UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Visualization as a technique for personal change Bowhay, Cherry Lynn 1985

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VISUALIZATION AS A TECHNIQUE FOR PERSONAL CHANGE by CHERRY LYNN BOWHAY B . A . , Carleton Univers i ty , 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Psychology) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1985 (c) Cherry Lynn Bowhay, 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Psychology The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date July 20, 1985 DE-6 (3/81) 11 A b s t r a c t T h i s s t u d y e xamined t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i n f o r m a t i o n about, a n d / o r p r a c t i c e w i t h , v i s u a l i z a t i o n i n i n c r e a s i n g : s e l f -u n d e r s t a n d i n g , b e l i e f i n one's a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t s e l f change, p o s i t i v e themes i n o n g o i n g imagery, and i n t e r n a l i t y o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . A sample o f 19 women and 11 men, r a n g i n g i n age f r o m 18 t o 50 y e a r s , were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r g r o u p s w h i c h each r e c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t amounts o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t , o r p r a c t i c e w i t h , v i s u a l i z a t i o n . A l l g r o u p s were t e s t e d b e f o r e and a f t e r t r e a t m e n t on f o u r measures, and t h e t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s a l s o c o m p l e t e d a p o s t t e s t - o n l y measure. The measures u s e d were t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( d e v e l o p e d by t h e a u t h o r ) , s u b s c a l e s f r o m t h e I m a g i n a l P r o c e s s e s I n v e n t o r y , t h e S p h e r e s o f C o n t r o l t e s t , t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on Imagery C o n t r o l , and t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Upon M e n t a l Imagery. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t members of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s b e l i e v e d t h a t v i s u a l i z a t i o n c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , f e l t d i f f e r e n t l y a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s as a r e s u l t of l e a r n i n g about v i s u a l i z a t i o n , f e l t i t w o u l d be u s e f u l f o r p e r s o n a l development, and f e l t t h e y w o u l d use i t i n t h e i r own f u t u r e s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t . V i v i d n e s s of i m a g e r y i n c r e a s e d from p r e t e s t t o p o s t t e s t f o r t h o s e g r o u p s w i t h most i n f o r m a t i o n about, and p r a c t i c e w i t h , v i s u a l i z a t i o n . I n c r e a s e d i n t e r n a l i t y on t h e s o c i o p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l s u b s c a l e o f t h e S p h e r e s of C o n t r o l t e s t was a l s o f o u n d f o r a l l g r o u p s on t h e p o s t t e s t . None of t h e o t h e r p r e d i c t e d e f f e c t s were f o u n d t o h a v e o c c u r r e d a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l . The f a i l u r e t o a c h i e v e t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r e s u l t s was a t t r i b u t e d p a r t i a l l y t o t h e s h o r t p e r i o d of t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c e a l l o c a t e d , t o t h e s m a l l number of s u b j e c t s , and a l s o t o t h e l a c k i i i of appropriate and s u f f i c i e n t l y sensitive assessment measures. i v T a b l e of Contents Page A b s t r a c t i i Table of C o n t e n t s i v L i s t of T a b l e s v Acknowledgement v i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 The L e v e l of Symbolic Thought 6 T h e r a p e u t i c Uses of Imagery 9 Enhanced S e l f - C o n c e p t 16 Imagery A b i l i t i e s and Imagery Content 17 The P r e s e n t Study 22 Method 26 S u b j e c t s 26 Procedure 26 Measures 28 R e s u l t s 32 D i s c u s s i o n 43 R e f e r e n c e s 52 Appendix 5 7 L i s t o f T a b l e s Page 1. Mean S c o r e s f o r t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 36 2. Mean S c o r e s on t h e I m a g i n a l P r o c e s s e s I n v e n t o r y 39 3. Mean S c o r e s on t h e S p h e r e s o f C o n t r o l T e s t 40 4. Mean S c o r e s on t h e S o c i o p o l i t i c a l C o n t r o l S u b s c a l e o f t h e S p h e r e s o f C o n t r o l T e s t 41 5. Mean S c o r e s on t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on M e n t a l I m a g e r y 42 6. A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e on t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on M e n t a l Imagery 42 7. Mean S c o r e s on t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on I m a g e r y C o n t r o l 43 8. A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o n t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on I m a g e r y C o n t r o l 44 v i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t I w o u l d e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o t h a n k my a d v i s o r , L a w r e n c e W a l k e r , f o r h i s p a t i e n c e , e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d s t e a d y d i r e c t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h i s p r o j e c t . My t h a n k s a l s o g o t o t h e members o f my a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e , M i c h a e l C h a n d l e r and J o h n Y u i l l e , f o r t h e i r i n p u t a n d s u p p o r t ^ I am much i n d e b t e d t o P h i l l i p B o u r q u e who h a s n o t o n l y g i v e n me a g r e a t d e a l o f p e r s o n a l s u p p o r t b u t h a s made t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s a l o t more f u n t h a n i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n w i t h o u t h i m . F i n a l l y , I want t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y , who g a v e g e n e r o u s l y o f t h e i r t i m e . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n R e c e n t r e s e a r c h a b o u t v i s u a l i z a t i o n , o r g u i d e d i m a g e r y , h a s s u g g e s t e d i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o many a s p e c t s o f b e h a v i o r c h a n g e . I t h a s b e e n f o u n d t o be u s e f u l i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y as w e l l as i n s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r m o d i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m s f o r p h o b i a s , a n x i e t y management, and w e i g h t l o s s . C l i e n t s who h a v e l e a r n e d t o u s e v i s u a l i z a t i o n i n t h e s e t h e r a p i e s h a v e f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d a g r e a t e r b e l i e f i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t s e l f - c h a n g e i n o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e i r l i v e s . A l t h o u g h s u c h s u b j e c t i v e r e a c t i o n s h a v e b e e n documented c l i n i c a l l y , t h e y h a v e n o t o f t e n b e e n t e s t e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . I t was h o p e d t h a t t h i s s t u d y w o u l d a d d e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t c h a n g e s i n some s u b j e c t i v e l y e x p e r i e n c e d a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f t a k e p l a c e a f t e r one becomes f a m i l i a r w i t h v i s u a l i z a t i o n . T h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n e x a m i n e s some o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h v i s u a l i z a t i o n . I t l o o k s f i r s t a t i m a g e r y as a means o f p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d why i t a p p e a r s t o be t h e p r e f e r r e d l a n g u a g e o f t h e e m o t i o n s , and of some of t h e o t h e r e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i l l l a y t h e t h e o r e t i c a l g r o u n d w o r k f o r an o u t l i n e of t h e u s e s o f i m a g e r y i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y a n d b e h a v i o r c h a n g e . E v i d e n c e f o r t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f v i s u a l i z a t i o n t o s u b j e c t i v e l y e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s o n a l c h a n g e i s t h e n r e v i e w e d , a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f i m a g e r y a b i l i t i e s a n d c o n t e n t s t o t h e a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l s e l f - c h a n g e i s d i s c u s s e d . F i n a l l y , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s d e s c r i b e d . I m a g ery i s one o f t h e t h r e e m a j o r s t y l e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n we p o s s e s s ( H o r o w i t z , 1 9 7 8 ) . The o t h e r two a r e e n a c t i v e a n d l e x i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n e n a c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , p a s t e v e n t s a re r e p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h motor schemas. In imagery r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , p e r c e p t i o n s and thoughts are r e p r e s e n t e d by s e n s o r y images. L e x i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s i n terms of v e r b a l or m a t h e m a t i c a l symbolism. D e v e l o p m e n t a l l y , e n a c t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s t h e f i r s t and l e x i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s t he l a s t t o d e v e l o p . However, a l l t h r e e s t y l e s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a p p a r e n t l y c o n t i n u e t o develop t h r o u g h o u t l i f e ; t h e forms developed e a r l i e r do not d i s a p p e a r or remain at p r i m i t i v e l e v e l s as t h e l a t e r ones are developed. R a t h e r , t h e y a l l c o n t i n u e t o e v o l v e . I n the a d u l t , a l l t h r e e forms may be used s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n normal c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , w i t h o u t c l e a r - c u t d i v i s i o n between systems. What i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n one system may be t r a n s l a t e d t o t h e o t h e r modes of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The imagery and v e r b a l modes are the most a c c e s s i b l e t o c o n s c i o u s awareness and m a n i p u l a t i o n , and have been d i s c u s s e d a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h i n the l i t e r a t u r e about i n f o r m a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . P a i v i o (1971) l a b e l l e d them t h e d u a l c o d i n g system. Langer (1942) has d e s c r i b e d two k i n d s of symbolism which c o r r e s p o n d w i t h the two d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of i n f o r m a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The f i r s t , which c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h l e x i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i s d i s c u r s i v e symbolism. The symbols are r e l a t i v e l y n e u t r a l and p r e c i s e u n i t s which have r e g u l a r l y a s s i g n e d meanings and r u l e s of c o m b i n a t i o n . They are o r g a n i z e d s e q u e n t i a l l y . They are a l s o r e l a t i v e l y a b s t r a c t , u s u a l l y c o n v e y i n g g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s of meaning. In c o n t r a s t t o t h i s i s n o n d i s c u r s i v e symbolism, e x e m p l i f i e d by v i s u a l and m u s i c a l images. These symbols p r e s e n t whole packages of i n f o r m a t i o n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y and the symbol conveys i n f o r m a t i o n by t h e 3 o r g a n i z a t i o n or s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g of i t s elements. The meaning of each p a r t i s t a k e n from i t s r e l a t i o n t o the whole. Such symbols are o f t e n m e t a p h o r i c a l , c o n v e y i n g meaning by analogy.. A s i t u a t i o n or f e e l i n g may be c a p t u r e d by a symbol which l e a d s one t o compare t h e " g e s t a l t " of t h a t s i t u a t i o n t o a n o t h e r , which may be from memory or f a n t a s y . The two t y p e s of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e p a r a t e c e r e b r a l hemispheres (Bakan, 1980; Korn & Johnson, 1983). The l e f t hemisphere i s s a i d t o have p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r language and a n a l y t i c f u n c t i o n s w h i l e the r i g h t has p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r v i s u a l , s p a t i a l , a u d i t o r y and m u s i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , as w e l l as f o r such p r o c e s s e s as f a n t a s y , c r e a t i v i t y , and t h e e m o t i o n a l components of ongoing thought ( S i n g e r , 1978a). V a r i o u s w r i t e r s have d e s c r i b e d the l e f t hemisphere s t y l e of f u n c t i o n i n g as b e i n g l i n e a r , d e d u c t i v e , l o g i c a l , o perant, and used i n f o c u s e d , secondary p r o c e s s t h i n k i n g . The r i g h t hemisphere mode i s d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g s y n t h e t i c , i n t u i t i v e , r e s pondent, i m a g i n a t i v e , a n a l o g i c a l , i n d u c t i v e , and used i n p r i m a r y p r o c e s s t h i n k i n g (Bakan, 1980). Many f u n c t i o n s r e l y on b o t h hemispheres (Korn & Johnson, 1983), so t h a t i t would be o v e r s i m i p l i f y i n g t o say t h a t t hey r e s i d e d e x c l u s i v e l y i n one hemisphere or t h e o t h e r . However, whether i t i s due t o the dominance of s e p a r a t e hemispheres or some o t h e r mechanism, the e v i d e n c e i s t h a t v e r b a l thought and imagery appear t o be composed of q u i t e d i f f e r e n t t hought p r o c e s s e s . I t i s because of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e t h a t imagery appears t o be a b l e t o p r o v i d e us w i t h d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n about o u r s e l v e s t h a n do our a n a l y t i c a l thought p r o c e s s e s . Imagery appears t o be t h e p r e f e r r e d "language" of t h e emotions, 4 and o f v a r i o u s o t h e r i n t u i t i v e a n d c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s e s . D e v e l o p i n g g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s o f t h i s o t h e r s t y l e o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , and l e a r n i n g how t o a c c e s s i t b e t t e r , may p r o v i d e u s w i t h a new t o o l f o r s e l f - a w a r e n e s s and s e l f - c h a n g e l A d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e b e l i e f t h a t i m a g e r y i s a p r e f e r a b l e v e h i c l e f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n of t h e a f f e c t i v e s e l f i s r e v i e w e d i n t h e s e c t i o n s b e l o w . S i n g e r ( 1 9 7 8 a ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e v e r b a l c o d i n g s y s t e m w i t h i t s a b s t r a c t , a n a l y t i c p r o p e r t i e s i s e s p e c i a l l y e f f i c i e n t f o r i n t e g r a t i n g d i v e r s e phenomena i n t o one l a n g u a g e l a b e l o r f o r m u l a t h a t a l l o w s r a p i d r e t r i e v a l l a t e r on. The more g l o b a l , c o n c r e t e q u a l i t y o f t h e i m a g e r y s y s t e m h a s t h e s p e c i a l v a l u e o f p r o v i d i n g d e t a i l when no v e r b a l l a b e l h a s b e e n s t o r e d , a s i s t h e c a s e w i t h e m o t i o n s and v e r y e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e s . I m a g e r y c r e a t e s a c o n t e x t , a v i v i d i m m e d i a c y o f e x p e r i e n c e t h a t a l l o w s t h e f u l l e r e x p r e s s i o n o f e m o t i o n , t h e r e - c r e a t i o n o f r e l a t e d b u t o f t e n u n l a b e l e d m e m o r i e s . I n e f f e c t , c o n t e x t p e r m i t s t h e emergence o f what h a s b e e n c a l l e d t h e r e p r e s s e d b u t what may a c t u a l l y b e b e t t e r v i e w e d a s u n r e t r i e v a b l e e x p e r i e n c e b e c a u s e n o d i s t i n c t v e r b a l e n c o d i n g h a s o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l e v e n t . W i t h o u t t h e a d v a n t a g e o f a c o n c i s e v e r b a l l a b e l a memory c a n n o t be r e i n s t a t e d w i t h o u t r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t e x t t h r o u g h v i s u a l o r a u d i t o r y o r o t h e r i m a g e r y . ( S i n g e r , 1 9 7 8 a , p. I l l ) B e c a u s e o f t h e g r e a t e r a b i l i t y o f i m a g e r y t o r e p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n a c o m p l e x c o n t e x t , a n d t o r e p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h c a n n o t e a s i l y b e p u t i n t o w o r d s , b o t h H o r o w i t z ( 1 9 7 8) and S i n g e r ( 1 9 7 8 a ) c o n s i d e r i m a g e r y t o be t h e p r e f e r r e d v e h i c l e f o r t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of e m o t i o n ^ E m o t i o n s w h i c h may be d i f f i c u l t t o b r i n g t o a w a r e n e s s b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f f i n d i n g v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r them may more e a s i l y f i n d e x p r e s s i o n t h r o u g h i m a g e r y . C o n v e r s e l y , i m a g e s c a n a l s o be c o n s c i o u s l y c h o s e n i n o r d e r t o g e n e r a t e c e r t a i n e m o t i o n s , w h i c h c a n be u s e d t o c h a n g e p r e v i o u s l y c o n d i t i o n e d r e s p o n s e s ( H o r o w i t z , 1 9 7 8 ) . An e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e may o c c u r more e a s i l y i n r e s p o n s e t o an image b e c a u s e i m a g e r y a l s o a p p e a r s t o be more c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s t h a n i s v e r b a l p r o c e s s i n g . G e n d l i n (1980) h a s w r i t t e n a b o u t t h e i m m e d i a c y of t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n i m a g e r y and p h y s i o l o g i c a l s e n s a t i o n s , a n d how t h a t c o n n e c t i o n c a n be u s e d t o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t h e r a p y . A c c o r d i n g t o G e n d l i n , a f e e l i n g o r t h o u g h t w i l l h a v e a " f e l t s e n s e " i n t h e body. When an image a r i s e s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s t h a t f e l t s e n s e , G e n d l i n b e l i e v e s t h a t i t b o t h e x p r e s s e s t h a t b o d i l y s t a t e and, a t t h e same t i m e , e x p l o r e s i t f u r t h e r . T h i s l e a d s t o a c h a n g e i n t h e b o d y f e e l i n g i t s e l f , a n d as a r e s u l t , a p o t e n t i a l l y t h e r a p e u t i c c h a n g e i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s i s t h o u g h t t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h o u t any t r a n s l a t i o n o f e i t h e r i m a g e r y o r body s e n s a t i o n s i n t o w ords. J a f f e a n d B r e s l e r ( 1 9 8 0 ) h a v e a r g u e d t h a t g u i d e d i m a g e r y i s a l s o a method o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h a u t o n o m i c p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s w h i c h o c c u r o u t s i d e o f c o n s c i o u s a w a r e n e s s . They b e l i e v e t h a t v e r b a l t h o u g h t s most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t t h e s o m a t i c o r v o l u n t a r y n e r v o u s s y s t e m , w h e r e a s t h e l a n g u a g e o f i m a g e r y d i r e c t l y a c c e s s e s t h e a u t o n o m i c n e r v o u s s y s t e m , w h i c h r e g u l a t e s s u c h b o d y f u n c t i o n s a s b r e a t h i n g , h e a r t r a t e , b l o o d c h e m i s t r y , and immune r e s p o n s e . T h e s e a r e , once a g a i n , t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s most i n v o l v e d i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f e m o t i o n . I m a g e r y c a n b e u s e d t o b r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o a w a r e n e s s a b o u t p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d i a g n o s i s , a nd i t c a n a l s o be u s e d t o h e l p c o n s c i o u s l y p r o m o t e s p e c i f i c p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s . I n a d i f f e r e n t u s e o f t h e same p r o c e s s e s , b o d y 6 f e e l i n g s c a n be f o c u s e d on i n o r d e r t o g e n e r a t e images, w h i c h may e n a b l e f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e e m o t i o n s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h o s e p h y s i c a l s e n s a t i o n s . T h e r e a p p e a r t o be s e v e r a l k i n d s o f i m a g e r y , a r i s i n g f r o m d i f f e r e n t t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s and l e v e l s o f awareness. S t a r k e r (1974) h a s d i s c e r n e d a c o n t i n u u m o f i m a g e r y a r r a y e d between two p o l e s or modes: an a c t i v e t h o u g h t i m a g e r y and a p a s s i v e , s p o n t a n e o u s mode. A t t h e a c t i v e p o l e , i m a g e r y i s v i v i d , d i r e c t e d , v o l u n t a r y , and r e a l i t y o r i e n t e d ! A t t h e p a s s i v e p o l e , i m a g e r y i s more f u z z y , s p o n t a n e o u s , i n v o l u n t a r y , and f a n t a s y -o r i e n t e d . The two may be e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e k i n d of i m a g e r y u s e d t o f i n d one's way i n a f a m i l i a r d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e , and t h a t w h i c h emerges i n a dream! Bakan (1980) h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s c o n t i n u u m m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d a d i m e n s i o n f r o m p r i m a r y t o s e c o n d a r y p r o c e s s i m a g e r y . Bakan h a s g i v e n t h e l a b e l "raw i m a g e r y " t o t h a t i m a g e r y which i s s p o n t a n e o u s o r u n p r o c e s s e d . Such i m a g e r y may appear under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s such as s l e e p , m u s c u l a r r e l a x a t i o n , f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n , m i n d - w a n d e r i n g , and un d e r the i n f l u e n c e o f c e r t a i n d r u g s . Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i t may h a v e p r i m a r y p r o c e s s q u a l i t i e s a n d may be d e s c r i b e d as r e g r e s s i v e , p r i m a l , a f f e c t i v e , and i l l o g i c a l ! T h e r e a r e , however, t i m e s when s u c h raw i m a g e r y a p p e a r s t o be p r o c e s s e d a n a l y t i c a l l y , o r "cooked" as Bakan d e s c r i b e s i t . F o r example, images may be c o n s c i o u s l y c o n s t r u c t e d f o r h e l p i n t h e s o l u t i o n o f v i s u o - s p a t i a l p r o b l e m s . A n o t h e r example i s when a dream o r daydream i s r e c a l l e d and a n a l y z e d ! The c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s a p p e a r s t o be a p r i m e example o f i n t e r a c t i o n between p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y p r o c e s s e s . The c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i s most o f t e n c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as b e i n g t h e emergence of an i n s i g h t , i n t u i t i o n , or c r e a t i v e f l a s h , which i s then r e f i n e d w i t h more a n a l y t i c a l thought p r o c e s s e s . There are two main k i n d s o f v i s u a l i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , each of which makes use of both p o l e s of the imagery continuum, but i n d i f f e r e n t ways. In t h e f i r s t , "spontaneous imagery," an image emerges s p o n t a n e o u s l y i n t o c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and i t i s then f o c u s e d on a n a l y t i c a l l y i n an attempt t o d e c i p h e r i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . In t h e second k i n d of v i s u a l i z a t i o n , " d i r e c t e d imagery," an image i s c o n s c i o u s l y c o n s t r u c t e d and t h e n r e h e a r s e d . T h i s t y p e of v i s u a l i z a t i o n i s used t o a c h i e v e s p e c i f i c g o a l s i n b e h a v i o r a l t h e r a p y . F o r example, an a n x i o u s p e r s o n might p r a c t i c e v i s u a l i z i n g a c o n f i d e n t approach t o a f e a r e d s i t u a t i o n . I n t h i s t y p e of p r o c e s s , t h e image i s r e h e a r s e d c o n s c i o u s l y over a p e r i o d of time u n t i l t h e b e h a v i o r becomes a u t o m a t i c , or i n t e g r a t e d w i t h o t h e r u n c o n s c i o u s p r o c e s s e s . In b o t h t y p e s o f imagery, a g r e a t e r i n t e g r a t i o n of c o n s c i o u s and u n c o n s c i o u s i s thought t o be a c h i e v e d . The L e v e l of S y m b o l i c Thought In the above s e c t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p o r t i n g t h e i d e a t h a t imagery i s the language o f emotion and of the p r i m a r y p r o c e s s e s was p r e s e n t e d . The case w i l l be made her e t h a t t h i s e n a b l e s t h e u s e r of v i s u a l i z a t i o n t o communicate w i t h those p a r t s of the s e l f most i m p o r t a n t f o r b e h a v i o r c h a n g e - - p a r t s which are ' d i f f i c u l t t o a c c e s s a n a l y t i c a l l y . T h i s a r e a of the s e l f i s what L i f t o n (1976) d e s c r i b e d as t h e f o r m a t i v e zone of t h e psyche, or t h e p s y c h i c c o r e , and he argued t h a t s y m b o l i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s around the i s s u e s o f the p s y c h i c c o r e h e l d the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e s e l f . He l i s t e d t h e c o r e 8 i s s u e s as f o l l o w s : (1) s e x u a l i t y and p e r s o n a l bonds; (2) l e a r n i n g , working and making; (3) death, p l a y and transcendence; (4) home and p l a c e ; (5) r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s o c i e t y and environment; and (6) n u r t u r a n c e and growth. L e a r y (1957) has d e s c r i b e d t h i s a s pect of the s e l f as the l e v e l of symbolic thought o r p r i v a t e p e r c e p t i o n . L e a r y b e l i e v e d t h a t i t i s t h i s l e v e l of the psyche t h a t i s t h e sour c e of i m a g i n a t i o n , c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n , wishes and dreams. Symbols at t h i s l e v e l are seen as a form of communication w i t h the s e l f , as a p r i v a t e p r e c o n s c i o u s language. They a r e g e n e r a t e d , not as a response t o t h e c h a l l e n g e of t h e e x t e r n a l environment, but i n response t o i n t e r n a l d r i v e s . Spontaneous p r o d u c t i o n s from t h i s l e v e l o f t e n r e p r e s e n t i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of p s y c h i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a s u c c i n c t and e l e g a n t way, which words c o u l d suggest o n l y w i t h d i f f i c u l t y . They may e x p r e s s , w i t h i n s t a n t a n e o u s c l a r i t y , p s y c h i c themes t h a t have been pondered v e r b a l l y w i t h o u t success. L e a r y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s e images are of m y t h i c a l themes, and d e a l w i t h t h e s e l f as a s y m b o l i c h e r o i n a sy m b o l i c w o r l d . He c o n s i d e r e d t h e s e images t o be the p r i v a t e s y m b o l i c c o u n t e r p a r t s of the r e a l s e l f and r e a l w o r l d which are d e a l t w i t h a t the more c o n s c i o u s and p u b l i c l e v e l s of t h e psyche. L e a r y n o t e d t h a t t h e symbols at t h i s l e v e l a r e much more i n t e n s e and c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h emotion t h a n are symbols at more p u b l i c l e v e l s of the s e l f . Knapp (1969) p r o p o s e d t h a t m y t h i c a l thought p r e c e d e s d i s c u r s i v e thought i n t h e development of the i n d i v i d u a l , and he b e l i e v e d t h a t the c h i l d l i v e s on i n the man or woman: The p r i m i t i v e and m y t h i c a l view, t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l [ i . e . , n o n d i s c u r s i v e ] " image l i n k e d t o our e m o t i o n a l systems p e r s i s t s as our p e r s o n a l mythology. Much of memory has t h i s m y t h i c a l q u a l i t y . . . . (O)ne's p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y t e n d s t o be l a r g e l y a m y t h i c a l , f a n t a s y - t i n g e d , s y m b o l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of a p a s t s e l f . 9 (Knapp, 1969, pp. 395-396) The symbols p r o d u c e d a t t h e mythic c o r e appear t o be u n i v e r s a l or a r c h e t y p a l symbols, s i n c e the c o r e i s s u e s t h e m s e l v e s are u n i v e r s a l i s s u e s . These a r e t h e symbols e x p l o r e d i n t e n s i v e l y by C a r l Jung, Joseph Campbell, and E r n s t C a s s i r e r . The u n i v e r s a l s y m b o l i c language i s t h e language o f myth, f a i r y t a l e and a r t . I t appears t o be the predominant s y m b o l i c s t y l e of e a r l y h i s t o r y and o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . Fromm (1951) i d e n t i f i e d the u n i v e r s a l symbol as one i n which t h e r e i s an i n t r i n s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the symbol and t h a t which i t r e p r e s e n t s . I t s meaning i s " r o o t e d i n the e x p e r i e n c e of the a f f i n i t y between an emotion or thought, on t h e one hand, and a se n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e , on t h e o t h e r " (pp. 17-18). Fromm a l s o i d e n t i f i e d two o t h e r t y p e s of symbols: c o n v e n t i o n a l and a c c i d e n t a l . The c o n v e n t i o n a l symbol i s used by a r e s t r i c t e d group of p e o p l e who share a c o n v e n t i o n . Language and n a t i o n a l f l a g s are examples. The meaning i s d e f i n e d w i t h i n the c u l t u r e or group who share t h e symbol. The a c c i d e n t a l symbol i s a symbol t h a t t a k e s on p e r s o n a l , i n t r i n s i c meaning f o r the i n d i v i d u a l as a consequence o f i n d i v i d u a l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s , y e t t he meaning i s not s h a r e d w i t h o t h e r s . These symbols are com p r i s e d of a s s o c i a t i o n s of a s p e c t s of t h e s e l f w i t h p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t s , p l a c e s or sounds. They f r e q u e n t l y r e c u r i n t h e p r i v a t e image l i f e of t h e p e r s o n , as f o r example, i n dreams. Fromm s t a t e d t h a t o n l y u n i v e r s a l and a c c i d e n t a l symbols t r u l y e x p r e s s i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s t h e s e u n i v e r s a l and a c c i d e n t a l symbols which are b e i n g a c c e s s e d t h r o u g h v i s u a l imaging. In t h e p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n , the s o u r c e s of s y m b o l i c imagery and means by which i t i s p r o c e s s e d have been d e s c r i b e d . 10 The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s u c h i m a g e r y t o c o r e a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t was a l s o t o u c h e d upon. These p r o c e s s e s h a v e been c o v e r e d i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r t h e s p e c i f i c l i t e r a t u r e a b o u t t h e u s e o f v i s u a l i z a t i o n i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y w h i c h i s t o f o l l o w . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s y m b o l i c p r o c e s s e s a n d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t w i l l e n a b l e a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how s p e c i f i c v i s u a l i z a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s may o p e r a t e . I n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n s , some o f t h e ways i n w h i c h v i s u a l i z a t i o n h a s b e e n u s e d t o f a c i l i t a t e d e s i r e d p e r s o n a l c h a n g e s w i l l be o u t l i n e d . T h e r a p e u t i c U s e s o f I m a g e r y The p o t e n c y o f i m a g e r y a s a t o o l f o r a c h i e v i n g b e h a v i o r a l c h a n g e i s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e d e t a i l i n g i t s u s e i n v a r i o u s f o r m s o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y a n d b e h a v i o r m o d i f i c a t i o n . V i s u a l i z a t i o n i s p e r h a p s one o f t h e f e w t e c h n i q u e s u s e d by b o t h b e h a v i o r a l t h e r a p i s t s and a n a l y t i c a l t h e r a p i s t s , who g e n e r a l l y work f r o m d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k s . B e h a v i o r a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s h a v e b e e n f o r e r u n n e r s i n t h e u s e o f i m a g e r y f o r a c h i e v i n g b e h a v i o r c h a n g e . Some e x a m p l e s of b e h a v i o r a l t e c h n i q u e s u s i n g i m a g e r y a r e s y s t e m a t i c d e s e n s i t i z a t i o n , c o v e r t r e h e a r s a l , a n d s y m b o l i c o r c o v e r t m o d e l i n g . A l l of t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s make u s e o f d i r e c t e d i m a g e r y . S y s t e m a t i c d e s e n s i t i z a t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , i n v o l v e s f i r s t l e a r n i n g t o a c h i e v e deep r e l a x a t i o n a n d t h e n i m a g i n i n g s i t u a t i o n s t h a t a r e p r o g r e s s i v e l y c l o s e r a p p r o x i m a t i o n s t o t h e one w h i c h i s most t h r e a t e n i n g . The i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n s t h a t h e o r s h e i s a b l e t o r e m a i n r e l a x e d w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e c o n t e m p l a t i n g t h e f e a r e d s i t u a t i o n . I n c o v e r t r e h e a r s a l , t h e i n d i v i d u a l may be a s s i s t e d b y t h e t h e r a p i s t t o c o n s t r u c t an i m a g i n a l s e l f d e a l i n g w i t h a s i t u a t i o n i n a way which improves on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s u s u a l b e h a v i o r i n a v e r y s p e c i f i c way, such as i n " a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g . " A l t e r n a t i v e and more p r o d u c t i v e ways of r e s p o n d i n g t o f r u s t r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n s are suggested or d e v e l o p e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l and are r e h e a r s e d i n f a n t a s y . P o s s i b l e c o n t i n g e n c i e s can a l s o be a n t i c i p a t e d and e x p l o r e d i n t h e same way. In Meichenbaum 1s (1977) " s t r e s s i n n o c u l a t i o n , " r e h e a r s a l of imagery i s combined w i t h s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r more a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r . P o s s e s s i o n of a more s u c c e s s f u l response s e t h e l p s the i n d i v i d u a l t o modify b o t h t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e s i t u a t i o n and the p e r c e p t i o n of s e l f . Bandura (19 77) has been a major proponent o f s y m b o l i c or v i c a r i o u s modeling t e c h n i q u e s . He has demonstrated t h a t v i s u a l i z a t i o n o f o t h e r p e r s o n s , who engage s u c c e s s f u l l y i n e i t h e r a c t s of freedom from p h o b i a or a c t s of s e l f - c o n t r o l from unwanted i m p u l s i v e b e h a v i o r and are r e i n f o r c e d s o c i a l l y o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y f o r such a c t i o n s , can l e a d t o s i m i l a r l y e f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o r on the p a r t of the i n d i v i d u a l i n comparable c i r c u m s t a n c e s . C a u t e l a (1977) has a l s o made e x t e n s i v e use of imagery t e c h n i q u e s , based on Bandura's work. In C a u t e l a ' s c o v e r t modeling p r o c e d u r e , t h e c l i e n t i s i n s t r u c t e d t o f i r s t imagine another p e r s o n i n v o l v e d i n and then p e r f o r m i n g a d e s i r e d b e h a v i o r . The c l i e n t t h e n goes on t o imagine him- or h e r s e l f i n the same sequence, and t h e s e images are r e p e a t e d e x t e n s i v e l y . The imaging i s meant t o have t h e c l i e n t approach the d e s i r e d b e h a v i o r g r a d u a l l y i n i m a g i n a t i o n , i n a k i n d of o p e r a n t - s h a p i n g p r o c e d u r e . 12 T h i s t e c h n i q u e h a s r e c e i v e d e m p i r i c a l c o r r o b o r a t i o n , l a r g e l y t h r o u g h a s e r i e s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s by K a z d i n (1978). H i s s t u d i e s h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t c o v e r t m o d e l i n g i s e f f e c t i v e i n o v e r c o m i n g p h o b i a s and i n d e v e l o p i n g a s s e r t i v e behavior.' He h a s a l s o d e t e r m i n e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of image c o n t e n t s . A model who i s c o p i n g w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n w i t h some e f f o r t i s more e f f e c t i v e t h a n a model d e m o n s t r a t i n g c o m p l e t e m a s t e r y . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h a n o t h e r f i n d i n g , t h a t m o d e l s w i t h s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o t h e c l i e n t a r e more e f f e c t i v e t h a n d i s s i m i l a r ones. P e r h a p s t h i s e n c o u r a g e s g r e a t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e mo d e l . M u l t i p l e m odels a r e more e f f e c t i v e t h a n a s i n g l e model, b u t i m a g i n i n g o n e s e l f as a model i s no more e f f e c t i v e t h a n i m a g i n i n g a n o t h e r p e r s o n . G r e a t e r e l a b o r a t i o n of t h e images t e n d s t o l e a d t o g r e a t e r b e h a v i o r change. D i r e c t e d i m a g e r y i s a l s o b e i n g f o u n d t o be e f f e c t i v e i n o t h e r a r e a s o f s e l f - c h a n g e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t . V i s u a l i m a g i n g h a s been u s e d t o enhance empathy and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( B r y & B a i r , 1978; F r a n k , 1978; S i n g e r & S w i t z e r , 1980). V i s u a l i z i n g t h e b e h a v i o r s , t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s o f o t h e r s h a s b e e n f o u n d t o l e a d t o i n c r e a s e s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h o s e o t h e r s . C e r t a i n t y p e s o f g u i d e d f a n t a s y , humor and o t h e r f o r m s o f p o s i t i v e i m a g e r y h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o be b e n e f i c i a l i n d e a l i n g w i t h b o t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l d i s t r e s s ( S i n g e r , 1974, 1978b). S h u l t z (1978) f o u n d t h a t v i s u a l i z a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f s c e n e s l e d t o a r e d u c t i o n o f d e p r e s s i o n i n c l i n i c a l l y d e p r e s s e d a d u l t s . C o u s i n s (1979) f o u n d t h a t i n d u c i n g a p o s i t i v e m e n t a l s t a t e , and e s p e c i a l l y f r e q u e n t l a u g h t e r , was a major f a c t o r i n h i s r e c o v e r y f r o m a s e v e r e p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s . 13 Simonton, Matthews-Simonton and C r e i g h t o n (1978) have shown t h a t v i v i d imaging of p h y s i c a l s e l f - h e a l i n g can enhance the immune c a p a c i t i e s of p e o p l e w i t h c a n c e r . These p h y s i c a l h e a l i n g p r o c e s s e s may be due t o n e u r o c h e m i c a l consequences of p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s and p a t t e r n s of thought ( S i n g e r , 1978b). The above t e c h n i q u e s have used d i r e c t e d imagery, t h a t i s , h a v i n g the i n d i v i d u a l f o c u s on images chosen c o n s c i o u s l y and t h e n r e h e a r s e d . The r e a s o n f o r the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s p r o c e s s was e x p l a i n e d by Lang (1979). I n t h e imagery p r o c e d u r e he used, the c l i e n t was g i v e n a b e h a v i o r a l s c r i p t , an e l a b o r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e images t o be c o n s t r u c t e d , and t h e a f f e c t i v e r e s p o n s e s t o be e x p e r i e n c e d . In Lang's view, the b e h a v i o r a l s c r i p t , a l o n g w i t h t r a i n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n from the t h e r a p i s t , c o n s t i t u t e s an i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t of t h e image u l t i m a t e l y g e n e r a t e d i n the p a t i e n t ' s mind. He emphasizes t h a t such images are not m e r e l y shadow p e r c e p t u a l e x p e r i e n c e s ; the e m o t i o n a l image i s u n d e r s t o o d t o be a response s e t . That i s t o say, t h e image i s a k i n d of t e m p l a t e f o r o v e r t r e s p o n d i n g , and i t i s f o r t h i s r eason t h a t m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the image can be presumed t o be a v e h i c l e f o r b r o a d change i n the a f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o r of t h e p a t i e n t , (p. 19) Other t h e r a p i e s , w i t h more emphasis on i n s i g h t , make a p o i n t of w orking w i t h spontaneous imagery, i n o r d e r t o access more e m o t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f t h o u g h t . In t h i s t y p e of t h e r a p y , i t i s t h e s y m b o l i c v a l u e of images which emerge i n t o c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t makes them v a l u a b l e i n c l a r i f y i n g e m o t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s , and d e m o n s t r a t i n g where t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n l i e s . S i n g e r (1974) has e x p l o r e d some o f t h e uses of spontaneous imagery p r o d u c t i o n s (e.g., dreams, daydreams, and f a n t a s i e s ) w i t h i n t h e t h e r a p e u t i c s i t u a t i o n . He has found t h a t spontaneous imagery p r o d u c t i o n s can be used as a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e ways i n which p a t i e n t s o r i e n t 14 t h e m s e l v e s c o g n i t i v e l y t o t h e w o r l d — t h a t i s , t h e i r g e n e r a l i z e d e x p e c t a n c i e s , a n t i c i p a t o r y schemas and a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e w o r l d . S i n g e r p r o p o s e d t h a t s p o n t a n e o u s i m a g e r y p r o d u c t i o n s h a v e t h e a d v a n t a g e o f c i r c u m v e n t i n g p e o p l e ' s n o r m a l s e l f - d e c e p t i o n s , a n d t h a t t h e y o f t e n r e f l e c t a b r o a d e r s e n s i t i v i t y a nd a w a r e n e s s t h a n t h a t f o u n d i n more t a s k - o r i e n t e d t h i n k i n g . S p o n t a n e o u s i m a g e r y t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e r a p y a r e m a i n l y o f t w o t y p e s : p u r e l y s p o n t a n e o u s o r r e c e p t i v e v i s u a l i z a t i o n s ; and i n d u c e d o r g u i d e d v i s u a l i z a t i o n s . T h e s e l a t t e r a r e n o t t h e same as d i r e c t e d i m a g e r y . T h i s p o i n t w i l l be c l a r i f i e d f u r t h e r b e l o w . P u r e l y s p o n t a n e o u s f a n t a s i e s a r e i m a g i n e d s e q u e n c e s o f i m a g e s w h i c h a r e a l l o w e d t o assume w h a t e v e r c o n t e n t o r d i r e c t i o n i s n a t u r a l t o them. They a r e n o t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h . G u i d e d f a n t a s i e s a r e s t r u c t u r e d t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t by t h e t h e r a p i s t o r t h e v i s u a l i z e r , e i t h e r i n t e r m s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e f a n t a s y i s t o u n f o l d , o r i n t e r m s o f how t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t o r e a c t t o t h e f a n t a s y s i t u a t i o n s he o r she g e n e r a t e s . E x a m p l e s o f t h e r e c e p t i v e t e c h n i q u e a r e F r e u d ' s f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n t e c h n i q u e a n d J u n g ' s t e c h n i q u e o f a c t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n ( J u n g , 1 9 5 9 ) . I n a c t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n , t h e i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r s i n t o a s t a t e o f r e l a x e d a w a r e n e s s a n d t h e n i n v i t e s i m a g e s t o a p p e a r ; she o r he a t t e m p t s t o w a t c h them w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e . I f t h e p e r s o n w i s h e s , she o r he c a n i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e i m a g e s b y t a l k i n g t o them o r a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s . The i m a g e s a r e s u b s e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e t h e r a p i s t . J u n g u s e d a c t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n t o h e l p p e o p l e g e t i n t o u c h w i t h i m a g e s f r o m t h e d e e p e r a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f ; He s u g g e s t e d t h a t b y s y m b o l i z i n g u n c o n s c i o u s c o n t e n t s , one b r i n g s t h e m i n t o a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I d e a s and e m o t i o n s a r e p e r s o n i f i e d i n m y t h i c a l o r a r c h e t y p a l f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g p r i m o r d i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p s y c h e . I n t h e r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e , g u i d e d i m a g i n g t e c h n i q u e s a r e u s e d more f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e r a p y t h a n p u r e l y r e c e p t i v e i m a g i n g ; S u c h i m a g e s a p p e a r t o go more d i r e c t l y t o t h e c e n t e r o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n f l i c t s , - a n d i f c a r e f u l l y c h o s e n , a r e l i k e l y t o more c l e a r l y o f f e r a means o f e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l i n g w i t h t h o s e c o n f l i c t s . The i n d i v i d u a l i s i n s t r u c t e d t o e n t e r i n t o s p e c i f i c i m a g i n a r y s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o e l i c i t s i g n i f i c a n t e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s and t o b e o f u n i v e r s a l o r a r c h e t y p a l s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . F o r e x a m p l e , L e u n e r ( 1 9 6 9 ) , a German p s y c h i a t r i s t , d e v e l o p e d a t e c h n i q u e c a l l e d G u i d e d A f f e c t i v e I m a g e r y . I n t h i s m e t hod, t h e c l i e n t f i r s t b e comes d e e p l y r e l a x e d i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a m e d i t a t i v e s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . She o r he i s t h e n a s k e d t o v i s u a l i z e d i f f e r e n t i m a g i n a r y s i t u a t i o n s . A t a c e r t a i n d e p t h o f m e d i t a t i o n , t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s l o s e t h e i r o r d i n a r y m e a n i n g a n d t h e i r s y m b o l i c v a l u e i s s l o w l y r e v e a l e d ( K r e t s c h m e r , 1 9 6 9 ) . The p s y c h i c c o n f l i c t r e p r e s e n t e d i n a c o n d e n s e d s y m b o l i c f o r m c a n be d e a l t w i t h i n t h a t s y m b o l i c medium, a l e v e l c l o s e r t o t h e s o u r c e o f t h e c o n f l i c t t h a n more a n a l y t i c a l o r v e r b a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Hammer ( 1 9 6 7 ) , most p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a l a d j u s t m e n t l i e s on an i n f a n t i l e o r p r i m i t i v e a n d l a r g e l y p r e c o n s c i o u s l e v e l . S i n c e s y m b o l i c i m a g e s a p p e a r t o be t h e most s u i t a b l e v e h i c l e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r t h i s l e v e l , s u c h c o n f l i c t s a r e p e r h a p s b e s t r e s o l v e d t h r o u g h a d i a l o g u e o f s u c h i m a g e s . The s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n n e e d n o t b e u n d e r s t o o d c o n s c i o u s l y f o r a l t e r a t i o n i n a f f e c t a n d b e h a v i o r t o o c c u r (Hammer, 1967; K l i n g e r , 1 9 8 0 ; S h o r r , 1 9 7 4 ) . K l i n g e r (1980) h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t b y " o p e r a t i n g on t h e s y m b o l , " one i s p r o d u c i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u b s t r u c t u r e s t h a t m e d i a t e b o t h i m a g i n a l e x p r e s s i o n a n d o v e r t b e h a v i o r . L e u n e r s u g g e s t s t o t h e c l i e n t means o f " m a n a g i n g " t h e s y m b o l i c f i g u r e s t h a t a r i s e , a n d h i s t e c h n i q u e s h a v e p r o v e n h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e f o r t r e a t m e n t . One method i s t o h a v e t h e c l i e n t be g u i d e d b y one o f t h e b e n i g n s y m b o l i c f i g u r e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n g e n e r a t e d . L e u n e r f i n d s t h a t t h e r e i s a s p o n t a n e o u s i n n e r p s y c h i c p a c e m a k e r w h i c h c o n t r o l s a n d i n f l u e n c e s e a c h p e r s o n ' s t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s , a n d w h i c h i s g e n e r a l l y m a n i f e s t e d as a b e n i g n s y m b o l i c f i g u r e . When more t h r e a t e n i n g f i g u r e s a r e e n c o u n t e r e d , t h e y may be d e a l t w i t h b y c o n f r o n t a t i o n , f e e d i n g , r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , e x h a u s t i n g o r k i l l i n g , d e p e n d i n g on w h i c h method t h e t h e r a p i s t f e e l s w i l l be most e f f e c t i v e i n r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t . O t h e r s h a v e d e v e l o p e d s i m i l a r t e c h n i q u e s , a n d t h e p r e m i s e s on w h i c h t h e y a r e b a s e d a r e much t h e same: I n e a c h c a s e , t h e p e r s o n e n t e r s i n t o a s t a t e o f r e l a x a t i o n w h i c h h e l p s t h e c o n s c i o u s m i n d t o i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a n d p r e c o n s c i o u s e l e m e n t s o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y . C e n s o r s h i p i s t h u s g r e a t l y r e d u c e d , a nd i m p o r t a n t c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l f o r s e l f - i n t e g r a t i o n i s r e l e a s e d . S y m b o l i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n s t h e n become a v a i l a b l e a s i n d i c a t o r s o f i m p o r t a n t p s y c h i c c o n f l i c t s o r i s s u e s , w h i c h may t h e n be r e s o l v e d t h r o u g h c o n s c i o u s m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h o s e same s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . S u c h a r e s o l u t i o n h a s a p r o f o u n d i m p a c t , a s i t f a c i l i t a t e s t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s m a t e r i a l w i t h p r e c o n s c i o u s o r u n c o n s c i o u s m a t e r i a l i n a way t h a t more 17 a n a l y t i c a l t h e r a p i e s c a n n o t a c c o m p l i s h a s e a s i l y . The m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n h a s o u t l i n e d a w i d e a r r a y o f means b y w h i c h v i s u a l i z a t i o n c a n f a c i l i t a t e b e h a v i o r c h a n g e and p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . D i r e c t e d i m a g e r y a c t s a s a r e s p o n s e s e t f o r c h a n g e s i n o v e r t b e h a v i o r , w h i l e s p o n t a n e o u s i m a g e r y e n a b l e s e m e r g e n c e i n t o a w a r e n e s s a n d i n t e g r a t i o n o f p r e v i o u s l y u n r e c o g n i z e d a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f . Many p e o p l e who h a v e a c q u i r e d v i s u a l i z a t i o n s k i l l s w h i l e u n d e r g o i n g one o f t h e s e t h e r a p i e s h a v e commented t h a t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e s k i l l i t s e l f was v a l u a b l e . I t g a v e them a new t o o l f o r s e l f - c h a n g e t h a t c o u l d b e a p p l i e d i n many d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e i r l i v e s . T h i s s u b j e c t i v e r e s p o n s e t o l e a r n i n g a b o u t v i s u a l i z a t i o n i s e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . E n h a n c e d S e l f C o n c e p t Many c l i n i c i a n s who h a v e u s e d i m a g e r y t e c h n i q u e s w i t h t h e i r c l i e n t s h a v e r e p o r t e d t h a t f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h them e n h a n c e s t h e i r c l i e n t s ' b e l i e f i n t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o d i r e c t s e l f - c h a n g e . S i n g e r (1978a) b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e n s e o f s e l f - c o n t r o l was e n h a n c e d b e c a u s e i m a g e r y i s s o p r i v a t e , a n d he a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - e f f i c a c y i s i n c r e a s e d . K l i n g e r (1971) s t a t e d t h a t p e o p l e who a r e w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e i r f a n t a s y p r o c e s s e s a n d h a v e p r a c t i c e d m o d i f y i n g them h a v e a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l a p o w e r f u l t o o l f o r s e l f - d i r e c t i o n . He a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t a w a r e n e s s o f t h e m e a n i n g o f o n e ' s i n n e r l i f e c a n g r e a t l y i m p r o v e o n e ' s s e l f - c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n a s t u d y o f g u i d e d f a n t a s y as a p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n b y B l a n k m a n ( 1 9 8 0 ) , b o t h c l i e n t s and t h e r a p i s t s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e g u i d e d f a n t a s y t e c h n i q u e h a d c o n t r i b u t e d t o c h a n g e s i n t h e c l i e n t s ' m a s t e r y / s e l f - c o n c e p t , and i n t h e i r 18 a w a r e n e s s / u n d e r s t a n d i n g . C l i e n t s and t h e r a p i s t s r a t e d c l i e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s t o a s i n g l e g u i d e d f a n t a s y s e s s i o n . The c l i e n t s a l s o r a t e d t h e i r own r e s p o n s e s t o r e g u l a r t h e r a p y s e s s i o n s . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e g u i d e d f a n t a s y s e s s i o n , c l i e n t s r e p o r t e d an i n c r e a s e d i m p e t u s t o change a n d become more a s s e r t i v e , g r e a t e r a w areness o f f e e l i n g s , and a s t r o n g e r s e n s e o f m a s t e r y . Blankman p r o p o s e d t h a t i t may be t h a t such c o v e r t s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , s t i m u l a t e d by g u i d e d f a n t a s y , a r e more i m p o r t a n t t o t h e r a p e u t i c change i n some c a s e s t h a n t h e p a r t i c u l a r i m a g i n e d o r o v e r t e v e n t s which e l i c i t e d t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s . Blankman a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e c l i e n t s ' d e g r e e of a f f e c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t d u r i n g t h e g u i d e d f a n t a s y s e s s i o n , as r e p o r t e d by t h e t h e r a p i s t , was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c l i e n t s ' r a t i n g s o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of a t t i t u d e c h a n g e s t h e y e x p e r i e n c e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e t h e r a p y s e s s i o n . The c l i e n t s r a t e d t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e g u i d e d - f a n t a s y s e s s i o n as g r e a t e r t h a n or e q u a l t o t h e e f f e c t s of a c o n v e n t i o n a l t h e r a p e u t i c e n c o u n t e r . E n h a n c e d s e l f - f e e l i n g may be a r e s u l t o f a c q u i r i n g b e t t e r a c c e s s t o , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , one's i n n e r symbols and o f t h o s e a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e m o t i o n a l meaning. The s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e l f may be f e l t t o be i n some s e n s e more t r u t h f u l t h a n v e r b a l c o n c e p t s or l a b e l s s i n c e i m a g e r y i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be more c l o s e l y t i e d t o p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l s e n s a t i o n s t h a n i s v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n ( G e n d l i n , 1980; S i n g e r , 1978a). A n o t h e r s o u r c e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n may be i n l e a r n i n g how t o i d e n t i f y s i t u a t i o n s when s p e c i f i c d i r e c t e d i m a g e r y might be e f f e c t i v e l y g e n e r a t e d and f o c u s e d on f o r a s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e . 19 The r e c o g n i t i o n o f s i t u a t i o n s where t h i s may be c a l l e d f o r , and t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f what s o r t s o f i m a g e r y would be most e f f e c t i v e w o u l d a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o a g r e a t e r s e n s e o f c o n t r o l o v e r one's own d e v e l o p m e n t . Imagery A b i l i t i e s and Imagery C o n t e n t T h e r e appear t o be two components o f l e a r n i n g about v i s u a l i z a t i o n w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o an e n h a n c e d s e n s e o f s e l f . The f i r s t i s an a b i l i t y c o m p o n e n t — i n c r e a s i n g one's a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l and m o d i f y p e r s o n a l i m a g e r y . The s e c o n d i s a c o n t e n t c o m p o n e n t — l e a r n i n g t o g e n e r a t e i m a g e r y which c a n m a i n t a i n a p o s i t i v e o r s e l f - a f f i r m i n g p o i n t o f v i e w . R e s e a r c h on i m a g e r y a b i l i t i e s h a s f o c u s e d on two o f i t s d i m e n s i o n s : i m a g e r y c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y and i m a g e r y v i v i d n e s s . However, v i v i d n e s s a p p e a r s t o be o f l e s s i m p o r t a n c e t h a n c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y i n i m p a c t on p e r s o n a l i t y . The two f a c t o r s h a v e been f o u n d t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h b e h a v i o r a l change ( C a u t e l a & M c C u l l o u g h , 1978), w i t h t h e b e s t c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e two b e i n g h i g h l e v e l s o f b o t h v i v i d n e s s and c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y . The c o m b i n a t i o n t h a t h a s t h e l o w e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h b e h a v i o r a l change i s h i g h v i v i d n e s s and low c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y . F o r example, even i f a p e r s o n h a s v i v i d i m a g e r y , i f he o r she l a c k s t h e a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l t h e image, b e h a v i o r change i s u n l i k e l y . Such a p e r s o n may be u n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n a d a p t i v e i m a g e r y , and may c o n t i n u e t o r e v e r t t o m a l a d a p t i v e images. S t u d i e s o f c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e two i m a g e r y a b i l i t i e s and p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s h a v e i n d i c a t e d t h a t (a) h i g h s c o r e s on n e u r o t i c i s m a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low c o n t r o l and c l a r i t y ( v i v i d n e s s ) of image; (b) h i g h s c o r e s on e x t r a v e r s i o n a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h c o n t r o l and c l a r i t y o f image; and ( c ) h i g h 20 s c o r e s on s t a t e and t r a i t a n x i e t y are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low c o n t r o l and c l a r i t y of image (Euse & Haney, 1975). A c c o r d i n g t o Lane (1974), the two dime n s i o n s o f v i v i d n e s s and c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y a r e h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d and a r e not c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . Euse and Haney (1975) suggested t h a t they may be a u n i t a r y phenomenon, or may be a f f e c t e d by a common me d i a t o r . In a r e c e n t s t u d y , S t r o s a h l and Ascough (1981) found e v i d e n c e t h a t imagery a b i l i t i e s were i n c r e a s e d i n low imagery a b i l i t y s u b j e c t s over t h e c o u r s e of t h e r a p e u t i c t r e a t m e n t f o r t e s t a n x i e t y . They p o i n t e d out t h a t changing imagery a b i l i t y must be c o n s i d e r e d a p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e d u r i n g t h e r a p y , and t h a t changes i n imagery s t y l e and content may be r e l a t e d t o the degree o f t h e r a p e u t i c change. No measures of t h e s u b j e c t i v e e f f e c t s of such a change i n a b i l i t y were noted. Research has a l s o been conducted on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of imagery and thought c o n t e n t t o p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s and t o mood. Some of the l i t e r a t u r e e x p l o r i n g t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s o u t l i n e d h ere. Jerome S i n g e r and h i s a s s o c i a t e s have e x p l o r e d i n some d e t a i l t h e c o n t e n t themes of daydreams, which are one dimension of p e r s o n a l imagery. S i n g e r uses the term "daydreaming" t o s i g n i f y a s h i f t of a t t e n t i o n away from the e x t e r n a l environment and toward an " u n f o l d i n g sequence of p r i v a t e r e s p o n s e s made t o some i n t e r n a l s t i m u l u s " ( S i n g e r , 1975, p. 3 ) . S i n g e r and An t r o b u s (1972) r e g a r d e d daydreaming and t h e stream of c o n s c i o u s n e s s as ongoing m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of p e o p l e ' s image-making c a p a c i t i e s , and t h e y i n q u i r e d about the degree t o which d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e s of s t r u c t u r e or c o n t e n t of f a n t a s y p r o c e s s e s r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r and t o b r o a d e r a s p e c t s of p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e . In an e a r l i e r s t u d y , t h e y had developed a s e t o f s c a l e s t o t a p d i v e r s e a s p e c t s o f t h e s e i n n e r p r o c e s s e s . They h a d f o u n d t h a t d a y d r e a m i n g p a t t e r n s a p p e a r e d t o f o r m a b i p o l a r d i m e n s i o n i n w h i c h t h e more f a n c i f u l a s p e c t s o f i m a g i n a l b e h a v i o r l o a d e d a t one p o l e and more c o n t r o l l e d t h o u g h t f u l n e s s a t t h e o t h e r . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h Bakan's (1980) h y p o t h e s i s about "raw" and " c o o k e d " i m a g e r y . In a l a t e r r e p l i c a t i o n and e x t e n s i o n o f t h e i r e a r l i e r s t u d y , S i n g e r and A n t r o b u s (1972) s t u d i e d t h e daydream themes o f a sample o f 206 c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . They f o u n d t h r e e g e n e r a l d a y d r e a m i n g s t y l e s , w h ich a p p e a r e d t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h r e e g e n e r a l p e r s o n a l i t y s t y l e s . The t h r e e s t y l e s a r e d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : (a) a n x i o u s / p o o r a t t e n t i o n a l c o n t r o l ; (b) g u i l t y / f e a r o f f a i l u r e ; and ( c ) p o s i t i v e / c o n s t r u c t i v e (Huba, A n e s h e n s e l , & S i n g e r , 1981; S i n g e r & A n t r o b u s , 1972). P e o p l e w i t h t h e f i r s t two s t y l e s o f d a y d r e a m i n g , a n x i o u s o r g u i l t y , do n o t e n j o y o r a c c e p t t h e i r o n g o i n g i n n e r p r o c e s s e s , a n d a l s o d i s p l a y a low s e n s e of w e l l - b e i n g and s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e . P o s i t i v e d a y d r e a m e r s , on t h e o t h e r hand, a r e h i g h l y a c c e p t i n g of t h e i r daydreams and have p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n s t o them. I n a d d i t i o n , p o s i t i v e d a y d r e a m e r s a p p e a r t o h a v e g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l s e l f - c o n t r o l and c o n t r o l over t h e i r i m a g e r y t h a n do e i t h e r t h e a n x i o u s o r g u i l t y d a y d r e a m e r s . C a u t e l a and M c C u l l o u g h (1978) i d e n t i f i e d a g r o u p o f p e o p l e who t h e y c a l l e d " n e g a t i v e s c a n n e r s . " Such p e o p l e e v a l u a t e a l m o s t e v e r y t h i n g i n a n e g a t i v e way, w i t h t h e w o r s t c o n s e q u e n c e s b e i n g i m a g i n e d . C a u t e l a and M c C u l l o u g h b e l i e v e d t h a t s u c h b e h a v i o r i s l a r g e l y d e v e l o p e d and m a i n t a i n e d b y c o v e r t t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s , b u t t h e y f o u n d t h a t h a b i t u a l l y n e g a t i v e t h o u g h t s c o u l d be a l t e r e d b y p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o when t h e y o c c u r and c o n s c i o u s l y m o d i f y i n g them b y c o v e r t c o n d i t i o n i n g p r o c e d u r e s 22 such as c o v e r t r e i n f o r c e m e n t or c o v e r t m o d e l i n g . McKim (1980) p r o p o s e d t h a t " w o r r i e r s " a re t h e p a s s i v e v i c t i m s of n e g a t i v e i m a g i n a t i v e v e n t u r e s which t h e y cannot s t o p or d i r e c t . In c o n t r a s t , he b e l i e v e d p o s i t i v e t h i n k e r s c o n t r o l t h e i r i n n e r imagery, m a n i p u l a t e i t , t r a n s f o r m i t , and move i t a l o n g toward a d e s i r e d g o a l . McKim has suggested t h a t many pe o p l e have an i n a b i l i t y t o c o n t a c t t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n c o n s c i o u s l y and t o d i r e c t i t p r o d u c t i v e l y . With ti m e , however, he f e l t t h a t d i r e c t e d i m a g i n a t i o n c o u l d be de v e l o p e d , and one c o u l d become more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h i t and g a i n f r e e r access t o i t . S c h u l t z (1978) found t h a t v i s u a l i z a t i o n o f n e u t r a l or s e l f - e s t e e m enhancing scenes l e d t o a r e d u c t i o n o f d e p r e s s i o n i n c l i n i c a l l y d e p r e s s e d males. S i x t y w h i t e v e t e r a n s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o f o u r t r e a t m e n t groups. In a 10-minute i n d i v i d u a l i n d u c t i o n , each s u b j e c t was asked t o v i s u a l i z e one of f o u r images: (a) a g g r e s s i v e i m a g e r y — r e c a l l i n g someone d o i n g or s a y i n g something t h a t angered; (b) s o c i a l l y g r a t i f y i n g i m a g e r y — r e c a l l i n g someone s a y i n g or doi n g something t h a t made the s u b j e c t f e e l p l e a s e d ; (c) p o s i t i v e i m a g e r y — r e c a l l i n g a r e l a x i n g p l a c e i n n a t u r e ; o r (d) f r e e i m a g e r y — n o t c o n s c i o u s l y d i r e c t i n g mental e x p e r i e n c e . In a s e r i e s o f c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , and s t r u c t u r a l measures completed i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the i n d u c t i o n , s u b j e c t s were found t o produce s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower l e v e l s of d e p r e s s i o n a f t e r d i r e c t e d imagery t h a n a f t e r f r e e imagery. Imagery of a more s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d n a t u r e c o n t r i b u t e d t o g r e a t e r r e d u c t i o n of d e p r e s s i o n . D i f f e r e n t k i n d s of imagery were, however, more e f f e c t i v e w i t h d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of d e p r e s s i o n . F o r example, t h o s e s u b j e c t s whose d e p r e s s i o n was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by themes of dependency p r o d u c e d l o w e r l e v e l s o f d e p r e s s i o n a f t e r a g g r e s s i v e and s o c i a l l y g r a t i f y i n g i magery, whereas t h o s e d e p r e s s i v e s who t e n d e d t o be more s e l f - c r i t i c a l r e p o r t e d fewer s i g n s o f d e p r e s s i o n a f t e r s o c i a l l y g r a t i f y i n g and p o s i t i v e i m a g e r y . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h o s e who t e n d e d t o w a r d g u i l t y - d y s p h o r i c themes i n t h e i r d a y d r e a m i n g i n d i c a t e d more s i g n s o f d e p r e s s i o n a f t e r p o s i t i v e i m a g e r y t h a n a f t e r o t h e r i m a g e r y c o n d i t i o n s . The above s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h o u g h t and o f m e n t a l i m a g e r y i n p a r t i c u l a r have a s t r o n g e f f e c t on p e r s o n a l i t y and mood v a r i a b l e s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l o r e and q u a n t i f y t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h l e a r n i n g a b o u t , and p r a c t i c i n g , v i s u a l i z a t i o n w o u l d l e a d t o an i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l i n n e r e v e n t s . I t was a l s o of i n t e r e s t t o e x p l o r e whether o r n o t i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l i n n e r e v e n t s w o u l d be r e f l e c t e d i n an i n c r e a s e d b e l i e f i n a b i l i t y t o a f f e c t o u t e r e v e n t s , a s r e f l e c t e d i n g r e a t e r i n t e r n a l i t y o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . L o c u s of c o n t r o l i s a c o n s t r u c t s i g n i f y i n g one's d e g r e e of b e l i e f i n one's a b i l i t y t o h a v e c o n t r o l o v e r d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . G r e a t e r i n t e r n a l i t y o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i n d i c a t e s g r e a t e r b e l i e f i n p e r s o n a l a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l e x t e r n a l e v e n t s . T h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t l e a r n i n g about v i s u a l i z a t i o n may, i n f a c t , a f f e c t l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . S t a n t o n (1982) f o u n d t h a t t r a i n i n g i n r e l a x a t i o n , p o s i t i v e s u g g e s t i o n and s u c c e s s i m a g e r y i n c r e a s e d i n t e r n a l i t y o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . I n t h r e e 30-minute s e s s i o n s , 1 week a p a r t , s t u d e n t s were g u i d e d i n t o a s t a t e of p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l r e l a x a t i o n . They l i s t e n e d t o e g o - e n h a n c i n g s u g g e s t i o n s which c o n c e n t r a t e d p r i m a r i l y on t h e i r power t o change t h e m s e l v e s i n 24 ways t h e y m i g h t d e s i r e . S u g g e s t i o n s were b o t h g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c , w i t h e m p h a s i s on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o t a k e more c o n t r o l o f t h e i r own l i v e s . A b i l i t y t o m o d i f y o n e ' s own l o c u s o f c o n t r o l w i t h t h e use o f v i s u a l i z a t i o n would c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e c h a n g es i n s e n s e o f s e l f b e i n g e x p l o r e d i n t h i s s t u d y , and f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t v i s u a l i z a t i o n c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o a change i n l o c u s o f c o n t r o l would be v a l u a b l e . The P r e s e n t S t u d y The r e s e a r c h p r e s e n t e d above makes i t c l e a r t h a t v i s u a l i m a g i n g c a n be an e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r a c h i e v i n g b e h a v i o r a l change. However, t h e r e a p p e a r s t o h a v e been no s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f t h e i n n e r , s u b j e c t i v e c h a n g e s t h a t may o c c u r i n t h o s e who h a v e l e a r n e d t o u s e v i s u a l i m a g i n g f o r s e l f - c h a n g e . T h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h a t i s s u e . A s e a r c h of t h e l i t e r a t u r e c o u l d f i n d no i n s t r u m e n t s d e s i g n e d t o measure t h e s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f i n n e r change. A b r i e f q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t h e n d e v e l o p e d t o a t t e m p t t o e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n about t h i s s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e f r o m t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s t u d y and was a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p o s t t e s t t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . A n o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t r e l a t i n g t o t h e e f f e c t s o f i m a g e r y on p e r s o n a l i t y and mood v a r i a b l e s was a l s o u s e d . F o u r s u b s c a l e s from t h e I m a g i n a l P r o c e s s e s I n v e n t o r y ( S i n g e r & A n t r o b u s , 1972) were s e l e c t e d . The I m a g i n a l P r o c e s s e s I n v e n t o r y was d e v i s e d t o d e s c r i b e d a y d r e a m i n g themes, and as m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , was f o u n d t o be u s e f u l f o r d e t e r m i n i n g d a y d r e a m i n g and p e r s o n a l i t y s t y l e s . A l l o f t h e f o u r s u b s c a l e s u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o be h i g h l y p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a p o s i t i v e d a y d r e a m i n g s t y l e . The f o u r s c a l e s were: P o s i t i v e R e a c t i o n s m Daydreaming, A c c e p t a n c e o f D a y d r e a m i n g , P r o b l e m S o l v i n g Daydreams, and V i s u a l Imagery i n Daydreams. I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t l e a r n i n g a b o u t v i s u a l i z a t i o n would i n c r e a s e p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s on t h e s e s u b s c a l e s . L o c u s of c o n t r o l was measured by t h e S p h e r e s o f C o n t r o l t e s t ( P a u l h u s & C h r i s t i e , 1981). Two measures o f imagery a b i l i t i e s were i n c l u d e d : t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on Imagery C o n t r o l (Lane, 1974) which measures i m a g e r y c o n t r o l , and t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Upon M e n t a l Imagery (Sheehan, 1967; R i c h a r d s o n , 1969) which measures i m a g e r y v i v i d n e s s . L o c u s of c o n t r o l was measured b y t h e S p h e r e s o f C o n t r o l t e s t ( P a u l h u s & C h r i s t i e , 1 981). P a r t i c i p a n t s were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s , e a c h o f w h i c h was e x p o s e d t o a d i f f e r e n t amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n about, and p r a c t i c e w i t h , v i s u a l i z a t i o n . The g r o u p s were t h e n compared on a s e r i e s o f measures c o m p l e t e d b e f o r e and 2 weeks a f t e r t h e t r e a t m e n t . The f o u r g r o u p s were c o n s t i t u t e d a s f o l l o w s : (1) t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p r e c e i v e d no f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n ; (2) a s e c o n d g r o u p was g i v e n a b r i e f p r e s e n t a t i o n a b o u t v i s u a l i z a t i o n ( t h e d i d a c t i c t r e a t m e n t g r o u p ) ; (3) t h e t h i r d g r o u p was g i v e n t h e same p r e s e n t a t i o n p l u s a workshop t o p r a c t i c e v i s u a l i z a t i o n and d i s c u s s t h e i m a g e r y e x p e r i e n c e d (workshop o n l y g r o u p ) ; and (4) t h e f o u r t h g r o u p h a d t h e same t r e a t m e n t as t h e t h i r d g r o up, and t h e n p r a c t i c e d v i s u a l i z a t i o n o v e r t h e f o l l o w i n g 2-week p e r i o d (workshop p l u s p r a c t i c e g r o u p ) . The s t u d y was i n t e n d e d t o e s t a b l i s h i f c h a n g e s i n a t t i t u d e s about t h e s e l f w o u l d o c c u r when p a r t i c i p a n t s were f a m i l i a r i z e d w i t h v i s u a l i z a t i o n , and i t a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o r e c o r d t h e s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h a t change. F u r t h e r , i t was b e l i e v e d 26 t h a t e x p o s u r e t o i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t and p r a c t i c e w i t h v i s u a l i z a t i o n would l e a d p a r t i c i p a n t s t o e x p e r i e n c e an i n c r e a s e i n p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l i m a g e r y themes, and an i n c r e a s e i n i n t e r n a l i t y o f l o c u s of c o n t r o l . Imagery c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y and v i v i d n e s s were a l s o t e s t e d b e f o r e and a f t e r t r e a t m e n t t o see i f any c h a n g e s i n t h e s e a b i l i t i e s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h c h a n ges i n t h e above p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s . The h y p o t h e s e s t e s t e d were: (a) V i s u a l i z a t i o n t r a i n i n g w o u l d l e a d t o e n h a n c e d a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e l f as a s s e s s e d by t h e P e r s o n a l Response Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . (b) V i s u a l i z a t i o n t r a i n i n g would l e a d t o an e n h a n c e d b e l i e f i n p e r s o n a l a b i l i t y t o d i r e c t s e l f - c h a n g e as a s s e s s e d by t h e P e r s o n a l Response Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . (c) V i s u a l i z a t i o n t r a i n i n g would l e a d t o more p o s i t i v e themes i n t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' i m a g e r y as a s s e s s e d b y s u b s c a l e s o f t h e I m a g i n a l P r o c e s s e s I n v e n t o r y . (d) V i s u a l i z a t i o n w o u l d l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d i n t e r n a l i t y o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l as a s s e s s e d by t h e S p h e r e s o f C o n t r o l t e s t . T h i s change was a n t i c i p a t e d t o o c c u r p r i m a r i l y i n t h e p e r s o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t s u b s c a l e . (e) V i s u a l i z a t i o n t r a i n i n g w o u l d l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d v i v i d n e s s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' i m a g e r y as a s s e s s e d by t h e Q u e s t i o n -n a i r e Upon M e n t a l Imagery. ( f ) V i s u a l i z a t i o n t r a i n i n g w o u l d l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d c o n t r o l l a -b i l i t y o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' i m a g e r y as a s s e s s e d b y t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on Imagery C o n t r o l . W ith r e g a r d t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e g r o u p s , t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were e x p e c t e d : 27 (g) The g r e a t e s t c h a n g e s f r o m p r e t e s t t o p o s t t e s t w e r e e x p e c t e d i n t h e w o r k s h o p p l u s p r a c t i c e g r o u p , w i t h l e s s c h a n g e a n t i c i p a t e d i n t h e w o r k s h o p o n l y g r o u p a n d s t i l l l e s s i n t h e d i d a c t i c t r e a t m e n t g r o u p . (h) The w o r k s h o p p l u s p r a c t i c e g r o u p was e x p e c t e d t o e x p r e s s t h e g r e a t e s t s u b j e c t i v e s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l c h a n g e w h i l e t h e w o r k s h o p o n l y a n d d i d a c t i c g r o u p s w o u l d e x p r e s s p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s o f t h a t s e n t i m e n t . 28 Method S u b j e c t s The sample was composed of 32 a d u l t v o l u n t e e r s froxa C a l g a r y who were r e c r u i t e d by p o s t e r s f o r a study on v i s u a l i z a t i o n . The m a j o r i t y were s t u d e n t s at t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y . There were 19 f emales and 13 males. The s u b j e c t s ' ages ranged from 18 t o 50, t h e mean b e i n g 26.3 y e a r s . No compensation was g i v e n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P rocedure The s u b j e c t s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o f o u r g r o u p s : (a) a no t r e a t m e n t c o n t r o l group; (b) a d i d a c t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n group; (c) a group which r e c e i v e d a p r e s e n t a t i o n and a workshop t o l e a r n about v i s u a l i z a t i o n (workshop o n l y g r o u p ) , and (d) a group which r e c e i v e d t h e same p r e s e n t a t i o n and workshop, and a l s o p r a c t i c e d v i s u a l i z a t i o n d u r i n g the 2-week p e r i o d between p r e -and p o s t t e s t s (workshop p l u s p r a c t i c e g r o u p ) . O r i g i n a l l y , e i g h t s u b j e c t s were a s s i g n e d t o each of the f o u r groups. However, two s u b j e c t s f a i l e d t o complete t h e s t u d y because of p e r s o n a l time c o n s t r a i n t s . In t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h e r e were e i g h t s u b j e c t s i n two groups ( t h e c o n t r o l and t h e workshop o n l y g r o u p s ) , and seven s u b j e c t s i n the o t h e r two groups (the d i d a c t i c and t h e workshop p l u s p r a c t i c e g r o u p s ) . A t o t a l of 19 females and 11 males remained. A l l groups completed a s e r i e s of f o u r t e s t s , which were completed as b o t h p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s , 2 weeks a p a r t , w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups r e c e i v i n g t h e i r t r e a t m e n t s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e p r e t e s t s . The c o n t r o l group completed o n l y the f o u r t e s t s , whereas t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups completed t h e same f o u r t e s t s , i n a d d i t i o n t o a p o s t t e s t - o n l y measure. Each s e t of 29 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o o k a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 m i n u t e s t o f i l l o u t . The c o n t r o l g r o u p r e c e i v e d no o t h e r t r e a t m e n t . The d i d a c t i c t r e a t m e n t g r o u p , a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g t h e p r e t e s t s , r e c e i v e d a h a l f - h o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t how v i s u a l i z a t i o n c a n be u s e d , v e r b a l v e r s u s i m a g e r y p r o c e s s i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n , d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s o f s ymbolism, r e c e p t i v e v e r s u s d i r e c t e d v i s u a l i z a t i o n , how t o i n t e r p r e t symbols, and some examples of v i s u a l i z a t i o n s t h a t have been e f f e c t i v e f o r o t h e r s . The g r o u p w h i c h c o m p l e t e d t h e workshop o n l y went t h r o u g h t h e same p r e t e s t s and a s i m i l a r i n t r o d u c t o r y d i s c u s s i o n as d i d t h e d i d a c t i c g r o u p , b u t t h e n went on t o e x p e r i e n c e a s e r i e s o f v i s u a l i z a t i o n s d i r e c t e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . T h i s g r o u p was g i v e n a few b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s t o remember w h i l e v i s u a l i z i n g , s u c h as t r y i n g n o t t o c r i t i c i z e t h e m s e l v e s f o r any " s i l l y " or n e g a t i v e images, n o t w o r r y i n g a b o u t whether t h e image was v i v i d o r n o t , e t c e t e r a . They were t h e n l e d t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f b r i e f v i s u a l i z a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f and o f s e l f - c h a n g e . F o l l o w i n g t h e v i s u a l i z a t i o n s , e v e r y o n e d e s c r i b e d t h e i r v i s u a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s and i n t e r p r e t e d them. Some o f t h e f u r t h e r p o t e n t i a l u s e s f o r v i s u a l i z a t i o n were i n t r o d u c e d at t h i s t i m e . T h e s e i n c l u d e d e x p l o r a t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , p h y s i c a l h e a l i n g , g o a l - s e t t i n g , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and memory r e c a l l . C r e a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e t e c h n i q u e was e n c o u r a g e d . A n o t h e r b r i e f s e r i e s o f v i s u a l i z a t i o n s was t h e n d i r e c t e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r , w h i c h were a g a i n d i s c u s s e d and i n t e r p r e t e d . The workshop t o o k a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1-1/2 h o u r s . The workshop p l u s p r a c t i c e g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e d a s i m i l a r workshop t o t h a t g i v e n t o t h e workshop o n l y g r o u p , and t h e y were 30 a l s o asked t o v i s u a l i z e as f r e q u e n t l y as t h e y had time f o r i n th e next 2 weeks b e f o r e t h e p o s t t e s t s . They r e c o r d e d b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e i r v i s u a l i z a t i o n s from t h a t 2-week p e r i o d , and s u b m i t t e d them t o the e x p e r i m e n t e r at the tim e o f t h e p o s t t e s t s . Measures F i v e measurement i n s t r u m e n t s were used, and a copy o f each i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e Appendix. The f i r s t f o u r were used as both p r e - and p o s t t e s t s , w h i l e t h e f i f t h was used o n l y as a p o s t t e s t . The f i r s t i n s t r u m e n t was made up of f o u r s u b s c a l e s from the I m a g i n a l P r o c e s s e s I n v e n t o r y ( I P I ) ( S i n g e r & A n t r o b u s , 1972). The f o u r s u b s c a l e s were P o s i t i v e R e a c t i o n s i n Daydreams, Acceptance of Daydreaming, V i s u a l Imagery i n Daydreams, and Problem S o l v i n g Daydreams. These f o u r s u b s c a l e s were s e l e c t e d because t h e y a re h i g h l y p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a p o s i t i v e - c o n s t r u c t i v e s t y l e of daydreaming. There a r e 12 items i n each s c a l e and th e y were d i v i d e d i n h a l f , so t h a t h a l f of each s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d as a p r e t e s t , and h a l f as a p o s t t e s t , f o r a t o t a l of 24 items i n each t e s t . Each form was used as a p r e t e s t f o r h a l f o f the s u b j e c t s and a p o s t t e s t f o r the r e m a i n i n g h a l f . Each i t e m on t h e s e s c a l e s makes a statement about daydreaming and i s ranked on a 5- p o i n t s c a l e , v e r y t r u e or  s t r o n g l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of me (5) t o d e f i n i t e l y n o t t r u e o r s t r o n g l y u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of me ( 1 ) . S i x t e e n of t h e items on the two t e s t s ivere worded n e g a t i v e l y , and t h e s u b j e c t s ' r a t i n g s on t h e s e items were r e v e r s e d b e f o r e t h e i r s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d . The s u b j e c t s ' mean s c o r e s f o r each s u b s c a l e were c a l c u l a t e d , as w e l l as t h e i r mean s c o r e s f o r the t e s t as a whole. The second measure used was the Spheres o f C o n t r o l t e s t (SOC) (Paulhus & C h r i s t i e , 1981). The SOC i s com p r i s e d of 30 item s t e s t i n g t h e s u b j e c t s ' l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s p h e r e s : p e r s o n a l achievement, i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l , and s o c i o p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l . There a r e 10 ite m s i n each s u b s c a l e . Each i t e m i s a statement about one's sense of c o n t r o l i n one of th e s e a r e a s , and i t i s r a t e d on a 7-point s c a l e r a n g i n g from D i s a g r e e (1) t o Agree ( 7 ) . H a l f of the items i n each s u b s c a l e are worded n e g a t i v e l y , and t h e s c o r e s a re r e v e r s e d b e f o r e b e i n g t o t a l l e d ^ A l p h a r e l i a b i l i t i e s of .75 - .80 have been o b t a i n e d f o r t h e s u b s c a l e s on c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n samples. T e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s at 4 weeks are above .90 and a t 6 months are above .70 f o r a l l t h r e e s u b s c a l e s . In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e s u b j e c t s ' mean s c o r e s f o r each s u b s c a l e , and f o r t h e t e s t as a whole were c a l c u l a t e d ^ The t h i r d i n s t r u m e n t used i n t h e s t u d y was Sheehan's s h o r t e n e d form of B e t t s ' Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Upon M e n t a l Imagery (QMI) (Sheehan, 1967; R i c h a r d s o n , 1969) which measures c l a r i t y of imagery i n a v a r i e t y of s e n s o r y m o d a l i t i e s . I t i s comprised of 35 q u e s t i o n s , w i t h f i v e q u e s t i o n s i n each o f seven s e n s o r y m o d a l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g v i s u a l , a u d i t o r y , cutaneous, k i n a e s t h e t i c , g u s t a t o r y , o l f a c t o r y , and o r g a n i c (body f e e l i n g s such as d r o w s i n e s s ) . The t e s t asks s u b j e c t s t o r a t e the c l a r i t y of a s p e c i f i e d image i t e m on a s c a l e of seven, from p e r f e c t l y c l e a r and as v i v i d as t h e a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e (1) t o no image p r e s e n t at a l l , you o n l y "knowing" t h a t you are t h i n k i n g o f t h e o b j e c t ( 7 ) . The t e s t was s c o r e d by summing the r a t i n g s and d e t e r m i n i n g the mean f o r each s u b j e c t ^ A c c o r d i n g t o Sheehan (1967), a s i n g l e component appears t o 32 be l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e v a r i a n c e o f s c o r e s w i t h i n e a c h m o d a l i t y . A l l i t e m s l o a d h i g h l y on t h i s f a c t o r , a n d t h e r e do n o t a p p e a r t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u b j e c t s ' i m a g e r y a b i l i t i e s i n d i f f e r e n t m o d a l i t i e s . The v a l i d i t y o f t h e t e s t h a s b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d r e p e a t e d l y b y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d b e t w e e n s c o r e s on t h e t e s t a n d t h e d i r e c t e v o c a t i o n o f i m a g e r y i n a w i d e v a r i e t y o f e x p e r i m e n t a l s e t t i n g s . The f o u r t h m e a s u r e u s e d i n t h e s t u d y was t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e On I m a g e r y C o n t r o l (QIC) w h i c h m e a s u r e s i m a g e r y c o n t r o l ( L a n e , 1 9 7 4 ) . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e , l i k e t h e QMI, h a s 35 q u e s t i o n s , f i v e i n e a c h o f t h e s e v e n s e n s o r y m o d a l i t i e s l i s t e d a b o v e . I n e a c h i t e m , a n image i s s u g g e s t e d , a n d t h e n a c h a n g e i n t h e image i s d e s c r i b e d . The s u b j e c t i s a s k e d t o r a t e t h e i t e m b e t w e e n 0 a n d 4 a c c o r d i n g t o h i s o r h e r a b i l i t y t o i m a g i n e e a c h p a r t o f t h e i t e m , a b i l i t y t o c h a n g e t h e f i r s t t o t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e i m a g e , a n d a b i l i t y t o h o l d t h e i m a g es i n i m a g i n a t i o n . I n L a n e ' s o r i g i n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t , t h e t o t a l s c o r e h a d a n i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t y o f .85. P o r t h i s s t u d y , t h e mean s c o r e was u s e d . The f i n a l m e a s u r e u s e d was, a s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , s t r i c t l y a p o s t t e s t , and i t was g i v e n o n l y t o t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . C a l l e d t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t c o n t a i n e d s i x q u e s t i o n s . The f i r s t a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t h a d u s e d v i s u a l i z a t i o n d u r i n g t h e p a s t t w o weeks, a n d how o f t e n . The o t h e r q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s u b j e c t i v e r e s p o n s e s t o l e a r n i n g a b o u t v i s u a l i z a t i o n . The s e c o n d q u e s t i o n a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e y f e l t t h a t v i s u a l i z a t i o n c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g . A n s w e r s r a n g e d f r o m Has t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r i n t e r f e r i n g g r e a t l y w i t h s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g (1) t o Has t h e 33 p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r i b u t i n g g r e a t l y t o s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( 7 ) . The t h i r d q u e s t i o n asked whether l e a r n i n g about v i s u a l i z a t i o n had l e f t them f e e l i n g d i f f e r e n t l y about an aspect of themselves. Answers ranged from I f e e l not at a l l d i f f e r e n t (1) t o I f e e l  very d i f f e r e n t ( 4 ). The f o u r t h question asked whether they f e l t v i s u a l i z a t i o n would be u s e f u l i n t h e i r own f u t u r e p e r s o n a l development. The answers ranged from May be ve r y harmful t o  pe r s o n a l development (1) to May be very u s e f u l f o r personal  development ( 7 ) . The f i f t h q u e s t i o n asked the extent t o which they f e l t they would make use of v i s u a l i z a t i o n i n t h e i r own f u t u r e p e r s o n a l development. Answers ranged from Not at a l l (1) t o A great deal ( 4 ). F o l l o w i n g each of these questions p a r t i c i p a n t s were encouraged t o e l a b o r a t e on t h e i r answers. The f i n a l question asked the p a r t i c i p a n t what was the most valuable t h i n g l e a r n e d from the workshop or l e c t u r e attended. I t was hoped that these open-ended questions would encourage them to put what they had exp e r i e n c e d i n t o t h e i r own words. Each of these questions was analyzed s e p a r a t e l y . The workshop p l u s p r a c t i c e group was a l s o asked t o maintain a r e c o r d of t h e i r v i s u a l i z a t i o n s f o r the 2-week p e r i o d between p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t . The contents of these r e c o r d s were analyzed i n f o r m a l l y f o r d i v e r s i t y of t o p i c s , f o r complexity, f o r symbolic content, and f o r evidence of a p r o g r e s s i o n i n s t y l e or content of v i s u a l imagery. 34 R e s u l t s I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h o s e i n t h e w o r k s h o p p l u s p r a c t i c e g r o u p w o u l d a n s w e r most p o s i t i v e l y a n d t h o s e i n t h e d i d a c t i c g r o u p w o u l d answer l e a s t p o s i t i v e l y o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s w h i c h c o m p l e t e d i t . Of t h e d i d a c t i c t r e a t m e n t g r o u p , f i v e h a d u s e d v i s u a l i z a t i o n i n t h e 2-week i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n p r e - and p o s t t e s t , on a v e r a g e 2 t o 3 t i m e s . I n t h e w o r k s h o p o n l y g r o u p , f i v e p e o p l e h a d u s e d v i s u a l i z a t i o n , f o r an a v e r a g e o f 3 t i m e s . I n t h e w o r k s h o p p l u s p r a c t i c e g r o u p , who h a d a l l b e e n r e q u e s t e d t o p r a c t i c e , a l l h a d done s o , f o r an a v e r a g e o f 7 t i m e s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d h e r e t h a t t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e h a d a s t r o n g component o f s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y w h i c h l i k e l y a c c o u n t e d f o r some o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d . The e x p e r i m e n t e r was p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n r e c r u i t i n g , t r a i n i n g a n d t e s t i n g t h e s u b j e c t s . T h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e w o r k s h o p s s p e n t s e v e r a l h o u r s a l t o g e t h e r i n s m a l l g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r , a n d t h e demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t u d y were p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y g r e a t e r f o r t h e s e g r o u p s t h a n f o r t h o s e i n t h e d i d a c t i c g r o u p . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among t h e g r o u p s was f o u n d o n l y f o r t h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h a s k e d t h e s u b j e c t s t o r a n k t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y b e l i e v e d v i s u a l i z a t i o n h a d t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r i n t e r f e r i n g o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , F ( 2 , 20) = 4.59, p_<.03. The s c a l e r a n g e d f r o m Has t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r  i n t e r f e r i n g g r e a t l y w i t h s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g (1) t h r o u g h I s l i k e l y t o n e i t h e r i n t e r f e r e n o r c o n t r i b u t e t o s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g (4) t o Has t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r i b u t i n g g r e a t l y t o  s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( 7 ) . I n g e n e r a l , a l l o f t h e g r o u p s f e l t t h a t 35 v i s u a l i z a t i o n c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g . A Student-Newman-Keuls m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n s t e s t (p = .05) f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b etween t h e d i d a c t i c and workshop o n l y g r o u p s , and between t h e workshop o n l y and workshop p l u s p r a c t i c e g r o u p s on t h i s q u e s t i o n . On t h e n e x t t h r e e q u e s t i o n s , a l l t h r e e g r o u p s r e s p o n d e d q u i t e s i m i l a r l y , and no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b etween t h e g r o u p s were f o u n d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . The s e c o n d q u e s t i o n a s k e d t h e e x t e n t t o wh i c h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t d i f f e r e n t l y a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s , r a n g i n g from Not a t a l l d i f f e r e n t (1) t o V e r y d i f f e r e n t ( 4 ) . On a v e r a g e , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t "a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t " a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s as a r e s u l t o f l e a r n i n g about v i s u a l i z a t i o n . The t h i r d q u e s t i o n a s k e d t h e s u b j e c t t o r a n k t h e e x t e n t t o whi c h she or he f e l t v i s u a l i z a t i o n m i g h t be u s e f u l f o r h e r o r h i s own f u t u r e p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . Ranks r a n g e d f r o m May be  v e r y h a r m f u l (1) t h r o u g h I s l i k e l y n e i t h e r h a r m f u l n o r u s e f u l (4) t o May be v e r y u s e f u l f o r p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( 7 ) . Most s u b j e c t s f e l t t h a t v i s u a l i z a t i o n might be m o d e r a t e l y t o v e r y u s e f u l i n t h e i r own p e r s o n a l development^ The f o u r t h q u e s t i o n a s k e d s u b j e c t s a b o u t t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e y f e l t t h e y w o u l d make u s e o f v i s u a l i z a t i o n i n t h e i r own f u t u r e p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , r a n g i n g f r o m Not a t a l l (1) t o A g r e a t d e a l ( 4 ) . They i n d i c a t e d , f o r t h e most p a r t , t h a t t h e y b e l i e v e d t h e y w o u l d use i t i n "a moderate amount." T a b l e 1 i n d i c a t e s t h e mean r e s p o n s e f o r e a c h g r o u p and f o r a l l g r o u p s , f o r e a c h o f t h e f o u r q u e s t i o n s on t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 36 T a b l e 1 Mean S c o r e s f o r t h e P e r s o n a l R e s p o n s e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Q u e s t i o n U n d e r s t a n d F e e l U s e f u l f o r F u t u r e S e l f D i f f e r e n t D e v e l o p m e n t Use 2 D i d a c t i c 5.50 1.63 5. 50 2.63 3 W o r k s h o p O n l y 6.86 2.43 6.43 3.14 4 W orkshop & P r a c t i c e 5.88 2.25 6. 13 2.88 T o t a l 6.04 2.09 6.00 2.87 The q u e s t i o n w h i c h a s k e d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s what was t h e most v a l u a b l e t h i n g t h e y h a d l e a r n e d f r o m t h e l e c t u r e o r w o r k s h o p was a n s w e r e d w i t h a w h o l e r a n g e o f r e s p o n s e s . They were t h e same k i n d s o f r e s p o n s e s a s t h o s e m e n t i o n e d i n t h e comments f o l l o w i n g t h e o t h e r q u e s t i o n s . T h e r e was n o c l e a r p a t t e r n o f "most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g l e a r n e d " i n any o f t h e g r o u p s , o r f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s as a w h o l e . A l l o f t h e s e comments w i l l t h e r e f o r e be o u t l i n e d h e r e t o g e t h e r . F o u r p e o p l e m e n t i o n e d t h e e f f e c t t h a t l e a r n i n g a b o u t v i s u a l i z a t i o n h a d on e n a b l i n g them t o r e l a x , t o become c a l m e r , or t o c h a n g e t h e i r moods. F i v e p e o p l e f e l t i t h a d h e l p e d them t o u n d e r s t a n d d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e m s e l v e s , a n d t o g a i n g r e a t e r s e l f - a w a r e n e s s . F o u r f e l t i t e n a b l e d them t o u n d e r s t a n d p e r s o n a l e m o t i o n s , a n d s e e t h e s o u r c e s o f t h o s e e m o t i o n s , as w e l l a s i n c r e a s i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o t h e r p e o p l e . Two p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t i t g a v e them a f e e l i n g o f e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y and a s e n s e o f p e r s p e c t i v e , o r c o n v e r s e l y , t h a t i t r e d u c e d 37 i s o l a t i o n and aloneness. It was said by four participants to have contributed to a greater sense of self-esteem and self-confidence, as well as leaving three with a fe e l i n g of having greater future p o t e n t i a l . V i s u a l i z a t i o n was seen by three people as having p a r t i c u l a r value for problem-solving, for attaining s p e c i f i c goals, or for preparing for future situations. Related to t h i s , i t was described by four people as being useful for achieving s e l f - c o n t r o l , s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , or for taking greater control over more aspects of l i f e . The workshop plus practice group kept a record of th e i r v i s u a l i z a t i o n s for the 2-week period between pretest and posttest. They reported an average of 7 v i s u a l i z a t i o n s each, ranging from a low of 2 to a high of 11. The content analysis of the v i s u a l i z a t i o n s of t h i s group indicated some progression i n terms of style and content of imagery, although the progression was not major, because of the short time involved. It was, however, clear that most of the participants had incorporated from the workshop s u f f i c i e n t knowledge about, and understanding of, v i s u a l i z a t i o n to enable them to apply i t c r e a t i v e l y in many aspects of t h e i r own l i v e s . The primary themes of the v i s u a l i z a t i o n s were self-exploration, problem-solving, relationships with others, mood al t e r i n g , exploring physical sensations, pure fantasy, and physical healing. Those who recorded the greatest number of vis u a l i z a t i o n s tended to demonstrate a greater range of subjects touched on. In some cases, repeated v i s u a l i z a t i o n s about a single topic demonstrated greater resolution or "success" in later v i s u a l i z a t i o n s . For example, one par t i c i p a n t who had been 38 i n a box and u n a b l e t o get out o f i t i n one v i s u a l i z a t i o n was a b l e t o escape i t i n a subsequent v i s u a l i z a t i o n on another day. V i s u a l i z a t i o n s t o s o l v e s p e c i f i c problems o f t e n met w i t h s u c c e s s , and l e d t o p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s about th e s e l f or the problem. R e l a x i n g or humorous f a n t a s i e s were o f t e n i n v o k e d i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a change i n mood or a t t i t u d e . Symbolic o r m e t a p h o r i c a l images appeared i n a t l e a s t one of t h e v i s u a l i z a t i o n s of each member of t h i s group. The symbolism i n some c a s e s was r e l a t i v e l y t r a n s p a r e n t , w h i l e i n o t h e r s i t was more obscure and was s i m i l a r t o a dream image. In some c a s e s , such images might be c a l l e d m y t h i c a l i n c h a r a c t e r . Some of the most p o w e r f u l images appeared t o o c c u r when no p r e d e t e r m i n e d agenda f o r t h e v i s u a l i z a t i o n had been s e t . In such c a s e s , r e c e p t i v e images would come t o mind, a g a i n much l i k e a dream i n n a t u r e . Many v i s u a l i z a t i o n s e x p l o r e d a s p e c t s of t h e s e l f , u s u a l l y m e t a p h o r i c a l l y . A p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s was done on t h e p r e - and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s f o r each of t h e o t h e r f o u r measures t o e s t a b l i s h whether or n o t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s . The p r e t e s t o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on M e n t a l Imagery (QMI) was the o n l y measure on which a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found. The f e m a l e s r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r v i v i d n e s s of imagery (M = 2.48) than males (M = 3.05), t ( 2 8 ) = -3.05, p<.005. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was no l o n g e r p r e s e n t at the p o s t t e s t . Because of s m a l l sample s i z e s , sex was not i n c l u d e d as a f a c t o r i n subsequent a n a l y s e s . F o r each of the f o u r measures where p r e - and p o s t t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d , a two-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (4 groups x 2 t e s t s ) was c o n d u c t e d . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i n c r e a s e d knowledge about 39 v i s u a l i z a t i o n w o u l d l e a d t o more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s a b o u t i m a g i n a l p r o c e s s e s , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e f o u r s u b s c a l e s o f t h e I m a g i n a l P r o c e s s e s I n v e n t o r y ( I P I ) . R e c a l l t h a t t h e r e were t w o f o r m s o f t h e I P I , one o f w h i c h was a d m i n i s t e r e d a s a p r e t e s t , and t h e o t h e r a s p o s t t e s t . The o r d e r was r e v e r s e d f o r h a l f o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . P r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d n o e f f e c t f o r t h e o r d e r o f t h e s e t w o f o r m s o f t h e I P I (p_>.20). A 4 ( g r o u p s ) x 2 ( t e s t s ) ANOVA was t h e n c o n d u c t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e f o u r s u b s c a l e s o f t h e I P I a s w e l l as t h e o v e r a l l t o t a l . H o wever, no e f f e c t s were f o u n d t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t . T a b l e 2 p r o v i d e s t h e mean s c o r e s on t h e I P I . T a b l e 2 Mean S c o r e s on t h e I m a g i n a l P r o c e s s e s I n v e n t o r y G r oup P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t 1 C o n t r o l 3.52 3 .54 2 D i d a c t i c 3.49 3.46 3 Workshop 3.37 3:33 4 W o r k s h o p & P r a c t i c e 3.56 3. 71 T o t a l s 3.49 3.51 I t was a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i n c r e a s e d k n o w l e d g e about v i s u a l i z a t i o n w o u l d l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d i n t e r n a l i t y o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l as m e a s u r e d b y t h e S p h e r e s o f C o n t r o l (SOC) t e s t , a n d i t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h i s c h a n g e w o u l d b e l i k e l y t o o c c u r p r i m a r i l y i n t h e p e r s o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t s u b s c a l e . A 4 ( g r o u p s ) x 2 ( t e s t s ) ANOVA was conducted f o r each of the su b s c a l e s and f o r the SOC as a whole. No s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s were r e v e a l e d on the SOC as a whole or on the p e r s o n a l achievement or i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l subscales. However, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t e s t s on the s o c i o p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l subscale was found, F ( l , 26) = 4.34, p_ = .05, i n d i c a t i n g an i n c r e a s e d p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l over s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l events and i n s t i t u t i o n s . Table 3 l i s t s the p r e - and p o s t t e s t means on the SOC as a whole, while Table 4 p r o v i d e s the means on the s o c i o p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l s ubscale f o r the fou r groups. Table 3 Mean Scores on the Spheres of C o n t r o l T e s t Group P r e t e s t Postte st 1 C o n t r o l 4.64 4.57 2 D i d a c t i c 4.44 4.56 3 Workshop Only 4.54 4.46 4 Workshop & P r a c t i c e 4.63 4!98 T o t a l s 4.56 4.65 41 T a b l e 4 Mean S c o r e s on t h e S o c i o p o l i t i c a l C o n t r o l S u b s c a l e o f t h e  S p h e r e s o f C o n t r o l T e s t Group P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t 1 C o n t r o l 4.10 4.08 2 D i d a c t i c 3.44 3.55 3 Wo r k s h o p O n l y 3.84 3.94 4 Workshop & P r a c t i c e 4.15 4.88 T h u s , t h i s a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t g r e a t e r e x p o s u r e t o i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a n d p r a c t i c e w i t h i m a g e r y d i d n o t l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d i n t e r n a l i t y o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l i n a g e n e r a l s e n s e , n o r i n t h e p e r s o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t s p h e r e i n p a r t i c u l a r . On t h e QMI, t h e r e was a m a i n e f f e c t o f t e s t , w h i c h was q u a l i f i e d b y a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n g r o u p a n d t i m e o f t e s t , F ( 3 , 26) = 3.17, p<.05. T a b l e 5 p r o v i d e s t h e mean s c o r e s f o r p r e - a n d p o s t t e s t i n t h e QMI and T a b l e 6 s u m m a r i z e s t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on t h e QMI. T a b l e 5 Mean S c o r e s on t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on M e n t a l I m a g e r y Group P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t 1 C o n t r o l 2. 72 2.85 2 D i d a c t i c 2.57 2.48 3 W o r k s h o p O n l y 2.67 2.26 4 Workshop & P r a c t i c e 2.81 2:34 T o t a l s 2.69 2.48 T a b l e 6 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e on t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on M e n t a l I m a g e r y S o u r c e d f MS F £ G r o u p s 3 .287 .417 .742 E r r o r ( b e t w e e n ) 26 .690 T e s t 1 :646 6:824 .015 G r o u p s x T e s t 3 ;300 3.173 .041 E r r o r ( w i t h i n ) 26 ;095 The l o c u s o f t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n g r o u p s a n d t e s t was i n v e s t i g a t e d b y an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s i m p l e m a i n e f f e c t o f t e f o r e a c h g r o u p . T h e s e a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r t h e c o n t r o l o r d i d a c t i c g r o u p s , a d i f f e r e n c e a p p r o a c h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e (p_ = .06) f o r t h e w o r k s h o p o n l y g r o u p 43 i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d v i v i d n e s s , a n d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n v i v i d n e s s f o r t h e w o r k s h o p p l u s p r a c t i c e g r o u p (p_ = . 0 0 3 ) . A s p r e d i c t e d , r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t g r e a t e r e x p o s u r e t o i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a n d p r a c t i c e w i t h v i s u a l i z a t i o n l e a d s t o g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e s i n i m a g e r y v i v i d n e s s . T h i s c h a n g e was n o t f o u n d t o b e n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d t o p e r s o n a l b e l i e f c h a n g e s . I n c r e a s e d k n o w l e d g e a b o u t v i s u a l i z a t i o n was a l s o a n t i c i p a t e d t o l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y o f i m a g e r y , as m e a s u r e d b y t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on I m a g e r y C o n t r o l ( Q I C ) . The 4 ( g r o u p s ) x 2 ( t e s t s ) ANOVA on QIC s c o r e s f o u n d n o s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r g r o u p s o r t e s t . T a b l e 7 l i s t s t h e p r e - a n d p o s t t e s t means f o r t h e QIC w h i l e T a b l e 8 s u m m a r i z e s t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e on t h e QIC. T a b l e 7 Mean S c o r e s on t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on I m a g e r y C o n t r o l G roup P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t 1 C o n t r o l 2 D i d a c t i c 3 Workshop O n l y 4 Workshop & P r a c t i c e T o t a l s 2.58 2.59 2.60 2.69 2.91 2.95 2.90 3'.19 2.75 2.86 T a b l e 8 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e on t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on I m a g e r y C o n t r o l S o u r c e d f MS F E G r o u p s 3 . 741 2.645 .070 E r r o r ( b e t w e e n ) 26 .280 T e s t 1 . 166 3.516 .072 G r o u p s x T e s t 3 .060 1.2 72 .305 E r r o r ( w i t h i n ) 26 :047 T h u s , t h i s a n a l y s i s f a i l e d t o s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t g r e a t e r e x p o s u r e t o i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a n d p r a c t i c e w i t h v i s u a l i z a t i o n w o u l d l e a d t o g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e s i n i m a g e r y c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y . D i s c u s s i o n I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d i n t h i s study t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n about, and p r a c t i c e w i t h , v i s u a l i z a t i o n would l e a d p a r t i c i p a n t s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , i n c r e a s e t h e i r b e l i e f i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t p e r s o n a l change, i n c r e a s e t h e p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s of t h e i r p e r s o n a l imagery, and i n c r e a s e the i n t e r n a l i t y of t h e i r l o c u s of c o n t r o l . V i v i d n e s s and c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y of imagery were a l s o e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e above a t t i t u d e changes. O n l y a few of t h e o r i g i n a l h ypotheses were sup p o r t e d . On t h e P e r s o n a l Response Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e d i d a c t i c , workshop o n l y , and workshop p l u s p r a c t i c e groups demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e degree t o which t h e y f e l t v i s u a l i z a t i o n c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g ; A l t h o u g h a l l t h r e e groups f e l t i t would c o n t r i b u t e , t h o s e w i t h most exposure and p r a c t i c e f e l t t h i s most s t r o n g l y . The PRQ a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t h r e e t r e a t m e n t groups f e l t somewhat d i f f e r e n t as a r e s u l t of l e a r n i n g about v i s u a l i z a t i o n , f e l t t h a t i t would be q u i t e u s e f u l f o r t h e i r own p e r s o n a l development, and most i n t e n d e d t o use i t a t l e a s t p e r i o d i c a l l y i n the f u t u r e . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e groups on t h e s e l a t t e r t h r e e q u e s t i o n s from the PRQ. I t must be conceded t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n s on t h e P e r s o n a l Response Q u e s t i o n n a i r e had a h i g h component of s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y : To some e x t e n t , p a r t i c i p a n t s were u r g e d t o r e s p o n d as they d i d by the n a t u r e of the q u e s t i o n s and by the p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o and pr e s e n c e o f , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . The e x p e r i m e n t e r t r i e d t o a v o i d the b i a s i n t h e q u e s t i o n s themselves by o f f e r i n g b i p o l a r q u e s t i o n s i n two c a s e s , where t h e answers 46 r a n g e d f r o m v e r y n e g a t i v e t o v e r y p o s i t i v e . The o t h e r t w o q u e s t i o n s , w h i c h were u n i p o l a r , were g i v e n a 4 - p o i n t s p r e a d t o a l l o w a s much c h o i c e a s f e a s i b l e ^ The p r o b l e m r e m a i n s , h o w e v e r , o f how t o q u a n t i f y t h e s u b j e c t i v e r e a c t i o n s o f p e o p l e t o p e r s o n a l c h a n g e , i n a f e w s p e c i f i c d o m a i n s , w i t h o u t . l e a d i n g t h e m t o s p e c i f i c a n s w e r s . Some o f t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g a n d r e l e v a n t r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y were o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e o p e n - e n d e d comments f o l l o w i n g e a ch o f t h e q u e s t i o n s on t h e PRQ. I t was h e r e t h a t t h e w r i t e r h a d h o p e d t o c a p t u r e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s u b j e c t i v e r e s p o n s e s t o h a v i n g l e a r n e d a b o u t a new t o o l f o r s e l f - c h a n g e . The p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d a p p e a r t o b e h o n e s t l y e n t h u s e d a b o u t v i s u a l i z a t i o n , a n d h a d f o u n d l e a r n i n g a b o u t i t t o b e p e r s o n a l l y v a l u a b l e . A s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , i t e n a b l e d some t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d a n d c o n t r o l t h e i r moods a n d t o a c h i e v e r e l a x a t i o n . I t was f o u n d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s o f s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f , p a r t i c u l a r l y e m o t i o n s , a n d t o l e a d t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o t h e r s . F o r some i t i n c r e a s e d s e l f - e s t e e m , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , a n d s e n s e o f f u t u r e p o t e n t i a l , a t t h e same t i m e d e c r e a s i n g n e g a t i v e e m o t i o n s s u c h a s l o n e l i n e s s . I t was s e e n a s b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r h e l p i n g t o a c h i e v e s p e c i f i c g o a l s . The c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f t h e v i s u a l i z a t i o n s o f t h e w o r k s h o p p l u s p r a c t i c e g r o u p showed t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s h a d l e a r n e d t h e e s s e n t i a l p r i n c i p l e s o f v i s u a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n t h e s h o r t p e r i o d o f t h e w o r k s h o p . They h a d gone on t o a p p l y v i s u a l i z a t i o n t o many d i s p a r a t e a s p e c t s o f t h e i r l i v e s i n t h e t w o week p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e w o r k s h o p , d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o a p p l y what t h e y h a d l e a r n e d c r e a t i v e l y t o t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . W h i l e s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y was a component o f t h e p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e c o n t e n t a n a l y s e s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e r e were i n f a c t p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n s e x h i b i t e d e x p e r i e n t i a l l y b y t h e g r o u p who r e c o r d e d t h e i r v i s u a l i z a t i o n s . T h i s may be a p r e f e r a b l e m e t h o d o l o g y f o r a t t e m p t i n g t o c a p t u r e t h e e f f e c t s o f v i s u a l i z a t i o n on m e n t a l c o n t e n t s , b e c a u s e o f i t s l e s s e r s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e r e s p o n s e s e t s . I f p a r t i c i p a n t s h a d a l s o h a d more t r a i n i n g i n v i s u a l i z a t i o n , a n d a more e x t e n d e d p r a c t i c e p e r i o d , more d e m o n s t r a b l e p a t t e r n s o f c h a n g e i n v i s u a l i z a t i o n c o n t e n t s m i g h t h a v e b e e n e v i d e n t , w h i c h w o u l d h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d i d e a t i o n c h a n g e s more c o n c r e t e l y : W h i l e s u c h a m e t h o d m i g h t more a d e q u a t e l y i l l u s t r a t e i d e a t i o n a l c h a n g e s , i t w o u l d n o t r e v e a l t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s s u b j e c t i v e r e a c t i o n t o t h o s e c h a n g e s , w h i c h we a l s o s o u g h t here.' No e x i s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s were l o c a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h w h i c h were s u i t a b l e f o r t a p p i n g t h i s d i m e n s i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e . I t was t h o u g h t t h a t s u c h a m e a s u r e m i g h t h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d f o r u s e b y t h e r a p i s t s who w a n t e d some m e a s u r a b l e i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r c l i e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s t o t h e r a p y . K l i n g e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) h a s e x p l o r e d a number o f m e t h o d s f o r o b t a i n i n g r e l i a b l e d a t a o n i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e , i n c l u d i n g t h i n k i n g o u t l o u d / d e s c r i p t i v e t h o u g h t s a m p l i n g , a n d e v e n t r e c o r d i n g ( i n d i c a t i n g w h e n e v e r a c e r t a i n k i n d o f e v e n t o c c u r s i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) . The u s e o f one o f t h e s e m e t h o d s i n t h i s s t u d y m i g h t h a v e l e d t o r i c h e r d a t a , a n d t o a c l o s e r a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o t h e s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f i n n e r c h a n g e . P e r h a p s i t i s b e c a u s e s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e h a s b e e n 48 c o n s i d e r e d l a r g e l y i r r e l e v a n t t o e x p e r i m e n t a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s t h a t o u r t e c h n i q u e s f o r c a p t u r i n g i t a r e a s y e t r e l a t i v e l y u n s a t i s f y i n g . W r i t e r s s u c h a s C a r l s o n ( 1 9 7 1 ) , N e u g a r t e n ( 1 9 7 3 ) , S t o l o r o w and A t w o o d ( 1 9 7 9 ) , a n d L ' E c u y e r (1981) h a v e c a l l e d f o r l e s s e m p h a s i s on o b j e c t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a n d a g r e a t e r commitment t o more p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l methods o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d y . New e m p h a s i s on s u c h m e t h o d s may e n a b l e u s t o b e t t e r c a p t u r e t h e k i n d s o f i n n e r c h a n g e s t h a t were b e i n g e x p l o r e d i n t h i s s t u d y : No s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s w e r e f o u n d f o r a n y o f t h e g r o u p s f r o m p r e t e s t t o p o s t t e s t on t h e s u b t e s t s f r o m t h e I m a g i n a l P r o c e s s e s I n v e n t o r y : The I P I was n o t i n t e n d e d f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e k i n d s o f c h a n g e s i n a t t i t u d e s t o m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t h a d b e e n a n t i c i p a t e d t o o c c u r i n t h i s s t u d y , a n d i s somewhat i n a p p r o p r i a t e and i n s e n s i t i v e f o r t h i s p u r p o s e : M o s t o f the q u e s t i o n s on i t a r e f a i r l y g e n e r a l a n d a r e i n t e n d e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e g e n e r a l p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s . T h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h i s p u r p o s e p r o b a b l y p r e c l u d e s t h e i r v a l i d i t y f o r m e a s u r i n g s h o r t t e r m c h a n g e . A s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , a more c o n t e n t - o r i e n t e d a p p r o a c h w o u l d c a p t u r e t h e f l a v o r o f t h i s t y p e o f c h a n g e more a d e q u a t e l y t h a n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . On t h e S p h e r e s o f C o n t r o l t e s t , a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n p e r c e i v e d s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l ( c o n t r o l o v e r s o c i a l a nd p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s ) was e x p e r i e n c e d f r o m p r e - t o p o s t t e s t : T h i s was an u n e x p e c t e d phenomenon. I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , i f a n y c h a n g e o c c u r r e d on t h e SOC, i t w o u l d be f o u n d i n t h e p e r s o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t s u b s c a l e , s i n c e l e a r n i n g a b o u t v i s u a l i z a t i o n was e x p e c t e d t o h a v e t h e g r e a t e s t e f f e c t on t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e i v e d a b i l i t y t o h a v e more c o n t r o l o v e r h e r 49 o r h i s own p e r s o n a l s k i l l s a n d t a l e n t s ! The r e a s o n f o r t h e c h a n g e i n t h e s o c i o p o l i t i c a l a r e n a i s n o t known. However, i t was p r i m a r i l y t h e w o r k s h o p p l u s p r a c t i c e g r o u p w h i c h e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s c h a n g e , w h i c h i s i n l i n e w i t h t h e s t u d y ' s h y p o t h e s e s t h a t g r e a t e r c h a n g e s w o u l d o c c u r i n t h i s g r o u p t h a n i n a n y o t h e r . A s p r e d i c t e d , v i v i d n e s s o f i m a g e r y was f o u n d t o h a v e i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y a c c o r d i n g t o amount o f e x p o s u r e t o i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t , a n d p r a c t i c e w i t h , v i s u a l i z a t i o n . The w o r k s h o p p l u s p r a c t i c e g r o u p d e m o n s t r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t s i n v i v i d n e s s o f i m a g e r y f r o m p r e - t o p o s t t e s t . C o n t r o l l a b i l i t y o f i m a g e r y was f o u n d t o h a v e i n c r e a s e d f o r a l l g r o u p s f r o m p r e - t o p o s t t e s t , a l t h o u g h n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The m e a s u r e s o f i m a g e r y v i v i d n e s s a n d c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y were o r i g i n a l l y i n c l u d e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a t t i t u d e c h a n g e was r e l a t e d t o one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e s e a b i l i t y m e a s u r e s . I t may b e t h a t i m a g e r y a b i l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y , must be r e l a t i v e l y h i g h b e f o r e i t c a n b e u s e d t o a c h i e v e a t t i t u d e c h a n g e : I t may be o n l y a f t e r a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y i s a c h i e v e d t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o m a i n t a i n more p o s i t i v e i m a g e s o f t h e s e l f , a n d more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s , l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , a n d s e l f i n g e n e r a l . I n a s t u d y where t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t w o i s b e i n g s t u d i e d , a t w o - s t a g e t r a i n i n g m i g h t be more b e n e f i c i a l ? The f i r s t c o u l d f o c u s on t h e p r a c t i c e a n d s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f i m a g e r y a b i l i t i e s , w h i l e t h e s e c o n d c o u l d d e a l w i t h m e t h o d s f o r u s i n g v i s u a l i z a t i o n . More i n i t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t v i s u a l i z a t i o n a n d a l o n g e r p r a c t i c e p e r i o d m i g h t a l s o h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o a g r e a t e r e x p e r i m e n t a l e f f e c t . The i n f o r m a t i o n was p r e s e n t e d i n a v e r y 50 s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e , and i t c o v e r e d a b r o a d range o f t o p i c s . F o r someone u n f a m i l i a r w i t h v i s u a l i z a t i o n i t would p r o b a b l y have been r e l a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t t o r e t a i n : Had more i n f o r m a t i o n been p r e s e n t e d , over a l o n g e r p e r i o d of t i m e , i t would undoubtedly have l e d t o g r e a t e r comprehension about t h e whole s u b j e c t . I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t more p r a c t i c e w i t h v i s u a l i z a t i o n a f t e r l e a r n i n g about i t would have l e d t o g r e a t e r changes i n some of the measures used: I m a g i n a l p r o c e s s e s and l o c u s of c o n t r o l are p r o b a b l y r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t and would be s u b j e c t t o change o n l y over a l o n g e r term. F or example, i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f c o v e r t c o n d i t i o n i n g , C a u t e l a and McCullough (1978) s t r e s s e d t h a t many d a i l y r e p e t i t i o n s of an imagery sequence are n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e t e c h n i q u e t o become a h a b i t . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t i t would take extended p r a c t i c e o f a new mental h a b i t t o b r e a k o l d p a t t e r n s . I f a p e r s o n i s a " n e g a t i v e s c a n n e r " ( C a u t e l a & McCullough, 1978), a " w o r r i e r " (McKim, 1980), or someone w i t h an a n x i o u s or g u i l t y s t y l e of imagery, i t w i l l t ake a r e l a t i v e l y l e n g t h y and c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t t o change such h a b i t u a l thought p a t t e r n s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y d i d not c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the a t t i t u d e changes e x p e c t e d as a r e s u l t of l e a r n i n g t o c o n t r o l imagery, and tho s e e x p e c t e d as a r e s u l t o f l e a r n i n g t o c o n s t r u c t and m a i n t a i n p o s i t i v e imagery. These a r e q u i t e p r o b a b l y d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s b u t were not e x p l o r e d s e p a r a t e l y . L e a r n i n g about v i s u a l i z a t i o n would demonstrate t o an i n d i v i d u a l t h a t c o n t r o l of thought i s p o s s i b l e , but i t would not l i k e l y l e a d t o g r e a t e r a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l t hought u n l e s s i t was p r a c t i c e d . Imagery c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y i s l i k e l y a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e aspect of p e r s o n a l i t y as demonstrated by i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o n e u r o t i c i s m 51 ( E u s e & Haney, 1 9 7 5 ) . The a b i l i t y t o s e l e c t a n d m a i n t a i n t h e i m a g e r y m o s t b e n e f i c i a l t o o n e ' s own p e r s o n a l i t y may be a w h o l l y d i f f e r e n t component o f a c h i e v i n g b e h a v i o r c h a n g e w i t h i m a g e r y : M e i c h e n b a u m (1976) n o t e d t h a t c o g n i t i v e b e h a v i o r m o d i f i c a t i o n was most e f f e c t i v e when t h e i m a g e r y a n d s e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n s were v e r y s p e c i f i c t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l u s i n g i t , a n d were n o t j u s t g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s : S c h u l t z (1978) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t p e o p l e w i t h d e p r e s s i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t e t i o l o g i e s were most r e l i e v e d b y i m a g e r y w h i c h c o u n t e r a c t e d t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r d e p r e s s i v e t r a i t s . S u g g e s t i o n o f i m a g e r y c o n t e n t s s p e c i f i c t o e a c h i n d i v i d u a l was n o t a t t e m p t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e g i v e n a r a n g e o f p o s s i b l e c o n t e n t s t o s e l e c t f r o m on t h e i r own. B e t t e r r e s u l t s m i g h t b e a c h i e v e d b y s e l e c t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s on t h e b a s i s o f a p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t y t h e y w i s h e d t o m o d i f y , o r on t h e b a s i s o f a p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t . The t r a i n i n g c o u l d t h e n be t a i l o r e d t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s 1 i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y s t y l e s . M o t i v a t i o n m i g h t a l s o b e i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h i s m e t h o d , w h i c h c o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t o l e a d t o g r e a t e r b e h a v i o r c h a n g e s : F i n a l l y , i t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t l a r g e r e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s i z e s t h a n were u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e p r o b a b l y a d v i s a b l e . I n many c a s e s h e r e r e s u l t s w e r e i n t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d d i r e c t i o n , a l t h o u g h n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . A more p o w e r f u l t e s t m i g h t be a c h i e v e d b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e t o t a l number o f s u b j e c t s u s e d . W h i l e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y were n o t s t r o n g , they, d i d o f f e r some s u p p o r t f o r t h e n o t i o n e x p r e s s e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t v i s u a l i z a t i o n c a n e n h a n c e a number o f d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t B l a n k m a n (1980) may h a v e i d e n t i f i e d t h e k e y t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p o w e r o f i m a g e r y f o r e n h a n c i n g 5 2 s e l f - c o n c e p t when h e s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t i s t h e c o v e r t s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e r a t h e r t h a n t h e a c t u a l c o n t e n t of t h e image w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s t o p e r s o n a l c h a n g e ; B e c a u s e i m a g e r y l e a d s t o r e a l e m o t i o n a l a n d p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e s ; e v e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d i n i m a g e r y h a v e o c c u r r e d i n a r e a l s e n s e . A s L a n g ( 1 9 7 9 ) p o i n t e d o u t , r e h e a r s a l o f a new b e h a v i o r i n i m a g e r y a c t s a s a t e m p l a t e f o r t h e o v e r t p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h a t b e h a v i o r . V i s u a l i z a t i o n i s a way o f s e t t i n g a g o a l a n d p u t t i n g i n m o t i o n t h e s t e p s t o a t t a i n i n g i t a l l i n one p r o c e s s : By h a v i n g a " p r e v i e w " o f t h e d e s i r e d s t a t e , o n e ' s b e l i e f t h a t i t c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d i s a l s o s t r e n g t h e n e d . E x p e r i e n c i n g a d e s i r e d s t a t e o f m i n d o r a c h i e v i n g a v a l u e d g o a l i n i m a g e r y i s u n d o u b t e d l y a s t r o n g m o t i v a t o r t o g o o n t o a c h i e v e i t o v e r t l y . F e e l i n g i n c r e a s e d m o t i v a t i o n may i n i t s e l f c o n t r i b u t e t o g r e a t e r s e l f - e s t e e m . I magery a p p e a r s t o be e x p e c i a l l y u s e f u l f o r m o d i f y i n g b e h a v i o r w i t h o u t t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r v e r b a l i z i n g a b o u t e i t h e r t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e p r e s e n t b e h a v i o r o r a b o u t t h e d e s i r e d s t a t e . : I n some c a s e s u n w a n t e d b e h a v i o r i s a d e q u a t e l y u n d e r s t o o d , w i t h o u t t h i s h a v i n g l e d t o any b e h a v i o r c h a n g e . S u c h b e h a v i o r may come t o seem i n e v i t a b l e . V i s u a l i z a t i o n may, i n a s e n s e , s h o r t - c i r c u i t p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g b e h a v i o r s a n d a t t i t u d e s and t h e n e g a t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s w h i c h accompany them. By f o c u s i n g on p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e p r e s e n t o r f u t u r e s e l f , one r e d u c e s t h e a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o n e g a t i v e l y - e v a l u a t e d a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f a n d o f p r e s e n t b e h a v i o r , t h e r e b y l e s s e n i n g t h e w e i g h t t h e y c a r r y i n o v e r a l l s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n . I n i m a g e r y , a d e s i r e d s t a t e c a n b e v i s u a l i z e d i n any number o f ways, i f t h e u s e r i s c r e a t i v e , a n d t h e p r o c e s s o f g e n e r a t i n g 53 new, s e l f - r e i n f o r c i n g i m a g e s c a n i n i t s e l f b e g r a t i f y i n g . I f s u c c e s s e s a r e i m a g i n e d i n a w i d e v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s , one i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y l a y i n g down m e n t a l p a t h w a y s f o r t h e i r a c h i e v e m e n t i n a w i d e v a r i e t y o f r e a l s i t u a t i o n s , a n d t h e r e s u l t i n g s e l f - c o n c e p t w i l l become c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y g e n e r a l i z e d . On t h e w h o l e , t h i s a s p e c t o f v i s u a l i z a t i o n a p p e a r s t o b e a l a r g e l y u n e x p l o r e d a n d p o t e n t i a l l y r e w a r d i n g t e r r i t o r y f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . V i s u a l i z a t i o n i s one o f a number o f p r a c t i c e s w h i c h i s r e c e i v i n g a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n i n an e f f o r t t o u n l o c k some o f t h e u n u s e d p o t e n t i a l o f t h e human m i n d f o r s e l f - c o n t r o l . O n g o i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s i n f i e l d s s u c h a s t h i s a r e r a d i c a l l y a l t e r i n g o u r v i e w s o f i n h e r e n t human c a p a b i l i t i e s , and f u r t h e r d i s c o v e r i e s a r e l i k e l y t o c o n t i n u e t o r a i s e o u r e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r human d e v e l o p m e n t : 54 R e f e r e n c e s Anderson, Ml (1980). I m a g i n a l p r o c e s s e s ; t h e r a p e u t i c a p p l i -c a t i o n s and t h e o r e t i c a l rnodesl; I n M'i J'.' Mahoney ( E d . ) , P s y c h o t h e r a p y p r o c e s s : C u r r e n t i s s u e s and f u t u r e d i r e c - t i o n s IppT 211-248 ): New York : Plenum P r e s s : Bakan, PS (1980): Imagery, raw and cooked: A h e m i s p h e r i c r e c i p e : I n J : E. S h o r r , Gl; E: S o b e l , P: R o b i n , & J : A. C o n n e l l a ( E d s . ) , Imagery: I t s many dimensions and a p p l i c a - t i o n s (pp: 3 5-53): New Y o r k : Plenum P r e s s . Bandura, A: (1977). S e l f - e f f i c a c y : Toward a u n i f y i n g t h e o r y of b e h a v i o r a l change. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, 84, 191-215. Blankman, S. M. (1980). Guided f a n t a s y as a p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n : An e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y . In J . E. S h o r r , G. E: S o b e l , P. Robin, & J . A. C o n n e l l a ( E d s . ) , Imagery: I t s many di m e n s i o n s and a p p l i c a t i o n s (pp. 267-280). New Y o r k : Plenum P r e s s . Bry, A., & B a i r , M . (1978). V i s u a l i z a t i o n : D i r e c t i n g t h e movies o f y o u r mind. New York: Barnes and Noble Books. C a r l s o n , R. (1971): Where i s t h e p e r s o n i n p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h ? P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 75, 203-219: Cautela,' J . R'.' (1977): C o v e r t c o n d i t i o n i n g : Assumptions and p r o c e d u r e s : J o u r n a l o f M e n t a l Imagery, 1; 53-65: C a u t e l a , J:' R: & McC u l l o u g h , L: (1978): C o v e r t c o n d i t i o n i n g : A l e a r n i n g - t h e o r y p e r s p e c t i v e on imagery: In J : L: S i n g e r & K: S: Pope (Eds: 5), The power of human i m a g i n a t i o n : New methods i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y (pp. 227-254). New York: Plenum P r e s s . C o u s i n s , N. (1979). The anatomy o f an i l l n e s s as p e r c e i v e d by t h e p a t i e n t : R e f l e c t i o n s on h e a l i n g and r e g e n e r a t i o n . New Y o r k : N o r t o n : Euse, F. J . , & Haney, J . N. (1975). C l a r i t y , c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y , and e m o t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y o f image: C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t r o -v e r s i o n , n e u r o t i c i s m , and s u b j e c t i v e a n x i e t y . P e r c e p t u a l  and Motor S k i l l s , 40, 443-447. Frank, S. (1978). J u s t imagine how I f e e l : How t o improve empathy t h r o u g h t r a i n i n g i n i m a g i n a t i o n : In J . L. S i n g e r & K: S. Pope ( E d s : ) , The power of human i m a g i n a t i o n : New  methods i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y Ippl 309-346). New Yo r k : Plenum P r e s s . 55 Frommj E2 (1951).' The f o r g o t t e n l a n g u a g e : A n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f d r e a m s , f a i r y t a l e s a n d m y t h s . New Y o r k : G r o v e P r e s s . G e n d l i n , E. T: (1980)2 I m a g e r y i s more p o w e r f u l w i t h f o c u s -i n g : T h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e ! ' I n J : E: S h o r r , G. E: S o b e l , P2 R o b i n , & J . A: C o n n e l l a ( E d s . ) , I m a g e r y : I t s many d i m e n - s i o n s a n d a p p l i c a t i o n s ( p p : 6 5 - 7 3 ) . New Y o r k : P l e n u m P r e s s . Hammer, M. ( 1 9 6 7 ) . The d i r e c t e d d a y d r e a m t e c h n i q u e . P s y c h o - t h e r a p y : T h e o r y , r e s e a r c h a n d p r a c t i c e , 4, 1 7 3 - 1 8 1 . Hor o w i t z , M. J . (19 78 ). Image f o r m a t i o n a n d c o g n i t i o n ( 2 n d e d : ) . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s . Huba, G., A n e s h e n s e l , C , & S i n g e r , J . L. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . D e v e l o p m e n t o f s c a l e s f o r t h r e e s e c o n d - o r d e r f a c t o r s i n i n n e r e x p e r i -e n c e : M u l t i v a r i a t e B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h , 1 6 , 181- 2 0 6 . J a f f e , D: T. , & B r e s l e r , D: Eli ( 1 9 8 0 ) : I n J . E: S h o r r , G. E. S o b e l , P. R o b i n , & J . A. C o n n e l l a ( E d s . ) , I m a g e r y : I t s many  d i m e n s i o n s a n d a p p l i c a t i o n s ; New Y o r k : P l e n u m P r e s s . J u n g , C. G: ( 1 9 5 9 ) : The a r c h e t y p e s a n d t h e c o l l e c t i v e  u n c o n s c i o u s ; New Y o r k : P a n t h e o n : K a z d i n , A: E: ( 1 9 7 8 ) : C o v e r t m o d e l i n g : The t h e r a p e u t i c a p p l i c a t i o n o f i m a g i n e d r e h e a r s a l ; I n J : L; S i n g e r & K. S; Pope ( E d s . ) , The p o w e r o f human i m a g i n a t i o n : New methods i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y (pp: 255-278J". New Y o r k : P l e n u m P r e s s . K l i n g e r , E: ( 1 9 7 1 ) . The s t r u c t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n s o f f a n t a s y . New Y o r k : W i l e y - I n t e r s c i e n c e : K l i n g e r , E:! ( 1 9 7 8 ) . Modes o f n o r m a l c o n s c i o u s f l o w . I n K. S. Pope a n d J . L. S i n g e r ( E d s : ) , The s t r e a m o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s :  S c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o t h e f l o w o f human e x p e r i e n c e ( p p : 2 2 5 - 2 5 8 7 7 New Y o r k : P lenum P r e s s . K l i n g e r , E. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . T h e r a p y a n d t h e f l o w o f t h o u g h t . I n J : E: S h o r r , G: E: S o b e l , P. R o b i n , & J : A. C o n n e l l a ( E d s ; ) , I m a g e r y : I t s many d i m e n s i o n s a n d a p p l i c a t i o n s (pp;' 3 - 2 0 ) . New Y o r k : P l e n u m P r e s s : Knapp, P; H: ( 1 9 6 9 ) ; Image, s y m b o l a n d p e r s o n ; A r c h i v e s o f G e n e r a l P s y c h i a t r y ; 2 1 , 3 92-406 2 K o r n , E; & J o h n s o n , K. ( 1 9 8 3 ) ; V i s u a l i z a t i o n : The u s e s o f  i m a g e r y i n t h e h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s . Homewood, E L I . : Dow 56 J o n e s - I r w i n ^ K r e t s c h m e r , W. ( 1 9 6 9 ) : M e d i t a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i n p s y c h o t h e r -apy. I n C. T: T a r t ( E d : ) , A l t e r e d s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s (pp: 2 1 9 - 2 2 8 ) . New Y o r k : W i l e y . L a n e , J . B: ( 1 9 7 4 ) . I m a g i n a t i o n and p e r s o n a l i t y : The m u l t i -t r a i t i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a new m e a s u r e o f i m a g e r y c o n t r o l : D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 35, 6099B. ( U n i v e r -s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 75-12,105") L a n g , P:' ( 1 9 7 9 ) . E m o t i o n a l i m a g e r y a n d v i s c e r a l c o n t r o l . I n R. J . G a t c h e l & K: P: P r i c e ( E d s : ) , C l i n i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f  b i o f e e d b a c k : A p p r a i s a l a n d s t a t u s . New Y o r k : Pergammon P r e s s : L a n g e r , S: ( 1 9 4 2 ) i P h i l o s o p h y i n a new k e y . New Y o r k : New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y . L e a r y , T. ( 1 9 5 7 ) . I n t e r p e r s o n a l d i a g n o s i s o f p e r s o n a l i t y . New Y o r k : R o n a l d P r e s s . L ' E c u y e r , R: ( 1 9 8 1 ) : The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t t h r o u g h t h e l i f e s p a n : I n M: D: L y n c h , A: A. N o r e m - H e b e i s e n , & K: G e r g e n ( E d s . ) , S e l f - c o n c e p t : A d v a n c e s i n t h e o r y a n d  r e s e a r c h : C a m b r i d g e : B a l l i n g e r . L e u n e r , H. ( 1 9 6 9 ) . G u i d e d a f f e c t i v e i m a g e r y . A m e r i c a n  J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o t h e r a p y , 23, 4-22: L i f t o n , R. J . (19 7 6 ) : The l i f e o f t h e s e l f : T o w a r d a new  p s y c h o l o g y . New Y o r k : S i m o n & S c h u s t e r . McKim, R. H. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . T h i n k i n g v i s u a l l y : A s t r a t e g y m a n u a l  f o r p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . ' B e l m o n t , C a i : : L i f e t i m e L e a r n i n g P u b l i c a t i o n s . M eichenbaum, D: ( 1 9 7 6 ) : T o w a r d a c o g n i t i v e t h e o r y o f s e l f -c o n t r o l : I n G: S c h w a r t z & D: S h a p i r o ( E d s : ) , C o n s c i o u s - n e s s a n d s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n : A d v a n c e s i n r e s e a r c h ( p p . 2 2 3 -2 6 0 ) . New Y o r k : P l e n u m P r e s s . Meichenbaum, D: ( 1 9 7 7 ) . C o g n i t i v e - b e h a v i o r m o d i f i c a t i o n : A n  i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h . New Y o r k : P l e n u m P r e s s . N e u g a r t e n , B. ( 1 9 7 3 ) : P e r s o n a l i t y c h a n g e i n l a t e l i f e : A d e v e l o p m e n t a l a p p r o a c h . I n C: E i s d o r f e r & M. P: L a w t o n ( E d s . ) , The p s y c h o l o g y o f a d u l t d e v e l o p m e n t a n d a g i n g : W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. : A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n : 57 P a i v i o , A; ( 1 9 7 1 ) : I m a g e r y a n d v e r b a l p r o c e s s e s . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n . P a u l h u s , D i & C h r i s t i e , R. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . S p h e r e s o f c o n t r o l : An i n t e r a c t i o n i s t a p p r o a c h t o a s s e s s m e n t o f p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l . I n H: M: L e f c o u r t ( E d : ) ; R e s e a r c h w i t h t h e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l  c o n s t r u c t ( V o l ; 1, p p ; 161-188) ': New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s . R i c h a r d s o n , A: ( 1 9 6 9 ) ; M e n t a l i m a g e r y ; New Y o r k : S p r i n g e r . S c h u l t z , D i D; ( 1 9 7 8 ) . I m a g e r y a nd t h e c o n t r o l o f d e p r e s s i o n : I n J : L: S i n g e r & K; S; Pope ( E d s : ) , The p o w e r o f human  i m a g i n a t i o n : New m e t h o d s i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y ( p p . 2 8 1 - 3 0 7 ) . New Y o r k : P l e n u m P r e s s : S h e e h a n , P. W: ( 1 9 6 7 ) . A s h o r t e n e d f o r m o f B e t t s ' q u e s t i o n -n a i r e upon m e n t a l i m a g e r y . J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 23, 3 8 6-389. S h o r r , J . E. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . P s y c h o t h e r a p y t h r o u g h i m a g e r y . New Y o r k : I n t e r c o n t i n e n t a l M e d i c a l Book. S i m o n t o n , O; C:, M a t t h e w s - S i m o n t o n , S., & C r e i g h t o n , J . L : ( 1 9 7 8 ) : G e t t i n g w e l l a g a i n : A s t e p - b y - s t e p , s e l f - h e l p g u i d e  t o o v e r c o m i n g c a n c e r f o r p a t i e n t s a n d t h e i r f a m i l i e s : T o r o n t o : Bantam B o o k s : S i n g e r ; J . L. (1 9 7 4 ) I' I m a g e r y a n d d a y d r e a m m e t h o d s i n p s y c h o -t h e r a p y a n d b e h a v i o r m o d i f i c a t i o n ; New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c Press:' S i n g e r , J'.' L : ( 1 9 7 5 ) . The i n n e r w o r l d o f d a y d r e a m i n g ; New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row: S i n g e r , J . L. ( 1 9 7 8 ) ; The c o n s t r u c t i v e p o t e n t i a l o f i m a g e r y a n d f a n t a s y p r o c e s s e s : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t , p s y c h o t h e r a p y a n d p e r s o n a l g r o w t h . I n E. G. W i t e n b e r g ( E d . ) , I n t e r p e r s o n a l p s y c h o a n a l y s i s : New d i r e c t i o n s (pp. 105-1507! New Y o r k : G a r d n e r P r e s s : faT S i n g e r , J . L. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . E x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s o f d a y d r e a m i n g and t h e s t r e a m o f t h o u g h t : I n K. S. Pope & J . L. S i n g e r ( E d s . ) , The s t r e a m o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s : S c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o  t h e f l o w o f human e x p e r i e n c e ( p p . 1 8 7 - 2 2 3 ) . New Y o r k : P l e n u m P r e s s . 7Jo7 S i n g e r , J : L: & A n t r o b u s , J . S. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . D a y d r e a m i n g , i m a g i n a l p r o c e s s e s , a n d p e r s o n a l i t y : A n o r m a t i v e s t u d y ; I n P. Sheehan ( E d ; ) , The f u n c t i o n a n d n a t u r e o f i m a g e r y ( p p . 1 7 5 -2 0 2 ) : New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s : 58 S i n g e r , J . L: & S w i t z e r , E. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . M i n d p l a y : The c r e a t i v e  u s e s o f f a n t a s y : E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N J : P r e n t i c e H a l l . S t a n ton,' Hi; E. ( 1 9 8 2 ) : M o d i f i c a t i o n o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l : U s i n g t h e RSI t e c h n i q u e i n t h e s c h o o l s : C o n t e m p o r a r y Educa- t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1_, 190-194. S t a r k e r , S: ( 1 9 7 4 ) : Two modes o f v i s u a l i m a g e r y : P e r c e p t u a l  & M o t o r S k i l l s , 38, 6 4 9 - 6 5 0 : S t o l o r o w , R. D. & A t w o o d , G. E: ( 1 9 7 9 ) : F a c e s i n a c l o u d :  S u b j e c t i v i t y i n p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r y . New Y o r k : J a s o n A r on son. S t r o s a h l , K: D., & A s c o u g h , J . C: ( 1 9 8 1 ) . C l i n i c a l u s e s o f m e n t a l i m a g e r y : E x p e r i m e n t a l f o u n d a t i o n s , t h e o r e t i c a l m i s c o n c e p t i o n s a n d r e s e a r c h i s s u e s : P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 89, 4 2 2 - 4 3 8 . 59 A p p e n d i x 60 P e r s o n a l Response Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1. Have you used v i s u a l i z a t i o n d u r i n g the p a s t two weeks s i n c e our p r e v i o u s meeting? Yes No I f you have, p l e a s e i n d i c a t e how o f t e n . 2. V i s u a l i z a t i o n may or may not have the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I n your o p i n i o n , which of the f o l l o w i n g b e s t e x p r e s s e s the p o t e n t i a l of v i s u a l i z a t i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d ? Rank between "1" and "7". ( ) 1 Has the p o t e n t i a l f o r i n t e r f e r i n g g r e a t l y w i t h s e l f -u n d e r s t a n d i n g . ( ) 2 ( ) 3 ( ) 4 I s l i k e l y t o n e i t h e r i n t e r f e r e nor c o n t r i b u t e t o s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g . ( ) 5 ( ) 6 ( ) 7 Has the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r i b u t i n g g r e a t l y t o s e l f -u n d e r s t a n d i n g . P l e a s e e x p l a i n your answer, and add any comments you may have. 3. L e a r n i n g about v i s u a l i z a t i o n may or may not have l e f t you f e e l i n g somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y about an a s p e c t of y o u r s e l f . Which of the f o l l o w i n g b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h e e x t e n t t o which t h i s was t h e case f o r you? Rank between "1" and "4". ( ) 1 I f e e l not at a l l d i f f e r e n t . ( ) 2 I f e e l a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t . ( ) 3 I f e e l m o d e r a t e l y d i f f e r e n t . ( ) 4 I f e e l v e r y d i f f e r e n t . I f you f e e l at a l l d i f f e r e n t l y about y o u r s e l f as a r e s u l t of l e a r n i n g about v i s u a l i z a t i o n , p l e a s e e l a b o r a t e . 61 4. V i s u a l i z a t i o n may or may not seem t o be u s e f u l t o you f o r your own f u t u r e p e r s o n a l development. Which of the f o l l o w i n g b e s t c a p t u r e s your f e e l i n g s i n t h i s r e g a r d ? Rank between "1" and "7". ( ) 1 May be v e r y h a r m f u l t o p e r s o n a l development. ( ) 2 ( ) 3 ( ) 4 I s l i k e l y n e i t h e r h a r m f u l t o nor u s e f u l f o r p e r s o n a l development. ( ) 5 ( ) 6 ( ) 7 May be v e r y u s e f u l f o r p e r s o n a l development. P l e a s e e x p l a i n your answer, and add any comments you may have. 5. To what e x t e n t do you f e e l t h a t you w i l l make use of v i s u a l i z a t i o n f o r your own f u t u r e p e r s o n a l development? Rank between "1" and "4". ( ) 1 Not at a l l ( ) 2 Very l i t t l e ( ) 3 A moderate amount ( ) 4 A g r e a t d e a l P l e a s e e x p l a i n y o u r answer, and add any comments you may have. 6. What was the most v a l u a b l e t h i n g you l e a r n e d from the workshop o r l e c t u r e you a t t e n d e d ? I m a g i n a l P r o c e s s e s I n v e n t o r y - Form A 62 T h i s i s a g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e about y o u r i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e s , y o u r images, dreams, and daydreams. T h e r e i s no " o f f i c i a l " d e f i n i t i o n f o r words l i k e "daydream." I n t e r p r e t t h e s e words i n t e r m s o f t h e i r common meanings as t h e y might a p p l y t o y o u . Be c a r e f u l t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h i n k i n g about s o m e t h i n g y ou a r e d o i n g a t t h a t moment and d a y d r e a m i n g about s o m e t h i n g e l s e . T h i n k i n g a b o u t a t a s k w h i l e w o r k i n g on i t i s n o t d a y d r e a m i n g , a l t h o u g h h a v i n g t h o u g h t s a b o u t t h e t a s k a t o t h e r t i m e s , such a s w h i l e g e t t i n g r e a d y f o r s l e e p or on a l o n g bus r i d e , c o u l d be d a y d r e a m i n g . I n s t r u c t i ons I n d i c a t e t o what e x t e n t e a c h s t a t e m e n t a p p l i e s t o you, o r i s t r u e f o r you, by c h e c k i n g t h e box above t h e a p p r o p r i a t e number. 5 s t a n d s f o r " v e r y t r u e o r s t r o n g l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f me". 4 s t a n d s f o r " m o d e r a t e l y t r u e o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f me". 3 s t a n d s f o r " n e i t h e r p a r t i c u l a r l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c n or u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f me". 2 s t a n d s f o r " m o d e r a t e l y u n t r u e o r u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f me" 1 s t a n d s f o r " d e f i n i t e l y u n t r u e o r s t r o n g l y u n c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c of me". 1. I c a n be a r o u s e d and e x c i t e d by a daydream. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2 3 4 " 5 [ R a t i n g s c a l e i s o m i t t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s due t o space c o n s t r a i n t s . ] 2. D a y d r e a m i n g i s n o r m a l f o r a d u l t s as w e l l a s f o r a d o l e s -c e n t s and c h i l d r e n . 3. I c a n see t h e p e o p l e o r t h i n g s i n my daydreams a s i f t h e y were moving a r o u n d . 4. When f a c e d w i t h a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n , I i m a g i n e t h a t I h a v e worked o u t t h e p r o b l e m and t r y out my s o l u t i o n i n my t h o u g h t s . 5. Daydreams a r e u n r e a l a n d seldom come t r u e . 6. A "happy" daydream h e l p s me "snap out o f " a s p e l l of u n h a p p i n e s s . 63 7. I sometimes have a ve r y c l e a r , l i f e l i k e p i c t u r e o f what I am i m a g i n i n g . 8. In my daydreams, I s o l v e t h e problems of my f a m i l y and f r i e n d s as w e l l as my own. 9. Daydreaming i n an a d u l t i s r e a l l y c h i l d i s h . 10. My daydreams are o f t e n s t i m u l a t i n g and r e w a r d i n g . 11. The "scenes" i n my daydreams are s o r t of f u z z y and u n c l e a r . 12. My daydreams o f f e r me u s e f u l c l u e s t o t r i c k y s i t u a t i o n s I f a c e . 13. I f e e l b a d l y about daydreaming because i t may i n d i c a t e a weakness i n c h a r a c t e r . 14. My daydreams o f t e n c heer me up when I f e e l b l u e . 15. I can o f t e n "see" a l a r g e number of t h i n g s or p e o p l e i n my f a n t a s i e s . 16. My i d l e t h o u g h t s do not p r o v i d e me many workable s o l u -t i o n s t o problems. 17. A r e a l l y o r i g i n a l i d e a can sometimes develop from a r e a l l y f a n t a s t i c daydream. 18. Sometimes a t h r i l l goes up my s p i n e as I r e f l e c t on a g r e a t moment of t r i u m p h and achievement. 19. I do not r e a l l y "see" t h e o b j e c t s i n a daydream. 20. My daydreams a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o problems t h a t come up d u r i n g my d a i l y l i f e . 21. I f e e l g u i l t y about my daydreams. 22. I o f t e n r e l i v e happy or e x c i t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i n my daydreams. 23. My f a n t a s i e s o f t e n c o n s i s t of b l a c k - a n d - w h i t e o r c o l o r images. 24. I imagine s o l v i n g a l l my problems i n my daydreams. 64 I m a g i n a l P r o c e s s e s I n v e n t o r y - Form B ( I d e n t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n s and r a t i n g s c a l e t o Form A) 1. B e c a u s e d a y d r e a m i n g o f t e n t a k e s me away f r o m my work, I t r y t o a v o i d i t even when I h a v e no s p e c i f i c t a s k t o c o m p l e t e . ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2 3 4 5 [ R a t i n g s c a l e i s o m i t t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s due t o s p a c e c o n s t r a i n t s . ] 2. My daydreams o f t e n l e a v e me w i t h f e e l i n g s o f s a d n e s s . 3. My daydreams a r e m o s t l y made up of t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s r a t h e r t h a n v i s u a l i m a g e s . 4. Daydreams do n o t h a v e any p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r me. 5. The fewer daydreams one h a s , t h e more t i m e t h e r e i s t o r e a l l y " l i v e . " 6. A daydream c a n b r i n g a s m i l e t o my f a c e . 7. V i s u a l s c e n e s a r e an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of my daydreams. 8. My f a n t a s i e s sometimes s u r p r i s e me b y s u g g e s t i n g a n answer t o a p r o b l e m w h i c h I c o u l d n o t work ou t . 10. I u s u a l l y f e e l c o n t e n t and q u i t e e x c i t e d a f t e r a daydream. 11. The " p i c t u r e s i n my mind" seem as c l e a r as p h o t o g r a p h s . 12. I c a n g e t a f r e s h a p p r o a c h t o an o l d p r o b l e m a l m o s t a t once d u r i n g what b e g i n s as an i d l e daydream. 13. Daydreaming n e v e r s o l v e s any p r o b l e m s . 14. Daydreams a r e more l i k e l y t o a r o u s e p l e a s a n t t h a n u n p l e a s a n t e m o t i o n s w i t h i n me. 15. The s c e n e s o f my daydreams a r e n e v e r l o n g e r t h a n b r i e f f l a s h e s . 16. Sometimes an answer t o a d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m w i l l come t o me d u r i n g a daydream. 65 17. D a y d r e a m i n g i s a common e x p e r i e n c e f o r g r e a t s c i e n t i s t s and a r t i s t s a s w e l l a s f o r t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n . 18. My d a y d r e a m s o f t e n l e a v e me w i t h a warm, h a p p y f e e l i n g . 19. The " s c e n e s " i n my d a y d r e a m s a r e s o v i v i d a n d c l e a r t o me t h a t my e y e s seem a c t u a l l y t o f o l l o w them. 20. Daydreams I h a v e o f t e n a r e a b o u t d i f f e r e n t ways of f i n i s h i n g t h i n g s I s t i l l h a v e t o do i n my l i f e . 2 1 . I f i n d my d a y d r e a m s a r e w o r t h w h i l e a n d i n t e r e s t i n g t o me. 22. My f a n t a s i e s u s u a l l y p r o v i d e me w i t h p l e a s a n t t h o u g h t s . 23. I c a n s t i l l remember s c e n e s f r o m r e c e n t d a y d r e a m s . 24. My d a y d r e a m s a r e a l w a y s j u s t s o r t o f ways o f p a s s i n g t i m e r a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t s t o s o l v e my a c t u a l d a i l y p r o b l e m s . 66 Spheres of C o n t r o l T e s t F o l l o w i n g each of the statements below i s a s c a l e , r a n g i n g from " D i s a g r e e " t o "Agree." P l e a s e check t h e number which you f e e l b e s t r e p r e s e n t s y o ur degree of agreement or disagreement w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t . 1. When I get what I want i t ' s u s u a l l y because I worked h a r d f o r i t . ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Di sagree Agree [ R a t i n g s c a l e i s o m i t t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s due t o space c o n s t r a i n t s . ] 2. Even when I'm f e e l i n g s e l f - c o n f i d e n t about most t h i n g s , I s t i l l seem t o l a c k the a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . 3. By t a k i n g an a c t i v e p a r t i n p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l a f f a i r s we, the p e o p l e , can c o n t r o l w o r l d e v e n t s . 4. When I make p l a n s I am almost c e r t a i n t o make them work. 5. I have no t r o u b l e making and k e e p i n g f r i e n d s . 6. The average c i t i z e n can have an i n f l u e n c e on government d e c i s i o n s . 7. I p r e f e r games i n v o l v i n g some l u c k over games r e q u i r i n g pure s k i l l . 8. I'm not good a t g u i d i n g t h e c o u r s e o f a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h s e v e r a l o t h e r s . 9. I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r p e o p l e t o have much c o n t r o l o v er t h e t h i n g s p o l i t i c i a n s do i n o f f i c e . 10. I can l e a r n almost a n y t h i n g i f I s e t my mind t o i t . 11. I can u s u a l l y e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h someone I f i n d a t t r a c t i v e . 12. Bad economic c o n d i t i o n s a re caused by w o r l d e v e n t s t h a t are beyond our c o n t r o l . 13. My major accomplishments a r e e n t i r e l y due t o my h a r d work and a b i l i t y . When b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d I c a n u s u a l l y s t e e r t h e i n t e r v i e w e r t o w a r d t h e t o p i c s I want t o t a l k a b o u t and away f r o m t h o s e I w i s h t o a v o i d . W i t h enough e f f o r t we c a n wipe o u t p o l i t i c a l c o r r u p t i o n . I u s u a l l y d o n ' t s e t g o a l s b e c a u s e I h a v e a h a r d t i m e f o l l o w i n g t h r o u g h on them; I f I need h e l p i n c a r r y i n g o f f a p l a n o f mine, i t ' s u s u a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o g e t o t h e r s t o h e l p . One o f t h e m a j o r r e a s o n s we h a v e wars i s b e c a u s e p e o p l e d o n't t a k e enough i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c s . C o m p e t i t i o n d i s c o u r a g e s e x c e l l e n c e ! I f t h e r e ' s someone I want t o meet I c a n u s u a l l y a r r a n g e i t . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g we, as consumers, c a n do t o k e e p t h e c o s t o f l i v i n g f r o m g o i n g h i g h e r . O f t e n p e o p l e g e t a h e a d j u s t by b e i n g l u c k y . I o f t e n f i n d i t h a r d t o g e t my p o i n t of v i e w a c r o s s t o o t h e r s . When I l o o k a t i t c a r e f u l l y I r e a l i z e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o h a v e any r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e o v e r what b i g b u s i n e s s e s do. On any s o r t o f exam o r c o m p e t i t i o n I l i k e t o know how w e l l I do r e l a t i v e t o e v e r y o n e e l s e . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o smooth o v e r a d i s a g r e e m e n t I u s u a l l y make i t worse. I p r e f e r t o c o n c e n t r a t e my e n e r g y on o t h e r t h i n g s r a t h e r t h a n on s o l v i n g t h e w o r l d ' s p r o b l e m s ! I t ' s p o i n t l e s s t o k e e p w o r k i n g on s o m e t h i n g t h a t ' s t o o d i f f i c u l t f o r me. I f i n d i t e a s y t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n most g r o u p s i t u a t i o n s . I n t h e l o n g r u n we, t h e v o t e r s , a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b a d government on a n a t i o n a l as w e l l as a l o c a l l e v e l . 6 8 Questionnaire on Imagery Contro l Instruct ions This questionnaire i s concerned with the ease with which you can contro l your imagery or imagination. For the purposes of t h i s questionnaire, imagery means an experience that i s l i k e a sensation, percept ion, emotion or other f ee l ing that occurs without any r e a l , external cause. This experience i s d i f f erent from simply th inking about something. If you imagine that the sun is. se t t ing , you "see" i t in your "mind's eye." Some people f ind i t quite easy to contro l t h e i r imagery, while for others i t i s quite d i f f i c u l t . For example, one person may be able to see in h i s mind's eye a f r i e n d performing impossible gymnastic feats , while another may f i n d that when he t r i e s to r e c a l l the face of a f r i end , he has an image of another person. Both types of experience are normal and occur frequently . Each item of t h i s questionnaire cons i s t s of two p a r t s . Af ter reading the item, c lose your eyes and t r y to c a l l to mind the image suggested by the f i r s t part of the item. When you have the f i r s t image c l e a r l y i n your imagination, t ry to change i t as suggested by the second part of the item. Next, rate the ease with which you were able to change the image. Be sure to refer to the accompanying Rating Scale.' Record your answers i n the brackets provided. Just write the appropriate number after each item. If you f ind that you cannot produce any image at a l l for the f i r s t part of a p a r t i c u l a r item, simply rate the item "0" and proceed to the next item. Try to rate each item independently of how you may have done on other items. Be sure to f a m i l i a r i z e yourse l f with the d i f ferent categories on the Rating Scale and to read the example before beginning on the quest ionnaire. Refer to the Rating Scale provided on each page as you judge each item. Rating Scale Unable to imagine the f i r s t part of the item. Rating 0 Unable to imagine the second part of the item. Rating 1 Able to change the image as suggested, but could not ho ld i t steady in my imagination. Rating 2 Able to change the image as suggested and to h o l d i t i n my imagination with some e f f o r t . Rating 3 Able to change the image as suggested and to hold i t in my imagination very na tura l ly and e a s i l y . Rating 4 (Due to space cons tra int s , the Rating Scale w i l l be shown only once.) 69 Example Try to see the fol lowing scene with your mind's eye. Next, change the image as suggested by the second part of the item. Consider the image c a r e f u l l y , paying at tent ion to the v i s u a l aspect of i t . Rate the ease with which you were able to produce the change and to ho ld the new image i n your imagination, as spec i f i ed i n the Rating Scale . An elephant walking i n a c i r c u s parade. The same elephant performing a t r i c k , standing If you were unable to see the elephant walking i n the parade, you would rate the item " 0 " . If you experienced a f luc tuat ing image of the elephant on h i s hind legs , you would rate the item " 2 " , and so f o r t h . Now begin with the items below. Be sure to complete a l l items. Try to see each of the fol lowing scenes with your mind's eye. Next, change the item as suggested by the second part of each item. Consider each item c a r e f u l l y , paying attent ion to the v i s u a l aspect of i t . Rate the ease with which you were able to produce the change and to hold the new image in your imagination, as spec i f i ed by the Rating Sca le . 1. A close f r i e n d s i t t i n g i n a chair . The same f r i end now r i d i n g a b i c y c l e . ( ) 2. The Canadian f l a g . The Canadian f l a g , with a green l ea f . ( ) 3. Watching a t e l e v i s i o n screen that i s very fuzzy and dim. Seeing a b r i g h t , sharp p i c t u r e after adjust ing the on i t s h i n d legs . ( ) set. ( ) 4. The sun shining i n a c loudless sky. A dark cloud passing i n front of the sun and hiding h id ing i t . ( ) 5 . A b l i n d man with h i s cane walking down a sidewalk. The same b l i n d man walking the t ightrope at the c i r c u s . ( ) 70 Try t o hear each of t h e f o l l o w i n g sounds w i t h y o u r mind's ea r . Next, change the image as suggested by the second p a r t of the i t e m . C o n s i d e r each image c a r e f u l l y , p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o the s o u n d - l i k e a spect of i t . Rate the ease w i t h which you were a b l e t o produce and t o h o l d t h e new image i n y o u r i m a g i n a t i o n , as s p e c i f i e d i n t h e R a t i n g S c a l e . 6. Someone s i n g i n g Oh Canada. The s i n g i n g i s now accompanied by a p i a n o . ( ) 7. The sounds of a wooded scene, i n c l u d i n g b i r d s and the wind. The wind d i e s down. ( ) 8. The sound of a f a u c e t d r i p p i n g as you t r y t o s l e e p . The g r a d u a l s t o p p i n g of the sound when you t u r n o f f the t a p . ( ) 9. The sounds o f a thunder s t o r m : heavy r a i n , wind, and t h u n d e r . The g e n t l e p a t t e r of t h e r a i n as t h e storm d i e s down. ( ) 10. A v i o l i n i s t p l a y i n g i n a l a r g e c o n c e r t h a l l . He's now p l a y i n g on t h e beach, w i t h s u r f and sea-b i r d s i n t h e background. ( ) Try t o f e e l each of t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n s a t i o n s w i t h your mind's t o u c h . Next, change the image as suggested by the second p a r t o f each i t e m . C o n s i d e r each image c a r e f u l l y , p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o the t o u c h - l i k e aspect of i t . Rate the ease w i t h which you were a b l e t o produce t h e change and t o h o l d i t i n y o u r i m a g i n a t i o n as s p e c i f i e d i n the R a t i n g S c a l e . 11. The t e x t u r e o f sand as you rub i t between y o u r f i n g e r s . The sand i s now wet. ( ) 12. The f e e l o f a l i g h t r a i n and g e n t l e b r e e z e on your s k i n . The b r e e z e s t o p s . ( ) 13. The f e e l of b r u s h i n g y o u r h a i r g e n t l y w i t h a f i n e , s o f t b r u s h . Now you are b r u s h i n g v i g o r o u s l y w i t h a s t i f f b r u s h . ( ) 14. The f e e l of a s c r a t c h y wool sweater next t o your s k i n . You t a k e i t o f f and r e p l a c e i t w i t h a s o f t c o t t o n one. ( ) 15. The f e e l of washing d i s h e s i n v e r y h o t water. Suddenly your hand c l o s e s around an i c e cube i n t h e water. ( ) 71 Try t o p e r f o r m each of the f o l l o w i n g movements m e n t a l l y . Next, change the image as suggested by the second p a r t of each it e m . C o n s i d e r each i t e m c a r e f u l l y , p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e movement-like aspect of i t . Rate the ease w i t h which you were a b l e t o produce t h e change and t o h o l d t h e new image i n your i m a g i n a t i o n , as s p e c i f i e d i n t h e R a t i n g S c a l e . 16. You are j o g g i n g around a l a k e . You come t o a v e r y s t e e p h i l l and r u n up t o i t . ( ) 17. You are s p e e d i n g around a cur v e i n an a u t o m o b i l e . The a u t o m o b i l e i s now g o i n g s t r a i g h t . ( ) 18. You are c o a s t i n g down a g e n t l e h i l l on a b i c y c l e . The h i l l becomes much more steep and you speed up g r e a t l y . ( ) 19. You are f l o a t i n g q u i e t l y on a rubber r a f t . A l a r g e wave l i f t s t h e r a f t and s e t s i t down a g a i n . ( ) 20. You are r i d i n g up an e s c a l a t o r . The e s c a l a t o r m a l f u n c t i o n s , and you are suddenly g o i n g backward. ( ) Try t o t a s t e each of t h e f o l l o w i n g f l a v o r s w i t h y o u r mind's t a s t e . Next, change the image as suggested by t h e second p a r t of each i t e m . C o n s i d e r each image c a r e f u l l y , p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f l a v o r - l i k e a s p e c t of i t . Rate t h e ease w i t h which you were a b l e t o produce t h e change and t o h o l d t h e new image i n yo u r i m a g i n a t i o n , as s p e c i f i e d i n the R a t i n g S c a l e . 21. You are e a t i n g a r i c h m i l k c h o c o l a t e b a r . As you b i t e i n t o the c e n t e r , the t a s t e of peanut b u t t e r b l e n d s w i t h t h e c h o c o l a t e ( ) 22. The t a s t e of c o f f e e w i t h cream and sugar. The t a s t e of b l a c k c o f f e e . ( ) 23. The t a s t e of a t e n d e r , j u i c y steak r u i n e d by t o o much s a l t . The t a s t e of t h e same st e a k w i t h t h e r i g h t amount o f s a l t . ( ) 24. The t a s t e of raw o n i o n . The t a s t e of o n i o n s a u t e e d i n b u t t e r . ( ) 25. The t a s t e of t h e f i r s t b i t e i n t o a Red D e l i c i o u s a p p l e . You f i n d t h a t i n s i d e i s a v a n i l l a cream f i l l i n g . ( ) 72 Try t o s m e l l each of t h e f o l l o w i n g s m e l l s w i t h y o u r mind's nose. Next, change the image as suggested by t h e second p a r t of each i t e m . C o n s i d e r each image c a r e f u l l y , p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o the s m e l l - l i k e a s p e c t of i t . Rate the ease w i t h which you were a b l e t o produce t h e change and t o h o l d t h e new image i n y o ur i m a g i n a t i o n , as s p e c i f i e d i n t h e R a t i n g S c a l e . 26. The r i c h s m e l l of c o f f e e b r e w i n g . Add the s m e l l of f r y i n g bacon. ( ) 27. The s m e l l of g a s o l i n e and exhaust fumes a t a s e r v i c e s t a t i o n . The s m e l l o f g a s o l i n e a l o n e . ( ) 28. The s t r o n g s m e l l of h o u s e h o l d ammonia as you f i r s t open the b o t t l e . The f a i n t e r s m e l l o f ammonia used i n s o l u t i o n t o c l e a n windows. ( ) 29. The s t a l e , musty s m e l l o f a l o n g - c l o s e d room. The c l e a n , f r e s h s m e l l as you l e t i n the n i g h t a i r by opening a window. ( ) 30. The s t r o n g s m e l l as you e n t e r a f r e s h l y p a i n t e d room. In t h e n e x t room, t h e s m e l l of peppermint i s i n t h e a i r . ( ) Try t o e x p e r i e n c e each of t h e f o l l o w i n g f e e l i n g s i n y o u r i m a g i n a t i o n . Next, change the image as suggested by the second p a r t o f the i t e m . C o n s i d e r each image c a r e f u l l y , p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f e e l i n g a s p e c t of i t . Rate the ease w i t h which you were a b l e t o produce t h e change and t o h o l d t h e new image i n y o u r i m a g i n a t i o n , as s p e c i f i e d i n the R a t i n g S c a l e . 31. F e e l i n g t o t a l l y r e l a x e d . At t h e same time you f e e l f u l l o f energy. ( ) 32. L y i n g i n a warm, snug bed, f e e l i n g v ery s l e e p y . L y i n g i n t h e same bed, b u t now wide awake. ( ) 33. F e e l i n g g r e a t l y e l a t e d at a t t a i n i n g an i m p o r t a n t g o a l . F e e l i n g m i l d l y s e l f - s a t i s f i e d a t a t t a i n i n g a s i m i l a r , but l e s s i m p o r t a n t g o a l . ( ) 34. F e e l i n g v e r y t h i r s t y . F e e l i n g v e r y s a t i s f i e d a f t e r d r i n k i n g y o u r f i l l . ( ) 35. F e e l i n g v e r y much at peace and i n l o v e w i t h the w o r l d . H a t i n g someone i n t e n s e l y . ( ) The Questionnaire Upon Mental Imagery 7 3 Instruct ions for doing test The aim of t h i s test i s to determine the vividness of your imagery. The items of the test w i l l br ing c e r t a i n images to your mind. You are to rate the vividness of each image by reference to the accompanying ra t ing scale , which i s shown below. For example, i f your image i s 'vague and dim' you give i t a ra t ing of 5. Record your answer i n the brackets provided after each item. Just write the appropriate number after each item. Before you begin the test items, f a m i l i a r i z e yoursel f with the d i f ferent categories on the r a t i n g sca le . Throughout the t e s t , refer to the r a t i n g scale when judging the vividness of each image. A copy of the ra t ing scale w i l l be p r i n t e d on each page. [Due to space cons tra int s , the Rating Scale w i l l be p r i n t e d only once, immediately below.] Please do not turn to the next page u n t i l you have completed the items on the page you are doing, and do not turn back to check on other items you have done. Complete each page before moving on to the next page. Try to do each item separately independent of how you may have done other items. Rating Scale The image aroused by an item of th i s test may be: Per fec t ly c l ear and as v i v i d as the actual Rating 1 experience Very c l ear and comparable i n vividness to the actual experience Rating 2 Moderately c lear and v i v i d Rating 3 Not c lear or v i v i d , but recognizable Rating 4 Vague and dim Rating 5 So vague and dim as to be hardly d i scern ib le Rating 6 No image present at a l l , you only 'knowing' that you are thinking of the object Rating 7 An example of an item on the test would be one which asked you to consider an image which comes to your mind's eye of a red apple. If your v i s u a l image was moderately c lear and v i v i d you would check the r a t i n g scale and mark ' 3 ' in the brackets as fol lows: Item 5. A red apple Rating (3) When you have understood these ins truc t ions , begin the tes t . 7 4 Think of the some r e l a t i v e or f r i e n d whom you frequently see, considering c a r e f u l l y the p i c t u r e that r i s e s before your mind's eye. C l a s s i f y the images suggested by each of the fo l l lowing questions as indicated by the degrees of clearness and vividness spec i f ied on the Rating Sca le . Item Rating 1 . The exact contour of face, head, shoulders and body ( ) 2. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c poses of head, at t i tudes of body, e tc . ( ) 3. The precise carr iage , length of step, e tc . in 4 . The di f ferent colours worn i n some f a m i l i a r costume ( ) Think of seeing the fo l lowing, considering c a r e f u l l y the p i c t u r e which comes before your mind's eye; and c l a s s i f y the image suggested by the fol lowing question as ind icated by the degree of clearness and vividness spec i f i ed on the Rating Scale. 5. The sun as i t i s s inking below the horizon ( ) Think of each of the fol lowing sounds, considering c a r e f u l l y the image which comes to your mind's ear, and c l a s s i f y the images suggested by each of the fol lowing questions as indicated by the degrees of c learness and vividness spec i f i ed on the Rating Scale . Item Rating 6. The whistle of a locomotive ( ) 7 . The honk of an automobile ( ) 8. The mewing of a cat ( ) 9. The sound of escaping steam ( ) 1 0 . The clapping of hands i n applause ( ) Think of ' f e e l i n g ' or touching each of the fo l lowing, considering c a r e f u l l y the image which comes to your mind's touch, and c l a s s i f y the images suggested by each of the fol lowing questions as indicated by the degrees of clearness and vividness spec i f i ed i n the Rating Scale. walking ( ) 1 1 . Sand ( ) 75 12. L i n e n ( ) 13. F u r ( ) 14. The p r i c k o f a p i n ( ) 1 5 . The warmth o f a t e p i d b a t h ( ) T h i n k o f p e r f o r m i n g e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a c t s , c o n s i d e r i n g c a r e f u l l y t h e i mage w h i c h comes t o y o u r m i n d ' s arms, l e g s , l i p s , e t c . , a nd c l a s s i f y t h e image s u g g e s t e d a s i n d i c a t e d b y t h e d e g r e e o f c l e a r n e s s a nd v i v i d n e s s s p e c i f i e d on t h e R a t i n g S c a l e . 16. R u n n i n g u p s t a i r s ( ) 17. S p r i n g i n g a c r o s s a g u t t e r ( ) I S . D r a w i n g a c i r c l e on p a p e r ( ) 19. R e a c h i n g up t o a h i g h s h e l f ( ) 20. K i c k i n g s o m e t h i n g o u t o f y o u r way ( ) T h i n k o f t a s t i n g e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r i n g c a r e f u l l y t h e image w h i c h comes t o y o u r m i n d ' s mouth, and c l a s s i f y t h e i m a g es s u g g e s t e d b y e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s as i n d i c a t e d b y t h e d e g r e e s o f c l e a r n e s s a n d v i v i d n e s s s p e c i f i e d on t h e R a t i n g 21. S a l t 22. G r a n u l a t e d ( w h i t e ) s u g a r 23. O r a n g e s 24. J e l l y 25. Y o u r f a v o u r i t e soup I t e m R a t i n g S c a l e . I t e m R a t i n g 76 Think o f s m e l l i n g each of t h e f o l l o w i n g , c o n s i d e r i n g c a r e f u l l y t h e image which comes t o y o u r mind's nose and c l a s s i f y the images suggested b y each o f the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s as i n d i c a t e d by the degrees of c l e a r n e s s and v i v i d n e s s s p e c i f i e d on the R a t i n g S c a l e . Item R a t i n g 26. An i l l - v e n t i l a t e d room ( ) 27. Cooking cabbage ( ) 28. Roast beef ( ) 29. F r e s h p a i n t ( ) 30. New l e a t h e r ( ) Think of each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n s a t i o n s , c o n s i d e r i n g c a r e f u l l y t h e image which comes b e f o r e your mind, and c l a s s i f y the images suggested as i n d i c a t e d by t h e degrees of c l e a r n e s s and v i v i d n e s s s p e c i f i e d on the R a t i n g S c a l e . Item R a t i n g 31. F a t i g u e ( ) 32. Hunger ( ) 33. A sore t h r o a t ( ) 34. Drowsiness ( ) 35. R e p l e t i o n as from a v e r y f u l l meal 

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