UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Religion as a factor in social life Wallace, Bryce Howie 1928

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-ubc_1928_a8_w2_r3.pdf [ 67.22MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096447.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096447-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096447-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096447-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096447-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096447-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096447-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096447-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096447.ris

Full Text

. . . U . B . C . L f B R A R Y CAT an -/ni Mj, 1 Religion as A factor in social life bryce howie wallace -.CE A Thesis submitted for the Degree of master of Arts in the department of sociology The University of british columbia .^J* April 1928 π-"RELIGION AS A FACTOR IN SOCIAL LIFE." Table $f contents-Phapter 1 Chapter 2 .Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Varying ConcantipR? of RoAin&ea Attempts to secure satisfactory definitions. A working hypothesis. "Belief in supernatural" Variaaoe in modern Christianity. Institutions. Creeds. Difficulties in harmonising Sociological conceptions of religion. Only as a social factor can it be of importance. Religion as a Social Factor , Amp&K Primitive Peoples Widespread belief in supernatural. Animism, Tabu, etc* As seen in early customs, as in Greece, Heme, Israel, Britain, America. Evils resulting from primitive religions. The social values of primitive religion. Religious and Social Developments, a M tReip in th$ KiARle Aaas, Europe center of interest. Decadence of feudalism Renaissance. Fallacies and dangers of reformation, versus, Christiana Res Publica, Rise of Democracy. Effects of Religious Reformers. Te&Aeanies.Qf novr^i-Saeial Itif<? Rise of Capitalism, with growth of Industry and Competition, Conceptions of Society bein^ regulated by Law, "Social Forces", Institutions, Ideals. Science and Invention as factors in modern life-Weakening of belief in supernatural* Need felt for reinforcement <-f modem life. RaliK&pn ae g Factor in Imdga&Kial^Ljfg Seme conditions in factory life of today. Statistics. Conflicts between labor and capital. Readjustments. Socialism. Cultural conceptions of labor. Can we ever make labor cultural? Religious teaching on standards of service. Permeation of such teachings. Applications of Golden Rule. Results. Ka,T?l§ Content* - continued Chapter 6 Significant social Problems aai-RaliRioue Pp^aSiaaa--Disorganization of family lite. Isolating the religious germ. Criticism of social habits. Wastage caused by fads, crazes, drink, tobacco, drugs. Emphasis on individual as unit of society. The redemption of one, Jesus way. Reinforced by social Gospel. "easeA studies. Chapter 7 War as $he Greatest Soci&l Evil, and Polntipna Pfferea by-Egiigtaa Slow acceptance of a truly socialized religion. Opponents. Militarism versus Pacificism* A clcar issue for Social Gospel. World situation on war, and peace. Message of sociological religion on war. Value of personality. Futility of wars. What the church is doing. RELIGION A3 A FACTOR IN SOCIAL LIF1. Chapter 1 Varying Conceptions of Religion. (Attempts to secure satisfactory definitions. A work-ing hypothesis. "Belief in supernatural". Variance in modem Christianity - Institutions. Creeds. Difficulties in harmonizing. Sociological conceptions of feligion. Only as a social factor can it be of importance.) Among intelligent people at present it is commonly assumed that the day of religion has gone. No one doubts that it has held a great and powerful sway over mankind. From the dawn of the world's history, priest and medicine man, prophet and seer, with their god given utterances, have dominated the thoughts and fears of humanity. Since the eighteenth century onwards, however, we have been witnessing a weakening of the dominion of revealed religion at least. The enlarging of man's knowledge about the universe, the coming of new inventions, the development of science and industry, and the growing com-plexity of modern life, have seemed to work in the direction of lessening the potency of the religious influences. A significant contribution towards an understand-ing of the development of the social life of mankind was made when Auguste Comte published his "Positivist Philosophy" in the middle of the nineteenth century. In this book he shows how mankind has passed through three stages. First, there was the generally accepted belief in the gods; next, there came the metaphysical stage; but the final development would be that of Positivism or science. When to this philosophical account of the thinking of mankind was added the discovery of Charles Darwin, and the general adoption of the evolutionary hypothesis, it seemed needless to postulate anything like gods or their worship. The French Encyclopaedists, "bowed the gods out of the universe and thanked them for their services", but the modern man does not feel like even thanking them, since he feels that faith in them has fettered humanities progress. It is easy to claim that religion has done things beyond credence. It is possible to prove, from a dispassionate study of history, that religion has caused r.en to enact savag-eries, to perpetuate foulness far below tht?& of the beasts. Religious wars have stained the page of history, the cruelty and futility of inquisitions, of bigotry and intolerance, have given the sceptic abundant reason to cavil at any attempts to justify religion as a whole. Further, the sociologist, and the student of economics, has reason to know that religion is often found warring against progress. Enhanced, as it is, with the customs and traditions of the race - the mores; religion is frequently found to be simply a conserver of superstition. It -2" has been used to bolster up the iniquities and abuses of governments and political parties. Aided by powerful hier-archies, it has been found again and again standing by the oppressor of the poor, or absent when the worker needed assistance in his fight for better conditions, tremendous indictments of religion have been made from time to time, for these reasons. Lucretius was among the first to point out its Iniquities, 'human life lay visibly before men's eyes, foully crushed to earth under the weight of religion, who showed her head from the quarters of heaven, with hideous aspect lowering upon men". (1) His attack was made largely, as hiB phrase suggests, because religion was based on fear, "primos in orbe, deos fecit timor**. Hence the ignorance of the zealot, with his bitter opposition to science and research, can be account-ed for by Lis fear of the gods. So too the cramping influence of religion upon many individuals, crushing initiative, re-straining creative powers, warping his viewpoint, and giving him false values and false security, may be traced to the same thing. So the main line of attack upon religion has been to take away the fear of the gods, even though this has not been always a conscious aim. This has been accomplished by the knowledge gained from the various sciences. Geology and biology have called into question the old conception of the "Divine Flat" of man's origin. Astronomy has removed from us the ancient belief in the earth's central place in the universe. Scholarship has been giving to as a better under-standing of the faith of mankind, philosophy has been inter-preting the older formulae and rendering much of this obselete. Sociology, gleaning from history and folklore, from ethnology and anthopology, is now endeavoring to give us a synthesis of our social heritage. Sociology tries to visualize for us man's attempts to become a socialized being, from a "socius", to par-ticipation in a "world team". The result of this constantly growing knowledge has been the gradual abolition of superstitious fear. Except among the primitive peoples, there is no dread of strange places, of seasonal changes. The woods and the mountains are no longer inhabited by dryads or nymphs, nor does God abide in the high places. Terror in witnessing the usual phenomena of nature has largely gone. The universe has become more friendly. So too with the anathemas of religion. Fear of nell fire has been relegated to the scrap heap of outworn beliefs. The exconmunication of the priest has only a survival interest, -with the intelligentsia at least; the pronouncement of the prophet about the end of the worl< and of judgment after death brings merely an incredulous smile. Knowledge has rendered a great service to mankind in this regard. To deny that the removal of much of the primitive terror from the life of man has been a positive gain would be absurd. (1) Lucretius I - 62 -3-Yet it would be idle to suppose that by the abolition of fear, religion itself has been abolish ed. Though much is taken, much abides. Thea there is r^ ' i/kitg fact that, though fear of seme outraged diety may ^ 'd a thing of the past, yet fear itself na^ not yet bein Th* modern man still fears failure as much as th^ ^ ncibnt feared the gods. Economic pressure brings to th,. surface other dreads and worries, quite apart from any raligious implication, at would seem, therefore, that relijion was not invented by the priests to inspire fear. Rather ^s it an attempt to explain or interpret the phenomena of nature and the puzzling experiences of mankind. have discovered that many of these explanations are of little service. This is especially true of early man's reading of nature. Further light has proved them to be erroneous. Whether there is any value in their interpretations §f religion and life from the sociological viewpoint remains to be seen. One of the chief difficulties in dealing with this subject is to secure a satisfactory definition oi religion. Eany writers today have frankly despaired of getting one which is adequate. It is so enormously varied, both in respect of outward form and inward manifestation. Either πο get a state-ment which only partially covers the subject, or i<3 so broad that it becomes useleas as a definition. Thus Bean shailer Mathews, in his lectures, warns students against attempting to put up religion in neat little paroles of stereotyped defini-tions. As an example of this, the writer has attempted to find out and place in categories sona of the prevailing typos known to un today. The following i3 a partial list of religions which he has investigated: -1. The Aesthetic (or Ritualistic) e.g. Roman, Greek and Anglo Catholic 2. emotional e.g. Revivalist 3- Intellectual e.g. Unitarian 4. Legalist e.g. Judaism. Shintoist. Metaphysical e*g* Christian science. 6. Mystical e.g. Hinduism. Buddhism. Pietism z. Practical e.g. Institutional Cl -reheB 8. Romanticist e.g. New Church (gvedenborgian) 9. Kami-Scientific e.g. Spiritulism. Ne^ Thought. This list is far from exhaustive. It does not try to touch that type of religion of the primitive peoples, ,here magic rites mingle freely with the higher aspirations. Thic tJill be dealt with more fully in the next chapter. The only common denominator among thrse types which are mentioned seems to be tluit they are all "social' . Whatever their claims may be of revelation, they have taken -4-root among men, have been practiced or believed, and have found a large place in the thinking processes of mankind. They have helped to mould the life of the people, to tough them at the most vital moments of their existence, and to pretend that there was something above or beyond this life. Clearly then religion cannot be airily dismissed. The develop-ing life of man, with its conquests and conflicts, its advances and retrogressions, has not yet come to the place where it has no place for religion. Comte's "three stages" aeems to have been too easy a solution. For almost every one of the "civilized** nations can be seen to be in the "three stages* at once* Mankind has ever been asking questions of nature, why? how,whence? - is ever upon his lips. He is nature's interrogation mark. His answer to "how it works* may be either his religion, or his science, or both. A brief resume of attempts at definition of religion ^ill Ram be given. Cicero derives the meaning of the *",ord from **re" and "legere", to gather together, to go back over again. He says 'qui omnia quae ad cultum de§rem pertinerent diligenter retraotarent et tanquam relegerent, sunt dicti rcligicsi ex rclegendo". (1) An alternative deriv-ation from "Religare" is given by Lactantius, -'Vinculo piet-atis obstrieti, Deo relegati sunus unde ipsa religio .*omen cepit*. (2) This latter definition waa accepted by 3t* Augustine. (3) The thought here is that religion fastens or binds. Canon Liddon points out that although ''Lactantius may be wrong in his etymology, he has seized the broader popular sense of the word when he connects it rith the idea of an obligation by which man is bound to an invisible God'. (4) passing away fror: the ^arely etymological naaning of the ^ ordy we next core to LLc <iore philoso^ hica-I! discussions ae tc its meaning. Immanuel Kant in l?Sl produced h.in 'Kritik of Pure Reason". This vork revolutionized i.uch of the think-ing worlds The theologians were thrown into consternation by the frank application of the reasoning processes to religion, and by the equally fram: rejection of she traditional proofs fur faith in God. The moral law regained, but its value was to be found out by the prooese of ratiocination, ηοί, by revelation, The writer has still vivid recollections of the clarifying effect of a close rea< ing of the ''irritik''. one passage gives to us a c3ue of Kant's thought upon religion. 'Th' world mast be represented aa having originated from an idea, if it is to harmonize with that use of reason without which wa should hold ourselves unworthy of reason - vim the (1) Nat? Beor? 2:28. (2) Inst: (β; Retrace 1:1β. {%) "lleuonts of Religion** beet: 1^9. -5-moral use, which rests entirely on the idea of uhe supreme good", (l) In other words, Kant places religion within the sphere of the reasoning processes, that by searching witt the intellect we can find oat Sod, from the evidence ^f -'starry heavens above and the moral law within". In the 3-st Kant conceives religion to be a right attitude of yill. At the opposite pole to this conception we cone to look at the conception held by Schleiermacher, ( 1 7 6 8 - 1 8 3 4 ) . This son of a Prussian army chaplain early showed signs of being an original thinker. He made Kant his master, yet ha departed more and more from the latter's position, in his book "Reden uber die Religion" he first gave to th<$ world his position, which he elaborated in his later works. He presents religion as being distinguished from all the current caricat-ures, and suggests that it has an eternal place among the divine mysteries of human nature. The influence of Plato and Spinoza is to be felt in all his writings, as is also the romantic school of that day. Religious truths, according to him, are simply the feelings of absolute dependence. This is the chief characteristic of religion everywhere. Religion is essentially social. It everywhere builds churches, as the necessary instruments and organs of its highest life. This religious feeling is not knowledge in its strict sense, as it is purely subjective or immediate, but it lies at the basis of all knowledge, schleiermacher, therefore, denies the position of Kant that religion was a sort of appendage to morality. He attempted to reconcile the rationalistic thought ^f Kant with the intuitive thinking of plato, bat his emphasis i"?as upon piety, not upon reason or will. The next great figure who attempts to give us an adequate conception of religion is Hegel. (1770-ΐ8β1). His philosophy is admittedly one of the moat difficult. (2) He seems to hold that the universe is the process of the Absolute. God reveals himself in logical thought, in idea and in nature. Religion is really philosophy, even if it be in popular and picture form. Its task is to emancipate the spirit of man from the purely individual, and "to show the steady shining of the eternal light amid the changing shadows of time^. These three great writers in philosophy and religion each seek to place religion somewhere in tae mind of man. Kant in his will, Schleiermacher in the feelings, and Hegel in the reason. They look for an adequate understanding of religion by psychological processes. Though they differ in placing the emphasis, they are at one in seeking to make religion the creative element in experience, ane which, rightly understood, ought to bring us to peace and harmony by providing for us a right relation to the ultimate reality. (1) "Kritik of Pure Reason", P. 538 (2) Encly.Brit: Arts ^ -.gel -6-Later writers have offered am such definitions as: "the knowledge of God, and of His will, and of our duties to-wards Him". (Cardinal Newman). "The belief and worship of Supreme Hind and Will, which directs the universe, and hold-ing moral relations with it". (Martineau). "Emotion applied to morality". (Matthew Arnold) "our total reaction to the universe*. (Professor James) "An interpretation of Life" (H.S. yosdick). "Knowledge of Reality* primarily the quality of Reality" (Canon Streeter). "The function of life principle seeking to get help from the superhuman elements by utilising the personal and social experiences". (Shailer Mathews). "The consciousness of moral and social values in the universe." (Wiernan). It is possible to multiply such definitions almost indefinitely. But what is noticed is that our definitions have moved away from differences about words, to those about mind, and finally to the definition which would relate relig-ion to our social life. The tendency in religious thinking is to put less and less emphasis upon the "Absolute", and more and more upon the "relative". What the modern man seeks to know is, what is left in religion after we have emptied it of all its supernatural elements? Vie may not be able to get rid of all the supernatural, but that is the tendency. Does then "God* mean any more to us than some ancient fetish? Is there any pergonal element left? If we anchor religion securely upon the "social experiences" of mankind, and in his developing social life, can we find a worthy meaning to religion at all? The answer seems to the writer to be found in the personality of man. It is true that science has shown us to be in one sense merely a chemical collection of cell life, with very close affinities with the lower animals. Yet a fuller understanding of our own life shows us to be also continually animated by hopes and fears, by dreams, aspirations, and spiritual desires. A merely mechanistic or pragmatic theory does not adequately express our own personality. Then in our social life we seem ever to be struggling towards "some far off Divine event". A divine discontent seems to be part of our human inheritance. As far as our studies have led us, we believe that environment can account for most of the facts of experience. One salient feature of human environment is religion. It is possible to believe that it has had much to do with the developing life of human society. In earlier society at least, it was a belief in the "supernatural" whic& exercised one of the most potent influences, as we shall show later, v/e shall accept as a working hypothesis that religion is "faith in the supernatural forces which have produced personality", using the term "super-natural" to mean those forces which appear to transcend human nature, "e shall return to this definition again and compare it with the Christian standard of religion, which we believe 7-centers around loyalty to a Person, rather than to any formula or faith. (See page 19) There are still many difficulties which seem to detract from giving much significance to religion as a force in human life. These consist largely in mistaken ideas of its function. For instance, it has been frequently thought to be of value in moulding and shaping certain institutions -chiefly the one we call the Church. Temples, Cathedrals and Churches represent religion to many people, instead of con-ceiving it in the splendour of a liberating thought, it has been confused with crystallized deposits. Buildings, vest-ments, ritual acts, together with those who perform the latter-Popes and Priests, have very frequently been accepted by the masses as religion itself. Religion has been compelled to act through these channels, it is true. Frequently the creative idea has been lost in the outward form. Still again, largely because of hostility to the cause which it espoused, the Church was compelled to take refuge in credal statement. This was especially true during the ecclesiastical battles of the fourth century. In self defence the Church placed on record what was then conceived to the essential realities. Time has hardened these "apologiae" into final truths. One of the chief objections of intelligent people to religion is that none of the creeds adequately expresses their religious thinking. This is natural, since all the creeds have as their basis the social conditions of the age in which they were written. For example, the doctrine of "total depravity" as worked out by St. Augustine, was in-fluenced to a la#ge extent by the breaking up of the Roman Empire. This has been pointed out by various scholars, in-cluding Shailer Mathews in recent lectures. Hence the dead hand of the past has exercised a destroying influence upon religion, and educated people of today have little interest in religion sunned up in credal statement. But as a phenonena of social life and studies through the groups which it has developed in society, religion remains a problem for the sociologist. Its value has been estimated in widely different ways. It has been dismissed as a factor in life, "Interested only in the more respectable forms of s&cial service*.,(1), while again in the same book it is eulogised as "one of the most potent means of group control ever devised by man*. (2). At least when studied objectively, its study proves a mental stimulus to the student, and may be a possible gain to society. (1) David & Barnes "An Introduction to Sociology - p. 66l. (2) Ibid - pg. 625 Chapter 2 Religion as a Social Factor Among Primitive peoples. (Widespread religious belief. Animism, Banna, Tote-mi sm. etc., in early customs in Greece, Rome, Israel, Britain, America. Evils resulting from primitive re-ligions. The Bocial values of primitive religion.) The aim of this chapter will be to set forth some of the theories of the origin of religion, with criticisms up-on them. Next, to examine the results of religion from the sociological aspect, and finally, to summarise the value to society of religion among the early peoples. Many religious writers assume the "religious in-stinct". They point to the almost universal phenonenon of religious faith and practice. McDougal in his "Social Phsych-ology", quotes with seeming approval from Renan that the "re-ligious instinct is as natural to man as nest-making is to birds". But NcDougal goes on to state that this "instinct" is a complex and very diversified product of the co-operation of the social instincts. After making an analysis of these com-plex factors, he suggests that what we term the "religious in-stinct" is a complex of Fear, Curiosity and Subjection. (1) Further development of the "instinct" theory of the origin of religion is seen in the earlier writings of A.3. Ooe, who has done a great deal of fine work in the realm of religious education. He would educe the religious instinct from the maternal instinct. Mother love and protecting care, and general tenderness of paternal and maternal devotion seem to account for the belief in the care and love of God. (2). A school of thinkers has arisen to protest against many of these apriori views. Among these we find men like L.L. Bernard, now of Chicago, whose book, "instinct", Xas written as a challenge to the whole instinctivist position. His main thought is that "Instinct is a special response to a special stimulus, only the neural pattern mediating the response being inherited". That is, that instincts are inconceivable apart from structural forms. Hence, "Ideas are never inherited", and with this firmly established, it is impossible to give to re-ligion any place as an instinctive "neural form'. (3)-Searches for the origin of religion in other fields have been numerous and varied. (4) The credit of having found-ed an anthopological stu&y of religion belongs to Edward B. Tylor. His position is well known. Animism is the essence of religion. Primitive man, reflecting up&n his dreams, visions and cataleptic states, was led to distinguish between the body 1) T. McDougal "Social Psychology", Ch. 1β 2) A.E. Coe "A Social Theory of ReL.Bduc.* (3) L.L. Bernard, "Instinct", p. 39 - $1$ (4) Blackmar and Gillin, "Outlines of Soc." ch. 12. -9-and soul. Since animals, plants and natural objects help or hinder him, they too must possess a"soul". Hence arose the belief in ghosts, spirits of the dead, and in a nether worM. ( 1 ) There is much that is true in this theory. Even in what we term Honothestic religion, such as Judaism, we find lingering traces of animism, e.g. the ban or taboo, the "devo-tion" of a city, a person, or a thing, - the use of eBhod and teraphim - Even the practice of circumcision may be shown by comparative anthopology to be originally a form of mutilation, preparatory to carriage, which was practiced by many people. Demonology, although more scanty in the Old Testament than in say the Babylonion beliefs and the universal "jinn" among the Arabs, can be found there. (2) But later writers have shown that animism as an explanation to account for the origin of religion is faulty. It seems to make primitive man too contemplative, a dreamer rather than an active participant in wars, hunting and fishing. That great classic on primitive religion, "The Golden Bough" would seem to disprove the purely animistic theory. Masses of information are culled from the tangle of early beliefs. Vie are introduced to the fierce priest of 3emi, and so on to the varied explanations of the rites of multitudes of peoples. The total impression gained from a reading of this book in an over-whelming feeling of the hopelessness of trying to disentangle any single theory to account for the origin of such widely different and perplexing variety of practices, yet later writers who have been following up the clues presented by sir James Prazer. (Like Crawley in "The Tree of Life", and Miss Jane Harrison in "Themis"), are said to be working out a theory of vitalism or what is termed "Mana" to account for the source of religion. This Kana is thought to he a certain mystic imper-sonal force which seems to be accepted by almost all primitive peoples. The name may vary, but the underlying idea is similar. It is somewhat alon^ these lines that Herbert Spencer worked out his "Ghost" theory, Giddings his theory of the "Great Dreadful", and, still more recently, Professor Otto his idea of "The Holy". But there i3 a real danger in accepting as con-clusive any theory which is based on etymological proofs, or even on ontological. ;e need to get down to the actual condi-tions of primitive life as lived by the people. This brings us to the interesting theory of totenisn. Sir Jamee Frazer has defined totemism in this way, "An intimate relation which is supposed to exist between a group of kindred people on one side, and a species of natrual 1) 3.B. Tylor, "Primitive Culture" 2) old.Test. la: β4/14, 1β:2ΐ. Deut.32:17, prov. βΟ:*5 and perhaps Azaael. Lev. 16:8 -10-or artifical objects on the other side, which objects are called the totem of the group*. Thus it ha^ tro A mode of social grouping, and a set of beliefs practices. The study of totemism, if not thought of in th^ jrigii. of religion, but as a very suggestive part oJ priori cive religion, has engaged the attention of many ^riliia^t ctu^^rt^. It ray be possible to deduce from the Old Testament certain fcr..::. of totemism. "The Serpent lifted up in the yilderne-ΰ", the "Ark of the Lord'. (1); and in the New Testament "Th^ oro3a', Relic Worship, and other suggestions of identification of th€ people with certain objects which possessed Divinity. It is not thought necessary here to jo into all the multitude of explanations given by anthopologists, or studentB of religion, concerning the totem. (2). What con-cerns us is to note what social value this form of religion has for the people. It is valuable since it gives? to us a social conception of religion. Durkeim has further carried on this study of the totem and has definitely identified the totemic principle with the "God of the clan, which can be nothing else than the clan itself." (3) In America there was, until some year * ago, the well-known feast of the "pot-latch". This was generally given to celebrate the erection, or addition to, the totem. Ue have many evidences close at hand to study the social significance of this particular feast. Y;e have several workers in our own province who have given the Totem some considerable attention. Among these we may mention the late James Teit, of Spences Bridge, a personal friend of the writers. (4) Professor Hill-Tout, of Vancouver, and Rev. John Goodfellow, of Princeton. Particularly has the work of Teit been recognized by the Smith-stonian Institute. It is from many conversations T.ith this man and expilitions into Indian villages, we have gained soma personal knowledge of primitive Indian religion. It is clear that the Totep lies at ths bottom of the social system. The selection of the totem was a crisis in the life of the youth. He appeared before the Khr^^n, or medicine man, and, after instruction, withdrew himself to tht solitude of the forest. There he remained indefinitely, for days, months, or, in some cases, years. He ^o"ld subject him-self to repeated fasts, and, when finally the diiired "psychic" state had been reached, visions appeared and Pe w.-s told whi h of the animals or birds he should street as hir Totej:. Others with less rigorous fasting, adopted whatever creature their eyes first observed, after the conclusion of their period of (1) Nu. 21-9. Deut. 10:8, etc. (2Ϊ sir Jas.Frazer "The Golden Bough"-"Folkloie in the Old Test." (3j E.Durkeim,"Elemen&ary Forms of Religious Life", p. 209 (4) apolk Tales of the Salishan Tribes",etc. James 3. Teit -11-solitade. From that time on there was ever a mysterious bond between the brave and the apirit of his totem. Save in self defense, he would not injure the bird, beast, reptile, or fish which had given him his totem. Family totems were handed down from the mother's eldest brother, who is the head of the family. Thus we see the clan system or family tie being reinforced by a mysterious power. Each young son had to go out and face the world alone. Or, if permitted to remain, he was not permitted to marry within the group. This, according to Andrew Lang, was the source of the "primal law* - "thou shalt not marry within the group". Most of the primitive peoples practice the rite of initiation in some form. What was done in the early days in our own land, is typical in most. The coming of puberty was a most significant event. The youth, through these rites, came to understand the traditions of the tribe and the tasks which await manhood, Hence it was a strongly conserving in-fluence. The tales of the warriors and heroes might now be understood better. Loyalty to the clan wqa reinforced, the ancient glories were now in his own hands to keep glorioua. The light of tribal tradition comes upon him out of the shadows of fear, privation and bodily pain. Hhcn we recollect that in primitive society, the thought of ^ progress" was almost non existent, whereas the order and stability of the group were of supreme moment, we see the tremendous weight and social value of the rites of initiation. For this rite was, and is still, supremely a religious one. It made the natural development of youth a distinctly social matter. It has a creative place in estab-lishing, not only a closer link with the clan or tribe, but also for the youth was a sort of spiritual metamorphosis, turning his thoughts to the Supreme powers which govern the universe, and thus creating in him mental habits and social usages, which were of supreme value to the group. But totemism widened out the social conception of the youth beyon^ his immediate friends. He thus became a brother of all who bore the same totem. This bond is still strong. It is perhaps the strongest bond among the Indiana, even at this time. These primitive brotherhoods, like all others of later date, seek to promote hospitality, to help to preserve peace, and to foster the spirit of brotherhood. A totem brother would not consciously fight against one of the same totem. Leaving the rite of initiation, we pass on to con-aider the social value of the religious rites which grew up around sex life and marriage. Many writers have stressed the -12-important place which these have held in religion. These range from statements from "explorers" like Louis De.Rouge-ment, whom the writer once heard lecturing on the Australian natives. This man would try to explain all religion on the basis of sex life. G.K* Chesterton quotes him in his book, "The Everlasting Man", as the type of person who pointed to church steeples as being part of Phallic worship. More re-liable data has been recently secured by professor Margold and giv^n in his book, "Sex Freedom and social Control". This does not bear out the position taken by the late De Rougement. According to him, and to professor Malinowski, in his Melan-esian studies, "sex life plays an astonishingly insignificant part in primitive religion". (1) Yet it is natural that reproduction and nutrition would engage the thought of early man. These are tremendous forces in human life. Sex attrac-tion, procreation, and birth are part of the human inheritance. The youth initiated into the trible, felt stirring within him great and stange powers, but to give way to all the desires within him would result in destroying the life of the group. Hence there was thrown around him the mazes of prohibition and taboos. Restrictions in the selection of life partners are common to nil peoples- "Woman, for certain physiological reasons, is always for primitive people hedged around with sanctity, whilst man does all he can to inspire awe of his posers in woman by keeping religion largely in his own hands". (2) Havelock Ellis believes that "if all artificial "laws" could be abolished, the natural order of sexual relationships would follow a biological norm of monogamy". (3) That this la not true is suggested by Margold, from his studies am^ng primitive peoples. "Due to mans biological, psychological, and social nature, social conduct is always present in sex conduct. That biological factors alone are inadequate for conduct is being established, and conceded more and more, even by biolog-ists themselves". (4) In other words, primitive man found in his tribal religion a safeguard from the excesses of individual erotic passion. Primal laws of a rude and savage type were found necessary. These were found to be most effective when assoc-iated with fear of the gods. The Semetic peoples decree* death to the adulterer, while marriage was forbidden outside people of their own race. (5) These codes of morality are al-ways baaed upon commands of the gods, and they act with relentless severity. It is clear that while religion, turning its attention to the great forces in human life, sought to act as a directing, or rppreasive control, and, finally, to establish the idea of chastity. (1) "Science, Religion and Reality", page 41. 2) Encyclopaedia Brittanica. Art: Religion, page 66. ,3) "Sex in relation to society", page 4. 4) "3ex Freedom and Social Control'*, page 19 5) Exodus 20:14, Deut.$:l8, Lev.l8/17, Ibid. 20:11, etc. -13-Yet it is true also that Phallic worship is ccasaion among primitive peoples, especially in Eastern lands*. It ie often found associated with orgiastic rites, but this grad-ually gave way to a joyous recognition of natural reproduc-tion. (1) It is believed that phallieism was the essence of Dionysiac worship. This gave way later to the introduction of the comedy. Before the temple of Aphrodite at Heiropolis Here two huge phalli, and such emblems are to be found in various parts of the world, (especially in Central America and Peru.) Yet it has been pointed out by such careful authorities as Robertson Smith that the tendency to identify all obelisk-like stone and tree trunks, with phallic worship is incorrect. (2) We have purposely left untouched the realm of "Magic*, whose rites and spells aimed to break down the wall of destiny which primitive man imagined lay between himself and his gods, ^e cannot go far into this field. Dr. Halinow-skl from his studies among the Melanesians, part of which is given in "Science, Religion and Reality*, inclines to the be^ lief that primitive man had a distinct knowledge, had also certain magic ritual and beliefs, and, still further, had a definite type of religion, which he distinguishes from Magic. He does not accept the findings of Durkeim that the religious ie to be identified with the "social". His reasons are as follows, (a) From close observation he found that religion arises from purely individual sources largely, (b) ^Collective effervesence*, a sort of chemical entity, which Durkeim posits as inhering in the crowd, is very often of an entirely secular nature, (c) This "collective Soul* is without any foundation in fact. It is plain, from this brief survey of religious origins, that we have many varieties of opinions. There is to be obser&sd a moving away from assertions of one type which explain all, to an increasingly elastic and comprehensive view of the subject* There are several things which stand out ia the life of primitive man. He was forever groping for clues to his existence in a fear haunted world. Objects were deif-ied. Henoe developed the technique of religion, spells, magic rites, dances, prayers, and smoke and incense. With these things there came the power of the Shaman, or medicine man. Fetishism or totemism was then developed. Possibly in this way there came to him the idea of sacrifice. Then as primitive man changed his mode of life from the nomadic to that of farmer, special dieties were invented to meet their new way of living. This continued for many centuries. "To the early Greek", says Gilbert Murray, "the earth, water and air were full of living eyes, of Theoi, of (1) Encyclopaedia Brittanica7"grY7"?EaIlici8m. (2) Robertson Smith, "Lectures on the Religion Lr^  -14-Daimones, of Keres.** One early writer says the earth is so full of them that "there is no room to pat in the spike of an ear of corn without touching one. (1) It is not to be suppos-ed, however, that there was not also a clear knowledge of the facts of life. There did enter into the mind of primitive man reason, calculation and deduction. (2) But inextricably con-fused with observation of nature, there was also this coincid-ing realm of the supernatural, subjective beliefs, which we term religion. Man did distinguish the days and the changing seasons, the movements of the sun, moon and stars, but these were all deified. The sky was filled with mysterious powers. To placate these dieties, or demons, ceremonies were set up. The many nature festivals, which are still to be observed among "civilized" man, played a great part in the social life of the early peoples. This is to be noticed in the eating of food, which to many of the primitive people had a distinctly religious character. In one sense food was the connecting link with himself and destiny. After a successful hunt or fishing expedition, such ceremonies were set up and a religious ritual used. The joy of the whole community was thus expressed! Hence the expression of religious faith tended to bind them together, to enhance the feeling of joy and gladness, and possibly to lead them on to consider the more remote things of nature. Students of savage life have testified to the b&ological im-portance of the sacralising of food, which is a feature of primitive religion. Then in addition, since part of the food was to be given back to the god, or to his priests, the elements of un-selfishness and thankfulness were inculcated. The hosts of holy wells, of sacred trees, especially fruit trees, indicate how wide spread the social value of food and drink has always been, but when to the ordinary incidents of life were thus added, the deeper significance of the power and the kindness of the gods, by partaking a sacred meal, the social value ^as made greater and more potent. It is true that few of the primitive people entered into the spirit of the sacrificial meal, as in the Christian religion. Usually it was to gain the cunning or s&ength of certain animals that their flesh was eaten. There is, however, a "sacramental eating" practiced among the Central Australian natives, which bears a close affinity with the Christian ideas. Turning now to examine the place of primitive religion in its relation to death, we meet with it in ita moment of supreme power. Death and immortality have always formed the theme of man's poignant fears and hopeB. '"If a man (1) "Rise of creep Epic", p. 82 (2) "Mind of primitive Kan", Boas -15-die, shall he live again?" goes farther back that the book of Job. It is an age long question. Religion all through the life of primitiye nan has been recognized as a power of in-finite importance, but at death it is all gathered up into one crisis, and there it becomes the centre of strange and complex manifestations. It is a peculiar fact that primitive man should have ever imagined a future life at all. Savage man is intensely afraid of death. That the dead body should ever live again can never be verified out of his, nor our own experiences. Nor does it come out of any group experiences which he may have had. It has been suggested that the hope of immortality may have been brought to him by the returning seasons, by t,he morning light after the night, by the phenom-ena of sleep and wakening, or by the stories and sights of the metamorphosis of certain animals and birds. The snake glides forth after it has cast forth its skin, perhaps he too will in dying cast off the outworn garment of the flesh. The beetle breaks oat of its filthy sepulchure and hence the beetle be-comes the emblem of his hopes. So, the fabled phoenix is throught to be a type of the soul. So too, he may have se&a a crawling creature emerge from its lowly form into a bright butterfly. But all of these analogies do not rob primitive man of his horror of the corpse and the fear of the spirit of the departed. It is impossible to attempt to even sum up the amazing variety of funeral and mortuary rites observed by the tribes in Africa, Australia and among other primitive people of today. Yet there is some similarity. There is the out-burst of grief, with the wailing which may continue for long periods, and which may also pass into lacerations of the body, or suggestive garments to betoken the sorrow at the loss. The body is prepared in the prescribed manner. Among some tribes, such as the Kayans of Borneo, and other tribes in Africa, all the personal attendants of the dead person are slain. The idea behind this seems to be that they will continue their attendance upon their dead master. (1) Among some of the peoples of New Guinea, sacro-cannibalisn, eating the flesh of the dead, is practiced. Yet this is an act of piety and devo-tion. By the mortuary ritual, the fear of the dead is to some extent overcome, and makes triumphant the faith in a future life.(2) Just at the time when the deepest fears and terrors are awakened in primitive man, religion seems to step in.. The natural impulse, arising from fear of the strange, still body, would be to run away from the corpse, to destroy all the be-longings of the dead, and to break up the continuity of the (1) A.M. Homeric, "Immortality", p. 6l (2) B. Malino.vski, "Science, Religion & Reality", p. 48 -16-group. By & series of traditional ceremonies, religion count-eracts the natural fear of death and assures the final victory of the spirit, and the group, over the forces of disintegra-tion. A social event is made out of an event of terror, and all the various rites maintain for the group a certain solid-arity, and retention of their culture. gaaoe, religion is for the primitive people a power of immense social value at the most disastrous moment of their lives. are not concerned in this thesis to attempt a defence of religion, either among primitive or modern people, re think that it has been established that it has been a force which cannot be well overlooked by sociologists, as a power making for solidarity and eonservation among the early peoples. Bat we cannot overlook the evils which religion introduced in-to primitive life, by the abuses of the sacred power held by priests and medicine men. It is a well attested fact that human sacrifices were required by many of the primitive rites. (1) It is also well known that the magic ceremonies kept the people in darkness, terror and superstition. Yet is not correct to assume that what we of today regard as bad, cruel and revolting, has the same meaning to the early peoples. All that concerns us is to know whether the religion of the primitive people tended towar&a the elimination of the group, or towards its social solidarity. Je believe that we have s^own that it was toward the latter, '.re are unaware of any great tribe whicii has been destroyed by its faith, though many of the members may have suffered or died for it. .e have not pressed into any theory of the origin of religion. The cult of "originitis'* is after all not very helpful. \'e have tried to look at the group life of early people, for it is in this way we can come to understand the religious significance beat of all. The further study of tot-emism, will, we believe* show the abiding meaning of religion upon early life. The investigations of some of our nost high-ly trained ethnologists have revealed the potent power of religion in all the crises of life. Additional light has come to as from recent investigation by Professor Hargold in his book, ^ Sex Freedom and Social Control". In this valuable work he has investigated the customs and rites which great multit-udes of primitive people have in connection with their sex life. He has found that all of these tend to enhance the value of the monogamous marriage and to surround the home life of the tribe with sanctions and symbols, which are helpful to the social life of the people. ,e have not assented to the proposition of Durkeim, namely, that the "religious is idential with the social'*. That (1) J.Lloyd, "Prehistoric Britain", also **Koloch" worship referred to in ^.T. Lev.l8:2l, l Kings 11:7,2 Kings 2β:10 etc. -17-is unless we widen the concept of the "social" to take in all forms of life, and all forces which primitive man found in his psycho-social environment. If this is done of course we agree* For in one sense there is only the social. But individual life, seeking for the revelation of Divinity in isolation, accounts for most of the phenomena of religion, as we have tried to make plain. All the acts of religion, however, are carried out in public, or within the secret society. In other words, the manifestation of religion is truly social. Its origin seems to be within the soul of man, as he strives to come to a knowledge of the supernatural powers which he conceives to exist. His stumbling, halting efforts to make visible his ex-periences, or to vocalize them publicly, results in what we term religion. In summing up the social valuer of religion, we find among the mazes of primitive man's beliefs, certain elements which have proven to be of great benefit to society. Religion has come to man, we believe, from personal investiga-tion, by some more thoughtful individual pondering ove^ the perplexing facts of existence. Out of this has come ideas of Aorality, of sin, conscience, and of "-higher life evolved from this*. Morality, perhaps at the cost of being made a religion, was preserved. In the outward expression of religion, two main types stand out, e.g. (1) The Priest, Medicine Han, with his magic, rites and spells. (2) The Prophet, See*, Thinker, with his moral code, often allied *.?itn totemism and group religion. The priest in primitive society seomed to ί-ield the stronger power. So it is seen in the dramatic story of Elijah and the priests of Baal and of Amos when the latter faces the priest Amagiah amid t)<e juys of the &utigm festival at Bethel. Religion can be seen to be a perpetual struggle be** tween these two types. An emphasis upon ritual on the one hand, and the call by the prophet to transcent priestly authority on the other. e incline to believe thac all the outward man-ifestations of religion revolved arounJ these two types, and is still to be seen. But even at its very darkest, religion aas sort of reed by means of which mankind pulled himself out of the foul-ness of animalism and savagery. It gave the first victory over fear, it tended to the moulding of society, and all social grouping, if not achieved by it, was assisted mightily by primitive religion. - - - o O o - - -- 8 -Chapter 3. Religious and Social Developments, and their Relations, in the Middle Ages. (Europe center of interest. Decadence of feudalism. Renaissance. Fallacies and dangers of Reformation, versus Chrlstiania Res Publican, Rise of Democracy, effects of religious Reformers.) The limits of our survey do not permit more than a passing reference to the large part which religion played in the development of ma^y nations in their early history. This may be found by a study of the history of Egypt, where the priests were responsible for much of the art and science the time. The same would hold true of other nations as well, m China, it was the development of ancestral worship ?ihich reinforced the culture of that people, Ε or can we rightly un-derstand the history of India without reference to Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam. In Israel, where there *nas a steady development of monotheism and a religion which recognised the place of morality, and whose Hesuianic hope, even when it burned lor, kept alive the national identity and aspirations, and whose prophets in eloquest, memorable language insisted that Yahvehto demands were mercy and not sacrifice. Le^is Browne in "This Believing Y'orld^  has summed up the case for early religion, "It (Religion^ vas the salvation of society. Not only did religion make it possible for one man to live by himself, but even more did it make it possible for t^o men to live together . . . Tribes often depended for their solidarity upcn the $old bond of their supposed descent from one ancestor. Failing that, the tie which served to bind was a common ritual. Still more, by, and with, religion, the living together of men ^as .-tade not only possible bat desir-able . . . All that grace a:td coloi 7?hich transmutes mere existence into Life, - in word all Art, - may truly be said to have arisen out of religion, sculpture had its origin in idol making, architecture in temple building, ^oetry in prayer mak-ing, music in psalm singing, drama in legend telling, and dancing in the seasonal worship of the gods^. (1) A close study of comparative religion and history seems to bear out thes& claims. It was a shrewd knowledge of human nature which made the Emperor Augustus in B.C. β! attempt a revival of the old religion in Raoe. ' ish Varro, he believed, "it was the interest 3f the Estates to be deceived in religion'*. (3). on the famous monument of Anctyra %?e learn of this vast attempt to restore faith in the gods, and thus establish more firmly the solidarity of the Roman people* It was an attempt roamed (1) "This Believing (2) quoted by Augustine, *De Civitate Dei" 4:27 -19-to final failure, since there was no reality in it, for the writers and thinkers of that time were frankly unbelievers. (Vide Critias, Varro, Diodorus Siculus, and even Horace). There were many others howeger who did lament the neglected ahrines and the forgotten gods. There is a strangely modern ring about the lament of Tibullpa, who bewailed the youth of his generation no longer offering the sacrifices to the house-hold gods. Certainly at this time, with the decadence of faith in the Lares and Penates, in the Vestal Virgins, with the fires going out in the ancient temples, there was a sense of sadness and fear of the future in the minds of men. Up till this point we have been considering religion from the viewpoint of our firwt definition, "belief in the supernatural", which we feel to be almost wide enough to cover the various manifestations of popular faith until this time. Now the ventre of our interest changes, bith the com-ing of Christianity, it centers chiefly around not ideas nor ritual acts, but a Person. The first Christians pointed to Christ and His Cross as the h*sis for faith. The first three Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Epistle of James, all of them early documents, testify to this. Christianity brought new hope into the world. It, through the message of its Founder, seemed to be a recovery of the sense of reality in religion. He taught in simple parabolic language. His words were listened to eagerly by the masses. We are aware of the tremendous difficulty of getting the "ipsinsima verba" of his message. Yet, after criticism has done its utmost, up to the present, there would still seem to remain a common tradi-tion at least, which seems to possess a unity of thought and tone, establishing not only the historicity of Jesus, but the pecular charm of Bis words. (1) Reduced to the minimum, the essentials of His teach-ing would appear to be (a) Faith in the Fatherhood of God, with all that Implies, (b) Insistence upon the inward, rather than the outward forms of religion, (c) The establishment of the "Kingdom of God*, (d) A call for men to follow His. (2) In His life He was called upon to face a fierce hostility. The religious teachers of his time felt that this innovatating type of religion would destory religion itself. He was in one sense merely the successor of the Hebrew pro-phets, but He was unique and daring in His presentations of the implications of that faith. The sociological interest of Els work lies not in His claims, but in the development of His teaching in the later centuries. bhat is certain is that men 1) Josephus, "The Antiquities of t&e Jews". Bk. 18, ch. 3 2) Lk. 11:2, Ibid. 1$:12-19, Xt. 4$23, ibid. 6:10, Mt. 23-24, Lk. 11&39, Mt. 4:9* also 10:^8, etc. -20-responded to His message, that from a handful of fishermen and peasants this faith has grown until it has gone into almost every corner of the earth; that by the end of the third century the Christian church had a real political significance* By the fourth century it alone seamed to possess enough vitality to survive the deluge of barbarians hordes, which shattered and su&merged the Greco-Roman civilization, uhile upon the ruins of the Roman Empire the Holy Roman Empire arose. YVe have no concern here with the fierce controver-sies which have stirred the ages with the statement of creeds and formulation of ecclesiastical law. -..hat is important for our purpose is to note that during the middle ages, up till the 14th century at least, behind the social life of that time, permeating the entire fabric of European society, stood a proud and aristocratic church, which ruled mankind with an absolutism impossible even to the Roman Empire. The intellectual life of that time was dominated by the Church. The church was the depositary, not only of re-vealed truth, but also the scholarship of Europe. The mon-asteries were havens of refuge for the thinkers, who sought their quietness and peace from the tumults of the world. These monasteries and the cathedral schools became the centers for learning. The Benedictine monastery, one of the earliest, (A.D. 529), had prescribed rules, which were more or less copied by other monasteries. Honks not only reproduced copies of the Scriptures, but also the Latin classics, and histories of the church, and even original works on the monasteries and the times in which they lived. Without the cathedral schools and monasteries, the Latin and Greek manuscripts, and learning, could scarcely have been available at the Renaissance". (1) The Scholasticism of the middle ages, to which we often point with the finger of scorn, at least assisted men to think clear-ly. The resulting discussions brought about a liberation of philosophy from dogmatic theology, and stimulated all intell-ectual activity* Again, the social life of the time was largely domin-ated by the Church. From the time Pope Leo the Great faced Attilla the Hun alone and defenceless, and saved the city of Rome, the spiritual authority of the Pontiff was secure in the minds and affections of the masses, down to the 14th century* So too the Pope (Leo 3rd) showed his power as a king maker when he crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, in the year 800* ^hen the authority of the Emperor declined, and the central power of the monarchy weakened, while feudal-ism arose to take its place, again the p&wer of the church was felt and realized by the masses. Of the two fold types of feudalism, - which was at its height in the latter part of the (1) F.P. Graves, "A Student's History of Education", p. -21-13&& century, - the "precarium" was the most important. The adoption of precarium tenure was largely influenced by the church. (1) The large estates which religious people had given over to the church were jealously coveted by the great men of the time. The church was able to widen its influence, a&d increase its prestige, but judicious use of the system of griping lands to those of whom it wished to make use. It was also by the church that the method of precarium tesare passed over from the Roman to the Prankish peoples. (2) Still more, among the great masses of people, by hav-ing held over them the dread of future punishment, of excomm-unication, and the warth of the church, were directly influenc-ed by religion. At all the great events of life, birth, marriage and death, the Church was supreme, its authority un-questioned, except by the few. The artistic life of the peoples was also moulded by the prevailing religious spirit. The church took over many of the works of art, sculpture, paintings and poetry of the pagan world and ^Christianised" them, e.g. one very remarkable ex-ample of this is to be found in a tall monolithic cross in the church yard of eoaforth in England, where the rudely carved reliefs show the transition of the worship of Odin to that of Christ. (3) Still further, the scientific spirit of the middle ages was dominated by the church. By the study of Plato, and more especially of Aristotle, there was kept alive a certain eagerness for truth, but this was defined and held down by the theologians. Revealed truth and the canons of the church were supreme. Those who d ared to defy were soon removed. The Ptolemaic theory was not only accepted, but defended virorous-ly. The burning at the stake of Giordano Bruno in 1600, by the inquisition, for teaching and applying the Copernican astron-omical thought, is sufficient proof of this. Here then we see a most powerful organization, which dominated the intellectual, social, scientific, moral and spiritual spheres. Tha* is, all the formative ideas of the medieval world were essentially religious. In any conflicts between Church and state, the final arbitrament was with the church. Yet it is evident from the struggles which began to manifest themselves, even from the $th century onwards, there was a restiveness under this domination. %The Neetorian Church broke away from Rome in the 5th Century, the Greek Chureh in the 11th century). Dante, one of the most daring and (1) Ency. Brit. Art. "Feudalism** 2) Ibid. Ency. Brit. Art. Feudalism. 3) Ibid. "Art". original thinkers of the middle ages, had openly challenged the supremacy of the church in "Be Monarchic' * still more, in his Vision, he puts into the lips of St. Peter a fierce in-vective against the Pope, who has made of his place "a sewer of blood and stench". (1) Attempts to rork out a satisfactory statement of the relation between Church and State had been ma made. John of Salisbury, ( I I I 5 - I I 8 O ) , in his "Policraticu3", had doni so about two centuries before Dante. The sum of his teaching was that the true was a "Res publicana Christiania". The foundation of morality lies in the personal communion of the individual with God, and even the prince is merely minister to the spiritual law to which he must conform. For his actual enthronmcnt, however, the prince is dependent upon popular will. His authority is functional only and failure to perform his duties may be punished by the forfeiture of the crown. The theory of the relation of the king, to the state and the church, is rather interesting to us today. It is? in brief, that the cohesion of society depends upon the cohesion of each individual with a spiritual source. Out of this inner association, there arises the visible society, Rith all its broad activities. Of this visible society, there are tw^ main branches, the church, which controls the life of devo-tion and prayer; and the state, Thich is controlled by the irince. But in reality there is only one society. Hence the supremacy of control must lie with that po?;er which is con-cerned with the supreme end of its being, namely the church, through which flows those forces which shape and characterize the whole society. This illuminating conception of society as a "Res Publicana Christian!a", was further developed by Thomas Aquinas, a century later. He emphasized the value of the in-dividual. Society did not exist for itself, but for the good of its members. The seat of authority is God. But under God, the people is sovereign, while the sanctions of democracy reside in the union of the soul of each member with God. This theory of a spiritual commonwealth was never achieved by the middle ages, nor by subsequent ones. It has still remained a hope and a dream to many however. The church of that time was largely responsible for the failure to achieve this commonwealth. Perh^#8 ^ e could indivate three reasons why this ideal -.'-.as never achieved. First, the mission-ary work of the church, though providing an outlet for the dar-ing and heroism of its devotees, was carried on too much in the spirit of mass evangelism. Great numbers of tribes were "Christianised" only in name. One example of this is mentioned by Dr. S. Jones in his book, "The Christ of the Indian 3oad^. A Teutonic tribe refused baptism until they were permitted to dicate their own terms. This was agreed. "hen being t^ptised they held their right arm - the fighting arm - out of the water. This arm could never be Christian. This ?ase is (1) "Paradise" 26:22 -23-typical of many. Indeed, Christendom as a whole has not yet baptised its fighting arm. Second, the failure of the church to be true to the faith she professed. The various Popes and Princes of the church were greedy of temporal and military power. *.:hile the church was theoretically supreme, her authority could be bought and sold. Instead, therefore, of a spiritual common-wealth, there often reaulted a dictatorship of the worst sort. Fihally, the growing power of nationalism in Europe, the growing world trade, the breaking down of a central authority and the final questioning of authority dictated by Rome, brought to its close the medieval period. The invention of gunpowder in the end of the 14th century ended completely the period of feudalism, based upon the fighting power of baron, duke, or petty prince. The time was ready for a Renaissance. John Wycliffe, (1320-1384), by translations of the Bible in the common speech of the people, had set up a standard against the authority of the Pope. John Huss, in Bohemia, and his followers stirred up an insurrection, (1419), which was directed by the thoughts of \Sycliffe, and waged against the supremacy of the pontiff. The growth of city states like Florence, Milan, and Venice, within Italy itself, all tended to weaken the power of Rome, ί-ith the fall of Constantinople in 14% a great number of scholars were driven and manuscripts were scattered throughout Europe. Among scholars of this period we need only mention Erasmus in Central Europe, and Sir Thomas noore in England. A Re?; birth of learn-ing took place. YJhen in 1$17, Luther nailed to the door of Wittenburg Castle Church his famous ninety-five theses, the full tide of rebellion against the rope's authority set in. In the stirring events of RC&rmation and Po^trefor-mation days, it is easy to get lost in the maze of social theories. It is also easy to clutch at a clue, which has been insisted upon by some teachers of history. This has frequent-ly been presented to students in Protestant Divinity Halls especially, that, "the Reformation was an attempt to get back to the pure faith of JesuS". Really, as it appears to the writer, the Reformation was caused by several factory, and carried on by quite divergent motives. The essential cause of the Reformation was discontent. The intellectual people had reason to doubt the validity of the claims of the Papacy. The Princes were discontented with the paying of large sums of money to Rome. The worker was every where striving to better his miserable conditions. All that Luther did was to strike a match to a train of powder. But whereaa the aims of Luther may have been pure and holy, it is certain that in its outcome the Reformation did not justify his aims. His own standards were lowered, as seen in his bitter diatribe against the Peasants, -24-during the Peasants war (1) Instead of a "Res publicana Christiania", we find an insistence upon the authority of the Prince as against the people. It is true, democracy was bom in the straggles against the authority of the Pope, but it was a democracy based upon the secular power of the kind. It was from this theory we also received the fallacy of the "Divine Right* of kings, and the development of the theories of Machiavelli. In other words, the supremacy of the spiritual forces in society, although emphasized by the various reform-ers, perhaps especially by John Knox (l$0$-1^72y, -was still far away. The Protestant faith, which claimed the "Priest-hood of all Believers", direct approach of the soul to God, and the sole test of religious trust to be the Bible, was still in t h r a l l to a purely secular conception of authority. It wqs highly individualistic, and still remains so. It was subservient to an earthly monarch, and this is still one of its marks, even thought the '"monarchy" be vested in a so-call-ed republic* It was born of an economic struggle for Improved conditions, it developed a shrewg, hard, bourgoiae mind. This too is one of its outstanding features. To this side ^e will turn in our next chapter. But in all the struggles of the middle ages, and the subsequent development of protestantism? it was either an attempt to gain religious authority, or to gain religious freedom^ which was the outstanding feature of the social life. In short, it was religion in some form which was the central interest in human life up until the l?th century, and in a l l the social changes it was a vital factor. (1) Martin Luther, Tract "Against the Murderous and Rapacious Hordes of Peasants*' - "Therefore, let all who are able Row them down (the peasants), slaughter and stab them, openly or in secret, and remember that there ie nothing more poisonous, noxious and utterly devilish than a rebel."' See also "The facts about Luther" Rt.Rev. lI.F.^'Hare -28-Chapter 4. Tendencios of Modern Social Life. (Rise of Capitalism* with growth of industry and com-petition. Conceptions of society being regulated by Law. "Social Forces", institutions, ideals. Science and Invention as factors in modern life, '.eakening of belief in supernatural* Need felt for reinforce-ment of modern life. In our last chapter we attempted to trace briefly the changes which took plaoe in the social life of the middle ages. The all powerful Roman Empire, filled with superstition and finally decadent, cave T?ay to the barbarian hordes ^hich awept in fro^ the north. The Christian Church arose, ^ ith strong leadership? stemmed the tide of barbarism, and develop-ed into an hierarchy, whioh dominated the life of the people until the 14th century. "eudalism, based largely t^ on the land tenure system of the time, was bo a great extent assisted and patron-ized by the church. Discontent ^ith the arrogance of the church, the unrest of the toilers, the growing powers of the nations, the increase of economic resources of merchants, re-sulting in leisure and independence, brought about the Refor-mation. This ushered in the conception of the monarch being supreme, his authority being substituted for the authority of the church. Religion xas still ''a belief in the supernatural", but the conception of loyalty to Jesus, as the interpreter of a new social order, and His message of the 'Kingdom'', ^ as very remote. The Protestant Church has merely substituted differ-ent authorities for the older ones. The King to^k the ^ lace of the Pope, and the Bible the place of the Church's Leaching* The next four canturies are filled Tith vast and far reaching movements. ?or the student of 3 ciology, n^e of the most ri^.ificant ^as the rise and development of iapital-ism. ^Protestantism was very closely related to the rise of Capitalism* Indeed, certain penetrating writers like 'ax 7eber hold thnt portestantism was primarily th^  c^&se of Capitalism. Vhile the Protestants were still predominatly and almost fiercely absorbed in the matter of the salvation of the soul, they nevertheless believed that one mode of assuring spiritual salvation lay in industry, thrift, and accumulation ef pecuniary profits*. (1) This conception of the development of capitalism has been worked ^ut by a number cf recent writers, including Dr. Π. Reibuhr of Detroit in reviers, boo^s and sermons. (2) Assuming this to be correct, it aiiapl^ . adds weight to the thesis that religion has been one of the \ital factors in moulding social life. (1) Davis & Barnes, "Introduction to Sociology**, p. 110 (2) R. Neibuhr, "D^es Civilization need Religion?'* -26-But without accepting any such hypo&hesis, and again locking at the actual conditions of the life of the people, we find many varied causea to be at work to account for the rise of capitalism. A brief glance at some of the out-standing events of the times enables u& to draw a few general conclusions. In 14$2 Columbus cane to America froi.. Spain. Six years later Vasco Da Gama. sailed round the Cape, tc India. In 1$19 Magellan stqrted his expedition to sail around the world. In 1$53 Pizarro invaded Peru. In 1$62 John Hawkins went to Africa, and incidentally, opened up the slave trade. In 1557 Sir Francis Drake sailed to South America and returned to England by way of the Cape, bringing rich booty with Mm. In 1583 Sir ' alter Raleigh made his expedition to Virginia, m 1662 the "Mayflower'' reached anfounded New Plymouth* In short, the age was one of tremendous and far reaching discov-ery of new l-;ncis and new markets. It was also the period of great wars, in l6l8 the Thirty Years 'ar began. The jealousy of Cpain and England ca^e to a heae in the war, which resulted in ^ nrland'o supremacy over the seas. Revolt in Ireland nnc civii unr in England produced ^uch misery ther?. The period of s&M wars between Prance and Britain. Although Britain by her stupidity lost the United States in 377%, she was, after the victories of irafalger and ' aterlco, the strongest power in European politics. It ic, however, to still another source we nust finally look to the development of capitalist. Althing, the church h-d frowned upon 'T^ury', the profit system dt.rin^  the mid-le ages M-* grown up with the great banking houses and trading centers; individualiemt and the acquisition cf lurge fortunes con be traced hack to tbvae. The development of efficient money and banking system provided for deferred pay-ments and hence accumulations. ith tl·^  wlceBing if Lhp world horizon, and the opening up of new markets, t^ere ^ as an acceleration of production. The work of the peasant producer was requires to be speeded up. This was achieved by the com-ing of stean power and the subsequent development of th: factory system. -hat ia generally called the 'Industrial dev-olution^ took place. Britain, as one of the greatest world trading powers, took the lead as an T'Rperialistic-capit-^  '.igtic state. Here the firat railway in the world wa-3 oeen. Hero too, Britain,with the fortunate possession of coal ir,<n, with colonies, and ships, anc favorable geographical -it^ati'", was in an excellent position to achieve the intcc^^^^^ii as well as the division, of labor. Her avowed policy '"as 'free trade". That is, o >en conj-etitisi in tho markets 3f th: world. Since she wac in the best position for this method of trading, it worked well. Great factories sprang up, the development of machinery and -27-ship building went on apace. The cities increased in aize and prosperity, but the lot of the worker did not improve in the same ratio. Farms and hill sides were denuded of their inhab-itants by the specious ery of "good s^ages". These country dwellers were crowded into alums and vile etreotc and made victoms of the Dust for profits. The wealth vent to <,hc few, while deterioration of life and character the condition of the many. (1) This result i3 still more apparent in the older lands than in the new, where similar conditions arise more Slowly. Possibly religion h^s had a lurge chare in the growth of these conditions, as bar been suggested. Usually, how however, religious leaders were blind to economic changes. As in Prance in 1848, and in Russia 3n 1917, 3nd China today, we venture to believe that it vac-, the economic situation which was the dominant one. Reputable historians like Lecky affirm that it was the "esleyan revival which seved ^ngland from revela-tion. Uhder the crushing loao of poverty and injustice, the poor people of England turned eagerly to a restatement of re-ligious faith. Just as in the ^^ays o" Cromwell they LaJ re-belled against the infamoua rule of Charles 1st, an^ hoard the glad news that "under God, tbe people a^e sovereign", so in the loth century they followed willingly the ".tan who seemed able to save them and tne faith which was dying* It wai of the l8th century that Green, in his "Short Hi3tory of the English People" says, "There was ope^ revolt against religion and the charches in both extremes of English society. The poor were i;;nor*nt and brutal to a degree impossible n^w to r-ar.lize, tao lioh to an almost utter disbelief in religion^ linked a foulness of life ncN happily almost inconceivable' * Religion at this time was ths obedient handmaid of the *tute, a mere adjunct ίθ politics and imperialism. hr.t .'esley diet in the Ibth century to mr-ke the life of Christ a power in the liven of men. He c-llcd men bo a ^eroonal Saviour and to a ^resent and complete for-giveness." Uuch men are creators, men who rise abovo the current conceptions of the social life of the tiine. and, by their enLhasiasm, are in bitter revolt with the temper of their age. Doubtless Carlyle overdio the "Great Man" theory. Today we are in danger of forgetting the debt we ore to r.<ich men. But a otligent study of history, *i?ith Khe complete abandonment of any theory, provides uc with the fact Lh^t cone do mould their age, as well as being moulded by it ' iat (1) (Professor henry Clay, in a paper on "Distribution of .ealth in England and bales', to the rancheetor stat-istical Society, in February, 192j?t showed that one per cent of tno ad-ilt population ov.-n percent of the capital, while 92.2 percent o.;n less chan each) -28-ireeley achieved ia preserved to us in the institution which bears his nape, and which is claimed to be the most vigorous form of Christianity in the world. Yet the church which he left is merely the institutionalized form of his teaching, and is perhaps his least monument. He revitalized religion by calling attention to the man Jesus Christ. He called men to follow him, and to establish his kingdom on earth. It is true that Lesley did not advance the concep-tion of the spiritual forces in society being superior to kingly authority. He was in some senses a firm conservative and believer in the status quo. He called some 76,000 members away from the state church of his time; which member-ship with adherents in our time is reported to have advanced to 30,000,000 within the British Empire. (1) Yet he still recognized the supremacy of the authority of the prince over matters material. YJhen the 19th century was ushered in, it was to find an England, not only strong and united, with wnst possessions, but an England which was loyal and devoted to the King. The conception of a limited monarchy, with democrat-ic control of the parliament, was steadily growing and seemed best to express the genius of the British race. The church was recognized as part of the official body of the state, no longer dictating terms, but accepting its Bishops by the appointment of parliament, with the King as its national head. He cannot dwell upon the brilliant Victorian age, beyond pointing out a few of its significant tendencies. It was the age of great outstanding personalities, Darwin, Brown-ing, Tennyson, Gladstone, Newman, Carlyle, Ruskin, Disraeli, names famous in Science, Literature, State, and Church. It was the age of quest and discovery, just as the Elizabethan period had been, but the most pressing problem of that age was to re-adjust the relations and ideas of social life to meet the new conditions created by commerce, science and industry. The capitalistic system was now firmly established. Commerce was reaching out into the new world and large fortunes were being accumulated. Ever greater industrial plants were being erected, and more and more of the people being d rawn from agriculture into city life. Scientific discoveries were revolutionizing the thinking of all people. By means of legislation, attempts were made to give education and democracy a freer development. The First Reform Bill of Ι8β2 was the starting point for other more drastic reforms. It was being increasingly realized that methods of controlling society and directing its activities had to be devised. Re-ligion was one of many, instead of, as formerly, in the middle ages, the chief power. Increasing attention was given to the (1) IJ.A. Fitchett, Presley and His Century", p. 2 -29-working out of constitutional Government, and frequent att-empts made to make it more and more representative. Reliance was placed upon the Army and Navy, with the newly formed municipal police force to defend the State. In a ^ord, in-stitutional control of society was being worked out more scientifically than ever before. "Laws" of political theory, of the civil and criminal codes, of scientific discovery, were formulated rapidly. The government was learning how to govern, but at the same time, individualism was being highly developed. Undoubtedly the stimulating effect of scientific knowledge was largely behind the intellectual life of the day. As education became more widely diffused, and books cheaper to obtain, the masses of the people turned away from the con-ventions and customs, the beliefs and commands, of religion. The 19th century was emphatically an age of questioning. Supernatural sanctions were being more and more doubted. There was a waning of "belief in the supernatural", aad a grow-ing faith in the ability of science to create a new heaven and earth. The watchwords of the French Revolution had been "Liberty, Fraternity, Equality". Liberation from priestcraft, and from a nobility void of understanding the social move-ments, had been attained during the closing years of the 18th century. The following centuries see the attempt to attain Equality and Fraternity. To gain Equality was the first step. Democracy was in the ascendency. The belief that "Vox Populi, vox Dei", was firmly accepted. The trend of the times in the opening years of the 20th century was towards the full possession of democracy, by means of science, education and the ballot. The older prevailing ideas, that ^ natural law" was all sufficient and that the policy of "lassez faire* would work out to the good of all, still held. The total effect has been to produce merchant princes, materialism and a superficial knowledge. The day of Fraternity ant of industrial democracy has not yet arrived, m the meantime, the many have surrendered fresh air, sunlight, and the joys of simpler existence for the conditions of slum life, and machine teaders, - the slaves of the machine. The possession of machines means wealth and profits have to be wrested out of the toiler. In 1835 the word Socialism was invented to represent the thought of the little band of re-formers who saw the evil effects of the profit system. The leaders in this movement were largely trained in the Christian Church. They stood firmly against the "enlightened self in-terest" of the day. Ken like Uilliar.; Morris, Robert Owen, Frederick Kaurice and Charles Ki:.gsley arose in th@. name of humanity to protest against the conditions of life among the poor. But they were only voices in the wilderness of smug -30-complaceney which aceepte^ all an ordered by a Beneficient Providence er as thf ntcore of "natural It ia ' such a to:*. 1 s^ orl'i we have ^omc* A society largely dc dnat^v. <y t. : Riine, - commerce, by the profit system, by a-.-i ^  * "Towin^ oorporations. It is a society in which me ^i^nr * ^ f are only partial ly secured. Yet a society wne^v irJrvi^^ali^m is still supreme. Where institutional Christianity has frequently obscuref the insistence of the l<lli upon the value of human life an< brotherhood an-* reed to set up on earth a **ki.ngdoL. of heaven". / "Tr^evaJ.uati . <jf values* to use Eeitachga phrtse, is rarely needed, where the recognition of spiritual valies r.uet -ind ^  pl3oe . wherein Fraternity shall be more than a name. - - 0 O 0 - - -UBC Scanned by UBC Library -31-Chapter 5. Religion as a Factor in Industrial Life (gome conditions in factory life of today, statistics. Conflicts between labor and capital. Readjustments. Socialism. Cultural conceptions of labor. Can we ever make labor cultural? Religious teaching on standards of service. Permeation of such teachings. Applications of Golden Rule. Results.) We have noted the transition from the stage of hand-craft to the machine age. Also the acceptance of the profit system, and some of its evils. Not that we are to assume that Capitalism has not rendered effective service. Mass produc-tion has made possible a higher standard of material comfort. Heavy burdens have been lifted from human labor. Eore leisure time has been accorded the toiler. The urge of personal gain has developed initiative in many individuals. The need for wider markets has caused industrial leaders to scour the world with a daring and endurance possibly greater than ever before. The "proletarian" in western Europe and America is better educated than was the feudal gentleman. YJith the necessity for improved means of transportation, travel for every one has cheapened and increased in range. Famine, disease and pestilence have been curbed, with the increasing medical skill and knowledge. The world has been brought closer together by means of the new inventions, the telegraph, radio, automobile and aeroplane. Knowledge of other lands has tremendously increased by the use of the Press, in newspapers, magazines, books and by the wide use of motion pictures. These advances are so plain to all that we are liable to forget about them in striving to assess the liabilities which the capitalistic system has imposed upon society. To offset these advances we have to note (a) the con-centration of the means of controlling society; (b) the inequal-ity of privilege; (c) the almost continuous industrial strife; dl the fact of waste; (e) the dehumanizing of the individual; f) the growth of materialism, or the emphasis upon things, rather than persons. It is impossible here to discuss all these points adequately, nor ia it deemed necesaary. Khen we speak of the concentration of means of controlling society, we refer to the concentration of wealth. It is simple for the average person to assume that all the larger corporations are working towards a diffusion of ownership. More and more the larger corporations are selling shares to the small investor. This policy has found many.advocates, and in fact it does work well, by making the toiler feel a responsibility ih production. But as long as the mass of shareholders have little or nothing to do with the actual control of the corporation, it must be that this is concentrated into the hands of a few men. The case of one of the largest corporations in the united States -32-illustrates this:- The United states iteel Corporation, in which actual control rests in the hands of fewer than one-tenth of one percent of the total number of 1$8,940 owners.(1) A statement of the late Judge Gary, President of this corpora-tion, will confirm this, "since the United States steel Corpor-ation commenced business on April 1st, 1901, there have been held, including the present one (in 1930), nineteen regular and also ten special meetings of stockholders. I have had the honor of presiding at every one, and of voting the major part of all the outstanding capital stock*. (2) Further, the state-ment of Professor W.2. Ripley of Harvard is additional evidence, "It is elemental - requiring no proof - that the larger the number of the shareholders, the more easily may a small block of minority shares exercise sway over all the rest*. (3) Then we recall that the power of such wealthy dir-ectors is tremendously increased by the fact that they are also directors in many other concerns. It was found, for in-stance, that the directors of the Steel Corporation have a voice in, or act as executive officers for, railroad companies with a total capitalization of $10,365,071,833. (4) This ia only a glimpse of what is taking place in all industrial coun-tries. Hence it would appear that the sociological problem of "control* is deeply enmeshed within the financial and economic conditions of any land, since these largely control the lives of the people. Passing over meanwhile the fact of waste and the matter of industrial strife, we come to the heart of the mat-ter in the dehumanizing of the individual. The factory system, with its standardization, its speeding up of produc-tion, its multitude of machines taking the place of human toil, the employment of women and children, the deadening in-fluence of uninteresting work, represent the conditions of modern life better than anything else. It was around the factory the great cities arose. It is still to the factory the toiler looks for employment. Around the factories the masses of the people live and day by day they perform tasks which require little or no skill, and which tend to dull in-telligence and retard culture. "Thousands of workers perform the same movements countless times a day. An observer tells of a woman whose task is to take a half formed hinge and place it on the bending machine fifty times a minute, or 30,000 times a day; another worker cuts out tin can tops by pressing a foot-lever forty times a minute, while a garment worker watches twelve jumping needles of a power machine" (5) "l.hat I want to emphasize is (1) "Financial Chronicle", April 1st, 1925, p. 1717 (2) Annual Report, 1920. (3) "Atlantic Monthly", January, 1926, p. 94 - 108 }4) Congress Report No. 112? - p. 210 (5) "Christianity and Economic Problems' p. $8 -33-the intolerable dullness, the dreariness, the soul destroying monotony of this degrading attendance upon a maohine . * . it is not work in any proper sense, it is mere labor* And in occupations such as this are the lives of our workmen mis-spent. And this labor is the lot of the greater part of the working class. The machine should have been the drudge of man, in actual fact, man has become the drudge of the machine" (1) "So far as the great majority of the workers are con-c erned, modern industry presents this phenomenon - the dull-ing of the mind - on a scale unequalled in extent, and to a degree unequalled in intensity, by anything on record in history. Our tenders of machines are starved in soul; certain am I that none but an imbecile could find much delight in shar-ing the daily toil of our millworkers, so mechanized has it be-come*. (2) Yet the ordering of such standards of employment is in comparatively few hands. Nor do we need to labor the point of the concentra-tion of industry and the enormous growth of the factory system. Tables of statistics are presented by many books on economics showing this development, some of the most useful tables are to be seen in the "^aste of Capitalism", a book produced by the British Labor Party and by the Departments of Labor of many lands. But what we are chiefly concerned with here is the unrealized cost in human life of the modern factory system. A study recently completed by the United states Deparment of Labor, which covered selected industries in 26 states, reports that more than one-third of all the employed workers suffered some accident within one year, ^If the accidents happening in these industries are typical for all industry, not less than 3,000,000 wage earners were hurt last year in the United states within the course of duty, while nearly 400,000 suffered tem-porary disability, 4,100 premanent disability, and 3,000 were killed. This study does not include railroads or mines, and the toll in coal mines alone for last October was 177 mortal injuries, - working in a modern American factory is still about as dangerous as going to war, - notwithstanding the increase of safety devices, speeding up processes have been responsible for an increase in the accident rate". (3) Another feature of factory life which concerns us here is the contrast between the prosperity of the country and the wages paid to the worker. It has been found out that the average wage paid to the American wage earner is between p2$.00 and $30.00 per week. (4) In Canada, according to Mr. J.8. Wood-sworth in a recent speech in reply to the Governor-General's (1) "Social Decay & Regeneration p. 1?6 - 286 f2) "The Iron Man in Industry", p. 34 - 108 (3) 'Christian Gentry", February 23, 1928 (4) ":ages & prosperity", art in "Labor Age", by A. Rochester (January, 1928) -34-apeech, the average wage is only $20.03 per week. Yet accord-ing to the latest statistics available in the Canada Year Book, the capital invested in manufactures amounts to $3*538*269,460. while the net value of the products was $1,256,643,901. The percentage of wages paid, to the value added by the manufacture is only 33*4 percent. That is, the worker receives only one-third of what his labor, plus the machine, produces? and to the owner of the machine goes the remaining two-thirds. Hence we expect to see prosperity among the manufacturers, and dis-content among the workers. (1) In addition to this, there is constant fear among the factory ^hands' of unemployment. In Britain it has been stated that almost one million are con-tinuously out of employment. In almost all other lands it is difficult to secure accurate measurements of unemployment. The system of government unemployment insurance there makes the calculation more accurate. The National Bureau of economic Research of the United States uses the amount of employment in-stead. They can show the amount of employment in the various trades, e.g. In the period from 1920-1922 they show a maximum cyclical desline in all industries studied of 14%. Specific-ally, ranging from 3% in commerce to 43% in the metal indust-ries. (2) A chart showing the fluctuations of unemployment in Great Britain in the period from l8$0 to 1920, prepared by 6.H.D. Cole, shows the periodicity of "*booms" and strikes in industry. In this chart it can be seen that unemployment ranged from 4% in 18^0 to almost 1 % in 1922. (3) These three things then face us, as we look at the situation in industry today. The dulling of the mind of the worker. The wage of the average worker still insufficient to maintain a decent level of living, and the continuous fear of unemployment. It is foolish to berate the coming of the machine age. No philosophy nor argument can prevent the in-creasing use of machinery. But protests loud enough to be heard are coming from the .orkers, and from the intelligent people in every land against ths increasing material waste in human life, anu the consequent lowering of society's standards of living. The pretests of the worker have taken tangible form in Trade unions, Socialise and Communism. Socialism, in the words of Rausey McDonald, is an attempt to ^reconcile the individual to society''. Its rise as a seientific study dates back to Karl Karx and became articul-ate with the publication of the "CoMiunist Manifesto" in 1848. Its principles can be summed up as (a) The materialistic con-ception of history, (b) The class struggle theory, (c) The surplus value theory. In the last analysis, Socialism,through (1) House of Commons Debates, Jan. 31, 1928. (2) Social Pathology, p. 299. (3; Ibid, p. 298a. -35-its class struggle, and its insistence on human rights as against tho rights of property, is an attempt to reintroduce the \<orth of the individual. fheenergenoe of this principle can ae traced in all the long drawn out struggles between labor and capital. It is therefore at bottom a fresh inter-pretation of tho value which Jesus placed upon man. Hot that Socialism has ever oeen distinctly Christian. Bather the reverse, if we ta^e the ..ord3 of some of its leaders. Bat particularly in tne land which Karl Karx found a home for many years - Britain, can we trace the influence of the Church upon the thoughts of many of the outstanding labor leaders. Practically all the first workers in the sphere of organized labor were drawn from the churches, John Burns, Keir Hardie, Philip Snowdon, Tom Richardson, Ramsay McDonald. They were nurtured in the ideals of personality taught by the churches of that land. Even today the far reaching impulses of the church's teaching can be felt in the type of leaders among organized labor in the British House of jarliament. in short, in the land where industrialism Look its rise, religion was found to be a po&ent influence. ''The Socialist f^ndg in the Gospels marvellous support fur his economic proposals - -much of its anti-Christian literature is uerely an attack upon the churchos of professed christians. Socialism, so far from being anti-Christian, is as a matter of fact, inspired by the ethics of Christ's teaching - - the Socialistic state is the only political form through which the f.ermon cn the hount can find expression'*. (1) This is the opinion of Lhe man who was Premier of Britain's first Labor Parliament, and whose person-ality is still η dominant one in the policies of bin nrty. It has been his intelligent knowledge of foreign and domestic affairs whiuh has largely guided the destinies of organized labor in Britain, '.hatever the future may hold for ihis party, its grasp of the principles of religious truth, ana the power which this aspect 3f religious trutn - namely, the value of personality, has Yeen to labor, is clear to every student of recent history in Bri&ain. What society has to face at the present time is the attempt to induce the materialisation of all life. By this we mean 'he emphasis upon things. 'Things are in the sndi-'le and ride men=', is more true today than before. In tha'^oqaisltive Society, R.H. Tawney has presented a vigorous indictment of this tendency. "The burden oi our civilization is n^t s.srely, as na.ty suppose, Lhat the product cf industry is ill distribut-ed, of its conduct tyrannical, or its operation interrupted by embittered disagreements; it is industry itself which has come to hold a position of exclusive predominance auong huran in* tere&ts, which no sin&le intereaL, anu lea&" of all fhe (1) '"Sociali^ r:'", Ransey KcDonald, (last chapter) -36-provision of the material means of existence, is fit to occupy. Like a hypochondraic who is so absorbed in the process of his own digestion that he goes to his grave before he has begun to live, industrialized communities neglect the very objects for \.hich it is worth while to acquire riches, in their feverish preoccupation with the means by which riches can be acquired.'* (p. 184) Against this tendency stands the religion of Jesus. He ever stood near to human need. He set a definite value up-on the soul of man. He insisted that man was better than a sheep. He asserted that God the Father loved men. This is what is meant surely when we use the worn out phrase "Spirit-ual Values"^ and set it against the phrase "material values*'. John Wesley met the deadening scepticism of the l8th century with a spiritual quickening. Today we have in some way to arrive at the spiritual quickening of industry, ^e have a Frankenstein monster in our modern society, and it can be slain only by a definite attack made by the people who believe in the supremacy of the spirit. Not merely an assertion that man is better than a machine, but incessant attempts to relieve man from the humiliation of being a machine tender. Religion can offer some very definite things to assist this process. From Jesus it nay learn that every man is a brother. This generates a genuine regard for human personal-ity, Frequently this side of religions truth has been under-stated or neglected. It must now be stressed. Religion can sea, as we all can Bee, that to pull a lever for twelve hours a day stifles any creative activity. Yet to introcuce any cultural value in many of the tasks performed in factories seems at first sight impossible. But in the opinion of many of our outstanding thinkers of today, this must be accomplished if society is to survive. This is the statement of Professor Tf'elman of Chicago University in his lectures on "Christian Isthics'*. He would suggest that there be a redaction in the hours of the me: mho have to perform merely mechanical tasks, and opportunity given them to stady other means of making a livelihood. Along ^ith this must go additional provision for recreation and a determined attempt made by society to provide cultural employment for all men. These Lodern attempts to remedy the evjls introduced by the machine go back very defin-itely to the religious position of Jesus^ It is to this valuation of human life also springs the attempt tc make employment regular. There is no cut and dried solution for unemployment, ^e have discovered no specific i-ith vjhich to overcome the periodic overproduction and subsequent closing of the plants. During the last great coal strike in the United States the miners ere asking for a five Ray week and a six hour day. To many people this was a clear indication that the miners did not want to work at all. -37-The simple fact was that they asked for it, since they wanted very much to work. .According to Secretary of Labor in the United States, (Hon. Mr. Davis), if all the soft coal miners worked for a year of 140 days, they could produce all the coal the united States and Canada could consume in a calendar year. Since there are actually 308 working days in the year, it of necessity leaves more than half a working year of unemployment for the miners. Overproduction on the one hand or underconsum-ption on the other, account for the spectre of unemployment which haunts the life of so many people. Remedies have been suggested. The Canadian system of labor exchanges, sponsored by the Civernac^&j has improved the lot of njany workers. Individual plants have lately been cutting down the period of unemployment by reducing the hours and days of -;ork. The Redfield Plant in Pittsburgh hac operat-ed steadily without shutting down or discharging a workman, in dull times, for over twenty years ay this aethod. The plan of manufacturers of .indo"/ glass in operating their factories alternately, thin with the consent of the joint board of employees and employers, has Improved the lot of the workers in this industry^ Then we have been witnessing a development in what is nov termed ^Unemployment insurance" in Great Britain. There is much misunderstanding of this systen in this country. It is frequently dis^is^ed as the ^dole" system, and as charity offered to the unemployed* But as a matter of fact, Govern-ment, Employer ano Employee ail contribute to the fund- It in a plain misreading of the situation in Britain to imagine that this type of help is same form of charity. Out of a fairly accurate knowledge of what unemployment means in the larger industrial centers, and from .hat he knows of the dis-location caused by post war conditions in the old land, the writer is inclined to believe that this form of insurance is one of the moss humane and Christian bits of legislation ever massed by any Governmentt In the central thought of Jesus was the "Kingdom of God*. It is ocing gradually brought back from its nebulous otheruorldness to mean the establishment of righteous living and justice for all men on earth. -hen men become seized with t.' in thought, it liberates ne*.? conceptions of d.ut and service within then* He cane as one '-'ho served. Today the "service* idea is perhaps che nost prjminent in business circles, and i" gradually setting itself in opposition t; the purely money notive. fhe multitudes of "Service Clubs", whose mrttoea are -'Service above self" and ''Service before profit'**, are, per*"",pa unconsciously, inspired by the Chris tain uotive. Then the possibility of actually applying the "Golden Rule^ in industry fas deemec impossible until Eash, the tallir, found it **.o be a ^or^able plan. Hi- groat shopc are now demons trat--38-ing that to treat others as we would be treated is within the realm of possibility, even in industry. The great plants of Cadbury, and Lever, in England have also proved its worth. Today the larger industrial concerns are accepting the poss-ibility of treating their employees more in accordance with the Golden Rule. V.e may cynically assert that this is merely a reflex act of selfishness. But at least it is working and in this way the religious ideal of the "Kingdom of God* is being transmuted into society. With an almost wearisome iteration, political leaders have been insisting that before the orlc! can be saved socially it must be redeemed spiritually* This was the message of President *ilson, of Harding, and no?; of c^olidge. It has \,oen th^ thought of Lloyd George and now of rrenier Baldwin. There ie much indefiniteneca about their solutions, however. Doubtless what ic in the nind of most intelligent people t^day i- the urgent need for κοκκ. sort of spiritual synthesis whiuh will gather no the latent powers in religion and transmute the tragedies of our nodcrr life into happier anJ healthier living. Ve suggest that this will only be accomplished when we accept thg principles of Jesus, when we take Him seriously, and are courageous enough to adapt these principles of the worth of human life to our highly industri-alised society. He laid down the ennobling conception of human life that it ac of infinite lalue* '*'e of today must sec to it that ^e as strongly insist that man is better and more valuable than r machine. The middle ages had their idea of a "Res Christiana Publica", the belief in a supra mundane state, which was superior to the kings of the earth. This was dropped in favour of the monarchy. By the evolution of soeiety, this was dropped in favour of the uodem "Deus ex naohina" - which was the machine itself. This has -.-roved to be a .roloch^  which is degrading personality. There is a strong feeling taat this can no longer be tolerated. Religion has cone to enph^siae the .^ orth of personality, and is now engaged in working out a spiritual synthesis to restore man to his rightful place in life. To this end religion has entered into controversy 'ith industrialism. Many of otn' fo^enost preacnors are in a position to criticize the modern economic situation. In an article published by Dr. lhailer Mathews of Chicajo, in the "Divinity Jtudent^ a long list of outstanding books and authors is given to show the new trend of thinking in the church. It iu called "Social Christianity in America*. Be-ginning "ith ankington Gladden ^nd Josiah Jtrong, in their writings which deal with industrial questions, he traces up this development. The earlier writers were content to utter protests, the later men are seeking for methods of dealing -39-with concrete economic situations. This has been done by more accurate statistics, as found by the Inter-church lorla Movement, and similar bodies. Then, as the definite factB were disclosed, they have been aealing with concrete cases. The most famous of tho&t? was th3 investigation of the steel industry, which, according to S^ailer Mathews, had a profound influence 'ipon the entire industry, since these studies more and more of rhe church bodies have been putting themselves in faveur of economic reforms, and a real Christian treatment of labour. The commission of Social Service of the Federal Council of Churches has rendered fine service in developing an important type of research into the causes of industrial disputes. Their investigations ana the publication of their findings have aroused decided oppositioh in bodies like the Pittsburgh Manufacturers' Association, and similar organizations of capital. The influence of this spirit of research and inquiry has been steady, and shews a decided movement towards the ideals set forth in various resolutions on industrial relations framed by different religious bodies. Today we have men like Charles steztle, Bishop McDowell,Salem Bland, Sherwood Eddy and Hirby Page, who, following the lead given by the late baiter Rauchenbusch, are frankly challenging muc& of what modern society is calmly accepting as inevitable. These men just mentioned are not eontent with drawing up resolutions, altho there is also a place for this. They are teaching and preaching co-operation instead of competition; instead of production for profit, they urge production for use. They desire to see emphasized by the Church the teaching of Jesus on the sacredness of human life. The Church as a whole still lags behind, but there are pioneers within,whose leadership is valued and whose message is slowly being made known. The ^ interference* cf the British Churches during the last coal strike in Britain is suggestive of this new attitude. Meanwhile, the education of the theological student is not considered complete today without a knowledge of sociology. This was not the case a few years ago. But too often the general public kno^s only of the message of the sensationalist preacher, or of the obscurantists, who would have the church revert to medievalism, and it is upon the knowledge of such types, rather than the real church leaders, that much of the sneering criticism of religion has arisen. One of the most frequent forme cf criticism upon the church is that the great assemblies paaB harmless resulutions, which are never acted upon. Unfortunately, many bodies, other than the church, have been known to do the sane. But the mind of the modern church can be seen in them at least. One nf the most significant \,as a resolution passed oy a Canadian church a few years ago., which indicates hjo ^enrine the interest in social legislation is at the present time. This body contends Ί -40-the "Whitley Reports on Industry", which was the British solu-tion for many of our problems, and which would vest the govern-ment of every industry in a joint board of employees and em-ployers. It went still further. It urged minister and people to study such Important documents as "The Report on Industrial Relations*, "The Interallied Labor Party's Memorandum on bar .Aims", and the British Labor Party's programme for the new social order. This church did so since it believed that "the reconstruction of society can be carried out only by men quickened and inspired by the Spirit of Chriet, and for that Bivine Spirit working in the hearts of men nothing that is good can be too hard or too high". (1) (1) Alberta Conference of Methodist Church, 1920 UBC Scanned by UBC Library -41-Chapter 6. Significant Social Problems and the Religious Solutions. (Disorganization of modern home; movements to account for this. Criticism of certain social habits, position of religion, solution offered by religion, the germ of religion. Case, study, results.) In the last chapter we noted how the rise of industry had brought to society vast upheavals in the organization and production of labor. It went much further, howeger. By the employment of women and children in the factories, it also brought about a disorganization in the home. To a close observer of human society, this feature of modern society is more significant than all the others. For the home is the most fundamental "face to face" group in the \.orld. It is al-so the transmitter of the biologic heritage, the conserver of the life of the species. Here also are learned the rudiments of all later culture transmitting the traditions and the "folkways". Hence from the home there comes the first socializing influences upon the life of the individual. It is from the home there comes the strongest devotions and loyalties, for here are learned the lessons of patriotism and religion, the motivations which, if not the chiefest, at least play a large part in determining the life of the individual, e.g. In a religious home, religion would be the determining factor, next, love of parents, than, of home, and, lastly, of country* It is granted by most sociologists that the home is our most basic institution, thus the beginning, and the dis-ruption of home life are worthy of our most careful study. Not that we are assuming the present form of family life to be the terminus ad quern of human development. For like all other social institutions, it must make adjustments to the conditions of modern sooietyl Much of the pessimism regarding home life today is based on the conception of the family being a static institution. Yet what we have learned of religion, ana of government, of industry, and organization, seems to suggest that internal change and adjustment are continually required if any institution is to accomplish its social ends. Our difficulty does not lie in the fact of change, rather does it come from the too rapid changes caused by the developments of inventions, the weakening of supernatural sanctions, and desires to find aut a new ethic, which will bring about the "enhancement of personality". It is also granted by most people that we are witness-ing a disorganization of the old family life. re need not dis-cuss this point very much, although ^ e no longer regard the in-creasing divorce rate as in itself an evil, but rather the symptom of a deeper trouble. We have to bear it in mind, in -42-1922 the divorce rate for the United States had increased un-til there was one divorce for every seven and a half marriages. (1) At the present time in Oregon there is one divorce for every 2.6 marriages, while in Nevada there are more divorces than there are marriages. (2) 'hat is of interest for our purpose is to note the chief causes for divorce. These are given as adultery* desertion, cruelty, drunkeness and neglect to provide. (3) 93% are on these grounds, while over 60% are for adultery and desertion. It must be admitted of course that the "stated causes" are not always the real causes. Yet these are the facts with which we have to deal. To probe into motives is always difficult, if not an impossible task. One fact stands out, that the chief cause of marital unhappiness seems to be the lowering of moral standards. In arriving at this viewpoint the writer has availed himself of the information gathered from a great number of authors. He has read both sides of the story and has studied closely the problems which have presented themselves in the work of the minstry. The message of Ellen Key, of Bertrand Russell, of Havelock Ellis, on the need of a "new morality'*, have not altered this position. Nor yet the more popular writings of Judge Ben Lindsay, with his advocacy of "Companion-ate carriage". In referring to this term it should be noted that Lindsay did not coin this expression. It was first used by Dr. M.K. Knight in an article in the Journal of Social Hygiene for Hay, 1924. Dr. Knight in this article defines companionate marriage as, "the state of lawful wedlock entered into solely for companionship, and not for contributing child-ren to society". Amid a wide diversity of opinions expressed by the outstanding writers upon this theme there seems to be at least one thought in common. This is, that what is needed to stabilise modern home life is a higher, inner voluntary contml. In other words, that the outward sanctions and prohibitions must be reinforced by more spiritual conceptions. The writer conceives this to be found in an awakened sense of the wor&h of personality, and its basis to lie in mystic communion with God, a realization of His abiding presence, made more explicit by fellowship with Jesus Christ. .Any examination of the causes which lie at the root of the disor animation of home life touay, reveals the fact that there are two main reason at least. F irst, the economic one stands out. The present status of the worker in any of our larger cities does not lend i&elf to permanence of the marriage tie. Frequent unemployment, with the need to move about in search of work, the lo./ rate of wages, does not (1) queen & Mann, '"Social pathology', p. $8 (2) Davis-Barbes, p. 723 (3) Ibid. P* 59 -43-enable him to establish an inviting home. Again the monotony of much of the <ork, induces him to seek excitement in drink and other questionable m^a^s of spentang his spare tine. Th^ poor man's divorce is ^aid to be desertion. (1) This is often brought about by the rea jns stated, and in addition, th^ burden of trying to pro/ide fcr the children - and one of the luxuries of today is to have children. In the second plaoe, the modern methods of living are causing a breakdown in the home. The rich have several homes and many ears. Ihere is r multiplicity of social events, dances, parties, clubs, lodges, motion pictures, and fast travelling automobiles to carry one to ai*d fro. Enormous superstructures have been built up around our material possessions and speeding up is the aim of Jhe age. Anything which is old is regarded with suspicion. The ^ eit Geist is impatient with the traditional. A revolution in mcrals has come with the increasing freidun of woman. Her voice is no longer heard only within the home, but in the political comm-ercial and industrial world. Her influence has made itself felt in vigorous protests against the stigma of being con-sidered in any way inferior. She has revolted from being the plaything of man. 3he now demands to be considered his equal. 3he does not want ίο be "siven in marriage*, and her lot to be only the bearing end rearing ef children. There have been great gains from the emancipation of woman. Her rebellion against the dottle standard of morals has caused a closer examination ef the whole position of conventional morality. Bat if the gains have been great, we must also look at what we have lost when we dropped the sacramental conception of carriage. In our haste to aokieve freedom we nave forced rp :aary fresh problem*. \.ith the increasing complexity of life, we ha%3 found it easier to turn to the outward and tangible things of life. The vast concerns which have been built up arouad industry, and commerce, and luxuries, would appear to male this statement true. It is also the caee in religion, le havj found it possible to erect great and stately cathedrals and churchec, out it na y be doubted if we have made the same progress in the things of the spirit. The poet, philosopher, teacher, and preaoner have een relegated to places of com-parative insignificance. The geins in the spiritual realm nave r^t oeen commensurate with those in material things. Tiis is difficult to measure, 3f couise, ts is all progress, since re I^ ave no ace irate criteria, nor standards of ccmparison. But at least \.e that trday we have no riidiat, no ylato, no St. "aul, ^herea- we do have rigley o ildings and millionarea-. There is llt,le opporGuilty lor ^ ecitatior, for isolation, and these ce^m to the writer to Le the sine qua non of prodr^ing the spiriturl genius. The only outstanti*.^  r^e ^ e possess in bhese days - the MaKtma Chendi, frankly scjr s r^ch f^ ^ hat re (1) queen & Mann, p. 79 -44-term civilization, since this is largely conceived in mater-ialistic terms* Car r cila habits, our fads, crazes and fashions, show us some indication of attempted substitutes for this need of religious reinforcement* Fads, seen in the form of speech, in cecreations, and clothing, present temporary relief from the regimentation of society, their function being to call attention to the individual, and permit them, for the time being at least, to find relief from being mere numbers. So too the fashions of the hour, which are more widespread than fads, give the feeling of "good form*, raising one above the masses, and stimulate self consciousness, it is the fashion to smoke, and hence huge tobacco trusts are built up, and enormous propaganda carried on by advertising, to induce every-one to indulge in this least harmful form of drug addiction, -and is doubtless an attempt to escape from the tension of modern life. Crazes, which are simply itensified forms of fads and fashions, are still nore highly neurotic in character, seen in incessant dancing, in bridge parties, booms in oil and real estate, in esotsric cults and sensational preaching, are indicative of the human reactions to modem life. The definite lowering of moral standards is seen in many of the more widespread social habits of today. It is not contended that the world is getting worse than it was, - since we have no accurate statistics for the middle ages, it is quite impossible to prove that we are getting worse. But the fact of certain moral dangers has to be faced. In an interest-ing s&udy presented by F.L. Hoffman, and published by the Prudential insurance Company of America, it is shown that the people of the united States are the most lawless of the people of the earth. He shows there that while thirteen of the civilized nations of the world have an average murder rate of about 1.02 per thousand, the United States as a whole has 7*2 per thousand. In 1921 the number of murders in Chicago was 352, in 1923, 389, and in 1924, 509, while in the same year there were 11,000 murders in this typical land of modern civil-isation. 'Tjday the greatest menace in America is crime. I am not an alarmist when I say boldly that crime in this country is overwhelming the people and confounding the police". (1) It is a fairly accurate criterion of the state of civil-ization to note what value it places upon human life. Judged by this standard, we have to admit that our civilization is in sore need of some drastic improvement. Again we have to look at the waste in human energy and the misdirection of money by the increasing use of drags. (1) "Current History Magazine* p. 1-8 October, 1925. -45-Frederic Α. ' allis, Commissioner of Correction, of New York, made the startling statement in the Current History Magazine for February, 1925, that "the united states is the largest user of drags of any nation in the world". He goes on to show that there were, at the time of writing, more than one million drug addicts in that country, while some estimates go as high as four million. The average consumption of opium per capita is thirty-six grains per annum, or almost four times as much as the combined use of European countries. Then we recall that nearly sixty percent of the inmates of penal and correctional institutions in New York City are users or sellers of druge, we see the close connection between drags and crime. In concluding his article, Mr. Wallis goes on to state that "the greatest menace confronting civilization is drug addiction". The weakening of the ties in the marriage relation-ship has also increased the amount of sexual immorality. In a survey recently made in Chicago, it was found that in one rooming house block there were 38% of the people living to-gether as married, while of this number 60% sere actually un-married. Judge Ben Lindsay alleges that there are $0,000 girls living with men in New York who are not their legal, husbands. Dr. E.B. ^ oolston, in a report for the Bureau of Social Hygiene, says, *Ve arrive at the conservative figure of 200,000 women in the regular army of vice*, in the United States. As a result of group discussions, and investigations carried on by the writer last summer in Chicago, it was found in many places the "exchange* of husbands and wives was not thought to be of any particular consequence. It was practiced by many people "just to get a kick out of life", and the use of contraceptives was taken as a matter of course. It is further to be noted that commercialized amusements are the source of grave perils in the moral life of today. Moving pictures, theatres, race tracks, dance halls, and night clubs, are all determining factors. These are in-fluencing the masses of the people to an extent not even approached by our schools and educational centers, nor the combined efforts of our churches anu other ethical institu-tions. The baneful influence of lewd and suggestive magazines, of yellow journalism, has also to be borne in mind. One of tla greatest producers of sex literature today - Mr. Bernard HcFadden, received $8,866,800. gross from his various publica-tions in 1924. (1) Nor nave we touched upon the liquor menace, perhaps it can be sufficiently emphasized by the "Survey of the Britisi Columbia school System", where Dr. beir points out that for thj fiscal /ear 192β-24, this province spent $11,663,794.64 in liquor, while it spent for all educational purposes, in the (1) "Atlantic Monthly", March, 1926, page 383-389 -46 same period, $8,196,696.74. This situation is summarized, "no comment is necessary". (1) The only comment which one might make is to* quote from an editorial writer in the English ^Manchester Guardian"? "The nation which spends more on father's drink than on the children's education, may have had a past, but it has no future*. These dangers which confront our modern society in-dicate a serious situation, resulting from moral decay. ' e have failed to provide for the moral and religious education of the growing generations, and we are now paying the penalty. Statistics have been gathered by Professor Walter S. Athearn to show our neglect in this vital matter. "There are in the United States over $8,000,000 people, nominally Protestants, who are not identified in any way icith any church. There are over 27,000,000 children and youth, who are not enrolled in any Sunday School, and who receive no formal or systematic religious instruction. There are 8,000,000 Protestant Ameri-can children, under ten years of age, who are growing ap in non-church homes. There are 8,676,000 Roman Catholic child-ren and youth under twenty-five years of age - - of this number 78.4 percent are not in any religious school. Taking the country as a whole, seven out of ten children and young people are not being touched in any way by the religious programme of the Church". (2) Yet that the men who have most to do with criminals and the juvenine courts know the value of religious training is attested again and again. Dr. Ben Reitman, head of the "Hobo* College, in a series of lectures delivered last summer in Chicago, stated that the only method known to be successful in dealing with criminals was the way of understand-ing love, and religion could do this most effectively. Judge Lewis Fawceet, of the Supreme Court of New York State, has declared, "That in 18 years on the bench, in which time over 4,000 boys under twenty-five years were convicted before me, only three ^ 4re members of a Sunday School . . . I regard the Sunday Schools, (including those of all faiths), as the only effective means of stemming the rising tide of vice and crime among our youth*, society carries the heavy burden of crim-inality chiefly because of the lack of religious training of the youth.^ Similar to this is the t estimony of Judge Frank Young, **It is my positive conviction that Sunday school in-struction is the greatest deterrent to crime of which I have any knowledge". Judge,C.T. Crain, also of New York Supreme Court, adcuces the same fact, while admitting that much of the Sunday School instruction is of poor quality, charges the public schools with lack of identifying destiny with character, which is done in the Sunday Schools, out of which, "go forth * (1) B.C. School Survey, page 126 (2) "Character Building in a Democracy", U.S. Athearn,p.24-26* -47" youth with clear eye and high purpose into the currents of life, ranging itself on the side of right and developing into high minded men and women". (1) We have seen that experts in the different lines of study suggest (a) that crime is the greatest menace facing civilization, (b) That drug addiction is the greatest menace facing civilization, (c) That more than half the population of the United States have no connection with any religious in-stitutions. (d) That religious instruction is a deterrent of crime. As to the last fact, we might adduce the evidence of one of our leading sociologists, "It is a serious question whether mankind can ever find a substitute for religion thich will so effectively furnish a device for training in good-will, self-subordination, and creative co-operation for the common good". (2) have noted that beliefs have exercised a potent influence over lives since the d ays of primitive man. ^hen these religious ideas have been ethicised, as in the case of the religion of Jesus, we have found that they are capable of guiding the behaviour of the individual and of groups. But the masses of the people are still ignorant of the essentials 3f the Christian faith. It is from ignorance the moral evils largely spring. Class conflicts, graft in politics and in the public service, vicious and improper living, denials of oppor-tunity to the young, these can be largely traced back to the fountain head of ignorance. (1) There is an ignorance today of the mind of Jesus. (2) There is ignorance of the spiritual truths of the Bible, (β) There is an ignorance of the worth of human personality, as given by Je3us. (4) There is an ignorance of the real aim and meaning of life itself. An education which is separated from the ethical implication of society can not be a sane nor a healthy one. The piping of the great source of inspiration for spiritual living, namely the Bible, into professional conduits only, has been disastrous to society. Even more disastrous has been the commonly accepted thought that modern scholarship has demolished the value of this book. But since out of it there has come to the world the message of such a one as Jesus, it ought to be the duty of society to lead everyone to get to know and understand its message. The need is great for a better knowledge of His teaching:-. The Church as an institution has been handicapped with the machinery of the past. While other organizations have steadily moulbed their structure to meet the new condi-tions, the church has remained "semper idem", - since the Protestant form of religion is also guided by traditional 1) Extracts from "Empire State Leader", October, 192$. 2) Davis & Barnes, p. 726. -48-authority. Bat Jesus had little regard for authority. He specialized in dealing with individual lives. By touching them with His ideas of life He made them creative powers. He emphasized the fact, and the power, of the "new birth". From His touch men like Peter, and Paul, St. Francis of Assissi, Savonarola, Luther, Wesley, arose and became determining factors in the life of society, by the impact of their person-ality. Subsequent history also will be able to determine the power of the lives of the Christian missionaries in their activities in the non-christain lands. There are abundant testimonies to the value of these missions in civilizing and creating a sense of human values among savage peoples. Sir H.H. Johnstone has said in his book, "Opening up Africa", "posterity will realize the value of Christian mission work in Africa during the l 8 t h and 1 9 t h centuries, not only in ethics, but in contributions to science, more especially to geography, ethnology, zoolology, and above all to the study of African languages . . . the missionaries, too, in many cases have taught the natives carpentery, masonry, tailoring, cobbling, engineering, book-keeping, printing, and European cookery, to say nothing of reading and writing, arithmetic, and a smatter-ing of general knowledge." (1) The spread of educatioh in these non-christian lands has been largely due to missions. China, Japan, the islands of the seas, have been largely indebted to the missionaries for the first schools and hospitals, and the same is true of our own land. The point we wish to make here is that when the simple teachings of Jesus are carried to people, with little or no institutional barriers, the results have been in every case amazing. Today in.our modern society we are more nearly pagan than Christian, What we need is to get away from our bias against religious training on the one hand and the absurdities of tradition on the other. This will take all our thought and interest, it will need the training of specialists, who can go to our great cities with clear cut ideas of what Jesus really said, ant. by voice and life, inculcate His principles. Thus far in religious thinking we have left the masses of the people to the crudities of revivalism and emotional appeals, great credit must be accorded movements like the Salvation Army for their ^ork among the lower types of human society. But the fact remains that the church has scarcely toucheJ the life of such people* Hence, religion, in-stead of being the potent power which it could be, has not been utilized, and moral degeneracy has followed. The principle thought in the mind of Jesus was the ^ Kingdom of God**. This (1) "Opening up Africa" p. 2%2 -49-haa been frequently forgotten by the church. It means that for the old law He substituted a new morality, - that of loving one another, and He seemed to imply that a new righteousness would manifest itself as a counterpart of the new order. This is born of new spiritual impulses generated by Him. Through His teaching men might learn to think of God as their Father, fear was therefore banished, and the old idea of religion as "belief in the supernatural" becomes changed to loving service and devotion to Himself and to His Kingdom. The writer has had many opportunities to see and study the results of ehtical religion at t;ork. He has a number of interesting case studies, gathered from uork in the slums in the old lane, and also in Chicagoy as well as in Canada. After a close investigation, he would sun^arise these and present the outstanding factors which he believes to be present in religion, ana which ni;;ht be better utilized in trying to solve the problem of our modern society. (1) Faith in Jesus offers men solutions for many personal problems, e.g. ^ hen presented with a concrete case of falling before temptation, he may gain moral strength and heir by prayer and fellowship with his Easter. (2) By study of the life of Christ, he gains, if he persists, an honest courageous spirit, with which to meet the criscs of life. The repeated experiments which he must make in his study? enable hint to rationalize his experiences and hence to h:ake the best possible adjust-ments to life. (3) Repressive inhibitions are removed, fear is substituted by Love. In the very act of following Jesus, he finds a positive code of behaviour, which provides him with the necessary inner restraints, and at the same time gives him a rorthy objective in life. (4) He i3 provided ^ith a helpful, hopeful environment. (5) This type of religion co-operates with art, in attempt-ing to interpret life. (6) It brings to him forgiveness fuY past sins* (7) Active f^ith in Jesus brings opportunity to verbalize his experiences, and to take part in the v<ork of redeem-ing society. Religion has been found, tr use the expression of Harold Begbie, "To make a nan who is consciously wrong, in-ferior and nnhanjy, become consciously right, superior and happy*. *.hen a man is willing to surrender his entire person-ality to the Lordship of Jesus, there seems to be present in that person an active power of regeneration. Just how it is brougl't al-jut is r question for psychology. Bat the germ of religion se^s to lie in the act ef conscious surrender. Cld habits see.: to be broken up and fused into new material. In -50-the words of St. Paul, *I live, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me*. This has been the experience of Christian mystics of all ages. It is this mystic communion which appears to give rise to the outward manifestations quoted above, as desirable social factors, and which are produced by an ethical religion. - - - o O e - - -UBC Scanned by UBC Library I ! -51-Chapter 7* "ar as the Greatest Social Evil, and the Solution offered by Religion. (The slow acceptance of a truly socialized form of re-ligion. The chief opponents. Militarism versus Pacificism. The message of religion on war. The stress upon personality. Futility of wars. \.hat the church is doing. Summary.) The glaring example of the lack of a truly social-ized form of religion is to note the willingness of organized religion to accept ^he war tradition. Yet this has been frequently demonstrated to be the greatest of all social evils. Je are living in a world which has for untold centuries been organized on a war basis. It seems impossible for ue to conceive a isorld society which is not organized for war. Religion has been in this environment. Indeed we have asuumed that al3 religion has arisen out of environment, while each successive advance has been made ^hen some leader has come from &he place of vision, *.ith newer conceptions of life and of reality. The moat common assumption of mankind is to believe th^L \;ar is inevitable. That the most we can do is to be prepared for it uhen it comcs. Even those of us who assume that some remeuy can be found are disposed to feel that it is essential to retain some iorrn of defence against "aggressive'* warfare. Vve are sure that the idealistic dreams are beautiful, but we do not live in an iaeal world. "Hunan nature coes not change^, and as ^11 nature is "red in tooth and claw", we must needs have our class conflicts, our police forces, our ar.ay and navy. One does not need to press the point that war is wasteful. One of the latest statements on the cost of the last world war is that it cose thirty million lives, an^ four hundred billions of dollars. This is the estimate given by Congressman Berger in a recent article in the "Hub*' - a con^ercial magazine. But this does not begin to cover the other forns of waste. The human energy destroyed. The homes anJ lives ruined. The black despair of widows and orphans, the disease, weakened resistance, the unemployment, and all the well known tragedies which follow in the wake of rar. The huuan rase is more or less satisiied that war is wrong, except* as President Roosvelt callea them, "the lunatic fringes", of swor^ rattii.^ colonels, and iire eating generals. Kant once stated thu.t if the world were inhabited by a race of devils they would finu some way to avoio war, because of its in-sensate folly. It is possible to prove t.hat war has brought certain gainn to socicty. /here the arts of T?ar flourished, there was to be found, as in Sparta, vigorous life, healthy bodies, and care of the virile young. When the Romans forsook the fields of war and crowded the city, to demand "games and bread*', soft living and effeminacy, the decline of that empire set in. The results of the crusades were to be felt in the opening up of new roads throughout nurope, the beginning of uorld commer-ce and a better knowledge of each other among the nations, gven in the lost great war there are certain gains which must be set alongside of all the evils. Scientific inventions were perfected. The development of the radio, of flying, of under-water craft, and of medical science, was hastened. A tremend-ous humanitarian spirit was aroused by the appeals ana the work of the Red Cross. Then in the actual war zones, the men experienced a ne^ solidarity, a sense of brotherhood, and of positive well being amid tho welter of war experiences. The writer, who spent three years in the actual fighting area in the Ambulancc Lervice, can testify to this. In all the frenzied nationalistic war cries uf 1^14-1913 tne religious bodies made themselves felt. Not of course against ??ar, but as centers for reinforcing the war spirit, for giving spiritual help anl validity to the cause of each nation. The various religious bodies prayed to the Almighty for the success oi their respective national army. The Padres Rere officers of the carious warring groups. They were recog-nized as ^art of the war machine. State and Church were at ore accord in securing victory for their nation. The <3tate felt the ps.'.er of the church to brinf religious sanctions to their v<ork pnd policy. In this they submitted the powor of religion as a social factor. Had religion been a negligible quantity, or regarded as a form of philosophy, it would not have been invited to sit in the seats of the mighty. The old German god foupht for Germany, while the old British pod fought for Britain, and the priests of the different denomina-tions did their best to Oresent the cause of the pod they represented. The last war brought religion hack into the front rank as one of the important social factors, for a time at least. The churches uere well patronized, the preachers t.'ere held in esteem, llv erv Theolorical College rave almost its full quota of men to help the nation, anc they served in practically every arm of the service. By a strange form of was psychology, our machine age felt the need of religion to assist the cr,ase of mar. bhe value oi the Old Testament to arouse the spirit of the people ^as discovered, and the use of the imprecatory psalms was felt to be most opportune. The Church nas one of the great centero for recruiting, and for giving the necessary "inspiration" to the Λ en who were ^oing forth to kill. Further, in the actual fighting lines the influence of religion was potent. The Padres not only brought spiritual solace to the sick, the wounded and the dying, but established ''canteens" even in the forrrcrd areas. They were also fourP able and willing to assist the wounded, m d their services were appreciated, and valued accordingly. But all religious bodies were doing the same type of work, perhaps the most remarkable was that of the Young Hen's christian Association. This body organized a truly wonderful system of rendering service in innumerable ways, and was supported by the churches and Christian people in every land. In short, in a time of tremendous strain and stress the fact of religion was frankly acknowledged and valued by all governments. Yet therd was little heard about the message of Jesus. Somehow, the thought of the "Kingdom of God" and the value of man as man was forgotten. A few daring spirits like Dr. ir.E. Orchard of Kings Weigh House Church, in London, offer-ed protest against the caricature of the religion of the Callilean. A Pacifist movement sprang up, which was never permitted to be very articulate. Its advocates were imprisoned, or silenced, for each nation felt that force alone could save them, and the pacifists were merely idle dreamers, shirkers and slackers, in a time of great urgenty. It was pointed out by the thinkers of that time that the message of Jesus about "putting up the sv?ord" and "turning the other cheek" could have no reference to the present condition of the world. It belonged to an idyllic past, not to a realistic present. The acceptance of a truly socialized religion was to make its way very slowly. It was recognized that there were many followers of the Christ serving in the non-c&mbatant forces. The work ef the Quakers, especially, was favorably spoken about. Bat the ^ orld was won over to the conception of the supremacy of force as the sole and final arbiter, and only that type of religion which complacently obeyed the ntate in this belief was honored and popularised. The work of the Reformers, like Luther, vho made religion the handmaio of the State, was reap-ing its full harvest. Eany of the popular "war films" purport to give a true picture of war. That this is quite impossible is known to the soldier who saw it at first hanu. The photos may show the big guns inaction, but we have no picture which shows the carnage when the shell from that gun drops among a group of men, the red horror, and dismay, the fright, screams, and the dismembered limbs. This cannot be s own on any screen. Yet from these so called "war pictures" the younger people of this generation draw their conclusions about war, but those who lived and suffered, and who remember the days of war are will-ing to bear testimony that there is no menace to our civiliza-tion comparable to the ar menace. The names of Vimy Ridge, of the "OEme, of Passchendaele, and Amiens are burned into our consciousness, and have awakened a fierce hatred for all that war brings to humanity. We realize that it is antisocial, barbaric, and antichristian. That it is the very anthithesis of the teaching of Jesus. -54-These war pictures show the days when the soldiers are "back of the lines", enjoying themselves in the little French villages, '"hat they cannot show is the fact of men's degeneracy there; the broken-hearted mothers, and widows, and utter heart sickness of the people who have seen their homes despoiled and ruined. But in the memory of the men who went through it, there is a clear rmeembrance. The drunken orgies, the lawlessness, the savagery which even these days of inact-ivity brought. For when millions of men are away from the softening environment of home, and of their own women kind, there are set up in operation forces which would destroy our civilization. It is impossible to get accurate statistics of the amount of veneral disease, but it is safe to say that it was far more general than is ever contemplated by the average citizen, "single men in barracks don't grow into plaster saints". Kipling assured the world many years ago. It is no innuendo to say that few, if any, saints were developed by the last war. Hen cannot drop the traditions of the ordinary way of living and become herded into great masses without letting go the finer moralities and falling back into the ways of barbarism. They cannot taste the blood lust and be quite the same men after wards. This is an additional reason why we assert that war is the greatest social evil. .After reading great masses of evidence, e.g. Bogart an "Direct and Indirect Costs of the TJar*, Folks on "The Human Costs of the Y'ar", etc., and etc., as well as seeing for one's self, there is just one conclusion which we can possible arrive at, that war has to be destroyed in <:he interests of society - Ue have given something of the cost in human lives and in property, we have hinted at something of the moral waste. We have not touched upon the economic \.aste, when men and women are taken from productive pursuits, and placed at viork of destruction. This is always followed by industrial depression. Only by the heroic work of the League of Nations, the American Relief Association, the Quakers and other bodies were millions of people kept aliv^ at the conclusion of host-ilities. The depreciation of currency to extraordinary low rates also followed, prices often doubled and trebled, while international credits were thrown into confusion. Sir Philip Cibbs in "%he Middle of the Road" gives an authentic picture of post war misery in Europe. Probably more actual human misery has been brought about b* the moral and economic conditions resulting from the war than from the fighting. The standards of living, in the European lands at least, have not been furthered, while every movement for social amelioration has been set back. There are millions of men and women who are noj condemned to live lives of broken health, and of unrelenting toil, and whose sole rewards are hunger, or a bare existence. On the other hand, the ancient national jealousies, which might have been for--55-gotten by the passing years, were revived and now live again. Nationalism has come to the fore, and is one of the chief causes of fanning the war spirit into fire. Since the .jorld war the team "reconstruction" has been used greatly. To some it means only change, and of course this is not only possible but inevitable. Human nature does change, that is its chief characteristic. It has been recognised that the conditions of life for most people have been shattered since the conclusion of hostilities. How to place life on a more stable basis, how to devise the remaking or remoulding of society, and especially, how to avoid another war, have been topics which have engaged the attention of the more intelligent people everywhere. Reconstruction then would involve the rebuilding of society upon a more sure basis. A removal of the causes of friction, national and international, a&d provide more human well being for all. This can not be achieved by the militarists, nor yet by the prosperous, self-satisfied type; least of all can a reconstruction of society be carried on by the unintelligent. It can be done when link-ed uith practical action, carried on by men who have a clear knowledge of the past, and who are determined that the carnage of Aar shall not again be reinacted. The opponents of reconstruction are many. Professor Davis of Yale, in the v;ork, "introduction to Society**, ( 1 ) , has stated that the barriers to a reconstruction of society are -(1) The language barrier 2) The dense ignorance of society. 3) Huddled thinking. Bat this when investigated resolves itself into prejudice and lack of education, or simply ignorance of the needs of society He further suggests that before society can be remodelled, there are certain forces which we must control. There he places as follows -1) A knowledge of the facta of history. 2) A mastery of the geographis forces conditioning society 3) A utilization of the laws of biologic development. 4) Availing ourselves of the psychologic aids to better living. (5) Appropiation ofthe best culture of all the races of the world. (6) Making sure that our social organization is the best possible for us to secure. T^ hile all of this is an accurate diagnosis, and an excellent remedy, it savors too much of intellectualism, it overlooks (1) Davis & Barnes, '"Introduction to Society*, p. 263 s -56-some of the patent difficulties which our age presents in the remaking of a ner world. It is recognized that the basic needs of society are thre, food, shelter and clothing. But these are all net largely by the industrial machines. Ye have provided for them in abundance, although our distribution of goods is illmanaged an^ unscientific. .hat we have to face steadily is the fact that not only do men need to live, but they need to live together. One of the conditions which render a harmonious living together impossible is war. In the above catalogue of factors over which we must obtain control there is no such suggestion, for it is taken for granted that when "cultural* knowledge is obtained, that conditions automat-ically will become better. But until the war menace is really removed, there can be no advance, for all our cultural gains will be lost by the mere opening up of hostilities on a large scale. This avademic way of looking at cur actual problems is really a hindrance. Education of course looks into the future. It seeks for ways of better living in a world which is remodelled. But this has not yet arrived. Meanwhile, the youth of the v.orld is not being trained to think realistically. He lives in a scholastic world of make believe. Few of our teachers are training our youth to see the results of the resent day combination of militarism, nationalism and wealth. By militarism we mean the belief that security can be achieved by armed force and the advocacy of military and naval prepar-edness. Again, the men who accent the Status quo are hinder-ing the rehabilitation of society. Such types are plentiful today. There are the hundred percenters of every nation. The well fed, self satisfied class, the Babbits who live not only in fiction, but in every land. Frequently they are men who have attained a sufficency of wealth, and social statue, θ though there are also those who suffer from this mode of think-ing who are far removed from successful citizens. These men point to the phenomenal developments of our land, and com are it with what it was twenty or fifty years ago. Many of our politic&ns, our preachers, and possibly even our professors, instead of awakening our country to the dire neec of a close and accurate examination of actual conditions of our modern life, are willing to pass on pious platitudes, or to say "peace, )eace. when there is no peace." These opponents of a socialized religion are to be found in all our churches. Men who still rely upon force to ensure safety. Men who dwell in a world of academic aloofness and those who are willing to assume that thi^ is the best of all possible worlds. Then when t^  these are added the great mass of people who are unwilling to sec any change in doctrine, from sentimental, or religious reasons, it is clear that the task of arousing the church to her own, and the world's peril, is not easy to accomplish. -57-.Pacificism was much discredited in the war years in many quarters, yet al-chough we have no accurate statistics, we have cause to believe that it is growing in power. It has been defined in various ways, bat for our purpose it would be understood as the acceptance of the teaching of Jesus on Khe worth of man, the refusal to use force as a weapon of assault or defence, and the frank recognition of every man as ^ brother. Count Tolstoi was one of the first to draw attention to the place of pacificism in the teaching of Jesus. His works "%y Religion" and "The Kingdom of God* present his views on this subject, as well as some of his better known novels. A^few years before the ^ar Norman Angell published his book Great Illusion" to show that war ^ as not even beneficial to the conquerors. This book was hailed by many of the leading statesmen as a notable contribution to a better understanding of the results of ί-ar. But it failed to accomplish any last-ing result. Pacifism had to be really born of the a^ u-ny of war. Its advocates are now numerous, but it has to contend against one of the most difficult of present day trends, namely the resurgence of the nationalistis spirit. This is found in practically every nation today. The once "backward" nations like Turkey, China, India, Egypt, are in the throes of this spirit. Its relation to the war is not far to seek. For war is a violation of all the standards of international comity. Against the militaristic trend of nationalism, not the new struggle to attain self government, stands the principle of pacifism, upon which the writer feels, depends the future welfare of the nations of the world. Pacificism is illogical, in thd opinions of the self-satisfied. It is not based upon the method of calculating and sound common sense. We nedd protection against an agressor. We require our police forces to menace the wrongdoer. It is human nature to strike back. If we are cruelly wronged, or if one of our friends is foully wronged, we want to get revenge. Preparedness is much more fitting in a world which is still armed to destroy. There are many excellent arguments which one might adouce to show the utter folly of the pacificist's position, but as against these one has simply to point to the futility of all wars and of all other methods of preventing was. One thing rhich would seem to have been proved by the last war was the impossibility of securing a lasting peace by war. It demonstrated the failure of force to achieve the desired result. Pacificism is ηακ striving to urge the use of love, of brotherhood and fairplay, as a means of righting the international wrongs. It is a great adventure and it is based upon the teaching of the Hazarene. It would not be possible to prove that the League of Nations subscribes to pacifism. The writer has made a fairly close ctut'p of the v;ork and accomplishments of the League since its inception. In the last six years he has spoken on its work -38-before a number of bodies, Service Clubs, Farmers' Institutes, and women's Institutes, as well as to church groups of various denominations. But the radical part of the aims of the League is that it puts arbitration and mediation before conflict, and has no force to carry out its dictates. Its failures came from the fact that it has no economic strength, that it is a political, rather than an exonomis organization. Further, that it is based upon che statesmanship of the past generations, and to that extent partakes of the aims and policies of soldiers and diplomats. Yet the germ of the League is contain-ed in the last of the late President ilson's famous "fourteen points*. That "a general association of nations Last be form-ed under specific covenants, for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territoral in-tegrity to grer-1 and small states alike". ' ith all its mis-takes, the League has accomplished a wonderful t.ork in the re-construction of ^urope, and the Locarno pacts suggest a further development of the spirit of arbitration. Its fatal weakness, arising from present world conditions, is that it must assume the possibility of more wars. Yet its greatness comes from the willingness to acknowledge dbe futility of wars, and its acceptance cf the idealism of the world's Lest men. The position of the united States in relation to the League has frequently been consented upon* But from that land there has lately come a suggestion that war be outlawed. It has been presented to the world by fecretary Jlollo^ g and Senator Borah, and also by the publication of *-*-he Outlawry of YJar", by Charles Clayton Morrison. It cannot be said that e ven here the pacifict position is clearly defined. It does not urge the laying dc. η of arns in a '..orld which is organized for strife. The main thought is that irince mankind is i^ ore or less agreed that war is a dangerous, profitless, and evil in-stitution, the logical thing to do with it is to hav^ it made an outlaw - just as piracy? slavery, and duelling have been abolished. The nations of the \-orld are looking \ith favour upon some such suggestion, yet the "aggressive" war possibility is holding back its acceptance in Europe* Still -nore recently has Russia, at a last meeting of the League, advocated tlx. total disarment of the world. This has not met with approval of the League. It is frankly pacif-ist in intention; had the plan been ^resented by a nation like Britain, it would have commanded i^ ore consideration and res-pect. But emanating fron Russia, it lac been frowned doun. It savors too much of some, subtle i'lannir.g to win the worl^ over to Bolshevism - thie at least i& the position of the xespens-ible statesmen cf today. Yet all are agreed that it iu along this line the orld must, advance* It ίκ at the very heart of the t4achin^ of Jesus, :nd this i3 nuggestivt, of the f..ct that wc have not yet exhauster the possibilities of ili^  message. His influence t* still moulding the thought of the world. In other -59-words, His religion, whether employed consciously or not, is a social factor of tremendous power. It opens up for mankind the road to better conditions of life and hope. Little by little mankind is advancing along the way to a better under-standing. When into the League of Nations is incorporated &he plan of "outlawry", and when from this development there comes total disarmament, we shall be in closer approximation of the thought of Jesus - when peace on earth shall come to men of goodwill, and the kingdom of God be established, when love, not force, shall be enthroned and the value of the human per-sonality fully recognized. This is the attitude of a religion which is truly socialized. The Church has not yet accepted the principles of Jesus. Yet its outstanding representatives, like Dr. parkes Cadman and Dr. Clayton Morrison in the United State?, Dr. Charles Norwood and Hiss Maude Royden in Britain, are contin-uously presenting the new angle. They are seeing that the religion of Jesus was supremely a religion of venture. This thought is also voiced by Prinoiple Cman of Cambridge, "Plato concerns himself with safeguards, and Jesus wholly with venture; and Jesus does not rule where Plato does. Herd is the essential part. All forms of ecclesiastical Christianity are largely concerned ^ ith safeguards. But the real challenge of the cross is the high venture of living in a world not realized. It is this which distinguishes Christianity from all other historical forms of religion, this, that it is in some sense absolute in method if not in particular results (l) In the course of this thesis we have tried to show the nature of religion. We accepted the hypothesis that it was "belief in the supernatural". Ue traced primitive man us-ing this conception. It was found that this type of religion was one of the greatest social fac&ors of primitive and early life. With the beginnings of Christianity, a new note was struck which was not afterwards lost. Religion was personalis-ed. The early church found its groping after the Divine real-ity, satisfied in the "face of Jesus Christ". The Roman Church stood firm amid the breakdown of the Greek and Roman civiliza-tion. By its schools and educational systems, limited in out-look as they undoubtedly were, this body called the Church was one of the most potent of social factors in the middle ages. It directed all the forms of life in Europe, scientific, polit-ical, artistic, moral and religious, up until the end of the 14th Century. With the beginnings of world commerce and new dis-coveries, with the inventions of the printing press, of gun-powder, and '.ith the development of systems of banking, and credit, came the Renassiance and Reformation. The work of the & (1) Encyclopaedia Britannica, New vol. Article "Christianity". -63-Reformers was briefly mentioned. The messages of Luther, Calvin and Knox broke up the traditional authority of the Roman Churoh, and started a new movement towards democracy. Up until the l8th centary, religion was still one of the most potent factors in the life of the people of Europe. The rise and development of capitalism was traced, the coming of the industrial age was sketched, and its results upon the masses of the people. The revival of Lesley in Sngland brought to light fresh possibilities in the message of Jesus. Religion could still be a mighty power if freed from its ecclesiastical fetters, and the emphasis placed upon the value of man, and the kingdom of God, the central thoughts in Jesus' teaching. The modern situation was dealt sith, tracing the result of the machine age upon mankind. The rebellion of students of social science against this position of inferior-ity of the man's place, and the unjust conditions of the modem factory system were outlined. The possibilities of securing an adequate position for nan, as against the greed for profits in our capitalistic society, were presented. The nedd for a spiritual reinforcement of society, was cited from different sources. The power of religiose instruction and its value to society w^s touched upon, as given by many of our leading thinkers. A summary of "case" results as to the value of religion was given. The last chapter raised the whole question of war. Religion in a time of national stress was recognized to be of great value by the State. The reaction from a war psychology has been to discover the real meaning and value of the teach-ings of Jesus upon the social significance of Ran. Uar, al-though *it was blessed by the church", is incompatible with His central message. Religion has not been really socialized, but tts power is evidently not yet spent. The world is still moving along the lines suggested by Jesus. That is to say, a recognition of the real ^ orth of the individual, and side by side, an emerging consciousness of the value of His conception of a kingdom of righteousness, of love and of brotherhood. l?e have tried to show that religion has been a real-ity in the life of the world. Religion has moved mankind. Even in the very imperfect institutions which religion has forced up, there is an indication of this. There have been gross evils committed in the name of religion. But mankind has acted and reacted to this force. The multitudes of religious faiths prove this also. We have selected only one type, namely, Christianity. But when in addition to it we remember the potent power which Judaism, Islam and Buddhism has held, and still holds, over the lives of millions of people, its place as a social factor is indisputable. -64-In the course of this Thesis -e have tried to point out that religion has developed ith the developing life of society. It did not drop do^n from the skies. Han has largely made his gods in his own image. Just as science, customs, laws, have been evolved out of the environment of mankind, so too in this way has religion arisen. But it did not follow any orderly line of progress. There has been retrogression, and retardation, and also at times, amazing advances. We believe that we hage shown that the religion of Jesus was such an advance. Be arose in the midst of a people who .'ere largely monothistic, and thus reqdy for a message ouch as He could give. Se presented in clear simple language the real nature of religion. By His teaching, humanity has got a more adequate vision of the ends of life, while through all His words there glimmered the splendour of the ideal of social righteousness, of a society which was well adjusted, and where the individual felt himself to be part of a great world team. Jesus brought a factor of personality into religion. He gave men the enlarging conception that God was not to be feared, bat to be loved. He was "Our Fahher". Instead of mankind cringing before the thought of terror of the gods, God was the eternal spirit of the Universe, and the object of all religious attitudes. Again, he presented in a vivid light the value of the individual, per se. it was before this liber-ating thought that slavery, serfdom, and injastice to man has decreased, just as fear diminished before His compelling thought of God's love. Still more, with His presentation of a society which is dominated by righteousness, more adequate standards of human liberty, of fairplay, and of service for others, has been slowing arislnj. And finally, as He definite ly called mankind to follow in His steps, He has left an im-pression of sincerity and reality, which is still felt through-out the ^orld. Mankind has been freeing himself from a blind belief i& the supernatural. The religion of Jesus has come to society and has assisted in this process. But mankind has not yet freed himself from a faith in that "Power not ourselves, which makes for righteousness". At some far off bend in the road of dev-eloping society this may be done. Christianity offers a via media from belief in the supernatural, by presenting a faith in the person and principles of Jesus. From a sociological view point, this is desirable, since the essentails of Christianity have been of positive v&lue to ma&tind. We believe that the following summary makes plain vhat Christianity has to offer from the angle of sociology, and social control: (1) A definite call to abandon fear and forge, and the substitution of love of God and to each other. -62-(2) A suggestive social ideal, and hope for the future of humanity, (2) A reverence for the moral values of personality. (4: The presentation of a Figure of noblest idealism, whose teaching is ever evlpving lofty types of character, and ia the last analysis, it is upon clean, pare depend-able Individual lives that society must rely if it is to make any definite progress. This we think is the gist of the whole matter. The connection between religion and its social significance lies $a the ability of religion to produce desirable types of man-kind. Society must use all forms of education to further its ends. We have used science to a great extent and will utilise it in its psche-physical aspects more and more. She social sciences are still in their infancy, we must examine with imT partiality every suggestion whichwould seem to assist our work. Chemistry, biology and all physical sciences have brought fresh interpretations, fraught with greatest import-ance, to sociology. We are now utilising the possibilities of psychology,and neurology, in our study of mankind. Religion as a possible addition to our resources has been more or leas neglected. But this field of research must be in-vestigated. Its potentialities must not be overlooked be-cause of its acknowledged difficulties. Religion claims to do more than satisfy the wants of mankind. It claims to modify, or even to transform them. This is the heart of the message of the mystics of all ages. We have tried to show that religion has done so; since it has so profoundly moved mankind, it is clear that it possesses social value. The object of supreme concern to society is the adjustment which will bring the most desirable results. Religion claims that these adjustments are primarily inner and individual ones, and from the better spiritual adjustment of the individual, faf reaching social improvement will follow. In short, the direct creative possibilities of a socialized religion, found in mystic communion with God, in fellowship with Jesus and His principle?, with the consequent enrichment of human living, needs to be more fully examined as one of our important social factors. FINIS BIBLIOGR&PSY Augustine, St. Bible, The Holy Bernard, L.L* BlagRmar & Gillin Bland, S. Boas, Franz Brailsford, H.N. Brown, Lewis Calkins, M. Chesterton, G.K. Coe, A.E. Dewey, John Davis, Barnes and others Dante, A. Ellis, Havelock Eney.Britannica. Fosdick, H.E. Fitchett, \ .A. Fairchild, H.P. Frazer, Sir James Craves, E.P. Green, S.G. Glover, R.T. Goodfellow, J.C. Hayes, E.C. Jones, J. Harry Inge, W.R. Kant, I. Lindsay, A.D. Lloyd, J.E. Halinowski, B. Mather, K.G. Mathews, Shailer MacDonald, Ramsay Nargold, J.E. Momerie, A.M. MoDougal, W. Neibuhr, R. Park and Burgess O'Hare, M.F. Peabody, T.G. Peck, YJ.G. queen and Mann Rauschenbusch, "The City of God", "Confession" "Instinct" "Social psychology" "Outlines of Sociology" *"Phe New Christianity* "The Mind of primitive Man" "Socialism for Today" "This Believing forld" "The Persistent problems of Philosophy" "The Everlasting Han" "A Social Theory of Religious Education* "Democracy and Education" "introduction to Sociology" Divina Comedia" "The New Spirit" "Sex in Relation to Society" Articles "Religion", etc. "Christianity & Progress" "Plodern use of Lesley & His Century" Bible ' "Applied Sociology* *The Golden Bough" "Folklore in the Old Testament" "A Student's History of Education" "A Handbook of Church History" "The Conflict of Religions in the Early Roman Empire" "The Totem roles in Stanley Park* "Introduction to the Study of sociology* "Social Economics" "Outspoken Essays* "Kritik of pure Reason" "The Republic of Plato" "Prehistoric Britain" "Melanesia^ studies" "Science in Search of God" "The Church and the Changing Order'' "Messianic Hope* "Jesus on Social Institutions" "Socialism* "Sex Freedom and Social Control* "Immortality" "Belief in God"(of Behavior" "Social Psychology" "Psychology the Study "Does Civilization need Religion?" "Introduction to the Science of Sociology" "Facts about Luther" "Jesus Christ and the social question" "The Divine Society" "Social Pathology" "Christianity ano the Social Crisis" "The Social Principles of Jesus" I BIBLIOGRAPHY - continued Robinson, H.W. Russell, Bertrand Scott, A.E* Skelton, O.D. Streeter, B*H. Thorndike, E.L. Beit, James Thomson, J.A. Schleimacher, y.D*E< Spargo and Arner Various Authors Van Loom, R. Weldon, j.E.C. Tiells, H.6. lEieman, H.N. Vi throw, ΐ .Η. "The Religious Ideas of the Old Testament* "The Prospects of Industrial Civilization" "The First Age of Christianity" ^Socialism, a Critical Analysis" "Reality* "Educational Psychology" "Folk Tales of the Saliahan Tribes* "3cience and Religion" "Religious Essays "Elements of Socialism" "Science, Religion and Reality* "Tolerance* "The Politics of Aristotle" "Outline of History" "Religious Experience and scientific Method" "Beacon Lights of the Reformation" Current Magazines 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096447/manifest

Comment

Related Items