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Actual and perceived mood fluctuations : a comparison of menstrual, weekday, and lunar cycles McFarlane, Jessica 1985

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ACTUAL AND PERCEIVED MOOD FLUCTUATIONS: A COMPARISON MENSTRUAL, WEEKDAY, AND LUNAR CYCLES by JESSICA MCFARLANE B.A., The Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Psychology) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1985 (c ) j e s s i c a McFarlane, 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of PSYCHOLOGY The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE - 6 (3/81) Abstract The major purpose of the study was to examine mood f l u c t u a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h phases of the menstrual c y c l e . To assess the r e l a t i v e impact of the menstrual c y c l e on moods, other c y c l e s hypothesized to i n f l u e n c e moods a l s o were assessed. Mood f l u c t u a t i o n s i n women and men were studi e d both p r o s p e c t i v e l y and r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y to determine whether c y c l i c changes occur with the phases of the menstrual c y c l e , lunar c y c l e , and/or days of the week. Each p a r t i c i p a n t (15 women using o r a l c o n t r a c e p t i v e s , 12 normally c y c l i n g women, and 15 men) recorded t h e i r moods d a i l y f o r 70 days (prospective data). A d a i l y mean score was obtained f o r both pleasantness and arousal (each on a 9-point p o s i t i v e to negative s c a l e ) . Mood s t a b i l i t y / v a r i a b i l i t y was recorded d a i l y on a 4-point s c a l e . At the end of the study, p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c a l l e d ( r e t r o s p e c t i v e data) t h e i r mood over the previous 2 months f o r each day of the week and the phases of t h e i r menstrual c y c l e (women o n l y ) . The focus on menstrual c y c l e s was s u c e s s f u l l y camouflaged. P r o s p e c t i v e l y , there were no group d i f f e r e n c e s and no m e n s t r u a l l y - r e l a t e d mood f l u c t u a t i o n s . The r e t r o s p e c t i v e r e p o r t s , however, i n d i c a t e d systematic b i a s . Women r e c a l l e d more p o s i t i v e moods i n the f o l l i c u l a r phase and more negative moods i n the premenstrual and menstrual phases than they had reported p r o s p e c t i v e l y . A l l groups reported weekday mood changes — Monday lows and Friday/Saturday highs. R e c o l l e c t i o n s of weekday mood f l u c t u a t i o n s were s i m i l a r to but more exaggerated than pro s p e c t i v e r e p o r t s . Prospective r e p o r t s revealed no mood f l u c t u a t i o n s over the lunar c y c l e . Together, these r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t stereotypes (both w e l l - and i l l - f o u n d e d ) i n f l u e n c e r e c o l l e c t i o n s of mood, and are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h schematic processing t h e o r i e s . The importance f o r menstrual c y c l e research of o b t a i n i n g information about p o s i t i v e as w e l l as negative experiences, camouflaging the purpose of the study, c o l l e c t i n g p r o s p e c t i v e data, and ass e s s i n g r e s u l t s i n the contexts of other c y c l e s a l s o i s di s c u s s e d . i i i Table of Contents Abstract i i Acknowledgements v Introduction 1 Method 11 Subjects 11 Procedure 11 Scoring 12 Menstrual Cycle 12 Weekday Cycle 14 Lunar Cycle 14 Standard Deviation Analyses 14 Results 15 Knowledge Of The Menstrual Purpose Of The Experiement 15 Remembered Versus Forgotten Days 15 Demographic Results 15 Overview Of Analyses 16 Standard Deviations And S t a b i l i t y 17 Prospective Menstrual Cycle 17 Retrospective Menstrual Cycle 17 Comparison Of Prospective And Retrospective Menstrual Data 18 Summary Of Menstrual Cycle Results 20 Prospective Weekday Cycle 20 Retrospective Weekday Cycle 21 Comparison Of Prospective And Retrospective Weekday Data 22 Summary Of Weekday Results 23 Lunar Cycle 23 i v Discussion 24 Footnotes 29 References 31 Figure Captions 37 Figure 1 38 Figure 2 39 Figure 3 40 Figure 4 41 Figure 5 42 Appendix A 43 Appendix B 48 Appendix C 54 Appendix D 55 Appendix E 56 Appendix F 63 Appendix G 64 Appendix H 66 Appendix I 67 Appendix J 68 V Acknowledgements I would like to thank Tannis MacBeth Williams, Carol Martin, Larry Walker, Boris Gorzalka, and Phil Smith for their time commitment and interest shown in serving on my MA committee. In addition, I would l i k e to thank Carol Martin and Tannis MacBeth Williams for their advice on and help with a l l aspects of my MA thesis, as well as their warmth, kindness, and moral support during d i f f i c u l t times. I am grateful for their keen interest in this work and the atmosphere of excitement that surrounded our research meetings. I also would like to give special thanks to B i l l Richardson whose support, encouragement, and sense of humor have been essential i n helping me reach my goals. 1 This study was designed- to address the current controversy i n s c i e n t i f i c and lay ci r c l e s concerning mood fluctuations associated with the phases of the menstrual cycle. The effects of ovarian hormones on mood were f i r s t studied by Benedek and Rubenstein (1939a, 1939b, 1942). Using psychoanalytic techniques, they found that the ovulatory phase (when ovarian hormones are typically high) tended to be accompanied by pleasant affect (emotions), the premenstrual phase (when ovarian hormone concentrations are dropping) by feelings of anxiety and depression, and the menstrual phase (when hormones are at their lowest) by feelings of depression. This emotional fluctuation has come to be known as the "classic" menstrual mood pattern, and has been discussed by a number of other researchers (e.g., Altman, Knowles, & Bull, 1941; Ivey & Bardwick, 1968; Moos, Kopell, Melges, Yalom, Lunde, Clatton, & Hamburg, 1969). The actual relationship between ovarian hormones and affective experience i s not clear. Negative affect during the premenstrual and menstrual phases has been reported i n numerous studies (Golub, 1976; Janowsky, Berens, & Davis, 1973; Luschen & Pierce, 1972; Patkai, Johannson, & Post, 1974; Rossi & Rossi, 1977). A feeling of elevated mood at midcycle was reported by Moos et a l . , (1969), and some researchers have found both elevated mood at midcycle and negative affect in the premenstrual and menstrual phases (Altman et a l . , 1941; Benedek & Rubenstein, 1939a, 1939b; Ivey & Bardwick, 1968; Moos et a l . , 1969). In marked contrast, other investigators have found no mood fluctuations associated with the menstrual cycle (Anderson, 1972; Golub, 1981; Lahmeyer, Miller, & DeLeon-Jones, 1982; L i t t l e & Zahn, 1974; Sommer, 1973; Swandby, 1981; Wilcoxon, Schrader, & Sherif, 1976; Zimmerman & Parlee, 1973). Many of the discrepancies i n the results are due to methodological inconsistencies, noncomparability of measures, and differences i n analytical techniques (Glick & Bennett, 1982). 2 Failure to conceal the menstrual purpose of the investigation and use of measures with a predominantly negative emphasis are characteristic of the studies in which the classic premenstrual pattern is found. Moreover, some researchers who obtained the classic mood pattern (e.g., Coppen & Kessel, 1963; Jessen, 1982; Moos, 1968; Mops et al., 1969), used retrospective measures. For example, women would be asked to recall their moods and check off "symptoms" based on their memory of the phases of their most recent menstrual cycle. There is growing evidence that retrospective reports do not correlate well with prospective daily reports of menstrual experiences (e.g., Ascher-Svanum, 1984; May, 1976; McCance, Luff, & Widdowson, 1937; Parlee, 1974; Slade, 1984). It has been suggested (e.g., Parlee, 1974; Slade, 1984) that retrospective reports are more likely to reflect participants' attitudes or stereotypes than their recall of actual experiences. In addition to considering the methodological issues already mentioned, i t is important to assess emotional patterns in other contexts. For example, Parlee (1982) found that the mood changes associated with an individual woman's menstrual cycle were relatively insignificant when compared to her overall mood pattern. Placing the menstrual cycle in a broader context has the advantage of revealing how important menstrual emotionality is to women. Contextual studies also are helpful in determining what constitutes a menstrual disorder, and have the potential to facilitate identification of women in need of treatment. An integral part of placing the menstrual cycle in a broader context is the inclusion of appropriate comparison groups. One such group is women taking oral contraceptives (OCs). OCs exert their contraceptive effects (i.e., prevent ovulation) by significantly reducing endogenous levels of estrogen and progesterone. Morris and Udry (1972) found that most women taking OCs showed no change in their usual moods, but some women experienced 3 elated> mood and increased activity whereas others experienced depressed mood. The bulk of the evidence seems to indicate that oral contraceptive users experience significantly fewer and less extreme mood fluctuations than do women with natural cycles (Morris & Udry, 1972; Paige, 1971, Rossi & Rossi, 1977). Glick & Bennett (1982) contend that OCs may stabilize moods but further investigation is necessary to establish firmly this effect. Another potentially important comparison group is men, since their reproductive hormone fluctuations do not have such obvious indications as monthly menstruation. Prospectively, men report more stable mood experiences than do women (Swandby, 1981; Wilcoxon et al . , 1976). Comparing mood patterns over the menstrual cycle with fluctuations over other cycles, for example, day of the week, also will help to place menstrual experiences in a broader context. Given that i t is common to discuss one's emotional reaction to day of the week (e.g., lethargic or depressed because it is Monday, excited and energetic because i t is Friday), the paucity of empirical evidence is surprising. Beliefs in weekday influences on human behaviour are expressed in our popular songs (e.g., "I don't like Mondays" by the Boomtown Rats), movies (e.g., "Thank God It's Friday (TGIF)"), and comic strips ("Garfield," by Jim Davis, is a chronic Monday-hater). In one well controlled study, Rossi and Rossi (1977) found that moods became less positive at the beginning of the week, and more positive on Fridays and Saturdays. More research needs to be done, however, to confirm the existence of such weekday fluctuations and their strength relative to menstrual changes. Another cycle that has been proposed to affect moods is lunar phases. Some researchers have found that behaviour varies with phases of the moon (e.g., Blackman & Catalina, 1973; Cunningham, 1979 Jones & Jones, 1977; Lieber & Sherin, 1972; Ossenkopp & Ossenkopp, 1973; Tasso & Miller, 1976; 4 Taylor & Diespecker, 1972) but there is more convincing evidence the moon does not affect behaviour (e.g., Bauer & Hornick, 1968; Fitzhugh, Mulvaney, & Hughes, 1980; Frey, Rotton, & Barry, 1979; Lester, Brockopp, & Priebe, 1969; Lilienfeld, 1969; Michelson, Wilson, & Miclelson, 1979; Porkorny, 1964; Porkorny & Jachimezyk, 1974; Shapiro, Steiner, Gray, Williams, & Soble, 1970; Sharfman, 1980; Weskott, 1974). In spite of the inconsistent (at best) empirical evidence, belief in a "Transylvania Effect" (e.g., unusual behavior during the f u l l moon) is widespread. This may be an ill-founded cultural strereotype which serves to explain unusual or bizarre behaviours of the self or others. Whether or not lunar fluctuations in mood or behaviour are common, since the belief is widespread, consideration of the lunar cycle will help place the menstrual cycle in the broader context of what is believed to influence human behaviour. Three recent studies of moods and the menstrual cycle have included some of the important methodological features mentioned earlier. Swandby (1981) studied 8 normally cycling women, 10 women taking oral contraceptives, and 10 men. She recorded their weight, pulse, and temperature each day for 35 days. The purpose of the experiment was concealed. Based on visual inspection of her data, Swandby (1981) concluded that only two of the normally cycling women and one of the women taking oral contraceptives showed the classic menstrual mood pattern. Individual mood patterns were highly variable. Group comparisons revealed l i t t l e evidence of significant menstrual effects on mood. Swandby (1981) concluded that individual variations are greater than menstrual effects on mood. However, she collected data for only 35 days. If she had studied the women for more than one cycle she might have increased her power to detect both individual differences (perhaps finding more women showing a classic pattern) and group differences (that is, differences between the groups might have become more pronounced). 5 Rossi and Rossi (1977) compared mood patterns over the menstrual cycle with mood changes over days of the week. A sample of 49 normally cycling women, 18 women taking OCs, and 15 men completed the brief mood measure daily for 40 days. Unfortunately, the purpose of the experiment was not concealed, raising the possibility that women's reports of their moods may have been biased by their expectations regarding menstrually related changes (Parlee, 1974). Rossi and Rossi (1977) found that men had a greater tendency to report mood fluctuations over days of the week than did women. Specifically, men tended to report less positive moods on Tuesdays and more positive moods on Fridays. Their reports of their somatic mood states (e.g., healthy, energetic, sexy) were even more strongly linked to day of the week than were their psychological moods. In general, Rossi and Rossi (1977) found that women showed a classic mood pattern, except that negative moods were associated with the luteal rather than the premenstrual phase. Rossi and Rossi's (1977) study illustrates the importance of studying other cycles and other groups. Until then, researchers had not studied men and had assumed that women are unique in their behavioural cyclicity. Rossi and Rossi (1977) found that men may have more intense weekday behavioural cycles than do women. Their menstrual findings are less impressive, since the purpose of the study was not camouflaged and women were studied for only one menstrual cycle. Slade (1984) prospectively studied 118 women's reports of their menstrual experiences for 8 weeks. The purpose of the investigation was concealed. She found that women did report significant physical changes (e.g., tender breasts) in the premenstrual and menstrual phases, but psychological changes occurred randomly throughout the cycle. Slade provided an interesting hypothesis to explain how stereotyped beliefs in menstrual psychological rhythms could be maintained in the face of their actual random 6 occurrence. It has been shown that negative experiences are more likely to be attributed to biological causes (Koeske & Koeske, 1975), and positive experiences are more likely to be attributed to other variables (Asso, 1983). Thus, women who occasionally or randomly experience negative moods during their premenstrual phase may, upon noticing them, look for a biological/hormonal cause. Since they usually know they will be menstruating shortly, they label their symptoms PMS (premenstrual syndrome). They probably are much less likely to notice the absence of symptoms or to consider lack of symptoms (i.e., positive moods) to be evidence contradicting PMS. Belief in PMS thus could be maintained when i t had no systematic support. Slade's (1984) hypothesis is important because i t has the potential to explain the widespread self-reports of PMS in light of empirical evidence indicating most women do not experience PMS. Slade did not discuss her hypothesis in the context of schema theory, but in essence, i t is a schematic processing explanation. According to schematic processing theories (e.g., Martin & Halverson, 1981; Taylor & Crocker, 1979), individuals' perceptions and experiences of the world are filtered through their schemas. For example, research indicates that people are more likely to change the data to f i t their stereotype or schema (e.g., to remember i t incorrectly), than to change their stereotype to f i t the data (see Martin & Halverson, 1983, for a discussion in the context of gender schemata). Many different mood scales have been used to study the menstrual cycle but four are most commonly used. The Thayer Activation-Deactivation Adjective Checklist (AD-ACL), is a measure of activation and arousal. The AD-ACL is a 47-item inventory from which 22 adjectives are used to compute total scores on four scales: (1) General Activation (e.g., lively, active), (2) High Activation (jittery, intense), (3) General Deactivation (e.g., s t i l l , leisurely), and (4) Deactivation-Sleep (e.g., sleepy, drowsy) (Thayer, 7 1967). The remaining 25 items ("fillers") are not scored. For each adjective, participants are asked to indicate "how you feel today" on a scale from 1 ("definitely do not feel") to 10 ("feel intensely"). The Profile of Mood States (POMS), contains 65 items designed to measure six mood states (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971). Participants respond on a scale from 1 to 5, ranging from "not at a l l " to "extremely." The scales are: (1) Tension-Anxiety, (2) Depression- Dejection, (3) Anger-Hostility, (4) Vigor, (5) Fatigue, and (6) Confusion. The Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL) is a self-administered measure of anxiety, depression, and hostility. It consists of 132 adjectives from which participants check the words which best describe their mood states of the past day (Zuckerman, 1960; Zuckerman, Lubin, Vogel, & Valerius, 1964). The most common measure in the menstrual literature is the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) developed by Moos (1968, 1969). It consists of 47 symptoms constituting eight factors (pain, concentration, behavioural change, autonomic reaction, water retention, negative affect, arousal, and control). Each symptom is rated on a 6-point scale from "not present at a l l " to "acute or partially disabling." Al l four of these mood measures can be criticized on several points. With the exception of the AD-ACL and one of six scales in the POMS (vigor), a l l measure only socially undesirable moods. Perhaps people respond more negatively than they would i f the measures included neutral or positive options. In addition, if only negative moods are assessed, researchers learn nothing about fluctuations in positive moods. A second criticism is the assumption that people attach the same meaning to the mood labels. It is possible, however, that a mood one person labels as irritable, another person might label as anger, and yet another might label as restlessness. Asking participants to label their moods may introduce error variability deriving from each individual's unique interpretation of the mood label. In addition 8 i t is not necessary to use a l i s t of a l l mood labels because factor analytic evidence indicates that a two-dimensional mood structure (i.e., arousal and pleasantness) is sufficient (Russell & Mehrabian, 1977). Asking participants only about these two dimensions minimizes the label interpretation problem. A third criticism is the length of time these measures require. In most recent menstrual research, participants are asked to provide daily ratings of their moods for one to three months. The longer a mood scale takes to complete, the more likely i t is that participants will tire of the task, drop out, or become less conscientious; that is, the greater the likelihood of attrition. Since longitudinal studies are crucial to our discovery and understanding of mood patterns, i t seems wise to use measures that not only yield useful data, but also economically use participants' time. The mood measure used in this study was the Affect Grid (Figure 1), designed by Russell (1983). It was chosen because i t addresses the criticisms noted above. The horizontal axis' of the 9 X 9 grid ranges from unpleasant feelings to pleasant feelings and the vertical axis ranges from high arousal to sleepiness. Eight moods are listed at equal intervals around the square. In clockwise order they are: high arousal, excitement, pleasant feelings, relaxation, sleepiness, depression, unpleasant feelings, and stress. Intensity is measured from the center (no or low intensity) to the circumference (high intensity). Participants describe their mood by placing an "X" in the box which best indicates their emotional state for that day. After training, the task can be completed very quickly. Insert Figure 1 about here 9 A bipolar scale similar to the Affect Grid has been found to be highly-correlated with other mood measures including the AD-ACL, POMS, and MAACL. Russell £. Mehrabian (1977) found that pleasantness and arousal (i.e., the dimensions of the Affect Grid) accounted for almost a l l the reliable mood variance in 42 commonly used scales of affect. 1 Thus, although the Affect Grid used in this study differs substantially from scales used in previous studies of moods and the menstrual cycle, the findings can s t i l l be compared, (e.g., Parlee, 1982; Swandby, 1981). The present study was designed with the limitations of previous research in mind. Participants were studied daily over 70 days to ensure the inclusion of at least two menstrual cycles (Parlee, 1982). Three groups were studied: women who were normally cycling (womenNC), women taking oral contraceptives (womenOC), and men. To avoid biasing participants' reports, interest in the menstrual cycle was camouflaged (Parlee, 1974). Data were obtained both prospectively and retrospectively in order to detect possible reporting biases. That is, nonbiased data (prospective reports) were compared with information about the participants' stereotypes about menstrual and other cycles (retrospective reports). The menstrual cycle was studied in the broader context of weekday and lunar cycles. Positive as well as neutral and negative moods were assessed to avoid undue emphasis on "symptoms" and negative moods. The development of hypotheses for this research was not straightfoward. Poorly controlled investigations have yielded the "classic" menstrual mood pattern (depressed moods at premenstrual and menstrual phases), but some of the more recent, well-controlled studies have not. Since the present study was designed to be well-controlled, should the hypothesis be no menstrual fluctuations? Or, should the hypothesis reflect the majority of previous studies in which "classic" menstrual mood fluctuations were found? The 10 latter approach was adopted, i f only to reflect historical and cultural predictions. In particular, for the prospective menstrual reports, i t was expected that women would report decreased arousal and pleasantness in the premenstrual and menstrual phases (Dalton, 1982; Moos et al., 1969). It was further hypothesized that men, randomly assigned to "pseudo-menstrual cycles," would not show mood patterns associated with the menstrual cycle, and any variability in their reports would reflect non-systematic fluctuations. Consistent with cultural stereotypes and with previous research based on retrospective reports (e.g., Coppen & Kessel, 1963; Jessen, 1982; Moos, 1968; Moos et al., 1969), i t was hypothesized that women would recall negative moods at the premenstruum (Slade, 1984). Prospective weekday reports for both women and men were expected to show evidence of "Monday blues" and "Thank-God-It's-Friday (TGIF)" feelings (Rossi & Rossi, 1977). Specifically, arousal and pleasantness were expected to decrease on Monday and increase on Friday and Saturday. The same pattern was predicted for the retrospective data. Based on Rossi & Rossi's (1977) findings, i t was expected that men would report greater mood fluctuations over the days of the week than would women. For the lunar cycle, It was hypothesized that prospective reports would not fluctuate significantly according to the lunar phases. (Retrospective reports about the lunar cycle were not obtained.). The paucity of previous research made i t difficult to predict how mood stability would be related to the menstrual, weekday, or lunar cycles. Literature on stereotypical beliefs about mood stability in women and men indicate that both women and men characterize men as rational, and characterized women as emotional and moody (Smith, 1983). It was hypothesized, therefore, that men's moods would be more stable than women's moods. In addition, i t was expected that womenOC would have more stable 7 11 moods than womenNC (Morris & Udry, 1972). Mood stability/variability was examined both within each day and across days. Method Subjects A sample of 20 men, 21 women taking oral contraceptives (womenOC), and 21 normally cycling women (womenNC) were recruited from the volunteer subject pool comprising first or second year undergraduates in Psychology courses. Course credit was not given for participation. . After attrition 2 the sample consisted of 15 men, 15 womenOC, and 12 womenNC. Mean age for the final sample was 21 years (range 19 to 26). Procedure Potential participants were identified in the volunteer subject pool and then recruited by a telephone call during which the general purpose and length of the study were described. To conceal the menstrual purpose of the study, participants were told that the investigation concerned emotional, behavioural, and physical patterns. In an i n i t i a l 30-minute interview (Appendix A), demographic and other general information was obtained. Participants were asked about typical patterns of exercise, sleep, health, diet, menstrual cycle flow and discomfort (women only), complexion problems, libido, weight, and future plans for career and/or family 3. They were instructed (Appendix B) to complete a chart (Appendix C) at home each day over the next 70 days. They also were asked to sign a consent form (Appendix D). Participants were instructed to f i l l out the one-page daily chart at approximately the same time each day. This usually took less than five minutes. The first section of the chart indicated the time and date of completion. Participants were instructed to be sure to f i l l out a chart every day, but i f they forgot, to "catch-up" by f i l l i n g in two charts the 12 next day and indicating which one was for the missed day. For forgotten days, they were asked to provide only that information of which they were reasonably sure. They were instructed to leave a question blank rather than to guess. The second section, which dealt with body awareness, was designed to distract from the researcher's interest in the menstrual cycle. In this section, women were asked whether they were menstruating that day. The third section contained the Affect Grid (Russell, 1983). Participants placed a mark in the one box on the grid which best indicated their mood or emotional state for that day (see Figure 1). Finally, they rated the stability of their moods on a four-point scale ranging from very changeable to very stable. The completed daily charts were returned to the investigator about every two weeks via campus mail or by dropping the charts off at a convenient campus location. The actual length of participation in the study ranged from 60 to 70 days. At the end of the investigation, participants returned for a final interview. They fi r s t completed the final questionnaire (Appendix E) in privacy. It contained questions about the purpose of the study, significant l i f e events since the study began, employment, willingness to continue in the study, religion, change in birth control since the study began, and recollections of weekday (women and men) and menstrual mood fluctuations (women only). Next, the participant was given a written summary of the investigation and its hypotheses (Appendix F). Finally, the researcher verbally explained the study and answered any questions. Scoring Menstrual Cycle. The menstrual cycle was divided into the five phases used by Rossi and Rossi (1977): Menstrual= Day 1-4 (Day 1 = the first day of menstruation); Follicular= Day 5-11; Ovulatory^ Day 12-16; Luteal= Day 17-24; and Premenstrual= Day 25-28. Since not a l l women have a 28-day cycle, cycles 13 were adjusted to a standard length. The procedure recommended by Rossi and Rossi (1977) was used. A midpoint in the reported cycle was taken to determine a probable date of ovulation. A band of two days before and two days after the midpoint yielded a 5-day ovulatory phase. Menstrual and premenstrual phases were calculated foward and backward from the first day of menstrual flow. For a 28-day cycle, the seven days between the menstrual phase and the ovulatory phase were coded as the follicular phase, and the seven days between ovulation and the premenstrual phase were coded as the luteal phase. For cycles less than 28 days, the menstrual, premenstrual, and ovulatory phases were calculated as described but the follicular and luteal phases were shortened to accommodate a shorter cycle. For cycles longer than 28 days, some of the days between the follicular and ovulatory phases, and between the ovulatory and luteal phases, were not coded. In cases of cycles an odd number in length, the luteal phase was shortened or an additional day between the ovulatory and luteal phases was not coded, as appropriate. Women who had menstrual cycles longer than 38 days were dropped from the study2. Men were randomly assigned to 28-day pseudo-menstrual cycles. Day 1 of these cycles varied such that the men's "cycles" began on different dates during the investigation. Staggering the men's cycles simulated the variations in starting dates of women's cycles. The purpose of assigning cycles to men was to allow men to be included in a l l prospective analyses. In addition, since men should not be affected by an imaginary cycle, i f a difference was found i t would indicate a possible methodological error or bias. The means used in the prospective analyses were calculated by averaging across a l l days constituting each phase of the menstrual cycle and across a l l cycles for each dependent measure. If two cycles were observed, for example, and the mean for premenstrual phase arousal was desired, the arousal scores 14 for the four days constituting eaclr of the two premenstrual phases observed (eight days) were included in the premenstrual arousal mean. Means were similarly calculated for each phase of the menstrual cycle for arousal, pleasantness, and stability. The women's retrospective menstrual cycle scores consisted of the single arousal and pleasantness scores recalled for each phase of their menstrual cycle during the study. Women were not asked retrospectively about the stability of their moods over the menstrual cycle, and, of course, retrospective menstrual cycle data were not obtained from men. Weekday cycle. The weekday cycle was divided into seven days. The means used in the prospective analyses were calculated by averaging across a l l observed Sundays (for Sunday's mean), Mondays (for Monday's mean), and so on for each day of the week and for each dependent measure. The retrospective scores for both women and men consisted of the single arousal and pleasantness scores they recalled for each day of the week during the study. Lunar Cycle. The lunar cycle was divided into four phases: new moon, first quarter, f u l l moon, last quarter. The means used for both women and men in the prospective analyses were calculated by averaging across a l l days constituting each of the phases observed for each of the three dependent measures. Recollections regarding the lunar cycle were not obtained. Standard Deviation Analyses. For the analyses on standard deviations, the same procedures used for means were followed except that, instead of means, standard deviations were calculated. 15 Results Knowledge of the Menstrual Purpose of the Experiment Only four participants (2 womenOC and 2 womenNC) guessed the purpose of the study. Data from the women who did and did not guess the purpose of the study were compared in multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs). There were no significant differences between the two groups of women for arousal, pleasantness, or mood stability means or standard deviations (Appendix G). The women who guessed the study's purpose also anecdotally reported during the interview that their menstrual cycles did not influence their moods. The data from women who guessed the purpose of the study were, therefore, included in the analyses. Remembered versus Forgotten Days A preliminary test was performed to determine whether reports made one or more days late (forgotten days) were different from reports made on the date specified (remembered days) for arousal, pleasantness, or stability. The forgotten days constituded 19.2% of the total data 4. The mean arousal score for forgotten days (5.49) was lower than the mean (5.83) for remembered days, t (3021)=4.15, p<.001. The differences for pleasantness and stability were not statistically significant (Appendix H). Preliminary analyses indicated the pattern of results for arousal, pleasantness, and stability was the same whether or not forgotten days were included. For a l l subsequent analyses, therefore, data from forgotten days were included. Demographic Results A MANOVA revealed that men, womenOC, and womenNC did not differ overall in terms of age, years of post-secondary education, or willingness to continue in the study for one or two months (Appendix I). Chi-square analyses revealed the groups did not differ in type of university program or future plans for a family or career (Appendix I). 16 Overview of Analyses Three similar sets of analyses were performed, one for each cycle (menstrual, weekday, lunar). In the.interest of brevity, the complete set of analyses for one cycle (the menstrual cycle) will be described in detail in this overview. The necessary changes for the remaining analyses will then be noted. First, a set of repeated measures MANOVA was used to compare the three groups, i.e., men (who were assigned to pseudo-menstrual cycles), womenOC, and womenNC, across the five cycle phases (menstrual, follicular, ovulatory, luteal, and premenstrual). This was done on the prospective data for both means and standard deviations for each of the three dependent measures (arousal, pleasantness, and mood stability). Then, repeated measures MANOVAs were done on the retrospective menstrual data from the two groups of women for arousal and pleasantness. Next, the women's prospective means and retrospective scores were compared in MANOVAs for arousal and pleasantness. In each of the above analyses, i f the multivariate test was significant, univariate tests were done to ascertain which specific main effects and/or interactions were significant. Significant interactions were further broken down to determine the source of the interaction using simple main effects analyses. Differences amoung pairs of means were tested with the Tukey B range test. The analyses were repeated for the weekday cycle using seven levels (Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday), and for the lunar cycle using four levels (new moon, first quarter, f u l l moon, last quarter). (see Appendix J for MANOVA F, df, & p values and significant ANOVAR summary tables). The main difference between these analyses and the menstrual cycle analyses described earlier is that men were included in the retrospective weekday analyses. Unfortunately, recollections of lunar moods 17 were not obtained, so only prospective analyses were conducted for the lunar cycle. Standard Deviations and Stability There were no significant differences for groups, cycles, or their interactions for any of the .analyses based on standard deviations or stability (Appendix J). This consistent result indicates that young men and women do not report different degrees of fluctuation in their moods on different days of the week, and young women do not report different degrees of fluctuation in their moods during different phases of their menstrual cycle. This finding contradicts the stereotype that women are "more changeable" than men, especially premenstrually or menstrually. Prospective Menstrual Cycle Arousal. When arousal was examined over the phases of the menstrual cycle there were no significant differences due to group, phase, or their interaction (Appendix J). Pleasantness. A MANOVA revealed that pleasantness did not vary overall according to group or phase of the menstrual cycle, but the interaction between the two was significant, F(8,72)=2.13, p<.05. WomenNC reported feeling more pleasant during the follicular phase than did both men and womenOC (p<.01 for both comparisons). Retrospective Menstrual Cycle Since men could not be asked to recall mood fluctuations in relation to the menstrual cycle, the retrospective analyses were limited to womenOC and womenNC. Arousal. Retrospective reports of arousal did not vary according to whether women were normally cycling or taking oral contraceptives, either overall or for specific phases of the menstrual cycle (Appendix J). There was a significant variation over the menstrual phases in recall of arousal, 18 F(4,22)=3.98, p<.05, and the pattern was the same for womenOC and womenNC, i.e., the interaction was not significant. The means for the menstrual to premenstrual phases were: 5.29, 6.10, 5.96, 5.83, and 5.34, respectively. There was a tendency for arousal to be recalled as significantly lower in the menstrual than in the follicular phase. (The actual mean difference was .808, just below the difference of .842 required for significance at p<.05 for the Tukey B test.) Pleasantness. The results for retrospective reports of pleasantness were similar to those for arousal. Reported pleasantness did not vary according to whether women were normally cycling or taking oral contraceptives, either overall or for specific phases of the menstrual cycle (Appendix J). WomenOC and womenNC both recalled variations in pleasantness according to menstrual phase, F(4,22)=13.00, p<.001. The means for the menstrual to premenstrual phases were: 5.28, 6.44, 5.76, 5.93, and 3.93, respectively. The menstrual phase was recalled as being significantly less pleasant than the follicular phase (p<.05) and the premenstrual phase was remembered as being less pleasant than a l l other phases of the cycle (p<.01). It is perhaps noteworthy that women's recollections of the pleasantness of their average mood during the premenstrual phase (3.93) was the only instance in the prospective or retrospective menstrual data of a mean on the negative side of the midpoint of the pleasantness or arousal scales. Direct Comparison of Prospective and Retrospective Menstrual Data In the next set of analyses the prospective and retrospective menstrual cycle data were compared directly. It was not possible to include both in one overarching analysis because men could not be included in any analyses involving retrospective reports related to the menstrual cycle. Only the type of Report (prospective or retrospective), the Report by Cycle, Report by Group, and the three-way interaction of Report, Group, and Cycle effects are 19 discussed below, since the main effects and other interaction effects have already been reported. Arousal. When women's prospective and retrospective reports of arousal were compared in a MANOVA, no significant differences were found between womenNC and womenOC, nor did group interact with type of report (prospective, retrospective) or phase of the menstrual cycle (Appendix J). The difference between women's prospective and retrospective reports of arousal did differ with phase of the menstrual cycle, however, F(4,22)=5.99, p<.01 (see Figure 2). Both womenOC and womenNC retrospectively overestimated their arousal in the follicular phase (p<.01). Insert Figure 2 About Here Pleasantness. Averaging across the menstrual phases, women's retrospective reports of pleasantness (mean=5.47) were lower, F(l,25)=6.52, p<.05, than their prospective reports (5.76). Moreover, the pattern of similarities and differences between retrospective and prospective reports varied with the phases of the menstrual cycle, F(4,22)=11.08, p<.001. As illustrated in Figure 3, women retrospectively overestimated the pleasantness they had experienced in the follicular phase (p<.05) and underestimated their pleasantness in the premenstrual phase (p<.01). There also was a trend (p<.051) to underestimate pleasantness in the menstrual phase. Insert Figure 3 About Here 20 Summary of Menstrual Cycle Results When participants reported their moods prospectively, they reported no differences in arousal according to phase of the menstrual cycle. Contrary to the hypothesis, pleasantness was not lower in the menstrual or premenstrual phases, and indeed, womenNC reported more pleasantness in the follicular phase than did womenOC and men who had been randomly assigned to p s eudo-cycles. Whereas prospective reports indicated that women did not experience differences in either arousal or pleasantness according to the phases of the menstrual cycle, women recalled that their moods over the same period had been less positive in the menstrual and premenstrual phases. Both arousal and pleasantness were recalled as lower in the menstrual than the follicular phase, and pleasantness was recalled as lower in the premenstrual phase than in a l l other phases. In general, women recalled their arousal and pleasantness in the follicular phase as significantly more positive than they had reported prospectively, and recalled their arousal and pleasantness less positively in the premenstrual and menstrual phases than they had reported prospectively. These results indicate that women's recollections are consistent with stereotypes about women's mood fluctuations, and in particular, are consistent with the "premenstrual syndrome." The prospective data indicate that these recollections were not well-founded. Prospective Weekday Cycle Arousal. When reporting prospectively, men, womenOC, and womenNC did not differ in average weekday arousal level, and their reports were similar for each day of the week (i.e., the interaction was non-significant; see Appendix J). Averaging across the groups, arousal did vary significantly according to day of the week, F(6,34)=4.79, p<.001. From Sunday to Saturday the means were: 5.31, 5.49, 5.45, 5.48, 5.57, 5.87, and 5.74, F(6,34)=4.79, 21 p<.001. Arousal was higher on Friday than on Sunday (p<.01), Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday (p<.05). In addition, arousal was higher on Saturday than on Sunday (p<.05). Pleasantness. The pattern of results for pleasantness was similar to that for for arousal; the groups did not differ overall, and the interaction of group and weekday was not significant (see Appendix J). Pleasantness varied with day of the week, F(6,34)=5.68, p<.001. From Sunday to Saturday the means were 5.64, 5.37, 5.44, 5.57, 5.59, 5.90, and 5.95. Mood on Saturday was reported to be more pleasant than on Monday, Tuesday (p<.01 for both), Wednesday, and Thursday (p<.05 for both). In addition, Friday was reported as more pleasant than Monday or Tuesday (p<.01). Retrospective Weekday Cycle Arousal. Retrospective reports of arousal did not vary by group or the interaction of group with day of the week (Appendix J). Averaging across the three groups, recollections of arousal varied by day of the week, F(6,33)=8.59, p<.001. The means for Sunday through Saturday were: 4.88, 5.26, 5.57, 5.11, 5.40, 6.20, and 6.56. Arousal was recalled as higher on Saturdays than on Sundays, Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays (p<.01). In addition, arousal was recalled as higher on Fridays than on Sundays, Mondays, Wednesdays (p<.01), and Thursdays (p<.05). Pleasantness. Whereas the groups did not differ in their prospective reports of pleasantness, retrospectively womenOC (p<.05) and womenNC (p<.01) recalled feeling more pleasant, on average, than did men, F(2,38)=3.49, p<.05. Retrospective reports of pleasantness also varied significantly by weekday, F(6,33)=21.58, p<.001. Means for Sunday through Saturday were: 5.70, 5.18, 5.74, 5.73, 5.91, 6.97, 6.52. Greater pleasantness was recalled for Fridays than Sundays, Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays (p<.01). Participants also recalled feeling more pleasant on Saturdays than 22 on Sundays (p<.05), Mondays (p<.01), Tuesdays, and Wednesdays (p<.05 for both). In addition, Thursday was remembered as being more pleasant than Monday (p<.05). There was no interaction between group and day of the week for retrospective reports of pleasantness (Appendix J). Direct Comparison of Prospective and Retrospective Weekday Data Arousal. When the prospective and retrospective reports were analyzed together (Appendix J) prospective and retrospective reports differed significantly according to day of the week, F(6,33)=4.60, p<.01, as can be seen in Figure 4s. Both men and women retrospectively underestimated feelings of arousal they had experienced on Sundays (p<.05) and overestimated their arousal on Fridays (p<.05) and Saturdays (p<.01). Insert Figure 4 About Here Pleasantness. Prospective and retrospective reports of pleasantness differed significantly overall, F(l,38)=12.70, p<.001 (Appendix J). Both men and women reported greater pleasantness prospectively (5.76) than retrospectively (5.47). The patterns of prospective and retrospective reports also differed significantly according to day of the week, F(6,33)=7.42, p<.001 (see Figure 5). In recalling their weekday moods, participants overestimated their pleasantness on Fridays and Saturdays (p<.01). Insert Figure 5 About Here 23 Summary of Weekday Results Whereas prospective reports of arousal and pleasantness did not vary significantly according to menstrual cycle, they did vary according to day of the week. The pattern was the same for men and women. The highest levels of both arousal and pleasantness were reported on Friday and Saturday. The lowest levels of arousal were reported on Sunday and Monday, and lowest pleasantness on Monday and Tuesday. These results do not support the hypothesis that womenOC and men would experience less change than womenNC. Instead, there were no group differences. The prospective results confirm the stereotype of weekend highs and Monday lows, and the same pattern occurred in the retrospective data. Participants recalled feeling more aroused and pleasant on Friday and Saturday than on other days of the week, and as having more negative feelings on both measures on Sunday and Monday than on other days. In addition, womenOC and womenNC recalled feeling more pleasant on average than men. In effect, both women and men accurately recalled their pattern of moods across the days of the week, but in an exaggerated way. These results, which are consistent with the stereotype of "Monday blues" and "Thank-God-It1s-Friday" feelings, indicate the good days were remembered as better and the bad ones as worse than they had been reported when experienced. In a sense, the retrospective reports were exaggerations of a well-founded cultural stereotype, that is, one observed in prospective data. Lunar Cycle There were no significant mood fluctuations according to phases of the lunar cycle in any of the analyses for the prospective reports (Appendix J). These results contradict the "Transylvania Effect" and suggest that belief in this alleged phenomenon may be an ill-founded cultural stereotype. Unfortunately, participants were not asked to recall their moods according to 24 phases of the lunar cycle, so i t is not known whether this stereotype was held by participants in this study. Discussion Several conclusions can be drawn from this study. The lack of menstrual mood patterns for arousal, pleasantness, and stability in the prospective data indicates that most young women are relatively unaffected emotionally by menstrual hormonal fluctuations. All of these results contradict the results of many previous investigations (Altman et al., 1941; Benedek & Rubenstein, 1939a, 1939b; Golub, 1976; Ivey & Bardwick, 1968; Janowsky et al., 1973; Luschen & Pierce, 1972; Moos et al., 1969; Patkai et al., 1974; Rossi & Rossi, 1977) in which women were asked retrospectively to l i s t "symptoms" and the menstrual purpose of the research was not concealed. Instead, the results confirm the findings of other researchers who made some important methodological refinements (Anderson, 1972; Golub, 1981; Lahmeyer et al., 1982; Little & Zahn, 1974; Sommer, 1973; Swandby, 1981; Wilcoxon et al., 1976; Zimmerman & Parlee, 1973). The results of this study also f a i l to support the scientific and popular notion that women are "victims of their raging hormones." Demonstrating that most women do not have menstrual mood fluctuations, however, does not rule out the possibility that some or even a l l women do experience mood fluctuations across the phases of their menstrual cycle, (e.g., PMS). It also is possible that some individual women experience cyclic mood fluctuations, but the pattern is sufficiently unique that i t is not apparent when averaged across individuals within a group. In future research, time series analyses will be conducted to pursue this possibility. Evidence that both men and women experience significant weekday mood patterns demonstrates that men have emotional patterns and that women are not unique in their emotional fluctuations. The omission of men as a comparison 25 group in earlier studies may have led researchers to persist in the stereotype that women were more emotional than men. The finding that both sexes have similar emotional experiences underscores the importance of including comparison groups. In addition, evidence of mood cycles in men as well as in women indicates that treating emotional fluctuations as unhealthy symptoms, and assuming that women usually manifest them, is misleading. The results of this study are not consistent with Rossi & Rossi's (1977) finding that men's somatic (e.g., healthy, energetic, sexy) moods varied more with day of the week than did women's moods. Rossi & Rossi (1977) suggested that the sex difference occurred because women's moods were affected by the menstrual cycle in addition to the weekday cycle. It is important to note, however, that they did not camouflage their interest in the menstrual cycle. In the present study, when the purpose was sucessfully camouflaged, menstrual mood fluctuations were not reported in the prospective data. This result contradicts Rossi & Rossi's (1977) emotion-related findings, but cannot speak to their data on somatic moods since the Affect Grid did not have a strong somatic component. Participants' reports regarding health, exercise, and sleep will be analyzed in subsequent research for evidence of menstrual, weekday, and lunar cycles. Women's negative bias when recalling their menstrual mood patterns and the overestimation of weekday mood patterns by both sexes suggests that cultural stereotypes play an important role in answering retrospective questionnaires. Participants were not asked to recall their moods over the lunar cycle, but a similar tendency in that instance seems likely, at least for people who believe in lunar cycle mood fluctuations The results confirm the findings of several other researchers (Ascher-Svanum, 1984; May, 1976, McCance, Luff, & Widdowson, 1937; Parlee, 1974; Slade, 1984) that retrospective reports are more consistent with stereotypes than actual 26 prospective experiences. As well as indicating the influence of cultural stereotypes, these results underscore the importance of concealing the menstrual purpose of research. Once alerted in the final interview to the researcher's interest in the menstrual cycle, women provided stereotypical responses. Several methodological features of the investigation seem to have been successful and noteworthy. The first was the use of a measure that allowed participants to record positive as well as neutral and negative moods. The group averages of pleasantness and arousal were a l l above neutral and slightly positive. Since the means were above the midpoint of the scale, a measure with a negative bias would have been misleading. It also would have been impossible to detect exaggerated recall of positive moods (one of the retrospective results) with a negatively biased measure. Investigators who study only negative moods are unable to draw conclusions about the total emotional experience of their participants. Another methodological improvement was the use of the Affect Grid. It took l i t t l e time to complete in comparison to the lengthy measures used in the previous studies. This undoubtedly contributed to the finding that most participants said they were willing to continue in the study for at least one more month (a mean of 5.9 on a 9-point scale of willingness). Their willingness to continue indicates that the quality of the data they provided toward the end of the study probably was not affected by fatigue. Data collected using the Affect Grid also were relatively simple to analyze. A final design feature was the collection of data for two menstrual cycles rather than only one. The resulting increase in power to detect mood fluctuations underlines more strongly the finding that most young women in this study did not experience menstrual mood fluctuations. Since participants were not tired of the procedures after 70 days, i t seems wise in 27 future longitudinal studies to cover at least two menstrual cycles in order to benefit from the increase in power of the design. In sum, the results indicate that young women's prospective reports of their moods do not fluctuate significantly over the phases of the menstrual cycle and are similar to those reported by young men. Retrospectively, however, young women recalled experiencing the classic menstrual mood pattern of more negative moods in the premenstrual and menstrual phases than in the other phases of their cycles. Together, the prospective and retrospective data for women are consistent with schema theory. A schema is a self-relevant belief or concept which guides expectations, perceptions, and memory (e.g., a stereotype). If women hold the stereotype that moods are likely to be negative during certain phases of their menstrual cycle, and they experience a negative mood at that point, they will be likely to process i t through their schema or stereotype regarding moods and the menstrual cycle, attribute i t to their hormones, and recall their negative mood at that time. Negative moods experienced at other times, and positive moods experienced during those same premenstrual and menstrual phases, would be inconsistent with the schema, and so would be ignored. Once established, schemas and stereotypes are very resistant to change, even in the face of contradictory evidence, because such evidence tends to be ignored or processed as an exception. Moreover, previous research indicates that people are more likely to change the data to f i t the stereotype (e.g, remember i t incorrectly) than to change their stereotype to f i t the data (see Martin & Halverson, 1983). Thus, even i f women experience only positive moods during their premenstrual and menstrual phases, they may later recall negative moods. The finding that both women and men recalled their mood fluctuations over the days of the week in a distorted way also is consistent with the schema hypothesis, except that in the case of days of the week, the stereotype was well-founded (i.e., moods 28 were reported to fluctuate prospectively, although to a significantly lesser degree than they were recalled retrospectively). In future research I plan to use individual difference measures, including measures of stereotypes regarding the menstrual cycle, sex-roles, et cetera, to explore further the theoretical aspects of these results. Women who hold well-developed stereotypes about the menstrual cycle should be more likely ,to'show distorted recall than women with less well-developed stereotypes. In addition, since this study was limited to young university students, the age range will be extended upwards and non-students will be studied. Time-series analyses will be conducted to determine whether cyclic changes occur for individuals but are masked in the group data. (It should be noted, however, that the stereotypes regarding moods and the menstrual cycle addressed in the present study are stereotypes about most women having similar moods, not different ones.) Finally, women who experience premenstrual syndrome and/or dysmenorrhea will be studied to ascertain how their mood fluctuations differ from those of men and of women who report no menstrual difficulties. An interesting question for future research is how stereotypes bias recollections of menstrual cycles. Perhaps asking participants about the menstrual cycle sets up a demand characteristic, or perhaps i t evokes memories of a younger age when menstrual experiences were more negative (e.g., more cramps; Asso, 1983), or perhaps i t makes the menstrual cycle more salient than usual. One puzzling question about the reporting bias is why i t occurs even when participants are asked to recall their experiences over a very specific time period, in this case the preceding two months. Research comparing the relationship of menstrual stereotypes and early menstrual experiences to the extent of retrospective report bias might help to answer such questions. 29 Footnotes 1 These results provide strong evidence for the validity of the Affect Grid. Indicators of temporal stability are inappropriate for mood checklists because moods have been shown in this and other studies to vary across days and within days (Hedges, Jandorf, & Stone, 1985). 2 Attrition in the study: Three men, one womanOC, and three womenNC did not complete the study. One man, one womanOC, and two womenNC had more than seven missing days of data. Four womenOC changed their method of birth control. Four womenNC had menstrual cycles longer than 38 days. One man was dropped from the study because of prolonged illness. 3 Questions about family and career were added because Rossi & Rossi (1977) found that family-oriented women were more likely to have menstrual problems. A l l participants in this study, however, wanted a career and most wanted a family. 4 The number of forgotten days did not vary significantly across phases of the menstrual or lunar cycles. There were more forgotten days, however, on Fridays and Saturdays than on any other day of the week, X2(6)=89.20, p<.0001. What implications does this have for the results? Parametric tests comparing forgotten and remembered days for arousal, pleasantness, and stability yielded a significant difference only for arousal. Specifically, arousal reported prospectively was lower on forgotten days than on remembered days. Since arousal on Friday and Saturday was significantly higher than on other days of the week in both the prospective and retrospective data, the increased number of forgotten days on Fridays and Saturdays would have produced a conservative test. 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Zanna (Eds.), The Ontario symposium in Personality and Social Psychology (Vol. 1). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Taylor, L.J., & Diespecker, D.D. (1972). Moon phases and suicide attempts in Australia. Psychological Reports, 31, 110. Thayer, R.E. (1967). Measurement of activation through self-report. Psychological Reports, 20, 663-678. Weiskott, G.N. (1974). Moon phases and telephone counseling calls. Psychological Reports, 35, 752-754. Wilcoxon, L.A., Schrader, S.L., S. Sherif, C.W. (1976). Daily self-reports on activities, l i f e events, moods, and somatic changes during the menstrual cycle. Psychosomatic Medicine, 38, 399-417. Zimmerman, E., & Parlee, M.B. (1973). Behavioural changes associated with the menstrual cycle: An experimental investigation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 3, 335-344. Zuckerman, M. (1960). The development of an Affect Adjective Check List for the measurement of anxiety. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 457-462. Zuckerman, M., Lubin, B., Vogel, L., & Valerius, E. (1964). Measurement of experimentally induced affects. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 28, 418-425. 37 Figure Captions 1 \ \ Figure 1. The Affect Grid, Russell (1983). ^ Figure 2. Comparison of prospective and retrospective menstrual reports of arousal (higher scores reflect increased arousal). Figure 3. Comparison of prospective and retrospective menstrual reports of pleasantness (higher scores reflect increased pleasantness). Figure 4. Comparison of prospective and retrospective weekday reports of arousal (higher scores reflect increased arousal). Figure 5. Comparison of prospective and retrospective weekday reports of pleasantness (higher scores reflect increased pleasantness). FIGURE 1 38 Put one checkmark in the grid to indicate your mood or emotional state today. High Arousal Stress Excitement Unpleasant Feelings Pleasant Feelings Depression Relaxation Sleepiness 7 Figure 2 **p< o i Figure 5 to C CO QU CO CO <L> c c CO cn CO n e u t r a l 5 ° r e t r o s p e c t i v e # p r o s p e c t i v e rien F o l Ovu L u t P r e Menstrual Phase * p < 0 5 * * p < O l 41 Figure 4 7 U Days of the Week *p<05 **p<01 Figure 5 **p<01 Appendix A  I n i t i a l Interview Today's date: Group ID # yr mo day Name: Phone: Address: female: male: Birthdate yr/mo/day M a r i t a l status: years married: Occupation ( s p e c i f i c ) : , Education (highest l e v e l obtained): degree yr f a c u l t y department Are you l i v i n g with: parents and/or s i b l i n g s spouse and/or c h i l d r e n romantic f r i e n d f r i e n d alone Exercise 1) How much exercise does s/he get on the average weekday? none a s l i g h t "work out" a moderate "work out" a strenuous "work out" 2 ) How much exercise does s/he get on the average weekend day? none a s l i g h t "work out" a moderate "work out" a strenuous "work out" Sleep 1) How many hours of sleep does s/he get on the average weekday night? 2 ) How many hours of sleep does s/he get on the average weekend night? 3) How would s/he describe the q u a l i t y of sleep on the average weekday night? f e e l s that s/he needs: l e s s sleep more sleep no more or l e s s s l e e p 4 ) How would s/he describe the q u a l i t y of sleep on the average weekend night? f e e l s that s/he needs: l e s s sleep more sleep no more or l e s s s leep Health Would say t h a t , i n gene r a l , s/he i s a healthy person throughout the year: yes no I f no, please e x p l a i n why Diet 1) Describe the q u a n t i t y of food consumed on average: _ u s u a l l y don't eat enough _ u s u a l l y eat the r i g h t amount u s u a l l y eat too much 2) A f t e r l o o k i n g at the Canada Food Guide, how many food groups do you choose from f o r your average d a i l y food intake? ( i n t e r v i e w e r gives p a r t i c i p a n t the guide) chooses from: one two three four food groups 3) O v e r a l l , would you say your n u t r i t i o n i s : _poor _ a l l r i g h t good e x c e l l e n t Menstrual c y c l e r e g u l a r i r r e g u l a r usual c y c l e length i n days minimum c y c l e length i n days maximum c y c l e l e n g t h i n days Length of menstrual bleeding usual length i n days minimum leng t h i n days maximum length i n days Menstrual discomfort frequency: none o c c a s i o n a l frequent medication? degree: s l i g h t moderate severe Menstrual flow Rate your menstrual flow f o r each day of your menstruation using t h i s s c a l e : 1 l i g h t (1-2 pads/tampons d a i l y ) 2 moderate (3-4 pads/tampons d a i l y ) 3 heavy (S or more pads/tampons d a i l y ) 4 v a r i a b l e day 1 day 2 day 3 day 4 day 5 day 6 day 7 day 8 day 9 day 10 Skin Would say your s k i n : i s u s u a l l y f r e e from pimples/blemishes o c c a s i o n a l l y has pimples/blemishes _ i s har d l y ever without pimples/blemishes has severe acne L i b i d o number of times d e s i r e d sexual a c t i v i t y (per ) number of times orgasm (per ) number of times c o i t u s (per ) Weight over the l a s t year usual weight Minimum weight maximum weight Pregnancy number of pregnancies whether or not c a r r i e d to term. Date of l a s t d e l i v e r y , m i s c a r r i a g e , or a b o r t i o n yr / mo / day Are you l a c t a t i n g now? yes no Number of l i v i n g c h i l d r e n Has your p e r i o d occurred since your l a s t pregnancy? yes no B i r t h c o n t r o l ( l i s t a l l methods c u r r e n t l y using) breast feeding _ _ r h y t h m B i l l i n g ' s o v u l a t i o n method or symptothermal withdrawal 46 foam alone, suppositories (Encare) condom alone condom and foam diaphragm c e r v i c a l cap IUD copper or p l a s t i c IUD progestasert or hormonal contraceptive p i l l s male or female s t e r l i z a t i o n If contraceptive p i l l s : drug name dosage days since l a s t dose How long have you been using the p i l l s P r e s c r i p t i o n Drugs drug 1 name dosage reason f o r taking drug 2 name dosage reason f o r taking drug 3 name dosage reason f o r taking Do you have plans to r a i s e a family? yes no. Do you have plans to pursue a career? yes no Have you any fri e n d s or co-workers that you know are p a r t i c i p a t i n g in t h i s study? yes no If yes, provide the name of and how often each person is seen. Comments .48 Appendix B  How to f i l l out the d a i l y charts I d e a l l y you should f i l l out one d a i l y chart j u s t before you r e t i r e each e v e n i n g when the day's events are s t i l l f r e s h i n your memory. But i f t h i s time i s inconvenient, you may want to f i l l out the chart the next morning f o r the previous day. I f you decide t h a t the morning time i s best f o r you, you should t r y to remember e x a c t l y what your emotional, p h y s i c a l , and behavioural s t a t e was f o r t h e previous day and not confuse i t w i t h the present day's events and moods. I t i s important t h a t you schedule i n a ten minute time p e r i o d i n your day when you are most l i k e l y to remember to f i l l out the d a i l y c h a r t s . You may f o r g e t to f i l l out a chart f o r one or more days. I f you do forget you should f i l l out a chart f o r each missed day as soon as you remember. (For t h i s reason i t i s a good idea to keep some blank c h a r t s i n with your note books o r b r i e f case so that you may f i l l out the charts away from home.) I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t you may not remember the d e t a i l s of the missed day as w e l l as you do t h e p r e s e n t day. I t i s more important that you w r i t e down the information you a r e r e l a t i v e l y sure of and omit the d e t a i l s of which you are unsure or would have to guess about. Try to concentrate on the missed day and w r i t e down as much as you can. I t doesn't matter i f you can only r e p o r t a few d e t a i l s . The important t h i n g i s that t h e information i s accurate. Once you have f i l l e d i n the c h a r t ( s ) f o r the missed d a y ( s ) , you should f i l l i n another chart f o r the present day when you normally would do so (e.g., j u s t b e f o r e going to s l e e p ) . I «a f t l l U i '*••- • " —LTo'Z"' s e c t i o n 1 ~" s e c t i o n 2 " .,, — f s e c t i o n 3 s e c t i o n 4 4 9 The above diagram shows the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g a r e i n s t r u c t i o n s on how to f i l l out each s e c t i o n . S e c t i o n 1 1 ) F i l l i n today's date and the time. 2) Check whether you are f i l l i n g out the chart f o r today or f o r a p r e v i o u s , m i s s e d day. I f you are f i l l i n g out the chart f o r a missed day be sure to w r i t e i n t h e date of t h a t day. S e c t i o n 2 In t h i s s e c t i o n answer each question by choosing the one a l t e r n a t i v e t h a t best d e s c r i b e s you t h a t day. S e c t i o n 3 This s e c t i o n i s c a l l e d the A f f e c t G r i d . This i s how to use the A f f e c t G r i d t o d e s c r i b e your emotional s t a t e each day. The A f f e c t G r i d You use the " a f f e c t g r i d " to d e s c r i b e f e e l i n g s . I t i s i n the form of a s q u a r e — a k i n d of map f o r f e e l i n g s . The center of the square (marked by X i n t h e g r i d below) represents a n e u t r a l , average, everyday f e e l i n g . I t i s n e i t h e r p o s i t i v e nor negative. 50 The r i g h t h a l f of the g r i d represents pleasant f e e l i n g s . The f a r t h e r to the r i g h t the more pleasant. The l e f t h a l f represents unpleasant f e e l i n g s . The f a r t h e r to the l e f t , the more unpleasant. EXTREMELY UNPLEASANT FEELINGS EXTREMELY PLEASANT FEELINGS The v e r t i c a l dimension of the map represents degree of arousal. Arousal has t o do with how wide awake, a l e r t , or activated a person f e e l s — independent o f whether the f e e l i n g i s p o s i t i v e or negative. The top h a l f i s f o r f e e l i n g s t h a t a r e above average in arousal. The lower h a l f f o r f e e l i n g s below average. The b o t t o m represents sleep, and the higher you go, the more awake a person f e e l s . So, t h e next step up from the bottom would be h a l f awake/half asleep. At the top o f t h e square i s maximum arousal. I f you imagine a state we might c a l l f r a n t i c excitement (remembering that i t could be e i t h e r p o s i t i v e or negative), then t h i s f e e l i n g w o u l d define the top of the g r i d . EXTREMELY HIGH AROUSAL EXTREME SLEEPINESS 51 I f the " f r a n t i c excitement was p o s i t i v e i t would, of course, f a l l on the r i g h t h a l f of the g r i d . The more p o s i t i v e , the- f a r t h e r to the r i g h t . I f the " f r a n t i c excitement" was negative, i t would f a l l on the l e f t h a l f of the g r i d . The more negativ e , the f a r t h e r to the l e f t . I f the " f r a n t i c excitement" was n e i t h e r p o s i t i v e nor negative, then i t would f a l l i n the middle square of the top row, as shown below. Other areas of the g r i d can be l a b e l e d as w e l l . Up and to the r i g h t are f e e l i n g s of ecstasy, excitement, j o y . Opposite these, down and to the l e f t , are f e e l i n g s of depression, melancholy, sadness, and gloom. Up and to the l e f t are f e e l i n g s of s t r e s s and t e n s i o n . Opposite these, down and to the r i g h t , are f e e l i n g s of calm, r e l a x a t i o n , s e r e n i t y . STRESS EXCITEMENT DEPRESSION RELAXATION 52 P e e l i n g s are complex. They come i n a l l shade and degrees. The l a b e l s we have given are merely landmarks to help you understand the a f f e c t g r i d . When a c t u a l l y using the g r i d , put an X anywhere i n the g r i d to i n d i c a t e the exact shade and i n t e n s i t y of f e e l i n g . Please l o o k over the e n t i r e g r i d to get a f e e l f o r the meaning of the v a r i o u s areas. Examples: Suppose that you were j u s t s u r p r i s e d . Suppose f u r t h e r that the s u r p r i s e was n e i t h e r pleasant nor unpleasant. Probably you would f e e l more aroused than average. You might put your mark as shown to the r i g h t . X Example: Suppose, i n s t e a d , that you were only m i l d l y s u r p r i s e d but that the s u r p r i s e was a very pleasant one. You might put your mark as shown to the r i g h t . X 5 3 Each day check, the space on the A f f e c t G r i d that bests describes your AVERAGE mood for the l a s t 2A hours. Section A In t h i s section you rate how st a b l e your moods were for the past 2 4 hours, check one a l t e r n a t i v e that best describes your moods. In a d d i t i o n , i n d i c a t e how t y p i c a l your behaviour and moods today were f o r you. If a t y p i c a l , indicate b r i e f l y how and why ( i f you know). If you have d i f f i c u l t y f i l l i n g out any section or i f you have any q u e s t i o n s about the study as a whole please do not h e s i t a t e to c a l l : J e s s i c a McFarlane ( 2 2 8 - 6 4 8 7 ) 54 ID T i m s of d a y Appendix C: Daily Chart Thursday Today's date (AM or PM? eg. 9:30 PM) yr mo day I am filling this chart out on Thur. I am filling this chart out later. If later, when? • mo day mo day 1) How much exercise did you gat today? none a s i i g h t "work out" _a moderate "work out" a strenuous "work out' 2) How many hours of s l e e p d i d you get l a s t n<ght7 How would you d e s c r i b e your s l e e p ? I f e l t I needed more s l e e p . I f e l t I had J u s t the r i g h t amount of s l e e p . I f e l t I had too much s l e e p . 3) Are you i n good h e a l t h today? _yes If no. p l e a s e e x p l a i n , l i s t symptoms (eg. a l l e r g i e s . cramps, acne) 4) Are you m e n s t r u a t i n g today? yes 5) D e s c r i b e your e a t i n g p a t t e r n s today. a) D e s c r i b e the quant i t y o f your f o o d c h o i c e s . I a t e too l i t t l e f o o d I a t e J u s t the r i g h t amount of f o o d I a t e too much f o o d . Put an "x" in one space on the grid to indicate your average mood today. high arousal stress exci tenient unpleasant feelings pleasant feelings depression sleepiness r e l a x a t i o n How stable were your moods toda_y? stable _chan-]f?able very s t a b l e _very changeable F o r c o d i n c o n l y 4 5-10 11-14. 1 5 _ 16__ 1 7 _ 18_ 19_ 20_ 21.22. 23_ 24_ 26_ 2 7 — 2 8 2 9 30_ 31 32 55 Appendix D Consent Form I agree to participate i n a study of emotional, physical and behavioural changes being conducted at U.B.C. by Jessica McFarlane. The nature of my participation has been thoroughly explained to me. I understand that I have the right to withdraw from the study at any time without future prejudice. Name Signature Appendix E F i n a l Questionnaire 56 Please answer the f o l l o w i n g questions. Once you have answered a l l the questions on each page and turned to the next page, please do not add any f u r t h e r comments t o your previous answers. Name ID number Group. 5 7 F o r c o d i n g o n l y 1 - 3 4 _ What do you think the purpose of this study was? S 5 8 f o r c o d i n g o n l y 1. L i s t any s i g n i f i c a n t events that have occurred since t h i s 8 ,9 _ study began (eg., unusual i l l n e s s , important career d e c i s i o n , 10 ,11 new r e l a t i o n s h i p , ended r e l a t i o n s h i p , new residence, a 1 2 , 1 3 s i g n i f i c a n t change i n l i f e s t y l e ) . Beside the s i g n i f i c a n t 1 4 , 1 5 event write down roughly when i t occurred. 16 ,17 Event(s) When? 1 8 , 1 9 2. Were you employed during t h i s study? yes no 20 a) I f yes, how many hours per week d i d you w ork?_ 2 1 , 2 2 b) what was you pay schedule? monthly weekly bimonthly other 23 c) On what days of the month d i d you u s u a l l y get paid? 24 3. How w i l l i n g would you be to continue p a r t i c i p a t i n g in t h i s study i f i t l a s t e d one more month? not at a l l very 25 If i t l a s t e d two more months? not at a l l very 26 4. What i s your r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n ( i f any)? 27 5. Have you changed your method of contraception since the s t a r t of the study? yes no 28 -a) I f so please l i s t your previous and new contraceptive i n a d d i t i o n to when you changed. 29 o l d method new method date changed 5 9 F o r c o d i n g o n l y 6. Put an "X" in the square on each continuum that best describes you over the last two months. emotional | I I 1 ' 1 1 1 ^emotional 3 0 unenergetic 1 I I ' I 1 I I pleasant | | I I I 1 ' 1 unpleasant 3 2 sleepy | M I I 1 1 1 a r o u s e d stable moods 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 u n 8 t a b l e m °° d S ^ hides emotion | | I • ' ' ' ' « P " « * 3 emotions 35 Use the affect g r i d to describe your average mood .over the last two months 1 for. each day of the week. rsj n i n vD _ rg CN CM CN CN, c | Sunday h i g h a r o u s a l M o n d a y • h i g h a r o u s a l T u e s d a u h i g h a r o u s a l s t r e s s u n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s d e p r e s s i o n e x c i t e m e n t p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s r e l a x a t i o n s t r e s s u n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s d e p r e s s i o n e x c i t e m e n t p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s r e l a x a t i o n s t r e s s u n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s d e p r e s s i o n e x c i t e m e n t p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s W e d n e s d a y h i g h a r o u s a l stress u n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s r e l a x a t i o n d e p r e s s i o n e x c i t e m e n t p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s r e l a x a t i o n s l e e p i n e s s s l e e p i n e s s s l e e p i n e s s s l e e p i n e s s Thursdou F r i d a y S a t u r d a y h i g h a r o u s a l s t r e s s e x c i t e m e n t s t r e s s h i g h a r o u s a l u n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s d e p r e s s i o n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s r e l a x a t i o n u n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s e x c i t e m e n t s t r e s s h i g h a r o u s a l p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s u n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s e x c i t e m e n t p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s s l e e p i n e s s d e p r e s s i o n r e l a x a t i o n d e p r e s s i o n r e l a x a t i o n s l e e p i n e s s s l e e p i n e s s \o o r~ 00 CT\ Cv) CN CM O H d cn co co CO <T 10 CO CO CO %£> r» 00 ro CO CO ^ O H ro Use the affect grid to describe your moods (over the last two months) for each phase of your menstrual cycle. Menstruation h i g h a r o u s a l s t r e s s u n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s d e p r e s s i o n e x c i t e m e n t p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s r e l a x a t i o n Next 7 days high a r o u s a l s t r e s s u n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s d e p r e s s i o n e x c i t e m e n t p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s r e l a x a t i o n Ovulation (middle 5 days) high a r o u s a l s t r e s s u n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s d e p r e s s i o n e x c i t e m e n t p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s r e l a x a t i o n s l e e p i n e s s s l e e p i n e s s s l e e p i n e s s Next 7 days after  ovulation s t r e s s u n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s d e p r e s s i o n h i g h a r o u s a l s l e e p i n e s s e x c i t e m e n t p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s r e l a x a t i o n Premenstrual (the 4 daus before flow) s t r e s s u n p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s d e p r e s s i o n high a r o u s a l s l e e p i n e s s e x c i t e m e n t p l e a s a n t f e e l i n g s r e l a x a t i o n 62 For coding cn lv For each of the following characteristics, rate the extent to which the characteristic is true of you. Use the scale as follows: Mark a 1 i f i t is NEVER or ALMOST NEVER TRUE Mark a 2 i f i t is USUALLY NOT TRUE Mark a 3 i f i t is SOMETIMES BUT INFREQUENTLY TRUE Mark a 4 i f i t is OCCASIONALLY TRUE Mark a 5 i f i t is OFTEN TRUE Mark a 6 i f i t i s USUALLY TRUE Mark a 7 i f i t i s ALWAYS OR ALMOST ALWAYS TRUE 1. gentle CO 2. leadership a b i l i t i e s a 3. assertive €2 4. tender C3 5. independent C4 6. affectionate C.5 7. defends own beliefs C6 8. willing to take risks C7 9. understanding £8 10. loves children 69 11. aggressive 70 12. sympathetic 71 13. compass ionate 72 14. forceful 73 15. dominant 74 16. eager to soothe hurt feelings / J 17. strong personality 7G 18. willing to take a stand 77 19. warm 73 20. sensitive to the needs of others 79 Appendix F Debriefing Statement Over the past 60 or more days, you have f i l l e d i n daily charts providing me with information about your exercise, sleep, health, eating patterns, and moods. As I mentioned at the beginning of the experiment, I am interested i n studying emotional and behavioural cycles. In par t i c u l a r , I w i l l be looking for behavioural and emotional patterns associated with day of the week, the menstrual cycle, and the lunar cycle. In the past, researchers have found that some behaviours follow each one of these three cycles but the evidence i s far from conclusive. By having men and women i n my study and by studying these three cycles, I w i l l be able to make comparisons that w i l l help me put behavioural cycles i n context. Since a great deal of l i t e r a t u r e discusses people's stereotypes about men's and women's emotions and behaviours, I w i l l be able to compare the data you and others have supplied to these stereotypes to see i f they are v a l i d . F i n a l l y , the media, as well as the s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e , has recently been discussing the behavioural effects of the menstrual cycle. The consequences of premenstrual tension, i n par t i c u l a r , have been reviewed. By comparing men's to women's data, I w i l l be able to determine the existence of any behavioural patterns associated with the menstrual cycle. Thank you very much for your p a r t i c i p a t i o n . You may contact me i n a few months time to find out the results of thi s study. I can be reached at 228-6487, Psychology Department, U.B.C. 64 Appendix G F, df, and p Values f o r Comparisons (MANOVAs) Between Women Who Did and Did Not Guess the Menstrual Purpose of the Study. 65 C o m p a r i s o n o f P a r t i c i p a n t s W h o D i d a n d D i d N o t G u e s s t h e M e n s t r u a l P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y -A n a l y s e s o f M e a n s AROUSAL PLEASANTNESS STABILITY GROUP F(l,25)= 0.115, p=.737 F(l,25)= 3.150, p=.088 F(l,25)= 1.445, p=.241 PHASE F(4,22)= 0.514, p=.726 F(4,22)= 0.349, p=.842 F(4,22)= 0.517, p=.724 GROUP BY F(4,22)= 0.854, p=.507 F(4,22)= 0.277, p=.890 F(4,22)= 0.569, p=.688 PHASE A n a l y s e s o f S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s AROUSAL. PLEASANTNESS STABILITY GROUP F(l,25)= 3.395, p=.077 F(l,25)= 1.053, p=.315 F(l,25)= 0.322, p=.576 PHASE F(4,22)= 0.659, p=.627 F(4,22)= 1.475, p=.244 F(4,22)= 0.419, p=.793 GROUP BY F(4,22)= 0.335, p=.851 F(4,22)= 2.348, p=.086 F(4,22)= 0.182, p=.945 PHASE A p p e n d i x H C o m p a r i s o n o f F o r g o t t e n a n d R e m e m b e r e d D a y s AROUSAL t(3021)=4.15, p=.000 PLEASANTNESS t(627)=1.17, p=.244 STABILITY t(2999)=1.89, p=.059 C o m p a r i s o n o f A n a l y s e s W i t h a n d W i t h o u t F o r g o t t e n D a y s Means w i t h Means w i t h o u t Forgotten Days Forgotten Days AROUSAL 5.536 5.500 PLEASANTNESS 5.612 5.627 STABILITY 2.622 2.642 Note: higher scores r e f l e c t increased arousal, pleasantness, and s t a b i l i t y . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f F o r g o t t e n D a y s A c r o s s C y c l e s MENSTRUAL CYCLE X 2(4)=1.69, p=.792 WEEKDAY CYCLE X 2(6)=89.20, p=.000 LUNAR CYCLE x 2(3)=1.21, p=.749 67 Appendix I Demographic Data Comparisons Amoung the Groups* 1) MANOVA for age, years of education, willingness to continue i n the study for one or two months: F(8,70)=1.514, p=.168 2) Type of un i v e r s i t y program (e.g., Science or A r t s ) , X 2(2)=5.59, p=.0611 3) Desire to raise a family, X 2(2)=2.089, p=.352 4) Desire for a career - no v a r i a b i l i t y . A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s wanted a career. , v men, women taking o r a l contraceptives, and normally c y c l i n g women. Appendix J In Appendix J - l through J - 7 , the F, d f , and p values for the menstrual , weekday, and lunar cyc les mul t ivar ia te analyses of var iance (MANOVAs) are presented. In Appendix J-8 through J - 1 8 , the un ivar ia te analyses of var iance for the s i g n i f i c a n t MANOVA analyses are presented. 69 Results for Prospective Menstrual Scores Analyses of Means AROUSAL PLEASANTNESS STABILITY GROUP F(2,39)= 1.866, p=.168 F(2,39)= 2.292, p=.114 F(2,39)= 0.386, p=.682 PHASE F(4,36)= 0.820, p=.521 F(4,36)= 1.194, p=.330 F(4,36)= 0.582, p=.678 GROUP BY F(8,72)= 1.161, p=.335 F(8,72)= 2.129, p=.044 F(8,72)= 1.730, p=.106 PHASE Analyses of Standard Deviations AROUSAL PLEASANTNESS STABILITY GROUP F(2,39)= 0.083, p=.920 F(2,39)= 0.062, p=.940 F(2,39)= 2.721, p=.078 PHASE GROUP BY PHASE F(4,36)= 0.624, p=.648 F(4,36)= 0.893, p=.478 F(4,36)= 1.042, p=.399 F(8,72)= 0.240, p=.982 F(8,72)= 0.294, p=.966 F(8,72)= 1.228, p=.295 Results for Retrospective Menstrual Scores Analyses of Means AROUSAL PLEASANTNESS GROUP F(l,25)= 1.170, p=.290 F(l,25)= 0.272, p=.607 PHASE F(4,22)= 3.976, p=.014 F(4,22)=12.999, p=.000 GROUP BY F(4,22)= 2.005, p=.129 F(4,22)= 1.181, p=.347 PHASE 71 Direct Comparison of Prospective and Retrospective Menstrual Reports AROUSAL PLEASANTNESS REPORT F(l,25)= 0.373, p=.547 F(l,25)= 6.515, p=.017 REPORT BY F(l,25)= 0.065, p=.801 F(l,25)= 1.324, p=.261 GROUP REPORT BY F(4,22)= 5.986, p=.002 F(4,22)=11.076, p=.000 PHASE REPORT BY GROUP ' F(4,22)= 1.915, p=.144 F(4,22)= 0.148, p=.962 BY PHASE 72 GROUP WEEKDAY GROUP BY WEEKDAY GROUP WEEKDAY GROUP BY WEEKDAY Results for Prospective Weekday Scores Analyses of Means AROUSAL F ( 2 , 3 9 ) = 1.989, p=.150 F(6,34)= 4.787, p=.001 F(12,68)=1.274, p=.254 PLEASANTNESS F(2,39)= 2.947, p=.064 F(6,34)= 5.677, p=.000 F(12,68)=1.435, p=.172 STABILITY F(2,39)= 0.478, p=.623 F(6,34)= 0.954, p=.470 F(12,68)=1.401, p=.187 Analyses of Standard Deviations AROUSAL F(2,39)= 0.075, p=.927 F(6,34)= 1.424, p=.234 F(12,68)=0.496, p=.910 PLEASANTNESS F(2,39)= 0.019, p=.981 F(6,34)= 0.982, p=.452 F(12,68)=0.832, p=.618 STABILITY F(2,39)= 2.202, p=.124 F(6,34)= 0.703, p=.649 F(12,68)=0.625, p=.814 0 Results for Retrospective Weekday Scores Analyses of Means AROUSAL PLEASANTNESS GROUP F(2,38)= 0.358, p=.701 F(2,38)= 3.492, p=.041 WEEKDAY F(6,33)= 8.591, p=.000 F(6,33)=21.577, p=.000 GROUP BY F(12,66)=1.377, p=.199 F(12,66)=0.686, p=.759 WEEKDAY Direct Comparison of Prospective and Retrospective Weekday Reports AROUSAL PLEASANTNESS REPORT F(l,38)= 0.319, p=.575 F(l,38)=12.697, p=.001 .REPORT BY F(2,38)= 0.736, p=.486 F(2,38)= 2.256, p=.119 GROUP REPORT BY F(6,33)= 4.598, p=.002 F(6,33)= 7.418, p=.000 WEEKDAY REPORT BY GROUP F(12,66)=0.800, p=.649 F(12,66)= 1.345, p=.216 BY WEEKDAY 75 Results for Prospective Lunar Scores Analyses of Means AROUSAL PLEASANTNESS STABILITY GROUP PHASE GROUP BY PHASE F(2,39)= 1.961, p=.154 F(2,39)= 2.749, p=.076 F(2,39)= 0.481, p=.622 F(3,37)= 0.820, p=.491 F(3,37)= 1.978, p=.134 F(3,37)= 1.5.72, p=.212 F(6,74)= 1.525, p=.182 F(6,74)= 0.977, p=.447 F(6,74)= 1.095, p=.373 Analyses of Standard Deviations AROUSAL PLEASANTNESS STABILITY GROUP PHASE GROUP BY PHASE F(2,39)= 0.062, p=.940 F(2,39)= 0.074, p=.929 F(2,39)= 2.731, p=.078 F(3,37)= 0.963, p=.420 F(3,37)= 0.741, p=.534 F(3,37)= 0.452, p=.718 F(6,74)= 0.389, p=.884 F(6,74)= 0.646, p=.693 F(6,74)= 1.045, p=.404 76 Prospective Menstrual Pleasantness (Means) BETWEEN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: A - GROUP : 1 men, 2 womenOC, 3 womenNC WITHIN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: B - PHASE: 1 Menstrual, 2 F o l l i c u l a r , 3 Ovulatory, 4 L u t e a l , 5 Premenstrual SUM OF DEGREES MEAN F SOURCE SQUARES OF FREEDOM SQUARES RATIO PROBABILITY A 10.567 2 5.284 2.451 0.099 S-WITHIN 84.059 39 2.155 B 0.754 4 0.188 0.686 0.603 AB 5.909 8 0.739 2.687 0.009 BS-WITHIN 42.875 156 0.275 77 Retrospective Menstrual Arousal (Means) BETWEEN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: A - GROUP : 1 womenOC, 2 womenNC WITHIN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: B - PHASE: 1 Menstrual, 2 F o l l i c u l a r , 3 Ovulatory, 4 L u t e a l , 5 Premenstrual SUM OF DEGREES MEAN F SOURCE SQUARES OF FREEDOM SQUARES RATIO PROBABILITY A 5.156 1 5.156 1.170 0.290 S-WITHIN 110.137 25 4.405 B 14.333 4 3.583 3.149 0.018 AB 5.651 4 1.413 1.241 0.298 BS-WITHIN 113.797 100 1.138 78 Retrospective Menstrual Pleasantness (Means) BETWEEN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: A - GROUP : 1 womenOC, 2 womenNC WITHIN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: B - PHASE: 1 Menstrual, 2 F o l l i c u l a r , 3 Ovulatory, 4 L u t e a l , 5 Premenstrual SUM OF DEGREES MEAN F SOURCE SQUARES OF FREEDOM SQUARES RATIO PROBABILITY A 0.889 1 0.889 0.271 0.607 S-WITHIN 81.833 25 3.273 B 97.702 4 24.425 14.409 0.001 AB 3.835 4 0.959 0.566 0.688 BS-WITHIN 169.519 100 1.695 79 Direct Comparison of Prospective and Retrospective Menstrual Arousal BETWEEN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: A - GROUP : 1 womenOC, 2 womenNC WITHIN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: B - REPORT : 1 Prospective, 2 Retrospective C - PHASE: 1 Menstrual, 2 F o l l i c u l a r , 3 Ovulatory, 4 L u t e a l , 5 Premenstrual SUM OF DEGREES MEAN F SOURCE SQUARES OF FREEDOM SQUARES RATIO PROBABILITY A 11. .673 1 11, .673 1. .781 0. . 194 S-WITHIN 163. .820 25 6, .553 B 0, .309 1 0. .309 0. .401 0, .532 AB 0. .042 1 0, .042 0, .055 0. .817 BS-WITHIN 19. .281 25 0, .771 C 4. ,782 4 1, .195 1. .646 0. , 169 AC 2. ,542 4 0. .636 0. .875 0. ,482 CS-WITHIN 72. ,609 100 0. ,726 BC 10. . 186 4 2, .546 4. ,238 0. .003 ABC 4. ,063 4 1. .016 1. ,690 0. , 158 BCS-WITHIN 60. ,086 100 0. .601 80 Direct Comparison of Prospective and Retrospective Menstrual Pleasantness BETWEEN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: A - GROUP : 1 womenOC, 2 womenNC WITHIN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: B - REPORT : 1 Pro s p e c t i v e , 2 Ret r o s p e c t i v e C - PHASE: 1 Menstrual, 2 F o l l i c u l a r , 3 Ovulatory, 4 L u t e a l , 5 Premenstrual SUM OF DEGREES MEAN F SOURCE SQUARES OF FREEDOM SQUARES RATIO PROBABILITY A 5. .472 1 5. .472 1. . 148 0, .294 S-WITHIN 119. .203 25 4. .768 B 5. .648 1 5. .648 6. .989 0. .014 AB 1. .012 1 1. .012 1. .253 0. .274 BS-WITHIN 20. .203 25 0. .808 C 49. .528 4 12. .382 13. .864 0. .001 AC 8. . 171 4 2. .043 2. .287 0. .065 CS-WITHIN 89. .309 100 0, .893 BC 48. .454 4 12, . 113 11. .840 0. .001 ABC 0. .729 4 0, . 182 0, .178 0. .949 BCS-WITHIN 102. .309 100 1. .023 81 Prospective Weekday Arousal (Means) BETWEEN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: A - GROUP : 1 men, 2 womenOC, 3 womenNC WITHIN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: B - WEEKDAY : 1 Sun, 2 Mon, 3 Tues, 4 Wed, 5 Thur, 6 F r i , 7 Sat SUM OF DEGREES MEAN F SOURCE SQUARES OF FREEDOM SQUARES RATIO PROBABILITY A 14.002 2 7.001 2.142 0.131 S-WITHIN 127.473 39 3.269 B 8.728 6 1.455 4.474 0.001 AB 3.326 12 0.277 0.853 0.596 BS-WITHIN 76.086 234 0.325 82 Prospective Weekday Pleasantness (Means) BETWEEN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: A - GROUP : 1 men, 2 womenOC, 3 womenNC WITHIN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: B - WEEKDAY : : 1 Sun, 2 Mon, 3 Tues, 4 Wed, 5 Thur, 6 F r i , 7 Sat SUM OF DEGREES MEAN F SOURCE SQUARES OF FREEDOM SQUARES RATIO PROBABILITY A 18.836 2 9.418 3.152 0.054 S-WITHIN 116.516 39 2.988 B 12.021 6 2.003 6.964 0.001 AB 4.155 12 0.346 1.203 0.281 BS-WITHIN 67.316 234 0.288 83 Retrospective Weekday Arousal (Means) BETWEEN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: A - GROUP : 1 men, 2 womenOC, 3 womenNC WITHIN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: B - WEEKDAY : 1 Sun, 2 Mon, 3 Tues, 4 Wed, 5 Thur, I 5 F r i , 7 Sat SUM OF DEGREES MEAN F SOURCE SQUARES OF FREEDOM SQUARES RATIO PROBABILITY A 3.201 2 1.600 0.347 0.709 S-WITHIN 175.035 38 4.606 B 73.225 6 12.204 9.077 0.001 AB 19.222 12 1.602 1.191 0.290 BS-WITHIN 306.559 228 1.345 84 Retrospective Weekday Pleasantness (Means) BETWEEN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: A - GROUP : 1 men, 2 womenOC, 3 womenNC WITHIN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: B - WEEKDAY : 1 Sun, 2 Mon, 3 Tues, 4 Wed, 5 Thur, 6 F r i , 7 Sat SUM OF DEGREES MEAN F SOURCE SQUARES OF FREEDOM SQUARES RATIO PROBABILITY A 29.722 2 14.861 3.416 0.043 S-WITHIN 165.324 38 4.351 B 85.016 6 14.169 1 2 . I l l 0.001 AB 10.501 12 0.875 0.748 0.703 BS-WITHIN 266.750 228 1.170 85 Direct Comparison of Prospective and Retrospective Weekday Arousal BETWEEN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: A - GROUP : 1 men, 2 womenOC, 3 womenNC WITHIN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: B - REPORT : 1 Pro s p e c t i v e , 2 Retrospective C - WEEKDAY : 1 Sun, 2 Mon, 3 Tues, 4 Wed, 5 Thur, 6 F r i , 7 Sat SUM OF DEGREES MEAN F SOURCE SQUARES OF FREEDOM SQUARES RATIO PROBABILITY A 7. 378 2 3. .689 0. 585 0. .562 S-WITHIN 239. 688 38 6. .308 B 0. 193 1 0. . 193 0. 196 0. ,660 AB 1. 431 2 0. .715 0. 728 0, .490 BS-WITHIN 37. 340 38 0. .983 C 63. 737 6 10. .623 10. 018 0. .001 AC 16. 540 12 1. .378 1. 300 0. ,219 CS-WITHIN 241. 762 228 1. .060 BC 18. 039 6 3. .007 4. 888 0. .001 ABC 6. 163 12 0. .514 0. 835 0. ,614 BCS-WITHIN 140. 234 228 0. .615 86 Direct Comparison of Prospective and Retrospective Weekday Pleasantness BETWEEN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: A - GROUP : 1 men, 2 womenOC, 3 womenNC WITHIN SUBJECT FACTORS ARE: B - REPORT : 1 Prospective, 2 Retrospective C - WEEKDAY : 1 Sun, 2 Mon, 3 Tues, 4 Wed, 5 Thur, 6 F r i 7 Sat SUM OF DEGREES MEAN F SOURCE SQUARES OF FREEDOM SQUARES RATIO PROBABILITY A 42. 314 2 21. . 157 3. 435 0, .043 S-WITHIN 234. 047 38 6, .159 B 15. 270 1 15, .270 12. 155 0, .001 AB 5. 079 2 2. .539 2. 021 0, ,146 BS-WITHIN 47. 738 38 1. .256 C 78. 588 6 13, .098 16. 348 0, .001 AC 7. 241 12 0, .603 0. 753 0, .698 CS-WITHIN 182. 672 228 ; 0. .801 BC 18. 846 6 3, ,141 4. 840 0. .001 ABC 7. 502 12 0, ,625 0. 963 0. .485 BCS-WITHIN 147. 973 228 0, .649 

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