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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The limits of state responsibility in education, with special reference to British Columbia Boyes, Francis Cecil 1931

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INDEX TO CHAPTERS 1. Introduction - Education Among Very Early Types of Civilisation» 2« The Development of State Responsibility in West-ern Europe - Especially in Prance, Germany and Italy* 5. The Development of State Responsibility in England. 4. The Development of State Responsibility in America. 5. The Development of State Responsibility in Canada. 6. Special Contributions of the Modern City, i.e. Junior High Schools, Technical, Commercial High, Vocational Guidance, etc. 7. The State and the Teachers. 8. Agencies Beyond the Scope of the School over Which the State Exercises Great Influence and Some Control. 9. The State as a Direct Educative Agency. 10. Conclusion. THE LIMITS OF STATS RESPONSIBILITY IH EDUCATION WITH SPEGIREFERENCE TO BRITISH COLOMBIA CHAPTER I. Introduction - Education Among Vary Early Types of Civilization. In attempting to deal with a topic of this kind in a somewhat brief manner it will he impossible to give a full account of any one of the lines along which this respon-sibility has developed, What can be done is to give a brief outline of the early history of its development and to deal more fully with certain of the major movements in our own time. Prom time irsmemorial man has realized that the fate of his tribe, his clan or his nation rested in the abi-lity of its youth to carry on the work and traditions of their fathers. Realizing this in a vague way primitive man taught his children what he knew of the arts of war and of peace snd prepared them for the task which he would soon lay down. There was no clear state command to this effect, but it was an unwritten law, and was, in the main, obeyed. In the case of early civilizations, such as that of China, we have a slightly different order of things. In the beginning there were scholars who discovered new truths and discovered how to write them down and so convey them to 2. future generations. These same scholars in their writings set down the ideal of Chinese citizenship, whether they meant to or not. The newer generations in trying to emulate the great scholars, were content to copy their work, memo-rize it, and obey their rulings. Thus they became educated Chinese citizens. Here again there was no state acceptance of responsibility for public education, but rather a public opinion which laid down certain minimum essentials of learning as a passport to certain positions in society. In India much the same state of things existed. The Brahmans had charge of education and each caste was taught only what the social conditions of that class had proved to be useful. In Greece we find the first definite accept-ance of educational responsibility by the state. Sparta, the small armed camp, aspired to be the leading state in Greece. Realizing that its very existence depended on its ability in the use of arms, it evolved a system of education with that aim in view. Boys at the age of seven wore nlaced in public institutions where they begt-m a rigourous training which was prescribed by the state. They were taught the use of arms and were given physical training which was so severe that no weakling could survive. Thus the men of Sparta be-came renowned for their strength, courage, and skill in war-like accomplishments. The girls were almost as severely 3 « trained and became (1)"models of strength, purity and courageV In the ease of Athens, though the state reali-zed its responsibility and provided some public schools for the training ©f the people, it was not prepared to accept the whole burden as Sparta had done. It urged parents to see that children were properly educated and, as a further indu-cement, it provided that where a parent neglected to do this, his children need not support him in his old age. Moreover, the title "Athenian IanK was something to be aimed at, and to secure this it was necessary to have taken a certain course in military drill, Athens was not narrow In its con-ception of education but encouraged all learning so long as it was productive of the (2)"beautiful and good,1* When Home began to gather strength and power the Roman statesmen saw that what they needed was skilful soldiers and leaders to gaSn and hold new territory, and skilful lawyers and orators to keep peace and prosperity within the growing state. Education in Home was shaped to produce the desired type of citizen and Roman schools trained young Home in the ways of the practical and the scientific, in the making of laws and in the art of oratory. (?) "Orandum est ut sit mens sana in corpone sano." The Roman departed somewhat from the ideals of the Greek and developed a system, the main aims of trhich were efficiency and force. (l)p.26 (2)p.26 (3)p.40 The Evolution of the Educational Ideal« Riverside Texts - Houghton Mifflin Co. 1914. Emerson, M.I. 4 « Christianity, with its emphasis on manners and morals, did not play an important role in the educational world until the great states were broken down by the barba-rians. During the dark ages the church kept the "lamp of learning" alight in the crypts and hermitages throughout the old world. The monks had time to study and they used it well. They were ready when their chance c*vrae during the Middle Ages and for a time the church became, to all intents and purposes, the state. During this period the educational system of the state was definitely controlled by the church, and, hence, leaned largely towards religious topics. The Bible became the chief text and the gates of science were closed to the student. Though some of the monks were able to read the writings of the old Greeks and Romans they kept their knowledge to themselves since pagan ideas might prove harm-ful to the church by undermining the influence of the clergy. The Feudal System was admirably suited to the ideals of the church at that time. By means of it the clergy kept control of the ruling classes and education was left entirely in the hands of those who had kept It alive. This great power proved too much for the leaders of the church. They began to depart from the real teachings of Christianity and because of their increasing arrogance and cruelty lost their great opportunity. An idea of the position which the church con-5 « sidered that it held with regard to education can be gained fro® a perusal of a quotation or two taken from an article printed in the Sunday Province of September 28, 1950, These quotations are taken from an encyclical letter sent all over the world by Pope Pius IX. and they show that in regard to this matter the church has not changed. One quotation states: " every system of education must be subject to the rules of Divine Law of which the Church of Home is the ex-clusive, infallible custodian, interpreter and teacher." Another states: "The Church of Rome has independent right to Judge whether any system of education Is helpful or harmful to the people; that the Church of Home is independent of all earthly government or power in the exercise of its educative mission." Two forces arose which shattered the hold of the church on the field of education though they could not cause it to forsake its claim» The Renaissance swept over Europe slowly tut surely. Men became curious. They wanted to learn. Hew ideas or old, new facts op old, new lands or those which had for long lain before them, all became centres of interest and study. They wanted to know why it rained, why the sun rose, why certain things made them sick while others cured pain, and from this new curiosity came discover-ies and inventions. "Other Worldliness" received a rude shock. Men beg*m to consider this life as interesting and profitable ?.nd not merely as a pl-^ ce of torture snd disci-6« pline In preparation for a happier life to come. One of these inventions was the printing press. With its appearance the increase in the demand for books be-came greater than the supply and the writers of pag-m times came into their own. Anything and everything that the prin-ters could turn out was accepted and the layman secured knowledge which before this time was utterly beyond his reach. This increase in knowledge and in thinking led men to discover the errors in the teaching of the priests, and the Reformation followed. The terrible struggle between the rival religious groups was long and bloody. During its course little thought was given to education, since both state and church were engaged in a struggle for survival. When the smoke of conflict drifted away from Europe a new Era had dawned and the leaven of the Renaissance once more began to work. The newly formed nations of the West began to cherish their Nationalism and soon realized that education was of vital importance in the development of a national spirit. One by one these states began to take an interest in, and assume a responsibility towards, a system of educa-tion, and in the next chapter we shall outline briefly this development in one or two of the more important states in Western Europe. Chapter I 1. Emerson, M.I. The Evolution of the Educational Ideal. Riverside Texts - Houghton Mifflin Co., 1914. (1) Page 26 (2) Page 26 (3) Page 40 7 « Tli© Republic of Flsto - Book VII. Monroe, Text Book in the History of Education. SüacFillan Publishing Co., 1921. Chapters 1, 3, 4. UBC Scanned by UBC Library CHAPTER II. Th© Development of State Responsibility in Education in Western Europe, Before turning to a discussion of the situ-ation in Prance, Germany, England and Italy, a glance at one or two very early attempts on the part of a monarch or a government to intervene in educational matters might prove worth while* One of the first of these attempts was made by the old Prankish King, Charlemagne, Keen and ambitious, this doughty old warrior saw that he must have educated nobles and educated clergy if he were to hold his vast king-dom together. Realizing this, he set himself to find teach-ers who could instruct these two classes. Securing Aleuin, a great English scholar of that time, he gave him free rein in educational matters. order to encourage his people he entered the court school established by Alcuin and proved himself a very enthusiastic, if not a thorough, scholar* He saw the need of education for the upper classes at least, but beyond securing teachers, encouraging the people to learn by setting them an example, and by scolding certain of the clergy for their lack of learning, he accepted no re-sponsibility for education* A case of successful intervention of the state by means of the Law Courts occurred in England in 1670. She Established church, by means of the Act of Conformity and the Five Mile Act, had attempted to exclude Dissenters from teaching positions in the schools of the day. In a test case the courts found that the teacher in the elemen-tary school could not be deprived of his position by fail-ure of the bishop to licence him, if he were the nominee of the founder or the lay patron of the school* This decision had far-reaching results» Mien we consider that most of the schools of that time were founded by individuals or by subscriptions; it is easy to see how such a declaration helped to separate the schools from church control. The emphasis would tend to become placed on the teacher and his ability, rather than on his friendship with church author-ities. Prior to the Revolution Prance was controlled by a vicious combination of nobles and clergy. These two classes held the power and the money, and between them kept the common people in poverty and ignorance* In spite of their efforts some Frenchmen discovered that men in other countries had certain rights and privileges which the men of France lacked, and from the talk and writings of this small group came the revolution. In the Constitution of 1791 which was present-ed to the king for his signature there appears this demand: (1)"There shall be created and organised a system (3)Nationalism 4 Education, p.12. MacMilian Pub. Co. 1923. 10 « of public Instruction common to all citizens, and gratui-tous, with respect to those branches of instruction which are indispensable to all men»" The French leaders of those stirring days, Diderot, Mirabeau and Talleyrand, realized that a constitu-tion was one thing, but securing respect for it was quite another. The old absolute monarch held the respect of his people by means of gorgeous displays, conquests abroad, and a standing army at home. Respect for ©. consitution in a republic could be secured only by a system of education, having that for one of its chief aims. So we see Mirabeau speaking for the (2)"Organ-ization of a Teaching Body" or for the "Organization of a Wational Lycée," and claiming that public instruction was (3)"A power which embraces everything from the games of infancy to the roost imposing fetes of the nation." Again we note Talleyrand accepting the ideas of Montesquieu and urging that instruction is the necessary counterpoise of Liberty and that every citizen should be taught to know, obey, love and protect the new constitution. Condorcet outlined a very ambitious system of nation-wide, free educa-tion in all departments for both sexes, but this was too far ahead of its time and could not be accepted. A decided step was made by the national Con-vention of 1792-95. This convention abolished all secular and endowed schools and colleges and confiscated their pro-(2)p.279 (3)p.280. A Brief History of Ed. Cubberley,E.P. Riverside Series. Houghton Mifflin. 1922. 11. perty In 1793, This freed the French system from cbureh control and the state definitely assumed the burden of re-sponsibility in the control of education. As a result of this step it was necessary to organize state schools at once, so orders were given to open state primary schools and a curriculum was outlined for these schools. The Con-vention was not yet ready to take up the secondary school problem as there was considerable opposition to it among the members. Tiie intentions of the members of the conven-tion were good but the condition of Prance at the time made the carrying out of these intentions practically impossible. The next step was made by Napoleon in 1802, when he attempt-ed to establish a whole system by a single effort. Napoleonfs interest lay largely in preparing for scientific and technical leaders. This was the work of the secondary school, so here lay the great work of this many-sided man. In regard to the primary schools he merely stated the t each ccmemane was to provide a school, a teacher and a home for the teacher. The teacher was to be respon-sible to the local authorities but the Department maintained the right of supervision. His pay was to be derived from fees and one-fifth of the pupils were to be free pupils. The limits of instruction were definitely set and the super-visors were ordered to see that the teacher did not step be-yond the stated limits. As can be seen this was a hit or 12. miss arrangement. There was no compulsion about establish-ing a school and the state made no attempt to encourage local effort % offering aid to progressive communes. In the case of secondary education H&poleon outlined the establishment of a centralized system organ-ized and controlled by the state. This centralization and uniformity, he extended t© higher education and its culmin-ation was the University of France. To show the extent to which the control of education had developed in France a quotation from the (4)"Imperial Decree creating the Univer-sity of France" prove very illuminating. It states that "Public Instruction in the whole Empire, is confined exclusively to the University," and that, "no school, nor establishment for instruction can be formed independent of the Imperial University, and without the authority of its chief.3 Here is a definite acceptance by the state of the whole weight of educational responsibility. The Grand laster and Council of the State University are appointed by the state and by them all questions of education from kindergarten to post graduate studies must be settled* normal schools for teacher training, certification of teach-ers, curriculum organization and supervision became active Issues of the state, and these have grown In importance ever since. By 1833 through Cousin's Report and the work of Guizot, primary education became compulsory and the state (4)Cubberley. A Brief History of Ed. Riverside Series. p. 328. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1922. 13. reserved the right to fix the salary of the teacher in the commune and approve of his appointment. Gradually the idea of free education in primary and intermediate schools gained ground until today French schools are "Free, compulsory, and secular," and'the system resembles closely that suggested by Condorcet in 1792. GERMANY Germany is credited with being the first Euronean state to take the control of education from the hands of the church and use it to promote the aims of the state. German rulers did not wait for a revolution to wring from them the first educational privileges for the masses, but took a leading role in setting the course along ?/hich this development rapidly took place. The new University of Halle, established in 1694 under the patronage of the Elector of Brandenburg, who afterwards became the first King of Prussia, gave Germany a great start in the newer scientific attitude. The freedom of thought permitted, resulted in much research and new ideas grew apace. Other universities followed a like course and education began to play a major role in the political and public life of the German people. Frederick William I. of Prussia took the throne in 1713 and that same year issued a nRegulatory Code for the Reformed Evangelical and Latin Schools of Prussia." A few 14* years later he Issued his "Advisory Order* in which parents were practically compelled to send their children to school. He also outlined the course of study, nnd, to m«ke sure that it would "be possible for all children to secure the benefits of an education, he ordered that the fees of the poor children should be paid from the community poor box. Realizing that the teachers of the time were very poorly equipped for their work he set down certain regulations to which a candidate isust conform before he could be selected for a position and even made a distinction in the qualifications necessary for town and for rural schools. Since East Prussia had, up to this time, been neglected In the matter of schools, he decided to encourage the people, so that they might be enabled to approach more rapidly the standards set by the more progressive areas. For this purpose he set aside a large sum of money as an endowment fund and with the interest from this fund corn rar-ities were assisted to build schools and engage teachers. Besides this money endowment, he caused to be set aside for school purposes certain tracts of land, the proceeds from the sale of which were to be used by the adjacent communities for school purposes. In 1737 the fundamental school law of Prussia-he nee of Germany- was Issued by this progressive monarch rn his (5)'Principia Regulative." In this ho outlined the con-ditions for building schools, teacher supoort, feos and 1 5 « government assistance. Selecting those articles which deal with the latter point we find that: 1. The state was to furnish the necessary timber for constructing the school and the necessary firewood for heating the completed building. 2. The state was to pay the fee when a peasant sends more than one child to school. 3. The state was to give the teacher on© acre of land and to see that the villagers tilled It for him. Here we see the state accepting a three fold responsibility in relation to building, to pupil and to teacher, k cen-tury before any other country in Europe became really in-terested in the children of the people, this old Prussian monarch had laid out the ground work of what was to become the most thorough educational scheme of modern times. Frederick the Great followed In the footsteps of his father by confirming the regulations already laid down and by seeing that these were strictly adhered to. Adding to his kingdom by conquest of neighbouring, states, he found it advantageous to centralize the control of the schools in Berlin and from this central Consistory the Prussian School Inspectors were sent to all parts of the kingdom to see that the Prussian schools carried on in such 16 « a way as to support the Prussian state. In M s Code he in-sisted cm compulsory school attendance from ages five to fourteen and Issued leaving certificates at the completion of the course. Fees of the poor were to be paid from taxes. Parents were to be fined for failure to send their children to school regularly and the hours of school were carefully outlined. The qualifications of the teacher were also laid down, as well as a detailed outline of the course of study, order of exercises and matters of discipline. Years before actual conditions would permit its fulfillment Germany had a detailed plan for a modern school system in which the state had accepted the greater share of the responsibility. In 1794 the General Civil Code for the State outlined the position of the state with regard to education in the following article: (6) "Schools and Universities are state institu-tions, charged with the instruction of youth in useful in-formation and scientific knowledge. Such institutions may be founded only with the knowledge and consent of the state. All public schools and educational institutions are under the supervision of the state, and are at all times subject to its examination and inspection." •With this attitude Germany kept faith in spite of such times of depression as resulted from the Kapoleonlc wars. The youth of Germany must be trained by the state for the state and the result was startling. Setting the pace (6)Cubberley. A Brief History of Ed. Riverside Series. p. 313. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1922. 17 « for all nations in the matter of education during the nine-teenth century, she soon set the pace in lines of industry and commerce, and was well on the way to a peaceful conquest of the world when a flaw in the alas for which she was striv-ing caused a crash from which it will take many years to re-cover. The state had accepted the responsibility for educa-ting the young but had selected certain aims which clashed with those of her neighbours. A new Germany will recast the ends to be striven for and a better understanding of the re-lation of Nationalism to Internationalism should produce more beneficial results than were possible under the earlier system. ITALY The intervention of the state in education in Italy was very slow in spit© of the fact that it was here that the Renaissance first took root and flourished in Europe. As the centre of the Catholic religion and a part of the Holy Roman Empire, the people of Italy were dominated by an anti-intellectual church. The fact that the country was a mass of small states, each warring from time to time on the other prevented the growth of a national spirit, and education languished except In one or two of the larger ci tie s. The first sten taken by vny member of the ru-ling class towards assuming educational responsibility 18. occurred in the eighteenth century, when the two Dukes of Savoy took the control of the secondary schools in their duchy away fro® the church and directed them personally by means of a Council of Public Instruction which they appoint-ed for that purpose. Their example was followed to some extent in Lombardy but the influence of the church was too great for the movement to gain much headway. The next step was taken by Napoleon who cam© as a conqueror but acted in some ways as a friend. Having conquered nearly all of the small Italian states he was able to Institute reforms throughout the whole area. The power of the church was weakened and the foundations of a system of education were laid by him based on the French pi n. With his fall, the scheme dissolved and Italy was once more delivered Into the hands of the petty sover-eigns, the reactionary church and the Austrian army. Each of these saw in popular education a serious menace to itself so any attempt to establish a new system or continue one already established was promptly "rioped in the bud". To Victor Emmanual *nd his Prime Minister, Count Cavour, goes the credit for the rise of modern Italy politically and educationally. The former realised that a united Italy free from Austrian oppression was an absolute necessity if any progress was to be made. After a long and arduous struggle this aim was achieved. His Prime "inister realised that to bind the scattered states into one solid 19 « group a system of education founded, supported and control-led by the state was the most important Instrument that could possibly be employed. "*ith this in view he set to work and Italy soon found itself with a thorough system of state-controlled schools, normal schools and universities, patterned after the system of Frence, which worked effective-ly towards the unification of a thriving nation. The present Dictator of Italy keeps a strong hand on the schools of his country as he, too, realizes that his aims for the progress of his country can best be achieved through the instructors selected and trained as he desires. Chapter II 1. Relsner, E.H. Nationalism and Education since 1789. MacMillan Publishing Co., N.T. 1923. (1) Page 12. 2. Cubberley, E.P. A Brief History of Education. Riverside Series. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1922. (2) Page 279 (3) Page 280 (4) Page 328 (5) Page 309 (6) Page 313 3. Cubberley, E.P. Readings in the History of Education. Riverside Series, Pages 90-93 (Charlemagne) Houghton Mifflin Co. 1920. 4. Relsner, E.H. Nationalism a>d Education Since 1789. MacMillan Publishing Co., N.Y. 1923. 20 « CHAPTER III. ENGL A TIP Coming to England we find that the struggle to secure state support was long and difficult. Here was no violent upheaval of the people to secure the advantages of education. Hor do we find a benevolent conqueror arrang-ing a system for a conquered people. Uor yet does any great sovereign plan long and carefully for the good of his people an elaborate system of schools and colleges. Instead we see a system develop slowly but surely out of the efforts of in-dividuals or small groups working away quietly but effective ly, while the state looks on with paternal smile. As the system grows the load increases and bit by bit the state assumes more and more of the weight until at last a great and powerful system rests squarely on the shoulders of the government which had little or nothing to do with, its early growth. Like the English Language, the English Constitution the British Empire and Topsy, rotate .Acceptance of Education-al Responsibility in England may be said to have "just growed." Early Educational Movements in England were private ventures or were carried on by societies organized along charitable lines. The fact that the English were a tolerant race and that all classes took an aetive interest 21. In education. Tims w© find the sons of the rich securing good educations by paying for them, and the children of the poor, in many cases, seeking the smaller advantages which the charitable societies placed within their reach. The first step taken by the state along this line was taken in 1767 when a law was passed which stated that the poor parish children of London might be educated "at the cost of the rates-" This was merely a suggestion giving the authorities permission to use public money for educational purposes. Since there was no element of com-pulsion in the act very little attention was paid to it. For many years after this England "muddled" along with the aid of Sunday Schools, Ragged Schools, Infant Schools and Monitorial Schools, each doing much good, but each unable to do its best because the state took no active interest. In spite of the advice of such men as Adam Smith, Malthus and Thomas Pain© the ruling classes could see in popular education no virtue. Alarmed by the French Revolution they became more and more wary of assist-ing the lower classes to secure educational advantages which they believed to be their sole privilege. The power-ful urge of the Industrial revolution finally loosened the grip of the old landed class on the purse strings and poli-cie s of the government, and then changes began to take place, very slowly it is true, but none the less surely. In 1820 a bill was introduced into the 22 • English Parliament demanding that a tax be levied for the support of schools and that the government aid the various districts in the building of new schools. The bill met w«tfc violent opposition and failed to carry. However, the state had become involved in educational responsibilities whether it would or not, and the next effort in 1833, was more successful. The third Reform Bill struggled through par-liament in 1832» The cause of the struggle lay In the fact that the bill aimed to Increase the scope of the franchise and this meant the breaking of the power of the landed nobility who had for so long controlled the policy of the realm. After the new election the people had some friends at least in the seats of the mighty and they soon made their presence felt. In 1833 the government took its first step towards accepting educational responsibility by pass-ing a bill which granted twenty thousand pounds per year to the districts for the purpose of aiding in the building of schools. It was a short and feeble step for a great and rich nation but it was a step in the right direction. The state had definitely entered the educational field and had admitted thst education was a matter in which the govern-ment should take a share. From this position there was no retreat and the increasing pressure of the people forced the state to advance from position to position until at last it accepted full responsibility for a system of schools 23 « and for its maintainance. A review of the various steps shows how slowly and carefully each was made, tout also re-veals the solidity of the whole structure as it is today. In 1838 a Department of Education was formed tentatively. It was accepted finally in 1856. In 1839 the government grant was increased to thirty thousand pounds and from year to year the grant has increased steadily. In 1841 cam© a decided widening of the horizon of state interest. Manufacturing England required men and women with special training and the new electorate had a fairly strong voice in parliament. When manufacturers decided that they needed expert designers they also decided that It would be well for the state to pay the cost of their train-ing. A bill was introduced into parliament asking that schools of design be established in manufacturing districts, and the bill succeeded in passing. Education thus took its first step away from the three H's under state support. In 1846 a further step was ma vie and In a new direction. Since the government was now committed to a policy of making an annual grant towards the cost of educa-tion it began to demand seme control over the expenditure of the grants. So the pupil-teacher system was begun and certain regulations concerning the grsnting of certificates to teachers were laid down. In 1853 the establishment of Departments of Science and Art took place and National Art Training Schools 24 « were established. In 1858 a Royal Commission was appointed to examine the system of elementary education as it then ex-isted* Out of the work of this commission came that ter-rible piece of literature, "The Newcastle Report" which, with its "paymenfc by results," hung like a millstone about the necks of teachers for many long years. Finally in 1870 after much debate and amend-ment the Foundation Act was passed and a beginning of a national System of Education was made. Another Reform Bill in 1867 had once more extended the Franchise and forced the state to enter the field of education to a still greater degree. In establishing a national System the govern-ment found itself in great difficulty. A great deal of very valuable work had been done by voluntary effort. Many of the great schools built up in this way had established themselves In the hearts of the people at home and in other lands. The government had no desire to hurt their power or good name so was forced to compromise in its act. The act stated that any district not served by a voluntary school, could raise money by taxes, elect a board, and build a school with the consent and supnort of the state. In this way every district had an opportunity to establish a good school, yet the voluntary workers were not discouraged, as would have been the case had the government opened a system 25 « of free and cofflpulsory schools at one step. These first state schools were not free bat the fee was small and the act provided that the fees of poor pupils should be paid for the®. The progress of the early state schools was slow but sure and the Voluntary Schools felt the loss of ground very keenly. The struggle became somewhat bitter, and in 1902 the Balfour Education Aet put an end to the discord by giving the state control over all schools which received aid from government sources. This included ele-mentary, secondary and higher institutions of learning. England--or at least the leaders In England—had come at last to realise that the children of the common people de-served an opportunity to achieve a higher education than that offered in the elementary school, and that (1)"the wealth of the state must help to educate all the children of the state." The Fisher Act of 1918 showed how far the Government of England was prepared to go in accepting re-sponsibility in educational affairs, tinder this act the state took control of all types of education for both children and adults. Infant Schools, Elementary and High-er Elementary Schools, Technical and Higher Technical, Local High Schools, Hew and Old Universities and "Evening classes, all were to be provided for. Tne leaving age of pupils was raised and the compulsory attendance regulations (l)Cubberley. A Brief History of Ed. p.549. Riverside Series. Houghton Mifflin Co,. 1922. 26« strengthened. In short the Act gave to England a most thorough system and under Its influence progress has been rapid. Unfortunately the serious financial conditions of the Mother Land caused by post war depression of industry has prevented the full enforcement of many of the terms of the act, but the more prosperous sections of the land have been able to use it to great advantage. In spit© of the fact that the state has as-sumed the burden it should be pointed out that no effort to establish a standardized system has been made. The Government has been careful to leave much of the control In the hands of the local authorities and these authorities realize that the educational needs of communities and in-dividuals vary a great deal. 1. Cubberley, K.P. A Brief History of Education. Riverside Series. Houghton Mifflin Go. 1922. (1) Page 349. 2. Reisner, E.H. nationalism and Education since 1789. Macmillan Publishing Co., N.Y. 1923. Chapters 11-14. 3. Cubberley, E.P. Readings in the History of Education. Riverside Series. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1922. 4. "England" Adamson, J.??. A Short History of Education. Cambridge Press. 1919. Chapter XVI. 27. CHAPTER IV. AMERICA III studying the -awakening of the state to Educational Responsibility in America it will be necessary to consider the two countries, the United States and Canada. Since this movement began earlier in the former country we shall consider it first. In the United States,as in Europe, the be-ginnings of education were closely associated with the church. The early colonies were founded by religious sects and these saw to it that the schools which were es-tablished were so ordered that they would support the re-ligious beliefs of the group which founded the®. However, the newness of the country, the variety of occupations, and the stern struggle necessary to wrest a living from the wilderness gradually had Its effect and the men of the colonies began to see that the schools must turn from the old type of religious and classical training to a newer type of more practical training which life in the lew World had shown to be necessary. This led to a separation of school and church and affairs of the school were now to be discussed in the Town Hall instead of in the Meeting House. In tracing the growth of education as a state activity In the United States it must be remembered that the Federal 28 « Government has never accepted responsibility for education-al affairs. It has left these entirely to the various states, These have been encouraged and aided in their efforts by the Federal Government, As far back as 164? we find a law in the Hew •England States requiring the maIntainance of Latin Grammar Schools. This kept education alive but the idea that the type of education offered by these schools was not the proper training for life in a new land, brought about the formation of the Academy or popular High School about 1750. The struggle between these two types of secondary schools was practically decided In favour of the latter type by the time of the Revolution. During this period the people as a whole had grasped two great ideas in regard to educa-tion. One of these was that every youth in the land had a right to as much education as he could absorb. The other was that it was the duty of the state to carry the greater part of the financial burden. After the Revolution had spent itself and the new Constitution had (1)"remained silent on the subject of education", we find the various states making rapid progress. One by one the various sec-tions of the country accepted the burden of responsibility, and step by step the bounds of this responsibility widened until today the United States has developed a system, broad and deep, which has its hand on all the members of the community from the child to the adult. 31* All this was not accomplished without a struggle,and in some parts of the country the struggle was long and hitter. When the various states accepted the edu-cational burden they first delegated a great deal of authority to the district boards. These became the real controlling centre of the elementary, and to some extent, the secondary schools. Unfortunately the various districts used the school problem as a political football and many a fierce battle was fought over school matters. Ignorant boards used these meetings as places to air their pet differences, and school matters took a very secondary place. Willing enough to accept state grants, they were careless, indeed, in the spending of them. Teachers were hired without any attention being paid to certificate or ability. Text books were beneath the notice of many boards, and the teacher was forced to get along with an odd assortment or without any* Compulsory attendance was another matter that was overlooked. In short, the district control lasted long enough to set the advance of education back many years and to prove to the state authorities that incompetent, ignorant, elected district boards were for the most part entirely unfit to handle educational affairs. In the meantime, the state authorities had learned a lesson themselves. As far back as 1812 New York had elected a State Superintendent of Common Schools. Tiiis official was very zealous, in fact so much so that he 30. was dismissed from of fie© and the office discontinued for many years* In the mean time his work was turned over to the Secretary of State, ex. officio,and he was called the Superintendent. This official res far too busy to look after all the work which fell to his care so the cause of education suffered. About the time that the terrible state of affairs In the school districts had called attention to Itself, it was also made clear to the officials that a State Superintendent had become a necessity* This was the beginning of a movement which gradually took the control of school matters out of the hands of the districts and placed it in the hands of the state. Today the state is the local unit of control. The State Superintendent is often an appointed official, hence, more or less free of worry on election day. Through him: the state controls the training of teachers, the supervision of teaching and the certification of teachers. It also exercises control over federal grants for technical and agricultural work in the state and over the activities of the state universities. A glance at this list shows plainly that little is left to the local authorities, except the selection of, and the payment of salaries to its teachers. Even this last is partially controlled by the state through its control over their training and certification. A curious and Interesting development In the American scheme is the trend backwards towards centrali-sation. In the beginning the Federal Government gave all control into the hands of the states. More progressive states began to realize the value of Federal interest and assistance, so we find in 1857 a Federal Bureau of Educa-tion established as a result of this activity on the part of soma of the states. Through this bureau grants are made to the various states for special types of educational work, such as higher technical and agricultural training. Since the Federal Government h-a begun making grants it naturally exercises some supervision as to the spending of the money. The more progressive states fulfil all the requirements of the bureau easily so are bothered little by its officials. In the case of the more backward states the value of cen-tralized control has become apparent. hen a request comes from one of these for a Federal gr^mt the Bureau asks that some much needed and long delayed reform i,i the system be made before a grant is forthcoming. This is having a good effect all through the backward erms, sickly bringing their systems up to the level of the progressive states which really control the policy of the Bureau. No attempt, of course, would be made to unify the system all over the Union as local needs vary greatly aroir state to state. 1. Relsner, E.E. Nationalist. and Education since 1789. MacMillan Publishing Cp.. TI.Y. 1923. (1) Page 333 Chapters 15-18. 3 2 « Cubberley, K.P. Readings in the History o f Education. Riverside Seri Houghton Mifflin 1920. The United States, Scanned by UBC Library 33 « CHAPTER V. € AH AD A la fcfe© ease of Canada w© "have another Fed era! situation in which the educational burden is care-fully shifted to the shoulders of the provincial powers Section 93 of the British Worth American Act states the matter quite clearly as follows: "There shall he n© federal interference in the field of education subject to the following conditions; 1. Nothing In any such law shall prejudicially effect any right or privilege with respect to denominational schools which any class of persons have by law at the time of union. (It should be noted that Roman Catholics had secured legal recognition of their school in Ontario In 1863.) 2. Quebec Protestants were granted the same rights as were guaranteed the Roman Catho-lics in Ontario. 3. If rights are granted to minorities at or after the union by any province they can be taken away but the minority may appeal for remedial legislation. This course consists 54 « of« (a) Cabinet demand for restoration of rights. (b) Remedial Bill In the Federal House." with this gesture the Dominion government dismissed educational worries to the ©are of the pro-vinces« On one ©r two occasions the Remedial Legislation clause gave them some temporary worry but for many years n© active part has been played by them in the educational programme. There are signs, however, which point to a demand for federal interest and federal aid in provincial programmes similar to that which has taken place in the United States, and there is little doubt but that the near future will witness the establishment of a Dominion Bureau of Education. Dominion grants for special aid in technical work have already been made, and, as has been the case in the past, when a start is once made in this way the demands and grants have a habit of increasing from year to year* Since the Dominion Government has played such a small part in our Educational Scheme It will be necessary to turn to the history of the provinces in order to see how the state has gradually accepted the re-sponsibility of educational advance and the limits reach-ed in that advance. Two provinces stand out above the 35 « pest in point of view of interest in this study and have acted as a model for the others. These provinces are Ontario and British Columbia. Sach is worthy of rafcher careful study. In Ontario the credit of interesting the provincial government in educational matters goes to Egerton Ryerson. Ryerson had a grammar sehool education and studied Latin and Greek at Hamilton. Having turned Methodist he decided to become a missionary and In the course of his travels throughout Ontario he saw the cry-ing need of educational reform. He came into prominence by opposing Stracban in the Clergy Reserves dispute, and, as the editor of the Christian Guardian, kept his name before the public. A trip to the Old Lind in 1833 set him on his way as a school reformer. It was in this year that the parliament of England made its first grant to public instruction, and the idea appealed to Ryerson. On his return he began to look for an apoortunlty to bring this matter to the attention of the Ontario govern-ment and eleven years later he was appointed Assistant Superintendent of Schools In that province. Again he re-turned to Europe, this time to study European school systems, and on his return he began to plan a system for Ontario which contained many of the best features of the various systems which he had studied. In 1846 he was 36 « appointed Superintendent for Ontario and in the school act of that year he laid the foundation for what has been described as the best system in the world up to 1900 As a result of his work, schools were opened in all parts of the province and leaders in educa-tion were encouraged to proceed with the good work. Nor-mal schools ®tade their appearance in 1847, and In 1858 a Normal College was begun. He began the publication of the Educational Journal by means of which teachers could keep in touch with current movements in their own world, and a professional spirit began to make itself felt. Slowly but surely Eyerson brought about compulsory attend ance,and more slowly still he brought the state to see that it should bear the burden of educational costs. The fight for free schools ended successfully in 1871, just five years before the great leader was forced to retire from his strenuous tasks. But on his retirement he had the satisfaction of having established a system—state supported—from the receiving class to the door of the university. He seems also to have been able to secure special grants for special purposes, as, in the case of High Schools and Collegiate Institutes, a larger grant could be secured if Chemistry were taught. Prom such a small beginning the grants for Technical training hnve sprung and, judging by modern trends, this branch of edu-37 « cational expenditure seems certain to increase rapidly fro® year to year as Canada becomes a country of facto-ries and laboratories in place of being a great forest a and farm» Frew Ontario we may now turn to British Columbia, fop, though there have been changes in Ontario since the days of Eyerson, these changes have but-para-lleled the changes in our own province which used the Ontario system as its model* The first act establishing free schools in British Columbia was passed in 1883 when ten thousand dollars was set aside for their support* A Superinten-dent, Mr* Jessup, mis appointed and a start was made. Little progress, however, can be noted until 1872 when the first really important School ^ ct was passed. Tinder this act forty thousand dollars was granted for school use. A Board of Education, consist-ing of six persons was appointed by the Lieutenant Gov-ernor and a Superintendent was appointed to advise the board. In 1879 this board was discontinued and the Council of Public Instruction, consisting of the lieu-tenant Governor in Council, took control of school affairs and this control they still retain. When the Government took upon itself the support of schools it also outlined how the schools 3 f $ * M i toe handled* It agreed to pay the salaries of the teachers, the cost of the schools, the cost of the fur-niture and the current expenses of the schools. In re-turn it fixed the Qualifications of Superintendent and teachers* It controlled the certification and appoint* sent of teachers. It controlled the selection of text hooks and laid down certain regulations which should govern the work sn& conduct of all teachers. In short, if the government was to pay the whole bill it was but right that it should control the situation. With the increase in population the school situation began to grow more conn lex and changes had to be made. Communities had grown up at certain places, such as Victoria, Vancouver, lianaimo and Hew Westminster and these thriving centres began to desire some control over their own school affairs* In 1888 the government made Its first step towards de-centralization by grant-ing a certain amount of local control to these centres. In return for this privilege the cities were requested to return to the government one third of the grant* When this change was made the districts interested were given the right to charge High School fees if they so desired. By 1891 the government had grown tired of giving a grant and taking one third back so the act was 5 9 « changed. This time the district paid one half tlie grant pirns the cost of sites and buildings» In 1901 the pupil basis for government grants was laid down. Cities ware divided into three classes. Those with ona thousand or more children of school age were granted thirteen dollars per pupil. Those with a school population between two hundred and fifty and one thousand were granted fifteen dollars per pupil. Those whose school population fell below two hundred and fifty received twenty dollars per pupil* In 1905 the teacher basis supplanted the pupil basis. Again the districts were divided into classes and the grant varied from three hundred and sixty dollars per teacher for cities of the first class to the whole salary of the teacher in the case of assisted »chools. In 1922 these grants were raised throughout the scale, but the system was retained. In 1910 the state took upon Itself the task of instituting medical inspection in the schools. This was a very long step forward and at the time was bitterly resented in many quarters. It has, however, proven its worth, and there are few today among teachers or parents who would even consider its abolition. In addition to this the government, in the same year, began a policy of making grants for school libraries and this branch of its 40» programme baa advanced with the years» In 1912 a further step was taken in the direction of more freedom for community effort« A dis-trict was given the right of appointing a Municipal Inspector to take the place of the Provincial Inspectors. This appointment was, of course* subject to the approval of the Council of Public Instruction. Many communities have availed themselves of this privilege and much of the Educational Progress of the province can be attri-buted to this freedom from centralized control. By 1920 the government * s interest in edu-cation had grown to such a degree that a new minister was added to the cabinet, the Minister of Education, and the teaching of children has at last been accorded a place on a level, at least, with the care of forests and the packing of fish. Chapter V. 1» Ryerson, Egerton. The Story of ly *df©» 2. Ryerson, Egerton. Report on Popular Education* 3. Ryerson, Egerton. Makers of Canada Series, Vol. 13» 4» School Law of the Province of British Columbia. 5» Putman, J.ff. and Weir* G.M. Survey ©f the School System of British Columbia. Chapter IIt Part 4. 1925. 4 1 « CHAPTER „VI. Special Contributions of Smaller Units, of the Stat©* Before turning to the work of the smaller units of the state in the field of education, a few words should be said on the recent survey of the schools of British Columbia mad® by X.K. Putraan, Senior Inspector Of Schools, Ottawa, Ontario, and 0.1!. Weir, Professor of Education, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia* In 1924., the provincial authorities, urged on by a vigorous teaching body and by enlightened public inter est .undertook this difficult and expensive task* For months these patient investigators travelled over the province seeking first hand information concerning build-ings, teachers, students, curricula and costs. Hundreds of miles were cover :d, hundreds of stories and opinions were heard and hundreds of solutions for every supposed evil of the system were patiently listened to,and from a careful analysis of them all the two great students of modern education produced a report which has been, and will be for many years, a light and guide to school 42 « beards and governments when suggested changes in school matters are under consideration. Many of the new ideas outlined in this chapter have been brought about by its influence* Let us consider the cities and municipa-lities, which, encouraged by the consent of the Provin-cial Government, and a small grant now and then by way of more tangible assistance, have gone so far on the road to modern educational efficiency* The larger cities of our province and the more progressive municipalities have at last seen the light in regard to the type of school building necessary for the health, happiness, and progress of our children* The old unsightly heap of bricks or pile of wood will no longer suffice» Modern buildings must first of all be fire proof, insofar as it is possible to make any build-ing fir© proof. Fire escapes, fire doors, fire bars on exits, exit lights, fire hose and fire extinguishers, all are there and the safety of the children from that one great menace relieves the mind of teacher and parent to no small degree« Heating and ventilating systems are ela-borate and expensive. It is true that the perfect system is not yet invented, but much progress has been made, and the city government spares no trouble nor 43« expense in experimenting to find the ideal system. Class rooms and corridors in a modern school are constructed so as to give the maximum of light and are finished in such a way as to make possible the practical elimination of dust* Chalk rails now have a lining which ean be lifted out and carried away to be emptied outside* The city also provides for frequent scrubbing of floors and cleaning of windows and equip-ment, Floors are oiled regularly and, while this at times may be hard on shoes, it nevertheless is beneficial to the lungs* Seats for students are selected with two points in view, sanitation and comfort. Pupils should not be forced to sit in a seat which is too small or too large for them, nor should they suffer discomfort from a seat. The board supplies seats as demanded and the care-ful teacher and principal checks the class carefully to see that all seats and pupils are fairly well adjusted. Modern schools are being given an audito-rium and,where possible,a gymnasium. An auditorium was an unheard of luxury in the early part of the century. By the time the war broke out it was beginning to be-come apparent that an auditorium might become a useful part of a school plant and of late years every new school has boen equipped with this very important feature. 4 4 « The auditorium is not complete without good lighting, a good stage with dressing rooms, a cer-tain amount of scenery and a piano* These the city has added to many of its schools, paying for the whole out-lay in many cases* It has also provided many of its schools with projection rooms, and stands ready to pay a large part of the cost of moving picture machines or projectors. Already there is talk of a radio for each school and there can be no doubt that in the very near future this will become a reality and the "city state" «111 assume a further share in the providing of suitable programmes to be broadcast for its young people in ths schools. It has at last dawned upon the public that schools are more than factories and that they should train the children in other things beside facts. The old unsightly building was not an institution to in-spire the love of the beautiful nor develop in any way the aesthetic natures of its inmates. In some of the newer schools this fact is being seriously considered and the public has ungrudgingly footed the bill. The interior of many of these newer buildings shows, at least,some attempt at architectural design and teachers and pupils are encouraged, even at times commanded, to decorate the interior with carefully chosen pictures and 45 « neatly potted plants. This is a change and a welcome one* As a further means of enhancing the beauty of the building the city has at last made up its mind to beautify the existing grounds and to plan now for future school needs by a careful selection of large blocks of land Which still lie vacant in the less settled areas. The matter of school sites used to be a sore point with many citizens. Low swampy areas were considered the best in many cases, largely because they were cheap* Today that idea has gone by the board. While the city might have had in the past, some excuse for seeking to hide its schools fro® too much observation, the newer school is an added attraction to its district and is placed in a prominent position where it can be seen and fully appreciated. It is here that beautiful grounds prove their worth and the School and Parks1 Boards, work-ing together, are doing much to make the school property a beauty spot and show place in its district. The amaz-ing feature of this new development Is the attitude of the pupils towards their new and beautiful school. It will always be true that one or two vandals will pull a few flowers and break a shrub or two, but the great majority have a new respect for a place which, once severe and ugly, has now become beautiful and homelike. 48* fhm bill way seem large at times but the returns are commensurate. within the school progress has he en even • greater. The new teacher and the new curriculum show to what great lengths civic governments are willing to g© in the matter of trying to secure the best possible train-ing for future citizens. In the elementary school the curriculum has not changed a great deal in Its major points* To the old original foundation work of fundamentals in the time hon-oured subjects little has been added, but some of the more useless lumber has been cut away to the great bene-fit of teacher and pupil alike, and other subjects, such as music, drawing and handwork have been added and tend to ©nrieh the early school years* The great new departure comes at the end of grade six. Realizing that the old one way ladder to the university was the wrong ladder for most of our chil-dren, forward looking teachers and students looked about for a way to save the educational wast® which was caused by attempting to force pupils through a course entirely unsuited to their tastes and abilities, The idea of a ^middle school% where pupils could be tested and sorted into various groups,took hold in Europe and flourished in the great experimental plot of the United States* 4f# Canadian people watched it develop and finally after a eareful study of its strength and its weakness, decided, that since the former far outweighed the latter, they would establish it in the Canadian system. When this decision was arrived at provincial and city governments were as ted to lend their support and the new school has begun to flourish in our own land. A full treatment of this new Educational Responsibility assumed by our government would be im-possible in such a treatise but a few of the main points may be selected and emphasised. In the first place the school is essenti-ally a try-out school, as it were, a place where a pupil will he given a Judicious taste of this and that, and where,under the wise and able guidance of highly trained teachers, he or she will find the group of life activities into which he or she may fit with the greatest advantage to the individual and to the state. Plat« said that Justice consisted in each individual doing that work for which he was beat fitted and trained. The Junior High School is but seeking to carry out the idea of the Greek sage. Since the state has assumed the task of trying to help the student find himself it must provide the means with which to carry out this great task. In 4 8 * the first place it must provide a much larger building than was necessary when one teacher taught everybody everything in the same room. This school must be equipped with a great variety of equipment and this, again* means the appointment of skilled teachers to handle this special equipment* So we have our science rooms, food laboratories, sewing rooms, laundry rooms, metal shops, wood shoos, electric shops, draughting rooms, art rooms, music rooms and libraries, to say nothing of the many class rooms in which the foreign languages and constant subjects are taught* The process of sorting pupils is an intri-cate and costly one, yet the state is meeting the added expense without hesitation. Special mental and achieve-ment tests given in grade six are the ground upon which the first sorting Is chiefly based, and in grade seven the students in well balanced groups are exposed to the domestic, scientific, practical, artistic and scholastic courses and their reactions carefully recorded- In the spring of the year, with the pupil's record for the year and the previous year before him, the teacher, taking one pupil at a time, attempts to indicate certain broad lines of study which the pupil might follow with profit* A skilled teacher with complete and accurate records, can, in most cases, place the pupil on the right road 49* and the state will thus eventually reeeive the benefit of Its added outlay» To this new school goes a great portion of the credit for causing the government to take a more ac-tive interest in the physical fitness of the pupils* It is true that the government had provided for medical and dental inspection before the advent of the Junior High School* It is also true that in Canada Cadet Training and training in Physical Drill were considered very im-portant* Mien the Junior High School came on the scene it promptly took the health of the students for the first and vital point In its programme of aims* Set satisfied with, mere inspection and advice it demanded trained men and women to teach all boys and girls how to use a body to keep it healthy* These Instructors have received a training which enables them to detect bodily weakness and slight deformities and to prescribe sets of correct-ive exercises which, in many cases, make a marvellous difference in the growing child* Besides &tis, every child is given expert training in all branches of gymna-sium work and in games. From this It can be seen that the burden accepted by the state has grown from a very small beginning to a great activity. Trained instructors and costly equipment have added greatly to the financial < burden, yet, once again, the state is well repaid for the 50« added cost« POP still another great innovation the Junior High School must be given most of the credit. While guidance In health, morals and education might be safely left in the hands of specially trained doctors, nurses and teachers, the problem of fitting the child Into the outside world proved to be somewhat more diffi-cult to solve. Teachers by the very nature of their calling are often very poorly equipped with a knowledge of the world of work and commerce. A new type of spe-cialist had to be developed who could form a connecting link between the class room and the factory. These men Mast know the world ©f business and its demands and they must als© know the attributes which are needed for suc-cess in every field of labour. They must also know the conditions under «¡hich the teacher works and must never forget that, though the public school ©an and should give some attention to v©©ationai guidance, it is not and never should become a vocational school. Prom this need and this growing demand has sprung that new member of the profession, the Vocational Guidance Officer. It is his duty to survey the district in which he is pieced, find out the greatest fields of opportunity and the qualifications necessary and pass on to the vocational guidance teacher in the Junior and 51 « Senior High Schools this informati on. Those men have them sorae first hand information to pass along to groups of students and are able to guide puzzled individuals into the most likely paths for their success and happiness. Canada has been slow to take up this new development, but a start has been made and if the work is handled properly the idea will spread rapidly to the benefit of all con-cerned. The Junior High School has also been able to point out the necessity of a real library and ft trained librarian in Secondary Schools. Training in th© use of Reference Books has been shown to be necessary. At first the boards were reluctant to pay for library work si m e the city maintained free libraries for the us© of its citizens. Gradually, however, they have been won over until today the larger schools are ©quipped with a trained librarian, a real filing system and a growing collection ©f worth while books. In connection with both Elementary schools and junior High schools the government has undertaken another task, that of maintaining special classes for those pupils who are unfitted mentally for active com-petition with their more fortunate fellows. In former years these unfortunate individuals were made to struggle on against terrible odds until the leaving age was reached, 52. when they were turned adrift with no aim in life and no friend to guide them. Today this is changed. Segregated from their fellows by careful psychological tests they are placed in groups, preferably small, and,in the hands of specially trained instructors,are proving that the time and labour now spent on them is not in vain» Occa-sionally, one will fall by the wayside,but for the most part they respond to kindly treatment and perform th© tasks which suit them with diligence and fair success. Strange as it may seem these boys seem to secure employ-ment more quickly than many «ho are slightly their supe-riors mentally, and if the job is suited to them, they will stay with it longer than many of the latter are In-clined to do* Outside of the regular schools the state has undertaken great educational burdens which are often entirely overlooked but which are none the less very im-portant. Schools for the blind, for the deaf end for the dumb, costly plents requiring the most highly trained in-structors, show that governments are not entirely hard-hearted, and, although the state receives little or no financial return for Its outlay, the ray of sunshine which enters the lives of these afflicted children by this means seems payment enough. In prisons, asylums and detention homes the state carries on the work in an effort to at ; 53. least bring a little light to those who for one reason or another are shut off for a time or forever from the freedom of the world—the birthright of all children. Before leaving the realm of the child it is only fitting to say that not only does the government provide free schools but it sap plies most of the material used by the pupils free of cost. In some cases pupils are asksd to buy parts of the supplies needed for a par-ticular year but if It can be shown that the parents are absolutely unable to purchase these the local board or the government will see that they are provided free. Besides this, the country districts have provided free transportation for students to and from school, and, in some cases, have provided a part of the noon Entering the realm of the Senior High school we find four branches spread out before us instead of the old one way road. The pupil from the Junior High school will have selected one of the four and will set oat towards a trade, a position, or the university with a fair knowledge of where he Is going, and of the various obstacles which he will likely meet on his way. The first new departure was made to com-pete with the Business College, which began to steal many of the girls from the High school. The state believed that it was necessary to set up a School of Commerce, and 54 « this has been done* For many years this experiment was carried on successfully hat could not attract the most brilliant scholars because it was a blind alley* The brilliant scholar might desire to study business admini-stration but he also desired to go to the University, and the only road to that goal lay over the old traditional scholastic trail* Today the way is opening. The Univer-sity has opened a Department of Commerce, and no doubt the near future will witness the student of Commerce in High school progressing to the highest goal of students everywhere. The state will be asked to bear an added bur-den and it will carry on. The Technical High school grew out of a prevocatlonal school Idea with which it should never have been connected, since such schools in the beginning were established f W the "benefit of those who were so poorly equipped mentally that the scholastic course of the old time high school was beyond their powers. However, the v Idea of giving boys some training In the elementary steps of a trade was sound and the Technical school began to grow with amasl»s rapidity* All branches of general tech-nical work are taught and some very specialized lines are Introduced, i,e* printing* To carry out such a programme the state was faced with the necessity of making a great outlay for 55 « special shops, expensive equipment, and highly trained instructors ? and it has assumed the task without undue protest. A further outlay became necessary when the boys of the Technical High school decided that they, too, would like to attend the University. In order to meet the Entrance requirements of the Universities it became necessary to introduce a real English and Foreign Lan-guage Department and this has been done, so that in the future many of our brightest boys will proceed through the Technical school to the Applied Science courses of our own University. H.B. Since the writing of the above the authorities of the Technical school have decided to drop this course* For many years some sort of Technical Train-ing for girls has been advocated but beyond a few meagre courses in sewing and cooking little was accomplished. Today the prospect is brighter, and a Home Economics course, beginning in the Junior High school and termin-ating in the University, seems likely to become a reality. This, together with the Hursing Course already established, is a good start in the new field and there can be but little doubt that the state will so on come to realize the value of such training for girls, and will stand ready to provide the necessary buildings and pay the bill. The Academic High School has made some 56* changes which call for a greater outlay for staff and equipment. Optional subjects and a Senior Matriculation course mean more teachers and more room and the state once more bears the expense» It is true that boards are permitted to charge a fee for the added year but this fee only partially covers the cost of instruction. In the case of the University the burden on the state has grown with the years. New departments have been added from year to year to cope with the demands for specialists in the care of the farm, the forest, the mine and in the world of commerce. Here again a fee is charged, but once more the fee is but a part of the real cost of the instruction received. The government of the state has accepted the idea that it must train its brilliant youth to become leaders in every line of activity and it looks to the University as the means for accomplishing this end. Hence, no reasonable expense is spared in providing plant, equipment and highly trained instructors to produce a body of experts under whose able leadership the state should be well repaid* Chapter VI 1. School Survey of the Province of British Columbia. 2. School Law of British Columbia. 3. Dewey, John, Democracy and Education. Macfflllan. 1921. Chapter XXIII. 57 « 4. Douglas, H.R. Modem Methods in High School Teaching, Riverside Series H. and M. 1926. Chapters XIII and XV. 5» Chapman, J.C. and Counts, G.S. Principles of Education. Riverside Text hooks in Education H, & M. 1924. Chapters XIX, XX, XXI, XXII, XXV. 6. Smith, W.R. Principles of Educational Sociology. Riverside Series. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1928. Chapters XXVI and XXVIII. 58» CHAPTER VII The State and the Teacher So far we have been dealing largely with the more or Hess material responsibilities of the state in Its growing school programme» From time to time highly trained instructors have been mentioned and the part played by the state in securing these must be con-sidered* The first noticeable step in this direc-tion was the raising of standards for teachers« When various cities began to take some notice of and pride in their schools they began to look into the qualifications of their teachers* This study seems to have led to the conclusion that the more schooling the teacher received the better were his chances of success as a teacher. With the dawn of this idea various progressive cities began to demand higher certificates. This was done In one of two ways* People who had a certificate below a first class could not be appointed. For older teachers who had been appointed before such reg\ilations came into effect the board had effective barriers to promotion. Ihe better positions were open only to those with a high-er certificate. Boer ds did these things with the know-59. ledge and consent of the Government and the Government set the regulations regarding the qualifications for the various certificates. This process of selection hy certificate led to keen competition for good teachers and the effect was good from the progressive teacher* s point of view. If his services were in demand he could demand a higher salary and that was something which progressive cities were prepared to meet. Teachers with lower grades of certificates soon saw that to secure better positions with mora money attached they mast better their certifi-cates and the government was asked to open the way for such an advance. This they did by laying down a course and setting a series of Departmental Examinations by which it was possible to climb from a Temporary Certifi-cate good for one year to a First Class Certificate good for life. The new order of things soon proved to the Government that, although it had taken a step in the right direction, it had not gone far enough. T*ie best positions and highest rewards were preserved for those who held a University Degree. The teacher who held a lower certifi-cate began to knock loudly on the gate of the University for the privilege of securing that Degree at such a time as would not cause him to have to desert his work. The 60* government heard his ©all and took up the added load of Summer Schools* The demand for evening classes during the winter months was also met and now the government is faced with another problem, that of handling a large group of Extra Mural Students. The authorities have, so far; been rather hesitant about undertaking this addi-tional responsibility as the work is arduous and the ex-pense heavy, but in the near future it seems almost cer-tain that the sense of duty will overcome the fear of expense and that the new department will be formed. In many ways at the present time both state and city governments are encouraging teachers to continue their studies and each is searching for ways and means to provide funds and facilities for the carrying on of the work so that, through its children, the state will reap a great reward. Two of the most Important of these methods of encouragement have developed within the past few years. The state, by raising the standard of train-ing for teachers, has forced school boards to raise the standard of wages paid to teachers and stands prepared to meet its increased share of such a burden* Then, too, the government has shorn its willingness to recognize and encourage the formation of Teachers* Federations- These s groups of teachers, usually headed by an able executive, have, for the past few years, been able to direct the 61 « government In some of Its educational reforms- It is true that they have brought about acts designed to bene-fit the teacher. Behind such acts, however, lies the far sighted knowledge that a well paid, protected and powerful profession will attract to its ranks the bright-er and stronger of our young graduates and these, in turn, will do great things in the training of a newer generation. Beyond the school, yet working ever closely with it, are other services which the state supports for the benefit of the education of its children. Paid and controlled by the Department of Education is a Corps of Inspectors whose duty it is to see that school boards and other officials carry out the School Law as the regu-lations nftich are laid down by the Department. The idea back of this is that, since the government must pay the fiddler it had the right to call the tune. These men are supposedly selected because of their superior quali-fications as teachers and organizers. The danger lies in the fact that under certain conditions party politics may creep in and inferior men may be chosen. With the growth of large centres the demand for local freedom increased and the government was finally forced to withdraw Its inspectors from the more wealthy centres and agree to the appointment of a Municipal In-spector. It still keeps its finger on the pulse of these 62. communities, however, In that such an appointee must meet with the approval of the Council of Public Instruction. Even this state of affairs has the serious drawback of political power. The people who should decide on the edu-cational leader in any community are the people in that community who have had the greatest experience and train-ing in educational affairs. As it stands today the best educationalists fear to accept such an office since it has a flavor of party politics. The selection committee is a school board, many of the members of which, have little or no conception of the newer and better trends In educational matters. Worse, still, they often lack the knowledge which will enable them to select the best man. Or they may have no desire to select such.a man since a strong man would insist on controlling the policy of the board, instead of the board being able to dictate to him, and, through him, to the various members of the staff. One such strong man In an Important centre in Canada wade a remark to me on this matter which indicates the situ-ation at a glance. While discussing the probable appoint-ment of a Superintendent of the place in question, I sug-gested that he seemed better qualified than any man in the district for promotion. "No," said he, "they will never appoint me. I am on the wrong side of the fence and I am not what they call, 'A Safe ^an*". Clear enough, 63 « tout too bad# In a country where we need the be st men available to direct our educational progress. Things are better than they once were in this respect, but a great change can and will be made in the not distant future, a change which will be very welcome to all good citizens. Chapter VII. 1. Chapman* J.C. and Counts, G.S. Principles of Education. Riverside Text books in Education. Houghton Mifflin. 1924. Ch. XXIV. 2. Smith, W.R. Principles of Educational Sociology. Riverside Textbooks in Education. Houghton %fflin Co. 1928. Chapters XXI, XXII. 3. Put man, J.H. and Weir, O.K. Survey of the School System of British Columbia, Chapters XI, XII, XIII and XX. 64 « CHAPTER VIII, Agencies Outside The School While the school is the recognized state institution as regards education, there are many, many agencies totally unconnected with the school, one of the main aims of which is educational, and over which the state exercises a greater or less degree of supervision and control. Perhaps the greatest of these outside agencies is the family. The state has long since rocog-nized that the basis of a sound, nation is found in sound family life. When the family was neglected, or when, through sin and dissipation, the family life of a state had crumbled, history shows that the state to which these families belonged suffered a like fate. With this In mind governments have done much to encourage the foundation of families and to pro-tect them. Marriage laws accepted end lived up to have laid a firm foundation for a prosperous state. Divorce laws—lax, and, in many cases, unwholesome may soon have another tale to reveal. The state not only encourages the found-65 « ation of tfes family but supervises Its progress. The school authorities see that the children are properly taught and have the necessary books. The medical department sees that the health of the children is maintained as well as pos-sible. It also checks up on food and clothing to see that these are »applied in proper amounts, and are of suitable material* % e Health Department Insists that the home be sanitary. Any infringement of the child*s rights by the parents can and will be dealt with if reported to the pro-per authorities* The state retains the right to take away the children from unworthy parents or to divide quarrelling parents for the children's sake* In short, the state is most anxious for the welfare of the family and Is delighted that in thousands of cases it never need enter the home for any reason or in any form. But, realizing the Influence of family environ-ment on the life of children, it has left the way open for its servants to enter that the lives of little children may be saved from the base and sordid, and may be directed into better things by removal from such an atmosphere to the moi© chilly but more pure air of public institutions. Private schools, which in the early days of every nation*s history supplied the only means of securing an education beyond that given by the church, still play a prominent part In the scheme of educational progress. 66 « Based in the beginning on class distinction and confined to the aristocratic and wealthy classes they have served a distinct ató useful purpose. Many of their students were of a high level of intelligence and received in such institutions the special training for the particular cal-ling for which they were often selected at a very early age. As a result many of the leaders in the professional walks of life received their education in private schools and the world as a ^ hole has benefited by such service. Then these schools have been in many cases very richly endowed and have been able to charge high fees. This has enabled them to select good instructors and to purchase first class equipment. With this combin-ation they have been able to experiment with new ideas and theories to an extent which is utterly impossible for a state owned and state supported school. But the state derives the benefit. Ideas developed there can be and are taken up by state authorities and used In the public schools. What is the state's responsibility In re-gard to these privately owned Institutions? In the first place the state must know what Is being done and must ap-prove of the course of studies. Those in charge of such schools must show that the educational advantages which they offer to their students are at least equal to that 67 « offered la the public schools. They mast satisfy govern-ment officials that their curricula contain nothing which will be of injury to the state. It is here that many people of today find a loop hole through which to attack the private school. They maintain that such a school is essentially the product of an aristocracy, and, as such, has no place in a modern democracy. It was founded to keep the classes from mingling and to thus keep up the barriers of class which of themselves are derogatory to the good of the state» llhile there has been, and still is, much to be said in favour of these contentions, the attitude of educational leaders in modern democratic countries seems to be one of *Laissez Faire*. Thoy see many good points in some of the better private institu-tions and are content to profit by what these schools can teach. In the meantime the state schools are Improving in character of teaching and wealth of curriculum, so that enlightened public opinion is very much on their side and the private schools are fighting a desperate battle to hold their own. Again, the state does not, in mo?t cases at least, permit the citizen,who sends his children to a private school,to avoid paying his share towards the m&intainance of the public schools. This encourages many people to take advantage of the public schools, and 68. discourages all feat the wealthy or those who mast keep up class appearance by using private institutions* Perhaps the greatest control exercised toy the state over these schools comes fro® Its right to con-trol the certification of professional workers. This means that every type of school must produce a certain definite standard of instruction which will be accepted as a minimum requirement for men and women wishing to practise a profession In the state. It Is true that many professions have their own examining committee, but these operate under state lav so that in the final ana-lysis the government holds the reins. In this way pri-vate and public schools, colleges, and universities compete openly and the people can judge as to the value of the product of each. The church, the institution which made the beginning in the spread of organized knowledge, still holds a prominent place among educational institutions in many lands. By means of sermons, Sunday Schools, Bible classes and radio programmes It still teaches many things to many people. In our oxm land Its educa-tional value has waned on the purely Intellectual level, but Its influence in moral and ethical training is still so great that few of U3 would willingly see it depart. • The responsibility of the state with re-69 « gard to tit® church is on© concerning which the leaders of the state ar© very wary, Th© separation of church and state was brought about through a great straggle filled with bitterness and bloodshed. The natural ten-dency of the new type of government was to keep away from the clutches of the church and in «any ways to le-gislate against the church. The pendulum then began to swing back and today the church is having a voice in th© affairs of state. When, however, the church asks th© state for permission to teach its truths in the public schools of our land, the state hesitates and finally re-fuses to sanction the idea. In some countries the state has not forbidden the use of the schools for the purpose but has refused to supply instructors paid by the state and has absolutely refused to make any such course com-pulsory to the students. In short, the governments of all civilised countries recognize that religion is an important part of human life. Those governments will support and protect all genuine religions and any educa-tional work which they may carry on. 'But many govern-ments are today unwilling to give full support to one religion to the exclusion of all the rest, or to permit public money to be spent on any religious training. The theatre has long been regarded as one of the great educational agencies of civilized countries. 70. A product of private enterprise, developed because of its money-making possibilities, it grew in force and favour to such a degree that It began to have a great effect on the lives and Ideals of the people as a whole. Governments saw its possibilities for good and evil so began to take a keen Interest in Its programme. Good music, good acting and good dialogue, enclosing a plot which appealed to the best emotions, were encouraged by princes and ministers. Evil things were frowned upon. For years, however, the evil flourished In hidden places so the government stepped in with direct laws and severe penalties in an effort to root out the obscene. The straggle still goes on and slowly tout surely the forces of good seem to be winning. The state has accepted its responsibility and the censor, the police and the voice of the best among the citizens are gradually curbing the production of unfit plots and are educating the people as a whole to demand a better type. In the case of the moving picture the task has been more difficult. This flourishing industry de-veloped suddenly and with tremendous speed in one country. A poor type of actor and actress laid the foundation since the best were busily engaged on the legitimate stage. The sudden great demand for scenarios gave the industry no choice but to take every plot vihich came 71 « their way and SOTS® were ghastly in form and detail. The enormous wealth that soon came under the control of the directors of the Industry enabled them to reduce censor-ship to a minimum and the result was, and is, unfortunate from many points of view. If the work of the censor in the land where the picture was made was difficult, the work of the censor In other lands became trebly so. Pictures were absolutely demanded and the cost of pro-duction added to poor climatic conditions from a picture taking point of view made the idea of creating a home supply impossible. American films were all tinged with sex and highly flavoured with the Stars and Stripes. If the censor became highly conscientious and applied vigor-ous scissors, when the job was complete and the two evils removed,then there was no film. To a compromise had to be effected and only the worst scenes deleted. The autho-rities are keenly aware of the defects of these pictures from a national and moral point of view and are trying to remedy the situation as best they can. In England an attempt to make British films has been successfully begun and many of their efforts have met with grest success. In Germany and Prance the same is true. It might be said that the American leaders of the Industry have started the movement which has broken their monopoly for all time. The silent drama was 72 « international. I", could be under .stood by any person speaking any language. Then the tflkie was introduced and the downfall of the cheap actor became a certainty. We want to hear our own language spoken well by a well trained actor and the Englishman at last comes into his own» With the increase of this type of picture the work of the censor will become lighter and the fears of the government »ill be lessened, as it seems cert- in that Empire films will soon take the place of those produced In Hollywood« Many of us have learned much from books and magazines. The size of this store house of knowledge is beyond description» Every subject under the sun is dealt with in a thousand ways by t>iese agencies and the state authorities are hard pot to it to realise the limits of their responsibility In handling such a huge and complex problem. Book reviewers and public censors help to check the influx on home production of harmful writings but all of us realise that stopping the outward appearance of such things by force of civil authority does not mean that we have blocked the source of pro-duction. The better way is to lead the people away from the cheap find tawdry ond direct them to the pure1 and wholesome. This is done by the schools to some extent 73. but th© great Public Libraries,supported and encouraged by ©very civilized state today,hnve played the greatest role in this connect!on. Here are to be found the best books of every description, sorted and ready to hand. Gourteous and highly trained librarians help new comers to find the books which suit them best, and a glance at the records shows that the public invariably selects the best books in the course of a year's reading. It may have been the librarian*s choice to begin with, but th© choice having been made, the die is cast and th© stat© has started another good citizen on the road to knowledge and culture. Another method by which good writers are encouraged by the state is even more direct. Titles are often bestowed on authors whose works have shown them-selves to be of great value to the people. A title thus bestowed creates a public interest in the author's works which results in their being more widely read and more deeply appreciated. It also encourages the writer to increase his efforts in producing good works. As for minting and. sculpturing, almost the same might be said as has been said for books. Here, again, it has long been recognized that much can be taught by a clever canvas or s beautiful statue. In this case, however, the state has a much greater respon-7 4 « sibility. While books and magazines can be purchased by almost any member of a civil*¿«d community, only the fa-voured few are able to purchase even a very few of the paintings or statues of the artist. If these works of art are not to be gathered in by private persons, to col-lect dust where a very few will ever see them,then the state must act. So we have established art galleries where many of the works of the masters can be viewed by any who care to spend an hour or two in such a useful and delightful occupation. Guides and guide books help the beginner in his study of these wonderful creations, and,should the spark be lighted, public art schools will gladly assist him in carrying on the.good work thus begun* The work of the great sculptor and archi-tect cannot always be thus gathered together for display, so the government often adopts another and equally effective method of showing their work to the world. \ Public buildings are often designed and constructed by brilliant architects and thus set a good example in the community. In these buildings and on the grounds the work of the sculptor is shown in monuments, statues and busts, so that the public may see, free of charge, this other form of art displayed to great advantage. Once more, homage is paid to great artistp by titles, honours 75 « and other outward forss of recognition by the represen-tatives of the people and thus they ar© encouraged to produce more and finer work« .Coming to the mechanical world we faced with an old and a new mechanical device which has a great educative value« The old—the gramophone—now almost a thing of the past, was useful for teaching foreign languages and new songs. Its use was strictly limited and beyond censoring a few records the state paid little attention to it. The new form—the radio-presents a different problem and the state is deliber-ating as to what its policy regarding this Invention shall be. Invented and developed by private enter-prise, no piece of mechanism has ever before so taken the world by storm. Its educative possibilities are infinite, hence, the state must take a hand» Its «cope is the wide world, so the whole of the nations of the world are interested in its development and control» In England it was early foreseen that un-restricted commercial broadcasting would result in terrific confusion, so the state took control at the start and, so far, have the situation fairly well in hand« In America no such step was taken and the result is chaotic. Six or seven stations crowd one figure on 7 6 « the dial* Every tarn produces the same result. The radio in places such as Chicago is useless, as only th© nearest stations, these, something over one hundred in the city, can he tuned in to be heard, and th© whole situation is demanding government intervention. Some steps have been taken by the govern-ment ami some by the larger radio dealers. The govern-ment has allotted various wave lengths to different sections of the country and is checking up on all sta-tions concerning these, as well as on the times and types of programmes. The larger companies have united their broadcasts into chains and are broadcasting good programmes all over the continent from central studios. Both these moves are in the right direction. The government sees that through the radio it can reach in a personal way many thousands of people at the same time. With this in mind good-speakers, selected by th© government, are addressing the people on various live topics in public life, and are giving to the public first hand information regarding public affairs» In this way the state is using the radio as a direct teaching device to keep the public well informed cm current topics and to offset any false reports issued by newspapers. Broadcasts can b© easily censored and any 77 « station permitting a programme which is unfit for the public to hear is liable to a fine and the loss of its licence. The international aspect is what Is now worrying the government of Canada particularly. When we tune in on a Japanese or Mexican station, little harm is done since we gather no meaning from most of these programmes. But when every figure on the dial gives a station from the "land of the free", and every programme points out the wonders and glories of this marvelous land, I may become a convert and resolve to move myself and family across this imaginery line to taste of the sweets so carefully and continually advertised. How to stop this insidious propaganda—there * s the problem. Certain methods are suggested and seem likely to bear fruit. One is to build, with state aid, of course, a series of super powerful broadcasting stations across Canada. This would have the effect of drowning out American competition and at the same time we might be able to force a little Canadian advertising through the already over worked ether of the enemy. The cost and uncertain results of such a retaliatory measure seem hardly commensurate with any good that might accrue, so for the time being, this matter is in obeyance. The other and more sensible method is to 78 « provide programmes from our own studios that will toe so good that the radio owner will not want to tune in on any other wave length. This is toeing dene, and more and more local concerts are the mainstay of the radio pro-grammes tosfore the fireside of our Canadian Radio patrons. The government has not, as yet, declared itself in regard to the place of the radio in the schools. By this I mean that, while it would no doubt toe willing to see all schools possess a radio,it has not shown that it is willing to share the cost of th© machines, nor yet help make up a programme which could toe, with benefit, "broadcast to the schools. That it has tooth these matters under careful consideration there Is little doubt, and in the near future we shall probably see the state accept this new responsibility. Chapter ¥1X1 1. Beach, W.G. Introduction to Sociology. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1925. Chapter XXVIII. Part III. 2. Blackmar, F.W. and GillIn, J.L. Outlines of Sociology. Revised Edition. MacMillan Publishing Go. 1926. Parts II, III and I? 3. Dewey, John. Democracy and Education. MacMillan Publishing Co. 1921. Chapter II. 4. Smith, W.R. Principles of Educational Sociology. Riverside Series. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1924. Chapter XIII. 79* CHAPTER IX The State As A Direct Educative Agency The leaders in modern democratic states early realized that there were many things concerning which the people should be informed, which could not be left to the schools. The adult population must be kept acquainted with changing features of community life, and this must be done by those in authority. It could not be left to private individuals since these would, un-doubtedly, publish facta or information to serve the personal interests rather than for the good of the state» • In early days newspapers and political speeches were relied on to a great degree, but these were both too highly flavoured with a party bias and facts were arranged to suit the cause of the individual. Realizing that such Information was often unreliable, the government decided to handle the matter Itself and today Is ready to instruct any member of the community on many features of the life of his country. The first necessity facing the government of a new country was an accurate knowledge of the land 80 « available for settlers. Experts were sent to all parts of the land to survey the various districts and secure a good description of the soil, climate, water, and any other natural resource concerning which they could se-cure information. All this data was assembled by the Department of the Interior and elaborate maps were con-structed by the aid of which new settlers could be lo-cated with a minimum of time and trouble. Reports and booklets were published and any person in the land who so desires, m y secure information on any section of the country, presented In a clear, concise and very understandable way* Industry follows settlement, and the great industries, while they must fit Into an agricultural background, require resources which are not always on the surface. The government then began a series of geological surveys with the purpose of discovering the underlying resources of this great new country. Deposits of metals, non-metallic minerals* oil, coal, all are being discovered and recorded by government experts and this data also Is at hand for anyone desiring to test out the truth of the stock salesman*s report. Reports from this department describe in detail the various mines In the different localities In Canada and If the public would only read these, many bad failures of Investments 81» would bo avoided« These reports are to be found in school and public libraries and may be secured person-ally by writing to the government bureau requesting that a copy be sent to the one*s address. In earlier days the timber land of a new country received rough treatment. Wo one knew the ex-tent of the great northern forest, so it was deemed Im-possible to ever destroy It. Timber grants were made generously to those who asked and little was asked con-cerning how, when er where the trees were cut* The only curb cm a timber company was a rival firm. As the years progressed the government awoke to the fact that some-thing mast be done to arrest the wholesale slaughter of our forests. Government timber cruisers began to check up on the remaining stands and to estimate the probable number of years these would keep up the required supply of lumber. Methods of logging were examined with a view to cutting down on waste and lumber men were in-structed by these experts in better methods of logging, made necessary by the too rapid destruction of this great source of wealth. Wot satisfied with merely putting off the evil day when our forests would be but leafy memories, the government learned a lesson from the governments of older lands and began to Instruct our people In the plan 82. of reforestation. Government nurseries in all parts of the land began to grow seedlings of all sorts of valu-able lumber trees and these could be secured free by the settler with the proper instructions for planting and care. He was shown what type of tree would thrive best in his particular type of soil. He was shown how to plant for a wind break, for an ornamental hedge, or for a wood lot, and he was told how the various types of trees should be cared for until they were able to care for themselves. All this is direct education by public agents for the public good, and It has, as a result, received fall public support. In the case of the forests the state has also devoted a great deal of time and money in trying to teach the people how to save their heritage from its arch enemy, the forest fire. Hot only has it taken active steps towards protection by the appointment of rangers, the building of lookouts and the organizing of aeroplane patrol during the fire season, but it has organized a campaign to eliminate the cause by teaching the public how to put a stop to these outbreaks. Spe-cial lecturers, supplied with picture machines, and excellent films, travel throughout the country showing the people the terrible results of such fires. Hot only are the scenes terrifying but the accompanying 83 « statistics are even more alarming to any thinking person. These films show clearly how a moment of carelessness leads to the sacrifice of millions of valuable trees, to the impoverishment of the soil in the burned area, to the loss of animal, and, at times, human life, to dis-astrous floods resulting from the rush of surface water to the streams (once held back by the forest), and to long lines of unemployed In the city streets because their source of revenue has been removed. As a supple-ment to these films the government has printed little booklets giving hints to campers as to their use of fire and has scattered printed notices all along the highway^ and byways, yes, even In the heart of the for-est itself, all in a splendid effort to teach the people to save their wealth by their own care. Another direct teaching effort of the government is the experimental farm. These institutions are carried on in various parts of the country in all varieties of soil and climate. Sometimes they are sepa-rate institutions, sometimes they are connected with a University. Whether alone or in conjunction with the University their aim is the same—to teach the farmers in the district the best crops to plant, the best time to plant, the best way to treat the soil and the best time to harvest. Added to these duties we have the 8 4 . entomologist searching out plant and animal plagues and experimenting until he discovers the best means of dealing with them» Experts from these farms visit farms in the district and often far afield, on request, and give any advice asked for. Their value can hardly he overestimated, and the government will In time reap the reward from this splendid teaching service. Exhibitions now play a large part In the life of any modern community, and the government always makes a most generous grant towards the support of this great type of community enterprise. Here, the products of one's country are arrayed in pleasing style and with each exhibit is a man or a group of men thoroughly ac-quainted with the merits of the product exhibited and quite ready to answer any sensible questions which the passerby may care to ask» Visual aids to teaching— where are there more of such aids than In a well arrang-ed display, such as may be found in our great fairs? Nor are these fairs mere exhibits of products. There is action—plenty of It. Animals are made to perform, milk and butter tests are carried out, machinery ex-hibits are so arranged that the aetual working of the machine is seen. All this is a series of lessons to the new citizen from which he may learn more about his district and its possibilities in a few hours than he 35» could from weeks and even months of careful study of geography and government reports* Of late years the government has under-taken a new responsibility In the line of direct teach-ing. Realizing that soon all the land of the country would drift into private hands,some bold individual sug-gested that the government should set aside certain areas to be held for all time in their natural state. Here,the people could see nature sublime and undefiled. Here,wild life would be protected* The lovely water fall would continue its mad career In the open light of day, instead of being trapped in a gloomy tunnel of steel. The great forests would sleep on in their sombre beauty and succeeding generations of men would be able to visit these sacred spots and reconstruct more clearly the struggles of pioneers who first faced our rough and rugged land. Were these lessons not worth teaching? The increase in the number and size of these parks shows that the government does not regret having taken a step in that direction, and nowhere does one hear a voice among the people raised in condemnation of their action. Only one criticism has been raised, namely, that the parks, as a rale, are too far from large centres of civilization and, therefore, are for the most part in-accessable to the majority of the people. This defect 86 « is being steadily remedied by the establishment of other parks nearer to these large centers. In the realms of utility, beauty and cul-ture, the government has seen fit to accept a great deal Of responsibility in teaching the people many and very valuable lessons» There Is one more field where the task is much more difficult, yet It cannot be shirked» There is th© field of ethics. How far shall w© go in the direct teaching of this most vital subject? Many years ago 1 listened to a great teacher make a wonderful speech on f?The Teaching of Ethics in the Public Schools9. With consummate skill he showed that ethics cannot be directly taught like th© alphabet and multiplication table. A knowledge of ethical principles, h© showed, dovelopes from the play of mind upon mind—from th© following of worthy examples, and his closing remarks, after warning school boards and parents of the difficul-ties that lie in th© path of on© who would directly set out to teach rules of ethical conduct, have rung in my mind ever since. He said, "Seek ye first good teachers and all these things shall be added unto you.* Governments face the same difficulties as those faced by the teacher. Th© church which exists because of its ethical and religious mission they are willing to aid. But they cannot avoid their duty. In 87. many ways they carry on the good work, but the advice of the old teacher has not yet been fully accepted, since party politics has a stronger hold than moral worth In too many of our public men. However, by publi-cly recognizing courageous and virtuous actions, by sup-porting clubs and societies which exist for the good which they can do to their fellow men, and by the time and money spent on those unfortunate members of the com-munity, the criminal, the Idiot and those in dire dis-tress, the government does, at least»point the way. Who knows but in the future there may arise a great body of public men whose very example will be sufficient to lead the people aright. Even today, he who would aspire to the highest honours in the state must live a blameless life, as the merciless spotlight of modern publicity picks up even the smallest stain. References. 1. Canada Year Book. 2. Hansard. 3. Books, pamphlets and maps issued by the various departments of the Dominion and Provincial governments. 4. Government Buildings, Parks, Museums, Libraries and Honour Lists. 88 CHAPTER X Conclusion In this brief survey of a very wide sub-ject we have seen the state progress from a time when it had little interest and no share in the problems or responsibility of education to a time when directly,or indirectly,it has a hand in every phase of education, and a great share In its responsibility. Today its con-trol begins with training parents for parent hood. It stands ready to take charge of the child In its pre-school years should the parents prove unfit, and It Is prepared to educate the child, free, until such times as the child is able to find for Itself. It provides educative means for adults in every department. Hot only is it prepared to give freely, but, leaders of the state, realizing that a progressive state can only rest on the solid foundation of an educa-ted body of citizens, are ready to force children to accept a certain amount of education, whether they or the parents wish it or not. Year by year the bounds are widening. 39 « year by year the burden grows heavier, and year by year the state progresses in proportion to the educational advantages which It has to offer. What lies behind all this change and un-rest? Leaving aside for a moment the old Greek philo-sophers who had reached a point before their civili-sation was swept away, at which we are only |ust arriv-ing, we turn to Europe, the cradle ef our own civili-zation. With the Renaissance came a struggle to break away from the bondage of nother worldliness" with which the church had nearly smothered Europe. Dreamy philo-sophers, browsing in new fields opened to them by this new movement, came to the conclusion that man was worth while in himself. Theories grew up and counter theories. Rationalism, Empiricism, Scepticism, Realism, Idealism and Progmatism—each battled with the other, yet each had one aim in view--to understand man and man's life and to find his place in the scheme of things. What If some advised revolution, some resignation and some taught evolution? Each succeeded in his own way in bringing to man a sense of his own importance. Ho longer was he a mere atom designed to spend a few pre-ordained years ifc a vale of tears In preparation for a happier life to come. He began to see himself as an Individual with power to think, to will and to do, so i 90. th© ©Id philosopher played tils part well. Disciples of these old leaders accepted their theories,but, sot being dreamers, they looked about for a place to apply them. Thus grew up a race i of practical philosophers who became teachers and taught the doctrines of the old masters to an inter-ested world* Gradually the governments were forced to listen, then to lend a hand, and today the practical philosophers, the Doctors of Philosophy or Pedagogy, are still advising governments and teaching the pro-gressive doctrines which they have absorbed from th© great minds of the past and present* Today, govern-ments are listening mor© than ever to th© advice and admonition of these men since th© growth of govern-ment responsibility has increased so rapidly that they hav© need of ©xpert advice* What will be th© end of such a process, or is there an end? '7h©n we see the enormous burden which the state has already accepted, and when we know that already more and more demands are being formulated, we may well agree with old King Frederick William III of Prussia when, after acceding to many demands and finding more and more being made, he exclaimed (1) "In respect to the loud and even louder demands for popular education by means of Improved schools 91 « I find myself in a disagreeable position which causes me considerable uneasiness. It must be granted that popular education is the foundation upon which the welfare of the people must rest. A neglected, uncouth, illiterate people can be neither a good nor a happy people. Therefore, I have given the "good-schools" interest a free hand and supported it as far as the economic condition of the state allowed-But Just where educational conditions are most advanced all kinds of doubts and forebodings force themselves upon me. May one ask himself regard-ing popular education whether or not it has its limits? If it has no bounds then we are not Justified in in-terfering with, hindering or restricting its develop-ment but must let it take its natural courser- — — — The answer becomes still more difficult when one wishes to set up limitations and then tries to say where they are to be and. whether or not they can be established. We do not confer upon the Individual or upon society any benefit -when we educate him beyond the bounds of his social class and vocation, give him a cultivation which he cannot make use of, and awaken in him pretentions and needs which his lot in life does not allow him to satisfy.w 92 « Leaving aside the idea of "Social Class", which is repugnant to all good democrats, could the trials and tribulations of a state in its struggle with education be more clearly outlined? Chapter X (1) Reisner, "E.H. Nationalism and Education. MacMillan Publishing Co. IÏ.Y. 1923. Page 143. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Adam son, J.W. A Short History of Education, Cambridge Press. 1919. Chapter XVI. 2. Beach, W.G. Introduction to Sociology. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1925. Chapter XXVIII« 5. Blaekmar, F.W. and Gill in, J.I.. Outlines of Sociology. MacMIllan Publishing Co. Revised Edition. 1926. Parts II, III and IV. 4. Chapman, J.C. and Counts, G.S. Principles of Education. Riverside Series. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1924. Chapter XIII. 5. Cubberley, E.P. Readings in the History of Education. Riverside Series. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1920. 6. Cubberley, E.P. A Brief History of Education. Riverside Series. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1922. 7. Dewey, John. Democracy and Education. Maclillan Publishing Co. 1921. Chapter II. 8. Douglas, H.R. Modem Methods in High School Teach-ing. Riverside Series. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1926. Chapters XIII and XV. 9. Emerson, M.I, The Evolution of the Educational Ideal. Riverside Series. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1914. 10. Jones, A.J. Principles of Guidance. McGraw Hill Book Co., U,Y. 1930 11. Makers of Canada. Volume 13. Ryerson, Sgerton by Burwash Hathanael* 12. Monro©, W.S. Text Book In th© History of Education. MacSillan Publishing Co. 1921. Chapters I, II, III, and IV. 13* Proctor, W.M* Educational and Vocational Guid-ance. Riverside Series. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1925* 14* Putman, J.H. and Weir, G.M* Province of British Columbia. Survey of the School System. Charles F. Banfield, Victoria, B.C. 1925. 15* Relsner, K.H. nationalism and Education Since 1789. ffiaclillan Publishing Co*, H.Y. 1923. 16. Ryerson Bgerton, Th© Story of My Life. W* Briggs, Toronto. 1883. 17* Smith, W.R. Principles of Educational Socio-logy* Riverside Series. Houghton Mifflin Co* 1928. Chapters XXVI and XXVIII* 

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