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The characterization of Othello and Iago in the light of comparative idiom Yeo, Emsley Lewis 1930

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THE CHARACTERIZATION OF OTHELLO AND IAGO IH THE LIGHT OF COMPARATIVE IDIOM. by Emsley Lewis Yeo A Thesis submitted for the Degree of MASTER OR ARTS in the Department of ENGLISH THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER, 1 9 3 0 TABLE OP COHTMITS. Introduction p^ge I ( 1) The Vocabularies of Otliello and of I ago as a ,Thole 1 method of weighting--rules governing selection— comparison of nouns and verbs--word origins--length of words--conclusions--limiting factors. o (2) Woid Classes Compared 1 words derived from the soil--conclusions--parts of the "body—pronouns and oossessive adjectives—the vocabularies of invective--conclusions regarding word classes. (3) A Comparison of Groups of 7/ords 33 figures of speech--conclusions reached from the comparison of figures of speech—vords and phrases having sexual connotations--conclusions regarding them—ohraces of classical origin--clang aid colloquial expressions--conclusions. (4) Comparison of Blank Verse and Prose 74 rules of selction—examination of prose pass-ages--conclucions regarding the use of prose-uses of r&ymed couplet—conclusions--dep^rt-ures from usual t;ord order--conclu£ions. Conclusion. * 96 Appendix A 103 1)7/ords common to "both characters ,21Words peculiar to Othello 3)Words peculiar to Iago Appendix B 116 Names of parts of the "body with the number of occurrences Bibliography 117 THE CHARACTERI¿ATIOIT OF OTHELLO AWD IAGO III THE LIGHT OF COMPARATIVE IDIOM. Introduction. In his Character Problems in Shakespeare's Plays Professor Schücking quotes this astounding sentence from Tol-stoi; "The words of one character might equally well be put into the mouth of another and from the quality of the language we should be quite unable to ascertain who is speaking."(p.ü?) Professor Schücking goes on to add, "We do not find in the plays a consistent and careful endeavor to observe a strict harmony in the relation of character and language. It is true, however, that in a number of cases this kind of harmony is one of the strong points of Shakespearean art." (p.88) To the careful reader of Othello this harmony of character with lan-guage becomes apparent, and it is in an attempt to analyze the individuality of the vocabulary and idiom of Othello and of lago that this essay is written. To arrive at a single basis of comparison between the vocabularies of these two characters, which is reducible to a formula, has proved impracticable. For the purposes of this essay, then, the points of comparison have been arbitrar-ily set at four, namely: (l) a comparison of the vocabularies of Othello and lago, as a whole; (2) a comparison of the use and frequency of certain types of words; (3) a comparison of certain word groups; (4) a comparison of the sentence struct-." r ure employed by each character. That there ^re other points Sfe v< of comparison will "be patent to tlie veriest beginner in the study of Shakespeare, "but within the narrow limits laid do'./n it can be shown that the harmony of character with language is well maintained in Othello, contrary to the dictum of Tol-stoi set down above. The problem next arises as to the methodology of the comparison. This can best be described, perhaps, under the various headings in turn. It should be noted here that tlie text upon which this investigation hc.s been made is that of The Arden Shakespeare edited for this particular play by II. C. Hart. While the original plan of this essay called for a strictly scientific study of the language of Othello and that of Iago, some particular phases of the comparison, particular-ly that of figurative language, seemed to defy reduction into percentages and in these cases the subjective element enters. Wherever it has been feasible, however, the comparisons which are made are based on material which can be set down in con-crete figures. THE VOCABULARIES OF OTHELLO AHD OF IA GO AS A WHOLE. To make a comparison of vocabulary of the two char-acters selected I have found it necessary to compile a complete list of all the words used by each character and to note the number of occurrences of each word. The two lists thus made were then set side by side in order that the points of simil-arity and the points of individuality of each might be made evident. Moreover, since lago speaks more than Othello does, it was found necessary, in order to make the figures of the comparison meaningful, to weight carefully the totals that per-tained to Othello. Throughout the play lago speaks 8173 words and Othello but 6239. That is to say the ratio of Iago's speech to that of Othello is as 1.31 is to 1; so that all totals dealing with Othello's speech have to be multiplied by the weighting figure 1.31 to put them on a fair basis of com-parison with those of lago. In listing the vocabulary of each of the characters and selecting the common vocabulary certain arbitrary rules have been followed. In the interest of clearness these must be stated at once. In the first place words which have the same form, though they act as different parts of speech, such as the verb "sail" and the noun "sail", have been listed as one and the same word when, as in the example selected, they come from the same source. If, however, the words have the if - V • >-l same form and are different parts of speech., such as the ad-jective "grave" and the noun "grave", but come into our lan-guage from different sources, then they have been listed as separate and distinct words. This first rule has been foll-owed in compiling the individual vocabularies and the common vocabulary. For example, Othello uses "cuckold" as a verb while Iago uses "cuckold" as a noun. This word, whether noun or verb, is derived from one and the same source, and there-fore appears in the vocabulary common to both. The second rule which has been followed deals with the listing of adjectives, adverbs and verbs. Here the diff-erent tenses and parts of the same verb have been listed as one word except in the case of the verb "to be" where the var-ious parts have been listed separately. In the case of adjec-tives and adverbs a somewhat similar rule has been followed in that, where an adjective or adverb forms its comparative and superlative regularly, the two latter forms have been includ-ed under the positive; but, where the comparison of the adjec-tive or adverb is irregular, as in the case of "good" and "well", each form is listed separately. To come then to the actual comparison. As Appen-dix A shows, during the course of the play Othello uses 1367 different words while Iago uses 1572 different words.' This total at first sight would indicate a wider vocabulary for Iago than for Othello, but, if Othello's total be weighted to compensate for the difference in the total number of words spoken, then the comparison is fairer. Multiplying Othello's total by the index 1.31 gives Othello a total of 1791. In other words Othello, not Iago has the richer and fuller vocab-ulary. To reduce the difference to a percentage in round fig-ures, Othello uses 200 words more than Iago in a total of 1500 words, which is roughly 15% more. Here then is the first sig-nificant comparison. Othello — a general in the army, a ^an of rank and station, presumably a man of reading — uses one-eighth greater vocabulary than Iago -- an associate of court-esans, an ensign, a rather common soldier. In the comparison of lists of words peculiar to each there is no striking difference in totals. Here the totals are 886 for Iago and 661 for Othello on actual count. Once again the weighting of Othello's total gives a fairer picture and, to all intents and purposes, equalizes these totals; for multiplying by 1.31 gives Othello a total of 867 as against Iago's total of 866. At first glance this equality seems to offset the result obtained from the total vocabulary of each character. The nullification is more apparent than real, but it suggests a further exploration to ascertain where the sup-erior wealth of Othello's speech really lies. A moment's thought about the character of Othello and about the part he plays in the tragedy suggests such a line of exploration. Where would the vocabulary of a man of thought and a man of ideas probably be richer than that of an-other less gifted and less imaginative? The answer that comes to mind immediately is that the wealth of the one's vocabul-ary will probably lie in the two parts of speech that form the key words of every sentence — in the nouns and the verbs. A : ' -A comparison then of the comparative wealth of each vocabulary in the nouns and the verbs both as to variety and as to fre-quency of occurrence should shed some light on the matter. In the case of Iago 696 different nouns appear while in Othello's vocabulary there are 555 by actual count, or 727 after weighting. Reduced to a percentage this gives Othello a marginal advantage of slightly less than 5%. With respect to the frequency of use of these nouns the totals are 1390 for Iago as against 1203 for Othello — or, weighted for Othello, 1576. Once again Othello has the marginal advantage, which in this particular case is apporximately 14$. In the matter of verbs the comparisons again show Othello to have the larger vocabulary. With respect to the number of different verbs used, the figures, after the corr-ection has been made in Othello's total, are, Iago 465 and Othello 516, which gives Othello a margin of nearly 11%. The comparison of frequency of occurrence of verbs, however, does not show nearly such a wide divergence. If the auxiliary verbs are omitted, Othello's modified total is 1353 to Iago's 1297--a matter of slightly over 5%. In the bare matter of percentages the figures quoted do not appear sufficiently striking to justify any very defin-ite conclusion, but, when viewed as a whole, they do offer some definite proof of the comparative richness of the two vocabularies. Perhaps the most significant bit of evidence lies in the fact that all the lines of exploration brought a similar result — namely that Othello has a greater command of language. This result is unquestionably in keeping with the character of the two men. The unanimity of results will be made more apparent by the following tables Test Othello's actual total. Number of words used. 6,239 Different words used. 1,367 Words pecu-liar to each. 661 Number of diff-erent nouns 555 Occurrences of nouns 1,203 Number of diff-erent verbs 394 Occurrences of verbs 1,033 Othello's modified total. 8,173 1,791 876 727 1,576 516 Iago's actual total. Marginal percentage. 8,173 1,572 866 696 1,390 465 1,297 14/0 10% 5% 1,353 A single glance at the above table will show that, from the standpoint of mere breadth of vocabulary, Othello has an advantage ranging from 5 to 14%'. Another line of inquiry that naturally suggests it-self is that of origin. Is there any marked difference in the origin of the words that Othello uses from the origin of those that Iago uses? One would feel that the vocabulary of Othello should be more classical in origin and texture than that of 0 Othello if the language is a revelation of character. What does an examination show? To make a comparison of the words derived from each individual language source seemed to offer too wide a scope, indeed so wide that the sources were grouped under two head-ings, (1) classical sources, (2) other sources. Under the classical source are included, of course, Latin, Greek and the Romance tongues generally. In the particular case of words coming from the French the great majority, naturally, fell in-to the classic group; "but in a few isolated cases the word was assigned to the second group if it came originally from a feu-tonic source, such as the word "roast" which came into English from the French from Old High German, as did "seize" and "slave". In the second group are listed all words from other sources — chiefly Teutonic. In the case of Othello, words from Anglo-Saxon, the Gaelic, the Scandinavian tongues and Ger-man form the "bulk of this list. In Iago the same group form the largest part of the "other languages" list. It should be noted here that in arriving at the totals certain words, such as proper nouns - whether the names of characters in the play, classical deities, or places - were purposely omitted and were not listed by origin. A similar omission was made in the case of interjections, such as "ah", and words that were onomato-poetic in origin, as "clink", which appears in the vocabulary of Iago. Under the first heading, those words derived from classical sources, the total in the case of Othello is 361. All other sources contribute a total of 284. In Iago's speech the classical group totals 447, while the second group com-prises 393. The comparison of these totals again required weighting and the following table will show at a glance the comparison of origins: Othello's Othello's Iago's Approximate actual modified total marginal total total difference. Classical origin 361 473 447 +6% Other origins 284 372 393 -6% Once again the marginal deviation approximates a total of 12^, with Othello having the wider range of words of classical origin and the narrower group of words from other sources, which is quite in harmony with the character of each of these men. One line of investigation which suggested itself was that of comparative length of words. This examination was not pressed further than the close of Act I for the results did not appear to be tending to any definite and noticeable devia-tion. As a matter of fact the words of lago and of Otnello when examined from the standpoint of the number of syllables in each word showed a remarkably close parallel. For the pur-pose of making this comparison four separate groups of words were counted* (1) those of a single syllable, (2) those of two syllables, (3) those of three syllables, (4) those of more than three syllables. In all questions of pronunciation the metre of the line has been taken as the final guide to the number of syllables in the word, as in Iago's speech, Act I, Sc. 1, line 72, "Yet throw such changes of vexation on't," the word "vexation" has been grouped among the tri-syllabic list as from the metre the "tion" ending here has the force of "shun", whereas in Othello's speech, Act I, Sc. 3, line 275, "Make head against my estimation" the "tion" termination must "be pronounced as two syllables to satisfy the metre. Numerous other examples might be quoted, but these two will suffice to show the principle of selection. The results of this comparison, which as has been pointed out, was not carried beyond Act I were as follows: Othello Iago Words' of one syllable 881 1389 Words of two syllables 183 299 Words of three syllables 49 79 Words of more than three syllables 15 27 The close approximation of these figures to equality becomes apparent when these totals are translated into per-centages of the total number of words used in the Act. Put into percentages the comparison stands: Othello Iago Words of one syllable 77.8^ 77.4^ Words of two syllables 16.1^ 16.6^ Words of three syllables 4.4/2 4,4% Words of more than three syllables 1.6% 1.5% It will be seen at a glance that there is no significant var-r iation in the matter of length of words used. The question now arises as to what warrantable con-clusions may be drawn from the comparisons of the vocabularies as a whole. There are, I believe three conclusions that are substantiated by the evidence adduced. In the first place all lines of exploration tended to prove that Othello has a wider, s richer and more varied vocabulary than Iago has. No one of these comparisons taken singly would establish this claim; "but when each and all produce similar results vaiying only in de-gree, then the evidence must carry weight. In the second place Othello*s speech has a more classical flavor than that of Iago, a fact which is quite in keeping with the station in life of each of these men. Finally, the noun and verb comparisons in-dicate a breadth of experience and depth of thought in Othello that are not characteristic of Iago. Before leaving the matter of vocabulary as a whole, one should note one or two factors that effect these compari-sons. Of primary importance is the fact that mere lists of words such as have been dealt with here take no account of the connotations of these words as they are used by each character. A striking example of the difference in interpretation of a word brought about by its context may be found in the use of the adjective "salt". In Iago this word has a definitely sex-ual implication from its context. Othello has asked for "ocu-lar proof" of Desdemona's infidelity, and in replying Iago says, "It is impossible you should see this, Were they as prime as goats, as hot as monkeys, As salt as wolves in pride and fools as gross As ignorance made drunk." (Act III,Sc.3,403-406.) In Othello's speech on the other hand "salt" has not that sex-ual connotation. In asking Desdemona for her handkerchief he says, "I have a salt and sorry rheum offends me," (Act III,Sc.4,51.) Here we have the same adjective used by two characters with entirely different connotations. Such differences, of the ut-most importance, do not appear or at least do not carry suff-icient weight in the comparative analysis of the vocabulary as a whole. The second factor which should be borne in mind is that the vocabulary is drawn from the whole play. There is no gainsaying the fact that Othello, once he comes under the power of Iago's poison, adopts and uses the words and the ex-pressions of his ancient. One single example will suffice to illustrate this point. In the speech quoted above Iago uses two similes "as prime as goats, as hot as monkeys," and some five hundred lines later - Act IV, Sc.1,line 268- Othello makes use of the two nouns in an exclamation "goats and mon-keys". Iago's poison is working not only upon Othello's mind but upon his very speech. This slow poisoning of Othello's speech will be developed at greater length elsewhere in this essay but it is sufficient here to point out the fact that these comparisons of total vocabularies make no allowance for the effect that Iago's speech has upon Othello's. A third factor that must be noted in passing is that stark and bare vocabulary can, of necessity, give no weight to the grouping of words. The words "beast", "two" and "backs" are, in themselves and in separate word lists, quite innocent words but group them together as Iago does into "the beast with two backs" and you have a gross reference quite in keep-ing with the state of mind that seems characteristic of Othello's tempter. In view of the three factors above which definitely limit the reliability of comparisons based on individual words, it is necessary to institute certain other inquiries that may shed light upon the association of language with character in the play. The comparison that naturally suggests itself is that of certain groups of words and to that comparison we turn. WORD CLASSES COMPARED. Prom Iago's first appearance in Act I until he fin-ally leaves the stage one has the feeling that he is "of the J earth earthy". There is always about him not only the at-mosphere of deceit "but a certain grossness. His mind appears to "be a stagnant pool of coarse thoughts and rancoring jeal-ousies. If we are correct in reading his character surely it must "be reflected in his speech. Once again the investigator is faced with certain difficulties. In the first place there is the ever present problem of the influence that Iago's tempting has upon Othello's speech. Perhaps that difficulty may be overcome by noting the place of occurrence of each particular example which we select for our purpose. In the second place there is the very obvious difficulty of select-ing which particular groups of words are to be set opposite one another in comparison. One group that naturally suggests itself is that body of words which spring from the "soil". The first group of "soil" words to be investigated was the list of names of birds, beasts, reptiles, insects and fish that appear in the vocabulary of lago and of Othello, In actual number of different'names used Othello's total is 13 and Iago's 23, but of these 4 words are common to both lists, leaving Othello a net total of 9 and lago a net total of 19. Having weighted Othello's net total by the index 1.31 to bring the lists to a proper parity for comparison we find that lago still uses about bQ% of these nouns more than Othello does a very significant point. The importance of this peculiarity is further emphasized, "by a comparison of the frequency of their use. If the words common to "both are once more omitted the total number of occurrences is 21 for Iago to 10 for Othello. To maintain a uniformity of contrast Othello's total must "be modified in the usual way to a total of slightly over 13, so that there is still a difference of more than 50;'<.'. While these two straws sliov: which way the wind "blows, the essential difference only becomes evident on an examination of the lists. They are worth setting down here. Othello aspic minx bear monkey beast raven crocodile steed dog toad fly worms goat Iago ass baboon beast cat cod coursers daws dog evie fiy gennetc goat guinea-hen salmon horse snipe wildcats lion locusts monkey puppies ram wolf From the above lists no very significant inferences may be drawn for the number of words is comparatively small. It is perhaps worth noting that the commonplace animals of the house and stable yard the ass, the cat, the dog, the ewe, the goat, the horse, the puppy, and the ram occur much more frequently in the language of Iago, as we would naturally ex-pect. In Othello's list, however, we find such names as, "aspic", "crocodile" and "raven", all of which are words associated with some degree of education and refinement. The actual number and quality of these words used becomes much more significant, however, when an analysis is made of the place where the words occur in the play. There is unquestionably an interaction of one man's vocabulary upon the other's. Othello's use of "goat" and ' i "monkey" has already been cited as an example of the effect Iago's speech has upon Othello's idiom, while the third scene of Act III gives a splendid illustration of the effect of Othello's idiom upon that of Iago. Othello swears vengeance: "Sow, by yond marble heaven In the due reverence of a sacred vow I here engage ..y words" Uct III,be.3,line 461.) and Iago catches the very spirit of the words and he continue "Witness you ever burning lights above, You elements that clip us round about, Witness that here Iago doth give up The execution of his wit, hands, heart, To wrong'd Othello's service I" (Act III,Sc.3,line 464.) This last speech must not be taken as characteristic of Iago. It is, undoubtedly, conscious mimicry of Othello. ./here then can a logical distindtion be made? k7here may one say» "This is the real, the natural speech of Iago this of Othello?" The answer I believe is that the real inter-mingling of the speech and idiom does not occur until Othello begins to yield -t» to the temptation of Iago. From ^ct III, Lc.3,onAthe point in Act V where he realizes Iago's villainy, Othello is under the spell of Iago. If a definite point was to be selected perhaps line 326 of that scene would be the divisional point for there Iago says: "The Moor already changes with my poison." If this be taken as the dividing line of the play then all the words which precede this point must be looked upon as belonging properly to the speaker but all the words which follow this speech must be regarded, in Othello's case, as suspect. It may be that words and expressions subsequent to the third scene of the third act are in truth words of Othello but the examiner will need to have a wary eye that they have not been tainted with Iago's poison. What light then does the place of occurrence throw on this first list of soil-derived words? Let us look at Othello's case first. The first time that a word from this list occurs in the speech of Othello is in the crucial third scene of Act III. There in line 1S1 we have the expression: "Exchange for me a goat." Then, in succession, we have line 271 "I had rather be a toad" —-again in line 352 "Farewell the neighing steed" in line 363 "Thou hadst been better have been born a dog" in lines 450-451 "Swell, bosom with thy fraught For 'tis of aspics' tongues" and, finally in this scene, in line 476 "Damn her lewd minx." The point to be noted particularly in this connect-ion is that Othello does not, until well on in the play, use the name of animal, beast, bird, fish or reptile. That is to say that until Iago's poison begins to work upon the over-creduluus Moor, Othello's speech is entirely free from this particular class of word. It is perhaps worth rioting that only 2 of the instances quoted occur "before the selected div-isional point at line 326. It is also worthy of note that only 1 of the words selected has a sexual connotation and that is the "minx" of line 476. What now can "be said of the corresponding list for Iago? The first occasion upon which Iago uses a word from this list comes very early in the play. In the first scene of the first act in line 47 we find the simile, "like his master's ass", and within 20 lines we have the expression, "I will wear my heart upon my sleeve For daws to peck at." (line 65) Within 10 lines we find another such expression in line 71 "Plague him with flies." What are perhaps the most significant uses of animal words follow. In lines 88-89 crccurs a double example, "Even now, now, very now, an old black ram Is tupping your white ewe," and the same figure is repeated in line 111 "You'll have your daughter covered with a Barbary horse." That is to say that, during the first scene in which he appears, Iago uses no fewer than 6 of these words derived from the soil and, of these, 3 are used as sexual references. The essential points to be noted in this comparison can then be stated in a few sentences: (a) In the first place Iago has a larger vocabulary of this particular kind than has Othello--both in variety of words used and in frequency. -17-("b) In the second place Iago's use of the words of the list is native to him as evidenced "by the fact that they occur in his speech from the very beginning of the play, while in the language of ^ Othello words of this type do not appear until the Moor has started to yield to the temptation of Iago. (c) In the third place, it is very significant that 3 of the 6 words used by Iago have a sesual bear-ing. The theme of the sex bent of Iago's mind will be developed at greater length later in the course of this essay, but we should note here the , association of sex with beasts as characteris-tically Iagoan. The uce of "animal" words is not, of necessity, evidence of coarseness of mind. When, however,-we have the association of animals with sex relationships then ,.e may just-ly say that such a mind is gross. A second group of soil derived words that also sug-gests itself for comparison is the grnun of navies of , fruits and the things associated with them. The complete lists are as follows: Othello Ii"o fruit coloquint'ida herbs hyssop gum fig(twice used) thynie lettuce pith fruit " " rooto poppy rose mandragora pitch strav.-trees(twice used) garden oal-r berries weed gardener nettles grapes weed Let us first examine these from the standpoint of comparative number and frequency. It will be seen immediately that Othello uses 6 words of this particular land, while Iago uses 18. To maintain a similarity in the matter of comparisons it is neces-sary to deduct from each list the words common to both and also to weight Othello's total by multiplying by the figure 1.31. When these operations have been done the comparison shows a striking' difference in that the use of Othello in this -18-particular is approximately to Iago's use as 5 is to 16. In / other words Othello's vocabulary in this particular is not one-third of Iago's a relative comparison that once again is quite in keeping with our estimate of the characters of the two men. On the basis of the frequency of use another compar-ison may be made which adds weight to the one suggested above. Here the figures, after weighting those of Othello, are appro-ximately 9 for Othello and 20 for Iago, giving us further ev-idence in support of• the contention that Iago's vocabulary as well as his character is earthy in its texture and content. One further point should be noted in the general comparison of the lists and that is the relative frequency of specific words in that group which Iago uses as compared with the group of Othello. In Iago's list 11 of the words are de-finitely specific or more than half the lict, while in Othello's list only one, "rose", is at all specific. Once again we have a conclusion that is in keeping with our estim-ate of the characters of the men in that we expect from Iago a concrete definiteness that we do not expect from Othello. This particular point will be further developed when we come to ex-amine the place 'of occurrence in the play and the connotations of the- words in their setting. As has been pointed out before, the examiner must be wary of ascribing words to Othello when they occur after the third scene of Act III, for the obvious reason that from then on Othello's vocabulary as well as his mind is under the bane-ful influence of Iago. Where then do these words of Othello come in the Play? The first instance is that of "pith" which occurs in Act I Sc.3,lines 83-85: "For since these arms of mine had seven years pith, Till now some nine moons wasted, they have used Their dearest action in the tented field;" the next to occur is the word "fruit" which is used in ^ct II, Sc.3,lines 8 and 9 X * "Come, my dear love, The purchase made, the fruits are to ensue." Then in succession we have "Thou young and rose-lipped cherubim" "(Act IV,Sc.2,line 64.) and "thou weed Who art so lovely fair," (Act IV,Sc.2,line 68.) and "When I have plucked the rose I cannot give it vital growth again, It must needs wither: I'll smell it on the tree," (Act V,Sc.2,line 13.) and, finally, after Othello has realized Iago's treachery, "Of one whose subdued eyes, Drop tears as fast as the Arabian trees Their medicinal gum." (Act V.Sc.2,line 348.) It will be noted from an examination of the above quotations that but 2 of the lines come before the turning » point of the play so that only 2 of the instances can be said surely to be native to the speech of Othello. Another partic-ularly striking fact is that in every instance to be found in the speech of Othello in the play the words of this particular kind are used in figures of speech. This figurative use acc-ounts in a measure for the peculiarity, noted above, that the use in the case of Othello is less specific than in the case of Iago. It will be noted further that none of the words used have a gross connotation, unleis we take "The fruits are to en-sue" in its sexual implication. LVen if this phrase has a sex-ual meaning there is a delicacy in its phrasing that is quite foreign to Iago with his "beast with two backs" and similar gross expressions. What now can be said of Iago's use of similar words? It is unnecessary to go through the whole list because a half a dozen examples will be sufficient to' illustrate the differ-ence in usage. The great bulk of these words come in the early speeches of Iago as in ^ct I,Sc.3,line 323, we have the elaborate metaphor: "Our bodies are our gardens; to the which our wills are gardeners: so that if we will plant nettles or sow lettuce, set hyssop and ./eel up thyme why the power and corrigible authority of this lies in our wills." Here as in Othello's case the use is figurative but there is this distinction to be made that in Iago as we expect the fig-ure is a commonplace, prosaic, every-day comparison, just as his animals were those of the barn yard and the house. On 2 occasions we have the use of "fig" as symbolic of a worthless thing, in *.ct I,Sc. 3,line 322, "Virtue] a fig", and in Act II,Sc.1,line 255, "Blessed fig's end, the wine she drinks is made of grapes." One of the most interesting of the instances from Iago's speech is that in Act I,be.3,line 355, where he says that Othello's food shall "be, shortly, as bitter as "coloquintida". It is inconceivable that Iago should have known this word and known the taste of the fruit without ¡mow-ing also that it was a powerful cathartic agent. There is then a bodily grossness about his figure that one does not / find in Othello. Had he compared Othello's cups to castor oil the figure would not have been any more revolting. There is evidence of the same kind of grossness in his reference to Cassio kissing his fingers "Yet again your fingers to your lips? Would they were clyster-pipes for your sake." (^ .ct II, Sc.1»line 178.) One further example of the specific nature of the use Iago makes of these words will suffice. In .act III,BE.3, line 331, he says: "Not poppy nor mandragora Nor all the drowsy syrups of the world Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep Which thou owedst yesterday." Here we have another characteristic use of lago's. V/hi 1 s it has not the grossness of the coloquintida passage it is note-worthy in that it further evidences the practical, matter-of-fact nature of Iago. One should add that the whole tenor of the passage is much above the usual level of lago's speech, in fact it is very notably in the vein of Othello. The point to be noted here is merely the fact that iago names two definite medicinal plants. It is not necessary to complete the examination of all the words as they are used by Iago, for the above compar-ison makes evident 3 material differences in the two cases. (1) In the first place Iago's vocabulary in this particular respect is larger and. more varied than is that of Othello. There is no need to stress the very patent fact that this condition is quite in keeping with the grosser quality of Iago's mind. (2) In the second place it should be noted that in the case of Othello most of the words occur after he has come under Iago's temptation. It, there-fore, follows that even Othello's very limited list cannot be said surely to be characteristic of him, for, while there is not the specific re-petition of words such as was noted in the "goats" and"monkeys" of the animal list, one can-not 3ay to what extent the nature of Othello's vocabulary has been infected by Iago. (3) In the third place there should be noted the specific and occasional gross usage that char-acterizes the examples from Iago's speech and the general and usually figurative use which is characteristic of Othello. Another group of words that seemed to offer a field for comparison was the group of names of parts of the body. The results obtained from this examination were not, however, significant. In point of number of different words of this class used Othello has an actual total of 28 as against Iago's total of 29. \1hen we come to examine the number of occurr-ences there is a more marked difference for Othello uses the name of a part of the body no fewer than 97 times in the course of the play while Iago's total usage amounts to 74. If Othello's total again be weighted the difference is even more striking for the totals then read 127 for Othello to 74 for Iago. An examination of the, frequency of repetition of certain of these words failed to throw any additional li&ht on this particular comparison, AS may be seen from Appendix "B" the most frequently used word of Othello is "heart" and that word also is most frequently used by Iago. Similarly "hand" is the second word in point of frequency in both lists. "Heart and "hand" are, however, so frequently used in convent-ional figures of speech that the fact that they occur most frequently doesn't carry any particular weight. A further comparison of the lists also fails to reveal any material points of contrast. Another group of words that lends itself to compari-son is the list of personal pronouns and adjectives. In this comparison again there are 1 or 2 significant points. The complete lists are: Othello Oth611o( modified) lago he 28 37 101 her 81 106 81 him 16 21 75 his 22 29 76 I 207 * 271 251 me 82 107 60 mine 6 8 1 my 121 159 98 our 6 8 16 she 57 76 52 thee 33 43 16 thou 58 76 25 thy 42 55 23 us 2 3 10 we 8 10 10 you 72 94 201 your 28 37 63 The comparison may be rendered somewhat more simple haps more intelligible by grouping certain of these words to-gether. The first group to be considered then is that of the singular first personal pronoun and its derivatives. Here we have Othello's modified totals of 271 for I, 107 for me 8 for mine and 159 for n^, giving a total of 545 while Iago's total for the same group is 410. Reduced, to a percentage on the basis of the smaller total this shows that Othello's use of the first person singular is almost 33$ greater than Iago's. This comparison again shows the harmony of language with char-acter, for in Othello the general, we have a man accustomed to commanding, accustomed to accepting personal responsibility for each of his actions. Is it not inevitable then that such a one should use more frequently the first person than Iago, the ensign, one used to being commanded, used to carrying out the decisions of others and unused to feeling that personal sense of responsibility? This particular point is further strengthened by an examination of the relative frequencies of the first person plural. Since neither of the characters is of royal rank the plurals represent the actual plural meanings. In the case of Othello the modified totals are 8 for our, 3 for us and 10 for we, a sum total of 21, while in the case of Iago the same 3 words give a total usage of 36. That is to say Iago's use of the plural is 71% greater than is Othello's or putting the comparison in another form Iago has refuge in the plural forms approximately 17 times to Othello's 10. This comparison em-phasizes the significant point of the previous paragraph namely, the sense of his position and its dignity that acre characteristic of Othello. The next group to be dealt with is that of the third person. Here the totals are 269 for Othello, after modifica-tion, and 356 for Iago. Once again this disparity throws some light on the characterization for Iago uses over 32$ more third personal pronouns than Othello does. There is, there-<J fore, about Iago the conventional indirectness of the infer-ior. This same indirectness of reference'is to be found in the references that each man makes to the other. By actual count Othello refers to Iago by name on 34 occasions during the play while Iago uses Othello's name only 8 times. The above comparisons are, perhaps, best accounted for by saying that the servant is of necessity indirect in his personal re-ferences. It is worth noting however that Iago's indirectness is not all conventional for on 28 occasions during the course of the play he uses the term, "Moor" in feferring to Othello and this term in the mouth of Iago is certainly tinged with a lack of respect. The third group of these pronouns to be considered is that of the second person. Here a distinction must be made between the formal plural form and the intimate singular form. If there is a harmony between character and language, as we maintain there is, surely Othello, from his rank alone, would be expected to address more people by the informal "thou" than » Iago, a mere lieutenant, would. The figures derived from an examination of the play support this view very amply. In Othello's speech we find 50 cases of "thou" to 72 occurrences of "you"----a proportion, roughly, of 6 to 7- while in Iago's total speech "thou" occurs but 25 times while "you" appears 201 times—-a proportion of approximately 1 to 8. This diff-erence in proportion is large enough to have manifest signif-icance. This same group may "be compared again in the same way that the two previous pronominal groups have been compared On this basis we have Othello's modified totals for thee, thou and thy giving a sum total of 174 occurrences, while Iago's use only totals 64, which is to say that Othello's usage of the second person singular is almost 3 times as great as that of Iago. When we turn to the second person plural, we find quite the reverse as was to be expected. In the second per-son plurals the modified sum total of Othello's usage is 131 while Iago uses the second personal you and your no fewer than 264 times. In other words, while Othello uses the in-timate singular 3 times as frequently as Iago does, the latter uses the formal plural twice as often as the Uoor. another interesting fact is that in the sum totals of all the uses of the second person, there is not a wide divergence. Here the figures are 305 for Othello's modified total to 328 for Iago's total, a difference of some 1% which is not at all significant This fact is easily accounted for since a large part of the drama takes the form of dialogues between Othello and Iago. It follows, therefore, that the use of the second person is about the same for each. What is perhaps the most striking verbal comparison is to be found in the use of oaths made by Iago and Othello. The points of difference in this vocabulary of invective' are striking enough to warrant listing the various examples here. The complete list of oaths to be found in Othello's speech is as follows: "She swore, in faith, twas passing strange." (Act I,Sc.3,line 160.) "Now, by heaven My "blood begins my safer guides to rule (Act II,Sc.3,line 210.) "Perdition catch my soul But I do love thee (Act III,Sc.3,line 91.) "Think, my lord, By heaven he echoes me" (Act III,Sc.3,line 107.) "By heaven, I'll know thy thoughts" (Act III,Sc.3,line 163.*) "By the world, I think my wife be honest" (Act III,Sc.3,line 385.) "Death and damnation! 01" (Act III,Sc.3,line 397.) "Damn her, lewd minxi 0,damn her (Act III,Sc.3,line 476.) "By heaven, I would most gladly have forgot it" (Act IV,Sc.1,line 19.) "By heaven, that should be my handkerchief" (Act IV,Sc.1,line 161.) "let her be damned (Act IV,Sc.1,line 184.) "Hang her] I do but say what she is (Act IV,Sc.1,line 191.) "Fire and brimstone!" (Act IV,Sc.1,line 239. ) "Come, swear it, damn thyself --------therefore be double-damned"-(Act IV,Sc.2,line 36.) "By heaven, I saw my handkerchief in his hand" (Act V,Sc.2,line 62.) "0 I were damn'd beneath all depth in hell But th^t I did proceed upon just grounds To this exteemity." (Act V,Sc.2,line 135.) Before proceeding to the examination of Iago's speech » in this regard we should note 1 or 2 points of peculiarity in respect to Othello's usage. In the first place it is particu-larly worthy of note that only 2 examples from Othello precede the third scene of Act III, which is to say that Othello, "be-fore he falls under Iago's temptation is singularly free from oaths. In the second place it is peculiarly significant that none of the oaths used by Othello have a definite Christian origin. While there is no evidence in the play as to Othello's religion the fact that he is a Moor at least*» suggests that his early life was that of a pagan or Mohammedan and in mom-ents of stress he reverts to the natural language habits of his youth. Surely then here is a very tangible bit of evid-ence of the harmony of language with character when the Moor's oaths are non-Christian. The weight of this bit of evidence will become more apparent when we review the oaths from the mouth of Iago. In view of the non-Christian!a) character of ^a) In the first Quarto there is a Christian oath for in ¿ictlV, scenel,line .36,the reading, is, "Lie with herJ Zouns that's fulsome". This reading however does not oucur in either the second Quarto or the Folio so that it may be rejected without any serious impairment of the text. Othello's oaths an examination of their quality may throw some light on them. It will be noted that the favorite oath of Othello is "By heaven" which occurs no fewer than 6 times in the 14 lines quoted. This oath is quite in keeping with a Mohammedan or pagan. ITor is there anything incongrous in any of the other words quoted coming from the mouth of Othello for "faith", "death and damnation", "fire and brimstone", "by the world", and "perdition catch my soul", come equally well from the mouth of a Mohammedan as of a Christian. Let us now look at Iago's speech from the same point 'of view. The examples are more numerous, "but they must he set down for comparison. They are: "••Sblood hut you will not hear me" (Act I,Sc.1,line 4.) "He, in good time, must his lieutenant "be, And I--God bless the mark—his Moorship's ancient." (Act I,Sc.1,line 32.) "By the faith of man" (Act I,Sc.1,line 10.) "Zounds, sir,you're robbed" (Act I,Sc.1,line 86.) "Zounds, sir, you are one of those that will not serve God, if the Devil bid you." (Act I,Sc.1,line 108. ) "By Janus, I think no." (Act I,Sc.2,line 33.) "Faith, he to-night hath boarded a land carack." (Act I,Sc.2,line 50.) "Marry, to come,captain, will you go?" (Act I,Sc.2,line 53.) "A^pox of"drowning thyself". («.et I,Sc.3,line 366.) "In faith, too much" (Act II,Sc.1,line 103.) "Marry, before your Ladyship I grant She puts her tongue a little in her heart." (Act II ,Sc.1,line 105.) "God's will, gentlemen!" (Act II,Sc.3,line 162.) "Diablo! ho! The town will rise." (Act II,Sc.3,line 166.) "Marry, heaven forbid" (Act II,Sc.3,line 266.) • • ' .«v v àMÈiiémÉàikiM^i T • I m TIBIR RRM ITIRIWIIIMTRMI-IT- . »•/ « "God's will, lieutenant hold, You will "be shamed for ever." (Act II,Sc.3,line 167.) "Divinity of hell! When devils will the blackest sins put on They do suggest at first with heavenly shows" (Act II,Sc.3,line 362.) "By the mass, 'tis morning." (Act II,Sc.3,line 391.) "I'faith I fear it has" (Act III,Sc.3,line 216.) "0 Grace.' 0 heaven defend me". (Act III,Sc.3,line 374.) "God be wi' you; take mine office." (Act-III,Sc.3,line 376.) "Faith, that he did—I know not what he did". (Act IV,Sc.1,line 32.) "Mock you? Ho, by heaven." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 61.) "Marry, patience Or I shall say you are ail in all in spleen" (Act IV,Sc.1,line 88.) "Faith, thy cry goes that you shall marry her" (Act IV,Sc.1,line 124.) "Yours, by this hand: and to see how he prizes the follish woman your wife." (act IV,Sc.1,line 177.) "I would to heaven he were" (Act IV,Sc.1,line 277.) "Faith, that was not so well" (Act IV,Sc.1,line 278.) "Marry, heaven forbid" (Act V,Sc.1,line 72.) "0 heaven! Roderigo" (Act V,Sc.1,line 90.) In contrast with the situation in the case of Othello note here that the preponderance of Iago's oaths come before the middle of the play and therefore may "be safely set down as being native to him. Surely there must be some significance in the fact that Iago's first uttered word is an oath, "Sblood" and that Iago uses more oath« in the first two acts than Othello does throughout the play. A second point of comparison is that of number. Here again the greater total comes, as might be expected, from the language of Iago, the coarser of the two men and the comparison by actual count is 15 for Othello as opposed to 29 for Iago. Even after weighting Othello's total by 1.31 there is still a margin of approxim-ately 50$ more oaths in the speech of Iago. One of the most striking points of comparison though is to be found in the quality of the oaths used rather than in the quantity. Even a casual glance at the list of oaths used by Iago makes two facts patent. In the first place Iago uses many oaths of Christian origin, while Othello, as has been al-ready pointed out, does not. In the second place the oaths used by Iago are coarse and ungentlemanly. "Zounds" and "•sblood" from their very derivation suggest coarseness. Such language suits the character and position of Iago but it would be quite inappropriate in the mouth of Othello. There is but one further point to be made from this comparison. We have noted before the grossness of Iago in such references as those to "coloquintida" and "clyster-pipes" and among the oaths there is another gross bodily reference in the expression, "pox of drowning thyself". Such grossness is no where apparent in Othello, not even in the oaths he uses where such language might excusably appear. Before leaving the topic of word groups it might be well to sum up the evidence so that certain conclusions may, legitimately, be drawn. From the comparison of the."soil-words'* with which this part of the investigation opened two facts become patent, namely, Iago has a wider vocabulary and a coarser one of words derived from thing of the earth than Othello has and in the second place the use of these words is undoubtedly native to Iago while in the case of Othello there is some doubt as evidenced by the place of occurrence in each character's speech. From the comparison of pronouns again 2 points em-erge. In the first place there is an indirectness about Iago's use that is characferistic of the inferior; and, secondly, the useetof the second person-singular and of the plural are in character in that Othello more frequently uses the informal singular while Iago more often uses the plural form. From the comparison of oaths used by Iago and. Othello there are 2 significant points to be noted. The first of these is that Iago uses more oaths than does Othello and in the sec-ond place Iago uses oaths of a much coarser kind tharuOthello does. !fhat all these conclusions support the contention that ,in 'Othello there is a harmony between character and lan-guage is a point that need not be labored for it is self-evid-ent . A COMPARISON OF GROUPS OF WORDS. A third field of comparison that suggests itself to the examiner of comparative idiom is that of certain groups of words such as figures of speech, expressions with a sexual connotation, colloquialisms and classical references. In mak-ing comparisons of such groups certain difficulties have to be faced. In the matter of figures of speech, for instance, the English language is so full of figurative words that it is al-ways difficult to say whether a speaker is conscious of using the word as a figure of speech or whether the figure is merely incidental to the word in its origin. For the purposes of this essay no attempt has been made to obtain an exhaustive list of all the figures of speech used by each character, but some forty of the most striking figures have been selected from the speech of each of the men and have been compared. This particular method is of course open to the objection that the selection of the figures is largely subjective. In spite of this objection surely a comparison of some forty striking figures of speech must carry some weight. A second difficulty is the problem of overlapping; some of the figures, perhaps the most striking, will appear in the list of sex references as well as among the figures of speech. Similarly classical, allusions overlap with the figures of speech. By this over-lapping a single expression may appear to carry more weight than its importance in the play would assign it. As it is difficult to suggest any specific remedy for this double occurrence of expression, it is simply pointed out here and the reader will have to make what allowance he deems necess-ary. We turn then to a consideration of the more strik-ing figures of speech as they occur in the language of Iago and of Othello. For the reasons specified above this com-parison will be made act by act. The 8 figures that are per-haps the most striking and forceful in the language of Iago in the first Act are as follows: (1) "And I of whom his eyes had seen the proof At Rhodes at Cyprus and on other grounds, Christian and heathen, must be be-lee'd and calmed By debtor and creditor: this counter-caster, He, in good time, must his lieutenant be." (Act I,Sc.1,line 28.) (2) "Wears out his time, much like his master's ass, For nought but provender." (Act I,Sc.1,line 47.) (3) "liven now, now, very now, an old black ram Is tupping your white ewe." (Act 1,Sc.1,line 88.) horse." (4) "You'll have your daughter covered with a Barbary (Act I,Sc.1,line 111.' (5) "I do hate him as I do hell pains" (Act I,Sc.1,line 154. (6) "I must show out, a flag and sign of love Which is indeed but sign." (Act I,Sc.1,line 157. (7) "Our bodies are gardens to the which our wills are gardeners." (Act I,Sc.3,line 323. (8) "There are many events in the womb of time Which will be delivered." (Act I,Sc.3,line 377. It will be noted immediately that half of these •»55-figures are derived from the soil; three from "beasts and the famous garden metaphor which has previously "been noted in this essay. The last figure to be mentioned has a sexual deriva-tion while the first figure is derived from the sea. In this 1 connection it can "be noted that such a figure as being "be-lee'd and calmed* seems quite natural in the mouth of a man in the service of Venice -- at that time the leading maritime power in the Mediterranean. It is interesting in this con-nection to note that in the first Act there are at least two other instances of figures derived from the sea in "Another of his fathom have they none" (Act I,So,1,line 153.) and "That law — — - — w i l l give him cable." (Act I,Sc.2,line 16.) The eight selected figures from Othello's speech in Act I are: (1) "My demerits May spealc unbonneted to as proud a fortune As this that I have reach'd." (Act I,Sc.2,line 22.) (2) "Keep up your bright swords for the dew will rust them." ( Act I,Sc.2,line 59 ) (3) "Were it my cue to fight I should have known it Without a prompter." (Act I,Sc,2,line 83.) (4) "Hills whose heads touch heaven." (Act I,Sc,3,line 141.) (5) * She »Id come again and with a greedy ear Devour up my discourse." ( Act I,Sc.3, line 148.) (6) «fit* tyrant custom, most graare senators, lath made the flinty and steel couch of war lHy thrice driven bed of down." (Act I,Sc.3,line 230.) (7) "No, when light-wing'd toys Of feather'd Ctipid seel with wanton dullness speculative and officed instruments." (Act I,Sc.3,line 269.) (8) "Let housewives made a skillet of my helm." (Act I,Sc.3,line 273.) There are one or two points to be noted in connec-tion with this group of figures from Othello's speech in Act I. First of all one should note the variety of origins for the figures — social custom, nature, the theatre, and military life. Surely this variety of source is indicative of the character of Othello in that he is a man of wider interests and experience than is Iago. In the second place the wealth of imagery should be noted as evidenced in the sixth example quoted above. Thirdly, one may note a certain tendency to ex-travagance in language which is quite in keeping with Othello's nationality. In the first Act, then, where the language may sure-ly be said to be native to the speaker, we find the figurative language to be quite in keeping with the character of each of the speakers in that Iago's figures are coarse and sometimes gross while Othello's are loftier in conception and in expres-sion. Let us examine a similar group from the second Act. From Iago's speeches in Act II a great many figures might be chosen but the following eight must serve for the purposes of this essay: (l) "Come on, come on; you are pictures out of doors, Bells in your parlors, wild cats in your kitchens, Saints in your injuries, devils being offended, Players in your housewifery, and housewives in your beds." (Act II,Sc.1,line 108) (2) "My muse labors, And thus she is delivered" (Act II,Sc.1,line 127.) (3) "To change the cod's head for the salmon's tail." (Act II,Sc.1,line 155 ) (4) "With as little a web as this will I ensnare As great a fly as Cassio." (Act II,Sc.1,line 168.) (5) "Her delicate tenderness will find itself, abused, begin to heave the gorge." (Act II,Sc.1,line 234.) (6) " The thought thereof Doth like a poisonous mineral gnaw my inwards." (Act II,Sc.1,line 305.) (7) "He'll be as full of quarrel and offence As my young mistress' dog." (Act II,Sc.3,line 52.) (8) "Even so as one would beat his offenceless dog to frighten an imperious lion." (Act II,Sc.3,line 280.) Once again these selected figures throw some light on the mind and character of Iago. It will be noted in the first place that, of the above group, numbers 1,3,4,7 and 8 are based on the common-place things in nature -- wild-cats, the cod-fish, the spider and fly, and the dog. In the second place one should note that numbers 2,5 and 6 all have a gross bodily significance. The fondness which Iago has for references to the grosser attributes of physical existence has been comment-ed on before and the selected figures from Act II add further weight to the evidence produced earlier in this essay. Let us now select eight of the more obvious and striking figures of speech that come from the mouth of Othello during the course of this same Act. They ares (1) "If afterevery tempest come such calms, May the winds blow till they have wakened death." (Act II,Sc.1,line 186.) (2) "Let the laboring bark climb hills of seas Olympus-high and duck again as low As hell's from heaveni" (Act II,Sc.1,line 188.) (3) "Come, my dear love, The purchase made, the fruits are to ensue." (Act II,Sc.1,line 8.) (4) "The gravity and stillness of your youth The world hath noted." (Act II,Sc.3,line 196.) (5) "What's the matter That you unlace your reputation thus, And spend your rich opinion for the name Of a night-brawler? (Act II,Sc.3,line 211.) (6) "passion having my best judgment colli-Assays to lead the way." ed (Act II,Sc.3,line 211.) (7) "he that is approved in this offence Though he had twinned with me, both at a birth, Shall lose me." (Act II,Sc.3,line 217.) (8) "Sir,for your hurts, myself will be your surgeon." (Act II,Sc.3,line 258.) Once, again, in the figurative language of Othello, we note the variety and richness of expression as particular-ly evidenced in examples 1, 5, and 6. More particularly per-haps in these examples than in those selected from Act I we have evidenced the extravagance such as is found in quotations 2, 4, and 7. In contrast to the figurative language of Iago there is nothing that is gross or even coarse here. Prom the context a sexual reference may easily be read into number 3, but there is even in that a delicacy of expression that is not found in the same kind of figures in the mouth of Iago. We turn now to the comparison of a group of figures selected from Act III. As has been pointed out previously, the Moor here begins to fall under the spell of Iago's tempta-tion. From this point on, the figures even of Othello's speech have to be regarded with suspicion. From Iago's speech in Act III the 8 figures following are selected as the most typical and striking; (1) "Who has a breast so pure But some uncleanly apprehensions Keep l^ pts and law days and in session sit With meditations lawful?" (Act III,Sc.3,line 139.) (2) "Good name in man and woman, dear ray lord, Is the immediate jewel of their soul." (Act III,Sc.3,line 156.) (3) "Riches, fineless is as poor as winter To him that fears he shall be poor." (Act III,Sc.3,line 174.) (4) "Trifles light as air Are to the jealous confirmations strong As proofs of holy writ." (Act III,Sc.3,line 323.) (5) "Dangerous conceits are in their natures poisons, Which at the first are scarce found to distaste, But with a little act upon the blood, Burn like mines of sulphur." (Act III,Sc.3,line 327.) (6) "It is impossible you should see this, Were they prime as goats, as hot as monkeys." (Act III,Sc.3,line 403.) (7) "Witness, you ever burning lights above, You elements that clip us round about." (Act III,Sc.3,line 464.) (8) "I have seen the cannon When it hath blown his ramps into the air, And, like the devil, from his very arm, Puffed his own brother." (Act III,Sc.4,line 132.) It will be seen immediately that in this particular group of figures of speech from Act III there are few eviden-ces of the speaker. The reason for this is quite obvious for throughout the Act Iago is striving for effect and his langu-age is assumed for the occasion. Consciously or unconsciously, as he seeks to entrap Othello in the meshes of his plot, he adopts the language of the Moor and speaks to him, in his own idiom. Of the eight selected figures but two, number 4 and number 6, are distinctly Iagoan in themselves. In number 4 there is a Christian simile that would come aptly from the mouth of a Catholic, "proof of holy writ", while in number 6 there is the characteristic association of beasts with sex that was noted in the first two Acts. Each of the other six fig-ures might equally well have come from the mouth of Othello. The hyperbole of number 8 savors very much of the extravagance of Othello and the "ever burning lights" of number 7 is quite in the idiom of the Moor. In brief then the figurative langu-age of Iago in the third Act tends to lose much of its gross-ness and to assume the outward marks of the language of Othello. It should be noted that six of the selected figures are taken from scenes in which Othello and Iago are both on the stage and are addressed in each case to Othello. Let us now turn to Othello's figures from the same act. The 8 selected are as follows: (1) " Exchange me for a goat, When I shall turn the business of my soul, To such exsufflicate and blown surmises." (Act III,Sc.3,line 181.) "If I do prove her haggard, Though that her jesses were my dear heart-strings I*ld whistle her off and let her down the wind To prey at fortune." (Act III,Sc.3,line 261.) "I had rather he a toad And live upon the vapour of a dungeon, Than keep a corner in the thing I love For other's uses." (Act III,Sc.3,line 271.) "0, now for ever Farewell the tranquil mindI farewell content3 Farewell the plumed troop and the "big wars That make ambition virtue! 0,farewelli Farewell the neighing steed and the shrill trump The spirit-stirring drum, the ear-piercing fife, The royal banner and all quality, Pride, pomp and circumstance of glorious warl And, 0 you mortal engines, whose rude throats The immortal Jove's dread clamours counterfeit, Farewell! Othello's occupation's gone." (Act III,Sc.3,line 348.) "Her name that was as fresh As Dian's visage, is now hegrimed and black As mine own face." (Act III,Sc.3,line 387.) "Arise black vengeance from thy hollow cell.' Yield up, 0 Love, thy crown and hearted throne, To tyrannous hateJ Swell, bosom, with thy fraught For 'tis of aspics' tongues I" (Act III,Sc.3,line 447.) "Like to the Pontic sea Whose icy current and compulsive course Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on To the Propontic and the Hellespont, Even so bloody thoughts, with violent pace, Shall ne'er look back, ne'er ebb to humble love, Tl'll that a capable and wide revenge Swallow them up." (Act III,Sc.3,line 454.) "this hand of yours requires A sequester from liberty, fasting and prayer, Much eaBtigation, exercise devout; For here's a young and sweating devil here, That commonly rebels." (Act III,Sc.4,line 39.) Even as Iago during the act has tempered his figura-tive language with the idiom of Othello, so has the Moor to a more limited degree altered some of his figures to the mood of Iago. The first example above has the reference to the "beast-— to the commonplace animal, the goat,-— that has been noted in the speech of Iago. The third example also has a reference to one of the commoner things in nature, the toad. The other six examples however, are more in the vein of the real Othello. Of them we should note first of all the grandiloquence that is characteristic of such a sustained figure as nuber 4 or num-ber 7. In the second place we should note the variety of sources--- the wide back-ground of knowledge connoted by the figures— for we have falconry, martial life, classical lore, and scientific knowledge used in turn as the basis of a figure of speech. Lastly we should note the exclamatory nature of the selected passages as indicative of the intensity of Othello's feeling at this crisis in his life. Nowhere does Iago reach the intensity of feeling or the beauty of express-ion that is in evidence in these words from the mouth of Othello. In Act IV we note again the inter-action of the fig-urative language of one character upon that of the other. Prom Iago's speech in this act the following figures are sel-ected? (1) "Her honor is an essence that's not seen." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 16.) (2) "Work on. My medicine work.' Thus credulous fools are caught." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 45.) (3) "There's many a "beast then in a populous city, And many a civil monster." w (Act IV,Sc. 1,line 64.) (4) "Where, how, how oft, how long ago and when He hath and is again to cope your wife." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 86.) (5) "If you are so fond over her iniquity, give h-er patent to offend." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 201.) (6) "Speak within door." (Act IV,Sc.2,line 145.) (7) "Why now I see there's mettle in thee; and even from this instant do build on thee a "better op-inion than ever before." (Act IV,Sc.2,line 207.) (8) "Take me from this world with treachery and devise engines for my life." (Act IV,Sc.2,line 220.) In these eight figures there is very little that is striking. By Act IV Iago is convinced that he has entrapped Othello and there is no need for the dissimulation that was noted in Act III. All that need be said of this group is that the figures are all commonplace and prosaic, and touched as usual with grossness and sexuality as in examples 2, 3 and 4. When we turn to Othello's speech in Act IV we find a very much wider field to choose from. Eight of the most striking figures ares (1) " Oi it comes o'er my memory As doth the raven o'er the infected house." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 20.) (2) "A horned man's a monster and a beast." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 63.) (3) "My heart is turned to stone." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 185.) (4) M 0 devil, devilJ If that the earth could teem with woman's tears, Each drop she falls would prove a crocodile." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 249.) (5) " This is a subtle whore, A closet lock and key of villanous secrets." (Act IV,Sc.2,line 21.) (6) " Had it pleased heaven To try me with affliction; had they rained All kinds of sores and shames on my bare head, Steeped me in poverty to the very lips, Given to captivity me and my utmost hopes, I should have found in some part of my soul A drop of patience, but, alas, to make me A fixed figure for the time of scorn To point his slow unmoving finger at! Yet could I bear that too; well, very well: But, there, where I have garner'd up my heart, Where either I must live or bear no life, The fountain from the which my current runs, Or else dries up; to be discarded thence! Or keep it as a cistern for foul toads To knot and gender inI" (Act IV,Sc.2,line 48.) (7) "0,ay; as summer flies are in the shambles That quicken even with blowing." (Act IV,Sc.2,line 67.) (8) " 0, thou public commoner! I should make very forges of my cheeks, That would to cinders burn up modesty, Did I but speak they deeds." (Act IV,Sc.2,line 74.) It requires only a cursory glance at the above figures to note one or two striking changes that have come over the language of Othello now that he has fully succumbed to the temptation of his ensign. In the first places in examples 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 there is an "earthy" basis for part at least of the figure in such words as "raven", "beast", "stone", "crocodile", "foul toads," and "summer flies." This peculiarity of soil-derived figures was noted in Iago's figurative language before but it is new to Othello. This is a further bit of evidence that Othello's speech as well as his mind is poisoned "by Iago. Incidentally it is an excellent example of the skill with which Shakespeare drew his characters, for surely it is not in keeping with human experience that the mind of a man could he changed as Othello's was without affecting his habits of speech. A second peculiarity of the figures selected for Act IV is the comparative coarseness of some of the examples — comparatively coarse, that is -- for Othello. In example 2 there is the reference to the ancient belief regarding cuck-olds, in example 5 a gross and offensive epithet and again in example 8 alk insult based on sexuality. Gone then by Act IV is the delicacy and fineness of Acts I and II. In spite of the Iagoan touches noted above there are two points in regard to this particular group that are still characteristic of Othello, namely, the power of sustaining a figure as in example 6 and the tendency to hyperbole as in ex-ample 4, 7 and 8. In Act V, as in Act it, Iago's figures of speech are comparatively few, but such as they are, they are in the true vein of Iago. (1) "I have rubbed this young quat almost to the sense And he grows angiy." (Act V,Sc.1,line 9.) "And besides the Moor (2) "May unfold me to him." (Act V,Sc.l, line 20.) (3) "Gentlemen all, I do suspect this trash fo "be a party in this injury." [Act V,Sc.1,line 85.) (4) "Do you perceive the gastness of her eyd?" (Act V,Sc.1,line 106.) (5) "Nay guiltiness will speak Though tongues were out of use." (Act V,Sc.l, line 109.) (6) »This is the fruits of whoring." (Act V,Sc.2,line 181.J (7) "Go to, charm your tongue." (Act Y,Sc.2,line 181.) (8) "Filth, thou liest." (ActV,Sc.2,line 229.) Here we have, again,the characteristic coarseness of Iago, which is particularly noticeable in examples 1, 6 and 8. There is, again, also the element of the prosaic and common-place which we have noted in the previously selected figures of speech from Iago. V/hen we turn to the language of Othello in the last act of the play in place of the poverty of figur-ative language that we noted in Iago there is a great wealth. Eight of the most striking figures are: (1) "Minion, your dear lies dead, And your unblest fate hies: strumpet, I comel Forth of my heart those charms, thine eyes, are blotted: Thy bed lust-stain'd shall with lust's blood be spotted." (ActV,Sc.l,line 33.) (2) "Yet I'll not shed her blood, Kor scar that whiter skin of hers than snow And smooth as monumental alabaster." (Act V,Sc.2,line 3.) (3) "When I have plucked the rose I cannot give it vital growth again, It must needs wither: I'll smell it on the tree." (Act V, Sc.2,line 13.) "Had all his hairs been lives, my great revenge Had stomach for them all." (Act V, Sc.2,line 74.) "0 heavy hour! Methinks it should be now a huge eclipse Of s w and moon, and that the affrighted globe Should yawn at alteration." (Act V,Sc.2,line 97.) (6) "Hay, had she "been true, If heaven would make me such another world, Of one entire and perfect chrysolite, I*ld not have sold her for it." (Act V,Sc.2,line 141.) (7) "0 ill-starr'd wenchi Pale as they smock! When we shall meet at compt, Shis look of thine will hurl my soul from heaven, And fiends will snatch at it." (Act V,Sc.2,line 270.) (8) "Then must you speak Of me that loved not wisely hut too well, Of one not easily 4^alous, hut, being wrought, Perplex'd in the extreme; of one whose hand, Like the "base Indian threw a pearl away Richer than all his'tribe; of one whose subdued eyes, Albeit unused to the melting mood, Drop tears as fast as the Arabian trees, Their medicinal gum." (Act V.Sc.2,line 341.) Prom the above arbitrarily selected group of figures some very patent differences are to be noted from the figura-tive language of Iago.' In the first place these particular examples have not the matter-of-fact commonplace quality of Iago's. Such metaphors as "alabaster," "rose," "chrysolite", and "pearl"cannot be found in the whole range of Iago's speech. There is again an exuberance— almost a grandilo-quence-about these figures that is peculiar to Othello. No-where in the play, not even in the third Act, does Iago reach the poetic heights that Othello attains here. There is a coarseness and a violence about the first figure, selected above, that is not characteristic of Othello but is derived from his contact with Iago. It should be noted, however, that towards the end of the act when logo's treachery has been ex-posed there is none of this violence of speech "but rather the natural poetic manner of the true Othello. Prom this act-hy-act comparison of the figurative language of Othello and of Iago certain general characteristics emerge. In the first place there is no gainsaying the fact that on the whole Iago's figures are of a much coarser texture than are Othello's. Conversely, of course, Othello rises to flights of fancy and figure that are never approached "by Iago. In this particular then we have another striking piece of evid-ence of the suiting of language to character, for it would be futile to pretend that Iago is not coarser in mind and heart than Othello. Secondly»there can be noted the change in the qual-ity of the figurative language of each character. This change is most noticeable in Iago's speech in the third Act where, with characteristic duplicity, he avoids the grossness that was evident in Acts I and II and raises the tone of his language to that of his lord. This, of course, is not inconsistent with the idea of a differentiation in language when the dramatic purpose of the change is kept in mind. A comparison of figures taken from Act III alone would not, it is true, show any mark-ed distinction in the idiom of Iago and Othello, but when the » play is looked at as a whole this apparent sameness is seen to be more apparent than real, and at the same time the similarity is dramatically effective. In the case of Othello there is also an ebb and flow during the course of the play. Prom the grandiloquence of a "thrice driven bed of down" of Act I through the "toad, in a dungeon" of Act III and the "public commoner" of Act IV to the lofty figurative language of his last speech, Othello runs the whole gamut of human speech. This again is quite in keeping with the character portrayal, for in the course of the play his feelings and emotions also touch the extremes of human experience. Shakespeare is too great an artist not to reflect, in the language of such a character as Othello, the intensity of his feeling. The third general conclusion to he drawn from the survey of the figures of speech as a whole is the variety of sources that has been noted-in the case of Othello in contrast to the commonplace, prosaic nature of the examples from the speech of Iago. Here, again, is definite evidence of the har-mony of language with character which has been noted in all the comparisons made. The next comparison of groups of words is a very ob-vious one and, at the same time, a very significant one, name-ly a comparison of the nature and frequency of those phrases that have a sexual connotation. Once again this comparison is made act by act, for the same reason that that principle was followed in connection with the figures of speech—namely that the place of occurrence in the play is equally as important as the number of occurrences. From Act I, then, we get the foll-owing group of sex references, from Iago: (1) "An old black ram is tupping your white ewe." (Act I,Sc.1,line 88.) horse" (2) "You'll have your daughter covered with a Barbary (Act I.Sc.1,line 111.) (3) »Your daughter and the Moor are now making the beast with two backs." (Act I,Sc.1,line 177.) (4) "He to-night hath boarded a land carack." (Act I,Sc.2,line 50.) (5) "When she is sated with his body." (Act I,Sc.3,line 357.) (6) "Thou shalt enjoy her." (Act I,Sc.3,line 365.) (7) "If thou canst cuckold him." (Act I,Sc.3,line 375.) (8) " 'Twixt my sheets He has done my office." (Act I,Sc.3,line 393.) There are two very striking points to be noted in connection with this group of quotations. In the first place the number of sexual references that occur in the speech of Iago is sufficiently large to attest the sex-bent of Iago's mind. In the second place there is a grossness about the re-ferences that is characteristic of Iago. No fewer than three of the eight are figures of speech involving the use of ani-mals, indicating the plane on which Iago's thoughts of sex revolve. In direct contrast to this we find, on an examination of Othello's speeches in Act I, but one reference that may be construed into a sexual one, namely, "I therefore beg it not To please the palate of my appetite," (Act I,Sc.3,line 262.) The contrasts are obvious in that the relative number of 1 to 8 is surely an indication of the relative part sex plays in the mind of the two men, and the language of Othello has a re-finement and delicacy that is not evidenced in Iago. Act II shows a very similar result. From the speeches of Iago during this act the following examples are culled: (1) "housewives in your beds." (Act II,Sc.1,line 113.) (2) "You rise to play and go to bed to work." (Act II,Sc.1,line 137.) (3) "Even her folly helped her to an heir." (Act II,Sc.1,line 137.) (4) "When the blood is made dull with the act of sport." (Act II,Sc.1,line 228.) (5) "Lechery, by this hand; an index and obscure prologue to the history of lust." (Act II ,Sc.1,line 261.) (6) "Now I do love her too, Not out of, absolute lust, though peradventure I stand accountant for as great a sin." (Act II,Sc.1,line 299.) (7) "I do suspect the lusty Moor Hath leap'd into ray seat.'] (Act II,Sc.1,line 303.) (8) "I am even'd with him, wife for wife." (Act II,Sc.1,line 307.) (9) "I fear Cassio with my night-cap too." (Act II,Sc.1,line 315.) (10) "He hath not yet made wanton night with her." (Act II,Sc.3,line 16.) (11) "She is sport for Jove." (Act II,Sc.3,line 17.) (12) "Well, happiness to their sheets." (Act II,Sc.3,line 29.) (13) "In terms like bride and groom Divesting them for bed." (Act II,Sc.3,line 185.) (14) "that she repeals him for her body's lust." (Act II,Sc.3,line 369.) Here again in Iago v/e have the characteristics noted in Act I in that expressions with a sexual connotation are fre-quent and, in the second place, are usually gross. In addition to these points already noted we may observe an indirectness of Iago in these speeches. Almost without exception the refer-ence is made through a figure of speech or at least a circumlo-cution. When we turn to Othello's speeches in Act II we find, once more, that such expressions are very rare. In the whole of Act II there is "but one phrase that can "be construed into a sex expression and that is, "Come, ray dear love, The purchase made, the fruits are to ensue." (Act II,Sc.3,line 8.) It might be well to pause here and note at this point in the play the conteast between the language of Iago and of Othello in the matter of references that have a sexual connotation or association. As has been pointed out before, the first two Acts may be said to be the most truly representative of the natural language of each man. After Act II Othello falls under the temptation of Iago and from that point on his thought and language are tainted with lago's thought and speech. In the first two Acts, then, there are two very significant points of contrast. In the first place the comparative frequency of 22 to 2 speaks volumes for the part that sex plays in the minds of these two men. A frequency of 4 or 5 to 1 would have been a striking bit of evidence, but when we discover a proportion of more than 10 to 1 the evidence carries a great deal of weight and shows very definitely that Iago, compared to Othello, is almost sex-ridden. In the second place one should note the refined lan-guage, the delicacy of allusion in the two examples from Othello in contrast to the coarseness of Iago's allusions. Nowhere in Othello is there the bestiality of allusion that can be readily enough found in Iago. By Act III, however, the malicious Iago has poison-ed the mind of his general and from then until the end of the play there is much more nearly an equality in number of such allusions. In Iago's speech in Act III the following refer-ences may be found: (1) "that cuckold lives in bliss Who certain of his fate, loves not his wronger." (Act III,Sc.3,line 168.) (2) "In Venice they do let heaven see the pranks They dare not show their husbands." (Act III,Sc.3,line 203.) (3) "Would you, the supervisor, grossly gape on Behold her tupped." (Act III,Sc.3,line 396.) (4) "If ever mortal eyes do see them bolster More than their own." (Act III,Sc.3,line 400.) (5) "As prime as goats." (Act III,Sc.3,line 404.) (6) "As hot as monkeys." (Act III,Sc.3,line 404.) (7) "As salt as wolves." (Act III,Sc.3,line 405.) (8) "then he laid his leg Over my thigh and. sigh'd and kiss'd." (Act III,Sc.3,line 425.) The same two qualities are again evident in Act III for Iago maintains the frequency and the coarseness of the previous acts. There is one noticeable change, however, in this act, ^ in that Iago becomes much more direct in speech. The moment that he feels that Othello is yielding to the temptation he puts aside circumlocution and figure of speech, For the first time we have the definite references to "cuckold", "behold her tupped", "see them bolster" as well as the characteristic sim-iles drawn from the goat, the monkey and the wolf. As Othello yields to the temptation of Iago we have noted, in the comparison of animal lists and in the comparison of the figures of speech, that a change comes over his vocabul-ary and he adopts much of the idiom of the tempter. Similarly in the case of the sex references we find Othello falling into the idiom of Iago for in Act III therfcare no fewer than 6 ^ such references: (1) "0 curse of marriage, That we can call these delicate creatures ours, And not their appetites! (Act,III, Sc.3,line 269.) (2) "What sense had I of her stolen hours of lust." (Act III,Sc.3,line 339.) (3) "I had been happy, if the general camp, Pioners and all, had tasted her sweet body, So I had nothing known." (Act III,Sc.3,line 346.) (4) "Be sure thou prove my love a whore." (Act III,Sc.3,line 360.) (5) "Give me a living reason she'e disloyal." (Act III,Sc.3,line 410.) (6) "Damn her, lewd minxi 0, damn her! (Act III,Sc.3,line 476.) The first important point to be noted here, of course, is the remarkable increase in the number, for in this one act alone there are 3 times as many such expressions as were found, in the two previous acts. Surely Iago is correct in saying that his poison is beginning to work. There are two points further to be noted. As usual, about some of these references there is a fineness of expression that is characteristic of Othello. ^ There is nothing revolting about "the appetite of these del-icate creatures," or "tasted her sweet body". On the other, hand, though, there is a devastating directness about some of Othello's remarks. Nothing could be more brutally blunt than his challenge to "prove my love a whore", nor is there any mistaking such words as "lust and "lewd". In Act IV once again the comparison is made on a nearly equal basis in so far as numbers are concerned. The s list of sex expressions from lago's lips totals 12. They are as followss (1) "to be naked with her friend a-bed An hour or more." . (Act IV,Sc.1,line 3.) (2) "As knaves be such abroad Who having, by their own importunate suit, Or voluntary dotage of some mistress, Convinced or supplied them, cannot choose, But they must blab." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 25.) (3) "With her, on her, what you will." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 34.) (4) "There *s millions now alive, That nightly lie in those improper beds." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 68.) (5) "To lip a wanton in a secure couch And to suppose her chastei" * (Act IV,Sc.1,line 70.) (6) "Where, how, how oft, how long ago and when He hath and is again to cope your wife." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 86.) (7) "A housewife that "by selling her desires Buys herself bread and clothes." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 95.) (8) "'tis the strumpet's plague To beguile many and be beguiled by one." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 97.) • (9) "She gave it him and he hath given it his whore." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 179.) (10) "The bed she hath contaminated." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 213.) (11) "If thou the next night following enjoy not Desdemona, take me from this world." (Act IV,Sc.2,line 219.) (12) "He sups to-night 'with a harlotry." (Act IV,Sc.2,line 238.) From Othello's speech in this act the following 14 examples are taken: (1) "Naked in bed, Iago, and not mean harm?" (Act IV,Sc.1,line 5.) (2) "She is protectress of her honour too." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 14.) (3) "Lie with her! Lie on her! Lie with her that's fulsome." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 35.) (4) "A horned man's a monster and a beast." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 63.) (5) "Now he tells how she plucked him to my chamber." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 142.) (6) "She might lie by an emperor's side and command him tasks. (Act IV,Sc.1,line 187.) (7) MI will chop her into messes. Cuckold me/" (Act IIP,Sc. 1,line 204.) (8) "Lest her body and her beauty unprovide my mind." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 209.) (9) "Yet she's a simple "bawd." (Act IV,Sc.2iline 20.) (10) "This is a subtle whore." (Act IV,Sc.2,line 21.) (11) "0 thou public commoner." (Act IV,Sc.2,line 74.) (12) "Are you not a strumpet?" (Act IV,Sc.2,line 81.) (13) "Hi/hat, not a whore?" (Act IV,Sc.2,line 87.) (14) "I took you for that cunning whore of Venice That married with Othello." (Act IV,Sc.2,line 90.) In Act IV,then* for the first time there is a greater number of allusions to the.sexual side of man's nature in the speech of Othello than there is in the speech of Iago. This point is particularly important, for it serves to strengthen the evid-ence adduced from a comparison of the figures of speech that during Acts III and IV the language of Othello is as complete-ly contaminated with the idiom of Iago as Othello's eyes are blinded to the machinations of his ensign. The examples quot-ed above from Othello show two very evident bits of influence, particularly examples 1 and 3 where Othello takes the words literally from Iago's mouth as can be seen by referring to examples 1 and 3 from Iago's list. The particular point to be noted is that the phrases originate with Iago, not with Othello. Once again in Act IV there is in Iago's speech an insinuating indirectness and circumlocution such as "selling her desires," "supplied them," "to cope your wife," and "en-joy" but very little of the bald statement such as in example 9 " M B whore" and example 12, "harlotry". In direct contrast to this we find in Othello's speech very little of the indir-ect hut much of plain-speaking that characterizes a man in the heat of passion when pretty phrases are out of tune with the </ mood, A glance through the examples from Othello shows the word "whore" occurring three times, and such brutally "blunt epithets as "bawd", "public commoner", and "stnrumpet". Gone, for the time being, are the fineness of expression and deli-cacy of phrasing that characterized Acts I and II and even cropped up in Act III. This deterioration in the speech of Othello seems to be quite consistent with the characterization for two reasons. In the first place Othello is a man of more refined feeling and deeper passion than lago is. When, then, that strong em-otion is stirred to its very depths what is more fitting than that the language expressing the emotion more vio-lent. We have noted above a characteristic tendency in Othello toward hyperbole in speech so that this violence of language in Act IV is quite in keeping with his other habits of speech. In the second place the comparatively large number of sex re-ferences to be found in the speeches of Othello in Act IV is strong evidence of the depth of Othello's passion. In the open-ing acts we have seen a man In whose mind sex-affairs occupy but a very small part, and then in the third act we have seen that man tortured by the suggestion of his wife's infidelity. Then and there conjugal fidelity, and all that it connotes, be-comes the uppermost thought in his mind. Is there any inconsis-tency here? Rather is it not artistic and skilful revelation of character. Let us turn then to the closing act of the play. In Act V Iago speaks comparatively few lines, yet even these are not free from sex. (1) "0, notable strumpet." (Act V,Sc.1,line 78.) (2) "This is the fruits of whoring." (Act V,Sc.1,line 166.) (3) "Villanous whore." (Act V,Sc.2,line 227.) (4) "Filth, thou liest." (Act V,Sc.2,line 229.) The reason for the fewness of these particular references from Iago's speech in the last act has already been referred to, namely, that in Act V Iago speaks very few lines compared to the usual number assigned to him in the earlier acts. It will be seen also that in this act there is no indirectness in Iago such as there was earlier. The reasons for this are not far to seek, for Iago, first of all, realizes that the need for dissimulation is past. His plan has beenN laid, the trap has been sprung, and there is obviously no necessity for sailing under false colors any longer. Again, during very little of Act V is Iago in company with Othello and it therefore follows that any appearance of a false modesty would be purposeless. When we turn to Othello's speeches in the closing act of the play we find again a goodly number of such refer-ences. They are 10 in number: (1) "Strumpet, I come; The bed lust-stain'd shall with lusts' blood be V ,, ^  5^ ^  , J spotted." (Act V,Sc.1,line 33. ) (2.) "She must die or she'll "betray more men." (Act V,Sc.2,line 6. ) (3) "He hath used thee." (Act V,Sc.2,line 70.) (4) "Out strumpet ! Weep'st thou for him to my face?" (Act V,Sc.2,line 77.) (5) "Down strumpet." (Act V,Sc.2,line 79.) (6) "She turned to folly and she was a whore." (Act V,Sc.2,line 130. ) (7) "She was as false as water." (Act V,Sc.2,line 132.) (8) "Cassio did top her." (Act V,Sc.2,line 134.) (9) Emil. "That she was false to wedlock?" Othello. "Ay, with Cassio.1 (Act V,Sc.2,line 141.) (10) "Iago knows That she with Cassio hath the act of shame A thousand times committed." (Act V,Sc.2,line 208.) The relative frequency of sex allusions in Act V is, then, 4 to 10, with Iago again having the smaller total. This diff-erence in number is not so disproportionate as it seems for Iago's total words in Act V only amount to 672 while Othello uses 1477, or more than double the number of Iago. It would follow from that, then, that a truer representation of the comparison would be indicated in the proportion of 8 to 10. There is little to be added to the conclusions drawn from the examination of the group from Act IV. Here once again we have the directness of "whore' , of "strumpet", on three occasions, and "the act of shame". A'iJrilt1 -Ù^^¿L&tiii^ji'iu -Such is the sum total of sex references for each man. What warrantable conclusions may be drawn from them? There are three very significant facts to be noted. In the first place we may safely say that the subject of sex plays a smaller part in the natural and normal mind of Othello than it does in the mind of Iago for^until Othello begins to doubt his wife's fidelity^there are very few sex allusions to be found in his speech. The fact that from Act III on sex plays a relatively larger part in Othello's thinking is an evidence of the success of Iago's plan as much as it is an evidence of any deterioration in the mind of Othello. On the contrary we must note that in Iago's speech these references begin very early in the play and are more or less evenly scattered throughout its whole course. This is strong presumptive evidence that there is a natural sex-bent to Iago's mind. It may be urged that it is dramatically necessary for Iago to urge these thoughts upon Othello and that the preponderance of such expressions in Iago's speech may be necessary to break down the natural resistance on the part of Othello to enter-taining such a thought. This argument may, in a measure, ac-count for the greater number of Iago's allusions to sex in Act III but it cannot account for the large number of such re-ferences in Acts I and II, for of the 22 sex passages in these acts, one and one only, is spoken in the presence of Othello. Therefore we must conclude that the. e expressions represent a characteristic attitude of mind on the part of Iago that is quite foreign to Othello. As further evidence of this con-elusion it may "be noted that of the first 22 examples that occur in the first two acts no fewer than 4 are taken from Iago's soliloquies, where, surely, we must take his language as the natural expression of his thought. In the second place it is noteworthy that Iago, again displays the coarser and grosser quality of his mind by the frequency of allusions to beasts, as, "an old black ram", "your white ewe", "the beast with two backs", "goats", "mon-keys", "wolves" and "a Barbary horse". This is not a charac-teristic of Othello's speech for, apart from a "horned man's a monster and a beast" of Act IV the word "beast" or the name of a beast is nowhere associated with sex in the speech of Othello. It may be reasoned from this that the sexual rela-tionships of life, and, particularly those of man and wife, are on a higher plane in the mind of Othello. A third warrantable conclusion to be drawn from the examination of these allusions is that Othello has, in his na-ture, more of the barbarian than Iago has. When, under the temptation of Iago, the veneer of civilization is stripped from the Moor we note the brutality of the savage. Of the total of 32 sexual allusions in Othello's speech some 22 are direct, plain,unvarnished and brutal. That these conclusions are in keeping with the char-acters of the two men there is no gainsaying. That Iago is more sexual in his thought, grosser in expression and indirect in thought and word needs no proof and that his language shows these peculiarities is only further proof that in this play KfWf f -53-there is a consistent and noticeable harmony between speech and character. The next groups of expressions to be compared are those that have a classical bearing. The comparison need not detain us long for the lists are not lengthy. In Iago's speech but 2 classical references occurs / X ^ (1) "By Janus, I think no." (Act I,Sc.2,line 33.) and (2) "She is sport for Jove." (Act II,Sc.3,line 17.) In Othello's speech there are 7: (1) "The cannibals that each other eat, The Anthropophagi." (Act I,Sc.3,line 143.) (2) "the light-wing'd toys Of feather'd Cupid." (Act I,Sc.3,line 269.) (3) "Let the laboring bark climb hills of seas 0lympu s-hi gh." (Act II,Sc.2,line 189.) (4) "The immortal Jove's dread clamours counterfeit," (Act III,Sc.3,line 357.) (5) "Her name that was as fresh As Dian's visage." (Act III,Sc.3,line 387.) (6) "A sibyll sewed the work." (Act III,Sc.4,line 70.) (7) "I know not where is that Promethean heat." (Act V,Sc.2,line 12.) Once again the comparison lends weight to the statement that the actual language of each man is in harmony with his charac-ter, In this instance we have Othello, a man of rank, and ^ therefore presumably of regular and formal education, using 7 expressions that denote some classical learning while Iago, a young officer of no particular rank, uses but 2. If Othello*s total-be modified in the usual way by multiplying by 1.31 the difference is even more striking. The mere num-ber is, perhaps, not so significant as the variety of classical lore implied in the references made by Othello. In Iago's speech are two very common-place classical allusions---- to Janus and to Jove,-- but in Othello we have the allusion to the Anthropaphagi derived from Herodotus (note Arden text pg.58.) and the reference to "Promethean heat" neither of which ^ can be classed as common-place or ordinary knowledge. There is, however, something particularly fitting in the deceitful Iago swearing by tHe two-faced god, Janus that rather echoes Gratiano's use in The Merchant of Venice. The last comparison of word-groups is, like that of the figures of speech, no.t an exhaustive one, for it deals with slang, cant and colloquial phrases as they appear in the voc-abularies of the two men. The reason why this list is not ex-haustive is the very obvious one that it is now almost imposs-ible to say just what words and phrases were slang at that time. Probablj no single type of expression is so ephemeral, so given to sudden change as the trite slang expression. That Shakespeare himself was familiar with the argot of the London streets is amply evidenced by a single reading of the part of, say, Palstaff or of Pistol. The language of the "groundlings", however well it might come from the mouths of Prince Hal' s tin-Official retinue, does not suit the character of either the Florentine, Xago, or of the Moor, Othello, so that, while the Saformal speech, of these two men has not the obviously London tcmeh nox the Gheapside idiom of the Falstaff group, there are some expressions of a slang nature that are worthy of note. In the first act there are several expressions in the speech of Iago that are rather definitely marked as colloquial or slang expressions! "This counter-caster." (1 (2 (3 U (5 (6 (7 (8 (9 (10 (11 (Act I,Sc.1,line 31.) "Whip me such honest knaves." (Act I,Sc.1,line 49.) "They have lined their coats." (Act I,Sc.1,line 53.) "Make after him." (Act I,Sc.1,line 68.) "Even now, now, very now— " (Act I,Sc.1,line 88.) "Virtue, a fig" (Act I,Sc.3,line 321.) «Traverse, go provide thy money." (Act I,Sc.3,line 379.) "Go to farewell—Do you hear, Roderigo?" (Act I,Sc.3,line 384.) "Go to-—farewell, put money enough in your purse." (Act I,Sc.3,line 388.) "If I would time expend with such a snipe." (Act I,Sc.3,line 391.) "As tenderly led by the nose As asses are." (Act I,Sc.3,line 408.) Several of these expressions require no comment as they are obviously slang expressions one in fact "lined their coats" has its modern equivalent in "lined their pockets". Similarly "led by the nose" still survives as a trite saying even though ft halt the authority of a Greek source« (a) Some of the ex-(a) Used in English hy 1583— The Hew English Dictionary VI-140- cites Golding-Calvin on Deuteronomy CXXI; "Men suffer themselves to bee led hy the noses like brute "beasts." preesions, however, are not so obviously informal as the two above mentioned. "Make after him" is probably, still, a pro-vincialism in certain parts of rural England, (b) Of the col-(b) The Arden Shakespeare —Othello—footnote page 10. loquial nature of some of the other expressions the evidence is not so certain. The use of the dative as illustrated in "whip me such honest knaves" has an informality about it though one would hesitate to class the expression as a colloquialism. It is significant that Casca, when he "puts on his tardy form" in the opening act of Julius Caesar, uses his only dative in the expression, "he plucked me ope his doublet". Similarly Iago's use of "fig" as a worthless thing has the sanction of literary use from the time of Chaucer (c) and may therefore be consid-(c) Used in The Court of Love—formerly attributed to Chaucer but rejected by Skeat— "a figge for all her chastitie" line 685. Also used in The Gest Hystoriale of the Destruction of Troy, "He fortherit neuer a fyge with his fight yet."line 12206 ered as classically correct, but there is little doubt that Iago picked up the expression from the common argot of the day and not from literary sources. The word "snipe" as a synonym for "fool" also has a wide usage in literature but surely one must class it as a colloquialism on a par with our modern use of "goose". The important thing to note, however, is the re-lative frequency of occurrence of expressions of a slang or colloquial nature in Iago's speech. When we turn to the language of Othello in Act I we JS'aLi" ! -note quite a different state of affairs for here a close ex-amination reveals only 2 examples: (1) "Have with you." (Act I,Sc.2,line 53.) (2) "That heaven had made her such a man." (Act I,Sc.3,line 162.) and of these the second is very doubtful dative in fact a great many authorities prefer to read "her" as an accusative. The conclusion to "be drawn from this comparison for Act I where the two men are speaking, each in his own tongue, is so obvious that "he who runs may read". In numbers alone there is surely some significance when Iago uses 11 such ex-pressions to Othello's 2. There is also the usual Iagoan earthy touch in "snipe", "fig" and "led by the nose" which is v" not apparent in the language of Othello. An examination of similar expressions to be found in Act II adds further weight to the conclusions drawn from ActI, for again we find slang, colloquial or trite sayings relatively frequent in Iago and comparatively rare in Othello. Of the more obvious examples to be found in the speech of Iago are: (1) "It is true or else I am a Turk." (Act II,Sc.1,line 14.) (2) "To change the cod's head for the salmon's tail." (Act II,Sc.1,line 155.) (3) "To suckle fools and chronicle small beer." (Act II,Sc.1,line 160.) (4) "Mark me with what violence she first loved the Moor" (Act II,Sc.1,line 223.) (5) "Begin to heave the gorge." (Act II,Sc.1,line 235.) i (6) "Blest fig's end." (Act II,Sc.1,line 255.) (7) "Pish."' (Act II,Sc.1,line 268.) (8) "I'll have our Michael Cassio on the hip." (Act II,Sc.1,line 313.) (9) "I fear Cassio with ray night-cap too." (Act II,Sc.1,line 315.) (10) "I'll warrant her full of game." (Act II,Sc.3,line 19.) (11) "Your swag-bellied Hollander." (Act II,Sc.3,line 80.) (12) "He drinks you with facility your Dane dead drunk." (Act II,Sc.3,line 83.) (13) "I'll set her on." (Act II,Sc.3,line 397.) (14) "And "bring him jump when he may Cassio find Soliciting his wife." (Act II,Sc.3,line 399.) There are one or two points in connection with this group that are worth noting in that they add weight to the evidence al-ready adduced as to the grossness and "earthiness" of Iago's idiom. In the first place there is the earthy quality of Iago's speech exemplified in "the cod's head and salmon's tail? again we have the "fig" as a synonym for worthless. Then there is the ever-present sex tinge suggested in "night-cap" with its implications and I think it quite permissible to read a sexual implication into "full of game" though, of course, it may be simply the equivalent of our modern, "full of pep." In the third place there comes in again the grossness of body functions already touched upon in the comment on "clyster-pipes" and "coloquintida". Here, however, it is more direct in »heave the gorge" and "swag-bellied". As already noted in Act I we have the informal dative use in "mark me" and "he drinks you". The other examples selected from Act II do not lend themselves to any particular grouping. "Pish" for exam-ple has no particular meaning or connotation, while "on the hip", "small beer", "I am a Turk", "bring him jump", and "set her on", are merely the commonplace colloquialisms of the day. It is worthy of note in passing that Iago gives us the only example in Shakespeare of the expression, "dead drunk". Othello on the other hand offers very little field for examination in this regard as his vocabulary is remarkably free from such expressions. Only 3 examples are found in the whole of Act II, namely: (1) "Honey, you shall be well desired in Cyprus." (Act II,Sc.1,line 205.) (2) "Give me to know." (Act II,Sc.3,line 214.) (3) "All's well now, sweeting." (Act II,Sc.3,line 257.) Very little need be said of this list. The shortness of it speaks for itself, while of the 3 examples quoted, 2 are terms of endearment addressed to his wife. It has already been noted that the speech of Iago in Act III is unusually circumspect for him. Since the great ma-jority of his lines in this act are spoken in the presence of Othello, Iago speaks with a restraint and a dignity that is not apparent in the first two acts. Because he is assuming this propriety of speech it followsthat there are fewer express-ions of a slang nature than there were in Act I or Act II. I • feer© are "but 5 expressions that could properly "be classed as slang or colloquial. (1) "Why, go to then." (Act III,Sc.3,line 209.) (2) "FohJ one may smell in such, a will most rank." (Act III,Sc.3,line 234.) (3) "How now, what do you here alone." (Act III,Sc.3,line 301) (4) "Why, how now, general." (Act III,Sc.3,line 335.) (5) "How now, my Lord." (Act III,Sc.3,line 338.) Obviously there is nothing of a significant nature in these examples, for they are quite innocuous as Iago intended them to "be. In addition to these 5 examples of colloquialisms per-haps we should note two rather unusual constructions: (1) "I humbly do beseech you of your pardon." (Act III,Sc.3,line 213.) and(2) "I do repent me that I put it to you." (Act III,Sc.3,line 393.) To the first of these it is pointed out in the Arden text (note pg.140) "There is no exact parrallel", but somewhat sim-ilar lines in A Misdummer night's Dream Act II,Sc.1,line 183, and in As You Like It Act IV,Sc.IV,line 56, are spoken by \ • clowns whose language is meant to be defective. Perhaps then this line should be classed as a colloquial expression. In the second example, "me" has almost the force of the ethic dative which we have classed as colloquial in Acts I and II. The language of Othello, as has been noted in con-nection with the comparison of invectives and also in the comparison of figures of speech undergoes a deterioration in yi ,. , f Acts III and IY. This is not apparent in the matter of col-f loquialisms. There are hut 3 examples in the whole of Act III and strangely enough all are terms of endearment addressed to Desdemona—a characteristic that has already been noted in Act II. The examples are, (1) "The sooner, sweet, for you." (Act III,Sc.3,line 58.) (2) "Excellent wretch." (Act III,Sc.3,line 91.) (3) "What promise, chuck?" (Act III,Sc.4,line 48.) From such slight bits of evidence any generalization would be of doubtful worth. In Act IV Iago again uses more of these colloquial enpressions than Othello does for there are 7 obvious cases to be found in the speech of the Florentine and only 4 in the language of the Moor. Those from the speech of Iago are list-ed below: (1) "I am a very villain else." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 127.) (2) "Go to--say no more." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 172.) (3) "Fie, there is no such man." (Act IV,Sc.2,line 135.) (4) "Speak within door." (Act IV,Sc.2,line 145.) (5) "You are a fool, go to!" (Act IV,Sc.2,line 148.) (6) "How now, Roderigo." (Act IV,Sc.2,line 173.) (7) "Well—go to—veiy well." (Act IV,Sc.2,line 194.) íl From Othello 1s speech in Act IV the following 4 examples are culled: (1) "PishI noses, ears and lips." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 42.) (2) "Go to well said." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 115.) (3) "Hang her, I do Taut say what she is." (Act IV,Sc.1,line 191.) (4) "Pray, chuck, come hither." (Act IV,Sc.2,line 24.) Once again the Florentine offers the wider range and content of colloquial and slang expressions, "but there is no signifi-cance beyond the mere numbers. In Act V the examples of informality in language are not numerous. 2 examples may be quoted from lago: (1) "I have rubbed this young quat almost to the sense." (Act V,Sc.1,line 11.) (2) "The gold and jewels I bobbed from him." (Act V,Sc.1,line 16.) and from Othello only 1, I / (1) "Every puny whipster gets my sword." (Act V,Sc.2,line 242.) From this examination of colloquial, slang, trite and informal expressions two important bits of evidence may be adduced. In the first place the comparative totals offer food for thought, for Iago's speech supplies 42 illustrations while Othello's only yields 13. Even after weighting Othello's total by the index 1.31 the proportion of slang phrases in lago is more than 2 to 1 in comparison with Othello. This proportion is higher even than that yielded by the comparison of invectives, and naturally so, for the habit of trite, pithy speech is much less easily acquired than the habit of blas-phemy or cursing. It is noteworthy that in the case of swear-ing and in the case of sex-references there was a marked in-crease in Othello's contribution after Act III, while in this case there is no noticeable increase. In the second place, in addition to difference in frequency there is also a difference in quality; for while we have the characteristic Iagoan touch of grossness, as in "heave the gorge" and "quat" and such expressions, we also have the usual refinement of Othello. It is quite character-istic of Othello that half of his expressions are terms of en-dearment addressed to Desdemona such as "chuck", "sweeting", and "honey". In summarizing the results of these comparisons of groups of words we may safely draw 2 conclusions: (1) In all the groups compared Iago proves himself coarser in mind and in expression than Othello. , (2) In all the groups compared, with the exception of the last one, there is a marked effect of Iago's malice evident in the speedh of Othello. Both of these conclusions are quite in line with the results of the earlier comparisons, and therefore both these conclus-sions tend to support the contention that the language of the Florentine and of the Moor is, in each case, a revelation of character, or, to use Schucking's phrase again, "there is a harmony between language and character." COMPARISON OP BLANK VERSE AND PROSE. Closely allied to the question of figures of speech there is the problem of Othello's and Iago's use of blank verse and prose. This comparison again suggests an examination of the use of the rhymed couplet as made by each character. And, finally, some light may be throvm on the whole question of com-parative idiom by an examination of the sentence structure em-ployed by each of the men. Once, again, certain arbitrary rules of selection have to be stated to give the proper meaning to the figures set forth. In the first comparison, that of blank verse and prose, the comparison has been made on the number of words used rather than on the usual method of. number of lines. This particular method has been adopted to avoid the necessity of dealing either with part lines and fractions, or of classing all part-line speeches as full lines. Either of the latter methods is clumsy and perhaps unreliable. The matter of selecting prose passages would seem to offer very little difficulty, and yet there are some small passages that did offer a rather thorny problem. Act V, Sc.3,line 206 will serve as an example of the particular difficulty of grading certain passages as prose or verse. Iago's speech in line 205, "Is not to leave't undone but keep't unknown", is metrically complete and so is his next speech in line 207, "She did deceive her father, marrying you?" but'be-tween these speeches Othello interject, "Dost thou say so?" Ob-Viou&ly this is not a complete metrical line; but, since it has a regular rhythm and occurs in the course of a sustained piece of blank ^erse, it and such other lines' as occur of a similar nature, have been included as verse. Similarly a monosyllabic interjection in a sustained passage of blank verse has not been classed as prose but as verse, as Othello's exclamation of "Hum" in Act V, Sc.2, line 36. Conversely short part-line speeches in the course of a sustained prose passage have been classed as prose. In a word the comparison in this particular has been made on the basis of sustained blank verse as opposed to sustained prose. For the whole play the comparison shows a very not-iceable contrast. Of Iago's 8173 words no fewer than 2228 occur in prose passages while 5885 are spoken in verse. Othello on the other hand uses but 366 words in prose in a total of 6239 words spoken. If these figures are reduced to a percentage of the total words spoken the contrast becomes even, more apparent, for we find that Iago's prose amounts to almost 28% of his speech, while Othello's totals only 5.8^. In other words Iago's relative percentage of prose to verse is almost 5 times that of Othello. This is such' a wide di-vergence that it suggests some further examination to ascer-tain, if possible, the reasons for it and the bearing that it has upon the revelation of character. Perhaps this may be .best done by a.brief examination of the more striking prose passages with a view to examining the dramatic purpose served by each and the light each throws upon the mind and character of the speaker. The first important prose speech of lago's occurs in the opening Scene, beginning at line 108: "bounds, Sir, you are one of those that will not serre God if the devil bids you. Because we come to do you service and you think we are ruffians, you'll have your daughter covered with a Barbary horse; you'll have your nephews neigh to you; you'll have coursers for cousins, and gennets for germans." There are 2 reasons 7/hy this speech of lago's should be in prose. In the first place the thought content and suggestion are of such a coarse nature that prose is the only suitable vehicle for their expression. The coarseness is characteristic of the speaker. In the second place there is a dramatic pur-pose behind the prose in that Iago wishes to arouse Brabantio's ire and he makes his screech as brutal and as coarse as he can to achieve this end. Prose is the most fitting means of re-vealing this coarseness. It is worth noting that once Bra-bantio leaves the stage Iago immediately resumes blank verse in line 145, The second long prose passage in Iago'also occurs in Act I,Sc.3, commencing at line 311. Here begins the fam-ous dialogue with Roderigo. The pussage is a lengthy one and need not be quoted in full, but lago's first spcech will serve as an example of the texture of the whole: "0 villanousi I have looked upon the world for four times seven years; and since I could distinguish betwixt a benefit and an injury, I never found man that knew how to love himself. Ere I would say I would drown myself for the love of a guinea-hen, I would change my humanity with a baboon" Here again as in the first example there is a grossness about the thought and the expression that is more fittingly rend-ered in pros© than in verse. This coarseness of thought is continued throughout the dialogue. From the standpoint of drsuaatic purpose this speech is rather different from the ex-ample quoted above. This speech is a typical example of Iagofs assumption of prose for definite purpose. Here Iago is reasoning with Roderigo and he takes on the prose form to make himself appear in the light of a plain, blunt, outspoken fellow. Prose gives the effect of cold logical reasoning : rather than a heated emotionalism and it is precisely this die-passionate atmosphere that "Iago wishes to cultivate. In con-trast to this particular passage one may cite the opening speech of Iago where he inveighs against Cassio's preferment. In this case Iago is emotionally stirred and wishes his hearer to appreciate that fact, so he speaks in blank verse the logi-cal vehicle for the expression of feeling. It is evident, though, that these lines, while they have the outward form of verse are prosy in quality. As soon as Roderigo leaves the stage following this dialogue Iago reverts to the use of blank verse in his soliloquy beginning, "Thus do I ever make my fool my purse," for all need of an appearance of cold intellectual reasoning has disappeared. The first prose speech of Iago in Act II occurs in an aside beginning at line 167: HHe takes her by the palip: well said, whisper: with as little a web as this will I ensnare as great a fly as Cassio. Ay,' smile upon her, do; I will gyve thee in thine courtship. You say true; 'tis so indeed: if such tricks as strip you out of your lieutenantcy, it had been better you had not kissed your three fingers so oft, which now again you are most apt to play the Sir in. Very good; well kissed! an excellent courtesy! tis so indeed. Yet again your fingers to your lips? Would they were clyster-pipes for your sake!" There seems to be little dramatic reason for putting this speech in prose save that characteristic coarseness of thought we have noted in the 2 examples from the opening Act. Since the speech is spoken in an aside Iago can have no purpose of dissimulation here as he had in the previous examples. The next important prose speech from lago's lips is once more in a dialogue with Roderigo, commencing .^ct II Sc. 1,line 214, "Do thou meet me presently at the harbour1', and continuing to Roderigo's exit at line 293. This long speech has the same characteristics that we noted of the provious dialogue with Roderigo in that it is marked by coarseness of thought and speech and yet at the same time it has an intellectual subtlety about it that is very characteristic of Iago. Once again Iago soliloquizes in blank verse the moment he is left alone on the stage: . "That Cassio loves her I do well believe it" (ii.ct II, Sc.1,line 294.) In the third scene of Act II we again find Iago speaking in prose beginning at line 13: "Not this hour, lieut-enant; tis not yet ten o'the clock" and continuing, to Cassio's exit at line 49. He resumes proce again at line 70 and, apart from his song, continues in prose until Cassio again leaves the stage at line 124. As Cassio and he are again alone on the stage following line 263, Iago again uses the prose form of speech until Cassio finally goes off stage at line 343. This summary of the use of prose by Iago during the scene suggests immediately that he has a very definite purpose in his mind. Xt is very apparent from the occurrences outlined above that this purpose has some relation to the effect Iago wished to produce upon Cassio since all the prose used is in his speech with Cassio. Once again then we have evidence of the subtlety of lago's character.« He wishes in the first place to impress upon Cassio his assumed character of a blunt, out-spoken and honest friend-- and what is more conducive to that end than the use of plain homely prose? Of greater importance i£ the desire of Iago to convince Cassio by the appearance of plain straight-forward reasoning, ^s he seeks to lead Cassio into his trap, which is also to destroy Othello's faith in Desdemona'c fidel-ity, Iago uses the dispassionate prose form. There is no in-passioned rhetoric, no fire of feeling in frenzied strophes but the apparently cold, logical reasoning of a thinking man. "Reputation'is an idle and most false imposition", is the text of his speech and he reasons with Cassio on how the latter may regain his place in the regard of his general. How much more suitable to his purpose is prose than poetry and how infinite-ly more subtle. Before leaving this scene we should note a-gain the coarseness of much of the allusion to be found in these passages. The "clyster-pipes", "ieave the gorge" and "vomit" are typically Iagoan touches. We have noted above that dtiring the course of Act III, particularly in the use of figurative language, Iago definitely models his speech upon that of Othello and the same fact is again evident in that in Act III Iago uses no prose. Most of lago's speech in the course of this act is in dialogue with Othello and since, up to this point in the play, Othello has used no prose at all, Iago in his copying of the Moor's idiom speaks always in "blank verse. Once more there is evidence, though- of a negative kind, of the conscious duplicity of Iago. In Act IV we have the first prose from the lips of Othello, "beginning at line 35: "Lie with her! lie with her!-- V/e say lie on her when they "belie her. lie with her! that's fulsome! Handker-chief—confessions—handkerchief! To confess and "be hanged, and then to confess; I tremble at it. Nature would not invest herself in such shadowing passion without some instruction. It is not words that shake me thus. Pish! Hoses, ears and lips. Ie't possible?--confess?—Handkerchief?--0 devil" (falls in a trance). We need not look very far for an explanation of this speech for surely it is suggested in the stage direction which follows, "Falls in a trance". this point in the play Othello is in a frenzy and his words pour forth in disjointed bursts. His thoughts are in a chaotic disarray and his lan- « guage is correspondingly disjointed and obscure. There is unquestionably great depth of feeling here but it is a frenzy of feeling that pours forth in abrupt and broken prose rather than in the stately measure of blank verse. II. C. Hart even goes so far as to describe these lines as "the disjointed rav-vings of one on the confines-of insanity", (a) -Ca) The Arden Shakespeare-rOthello--page 181-footnote. In the matter of invective and of figurative language v/e have noted above that by Act IV Othello has come under the spell of Iago to, such an extent that his language reflects the idiom of his tempter. The same truth is apparent in the use of prose for in Act IV occurs the whole sum prose from the mouth of Othello. We have noted the first occasion in the previous paragraph. The next is a more sustained effort "be-ginning at line 119, "Do you triumph, Roman? do you triumph?" and continuing through Othello's speeches to line 222 after the entrance of Lodovico. This whole scction of Othello's speech is i© an aside, in comment on the dialogue between Cassio and Iago on the subject of Bianca's infatuation for the Florentine, .as has been noted of previous prose passages there is much that is gross and coarse in: these lines—but here it is direct .infection from Iago and not in the vein of the true Othello. The dramatic purpose of the prose is not so evident here sis in Othello's first speech. Hay it not be simply Shakespeare's device to indicate how completely Othello has succumbed to his tempter? V/e have already noted in- almost all the other com-parisons that the vocabulary of Othello becomes tainted" after Act III,and so it is here. Othello merely picks up the idiom of Cassio and Iago as they speak. It is also significant that, when Cassio has left the stage after line 173, Othello contin-ues the dialogue with Iago in proce. This is also the first occasion where Iago dofcs not speak in blank verse in Othello's presence. There is, of course, a great deal of intense passion In the latter part of the dialogue which lends itself to ex-pression in strong and rugged prose as in lines 184--1S9: Othello "Ay»' let her rot and perish and be damned to-night; for she will not live: no, my heart is turned to stone: I strike it and it hurts my hand. 0, the world hath not a sweet-er creature: she might lie by an emperor's side, and command M m tasks" After the dialogue with Iago from which the above excerpt is quoted Othello does not speak again in prose. That is to say the sum total of Othello's prose is to be found in the fourth act of the play where he is most directly under the influence of Iago, It is noteworthy that all of Othello's prose is spok the presence of Iago while only a small part approximate ly one-sixth of the latter's prose is spoken in the presence of the former. In passing we may note too that even in this act Iago uses at least one-third more prose than Othello. The last important prose utterance of Iago occurs in Act IV also. As in Act I and .act II a dialogue with Roderigo is the occasion for its use. Jrom line 175 of the second scene of Act IV to the end of the ccene, line 250, all of Iago's speeches .are in prose. Just as was the case in the other similar dialogues referred to above, the subject natter 'of this dialogue is essentially a matter of the head and not of the heart. Here again Iago is appealing to Roderigo!s in-telligence rather than to the emotional side of his-nature. He therefore selects uprose with its apparent plain simplicity 'as the vehicle for his thoughts. ' The passage is again marred by the occasional gross reference. Such then, is the comparison in the matter of the use made by each character of prose and of blank verse. '.That, now, are the inferences to be drawn from the examination? In the case of Othello the conclusions are obvious: (l) Blank verse is his natural and characteristic mode of. expression as evidenced by the fact that he uses no prose until Act IV and then it io used in the presence of, and in conversation with Iago, V/e are justified then in concluding that prose with Othello is "unnatural" and is direct-ly resultant from his contact with Iago. (2) In the first use that Othello makes of prose he is so confused and frenzied that he can hardly "be held to "be responsible for his language. ^ In thè case of Iago the conclusions to "be drawn from an examination are not so plain "but there are 5 such inferen-ces: (1) The fact that lago's prose is scattered through-out the play and is not, as Othello's is, con-fined to one act leads us to believe that it is ^ "native" to Iago while it is not so to Othello. (2) We have noted in our examinations of various speeches that there is usually a very definite „, " ' motive for each use that he makes of prose. (3) Practically all of lago's prose is tinged with coarseness and grò senese even to the verge of ' bestiality. (4) The variety of reasons that may be assigned for the use of prose by Iago—i.e. an apparent candor, an apparsnt bluffness, and above all the appar-ent dispassionate logic--all these suggest an in- • tellectual subtlety, a duplicity about Iago that is in marked contrast to the natural simplicity, one is almost tempted to say gullibility, of Othello. (5) Prom the fact that all of lago's soliloquies are in blank verse it may be assumed that this is his normal form of speech. His prose then is not a normal but an assumed speech habit and a form of speech which he adopts always with a definite end in view. Prom a consideration of the relative amounts of prose and blank verse one is led, naturally, to a comparison of the frequency of rhymed couplets in the speech of each of these men. In the course of the whole play Othello uses but 4 rhymed coup-lets while Iago makes use of 18. This does not include'thè.. 3 , songs.which lago sings during Act II, for they are not "orig-inal" with him. These totals .would seem to suggest some very marked difference between the two men in the employment of the trhyming couplet. Before any conclusion can be drawn we rajist examiné these ûccurrënces to see the situation and dramatic purpose of each use. In Othello's speech the following couplets are used: "The purchase made the fruits are to ensue; The profits yet to come 'twixt me and you" (Act II,Sc.Ill,line 9.) "Come Desdemona: 'tis the soldiers life To have their balmy slumbers waked with strife" (Act II,Sc.Ill,line 262.) "Forth of my heart those charms, thine eyes are blotted Thy bed lust-stain'd shall with lust's blood be spotted" (Act Y,Sc.1,line 35.) "I kissed thee ©re I kill'd theejno way but this Killing myself, to die upon a kiss." (Act Y,Sc.11,line 356.) (a) (a) This total does not include Act V,Sc.ii,lines 339—40 "TShen you shall these unlucky deeds relate Speak of me as I am nothing extenuate" Here we have the appearance of a rhymed couplet but the metre of the second line seems to make the last syllable a feminine ending. There is nothing striking or at all unusual about the couplet in the mouth of Othello. 2 of the examples precede Act III and are therefore not subject to the suspicion that they really originate with lago as so much of Othello's speech does. In the second place the dramatic purpose of each couplet is obvious. The first use immediately precedes the stage di-rection "Exeunt Othello, Desdemona, and attendants", similarly the second example quoted above is followed by à stage direct-ion "Exeunt all "but Iago and Cassio". A gain in the third ex-ample the lines immediately precede Othello's exit from the stage. The fourth example is, of course, Othello's final speech. There is, therefore, only this to "be said of Othello's rhyming couplets that they are in keeping with the stage tradition of the Elizabethan use of blank verse which called for the use of a jingle to close a scene or mark an important exit. In a word the examination of this particular item in the idiom of Othello reveals nothing that is at all a revelation of the character of the speaker. What then can be said of the use of similar constructions in the speech of Iago? The complete list of couplets, with the exception noted above(a) is as follows: la) The songs--see page 84. * « "I have't. It is engender1d. Hell and night Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's light (Act I,Sc.Ill,line 40.) "Hay it is true, or else I am a Turk, You rise to play and go to bed to work". (Act II,Sc.1,line 114.) . "If she be-fair and wide, fairness and wit, The one's for use, the other useth it" (Act II,Sc.1,line 129.) "If she be black and thereto have a wit, She'll find a white that shall her blackness fit" • - - (.net II,Sc. 1,line 132.) "She never yet was foolish that was fair, For even*her folly helped her to an heir" (net II,Sc.1,line 136.) "Ehere's none so fond and foolish thereunto But does foul, pranks, which fair and wise ones do." • (Act II,Sc.1,line 141.) "She that was ever fair and proud, Had tongue at will and yet was never loud, ITever lack'd gold and yet went never gay, Pled"from her wish and yet Laid, "How I may"; She that, "being anger'd, her revenge "being nigh, Bade her wrong stay and her displeasure fly; She that in widdom never was so"frail To change the cod's head for the salmon's tail; She that could think and ne'er disclose her mind, See suitors following and not look "behind; She was a wight, if ever such wight were,--To suckle fools and chronicle small beer. (Act II,Sc.1,line 148.) "Tis here but yet confused Knavery's plain face is never seen till used." Uct II,Sc.Ill,line 319.) "If consequence do but approve my dream, My boat sails freely, both with wind and stream". («.et II*Sc.Ill,line 64.) "He may Cassio find Soliciting his wife; ay, that's the way; Dull not device by coldness and delay." Uct II,Sc.Ill,line 40.) "I am to pray you not to strain my speech To grosser issues nor to larger reach Than to suspicion." Uct III,Sc.Ill,line 219.) ,"I thank you for this profit, and from hence I'll love no friend, sith love breeds such offence." Uct III,be.111.line 330.) "Will you go on afore? (aside) This is the night That either makes me or fordoes me quite." Uct V,UJ.l,line 128.) It will be seen from the above table that lago's use of the rhyming couplet is, like Othello's traditional except that Iago follows two traditions in place of one. Of the above list all the examples from 2 to 7 inclusive follow the custom of expressing proverbial sayings in the couplet jingle. The subject matter of the passage with its sexual connotations and inference is typical of Iago and characterises him as gross in thought and speech. The remaining couplets follow the other dramatic con-vention, as in the case of Othello, in that they usually mark an important exit or scene close. The first example concludes the third scene of .act I, while the eighth is the conclusion of the opening scene of ^ct II. The ninth example is ig rather a different category though it serves a similar dramatic pur-pose in marking an important "break in the continuity of the dialogue. This particular couolet ends Iago's famous soliloquy beginning "If I can fasten "but one cup upon him" and immediate-ly precedes the re-entrance of Cascio. similarly the tenth quotation above ends a soliloquy of Iago but in this case it also serves us an act and xcene ending as well. The couplet, "I am to pray you not to strain my speech •To grosser issues nor to larger reach Than to suspicion" (,kct III, uc. 3,line 219.) is the sole exam tie, (a) to be found in Iago's speech where la) it we except an eye-rhymed couplet "Here, stand behind this bulk; straight will he come, Wear thy good rapier bare, and put it home." (rtct V,Sc.1,line 1.) there is no dramatic purpose in the use of a couplet a r it marks no break in the flow of the dialogue nor does it indicate the entrance or exit of a character. Y/e are safe in classing this particular example as a mere accidental rhyming, ^n in-telligent reading of the lines would certainly not emphasise the rhyming words, for neither punctuation nor cense suggests a pause at the end of the lines. The next occasion upon which Iago uses a couplet has a very particular dramatic value. Othello has expressed a doubt as to the reliability of Iago's information and, with his characteristic duplicity, the latter immediately protests that his honor and his honesty have been maligned concluding with the wordsi "I thank you for this profit, and from hence I'll love no friend sith love breeds such offence". (Act III,Sc.3,line 380.) This couplet gives an air of finality to Iago's utterance that is dramatically very effective. The couplet would suggest a feigned exit by Iago--a suggestion which is strengthened by Othello's next speech, "Hay, stay:" The last couplet used by Iago is found in Act V. Here in scene 1 at line 1:^ 8 we find, "Will you go on afore.,? (aside) This is the night That either makes me or fordoes me quite." This couplet is the usual end traditional scene ending. From this brief examination of the uses made of the rhyming couplet by Iago and by Othello 2 facts emerge. (1) In the first place both characters use the coup-let to mark a scene ending or to mark an abrupt change in the flow of the dialogue usually caus-ed by the entrance or exit of an important char-acter. This part:cu]ar use is, of course, trad-itional and therefore cannot be said to throw any light on the characters of the respective . speakers. (2) In the second place the long passage from Act II, quoted above, does throw some light on the character of Iago. The couplet form is frequent ly used to express proverbial tags and it is in keeping with Iago's position and character that this particular type of expression comes from his lips. It will be noted immediately that in the couplets of this particular group there is the grossness of speech that is usual in Iago. Throughout the passage sexual implications are to be found but usually expressed with an indi-rectness that is also not surprising in Iago. The last field of comparison with which this essay .deals is that of sentence structure. An examination of the syntax of the sentences of'the first two acts failed to show any noticeable difference in the relative number of simple, complex, and compound sentences used by each man. To all in-tents and purposes the relative number of each type of sentence v/as the same for each character, so the investigation was not pushed further. What then is the difference, if there be any, in the structure of their sentences? One basis of comparison was selected, that of departures from normal word order, and on that the investigation was based. During the course of Act I Othello's speech is mark-ed by several unusual wordings. "I would not ray unhoused free condition Put into circumscription." (.act I, Sc. 2,line 26.) Here we have an inverted word order in that the object precedes its verb. "That I have tae'n away this old man's daughter It is most true." Uct I, be. 3,line 78.) In this passage there is the repetition of subject by the pro-noun "it". "Rude am I in my speech" (Act I,Sc.3,line 81.) an inversion of the word order in that the complement precedes the.verb "to be" while the subject follows it. In line 86 of the same scene we have another classi-cal inversion, "And little of this great world can I speak," while a similar construction follows almost immediately at line 90, "I will a round unvarnish'd tale deliver" The inversion of the normal word order by placing the object before its verb again characterizes line 118, "The trust, the office I do hold of you, Hot only take away. A somewhat different form of departure from the nor-mal occurs in line 132 where there is what is perhaps not an unusual separation of the verb from its associated preposition by the insertion of the object which gives the appearance of making the pronoun the object of the verb and not the prepos-ition« "I ran it through, even from my boyish days." In lines 140 and 145 Othello again usee the inverted form of verb and object, "Of antres vast and deserts idle, Rough quarries, rocks, and hills whose head touch heaven, It was my hint to speak," and "This to hear Would Desdemona seriously incline." A number of similar inversions follow: "Which ever as she could with haste dispatch," line 146 "Which I observing"-t line 150 "I will your serious and great business scant", line 268 "A man he is of honesty and trust", line 285 "With what else needful your good grace shall think To be cent after me; line 287 wMy Desdemona must I leave to thee". line 296 Thus we see that during the course of the first act Othello uses an unusual word order in his sentence structure no fewer than 15 times and of these two-thirds are the inver-sion of the verb and its object. When we turn to Iago's speeches during the course of Act I we find thé number of such inversions is very much small-er. In the first Scene there are but 2 examples: "Nor the division of a battle knows" line 23 "Another of his fathom they have none" line 153 There is however an example akin to that of Othello in the re-petition of the subject by means of a pronoun which is compar-itively common in Shakespeare: "This counter-caster, he, in good time must his lieu-tenant be" line 30 And there is likewise 1 example of the-inversion of the subject and complement of the verb "to be" as there was in Othello's 3peech: "Liere prattle without practice Is all his soldiership" (.act I,Sc.1,line 26. In the third scene of the opening .act we again find an example of an inverted word order in line 390, "For I mine own gained knowledge should profane," From the above summary it will be seen that, so far as the opening Act of the play is concerned there is rather a marked difference in the use of inversion as a rhetorical de-vice. On the evidence of this Act alone one might conclude that Othello's speech is much more formal than that of lago— *v t >f -92-•but what does the second Act show? In this Act the positions are reversed. Here Othello uses an inverted form only 3 times: MIf after every tempest come such calm" (Act II,be.1,line 106.) where the subject follows its verb; "The gravity and stillness of your youth The world hath noted" (Act II,be.3,line 196.) o where the object precedes the verb; "My blood begins my safer guides to rule" Uct II,Sc.3,line 210.) where the object again precedes the verb. When we turn to Iago's speech during the course of the same Act we fl nd no fewer than 7 such conctructionc: "Shall find a white that shall her blackness fit" Uct II,Sc.1,line 133.). "The very elements of this warlike isle Have I to-night fluster'd with flowing cups" (Act II,Sc.3,line 60.) "Myself the crying fellow did pursue" (.act II, Sc. 3,line 23'5.) "More of this matter cannot I report" (act II,Sc.3,line 245.) "This broken joint between you and her hus-• and entreat her to splinter." (act II,Sc.3,line 333.) "Por tis most easy The inclining Desdemona to subdue." (.act II,Sc.3,line 352.) "When devils will the blackest sins put on" (Act II,Sc.3,li- e 363.) t \ This second Act, then, rather offsets any conclusion that might have been drawn from the sentence structure of Act I. '.That now is the relation in Act III? The third Act gives weight to the evidence of Act I, for here Othello's inversions again outnumber Iago's to a noticeable degree. The departures from normal word order in Act III to be found in the speech of Othello are 8 in number. "These letters, give, Iago, to the pilot" (.act III, 8c. 2,line 1.) "This fortification, gentlemen, shall we see't?" (act III,Sc.2,line 5.) "If more thou dost perceive, let me know more;" (act III,Sc.o,line 240. "2£y relief Must be to loathe her" (ikC t III,sc. 3,line 268. "Prerogatived are they less than the base;" (act IIx,uC.3,line 275. "and, 0 you mortal engines, whose rude throats The immortal Jove's dread clamours counterfeit" (act III,Sc.3,line 355. "For nothing canst thou to damnation add". (act III,Sc.3,line 374. "All my fond love thus do I blow to heaven". (act III,Sc.3,line 446. "That handkerchief Did an Egyptian to my mother give;" (act III,Sc.4,line 55. ) Iago on the other hand uses but 1 inversion in the course of this whole act and that is found in the third ^cene at line 176, "Good heaven, the souls of all my tribe defend Prom jealousy I (^ct III,Sc.3,line 176. j - # An examination of act IV made on this basic fails to shed any light on the question for in this Act there is only one inversion and that is found in the speech of Othello. "The devil their virtue tempts and they tempt heaven" (Act IV,Sc.1,line 8.) There remains then only Act V. Here we find 9 un-usual word groupings, all of which come from the lips of Othello. They are; "Yet I'll not shed her blood Nor scar that whiter skin of hers than snow". (Act V,Sc.2,line 4.) "That handkerchief which I so loved and gave thee Thou gavert to Cassio" (act V,Sc.2,line 48.) "Let me the curtains draw." (act V,Sc.2,line 103.) "An honest man he is". , ' (Act V,Sc.2,line 146.) "She with Cassio hath the act of shame A thousand times committed, i*-(act V,Sc.2,line 210.) "Let it go all". (act V,Sc.2,line 244.) "For nought did I in hate." (Act V,Sc.2,line 293.) "When you shall these unlucky deeds relate." (Act V,Sc.2,line 339.) "Nothing exteniiate." (Act V,Sc.2,line 340.) Some of these particular exauplcs are unique in andd should be noted. The transposition of the adjective "whiter" from its normal position is not altogether unusual in Shake-speare but it is the only example to be found in this play though the changing of "all" from its usual olace in the sixth exampShe is somewhat akin to it in force. Examples 2, 3, 7 and 9 again illustrate the inversion which places an object before the verb governing it while 5 and 8 exemplify the unusual plac-ing of the object of a verb between its component parts. Ex-ample 4 is another illustration of the subject and complement of the Izierb "to be" preceding the verb. It now remains to summarise this investigation for the play as a whole. In Act I there were 15 from Othello and 5 from Iago ; in Act II there.were 3 and 7; in Act III 9 and 1; iïi Act IV 1 and 0 and in Act V 9 and 0 respectively. The tot-als then of 37 from Othello's speech and 13 from Iago's lips do show a slight distinction which is heightened if Othello's total be weighted to 48 by multiplying by 1.31 to retain the equality of coèiparison. o There are 2 salient points to be noted from this com-parison. (1) In the first place the relative frequency of occ-urrence suggests that Shakespeare intended to make Othello speak in a somewhat more formal . style perhaps more stilted is not too strong--than Iago. This of course is quite in keeping with the relative stations of the two men. It does suggest that Iago's criticism of Othello's style as "a bombast circumstance" is not without foundation. (2) Again, this investigation adds weight to the con-clusions drawn from the study of classical refer-ences and figures of speech, namely, that there is a more grandiloquent quality to his speech. The comparative equality in this particular to be found in act IV is again evidence of the influe ence exerted by Iago upon Othello at that point .. in the play. This marked influence of Iago upon Othello's idiom in act IV has been noted several times before so that it need not be again elabor-ated here. C01TCLUSI01T. The various examinations and comparisons which were outlined in the introduction to this essay have now been com-pleted. Tile only task remaining, then, is that of testing, in so far as it is possible, the validity of the conclusions reached. As these have been stated at the end of each section of the examination it is not necessary to repeat them here in full. Mere re-iteration, moreover, would add nothing to the force of these results. How, then, may the validity of these conclusions be tested? One obvious test is to compare them with character studies made by various Shakesperian critics from other data, AS the Variorum Edition offered the most complete summary of critical opinion upon the characters of Othello and Iago it has been the source of most of the mater-ial used here. One of the most striking features of Iago's vocab-ulary that has been noted is its co ar s ene ss. ".Vhether it be in the soil-derived words, the figures of speech, the use of rhyming couplets or in his expressions with a sesial connota-tion there is always about Iago's speech a coarseness--an '•earthiness"--that is characteristic of him. This character-istic of his speech is a reflection of the quality of his mind in the opinion of Dowden who says: "Assuredly the same malignant power that lurks in the eye and that fills with venom the fang of the serpent, would seem to have brought into existence Iago. 'It is the strength of the base element that is so. dreadful-in the serpent; it is the yery omhi-• potence of the earth. It. is a divine hieroglyph of the demoniac power of the earth,--of the entire earthy nature.' Such is the serpent Iago. "(a) • ' ' taj The Variorum Shakespeare--Othello--page 424. Thi s is a striking confirmation of the view expressed several times in the course of this essay.that Iago is "of the earth--earthy".; Hazlitt also noted this ""base element" in Iago and, strangely enough, uses a very similar figure of speech to des-cribe this quality. He says; "His (lago's) imagination rejects everything that has not a strong infusion of the most unpalatable ingredients; his mind digests only poisons." ("b) tb) The Variorum Shakespeare--Othello page 411-412. Our investigation has shown that in almost every particular lago's idiom is a ref-elation of his imagination--"a strong in-fusion of the most unpalatable ingredients." Hazlitt in an-other place (c) speaks of "the habitual licentiousness of (e) The. Variorum Shake spear e--@thello—oag6 411 lago's •conversation." Hazlitt's use of the word "imagination" suggests an-other possible test for our conclusions. ¥e noted in the study of lago's use of prose, and also in his use of the rhymed coup-s. > let, an intellectual subtlety, and in his use of pronouns an indirectness of speech. What have other commentators to say of this particular quality of Iago? Naturally we look first to Hazlitt. He is most emphatic on this point. "Iago, in fact, belongs to a class of characters, common to Shakespeare and at the same time peculiar to him; whose heads are as acute and active as their ' ".• -hearts are hard and callous", (d) (d) The Variorum Shakespeare—Othello--page 411. 6 i Later in the same passage we find another very striking phrase describing Iago -as one "of diseased and intellectual activity". ' ,We_,must not, however, depend entirely upon Hazlitt's views»: Macau-lay (a) also comments upon this alertness of mind (a) Edinburgh Review 1827, Volume XLV, page 272—quoted in •" • The Variorum Shakespeare—Othello--page 41-3. , in iago Y/hen he speaks of: "The readiness of his(lago's) wit, the clearness "of • his judgment, the skill with which he, penetrates the dispositions of others and conceals his own"— A third verification of this particular phase of lago's char-acter if found in Campbell's dictum: "lago's learned spirit and exquisite intellect, happily ending in his own destruction, were as re-quisite for the moaral of the piece as for the sus-taining of Othello's high character."(b) (b) fee Variprum Shakespeare--Othello—page 420. One more critical opinion of this point will suffice. It is to found in Schlegel. (c) This great German critic in a pene- • (c) Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature. Translated by John Black, London, '1815. Vol.II page 189 —quoted in the Variorum Shakespeare--0thello--page 432. trating analysis of the character of Iago cays: "A more artful villain than this Iago has never been •portrayed; he is complete master in the art of dissimulation; he is as excellent an ob-server of men as anyone can be who is unacquainted with higher motives of action from his own exper-ience." One of the most significant differences between the speech of Iago and that of Othello was noted in the use each made of speeches with a sexual connotation. In this partic-ular, it will be remembered, lago's uaage greatly outnumbered that- of. Othello. Here, then, should be a dominant character- . istic. What have the great critics of the past said? Dowden .writes; " . "Iago, with keen intellectual faculties and manifold culture in Italian vice, lives and thrives after his fashion in a world from which all virtue and beauty ^ ^ are absent, "(a) (a) Shakespeare—His mind and Art, London, 1875 page 226 quoted in The Variorufc Shakespeare—Othello—page 425. 5 A. ¥. Schelgel also comments very forcibly on this sex-ridden quality of Iago in his Lectures on-Dramatic Art and Literature, where he writes: "As in everything he(Iago) sees merely the hateful side, he' dissolves in the rudest manner the charm which the imagination casts over the relation be-tween the two sexes."(b) Tb) The Variorum Shakespeare—Othello—page 432. Before leaving the character of Iago we should perhaps note the opinion of at least one French critic. In his Histoire de la Litte'rature Anglaise H. Taine says that Iago possesses; "Une verve diabolique, une invention intarissable d'images, de caricatures, de saletés, un .ton de corps de gardé,des gestes et des goûts brutaux de soldat" (c) Ce) The Variorum Shakespeare—Othello—page 453. We find then that the three chief conclusions we have drawn from a study of the speech of Iago are, in a measure at least, vindicated by similar conclusions reached by other meth-ods of examination. The critical opinions quoted above sustain our conclusions that Iago is a man of sxibtle intellect and wit, of coarseness of speech and thought, of a predominantly sexual bias. There remains now only the task of examining in a . similar manner those conclusions we have drawn from our study of Othello. Here again we find a considerable body of criti-cal opinion to support the results of this investigation into the habits.of speech of the Moor. '• Prom the comparison of the vocabularies as a whole, and particularly from the examination of the'figures of speech we concluded that Othello was a man of learning and of imagin-ation, as distinguished from a man of wit and subtlety. This view is confirmed by a number of commentators. Perhaps no one has stated, this view more clearly than Edward Rose who writes: ' "He(Othello) has a strong and healthy mind m d a vivid imagination, but they deal entirely with first impressions, with obvious facts.11 (a) (a) The Variorum Shakespeare--Othello—page 430. A similar view is expressed in an excerpt from the Edinburgh Review of July 1849 which is-quoted in the Variorum Edition. "The highminded, chivalric, open, affectionate Othello".(b) (b) The Variorum Shakespeare--Othello--page 421. Throughout this investigation, in almost every com-parison', we have noted a change in Othello's speech following the temptation by Iago. This change was noted more particular-ly in dealing with the figures of speech, with the sexual all-usions and with the soil-derived words. This alteration of speech habits suggests a change in Othello's very nature. Se-veral commentators have noted this duality in the character of Othello. He has been described in these words: "He is a union not merely of dissimilar qualities but of dissimilar natures. He is a civilized bar-barian"(c) ;c)The Variorum Shakespeare--Othello--page 421, A somewhat similar description of the two-fold nature of Othello's character is to be found in Mrs. Jameson's Character' i'stics of Women. She describes the character of Othello in the following words: ' , "The character of Othello is, perhaps, the most greatly drawn, the most-heroic, of any of Shakes-peare's actors; hut it is, perhaps, that one also of which his reader last acquires the intelligence.' The^ intellectual and warlike energy of his mind, his texj^ erness of affection, his loftiness of spirit, his . J frank generous magnanimity, impetuosity like a thun-derbolt, and that dark fierce flood of boiling pass-ion, polluting even his imagination, compose a char-acter entirely original, most difficult to delin-• eate but perfectly delineated. "( a) (a) The Variorum Shakespeare--Othello--page 414. A third critic who has noted this apparent contradiction in the character of the Moor is A. W. Schlegel. This great German commentator describes Othello in these words: "He suffers as a double man; at once in the higher and lower sphere into which his being is divided". ; (b) tbj f^ee Variorum Shakespeare"—Othello--page 432. A third characteristic of the speech of Othello which we noted was the extravagance of language in the figures of speech and the more frequent inversions in the word order of his sentences. From these facts we concluded that Othello was gifted with a finer imagination than lago, and that such rhetorical devices were in keeping with his iloorish blood. Dowden suggests this idea when he says: "We might suppose that there were some special af-finities between the soul of Othello and the lion • of his ancestral deserts." (c) (c) The Variorum Shakespeare—Othello--page 424. Campbell also notes the barbaric quality in the mind of Othello which is reflected in the hyperbolic language of his figures of speech and in the violence of his language, after he had succumbed to Iago's tempting. Campbell writes: r "The-Moor had been bred a barbarian and though his bland nature and intercourse with the more civili-J. '** 1 1 r zed-'world had long warred against and conquered the half-natural habits of "barbarism, yet those habits .. at last broke out and prevailed in the moments of f1 ' his .jealousy".( a) [a) The Variorum Shakespeare--Othello--page 420, It is these "half-natural habits of barabrism" that give to Othello's figurative language its grandiloquence and exagger-ation. Finally we note that Schlegel also comments on this phase of the character of Othello. Schlegel has this to say of Othello's nature: "V/e recognize in Othello thé wild nature of that which generates the most raging beasts of prey and the most deadly poisons, tamed only in appearance by the desire of fame, by foreign laws of honor, and by nobler and milder manners."(b) (b) The Variorum Shakespeare--Othello--page 451. These excerpts from various critical opinions upon the characters of Othello and Iago sustain, in each case, the main conclusions we drew from a critical study of the language and idiom of the 11 oor and his ancient. It is impossible to say upon what evidence each of these opinions was founded, but, it is safe to assume that all of them-were not based upon language alone as ours have been. In view of this fact they offer a striking vindication of the belief.that in this particular play, at least, there is, in Schucking's phrase, "a consistent and careful endeavor to observe a strict harmony in the rela-' tion of character and language".(c) Xc7 1.1. Schiicking—Character Problems in Shakespeare's plays i London--1922. pg.88 * APPENDIX A (l)Words common to Iago and Othello. a about abuse accident act action advantage* affect affright after again against alas alive all almost alone already am amased ancient and anon another any apart appetite approved are arise arm as attend aright away ay -B-back feare baee{ a) fcaitle • "be *ear(v) beast beat bed , begin beguile belie believe bell beseech besides best better between:: bid birth black blame bless blood bloody blow body both . bound boy brain bseak breast breath breed brief bring burn business circumstance citadel civil clamours close come command common compasses complexion conceit conclusion condition confess confine content couch could counsel counterfeit course court creature crown cry cuckold curse Cyprus but -D- . hy damn daughter -c- day eall dead calm dear aan death cannot delicate captain deliver Cassio denote catch Desdemona cause desire censure devil certain die chances distracted change do. charge dog charms door chaste dote choose doubt christian down. draw dream drown Duke duties -E-each ear early easily eat else Emilia end endure engage engines enough ensnare entreat ere err error even ever every excellent exerei se eye -3?-face fair. faith fall false farewell fashion fast(adv.) fate father fault fear feed feel fellow fetch field fiend figure iri & finger fire firm first fit fix fiy(n) fellow folly, • fond fool foi fotbid fotwer forteet forfh fortune fOUl ; frgcnk free , fréely fresh friend frlgfcit frpm fruit fwll function general gesture get gift give glad glorious go goat good ^ ^ -Ci ^ goodness goodnight ftftse grounds glow guard —H— ha hand handkerchi ef hang haply happiness harm hate have he_ head hear heart heaven heavenly hell hence her here herself high him his history hither ho hold home honest honesty honour honourable hope hour house house-wives how humbly hunt hurt s husband - I -I I ago idle if impediments importune in incline indeed instant instruments into invention is isle it itself -J-jealous j ealousy journey Jove joy judgment . just -li-ke ep kill kiss know -L-labour lady laugh lead learn least leave lend less lest let letters lie lie(reclinè) lieutenant life light like like( adv. ) linger lips little live lock look lord lose love low lust - M -mad make malice man marry(v) master matter may me mean(v) means(n) meet mercy merits messenger methinks Michael mind mine(p} mine(n) minister mistress mock moment money monkey monster monstrous Montano mood more mortal most motion mouth movS much murder must my my,self - H -naked name napkin nature nay near need neigh never next night nine no noble noise nor nose not note nothing nought now - 0 -0 oath obey observe of « off offence offend office officer oft often old on one opinion or Othello other our ourselves out own -P-pain pale pardon part pass passion patience pause peace perceive play please pleasure pluck plume point poison poor possible potent powers prattle pray present presently pride prithee private profit promise proof proper proud prove purse put -Qr quarrel question quite -R-rage raise rather reach reason remorse remove repair repent report reputation require respect retire return revenge rich rob Roderigo round rule run safe state safety stay sagittary steal sail still saint straight salt strange satisfaction stream satisfy strike say strive scarce stroke scorn strong see strumpet seel subdue seem subtle sell such senators sulphur send sun sense sup serve sure service surgeon set swear seven sweat severe sweet shake sweifel shall sword shame she -T-should taint show take side tale sigh taste signior tell since than sins thank sir that slave the ' sleep thee amall their smell them smooth themselv so then soldier thence solicit there some therefoi something these soon they sorry thigh soul thing speak think speech this spirit those spite thOtt stand though stare thought 'thousand three (throw thus thy thyself till time to together to-morrow tongue to-night too : top touch town tribe trick true truly trumpet trust tune Tu»ks turn two -u-unknown up upon us use -V-valiant Venetian Venice very vile villian villianous violent virtue visage voice vow -w-want wanton wax was waste yes way yet we you weak young wear your web yourself weed youth weep welcome well wench were what when where wherein whereof -whereon whi ch while whip whisper whiten who who re whose why wife Willi shall) will(wish) win wind wise wi sh wit witchcraft with withdraw withih without witness woman woo word -work world worst wo rth worthy would wrong -y-year (2)Words peculiar to Othello. -A-abandon absolute acceptance accomodation accumulate ache acquaintance add admirable adversities affliction afraid agnize ah a-killing alabaster alacrity albeit Alleppo ambition amen amiable among amongst amorous ancient(adj.) answer anthropophagi antique antres anybody anything Arabian argue arm(verb) article ask aspic assault assay attendant attention avaunt - B -balmy banner barbarous bark 'U as e C noun) bawd bawdy bear beckon beg begrimed being bending beneath besort bethink betray big blotted blowing blown boast boding book born bosom bounteous boyish brave brawl breach bright brimful brimstone broil brow butt -C-caitiff camp cannibals capable captivity care carve castigation castle cell challenge chamber chamberers chaos charmer chastity cheeks cherubim deadly choke dealings chop death-bed chrysolite decline chuck deeds cinders deferred circumcised defunct circumscription delations cistern demerits climb demi-devil closet deny coffers depth cold deserts collied destiny commit devour commonly devout company dew complaints Di an complex dilate comply dine compt direction compulsive disastrous conception discard concerning discern confession discord conjuration discourse consent discretion conserve disembark conspire di sloyal contract di smayed control dismiss conversation di spatch conveyance disports cords disposition corner dissemble corrupt distressful cough domestic crave double-damned crocodile doubtless crime dread cruel dreadful cunning drop current drugs curtains drum customs dry duck -D- dire damnation dullness dance dungeons danger darling -E-earnest ear-piercing earth ehb echo eclipse e' er Egyptian either emperor ensue entire entirely estimation eternal:on example exceeding excelling exchange exhibition expostulate exsufflicate ext ent extenuate extreme extremity - E -fable faintly fan fancies fasting fatal feathered feats feet fife fight filthy fine flame flinty flood foe foregone forehead forfend forge forked forthwith forty fountain fraught front fruitfulness fulsome furni sh fury -G-garnered gate girl gladly globe gloves gracious gratify grave(noun| grave( adj .) gravity greedy greet grieving grim groan growth guides gulfs gum -H-haggard hair hair-brddth hallowed happy hardness harsh haste heart-strings heat heavy heed Hellespont helm hem J heraldry hideous hie hills . hinge hint holla hollow honey horned horrible horrors hot house-affairs huge human humble hundred hurl hush hyprocrisy - I -ice-brooks icy ill-starred imminent immortal imports impudent Indian indign infected inference insolent instructions insupportable intentively invest invited iteration -J-jesses jot justice - K -key kneel knives knot -L-last late levels lewd liar liberal lift light-winged liquid loathe loop lovely lust-stained -M-magic maiden malignant manage mandate manifest marble marriage mask medicinal melting memory merciful merry messes mighty mince minion minx misery misgive modesty moist monumental moon mother mummy murderer musician mystery - N -natural needful needle neither new newly niece night-brawler numbered - 0 -obedient occupation occular o' er Olympus-high promulgate once prophetic only Pro-pontic opposite propriety order protectress Ottomite public out-live puny out-sport purchase out-tongue -P- quality pace quarries palate quench paper quicken parcels pattern -R-pearl rack people rain perdition raven perfect read perish rebel perjure rebuke perjury recognizance pernicious redemption perplexed reference pert relate pertain relief Pèter re-lime phrase resolve pieces rest pilgrimage restore pilot reverence pioners reverend pith revolt pitiful rheum pledge rightly plenteous roast pliant rock pomp Roman Pontic rose portance rose-lipped possession rot poverty rough prayer rout precious royal preogative rude prey ruminate probation rush proceed rust process procréants -S-Promethean sacred prompt sacrifice prompter same savageness steep-down scant stick scapes stillness scar stomach score stone sea stop sea-mark story secrets stranger seize strife senate succeed sentence suffer sequester suffocating serious summer seriously surmi ses servants suspicious sever sustain shadow swallow sham&les sweeting shed shoulders -T-shrewd teach shrill tear shut tears sibyll teem siege temper sight tempest signiory tempt silence tented silk therewith simple thine sing thrice-driven sink throats skilful throne skillet through skin thunder slander title slavery toad slime token slow torture slumbers towards smock toys smote traduce snow tranquil soft travels sore trees sorrow tremble Spain truimph speculative troop spend trump spirit-stirring try spotted turbanned star twenty steed twinned steel tyrannous steep tyrant unauthorized worms unblest worthiness unbonneted wrath uncle wretch understand write undertake wrought unfold unhoused -Y-unlace yawn unluciy ye unmoving yield unprepared yond unprovide unreconciled unshunnable unused unvarnished utmost -V-vain vale vapour vast vengeance veritable virtuous virtuously vital - W -waken walk warrior wash water weapon weed-painted weigh whenee wherefor whipster whisile whole wide wild wink wisely withal wither wonder wdfcdrous wott•. worldly (3)Words peculiar to Iago. -A-a-bed baseness -C-abhor beard cable construe ability beauties Caesar consuls abode because can akin contaminate above beer cannon contemplation abroad befallen carack continue absolute before carefully contrary accent behaviour carnal contrive accountant behind carouse conveniences acknown behold case converse acquainted beloved cashiered convince adieu benefit cast cool advice beshrew cat cope advise bestow certes corrigible affairs beware chair cost affection Bianca chargeable counter-caster affine billet check country ago bind chide countryman aim birdlime choice courage air bitter choler coursers alarm blab chronicle courtesy almain blackness citizens cousins along bleed city cover amiss blind clean crack anew bliss climate cradle anger blossom clime credit angry boarded clink creditor answerable boat clip credulous appear bobbed clock critical apprehensions bodily clothes cup apt bold clyster-pipes cure arch-mock bolster coats custody arithmetician bombast cod cut ashore bondage coldness -D-ass bookish coloquintida assure Brabantic color daily atttospt brace commencement dame auld bragging commission dangerous authority bread compel dare breathe complete dark awhile breeches compliments dash -B- bride conduct daws baboon brother confirmation dealt bad build confuse debtor bags burst conjunctive conscience deceive balance busy defeat baptism buy conscionable defective çâJil consequence defend Barbary consider constant degree delay delight demonstrate denotement depend deserving despise determinate determined device devilish devise devoted diablo diet difficulty dilatory dire direct direction directly discipliné disclose discreet displant displeasure disposition disproportion dispute disrelish distance distaste distinctly distinquish divesting divinity election fit grievance elements flag grievously embark flee gripe eminently fleers groom encave flock gross enfetter Elorentine grossly enforce flow guess engender fluster guiltless England foams guilty-like English f oh guinea-hen enjoy food gyve enmesh foolish enrich foot -H-enter forbear half entertainment fordo handsome epilepsy form hap epithets forsooth happily escape four harbour essence frail hard evade frame hark events frize harlotry ever-burning fruitful heal evermore further health evil fust heartily ewe exception excess exclaim excuse execute execution expectation expend extern divorce facility dotage fail double fain dress fairness drink familiar drowsy fanastical drunk far drunkards fasten dull fathom duteous favor dwell favorably fertile -E- fie easy fig ecstacy filch effect fill egregiously filth either finder-out elbow fineless -G-gain gall gallants game gape garb garden gardener garter gastness gay gennets gentlemen germans German gibes gnaw God godliness gold gorge gown gradation grandsire grapes Gratiano green green-eyed grief heathen heave heir help herbs hereafter hide himself hip Hollander holy homage horologue horribly horse hot housewifery howbeit however humane humani ty humor hyssop - I -idleness ignorance immediate imperfectly imperious importunate importunity imposition impossible imputation incense incorporate index indignity industry infirmity inflame iniquity injury instruct intend intent . intrude inwards island issues -J-Janus jewel joint judge jump —Iv-kind kindness king kinsman kitchen knave knavery knee-crooking knit knock knowledge -L-lack lad ladyship land large lately . laughter law law-days lawful lay(noun) lay(verb) leap lechery leets legs lethargy lettuce lieutenancy lined lion list living lo locusts lodging Lodovic-o long loose loud loveliness loving lown luscious lusty -M-madame madness magnifico main mandragora mangle manhood manners manure many mar mark marshal marry(oath)-mass masterly match matches Mauritania meaning meantime measure meat medicine mediator meditation mend mere merely * mettle midnight might millions mineral dinutes Moor Moorship moraler morning murderous muse music mutiny mutter mutualities - 1 T -native necessaries necessity neglect negligence nephews net nettles nigh night-cap nightly nobility nobody none non-suits notable notice - 0 -oak obscure obsequious observance occasions odd o'erwhelm off-capped offenceless open opposition outrun outward over overthrow owe -P-paddle palace palm parallel parley parlour partly party pate patient peck peculiar peer peevish pegs peradventure perchance perdurable perhaps peril permission person personal pestilence pestilent picture pitch plain planet plant players plead ply poise poisonous policy poppy populous position potation potential potting pottle pottle-deep pour pox practice practise prankd prate prefer preferment pregnant preposterous price Repeal sign prick reproach silent prime repute silly priae request• sincerity probal requisites oit proclaim resolution sith produce restitution sixpence profane restraint slay profess re-tell sleeve profitably revels slip prologue rewards slipper propose Bhodes smile prospect ribs snipe prosperity right snorting protest ring soldiership provender ripe bometimes provide rise sound provocation rock sow provoke roots span pudding rouBe special puffed rub speed pull ruffians spinster punishment spleen puppies -S- splinter pure sake sport purpose salmon spotted pursue sanctuary spy putting-on sated squadron satiety stamp -'ri- savage stead qualificati on save step quarter •sblood Stephen quat scale sterile quick scan sting quickly scatter stoup quiet scion strain scurvy strangle -B- 1scuse strawberries ram seals street rank(adj) rank(nomn) search strip second strongly rapier sect stuff rash secure success receive . seek suckle recoil self-bounty sudden recover sensuality sue redeem sequestration suggest refrain session suit regard shape suitor region sheets summon remain shift super-Bubtie remedy shirt supper renounce short support ime renown shortly supply sick suppose curely surety euspect suspicion swag-bellied swift symbols sympathy syrups -T-tail tailor tediouB ten tend tenderly tenderness term theoric thereto thereunto thicken thieves thinly thither thrive thrust thyme tilting timorous to-day toged tooth toughness trade trash traverse treacherous treachery trifles trim trouble truth tup twelve ' twixt -U-ugly uhbitted unbookish uncapable uncleanly under undertaker undo unfold unforced unjustly unless unmake unnatural unpartrper unsuiting unsure unswear unwitted usurp utter yesterday yoke -Z-zounds -V-valour vehement venial vexation vice vicious violence voluble voluntary vomit -TV-war like warrant wary watch whereinto whereto whether whilst wholesome wight wildcats winter wipe wisdom wolf womb worse wound wretched wring writ wronger yell 


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