UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Programs of socio-economic impact management : the Norman Wells project Kerr, Muriel Ann 1985

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1985_A8 K46.pdf [ 6.81MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096451.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096451-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096451-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096451-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096451-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096451-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096451-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096451-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096451.ris

Full Text

PROGRAMS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT MANAGEMENT: THE NORMAN WELLS PROJECT  B.R.E.,  MURIEL A . KERR U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  1973  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( S c h o o l o f Community a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g )  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to t h a required standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1985  ©  Muriel A.  Kerr,  1985  In presenting degree  this  thesis  in partial  fulfilment  of the requirements  at the University of British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  of this  department  or  his or  her  representatives.  that the Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  thesis for scholarly purposes may be by  for an advanced  It  is  granted  by  understood  the head of my that  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without  copying or my written  permission.  Department of  GRADUATE STUDIES - COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  Date  DE-6(3/81)  ^ o V r S A ^  PLANNING  ii  -  ABSTRACT  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t w o o f t h e -Norman Wells impact funding initiatives as programs of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c management.  Social  and e c o n o m i c  development  projects.  component  of  beginning  to  attract  measures  industry,  government  and/or  are  These  assessment  Effective  impacts  impacts  and  a  number  socio-economic  on J u l y  30,  measures  One  of  ensure  that  the t r a i n i n g  these  of  this  has  been  projects.  vetted  as  are  jobs  Government  package  and  management.  being or  sought  avoid  by  negative  approved  of  therefore impact $21.4  and m e a n i n g f u l . "  by t h e  potentially created  management million  and b u s i n e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s  are r e a l  are  development.  socio-economic  benefits  project  approach"  a  important  1970's  impact  mitigate  resource  an  a s s e s s e d as h a v i n g  The F e d e r a l  a  the  and P i p e l i n e P r o j e c t ,  constituted was  to  scale  become  within  impacts of  was f o r m a l l y  objectives,  "coordination  Project  development  1981  measures  i n s i s t e d be p a r t  government's Wells  Expansion  that  plan.  have  positive  have  management  who w i s h  large  during  issue  impact  and c o m m u n i t i e s  socio-economic impacts.  of  an  of  impacts  processes  as  t o enhance p o t e n t i a l  Cabinet  significant  review  attention  of  by-products  socio-economic  The Norman W e l l s O i l f i e l d Federal  often  "to  w h i c h we  The  federal  t o management  associated with  the  Norman  a  the  of  future  model  for  management  The  subject  funding assess  programs the  The  their  impact  general  community  of  and  communities  of  some d e b a t e  of  the  key  thesis  within  this  two  the  Wells  as  of  package.  thesis  impact  The  funding  two  of  the  impact  purpose  initiatives  as  is  to  programs  of  was  the  federal  and  in  Dene  the  planning  Valley.  These  involved  in  Nation  and  initiation support  two  of  and  the  Metis  programs  monitoring  programs  are  and  the  of for  subject  representatives  effectiveness  of  two  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t management  for  the  Norman  indicate  The  over  the  analysis  Project.  disagree of  of  the  government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  organizations  instruments  involve  Territories  Mackenzie  between  to  this  Wells  the the  Norman  I  first  Project.  In  preparation  developed model  for  a p r o c e s s model  provides  management  are  the  the for  framework  located.  actual  within  Next,  issues  and  Well's  review  processes  Project  was  Norman  achieved Wells  analysis  socio-economic  socio-economic  This  implementation  i n i t i a t i v e s chosen f o r  development  parties-at-interest  initiatives  two  Northwest  social  native  the  benefits  these  purpose  the  of  of  is  management.  d e s c r i p t i o n s of  Association  the  this  effectiveness  socio-economic  that  of  I  which  through  Environmental  a  and  content  programs  impact  analysis  Assessment  and  of  the  problems  the  these  programs,  i m p a c t management.  examined  anticipated  of  relationship  fund  during  initiatives  documents  Review  process  socio-economic  identified  of  This  Panel  impact  between  the  the  Norman  under  study.  produced  by  (E.A.R.P.)  the and  - iv -  the National Energy Board. initiatives. interviews funding  This with  I then examined  was a c c o m p l i s h e d  the relevant  programs.  My  i n i t i a t i v e s as p r o g r a m s  through  actors  assessment  study  process concerns.  t h e two s t u d y  of the effectiveness  and impact  o f t h e two. s t u d y  to a set of c r i t e r i a that reflect the  o f impact management.  initiatives  effectiveness criteria  with  o f documentation  o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c management i s b a s e d on a c o m p a r i s o n  b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t s o f programs  two  a review  associated  o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e programs  The  i n f u l l the implementation of the  failed  to  satisfy  a l l but  that required a r e l a t i o n s h i p with  The t h e s i s c o n c l u s i o n , t h e r e f o r e ,  the  the public  program review  i s t h a t as p r o g r a m s  of  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t management f o r t h e Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t , t h e two s t u d y i n i t i a t i v e s have n o t been e f f e c t i v e . and p r o p o s e t h r e e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  I discuss the basis of this  conclusion  toward t h e p l a n n i n g f o r f u t u r e programs  of  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c impact management.  This efforts  thesis  contributes  associated  Wells Project.  with  to the assessment  the o v e r a l l approach  of the  impact  management  t o management o f t h e Norman  I t s h o u l d be u s e f u l f o r p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n  o f i m p a c t management p r o g r a m s  i n f u t u r e development  projects.  This  analysis  w i l l a i d i n the planning o f e f f e c t i v e procedures t o reduce negative impacts, t h u s s e r v i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s o f b o t h t h o s e a f f e c t e d d i r e c t l y , and t h e n a t i o n a t large.  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  Page N o . ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS L I S T OF TABLES L I S T OF ABBREVIATIONS  v viii ix  CHAPTER I.  II.  A PROCESS MODEL FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT MANAGEMENT  1  A.  Introduction  1  B. C. D.  Thesis Purpose T h e s i s Method Summary  7 8 11  SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT MANAGEMENT: A SUB-PROCESS OF THE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING PROCESS  13  A. B.  13 14  Introduction S o c i o - E c o n o m i c I m p a c t Management P r o c e s s 1.  S u b - P r o c e s s o f P r o j e c t Development  2.  Components o f t h e S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Management P r o c e s s  Process  Impact  S o c i o - E c o n o m i c I m p a c t I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and A s s e s s m e n t Impact M o n i t o r i n g S o c i o E c o n o m i c I m p a c t Management P r o g r a m / P l a n C. III.  14  Summary  17 17 23 24 28  THE NORMAN WELLS IMPACT FUNDING I N I T I A T I V E S  30  A.  Introduction  30  B.  Norman W e l l s R e v i e w P r o c e s s C o n t e n t 1.  Environmental  2.  National  3.  Summary  Analysis  A s s e s s m e n t and R e v i e w P r o c e s s  Energy Board Review  30 33 38 40  -  vi  Page N o .  III.  THE NORMAN WELLS IMPACT FUNDING C.  D. IV.  Documentation of  INITIATIVES  -  Continued  Implementation of I n i t i a t i v e s  41  1.  Approval  2.  The D e l a y P e r i o d - J u l y  3.  First  - Jan 1 -  1983-Dec 3 1 ,  1983  63  4.  Second C o n s t r u c t i o n Year - Jan 1 -  1984-Dec 3 1 ,  1984  74  5.  T h i r d C o n s t r u c t i o n Year  1 9 8 5 - J u n 3 0 , 1985  87  C o n s t r u c t i o n Year  41 3 0 , 1981 - D e c . 3 1 ,  -  Jan 1 -  1982  Summary  94  A N A L Y S I S OF EFFECTIVENESS OF PROGRAMS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT MANAGEMENT Criterion I C r i t e r i o n II C r i t e r i o n III C r i t e r i o n IV Criterion V C r i t e r i o n VI C r i t e r i o n VII  V.  CONCLUSION,  49  95 95 98 99 103 106 110 113  DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS  116  A.  Conclusion  116  B.  Discussion  117  a)  b) C.  Lack  of a C l e a r l y Stated  Purpose Related  t o t h e Management o f S o c i o - E c o n o m i c I m p a c t s  118  Perceptual Differences  120  Recommendations 1. Integrate the Planning f o r the Socio-Economic I m p a c t Management P r o c e s s w i t h t h e O v e r a l l Development P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 2.  Emphasise a l l Components o f t h e S o c i o - E c o n o m i c I m p a c t Management P r o c e s s  124  124  125  -  vii Page N o ;  3.  D.  Final  D e s i g n Programs o f S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Impact Management t o A c h i e v e t h e R e q u i r e m e n t s o f an E f f e c t i v e I m p a c t Management P r o g r a m Comment  L I S T OF REFERENCES APPENDICES  126 128 129  A.  Content A n a l y s i s Quotations  136  B. C. D.  D . I . A . N . D . Approval Press Release Excerpt December 7 P o s i t i o n P a p e r T r e a s u r y Board A u t h o r i z a t i o n  143 145 153  - viii -  LIST OF-TABLES  Page No. I.  II.  III.  Plan of Documentation of I n i t i a t i v e Implementation Process  10  Summary of Content Analysis of E.A.R.P. Mackenzie Valley Community Meetings  34  L i s t i n g of C r i t i c a l Events in the Implementation of the Two Study Impact Funding Programs - Norman Wells Project  43  LIST  ix  -  OF-ABBREVIATIONS  B.S.E.A.R.P.  Beaufort  CARC  Canadian A r c t i c Resources  C.E.I.C.  C a n a d a E m p l o y m e n t and I m m i g r a t i o n  CJL  Committee  COGLA  C a n a d i a n O i l and G a s L a n d s  DIAND  Department  EARP  Environmental  A s s e s s m e n t and R e v i e w  EIA  Environmental  Impact  FEARO  Federal  GNWT  Government  NEB  National  NWPCC  Norman  Wells Project  Coordinating  Committee  NWPCO  Norman  Wells Project  Coordination  Office  NWT  Northwest  SIA  Socio-Economic  Sea Environmental  A s s e s s m e n t and R e v i e w Committee Commission  f o r J u s t i c e and L i b e r t y  of Indian  Environmental  Foundation  Administration  Affairs  and N o r t h e r n  Development  Process  Assessment A s s e s s m e n t and R e v i e w  of the Northwest  Energy  Territories  Board  Territories Impact  Panel  Assessment  Office  CHAPTER  1 -  I  PROGRAMS OF - SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT MANAGEMENT: THE NORMAN WELLS  A.  INTRODUCTION  The  Norman W e l l s  Mackenzie by  PROJECT.  Valley  the Federal  planning. first  of  Oilfield  the Northwest  Cabinet,  Construction  o i l i n May, 1985.  strategy  was t h e s p e c i a l  the  of the p r o j e c t  time  Affairs The  and N o r t h e r n purpose  of  subject began  and P i p e l i n e  Territories  to  a two y e a r  in January,  was a p p r o v e d delay  to  located  on J u l y  enable  component  funding  initiatives  of  the federal  or benefits  by t h e M i n i s t e r  of  1981  project  shipped  project  package  in the  30,  sound  1983 and t h e p i p e l i n e  A major  approval  Project,  management  announced  t h e Department  its  of  at  Indian  Development. this  Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t impact  Expansion  thesis  impact  i s to  funding  assess the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  initiatives  as programs  of  of  two o f  the  socio-economic  management.  " L a r g e s c a l e i n d u s t r i a l and r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s a r e a f f e c t i n g many a r e a s . . . . . Some o f t h e t y p e s o f p r o j e c t s having s u b s t a n t i a l e f f e c t s on n e a r b y c o m m u n i t i e s i n c l u d e e n e r g y resource development in many of the western states and Canadian p r o v i n c e s . . . . . o f f s h o r e petroleum development i n t h e N o r t h Sea and A r c t i c r e g i o n s o f C a n a d a and A l a s k a . . . . These developments present both opportunities and p r o b l e m s f o r the areas where they are located. The e c o n o m i c , d e m o g r a p h i c , p u b l i c s e r v i c e , f i s c a l , and s o c i a l effects (socio-economic impacts) of large-scale development p r o j e c t s h a v e been e x t e n s i v e l y e x a m i n e d by b o t h r e s e a r c h e r s , a n d decision-makers in recent years. A growing number of these a n a l y s e s and c a s e s t u d i e s p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e e f f e c t s  - 2o f s u c h a c t i v i t i e s on c o m m u n i t i e s l o c a t e d n e a r p r o j e c t s i t e s . A common theme t h a t emerges f r o m such a n a l y s e s is that, in the absence o f d e t a i l e d l o c a l p l a n n i n g and a c c e s s t o f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e from e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s . . . . . l a r g e p r o j e c t s w i l l frequently create substantial problems for their host communities.... T h u s , t h e need i s r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t to examine t h o s e m e a s u r e s w h i c h c a n be e m p l o y e d to a l t e r the e f f e c t s of p r o j e c t d e v e l o p m e n t on n e a r b y c o m m u n i t i e s , r e d u c i n g t h o s e e f f e c t s which are g e n e r a l l y viewed as u n d e s i r a b l e and e n h a n c i n g those c h a n g e s w h i c h a r e deemed b e n e f i c i a l . " ( H a l s t e a d e t a l . 1 9 8 4 : x i )  Northern Canada, of  significant  During  this  industrial  time  socio-economic allocation case  time  of  both  and R e v i e w  and  In a d d i t i o n  a project,  an a p p r o v i n g  which the p r o j e c t elements  of  t h e management  A  example  Norman  Wells  recommendation  of  of  project  Oilfield the  Mackenzie  environmental  has  resulted  and r e v i e w . was  The F e d e r a l  a  s e t terms  in  the  In  the  initially impacts  used  to assess  of  northern  number  impacts  and c o n d i t i o n s  of  within  a n d c o n d i t i o n s become t h e  process.  Some  of  these  elements  and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s .  resource  and P i p e l i n e  Valley  and  Environmental  has been  of  These terms  large-scale  Expansion  years.  and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  i n 1973-74  body must  management  a  fifteen  (1973/4-1977),  impacts  of environmental  such  last  and a s s e s s i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l  be i m p l e m e n t e d .  the  This  environmental  identifying  has been t h e s i t e  both  assessment  Inquiry  instituted  government  determine  recent  the Berger  socio-economic  to  will  over  projects. of  the  Valley Pipeline Project.  Process,  projects.  Valley,  over  increased  to processes  assessing potential  environmental  major  has  interest  development  Valley,  the proposed Mackenzie  Assessment  the  concern  and f u n d s  of the Mackenzie for  development  public  impacts  of  responsible of  and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e M a c k e n z i e  Pipeline  development  Project. Inquiry  In  project spite  (1977)  of  that  is a no  pipeline the  be  built  Federal  stage  for  in  Cabinet  this  the  Valley  on  July  project  three  public  review  and  issues  environmental  about  the  potential  probability all  about  aboriginal  that the  Territories of  the  social  Territories  environmental, Environmental  Assessment  Assessment Panel recommendations  two y e a r year  Cabinet  and t h e about  delay  the  before  claims.  its  The  concern  project.  the support  to  would these  socio-economic  and  Review  National  the  the  for  the  start start  up o f up  the  of  Wells  oilfield pipeline  of  flow  to  themes  Report  - of-  that  while  expansion  had  Other specific  own.  The  Environmental contained review.  conditional  and a two  construction.  the  Northwest  i d e n t i f i e d during the  was  of  Northwest  the  for -Decision  Project  above  distribution  their the  low  and,  Ottawa.  or of  the  the  unequal felt  anxious  settlement  Government o f  Energy Board Reasons  Norman  peoples  The  wildlife,  about  prior  concerns  Process  reviews.  and  work,  members  by t h e  Board  Considerable  land  Government  Its  benefits  for  the  about  Federal  r e s i d e n t s were the  by  review  Energy  these  northern  without  w o u l d be b o r n e  or  affect  looking  and The  hearings.  each of  would accrue to project  National  community  to  approved  processes:  Board  the socio-economic impacts  approval  delay before  expected  land  of  their  technical  Valley  was  assessment  the  during  southerners  expressed  project  added  expressed  this  administration,  interveners  The  of  benefits  the  of  native  (G.N.W.T.)  c o s t s of  Water  benefits  approval  financial  Territories  Mackenzie  influx  and  Process,  impacts  project  rights  Review  was  N a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e the  project  contained  Northwest  about  this  specific  the  various  years, The  hearings,  over  ten  1981.  Assessment  concern  -  30,  Environmental and  for  3  In  and a the  on  a  half press  release  announcing  the  Affairs  and N o r t h e r n  delays  in the project  approval,  Development  4 -  the Minister (D.I.A.N.D.),  of  the  outlined  Department  of  the reasons  Indian f o r the  s t a r t up:  " t o a l l o w f o r e f f e c t i v e and m e a n i n g f u l p l a n n i n g s o s p e c i a l m e a s u r e s and b e n e f i t packages are i n e f f e c t during c o n s t r u c t i o n p h a s e o f t h e $1 b i l l i o n p r o j e c t . "  that the  " . . . . t o work t o w a r d m e e t i n g t h e c o n c e r n s o f t h e Dene and M e t i s r e g a r d i n g adequate time f o r n e g o t i a t i n g t h e i r land c l a i m . " " . . . . t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , j o b and b u s i n e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h we h a v e i n s i s t e d be p a r t o f t h e p r o j e c t a r e r e a l and m e a n i n g f u l . " ( D . I . A . N . D . 1 9 8 1 : 4 )  Also $21.4  as  part  million  of  the  package  Department o f Indian  of  approval special  press impact  release, funding  the to  Minister  be  announced  administered  by  a  the  Affairs.  " . . . . t h e enhanced program package w i l l i n c l u d e o n - t h e - j o b and institutional training, strengthened services at the community l e v e l t o c o p e w i t h p o s s i b l e d i s r u p t i o n s and c h a n g e s , f u n d i n g f o r the Government o f t h e Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s to finance a d d i t i o n a l public services that w i l l be r e q u i r e d , and c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e Dene and M e t i s t o p e r m i t them t o be i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g and programming activities in conjunction with all levels of government." ( D . I . A . N . D . 1981:4)  This  funding  words,  "without  native  people  beneficial  package  was f e l t  front-end  support  do  not  experiences."  always  to  necessary  and t i m e  equate  (D.I.A.N.D.  be  to  for  planning,  meaningful  1981:3)  because,  in  Mr.  Munro's  opportunities  involvement,  jobs  for and  -  According to a recent  5  -  Department o f I n d i a n  Affairs  document:  " T h i s f u n d i n g p a c k a g e was i n t e n d e d t o : respond t o t h e needs of northern communities and n a t i v e people in relation to the project; mitigate impacts and c a p t u r e economic opportunities; promote p r o j e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; e s t a b l i s h m o n i t o r i n g ; and m a i n t a i n l e v e l s o f government s e r v i c e s . " ( D . I . A . N . D . 1984:17)  The of  impact  funding  socio-economic  impact  Norman  Wells  overall  co-ordination  Project  Considerable seen  by  developments.  carefully  by  i n at l e a s t  Review  Process  Project  Audit,  and  t h e Dene  as  a  test  case  Wells  to  -  a number  the the  management  at  the  of  the  authority.  D.I.A.N.D.  1984).  Excerpts  the Banff  paper  Seminar  Wells of  Office  subject  of the co-ordination  has  a no  watched of  some  A s s e s s m e n t and  on P r o j e c t given  is  Northern  has been  the  the papers  illustrate  with  has developed  Sea Environmental  from  the  as i t  future  The  approach  Seminar  of  agency  Project  Office  and h a s b e e n  - The B e a u f o r t  strategies  Project.  Project. This  of  responsibility  management  Coordination  1983) and t h e B a n f f  concerning the effectiveness  from the D . I . A . N . D .  for  and o n l o o k e r s  two a r e n a s  (October  on t h e Norman  Project  or regulatory  (December  Nation  became  Office  has f o c u s e d  participants  debate  within  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e Norman W e l l s  approach mandate  that  Co-ordinating  The Norman  coordination  i s one measure  management  attention  a l l actors  legislative  package  by  differences  Assessment: D.I.A.N.D. in  opinion  process:  -  "The h a r d work o f g o v e r n m e n t departments and a g e n c i e s h a s r e s u l t e d i n t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t b a s e d on co-operation " ( D . I . A . N . D . 1984:34)  f r o m t h e Dene N a t i o n  paper  6 -  -  "The D.I.A.N.D. case study, by g l o s s i n g o v e r problems and difficulties with the project, implies that the federal g o v e r n m e n t ' s m i n d i s made up a l r e a d y A thorough assessment of t h e Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t m u s t l o o k a t b o t h t h e p r o b l e m s and t h e p r o c e s s e s b e f o r e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c a n be made on f u t u r e p r o j e c t s . " (Dene N a t i o n M o n i t o r i n g P r o g r a m 1 9 8 4 : 1 6 )  One Nation  of  the  and  the  implementation two  program  programs Wells the  to  sources  Metis  of  the  plan  of  disappointment  Association impact  initiatives  Project.  Nation  major  for,  that  and  funding were  respond  A Dene N a t i o n  has  draft  P r e s i d e n t ' s o p i n i o n of  been  package.  designed to,  and the Of  to  frustration  for  the  Dene  administration  and  the  particular  enable  socio-economic  press  release  the funding  of  concern are  native  involvement  impacts  of  May  22,  the  1984  the in  Norman  indicates  programs:  " . . . . T h i s was p o l i t i c a l money f r o m t h e s t a r t , and we c a n o n l y i n t e r p r e t t h e n e e d l e s s b u r e a u c r a t i c h a s s l e s as d i s g u i s e d p o l i t i c a l delay t a c t i c s . T h e y a r e s u c c e s s f u l l y h a m p e r i n g o u r e f f o r t s t o be i n f o r m e d and i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p i p e l i n e , w h i c h we o n l y a c c e p t e d a s a t e s t c a s e . " (Dene N a t i o n 1984b)  The on  Norman  August  most  12,  effective  involved."  (Mar  Wells Federal 1985,  that  tool," 1986b).  he that  Project  Co-ordinator  believed "allowed  the  impact  the  stated  in  funding  people  a phone programs  themselves  interview to to  be  "a  become  - 7B.  THESIS -PURPOSE  The  specific  focus of this  thesis  i s on the implementation  of the two  federal program i n i t i a t i v e s of the impact funding package as described in the Norman Wells Project approval announcement:  "Enhanced existing government programs to address the community and social development needs of communities along the pipeline route so that they can respond to the project as the needs are i d e n t i f i e d . Native people w i l l be d i r e c t l y involved in the design of these programs and in aspects of program delivery as they relate s p e c i f i c a l l y to native communities. Projected government funding over f i v e years; $4.25 m i l l i o n . Planning support to northern active role in the planning and the design and implementation of the project. Projected funding (D.I.A.N.D. 1981:i)  As  noted  effectiveness socio-economic  natives to enable them to take an monitoring of the project and in programs i n i t i a t e d in response to over f i v e years: $1.25 m i l l i o n . "  at the outset, the purpose of  these  impact  impact  management  administration and implementation  of the thesis  funding for  initiatives  the  Norman  is to assess the as  Wells  programs Project.  the a b i l i t y of these programs to be used f o r the Norman  Wells  actual program a c t i v i t y outcomes.  The  processes of the two funding programs w i l l  be assessed against c r i t e r i a of e f f e c t i v e impact management programs.  management  of  Project  It i s  as e f f e c t i v e strategies f o r impact that  i s to be assessed, not the  - 8The m a j o r q u e s t i o n s t o be a d d r e s s e d i n t h e t h e s i s a r e :  C.  1.  Does t h e i n t e n t o f e a c h p r o g r a m i n i t i a t i v e ( a s d e s c r i b e d i n the approval announcement press release) reflect socio-economic impact concerns expressed d u r i n g t h e Norman Wells Project review processes.  2.  What w e r e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n i t i a t i v e programs?  3.  How effective were the initiatives as programs of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t management f o r t h e Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t ?  events  T H E S I S METHOD  The  methods  employed  t o answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s  the  thesis purpose,  included:  1.  The d e v e l o p m e n t  o f a p r o c e s s model  order  to provide  socio-economic management  2.  process  a contextual impact  program  management.  process  provides  analysis  o f t h e two s t u d y  The This  the  documentation documentation  documents, selected  to  of  criteria  f o r t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f programs The  discussion  of  the  of the socio-economic impact of  "history"  includes  initiatives.  achieve  program  effectiveness  in of  impact  management  used  in  the  initiatives.  the  isolate  to  o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t management  framework  as a component  and, therefore,  and  of  a review document  the  of  two  impact  funding  the assessment  the  concerns  that  programs.  and r e v i e w relate  stage to  the  The  material  Wells  for  Environmental  report  of  Decision Norman  the  Wells  of  the  pipeline. with  the  community  i n which  E.A.R.P. texts  The  community  the  the  National  hearings  contents  contained  issues,  their  the concern  frequency  analysis  but  according  approval  of  used  relevant  with  issues  to  for the their  release  the  E.A.R.P.  expression,  The E . A . R . P .  for  and  press of  Reasons-for  Norman  Reasons  application  The d o c u m e n t a t i o n  and t h e N . E . B  of  meetings,  the  the  transcripts  Board  analysed  in  from  meeting  the  was e x p r e s s e d .  Panel  taken  Energy  for  were  initiatives.  to the form  was  and  the  Report of the  Decision  do n o t  the t r a n s c r i p t s  of the  are  isolated  from  the  and t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e c o n c e r n s a r e i d e n t i f i e d .  documentation  process  This  from on  analysis  and R e v i e w P r o c e s s  issues  Assessment  themselves  content  The  two s t u d y  indicates  lend  and  based  material  Environmental  the  Assessment  Panel  document  relationship texts  used  9 -  associated with  description  sections  also  within  includes  a  description  t h e two f u n d i n g  i s presented each time  the  implementation  initiatives.  chronologically  period.  of  (See T a b l e  and i s d i v i d e d I)  into  three  Table  1.  Approval  2.  Pre-Construction  3.  First  4.  Second C o n s t r u c t i o n  5.  Third  study  Announcement  Construction  sections  Federal  Project  for  Project  Year  Northern  1981  1,  1981  -  December 3 1 ,  1982  1,  1983 -  December 3 1 ,  1983  January  1,  1984  December 3 1 ,  1984  January  1,  1985 -  Norman  Wells  administration  the  perceptions  and  -  June 3 0 ,  Project  events,  implementation  and/or  1985  observations  specific  of  the  two  of  relevant  the U . B . C .  Library,  events.  documentation  Coordination the  general  Process  January  the  Assessment  (Yellowknife), Wales  this  30,  August  Year  and  Implementation  July  Year  cover  actors regarding these  Literature  Initiative  Period  associated with initiatives  of  Start-Up  Construction  three  events  the  -  I  Plan of -Documentation  The  10  and  Heritage  and C o o r d i n a t i o n  Review  Office  Metis  was r e c e i v e d f r o m : Office  (Yellowknife),  Association Office Centre Support  (Vancouver), the  Dene  (Yellowknife),  (Yellowknife), Group,  the  D.I.A.N.D.  and  the  (Ottawa).  Norman Nation the  Wells Office  Prince  Norman  of  Wells  A  number  of  interviews  were  documentation.  Personal  Wells  Coordination  Project  Territorial week  of  Government  February  interviews  with  interviews  with  Office,  1985.  in July  previous  and A u g u s t  interviewees,  Group s t a f f  i n Ottawa d u r i n g these l a t t e r  t h e Norman  An a n a l y s i s o f t h e t w o s t u d y  A  to  complete  actors  Nation  Wells  developed  and  1985.  at  the  Office  final  Norman  to  with  the  during the  interviews  In a d d i t i o n  this  and  were  follow-up  contact  was made  Project  and C o o r d i n a t i o n  the  Metis  Support  interviews.  i n i t i a t i v e s t o a s s e s s t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s as  o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t management.  The a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d  i n the second c h a p t e r .  c o n c l u s i o n , d i s c u s s i o n and recommendations  socio-economic  D.  Dene  Follow-up  and w i t h  using the c r i t e r i a  order  relevant  the  Association  programs  in  o f f i c e s were c a r r i e d o u t i n Y e l l o w k n i f e  4-8,  c o n d u c t e d by t e l e p h o n e  conducted  i m p a c t management  f o r the planning  of  future  programs.  SUMMARY  "The Norman W e l l s p r o j e c t i s t h e f i r s t m a j o r o i l and g a s p r o j e c t t h a t h a s been c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s a n d , as s u c h , t h e p r o j e c t c o m p o n e n t d e v e l o p e d b y DIAND t o r e s p o n d t o t h e p r o j e c t i s the f i r s t i n i t i a t i v e of i t s k i n d i n the f e d e r a l government. There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e Norman W e l l s o i l f i e l d d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i n t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g DIAND p r o g r a m b e c a u s e t h e y a r e e x p e c t e d t o be f o r e r u n n e r s o f future activities in the North. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d and lessons learned w i l l have r e l e v a n c e beyond the immediate program." (InterGroup C o n s u l t i n g Economists L t d . , 1983:7)  The the  contents  impact  contents  this  management should  management information reducing  of  be  programs will  potential  be a f f e c t e d  efforts useful for  aid  thesis  contribute  associated with for  future  parties  development  the  planning  of  negative  impacts,  thus  directly,  in  can  as w e l l  as t h e  to the  the  overall  Norman W e l l s  involved  in  projects.  processes serving  i n t e r e s t s of  the  the  Project.  determining The  that  assessment  will  hope be  interests  larger  is  The impact  that  effective of  nation.  of  those  the in to  - 13 CHAPTER -11  A-PROGESS MODEL FQR-SQGIQ-ECONOMIC IMPACT MANAGEMENT  A.  INTRODUCTION  The  purpose  socio-economic framework  this  impact  for  strategies  of  out  of  which  This  deliberately  that  such  development of  some  generally a  view  continuous  process  management  of  identification  degree  viewed is  projects  socio-economic  will  t o assume  impacts.  impacts.  and a s s e s s m e n t  in emphasis:  of  within  programs  criteria  for  or  program  o f t h e two  all  impacts,  a  emphasis  of  process.  what  greater  I  believe  emphasis  less  The l i t e r a t u r e  with  management  management  has been  is  are not,  associated  f o r the  impact  significantly  impacts.  much  actors  responsibility  for  prescriptive  The c o m p o n e n t s  socio-economic  strong  that  a continuous  encouraging  of these  for  contextual  i n the analysis  recognizing  t h e need a  a  management  of  in practice.  Viewing  date,  provide  model  study.  appropriate  highlights To  be u s e d  while  in  a  process  be d i s c u s s e d i n p r i m a r i l y  already  important  also  will  as e l e m e n t s  b e e n p l a c e d on t h e management difference  devised  a  to  set  This  i s to  is  be  i n i t i a t i v e s under  done  model  impact  components  is  develop  socio-economic  p r o c e s s model  prescribed however,  will  to  The  set of c r i t e r i a  Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t  terms.  is  management.  a discussion of  effectiveness.  The  chapter  placed  as  a  on t h e on t h e  attention  has  reflects  this  -  14  -  "Despite a growing consensus that socio-economic impacts are important and must be a d d r e s s e d , the processes f o r effectively coping with such project effects have received very limited a t t e n t i o n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t o d a t e . . . . t h e m e c h a n i s m s w h i c h c a n be e m p l o y e d t o i n f l u e n c e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e f f e c t s o f a p r o j e c t on n e a r b y c o m m u n i t i e s have r e c e i v e d o n l y a c u r s o r y t r e a t m e n t . Those r e v i e w s of " i m p a c t m i t i g a t i o n " w h i c h have a p p e a r e d , t y p i c a l l y d i s c u s s o n l y a few s e l e c t e d types o f impact m e a s u r e s . . . o r t h e y r e v i e w o n l y a few s e l e c t e d c a s e s w h e r e d e v e l o p e r s o r c o m m u n i t i e s h a v e t a k e n an a c t i v e role in influencing projects outcomes...Such discussions generally f a i l t o t a k e a c c o u n t o f t h e c u m u l a t i v e and i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t s o f m u l t i p l e i m p a c t management m e a s u r e s and p r o v i d e l i t t l e b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e s t r e n g t h s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s of the c o n d i t i o n s under which each may be m o s t effective." ( L e i s t r i t z e t a l . 1983:3)  This  chapter  socio-economic and,  will,  impact  as  part  of  program,  will  develop  of  an e f f e c t i v e  chapter truth  the  therefore,  management, discussion a set of  socio-economic  will of  strategies  criteria impact  quoted  above.  B.  SOCIO-ECONOMIC-IMPACT  1.  Sub-Process-of-Project  project  proposed  Development  development  and o n g o i n g  i n each  of  these  process  within  establishing  management  the  This  for  the  model  of  impact  the basic  program.  model  management requirements  Portions  of  is a reflection  i m p a c t management  of  this the  has o n l y  of researchers.  MANAGEMENT-PROCESS  process  but connecting phases:  implementation  a  t h e components  Socio-economic  r e c e n t l y begun t o r e c e i v e t h e a t t e n t i o n  discrete  describe  show a h e a v y r e l i a n c e on a f e w s o u r c e s .  o f t h e comment  The  prescribe  is  composed  initiation;  operation. phases  Process  of  assessment  In o r d e r  a  temporal  and r e v i e w ;  to ensure  that  i s c a r r i e d out e f f e c t i v e l y  series  of  approval;  the a c t i v i t i e s  and e f f i c i e n t l y ,  methods  of  implementation  exercises. project  planning  The  exercises  all  sub-process of  information designed actors  in  is  the  the  overall  initial  directly  organizations  or  equitable  process  components to  be  concepts integrate Rees  1984.  (1984)  the  assessment:  as  being  impact  of  a  systematic  comprehensive  a  the  of  assessment  and  al.  changes  project's  impact  planning  development  1978; are  to  project  parties  and  of  connection  planning IIASA  1979;  already  this  should  be  All  the  -  the  planning  and  interest  1983).  occurring  in  way  t h e means  for  impact  management  impact  management  are  beginning  of  research  out  in  in  strategies.  resource  development. Rees  a  and  process  Primarily  and/or  process  provides  between  growing for  and  process.  programs  assessment a  The  significant  management  socio-economic  project  process.  representatives  all  development  show  One  impact  in  impact  implementation.  planning  involved  of  into  contribute  be  aspects  take  management  community  to  should  implementation  possibilities.  practices  process  socio-economic  closer  that  that  the  development  future  et  planning  project  should  proposed  Hoi l i n g  believe  with  between  larger  existing  are  through  potential  impacted  and/or  suggested  concerning  of  and c o o p e r a t i v e  integration  and  stages  representation  negotiation  components  the  development  associations -  non-token  A closer  part  project  have  concerned  government,  gives  form  socio-economic  process  proponents,  that  should  designed  associated with  the  this  to  be  development  sub-processes  components  -  process.  comprehensive  account such  These  should  15  management,  processes  that  (Boothroyd Boothroyd  environmental  and  and Rees  impact  -  16  -  " . . . . a new p a r a d i g m f o r E I A . . . e m e r g i n g f r o m c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e - particularly i n Canada. The new p a r a d i g m s e e s E I A as a m a j o r c o m p o n e n t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s r a t h e r t h a n as a p u r e r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y . . D e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g i s s e e n as e s s e n t i a l l y an ongoing p o l i t i c a l process i n the broadest sense of the t e r m , a p r o c e s s by w h i c h a s o c i e t y and i t s c o m m u n i t i e s make c h o i c e s a b o u t r e s o u r c e u s a g e and r e s o u r c e management i n s t i t u t i o n s . " (Boothroyd and R e e s , 1 9 8 4 : 7 ) .  and  The  concept of  the  the  management  of  comes of  partially  environmental  development time,  because  and of  information impacts, Rees  1984;  effort  produced the  one  attention  beginning  recognition  is 1983;  spent  that  the  shot  nature  1978),  approaches  and management  to managing e n v i r o n m e n t a l  goals are  to the  often  et  the  gain  al. lack  the  all  emerging  inadequate  processes.  C.S.  no  of  Paine  and  more  Holling  i m p a c t s and p r o b l e m s  et  i s one  et  the  process  how  much  1984);  partially  between management (Boothroyd  a concern about  closely  project  al.  1981),  parties-at-interest  support  prediction  matter  integration  process  This  with  (Barnthouse  1978;  assessment  and  associated  assessment  that  the  advocates.  and a l s o b e c a u s e o f of  between  identification  attempt  assessment of  link  impacts  the  Holling  during  the  is  in  regarding  al. to  a stronger  socio-economic  concern  New  is  of  be c o n c l u s i v e and  Holling et  1984).  assessment  the  Duinker a  i.e.  equal  Rees  and  impacts  and  cannot  money  Beanlands  of  from  development  the of and  the  lack  (Boothroyd  and  integrate  a l . ' s adaptive  impact approach  example:  "In e s s e n c e , t h i s approach provides a program of environmental assessment and management that responds to its effects as it proceeds. Knowledge g a i n e d i n e f f o r t s t o a s s e s s , r e g u l a t e , manage, and m o n i t o r m a n ' s e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact i s used t o improve these efforts. This sets the stage f o r an o n g o i n g , evolving program r a t h e r than a one-shot attack, and i t a l s o makes t h e most of programs t h a t cause u n f o r e s e e n p r o b l e m s . " (IIASA 1979:2).  -  of  The  p r o c e s s model  the  ideas  within model  2.  the  to  initiated  overall  be  f o r m one c o n t i n u o u s  described  above.  project  17  in  The  the  model  development  are:  major a)  monitoring;  components  impact and c )  Socio-Economic  In  order  identification h a s numerous  of  the  and  as the  plan  for  and  assessment three  the  Management  an  builds  integral  components  on  some  process  within  the  program or  and  examples  must  b)  management  process  concurrent  impact  plan.  Assessment  management  process  Process  impact  assessment;  Identification  to  purposes,  and  socio-economic  i m p a c t management  Impact  seen  pages  process.  identification the  is  process  Components- o f - t h e - S o c i o - E c o n o m i c - I m p a c t  The  following  be  of  impacts,  conducted.  are provided  some Impact  form  of  assessment  below:  "The purpose of the impact assessment system is to forecast project-induced change in local economic, demographic, public s e r v i c e , f i s c a l and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e r e b y t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r a n t i c i p a t i n g areas i n which problems are l i k e l y to a r i s e and w h e r e i m p a c t management e f f o r t s w i l l be n e e d e d . The s y s t e m c a n a l s o be u s e f u l in identifying opportunities for enhancement of project-related benefits. The i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t s y s t e m t h u s p l a y s a p r i m a r y r o l e i n g u i d i n g i m p a c t management e f f o r t s . " (Leistritz et a l . 1982:16) "Assuming t h a t the o b j e c t i v e of the S . I . A . process i s to improve t h e management o f c h a n g e , t h e n i n e a c h p h a s e i t i s t h e outcomes that are important.....project alteration and other mitigative measures w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d b a s e d on t h e information required. There is, then a necessary link between the data collection c o m p o n e n t and t h e d e c i s i o n / a c t i o n c o m p o n e n t . " (Singer 1984:3)  -  18 -  The basic objective of impact assessment i s to p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f p r o j e c t d e v e l o p m e n t o f m i t i g a t i o n and s o u n d m a n a g e m e n t . " (Rees, 1984:15)  Impact  assessment  management  process.  Assessment  and R e v i e w  is  an  The  important  following  Process  In  the  Canadian  socio-economic the  Federal  process  section  on  preparation conducted  anticipated of  by  the  make p r e s e n t a t i o n s concern  summarizes the  the review  mandate  purpose  of  assessment project design 1979).  given  approval of  of  process or  that  there  major  are  like  process  of  the  Process  the  is  to  project  problems  of  groups  and o f t e n  by  the  a  formal  project  Minister  of  the  and  The  functions  information if  the project  This  to  a  the review  experts that  may  are of  by t h e P a n e l  that  in accordance  with  Environment.  collected  should  is  This  public  and t e c h n i c a l  i s prepared  produced  assess  includes  addition  the proposed  A report  to  Statement.  a i d i n the decision-making processes  i m p a c t management  with  (E.A.R.P.).  In  includes  interest  information  rejection.  impact  Environmental  used  Impact  impacts.  E.A.R.P.  the aspects  Panel  the  t h e Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t  an E n v i r o n m e n t a l  to the Panel.  the  of  Federal  p r o c e s s and c o n t a i n s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  to  all  the  Citizens,  the  Review  socio-economic  regarding  t o them a n d / o r  of  and  proponent  Statement  a Panel.  the  developments  Assessment  by t h e  out  component  improvement.  the preparation  i s prepared  point  context,  impacts of major  involves  Statement  federal  Environmental  d i s c u s s i o n of  does  s u c h p r o c e s s e s and some n e e d s f o r  and n e c e s s a r y  identify the f o r purposes  also  within necessary  be  i s approved.  used  in  The the for the  (F.E.A.R.O.  Experience for  some  Rees  i t s effectiveness.  brief  to  identifies  the  (C.E.A.C.  Beaufort  some  of  year  his  existence 1979;  Rees  Sea E n v i r o n m e n t a l concerns  has a l l o w e d  regarding  1980 a , b ; Asssessment the  E.A.R.  The s e l f - a s s e s s m e n t r o l e o f t h e p r o p o n e n t s , t h e p o l i c i n g r o l e of t h e government i n t e r v e n e r s and t h e r e a c t i v e r o l e o f t h e impact communities produces a counterproductive and predictable process. ( " . . . a protracted game o f a d v e r s a r i a l one-upmanship." (Rees, 1983:4))  b)  the f a u l t y foundation assumption t h a t , given s u f f i c i e n t t i m e , money a n d e f f o r t , a l l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s c a n be p r e d i c t e d ;  c)  t h e o f t e n s w e e p i n g g u i d e l i n e s g i v e n by t h e E . A . R . P . P a n e l t h e p r o p o n e n t f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e Impact Statement;  d)  t h e o n e - s h o t n a t u r e o f t h e E . A . R . P r o c e s s w h i c h does n o t a l l o w f o r t h e assessment o f ongoing o r continuous development, a n d ; •  e)  t h e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e government  The  relevance i s often  restrictive the E.A.R.P. affect  Impact  Statement  review  rather  than  of of  information  limited  Process. nature  These  roles  and q u a l i t y  (Rees,  Process, as p a r t  1983).  to  impact  roles  by  t o , and u s e f u l  to  of  the  impact  i s a major  by  contained  that  o f a program  these  in  the  within  the concentration  a s an e n d i n  process  of  actors  made t o t h e P a n e l  here  management  as a r e s u l t  fostered  information  i s argued  E.A.R.P.  the relevant  and t h e a t t i t u d e s  f o r , the design  development,  existing  management  and p r e s e n t a t i o n s It  the  assigned  to  development.  i . e . on t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f i m p a c t s ,  o f an o v e r a l l  r e s u l t i n g from p r o j e c t  to favour  produced  usefulness  and i n t h e b r i e f s  process.  preliminary  the  and c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e  the  on t h e E . A . R .  is  i t s twelve  1983)  roles  the  his  Rees  (Rees,  of  over  a)  process  in  In  W.E.  Process:  the E.A.R.P.  assessment  1983).  Panel,  the  with  19 -  where  itself  assessment  t o manage  weakness o f t h e E . A . R .  impacts Process.  - 20 Whereas  critics  of  the  public  better  serve  process  as a means  the  to  the  E.A.R.P.  are  interest,  achieving  often  concerned  proponents  corporate  often  ends,  that  view  the  the  particularly  process  assessment  the approval  of  project.  The step  in  assessment requirements the  preparation  overall of  Farrow s t a t e  are viewed  development  a strategy  for  as a h u r d l e  process.  seeking  In  a  approval,  t o be j u m p e d ,  paper  that  E.  Stanley  W.  a single  advocates and J .  the  E.  L.  that:  "The objective should be t o o b t a i n the approvals e f f e c t i v e l y and w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f c o r p o r a t e g o a l s . achieve t h i s a strategy i s required.  q u i c k l y and In o r d e r t o  A strategy for obtaining approvals under the provisions environmental impact legislation is advisable f o r a number reasons: It c l a r i f i e s  corporate  objectives  It  improves  the understanding  It  i d e n t i f i e s and c o o r d i n a t e s  It provides problems  a  of of  framework  of the s i t u a t i o n a c t i o n s toward  for  anticipating  the corporate and  goal  responding  to  I t p r o v i d e s a t o o l w i t h w h i c h t h e manager c a n work p o s i t i v e l y toward a c h i e v i n g r e q u i r e d r e s u l t s . " ( S t a n l e y and F a r r o w , 1979 :1)  This hazardous (Stanley  strategy  is  described  process  of  socio-economic  and  Farrow,  1979:1).  a s s e s s m e n t as a p r e r e q u i s i t e of  t h e management  of  as  The  "a  impact  emphasis  to approval,  development  tool  for  navigating  studies is  on  for....  the  through  approval."  perception  of  n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a s an i n t e g r a l  outcomes.  The a s s e s s m e n t  the  process  is  the part often  -  s e e n as e x t e r n a l can  be  the  limits  of  from  the  to  the  benign  or  tolerance  nature  impact  development  of  the  statement  to  -  21  process.  negative  information,  information  The  attitude  compliance. the  and  attitude  the  toward  The  process  perception  will  proponent  the  affect  the  frames content  participation  in  the  review process.  The and  perception  can  vary  and a t t i t u d e s  from  project  g r o u p s c o u l d be u s e f u l of  the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  processes and  that  impactee  Where  be  be  the  the  special  stop, as  the  obscured  be  the  review In  of  process of  submissions  impacts to  contained  interest  toward  to  these that  found  to  which  intervenors  the  other the be  in  is  than  those  information token,  the  critical It  it  or  issues is  to  is  only  these  in  i n terms  verbal  terms of  the  Intervenor  submissions  through  not  and  forum f o r  to  a better  going  may  ahead.  itself.  discussing issues  development intervenors may  necessary create  a  information  process  intervenors'  and/or  by  impacts  impact  review  contributed  therefore,  produce  the  motivated  specific  negative,  on t h e  the  raised  on  is  project  Where  information  are encouraged to  the  change  produced.  important,  by  both  program.  impactee  on  process  are  and  comment  centering  is  the  and  diverse  meetings.  focussed  intended  produced  program d e s i g n ,  written  project,  review  impactees are  information  implementing  i s p e r c e i v e d as t h e  drawbacks,  be l a c k i n g .  the  and  be m a n a g e d ,  intervenor  modify  critiques  process  issues  focus  spite  is  perception  by  Where t h e r e v i e w concern,  The  i m p a c t management  considered in  delay or  attitude  of  be  intervenors  t h e t e c h n i c a l and c o m m u n i t y  limited,  Where may  to  should  the  the  project.  specific  information  in records of  desire  to  to  of  project  may  perceive  the  also  be  token.  and  impactees'  information  is  an e n v i r o n m e n t  in  q u a l i t y of  information.  - 22 Government roles  depending  •involved, the  project,  the  held  the  is  assessment  of  faith  proposed  be a f f e c t e d  depend  project,  impact  responsible  for  dealing These  fully  proponent's  impact  the  requisition  information  for  intervenors  if  them t o  in  do  so.  the the  the  have  process  of  similar  the  to  which  departments in  those  of  areas  or  proponents  the  of to  the  process  and  or  agency  attitudes  the  quality  agency  of  and  as an  the  favour  a'government  participates  review  different  protect  perceptions  commitment  of  bias  to  Where  to  and of  government  and/or  the  have  intervenor information  process, its  the  effect  department  is  on to  project.  the  potential as  social for  While  they  or  critique  process  the  employ and  to  is the  could  encouragement  most the  social  reasons,  participate  information  provided  contribute  often  whatever  the  management  to  intervention  process  additional  impact  some  degree  review  statement.  several  impact.  nature  agencies,  the  of  to  process  a departmental  department  management with  review  regulate  be  degree  the  agencies  participate  may  the  and t h e  for  to  on  as a r e s u l t o f  areas.  likely  effectiveness  information  impact  to  a government  process,  in the  Government  is  be  with  mandate  process  Where  will  initiator,  the  and  T h e r e may  possible that  review  above.  assessment  project.  project  it  the  contributed  the  the  with  the  proponent,  about  degree  the  others  which  described in  on  in  some s u c h as t h e  materials is  actors  only  useful  do to and  statement, be  personnel  programs not  in  always  critique often more  contributed  and/or  useful  the  leads useful  by  environment  these for  Suggestions Rees,  1984;  Rees,  assessment relevant  have  1983).  components  actors.  responsible project  been  for  design  such  impact  individuals,  the  of  project  and  impact  suggested  changes,  Rees  (1983)  E.A.R.P.  for  a  natural  result  agencies  and  assessment,  programs.  In  envisions  a  and  of  the  self-interests  of  the  in  the  proponent  being  socially  sound  and  might  be  policy  communities  (Boothroyd  restructuring  environmentally  on- m a n d a t e d  groups  monitoring  is  the  might an  a s o c i o - e c o n o m i c impact  proposals  of  government  interest  the  suggestion  advantage  The  of  -  reforming  restructuring  proposal.  while  preparing  for  preparation  the  for  take  This  analyzing the  One  to  the  made  23  responsible  and  might  including addition  program be  long-term  areas  responsible  impact to  for  management  such  goal  specific  for  impact  assessment:  " U l t i m a t e l y , of c o u r s e , i f p r o g r e s s i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the f i e l d proceeds to its logical c o n c l u s i o n , EIA as a d i s c r e t e s e t of project or development-related activities should disappear altogether. I t s v a r i o u s o b j e c t i v e s w i l l h a v e b e e n subsumed by a more p r o g r e s s i v e and humane d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . " (Rees, 1983:14)  As  stated  socio-economic for  some  greater  previously  impact  assessment  impact  management  process  has  The  components  now  be  years.  to  received discussed  component  of  considerable are  those  the  attention  in  need  inputs  to  of  attention.  Impact  Monitoring  The m o n i t o r i n g entire  the  of  socio-economic  i m p a c t s c a n be v i e w e d impact  management  as a s e t process.  of  support Seen  in  this  the  light,  - 24 monitoring process, to  to  the  the  are  design  and  ongoing  impacts.  socio-economic associated development  of  classes  environmental In  categories  of  considered  within  i m p a c t management  of  the  impact  The  process might  the  and  to  are  while  management  impact  the  appropriate are  would  to  overall  Issues  most or  to  anticipated environmental, social p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c a l l y to and m a n a g e r i a l p u r p o s e s ;  Socio-Economic  is  implement enhance  the  be  which  tracking  of  and e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s o f a provide data for m i t i g a t i v e  cumulative impact m o n i t o r i n g - monitoring with a focus on critical issues in a region that is undergoing rapid development or change, whether r e l a t e d to or independent of a particular project." ( R e e s 1984:15)  9)  It  -  nine  below:  monitoring  management  and  likely  8)  impact  the  the  monitoring of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c agreements or c o n t r a c t s the m o n i t o r i n g of the v o l u n t a r y or c o n t r a c t u a l agreements between industry and g o v e r n m e n t f o c u s i n g on industry's performance w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n d u s t r i a l e m p l o y m e n t and r e l a t e d b e n e f i t s ; project  of  closely  "7)  for  the  outlines  process,  are l i s t e d  of  more  to  Carley  that  program,  prediction  Monitoring-:-  management  contribute,  assessment  evaluation  and/or  Michael  categories  the  management  others  Socio-economic  three  socio-economic  to  monitoring  process  of  impact  impacts,  Beaufort--Region,  monitoring. the  evaluation  programs  of  Cumulative  Indicators --foi—Canadals  the  management  management  process.  the  implementation  impact  impact  to  unanticipated  Certain  with  critical  and  identification  current future  strategies  the  the  I m p a c t Management  purpose  strategies potential  to  of  the  reduce  benefits  Program/Plan  impact the  management  effects  of  or o p p o r t u n i t i e s  program  negative  to  design  impacts  associated with  the  and/or  and to  project.  It  is  also  strategies not  have  the that  been  the development  A  few  examples  i m p a c t management  purpose  of  have  25  of  the  the  impact  capability  identified  in  the  management to  respond  program to  assessment phase  to  impacts  but  do  provide that  may  result  from  project.  definitions  are quoted  that  refer  to  programs  of  socio-economic  below:  "Impact management, only recently recognized as part of the assessment process, includes public and private actions to ameliorate impacts. The use of available i m p a c t . management strategies can a f f e c t t h e outcome o r change i n t h e s o c i a l and economic environment i n a community." ( G r e e n e and C u r r y 1 9 7 7 : 1 ) "Management: This i n v o l v e s government or proponent response to i m p a c t s by t a k i n g t h e r e m e d i a l a c t i o n t o a v o i d o r m i t i g a t e a d v e r s e impacts or to maximize b e n e f i c i a l i m p a c t s . " (Walkey 1984:6) "...a comprehensive approach encompassing measures which enhance the project's local benefits and a p p r o a c h e s which provide for v a r i o u s forms of compensation ( e . g . monetary, in-kind) to local interests, as w e l l as a c t i o n s t o reduce or e l i m i n a t e negative effects " ( L e i s t r i t z et a l . 1982:12)  Objectives  The  of  following  the Socio-Economic  quotation  integrated  approach  objectives  of  in  presents  designing  an  Impact  Management  a framework impact  of  Program  elements  management  required  program  and  for  the  such a program:  " T h e o b j e c t i v e s o f an i m p a c t management p r o g r a m a r e t o a n t i c i p a t e and a l l e v i a t e t h o s e p r o j e c t e f f e c t s w h i c h a r e g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e d as u n d e s i r a b l e and t o e n h a n c e e f f e c t s w h i c h a r e deemed b e n e f i c i a l . I n d e s i g n i n g an i m p a c t management p r o g r a m , t h e u s e o f a s y s t e m s p e r s p e c t i v e s t r e s s e s t h e n e e d f o r an i n t e g r a t e d a p p r o a c h . There a r e f o u r e l e m e n t s t o s u c h an a p p r o a c h . These a r e :  an  major  (1)  t h e need f o r  (2)  t h e need t o i n t e g r a t e t h e impact the o v e r a l l p r o j e c t s c h e d u l e ;  (3)  the need to g r o u p s , and  (4)  a comprehensive  appropriately  Once  objectives  management  have  been  plan,  the  determined.  The  options  compensation  and  mitigation.  which broadens  "(1)  t h i s f i e l d of  measures to governmental measures change;  (3)  measures to  (4)  measures to ( L e i s t r i t z et  The  federal the  Project.  to  primarily  thesis  communities. the  two  Leistritz  compensate  al  are  the  be  et  al.  The f o u r  c a p a c i t y of  local  the  (It  impact  design  study  and  and p l a n n i n g  should funding  a four  systems  be n o t e d  initiatives  to  the  be  cope  with  interests."  plan for  are  the  strategies  Norman  second c a t e g o r y  of  throughout will  typology  (economic,  thesis  and m o n i t o r i n g that  of  and  in this  delivery  be  are:  local  of  should  category  systems  to  impact  d e s c r i b e d as m e a s u r e s  i n d i v i d u a l s or groups;  as m e a s u r e s  employed  categories  local  i n i t i a t i v e s under  with  and  be  use  on  considered  interests  socio-economic  to often  provide incentives 1982:19)  s o c i a l / c o m m u n i t y development Valley  consideration  the  for  strategies  options.  with  key  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t management  They would  concerned  enhance  funding  overall  or  activities  with the u n c e r t a i n t i e s inherent and the impacts thereof."  minimize demands and s o c i a l ) ;  (2)  all  established  measures for  management  involve  t h e need t o d e a l r e a l i s t i c a l l y in the development process ( L e i s t r i t z et a l . 1982:12)  "  within  approach;  programs within the  to  the  to  above, enhance  Mackenzie  remainder  referred  Wells  as  of  the  either  "initiatives"  or  to equate with  The  "strategy"  c h o i c e of  the  objectives  the  action  of  actors,  severity  of  the  Once t h e  connection,  however,  "program"  is  or  combination  degree  resources  specific  of  of  impact  strategies  available  to  management  responsibility  socio-economic must  be  requirements  are  requirements  and  the  be u s e d t o  achieve  plan  will  depend  on  designated  and  assumed  by  projected  magnitude  it  of  an  i m p a c t management  administered met.  effective  The  and  program or  and  implemented  following  program/strategy  list of  of  so  strategy that  criteria  program/strategy  socio-economic  will:  I.  reflect the participants  socio-economic impact in the review processes;  II.  be o p e r a t i o n a l p r i o r project construction occur;  III.  be p l a n n e d  to in  concerns  expressed  by  t h e commencement o f t h e development o r d e r t o d e a l w i t h i m p a c t s as t h e y  in s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l  so  that:  a)  measurable goals or t a r g e t s are d e f i n e d a g a i n s t which t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e p r o g r a m o u t l i n e s c a n be a s s e s s e d ;  b)  r e g u l a r r e v i e w s of program outcomes, a c c o r d i n g to defined goals or t a r g e t s , are conducted throughout implementation period;  c)  r e v i s i o n s to the defined t a r g e t s made b a s e d on t h e r e v i e w s .  or  goals  may  easily  is  basic  outlines  management.  The  meant  "measure").  socio-economic the  the  this  -  impacts.  however,  effectiveness the  the  In  or  strategy  involved,  various  chosen,  "programs".  27  the the  be  impact  - 28 IV.  u n a m b i g u o u s l y i d e n t i f y a l l t h e m a j o r p a r t i e s - a t - i n t e r e s t and their specific administration and implementation r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s in r e l a t i o n to the programs;  V.  be s t a t e d by a m a j o r i t y o f t h e p a r t i e s - a t - i n t e r e s t e f f e c t i v e p r o c e s s ( m e a s u r e d i n t h e i r own t e r m s ) ;  VI.  be a d m i n i s t e r e d u s i n g purposive a c t i o n toward  VII.  define planning processes implementation agents;  VIII.  designate potential  IX.  be p r o v i d e d w i t h f u n d s s u f f i c i e n t t o i m p l e m e n t t h e g o a l s and t a r g e t s t o t h e d e s i r e d l e v e l o f a c h i e v e m e n t .  These  used  evaluation  also  Wells  impact  these  criteria.  longer,  An  criterion  IX  from  meaningfully  to  the  programs  assessment,  in  be  of  than the  et  own  of  assessed  against  study  communities  development  was  appropriate  case  of  the  two  The  the would  agency for  first  program  require  this  a separate  Norman  seven  offices  Wells  the  Socio-Economic  list.  Norman  would r e q u i r e r e s e a r c h time s u f f i c i e n t f o r  of  in  VIII  Yellowknife  some  experience  against  the  program  in  al.'s  the  criterion  and  involve  contained  My  an  with the greatest p r o g r a m g o a l s ; and  Leistritz  helpful.  will  assessment  material  chapter.  particularly  and o n - s i t e  Valley  a  of  much  and  the  thesis.  A  impact  funding  thesis.  SUMMARY  In this  was  this  contributed  Mackenzie  C.  developed  writing  funding  indepth  package,  were  in  I m p a c t -Management  to  be  f a c i l i t a t e rapid of program g o a l s ;  t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e agencies f o r e f f e c t i v e l y implementing the  criteria  literature  processes that the achievement  to  summary,  chapter,  Planning  for  the  should the  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t management be  impact  an  integral  management  part  of  process  the  process,  project  should  take  as d i s c u s s e d  development place  as  part  in  process. of  the  overall  planning  management three  process  process  major  program.  integrated  and  the  discussion the  provides of  study  the  -  the  as  functions  of  to the  a  i n i t i a t i v e s are  It  continuous  within  overall  impact  framework provides  measured.  socio-economic  process  and  is  activities  these degree  also  The  monitoring  whatever  contextual  thesis.  -  development.  assessment,  overlap  objectives  remainder  which the  The  should  project  described  components  management  achieve  is  for  29  component is  for the  and parts  necessary  management the  to  an  up  of  impact  should  be  effectively  process.  analysis  specific  made  impact  This  contained  criteria  in  against  - 30 CHAPTER-III  THE-NORMAN-WELLS-IMPACT  A.  FUNDING  INTRODUCTION  The  purpose  of  process  content  analysis,  implementing actors'  the  two  chapter to  study  is  impact  and  to  present  document  the  funding  perceptions  section will  impact  funding  detail  available  improvement  in  than  programs the  from  quality  of  the  the  and t o  present  processes.  The  material  socio-eonomic  is  a  Portions  reflection  periods.  proposals  of  the  It and  is  also  reports  effectiveness  of t h i s  of  and  various  as  programs  review  administering  of  This  the different  of  of  in the analysis  initiatives  others.  findings  processes  of  be u s e d  the  i n t h e c a s e o f t h e Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t .  more  material the  two  in this  management contain  the  this  observations  presented of  INITIATIVES  the a  impact chapter  amount  of  reflection  of  over  the  funding  years.  B.  NORMAN WELLS-REVIEW  The of  each  purpose of  expressed Chapter  this  t h e two s t u d y during  II,  management  of  PROCESSES CONTENT A N A L Y S I S  the  analysis  initiatives  impact is  impacts  assessment to that  to  determine  processes.  of  information be  whether  the  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c impact  review  component  produce are  i s to  reflects  t h e Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t  process  project-induced  content  managed.  the  concerns  indicated in  socio-economic  regarding It  As  is  intent  the relevant  impact  potential to  the  -  subject  of t h i s  information purposes  thesis,  from  the  Norman  review the  Federal  National  Energy  Board  hearings.  The  other  processes.  two  expansion  impact  It  included  portion  national  context  Water  licenses  for  Board  both  hearings Esso  public,  was to  approval  process.  topic These  the  Project.  and  and  mandate  heard  as w e l l  official  the  the  oilfield  presentations technical  projects  intervenors  dealt  with  the  for  water  Ltd.  The  announcement  and,  by  also  the Board  socio-economic  chosen  in  were  the contents  Documentation  considerations  in a The  Pipelines  approval  the  only.  the a p p l i c a t i o n s  process.  p r o c e s s e s were  Transcripts  Board  considered  as f r o m  to assess energy  covered were  the  than  the It  I decided to analyse  Review  Water  both  it  Wells  Process;  project.  Interprovincial  after  t o by t h e M i n i s t e r o f D . I . A . N . D . of  the  were c o n c e r n e d s o l e l y w i t h  the issues  accessible,  thesis  in  Norman  Review  broader  the  impacts  in nature.  and t h e N . E . B .  readily  the  of  from  the  assessment  to consider  and  were  decision-making referred  held  the hearings  E.A.R.  relevant  were  conducted  Process  its  hearings  were  were  the  processes  in  hearings  p r i m a r i l y socio-economic  process  reflected  Territories  had a  h a s a mandate  Resources  not  and  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s  and p r e s e n t a t i o n s  Board  Process  Energy Board  of the P r o j e c t ,  is  assess  Northwest  as e n v i r o n m e n t a l  The N a t i o n a l  pipeline  the  aspects  residents  to  Assessment  and  E.A.R.  as w e l l  reviews  conducted  Wells  pipeline  community  'experts'.  although  the  or not the review  study.  were  hearings  whether  Project  Environmental  Norman  and  socio-economic  Water  Wells  processes  Project:  N.W.T.  t o know  o f t h e i n i t i a t i v e s under  Three  from  therefore,  -  31  the  because  from  of  these  concerns Cabinet's they  were  i n h i s press r e l e a s e announcing the from  the  E.A.R.P.  community  and  technical Reasons  for  N.E.B.  the  Decision  studying  studied,  was  the  used  materials  for expressions  two s t u d y  breaking in  were  as  for  was  the  the  Panel's  examination  of  Report. the  The  content  N.E.B. of  the  down  the text  mentioned  of concern  initiatives  'backgrounder'  Project.  under  related  review.  of the i n i t i a t i v e s to  The o r i g i n a l t e x t  the  above,  I  focused  attention  to the key elements These  key elements  as t h e y  press  release  i s quoted  below:-  were  approving  were  the  Norman  Initiative  b ) " P l a n n i n g s u p p o r t t o n o r t h e r n n a t i v e s t o e n a b l e them t o t a k e an a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e p l a n n i n g a n d m o n i t o r i n g o f t h e p r o j e c t a n d i n t h e d e s i g n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p r o g r a m s i n i t i a t e d i n response to the p r o j e c t . Projected funding over f i v e y e a r s : $1.25 m i l l i o n . " ( D . I . A . N . D . 1981:1)  a)  b)  .  .  i s o l a t e d from the t e x t a r e : -  community and s o c i a l development along the p i p e l i n e route a b i l i t y t o r e s p o n d t o needs as t h e y native involvement in the design program d e l i v e r y  needs  of  communities  are i d e n t i f i e d and o t h e r aspects  need f o r p l a n n i n g s u p p o r t a d e s i r e on t h e p a r t o f n o r t h e r n n a t i v e r e s i d e n t s an a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e p l a n n i n g and m o n i t o r i n g project  by  documented  a) " E n h a n c e d e x i s t i n g government programs to address the community and s o c i a l development needs of communities a l o n g t h e p i p e l i n e r o u t e so t h a t t h e y c a n r e s p o n d t o t h e p r o j e c t as t h e needs a r e i d e n t i f i e d . Native people w i l l be d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e s e p r o g r a m s a n d in aspects of program delivery as they relate s p e c i f i c a l l y to native communities. Projected government funding over f i v e y e a r s : $4.25 m i l l i o n . "  key elements  a  i s o l a t e d by  originally of  on  encompassed  Initiative  The  the  hearings.  In search  hearings  32 -  of  to take of the  Wells  - 33 a d e s i r e on t h e p a r t of northern d e s i g n and i m p l e m e n t programs that a r i s i n g from the p r o j e c t .  1.  Environmental  Assessment  According  R.J.D.  to  140 p r e s e n t a t i o n s . the  Mackenzie  made  during  the  concentrated in August,  the  of  the  The  residents  were  of  12  for  community  recorded  that  took  E.A.R.P.  Panel  heard  w e r e made b y r e s i d e n t s of  place  the in  issues.  presentations  Yellowknife  of  were  and  which place  All  meetings  took  meetings  focusing  on  expressions and  native  implied.  Monitoring, Dene  Meetings  of  revealed  that in  the  were  this  community the  of  table  findings  greatest to  that  are  importance  provide  a  the  key  summarized  in  to  basis  of  the  community  comparison  for  elements.  explicit,  the  above  102 p r e s e n t a t i o n s  were  of  Wells  remainder  environmental  transcripts  concerns  i n i t i a t i v e key  Out  on  Norman  presentations  The  meetings  V a l l e y Community  identified  II.  The  1980.  A study  Table  these  communities.  heavily  Process  (1981),  100 o f  technical  more  Mackenzie  elements  Page,  Over  Valley  and-Review  native residents to respond to impacts  concerning social  involvement  Nation,  from Mackenzie  as  socio-economic  development or  was  Erasmus.  community  impact  mentioned Planning  and/or  Although  these once as  residents,  issues  activities.  responsibility for  a process,  Georges  Valley  a  by  the  then  specific  the  not  processes  there need always  was  often  president  process  for  - 34 TABLE SUMMARY OF CONTENT ANALYSIS OF E . A . R . P . Concern r e s o c i o economic impacts a n d / o r Community and S o c i a l Development Issues  COMMUNITY  Monitoring  II MACKENZIE VALLEY COMMUNITY MEETINGS  Planning  Jobs/ Dollars to go t o the North  In F a v o u r o f Norman Wells Project  5 + H.N.  1  F o r t Norman (10 + H . N . )  Settle Claims First  Norman Wei I s (12) 6 + H.N.  F o r t Good Hope (10 + H . N . ) Fort  Franklin  (1) 1 + H.N.  Wrigley (12 + H . N . ) Hay R i v e r (10)  -  Hay R i v e r (12 + H . N . )  reserve  community  Fort (4)  Providence  Fort (7)  Simpson  F o r t Simpson (11 + H . N . ) F o r t Rae (3) Detah (4 + H . N . )  TOTAL  96+6  H.N.  1 (G.  Erasmus)  (G.  Erasmus)  12  (nb  H . N . • H e r b N o r w e g i a n - V i c e P r e s i d e n t o f Dene G . Erasmus = P r e s i d e n t o f Dene N a t i o n . )  Nation  (nb  The number o f e x p r e s s i o n s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e q u a l t h e number o f p r e s e n t a t i o n s . One p r e s e n t a t i o n may d i s c u s s more t h a n one c o n c e r n . )  5 + H.N.  2 + H.N.  3  1 + H.N.  1 (G.Erasmus) 1  3 3 + H.N.  26+1  30+6 H . N .  H.N.  18  - 35 social for  purposes  an  is  economic  'planning'  is  not  mentioned  development  at plan  used o c c a s i o n a l l y i n  government's  responsibility  all.  to  Georges  for  the  a general  improve  Erasmus  Mackenzie sense  its  refers  and  planning  to  the  Valley. always  for  need  The  word  concerned  future  with  megaproject  developments.  The  issues  communities  most  are;  any development to  accrue  Wells  to  often  the  settlement  and t h e  e.g.  of  jobs,  facilities,  accrue  the  and s o m e t i m e s  claims  settlement  an  issue  obvious  was  of  the  Dene a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s  better  with  The  residents  northern  expressed North  the  and/or  sometimes to  by  concern regarding the  northerners  Project,  mentioned  as  benefits  natives  a  that  a condition most  might  result The  of  one  for  for  to  expected  the  Norman  c o n c e r n was  benefits  support  important  be  latter  project of  Valley  and c l a i m s p r i o r  that  dollars.  belief  the  as  Mackenzie  would  the the  not  project. community  residents.  There  are  majority  of  18  these  S i m p s o n and Hay Mackenzie  expressions  Valley  expressions  River  non-native  Sample  quotations  A.  Community.  communities  numbers o f  Appendix  of  in  support were  for  from  the  Norman  residents  These  communities  which  meetings  of  are  were  Wells  Project.  The  Wells,  Fort  Norman larger  held,  than  and  the  have  other larger  residents.  from  the  E.A.R.P.  Community  Hearings  are  contained  in  - 36 City  of  There  Yellowknife  were  Yellowknife. Wells will The  Project.  The  much  support  The  there  only  the  be  for  Association  of  devolved  to  in  the  ensure  but  social  of  the  that  the  Northwest  Yellowknife  that  Jo  Northwest  the  native  the  only  that  problems  Mrs.  includes  i n terms of  in  Norman Project  Territories.  the  presentations  North  was  resulting  MacQuarrie  from  Territories  the  concept  of  communities intervention  from  to  the  with  North  the the  Norman Mental  a  actually  the  Health  number  health  as  Wells  of  decision-making  regarding that  left  s u b s i d i e s and  presents greater  not  was  power  and  social  mentions  native  decision-making.  Hearings  Presentations  the  the  impact  involvement  concerns  belief  expressed regarding monitoring,  This  environmental  the  to  hearings  i n support  accrue  problems.  Technical  is  community  benefits  One  is  support  mentioned  project  the  to  the  a r e made  stimulation  made  intervenor,  recommendations. being  often  increased  One  during  unconditional.  this  were  for  economic  always  of  made  presentations  reason  arrangements  Concerns  Project.  six  major  most  costs  potential  the  needed  i s not  concern  that  presentations  Five of  bring  well.  six  at  issues.  focused  proponents.  the The  Technical  presentations  p r i m a r i l y on t h e The  Hearings  critiques  that  Soc i o - E c o n o m i c of  the  were did  concerned deal  with  mainly  socio-economic  Impact - Statement  statement  were  with  concerned  prepared about  by the  - 37 amount need  of  time projected  for  and i f  more  time  project  benefits  were  to  be e n h a n c e d .  Two  expressions  that  These  of  proper  package  venture  proposal of  were  the  of  to  the  were  the  to  project. be  relevance  expressions  provide  the  of  the  to  the  regarding  strategies  A  mitigated  interventions  have  contained  data  to  the  these  A  and  the  and f o r  the  possibility  for  of  the is  advice.  It  of  the  communities  decision-making  but  the  consulting with  and s o l i c i t i n g  two the  is placed  not  in  programs,  Panel  Report.  recommendations  Panel  funding of  noted  planning,  that  native the  program  emphasis  people of  less  on  The  directly  programs. the  other joint  the  significant  advice from the  the  are  involvement be  the  of  Panel's  however,  impact  should  the  Some  training  within  of  whether  purposes.  funds,  a number  Report  determine  initiatives,  contains  Panel  GNWT  recommendations  recommendations  consultation  to  Panel  initiative  e.g.  study  purposes  Process -  studied  i n the  direct  two  are  relevant  were  initiatives,  Appendix  involvement  impacts  i m p a c t management  and R e v i e w  reflected  identified.  for  of  baseline  contents  were  funding  of  planning  Assessment  Report  recommendations  thrust  interventions  if  for  monitoring.  Panel  contents  contained  sufficient  Environmental  The  prepare  be n e c e s s a r y  issues.  meaningful  to  to  initiative  establishment  in order  felt  meetings  for  available  was  technical  necessity  as  The  that major  communities recommended delivery  the  the Mackenzie  need  or for  Valley.  -  38  -  The P a n e l ' s c o n c l u s i o n r e a d s as f o l l o w s :  "The P a n e l ' s r e v i e w o f t h e p r o j e c t h a s l e d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t b e f o r e t h e Norman W e l l s O i l f i e l d E x p a n s i o n and P i p e l i n e P r o j e c t c a n be - - b u i l t within • -acceptable 1imits - of e n v i r o n m e n t a l - -and socio-economic -impact, important d e f i c i e n c i e s -in - the- Proponents' planning and- i n the preparedness • of government n e e d - t o - be rectifiecH I h i s c o n c l u s i o n h a s l e d t h e P a n e l t o recommend t h a t t h e p r o j e c t n o t be p r o c e e d e d w i t h u n t i l 1982 a t t h e e a r l i e s t , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e s e d e f i c i e n c i e s c a n be d e a l t w i t h . " (FEARO 1 9 8 1 : 3 )  2.  on  National  Energy Board  Review  Twenty-one  presentations  the  Wells  Norman  made by c o m p a n i e s and w e r e  in  Project  by  was  made  the  the  Ontario  Project N.W.T.  by  but  Hay  of  Commerce  Agency  organizations benefits and  Metis  of  the  and t h e  project  Government  gave c o n d i t i o n a l  gave  seven  Inuvik  Corporation  These  Village  would of  the  oil  Fort  one  the  more  made  another made  by  supporting made  The  the  by  the  conditions  s h o u l d be made  northerners.  Northwest  supporting  was  were  Simpson.  concerted e f f o r t accrue to  made  were  industry,  District),  presentations of  hearings  and g a s  were  were  Board  presentations  and  and  presentations  attached.  Association withheld  government  Two  Energy  presentations  (Alberta,  stipulated that  the  National  twenty-one,  Two  Development  Energy.  the  associated with  Project.  conditions  presentations that  federal  of  to  the  the  River  Stamping  Yellowknife,  The  of  Chambers  with  made by b o t h  Of  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s  Minister  Grade  ensure that  Project.  support  the  w e r e made  The  Territories  City  also  to of  made  support.  support  acknowledgement  for of  the and  proposed some  project  action  until  toward,  the five  conditions  jointly  submitted  39 -  by t h e Dene  Nation,  the G.N.W.T.  and t h e  Metis  Association:-  "(1)  t h e need t o f o r m u l a t e a l o n g - t e r m p l a n f o r t h e development non-renewable r e s o u r c e s i n t h e Northwest Territories;  (2)  t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a n o r t h e r n b a s e d a u t h o r i t y t o c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t e development t o a d e q u a t e l y serve t h e i n t e r e s t s o f the people of t h e Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s ;  (3)  the requirement  (4)  the requirement for policies and programs to ensure the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f e n e r g y s u p p l i e s t o meet t h e p r e s e n t and f u t u r e needs o f N o r t h e r n e r s ; a n d ,  (5)  t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r some r i g h t s and c l a i m s . " (NEB  There The  five  time  was  f o r a plan f o r the sharing of  interventions  Arctic  land-use  affecting the  were  Canadian  claims, that  Resource  planning, needed  the Mackenzie  opinion  that  Foundation  (C.J.L.) no  Territories. land  Project that  projects.  for  The C . J . L .  until  until  of  The  such time  they  these  should  Canadians  to  Dene  community  The Dene N a t i o n ' s  for  approval  chiefs  c l a i m s were  the land,  they  of  issues  and h e l d  approval. among  other  things, and  Liberty that  it  Northwest  would  prejudice  They h e l d  p o s i t i o n was t h e same a s t h a t  good  the  opposition  not benefit  position  expressed  on t h e b a s i s  in  native  developments  for Justice  the Project were  of  C.A.R.C.  of  Project.  the  any  residents  settled.  could  aboriginal  before  the Project  nor  that  controlled  the  The C o m m i t t e e  felt  as t h e i r  issues  require,  impacts.  of  t o t h e Norman W e l l s  the North  receive  would  royalties;  area  identified to  was i n o p p o s i t i o n  benefits  claims.  with  Project  a n d management  provided  deal  the  in opposition  Committee  Valley  the  movement in 1981:118)  and b e n e f i t s  to  monitoring  Dene  of  from  to  the  the position development  o f t h e Dene c h i e f s .  - 40 In  documenting  Norman  Wells  its  E.A.R.P.  consultation  by  establishment  of  and  appropriate  likely  it  be  facilities  further  Project's NEB  placed  potential  related  resource  harvesting,  effects  on  established  3.  a  unduly the of  taxing  with  community  associated with  places  the  of  recommends  the  responsibility  also  from  the  community  proponents,  NEB  t h e GNWT  expresses  the project  its  and w i l l  the  infrastructure, (NEB  and  that  services,  1981:126)  would  on t h e g r a n t i n g  of  preparation,  the concerns  and  socio-economic  was f e a s i b l e  The  Board  socio-economic d e s i r a b i l i t y ,  consultation,  the  Project  and l i a b i l i t i e s  compensation  regional  It  The  area".  i t s regional  benefits  to deal  also  least  Wells  impact  conditions  communities, that  t h e Norman  to the proponents's  socio-economic plans  suggested  of  Board  with  benefit  supports  importance  system.  agencies.  Board  of the c o s t s .  of  i n terms  a number  conditions  that  The  impacts  will  "without  that  modest  monitoring  Energy  the  and g o v e r n m e n t .  burden  resources  National  stressing  government  concluded  and  in  northerners  built  the  socio-economic  federal  native  Board  could  states  of  bear t h e g r e a t e r  The  Panel  an e f f e c t i v e  the monitoring  that  views,  proponents  for  opinion  own  out.  a certificate.  prior  brought  balance  the The  These  to construction,  before  the Board,  of  e.g.  opportunities  for  northerners,  mitigation.  The  Board  impact  monitoring  system  also be  Project.  Summary  The purposes  content of  the  analysis two  findings  study  indicate  initiatives  that reflect  in  a  general  sense,  socio-economic  the  concerns  expressed reflect of  during  the  t h e major  aboriginal  community enabling  rights  communities  expressed  the E . A . R . P .  of  association  with  sense,  C.  to  f o r development.  prepare  i n terms with  by Georges  planning federal  and  program  monitoring  Erasmus,  monitoring  in  the  and proponent  r e f l e c t e d i n t h e two i n i t i a t i v e  contents.  a)  General  John  Munro,  announced  attempt  settlement to  address  t h e need f o r  involvement  of  and a d v i c e , delivery  do n o t  it  native was n o t  or  project  once  during  o f t h e Dene N a t i o n . review  processes  preparedness therefore,  Most  was  in  a n d management  are  in a  general  INITIATIVES  Events  Minister  the approval  on J u l y  was t h e  was m e n t i o n e d  President  concerns,  Approval  an  The  consultation  DOCUMENTATION OF - IMPLEMENTATION OF THE  Project  reflect  process  1.  which  They  and t h e c o n c e r n r e g a r d i n g  of  with  government  The r e v i e w  They  planning,  concern  processes.  northerners  needs  Native  responsibilities.  the native  review  development  hearings  discussion  Project  claims.  connection  decision-making.  -  and l a n d  was e m p h a s i z e d in  Wells  concern of  and s o c i a l  communities  Norman  41  of  of  Indian  t h e Norman  3 0 , 1981, subject  to  Affairs Wells a delay  and  Oilfield  Northern  Development,  Expansion  and P i p e l i n e  in construction  start  up.  Mr.  Munro s t a t e d t h a t  t h e " d e l a y was i n r e s p o n s e t o c o n c e r n s r a i s e d b y t h e n a t i v e  people  in  the  Mackenzie  Territories  that  more  time  Valley  and  be a l l o w e d  the  Government  for effective  of  the  and m e a n i n g f u l  Northwest planning  so  that  special  construction announced  measures  phase  as p a r t  of  and  this  $1  42 -  benefit billion  of the approval  packages  are  project."  in  effect  (D.I.A.N.D.  was a b e n e f i t s  during  the  1981:1).  Also  package:  "We r e c o g n i z e t h a t t o o o f t e n , w i t h o u t f r o n t - e n d s u p p o r t and t i m e f o r p l a n n i n g , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e do n o t a l w a y s e q u a t e t o m e a n i n g f u l i n v o l v e m e n t , j o b s and b e n e f i c i a l experiences,....For t h i s r e a s o n , I h a v e i n s i s t e d on a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p a c k a g e o f v a r i o u s programs t o t a l l i n g ' $20 m i l l i o n over t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n p h a s e s o f t h e p r o j e c t t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , j o b s a n d b u s i n e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h we h a v e i n s i s t e d be p a r t o f t h i s p r o j e c t a r e r e a l a n d m e a n i n g f u l . The e n h a n c e d program package w i l l i n c l u d e o n - t h e - j o b and i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , s t r e n g t h e n e d s e r v i c e s a t t h e community l e v e l t o cope w i t h p o s s i b l e disruptions and c h a n g e s , funding for the Government of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s to finance additional public services that w i l l be r e q u i r e d , and c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e Dene and M e t i s t o p e r m i t them t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g a n d p r o g r a m m i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n conjunction with a l l levels of government. Final approval on program f u n d i n g and c o n d i t i o n s i s s u b j e c t t o T r e a s u r y B o a r d r e v i e w and a p p r o v a l . " (D.I.A.N.D. 1981:3).  The  press  (Appendix package study  B),  "backgrounder" details  and t h e  maximum  initiatives  are  particular  initiatives  Development  Program;  The project  press  resources  with  an  individual  dollar  came  to  of be  the  initiatives  allocations  components  further  to  this called  stated  "ensure  government  are allocated  addition,  accompanied  for  that  agencies  i n t h e most  advisory  committee  that  and  effective  each  the  (a)  impact  package.  of  funding  and  two  these Social  Program.  would is  The  Later  Community  planning  appoint  undertaken  associations  manner."  release  initiative.  Minister  native  consisting  the  and M o n i t o r i n g  the  detailed  announcement  of  benefits  and ( b ) t h e P l a n n i n g S u p p o r t  release  coordinator  conjunction  In  the  that  (D.I.A.N.D.  representatives  and  a in  that  1981:4). from  the  -  43 -  TABLE I I I L I S T I N G OF C R I T I C A L EVENTS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TWO STUDY IMPACT FUNDING PROGRAMS NORMAL WELLS PROJECT  Event Project Approval Announcement  Date Occurred  Participant(s)  J u l y 3 0 , 1981  Minister  Request f o r 1981-82 Funds both Programs  Sept.  Dene N a t i o n and Metis Association  Revised  November 1981  Dene N a t i o n and Metis Association  Formal D e s i g n a t i o n of N a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n s as r e s p o n s i b l e agents f o r t h e Community/ S o c i a l Development Funds  Nov.  Minister of D . I . A . N . D . , GNWT., Dene N a t i o n and M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n  Contribution Agreement signed f o r 81/82 Funds o f both Programs  March  Deadline f o r completion of 81/82 Program Activities  May 3 1 , 1982  I n i t i a l requests f o r 1982/83 Funds  May 1982  Final Submission f o r 82/83 Funds both Programs and a d d i t i o n o f 83/84 Requests  Oct. Nov.  Request  3 0 , 1981  11,  1981  1 2 , 1982  27-28/82 2/82  of  Implementation Expected Actual  D.I.A.N.D. Nov.  1/81  D.I.A.N.D., Dene N a t i o n , Metis Association  Nov  Dene N a t i o n Metis Association  Mar 3 1 / 8 1  May 3 1 / 8 1  Summer 82  Mar  17/83  Summer 82  Mar  17/83  Dene N a t i o n Metis Association  1/81  Mar 12/82  Mar 12/82  -  44 -  TABLE I I I L I S T I N G OF C R I T I C A L EVENTS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TWO STUDY IMPACT FUNDING PROGRAMS NORMAL WELLS PROJECT - - Continued —  Event  Date Occurred  Participant(s)  Implementation Expected""^ Actual  Project Construction Commences  J a n u a r y 1983  Esso I.P.L.  82/83, 83/84 Contribution Agreements Signed  March  D.I.A.N.D., Dene N a t i o n Metis Association  Summer 8 2  Mar 17/83  Submission of 1984-85 P r o p o s a l  January  Dene N a t i o n Metis Association  Apr  A u g 84  Additional Component t o C o m m u n i t y and S o c i a l Development P r o g r a m  April  Contribution Agreements s i g n e d 1 9 8 4 - 85 P r o g r a m s  A u g u s t 1984  D.I.A.N.D., Dene N a t i o n Metis Association  Apr  1/84  A u g 84  Submission of 1 9 8 5 - 86 P r o p o s a l s  Dene-March/85 Metis-Apri1/85  Dene N a t i o n Metis Association  Apr  1/85  A u g 85  Contribution Agreements s i g n e d 1985-86 Programs  August  D.I.A.N.D. Dene N a t i o n Metis Association  Apr  1/85  A u g 85  17,  1983  1984  1984  1985  Dene  1/84  Nation  Aug 84  communities  i n the Mackenzie  coordinator  and t o  consideration."  b)  A  approval  reading  more  of  recent  differing being  this  intended.  issues  A  There  Dene N a t i o n  the  relevant  to  the  officials  of  Norman  some  Wells  press  that  may h a v e  of  give  the  the  project  are given  full  conference,  said  Munro  and Dene  been  the  of  source  of  slightly  with  leaders  content  and  and w h a t was  met  the discussions that different  conference.  conference,  indications  o f w h a t was b e i n g  and t h e M e t i s  to  took than  the  discuss place  at  the press  later  problem  process.  of  the  a n d , i n some perceptions  reactions  cases,  from  of more  and emphases  the  relevant  recent  concerning  actors,  interviews,  as  helps  the approval  and  initiatives.  and t h e M e t i s  newspaper  assist  at a press  accounts  actors,  and c o n c e p t i o n s  a discrepancy  the varying  impact f u n d i n g  to  and needs  in Yellowknife  may h a v e h a d a somewhat  at the time  indicate  interests  newspaper  are indications  documentation  The  with  i n t h e i m p a c t management  recorded  the  government  Such  local  was made  release,  Prior  morning meeting  conference.  to  press  discussions  approval.  that  be c r e a t e d  1981:4).  announcement  the  was t o  Observations  interpretations  territorial the  and  Valley  ensure  (D.I.A.N.D.  Perceptions  The  "help  45 -  accounts Project  Association  documenting suggest  t h e announcement  that  the  native  of  the  community  approval  of  leadership  concentrated from  the  mainly  upon  Native - Press  1981 e d i t i o n  46 -  the promise  -  August  illustrate this  14,  of 1981  the  delay  issue  in  and t h e  start  up.  News  Quotations  North  July  31,  point:  " I n an i n f o r m a l p o l l o f t h e Dene c h i e f s who c o u l d be c o n t a c t e d by t e l e p h o n e , the N a t i v e Press found a m a j o r i t y o f o p i n i o n i n favour of the federal cabinet d e c i s i o n to delay the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Norman W e l l s p i p e l i n e f o r two y e a r s . " (Native Press 1981:4). "A ' m a j o r v i c t o r y ' i s how t h e Dene N a t i o n and t h e M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n of the N.W.T. are d e s c r i b i n g the federal cabinet approval of the Norman Wells pipeline conditional upon a two-year delay in c o n s t r u c t i o n and a package o f b e n e f i t s f o r t h e p e o p l e l i v i n g i n t h e Mackenzie V a l l e y . " ( N a t i v e Press 1981:4) "Georges Erasmus, p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Dene N a t i o n , called Munro's a n n o u n c e m e n t o f a c o n s t r u c t i o n d e l a y on t h e Norman W e l l s p i p e l i n e , "a g i a n t leap forward....This i s a very significant, positive decision f o r the North. The d e l a y a n d c o n d i t i o n s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l mean m a j o r b e n e f i t s f o r a l l N o r t h e r n e r s . " (News N o r t h 1 9 8 1 : 5 . )  The  native  emphasizing  Minister's  The  subject  speech  of  was a s u b j e c t  and M r . Munro  of  this  or within  a monitoring  that  b r i e f i n g meeting  package  that  that  of the s p e c i a l  was a s u b j e c t were  t h e Norman W e l l s  material  i s mentioned brought  held  project  to  funding  d i d not appear  the background  agency  agency  i n meetings  with  i n favour  he h a d p r e v i o u s l y  The m o n i t o r i n g  involvement  also reacted  a component  the  panel.  leaders  mainly  before of  anywhere  given by  Mr.  1981,  within  the  press.  Erasmus.  t h e Norman W e l l s  discuss the native  h e l d the morning of t h e approval  to  d i s c u s s i o n between  i n May,  package,  It  E.A.R.P. the  Dene  associations'  and p e r h a p s  i n the  announcement.  " M u n r o ' s announcement a l s o i n c l u d e d t h e development o f a m o n i t o r i n g agency w h i c h w i l l s t u d y s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c and e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts of the p i p e l i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n . E r a s m u s s a i d t h e two y e a r d e l a y w i l l allow for a monitoring agency "that has teeth" to make recommendations about the c o n s t r u c t i o n . He s a i d he w a n t s the  agency to "modify North 1981:5).  as much  as  47  -  p o s s i b l e unnecessary  dangers."  (News  " B o t h Erasmus and B o u r q u e noted t h a t an i m p o r t a n t part of the conditions for approval was t h e establishment of a monitoring a g e n c y " w h i c h w i l l e n s u r e t h e p r o j e c t i s c a r r i e d o u t w i t h o u t undue environmental damage and in a manner that will protect our interests." "We want Erasmus.  to  make s u r e  the  monitoring  agency  has  teeth  in  Both l e a d e r s a l s o h a i l e d t h e p r o v i s i o n of community development programs, c a l l i n g i t a " b r e a k t h r o u g h . "  it,"  and  said  social  "To o u r k n o w l e d g e , t h i s i s t h e f i r s t t i m e a d e c i s i o n had b e e n made to deal with the social consequences of development prior to development a c t u a l l y g e t t i n g underway. It's a s o u n d d e c i s i o n and s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d as p a r t o f t h e a p p r o a c h t o a n y development." (Native Press 1981:20).  In  a  February,  members f o r the  the  powers".  (Irving  These  points  that are  1985-1987 Impact  I  "immediate  "establishment  announcement  interview  t h e Dene N a t i o n ,  Dene e x p e c t e d  and  1985  Kate  learned that  implementation  of  a  monitoring  and  Gorman  the  community  reiterated Proposal -  with  1981).  The  advisory  in  Norman  the  Irving  with of  the  that  would  would  summary  Wells P i p e l i n e  Gorman, of  the  and s o c i a l  understood  committee  executive  Marg  approval  community  agency Dene  and  at  have the  report of  the  staff  project, programs" regulatory  time to  of  the  "Dene  Project.":  "Federal a p p r o v a l f o r t h e Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t was c o n d i t i o n a l . The c o n d i t i o n s i n c l u d e d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p a c k a g e o f v a r i o u s p r o g r a m s t o t a l l i n g more t h a n $20 m i l l i o n t o e n s u r e m e a n i n g f u l involvement, j o b s and b e n e f i c i a l e x p e r i e n c e f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e . Other c o n d i t i o n s set by then Indian and Northern Affairs Minister John Munro included: a two y e a r d e l a y s o n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r a s h a r e o f r e v e n u e s be s e t t l e d as p a r t o f t h e Dene l a n d c l a i m s n e g o t i a t i o n s ;  could  the Dene.  Nation  c r e a t i o n of business massive t r a i n i n g programs;  48  -  enterprises,  awarding  of  contracts  and  creation of a monitoring agency w i t h broad-based northern p a r t i c i p a t i o n s o t h a t undue e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage was a v o i d e d and n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s w e r e p r o t e c t e d ; and immediate launching of community and social development programs w e l l b e f o r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a r t e d . " (Dene N a t i o n 1 9 8 5 : 1 ) .  These project with the  Also 1981 of the  perceptions  process  and  provide  are  relevant  implementation of  of  relevance to  e d i t i o n of  the  some o b s e r v e r s Norman W e l l s  at  the  the  this  frame to  the  time  later  impact funding  section  Native Press that the  within  of  the  are give  which these  actors  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of  viewed  satisfaction  package.  two  quotations  another  announcement  from  the  i n d i c a t i o n of concerning the  August  the  14,  feelings  approval  project:  " E d i t o r i a l of N a t i v e P r e s s , August "Pipeline victory? Only time w i l l  the  14, 1984 tell.  The f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t d e c i s i o n t o p u t t h e Norman W e l l s p i p e l i n e on ' h o l d ' f o r two y e a r s , w i t h some p r o v i s i o n f o r n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p i p e l i n e h a s b e e n v i e w e d as a v i c t o r y by most n a t i v e l e a d e r s . T h i s may o r may n o t be t r u e . The r e a l v e r d i c t w i l l come s o m e t i m e i n t h e n e x t 24 m o n t h s . And t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e a r e now l o o k i n g a t a f i r m d e a d l i n e f o r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s n e g o t i a t i o n b e c a u s e I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n Affairs M i n i s t e r J o h n M u n r o ' s a n n o u n c e m e n t o f two w e e k s ago l e f t no d o u b t t h a t when t h e two y e a r p e r i o d i s up t h e p i p e l i n e g o e s a h e a d . And w h i l e n a t i v e and c o m m u n i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w i l l h a v e an " a d v i s o r y " r o l e i n M u n r o ' s own w o r d s , t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a u t h o r i t y remains with the f e d e r a l government." (Native Press 1981:1). " S i n c e F e b r u a r y and M a r c h o f l a s t y e a r , n a t i v e g r o u p s , f e d e r a l and t e r r i t o r i a l g o v e r n m e n t s as w e l l as p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e h a v e a r g u e d over and negotiated the controversial Norman Wells pipeline project. Until now, t h e t e r r i t o r i e s h a v e b e e n c r i t i c a l of the  of  -  49 -  p r o p o s a l , e x p r e s s i n g f e a r s o f d e t r i m e n t a l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c impact and insubstantial financial benefits. Now w i t h t h e F e d e r a l Cabinet's d e c i s i o n t o approve t h e p i p e l i n e p r o j e c t w i t h p r o m i s e s o f a two y e a r d e l a y , t h e a n i m o s i t y t o w a r d s t h e p r o j e c t has a b a t e d and n a t i v e and t e r r i t o r i a l g o v e r n m e n t leaders are scrambling t o prepare f o r and b e n e f i t f r o m t h e p r o j e c t . " (Native Press 1981:5).  The  announcement  official project  2.  and  relevant  to the federal  actors  government  period  of time  from  construction  in January,  meaningful  planning"  actors  during  this  became  and i n p l a n s  involved  preparing  in  f o r the  3 1 j 1982  more s p e c i f i c  material  of  actions  period  project  1981:1) and  will  should  events  give  will  because they  an  to  the documentation.  a r e most  place. the of  first,  Relevant  what  actors for this  to  These  was  followed  i n i t i a t i v e s that  government.  A  relevant  A discussion of relevant  c l o s e l y connected  review.  "effective  take  indication  be d i s c u s s e d  a s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e f e d e r a l  i n i t i a t i v e s under  t h e commencement  involving  c o n c e r n i n g t h e two i m p a c t f u n d i n g  complete  a r e t h e two n a t i v e  until  was  events  in the analysis of e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  perceptions  two s t u d y  announcement  1983 i s t h e d e l a y p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h , (D.I.A.N.D.  time  General  be u s e d  the approval  documentation  accomplished.  chosen  then  start-up.  chronological  to  the  T h e D e l a y P e r i o d - J u l y 3 0 , 1981 - December  The of  responses  made,  by are  actor thesis  actors are  the implementation  of the  a)  General  As  will  of  the  Norman  that  approval  Wells  that  Project  Coordination--Office,  is  Coordination  Office Office's  of-Selected- Issues hereafter  called  a project  undertaken  (D.I.A.N.D.  The  information,  be a p p o i n t i n g  associations  manner."  appointed.  Mid-Project-Evaluation  release  planning  and n a t i v e  effective  was  press  he w o u l d  detailed  agencies  most  coordinator  the  announced  ensure  government in  Events  part  D.I.A.N.D.  50 -  and t h a t  was  of  coordinator,  "who  conjunction  with  are allocated  In  1981,  created  mandate  Minister  resources  1981:4).  Related the  in  the  as  August and  an  described  interim in  Mid-Project • Evaluation,  "(1)  Coordination o f government regulation o f t h e Norman Wells Project and o f incremental government programming f o r the project, including administering special project-related f e d e r a l f u n d s o f up t o $ 2 1 . 4 m i l l i o n .  (2)  Oversee federal performance and company commitments to e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p r o j e c t . " ( I n t e r Group C o n s u l t i n g Economists L t d . 1 9 8 4 : 5 4 ) .  achievement  o f t h i s mandate  Secure co-operation departments/agencies and co-ordination efforts.  the  t o t h e Norman W e l l s - P r o j e c t is  follows:  The  the  necessitates the following a c t i v i t i e s : -  from relevant government the G.N.W.T to participate in  E s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n m e c h a n i s m s t o f a c i l i t a t e : e x c h a n g e o f i n f o r m a t i o n among r e l e v a n t g o v e r n m e n t (2) t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i m p a c t s a n d r e s o l u t i o n affecting the project that may result from activites.  (1) regular g r o u p s , and of problems regulatory  as  -  51 -  Administer and m o n i t o r the special federal funding. This includes preparing Treasury Board submissions, contribution a g r e e m e n t s a n d o b t a i n i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y r e p o r t i n g on t h e u s e o f funds from t h e r e c i p i e n t s . Liaise with, a d v i s e and b r i n g t o g e t h e r as needed government agencies, l o c a l g r o u p s and p r o p o n e n t s t o d i s c u s s a n d , where p o s s i b l e , r e s o l v e c o n c e r n s about p r o j e c t r e l a t e d programs. Prepare and disseminate information about the g o v e r n m e n t ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e Norman W e l l s p r o j e c t . Group C o n s u l t i n g E c o n o m i s t s 1984; D . I . A . N . D 1 9 8 4 ) .  The  Office's  suasion with  and " a n ' o p e n - d o o r '  primary  1981:21). Cabinet until  coordination  interests  No s p e c i a l for  the  and/or  responsible  the  other  commuted  the Office's  Ottawa.  was s t i l l  This  status  Norman W e l l s S u p p o r t that  main  responsible, continued Group  much o f t h e f i r s t  s i x months  on e s t a b l i s h i n g f u n c t i o n s was no r i g i d  concept  established 1985).  as  The  established  an  and g e t t i n g  people  o f w h a t was t o be d o n e , office  impact  with  to a year  other  before  funding  pipeline  procedures  departments,  of  From  two  August  people  Ottawa  and  unit  1983.  still  in  impact  Yellowknife  The  interim  operated  out  of  M r s . S . Meldrum o f t h e  the O f f i c e ' s  in place.  i n J u l y 1985,  work  She s t a t e d there  construction were  1981,  In t h e s p r i n g  i n an i n t e r v i e w  but that  by  based  the  in Yellowknife.  January of recalled  (D.I.A.N.D  D.I.A.N.D.  of operation.  and a s u p p o r t  i n Ottawa,  of  moral  and a g e n c i e s  administering  between  commenced  until  of  for  and m e c h a n i s m s  operation  departments  the Minister  consisted  extensively  methods  cooperation,  responsibilities.  was  funding,  coordinator  to  Office  person  by  responsibilities."  this  staff  1982 t h e O f f i c e ' s  federal  1982,  One  of  was g i v e n  Office's  Ottawa.  establishing  achieved  regulatory  authority  of  is  approach between  the Coordination  spring  function  federal (Inter  that  there  was a p u s h  t o be  started.  initiated,  and t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n  was f o c u s e d  (Meldrum  contacts  aspects  were  were set in  motion. Norman  As  Advisory  As  1982,  has  been  was  to  Dene  in  the  interim  coordinator  which  contacts  to  December  2,  1981  and  Indian  the  to  in  at  Metis  the  proposal,  p l a c e d on t h e i r  Wells  met  for  established  the  for  establishing  Metis  Leadership  Affairs.  first the  the  time  in  Community  question  A  paper  a  took  a  of  result  for  Leadership place  these  a position  for  Dene  Nation's of  all  the  week  of  later  held  on  meetings,  paper  their  the  Meeting  was  an  requests  the  during  meeting of  to  however,  support  follow-up  prepared  summary  of  and  initiated their  same t i m e ,  before  meeting  As  with the  the  anticipated  functions  They had  At  (Appendix  position  involvement  monitoring  Project  Simpson.  Association  the  the  This  executive  and  1981.  Yellowknife.  Fort  and  programs.  putting  chiefs.  27,  to  planning  Norman  and N o r t h e r n  According  Dene  as S e p t e m b e r  community 23  the  development  as e a r l y  November  funding  the  Committee  initiated  their  committed  involvement  of  he  documented,  and s o c i a l  funding  Nation  latter,  Coordinating  and  start  community  Nation  the  -  Committee.  immediate  the  of  Wells Project  December,  for  examples  52  the  the  Dene  Minister  C)  the  Dene  contained  Norman W e l l s  Nation's conditions  1985-1987 that  the  Project:  "The Dene l e a d e r s i n t u r n a t t a c h e d c o n d i t i o n s t o t h e i r agreement t h a t t h e Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t c o u l d go a h e a d , and t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s w e r e c o m m u n i c a t e d t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a by t h e Dene N a t i o n and t h e M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n . The Dene c a l l e d f o r : s a t i s f a c t o r y settlement of the ownership of oil and l a n d s u s e d by t h e P r o j e c t b e f o r e two-year delay;  t h e Norman W e l l s t h e end o f the  impact Dene  -  53 -  protection and, where environment, with total Government o f Canada;  possible, improvement responsibility assumed  of by  the the  c r e a t i o n o f a m o n i t o r i n g a g e n c y , w i t h Dene p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d f u n d i n g p r o v i d e d t o t h e Dene b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f Canada, w h i c h would have a u t h o r i t y t o f o r c e c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e r u l e s , r e g u l a t i o n s a n d a g r e e m e n t s t o m i n i m i z e i m p a c t s and p r o t e c t o r i m p r o v e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ; and p r o v i s i o n o f f u n d i n g b a s e d on a g r e e m e n t s w i t h t h e of t h e Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . " (Dene N a t i o n 1 9 8 5 : 2 )  In  addition  Appendix native the  to  C) l i s t s  the  conditions  a number  associations  initiatives  and t h e G . N . W . T .  is  documented  to  f o r the P r o j e c t ' s  that  t h e paper  The Project with In  a t t h e end o f  during  initiating  addition  work  began  Drilling  to  Venture,  commenced of  to  on t h e J o i n t  representatives  Needs  from  that  regarding  business  residents  the  I  and  of its  structure  was s e n t spoke  to  to the believed  t h e Norman  with  the  Norman  Wells  negotiating  Committee. the  of  associated with  participation  Nation,  with  are the subject  contract  Assessment Dene  work  associated  a n d on t h e l e g a l i t i e s  communities,  that  for  a  a c c e s s i n g t h e impact  t h e programs  programs  information  community  Association's  concerned with  and a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e two m a j o r  Each  direction  document  staff  t h e two  funding.  describes  (see  acknowledged.  and t h e M e t i s  1982 was m a i n l y  a  paper  This  paper  r e a c h e d between  by  the position  management.  position  t h e impact  accompanied  The Dene N a t i o n  formally  on n e g o t i a t i o n  communicated interested  1981.  was n e v e r  Dene N a t i o n ' s  section of  the  had been  regarding  and  The t h i r d  Minister  above,  of decisions that  distribution. be e m p l o y e d  outlined  Government  with This  Metis  Wells  funds  these this the  funds. thesis, Shehtah  Project  a i d was g i v e n the  G.N.W.T.  committee Association  and  was to was  consisted and  the  - 54 G.N.W.T.  Its  particularly to  natives,  recommend  its  work  b)  Impact  purpose for  effective  in March,  Funding  was  to  identify  employment  ways  to  training  related  deliver  to  this  the  needs  of  Norman W e l l s  training.  The  northerners, project  committee  and  began  1982.  Initiatives  1981/82 F u n d i n g  Proposals  "If we a r e t o make p r o p e r u s e " o f t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e t o prepare o u r s e l v e s we m u s t s t a r t i m m e d i a t e l y . The M e t i s / D e n e do n o t have adequate r e s o u r c e s . We n e e d i m m e d i a t e f u n d i n g i n t h e amount of f i v e h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s s o t h a t we c a n b e g i n t o p r e p a r e o u r p l a n s and p r o p o s a l s f o r f u r t h e r f u n d i n g . " (Dene N a t i o n and M e t i s Association 1981b:3).  This Metis  quotation  in  i s taken  September  designated  for  organizations aboriginal  planning felt  This support  should  rights,  (monitoring), development  1981.  housing,  from  be  a funding proposal and  to  through  prepared  access The  some areas  planning  development,  community  and c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e .  is  monitoring.  addressed  economic  proposal  information,  by of  the  Dene  the  that  funding  the  processes  environmental  and  native  included; protection  communication,  The p r o p o s a l c o n c l u d e d :  " I f we a r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s manner we m u s t b e g i n t o p l a n and o r g a n i z e o u r s e l v e s now. The p r o v i s i o n , immediately of p l a n n i n g f u n d s w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e . " (Dene N a t i o n and M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n 1981b:13)  social  The 1981  Dene  to  March  convening  of  fieldworker initiation Dene  and  31, a  1982,  specific  in  the  the  $500,000  be  activities  to  Dene  leadership  meeting,  program,  studies  Meeting  that  -  the  extension  Leadership  participate  proposed  general  and of  Metis  55  carried  to  discuss  .The  the  hiring  on p r o j e c t - r e l a t e d  was  project.  the  be  the  fieldwork  of  from out  November included  establishment specialists  issues.  issue  and  used  The  of  whether  extension  the of  and  purpose or  program's  1,  a the  of  the  not  to  purpose  was:  "a)  b)  To l e a r n a b o u t a l l a s p e c t s on Dene p a r t i c i p a t i o n . To work w i t h  communities  preparing  to deal  of  the  in the  with  identifying contracts  potential  . d)  and e c o n o m i c in  decisions  the  impacts  community  related  related  to  Dene N a t i o n / M e t i s  To b e g i n t h e p r o c e s s o f o r g a n i z i n g c o m m u n i t i e s i n a way t h a t w i l l m a x i m i z e b e n e f i t s to the communities  to  potential  Association  to p a r t i c i p a t e people in the  To work w i t h o t h e r f i e l d w o r k e r s , C h i e f s and Dene Nation/Metis Association Executives to formulate t h e b a s i s o f an o v e r a l l plan for Dene participation." (Dene Nation and Metis A s s o c i a t i o n 1981b:2)  The  specialists  environmental look  including  of:  contractors  e x p l a i n i n g other aspects of i n v o l v e m e n t as t h e s e e v o l v e c)  areas  social  i d e n t i f y i n g s k i l l s present employment opportunities  project  at  studies,  economic  developments.  were  to  be  from  accounting,  institutions  and  the  major  bookkeeping appropriate  areas and  of  finance,  law.  technology  The  management,  studies  related  to  were  to  energy  The a  Community  resolution  made  from  April  6  This  proposal  one  full-time  coordinators rationale, community  in a Leadership 10,  calls  1981,  the  a  spring  four-member  of the proposal  that  prior  had been to  the  o f 38 c o m m u n i t y  headquarters  of operation  portion  Meeting  f o r the h i r i n g  national and  Development  coordinator,  workshop  f o r t h e program  in  Yellowknife  approval  announcement.  development  fieldworkers,  five  team.  held  was b a s e d on  The  full  time  proposal  regional  includes  a  and a j o b d e s c r i p t i o n f o r t h e  fieldworkers.  that  November  to  methods  Elements funds  and S o c i a l  56 -  of t h i s t h e Dene  1981.  proposal Nation  The  InterGroup Consulting  were  incorporated  and M e t i s  Mid-ProjectEconomists,  into  Association  Evaluation  states  the revised requests  submitted  prepared  to  for  D.I.A.N.D. D.I.A.N.D.  that:  "....these requests represented the needs of p r o g r a m s f o r w h i c h t h e i m p a c t f u n d i n g was i n t e n d e d :  three  separate  1.  P l a n n i n g and m o n i t o r i n g s u p p o r t - - t o c o n d u c t r e s e a r c h and c o n s u l t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s o f r e l e v a n c e t o t h e Dene and M e t i s people in planning f o r t h e Norman Wells Project; these activities i n c l u d e p r e p a r i n g t o take advantage of business o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d d e v e l o p i n g an i m p a c t m o n i t o r i n g s y s t e m .  2.  Community and Social Development — to conduct a community-based p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e t o determine the d e t a i l s of a community and s o c i a l development program, incorporating a proposed n a t i v e f i e l d w o r k e r component. (The p r o p o s a l a c t u a l l y r e q u e s t e d funds f o r 20-25 f i e l d w o r k e r s p l u s a small group o f h e a d q u a r t e r s s t a f f r e s p o n s i b l e f o r workshop development. The f i e l d w o r k e r s were t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a s s i s t i n g c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s and i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s where p o s s i b l e ) .  3.  T r a i n i n g — t o c o n d u c t r e s e a r c h a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n on n o r t h e r n t r a i n i n g n e e d s r e l a t e d t o t h e Norman W e l l s p r o j e c t w i t h a v i e w to identifying a strategy f o r use of t h e remaining impact funds targeted for training." (Inter Group Consulting Economists 1984:41)  for in by  The  approval  Appendix  D  for  contribution  process  description  agreements to  be  approximately  two  months  Dene and M e t i s  other  the  executed  organizations approval,  but  the  Treasury  The  contracts)  by  the  had  for  and  the p i p e l i n e p r o j e c t , of  project,  signed  that  than  they  expenditure  had  in  (see  process).  The  An of  on t h e  planned,  months.  mid-March  month.  i n i t i a t e d some work  later  Social  and t o make  preparation  of the  four  authorization  were  end  granted  took  1982,  extension  the  of  funds.  programs  and w i t h  The  prior  to  funds  from  consult  with  budgets.  Outcomes  Community  communities  funds  Board  sources within t h e i r organization  1981/82 Program  the  of  was  -  access  (formal  theoretically  receiving  to  57  to  arrangements  to  reports  Development  contract  for  with  funds  funding  a  used  to  and p r o g r a m s  associated with  Dene C o u n c i l s and M e t i s  o u t l i n i n g community  develop  were  needs  fieldworker  Locals  for  and c o n c e r n s a s s o c i a t e d  training  program,  the with  health,  and  communication a c t i v i t i e s .  The related  Planning to  options,  the  to on  prepare  small  the  Metis  expenses,  Locals,  to  discuss,  futures,  to  the  organize  administration  Metis  business  venture  fund  Monitoring  contribution  aid  seminar  and  funds  agreements,  were to  used  fund  in  to  analyses  survey  planning,  general  to  of  fund  i n i t i a t e planning contracts with November Dene L e a d e r s h i p  and  plan  activities.  for  the  project,  pay  studies of  Association conduct  to  Meeting and  to  for  negotiations  alternate  planning, existing  to  economic  convene  programs,  negotiations  and  Dene C o u n c i l s and and r e g i o n a l fund  a to  joint Metis  meetings  communications  to and  One that  major  two  programs  compiled the r e s u l t s of  the  s t u d i e s done  in  eighteen  Development 1982", and  2)  and  Planning  June  21,  These  the communities that The  people of  One  would  reports  to  by t h e assess  be r e l a t e d t o  identified  on  the  following  4.  housing i s a s o c i a l  5.  there about  6.  e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g a r e  7.  there  uncoordinated." of  Association  a  as  (Metis  number  of  i s the major  and e c o n o m i c  and N a t i o n  July  Development  the  Valley  N.W.T.  to  needs  in  potential  major  23,  Norman  concerns  Wells  to  the  part  a  concern  delivery  social  headquarters  the  economy  problem  problem and  of  and  as w e l l  requiring  regarding funds  1982a:6).  communities  of  communication  needed  concerns s t i l l  Association the  Social  Mackenzie  and  i s a s e r i o u s lack of information t h e Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t  and  and  Dene  communities:  a l c o h o l and d r u g a b u s e  timing  to  reports  and/or  Office,  p o s s i b l e impacts of  3.  "The  Nation  present  r e n e w a b l e r e s o u r c e s a r e an i m p o r t a n t  with  Locals  M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n of  2.  concludes  two  Community  Funding  problems w i t h business p a r t i c i p a t i o n  are s o c i a l  of  Community/Social  1.  report  Metis on  Dene  Funding,  Report  s t u d i e s were  preparation  by t h e  through  Submitted  the Mackenzie V a l l e y  processes.  behalf  1982.  the  "Reports  Impact  1981/1982."  April-May  was  (1)  Submitted  Wells Project  Funds,  1982.  Project.  communities.  Planning.  "Norman  Communities,  of  -  the  Councils  output  58  the  was  This  problem  short,  concern  reflected as o f  attention.  some  the f e d e r a l  of  funding  unplanned  was  expressed  criticism  of  government.  and on the  1982/83 Funding  The  native  Proposals  organizations  above-mentioned  reports  proposals.  needs  The  community funding  and  development  would  communities. application  and  Evaluation,  form issues  requests  basis  for were  operations. i n May o f  interest  encountered  authorization  information  identified  initiated  up on t h e  the  the  fieldworkers'  follow These  expected  to  a l l o c a t i o n s were  programs  59 -  future to  become  1982, w i t h  numerous  in  impact  Requests  stimulated  processes.  contained  funding  the  for  foci  the  for  1982-83  the expectation  by t h e s u r v e y s difficulties  According  to  the  the  that  in the  within Mid  the  Project  these d i f f i c u l t i e s included:  "the reorganization of the F i n a n c i a l Administration of D.I.A.N.D. tightening of funding policies within D.I.A.N.D., the lack of experience of the Coordination Officer with the Treasury Board a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s and t h e l a c k o f f a m i l i a r i t y o f T r e a s u r y Board w i t h the impact f u n d i n g program, t h e Dene and M e t i s may a l s o have c o n t r i b u t e d somewhat t o t h e d e l a y b y t r y i n g t o i n c l u d e i t e m s i n t h e i r p r o p o s a l t h a t were c o n t r o v e r s i a l . " ( I n t e r Group C o n s u l t i n g Economists 1984:44)  These requests until the  difficulties f o r planning  created support  October 2 8 , 1982. current  received,  fiscal  requests  year  a  situation  and m o n i t o r i n g  As i t was o b v i o u s , would  f o r t h e 83/84  be  left  fiscal  that  not being  at that by  year  resulted  the were  in  ready  time, time  that funds  submitted  the  for  submission  little were with  funding  time  of  actually the  82/83  requests.  The  activities  1982/83 f i s c a l  year  proposed  to  and e x t e n d e d  be  undertaken  during  1983/84  during  what  included:  remained  of  the  - 60 t h e f u n d s f o r t h e M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n w o u l d be u s e d t o s a l a r y , b e n e f i t s and t r a v e l c o s t s o f o n e s t a f f member to a s s i s t M e t i s L o c a l s with p l a n n i n g the funds  pay t h e who was  f o r t h e Dene w o u l d be u s e d f o r :  j o i n t venture with Esso Resources negotiations of Dene participation in Norman Wells resources community and r e g i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n - r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g r e . b u s i n e s s and employment a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  After  the  Association Metis  administration.  paid  and o u t s i d e  out  D.I.A.N.D.  of  agencies.  (Metis  and  communities  1982:4). research social  and  development  activities, workers,  development  project  a  cross  fieldworkers.  its  funds.  clear  that  encourage  planning  1982b:3).  plans  Metis  for  the  wished  i n a c c o u n t i n g and the staff  position  follow-up through  a n d ; communicate w i t h  Association  the  The M e t i s  problems  activities:  development  on  the  development  association  locals  The same a c t i v i t i e s  on O c t o b e r that  would  pressures  funding  projects, cultural  request  were  submitted  27,  1982 p r o p o s e d  to  "build  the capacity  for  and p r o b l e m s  was t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s pilot  outlined  to avoid it  D.I.A.N.D.,  year.  Nation  with  to  and m o n i t o r i n g  makes  level,  social  t o cope  The p r o j e c t  that  following  1981-82;  b y t h e Dene  community  support  the  a t t h e community  community  submitted  request  proposal  proposed f o r t h e 83/84 f i s c a l  The  was  t o them s e p a r a t e l y  carry  surveys  corporations  separate  The M e t i s  would  community  a  request  of the planning  the funds  requested  Nation  submitted  portion  t o have  Dene  goal  through  a community  conference,  we f a c e . "  and  a  establish  network  a  individuals (Dene  community  development  to  Nation  s t u d y and  workshop, of  two  community  The  Metis  development  Association  funds  development. that  This  was  request  to  for  provide  The  Officers,  82/83  a  and 8 3 / 8 4  community  community-based  program  p r o g r a m was t o be c a r r i e d o u t b y i n d i v i d u a l s  w e r e c r e a t e d b a s e d on t h e i n p u t  1982.  61  positions  were;  1  received in the surveys  Community  Services  social  of  social  in positions  completed  Coordinator,  7 f i e l d w o r k e r s and 1 C o m m u n i c a t i o n s O f f i c e r .  and  2  i n May Liaison  F u n d s w e r e a l s o t o be  a v a i l a b l e f o r s h o r t term c o n t r a c t s and p r o j e c t s .  c)  P e r c e p t i o n s and/or  The  tone  following  o f t h e comments  the  victorious. thin.  community after  approval By  An  Observations  the  initial  the approval  b y t h e Dene  announcement  end o f  confusion  and s o c i a l  made  the  is  delay  regarding  development  and M e t i s  optimistic, period the  programs  the  immediately  enthusiastic optimism  designation  ($4.25  leaders  million)  of  and  almost  a  little  wears the  funding  is settled  for  shortly  announcement:  "Meetings i n Ottawa i n the f a l l o f 1981 r e s u l t e d i n a d e c i s i o n ( c o n f i r m e d by v a r i o u s p a r t i e s a t t h e m e e t i n g s and l a t e r i n w r i t i n g ) t h a t M r . Munro h a d a g r e e d t o p r o v i d e t h e $ 4 . 2 5 m i l l i o n w h i c h h a d b e e n a l l o t t e d f o r c o m m u n i t y and s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , d i r e c t l y t o t h e Dene a n d M e t i s . A c o n d i t i o n o f t h i s f u n d i n g was t h a t t h e Dene a n d M e t i s t a k e p a r t i n a S t e e r i n g Committee w i t h o f f i c i a l s from the G.N.W.T. i n order to avoid d u p l i c a t i o n of G.N.W.T. s e r v i c e s and activities." (G.N.W.T. 1982:1)  The M e t i s , regarding Dene are  the  Nation  Dene a n d t h e G . N . W . T . allocation of  "Position  two m a j o r  Paper"  proposals  that  the of  were a b l e  impact  t o a g r e e on a number  funds.  December  are contained  7,  This  1981. in this  is  illustrated  (see Appendix paper  of  that  issues in the  C)  There  appear  to get  lost  over  the period  'monitoring paper.  s e t o u t by  It  does  or  i n t h e newspaper  not appear  appear  in funding  the  would  "Position  have  D.I.A.N.D.,  Dene's  that  requests Paper",  of the press  during  1982.  proposed  an  concepts,  delay  in  discontent  the  was f e l t  as I  to  of  11  member  from  a  limited  construction Councils offices  of  and t h e toward  year  of  the  project.  Metis  funding  Locals  the federal  would The  government.  in the  position  paper.  release, does  contained  committee  associations be  not  that  and t h e  ignored during  become  important  caused  some  by  1982. i n the  Project.  impact  funds  degree  during  the when  n o t be r e c e i v e d  their  press  structure  to  in  the conditions  organizations  discuss,  leaders  The c o n c e p t  appears  discontent  toward  outlined  management  b u t was a s e r i o u s c o n c e r n b y t h e e n d o f t h e y e a r the second  their  the native  also  will  the  in  conference.  t h e Norman W e l l s  receipt  i s the  t h e announcement  t o by t h e n a t i v e  however,  issues  i s one o f  T h e management  concept  and i s n o t r e f e r r e d  these  structure'  and i t  documents,  This  of  organizations  representation  l a t e r concerns about  The  1982,  accounts  first  i s d i s c u s s e d by t h e n a t i v e  announcement  the native  government.  of these  This  concept  in D.I.A.N.D.  had s t r o n g  Territorial  Both  agency  The  i s t h e 'management  reactions to the approval  agreement  in  discussion.  the second  The m o n i t o r i n g  their for  agency',  under  62 -  was  head  first  offices  quarter  i t became  before  felt  discontent.  both  of  obvious  the s t a r t  of  by  the  Dene  and by  the  head  3.  First-Construction  a)  General  of the a r t i f i c i a l  commenced i n J a n u a r y time  Year - - J a n u a r y  1983.  Coordinator  Project.  Mr.  interim  1 , • 1983 -  December-31j  Mar  of  During the  t h i s month  Norman  was e x p e c t e d  coordinator  i s l a n d s and p i p e l i n e  John  Wells  to  build  Scullion  Oilfield "on  and  the  Expansion fine  the  a c t i v i t i e s related to the P r o j e c t ,  of  negative  impacts  coordinating  the  Immigration and  information  Coordinator  was  a field  three  full  time  and a s e c r e t a r y . in Fort  l o c a t e d i n Norman  The  Wells  Federal  Coordinating  representatives  from  f o r coordinating the  measures  of  mitigation for  G.N.W.T.,  the  Canada  Employment  and  Regional  -  Committee  Later  and  therefore,  for establishing for  became  Coordination  the  time  Office,  Federal  communicating  responsible  Office,  Coordinator,  a Coordination Officer in the year  which the  for then  Deputy  was l o c a t e d  a second f i e l d  officer  Wells.  Project  Committee  Simpson.  coordinating  benefits,  Project  At t h i s  Support  project  Mar,  staff  for  by  of  Advisory Mr.  laid  Wells  responsible  government  D.I.A.N.D.  Community  Norman  of  Pipeline  enhancement  the  the P r o j e c t .  the  office  the  of  and t h e  the  about  of  for  activities  with  administering  at  and  Commission  liaising  consisted  and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  and  foundation  Norman  government  activities  M a r became  clearing  J o h n Mar was a p p o i n t e d a s  1983:1).  regulatory  Mr.  also,  right-of-way  Group...."(D.I.A.N.D.  planning  1983  Events  Construction  full  63 -  Coordinator  meetings the  continued  w h i c h met q u a r t e r l y ,  proponent  companies,  the  to  chair  This native  the  Project  committee  included  associations,  the  G.N.W.T.,  the National  Administration Commission,  (C.E.I.C.). which  proponent  companies.  liaising as  Energy Board,  (C.O.G.L.A.)  committee  with  was  of  D.I.A.N.D. was  to  As  affected needs  comprised  of  b y t h e Norman  are given  full  June  The s t u d y  training  i n areas  wildlife  and l a n d  also  Employment  initiated  representatives above,  Advisory to  Mr.  Mar  organize  members  to  Wells Project,  a  of was  Committee.  f o r the f i r s t  to  of  the  responsible  for  Mr.  committee.  to  the  It the  be h e l d .  communities  (D.I.A.N.D.  management and  1982,  by  Lands  Immigration  G.N.W.T. be  be a p p o i n t e d  meeting  and  the  During  this  a n d Gas  smaller  a n d was " t o e n s u r e  consideration."  took  until  Minister  The in  local  1981:4).  Scullion,  of  Committee  the  N.W.T.  i n t e r e s t s and This  committee  basis.  1983, the J o i n t  report.  with  stated  t h e Canada O i l  Canada  representatives  a l s o m e e t s on a q u a r t e r l y  In  the  of  had begun  July  D.I.A.N.D.,  Mar  the committee  and u n t i l  be  Mr.  t h e Community  1983 f o r  and  composed  interim coordinator  May  64 -  took  over  Needs  Assessment  a year  s u c h as e d u c a t i o n , management  as w e l l  to  complete,  health, as  Committee  in  submitted  and t h e  social  report  services,  the t e c h n i c a l  its  final  advocates  communications,  skills  associated  p i p e l i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e .  In  September,  Dene N a t i o n ,  At  the  Kakfwi  of  Shehtah  Drilling,  the  joint  venture  project  between  the  t h e M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n and E s s o R e s o u r c e s was l a u n c h e d .  November the  community-based  29,  Dene  1983  Project  Nation  put  Environmental  Coordinating forward  Protection  a  Working  Committee  proposal Group.  to The  meeting,  Steve  establish Dene  a  proposed  - 65 that  the  monitoring each  Group's reports,  other's  environmental and  functions  activities  Impact  The latest  funds  at  Committee  as s a y i n g  organizations  Funding  The  The the of  on  was r e c e i v e d f a v o u r a b l y  for  to  start  1982, d i d not a r r i v e for  the Metis  informed  of  monitoring by t h e  and  Committee  the Coordinating  February,  1983,  that  "there  has been  the  Committee  the o r i g i n a l October  funds  very  at  the  summer,  of  1983.  Kate  a  Project  in  little  the  done  or  at  Irving,  Coordinating  minutes  of  by t h e two  the  native  1983).  separate  The a g r e e m e n t s  agreement  March  in  1983/84  signed  and S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t  and 83/84  until  was r e p o r t e d  (NWPCC  1982/83,  Metis  programs  Association,  in  contribution  1982/83  hoped  f o r these funds.  Community  are  and  the concept.  P r o g r a m Outcomes  and  surveillance  agencies  information  f o r the day f o l l o w i n g  since last spring."  Dene  D.I.A.N.D.  were  time  meeting  distributing  all  Initiatives  of  that  reviewing  a l l monitoring  The p r o p o s a l  discuss  that  the f a l l  working  meeting  Funding  include  that  and  was a r r a n g e d  meeting to f u r t h e r  b)  ensuring  effects.  a meeting  would  contribution  were s i g n e d on M a r c h 1 7 ,  P r o g r a m - Dene  signed  by D . I . A . N . D .  describes only  1982 p r o p o s a l .  agreements  with  1983.  Nation  a n d t h e Dene  t h e community  Nation  fieldworker  The r e q u e s t e d b u d g e t  for  portion  was c u t b y 4 0 % .  -  The  Dene  described  Nation  reallocated  in this section.  -  66  budget  amounts  to  accomplish  The program i n c l u d e d  the  activities  training, coordination  s u p e r v i s i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r a g r o u p o f s t a f f t o be h o u s e d a t t h e  and  Nation  o f f i c e , and t h e c o n t r a c t i n g o f management and s u p e r v i s i o n o f f i e l d w o r k e r s community  band c o u n c i l s .  Fieldworkers  were  t o be c h o s e n by t h e i n d i v i d u a l  c o m m u n i t i e s and w e r e t o work on i s s u e s r e l e v a n t t o s p e c i f i c c o m m u n i t y In  addition  to  19  community  Regional  Coordinator  develop  workshops,  fieldworker  p o s i t i o n s were and  prepare  positions  created.  fieldworkers community The  and  environmental abuse,  some  workshops  following  were  subjects  the  workshop  for social  development  In  of  modern  initiated  Development  1983  addition over  these  world,  a  move  program  c e n t r e f o r community  o f f i c e , and f o r p r i o r i z i n g c o m m u n i t y  social  i n May  was  t o look  3 to  subjects  to  this  workshop,  the funding  workshops;  to  period.  social  alcohol  women  train  issues through  and  and  and  drug  community  establishment  G r o u p and i n a Deh control  also  community  responsible  d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e Dene base l i n e data  development a c t i v i t i e s included study  to  These workshops r e s u l t e d i n the  which  Community  u n i t was  issue  learning, child welfare,  in  communities,  on  Health Help L i n e , o f the Youth/Elders  establishing a resources  Plans  held  i n f i v e communities  Dene c u l t u r e .  The  was  members.  the  values  of the Inuvik Mental  development.  held  packages  needs.  surveys.  Workshop  p r o b l e m s , community  traditional  regional  community  were  topics  decision-making,  Cho  Development  for 9  The head o f f i c e  information  i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s community  A 7 d a y Community  to  for Nation  gathering.  : the preparation  a t a l t e r n a t i v e ways o f u t i l i z i n g  of a social  - 67 assistance  funds  at  the  individual  and c o m m u n i t y  welfare,  drug  and  alcohol  abuse,  programs,  community  problem  solving  Nation  health,  management design,  of  education, the  negotiations National  with  Office  funding  Dene  out  Planning  communities  Norman  signed were basis.  the  signed The  land  resources  workshops,  sources  and  management  corrections  administration Project,  and  training  child  regarding  Leadership  prepare  Dene  March  (Dene  Nation  projects  two m a j o r  Nation 1983  program  themselves  communities.  the  in  and  consultation  and  explore  Development  and M o n i t o r i n g to  Dene  between  to  justice  and M o n i t o r i n g P r o g r a m - Dene  Wells P r o j e c t . "  by  sessions,  and  Dene  programs,  assistance  in  preliminary  sessions  for  Dene  staff.  Planning Support  "The  of  level,  recreation,  communication  Community  implementation  -  and  and  i s c o n c e i v e d a s a means o f to  respond  1983:1).  Funds the  funds  i n i t i a t e d through  were  various were this  recommendations  Dene P l a n n i n g  The  to  to  band be  the  program  allocated  was  according councils.  allocated  impact  to deal with  on  studies  impacts:  Agency  Dene C e n t r e o f T r a i n i n g and T e c h n o l o g y Dene F i n a n c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n Renewable Resource Development Non-Renewable Resource Development S m a l l - s c a l e B u s i n e s s and I n d u s t r y L e a d e r s h i p Development Women and Y o u t h D e v e l o p m e n t Lifelong Learning Community H e a l t h  assisting  impacts  program i n c l u d e d :  r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e development  compilation of  Nation  Development  to  of  be  the  carried  to  contracts  The  contracts  a  quarterly  ongoing e.g.  68  i n d i v i d u a l community  -  projects:  F o r t Good Hope - c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r h u n t e r s and t r a p p e r s F o r t Simpson - r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t on s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c effects  determining of major  issues:  business p a r t i c i p a t i o n renewable resources s o c i a l and h e a l t h i s s u e s housing communication b a r r i e r s e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g other s o c i a l concerns  Community  The  and S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t  Community  and  received  in  Services  Coordinator  Yellowknife Fort  and  McPherson,  Simpson, and  March  and  projects  some  times  1983. for  one  in  Fort  were  Fort  Fort  also  part  receiving  the  was  1985). to  the  end  of  Association  which  real  affected  Meldrum  1984  in the  the  stated  Program  blow  March,  i n i t i a t e a new a p p r o a c h  The  The  accomplished e s p e c i a l l y At  program.  to in  program  and  the  second  half  f i e l d workers  1984-85  changed  program.  one  in  River  from  and  Metis  presidents  three  interview  of were  Development  1983. that  the  Fort  the  1985  meant  Inuvik,  experienced  Social  in  in  contracts  and  had a bad t i m e program  -  staff  were  Community  Short-term  objectives  the  all  Hay  program  a July  a  located  Point,  Community in  1983-84  officers  Yellowknife.  Board.  and S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t  deal  Pine  and  funded;  liaison  the  Mrs.  a  were  for  Community  was  the  for  1982-83  fieldworkers  Norman W e l l s ,  of  continuity.  Coordinator  two  seven  officer  Program's  the  positions  Norman,  Assocation  for  approval  and  year  - Metis  funds  new  Norman,  Good H o p e ,  Executive  during  Development  Several  a Communications  difficulty  Association  Social  Program  The not  year.  dismissed  that  the  loss a  of  great  (Meldrum in  order  Planning Support  On  June  6,  and M o n i t o r i n g  1983,  Projects  Officer.  problems  identified  i n the  economic  planning  encourage  communication development advantage  within  aspects  of  approaches  their  Association  for  of  purpose  of  1981-82 at  the  the  the  -  - Metis  in  Association  Association this  reports, local  to  level  Wells the  hired  position  the Metis  Norman  experience  Executive were as  Metis  and o u t s i d e  to economic  Priorities  priorities  The  the  69  an  was  to  provide and  to  Economic follow  specific serve  up  business  The  world  the to  a channel  of  as  Metis  with  assistance  A s s o c i a t i o n membership  Project.  Planning  on  wished  in  fostering  were  defined  business to  take  independent  development.  work o f and  the  Projects  Board  and  Officer  members  of  the  Metis  by t h e  Metis  Locals.  The  follows:  "give practical planning assistance to local Metis b u s i n e s s e s and i n d i v i d u a l s i n s e c u r i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s from t h e Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t e n c o u r a g e e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g by t h e L o c a l s or r e g i o n a l development c o r p o r a t i o n s begin dealing development."  The for  Project  contracts  maintained departments. local  Officer  w i t h the other problems of (Metis Association 1984:3).  assisted  individuals  and e s t a b l i s h i n g b u s i n e s s e s .  contact The  development  with Project  the  Project  Officer  corporations.  and He  groups  Funding  Metis  in  and  programs  and  business  bidding  opportunities  relevant  assisted and  local  planning,  investigated  proponents  researched  through  in  and  government establishing  opportunities  were  - 70 researched The  and  Project  management  Officer  the  toward  Program  Corporation.  He  development  Throughout and  the  were  1983,  1983-84  that  construction  able  start-up.  Issues Related-to  the be  fiscal  year,  administration  smoothly  assisted through  the  native  Dene b a n d  not  need  communicated for  transferred  Locals  to  Metis  management  the of  to  the to  the  Metis  proposals  and  basis.  Officer  Planning  prepare  Norman W e l l s i m p a c t  training  ongoing  Project  Locals.  began  Support  to and  Development for  local  Dene  Nation  funding.  Observations  Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t . Dene  the  also  the  was  be d e l i v e r e d on a c o m p r e h e n s i v e ,  would  and  gathered  identified  co-ordinators  Perceptions  office  end o f  ensuring  Monitoring  c)  information  assistance to  Toward work  the  councils,  The to  associations,  delay set  up  According  the-Norman  in  became  particularly  i n c r e a s i n g l y disenchanted  r e c e i v i n g the the to  planned-for the  Wei 1s P r o j e c t  the  impact  funds  programs  Mid-Project Coordination  with  the  that  the  advance  of  meant in  Evaluation  of  Selected  Office:  " S e v e r a l f i e l d w o r k e r c o o r d i n a t o r s w e r e h i r e d b u t none o f t h o s e who w o u l d be w o r k i n g i n t h e c o m m u n i t i e s c o u l d be h i r e d . They (the Dene) lost out on the opportunity to hire several of their p r e f e r r e d c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e f i e l d w o r k e r p o s i t i o n s as t h e s e p e o p l e found other work in the interim. By d e l a y i n g m o s t of their activities from before to a f t e r the s t a r t of c o n s t r u c t i o n , the u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e p r o p o s e d a c t i v i t i e s was d i m i n i s h e d , s i n c e t h e y were not i n p l a c e t o d e a l w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n impacts from t h e beginning." ( I n t e r Group C o n s u l t i n g E c o n o m i s t s L t d . 1984:44)  The  minutes  of  show  that  the  very  dissatisfied  of  the  Metis  on  Community  and  the f i r s t  amount  the  with  the  Social hope  their  statements,  spoke  in of  the  and  the  the  with  (June  the  1983  proposal Kakfwi  proposal by  the  benefits  for  the  D.I.A.N.D.  1982).  submissions meetings.  to The  1983,  held  stated  that  p r o c e s s had b e e n s o f a r the  Coordination  communities Office  had  he  Coordinating  that of  the  Kakfwi There  actors  Sea  appears  felt  successful. were become  that The  in  at the  focus  after  approximately  nine  for  In  to  the  his  that  Dene  opening  they  agency  must  was  never  'negotiations  about  have  been  meeting  some  support  and t h e r e  was  fully.  the  Norman  gives that  Wells  Assessment some  time.  Mr. of  Project Panel  idea of  performance  project  participating a  there  immediately  feel  as  Committee  Environmental  Project  Dene  describes  these meetings the  Committee  Committee  monitoring  t h e c o n c e p t more  several  about  the  Coordinating  Beaufort  delay of  the  the  Irving  frustrating.  clear issue  Kate  Steering  available  The  were  p a r t i c u l a r l y when  it  place.  t r a n s c r i p t s of  be  the  monitoring.  what  to discuss  the  perceptions  Coordinator,  took  of  of  meeting  Coordinator  funds.  environmental  the  within  t o meet  of  makes  after  package',  December  for  because  Dene p r o p o s a l  a commitment  meeting  impact  delay,  would  Committee  Territorial  frustration  funding  spent  Coordinating  r e c e i v i n g the  Development  had b e e n  Steve  this  addressed  that  delay  that  November,  presented  and  Project  was s e e n as e x c e s s i v e and e x t r e m e l y  At  In  1983  representatives  Association,  a strong  make  February,  native  had b e e n  months  the  the  was on s c h e d u l e , meaningfully  all  parties  public attitudes  Mar,  the  made  Federal  coordinating and he  and  concerned  that with  said the the  Project. of  He r e c o g n i z e d  Coordinator,  (B.S.E.A.R.P. northern  an  commitment  on  coordination  "overperception and  preference. the  part  process.  -  as c o n c e r n s , h i s own  1983a:47),  hiring  72  of  the He  the  of  benefits  difficulty  also  that  appointment accruing  of  emphasizes  native  "Without  late  from  the  the  importance to  doesn't  position  Norman  maintaining  associations it  to  a  policy of  a  participate  work."  Wells" of  strong in  the  (B.S.E.A.R.P.  1983a:47)  The  Beaufort  regarding f r o m one  the  meetings  delay  intervenor  in (D.  indicated  accessing Erickson)  the  that  there  impact  was  funds.  expresses t h i s  a  The  general  concern  following  comment  concern:  " when y o u s a y y o u a r e g o i n g t o l e a r n f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e , we h a v e an e x a m p l e o f Norman W e l l s w h e r e t h e r e was a two y e a r d e l a y s o t h a t p e o p l e c o u l d be p r e p a r e d , and y e t we h a v e f r o m t h e G . N . W . T ' s s u b m i s s i o n s t h a t i t i s two y e a r s i n t o t h e p r o j e c t b e f o r e a n y o f t h e impact f u n d i n g i s r e c e i v e d . What b a s i s s h o u l d t h e p a n e l h a v e t o hope t h a t f o l l o w i n g D . I . A . N . D . as t h e c h i e f c o o r d i n a t o r , o r w h a t e v e r , f o r the Beaufort project that there is any reason to hope that things will go any different." (B.S.E.A.R.P. 1983a:99)  In and that  response  Northern  to  Affairs  this in  question, the  Mr.  Northwest  Beaubier,  Director  Territories  p r e s e n t s h i s v i e w s on t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f  the  makes  impact  General  a number  of of  Indian comments  funds:  " . . . . t h e r e had t o be a c o n s e n s u s and a w i l l t o d i r e c t t h a t money i n t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e w a y . And i t i s a c o m p l e x w o r l d t h a t we a r e dealing with, and t h e r e i s a v a r i e t y o f c o m p e t i n g i n t e r e s t s o u t t h e r e f o r t h a t money. And t h e d i s c u s s i o n s i n t e r m s o f how i t w o u l d be d i v i d e d , w h e r e i t w o u l d g o , how i t w o u l d be a p p l i e d w e r e v e r y d i f f i c u l t to conclude because of those competing i n t e r e s t s . . . . i t was a l w a y s t h e i n t e n t t o h a v e t h o s e ( f u n d s ) f l o w t h r o u g h normal  p r o g r a m s i n any e v e n t . And i t ' s that cloud that division, I ( B . S . E . A . R . P . 1983a:100).  It the  is  in  Norman  Erasmus's  the  Dene  Wells  presentations  Project  comments  is  are quoted  made  73  -  t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s and t h e think that lead to  that  strong  very  obvious.  decisions delays."  dissatisfaction Some  of  with  Georges  below:  "Many o f y o u may be u n d e r t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h e Dene a r e h a p p y now, s i m p l y b e c a u s e some h a v e a f e w j o b s o r c o n t r a c t s , and t h a t we're i n v o l v e d i n a j o i n t v e n t u r e w i t h E s s o a t Norman W e l l s . I don't want t o p u r p o s e l y d i s i l l u s i o n a n y o f y o u , b u t l e t me a s s u r e y o u t h a t w e ' r e n o t a t a l l h a p p y w i t h t h e way t h e Norman W e l l s d e c i s i o n was made....We're not happy with the promises made by the g o v e r n m e n t a t t h e t i m e I . P . L . and E s s o w e r e g i v e n t h e g r e e n l i g h t and t h e n t w i s t e d b e y o n d r e c o g n i t i o n l a t e r . . . . w e h a v e t o h a v e a r e a l r o l e i n d e c i s i o n s , r a t h e r t h a n j u s t h o p i n g someone w i l l l i s t e n t o our a d v i c e . ....When t h e d e c i s i o n was m a d e , we a c c e p t e d t h e inevitable and t r i e d o u r b e s t t o make t h e p r o j e c t work f o r u s . In r e t u r n f o r our efforts t o make t h e p r o j e c t work f o r u s , we s e c u r e d c o n c e s s i o n s from the government, i n c l u d i n g a broad-based m o n i t o r i n g agency t h a t w o u l d be a t work p r i o r t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a n y w o r k , and c o n t i n u e d t i l l a f t e r t h e p i p e l i n e was c o m p l e t e d . . . .We g a v e i t o u r b e s t s h o t , but i t s not w o r k i n g . With few e x c e p t i o n s , a l l o f t h e p r o m i s e s o f b e n e f i t s f o r t h e Dene r e s u l t e d i n b e n e f i t s t o o t h e r s . . . . . O u r r o l e now i s m o n i t o r i n g , w h i c h means s i t t i n g on a p r o j e c t c o o r d i n a t i o n c o m m i t t e e c h a i r e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n Affairs engineer. It is mainly a l i a i s o n body d e s i g n e d t o g r e a s e the wheels of industry. It can plead, but it has no powers." ( B . S . E . A . R . P . 1983b:29)  In Erasmus  answering  a  detailed  the  question problems  specifically encountered  related in  trying  to  the to  impact  access  the  funds,  Mr.  funds  and  concluded:  " S o t h e w h o l e c o n c e p t o f g i v i n g us p l a n n i n g d o l l a r s t o p l a n f o r p r o j e c t was c o m p l e t e l y d e s t r o y e d by t h a t w h o l e p r o c e s s . And  the the  -  74  -  same t h i n g w i t h h a v i n g d o l l a r s t o c r e a t e p o s s i b l e s o c i a l programs in the communities, c o n t r o l l e d by communities t o a l l e v i a t e any damage. I mean t h e d o l l a r s a r e now s t a r t i n g t o c o m e . I mean we a r e now getting planning d o l l a r s to plan f o r the project. I mean, w e l l a n y b o d y h e r e c a n a s s e s s f o r t h e m s e l v e s what good t h a t w o u l d do when the project i s going full tilt at t h i s time." (B.S.E.A.R.P. 1983b:75)  At  the  federal  end  of  government  associated  with  with  then,  actors  were  t h e Norman  a s s o c i a t i o n s were frustrated  1983,  a)  General  and task in  meeting  1,  to  terms  information  monitoring  determine  monitoring  Dene  that  that  coordinating  the G.N.W.T.  the  process  and t h e  t h e p r o c e s s a n d were  J a n u a r y 1> - 1 9 8 4 -  native  particularly  funds.  December-31,-1984  planned  funds  to  Project  Joint  reference  were  what  of  existing  still  needed  to to  the Project  interim  be  upon  Working  that  activities to  Group.  and s u r v e i l l a n c e  agreed  done  in the  its  first  and r e s o u r c e s  ensure  that  an  in place.  Coordinating  use t h e unexpended  provide  agreed  The G r o u p  to  and D . I . A . N . D .  Environmental  monitoring  program w a s , i n f a c t ,  reported  they  of  the G.N.W.T.  was d i s c u s s e d .  was t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  The  while  1984 t h e Dene met w i t h  meeting,  monitoring  order  Project  o f t h e Norman W e l l s  first  effective  1984  Wells  the o v e r a l l  suggests  Events  On F e b r u a r y  this  pleased with  evidence  t h e p r o c e s s e s r e q u i r e d t o access the impact  Second C o n s t r u c t i o n - Y e a i  In  available  not at a l l s a t i s f i e d with  4.  first  the  Committee  balance  financing  for  of  on F e b r u a r y 2 9 ,  their  their  planning  and  community-based  monitoring program Joint  program.  was  to  In  provide  Environmental  as  the  initiatives with  As p a r t  of  steps  monitoring as a f i r s t  regulatory  to  technical  Working  t h e y w o u l d be t a k i n g well  addition  the  step  in  t r a i n i n g and o n g o i n g  support At  become  of  -  skills  Group.  to  authority  75  to  the  this  time,  involved  t h i s meeting r e p o r t ,  the  The  establishment  guaranteed  representative  the  Dene  on  indicated  through  Dene of  saw  their  the  as  monitoring  a Dene M o n i t o r i n g  aboriginal  the  that  in socio-economic monitoring  environment. the  Dene  research,  rights  Agency  settlement.  Dene s t a t e d :  "....we are pleased with t h e news t h a t l e s s t h a n two w e e k s . a g o , we r e c e i v e d c o n f i r m a t i o n f r o m J o h n Mar t h a t t h e s t a r t - u p f u n d s w h i c h we had r e q u e s t e d f o r t h i s work l a s t O c t o b e r , w i l l f i n a l l y be f o r t h c o m i n g t o t h e Dene N a t i o n i n the near f u t u r e . While t h i s i n i t i a l f u n d i n g i s o n l y i n t e n d e d t o c a r r y us t o t h e end o f the current fiscal year, we t a k e it as a s i g n o f good faith on D . I . A . N . D . ' s p a r t and t r u s t t h a t t h e o n - g o i n g r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y o u r work t h r o u g h t h e n e x t two y e a r s w i l l be f o r t h c o m i n g . " (Dene N a t i o n 1 9 8 4 a : 1 )  The  May  1984  'Information  Coordinating  Office  Group  indicates  the  which  federal  release  contained that  that  be d r o p p e d  1984:1).  the  the  At  Project  Dene r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  information  if  funds  for were  Coordinating up  on  funding On  plans  brought  prepared  article  budget.  their  would have t o  an  interim  coordinator's  stating  Pipeline'  the  May  by  the for  25,  Joint the  1984  monitoring not  the  Norman  Environmental  group the the  Wells  was  Dene  issued  Norman  same  meeting  issue  t h e Dene was r e c e i v i n g f r o m t h e f e d e r a l  and  of  the  out a  Wells  referred  government  Working  coming  received immediately.  Committee  Project  press  Project  (News same to  of  North month,  differing  agencies.  The  June  receiving for  1,  the  training  is  not  1984-85  funding  processes for  the  time  article  the funding  the  forced to  plans  sufficient  in  of  people  monitoring  be  quoted  edition  community  environmental would  1984  as  -  Native the  that  also  states to  train  both  that  put  year's  dropped.  adequately, blaming  Press  Dene N a t i o n  monitor  were  to  76  delay  aside t h e i r  construction.  It  was  community  the  the  Dene  felt  and  plans Summer  that  people. the  in  there  Mr.  Mar  government  delay:  "He s a i d t h e Dene N a t i o n was s l o w i n d e l i v e r i n g a c t u a l p r o p o s a l s and b u d g e t s f o r t h e i r p r o g r a m s . . . . "Some o f t h e s e p r o g r a m s h a v e t o be r e w o r k e d t o f i t t h e g u i d e l i n e s t h e ( f e d e r a l ) cabinet outlined f o r s p e n d i n g Norman W e l l s m o n e y . " " . (Native Press 1984:1).  Treasury Funds  during  usual".  The  season,  the  Committee which  Impact  met the  Project and  the  the  funding  half  of  and c o n t r a c t o r s Coordinating  1984 geared  the  s e c o n d week  and  worked  programs  are reported during t h i s  -  received.  Funding  and S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t  devoted  up f o r  Committee  organizations  been  were  had  Initiatives  in  of  June.  1984.  second  native  requests  funding  Funding  Community  the  proponents  impact funding  b)  approved  were r e c e i v e d i n August  Events  for  Board  No  the  the to  major  Nation  "business  as  construction  Community  issues  period.  Dene  final  implement  Requests  Program -  to  the  relating  Advisory programs to  the  - 77 The  following  and S o c i a l  goals  Development  a r e i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h e Dene N a t i o n  1984-85  Community  Program:  "1.  To p r o v i d e an o n g o i n g f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l f o r u m t h r o u g h w h i c h c o m m u n i t y and s o c i a l c o n c e r n s a r e r a i s e d and t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e c o m m u n i t y c a n work t o d e v e l o p i t s e l f .  2.  To p r o v i d e r e s o u r c e s t o t h e c o m m u n i t y and work t o d e v e l o p i t s e l f .  3.  To p r o v i d e support and encouragement t o t h e community making resource people available to them to assist a n a l y z i n g and s e e k i n g s o l u t i o n s t o community n e e d s .  4.  To p r o v i d e f o r e x c h a n g e o f i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n t h e Dene N a t i o n , among t h e c o m m u n i t i e s and w i t h t h e Dene N a t i o n t h r o u g h oral, f a c e - t o - f a c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s made p o s s i b l e b y w o r k s h o p t e a m and coordinators.  5.  To b u i l d a s t r o n g e r Dene." (Dene N a t i o n  with  which  to  sense o f community i n t h e custom and M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n 1 9 8 4 b ) .  analyze  of  by in  the  The p r o g r a m i n c l u d e s t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e t h e s e g o a l s :  The  a)  Community  b)  Native  Community  Cultural Revival  c)  Native  Community  Interpretation  proposal  program  costs  submitted  is  accompanied required  request  to  by  a  development  budget  effect  these  issues;  P r o g r a m ; and  Training  that  Program.  identifies  activities.  the  This  staffing  and  proposal  was  i n January 1984.  Planning Support  In  a c t i o n on s o c i a l  January to  a n d M o n i t o r i n g P r o g r a m - Dene  1984,  re-allocate  the  Dene  Nation  a portion  of  submitted  the  impact  Nation  to  D.I.A.N.D.,  funding  its  originally  formal  intended  for  training  funds  were  the  to  be  used  to  activities. proposed  funds  In  to  the  Planning  in  the  Norman W e l l s  a  -  Support  and  development  coordination  establish  78  with  the  community-based  of  Monitoring monitoring  Metis  These  capabilities  Association  monitoring  Program.  the  program  Dene  and  Nation  specifically  for  Project.  "The p u r p o s e o f t h e P r o g r a m w i l l be t o m o n i t o r a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o j e c t d u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and s t a r t - u p p h a s e and t o develop an o n g o i n g m e c h a n i s m w i t h i n e a c h c o m m u n i t y f o r d e a l i n g w i t h any problems which might a f f e c t the community t h a t might a r i s e d u r i n g the life of the . p r o j e c t . The M o n i t o r i n g P r o g r a m w i l l have an environmental component and a s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o m p o n e n t . " (Dene N a t i o n and M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n 1 9 8 4 a ) .  The and  proposal  socio-economic  training, support state  of  actually  and  added t o  Michael  to  need  funds that  to  objectives  gives  for  a  contract  time.  for  (N.B.  the submission in A p r i l  Malcolm, 1984  Executive Activity  Program w i t h  these  Report  -  of  with  environmental  description  funds  for  a professional the  of  proposed  community  planning  assessment  socio-economic  of  the  component  was  1984).  Program  Director  associated  limited  additional  and S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t  September  Development  the  requests  training  general  monitoring,  outlines  Community  his  indicates  - Metis  of the  the  Association  Metis  1983-84  Association Community  concludes and  words:  " . . . . e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m was t h a t it basically failed, the o n l y way t o h e l p t h e M e t i s w o u l d be t o s t a r t them i n t h e a r e a o f Community P r o j e c t s and E c o n o m i c Development. B a s e d on o u r past e x p e r i e n c e s , we t h i n k i t w o u l d b e n e f i t t h e r e s p e c t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s  Social  -  79  -  b e t t e r i f t h e l o c a l as a w h o l e was i n v o l v e d i n e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o r a community project benefiting the community." (Metis Association 1984).  The  1984-85  initiation  and  control  Metis  of  proposal  for  Community  and  funding  of  community  projects  Locals.  headquarters  staff  to  to  respond  development  unit  This and  community  and/or  focus  individual needs  in  was  in  Social  to  Development under  be  Locals.  coping  with  to  take  through  Community the  on  the  sponsorship  facilitated  Metis  preparations  the  focused  small  projects  impact  advantage  a  and  of  were  resource  of  beneficial  opportunities.  Planning Support  and M o n i t o r i n g  During  the  Project and  1983-84  Officer  with  was  management  continuing  this  opportunities a  mechanisms  that  Association contracted to  The be  The  1984-85  be that  the Metis  for  full  the  the  funding  providing encouraging  after  Planning  funding  Economic  Planning  development  projects  proposal could  season. of the  Support  The  long-term Project and  be  was  based  on  taken  of  the  proposal  economic ends.  planning  The  Monitoring  also  Metis  program  be  Corporation.  for  an E c o n o m i c  planning and  the  advantage  development  continued  of  business  construction  Development  requests for  that  1984-85 for  can  proposal  and  problems.  concern  responsible  business  specific  so  Association  service  with  the  propose  requested  - Metis  assistance  service  of  identifies  most  Program  Planning  assistance  assisting  in  the  to  Officer  Locals formation  who was  to  and  to  local  of  a  native  (Dene/Metis) toward  a Western A r c t i c  second work,  business association.  position liaison  -  Native  80 This  local  work  is stated  Business A s s o c i a t i o n .  Secretary/Liaison  with  -  Officer  b u s i n e s s e s and  to  the  to  The  be  be an  initial  proposal requests  responsible  provision  step  of  for  a  office  organizational  back  up.  This  p r o p o s a l was s u b m i t t e d  Dene N a t i o n  The  proposals  and M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n -  for  funding  Contribution  agreements  the  installment  initial  program  descriptions  indicate  that  requests  for  the both  delays,  however,  started  very  its  for  Support  and  receiving Corporation "Business The  meant  that  The  funds  the  fiscal  for  Metis  Program.  This  office  1984)  from  Officer" was n o t  Fort  and  was  that  report  was  to not  report  states  move  the  of  to  The others  initiate for  available on  the the  Metis  Yellowknife, filled  and  in time  that, the  funding  funds.  able  was made  Association  the  in  The  agreements  cancelled not  until  in operation u n t i l early spring  and  1984.  necessary be  1984.  i n August  August  t r a i n i n g program  report  Smith  position  to  June  contribution  the  example,  monitoring  a  had  in  identified  receive  programs  sole activity was  the  activities  until  were s i g n e d  received to  Outcomes  Board  year  also  would  Nation,  Program  Treasury  appendices  some  (August  therefore,  reach  was  as  of  Dene  programs  Ltd.'s  funds  1984.  1984-85  1984-85  environmental  Development  program,  of  The  Monitoring  the  the  majority  season.  1984-85  for  not  organizations  community-based  the  did  contained  late.  construction  in January,  the  to  me  Planning delay  in  Development  meant  that  February 1985.  the 1985.  c)  Perceptions  In  his  f)  In  remarks  Federal  spite  the the  Coordination  of  the  latter  Office  and  a  February  Coordinator  Dene  Nation  Dene  had  Office  office never  because  and b e c a u s e t h e i r  ignored.  As  problems  frustration  draft  press  angry  tone:  with  release  point,  D.I.A.N.D  structure  Dene  of  1984  paper  titled  'The  Norman  states:  C o n t i n u i n g Dene N a t i o n and M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n the coordination process is vital to the project." (Mar 1 9 8 4 : 2 3 )  of  that  -  Northerner's expectations of economic benefits were over p e r c e i v e d at the o u t s e t of the p r o j e c t . These expectations m u s t now be t e m p e r e d .  Coordinating One  the  81  Observations  concluding  Wells Project'  " e)  and/or  -  relations became  staff  interviewed  had  with  delays  the  process  concerning  the  in  the  not  own s u g g e s t e d  the  increasingly  recognized they  between  p a r t i c i p a t i o n in success of the  been  in  February,  involved  r e c e i v i n g the  1984-85  strained  Federal  structure  increased.  Dene A s s o c i a t i o n ,  The  funding  during 1985  Coordinator in  Appendix  impact  funds  Dene  Nation  requests  had  C)  or  had  continued May a  1984.  commented  determining  (see  the  22,  the the been the 1984  definitely  "The g o v e r n m e n t ' s f a i l u r e t o f o l l o w t h r o u g h on t h e i r p r o m i s e s i s an outrage. The Norman W e l l s F u n d i n g was a p o l i t i c a l p a y o f f t o h e l p our people prepare f o r a p r o j e c t we d i d n o t w a n t i n t h e first place. T h e y h a v e g o t t h e i r p i p e l i n e and we h a v e had n o t h i n g but b u r e a u c r a t i c h a s s l e s and e x c u s e s . . . . . T h e D e p a r t m e n t o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s has g i v e n v e r b a l s u p p o r t to t h e Dene m o n i t o r i n g e f f o r t s , b u t i n t e r i m s t a r t - u p f u n d i n g p r o m i s e d l a s t f a l l was n o t c o n f i r m e d u n t i l F e b r u a r y 1984 and h a s s t i l l not  -  82 -  been received. On-going funding f o r a two y e a r p r o g r a m was r e q u e s t e d l a s t D e c e m b e r , and t h e r e h a v e b e e n o n l y d e l a y s s i n c e t h e n . ....This was p o l i t i c a l money f r o m t h e s t a r t , a n d we c a n o n l y i n t e r p r e t t h e n e e d l e s s b u r e a u c r a t i c h a s s l e s as d i s g u i s e d p o l i t i c a l delay t a c t i c s . They a r e s u c c e s s f u l l y h a m p e r i n g o u r e f f o r t s t o be i n f o r m e d and i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p i p e l i n e , w h i c h we o n l y a c c e p t e d a s a test case. ....This e x p e r i e n c e c o n f i r m s t h a t we w e r e r i g h t i n our o r i g i n a l position on t h i s project that there should be no major development until the question of our aboriginal rights is settled. This i s t h e o n l y way i n w h i c h we c a n g u a r a n t e e some c o n t r o l and b e n e f i t s f o r o u r p e o p l e f r o m p r o j e c t s o f t h i s s i z e . " (Dene N a t i o n 1984b)  The  editorial  f o l l o w i n g comments  in  the  about  'Native  Kakfwi's  Press'  June  statements  1,  1984  edition  and t h e f u n d i n g  made  the  situation:  "The Dene N a t i o n and t h e f e d e r a l government are fighting over Norman W e l l s i m p a c t m o n e y , a n d i t l o o k s l i k e a l o s i n g b a t t l e f o r t h e Dene. They a r e g o i n g t o have t o march t o t h e f e d e r a l f u n d i n g d r u m , and Dene l e a d e r s a r e n o t h a p p y a b o u t it.... Dene l e a d e r s a r e a n g r y , b e c a u s e what t h e y want f o r t h e i r p e o p l e i s some m e a s u r e o f CONTROL o v e r what h a p p e n s on t h e i r l a n d . They s h o u l d be a n g r y , t o o , b e c a u s e i n s t e a d o f h a v i n g c o n t r o l t h e y h a v e t o w r i t e p r o p o s a l s j u s t t o m o n i t o r a p r o j e c t t h e y were f o r c e d t o accept.... The f e d e r a l s t r a t e g y i s t o p u t t h e D e n e , M e t i s and e v e r y o n e e l s e i n t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f h a v i n g t o r e a c t t o p r o j e c t d e v e l o p m e n t s - - and by t h e t i m e y o u c a n r e a c t , t h e p r o j e c t i s f i n i s h e d . . . . O t t a w a h e l d on t o t h e m o n e y , Ottawa, your proposal b e t t e r Press 1984b:4)  The that  Dene  they  i n t h e May 1984 P r o j e c t  were n o t b e i n g d e a l t  Coordinator as  stated  and O t t a w a i s s l o w , and b y G o d , w i t h f i t the federal g u i d e l i n e s . " (Native  with  i n good  i d e n t i f i e d t h e Dene comments  'political  posturing'  and a s s u r e d  w o u l d be f o r t h c o m i n g a l t h o u g h  Coordinating  faith  and t h e i r  the  by D . I . A . N . D .  time.  The  discussions with  Committee  they would take  Committee  members  that  meeting Federal  t h e media the  funds  The  June  1984  Coordination 1984-85 to  Office  impact  Impact their  Study plans  pipeline.  It  by t h e  the Dene's as to  a  of  'Information  publication,  funding.  be r e c e i v e d  describes  issue  refusal  Nation  that  states  to  that  in  a  article  Norman  Wells  that  Association.  monitor  their  environmental  the Minister  s t a n c e and i t f u r t h e r  to  of  D.I.A.N.D.  the  f u n d i n g was The  in the D.I.A.N.D.  response  Project  discussed  3.2 million additional  and t h e M e t i s  move"  workers  Dene t o r e c o n s i d e r t h e i r  an  to p a r t i c i p a t e  "retaliatory  The a r t i c l e  Pipeline'  contains  announces  D.ene  train  83 -  article  Socio-Economic having effects  to of  was u r g i n g  drop the the  states:  "The f u n d i n g i s s u e h a s p l a c e d a s t r a i n on r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e Dene a n d t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a t a t i m e when g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s a r e e x p l o r i n g ways o f i n v o l v i n g c o m m u n i t i e s i n d o i n g t h e i r own m o n i t o r i n g a n d a g r o u p f o r m e d a t Dene i n i t i a t i v e h a s begun t o s e r v e as w a t c h - d o g over environmental s u r v e i l l a n c e a c t i v i t i e s on t h e project." ( I n f o r m a t i o n P i p e l i n e 1984a)  In  July  Regional  1984, the F e d e r a l  Council  regarding  the  felt  Project  Pipeline'  Liard.  t h e Norman W e l l s  many s o u t h e r n e r s , Council  in Fort  that  racist  Coordinator  had n o t been  The C o u n c i l  Project.  attitudes,  the conditions met.  attended  put f o r t h  In a d d i t i o n t o o few j o b s  that  a meeting  t h e Dene  of  a number  to the P r o j e c t ' s  t h e Deh Cho of  concerns  h i r i n g too  and t o o f e w c o n t r a c t s , linked  M r . Mar was q u o t e d  with  the approval  i n the July  the of  'Information  as r e s p o n d i n g :  "The f e d e r a l c a b i n e t ' s d e c i s i o n s on how t h e p r o j e c t was t o be managed d i d n o t meet a l l o f t h e Dene N a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s . Basically t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n what was a s k e d f o r and w h a t was a p p r o v e d i s a t t h e r o o t o f some o f o u r p r o b l e m s . " ( I n f o r m a t i o n P i p e l i n e 1984b)  Mr. what  Mar p e r c e i v e s  was " a p p r o v e d " .  between  In  the difference The n a t i v e  t o be b e t w e e n  organizations  what  perceive  was " a s k e d  f o r " and  the difference  t o be  what was " p r o m i s e d " a n d w h a t was " r e c e i v e d " .  October,  conducted Project  in  1984 a s e m i n a r Banff,  Coordinator's  response These  84 -  paper  was  documents  implementation  Alberta. Office prepared  illustrate  called A  Project  paper  was  on t h e s u b j e c t by some  the  Dene  prepared of  by  t h e Norman  Nation  differences  o f t h e Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t .  Assessment;  in  Project the  perception  The g o v e r n m e n t  Norman  Wells  Monitoring  Audit  Wells  Project.  Program regarding  paper  was  A  staff. the  concludes:  " The h a r d work o f government departments and a g e n c i e s h a s r e s u l t e d i n t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t based on c o o p e r a t i o n ; h o w e v e r , a more f o r m a l and a u t h o r i t a t i v e coordination r o l e may be r e q u i r e d f o r more c o m p l e x large scale development projects. The e x p e r i e n c e obtained by northerners in project r e l a t e d t r a i n i n g , employment and n o r t h e r n business opportunities should enable them to achieve increased benefits from future developments. Community level participation in the coordination p r o c e s s has been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o j e c t and should continue; however, t h e Dene N a t i o n c o n t i n u e t o use the p r o j e c t as a b a s i s t o p r e s s f o r c o n t r o l o f l a n d and r e s o u r c e s which, along with t h e i r frustration over accessing funding for community programs, could jeopardize continued community level p a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . . P a r t i c i p a n t s a t t h e B e a u f o r t Sea E . A . R . P . h e a r i n g s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e b e i n g g a i n e d by g o v e r n m e n t a n d northerners could be u s e d for dealing with future northern development p r o j e c t s . Industry expressed general support f o r the concept of a Coordination Office as a means to facilitate i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e government. The Dene N a t i o n e x p r e s s e d m a j o r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t w i t h t h e i r l a c k o f power t o c o n t r o l t h e Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t and t h e r a n g e o f b e n e f i t s b e i n g d e r i v e d b y n a t i v e people from the project. All participants recommended t h e need to s t r e a m l i n e p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l m e c h a n i s m s . " (D.I.A.N.D. 1984:34)  The  Dene  certain  response  control  over  contains  a  development  85  -  strong  in the  emphasis  on  the  Dene  land they consider to  desire  be t h e i r  for  own.  "The Dene l e a d e r s w a n t e d t o n e g o t i a t e a s e t t l e m e n t w h i c h w o u l d g i v e t h e i r people a r o l e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g about major development, i n c l u d i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s e t t l i n g t e r m s and c o n d i t i o n s , and i n monitoring. The Dene and Metis desire for participation in regulatory d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and m o n i t o r i n g is a legitimate one. (Dene N a t i o n M o n i t o r i n g P r o g r a m 1 9 8 4 : 3 ) .  The  Dene p e r c e p t i o n  of  the  Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t  is  stated:  "Thus, Norman W e l l s i s s e e n by t h e Dene as a t e s t - c a s e . The l e s s o n s l e a r n e d f r o m t h i s p r o j e c t a r e p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t i o n f o r Dene negotiations on involvement in regulatory proceedings and m o n i t o r i n g on f u t u r e p r o j e c t s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e Dene l e a d e r s h i p ' s a s s e s s m e n t o f t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r we a r e w i l l i n g t o support f u t u r e l a r g e - s c a l e development b e f o r e our r i g h t s are f u l l y entrenched in a negotiated aboriginal rights settlement." (Dene N a t i o n , M o n i t o r i n g Program 1984:3)  The  paper  interveners scrutiny people last  of  after issue  in  criticizes the  a the was  NEB  project  the  hearings, and,  lack  of  c o o r d i n a t i n g m e c h a n i s m and  in the  Committee.  Advisory  Committee  also  Dene was  a monitoring  Project  Coordinating  of  lack  all,  native  Co-ordinating  team  the  stage.  Project  was  participation  above  public hearing the  limited  the Of  to  Committee  for  public  lack  involvement  of  native  of  oversee  in of  concern r e l a t e d the  terms  of  nature  A major  ommission,  the  as a d e q u a t e  Project. for  this  The role:  to  establishment  'advisory'  criticized.  the  mechanisms  involvement  The  to  on-going  particular  establishment  available  reference of  the  not  of  for  a the  Community  according  Dene do  this  to  the  see  the  -  86 -  " t h e P . C . C . w i t h i t s b r o a d membership and i n f r e q u e n t m e e t i n g s , serves only as a g e n e r a l information session. It i s not the a p p r o p r i a t e f o r u m f o r n a t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t , i n a s p e c i f i c s e n s e , on any o f t h e i s s u e s o u t l i n e d a b o v e . " (Dene N a t i o n M o n i t o r i n g P r o g r a m 1984:4)  The  Dene  highlights present the  total  t h e Dene v i e w s that  that  t h e government  regarding  deals with  t h e Dene.  dollar  funding  states  only p o s i t i v e aspects of  paper  concern  paper  package.  a number  the impact  The f i r s t  amounts  funding  amounts  changed over  million.  Development made  the  Minister  Project  Committee approval  to  quotations  M r s . Meldrum  gain  Cabinet  announcement. back  are from  Assessment;  of  stated  the  the  $1.5  Dene  Project  Wells Project.  reveals  areas.  The m a j o r  change  31,  She  stated  1981,  were  goes  of  refer  was made  that  at  the  impact  by t h e  the  The  Banff  to  Social  Mr.  attempts  unsuccessful.  given  to the  discrepancy of  day a f t e r  later  of  that  from $ 1 0 . 5 m i l l i o n  the  and  on t o  issues  initiatives within  time.  this  paper  It  set of quotations  on J u l y  million  problems  The s e c t i o n  a number  i n t r a i n i n g funds  that  Nation  downplays  problem  the various  c o n c e r n t o t h e Dene was t h e r e d u c t i o n $9.0  of  two i n t h e next  allocated to  These  t h e Norman  paper  Munro  by  the  following seminar  Audit:  " T h e a l l o c a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n D . I . A . N . D . ' s c a s e s t u d y a r e somewhat different. T h e s e c h a n g e s w e r e made i n t e r n a l l y , w i t h i n D.I.A.N.D., without consulting the native groups. (Dene N a t i o n M o n i t o r i n g Program 1984:14) " T h e Dene N a t i o n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g was t h a t d e c i s i o n s on a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e t r a i n i n g f u n d s w o u l d be made b y n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , r a t h e r t h a n by g o v e r n m e n t s a n d t h a t t r a i n i n g m o n i e s w e r e t o be s p e n t f o r p r o g r a m s a l r e a d y o f f e r e d e i t h e r by C . E . I . C . or the G.N.W.T. We a l s o u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e C o m m u n i t y A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e w o u l d be s e t up and managed by the native organizations as part of an involvement in monitoring." (Dene Nation Monitoring Program 1984:14)  on  -  87  -  " I t i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e t h a t t h e a c c e s s i n g p r o c e s s h a s n o t e v e r been made c l e a r , a t l e a s t t o t h e Dene N a t i o n , and i t i s a l s o t r u e that t h e e l e c t i o n o f a new e x e c u t i v e and s t a f f turnover a t t h e Dene National office did interfere with the continuity of accessing these monies. H o w e v e r , i t i s e q u a l l y t r u e t h a t D . I . A . N . D . had i t s own p r o b l e m s i n d e c i d i n g on an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e , and in adequately conveying t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n to fund r e c i p i e n t s . " (Dene Nation M o n i t o r i n g Program 1984:15) "A f i n a l a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e P r o j e c t s h o u l d i n c l u d e an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o m i s e s , b u r e a u c r a t i c p r o c e d u r e s and r e a s o n s f o r t h e d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s on i s s u e s t o do w i t h i m p a c t f u n d i n g . Because t h e f u n d i n g i t s e l f h a s become an i s s u e . " (Dene N a t i o n Monitoring Program 1984:15)  The  Dene  problems, process  paper  with  a  call  p r o c e s s e s and m e c h a n i s m s  of  the  before  concludes  it  becomes  accepted  for  a  thorough  assessment  Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t as  a  model  for  -  June 3 0 ,  of  the  implementation  future  northern  developments.  5.  Third-Construction-Year  a)  General  The  The  In  March  final  construction  March  Project  1985  oil  On May 1 6 ,  1985,  Coordinating  Norman W e l l s .  The  operation  will  for  and  the  began  started  assessment procedures f o r  Funding  1985  Events  pipeline  rapidly.  --January-!;-1985  again to  will  its  into  the  meeting  Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t  focus  January  1985.  Work  Norman  Wells  focused  its  progressed pipeline.  attention  on  project.  Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t  the O f f i c e  flow  Committee the  in  energies  completion  ceremony  Coordination  Office  on  of  continue through  a  review the  1985-86  the  will  was  continue  overall  fiscal  held  year.  in its  Project.  b)  Impact  Funding  88  -  Initiatives  P r o p o s a l f o r 1 9 8 5 / 8 6 / 8 7 F u n d s - Community and S o c i a l and P l a n n i n g S u p p o r t and M o n i t o r i n g - Dene N a t i o n  In  March  of  Impact  Funds  1985-1986-1987'.  be  used  impact  as  the  1985,  the  basis  Dene s u b m i t t e d  for  This  the  a  'Proposal  proposal  requests  to  was  Development  to  Access  submitted  Treasury  Norman  to  Board  Wells  D.I.A.N.D.  for  the  to  remaining  funds.  "The o b j e c t i v e s o f o u r p r o p o s e d p r o g r a m and t h e r e l a t e d t r a i n i n g a r e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s c r e a t i n g an a w a r e n e s s amongst t h e c o m m u n i t i e s a b o u t t h e i m p a c t s and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f d e v e l o p m e n t , assisting in establishing strong and healthy communities, and in turn, assisting them to creatively address future development proposals." (Dene N a t i o n 1 9 8 5 : 2 )  The  proposal  community funds  and  office.  led The  the  programs  aid  in  the  the  be  funded overall  training.  the  delays,  and  the  the  and  major  program's  The  timing  identifies Norman  and  impact  communication and  function review of  for  three  years  the  need  of  sheer  for  the  the  management  a  unit The  program  of  the  Nation  to  manage  unit  the  management  the  the  is  objectives  with  Norman W e l l s  with  size  for  funds.  relations of  monitoring,  request  difficulties the  Wells  flow  management,  previous  organizational  information  Another  the monitoring  components;  The  coordination  office.  and  therefore,  for  major  of  through  responsible  with  four  experiences  planning  proposal,  coordinator's assist  from  to  on  development  administration.  programs  will  social  resulted  funding  focuses  to and  federal  unit  Project.  is  to  - 89 The  monitoring  comprehensive from  the  will  be  documentation  perspective carried  social/economic the  Project.  The  community  fieldworkers are  to  be  (e.g.  with  or  which used  have for  time  concentrate  communities.  of  its  on t h e  will  identify adequately  indicated  conduct  evaluation  combination  of  suited  to  be  integrated  regional  and  go t o  be  to  cope  communities  These  funds  studies,  or  may to  be hire  fieldworkers  abilities  evaluation the  staff  will  communities to  of  communities  and and  major  are  within  community  into  review  office  the  regional  the  issues;  the  social  assessment  final  report  project.  focus  and  that  activities  and  education)  and  a community-based  will  to  issues.  skills  Project  Nation  their  The  Wells  over-all  The  feasibility  plans.  produce  community  is designated  specific  leadership  program's  needs  work  an  and  and  to  program's  interest  training  conduct  Norman  and  of  is  environmental  staff.  areas  funding  to  the  are f o r  fieldworkers  these  proposal  This  a  workers,  funds  goal  The  development  justice,  addressing  developing  training is  for  of  headings:  coordinating  Increased  on  Norman W e l l s  done  and  achieve  program  major  priority  to  The  work.  The be  plans  staff  development  office  over-riding  communities.  development  community  problems.  part  four  economic  specific  aiding  term  evaluation  Dene  under  correction  work  temporary to  Nation  for  solve  out  long  and  the  and s o c i a l  and  alcohol,  of  issues;  assigned  responsible  program's  promote native  i s on human research,  the  needs.  resources  liaison  and  planning. survey  development  of  In  a training  addition,  training  The  work  activities programs  package  is  to to  more to  be  developed  that  personnel.  can  This  Development  be  a c c e s s e d by  training  Training,  -  the  package  2)  90  Community  includes four  Cultural  Survival  Development major  3)  program  programs  Community  training  - tl)  Community  Awareness  and  4)  Translations.  As o f  J u n e 1985  t h i s p r o p o s a l was w i t h  Community and S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t Metis Association  The program Metis  major of  objective  the  Locals  Metis to  funding  assistance  to  the  reports  as  Government,  sponsor and  the  of  their  Program P r o p o s a l  1985/86 is  to  and t h e  required  the  that  the  issues.  Locals  to  open The  full  development  proposal  set  Development of  the  requests  the  coordination  the of  Metis  objectives  Social  provide  lines  -  and  The  to monitor  Locals.  meet  for  staff  and m a i n t a i n  and  projects  allow  Board.  1985-86  Community  community  headquarters  Executive  Industry  community  the  Association  address  continued  prepare  of  the Treasury  community  projects,  communication  Locals  will  and  between  continue  in e a r l i e r years  to  (1982/83  84/85)  i.e.  The Community  to  assist  community  residents  a)  t o d e v e l o p means by resource development;  b)  to prepare themselves opportunities.  staff  required  Services  to  carry  Coordinator,  which and  to  to  take  out a  the  Liaison  cope  with  advantage  Metis Officer  the  of  program and . a  impact  of  beneficial  objectives Clerk/Steno.  are  a The  proposal the  identifies  program,  criteria  specific  for  objectives  proposal  for  identical  to  initially  established  throughout  These still  c)  that  proposals  Perceptions  and  following  Pipeline".  1983  is  the to  a  rationale  for  budget.  Program P r o p o s a l  Planning for  proposals,  Support 1984-85  continue  1985-86  and  Monitoring  fiscal the  -  year.  same  focus  funds  The  is  program  and  staffing  1985-86.  with Treasury  The  in  Local  and a d e t a i l e d  1985-86  submitted  -  acceptable  P l a n n i n g S u p p o r t and M o n i t o r i n g Metis Association  The  91  They  were  submitted  From D a v i d  Crombie,  1985  and  by  June  30,  1985  were  Observations  illustrate  at  April  Board.  quotations  and o t h e r s  in  the time of  the  are  the  taken  varying  from  perceptions  completion of  M i n i s t e r of  Indian  the  the  Affairs  May of  1985 the  Norman W e l l s  and N o r t h e r n  "Information  relevant Project.  Development:  "Norman W e l l s " i s an e x a m p l e o f how we c a n e n c o u r a g e regional e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h i s c o u n t r y b a s e d on t h e s t r e n g t h s o f e a c h r e g i o n , " he s a i d . The p r o j e c t " h a s g e n e r a t e d and will c o n t i n u e t o g e n e r a t e s u b s t a n t i v e e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s , " he a d d e d . Norman Wells, he said, "has been a challenge for Esso, Interprovincial Pipe Line, for native people, for local c o m m u n i t i e s , and f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t . " The c h a l l e n g e was t o prove that " s i g n i f i c a n t economic b e n e f i t s c o u l d be r e a l i z e d w i t h the  actors  -  92  -  c o o p e r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g o f m a j o r N o r t h e r n resource development, with hands-on participation by both native and non-native northerners in t r a i n i n g , jobs and b u s i n e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s , with c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s o c i a l n e e d s o f c o m m u n i t i e s c o n c e r n e d , and with s e n s i t i v i t y to the environment," s a i d Mr. Crombie. The key Crombie.  goals  and  conditions  have  been  largely  met,  said  Mr.  "The q u e s t i o n s we m u s t a s k o u r s e l v e s now a r e ' D i d we do b e t t e r t h a n w e ' v e done b e f o r e ? ' , ' D i d we l e a r n t h i n g s t h a t w i l l h e l p us do b e t t e r t h e n e x t t i m e ? ' , ' C a n we i m p r o v e o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f u t u r e ventures?' " On t h e Norman W e l l s p r o j e c t , s a i d M r . C r o m b i e , t h r e e q u e s t i o n s a r e y e s , b u t n o t an " u n q u a l i f i e d  the answers yes".  to  all  The M i n i s t e r a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e r e i s room f o r i m p r o v e m e n t i n such a r e a s as t r a i n i n g and u p g r a d i n g f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e and a s s i s t i n g n a t i v e b u s i n e s s people i n t a k i n g advantage of development.  •  " W e ' v e a l l l e a r n e d f r o m Norman W e l l s , " M r . C r o m b i e s a i d . He u r g e d people to c e l e b r a t e t h e i r success i n b u i l d i n g the p i p e l i n e , and "dedicate ourselves to doing it even b e t t e r the next time."" ( I n f o r m a t i o n P i p e l i n e 1985)  From R i c h a r d N e r y s o o ,  Northwest  Territories  government  leader:  "The Norman W e l l s o i l f i e l d e x p a n s i o n and p i p e l i n e p r o j e c t h a s " s e t a s t a n d a r d o r b e n c h m a r k w h i c h we must b u i l d upon and go forward f r o m , " says R i c h a r d Nerysoo, the Northwest Territories government leader. " T h i s ceremony marks t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n phase of t h e p r o j e c t , " M r . N e r y s o o t o l d g u e s t s a t t h e o f f i c i a l o p e n i n g May 16 i n Norman W e l l s . " I t i s also a beginning — the s t a r t of the p r o d u c t i o n p h a s e a n d , I s u s p e c t , o f a new p h a s e o f i n n o v a t i v e and i m a g i n a t i v e i d e a s and p r o p o s a l s f o r f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t throughout the Mackenzie V a l l e y . " B e f o r e any f u r t h e r p r o j e c t s go a h e a d , h o w e v e r , a l a r g e r r o l e must be d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e t e r r i t o r i a l g o v e r n m e n t , M r . N e r y s o o s a i d . The G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e NWT w a n t s a s h a r e o f r e s o u r c e r e v e n u e s , funding f o r a d v a n c e p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s , and a g r e a t e r r o l e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t . He a l s o p r a i s e d t h e c o m p a n i e s ' d i l i g e n c e in employing Northern r e s i d e n t s , b u t s a i d e m p l o y m e n t had b e e n an a r e a o f disappointment f o r community r e s i d e n t s . " A l t h o u g h many s h o r t - t e r m j o b s w e r e h e l d by n o t h e r n e r s d u r i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d , g e n e r a l l y , t h e h i g h expectations for employment which were held by the valley c o m m u n i t i e s have not been met.  -  93  -  M r . N e r y s o o s a i d he was p l e a s e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e Norman Wells Project. "It was delivered in a sociallyand environmentallyr e s p o n s i b l e manner with an e f f o r t to maximize e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s f o r n o r t h e r n e r s " and " i n a s p i r i t o f c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n g o v e r n m e n t , i n d u s t r y , and t h e c o m m u n i t i e s . " "I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t s a c h i e v e d and o p t i m i s t i c a b o u t how such future developments will be managed in the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s by a l l o f u s , " M r . N e r y s o o c o n c l u d e d . " (Information P i p e l i n e 1985) F r o m t h e Dene  Nation:  "The Dene N a t i o n boycotted the Norman Wells Project ceremonies, saying that c o n d i t i o n s s e t by t h e Dene a g r e e i n g t o l e t t h e p r o j e c t go a h e a d had n o t b e e n m e t .  completion leaders in  "We do n o t h a v e a n y t h i n g t o c e l e b r a t e , " Dene N a t i o n p r e s i d e n t S t e v e K a k f w i s a i d f r o m F o r t S i m p s o n , w h e r e t h e Dene l e a d e r s had g a t h e r e d t o t a l k a b o u t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e Norman W e l l s o i l f i e l d e x p a n s i o n and p i p e l i n e p r o j e c t . "We a r e n o t a n e g a t i v e p e o p l e , " M r . K a k f w i s a i d , " b u t we f e e l i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t C a n a d i a n s be made aware t h a t a l l h a s n o t gone w e l l on t h e f i r s t n o r t h e r n p i p e l i n e , i n s p i t e o f what industry and government may be s a y i n g . If it c a n be s a i d that they have s u c c e e d e d i n r e a c h i n g t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s , t h e n i t c a n a l s o be s a i d t h a t t h e y have s u c c e e d e d a t t h e expense o f t h e D e n e . " M r . K a k f w i s a i d t h a t i n 1 9 8 1 , Dene l e a d e r s a g r e e d t h a t t h e p r o j e c t c o u l d go a h e a d i f i m p a c t f u n d i n g was p r o v i d e d , o w n e r s h i p o f the Norman Wells o i l was s e t t l e d w i t h the federal government, the e n v i r o n m e n t was p r o t e c t e d , and a m o n i t o r i n g a g e n c y and management structure with Dene representation was established. These c o n d i t i o n s w e r e i n t e n d e d t o h e l p t h e Dene g a i n b e n e f i t s and c u s h i o n negative e f f e c t s . " B u t n o w , on t h e e v e o f t h e o f f i c i a l not been m e t , " M r . K a k f w i s a i d .  opening,  these  conditions  have  "The federal government has n o t dealt with us i n good faith. Negotiations about the ownership of t h e o i l have b a r e l y begun. P r o t e c t i o n of the environment has n o t b e e n a p r i o r i t y and Dene c o n c e r n s a b o u t t h e e f f e c t s o f p o l l u t i o n on f i s h d o w n s t r e a m f r o m t h e oil f i e l d have not been taken seriously. The monitoring and management r o l e s f o r t h e Dene w e r e n e v e r r e a l i z e d . " Indian and N o r t h e r n Affairs Minister David Crombie, saying he r e s p e c t e d t h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n by t h e D e n e , f l e w f r o m Norman W e l l s t o F o r t S i m p s o n a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n c e r e m o n i e s t o meet w i t h t h e Dene leaders. He met w i t h M e t i s l e a d e r s w h i l e he was i n Norman W e l l s f o r the ceremony.  Mr. far  Crombie s a i d unresolved."  that  the  Dene  94  -  were  raising  issues  which  "are  so  "Whatever good t h i s p r o j e c t d i d , and i t d i d c o n s i d e r a b l e good, t h e r e a r e many t h i n g s t h a t n e e d t o be i m p r o v e d b e c a u s e t h e r e were i s s u e s r a i s e d , some o f t h e m d e a l t w i t h b u t a l o t o f them n o t , " s a i d Mr. Crombie. As w e l l as b u s i n e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s , t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n , and t h e p r o g r e s s o f l a n d c l a i m s , he s a i d , " i t r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g ownership; it raises questions concerning revenue-sharing; it r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to the p o l i t i c a l development of the N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e Dene p e o p l e t o that." " ( I n f o r m a t i o n P i p e l i n e 1985)  D.  SUMMARY  This  chapter  contains  funding  initiatives.  analysis  provide  of  program  contains  The  results  documentation  documentation  information  effectiveness  the  initiatives  the  the  of  that  developed the  as p r o g r a m s o f  and  will  and  analysis  of  of  be  the the  review  measured  presented the  "story"  in  the  Chapter  management.  two  process  against  effectiveness  socio-economic impact  of  the  II. of  the  study content  criteria  Chapter two  IV  study  - 95 CHAPTER  IV  A N A L Y S I S OF EFFECTIVENESS  The  purpose  against  IV  criteria  effectiveness  A  of Chapter  the  Criterion  OF-PROGRAMS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT MANAGEMENT  i s to  of  assess  t h e two s t u d y  socio-economic  t h a t were o u t l i n e d  i n Chapter  impact  initiative  programs  management  program  II.  I  socio-economic  socio-economic  impact  impact  management  concerns  expressed  strategy by  should  participants  reflect  during  the  the review  processes.  The  findings  of  meetings  reveal  that  expected  socio-economic  development, planning  there  for  monitoring  One  the analysis  the  while  intervenor  at  monitoring  regarding  potential  communities. established social  This to  allow  issues.  The  of  and t o  and  the  there  need  of  only  E.A.R.P.  are expressed for  concerning is  the  one  community  native  community  relative and  to  social  involvement  expression  in  related  to  sense of the concept.  agency for  latter local  concerns  expressions  the Yellowknife  northern-based the  no  project,  i n any s p e c i f i c  the contents  a number  impacts  are  of  meetings  and  another  suggests  expresses  adverse  socio-economic  intervenor  recommends  communities  intervention  decision-making  specifically  the necessity strong  impacts that  over  the  a  concern native  mechanisms  power  recommends  on  of  health  allocation  be and of  - 96 impact  funds,  a  collaborative  system  planning  for  distribution  dialogue  between  of  funds  the  and  the  governments,  necessity  for  local  communities  with  biophysical  and t h e o i l c o m p a n i e s .  The  E.A.R.P.  impacts  expected  impacts. mainly There  were  concern with  fall  during  the  consultation equal  to  from  consultation  government  communities  communities  Project  development  and a d v i c e ,  of  for  the  with  the N.E.B.  planning,  review  impacts,  monitoring  impacts,  to state  that  impact  for  were  statement. but  the  planning,  not  are expressed  adverse  the communities The  these  interventions  concerns  with  impacts  will  s h o u l d be c o n s u l t e d  intervenor  n o t on i n v o l v e m e n t  people.  communities  but a g a i n ,  of project  process  the  these  socio-economic  focus  is  on  in decision-making or in  groups.  native  planning or implementation  in  process.  native  are p r o j e c t - r e l a t e d ,  with  proponents'  Where  the- Environmental  actions  than  and c a p a b i l i t i e s  or that  however,  Report  role  planning  is either  on t h e s e  consult  project  it  project  the  in the processes.  to  the  to  concerned  socio-economic  preparedness  advised  Of  discuss  related  involvement  E.A.R.P.  more  the p i p e l i n e  did  participation of native  The  were  the d e f i c i e n c i e s within  expressions  to native  heavily  meetings  intervenors  was w i t h  native  regard  to result  When  related  technical  Proponents on  a  number  involvement  activities  interventions  Canadian  and t h e n e e d  -Assessment -Panel  Arctic  of  the  governments actions.  in decisions  are These  related  to  i s not d i s c u s s e d .  that  expressed  Resources  f o r managing  and  emphasizes  impacts.  concern  Committee  about  refers  The r e f e r e n c e  to does  not,  however,  these  concerns  Norman W e l l s impact  expressed  Project  native  involvement  funding  initiatives.  i s reason  reflected native  the  review  of  native  associations  D.I.A.N.D.  aspects staff  Project  contents  called  the  1985).  Also  The p o t e n t i a l  of  believe  initiatives,  these  the  meetings  that study  forms  while  communities  of  impact  these  in  in  initiatives  "political  supporting .this  the review  funding  meetings  concept  that  i n the content  of  the the  problems,  o f t h e need t o  concerns took  were  likely did  very A  consult  bargaining  i s the f o l l o w i n g  between  member of  more  review  of  the  processes.  in  the  the in the  Norman  material  sessions." item  generally  influential  events  produced the  are  place  programs.  pre-approval  than  meetings,  with  during the reviews.  D.I.A.N.D.  the  associated  for increased social  the meetings  and t h e M i n i s t e r of  sense  and a r e c o g n i t i o n  that  who was i n v o l v e d  agreed  "Discussion  "29.  to  processes  in a general  and m o n i t o r i n g  i n t h e two  determining  Wells  during  people are expressed i n various  There  1981  the  are reflected  t h e need f o r p l a n n i n g  the  advocate  -  processes.  The  two  explicitly  97  for She  (Meldrum June  Paper":  The Dene a n d M e t i s h a v e met w i t h t h e M i n i s t e r t o d i s c u s s t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s and t h e p r o j e c t . I t would appear t h a t t h e r e is p o t e n t i a l f o r Dene a n d M e t i s c o o p e r a t i o n i n p r o j e c t planning providing the Federal Government supports northern native people i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o r e a l i z e economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s from the p r o j e c t , m i t i g a t e p o t e n t i a l adverse s o c i a l impacts, p l a y a m e a n i n g f u l r o l e i n t h e management o f t h e p r o j e c t and p r o v i d e f o r l o n g e r term economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s once t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the p r o j e c t i s complete. The Dene a n d M e t i s do n o t h a v e the r e s o u r c e s t o pursue such measures p r i o r t o s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e i r land c l a i m s . " ( M . I . A . N . D . 1981:13)  26,  - 98 This the  d i s c u s s i o n suggests  two  expressed meetings  impact  funding  during  the review  involving  the  that  there  programs  under  processes  Minister  was a c o m b i n a t i o n  of  study-  a n d , b)  a)  the  issues  D.I.A.N.D.  of determinants  and  general  discussed the  concerns  in  native  of  informal  association  leaders.  Therefore:  The review  impact  funding  processes  Criterion  of  initiatives  the  Norman  do r e f l e c t  Wells  the concerns  Project.  The  expressed  programs  thus  i n the satisfy  I.  Griterion-II  the  A socio-economic  i m p a c t management  commencement  project  impacts  of  as t h e y  occur.  Norman  Wells  The because  this  leaders. Minister  was  They that  stated this  projects.  In  D.I.A.N.D.,  the  i m p a c t management  the  construction  Project  the  time  delay period  during  would  program  be  the a  in order  period  was  identified E.A.R.  sufficient  comments  activities:  are  as  period  made  to  set  Process  Mid-Project - Evaluation  following  s h o u l d be o p e r a t i o n a l be a b l e  as  to  deal  two y e a r s  necessary and  to  in  by  prepared regarding  by  with  the  native  with  the  programs  and  consultants time  to  primarily  meetings  initiate  prior  required  for for  -  99  -  "(The impact funding) objectives are best achieved if impact management a c t i v i t i e s . . . . a r e f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l by t h e t i m e p r o j e c t c o n s t r u c t i o n gets underway. I f t h e y a r e n o t , o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i l l be l o s t and some a d v e r s e i m p a c t s w i l l n o t be a t t e n d e d t o ; i n most c a s e s , i t c a n s a f e l y be a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e f u n d s w i l l n o t be u s e d a s e f f e c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l e a d t i m e o f s i x months t o one y e a r i s often required p r i o r to c o n s t r u c t i o n to enable the n e c e s s a r y p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s o t h a t t h e i m p a c t management activities are in full operation by the start of construction." (InterGroup C o n s u l t i n g Economists L t d . 1984:35)  In meant  the to  case  provide  operation  prior  funds  the  in  achievement requests only was  months  the  case this  enabled  Wells  start  of  two  the  received  by  the  the  up.  As  months  to  of  end native  the  the  in  initiatives,  documented  the  organizations  year  earlier,  year, until  delay  the  work  as  and  the  March  was  programs  accessing  however,  survey  fiscal  two  socio-economic  delays  preliminary of  then,  have The  study  objective.  a few  project,  necessary  project  before  after  Norman  time  days  the  impact  prevented 1981-82 it  the  funding  was  received  1982-83 of  in  funding  1983,  three  c o n s t r u c t i o n had c o m m e n c e d .  Therefore: project  the  to  of  a few not  of  The  two  study  construction start  funding  up.  programs  They f a i l  to  were  not  operational  satisfy Criterion  prior  to  #11.  Criterion-Ill  The  socio-economic  sufficient  d e t a i l so  impact  management  program  should  be  planned  that:  measurable goals or t a r g e t s are d e f i n e d against p r o g r e s s o f t h e p r o g r a m o u t c o m e s c a n be a s s e s s e d ;  which  the  in  -  100 -  r e g u l a r r e v i e w s of program outcomes, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e f i n e d goals or t a r g e t s , are conducted throughout the implementation period; r e v i s i o n s to the defined b a s e d on t h e r e v i e w s .  T h e r e have impact  funding  Coordination prepared the  programs  Office.  The  for D.I.A.N.D.  only  stated  Framework mandate  been no m e a s u r a b l e  goals  objectives for  goals  objectives  associated are  the entire  or  the  or  defined  in  Consulting  funding  impact funding  the  Norman  the  package. package  Wells  EvaluationLtd.,  programs.  Project  be made  f o r the individual  Economists  the funding  with  may e a s i l y  the  defined  with  concerned  goals  or targets  D.I.A.N.D.  by I n t e r G r o u p  administering  associated with  by  targets  Framework i n 1983 a r e  The  Coordination  The  "ultimate  is stated  Project  Evaluation Office's objective"  as f o l l o w s :  "Ensure significant northern participation in opportunities r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e Norman W e l l s p r o j e c t a n d l e s s e n p o s s i b l e a d v e r s e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e f f e c t s o f t h e p r o j e c t on n o r t h e r n r e s i d e n t s and communities." (InterGroup C o n s u l t i n g Economists L t d . 1983:5)  This  "ultimate  objectives" Support  "3.  4.  objective"  f o r t h e Norman  Wells  encompasses Project  two  Component  of  the  five  "operational  ( i . e . the N.W.P.C.O.  Group):  Provide support for and facilitate incremental management a c t i v i t i e s b y g o v e r n m e n t a n d l o c a l g r o u p s . To p r o v i d e support f o r and f a c i l i t a t e native economic development needs." (InterGroup Economists L t d . 1983:30)  impact  social and Consulting  and  These  two o b j e c t i v e s  proposed to  be  in  the  are  to  is  Board  it  as  for  expenditure  the  are  not  The  impact  funding  activities  activities  for  into  the  initiative  evaluations  proposed  in  the  were  Economists  to  Ltd.  of  the  Evaluation be  an  program to  targets  for  measured lack  of  actual  purpose,  be  process.  program  planned  can  authorization  been  according  be  targets,  description, reports  targets  or the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  targets  will  evaluation  program  not  Treasury  Such  measurable  have  Project  the  be a c c o m p l i s h e d t h a t  study  the  results  the  of  achieved.  Board  of  is  or  planned  any  goals  in  any,  a  way  Program  predetermined  targets if  are  agents.  outcomes.  to  and  for  program  held  by  the  programs.  administration Framework  conducted  1983).  stated  the  that  general  no  focus  as p a r t that  format  initiative  The  submitted  were  a  each  actual  assumed so  to  This  question  be  'work'  under  be  to  only  or  are  Treasury  implementation  cannot  The  agents,  the  contain  performance.  calls  government  reviews  of  of  goals  funds.  targets  therefore,  measurable  therefore,  expectations  these  programs  manner.  that  an e v a l u a t i o n  of  same  organizations)  these  d e s c r i p t i o n of are,  assessment  reports  appears  by  not  by e i t h e r t h e  produced  The  or  the  native  It  agreements  There  identified  (i.e.  a requirement  this  The the  of  program  programs  whether  measured.  from  agents  to  is against  be a s s e s s e d a c c o r d i n g t o  essentially  procedure.  contribution  that  in  the  accounting  however, The  on  by t h e  determined made  out  be d e t e r m i n e d  Coordinator  -  E v a l u a t i o n - Framework.  carried  assessment  are to  101  on  Instead,  an  were  of  the  not  annual  program  approved basis.  a mid-project  by  package  D.I.A.N.D.  (InterGroup  evaluation  that  was  were These  Consulting  conducted  to  address  a  number  performed.  These  according  to  of  selected  has  concerned  already  with  used  more  outcomes. federal  Initiative integrity  Program; the  financial  receipts  review  regular  is  reference not,  are  amending  the  specific  criteria,  revising  the  with  The  native  Metis  irrelevant. goals  to  or  the  agreement  government  and  a  project of  targets  of  not  particular of  the  are  used  Youth; rely  the  Local on  the  and  of  project  performance.  agreement, the  in  comments  officers  it  future.  process  however,  process  even  The  has It  no  does  phase.  to  allow  felt  that  lengthier.  stated  that  with  no  was n o t  difficult  but  criterion impact  only  program  those  implementation  agreements This  about  must  agreement  lengthy  is  description.  for  program  representative  1985).  are  p e r i o d and  to  reports,  spokesperson,  contribution  (Malcolm  identical,  Opportunities  contribution  Association the  concern  the e n t i r e P r o j e c t  made  they  program  for  agreements  association  be  outcomes  process  agreement  project  to  and  the  not  The  each  will  program  Board  general  an e v a l u a t i o n  regard  within  amending  defined  the  if  review  implementation.  than  etc.  goals  Treasury  e.g.  periodic  agreements  contribution  1985).  somewhat  Works  approximate  provisions  (Gorman  was  programs,  continue throughout  One  or  p e r i o d i c s u p e r v i s i o n of  only  amendments.  individual  way t h r o u g h  is similar,  applicants,  previous  therefore,  There for  to  funding  to  the  accountability  review  the  targets  addressing  required part  Canada  recipients,  end-of-project  measure  that  reports  form of  creation  of  stated  financial  This  job  service  are only  for  not  an  r e g u l a r l y throughout  been  progress  These r e p o r t s  will  -  and  previously-defined  d e s i g n e d t o be c a r r i e d o u t  It  issues  evaluations  any  102  is  funding  concerned programs.  with As  there  were  no d e f i n e d  goals,  103 -  amending  contribution  agreements  h a s no  effect  on t h i s k i n d o f r e v i s i o n .  The  Norman  measurable  Wells  goals  or  c o u l d be m e a s u r e d . rational  revision  Therefore,  Project  targets Without  of  against defined  goals  t h e programs  impact  or  funding  which  programs  the progress  goals,  progress  program  did of  program  advance outcomes  c o u l d n o t be m e a s u r e d a n d  implementation  do n o t s a t i s f y C r i t e r i o n  not  was  not  possible.  III.  Criterion TV  The  socio-economic  identify  all  administration, to  the  impact major  and/or  management  programs  parties-at-interest,  implementation  should and  unambiguously  their  specific  responsibilities in relation  the programs.  The  Norman  D.I.A.N.D. with  Wells  and t h e  Project  Treasury  t h e two f u n d i n g  approval  Board  programs.  This  press  as m a j o r document  associations  are p a r t i e s - a t - i n t e r e s t  to  initiative.  It  months  however,  that  was n o t u n t i l  agreement  native  a s s o c i a t i o n s were  social  development  three  was r e a c h e d w i t h also  initiative.  release  clearly  identifies  parties-at-interest,  associated  also  indicates  the planning after  support  that  the  and  the approval  monitoring  announcement  the M i n i s t e r of D . I . A . N . D . ,  t o be p a r t i e s - a t - i n t e r e s t  native  that the  t o t h e community and  The final  approval  approval  administering not  specify  There  press  states  o f program f u n d s . and m o n i t o r i n g  that  the entire  any i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  Board  "approval"  responsibility. procedures  The  Lines  parties-at-interest  funding  D.I.A.N.D.  and  became  staff  announcement.  of  the s p e c i f i c s  are  Evaluation  clear  as  states  which  concept  o f what  D.I.A.N.D.  does  associations. the  "administration" out  applications  nor  are  Treasury  addition  to  Ltd.  the  associations of  identification  implementation. for  of  a  any  strong  was  with  all the  year  after  funding  not  indication  The  familiar that  the  even  with at  programs  Mid-Project the this  c l e a r l y understood.  o f one approval  t h e impact  initiated.  major  impact level,  (InterGroup  1984:44).  lack  of  clarity  t h e community roles  Experience  funds.  associated with  is  Board  of  t o d o , " i s t h e comment  were  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were n o t i n i t i a l l y Economists  experience  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s associated with  specific  account  release  associated with  spelled  the  programs  no  The  responsibilities  through  describing  funding that  only  funding  native  the not  implementation  member,  Specific  developed  In  package.  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the native  authority  " T h e r e was no r i g i d  Consulting  i s responsible for  i s i d e n t i f i e d as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or of  Board  outlined.  administration  programs.  Treasury  D.I.A.N.D.  i s no d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e r e l e a s e  Treasury  were  release  104 -  or  and s o c i a l  Contribution  the  with  the procedures  agreements  outcomes.  identify  These  designation  development  responsibilities  identified  program a c t i v i t y  regarding  funds,  regard  required  to  to there  the is  program  t o a c c e s s and  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  responsibilities relate  (a)  to  the  the of  program d e s c r i p t i o n s which  f i n a n c i a l accounting for implementation  concern  and  are  the  -  taken  funding.  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of  discussed in  complexity  the  105  from The  the  proposal  initial  native  Mid-Project-Evaluation.  confusion  surrounding  the  wording  lack of  report  Treasury  (b)  to  identification  associations, The  and  is  a  comments  Board  major on  the  authorization  process:-  " R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e D e n e , M e t i s and G . N . W . T . , a l l found the a u t h o r i z a t i o n p r o c e s s v e r y c o n f u s i n g and w e r e o n l y a b l e t o d e s c r i b e a small p o r t i o n of i t . To t h e m , t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n p r o c e s s was a big black box that existed in the distant city of Ottawa." (InterGroup C o n s u l t i n g Economists L t d . , 1984:39).  The  report  preparation used  also  for  in future  applicants projects for  Experience  with  parties-at-interest There  does  not  implementation  emphasizes  and  appear,  if  the  the  Treasury  impact funding  the  date,  to  be  advance  authorization  has  and a  Board  of  procedure process  is  programs.  initiatives  administration to  importance  identified  implementation  clear  documented  the  major  responsibilities. statement  of  the  responsibi1ities.  Therefore:-  In initial  summary  the  impact  administration  major funding  and  parties-at-interest program  implementation  were  not  descriptions.  responsibilities  clearly Nor  identified  in  were  specific  unambiguously  identified  for  these  satisfy  major  actors.  Criterion  The  106  two  -  Norman  Wells  funding  programs  fail  to  IV.  Criterion-V  A s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t management majority  of  The  Coordination  Association Sheila  of  (D.I.A.N.D.),  asked  Malcolm, each  impact  of  the  I  impact  Director  two  study  These  Project  staff of  to  Dene  John  tell  of  Metis me  and  were  all  the  Metis Mrs.  Support  Group  Nation  and  of  NWT.  their  programs  Wells  N.W.P.C.O.,  Dene  were  Norman  and  Association  as  interviews  the  the  the  what  initiatives  telephone  of  Coordination  member the  are  Nation  Mar  a  process.  programs  the  Mr.  Wells  individuals  the  to  Gorman,  Executive  these  spoke  Norman  Margie  of  study  by  of  the views  Mr.  on  I the  socio-economic  conducted  in  August  1985.  "most  Mar  using  accused of the  stated  effective this  involved."  to  i n the  Office/D.I.A.N.D.,  NWT.  management.  Mr.  of  of Ms.  effectiveness  of  the  Meldrum  Michael  p r o g r a m s h o u l d be j u d g e d  t h e p a r t i e s - a t - i n t e r e s t t o be an e f f e c t i v e  parties-at-interest  Project  strategy  tool." tool  (Mar  and  and  he (Mar  was  the  considered 1985b).  that  it,  He  stated  1985b).  deciding for  Metis  programs  that  citizens.  Dene  aspirations,  allowed to  the He  felt  "allowed that  Mr.  impact  if  that  the  is  that  organizations  counterbalance  the  programs  a strong  people  this  Mar f e l t  these  funding  a  in  favour  themselves  to  become  done,  government  p r o v i s i o n of  "to  impact  be  point  not the  to  of  reinforce the  wage  is  funding cultural economy  and  could  1985b).  address  Mr.  Mar  government  and  spent.  used  and  He  said  young is  for  and  the the  accounted take  projects,  it  indicated  that  organizations  Mrs.  a  light.  way  that  concerns not  the  were best  community value  with  probable  the  wished  another settlement  will  of  for to  would  a comment  regime  this  be  land  in the  funding  to  assess such  for  to  a  future  involved.  claims  "infrastructure  point use  see  that  be  train  themselves He  the  should  providing the  people  concluded with  funding  designated  that  (Mar  between  illustrate  management.  necessary  did  not  view  She s t a t e d is  not  that  the  that  such  a  delivering  v e h i c l e and t h a t Mrs.  the this  Meldrum been  on  their  own"  because  because  communities  Meldrum f e e l s  that  to  many o f  now  the  know  was felt  have  out  funds  that  fears  is  through  not  the  that  going  the  He  native  participate  the  have  "they  most  did  in  to  quite  have  (Meldrum  political  impact in  Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t the  programs  football."  benefits they  funding  funding  political  there  "thrown  impact  "impact  that  that  impact  quite  the  for  the  people  stated  up."  agreement  to as  native  shoring  in  1985b).  activity.  and  rest,  the  funds funds  Mar  allows  Mar  that  the  Mr.  toward Mr.  have  (Mar  land.  always  c o n c e r n i n g how  these  while  needing  not  training  saw  funding  likely  Meldrum  positive  the  action  will  management."  the  economy,  used a g a i n . is  of  areas  was  organizations  impact  mitigative being  there  "bureaucrats"  live off  -  communities  that  example  wage  for,  strategy  in  native  the  i n how t o  the  recognized  the  that  training  within  107  funding  "figured it."  has s e r v e d  be  way  to  itself  is  how  (Meldrum lay  to  Her  lot  was  achieve of  some being  cope"  1985). a  a  done  1985).  organizations  out  to  to  organizations  effective  native  such  of  and u n c e r t a i n t i e s e x p r e s s e d d u r i n g t h e  and Mrs. fears  Berger  Inquiry people  and t h e Norman today.  Mrs.  Wells E.A.R.P.  Meldrum  also  indicated  different  socio-economic impact s t r a t e g i e s .  (Gorman 1 9 8 5 ) . staff.  It  raised  by  1985).  has  and  it  was  is  not  She  native  stressing impact  also  to  an  to  has  that  be  plan  and  that  she  would  future  one  of  the  to  slow  felt  as  an  the  that  improve  the  impact  of  f u n d s have t h e p o t e n t i a l  to  the Metis A s s o c i a t i o n of  three major problems with the  the  impact funding  the  Northwest  (Gorman  time  that,  The f u n d s w e r e a l w a y s r e c e i v e d w e l l ( f o u r months a f t e r t h e s t a r t o f t h e case)  b)  t h e r e w e r e no s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a , "the very g e n e r a l , wide open" ( M a l c o l m 1985)  government  concluded with  difficulties  by the  caused  Nation."  Territories,  a f t e r t h e y were e x p e c t e d f i s c a l year in the l e a s t  funding and  "the  (Meldrum  programs:  a)  the  s o much  associated  Dene  be  have  between  Gorman  financial  "break  as  to  delays  impacts."  processes  the  The  to  Ms.  Nation  accessing  stated  coordination  the  and s p e c u l a t e d t h a t  in  Gorman  responding  process.  Dene  funds."  programs  Ms.  better  the  involved  deliver  the  itself."  "expectations  organization.  funds. of  on  necessitate  impacts of  native  development  might  major  allowed  processes  properly  means  has  the  northern  that  dependencies  Nation  chasing  negative  f u n d i n g programs  Malcolm of  same c o n c e r n s o f  context  funding  created the  Dene  in  the  effective  the  that  different  out  that  the  spent  groups  by c a r r y i n g o v e r  Mr.  and  stated  said  again  turned  feeling  difficult  process  and  her  a  the  comment was s t r e s s e d by M a r g i e Gorman  jeopardised  energy  1985).  This  communities  She  funds made  is  has  in  are not  would  funding  place  -  projects  "Impact  take  108  programs  were  stated  -  c)  t h e f u n d s c o u l d n o t be u s e d as e q u i t y and w e r e , t h e r e f o r e , not useful to the Metis in their ambitions for economic participation in the opportunities p r e s e n t e d by t h e Norman Wells Project.  Mr.  Malcolm  program delays for  to  be  have  the  stated  that  successful,  lead to  Metis  development  a  locals  program  implementation.  of  with  The  did  not  primarily  lack  was  he  program  their  Mr.  Malcolm concluded our  funding  was  felt  that  if  have  been  given  for  use  as  programs  For judged three  funds to  to  of  be the  repercussions  have  as  the  delays  and  have  did  the  to  not  fieldworker  funding.  serious  Development in  These  difficulties  planning  delays  that  allowed open  in  a  support  and  Corporation  for  receiving  lump  "from  to  pay  believe  of  Wells  be  impact  Delays  considerations these  statements  actors' are  actors.  and  pay  the  sum and  that  the  a  off,  socio-economic  interviewed.  other  in  the  socio-economic impact  Norman  political  and p e r c e p t i o n s o f  an  association  actors  positive  never  been  of  to  The  Metis with  community  funding  well.  just  programs  contributed  Coordinator's  comments  then,  relevant  criteria,  to  Malcolm  ineffective four  was  as p r o g r a m s  reasons,  the  d i s c u s s i o n by s t a t i n g  native  Mr.  the  banks.  associated  that  were  the  equity.  varying  inadequate  the  the  were e f f e c t i v e  to  Project  a payoff  of  continuity  community  contracted  problems  consider  because  w e r e e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h t h i s p r o g r a m as  the  -  109  beginning, off."  money  been  should  available  impact  funding  management.  funding  programs  impact  management  in  receipt  of  serious  perspectives.  considerably  He  at  are by  funds,  financial The  Federal  variance  with  - no Therefore:-  Of  the four  stated  that  the  socio-economic  Criterion  The  study  interviewed,  were  not  The p r o g r a m s  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t management that  a majority  effective  fail  as  of  three  programs  of  t o s a t i s f y C r i t e r i o n #V.  facilitate  rapid  p r o g r a m s h o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d  and p u r p o s i v e  action  toward  using  achievement  of  goals.  initiated  i m p a c t management  and o f b e i n g  program g o a l s . access  The  programs  i m p a c t management.  An e f f e c t i v e  to  impact  actors  VI  processes program  Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t  This  of  an  able to e f f e c t  d i r e c t a c t i o n toward  c a n h a p p e n when  a l l forms  design  p r o g r a m s h o u l d be c a p a b l e o f b e i n g  of  required  impact  t h e achievement  administration processes enable  resources  management  quickly  program  and w i t h o u t  should  rapidly of  agencies  obstruction.  designate  appropriate  administrative processes to f a c i l i t a t e these r e s u l t s .  The through creation Canada granting (see  two Norman use o f  a  programs, Works  and,  programs  Appendix  D.I.A.N.D.,  D)  Wells  Project  granting e.g. more  process  recently,  The n a t i v e Ottawa  to  funding  similar  Opportunities  are subject  D.I.A.N.D.  impact  the  for  programs  to  those  Youth,  the Treasury  reworded  Board  the  in  administered federal  Incentive  Recovery  a s s o c i a t i o n s submitted staff  used  Local  Community  were  proposals  proposals  Programs,  Program.  authorization  job  These process,  f o r funding  to  fit  to  Treasury  Ill -  Board  requirements.  authorization formed  process.  the basis  associations native  These  for  choice  of  a  accountability  fact,  does  often  targets,  takes  is  purposive  The two  significant  before  In Board the  any,  were  "wait  a clear system  goals.  native by  the  process  for  the  time  difficult  in  goals  or  spent  in  and a c c o u n t i n g to  A grant an  Board  a system,  specific  reporting  than  on t h e  to Treasury  regarding  outcomes  rather  purpose  Such  regarding  applying,  see"  the  submitted  program  subject  requirements  program  and  approved  Board.  away f r o m d i r e c t p r o g r a m a c t i v i t i e s .  essentially  Board  i l l u s t r a t e s a strong concern f o r  requirements  makes  between  administrative  toward  associated with  combination  time  an  action  make  a s s e s s and application  encouragement  to  action.  Norman W e l l s  years  rapid  does  This  as  A granting  if  procedures  to Treasury  regarding  few,  valuable  system  government.  the Treasury  signed  accounts  programs  makes  administrative  and  system  funding  not f a c i l i t a t e  but  funds.  impact  through  agreements  D.I.A.N.D.  granting  went  and p r o g r a m d e s c r i p t i o n s w e r e  Reports  a n d an u n c e r t a i n t y  of the federal  approval  funds  the contribution  and D . I . A . N . D . .  Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t  for  Whatever  a s s o c i a t i o n s through  The  part  submissions then  as  a  funding  result  of  programs  under  difficulties  study  with  problems encountered w i t h i n t h e Treasury  the case  of  authorization programs'  t h e Norman process  Wells  was s t a t e d  implementation.  impact to  the  were  delayed  application  first  process,  even  Board a u t h o r i z a t i o n  funding  programs,  b e cumbersome  (InterGroup  i n the  Consulting  process.  the  Treasury  a n d an o b s t a c l e Economists  to  Ltd.,  1984). Dene  The d e l a y s Nation  Valley Plans  head  for  program  individual specific  In  activities  and  ambiguity  Another  serious  late)  -  funds  the  had t o of  conform  either  o u t i n months  obstruction  throughout  of  programming  past. and  -  programs,  to  to action  The c o n s t a n t  for  D.I.A.N.D.  terms  goals  there  and  i s considerable the  is  an  have  ".catch-up1  and t h e  authorization  the  the  system  that  results  bank  room  obstruction  meant  game  of  authorization  i s the installment  with  for  for  t o pay o f f a d e f i c i t from  problems  place.  a s s o c i a t i o n statements  process  serious  the  in the  take  Board  throughout  delay  the funding  was t o  Treasury  native  interpretation  contributes  to  problems  and a s s o c i a t i o n s  activity  specified  D.I.A.N.D. funding  serious  councils  program  i n s t a l l m e n t s go i m m e d i a t e l y  carried  caused  t h e band  of  individual  The d e l a y s  (already  no  absence  This  payment.  much  f o r the relevant  question  action.  where  the  the  and f o r  i n i t i a t i v e s or j o i n t  goals  process.  receiving  office  communities,  acceptance.  for  in  112  for  to of  initial programs  in  the  months native  associations.  The  granting  obstacles  system  in the administration  f u n d i n g programs  under  process,  and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  therefore,  o f t h e Norman W e l l s  created impact  study.  Therefore:-  The processes of  two that  study  impact  funding  f a c i l i t a t e d rapid  program g o a l s .  programs  and p u r p o s i v e  The p r o g r a m s f a i l  were action  not  administered  toward  to s a t i s f y C r i t e r i o n  VI.  the  using  achievement  Criterion  The  socio-economic  impact or  critically  important  at  industry,  that  regarding  and c o n t r o l  least a partnership  The  following  d i s c u s s i o n of agent  over  in  the  program  implementation  programs  (e.g.  associated with  established  management  involve  management  government  authority  impact  to meaningfully  When  be  -  VII  processes  processes  113  are  this  agents  the  impact  the  degree  resources.  should  be  the  by  native  meaningfully  management of  planning  agents.  implemented  case  define  agents  organizations) involved  program.  designated  Meaningful  designated  in  it  involvement  is  planning  Guidelines  agency  by  should  decision-making would  require  i n t h e p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s .  views  of  public  participation  are  relevant  to  involvement:  "....although it i s not possible to delineate a single best approach to p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i t i s a v i t a l p a r t of the impact management p r o c e s s and i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a n y work d e s c r i b i n g impact management." (Halstead e t a l . 1984:51) "In g e n e r a l , A r n s t e i n maintains that unless the p u b l i c i s i n v o l v e d at a level that a l l o w s them t o i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n s , t h e y are u n l i k e l y t o a c c e p t and r e m a i n i n v o l v e d i n a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n process." (Halstead et a l . 1984:56). "Deli Priscoli ( 1 9 7 9 ) h a s i d e n t i f i e d f o u r p o i n t s w h i c h an a g e n c y should consider i n d e v i s i n g a p u b l i c involvement s t r a t e g y . First, r e a l i z e t h a t i n i t i a l d i s s o n a n c e may a r i s e . S e c o n d make d e c i s i o n s a b o u t how much s h a r i n g o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g c a n o r s h o u l d be d o n e . Third, link the participation programs to the actual decision-making. Finally, take steps to insure that citizen i n v o l v e m e n t t e c h n i q u e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e i n t i m e and m o n e y , t o t h e t y p e and l e v e l o f d e c i s i o n s b e i n g m a d e . " (Halstead et a l . 1984:59).  this  -  114  -  " I n o r d e r t o g a i n h i g h e r l e v e l s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and f o r c i t i z e n s t o a f f e c t p r o j e c t d e c i s i o n s , H o w e l l e t a l . (1983) have identified t h r e e k e y a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h a p r o g r a m must h a v e t o s t i m u l a t e a n d s u s t a i n p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n (1) a s i t u a t i o n i n which t h e c o s t s o f involvement are minimized; (2) maximization of the rewards a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n v o l v e m e n t ; and ( 3 ) t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c l i m a t e of trust among the c i t i z e n s that perceived rewards will be delivered." (Halstead et a l . 1984:56).  In  the case  formal the  planning  Minister  bargaining  press  is  sessions  were  funding  established  decided  funding  held  to c l a r i f y evidence,  One  initiatives  groups  program  the impact  organizations.  native  association  with  in  the  the of in  the the  programs  guidelines  f o r involvement  management  program.  of  the planning  are serious  the  were,  and t h e  the  the  lack  omissions  the  of  goals native  approval  the  approval,  associated with no  There between  of  Project.  the  t h e two  the  was t o  native of  these  involve The  carefully  in the design  of  guidelines  inclusion  package  with  The  implementation  involvement  funding  no  sessions  therefore,  for  between  procedures.  planning  processes  given  associated  processes  to  regarding  meaningful  special  Subsequent  formal  There  reasons  in  no  apparently  were  responded  and a p p l i c a t i o n  no p l a n n i n g  programs.  of  package.  however,  l e a d e r s were There  were  place  implementation.  Minister  designation  were  therefore,  the  for  there  d i d take  contents.  upon  organizations  regarding  programs  and t h e n a t i v e  and  funding  funding  sessions that  methods  There  impact  The i n f o r m a l  establish  and t h e n a t i v e  impact  Wells  conditions  programs.  particular  to  no  documented  D.I.A.N.D.  study  and  release  no  processes.  identified  meetings  t h e Norman  of D.I.A.N.D.  established leaders  of  of  absence  thought the  the  out  impact  -  115  -  Therefore:  In two  summary,  Norman  guidelines associations satisfy  there  Wells were in  Criterion  were  impact  no  funding  established planning VII.  formal  for  for  planning programs  the  program  processes under  meaningful  associated with  study,  consequently  involvement  implementation.  The  of  the  programs  the no  native fail  to  -  116  -  CHAPTER-V  CONCLUSION;-DISCUSSION-AND-RECOMMENDATIONS  A.  CONCLUSION  There thesis.  questions  posed  i n the f i r s t  t o be a n s w e r e d t h r o u g h  chapter  the research  of  this  were:  Does t h e i n t e n t o f e a c h p r o g r a m i n i t i a t i v e ( a s d e s c r i b e d i n the approval announcement press release) reflect socio-economic concerns expressed during t h e Norman Wells Project review processes?  2.  What w e r e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n i t i a t i v e programs?  3.  How e f f e c t i v e w e r e t h e i n i t i a t i v e p r o g r a m s a s s t r a t e g i e s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t management i n t h e c a s e o f t h e Norman Wells Project?  answer  within  meetings  leaders  were  two s t u d y  The  to  findings  reflected  the  f i r s t •question  documented  initiatives,  second q u e s t i o n  information  contained used  in  if  of  D.I.A.N.D.  (see Chapter  in  so,  IV,  the analysis  III. of  process  the  content  concerns  i s reason  and t h e n a t i v e  in determining  to  are  believe  organization  the contents  of  I discussion).  the documentation This  events  through  the review  there  Criterion  through  Chapter  While  programs,  n o t more  was a n s w e r e d  determined  III.  funding  the M i n i s t e r  as i n f l u e n t i a l ,  was  i n Chapter  t h e two i m p a c t  between  implementation the  major  The q u e s t i o n s  analysis  the  three  1.  An  that  were  documentation  effectiveness  of the also  conducted  in  program provided Chapter  -  IV.  The  analysis  indicates  Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t all  but  one  start-up subject  to to  impact The  be  deal  able  to  measurable  clear  in  others;  programs  the  administration  were  there  are  reflected  in  processes  research  findings,  programs  of  this  in  impacts  as  they  targets;  the  parties-at-interest  for  of  therefore,  study,  have  the  two  lead  to  with  do  of  the  project  they  cases  not  were  in  not  and  and;  general  as p r o g r a m s  the of  there  agencies  review a  that  management;  goals,  native  of  never  consider  impact  conclusion that  been e f f e c t i v e  to  implementation  because  initiatives the  prior  some  program  involvement  satisfied  satisfy  responsibilities  socio-economic  associated  not  in  a c t i o n toward the  is  clear  two  to  occurred;  initially  the  failed  operation  implementation  of  criteria,  study  not  criterion  contents  under  not  programs  established  first  the  as  proposed  were  processes hindered  planning The  of  effective  guidelines  programs.  were  a majority  the  no  with or  the  initiatives  programs  goals  parties-at-interest  according to  funding  criterion.  major  were  that  -  117  nor  of  the  concerns  are  sense.  The  impact  funding  socio-economic  management.  B.  DISCUSSION  There  are  two  factors  implementation  and  administration  presence  of  initiatives factor  is  these as  the  factors  programs lack  of  of  that  has  have of  had the  contributed  socio-economic  a c l e a r l y stated  a  significant  two to  study the  impact  purpose  influence  impact  management. to  the  the  programs.  ineffectiveness  related  on  The  The  of  the first  management  of  socio-economic that  of  the  impacts f o r  perceptual  addressed throughout  a)  package  two  the  Munro  purpose  actors  and/or  managing  were  never  second f a c t o r  is  acknowledged  or  formally  process.  Management-of  have  the  as  well  been  'impact  money'.  as  the  referred funding  There  initiatives  in writing  programs',  is  i n i t i a t i v e s that  to  other  not,  in  and  verbally  'impact  funding  however,  a  statement  of  i n d i c a t e s any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  for  impacts.  The  contents  Criterion  I  conditions  of  the  discussion presented  leaders  in the  and t h e  Project  to  informal approval  gain the  cooperation of  contents  of  also  have  This  purpose  impact  study  as  'impact  associated with  that  The  :  a n n o u n c e d by M r .  initiatives'  i n i t i a t i v e programs.  Purpose-Related-to-the  under  relevant  -  implementation  initiatives  all  two  differences  Lack-of-Clearly-Stated Socio-Economic-Impacts  The  by  the  118  the  the  two  funding  study  initiatives,  in  Chapter  IV,  the  Minister  of  meetings  that  native  of  gaining  reflected package  Mi d - P r o j e e t - E v a l u a t i o n :  in  as  documented  in  the  strongly  influenced  by  the  D.I.A.N.D.  took  announcement. the  were  by  the  p l a c e between  The  purpose  of  the  the  outlined  the  native  cooperation  statement in  the  of  of  native  the  leaders'  Evaluation  was  to  approval.  The  conditions  and  native  objectives  processes  meetings  Project  the  association  review  these  a s s o c i a t i o n s in the  i n i t i a t i v e s respond to  purpose is  two  for  associations. the  Framework  overall and  the  a)  119  -  "Component Logic Diagram: Norman Wells Project Component," (part of the E v a l u a t i o n - Framework), sets f o r t h the f o l l o w i n g as an u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e o v e r a l l impact funding package: "To ensure continuing support by northern native g r o u p s f o r t h e Norman Wells P r o j e c t . " (InterGroup Consulting Economists L t d . : 5 )  b)  Component Logic Diagram: Norman Wells Project Component, ( p a r t of t h e M i d - P r o jec-t - E v a l u a t i o n ) , i d e n t i f i e s a change i n the ultimate objective and adds an o p e r a t i o n a l objective a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the impact f u n d i n g programs: "To resolve northern concerns that p r o g r e s s i n t h e Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t . "  might  impede  " E n s u r e t h a t p l a n n i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n and s t a r t up o f t h e Norman W e l l s p r o j e c t a r e n o t u n d u l y h e l d up o r disrupted." (InterGroup Consulting Economists Ltd. 1984:54)  The the  smooth  programs might  are  programs  two of  of  impacts  Wells  completion to  aid  in  initiative  of  the  that  Coordination  Norman  purpose  programs  socio-economic was  of  an  based  for  e f f e c t i v e methods  on  for  the  the  Wells  by  failure  been  assessed  management failure  for  of  r e l a t i n g to to  implementing  purpose  Project,  responding  the  socio-economic  purpose  Office  the  is  two  to  native  as  being  to  ensure  initiative  concerns  that  completion.  have  impact  effective  a c l e a r l y stated allows  Project  progress toward t h a t  assessment  requirements lack  Norman  impede t h e  The  This  major  Norman  programs  impact  a  to  management  t h e management  establish programs.  the  planning  of  ineffective Wells meet  as  Project. the  program.  basic The  socio-economic  process  to  define  This for  study  i s concerned with  socio-economic  impact  programs.  package,  they  impact If  impact  should  be e s t a b l i s h e d t o  of  the  Norman  confusion only  Wells  of  frustration the  draft  Mr.  Erasmus  Panel native  to  and  May in  in the  Perceptual  his  study  impact  implementation.  to  as  they  of  impact  evidenced  to  feelings  toward  that  management  the  will  participation  in  an  in the  purpose. there  two  to  the  like  those  of  Chapter  III  and  Sea  on  are  the  case  has  initiatives feelings Mr. like  the  planning of  benefit  considerable  Environmental  effect  as  processes  confusion  study  to  they  In  is  This  but  Beaufort have  a  and  the  comments  within  c l e a r l y stated  clarification.  in  referred  If  initiatives,  of  strategies  programs.  achieve  r e l e a s e quoted  presentation  be  are  components  impact  should  funding lack  initiatives  as  as of  Kakfwi  in  those  of  Assessment  attitudes  future  not  of  development  north.  Differences  were  and,  that  effectiveness  simply  ineffectiveness  press  These  a  parties-at-interest addressed  this  the  1984  northerners  There  of  are  purpose  ensure  mistrust  22,  The  referred  their  socio-economic  hearings.  projects  be  Project  as a r e s u l t  contributed  programs  b)  programs,  initiatives'  initiatives  not  indeed  the  -  management.  the  should  120  number in  the  therefore, funding  of  perceptual  Norman never  programs  Wells  Project  resolved. and  differences  other  These  that  were  differences  aspects  of  held  by  never  formally  affected the  key  the  Project's  The the  major  parties-at-interest  Mackenzie  industry  Valley  consider  the  development.  Many  home and t h e  l a n d as  a  short-term,  Norman  also  of view  s e e as t h e  should the  potential Valley  be  the  land  as  economic b e n e f i t s these  people  own  and  are d e r i v e d  they  would  regardless  of  Norman W e l l s  Project  not  it  is  Valley. but  with The  more  change  traditional  is  society.  control  it.  The  on  felt  years  to  ten  much  concerned  view  them,  being  the  the  lifestyle  as  the  imposed  it  with  first  by  people  they  of  the  much  is  view  used  Project  and was  through for  project  and  what  They  as  how  seen  this  kind  concept  of  by  project  of the  details  project  more  development  on  of  Berger's  specific  development  broader  on  development  Their  impacts  economic  resource  that prepare  the  industry  major  native  North.  project.  socio-economic also  The  of  and  concentrate  how  They  view  have  project-specific  the  Norman W e l l s  so  people  and  the  of  native  to  for  size  in  as  long-term  industry  Government  non-renewable  the  symbolism  culture  from  have  its  importantly  to  some  for  location  their  short-term  such development.  "development".  development,  as  want  a  consequently  development  a  construction-limited  as c o n c e r n e d t h a t  economic  as  recommendation  of  and  G o v e r n m e n t and  development  and,  as  of  Government  site,  Valley  development.  resource  benefits  major  based,  of  North  the  survival.  perceptions  Project.  construction  encourages  impacts  the  are not  their  view  Wells  consider  means o f  This  for  a project  investment  potential  option  Norman  residents  a major  -  held s i g n i f i c a n t l y different  the  as  non-renewable  development  Mackenzie  native  Project.  the  of  Valley  financial  Wells  concept  and  121  in  the  specific  comprehensive on  their  more  The funds  Dene to  prepare  be  a  and t h e M e t i s  government  themselves  change.  Some  Treasury  that  by  made  development were  to  the  recommendations  directly  enable  Norman  the  The  related  J.N.A.C.  to  C.E.I.C.  wage  was  earning  within  to  An  is  the  identifiable  example  Project  of  the  the  lack  recommendations.  long-term  human  interested  employment  to  cultural/lifestyle  as t i e d  report  impact  people  particularly  the  broad,  the  native  this  Project.  h a d on  covering  needs.  in  funds  Wells  considered  northern  involved  t h e impact  difference of  leaders  representatives,  i n viewing  C.E.I.C.  training  to  difficulties  perceptual  the  Association  government  related  this  acceptance report  the  -  commitment  the  persisted  directly  effect  for  of  Board,  impacts  that  Nation  122  in  The  resource  training  associated  of  needs  with  the  Project.  This impact  perceptual funds.  submitted affect also  first  Ottawa  Mackenzie persist  approval native  to  The  in  difference Dene in  Valley the  announcement  is s t i l l  Nation the  request  belief  residents  belief  that  that  the  funding  was d e l a y e d .  beyond  1986  stating  that  1985).  The  long-term  the  implications  subjected to the short-term  a r e funds  project  cover will  remaining, Board  the  needs o f t h e p r o j e c t  continue  approved  complete.  communities construction.  in  amount.  particularly  has not is  The  identified total  of  1985-87  completion.  in their  construction  for  to  allocations  be s p e n t  Treasury  administration  impacts  construction  dollar  to  the  funds  project  after  there  years'  for  that  are available  associations feel  affecting  continue  the was to Dene the The  as t h e funding (Gorman to  be  The  second  major  parties-at-interest of  the  approval,  outcomes and  of  the  participated  native  that  in  the  the  priority.  The  designated  reserve or  native native  "pot"  not  the  impact  responsibilities. smooth  Group  For  been  more  package but o p e r a t e s of  the  Treasury  conceive many  of  that  impact  the it  meant  individual information government  to  source the  be  used  and  native  for  d e s c r i p t i o n of  Chapter  the a c t u a l  of  has  any  They s t i l l all 1985).  of  the  bureaucracy  did  their  of  was  The  Support  the  funding  and  Board  guidelines appears  to  program  in  the  issue  of  the  resolved  Within  impact  overall  priority  The  which  documentation,  source of  of  top  believe  a  period  in  been  be  no  the  one  to  use w i t h  terms  year.  never  funds,  specific  as  himself  programs  Treasury  package  the  encouraged  schedule.  l i m i t e d by t h e  in  government  administration  The  hope  time  a high  the  is  (Gorman III  Office,  the  contents,  priority  the  associations.  the  a high  key  program  government  construction  course  of  over  in  structure  initiatives.  as  funding  of  clear  federal  process.  impact  reserve  became  be  impact their  At  Minister  funding would  the  release  the  the  Coordination  Project's  the  the  funding  the  O t t a w a and  over  a specific  program  of  involved  Wells  administers  of  It  authorization  Norman  funding  satisfaction was  Board  of  that  by  deal  press  allocated for  programs  Project the  fact  considered  funds  areas  a great  Minister's  the  1985).  heavily out  initiatives.  funding  established that  funding  f a c i l i t a t i o n of  has  of  that  the  two  The  that  (Gorman funds  displayed  The  associations  the  the  programs.  perception  implementing perceive  the  difference  associations placed  meetings  attached.  to  enthusiasm.  encouraged  strings  related  funding  supported  -  perceptual  is  the  123  that could  the be  the  there funds.  to  is  the  package used  for  sources  of  no  clear  -  It  is  argued  implementation agency"  here  that  and  the  December,  these  acknowleged  or  resolved.  cooperation  between  C.  major  p r o c e s s has been  associations,  study  a  -  124  failing  that, 1981  perceptual This  as w i t h  of  of  have  the  two  been  to  a  Project  "monitoring  the  never  has c o n t r i b u t e d  Wells  formally  lack  in the implementation  native  of  full  of  t h e two  Wells  Project  programs.  RECOMMENDATIONS  The impact ways  analysis funding  to  of  the  effectiveness  initiatives  improve  strategies.  the  The  design  following  of  contained of  in  two this  are  development  of  the  thesis,  socio-economic  impact  recommendations  p l a n n i n g f o r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t management  1.  Norman  Paper"  differences  situation  the  the concept  "Position  key p a r t i e s - a t - i n t e r e s t  impact funding  of  Norman suggests  management  that  programs  should  and  strengthening  would  of  the project  through  integrate  from  of  process.  and t h e  accomplished  draws  considerations  implementation  process  of  programs  or  useful  in  large-scale  projects.  recommendation  from  number  be  for future  I n t e g r a t e - t h e - -P-Tanni-ng - f o r -the- - S o c i o - E c o n o m i c - I m p a c t with-the-Overal1-Development-Project-Planning Process  This  a  the  The  link  events  Chapter  between  development  the development  the design  the Chapter  the  of II  process  the  discussion  This  Process  discussion  Wells  Project  prescribed impact  planning  of the o v e r a l l  the  management  strengthening  a comprehensive  f o r the implementation  model  Norman  socio-economic  process. of  II  Management  should  process project  be that and  all  sub-processes.  socio-economic  This  relevant  to  the  involvement toward  development  phase  of  the  project  of  equitable  participation for  case  sufficient  to  socio-economic integral  of  to  impact  r e c e i v e the a t t e n t i o n  2.  Emphasise-al1  The  second  stronger  socio-economic should  be  relevant commitment  seen  as  impact of  all  have  to  This  impact the  suggested  be  the  information. actors  to  the  of  the  potentially  this  point.  non-token  placed  under  the  study,  of  the  design that  of  as  impacts and,  the  on  of  process  programs  was  not  of  seen  therefore,  the  thesis  findings  all  three  components  Assessment  process  an e f f e c t i v e  ensured  did  as not  implementation.  identification The  of  lack  Project  initiatives  process  by  process.  The  partnership  o f - t h e - S o c i o - E c o n o m i c - I m p a c t Management  management for  is  members.  management  fora  at  priviledges  the  effective  part  actors  voting  stages  development  a  as  require  management. project  All  be  programs  The  begin  involved  of  should  thesis  would or  early  necessary for  impact  be  conditions  recommendation  emphasis  would  would  two  Components  this  should  ineffectiveness  overall  in  process.  a l l p l a n n i n g group  during  the  the  veto  the  planning  contributed  process  decision-making. with  concern  development  actors  procedures  the  planning  implementation  operating  In  of  process.  project  relevant  collective  -  sub-process  i m p a c t management  project  initiation  The  125  and  review  is  that of  should of  the  a the  processes  discussion/assessment  focus  evaluation  and  Process  encourage  potential  of the  impacts  of  a  given  Boothroyd  project.  and R e e s  commitment.  In that  informal  members  produced  to  through  provide  like the  those  suggested  development  a review  of t h i s  kind  of the o v e r a l l  or  that  ensures  the  Minister  a significant role  Integrating  and t h a t  an  the elements  equitable  h a s t h e management programs  study, of  it  third  socio-economic  recommendation of  impact  implementation  a need that  impact  impacts  "meeting"  purpose  has  of  impact  changes  approach  of c r i t e r i a  such  been  This  be p l a n n e d  impacts  to  to  have  established,  impacts been the  for  would,  I  all  argue,  and would  Effective ensure  of  that  starts  identified  from clearly  a l l of  of the  II  a r e met  the  promise  determined  and a s s e s s e d .  process  the  programs  programs  i n Chapter  h a s been  planning  Achieve-  the design  developed  recommendation  socio-economic  within  in the E.A.R.P.  management.  in the l i s t  native  participation  as i t s f o c u s  specifically  must  f o r managing  a number  relates  management  design.  the  in the design of the i n i t i a t i v e  and m e a n i n g f u l  of  an  suggested  o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t management  socio-economic  requirements o u t l i n e d  that  a  w o u l d be  has been  D.I.A.N.D.  of t h i s  an i n c e n t i v e f o r t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d  strategies  the  such  socio-economic  D e s i g n - - P r o g r a m s - - o f - S o c i o - E c o n o m i c - Impact - M a n a g e m e n t - - t o R e q u i r e m e n t s - o f - a n - E f f e c t i v e - I m p a c t - M a n a g e m e n t - Program  The  of  by  t o t h e p l a n n i n g f o r t h e i m p a c t m o n i t o r i n g and  between  leaders played  p r o d u c e more e f f e c t i v e  this  contribute  program components  meetings  contents.  process  and  E.A.R.P.  t h e c a s e o f t h e two i n i t i a t i v e s o f t h i s  program  in  would  the  process.  association  3.  to  in i t s contribution  i m p a c t management  management  a  (1984)  The i n f o r m a t i o n  more u s e f u l the  Changes  126 -  mentioned  Once in  recommendations purpose.  The  of  would  and  design  requirements This  #1  an  #2  must  process  the  methods  to  socio-economic  impact  information  involved level  of  goals  the  partners  the  in  program  that  planning  of  sufficient  the  of  the  establishment  of  Commitment  participation  funding  the  of  programs  front-end  to  such  all  of  A  relevant  the  under  to  and  to  program;  operating  funds  and the  requirements  no c l e a r  the  purpose  to  are  equal the the  implement met  in  the  recommendations  #1  and  is  an  the  Norman relating  Wells to  equitable  essential  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i m p a c t management  of  are  the  ensuring  facilitating  process  the  designating  ongoing  in  actors  toward  actors  and;  to  specific  monitor  action  programs  these  to  implementation;  relevant  the  order  major  program  purposive  all  referred  in  the  methods  in the  the  process  actors  of  defining identifying  program  defining  the  and  that  of  implementation  study,  with  implement  process  effective  the  the  construction;  evaluation,  identifying  rapid  number  a  revise  that  performance;  responsibilities  implement  planning  design of  case  to  final  ensures  project  unambiguously  ensuring  processes  programs. the  to  of  assess  and  and  facilitate  agencies  to  ongoing  satisfaction  goals;  provision  In  an  implementation;  actor  program  appropriate  ensuring the  for  targets  implementation  processes of  #2.  and  schedule that  commencement  impacts;  relevant  goals  the  emerging  achievement  most  to  these  in  designing  prior  a planning  impacts  and  basic  of  emerging  administration  the  isolation  monitor  accommodate  of  management.  place  processes  all  this  impact  is  review  consideration  achieve  socio-economic  program  regular  will  of  processes; defining  measurable  into  that  program  review  determining  strategies  take  from the  in  -  design  must  effective  necessitate  127  the  step  in  programs.  Project  impact  management  of  socio-economic  i m p a c t s was i d e n t i f i e d a n d no p l a n n i n g  to design f o r the implementation design of e f f e c t i v e  D.  128 -  of the programs.  p r o c e s s was e s t a b l i s h e d  This  programs o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c impact  d i d not allow f o r the  management.  F I N A t COMMENT  " B o t h t h e g e n e r a l and t h e s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h n e e d s o f i m p a c t management a r e t h u s e x t e n s i v e , t h e f i e l d ' s growth as a p r a g m a t i c s e t o f a c t i v i t i e s has p r o c e e d e d u s i n g t h e a v a i l a b l e knowledge b a s e . Unfortunately, that base is often incomplete and requires extensive supplementation. A l t h o u g h a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d on n e a r l y e v e r y d i m e n s i o n o f impact analysis these needs are p a r t i c u l a r l y critical for impact management b e c a u s e d e c i s i o n s a r e b e i n g made and p r o g r a m s i n i t i a t e d i n an ongoing basis. Immediate and c o n t i n u i n g research is necessary to e s t a b l i s h s o u n d e r b a s e s f o r t h e s e d e c i s i o n s and p r o g r a m s . " (Halstead et a l . 1984:215)  The  Norman  northerners  Wells  as a t e s t  of  t h e management  to  the design  future  management  and  is  seen  by  government,  case o f r e s o u r c e development  of a l l aspects of the Project  and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  projects.  assessment  Project  I will  programs.  hope aid  this in  of  thesis the  management will  planning  in the north.  s h o u l d be o f m a j o r policies  contribute of  industry  future  to  and  native  Evaluations importance  and a p p r o a c h e s the overall  socio-economic  for  Project impact  L I S T OF  129 REFERENCES  Barnthouse, L.W.; Boseman, J; Christensen, S.W.; Goodyear, C P . ; W i n k l e , W. a n d V a u g h a n , D . S . "Population Biology i n the Courtroom: The Hudson River Controversy," Bioscience Washington: 34 (January 1984): 1:14-19.  Beanlands, G. and D u i n k e r , P. An E c o l o g i c a l Framework Impact- Assessment- i n Canada. Halifax: Institute for Environmental S t u d i e s , Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y , 1983.  Van  for- Environmental R e s o u r c e and  B e a u f o r t Sea E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment P a n e l . ( B . S . E . A . R . P . ) P u b l i c - M e e t i n g s . G e n e r a l S e s s i o n , Y e l l o w k n i f e : Volume I , December 8 , 1 9 8 3 ( a X  Beaufort Sea E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment Panel. Public - -Meetings. S e s s i o n , Y e l l o w k n i f e : Volume I , December 9 , 1983 ( b ) .  General  B o h n e t , D. Government o f t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s , T e r r i t o r i a l Coordinator for t h e Norman Wells Project, Yellowknife, N.W.T. Interview, January 5 , 1985.  Boothroyd, P . and R e e s , W.E. "Impact Assessment From P s e u d o - S c i e n c e P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s : An E d u c a t i o n a l R e s p o n s e . " UBG P l a n n i n g - P a p e r s , V a n c o u v e r : UBC S c h o o l o f Community a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , 1984.  Canadian Environmental Advisory Council. "Environmental Assessment R e v i e w P r o c e s s : O b s e r v a t i o n s and R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s " , A R e p o r t t o t h e M i n i s t e r of Environment. Ottawa: Canadian Environmental Advisory C o u n c i l , 1979.  Davidson, J.E. " M o n i t o r i n g a n d Management The E x p e r i e n c e i n B . C . on H y d r o e l e c t r i c (January-March 1984): 22-27.  to  and  o f S o c i a l and E c o n o m i c Impacts: Dams", SIA N e w s l e t t e r 8 7 - 8 9  Dene N a t i o n a n d M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e N . W . T . " P o s i t i o n o f t h e Dene N a t i o n on t h e Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t . " Prepared f o r the M i n i s t e r of Indian A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t . Y e l l o w k n i f e : December 7 , 1 9 8 1 ( a ) .  Dene  Nation and M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e N . W . T . impact funds - u n t i t l e d . Y e l l o w k n i f e : September  A joint submission 3 0 , 1981(b).  for  -  130 -  Dene Nation. "A Social Action Proposal Designed A d d r e s s The H e a l t h and S o c i a l D e t e r i o r a t i o n Yellowknife: October 2 7 , 1982.  for of  Dene N a t i o n . "Dene N a t i o n P l a n n i n g and M o n i t o r i n g Interim Report," Y e l l o w k n i f e : J u l y 15, 1983.  Dene N a t i o n . " P r o g r e s s R e p o r t on Dene N a t i o n to the P r o j e c t Coordinating Commission. 1984(a)  Dene  Nation. Yellowknife:  Dene  Nation. Project."  Dene N a t i o n Program  Draft of a press May 2 2 , 1 9 8 4 ( b ) .  t h e Dene  Report.  Development to Nation."  Program  1982/83  -  Monitoring Program," Presented Yellowknife: February,  release  "Dene N a t i o n 1 9 8 5 - 8 7 I m p a c t Y e l l o w k n i f e : M a r c h , 1985  Community  concerning  delays.  -  Norman  Wells  a n d M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e NWT " P l a n n i n g Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t . " 1984(a)  Support  and M o n i t o r i n g  Association 1984(b) .  of  Proposal  funding  the  NWT  "Community  Pipeline  Dene  Nation and M e t i s Development P r o g r a m . "  and  Social  Dene  Nation Monitoring Program. "Dene N a t i o n Response t o : Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t Case S t u d y , Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t C o o r d i n a t o r ' s Office D.I.A.N.D." Paper presented at Banff Seminar on Project Assessment; P r o j e c t A u d i t . B a n f f : O c t o b e r , 1984.  Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development. "Norman W e l l s P i p e l i n e A p p r o v e d w i t h F u r t h e r One Y e a r D e l a y , " Press Release i n Y e l l o w k n i f e , J u l y 3 0 , 1981  "Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t Coordinator Y e l l o w k n i f e , January 2 0 , 1983.  Appointed."  " T h e Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t C a s e S t u d y . " on P r o j e c t A s s e s s m e n t ; Project Audit. Banff:  Press  Release  Presented at Banff October, 1984.  in  Seminar  -  131  -  F e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t and R e v i e w O f f i c e . R e v i s e d -Guide to E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t and R e v i e w - P r o c e s s . Ottawa: M i n i s t e r of S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s C a n a d a , 1 9 7 9 .  the  Norman We M s O i l f i e l d D e v e l o p m e n t a n d - P i p e ! i n e P r o j e c t : Report t h e - - E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t PaneTT Ottawa: M i n i s t e r of Supply and S e r v i c e s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 1 .  Federal Environmental Assessment H e a r i n g s ) Volume I . Hearings 1980a.  held  Panel. h e l d at  Norman Wells P r o j e c t -(Community F o r t N o r m a n , NWT A u g u s t 11,  Norman - W e l l s P r o j e c t - ( C o m m u n i t y - H e a r i n g s ) a t Norman W e l l s , NW1 A u g u s t 12, 1980b.  Norman - W e i I s - P r o j e c t ( C o m m u n i t y - H e a r i n g s ) a t F o r t Good H o p e , NWT August 13, 1980c.  held  of  Volume  Volume  Norman - W e l l s - P r o j e c t ( C o m m u n i t y - H e a r i n g s ) a t F o r t P r o v i d e n c e , NWT August 19, 1980d.  II.  III.  Volume  Hearings  Hearings  VIII.  held  Hearings  Norman - W e l l s - P r o j e c t - ( C o m m u n i t y H e a r i n g s ) a t F o r t S i m p s o n , NWT A u g u s t 2 0 , 1980e  Volume  IX.  Hearings  held  Norman W e l l s - P r o j e c t ( C o m m u n i t y - H e a r i n g s ) a t F o r t S i m p s o n , NWT August 21, 1985f.  Volume  X.  Hearings  held  Volume X I .  Hearings  held  at F o r t  N o r m a n - W e l l s P r o j e c t (Community R a e , NWT A u g u s t 2 2 , 1 9 8 0 g .  h e l d at  Norman - We-1 I s P r o j e c t Y e l l o w k n i f e , NWT A u g u s t  Gorman M. August  Dene N a t i o n 1 9 , 1985  staff  Hearings)  (Community- - H e a r i n g s ) 2 5 , 1980h.  member.  Yellowknife,  Volume  XII.  Telephone  Hearings  interview.  Government of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . "Executive Summary 8 1 / 8 2 Norman W e l l s D e n e / M e t i s C o m m u n i t y and S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t P r o j e c t . " Report to John Scullion, Coordinator of Norman Wells Project. Y e l l o w k n i f e , September 14, 1982.  -  132  -  G r e e n e , M . R . and C u r r y , M . G . The- Management- o f - Socia-1 and - E c o n o m i c - I m p a c t s Associated - - with the- -Construction ofLarge Scale Projects: Experiences from - the Western Coal Development Communities. Rick land: Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, Pacific Northwest L a b o r a t o r i e s .  Halstead, J.M.; Chase, R.A.; Murdock, S . H . ; Leistritz, F.L. I m p a c t - Management-,- - D e s i g n - -and I m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Boulder: P r e s s I n c . 1984.  Socioeconomic Westview  Hawthorn, H.B. " R e v i e w o f t h e S o c i o - e c o n o m i c I m p a c t S t a t e m e n t o f t h e Norman Wells P r o j e c t . " Norman W e l l s O i l f i e l d - D e v e l o p m e n t -and • P i p e l i n e Project. Presentationsto the Environmental Assessment Panel. Ottawa: Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Office, O c t o b e r , 1980.  Hoi 1 i n g , C . S . (Ed.) Environmental - Assessment John W i l e y & S o n s , 1978.  I.I.A.S.A. "Expect the Unexpected: An Management." Laxenbury, Austria: A p p l i e d Systems A n a l y s i s , 1979.  and  Management.  Chichester:  Adaptive Approach to Environmental International Institute for  Information Pipeline. (Norman Wells Project Review) Yellowknife: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, February, 1983.  Yellowknife: Development. June,  Dept. 1984.a  of  Indian  Yellowknife: 1984.b  Dept.  of  Indian A f f a i r s  Yellowknife:  Dept.  of  Indian A f f a i r s  Affairs  and N o r t h e r n  and N o r t h e r n  and  Northern  Development,  Development,  July,  May,  1985.  InterGroup C o n s u l t i n g Economists L t d . E v a l u a t i o n Framework f o r t h e Norman We 11 s - P r o j e c t - - C o m p o n e n t . Winnipeg: D e p t . 67 I n d i a n A f f a i r s ana" N o r t h e r n Development, 1983.  -  133 -  M i d - P r o j e c t - E v a l ira-tion- o f - S e l e c t e d I s s u e s We Iris - P-ro-jec-t- - C o o r d i n at-i on- O f f i c e . Winnipeg: A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 8 4 .  Irving, K. and G o r m a n , M. Dene Interview. February 7, 1985.  Leistritz, F.L.; Halstead, Impact Management:Considerations. North O c t o b e r , 1982.  Nation  J. "The Coordinator,  Mar,  J. Norman Wells F e b r u a r y , 1985 a .  Mar,  J. 1985  Norman b.  Members.  Yellowknife.  J . M . ; Chase R . A . ; Murdock, S.H. Socioeconomic Program Design and Implementation Dakota: North Dakota State University.  M a l c o l m , M. " M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e NWT. T e l e p h o n e I n t e r v i e w - A u g u s t 2 6 , 1985  Mar,  Staff  R e l a t e d - - t o - t h e - Norman Dept. 57 Indian  Executive  Director  Yellowknife  Norman Wells Project." Report of the Federal Project Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t . Yellowknife, February 8 , 1984.  Wells  Project  Project  Coordinator.  Coordinator.  Yellowknife  Telephone  Interview.  Interview.  August  7  12,  Metis Association of t h e NWT "Norman Wells Project Impact Funding Community/Social Development and P l a n n i n g Funds 1981-1982. Report on F u n d i n g to Mackenzie Valley Communities. April-May 1982." Y e l l o w k n i f e June 2 1 , 1982.a  M e t i s A s s o c i a t i o n of t h e N.W.T. "1982/83 & 1983/84 P l a n n i n g Funds W e l l s Impacts" Letter to Mr. J . Hucker, D.I.A.D.N. November 1982 b  Report  "Norman Wells P l a n n i n g Support and M o n i t o r i n g Program. June 6 , 1983-June 5 , 1984." Y e l l o w k n i f e , June 1984.  "Norman W e l l s Impact Funding Planning Program 1985-1986" Y e l l o w k n i f e , A p r i l , 1985.  Metz, W.C. "The M i t i g a t i o n o f S o c i o e c o n o m i c Impacts P u b l i c - U t i l i t i e s - F o r t n i g h t l y 106 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 6 : 3 4 - 4 2 )  Support  and  by E l e c t r i c  - Norman 2,  Summary  Monitoring  Utilities."  -  134 -  M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t ( M . I . A . N . D . ) a n d M i n i s t e r o f E n e r g y , M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s . "Discussion Paper, Norman W e l l s O i l F i e l d E x p a n s i o n and P i p e l i n e P r o j e c t . " June 2 6 , 1 9 8 1 .  National Energy Board. Reasons - - f o i — D e c i s i o n . In the Matter of A p p l i c a t i o n under t h e N a t i o n a l Energy Board A c t o f I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l P i p e L i n e (NW) L t d . O t t a w a : M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s C a n a d a , 1981. Native-Press  Native  " P i p e l i n e Support  Press " E d i t o r i a l :  Nature Press August  14,  News-North J u l y  1981  News-North  31,  Jeds  May Be W i t h d r a w n !  June 1 ,  C o u l d Have Done M o r e l  1984(a):!  June 1,  1984(b):4  1981  " C l a i m O t t a w a R e n e g e d On M o n i t o r i n g a n d F u n d i n g . "  Norman Wells Project quarterly meetings.  an  Coordinating Yellowknife,  May 2 5 , 1 9 8 4 : 1  Committee (N.W.P.C.C.). December, 1982.  Minutes of q u a r t e r l y meetings.  Yellowknife.  February  Minutes  of  1983.  Northern Affairs Program (D.I.A.N.D.) "Review Comments on The Regional Socio-economic Impact Assessment f o r t h e Norman Wells Oilfield Expansion and Pipeline Project." Presentations to the Environmental -Assessment- P a n e l . Ottawa: Federal Environmental A s s e s s m e n t and R e v i e w O f f i c e , 1 9 8 0 .  Page, R.J.D. "Norman Wells: c a n a d i e n n e s 16 ( 1 9 8 1 ) : 2  P a i n e , T. "Truth in Ecology." (1981):4:256-258.  The  Past  and  Future  Ecological - Society  Boom."  of- -America  Revue  d'etutes-  Builetin.  62  R e e s , W. E. R e f l e c t i o n s - o n -the E n v i r o n m e n t a l - A s s e s s m e n t and- R e v i e w P r o c e s s (-E-AR-P):-- A - - D - i s c u s s - i o n P a p e r . Ottawa: Canadian Arctic Resources Committee, 1979.  -  135 -  R e e s , W. E. "EARP a t t h e C r o s s r o a d s : E . I . A . Review 1 ( 1 9 8 0 a ) : 4 : 3 5 5 - 3 7 7  Rees, W. Bay."  Environmental  Assessment  E. "Environmental A s s e s s m e n t and R e v i e w : Northern-Perspectives 8(1980b):2:2-10  R e e s , W. E. " G o v e r n m e n t Management Environmental Assessment P a n e l :  t h e Case  Capability: A Brief December 1 5 , 1 9 8 3 .  Rees, W. E. "Impact Assessment Monitoring & Opportunities?" SIA-Newsletter 87-89 (January-March  i n Canada."  of  McKinley  t o t h e Beaufort Sea  Management: 1984):15-17.  Missed  S i n g e r , C. " E d i t o r i a l Comment" S I A - N e w s l e t t e r 87-89 (January-March 1984):3-5 Stanley, W. E. and Farrow, J.E.L. "Environmental Control Management of Socio-economic Impact Analysis/or Resource Development." C a n a d i a n - M i n i n g and - M e t a l l u r g i c a l - B u l l e t i n December 1979:1-5.  Templeton, C H . " S u b m i s s i o n on t h e A p p l i c a t i o n o f I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l P i p e (NW) L t d o f an O i l P i p e l i n e f r o m Norman W e l l s , NWT t o Z a m a , Alberta." P r e s e n t a t i o n s - -to t h e - E n v i r o n m e n t a l -Assessment--Panel. Ottawa: Federal Environmental Assessment and R e v i e w Office, October, 1980.  Walkey, A. "Implementation of Conditions Newsletter 87-89 (January-March 1984):5-7  for  an  Energy  Project."  Line  SIA  - 136 -  APPENDIX A  REVIEW PROCESS CONTENT A N A L Y S I S QUOTATIONS  -  137  -  APPENDIX A  REVIEW PROCESS CONTENT A N A L Y S I S QUOTATIONS  1.  Quotations  from E . A . R . P .  Concerns About Development. In  the Fort  potential  Questions services  and  (F.E.A.P.-NWP  of  development  Fort  regarding  Communities/Need --for-  meeting, impacts  H e a r i n g - Norman  Father of  Denis  a  Wells Project  C o m m u n i t y - -and - S o c i a l  expressed concern regarding the  construction  camp  close  to  town.  1980a:46-57)  regarding  Mr.  t h e adequacy o f  Wayne  Irvin,  were of  present asked  the  supplies of by  Alan  Norman  housing,  Sexsmith  Wells  medical  and M r .  Settlement  Bob  Council.  1980b:168-193)  Proctor  potential  In  Norman  on  and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  Barradell  Dave  Impacts  negative  (F.E.A.P.-NWP  Community  of  Fort  inflation  projects.  Providence,  compensation  Good  and  the  Hope  boom-bust  (F.E.A.P.-NWP  Chief for  expressed effect  concern on  local  regarding economies  the of  1980c:249-251)  Joachim Bonnetrouge  impacts  a  on t h e n a t i v e  e x p e c t e d as a r e s u l t o f t h e Norman W e l l s  made t h e f o l l o w i n g way o f  life  that  comments could  Project:-  "In a r e a s o f c o m p e n s a t i o n , d i s r u p t i n g a s m a l l community l i k e that, how w o u l d we be c o m p e n s a t e d ? What t h i n g s w o u l d be p u t i n p l a c e t o p r o t e c t t h e way o f l i f e o f t h e p e o p l e , o r t o m i n i m i z e t h e g r e a t degree of d i s r u p t i o n t h a t i s bound t o h a p p e n ; t h e s p i n - o f f from actual construction w i l l d i r e c t l y a f f e c t us - I d o n ' t know f o r sure." ( F . E . A . P . - N W P 1980d:541)  be  -  138 -  " B u t w h a t we h a v e b e e n a r g u i n g w i t h t h e G o v e r n m e n t o v e r i s , we t r y t o r e t a i n as much o f o u r way o f l i f e as we c a n and i n a l o t o f communities along the Mackenzie River the leaders are faced with t r y i n g to salvage whatever k i n d of t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e we h a v e got l e f t . We a r e d a i l y b o m b a r d e d w i t h t h e s o c i a l p r o b l e m s t h a t t h e b i g g e r s o c i e t y w e i g h s upon us and a t t h e same t i m e trying to e s t a b l i s h a n d work o u r d i f f e r e n t ways t h a t we c a n t r y t o f i t i n t o some of the development that is happening in the North." ( F . E . A . P . - N W P 1980d:582)  In  Fort  development  Simpson,  Jerry Antoine  i m p a c t s and s o c i a l  expressed  the following  concerns  regarding  development:  " T h e r e have been a l o t o f t h i n g s t h a t have been o v e r l o o k e d d u r i n g these developments, l i k e personal development of a p e r s o n , social development, l i k e how do t h e y see themselves, how do t h e y s e e t h e m s e l v e s d e v e l o p i n g as an i n d i v i d u a l f o r t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r k i d s , t h e i r g r a n d c h i l d r e n , the people next door, t h e i r c o u s i n s , aunts et cetera, and b e c a u s e of these new d e v e l o p m e n t s , since these developments, t h e i r i n t e n t i o n was n o t t o f u l f i l l these different s o c i a l n e e d s and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . They o n l y look f o r a s o r t o f mass d e v e l o p m e n t , m a j o r d e v e l o p m e n t s , i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and I t h i n k i n t h a t way, I t h i n k s o r t o f they themselves might look at t h e m s e l v e s as a human b e i n g b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n o t h a n d l i n g those p e o p l e a s human b e i n g s . Now, t h e r e a r e a f e w t h i n g s t h a t I w o u l d l i k e t o s h a r e w i t h y o u a n d one o f them i s t h a t as a human b e i n g we have t h e r i g h t t o l i v e . The s e c o n d t h i n g i s t h a t we h a v e a r i g h t t o make a d e c i s i o n a n d how we a r e g o i n g to l i v e , n o t o n l y by o u r s e l v e s , but with other people." (F.E.A.P.-NWP 1980e:633)  Mr. often  Sibbeston accompany  of the  Fort  Simpson  changes  refers  brought  by  to problems  with  development.  Mr.  alcohol  abuse  Menicouche  that:  "....don't w a n t no p i p e l i n e u n t i l we h a v e d e v e l o p e d p e r s o n , as a p e o p l e . " (F.E.A.P.-NWP 1980e:855)  ourselves  as a  that  states  Agnes  L a f f e r t y expresses further  139 c o n c e r n s about a l c o h o l :  " I d o n ' t b e l i e v e we n e e d a p i p e l i n e r i g h t a t t h i s t i m e . We h a v e got t o have a few y e a r s because it i s going to bring more disasters, i t i s g o i n g t o r u i n more o f o u r y o u n g p e o p l e , a n d I d o n ' t want t o h a v e t o be h e l p i n g o u t my c h i l d r e n and my c h i l d r e n s f r i e n d s to sober up. We want t o t e a c h them a b o u t l i v i n g and t h e i r s p i r i t u a l w e l l - b e i n g f i r s t b e f o r e t h e y go c r a z y o v e r m o n e y . Money i s n ' t e v e r y t h i n g . To me t h a t i s n o t s o . money w i l l n e v e r d i e b u t we s u r e as h e l l w i l l i f t o d r i n k o u r s e l v e s t o d e a t h w i t h a l l t h i s money t h a t now and what will come i n from the p i p e l i n e . " 1980f:856)  Ms.  Lafferty  adds  alcohol  related  deaths  money.  She s t a t e s  native  Betty result  that  that  she expects  as a r e s u l t there  of  to  see a r i s e  development  i s an i n a b i l i t y t o  we a r e g o i n g i s coming i n (F.E.A.P.-NWP  in the crime  and t h e e a s i e r  handle  money  rate  and  access  to  on t h e p a r t  of  people.  Menicouche  refers  to  alcohol  abuse  and t o  the  problems  expected  of the r a p i d i t y of the l i f e s t y l e t r a n s i t i o n : -  " I t i s n ' t o n l y a l c o h o l , i t i s t h e w h o l e way o f l i f e , a n d i f y o u g e t development or a n y t h i n g t o o q u i c k l y b e f o r e you are g i v e n a chance o f even l e a r n i n g t o s u r v i v e , l e a r n i n g t o use t h e t o o l s through e d u c a t i o n and t h a t , i f we d o n ' t do t h a t , a t t h e r a t e t h e p e o p l e a r e d y i n g , w e l l , y o u c a n go a h e a d a n d b u i l d y o u r p i p e l i n e b e c a u s e t h e r e w o u l d be no one t o s t o p y o u . . . . . W e a r e s a y i n g t h a t we w a n t t h e r i g h t t o l i v e , t h e r i g h t t o s a y how we want t o l i v e . We a r e j u s t s a y i n g g i v e us a f e w more chances, give us s e v e n more years that Berger recommended." (F.E.A.P.-NWP 1980f:868)  as  a  In  Fort  Rae,  Georges  alcoholism,  family  colonization  and d e v e l o p m e n t .  Erasmus  breakdown,  140 identified  divorces  and  social  suicide  problems as  the  such  as  impacts  of  " A n d t h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e r e i s no a s s u r a n c e o f a Dene f u t u r e o f a n y k i n d . We h a v e no g u a r a n t e e s ; we h a v e no c o n t r o l . " (F.E.A.P.-NWP 1980g:894) "We e l a b o r a t e d v e r y c l e a r l y t o B e r g e r what was n e e d e d d e f i n i t e l y was a l o t o f t i m e t o d e v e l o p a s o c i e t y i n t h e N o r t h t h a t e n c o u r a g e d human g r o w t h , e n c o u r a g e t h e c o m p l e t e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l potential and t h e c o l l e c t i v e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e Dene and e v e r y o n e else l i v i n g in the North." ( F . E . A . P . - N W P 1980g:907) 2.  Q u o t a t i o n s f r o m t h e P a n e l R e p o r t o f t h e Norman Project Environmental Assessment. "7.1  Conclusions Government  3.  Wells  Preparedness  A p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n p r o g r a m n e e d s t o be p l a n n e d a n d c a r r i e d o u t e x p e d i t i o u s l y i n o r d e r t o i n f o r m r e s i d e n t s and w o r k e r s about t h e p r o j e c t and i t s p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t s and m i t i g a t i o n m e a s u r e s , and a l s o t o o b t a i n t h e a d v i c e o f M a c k e n z i e Valley residents f-oi—the purposes of planning and decision" fi making (FEARO 1 9 8 1 : 7 3 )  " E c o n o m y and S o c i e t y Effects 41.  Services  It i s recommended that realistic government f i n a n c i n g be a s s u r e d and i n p l a c e so t h a t adequate programs exist for planning and s e r v i c i n g t h e p r o j e c t and n e e d s of northern residents." (FEARO 1 9 8 1 : 7 8 )  "Social 47.  Upon G o v e r n m e n t  Concerns  I t i s recommended t h a t d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g and l o c a t i o n o f m a i n work camps a n d w o r k - s i t e s f o r t h e p i p e l i n e be d e t e r m i n e d i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h n e a r b y - c o m m u n i t y l e a d e r s . " (FEARO 1 9 8 1 : 7 9 )  -  -  "50.  It i s recommended t h a t a l l aspects of project development w h i c h a f f e c t F o r t S i m p s o n and Hay R i v e r be p l a n n e d a n d c a r r i e d out i n close cooperation with local authorities in those communities.  51.  It i s recommended that the Proponents provide orientation p r o g r a m s f o r new l o c a l w o r k e r s . . . . It i s further recommended that community advisors, government departments and t h e Proponents collaborate in planning and m o n i t o r i n g these o r i e n t a t i o n programs." (FEARO 1 9 8 1 : 7 9 )  "The  R o l e o f Community  59.  I t i s recommended t h a t l i a i s o n b e t w e e n t h e c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e p r o j e c t a r e a and t h e P r o p o n e n t s s h o u l d be f o r m a l l y organized and s h o u l d b e g i n i m m e d i a t e l y . T h i s community c o n s u l t a t i o n i s necessary, not only in preconstruction planning and t h e construction phases, but also in the f i r s t few y e a r s of operation of the project. The G . N . W . T . s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s c o n s u l t a t i o n as w e l l . " (FEARO 1 9 8 1 : 8 0 )  In its  141  addition  chapter  study  to actual  Advice  recommendations,  on t h e ' E c o n o m y a n d S o c i e t y '  the Panel that  relate,  makes  a f e w comments  t o some  degree,  to  initiatives.  "Once a p p r o v e d , the project w i l l link the welfare of the region more c l o s e l y t o r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t , and w i l l i m p o s e on g o v e r n m e n t a special responsibility to protect Valley residents from p o s t - p r o j e c t d e p r e s s i o n and i t s e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l c o n s e q u e n c e s . " (FEARO 1 9 8 1 : 4 9 ) "The Norman W e l l s p i p e l i n e p r o j e c t i s an a d d i t i o n t o t h e i n t r u s i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l and urban system t h a t b r i n g s f u r t h e r change and r a i s e s s o c i a l concerns i n the native s o c i e t y . P l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l of t h e Norman W e l l s p r o j e c t must work t o a s s i g n more of the economic b e n e f i t s and f e w e r o f t h e s o c i a l c o s t s t o t h e s e p e o p l e . " (FEARO 1 9 8 1 : 5 8 ) "The Panel urges that this project be p l a n n e d i n a way t h a t economic o p p o r t u n i t y i s u s e d f o r t h e b e t t e r m e n t o f a l l p e o p l e who choose to p a r t i c i p a t e i n i t . New t a x r e v e n u e s t o g o v e r n m e n t will a f f o r d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t r e n g t h e n s o c i a l programs t o d e a l w i t h p r o b l e m s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e a r e a . This i s t h e o n l y way t h a t b e n e f i t s c a n be made t o f l o w t o r e s i d e n t s i n the p r o j e c t a r e a . " (FEARO 1 9 8 1 : 5 9 )  -  142  -  " R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t some i m p a c t s w i l l n o t be i m m e d i a t e l y apparent, t h e P a n e l has c o n c l u d e d t h a t c e r t a i n programs o f m o n i t o r i n g and research should continue throughout the life of the project." (FEARO 1 9 8 1 : 6 6 )  143  -  APPENDIX B D.I.A.N.D. APPROVAL PRESS RELEASE EXCERPT  -  144  -  APPENDIX B From: D.I.A.N.D. "Norman Wells Pipeline approved with Further One Year Delay," Press Release in Yellowknife, July 30, 1981.  SPECIAL INITIATIVES BY TILE FEDERAL GCVET^MKNT, JJ?L, AND ESSO S p e c i a l I n i t i a t i v e s to be taken by' the F e d e r a l Government r e l a t i n g t o P i p e l i n e C o n s t r u c t i o n and O i l f i e l d  Expansion  .  T r a i n i n g programs through expanded government and g o ^ r n r r e n t i n d u s t r y northern t r a i n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s under e x i s t i n g programs, w i t h emphasis on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l s by n a t i v e people which w i l l be o f use i n the North f o l l o w i n g the ccrnpleticn o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n phase. T r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r up t o 250 n a t i v e and o t h e r northerners f o r each o f t h e f o u r years o f c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l b e p r o v i d e d . P r o j e c t e d government incremental funding f o r t r a i n i n g over f i v e y e a r s : $10.5 m i l l i o n .  »  O f f e r o f a source o f s t a r t - u p c a p i t a l f o r a l o c a l northern b u s i n e s s s o t h a t the Dene and M e t i s can e n t e r i n t o j o i n t b u s i n e s s ventures w i t h E s s o Resources i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a d r i l l i n g r i g , a s e r v i c e r i g and support f a c i l i t i e s . The funds would be made a v a i l a b l e through e x i s t i n g government programs.  •  Enhanced e x i s t i n g government programs t o address the ocntrunity and s o c i a l development needs o f cxxrrrruraties along t h e p i p e l i n e route so .that they can respond t o t h e p r o j e c t as the needs a r e i d e n t i f i e d . N a t i v e people w i l l be d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e s i g n o f these programs and i n aspects o f program d e l i v e r y a s they r e l a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y t o n a t i v e corrtuunities. P r o j e c t e d gcvemment funding over f i v e y e a r s : ?4.25 m i l l i o n .  .  P l a n n i n g support t o northern n a t i v e s t o enable them t o take an a c t i v e r o l e i n the planning and m o n i t o r i n g o f the p r o j e c t and i n t h e d e s i g n and implerrentation o f programs i n i t i a t e d i n response t o the p r o j e c t . P r o j e c t e d funding over f i v e y e a r s : $1.25 m i l l i o n .  »  A s s i s t a n c e t o the Government o f t h e Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s t o aixrrent p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n c u r r e n t l e v e l s and standards o f s e r v i c e i n areas such as h e a l t h , housing, education and m a n i c i p a l services. P r o j e c t e d government funding over f o u r y e a r s : $3 m i l l i o n .  -  145  -  APPENDIX C  DECEMBER 7 POSITION  PAPER  -  146  -  ••••  •-'fiK^hMm* 1  POSITION OF THE DENE NATION " '' ON THE NORMAN WELLS PROJECT  PREPARED FOR THE MINISTER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND NORTHERN DEVELOPMENT  '•I  BY  THE DENE NATION  METIS ASSOCIATION OF THE DECEMBER 7,  1981  NVfriT^MiSi • .'. - N f l ^ f c ^ : '  BACKGROUND  .  When the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development announced  Cabinet's decision on the Norman Wells project leaders of the Dene Nation .J,^'  and Metis association accepted the decision and publicly supported the two-..:^i year delay and the funding provided to alleviate impacts. fBsSHStSSSSSSt  '^yl&ty  sjtateii^^  V; '%  i^eSDsneStraditXon^b^ .  )Ca^€dJ^i^^^v\^i>os&^±h^NoverabeE"»2§jfr  V  The Leadership Meeting, representing a l l Dene Communities and o f f i c i a l ^ ! 1  representatives of the Metis Association of the N.W.T./ was held i n Yellow-^] knife during the week of November 23rd to 27th. held i n Fort Simpson on December 2nd.  A follow-up meeting was J l j :  A l l aspects of the project were ex-j|^|  amined i n d e t a i l .  ;>'i^?K^^I  SUMMARY OF THE LEADERSHIP DECISION  — • 1.  —  'Vg^HH  •'.  The Dene never have, and never w i l l , willingly consent to the use' of^pi>^| H  any of our resources prior to the settlement of our Aboriginal Rights .i^Hf  This position has been consistently and emphatically stated •• by-'theiJ^jSj Dene over a long period of time and i t most certainly applies to t h e f ^ m Norman Wells o i l f i e l d expansion and pipeline. 2.  s  '1':^^r*  While the Dene accept the Cabinet's decision to grant the required  certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity to Esso and IPL the.''i|f:$|p$ Government of Canada must recognize that fr>*i^Tirw*Afi:Ti^  a)  That ownership of the o i l at Norman Wells as well as a l l lands  used for extraction and transportation of the o i l w i l l be nego- ."' 'i^SjjjiJ  tiated the  and settled  on a b a s i s  end o f t h etwo year  lands  and resources  delay  satisfactory period.  i s n o tconcluded  t o t h eDene  I fa n agreement  prior  toJ;..;  on these  t o t h es a t i s f a c t i o n  •  o f t h e' l ; - ; ' ^ v  ' *  Dene  prior  right  t o use every  t i l l  In  to  respect  o f Indian negotiate  o i l f i e l d our  b)  Affairs  and pipeline  responsibility  That and  funding  project as a  with  w i l l  Agency  provided  rules,  notonly  concluded  separate  this  with  "^V&fpi  the Minis-^:$||  11, 198l$$|»  f o rt h e Norman  and immediate  W e l l s ^ ^ s  item/in-  ^f|||^  assumes  t o t a l ; - ^ | ^ | | ;  occurs.  Dene  b y the' Government  Agency, be g i v e n  impacts  and protect  o r improve  That  funding  be provided  based  p a r t i c i p a t i o n & v ^ l c i ^  and,^i^K^  o f Canada  t h e authority t o enforce  r e g u l a t i o n s and agreements  o f t h eN o r t h w e s t  p o s - %&Ml  but, wherever  o f Canada  be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h  t o t h e Dene  • /  t h e f f i #  c o n c l u d e d . •"  o n November  be protected  *  c o n s t r u c t i o n u n - ..v ";jf>!  h a s been  required  t h e Government  mize  Government  we r e s e r v e  negotiations.  f o re n s u r i n g  t h e Monitoring  pliance  period  Development  and resources  and that  a monitoring  that  d)  and Northern  t h el a n d s  improved  t o t h e Dene  we w e l c o m e t h e a g r e e m e n t  t h eenvironment  sible,  c)  satisfactory  Aboriginal Rgiths  That  delay  n.cans a t o u r d i s p o s a l t o h a l t  an agreement  this  ter  t o t h eend o f t h etwo year  i  required  t o  t h eenvironment.  on t h e agreement  xom-jP  mini^^^p|||  •"'»';• v;-;Y':.i?^~  concluded  Territories.  with. th^*"" ;  '  "•5.-; • •  . . . . . . .  uTENE^ATlON7GTNTW7t"^T)ECISIONS»  RESPECTING U S E OF FUNDS  /; • '  The west 1.  joint  position  Territories  o f t h eDene N a t i o n  o n t h eu s e o f t h efunds  a n d t h e Government  i sa s  JZ^W vv*^  '••  o f the North-i;  follows: V-  Education  and Training:  a)  amount  Total  available  .  i s $T0T5£million  ,  -  b)  $750,000  The  d)  will  Committee  ing by  the  be carried out by Dene Nation/C.N.W.T.  will determine  from the Dene Nation  will  representation  office  prepare plans for using  for  train  and  as well  the office  of  as the  the balance  of  funds.  Venture:  a)  U p t o i$lT"5> m i l l i o n i s  b)  Studies have  available  been  carried out regarding  and disadvantages  of joint venture with  If the leadership  decide  E s s o t h e $1.5  to enter  into  the  potential'advantages  Esso. the  joint venture  T h e D e p a r t m e n to f I n d i a n A f f a i r s s t a t e d , o n N o v e m b e r with-Esso,  decides not to participate  the funds will be available  these fall within (such as, types  of economic  and training,  development,  the joint  other uses  community  t h a t ' venture  provided  development,  funds other  etc.)  Development:  amount available  to the Dene  for  in  19th,  established categories for Norman Wells  education  Community and Social Total  with  m i l l i o n i s a v a i l a b l e a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y .  if the leadership  a)  identified  Association.  The Committee  Joint  d )  of funds  The Dene Committee will have regional Metis  c)  the use  Committee.  proponents.  representation  e)  -  t o b e u s e d d u r i n g 1981/82 f o r n e e d s a s s e s s m e n t a n d p l a n -  ning which c)  149  Nation.  i n $4V2'5* m i l l i o n ,  all  of which  is  payable  -  150  b)  $250,000 to be paid immediately f o r use during 1981/82.  c)  The balance w i l l be spent during the period ending i n 1986.  • •'•'h"  . A:-  d)  The above i s conditional on no d u p l i c a t i o n with government programs .  e) M~C<>iruiut'tee*composed7.^  . ,i»  ^^^,:be3es$:ablished^  P  '•• .:fh  A'  Planning:  a)  A t o t a l of $1725 m i l l i o n i s a v a i l a b l e .  b)  $500,000 i s to be paid out immediately f o r use during 198l/82.  ••. |:  c) The balance w i l l be paid out i n equal installments of $250,000 per year  during the years 1982/83, 1983/84 and 1984/85.  3 •  5.  G.N.W.T. Programs:  • . •• v  a)  A t o t a l of $3 m i l l i o n i s a v a i l a b l e .  b)  This i s to be e n t i r e l y c o n t r o l l e d by the G.N.W.T.  c)  They need a t o t a l of close to $9 m i l l i o n f o r community ture and health and s o c i a l development.  1  •  ^•,.'-'^«"  •• •• ul<  infrastrac-,V.$|  I t would be to the ad-  "'''**  vantage of the Dene to support the G.N.W.T.'s request f o r addition-,.;; a l funds since most of these funds w i l l be earmarked f o r spending i n Dene communities.  ;  • 6.  .  •  m  Community Advisory Group:  a)  ivJ  _ '.;  A t o t a l of'$17,0007000' i s a v a i l a b l e .  .../5  b)  Thi's^wili^be controil*ed by^the*Dene*Na^iTorr for purposes of pro x  viding  advice  interests  on what needs  during  to be done  to protect  pipeline construction  and  the  expansion  communities of the  oil-  field: c )  $200,000 i s a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g 1981/82.  d)  Funds will be used to iOSiHgtfa'Si^^ well  as J||| l  as ^ecui&ngjitje.cta^  participation  in the Monitoring  require  for  Dene  •;|l*7||l  Agency.  -'K^\fj|i  MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE  ^ r $ $ 8 •  •V..' viii ;  •  ;••  ••::**!« ;  The project management committee is a joint committee composed of '.' senior representatives  from the federal and  territorial  N a t i o n a n d M e t i sA s s o c i a t i o n , a n d community  governments,  T h e 1 1•m e  in impacted  m u n i t i e s h e l d a s r e q u i r e d . functions  Dene;- $$|$  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  ber committee would be based in Yellowknife with meetings  "  com-^!p& C ^ l i l s I  The  specific  1.  T o p r o v i d e c o - o r d i n a t e d d i r e c t i o n o n p r o j e c t management i s s u e s . t  2 .  T o r e s o l v e i n t e r - j u r i s d i c t i o n c o n f l i c t s .  The Chairperson ject Co-ordinator The office  of the committee  < -^  ;  of the project management committee  appointed  by the Minister  of the Project Co-ordinator will  to the Committee.  include:  Membership  of Indian provide  and representation  F e d e r a l Government: T e r r i t o r i a l Government:  on  would  and  be the  Northern  administrative the  committee  2 members 3 members  Pro-  A ff a i r s . ^ ; | j > support  :  would be: .|? v  - Economic Development and -.1 Tourism "!•''•$] - Inuvik Region  - Energy & Resource Development;."^ Secretariat :' :  Native A s s o c i a t i o n s / Community Representatives:  5 members  The working l e v e l project management co-ordination would be through ,>><•&. the o f f i c e of the project co-ordinator.  the p r o j e c t co-ordinator w i l l a c t  as a senior l i a i s o n o f f i c e r between the various a u t h o r i t i e s and a c t as chairperson of the Project Management Committee.  Based i n Yellowknife,  the project co-ordinator's o f f i c e would have a small s t a f f of three to f i v e and may f i n d i t necessary to open a s i t e o f f i c e i n Norman Wells i t '•#A  self.  • 41  The functions of the project c o - o r d i n a t o r s o f f i c e i n c l u d e : 1  1.  Ensuring the co-ordination of various p a r t i e s by r e c e i v i n g a n d # ; ^ disseminating  information. 1  2.  F a c i l i t a t e input i n t o day-to-day p r o j e c t management issues,  In-  put to major management issues would be obtained a t the P r o j e c t  Kites  Management Committee l e v e l . 3-  Act as a c e n t r a l information base.  The p r o j e c t co-ordinator s o f f i c e would a l s o be involved i n admini1  • & • • ' : )  s t r a t i v e duties f o r the Project Management Committee, conducting research as required and providing information on s p e c i f i c t o p i c s .  The project co-ordinator would have no regulatory or enforcement powers; these powers would be l e f t with the e x i s t i n g governmental a u t h o r i ties^.  The o f f i c e would be__open to a l l i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s to receive t h e i r  input on project management issues f o r furtherance ment Committee.  to the Project Manage-  m  - 153 -  APPENDIX D  TREASURY BOARD AUTHORIZATION  - 154 APPENDIX D From: InterGroup Consulting Economist Ltd. Mid-Project Evaluation of S e l e c t e d I s s u e s R e l a t e d t o t h e Norman W e l l s P r o j e c t C o o r d i n a t i o n Office. Winnipeg: D e p t . o t I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t , iytf4. p.JO-J7  3.1  DESCRIPTION OF AUTHORIZATION  Authorization and a p p r o v a l group the  o f Norman  by t h e T r e a s u r y  Wells  Board,  PROCESS  impact  and where  funding  requires  a non-federal  1s t o be t h e r e c i p i e n t , a c o n t r i b u t i o n a g r e e m e n t  recipient.  Such requirements  i n c l u d i n g most s p e c i a l federal  government  izations  circumstance funding  to other  and i n d i v i d u a l s .  agreements  are intended  of  government  federal  a r e mandatory  to provide  feoard  government  b e t w e e n DIAND and  f o r much o f t h e f u n d i n g  that  i s made a v a i l a b l e by t h e  l e v e l s o f governments, Treasury  review  public interest  approvals  organ-  and c o n t r i b u t i o n  a c e n t r a l i z e d approach to the c o n t r o l  expenditures  and t o ensure that  the funds w i l l  be  used as i n t e n d e d . There i s a standard actors These  that  must  be f o l l o w e d  are largely s i m i l a r  s e t o f 12 s t e p s  i n v o l v i n g more t h a n 25  i n o b t a i n i n g Norman  to those  and N o r t h e r n  f o r other  Department  o f Indian  Affairs  approval.  The p r o c e s s i s c o - o r d i n a t e d  Wells impact  funding  that  requests  funding. i n the  require Treasury  Board  by a S e n i o r C o - o r d i n a t i o n  Officer  i for  t h e Norman W e l l s p r o j e c t who i s b a s e d i n D I A N D ' s h e a d q u a r t e r s  Ottawa.  Ottawa i s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  involved  i n the authorization  person receives requests the a u t h o r i z a t i o n The  ing the funds. Officer  feels  programs val.  1.  1f  p r o c e s s a r e a l s o based i n Ottawa. and t h e n e x p e d i t e s  these  Officer  process  is Initiated  with  o f an a c c e p t a b l e p r o p o s a l  An a c c e p t a b l e p r o p o s a l i s consistent with  through  i s one t h a t  the parameters  the submission to  by t h e g r o u p  is received,  o f the impact  reasonably w e l l ,  i t goes t h r o u g h would  normally  request-  the Co-ordination  and has a r e a s o n a b l y good c h a n c e o f g e t t i n g T r e a s u r y  a l l goes  This  process.  Once a p r o p o s a l  which,  l o c a t i o n b e c a u s e most o f t h e groups  f o r funding  authorization  the C o - o r d i n a t i o n  in  funding Board  the f o l l o w i n g take  about  appro-  steps,  three  months.  Co-ordination O f f i c e r r e f i n e s the proposal Into a form t h a t i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r r e v i e w by t h e F i n a n c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f DIAND f o r u s e i n a T r e a s u r y B o a r d s u b m i s s i o n (1 t o 2 w e e k s ) .  -  155  -  2.  The main proposal, excluding annexes and appendices lated into French (2 weeks).  is trans-  3.  Proposal is reviewed and approved by Financial Administration of DIAND (2 weeks — concurrent with step 2).  4.  Co-ordination O f f i c e r transcribes proposal approved by Financ i a l Administration into the format suitable for Treasury Board submission (2 to 3 days).  5.  Obtain departmental signatures for forwarding to Treasury Board -- about 20 signatures needed (1 week).  6.  Provide Minister with overview of Treasury Board submission and obtain his signature (1 to 2 weeks).  7.  Review of submission by Treasury Board analyst (3 weeks mandatory) .  8.  Schedule submission f o r Treasury Board agenda and hold Treasury Board meeting for approval (3 weeks).  9.  Treasury Board minutes prepared and department making submission n o t i f i e d of Treasury Board decision (1 to 2 weeks).  10.  Transfer of funds into DIAND Base (1 week).  11.  Prepare and sign contribution agreement (1 week -- concurrent with step 10).  12.  Request and obtain f i r s t payment (1 week). This system can be shortened considerably by agreement at the  political  l e v e l ; however, this can only be done in exceptional cases. The steps and time period noted i n the preceding description  assume that everything goes reasonably w e l l .  For t h i s to occur, many  conditions must be s a t i s f i e d , including the following: 1.  The person co-ordinating the process must have experience in working through the process and a good working relationship with the Financial Administration s t a f f and Treasury Board analysts.  2.  The Financial Administration s t a f f and the Treasury Board analyst must be very f a m i l i a r with the program for which funding is being requested.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096451/manifest

Comment

Related Items