UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A commentary on Suetonius’ Galba Lee, Stephen Michael 1985

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A COMMENTARY ON SUETONIUS' GALBA By STEPHEN M I C H A E L L E E B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e e d s , 1983 T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S D e p a r t m e n t o f C l a s s i c s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A u g u s t 1 9 8 5 © S t e p h e n M i c h a e l L e e , 1 9 8 5 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ^ L,M^->.CS  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1 9 5 6 M a i n M a l l Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1 Y 3 i i A B S T R A C T I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n the rea s o n why the L i v e s of S u e t o n i u s have been so n e g l e c t e d by E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s c h o l a r s . In the h i s t o r i c a l s i g -n i f i c a n c e of the p e r i o d they c o v e r , i n the l i g h t they throw upon Roman l i f e and manners and as a r i c h mine of anecdotes c o n c e r n i n g Roman emperors, they have always been r e g a r d e d as a most i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . There have been, however, few commentaries devoted t o the L i v e s . The Galba has been p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s r e g a r d e d . Not s i n c e Mooney's e d i t i o n of 1930 has t h e r e been any complete E n g l i s h commentary on the L i f e . However, o t h e r f a c t o r s than the l a c k of a r e c e n t e d i t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c h o i c e of the Galba as the s u b j e c t of t h i s t h e s i s . The L i f e d e a l s w i t h one of the most remark-a b l e p e r i o d s of Roman h i s t o r y , w i t h the d e c l i n e of the J u l i o - C l a u d i a n l i n e and the subsequent p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l . I t i s a l s o t y p i c a l of S u e t o n i u s ' s t y l e o f b i o g r a p h y i n i t s i m p a r t i a l i t y , the s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i t s n a r r a t i v e , and i t s l i n g u i s t i c s t y l e . F i n a l l y , i n the p a r a l l e l a c c o u n t s of G a l b a ' s l i f e by T a c i t u s , Dio and P l u t a r c h t h e r e e x i s t c o n s t a n t p o i n t s of r e f e r e n c e t h a t a r e v i t a l f o r reason s o f c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n and h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e . I t has been my aim i n t h i s t h e s i s to produce a c r i t i c a l commentary on the Ga 1 ba t h a t both demonstrates the p e c u l i a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the work and e v a l u a t e s the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of modern s c h o l a r s h i p . The t h e s i s f a l l s i n t o t h r e e p a r t s . The f i r s t c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h the l i f e o f S u e t o n i u s and i n c l u d e s a d i s c u s s i o n of the problems caused by the d i s c o v e r y of the Hippo I n s c r i p t i o n . Subsequent s e c t i o n s a r e devoted t o the date o f c o m p o s i t i o n o f the L i v e s , the c o n t e n t i o u s q u e s t i o n o f S u e t o n i u s ' s o u r c e s and, f i n a l l y , the m a n u s c r i p t t r a d i t i o n . i i i C h a p t e r two c o n s i s t s of a t e x t of the Galba based on t h a t of Ihm ( 1958). Some v a r i a t i o n s have been made and defended i n the Commentary. Chap t e r t h r e e , the Commentary, c o n s t i t u t e s the b u l k of the t h e s i s and i s a s e c t i o n - b y - s e c t i o n d i s c u s s i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l , t e x t u a l and l i n g u i s t i c p o i n t s a r i s i n g from the t e x t . The method of c i t a t i o n , t h r o u g h o u t , i s by name of a u t h o r and year o f p u b l i c a t i o n o n l y . F u l l d e t a i l s can be found i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y a t the end of the t h e s i s . i v CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE ONE INTRODUCTION . 1 I L i f e o f S u e t o n i u s 1 I I D a t e o f C o m p o s i t i o n 11 I I I S o u r c e s f o r t h e Ga 1 ba 13 I V M a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e d_e v i t a C a e s a rum 16 TWO THE TEXT . . . 2 2 THREE THE COMMENTARY 39 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 159 V L I S T O F A B B R E V I A T I O N S CIL D S Corpus I n s c r i p t i o n u m L a t i n a r u m , ed. by W. de G r u y t e r e t a l . D i c t i o n n a i r e des A n t i q u i t e s G r e c q u e s e t Romaines, ed. by C. Daremberg and E . S a g l i o (2nd ed., 1962) Ges. S c h r i f t : Gesammelte S c h r i f t e n , T . Mommsen ( B e r l i n 1904, r e p r i n t e d 1965) HRR: PECS: PIR: P r o v s RE: RIC.I S t a a t s S t r a f : H i s t o r i c u m Romanorum R e l i q u i a e , ed. by M. P e t e r ( S t u t t g a r t , 1967) \ P r i n c e t o n E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f C l a s s i c a l S i t e s , ed. by R. S t i l l w e l l , W. L. MacDonald and M. H. M c A l l i s t e r ( ( P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 ) Prosqpographia I m p e r i i Romani Saec I, I I , I I I , ed. by E. Groag and A. S t e i n ( B e r l i n 1933) P r o v i n c e s o f the Roman Empire , T . Mommsen, t r a n s . W. P. D i c k s o n (New York, 1887) P a u l y ' s R e a l - E n c y c l o p a d i e d e r c l a s s i s c h e n A l t e r -t u r r s j i s s e n s c h a f t , ed. by G. Wissowa e t a l . Roman I m p e r i a l C o i n a g e v o l . I , A u g u s t u s t o V i t -e 11 i u s ~ rTT M a t t i n g l y and E~. Sydenham ( London, 1923) Romisches S t a a t s r e c h t , T . ,Mommsen ( L e i p z i g , 1887 ) Romisches S t r a f r e c h t , T . Mommsen ( B e r l i n 1899, r e p r i n t e d 1955) TLL: T h e s a u r u s L i n g u a e L a t i n a e v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to thank P r o f e s s o r s A. A. B a r r e t t and K. A. Dusing f o r t h e i r guidance and h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m throughout the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION I. L i f e of Suetonius Although we have what appears to be a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of knowledge f o r the l i f e of Suetonius, i t s fragmentary and d i s p u t e d nature does not e a s i l y produce a c o n s i s t e n t chron-o l o g i c a l framework. The evidence f a l l s i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : a n c i e n t l i t e r a r y testimony and r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d e p i g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , however, the i n s c r i p t i o n found at Hippo Regius (Bone, A l g e r i a ) i n 1951 has served only to i n t r o -duce more u n c e r t a i n t y i n t o the t h e o r i e s f o r Suetonius' l i f e based on r e f e r e n c e s to him i n h i s own w r i t i n g s , the l e t t e r s of P l i n y , the S.H.A. and the Byzantine encyclopaedia, Suda. M a t e r i a l f o r Suetonius' f a m i l y background i s scanty. His grandfather ( i t i s not c l e a r whether maternal or pa t e r n a l ) had connections with C a l i g u l a ' s c o u r t i e r s ( C a l . 19.3), but there i s no strong evidence to suggest that he was a member of the i m p e r i a l household h i m s e l f . I f i t i s assumed that he was Suetonius' p a t e r n a l grandfather, then he may w e l l have been a s o l d i e r . Suetonius' f a t h e r , Suetonius Laetus, whom we know was a s o l d i e r , would then have followed i n h i s f a t h e r ' s m i l i t a r y f o o t s t e p s . Laetus was an e q u e s t r i a n t r i b u n e with 2 t h e l e g i o X I I I i n 69 A . D . and w i t n e s s e d O t h o ' s d e f e a t a t t h e b a t t l e o f B e d r i a c u m (O tho 1 0 . 1 ) . I t i s n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r S u e t o n i u s was b o r n b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h i s b a t t l e . The a p p r o x -imate date o f h i s b i r t h , a s o r i g i n a l l y c a l c u l a t e d by Mace ( 1 9 0 0 : 3 5 - 7 4 ) was 69 o r 70 A . D . T h i s d a t e , deduced , p r i m a r i l y f r o m t h e t e s t i m o n y a t N e r o 5 7 . 2 , h a s b e e n a c c e p t e d i n t e r a l i o s by R o l f e ( 1 9 1 4 a : v o l I, p. I X ) , A l l o u d ( 1 9 6 7 : tome I, p. I I ) a nd Townend ( 1 9 6 1 a : 9 9 ) . Syme ( 1 9 7 7 : 44 ) more p r e c i s e l y s u g -g e s t e d 70 A . D . on t h e b a s i s o f t h e a p t i t u d e o f t h e name " T r a n q u i l l u s " f o r t h a t p e a c e f u l y e a r . I f i t i s a s s umed t h a t S u e t o n i u s was i n d e e d b o r n i n one o f t h e s e two y e a r s , a s t r o n g e r a r g u m e n t t h a n t h a t o f Syme f o r t h e l a t e r y e a r i s t h e a b s e n c e o f any S u e t o n i a n t e s t i m o n y l i n k i n g h i s y e a r o f b i r t h w i t h t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y e v e n t s o f 6 9 . ^ H i s p l a c e o f b i r t h i s e q u a l l y d i s p u t e d . The t r a d i -t i o n a l t h e o r y was t h a t he was a c t u a l l y b o r n i n Rome ( s e e R o l f e 1 9 1 4 a : v o l . I, p. I X ) . T h i s w a s , h o w e v e r , c o n j e c t u r e b a s e d on t h e l a c k o f a n y e v i d e n c e t o t h e c o n t r a r y . S i n c e t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e H i p p o i n s c r i p t i o n more e x o t i c s u g g e s t i o n s h a v e b e e n made. Townend ( 1 9 6 1 a : 105) s t a t e s t h a t t h e d e d i c a -t o r y i n s c r i p t i o n must i n d i c a t e t h a t S u e t o n i u s was a n a t i v e o f H i p p o , w h i l e C r o o k ( 1 9 5 7 : 2 1 ) , f o l l o w e d by G a s c o u ( 1 9 7 8 : 4 4 0 ) , a r g u e s t h a t he m e r e l y v i s i t e d t h e a r e a and was p r o b a b l y b o r n i n Rome. H o w e v e r , t h e e r e c t i o n o f s u c h an i n s c r i p t i o n , ( and p r o b a b l y a s t a t u e ) , t o a v i s i t o r , r e g a r d l e s s o f any f a v o u r s he may have b e s t o w e d u p o n t h e n a t i v e s , seems i m p l a u s i b l e , and l o g i c f a v o u r s T o w n e n d ' s t h e o r y . 3 Whatever h i s date and place of b i r t h , i t has always been assumed that Suetonius spent h i s childhood i n Rome. Th i s hypothesis p e r s i s t s even among the most recent s c h o l a r s (see W a l l a c e - H a d r i l l 1983: 3, B i r l e y 1984: 245-251) although i t i s based on three unconvincing passages. F i r s t , Suetonius' grandfather knew the s t o r y of C a l i g u l a ' s c o u r t i e r s ' explana-t i o n f o r the b r i d g e at Baiae ( C a l . 19.3). T h i s , however, need not imply that he heard i t p e r s o n a l l y at Rome. Such g o s s i p t r a v e l l e d f a s t , e s p e c i a l l y i n m i l i t a r y c i r c l e s . Secondly, Suetonius says t h a t , as a boy, he heard a man c a l l e d Princeps teach i n the morning and declaim i n the afternoon (de gramm. 4.9). While i t i s true that most rep u t a b l e teachers of grammar and r h e t o r i c r e s i d e d i n Rome, i t should not be taken f o r granted that Suetonius was educated there. F i n a l l y , dur-i n t the r e i g n of Domitian, he witnessed the s t r i p p i n g of a 2 n i n e t y - y e a r - o l d Jew before a p r o c u r a t o r (Pom. 12.2). Why need t h i s be at Rome? The m a j o r i t y of p r o c u r a t o r i a l posts with l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were h e l d i n the p r o v i n c e s . In a d d i t i o n , there were l a r g e Jewish communities i n many other Mediterranean c i t i e s , and i f one assumes that Suetonius was born i n Hippo, a more n a t u r a l l o c a t i o n f o r h i s observing such an i n c i d e n t would be Carthage, n i n e t y miles east of Hippo. On the b a s i s of i t s pr o x i m i t y and r e p u t a t i o n as a c u l t u r a l centre i t i s a l s o f a i r to suggest that Suetonius may have been edu-cated there r a t h e r than at Rome. A N o r t h - A f r i c a n education would strengthen h i s l i n k s with Hippo beyond the mere ac c i d e n t of b i r t h and support the theory that the Hippo i n s c r i p t i o n i s 3 an honour f o r the " l o c a l boy made good". 4 With the death of Domitian ends the evidence garnered from the Suetonian corpus. The s t o r y of Suetonius' e a r l y man-hood must be piec e d together from r e f e r e n c e s to him i n the correspondence of h i s f r i e n d , the younger P l i n y . The l e t t e r s ^ t e l l us more of the c u l t u r e d c i r c l e i n which Suetonius moved than of the man h i m s e l f , but they do i n d i c a t e h i s entry onto the Roman s o c i a l scene and h i s r i s e i n p u b l i c l i f e . L i k e most educated men of the Imperial p e r i o d , Sueto-ni u s contemplated a l i f e at the bar but, i n a l e t t e r dated to 90, h i s h e s i t a n c y i s obvious; he asks P l i n y to arrange a post-ponement of a court case because he had s u f f e r e d a bad dream ( E p i s t . 1.18). Soon afterwards he r e s i g n e d h i m s e l f to a s c h o l a r l y l i f e . P l i n y wrote to Baebius Hispanius, a member of h i s c l i e n t e l a , and arranged a cheap p r i c e f o r an e s t a t e where Suetonius could continue h i s s t u d i e s ( E p i s t . 1.24). This was not, however, the end of h i s p u b l i c l i f e . About 101, P l i n y secured f o r him a m i l i t a r y t r i b u n a t e , but Suetonius r e f u s e d the post, recommending a kinsman, Caesennius S i l v a n u s , i n h i s stead ( E p i s t . l o c . c i t . ) " ' . By 105, Suetonius' f a i l u r e to p u b l i s h was beginning to d i s a p p o i n t h i s f r i e n d s ( P l i n y , E p i s t . 5.10). I t i s f a i r to assume that i n the f o l l o w i n g f i v e years he p u b l i s h e d h i s f i r s t works, since from 110 onwards i t seems he h e l d a v a r i e t y of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e posts. In that year P l i n y became s p e c i a l l e g -ate to Bithynia-Pontus, and Suetonius probably j o i n e d h i s s t a f f (see Syme 1981: 107). P l i n y wrote to T r a j a n from h i s province to secure the i u s trium l i b e r o r u m f o r Suetonius as a 5 c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r h i s c h i l d l e s s m a r r i a g e ( E p i s t . 1 0 . 9 4 ) . ^ By t h i s s t a g e , S u e t o n i u s had e a r n e d a r e p u t a t i o n as an e r u d i t e s c h o l a r ("Suetonium T r a n q u i l l u m , p r o b i s s i m u m , h o n e s t i -ssimum, e r u d i t i s s i m u m v i r u m " , E p i s t . 3.8), and t h e b a c k i n g o f an i n f l u e n t i a l c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s . I t must be s h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s t h a t he embarked upon the c a r e e r i n d i c a t e d by t h e H i p p o i n s c r i p t i o n . The p r o b l e m s r a i s e d by t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n , f i r s t pub-l i s h e d by Marec and FfLaum (1952: 76-85), a r e m a n i f o l d . I t d o e s , however, g i v e i n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about the d i r e c t i o n o f S u e t o n i u s ' a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a r e e r : C. S u e t o n i [o . f i l ( t r i b u s ) ] T r a [ n q u i l l o f ] l a m i [ n i a d l e c t o i ] n t [ e r s e l e c t o s 3 d i ] v o T r [ a i a n o P a r t h i c o p ] o n [ t ( i f i c i ) V o l c a [ n a l ] i a] s t u d i i s a b y b l i o [ t h e c i s ab e ] p i s t u l i s ' [imp. C a e s . T r a i j a n i H a d r i a n [ i Aug] H i p p o n i e n s e s R e [ g i i d.d.p.p. T h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , s u p p l i e d by t h e f i r s t e d i t o r s , has been u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d . I t has r e m a i n e d f o r s c h o l a r s t o a r g u e o v e r the d e t a i l s . The m i n o r o f f i c e s , h e l d , p r e s u m a b l y , a t t h e s t a r t o f h i s c a r e e r , have c a u s e d few p r o b l e m s . Syme's s u g g e s t i o n 6 (1958: 780) that the fla m i n a t e was a l o c a l one i s g e n e r a l l y approved. Townend (1961a: 107) f u r t h e r v o l u n t e e r s that i f the p r i e s t h o o d i s indeed from the Hippo r e g i o n i t i s l i k e l y t h a t Suetonius was n a t i v e to that area. Subsequently he was appointed by T r a j a n to the 's e l e c t o s i u d i c e s ' , an e q u e s t r i a n body of t r a v e l l i n g m a g i s t r a t e s , that was regarded as a step-ping stone to a career i n i m p e r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Suetonius' s c h o l a r l y r e p u t a t i o n and the support of P l i n y would have been q u a l i f i c a t i o n enough. S h o r t l y afterwards he was ordained P o n t i f e x Volcan-a l i s . However, Marec and Pflaum have pointed out that t h i s o f f i c e i s never recorded at Rome, but found only at O s t i a . They c l a i m that 'pontifex' i s an e p i g r a p h i c e r r o r and that Suetonius was a c t u a l l y Flamen V o l c a n a l i s at Rome.^ Others p r e f e r r e d to b e l i e v e that he h e l d the well-documented post of g P o n t i f e x V o l c a n a l i s at O s t i a . However, i n 1972 new i n s c r i p -t i o n a l evidence showed that the previous P o n t i f e x V o l c a n a l i s of O s t i a had not died i n 118, as o r i g i n a l l y thought, but was s t i l l a l i v e i n 126. Therefore the suggestion that Suetonius was P o n t i f e x there from 118 to 122 had to be abandoned i n favour of the theory of the f i r s t e d i t o r s (see Meiggs 1973: 584) . The r e a l problem of the i n s c r i p t i o n f o l l o w s the pr i e s t h o o d . There i s a gap of at l e a s t s i x t e e n l e t t e r s before 'a s t u d i i s ' f o r which s e v e r a l c o n j e c t u r e s have been made (see Townend 1961a: 102). The context suggests that one, or pos-s i b l y two, minor a d m i n i s t r a t i v e posts l e d up to the o f f i c e of 7 'a s t u d i i s ' , b u t o n l y d i s c o v e r y o f f u r t h e r f r a g m e n t s c a n r e s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m c o m p l e t e l y . I n t h e i r o r i g i n a l a r t i c l e , M a r e c and P f l a u m s u g g e s t e d t h a t S u e t o n i u s h e l d a l l t h r e e o f f i c e s o f a s t u d i i s , a b y b l i o -t h e c i s and ab e p i s t u l i s i n t h e p e r i o d f r o m J u l y 118 t o A p r i l 121 i n t h e P r i n c i p a t e o f H a d r i a n (1952: 8 3 - 8 4 ) . * Such a r a p i d a c c u m u l a t i o n o f p o s t s , h o w e v e r , i s a l m o s t u n i q u e , n o r does i t seem t o f i t i n w i t h t h e r e t i r i n g , h e s i t a n t S u e t o n i u s d i s p l a y e d i n P l i n y ' s l e t t e r s . Townend ( 1 9 6 1 a : 102-105) h a s s u g g e s t e d a s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n o r t h e p r o b l e m . By a t h o r o u g h exam-i n a t i o n o f i m p e r i a l t i t u l i i n i n s c r i p t i o n s , he shows t h a t t h e c o n c l u d i n g g e n i t i v e , imp. C a e s . T r a i a n i H a d r i a n i , c a n o n l y r e f e r t o t h e f i n a l p o s t , ab e p i s t u l i s . S u e t o n i u s t h e r e f o r e h e l d t h e p o s t s o f 'a s t u d i i s 1 and 'a b y b l i o t h e c i s ' d u r i n g t h e f i n a l y e a r s o f T r a j a n ' s P r i n c i p a t e . T h i s t h e o r y has b e e n , f o r t h e most p a r t , a c c e p t e d , ^ a l t h o u g h some s c h o l a r s p e r s i s t i n a s s i g n i n g a l l t h r e e p o s t s t o t h e H a d r i a n i c e r a . ^ N e v e r t h e -l e s s , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e t h a t S u e t o n i u s h e l d some unknown a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n ( s ) c i r c a 1 12/113; a s t u d i i s , 1 1 4 / 115; a b y b l i o t h e c i s , 116/117 and f i n a l l y , ab e p i s t u l i s s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e a c c e s s i o n o f H a d r i a n , p r o b a b l y i n 118. The f i n a l e v i d e n c e we have f o r S u e t o n i u s ' l i f e i s t h e l u r i d s t o r y c o n c e r n i n g h i s d i s m i s s a l r e c o r d e d i n t h e S.H.A.  H a d r i a n 11.3: S e p t i c i o C l a r o , p r a e f e c t o p r a e t o r i o , e t S u e t o n i o T r a n -q u i l l o e p i s t u l a r u m m a g i s t r o , m u l t i s q u e a l i i s , quod apud Sabinam uxorem i n i u s s u e i u s f a m i l i a r i u s se t u n c e g e r a n t quam r e v e r e n t i a domus a u l i c i a e p o s t u l a b a t , successores d e d i t ... 8 In the wake of the p u b l i c a t i o n of the Hippo i n s c r i p -t i o n , t h i s somewhat obscure s t o r y immediately became the centre of a s c h o l a r l y c o n t r o v e r s y . Crook (1957: 18-23) was the f i r s t i n t o the f r a y . The testimony appears during an ac-count of Hadrian's v i s i t to B r i t a i n i n 122, and the d i s m i s s a l was n a t u r a l l y dated to that year. However, i n an a n a l y s i s of the L i f e of Hadrian, Crook demonstrates that i t r e l i e s on two d i s t i n c t sources, one n a r r a t i v e and one m o r a l i z i n g . He sens-i b l y suggests that the s t o r y of the d i s m i s s a l of S e p t i c i u s and Suetonius came from the l a t t e r , but h i s reason f o r i t s i n s e r -t i o n i n t o the n a r r a t i v e at t h i s point ("... f o r v a r i e t y ' s sake ...",1957: 21) i s weak. He concludes that Suetonius was not dismissed i n 122, and i t i s impossible to say when he 12 was. Townend (1961a: 107-109) has r e f u t e d t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . While a c c e p t i n g that there are two sources, he suggests that the only p l a u s i b l e reason f o r an excursus on the d i s m i s s a l of two o f f i c e r s d u r i n g an account of a tour of B r i t a i n i s t h a t ' th a t was p r e c i s e l y when the event occurred. The n a r r a t i v e source mentioned the sacking and the i n s e r t e d m o r a l i z i n g source gave i t i t s l u r i d d e t a i l s . Furthermore, a tenure of at l e a s t nine years as ab e p i s t u l i s cannot be p a r a l l e l l e d , nor i s i t a credible" suggestion i n the l i g h t of the frequent changes of o f f i c e experienced by most i m p e r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , i n c l u d -13 in g Suetonius h i m s e l f . I t i s e a s i e r to p l o t a systematic c h r o n o l o g i c a l course f o r Suetonius' career i f h i s d i s m i s s a l f a l l s i n 122. Minor posts s u i t i n g h i s s c h o l a r l y r e p u t a t i o n are fo l l o w e d by j u n i o r 9 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s u n d e r T r a j a n , won f o r him by P l i n y , an i m p e r i a l s e c r e t a r i a t r o l e i n 119 c o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h e p r o m o t i o n o f S e p t i c i u s C l a r u s , h i s new p a t r o n , t o the p r e f e c t u r e and h i s s u b s e q u e n t d o w n f a l l w i t h t h e same p e r s o n i n 122. The c o n s e n -sus o f modern o p i n i o n has c o n c u r r e d w i t h s u c h a t h e o r y . ^ A b r i e f f l u r r y o f e x c i t e m e n t was c a u s e d by the d i s -c o v e r y o f a Roman m i l i t a r y d i p l o m a i n Romania i n 1978. I t seemed t o show t h a t Marcius T u r b o , S e p t i c i u s ' c o l l e a g u e as p r e -f e c t i n 119, was s t i l l i n c h a r g e o f D a n u b i a i n 123. I t was t h e r e f o r e c l a i m e d t h a t S e p t i c i u s ' a p p o i n t m e n t as p r e f e c t and S u e t o n i u s ' as ab e p i s t u l i s must be d a t e d a f t e r 123. E x p l a n -a t i o n , however, was soon a t hand. Roxan (1978: 50-51 and n.9) a g r e e s t h a t t h e d i p l o m a s h o u l d be d a t e d t o A u g u s t 123, b u t shows t h a t i t was i s s u e d a t l e a s t f o u r y e a r s a f t e r T u r b o ' s d i s c h a r g e from h i s D a n u b i a n c o m m i s s i o n . The t h e o r y o f ap-p o i n t m e n t i n 119 and d i s m i s s a l was a l l o w e d t o s t a n d . S u b sequent t o h i s d i s m i s s a l , n o t h i n g i s known o f S u e t o n i u s . The Suda r e c o r d s a l o n g l i s t o f works a t t r i b u t e d t o 'Tpayicui x x o s ' , w h i c h l e d Mace (1900: 220 f f . ) t o c a l c u l a t e t h a t he l i v e d t o c i r c a 141, t h u s a l l o w i n g t i m e f o r a l a r g e , l i t e r a r y o u t p u t . Such a c a l c u l a t i o n i s , however, f a u l t y . I t i s known n e i t h e r how q u i c k l y S u e t o n i u s worked n o r how many o f h i s t r e a t i s e s were p u b l i s h e d p r i o r t o o r d u r i n g h i s a d m i n i -s t r a t i v e c a r e e r (see B a l d w i n 1975: 70, W a l l a c e - H a d r i l l 1983: 7 ) . I n the a b s e n c e o f any e v i d e n c e t o the c o n t r a r y , i t can o n l y be assumed t h a t a f t e r h i s d i s m i s s a l , S u e t o n i u s s p e n t the remainder o £ h i s l i f e i n s c h o l a r l y r e t i r e m e n t . 10 I I . Date of Composition The only e x p l i c i t evidence f o r the date of compo-s i t i o n of the de v i t a Caesarum i s the statement of Iohannes Lydus, a s i x t h - c e n t u r y Greek w r i t e r , that Suetonius d e d i c a t e d the work to S e p t i c i u s C l a r u s while that man was p r a e f e c t u s  p r a e t o r i o (de. mag. pop. Rom. 2.6). Therefore, f o l l o w i n g Townend's c o n v i n c i n g c h r o n o l o g i c a l scheme (1961a: 108-109), the d e d i c a t i o n must have been made sometime between- Septicius.' appointment as p r e f e c t i n 119 and h i s d i s m i s s a l , while Hadrian was i n B r i t a i n , i n 122 (see s e c t i o n I ) . I t i s , however, f a r from c e r t a i n that the Galba was p u b l i s h e d at t h i s time. The d e d i c a t i o n , along with the account of J u l i u s Caesar's ch i l d h o o d , i s l o s t and some s c h o l a r s suggest that the L i v e s were pu b l i s h e d i n s e r i a l form and that the d e d i c a -t i o n was attached only to a part of the corpus of Suetonius' b i o g r a p h i e s . ^ The evidence f o r t h i s theory i s based on r a d i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t y l e between the e a r l y and l a t e L i v e s . Furthermore, i t i s claimed that at the time of the d e d i c a t i o n , most of the l a t e r b i o g r a p h i e s , i n c l u d i n g the Galba, had not yet even been w r i t t e n , f a r l e s s p u b l i s h e d . ^ In 1969, a revo-l u t i o n a r y theory proposed that the L i v e s from Galba to Domitian were composed and p u b l i s h e d f i r s t , w ith those of the J u l i o - C l a u d i a n s f o l l o w i n g (see Bowersock, 1969: 120-124). However, as i t has been subsequently shown, there i s no s a t i s -f a c t o r y evidence to suggest that Suetonius f o l l o w e d any sequence other than a c h r o n o l o g i c a l one (see Bradley 1973: 11 257-263). The t e r m i n u s p o s t quern f o r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f the D i v u s I u l i u s i s 119 ( s e e a b o v e ) , w h i l e the e v i d e n c e f o r a c o n -s i d e r a b l y l a t e r d a t e f o r t h e G a l b a i s p e r s u a s i v e . The e a r l i e r L i v e s i n c l u d e a p l e t h o r a o f d o cumentary e v i d e n c e , p r e s u m a b l y c u l l e d from t h e i m p e r i a l a r c h i v e s , o f w h i c h t h e r e i s none i n the G a l b a . A l s o , i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e D i v u s I u l i u s and A u g u s t u s i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e G a l b a shows a r e m a r k a b l e t e n d e n c y t o g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . S u e t o n i u s r e f r a i n s from i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s o u r c e s (see quidam p u t a n t ... a l i i ... n o n n u l l i , 3.1) and i s i n c r e a s i n g l y i n a c c u r a t e o v e r d e t a i l s (see n o t e on l e g i o n e s , 1 0 . 2 ) . Such s h o r t c o m i n g s might . i n d i c a t e f a u l t s i n S u e t o n i u s ' main s o u r c e i f t h e r e were s i m i l a r p r o b l e m s i n t h e a c c o u n t o f G a l b a ' s c a r e e r g i v e n by T a c i t u s . However, t h a t h i s t o r i a n does no t s u f f e r from s u c h d e f i c i e n c i e s . The d e c l i n e i n a r c h i v a l e v i d e n c e and i n c r e a s e i n v a g u e n e s s may r a t h e r i n d i c a t e S u e t o n -i u s ' i n a b i l i t y t o r e f e r t o m a t e r i a l s t i l l a v a i l a b l e t o o t h e r a u t h o r s . I n s h o r t , t h e y s u g g e s t t h a t , a t t h e t i m e o f h i s com-p o s i t i o n o f t h e G a l b a , he had a l r e a d y been d i s m i s s e d from h i s i m p e r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s . ^ A t e r m i n u s a n t e quern i s more d i f f i c u l t t o p r o p o s e , and any c o n j e c t u r e r e l i e s o n l y on c i r c u m s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e . Syme (1958: 780) s u g g e s t s t h a t the s t o r y o f T i t u s ' a l l e g e d a d u l t e r y w i t h D o m i t i a n ' s w i f e , D o m i t i a ( T i t . 1 0 . 2 ) , i n d i c a t e s t h a t S u e t o n i u s w r o t e t h a t b i o g r a p h y a f t e r h e r d e a t h c i r c a 130. The p a s s a g e s i n t h e V e s p a s i a n , T i t u s and D o m i t i a n , l o c a t e d by C a r n e y ( 1 9 6 8 : 7-21), t h a t may e x p r e s s a n t i - H a d r i a n i c s e n t i m e n t s - 12 a l s o tend to p o i n t to t h e i r composition i n a p e r i o d c o n s i d e r -a b l y a f t e r Suetonius' d i s m i s s a l . Added to t h i s i s h i s known h e s i t a n c y towards p u b l i c a t i o n (see P l i n y E p i s t . 5.10). None of t h i s evidenc on i t s own i n d i c a t e s a p a r t i c u l a r year of pub-l i c a t i o n f o r the l a t e r b i o g r a p h i e s . However, taken together they imply that Suetonius was working on the F l a v i a n s c i r c a 129/130. I f t h i s i s c o r r e c t , i t i s then f a i r to assume that he composed the Galba i n the preceding years (127/128?) and pub l i s h e d i t , maybe with the Otho and V i t e l l i u s , but more l i k e l y with a l l the remaining L i v e s , i n the e a r l y part of the next decade. I I I . Sources f o r the Galba The q u e s t i o n of Suetonius' sources f o r the Galba, and e s p e c i a l l y f o r the events of 69 and 70, has been e x h a u s t i v e l y d i s c u s s e d but remains unresolved. The f a c t t h at Suetonius has d e c l i n e d to name any of h i s a u t h o r i t i e s f o r the biography means that only t e n t a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n can be proposed. What seems c e r t a i n i s that Suetonius had access to a source that was a l s o used by T a c i t u s , P l u t a r c h and Dio. There are p a r t s of the Galba which resemble T a c i t u s ' H i s t o r i e s I, P l u t a r c h ' s L i f e of Galba and Dio's books 63 to 65 so c l o s e l y that the dependence of a l l of them on a common source, e i t h e r 18 d i r e c t l y or v i a each other, i s obvious. Close v e r b a l para-l l e l s between the v a r i o u s accounts guarantee the e x i s t e n c e of t h i s common source; c f "quod se aegros et i n v a l i d o s magnopere f o v i s s e t " , Suet. Galba 20.1, and "quod eos ... aegros impen-13 sione cura Galba r e f o v e b a t " , Tac. H i s t . 1.31.3. D e t a i l s par-t i c u l a r to one account but not to another negate the p o s s i b i -l i t y that any one author used any of the others as h i s main source. Various i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s f o r the common source have been proposed. Suetonius had o b v i o u s l y read the H i s t o r i e s of P l i n y the E l d e r . (See C a l . 8.1-3), and cases can a l s o be made f o r h i s u s i n g C l u v i u s Rufus (mentioned e x p l i c i t l y , though not as a source, at Nero 21.2), and Fabius R u s t i c u s , both of whom wrote h i s t o r i e s that concentrated on the r e i g n of Nero. There has, however, been no d e c i s i v e argument f o r one i n favour of 19 another. Nevertheless, the controversy surrounding the common source should not be allowed to conceal the f a c t that Sueto-nius used more than one a u t h o r i t y i n h i s composition of the Galba. C e r t a i n sources i n t r o d u c e d by r e f e r e n c e s to unident-i f i e d a u t h o r i t i e s ("sunt qui tradant ... pl u r e s autem p r o d i d -erunt 20) i n d i c a t e that he i n c l u d e d a v a r i e t y of evidence. I t should not be a u t o m a t i c a l l y assumed that those sources are P l i n y , C l u v i u s Rufus and Fabius R u s t i c u s . There must have been other authors, whose work i s now l o s t , on whom Suetonius 20 c o u l d draw. For h i s account of Galba's genealogy (3.2-4.1). Suetonius probably had access to f a m i l y r e c o r d s , h i s t o r i e s and 21 o b i t u a r i e s . The e t y m o l o g i c a l examination of the name Galba (3.1) i m p l i e s that there a l r e a d y e x i s t e d a w r i t t e n r e c o r d of t h e o r i e s f o r i t s o r i g i n . 14 Despite the f a c t that Suetonius was probably no longer employed i n the i m p e r i a l a r c h i v e s while working on the Galba (see s e c t i o n I I ) , the p u b l i s h e d a c t a d i u r n a would have been a v a i l a b l e to him. These would have provided contemporary l i t -22 e r a r y evidence f o r events d u r i n g Galba's l i f e . Moreover, some of Suetonius' sources may not have been w r i t t e n down at a l l . His childhood was spent i n the immediate aftermath of 69, and he may have heard s t o r i e s and anecdotes about Galba. In a d d i t i o n , d u r i n g h i s time i n Rome, Suetonius would s u r e l y have met people who had l i v e d there while Galba was emperor, and who may have provided him with accounts of, f o r example, the entry i n t o Rome (12.2) and the a s s a s s i n a t i o n (19-20). Verses such as the one recorded at Galba 13, and apocryphal s t o r i e s of h i s g l u t t o n y and sexual d e s i r e (22) were probably a l s o t r a n s m i t t e d o r a l l y (see"f erebant ...",22). D i r e c t eye-witness experience and r e s e a r c h may a l s o have been employed by Suetonius. I n d i c a t i o n s of l o c a t i o n o f t e n suggest that he had v i s i t e d the place h i m s e l f ("...prope Tarracinam s i n i s t r o r s u s Fundos petentibus ...",4.1). While there i s no e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e to i n s c r i p t i o n s or coinage i s -sues i n the Galba, e p i g r a p h i c and numismatic evidence may have been used as secondary sources f o r names (see 4.1) or f a m i l y 23 h i s t o r y (see 2) . F i n a l l y , the s e c t i o n on Galba's p h y s i c a l appearance (21) could have been the r e s u l t of Suetonius' per-sonal study of p o r t r a i t s and busts of the emperors. Such a v a r i e t y of n o n - l i t e r a r y sources does not 1 5 n e c e s s a r i l y mean that Suetonius made r e g u l a r use of a l l of them. Nevertheless, i t i s c l e a r that w i t h i n the context of h i s composition of an o r i g i n a l Galba, sources other than the "common source" were used by Suetonius to c o n t r i b u t e to i t s content, s t y l e and s t r u c t u r e . IV. Manuscripts of the de v i t a Caesarum The d e f i n i t i v e study of the manuscripts of the de v i t a Caesarum and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to each other was p u b l i s h e d i n 1908 by Ihm ( r e p r i n t e d 1958: p. i i i - i x ) i n the preface 2. A to h i s Teubner e d i t i o n . He showed that a l l the extant manu-s c r i p t s are d e r i v e d from one archetype, g e n e r a l l y agreed to have been s t o r e d at Fulda i n Germany. The abbot of F e r r i e r e s , Servatus Lupus, i n a l e t t e r dated to 884, requested a copy of t h i s manuscript as none e x i s t e d i n h i s area. I t i s from t h i s copy that the o l d e s t and most r e l i a b l e manuscript of the de v i t a Caesarum, the n i n t h century codex Memianus, i s a l l e g e d to 2 5 be d i r e c t l y d e r i v e d . Subsequently, f u r t h e r copies were made which, i n t u r n , l e d to other v e r s i o n s , each s u f f e r i n g from e r r o r and i n t e r p o l a t i o n . Apart from the codex Memianus, Ihm (1958: p.v) s p e c i -f i e s the ele v e n t h - c e n t u r y codices Gudianus and Vaticanus as 2 6 trustworthy manuscripts. Both are d e r i v e d from the same o r i g i n a l as M but have t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r problems. G s u f -f e r s from the mistaken c o r r e c t i o n s of a s c r i b e while V stops at chapter three of the C a l i g u l a . 16 Other manuscripts used by Ihm are d i v i d e d by him i n t o two groups. The f i r s t , d e r i v e d from a l o s t archetype X, keeps c l o s e to the readings of M. The other, copied from a l o s t archetype of the same p e r i o d as X, denoted by Y , contains more f a u l t s , lacunae and i n t e r p o l a t i o n s , and i s g e n e r a l l y l e s s r e l i a b l e . ^ With regard to the numerous f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y manu-s c r i p t s , Ihm d e c l a r e s that they are of l i t t l e value and were not used i n hi's r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the t e x t . T h i s theory has 2 g been ch a l l e n g e d , but the f a c t remains that the methods of t e x t u a l c r i t i c i s m employed by the s c r i b e s of the f o u r t e e n t h and f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s were not s c i e n t i f i c and, consequently, 2 9 t h e i r emendations ought to be t r e a t e d with c a u t i o n . Stemma R Q n T S O P L 17 Notes to Chapter One ''"Baldwin (1975:61) proposed a b i r t h d a t e as e a r l y as 62, on the grounds that 'adulescentulus' (de. gramm .4.9, Pom. 12. 2 ) r e f e r s not to youth, but to e a r l y manhood. He has, however, won l i t t l e support; Suetonius g i v e s no i n d i c a t i o n of any pre-F l a v i a n personal r e c o l l e c t i o n s . 2 Suetonius' use of 'adulescentulus' at both de. gramm. 4.9 and Pom. 12.2 suggests that the events are c l o s e l y r e -l a t e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y . 3See B i r l e y (1984: 247). . 4 E p i s t . 1.18;1.24;3.8; 5.10; 9.34; 10.94; 10.95. ^Despite the l a c k of any evidence that Suetonius ever subsequently pursued a m i l i t a r y c a r eer, O e l l a Corte (1967: 143) regards i t as a c e r t a i n t y that he h e l d the o f f i c e of t r i b u n e . T h i s i s extremely u n l i k e l y . By t h i s stage of h i s career Suetonius was s e t t l e d on an academic c a r e e r and as Syme (1981: 106) and W a l l a c e - H a d r i l l (1983: 5) suggest, the o f f e r of a m i l i t a r y o f f i c e would have r e c o g n i t i o n enough f o r him. 6 The date of Suetonius' marriage and the i d e n t i t y of h i s wife remain unknown. ^In support of t h e i r theory, Marec and Pflaum (1952: 78) c i t e a p a r a l l e l c o n f u s i o n betyween p o n t i f e x and flamen i n e p i -graphic c i t a t i o n s of the P o n t i f e x P a l a t u a l i s . 18 ^(cont.) For the o f f i c e of the Flamen V o l c a n a l i s at Rome see Varro L. L 5.84. 8See Meiggs (1973: 516). Cf. Townend (1961a: 101) who f i n d s i t hard to b e l i e v e that an i n s c r i p t i o n from Hippo would i n c l u d e d e t a i l s of a p r i e s t h o o d from anywhere other than Hippo i t s e l f . Supported by Crook (1957: 19) and Syme (1958: 780). ^ S e e i n t e r a l i o s Gascou (1978: 439-440) and Wallace-H a d r i l l (1983: 5). 1 1 V a n ' t Dack (1963: 183-184) has r e v i v e d Syme's implaus-i b l e theory (1958: 780) that the posts a s t u d i i s and a b y b l i -o t h e c i s were h e l d as one p o s i t i o n under Hadrian. Such a combination of o f f i c e s i s found only i n e x t r a o r d i n a r y s i t u -a t i o n s and would, i n a d d i t i o n , be i n d i c a t e d e p i g r a p h i c a l l y by the c o n j u n c t i o n 'et' (see Townend 1961: 103). 12 Acco r d i n g to Crook (1957: 22) the Hippo i n s c r i p t i o n i n -d i c a t e s that Suetonius was s t i l l i n o f f i c e i n at l e a s t 128, when he would have v i s i t e d A f r i c a with Hadrian. The i n s c r i p -t i o n would have been the reward f o r b e n e f i t s he bestowed on the n a t i v e s . 13 Townend does not even f e e l i t necessary to p o i n t out that there i s a b s o l u t e l y no evidence f o r Suetonius' v i s i t i n g A f r i c a with Hadrian, much l e s s bestowing favours upon North-A f r i c a n s with whom, ac c o r d i n g to Crook's theory, he would have had no previous connection. 19 14 Other v a l u a b l e suggestions have been made. Baldwin (1975: 68-69) claims that the r e a l reason f o r the d i s m i s s a l was not impr o p r i e t y on the part of S e p t i c i u s and Suetonius, but Sabina's enmity towards them and her i n f l u e n c e over Hadrian. Syme (1981: 111) suggests that a l l three p a r t i c i -pants i n the scandal were a c t u a l l y i n B r i t a i n at the time and not, as p r e v i o u s l y supposed, i n Rome. I n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s of argument both but, from a c h r o n o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view, of l i t t l e importance. 1 5 S e e i n t e r a l i o s Townend (1959: 285-289). "^See Townend (1959: 285). The same s c h o l a r goes on to suggest that only the Divus I u l i u s and the Augustus were pub-l i s h e d and dedic a t e d to S e p t i c i u s at t h i s time. Syme (1980: 117) agrees that the d e d i c a t i o n was not attached to a l l twelve L i v e s , but th i n k s that the f i r s t batch p u b l i s h e d i n c l u d e d the L i v e s from Divus I u l i u s to Nero, and that the remaining s i x were a l s o p u b l i s h e d together at an unknown l a t e r date. ^ F i r s t proposed by Townend (1959: 290) and supported by Syme (1981: 116). 18 See commentary on chapters 9 - 2 0 , passim. 1 9Mace's t e n t a t i v e suggestion (1900: 360-364) that the "common source" was P l i n y the E l d e r has been accepted by, i n t e r a l i o s , Momigliano (1932: 237-8) and Townend (1960: 105; 1961b: 227; and 1964: 337-344). Syme (1958:180-181) p r e f e r s to suspend judgement, but s t a t e s "that there i s not a l i t t l e 20 19 (cont.) to be s a i d f o r Fabius R u s t i c u s " . D e l i a Corte (1967: 114-116) admits the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of p o s i t i v e i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n , and proposes that the source be known only as "igno-t u s " . The nineteenth-century theory that C l u v i u s Rufus was the common source i s no longer accepted; Townend (1960: 98-119) has shown that he was r a t h e r the source f o r Suetonius' Greek.. ' ' ' In g e n e r a l , on the problem of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n see Syme, 1958: App. 29, p. 674-676. 20 See the testimony of Josephus (BJ 20: 154-157), who t e l l s of the l a r g e number of h i s t o r i a n s who wrote about the Neronian p e r i o d . I t i s hard to b e l i e v e that i n f o r m a t i o n on Galba would not have been i n c l u d e d i n these. In a d d i t i o n , the t u r b u l e n t events of 68 and 69 would s u r e l y have i n s p i r e d a s i m i l a r l y l a r g e l i t e r a r y output. 21 I n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y h i s t o r i e s were p u b l i s h e d (see P l i n y N.H. 35.7) and works such as the De f a m i l i i s of M. V a l e r i u s M e s s a l l a Rufus were a v a i l a b l e . Suetonius could have a l s o used the l a u d a t o r y o b i t u a r i e s w r i t t e n by, f o r example, T i t i -n i us C apito and C. Fannius, that were popular i n the F l a v i o - . T r a j a n i c p e r i o d . On t h i s type of e x i t u s l i t e r a t u r e and i t s authors see P l i n y E p i s t . 5.5.3; 8.12.4 of Sherwin-White (1966: ad l o c . and p. 239). 2 2 Suetonius h i m s e l f records that J u l i u s Caesar i n s t i t u t e d the p u b l i c a t i o n of the a c t a d i u r n a c i r c a 59 B.C. (Suet. Div. I u l . 20.1). For T a c i t u s ' use of the a c t a d i u r n a , see Ann. 3.3.2. 21 2 3 S e e D e n n i s o n ( 1 8 9 8 : 59-63 and 6 6 ) . 24 O t h e r d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t t r a d i t i o n were p r o d u c e d by S m i t h ( 1 9 0 1 : 19-58) and A l e x a n d e r ( 1 9 0 8 : 1-6). 25 B o t h t h e F u l d a o r i g i n a l and i t s F e r r i e r e s c o p y a r e now l o s t . 2 6 H e r e a f t e r , t h e c o d i c e s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as M, G and V r e s p e c t i v e l y . 2 7 P a r t i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f a r c h e t y p e s a r e p o s s i b l e f r o m t h e a g r e e m e n t o f m a n u s c r i p t s . The c o n s e n s u s o f L, P, 0, S and T p r o d u c e X; X and V p r o d u c e X"*~. S i m i l a r l y , n, Q and R p r o -duce w h i c h c o m b i n e s w i t h S and T t o g i v e Y^. F i n a l l y , t h e a g r e e m e n t o f X^ and Y^ p r o v i d e s t h e p a r t i a l r e s t o r a t i o n o f an a r c h e t y p e f o r a l l c o d i c e s , T h i s a r c h e t y p e must r e p r e s e n t p a r t o f t h e F u l d a o r i g i n a l o r i t s F e r r i e r e s c o p y . 7 8 N o t a b l y , p r i o r t o Ihm's T e u b n e r t e x t , by Howard ( 1 9 0 1 : 2 6 1 - 2 6 5 ) . 29 On t h e f a u l t y methods e m p l o y e d by t e x t u a l c r i t i c s d u r i n g t h e f o u r t e e n t h and f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , see R e y n o l d s and W i l s o n (1974: 1 2 5 ) . 22 CHAPTER TWO THE TEXT The t e x t retyped here i s p r i n c i p a l l y t h a t of Ihm (1958: 260-273) i n h i s Teubner e d i t i o n . In the few places where I have not agreed with h i s readings I have made changes. These a l t e r a t i o n s and any other s i g n i f i c a n t t e x t u a l problems are d i s c u s s e d f u l l y i n the commentary. SIGLA n : The rea d i n g of a l l e x i s t i n g codices M : codex Memianus, ParisLnus 6115 G : codex Gudianus 268 V : codex Vaticanus 1904 L : codex Laurentianus 68.7 P : codex P a r i s i n u s 5801 0 : codex Laurentianus 66.39 S : codex Montpessulanus 117 T : codex B e r o l i n e n s i s 337 n : codex P a r i s i n u s 6116 Q : codex P a r i s i n u s 5802 R : codex Regius musei B r i t a n n i c i 15C111 a l l codices not i n c l u d e d i n the above l i s t . Most dated to the f i f t e e n t h century. 1 Progenies Caesarum i n Nerone d e f e c i t : quod futurum compluribus quidem s i g n i s , sed u e l e u i d e n t i s s i m i s duobus a p p a r u i t . L i u i a e o l im post Augusti s t a t i m n u p t i a s Veien-tanum suum r e u i s e n t i p r a e t e r u o l a n s a q u i l a g a l l i n a m albam ramulum l a u r i r o s t r o tenentem, i t a ut rapuerat, d e m i s i t i n gremium; cumque n u t r i r i a l i t e m , pangi ramulum p l a c u i s s e t , t a n t a pullorum suboles p r o u e n i t , ut hodieque ea u i l l a ad G a l l i n a s uocetur, t a l e uero lauretum, ut t r i u m p h a t u r i Caes-ares inde laureas decerperent; f u i t q u e mos triumphantibus, a l i a s confestim eodem loco pangere; et obseruatum e s t sub cuiusque obitum arborem ab i p s o i n s t i t u t a m e l a n g u i s s e . ergo nouissimo Neronis anno et s i l u a omnis e x a r u i t r a d i c i t u s , et quidquid i b i g a l l i n a r u m e r a t i n t e r i i t . ac subinde t a c t a de caelo Caesarum aede c a p i t a omnibus simul s t a t u i s d e c i d e r u n t , Augusti etiam sceptrum e manibus excussum e s t . 2 Neroni Galba s u c c e s s i t n u l l o gradu contingens Caesarum domum, sed haud dubie n o b i l i s s i m u s magnaque et uetere pro-sa p i a , ut qui statuarum t i t u l i s pronepotem se Q u i n t i C a t u l i C a p i t o l i n i semper a s c r i p s e r i t , imperator uero etiam stemma i n a t r i o p r o p o s u e r i t , quo paternam originem ad Iouem, maternam ad Pasiphaam Minonis uxorem r e f e r r e t . 3 Imagines et e l o g i a u n i u e r s i g e n e r i s exequi longum e s t , f a m i l i a e b r e u i t e r attingam. qui primus S u l p i c i o r u m cognomen Galbae t u l i t cur aut unde t r a x e r i t , ambigitur. quidam putant, quod oppidum Hispaniae f r u s t r a d i u oppugnatum i n l i t i s demum 1 eas L i p s i u s , i l l a s Burman 2 m i n o i s codd. p r a e t e r M L Rd 2^ g a l b a n o f a c i b u s s u c c e n d e . r i t ; a l i i , quod i n d i u t u r n a u a l e t u -d i n e g a l b e o , i d e s t r e m e d i i s l a n a i n u o l u t i s , a s s i d u e u t e r e t u r , n o n n u l l i , quod p r a e p i n g u i s f u e r i t u i s u s , quern g a l b a m G a l l i u o c e n t ; u e l c o n t r a , quod tam e x i l i s , quam s u n t a n i m a l i a quae 3 .2 i n a e s c u l i s n a s c u n t u r a p p e l l a n t u r q u e g a l b a e . f a m i l i a m i l l u s -t r a v i t S e r u i u s G a l b a c o n s u l a r i s , temporum s u o r u m t e t e l o q u e n -t i s s i m u s , quem t r a d u n t H i s p a n i a m ex p r a e t u r a o p t i n e n t e m , t r i -g i n t a L u s i t a n o r u m m i l i b u s p e r f i d i a t r u c i d a t i s , V i r i a t [ h ] i n i b e l l i causam e x t i t i s s e . e i u s n e p o s ob r e p u l s a m c o n s u l a t u s i n f e n s u s I u l i o C a e s a r i , c u i u s l e g a t u s i n G a l l i a f u e r a t , c o n -s p i r a u i t cum C a s s i o e t B r u t o , p r o p t e r quod P e d i a l e g e d a m n a -3 . 3 t u s e s t . ab h o c s u n t i m p e r a t o r i s G a l b a e a u u s a c p a t e r : auus c l a r i o r s t u d i i s quam d i g n i t a t e - n o n e n i m e g r e s s u s p r a e t u r a e gradum - m u l t i p l i c e m n e c i n c u r i o s a m h i s t o r i a m e d i d i t ; p a t e r c o n s u l a t u f u n c t u s , quanquam b r e u i c o r p o r e a t q u e e t i a m g i b b e r m o d i c a e q u e i n d i c e n d o f a c u l t a t i s , c a u s a s i n d u s t r i e a c t i t a u i t . 3 . 4 u x o r e s h a b u i t Mummiam A c h a i c a m , n e p t e m C a t u l i p r o n e p t e m q u e L. Mummi, q u i C o r i n t h u m e x c i d i t ; i t e m L i u i a m O c e l l i n a m d i t e m a d -modum e t p u l c h r a m , a qua tamen n o b i l i t a t i s c a u s a a p p e t i t u s u l t r o e x i s t i m a t u r e t a l i q u a n t o e n i x i u s , p o s t q u a m s u b i n d e i n -s t a n t i u i t i u m c o r p o r i s s e c r e t o p o s i t a u e s t e d e t e x i t , ne q u a s i i g n a r a m f a l l e r e u i d e r e t u r . e x A c h a i c a l i b e r o s Ga ium e t S e r -u i u m p r o c r e a u i t , quorum m a i o r G a i u s a t t r i t i s f a c u l t a t i b u s u r b e c e s s i t p r o h i b i t u s q u e a T i b e r i o s o r t i r i a n n o suo p r o c o n -s u l a t u m u o l u n t a r i a m o r t e o b i i t . 3.2 et om n1 25 4 Ser. Galba imperator M. V a l e r i o Messala Gn. L e n t u l o cons, natus est V i l l i . K a l . Ian. i n u i l l a c o l l i s u p e r p o s i t a prope Tarracinam s i n i s t r o r s u s Fundos p e t e n t i b u s , adoptatusque a nouerca sua Liuianum nomen et O c e l l a r e cognomen assumpsit mutato praenomine; nam Lucium mox pro Seruio usque ad tempus i m p e r i i u s u r p a u i t . constat Augustum puero adhuc, s a l u t a n t i se i n t e r aequales, apprehensa buccula d i x i s s e : K O M. au T E I C V O V T f i j apxnc; n u ^ v * a p a T p u c n • sed et T i b e r i u s , cum comperisset imperaturum eum uerum i n senecta: u i u a t sane, a i t , quando i d 4.2 ad nos n i h i l p e r t i n e t . auo quoque e i u s f u l g u r p r o c u r a n t i , cum exta de manibus a q u i l a r a p u i s s e t et i n f r u g i f e r a m quercum c o n t u l i s s e t , responsum est summum sed serum imperium p o r t e n d i f a m i l i a e ; et i l l e i r r i d e n s : sane, i n q u i t , cum mula pepererit. n i h i l aeque postea Galbam temptantem res nouas c o n f i r m a u i t quam mulae partus, c e t e r i s q u e ut obscaenum ostentum abhorren-t i b u s , solus pro l a e t i s s i m o a c c e p i t memor s a c r i f i c i i d i c t i q u e a u i . 4.3 Sumpta v i r i l i toga somniauit Fortunam dicentem, s t a r e se ante f o r e s defessam et n i s i ocius r e c i p e r e t u r , cuicumque obuio praedae futuram. utque e u i g i l a u i t , aperto a t r i o s i m u l -acrum aeneum deae c u b i t a l i maius i u x t a limen i n u e n i t idque gremio suo Tusculum, u b i a e s t i u a r e consueuerat, a u e x i t et i n parte aedium consecratum menstruis deinceps s u p p l i c a t i o n i b u s et p e r u i g i l i o a n n i u e r s a r i o c o l u i t . 4.4 Quanquam autem nondum aetate c o n s t a n t i ueterem c i u i -t a t i s exoletumque morem ac tantum i n domo sua haerentem 4.1 s i n i s t r o r s u s M R, s i n i s t r o s n, -rsum G T L i v i a n u m B e n t l e y , L i v i a Ihm, L i v i u m H e i n s i u s , L i v i i B e r o a l d . ( s ) 26 o b s t i n a t i s s i m e r e t i n u i t , ut l i b e r t i seruique b i s die frequen-tes adessent ac mane s a l u e r e , u e s p e r i u a l e r e s i b i s i n g u l i d i c e r e n t . 5 i n t e r l i b e r a l e s d i s c i p l i n a s a t t e n d i t et i u r i . d e d i t et matrimonio operam; uerum amissa uxore Lepida duobusque ex ea f i l i i s remansit i n c a e l i b a t u neque s o l l i c i t a r i u l l a con-d i c i o n e amplius p o t u i t , ne Agrippinae quidem, <quae-> uiduata morte D o m i t i [ i ] maritum quoque adhuc necdum caelibem Galbam adeo omnibus s o l l i c i t a u e r a t modis, ut i n conuentu matronarum c o r r e p t a i u r g i o atque etiam manu p u l s a t a s i t a matre Lepidae. 5.2 Obseruauit ante omnis Liuiam Augustam, cuius et uiuae g r a t i a plurimum u a l u i t et mortuae testamento paene d i t a t u s e s t ; s e s t e r t i u m namque quingenties praecipuum i n t e r l e g a t a -r i e s h a b u i t , sed quia n o t a t a , non p e r s c r i p t a e r a t summa, herede T i b e r i o legatum ad quingenta reuocante, ne haec quidem a c c e p i t . . , 6 Honoribus ante legitimum tempus i n i t i s p r a e t o r commis-sione ludorum F l o r a l i u m nouum s p e c t a c u l i genus elephantos funambulos e d i d i t ; exim p r o u i n c i a e Aquitaniae anno f e r e prae-f u i t ; mox consulatum per sex menses ordinarium g e s s i t , e u e n i t -que ut i n eo ipse L. Domitio p a t r i Neronis, i p s i S a l u i u s Otho pater Othonis succederet, u e l u t praesagium i n s e q u e n t i s casus, quo medius i n t e r u t r i u s q u e f i l i o s e x t i t i t imperator. 5.1 quae Becker. Domitii quae n Q. uiduatae codd. praeter M G. viduata <ea> Bentley 5.2 quinquagies Casaub. 27 6.2 A Gaio Caesare < i n locum G a e t u > l i c i s u b s t i t u t u s , p o s t r i d i e quam ad le g i o n e s u e n i t , s o l l e m n i f o r t e s p e c t a c u l o plaudentes i n h i b u i t data t e s s e r a , ut manus paenula[s] c o n t i n -erent; statimque per c a s t r a iactatum e st d i s c e miles m i l i -6.3 t a r e : Galba e s t , non G a e t u l i c u s . p a r i s e u e r i t a t e i n t e r d i x i t commeatus p e t i . ueteranum ac tironem m i l i t e m opere assiduo c o r r o b o r a u i t matureque b a r b a r i s , qui iam i n G a l l i a m usque proruperant, c o e r c i t i s , p r a e s e n t i quoque Gaio talem et se et exercitum approbauit, ut i n t e r innumeras contractasque ex omnibus p r o u i n c i i s copias neque testimonium neque praemia ampliora u l l i p e r c i p e r e n t ; i p s e maxime i n s i g n i s , quod camp-estrem dexursionem scuto moderatus, etiam ad essedum imper-a t o r i s per u i g i n t i passuum/milia c u c u r r i t . 7 Caede Gai n u n t i a t a m u l t i s ad occasionem s t i m u l a n t i b u s quietem p r a e t u l i t . per hoc g r a t i s s i m u s Claudio receptusque i n cohortem amicorum tantae d i g n a t i o n i s est h a b i t u s , ut cum s u b i t a e i u a l i t u d o nec adeo g r a u i s i n c i d i s s e t , d i l a t u s s i t e x p e d i t i o n i s B r i t a n n i c a e d i e s . Africam pro consule b i e n n i o o p t i n u i t e x t r a sortem e l e c t u s ad ordinandam prouinciam et i n -f e s t i n a d i s s e n s i o n e et barbarorum tumultu inquietam; o r d i n -auitque magna s e u e r i t a t i s ac i u s t i t i a e cura etiam i n p a r u u l i s 7.2 rebus. m i l i t i , qui per expeditionem a r t i s s i m a annona r e s i -duum ci b a r i o r u m t r i t i c i modium centum d e n a r i i s u e n d i d i s s e arguebatur, u e t u i t , simul atque i n d i g e r e c i b o c o e p i s s e t , a quoquam opem f e r r i ; et i s fame e x t a b u i t . at i n i u r e dicendo 6.2 l i c i M X, l i c i o G, l i c i s y. < i n locum G a e t u > l i c i R oth. <in a d m i n i s t r a t i o n e e x e r c i t u s G e r m a n i c i G a e t u > l i c i Madvig. < l e g a t u s Germaniae superans G a e t u > l i c i Ihm. 28 cum de p r o p r i e t a t e iumenti quaereretur, l e u i b u s utrimque argumentis et t e s t i b u s ideoque d i f f i c i l i c o n i e c t u r a u e r i t a t i s , i t a d e c r e u i t ut ad lacum, u b i adaquari s o l e b a t , duceretur c a p i t e i n u o l u t o atque ibidem r e u e l a t o eius e s s e t , ad quem sponte se a potu r e c e p i s s e t . 8 Ob res et tunc i n A f r i c a et o l i m i n Germania gestas ornamenta t r i u m p h a l i a a c c e p i t et sacerdotium t r i p l e x , i n t e r quindecimuiros sodalesque T i t i o s item Augustales cooptatus; atque ex eo tempore prope ad medium Neronis principatum i n secessu plurimum u i x i t , ne ad gestandum quidem umquam a l i t e r i t e r i n g r e ssus quam ut secum u e h i c u l o proximo d e c i e s s e s t e r -8.2 tium i n auro efferret, donee i n oppido Fundis moranti Hispania Tarraco-nensis oblata est. acciditque, ut cum prouinciam ingressus s a c r i f i -caret, intra aedem publicam puero e ministris acerram tenenti capillus repente toto capite canesceret, nec defuerunt qui interpretarentur s i g n i f i c a r i rerum mutationem successurumque iuueni senem, hoc est ipsum Neroni. non multo post i n Cantabriae lacum fulmen decid.it repertaeque sunt duodecim secures, haud ambiguum summae i m p e r i i signum. 9 Per octo annos u a r i e et i n a e q u a b i l i t e r prouinciam r e x i t , primo acer et uehemens et i n coercendis quidem d e l i c -t i s u e l immodicus. nam et nummulario non ex f i d e u e r s a n t i pecunias manus amputauit mensaeque e i u s a d f i x i t , et tutorem, quod pupillum, c u i s u b s t i t u t u s heres e r a t , ueneno necasset, cruce a d f e c i t ; implorantique leges et ciuem Romanum se t e s t i -f i c a n t i , quasi s o l a c i o et honore a l i q u o poenam le u a t u r u s , 8.1 a l i t e r i t e r i n g r e s s u s T o r r , i t e r i n g r e s s u s Ihm, < a l > i t e r e g r e s s u s L i p s i u s . 29 mutari multoque praeter ceteras a l t i o r e m et dealbatam s t a t u i crucem i u s s i t . paulatim i n desidiam segnitiamque conuersus es t , ne quid materiae praeberet Neroni et, ut d i c e r e solebat, quod nemo rationem o t i i s u i reddere cogeretur. 9.2 Carthagine noua conuentum agens tumultuari G a l l i a s comperit legato Aquitaniae a u x i l i a implorante; supervenerunt et V i n d i c i s l i t t e r a e h o r t a n t i s , ut humano generi assertorem ducemque se accommodaret. nec d i u cunctatus condicionem partim metu partim spe r e c e p i t ; nam et mandata Neronis de nece sua ad procuratores clam missa deprenderat et confirma-batur cum secundissimis a u s p i c i i s et ominibus u i r g i n i s honestae u a t i c i n a t i o n e , tanto magis quod eadem i l i a carmina sacerdos Iouis Cluniae ex p e n e t r a l i somnio monitus eruerat ante ducentos annos s i m i l i t e r a f a t i d i c a p u e l l a pronuntiata. quorum carminum sententia erat oriturum quandoque ex Hispania principem dominumque rerum. 10 I g i t u r cum quasi manumissionivacaturus conscendisset t r i b u n a l , p r o p o s i t i s ante se damnatorum occisorumque a Nerone quam p l u r i m i s imaginibus et adstante n o b i l i puero, quern e x u l -antem e proxima B a l i a r i i n s u l a ob i d ipsum a c c i u e r a t , deplor-. a u i t temporum statum consalutatusque imperator legatum se 10.2 senatus ac p o p u l i R. professus est. dein i u s t i t i o i n d i c t o , e plebe quidem prouinciae legiones et a u x i l i a c o n s c r i p s i t super exercitum ueterem l e g i o n i s unius duarumque alarum et cohort-ium trium; at e primoribus prudentia atque aetate praestan-t i b u s u e l i n s t a r senatus, ad quos de maiore re quotiens opus 10.2 legionem Heracus. 30 ]0.3esset r e f e r r e t u r , i n s t i t u i t . d e l e g i t et e q u e s t r i s o r d i n i s iuuenes, qui manente anulorum aureorum usu e u o c a t i a p p e l l a -r e n t u r excubiasque c i r c a cubiculum suum u i c e militum agerent. etiarn per p r o u i n c i a s e d i c t a d i m i s i t , auctor i n s i n g u l i s u n i -u e r s i s q u e c o n s p i r a n d i simul et ut qua posset quisque opera communem causam i u u a r e n t . ]0.4 Per idem fere tempus i n munitione o p p i d i , quod sedem b e l l o d e l e g e r a t , r e p e r t u s e st anulus opere antiquo, s c a l p -t u r a gemmae V i c t o r i a m cum tropaeo exprimente; ac subinde Alexandrina nauis Dertosam a p p u l i t armis onusta, sine guber-natore, s i n e nauta aut uectore u l l o , ut nemini dubium esset iustum piumque et fauentibus d i i s bellum s u s c i p i : cum r e -]0.5pente ex i n o p i n a t o prope cuncta t u r b a t a sunt. alarum a l t e r a c a s t r i s appropinquantem p a e n i t e n t i a mutati sacramenti de-s t i t u e r e conata est aegreque r e t e n t a i n o f f i c i o , et s e r u i , quos a l i b e r t o Neronis ad fraudem praeparatos muneri accep-e r a t , per angiportum i n balneas transeuntem paene i n t e r -emerunt, n i s i c o hortantibus i n uicem ne occasionem omit-t e r e n t , i n t e r r o g a t i s q u e de qua occasione l o q u e r e n t u r , ex-pressa c r u c i a t u c o n f e s s i o e s s e t . 11 acce.S-i'/jjy, J t a n t a d i s c r i m i n a mors V i n d i c i s , qua maxime consternatus d e s t i t u t o q u e s i m i l s non multum a f u i t quin u i t a e r e n u n t i a r e t . sed superuenientibus ab urbe n u n t i i s ut oc-cisum Neronem cunctosque i n uerba sua i u r a s s e cognouit, de-p o s i t a l e g a t i s u s c e p i t C a s a r i s appellationem i t e r q u e Ingres-sus e st paludatus ac dependente a c e r u i c i b u s pugione ante 31 pectus; nec p r i u s usum togae r e c i p e r a u i t quam opp r e s s i s qui nouas res moliebantur, p r a e f e c t o p r a e t o r i Nymphidio Sabino Romae, i n Germania F o n t e i o Capitone, i n A f r i c a C l o d i o Macro l e g a t i s . 12 Praecesserat de eo fama s a e u i t i a e simul atque a u a r i -t i a e , quod c i u i t a t e s Hispaniarum Galliarumque, quae cunc-t a n t i b u s s i b i a c c e s s e r a n t , g r a u i o r i b u s t r i b u t i s , quasdam etiam murorum d e s t r u c t i o n e p u n i s s e t et p r a e p o s i t o s procura-toresque s u p p l i c i o c a p i t i s a d f e c i s s e t cum coniugibus ac l i b e r i s ; quodque oblatam a Tarraconensibus e uetere templo Io u i s coronam auream l i b r a r u m quindecim c o n f l a s s e t ac t r e s 12.2uncias, quae ponderi deerant, i u s s i s s e t e x i g i . ea fama et confirmata et aucta e s t , ut primum i n t r o i i t . nam cum c l a s s -i a r i o s , quos Nero ex remigibus i u s t o s n i l i t e s f e c e r a t , r e -d i r e ad p r i s t i n u m statum cogeret, r e c u s a n t i s atque insuper aquilam et signa p e r t i n a c i u s f l a g i t a n t i s non modo inmisso e q u i t e d i s i e c i t , sed decimault stiam. item Germanorum co-hortem a Caesaribus o l i m ad custodiam c o r p o r i s i n s t i t u t a m multisque experimentis f i d e l i s s i m a m d i s s o l u i t ac sine com-modo u l l o r e m i s i t i n patriam, quasi Cn. D o l a b e l l a e , i u x t a ]2.3cuius hortos tendebat, proniorem. i l i a quoque uerene an f a l s o per l u d i b r i u m i a c t a b a n t u r , a d p o s i t a l a u t i o r e cena ingemuisse eum, et o r d i n a r i o quidem d i s p e n s a t o r i breuiarium rationum o f f e r e n t i paropsidem leguminis pro s e d u l i t a t e ac d i l i g e n t i a p o r r e x i s s e , Cano autem choraulae mire p l a c e n t l denarios quinque donasse p r o l a t o s manu sua e p e c u l i a r i b u s l o c u l i s s u i s . 12.3 r a t i o n e m MLPT, b r e v i a r u m r a t i o n e m Buch. 32 13 Quare ad u e n t u s e i u s non p e r i n d e g r a t u s f u i t , i d q u e p r o x i m o s p e c t a c u l o a p p a r u i t , s i q u i d e m A t e l l a n i s n o t i s s i m u m c a n t i c u m <com..frg. p. 333> e x o r s i s : u e n i t [ i ] Onesimus a u i l l a c u n c t i s i m u l s p e c t a t o r e s c o n s e n t i e n t e uoce r e l i q u a m p a r t e m r e t < t > u l e r u n t ac s a e p i u s u e r s u r e p e t i t o e g e r u n t . 14 m a i o r e adeo e t f a u o r e e t a u c t o r i t a t e a d e p t u s e s t quam g e s s i t i mperium, quanquam m u l t a documenta e g r e g i i p r i n c i p i s d a r e t ; s e d nequaquam tarn g r a t a e r a n t , quam i n u i s a quae s e c u s f i e r e n t . 14.2 R e g e b a t u r t r i u m a r b i t r i o , quos una e t i n t r a P a l a t i u m h a b i t a n t i s nec umquam non a d h a e r e n t i s paedagogos u u l g o u o c -a b a n t . i i e r a n t T. V i n i u s l e g a t u s e i u s i n H i s p a n i a , c u p i d -i t a t i s immensae; C o r n e l i u s L a c o ex a s s e s s o r e p r a e f e c t u s p r a e t o r i i , a r r o g a n t i a s o c o r d i a q u e i n t o l e r a b i l i s ; l i b e r t u s I c e l u s , p a u l o a n t e a n u l i s a u r e i s e t M a r c i a n i cognomine o r -n a t u s ac iam summae e q u e s t r i s g r a d u s c a n d i d a t u s . h i s d i -v e r s o u i t i o r u m g e n e r e g r a s s a n t i b u s adeo se abutendum p e r -m i s i t e t t r a d i d i t , u t u i x s i b i i p s e c o n s t a r e t , modo a c e r b -i o r p a r c i o r q u e , modo r e m i s s i o r ac n e g l e g e n t i o r quam c o n v e n -i r e t p r i n c i p i e l e c t o a t q u e i l l u d a e t a t i s . 14.3 Quosdam c l a r o s ex u t r o q u e o r d i n e u i r o s s u s p i c i o n e minima i n a u d i t o s c o n d e m n a v i t . c i u i t a t e s R. r a r o d e d i t , 13 v e n i t onesimus d, v e n i t i o n e simus ( s i m u l G) £2, v e n i t Dorsennus Schmidt. 33 i u r a trium liberorum u i x uni atque a l t e r i ac ne i s quidem n i s i ad certum praefinitumque tempus. i u d i c i b u s sextam de-curiam a d i c i precantibus non modo negauit, sed et conces-sum a C l a u d i o beneficium, ne hieme i n i t i o q u e anni ad iudicandum euocarentur, e r i p u i t . 15 e x i s t i m a b a t u r etiam s e n a t o r i a et e q u e s t r i a o f f i c i a b i e n n i s p a t i o determinaturus nec daturus n i s i i n u i t i s ac r e c u s a n t i b u s . l i b e r a l i t a t e s Neronis non plus decimis con-c e s s i s per quinquaginta equites R. ea condicione reuocandas c u r a u i t exigendasque, ut et s i quid s c a e n i c i ac x y s t i c i donatum o l i m u e n d i d i s s e n t , a u f e r r e t u r emptoribus, quando 15.2 i l l i p r e t i o absumpto soluere n e q u i r e n t . at contra n i h i l non per comites atque l i b e r t o s p r e t i o a d d i c i aut d o n a r i g r a t i a passus e s t , u e c t i g a l i a immunitates, poenas innocen-tiuni impunitates noxiorum. quin etiam populo R. deposcente su p p l i c i u m H a l o t i et T i g i l l i n i s o l o s ex omnibus Neronis e m i s s a r i i s u e l m a l e f i c e n t i s s i m o s incolumes p r a e s t i t i t atque insuper Halotum p r o c u r a t i o n e amplissima o r n a u i t , pro T i g i l -l i n o etiam s a e u i t i a e populum e d i c t o i n c r e p u i t . 16 Per haec prope u n i u e r s i s o r d i n i b u s o f f e n s i s u e l prae-cipua f l a g r a b a t i n u i d i a apud m i l i t e s . nam cum i n uerba eius a b s e n t i s i u r a n t i b u s donatiuum grandius s o l i t o prae-p o s i t i p r o n u n t i a s s e n t , neque ratam rem habuit et subinde i a c t a u i t l e g e r e se m i l i t e m , non emere consuesse; atque eo quidem nomine omnis, qui ubique erant, e x a c e r b a u i t . c e t e -rum p r a e t o r i a n o s etiam metu et i n d i g n i t a t e commouit, remou-]6.2 ens subinde plerosque ut suspectos et Nymphidi s o c i o s . sed 34 maxime fremebat s u p e r i o r i s Germaniae e x e r c i t u s f r a u d a r i se praemis nauatae aduersus G a l l o s et Vindicem operae. ergo p r i m i obsequium rumpere a u s i K a l . Ian. a d i g i S a c r a m e n t o n i s i i n nomen senatus recusarunt statimque l e g a t i o n e m ad p r a e t o r i a n o s cum mandatis destinauerunt: d i s p l i c e r e imper-atorem i n Hispania factum; e l i g e r e n t i p s i quem c u n c t i exer-c i t u s comprobarent. 17 quod ut nuntiatum e s t , d e s p e c t u i esse non tarn senec-tam suam quam orbitatem r a t u s , Pisonem F r u g i L i c i n i a n u m nobilem egregiumque iuuenem ac s i b i olim probatissimum testamentoque semper i n bona et nomen adscitum repente e media salutantium turba adprehendit f i l i u m q u e a p p e l l a n s perdux i t i n c a s t r a ac pro contione a d o p t a u i t , ne tunc q u i -dem d o n a t i u i u l l a mentione f a c t a . quo f a c i l i o r e m o c c a s i o -nem M. S a l u i o Othoni p r a e b u i t p e r f i c i e n d i conata i n t r a sextum a d o p t i o n i s diem. 18 Magna et a s s i d u a monstra iam inde a p r i n c i p i o exitum e i , q u a l i s e u enit, portenderant. cum per omne i t e r d e x t r a s i n i s t r a q u e oppidatim uictimae caederentur, taurus s e c u r i s i c t u consternatus rupto u i n c u l o essedum eius i n u a s i t e l a t i s -que pedibus totum cruore p e r f u d i t ; ac descendentem s p e c u l a -t o r impulsu turbae lancea prope u u l n e r a u i t . urbem quoque et deinde Palatium ingressum e x c e p i t t e r r a e tremor et assira-18.2 i l i s quidam mugitui sonus. secuta sunt a l i q u a n t o manifest-i o r a . monile m a r g a r i t i s gemmisque consertum ad ornandam Fortunam suam Tusculanam ex omni gaza s e c r e u e r a t ; i d repente 17 insuper Torr, nuper Cornelissen 35 quasi a u g u s t i o r e d i g n i u s l o c o C a p i t o l i n a e V e n e r i d e d i c a v i t , ac proxima nocte somniauit speciem Fortunae q u e r e n t i s f r a u -datam se dono d e s t i n a t o , minantisque erepturam et ipsam quae d e d i s s e t . cumque e x t e r r i t u s luce prima ad expiandum somnium, praemissis qui rem diuinam appararent, Tusculum e x c u c u r r i s s e t , n i h i l i n u e n i t p r a e t e r tepidam i n ara f a u i l -lam atratumque i u x t a senem i n c a t i n o v i t r e o t [ h ] u s tenentem 18.3 et i n c a l i c e f i c t i l i merum. obseruatum etiam est K a l . Ian. s a c r i f i c a n t i coronam de c a p i t e e x c i d i s s e , a u s p i c a n t i p u l l o s auolasse; a d o p t i o n i s d i e neque m i l i t e s a d l o c u t u r o c a s t r e n -sem sellam de more positam pro t r i b u n a l i o b l i t i s m i n i s t r i s et i n senatu curulem peruerse collocatam. 19 p r i u s vero quam o c c i d e r e t u r s a c r i f i c a n t e m mane haru-spex identidem monuit, caueret periculum, non longe percus-sores abesse. Haud multo post c o g n o s c i t t e n e r i c a s t r a ab Othone, ac p l e r i s q u e ut eodem quam primum pergeret suadentibus -posse enim a u c t o r i t a t e et p r a e s e n t i a praeualere - n i h i l am-p l i u s quam co n t i n e r e se s t a t u i t et l e g i o n a r i o r u m firmare ^ p r a e s i d i i s , qui m u l t i f a r i a m diuerseque tendebant. l o r i c a m tamen i n d u i t linteam, quanquam haud dissi m u l a n s parum ad-19.2 versus t o t mucrones profuturam. sed e x t r a c t u s rumoribus f a l s i s , quos c o n s p i r a t i , ut eum i n publicum e l i c e r e n t , de i n d u s t r i a d i s s i p a r a n t , paucis temere a f f i r r n a n t i b u s t r a n s -.actum negotium, oppressos, qui tumultuarentur. aduenire f r e q u e n t i s ceteros gratulabundos et i n omne obsequium para-to s , i i s ut o c c u r r e r e t p r o d i i t t a n t a f i d u c i a , ut m i l i t i 36 cuidam occisum a se Othonem g l o r i a n t i : quo auctore? r e -s p o n d e r i t , atque i n forum usque p r o c e s s i t . i b i e q u i t e s , quibus mandata caedes e r a t , cum per publicum dimota pagan-orum turba equos adegissent, u i s o p r o c u l eo parumper r e -s t i t e r u n t ; d e i n rursum i n c i t a t i desertum a s u i s c o n t r u c i -darunt. 20 Sunt qui t r a d a n t , ad primum tumultum proclamasse eum: quid a g i t i s commilitones? ego u e s t e r sum et uos mei, dona-tiuum etiam p o l l i c i t u m . p l u r e s autem prodiderunt o p t u l i s s e u l t r o iugulum et ut hoc agerent ac f e r i r e n t , quando i t a v i d e r e t u r , hortatum. i l l u d mirum admodum f u e r i t , neque praesentium quemquam opem i m p e r a t o r i f e r r e conatum et omnes qui a r c e s s e r e n t u r s p r e u i s s e nuntium excepta Germanici<an>-orum u e x i l l a t i o n e . i i ob recens meritum, quod se aegros et i n u a l i d o s magno<o>pere f o u i s s e t , i n a u x i l i u m aduolauerunt, sed s e r i u s i t i n e r e deuio per ignorantiam locorum r e t a r d a t i . 20.2 Iugulatus e s t ad lacum C u r t i ac r e l i c t u s i t a u t i e r a t , donee gre g a r i u s miles a frumentatione r e d i e n s a b i e c t o onere caput e i amputauit; et quoniam c a p i l l o a r r i p e r e non p o t e r a t , i n gremium a b d i d i t , mox i n s e r t o per os p o l l i c e ad Othonem d e t u l i t . i l l e l i x i s calonibusque donauit, qui hasta suffixum non s i n e l u d i b r i o circum c a s t r a portarunt ad-clamantes identidem: Galba Cupido, f r u a r i s a etate tua, maxime i r r i t a t i ad talem iocorum petulantiam, quod ante paucos d i e s e x i e r a t i n uulgus, l a u d a n t i cuidam formam suam ut adhuc f l o r i d a m et uegetam respondisse eum 20.1 germaniciorum CI, corr. Turn. refouisset Wolflinn. 37 w - 'I „ * ' E T 1 | i O l I J E V O J EpTTefiOV e t J T l V . ab i s P a t r o b i i N eroniani l i b e r t u s centum a u r e i s redemptum eo l o c o , u b i i u s s u Galbae animaduersum i n patronum suum f u e r a t , a b i e c i t . sero tandem d i s p e n s a t o r Argiuus et hoc et ceterum truncum i n p r i u a t i s e i u s h o r t i s A u r e l i a u i a se-p u l t u r a e d e d i t . 21 S t a t u r a f u i t i u s t a , c a p i t e praecaluo, o c u l i s caeru-l e i s , adunco naso, manibus pedibusque a r t i c u l a r i morbo d i s t o r t i s s i m i s , ut neque calceum p e r p e t i neque l i b e l l o s e u o l -uere aut tenere omnino u a l e r e t . excreuerat etiam i n dex-t e r i o r e l a t e r e eius caro praependebatque adeo ut aegre f a s c i a s u b s t r i n g e r e t u r . 22 C i b i p l u r i m i t r a d i t u r , quern tempore hiberno etiam ante lucem capere consuerat, i n t e r cenam uero usque eo ab-undantly s >, ut congestas super manus r e l i q u i a s c i r c u m f e r r i i u b e r e t spargique ad pedes s t a n t i b u s . l i b i d i n i s i n mares p r o n i o r et eos non n i s i praeduros exoletosque; ferebant i n H i s p a n i a Icelum e u e t e r i b u s c o n c u b i n i s de Neronis e x i t u nuntiantem non modo a r t i s s i m i s o s c u l i s palam exceptum ab eo, sed ut sine mora u e l l e r e t u r oratum atque seductum. 23 P e r i i t t e r t i o et septuagesimo a e t a t i s anno, i m p e r i i mense septimo. senatus, ut primum l i c i t u m e s t , stauam e i decreuerat r o s t r a t a e columnae superstantem i n parte f o r i , qua t r u c i d a t u s e s t ; sed decretum Vespasianus a b o l e u i t , per cussores s i b i ex H i s p a n i a i n Iudaeam submisisse opinatus. 22 a b u n d a n t i s Graev, abundant! f2, abundans Ss, abundanter G r u t . l i b i d i n i T o r r . 38 CHAPTER THREE COMMENTARY Se c t i o n One 1.1 Progenies Caesarum i n Nerone: Suetonius has f a i l e d to d i s t i n g u i s h between the c l o s e l y connected yet d i s t i n c t f a m i l i e s of the J u l i a n and Claudian Caesars. T e c h n i c a l l y , the house of the J u l i a n Caesars ended with the death of Gaius; h i s successor Claudius was never adopted i n t o the J u l i a n gens, though he t r i e d to a s s o c i a t e h i m s e l f as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e with the previous r u l i n g f a m i l y (Suet. Claud. 11). From t h i s time on, 'Caesar' became an i m p e r i a l t i t l e r a t h e r than a f a m i l y name. For a s i m i l a r loose statement concerning Nero see Eutropius 7.15. d e f e c i t : None of Nero's wives bore him a son nor d i d he adopt a p o t e n t i a l h e i r . ' D e f i c e r e ' i s commonly used by Suetonius of the deaths of emperors; see Aug 99.1, Claud 44.3 and Nero 49.4. quod futurum ... s i g n i s : Perhaps the most s t r i k i n g f e a -t ure of Suetonius' L i v e s i s the repeated d e s c r i p t i o n of dreams and omens and the obvious importance the biographer attaches to them. In each of the twelve L i v e s Suetonius r e l a t e s p r o d i g i e s or dreams that he supposes p r e d i c t e d 39 important events i n the career of the emperor. The cause of Suetonius' i n t e r e s t i n t h i s subject i s to be found i n h i s own nature as a s u p e r s t i t i o u s man. A l e t t e r from P l i n y shows that Suetonius r e f u s e d to plead a case a f t e r being scared by a dream ( E p i s t . 1.18 and see I n t r o d u c t i o n , i ) . In a d d i t i o n , Suetonius' employer, the emperor Hadrian, conducted a study i n t o the meaning of omens (S.H.A. 2 . 4 - 8 ) . However, Suetonius i s quite o f t e n at h i s most c a r e l e s s i n accounts of these presages. Dating and circumstances are at v a r i a n c e with other author's accounts. (See notes on ou T C K V O V 4.2, sumpta ... dicentem 4.3.) Suetonius does not analyse omens and dreams f o r t h e i r v e r a c i t y but uses them as i n f o r m a t i v e anecdotes. Because of t h i s ap-parent l a c k of i n v e s t i g a t i o n , each account should be ap-proached with a c r i t i c a l eye. Veientanum: Understand a noun such as 'ager', 'fundus', or 'praedium'. V e i i was the most southern of the Etruscan c i t i e s , nine miles n o r t h of Rome. I t was a popular h o l i -day r e s o r t f o r wealthy Romans. pr a e t e r v o l a n s a q u i l a ... eodem l o c o pangere: P l i n y (NH 15, 136-7) i n c l u d e s t h i s s t o r y as a h i s t o r i c a l anecdote with h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r o p e r t i e s of the l a u r e l t r e e . See a l s o Dio 48.52. 40 gallitiam albam: The s c h o l i o n on Suetonius says that a white hen was a favourable omen and compares i t with " g a l -l i n a e f i l i u s albae" (Juvenal 13.141), where the phrase i s used p r o v e r b i a l l y to d e s c r i b e a noble b i r t h . d e m i s i t i n gremium: According to Dio ( l o c . c i t . ) , t h i s meant that L i v i a would have c o n t r o l over Galba i n every sphere, T e A i o u i a e y K O WIT B O E a 6 a i K a i T ri v t o O fcaiaapos. I O X U V K a T E \ I n a o i v a u t o G K p a T n a E i v | i e X U . p l a c u i s s e t : I t i s u n c l e a r from Suetonius' account who de-ci d e d to have these two ac t s performed, although i t seems probable that L i v i a e ought to be s u p p l i e d from the pre-vious sentence. T h i s i s supported by the evidence of Dio where L i v i a , though unstated, i s c l e a r l y the sub j e c t of two verbs," T° T e T^ A i o u i a u u p B a v # < > E Y E V E T O . . . K a i E 6 O K E I yap ou a p u p o v T O a n p e i o v e\vax xnv T E 6pvi6a ev E H E X E I O I 'r\yz <ai xriv 6ai(ivnv e T v T e u o e f » However, both statements are l e s s e x p l i c i t than that of the normally r e l i a b l e P l i n y , who c l e a r l y names the haruspices as the decision-makers: " c o n s e r v a r i a l i t e m et subolem i u s s e r e h a r u s p i c e s rarauraque eum s e r i ac r i t e c u s t o d i r i . " ( N H 15.137) Se v e r a l p o i n t s i n d i c a t e that P l i n y i s c o r r e c t : f i r s t -l y , d i v i n a t i o n of the f u t u r e from planned or chance events, as w e l l as advice on the outcome, was the exact duty of ha r u s p i c e s . Secondly, P l i n y i s the only w r i t e r e x p l i c i t l y to name who d i d what, and, f i n a l l y , P l i n y i s merely i n t e r -41 ested i n t e l l i n g the s t o r y as i t happened; u n l i k e Sueto-nius and Dio, h i s aim i s not to put emphasis on L i v i a ' s power over Galba. Ad G a l l i n a s : According to P l i n y (NH 15.137), the v i l l a stood on the banks of the r i v e r T i b e r about nine miles out on the F l a m i n i a n road. For f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , see Ashby (1921: 145). a l i a s : Suetonius' account d i f f e r s from that of P l i n y , where i t i s s t a t e d that the Caesars planted the same bran-ches that they had c a r r i e d during the triumph (NH 15.137). Fo l l o w i n g P l i n y , Burman emended a l i a s to i l l a s , and L i p -s i u s suggested eas. Of the two, i l l a s i s the more a t t r a c -t i v e and may w e l l be c o r r e c t . However, due to the l a c k of any other evidence f o r t h i s r i t u a l , the mss. reading of a l i a s ought to be r e t a i n e d . novissimo Neronis anno: 68 A.D. See Suet. Nero 57.1. s i l v a omnis ... e r a t i n t e r i i t : See Dio ( X i p h i l i n u s ) 63.29.2, A u r e l i u s V i c t o r de. Caes. 5.17 f f . Caesarum aede: Most commentators have i d e n t i f i e d t h i s b u i l d i n g as the templum ( d i v i ) Augusti on the P a l a t i n e (V e n i n i 1977:14, Mooney 1930: 191, Rolfe 1914a: v o l . 2, 192). However, nowhere e l s e i n L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e i s t h i s templum c a l l e d an aedes; i t s only other d e s i g n a t i o n i s the templum novum ( M a r t i a l 4.53.2, Suet. T i b 74). 42 I n a t e c h n i c a l s e n s e t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e between an aedes and a templum; an aedes i s a b u i l d i n g s e t a s i d e f o r the w o r s h i p o f gods; a templum need n o t be a c o n s t r u c -t i o n , b u t i s s a c r e d ground,marked out by a u g u r s , t h a t may o r may n o t be s u r r o u n d e d by a b u i l d i n g ( T . L . L . v o l . 1, 911-913). By the t i m e o f A u g u s t u s , a templum d e s c r i b e d a l a r g e s h r i n e and aedes a s m a l l e r b u i l d i n g . However, c o n -t e m p o r a r i e s o f 'Sueto n i u s were s t i l l aware o f t h e t e c h n i c a l d i f f e r e n c e . See "non omnes aedes s a c r a s t e m p l a e s s e " , A u l u s G e l l i u s 14.7.7. Because o f t h i s b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e , and s i n c e t h e r e i s no example o f the templum ( d i v i ) A u g u s t i b e i n g c a l l e d an aedes a t any t i m e , i t must be assumed t h a t S u e t o n i u s i s t a l k i n g a b o u t some y e t t o be i d e n t i f i e d c o n s t r u c t i o n . F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n see P l a t n e r and Ashby (1965:62) . S e c t i o n Two 2.1 n u l l o g r a d u c o n t i n g e n s Caesarum domum: (See n o t e on p r o -g e n i e s Caesarum, 1 . 1 ) . S u e t o n i u s ' s t a t e m e n t c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e remark i n P l u t a r c h ' s L i f e o f G a l b a , where i t i s s t a t e d t h a t t h e emperor was r e l a t e d " i n some way" t o L i v i a D r u s i l l a , f i v 6 e t i K a T A i B i a x n k a i a a p o c y u \ i a u i K a T a i i y e v o j T r p o a n K w v o r a X B a s ( 3 . 2 ) . P l u t a r c h had p e r h a p s assumed a f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e v i r t u a l c o n t e m p o r a r i e s L i v i a D r u s i l l a and L i v i a O c e l l l n a , Galba's'stepmother. See V e n i n i (1977: 15) 4 3 who suggests that Suetonius' strong language shows a de-s i r e to c o r r e c t P l u t a r c h ' s mistake. contingens: One of Suetonius' f a v o u r i t e words to de-s c r i b e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . See Aug 4.1 "a matre magnum Pompeium a r t i s s i m e contingebat gradu"; Nero 32.2 "quo f u -i s s e n t i l l a e f a m i l i a e quas ips e [sc. T i b e r i u s ] c o n t i n g -e n t " . haud dubie n o b i l i s s i m u s ... p r o s a p i a : Suetonius has f o l -lowed the t r a d i t i o n t h a t Galba had an extremely a r i s t o -c r a t i c background; "vetus i n f a m i l i a n o b i l i t a s " , Tac. H i s t . 1.49.1;"Galba haud secus n o b i l i s e gente c l a r i s s i m a S u l -picorum", Aur. V i c . de Caes. 6.1. T a c i t u s c h a r a c t e r i z e s Galba's r e i g n by h i s r e l i a n c e on anc e s t r y ; " c e s s i s t i [ sc. Vespasianus] etiam Galbae imagin-i b u s " , H i s t 2.76.2, and the emperor's f a m i l y was used by Juvenal as an example of Roman a r i s t o c r a c y , S a l 8.1 - 5. ut qui statuarum ... semper a s c r i p s e r i t : Suetonius (3.4) s t a t e s that Galba's mother, Mummia Achaica, was the grand-daughter of Catulus. According to P l u t a r c h , Galba 3.1, Galba had great r e s p e c t f o r Catulus and i t i s quite p o s s i b l e that such i n s c r i p t i o n s were w r i t t e n ; none however are ex-t a n t . Catulus was chosen as consul of 78 B.C. with Aemi-l i u s Lepidus as h i s co l l e a g u e (Appian B e l l . C i v . 1.105). He earned the name C a p i t o l i n u s because of h i s long a s s o c i -a t i o n with the r e b u i l d i n g and d e d i c a t i o n of the temple of J u p p i t e r Optimus Maximus on the C a p i t o l ( L i v y e_p_. 98, 4 4 A p p i a n B e l l . C i v . 1.83 f f , P l a t n e r and A s h b y 1 965 : 2 9 7 -3 0 2 ) . F o r h i s l a t e r c a r e e r , s ee C i c . V e r r . 1 . 4 4 , p r o l e g .  Man. 51 f f . , P l u t a r c h , Pompey 2 5 . 5 . s temma: P l i n y ( N . H . 3 5 . 6 ) shows t h a t s t e m m a t a we re made by l i n k i n g p a i n t e d b u s t s o f a n c e s t o r s w i t h l i n e s o f t h r e a d ; " s t e m m a t a v e r o l i n e i s d i s c u r r e b a n t ad i m a g i n e s p i c t o s " . quo p a t e r n a m o r i g i n e m . . . r e f e r r e t : S u e t o n i u s i s f o n d o f r e l a t i n g m y t h i c a l p e d i g r e e s o f t h e e m p e r o r s . The J u l i a n s c l a i m e d d e s c e n t f r o m V e n u s , " a V e n e r e J u l i i , c u i u s g e n t i s f a m i l i a e s t n o s t r a " , D i v . J u l . 6 . 1 , and t h e V i t e l l i w e r e s a i d t o be d e s c e n d e d f r o m a l e g e n d a r y k i n g and g o d d e s s , " . . . l i b e l l u s , quo c o n t i n e t u r , V i t e l l i o s f a u n o A b o r i g i n u m r e g e e t V i t e l l i a . . . o r t o s . " V i t . 1 . 2 . M i n o n i s : A l l t h e m a n u s c r i p t s e x c e p t MLRd r e a d t h e more u s u a l M i n o i s . H o w e v e r , t h r e e p o i n t s c a n be made i n f a -v o u r o f r e t a i n i n g M i n o n i s . F i r s t - ; M i s t h e o l d e s t and mos t r e l i a b l e m a n u s c r i p t . S e c o n d l y , i n s e c t i o n 70 o f t h e L i f e o f T i b e r i u s , M i n o n i s e x e m p l o i s f o u n d w i t h o n l y two m a n u s c r i p t s r e a d i n g M i n o i s ; and f i n a l l y , by t h e p r i n c i p l e o f l e c t i o d i f f i c i l i o r , t h e more r a r e f o r m M i n o n i s o u g h t t o be r e t a i n e d . S e c t i o n T h r e e 3.1 i m a g i n e s : I m a g i n e s was a t e c h n i c a l t e r m u s e d o f a n c e s t o r s who had held cu'rule o f f i c e , that i s , a t t a i n e d the rank o f 45 a e d i l e . C i c e r o , on h i s e l e c t i o n as a e d i l e , o u t l i n e s t h e p r i v i l e g e s t h e o f f i c e b r o u g h t , " a n t i q u i o r e m i n s e n a t u s e n -t e n t i a e d i c e n d a e l o c u m , togam p r a e t e x t a m , s e l l a m c u r u l e m , i u s i m a g i n i s ad memoriam p o s t e r i t a t e m q u e p r o d e n d a e " , V e r r 5 . 1 4 . 3 6 . F o r i m a g i n e s p e r s o n i f i e d as a n c e s t o r s s e e C a l 2 3 . 1 . e l o g i a : S u e t o n i u s o f t e n u s e s t h i s word t o d e s c r i b e s e p u l -c h r a l i n s c r i p t i o n s o r e p i t a p h s ( C l a u d 1 . 5 ) . H o w e v e r , i n t h i s p a s s a g e , he e x t e n d s i t s m e a n i n g t o any t y p e o f i n -s c r i p t i o n d e d i c a t e d t o S u l p i c i i d u r i n g t h e i r l i v e s . f a m i l i a e : In t h i s c a s e , f a m i l i a e i n d i c a t e s t h e S u l p i c i i who had b o r n e the name G a l b a . Q u i p r i m u s . . . a p p e l l a n t u r g a l b a e : S u e t o n i u s p r o v i d e s f o u r p o s s i b l e e t y m o l o g i e s f o r t h e name G a l b a w i t h o u t s t r e s s i n g any p a r t i c u l a r o n e . In a s t y l e s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f T h u c y d i d e s , he l a y s o u t t h e r e s u l t s o f h i s r e s e a r c h and a l l o w s t h e r e a d e r t o make h i s c h o i c e . T h i s t y p e o f r e -s e a r c h r e f l e c t s S u e t o n i u s ' g r a m m a t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d ; s e e D e l i a C o r t e (1967: 3 2 ) . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o know w h i c h i s t h e c o r r e c t d e r i v a -t i o n o f t h e name, i f a n y , b u t i t i s c l e a r t h a t G a l b a was o r i g i n a l l y a n i c k n a m e e a r n e d by one o f t h e S u l p i c i i , e i t h e r f o r s o m e t h i n g , he d i d ( g a l b a n o , g a l b e o ) o r f o r some p h y s i -c a l p e c u l i a r i t y ( p r a e p i n g u i s . . . v o c e n t , a n i m a l i a . . . g a l -bae ) , and subsequently passed on to h i s descendants. 46 quidam putant ... appellanturque galbae: Note the ca r e -f u l sentence s t r u c t u r e ; f o r each of the four d i f f e r e n t answers to cur aut unde t r a x e r i t Suetonius employs a d i f -f e r e n t i n t r o d u c t i o n : quidam putant ... a l i i ... n o n n u l l i ... v e l contra ... Each of the four i s fol l o w e d by an ex-pl a n a t o r y quod c l a u s e . Furthermore, answers two and three are more a c c u r a t e l y d e f i n e d w i t h i n t h e i r quod c l a u s e s : " . . . i d e s t remediis lana i n v o l u t i s ... quern galbam G a l l i vocent." The balanced s t r u c t u r e gives each answer equal c r e d i -b i l i t y . galbano: Galbanum was a r e s i n obtained from a species of f e r u l a . When i t burned i t had a very pungent smell, which may have been the reason f o r i t s use by S u l p i c i u s . P l i n y (NH 12.126) says that burning galbanum wards o f f snakes and midges (NH 19.180). I t s medical uses i n c l u d e a cure f o r l e t h a r g y ( C e l s i u s 3.20.2) and the removal of b o i l s ( i b i d . 5.3). galbeo: A galbeus was an armband that was awarded as a m i l i t a r y d e c o r a t i o n (Paul F e s t . p96m.). In t h i s passage, the galbeus was used to keep the h e a l i n g agent on S u l p i c -i u s ' body. pr a e p i n g u i s ... galbam G a l l i vocent: The suggestion that Galba i s o r i g i n a l l y a G a l l i c word i s supported by the e v i -dence of Caesar ( B e l l . G a l l . 2.4), where the ki n g of the Suessiones, a G a l l i c t r i b e , bears the name: "nunc esse 47 regem Galbam". For Suetonius' i n t e r e s t i n f o r e i g n words see D e l i a Corte (1967: 32 f f . ) . sunt a n i m a l i a ... galbae: There does not seem to be any other c i t a t i o n of t h i s 'ash-borer' i n extant L a t i n l i t e r a -t u r e . chose to omit some of the e a r l i e r f a m i l y members who had h e l d c u r u l e o f f i c e . See Jucker (1975: 356 - 7). 3.2-3.4 In h i s h i s t o r y of the S u l p i c i i Galbae, Suetonius Ser. S u l p i c i u s Galba pont. 203-199 B.C. P. S u l p i c i u s Galba Maximus cons., 211 , 200 B.C. C. Galba p o n t . 202-199 B.C. Se r . Galba p r a e t 187 B.C. C. Galba p r a e t . 171 B.C. S e r v i u s Galba p r a e t . 151 B.C. c o n s . i 1 4 4 B.C. Ser. Galba p r a e t . I l l B.C. cons. 108 B.C. C. GAlba Ser . G a l b a l e g . 90 - 86 B.C. Ser. G a l b a l e g . 61 B.C. p r a e t . 54 B.C. C. S u l p i c i u s Galba H i s t o r i a n 1. Mummia A c h a i c a 2. L i v i a O c e l l i n a C. S u l p i c i u s Galba cons, 5. B.C. Gal b a Emperor cons. 22 A.D. The f i v e ancestors about whom Suetonius chooses to t a l k are s i g n i f i c a n t not only f o r the i n t r i n s i c a l l y i n t e r -48 e s t i n g s t o r i e s concerning them but f o r t h e i r r elevance to the s t r u c t u r e of s e c t i o n s 3.2 to 3.4. Beginning with the d i s r e p u t a b l e S e r v i u s , each ancestor i s more admirable than h i s predecessor. S e r v i u s ' grandson had been a con-s p i r a t o r , but only because of Caesar's personal h o s t i l i t y towards him; Galba's grandfather, although no p o l i t i c i a n , e x e m p l i f i e d the Roman q u a l i t i e s of i n d u s t r i a and s t u d i a . Galba's f a t h e r was p o l i t i c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l and beyond that was a man of complete honesty. F i n a l l y , Suetonius r e l a t e s the t r a g i c s t o r y of the s u i c i d e of Galba's brother a f t e r he had been p u b l i c a l l y h u m i l i a t e d by h i s emperor. 3.2 familiam i l l u s t r a v i t : Suetonius i s here u s i n g the verb i l l u s t r a r e to mean 'embellish', 'decorate', or 'bring i n t o new l i g h t something a l r e a d y w e l l known'. See " i l l u s t r a -verunt hoc opus [sc. tragoediam] Sophocles atque E u r i p i d e s , " Quint I n s t . 1 0 . 1 . 6 7 ; " C a p i t o l i u m i l l u d t r i b u s templis i l -l u s t r atum", C i c . Scaur. 4.7. S e v e r a l S u l p i c i i Galbae had become famous i n the p o l i -t i c a l arena p r i o r to S e r v i u s . e t : As the t e x t stands, e t , the r e a d i n g of a l l the manu-s c r i p t s except i s redundant i n i t s c l a u s e . Bentley, f o l l o w e d by Rolfe (1914a: v o l 2, 192) and Mooney (1930: 54) emended et to v e l , which i s o f t e n found with the super-l a t i v e to mean "the most ... p o s s i b l e " . See "patre mea s e n t e n t i a v e l eloquentissimo temporibus i l l i s " , C i c . de.or. 2.23. Burman thi n k s there i s a lacuna and suggests d i t i s -simus et eloquentissimus on the b a s i s of Appian B e l l . Hisp 6.10.60, where Servius i s d e s c r i b e d as " A C U K O X X O U <t>iXoxpn_ u a T Hi T e p or " a n d " TT X o u a i u T a x oc , , , p u n a i u v Jt i s p o s s i b l e , however, that an e a r l y s c r i b e might have'committed a d i t t o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r , w r i t i n g ' e l ' from eloquentissimus and com pounding the e r r o r by changing the meaningless ' e l ' to 'et In that case et i s co r r u p t and should be omitted; the clause would read "temporum suorum eloquentissimus, quem...' temporum suorum et eloquentissimus: Suetonius f o l l o w s the C i c e r o n i a n t r a d i t i o n : " d i v i n u s homo i n dicendo", de. or. 1.4.0; "summus i l l e o r a t o r " , Brutus 98; "sed i n t e r hos aetate paulum h i s antecedens sine c o n t r o v e r s i a Ser. Galba e l o q u e n t i a p r a e s t i t i t " , Brutus 82. tradunt: The only extant evidence f o r S e r v i u s ' c a r e e r are b r i e f r e f e r e n c e s i n C i c e r o , L i v y and C o r n e l i u s Nepos. For other p o s s i b l e sources of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s man, see I n t r o d u c t i o n , s e c t i o n i i i . t r i g i n t a Lusitanorum ... t r u c i d a t i s : . In the s p r i n g of 150 B.C. Servius invaded L u s i t a n i a with Marcus A t t i l i u s and, having induced the n a t i v e s to surrender, t r e a c h e r o u s l y k i l l e d s e v e r a l thousand and s o l d the r e s t i n t o s l a v e r y (Appian B e l l . Hisp. 6.58-60, L i v y ep_. 48-49, C i c . Brutus 89, Orosius 4.21 f f . , V a l . Max. 9.6.2. f f . ) . He was l a t e r put on t r i a l f o r h i s crimes but managed to secure an i n -famous a c q u i t t a l ( V a l . Max. 8.1.2, Fronto ad M.Caes. 3.20) 5 0 The number o f v i c t i m s as g i v e n by S u e t o n i u s i s d i s -p u t e d by V a l e r i u s Maximus ( 9 . 6 . 2 ) , who s a y s t h a t e i g h t t h o u s a n d were e x e c u t e d o r s o l d , and by h i s e p i t o m a t o r J u l i u s P a r i s , who p u t s t h e f i g u r e a t 1 0 8 , 0 0 0 . As n o n e o f t h e s e f i g u r e s i s c o r r o b o r a t e d i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s a y w h i c h , i f a n y , i s c o r r e c t . V i r i a t [ h ] i n i b e l l i c a u s a m : A c c o r d i n g t o A p p i a n ( B e l l . H i s p . 6 . 6 0 ) , V i r i a t h u s was one o f t h e few t o e s c a p e f r o m t h e s l a u g h t e r o f S e r v i u s . In t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s he l e d t h e L u s i t a n i a n s i n g u e r i l l a w a r f a r e a g a i n s t Roman e n v o y s . In 139 B . C . t h r e e o f h i s own men were b r i b e d and m u r d e r e d h i m d u r i n g t h e n i g h t . A f t e r h i s d e a t h t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e L u s i t a n i a n s c r u m b l e d and t h e y were c o m p e l l e d t o sue f o r p e a c e ( A p p i a n B e l l . H i s p . 6 . 6 3 - 72 , D i o . S i c . 3 2 . 1 - 2 ) . The name i s w r i t t e n V i r i a t h u s o r V i r i a t u s ; f o r t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f e a c h i n i n s c r i p t i o n s and m a n u s c r i p t s , s e e RE 9A 2 0 3 f . e i u s n e p o s : S u e t o n i u s h a s m i s s e d a g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y t r e e and i n c o r r e c t l y u s e s n e p o s r a t h e r t h a n p r o -n e p o s . The r e f e r e n c e i s t o S e r . S u l p i c i u s G a l b a , u r b a n p r a e t o r i n 54 B . C . , b o r n i n 94 B . C . ; S e r v i u s G a l b a , t h e p r a e t o r o f 151 B . C . , w a s , h o w e v e r , b o r n a p p r o x i m a t e l y a c e n t u r y b e f o r e and was S e r . S u l p i c i u s G a l b a ' s g r e a t g r a n d -f a t h e r . The g e n e r a t i o n S u e t o n i u s o m i t s i s t h a t o f C . G a l b a , S e r v i u s ' s o n . (See RE 4A 7 5 4 ) . 51 ob repulsam consulatus: The t e c h n i c a l term f o r an e l e c t i o n d e f e a t i s repulsam f e r r e : " p r i o r e anno repulsam t u l e r a t " , L i v y .35.24.4; "iam repulsam t u l i t " , C i c . P h i l . 8.27. infen s u s I u l i o C a e s a r i : Suetonius wrongly i m p l i e s that Galba was opposed and not supported by J u l i u s Caesar i n h i s candidacy f o r the c o n s u l s h i p of 49 B.C. The power of Caesar's enemies i n Rome was growing, and i t was impera-t i v e that he have an a l l y as c o n s u l . Galba was h i s choice ( H i r t i u s B e l l . G a l l . 8.50.4); he was from a d i s t i n g u i s h e d f a m i l y and had served under him i n Gaul. In any normal year Galba would have been a powerful candidate but h i s opponents, C. M a r c e l l u s and L. C o r n e l i u s Lentulus Crus, were both r e l a t e d to the previous c o n s u l s , had impressive support from f a m i l y and c l i e n t e l a and were openly a n t i -C a e s a r i a n . I t i s d o u b t f u l whether Galba would ever have been able to defeat such opponents but, with Caesar's support being a hindrance r a t h e r than an a i d , he was badly beaten. I t i s c l e a r t h at Suetonius here gives the wrong reason f o r Galba's becoming "infensus I u l i o C a e s a r i " . One of three t h i n g s must have happened. E i t h e r Suetonius has m i s i n t e r p r e t e d h i s sources and simply given the wrong r e a -son f o r Galba's h o s t i l i t y to Caesar, or Galba b e l i e v e d that h i s defeat was caused by h i s a s s o c i a t i o n with Caesar and, angry at m i s s i n g h i s only o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the c o n s u l s h i p , switched h i s a l l e g i a n c e . The t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y i s that at some unknown l a t e r date, p o s s i b l y when Caesar was d i c t a t o r , he r e f u s e d to award the c o n s u l s h i p to Galba. This f i n a l 5 2 s u g g e s t i o n c o u l d , o f c o u r s e , m e r e l y be a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f S u e t o n i u s ' m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s s o u r c e s . l e g a t u s i n G a l l i a : In 57 B . C . C a e s a r s e n t G a l b a w i t h t h e t w e l f t h l e g i o n t o t h e A l p i n e r e g i o n o f G a u l t o o p e n up a s a f e r o u t e f o r t r a d e r s ( C a e s . B e l l . G a l l . 1.1 - 6 , D i o 3 7 . 5 ) . c o n s p i r a v i t cum C a s s i o e t B r u t o : S u e t o n i u s p r o v i d e s t h e o n l y e x t a n t s t a t e m e n t t h a t e x p l i c i t l y names G a l b a a s a c o n s p i r a t o r . T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , t h e c u r i o u s w a r n i n g o f C i c e r o t o A n t o n y t h a t G a l b a w i l l u s e "eodem p u g i o n e " a g a i n s t h i m ( P h i l . 1 3 . 3 3 ) , and i n a l i s t o f c o n s p i r a t o r s , A p p i a n h a s t h e o t h e r w i s e unknown name E e p o u X i o v r a X B a v ( B e l l . C i v . 2 . 1 1 . 3 ) , w h i c h c o u l d be a c o r r u p t i o n o f E o u X -TTIKICV r a A B a v . P e d t o l e g e damnatus e s t : A law i n t r o d u c e d by Q . P e d i u s i n 43 B . C . p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e t r i a l and e x e c u t i o n o f C a e s a r ' s m u r d e r e r s ( V e i l . P a t . 2 . 6 9 . 5 ) . T h e r e a r e no d e t a i l s o f G a l b a ' s d e a t h . D e l i a C o r t e (1967 : 1 1 8 - 1 1 9 ) s e e s a p a r a l l e l b e t w e e n t h e two a n c e s t o r s on whom S u e t o n i u s e x p a n d s and t h e em-p e r o r h i m s e l f : S e r v i u s G a l b a ; who m a s s a c r e d t h e L u s i t a n i a n s p o s s e s s e d t h e .same v i c i o u s n a t u r e a s t h e e m p e r o r who o r -d e r e d t h e s e n s e l e s s d e c i m a t i o n o f a g r o u p o f m a r i n e s ( G a l b a 1 2 . 2 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , S e r v i u s S u l p i c i u s G a l b a c o n -s p i r e d t o b r i n g down t h e f i r s t C a e s a r , and many y e a r s 53 l a t e r h i s great-grandson would be part of a c o n s p i r a c y a g a i n s t the l a s t of the J u l i o - C l a u d i a n l i n e . avus c l a r i o r s t u d i i s : As an i n d i c a t i o n of C. S u l p i c i u s ' Galba's s c h o l a r s h i p , he i s c i t e d as a source f o r book 36 of P l i n y ' s N a t u r a l H i s t o r i e s . d i g n i t a t e : D i g n i t a s i s commonly used of ' p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e or magistracy'. See "primum t i b i ( s c. C a e l i o Rufo) ut de-beo, g r a t u l o r laetorque, cum p r a e s e n t i , turn etiam sperata tua d i g n i t a t e . " ( C i c . ad fam.2.9.) egressus: T h i s meaning of e g r e d i , ' t o exceed, surpass', i s frequent i n the h i s t o r i a n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those a f t e r the Augustan e r a . I t i s not found i n a n t e - c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a -t u r e nor i n C i c e r o . See "per omnia fortunam hominis egre-ssus", V e i l . Pat. 2.40.2; " f a m i l i a neque tamen praeturam egressa", Tac. Ann. 3.30. praeturae: There i s no evidence i n d i c a t i n g when he h e l d t h i s o f f i c e . m u l t i p l i c e m nec ... e d i d i t : None of t h i s h i s t o r y i s ex-t a n t ; there are however two r e f e r e n c e s to i t . One i n d i -cates i t s comprehensive s i z e ("multiplicem" )," e a * w <5 e <a\ T a p i r n V o j n p o 6 o a a f uno pcouOXou 6ia>x9e ' i s us i o 3 a s <t> n a i T a A B a v Z O U X T T X K I O V i c i o p e i v " ( P l u t . Rom. 17) and the other, i t s accuracy and d e t a i l ("nec i n c u r i o s a m " ) , " f u i s s e tunc Pompeio t r i g i n t a m i l i a peditum m i l l e e q u i t e s Galba s c r i b i t , Sertorum autem sexaginta m i l i a peditum, octo 54 m i l i a e q u i t u m h a b u i s s e c o m m e m o r a t " , ( O r o s i u s 5.23,6). p a t e r c o n s u l a t u f u n c t u s : G a l b a ' s f a t h e r was a c t u a l l y c o n s u l s u f f e c t u s i n 5 B . C . See C I L I 69.4. m o d i c a e i n d i c e n d o f a c u l t a t i s : T h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g G a l b a ' s e l o q u e n c e . M a c r o b i u s , w r i t i n g a t a much l a t e r d a t e , h a d a high o p i n i o n o f i t : " i n G a l b a m e l o q u e n t i a c l a r u m " (2.6.3). H o w e v e r , no o t h e r e x -t a n t a u t h o r m e n t i o n s h i m a s an o u t s t a n d i n g s p e a k e r . 3.4 Mummiam A c h a i c a m : The d a u g h t e r o f L u t a t i a C a t u l a and L . Mummius, C r a s s u s ' m i l i t a r y l e g a t e i n t h e war a g a i n s t S p a r -t a c u s ( P l u t . C r a s s u s 10). See RE X V I , 1, 533. C a t u l i : See n o t e a t s e c t i o n 2j p. 4 3 . L . Mummi . . . e x c i d i t : C o n s u l o f 146 B . C . and r e s p o n s i b l e , i n t h e same y e a r , f o r t h e s a c k o f C o r i n t h ( L i v y ep_ 52, V e i l . P a t . 1.12.1)., T h e cognomen ' A c h a i c u s ' was g i v e n h im on h i s r e t u r n ( V e i l . P a t . 1.13.2), and , t h o u g h n e v e r an o f f i c i a l name, was r e t a i n e d by h i s d e s c e n d a n t s . See V e n i n i (1977:19) . L i v i a m O c e l l i n a m : T h i s woman has b e e n t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t -i f i e d as t h e d a u g h t e r o f a q u a e s t o r L . L i v i u s O c e l l a , t o whom t h e S u e s s e t a n e i and S e g o b r i g e n s e s d e d i c a t e d an i n -s c r i p t i o n ( C I L 6.1446, D e s s a u 1962:936). q u a s i i g n a r a m : S u e t o n i u s u s e s q u a s i i n a c a u s a l s e n s e w i t h b o t h a s u b j u n c t i v e v e r b o r a n o u n - p a r t i c i p l e p h r a s e : 55 "perseveraverunt, quasi rumori minus crederent", Vesp 6.2; " i n c r e p a t Antonium, quasi scribentem ea", Aug 86.2. Gaium: Consul of 22 A.D. with D. H a t e r i u s (Tac. Ann 3.52). f a c u l t a t i b u s : For f a c u l t a s used i n the concrete sense of opes see Aug 29.4: "sed et ceteras p r i n c i p e s v i r o s saepe ho r t a t u s e s t , ut pro f a c u l t a t e quisque monumentis v e l novis v e l r e f e c t i s et e x c u l t i s urbem adornarent". p r o h i b i t u s q u e ... s o r t i r i : An e x t r a o r d i n a r y decree by T i b e r i u s which would have shamed Gaius. His poverty and retirement from Rome were the reasons behind i t . T i b e r i u s would not have wanted to see a s e n a t o r i a l province awarded to one so f i n a n c i a l l y i r r e s p o n s i b l e . For other ex-consuls d i s q u a l i f i e d from the a l l o t m e n t of provinces see Tac. Ann. 3.71.3 and 3.32.2. anno suo: In 27 B.C. Augustus renewed the Pompeian decree of 52 B.C. which d e c l a r e d that there was to be a p e r i o d of f i v e years between the c o n s u l s h i p and the allotment of province (Dio 53.42). Thus "Gaius' year" would have been 27 A.D. v o l u n t a r i a morte o b i i t : See Tac. Ann. 6.40.3. S e c t i o n Four 4.1 M. V a l e r i o Messala: M. V a l e r i u s Corvinus Messala Messa-lenus was l a t e r the governor of Dalmatia and Pannonia (Dio 55.29). He was the son of M. V a l e r i u s Messala Corvinus, 56 the l i t e r a r y patron of T i b u l l u s and Ovid. Cn. Lentulo cons: 3 B.C. Dio, i n h i s summary of book 55, g i v e s the praenomen as Lucius and not Gnaeus; there i s , i n a d d i t i o n , e p i g r a p h i c a l support f o r Lucius (CIL IV, 2450). The c o n f u s i o n has a r i s e n because of the two e a r l i e r con-s u l s named Cn. Lentulus i n 14 B.C. and 18 B.C. See Mooney (1930: 198). natus est VIII K a l . Ian.: 24 December 3 B.C. The date u s u a l l y accepted as the b i r t h d a t e of Galba i s 24 December 5 B.C., on the b a s i s of numerous statements, i n c l u d i n g one by Suetonius, that the emperor was 73 at the time of h i s death (Suet. Galba 23.1, Aur. V i c . E p i t . de.  Caes. 6.4, Tac. H i s t . 1.49.4, Dio [ X i p h i l i n u s and Zonaras] 64.6); since Galba d i e d on 15 January 69 A.D., he must have been born l a t e i n 5 B.C. There i s , however, an a d d i -t i o n a l problem caused by the evidence that says Galba was 73 when he became emperor, making him 74 at the time of h i s death and g i v i n g a b i r t h d a t e of 6 B.C. ( P l u t . Galb. 8.1, Eutrop. 8.16). However, nowhere i n the above evidence i s i t e x p l i -c i t l y s t a t e d that Galba was born i n 5 or 6 B.C. The pre-sent passage i s the only extant r e f e r e n c e to Galba's year of b i r t h per se, suggesting that Suetonius had researched the point to some extent. Suetonius i s a l s o u s i n g annal-i s t i c sources, as i s shown by the use of the c o n s u l a r names, which are normally r e l i a b l e . On the whole, the 57 e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e to 3 B.C. must c a r r y more weight than the other c a l c u l a t e d dates. For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n see Tongue (1938: XLIX) and H o l z a p f e l (1912: 491 f f . ) . i n v i l l a ... prope Tarracinam: Suetonius o f t e n provides " t o u r i s t - g u i d e " notes f o r places of i n t e r e s t connected wi t h the emperors. See D e l i a Corte (1967: 146). Tarracinam: T a r r a c i n a was p r e v i o u s l y known as V o l s c i a n Anxur, on the west coast of I t a l y , 65 miles south of Rome. An i n s c r i p t i o n d e d i c a t e d by a consul Ser. S u l p i c i u s Galba (144 or 108 B.C.) shows the f a m i l y connection (CIL I 2 694). s i n i s t r o r s u s : Manuscript IT has s i n i s t r o s and GT have s i n i s t r o r s u m ; the e r r o r s are caused by s c r i b e s who d i d not recognize the unusual adverb s i n i s t r o r s u s . Fundos: Fundi was a municipium on the V i a Appia. Horace mentions both T a r r a c i n a and Fundi when d e s c r i b i n g h i s journey to Brundisiurn (Sat. 1.5.25 - 35). p e t e n t i b u s : T h i s absolute use of the d a t i v e i s found i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of l o c a t i o n : "a N u r s i a Spoletum euntibus", Suet. Vesp. 1.3; "oppidum primum T h e s s a l i a e v e n i e n t i b u s ab E p i r o " , Caes. B e l l . C i v . 3.80. See a l s o I n t r o d u c t i o n , s e c t i o n i i i . adoptatus a noverca: T h i s adoption would have had to be an adoptio per testamentum, since adoption was a method of a c q u i r i n g p a t r i a potestas and could o r i g i n a l l y be per-formed by men only ( I n s t i t u t e s of Gaius 1.104). This form 58 of adoption cr e a t e d only an o b l i g a t i o n to take the adop-t e r ' s name, though i t was not l e g a l l y b i n d i n g . See C i c . ad A t t . 7 . 8 . L i v i a nomen: Suetonius has al r e a d y given the name of Galba's stepmother at 3.4 and,after 'hoverca sua", " L i v i a " i s redundant, leaves "nomen" bare and the phrase "nomen et O c e l l a r e cognomen" unbalanced. Rather than " L i v i a " , a neuter a d j e c t i v e "Livium" (Heinsius) or even b e t t e r " L i v i -anum" (Bentley) ought to be read. The e r r o r i s e a s i l y ex-p l a i n e d as a simple homoioteleuton a f t e r " n o v e r c a sua". The emendation of Bentley i s e s p e c i a l l y a t t r a c t i v e as"-num" cou l d e a s i l y be l o s t before "nomen". nomen et O c e l l a r e ... u s u r p a v i t : A change of name, to g a i n c a r e e r advantage was a wise p o l i t i c a l maneouvre by Galba; the patronage of L i v i a would have outweighed even the ad-vantages h i s own well-known name gave him. Galba was s t i l l u s i n g L i v i a ' s name at l e a s t four years a f t e r her death, when he appears on the c o n s u l a r l i s t s of 33 A.D. as L. L i v i u s O c e l l a S u l p i c i u s Galba. The change of praenomen i s more d i f f i c u l t to under-stand. I f i t i s assumed that the t e n t a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of L i v i a O c e l l i n a as the daughter of L. L i v i u s O c e l l a i s c o r r e c t (see 3 . 4,"Liviam O c e l l i n a m " ) , then Galba may have been showing respect f o r h i s a n c e s t r y by assuming the prae-nomen of h i s maternal grandfather. 59 H i s t i t u l a t u r e a t t h e t i m e he t o o k power and u n d e r w h i c h he i s s u e d c o i n a g e was S e r . G a l b a i m p . C a e s a r A u g u s -t u s . D e s s a u (1962: n 1 9 8 8 ) , K r a a y (1956: p a s s i m ) . c o n s t a t A u g u s t u m . . . : T h e r e s t o f s e c t i o n f o u r i s c o n -c e r n e d w i t h r e l a t i n g a s e r i e s o f p r o p h e c i e s , omens and a n e c d o t e s t h a t p o i n t t o w a r d s G a l b a ' s e v e n t u a l supreme p o w e r . A t l e a s t one s u c h p r o p h e c y c a n be f o u n d i n e a c h o f t h e L i v e s e x c e p t those o f C a l i g u l a a n d D o m i t i a n . See D e l i a C o r t e ( 1967 : 5 8 - 9 ) , G u g e l ( 1977 : 2 3 . 7 2 f o r G a l b a 60 - 6 4 ) . H o w e v e r , S u e t o n i u s ' a i m i n p r o v i d i n g a " p a c k a g e " o f omens and s t o r i e s h a s c a u s e d p r o b l e m s i n b o t h s u b j e c t m a t t e r and d a t i n g . H i s i n t e n t i o n i s t o t r a c e G a l b a ' s l i f e f r o m c h i l d -h o o d ( p u e r o a d h u c ) t o t h e p e r i o d p r i o r t o h i s e m p e r o r s h i p (nondum a e t a t e c o n s t a n t i ) , g i v i n g a n i n t e r e s t i n g a n d l i v e l y s t o r y f o r e a c h p e r i o d r e g a r d l e s s o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l a c c u r a c y ( n o t e on s u m p t a v i r i l i t o g a ) o r c o m p l e t e v e r a c i t y ( n o t e s on K a T av T £ K V O V . . . T r a p a T p o i c n and a v o quoque . . . p o r t e n d i  f a m i l i a e ) . F o r f u r t h e r e x a m p l e s o f S u e t o n i u s ' f a v o u r i t e d e v i c e o f l i n k i n g omens and p r o p h e c i e s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s i n G a l b a ' s l i f e , see 8 . 2 , 9 . 2 , 1 0 . 4 , 18 - 1 9 . 1 . <a\ ou T E K V O M . . . T t a p c t T p t o E l i r i : S u e t o n i u s a l o n e a t t r i b u t e s t h e s e words t o A u g u s t u s a n d n o t T i b e r i u s . T a c i t u s , u n d e r t h e y e a r 33 A . D . , , s a y s " n o n o m i s e r i m p r a e s a g i u m T i b e r i i de S e r v i o G a l b a turn c o n s u l e ; quem a c c i t u m e t d i v e r s i s s e r m o n -i b u s pertemptatum postremo G r a e c i s v e r b i s i n hanc s e n t e n -60 t i a m a d l o c u t u s e s t ; ' e t t u , G a l b a , quandqque d e g u s t a b i s i m p e r i u m ' s e r a m a c b r e v e m p o t e n t i a m s i g n i f i c a n s " , A n n . 6 . 2 0 . 3 . D i o , u n d e r t h e y e a r 20 A . D . , w h i l e d i s c u s s i n g T i b e r i u s ' i n t e r e s t i n p r o p h e c i e s , g i v e s t h e q u o t a t i o n " c a i a(> T T O T E x fjf r i Y E M O v i a s Y e u a n " j 5 7 . 1 9 . 4 . The p r o b l e m h a s b e e n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y s o l v e d by T o w n -e n d (1960: 1 1 4 ) , who s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e were two d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s o f t h e s t o r y . The f i r s t c o n c e r n e d A u g u s t u s d u r i n g G a l b a ' s c h i l d h o o d , and r e c o r d e d t h e w o r d s i n i d i o m a t i c G r e e k ; t h e s e c o n d c o n c e r n e d T i b e r i u s w i t h t h e w o r d s i n L a t i n , w h i c h D i o h a s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p r o s a i c G r e e k , p u t -t i n g the e m p h a s i s on T i b e r i u s ' i n t e r e s t i n h o r o s c o p e s . S u e t o n i u s w o u l d h a v e h a d a t h i s d i s p o s a l b o t h t h e s e s t o r i e s a n d p r e f e r r e d t h e f o r m e r f o r i t s l i v e l y , i d i o m a -t i c s t y l e . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t a p r o p h e c y f r o m A u g u s t u s w o u l d be more i m p r e s s i v e . He d o e s , h o w e v e r , q u o t e the l a t t e r , "cum c o m p e r i s s e t . . . i n s e n e c t a " , and a d d s T i b e r i u s ' f u r t h e r comment ( " v i v a t sane . . . " ) s i n c e t h e s t o r y f i t s i n t o a s o u n d c h r o n o l o g i c a l scheme and c o n -f i r m s T i b e r i u s ' i n t e r e s t i n omens and h o r o s c o p e s . cum c o m p e r i s s e t . . . n i h i l p e r t i n e t : S u e t o n i u s f o l l o w s t h e t r a d i t i o n o f T i b e r i u s ' g r e a t f a i t h i n h o r o s c o p e s . He w o u l d h a v e men k i l l e d i f t h e i r h o r o s c o p e s showed them t o be p o t e n t i a l r i v a l s ( D i o [ X i p h . Z o n ] 5 7 . 1 9 . 3 ) . 4 . 2 Avo quoque . . . f a m i l i a e : S u e t o n i u s r e l a t e s a n omen t h a t i n -v o l v e s t h r e e o f h i s s t a n d a r d e l e m e n t s ; t h e e a g l e , t h e oak 61 and l i g h t n i n g can each be p a r a l l e l e d w i t h i n the L i v e s when r e f e r r i n g to f u t u r e power (Claud 7 , Vesp 5 . 2 and Aug 9 4 . 2 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Owing to the l a c k of any other r e p o r t of t h i s s t o r y i n P l u t a r c h , T a c i t u s or Dio, and i t s g e n e r i c nature, the a u t h e n t i c i t y of Suetonius' account must be questioned. p r o c u r a n t i : Procurare was the t e c h n i c a l term f o r warding o f f by s a c r i f i c e the e v i l e f f e c t s of l i g h t n i n g : " s a c r i -f i c i o , quo etiam ostentorum ac fulguram d e n u n t i a t i o n e s procurantur", V a l . Max. 1 . 1 1 . 1 . responsum e s t ... p o r t e n d i f a m i l i a e : The eagle f l y i n g to the top of the oak t r e e i n d i c a t e d the height of power Galba would a t t a i n ; the f a c t that the t r e e was a l r e a d y b e a r i n g f r u i t showed that he would be o l d before t a k i n g power. See Mooney ( 1 9 3 0 : 2 0 1 ) . cum mula p e p e r e r i t : Although P l i n y (N.H. 8 . 1 7 3 ) s t a t e s that mules d i d o c c a s i o n a l l y bear o f f s p r i n g , t h i s phrase i s used p r o v e r b i a l l y f o r 'never'. I t has i t s r o o t s as an Q S U V O T O V i n Greek - " e i r E O i v n p i o v o i x e K u u i 1 1 , Hdt. 3 . 151 -and i s r e g u l a r l y found i n C l a s s i c a l L a t i n ( C i c . de Div. 2 . 2 8 . 6 1 , Juv. 1 3 . 6 4 ) . 4 . 3 Galba's c u l t i v a t i o n of the c u l t of Fortuna i s r e -f l e c t e d by the legends f o r t u n a and f o r t u n a Augusta on h i s coinage. See RIC v o l . 1 , p. 213 n. 1 4 0 - 1 4 1 . 62 sumpta v i r i l i t o g a . . . d i c e n t e m : S u e t o n i u s p l a c e s t h e dream a t t h e t i m e G a l b a a s s u m e d t h e t o g a v i r i l i s w h i c h , on t h e b a s i s o f D i o 5 6 . 2 9 . 5 , was 14 A . D . H o w e v e r , t h i s c a n -n o t be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h D i o 6 4 . 1 . 2 , w h i c h s t a t e s t h e dream o c c u r r e d s h o r t l y b e f o r e G a l b a ' s a c c e s s i o n o f p o w e r . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t S u e t o n i u s ' d a t i n g i s w r o n g . He w o u l d h a v e b e e n aware o f t h i s s t o r y and w a n t e d t o u s e i t b e c a u s e o f i t s i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t a s w e l l as an i l l u s t r a -t i o n o f G a l b a ' s d e v o t i o n t o F o r t u n a . F o r t h e s a k e o f . c o n s i s t e n t c h r o n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n , S u e t o n i u s h a s i n -s e r t e d t h e s t o r y e a r l i e r t h a n he o u g h t a n d , t h o u g h n o t a b l e t o g i v e a s p e c i f i c d a t e , he m a t c h e s i t w i t h a s i g n i f -i c a n t e v e n t b e t w e e n p u e r o a d h u c and nondum a e t a t e c o n s t a n t i . o c i u s : ' a t o n c e ' . A s t r a n g e word f o r S u e t o n i u s t o u s e ; i t i s o t h e r w i s e f o u n d o n l y i n comedy and p o e t r y - " h e u s P h a e -drome e x i , e x i , e x i , i n q u a m , o c i u s ! " , P l a u t . C u r e . 2 . 2 . 2 6 . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e w h o l e p h r a s e i s a p a r a p h r a s e o f t h e r e p o r t e d w o r d s o f F o r t u n a . s i m u l a c r u m : The s t a t u e i s m e n t i o n e d a t 1 8 . 2 , s h o r t l y b e -f o r e G a l b a ' s d e a t h . T u s c u l u m : I t w o u l d be n a t u r a l f o r t h e S u l p i c i i G a l b a e t o h a v e a v i l l a a t t h i s p o p u l a r c i t y , f i f t e e n m i l e s s o u t h -e a s t o f Rome. O t h e r n o t a b l e p r o p e r t y owners i n c l u d e d Pompey ( C i c . P h i l . 1 3 . 1 1 ) and C i c e r o ( D e . D i v . 1 . 5 , T u s c . passim). 6 3 4 . 4 a e t a t e c o n s t a n t i : ' m i d d l e a g e ' . See "num ea c o n s t a n s iam r e q u i r i t a e t a s quae m e d i a d i c i t u r " , C i c . De S e n . 2 0 . 7 6 . v e t e r e m c i v i t a t i s . . . s i n g u l i d i c e r e n t : S u e t o n i u s c l i -maxes h i s c h a p t e r by d i v e r g i n g f r o m h i s p a t t e r n o f omens and p r o p h e c i e s : he r e l a t e s a s t o r y t h a t i l l u s t r a t e s G a l b a ' s s e n s e o f t r a d i t i o n , l o y a l t y t o f a m i l y c u s t o m and s t r i c t n e s s . The c u s t o m ' s u n i q u e n e s s ( i t i s n o t m e n t i o n e d e l s e -where i n e x t a n t L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e ) a t t r a c t e d t h e b i o g r a p h e r a n d h a s o u t w e i g h e d any n e e d f o r t o t a l c o n s i s t e n c y i n s u b -j e c t m a t t e r . S e c t i o n F i v e 5.1 l i b e r a l e s d i s c i p l i n a s : A t t e n t i o n t o ' l i b e r a l s t u d i e s ' i m -p r e s s e d S u e t o n i u s ; f i v e o f t h e o t h e r e m p e r o r s a r e m e n -t i o n e d i n t h e same r e g a r d ( A u g . 8 4 . 1 , C a l . 5 3 . 1 , C l a u d . 3 . 1 , N e r o 5 2 , Pom. 2 0 ) , a l t h o u g h G a l b a a l o n e i s m e n t i o n e d as s t u d y i n g l a w . H i s f a t h e r ' s c a r e e r w o u l d h a v e made i t n a t u r a l f o r h im t o p u r s u e t h i s s u b j e c t . C i c e r o i n d i c a t e s what ' l i b e r a l s t u d i e s ' e n t a i l e d : " h a s a r t i s , q u i b u s l i b e r -a l e s d o c t r i n a e a t q u e i n g e n u a e c o n t i n e r e n t u r , g e o m e t r i a m , m u s i c a m , l i t t e r a r u m c o g n i t i o r e m e t p o e t a r u m " , P e . O r . 3 . 1 2 7 . d e d i t e t m a t r i m o n i o o p e r a m : The p o s i t i o n o f S u e t o n i u s ' d i s c u s s i o n o f G a l b a ' s m a r r i a g e , b e t w e e n h i s s t u d i e s and 64 h i s e a r l y career, r e f l e c t s the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l im-portance of the act f o r young Roman men. Lepida: There i s no other r e f e r e n c e to Galba's wife by name and t h e r e f o r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n can only be t e n t a t i v e . Most commentators b e l i e v e she i s A e m i l i a Lepida, daughter of Manius Aem i l i u s Lepidus, who i s d e s c r i b e d by T a c i t u s as " n u b i l i s " i n the year 21 A.D. (Ann. 3.35). See RE 1, 592, Mooney (1930: 203), V e n i n i (1977:24). The dates are a t t r a c t i v e , as one would expect Galba to be married p r i o r to h i s p u b l i c c a r e e r , but the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s pure c o n j e c t u r e . duobusque ex ea f i l i i s : Unless " a m i s s i s " i s s u p p l i e d , t h i s a b l a t i v e phrase i s meaningless. The sense, t h e r e f o r e , d i c t a t e s t h at Galba's sons died while they were young, and e x p l a i n s why there i s no subsequent r e f e r e n c e to them. See "non ... orbitatem", 17. neque s o l l i c i t a r i ... a matre Lepidae: T h i s s t o r y i s t o l d only here, but f a l l s i n t o the category of other A g r i p p i n a 'temptress' s t o r i e s . See Tac. Ann. 13.12 - 13, where she t r i e s to seduce her son, Nero. <quae> v i d u a t a : quae i s an emendation by Becker to provide a subject f o r " s o l l i c i t a v e r a t " . A l l the manuscripts read viduatae ( g e n i t i v e with Agrippinae) except M and G, which have the bare nominative v i d u a t a . The s c r i b e s of manu-s c r i p t s TT and Q saw the n e c e s s i t y of a feminine nominative 65 and a d d e d quae a f t e r D o m i t i i , r e t a i n i n g v i d u a t a e . B e c k e r ' s e m e n d a t i o n i s i n g e n i o u s (quae c o u l d be o m i t t e d a f t e r A g r i p -p i n a e q u i d e m ) , a n d may w e l l be r i g h t . m o r t e D o m i t i [ i ] : C n . D o m i t i u s A h e n o b a r b u s , t h e f a t h e r o f N e r o , d i e d i n 40 A . D . ( S u e t . N e r o 6 . 3 ) . c o n v e n t u m a t r o n a r u m : A t t h i s t i m e t h e c o n v e n t u s was n o -t h i n g more t h a n a s o c i a l c l u b f o r w e a l t h y Roman women. See S t r a u b ( 1 9 6 4 : 2 2 7 - 2 2 8 and n . 2 0 ) . 5 .2 o b s e r v i t a n t e . . . p l u r i m u m v a l u i t : P l u t a r c h ( G a l b . 3 .2 ) s u p p o r t s S u e t o n i u s ' s t a t e m e n t t h a t G a l b a owed a l o t t o L i v i a , e r r o n e o u s l y a d d i n g t h a t i t was b e c a u s e o f h e r t h a t G a l b a won h i s c o n s u l s h i p ; G a l b a h e l d t h e c o n s u l s h i p i n 33 A . D . , f o u r y e a r s a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f L i v i a . L i v i a ' s s u p p o r t w o u l d h a v e s t a r t e d w i t h h e r a d o p t i o n o f G a l b a ( 4 . 1 ) and was e m p h a s i z e d by t h e e m p e r o r who, a s w e l l as u s i n g h e r name ( 4 . 1 ) , i s s u e d c o i n a g e w i t h t h e image o f L i v i a and t h e l e g e n d A u g u s t a o r D i v a A u g u s t a (RIC I p . 2 0 0 , K r a a y (1956 : 1 4 ) ) . paene d i t a t u s e s t : S u e t o n i u s must h a v e b e e n aware t h a t G a l b a was an e x t r e m e l y r i c h man i n h i s own r i g h t . See T a c . H i s t . 1 . 4 9 . 2 , "magnae o p e s " ; P l u t . G a l b . 3 . 1 , " r S x s a s E o u X T f i K i O f v o t i ii e v i 6 i t 0 T n ; u U u o IUTOTOJ a IT a v T co v e ' l j TOV i \ a i a a p u ) v n a p n X S e v OTKOV o ' p o \ o y e u a i " . S u e t o n i u s h a s how-e v e r c h o s e n t o i g n o r e t h i s f a c t t o e m p h a s i z e G a l b a ' s d e b t t o L i v i a . 66 praecipuum i n t e r l e g a t a r i o s habuit: To add credence to h i s account Suetonius uses p r e c i s e l e g a l language. The noun praecipuus denotes •f i r s t charg e on an es-t a t e ' and i s found only i n the l e g a l w r i t i n g s of Gaius, Q. C e r v i d i u s Scaevola, and Domitius Ulpianus; l e g a t a r i u s , 'the r e c i p i e n t of a legacy', i s a t t e s t e d only one other time i n L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e , i n the w r i t i n g s of the j u r i s t Javolenus P r i s c u s . sed quia ... quingenta revocante: The amount of the l e g -acy would have been w r i t t e n i n symbols r a t h e r than words, and would thus have been very easy to forge; 50,000,000 s e s t e r c e s was denoted as HS Pol, while 500,000 was HS D. The ease with which t h i s f o r g e r y could have been per-formed makes Casaubonls emendation of quingenties to quin-quagies (HSfLl) d o u b t f u l . ne haec quidem a c c e p i t : Another example of i n c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h i n the L i v e s i s f u r n i s h e d by t h i s s t o r y . At T i b . 51.6 Suetonius says that T i b e r i u s a n n u l l e d the w i l l and paid none of the l e g a c i e s (see a l s o Dio 59.1.4, Tac. Ann. 5.1.5); however, at C a i . 16.3, Suetonius says the emperor paid the l e g a c i e s of both T i b e r i u s and L i v i a i n f u l l , " l e g a t a ex testamento T i b e r i quanquam a b o l i t o , sed et I u l i a e Augustae, quod T i b e r i u s suppresserat, cum f i d e ac sine calumnia r e -praesentata a b s o l v i t " . I f the l a t t e r passage were accur a t e , Galba would have r e c e i v e d the- whole f i f t y m i l l i o n s e s t e r -ces, something that Suetonius b l a t a n t l y denies here. 67 A s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m c a n be b a s e d on two p i e c e s o f e v i d e n c e . F i r s t l y , " p a e n e d i t a t u s e s t " w i t h o u t d o u b t s u g g e s t s t h a t G a l b a d i d n o t r e c e i v e t h e w h o l e sum, n o r p r o b a b l y e v e n a f o r g e d f i g u r e o f f i v e h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d s e s t e r c e s , w i t h w h i c h C a l i g u l a may o r may n o t h a v e b e e n f a c e d . S e c o n d l y , t h e C a l i g u l a p a s s a g e i s i n c l u d e d i n a s e c t i o n t h a t e u l o g i s e s t h e i n i t i a l months o f h i s r e i g n and a s s u c h i s o p e n t o e x a g g e r a t i o n . I f G a l b a r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n he was e n t i t l e d . t o , t h i s c o u l d e a s i l y be i g n o r e d by a b i o g r a p h e r i n t e n t on e m p h a s i z i n g t h e f a c t t h a t C a l i g u l a c h o s e t o h o n o u r t h e w i l l a t a l l . S e c t i o n S i x 6 .1 a n t e l e g i t i m u m t e m p u s : G a l b a ' s a c c e l e r a t e d c a r e e r i s a t -t e s t e d h e r e and i n t h e F a s t i C o n s u l a r e s , where he i s r e -c o r d e d as t h e c o n s u l f o r 3 3 . A l t h o u g h t h e r e p u b l i c a n age l i m i t s f o r c u r u l e o f f i c e s w e r e , i n p r i n c i p l e , r e t a i n e d u n d e r t h e P r i n c i p a t e , t h e y were w a i v e d f o r p a t r i c i a n s s u c h a s G a l b a ( M o r r i s 1964 : 3 2 7 , 3 3 2 ) . F o r t h e p o l i t i c a l e f -f e c t s o f t h i s p o l i c y see M o r r i s ( 1965 : 2 2 - 3 1 ) . A d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s s u c h as h i s w e a l t h and t h e p a t r o n a g e o f L i v i a w o u l d h a v e e n a b l e d G a l b a t o a c q u i r e p o s t s w h i l e s t i l l a y o u n g man. p r a e t o r . . . e d i d i t : I n 22 A . D . A u g u s t u s t r a n s f e r e d t h e c u r a l u d o r u m f r o m t h e a e d i l e s t o t h e p r a e t o r s ( D i o 5 4 . 2 . 3 ) . B e c a u s e o f S u e t o n i u s ' u n s p e c i f i c d a t i n g scheme i t i s d i f - ' f i c u l t to say i n which y e a r G a l b a h e l d t h e p r a e t o r s h i p . 68 The only c l u e s are i n the next sentences; Suetonius says that exim ( i n the very next year?) Galba was governor of A q u i t a n i a f o r 'almost a year' and then mox became consul o r d i n a r i u s . I t i s impossible to say e x a c t l y how long mox i n d i c a t e s ; w i t h i n the L i v e s i t can mean as l i t t l e as a few minutes (Galba 20.2), a p e r i o d of four years (Nero 2.2), or up to a quarter of a century (Claud.45). However, the use of exim, anno f e r e and mox suggest that the three o f -f i c e s came i n c l o s e s u c c e s s i o n , p o s s i b l y i n 31, 32 and 33 A.D. T h i s chronology i s supported by Morris (1964: 336), who. shows that some p a t r i c i a n s became consul with only a biennium i n t e r v e n i n g a f t e r the p r a e t o r h s i p . In Galba's case the biennium would have been p a r t l y spent i n A q u i t a -n i a . ludorum Floralum: An annual f e s t i v a l c o n s i s t i n g mainly of t h e a t r i c a l events; i t was n o t o r i o u s f o r i t s l i c e n t i o u s nature ( M a r t i a l 1.35.8). novum ... elephantes funambulos: Galba's t i g h t r o p e - w a l k i n g elephants were e v i d e n t l y popular; Nero e x h i b i t e d them at h i s Ludi Maximi (Suet. Nero 11.2), an event of which Dio g i v e s a d e t a i l e d account: "'o t e 6n <a\ eXe<i>a$ a v n x Q n es t r i v a v w T a T w T O U 6 e a T p o u a i p T 6 a ? K Q I E I C E I 6 E \ I E I I a x o t v i i o v K a t e — 6 p a y e v a v a B a t n v <t>epa)v" 5 61.17.2 - 3. Other r e l i a b l e sources, such as P l i n y (NH 8.3), men-t i o n the act,an so i t s v e r a c i t y cannot be doubted; however, due to the l a c k of any iconographie evidence, the method 69 used to r a i s e the elephants to the heights of the t h e a t r e and then l e a d them down remains u n c l e a r . p r o v i n c i a e ... p r a e f u i t : A q u i t a n i a was one of the three G a l l i c provinces that remained under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of i m p e r i a l l e g a t i . Galba would have served as legatus Augus-tus pro p r a e t o r e , an o f f i c e that shows he was a great f a -v o u r i t e . anno f e r e : 'almost a year'. The s u s p i c i o n that Galba's c o n s u l s h i p immediately f o l l o w e d h i s governorship i s r e i n f o r c e d by the statement that he d i d not complete the year; he would probably have had to r e t u r n to Rome to make p r e p a r a t i o n s . The a b l a t i v e of d u r a t i o n of time i s used f r e e l y by Suetonius: " v i x i t annis v i g i n t i novem, imperavit t r i e n n i o et decern mensibus diebusque octo", C a l . 59. consulatum .... g e s s i t : The consuls e l e c t e d at the be-g i n n i n g of the year were c a l l e d consules o r d i n a r i i and gave t h e i r name to the year. By the time of Galba the t r a d i t i o n had become e s t a b l i s h e d that the consules o r d i n a -r i i would r e s i g n and be r e p l a c e d by consules s u f f e c t i . L. Domitio: The c o r r e c t praenomen of Domitius Ahenobarbus was Gnaeus, as i s a t t e s t e d by both e p i g r a p h i c (Dessau 1962: n 2696) and l i t e r a r y evidence (Dio 58.17.1). For a s i m i l a r c a r e l e s s e r r o r committed by Suetonius h i m s e l f or 70 by the s c r i b e s see note on Cn. Lentulo cons, 4.1. 6.2 ... i n locum Gaetu l i c i : In 39, C a l i g u l a appointed Galba legatus Augusti pro praetore f o r Upper Germany i n place of G. C o r n e l i u s Lentulus G a e t u l i c u s ( P l u t . Galb. 3.2, Tac. H i s t . 1.49.4). The lacuna must r e f e r to t h i s appointment. Ihm's t e x t gives Roth's c o n j e c t u r a l emendation, a l -though the suggestions of Madvig and Ihm h i m s e l f are e q u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . G a e t u l i c i : In a d d i t i o n to commanding the l e g i o n s i n Upper Germany f o r ten years, G a e t u l i c u s was consul i n 26 A.D. He had been a poet ( P l i n y Ep. 5.3) and p o s s i b l y a h i s t o -r i a n (H.R.R. v o l . 2, p. CXVII). C a l i g u l a had him k i l l e d i n 39 A.D., accusing him of c o n s p i r i n g to b r i n g about a r e v o l u t i o n (Suet. Claud. 9.1, Dio 59.22.5, Tac. Ann. 6.30.2). See RE 4,1, 1384f. data t e s s e r a : A t e s s e r a was a small t a b l e t of stone c i r -c u l a t e d among the s o l d i e r s c o n t a i n i n g the password or o r -ders of the day ( L i v y 9.32.4, S t a t i u s Theb. 10.17). Disce ... non G a e t u l i c u s : The metre of t h i s v e r s e, a t r o -c h a i c s e p t e n a r i u s , was the usual rhythm of s o l d e r s ' chants. See Suet. Div. I u l . 49.4, 51. G a e t u l i c u s was very popular among h i s s o l d i e r s f o r the mildness of h i s d i s c i p l i n e : " G a e t u l i c u s ea tempestate ... mirumque amorem adsecutus e r a t , e f f u s a e clementiae, modicus s e v e r i t a t e " , Tac. Ann. 6.30.3. His p o p u l a r i t y 71 among the l e g i o n s was used as evidence a g a i n s t him when accused of the c o n s p i r a c y (Dio 59.22.6 - 7). For the appearance of rhymes and chants i n Suetonius, see D e l i a Corte (1967: 157). 6.3 p a r i s e v e r i t a t e : From t h i s point on i n the biography s e v e r i t a s i s the most prominent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Galba's p e r i o d of power. I t was a t r a i t c a r r i e d over from h i s s u c c e s s f u l m i l i t a r y career i n t o a l l aspects of h i s l i f e . See 7.1, 9.1, 12.2, 14.3, 16.1. commeatus p e t i : I t i s harsh to d e s c r i b e Galba's stopping of requests f o r leave as s e v e r i t a s ; s o l d i e r s had been able to purchase leave from c e n t u r i o n s , even to the extent that the d e p l e t e d Roman army co u l d be defeated i n b a t t l e (Tac. Ann. 15.9.2). b a r b a r i s ... c o e r c i t i s : Galba defeated the C h a t t i i n 41 A.D. (Dio 60.8.7). His c a r e e r i n Germany was a notable success: " m i l i t a r i laude apud Germanias f l o r u i t " , Tac. N X ° *- • J-• H-? . H-, U f t T a i 6e K a i a T p a T e u \i a x 05 E V r e p \i a v i a K a X w j a P f ; a i " ) p l u t . Galb. 3.3. innumeras ... c o p i a s : For an e q u a l l y l a r g e but u n s p e c i f i c estimate see Suet. C a l . 43. According to Dio (59.22.1) the number of troops was 200,000 or 250,000. I t i s l i k e l y that Suetonius i s exaggerating when he 72 says omnibus p r o v i n c i i s , but l e g i o n s from d i f f e r e n t p rovinces were gathered on the Rhine i n that year. See B i c k n e l l (1968: 497 f f . ) decursionem: The decursiones, or p r a c t i c e b a t t l e marches, were part of a huge programme of m i l i t a r y maneouvres d i r -e c t e d by C a l i g u l a to t r y to r e s t o r e d i s c i p l i n e among the l e g i o n s . However, the a n c i e n t sources agree i n d e r i d i n g the programme as f a r c i c a l and u n s u c c e s s f u l (Tac. H i s t • 4.15.2, Germ . 37.4, Dio 59.21.1 - 2, 25.2, Suet. C a i . 43 f f . ) . See B i c k n e l l (1968: 496-499), Balsdon (1965: 76 f f . ) . S e c t i o n Seven A s e c t i o n i n which Suetonius p r a i s e s Galba's admini-s t r a t i o n of A f r i c a and, i n doing so, emphasizes a s p e c i a l C laudius-Galba r e l a t i o n s h i p . (See caede G a i , g r a t i s s i m u s  C l a u d i o and tantae d i g n i t a t i o n i s ) . 7.1 Caede Gai ... quietem p r a e t u l i t : In no other source i s Galba named as a p r o s p e c t i v e candidate f o r the p o s i t i o n of emperor at t h i s time. C a l i g u l a was a s s a s s i n a t e d on 24 January 41 (Suet. C a i . 58.1), and i n the c o n f u s i o n of the f o l l o w i n g two days v a r i o u s candidates were nominated as h i s successor; Claud-i u s was d i s c o v e r e d i n the palace and acclaimed as emperor by the army (Suet. Claud. 10.1 - 2, Dio 60.1.1 f f . , 60.3.2, Josephus BJ 11,204 f ) . A case can be made to support Suetonius' i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t Galba was a p o t e n t i a l r i v a l of C l a u d i u s ; he was the l e a d e r of a powerful army and no doubt would have had some support i n Rome. However, Suetonius i s g u i l t y of exagger-a t i n g the t h r e a t Galba posed; he was s t i l l at t h i s stage p r i m a r i l y a s o l d i e r , a l b e i t a very good one, and seems to have harboured no ambition f o r the r o l e of emperor. He was a l s o r e s i d e n t i n Germany, f a r away from the p o l i t i c a l game being played w i t h i n the senate. The i m p l i c a t i o n i n m u l t i s ... s t i m u l a n t i b u s that there was an a c t i v e p a r t y i n Rome and Germany working to get Galba as emperor i s u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d and i n mentioned by Suetonius merely to emphasize the debt Claudius owed to Galba. g r a t i s s i m u s C l a u d i o : Suetonius i s g u i l t y of s l i g h t l y mis-l e a d i n g h i s reader as Claudius d i d not s p e c i f i c a l l y honour Galba. According to Dio, Claudius gave o f f i c e s to a l l those who wanted to be emperor a f t e r C a l i g u l a ' s death, as w e l l as those who c a l l e d f o r a r e t u r n to a r e p u b l i c (60.3.5). cohortem amicorum: Cohors amicorum means nothing more than C l a u d i u s ' " c i r c l e " or "entourage" and i s not synonymous wit h comites, who were the amici that accompanied the em-peror on o f f i c i a l journeys or e x p e d i t i o n s . (Crook 1955: 24 f f , 185; f o r the opposite view c f Mooney 1930: 209). This being the case, t h i s passage ought not be used as 74 evidence that Galba accompanied Claudius to B r i t a i n i n 43 A.D. (see below). tantae d i g n i t a t i o n i s ... B r i t t a n i c a e d i e s : Suetonius im-p l i e s that Galba took part i n t h i s e x p e d i t i o n , but there i s no evidence to support the i m p l i c a t i o n . Indeed the opposite i s more probable; i n a d e t a i l e d account of the i n v a s i o n , Dio does not mention Galba once, a remarkable f a c t i f such a s u c c e s s f u l s o l d i e r was present (60.20 - 23). It has been argued that Galba was s t i l l i n Germany and that h i s i l l n e s s d e s t a b i l i z e d the s i t u a t i o n t h e r e . Claudius would then have delayed the B r i t i s h i n v a s i o n , not wishing to leave Germany open to r e v o l t . ( B a r r e t t 1983: 243 - 245.) The s c e n a r i o i s c r e d i b l e , as there seems no reason why Suetonius should f a b r i c a t e the s t o r y of a d e l a y . How-ever, i t i s f a i r to assume that an i l l n e s s of Galba that had such f a r - r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s would be r e p o r t e d elsewhere; there i s no such evidence. The problem i s caused by Suetonius' exaggeration of the Claudius-Galba r e l a t i o n s h i p , two examples of which have already been given i n t h i s chapter (see above). The i n v a s i o n of B r i t a i n was a l a r g e undertaking and not one of the Roman s o l d i e r s were keen to c a r r y i t out (Dio 60.19.2); at l e a s t one delay could be expected, and Dio gives an account of a temporary d e l a y i n Gaul (60.19.3). I t i s un-important whether Suetonius i s r e f e r r i n g to t h i s or to an 75 i n i t i a l delay i n Rome. The f a c t i s that to maximize the Claudius-Galba r e l a t i o n s h i p Suetonius gives the u n l i k e l y cause of an i l l n e s s of Galba as the reason f o r the delay. A f r i c a m pro consule ... tumultu inquietam: The a s s i g n -ment of the two s e n a t o r i a l provinces of A f r i c a and A s i a was by l o t to the sen i o r consulares (see 4.3 anno suo). However, an e x t r a o r d i n a r y appointment, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f i t was f o r more than one year, could be made by the emperor h i m s e l f . The s p e c i a l nature of Galba's governorship, the e x t r a -long tenure (biennio) and d i r e c t appointment ( e x t r a sortem  e l e c t u s ) suggests Claudius appointed Galba d i r e c t l y . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n l a y i n Galba's s u c c e s s f u l m i l i t a r y r e p u t a -t i o n and the c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n A f r i c a . For a prece-dent see Tac. Ann. 3.32.1, 3.35. A d e d i c a t o r y i n s c r i p t i o n d i s c o v e r e d i n 1941 suggests that Galba had command of the whole province,not j u s t Af-r i c a Nova, nor was he su b j e c t to a legatus l e g i o n i s , as had been the custom i n A f r i c a since C a l i g u l a (Tac. H i s t . 4.48, Dio 59.20.7). This again could only have been brought about by a personal concession of C l a u d i u s . (Le Glay 1966: 629 f f . ) i n t e s t i n a d i s s e n s i o n e : T h i s could r e f e r to a minor i n t e r -n a l r e v o l t or, more l i k e l y , i n the l i g h t of the evidence from the 'Caesarean' i n s c r i p t i o n (see above), a c l a s h be-tween proconsul and le g a t e (Le Glay 1966: 633). 76 barbarorum tumultu: The r e v o l t of the M u s u l a n i i . See "Caesa Musulamiorum manus e s t " , Aur. V i c t . E p i t . de Caes. 4.4. o r d i n a v i t : The ancient sources concur i n p r a i s i n g Galba's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of A f r i c a : "proconsule African, moderate, iam s e n i o r c i t e r i o r e m Hispaniam p a r i i n s t i t i a c o n t i n u i t " , Tac. H i s t . 1.49.4; A i 3 u r i S a v e u n t H T O s y evoyievos tfuv oXxyoxs i-nax v e e n v a i 5 P l u t . Galb. 3.3. His i n f l u e n c e i s a l s o a t -t e s t e d by the naming of a settlement i n Numidia " C a s t r a Galbae" (RE 3.2, 1768). magna s e v e r i t a t i s : Both Suetonius and T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.49.4) mention Galba's sense of i u s t i t i a i n h i s admini-s t r a t i o n , but Suetonius p r e f e r s to emphasize the charac-t e r i s t i c of s e v e r i t a s r a t h e r than the T a c i t e a n moderatio (see 6.3 p a r i s e v e r i t a t e ) . i n p a r v u l i s rebus: Suetonius admires a t t e n t i o n p a i d by the emperors to 'matters of l i t t l e importance'; see Div. I u l . 48, T i b . 32.2, Claud. 34.1. 7.2 m i l i t i ... a potu r e c e p e s s i t : The two anecdotes i l l u s t r a t e r e s p e c t i v e l y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s e v e r i t a s and i u s t i t i a . a r t i s s i m a annona: The anecdote r e l a t e d by Suetonius i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e as A f r i c a was v i t a l l y important to Rome as a source of g r a i n . Any personal p r o f i t made from g r a i n caused resentment and h o s t i l i t y : "ex annonae quoque c a r i t a t e l u c r i t a n t i [ a ] a d c r e v i t i n v i d i a " , Suet. Nero 45.1. 77 For a r t a i n the sense of 'scarce', see Claud. 18.2. Suet. T i b . 8, t r i t i c i : The Roman s o l d i e r r e c e i v e d h i s d a i l y r a t i o n s i n g r a i n r a t h e r than bread. (Watson 1969: 64, V e n i n i 1977: 30). centum d e n a r i i s : '400 s e s t e r c e s ' . From e p i g r a p h i c e v i -dence, i t seems that the u s u a l p r i c e was 40 or 50 s e s t e r -ces. See CIL VIII 25703.4, XI 2861, Duncan Jones (1974: 252 f f ) . a t : Suetonius uses at i n i t s weak sense to mark a t r a n s -i t i o n to a new s t o r y . I t s use i s s i m i l a r to that of 6 E i n Greek. cum de p r o p r i e t a t e ... a potu r e c e p i s s e t : For a s m i l a r p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n to a l e g a l problem see Claud. 15.2. Se c t i o n E i g h t 8.1 res ... i n A f r i c a ... i n Germania gestas: See r e s p e c t -i v e l y 7.1 and 6 . 2 - 3 . ornamenta t r i u m p h a l i a a c c e p i t : Galba r e c e i v e d the orna-menta i n 47 (Gordon 1952: 319)1 The ornamenta t r i u m p h a l i a c o n s i s t e d of a d i s t i n c t i v e triumphal uniform, i n c l u d i n g the toga p i c t a and the t u n i c a palmata, which c o u l d be worn at a l l ceremonial o c c a s i o n s . ( B a r i n i 1952: 14). They were co n f e r r e d by emperors from Augustus to Hadrian but were e v e n t u a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r members of the i m p e r i a l 78 f a m i l y alone. For a l i s t of a l l r e c i p i e n t s see B a r i n i (1952: 201 -204). sacerdotum t r i p l e x : Galba was awarded one of the major p r i e s t h o o d s , the q u i n d e c i m v i r i ( s a c r i s f a c i u n d i s ) , and two s o d a l i t a t e s , of T i t i u s and of Augustus. The r a r i t y of t h i s t r i p l e honour i s e v i d e n t ; there were only four other such r e c i p i e n t s i n the J u l i o - C l a u d i a n age; see Lewis (1955: 157. For the honours awarded to Galba see 52.) For the importance of pri e s t h o o d s as honours i n the imper-i a l age see Lewis (1955 : 17 f f.. ) quindecimviros: The q u i n d e c i m v i r i , o r i g i n a l l y custodians of the S i b y l l i n e books ( L i v y 5.13.5 - 6), supervised a l l f o r e i g n c u l t s i n Rome. The p r i e s t s supervised the games of A p o l l o ( L i v y 10.8.2) and the Ludi Saeculares (Tac. Ann. 11.11.1, Suet- Claud. 21.2). sodales T i t i o s : Almost nothing i s known of t h i s p r i e s t -hood apart from i t s name. T a c i t u s gives two v e r s i o n s of i t s o r i g i n , both l i n k e d with the Sabine k i n g T a t i u s ( H i s t . 2.95.1, Ann. 1.54.1); the theory i n the Annals that the purpose of the p r i e s t h o o d was to preserve Sabine r i t e s i s supported by Varro L.L. 5.85. Other t h e o r i e s l i n k the sodales with the E t r u s c a n god Mutinus T i t i n i u s ; see RE 16,1,980 f f . 79 Augustales: This p r i e s t h o o d was i n s t i t u t e d by T i b e r i u s i n honour of the gens I u l i a (Tac. H i s t . 2.95.1). Other s o d a l -i t a t e s i n s t i t u t e d i n honour of gentes i n c l u d e d the F l a v i a l e s and Had r i a n a l e s . For comparison of s o d a l i t a t e s see Lewis (1955: 155-159). atque ex eo tempore ... plurimum v i x i t : Galba, at t h i s stage i n h i s career, a s u c c e s s f u l and eminent man, feared that Nero would view him as a p r o s p e c t i v e r i v a l . secum ... e f f e r r e t : See 9.3 ne quid ... Neroni, and f o r a s i m i l a r r e tirement on grounds of f e a r Suet. Vesp. 4.2 (Vespasian's f e a r of A g r i p p i n a ) . There i s no evidence i n d i c a t i n g where Galba spent h i s re t i r e m e n t . ne ad gestandum ... quam ut: As Ihm's text stands there i s no antecedent f o r quam. T o r r e n t i u s may w e l l have solved the problem by adding a l i t e r before i t e r (see my t e x t ) ; homoioteleuton would make i t s omission a simple e r r o r . Seutonius uses the a l i t e r ... quam c o n s t r u c t i o n (see T i b . 15.3 and 24.2) and the i n c l u s i o n of the adverb would make the sentence run more smoothly. Ihm, however, p r e f e r s to assume an e l l i p s e . Against a l i t e r see Hofstee (1898: 20) and Mooney (1930: 212). secum ... i n auro e f f e r r e t : In case Galba needed to f l e e suddenly, he t r a v e l l e d with 10,000 a u r e i worth 1,000,000 s e s t e r c e s . 80 For t h i s use of i n see "quod partem r e i f a m i l i a r i s i n pecunia haberet", T i b . 49.2; "habet ... i n nummis ... habet i n urbanis p r a e d i i s " , C i c . V e r r . 2.3.199. Fundis: Suetonius i s g u i l t y of being s l i g h t l y c a r e l e s s i n h i s geography; he must be t a l k i n g of the same v i l l a men-t i o n e d at 4.1 under T a r r a c i n a . V e n i n i (1977: 32) i s s u r e l y wrong i n assuming that there were two homes; there would be no need f o r two r e s i -dences so c l o s e together. H i s p a n i a Tarroconensis o b l a t a e s t : Galba was sent to Spain i n 60 (Tac. H i s t . 1.49.4, Dio 63.23, P l u t . Galb. 3.5). Vespasian's r e t i r e m e n t was f o l l o w e d by a s i m i l a r o f f e r of a p r o v i n c i a l appointment (Suet. Vesp. 4.8). 8.2 puero ... canesceret: Dio (64.1.3) r e l a t e s the same pro-d i g y but places i t i n 68, immediately p r i o r to Galba's t a k i n g power. It i s d i f f i c u l t to decide which year, i f any, i s c o r r e c t ; Suetonius p r e f e r s to l i n k p r o d i g i e s with impor-t a n t events i n Galba's l i f e ; Dio, on the other hand, gath-e r s the omens together and t e l l s them as the events of one year. I t i s a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y that both have s a c r i -f i c e d accurate chronology f o r reasons of s t r u c t u r e and s t y l e . 81 hoc est ipsum Neroni: According to Suetonius' chronology, Galba would be between 63 and 65 and Nero, born i n 37 (Nero 6.1), 23. fulmen: For l i g h t n i n g as an omen of fu t u r e power see 4.2. duodecim secures ... i m p e r i i signum: Since the time of the king s of Rome, the twelve fasces and consequently the twelve axes had been signs of supreme power ( L i v y 1.8.3). S e c t i o n Nine The p i v o t a l s e c t i o n i n Suetonius' account of Galba's r i s e to power; the i n i t i a l i n d u s t r y and z e a l shown i n h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n gives way to i n a c t i v i y i n order to avoid the jealousy of Nero. However, with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Vindex Suetonius begins to r e l a t e the events that l e a d d i r e c t l y to Nero's downfall and Galba's assumption of power. the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of Galba from aging s o l d i e r to pr o s p e c t i v e emperor i s accomplished w i t h i n t h i s one sec-t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , there i s a s u b t l e change i n Suetonius' a t t i t u d e towards Galba: f o r the f i r s t time, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s towards which Suetonius had p r e v i o u s l y been n e u t r a l assume a negative connotation (see v a r i e et i n a e q u a b i l i t e r , i n ... immodicus). octo annos: 60 to 68 A.D. According to T a c i t u s (Ann. 1.80), the tenure of o f f i c e f o r a legatus Augusti pro  praetore was l e f t to the d e c i s i o n of the emperor alone. 82 An e i g h t - y e a r career r e f l e c t s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n Rome with Galba's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . v a r i e et i n a e q u a b i l i t e r : Suetonius' account compares un-favourable with those of T a c i t u s ( H i s t : 1.49.4), Dio (63.23), and, e s p e c i a l l y , P l u t a r c h (Galb. 4 . I f f ) ; the impression given by those three sources i s that Galba's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was f a i r and popular with the l o c a l s . D e l i a Corte (1967: 119-142) suggests that Suetonius d e l i b e r a t e l y " placed Galba i n a l e s s favourable l i g h t to maximise the e f f e c t of the pro-Otho biography that was to f o l l o w . See a l s o Koestermann (1956: 199). However, such a s i m p l i f i e d attempt at c o n t r a s t by a n t i t h e s i s seems out of c h a r a c t e r with the r e s t of the L i v e s . In each biography, Suetonius l i m i t s h i m s e l f to h i s p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t , even to the p o i n t of s u r p r i s i n g omis-sions (see 19.1 s a c r i f i c a n t e m ... monuit) and to assume i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the L i v e s seems unwarranted. i n ... immodicus: See 6.3 p a r i s e v e r i t a t e . Suetonius does not o b j e c t to the s e v e r i t a s i t s e l f , but to i t s immoderate use e x e m p l i f i e d i n the two f o l l o w i n g examples. v e r s a n t i pecunias: 'Handling money'; the e x p l a n a t i o n pro-v i d e d by the s c h o l i o n i s t r a c t a n t i . 83 manus a m p u t a v i t : A l t h o u g h Roman law d i d n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r b i d b o d i l y m u t i l a t i o n , t h i s t y p e o f p u n i s h m e n t was i n -f l i c t e d v e r y r a r e l y . F o r o t h e r e x a m p l e s s e e C l a u d . 1 5 . 2 ; T a c . H i s t . 3 . 8 4 . s u b s t i t u t u s h e r e s : S u b s t i t u t e r e h e r e d e m was a common l e g a l p r a c t i c e ; i f t h e h e i r d i e d b e f o r e p u b e r t y t h e s u b -s t i t u t u s w o u l d r e c e i v e t h e i n h e r i t a n c e . See Q u i n t . 7 . 6 . 1 0 . i m p l o r a n t q u e . . . t e s t i f i c a n t i : T h e r e i s a d i s a g r e e m e n t among c o m m e n t a t o r s a b o u t t h e e x a c t r i g h t s o f g o v e r n o r s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i u s g l a d i i o v e r Roman c i t i z e n s . Some s a y t h a t p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n o r s d i d n o t h a v e t h e power t o e x e c u t e a Roman c i t i z e n u n t i l t h e e n d o f t h e t h i r d c e n t u r y ( S t a a t s . I I 3 p . 2 6 9 , Mooney 1930: 2 1 4 ) . U n d e r t h e l e x  I u l i a de v i t h e Roman c i t i z e n w o u l d h a v e h a d t h e r i g h t t o a p p e a l t o Rome ( P a u l u s 5 . 2 6 . 1 ) , a n d was d e n i e d by G a l b a . O t h e r s , h o w e v e r , b e l i e v e t h a t G a l b a as g o v e r n o r h a d c o m -p l e t e j u d i c i a l powers and was empowered t o o r d e r t h e d e a t h p e n a l t y (Gamsey 1968 : 5 1 f f . ) ; t h e m e t h o d o f e x e c u t i o n w o u l d t h e n be t h e e x a m p l e o f G a l b a ' s e x t r e m e s e v e r i t a s o f w h i c h S u e t o n i u s d i s a p p r o v e d . C r u c i f i x i o n was u s u a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r f o r e i g n e r s and s l a v e s ( B e r g e r 1 9 5 3 : 4 1 9 ) . R e g a r d l e s s , h o w e v e r , o f G a l b a ' s e x a c t j u d i c i a l p o w e r s , t h e p u n i s h m e n t w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a l m o s t u n p a r a l l e l e d i n s e v e r i t y . c i v e m Romanum . . . i u s s i t : F o r s i m i l a r f u t i l e i n v o c a t i o n s o f Roman c i t i z e n s h i p see C i c . V e r r . 5 . 1 6 . 2 , F a m . 1 0 . 3 2 . 3 . 84 d e s i d i a m s e g n i t i a m q u e : S u e t o n i u s g i v e s as an e x c u s e f o r G a l b a ' s s l o t h t h e f e a r o f e x a s p e r a t i n g Nero; T a c i t u s , how-e v e r , a c c u s e s G a l b a o f b e i n g l a z y by n a t u r e : "quod s e g n i -t i a e r a t , s a p i e n t i a v o c a r e t u r " , H i s t . 1.49.3. ne q u i d ... N e r o n i : See 8.1 s e c e s s u and i n t r o d u c t i o n t o s e c t i o n n i n e . B o t h A g r i c o l a and Memmius R e g u l u s s p e n t p e r i o d s o f r e t i r e m e n t u n d e r Nero f o r t h e same r e a s o n ( T a c . A g r . 6; Ann. 14.47). r a t i o n e m o t i i : S u e t o n i u s i s r e f e r r i n g t o t h e words o f C a t o the C e n s o r q u o t e d by C i c e r o , "M. C a t o n i s i l l u d ... c l a r o r u m v i r o r u m a t q u e magnorum non minus o t i i quam ne-g o t i i r a t i o n e m e x s t a r e o p e r t e r e " , P l a n e . 27.66. 9.2 C a r t h a g i n e ... agens: S u e t o n i u s a l o n e g i v e s t h e name o f t h e c i t y where the c o n v e n t u s and s u b s e q u e n t a c c l a m a t i o n t o o k p l a c e . A c o n v e n t u s was a t r a v e l l i n g c o u r t c h a i r e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n o r i n c e r t a i n c i t i e s . C a r t h a g o Nova was one o f s e v e n s u c h c i t i e s i n H i s p a n i a T a r r a c o n e n s i s ( P l i n y N.H. 3.18). l e g a t o ... i m p l o r a n t e : I t has u s u a l l y been assumed t h a t t h e a p p e a l was one f o r h e l p a g a i n s t V i n d e x ( B r u n t . 1959: 5 3 5 ) . However, i t has b een s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e i s no-t h i n g t o p r e c l u d e i t s b e i n g an a p p e a l by a s u p p o r t e d on b e h a l f o f V i n d e x . ( S h o t t e r 1975: 6 2 ) . The p r o b l e m l i e s i n t h e n o n - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e l e g a t e o f A q u i t a n i a . T h e r e a r e two p o s s i b l e c a n d i d a t e s ; Q. J u l i u s c o r d u s (RE X 570 and PIR 4, 272) was t h e l e g a t e o f t h e p r o v i n c e a t t h e 85 b e g i n n i n g o f 69 A.D. ( T a c . H i s t . 1.76.1), w h i l e B e t u u s C i l o (RE I I I , 375) i s s a i d t o have been murdered by G a l b a i n G a u l ( T a c . H i s t . 1.37.3). The s p e e c h i n w h i c h t h i s a l l e -g a t i o n i s made t e l l s o f t h e d e a t h s o f s e v e r a l p r o v i n c i a l l e g a t e s . I f C i l o was t h e l e g a t e , t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e l e t t e r i s a p l e a f o r a i d a g a i n s t V i n d e x . G a l b a w o u l d have t u r n e d down t h e r e q u e s t and, r e c o g n i s i n g C i l o as an opponent o f V i n d e x , a r r a n g e d f o r h i s murder. I f , however, Cordus was t h e l e g a t e , he c o u l d have a s k e d f o r h e l p on b e h a l f o f V i n d e x . The b a l a n c e o f e v i -d e n c e , however, weighs a g a i n s t t h i s t h e o r y ; Cordus i s n o t m e n t i o n e d as l e g a t e o f A q u i t a n i a u n t i l t h e s t a r t o f 69 A.D., w h i l e t h e a p p e a l was made a t l e a s t e i g h t monts b e f o r e and, e v e n i f he was i n command, t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t he was a s u p p o r t e r o f V i n d e x . I n a d d i t i o n , i m p l o r a n t e s u g -g e s t s an u r g e n t r e q u e s t t h a t would b e t t e r s u i t a l e g a t e t r y i n g t o subdue a sudden r e b e l l i o n t h a n one who was a t -t e m p t i n g t o o r g a n i s e s u p p o r t f o r i t . V i n d i c i s : C. J u l i u s V i n d e x came from an a r i s t o c r a t i c b a c k -g r o u n d . He was d e s c e n d e d from a r o y a l f a m i l y o f A q u i t a n i a 2 and h i s f a t h e r was a Roman s e n a t o r ( D i o 63.23.1 ). I n F e b r u a r y , 68, as g o v e r n o r o f G a l l i a L u g d e n e n s i s , he l e d a r e v o l t a g a i n s t Nero ( S u e t . Nero 40.1 f f ; P l u t . G a l b . 4.3 f f ; d i o 63.23 f f . ) . However, he f a i l e d t o w i n o f u l l s u p p o r t from t h e G a l l i c t r i b e s and a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Ju n e , h a v i n g 86 been defeated at Vesontio by V e r g i n i u s Rufus, h i s r e v o l t was crushed. He was k i l l e d (Tac. H i s t . 1.51.1), or com-mi t t e d s u i c i d e (Dio 63.24.4; P l u t . Galb. 6.3) soon a f t e r -wards. See RE 10.1, 879 f f . On the r e v o l t , i t s chronology, and i d e o l o g y , see i n -t e r a l i o s Manni (1946: 122 f f . ) , C h i l v e r (1957: 29 f f . ) , Brunt (1959: 531 f f . ) , Hainsworth (1962: 86 f f . ) , Shotter (1975: 59 f f . ) , and Daly (1975: 75 f f . ) l i t t e r a e : According to P l u t a r c h (Galb. 4.2), Galba had r e -c e i v e d l e t t e r s of e n t r e a t y from Vindex before the s t a r t of the r e v o l t , but n e i t h e r r e p l i e d to them nor, as other go-vernors d i d , passed them on as i n f o r m a t i o n to Nero. It may w e l l have been t h i s d e c i s i o n not to r e v e a l the r e b e l -l i o u s i n t e n t i o n s of Vindex that caused Nero to order h i s murder. See mandata ... missa below, Bradley (1978: 254 -256). ut ... accommod a r e t : Vindex's o f f e r of the P r i n c i p a t e to Galba. The r e v o l t r e q u i r e d a l eader more d i s t i n g u i s h e d than Vindex h i m s e l f and Galba was s u i t a b l e f o r many reasons, not though, as Dio (63.23) erroneously s t a t e s , because he had 'no small m i l i t a r y s t r e n g t h ' ; Galba had, i n f a c t , j u s t one l e g i o n at h i s d i s p o s a l (10.2). He was nonetheless w e l l -r e s p e c t e d f o r h i s noble background ( n o b i l i s s i m u s , s e c t i o n 2), had been s u c c e s s f u l i n Germany (6.2), and alone had not betrayed Vindex to nero ( l i t t e r a e , above). On t h i s 87 l a s t p o i n t i t has b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t V i n d e x w o u l d n o t h a v e c h o s e n G a l b a h a d n o t a l l o t h e r p o t e n t i a l a l l i e s d e -s e r t e d h i m . See B r u n t ( 1 9 5 9 : 5 3 4 - 5 3 5 ) . humano g e n e r i : The w o r d s D i o ( 6 3 . 2 3 . 6 ) p u t s i n t h e mouth o f V i n d e x a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e u s e d by S u e t o n i u s : " e X e u e e -p u a o T E n S a a v T n v o\ K O U VI E v n v " . The p h r a s e s humano g e n e r i and n a o a v TTJV o n c o u n e v n v c a n be u s e d as e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t t h e t h e o r y t h a t t h e r e v o l t was a n a t i o n a l i s t i c movement f o r G a l l i c i n d e p e n d e n c e ( S h i l l e r 1872 : 261 f f . , M o m i g l i a n o C . A . H . 1 0 , p . 7 3 9 ) . F o r a c o m p l e t e r e f u t a t i o n o f t h e t h e o r y s e e K r a a y ( 1969 : 129 f f . ) . a s s e r t o r e m : ' l i b e r a t o r ' . See " I u l i u m V i n d i c e m a s s e r t o r e m i l i u m a N e r o n e l i b e r t a s " , P l i n y NH 2 0 . 1 6 0 . A c c o r d i n g t o Mommsen, l i b e r t a s f o r V i n d e x meant t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e R e p u b l i c ; i t was n o t t h e P r i n c i p a t e he w a s . o f f e r i n g G a l b a , b u t t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e r e v o l t w i t h t h e d u a l a i m o f b r i n g i n g down N e r o a n d r e - i n s t i t u t i n g r e -p u b l i c a n i s m t h r o u g h o u t t h e Roman w o r l d ( G e s . S h r i f t I V , p . 333 f f . ) . I t i s , h o w e v e r , e x t r e m e l y u n l i k l y t h a t a n y -o n e , l e a s t o f a l l t h e u n i n f u l e n t i a l V i n d e x , w o u l d h a v e t h o u g h t o f r e s t o r i n g t h e R e p u b l i c as l a t e a s 68 ( B r u n t 1 9 5 9 : 535 f f . ) . F o r a r g u m e n t s a g a i n s t Mommsens 's n u m i s -m a t i c e v i d e n c e , s e e K r a a y (1949 : 130 - 1 4 2 ) . R a t h e r , t h e a i m o f t h e a s s e r t o r was t o f r e e Rome f r o m t h e m u r d e r o u s r e g i m e o f N e r o and b r i n g a b o u t a r e t u r n o f p e r s o n a l f r e e d o m 88 a n d s e c u r i t y . F o r t h i s c o n c e p t o f l i b e r t a s see W i r s z u b s k i ( 1 9 5 0 : 160 f f . ) and f o r i t s u s e as t h e w a t c h w o r d o f t h e r e -v o l t see R IC I p . 182 - 210 p a s s i m ( e s p e c i a l l y p . 184 n . l ) . n e c d i u c u n c t a t u s : S u e t o n i u s i s o f t e n i m p r e c i s e i n g i v i n g c h r o n o l o g i c a l d e t a i l s ( s e e 6 .1 m o x ) . A c c o r d i n g t o P l u -t a r c h ( G a l b . 4 . 3 - 4 ) , G a l b a c o n f e r r e d w i t h h i s f r i e n d s and was i n f l u e n c e d t o j o i n t h e r e v o l t by T . V i n i u s . m a n d a t a . . . m i s s a : " c r e d i t u r d e s t i n a s s e : s u c c e s s o r e s p e r -c u s s o r e s q u e s u m m i t t e r e e x e r c i t u s e t p r o v i n c i a s r e g e n t i b u s " , S u e t . N e r o 4 3 . 1 . By k i l l i n g G a l b a , N e r o h o p e d t o c r u s h t h e r e v o l t b e -f o r e i t s t a r t e d ; he w o u l d h a v e r e m o v e d i t s p r o p o s e d f i g u r e -h e a d and d e p r i v e d V i n d e x o f h i s s o l e s o u r c e o f m i l i t a r y s u p p o r t . See a l s o l i t t e r a e a b o v e . s e c u n d i s s i m i s a u s p i c i i s : In S u e t o n i u s ' a c c o u n t , G a l b a ' s h o p e s o f w i n n i n g t h e P r i n c i p a t e a r e b a s e d n o t on m i l i t a r y o r t a c t i c a l s u p e r i o r i t y ( P l u t . G a l b . 4 . 3 ) , b u t on t h e p r e -s e n c e o f a u s p i c i o u s omens ( s e e 4 . 2 ) . F o r o t h e r e m p e r o r s e n c o u r a g e d by p o r t e n t s t o hope f o r p o w e r , s e e D i v . I u l . 7 . 2 , A u g . 9 4 . 1 0 , T i b . 1 4 . 1 , O t h o 4 . 1 . C l u n i a e : T h i s town i n T a r r a c o n e n s i s may h a v e b e e n G a l b a ' s h e a d q u a r t e r s ( s e e 1 0 . 4 o p p i d i ) . On t h e c o i n a g e o f h i s P r i n c i p a t e i t i s named C l u n i a S u l p i c i a . (R IC I p . 2 1 5 , n . 1 3 1 ) . 89 S e c t i o n Ten Sections ten and eleven n a r r a t e the events from the beginning of A p r i l 68 to Galba's a r r i v a l i n Rome as emperor, i n l a t e J u l y . f o r c h r o n o l o g i c a l d e t a i l s see Shotter (1975: 73 - 74). V e n i n i (1974: 1112. f f . ; 1977: 38) has i d e n t i f i e d a d i s t i n c t a r t i f i c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n Suetonius' account. Two p o s i t i v e notes, the s e n s i b l e precautions taken by Galba (1G.2 - 3) and the favourable omens (10.4) are followed by three negative events, the attempted d e s e r t i o n of the cav-a l r y , the p l o t to a s s a s s i n a t e Galba (10.5) and the death of Vindex (11). The balance then swings back i n Galba's favour with the death of Nero (11). Suetonius' s t r u c t u r e r e f l e c t s the d e l i c a t e nature of the r e v o l t with the advan-tage going from one party to another. However, h i s s i -lence on the events of Vesontio and the c r u c i a l d e c i s i o n s of V e r g i n i u s Rufus and C l o d i u s Macer expose i t s a r t i f i c i -a l i t y . 10.1 j g i t u r cum ... professus e s t : The same s t o r y of a supposed manumission ceremony i s t o l d by P l u t a r c h (Galba 5.1). Suetonius, however, puts the i n i t i a t i v e f o r e the acclama-t i o n on Galba h i m s e l f . P l u t a r c h says that he was acclaimed as soon as he stepped onto the pl a t f o r m , whereas Suetonius, g i v i n g d e t a i l s of the images, the young noble e x i l e and the c a u s t i c speech, leaves the impression that Galba o r c h e s t -r a t e d the whole a f f a i r , c r e a t i n g an anti-Neronian f r e n z y 90 that manifested i t s e l f i n h i s acclamation. manumissioni: The passage suggests a formal ceremony of manumissio per v i n d i c t a m . The other two forms of manu-mi s s i o n , censu and testamento, d i d not r e q u i r e the presence of an o f f i c i a l m a g i s t r a t e . (Gaius, I n s t i t . 1.17). ex proxima ... i n s u l a : From Galba's p o s i t i o n i n Carthago Nova (9.2) the nearest B a l e a r i c i s l a n d was the insula maior (modern Majorca). Under the P r i n c i p a t e the i s l a n d s served as places of e x i l e ; see Tac. Ann 13.43, RE 2, 2827. ob i d : Evidence of Galba's pre-meditated o r c h e s t r a t i o n of h i s acclamation (see i g i t u r cum ... professus e s t , above). d e p l o r a v i t ... statum: Suetonius' testimony that the speech l e d up to the acclamation i s at v a r i a n c e with P l u -t a r c h (Galb. 5.2), who says that Galba, although a l r e a d y acclaimed, r e f u s e d to accept the nomination u n t i l he de-l i v e r e d h i s speech. The m a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Nero c o n s t i -t u t e d f o r Vindex the very cornerstone of h i s r e v o l t . See h i s speech i n d i o (63.22 f f . ) . consulatusque .... professus e s t : See P l u t . Galb. 5.1, Dio 63.23. An event of great s i g n i f i c a n c e ; f o r the f i r s t time Galba p u b l i c a l l y renounced h i s a l l e g i a n c e to Nero and, i n so doing, e s c a l a t e d the r e v o l t to the s t a t u s of a c i v i l war. The r e f u s a l of the t i t l e imperator was a prudent 9 1 move. Nero would not be able to accuse him of usurping the P r i n c i p a t e and yet Galba was marked out"as the l e a d i n g candidate f o r the s u c c e s s i o n . The coinage i s s u e d by Galba and Vindex r e f l e c t s t h i s cautious a t t i t u d e ; while n e i t h e r Galba's name nor p o r t r a i t appear there are constant r e f e r -ences to 'the people', 'the senate and people of Rome', L i b e r t a s and Roma (RIC I, p. 178 - 187). The wisdom of Galba's c a u t i o n i s evident; the war with Nero s t i l l had to be won and Galba could not a f f o r d to a l i e n a t e any pro-s p e c t i v e supporters by prematurely c l a i m i n g to be emperor. In a d d i t i o n the t i t l e chosen r e f l e c t e d the id e o l o g y of the r e b e l s ; i t i n d i c a t e d a new programme of c o l l a b o r a t i o n with the Senate and a move away from the Neronian tyranny back to an Augustan P r i n c i p a t e . It was Galba's r e f u s a l of u s u r p a t i o n and d e c i s i o n to await the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l con-f i r m a i t o n of the Senate and People of Rome that r e v e a l s h i s i deology most c l e a r l y of a l l . See Chalon (1964: 50 -51), Syme (1958: v o l . I, 207). For the p o l i t i c a l advantages of ' l e r e f u s de pouvoir', see J . Beranger (1953: 149). For the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the t i t l e imperator, see L e s u i s s e (1961a: 145). 10.2 i u s t i t i o i n d i c i o : A i u s t i t i u m was a temporary suspension of a l l j u d i c i a l a f f a i r s and p u b l i c business i n times of n a t i o n a l c r i s e s . ( G e l l i u s 20.1.143 - 44). e plebe ... primoribus ... e q u e s t r i s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by s o c i a l status ( : Suetonius i s see V i t . 14.1 -fond 4) . T h i s passage shows Roman s o c i e t y with f u n c t i o n . the d i s t i n c t h i e r a r c h i c a l each c l a s s f u l f i l l i n g i t s nature of a p p r o p r i a t e l e g i o n e s ... l e g i o n i s unius: At the s t a r t of the r e v o l t Galba had at h i s d i s p o s a l j u s t one l e g i o n , the VI V i c t r i x which had acclaimed him (Tac. H i s t . 5.16.3). His con-s c r i p t i o n s i n Spain l e d to the formation of the VII Galb-i a n a , l a t e r c a l l e d the VII Gemina (Tac. H i s t . 2.11.1, 2.86.1). The emendation of Heraeus, legionem, on the b a s i s that only one a d d i t i o n a l l e g i o n was formed i s unnecessary Suetonius aims at symmetry i n c o n s t r u c t i o n (3.1), and may have used the p l u r a l to balance a u x i l i a ( V e n i n i 1977: 38) In a d d i t i o n , Suetonius' i n a t t e n t i o n to d e t a i l (see 1.1 progenies Caesarum, 8.1 f u n d i s ) may have l e d him to t a l k of the two l e g i o n s Galba had under h i s command, though a c c u r a t e l y only one had been c o n s c r i p t e d by him. A l t e r -n a t i v e l y he could be r e f e r r i n g to the levy of Vasconi men t i o n e d by T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 4.33.3) as a l e g i o n . For Sueto-n i u s ' use of vague p l u r a l s see Townend (1959: 289). i n s t a r senatus: An i n d i c a t i o n of h i s d e s i r e f o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y . Galba set up an a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l on the l i n e s of the Roman senate. T h i s served as an advertisement f o r the type of P r i n c i p a t e he e n v i s i o n e d . For the i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n of some of the members of t h i s senate see Syme (1958: 592 notes 6 - 9) . 93 10.3 manente ... usu: Use of the gold r i n g i n d i c a t e d r e t e n t i o n of t h e i r rank as e q u i t e s . Any eques who became a l e g i o n -ary r a t h e r than a ' c i v i l servant' a u t o m a t i c a l l y l o s t h i s rank (see Staats III'': p. 504 n.2). The e v o c a t i would thus have been d i s q u a l i f i e d had Galba not granted s p e c i a l d i s -p ensation. The gold r i n g was the v i s i b l e mark of st a t u s of eques. See Div. I u l . 39.2, Galba 14.2. e v o c a t i ... agerent: Since Suetonius has s t a t e d that the bodyguards were young e q u i t e s the t i t l e of e v o c a t i can here only be honourary. The o r i g i n a l e v o c a t i (veteran v o l u n t e e r s ) had been the bodyguards of Octavian (Appian B e l l . C i v . 3.40) but there i s no evidence of eq u i t e s per-forming t h i s duty. e d i c t a per p r o v i n c i a s : The e d i c t s were s u c c e s s f u l . Ac-c o r d i n g to P l u t a r c h (Galb. 6.1) a l l the p r o v i n c i a l gover-nors except Clo d i u s Macer and V e r g i n i u s Rufus came over to Galba's s i d e . The legend concordia provincarum i s found on Galba's coinage (see RIC I p. 199 n. 1,2). E d i c t s played an important r o l e i n the r e v o l t of V i n -dex; see Suetonius Nero 41.1 and f o r t h e i r use as propa-ganda weapons i n t h i s p e r i o d Benner (1975: 127), J a l (1963: 162 - 5). 10.4 o p p i d i ... d e l e g e r a t : V e n i n i (1977: 40) assumes that the unnamed town i s C l u n i a on the testimony of P l u t a r c h 94 (Galb. 6.4), who s t a t e s that Galba was i n that town when he contacted V e r g i n i u s Rufus. Her i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s , how-ever, m i s l e a d i n g ; P l u t a r c h a c t u a l l y says that Galba r e -t i r e d to C l u n i a to r e l a x ( e K x o u v i a v„, a v a x M p n a a s ) , im-p l y i n g that h i s m i l i t a r y headquarters were elsewhere. anulus: Suetonius r e l a t e s p r o d i g i e s connected with arch-a e o l o g i c a l remains at Div. I u l . 81.1 and Vesp. 7.3. For the s i g n i f i c a n c e of p r o d i g i e s see 4.2. Alexandram ... s u s c i p i : Dio (64.1.2) gives a more gene-r a l v e r s i o n of the story; there i s more than one shi p and the p oints of a r r i v a l and departure are not s p e c i f i e d . Somescholars have seen i n Suetonius' account a d i s -t o r t i o n of an important message of support f o r Galba. The theory i s that the e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e to Alexandrina sug-gests that a ship f u l l of armed men was sent as a i d by T i b e r i u s J u l i u s Alexander i n response to Galba's l e t t e r of request (see 10.3 e d i c t a per p r o v i n c i a s , Chalon 1964: 51 and n. 48). The d e t a i l s of such a shipment would no doubt have been sketchy and Suetonius has accounted f o r the s t o r y with an omen. In so doing he s a t i s f i e s h i s aim of l i n k i n g p r o d i g i e s with times of c r i s i s i n Galba's l i f e (see 4.2). Dertosa; A harbour town on the l e f t bank of the Iberus, three miles i n l a n d . I t served as an important port f o r Hispania T a r r a c o n e n s i s . See RE.5, 246 f f . f a v e n t i b u s d i e s : The favour of the gods was v i t a l i n the undertaking of a war. See Beranger (1953: 154 - 155). mutati sacramenti: T h i s oath may be the oath of l o y a l t y to the princeps that was renewed every January 1st (see Tac. H i s t . 1.55.1, Dessau 1962: n. 8781) or the oath of l o y a l t y taken by r e c r u i t s on enlistment ( L i v y 22.38.3, Dion. Hal. 10.18.2). expressa ... c o n f e s s i o e s t : Galba's a c t i o n was c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c a l l y e x c e s s i v e (see 6.3 p a r i s e v e r i t a t e ) . The use of t o r t u r e a g a i n s t slaves was widespread i n e a r l y Rome but was g r a d u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d u n t i l by the time of T i b e r i u s i t was used only when g u i l t was obvious. See ' r u i t s o l a c o n f e s s i o servorum deesse v i d e a t u f , Dig 48.18 (quoted by Berger i n a r t i c l e on t o r t u r e ' , OCD 1st Ed. p. 914). SECTION ELEVEN mors V i n d i c i s : See 9.2 V i n d i c i s . maxime consternatus: According to P l u t a r c h (Galb. 6.4) i t was not j u s t the death of h i s a l l y Vindex that alarmed Galba but the encouragement V e r g i n i u s Rufus r e c e i v e d from h i s s o l d i e r s to assume the P r i n c i p a t e . To a v o i d the poss-i b i l i t y of h i s s e i z i n g power Galba wrote to V e r g i n i u s a s k i n g him to j o i n i n an a l l i a n c e 'to preserve the empire and the freedom of the Romans'; the i m p l i c a t i o n was that they would overthrow Nero and await s e n a t o r i a l c o n f i r m a t i o n of a new emperor. I t i s at t h i s p o i n t that the sources become vague concerning V e r g i n i u s . There i s no evidence of a r e p l y to Galba nor a movement towards Nero. Sueto-ni u s i n p a r t i c u l a r r e f r a i n s from passing any comment on V e r g i n i u s , a remarkable omission s i n c e , due to the opposi-t i o n to Nero and the defeat of Vindex, he was at t h i s time the m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l person on the m i l i t a r y and p o l i t i c a l scene. The reason t r a d i t i o n a l l y g i v e n f o r V e r g i n i u s ' i n -a c t i v i t y i s h i s i d e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f that s o v e r e i g n t y l a y with the Senate and People and ought not to be assumed by anyone (Dio 63.25.2, P l u t . Galb. 6.3). His f i r m proclam-a t i o n of l o y a l t y to Rome d i s p l a y e d on h i s tombstone has helped promote the view of V e r g i n i u s h o l d i n g back from t a k i n g c o n t r o l because of a deep p o l i t i c a l c o n v i c t i o n : " h i e s i t u s e st Rufus, pulso qui V i n d i c e quondam imperium a d s e r u i t , non s i b i sed p a t r i a e " ( P l i n y E p i s t . 6.10.4. However, the s i n c e r i t y of V e r g i n i u s ' d e c l a r a t i o n s can be impugned. In Dio's v e r s i o n (63.25 f f . ) V e r g i n i u s and V i n -dex met p r i o r to the b a t t l e of Vesontio. What passed be-tween them i s unknown but i t seems l i k e l y t h a t V e r g i n i u s had hoped to abandon Nero once s a t i s f a c t o r y arrangements f o r h i s own f u t u r e w e l l - b e i n g were secured. Although Ver-g i n i u s r e a l i s e d he could e a s i l y defeat the f o r c e s of Vindex, he was conscious that h i s weak personal claims C m e r i t o d u b i t a s s e V e r g i n i u s e q u e s t r i f a m i l i a ignoto p a t r e " , Tac. H i s t , 1.52.1) precluded any chance of h i s g a i n i n g sup-port i n Rome and assuming the P r i n c i p a t e . However, the over-exuberance of h i s s o l d i e r s and the massacre at Vesonti 97 p a r a d o x i c a l l y l e f t V e r g i n i u s impotent. A l l he c o u l d do was to wait f o r the outcome of the c i v i l war h i d i n g behind a smokescreen of i d e o l o g i c a l c o n v i c t i o n s . For Suetonius' reasons f o r o m i t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n see 1 7 quo ... conata, V e n i n i (1974: 1001 f f . ) . On the d e c i s i o n s and a c t i v i t y of V e r g i n i u s at t h i s time see Daly (1975: 84 - 86), Brunt (1959: 562 - 563), Mainsworth (1962: 89 - 96), Syme (1958: 179). nunt i u s : Suetonius' account i s at v a r i a n c e with both P l u -t a r c h (Galb: 7.1) and h i s own testimony (Galba 22) where i t i s s t a t e d that Galba's freedman I c e l u s brought the news of Nero's death. The only p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n of the d i s -crepancy i s that I c e l u s was accompanied by other messen-gers and that i n t h i s passage Suetonius has chosen not to s p e c i f y him by name. occisum Neronem: Nero stabbed h i m s e l f on hearing that he had been d e c l a r e d a ' h o s t i s ' and sentenced to death (Suet. Nero 49.2 - 4). cunctos curasse: Suetonius' order of events i s not as spe-c i f i c as that of P l u t a r c h (Galb 7.2) or Dio (63.27.26), who both make i t c l e a r t h at Nero was s t i l l a l i v e when Galba was u n i v e r s a l l y r e c o g n i s e d as emperor. Suetonius' account does not e x p l i c i t l y reverse the order of events but i m p l i e s that Nero d i e d before the Senate chose Galba. 98 d e p o s i t a ... appellationem: Galba's o f f i c i a l acceptance of the P r i n c i p a t e . 'Caesar' was by t h i s time merely an honourary t i t l e f o r emperor (see 1.1 progenies Caesarum), and a l l the emperors apart from V i t e l l i u s adopted the name. For the h i s t o r y and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the t i t l e see L e s u i s s e (1961b: 271 f f . ) . i t e r q u e ingressus e s t : Suetonius' chronology i s suspect; both Dio (63.29.6) and P l u t a r c h (Galb 7 - 1 1 ) s t a t e that Galba d i d not assume the t i t l e Caesar u n t i l he met with a s e n a t o r i a l embassy during h i s journey; P l u t a r c h names the meeting place as Narbo. Since there i s no reason to suppose Suetonius d e l i b e r -a t e l y f a b r i c a t e d the order of events, i t must be assumed that he was working from another source. V e n i n i (1977: 41), however, suggests that f o r reasons of s t r u c t u r a l l i n e -a r i t y Suetonius has d e l i b e r a t l e y omitted the s t o r y of the embassy; the journey to Rome could then be presented with-out i n t e r r u p t i o n s . paludatus: The paludamentum was the cloak worn by generals when going out to b a t l l e (Varro L.L. 7.37). Galba was thus g i v i n g n o t i c e of the danger he faced due to the ac-t i v i t i e s of the three r e b e l s , Nymphidius Sabinus, Fonteius C a p i t o and Cl o d i u s Macer. 2 dependente ... pugione: Dio (64.3.4 ) says Galba's a t t i r e caused h i l a r i t y amongst those who saw him. For the pugio as an emblem of m i l i t a r y command see V a l . Max. 3.5.3. nec prius... r e c i p e r a v e r i t : The exact time of the deaths of the three r e b e l s and Galba's resumption of the toga prae-t e x t a are u n c l e a r . P l u t a r c h (Galb. 15.2) r e p o r t s the deaths of Macer and Capito but does not give a date; Dio (64.2.3) i s e q u a l l y vague concerning Capito and Sabinus. I t must be assumed, however, that the three died before Galba reached Rome, sometime i n the l a t e summer of 68 A.D. Otherwise Galba would have entered Rome i n f u l l m i l i t a r y uniform, an event that would, without doubt, have been r e -corded. See Suet. V i t . 11.1. Nymphidio Sabino: Nymphidius Sabinus had been made pre-f e c t of the p r a e t o r i a n guard and r e c e i v e d the c o n s u l a r i a  i n s i g n i a from Nero a f t e r the c o n s p i r a c y of Piso i n 65 (Tac. Ann. 15.72). In 68 he persuaded the p r a e t o r i a n s to a t t a c h themselves to Galba's cause by the promise of a huge dona-tivum (Tac. H i s t . 1.5.1, see donativum 16.2). The f a c t t h a t Nymphidius chose to work on b e h a l f of Galba p o i n t s to the e x i s t e n c e of an a c t i v e pro-Galba f a c t i o n i n Rome. As f a r as i s known Nymphidius had no previous connection with Galba and c o u l d only have been induced to work f o r him by a t h i r d party that contacted him i n the c i t y . I t i s a l s o l i k e l y that the knowledge that t h i s i n f l u e n t i a l p a r t y , pro-bably i n v o l v i n g I c e l u s and Laco, persuaded Vindex that Galba was the i d e a l man to l e a d the r e v o l t . However, when Galba made i t c l e a r that C o r n e l i u s Laco and not Nymphidius 100 would be h i s choice as p r a e t o r i a n p r e f e c t , Nymphidius t r i e d to b u l l y the p r a e t o r i a n s i n t o p r o c l a i m i n g him em-peror; they r e f u s e d and k i l l e d him as he t r i e d to f o r c e an ent r y i n t o the camp. ( P l u t . Galb. 8 - 10, 13 - 15). Although Suetonius i m p l i e s , ( o p p r e s s i s i s t r a n s l a t e d by both R o l f e and Mooney as 'he had overthrown Sabinus'), and T a c i t u s e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e s ( H i s t . 1.37.3), that Galba was d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Nymphidius' death, the de-t a i l e d testimony of P l u t a r c h ( l o c . c i t . ) makes h i s i n v o l v e -met only i n d i r e c t . For a d i s c u s s i o n of the machinations of Nymphidius Sabinus see Manfre (1942: 118 f f . ) . F o n t e i o Capitone: Fonteius Capito was consul i n 67 and leg a t u s pro praetore f o r Lower Germany i n the f o l l o w i n g year. Despite a r e p u t a t i o n f o r greed and s e v e r i t y he was popular with h i s s o l d i e r s . D e t a i l s of h i s death are con-fused; he was executed o s t e n s i b l y on the grounds of s e d i -t i o u s i n t e n t i o n s . P l u t a r c h (Galb. 15.3) and Dio (64.2.3) gi v e the i n i t i a t i v e to Galba, while T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.7.1) says Fonteius was innocent and C o r n e l i u s Aquinus and Fab-i u s Valens executed him without Galba's knowledge. The evidence gathered from Suetonius i s a l l c i r c u m s t a n t i a l ; o p p r e s s i s (see Nymphidio Sabino above) i m p l i e s Galba's i n -volvement while the r e f e r e n c e to Fonteius with Nymphidius and Clodius Macer, two known r e b e l s , i m p l i e s that Sueto-ni u s thought him g u i l t y of s e d i t i o n . For Fonteius as a supporter of Nero see Bradley (1978: 259), C h i l v e r (1957: 32). 101 C l o d i o Macro: Legatus l e g i o n i s of A f r i c a i n 68 (Tac. H i s t . 4.49.4). On hearing of the r e v o l t of Vindex and Galba, C l o d i u s followed t h e i r example; he supported t h e i r i d e o -logy but remained independent, d i s a s s o c i a t i n g h i m s e l f from the other r e b e l s (see Brunt 1959: 537). The legends on h i s coinage d e c l a r e d a d e s i r e f o r l i b e r t a s and support f o r the Senate (RIC I, p. 193 f f . ) He attempted to g a i n con-t r o l of the P r i n c i p a t e by stopping g r a i n s u p p l i e s from A f r i c a to Rome but ac c o r d i n g to P l u t a r c h (Galb. 15.2) and T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.7.1) was k i l l e d , on Galba's orders, by the p rocurator Trebonius Garutianus. For C l o d i u s ' attempt at the P r i n c i p a t e see Bradley (1972: 451 f f . ) . SECTION TWELVE Se c t i o n twelve r e l a t e s the events of Galba's entry to Rome i n J u l y 68. Suetonius uses the s e c t i o n as an i l l u s -t r a t i o n of Galba's c r u e l t y and a v a r i c e . The extent of h i s s e v e r i t a s was shown e a r l i e r i n the biography (see 6.3 p a r i s e v e r i t a t e ) but now Suetonius l i n k s i t with a r e p u t a t i o n f o r greed; the two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n s t i t u t e f o r Sueto-n i u s the theme of the e a r l y part of Galba's p r i n c i p a t e . The s p e n d t h r i f t nature of Nero's r e i g n provides a f o i l f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of Galba's greed and parsimony; Suet-onius i s as emphatic about Nero's extravagance (Nero 30.1 - 3) as he i s about Galba's t h r i f t . The chapter i s a l s o an i l l u s t r a t i o n of Suetonius' d e s i r e f o r a balanced s t r u c t u r e that ends by emphasizing 102 i t s theme; two examples of a v a r i t i a , with t r a c e s of s a e v i -t i a ( s u p p l i c i o ... ac l i b e r i s ) are r e l a t e d concerning the p r o v i n c e s ; they are immediately followed by two examples of s a e v i t i a , with t r a c e s of a v a r i t i a (sine commodo u l l o ) concerning the entry to Rome. The climax i s reached with three i n c r e a s i n g l y bad examples of a v a r i t i a (cena, parop-sidem leguminis, Cano). The three d i f f e r e n t phases of the chapter are made d i s t i n c t by t h e i r separate i n t r o d u c t i o n s , each i n s p i r e d by fama ("praecesserat ... fama"; "fama ... aucta e s t " ; " i l i a quoque ... i a c t a b a n t u r " ) . See V e n i n i (1974: 1006 f f . ) . 12.1 s a e v i t i a e atque a v a r i t i a e : Both s a e v i t i a and a v a r i t i a as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Galba have ample support i n the ancient sources. For s a e v i t i a see Tac. H i s t . 1.37.2, 1.87.1; Orosius 7.8.1. For a v a r i t i a see Tac. H i s t . 1.5.2, 1.18.3, 1.37.4; P l u t . Galb. 3.4; Dio 64.2.1. c i v i t a t e s ... p u n i s s e t : Although Suetonius' language im-p l i e s that a l l the c i t i e s i n Spain and Gaul were punished, o n l y a few were; some were even allowed a t r i b u t e r e d u c t i o n (Tac. H i s t . 1.8.1, 1.51.4; P l u t . Galb. 18.1). Spanish coinage i s s u e d by Galba b e a r i n g the legend quadrigensima  remissa a l s o i n d i c a t e s a tax r e d u c t i o n . See RIC I p. 198, p. 209 n. 101 - 103, B r a i t h w a i t e (1927: 60). Among the punished t r i b e s were the T r e v i r i , the L i n -gones and the Lugdunenses (Tac.Hist. 1.53.3, 1.65.1). 103 p r a e p o s i t o s procuratoresque: Praepositus i s a vague t i t l e (LSJ 'person placed i n charge'), and probably r e f e r s to a l l types of Roman personnel i n the pr o v i n c e s ; some prae-p o s i t i were m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s (Suet. Galba 16.1, Tac. H i s t . 1.36.1, Hofstee 1898:32). Procuratores were a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of finance and the emperor's a f f a i r s i n the prov i n c e s ; f o r Galba's clas h e s with them see 9.2. The•executions i n qu e s t i o n have been l i n k e d with those of Obultro n i u s Sabinus and C o r n e l i u s M a r c e l l u s i n Spain and Betuus C i l o i n Gaul; see Shotter (1975: 63). quodque ... e x i g i : Suetonius emphasizes the impropriety of Galba's a c t ; not only d i d he melt down a gold crown, and one, moreover, that had been gi v e n as a g i f t and was from an a n c i e n t , presumably revered temple, but he went so f a r as to r e c l a i m the weight of gold that was mis s i n g . templo: Probably the temple of J u p i t e r Amon on the s i t e of the modern c a t h e d r a l . See PECS p. 882 f f . , V e n i n i (1977: 44). 12.2 cum ... decimavit: Suetonius alone gives the i n i t i a t i v e f o r the decimatio to Galba. I t i s s t a t e d only i n t h i s account that Galba ordered the marines, whom Nero had hur-r i e d l y c o n s c r i p t e d as a l e g i o n i n the wake of the r e v o l t of Vindex, to resume t h e i r former r o l e s . He was met by a r e f u s a l and consequently ordered the executions. According to P l u t a r c h (Galb. 15.3 - 4) and Dio (64.3.1 - 2) the marines surrounded Galba as he entered the c i t y and, 104 r e f u s i n g to accept h i s o f f e r of d i s c u s s i o n at a l a t e r date, harassed and shouted at him. When some of the marines drew t h e i r swords Galba ordered an a t t a c k . Suetonius' testimony serves to accentuate Galba's s a e v i t i a , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e acts of decimatio were very r a r e under the P r i n c i p a t e . See Watson (1969: 119 - 120). remigibus ... m i l i t e s : Commentators have d i s a g r e e d whe-the r the c l a s s i a r i i mentioned here c o n s t i t u t e the l e g i o I A d i u t r i x formed by Nero (s.v. l e g i o I A d i u t r i x , RE 12, 1382 f f . ) . On the evidence of T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.6.2 and 1.87.1) i t has been maintained t h a t the people who met Galba were an a s s o r t e d group of marines not m i l i t a r i l y a s s o c i a t e d with the already formed l e g i o I A d i u t r i x . The s l a u g h t e r of t h i s 'marine-rabble', however, turned the formal l e g i o a g a i n s t Galba, and they subsequently supported Otho i n 69. See Spooner (1891: 41). However, the statements of Suetonius and P l u t a r c h (Galb. 15.4) that the marines were a c t u a l members of the l e g i o I A d i u t r i x i s g e n e r a l l y accepted as being c o r r e c t ; see Mooney (1930: 226). Dio's statement (55.24.2) that the l e g i o n was formed by Galba and not Nero i s a r e s u l t of h i s not understanding the b u r e a u c r a t i c t e c h n i c a l i t i e s of forming a l e g i o n . Nero organized the marines i n t o a l e g i o n , but Galba subsequently 105 awarded i t a standard and i n s i g n i a , thus c o n f e r r i n g on i t l e g i t i m a t e m i l i t a r y s t a t u s ; see the three bronze t a b l e t s i n s c r i b e d by Galba on 22 Dec. 68 A.D., CIL XVI, 7 - 9 ; Dessau (1962; n. 1988). For the episode of the c l a s s i a r i i see S t a r r (1960: 180 - 181, 202 n. 43). item Germanorum ... i n s t i t u t a m : These s l a v e s , r e c r u i t e d from German t r i b e s subject to Rome, such as the B a t a v i and F r i s i i , were the emperor's personal bodyguard under the J u l i o - Claudians. (Suet. C a l i g . 43.58.3; CIL VI, 4337 -4345.) They had p r e v i o u s l y been sent home by Augustus i n 15 A.D. (Tac. Ann. 1.24.2, Suet. Aug. 49.1), and a f t e r t h e i r d i s m i s s a l by Galba are not heard of again. They were unique s i n c e , although they c o n s t i t u t e d a m i l i t a r y body, they were i m p e r i a l slaves and freedmen and they organized themselves as a c o l l e g i u m . See Weaver (1972: 83). s i n e commodo: Commodum was the t e c h n i c a l term f o r the grant of money or land r e c e i v e d by veterans on t h e i r d i s -charge (Suet. Nero 32.1, V i t . 15.1). Because of t h e i r s p e c i a l s t a t u s the slaves i n question would have q u a l i f i e d f o r commoda. Cn. D o l a b e l l a e : Cn. C o r n e l i u s D o l a b e l l a was r e l a t e d to Galba (Tac. H i s t . 1.88.1) and recommended as a p o t e n t i a l successor by h i s f r i e n d s ( P l u t . Galb. 23.1). He was ban-i s h e d to Aquinum by Otho (Tac. l o c . c i t . , P l u t . Otho 5.1). He returned a f t e r Otho's'death but was k i l l e d on the orders 106 of V i t e l l i u s (Tac. H i s t . 2.63.1 - 2). There i s no other evidence of Galba's h o s t i l i t y towards D o l a b e l l a at t h i s time. For D o l a b e l l a ' s c a r e e r and background see RE 4, 1298 f f . ) . i u s t a ... tendebant: The l o c a t i o n of these gardens i s un-known; see P l a t n e r and Ashby (1965: 266). 12.3 verene an f a l s o : Suetonius, l i k e T a c i t u s , uses innuendo (Otho 1.1, Div. I u l . 18.1). There i s almost c e r t a i n l y no t r u t h i n these rumours; Suetonius, however, r e p o r t s them, presumably r e a l i s i n g t h a t the innuendo w i l l n e v e r t h e l e s s leave i t s mark. l a u t i o r e cena: This passage does not c o n t r a d i c t Suetonius' statement at 22.1 that Galba was a heavy eate r ; here i t i s not the food but the expense to which Galba o b j e c t s . o r d i n a r i o ... d i s p e n s a t o r i : In the i m p e r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a d i s p e n s a t o r was the head of a department,with complete c o n t r o l over i t s funds (Weaver, 1972: 202). Although nom-i n a l l y i m p e r i a l s l a v e s , some dispensatores became extremely wealthy (Suet. Otho 5.2, P l i n y N.H. 7.129 [where a dis p e n -s a t o r pays Nero 13,000,000 s e s t e r c e s ] ) ; such huge personal f o r t u n e s were probably the r e s u l t of c o r r u p t i o n ; see Brunt (1961: 222). 107 O r d i n a r i u s denotes a slave who owned other slaves (Weaver, 1972: 200 f f . ) . The s t i n g i n e s s of Galba's reward i s thus accentuated by both o r d i n a r i o and d i s p e n s a t o r i ; both d e t a i l s i n d i c a t e an important and probably wealthy s l a v e . breviarum rationum: 'Summary of accounts'. Probably the c o r r e c t reading d e s p i t e the d e l e t i o n of breviarum and re a d i n g rationem i n s e v e r a l manuscripts. The s c r i b e s of these manuscripts, r e a l i s i n g that r a t i o can mean 'accounts' have omitted the unusual noun breviarum, unaware of i t s t e c h n i c a l meaning. The emendation of Biicheler merely com-pounds the e r r o r . Cano: A famous f l u t e - p l a y e r , who claimed that i f h i s audience knew how much more pleasure he got from h i s music than they d i d , then they would ask f o r payment r a t h e r than g i v i n g i t ( P l u t . M o r a l i a : an seni r e s p u b l i c a gerenda s i t 786C. See a l s o M a r t i a l 4.5.8). S.V. Cano RE 3, 1501. denarios quinque: According to P l u t a r c h (Galb. 16.1), Galba gave Canus some go l d p i e c e s . V e n i n i (1977: 46) as-sumes that s i n c e Suetonius f a i l s to i d e n t i f y the d e n a r i i as gold, they were of the c o n s i d e r a b l y cheaper s i l v e r type For Galba's m i s e r l y a t t i t u d e towards g i f t s see Dio 64.2.1. p r o l a t o s ... l o c u l i s s u i s : According to P l u t a r c h (Galb. 16.1), Galba s a i d the money came from h i s own funds and not that of the s t a t e ; t h i s s u i t s P l u t a r c h ' s aim of con-t r a s t i n g Galba's d e l i b e r a t e p o l i c y of parsimony with Nero' 108 extravagance (see 15.1 l i b e r a l i t a t e s ... n e q u i r e n t ) . Sueto-n i u s , however, concentrates on Galba's t i g h t - f i s t e d n e s s and h i s repeated i n s i s t e n c e that i t was h i s own money (manu sua ... l o c u l i s s u i s ) makes the s t i n g y g i f t of f i v e d e n a r i i appear even more m i s e r l y and i r o n i c . SECTION THIRTEEN non perinde gratus: 'Not as welcome [sc. as i t might have been]'; the l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n of s e c t i o n twelve. There are s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s i n Suetonius where, a f t e r a negative and perinde, the i m p l i e d comparison i s omitted: see Aug. 80, T i b - 52.1. notissimum canticum ... a v i l l a : Although the o r i g i n of t h i s fragment i s unknown ( F r a s i n e t t i 1955: 81 - 2 n. 3), the c h a r a c t e r i s presumably,like Galba, r e t u r n i n g to the c i t y a f t e r a long absence; he must have shared with Galba a negative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , probably that of a s t i n g y o l d man. The name i s , i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , of Greek o r i g i n , and probably connected with £> \> e o yi a i , to buy, or o v t i o i ; , 'pro-f i t ' or 'advantage'. The poin t of the anecdote may be that Galba's r e p u t a t i o n as a miser had preceded him. The A t e l l a n f a r c e s were given great l i c e n c e f o r p o l i -t i c a l lampoons; see Suet. Aug. 68 ( a l l u s i o n to effeminacy), T i b . 45 ( s a t i r e on l u s t ) . C a l i g u l a , however, had a w r i t e r of A t e l l a e burnt to death f o r a double-entendre ( C a l . 27.4). For the use of A t e l l a e as p o l i t i c a l s a t i r e see 109 F r a s s i n e t t i (1967: 15 f f . ) v e n i t Onesimus: This r e a d i n g i s found only i n the f o u r -teenth century manuscript o while the remaining manuscripts have ventione simus (simul - G). Onesimus has been accep-ted by most modern e d i t o r s (Ihm, Mooney, R o l f e , A i l l o n d ) . Hofstee (1898: 35) says "aptissimum est ad designandum hominem avarum", l i n k i n g i t with the Greek verb o v x va va t , 'to p r o f i t ' . Despite the strong evidence supporting Schmidt's emendation Dorsennus (adopted by F r a s s i n e t t i 1955: 81), a stock f i g u r e i n A t e l l a n f a r c e ( F r a s s i n e t t i 1967: V I I ) , i t s d i s t a n c e from the e x i s t i n g manuscript readings makes i t d i f f i c u l t to accept. SECTION FOURTEEN In s e c t i o n f o u r t e e n Suetonius moves from Galba's as-sumption of power to an examination of the P r i n c i p a t e i t s e l f . 14.1 maiore ... imperium: T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.49.4) has a s i m i -l a r l y b i t i n g summary of Galba's P r i n c i p a t e : "maior p r i v a t o v i s u s , dum p r i v a t u s f u i t , et omnium consensu capax i m p e r i i , n i s i imperasset". quanquam ... daret: A v i t a l passage i n e v a l u a t i n g Sueto-n i u s ' view of the P r i n c i p a t e of Galba. Suetonius admits that there was evidence that Galba was a good emperor but does not give any examples. The r e i g n i s reduced to a s e r i e s of e r r o r s i n judgement and outrageous a c t s (14.2 -110 15.2), with each of Galba's personal shortcomings (acer-b i o r , p a r c i o r , r e m i s s i o r , n e g l e g e n t i o r ) making matters worse. The c u l m i n a t i o n i s found i n the h a t r e d of the s o l -d i e r s (16.1) that u l t i m a t e l y leads to h i s d o w n f a l l . Suetonius, although o b v i o u s l y aware of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , does not e l u c i d a t e the documenta e g r e g i i p r i n c i p i s . P l u -t a r c h (Galb. 17.1), however, t e l l s of Galba's executing the worst of Nero's adherents while T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.20.1) t e s t i f i e s that he demanded the r e t u r n of Nero's extravagant g i f t s , and Dio (64.3.4c) s t a t e s that he pardoned e x i l e s and placed the corpses of murdered members of the i m p e r i a l f a m i l y i n Augustus' mausoleum. quanquam: Suetonius always uses quanquam with the sub-j u n c t i v e , never the i n d i c a t i v e . The c o n s t r u c t i o n i s a t -t e s t e d f o r the f i r s t time i n C o r n e l i u s Nepos: "nec p r a e t e r -i b o , quamquam n o n n u l l i s l e v e visum i r i putem", A t t i c u s 13.6. i n v i s a : Tac. H i s t . 1.7.1: "et i n v i s o semel p r i n c i p i seu bene seu male facta parem i n v i d i a m adferebant". For the same view of Galba as emperor see P l u t . Galb. 18.1, Dio 64.2.2. 14.2 negebatur ... vocabant: The i r o n y i n the nickname paeda-gogi was a l l the more evident because of Galba's advanced age. For t h e i r power over and i n f l u e n c e e x e r c i s e d on Galba by these three men see Tac. H i s t . 1.6.1; 1.12.3; 1.13.1 - 4; P l u t . Galb. 7.3; 11.2; 13.2 - 3. For Galba's general weakness i n d e a l i n g with f r i e n d s see 15.2 comites  atque l i b e r t o s . I l l T. V i n i u s ... i n H i s p a n i a : T. V i n i u s Rufinus had been proconsul of G a l l i a narbonensis (Tac. H i s t . 1.48.4) and was subsequently the legatus of the l e g i o I A d i u t r i x under Galba i n Spain ( P l u t . Galb. 4.4). He became consul with Galba on 1st January 69 (McCrum and Woodhead 1966: 14) and was murdered i n the aftermath of the emperor's a s s a s s i -n a t i o n f i f t e e n days l a t e r . He attempted to avoid h i s death by c l a i m i n g to be an agent of Otho ( P l u t . Galb. 27.4). See Sumner (1976: 430 - 36). S.V. T. V i n i u s Rufinus RE 9A, 124 f f . c u p i d i t a t i s immensae: V i n i u s ' greed and rapaciousness were well-known to P l u t a r c h : " n v 6e Q u i v i o j a p y u p ' o u y e v E o x a T a i ? i c a i IT a p ' o v x i v o u v n T T w v " 5 Galb. 12.1, 17.3 - 4 (accepted b r i b e s from T i g e l l i n u s ) , 18.1 (corrupted by G a l l i c t r i b e s ) . C o r n e l i u s Laco: For the r e p e r c u s s i o n s of Laco's appoint-ment as p r e f e c t see 11 Nymphidio Sabino. There i s no evidence of Laco's c a r e e r p r i o r to h i s o f f i c e s as assessor and p r e f e c t ( P l u t . Galb. 13.1; Tac. H i s t . 1.19.2). A f t e r the f a l l of Galba he was put to death on the orders of Otho, whose adoption as h e i r he had opposed (Tac. H i s t . 1.13.2; 1.46.5; P l u t . Galb. 27.4). S.V. Cor-n e l i u s Laco 4, 1, 1355 f f . assessore ... p r a e t o r i i : The p r e f e c t of the p r a e t o r i a n guard normally had a long m i l i t a r y background and the ap-p a r e n t l y d i r e c t appointment of Laco cannot be p a r a l l e l e d . 112 Assessores were l e g a l l y t r a i n e d subordinates who were appointed to a s s i s t s t a t e o f f i c i a l s i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e (D.S. I p. 474 - 5; S.V. Assessor RE 1, 423 f f . ) . Icelus: The freedman and l o v e r of Galba (22); he was im-p r i s o n e d by Nero at the outbreak of the r e v o l t but was r e l e a s e d soon afterwards (Nero 49.4). He conveyed the news of Nero's death and the proclamation of Galba by the people to Spain (11 n u n t i u s ) . As a reward he r e c e i v e d a gold r i n g and e q u e s t r i a n s t a t u s (Tac. H i s t . 1.13.1; P l u t . Galb. 7.3); he was k i l l e d on the orders of Otho because he opposed Otho's adoption (Tac. H i s t . 1.13.2; 1.46.5). S.V. I c e l u s RE 9, 820. a n u l i s a u r e i s : For the gold r i n g as the v i s i b l e badge of the eques see 10.3 manente ... usu. The use of the p l u r a l a n u l i s a u r e i s , used a l s o by T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.13.1) and P l u t a r c h ( S O U C T U A I O U X P U O O U  Galb. 7.3) has been the s u b j e c t of much d i s c u s s i o n . Wolf-f l i n (1868: 128 f f . ) suggested the p l u r a l was ' t e c h n i c a l ' to denote e q u e s t r i a n rank but gave no f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n . The theory was challenged by N u t t i n g (1928: 172) who pro-posed that the p l u r a l was genuine and that the eques r e -c e i v e d s e v e r a l r i n g s . However, i n the l i g h t of a new theory that the p l u r a l was used i n place of the phrases i u s anulorum or us LB anulorum, the t r a d i t i o n a l view of a t e c h n i c a l p l u r a l i s p r e f e r a b l e . See V a s s i l e i o u (1971: 649 - 51). 113 M a r c i a n i ... ornatus: Suetonius' account d i f f e r s i n em-phasis from those of T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.13.1) and P l u t a r c h (Galb. 7.3), who agree that I c e l u s chose the name M a r c i -anus h i m s e l f . His i n t e n t i o n was to drop h i s s e r v i l e name f o r a cognomen equestre. (Staats . Il l ' ' " p. 209; p. 426). While Suetonius i m p l i e s that there was an o f f i c i a l c o n f i r -mation of the name, thus exaggerating I c e l u s ' status and emphasizing h i s c l o s e l i n k with Galba, both P l u t a r c h ( i c a X o u u e v o c ? Galb. 7.3) and T a c i t u s ( v o c i t a b a n t , H i s t . 1.31.1) i n d i c a t e that the name was l i t t l e more than a pseudonym. summae candidatus: The h i g h e s t o f f i c e open to eq u i t e s was the praefectum ( V e n i n i 1977: 49). I c e l u s ' s w i f t r i s e to the h i g h e s t e q u e s t r i a n rank c o u l d only be the r e s u l t of Galba's i n f l u e n c e . d i v e r s o v i t i o r u m genere: According to Suetonius, the per-sonal v i c e s of V i n i u s , Laco and I c e l u s r e s u l t e d i n the w i l d i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and extremes e x h i b i t e d by Galba i n h i s P r i n c i p a t e (ut ... c o n v e n i r e t ) . In P l u t a r c h and T a c i t u s , however, the v a r i o u s temperaments and c h a r a c t e r s l e a d to d i s s e n s i o n among the thre e , with V i n i u s u s u a l l y opposed by Laco and I c e l u s (Tac. H i s t . 1.13.1 - 2; 1.33.1 - 2; P l u t . Galb. 26.1). g r a s s a n t i b u s : T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.37.2) uses the same word to d e s c r i b e the behaviour of V i n i u s : "minore a v a r i t i a ac l i c e n t i a grassatus esset T. V i n i u s s i ipse imperasset". 114 modo a c e r b l o r ... c o n v e n i r e t : The beginning of Suetonius' account of the P r i n c i p a t e i t s e l f . The passage d i s p l a y s as balanced a s t r u c t u r e as d i d the d e s c r i p t i o n of Galba's e n t r y i n t o Rome (see note at S e c t i o n 12). The a c t i o n s de-s c r i b e d i n 14.3 - 15.1 exemplify a c e r b i o r parciorque and those i n 15.2 f f . , r e m i s s i o r ac n e g l e g e n t i o r ; t h e i r l o g i -c a l c o n c l u s i o n i s reached i n 16.1. See V e n i n i (1974: 1007ff) p a r c i o r q u e : Rather than an a m p l i f i c a t i o n of the - a v a r i t i a t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s e d h i s assumption of the P r i n c i p a t e (12.1), the a n t i t h e s i s with r e m i s s i o r suggests that Suetonius i s u s i n g p a r c i o r i n the sense of 'more s p a r i n g ' or 'more con-t r o l l e d ' , without n e c e s s a r i l y g i v i n g the word an economic c h a r a c t e r (see, however, 14.3 i u r a t r i u m ... tempus , c i v i -t a t e s ... d e d i t ) ; Galba's primary aim was to l i m i t openings to ambitious r i v a l s . A i l l o u d (1964: XIII) gives the over-l y harsh t r a n s l a t i o n 'trop avare' f o r p a r c i o r . p r i n c i p i e l e c t o : The f a c t that Galba had been the f i r s t emperor to have assumed the P r i n c i p a t e by m i l i t a r y acclama-t i o n f o l l o wed by c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s e n a t o r i a l approval r a t h e r than through h e r e d i t a r y t r a n s m i s s i o n n a t u r a l l y i n c r e a s e d people's expectations and exposed him to sever c r i t i c i s m . The same concept i s found i n a speech that T a c i t u s puts i n t o Galba's mouth: "nos b e l l o et ab aestimantibus a d s c i t i cum i n v i d i a quamvis e g r e g i i erimus", H i s t . 1.16.3. 14.3 s u s p i c i o n e ... condemnavit: Among those condemned to death without a hearing were Cingonius Varro and P e t r o n i u s 115 T u r p i l i a n u s ( " i n a u d i t i atque i n d e f e n s i " , Tac. H i s t . 1.6.1; P l u t . Galb. 15.2). There i s a t r a c e of exaggeration i n minima s u s p i c i o n e s i n c e Varro had been an a l l y of Nymphidius (Tac. l o c . c i t . and Petronius the leader of an army sent to combat Galba and Vindex (Dio 63.27.1a). Both could be considered l e g i t imate enemies. c i v i t a t e s ... d e d i t : Among those who were given c i t i z e n -s h i p were the G a l l i c t r i b e s who had been a l l i e s of Vindex (Tac. H i s t . 1.8.1; P l u t . Galb. 18.1; see 14.1 c u p i d i t a t i s  immensae) and S u l p i c i u s F l o r u s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the murder of Pi s o (Tac. H i s t . 1.43.2). Although the i n f r e q u e n t bestowal of Roman c i t i z e n s h i p by Galba i s used by Suetonius as an example of Galba's p a r c i t a s there may a l s o be an i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e to h i s r e p u t a t i o n f o r a v a r i t i a . Roman c i t i z e n s were exempt from paying t r i b u t e and thus enfranchisement meant a drop i n s t a t e revenue; c f C a l i g . 38.1, where disenfranchisement i s used to increase funds. i u r a trium... tempus: The i u s trium liberorum c o n f e r r e d the b e n e f i t s awarded to parents of three or more c h i l d r e n under the p r o v i s i o n s of the l e x Poppia Poppaea of 9 A.D. The most important of these, and the one that Galba sought to l i m i t , was exemption from the cursus honorum. However, Galba could a l s o have had a f i n a n c i a l m o t i v a t i o n . Under the l e x Poppia Poppaea the unmarried could not r e c e i v e an 116 i n h e r i t a n c e and the c h i l d l e s s could only r e c e i v e h a l f a legacy; the outstanding money went to the State t r e a s u r y . T a c i t u s (Ann. 3.25) says that Augustus i n s t i g a t e d the law to improve Rome's finances ("augendo a e r a r i o s a n x e r a t " ) . L i m i t a t i o n of the ius would thus ensure that more people c o n t r i b u t e d money. See D.S. v o l 3.2 p. 1193 - 98. sextam ... n e g a v i t : To the three e x i s t i n g decuriae of judges Augustus had added a f o u r t h , the d u c e n a r i i , who sat on minor cases (Aug. 32.3). C a l i g u l a i n s t i t u t e d a f i f t h , to l i g h t e n the workload of the f o u r . The request f o r a s i x t h d e c u r i a would presumably have been made i n order to l e s s e n the labour of each even f u r t h e r . (.Tones 1972: 8 8 f f . ) . concessum a Claudio ... e r i p u i t : This passage i s d i f f i -c u l t to r e c o n c i l e with both Aug. 32.3, " s o l i t a e a g i Novem-b r i ac Decembri mense res o m i t t e r e n t u r " , and Claud. 23.1, 'rerum actum divisum antea i n hibernos aestivosque menses c o n i u n x i t " . Augustus granted a l l four decuriae exemption from duty f o r two months. Subsequently Claudius seems to have extended t h i s winter break and r e q u i r e d the judges to s i t c o n t i n u a l l y from e a r l y s p r i n g u n t i l the end of October ( S t r a f . p. 363). Galba's a b r o g a t i o n of the Claudian con-c e s s i o n would have served to lengthen the j u d i c i a l year. SECTION FIFTEEN 15.1 s e n a t o r i a ... determinaturus: Although such a measure would, i n f a c t , have served to l i m i t c o r r u p t i o n and rapa-117 c i t y by i m p e r i a l appointees, Suetonius uses i t merely as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of Galba's e x c e s s i v e s e v e r i t y . Appointments to Imperial o f f i c e s d i d not, as f a r as i t i s known, have a l e g a l l y b i n d i n g l e n g t h of tenure (Staats I I 2 , p. 932 n. 1). nec ... r e c u s a n t i b u s : T h i s method of appointment was based on a sound p r i n c i p l e ' ; by g i v i n g popular Imperial o f f i c e s to those who had not openly sought them, Galba would be more l i k e l y to avoid promoting an ambitious r i v a l or a corrupt o f f i c i a l . His appointees would presumably be wealthy, content i n d i v i d u a l s . Suetonius, however, does not seem to be p r a i s i n g Galba's common sense and good i n -t e n t i o n s , but a c c u s i n g him of being s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y . The same method of promotion was a l l e g e d l y used by both T r a j a n ( P l i n y Paneg. 86.2) and Alexander Severus (S.H.A. 19.1). although the suspect nature of both sources leads one to suspect that these may be examples of Imperial propaganda. l i b e r a l i t a t e s ... nequirent: See Tac. H i s t . 1.20.1 f f . ; P l u t . Galb. 16.2 f f . ; Dio 64.3.4c. According to T a c i t u s , Nero had spent the enormous sum of 2200 m i l l i o n s e s t e r c e s on g i f t s . Although the accuracy of T a c i t u s ' f i g u r e cannot be v e r i f i e d , the evidence of known g i f t s presents a formidable o u t l a y : a g i f t of ten m i l l i o n s e s t e r c e s to Dorphyrus (Suet. Nero 30.2) and a 118 g i f t of one m i l l i o n s e s t e r c e s to the judges of the Olympic Games (Dio 63.14.1). In a d d i t i o n , the huge landed e s t a t e s owned by Acte and the enormous wealth of Seneca i n d i c a t e i m p e r i a l favour. See Bradley (1978: 167-8). Un l i k e T a c i t u s , Suetonius views the r e c a l l of Nero's g i f t s as a f e a t u r e of Galba's a c e r b i t a s and p a r c i t a s . The r e a l i n i t i a t i v e , however, f o r the measure l a y i n the poor s t a t e of Rome's fin a n c e s owing to the expenses i n c u r r e d by Nero's P r i n c i p a t e . Even i f T a c i t u s ' f i g u r e i s not c o r r e c t , anything approaching i t would have caused a grave f i s c a l c r i s i s . Suetonius, notably, f a i l s to mention that the r e -c a l l was extremely popular (Tac. H i s t . 1.20.2). For sums s u c c e s s f u l l y recovered see Dio 63.14.1-2. quinquaginta e q u i t e s : According to T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.20.2) t h i s group of ' d e b t - c o l l e c t o r s ' c o n s i s t e d of j u s t t h i r t y e q u i t e s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n had a r e p u t a t i o n f o r being ex-tremely corrupt (Tac. l o c . c i t . ) . ea condicione ... nequirent: While T a c i t u s does not men-t i o n t h i s f u r t h e r demand, P l u t a r c h (Galb. 16.2-3) says i t was taken as a second step only when the o r i g i n a l measure proved i n e f f e c t i v e . The i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t was that more people than merely Nero's f r i e n d s were a f f e c t e d . I t i s l i k e l y that these people c o n t r i b u t e d to the d i s c o n t e n t e d u n i v e r s i ordines (16.1) t h a t helped e v e n t u a l l y to b r i n g down Galba. 119 s c a e n i c i ac x y s t i c i : This same s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s made by P l u t a r c h (Galb. 16.3). For Nero's a s s o c i a t i o n with these two p r o f e s s i o n s , members of which c o n s t i t u t e d a l a r g e part of h i s b e n e f i c i a r i e s , see Suet. Nero 21.2; 12.3 f f . 15.2 comites atque l i b e r t o s : Suetonius i s here u s i n g comites i n i t s wider sense of ' f r i e n d s or a s s o c i a t e s ' , r a t h e r than 'companions on journeys' (see 7.1 cohortem 'amicorum). The re f e r e n c e to l i b e r t o s i n d i c a t e s that Suetonius i s r e f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y to the freedman I c e l u s , Laco and V i n i u s . p r e t i o ... noxiorum: T a c i t u s and P l u t a r c h give the same summary of Galba's P r i n c i p a t e ; " v e n a l i a cuncta" (Hi st 1.7.3), " Chi i v \ <j) 6 e tcaT Aa<iov i <a\ Tot ' s a T r e A e u 6 e p o i £ ira v t a t a IT p a y \i a T a T T U X O U O I l a p e x ^ v e a u T o v " (Galb. 29.4). Although Suetonius does not e l u c i d a t e the v e c t i g a l i a  immunitates, P l u t a r c h (Galb. 18.1) t e l l s of the r e m i s s i o n of t r i b u t e earned by the Gauls by b r i b i n g V i n i u s . See 14.2 c u p i d i t a t i s immensae and Vesp. 16.1, "omissa sub Galba v e c t i g a l i a revocasse". populo Romani deposcente: T a c i t u s and P l u t a r c h say that the populus demanding the death of Halotus and T i g i l l i n u s are the crowds at the c i r c u s and t h e a t r e : "... i n circum ac t h e a t r a e f f u s i s e d i t i o s i s vocibus s t r e p e r e " ( H i s t . 1.72.2); " o u 6 e i r a u a a n e v o j ev iraai 6 e a T p o i s K a l O T O 6 I O I J a i r o u i i e v o s E K E I V O V [sc. T i r e U i v o v ] " (Galb. 17.4). 120 H a l o t i : Halotus was a eunuch and h e l d the post of prae-g u s t a t o r under C l a u d i u s . He was rumoured to have adminis-t e r e d the poison that k i l l e d him (Suet. Claud. 44.1, Tac. Ann. 12.66). He i s mentioned on an i n s c r i p t i o n d i s c o v e r e d at Rome (McCrum and Woodhead 1966: 66 n. 198). The s t o r i e s of Kalotus and T i g i l l i n u s exemplify the impunitates noxiorum. T i g i l l i n i : Ofonius T i g i l l i n u s had been p r e f e c t of the prae-t o r i a n guard under Nero and shared with the emperor a r e -p u t a t i o n f o r crime and v i c e (Tac. Ann. 14.51 f f . ; 14.61; H i s t . 1.72.1 f f . ) . A f t e r Nero's death both the f r i e n d s and enemies of Nero c a l l e d f o r T i g i l l i n u s death (Tac. H i s t . l o c . c i t . ) . A c cording to Dio (64.3.3), Galba r e f u s e d so as not to appear too accommodating, though T a c i t u s ( H i s t , l o c . c i t . ) s ays h i s pardon was due to the i n f l u e n c e of V i n i u s . He was e v e n t u a l l y k i l l e d ' d u r i n g the P r i n c i p a t e of Otho ( P l u t . Otho 2.1). See RE, 18. 2056 f f . s o l o s : The arguments of N u t t i n g (1936: 182) that s o l o s should not be taken i n i t s l i t e r a l sense but as a r e i n -forcement of m a l e f i c e n t i s s i m o s (' ... the most u t t e r l y abandoned of a l l Nero's c r e a t u r e s " , R o l f e 1914a: v o l 2, p. 215) ought not to be accepted. Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would destroy the a n t i t h e s i s of solos with omnibus, which give s to the account of the a c q u i t t a l i t s whole i r o n i c p o i n t . In a d d i t i o n , m a l e f i c e n t i s s i m o s i s alr e a d y r e i n -f o r c e d by v e l . A l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n of solo s i s p r e f e r a b l e . 121 See A i l l o n d (1964: tome 3, p. x i v ) , " i l s f u r e n t , quoique l e s plus coupables parmi l e s agents de Neron, l e s l e s seuls auxquels i l l a i s s a l a v i e " . p r o c u r a t i o n e amplissima: By 68, p r o c u r a t o r s h i p s were awarded not only to e q u i t e s but a l s o to freedmen. For the importance of these freedmen p r o c u r a t o r s see Weaver (1967: 14 f f . ) and (1972: 267-281, where he suggests - Halotus h e l d a p r o c u r a t o r i a l post away from Rome). Amplissima suggests a p o s i t i o n of high importance, perhaps i n one of the l a r g e s e n a t o r i a l provinces or a post i n Rome with important f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , such as the procurator annonae. s a e v i t i a e ... i n c r e p u i t : According to P l u t a r c h (Galb. 17.4) the e d i c t defended Galba's a c t i o n s , i n v o k i n g the f a c t that T i g i l l i n u s was s u f f e r i n g from a t e r m i n a l d i s e a s e . I t charged the people with f o r c i n g the P r i n c i p a t e to behave l i k e a tyranny. See Benner (1975: 135 - 6). Galba's charge of s a e v i t i a on the part of the people i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i r o n i c i n the l i g h t of h i s c h a r a c t e r as p o r t r a y e d by Suetonius. See Suet. Galb. 6.3, 9.1, 12.1-2. SECTION SIXTEEN per haec ... apud m i l i t e s : Having summarised the animosity i n c u r r e d by Galba during the main part of h i s P r i n c i p a t e (14 -15) Suetonius i d e n t i f i e s m i l i t a r y d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n as 122 the u l t i m a t e reason f o r h i s d o w n f a l l . The grievances of the s o l d i e r s c o n s t i t u t e the theme of s e c t i o n s i x t e e n . For causes of m i l i t a r y d i s c o n t e n t not mentioned by Suetonius see Tac. H i s t . 1.5.2; 1.23.2. i n verba ... i u r a n t i b u s : For oaths sworn to the emperor see 10.4 mutati sacramenti. donativum ... p r a e p o s i t i : Donativa were o r i g i n a l l y p aid from the booty of a s u c c e s s f u l campaign (Watson 1969: 108). However, both Augustus (Tac. Ann. 1.8, Aug. 101) and T i b e r -i u s (Dio 59.2.2, T i b . 48) gave donativa i n peacetime. Claudius began the t r a d i t i o n of paying the p r a e t o r i a n s on the a c c e s s i o n of an emperor (Claud. 10), a p r a c t i c e which d e t e r i o r a t e d i n t o a sale by a u c t i o n of the empire to Did-ius J u l i a n u s by the s o l d i e r s i n 193. P l u t a r c h (Galb 2.2) says that Nymphidius Sabinus pro-mised, i n Galba's name, to pay 7,500 d e n a r i i to each prae-t o r i a n and 1,250 to each l e g i o n a r y . T h i s sum was at l e a s t twice as much as the l a r g e s t previous donativum (Suet. Claud. 10.4; Tac. Ann. 12.69) and one that Galba, under the f i n a n c i a l circumstances, could not or would not pay ( P l u t . Galb. 2.3 f f . , 18. 2 - 3 ; Tac. H i s t . 1.5.1; Dio 64.3.3). Hardy (quoted by Mooney 1930: 238) makes the p l a u s i b l e suggestion that Nymphidius knew Galba would not be able to pay the donativum and hoped to b e n e f i t from the s o l d i e r ' s subsequent anger by being acclaimed emperor. 123 On the importance of donativa i n general see Watson (1969: 108-110). l e g e r e ... emere ... consuesse: The words r e f l e c t the harsh m i l i t a r y d i s c i p l i n e Galba i n f l i c t e d upon h i s s o l -d i e r s (see 6.3 p a r i s e v e r i t a t e ) and h i s e q u a l l y n o t o r i o u s parsimony (12.1 s a e v i t i a e et a v a r i t i a e ) . Both T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.5.2) and P l u t a r c h (Galb. 18.2) make personal r e f l e c t i o n s on the anecdote, ("Galbae, vox pro re p u b l i c a honesta, i p s i anceps ...": "c?<i>f)ice <t>iuvnv n y e u i o v i yieyaXu n p e n o u o a v . . . " ) . Suetonius, on the other hand, l i m i t s h i m s e l f to r e p o r t i n g the m i l i t a r y d i s c o n t e n t that i t caused.For Suetonius' tendency to r e f r a i n from m o r a l i z a t i o n s and e x p l i c i t e v a l u a t i o n s of conduct see D e l i a Corte (1967: 160, 198 " e v i t a d e l p a r i l o s t i l e moral-i z z a n t e e i g i u d i z i " ) . metu ... plerosque: T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.20.2-3) names Anto-nius Taurus and Antonius Naso as two of the discharged p r a e t o r i a n s and mentions the f e a r of the r e s t : "metus i n i -tium, tamquam per artem et formidine s i n g u l i p e l l e r e n t u r , omnibus s u s p e c t i s . " s u p e r i o r i s Germaniae e x e r c i t u s : During h i s account of the r e b e l l i o n , Suetonius g e n e r a l i s e s by a t t r i b u t i n g i n v o l v e -ment to the whole army of Germania Superior (see ergo  p r i m i below). T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.55.3) i s more p r e c i s e and names legiones IV Macedonia and XXII Primigenia as the i n -s t i g a t o r s , with XXI Rapaxuninvolved. Galba had r e p l a c e d 124 V e r g i n i u s Rufus as commander with Hordeonius F l a c c u s , an o l d and weak man (Tac. H i s t . 1.9.1; P l u t . Galb. 10.3, 18.4; s.v. Hordeonius F l a c c u s , RE 8, 2, 2405 f f . , PIR, v o l . 4.2 n. 202). f r a u d a r i ... operae: The primary reason f o r the German s o l d i e r s ' d i s c o n t e n t : the e l e v a t i o n of Galba to emperor had n u l l i f i e d t h e i r v i c t o r y over Vindex (see 9.2 V i n d i c i s ) and cheated them ( f r a u d a r i ) of t h e i r f i n a n c i a l reward ( P l u t . Galb. 18.3; Tac. H i s t . 1.8.2). For other causes of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n see Tac. H i s t . 1.9.1, 1.51.2 f f . , 1.53.2 f f . , P l u t . Galb. 22.1-2. Ergo p r i m i : I t should be noted that i n h i s account of the January 1st r e v o l t Suetonius confines h i m s e l f to the a c t i o n s of the army i n Germania Su p e r i o r . He omits any r e f e r e n c e to Germania I n f e r i o r and the acclamation of V i t e l -l i u s as emperor. V e n i n i (1974: 998 f f . ) suggests that such omissions are due to Suetonius' p a r t i c u l a r technique of composition, that demands l i n e a r i t y and c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the l i f e of h i s subject (see s e c t i o n s ten and twelve). For Suetonius the events i n Germania S u p e r i o r are s u f f i c i e n t to e x p l a i n Galba's d o w n f a l l . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n the l i f e of V i t e l l i u s (8.2 f f . ) , Suetonius omits a l l d e t a i l s concerning Germania S u p e r i o r . Both T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.12 f f . , 1.14 f f . , 1.51-60) and P l u t a r c h (Galb. 22 f f . ) f u r n i s h f u l l accounts of the r e v o l t . 125 obsequium rumpere: The l e g i o n s i n Germania I n f e r i o r had a l s o adopted a h o s t i l e stance. Although they r e l u c t a n t l y took the oath, l e g i o I Germanica and V Alaudae stoned Galba's statues, while XVI G a l l i c a shouted t h e i r d i s c o n -t e n t . (Tac. H i s t . 1.55.1). a d i g i ... recusarunt: The l e g i o n a r i e s t o r e down h i s s t a -tues and, u s i n g a formula that Galba had once used f o r h i m s e l f (see 10.1 consulatusque ... professus est) d e c l a r e d that they would swear only to the Senate and People of Rome (Tac. H i s t . 1.55.4; P l u t . Galb. 22.4). Suetonius speaks only of the Senate. Rather than a c a l l f o r a r e t u r n to the Republic, the d e c l a r a t i o n i n d i c a t e d l e g i o n a r y d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with Galba and that, c o n s i d e r i n g the l a c k of an obvious successor, the choice of princeps l a y with the Senate and people. See C h i l v e r (1979: 117). legationem ....destinaverunt: The v e r a c i t y of t h i s s t a t e -ment has been doubted on the grounds that i t c o n t r a d i c t s the oath taken to the Senate (and People). I t has been suggested"that Suetonius has confused t h i s l e t t e r with one sent at a l a t e r date to the p r a e t o r i a n s by Fabius Valens (Fabia 1904: 52 n. 1). See 17 quod ... nuntiatum e s t . However, the s u c c i n c t r e p o r t e d language used by Sueto-nius suggests that he has summarized the contents of a l e t t e r or copy of a l e t t e r t h a t he has seen h i m s e l f . D e l i a Corte's theory (1967: 121 2), t h a t , u n l i k e T a c i t u s , 126 Suetonius does not seek to put a v e i l of l e g a l i t y over the events of 69, would account f o r the biographer's i n c l u s i o n and h i s t o r i a n ' s e x c l u s i o n of t h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y and revo-l u t i o n a r y request to the p r a e t o r i a n s . d i s p l i c e r e ... factum: Galba's acclamation as emperor i n Spain had been unique and exposed him to the c r i t i c i s m t h a t he was the emperor of Iberians r a t h e r than Romans ( P l u t . Galb. 22.2) . For the v i t a l importance of support i n Rome to emper-ors see J a l (1963: 158). SECTION SEVENTEEN quod ... nuntiatum e s t : In Suetonius and Dio (64.5.1) the announcement of the January 1st r e v o l t prompts the adop-t i o n , while i n P l u t a r c h (Galb. 23.1) and T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.22.2) i t merely p r e c i p i t a t e s a d e c i s i o n taken e a r l i e r ( P l u t . Galb. 19.1; Tac. H i s t . 1.12.2). T a c i t u s s t a t e s that the r e v o l t was announced by a l e t t e r from Pompeius Propinquus, p r o c u r a t o r of B e l g i c a , a few days a f t e r January 1st ( H i s t . 1.12.1; Fabia 1904: 4 2 f f . non . . . orbitatem: P l u t . Galb. 19.1, "o 6l <t>oenee"s ws un (jovov 6 i a T O yfipa^ a A X a icai 6\a T n v anni 6 lav K a T a $ p 6 v \i e v oj " Galba's c h i l d r e n by A e m i l i a Lepida had died while young (see 5.1 duobus ex e_a f i l i i s ) . 127 Although Galba claimed to be f o l l o w i n g a sound p r i n -c i p l e ("optimum quemqu?adoptio i n v e n i e t " , Tac. H i s t . 1.16.1), h i s adoption of P i s o was a desperate attempt to solve a c r i s i s . S e e Tac. H i s t . 1.14.1 "remedium unicum", Syme (1958: 207). For the importance of adoption i n the P r i n c i p a t e see Beranger (1953: 145 - 6 ) . Pisonem ... probatissimum: The son of S c r i b o n i a and M. L i c i n i u s Crassus F r u g i , the consul of 27 A.D., L. Calpur-n i u s P i s o F r u g i L i c i n i a n u s came from a h i g h l y a r i s t o c r a t i c background (Tac. H i s t . 1.14.2). He was r e l a t e d to Pompey on h i s maternal side ( S c r i b o n i a was h i s grandaughter ) and Crassus on h i s p a t e r n a l (Tac. Hist.1.15.1). he had been e x i l e d by Nero and had h e l d no m a g i s t r a c i e s at Rome (Tac. H i s t . 1.48.1). His r e p u t a t i o n as a s e r i o u s and austere young man endeared him to Galba (Tac. H i s t . 1.14.2, P l u t . Galb. 23.2). He was k i l l e d by Otho s i x days a f t e r h i s adoption, at the age of 30 (Tac. H i s t . 1.48.1; RE, 3, 1399 f f . ) . testamento ... adscitum: A t e c h n i c a l formula i n d i c a t i n g a d o p t i o per testamentum (see Suet. Claud. 39.2, Tac. Ann. 3.30). For the terms of t h i s type of adoption see 4.1 adopta-tus a noverca. P i s o took the name Servius S u l p i c i u s Galba Caesar (McCrum and Woodhead, 1966: 13). 128 semper: Since there i s no other evidence of P i s o ' s being p r e v i o u s l y named as h e i r i n Galba's w i l l commentators have found d i f f i c u l t y i n a c c e p t i n g semper; T o r r e n t i u s suggested insuper ("in a d d i t i o n was named as h e i r . . . " ) , and C o r n e l -i s s e n , nuper ("recently was named as h e i r . . . " ) , both of which are s e n s i b l e emendations. A corresponding passage at Claudius 1.5, however, v e r i f i e s the a u t h e n t i c i t y of semper; "coheredem semper f i l i u s i n s t i t u e r i t " . Galba would have r e w r i t t e n h i s w i l l from time to time without changing Pis o ' s s t a t u s as h e i r . repente ... adprehendit: Suetonius' testimony d i f f e r s from that of T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.14.1), which s t a t e s e x p l i -c i t l y that Galba, having decided to adopt an h e i r , c a l l e d a c o m i t i a i m p e r i i of h i s c l o s e s t a d v i s o r s to choose a successor. P l u t a r c h (Galba 23.1), however, supports Sueto-ni u s with an e x p l i c i t d e n i a l of any c o n s u l t a t i o n ( " p n 6 e v IT p o e i ir u> v " ) . Since T a c i t u s ' d e t a i l e d account, i n c l u d i n g the names of .the four members of Galba's c o m i t i a , i s unequivocal and contains nothing that might have persuaded him to invent i t , once must assume that he was working from a more ac-curate source than that of Suetonius and P l u t a r c h , and decided to i n c l u d e the d e t a i l s he found; see C h i l v e r (1979: 72), Townend (1964: 354). pro contione f r o n t of the a d o p t a v i t : The adoption, c a r r i e d out i n p r a e t o r i a n s , d i d not conform to the exact l e g a l requirements: " s i te [sc. Pisonem] p r i v a t u s lege c u r a t a apud p o n t i f i c e s , ut mors e s t , adoptarem", Tac. H i s t . 1.15.1. This i s the only ceremony Suetonius e x p l i c i t l y men-t i o n s , o m i t t i n g d e t a i l s of the subsequent s e n a t o r i a l con-f i r m a t i o n (Tac. H i s t . 1.19.1 f f . ) ; there i s , hwoever, an i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e to i t i n 18.3, see m i l i t e s ... i n senatu. For the s t y l i s t i c reasons f o r the omission see V e n i n i (1974: 1000 n. 19). ne tunc ... f a c t a : The s o l d i e r s were a l r e a d y i r r i t a t e d w ith Galba because of h i s f a i l u r e to pay the donative pro-mised i n h i s name (see 16.1 donativum ... p r a e p o s i t i ) . I t -was a f u r t h e r i n s u l t that he d i d not d i s t r i b u t e a l a r g e s s on the occ a s i o n of an ac o p t i o n , c o n t r a r y to the custom. See S.H.A. Hadrian 23.12. quo ... conata: The parsimony d i s p l a y e d by Galba on t h i s o c c a s i o n destroyed any op p o r t u n i t y he had of keeping the support of the p r a e t o r i a n s (Tac. H i s t . 1.18.3 c l e a r l y i n -d i c a t e s the e x i s t e n c e of such an o p p o r t u n i t y ) , and allowed Otho to win them over with c o n s i d e r a b l e ease ( P l u t . Galb. 23.2-3; 24.1). From t h i s point on Suetonius r e f r a i n s from mentioning the a f f a i r s of Otho u n t i l he wins pos s e s s i o n of the prae-t o r i a n camp (19.1) and even then the re f e r e n c e i s made only to i n d i c a t e the seriousness of Galba's s i t u a t i o n . Suetonius i s i n t e r e s t e d only i n Galba and na r r a t e s events 130 from h i s p o i n t of view; the i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to Otho i s g iven i n the biography d e d i c a t e d to him (Otho 5.1 f f . ) ; see 16.2 ergo p r i m i . For the s u b d i v i s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n between Galba 17 - 19 and Otho 5 f f . , see V e n i n i (1974: 1001 f f . ) . i n t r a ... diem: The murder of Galba took place on January 15th (Tac. H i s t . 1.27.1; P l u t . Galb. 24.1). The adoption i s dated to January 10th (McCrum and Woodhead 1966: 12-13); the i n c l u s i v e method of counting l e d to a c a l c u l a t i o n of s i x days Cfeextus died',Tac. H i s t . 1. 29.2;"e<Tn yap avnpe-enaav", p l u t . Galb. 24.1). SECTION EIGHTEEN 18.1 Portents a s s o c i a t e d with the death of an emperor are an omnipresent element i n Suetonian biography: see Div. I u l . 81.1, Aug. 97.1, T i b . 74.1 f f . , C a l i g . 57.1, Claud. 46.1, Nero 46.1, Otho 8.3, Vi_t. 9, Vesp. 23.4, T i t . 10.2, and Pom. 14.1 f f . , 15.3. See V e n i n i (1977: 59), Mouchova (1968: 35 - 37) . The portents r e l a t e d by Suetonius i n 18.1 - 19.1 f o l -low a s t r i c t c h r o n o l o g i c a l order c o v e r i n g the p e r i o d from the summer of 68 to January 15th, 69 (Galba's journey to Rome, entry to the c i t y , p e r i o d of P r i n c i p a t e , the s i g n i f -i c a n t events of January 1st 69, the adoption of P i s o , and the day of h i s a s s a s s i n a t i o n ) . For a s i m i l a r connection between omens, c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence and important events 131 i n Galba's l i f e see s e c t i o n f o u r . i t e r : The journey from Spain to Rome. See 11 i t e r q u e i n -gressus e s t " . v i c t i m a e caederentur: V i c t i m s were c u s t o m a r i l y s l a u g h t e r e d on the a r r i v a l of an emperor. (Suet. C a l i g . 13; Tac. H i s t . 2.70.2). rupto v i n c u l o : The ox would have been t i e d to an a l t a r or s a c r i f i c i a l t a b l e and i t s escape was an i n a u s p i c i o u s omen, probably i n d i c a t i n g chaos and the emperor's l o s s of con-t r o l over the people (see Div. I u l . 59). In the account of omens i n d i c a t i n g Galba's death, none of which are r e p o r t e d by P l u t a r c h , T a c i t u s or Dio, Suetonius i n c l u d e s generic d e t a i l s that can be p a r a l l e l e d w i t h i n the L i v e s and which cast doubt on the a u t h e n t i c i t y of the omens. See 4.2 avo quoque ... f a m i l i a and f o l l o w i n g notes. cruore p e r f u d i t : For the s p l a s h i n g of blood as an unfav-ourable omen see C a l i g . 57.4. T h i s no doubt i n d i c a t e d a v i o l e n t death f o r Galba. s p e c u l a t o r ... lancea: The lance was the weapon used by the s p e c u l a t o r e s , who where chosen from the p r a e t o r i a n guard to form the emperor's bodyguard. See Suet. Claud 35.1, Watson (1969: 85 f f . ) . F o r the lance as t h e i r p a r t i c -u l a r weapon see Josephus, B.J. I l l 95. 132 t e r r a e tremor: For earthquakes as omens of impending doom see T i b . 74, Nero 48.2. mugitui sonus: A sound o b v i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e d with the phe-nomenon of earthquakes. Seneca (N.Q. 6.13.5) uses the same phrase to d e s c r i b e winds p r i o r to an earthquake. 18.2 ad ornandam fortunam: The i n i t i a l appearance of the s t a -tue i n t h i s biography was a l s o i n connection with a dream and an omen (4.3). In that case, however, i t pointed to Galba's future greatness. Statues are r e f e r r e d to i n connection with the deaths of emperors at T i b . 74, C a l i g . 57.1 and V i t . 9. Tusculanam: See 4.3. C a p i t o l i n a e V e n e r i : The necklace was so precious that Galba thought i t would be b e t t e r served by honouring the c u l t of Venus than that of Fortuna. Commentators disagree about the l o c a t i o n of Galba's d e d i c a t i o n ; a ccording to some i t was i n the aedes Venus Er u c i n a on the C a p i t o l i n e ( P l a t n e r and Ashby 1965: 551). Although others a s s o c i a t e i t with the temple of Venus 2 V i c t r i x , a l s o on the C a p i t o l i n e (Mommsen i n CIL I p. 331). Since Suetonius g i v e s no f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on the aedes  C a p i t o l i n a e Veneri apart from the f a c t that L i v i a placed a statue of one of Germanicus' sons there ( C a l i g . 7), i t i s impossible to e s t a b l i s h i t s true i d e n t i t y . 133 quae d e d i s s e t : That i s , wealth, power and, u l t i m a t e l y , the P r i n c i p a t e . Galba's adoption of Fortuna as a young man (4.3) had been rewarded i n h i s l a t e r c a r e e r . n i h i l ... merum: A l l the pr e p a r a t i o n s f o r the s a c r i f i c i a l e x p i a t o r y r i t e were the d i r e c t opposite of what they should have been; r a t h e r than ashes on the a l t a r there should have been a f i r e i n the hearth; i n s t e a d of an o l d man dressed i n bl a c k the requirement was a youth c l a d i n white; the incense should have been c a r r i e d i n a s p e c i a l box, an a c e r r a , and the wine poured from a gold or s i l v e r v e s s e l . See Mooney (1930: 245). For the c o r r e c t r i t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n s see D.S. v o l . 4 p. 973 - 80. 18.3 K a l . Ian, s a c r i f i c a n t i : On January 1st, 69, Galba became consul f o r the second time (McCrum and Woodhead 1966: 4) and as part of the t r a d i t i o n a l January r i t e s made a sac-r i f i c e to J u p i t e r Optimus Maximus. For the r i t u a l s enacted on January 1st during t h i s era see M e s l i n (1970: 23 - 34). coronam e x c i d i s s e : The same omen foreshadowed the death of V i t e l l i u s as he embarked on h i s journey from Germany t o Some (Suet. V i t . 9). a u s p i c a n t i ... avo l a s s e : Augurs made t h e i r prophecies a f t e r an examination of the way i n which chickens ate t h e i r g r a i n (Mooney 1930: 245). For the escape of animals 134 see 18.1 rupto v i n c u l o , Div. L u i . 59 and T i t . 10.1. a d o p t i o n i s d i e : I t i s strange that i n h i s account of e v i l omens Suetonius does not mention the v i o l e n t storm that occurred on the day of P i s o ' s adoption. P l u t a r c h (Galb. 23.2) e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e s that t h i s s i g n i f i e d that the adoption was not b l e s s e d by the gods (see a l s o Tac. H i s t . 1.18.1). As Suetonius must have been aware of the storm, the only reason f o r i t s omission can be that i t d i d not r e f e r d i r e c t l y to Galba's d o w n f a l l , the theme of s e c t i o n eighteen. Rather, the storm i n d i c a t e d heavenly d i s a p p r o v a l of the adoption. m i l i t e s ... i n senatu: The only i n d i c a t i o n i n Suetonius' account of the second ceremony i n v o l v e d i n P i s o ' s adoption (see 17 pro contione a d o p t a v i t ) . For the address to the s o l d i e r s see P l u t . Galb. 23.2, Tac. H i s t . 1.18.2. castrensem ... curulem: The s e l l a c u r u l i s , of which the s e l l a c a s t r e n s i s was a more simple copy used on e x p e d i t i o n s (PS 4, 1180), was the emperor's seat i n the Senate, be-tween the two c o n s u l s ; Suet. Claud. 23.2. perverse: 'Back to f r o n t ' (Rolfe 1914a: v o l 2 , p. 221, Ga-vorse 1931: 294), or 'awry' (Mooney 1930: 73, A i l l o u d ('de t r a v e r s ' ) 1964: tome 3, p. x v i i i ) . The Roman requirement of exact compliance with d e t a i l would have 135 rendered the misplacement of c h a i r s a bad omen. (See 18.2 n i h i l ... merum). SECTION NINETEEN Sections n i n e t e e n and twenty r e l a t e the events of January 15th 69. In these s e c t i o n s Suetonius shows c l e a r l y he i s a biographer r a t h e r than a h i s t o r i a n ; he r e f r a i n s from a d i s c u s s i o n of the p o l i t i c a l motives f o r and r e s u l t s of the murder while u n f o l d i n g the day with the s p o t l i g h t f i r m l y on Galba; he gives c u r i o u s d e t a i l s of Galba's a c t i o n s (see l o r i c a m ... linteam ) but omits s i g -n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r s (see s a c r i f i c a n t e m ... abesse). The r e p e r c u s s i o n s of the a s s a s s i n a t i o n are d i s c u s s e d only i n the l i f e of Otho (6.1 f f . ) . See 17 quo ... conata• The s t r u c t u r e of s e c t i o n n i n e t e e n r e f l e c t s the i r r e s -o l u t i o n of Galba and the v a g a r i e s of fortune experienced by him d u r i n g the day. Suetonius d e l i b e r a t e l y juxtaposes h i s d e s p a i r , h i s e l a t i o n and, f i n a l l y , h i s death. The ac-count v a c i l l a t e s between h i s r e s i g n a t i o n to death (haud  d i s s i m u l a n s ... profuturam) and h i s supposed v i c t o r y (pro-d i i t t a n t a f i d u c i a ) . For a d e t a i l e d account of the events of the day see Welledey (1975: 22 f f . ) . s a c r i f i c a n t e m ... monuit: Suetonius has omitted both the name of the haruspex, Umbricius (Tac. H i s t . 1.27.1; P l u t . Galb. 24.2) and the l o c a t i o n of the s a c r i f i c e ("pro aede A p o l l o n i s " , Tac. l o c . c i t . ; " e v n a X a x io)",Plut. l o c . c i t . ) . However, more notable i s the f a c t that Suetonius says 136 nothing of the attendance of Otho, e s p e c i a l l y i f , as Dio (64.5.2) says, he was the only senator present (see a l s o Suet. Otho 6.3). Suetonius has chosen to concentrate s o l e l y on Galba. See i n t r o d u c t i o n to s e c t i o n nineteen and note on quo ... conata, 17. non longe ... abesse: Although the words would n a t u r a l l y r e f e r to the eventual murderers of Galba who were w a i t i n g at the Golden Milestone (Suet. Otho 6.1), the warning would be a l l the more i r o n i c had Suetonius made re f e r e n c e to the presence of Otho. haud multo post: According to both T a c i t u s ( H i s t 1.29.1) and P l u t a r c h (Galb. 25.4), Galba r e c e i v e d news of Otho's s e i z u r e of the camp before the s a c r i f i c e had ended. c o g n o s c i t : A r a r e example of Suetonius' use cf the h i s t o r i c present. See Mooney (1930: p. 625 App. 1, 9a). c a s t r a : Although none of the sources (Tac. H i s t 1.29.1; P l u t . Galb. 25.3; d i o 64.6.2) give any e x p l i c i t s p e c i f i -c a t i o n , the c a s t r a i s the c a s t r a p r a e t o r i a i n the n o r t h -east of the c i t y ; the support of the p r a e t o r i a n guard was e s s e n t i a l to Otho's coup d ' e t a t . For the h i s t o r y and l o c a t i o n of the c a s t r a p r a e t o r i a see P l a t n e r and Ashby (1965: 106 - 8). ac p l e r i s q u e ... p r a e v a l e r e : According to T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.32.2, 1.33.1 f f . ) and. P l u t a r c h (Galb. 26.1), V i n i u s ad-v i s e d Galba to stay w i t h i n the palace and ward o f f any 137 a t t a c k , while Laco and I c e l u s (Laco and Marius Celsus i n P l u t a r c h ) encouraged him to be aggressive and march i n t o the c i t y i n an attempt to r e g a i n c o n t r o l . Suetonius, who regards i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the two f a c t i o n s as of l i t t l e importance, merely mentions the d i f f e r e n c e i n o p i n i o n . c o n t i n e r e ... s t a t u i t : The sources d i f f e r i n t h e i r ac-counts of Galba's d e c i s i o n . Suetonius says that Galba de-c i d e d to stay i n the palace and was only l u r e d out "rumor-ibus f a l s i s " (19.2). T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.34.1 f f . ) , however, s t a t e s that Galba at once chose the more aggressive p o l i c y but agreed to send out P i s o f i r s t . P l u t a r c h (Galb. 26.1) says that Galba wanted to leave the palace but i m p l i e s that no d e f i n i t e d e c i s i o n had been taken u n t i l the f a l s e r e p o r t s were heard. In a d d i t i o n , n e i t h e r Suetonius nor P l u t a r c h mentions the p r i o r e x i t of P i s o . The c o n f u s i o n must i n d i c a t e a p l u r a l i t y of sources. Suetonius may w e l l have had two sources, one i n d i c a t i n g that Galba chose the d e f e n s i v e p o l i c y , the other s t a t i n g the opposite; the t u r -moil of January 15th could not have aided accurate r e p o r t -i n g . Suetonius has probably t r i e d to i n c o r p o r a t e both sources, u s i n g the rumours of Otho's death as the t u r n i n g p o i n t between the two. The embassy of P i s o would have been omitted on the grounds of i t s u n s u c c e s s f u l outcome and consequent i r r e l e v a n c e to Galba's s i t u a t i o n . For the l i k e l i h o o d of d i f f e r e n t sources f o r Suetonius, P l u t a r c h and T a c i t u s see Townend (1964: 356 - 358). 138 There has been a disagreement concerning the u s e f u l -ness of the advice o f f e r e d to Galba. T a c i t u s ' o p i n i o n that V i n i u s was a t r a i t o r ( H i s t . 1.42) has l e d some modern commentators to suppose that h i s advice was d e l i b e r a t e l y treacherous (Greenhalgh 1975: 48), while others see i t as prudent and f l e x i b l e enough to be adapted should circum-stances r e q u i r e ( W e l lesley 1975: 24). However, the t r u t h i s t h a t Galba probably r e a l i z e d he was i n a hopeless s i t u -a t i o n ; the advice of Laco represented h i s s o l e r e a l i s t i c o p t i o n . Galba was a s u c c e s s f u l , respected s o l d i e r and h i s only hope was to appear i n p u b l i c with h i s few remaining l o y a l troops and to appeal to the l o y a l t y of the people; f o r a s i m i l a r view see C h i l v e r (1979: 94). legionarum ... tendebant: T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.31.1 - 2) spe-c i f i e s that Galba sent f o r a group of I l l y r i a n s o l d i e r s and a detachment of Germans. Meanwhile he dispatched t r i -bunes i n t o the c a s t r a p r a e t o r i a (see P l u t . Galb. 25.5; Dio 64.6.1). The l e g i o n of marines, I A d i u t r i x (see 12.2 remigibus ... m i l i t e s ) was not t r u s t e d because of the hos-t i l i t y they f e l t towards Galba since the s l a u g h t e r on h i s e n t r y to the c i t y . Suetonius claims that a l l but a German v e x i l l a t i o turned down h i s e n t r e a t i e s (see 20.1 omnes ... v e x i l l a t i o n e ) . l o r i c a m ... linteam: Although both T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.35.1) and P l u t a r c h (Galb. 27.1) i n d i c a t e that Galba was wearing a c u i r a s s ( "sumpto thorace"; " T e e P U K I onevos"), only Sueto-nius says i t was made of l i n e n and would thus provide 139 l i t t l e p r o t e c t i o n . The reasons f o r Galba's assuming such a u s e l e s s mode of p r o t e c t i o n are u n c l e a r . I f i t was out of genuine f e a r then a more s o l i d piece of armoury co u l d have been found; i f , however, i t was a gesture of a r r o -gance then one has to assume a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Galba not shown p r e v i o u s l y by Suetonius. The tone of the passage suggests, most of a l l , a f i n a l p a t h e t i c gesture by a man who r e a l i s e d that any s e r i o u s r e s i s t a n c e was f u t i l e ; Galba had accepted the i n e v i t a b l e . On the l o r i c a see D.S. v o l . 3.2 p. 1302-16. quanquam ... d i s s i m u l a n s : Suetonius i n a d d i t i o n to u s i n g quanquam with the s u b j u n c t i v e (see 14.1 quanquam) r e g u l a r l y uses i t with a p a r t i c i p l e ; see Diy. I u l . 11, T i b . 25.2, C a l i g . 16.3. 19.2 rumoribus f a l s i s : The rumours were that Otho had been k i l l e d i n the p r a e t o r i a n camp (Tac. H i s t . 1.34.2; P l u t . Galb. 26.1). Suetonius has no doubt that the f a l s e s t o r y was c i r -c u l a t e d d e l i b e r a t e l y to l u r e Galba out of the palace, while T a c i t u s merely s t a t e s that many people suspected i t was a ruse by Otho's p a r t i s a n s . paucis ... negotium: Suetonius does not make i t c l e a r whe-ther the f a l s e witnesses were part of a d e l i b e r a t e Otho-n i a n p l o t or whther people j u s t go caught up i n the hys-t e r i a of the s i t u a t i o n . T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.34.2) p r e f e r s 140 the l a t t e r theory: "ut i n magnis mendaciis, i n t e r f u i s s e se quidam et v i d i s s e adfirmabant i i s ... p r o d i i t " . P l u t a r c h (Galb. 26.2) s t a t e s that Galba's i n t e n t i o n i n l e a v i n g the palace was to meet the people and o f f e r sac-r i f i c e to J u p i t e r i n g r a t i t u d e f o r h i s d e l i v e r a n c e (see Dio 64.6.3). T h i s shows the extent to which Galba had been convinced of the t r u t h of the rumours. m i l i t i ... r e s p o n d e r i t : Suetonius has omitted s e v e r a l de-t a i l s of t h i s i n c i d e n t ; the s o l d i e r was c a l l e d J u l i u s A t t i c u s , he was a s p e c u l a t o r (see 18.1 s p e c u l a t o r ... l a n -cea) and he approached Galba waving a b l o o d i e d sword; see Tac. H i s t . 1.35.2; P l u t . Galb. 26.1-2; Dio 64.6.2. 'quo auctore?': The question, which corresponds to T a c i t u s ' " c o m m i l i t i o quis i u s s i t ? " ( H i s t . 1.35.2), P l u t a r c h ' s " t i s a e e K e X e u a e " (Galb. 26.2) and Dio's T I S T O U T O T r o i n o - a i e K e X e u a e v " i s a c l e a r i l l u s t r a t i o n of Galba's se-vere a t t i t u d e towards m i l i t a r y d i s c i p l i n e ; see 6.3 p a r i  s e v e r i t a t e . mandata caedes e r a t : Even at t h i s point Suetonius d e c l i n e s to i n v o l v e Otho; i t was he who gave the order (Tac. H i s t . 1.40.1). See 17 quo ... conata. paganorum: ' C i v i l i a n s ' . T h i s meaning, where paganus i s c o n t r a s t e d with m i l i t a r y ranks, i s found both elsewhere i n Suetonius and i n other authors. See Aug. 27.3; P l i n y Ep. 7.25.6. 141 parumper r e s t i t e r u n t : T h i s momentary h a l t i s not found i n any other account and must have been added by Suetonius to s i g n i f y the end of the v a r i o u s s h i f t s i n f o r t u n e . I t i s u n l i k e l y that Suetonius i n c l u d e d d e t a i l s of t h i s i n t e r r u p -t i o n i n events f o r dramatic reasons; h i s s t y l e of r e p o r t i n g eschews s e n s a t i o n and exaggeration. See c o n t r u c i d a r u n t , below. desertum a s u i s : Suetonius' testimony that Galba was de-s e r t e d by both h i s m i l i t a r y e s c o r t and the c i v i l i a n on-l o o k e r s i s confirmed by T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.14.1). P l u t a r c h (Galb. 26.5) and Dio (64.6 4 - 5 ) both r e c o r d the e f f o r t s of a c e n t u r i o n , Sempronius Densus, to defend Galba. T a c i -tus, however, makes Densus the defender of P i s o ( H i s t . 1.43.1) while Suetonius omits the s t o r y completely. The discrepancy i n d i c a t e s the e x i s t e n c e of two d i f f e r -ent sources, one of which had Densus defending Galba and the other, Pi s o . P l u t a r c h and Dio have used the former with T a c i t u s and Suetonius u s i n g the l a t t e r ; Suetonius has subsequently omitted the i n c i d e n t because of i t s l a c k of success ( f o r a s i m i l a r omission see 19.1 c o n t i n e r e ... s t a -t u i t ) • I t i s d i f f i c u l t to accept Townend's suggestion (1964: 358-9) that the source used by Suetonius and T a c i -tus d i d not c o n t a i n the s t o r y of Densus but the h i s t o r i a n admired i t " s u f f i c i e n t l y to i n c o r p o r a t e i t i n an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g " . 142 Such i n d i f f e r e n c e on the part of the people i n the face of c i v i l s t r i f e i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d u r i n g the Imperial Age; see J a l (1963: 494-5 , " i l ne s ' a g i s s a i t meme plus d'un ' d e s i r de n e u t r a l i t e ' ... mais b i e n d'une t o t a l e i n -d i f f e r e n c e .") For the a t t i t u d e of the bystanders see Husband (1915: 321 f f . ) . c o n t r u c i d a r u n t : Suetonius r e f r a i n s from naming the r e -ported a s s a s s i n , Camurius, or any of the other three sus-pects, T e r e n t i u s , Laecanius and Fabius F a b u l l u s (Tac. H i s t . 1.41.3; P l u t . Galb. 27.2). The tone of Suetonius' account of the murder i t s e l f i s d i s t a n t and f a c t u a l ; he maintains h i s a l o o f stance and does not colour h i s evidence with the emotion and pathos employed by T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.40.2 f f . ) and P l u t a r c h (Galb. 27.1 f f . ) . See V e n i n i (1977: 64). For Suetonius' avoidance of emotion and p r e j u d i c e see D e l i a Corte (1967: 196 f f . ) , Wallace H a d r i l l (1983: 19). SECTION TWENTY In 20.1 Suetonius i n t e r r u p t s the c h r o n o l o g i c a l se-quence of events to give d e t a i l s of Galba's death; the n a r r a t i o n i s resumed at i u g u l a t u s e s t , 20.2. 20.1 sunt qui ... hortatum: Both v e r s i o n s , the f i r s t f a v o u r -able and the second unfavourable towards Galba, a l s o ap-pear i n T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.41.2); " a l i i s u p p l i c i t e r i n t e r r o -143 gasse, quid mali meruisset, paucos d i e s exsolvendo dona-tive- deprecatum; p l u r e s o b t u l i s s e u l t r o p e r c u s s o r i b u s iugulum; agerent ac f e r i r e n t , s i i t a <e> re p u b l i c a v i d e -a t u r . Dio (64.6.3) gives only the f i r s t v e r s i o n and P l u -t a r c h (Galb. 27.1) the second. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n whether the v i t a l words "e re p u b l i c a " ("^ «nyu pwpatwv^ P l u t a r c h ) were added by T a c i t u s or omitted by Suetonius; however, due to Suetonius' tendency f o r omissions the l a t t e r i s more l i k e l y . In a d d i -t i o n , i t has been suggested that Suetonius d e l i b e r a t e l y suppressed both the most favourable ("e re p u b l i c a " ) and l e a s t favourable C ' s u p p l i c i t e r " , "deprecatum") aspects of Galba's f i n a l words (Venini 1977: 64). Suetonius' h a b i t of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n lends weight to t h i s theory (see 19.1 plerosque ... p r a e v a l e r e ) . commilitones: Galba's use of t h i s f a m i l i a r and f r i e n d l y a p p e l l a t i o n c o n t r a s t s with h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e v e r i t y towards s o l d i e r s ; see 6.3 p a r i s e v e r i t a t e , 19.2 quo auctore. ego ... mei: Emphasis on the a l l i a n c e and p a r t n e r s h i p h i n t e d at i n commilitones. In r e a l i t y the army was a pos-s e s s i o n of the emperor but, g i v e n the s i t u a t i o n , Galba i n s i s t s on r e c i p r o c i t y . As has been observed by Lane (1898: 19), t h i s phrase forms a t r o c h a i c s e p t e n a r i u s . Mooney's suggestion (1930: 250) that Galba gave a d i r e c t p o e t i c a l q u o t a t i o n seems out of p l a c e given the c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n which he found 144 h i m s e l f . I t i s more c r e d i b l e to suppose that Galba's f i n a l words reminded Suetonius of t h i s p o e t i c a l phrase and, since i t p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d the s i t u a t i o n , he put i t i n t o Galba's mouth. donativum ... p o l l i c i t u m : For donativa as causes of m i l i -t a r y d i s c o n t e n t see 16.1 donativum ... p r a e p o s i t i , 17 quo ... conata. ut hoc ... f e r i r e n t : Hoc age (Do your duty!) was o r i g i -n a l l y the answer g i v e n by a s a c r i f i c i a l v i c t i m to the exe-c u t i o n e r ' s question agone? Galba e v i d e n t l y considered h i s murder a s a c r i f i c e on b e h a l f of the s t a t e . See Tac. H i s t . 1.41.2. For the use of t h i s formula by Suetonius see R o l f e (1914b: 38-39). neque ... conatum: See 19.2 desertum a s u i s . omnes ... v e x i l l a t i o n e : See 19.2 legionarum ... tendebant. T a c i t u s (His_t. 1.31.2) says that of the three t r i b u n e s who when i n t o the c a s t r a p r a e t o r i a to e n l i s t a i d f o r Galba, Subrius Dexter and C e t r i u s Severus were att a c k e d and Pom-peius Longinus disarmed. Celsus Marius, who had been sent to the I l l y r i a n detachment, was d r i v e n away by a h a i l of spears. I t i s u n c l e a r to which l e g i o n s these German troops belonged, although the involvement of Camurius (see 19.2 c o n t r u c i d a r u n t ) , a member of XV P r i m i g e n i a , i n the day's 145 e v e n t s , w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h a t l e g i o n was a t l e a s t aware o f what was h a p p e n i n g . O t h e r p o s s i b l e German l e g i o n s w i t h v e x i l l a t i o n e s a t Rome h a v e b e e n l i s t e d by S a x e r ( 1 9 6 7 : 1 3 ) . G e r m a n i c i < a n > o r u m : A c o r r e c t i o n by T u r n e b u s o f t h e i m -p o s s i b l e m a n u s c r i p t r e a d i n g ; f o r t h e u s e o f t h i s a d j e c t i v e s e e O t h o 8 . 1 , " G e r m a n i c i a n i e x e r c i t u s i n V i t e l l i v e r b a i u r a r a n t " . i i ob . . . f o v i s s e t : T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1 . 3 1 . 3 ) s p e c i f i e s t h a t t h e i r i l l n e s s was c a u s e d by t h e l o n g j o u r n e y t o w h i c h N e r o h a d s u b j e c t e d t h e m ; he h a d s e n t them t o A l e x a n d r i a t o f i g h t a w a r , p o s s i b l y i n E t h i o p i a ( P r o v s . v o l . 2 p . 65 n . 2 ) o r t h e C a u c a s i a n r e g i o n ( C h i l v e r 1979 : 8 - 1 0 ) ; t h e y were r e c a l l e d on t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e r e v o l t o f V i n d e x ( S a x e r 1 9 6 7 : 1 3 ) . D e s p i t e t h e v e r b a l p a r a l l e l s b e t w e e n S u e t o n i u s a n d T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1 . 3 1 . 3 : i n v a l i d i s . . . a e g r o s . . . r e f o v e b a t ) a n d t h e f a c t t h a t ' r e - ' c o u l d e a s i l y be l o s t a f t e r ' o p e r e ' , W o l f l i n n ' s e m e n d a t i o n o f f o v i s s e t t o r e f o v i s s e t i s b o t h u n n e c e s s a r y and l a c k s m a n u s c r i p t s u p p o r t . F o r f o v e r e i n t h e s e n s e o f ' c a r i n g f o r ' o r ' t e n d i n g ' s e e T a c . A g r . 4 5 . 4 , A p u l . M e t . 7 . 1 3 . i n a u x i l i u m . . . r e t a r d a t i : The p l a u s i b i l i t y o f t h i s e x -c u s e f o r t h e l a t e a r r i v a l o f t h e German d e t a c h m e n t s h a s b e e n v a r i o u s l y a r g u e d . F a b i a ( r e f e r r e d t o by C h i l v e r 1 9 7 9 : 93) f o u n d t h e s c e n a r i o i n c r e d i b l e w h i l e V e n i n i 146 (1977: 65-66) s a y s t h a t g i v e n t h e i r r e g u l a r a r r a n g e m e n t o f b u i l d i n g s i n t h a t p a r t o f Rome, anyone u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e a r e a c o u l d e a s i l y g e t l o s t . However, i n t h e l i g h t o f G a l b a ' s weak p o s i t i o n and t h e known d e f e c t i o n o f a t l e a s t one German s o l d i e r ( see omnes ... v e x i l l a t i o n e a b o v e ) , T a c i t u s ' s t a t e m e n t ( H i s t . 1.31.3) t h a t t h e d e t a c h m e n t s h e s i t a t e d f o r a l o n g t i m e , t h u s c a u s i n g t h e i r l a t e a r r i v a l , i s more p l a u s i b l e . 20.2 l a cum C u r t i i : See T a c . H i s t . 1.41.1; P l u t . G a l b . 27.1, Au r . V i c . 6.3, E p i t . de C a e s . 6 . 4 . The l a c u s C u r t i u s was, by 69, a d r a i n e d a r e a i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e Forum. See O v i d F a s t i 6.403-4; P l a t n e r and Ashby (1965: 310 f f . ) . g r e g a r i u s ... a m p u t a v i t : I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e t h r e e o t h e r s u s p e c t e d m u r d e r e r s o f G a l b a ( see 19.2 c o n t r u c i d a r u n t ) , P l u t a r c h ( G a l b . 27.3) sa y s t h a t F a b i u s F a b u l l u s c u t o f f G a l b a ' s head and p r a n c e d t h r o u g h Rome c a r r y i n g i t on a s p e a r . S u e t o n i u s ' g r e g a r i u s m i l e s must be F a b i u s F a b u l l u s and P l u t a r c h has e r r o n e o u s l y i n c l u d e d him i n t h e l i s t o f p o s s i b l e k i l l e r s ; T a c i t u s ' o m i s s i o n o f him from t h e ' p e r -c u s s o r e s ' ( H i s t . 1.41.3) s u p p o r t s t h e t h e o r y . The a p p e l l a t i o n g r e g a r i u s , l i k e l i x i s calombusque, u n d e r l i n e s t h e s o r d i d n e s s o f G a l b a ' s d e a t h . e t quoniam ... d e t u l i t : S u e t o n i u s a l o n e adds t h e macabre t o u c h o f t h e thumb i n t h e mouth. P l u t a r c h ( G a l b . 2 7.3) 147 gi v e s a v i v i d account, d e s c r i b i n g F a b u l l u s as a 'bacchanal". T a c i t u s , however, omits a l l these d e t a i l s , l i m i t i n g him-s e l f to a general comment on the abuse of Galba's head ( H i s t . 1.49.1). The v a r i o u s treatments of t h i s s t o r y i s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of the k i n d of d e t a i l t h a t i n t e r e s t s each of the three authors. See Syme (1958: 189 n. 6), Townend (1964: 357 n. 48). c a p i l l o : Galba was, i n f a c t , completely b a l d ; see 21, pra e c a l v o . l i x i s ... identidem: See Tac. H i s t . 1.49.1; Dio 64.6.4-5a. The l i x a e and calones c o n s t i t u t e d the lowest rank of the army; they were baggage handlers and c l e a n e r s . See 20.2 gr e g a r i u s ... amputavit; D.S. v o l . 3.2 p. 1279. "Galba ... tua.": The d e r i s i v e j i b e may have been caused by the s o l d i e r ' s misunderstanding of a s a r c a s t i c response made by Galba (see e T a . . . £a T\v below). The joke i s p r i m a r i l y aimed at Galba's o l d age (Nut-t i n g , 1928: 287). For aetas i n the sense of 'youth', see L i v y 26.50.5; Sen. Phaedra 446. However, the joke a l s o has an e r o t i c nuance; the nickname Cupido f o r Galba i s not recorded elsewhere, while the word f r u i has the conn o t a t i o n 'to enjoy s e x u a l l y ' ; see "ut s i n a t sese a l t e r n a s cum i l l o noctes hac f r u i " , P l a u t . A s i n . 918, and Adams (1982: 198). For Galba's sexual p r e d i l e c t i o n s see 22 l i b i d i n i s ... p r o n i o r . 148 .» » E T I . . . e a T i v : The verse i s spoken both by Diomede ( I l i a d 5.254) and Odysseus (Od. 21.426). Nu t t i n g (1934: 45) must be r i g h t i n suggesting that the Homeric c i t a t i o n was a s a r c a s t i c response to a "piece of d i s g u s t i n g and t r a n s p a r e n t a d u l a t i o n " . Given Galba's advanced age and poor p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , the f l a t t e r y of h i s i n t e r l o c u t o r was nothing more than a v e i l e d i n s u l t . Since Suetonius g i v e s no i n d i c a t i o n that Galba encouraged the hollow a d u l a t i o n heaped upon other emperors, a s a r c a s -t i c response i s more l i k e l y . The s o l d i e r s , however, mis-understanding Galba's remark, took i t as an i n d i c a t i o n of h i s arrogance and v a n i t y . ab i s ... d e d i t : Suetonius omits any r e f e r e n c e to the mal-treatment of the bodies of P i s o , V i n i u s and Laco r e p o r t e d by P l u t a r c h (Galb. 27.5; 28. 1 - 3 ) and T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 1.44.1; 1.47.2); see 16.2 ergo p r i m i . P a t r o b i i Neroniani l i b e r t u s : There i s no evidence of the name of t h i s freedman. P a t r o b i u s was an infamous freedman and c o n f i d a n t e of Nero (Tac. H i s t . 2.95.2; P l i n y N.H. 35. 168) who was put to death by Galba ( P l u t . Galb. 17.1; Tac. H i s t . 1.49.1; Dio 64.3.4; see 14.1 quanquam ... daret.) Suetonius has used the a d j e c t i v e Neronianus to avoid the clumsy phrase 'Neronis l i b e r t i l i b e r t u s ' . Mooney's suggestion (1930: 253) that t h i s P atrobius was r e a l l y c a l l e d 'Patrobius Neronianus' i s probably erroneous; the 149 name i s not a t t e s t e d anywhere e l s e . On the status of the l i b e r t i l i b e r t u s , see Weaver (1972: 207 f f . ) . centum a u r e i s : "Centum a u r e i s " was the e q u i v a l e n t of ten thousand s e s t e r t i i . P l u t a r c h (Galb. 28.2), however, says Galba's head was given to P a t r o b i u s ' s l a v e s . Whatever the case, i t would be a great i n s u l t to the memory of Galba had h i s head not been wanted by anyone but slaves or freedmen. eo l o c o ... f u e r a t : See "eppi\l»av ?i T O U UTTO TU>V K a i a a p w v K o A a c o y i e v o u s B a v o n o u o i v o 6 e £eaaaip\ov K a A e T T a i " 5 P l u t . Galb. 28.3, where " z e o a u p i o v " i s an emendation f o r the un-known " J i o t c p i o v " . The Sessorium was l o c a t e d i n the E s q u i l i n e area, a r e g i o n i n which executions were c a r r i e d out under Claudius (Suet. Claud. 25.3); see P l a t n e r and Ashby (1965: 488). The throwing of Galba's head onto the spot of Pa t r o -b i u s ' death i s an example of t a l i o ^ the anc i e n t law of r e t r i b u t i o n that o r i g i n a t e d i n the Twelve Tables. See Jo l o w i c z (1965: 174), Gaius I n s t i t . 3.223. sero: The evening of January 15th; see P l u t . Galb. 28.3, V V K T S S ; Tac. H i s t . 1 . 4 9 . 1 , " l i c e n t i a tenebrarum." For Suetonius' imprecise chronology see 6.1, pr a e t o r ... e d i d i t . 150 d i s p e n s a t o r : See 6.1 o r d i n a r i o ... d i s p e n s a t o r i . A r g i v u s : P l u t a r c h (Galb. 28.3) says Argivus was a f r e e d -man. However, i f Koestermann's t e x t of T a c i t u s H i s t . 1.49.1 i s c o r r e c t (e pri<m>oribus s e r v i s ) , he may have 2 been one of Galba's most important s l a v e s . See PIR v o l . 1, n. 1041. p r i v a t i s ... d e d i t : See Tac. H i s t . 1.49.1, Eutrop. 7.16.3. The H o r t i Galbae are not mentioned anywhere e l s e i n L a t i n l i t e r a t u r e and, apart from the r e f e r e n c e to the Via A u r e l i a by Suetonius, cannot be more a c c u r a t e l y l o c a t e d . See P l a t n e r and Ashby (1965: 267), RE 8, 2, 2484. SECTION TWENTY-ONE A d e s c r i p t i o n of the personal appearance, p e r s o n a l i t y , and h a b i t s of an emperor i s always found i n Suetonius' Im-p e r i a l b i o g r a p h i e s . His sources would have been v e r b a l , d e r i v e d from o r a l or l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , or iconographie, obtained from a study of s t a t u e s , p a i n t i n g s and imagines. For Suetonius' r e s e a r c h i n t o imagines see s e c t i o n t h r e e . The argument concerning the i n f l u e n c e of physiognomy, the a r t of i n t e r p r e t i n g c h a r a c t e r from personal appearance, on Suetonius' b i o g r a p h i e s has a t t r a c t e d many s c h o l a r s ; some suppose that he was a f a i t h f u l d i s c i p l e of physiog-nomies ( C o u i s s i n 1953: 234 f f . ) , while others think h i s indebtedness to such t h e o r i e s was almost non-existent (Wardman, 1967: 414 f f . ) . The work of Evans, however, 151 seems to s t r i k e the c o r r e c t balance (1935:43ff.; 1950:277ff.); Suetonius was no doubt aware of physiognomical i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n (1935: p. 6 2 ) , but i t was only one of s e v e r a l i n f l u -ences that helped to formulate the accounts he f u r n i s h e s of the emperors' p h y s i c a l appearances and p e r s o n a l i t i e s ; see a l s o D e l i a Corte (1967: 158 f f . ) . The d e s c r i p t i o n of Galba i s b r i e f , c o n c e n t r a t i n g on h i s p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t i e s and paying only l i p s e r v i c e to the p r i n c i p l e s of physiognomy. On the p h y s i c a l appearance of emperors i n general see Cantner (1928: 385 f f . ) . s t a t u r a ... i u s t a : The same phrase intr o d u c e s the p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of C a l i g u l a ( 5 0 . 1 ) , Vespasian (20.1) and Domitian ( 1 8 . 1 ) . Physiognomists placed great importance on b o d i l y p r o p o r t i o n ; Evans (1935: 54 - 7, 1950: 2 8 0 ) . pra e c a l v o : 'Very b a l d ' ; a t t e s t e d only i n t h i s passage. See, however, P l u t . Galb. 13.4 and 20.2 c a p i l l o . Galba's baldness i s not supported by iconographie e v i -dence; see the bust of Galba i n the Arc h i v e s Nationales de P a r i s reproduced by McCrum and Woodhead (1966: f a c i n g p.32) and h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on coinage (Kraay 1956: p l a t e s I -XXVII, passim). The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of an h i r s u t e Galba, however, i s probably due to reasons of courtesy; J u l i u s Caesar was r i b b e d because of h i s baldness (Div. I u l . 4 5 . 2 ) . 152 adunco naso: Although aduncus nasus can mean 'snub-nosed' (see Mooney 1930: 255; C o u i s s i n 1953: 252 n. 1), Suetonius i s here d e s c r i b i n g Galba's a q u i l i n e , hooked nose that i s g e n e r a l l y confirmed by the iconographie evidence; see Ban-d i n e l l i (1970: 350, p l a t e 409). manibus ... v a l e r e t : A r t i c u l a r i morbo was a p a r a l y s i s caused by gout. See " t n T E v6au> ZKZK\IT\KZ I " , Dio 64.3.2 and " a o e e v n c t a v e u p a a i v " J 64.3.4 . V e n i n i (1977: 69) i n c o r r e c t l y quotes T a c i t u s , H i s t . 1.35.1 as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t of the disease on Galba; i n that passage the point i s that the crowd of well-wishers was so huge that Galba could not stand f a s t a gainst i t . Suetonius r e g u l a r l y comments on the h e a l t h of emper-or s ; see Div. I u l . 45.1; Aug. 80, 81; T i b . 68.4; C a l i g . 50.2; Claud. 31; Nero 51; Vesp. 20. d e x t e r i o r e : For Suetonius' h a b i t of using the comparative d e x t e r i o r i n s t e a d of the p o s i t i v e dexter see Claud. 7 and Mooney's note (1930: 589) on s i n i s t e r i o r e , Dorn. 17.1. SECTION TWENTY-TWO c i b i p l u r i m i : See "ad vescendum intemperans [sc. Galba] f u i t , E p i t . de Caes. 6.2. For a s i m i l a r use of the g e n i t i v e of d e s c r i p t i o n see " c i b i minimi f u i t " , Aug. 76.1. 153 abundanti<'s> : A l l the manuscripts read abundanti, agree-in g with eo; there, however, no p a r a l l e l s f o r such an ab-s o l u t e use of abundans. The emendation of Graevius, abundantis [sc. c i b i ] i s p r e f e r a b l e to the reading of the medieval manuscript abundantem, or.Grutenus' suggestion abundanter; the c o n s t r u c t i o n usque eo ... ut i s r e g u l a r l y found with a g e n i t i v e . See " i s usque eo v i t a e statum com-mutatum f e r r e non p o t u i t ... ut ... i n t e r i e r i t " , Nep. Dion. 4.5; Sen. de Ben. 2. 29.7. congestas ... s t a n t i b u s : The meaning of t h i s obscure pass-age has provoked more d i s c u s s i o n than any other i n the L i f e of Galba. The t r a d i t i o n a l theory of Baumgarten-Crusius (quoted by Mooney, 1930: 256) was that Galba ordered the remains of h i s huge meals to be d i v i d e d ("spargi") amongst the s e r v i a pedibus. Hofstee (1898: 52) and R o l f e (1914a: 224-5) support t h i s fiew which n e c e s s i t a t e s t a k i n g super  manus as ante se. D. C. Grimm (see Mooney 1930: 256) pre-f e r r e d to change super to per, a l t e r e d c i r c u m f e r r i to c i r -cum se f e r r i , and suggested that Galba had the remnants from each p l a t e passed to him and when s a t i s f i e d he d i v i d e d the r e s t amongst the s l a v e s . Most r e c e n t l y V e n i n i (1977: 69) has a t t a c k e d the t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r i e s on the grounds t h a t she could f i n d no p a r a l l e l s f o r s p a r g i i n the sense 'to be d i s t r i b u t e d ' , or super manus as ante se. V e n i n i suggests that the whole passage i n d i c a t e s the extreme boor-ishness of Galba's c o u r t ; t a k i n g super manus as an a m p l i f i -c a t i o n of i n manibus and s p a r g i i n i t s usual sense of 'to 154 be s c a t t e r e d around', she suggests that the meals were so huge that the c o u r t i e r s took f i s t f u l s of the remains and f l u n g them around the room f o r the slaves to f i g h t over. None of these e x p l a n a t i o n s i s completely s a t i s f a c t o r y V e n i n i has shown the t r a d i t i o n a l theory i s based on f l i m s y evidence, yet her own suggestion c l a s h e s with what we know of Galba' s. c a r e f u l nature (see e s p e c i a l l y 12.3 l a u t i o r e ... cena). Grimm's suggestion seems the most p l a u s i b l e but the o b j e c t i o n to s p a r g i remains. I f the t e x t i s cor-r e c t , and there i s no reason to t h i n k that i t i s not, the only reasonable assumption i s that super manus i s a pro-v e r b i a l e x p r e s s i o n f o r 'high' or 'deep'. The p o i n t of the passage i s then that Galba's meals were so huge that the remnants c r e a t e d a huge p i l e C'super manus"). In keeping with h i s parsimonious nature Galba then ordered the food to be given i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y ' ("spargi") to the slaves i n -stead of being wasted. For t h i s meaning of spargo see Hor. E p i s . 2.2.195, "spargas tua prodigus"; Sen. E p i s . 19. " s a t i s multum temporis sparsimus". l i b i d i n i s ... p r o n i o r : The only example of Suetonius' u s i n g p r o n i o r with the g e n i t i v e ; he uses the a d j e c t i v e with ad (Nero 52), i n (Div. I u l . 50.1), and the d a t i v e case (Nero 40.2). T o r r e n t i u s suggested the unnecessary emendation l i b i d  i n i ... p r o n i o r ; however, pronus with the g e n i t i v e i s found i n other quthors (see "ruendi i n ferrum mens prona", 155 Lucan 1.460.1), nor does Suetonius seem to p r e f e r to use i t with any p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n . praeduros exoletosque: " i n adulescentes i n f a m i s " , E p i t . de Caes. 62. The i m p l i c a t i o n seems to be that Galba pre-f e r r e d h i s l o v e r s to be robust, h e a l t h y male a d u l t s . For praedurus as robust 1 see "pradurum v i r i b u s Orsen", Aen. 10.748. However, i t i s probable that there i s some sexual i n -nuendo i n v o l v e d : exoletus was sometimes used as a noun to d e s c r i b e male p r o s t i t u t e s (see C i c . pro. M i l . 55; Div. I u l . 49.1). I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that praedurus was a euphemism f o r p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s . For the use of sexual euphemisms, see Adams (1982: 226-227). For Suetonius' researches i n t o the sexual t a s t e s of the emper-ors see Gugel (1977: 71 - 95). I c e l u s ... nuntiantem: See 11 n u n t i i s and 14.2 I c e l u s . v e l l e r e t u r : D e p i l a t i o n was widely p r a c t i s e d i n Roman s o c i e t y ; see Div. I u l . 45.2. SECTION TWENTY-THREE Suetonius concludes h i s biography of Galba without any summary or j u d i c i o u s comment; he r e f r a i n s from any c r i -t i c i s m or p r a i s e and gives a c l i n i c a l account of Galba's age and d u r a t i o n of r u l e . The only f l o u r i s h he allows him-s e l f i s the i n c l u s i o n of an apocryphal s t o r y concerning a death t h r e a t to Vespasian. The c o n t r a s t with T a c i t u s ' 156 famous o b i t u a r y ( H i s t . 1.49.4), "omnium consensu capax i m p e r i i , n i s i imperasset" and P l u t a r c h ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l m o r a l i z a t i o n s (Galb. 1-2; 29) i s s t r i k i n g . For Suetonius* a b s t e n t i o n from personal judgements see 16.1 l e g e r e ... ( j emere ... consuesse. p e r i i t ... septimo: Suetonius gi v e s the age of each em-peror at the time of h i s death and, i n seven of the L i v e s , the d u r a t i o n of h i s P r i n c i p a t e . For the same formula see " p e r i i t sexto et quinquagesimo a e t a t i s anno", Div. I u l . 88.1. t e r t i o ... anno: For the problems concerning Galba's age and date of b i r t h see 4.1 natus e s t VIII K a l . Ian. i m p e r i i ... septimo: See Eutrop. 7.16.3. Josephus (B.J. 4.499). Aur. V i c t o r (de Caes. 63) and the E p i t . de Caes. 6.1 a l l s t a t e that Galba r e i g n e d f o r seven months and seven days. The c a l c u l a t i o n i s from Nero's death on June 9th 68 (see H o l z a p f e l 1912: 489) to Galba's death on 15th January 69 the i n c l u s i v e method of counting renders the c a l c u l a t i o n c o r r e c t . The ingenious arguments of Reece (1969: 72 f f . ) , however, f o r Nero's dying on 11th June 68, suggest t h a t these three authors have made a genuine mistake. 2 ' The testimony of Dio (64.6.5 ) that Galba r e i g n e d f o r nine months and t h i r t e e n days i s c a l c u l a t e d from the date of h i s acclamation i n Spain on the 3rd of A p r i l (Hozapfel 1912: 489). 157 senatus ... d e c r e v e r a t : T a c i t u s ( H i s t . 4.40.1) says that e a r l y i n 70, at the suggestion of Domitian who was then p r a e t o r , the senate approved the motion de r e s t i t u e n d i s  Galbae honoribus. Although the images of Galba had been paraded through Rome on the a c c e s s i o n of V i t e l l i u s i n June, 69 ( H i s t . 2.55.1), and Antonius Primus had ordered statues of the dead emperor to be r e p l a c e d i n a l l the pro-v i n c i a l towns during August, 69, Suetonius must be r e f e r -r i n g to the o f f i c i a l decree of 70; Hofstee (1898: 53) and Mooney (1930: 259) have erroneously suggested that the ear-l i e r u n o f f i c i a l r e s t o r a t i o n s of Galba's statues were or-dered by a now l o s t s e n a t o r i a l decree. r o s t r a t a e columnae: Columns adorned with the r o s t r a of ships were ere c t e d i n honour of naval b a t t l e s ; although there i s no evidence i n d i c a t i n g Galba's involvement i n a naval b a t t l e , the columns could have been e r e c t e d to i n -d i c a t e Galba's res p e c t f o r h i s ancestry (see s e c t i o n two). One of h i s ancestors, Q. L u t a t i u s Catulus, brought the f i r s t Punic War to an end with a naval v i c t o r y over the C a r t h a g i n i a n s o f f the Aegates Insulae (Polybius 1.59.63). S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Dio (51.3.7) says.that, u n l i k e a l l the other emperors, Galba used a s e a l that showed a dog'looking out from a ship's prow. For p o s s i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n s between Galba and the naval v i c t o r i e s of h i s ancestors see Jucker (1975: 349 f f . ) . 158 i n ... t r u c i d a t u s e s t : Near the lacus C u r t i u s (see 20.2). decretum ... a b o l e v i t : The emperor had the r i g h t to annul 2 any s e n a t o r i a l decree (Tac. Ann. 3.28, Staats I I I p. 879 f f . ) . For Vespasian's a t t i t u d e to the P r i n c i p a t e of Galba see Gage (1952: 290 - 293). percussores ... opinatus: T h i s s t o r y i s not mentioned i n any other source, nor does Suetonius mention i t i n h i s L i f e of Vespasian (see B r a i t h w a i t e 1927: 33). 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