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Multi-levelled imagery in the tympanium of the Porte-de-Ste-Anne at Notre-Dame in Paris Cosgrove, Colleen Anne 1985

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MULTI-LEVELLED IMAGERY IN THE TYMPANUM OF THE PORTE-DE-STE-ANNE AT NOTRE-DAME IN PARIS by COLLEEN ANNE COSGROVE B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979 COMPLETED MARCH 1985 FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Fine A r t s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE ktolVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1985 ©C o l l e e n Cosgrove, 1985 in In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of i?'ine Arts  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date February 15th,1985 ABSTRACT The tympanum o f the Porte-de-Ste-Anne a t Notre-Dame, P a r i s , has aroused the i n t e r e s t o f s c h o l a r s f o r decades. The l a c k o f i n s c r i p t i o n o r d o c u m e n t a t i o n has l e d t o the a s c r i p t i o n o f v a r i o u s i d e n t i t i e s t o the f i g u r e s d e p i c t e d i n company w i t h the Theotokos. A p a r t from a s s i g n i n g i t a d o n a t i v e o r commemorative f u n c t i o n , l i t t l e l i g h t has been shed on the s u b j e c t by the many e x t a n t t h e o r i e s . To f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e the problem, the p h y s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f the p o r t a l has o n l y r e c e n t l y been d e c i p h e r e d . I t i s the con-sensus o f c u r r e n t o p i n i o n t h a t the p o r t a l , e r e c t e d from the ground up, was begun as e a r l y as 1140-45. A l s o , the e a r l i e s t s c u l p t u r a l components, the tympanum, upper l i n t e l , a r c h i v o l t s and j a m b - s t a t u e s are thought t o have been c r e a t e d f o r the r e f u r b i s h m e n t o f the o l d e r c h u r c h p r i o r t o the c u r r e n t b u i l d i n g , a l t h o u g h t h e y may never have been used. T h i s t h e s i s has attempted t o demonstrate the tympanum scene a c t u a l l y d e p i c t s the e q u a l i t y o f regnum and s a c e r d o t i u m i n an a c c o r d brought about by a b a l a n c e o f f o r c e s , both p o l i t -i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l , which produced the I d e a l S t a t e . I have been concerned w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y e v e n t s which c o u l d have e x e r t e d an i n f l u e n c e on the development o f the i c o n o g r a p h i c a l program. I n so d o i n g , I have o u t l i n e d the p e r t i n e n t h i s t o r i c a l background o f the b u i l d i n g i t s e l f , i n c l u d i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p o r t a l and i t s s c u l p t u r e s , as w e l l as a s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n o f the main t h e o r i e s r e g a r d i n g i t s p l a c e w i t h i n the s t y l i s t i c o r b i t o f E a r l y G o t h i c development. I have d e s c r i b e d the problem o f the i c o n o g r a p h y w h i c h , u n t i l r e c e n t l y has c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f e f f o r t s t o i d e n t i f y the f i g u r e s o f k i n g , c l e r i c and s c r i b e , but o f l a t e has d e a l t w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f regnum and s a c e r d o t i u m . In t h i s c o n t e x t the work o f A d o l f K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n on the west f r o n t o f C h a r t r e s has shed l i g h t on the p o r t a l , and h i s r e l a t i n g o f the tympanum scene t o the i d e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two spheres was f u r t h e r expanded upon by W a l t e r Cahn. He saw i n the tympanum a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f the s t a t u s o f the r o y a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s e c t o r s o f the C h r i s t i a n Commonwealth d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d w i t h power v e s t e d i n the Church. The o p i n i o n s o f Jacques T h i r i o n who proposes v e r y e a r l y d a t e s and i d e n t i t i e s agree w i t h t h o s e o f A l a i n E r l a n d e - B r a n d e n b e r g and Cesare Gnudi who d e a l t w i t h the p o r t a l a f t e r the d i s c o v e r y o f f acade fragments i n P a r i s i n 1977. The h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g d e a l t w i t h the C a p e t i a n r u l e r s i n the p e r s o n o f L o u i s V I I , and the papacy i n the person o f A l e x a n d e r I I I , b o th o f whom were i n power when the p o r t a l was c o n c e i v e d . The pope was a c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n e v e n t s t h a t i n c l u d e d the f i r s t c o m p i l a t i o n o f Canon law by G r a t i a n , a development as c e n t r a l t o t h i s t h e s i s as i t was t o Cahn's. Space has been devoted t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f the Decretum, t o i t s e x p r e s s i o n of the I d e a l S t a t e , and to the iconography which arose around i l l u s t r a t e d c o p i e s of t h i s work, p a r t i c u -l a r l y as i t r e l a t e s to the tympanum. A l s o e x p l a i n e d was G r a t i a n ' s connection to the Reform P a r t y of Haimeric. An examination of some of the symbols chosen by Cahn from the composition to support h i s theory has determined t h a t they may be r e i n t e r p r e t e d . They have been expanded on or r e f u t e d i n o rder to i l l u s t r a t e the f l e x i b i l i t y of Medieval symbolism, and i n order to r e v e a l the many l e v e l s of imagery contained i n t h i s composition. While so doing, I have I b e l i e v e , exposed the p r o p a g a n d i s t i c nature of the s u r f a c e imagery which was d e l i b e r a t e l y c u l t i v a t e d by the Church with f u l l c o - o p e r a t i o n from the State i n order to expound a p o l i t i c o - t h e o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y . CONTENTS ABSTRACT LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION The g e n e r a l h i s t o r i c a l background o f the Porte-de-Ste-Anne and a d e s c r i p -t i o n o f the s c u l p t u r a l program; the s t y l i s t i c o r b i t o f the P o r t e - d e - S t e -Anne; the problem o f the i c o n o g r a p h y and the major t h e o r i e s ; the purpose of t h i s s t u d y . 11 V ' l xi'fi 1 CHAPTER I I . HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: PAPACY FRANCE AND THE L o u i s V I I ; A l e x a n d e r I I I . 19 CHAPTER I I I , THE DECRETUM GRATIANI AND ITS IMPACT ON CONTEMPORARY THROUGHT The t w e l f t h c e n t u r y R e n a i s s a n c e ; the M e d i e v a l w o r l d view and the o r i g i n o f c o n f l i c t ; the development o f e c c l e s -i a s t i c a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e . 29 CHAPTER IV. THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ICONOGRAPHY TO ILLUSTRATE THE DECRETUM GRATIANI . . The c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h the i n i t i a l s I and H ance t o the imagery; c o n t e n t o f the imager ganda v a l u e ; the Papa t i c a l c o n t e n t o f the propaganda v a l u e ; the the e v o l u t i o n o f an i e q u a l i t y . e m a n u s c r i p t ; and t h e i r import-the p o l i t i c a l y and i t s p r o p a -l i s t s ; the p o l i -imagery and i t s S e c u l a r i s t s ; conography o f 36 CHAPTER V. FOUR FRENGH CISTERIAN MANUSCRIPTS: THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ICONOGRAPHY OF POLITICS The d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f the imagery; the C i s t e r c i a n examples; the changing p o l i t i c a l emphasis. 45 v CHAPTER V I . DECRETUM GRATIANI AND THE CONCEPT OF EQUALITY M e d i e v a l w o r l d u n i t y ; G r a t i a n ' s t r e a t m e n t o f u n i t y ; p a r a l l e l systems of j u r i s p r u d e n c e . CHAPTER V I I . THE REFORM PARTY OF HAIMERIC: THE RELA-TIONSHIP OF BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX AND GRATIAN TO THIS MOVEMENT The need f o r j u r i d i c a l r e f o r m ; the ad h e r e n t s o f H a i m e r i c . CHAPTER V I I I . THE TYMPANUM IMAGERY AND THE MEDIEVAL CONCEPT OF AEVUM  R u l e r p o r t r a i t s , h a l o e s , p e r s o n i f i c a -t i o n s , v i r t u e s , and the concept o f ti m e ; the s c r i b e ; the m e d i e v a l s p a c i a l f o r m u l a . CHAPTER IX. THE METAPHOR OF THE TWO LUMINARIES . . The o r i g i n o f the metaphor; the ic o n o g r a p h y o f the metaphor. CHAPTER X. THE VIRGIN IN THE TYMPANUM: MARIA/ECCLESIA/IUSTITIA  The m u l t i p l e personae o f Mary; Mary and J u s t i c e : c oncept and metaphor; the V i r g i n ' s p l a c e w i t h i n the Heavenly J e r u s a l e m . CONCLUSION NOTES TO THE TEXT Notes t o Chapter I ; notes t o Chapter I I ; notes t o Chapter I I I , notes t o Chapter IV notes t o Chapter V; notes t o Chapter V I ; notes t o Chapter V I I ; notes t o Chapter V I I I ; n o t e s t o Chapter IX; notes t o Chapter X. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ILLUSTRATIONS LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS F i g u r e 1. The Porte-de-Ste-Anne, Notre-Dame, P a r i s . 2. The Tympanum of the Porte-de-Ste-Anne. 3. The l i n t e l s t o the l e f t of the trumeau f i g u r e . 4. The l i n t e l s t o the r i g h t of the trumeau f i g u r e . 5. a A r c h i v o l t s , the l e f t s i d e of the p o r t a l - lower s e c t i o n . b A r c h i v o l t s , the l e f t s i d e of the p o r t a l - middle s e c t i o n c A r c h i v o l t s , the l e f t s i d e of the p o r t a l - upper s e c t i o n . 6. a A r c h i v o l t s , the r i g h t s i d e o f the p o r t a l - lower s e c t i o n . b A r c h i v o l t s , the r i g h t s i d e of the p o r t a l - middle s e c t i o n . ' c A r c h i v o l t s , the r i g h t s i d e of the p o r t a l - upper s e c t i o n . 7. a,b Column-statues, l e f t s i d e of the doorway. 8. a,b Column-statues, r i g h t s i d e of the doorway. 9. The V i r g i n on the tympanum of the Porte-de-Ste-Anne, 10. The keystones which are t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o p i e s of the o r i g i n a l t w e l f t h c e n t u r y ones. 11. I n i t i a l H from D i s t i n c t i o n e I, Pars I. Late 12th century. Franco-Byzantine s t y l e . C i s t e r c i a n prov-enance. Troyes, B i b l i o t h e q u e m u nicipale MS.103, Decretum G r a t i a n i , f . l l (From Melnikas, The Corpus  of the M i n i a t u r e s i n the Manuscripts of Decretum G r a t i a n i V o l . I l l , Fig.22 D i s t I ) . V l l I n i t i a l H from D i s t i n c t i o n e I Pars I. Late 12th cent u r y . Franco-Byzantine s t y l e . C i s t e r c i a n prov-enance. Cambrai, B i b l i o t h e q u e m u n i c i p a l e MS.C.967, Decretum G r a t i a n i , f 10 (From Melnikas, V o l . I l l , F i g . 2 3 , D i s t . I ) . I n i t i a l H from D i s t i n c t i o n e I, Pars I.Ca.1200. Channel s t y l e . P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e Mazarine MS.lat. 1287, Decretum G r a t i a n i , f 4 (From Melnikas, V o l . I l l , Fig.24 D i s t . I ) . I n i t i a l H from D i s t i n c t i o n e I, Pars I. Mid 12th ce n t u r y . Northern French. Montecassino, B i b l i o -t e c a A b b a z i a l e MS.64z, Decretum G r a t i a n i , f 3 (From Melnikas, V o l . I l l , Fig.25 D i s t . I ) . I n i t i a l H from D i s t i n c t i o n e I, Pars I. 12th ce n t u r y . South German. Line drawing. E a r l y use of m u l t i p l e c h a r a c t e r s w i t h i n the v i g n e t t e s and one of the l a s t stages of the development of the genre. Munich, B a y e r i s c h e S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k MS.Clm. 17161, Decretum G r a t i a n i , f 6 (From M e l n i k a s , V o l . I l l , Fig.27 D i s t . I ) . I n i t i a l H from D i s t i n c t i o n e I, Pars I. Ca.1200. Northern French. Gdansk, M u n i c i p a l L i b r a r y MS.77, Decretum G r a t i a n i , f 8v (From Melnikas, V o l . I l l , Fig.26 D i s t . I ) . I n i t i a l H from D i s t i n c t i o n e I, Pars I. Late 12th ce n t u r y . I t a l o - B y z a n t i n e s t y l e . Northern I t a l i a n . Beaune, B i b l i o t h e q u e municipale MS.5, Decretum  G r a t i a n i , f 1 (From M e l n i k a s , V o l . I l l , Fig.16 D i s t I ) . Regnum and Sacerdotium as Thronesharers. I l l u s t r a -t i o n from D i s t i n c t i o n e I, Pars I. Late 12th ce n t u r y . Northern I t a l i a n . L i n e drawing. Rouen, B i b l i o t h e q u e municipale MS.707 (E.21), Decretum  G r a t i a n i , f 2v [top] (From M e l n i k a s , V o l . I l l , Fig.14 D i s t . I ) . I n i t i a l H from D i s t i n c t i o n e I, Pars I. 12th ce n t u r y . Northern French. Chambery, B i b l i o t h e q u e de l a V i l l e MS.13, Decretum G r a t i a n i , f l v (From M e l n i k a s , V o l . I l l , Fig.28 D i s t . I ) . v i i i I n i t i a l H from D i s t i n c t i o n e I, Pars I, Ca. 1200. Rhine-Moselle r e g i o n . Cologne, Dombibliothek MS. 127, Decretum G r a t i a n i , f 7 (From Melnikas, V o l . I l l , F i g . 17 D i s t . I ) . I n i t i a l H from D i s t i n c t i o n e I, Pars I. 12th century. I t a l i a n . A r r a s , B i b l i o t h e q u e municipale MS.493 (585), Decretum G r a t i a n i , f 6 (From Melnikas, V o l . I l l , Fig.18 D i s t . I ) . I n i t i a l H from D i s t i n c t i o n e I, Pars I. 12th century. I t a l i a n . B r a t i s l a v a , S l o v a k i a n C e n t r a l State A r c h i v e s MS.14 (J u r . 4 6 ) , Decretum G r a t i a n i , f 3 (From M e l n i k a s , V o l . I l l , Fig.19 D i s t . I ) . I n i t i a l H from D i s t i n c t i o n e I, Pars I. Late 12th cent u r y . I t a l i a n ? Amiens, B i b l i o t h i q u e m u nicipale MS.354, Decretum G r a t i a n i , f 9 (From Melnikas, V o l . I l l , PI.IV D i s t . I ) . I n i t i a l H from D i s t i n c t i o n e I, Pars I. Late 12th cent u r y . I t a l i a n . From C l a i r v a u x . Troyes, B i b -l i o t h e q u e m u n i c i p a l e MS.60, Decretum G r a t i a n i , f 7 (from Melnikas, V o l . I l l , P I . I l l D i s t . I ) . I n i t i a l H from D i s t i n c t i o n e I, Pars I. Late 12th century. I t a l i a n . F l o r e n c e , B i b l i o t e c a Laurenz-iana MS. Ed.96, Decretum G r a t i a n i , f 1 (From Melnikas, V o l . I I I . Pi.VI D i s t . I ) . I n i t i a l I from I n t r o d u c t i o n , Pars I. Ca.1160-1170. Northern French. C i s t e r c i a n . Probably from Sens. Decretun G r a t i a n i f o r m e r l y i n the C.W.Dyson P e r r i n s C o l l e c t i o n . (From S c h i l l i n g , "The Decretum  G r a t i a n i Formerly i n the C.W. Dyson P e r r i n s C o l l e c -t i o n . " PI.XXIV). I n i t i a l I from I n t r o d u c t i o n , Pars I. Late 12th cent u r y . Northern F r e n t h . C i s t e r c i a n . Channel s t y l e . Cambrai; B i b l i o t h e q u e municipale MS.C.967, Decretum G r a t i a n i , f 10 (From Melnikas, V o l . I l l Appendix I F i g . 6 ) . I n i t i a l I from I n t r o d u c t i o n , Pars I. Late 12th cent u r y . Northern French. C i s t e r c i a n . Channel s t y l e . Troyes, Biblioth§que municipale MS.103, Decretum G r a t i a n i , f 3 (From Melnikas, V o l . I l l Appendix 1 F i g . 7 ) . ix I n i t i a l from I n t r o d u c t i o n , Pars I. Late 12th century. Northern French. C i s t e r c i a n . Channel s t y l e . Douai, B i b l i o t h e q u e municipale MS.590, Decretum G r a t i a n i , f 3 (From Melnikas, V o l . I l l , Appendix 1, F i g . 8 ) . Coronation Scene. Ca.1118-1143. Byzantine. Rome, B i b l i o t e c a V a t i c a n a Cod.Urb.gr.2, Gospels of  John II Comnenos, f 19v (From Katzenellenbogen, A l l e g o r i e s of the V i r t u e s and V i c e s i n Medieval A r t , Pl.XVI-31). I n i t i a l H from D i s t i n c t i o n e I, Pars I. Late 13th c e n t u r y . Northern French. Probably based on a C i s t e r c i a n p r o t o t y p e . S t . F l o r i a n , S t i f t s b i b l i o -thek M S . I l l , 2 , Decretum G r a t i a n i , f 1 (From Melnikas, V o l . I l l , Fig.46 D i s t . I ) . I n i t i a l H from D i s t i n c t i o n e I, Pars I. Ca.1160-1170. Northern French. Probably based on a C i s t e r c i a n p r o t o t y p e . London, B r i t i s h Museum MS. Royal 10.D.VIII, Decretum G r a t i a n i , f 1 (From Melnikas, V o l . I l l , Fig.45 D i s t I ) . I n i t i a l H from D i s t i n c t i o n e I, Pars I. Ca.1260-1270. P a r i s i a n . Rome, B i b l i o t e c a A p o s t o l i c a V a t i c a n a MS. lat.2491, Decretum G r a t i a n i , f 1 (From Melnikas, V o l . I l l , Fig.45 D i s t I ) . La s t Judgement Scene. Tympanum. Ca.1130-1140. Ste-Foy, Conques (From Hearn, Romanesque S c u l p t u r e , F i g . 136-182). Las t Judgement Scene. Tympanum. Autun C a t h e d r a l (From Hearn, Romanesque S c u l p t u r e , Fig.136-183). C r u c i f i x i o n Scene with Sun and Moon. Stained g l a s s window from Bourges C a t h e d r a l (From Male, The  G o t h i c Image; R e l i g i o u s A r t i n France of the T h i r - teenth Century, Fig.100-189 ) . I n i t i a l T from Te I g i t u r . Ca.870. Court School of C h a r l e s the B a l d . P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e n a t i o n a l e MS. lat.1141, Sacramentary From Metz, f 6v (From Miitherich and Gaehde, C a r o l i n g i a n P a i n t i n g , P i . XXXIV-101). F i g u r e 38. C r u c i f i x i o n Scene with Sun and Moon. Ca.1222. Peterborough. London, S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s MS.59, P s a l t e r of Robert de Lindesey, f 35v (From Dupont/Gnudi, G o t h i c P a i n t i n g , p.20). 39. C r u c i f i x i o n Scene with Sun and Moon and Descent from the Cross with Church and Synagogue. Ca.1230. P a r i s i a n . P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e de l ' A r s e n a l MS. f r a n c a i s 1186, P s a l t e r o f Blanche of C a s t i l e , f 24 (From Dupont and Gnudi, p.29). 40. C r u c i f i x i o n Scene with Sun and Moon. Ca.1250-1260. E n g l i s h . London, B r i t i s h Museum A d d i t i o n a l MS. 44874, Evesham P s a l t e r , f 6 (From Turner, E a r l y  G othic I l l u m i n a t e d Manuscripts, P i . I o p p o s i t e p.16). 41. C r u c i f i x i o n Scene with Sun and Moon. Mid 13th century. E n g l i s h . Oxford, A l l Souls C o l l e g e MS.6, Amesbury P s a l t e r , f 5 (From Turner, F i g . 1 0 ) . 42. C r u c i f i x i o n Scene with Sun and Moon. Ca.1314-1328. P a r i s i a n . P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e n a t i o n a l e MS.lat. 861, M i s s a l For the Use of P a r i s , f 147v (From A v r i l , Manuscript P a i n t i n g at the Court of  France; the Fourteenth Century, Pi.11-43). 43. Moses R e c e i v i n g the Tables of the Law. 12th cen t u r y . S a l z b u r g . Vienna, N a t i o n a l b i b l i o t h e k MS.Ser.Nov.2701, Gebhardt B i b l e from Admont, 68v, f 69 (From Grabar and Nordenfalk, Romanesque  P a i n t i n g , p.167). 44. The A s c e n t i o n of St-Amandus. Late 11th ce n t u r y . French. St-Amand. V a l e n c i e n n e s , B i b l i o t h e q u e m u n i c i p a l e MS.502, L i f e and M i r a c l e s of St-Amandus, f 119 (From Grabar and Nordenfalk, p.185). 45. Jacob's Ladder Among Other A t t r i b u t e s o f the V i r g i n , Ca.1635. French c a r v i n g . Retable. Bayeux Cath-e d r a l (From V l o b e r g , La Vi§rge Notre M e d i a t r i c e , p.186). 46. Mary as J u s t i c e . Ca.1160. Mosan s t y l e . Enamelled t r i p t y c h from S t a b l o , the a t e l i e r of G o d e f r o i de C l a i r . C o l l e c t i o n o f Mr. and Mrs. A.B. M a r t i n of New York (From Hackenbroch, "A T r i p t y c h i n the S t y l e of G o d e f r o i de C l a i r . " p.186). x i Figure 47. a,b J u s t i c e and Good Government. 14th century. I t a l i a n . Fresco by Ambrogio L o r e n z e t t i . S i e n a , Palazzo P u b l i c o (From Kantorowicz, The King's Two  Bodies, Fig.18, a,b). 48. The V i r g i n B a lancing the Sca l e s of Judgement. 15th century. E n g l i s h . B a s - r e l i e f i n a l a b a s t e r . P a r i s , Musee du Louvre (From V l o b e r g , p.221). 49. The V i r g i n with the S c a l e s . 1518-1519. French. Panel p a i n t i n g by Antoine P i q u e t . Amiens, C o n f r e r i e de Notre-Dame (From V l o b e r g , p.222). 50. The V i r g i n with the S c a l e s . 16th ce n t u r y . French. Rouen, MS. des Chants Royaux du Puy des P a l i n o d s de  Rouen, by M a i t r e Guillaume T y b a u l t (From V l o b e r g , p.226 ) . x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am g r a t e f u l t o my a d v i s o r , I. Marc P e s s i n , f o r h i s e n t h u s i a s t i c s u p p o r t , d i s p a s s i o n a t e c r i t i c i s m , and h e l p f u l a d v i c e which were i n v a l u a b l e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o Dr. Mary Morehart f o r the p e r c e p t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s and promptness w i t h which she r e s -ponded t o my q u e r i e s , i n her r o l e as second r e a d e r . My thanks a re a l s o extended t o the l i b r a r i a n s and s t a f f o f the U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y the F i n e A r t s D i v i s i o n , and t o the s t a f f o f the F i n e A r t s Department who were h e l p f u l and s u p p o r t i v e . - 1 -CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The c a t h e d r a l of Notre-Dame i n P a r i s has, i n i t s massive west facade, a doorway known as the Porte-de-Ste-Anne. T h i s south p o r t a l , whose composite nature has been recognized f o r c e n t u r i e s , c o n t a i n s the o l d e s t elements of the whole s c u l p -t u r a l program. I n v e s t i g a t i o n s undertaken by s c h o l a r s , whether a r c h a e o l o g i c a l or a r t h i s t o r i c a l , have f a i l e d u n t i l very r e c e n t l y to shed any l i g h t on the reasons f o r i t s composite c h a r a c t e r . In 1970 the c l e a n i n g of the fagace, undertaken by M. Bernard V i t r y , Inspecteur General des Monuments Historique"'", allowed f o r a c l o s e i n s p e c t i o n of the doorway and s e v e r a l misconceptions were erased. The tympanum, thought to have been a combination of p i e c e s , was d i s c o v e r e d to be homogen-eous and the upper l i n t e l was found to have been r e p a i r e d at e i t h e r end. The t h i r t e e n t h centure a d d i t i o n s were examined and t h e i r purpose confirmed: to f i l l spaces cre a t e d by f i t t i n g the t w e l f t h century ensemble i n t o the l a r g e r doorway. L i t t l e l i g h t was shed on the iconography of the tympanum although new i d e n t i t i e s were proposed f o r the f i g u r e s of 2 k i n g and c l e r i c . The tympanum was s t i l l seen as a d onative composition. The d i s c o v e r y i n 1977 of 364 p i e c e s of s c u l p -- 2 -tured f i g u r e s from the facade, which had been c a r e f u l l y and almost r e v e r e n t l y i n t e r r e d under the H6tel Moreau, has added 3 to the o v e r a l l s t y l i s t i c and c h r o n o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . The whole p o r t a l ensemble has been placed f i r m l y w i t h i n the venue of St-Denis and the development of E a r l y Gothic i n the I l e - d e - F r a n c e . However, there has been l i t t l e d i s c o v e r e d i n the way of new i n f o r m a t i o n which would lead to a r e - i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n of the meaning of the tympanum. The General H i s t o r i c a l Background of the  Porte-de-Ste-Anne and a D e s c r i p t i o n of the  S c u l p t u r a l Program of the Three P o r t a l s The c a t h e d r a l of Notre-dame i n P a r i s was begun under the a u s p i c e s of Maurice of S u l l y , bishop of P a r i s and 4 s u f f r a g a n bishop of Sens. He was born i n 1120, s t u d i e d i n the s c h o o l s of P a r i s t h a t l a t e r became the U n i v e r s i t y , and was e l e c t e d to the b i s h o p r i c on October 12th, 1160. 5 Three years l a t e r , i n 1163, he began c o n s t r u c t i o n of the church which was f i n a n c e d from c a t h e d r a l revenues and income from cathedral-owned p r o p e r t i e s i n the c i t y i t s e l f . The con s t r u c t i o n , undertaken i n three campaigns, ended around 1250 7 with the completion of the north tower. The facade was begun around 1200 under Eudes de S u l l y and a new master from the a t e l i e r at C h a r t r e s , and was f i n i s h e d around 1225. - 3 -P o r t i o n s of the s c u l p t u r a l program of P a r i s , along with S t -Denis, Angers, Le Mans, St-Loup-de-Naud and the west facade at C h a r t r e s are among the e a r l i e s t examples of the Gothic s t y l e and i t s development i s demonstrated i n t h e i r monumental west f r o n t s . The p l a n f o r the p o r t a l s , presented to the 9 bishop and chapter f o r approval of d e s i g n and iconography , c o n s i s t e d of a program s i m i l a r to that of the p o r t a i l r o y a l at C h a r t r e s , as i t was intended to have three p o r t a l s and a p p a r e n t l y shared with t h a t b u i l d i n g aspects of i t s i c o n -o g r a p h i c a l program. The west f r o n t of Notre-Dame i n P a r i s c o n t a i n s three doorways, the c e n t r a l Judgment p o r t a l f l a n k e d to the north by the V i r g i n p o r t a l and to the south by the Port-de-Ste-Anne. Begun c i r c a 1210"^, the o v e r a l l theme bears s i m i l a r -i t i e s to t h a t of C h a r t r e s i n t h a t they both p r e s e n t funda-mental elements of the c h r i s t o l o g i c a l drama from the I n c a r -n a t i o n C y c l e through to the Second Coming of C h r i s t , d i f f e r -ing o n l y i n the combination and l o c a t i o n of the v a r i o u s components. At P a r i s , C h r i s t of the Apocalypse becomes the Judging C h r i s t on the tympanum of the c e n t r a l p o r t a l : the a r c h i v o l t s are f i l l e d with a n g e l s , p a t r i a r c h s , prophets, martyrs, and c o n f e s s o r s of the Church. The l i n t e l s d e p i c t the R e s u r r e c t i o n of the Dead and the Weighing of S o u l s , e s s e n t i a l l y the Last Judgment. The V i r g i n p o r t a l d e p i c t s the Crowning of the V i r g i n as Queen of Heaven on the tympanum, surmounting the l i n t e l s - 4 -which r e s p e c t i v e l y d e p i c t the Death and Assumption of the V i r g i n and three kings and prophets. In the a r c h i v o l t s angels, r o y a l a n c e stors of the V i r g i n , p a t r i a r c h s and prophets h e r a l d her appearance i n Heaven.^ To the south the Porte-de-Ste-Anne c o n t a i n s the o l d e s t s c u l p t u r e of the c a t h e d r a l ( F i g . 1 ) . U n l i k e the other doorways, i t i s a composite of t w e l f t h and t h i r t e e n t h c e ntury elements: the tympanum, upper l i n t e l , jamb s t a t u e s , trumeau f i g u r e s and some of the a r c h i v o l t f i g u r e s date from 12 the i n c e p t i o n of the c a t h e d r a l or b e f o r e . The Tympanum ( F i g . 2) c a r r i e s an enthroned V i r g i n and C h i l d w i t h i n an a r c h i t e c t u r a l b a l d a c h i n ; on e i t h e r s i d e a censing angel i s accompanied by a f i g u r e , on the l e f t a standing bishop and on the r i g h t a k n e e l i n g k i n g . Behind the f i g u r e of the bishop i s a seated s c r i b e . The upper l i n t e l d e p i c t s scenes from the L i f e of C h r i s t : the Ann u n c i a t i o n , V i s i t a t i o n , N a t i v i t y , A n n u n ciation to the Shepherds and Questioning of the Magi by Herod ( F i g s . 3, 4). The a r c h i v o l t f i g u r e s i n c l u d e angels with c e n s e r s , kings and prophets, and E l d e r s of the Apocalypse c a r r y i n g v i a l s and musical instruments 13 ( F i g s , 5 a, b, c; 6 a, b, c ) . The jamb st a t u e s on e i t h e r s i d e of the doorway i n c l u d e the f i g u r e s of S t s . Peter and Paul to the r i g h t and l e f t f l anked by two kings and a queen r e s p e c t i v e l y , who may be understood as r e p r e s e n t i n g the r o y a l a n c e s t o r s of Mary, and thereby C h r i s t ( F i g s . 7, 8 a , b) . Above the tympanum, i n an a d d i t i o n which enabled the - 5 -o l d e r tympanum t o conform t o the shape o f the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y doorway, t h u r i f y i n g a n g e l s f l o a t on a f i e l d o f r i n c e a u x . In a d d i t i o n , the l o w e r l i n t e l which i s t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y work a l s o , d e p i c t s scenes from the L i f e of J o a c h i n and Anna and d e t a i l s from the L i f e o f the V i r g i n . I t i s from t h i s l i n t e l t h a t the p o r t a l r e c e i v e d i t s name. I t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the development o f F i r s t G o t h i c s c u l p t u r e , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e meaning o f the tympanum scene, n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s a range of h i s t o r i c , s t y l i s t i c and i c o n o g r a p h i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . S t y l i s t i c O r b i t " I n the l a s t r e s o r t , t h e s e changes o f s t y l e had t h e i r r o o t s i n a change i n the way t h a t men f e l t about the w o r l d a t t h i s t i m e . " 14 In the I l e - d e - F r a n c e the new G o t h i c e r a i n t r o d u c e d new s t y l e s i n s c u l p t u r e and new programs f o r t h e i r d e p i c t i o n . The g r o t e s q u e e l e m e n t s , h i g h l y e x p r e s s i v e f i g u r e s , and emphasis on damnation and the A p o c a l y p t i c V i s i o n which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the Romanesque gave way t o a new humanity, a s o f t e n i n g and n a t u r a l i z i n g of s c u l p t u r a l forms, and the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f themes t h a t became s t a n d a r d . These c o n s i s t e d o f C h r i s t the Judge between the V i r g i n and S t . John com-p a s s i o n a t e l y p r e s i d i n g o v e r scenes o f the L a s t Judgment w i t h a n g e l s b e a r i n g the i n s t r u m e n t s o f the P a s s i o n , scenes from the C h i l d h o o d o f C h r i s t , the V i r g i n i n M a j e s t y w i t h C h r i s t C h i l d , the A d o r a t i o n o f the M a g i , Old Testament f i g u r e s a c t i n g as p r e c u r s o r s o f the New and, i n the m i d - t w e l f t h - 6 c e n t u r y w i t h the spread o f the C u l t o f the V i r g i n , scenes from h er l i f e , d e a t h , and t r i u m p h . S a u e r l a n d e r has s u c c i n c t l y s t a t e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a t t e m p t i n g t o a p p l y any s t y l i s t i c l a b e l t o G o t h i c s c u l p t u r e which a p p l i e s e q u a l l y w e l l t o the f i g u r e s on the tympanum o f the P o r t e - d e - S t e -Anne : "...we s h o u l d renounce any attem p t s t o o r d e r t h i s m a t e r i a l too s t r i c t l y i n accordance w i t h an e v o l u -t i o n a r y c o n c e p t , but r a t h e r , put the monuments o f a l l the p o r t a i l s r o y a l s s i d e by s i d e , as f a r as f a c t u a l e v i d e n c e , s o u r c e s , a r c h a e o l o g y and i c o n o -graphy w i l l a l l o w . And we s h o u l d a l s o r e a l i z e t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l c o ncept o f " s t y l e " as b e i n g a s o r t o f P l a t o n i c i d e a e x i s t i n g b e f o r e c r e a t i o n and then p r o d u c i n g a work o f a r t , i s w o r t h l e s s when we s t u d y works o f M e d i e v a l a r t l i k e t h e s e . The workshops seem here t o depend v e r y p r a g m a t i c -a l l y and sometimes even a c c i d e n t a l l y on e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s , l o c a l demands and models a t hand." 15 The range o f s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y m a t e r i a l o f the tympanum r e v e a l s an element o f e c l e c t i c i s m t h a t i n e v i t a b l y r e f l e c t s S a u e r l a n d e r ' s o b s e r v a -t i o n s . No s i n g l e hand may be a t t r i b u t e d t o the p o r t a l as a whole because o f the m u l t i p l i c i t y o f s t y l e s . 1 6 The c o n t i n u a l a d d i t i o n s o f new m a t e r i a l r e s u l t i n g from new i n s i g h t s and d i s c o v e r i e s causes us t o r e v i s e c o n t i n u a l l y o ur u n d e r s t a n d -i n g o f the sequence o f e v e n t s t h a t r e s u l t e d i n the f u l l y d e v e l o p e d G o t h i c s t y l e . U n t i l the f a i r l y r e c e n t d i s c o v e r y , made i n P a r i s i n 1977, i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t the f i g u r e o f the Enthroned Madonna on the tympanum was a copy o f t h a t on the p o r t a i l r o y a l a t C h a r t r e s , and a not v e r y s u c c e s s f u l copy a t t h a t . W i t h the work o f Erl a n d e - B r a n d e n b e r g and 7 -Gnudi the r e v e r s e must be admitted. The h i e r a t i c calm of the P a r i s Madonna t h a t i s at once d i g n i f i e d and welcoming draws her c l o s e r to her Romanesque o r i g i n s than the warmth and humanity of the Char t r e s Madonna which e x h i b i t s the new humanizing q u a l i t i e s of the emerging G o t h i c . Jacques 17 T h i r i o n has s t a t e d that the V i r g i n alone of a l l the f i g u r e s on the tympanum, o r indeed i n the p o r t a l , demonstrates a 18 " C h a r t r a i n " i n f l u e n c e ( F i g . 9) and Walter Cahn s t a t e d : "Compositional scheme, p r i n c i p a l s u b j e c t and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s t y l e connect the work with the tympanum of the North 19 p o r t a l of the C h a r t r e s p o r t a i l r o y a l . . . . " Both of these statements are true i n l i g h t of the new chronology although they were made before the r e c e n t d i s c o v e r y . The f e e l i n g f o r the d e c o r a t i v e e f f e c t of the f i g u r a l contour, which i s achieved through the smooth treatment of t e x t u r e s and the v o l u m e t r i c r e a l i z a t i o n of the form, r e s u l t s i n an antique look t h a t i s c l o s e r to the Romanesque than to E a r l y G o t h i c . T h i r i o n saw v e s t i g e s of the Romanesque s t y l e i n the ot h e r tympanum f i g u r e s , i n the l i n e of the drapery f o l d s around the knee and i n the b e l l - s h a p e d gathers beside the l e g of each a n g e l . In the f i g u r e s o f King and Bishop, f a c i a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and the s n a i l - s h e l l c u r l s o f the beards can be 20 compared to s i m i l a r types at St-Loup-de-Naud. These f i g u r e s are more balanced and g r a c e f u l than those of the upper l i n t e l , and are no doubt the work of a more g i f t e d . . . 21 a r t i s t . - 8 -The l i n t e l i t s e l f i s a composition that i s s t a t i c and p o o r l y balanced. The work of two s c u l p t o r s can be d i s c e r n e d : the f i g u r e s on the r i g h t are squat and heavy with l a r g e heads and hands, wearing s h o r t robes which end i n a f a i r l y s t r a i g h t hemline while those of the l e f t are t a l l e r , t h e i r heads and hands i n b e t t e r p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r s i z e . T h e i r robes, which are long and e l a b o r a t e l y draped, end i n a f l u t t e r i n g hemline t h a t i s f u l l o f movement. In c o n t r a s t t o the c l a r i t y o f the tympanum f i g u r e s , the h e a v i l y i n c i s e d 22 l i n e s of t h e i r drapery f o l d s seem to e n f o l d them i n a mesh. There are d i f f e r e n c e s i n the iconography that remove the l i n t e l from the sphere of C h a r t r e s : d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the c a s t of c h a r a c t e r s i n the v a r i o u s scenes are s i m i l a r to those found on the l i n t e l o f the doorway of the church of 23 Semur-en-Brionnais. The a r c h i v o l t f i g u r e s t h a t date as w e l l from the t w e l f t h c entury, are of s t i l l another s t y l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the f i g u r e s 24 of the k i n g s , prophets and e l d e r s . T h i r i o n sees a d i r e c t l i n k between these "...squat f i g u r e s , some with crossed l e g s , long f l y i n g l o c k s and windblown drapery...," and the animated f i g u r e s from the west p o r t a l of St-Denis which would be e n t i r e l y c o n s i s t e n t with changes i n chronology suggested by the new d a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . S e v e r a l of the angels from the f i r s t a r c h i v o l t he has connected with the angels i n the tympanum and he sees t h e i r s t y l e c u l m i n a t i n g 2 6 i n t h a t of S e n l i s . - 9 -27 The iamb s t a t u e s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r the head of David 2 8 and the remnant of the f i g u r e of S t . Peter were thought to have been s c u l p t e d at the same time as the tympanum and 29 v o u s s o i r s but t h i s has s i n c e been d i s p r o v e d , again by the work of Erlande-Brandenberg and Gnudi. They now agree that a very e a r l y date must be assigned to these statue-columns, 30 a date a n t e r i o r t o that of the tympanum. The consensus of o p i n i o n on d a t i n g the complete s c u l p t u r a l ensemble i s around 1150. T h i r i o n , Erlande-Brandenberg, and Gnudi agree on a sequence t h a t begins with the jamb s t a t u e s and progresses upwards; the l a s t component completed, i n t h e i r view, was the tympanum. Without b e n e f i t of the r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d fragments, T h i r i o n dated the complete ensemble between 1150 and 1165; Erlande-Brandenberg changed the date but not the sequence, a f t e r examing the d i s c o v e r y , t o 1145 to 1155; Gnudi agrees with both t h a t an e a r l y date i s demanded and opts f o r 1150 to 1160. What has become e v i d e n t i n the l i g h t of the new inform-a t i o n i s the homogeneity of the s c u l p t u r e s : s i m i l a r i t i e s e x i s t t h a t lead T h i r i o n to compare the head of David with t h a t of Herod on the l i n t e l . T h i s he sees as having obvious connections to the jamb s t a t u e s of St-Denis, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the a r c h a i c appearance and treatment of the eyes. A span of ten to f i f t e e n years between the f a b r i c a t i o n of the jamb s t a t u e s and the l i n t e l suggests the work was executed by the same a r t i s t o r one who was t r a i n e d by him. T h i r i o n a s s i g n s - 10 -a s i m i l a r d a t e t o the f i g u r e o f S t . P e t e r f o r which he can f i n d no v i s i b l e p r o t o t y p e , i n the e l e g a n t d r a p e r y o f the f i g u r e , e x c e p t f o r some contemporary m a n u s c r i p t i l l u s t r a -31 t i o n s . There i s a s l i g h t s i m i l a r i t y t o some o f the f i g u r e s a t St-Loup-de-Naud, e s p e c i a l l y the d r a p e r i e s o f the A p o s t l e s on the l i n t e l . Gnudi sees i n thes e f i g u r e s , which have been f i r m l y p l a c e d by Erl a n d e - B r a n d e n b e r g second o n l y t o S t - D e n i s i n the development o f F i r s t G o t h i c , an example of what he c a l l s " a r c h a i c G o t h i c . " He f i n d s i n them, p a r -t i c u l a r l y the S t . P e t e r , a r e t r i e v a l o f the Greek r o o t s o f B y z a n t i n e s t y l i z a t i o n as i t e x i s t s i n the Burgundian i d i o m o f V e z e l a y and Autun i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h the I m p e r i a l c l a s s -32 i c i s m p r e s e r v e d a t S t - G i l l e s - d u - G a r d . The Problem o f the Iconography o f the  Porte-de-Ste-Anne and the Major T h e o r i e s " I t i s a drama p l a y e d on two l e v e l s , the p o l i t i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l , the human and d i v i n e . . . . " 33 The i c o n o g r a p h y o f the tympanum remains an enigma. D e s p i t e v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s advanced as t o i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , no s i n g l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f the f i g u r e s o r t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s has been w i d e l y a c c e p t e d . The e a r l i e s t o f the proposed i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n s f o r the f i g u r e s o f k i n g , c l e r i c , and s c r i b e who occupy the tympanum w i t h the Enthroned V i r g i n and C h i l d 34 35 i n c l u d e C l o v i s and C h i l d e b e r t , David and Solomon , and 3 6 Solomon and S t - M a r c e l . - 11 -37 In 1855 de Guilhermy proposed that the f i g u r e s be i d e n t i f i e d as Maurice of S u l l y , founder of the new c a t h e d r a l and Louis V I I , d u r i n g whose r e i g n the b u i l d i n g began. T h i s 3 8 39 was the accepted theory agreed to by de L a s t e y r i e , Male , 40 Aubert , and most h i s t o r i a n s of Medieval a r t u n t i l the work of T h i r i o n . He has proposed t h a t these f i g u r e s were a c t u a l l y intended to r e p r e s e n t C h i l d e b e r t and St-Germain. He bases h i s argument on what was purported to the the o l d e s t c h a r t e r of the Church of P a r i s , t h a t has s i n c e proved to be a f o r g e r y , but very i n f l u e n t i a l d u r i n g the t w e l f t h c entury. T h i s recorded a donation i n 528 from C h i l d e b e r t to S t -41 Germain i n g r a t i t u d e f o r h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n i n a h e a l i n g . A l s o , C h i l d e b e r t was honored as r e b u i l d e r of the c a t h e d r a l of P a r i s and founder of the b a s i l i c a of the Holy Cross and S t - V i n c e n t which l a t e r became the church of St-Germain-des-P r e s . 4 2 At the beginning of Maurice of S u l l y ' s e p i s c o p a t e there was an i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t i n the Merovingian kings of France and i n St-Germain h i m s e l f , demonstrated by the c o n s e c r a t i o n of St-Germain-des-Pr§s and i t s g i s a n t f i g u r e of C h i l p e r i c 43 along with r e t r o s p e c t i v e monuments to former r u l e r s . W i t h i n the next h a l f - c e n t u r y monuments to C l o v i s and Dagobert 44 were a l s o r a i s e d . St-Germain-le-Vieux, a church which contained r e l i c s of the s a i n t was b u i l t c l o s e to the s i t e of 45 . Notre-Dame. T h i r i o n r e l a t e d a l l of t h i s a c t i v i t y t o reasons f o r honoring, i n the tympanum, these r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s - 12 -o f " . . . t h e g l o r i o u s p a s t o f P a r i s . . . " a l o n g s i d e her p a t r o n -46 e s s , the V i r g i n . Because i t was i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t a l i v i n g F rench k i n g be p o r t r a y e d , a t t h a t p e r i o d , e s p e c i a l l y on the same p l a n e and the same s i z e as the V i r g i n , he does not b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s e a r e contemporary personnages; because no maquette o f t h i s c a t h e d r a l was i n c l u d e d t h i s cannot be p e r c e i v e d as a d o n a t i o n o r f o u n d a t i o n scene, and because the o n l y d e p i c t i o n s o f s t a n d i n g b i s h o p s on f a c a d e s a r e those o f s a i n t s , t h i s cannot be M a u r i c e o f S u l l y . He makes no mention of the f i g u r e o f the s c r i b e , seeming t o t a k e h i s presence f o r g r a n t e d , a l t h o u g h A u b e r t had i d e n t i f i e d him as Barbe-47 d o r . T h i n o n views the i c o n o g r a p h y o f the tympanum w i t h i t s r a t h e r f o r m a l q u a l i t i e s and s t a t e l y f i g u r e s as a l l u d i n g t o a r o y a l d o n a t i o n : " I s i t n e c e s s a r y t o see here a s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n o f the two powers - l a y and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l - g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r by the V i r g i n ? I t i s not i m p o s s i b l e , but i t would be s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the p e o p l e o f the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y were c o n t e n t w i t h s y m b o l i c personnages and not w i s h t o g i v e them a name...." 48 The i c o n o g r a p h y i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n a v e r y d i f f e r e n t 49 50 manner by both A d o l f K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n and W a l t e r Cahn who view the tympanum scene as a form o f b e n e v o l e n t p r o p a -ganda on the p a r t o f the c h u r c h , which i n the M i d d l e Ages used s c u l p t u r a l programs t o i n s t r u c t , e n l i g h t e n and r e i n f o r c e p o l i t i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l d o c t r i n e , as w e l l as t o enhance the b e a u t y o f the b u i l d i n g s . K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n developed a t h e o r y i n which the d e p i c t i o n s o f r o y a l p e r s o n s ^ i n the - 13 -facade s c u l p t u r e s of St-Denis and C h a r t r e s , as w e l l as r e l a t e d churches, emphasized the r e l a t i o n s h i p between regnum and sacerdotium; "That r u l e r s are honored here i n the images of Old Testament p e r s o n a l i t i e s i s but a l i n k i n a long c h a i n or r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s r e l a t i n g the l i v i n g to i d e a l p r o t o types of the past by v i r t u e of v a r i o u s i d e o l o g i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , a l l of them meant to enhance the p r e s t i g e of the l i v i n g . " 52 R e l a t i n g these f i g u r e s t o the h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between St-Denis and the French throne, he sees the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the iconography i n the p o l i t i c a l theology developed d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . B i b l i c a l k i n g s and queens are seen as the s p i r i t u a l a n c e s t ors of the kings and queens of France, who 53 through a n n o m t i n g and c o r o n a t i o n assumed s p e c i f i c respon-s i b i l i t i e s towards the Church, namely to defend i t and to 54 suppress h e r e s i e s . As Southern has s t a t e d : "He [the king] was anointed with the o i l used i n the c o n s e c r a t i o n of p r i e s t s ; he was i n v e s t e d with the r i n g and s t a f f c o n f e r r e d on bishops, with the power to d e s t r o y h e r e s i e s , and to u n i t e h i s sub-j e c t s i n the C a t h o l i c f a i t h ; and he r e c e i v e d the sword and s c e p t r e with words which gave the h i g h e s t a u t h o r i t y to h i s use of v i o l e n c e . " 55 Katzenellenbogen sees the " s h a l l - c a p p e d " f i g u r e s i n c l u d e d among those of r o y a l t y i n the s c u l p t u r a l programs as r e s p r e s e n t a t i v e s of P r i e s t s and Prophets of "...the era 56 of the Kings of Judah...," and consequently he f i n d s d e v e l o p i n g a theme i n which "...the harmony of regnum and sacerdotium i s p r e f i g u r e d . " - " He proposed Abbot Suger 5 8 h i m s e l f as author of the program i n view of h i s r o l e with r e s p e c t to the r e b u i l d i n g of St-Denis as w e l l as h i s p o l i t -- 14 -i c a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the r e a l m . T h i s t h e o r y has r e c e i v e d more s u p p o r t w i t h the work o f E r l a n d e -Brandenberg and Gnudi w i t h r e g a r d t o the d a t e o f the P o r t e -de-Ste-Anne which p l a c e s i t i n a more d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the developments a t S t - D e n i s r a t h e r than w i t h C h a r t r e s . K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n p e r c e i v e s t h r e e f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n the o v e r a l l program t h a t are f u l f i l l e d by t h e s e s t a t u e s : t h e y i l l u s t r a t e Old Testament h i s t o r y from the e r a o f the P a t r i -a r c h s through t o the e r a o f the k i n g s , t h e y may be u n d e r s t o o d as p e r s o n i f y i n g the s p i r i t u a l a n c e s t o r s o f the French r u l e r s , and most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e y c r e a t e f o r the f i r s t time a v i s u a l r e c o r d o f the i d e a l o f an harmonious a c c o r d between the s e c u l a r and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l h a l v e s o f the M e d i e v a l 59 w o r l d . The e x p a n s i o n o f t h i s i d e a l , a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s t h e o r y , appears i n the programs o f both Notre-Dame, Etampes ( s o u t h p o r t a l ) and C h a r t r e s a l t h o u g h i n a m o d i f i e d i c o n o -graphy. A "...more even b a l a n c e between the p r o t o t y p e o f 6 0 regnum and s a c e r d o t i u m . . . " i s produced on the p o r t a i l r o y a l a t C h a r t r e s where the v i s u a l i m p l i c a t i o n i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t . T h i s i s an e x p a n s i o n o f the c r y s t a l i z a t i o n o f the n o t i o n which appeared on the tympanum o f the Porte-de-Ste-Anne. K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n saw: " . . . t h e exemplary c o - o p e r a t i o n between regnum and s a c e r d o t i u m was d i r e c t l y , not f i g u r a t i v e l y as i n the e a r l i e r p e r i o d [ a t C h a r t r e s ] , r e p r e s e n t e d on the r i g h t tympanum o f the west fagade o f N o t r e -Dame i n P a r i s . Here L o u i s V I I g i v e s a p r i v i l e g e t o the V i r g i n Mary, the p a t r o n s a i n t o f the c a t h e d r a l , and M a u r i c e o f S u l l y , b i s h o p o f P a r i s a c c e p t s i t , i l l u s t r a t i n g the harmony o f k i n g and p r i e s t i n r e l a t i o n t o the Church." 61 - 15 -As a l r e a d y s t a t e d , t h i s t h e o r y must be r e v i s e d i n the l i g h t o f r e c e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . W h i l e the b a s i c t h e o r y i s c o r r e c t , the sequence o f developments must be understood as moving from S t - D e n i s t o Notre-Dame, P a r i s , and thence t o f u l l f l o w e r i n g a t C h a r t r e s . I t i s more l o g i c a l t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Suger's i d e a s would f i r s t be f e l t i n P a r i s , where the p r i m a r y s t a t e m e n t was f o r m u l a t e d and the m a g n i f i c e n t i c o n o -g r a p h i c a l program o f the p o r t r a i l r o y a l e x p l a i n e d as a major p o l i t i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l statement o f the i d e a l d e v e l o p e d i n P a r i s . H i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the tympanum scene as a d o n a t i o n t o Mary does not d e t r a c t from the soundness o f h i s t h e o r y , but what t y p e o f p r i v i l e g e c o u l d man g i v e t o the V i r g i n ? " . . . t h e absence o f an e x p l i c i t a t t r i b u t e o r i n s c r i p t i o n c o n f e r s on the r e l i e f an a l l u s i v e scope t h a t i s g e n e r a l r a t h e r than s p e c i f i c . The k i n g o f France and the b i s h o p o f P a r i s are shown by the s c u l p t o r not as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n an i s o l a -t e d t r a n s a c t i o n but as a c t o r s i n a l a r g e r demon-s t r a t i o n on the v e r y bases and d i m e n s i o n s o f r o y a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l power...." 62 With t h i s s t atement W a l t e r Cahn demonstrates a w h o l l y d i v e r g e n t o p i n i o n . He r e g a r d s the i d e n t i t i e s o f the f i g u r e s as b e i n g u n i m p o r t a n t i n the sense t h a t as t y p e s , t h e y r e p r e -s e n t a v i s u a l statement o f the d i v i s i o n o f powers, w i t h supremacy v e s t e d i n the Church. C o n t r a r y t o the harmony o f regnum and s a c e r d o t i u m e n v i s i o n e d by K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , Cahn sees i n the "...complex f o r c e s and v a l u e s embodied i n the 6 3 two s i d e s . . . a s t a t e o f d e l i c a t e e q u i l i b r i u m . " i n which the Church i s seen as the dominant f o r c e , r e i t e r a t i n g a view - 16 -expressed by papal a p o l o g i s t s f o r c e n t u r i e s . In r e g a r d i n g the composition as a whole, he has i s o l a t e d s e v e r a l elements that he uses to r e i n f o r c e h i s theory. The standing bishop and k n e e l i n g king on r e s p e c t i v e l y the ' r i g h t ' and 'wrong' s i d e s of the V i r g i n are seen as conveying the h i e r o c r a t i c import of the bishop; the s t r i a t e d and c l u s t e r e d - p e t a l m o t i f s above the heads of the angels are seen as an a l l u s i o n to the theory of the Two Luminaries; the d i v i s i o n of the r e l i e f i n t o s e c u l a r and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l halves by means of an imaginary v e r t i c a l a x i s , running from the f i g u r e of the V i r g i n to the lower l i n t e l , i s viewed as a fulcrum r e i n f o r c -ing the s e p a r a t i o n of the two powers; f i n a l l y , the presence of the seated s c r i b e behind the f i g u r e of the c l e r i c i s seen as imparting a l e g i t i m i z a t i o n and c o n t i n u i n g time-frame to the scene. A l l of these elements are i n t e r p r e t e d by Cahn as demonstrating v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l axioms t h a t were p r e v a l e n t d u r i n g the t w e l f t h century, propagated by p a p a l i s t s . Cahn bases h i s arguments f o r the pre-eminence of the f i g u r e of the bishop on the d u a l i s t i c world view he sees as common d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , although there are v a r y i n g o p i n i o n s on t h i s s u b j e c t . He has used the h i s t o r i c a l polem-i c s of the I n v e s t i t u t e Controversy to b o l s t e r h i s p o i n t of view, most prominently the imagery engendered i n the t r a d i t i o l e g i s iconography, the concept of the Two Swords, and the legend of the C o n s t a n t i n i a n Donation with i t s r e s u l t -- 17 -ing d e p i c t i o n s i n v a r i o u s media such as the mosaic i n the 64 t r i c l i n i u m of the Lateran p a l a c e . He a l s o mentions the s c u l p t u r a l d e p i c t i o n s d a t i n g from l a t e r Gothic p e r i o d s such as the Coronation P o r t a l at Notre-Dame i n P a r i s and the 6 5 south p o r t a l at C h a r t r e s . As examples of an iconography i n support o f h i s theory, he a l s o c i t e s t h i r t e e n t h century manuscript i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n the P s a l t e r of S t . Sw i t h i n s , Winchester and the London, B r i t i s h Museum Ha r l e y MS.2895 which he f e e l s p o r t r a y "...the power of the s c e p t r e and the power of the book as being s o v e r e i g n i n t h e i r own spheres.. 6 6 .." That most of the examples used by him are l a t e r i n date by f a r than the s c u l p t u r e s o f the Porte-de-Ste-Anne tends t o d i l u t e t h e i r e f f i c a c y i n making h i s p o i n t , and although he c i t e s the two powers as being s o v e r e i g n i n t h e i r own spheres, t h a t does not pr e c l u d e t h e i r harmonious co-o p e r a t i o n . The Purpose of T h i s Study The most f o r c e f u l argument used by Walter Cahn i s t h a t which demonstrates the importance of the Decretum G r a t i a n i i n the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of church d o c t r i n e which r e f l e c t s the contemporary a t t i t u d e toward the r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s of regnum and sacerdotium. What he has d i s r e g a r d e d i s i t s r o l e i n the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of s e c u l a r d o c t r i n e as w e l l . T h i s f i r s t - 18 -comprehensive c o m p i l a t i o n of canon law with i t s attendant imagery d i d indeed become "The most s u b s t a n t i a l v e h i c l e of 6 7 i n s p i r a t i o n and d i f f u s i o n f o r the iconography..." but not f o r the " . . . d i v i s i o n of power..." seen by Cahn. I t was and remains a c l e a r statement of the i d e a l of harmonious accord between the two f o r a . T h i s t h e s i s i s concerned with the r e -examination of the iconography of the Porte-de-Ste-Anne i n the l i g h t o f contemporary p o l i t i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l develop-ments as r e v e a l e d i n the Decretum G r a t i a n i . Far from being simply a v i s u a l r e c o r d of d o n a t i v e or commemorative s i g n i f i -cance, the tympanum r e v e a l s m u l t i p l e l e v e l s of imagery which must be c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y as w e l l as i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the o v e r a l l i c o n o g r a p h i c a l program. - 19 -CHAPTER II THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: FRANCE AND THE PAPACY Louis VII "...a k i n g , o f t e n t i m i d , sometimes f e a r f u l , almost always of good f a i t h , capable of e x t r a c t i n g from each event what was of use to h i s monarchy and knowing f i n a l l y , t h a t a s e r i e s of s m a l l l o c a l v i c t o r i e s and l i m i t e d advantages are of more value than s p e c t a c u l a r successes." 68 In 1163 when Maurice of S u l l y began to r e b u i l d Notre-Dame on the s i t e of the o l d c a t h e d r a l , Louis VII had occupied the throne of France f o r twenty-six y e a r s . Ignored by many h i s t o r i a n s i n f a v o r of the e x p l o i t s of h i s son, P h i l i p p e 69 Augustus, and grandson, Louis V I I I , h i s e f f o r t s and those of e a r l i e r Capetian monarchs i n l a y i n g the groundwork f o r l a t e r achievements cannot be d i s c o u n t e d . They had r u l e d c o n t i n u o u s l y from the time of Hugh Capet i n 987, the p o l i t -i c a l f a c t of t h e i r l e g i t i m a c y having been e f f e c t e d by the 70 l o n g - l i v e d r u l e r s themselves ; t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n of male 71 h e i r s i n each g e n e r a t i o n ; the c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n of the h e i r with the a f f a i r s of s t a t e while the f a t h e r s t i l l l i v e d due to t h e i r p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r crowning the h e i r d u r i n g the 72 r e i g n of the monarch ; and the r e t e n t i o n of c o u r t f u n c t i o n -73 a r i e s as a mark of r e s p e c t f o r the p r e v i o u s r u l e r a l l - 20 -c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c o n t i n u a n c e o f p o l i c i e s b e n e f i c i a l t o the monarchy and the endurance o f the d y n a s t y . A l t h o u g h arguments have been made t h a t i n d i c a t e a 74 c e r t a i n weakness on the p a r t o f the f i r s t C a p e t i a n s , t h i s may be viewed i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t and i n t e r p r e t e d as t e n a c i t y o f purpose which i n v o l v e d bowing t o p o l i t i c a l n e c e s s i t y . By a d h e r i n g t o a c c e p t e d custom, a t t i m e s 75 " . . . t h e y appeared t o be weak and i n e f f e c t u a l . . . " e s p e c i a l l y i n comparison t o l a r g e r - t h a n - l i f e f i g u r e s such as W i l l i a m the Conqueror o f Odo I I o f B l o i s . But t h e i r d e s i r e was f o r the c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e i r own p o s i t i o n and i n c r e a s e o f power and p r e s t i g e a c c r u i n g t o the l i n e as a whole. H i s t o r y 7 6 has r e g a r d e d t h e s e e a r l y C a p e t i a n s as " . . . n o n e n t i t i e s . . . " o r c o n v e r s e l y , as " . . . p o w e r f u l l o r d s . To r e g a r d them as p e t i t s s e i g n e u r s o f t h e I l e - d e - F r a n c e i s t o p e r p e t u a t e a 77 myth." R e a l i t y l i e s somewhere between th e s e two extremes. When L o u i s VI ascended the t h r o n e "...he was l i t t l e 7 8 more p o w e r f u l than h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s . " By the end o f the r e i g n o f h i s g r e a t - g r a n d s o n L o u i s V I I I , the k i n g ' s s u z e r a i n t y was acknowledged and obeyed and the r o y a l l a n d s had been 79 g r e a t l y expanded. As w e l l , the p e t t y barons who had c o n t i n u o u s l y h a r a s s e d the r o y a l domain had been subdued. L o u i s v l l , a c c o r d i n g t o a c c e p t e d h i s t o r i c a l v i e w , had p l a y e d a much l a r g e r p a r t i n the a f f a i r s o f the c o u n t r y as a whole as w e l l as an i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e r o l e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . He had, t h e r e b y , made enormous s t r i d e s - 21 -i n advancing the r o l e o f the dynasty and i n g a i n i n g r o y a l p r e s t i g e . Major c o u n c i l s were convened that were attended by the p r i n c e s ; crown wearings and f e u d a l c o u n c i l s were frequent; the g r e a t p r i n c e s and nobles appeared more o f t e n at c o u r t ; j u s t i c e was rendered by the king on the appeal of both v a s s a l s and e c c l e s i a s t i c s ; ordinances were i s s u e d ; and the king t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y both w i t h i n and without 80 France. "Although r o y a l power i n the t w e l f t h century remained l i m i t e d i n terms of land and r e s o u r c e s , the r e p u t a t i o n o f the king as o v e r l o r d , lawgiver and p r o t e c t o r . . . as w e l l as the image of the French king as the h o l d e r of s a c r a l powers and as defender of the kingdom..." 81 was g i v e n impetus by both Louis VI and Louis V I I , more p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a t t e r . During t h i s p e r i o d s o c i e t y was regarded as a form of C h r i s t i a n Commonwealth, a r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l u n i t y h e l d to be the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the " . . . d i v i n e l y chosen commonwealth of 8 2 I s r a e l . . . " whose o b j e c t i v e was e t e r n a l s a l v a t i o n f o r each of i t s members. The f e u d a l age p e r s o n a l i z e d t h i s concept as a t h e o c r a t i c monarchy whereby the r u l e r was seen as " v i c a r of God", "the r u l e r of the C i t y o f God on e a r t h " and t h e r e -f o r e endowed with d i v i n e q u a l i t i e s . He became: " . . . k i n g and p r i e s t , rex et sacerdos, t o whom were conceded on o c c a s i o n even l i t u r g i c a l f u n c t i o n s . T h i s q u a s i - r e l i g i o u s conception 8 3 of k i n g s h i p was widely h e l d i n Europe..." and e s p e c i a l l y i n France where kings were canonized. Apart from h i s r o l e of sacred k i n g s h i p , Louis VII as o v e r l o r d , developed econ-- 22 -omic p o l i c i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o the g r a n t i n g o f communes t h a t began t o i n c r e a s e h i s p e r s o n a l p o p u l a r i t y and t h a t o f the t h r o n e . He c o n s o l i d a t e d the r o y a l domain and h i s i n f l u e n c e t h e r e and i n the r e s t o f France c o n t i n u e d t o 84 grow. "...by the end o f the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y the i d e a t h a t the k i n d was l i e g e l o r d , who was owed l i e g e homage, s u p e r i o r t o a l l o t h e r forms o f homage, by the p r i n c e s f o r the l a n d was becoming w i d e l y a c c e p t e d . " 8 5 R e l a t i o n s w i t h the Church o v e r the r e f o r m s o f the e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y had s t i l l not been c o m p l e t e l y r e s o l v e d when L o u i s VI came t o the t h r o n e and he was i n v o l v e d i n d i s p u t e s t o r e t a i n h i s r e g a l i a n r i g h t s , but he remained on good terms w i t h the papacy. T e n s i o n s caused by the G r e g o r i a n Reforms were supposed t o have been eased by the compromise a c h i e v e d between Pope P a s c h a l I I and P h i l i p p e I w i t h which L o u i s VI c o n c u r r e d . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g was reached and " . . . t h e y p r o -8 6 c l a i m e d t h e i r agreement o v e r the i n v e s t i t u r e d i s p u t e . . . . " The p a p a l i s t r e a c t i o n t o the G r e g o r i a n r e f o r m s and p a r t i c u -l a r l y the l o n g , t r a g i c s t r u g g l e between Gregory V I I and Henry IV of Germany "...had c h a l l e n g e d the p r i n c e ' s p o s i t i o n i n the C h r i s t i a n commonwealth but not the t h e o c r a t i c i d e a 8 7 i t s e l f " [emphasis m i n e ] . T h e r e f o r e t h e r e was no h e s i t a t i o n on the p a r t o f the C a p e t i a n s i n r e a c h i n g agreement because i t d i d not a f f e c t t h e i r p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g the i n t r i n s i c a l l y s a c r e d n a t u r e o f k i n g s h i p . The a c c o r d thus a c h i e v e d endured f o r more than two c e n t u r i e s , d e s p i t e minor d i s a g r e e m e n t s , - 23 -and i t i s a t r i b u t e to Capetian p e r s p i c a c i t y t h a t the popes continued the a l l i a n c e as a c o u n t e r v a i l i n g f o r c e a g a i n s t the h o s t i l e German emperors. In consequence, i t was to France that popes looked i n times of need f o r a i d and r e f u g e . During one such episode Innocent II was present at Reims to crown the f u t u r e Louis VII a f t e r the death of P h i l i p p e the h e i r i n 1 1 3 0 . ^ During the e a r l y p a r t of h i s r e i g n , h i s t o r i a n s have suggested, L o u i s VII " . . . i n d u l g e d i n p o l i t i c s of grandeur 89 and i l l u s i o n . " but Pacaut r e c o g n i z e s h i s achievements as more important than h i s f a i l u r e s and h i s accomplishments as underrated, p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t i s remembered that he was o n l y s i x t e e n when he ascended the throne. According to Pacaut i t was L o u i s ' expansion of the r o y a l domain, r o y a l i n f l u e n c e , and r o y a l p r e s t i g e t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d the founda-t i o n upon which h i s s u c c e s s o r , P h i l i p p e Augustus could base .. , 90 h i s triumphs. " . . . t h a t which i s the f o u r t h i n s t a n c e of mis-f o r t u n e f o r L o u i s : t h a t h i s r e i g n occurs between th a t of h i s f a t h e r Louis VI, whose biography had been w r i t t e n by Suger, and that of h i s son P h i l i p p e Augustus whose government, a f t e r having begun q u i t e badly, was completed with conquests and v i c t o r i e s . . . " 91 L o uis i s p e r c e i v e d as being weak because he was w i l l i n g to a i d Alexander I I I i n f u r t h e r i n g h i s aims, and he was t h e r e -f o r e seen as being o v e r l y pious and l a c k i n g i n i n i t i a t i v e : " Louis was unquestionably a r e l i g i o u s person. N e v e r t h e l e s s , he was a l s o shrewd enough to p r o f i t from the embarrassments s u f f e r e d by h i s r i v a l Henry I I , and to r e a l i z e t h a t c o - o p e r a t i o n with the pope cou l d produce t a n g i b l e p o l i t i c a l advantages f o r h i m s e l f . " 92 - 24 -The o c c a s i o n s upon which A l e x a n d e r I I I s o l i c i t e d L o u i s ' a i d were numerous: when he was a t t e m p t i n g t o a c h i e v e s u p p o r t from o t h e r European r u l e r s f o r a new c r u s a d e , when he needed h e l p t o s u p p r e s s h e r e s i e s , and i n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and a b b a t i a l problems. " . . . r e l a t i o n s between him [ L o u i s ] and A l e x a n d e r I I I p r e s e n t an example o f r e g u l a r , mutual s u p p o r t p r o f i t a b l e 93 t o both the French monarchy and the French c h u r c h . " The most i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f L o u i s ' r e i g n w i t h r e g a r d t o the i c o n o g r a p h y o f the Porte-de-Ste-Ann i s t h i s ongoing a c c o r d between the F r e n c h t h r o n e and the papacy. Because o f i t s e x i s t e n c e , A l e x a n d e r I I I not o n l y sought L o u i s ' s u p p o r t , s e e i n g i t as n e c e s s a r y and d e s i r a b l e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s 94 c l a i m t o the P a p a l t h r o n e a g a i n s t the I m p e r i a l c a n d i d a t e V i c t o r IV, but he a l s o sought r e f u g e i n France a f t e r h a v i n g been f o r c e d t o f l e e I t a l y by the m i l i t a r y i n c u r s i o n s o f F r e d e r i c k B a r b a r o s s a . A l e x a n d e r I I I "...a c o l d pope, l i t t l e i n c l i n e d t o l e n g t h y e x p l a n -a t i o n s , l o v i n g a u t h o r i t y , c o n d u c t i n g h i s p o l i t i c a l and d i p l o m a t i c a f f a i r s i n s e c r e t , and b a s i n g them on a more and more p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d d o c t r i n e . " 95 A l e x a n d e r I l l ' s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h France may have begun 96 w i t h h i s e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s o f P a r i s which c o u l d account f o r h i s c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h a t c i t y , t o which he s e n t h i s nephews t o be educated. He a l s o had a l o n g -s t a n d i n g f r i e n d s h i p w i t h H e n r i o f F r a n c e , b i s h o p o f B e a u v a i s - 25 -and b r o t h e r o f the k i n g , as w e l l as an in t i m a t e knowledge of 97 Peter Abelard and h i s works. Alexander I I I was born Roland B a n d i n e l l i i n Siena to a f a i r l y wealthy f a m i l y of French descent. He taught theology and canon law a t Bologna from 1139 to 1142, and t h e r e f o r e was at the u n i v e r s i t y when G r a t i a n p u b l i s h e d h i s Decretum, the f i r s t c o m p i l a t i o n of canon law t h a t s t i l l forms the b a s i s of Church law today. Roland was p a r t o f the m i l i e u that produced t h i s work as w e l l as Peter Lombard's t r e a t i s e on theology. His name was d i r e c l y l i n k e d to that of G r a t i a n i n a note w r i t t e n by the g l o s s a t o r Huguccio which t e l l s us t h a t Roland was tea c h i n g 9 8 i n Bologna at the time the Decretum was composed. Between 1142 and 1150, Roland h i m s e l f p u b l i s h e d two works: a t r e a t i s e on theology, the Se n t e n t i a e which made l i t t l e i f any impact and a commentary on the Decretum which, along with h i s achievements as a teacher of canon law and h i s d e c i s i o n s as pope, was to have a d i r e c t impact on the r e c o g n i t i o n of 99 canon law as a separate d i s c i p l i n e . His knowledge of Peter Abelard"s S i c e t Non d i a l e c t i c may have i n f l u e n c e d the format chosen by G r a t i a n : " D i a l e c t i c was to be the instrument i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a system of r e l i g i o u s k n o w l e d g e . " 1 0 0 because Roland was so i n f l u e n c e d by Abelard's "...supreme confi d e n c e i n the power of reason to e l u c i d a t e and support the t r u t h s o f r e l i g i o n . " 1 0 1 As a p r o f e s s o r at Bologna and perhaps as a student, he "...stood i n the centre of the 10 2 medieval l e g a l r e v i v a l . " As a g l o s s a t o r of the Decretum - 26 -with h i s Stroma ex decretorum corptum, Roland was i n a p o s i t i o n not o n l y to e x p l a i n the t e x t but to i n f l u e n c e i t s use. In h i s g l o s s e s he: "...took pains to c l a r i f y and e n l a r g e the n o t i o n of what belonged of r i g h t to the sacrum, that i s , what p e r t a i n e d to the Church's j u r i s d i c t i o n and was j u s t i f i a b l e i n i t s courts...he merely e l a b -o r a t e d , as d i d G r a t i a n , on conceptions of e c c l e s -i a s t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s r e l a t i o n to s o c i e t y which had been c u r r e n t s i n c e the Gregorian Reform and even b e f o r e , and were c u r r e n t l y taught i n the s c h o o l s . " 103 With h i s e l e v a t i o n to the C u r i a , around 1149-50, he was i n an even b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to advance the use of the Decretum. In the h i e r o c r a t i c s o c i e t y of the t w e l f t h century the pope occupied a p o s i t i o n of enormous power w i t h i n the s p i r i t u a l sphere, but with regard to the p o l i t i c a l arena the a u t h o r i t y a t t r i b u t e d to him was never p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d . Many judgments have been made re g a r d i n g the pope's p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y from the viewpoint of h i s t o r i c a l h i n d s i g h t but, as i s o f t e n s t a t e d , one must endeavor to regard events from a medieval st a n d p o i n t i n order to a p p r e c i a t e the e f f e c t of contemporary events. For i n s t a n c e , we cannot speak of any i n t e r v e n t i o n , e c c l e s i a s t i c a l or s e c u l a r , i n t o the o t h e r ' s sphere of i n f l u e n c e because t h i s n o t i o n was e n t i r e l y f o r e i g n to the medieval concept of the s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y . To speak of i n t e r v e n t i o n " . . . i m p l i e s the a c t i o n of an o u t s i d e power, and i n the e a r l y medieval con t e x t , n e i t h e r the l a y nor the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l was ' o u t s i d e ' . Nor were there sep-a r a t e e n t i t i e s "Church" and " S t a t e " as understood i n modern - 27 -times. W i t h i n the context of the medieval world view a l l segments of s o c i e t y were p a r t of the same u n i t y , the C h r i s t -i a n Commonwealth. What we term p o l i t i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n should be seen as day-to-day events placed i n a context more convenient to a modern world view. Whether as pope Alexander I I I a c t u a l l y intervened i n the s e c u l a r sphere, he never h e s i t a t e d to use what may be termed p o l i t i c a l means to achieve h i s ends. In 1159 when he s o l i c i t e d L o uis VII's a i d i n a t t a i n i n g the papal throne, the king and the French bishops were f a v o r a b l y disposed towards h i s cause, but because of p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s such as the p o s i t i o n of F r e d e r i c k Barbarossa's troops along the borders of Burgundy, pre s s u r e exerted by the c o u n c i l of Pavia i n e a r l y 1160, the r i s k of l e a v i n g France i s o l a t e d i f Henry II of England formed an Anglo/Germanic c o a l i t i o n , a l l combined to d e l a y L o u i s ' d e c i s i o n . In o r d e r perhaps, to f o r c e L o u i s ' s hand Alexander I I I granted p e r m i s s i o n to Henry II f o r the immed-i a t e marriage of h i s son to L o u i s ' daughter although both were minors. He therby f o r c e d Louis to d e l i v e r the V e x i n , h i s daughter's dowry, i n t o the hands of h i s enemy. Why the pope took t h i s a c t i o n even while Louis was acknowledging the v a l i d i t y of h i s cause at the C o u n c i l of Beauvais and at Toulouse i n 1160, i s d e b a t a b l e . What r e s u l t e d was, t h a t : "...he deeply wounded Louis V I I , p u t t i n g him on guard a g a i n s t the c a r d i n a l l e g a t e s and pushing him, without r e p u d i a t i n g the obedience t h a t Louis had chosen to g i v e to him, to n e g o t i a t e with the I m p e r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ; p o l i t i c s of s p i t e caused by d i s t r u s t and d i s a r r a y . . . A l e x a n d e r I I I was - 28 -t h e r e f o r e a d r o i t enough to put L o u i s ' f e a r s at r e s t at a time when the king was welcoming him i n t o h i s kingdom. A f t e r t h a t , there was an almost p e r f e c t accord between the two men." 10 2 I t i s known from h i s l e t t e r s and from other sources t h a t Alexander I I I continued to c o n s u l t with Louis VII and keep 106 him informed long a f t e r h i s papacy had been confirmed. Alexander I I I spent E a s t e r 1163 i n P a r i s at Notre-Dame "...where he bestowed on Louis VII the Golden Rose, seeing 107 him as a 'model of C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e 1 . " A f t e r l e a v i n g P a r i s he spent the p e r i o d between September 30, 1163 and 108 A p r i l 7, 1165 at Sens. I f , as t r a d i t i o n has i t , he p l aced the f i r s t stone f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the new c a t h e d r a l while i n the c i t y , i t was an a d d i t i o n a l reason f o r p l a c i n g over the south p o r t a l a statement of p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e . The atmosphere of c o - o p e r a t i o n had endured, a f a c t of p o l i t i c a l l i f e i n France t h a t was gener-a t i o n s o l d . A l l of the dramatis personae d e p i c t e d on the tympanum of the Porte-de-Ste-Anne represented the f a c e t s of medieval s o c i e t y which had c o n t r i b u t e d to the accord, the two p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e s whose go a l was the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the C h r i s t i a n commonwealth and s a l v a t i o n of men's s o u l s . - 29 -CHAPTER I I I DECRETUM GRATIANI AND ITS IMPACT ON CONTEMPORARY THOUGHT The Tw e l f t h Century Renaissance the Canonists used and a p p l i e d Roman Law; the C i v i l i a n s used and a p p l i e d Canon Law; and both Laws were used a l s o by Common Law J u r i s t s . Moreover, both Laws were i n f l u e n c e d by s c h o l a s -t i c method and thought, as w e l l as by A r i s t o t e l i a n p h i l o s o p h y ; f i n a l l y , the j u r i s t s of a l l branches a p p l i e d f r e e l y , and without s c r u p l e s or i n h i b i -t i o n s , t h e o l o g i c a l metaphors and s i m i l e s when expounding t h e i r p o i n t s of view i n g l o s s e s and l e g a l o p i n i o n s . " 109 Walter Cahn saw G r a t i a n ' s Decretum as the "...most s u b s t a n t i a l v e h i c l e of i n s p i r a t i o n and d i f f u s i o n f o r the iconography..."''''''0 with regard to the scene portrayed on the tympanum of the Porte-de-Ste-Anne. In order to understand the impact made upon the imagery of the tympanum by t h i s work to a much more complete degree, one must understand the impact made upon t w e l f t h c entury s o c i e t y as a whole by t h i s f i r s t comprehensive c o m p i l a t i o n of canon law. The Concordia  d i s c o r d a n t i u m canonum, or Decretum was w r i t t e n by G r a t i a n , a Camaldolese monk working w i t h i n the monastery of SS. Naborre and F e l i c e i n Bologna around 1142. The t i t l e of the t r e a t i s e d e s c r i b e s the content: a concordance between extant "...con-t r a d i c t o r y canons and the d i s c o r d a n t s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of concepts." - 30 -During the f i r s t decades of the t w e l f t h century there arose the d e s i r e to c o n s o l i d a t e i n t o a s y s t e m a t i c form the g r e a t bodies of knowledge s u r v i v i n g from a n c i e n t times with which Medieval man now f e l t f a i r l y c omfortable. "Indeed the idea sprang n a t u r a l l y from the e f f o r t s of e l e v e n t h century s c h o l a r s , and i t expressed the sense which men had of mastering t h e i r p a s t . " 112 A whole s e r i e s of works appeared i n the p e r i o d between 1120 and 1170 which attempted to sum up a l l of the l e a r n i n g of the p a s t : the G l o s s a o r d i n a r i a of Anselm of Laon i n B i b l i c a l S t u d i e s , the S e n t e n t i a e of Peter Lombard i n theology, the Summae of v a r i o u s s c h o l a r s from the s c h o o l s of the L o i r e and 113 Bologna, and the Decretum of G r a t i a n . C e n t r a l to t h i s movement were the works of G r a t i a n and Peter Lombard which shared a " . . . u n i t y of problems, and the community of thought 114 about the means of s o l v i n g them." In Peter Lombard, an I t a l i a n schooled i n Northern I t a l y , were combined the l e g a l l e a r n i n g of Bologa with the d i a l e c t i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l l e a r n i n g of Northern France, s p e c i f i c a l l y P a r i s . He would have been f a m i l i a r with the work of G r a t i a n f o r "...when he l e f t I t a l y about 1140 he brought with him one of the e a r l i e s t c o p i e s of G r a t i a n ' s work: and when he d i e d he l e f t a copy to the C a t h e d r a l l i b r a r y i n P a r i s . " 1 ' 1 ' 5 Peter Lombard l i k e G r a t i a n , was a f r i e n d of Bernard of C l a i r v a u x who introduced him to P a r i s where he taught f o r twenty-odd y e a r s , and where he became bishop i n 1 1 5 9 . 1 1 6 Although he d i e d i n 1160, h i s t e a c h i n g s would have undoubtedly been of g r e a t i n f l u e n c e - 31 -w i t h i n the C a t h e d r a l community, and l i k e l y i n f l u e n t i a l enough to d i r e c t l y e f f e c t the composition of the tympanum. The Medieval World View and the  O r i g i n of C o n f l i c t The main impetus f o r change which evolved along with what has been c a l l e d the Twelfth Century Renaissance e f f e c t e d almost every aspect of i n t e l l e c t u a l endeavour, p a r t i c u l a r l y those d i s c i p l i n e s such as theology and p h i l o s o p h y which had a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on the contemporary world view. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n the new d i s c i p l i n e s of law, both c i v i l and canon. Concurrent with these changes, r e f o r m a t i v e movements w i t h i n the s p i r i t u a l sphere as w e l l as an e v o l v i n g i m p e r i a l emphasis focussed a t t e n t i o n on the new s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The s p i r i t u a l and s e c u l a r spheres became guardians of the newly d e f i n e d u n i t y of the C h r i s t i a n community whose g o a l b a s i c a l l y was to guide men's s o u l s to s a l v a t i o n . The concept of the 'State' d u r i n g the Middle Ages, the r i s e of an organ-i z e d p o l i t i c a l u n i t y , was based on the n o t i o n t h a t every organism, every component of t h a t u n i t y was a microcosm i n which the macrocosm was r e f l e c t e d . "In the f u l l e s t measure t h i s i s t r u e of every human i n d i v i d u a l ; but i t a l s o holds good of every human community and of human s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . " 117 - 32 -S o c i e t y had accepted the n o t i o n t h a t the c r e a t i o n of the u n i v e r s e was the prototype f o r the c r e a t i o n of human com-mu n i t i e s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a u n i f i e d world view, where the whole of c r e a t e d l i f e was seen as a s i n g l e C h r i s t i a n com-munity, and the d i v i s i o n of t h i s community: "...between the two organized Orders of L i f e , the s p i r i t u a l and the temporal, i s accepted by the Middle Ages as an e t e r n a l counsel of God...And each of these Orders n e c e s s a r i l y appears as an e x t e r n a l l y separate Realm, dominated by i t s own p a r t i c u l a r Law, s p e c i a l l y represented by a s i n g l e Folk or People and governed by a s i n g l e Govern-ment." 119 Between the p e r c e i v e d i d e a l of u n i t y and the d u a l i t y of the two organized 'Orders of L i f e ' , c o n f l i c t arose. "The Medieval S p i r i t s t e a d i l y r e f u s e d to accept the Dualism as f i n a l . In some high e r U n i t y r e c o n c i l l i a t i o n must be 119 found." T h i s f i n a l l y became the grounds f o r the d i s -c u s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between regnum and sacerdotium: the o r i g i n s of the c o n t r o v e r s y d u r i n g which the Church demanded the s u b o r d i n a t i o n of a l l s e c u l a r p o l i t i c a l arrangements. The Development of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l J u r i s p r u d e n c e Before G r a t i a n ' s work the r u l e s of e c c l e s i a s t i c a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e , so to speak, were based on c o l l e c t i o n s of documents: papal l e t t e r s , c a n o n i c a l decrees of c o u n c i l s , a n c i e n t t e x t s , c o m p i l a t i o n s of Roman c i v i l law, ordinances - 33 -of Medieval emperors, and b i b l i c a l e x t r a c t s and ex e g e s i s . These were mostly contained i n t r e a t i s e s w r i t t e n and i n t e r -preted at the l o c a l l e v e l so that there was l i t t l e or no con f o r m i t y among a p p l i c a t i o n and judgments. E f f o r t s were concentrated by the c a n o n i s t s throughout t h i s p e r i o d to c r e a t e systems that corresponded as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e to the i d e a l of C h r i s t i a n conduct, and to minimize the d i v e r -gence between i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s : " . . . J u r i s p r u d e n c e regarded what these had to say of Church and S t a t e , as being not merely the p o s i t i v e s t a t u t e s of some one age, but r u l e s of e t e r n a l v a l i d i t y f l o w i n g from the very nature of t h i n g s . " 120 In g e n e r a l , t h i s l e d throughout the Medieval p e r i o d , t o an acceptance of the o l d e r teachings of the Church t h a t saw regnum and sacerdotium as two independent spheres i n s t i t u t e d 121 by God Himself and Church and St a t e as two equal powers. As Peter Lombard's Sen t e n t i a e are seen as the " . . . f u l -f i l m e n t o f a p l a n of study which Abelard adumbrated i n h i s 122 S i c e t Non; they draw l a r g e l y on Abelard's work." , so too i s there some s u s p i c i o n t h a t G r a t i a n ' s work came under the same i n f l u e n c e , at l e a s t i n format, and perhaps through the e f f o r t s of Roland B a n d i n e l l i . The d i s c o v e r y of the Corpus j u r i s c i v i l i s of J u s t i n i a n over f i f t y years e a r l i e r had provided the c i v i l i s t s with a j u r i s p r u d e n t i a l system t h a t was s t u d i e d and g l o s s e d at Bologna, and which f u r n i s h e d 123 a model f o r "...unprecedented c i v i l s i t u a t i o n s . " - 34 -G r a t i a n ' s e f f o r t s provided a s i m i l a r model or system f o r the c a n o n i s t s , who had u n t i l then, r e l i e d on "...a s e r i e s of d i s c o r d a n t c a n o n i c a l t r e a t i s e s permeated by d i a l e c t i c a l 124 forms." With the c r e a t i o n of the Decretum canon law became a separate d i s c i p l i n e , d i s t i n c t from theology, whose aim was to work i n c o n c e r t with the new "...metaphysical and e s c h a t a l o g i c a l concepts of the C h r i s t i a n Community and 125 i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l and v i s i b l e elements on e a r t h . " In an attempt to c o r e l a t e the newly d e f i n e d C h r i s t i a n p h i l o s o p h y with the s o c i a l , sacramental and " . . . i n s t i t u t i o n a l respon-126 s i b i l i t i e s of the Church." Not o n l y does the Decretum r e v e a l the s p i r i t u a l aspects of t w e l f t h c e n t u r y s o c i e t y , but economic and s o c i a l con-d i t i o n s as w e l l . I t a l s o p r o v i d e s an i n s i g h t i n t o such c o n t r o v e r s i a l matters as p a s t o r a l r i g h t s and the o f f i c e s of bishops, simony, d i v i n a t i o n , marriage c o n t r a c t s , the Power of the Two Swords, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of regnum and 127 sacerdotium. With the development of law i n t o two separate d i s c i -p l i n e s , the c i v i l and c a n o n i c a l streams separated: "...the c i v i l i a n s looked to a n t i q u i t y [ J u s t i n i a n ' s code] and were o f t e n tempted to become more theo-r i s t s o r a n t i q u a r i e s , w h i l e the c a n o n i s t s were more concerned with adapting Roman law with g r e a t freedom to contemporary c o n d i t i o n s and i n r e p l a c -ing i t s paganism by a C h r i s t i a n s p i r i t . " 128 Although the major p o r t i o n of Church law d e a l t with matters concerning the r e l i g i o u s s e c t o r , there was a good - 35 -p a r t t h a t d e a l t with the " . . . d a i l y l i v e s of the l a i t y i n a v a r i e t y of ways, and i n the end exerted profound i n f l u e n c e 129 upon the development of n a t i o n a l laws." G r a t i a n ' s Decretum became so important to the s o c i a l r e g u l a t i o n and s t a b i l i t y of the C h r i s t i a n Commonwealth t h a t i t was accepted as the d e f i n i t i v e work on canon law: "...although h i s Decretum was u n o f f i c i a l and never r e c e i v e d l e g i s l a t i v e f o r c e , yet i n p r a c t i c e i t was t r e a t e d with g r e a t r e s p e c t , and indeed has taken an undisputed p l a c e as the f i r s t p o r t i o n of the Corpus J u r i s c a n o n i c i . " 130 So w e l l r e c e i v e d was the Decretum, undoubtedly because of the need that i t f i l l e d , t h a t w i t h i n a decade of i t s comple-t i o n i t had spread throughout most European c o u n t r i e s ; the 131 f i r s t c o p i e s were made i n the t r a n s - A l p i n e c o u n t r i e s . - 36 -CHAPTER IV THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ICONOGRAPHY TO ILLUSTRATE THE DECRETUM GRATIANI The C o m p o s i t i o n o f the M a n u s c r i p t s "No m a t t e r whether the a r t i s t s were guided by t h e i r own e r u d i t i o n o r by s p e c i a l i s t s i n the f i e l d , t h e y succeeded i n f u r n i s h i n g a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i v e d a t a on the p e r i o d i n the form of v i s u a l r e n d e r i n g s o f the t e x t . " 132 The i c o n o g r a p h y w i t h which t h i s t h e s i s i s concerned i s t h a t which developed i n the n o r t h e r n s c r i p t o r i a a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e s i m i l a r i t i e s o f imagery w i t h i n the body o f manu-s c r i p t s because o f t h e i r h a v i n g been based, f o r the most p a r t , on I t a l i a n p r o t o t y p e s . U n l i k e the i l l u s t r a t e d manu-s c r i p t s o f s a c r e d t e x t s f o r which t h e r e were e x t a n t models i n what amounted t o a t r a d i t i o n a l i c o n o g r a p h y , t h e r e was no p r e c e d e n t f o r the ic o n o g r a p h y t h a t i l l u s t r a t e d the manu-s c r i p t s o f G r a t i a n ' s work. A l l o f the imagery would have been d e v e l o p e d a f t e r 1150 when the work f i r s t appeared and t h e r e f o r e i s contemporary t o the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the tympanum of the Porte - d e - S t e - A n n e . The o r d e r i n which the o r i g i n a l t r e a t i s e was o r g a n i z e d c o n s i s t e d o f P a r s I - D i s t i n c t i o n e s , P a r s I I - C a u s a e , and P a r s I I I - D e c o n s e c r a t i o n e and De p o e n i t e n t i a e . The e x t a n t m a n u s c r i p t s c o n t a i n , f o r the most p a r t , f u l l - p a g e i l l u s t r a -t i o n s o f the Trees o f R e l a t i o n s h i p (Tree o f A f f i n i t y and - 37 -Tree of C o n s a n g u i n i t y ) , i l l u m i n a t e d or h i s t o r i a t e d i n i t i a l s I and H from Pars I and o t h e r s from each of the t h i r t y - s i x Causae. There are a l s o some i l l u s t r a t i o n s from De consecra-t i o n e and De p o e n i t e n t i a e : "...ranging from modestly decorated pages with h i s t o r i a t e d i n i t i a l s to s p o r a d i c a l l y p a i n t e d t i n y m i n i a t u r e s . . . o t h e r s have high q u a l i t y r e c t a n g u l a r m i n i a t u r e s , o f t e n with h i g h l y i n t r i c a t e icono-g r a p h i c a l schemes, at the beginning of each of the t h i r t y - s i x Causae and f r e q u e n t l y devote h a l f or more of a page to the i l l u m i n a t i o n of other major s u b d i v i s i o n s . . . " 133 The o r i g i n of the prototype f o r the Trees of R e l a t i o n s h i p has been t r a c e d to I t a l y p r i o r to G r a t i a n ' s p e r i o d , where they appeared i n a C o l l e c t i o n e Canonicum of Burchard of 134 Worms, c i r c a 1100. These e a r l i e s t examples show the F i r s t Man as a king and t h i s motif was adopted i n French 135 manuscripts. Apart from these t a b l e s the most f r e q u e n t l y i l l u s t r a t e d areas are the i n i t i a l s I and H. The I n i t i a l s H and I and T h e i r  Importance to the Imagery These i n i t i a l s are important i n that they p e r t a i n to the i n t r o d u c t i o n and the f i r s t D i s t i n c t i o n e of the Decretum which " . . . r e f l e c t concern...with the sources of law and fundamental norms of canon law p e r t a i n i n g to the key p r i n -136 c i p l e s governing human l i f e , the Church, and the S t a t e . " The f i r s t p a r t of G r a t i a n * s t r e a t i s e c o n t a i n s one hundred and one s u b d i v i s i o n s , the D i s t i n c t i o n e s . D i s t . I , c . l of Pars I, so emphasized by the s c r i b e s and i l l u m i n a t o r s was - 38 -s e i z e d upon by p o l i t i c a l a p o l o g i s t s of both s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s p e r s u a s i o n . I t d e a l s with the attempt t o e s t a -b l i s h a " . . . l e g a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the a l l - e m b r a c i n g u n i t y 137 of the Church,..." and G r a t i a n e x p l a i n s the d i v i n e o r i g i n o f n a t u r a l law, i u s n a t u r a l e , from which i t was b e l i e v e d by him and other c a n o n i s t s of th a t p e r i o d , that both canon and c i v i l law o r i g i n a t e d . D i s t . I s t a t e s : "The human race i s governed by two norms, n a t u r a l law and custom. The law of nature i s th a t which i s contained i n the Law and the gospel whereby each i s commanded to do f o r another what he would have done f o r h i m s e l f and f o r b i d s doing to another what he does not want done to h i m s e l f . Thus, C h r i s t i n the gospel says: E v e r y t h i n g whatsoever you wish men to do to you, even so do you a l s o to them; f o r t h i s i s the Law and the prophets." 138 139 The opening words "Humanum genus duobus r e g i t u r , . . . " provided the i l l u m i n a t o r s with the i n i t i a l H w i t h i n which they c r e a t e d i c o n o g r a p h i c a l v i g n e t t e s . D i s t . I, c . l s t a t e s : " D i v i n e law c o n s i s t s of nature, human laws of customs." 140 and from the opening words "Ius divinum naturae..." they chose the l e t t e r I as a v e h i c l e f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n as was common p r a c t i s e i n manuscript t r a d i t i o n . Some of the oth e r l e t t e r s which were decorated or i l l u m i n a t e d , although not a l l nor i n every case, were the Q from Causa I, D from Causa VI, P from Causa XXXVI, and l e s s o f t e n an 0 from Causa VI as w e l l . According to Papal a p o l o g i s t s who would see i n the T r a c t a t u s de l e g i b u s , G r a t i a n ' s support f o r the o v e r a l l 141 supremacy of the Church over S t a t e , D i s t . I , c . l i s the most f r e q u e n t l y quoted argument along with Causa XXIII, - 39 -Quaestio V I I I , Pars I which d e a l s with the concept of the 142 Power of the Two Swords. I t i s open to q u e s t i o n whether or not e i t h e r example can be used to f i r m l y support these a s s e r t i o n s . The P o l i t i c a l Content o f the Imagery and i t s  P r o p a g a n d i s t i c Impact: The P a p a l i s t s In h i s study of the imagery connected to a l l p a r t s o f the Decretum, Anthony Melnikas demonstrated that there were i n s t a n c e s where the iconography r e v e a l e d the p o l i t i c o - t h e o -l o g i c a l c o n v i c t i o n s o f the heads of the foundations i n which the manuscripts were produced. For i n s t a n c e , i n many manu-s c r i p t s o f C i s t e r c i a n o r i g i n , although by no means a l l , t here was a tendency t o produce v i g n e t t e s i n which the s p i r i t u a l a u t h o r i t y , whether God or His e a r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , appears above the c r o s s - b a r of the c a p i t a l H while the s e c u l a r a u t h o r i t y i s r e l e g a t e d to a subordinate p o s i t i o n below. Two Northern French C i s t e r c i a n i l l u s t r a t i o n s are almost i d e n t i c a l i n iconography ( F i g s . 11, 12, Troyes, Biblioth§que municipale Ms.103 f . l l , Cambrai, B i b l i o t h e q u e m u n i c i p a l e Ms. C.967 f . 1 0 ) . Both p l a c e the s p i r i t u a l r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e above the s e c u l a r and although they share a s c r o l l , the king alone holds a sword. Another d e p i c t s the bishop above the king and a man, presumably b l e s s i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s ( F i g . 13, P a r i s , B i b l i o t h S q u e Mazarine Ms. l a t . 1287 f . 4 ) . T h i s manuscript, which i s i n the Channel s t y l e , i s a reduc-- 40 -t i o n or m i n i m a l i z a t i o n of the imagery which appears i n a contemporary I t a l i a n p r o d u c t i o n (Fig.14, Montecassino, B i b l i o t e c a A b b a z i a l e Ms.64). F o l i o 3 of t h i s manuscript p o r t r a y s C h r i s t g i v i n g the law to two men above the king g i v i n g the law to a man and a woman, presumably h i s s u b j e c t s . Not o n l y do a l l of these above mentioned images denote the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f both the Old and the New Laws and "...the p o s i t i o n o f C h r i s t as the lawgiver w i t h i n the S c r i p t -143 u r a l c o n t i n u i t y , " but they demonstrate the c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t s of some C i s t e r c i a n foundations i n propagating the concept of Church supremacy. This i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d i n the m i n i a t u r e s from the Troyes and Cambrai manuscripts where the i n s c r i p t i o n s on the s c r o l l s shared by the f i g u r e s read as f o l l o w s : "REX EGO SUM REGUM. LEX EST MEA MAXIMA LEGUM. TE FACIO REGUM. TU RECTAM DILIGE LEGEM." 1 4 4 These i n s c r i p -t i o n s f o r m a l i z e a p o s i t i o n i n which the l e g a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the h i e r a r c h i c a l s t a t u s of the two powers are demonstra-te d . The imagery i n these i n s t a n c e s has been used to propa-gandize the d e s i r e s of the Papacy r e g a r d i n g i t s a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n the C h r i s t i a n community, an a u t h o r i t y demanded by Church f a t h e r s from the time of G e l a s i u s I. I t a l s o c l e a r l y demonstrates papal p o l i t i c a l theology from the time of the 145 I n v e s t i t u r e Controvery. The iconography of these i l l u -s t r a t i o n s demonstrates as w e l l , the extent to which the monastic foundations were i n f l u e n c e d by the constant p o l i t -i c a l machinations of t h e i r papal s u p e r i o r s and how they, i n t u r n , t r i e d to i n f l u e n c e other s e c t o r s of the community. - 41 -The spread of t h i s a t t i t u d e , demonstrating the i n f l u e n c e which the monasteries had du r i n g the t w e l f t h century, i s seen i n an i l l u s t r a t i o n from a South German i l l u m i n a t i o n i n which the bishop and monks to whom he a d m i n i s t e r s appear above the c r o s s - b a r of the i n i t i a l H while the king and h i s s o l d i e r s are seen below ( F i g . 15, Munich, Bayerische S t a a t s -b i b l i o t h e k MS. Clm. 17161, f . 6 ) . I t i s even more c l e a r l y seen i n another i l l u s t r a t i o n where the f i g u r e o f the bishop occupies t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the p i c t o r i a l space while that of the king i s reduced to bust l e n g t h and placed i n the lower r i g h t c o r n e r , an even more subordinate image than any of those a l r e a d y mentioned ( F i g . 16. From Northern France dated c i r c a 1200, Gdansk, M u n i c i p a l L i b r a r y Ms. F77 f . 8 v ) . The P o l i t i c a l Content o f the Imagery and i t s P r o p a g a n d i s t i c Impact: The S e c u l a r i s t s That these images could be used to disseminate s p e c i f i c p o l i t i c a l messages throughout the community can be seen from the r a p i d spread of cop i e s of the Decretum and from those who would have read them; the i l l u m i n a t e d nature o f the manuscripts i m p l i e s a r e a d e r s h i p of f a i r l y high s o c i a l s t a t u s f o r whom the c o s t would be of l i t t l e consequence, but Cahn has c a l l e d them "...the learned p u b l i c o f Western 146 Christendom." which i m p l i e s a broader audience than merely wealthy churchmen or nobles. That these images could be used to disseminate d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed p o l i t i c a l - 42 -t h e o r i e s i s a l s o obvious. During t h i s same p e r i o d , the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , manuscript i l l u s t r a t i o n s were a l s o produced t h a t demonstrated the e q u a l i t y of regnum and sacerdotium w i t h i n the C h r i s t i a n community with equal b i a s . An i l l u s -t r a t i o n from Northern I t a l y p o r t r a y s the f i g u r e of C h r i s t occupying the upper p o r t i o n o f the p i c t o r i a l space, above the c r o s s b a r of the c a p i t a l H under which there are bust-l e n g t h f i g u r e s of king and bishop ( F i g . 17, Beaune, B i b l i o -th§que mu n i c i p a l e Ms. 5 f . l ) . Here we can see demonstrated the idea of the e q u a l i t y of the two f o r a under the supreme a u t h o r i t y of God. In another example of shared a u t h o r i t y , king and bishop are d e p i c t e d as t h r o n e s h a r e r s , s h a r i n g a l s o a book. The king holds a sword and the bishop i s seen making a b l e s s i n g g e s t u r e ( F i g . 18, Rouen, B i b l i o t h e q u e m u n i c i p a l e Ms. 707 (E.21) f . 2 v ) . T h i s n o t i o n of the equal a u t h o r i t y of regnum and sacerdotium w i t h i n the C h r i s t i a n community i s more v i v i d l y p o r t r a y e d i n an i l l u s t r a t i o n , a l s o of Northern I t a l i a n provenance i n which the members of the community are i n c l u d e d i n the forms of three t i n y men at bottom l e f t beneath the c r o s s b a r of the H ( F i g . 19, Chambery, B i b l i o t h e q u e de l a V i l l e Ms. 13 f . l v ) . In t h i s i n s t a n c e the k i n g alone holds the book, along with h i s sword, while the bishop holds a s t a f f (not the usual p a s t o r a l crook) and makes the g e s t u r e of b l e s s i n g . T h i s interchange of i n s i g n i a r e i n f o r c e s the concept of e q u a l i t y . - 43 -The E v o l u t i o n o f an Iconography o f E q u a l i t y D u r i n g the p e r i o d t h a t t h e s e images were b e i n g used t o demonstrate t h e s e p o l i t i c o - t h e o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t s , new ty p e s o f imagery were c o n s t a n t l y e v o l v i n g . The same n o t i o n o f the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e two f o r a was a l s o d e p i c t e d i n v i g n e t t e s i n which the f i g u r e s o f k i n g and c l e r i c were used t o form the u p r i g h t s o f the l e t t e r H. In a m i n i a t u r e dated t o the l a t e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , s t a n d i n g f i g u r e s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s form the u p r i g h t s w h i l e t h e i r l i n k e d hands form the c r o s s b a r ( F i g . 20, Cologne, D o m b i b l i o t h e k Ms. 127 f . 7 ) . Here the k i n g h o l d s a f l e u r - d e - l i s topped s t a f f w h i l e the c l e r i c h o l d s the key and t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t t h e y a re endowed w i t h e q u a l s t a t u s and p r e s t i g e . The same i c o n o g r a p h y has been used i n two more l a t e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y m i n i a t u r e s i n which the s t a n d i n g f i g u r e s e q u a l l y share the s t a f f t h a t i s between them ( F i g s . 21, 22, A r r a s , B i b l i o t h e q u e m u n i c i p a l e Ms. 493 (585) f.6 and B r a t i s l a v a , S l o v a k i a n C e n t r a l S t a t e A r c h i v e s Ms. 14 ( J u r . 4 6 ) f . 3 ) . The B r a t i s l a v a m i n i a t u r e conveys a v e r y P r o v i n c i a l s t y l i s t i c i m p r e s s i o n w i t h the members o f the C h r i s t i a n community i n c l u d e d by means o f an a s y m m e t r i c a l g r o u p i n g o f t i n y f i g u r e s a t c e n t r e bottom. In n e i t h e r i n s t a n c e does the book appear a l t h o u g h i n the B r a t -i s l a v a m i n i a t u r e the c l e r i c has a d e c i d e d two-handed g r a s p on the s t a f f . A g a i n , t h i s t r a n s f e r e n c e o f i n s i g n i a makes a - 44 -p a r t i c u l a r l y strong v i s u a l impact. T h i s can be seen i n a m i n i a t u r e i n which the c l e r i c c a r r i e s a s c r o l l to which he g e s t u r e s while the king c a r r i e s a s t a f f from which flames appear to erupt ( F i g . 23, Amiens, B i b l i o t h e q u e municipale Ms. 354 f . 9 ) . Here the i n s i g n i a r e i n f o r c e the p l a c e of each w i t h i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . T h i s v i s u a l impact i s supported f u r t h e r by the a d d i t i o n of symbols t h a t s u s t a i n the propaganda c a p a b i l i t i e s or expand the p o l i t i c a l c o ntent. In a Northern French m i n i a t u r e from the l a t e t w e l f t h century which again has the h i s t o r i a t e d l e t t e r H, not o n l y i s the f i g u r e of the king a p p r e c i a b l y l a r g e r than that of the the bishop, but he a l s o c a r r i e s the s c r o l l and s t a f f i n c o n t r a s t to the bishop's p a s t o r a l crook ( F i g . 24, Troyes, B i b l i o t h e q u e municipale Ms. 60, f . 7 ) . In t h i s v i g n e t t e the a d d i t i o n a l components are the t i n y monk and s o l d i e r beneath the c r o s s b a r i n d i c a t i n g the s p e c i f i c sphere of i n f l u e n c e of each of the powers. T h i s imagery i s c a r r i e d to perhaps i t s u l t i m a t e i n an i l l u s t r a t i o n where k i n g and bishop are d e p i c t e d seated w i t h i n the arched open-ings of an upper colonnade, while below the c r o s s b a r , the arches are occupied by two groups of men: c l e r i c s below the bishop and laymen below the k i n g . The king appears to g e s t u r e towards the s c r o l l held by the bishop while h o l d i n g a s t a f f ( F i g . 25, F l o r e n c e B i b l i o t e c a Laurenziana Ms. Ed. 96 F . l ) . - 45 -CHAPTER V FOUR CISTERCIAN FRENCH MANUSCRIPTS: THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ICONOGRAPHY OF POLITICS The D i s s e m i n a t i o n o f the Imagery A l t h o u g h M e l n i k a s has based h i s e x a m i n a t i o n o f the i c o n o g r a p h y o f the images used t o i l l u s t r a t e the m a n u s c r i p t c o p i e s o f G r a t i a n ' s Decretum on the e x t a n t examples from a l l g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s p o s s i b l e , the f a c t t h a t the work was so q u i c k l y d i s s e m i n a t e d from i t s p l a c e o f o r i g i n , B o l o g n a , t h r o u g h o u t n o r t h e r n Europe i s b a s i s f o r the b e l i e f t h a t the i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n French c o p i e s were based on I t a l i a n models. However, Rosy S c h i l l i n g i n her e x a m i n a t i o n o f the Decretum f o r m e r l y i n the Dyson P e r r i n s c o l l e c t i o n c o n c l u d e d t h a t : "The c y c l e o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o the t h i r t y - s i x causae shows a d i f f e r e n t development i n French and I t a l i a n m a n u s c r i p t s . I t seems t h a t from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g the n o r t h c o i n e d i t s own t y p e s w i t h l i t t l e o r no i n f l u e n c e from the s o u t h . " 147 She does s t a t e , however, t h a t some m a n u s c r i p t s i n c l u d e d l i n e d r a w i n g s as suggested imagery t o be p a i n t e d l a t e r when t h e y were s e n t n o r t h w i t h the m a n u s c r i p t s . I t would be hard t o imagine any s c r i b e i g n o r i n g these suggested i c o n o g r a p h i c a l schema s i n c e the t r a d i t i o n o f m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d e i t h e r drawn o r w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s , based on c o n v e n t i o n s , f o r each scene. Any p o l i t i c a l o r t h e o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e e x e r t e d on the s e n o r t h e r n c o p i e s would o f n e c e s s i t y - 46 -come from the monastic s c r i p t o r i a and t h e i r d i r e c t o r s , or from i n f l u e n t i a l people i n the surrounding area a f t e r the exemplum was r e c e i v e d . T h i s i s demonstrated when three French c o p i e s o f the Decretum are compared to th a t copy f o r m e r l y i n the Dyson P e r r i n s c o l l e c t i o n ( F i g . 26). In a l l fo u r there are f u l l - p a g e i l l u m i n a t e d l e t t e r s I from the I n t r o d u c t i o n t h a t demonstrate elements of the Channel s t y l e and a l l are from C i s t e r c i a n s c r i p t o r i a ( F i g . 27, Cambrai, B i b l i o t h g q u e m unicipale MS.C.967, f.10, Fig.28 Troyes, B i b l i o t h e q u e municipale MS.103, f . 3 , F i g . 29, Douai, B i b l i o -theque m u n i c i p a l e MS.590, f . 3 ) . The Dyson P e r i n s copy i s 148 probably from Sens, the s c r i p t o r i u m of S-Colombe. The C i s t e r c i a n Examples The e l a b o r a t e i n i t i a l I from the Dyson P e r r i n s , l i k e a l l of the o t h e r s , i s i n the form of a v e r t i c a l band con-t a i n i n g f o u r v i g n e t t e s s e t i n roundels on an i n t e r l a c e d i n h a b i t e d v i n e s c r o l l m o t i f . S i m i l a r formats appear i n the othe r three c o p i e s with minor d i f f e r e n c e s i n the i n t e r l a c e d ground and the imagery i n the r o u n d e l s . The Cambrai i n i t i a l has f o u r roundels placed on a ground of i n t e r l a c e d animals and b i r d s , with three p a i r s of confronted animals i n t e r -spersed between them. The animal i n t e r l a c e i s wound through with palmettes of r a t h e r f l e s h y acanthus l e a v e s . The Troyes copy has a simpl e r ground of i n t e r l a c e d b i r d s , v i n e s , and human masks ending i n appended addossed masks at the bottom - 47 -o f the I . The Douai copy has a r a t h e r i n t r i c a t e i n t e r l a c e o f a n i m a l s and b i r d s entwined on a l a t t i c e l i k e framework o f acanthus v i n e s , l e a v e s , and winged forms. A l l t h r e e c o n f i n e t h e i r imagery t o the r o u n d e l s which a r e e v e n l y spaced the l e n g t h o f the f i e l d . The Troyes and Cambrai manuscrips d e p i c t f o u r female f i g u r e s who M e l n i k a s i d e n t i f i e d as p e r s o n -149 l f i c a t i o n s o f " . . . f o u r c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s o f E c c l e s i a . . . " because each h o l d s a s c r o l l i n one hand and makes a t e a c h i n g g e s t u r e w i t h the o t h e r . I f one examines t h e s e i n i t i a l s c l o s e l y , i t can be d i s c e r n e d t h a t i n f a c t , each r o u n d e l c o n t a i n s a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t image. A l t h o u g h t h e y a l l d e p i c t a female f i g u r e w i t h a s c r o l l , i n each i n s t a n c e she makes a d i f f e r e n t g e s t u r e w i t h h er f r e e hand o r w i t h the manner i n which she h o l d s the s c r o l l . At the t o p the g e s t u r e of h e r f r e e hand i s one o f "Ave" o r H a i l , as though she c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o the s c r o l l she i s h o l d i n g up; i n the second r o u n d e l both hands are used t o u n r o l l the work; i n the t h i r d h e r f r e e hand p o i n t s e m p h a t i c a l l y t o the s c r o l l w h ich she s u p p o r t s from the back; and, i n the l a s t r o u n d e l she s t r e t c h e s the s c r o l l t o i t s f u l l e x t e n t . R a t h e r than " f o u r c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s o f E c c l e s i a " what we p o s s i b l y have here are f o u r i n s t a n c e s o f l u s t i t i a d i s p l a y i n g the Decretum i t s e l f , i n d i c a t i n g through h e r g e s t u r e s the importance o f i t s c o n t e n t s . There can be no doubt t h a t t h e s e two manu-s c r i p t c o p i e s o r i g i n a t e d i n the same s c r i p t o r i u m o r were c o p i e s from the same model, but the Douai m a n u s c r i p t i l l u -s t r a t e s , i n the r o u n d e l s , a changing a t t i t u d e i n the p r e -- 48 -p r e v a i l i n g p o l i t i c a l emphasis. From the top down appear 150 C h r i s t " . . . s y m b o l i z i n g the c o n t i n u i t y o f the Church...", a nimbed female f i g u r e h o l d i n g a c h a l i c e and an open book " . . . s i g n i f y the s a c r a m e n t a l and d o c t r i n a l a s p e c t s o f the 151 Church." and the b u s t o f a k i n g i n the r o u n d e l above t h a t c o n t a i n i n g a b i s h o p "...which stand f o r the s e c u l a r and 152 e c c l e s i a s t i c a l arms o f the Church." The Changing P o l i t i c a l Emphasis M i g h t we not i n f e r from t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s t h a t k i n g and b i s h o p p e r s o n i f y r a t h e r , regnum and s a c e r d o t i u m , w i t h the h i e r o c r a t i c import b e i n g v e s t e d i n the regnum? T h i s n o t i o n i s r e i n f o r c e d by the i n s i g n i a c a r r i e d by b o t h : the k i n g h o l d s both a sword and a s c r o l l w h i l e the b i s h o p h o l d s a s c r o l l and makes the b l e s s i n g g e s t u r e . C l e a r l y t h i s i s a s tatement o f changing p o l i c y : we have here an i c o n o -g r a p h i c r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f the harmonious a c c o r d so c l e a r l y s t a t e d by G r a t i a n as the i d e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the two f o r a w i t h i n the C r i s t i a n Commonwealth. Both a u t h o r i t i e s are seen f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r f u n c t i o n s o f " . . . p r o m u l g a t i n g the t e a c h i n g s 153 o f C h r i s t w i t h i n the ' c i v i t a s r e x C h r i s t u s 1 . . . " , under the supreme a u t h o r i t y o f C h r i s t , the f i g u r e o f E c c l e s i a s i g n i f y i n g t h e i r venue and the patronage o f the V i r g i n . That t h i s concept was i n f l u e n t i a l i s c o n f i r m e d by the Dyson P e r r i n s imagery: i t s h a v i n g been based on the same p r o t o t y p e as the Cambrai, Troyes and Douai i s c o n f i r m e d by - 49 -the s i m i l a r i t i e s o f background m o t i f s , both zoomorphic and v e g e t a l , and the n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l f a c i a l f e a t u r e s . There ar e no human masks here but t h e r e i s an a d d i t i o n a l g r o t e s q u e -l y e l o n g a t e d a n i m a l form o c c u p y i n g the top r i g h t s i d e o f the r e c t a n g u l a r shape o f the i n i t i a l . Here the imagery has changed. In a much more r a d i c a l manner i t p r o p a g a n d i z e s the change i n t h i n k i n g i n r e g a r d t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two powers and i n d i c a t e s t h a t l i k e the s e c u l a r s p h e r e , e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p o l i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a l s o f l u c t u a t e d . The r o u n d e l s t h a t descend the v e r t i c a l f i e l d o f the i n i t i a l I c o n t a i n v i g n e t t e s d e p i c t i n g the K i n g as L a w - g i v e r , the K i n g D e d i c a t i n g the Law, the B i s h o p and a Layman, and l a s t l y , the B i s h o p E x e r c i s i n g A u t h o r i t y . As i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r the l e t t e r I o f the I n t r o d u c t i o n , which o f t e n a c t e d as a s o r t o f i n d e x t o the Decretum, i t r e f l e c t s the c o n t e n t s o f the complete work. A c c o r d i n g t o S c h i l l i n g " . . . t h e f i g u r e s are 154 more v i v i d and have an e x p r e s s i o n o f urgency..." and perhaps t h i s can be e x p l a i n e d by the provenance o f t h i s m a n u s c r i p t : the s c r i p t o r i u m a t Sens would have been c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h i s copy. T h i s i s the c e n t e r where A l e x a n d e r I I I s pent the y e a r s between 1163 and 1165 a f t e r l e a v i n g P a r i s . As an a r c h i e p i s c o p a l See w i t h j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r a l a r g e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p r o v i n c e , and as a t e a c h i n g c e n t e r w i t h a pope i n r e s i d e n c e who h i m s e l f was a t e a c h e r and g l o s s a t o r o f canon law, not o n l y would t h i s s u b j e c t be t a u g h t but f r e q u e n t l y used i n the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l judgments t h a t were - 50 -rendered. I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h i s imagery, i n p a r t i c u l a r , p r o j e c t s the same message as t h a t on the tympanum of the Porte-de-Ste-Anne. - 51 -CHAPTER VI THE CONCEPT OF EQUALITY IN THE DECRETUM Medieval World U n i t y Tin g e n e r a l throughout the Middle Ages the d o c t r i n e of the S t a t e ' s p a r t i s a n s remained content with the o l d e r t e a c h i n g of the Church: namely, that Church and S t a t e were two Co-ordinate Powers, t h a t the Two Swords were p o t e s t a t e s d i s t i n c t a e , t h a t Sacer- dotium and Imperium were two independent spheres i n s t i t u t e d by God Himself." 156 "Medieval World U n i t y was a p a r t of the C h r i s t i a n e s c h a t o l o g y , and t h e r e f o r e does not r e f e r to t h i s e a r t h and i t s s u r f a c e alone; i t embraces the whole depth of Space and i s i n f a c t a U n i t y of the U n i v e r s e . " 157 The e q u a l i t y of regnum and sacerdotium as the dual components of the C h r i s t i a n Commonwealth d i r e c t l y subordinate to the one supreme a u t h o r i t y , C h r i s t , was f i r s t presented 158 p u b l i c l y at the C o u n c i l of P a r i s i n 829. As a v i a b l e p h i l o s o p h i c a l concept i t gained importance from the a t t e n t i o n p a i d to i t by c a n o n i s t s of the medieval p e r i o d , p a r t i c u l a r l y G r a t i a n : "Although they d i d not always succeed i n r e s p e c t i n g the autonomy of both f o r a , v a r i o u s attempts were made to draw the two together i n mutual support, as the " p o t e s t a t e s c o a c t i v a e " or " f u n c t i o n i s c o a c t i v a e " , of the s p i r i t u a l and m a t e r i a l aspects of l i f e . . . " 159 To the w r i t e r s of the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y the w e l l - b e i n g of the C h r i s t i a n Commonwealth demanded the presence of both powers because of the s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s t h a t could o n l y be per-- 52 -formed by each. In a c t u a l f a c t , they had no concept o f e i t h e r d u a l i s m or h i e r o c r a t i c i s m which are both modern n o t i o n s , but they saw very c l e a r l y the governmental f u n c t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r to each. "The p r i e s t h o o d could not pass sentence r e q u i r i n g the shedding of blood and could not be i n v o l v e d i n c a r r y i n g out any p e n a l t y t h a t e n t a i l e d m u t i l a t i o n or death. The s e c u l a r powers could not judge cases concerning marriage o r the s t a t u s of oaths." 160 G r a t i a n ' s Treatment of U n i t y Where propagandists f o r both s i d e s have clouded the is s u e i s i n having used p o r t i o n s o f the Decretum to support t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t of view, when i n r e a l i t y G r a t i a n made a concerted e f f o r t to avoid any such involvement. His e f f o r t s were d i r e c t e d at demonstating the equal s t a t u s of the two powers, both of which were of prime importance to the good conduct of the community, but both of which should be kept separate i n t h e i r f u n c t i o n . In t h i s concern he was c e r t a i n l y not alone: "...from the p o n t i f i c a t e o f Paschal II u n t i l about 1160, c a n o n i s t s stopped adding Roman law to the corpus of canon law. T h i s a t t i t u d e - and G r a t i a n was the most extreme of the c a n o n i s t s i n t h i s matter - may show t h a t on the whole the c a n o n i s t s were a t t r a c t e d by t h e o r i e s t h a t made a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between the temporal and s p i r i t u a l spheres." 161 G r a t i a n a l s o avoided any d i s c u s s i o n o f the i s s u e s of 16 2 regnum and sacerdotium. He t r i e d to d e a l with what he d i s t i n g u i s h e d as the two major aspects of the r e l a t i o n s h i p - 53 -between the two powers t h a t could be d e a l t with through j u r i d i c a l independence: the a u t h o r i t y of each i n r e l a t i o n to one another and the methodology used by them i n d e a l i n g with d a i l y o c c u r r e n c e s . " G r a t i a n d i d not c o n s i d e r the f i r s t aspect of the regnum-sacerdotium r e l a t i o n s h i p , but he had s i g -n i f i c a n t t h i n g s to say about the second." 163 P a r a l l e l Systems of J u r i s p r u d e n c e In the T r a c t a t u s de l e g i b u s , G r a t i a n ' s treatment of human laws which he d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r a l l e l systems, demonstrated h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between the two spheres. These two bodies of the law, the s e c u l a r and the c a n o n i c a l , " . . . r e p r e s e n t the independent l e g i s l a t i v e and j u r i d i c a l 164 power of the Church and the s e c u l a r community." But, by d i v i d i n g human law i n t o p a r a l l e l systems, he does not imply or demonstrate any r e l a t i o n s h i p o r l a c k t h e r e o f between them or t h e i r o r i g i n : G r a t i a n ' s o n l y purpose i n d i s c u s s i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between them was to examine the use of s e c u l a r law w i t h i n the r e l i g i o u s community. C o n f l i c t s , i d e a l l y , should not have occurred because there was a s e p a r a t i o n o f areas of i n t e r e s t and the l e g i s l a t i o n governing these areas. Areas of c o - o p e r a t i o n o r j o i n t i n t e r e s t were, i n f a c t , not very numerous: the l e g i t i m i z a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n i n a world where l e g i t i m a c y was so important was a f u n c t i o n o f both a u t h o r i t i e s , but p r o p e r t y q u e s t i o n s and t h e i r determina-t i o n were under the a e g i s o f the s e c u l a r a u t h o r i t y . Oaths, - 53 -promises and p r o f e s s i o n s were under the c a r e o f the r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y . As i s e v i d e n t i n a l l a r e a s l e g i s l a t i o n i n t e r a c t e d t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , and the d i v i s i o n o f areas o f i n t e r e s t was l e s s than p e r f e c t l y d e l i n e a t e d . A c c o r d i n g t o G r a t i a n , s e c u l a r law must y i e l d t o the c a n o n i c a l i n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o u r t s , but when t h e r e i s no a p p l i c a b l e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s t a t - u t e , the r e l i g i o u s judge must use s e c u l a r law [emphasis mine] "...when t h e r e i s no c o n f l i c t o f law, s e c u l a r law, 165 f i l l i n g a l a c u n a i n Church law, d e s e r v e s f u l l o b e d i e n c e . " T h e r e f o r e the two powers are seen t o be i n c l o s e a l l i a n c e i n the e x e r c i s e o f t h e i r a u t h o r i t y . J u r i s d i c t i o n i s d e f i n e d i n terms o f p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d and not s i t u a t i o n s . F o r example, i n s i t u a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o c l e r i c a l p r o p e r t y r i g h t s s e c u l a r law must a p p e r t a i n . "The p r i e s t o r c l e r i c , . . . i s under the b i s h o p ex o f f i c i o and under the emperor ex p o s s e s s i o n i b u s ...: Only he who has the power t o make laws has power t o i n t e r p r e t law. The b i s h o p s h o u l d n o t , t h e r e f o r e , hear c a s e s i n v o l v i n g an i n f r i n g e m e n t o f s e c u l a r law." 166 T h e r e f o r e , the c o n v e r s e must a l s o a p p l y , a l t h o u g h , "...a d i s t i n c t i o n must be made... between s e c u l a r b u s i n e s s 167 and the b u s i n e s s o f s e c u l a r men." As Bernard o f C l a i r v a u x w rote i n h i s t r e a t i s e De c o n s i d e r a t i o n e on the conduct o f the p a p a l o f f i c e : "Why s h o u l d they not d i s d a i n t o g i v e judgment about our c o n t e m p t i b l e e a r t h l y p o s s e s s i o n s , who are a p p o i n t e d t o judge even a n g e l s i n h e a v e n l y p l a c e s (1 C o r i n t t h i a n s 6:3)? C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s on the s i n s o f men, not w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s , t h a t t h y j u d i c i a l power ought t o be e x e r c i s e d ; . . . T e l l me, which power and o f f i c e d o s t thou c o n s i d e r t o be the g r e a t e r , t h a t o f f o r g i v i n g s i n s , o r t h a t o f d i v i d i n g p o s s e s s i o n s ? " 108 CHAPTER V I I THE REFORM PARTY OF HAIMERIC: THE RELATIONSHIP OF BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX AND GRATIAN TO THIS MOVEMENT "He [Bernard o f C l a i r v a u x ] became a maker and b r e a k e r of popes, a v i g o r o u s opponent of e c c l e s -i a s t i c a l c o r r u p t i o n . . . and a major p o l i t i c a l power i n the Europe o f h i s day." 169 "The p a r t y o f Innocent [ I I ] , l e d by the Frenchman H a i m e r i c , was almost e x c l u s i v e l y from n o r t h e r n I t a l y and France...he used t o the f u l l e s t e x t e n t h i s con-n e c t i o n s w i t h h i s c o m p a t r i o t s Bernard o f C l a i r v a u x , [and] P e t e r the V e n e r a b l e . . . " 170 In o r d e r t o p e r c e i v e how r e f l e c t i v e o f contemporary thought the Decretum was, and t o d e f i n e the parameters of i t s i n f l u e n c e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o understand why i t was c o m p i l e d a t a l l . Most o b v i o u s l y t h e r e was an overwhelming need f o r such a c o m p i l a t i o n o f canon law f o r use w i t h i n the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l community, but the p r a c t i c a l r e s u l t s were t o e xtend f a r beyond t h i s a r e n a . Canon law became a s c i e n c e and f o r the f i r s t time t h e r e were t r a i n e d l a w y e r s a v a i l a b l e t o d e a l w i t h the m u l t i t u d e o f c a s e s s e n t t o Rome f o r a d j u d i -c a t i o n . S p e c i a l departments were developed t o d e a l w i t h t h i s i n c r e a s e . Canon law became a l i v i n g law w i t h the c o n s t a n t a d d i t i o n o f g l o s s e s , u n l i k e Roman o r c i v i l law w hich had remained s t a t i c , and a l o n g l i n e o f lawyer-popes a r o s e t h a t was t o c o n t i n u e on i n t o the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The new d i s c i p l i n e would: - 56 -"...because of t o p i c a l c o n t i n g e n c i e s and a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n s . . . e x e r c i s e potent i n f l u e n c e on j u r i s -prudence as w e l l as on theology and the s c i e n c e o f government..." 171 The Need f o r J u r i d i c a l Reform G r a t i a n ' s work was i n f l u e n c e d by h i s connection to the reform p a r t y of Haimeric, supported by Bernard of C l a i r v a u x , who was a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d with the s c h i s m a t i c double e l e c t i o n of 1130 with i t s attendant p a r t i c i p a t i o n of c i v i l ( F r a n g i p a n i and P i e r l e o n i f a m i l i e s ) and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l ( c u r i a l ) f a c t i o n s . What was r e v e a l e d d u r i n g the ensuing c o n t r o v e r s y t h a t s p l i t the Church i n t o two opposing b o d i e s , was the b l a t a n t l a c k of any formal e l e c t o r a l processes w i t h i n the papacy, the mani-p u l a t i o n of these e l e c t i o n s by o u t s i d e p o l i t i c a l power groups who were i d e n t i f i e d with v a r i o u s of the c a r d i n a l s i n the c u r i a , the f a c t t h a t t o t a l s e l f - i n t e r e s t allowed these c a r d i n a l s to be suborned, and perhaps most i m p o r t a n t l y , the major p o l i t i c a l s h i f t i n i n f l u e n c e from Rome to the major European monarchies: the Pope's very s u r v i v a l depended on England, France and Germany. As the r u l e r s of these count-r i e s went, so went the r e s t of Europe i n c l u d i n g northern T , , 172 I t a l y . The s o l u t i o n to the problem of e l e c t o r a l procedures came from the remarks of Bernard of C l a i r v a u x who, as a reformer must have found the m a n i p u l a t i o n of both the e l e c -t o r a l procedures and the conduct of the c a r d i n a l s abhorrent. - 57 -His ideas were introduced i n t o canon law by Alexander I I I at the T h i r d Lateran C o u n c i l of 1 1 7 9 . 1 7 3 Alexander I I I had hi m s e l f been i n v o l v e d i n a s c h i s m a t i c e l e c t i o n i n 1159. D i s c e r n i n g the 'wisest' among the three ranks w i t h i n the C o l l e g e of C a r d i n a l s was no easy task with c a r d i n a l - d e a c o n s , c a r d i n a l - p r i e s t s , and c a r d i n a l - b i s h o p s a l l j e a l o u s of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . I t was at t h i s p o i n t t h a t Bernard of C l a i r v a u x , 174 "...the uncrowned Emperor of Europe..." as Ullmann c a l l e d him, j o i n e d f o r c e s with C h a n c e l l o r Haimeric and h i s reform p a r t y i n using h i s i n f l u e n c e with Henry I and Louis VI t o 175 ensure the e l e c t i o n of Innocent II and make very c l e a r the l o s s of Rome's power over the European Church. The Adherents of Haimeric "Haimeric, c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the French r e -formers l e d by S t . Bernard, played an important r o l e of the c u r i a l p o l i t i c s of the p e r i o d a f t e r 1123." 176 They were j o i n e d by Peter the Venerable who had become the reform abbot o f the C l u n i a c Order. He a l s o "...was assoc-i a t e d with Haimeric... and an e a r l y adherent of Innocent 177 I I . " The reform p a r t y ' s connections i n France are com-pounded by the f a c t o f Haimeric's French b i r t h and made even more f a r - r e a c h i n g by t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n with Bernard of C l a i r -vaux whose p o l i t i c a l d e s i r e s were i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d to h i s t h e o l o g i c a l world-view: "...and h i s approach to p o l i t i c s was 178 more s p i r i t u a l than t h a t of many of h i s contemporaries." - 58 -That t h e i r e f f o r t s were w e l l r e c e i v e d i s w i t n e s s e d by 179 Chodorow's remark t h a t " . . . t h e y were p o l i t i c a l a l l i e s . " and t h a t each r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t from the same s o u r c e s . G r a t i a n ' s c o n n e c t i o n t o t h i s same p a r t y i s more a m a t t e r o f i n t e r p r e t i n g h i s work, a c c o r d i n g t o Chodorow, but t h e r e e x i s t s some e v i d e n c e t h a t c o n f i r m s h i s a f f i l i a t i o n . There i s a m e d i e v a l t r a d i t i o n based on a poem by Stephen o f Rouen, w r i t t e n around 1168 a t the Abbey o f Bee i n Normandy c a l l e d the Draco Normanicus. In i t he r e f e r s t o G r a t i a n , Fons Decretorum, as b e i n g an e s s e n t i a l member o f the e n t o u r -180 age o f pope Innocent I I a t the C o u n c i l o f Reims i n 1131. T h i s t r a d i t i o n appears t o have been c o n f i r m e d by Dante i n h i s D i v i n e Comedy ( P a r a d i s e , Canto X, 1-3-5): " T h i s n e x t f l a m i n g i s s u e t h from the s m i l e o f G r a t i a n , who gave such a i d t o one and the o t h e r forum, as i s a c c e p t a b l e i n P a r a d i s e . " 181 A c c o r d i n g t o Chodorow, Dante p l a c e d G r a t i a n t h i r d among the 182 t w e l v e w i s e s t men o f the Church. A g a i n , two s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y commenta-t o r s from D u b r o v n i c , i n the C h r o n i c l e s o f C r o a t i a s t a t e t h a t 18 3 G r a t i a n was l e g a t u s a l a t e r e t o C r o a t i a i n 1151. James L u k a r e v i c and J u n i u s R a s t i c c l a i m t o have based t h e i r r e p o r t on m e d i e v a l s o u r c e s now l o s t , a l t h o u g h c o n f i r m a t i o n can be o b t a i n e d from o t h e r s o u r c e s . At the C o u n c i l o f Dubrovnik, G r a t i a n i s supposed t o have deposed the A r c h b i s h o p o f S p a l -a t o , Gaudius and put the a f f a i r s o f the C r o a t i a n Church i n o r d e r . The d e p o s i t i o n o f Gaudius i s c o n f i r m e d by a l e t t e r - 59 -184 from Alexander I I I dated 1161. T h i s s t o r y i s a l s o found i n the H i s t o r i a S a l o n i t a n a of Thomas the Archdeacon, canon 18 5 of Spalato (1201-1268). When taken i n c o n c e r t with the f a c t t h a t Haimeric a l s o s t u d i e d law at Bologna p r i o r to 186 1123, there seems to be a s i n g l e thread l i n k i n g the main c h a r a c t e r s surrounding the tympanum. The understanding between G r a t i a n and the aims of the reform p a r t y are c l e a r when i t i s p e r c e i v e d that the T r a c t a t u s ordinandorum of the Decretum, Dist.21-101, i s r e a l l y an e x p l a n a t i o n of "...Bernard's ideas on the p r e l a t u r e 187 of the Church." Along with o t h e r members of the reform group, G r a t i a n demonstrated no i n t e r e s t i n the problem of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of regnum and sacerdotium. His i n t e r e s t s focus e n t i r e l y on the j u d i c i a l aspects of the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l 188 forum and, where p e r t i n e n t , on the s e c u l a r community. Any use of h i s m a t e r i a l to prove p o i n t s f o r e i t h e r s i d e of the argument was based s o l e l y on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of l a t e r c a n o n i s t s . T h i s l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n what became a consuming p a s s i o n with other j u r i s t s was b a s i c to a l l members of the p a r t y ; i t had become a p o l i t i c a l i s s u e i n the 1120's and 30's and was used as a r a l l y i n g p o i n t by the P i e r l e o n i and i n consequence t o t a l l y ignored by Haimeric and h i s adherents. T h i s was true of St. Bernard who o n l y mentioned the r e l a t i o n s h i p of regnum and sacerdotium when the p h y s i c a l p r o t e c t i o n of the Church was at r i s k , and i t s e a r t h l y m i s s i o n impeded. "His 189 emphasis...was on b r i n g i n g order to the Church...." - 60 -As has a l r e a d y been s t a t e d , G r a t i a n had no i n t e r e s t i n arguing the v a r i o u s m e r i t s or l a c k t h e r e o f of t h i s q u e s t i o n : from the very f i r s t d i c t a G r a t i a n r e i t e r a t e d h i s commitment to the n o t i o n that the Church i s a j u r i d i c a l community "...and as such must be equated with the o t h e r , s e c u l a r 190 communities." His ideas can be r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y to the p o l i t i c a l events of the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y with which he was so c l o s e l y connected: he sought to c l a r i f y the p o s i t i o n s of the two powers i n order to "...develop a C h r i s t i a n theory of the s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y , and...his work i s one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t works of p o l i t i c a l theory w r i t t e n i n the mid-197 t w e l f t h century." CHAPTER V I I I THE PORTE-DE-STE-ANNE AND THE MEDIEVAL CONCEPT OF AEVUM "Al t h o u g h a more s p e c i a l i z e d approach i s p r e s e n t l y used by a r t h i s t o r i a n s i n i d e n t i f y i n g i c o n o g r a p h -i c a l t r a i t s r e l a t e d t o the d i v i s i o n o f the s p i r i t -u a l and te m p o r a l powers, a g r e a t e r e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o c o n s u l t and c i t e s p e c i f i c t e x t u a l s o u r c e s i n s u p p o r t o f t h e o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g the o r i g i n s o f t h i s c r u c i a l concept i n m e d i e v a l t h o u g h t . " 192 Beyond the i c o n o g r a p h i c a l p a r a l l e l s s e l e c t e d by W a l t e r Cahn from v a r i o u s m a n u s c r i p t c o p i e s o f the Decretum, r e f e r -ence i s a l s o made t o o t h e r imagery t h a t he f e e l s a f f e c t o u r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the tympanum scene: p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s , the p o s i t i o n s o f k i n g and c l e r i c on e i t h e r the ' r i g h t ' o r 'wrong' s i d e o f the Enthroned V i r g i n , the poses o f k i n g and c l e r i c r e s p e c t i v e l y , the d i f f e r i n g m o t i f s above the heads o f the c e n s i n g a n g e l s as i n d i c a t i v e o f the sun and moon, the i m p l i e d v e r t i c a l a x i s s e p a r a t i n g the c o m p o s i t i o n i n t o r o y a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l h a l v e s , and the presence o f the s c r i b e . Whether o r not the s e can be understood as r e i n f o r c i n g h i s conc e p t o f a scene d e m o n s t r a t i n g the d i v i s i o n o f the two powers w i t h the Church i n supremacy demands r e - e x a m i n a t i o n . - 62 -R u l e r P o r t r a i t s , H a l o e s , P e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s ,  V i r t u e s , and the Concept o f Time A l l o f t h e s e i c o n o g r a p h i c a l components can be d e a l t w i t h i n a f a i r l y u n i f i e d manner i f i t i s a c c e p t e d t h a t the scene d e p i c t e d on the tympanum o f the Porte-de-Ste-Anne i s an example o f the m u l t i - l e v e l l e d p r o p a g a n d i s t i c imagery p a r t i c u l a r t o t h a t p e r i o d . On the s u r f a c e we have an example of t h e l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f r u l e r p o r t r a i t s common t o the p i c t o r i a l a r t s from a n t i q u i t y , i n which the c e n t r a l f i g u r e i s e nthroned and f l a n k e d by commemorative f i g u r e s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s . Here the c e n t r a l f i g u r e i s the Enthroned V i r g i n and C h i l d w i t h t h u r i f y i n g a n g e l s and a k i n g o r c l e r i c on e i t h e r s i d e . Behind the f i g u r e o f the c l e r i c , the s e a t e d s c r i b e o c c u p i e s a s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i s a t t r i -b u t e s and c l e r i c a l g a r b . The c e n t r a l f i g u r e s and the a n g e l s ar e nimbed. I n l a t e a n t i q u e a r t , the nimbed f i g u r e i n d i c a t e d one who was e x t r a o r d i n a r y , w i t h e i t h e r s p i r i t u a l o r t e m p o r a l power, f i g u r e s who might p e r s o n i f y an i d e a l o r c o n c e p t above the norm. As w e l l , " . . . t h i s s p e c i a l mark o f d i s t i n c t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f i g u r e was meant t o r e p r e s e n t , i n e v e r y r e s p e c t , a continuum, something permanent and s e m p i t e r n a l 193 beyond the c o n t i n g e n c i e s o f t i m e and c o r r u p t i o n . " The d e p i c t i o n o f C h r i s t , Mary and the s a i n t s as h a l o e d i n Medi-e v a l a r t was a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the a n t i q u e , t r a d i t i o n whereby p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s such as v i r t u e s who were goddesses i n a n t i q u i t y , r e p r e s e n t e d t i m e l e s s c o n c e p t s , as i n d i c a t e d by the h a l o e s . - 63 -Haloed emperors were the t r a d i t i o n i n Byzantine a r t where t h i s symbol denoted r o y a l power, considered p e r p e t u a l and h o l y , d e r i v e d from God. T h i s n o t i o n continued i n t o the 194 Medieval p e r i o d with the concept of D i v i n e K i n g s h i p . The nimbus designated the wearer as the possessor and executor of D i v i n e power and, being a ' p r o t o t y p e 1 , as immortal and h o l y r e g a r d l e s s of c h a r a c t e r or gender. P a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the Middle Ages t h i s concept of the immortal, e t e r n a l person-i f i c a t i o n was widespread, emphasized by Medieval man's wide-ranging awareness of the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s and measures of 195 time. I t i s not such a g r e a t leap from the p e r s o n i f i e d Rome of a n t i q u i t y to the Heavenly Jerusalem of the Middle Ages.. Or, from the s a n c t i f i e d image of Constantine to the new David of Charlemagne. For Medieval man t h i s was no h is ^.quantum le a p , but an i n t e g r a l p a r t of/t)his world view; the i n t e r l o c k i n g of time and events i n a e t e r n i t a s , God's time-l e s s , m o t i o n l e s s 'now-and-ever' where there i s no past and 196 no f u t u r e . The h a l o i n d i c a t e d a change i n the nature of 197 time, removing i t s bearer from "...tempus to aevum...", and f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t the nimbed person represented a "...more g e n e r a l p r o t o t y p e . . . some image or power whose true abode was t h a t endless continuum which the Middle Ages came 198 to c a l l aevum." The i n c l u s i o n of the f i g u r e s of King and Bishop, which we must read as p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of regnum and sacerdotium, w i t h i n t h i s scene i n d i c a t e s t h e i r presence a l o n g s i d e the haloed V i r g i n and C h i l d w i t h i n t h i s s p e c i a l - 64 -c a t e g o r y of time. That they can be read as p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s i n d i c a t e s t h e i r t h e i r i n t e g r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the core concept as i t i s d e p i c t e d here. As p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s form of " r u l e r p o r t r a i t ' t h e i r presence i s c e n t r a l to the meaning of the imagery s i n c e : " . . . p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n was a f a v o u r i t e d e v i c e f o r symbolizing a b s t r a c t concepts and s t a t e s of mind..." 199 From E a r l y C h r i s t i a n times the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of the V i r t u e s were a s s o c i a t e d with the p o r t r a y a l s of important i n d i v i d u a l s . They i n d i c a t e d "...the e s s e n t i a l moral worth of the person p o r t r a y e d . . . " 2 0 0 as i n the f r o n t i s p i e c e of the Vienna D i o s c u r i d e s where A n i c i a J u l i a n a i s enthroned between two v i r g i n s designated Megalopsychia and Phronesis ( C l e v e r -201 ness and Noblemindedness). F o l l o w i n g the c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n t h i s type of composition emphasized the d i g n i t y and greatness of the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r along with the i n s p i r -a t i o n p rovided by the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s . In the Eastern Greek t r a d i t i o n the compositions were s i m p l i f i e d , e v o l v i n g i n t o the ' l o o s e - r e t i n u e ' form, as i n the John Chrysostom Manuscript where A l e t h i a and Dike (Truth and J u s t i c e ) 202 appear with the enthroned emperor. In the Gospel Book of John II Comnenos, dated to the e a r l y t w e l f t h century, a Coronation scene d e p i c t s Eleemosyne and Dike (Mercy and J u s t i c e ) as throne sharers of C h r i s t and as i n t e r c e s s o r s who s o l i c i t God's mercy and j u s t i c e f o r the e a r t h l y r u l e r 203 (Fig.30, Rome, B i b l i o t e c a V a t i c a n a Cod. Urb. gr.2, f . l 9 v ) - 65 -I n the Western M e d i e v a l t r a d i t i o n , C a r o l i n g i a n a r t i s t s d e p i c t e d , time and a g a i n , groups o f v i r t u e s w i t h r u l e r s i n an attempt t o g e n e r a t e f o r them the s p i r i t u a l f o r c e s embodied i n t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s . By the n i n t h c e n t u r y a canon had been e s t a b l i s h e d , f a v o r e d by the M e d i e v a l t h e o l o g i a n s ' a f f i n i t y f o r n u m e r i c a l symbolism, where the c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s appeared as s p i r i t u a l f o r c e s around the e a r t h l y r u l e r s i n groups o f seven o r v a r i a t i o n s t h e r e o f . T h i s canon c o u l d be adapted f o r use w i t h d e p i c t i o n s o f p r o p h e t s , s e a s o n s , e l e m e n t s , and E v a n g e l i s t s . P r o g r e s s i v e l y , the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s o f v i r t u e s were i n c l u d e d not o n l y w i t h the p o r t r a i t s o f r u l e r s , but w i t h those o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l personnages as w e l l . "On a m i n i a t u r e o f about 1130, A r c h b i s h o p F r e d e r i c k o f Cologne (1099-1131) i s s e a t e d e n t h r o n e d . . . " w i t h C h r i s t b l e s s i n g , a p o s t l e s , p r o p h e t s , and v i r t u e s " . . . i n the C i v i t a s Dei amid s a l u t a r y i n f l u e n c e s as i f he were p r o t e c t e d by the w a l l s o f the h e a v e n l y J e r u s a l e m , the g a t e s o f which a r e f i g u r e s o f the Old and New Testaments and the t o w e r s , v i r t u e s . " 204 These were not i s o l a t e d i n c i d e n t s : "Such a l l e g o r i c a l s y n t h r o n i s m o i o f p r i n c e s w i t h p o l i t i c a l o r c i v i c v i r t u e s are f o u n d . . . i n the p o l i t i c a l 1 i t e r a t u r e . . . P l a c e n t i n u s the g r e a t j u r i s t o f the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , o u t l i n e s i n one o f h i s t r a c t a t e s an i m p r e s s i v e v i s i o n a r y image o f such a templum j u s t i c i a e i n which J u s t i c e t h r o n e s w i t h Reason and E q u i t y and o t h e r v i r t u e s . " 205 In Rouen t h e r e i s an example from a n o t h e r copy o f the Decretum i n which the K i n g and B i s h o p are d e p i c t e d as s y n t h r o n i s m o i ( t h r o n e s h a r e r s ) , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e no o t h e r f i g u r e s i n c l u d e d (see F i g u r e 2 0 ) . - 66 -In the m a n u s c r i p t medium t h e r e were o f t e n m i n i a t u r e s i n which a l i v i n g r u l e r was d e p i c t e d and t h i s may be one such i n s t a n c e , but when r e g a r d i n g the tympanum scene, i t would be a m i s t a k e t o make such an i n f e r e n c e ; d u r i n g the M i d d l e Ages the d e p i c t i o n o f a l i v i n g r u l e r i n the same scene w i t h the V i r g i n would have been c o n s i d e r e d blasphemous. A t the same t i m e , i f an e c c l e s i a s t i c was p o r t r a y e d on the facade o f a c h u r c h i t was i n a s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n and g e n e r a l l y i n the p o s t u r e o f donor. N e i t h e r f i g u r e was d e p i c t e d as t h e y a r e on the P o r t e - d e - S t e - A n n e , o f almost e q u a l s i z e and on the same p l a n e as the V i r g i n . However, i f we read t h e s e f i g u r e s as p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s then the whole c o m p o s i t i o n makes i t s p o i n t as a ' r u l e r p o r t r a i t ' . The S c r i b e The presence o f the s c r i b e , whom Aub e r t i d e n t i f i e d as 207 B a r b e d o r , must a l s o be r e c o g n i z e d as a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . H i s pose, s i z e , and a i r o f i n d u s t r y u n d e r l i n e the h i s t o r i c a l and documentary importance o f the scene: he i s t h e r e t o r e c o r d the concept o f the I d e a l S t a t e , e n s u r i n g not o n l y i t s contemporary l e g a l i t y and h i s t o r i c a l importance but i t s e n t r y i n t o the aevum as w e l l , e n s u r i n g i t s r e c o g n i t i o n and r e s p e c t by p o s t e r i t y . I f , as Cahn has s t a t e d , the s c r i b e ' s r o l e i s t o i m p a r t l e g a l f o r c e t o the scene, i t was t o e n f o r c e the n o t i o n embodied i n G r a t i a n ' s Decretum where h i s presence 208 i s n ot new. Three m i n i a t u r e s from c o p i e s o f the manu-- 67 -s c r i p t dated through the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y d e p i c t an enthroned king with a sword g i v i n g the law to two or three men i n c l e r i c a l garb, while a s c r i b e r e c o r d s the event ( F i g s . 31, 32, 33, St. F l o r i a n , S t i f t s b i b l i o t h e k M S . I l l , 2 f.12; London, B r i t i s h Museum MS.Royal 10.D.VIII f . l ; Rome, B i b l i o -t e c a A p o s t o l i c a V a t i c a n a MS.lat.2491 f . l ) . The f a c t that these i l l u s t r a t i o n s cover a p e r i o d of almost s i x t y years i n d i c a t e s an e s t a b l i s h e d iconography f o r the Decretum i n France. As with the o t h e r p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s i n the composi-t i o n of the tympanum, the s c r i b e ' s i n c l u s i o n endows i t with a s p e c i a l s t a t u s with regards to time: the concept d e p i c t e d here i s recorded i n both h i s t o r i c a l time and s e m p i t e r n i t y . The M e d i e v a l S p a c i a l Formula " A f t e r o r i e n t a t i o n i t was r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n which most engrossed the a r t i s t , here a g a i n a t one w i t h the t h e o l o g i a n . . . " 209 Along w i t h t h i s M e d i e v a l concept o f t i m e , t h e r e was a l s o a M e d i e v a l s p a c i a l f o r m u l a w i t h i n the p i c t o r i a l f i e l d t o which Cahn r e f e r r e d when he s t a t e d t h a t the k i n g and c l e r i c o c c u p i e d the 'wrong' and ' r i g h t ' s i d e s o f the compo-s i t i o n . The i n t e r n a l s p a c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the scene was o r i e n t e d towards an i n t e r n a l s p e c t a t o r ' s p o s i t i o n , t h e r e b y r e v e r s i n g what we today understand as r i g h t and l e f t from an e x t e r n a l v i e w p o i n t . As Cahn s t a t e d , the f i g u r e s o f k i n g and b i s h o p do occupy the p l a c e s t o which he r e f e r r e d but i f - 68 -c a r r i e d t o i t s f u l l e s t e x t e n t as i t was d u r i n g the M i d d l e Ages, t h i s c o n n o t a t i o n i s not as d e f i n i t e . In the terms o f the p e r i o d w i t h i n the p i c t o r i a l space the f i g u r e o f the V i r g i n does a c t as a " . . . f u l c r u m around which space and time r o t a t e : what i s i n f r o n t i s moved t o the l e f t . What i s 210 behind t o the r i g h t . " Any f i g u r e s o c c u p y i n g the f r o n t a l p l a n e r e l a t e d t o the ' r i g h t ' and the r e a r p l a n e , the ' l e f t ' . Taken s t i l l f u r t h e r , the ' r i g h t ' r e l a t e s t o the p r e s e n t and the ' l e f t ' t o the f u t u r e . I n t h i s M e d i e v a l s p a c i a l f o r m u l a the f l o w o f time i s d e p i c t e d as moving from l e f t t o r i g h t f o r the e x t e r n a l v i e w e r , but from ' r i g h t ' t o ' l e f t ' f o r the 211 i n t e r n a l s p e c t a t o r , from the p r e s e n t t o the f u t u r e . C o m p l e t i n g t h i s s p a c i a l e n v e l o p e , the ' r i g h t ' r e l a t e s t o the top and the ' l e f t ' t o the bottom. Thus, what has been c r e a t e d i s a t o t a l l y t r a n s c e n d e n t a l environment where M e d i e v a l man was p r i v i l e d g e d t o g l i m p s e the aevum. Because o f h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the c a t e g o r i e s and measures of t i m e , h i s comprehension o f events t h a t move from tempus t o aevum would enhance h i s a b i l i t y t o d e c i p h e r the meaning of the scene. What we see p o r t r a y e d i s not c o n f i n e d t o the here-and-now, but i s p a r t o f t h i s continuum. Cahn's ' r i g h t ' and ' l e f t ' p o s i t i o n s can j u s t as e a s i l y be read as a t i m e - l i n e r e a c h i n g back i n t o the p a s t and c o n t i n -u i n g on i n t o the f u t u r e . Because the n a t u r e o f the scene i s not t h a t o f a L a s t Judgement, we can d i s p e n s e w i t h the n o t i o n s o f good o r e v i l , b e l i e f o r d i s b e l i e f b e i n g a t t a c h e d - 69 -to these p o s i t i o n s . King and bishop are seen f o r what they are : p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d e p i c t i o n intended to convey the unending mutual c o - o p e r a t i o n between the two f o r a and the e q u a l i t y o f regnum and sacerdotium w i t h i n the C h r i s t i a n Commonwealth. - 70 -CHAPTER IX THE METAPHOR OF THE TWO LUMINARIES " P o n t i f f and Emperor, coequals when measured by the standards of Man and God, are coequals a l s o with regard to Rome and t h e i r s o l a r c h a r a c t e r s . " 212 Symbolism and analogy were the accepted t o o l s of Med-i e v a l t h e o l o g i c a l exegesis and there i s no reason to doubt t h e i r use by j u r i s p r u d e n t i a l exegetes a l s o . According to Emile Male, by the Medieval p e r i o d "...the canons of a r t had 213 grown to have almost the weight of a r t i c l e s of f a i t h . " and i t was what he c a l l e d the "co r p o r a t e C h r i s t i a n c o n s c i o u s -ness" through which symbolism was de c i d e d : "The mind of the t h e o l o g i a n , the i n s t i n c t of the people, and the keen s e n s i -214 b i l i t y of the a r t i s t a l l c o l l a b o r a t e d . " Walter Cahn's d e s c r i p t i o n of the m o t i f s above the heads of the censing angels who f l a n k the V i r g i n , as r e f e r e n c e s to the theory of the Two Luminaries demonstrate a r e i t e r a t i o n of a Medieval p o l i t i c a l a p o l o g i a that endeavoured to impute a s p e c i f i c meaning i n t o f a m i l i a r symbols. According to Kantorowicz: "For c e n t u r i e s , ever s i n c e the age of Gregory V I I , a dangerous image had gained i n f l u e n c e on the p o l i t i c a l theory of the papacy: Sun and Moon as symbols of Church and Empire. Although the sheer c o e x i s t e n c e o f two c e l e s t i a l l u m i n a r i e s of unequal s i z e proved, a l l by i t s e l f , l e s s than nothing i n view o f the r e l a t i o n s of regnum and sacerdotium, the metaphor had yet been taken as evidence f o r the i n f e r i o r i t y o f the Moon-Empire to which o n l y some r e f l e c t e d l i g h t was granted from the Sun-Papacy." 215 - 71 -Cahn's usage, t h e r e f o r e , to r e i n f o r c e h i s theory of a de-p i c t i o n of the d i v i s i o n of powers r a t h e r than t h e i r harmon-ious entente, i s simply the r e i t e r a t i o n of an outmoded p o i n t of view and ignores i n s i g h t s i n t o the p o l i t i c a l theology of that era provided by more c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . O r i g i n of the Metaphor When the outworn pagan imagery that was adopted and adapted f o r use as a teaching medium by the E a r l y C h r i s t i a n Church was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e i r v i s u a l v o c a b u l a r y , new symbol-values were a p p l i e d i n accordance with C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g s . "...symbols enabled the Medieval a r t i s t to express the i n v i s i b l e , to r e p r e s e n t that which would o t h e r -216 wise be beyond the domain of a r t . " Ideas and concepts beyond the norm thus became the province of every member of the C h r i s t i a n Community: a b s t r a c t p e r c e p t i o n s became the commonplace, and Medieval man had l i t t l e t r o u b l e a c c e p t i n g such metaphors. Precedents f o r t h i s analogy of Sun and Moon were seen i n Byzantium where the i m p e r i a l couple b a s i l e u s and b a s i l i s s a were compared to these two p l a n e t s , H e l i o s and 217 Selene. In the West, Eusebius r e f e r r e d to Constantme as 218 "...the one r i s i n g together with the sun...." In order to advance i t s own d e s i r e f o r domination of the C h r i s t i a n Commonwealth and to p r o t e c t i t s e l f from i n c u r s i o n s by the crown, whether r e a l or imagined, the Reform papacy of the e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y : - 72 -". . . c r e a t e d that image of the two gre a t l u m i n a r i e s as symbols of the two u n i v e r s a l powers on e a r t h ; the sun e q u a l l i n g the pope; the moon, the emperor." 219 T h i s metaphor p e r s i s t e d u n t i l Dante a p p l i e d a new metaphor 220 i n h i s Comedy: due s o l i . A c c o r d i n g l y , r e c o g n i t i o n of the e q u a l i t y of regnum and sacerdotium spanned the whole p e r i o d . "...two c o o r d i n a t e and equal powers with d i f f e r e n t t a s k s , no longer r e f l e c t a major and a minor l i g h t : they are "Two Suns" which j o i n t l y i l l u m i n -ate the world to lead the human race to the two goa l s which "Providence, t h a t i n e f f a b l e has s e t before man"^2|he t e r r e s t r i a l p a r a d i s e and the c e l e s t i a l . " Whether t h i s a p o l o g i a ever had the f a r - r e a c h i n g e f f e c t a t t r i b u t e d to i t can be d i s p u t e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n France where good r e l a t i o n s had been the norm even though there had been d i f f e r e n c e s from time to time. The Iconography of the Metaphor There i s l i t t l e evidence to support any reading of the m o t i f s above the angels' heads as i n d i c a t i v e o f symbolizing t h i s metaphor. During the t w e l f t h century there appeared a d d i t i o n s to the standard C r u c i f i x i o n and Las t Judgement icon o g r a p h i e s i n the form of two l u m i n a r i e s above e i t h e r the c r o s s o r the c r u c i f o r m f i g u r e , the sun to the l e f t and the moon to the r i g h t from the e x t e r n a l viewer's p o s i t i o n . According to Male they appeared i n s c u l p t u r a l form on the 222 tympanum a t St-Foy, Conques about 1130-40 ( F i g . 34) but may have a l r e a d y appeared on a s i m i l a r tympanum at Autun around 1125 ( F i g . 35) where r o u n d e l s , although badly d e t e r -- 73 -i o r a t e d , appear to c o n t a i n human f a c e s . A l s o , i n a window from the C a t h e d r a l of Bourges dated to the m i d - t h i r t e e n t h century, the two l u m i n a r i e s appear above the f i g u r e o f the C r u c i f i e d C h r i s t i n a s t y l i z e d form ( F i g . 36). T h e i r appear-ance a t Conques may be the f i r s t i n s c u l p t u r a l form, but they had a l r e a d y been used as e a r l y as 870 i n manuscript i l l u m i n a t i o n . In a fragment from a Sacramentary the male sun and the g r i e v i n g female moon hover i n the sky beneath a band of clouds above the tau-shaped c r u c i f i x ( F i g . 37, Metz, I n i t i a l - Te I g i t u r , - P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e n a t i o n a l e Ms.lat.1141 f . 6 v ) . According t o Joachim Gaedhe they are "...a t r a d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e , conveying the cosmic import of 223 C h r i s t ' s s a c r i f i c e . . . " Both of the f i g u r e s bear c l o s e resemblance to antique types and may t h e r e f o r e be a c o n t i n -224 u a t i o n o r renewal of a long t r a d i t i o n . There are many s i m i l a r i n s t a n c e s i n the manuscript media. C r u c i f i x i o n scenes from both the Evesham P s a l t e r and the Amesbury P s a l t e r dated t o the m i d - t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y contained images of both l u m i n a r i e s with human faces ( F i g s . 40, 41). In the Amesbury  P s a l t e r the faces have d e f i n i t e male and female c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s but i n the Evesham P s a l t e r gender i s d i f f i c u l t to determine, p a r t l y because of the s i z e of the images and p a r t l y because of t h e i r p o s i t i o n : they appear to be presented by angels with draped hands. Male may have been r e f e r r i n g to some s i m i l a r imagery when he s t a t e d that the t r a d i t i o n would continue f o r c e n t u r i e s f o r e v e n t u a l l y "...angels w i l l - 74 -be shown t a k i n g away the two p l a n e t s l i k e u s e l e s s lamps..." These m o t i f s continued i n use f a r i n t o the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , but i n o n l y one example that I have found have they been a s s o c i a t e d with any form of cloud symbol. In the M i s s a l f o r the Use of P a r i s , dated between 1314 and 1328 the sun and moon appear above the C r u c i f i e d C h r i s t p a r t i a l l y obscured by c l o u d s . Both clouds are of s i m i l a r form and c o l o r : p a l e blue with f r o t h y white edges and the heavenly bodies are d e p i c t e d i n g o l d ( F i g . 42, P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e n a t i o n a l MS.lat.861, f . l 4 7 v ) . The p e r t i n e n t f a c t here i s t h a t there has been no attempt at d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of cloud symbols i n order to emphasize e i t h e r luminary. There i s no evidence t h a t I have been able to f i n d to i n d i c a t e t h at t h i s type o f symbol was ever read as anything o t h e r than as c l o u d s . A d o l f Katzenellenbogen, i n h i s a r t i c l e 226 on the tympanum at Ve"zelay r e f e r s to the m o t i f s above the head of C h r i s t as c l o u d s , "...the c l o u d s which f l a n k the upper s i d e o f C h r i s t ' s mandorla. On His r i g h t they are calm. On His l e f t they look l i k e thunderclouds." Andre Grabar i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the manuscripts r e f e r r e d to by Cahn, d e s c r i b e s the m o t i f s as "... c l o u d s . . . the undulations 227 of the c l o u d s . . . b i l l o w i n g out i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . . . " ( F i g s . 43, 44, Gebhart B i b l e from Admont, Vienna, N a t i o n a l -b i b l i o t h e k Ser.Nov.2701, f o l s . 6 8 v , 69 and the L i f e of S t -Amand, Valenciennes B i b l i o t h e q u e municipale MS.502, f.119). Nowhere do these m o t i f s have any f u n c t i o n beyond that o f - 75 -conveying the idea of p l a c e : time and space are d e f i n e d by t h e i r presence, s e m p i t e r n i t y , the aevum. In each i n s t a n c e they i n d i c a t e an i n v i s i b l e l o c u s where persons above the norm d w e l l , as the Medieval mind understood i t . - 76 -CHAPTER X THE ROLE OF THE VIRGIN IN THE TYMPANUM IMAGERY: MARIA/ECCLESIA/IUSTITIA "For t h e V i r g i n h e r s e l f i s the Church. Here, se a t e d upon a t h r o n e , she h e r s e l f i s a t h r o n e -the "Throne o f Solomon" so dear t o the t h e o l o g i a n s , the "Seat o f Wisdom" upon whom her Son i s i n t u r n enthroned as k i n g . C h r i s t i s k i n g , but the V i r g i n b e a r s the s c e p t e r and r u l e s . " 228 We have a c c e p t e d the p a r a l l e l i s m between the Church and the Heavenly J e r u s a l e m as a v a l i d c o n c e p t i o n o f World U n i t y as seen through the eyes o f M e d i e v a l man, thus we must a l s o a c c e p t a broadened v a l u a t i o n o f Mary's r o l e i n the scene d e p i c t e d on the tympanum o f the Porte-de-Ste-Anne. "Seated i n m a j e s t y on a t h r o n e , the V i r g i n Queen c o n t a i n s a m u l t i - l a y e r e d message: she b e l o n g s t o a c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n o f p e r s o n i f y i n g c i t i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s as goddesses, and as s u c h , i n the h e a r t o f Rome, she embodies the new Rome which i s the Church." 2 29 The M u l t i p l e Personae o f Mary Dur i n g the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , a t the h e i g h t o f the devo-t i o n t o Mary t h a t m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n the c u l t o f the V i r g i n , she was g i v e n prominence i n the s c u l p t u r a l programs c r e a t e d f o r the f a c a d e s o f the many c a t h e d r a l s d e d i c a t e d t o h e r . In many i n s t a n c e s she i s p o r t r a y e d as t h e o t o k o s , e i t h e r i n scenes such as the A d o r a t i o n o f the Magi o r as - 77 -p a t r o n e s s o f d o n a t i v e o r commemorative c o m p o s i t i o n s . A t the same time she was g i v e n the c h a r a c t e r o f s o v e r e i g n by M e d i e v a l t h e o l o g i a n s . In the i c o n o g r a p h y o f the p e r i o d the r e g a l i a o f i m p e r i a l o f f i c e was t r a n s f e r r e d t o h e r : the crown, the o r b , and the s c e p t e r . Her r e t i n u e was v e r y o f t e n composed o f the Seven L i b e r a l A r t s and she was enthroned 231 w i t h the C h r i s t C h i l d as sedes s a p i e n t i a e . As suc h , Mary was re g a r d e d as r e g i n a n o s t r i o r b i s . In t h i s g u i s e she 232 was p o r t r a y e d on c a t h e d r a l s as a v i s i b l e d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f a c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e r e c e p t i v e t o the s e c o n c e p t s . The M e d i e v a l n o t i o n o f k i n g s h i p i n c l u d e d r e c o g n i t i o n o f 233 the r u l e r as the " . . . f o u n t a i n o f J u s t i c e . . . " and w i t h i n t h i s n o t i o n the k i n g was seen as the " . . . o r i g i n and p r o t e c -234 t i o n o f J u s t i c e . . . " The L i b e r A u g u s t a l i s , f o r example, c o n t a i n e d the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : The C a e s a r , t h e r e f o r e , must be a t once the F a t h e r and Son o f J u s t i c e ; h e r l o r d and m i n i s t e r ; F a t h e r and l o r d i n c r e a t i n g J u s t i c e and p r o t e c t i n g what has been c r e a t e d ; and i n l i k e f a s h i o n he s h a l l be, i n h er v e n e r a t i o n , the Son o f J u s t i c e and i n min-i s t e r i n g h e r p l e n t y , h er m i n i s t e r . " 235 In an age when l e g a l and t h e o l o g i c a l spheres o f t e n o v e r -l a p p e d , a t h e o l o g i c a l emphasis i n l e g a l m a t t e r s was not o b j e c t i o n a b l e ; the r u l e r was r e p r e s e n t e d as a: " . . . m e d i a t o r , as the F a t h e r and Son o f J u s t i c e whereby J u s t i c e h e r s e l f was a t t r i b u t e d l i k e w i s e an i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n : she was, by i m p l i c a t i o n , a t once mother and dau g h t e r o f the emperor." 236 By the e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s l e g a l i s t i c thought i n t o the t h e o l o g -i c a l s p h e r e , Mary was p r a i s e d by c a n o n i s t s as "...mother and d a u g h t e r o f h e r son...." C h r i s t h i m s e l f was p r a i s e d i n the same v e i n as " . . . f a t h e r and son o f h i s v i r g i n a l mother; 23 8 ..." As r e g i n a n o s t r i o r b i s , might not Mary have had 2 a p p r o p r i a t e d t o her "metaphors o f i n t e l l e c t u a l p a r e n t a l i t y " t h a t were h e r e t o f o r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the p e r s o n o f the r u l e r ? T h i s imagery equated h er p o s i t i o n w i t h t h a t o f the s o v e r e i g n , and now she was b e i n g seen as b e i n g o f both w o r l d s , the e a r t h l y and the h e a v e n l y . She was understood t o have the r i g h t t o the " r e g a l e p i t h e t " - Queen - because o f h e r d e s c e n t from the r o y a l house o f David and because o f her u n e q u a l l e d s a n c t i t y : "...as the mother o f Rex Regurn she 240 d e s e r v e d the a p p e l l a t i o n M a r i a R e g i n a . . . " As s u c h , Mary became the i n t e r m e d i a r y between two w o r l d s . Her c a l m n e s s , m a j e s t y , and i n f i n i t e k i n d n e s s as p o r t r a y e d on the facad e s of c a t h e d r a l s encouraged man t o r e g a r d her as h i s p r o t e c t i o n h i s b u l w a r k , h i s s h i e l d a g a i n s t the consequences o f h i s e a r t h l y a c t i o n s . "Mary r e p r e s e n t s a c u l m i n a t i n g p o i n t i n the pen-e t r a t i o n o f the d i v i n i t y i n t o the r e a l m o f human e x p e r i e n c e . She s i g n a l s the emergence o f an a t t i t u d e ~ o f hope and r e s p e c t f o r the human con-d i t i o n . " ^ 4 1 T h i s new humanism was r e f l e c t e d i n the newly d e v e l o p i n g G o t h i c s t y l e d u r i n g the m i d - t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , i n which the v e n g e f u l God i n A p o c a l y p t i c terms was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o the Redeemer. I t i n c l u d e d a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t i n the d u a l . n a t u r e s o f Mary: h e r human and d i v i n e a s p e c t s which u n d e r s c o r e d the humanity o f C h r i s t and the d i g n i t y o f human - 79 -nature. Because of her p a r a l l e l n a t u r e s , Mary came to be regarded as the p e r f e c t human, the p e r f e c t m e d i a t r i x , c a l l e d by Peter Damian s c a l a ( F i g . 45) the la d d e r reaching to , 242 heaven. Mary and J u s t i c e : Concept and Metaphor " I u s t i t i a was an Idea, a goddess. She was i n f a c t , "an e x t r a - l e g a l premise" of l e g a l thought. And l i k e every Idea she had a l s o the f u n c t i o n o f a mediator, a I u s t i t i a m e d i a t r i x mediating between d i v i n e and human laws..." 243 J u s t i v e , as a concept and as a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , was 24 "hallowed" i n Medieval times " . . . l i k e the a n c i e n t d e i t i e s , " or l i k e the mother of God h e r s e l f . P l a c e n t i n u s (d.1192) i n 245 h i s Quaestiones de i u r a s u b t i l i t a t i b u s wrote a d e s c r i p t i o n of J u s t i c e that could e q u a l l y be a p p l i e d to the f i g u r e of the V i r g i n on the tympanum of the Porte-de-Ste-Anne. In the prologue he d e s c r i b e d her as " . . . I u s t i t i a . . . i n her i n e f f a b l e h a b i t o f d i g n i t y . . . " the c e n t r a l f i g u r e "...observing with 246 many s i g h s the t h i n g s of both God and men." T h i s i s Mary who i n her majesty observes the a f f a i r s of both regnum and sacerdotium, and who i n her r o l e as M e d i a t r i x i n t e r p o s e s her presence between man and God's judgement. Aulus G e l l i u s , a second century r h e t o r and j u r i s t , d e s c r i b e d J u s t i c e i n h i s r e p r i s e o f a S t o i c source, A t t i c N i g h t s , as "...an awe-i n s p i r i n g v i r g i n with p e n e t r a t i n g eyes and with some vener-247 able g r i e f i n her d i g n i t y . " - 80 -Mary had a l r e a d y been i d e n t i f i e d with the Church as i t s 'type' d u r i n g the t w e l f t h century i n the exegesis of the Song of Solomon: "...the b r i d e i n the Song of Songs could be 248 understood as both the Church and the V i r g i n Mary." She became E c c l e s i a , the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the Church a c c o r d i n g to the t h e o l o g i a n s . Again as Katzenellenbogen has s t a t e d : "The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Mary as the 'type' of the Church was a l s o recognized i n the l i t u r g y . . . t h e F o r t y - f o u r t h Psalm i s sung on the day of the V i r g i n , because what i s s a i d i n g e n e r a l about the Church may be s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to Mary." 249 I f t h e o l o g i a n s could apply exegesis i n a p a r a l l e l manner to both Mary and the Church, the one a human and the o t h e r e s s e n t i a l l y an Idea, by e x t e n s i o n of t h i s method she could a l s o be understood as the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of J u s t i c e . C o n t r a d i c t i o n and c r o s s - c o n t r a d i c t i o n was the nature of t w e l f t h century p o l i t i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g , and man would have had no h e s i t a t i o n i n a c c e p t i n g such succeeding l a y e r s of imagery, or of i d e n t i f y i n g m u l t i p l e p e r s o n i f i c a -t i o n s i n one image. "...the d i s t i n c t i o n had always been made between a c e l e s t i a l and a t e r r e s t r i a l J u s t i c e , one a b s o l u t e and immutable, r u l i n g the u n i v e r s e and preceeding i n time a l l c r e a t e d laws, and the o t h e r i m p e r f e c t l y m a t e r i a l i z e d i n the laws of man and mutable i n her appearance a c c o r d i n g to the f i c k l e c o n d i t i o n s on e a r t h . . . " 250 With the i n e x t r i c a b l e m i n g l i n g of t h e o l o g i c a l and l e g a l areas of i n t e r e s t i n which antique concepts and ideas had a l r e a d y formed the b a s i s of much of the t h i n k i n g , i t would have been completely a c c e p t a b l e f o r one more metaphor to - 81 -have been added. As has so c l e a r l y been s t a t e d by K a n t o r -o w i c z : "...we may wonder whether s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t i o n s were not c o n d i t i o n e d , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , a l s o by the d i v i n e model o f m e d i e v a l k i n g s , who b e i n g e x t r a - l e g a l l y God and man a t the same t i m e . . . " 251 d i d not i n f a c t a c t as the model f o r p a r t o f the imagery a p p l i e d t o the V i r g i n . Her i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as s o v e r e i g n en-compasses b o t h w o r l d s : not o n l y i s she c a l l e d r e g i n a n o s t r i  o r b i s but a l s o : "...queen o f the s a i n t s i n heaven as w e l l as o f the kingdom o f the e a r t h , p o s s e s s i n g by r i g h t the whole kingdom o f h e r Son" a c c o r d i n g t o the M e d i e v a l l e g a l i d e a " . . . f o r she i s the Mother o f the Church, b e i n g C h r i s t ' s s i s t e r by f a i t h and h i s spouse by l o v e . . . " 252 As s o v e r e i g n , h e r imagery c o m p r i s e s a l s o imagery p a r t i c u l a r t o the r u l e r as w e l l as t h a t a p p l i e d t o her Son. That " . . . t h e V i r g i n Mary, f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o by Canon Law t o i l l u s t r a t e l e g a l c o n d i t i o n s , d i d not as " V i r g i n and mother, d a u g h t e r o f h e r Son" -Nata n a t i , mater p a t r i s - l i k e w i s e i m p l y c e r t a i n s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . . . " 253 would be v e r y hard t o a c c e p t . As mother and daugher o f the emperor, mother and daugher as w e l l as B r i d e o f her Son, the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s o f combined I d e a l s o r U n i v e r s a l s as K a n t o r -o w i c z c a l l e d them, and as M e d i a t r i x i n h e r own r i g h t , she was a l s o , i n h e r r o l e as r e g i n a , the f o u n t a i n o f J u s t i c e , o r i g i n and p r o t e c t i o n o f J u s t i c e , and mother and d a u g h t e r o f J u s t i c e . In f a c t , as she p e r s o n i f i e s E c c l e s i a , Mary i s a l s o the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f I u s t i t i a . T h i s m u l t i p l e imagery - 82 -demonstrates the f l e x i b i l i t y o f m e d i e v a l p o l i t i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l e x e g e s i s t o which n o t h i n g was i m p o s s i b l e because e v e r y t h i n g was the work o f God. As w e l l , the m u l t i p l i c i t y of images a p p l i e d t o Mary s i g n i f i e d t h a t , i n any one i n s t -ance, i t was the d u a l i t y o f her n a t u r e t h a t made such t h i n k -i n g a c c e p t a b l e , f o r i t was the c o m b i n a t i o n o f her humanity and d i v i n i t y t h a t e l e v a t e d h e r t o so s p e c i a l a p o s i t i o n . I c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y as w e l l as l i t e r a l l y , J u s t i c e was seen as t h e m e d i a t r i x between the s i n s o f man and the wrath o f God: "That I u s t i t i a c o u l d a c t u a l l y t a k e the p l a c e n o r m a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r the V i r g i n o r E c c l e s i a i s demonstrated i n a 254 t w e l f t h c e n t u r y enamel from S t a b l e " ( F i g . 46) The c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h i s t r i p t y c h , when the p a n e l s a re open, forms an Advent o r Second Coming scene, i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h 255 the D i s p u t e o f the V i r t u e s . I n i t , the f i g u r e o f the V i r g i n , i n the pose t h a t she t a k e s d u r i n g the L a s t Judgement, i s d e p i c t e d as J u s t i c e . She i s crowned and v e i l e d a c c o r d i n g t o the c o n v e n t i o n f o r d e p i c t i n g the V i r g i n o r E c c l e s i a and she i s p l a c e d i n a mandorla. Her crown c a r r i e s a f l e u r - d e -l i s as does t h a t o f the Enthroned V i r g i n on the tympanum, and she b a l a n c e s the s c a l e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Hackenbroch, a d e m i - f i g u r e o f J u s t i c e w i t h the s c a l e s appears on a book c o v e r i n the U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y i n L i $ g e , and on the r e l i -q u a ry o f SS. Ganudulphus and Candidus now i n B r u s s e l s but i n n e i t h e r o f t h e s e examples does she usurp the p l a c e o f the • 256 V i r g i n . - 83 -J u s t i c e as m e d i a t r i x with the emperor as her co u n t e r p a r t 257 i s d e p i c t e d i n a l a t e Medieval f r e s c o , but from a n t i q u i t y 258 j u s t i c e has been d e p i c t e d as a woman h o l d i n g the s c a l e ( F i g . 47, Buon Governo, Palazzo P u b l i c o , S i e n a ) . Beginning i n the E a r l y C h r i s t i a n era she was a s s o c i a t e d with the V i r g i n and C h i l d as i n the f i f t h c e n t u r y monastery of J e r e -259 miah i n Sakkara. T h i s long a s s o c i a t i o n continued i n t o the Middle Ages with r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of Mary i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the d i s p e n s i n g of J u s t i v e i n Las t Judgement scenes. In the l a t e Medieval p e r i o d the V i r g i n i s not o n l y d e p i c t e d 260 261 seated i n the s c a l e s or touching them but a c t u a l l y , as 26 2 J u s t i c e , b a l a n c i n g them. In the el e v e n t h c e n t u r y S t -Irenee, Bishop of Lyon s t a t e d : "As the human race was subordinated to the law of death by a v i r g i n , l i k e w i s e i t i s saved by another V i r g i n : the s c a l e i s thus balanced...." 263 Th i s equation of the V i r g i n with J u s t i c e continued long i n t o the Renaissance with a s e r i e s of p o r t r a y a l s i n v a r i o u s media: a carved a l a b a s t e r panel of E n g l i s h provenance from the f i f t e e n t h c entury now i n the Louvre ( F i g . 48) d e p i c t s the V i r g i n b a l a n c i n g the s c a l e , as does a panel p a i n t i n g presented to the Puy d'Amiens i n 1518 F i g . 49). The same theme i s t r e a t e d i n an i l l u s t r a t i o n from the manuscript Chants Royaux des P a l i n o d s de Puy de Rouen ( F i g . 50) from 26 5 the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A l l i l l u s t r a t e the long h i s t o r y of t h i s t r a d i t i o n , p r o v i n g that i t was c a n o n i c a l l y a ccept-able . - 84 -The V i r g i n ' s P l a c e  W i t h i n the Heavenly J e r u s a l e m I t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o a c c e p t the d e p i c t i o n o f the Enthroned V i r g i n as f u l f i l l i n g , as one o f many images con-veyed by the tympanum i c o n o g r a p h y , the o f f i c e s o f I u s t i t i a . At the same t i m e , t h e r e may be d i s c e r n e d on a n o t h e r l e v e l , an a n a l o g y between the l o c u s o f the tympanum scene and t h a t of the Heavenly J e r u s a l e m i n both a c o n c r e t e , p h y s i c a l sense and i n a s u p e r n a t u r a l , t r a n s c e n d e n t a l one. As p a t r o n e s s o f the c a t h e d r a l o f Notre-Dame, Mary appears above the l i n t e l s of the p o r t a l i n a p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , but as sedes s a p i e n t i a e  M a r i a / E c c l e s i a / I u s t i t i a o c c u p i e s a p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the aevum. S u r r o u n d i n g her a r e : "Angels i n the a r c h i v o l t s . A n g e l s and s a i n t s t o g e t h e r e x e m p l i f y the Church i n heaven, a c c o r d i n g t o Heb.12:22-24 "But ye are come unto Mount S i o n , and unto a c i t y o f the l i v i n g God, t h i s h e a v e n l y J e r u s a l e m , and t o an innumerable company o f a n g e l s , t o the g e n e r a l assembly and the c h u r c h o f the f i r s t b o r n . . . " 266 The a r c h i t e c t o n i c d e t a i l s o f h e r t h r o n e may be seen as analogous t o the C i v i t a s D e i where ". . . t h e g a t e s o f which are f i g u r e s o f t h e Old and New Testaments [the k i n g s and 26 7 queens o f the l i n e a g e o f Mary] and the t o w e r s , v i r t u e s . " She has been t i t l e d "Gate o f Heaven" which a l s o engenders v i s i o n s o f the Heavenly C i t y . The m a j e s t y o f h e r enthroned f i g u r e conveys the t r a n s c e n d e n t a l q u a l i t y o f her p o s i t i o n : Mary must be seen as more than s i m p l y the V i r g i n mother o f 268 C h r i s t . She was the b r i d g e between the two w o r l d s , t h a t - 85 -of the e a r t h l y r e a l i t y and that of the sacred realm beyond. She was e n t i t l e d " B r i d e o f C h r i s t " and as the 'type' of the Church she appears w i t h i n the Heavenly Jerusalem of the tympanum: "Come, I w i l l show you the B r i d e , the wife of the Lamb...And the c i t y has no need of sun or moon to shine upon i t , f o r the G l o r y of God i s i t s l i g h t , ...and the kings o f the e a r t h s h a l l b r i n g t h e i r g l o r y i n t o i t , " 269 Perhaps t h i s q u o t a t i o n most c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e s the m u l t i p l e l e v e l s o f imagery i n the composition, f o r Mary was a l s o c a l l e d : ...the dawn, " s i c u t aurora e s t medium i n t e r diem  et noctem";...the moon, " s i c u t luna l u c e t i n nocte  e t e s t v i c i n a t e r r e e t habet v i r t u t e m e f f i c a c e m  super mare"...and i n comparing Mary to the sun, p l a c e s her on a plane s l i g h t l y below the T r i n i t y but above humans "Nam s i c u t s o l habet t r e s p l a n e t a s  s u p e r i o r e s et t r e s i n f e r i o r e s et ipse e s t i n media  c o n s t i t u t e s : s i c e t i p s a habet supra se, t r e s i n  t r i n i t a t e personas; et sub se t r e s s t a t u s s a l u a n - dorum, s c i l i c e t , v i r g i n e s ; et coniungatos e t i p s a  e s t i n medio c o n s t i t u t a r e c o n c i l i a n s t r e s s t a t u s  s u p r a d i c t o s saluandorum i p s i b e a t i s s i m e t r i n i t a t i 270 by Jacobus a Voragine. She appears on the tympanum as the mediating f o r c e between her heavenly and e a r t h l y realms. Mary who, acc o r d i n g to Germanicus, P a t r i a r c h o f C o n s t a n t i n -o p l e (d.733) i n h i s second sermon, was assumed b o d i l y i n t o Heaven because she had to be where her son was, was asked " . . . t o u n i f y the church, to co n f i r m C h r i s t i a n s i n f a i t h and 271 hope, to g i v e peace to the world..." As the human made d i v i n e , Mary i s the p e r f e c t m e d i a t r i x before whom the human c o n d i t i o n i s expressed i n the persons of king and c l e r i c , - 86 -the two e a r t h l y spheres t h a t govern man's e a r t h l y s t a y . She because of her dual nature i s able to understand them and mediate f o r them. As "...the door of heaven...and the 27 j u s t i c e of kings...Mary has been e x a l t e d above the s t a r s . " and she responds by s i m u l t a n e o u s l y s a n c t i o n i n g and e x a l t i n g k ing and c l e r i c i n t h e i r rank, t h e i r p o s i t i o n s as p e r s o n i f i -c a t i o n s o f regnum and sacerdotium, and t h e i r harmonious entente. "In a d d i t i o n to t h i s a c t i v e f l owing-over of the one sphere i n t o the o t h e r , the v i s i b l e Church, i n a more s t a t i c way, i s a l s o a r e f l e c t i o n o f the C e l e s t i a l Jerusalem. And as the C i t y of Heaven i s but one and u n d i v i d e d , t h e r e f o r e i t s l i k e n e s s on ear t h should d i s p l a y undivided u n i t y too. For u n i t y i s of God, and d i v i s i o n o r c o n f l i c t i s the work of L u c i f e r . Hence, the e a r l y Church would ask God [ i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the State] to b r i n g together h i s E c c l e s i a " J u s t as the bread has become one from the many g r a i n s grown upon many h i l l s . " 273 "The Sacerdotium and Imperium, each of these, taken by i t s e l f was but one v i t a l F u n c t i o n of the s o c i a l Body, and the f u l l n e s s of L i f e was o n l y a t t a i n e d by t h e i r "harmonious concord" and by t h e i r mutually supplementing c o - o p e r a t i o n i n the task t h a t i s s e t before Mankind." 274 Con c l u s i o n The iconography of the tympanum of the Porte-de-Ste-Anne was a f f e c t e d , from i t s i n c e p t i o n , by the p o l i t i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l developments of mid-tw e l f t h century France. The h i s t o r y of the Capetian r u l e r s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to Rome, which continued d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i n the persons of - 87 -Louis VII and Alexander I I I , was based on a s o l i d foundation of mutual c o - o p e r a t i o n and interdependence. Although s u b j e c t to i n c i d e n c e s of s t r a i n and misunderstanding, t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p remained harmonious. This was a p e r i o d of f l u x , with what has s i n c e been l a b e l l e d the T w e l f t h Century Renaissance d e v e l o p i n g new areas of s c i e n t i f i c and s c h o l a s t i c study, while new t h e o l o g i a n s and s c h o l a r s were appearing on the scene. The parameters of the papal p o l i t i c a l sphere of a c t i v i t i e s were being d e l i m i t e d , as were those of i m p e r i a l power, i n r e l a t i o n to the Medieval concept of the C h r i s t i a n Community. The r e - d i s c o v e r y of the Corpus J u r i s c i v i l i s of J u s t i n i a n gave new impetus to the l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n and an examplar upon which the base the f i r s t major c o m p i l a t i o n of canon law, the Concordia d i s c o r d a n t i u m canonum of G r a t i a n . Canon law now became a d i s c i p l i n e i n i t s own r i g h t , and t h i s had f a r - r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s . The m u l t i - l e v e l l e d imagery of the tympanum must be examined and understood from s e v e r a l v i e w p o i n t s , the core of i t s meaning being comprised of many s t r a t a . P r i m a r i l y the composition can be regarded as a r e l i g i o u s statement i n which the enthroned V i r g i n and C h i l d , as patroness of the c a t h e d r a l i n keeping with the c u l t of the V i r g i n then i n f u l l f l o w e r , endows the foundation and the c i t y with her presence. T h i s f a c t i s recorded f o r p o s t e r i t y by the s c r i b e . - 88 -Another s t r a t u m o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e v e a l s the c o m p o s i t i o n as an a n t i q u e - t y p e ' r e t i n u e p o r t r a i t ' i n which the Enthroned V i r g i n and C h i l d are f l a n k e d by a n g e l s and p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s . By a d m i t t i n g the presence o f p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s we come t o the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t a c t u a l i d e n t i t i e s a re u n i m p o r t a n t , o n l y the message t h a t t h e y convey demands our a t t e n t i o n . The p o l i t i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l e v e n t s t h a t e f f e c t e d the composi-t i o n , r e s u l t e d i n a p r o p a g a n d i s t i c statement o f p o l i c y backed by b o t h the i m p e r i a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l f o r a . The elements a f f e c t i n g t h i s l e v e l o f imagery i n c l u d e the impact made by the Reform P a r t y o f H a i m e r i c and S t . B e r n a r d , not o n l y on contemporary f i g u r e s , but on the new d i s c i p l i n e o f canon law. In agreement w i t h W a l t e r Cahn's a s s e r t i o n t h a t G r a t i a n ' s Decretum was perhaps the most i m p o r t a n t v e h i c l e f o r the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f the i d e a s embodied i n the tympanum, t h i s work and i t s i n t r i n s i c message must be r e c o g n i z e d as h a v i n g f o r m u l a t e d the n o t i o n o f the I d e a l S t a t e . The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s s t atement a p p e a r i n g on the fagade o f Notre-Dame, P a r i s , n e c e s s i t a t e s a n o t h e r l e v e l o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and are t i e d i n t o the Decretum and Bernard o f C l a i r v a u x . The major f i g u r e s s u r r o u n d i n g the tympanum and i t s c o m p o s i t i o n a l l had l i n k s t o e i t h e r Bologna o r P a r i s , b u t u s u a l l y b o t h : L o u i s V I I as k i n g and regnum r u l e d F r a n c e ; A l e x a n d e r I I I as pope and s a c e r d o t i u m has c l o s e t i e s t o P a r i s and F r a n c e , but was a l s o the f i r s t i n a l o n g l i n e o f canon l a w y e r s who had - 89 -t a u g h t a t Bologna where he a l s o g l o s s e d the Decretum; P e t e r Lombard, f r i e n d and s t u d e n t o f Bernard o f C l a i r v a u x s t u d i e d i n B o l o g n a , t a u g h t i n P a r i s on B e r n a r d ' s a d v i c e , and became b i s h o p o f the c i t y a t Notre-Dame t o whose l i b r a r y he donated h i s copy o f the Decretum; M a u r i c e o f S u l l y , under whose guid a n c e Notre-Dame was r e b u i l t , became a canon t h e r e the same y e a r P e t e r Lombard became b i s h o p and would have come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h h i s i d e a s ; as s u f f r a g a n b i s h o p s o f Sens both men would have come under the i n f l u e n c e o f H e n r i l e S a n g l i e r , c l o s e f r i e n d and d i s c i p l e o f S t . B e r n a r d , P e t e r Lombard through h i s c o n n e c t i o n s t o both men, and M a u r i c e o f S u l l y t h r ough h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o A l e x a n d e r I I I . As e x i l e d pope, A l e x a n d e r I I I sought r e f u g e and a i d from L o u i s V I I . W h i l e i n France he spent t h r e e y e a r s a t Sens a f t e r v i s i t i n g P a r i s , and would most p r o b a b l y have encouraged the c o p y i n g , s t u d y i n g , and t e a c h i n g o f the Decre- tum; H a i m e r i c , as p a p a l c h a n c e l l o r and l e a d e r o f the Reform P a r t y , was h i m s e l f o f French b i r t h and c l o s e l y a l l i e d t o S t . B e r n a r d . W h i l e t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e c o n n e c t i n g G r a t i a n t o both of t h e s e men, i t i s the c o n t e n t o f the Decretum which demon-s t r a t e s h i s a f f i l i a t i o n . The p o i n t o f view espoused by the p a p a l i s t s and r e i t e r a t e d by W a l t e r Cahn was a c t u a l l y the l o g i c a l outcome o f the M e d i e v a l n o t i o n o f World U n i t y . The n o t i o n o f the D i v i s i o n o f power w i t h supremacy v e s t e d i n the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l sphere a r o s e from the I n v e s t i t u r e C o n t r o v e r s y and was used by p a p a l a p o l o g i s t s , but the Decretum a c t u a l l y c o n t a i n e d n o t h i n g t o s u p p o r t t h i s i d e a . G r a t i a n had made a - 90 -v e r y c l e a r e x p o s i t i o n o f the n o t i o n o f the I d e a l s t a t e , an harmonious a c c o r d between regnum and s a c e r d o t i u m i n which the two f o r a s t r o v e i n mutual s u p p o r t and r e c o g n i t i o n t o save men's s o u l s . He f o c u s s e d on the c a n o n i c a l and j u r i d i c a l a s p e c t s o f the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and s e c u l a r communities i n an attempt t o c l a r i f y the C h r i s t i a n concept o f the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The imagery used t o i l l u s t r a t e c o p i e s o f the Decretum, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t o f C i s t e r c i a n provenance, r e f l e c t s the same ty p e as t h a t o f the tympanum. B l a t a n t l y p r o p a g a n d i s t i c i n n a t u r e , i t conveys the p o l i t i c o - t h e o l o g i c a l bent o f the f o u n d a t i o n s i n which t h e y were c o p i e d : some e x t o l the suprem-acy o f s a c e r d o t i u m w h i l e o t h e r s demonstrate the e q u a l i t y o f the two f o r a under God. A t the same t i m e , t h e y i l l u s t r a t e the e v o l u t i o n o f an imagery t h a t r e s u l t e d i n the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the tympanum. As suggested by Cahn i n h i s a r t i c l e on the p o r t a l , t h e i d e n t i t i e s o f the f i g u r e s are o f l e s s importance than an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the c e n t r a l meaning o f the scene. W i t h o u t any i n s c r i p t i o n o r d o c u m e n t a t i o n f o r g u i d a n c e , symbolism and h i s t o r i c a l background a r e the o n l y t o o l s l e f t t o a i d i n our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the c o m p o s i t i o n . However, the c h o i c e o f symbols s e l e c t e d by Cahn f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n s u p p o r t o f h i s t h e o r y o f a d e p i c t i o n o f p a p a l supremacy f a i l t o f u l f i l l t h i s f u n c t i o n . They a r e t o o open t o r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . H i s use o f the c l o u d m o t i f as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the t h e o r y o f - 91 -the Two Luminaries must be d i s r e g a r d e d , simply because i t never d i d a t t a i n the prominence i n France t h a t i t d i d i n the r e s t of the C h r i s t i a n West. The c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s between regnum and sacerdotium precluded i t . Conversely, the Sun and Moon, i n s t e a d of being symbols f o r papal power, became, du r i n g the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y i n France, standard i c o n o g r a p h i c elements i n L a s t Judgement scenes. In the shape of p l a n e t s with human f a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s they f l a n k e d the f i g u r e of the C r u c i f i e d C h r i s t where they were s a i d to convey the "cosmic import" of His s a c r i f i c e . There are no i n s t a n c e s t h a t I could f i n d i n which they appear i n c o n j u n c t i o n with e i t h e r of the two powers, and I found o n l y one example i n which they appear i n combination with cloud m o t i f s . I t t h e r e f o r e seems h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h at cloud m o t i f s were ever used to convey q u a l i t y of l i g h t of any k i n d . These symbols may, by v i r t u e of t h e i r d i f f e r i n g conformations, a l l u d e to some cosmic event: t h e i r p r o x i m i t y to the f i g u r e of the V i r g i n may be an a l l u s i o n to her a p p e l l a t i o n s of dawn, moon and sun. Cahn's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the p o s i t i o n s of king and c l e r i c on e i t h e r s i d e of the V i r g i n as being 'wrong' or ' r i g h t ' and thereby r e i n f o r c i n g the primacy of the a u t h o r i t y of sacerdotium i s c o r r e c t on the s u r f a c e , but i f taken to t h e i r l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n w i t h i n the Medieval formula f o r reading p i c t o r i a l space,can be read as a t i m e - l i n e f lowing from l e f t to r i g h t from the e x t e r n a l viewpoint. In t h i s - 92 -context i t r e p r e s e n t s a p r o g r e s s i o n from the present to f u t u r e w i t h i n the s p a c i a l envelope of t h i s h i g h l y symbolic composition. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the message of the tympanum was intended to be read and understood by f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s , not j u s t by t w e l f t h century man. The u n i t y d e p i c t e d there was intended to be seen as a t i m e l e s s concept. Because the f i g u r e of the Enthroned V i r g i n a c t s as a fulcrum upon which t h i s t i m e - l i n e i s supported, the i m p l i e d v e r t i c a l a x i s d i s c e r n e d by Cahn as d i v i d i n g the composition i n t o e c c l e s i a s -t i c a l and s e c u l a r halves i s d i f f i c u l t to r e f u t e . There i s a s t a t e of e q u i l i b r i u m d e p i c t e d here: that of the entente  c o r d i a l e t h a t u n i t e s the two powers w i t h i n - t h e C h r i s t i a n Commonwealth. T h i s s t a t e of e q u i l i b r i u m i s supported by an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c o m p o s i t i o n a l elements which p l a c e s the whole scene i n t o a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l l o c u s , the aevum. The p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s , the haloed angels, the s l i g h t e l e v a t i o n of the V i r g i n ' s throne a l l add to the impression that t h i s scene i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n h i s t o r i c a l time while c o n c u r r e n t l y f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n sempiternal time. Man i s allowed a glimpse i n t o the aevum i n order to r e i n f o r c e the message. The d a t i n g t h e o r i e s proposed by T h i r i o n , E rlande-Brandenberg and Gnudi support the idea that the composition r e s u l t e d from the d e s i r e , on the p a r t of those r e s p o n s i b l e , to express these t w e l f t h century concepts. Since they are i n agreement t h a t the e a r l i e s t s c u l p t u r e s date from around - 93 -1145, and the complete ensemble from around 1150, the P o r t e -de-Ste-Anne should be recognized as the second step i n the development of the Gothic s t y l e i n the Ile-de-France a f t e r St-Denis but before the C h a r t r e s p o r t a i l r o y a l . The icono-g r a p h i c program of the p o r t a l which i n c l u d e s the jamb-statues and a r c h i v o l t f i g u r e s e f f e c t i v e l y expands on the o r i g i n a l idea s t a t e d at St-Denis of the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f regnum and sacerdotium. The composite nature of the s t r u c t u r e i n which these e a r l i e s t elements are combined with t h i r t e e n t h c entury ones supports the idea of a program s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to propagandize. T h i s e c l e c t i c i s m r e f l e c t s the d e s i r e to make a simple, f o r c e f u l statement of p o l i t i c a l import while f u l f i l l i n g the f u n c t i o n of d e d i c a t i n g the c a t h e d r a l to Mary. On another l e v e l , the complete p o r t a l a l s o performs a s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the o v e r a l l facade program: that of i l l u s t r a t i n g the I n c a r n a t i o n and the Lineage of C h r i s t . C e n t r a l to t h i s theme i s Mary whose ancestors are those of her son. Her r o l e i n the program i s much more complex than t h i s , however, because she appears as the combination of many p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s as w e l l as theotokos. She embodies the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of E c c l e s i a as the 'type' of the Church, r e g i n a as Queen of the World and Queen of Heaven, and I u s t i t i a as m e d i a t r i x and i n t e r c e s s o r between God and man. As M a r i a / E c c l e s i a / I u s t i t i a she occupies a p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the Heavenly Jerusalem where as thronesharer of her son, she mediates the concerns of man as presented to her i n the - 94 -persons of king and c l e r i c . Her p h y s i c a l presence on the tympanum f u l f i l l s the b i b l i c a l prophesies r e g a r d i n g the Heavenly Jerusalem, of which t h i s p o r t a l i s the r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n . T h i s complex imagery i s l e g i t i m i z e d and placed i n both h i s t o r i c a l time and s i m p i t e r n i t y by the presence of the r e c o r d i n g s c r i b e . The tympanum d i s p l a y s the i d e a l s of regnum and sacerdotium, the U n i t y t h a t i s the r e f l e c t i o n of t h a t heavenly c i t y : " A l l e g o r y , t r o p o l o g y , anagogy - under these names medieval teachers c l a s s i f i e d t h e i r d i v e r s e e f f o r t s to squeeze the utmost symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e from s c r i p t u r e , from s e c u l a r l i t e r a t u r e , and from the n a t u r a l world. Few aspects of medieval l i f e are now more remote from us,..." 275 - 95 -NOTES Notes to Chapter I 1 J a c q u e s T h i r i o n , "Les Plus Anciennes S c u l p t u r e s de Notre-Dame de P a r i s , " Comptes-rendus de l'Academie des  I n s c r i p t i o n s et B e l l e s - L e t t r e s ( P a r i s : 1970) pp.86ff. 2 I b i d . , pp.92-93. ^Cesare^Gnudi, "Le s c u l t u r e d i Notre-Dame recentement r i s c o p e r t e , Etudes d ' a r t medieval o f f e r t e s a Louis Grodecki ( P a r i s : The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Center of Medieval A r t , A s s o c i a -t i o n des p u b l i c a t i o n s P r i s l e s U n i v e r s i t S s de Strasbourg, 1981) pp.15-27. 4 Y v e s B o t t i n e a , Notre-Dame of P a r i s and the S a i n t e - C h a p e l l e (London: George A l l e n & Unwin, 1967) p.11. 5Whitney Stoddard, A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n Medieval  France (New York: Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1956) p.137. 6 I b i d . 7 A more complete d e s c r i p t i o n may be found i n Stoddard, pp.137-145. 8 S t o d d a r d , p.140. ^Marcel Aubert, Gothic C a t h e d r a l s of France and T h e i r  Treasures (London: N i c h o l a s Kaye, L t d . , 1959) p.24. ^ ^ v a r i o u s dates have been proposed f o r the b u i l d i n g of the facade which began with the e r e c t i o n of the north p o r t a l . Among o t h e r s , Aubert dates the V i r g i n p o r t a l from 1210, B o t t i n e a u from 1200 to 1230, and Stoddard between 1200 and 1220. 1 : L A u b e r t , pp.48-50. 1 2 T h e o r i e s vary as to the exact date of these s c u l p t u r e s and t h e i r provenance. The e a r l i e s t t h e o r i e s were i n agree-ment as to the re-employment of the tympanum and consensus was t h a t i t was probably r e t r i e v e d from the e a r l i e r church which was destroyed to make way f o r the new c o n s t r u c t i o n , and t h i s theory i s s t i l l c u r r e n t . The tympanum scene was thought to r e p r e s e n t a donation theme and t h i s accorded with i t s re-use. See J . Lebeuf, H i s t o i r e de l a v i l l e et de tout - 96 -l e dioc§se de P a r i s ed. C o c h e r i s ( P a r i s , 1863) i , pp.11-12 as quoted i n Walter Cahn, "The Tympanum of the P o r t a l of Sainte-Anne a t Notre-Dame de P a r i s and the Iconography of the D i v i s i o n of Power i n the Middle Ages," J o u r n a l of the  Warburg and Courtauld I n s t i t u t e s 32 (1969) p.58; V. Mortet, Etude h i s t o r i q u e et archaeologigue sur l a c a t h e d r a l et l e  p a l a i s e p i s c o p a l e de P a r i s du V i l e s i S c l e au X l l e si§cle ( P a r i s : 1888) pp.31-46, a l s o quoted i n Cahn, p.55; Emile Male "Le P o r t a i l Sainte-Anne S Notre-Dame de P a r i s , "La  Revue de l ' A r t Ancien e t Modern (1897) pp.231-246 r p t . A r t s et A r t i s t e s du Moyen Age ( P a r i s : 1927) pp.188-208 a l s o quoted i n Cahn, pp.55-56. Male f e l t t h a t the tympanum and v o u s s o i r s represented an ensemble of the t w e l f t h c entury assembled and mounted around 1230; R. de L a s t e y r i e , "La date de l a p o r t e Sainte-Anne a Notre-Dame de P a r i s , " Memoires de  l a s o c i e t e de l ' h i s t o i r e de P a r i s et de 1 ' i l e - d e - F r a n c e XXIX (1902) pp.1-18 s t a t e d t h a t the tympanum was made around 1180; Aubert, Gothic C a t h e d r a l s , p.50 d e c l a r e d that the tympanum was made f o r the doorway c i r c a 1165-70 and re-used i n the t h i r t e e n t h c entury because i t d e p i c t e d Maurice of S u l l y and Louis VII as founders of the c a t h e d r a l . He dates the whole fagade from around 1210; M.A. Lapeyre, Des fagades  o c c i d e n t a l e s de St-Denis et C h a r t r e s aux p o r t a i l s de Laon ( P a r i s : 1960) pp.147-160, agrees with Aubert as to d a t i n g ; B o t t i n e a u , p.23, s t a t e s u n e q u i v o c a l l y that the s c u l p t u r e s were ordered by Maurice of S u l l y around 1165-70 f o r a p l a n s i m i l a r t o the C h a r t r e s p o r t a i l r o y a l ; Walter Cahn, pp.55-56, recognized the e c l e c t i c nature o f the p o r t a l s c u l p t u r e s and i s i n g e n e r a l agreement with most a r t h i s t o r i a n s i n seeing the components as having been prepared f o r an e a r l i e r p o r t a l s h o r t l y a f t e r 1163, and mounted when the fagade was e r e c t e d i n the e a r l y t h i r t e e n t h centure; Henry Kraus, Gold  was the Mortar (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979) p. 18, r e i t e r a t e d Aubert's work but dates the p o r t a l very e a r l y , around 1150 although he g i v e s no reason f o r doing so; W i l l i -b a ld Sauerlander, Gothic S c u l p t u r e i n France 1140-1270 (London: 1970) pp.85-6, f e e l s t h a t the e a r l i e s t s c u l p t u r e s of the Porte-de-Ste-Anne date to the e a r l i e s t days of Maurice of S u l l y ' s e p i s c o p a t e , immediately a f t e r 1160, and were erec t e d at the beginning of the t h i r t e e n t h c entury when the fagade was begun; Jacques T h i r i o n , pp.86ff, who had an oppor-t u n i t y to make a c l o s e examination d u r i n g the c l e a n i n g of the fagade i n 1970, a f f i r m e d the t w e l f t h c entury o r i g i n of the s c u l p t u r e s although he has r e v i s e d the date on s t y l i s t i c grounds alone, back to 1150-60; A l a i n Erlande-Brandenberg, "La p l a c e des decouvertes dans l ' h i s t o i r e de l a s c u l p t u r e , " Les r o i s r e t r o u v e s ( P a r i s : Cuenot, 1977).pp.25ff, s t a t e s t h a t the p o r t a l of S t . Ann belongs to the campaign of r e n o v a t i o n of the Merovingian c a t h e d r a l undertaken by Etienne de Garlande before h i s death i n 1150, and t h a t the new bishop Peter Lombard continued, although there i s no documentary evidence. Again the date has been pushed back on s t y l i s t i c - 97 -grounds alone to around 1140-50. He wrote aboute the d i s -c o v e r i e s again i n Les s c u l p t u r e s de Notre-Dame de P a r i s au Musee" de Cluny ( P a r i s : M i n i s t e ^ r e de l a C u l t u r e , E d i t i o n s de l a reunion des musees nationaux, 1982) pp.15-27; Cesare Gnudi, pp.185-204, agrees with the e a r l y dates proposed by both T h i r i o n and Erlande-Brandenberg and h i m s e l f proposes t h a t the whole p o r t a l began with the jamb-statues, b u i l t from the ground up which would make the tympanum the most re c e n t of the s c u l p t u r e s i n date, c i r c a 1160. The f i g u r e of the Enthroned V i r g i n i s seen as independent of the C h a r t r e s V i r g i n , from a d i f f e r e n t Master and a t e i i e r . He sees a d a t i n g p r o g r e s s i o n l e a d i n g from St-Denis to the Porte-de-Ste-Anne to the p o r t a i l r o y a l at C h a r t r e s and then to the t r a n s e p t at C h a r t r e s and back to the west facade of Notre-Dame . l-^The presence of the E l d e r s of the Apocalypse i n the a r c h i v o l t s r e i n f o r c e s the theory t h a t an A p o c a l y p t i c theme was o r i g i n a l l y intended f o r the c e n t r a l p o r t a l f o l l o w i n g the scheme at C h a r t r e s , elements of which were l a t e r used i n combination with the tympanum and jamb-statues to c r e a t e the Porte-de-Ste-Anne. "A tympanum was found by V i o l l e t - l e - D u c r e p r e s e n t i n g C h r i s t and the E v a n g e l i s t Symbols, e v i d e n t l y intended f o r the c e n t r a l p o r t a l as were the E l d e r s of the Apocalypse," a c c o r d i n g to B o t t i n e a u , pp.23-4. F u r t h e r evidence i s found i n the m o t i f s on the keystones ( F i g . 10), which are t h i r t e e n t h c entury c o p i e s of the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y o r i g i n a l s . These were a l s o adapted to f i t the doorway and d e p i c t the Lamb of God and the Son of Man with the Sword of the Word i n His Mouth. See P. V i t r y , "Nouvelles o b s e r v a t i o n s sur l e p o r t a i l Ste-Anne de Notre-Dame de P a r i s , " Revue de  l ' a r t C h r e t i e n LX (1910) pp.7-76, and T h i r i o n , pp.86-87. l ^ P e t e r Kidson, S c u l p t u r e at C h a r t r e s (London: Academy E d i t i o n s , 1974) p.27. l ^ S a u e r l a n d e r , " S c u l p t u r e on E a r l y G othic Churches: the S t a t e of the r e s e a r c h and Open Questions," Gesta IX/2 (1970) p.41. l^Erlande-Brandenberg sees two separate hands i n the jamb-statues alone. 1 7 T h i r i o n , p.97. 1 8 C a h n , p.58. 1 9 I b i d . The e a r l i e s t theory, t h a t of W. Voge, Die  Anfange des monumentalen S t i l e s im M i t t e l a l t e r ( S trasbourg: 1894) p.135, quoted i n T h i r i o n , p.97, n . l , was that the same - 98 -master, The Master of the Two Madonnas, s c u l p t e d both; Male, p.191, b e l i e v e d that the s c u l p t o r was a d i s c i p l e o f the Chartr e s Master; Aubert, La s c u l p t u r e f r a n c a i s e au debut de  1'epoque gothique ( P a r i s : 1929 p.52, agreed with Male; Lapeyre, p.148 i s of the same o p i n i o n ; Sauerlander, Gothic  S c u l p t u r e , p.48, b e l i e v e s t h a t Notre-Dame drew on sources of i t s own and that a l l of the p o r t a l s remained r e g i o n a l types. In the l i g h t of Erlande-Brandenberg's work Sauerlander may be accepted as c o r r e c t . 2 0 T h i r i o n , p.102. 2 l l b _ i d _ . Erlande-Brandenberg would a s s i g n a l l of the f i g u r e s to the Merovingian p e r i o d and Gnudi agrees with him. 2 2 L a p e y r e , p.149. 2 3 I b i d . 2 4 T h i r i o n , p.102. 2 5 l b i d . p.104. 2 ^ I b i d . Sauerlander, Gothic S c u l p t u r e s , p.406, f i n d s o n l y a t r a c e of s i m i l a r i t y t o the St-Denis f i g u r e s . 2 7Now i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum of A r t , the head was i d e n t i f i e d by James Rorimer, "A X l l t h Century Head of King David from Notre-Dame," M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum of A r t B u l l e t i n (1940) p.19, quoted i n Lapeyre, p.151, n . l . 2 8Now i n the Musee de Cluny. Lapeyre, p.151, n.2. 2 9 I b i d . 3 0 G n u d i , p.188. 3 1 T h i r i o n , p.104. 3 2 G n u d i , p.189. He sees t h i s e v e n t u a l l y l e a d i n g to the C l a s s i c i s m o f the P i s a n i on the one hand and to High Gothic on the o t h e r . 3 3 0 t t o von Simson, The Got h i c C a t h e d r a l : O r i g i n s of  Got h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e and the Medieval Concept o f Order (New York: Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1956) p.73. 3 4 C a h n , p.58, n.14. 3 5 I b i d . 36>Thirion, p.91, n.4. - 99 -3 7 C a h n , p.58, n.14. 3 8 d e L a s t e y r i e , p.18. 3 9 T h i r i o n , p.91, n.4. 4 0 I b i d , p.92. 4 1 I b i d . 4 2 I b i d . 4 3 T h i r i o n , pp.94-95. 4 4 I b i d . 4 5 I b i d . 4 6 I b i d . ".. . l a g l o r i e u s e a n t i q u i t e de P a r i s . . . " 4 7 T h i r i o n , p.92, n.2. 4 8 T h i r i o n , p.92. 4 9 A d o l f Katzenellenbogen, The S c u l p t u r a l Program of  Ch a r t r e s C a t h e d r a l : C h r i s t , Mary, E c c l e s i a ( B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkis Press, 1959) pp.7-9. 5°see note 9 above. ^ T h e s e f i g u r e s were i d e n t i f i e d as e i t h e r r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n s of the Merovingian kings and queens of France or of Old Testament p e r s o n a l i t i e s by v a r i o u s s c h o l a r s u n t i l E r n s t K i t z i n g e r i d e n t i f i e d them as the a n c e s t o r s o f C h r i s t as w e l l . Cf. a l s o Katzenellenbogen, pp.27-28. 5 2 K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , p.30. ^ K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , pp.30-31. See a l s o Robert Fawtier, The Capetian Kings of France t r a n s . L i o n e l B u t l e r and R.J. Adams (London: Maemillan & Co., L t d . , 1960) pp.60-75. 5 4Queens of France were crowned and annointed l i k e the k i n g s , and they had l e g i t i m a t e although l i m i t e d d u t i e s with regard to the government. Katzenellenbogen, p.31. 55R.W. Southern, The Making of the Middle Ages 2nd ed. (New Haven and London: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1976) p.93. 5 6 K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , pp.31-32. - 100 -5 7 K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , pp.32-33. 5 8 Katzenellenbogen, p.32. ^ K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , p.34. 6 0 I b i d . ^^Katzenellenbogen, p.35. The same i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has been made by Anthony Melnikas, The Corpus of the M i n i a t u r e s  i n the Manuscripts of Decretum G r a t i a n i VolTT (Rome: S t u d i a G r a t i a n i XVI, 1975) pp.38-39, although he g i v e s the impres-s i o n t h a t he sees the c e n t r a l tympanum f i g u r e not as the Enthroned V i r g i n but as S t . Anne h o l d i n g the i n f a n t Mary. T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n cannot be accepted because i t does not take i n t o account the p o s i t i o n o f the tympanum w i t h i n an I n c a r n a t i o n p o r t a l . Although the bottom l i n t e l does p o r t r a y the l i f e of the V i r g i n , i t i s separated from the tympanum by a l i n t e l which c a r r i e d the L i f e o f C h r i s t . 62cahn, p.62. 6 3 C a h n , p.61. 6 4 C a h n , p.63. 6 5 i b i d . 6 6 C a h n , p.64. 6 7 C a h n , p.67. - 101 -Notes to Chapter II 6 8 M a r c e l Pacaut, "Louis VII et Alexandre I I I (1159-1180)" Revue d ' h i s t o i r e de l ' E q l i s e de France Vol.39 (1953), p.45, "...un r o i p l u t d t t i m i d e , souvent timore, prdsque t o u j o u r s de bonne f o i , capable de s a i s i r dans chaque a f f a i r e l e s i n t e r ^ t s de sa monarchie et sachant que finalement une somme de p e t i t e s v i c t o i r e s l o c a l e s e t d'avantages r e s t r e i n t s vaut autant que des succ§s s p e c t a c u l a i r e s . " 6 9 E l i z a b e t h Hallam, Capetian France 987-1328 (New York: Longmans, 1980, p.111. 7 0 F a w t i e r , pp.1-13. 7 1 F a w t i e r , p.50. 7 2 F a w t i e r , p.48. T h i s p r a c t i s e was continued from the time of Charlemagne and was i m i t a t e d by o t h e r s of the nob-i l i t y . I t may have o r i g i n a l l y been a noble r a t h e r than a r o y a l custom. See Hallam, pp.29,65ff. 73Fawtier, p.44. 7 4 F a w t i e r , Chapter 4. ^ H a l l a m , p.28. A l l was gained with the i n t e r e s t s of the f a m i l y as i t s fundamental reason and " . . . w i t h i n the framework of the French kingdom." (Hallam, p.28). As Hallam r e a d i l y admits, the Capetians were f i r m l y i n c o n t r o l of the throne by the e l e v e n t h century "...and no o t h e r f a m i l y managed to dominate them as they had done the C a r o l -i n g i a n s . " (Hallam, p.29) d e s p i t e repeated attempts. Fawtier c l e a r l y demonstrates the t e n a c i o u s nature of the f a m i l y i n t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n " . . . t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r dynasty f i r m l y , to ensure i t s continuance on the throne, and to win f o r i t a r e l i g i o u s p r e s t i g e and thereby v e n e r a t i o n of the people i t had solemnly taken upon i t s e l f t o govern." (Fawtier, p.60.) Hallam acknowledges t h a t by the advent of Louis VI i n 1108 "He could c l a i m r o y a l powers over the church and over the p r i n c e s and o t h e r g r e a t nobles of France which i n theory could not be denied..." (Hallam, p.111). At the same time they had to d e v i s e a means of government by using preroga-t i v e s t h a t the newly e v o l v i n g h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e made a v a i l a b l e . 7 6Norman Cantor, Medieval H i s t o r y : L i f e and Death of a  C i v i l i z a t i o n (New York, MacMillan P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1969), p.436. - 102 -7 7 F a w t i e r , p.108. 7 8 H a l l a m , p.111. 7 9 I b i d . 8 0 H a l l a m , pp.172-173. 8 1 H a l l a m , p.173. 8 2 M a r s h a l l W. Baldwin, Alexander I I I and the Twelfth  Century, Popes Through H i s t o r y S e r i e s V o l . 3 (New York: Newman Pre s s , 1968), p.19. 8 3 l b i d . 8 4 H a l l a m , p.120. 8 5 H a l l a m , p.169. 8 6 H a l l a m , p.107. 8 7 B a l d w i n , p.20. 8 8 L o u i s VII was crowned at age e l e v e n , having been born i n 1120 and, as the second son, educated f o r the p r i e s t h o o d . T h i s no doubt accounted f o r h i s a i r of p i e t y . Pacaut, L o u i s VII e t Son Royaume B i b l i o t h e q u e Generale de l ' E c o l e P r a t i q u e des Hautes Etudes ( P a r i s : S.E.V.P.E.N., 1964), p. 31. 8 9 H a l l a m , p.121. 9 0 P a c a u t , Louis V I I , pp.221-223. 9 l p a c a u t , L ouis V I I , P r e f a c e , p . i . "...ce q u i e s t l a quartieme malchance de Louis V I I : que son regne se p l a c e e n t r e c e l u i de Louis VI, sone pere, dont l a b i o g r a p h i e a ete e c r i t par Suger e t c e l u i de son f i l s P h i l i p p e Auguste dont l e gouvernement, apr§s a v o i r assez mal commence, s'acheva dans l e s conquetes e t l e s v i c t o i r e s . 9 2 B a l d w i n , pp.155-156. 9 3 B a l d w i n , p.156. 9 4 A t that p e r i o d there were no hard and f a s t r u l e s under which popes were e l e c t e d . The e l e c t i o n s were semi-p u b l i c , and the o n l y c r i t e r i a taken i n t o account were those se t f o r t h by Bernard of C l a i r v a u x a f t e r the e l e c t o r a l schism of 1130 which i d e a l l y would g i v e p r e f e r e n c e to the wishes of the s a n i o r pars over the maior p a r s , t h a t i s , the w i s e s t r a t h e r than the more numerous f a c t i o n of the v o t e r s . Canon law favored a d e c i s i o n by the m a j o r i t y and i n t h i s case, - 103 -Roland B a n d i n e l l i had the c l e a r m a j o r i t y although the exact number i s not known. Baldwin, p.45. 9 5 P a c a u t , Louis VII et Alexandre I I I , p.45. "...un pape assez f r o i d , peu e n c l i n aux e x p l i c a t i o n s p r o l i x e s , aimant l'autorit§, tenant S conduire secr§tement sa p o l i t i q u e et sa d i p l o m a t i e e t fondant 1'une et 1'autre sur une d o c t r i n e de p l u s en p l u s n e t t e . " 9 6 I t has never been a s c e r t a i n e d where Roland r e c e i v e d h i s e a r l y e d u c a t i o n although a l l s c h o l a r s agree t h a t i t was a good one. The reasons put f o r t h by Pacaut i n fav o r of P a r i s are connected with Roland's l i k i n g f o r the c i t y , i t s r e p u t a t i o n as a centre of l e a r n i n g , and h i s continued i n t e r -e s t i n i t . The f a c t t h a t Roland never mentioned having been there i s of l i t t l e import because he never mentioned having been i n Bologna e i t h e r , and i t i s known that he taught there f o r some ye a r s . Pacaut, Alexandre I I I : Etude sur l a concep- t i o n du pouvoir p o n t i f i c a l dans sa pensee et dans son oeuvre ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e P h i l o s o p h i q u e J . V r i n , 1956), p.59. 9 7 l b i d . 9 8 B a l d w i n , pp.4-9. " B a l d w i n , pp.6-7. 1 0 0 B a l d w i n , p.7. l O l i b i d . l° 2Baldwin, p.8. According to Walter Ullmann, A Short  H i s t o r y o f the Papacy of the Middle Ages (London: Methuen & Co., L t d . , 1972), p.180, Roland B a n d i n e l l i was a p u p i l of G r a t i a n at Bologna. 1 0 3 B a l d w i n , p.10. 1 0 4 B a l d w i n , pp.20-21. 1 0 5 P a c a u t , Alexandre I I I , p.139. i O G j b i d . 1 0 7 B a l d w i n , p.64. 1 0 8 B a l d w i n , p.65. - 104 -Notes to Chapter I I I l u 9 K a n t o r o w i c z , " M y s t e r i e s , " S e l e c t e d S t u d i e s (Locust V a l l e y , N.Y.: J . J . Augustin P u b l i s h e r s , L965), p.382. l l u C a h n , p.67. Although Walter Cahn has chosen to i n t e r p r e t the iconography as a demonstration of the D i v i s i o n of Powers, he acknowledges the impact made by the Decretum on the composition. 1 : L 1 M e l n i k a s , pp.8-9. H 2 g o u t h e r n , Making o f t h e Middle Ages, p.205. H 3 S o u t h e r , Making o f the Middle Ages, p.205. H ^ S o u t h e r n , Making of the Middle Ages, pp.205-206. Legend had G r a t i a n , Peter Lombard, and Peter Comestor as sons of the same mother because of t h e i r ' u n i t y of e f f o r t ' . H 5 S o u t h e r n , Making of the Middle Ages, p.205. 1 1 6 S o u t h e r n , Making o f the Middle Ages, p.208. ll T ' o t t o G i e r k e , P o l i t i c a l T h e o r i e s of the Middle Ages, t r a n s . F r e d e r i c W i l l i a m M a i t l a n d (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1938), p.8. See a l s o John B. M o r r a l l , P o l i t i c a l Though i n Medieval Times (London: Hutchinson U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , 1971), p.10, where he d e f i n e s the C h r i s t i a n community: "T h i s fundamental dependence of s o c i e t y on a r e l i g i o u s f a i t h which i t assumes t h a t a l l true c i t i z e n s must share makes i t l e g i t i m a t e to d e s c r i b e medieval s o c i e t y as a C h r i s t i a n Commonwealth." 1 1 8 G i e r k e , pp.10-11. 1 1 9 I b i d . l 2 u G i e r k e , p.2. During the e a r l y Medieval p e r i o d the king was seen as "...the guardian of the law; he and they [h i s c o u n c i l l o r s ] had as yet no i n t e n t i o n of c r e a t i n g new l a w s . . . ( f o r i f the law was good, why change i t ? ) . . . I n s t e a d , k ing and c o u n c i l l o r s thought of themselves as merely ex p l a i n -ing or c l a r i f y i n g the true meaning of the a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g and complete body of law...Germanic custom handed on to the medieval mind an i d e a . . . t h a t good laws were r e d i s c o v e r e d or r e s t a t e d but never remade." See M o r r a l l , pp.15-16. 1 2 1 G i e r k e , p.16. - 105 -1 2 2 g o u t h e r n , Making of the Middle Ages f p.206. 1 2 3 1 v i e i n i ] c a s p r o v i d e s a good o u t l i n e of the v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s r e g a r d i n g G r a t i a n 1 s methodology as w e l l as h i s own c o n c l u s i o n s : t h a t G r a t i a n responded to the s t i m u l u s of the Roman j u r i s p r u d e n t i a l system whose methodology he used " . . . t o harmonize, e d i t , and i n v e s t i g a t e through the use of new systems of q u e s t i o n i n g (ars d i s t i n g u e n d i and questiones  d i s p u t a t a e ) , the s p e c i f i c c a n o n i c a l cases..." (pp.8-9). Although he f i n d s no s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between G r a t i a n ' s work and t h a t of A b e l a r d , he does p r o v i d e a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d e x p l a n a t i o n of the Decretum i t s e l f (p.11). Abother theory has been o f f e r e d by John Baldwin i n The S c h o l a s t i c C u l t u r e  of the Middle Ages: 1000-1300 (Lexington, Mass.: D.C.Heath & Co., 1971), p.73, where he s t a t e s t h a t the e a r l y c a n o n i s t s proposed the requirements f o r ' q u e s t i o n i n g ' , the technique f o r r e c o n c i l i n g and harmonizing c o n f l i c t i n g t e x t s w i t h i n Church law which were a l s o adopted by the t h e o l o g i a n s (Abelard?) and f i n a l l y p e r f e c t e d by G r a t i a n . 1 2 4 M e l n i k a s , p.8. 1 2 5 M e l n i k a s , p.10. 1 2 6 I b i d . 1 2 7 I b i d . 1 2 8 T h e o d o r e F. I . P l u c k n e t t , A Concise H i s t o r y of Common  Law (London: Butterworth & Co. ( P u b l i s h e r s ) L t d . , 1956), p.302. 1 2 9 P l u c k n e t t , pp.303-304. 1 3 0 p i u c k n e t t , p.302. The Decretum e x i s t e d as the s i n g l e c o m p i l a t i o n of canon law u n t i l 1216, when under Innocent I I I i t was r e v i s e d to i n c l u d e the g r e a t body of g l o s s e s and commentaries then extant which then became the b a s i s of the Corpus j u r i s c a n o n i c i . 1 3 1 R o s y S c h i l l i n g , "The Decretum G r a t i a n i Formerly i n the Dyson P e r r i n s C o l l e c t i o n , " J o u r n a l of the B r i t i s h  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , s e r . i i i (1963), pp.27-39. - 106 -Notes to Chapter IV 13 2 ^ e ] _ n i ^ a s . p.16. l 3 3 M e l n i k a s , pp.17-18. 1 3 4 S c h i l l i n g , p.31. The Trees of R e l a t i o n s h i p thereby form a type of t r a d i t i o n or c o n t i n u a t i o n of a c e r t a i n icono-g r a p h i c a l schema s i m i l a r to the examplars f o r sacred t e x t s . These may a l s o be t i e d i n t o the Tree of Jesse iconography. 1 3 5 S c h i l l i n g , p.32. 1 3 6 M e l n i k a s , p.23. 1 3 7 I b i d . 1 3 8 I b i d . l 3 9 E w a r t Lewis, Medieval P o l i t i c a l Ideas Vol.1 (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1954), pp.31-33. 1 4 0 M e l n i k a s , p.25. l 4 1 S t a n l e y Chodorow, C h r i s t i a n P o l i t i c a l Theory and  Church P o l i t i c s i n the Mid-Twelfth Century: The E c c l e s i o l o g y  of G r a t i a n ' s Decretum (Berkeley, C a l i f . : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P ress, 1972), p.211ff. and n.2,3,4. T h i s chapter c o n t a i n s a very good overview of the d i v e r g e n t o p i n i o n s of s c h o l a r s such as Walter Ullmann, A l f o n s S t i c k l e r , F r i e d r i c h Kempf, and of course those of the author h i m s e l f r e g a r d i n g G r a t i a n ' s m o t i v a t i o n . l 4 2 T n e o n l y d i s c u s s i o n i n the Decretum that i n any way d e a l s with the supremacy of Church over State i s Causa XXIII which examines the q u e s t i o n of the use of f o r c e . Here G r a t i a n f i r s t examines the r i g h t of any person to shed blood and, f o l l o w i n g h i s (or Abelard's methodology he progresses to a d i s c u s s i o n of the l e g i t i m a c y of the use of f o r c e f o r s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , or p o l i t i c a l purposes. Included i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s an examination of the r i g h t of churchmen to use f o r c e . I t i s t h i s s e c t i o n t h at has been used by papal a p o l o g i s t s to support t h e i r theory of the Power of the Two Swords, even though there was no concerted agreement among s c h o l a r s as to h i s exact meaning. - l- 4 3Melnikas, p.31. - 107 -1 4 4 M e l n i k a s , p.32. 1 4 5 I b i d . 1 4 6 C a h n , p.67. - 108 -Notes t o Chapter V 1 4 7 S c h i l l i n g , p.33. 1 4 8 S c h i l l i n g , pp.38-39. Sens was a g r e a t m e t r o p o l i t a n church which oversaw the a f f a i r s of a l a r g e p r o v i n c e and counted P a r i s and Char t r e s among i t s s u f f r a g a n s . I t was the work of Henri l e S a n g l i e r who was archbishop o f Sens from 1122-1142. Begun around 1130, t h i s c a t h e d r a l was b u i l t " ...very much under the i n f l u e n c e o f S t . Bernard..." accord-ing to Ian Dunlop, The C a t h e d r a l ' s Crusade (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1982), p.13. Bernard was, a f t e r a shaky s t a r t , the c l o s e f r i e n d of Henri and wrote h i s t r e a t i s e On the  Conduct and O f f i c e of a Bishop at Henri's req u e s t . The i n t e l l e c t u a l c l i m a t e at Sens r e f l e c t e d Bernard's t h i n k i n g which encouraged G r a t i a n ' s c o m p i l a t i o n of canon law and i s r e f l e c t e d i n the Dyson P e r r i n s imagery. 1 4 9 M e l n i k a s , p.1206. 1 5 0 I b i d . 1 5 1 I b i d . 1 5 2 I b i d . 1 5 3 I b i d . 1 5 4 S c h i l l i n g , p.37. i S S s c h i l l i n g , p.29. - 109 -Notes to Chapter VI , 1 5 6 G i e r k e , p.16. 1 ^ 7 K a n t o r o w i c z , "Medieval World U n i t y , " S e l e c t e d S t u d i e s , p.77. 1 5 8 M e l n i k a s , pp.29-30. 1 5 9 i b i d . 160Brian T i e r n e y as quoted i n Chodorow, p.214. !6]-Chodorow, p.60. See a l s o n.61. According to Chodorow t e x t u a l s t u d i e s demonstrate t h a t G r a t i a n d i d not author much of the t h e o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d p o r t i o n s of h i s work, or a l a r g e p a r t o f the paleae which tend to obscure h i s purpose i n w r i t i n g the Decretum. According to these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , the o r i g i n a l t e x t was a s e r i e s of t r e a t i s e s on l e g a l matters which c i t e d precedents from a n c i e n t l e g a l o p i n i o n s (p.64). According to Gerhard Ladner, as quoted by Chodorow, the p e r c e p t i o n of p a r a l l e l systems of law, both s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s , precluded the complete equation of Church and State (p.213,n.3). 1 6 2Chodorow, p.64. 1 6 3Chodorow, pp.212. 1 6 4Chodorow, p.215. 1 6 5 I b i d . 1 6 6Chodorow, p.219. 1 6 7Chodorow, p.220. 1 6 8 B r i e n T i e r n e y , The C r i s i s of Church and S t a t e : 1050-1300. With S e l e c t e d Documents (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e H a l l , Inc., 1964), p.92. - 110 -Notes t o Chapter VII 169 W.T. Jones, The Medieval Mind; A H i s t o r y of Western  Philosophy 2nd ed. (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1969), p.198. 170 Chodorow, pp.35-36. 1 7 1 W a l t e r Ullmann, pp.174-175. 1 7 2 U l l m a n n , pp.176-177. 173 Chodorow, p.20. 1 7 4 U l l m a n , p.177. I b i d . 176 Chodorow, pp.21-22. 177 Chodorow, p.25. 178 Chodorow, p.26. 179 T, . , Ib i d . 180 Chodorow, p.47,n.43. "Hinc f l u v i u s t o r r e n s G r a t i a n u s ad a l t a redundat, Quo s i n e n i l l e g e s , n i l i b i j u r a v a l e n t ; Fons Decretorum, t o t i u s j u r i s abyssus" e t c . 181 Melnikas, p.11 and Chodorow, p.48. Presumably the r e f e r e n c e i s t o both the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and s e c u l a r c o u r t s . 182 Chodorow, p.48,n.44. Melnikas sees these l i n e s as s i g n i f y i n g the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the c i v i l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l f o r a (p.11). 183„. _ Chodorow, pp.49- 50. 1 8 4 I b i d . 185_ , Chodorow, pp.49- 50,n.45. 186 Chodorow, p. 53. 1 8 7Chodorow, p. 54. 188„. , Chodorow, pp.54- 59. 189 Chodorow, p.58. 1 9 0 o u , Chodorow, p.99. 191 Chodorow, p. 7 . Notes to Chapter VIII 1 9 2 M e l n i k a s , p.39. l 9 3 E r n s t H. Kantorowicz, The King's Two Bodies: A Study  i n Medieval P o l i t i c a l Theology ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957), pp.78ff. l 9 4 I b i d . The concept of D i v i n e K i n g s h i p has been d e f i n e d i n d i f f e r i n g ways by the many s c h o l a r s who have w r i t t e n on the s u b j e c t . According to C a r o l U h l i g Crown, The Winchester P s a l t e r : Iconographic Sources and Themes of  the V i r g i n Mary, Kin g s h i p and the Law (Ann Arbor, Michigan: U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1982: Washington U n i v e r s i t y Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , 1975, St. Louis M i s s o u r i ) , p.192, wrote "In the e a r l y Middle Ages, i t was g e n e r a l l y b e l i v e d t hat by r o y a l u n c t i o n , the m y s t i c a l powers of God transformed the p r i n c e i n t o a new man, making him a p a r t i c i -pant i n the d i v i n i t y . . . , f r o m the ceremony of r o y a l a n o i n t i n g emerged a " p r i e s t - k i n g " . . . . " According to Kantorowics: "The d i v i n e r i g h t of kings and the i m p e r i a l r i g h t of p o n t i f f s are d i v e r s e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the same i d e a , f o r they d e r i v e from the model of C h r i s t the Rex et Sacerdos which both king and bishop emulated." Laudes Regiae: A Study i n L i t u r g i c a l  Acclamations and Medieval Ruler Worship Berke l e y , C a l i f o r n i a U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s i n H i s t o r y Vol.XXXIII, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1946), p.112. "In e c c l e s i -a s t i c a l eyes the kings of France, i f not q u i t e tonsured c l e r i c s , had something c l o s e l y approaching a s a c e r d o t a l c h a r a c t e r . T h i s idea gained s t r e n g t h from the ceremony of c o n s e c r a t i o n , at which the king put on the d a l m a t i c l e o f a sub-deacon, communicated i n both k i n d s , and was anointed i n the manner a p p r o p r i a t e to a bishop." Robert Fawtier, p.67. Changes i n t h i s way of t h i n k i n g d i d not come about i n France u n t i l the time of P h i l i p p e Augustus and Innocent I I I , much too l a t e to have had any e f f e c t on the content of G r a t i a n ' s Decretum or the tympanum scene. In Capetian France: "The t r u t h was t h a t d i v i n e r i g h t consecrated r o y a l r i g h t but d i d not c r e a t e i t . " F awtier, p.69. 1 9 5 K a n t o r o w i c z , p.80,n.93. l 9 6 K a n t o r o w i c z , pp.275-280. l 9 7 K a n t o r o w i c z , p.84. 1 9 8 K a n t o r o w i c z , p.84. The aevum was a category of e n d l e s s , i n f i n i t e time t h a t arose i n t w e l f t h century s c h o l -a s t i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l concepts when they began to d i s t i n g u i s h the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s of time which could not be accounted - 112 -f o r by A u g u s t i n i a n d u a l i s t i c methods. S c h o l a s t i c i s m ex-p l a i n e d a e t e r n i t a s as having no past and no f u t u r e . The aevum was a type of i n f i n i t e n e s s and d u r a t i o n which had motion, and t h e r e f o r e a past and a f u t u r e : an endless sempi-t e r n i t y . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a t h i r d category of time: Thomas Aquinas d e f i n e d i t as "...something placed i n the middle between a e t e r n i t a s and aevum." Kantorowicz, pp.275-280. -'-"{jai-Qia Osborne, ed. The Oxford Companion to A r t (Oxford: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1970), p.839. 2 u u K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , " A l l e g o r i e s of the V i r t u e s and V i c e s i n Medieval A r t , " J o u r n a l of the Warburg I n s t i t u t e (London: The Warburg I n s t i t u t e , 1939), p.27. 2 0- I-Katzenellenbogen, p. 28. Vienna, N a t i o n a l b i b l i o t h e k Cod.Med.gr.1, f6v. 2 0 2 K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , pp.29-30. 2 Q 3 I b i d . 204rp_id. 2 0 5 K a n t o r o w i c z , "Thronesharer," American J o u r n a l of  Archaeology Vol.57, n.2 ( A p r i l , 1953), pp.65-70. 2 0 6 T h i r i o n , p.92. 2 0 7 A u b e r t , p.122. 2 0 8 C a h n , pp.59-62. 2°9]y[ale, "Medieval Iconography," Readings i n A r t H i s t o r y V o l . 1 , ed. Harold Spencer (New York: Charles S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1969), p.271. Rpt. The Gothic Image: R e l i g i o u s A r t i n  the T h i r t e e n t h Century (1913). Trans. Dora Nussey (New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., L t d . ) . 2 1 0 B . A . Uspensky, " ' L e f t 1 and 'Right' i n Icon P a i n t i n g , " t r a n s . Ann Shukman, Semi o t i c a Vol.13 (The Hague: Mouton, 1975), pp.33-39. Semeiotike: Sbornik s t a t i g po vtoricnym m o d e l i r i y u s c i m sistemane ( T a r t u , 1973), pp.137-145. 2 H u s p e n s k y , p.36. - 113 -Notes to Chapter IX 2 1 2 K a n t o r o w i c z , "Dante's Two Suns," S e l e c t e d S t u d i e s , p.327. 2 1 3 M a l e , p.3. 2 1 4 M a l e , p.4. 2 1 5 K a n t o r o w i c z , "Dante's Two Suns," S e l e c t e d S t u d i e s , p.327. 2 1 6 M a l e , p.271. 2 1 7 K a n t o r o w i c z , "Dante's Two Suns," p.328 and n.10. 2 1 8 K a n t o r o w i c z , "Dante's Two Suns," p.333. 2 1 9 K a n t o r o w i c z , "Dante's Two Suns," p.336. 2 2 0 K a n t o r o w i c z , "Dante's Two Suns," p.327. 2 2 1 I b i d . 2 2 2 M a l e , R e l i g i o u s A r t From the Twelfth to the E i g h t  eenth Century ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1977), p.54. 2 2 3 F l o r e n t i n e Miitherich and Joachim Gaedhe, C a r o l i n g i a n  P a i n t i n g (New York: George B r a z i l l e r , 1976), p.101. Another example of t h i s symbolism i n a d i f f e r e n t medium d i s p l a y s t h i s same dependence on antique forms or exempla. See the i v o r y from Echternach, Gotha, dated to the e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y T e r r a C a r r y i n g the C r u c i f i e d C h r i s t i n which we again have an example of the g r i e v i n g moon. (Kantorowicz, F i g . 8.) 2 2 4Some e a r l i e r examples occur i n the P s a l t e r of Robert  de Lindesey, Peterborough, dated before 1222, London, S o c i e t y of A n t i q u a r i e s Ms.58 f.35v. and the P s a l t e r of  Blanche of C a s t i l e , dated to 1230, P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e de  1'Arsenal Ms f r a n c a i s 1186 f.24. ( F i g s . 38, 39.) 2 2 5 M a l e , R e l i g i o u s A r t , p.54. 2 2 ^ K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , "The Iconography of a Romanesque Tympanum at Ve"zelay, "Readings i n A r t H i s t o r y V o l . 1 , ed. Harold Spencer (New York: Charles S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1976), p.256. - 114 -2 2 7 A n d r e Grabar and C. Nordenfalk, Romanesque P a i n t i n g (New York, 1958), pp.167,185. 2 2 8 A l l a n Temko, Notre Dame of P a r i s , Time Reading Program S p e c i a l E d i t i o n (New York: Time Incorporated, 1952), p.190. 2 2 9 M a r i n a Werner, Alone of A l l Her Sex: The Myth and  C u l t of the V i r g i n Mary (New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1976), p.104. 2 3 ^ T h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the V i r g i n i s probably the f i r s t type used i n the C h r i s t i a n West, based on the prototype commissioned by E t i e n n e , Bishop of Clermont-Ferrand around 950. In t h i s drawing the V i r g i n was portrayed enthroned with the C h r i s t C h i l d seated f r o n t a l l y on her knees. T h i s type i s based on the Byzantine n i k o p o i a which evolved from antique examples. Peter Bloch, The Year 1200: A C e n t e n n i a l  E x h i b i t i o n a t the M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum of A r t (New York: M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum of A r t , 1970), p.497. For other examples of the enthroned Madonna and C h i l d see Katzenellenbogen, S c u l p t u r a l Program, pp.107-108 and n.14. 2 3 1 I l e n e F o r s y t h , The Throne of Wisdom ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972), pp.6-7. 2 3 2 F o r s y t h , pp.6-7. 2 3 3 K a n t o r o w i c z , p.98. 2 3 4 K a n t o r o w i c s , p.99. 2 3 5 i b i d . The L i b e r A u g u s t a l i s was the g r e a t c o l l e c t i o n of S i c i l i a n law p u b l i s h e d by F r e d e r i c k II at M e l f i i n 1231. T i t l e 1,31 i s c a l l e d "On the Observation of J u s t i c e , " I b i d . , p.97. 2 3 6 K a n t o r o w i c z , p.100. 2 3 7 I b i d . 2 3 8 I b i d . 2 3 9 K a n t o r o w i c z , p.99. 2 4 0 C r o w n , pp.121-122. 2 4 1 S i s t e r Mary V i n c e n t i n e Gripkey, The Blessed V i r g i n  Mary as M e d i a t r i x (Washington, D.C.: C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y , 1928), p.11. Crown seemed to t h i n k t h a t Eadmer f i r s t used t h i s t i t l e . T h i s may have a p p l i e d to B r i t a i n o n l y . - 115 -2 4 2 G r i p k e y , p.29. F i g u r e 43 i s a v i s u a l i l l u s t r a t i o n of Mary's a p p e l l a t i o n s . 2 4 3 K a n t o r o w i c z , pp.110-111. 2 4 4 K a n t o r o w i c s , p.106. 2 4 5 K a n t o r o w i c z , p.108. 2 4 6 I b i d . 2 4 7 K a n t o r o w i c z , p.109. 2 4 8 K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , S c u l p t u r a l Program, p.59. 2 4 9 K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , S c u l p t u r a l Program, p.60. 2 ^ u K a n t o r o w i c z , p.137. 2 ^ ^ K a n t o r o w i c z , p.144. 2 5 2 H i l d a Graef, Mary: A H i s t o r y of D o c t r i n e and Devotion Vol.1 (London: Sheed and Ward, 1963), p.171. 2 5 3 K a n t o r o w i c z , p.144. 2 5 4 Y v o n n e Hackenbroch, "A T r i p t y c h i n the S t y l e of G o d e f r o i de C l a i r , " Connoiseur CXXXIV (1954), pp.185-188. 2 5 5 H a c k e n b r o c h , p.185. 2 5 6 H a c k e n b r o c h , p.187. 2 5 7 K a n t o r o w i c z , p.112 and n.74. 2 5 8 M a u r i c e V l o b e r g , La V i e r g e Notre M e d i a t r i c e (Grenoble: B. Arthaud, 1938), p.220. 2 5 9 I b i d . 2 6 0 V l o b e r g , p.221. 2 6 1 V l o b e r g , p.222. 2 6 2 V l o b e r g , p.226. 2 6 3 V l o b e r g , pp.223-225. 2 6 4 V l o b e r g , p.222. - 116 -2 6 5 V l o b e r g , p.226. A l a r g e number of i l l u s t r a t i o n s are to be found i n t h i s work. 2 6 6 K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , S c u l p t u r a l Program, p.88. Although he a p p l i e d these words to the w e s t f r o n t of C h a r t r e s , they may e q u a l l y w e l l d e s c r i b e the Porte-de-Ste-Anne. 2 6 7 K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , " A l l e g o r i e s , " p.6 and n.20. 2 f i 8 G r i p k e y , p.12, quotes Paul the Deacon p r a i s i n g Mary as the b r i d g e between heaven and e a r t h , God and man. 2 6 9 M a y and Metzger, pp.1513-1515. 2 7 0 G r i p k e y , p.85 and n.101. 2 7 1 G r a e f , p.148. 2 7 2 G r a e f , p.167. T h i s i s the o n l y r e f e r e n c e o u t s i d e of Kantorowicz t h a t I have found i n which Mary i s p r a i s e d d i r e c t l y as J u s t i c e . I t was w r i t t e n by Ambroise Autpert (d.784), and he was the f i r s t Western t h e o l o g i a n to r e f e r to Mary as "the door to heaven." 2 7 3 K a n t o r o w i c z , "Medieval World Unity , " S e l e c t e d S t u d i e s , p.79. Notes to C o n c l u s i o n 2 7 4 G i e r k e , p.17 2 7 5 K i d s o n , p.19 - 118 -SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A r t z , F r e d e r i c k B. The Mind of the Middle Ages. 3rd ed. rev. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1954. Aubert, M a r c e l . French S c u l p t u r e at the Beginning of the  Gothic P e r i o d : 1140-1225. New York: Harcourt, Brace Co., 1929. Gothic C a t h e d r a l s of France and T h e i r T r e a s u r e s . London: N i c h o l a s Kaye L t d . , 1959. Baldwin, John. The S c h o l a s t i c C u l t u r e of the Middle Ages:  1000-1300. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. 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Se m i o t i c a , 13 (1975) 33-39; Semeiotike: Sbornik s t a t i g po vtoricnym m o d e l i r i y u s c i m sistemane ( T a r t u , 1973) 137-145. V i t r y , P a u l . "Nouvelles o b s e r v a t i o n s sur l e p o r t a i l Ste-Anne de Notre-Dame de P a r i s . " Revue de 1'art C h r e t i e n LX (1910) 7-76. V l o b e r g , Maurice. La V i d r g e Notre M e d i a t r i c e . Grenoble: B. Arthaud, 1938. Werner, Marina. Alone of A l l Her Sex: The Myth and the C u l t  of the V i r g i n Mary. New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1976. F i g u r e 4 - 126 -F i g u r e 5 b - 127 F i g u r e 5 - 128 -Fig u r e 6 b - 129 -F i g u r e 6 - 131 -F i g u r e 8 b - 132 -F i g u r e 9 Figure 10 - 134 -F i g u r e s 15, 16, 17 v : \ b ?1 f A . ClU 1 I 1 al l M b« jf e l uu U i i I d r F i g . 15 ^«!^a)ncol•6u6lfa)rCBIrtlUTnano1 l^^ 1^ arpnnumi ecuirtwWhninoraftuni 1 $ VMsWebHyS ^ — - * i — T — '• •»>i»i'» F i g . 17 i ycMDBKtt ftc of impatirtiw 13i uiipre $ raft itaui [puapnm taptontr, firtf licor copulin uatemcyw -t>vol>; vt* >....y uax-t mdtt V, 1^6 wtxf aliifaattfqUA* fanuaic^£rptub«ritr , fliwto qhm<yinitnf-ur fanatrr uebif botnmcC-t. ifooitn-v^Utco alitmottf^ E r^aio-oiuiuc Ugc6 Qtn^Jgpt'AUCTUrui.l bu7TUnCUW(l\.;ftmtt •?mirnc(um.ajjr(iutTune.diu:rt<rtcmj« tmntattC •wank) amftanop <^  bee di£^wtn>^ni afar dttiCgm-pmnfitw ygrum alunuifeC*. wJCn hrfdfc' Wtiufjiuntmrofcuulfttr clariritctbfci.iti^ uosif F i g . 16 flttrtrulti 10 t m t l ' 1UC tvflt qi halxa oo.l*etL yacidn btatnra Juf mitt ptirtatd tuiuaci tibuf* - 135 -F i g u r e s 18, 19, 20, 21 F i g . 18 F i g . 19 F i g . 20 F i g . 21 - 136 -F i g . 22 qudquttqti t - - i ,~}7i'jjaofl TrnulvniO)JIIOII iicr .irna>iioia> inirtn fen F i g . 23 - 137 -Fig u r e 24 ct» inp<mcru±i^an taper ^ tapmipiirgm. THutmb- IT UiaricopuUri ualcanr net vfi imai^.ornuqiurikf. .a IKS It - 138 -Figur e 25 moc-* Truccm itn 4 •,-tiiT.rn<>iiclui.-n.lU.-.rf i -rm ..uVjviufnilt'-ll*!*"! uqm r.'.gci-/.) lie i: uf \cu<cg p i-•lUcnu.|.4Ulfj' buf tun* anjutori vuleam" iimmo vuriVtnf" i f tint 5w ttioitiri)' .limit* m tUCllff-Tt tunifftriti inej;W-i fmtpigti • iiinfiiiilr .tmnifiM tu -am • \ .'if ,lci' Mf.a . public)ii ^ lomfui i * ? tufmiftu mtnoUlu viilHur! ttaawno (YupVmi -ntole r.o^ \n lege i m cu c^tio wwic tu r . qucK'/' i.Ujcr J iU i j jwc^ ib i u u i r f i m . walns^ i .. asei or tt'mulr - 139 -F i g u r e s 26, 27 F i g u r e 28 e n £3 a 1 *g Cup <fw p*ft*ta^ 4win tiAWmit1 .> * nuftton- P^ytw<nI<no»b n«t\« *qwt<n<bw Anftnitl otDiittpam«w«wi«irmn« In '^ 1 nioit witnn^nuiuwtnftui oi^iiiAt.l' y <w<tiiiitiuim t^>A^<top4i>4 .^'ifc ^lhn«l«c»m^«fcn«?c<kQ*"**"$r i IfclllWI i 1-1 - ^ . L ^ M—uJ irmi TTIWH ^iii^iflnitiiMMttwlh n M -I ^  - » ' " "™ MSI - 141 <fft F Y * " ' | I (•• I? EtSl i f l t v., 'm in!ri« Mm n i l ; S i l l Vpim Xt><oy.<flx*mKcca$* rnpciitw ... U^ar* m«cdu& <tyav* 9* V'*1 qtMemjmwfcraiaal q u i tft Cxi&mattAt 9 „ . ^ p m r . m f u c forfait*' *nm^$BMmrantr« Dice t.fliiMi inrfWrij tufit fti|i^9 t m i W y u m i m u l ^ l t u * . f l r t w i n i n > i t . F i g u r e 29 - 143 -Fi g u r e s 31, 32, 33 F i g . 31 L ? if. 1 vnab tttTfttaitt* bunuiiiV' c uoiTiim h-invvpir ctl)ttmM"i Ictauttn ncniiH' J»KtUiTI ttmuteti 0^  nvo on nlyrrr.u ntncrarttMu*. (mrtOiisa.i^ K'liii* tic* ntrpfm- qucptmiflt fiilmr a>fr Vte ftn nblvnoic oiiij»itiitmh'T«nf Rom;Tnc.'r'i»irtiUn«i Milium ftiitni mivcinpTliif • eiciMUU-V, S' 5 tut mpmr-ti.Ttiiiaii in** wen lu3ni»mr.i\cfl><|Stn't8cJtn (t«M {Clio .Tinctur. i£ui> qiuffp uilvt .ilii Fig.33 mot»w-.roitiununmi\mft-F i g . 32 - 144 -Fig u r e 34 - 145 -Fig u r e 35 - 146 -F i g u r e 36 - 148 -Figure 38 - 150 -F i g u r e 40 - 151 -F i g u r e 41 - 153 -F i g u r e 43 - 155 -Fi g u r e 45 - 156 -Fig u r e 46 - 157 -Figure 47 a - 158 -F i g u r e 47 b - 159 -F i g u r e 48 - 160 -F i g u r e - 161 -Fig u r e 50 

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