to abandon h i s respect for h i s parents i s greed as wel l (Eum. 5 3 8 - 4 2 ) . Both these passages we discussed i n connection with the image of "trampling underfoot ," a metaphor for s a c r i l e g e . In Agamemnon the image s i g n i f i e s the profanat ion of the temples; i n Eumenides the dishonour of parents . It i s c l ear to the Furies that s a c r i l e g e means more than impiety towards the gods. The reverence for family i s what the the Chorus of s l a v e - g i r l s bewai l . No doubt they are th inking of Clytemestra , who has l a i d aside her respect for her husband. But the gnome i s u n i v e r s a l ; i t re fers to Agamemnon, who i n l i k e fashion has abandoned h i s natura l a f f e c t i o n for h i s loved ones. Agamemnon's dec i s ion to k i l l Iphigenia i s determined by h i s hopes for the success of the expedi t ion . "How can I desert the f l e e t and f a i l my a l l i e s , " i s the quest ion - 69 -r a i s e d by Agamemnon and one t h a t r e v e a l s where h i s l o y a l t i e s l i e . Whenever the w e a l t h and s u c c e s s o f "good f o r t u n e " p o s s e s s a man's d e v o t i o n , a l l r e v e r e n c e , whether f o r t h e gods o r f a m i l y , i s l a i d a s i d e . A l t h o u g h men may i d o l i z e t h e i r good f o r t u n e , i t p r o v e s u s e l e s s a g a i n s t d i v i n e punishment. Sorrow a w a i t s such men a t e v e r y t u r n o f t h e i r l i v e s . J u s t i c e comes q u i c k l y as some s t a n d i n f u l l d a y l i g h t {raxt'xa x & \ > utv C V 4at\ 6 2 ) ; o r much l a t e r , as t h e y l i n g e r a t the c l o s e o f t h e i r c a r e e r ( T O &'ev / y E T a i X/y iwi oK&Tb\)/p£V£i X P S V i C f l V T a a aXh 6 3 - 6 4 ) . Most men and e s p e c i a l l y the u n j u s t cannot pass t h e i r l i v e s u n s c a t h e d . The t r u t h o f t h i s gnomic t h o u g h t i s r e a l i z e d f o r b o t h C l y t e m e s t r a and Agamemnon. A f t e r the murder o f h i s mother, O r e s t e s b e g i n s t o r e a l i z e the f u l l h o r r o r o f h i s deed. I t a p p e a r s o n l y as a p o l l u t i o n ( 1 0 1 6 - 1 7 ) . He g r i e v e s over what has been done ( e r g a ) and what has been s u f f e r e d ( p a t h o s ) ( 1 0 1 6 - 1 7 ) . T r y i n g t o c o n s o l e him, t h e Chorus r e p l y t h a t no one " t u r n s u n h u r t h i s l i f e ' s c o u r s e u n t i l the end" {b\^x\a /vcpanwv aaivfT £ \ & T d v / 6 i a - n a \ ) T ' ( £ \ > a T i / J d a a^ei'^ai 1 0 1 8 - 1 9 ) . T r o u b l e comes today, t r o u b l e comes tomorrow {/jixBia 6 ' a /vev o u T i ' x , aS ' i ftei 1 0 2 0 ) . The Chorus a r e here e x p r e s s i n g t h e same thought as t h e y d i d i n the p a r o d o s . C l y t e m e s t r a ' s d e a t h p r o v e s t h a t no one can pass a l i f e w i t h o u t s u f f e r i n g . The same c o n c l u s i o n i s drawn i n Agamemnon's c a s e . I f he s h o u l d d i e f o r the s i n s o f A t r e u s , f o r p a s t murders whether h i s own or n o t , "no one c o u l d b o a s t t h a t he he was b o r n w i t h a f o r t u n e f r e e of harm" (Agm. 1 3 3 7 - 4 2 ) . The Chorus o f e l d e r s a r e r i g h t i n t h e i r assessment. Agamemnon's d e a t h p r o v e s t h a t the doer s u f f e r s (Agm. 1 5 6 4 ) . O r e s t e s h i m s e l f laments over the d o i n g ( t p y a ) and s u f f e r i n g {naBbo) o f h i s r a c e i n w h i c h h i s mother s h a r e s ( 1 0 1 5 - 1 6 ) . I n t h i s - 70 -passage, the idea of " l ike for l i k e " i s c l e a r l y l inked with the gnome used by the Chorus to console Orestes ( 1 0 1 8 - 2 0 ) . No man i s dest ined to l i v e a l i f e free of harm because he suf fers the consequences of h i s a c t i o n s . Th i s i s an important q u a l i f i c a t i o n . O r i g i n a l l y the gnome simply expressed the b e l i e f i n the f r a i l t y of human existence: man i s bound to suffer throughout h i s l i f e , so l e t him be consoled at the f a c t . However, i n Aeschylus the gnome takes on a new emphasis. In the parodos i t i s c l e a r l y appl ied to the punishment which Dike metes out to the unjus t . Aeschylus emphasizes man's f r a i l t y i n the face of d iv ine punishment. Agamemnon and Clytemestra suf fer " l ike for l i k e " and so prove that the unjust cannot pass t h e i r l i v e s without harm. That a man cannot pass h i s l i f e without s u f f e r i n g for h is act ions i s a common c l a s s i c a l not ion; that he suf fers i n the grave i s not so common. Nonetheless some have suggested that something of the idea of "punishment af ter death" i s present at l i n e 6 5 : xb\jo i'aKpaxba ( a K p a v r d c r ) t x t i v u £ P" Jus t i ce i s conceived as a scale f a l l i n g "from day l ight through t w i l i g h t to night" and d e a t h . 3 Div ine punishment i s f e l t even beyond the grave. There i s a d e f i n i t e contrast wi th in the passage between l i g h t (cv <fraEi 6 2 ) and darkness ( v u £ 6 5 ) , and between xb\j<r (jzv ( 6 2 ) and xb\j<r &z ( 6 5 ) . The sca le of j u s t i c e f a l l s upon some in the l i g h t , others i n the darkness. Th i s would make good sense of the contras t , i f the not ion of "punishment a f ter death" could be understood at 6 5 . The main d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n whether we should r e t a i n akrantos of the manuscripts or subs t i tu te akratos ins tead . To say that "night" meaning - 71 -" d e a t h " i s a b s o l u t e ( a k r a t o s ) makes sense, but m i n i m i z e s t h e f o r c e o f the men-de c o n t r a s t . To say t h a t n i g h t i s t h e p l a c e where m a t t e r s a r e l e f t u n r e s o l v e d ( a k r a n t o s ) , where s o r r o w s do n o t e x t e n d , b r i n g s o u t t h e f u l l f o r c e o f the c o n t r a s t : some s u f f e r i n t h i s l i f e ; some do n o t . aKpavx&a c l e a r l y 4 i m p l i e s "not t o be p u n i s h e d a t a l l . " N i g h t comes o v e r some b e f o r e "the m a t t e r i s consummated" w i t h t h e i r punishment.^ The Chorus seem t o be c o n t r a d i c t i n g t h e m s e l v e s : "Sorrow comes t o d a y ; s o r r o w comes tomorrow; no m o r t a l p a s s e s h i s l i f e f r e e o f harm" ( 1 0 1 8 - 2 0 ) . Y e t t h e s e l a t t e r remarks a r e made a f t e r t h e f a c t ; o n l y a f t e r C l y t e m e s t r a s u f f e r s " l i k e f o r l i k e " i s the t r u t h o f the gnome c o n f i r m e d . Here the Chorus f e a r ( 5 8 ) t h a t C l y t e m e s t r a w i l l c o n t i n u e her u n g o d l y r u l e and j u s t i c e w i l l n ot be f u l f i l l e d soon enough. I f A e s c h y l u s i s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t some escape t h e i r due, he i s o f f e r i n g n o t h i n g new, o n l y a s e n t i m e n t as o l d as S o l o n . I n f a c t , t h e passage r e s e m b l e s what S o l o n h i m s e l f s a y s : aXX'fc fjt\ a u x ( K ' e x c i a e v i &'u<7TEp&\>, b\ It • u Y U a i v / o i t M ..MH&E 9£<3\> /y&Tp ' ern&uoa K i x n I / T I X U 9 E navxwff a ^ T i a a v a i x i f c i & P Y O x\\b\)<r\v/Y\ n a i & E f f xa(,xcov f) ytvba E?;an\ffa) ( D i e h l , f r q . 2 9 ) . Some a r e p u n i s h e d i m m e d i a t e l y , some l a t e r and some n e v e r . T h i s i s the same t r a i n o f thought t h a t runs t h r o u g h the p a r o d o s . ^ The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t C l y t e m e s t r a may escape punishment e x p l a i n s t h e Chorus' u r g e n c y i n a r o u s i n g O r e s t e s t o vengeance. I f he does n o t a c t now, Agamemnon may never be avenged. C l y t e m e s t r a may d i e b e f o r e she s u f f e r s her due. I n the f i n a l s t r o p h e - p a i r , the Chorus r e t u r n t o the q u e s t i o n o f b l o o d s h e d w h i c h prompted t h e i r l o o k a t j u s t i c e . They emphasize t h e - 72 -irremediable nature of the shedding of blood through a s e r i e s of metaphors, comparing i t f i r s t to a congealed matter, then to l o s t v i r g i n i t y and f i n a l l y to an i n d e l i b l e s t a i n . Behind what they say i s the p e r s i s t e n t ques t ion , "what can atone for bloodshed?" The metaphors serve to answer that ques t ion . The strophe opens by r e c a l l i n g the motif of "blood upon the ground," which i s introduced at l i n e 4 8 . It i s suggested i n the blood that the earth has drunk to i t s f i l l ( i v ' a i p a x ' cKnaeeve' inb X©oVo<r Tpd<frov? 66). The watery gore i s compared to a l i b a t i o n , poured out upon the ground and hardened s o l i d . The image of a l i b a t i o n r e c a l l s the XuTpov brought out by the Chorus to pour over the grave. The verb luo from which X\jTpo\> i s formed can convey the idea of mel t ing . In that case i t forms the antonym of nennye^ ( 6 7 ) . 7 What can d i s so lve blood that has f a l l e n to the ground and hardened there? The answer i s , nothing . Congealed blood cannot melt away (bu &iotppG&av ) . 8 The blood l i e s there on the ground cry ing out for vengeance ( t i t a s ) . Vengeance seems the only remedy. Every other atonement intended to d i s s o l v e the congealed blood i s use l e s s . The point i s exaggerated at the conclus ion of the ant i s trophe ( 7 2 - 7 4 ) , where the Chorus compare bloodshed to an i n d e l i b l e s t a i n . Not even a f l ood of water from every known stream (na'pbi novxea) washes away (Ka9aip O V T E < T ) the s t a i n of blood (xbv X£poA<u<7r! 4><V\>ov). The Chorus conclude as they began the s trophe-pa ir by s t r e s s i n g how irredeemable blood i s . The two gnomes are l i n k e d by r ing-compos i t ion . 4>ovba i s repeated at the beginning ( 6 7 ) and at the end ( 7 3 ) and there i s some idea of water suggested in both. The thought - 73 -i s the same i n both gnomes, although the images are d i f f e r e n t . Despite every e f f o r t the e f f ec t s of bloodshed cannot be changed. The pool of blood remains frozen; the hand remains s ta ined . A l l the c leans ing waters flow i n va in , / , 9 The f i n a l gnome of the parodos i s important because i t introduces the theme of c a t h a r s i s . Bloodshed i s conceived as a p o l l u t i o n (fj\fabo) which may or may not be c leansed. KoSoipJvxEa ( 7 4 ) has been chal lenged for m e t r i c a l reasons, but i t s presence re in forces the image of p o l l u t i o n i n Xepb(j\jot\ ( 7 3 ) . I t i s more l i k e l y that the corrupt ion l i e s i n the corresponding strophe and not here i n the ant i s t rophe . The theme of p o l l u t i o n gains i n c r e a s i n g importance from here on. i t reaches a climax at the point when Orestes recognizes h i s own act of murder as a p o l l u t i o n ( 1 0 1 7 ) . The quest ion of c leans ing i s again ra i sed when the Chorus suggest to Orestes the p o s s i b i l i t y of c leans ing by A p o l l o ' s touch ( 1 0 5 9 - 6 0 ) . However, he i s pursued offstage by the E r i n y e s , l eav ing unanswered the quest ion whether he can or cannot be p u r i f i e d . In Eumenides the issue i s ra i sed again . Can a man atone for h i s b lood-sta ined hands by some means other than more bloodshed? In Eumenides Orestes presents himself to Athena as a man "schooled i n suf fer ing" ( 2 7 6 ) , "acquainted with many ways of p u r i f i c a t i o n " ( 2 7 7 ) . He has been cleansed at A p o l l o ' s temple ( 2 8 3 ) . Even Athena recognizes him as K o 9 o p J a ( 4 7 4 ) . His p u r i f i c a t i o n i s achieved through h i s s u f f e r i n g . The law of "learning through suf fer ing" e f f ec t s h i s change as i t d id for Zeus. The a c q u i t t a l of Orestes confirms that a man can be cleansed of b lood. Yet i n Choephori the o l d moral i ty of " l ike for l i k e " i s not chal lenged. As yet there i s no quest ion of p u r i f i c a t i o n but simply of atonement at the p r i c e of one's own b l o o d . ^ - 74 -The two gnomes on the theme of bloodshed ( 6 6 - 6 7 ; 7 2 - 7 4 ) form a type of r ing-composit ion enc los ing two further gnomes ( 6 8 - 6 9 ; 7 0 - 7 2 ) . The opening of the ant istrophe ( 7 0 - 7 2 ) introduces the motif of "no remedy" by the q u a s i -medical term df jK aKba. Then the shedding of blood i s compared to the los s of v i r g i n i t y , both of which are i rremediable . There i s no outr ight comparison; i t i s only i m p l i e d . As Rose remarks, " i l l u s t r a t i o n and i l l u s t r a t e d are merely put side by s ide , with no such word as atanep and &\j-cu to help out the comparison"**. For the one who sheds blood there i s no remedy. No one can cleanse the p o l l u t i o n of blood any more than one can restore the los s of v i r g i n i t y . The other gnome occurs at the end of the strophe ( 6 8 - 6 9 ) . I t i s connected with what fol lows i n the opening of the ant is trophe by another medical image. The two gnomes should be connected in thought: there i s no remedy against the the disease of r u i n . Ate i s compared to a s ickness that i n f e c t s the body of a man g u i l t y of bloodshed: +&\aXYriff+ O T O &\a$tpz\ T & V C X I T I & V navapKexaff M d a d u Qpytw ( 6 8 - 6 9 ) . The g u i l t y become so completely swollen with the disease of Ate that no remedy i s p o s s i b l e . This thought i s c a r r i e d over in to the ant is trophe where the medical imagery i s sustained: because Ate i n f e c t s so u t t e r l y , those g u i l t y of v i o l a t i n g the b r i d a l bed can f i n d no cure . So i t i s for the man with b lood-s ta ined hands; there i s l i t t e hope of escape. The blood l a y i n g frozen on the ground does not d i s so lve away but i n s i s t e n t l y c a l l s out for revenge ( t i t a s ) . The conclus ion to which the - 75 -gnomes of the parodos are drawn i s that blood requires blood to atone. "Blood for blood" becomes the c e n t r a l gnomic thought of the kommos, where the c a l l for vengeance acquires i n t e n s i t y and where Orestes gains the resolve to murder Clytemestra . We turn now to the kommos, where the gnome "blood for blood" i s f i n a l l y formulated. Our d i s c u s s i o n centers on those passages that d i r e c t l y p e r t a i n to i t s meaning. The f i r s t c l ear enunciat ion comes i n the opening anapaests ( 3 0 6 - 3 1 5 ) . The gnome i s seen, at one l e v e l , a s a u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e of fa te , at another l e v e l a s the j u s t i c e of Zeus. The Chorus begin by invoking "the mighty fates to grant f u l f i l l m e n t through the power of Zeus according to the turn of j u s t i c e " ( 3 0 6 - 0 8 ) . I t i s c l ear from the a l l e g o r y what form j u s t i c e takes. Dike exacts what i s due (Tdu<frc iXo/vevbv TTpcto-crouffa 3 1 1 ) . She c a l l s out "blood for b lood ." However, the f u l f i l l m e n t of t h i s j u s t i c e rests with fate and Zeus. For j u s t i c e to be d iothen, to emanate from Zeus, the Chorus must address t h e i r prayer for accomplishment to 12 the Fates . They are t e l e i o i l i k e Zeus (c f . Agm. 9 7 3 ; Eum. 2 8 ) . There i s , no doubt, an intended play on the word i n T C X C U T S V . I t looks back to Agamemnon where s i m i l a r words are expressed of Zeus: "What i s f u l f i l l e d among men without Zeus" (Agm. 1 4 8 7 ) ? Nothing. Nor i s anything f u l f i l l e d without fa te . o\>€u Aiocr xeXexTca resembles what we have here (Ai&Bev TaXeuTav). Both are "responsible for a l l " (Agm. 1 4 8 6 ) . As i n Agamemnon, the cooperation between Zeus and Fate i s maintained even to the point that t h e i r i n d e n t i t i e s and w i l l s merge as one. - 76 -Thi s j u s t i c e i s a l l e g o r i z e d i n the c a l l o f D i k e . She c r i e s out for vengeance, demanding "ha t e fu l word for ha t e fu l word , " "bloody blow i n p lace of bloody blow" (309-313) . Dike can be seen as the p l a i n t i f f who c r i e s out for s a t i s f a c t i o n for the wrong done to he r . F requen t ly the image occurs i n the gnomes where Dike i s v i o l a t e d . Her a l t a r i s k i c k e d over (Agm. 381-84; Eum. 539-43); her person i s t rampled over (Cho. 643) . Consequently she c r i e s out for revenge. Aeschy lus comes very c l o s e to the H e s i o d i c image o f D i k e , who s i t s by Zeus ' s ide compla in ing of the unjus t who have v i o l a t e d her (Op. 256-60) . In Aeschy lus as i n Hesiod the c r y r a i s e d by Dike i s for revenge, "b lood for b l o o d . " J u s t i c e i s r e t r i b u t i v e , the age-o ld t a l e tha t the doer su f f e r s (313-14) . The c r y of Dike a l l e g o r i z e s t h i s law of " l i k e for l i k e . " 1 3 Thi s c ry for vengeance echoes throughout the t r i l o g y . I t begins e a r l y i n Agamemnon w i t h the A t r e i d a e who " l o u d l y clamour for war" (ptyav KXatavxea aph Agm. 48) . They are v u l t u r e s that have been robbed of t h e i r young, whose c ry vengeance Zeus responds to by sending the E r i n y s (Agm. 56-60) . The c r y then i s taken up by Cly temes t ra who has l o s t "the t o i l o f her bed" (Agm. 53-54 c f . 1417-18) . She becomes the bereaved v u l t u r e , who appeals to Zeus to f u l f i l l her prayer (Agm. 974-75) and she becomes the E r i n y s who avenges the dead. The A l a s t o r assumes her form and k i l l s Agamemnon (Agm. 1500-04) . In Choephori E l e c t r a and Ores tes are the "orphaned c h i l d r e n of the eag le" to whom Zeus responds ( 2 4 6 f . ) . The imagery a p p l i e d to Agamemnon and Cly temes t ra i s now a p p l i e d to them. In f ac t the whole kommos i s one long lament and c ry fo r vengeance. Both E l e c t r a and Orestes c a l l upon - 77 -Zeus for help ( 3 8 2 - 8 5 ; 3 9 4 - 9 5 ) and the Er inys does come. At the conc lus ion of the f i r s t stasimon, Orestes ' impending vengeance i s e x c l u s i v e l y seen i n terms of the E r i n y s . The Er inys i n v i t e s him into the house, where he works i t s deed of blood ( 6 4 9 - 5 1 ) . L a t e r , a s he exacts h i s due, Orestes c a l l s out " l ike for l i k e . " He t e l l s h i s mother that she "has k i l l e d whom she should not;" so she "must suf fer what she should not" ( 9 3 0 ) . His words v i r t u a l l y echo what Dike says. The cry for vengeance i s a r e c u r r i n g motif emphasizing the law of vendetta that dominates t h i s fami ly . Each member of the fami ly understands j u s t i c e i n terms of "blood for b lood," and accord ing ly c r i e s out for i t . Here the motif i s incorporated in to the gnomes to a l l e g o r i z e the law of Dike . The bloody blow i s a. symbol of the vengeance inherent i n the race of Atreus . Each member deals a blow and i s dea l t one. Such vengeance i s part of the curse i n h e r i t e d by the d i f f e r e n t members. I t re fers to the des truc t ion of Trpy prompted by Agamemnon's des ire for vengeance. I t suggests the murder of Agamemnon, prompted by Clytemestra's des ire to avenge her daughter. I t represents the death of Clytemestra at the hands of Orestes . "The blow" i s the word used by the Chorus to descr ibe what happened at Troy: Ai&cx nXorov " e x&utrw e i n e T v (Agm. 3 6 7 ) . I t i s almost the l a s t word of the dying Agamemnon: oivb\ ntn\t\ypa\ t c o a p i a v nXrirh^ caw (Agm. 1 3 4 3 ) . The word used by Clytemestra to arouse the slumbering Er inyes : a'pa St n\t]ya.a xao&t K o p i i o i atQtv (Eum. 1 0 3 ) . I t summarizes the inherent fate of the family where each member c r i e s "bloody blow for bloody blow" and then deals the blow that soon i s dea l t them. - 78 -It i s apparent from the above d i scuss ion that the Er inyes f igure prominently i n the working of j u s t i c e . The bereaved cry out for vengeance and an Er inys responds. The c a l l for vengeance, which i n the opening anapaests a l l e g o r i z e s the j u s t i c e of " l ike for l i k e , " here i n the fourth anapest ic sect ion i s app l i ed to the E r i n y s : " i t i s law that drops of blood s p i l t on the ground demand more b lood. For the Er inys c r i e s for murder" ( a X X a V&fjba /t/C\> • fcvi'aff oTctYb'vao/XvtJtyao to neiftv o X X d ftp fcaoaxeTv/ai/va (3&3\* rap X&iYdff epivuv 4 0 0 - 3 ) . There i s some question about who does the c a l l i n g . Is i t a personifed bane or murder, or the Er inys? The manuscript presents the l a t t e r / b u t some emendation i s necessary for zna.yl>\j<ia» for i t to agree with E p i v ^ f f . Bothe suggests "zndy'kyja '"av , consequently making the p a r t i c i p i a l 14 clause c o n d i t i o n a l or p o t e n t i a l . As the cause of recurr ing murders wi th in the fami ly , i t seem more natura l for the E r i n y s , the embodiment of the curse , to do the b idd ing . Blood demands more blood because ( Y O P 4 0 2 ) the E r i n y s , the s p i r i t of vengeance at work wi th in the fami ly , c a l l s for the murder. A c l ear d i s t i n c t i o n emerges betweeen the two passages dea l ing with the gnome " l ike for l i k e . " In the previous passage the gnome i s the f u l f i l l m e n t of fate or the d iv ine j u s t i c e of Zeus, expressed i n the broad terms " l ike for l i k e . " "Blood for blood" i s only an extended meaning of fipoaavTa n o e c T v . Here the gnome i s seen as a law of the E r i n y e s . It i s now def ined e x c l u s i v e l y i n terms of "blood for blood" and narrowly appl ied to the fami ly under the curse . "Blood for blood" i s designated as a law i n i t s own r i g h t . Aeschylus seems to be making a d i s t i n c t i o n between nomos and thesmos (cf . Agm. 1 5 6 3 - 6 4 ) . In Agamemnon " l ike for l i k e " i s seen as an - 79 -abiding order as enduring as the throne of Zeus i t s e l f . The doer suf fers because i t i s so ordained (yap Q e o r / M d v Agm. 1 5 6 4 ) . Here the gnome i s downgraded into something l ess than a thesmos, an abiding order of u n i v e r s a l scope. Rather, i t i s narrowly seen as a law of r e t r i b u t i o n , h a b i t u a l l y prac t i ced within the fami ly . Perhaps, then, nomos should r e t a i n i t s t r a d i t i o n a l meaning of "habitual p r a c t i c e . " This h a b i t u a l , almost compulsive, nature of "blood for blood" i s expressed p o e t i c a l l y in the a l l o -a l l o combination impl ied at 4 0 1 . The idea i s further emphasized in the next gnome ( 4 0 2 - 0 4 ) . The E r i n y s leads one r u i n in the t r a i n of another. "Blood for blood" has become the custom of the fami ly , i n c i t e d by the Er inys who resides wi th in the house and who embodies the curse to which each member of the house i s subject . The curse i s important to our understanding of " l ike for l i k e . " A f t e r the murder of h i s mother, Orestes recognizes h i s mother's death as an example of " l ike for l i k e . " He gr ieves over the doing and su f f er ing that plague the race: cxXyw ptv epyct Ka\ naQba y £ v o a T C nav ( 1 0 1 6 ) . Orestes ' words form a v a r i a t i o n of the gnome na9e ? v T iv £ p t a \ > T a . c lytemestra has suffered as she acted; but so w i l l Ores tes , whose own deed resembles h i s mother's. The Chorus mourn with Orestes , over his "woeful doing" that ended his mother's l i f e miserably: a i o i o'laT //eXe'wv tp yaw/crTvyep yah SavoTui 6ienpaX© n < 7 ( 1 0 0 7 - 0 8 ) . They a l so mourn for the su f f er ing i n s tore for Orestes: fj\p\b\)x\ it K o \ naQba a\>6e? ( 1 0 0 9 ) . There i s a strong sense that " l ike for l i k e " i s i n h e r i t e d , a r e s u l t of the curse once at work i n Clytemestra but now at work i n Orestes . - 8 0 -In the kommos the curse , which re su l t s in the hab i tua l p r a c t i s e of "blood for b lood ," i s represented by the Er inys and " inher i ted ethos." "Blood for blood" i s law because the Er inys leads one ru in i n a f t er another (400-04). That the Er inys refers to the curse i s c l ear i n Agamemnon from i t s intimate a s s o c i a t i o n with the race of Atreus . It res ides wi th in the house; i t i s kindred to the race; i t i n v i t e s Orestes in to the house (648-51). Also i t i s c lear from the E r i n y s ' a s soc ia t ion with the s ins of the three generations. "The thr ice -gorged daemon," which ar i se s from the s i n of Atreus and passes through Agamemnon to Orestes (Agm. 1500-08), reappears in Choephori in connection with the revenge of Agamemnon. By k i l l i n g Aegisthus and Clytemestra Orestes fee l s that the Er inys w i l l take i t s t h i r d and f i n a l drink of blood: •&\>au & ' E p i v U f f &uX u n e a n a v i a / j c v n aKpax&\> ca / ja ruexai xp ixnv rtd'ffiv (577-78). The motif of three suggests the operat ion of the curse through three generat ions . The Erinys embodies that curse and the three l i b a t i o n s poured out to i t represent the murder and vengeance extending through the three g e n e r a t i o n s . 1 ^ The l iba t ion- imagery i s invoked at l i n e s 400f. in connection with the gnome "blood for b lood ." The motif of "blood upon the ground" r e c a l l s 48, where the atonement brought out by the Chorus i s i n the form of a l i b a t i o n . However, the l i b a t i o n demanded by the E r i n y s i s mixed with blood. It i s the law of the Erinyes that blood once poured out as a l i b a t i o n demands more b lood. Yet the Er inys of Atreus demands only three such d r i n k - o f f e r i n g s to quench i t s t h i r s t . 1 * * That the doer must suf fer i s only a " t h r i c e - t o l d t a l e , " a ta l e that the curse l a s t s for only three generations. - 81 -This curse expresses i t s e l f i n two ways, in terms of the E r i n y s and a l so i n terms of " inheri ted ethos." Orestes k i l l s h i s mother and so s a t i s f i e s the law of "blood for blood" e i ther because h i s f a t h e r ' s Er inys i n v i t e s him in to the house to do her bloody business , or because he i n h e r i t s from h i s father the e v i l nature to k i l l . The idea of ethos dominates the kommos. I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y expressed i n the f i r s t strophe ( 3 2 4 - 3 1 ) . The strophe i s a response to Orestes' quest ion regarding what he should say or do to reach h i s father ( 3 1 4 - 1 8 ) . The Chorus' answer i s set in a s er i e s of gnomic statements. Orestes can reach h i s father because the consciousness of the dead i s not que l l ed by f i r e : $pdvn/va xbv © a v & V T & c r b\j S a / j a C e i n ^ p d a / y o X e p a Y V a G & a ( 3 2 4 - 2 5 ) . Rather i t reveals i t s temper at a l a t e r time: • a i v t i &' v f f T E p d x ipyao ( 3 2 6 ) . At one l e v e l the Chorus are simply s t a t i n g that death does not destroy the mind and fee l ings of a person but that these l i v e on af ter him. Orestes can c a l l upon h i s father for help and expect him to respond. But how w i l l he respond? How can the consciousness of Agamemnon reveal i t s temper? The answer i s , "through h i s son." So, at a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l , there i s a poss ib le suggestion of " inher i ted ethos." • a i v t i voxtpbv bpyaa c l o s e l y resembles the language of the l i o n - c u b parable , where the cub "reveals in time the nature of i t s parents" {Xpbv\o9z\o £' a n e 6 e i £ e v t\9ba xb np\a xbKzwv Agm. 7 2 6 - 2 7 ) . Orge should be understood i n i t s t r a d i t i o n a l sense of " d i s p o s i t i o n , " and comes very c lose i n meaning to ethos. The temperament of the father i s revealed i n the son who shares h i s nature. The l ion- imagery , invoked here from the parable , i s important w i th in the t r i l o g y because i t i d e n t i f i e s fa ther , son and mother together. Each share a - 82 -common nature inher i t ed through the family l i n e . The l i o n - c u b parable a l l e g o r i z e s the idea of " inher i ted ethos," so prominent i n the f i r s t two p l a y s . It i s of c en tra l importance i n as soc ia t ive the l ion- imagery on the whole with the theme of i n h e r i t e d g u i l t and s i n . Agamemnon i s the "noble l i o n " of Cassandra's v i s i o n , p l o t t e d against by the "two-footed l ioness" (Agm. 1 2 5 8 - 5 9 ) . He leads the host of Greeks against Troy. Like a savage l i o n {upt)axr]a Xewv) they leap over her wal l s and lap t h e i r f i l l of royal blood (Agm. 8 2 7 - 2 8 ) . Orestes reveals the same l i o n - l i k e nature when he k i l l s Clytemestra." Immediately af ter he forces h i s mother o f f stage to her death, the Chorus begin t h e i r f i n a l ode (Cho. 9 3 1 - 7 1 ) . In the f i r s t strophe ( 9 3 5 - 4 1 ) they compare the r e t r i b u t i o n which came to Priam and h i s sons to that which came to Clytemestra and Aegis thus . "As j u s t i c e came at l a s t to the Priamidae, so has a double l i o n come to the house of Agamemnon: " t p l X t /JZM S I K C I n p \ o ^ U a i c f XPcivui , / ( 3 a p y& i K d c r naiva/e^oXe o ' e c r oo/yov T o v ayapz'(j\bvbo/&\n\bZ<* X&wv, &inXo\ja apna ( 9 3 5 - 3 8 ) . Here, Orestes ' crime i s i d e n t i f i e d with h i s f a t h e r ' s . Both men exact vengeance. As a ravenous l i o n , Agamemnon mounts the wal ls of Troy to take h i s f i l l of b lood . Now as a fu l l -grown cub, Orestes mounts the peak of bloodshed (ndXXwv a i ^ a t u x ) c n n K p i t r e 9 3 2 ) . He merits the t i t l e of xXhA"^ ( 9 3 2 ) , a t i t l e appropriate to Agamemnon, who dares to s a c r i f i c e h i s own daughter (cf . Agm. 2 2 4 - 2 5 ) . The mind and temperament of the father l i v e on i n the son who shares the same savage nature. - 83 -"Inherited ethos" i s the prominent idea presented i n the f i r s t s trophe. The temperament of the father i s not consumed by the f i r e because i t l i v e s on i n the son. i n d i f f e r e n t terms, the f a t h e r ' s Er inys a r i s e s from the grave to assume Orestes ' form. The incanta t ion and the lamentation of the kommos arouses the Er inys from dormancy. In the kommos the a l a s t o r whom the Chorus of Agamemnon pred ic t would a r i s e from the father to lend a he lp ing hand (Agm. 1 5 0 7 - 0 8 ) i s summoned to the son's s ide . The E r i n y s then i n v i t e s the son into the house to exact vengeance on Clytemestra. But whether we see the curse in terms of an e v i l s p i r i t that prompts each member of the fami ly to murder and be murdered, or whether we see i t as an e v i l heredi ty w i th in the fami ly , "blood for blood" i s seen as a re su l t of that curse . By murdering h i s mother Orestes shows that he posesses the nature of h i s parents . At that point Clytemestra receives her due, "blood for b lood ." We can see how c l o s e l y t h i s law of vengeance i s t i e d to the curse of the fami ly . As we pass from the kommos to the f i r s t stasimon, the curse continues to be the underlying thought of the gnomes. At f i r s t glance the stasimon appears as a simple condemnation of Clytemestra. Her bold character i s i l l u s t a t e d by three myths about women of l i k e nature. However, the i m p l i c a t i o n broadens to inc lude the whole fami ly , Agamemnon and Orestes , both of whom commit the same s i n as Clytemestra. The curse i s f i r s t suggested by Clytemestra's dream. The content of the opening strophe suggests i t s e l f from the dream: "many are the t e r r i b l e sorrows, f u l l of f ear , which the earth breeds" ( 5 8 5 - 8 6 ) . I t i s from t h i s quarter that Clytemestra's dream comes, f u l l of f r igh ten ing import ( C K T ' & v e i p a x w v / K c i i v \ ; K T i n X a y K T O i v &ei/jaTco\) - 84 -nenaX//e\»ri 5 2 3 - 2 4 ) . L ike the teeming sea she gives b i r t h to a hate fu l monster ( 5 2 7 ; c f . 5 8 7 - 8 8 ) . The common imagery between the strophe and the dream suggests that what the dream portends under l i e s the stasimon. L ike a l l the an imal - s imi les of the t r i l o g y , the dream emphasizes the idea of " inher i ted ethos." In her dream, Clytemestra gives b i r t h to a snake, which then draws blood from her breast ( 5 3 3 ) . By accepting i t s omen, Orestes becomes the snake born of Clytemestra . Orestes shares the serpentine nature of h i s mother, who i s repeatedly character ized as a snake (Agm. 1 2 3 3 ; 17 Cho. 2 4 8 - 9 ; 1 0 4 7 ) . L ike h i s mother, he w i l l murder by d e c e i t . He w i l l enter the palace i n d i s g u i s e , where he w i l l s a c r i f i c e h i s v i c t i m to the household Er inys ( 5 7 7 - 7 8 ; c f . Agm. 1 4 3 3 ) . The crimes of mother and son appear i d e n t i c a l . C l e a r l y , Orestes has i n h e r i t e d the e v i l nature of the house. He i s subject to the same curse and w i l l commit i t s s i n , the murder of a loved-one. The blood drawn from the breast s i g n i f i e s bloodshed at the hands of a kinsman. Indeed, Orestes turns serpent when he k i l l s h i s mother ( 5 4 9 - 5 0 ) . ; . That the curse , the e v i l heredi ty of the race, i s propagated through b i r t h i s the meaning portended by the dream. Thi s same idea under l i es the f i r s t stasimon. Each member shares the same nature, and consequently commits the same s i n and suf fers the same fa te . When a race i s under such a curse i t perishes ( 6 3 5 - 3 6 ) . With the curse f i r m l y f i xed in t h e i r minds the Chorus begin to s ing the f i r s t ode. "Many are the t e r r i b l e sorrows, f u l l of fear that the earth breeds" ( 5 8 5 - 8 6 ) . Yet even more f r igh ten ing than the t e r r o r s of the earth l i k e Clytemestra's dream, or the monsters of the deep, or even the b r i l l i a n t - 85 -comets and the stormy whirlwinds of the sky ( 5 8 9 - 9 3 ) , are the inordinate passions of mankind that such a dream portends. The f i r s t strophe contains a t r i a d of ear th , sea and a i r . I t forms a priamel which reaches a climax in 1 8 the ant is trophe ( 5 9 4 - 6 0 1 ) . The worst of things i s the temperament and passions of humankind, •pd'aoa of l i n e 5 9 2 of the strophe i s picked up i n X E Y M of l i n e 5 9 5 of the ant i s trophe . Whereas one can speak of such natura l phenomena as the "stormy wrath of whir lwinds ," i t i s impossible to speak of the passions of mankind. The opening question of the ant i s trophe ( 5 9 4 - 9 8 ) , l i k e many r h e t o r i c a l quest ions , forms a gnomic thought: indescr ibab le are the daring thoughts of men and the reckless passions of women. The ant is trophe i t s e l f i s c l i m a c t i c . The daring temperament of a man i s one th ing , but the reckless passions of women are another, e s p e c i a l l y those of a love less nature (onEpuxaa tpuxr 6 0 0 ) . This play on words i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the gnomes. But what i s a "loveless love?" It i s that which p r e v a i l s upon a woman (enXuKpafricr 6 0 0 ) to destroy the wedlock of men and beasts a l i k e . The f i n a l gnome s p e c i f i e s what womanly passion the Chorus have i n mind. In f a c t , the second h a l f of the quest ion ( 5 9 6 - 9 8 ) and the f i n a l gnome should not be d i s t inqu i shed i n thought, but go together. In each if case epwa i s repeated with d e f i n i t e sexual overtones. E.UC\JY&U<* ( 5 9 9 ) p icks up o\]\>\>&/jb\)0 of the previous l i n e . The l a t t e r can carry sexual connotations as w e l l . epuff can mean more than jus t sexual d e s i r e . The f i r s t two myths ( 6 0 3 - 1 1 ; 6 1 2 - 2 2 ) show women dr iven by passions other than sexual . Althea des ires revenge, while S c y l l a i s overcome with greed. However, as we s h a l l see, these myths prove to be paradigms of the tolma of men, whereas the - 8 6 -story of Clytemestra ( 6 2 3 - 3 0 ) and the Lemnian women prove to be examples of "loveless pass ion." In view of t h i s , epwo- re ta ins i t s p r i m a r i l y sexual meaning. Some understand the f i r s t ant is trophe to be a priamel i t s e l f , which then i s i l l u s t r a t e d by three mythical paradigms. The reference to the Lemnian crimes corresponds to the f i n a l gnome about the "loveless passion" of 19 women. For t h i s t r i a d of mythical paradigms to e x i s t , the t h i r d strophe and ant is trophe need to be transposed. As the text stands, an a l l u s i o n to Clytemestra occupies the s t r o p h e , ^ while the Lemnian myth follows i n the ant i s trophe . Such a t r a n s p o s i t i o n may commend i t s e l f for r h e t o r i c a l reasons but not for anything e l s e . It i s more l i k e l y that the pattern i s not a t r i a d but a simple contras t , where the un£ /pToX/yov 4>povriA/a of men i s contrasted with the TTctMToX/;o\;0' tpwTatr of women. "Indescribable" may be the s p i r i t of men but even more indescr ibable are the passions of women, e s p e c i a l l y those that destroy the s a n c t i t y of marriage. There i s a d e f i n i t e crescendo on the tolma-root words: vnz'pxbXpbo i s succeeded by xXhA'ovwv rxavxbXpba. Because of the sexual overtones in both ovwipiva and J.vCuYduo' the thought i s continuous from 596 to 6 0 1 : the completely reckless passion that even succeeds the bold nature of men i s the "loveless love" of women that destroys marriage. navrbX^bcr, as an ep i the t , appropr ia te ly describes the character of Clytemestra whose own reckless passion destroyed her own marriage. She i s addressed by t h i s t i t l e elsewhere in Choephori and Agamemnon. In the kommos E l e c t r a c a l l s her the " a l l - d a r i n g mother" (navxbXpz paxtp) who had the - 87 -boldness (cxXaa) to bury Agamemnon as she d i d (Cho. 430f.). With p r o p h e t i c i n s i g h t , Cassandra sees Clytemestra for what she r e a l l y i s , bold ( T J I O ( J T O taX/vSi Agm. 1231) and completely r e c k l e s s (fi TTavTiTdX/j&ff Agm. 1237). This passage i s important to our present d i s c u s s i o n because i t d e l i n e a t e s the character of Clytemestra i n p r e c i s e l y the terms that describe "bold women" i n general { Y U v o I K " v rnX/v&vtov 596). She i s compared to treacherous Ate ( S I K I Y V "oThff Xa9po\ou Agm. 1229-30). I t i s because Clytemestra l i v e s w i t h Agamemnon that she proves to be h i s Ate ( c f . aTaiffi au\)v&A/&u<7 f 3 p 8 T w v 597-98). T&X/va enXyff (Agm. 1231) echoes Y U M O K U V TXn./v&vu\i of Choephori, while n TtavTdTdX/vdff (Agm. 1237) resumes navTdX/j&u<*• In both places Clytemestra i s compared to the S c y l l a . Although they are d i f f e r e n t f i g u r e s , there i s some confusion i n t h e i r i n d e n t i t y and d e s c r i p t i o n . Both S c y l l a s are compared to dogs. In Agamemnon she bears "the tongue of a h a t e f u l hound" (Agm. 1228), while i n the Choephori she bears the heart of a dog (Kuvd$puv 621). In both p l a c e s , Clytemestra i s described as something 6Uff<MXe/a ( c f . Agm. 1232 ; Cho. 624, 637). She, l i k e a l l of her kind, i s something l o v e l e s s and h a t e f u l because of the husband she murdered and the marriage she destroyed. The navxix/jbo tpuu belongs to her. The account of her treachery i n the t h i r d strophe and the Lemnian s t o r y that p a r a l l e l s i t p e r f e c t l y i l l u s t r a t e the " l o v e l e s s passion" that destroys marriage, whereas the f i r s t two mythical paradigms, although i n d i r e c t l y , i l l u s t r a t e the bold temperament of men. Although each of the myths e x e m p l i f i e s the unnatural passions of women, and each r e f e r s to the tolma of Clytemestra, t h i s by no means exhausts t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . The f i r s t two myths a l s o r e f e r to the crimes of Agamemnon and - 88 -Orestes which are a re su l t of t h e i r l i k e natures. • p d ' v r i A ' o t can mean both the s p i r i t and temperament of a man, as wel l as the thoughts that issue from that temperament. I t should be understood i n both i t s senses. vntpTlkfjav • p b -vr)(jtx should r e c a l l Agamemnon's frame of mind when he contemplated Iphigenia ' s murder. He breathed for th an impious change of mind and began to conceieve thoughts of u t ter recklessness ( x b n o v T b T o X / y b v • p b v e i v Agm. 2 2 1 ) . So h o r r i b l e i s the s a c r i f i c e that fol lows that the Chorus of Agamemnon break o f f from descr ib ing i t . "Who can speak of the reckless s p i r i t of a man?," i s the sense we fee l i n the parodos. C e r t a i n l y the Chorus of e lders could not. This same bold temperament i s i n h e r i t e d by Orestes . He shares the same determination to v i o l a t e the t i e s between kinsmen. • pb\>hA'<* looks back to the kommos, where we l earn that the consciousness (*pavn^ct), or rather the temperament, of Agamemnon does not per i sh i n death but l i v e s on i n h i s son (cf . 3 2 3 ) . By the end of the kommos Orestes assumes the s p i r i t of h i s fa ther . The E r i n y s , the e v i l nature or s p i r i t of Atreus , takes c o n t r o l of him and promotes,.i,ts vengeance through Orestes . By murdering h i s mother, Orestes reveals that same temperament that l ed h i s father to murder. In f a c t , t h e i r crimes are s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r . Each i s faced with a d i f f i c u l t choice between two e v i l s . Each chooses to murder a loved one. The s i tua t ions are p a r a l l e l . But at the same time they are d i f f e r e n t . On the one hand, Agamemnon i s compared to a vu l ture bereft of i t s young who c r i e s to Zeus for vengeance (Agm. 4 7 - 6 0 ) . On the other hand, Orestes and E l e c t r a are compared to "orphaned nes t l ings of an eagle" c a l l i n g upon Zeus to avenge them ( 2 4 6 - 6 3 ) . The imagery i s now reversed. Instead of parents mourning for 23 the i r young, i t i s the young who mourn for t h e i r parents . In the one case, - 89 -Agamemnon returns home and i s d e c e i t f u l l y murdered. In the other, Orestes returns home and d e c e i t f u l l y murders. Their s i t u a t i o n s are exact ly reversed. The s i m i l a r i t i e s between father and son are inverse ly expressed, whereby the s i t u a t i o n of Choephori reverses the s i t u a t i o n of Agamemnon. So, i n Agamemnon parent k i l l s c h i l d , while in Choephori c h i l d k i l l s parent . This pat tern of invers ion i s adopted in the two myths that fo l low in the second s t roph ic system. Both are paradigms of the yne'pxbXfjby) •p&vnA"* shared by father and son. They suggest the same inverted r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i r crimes as we have seen above. In the f i r s t myth (603-11), Althaea k i l l s her son. T h i s suggests the crime of Agamemnon, where parent k i l l s c h i l d , and, as the reverse of i t , the crime of Orestes where son k i l l s mother. In the second myth (613-22) S c y l l a k i l l s her fa ther . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the previous paradigm i s now reversed. The second paradigm suggests the crime of Orestes , where c h i l d murders parent, and, as i t s inverse , the crime of Agamemnon where father murders daughter. The pattern of the plays i s b r i l l i a n t l y maintained i n the mythical paradigms. The s i tua t ions of father and son appear as "mirror images" of one 24 another. The pattern emphasizes the common heredi ty shared by father and son. Let us return to the eagle-imagery, where t h i s pattern of invers ion i s adopted. Orestes i s now the n e s t l i n g eagle robbed of i t s parent (246-50), whereas in the previous play Agamemnon i s the eagle robbed of it's young. As we have s a i d , the s i t u a t i o n s are reversed but p a r a l l e l . Orestes prays to - 90 -Zeus to save "the nes t l ings of t h e i r fa ther , the s a c r i f i c e r " (xdu ©u^hpbff 2 5 5 ) . This r e c a l l s the crime of Agamemnon, who "dared to become the s a c r i f i c e r of h i s daughter" (Agm. 2 2 4 ) . I f Zeus saves them, Orestes i m p l i e s , he can continue to expect the same tokens "from a l i k e hand": n a T p d o -v e d f f f f d u f f T d \ j f f & ' a n o $ 9 e i p a a no9ev/e£ela ipbdxo x c i p o o - e1j0divd\> ytpaa; ( 2 5 6 - 5 7 ) . As Winnington-lngram observes, "the young eagles w i l l br ing home to the nest prey such as t h e i r father brought, that the hand that prepares the s a c r i f i c e 25 w i l l be homoia." The son has i n h e r i t e d the temperament of the fa ther ; the mirror imagery suggests the s i m i l a r i t y between t h e i r natures and t h e i r crimes. In the f i n a l myth ( 6 3 1 - 3 8 ) , the same pattern of invers ion i s adopted to suggest the idea of i n h e r i t e d s i n , where the crime of one generat ion i s mirrored in the next. However, the "Lemnian story" becomes something more than just a mythical paradigm. It i s regarded as a by-word of i n h e r i t e d g u i l t and s i n . The previous two myths, and, for that matter, the reference to Clytemestra in the t h i r d strophe, are narra t ive d e s c r i p t i o n s . Th i s cont inu i ty i n the narra t ive passages would be broken i f the t h i r d strophe and 26 ant is trophe were transposed, as S t in ton has suggested. Unl ike the three previous paradigms, the "Lemnian story" [x\ X h/yviov) i s represented as a p r o v e r b i a l word needing no explanation of i t s meaning. "Lemnian" has become a euphemism for the worst of e v i l s , that w i th in a cursed race. I t i m p l i c i t l y suggests i n h e r i t e d g u i l t and s i n . As a proverb for such e v i l , i t s u i t s the s er i e s of gnomes which fol low i n the l a t e r part of the t h i r d ant i s trophe and in the f i n a l s t r o p h e - p a i r . ( A l l three stanzas, in some way, deal with the - 91 -curse . ) This s t ructure of three narra t ive passages ( 6 0 5 - 3 0 ) fol lowed by three gnomic passages ( 6 3 2 - 5 1 ) would be broken by transposing the text . As a byword for e v i l , "each further act of horror i s compared to the Lemnian sorrows": ni- K «frev 5 c T i a / x a i e ivbv ay X n / J V t M a i nr)/vo<r\v ( 6 3 3 - 3 4 ) . This comment makes better sense only i f the manuscript-order i s r e t a i n e d . What new deed of horror do the Chorus have i n mind except the crime of Clytemestra? L o g i c a l l y , they f i r s t narrate i t , then compare i t to a proverb ia l deed of horror i t c l o s e l y resembles. The narra t ive reference to Clytemestra and i t s gnomic equivalent are l i n k e d p o e t i c a l l y through r i n g -composit ion, which would be l o s t i f the strophe and ant i s trophe were switched. i u f f^iXea yaJ^Xz^p' OTTCUXEX&V ( 6 2 4 - 2 5 ) corresponds to a e P c i dyXia x d &v>ff$iXe'ff ( 6 3 7 ) . What i s hatefu l to the gods but a "loveless marriage?" The mention of a "loveless marriage" n a t u r a l l y r e c a l l s the "loveless passion" that destroys the wedded union of men and beasts , Yuvoatceiav ax&X/jdv aix^av ( 6 3 0 ) further r e c a l l s Y U N > « I K U V xXhA^vwv ( 5 9 6 ) of the gnomic i n t r o d u c t i o n . These verbal echoes l i n k the gnomic in troduct ion on the tolma 27 of women with i t s narra t ive paradigm. They s igna l that i n the t h i r d strophe the Chorus are passing from a d e s c r i p t i o n of the bpbvrwa of men to a d e s c r i p t i o n of the cpwa of women. They f i r s t describe an example of "loveless passion;" then give i t s p r o v e r b i a l equiva lent . Clytemestra's crime resembles the "Lemnian e v i l " on two counts. F i r s t , she murders her husband; secondly, and more important ly , her crime i s an - 92 -example of wrong begett ing wrong wi th in the race . It i s for the l a t t e r reason that "Lemnian" had become a by-word for e v i l . According to Herodotus, the "Lemnian deed" had become proverbia l for two separate crimes (Hdt. 6 138). In the time of Thoas the women of Lemnos murdered t h e i r husbands. At a l a t t e r date the Pelasgians, descendants of the Lemnian women, murdered the A t t i c women they had taken as concubines. The s i t u a t i o n i s now the exact reverse of the former. The pattern of the f i r s t two myths and of the t r i l o g y i t s e l f i s continued where one crime engenders another as i t s "mirror image." The Chorus do not spec i fy which cr ime; they simply re fer i n a proverb ia l manner to the "Lemnian e v i l . " It i s best to understand both. In f a c t , t h e i r t h i r d remark i n the ant istrophe v i r t u a l l y echoes what Herodotus has to say: because of these two crimes, " i t had become customary throughout Greece to c a l l every c r u e l deed Lemnian" (Hdt. 6 138 4 ) . Th i s i s p r e c i s e l y what the Chorus i s doing when they compare Clytemestra's deed to the "Lemnian e v i l . " Her murder of Agamemnon i s an example of wrong begett ing wrong. The poss ib le presence of pathos in the second sentence further suggests the idea of i n h e r i t e d s i n (cpyo) and g u i l t (rraGda): rSaxai 4e i n TTa9d<r KaTanxuffxav (632-33). As we have seen, doing and su f f er ing i s the pattern of the fami ly , the r e s u l t of the curse (1016). Erga and pathos are repeated i n each generation according to the p a t t e r n of i n v e r s i o n . The murderer becomes the murdered. The r e s u l t of t h i s curse i s that the race or family perishes i n dishonour: eeaaxyrhxcoi 6 'aytdxM« ocxi/j«9e\i i iXexoa ycvho (635-36). Because "Lemnian" i s considered a by-word for i n h e r i t e d s i n , the Chorus' - 93 -remark appl ies as much to the race of Atreus . Their remark has become a gnome. When a race or family i s under such curse or p o l l u t i o n (aybo 6 3 5 ) , when the crime of one generation i s imitated and mirrored i n the next, as i n the case of Agamemnon and Orestes , the race disappears , loathed by the gods. "For no one reverences what i s love less to the gods" ( 6 3 7 ) . The Chorus conclude the ode by returning to the themes of the kommos. The sword (£i$o<r 6 3 9 ) , l i k e the bloody blow, symbolizes that j u s t i c e of "blood for b lood." The sword i s plunged deep into the heart at D ike ' s own bidding ( S i a i A\Kaa ) , and the cry raised by Dike i s "bloody blow for bloody blow." Within the f i n a l strophe " l ike for l i k e " i s suggested in the poetry of l i n e s 6 4 1 and fo l lowing . The text i s corrupt , but the sense i s s t i l l c l e a r : "Dike tramples underfoot that which i s unlawful ( x d fjr\ QZfj\a), namely those who unlawful ly transgress the reverence of Zeus." In Agamemnon the image of "trampling underfoot" becomes a metaphor for s a c r i l e g e . The idea of sacr i l ege i s brought out i n o-ePacf napeic|3avxda ( 6 4 5 ) . The one who tramples down what i s sacred i s himself trampled down by the j u s t i c e that demands " l ike for l i k e . " As we pass in to the ant i s trophe , " l ike for l i k e " i s seen not only as a law of Dike, but a l so as a decree of Fate (Aisa) and of the ances tra l curse ( E r i n y s ) . Throughout Agamemnon and Choephori , these three f igures have been associated with the gnome. Their a s soc ia t ion emphasizes the pervasive importance of the gnome, equal ly conceived as a p r i n c i p l e of fate to which a l l are bound, the d iv ine j u s t i c e of Zeus or even the r e s u l t of the curse wi th in the fami ly . The various ideas are represented as a l l e g o r i e s . Again the sword i s the symbol of vengeance, "blood for b l o o d . " - 94 -Fate forges beforehand (npd) the sword upon the a n v i l of j u s t i c e . The image r e c a l l s the passage from Agamemnon where Moira sharpens Dike upon the whetstone (Agm. 1 5 3 5 - 3 6 ) . The metaphors are very s i m i l a r and l i t t l e or no d i s t i n c t i o n should be made between the f igures A i s a or Moira . Before anything occurs , Fate ensures that i t happens according to the ru le of " l ike for l i k e . " She i s the cause before i t s due e f f e c t , the necess i ty of su f f er ing the consequences of an a c t i o n . The doer i s made to suf fer h i s own deed. Zeus has incorporated t h i s p r i n c i p l e in to h i s own system of j u s t i c e . Dike, the daughter of Zeus, a l l e g o r i z e s that j u s t i c e . Such j u s t i c e i s e t e r n a l l y f i x e d . "As long as Zeus abides upon the throne, i t abides that the doer must suffer" (Agm. 1 5 6 3 - 6 3 ) . The same point i s made here: j u s t i c e i s l i k e an a n v i l f i r m l y planted i n the ground upon which the sword of vengeance i s fashioned. But Orestes' dec i s ion to k i l l h i s mother and avenge h i s father i s as much a resu l t of the family curse as i t i s a necess i ty of f a t e . Both the Er inys and Fate cooperate to the same end. "The renowned E r i n y s , the embodiment of the curse , i s f i n a l l y br ing ing the son in to the house," f o r c i n g him "to requite the p o l l u t i o n of bloodshed of o l d " ( 6 4 8 - 5 1 ) . With these f i n a l words the Chorus answer the quest ion of what can atone for the p o l l u t i o n of blood: the sword and more bloodshed. The ir words look back to the parodos, where bloodshed i s f i r s t conceived as a p o l l u t i o n . But there the Chorus i s not so p o s i t i v e : a l l the r i v e r s of the world could not cleanse hands s ta ined i n blood (xbv X£p&/Aj<*h <J>dv&\> 7 2 - 7 4 ) . The Chorus suppose that the murder of Clytemestra w i l l f i n a l l y ( X p b v a n 6 5 1 ) repay for the past deeds of blood - 95 -(a'/yaxojM rtaXoafe'puv 650) . T h i s f i n a l a c t o f b l o o d s h e d , t h i s t h i r d l i b a t i o n (577-78) , i s supposed t o s a t i s f y t h e E r i n y s , t o end t h e c u r s e . However, t h i s p r o v e s t o be a f a l s e a s s u m p t i o n and one t h a t exposes t h e v e r y weakness o f the law o f " b l o o d f o r b l o o d . " More b l o o d s h e d i s n o t an e f f e c t i v e atonement. L a t e r , as the b o d i e s o f C l y t e m e s t r a and A e g i s t h u s l i e b e f o r e him, O r e s t e s b e g i n s t o r e a l i z e t h a t he h i m s e l f i s p o l l u t e d . H i s v i c t o r y i s u n e n v i a b l e p o l l u t i o n (1017). The v e r y a c t w h i c h was d e s i g n e d t o c l e a n s e t he s i n s o f the p a s t has o n l y caused f u r t h e r p o l l u t i o n and even the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f u r t h e r vengeance. O r e s t e s can o n l y s t a n d t h e r e mourning the d o i n g and s u f f e r i n g o f h i s r a c e i n which he has now come t o s h a r e . Each member avenges and i s avenged. T h i s c u r s e i s not r e s o l v e d w i t h more b l o o d . Under such a "god-hated p o l l u t i o n " (eedo-TuYhTwi a.yt\) the ra c e o n l y p e r i s h e s . O r e s t e s i s p a r t o f t h a t r a c e and seems t o be under t h e same p o l l u t i o n . By t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f the p l a y he i s pursued by the E r i n y e s . The Chorus f e a r t h a t "the tempest o f the r a c e " now the symbol o f the c u r s e , may not have blown f o r i t s t h i r d and l a s t t i m e . I t may not have run i t s c o u r s e (1065-67) . Has O r e s t e s come as a doom r a t h e r t h a n a s a v i o u r t o the r a c e (1073-74)? Where w i l l the f u r y o f the s t o r m grow calm (1075-76)? Not i n Argos where vengeance i s t a k e n . O r e s t e s must l e a r n t h a t s o l u t i o n does n o t l i e w i t h revenge. By r e c o g n i z i n g h i s deed f o r what i t i s , a p o l l u t i o n i n need o f c l e a n s i n g , O r e s t e s i s w e l l on h i s way t o l e a r n i n g t h i s m o r a l l e s s o n . I n Eumenides he emerges as a man p u r i f i e d o f h i s s i n and s c h o o l e d i n s u f f e r i n g . L i k e Zeus, he l e a r n s t h r o u g h s u f f e r i n g and so a v o i d s the n e c e s s i t y o f " l i k e f o r l i k e . " - 96 -NOTES FOR CHAPTER II 1. "The r h e t o r i c a l question marks his choice . He pre fers the pomp and the ceremony of the sh ips ." N.G.L.Hammond, JHS,85 (1965), 44; c f . Fraenkel , I I , p.122, " i t i s dec i s ive that . the answer impl ied in th i s r h e t o r i c a l question can only be imposs ible ." 2. N .B . Booth, "Aeschylus, Choephori, 61-65," CQ, ns. 7 (1957), 143. 3. Lebeck, p.100. 4. Booth ( O p . c i t . p.143) suggests that akrantos re fers to Agamemnon, who i s powerless to exact h i s vengeance. "Only those in the l i g h t can obtain j u s t i c e s w i f t l y . " Night i s the place where nothing can be accomplished by the dead. A s i m i l a r thought i s expressed in the f i r s t stasimon of Agamemnon: ev 6' aiaxaiff TcXe6dvTd<x i l j x w a\Ka (Agm. 466-67). "When a man i s among the unseen he has no s trength." In both gnomes a re la ted euphemism i s used for death. b\JT\a otXKol and o'lcpav-cda are re lated i n meaning. In death there i s no stength to accomplish anything. 5. Rose, I I , p.126; c f . A.W. V e r r a l l , The Choephori of Aeschylus (London: Macmillan and Co, 1893), p . 9 . 6. Even the b e l i e f that the descendants of the g u i l t y pay for the s ins of the past i s not fore ign to Aeschylus: "A bane appears to the descendants of those who breathe with a pr ide greater than just" (Agm. 374f). 7. Lebeck, pp.195-96, n.12. 8. V e r r a l l , p .10. 9. iSuerav //aTa\> (74) i s an emendation of i&Gffa'u aTh\> - The l a t t e r makes no sense, /vorcav i s common with the motif of "no remedy." a'tcdcr (72) /jatav should r e c a l l atc&a / /atai jv of the f i r s t stasimon of Agamemnon, where the motif i s expressed several times through the opening s trophe-pair (c f . 381, 385). 10. At 96f. E l e c t r a compares the murders of Clytemestra and Aegisthus to l i b a t i o n s poured out upon the ground. This l i b a t i o n , un l ike the one sent out by Clytemestra , does have an atoning e f f e c t (KaeapfjaQ' 98). This re in forces the point impl ied i n the parodos: only blood can atone for b lood. 11. Rose, I I , p.127. 12. Winnington-Ingram, p.170. 13. The passage provides a good example of l i t e r a r y features of the gnomes. F i r s t there i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of j u s t i c e (Td &ucaidv) . - 97 -S e c o n d l y , a n a b u n d a n c e o f v e r b a l j i n g l e s . W o r d s a r e r e p e a t e d i n i n t e r l o c k i n g w o r d o r d e r ( < x v x \ (jzv e X 9 p a o - Y X u o - a n o " £ X 9 p a n X n y f i v ) o r i n a c h i a s m u s ( O V T I S e n X r i Y h a • b v u x a • b v i o v n X h Y h v ) t o a c h i e v e a s s o n a n c e . V e r r a l l , p . 5 9 . A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e p l a y ( 1 0 6 5 - 7 6 ) , t h e C h o r u s d e s c r i b e t h e c u r s e i n t e r m s o f a s t o r m w i t h i n t h e r a c e (X£V£">>v Ydvuxcr) t h a t h a s b l o w n f o r t h e t h i r d t i m e ( x p i x b a ) u p o n t h e h o u s e . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e m o t i f o f t h r e e r e f e r s t o t h e c u r s e o f t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s . T h e C h o r u s r e f e r t o t h e f e a s t o f T h y e s t e s f i r s t ( n p u x o v 1 0 6 8 - 6 9 ) , t h e n t o t h e m u r d e r o f A g a m e m n o n ( o e O x e p b v 1 0 7 0 - 7 2 ) a n d t h i r d l y t o t h e c o m i n g o f O r e s t e s ( x p i x b a 1 0 7 3 - 7 4 ) . R o s e , I I , p . 1 7 6 . V e r r a l l , p p . 4 3 - 4 4 , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e g n o m e " l i k e f o r l i k e " e x p r e s s e d i n YXwaoTio' YXc^aaa ( 3 0 8 ) s i g n i f i e s t h e d e c e p t i o n t o b e u s e d b y O r e s t e s a g a i n s t h i s m o t h e r . " T h e ' d e c e p t i v e t o n g u e ' o f C l y t e m e s t r a w i l l b e r e p a i d b y t h e ' d e c e p t i v e t o n g u e ' o f O r e s t e s . " E r l i n g B . H o l t s m a r k , " O n t h e C h o e p h o r o i 5 8 5 - 6 5 1 , " C W , 5 9 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , 2 1 5 , n . 3 . T . C . W . S t i n t o n , " T h e f i r s t s t a s i m o n o f A e s c h y l u s ' C h o e p h o r i , " C Q , n s . 2 9 ( 1 9 7 9 ) , 2 5 5 - 5 6 . T h e t h i r d s t r o p h e ( 6 2 3 - 3 0 ) i s s e r i o u s l y c o r r u p t . H o w e v e r , t h e r e c a n b e n o q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e C h o r u s a r e r e f e r i n g t o C l y t e m e s t r a a n d h e r m u r d e r o f A g a m e m n o n a n d n o t , a s s o m e s u g g e s t , t o A e g i s t h u s ; c f . R o s e , I I , p . 1 8 2 a n d V e r r a l l , p p . 8 8 - 8 9 . O b v i o u s l y S y a ^ i X e a rapr\\Z\jfja a n d r\jVa\Kt(a.\ O X O X A / O V c a n o n l y r e f e r t o C l y t e m e s t r a . A s f o r t h e t e x t i t s e l f o n e c o u l d c h a n g e a K c a p w a i e t o a K a i p ' b \ j & E w h i c h g i v e s t h e s e n s e o f K a i p o o a n e e d e d h e r e a n d b a l a n c e s byK e v S i K w a aytxpu ( 6 3 8 ) a t t h e e n d o f t h e s t r o p h e i n r i n g - c o m p o s i t i o n . a n e u X o / y o i r e p l a c e s o n e u X E X b v a n d s u p p l i e s t h e n e e d e d m a i n v e r b . I t a p p r o p r i a t e l y c o n t r a s t s w i t h x i w a t t h e e n d o f t h e s t r o p h e . T h e s e e m e n d a t i o n s r e q u i r e l i t t l e c h a n g e t o t h e t e x t . T h e p a s s a g e t r a n s l a t e s a s f o l l o w s : " S i n c e I h a v e m e n t i o n e d r e l e n t l e s s t o i l s , i t i s n o t i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o a b o m i n a t e a m a r r i a g e h o s t i l e t o t h e h o u s e . " S e e S t i n t o n , C Q , n s . 2 9 ( 1 9 7 9 ) , 2 6 0 . E l e c t r a ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f C l y t e m e s t r a a t 4 3 0 f . r e c a l l s t h e e l d e r s ' d e s c r i p t i o n o f A g a m e m n o n , w h o c o n c e i v e s u t t e r r e c k l e s s t h o u g h t s ( x b n a v x b x b X / ; b v A g m . 2 2 2 ) a n d d a r e s ( e x X a A g m . 2 2 4 ) t o s a c r i f i c e h i s d a u g h t e r . B o t h e x h i b i t t h e s a m e b o l d t e m p e r a m e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e i r r a c e . " W o m a n l y b o l d n e s s " i s s u g g e s t e d i n t h e p a s s a g e f r o m A g a m e m n o n b y t h e j u x t a p o s t i o n o f x b X / / a e n X y a ( A g m . 1 2 3 1 ) . P a g e s ' t e x t g i v e s x b i a y X a - 9 8 -x d X / y o i , while Fraenkel gives x d i o e xikpa. enXyV belongs to the next sentence; nonetheless the juxtapost ion i s keenly f e l t . I t i s "womanly boldness" that causes the murder of the husband OnXOff "apaevoff •JMeua Agm. 1 2 3 1 ) . 2 3 . Anne Lebeck, "The f i r s t stasimon of Aeschylus ' Choephori: Myth and Mirror Image," CPh, 91 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , 1 8 2 - 8 5 . 2 4 . I b i d . "The term "mirror image: i s used by Lebeck to descr ibe t h i s pattern of r e v e r s a l . 2 5 . Winnington-lngram, p p.134-35. 2 6 . S t in ton , CQ, ns. 29 ( 1 9 7 9 ) , 2 5 5 . 2 7 . At 6 0 0 epucf i s described as onepwxocf. The meaning of the word p a r a l l e l s the meaning of l\)<j$\\to, which descr ibes the character of Clytemestra's marriage. Her love less passion causes a love le s s marriage for Agamemnon and h i s whole household. This echo l i n k s the t h i r d strophe more c l o s e l y to the gnomic i n t r o d u c t i o n on the passions of women. 2 8 . Rose, I I , p . 1 8 3 takes naTiu/jcvacr to be middle, while others trans la te i t pas s i ve l y ; c f . Holtsmark, CW, 59 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , 2 5 1 . - 99 -CHAPTER III - Eumenides The f i r s t stasimon of Choephori concludes with a vers ion of the gnome " l ike for l i k e . " The gnome i s envis ioned as many th ings . At one l e v e l i t i s seen as a r i g i d p r i n c i p l e of fa te , the necess i ty of cause and e f f e c t , where the doer must suffer i n k i n d . At a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l , i t i s seen as the j u s t i c e of Zeus: Dike i s the advocate, c a l l i n g out "bloody blow for bloody blow." And then again, i t i s seen as the i n e v i t a b l e re su l t of the ances t ra l curse, the law of the Erinyes who i n c i t e t h i s vengeance. In the previous p lays , Moira , Zeus and the Erinyes work together for the f u l f i l l m e n t of the lex t a l i o n i s . However, t h i s cooperation breaks down i n Eumenides. A divergence i s apparent even i n Choephori , where the law becomes narrowly defined in terms of the family and "blood for b lood ." The gnome i s l e ss often seen as u n i v e r s a l l y applying to a l l men. At i t s narrowest, i t i s seen e x c l u s i v e l y as the law and prerogat ive of the Er inyes , whose funct ion i n Eumenides i s a l so at i t s narrowest. They no longer avenge broken h o s p i t a l i t y or even bloodshed i n general but only m a t r i c i d e . They have become exc lus ive ly the "vengeful hounds of a mother." The Erinyes f a i l to recognize another law governing the a f f a i r s of men, the law of "learning through s u f f e r i n g . " In Eumenides, the gnome again assumes i t s f u l l importance. Through h i s long wandering Orestes s u f f e r s . This su f f er ing eventual ly p u r i f i e s him of h i s b l o o d - g u i l t and his a c q u i t t a l aff irms h i s p u r i f i c a t i o n . What i s foreshadowed on the d iv ine l e v e l i n Prometheus and the Hymn to Zeus i s now r e a l i z e d on the human l e v e l . Like - 100 -Zeus, Orestes learns from his s u f f e r i n g and so escapes the necessary consequences of " l ike for l i k e . " Unl ike Agamemnon or Clytemestra , Orestes recognizes the g u i l t of h i s act ion and accepts the r e s p o n s i b l i t y . He seeks p u r i f i c a t i o n . What he suf fers during his long e x i l e teaches him the way of p u r i f i c a t i o n . Consequently h i s case deserves some q u a l i f i c a t i o n . His s i t u a t i o n can no longer be judged according to the narrow l i m i t s of "blood for blood.' ' However, the Erinyes continue to recognize only the law of vengeance. In Eumenides, we come f u l l turn to the s i t u a t i o n of Prometheus, where events of human s i g n i f i c a n c e are determined at the d iv ine l e v e l f i r s t . Eumenides cannot be f u l l y appreciated except i n l i g h t of the Hymn to Zeus and Prometheus, to which the Hymn a l l u d e s . Like Zeus, the Erinyes themselves become bound to the necess i ty of fa te : they must suffer the consequences of the i r ac t ions . "Avenge and be avenged" i s the law they advocate, and one that must be followed to i t s l o g i c a l conc lus ion . By becoming the ac tua l avengers of Cytemestra, they too must suffer the fate of the fami ly . The s i m i l a r i t y between t h e i r fate and the fate of the fami ly , now represented by Orestes , becomes the c e n t r a l point made in the gnomes of the f i r s t stasimon and the opening scenes to which these gnomes r e l a t e . Both Orestes and the Er inyes become d i senfranch i sed . Both are forced to wander but are f i n a l l y i n v i t e d into Athens. Like Orestes and Zeus, the Er inyes l earn from t h e i r s u f f e r i n g that the v io lence of revenge i s not the only s o l u t i o n . Their experience resu l t s in a new p o l i t i c a l order for men, jus t as - 101 -Zeus' experience resu l ted i n the law of pathei mathos to guide mortals to understanding. Their v io lence i s tempered by r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . That balance between force and knowledge, symbolized i n the law of "learning through s u f f e r i n g , " i s symbolized in the E r i n y e s ' transformation in to "Eumenides." A pattern develops in the e a r l y scenes that culminates i n the gnomes of the f i r s t stasimon. As each scene unfo lds , the Erinyes become c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d with Orestes . The fate that he suf fers at t h e i r hands soon becomes t h e i r own. The p o l l u t i o n with which he i s s ta ined soon s ta ins the hands of the Er inyes . I t i s our purpose f i r s t to trace t h i s pattern through the opening scenes of the p lay , then to see how i t i s expressed at the l y r i c a l l e v e l i n the gnomes of the f i r s t stasimon. The play opens in Delphi at the temple of A p o l l o . The Pythia begins her prayer by t rac ing the heritage of the o r a c l e . A p o l l o has succeeded a l i n e of prophetesses extending back through Phoebe, Themis and G a i a . 1 The prayer r e f l e c t s a peaceful harmony between the o ld and new gods that i s not restored 2 u n t i l the end of the p lay . This harmony among the gods i s soon shattered by the presence of Orestes and the E r i n y e s . The Pythia descr ibes the h o r r i d s ight she sees within the temple of A p o l l o . Her d e s c r i p t i o n of Orestes i s important to our d i scuss ion because i t i d e n t i f i e s c e r t a i n t r a i t s i n Orestes which are l a t e r ascr ibed to the E r i n y e s . She sees Orestes garbed as a suppl iant , h i s hands d r i p p i n g with blood (a\pax\ axaCoVTa xt^paa 4 1 - 4 2 ) , a man po l lu ted and hated before the gods (avSpo Qd/j^at] 4 0 ) . The word theomuse h i t s upon a key-thought i n the p l a y . Throughout the Erinyes are - 102 -charac ter i zed as p o l l u t e d and hated by the gods. In A p o l l o ' s speech that immediately fol lows ( 6 5 - 8 4 ) , he describes the Furies as "objects of hate" to both the Olympian gods and men a l i k e ( ^ l a a r t / v a x ' a v S p w v K a i 0ewv d X u / j n i w v 7 3 ) . No mortal or god or even wi ld beast associates with these loathesome creatures ( 7 0 - 7 1 ) . L ike Orestes , they are o s t rac i zed from a l l soc i e ty both d iv ine and human. The Erinyes become c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d with Orestes and the rest of the family of Atreus i n t h e i r crime, p o l l u t i o n and fa te . L ike the members of the fami ly they des ire vengeance and so must suf fer the consequences of taking vengeance. In the f i r s t stasimon of Choephori we see exact ly what are the consequences i n store for the race, w h e r e vengeance breeds w i t h i n . That race eventual ly "perishes under a god-hated p o l l u t i o n i n dishonour" ( e e d a X u Y h T w i h'txyzx 0 p d x d i a a x i / v w e e v d i X c x a i yzvbo Cho. 6 3 5 - 3 6 ) . This i s p r e c i s e l y the fate in store for the Er inyes , who continue the cyc le of vengeance wi th in the race of Atreus . They eventual ly "depart" i n dishonour, loathed by the gods. Momentarily, they are dr iven out of A p o l l o ' s temple, forced to wander as outcasts . In the ghost-scene the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Erinyes and Orestes continue e v e n f u r t h e r . In t h i s episode, the ghost of Clytemestra appears to arouse the F u r i e s . The scene p a r a l l e l s the kommos of Choephori, where the unseen ghost of Agamemnon s t i r s Orestes to vengeance. Clytemestra has become the daemonic force prompting the Erinyes to avenge the d e a d . 3 Clytemestra 's reproaches s t ing them l i k e a goad ( a v x i K e v x p a 1 3 4 - 3 6 ) . The image of the Erinyes being goaded on as i f they were horses i s picked up l a t e r i n the v 1 opening strophe of t h e parodos ( 1 5 5 - 6 1 ) . Both a v e i S f c c r and K e v x p d v are - 1 0 3 -echoed. Her reproach comes to them in a dream. I t s t r i k e s them in the heart as a char ioteer would s t r i k e a horse under the r i b s ivnb •pevatr 159) "with a f i r m l y griped goad" {fjzol\a&z\ icevxpun 157). The imagery e f f e c t i v e l y 4 / i n d e n t i f i e s the Erinyes with t h e i r v i c t i m . The metaphor of the Kevxpdv i s used of Orestes , who i s l ikewise spurred on to vengeance and matr ic ide . Upon her a r r i v a l i n Athens (377f.), Athena questions the Chorus as to the reason for pursuing Orestes . Did he k i l l h i s mother out of necess i ty or out of fear (426)? The Chorus reply to her question by asking another: "Where i s there a goad so sharp as to compel matric ide?" (noy yap xdadut'd iccvxpdv ua fjt\xp i K T j v n v ; 427). In a moment Orestes answers the charge: the orac le of Loxias proved a strong goad for h i s purpose (ovxiKevxpo 466). But i t was more than jus t A p o l l o ' s orac le that goaded Orestes on. His own des i re to avenge his father proved a strong incent ive . He confesses to Athena that he slew h i s mother for that very reason: E K X E I V O xnv xeKoucrav, b\jK ap\r\abpa\,/ovTUTj\)J\o ndivaTcri <J>iXxctXou rtaxp {a (463-64). The goad of vengeance i s indeed sharp. icevxpdM becomes an important metaphor i n d e n t i f i n g the Erinyes with t h e i r v i c t i m . The image of a horse spurred on by the d r i v e r ' s whip descr ibes both Orestes and the Er inyes , who are dr iven on by a common des ire for revenge. In the scene fo l lowing the parodos the Erinyes continue to be c l o s e l y assoc iated with the race of Atreus . For the f i r s t time the gods come in to open c o n f l i c t . The scene turns in to a heated argument between A p o l l o and the Er inyes , with each s ide venting i t s anger on the other . Th i s c lose i d e n t i f i c a t i o n between the Furies and the house of Atreus i s p a r t i c u l a r l y - 104 -emphasized in A p o l l o ' s opening speech ( 1 7 9 - 9 7 ) . A place b e f i t t i n g them, he says, i s not h is temple but where men's eyes are gouged, heads are cut o f f , throats cut . "Where the seed i s destroyed and the youth of c h i l d r e n i s ruined" (aXX'du Kapavio-cnpEa d^GaX/yupuXd 1 / 6 t K o a o-^ayoi T E , anep//aTdcf T'and+eopai/rrauouv K O K 0 \ ) T « I xX&G'vno- 1 8 7 - 8 8 ) . At Troy such des truc t ion was administered by Agamemnon. A p o l l o ' s words r e c a l l the speech of the Hera ld , who descr ibes how Agamemnon "destroyed the seed of the whole land of Troy" (Ko\ antpfja ncto-riff e^anoXXuToa XGoV&o- Agm. 5 2 8 ) . At Troy the youthful flower of Greece and Troy was cut down. Apo l lo continues h i s reproach of the E r i n y e s : "Listen to the kind of feast they love that makes them hated and loathed by the gods:" ocp ' odCouETe/b'i'off eopxficj tax'aninxyjOTibx 6tbia/axtpyriGp'EXdu°"a\ ( 1 9 0 - 9 2 ) . One cannot help but r e c a l l the feast of Thyestes , descr ibed i n Cassandra's v i s i o n , a feast attended by the Er inyes themselves, a band of Erinyes kindred to the race (Agm. 1 8 9 - 9 0 ) . The place they haunt, the house of Atreus , i s described by Cassandra in much the same way as A p o l l o describes i t . According to Cassandra, i t i s a place of k indred murders, beheadings (Kapax^a Agm. 1 0 9 1 ; c f . KapaviaTfipecr) , the s l i t t i n g of throats ( a » 6 p O O - ^ C X Y E ^ O M Agm. 1 0 9 2 ; c f . &\Kai o^oyoi) , a place where blood s p r i n k l e s the ground (neSdv p a v x r i ' p i d v Agm. 1 0 9 2 ) . In A p o l l o ' s words, i t i s "a den of b l o o d - t h i r s t y l ions" (XeoVT&a ovtpiv aiA/aTdppo*ou 1 9 3 ) . The l i o n -imagery i n v a r i a b l y l i n k s the Erinyes to the house of Atreus whose members, from Agamemnon to Clytemestra and even to Orestes , are a l l compared to l i o n s . ^ The house of Atreus , the den of l i o n s , i s c e r t a i n l y a welcome place for the F u r i e s . - 1 0 5 -A p o l l o ' s speech not only l i n k s the Erinyes with the race of Atreus i n general but a l so with Orestes i n p a r t i c u l a r . Th i s continues the pat tern of Choephori , where the avenger and the avenged become c l o s e l y i n d e n t i f i e d with one another i n character , crime and s u f f e r i n g . The end of A p o l l o ' s speech r e c a l l s the d e s c r i p t i o n of Orestes given by the Pythia at the beginning of the p l a y . The F u r i e s , he says, i n f l i c t p o l l u t i o n on a l l those they meet {iv xbxa&t nXnffiMffi TpifScaQax pxjaba 1 9 5 ) . This r e c a l l s the p o l l u t e d man ( o v i p o c QtbPyjaT) 4 0 ) whom the Pythia sees wi th in the temple. A p o l l o concludes by s t a t i n g that the Fur ies are "loveless to the gods" ( f c u T i f f C u ^ i X r V 0 E U V 1 9 7 ) . These f i n a l words echo the f i r s t stasimon of Choephori: aegei yap a ^ j T i a T & &uff<MXEff eea?a (Cho. 6 3 7 ) . What i s hatefu l to the gods receives no reverence; rather i t departs and perishes i n dishonour. This i s p r e c i s e l y the fate of the Er inyes who have j u s t been forced from A p o l l o ' s temple. L ike Orestes , they are under a p o l l u t i o n (p^aba) and loathed by the gods (cf . Ge&ffTuyr iTGoi ayt\ Cho. 6 3 5 ) . They are forced to wander i n e x i l e to t h e i r dishonour. But l i k e Orestes they are eventual ly reconc i l ed and g l a d l y welcomed into Athens. The eventual r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the Erinyes i s foreshadowed i n the experience of Orestes , whose own wandering brings s u f f e r i n g , but a l so l e a r n i n g , and eventual ly a release from h i s t o i l s . The scene preceding the f i r s t stasimon reveals the purpose of h i s long wandering, pathei mathos.^ We have not heard th i s gnome since the parodos of Agamemnon. At l i n e 2 7 6 a v a r i a t i o n on the gnome i s c l e a r l y expressed. Orestes dec lares that he has been "schooled in a f f l i c t i o n " and so has "learned many ways of p u r i f i c a t i o n " - 106 -(er" 8 i 4 o X 9 e i f f E V KetcaTa inxaxafjax/nbWbxja Ka9apub\>a 2 7 6 - 7 7 ) . The s u f f e r i n g from h i s long e x i l e has taught him the way of p u r i f i c a t i o n . Such l earn ing has resul ted i n the blood fading from h i s hands ((3p \C.£i yap OU/JOC Koi / /opoivExai XepSff 2 8 0 ) and the c leans ing away of the p o l l u t i o n of matr ic ide (//nTp&KTdvdv fj\ao(ja&' EKTTXUT&\> T T E X E I 2 8 1 ) . When he presents himself to Athena, he can extend to her a hand washed of i t s p o l l u t i o n (dyfi' a$dif3e \>Ta X e p a 2 3 7 ) . Upon t h i s b a s i s , that Orestes has suffered and been p u r i f i e d , Athena recognizes him as KaOapacr ( 4 7 4 ) and subsequently casts her vote i n h i s favour, in favour of the law of "learning through s u f f e r i n g . " The experience of Orestes i s shared by the E r i n y e s . Fol lowing the t r i a l , the kommos occurs between the Fur ies and Athena. On the one hand the Erinyes lament over t h e i r s u f f e r i n g ; on the other hand Athena r e p l i e s with k ind , persuading words. In the opening stanza ( 7 7 6 - 9 3 ) , the Fur ies s ing of how they have become dishonoured {axxfjba 7 8 0 ; c f . 7 9 2 ) , how they have suffered ( e n e 9 & v i 7 9 0 ) . To th i s Athena responds, "be persuaded" {tpbx n i 9 e a 9 E 7 9 4 ) . The Chorus then sings as before; and again Athena responds with the words "be persuaded" {o^ l>' ztjnx&r\a zpb\ 8 2 9 ) . The kommos turns i n t o a r e f r a i n on pathos and pe i tho , that balance between v io lence and knowledge, expressed in the law of "learning through suf fer ing" and experienced by 7 Orestes . The Er inyes come to share h i s experience. In t h e i r f i n a l stanzas ( 8 3 7 - 4 6 ; 8 7 0 - 8 8 0 ) , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n between the Er inyes and Orestes becomes complete. The Chorus confess that they have suffered (E^e na9£ i \> 8 3 7 ; cf . 8 7 0 ) as a dishonoured po l lu tant (axicxbv p^obo 8 3 8 ; c f . 8 7 3 ) . The i r su f f er ing approaches that of Orestes , who i n l i k e manner becomes a p o l l u t e d - 107 -outcast , yet who eventual ly learns the way of p u r i f i c a t i o n and welcome acceptance back in to soc i e ty . Again the E r i n y e s ' experience resembles that of Orestes . To t h e i r lament Athena again responds with persuas ion. I f the Erinyes honour Peitho (ccXX'et pcv ayMdv taxi ab\ nexeaOff ai&aa 885), they w i l l not become dishonoured outcasts of Athens (ax\uba eppeiv xbQi, an^evda ne&&v> 884). Rather, they w i l l be honoured with a share of the land (890-91). From t h e i r s u f f e r i n g as outcasts , the Erinyes l earn the benef i t s of such persuasion. Like Orestes , they have become subject to the law "learning through s u f f e r i n g . " This b e n e f i c i a l balance between vio lence and knowledge i s symbolized in the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n betweem them and Athena. Our d i scuss ion so far has centered on a c e r t a i n pattern developing i n the ear ly scenes of the p lay , a pattern borne out i n the gnomes of the f i r s t stasimon. Through each scene the Erinyes have become more c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d with Orestes , sharing i n h i s s i t u a t i o n and fa t e . This i d e n t i f i c a t i o n between avenger and the one avenged i s achieved in the gnomes by the fact that the "lot" of avenger i s seen to be the same as that which they d i s t r i b u t e to those they avenge. In the anapaests, the Erinyes declare the purpose of the i r song. They are "resolved upon showing t h e i r hatefu l music and d e c l a r i n g how t h e i r f a c t i o n d i s t r i b u t e s the l o t s among men": {pbZ<*bv (jT\jYEpav/onaiJ>o{vCff9ai 6 e & & K r | K e v / X e £ a i xz XoXh TCX KaT'av9pwTTdU(r/w<x e n i v w / j S i axaaxa apt). 308-11). \aXbo or XaXn appears four times i n the ode as a key thematic thought. There i s ambiguity and disagreement about i t s exact meaning throughout the ode. At l i n e 347 the s c h o l i a state that XctXh i s used i n place of ytpaa ( O M T I xb\} yepa).^ This has led c e r t a i n scholars to apply - 108 -the meaning of "off ice" to the word throughout the ode. However, i t i s quest ionable whether such a meaning can be understood at each occurrence of the word. According to Lebeck, "XotXba normally denotes one's a l l o t t e d p o r t i o n or l o t i n l i f e , " and t h i s meaning predominates, despi te any secondary meanings that may a r i s e . ^ So i n the course of the ode the word denotes the o f f i c e a l l o t t e d to the Erinyes by Fate, as wel l as the fate a l l o t t e d to men by that o f f i c e , and even the fate awaiting the E r i n y e s . There i s a d e f i n i t e interweaving between the l o t of the Fur ies and the l o t of men, emphasized by the r e p e t i t i o n of XaXba, which refers to both. Avenger and avenged become inseparably l inked in a common fa te . At l i n e 310 XaXH i s only modified by T O <OT ' o\»9p WTTO\J°" . To understand the possessive pronoun T)fju>v here i s d i f f i c u l t . Lebeck maintains that "the text more n a t u r a l l y suggests 'we d i s t r i b u t e the l o t s of men' than 'we d i s t r i b u t e our l o t s i n regard to m e n ' . " 1 1 cnivai/;S\ which means "to a l l o t " or "port ion out" re inforces the thought. The Furies are determined to dec lare how they d i s t r i b u t e the l o t s of men. Even i f we assign to , emvw^ai the extended meaning of "managing," XaXder s t i l l can refer to the l o t in store for men. I t i s the Er inyes ' task to d i r e c t the a f f a i r s of men. How they deal with men becomes man's l o t . XaXder c a r r i e s a double sense, r e f e r i n g to the E r i n y e s ' "off ice" of avenging, but a l so man's l o t when he i s avenged by them. In the gnomes of 313f. the Erinyes out l ine what are the l o t s i n s tore for men at the i r hands. To the innocent they grant b l e s s i n g ; to the g u i l t y sorrow. They i n s i s t that they are upright i n the i r judgment ( e u 6 o \ K a \ d \ ) . - 109 -To the innocent, the one who extends hands f r e e of p o l l u t i o n ( T & V / J E V K o © o p a a X c i p a a npbvCfjbvT:' 3 1 3 ) , the Erinyes grant only impunity. Their wrath does not a s s a i l such a man {b\)X\a £ $ £ p T I E \ fjr\M\a a$'f|*>S\> 3 1 4 ) , but rather "he passes h i s l i f e free from harm" (otawfia i ' a i u v a Si&ixvet 3 1 5 ) . The l a t t e r remark invokes as i t s inverse a gnome commonly expressed i n Agamemnon and Choephori: "No mortal passes h i s l i f e free of harm" [b'\)X\a /j£pdTTa>\> aawriff p i d x d v . . .<xpt\\iia\ cho. 1 0 1 8 ) . As we have seen, t h i s gnome i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d with the idea of " l ike for l i k e , " the law of vengeance advocated by the Er inyes . Agamemnon and Clytemestra do not pass t h e i r l i v e s free from harm because they must suffer the consquences of t h e i r vengeance. Such i s the law of the E r i n y e s . In t h e i r "off ice" of exact ing t h i s law, they grant to men a l i f e free of , o r f i l l e d with harm. This point i s made c lear at 316f. The Furies appear as upright witnesses on behalf of the s l a i n {xaTa eavdyffiv 3 1 8 ) to avenge t h e i r s p i l l e d blood ( n p a K T d p E a axpaxba 3 1 9 ) , even to the end. Those g u i l t y of bloodshed are punished. In contrast to the innocent , the g u i l t y do not pass a l i f e free of harm. T h e fate a l l o t t e d them by the Erinyes i s vengeance. I n contrast to the innocent, the g u i l t y are character ized by t h e i r s o i l e d hands, a common gnomic image for s i n and g u i l t (c f . Agm. 7 7 6 - 7 7 ) . X E i p o a <j>&v\aff E n i K p ^ n x E i ( 3 1 7 ) i s contrasted with K o G a p a a Xtxpa n p d v E / y & v T a ( 3 1 3 ) . Whereas the g u i l t l e s s man openly shows h i s hands, the g u i l t y man t r i e s to conceal them. Against the l a t t e r the Er inyes appear as avengers. In t h e i r "off ice" of avenging the dead, the Erinyes a l l o t to men t h e i r respect ive por t ions : To the innocent impunity, but to the g u i l t y vengeance. XaXn a t t h i s point re fers pr imar ly t o the fate of man. In the opening strophe the Erinyes r e i t e r a t e what they have jus t sa id at the c lose of the anapaests. Their duty i s to avenge. They have been born of Night as a r e t r i b u t i o n to the dead and l i v i n g a l i k e ( 3 2 1 - 2 3 ) . Aeschylus departs from the Hesiodic t r a d i t i o n , which makes the Er inyes the daughters of earth (Theog. 1 8 5 ) . Their a s soc ia t ion with Night i s s i g n i f i c a n t because she i s elsewhere conceived as the author of r e t r i b u t i o n . In Agamemnon she i s h a i l e d by the Chorus as the author of Troy ' s d e s t r u c t i o n . She has cast a great net over the wal ls of Troy from which her quarry cannot escape (Agm. 3 5 5 - 6 0 ) . During that night r e t r i b u t i o n i s born. During that night the A t r e i d a e , the Er inys sent by Zeus to avenge broken h o s p i t a l i t y (Agm. 5 9 - 6 0 ) , exact t h e i r due. D i r e c t l y , and through t h e i r mother, the Erinyes are l i n k e d to the f a l l of Troy. A common system of imagery i s used to describe t h e i r work of vengeance upon Troy and upon Orestes . The net-imagery used of Night i s a l so used of the Erinyes who hunt down t h e i r t h e i r prey with a net ( 1 4 7 - 4 8 ) . In both p lays , the v ic t ims of r e t r i b u t i o n are compared to a he lp less animals ,In the eagle-omen Troy becomes the timorous hare ( n x c t K a Agm. 1 3 5 ) , devoured by winged hounds of Zeus, who represent the A t r e i d a e , the Er inys of Troy (Agm. 1 2 2 - 1 2 6 ) . The same imagery i s invoked here i n the f i r s t stasimon and elsewhere in Eumenides. Orestes i s now compared to the t imid animal (TTTWKO 3 2 5 ) , the Erinyes to the vengeful hounds ( 1 3 2 ; 2 4 7 ; c f . Cho. 1 0 5 4 ) . By invoking the imagery of Agamemnon the Erinyes c l o s e l y indent i fy themselves with the house of Atreus i n i t s des i re for vengeance. In the form of the Atre idae they came as vengeful hounds to devour Troy and to avenge broken h o s p i t a l i t y . Now they have come i n person to devour another t imid hare. - I l l -In the corresponding ant is trophe th i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n between the Erinyes and the house of Atreus i s cont inued. Again the subject i s man's fa te . The word X o X o c r i s s t i l l ambiguous. Moira weaves out the port ions of l i f e : T o { j T b yap XaXbw o i a v x a i a ub\p' zrxzK\uaz\ Zfjniiua EXeiv ( 334-35). The juxtapost ion of lachos and Moira and the weaving imagery would suggest that lachos re ta ins i t s usual sense here. Fate d i s t r i b u t e s the a lo t t ed p o r t i o n s . There i s no c l ear i n d i c a t i o n at l i n e s 334-35 that XoXbcr belongs e x c l u s i v e l y to the Erinyes or means "of f i ce ." e ^ n c o w c r f x e i v i s best taken 12 i n t r a n s i t i v e l y : "Moi ra weaves out t h i s l o t to stand s t eadfas t ly ." Such a use of cxw i s p a r a l l e l e d i n the Hymn to Zeus where Zeus i s sa id to have es tabl i shed as v a l i d ( K y p i c o t T exeiv) the law of "learning through suf fer ing" (Agm. 177-78). To t rans la t e zpnz&ua E X C I M i n t r a n s i t i v e l y not only i s poss ib le but i n keeping with good Greek idiom, e s p e c i a l l y when no personal pronoun i s present to ind ica te to whom lachos belongs. Lachos probably refers then to the fate apportioned to men by Moi r a , at the hands of the E r i n y e s . 1 3 In the fo l lowing l i n e s (336-40), the Chorus of Furies spec i fy what man's l o t i s . Moi ra has woven as an e terna l l o t that those who f o o l i s h l y murder t h e i r k i n should be pursued by the Erinyes u n t i l death: SvaxSv T b T c r i M a u T o y p y i ' a i / ^ u A ' n e c r a j c r i v / y a T a i b \ ,/Xb\<s b'papxz\M o $ p ' a \ > / y a \ ) ( > 14 uneXeni (336-39). The passage p a r a l l e l s the anapaests, where the l o t of man a l so i s o u t l i n e d in the gnomes. In both cases XocXbo- more n a t u r a l l y s i g n i f i e s the fate man receives at the hands of the Erinyes than the ac tua l o f f i c e of the E r i n y e s . In each case the Fur ies are the agents of vengeance who pursue the g u i l t y u n t i l t h e i r death. The word xeXewa of the anapaests i s - 112 -picked up here in b$p 'a \> yoh> uneXeni. The subject of O/V<XPTETV i s c l e a r l y the E r i n y e s ; they do the pursuing; but that does not make them the subject of e / i n e o u c f E X E I V . The confusion about what or whom lachos re fers to helps suggest an interweaving of fates between the Erinyes and t h e i r v i c t i m . I t i s t h e i r l o t to pursue the g u i l t y ; i t i s man's l o t to be pursued by them; but soon i t w i l l be the E r i n y e s ' own l o t to suffer as t h e i r v ic t ims do. The point i s c l e a r l y made i n the second strophe: "This l o t was ordained at b i r t h for us" ( Y i Y M b / y e v a i a i Xa^n xaS' e ^ p ' OAAVJ £Kpav6n 3 4 9 ) . The E r i n y e s ' remark looks back to the opening strophe, where they refer to t h e i r b i r t h . Night bore them to be a r e t r i b u t i o n ( 3 2 1 - 1 3 ) . Poina expla ins what i s the capaci ty of the i r o f f i c e . They are ordained to br ing vengeance upon the g u i l t y . This cons t i tu tes t h e i r XaXba or "of f i ce ." In view of the verb K p a i v u , XaXbtr could acquire the t echn ica l sense of rtpaa. However, when the Erinyes a c t u a l l y ou t l ine t h e i r lachos , i t appears less as an o f f i c a l duty and more as the i r f a t e . It i s t h e i r l o t to l i v e excluded from the gods (aeavaxcov o'omEXEiv X E p a a 3 5 0 ) , not to share a common feast ( 3 5 0 - 5 1 ) , and to be without a port ion of the f e s t i v e robes ( TTCXXXEUKWV &e ncnXwv anipbxpba otcXripdo-CTuXSn'v 3 5 2 ) . The ir words look forward to the conclus ion of the p lay , when the Erinyes are i n v i t e d by Athena, an Olympian, to dwell with her ( { . u V o i K r y r o i p e^bi 8 3 4 ) , to have a por t ion of her land with f u l l honours ( J E £ e o " c i Y « P ob\ x f i a & E YaA'd'pwi X O & v o c f / e i v o i S i K o i w a Ecf xb n S v x\fj<ji(jzvt)\ 8 9 0 - 9 1 ; c f . 8 6 7 - 6 9 ) , and to wear the f e s t i v e robes (•biviicbflanxbiff ev&uxbu<T e a e ^ a a i xi^axe 1 0 2 8 - 2 9 ) . No longer are they regarded as outcasts without honour (axi/ybo-anb£.E\>bi 8 8 4 ) , but they obta in t h e i r r i g h t f u l share among the gods. However, - 11 3 -i f they p e r s i s t i n seeking vengeance by pouring out t h e i r wrath upon Athens, they w i l l remain outcasts without honour (888-90). As they themselves confess in the f i r s t stasimon, "the race dr ipp ing i n blood Zeus deems h a t e f u l , unworthy of h i s converse": Ctu^ &'aKubaxayta a£,\ip\obv eev&a xb&e. XeaXoff/off anri£.iG0CTaT& (365-66). This d e s c r i p t i o n of themselves r e c a l l s the P y t h i a ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of Orestes d r i p p i n g i n blood (a\vax\ oxait,bvxa 41-42). The l o t of the race that takes vengeance, whether the race of Atreus or the Er inyes , i s to suffer dishonour, as outcasts under a god-hated p o l l u t i o n (cf . Cho. 635-36). This then i s the l o t of the Erinyes ordained at b i r t h by Moira , the same unchanging l o t ordained by Fate for men (334-35). Like the rest of the family of Atreus , the Erinyes become bound to the necess i ty of su f f er ing for t h e i r vengeance. The point i s furthered emphasized in the f i n a l stanzas of the ode. In the t h i r d s trophe-pair the Erinyes describe the s i n f u l nature of t h e i r v i c t i m s . They are proud i n thought (368), covered in the gloom of p o l l u t i o n (378), and consequently are punished with a dishonourable death ( 3 6 9 ) . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r v i c t i m s , in the f i n a l s t rophe-pa ir , i s appl ied to the Erinyes themselves. The fate of those they avenge becomes t h e i r own. This interweaving of fates i s achieved through the verbal echoes between the two s t r o p h e - p a i r s . The Fur ies are otpvlx (383). This looks back to l i n e 368f. of the t h i r d strophe, where the word i s used to describe the proud thoughts of t h e i r v i c t i m s : "The thoughts of men, though proud under heaven, fade and d iminish beneath the earth" ( 6&£,a\ &' iv&pcov Ka\ fj'ci\'a\0Ep i atfj\)a\/XaKifjt^a\ K a x t x yaio p\v()&b\)0\\ aX\pi>\ 368-69). The - 114 -Erinyes share the nature as wel l as the fate of t h e i r v i c t i m s . In proud arrogance they "pursue a l o t void of honour, severed from the ( c e l e s t i a l ) gods by the sunless l i g h t " : a x i / j ' a x i ' e x a 6 i tfpt\>a\/\axr\ 9 e C v i i X & a x a x d C x ' / a ^ n X i ' a H \dpnaa ( 3 8 5 - 8 7 Murray) . &T\pa should be retained because i t p r e c i s e l y r e c a l l s axxpba of the t h i r d strophe ( 3 6 9 ) . The Er inyes , who i n f l i c t dishonour upon those they consign to the world below, are themselves dishonoured and consigned to the world below. Their appointed place i s the sunless gloom below the earth ( K a i n e p u n d X 9 i v a xat\\\> e X d u a a / K a i S u f f l l X i J v Kvc'^acr 3 9 5 - 9 6 ) . The Erinyes have become l i k e the i r own vict ims who fade away below the earth ( K a x a y a V 36 9 ) shrouded in the gloom of p o l l u t i o n ( t c v t $ a c x . . .p^aba 3 7 8 ) . K\ie$acr i s echoed i n both s trophic systems, prov id ing a further l i n k between the two, between the Erinyes and those they avenge. The word XaXba ( 3 8 5 ) again reta ins i t s primary meaning and i s appl ied to the l o t the Erinyes share with t h e i r v i c t i m s , p a r t i c u l a r l y because of the f i n a l ant i s trophe ( 3 8 9 - 9 6 ) . Instead of lachos , ytpao i s used by the Erinyes to designate t h e i r ancient o f f i c e . Th i s geras i s an ordinance ordained by Fate and granted "by the gods {eiopbv x&\» pb\pb<pavxbv IK 9EWN> i a e c v x a x e X c d v 3 9 1 - 9 3 ) . In the ancient o f f i c e of the Er inyes , the gods f r e e l y cooperate because that o f f i c e o r i g i n a l l y extended beyond the narrow scope of avenging kinsmen. O r i g i n a l l y the Erinyes protected the r ights of gods, strangers and parents a l i k e (c f . 2 6 9 - 7 2 ; 5 4 5 - 4 9 ) ;*^ and so subsequently were honoured (b\j<% 'ixxxpiaa Kypw 394 ) . In Agamemnon they p a r t i c i p a t e d with Zeus i n avenging broken h o s p i t a l i t y . It was in h is ro le as guardian of strangers that Zeus dispatched an Er inys against Troy (Agm. 5 9 - 6 2 ) . But now i n t h e i r - 1 1 5 -uncompromising pursu i t of Orestes , the Furies can only meet with d i s a p p r o v a l . There i s a de l ibera te contrast wi th in the f i n a l s trophe-pa ir between the lachos and geras, between a x i / i o XoXn and ytpaa n a X a i o V o y o ' , axipxaa. The Er inyes ' l o t i s one of dishonour, brought upon themselves by t h e i r in s i s t ence on vengeance. Their o f f i c e i s one of honour, granted to them as a g i f t by the gods. The f i r s t stasimon reveals an a f f i n i t y betweeen the family of Atreus and the F u r i e s . They share the same fa te , to suffer dishonourably. The Er inyes des ire revenge, so must suffer the same consequences as the re s t . They share the l o t of t h e i r v i c t i m in much the same way as Clytemestra, l e t us say, experiences the fate of Agamemnon. It seems that the Erinyes have become bound to the necess i ty of " l ike for l i k e . " However, the play does not c l o s e , as the previous plays do, by simply r e i t e r a t i n g the v a l i d i t y of that law. The fate of the Erinyes does not conclude " l ike for l i k e , " as Agamemnon's or Clytemestra's fate d i d . As we have seen, i t approaches the fate of Ores tes . The remaining part of the play i s taken up with the t r i a l , Ores tes ' a c q u i t t a l and the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the F u r i e s . The Erinyes are as much on t r i a l as i s Orestes , for they assume that t h e i r honour and j u r i s d i c t i o n w i l l be v i o l a t e d i f Orestes i s acqu i t t ed . But at the same time the a c q u i t t a l of Orestes i s as much a v i c t o r y for the Erinyes as i t i s for Orestes h imse l f , although the Erinyes do not recognize i t at f i r s t . The a c q u i t t a l of Orestes not only a n t i c i p a t e s , but a lso makes p o s s i b l e , the Er inyes ' welcome i n t o Athens. The s p i r i t of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , which on the one hand guarantees - 116 -Orestes' a c q u i t t a l , a l so allows the Erinyes to be treated i n l i k e fash ion , and not along the r i g i d l i n e s of " l ike for l i k e . " As avengers they should be cast out i n dishonour, but they are not. S t i l l , Athena must f i n d a so lu t ion that can al low a place for the Erinyes and that can al low the two opposing s ides in the t r i a l to come together and be r e c o n c i l e d . Athena persuades the Chorus that they are not defeated because of the outcome of the t r i a l ( 7 9 5 ) . The t r i a l re su l t ed i n a t i e vote without dishonour to themselves [bijK oxi/vioi 7 9 6 ) . * ^ Both Orestes and the Erinyes are considered j u s t . What could prove an impasse does not . A so lu t ion i s reached by Athena that gives the v i c t o r y to both s ides . That so lu t ion comes in the form of the Areopagus. Before the t r i a l , Athena es tabl i shes the court to be "an abiding order for a l l time" (eea/y&v ,xdv c\a anavT ' t r u 9rV«o XP&vbv 484). This court i s appointed to decide the case between Orestes and the E r i n y e s . The 'new' order does not supersede the ' o l d ' order decreed by fate and represented by the Erinyes ( 3 9 2 - 9 3 ) ; i t incorporates the o ld with the new. The new j u s t i c e i s s t i l l based on the violence of the o ld laws, symbolized i n the Er inyes , but now tempered by a s p i r i t of persuasion and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , symbolized in Athena. Th i s balance between the two opposing elements i s symbolized i n the t i e vote cast by the Areopagus, a vote i n favour of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n as wel l as r e t r i b u t i o n . Both elements are represented i n the Areopagus, which wise ly de l ibera te s and then exacts swift punishment. - 117 -This re so lu t ion i s a n t i c i p a t e d at the l y r i c a l l e v e l i n the second stasimon, where the ode, l i k e the odes of Agamemnon that foresee the death of Agamemnon, foresees the f i n a l outcome of the p lay . The ode begins by r e c a l l i n g the words spoken by the Erinyes at the conclus ion of the f i r s t stasimon (391) and by Athena jus t p r i o r to the ode i t s e l f (484), where Qzapho i s used in both places to decribe two d i f f e r e n t sytems of j u s t i c e : "Now are there revolut ions caused by new ordinances" ( V y v K a i a a t p ^ a i v e ' u v Qzapiuv 490-91). The t r i a l i s c l e a r l y seen by the Er inyes as a c o n f l i c t between the two orders . They are convinced that i f Orestes i s a c q u i t t e d , these new ordinances w i l l replace t h e i r own. J u s t i c e w i l l be replaced by lawlessness. In the f i r s t three stanzas (490-516) the Chorus p r e d i c t t h e consequences of the new ordinances. There w i l l be r e v o l u t i o n . The word K o T o f f t p o ^ h may convey a p o l i t i c a l sense and comes c lose to the meaning of cxaaxa. What we see and what becomes c l ear i n the second h a l f of the ode i s the a p p l i c a t i o n of the gnomes to a p o l i t i c a l s e t t i n g . The new order w i l l re su l t in p o l i t i c a l unrest . The a c q u i t t a l of Orestes w i l l encourage l i c e n s e among a l l men ( n o v x a a f)6n X O & ' C P Y O M E u X E p E i o a a\)\apfjbaz\ P p b x o u a 494-95). The end resu l t i s an abundance of sorrows i n store for parents at the hands of t h e i r c h i l d r e n ( n a i S a x p w x a 496-98). Under the new order . the Er inyes w i l l no longer punish such misdeeds by v i s i t i n g the g u i l t y with t h e i r anger (499-500). Men w i l l seek release ( X h £ v « 505) from t h e i r sorrow but w i l l f i n d none (502-05). Every remedy w i l l prove useless and va in ( a i c e a & ' b u P e f l a i a X X C X A / W V A/axa\> T T a p r i Y b p E'i 506-07). The wronged person w i l l c a l l upon Dike and the Er inyes , but receive no answer to h i s prayer (508-12). Parents , whether mother or fa ther , can only lament i n va in expecting no revenge, s ince the house of Dike i s f a l l i n g (513-16). - 118 -In the mind of the Erinyes the new j u s t i c e appears to be a pervers ion of the j u s t i c e of Agamemnon. Moti fs that in Agamemnon once represented the c e r t a i n t y of d iv ine punishment upon the g u i l t y here represent the c e r t a i n sorrow in store for the innocent. Dike i s something harmful ( & i K a Ka\ P X a P a 4 9 1 ) . ev X P f r v u n ( 4 9 8 ) , a catch phrase to describe the slow but c e r t a i n coming of d iv ine r e t r i b u t i o n (cf . Agm. 4 6 3 ; Eum. 5 5 5 ) , now descr ibes the i n e v i t a b l e sorrow i n store for the unsuspecting parents . Normally the unjust could f i n d no escape ( y a p e a x i v e n a X S i a Agm. 3 8 1 ) , and every remedy proved vain for them ( a K & a Se n o v /xxxoadv Agm. 3 8 7 ) . But now t h i s has become the predicament of the jus t ( 5 0 5 - 5 0 7 ) . The innocent can c a l l upon the gods but none w i l l l i s t e n (cf . Agm. 3 9 6 ) . The new j u s t i c e pronounced by Athena, i n the minds of the F u r i e s , i s only a pervers ion of the j u s t i c e of Agamemnon, so staunchly advocated by themselves. In the second ant i s trophe , the Chorus begin to contrast the values of the o ld thesmos with those of the new. The t r i a l , which i s d r a m a t i c a l l y presented l a t e r , i s now begun at the l y r i c a l l e v e l and p a r t l y resolved by the conclusion of the ode. In the stanzas that fo l low, the Erinyes r e c a l l many themes and motifs from the odes of Agamemnon. The remaining ode becomes a c o l l e c t i o n of gnomes r e c a l l i n g the gnomes of Agamemnon. The j u s t i c e advocated by the E r i n y e s , then, i s r e a l l y only the j u s t i c e of Agamemnon, the j u s t i c e of Zeus that demands " l ike for l i k e " but a l so " learning through s u f f e r i n g . " It i s not Athena but the Erinyes who pervert t h i s j u s t i c e by favouring the one law e x c l u s i v e l y . They r e l e n t l e s s l y pursue Orestes , b l i n d to a l l other aspects of Zeus' j u s t i c e . In i t s broadest aspects the Er inyes - 1 1 9 -are welcome advocates of th i s j u s t i c e . And, as we s h a l l see from the gnomes of the remaining h a l f of the ode, i t i s t h i s ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' j u s t i c e that becomes the bas is for the new order , an order i n which the Er inyes are p a r t i c i p a n t s . The second ant is trophe echoes the c e n t r a l gnomic thought of the Hymn to Zeus, "learning through suf fer ing": "It i s a p r o f i t a b l e th ing to l earn prudence through groaning" (£u/j$Epei o-upipa\>eT\> u n d aTEvei 5 2 0 - 2 1 ) . This c l e a r l y i s a v a r i a t i o n on naGci pa9ba (Agm. 1 7 7 ) . In fact the second ant istrophe contains echoes from the t h i r d stanza of the Hymn ( 1 7 6 - 8 4 ) . oufpbvew) i s used in both passages to denote the type of l earn ing that comes to those that s u f f e r . £u/;$Epei p icks up on Xapiff o f the Hymn. The Er inyes agree that ffw$p&<juvri i s some thing b e n e f i c i a l to l e a r n , even at the expense of s u f f e r i n g . Their understanding of au>$pdauvn. i s consonant with that of the Hymn. It i s a f e a r f u l reverence and obedience of the gods. Before the hearts of the e lders there i s a steady d r i p of sorrow: axaCei i'cv y'vjnvui npd Kap&iaa /jvriffinri /ywv ndv&ff ( 1 7 9 - 8 0 ) . This image metaphorical ly descr ibes the ir fear that prompts them to pray to Zeus and revere him as v i c t o r (Agm. 1 7 4 - 7 5 ) . In our present passage fear and reverence go hand i n hand. Terror and awe are the guardians of good sense (x& i e ivdv zZ Kai •pcvuv eruaKdndv 5 1 7 - 1 8 ) . Furthermore, the i m p l i c a t i o n i s that good sense leads to reverence. The converse of th i s idea i s expressed at 5 2 2 f . The c i t y or man that does not nurture h i s heart i n fear shows no reverence to Dike: x\a &e (JT\{I£V Z \ •aei Kap&iav avaxpeijxov 'T\ n&Xia |3pdxd<r e'bpb(uo EX'av aE|3&i i i K a v ( 5 2 2 - 2 5 ) . Within the context of the ant is trophe $'az\ makes no sense and - 1 2 0 -should be emended to •oPcoi or o e e i . What we have then i s r ing-composi t ion with ev •a(3oji KapSiov c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l i n g T o i e i v d v tpcvQv . In e f f e c t , T o 6 e i V o v , •oPwi and o'z&bx shape the meaning of au+pove' iv, the key word of the second ant i s t rophe . As i n the Hymn to Zeus o-wtpdveTv means a f e a r f u l reverence of the gods. Such prudent reverence i s learned through s u f f e r i n g . The Furies are advocates of t h i s law of j u s t i c e , a law l a i d down by Zeus to lead men to understanding. Although the gnomic thoughts are p a r a l l e l , i n Eumenides they take on a new emphasis. The j u s t i c e of Agamemnon i s broadened beyond the i n d i v i d u a l to inc lude the community at l arge . The laws of Zeus, once l a i d down to guide i n d i v i d u a l s , now are appl ied to the p o l i s : the c i t y that c u l t i v a t e s fear w i l l n a t u r a l l y rever j u s t i c e ( 5 2 2 - 2 5 ) . Athena's new ordinance incorporates in to the context of the c i t y the o ld law that once determined the fates of i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Consequently a body i s needed to represent the c i t y and t r y i t s important cases. The o f f i c e of avenging the dead has now passed in to the hands of the Areopagus, a body duly appointed to represent the p o l i s . The Erinyes s t i l l play a r o l e . Whereas before they were the guardians of i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s , now they become the guardians of the Areopagus and only avenge those convicted by the new law-court . This r e so lu t ion to the play i s already f u l l y an t i c ipa ted here i n the ode when the gnomes take on t h i s new emphasis. The p o l i t i c a l imagery continues in to the the t h i r d strophe: "do not approve of a l i f e of anarchy or despotism. God only grants power to the mean" avapKaTbv P i b v /A/ f )Te - 121 -&£onbTbvfjZvb\)/a.\y>t'crr\\a. novxi /je'aui T d K p t x T d a eEoff/wnacxE\>, c t X X ' a X X o a O ' E < H P E U E I 5 2 6 - 3 0 ) . In keeping with the p o l i t i c a l imagery the "mean" re fers to moderate democracy, such as at Athens, where d e l i b e r a t i o n and persuasion p r e v a i l . Even E^dpeuw takes o n a p o l i t i c a l meaning within the context . "God administers d i f f e r e n t things i n d i f f e r e n t ways." The Zeus of Eumenides i s the Zeus Agora ios , the Zeus of the p o l i s ( 9 7 3 ) . Contrary to the E r i n y e s ' expectat ion , he w i l l d i r e c t Orestes ' a f f a i r d i f f e r e n t l y , a l lowing not only a place for vengeance but a l so for moderation and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . The new context i s the p o l i s rather than the fami ly , and the admonitions voiced in the gnomes, although remaining the same, now appeal to c i t i z e n s rather than members of a fami ly . Lines 5 3 4 f . r e c a l l the second stasimon of Agamemnon, where impiety i s sa id to "beget many more c h i l d r e n af ter i t s kind" ( T o &\)0ozf$zo yap " E P Y O V pzxa /yEV nXeibva T ( K T E \ ff^ETEpa o ' E ^ i K & T a yzvva\ Agm. 7 5 8 - 6 0 ) , or hybr is begets hybr is (4"iXE? &e T I K T C I V y P p i a / J E V noXaia vzal,b\joav u(3pi\> Agm. 7 6 3 - 6 6 ) . The metaphor of b i r t h i s here used to descr ibe the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of e v i l ; " e v i l breeding e v i l " i s the notion expressed i n both places {d^aaz&xaa (JZM y C p i c r T E K d a La zx{jpba Eum. 5 3 4 ) . However, the idea o f i nher i t ed s i n , s o frequent ly associated with the metaphor, i s t o t a l l y absent here. Rather, the Fur ies warn against the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f e v i l that comes as a re su l t o f p o l i t i c a l excess. But, when moderation i s adopted, prosper i ty "loved by a l l and prayed for by a l l " r e s u l t s : E K b'\\y\z'\aa $pEvw\> I naaw $\\ba/Ka\ T T d X v > £ u K T d c r j/ dXPbc/ ( 5 3 5 - 3 7 ) . A healthy mind adopts the middle course, p o l i t i c a l - 122 -moderation. That heal th of mind i s a metaphor for moderation i s apparent not only from the context of the strophe i t s e l f , but a l so from Agamemnon, where a s i m i l a r image i s used: (ja\a rip ib\ TOCT n&XXSff v)Y* E ^ a f f otK^peffxav xzppa. (Agm. 1001-02). The text i s s e r i o u s l y corrupt , but the general t r a i n of thought i s apparent: too much of anything, whether i t i s good hea l th or possess ion, i s dangerous. The same thought i s repeated here, where sound heal th becomes a metaphor for moderation. The Erinyes do not recommend p o l i t i c a l excess, whether i t be anarchy or tyranny. P o l i t i c a l moderation provides the cure for the i l l s of l i c e n s e , something the Erinyes fear w i l l a r i s e i f Orestes i s a c q u i t t e d . However, what the Furies do not r e a l i z e i s that the new law i s set wi th in a p o l i s governed by such moderation and hea l th of mind. In the t h i r d ant i s trophe (538-49) we are taken back to the f i r s t stasimon of Agamemnon and p a r t i c u l a r l y the opening strophe. In both places the gnomes deal with the theme of s a c r i l e g e , expressed by the metaphor of "trampling under foot ." The Erinyes warn the audience "to honour the a l t a r of Dike and not to dishonour i t with a godless foot with the ir eye on g a i n . For r e t r i b u t i o n w i l l follow" (538-43). This admonishment p a r t i c u l a r l y r e c a l l s the f i n a l gnome of the f i r s t strophe, where again we see the a l t a r of Dike kicked over and dishonoured out of greed: n X& u T & u npbo Kbpbv a v & p i X a K T i a c x M T i (jtyav 61Kaff/goo/jdv t\a a $ a v e \ a \ > (Agm. 381-84). The passage from Eumenides s p e c i f i e s exact ly what the metaphor of "trampling underfoot" s i g n i f i e s . It symbolizes the sacr i l ege and dishonour shown to parents and s trangers . Within the immediate context of T r o y ' s f a l l the image re fers to - 123 -P a r i s , who dishonoured the h o s p i t a l i t y of Agamemnon (cf . Agm. 3 9 9 - 4 0 2 ) . The Erinyes are even p a r t l y responsible for h i s punishment. Zeus Xenios sends them against Troy i n the form of the Atre idae (Agm. 5 9 - 6 2 ) . The f a l l of Troy confirms that the gods, and p a r t i c u l a r l y the Er inyes , do not overlook those who trample down what i s sacred (Agm. 3 7 0 - 7 2 ) . The Erinyes i n both plays appear as guardians of what i s sacred, whether i t be the r ight s of parents or strangers or gods (c f . 2 6 9 - 7 2 ) . The passage from Eumenides i n d i c a t e s that t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n i s a c t u a l l y broader than they make i t out to be. The Furies are more than the vengeful hounds of a mother. The j u s t i c e of Agamemnon, although defended by the Erinyes i n the present ode, has r e a l l y been forsaken by them in order to pursue Orestes . In i t s broader aspects , however, that j u s t i c e , the j u s t i c e of Zeus and the Er inyes , i s adopted by Athena. The f i n a l s trophe-pa ir r e c a l l s the t h i r d stasimon of Agamemnon. The common point of comparison i s tbe n a u t i c a l imagery. In both, the ships are laden with too many stores {n\T\apb\aa . ytpwv o y o v Agm. 1 0 1 2 ; c f . ( a y a M T a n d X X a n a v x a ^ u p x ' Eum. 5 5 4 ) ; they s t r i k e against the reef ( K a i nixpba £u9un&p&\> i v & p b a E n a i f f E v a<fra\>Tdv tp pa. Agm. 1 0 0 5 - 0 7 ; c f . (x\\ np i v 'ixP&v %ppax\ n p& f f P a X w v i i K a f f Eum. 5 6 3 - 6 5 ) . The terms n&xpbo and a X P b a appear to mean the same t h i n g . They refer to a man's good fortune that has been suddenly reversed. However, the character and subsequent fate of the two captains are e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t . The one from Agamemnon d i r e c t s h i s fortune ar ight (Eu0 u ndp2\)) ; he unsuspect ingly s t r i k e s the reef (a<J>aVTd\> tppa), but does not cause h i s ship to sink ( a u 5 ' z n i v x i o z oKa$bo) because he throws - 124 -overboard h i s possessions. The other i s a bold transgressor (xov a\>xixoX//o\>.. . n a p p a & a v 5 5 3 ) ; he has acquired his wealth u n j u s t l y (avc^ i i K a o 5 5 4 ) ; the yardarm of h i s ship snaps ( 0 p a y b v c v a a Ktpaioa 5 5 7 ) ; he founders on the reef of j u s t i c e and perishes unwept and unseen ( 5 6 4 - 6 5 ) . The one learns moderation from h i s experience, the other does not . A f t e r boasting that he could never be touched by su f fer ing (x&v bu^dx' auXbu^x 5 6 1 ) , he i s punished for such arrogance. His ship breaks upon the reef of j u s t i c e . In many ways h i s fate resembles the fate of the unjust man of the f i r s t stasimon of Agamemnon, who for a time prospers without j u s t i c e (x uXnpb\> ovx' otveu oi<oa Agm. 4 6 4 ; c f . otveu o i K a c f Eum. 5 5 4 ) , but f i n a l l y i s rendered f a i n t and dim by the Er inyes . He perishes among the unseen (tv awrbxo xeXeGbvxbcr Agm. 4 6 6 - 6 7 ; c f . wXex' aKXauxdo- a\axba Eum. 5 6 5 ) ; He may cry out for help but no god l i s t e n s to h i s prayer (Xixav S'oKbuei /JC» bu^ia 9ean> Agm. 3 9 6 ; c f . K O X E I o'aKdvjXaa du&ev 5 5 8 ) . These echoes l i n k the mora l i ty of the Erinyes with that of Agamemnon. The o l d Qzopbx, so vehemently defended by the E r i n y e s , are nothing more than the laws of j u s t i c e that d i rec t ed the ac t ion of Agamemnom. These ' o l d ' laws do not become outdated. J u s t i c e does not change from Agamemnon to Eumenides. It simply takes on a new form of express ion. The j u s t i c e of Agamemnon i s now expressed with i n the framework of the p o l i s and the Areopagus. T h i s incorporat ion of the o l d with the new i s already a n t i c i p a t e d here i n the ode. I t i s f u l l y r e a l i z e d a f t er the Erinyes are reconc i l ed and i n v i t e d in to the c i t y . - 1 2 5 -But even before t h i s point the nature of the new order i s c l e a r l y revealed. A f t e r the t r i a l , Athena addresses the jurors who are about to cast t h e i r votes: K X U O I T ' C X M f(or) ezopiv, e x T T i K o f f X E W C T , / n p w x a o - i\Kaa Kpxvbvxzo axpbxba X u t b O ( 6 8 1 - 8 2 ) . This t r i b u n a l of judges has been es tab l i shed by Athena as an abiding order for a l l time ( t a t o i 6c Ka\ x j X & i n o v aiyt'wo < T T p a T w i / a \ e \ oiKao-x2\) x b ( J x i gouXtuTrfpxd\> 6 8 3 - 8 4 ) . I t i s as f i rm as the rock of Ares upon which i t re s ides . This enduring q u a l i t y i s based upon the s o l i d foundation of o ld law. In the l i n e s that fo l low Athena repeats the admonitions spoken by the Erinyes in the second stasimon. She b ids her c i t zens not to revere anarchy or tyranny (xb /vriT'avopXbv //tyre oeandTouA'e^civ/acfTo'ia nep i crTeXXbuo' * (3ovAew ffe'Peiv 6 9 6 - 9 7 ; c f . 5 2 6 - 6 9 ) . In words that echo the second ant is trophe ( 5 1 7 - 2 5 ) , she advises them "not to cast t e r r o r and awe from the c i t y . For what mortal i s just who does not have fear?" (KoA pt) xb O C I - V J & V TTCAI noXewa e^w PaXeTv/Tia yap oeodiKwo- //hSev evSiK&i 0 p b T w \ i ; 6 9 8 - 9 9 ) . ^ Athena preserves the o ld law advocated by the E r i n y e s . If i t i s respected, i t can become the defense of land and the safety of the c i t y ( E p ^ a xe x^patr <ct\ nbXzua awTnpibv 7 0 1 ) . But because the o ld law i s adapted to a new s e t t i n g , the p o l i s , i t requires a new p o l i t i c a l body to administer i t . Th i s body funct ions as the Erinyes d i d i n Agamemnon and Choephori . It w i l l be swift i n wrath, a guardian of the land aroused on behalf of those who sleep and are dead (a iob ' ibv , oE.uBvA'ov, e(>oavTuv vjirep/eYpriYbpoff •pduPhA'cx Yho- KaeiffTct/yoa 7 0 5 - 0 6 ) . Whereas the Erinyes acted on behalf of i n d i v i d u a l s alone, the law-court w i l l act on behalf of the whole c i t y . The Erinyes w i l l become the guardian s p i r i t s of t h i s court , punishing only those i t c o n v i c t s . - 1 2 6 -NOTES FOR CHAPTER III i n Choephori A p o l l o i s c l o s e l y l inked to the chthonic world and tothe Erinyes in p a r t i c u l a r . His as soc ia t ion with the chthonic world i s suggested not only here i n what the Pythia says, but by Apo l lo h imsel f . In p a r t i c u l a r i t i s r e f l e c t e d in the orac l e he gives to Orestes (Cho. 269-96). He bids Orestes to avenge h i s fa ther , to k i l l i n turn (Tp indv/r&v aytav ovxanaKxeTvai XeVuv Cho. 274). Like the Er inyes , he advocates blood-vengeance. He threatens Orestes with "the wrath of malignant powers from the earth" (Cho. 278) and attacks from the Erinyes "accomplished on behalf of a f a t h e r ' s blood" (Cho. 283). Both A p o l l o ' s orac le and his prophecies are of chthonic nature and o r i g i n , and so the presence of the Erinyes in h i s temple may not seem so incongruous. See Winnington-Ingram, pp.136-37; 150-53. The Py th ia ' s prayer an t i c ipa te s the conclusion of the p lay , when once again the chthonic powers and the Olympian gods w i l l dwel l peacefu l ly together. Hephaestus' c h i l d r e n w i l l again play an imporant r o l e . They, who once conducted Apo l lo to Delphi (12-14), w i l l escort the Erinyes to t h e i r new seat . Winnington-Ingram, pp.152-53; cf Lebeck, p.143. On the daemonization of Clytemestra, see Goheen, AJP, 76(1955), 130-31; c f Fontenrose, TAPA, 102(1971), 95-98. In Choephori, Orestes i s compared to a young c o l t harnessed to a char io t of sorrow (Cho. 794-96). See Lebeck, pp.140-41. Knox, CP, 47(1952) , 17-25. Between the passages in which Orestes r e i t e r a t e s the gnome "learning through s u f f e r i n g , " the Erinyes respond by invoking gnomes of Choephori. The scene can be seen, at the i d e o l o g i c a l l e v e l , as a c o n f l i c t between the ideas of " l ike for l i k e " and "learning through s u f f e r i n g . " The Erinyes be l ieve that i t i s not r i g h t for Orestes to stand t r i a l and p o s s i b l y be acqui t ted because "a mother's blood upon the ground^is past recovery" (undSiK&ff Qt\t\ yt\tada\ Xep2v/Td & ' b(j n o p E c T i v a\fj<x /vh.Tp2idv Xayax d\jaar<bfj\ax&v 260-261). "Once i t i s s p i l l e d upon the ground, i t i s l o s t forever" ( x d S i e p& v n e i a i Xu/vcvav d i X E f a i 263). Consequently, Orestes must pay with h i s l i f e : l i k e for l i k e ( a v x i S a O v a i 264). The scene a n t i c i p a t e s the t r i a l , which a l so can be seen as a c o n f l i c t between these two laws. On the a n t i t h e s i s between force and persuasion, see Winnington-Ingram, pp.1, 68-69. Lebeck, p.151. At 310 the s c h o l i a expla in XaXh as the l o t s of men ( T d u f f KXrip&uf vfjuv) Rose, I I , p.250. A W V e r r a l l , The Eumenides of Aeschylus (London: Macmillan and Co, 1 9 0 8 ) , p . 5 8 ; c f Rose, I I , p p . 2 5 0 - 5 1 . Lebeck, p . 1 5 1 . I b i d , p . 1 5 2 . I b i d , p . 1 5 4 . We can compare Prometheus to see another example where the Erinyes work along with Fate in dispensing man's p o r t i o n : The Fates and the Erinyes are c a l l e d the "helmsmen of necessity" ( 5 1 6 ) , together d i r e c t i n g the fate of man and god. In p a r t i c u l a r , Prometheus i s re fer ing to the necess i ty of su f f er ing " l ike for l i k e , " the law of fate and the E r i n y e s . In Eumenides, i t i s p r i m a r i l y as defendants of th i s law that the Erinyes dispense the l o t s of men. auTdupyica m a y suggest no more than "deeds of someone's own do ing ," but in the minds of the Er inyes i t can only mean the murder of k i n . Again t h i s emphasizes the narrowing view the Erinyes have. Everything e lse i s secondary to the pursu i t of Orestes . Like a l l members of the family of Atreus they des ire revenge. It i s t h e i r passion for vengeance that leads into c o n f l i c t with Zeus. See Rose, I I , p . 2 5 1 . The gnomes of the t h i r d s trophe-pair seem to apply to Agamemnon more than they do to Orestes . The Erinyes begin by saying that "the thoughts of men, though proud beneath the heavens, d iminish in dishonour beneath the earth" ( 3 6 9 - 7 0 ) . It i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine how Orestes' thoughts could be c a l l e d c r e / v v & i . The d e s c r i p t i o n more apt ly appl ies to Agamemnon. At A u l i s h is imagination reached unholy heights as he breathed f o r t h impious thoughts of u t ter recklessness (Agm. 2 1 9 - 2 1 ) . Such an arrogant man i s trampled down by the vengeful foot of the Erinyes ( 3 7 0 - 7 1 ) . Even i f he i s a swift runner, the Erinyes w i l l t r i p him up ( 3 7 4 - 7 5 ) . The t r i p that the Erinyes give to the runner i s compared to "an unbearable in fa tuat ion" or Ate ( & u f f $ d p & v a x a v 3 7 6 ) . This thought i s picked up in the opening l i n e of the ant istrophe i n ( j n ' a ^ p j M i X^pai. Unable to bear up under Ate , the runner f a l l s i n confus ion. He does not know why because of h i s senseless f o l l y . The gnomes again seem to refer to Agamemnon, whose own act ion at A u l i s resul ted from "a wretched i l l - c o u n s e l i n g in fa tuat ion" (f3p&xdv)ff 6 p a a u v e i yap a\aXPbpX)X\a T o X o i v a T T a p a K & n a . Agm. 2 2 2 - 2 3 ) . In contras t , Orestes never lacked c l a r i t y of mind. He i s not dr iven to murder by "an i l l - c o u n s e l i n g in fa tua t ion" but by the s t r a i g h t - c o u n s e l i n g of A p o l l o . Both before and af ter the murder of Clytemestra, he recognizes h i s deed for what i t r e a l l y i s , a miasma. Never once does Agamemnon recognize h i s g u i l t . In f a c t , he could br ing himself to think that the s a c r i f i c e of Iphigenia was themis (Agm. 2 1 5 - 1 7 ) . Such a remark reveals the extent of h i s de lus ion . The F u r i e s ' remarks, then, are poignantly true for Agamemnon and not - 128 -Orestes: "He d id not know why he f e l l because of senseless f o l l y . " As he returns home, he i s unsuspecting. He cannot perceive the true intent of Clytemestra's words or ac t ions . Her persuas ion, the very c h i l d of Ate (Agm. 3 8 5 - 8 6 ) , forces Agamemnon to h i s death. Clytemestra, i n f a c t , embodies the Ate f o r c i b l y working, upon Agamemnon's mind. Later she i s compared by Cassandra to an Ate with a g u i l e f u l tongue ( o i K h v axno" 1 2 2 9 - 3 0 ) , whom Agamemnon does not suspect (b\jK bibzv 1 2 2 8 ) . The symbolism suggests that an i n f a t u a t i o n s t i l l clouds Agamemnon's t h i n k i n g . He f a l l s without knowing why, owing to h i s senseless f o l l y . In the l a t t e r h a l f of the ant is trophe ( 3 7 8 - 8 0 ) , Agamemnon, and not Orestes , again appears to be the subject of the gnomes. A great cloud of p o l l u t i o n hovers over the s inner and a rumour f i l l e d with the sorrows of many declares h is g u i l t : xaTdv E T T I K v e + a a avSpi pyaba nenoTaroi /Koi ovd$Epa\> xiv'aXXuV K a x c x o w / v a x d a / c t u o a x a a nbXvatbvbo • O T I J . The gnome r e c a l l s the f i r s t stasimon of Agamemnon, where the Chorus speak at length about the g r i e f the Trojan war has caused. The second ant is trophe (Agm. 4 2 0 - 4 3 6 ) , i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s taken up with the sorrows that a f f ec t each home. This sorrow has l ed to a dangerous ta lk against the Atre idae (PapEio aaxSv cfraxio- 4 5 6 ) and curses pronounced by the people ( 4 5 7 ) . These c r i e s of sorrow are heard by the gods ( 4 6 1 - 6 2 ) and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , by the Er inyes , who eventua l ly punish those g u i l t y of much bloodshed ( 4 6 3 - 6 6 ) . The gnomes of the t h i r d ant is trophe more t r u l y represent the experience of Agamemnon than that of Orestes . The Erinyes misapply the gnomes, revea l ing the narrowing view which they have. Cons i s t en t ly they accuse Orestes of s i n of which he i s not g u i l t y . They t r y to exact vengeance where vengeance i s not due. Lebeck, p.155. The Furies that Cassandra sees i n her v i s i o n seem to be guardians of marriage. They become outraged at the adul tery of Thyestes (Agm. 1 1 9 2 f . ) . See W i l l i a m Whallon, Problem and Spectac le , Studies  i n the Ores te ia (He i lde lberg: C a r l Winter, 1 9 8 0 ) , p p . 5 4 - 5 5 . On the quest ion of whether or not the vote was a t i e , see Michael Gagarin , "The Vote of Athena," AJP, 96 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 1 2 1 - 2 3 . At 6 9 0 f . , E R Dodds, "Notes on the O r e s t e i a , " CQ, ns. 3 ( 1 9 5 3 ) , 1 9 - 2 0 , sees a contemporary reference i n K o K a i t j E n i p p o a \ a i . Athena warns her c i t zens not to "innovate" upon the laws ( E T U X p a a v o v x u N ) 6 9 3 ) by p o l l u t i n g them with " e v i l i n f i l t r a t i o n s . " The a l l u s i o n i s p o s s i b l y to reforms that allowed the Zeugitae admission to the archonship, and so to the Areopagus. The A t h . Pol ( 2 6 . 2 ) i n d i c a t e s that t h i s reform was passed i n 4 5 8 / 7 , the year the Ores te ia was produced. The words kakais and lampron have, then, s o c i a l references . Aeschylus i s warning against the i n f i l t r a t i o n of common people in to an e x c l u s i v e l y a r i s t o c r a t i c body. P o l i t i c a l moderation to Aeschylus i s ne i ther tyranny or anarchy, that i s , r a d i c a l democracy, but conservat ive democracy, where reforms of t h i s nature are avoided. - 1 2 9 -CONCLUSION The r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between the Erinyes and Athena symbolizes that a n t i t h e s i s between v io lence and knowledge, expressed i n the law of Zeus, "learning through s u f f e r i n g . " As Athena h e r s e l f boasts , "Zeus Agoraios preva i l ed ( a X X ' z<paxr\ac CEV><* a r & p d i & f f 9 7 3 ) , and her words again r e f l e c t that parodox between v io lence {Kpaxba) and persuasion, for i t i s i n h is ro le of orator and persuader ( a r d p a i a c r ) that Zeus has preva i l ed through Athena over the E r i n y e s . The t r i l o g y has been moving towards such a re so lu t ion as we f ind i n Prometheus, where knowledge can b e n e f i c i a l l y balance force . On the human l e v e l , t h i s i s represented through the Areopagus that d e l i b e r a t e s before i t punishes. On the s p i r i t u a l l e v e l , t h i s i s symbolized by the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between Athena and the E r i n y e s . The s i t u a t i o n of Prometheus i s r e l i v e d i n Eumenides, where a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n at the d iv ine l e v e l r e s u l t s in a new p o l i t i c a l order for men that r e f l e c t s that r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . The law of " learning through s u f f e r i n g , " which i s based on Zeus' own experience, i n a sense, a n t i c i p a t e s the experience of the Er inyes , where t h e i r v io l ence becomes balanced by Athena's wisdom. The above example shows how the gnomes r e f l e c t the drama. Themes and images worked out i n the drama are often expressed at the l y r i c a l l e v e l i n the gnomes. The l i n k between the dramatic and the gnomic i s at times very complex; whole patterns are often reproduced i n the gnomes. The pat tern of i n v e r s i o n , where the s i t u a t i o n of Choephori reverses the s i t u a t i o n of Agamemnon, i s picked up in the f i r s t stasimon of Choephori. At other times, - 130 -the l i n k i s v e r y s i m p l y e x p r e s s e d ; the gnomic image o f " t r a m p l i n g u n d e r f o o t " becomes a metaphor s p e c i f i c t o Agamemnon's s a c r i l e g e , a metaphor d r a m a t i c a l l y e x p r e s s e d when he t r a m p l e s down t h e p u r p l e t a p e s t r i e s . The tendency i n A e s c h y l u s t o e x p r e s s the d r a m a t i c a t the gnomic l e v e l f o r c e s us t o s t u d y t h e gnomes i n the c o n t e x t o f t h e drama. I n t h e o p e n i n g e p i s o d e s o f Eumenides, the E r i n y e s become c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the f a t e o f O r e s t e s . T h i s i n t e r w e a v i n g o f f a t e s g i v e s sense t o the f i r s t s t a s i m o n ; t h e l o t r e f e r s , n ot t o t h e E r i n y e s ' o f f i c e , but t o t h e i r f a t e , a f a t e i n s t o r e f o r a l l t h o s e who t a k e vengeance. The gnomes and t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g gnomic passages cannot be s e p a r a t e d from the d r a m a t i c a c t i o n . T h e i r meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e a r e bound up i n i t . The re a d e r f e e l s t h a t a gnome i s t r u e because i t i s found t r u e f o r t h e drama. We know t h a t t h o s e who t r a m p l e down what i s s a c r e d a r e p u n i s h e d because Agamemnon i s p u n i s h e d . We know t h a t l i k e r e c e i v e s l i k e because Agamemnon's own d e a t h e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s law. The gnomes, t h e n , form an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the drama, e n h a n c i n g i t s p o e t i c power. 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