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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Kaikhosru Sorabji’s critical writings on British music in The New Age (1924-1934) Bhimani, Nazlin 1985

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K A I K H O S R U S O R A B J I ' S C R I T I C A L W R I T I N G S ON B R I T I S H I N THE NEW AGE ( 1 9 2 4 - 1 9 3 4 )  MUSIC  BY N A Z L I N BHIMANI B.Mus., The U n i v e r s i t y M.L.S., The U n i v e r s i t y A THESIS  o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1981 of Western Ontario, 1984  I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF  THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S MASTER  FOR THE DEGREE OF  OF  ARTS  in THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S (Department We  accept to  this  of Music)  thesis  the required  as conforming standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H May © b y  Nazlin  COLUMBIA  1985 Bhimani,  1985  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her  be granted by the head o f representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed without my  permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (.3/81)  MFW  50*  ^86"  written  ABSTRACT This Shapurji critic  t h e s i s examines t h e music c r i t i c i s m Sorabji  of  Kaikhosru  ( 1 8 9 2 - ) , a w e l l known c o m p o s e r a n d m u s i c  a c t i v e i n E n g l a n d from t h e e a r l y  1920s t o t h e l a t e  1940s.  A l t h o u g h many a u t h o r s h a v e r e f e r r e d t o S o r a b j i ' s m u s i c a n d criticism,  n e i t h e r h a s been t r e a t e d  i n a substantive  manner. The  p r e s e n t s t u d y f o c u s e s on S o r a b j i ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o The New A g e , a weekly j o u r n a l , and p a r t i c u l a r l y  on h i s a r t i c l e s  therein  d e a l i n g w i t h contemporary B r i t i s h composers. I t i s of i n t e r e s t that Sorabji's c r i t i c i s m deals history,  and  known a s t h e E n g l i s h  with a vibrant period  of music  Renaissance.  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f S o r a b j i ' s w r i t i n g s , p u b l i s h e d  articles  p r i v a t e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e v e a l s h i m t o be a h i g h l y  complex  p e r s o n a l i t y . H i s m a r g i n a l p o s i t i o n i n E n g l i s h s o c i e t y , based partly  on h i s r a c i a l  British, differing the  background and h i s n e g a t i v e  l e d him t o view t h e m u s i c a l from t h a t of other  surrounded himself  scene from a  critics.  inner c i r c l e s of the musical  views of the  Not f u l l y  establishment,  with a small, e l i t e  perspective  admitted  into  Sorabji  group of f r i e n d s and  a d m i r e r s , w h i c h i n c l u d e d w e l l known c o m p o s e r s a n d l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s such as B e r n a r d van D i e r e n , Walton, John I r e l a n d , S a c h e v e r a l l  Peter  values  William  S i t w e l l , Hugh M c D i a r m i d a n d  C e c i l Gray. I t i s w i t h i n t h i s context r o l e of t h e music c r i t i c  Warlock,  that S o r a b j i redefined the  and c r i t i c i s m t o s u i t h i s p e r s o n a l  a n d s t y l e w h i c h were much i n f l u e n c e d by h i s i n v o l v e m e n t  in the m y s t i c a l t r a d i t i o n of T a n t r i c _ ii  Hinduism.  A  detailed discussion  composers D e l i u s , van  Dieren,  Bliss,  that  critic's  throughout analysis and  his  of  music  that  many o f shared blunt him.  to  him  his  and  music  opinions.  i t is this  i t also  turned  cruelty,  that  distinguishes  of  criticism.  An the  appendix  period  1915  and  lists to  other  and  negative  this the  Sorabji's  tide  of  style,  times Sorabji  Sorabji's  1934.  pattern  harsh  the  to  writings  An of  likes  styles  that  manner  support use  of  of  about  the  harsh  point the  New  who  and against  sometimes  from  i n The  tainted  those  opinion  w h i c h can  writings  reveals  emotionalism  public  harsh  Warlock,  Age.  musical  particular  racy  New  the  Nonetheless,  Ireland,  conservative  clear-cut  encouraged  British  Britten  f o r The  While  the  Hoist,  highly  in a  humourous and  music  critic  found d i s t a s t e f u l .  reviews,  were  on  Bush,  G o o s s e n s and  shows a  praised  wrote  language often Yet,  Smyth, B e r n e r s ,  affinities  writings  Sorabji  he  his  as  writings  Vaughan W i l l i a m s ,  Scott,  musical  these  dislikes.  appealed  Boughton,  career  Sorabji's  Bax,  Walton, Lambert,  Howells, the  Elgar,  of  be  of mainstream  Age  during  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  i i  L I S T OF TABLES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  v i i  Chapter I. INTRODUCTION II.  1  SORABJI, THE C R I T I C FOR THE NEW AGE The New Age S o r a b j i ' s Career as music f o r The New Age  III.  critic  SORABJI'S WRITINGS I N THE NEW AGE Sorabji's general musical a f f i n i t i e s S o r a b j i ' s w r i t i n g s on c o n t e m p o r a r y B r i t i s h composers Frederick Delius S i r Edward E l g a r S i r A r n o l d Bax Gustav Hoist R a l p h Vaughan W i l l i a m s S i r John I r e l a n d O t h e r B r i t i s h Composers Bernard van Dieren S i r W i l l i a m Walton Constant Lambert Dame E t h e l Smyth Lord Berners A l a n Bush Peter Warlock Herbert Howells Arthur B l i s s R u t l a n d Boughton C y r i l Scott Eugene G o o s s e n s Benjamin B r i t t e n  iv  4 9 12 19 23 .31 34 45 51 58 64 69 74 75 77 79 80 81 .82 83 85 87 87 89 90 92  .  IV.  CONCLUSION  93  SOURCES C O N S U L T E D  103  APPENDIX  114  v  LIST OF TABLES 1.  2.  T o t a l Number of C o n t r i b u t i o n s (Musical and Others) Made per Year by S o r a b j i i n The New Age from March 20, 1924 to J u l y 26, 1934 W r i t i n g s by S o r a b j i on Contemporary in The New Age (1924-1934).  vi  17  B r i t i s h Composers 32  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I gratefully thesis  provided  University  acknowledge  the f i n a n c i a l  by t h e Aga Khan F o u n d a t i o n  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  Summer  support  for this  (Canada), t h e  R e s e a r c h F e l l o w s h i p and my  parents. The  completion  assistance  of t h i s  t h e s i s was made p o s s i b l e by t h e  o f many i n d i v i d u a l s .  among t h e s e  h u s b a n d who l i v e d  through  continous  and e n c o u r a g e m e n t . I t i s w i t h  that  support  I dedicate  this  thesis  I wish t o express Kreider  f o r h i s expert  encouragement Professor stages  problem p a t i e n t l y  and i n s i g h t f u l  this  i n mind  c o u n s e l l i n g , a d v i c e and t h e s i s . My t h a n k s a l s o t o  f o r h i s guidance  during  the formative  study. indebted  t o Mr. K e n n e t h D e r u s f o r  p r o v i d i n g me w i t h much o f t h e m a t e r i a l s u s e d as f o r h i s unceasing  Paul Rapoport  providing  my d e e p a p p r e c i a t i o n t o P r o f e s s o r J . Evan  I am a l s o p a r t i c u l a r l y  well  i s my  t o you, A l n o o r .  i n the w r i t i n g of t h i s  H. R. Cohen  of t h i s  every  Foremost  interest  in this  study as  i n my work, a n d P r o f e s s o r  f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n s u p p l y i n g some o u t - o f - p r i n t  publications. Finally,  I acknowledge w i t h  encouragement and p r a y e r s brother-in-law  g r a t i t u d e t h e warm  f r o m my p a r e n t s ,  I q u b a l , and my d e a r  vii  friend  my s i s t e r  support, Y a s m i n , my  E l i z a b e t h Lamberton.  I.  INTRODUCTION  Many p e o p l e h a v e m e n t i o n e d t h e w r i t i n g s o f K a i k h o s r u Shapurji their  Sorabji  totality.  1  (1892This  writings are scattered and  i s p r i m a r i l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t i n several  music c r i t i c therefore,  H o w e v e r , an e x t e n s i v e  examines S o r a b j i ' s  with  publications  inaccessible.  critical  the early part  Sorabji's  c o m p r i s i n g o f a two-page a r t i c l e a p a r a g r a p h by P a u l  Rapoport  statements i n the leading  journal  study,  w r i t i n g s which appeared  o f t h i s c e n t u r y . The  journalistic  2  study of S o r a b j i as  h a s n o t y e t been made. The p r e s e n t  England during  dealing  and/or  these  m u s i c c r i t i c i s m h a s been c i t e d i n v a r i o u s  a r t i c l e s and l e t t e r s .  3  different serial  b o o k s , many o f w h i c h a r e o u t - o f - p r i n t Sorabji's  in  ) , b u t few have e x a m i n e d o r r e a d them i n  literature  output i s m i n i s c u l e ,  by A r n o l d  Whittal  i n t h e 1960s,  i n h i s book Opus E s t ,  4  as w e l l as  music e n c y c l o p e d i a s and d i c t i o n a r i e s .  F r o m t h e " P r e f a c e " by P a u l Sorabji: Collected Writings ( U n p u b l i s h e d , 1977). 1  Rapoport i n : Kaikhosru Shapurji From F i v e S e r i a l P u b l i c a t i o n s ,  A p a r t f r o m t h e m i c r o f i l m e d c o l l e c t i o n o f w r i t i n g s c o m p i l e d by Kenneth. D e r u s a n d P a u l R a p o p o r t , a n d S o r a b j i ' s two b o o k s A r o u n d M u s i c ( 1 9 3 2 ) a n d Mi^ c o n t r a f a ( 1 9 4 7 ) , most o f t h e w r i t i n g s a r e i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f h i s c l o s e a c q u a i n t a n c e s , museums, a n d p r i v a t e and p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s . 2  A. W h i t t a l l , "Sorabjiana," 1966):216-217.  3  Musical  T i m e s 107 ( M a r c h  P . R a p o p o r t , Opus E s t : S i x C o m p o s e r s f r o m N o r t h e r n E u r o p e , Y o r k : T a p l i n g a P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 7 9 ) , p p . 162-163. 4  1  (New  This thesis w i l l  introduce  the c r i t i c a l  on c o n t e m p o r a r y B r i t i s h c o m p o s e r s p u b l i s h e d New  Age:  a weekly review  of p o l i t i c s ,  t h e p e r i o d M a r c h 2 0 t h 1924 contains  Sorabji's f i r s t  came a t a t i m e when E n g l a n d was p e r s o n a l i t y by b r e a k i n g  took p l a c e d u r i n g r e s u l t s of t h e s e  6  He  The  art  New  w r i t i n g s , which,  during  Age  fortuitously,  away f r o m c o n t i n e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s  a p a r t of t h i s  educated i n England.  1 i t e r a t u r e and  i t s own  composers.  tradition,  witnessed  not  having  changes. I t i s important in this  light,  and  5  been b o r n  o n l y the changes  the e a r l y p a r t of t h i s c e n t u r y ,  B r i t i s h m u s i c be c o n s i d e r e d  The  rediscovering i t s musical  r e c o g n i s i n g the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of S o r a b j i was  i n the newspaper  t o J u l y 2 6 t h 1934.  critical  w r i t i n g s of S o r a b j i  but  that  also  that h i s views f o r only then  the  on will  T h i s p h a s e i n t h e h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h m u s i c h a s English Musical Renaissance.  been c a l l e d  I n s p i t e o f t h i s , S o r a b j i r e f u s e d t o be c a l l e d h a v e a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e E n g l i s h :  "British"  5  6  and  or  " I w i l l n o t be c a l l e d a " B r i t i s h " c o m p o s e r . H e a r t m i n d body and s o u l I am I n d i a n , and w o u l d w i s h n o t h i n g e l s e , though d u l y g r a t e f u l f o r the soupcon of S p a n i s h . . . ." ( L e t t e r t o P h i l i p H e s e l t i n e d a t e d F e b r u a r y 11, 1916. [ c o p i e s o f t h e " H e s e l t i n e L e t t e r s " were k i n d l y s u p p l i e d t o t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r by Mr. K e n n e t h D e r u s ] . "You w i l l be d o u b t l e s s v e x e d w i t h me t o l e a r n t h a t u n d e r no c i r c u m s t a n c e s w i l l I a l l o w i t [ t h e S e c o n d P i a n o C o n c e r t o ] t o be p u b l i s h e d i n E n g l a n d . N o t h i n g can o r w i l l s h a k e my c o n v i c t i o n t h a t i t [an E n g l i s h r e p u t a t i o n ] i s h o p e l e s s . B e s i d e s , any s o r t of E n g l i s h r e p u t a t i o n has no a t t r a c t i o n s w h a t e v e r f o r me e x c e p t w i t h s u c h s e l e c t s o u l s a s y o u r own d e a r s e l f , and s u c h as you a r e i n a p r o p o r t i o n o f p e r h a p s 1/100,000." ( L e t t e r t o H e s e l t i n e d a t e d F e b r u a r y 23, 1916).  2  the  his  contributions  history  and  British  Through perceived changes  music  the course  the music  The  f o r The and  music  our  knowledge  of t h i s  musical  will  Age,  of B r i t i s h  music  criticism. study,  we  of h i s contemporaries  study New  to enrich  music  i n the E n g l i s h  judgement. critic  serve  also  and  shall and  establishment  i n what  criticism.  3  as  Sorabji  ways  influenced  examine S o r a b j i ' s  his aesthetics  s e e how  his  c a r e e r as  they  relate  music to  I I . SORABJI, THE  Kaikhosru  14,  1892  a rich  h i s m o t h e r , an  descent.  S o r a b j i grew up  southern  p a r t of the c o u n t r y  Sorabji early  was  time  he  was  late  a frequent  ( 1 9 2 0 - 1 9 2 1 ) , The  in  two  journals 1  and  Reprinted:  still  lives  1940s. H i s  i n England  journalistic  from  1920  New  E n g l i s h Weekly  and  in  the  to  from  output  1965,  the spans  during  which  leading  (1919),  (1932-1945), M u s i c a l  M u s i c R e v i e w , and  two  (Westport,  Times  Musical  w r i t i n g s have been r e p u b l i s h e d by S o r a b j i ( 1932)  1  and  Mi^ c o n t r a  of a M a c h i a v e l l i a n M u s i c i a n  the  of P e r s i a n  i n Wareham.  a d d i t i o n to approximately 2  Essex,  opera s i n g e r of S p a n i s h - S i c i l i a n  i n E n g l a n d and  books, Around Music  In  i n the c o u n t y of  was  B r i t i s h music j o u r n a l s i n c l u d i n g Sackbut  Some o f t h e s e  immoralisings  critic,  c o n t r i b u t o r t o s e v e r a l of the  (1916-1965), C h e s t e r i a n Opinion.  t h e c o m p o s e r and  industrialist  f o r t y - f i v e years  w e e k l y p a p e r s and  AGE  w e l l - k n o w n as a c r i t i c  1920s t o t h e  approximately  NEW  in Chingford  f a t h e r was  Indian o r i g i n ,  THE  Shapurji Sorabji,  b o r n on A u g u s t England. His  CRITIC FOR  644  f a : the  (1947).  c o n t r i b u t i o n s to  books of c o l l e c t e d w r i t i n g s d e a l i n g Conn.: H y p e r i o n  Press  Inc.,  with  1979).  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e l i s t o f c o n t e n t s c o m p i l e d by D e r u s and Rapoport i n the m i c r o f i l m e d package of c o l l e c t e d w r i t i n g s , the t o t a l s o f t h e s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s number 644. ( S e e : K a i k h o s r u S h a p u r j i S o r a b j i : C o l l e c t e d W r i t i n g s From F i v e S e r i a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , ( U n p u b l i s h e d , 1977) , pp. i i - x T x T . T h i s p a c k a g e can be o b t a i n e d by w r i t i n g t o Mr. K e n n e t h D e r u s , 827 S. D r y d e n P l a c e , A r l i n g t o n H e i g h t s , I l l i n o i s 6 0 0 5 , U.S.A. 2  4  musical to  matters,  Sorabji  some o f t h e m o s t  personages during  i salso  influential  the early  British  part  including  the historian-composer  Warlock),  Hugh M a c D i a r m i d  poet  and l i t e r a r y  Dieren, of  Ferroccio  editor  In  century  Philip  (Peter  Heseltine  ( C . M. G r i e v e ,  t h e famous  Busoni,  Erik  and John  respect  Orage  wrote,  Chisholm  f o r Sorabji's  as a c r i t i c  critical  was n o t e d  (1873-1934),  3  Ireland,  as early  the influential weekly  as a f i r s t - r a t e  enthusiam with  to Sorabji's  vivid  music  a s 1932 founder  newspapers f o r  critic  descriptions  criticism  each  judgement.  T h e New A g e a n d T h e New E n g l i s h  recommended S o r a b j i  reference  Scottish  such as Bernard van  importance  communicate h i s  and l i t e r a r y  of the twentieth  o f t h e two s o c i a l i s t - o r i e n t e d  which S o r a b j i highly  musical  letters  and composers  when A l f r e d R i c h a r d and  o f numerous  critic)  whom h a d i m m e n s e Sorabji's  the author  who  Weekly, could  of the music.  i n T h e New A g e , O r a g e  wrote: As I c o n t i n u e d t o r e a d M r . S o r a b j i ' s a r t i c l e s . . . I became g r a d u a l l y aware o f an i n c r e a s i n g a u t h o r i t y i n h i s o p i n i o n s , of an i n c r e a s i n g r e s p e c t f o r and s u b m i s s i o n t o h i s j u d g e m e n t s . . . a n d I do n o t remember t h a t he h a s e v e r f a i l e d me. fl  A l f r e d R i c h a r d O r a g e was r e g a r d e d a s a f o r c e f u l a n d p e r s u a s i v e w r i t e r who w a s q u i c k t o d e t e c t a n d e n c o u r a g e t a l e n t i n o t h e r s . He w a s a l s o a n " u n c o n v e n t i o n a l t h i n k e r who e x e r c i s e d a considerable l i t e r a r y influence and displayed high editorial v i r t u e s i n the s e l e c t i o n , presentation, and integration of l i t e r a r y teams". (The D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l B i o g r a p h y , 1 9 3 1 - 1 9 4 0 , s . v . "A. R. O r a g e , " b y H. B. G r i m s d i t c h ) . 3  "A. R. O r a g e i n t h e " F o r w a r d " t o S o r a b j i ' s A r o u n d M u s i c ( 1 9 3 2 ) , pp. x - x i . I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether S o r a b j i ' s career as music c r i t i c would have l a u n c h e d i n t o a s s u c c e s s f u l a r o u t e a s i t d i d i f such an important person as Orage had not supported him.  5  In  1933, C l i n t o n G r a y - F i s k  Musical Opinion  f o r over  sixteen years, acclaimed  of t h e l e a d i n g music c r i t i c s famous G e o r g e B e r n a r d  ( d . 1961), t h e c h i e f c r i t i c of S o r a b j i a s one  i n E n g l a n d , s u r p a s s i n g even t h e  Shaw a n d E r n e s t  Newman.  One c a n o n l y t h i n k o f two w r i t e r s on m u s i c , who f o r f o r c e o f e x p r e s s i o n , e r u d i t i o n , and b r e a t h o f sympathy, a p p r o a c h S o r a b j i t o w i t , E r n e s t Newman a n d B e r n a r d Shaw, and o f t h e s e Shaw c a n n o t s p e a k w i t h t h e h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l a u t h o r i t y o f S o r a b j i , w h i l e Newman, a t a n y r a t e i n h i s j o u r n a l i s t i c work i s c o m p e l l e d t o m o d e r a t e h i m s e l f t o the requirements of t h e laws of l i b e l . 5  The  composer B e r n a r d  impressed  ( 1 8 8 4 - 1 9 3 6 ) was a l s o h i g h l y  with Sorabji's c r i t i c a l  he w r o t e a l e t t e r admiration  van D i e r e n  judgement. I n t h e mid-1940s,  t o S o r a b j i i n w h i c h he s p e c i f i c a l l y  expressed  f o rSorabji's c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s :  I am v e r y f l a t t e r e d t o r e a d y o u r h i g h o p i n i o n o f my work i n g e n e r a l and your v e r y p e n e t r a t i n g and c l e a r o b s e r v a t i o n s regarding the performance of the p i e c e s p r e s e n t e d on t h i s o c c a s i o n . W i t , b r e v i t y , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and f o r c e f u l p r o s e a r e s u c h r a r e t h i n g s e v e r y o n e o f them t h a t i t i s a memorable e x p e r i e n c e t o f i n d them c o n t a i n e d i n one s i n g l e c r i t i c i s m . . . . . . . I am more t h a n a n x i o u s t o t e l l how v e r y much I v a l u e y o u r c r i t i c i s m a n d what v e r y h i g h o p i n i o n s I have of your l i t e r a r y powers n o t t o m e n t i o n your m u s i c i a n s h i p and e r u d i t i o n . 6  Some t w e n t y y e a r s  later,  Hugh M c D i a r m i d w r o t e w i t h t h e  h i g h e s t p r a i s e about S o r a b j i ' s music c r i t i c i s m autobiography,  in his  The Company I ' v e K e p t :  Where e l s e i n a n y book p u b l i s h e d i n B r i t a i n , o r i n any B r i t i s h ' p e r i o d i c a l , i n the l a s t h a l f - c e n t u r y w i l l you f i n d m u s i c a l c r i t i c i s m of t h i s q u a l i t y ? S o r a b j i ' s 5  C.  Gray-Fisk  [February  16,  i n a review  1933]s189).  E x t r a c t from a l e t t e r 154-156.  6  of S o r a b j i ' s Around Music,  (New Age 52  t o S o r a b j i r e p r i n t e d i n Mi_ c o n t r a f a , p p .  6  m u s i c a l c r i t i c i s m . . . has an u n m a t c h e d a u t h o r i t y , d e r i v e d from the f a c t t h a t the w r i t e r u n d e r s t a n d s the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s f r o m i n s i d e , and h a s h i m s e l f made g r e a t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e a r t s o r t h e a r t s he w r i t e s a b o u t and i s one a t t h e l e v e l w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t o f t h o s e he criticizes. 7  Sorabji's  importance as a c r i t i c  s c h o l a r s who who  was  d e s c r i b e d him as a " m o d e r n i s t " , t h a t  propagated not o n l y contemporary  also  8  For example,  S o r a b j i was  various i s ,a  critic  B r i t i s h m u s i c , b u t one  i n t r o d u c e d s e v e r a l unknown c o m p o s e r s t o t h e  audiences. write  a l s o n o t e d by  the f i r s t  who  English  i n England to  i n p r a i s e o f s u c h c o m p o s e r s as A l k a n , M a h l e r , M e d n e r ,  B u s o n i , and S z m a n o v s k y  (whose m u s i c was  d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t of t h i s  r a r e l y heard i n England  century).  S o r a b j i h a s been d e s c r i b e d by v a r i o u s a u t h o r s a s b e i n g t h e most d i r e c t ,  straightforward,  music c r i t i c s .  j u s t , h o n e s t , and r e l i a b l e  He h a s been c i t e d a s a c r i t i c  who  u n d e r any c i r c u m s t a n c e s , " p u t up w i t h n o n s e n s e " ; " i n c a p a b l e of b e i n g a f f e c t e d  o r p r o p h e t s o f woe  9  a  not,  critic  i n t h e sense of b e i n g d e f l e c t e d  f r o m h i s t r e m e n d o u s a n d u n r e m i t t i n g o u t p u t by 'critics'  would  of  who  so-called  p o i n t to the overwhelming  trend  M c D i a r m i d d e v o t e d an e n t i r e c h a p t e r i n h i s book t o d i s c u s s i n g S o r a b j i t h e c o m p o s e r and t h e c r i t i c . T h i s e s s a y was a F e s t s c h r i f t i n h o n o u r o f S o r a b j i ' s b i r t h d a y . I t was w r i t t e n i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e composer R o n a l d S t e v e n s o n and the p i a n i s t J o h n Ogden. (H. M c D i a r m i d , The Company I ' v e K e p t , [ L o n d o n : H u t c h i n g s o n o f L o n d o n , 1 9 6 6 ] , pp. 66-67TI 7  T h e New G r o v e D i c t i o n a r y o f M u s i c a n d M u s i c i a n s , s . v . K a i k h o s r u , " by D o n a l d G a r v e l m a n n . 8  "Sorabji,  S a c h e v e r a l l S i t w e l l , " K a i k h o s r u S o r a b j i " i n t h e programme n o t e s t o Y o n t y S o l o m o n ' s c o n c e r t a t t h e Wigmore H a l l , L o n d o n , December 7, 1976, p. 7. 9  7  of  the times, that  "a c r i t i c size." only  with  in Sorabji  i n degree  matters  but  influential collegues  and  and  following  have  from  want";  nobody  to  "a p h e n o m e n o n d i f f e r e n t n o t on m u s i c a l  Sorabji critic,  was  r e g a r d e d as  criticism.  to the e d i t o r  an  a t l e a s t among h i s  a c q u a i n t a n c e s . However, not a l l of  h i s music  and  1 0  1 2  important music  letter  masses'  every other w r i t e r  indicate that  close  readers praised  we  today."  comments  'emancipated  t o c u t down t h e p r e t e n t i o u s  in kind  in Britain  Such  the  the a b i l i t y  Thus,  1 1  i s what  Sorabji's  Consider for instance,  o f The  New  the  Age:  S i r , — T h e language of f i s h - p o r t e r s a p p l i e d t o m u s i c a l c r i t i c i s m w o u l d be m o r e t o l e r a b l e i f M r . S o r a b j i ' s d i s t r i b u t i o n of e c s t a t i c s and abuse were d i s c r i m i n a t e . . . . I s u g g e s t t h a t Mr. S o r a b j i ' s p e r s o n a l i d i o s y n c r a s i e s , masquerading as c r i t i c i s m , a r e not s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e r e s t i n g t o c a r r y the weight of the r i o t of words i n w h i c h t h e y a r e s e t d o w n . 1 3  In  a survey conducted  year  after Sorabji  by  of  1  Sorabji  who  matter  The  Norman P e t e r k i n , notes t o Solomon's 1 1  1 2  H.  W. 36, 13  McDiarmid, T. No.  i f , for instance,  The  ."  1925,  only  a  negative  the c i r c u l a t i o n  might  the v i o l e n t  increase opinions  1 4  Company I ' v e  Kept,  p.  51.  "A N o t e o n K a i k h o s r u S o r a b j i , " P r o g r a m m e 1976 W i g m o r e H a l l p e r f o r m a n c e , p . 9. Company I ' v e K e p t ,  p.  S., " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M u s i c 1 ( O c t o b e r 30, 1924):10.  "What our 1925):35. 1 4  "I think  were o m i t t e d . . .  °Hugh M c D i a r m i d ,  i n November  began w r i t i n g f o r t h e w e e k l y ,  comments were p u b l i s h e d : among p e o p l e  the newspaper  readers are  saying,"  8  New  Age  64. Criticism," 38,  No.  3  New  Age  (November  19,  Thus, friends,  like  who  wrote with to  every  encouraged ardent  writings  music  and  his  critic,  praised  animosity  cease publishing  critical  other  i n the  critiques.  appeared  for  a  journal  him,  Sorabji and  attempt In  to  spite  another  his  nine  had  his  enemies  induce  of  the  this,  years  who editor  Sorabji's  i n The  New  Age.  THE  NEW  AGE  The  New  politics,  weekly  literature,  complicated in  Age,  London  history.  in  1894,  and 1 5  but  the  arts,  The  journal  due  to  throughout  it  in  publication  established  a  provocative  weeklies  else,  reputation  progressive  issues, history,  but  also  1937. for  on  From being  the  i t championed  arts  only and  s u c h new  a  reviews  rather  initially  financial  1 6  on  i t s early of  the  The  journal  political  literature. c a u s e s as  and  publication  difficulties year  years  one  on  long  began  i t s forty-five  in England.  views not  had  severe  (which were p r e v a l e n t ceased  featuring  lifespan) i t  had  most b r i l l i a n t  and  sought, above a l l and  economic  Throughout  Guild  its  Socialism  and  S e e : P a u l S e l v e r , O r a g e a n d t h e New Age C i r c l e : R e m i n i s c e n c e s a n d R e f l e c t i o n s , ( L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n a n d U n w i n L t d . , 1959) and P h i l i p M a i r e t , A_j_ R^ O r a g e : A M e m o i r , (New York: U n i v e r s i t y Books, 1966). 1 5  T h e New A g e was r e g a r d e d a s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l j o u r n a l a s i t p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e s on s u c h r a d i c a l t o p i c s a s " E q u a l i t y b e t w e e n the Sexes" "Abortion" " B i r t h C o n t r o l " "Feminism" and "Sexuality". 1 6  9  Colonel  Douglas'  journal  to  only  one  Social  support  such  Credit Theories;  repertory theatre at  establishment  first  j o u r n a l s to advocate  music  through  relatively The radical.  He  can  rather of  i g n o r a n t of  editor  publishing which  read  of  The  and  articles  some o f be  crude  the  such  sheer  a  time  Age,  A.  R.  being  of  delight  the  and  a  The  c o n t r i b u t o r s to the  the  on  the  was  continent.  without  doubt  a  reputation for  opinionated  the message.  journal  time,  t h a t was  r a c y and  for i t s uninhibited journal  writings  1 7  The  result  informative in  entertaining manner of  worked without  pay  to  prose. for  T a k e f o r example E z r a Pound's review of a p i a n o r e c i t a l i n an e a r l y i s s u e o f t h e j o u r n a l . What o t h e r e d i t o r w o u l d p e r m i t t e d something as o u t r a g e o u s l y rude and i n s u l t i n g as r e v i e w t o be p r i n t e d ? 1 7  the  found have this  "Mr. H a l l i b u t C l a v e r l y g a v e a p i a n o r e c i t a l a t t h e A n a t o l i a n H a l l l a s t T h u r s d a y e v e n i n g . We w o u l d a g a i n r e m i n d Mr C l a v e r l y t h a t a p i a n o i s n o t a kneading-trough or a lawn-mower o r a pop-gun or a p a t e n t steam-hammer. I t i s j u s t a p i a n o . We a s k h i m n o t t o r i d e i t , o r t o s h o v e i t a l o n g , b u t t o p l a y i t . L a s t a u t u m n we m i l d l y p o i n t e d t h i s o u t t o Mr C l a v e r l y a n d a l t h o u g h o u r l a n g u a g e w a s , we b e l i e v e , l u c i d a n d c o u r t e o u s , he i s u p t o h i s o l d t r i c k s a g a i n . F o r e x a m p l e , i n an u n f o r t u n a t e a f f a i r o f S c a r l a t t i ' s . . . ." ( P . S e l v e r , O r a g e a n d t h e New A g e C i r c l e , p p . 32-33).  10  a  s h o c k i n g l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and  d e l i v e r a n c e of was  and  of  when E n g l a n d  O r a g e , was  unorthodox  one  was  contemporary  j o u r n a l ' s well-known  most  first  when t h e r e  European  New  articles  progressive trends  at  the  i t was  current situation  d e s c r i b e d as in their  and  and  the  e s t a b l i s h e d the  including  the  reviews  a time  i n England; British  i t was  majority  of  financial  the  was  New  distinguished  writers  Ludovici—two  efforts  to  included Hilaire  half  equally (the  his  for  and  him  to  opinions  i n the  weekly.  Arnold  section, such as  Ezra  that  the  that  the  But  Oscar  Levy  Selver,  wrote  and  devoted  their  A.  contributors H.  G.  and  Wells, John  appeared c r i t i c i s m Pound, H e r b e r t  Cecil  and  to  Bennett,  there  the  most  Other  1 9  when  Gray,  by  Hughes  Clinton  Sorabji.  Age,  the  the  Chesterton,  Daily Telegraph),  New  cross  journal  Shaw, K e i t h  writers  i t was  i t s staff!  according  the  Ellis,  slightly  i n c l u d i n g Dr.  the  s u r p r i s i n g that  i n The  improved  Wage" by  of  of  music  the  c e r t a i n times  work. Thus  in England  Kaikhosru  i s not  career  allow  the  at  a t t r a c t e d some o f  betterment  In  "No  contents  well-known  Gray-Fisk  his  Age  B e l l o c , Havelock  critic  It  the  George Bernard  Galsworthy.  journal  N i e z s c h e a n s who, the  the  only  for their  nick-named The  more t h a n  the  were p a i d  surprisingly,  M.  I t was  1 8  s i t u a t i o n of  contributors journal  time.  Sorabji  for  bounds  this set  most d i r e c t  was  by  should a  libel  choose  journal  to  that  l a w s and  to  launch would present  manner.  T h e New Age was a p r o j e c t o f a s m a l l t e a m . By u s i n g p e n n a m e s , the c o n t r i b u t o r s continued to c r e a t e the i l l u s i o n t h a t the j o u r n a l had q u i t e a l a r g e s t a f f . 1 8  1 9  P.  Selver,  Orage and  the  New  Age  1 1  Circle,  p.  21.  SORABJI'S CAREER AS MUSIC C R I T I C FOR THE NEW  S o r a b j i ' s c a r e e r as music c r i t i c  f o r The New Age began i n  M a r c h 1924, a t t h e age o f t w e n t y - n i n e . music c r i t i c  when t h e f o r m e r  critic,  He was a p p o i n t e d  chief  C e c i l Gray r e s i g n e d  the e d i t o r s h i p of t h e paper changed h a n d s . a t t r a c t i v e candidate  AGE  f o r the music c r i t i c  2 0  after  S o r a b j i was an  position  having  a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f w i t h t h e r e a d e r s o f The New Age a s a k n o w l e d g e a b l e man i n t h e f i e l d the p r e v i o u s  editor.  When a s k e d merely  replied,  of music through  h i s letters to  2 1  why he began w r i t i n g m u s i c c r i t i c i s m , S o r a b j i " f o r t h e fun of i t . "  2  2  However, t h e l e t t e r s  A c c o r d i n g t o G r a y ' s a u t o b i o g r a p h y , f o l l o w i n g A. R. O r a g e ' s r e s i g n a t i o n , t h e paper f e l l i n t o t h e hands o f a " c o l l e c t i o n o f c r a n k s " (none o t h e r t h a n M a j o r A r t h u r M o o r e , a s t a u n c h d i s c i p l e of C o l o n e l Douglas and h i s S o c i a l C r e d i t t h e o r i e s ) and i t s r e p u t a t i o n was s e v e r e l y damaged. G r a y a n d t h e o t h e r l e a d i n g c o n t r i b u t o r s o f t h e j o u r n a l d e c i d e d t o go on a s t r i k e i n t h e hope o f d i s s u a d i n g t h e new e d i t o r i n h i s v e n t u r e a n d o f e v e n t u a l l y t a k i n g o v e r t h e p a p e r i n t o t h e i r own h a n d s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r G r a y , t h e p l o t f a i l e d a s t h e e d i t o r was a b l e t o h i r e new c o l l a b o r a t o r s i n t i m e . (C. G r a y , M u s i c a l C h a i r s o r Between Two S t o o l s . B e i n g t h e L i f e a n d M e m o i r s o f C e c i l G r a y , ( L o n d o n : H o m e a n d Van T h a i , 1 9 4 8 ) , p p . 2 8 7 - 2 8 8 . 2 0  S o r a b j i ' s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h t h e e d i t o r o f The New Age began i n 1915, n i n e y e a r s b e f o r e h i s a p p o i n t m e n t a s c h i e f m u s i c c r i t i c f o r t h e w e e k l y . The e a r l y l e t t e r s o f 1915 a n d 1916 a r e m o s t l y l e t t e r s of r e v o l t a g a i n s t the treatment of f o r e i g n e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e I n d i a n s , by t h e B r i t i s h . T h e s e l e t t e r s a r e a p t l y t i t l e d " F o r e i g n e r s i n E n g l a n d . " The l e t t e r s w r i t t e n a f t e r F e b r u a r y 1917 a r e on m u s i c a l s u b j e c t s . I t was t h r o u g h t h e s e l e t t e r s t h a t S o r a b j i was a b l e t o p r o v e h i m s e l f a c o m p e t e n t r e v i e w e r of m u s i c a l events t o t h e e d i t o r and t o t h e r e a d e r s of the j o u r n a l . 2 1  S o r a b j i r e p l i e d t h u s when P a u l R a p o p o r t c o n f r o n t e d h i m w i t h t h i s q u e s t i o n . ( L e t t e r t o t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r from Dr. Rapoport d a t e d M a r c h 2, 1 9 8 3 ) . 2 2  12  which  Sorabji  wrote  to P h i l i p  Heseltine  seriously  c o n t e m p l a t i n g becoming  early  1914.  as  reveal  that  a professional  he  had  critic  been  from  as  I h a v e t h i s y e a r g i v e n u p my o t h e r s c h o l a s t i c s t u d i e s t o d e v o t e m y s e l f e n t i r e l y t o m u s i c a l s t u d y w i t h a v i e w of b e c o m i n g a " c r i t i c " ! I p a s s e d t h e L o n d o n M a t r i c . some y e a r s ago a n d i n t e n d t o work f o r I n t e r . Mus. w i t h an eye t o M u s . B a c h . An a c a d e m i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s a n e n o r m o u s h e l p o v e r h e r e , w h e r e p e o p l e a r e i m p r e s s e d by t a n g i b l e results . . . . A f e w y e a r s a g o , I h a d no t h o u g h t o f t a k i n g u p m u s i c s e r i o u s l y , b u t now I f i n d t h a t o n l y w i t h i t c o u l d I r e a l l y be h a p p y . 2 3  It  i s evident that  from  the  t i m e he  determined  t o become a p r o f e s s i o n a l  encouraged  continously  Heseltine  and  McDiarmid, Orage, long  as  of w r i t i n g  musical  1930,  he  standard  He  was  the o t h e r c o l l e a g u e s such as  Hugh  Dieren, Clinton  G r a y - F i s k , and  Sorabji's  critical Sorabji  began  views  A.  R.  throughout h i s  ones because  of performances  r e v i e w s on m u s i c a l  feeling  to withdraw  e s t a b l i s h m e n t by  more s p e c i a l  critic.  was  career.  composition left  early  music  Philip  o f whom c h a m p i o n e d  professional  nineteen, Sorabji  i n h i s c h o i c e o f c a r e e r by  B e r n a r d van  each  Years and  some o f  was  attending  weary and slowly  fewer  performance  d e p l e t e d . As  from  the  concerts,  current or  of h i s d e c r e a s i n g t o l e r a n c e at  the m a j o r i t y  of  only  the  f o r the  the c o n c e r t s i n  London. * 2  2  3  Fifth  letter  to Heseltine  dated February  3,  1914.  pp.  6-7.  "Some h i s t o r i a n s w o u l d a g r e e w i t h S o r a b j i ' s v i e w s on t h e l o w standard of performances i n England d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t of t h i s c e n t u r y . T h e p e r c e i v e d d e t e r i o r a t i o n was t h o u g h t t o be c a u s e d by t h e mass m u s i c e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s w h i c h t h r u s t numerous u n q u a l i f i e d amateur p e r f o r m e r s onto the London s t a g e s . (See: E. D. M a c k e r n e s s , A S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h M u s i c , 2  13  Sorabji essay  has  "Il  clearly  Gran  expressed  Rifuto:  h i s views  Reasons  It  i s thus  understandable  stopped  writing  music  replied  that  was  and  he  low-standard  reviews  of  such  criticism  utterly  c o n c e r t s had 2  As  6  a  subject in  a particular  had  a higher  performances. eliminate  fondness.  directly  s o many y e a r s ,  w i t h the d u l l , i n London, and  that  for live  second-  strive  In h i s o p i n i o n ,  to  and  "saviours"  third-rate  imitate  their  in that  he  writing f o r him  than  performances, f o r which  he  recordings generally  they  performances,  idols.  why  uninteresting,  become more of a c h o r e substitute  2 5  Sorabji  s t a n d a r d of m u s i c a l e x e c u t i o n t h a n most They were  an  attending concerts."  when a s k e d  after  bored  this  t u r n e d t o gramophone r e c o r d i n g s of music  had  would  that  of performances  a pleasant a c t i v i t y . Sorabji  f o r not  on  would as  live slowly  performers  2 7  ( c o n t ' d ) ( L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e a n d K e g a n P a u l , 1 9 6 4 ) ; a n d F. Howes, The E n g l i s h M u s i c a l R e n a i s s a n c e , ( L o n d o n : S e e k e r and Warburg, 1966). S o r a b j i ' s a t t i t u d e of d i s g u s t towards the m u s i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d m u s i c i a n s h a s n o t c h a n g e d up t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . The f o l l o w i n g r e v e a l s t h e c r i t i c ' s f e e l i n g on t h i s s u b j e c t . ( S o r a b j i a s i n t e r v i e w e d on a BBC-TV p r o g r a m m e t i t l e d " A q u a r i u s " [ J u n e 11, 1 9 7 7 ] . A c a s s e t t e r e c o r d i n g o f t h i s i n t e r v i e w was s u p p l i e d t o t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r b y K e n n e t h D e r i i s . ) " I l o a t h e m u s i c i a n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r f o r m e r s . Y o u h a v e t o be i n a c o n c e r t h a l l w i t h them t o s m e l l t h e i r s p i r i t u a l and moral aura. I t ' s a real stench." 2 4  2 5  K.  Sorabji,  Letter M a r c h 2, 2 6  "Il  Gran R i f u t o , "  to the present writer 1983.  i n Mi from  Contra  Dr.  f a , pp.  Paul Rapoport  141-142. dated  S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e i m p r o v e m e n t s o f w i r e l e s s t r a n s m i s s i o n s ] , " New Age 3 8 , No. 14 ( F e b r u a r y 4, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 6 7 . ( T h e page number o f t h i s a r t i c l e i n t h e m i c r o f i l m e d p a c k a g e c o m p i l e d by D e r u s a n d R a p o p o r t i s 58. H e n c e f o r t h t h e s e p a g e n u m b e r ( s ) w i l l be a n n o t a t e d t h u s : [DR 5 8 ] ) . 2 7  14  As  S o r a b j i became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i s c o u r a g e d by  s c e n e i n L o n d o n , and concerts,  he  recordings leading  as he  adopted the  slowly  record  reviewing  t o him  m a n u f a c t u r e r s of  f i r s t music c r i t i c s  stopped attending  h a b i t of  w h i c h were s u p p l i e d  the  in great  time.  recording  He  1932,  as a w e l l - k n o w n and was  S o r a b j i had  companies. In f a c t ,  e i t h e r on  f r o m May  But  disappointing  e v e n t h e s e few  also  the  gramophone  and  not  record  involved  were  heard  did, i t in  like  considered i f he  other  often finally  decided  altogether.  a r e g u l a r w e e k l y c o n t r i b u t o r t o The  c r i t i c s , w r o t e r e v i e w s o n l y when  a p a r t i c u l a r concert  t o be  of  sufficient  b e l i e v e d a s p e c i f i c p e r f o r m e r or composer  15  was  the  New  A l t h o u g h c o m p l i m e n t a r y t i c k e t s were o f t e n a v a i l a b l e t o  Sorabji  of  1934,  r e v i e w . I f he  for S o r a b j i . Consequently, Sorabji  was  himself  whose j u d g e m e n t  performances  exceptions  scene  the  onwards, the m a j o r i t y  c o m p o s e r o r p e r f o r m e r was  t o withdraw from the m u s i c a l Sorabji  was  t h e gramophone. A f t e r  r a r e l y wrote a p u b l i c concert  production.  or  1931  r e v i e w s were b a s e d on  o n l y when a g r e a t  Age.  28,  the  technical  some o f t h e most p o w e r f u l  t h e w i r e l e s s o r on  Sorabji,  of  established  sucessful record-reviewer  h e a v i l y r e l i e d upon by  Sorabji's musical  one  of m u s i c and  already  public  a b u n d a n c e by  was  a u t h o r of s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s d i s c u s s i n g v a r i o u s w i r e l e s s s e t s . By  musical  gramophone  i n England t o encourage the  a d v a n c e m e n t s made i n t h e  the  him,  he importance, deserved  attention. regular review the  Since  2 8  basis, for  for of  several several  r e v i e w s of journal. the took  of  b e c a u s e he  insignificant,  did  felt  the  that  Sorabji a  time.  and  example,  the  would  Often  submit  the  comprises  during  majority  frequently  a  for every  reviews  week o f  May  of  to of not  the  weekly  submit  i s no  the  a  concerts  would  issue  of  forty-first  weekly  to  23,  to  were article  of  reviews short  the volume  seven d i f f e r e n t concerts 16  a  In  combine  instead  on  pattern  journal.  summit an  article  i n the  to  there  Sorabji  long  article  i t s contributors  obligated  contributions  single concerts  2 9  feel  pay  Sorabji's  concerts  journal  not  not  section. Therefore,  weeks a t  For  place  journal did  Sorabji  i t s music  frequency  fact,  the  of that  1927.  S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e a b u n d a n c e o f c o n c e r t tickets a n d t h e l a c k o f g o o d c o n c e r t p r o g r a m m e s ] ; L.S.O Queen's. October 2 7 , " New Age 4 8 , No. 1 ( N o v e m b e r 6, 1 9 3 0 ) . (DR 2 0 7 - 2 0 8 ) . 2 8  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Mme. Wanda L a n d o w s k a ( W i g m o r e H a l l , 1 6 ) , " New Ag_e 4 1 , No. 6 ( J u n e 9, 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 6 9 . (DR 88-89).  2 9  16  May  TABLE 1 T O T A L NUMBER OF C O N T R I B U T I O N S ( M U S I C A L AND OTHERS) MADE P E R Y E A R BY S O R A B J I I N THE NEW AGE FROM MARCH 2 0 , 1 9 2 4 TO J U L Y 2 6 , 1 9 3 4  YEAR  NUMBER OF LETTERS TO THE EDITOR  NUMBER OF ARTICLES  T O T A L NUMBER OF CONTRIBUTIONS  1924  6  13  19  1925  2  1 6  18  1 926  2  19  21  1927  1  18  19  1 928  6  25  31  1929  5  26  31  1930  3  22  25  1931  1  18  19  1 932  1  16  1 7  1 933  -  7  7  1 934  -  14  14  TOTAL  27  1 94  17  221  Table  1 indicates  w e r e made b y S o r a b j i years. his  3 0  Sorabji's  t h e number  i n T h e New  most  least productive  active  year,  of c o n t r i b u t i o n s  Age years  for a period were  i n w h i c h he  per year  just  over ten  1928 t o 1 9 3 0 ;  submitted  only  that  1933  seven  articles.  3 0  For  a complete  list  of w r i t i n g s  18  by S o r a b j i ,  see Appendix  1.  was  III.  SORABJI'S  WRITINGS  IN  T H E NEW A G E  M u s i c a l c r i t i c i s m which had reached  i t s p i n n a c l e i n the  w r i t i n g s of F e t i s and B e r l i o z i n France and Wagner, H a n s l i c k , and Wolf i n Germany during the n i n e t e e n t h century, slowly rose from  i t s slumber of conservatism  i n England. During the e a r l y  nineteenth century, E n g l i s h music c r i t i c i s m had " d r i f t e d backwater"  1  into  due t o the c o n s e r v a t i v e t a s t e s of such c r i t i c s as H.  F. Chorley and J . W. Davison who had dominated the c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n i n England from  f o r a p e r i o d of approximately  fifty  years,  1830 t o 1879. For these w r i t e r s , the g i a n t s i n music were  Beethoven, Mendelssohn and R o s s i n i ; Germany was regarded as the leader i n music. The c o n s e r v a t i v e o p i n i o n s of these b u r i e d even the most h e r o i c attempts  critics  of the E n g l i s h composers.  Towards the end of the n i n e t e e n t h century, George Bernard Shaw aroused  the E n g l i s h musical establishment with h i s l i t e r a r y and  imaginative s t y l e and together with Ernest Newman l i t the world of B r i t i s h musical  criticism.  Shaw and Newman promoted the works of both the acknowledged Masters  as w e l l as l e s s e r contemporary European and B r i t i s h  composers. Thus, Shaw' i n t r o d u c e d the music of Wagner t o the E n g l i s h p u b l i c and Ernest Newman brought many contemporaries  the achievements of  t o the l i m e l i g h t . The c r i t i q u e s of Shaw and  The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Music " C r i t i c i s m , " by Winton Dean. 1  19  and M u s i c i a n s , s.v.  Newman were n o t mere r e v i e w s o f p e r f o r m a n c e s b u t r a t h e r f u l l - f l e d g e d e s s a y s on t h e m u s i c The  itself.  name o f S o r a b j i must be a d d e d  t o t h e company o f w r i t e r s  t h a t r e f o r m e d B r i t i s h m u s i c c r i t i c i s m . He c h a m p i o n e d of many c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s  B r i t i s h and European  i n c l u d i n g A l k a n , Mahler, Medtner, D e l i u s , W a l t o n , Lambert  composers,  Busoni, S i b e l i u s ,  a n d Vaughan W i l l i a m s .  of h i s l o n g - s t a n d i n g sympathy p r i m a r i l y on c o n t e m p o r a r y  t h e works  Szymanovsky,  In fact,  f o r modern m u s i c , S o r a b j i  because wrote  music:  I h a v e a l w a y s f r e e l y c o n f e s s e d my e x t r e m e l y keen a p p r e c i a t i o n o f , a n d l i v e l y sympathy w i t h t h e u l t r a - m o d e r n i s t phase o f contemporary m u s i c . . . . i t i s among t h e u l t r a - m o d e r n s t h a t I am i n my m u s i c a l e l e m e n t , t h e r e i s t h a t i n t h e i r m u s i c w h i c h s a t i s f i e s me c o m p l e t e l y , what i t i s I c a n n o t d e f i n e , b u t w h a t e v e r i t i s , t h i s i s s o m e t h i n g f o r me a t any r a t e , l a c k i n g i n much o f t h e o l d e r m u s i c . 2  The n a t u r e o f t h e w e e k l y The New Age was s u c h t h a t p r e s e n t - d a y a c t i v i t i e s more s o t h a n h i s t o r i c a l  i t emphasized  ones.  Sorabji  wrote l a r g e l y about c u r r e n t e v e n t s and m u s i c i a n s i n London including singers,  instrumentalists, conductors, orchestras,  c h o i r s , operas, repertory, concert h a l l s , e d u c a t i o n , music c r i t i c i s m ,  the s t a t e of musical  and t h e music c o p y r i g h t b i l l .  He  a l s o w r o t e on t h e most h o t l y - d e b a t e d t o p i c s o f t h e d a y s u c h a s s o c i a l i s m , racism, feminism, b i r t h - c o n t r o l , unemployment a n d B r i t i s h An e x a m p l e  rule  illustrating  given performance  abortion,  i n India. S o r a b j i ' s scope of c r i t i c i s m  of a  i s h i s r e v i e w o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f Wagner's  F i r s t l e t t e r t o H e s e l t i n e d a t e d O c t o b e r 3, 1913, w r i t t e n a t t h e age o f e i g h t e e n , p p . 1-2. 2  20  R i n g c y c l e a t Covent Garden i n 1927.  3  S o r a b j i wrote about t h e  o r c h e s t r a l p l a y i n g , t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e a c t o r s on t h e s t a g e , t h e lighting,  stage  d e t a i l . A review instance,  s e t s , scene-changes and t h e music  i n great  o f t h e same work by E r n e s t Newman, f o r  focused e x c l u s i v e l y  on t h e m u s i c  S o r a b j i ' s c r i t i q u e s were g e a r e d  toward  alone." rousing the feelings  o f e v e n t h e p a s s i v e r e a d e r s . He was c e r t a i n l y a b l e t o w r i t e w i t h p r a i s e , enthusiasm,  a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t . What p e r f o r m e r , f o r  e x a m p l e , w o u l d n o t dream o f r e c e i v i n g a r e v i e w on Egon P e t r i ' s  s u c h a s t h i s one  performance?  On Sunday e v e n i n g , 8 t h , f o r a s h o r t h a l f - h o u r some m i l l i o n s o f p e o p l e were a d m i t t e d i n t o t h e i n n e r s h r i n e o f m u s i c — o n e s a y s a d m i t t e d , r a t h e r s h o u l d one s a y , t h e d o o r s t h e r e o f were o p e n e d t o them t h r o u g h t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t power a n d g r e a t n e s s o f Egon P e t r i ' s B a c h - p l a y i n g . Imagine t h e superb p r e c i s i o n , t h e g i g a n t i c c o n t r o l l e d power o f t h e movement o f some g r e a t e n g i n e , t h e f i n e s s o f l i n e , t h e m a t c h l e s s b a l a n c e o f mass a g a i n s t mass, t h e i n c o m p a r a b l e d r a u g h t s m a n s h i p , t h e sense of d e s i g n of a Duerer e n g r a v i n g . i n terms of sound, and p e r h a p s t h i s w i l l c o n v e y some i d e a o f P e t r i ' s B a c h p l a y i n g . Here i s n o t B a c h - b y - t h e - y a r d so f a s h i o n a b l e i n E n g l a n d , b u t a B a c h on w h i c h w h i l e a l l e x i g e n c i e s o f s t r u c t u r e and p h r a s e a r e p r e s e r v e d t o t h e utmost, a r e t u r n e d a l l t h e c o l o u r , nuance, r h y t h m i c a l and t o n a l s h a d i n g t h a t an u n c a r i n g s e n s e o f T i g h t n e s s d i c t a t e s t o an a r t i s t o f g e n i u s — r u b a t i , s o e l a s t i c a n d s u b t l e , t h a t t h e r h y t h m p u l s e s t h r o u g h them smooth a n d v e l v e t y w i t h no j o l t n o r j a r n o r d i s t u r b a n c e p e r c e p t i b l e , a d i v e r s i t y of tone c o l o u r l i k e a h a r p s i c h o r d o r organ, and a m a j e s t i c b r e a t h of s t y l e and a s e r e n i t y t h a t a r e t h e v e r y e s s e n c e t h a t e s c a p e s 999 o u t o f 1,000 p l a y e r s , n a t u r a l l y enough, s i n c e o n l y t h e c l a i r v o y a n t f a c u l t y t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s g e n i u s i s c a p a b l e of r e v e a l i n g i t and S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : C o v e n t G a r d e n : D e r R i n g d e s N i b e l u n g e n , " New Age 4 1 , No. 4 (May 2 6 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 4 5 , (DR 8 7 ) . 3  ."See: E. Newman, The T e s t a m e n t o f M u s i c , Ltd., 1962), p. 286.  21  ( L o n d o n : Putnam a n d Co.  expressing But  Sorabji could  satirical with  it.  his  5  also write  manner, p r o v i n g scathing  i n the  himself  most d e n i g r a t i n g v u l g a r  a v e r i t a b l e 'Master  of  and  Insult'  remarks:  A n d a s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t h e B a c h s u n g a n d p l a y e d b y M i s s e s X and Y r e s p e c t i v e l y t o l d us a g r e a t d e a l more a b o u t t h e s e l a d i e s t h a n a b o u t B a c h . I do n o t p r o p o s e t o g i v e t h e m t h e h o n o u r o f e v e n d i s p a r a g i n g m e n t i o n b y name i n a p e r i o d i c a l o f s u c h d i s t i n c i o n a s o u r s , h e n c e t h e X. a n d Y. S u f f i c i e n t be i t t h a t t h e o n e i s a p o p u l a r i s h s o p r a n o of t h e b a l l a d e t y p e , t h e l a t t e r a s t i l l more p o p u l a r c h o r y b a n t i c p i a n i s t of the w r i t h i n g , i n t e n s e t y p e , t h e k i n d t h a t p l a y s w i t h e v e r y p a r t of h e r body, n a t u r a l l y e x c e p t the p a r t most c o n c e r n e d , her f i n g e r s . H e r s u c c e s s , I am c o n v i n c e d i s c h i e f l y d u e t o h e r s i n u o s i t i e s , o u r a u d i e n c e s b e i n g f a r t o o much c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s i n f u l l u s t s of t h e eye t o e n a b l e p r o p e r l y t o attend with t h e i r ears . . . . . . . N e i t h e r p o s s e s s e s the g l i m m e r i n g s of a p e r c e p t i o n of the need, of the most a b s o l u t e t e c h n i c a l p r e c i s i o n t h a t d r a w i n g of f i n e , steady, form, c l e a n l i n e s , without which Bach i n t e r p r e t a t i o n does not begin. N e i t h e r can h o l d a p h r a s e w i t h o u t l e t t i n g i t sag i n t h e m i d d l e l i k e a c l o t h e s - l i n e , and e a c h has r e c o u r s e to i n j e c t i n g i n t o the music t h a t e x t r a n e o u s and hideously i n a p p r o p r i a t e " f e e l i n g " t h a t i s the h a l l m a r k of the bad p e r f o r m e r and a p r o o f t h a t t h e r o o t of t h e m a t t e r i s not i n him or h e r . 6  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On S e p t e m b e r 8, 1 9 2 9 ] , " New 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 159). 5  Egon P e t r i ' s p i a n o r e c i t a l , Sunday A^e 4 5 , No. 22 ( S e p t e m b e r 2 6 ,  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : The P o w e r s o f ( A u g u s t 3 0 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 2 1 5 , (DR 125).  6  22  the  A i r , " New  Age  43,  No.  18  S O R A B J I ' S GENERAL MUSICAL  Before British  looking  composers,  affinities  be  AFFINITIES  specifically  as  understanding  of  the  understanding  of  Sorabji's  Heseltine,  that  "ultra-modern" garde  will  composers or  and  Bartok  the  opposite  Stravinsky,  (each of to  true.  of  group of  romantic,  post-romantic  not  too  far  Sorabji's writings music.  i n The  For  dislike New  Age he  especially  the  orchestral  e f f e c t s and  works.  Sacre  du  In  and  of  a  Printemps  1925  new  to  of  and  and 1913  to  the be  the  avant  his writings  musical  S o r a b j i , the  twelve-tone the  avant  styles)  reveals  ultra-moderns  early  twentieth-century  pounding chordal  review,  (1913) to  negative music  rhythmic  immense. criticism  of  Sorabji  did  language. His of  such  Stravinsky,  ostinatos,  combinations  Strauss'  23  harmonic  g a r d e was  the  on  Honneger  i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c composers that  detested  the  of  of  Schoenberg, Hindemith,  abound w i t h  powerfully  letter  music  an  his  inconsistent  analysis  nineteenth-  i n t o the  instance,  early  For  better  considered  whom p r o p a g a t e d  consisted  stray  a  be  musical  criticism,  the  on  music. Without  in his  mostly  i n music. However, a c u r s o r y  such composers as  of  written,  w h a t he  general  on  irrational,  appreciated  writings  promote a  philosophy  had  his  aesthetics  seem  Sorabji he  this  critic's  initially  inconsequential.  Sorabji's  i t i s e s s e n t i a l that  discussed  j u d g e m e n t s may  at  evident  the in  compared S t r a v i n s k y ' s opera  Elektra  (1910):  loud the Le  The g r e a t o p e r a t i c e v e n t h a s b e e n t h e r e t u r n o f " E l e k t r a " . . . One r e a l i s e s a g a i n s t i l l m o r e a c u t e l y t h a t "Le S a c r e du P r i n t e m p s " i s a f t e r t h i s t h e mere s t a m m e r i n g f u m b l i n g o f an i n t e l l e c t u a l b a b y . T h e r e i s more b r a i n power i n t h e f i r s t f i v e p a g e s of " E l e k t r a " than i n a l l of S t r a v i n s k y ' s work put together . . . . 7  His  subsequent views  same t h r o u g h o u t Any quickly Le  Roi  music  perceived  the  his career tainted  c o n d e m n e d by David  on  by  of  as  of  music  even  Sorabji.  ( 1 9 2 1 ) was  t o be  music  S t r a v i n s k y remained critic  a t r a c e of For  criticised  f o r the  the  journal.  "Stravinskyism"  i n s t a n c e , Honneger's bitingly  was  oratorio  f o r what S o r a b j i  Stravinsky's influence.  A v e r y t y p i c a l s p e c i m e n o f t h e w o r k t u r n e d o u t by t h e e p i g o n i of S t r a v i n s k y — a s t e x t u r e l e s s and i n c o h e r e n t as the worst works of t h e i r master w i t h a c r u d i t y and c l u m s i n e s s of workmanship t h a t goes even beyond h i s . T h e r e i s t h e same " s t u n n i n g m o n o t o n y o f r h y t h m " ( t o q u o t e a d e v o t e d d i s c i p l e ) w h i c h i n t h i s c a s e has not even the p a s s i n g p a t h o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t i t has i n h i s , s i n c e w i t h them i t i s a s o r t of m a l i n g e r i n g . 8  The to  earlier  unprecedented  Verklaerte music" a  works of  Nacht  i n 1927;  polychromatic  9  Schoenberg  heights  score  marvel  of  took  w e r e much a d m i r e d  ( 1 8 9 9 ) was the  which  considered of  Wagner's by  t o be  chromaticism  Sorabji. a  "superb piece  G u r r e l i e d e r ( 1 9 1 1 ) was  every  conceivable  tint,  a  "a  of  miracle,  glowing  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [ R e g a r d i n g the p e r f o r m a n c e of S t r a u s s ' E l e k t r a ] , " New A g e 3 7 , No. 6 ( J u n e 1 1 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 6 8 , (DR 4 8 ) . 7  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Q u e e n ' s H a l l O r c h e s t r a ; B.B.C. C o n c e r t . A l b e r t H a l l , M a r c h 17: M i s s V i o l e t G o r d o n W o o d h o u s e , " New Age 4 0 , No. 23 ( A p r i l 1 7 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 7 3 , (DR 8 4 - 8 5 ) . B  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: R o y a l C h o r a l S o c i e t y , J a n u a r y F e b r u a r y 3; S o l i t o d e S o l i s , F e b r u a r y 1 5 , " New A g e ( F e b r u a r y 2 4 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 9 7 , (DR 82) 9  24  29; 40,  B.B.C, No. 17  fabric  of incomparable  the second  string  r i c h n e s s and  q u a r t e t of  1908  t h e o n l y work t h a t had a v i t a l i t y  imaginative beauty";  was  a "modern work, t h a t i s ,  o f i t s own  as d i s t i n c t  the e x t r a n e o u s l y o r i g i n a t e d  j e r k s and  of M e s s r s . A r t h u r B l i s s and  t h e r a g - d o l l s o f Mr.  Hindemith."  j o l t s of the m a r i o n e t t e s  was  Paul  averse to Schoenberg's l a t e r  and v o c a l e x p e r i m e n t s . A r e v i e w o f a r e l a t i v e l y utilizing  c o m p o s i t i o n , Das 1929,  from  1 1  However, S o r a b j i  Schoenberg  and  1 0  t h e new  harmonic  e a r l y work o f  e x p e r i m e n t a l methods o f  B u c h d e r Haengenden G a e r t e n  (1908) w r i t t e n i n  p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e of S o r a b j i ' s l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g  p a r o c h i a l d i s l i k e o f t h e new  and  style:  . . . the "songs" as a whole are a l l but a d e n i a l , a n e g a t i o n o f t h e human v o i c e , s p r i n g i n g f r o m t h e p e r v e r s e a n t i - v o c a l o b s e s s i o n of the l a t t e r - d a y Schoenberg . . . . On t h e w h o l e , t h e f r i g i d i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t o r t i o n s o f t h e m u s i c seem a c u r i o u s a e s t h e t i c r e a c t i o n t o t h e s e warmly, r i c h l y c o l o u r e d poems. 1 2  S o r a b j i s subsequent  r e v i e w s on t h e m u s i c  of t h i s composer  reflect  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: G e r a l d Cooper C o n c e r t : A e o l i a n , January 24.; G u r r e l i e d e r , S c h o e n b e r g : Queen's H a l l . J a n u a r y 27," New Age 42, No. 15 ( F e b r u a r y 9, 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 7 5 , (DR 1 0 7 ) . 1 0  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : B.B.C. Modern Chamber C o n c e r t . A r t s T h e a t r e C l u b : O c t o b e r 15.; C o n c e r t o f T c h e k o - S l o v a k M u s i c . Queen's: O c t o b e r 16," New Age 43, No. 26 ( O c t o b e r 25, 1 9 2 8 ) : 3 0 9 , (DR 1 2 9 ) . S o r a b j i c o u l d n e v e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r e s e n t - d a y c r a z e o v e r t h e m u s i c of P a u l H i n d e m i t h . I n a r e v i e w o f H i n d e m i t h ' s o v e r t u r e t o t h e c o m i c o p e r a Neues vom Tage (1929) and h i s V i o l a C o n c e r t o ( 1 9 2 5 ) S o r a b j i s t a t e s d i r e c t l y h i s r e a s o n s and o p i n i o n s f o r d i s l i k i n g t h i s composer's m u s i c . See: " M u s i c : B r i t i s h Women's Symphony O r c h e s t r a . ; W i r e l e s s . H i n d e m i t h w o r k s , " New Age 48, No. 3 (November 20, 1 9 3 0 ) : 3 2 , (DR 2 0 9 ) . 1 1  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : B.B.C. Chamber C o n c e r t . ; Egon P e t r i . Wigmore, November 9," New Age 46, No. 3 (November 2 1 , ! 9 2 9 ) : 3 2 - 3 3 , (DR 172-1737. 1 2  25  the  same  opinion.  I n an  1 3  undated l e t t e r  t o Hugh M c D i a r m i d , S o r a b j i w r o t e  h i s c o n t e m p t f o r t h e modern s t y l e s of m u s i c o f t h e  of  day:  For the present-day i d o l s , the S t r a v i n s k y s , the H i n d e m i t h s , t h e S c h o e n b e r g l i c k s p i t t l e s , o f f s h o o t s and t o a d i e s , I h a v e n o t h i n g b u t l o a t h i n g , e x e c r a t i o n and c o n t e m p t . As f o r s e r i a l i s m . . . w e l l ! T h i s i s n o t h i n g b u t a j i g s a w i n t e r m s o f n o t e s i n s t e a d of w o r d s . They a r e a l w a y s p r a t t l i n g o f t h e i n t e n s e l o g i c of i t a l l . . . Ebbene . . . i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n d u c t an a r g u m e n t t h a t i s so s y l l o g i s t i c a l l y f l a w l e s s f r o m premises that are i n h e r e n t l y nonsensical, reaching a l o g i c a l l y s o u n d c o n c l u s i o n b u t one t h a t i s f a c t u a l l y n o n s e n s i c a l . So i t i s w i t h t h e t o n e - r o w e r s , s e r i a l i s t s , and a l l o f t h e m . 1 4  O t h e r e x p o n e n t s o f new condemned by "barbarism" 1930 t o an at  and  musical  S o r a b j i . For of B a r t o k ' s  could hardly  s t y l e s were a l s o  e x a m p l e , he  was  m u s i c w h i c h he  believe that  It  . . .  i s evident  old-fashioned. L i s z t and  ."  shocked at  the  heard at a concert  "such bluntness  uncouthness, i s r e a l l y compatible  i t s highest  roundly  in  tending  with musical  often  expression  15  that Sorabji's musical  H i s h e r o e s were t h e  great  Wagner ( f o r whose w o r k s he  S o r a b j i a d o r e d t h e warm, d e n s e , and  had  t a s t e s were romantics the  rather  Berlioz,  greatest  affinity).  rich orchestral colours  in  S e e f o r e x a m p l e S o r a b j i ' s r e v i e w s on S c h o e n b e r g ' s opus 31 V a r i a t i o n s f o r O r c h e s t r a ( 1 9 2 6 - 2 8 ) : " M u s i c : [On M a g g i e T e y t e ' s b r o a d c a s t r e c i t a l ] : H e l e n M i l v a . ; S c h o e n b e r g : F r i d a y November 13," New Age 50, No. 4 (November 26, 1931.) :40-41 (DR 232). 1 3  f  1  " H u g h M c D i a r m i d , The  Company I've  K e p t , pp.  60-61.  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: Bartok R e c i t a l . A r t s Theatre Club: January 7. B . B . C ; H a l l e C o n c e r t . Q u e e n ' s : J a n u a r y 10.; The M u s i c a l C o p y r i g h t B i l l , " New Age 46, No. 12 ( J a n u a r y 23, 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 3 7 , (DR 184) . 1 5  26  their  works,  strong and  des  textures  varying  passionate that  dissonances.  and  intense  abounded w i t h  He  was  style,  sudden  impressed with  s t r u c t u r e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n Wagner's t i t a n i c  Nibelungen  genius.  vigorous,  chromatic  the  formal  the  (1854-75).  For  the  modulations the  huge  work Der  S o r a b j i , W a g n e r was  a  Ring  super-human  1 6  In  regard  a s t o u n d e d by  to  the  this  music  of  Hector  Berlioz,  composer's Requiem Mass  Sorabji  was  (1837):  T h i s m i g h t y and o v e r w h e l m i n g work, a g r a n i t e rock-hewn t e m p l e , i s one o f t h e m o s t a m a z i n g p o w e r f u l and original c o n c e p t i o n i n a l l m u s i c . One d o e s n o t know w h a t t o a d m i r e and m a r v e l a t most, t h e t r i u m p h a n t l y s u c c e s s f u l use of the f o u r b r a s s o r c h e s t r a s . . . , the a s t o n i s h i n g d a r i n g of the t r e a t m e n t as a w h o l e , the v o l c a n i c power and b u r n i n g i n t e n s i t y of the i n s p i r a t i o n , or the o r i g i n a l i t y of every note. I would g i v e the whole of the s y m p h o n i e s o f B e e t h o v e n f o r one p a g e o f t h e Requiem. 1 7  The Strauss  post-romantic were a l s o  would w r i t e of as  complain  29,  the  to hear  about  vivid  and  S o r a b j i . When he  the  overall  the lack  Mahler of  neglect  performers,  the  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : W a g n e r ' s 1 9 2 4 ) : 5 4 , (DR 18-20).  'Ring',"  could,  performances of  Mahler  the New  Sorabji  by  of  of  Ag_e  this  gigantic  detail,  long 35,  well  the  for their  richness  orchestral colours,  Richard  Symphonies as  symphonies were a p p r e c i a t e d  number of  extraordinarily  1 6  and  Mahler's  structures,  longing  rancor  composer's music English.  f a v o r i t e s of  his  with  composers Gustav Mahler  the  lyrical No.  5  (May  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: Mademoiselle Youra G u l l e r ( A e o l i a n . J a n u a r y 1 5 t h ) ; B.B.C. ( R o y a l A l b e r t H a l l . J a n u a r y 2 0 t h ) ; S o l i t o d e S o l i s ( A e o l i a n . J a n u a r y 2 6 t h ) , " New A g e 4 0 , No. 15 (February 1 0, 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 7 7 , (DR 81). 1 7  27  melodies,  and  music.  In  regard  in a  1930  wrote  the  intense expression to  the  S y m p h o n y No.  and B  "sincerity"  in. E  flat  of  the  (1907),  Sorabji  review:  T h i s g r e a t and g l o r i o u s work, the summit and crowning achievement of M a h l e r ' s l i f e work, r e c e i v e d i t s f i r s t E n g l i s h p e r f o r m a n c e — a f t e r nearly twenty years' existence . . . . The b u r n i n g e x a l t e d s p i r i t o f t h e music—the work of a v e r y g r e a t and a r d e n t m u s i c a l s o u l — m a d e t h e o c c a s i o n one o f t h e g r e a t e s t e x p e r i e n c e s o f a l i f e t i m e . No w o r k s i n c e t h e B m i n o r M a s s h a s m o r e w o n d e r f u l l y , nor w i t h g r e a t e r l o f t i n e s s , n o b i l i t y and such all-consumming p a s s i o n a t e s i n c e r i t y , expressed the Catholic spirit. 1  Sorabji works w i t h  8  o f t e n compared Mahler's  the  brilliant  f r e n z y of  intensely  Richard  compositions.  In S o r a b j i ' s o p i n i o n , S t r a u s s  compositional  pinnacle  orchestral outside  tone  these  banalities." post-romantic style  of  Sibelius' from  the  opera  poem E i n H e l d e n l e b e n  masterpieces  were  Salome  Strauss' had  toward  as the  "trivial music  and  Jan  Sibelius.  for i t s "stark laconic i t s aloofness  from a l l the  the  works  commonplace  of  f o r the  Sorabji  qualities,  his  in  A l l other  composers prompted h i s a d m i r a t i o n F i n n i s h composer  reached  (1905) and  (1898).  regarded  Sorabji's affinity  1 9  music  frills,  i n the  introspective  romantic  liked  i t s freedom  fashionable  jargon  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : M a h l e r E i g h t h Symphony: Queen's H a l l , A p r i l 1 5 , " New A g e 4 7 , No. 1 (May 1, 1 9 3 0 ) : 7 , (DR 196). 1 8  S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : C e c i l G r a y ' s B o o k [A S u r v e y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c ] , " New A g e 3 6 , No. 8 ^ D e c e m b e r 1 8 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 9 3 , (DR 36) f o r S o r a b j i ' s c o m m e n t s o n S a l o m e ; a n d " M u s i c : The P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r ; T h e H a l l e O r c h e s t r a ; A New S y s t e m o f S o u n d R e p r o d u c t i o n , " New A g e 3 6 , No. 6 ( D e c e m b e r 4, 1 9 2 4 ) : 6 6 ~ 6 7 , (DR 35) f o r S o r a b j i ' s r e v i e w on E i n Heldenleben. 1 9  28  of t h e  day".  2 0  D e b u s s y and  R a v e l were t h e two most h i g h l y a d m i r e d  I m p r e s s i o n i s t S c h o o l . S o r a b j i was their  i n sympathy w i t h a l m o s t  i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c c o m p o s i t i o n s . The  evocative  imagery  highly praised.  2 1  subtle, delicate  of s u c h w o r k s a s t h e t h r e e N o c t u r n e s  P e l l e a s et Melisande The  of  ( 1 9 0 2 ) , L a Mer  ( 1 9 0 5 ) , and  Iberia  S o r a b j i ' s o p i n i o n , D a p h n i s e t C h l o e was  a l l of and  (1899), were  c o n c e r t v e r s i o n of R a v e l ' s b a l l e t  e t Chloe' (1912) a l s o r e c e i v e d a g l o w i n g r e v i e w  the  Daphnis  i n 1928.  In  Ravel's best w o r k ;  2 2  but  t h e w o r k s composed a f t e r D a p h n i s showed a d e f i n i t e d e c l i n e i n Ravel's compositional s t y l e . Ravel's t u r n towards  2 3  Sorabji  was  not  a more a b s t r a c t c l a s s i c a l  i n f a v o u r of s t y l e which  evident  i n t h e c o m p o s e r ' s Le Tombeau de C o u p e r i n  (1917)  Tzigani  (1924) f o r v i o l i n  sonatas  and p i a n o . * The 2  later  is  and  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : B e r l i n P h i l h a r m o n i c : December 4.; R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c , December 8; I m p e r i a l L e a g u e o f O p e r a M e e t i n g , December 9; P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r , December 14; S o p h i e Wyss. A e o l i a n , December 14," New Age 42, No. 10 ( J a n u a r y 5, 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 1 7 , (DR 1 0 3 ) . 2 0  S e e : " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C o n c e r t of F e b r u a r y 26, 1 9 2 5 ] , " New Age_ 36, No. 21 ( M a r c h 19, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 4 6 , (DR 41);' " M u s i c : P e ' l l e a s e t M e l i s a n d e ; "The E x p e r t " Gramophone," New Age 47, No. 11 ( J u l y 10, 1 9 3 0 ) s 1 3 0 - 1 3 1 , (DR 1 0 2 ) ; " M u s i c : B.B.C. F r i d a y , 3 1 s t . Q u e e n ' s . ; B i r m i n g h a m C i t y O r c h e s t r a , v i a B.B.C. F e b r u a r y 13.; K i r k b y L u n n , " New Age 36, No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 19, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 0 1 , (DR 38) r e s p e c t i v e l y . 2 1  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c : J a n u a r y 5.; Mr. B e r t r a m J o n e s on t h e B e r l i n O r c h e s t r a , " New Age 42, No. 13 ( J a n u a r y 26, 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 4 9 , (DR 1 0 6 ) . 2 2  2 3  Ibid.  *K. (May  2  S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On 15, 1 9 2 4 ) : 3 1 - 3 2 , (DR  t h e R a v e l C o n c e r t ] , " New 16-17).  29  Age  35, No.  3  (1915-1917) of Debussy similar  reasons.  classical  style  Brahms, Mozart There The  New  Minor string  and  fact,  the  are  early  the Gross  q u a r t e t s of  works of  reviews  Fugue and  surprising  fact  considering  the  favour  the music 2 6  that  Sorabji  a p p r e c i a t e d most  throughout  as m a s t e r p i e c e s — B a c h ' s  the  late  piano  2 7  use  In these of  sonatas  Morts  of  that  many o f  B  and  This  Sorabji's  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : C e c i l G r a y ' s B o o k [ A S u r v e y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c ] , " New A g e 3 6 , No. 8 ( D e c e m b e r 1 8 , (DR 3 6 ) .  and  Sorabji  techniques  the m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l s .  of  Berlioz  works,  Baroque  the  of  scattered  w i t h the composers' of  on  Beethoven.  the Messe des  the c o n t r a p u n t a l treatment  generally  for  Sorabji  Fantasia Contrappuntistica.  impressed  Sorabji  by  regarded  Beethoven,  d i d not  in h i s reviews  i t t o say  s t i l l  a p p r e c i a t e d by  Sorabji  i s evident  Suffice  that  Mass,  Busoni's was  as  In  a r e many s u c h  Age.  the works  2 5  were not  and  i s not  own  2 5  1924):93,  S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : V l a d i m i r C e r n i k o f f ; T h e Berlin P h i l h a r m o n i c O r c h e s t r a . Q u e e n ' s , D e c e m b e r 1," New A g e 4 2 , No. 8 ( D e c e m b e r 2 2 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 9 4 , (DR 1 0 2 ) ; M u s i c : [ R e v i e w on M o z a r t ' s R e q u i e m M a s s ] , " New A g e 3 8 , No. 21 ( M a r c h 2 5 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 5 0 , (DR 62) a n d " M u s i c : E g o n P e t r i , " New A g e 5 0 , No. 1 ( N o v e m b e r 5, 1931 )s 7, (DR 2 3 1 ) ; " M u s i c : M a h l e r E i g h t h S y m p h o n y : Q u e e n ' s H a l l , A p r i l 1 5 , " New A g e 4 7 , N o . 1 (May 1, 1 9 3 0 ) : 7 , (DR 1 9 6 ) " M u s i c : E g o n P e t r i , " New A g e 5 0 , N o . 1 ( N o v e m b e r 5, 1 9 3 1 ) : 7 , (DR 231) r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r S o r a b j i ' s w r i t i n g s on t h e s e c o m p o s e r s . 2 6  F o r S o r a b j i , B u s o n i was t h e M a s t e r o f m u s i c a l c r e a t i o n . H i s a d m i r a t i o n and r e s p e c t f o r B u s o n i as b o t h p i a n i s t and composer was i m m e n s e . S o r a b j i was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y B u s o n i ' s c o m p o s i t i o n a l s t y l e and S o r a b j i ' s l a r g e - s c a l e c o n t r a p u n t a l works a r e d i r e c t d e s c e n d e n t s o f some o f B u s o n i ' s b i g g e r c o m p o s i t i o n s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , S o r a b j i ' s monumental Opus C l a v i c e m b a l i s t i c u m ( 1 9 2 9 - 3 0 ) , whose s t r u c t u r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i s b a s e d on t h a t o f B u s o n i ' s F a n t a s i a C o n t r a p p u n t i s t i c a (1910-12) s e r v e s as a p e r f e c t e x a m p l e o f t h e i m p a c t B u s o n i h a d on S o r a b j i t h e composer. 2 7  30  c o m p o s i t i o n s u s e t h e same t e c h n i q u e s . Clearly, relation  S o r a b j i ' s m u s i c a l t a s t e s were c o n s e r v a t i v e i n  t o t h e r a p i d changes  during the f i r s t affinities will  taking place  i n the musical  two decades o f t h e c e n t u r y . be c l a r i f i e d  further  Sorabji's  i n our study of h i s  w r i t i n g s on t h e m u s i c o f c o n t e m p o r a r y B r i t i s h c o m p o s e r s . be s e e n t h a t t h e c o m p o s e r s  scene  It will  who w r o t e i n r o m a n t i c i d i o m s were  r e v i e w e d f a v o u r a b l y , w h i l e t h o s e who r e a c h e d t o w a r d s newer d e v e l o p m e n t s were condemned. I n o t h e r w o r d s , S o r a b j i a d v o c a t e d certain  specific qualities  other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . specific was  i n m u s i c a n d was n e g a t i v e  toward  I f a musical composition contained the  t r a i t s deemed p o s i t i v e by S o r a b j i , t h a t p i e c e o f m u s i c  pronounced s u c e s s f u l ;  i f t h e m u s i c was f o u n d l a c k i n g  requisite positive characteristics, be e i t h e r a f a i l u r e  t h e work was c o n s i d e r e d t o  or i n f e r i o r .  SORABJI'S WRITINGS ON CONTEMPORARY B R I T I S H  COMPOSERS  S o r a b j i w r o t e on t h e m u s i c o f t w e n t y - f o u r B r i t i s h d u r i n g h i s term as c h i e f  critic  total  number o f a r t i c l e s w h i c h S o r a b j i  the  music of each o f these composers  work by t h a t  31  devoted t o d i s c u s s i n g  a n d t h e number o f a r t i c l e s  r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e composer composer.  composers  f o r The New A g e . T a b l e 2 shows  the  which c o n t a i n  i n the  and/or a p a r t i c u l a r  TABLE 2 WRITINGS BY SORABJI ON CONTEMPORARY BRITISH COMPOSERS IN THE 'NEW AGE' (1924-1934) COMPOSER  NUMBER OF ARTICLES BY SORABJI  (IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER)  ON THE MUSIC  1. E l g a r , Edward (1957-1934)  WITH REFERENCE TO MUSIC/COMPOSER  TOTAL NO.  12  7  9  2  0  2  14  16  30  4. H o i s t , Gustav (1874-1934)  7  5  12  5. I r e l a n d , John (1874-1962)  7  4  1 1  6. Gardiner, B a l f o u r (1877-1950)  0  1  1  7. Holbrooke, Joseph (1878-1958)  0  1  1  8. Boughton, Rutland (1878-1960)  3  1  4  9. S c o t t , C y r i l (1879-1970)  4  2  6  10. S c o t t , George F r a n c i s (1880-1958)  0  1  1  11. Vaughan W i l l i a m s , (1880-1958)  7  3  10  2  1  3  2. Smyth, E t h e l (1858-1944) 3. D e l i u s , F r e d e r i c k (1862-1934)  12. Berners, Lord (1883-1950)  Ralph  32  TABLE 2 - Continued  COMPOSER (IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER) 13. Bax, A r n o l d (1883-1953)  NUMBER OF ARTICLES BY SORABJI ON THE MUSIC  WITH REFERENCE TO MUSIC/COMPOSER  TOTAL NO.  12  3  15  14. Van D i e r e n , Bernard (1884-1936)  7  5  12  15. a Beckett, W i l l i a m s (1890-1956)  0  1  1  16. B l i s s , Arthur (1891-1975)  2  3  5  17. Howells, Herbert (1892-1983)  4  2  6  18. Goossens, Eugene (1893-1962)  3  6  9  19. Warlock, Peter (1894-1930)  1  2  3  20. Walton, W i l l i a m (1902-1983)  3  2  5  21 . Chisholm, E r i k (1904-1965)  0  3  3  22. Lambert, Constant (1905-1951)  3  1  4  23. B r i t t e n , Benjamin (1913-1976)  0  1  1  24. Bush, Alan (1900)  1  0  1  33  As  the table  shows, t h e t h r e e  composers a r e F r e d e r i c k Bax.  Other  Hoist,  The m u s i c  i n four  review  solely  music;  instead,  and  musical  mentioned often of  curtailed  Sorabji an are  he d e a l t  writings  figures  FREDERICK DELIUS  in  Sorabji's  twenty  Delius' composer  with music  a  o f one composer's performers  I n many c a s e s ,  of the music.  Our  Age. T h i s  study  begin  composers about  on o t h e r  Sorabji  i n a review but  composers w i l l  with  an  whom  will  be f o l l o w e d  by  British  composers  who  b u t who a r e  i n twentieth-century  English  nevertheless music.  (1862-1934)  Delius  writings.  high  was t h e m o s t  frequently  In h i s reviews,  of Delius, praise.  i n fourteen  and/or  writings  as frequently,  compositions  lavished  i n T h e New  of Sorabji's  d i d not devote  composer  of those  Gustav  i s dealt  a v a r i e t y of composers,  on i n d i v i d u a l  of the c r i t i q u e s  Frederick  performance  with  composers  Sorabji  any d e t a i l e d c r i t i c i s m  not mentioned  prominent  each.  include  and Bernard van  British  of a p a r t i c u l a r  wrote a t length  analysis  Ireland  i n t h e same r e v i e w .  the music  examination  articles  to the concert  events  Sorabji's  S i rJohn  discussed  and S i r Arnold  special attention  of the remaining  or fewer  frequently  S i r Edward E l g a r  receiving  Vaughan W i l l i a m s ,  Dieren. with  composers  Delius,  most  h i s music  the majority  As T a b l e reviews  dealt  of which  2 shows, S o r a b j i  a n d made  i n sixteen  34  Sorabji  discussed  other  references reviews.  composer  with  some  were wrote  about  to the Sorabji  often  challenged  Delius'  the various  by t h e E n g l i s h  P r e s s upon  " f o r m l e s s n e s s " , " a m a t e u r i s h n e s s " and l a c k of t e c h n i c a l  competence.  2 8  Sorabji's admiration In h i s o p i n i o n , masterpieces", has  attacks  Delius 2 9  ever known";  f o rDelius  was " t h e c r e a t o r  "the greatest 3 0  a n d h i s m u s i c was immense. of r a d i a n t  and p u r e s t N a t u r e poet t h a t  he was " o f t h e w h o l e e a r t h ,  w h i c h speak a n d s i n g t h r o u g h h i m i n a way t h a t in a l l music",  3 1  a n d a " m a s t e r who c o u l d  music  a i r and s k y , i s perhaps  unique  express musically the  mood o f e c s t a t i c a n d t r a n s c e n d e n t c o n t e m p l a t i o n w h i c h i n I n d i a i s c a l l e d Samadhi."  3 2  Such g l o r i f y i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s of D e l i u s and  h i s m u s i c a r e n o t uncommon i n S o r a b j i ' s who was r e l a t i v e l y  reviews of t h i s  u n a p p r e c i a t e d a t t h e time of these w r i t i n g s .  In l i g h t of S o r a b j i ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n  of t h e r o m a n t i c ,  p o s t - r o m a n t i c and i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c i d i o m s , that  composer  he s h o u l d w r i t e  so f a v o u r a b l y  i t i s understandable  about D e l i u s ' music,  which  S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : The D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . ; T e t r a z z i n i . A l b e r t H a l l . O c t o b e r 2 0 . ; D e l i u s F e s t i v a l , " New Age 4 6 , No. 1 (November 7, 1 9 2 9 ) : 8 - 9 , (DR 1 6 8 - 1 6 9 ) . 2 8  K . S o r a b j i , "Music: [Regarding the performance of the second v i o l i n a n d p i a n o c o n c e r t o o f D e l i u s on M a r c h 2 0 , 1 9 2 5 ] , " New Age 36, No. 23 ( A p r i l 2, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 7 2 - 2 7 3 , (DR 4 3 ) . 2 9  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f D e l i u s ' Song o f t h e H i g h H i l l s by t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r on M a r c h 11, 1 9 2 6 ] , " New Age 3 8 , No. 21 ( M a r c h 2 5 . 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 5 0 , (DR 6 2 ) . 3 0  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : L.S.O.; M r . G e o r g e P a r k e r . A e o l i a n . 12," New Age 40, No. 26 ( A p r i l 2 8 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 3 1 0 , (DR 8 6 ) .  3 1  April  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : B.B.C. Symphony C o n c e r t . ; D e l i u s F e s t i v a l , " New Age 4 6 , No. 2 (November 14, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 0 - 2 1 , (DR 170-171). 3 2  35  displayed  a combination  of these  traits.  romantic-impressionist  who a m a l g a m a t e d  tone-colours,  scoring  Wagnerian as  luscious  group  the exoticism,  formal  structures  Sorabji's aggrandizing of  of romantic  Paris:  the rich  and chromatic  admiration for Delius'  tThe  orchestral  harmonies  e v o c a t i v e imagery  of the impressionist  A Nocturne.  genuine  of the  and post-romantic composers, as  the intensely  descriptions  D e l i u s was a  such  well  and f u s i o n of  style. music  as those  prompted  found  Song o f a G r e a t  in a  City  h i s use of  1925 r e v i e w  (1899):  " P a r i s , " t h e f i n e s t work o f D e l i u s ' s e a r l y p e r i o d , i s a g l o r i o u s a n d g l o w i n g mood p o e m ; i t i s o n e o f t h e o r c h e s t r a l m a s t e r p i e c e s of our t i m e , a t once v i v i d and s u b t l e , h i g h l y - c o l o u r e d and y e t s e n s i t i v e , a work w i t h w h i c h o f i t s k i n d i s f i t t o c o m p a r e no w o r k o f a n y " B r i t i s h " composer l i v i n g . I t i s a l i g h t and b u r n i n g w i t h a white hot i m a g i n a t i o n , e x u l t a n t , and i s shot through w i t h that n o s t a l g i a , that " t r i s t e z z a , " which i s such a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of D e l i u s , and which a t t a i n s t o such poignant and p i e r c i n g i n t e n s i t y i n the g r e a t e s t m u s i c a l Nature's e l x g i a c ever w r i t t e n . . . , 3 3  Sorabji's review  written  praise, that  opinion of t h i s almost  a year  u s i n g t h e same s t y l e  Sorabji  romantic  later,  he w r o t e  of language. " 3  should describe the compositon  traits  c a n be i d e n t i f i e d  orchestra  of Straussian  harmonies  which  f o r i n another  with equally  high  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g thusly,  for i t s  i n t h e composer's use of an  p r o p o r t i o n s and i n the use of chromatic  evoke atmospheric  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : P a r i s was p e r f o r m e d ] , " (DR 4 1 ) . 3 3  work d i d n o t change,  i m p r e s s i o n s and c o n t e m p l a t i v e  [On t h e L . S . O . C o n c e r t w h e r e D e l i u s ' New A g e 3 6 , N o . 21 ( M a r c h 1 9 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 4 6 ,  " S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : S i r T h o m a s B e e c h a m , " New A g e 3 8 , N o . 19 ( M a r c h 1 1 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 2 5 , (DR 6 1 ) .  3  36  moods. Sorabji's those  of o t h e r music  writing the  descriptions  almost  same w a y .  describing  3 5  fifty  critics.  Cardus  music  work a r e c o n s i s t e n t  For instance,  years later,  Neville  Delius'  of t h i s  depicts  wrote  about  to the general  with  Christopher  Delius'  Palmer,  music  i n much  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  public.  of  In h i s opinion,  a m u s i c a l c r i t i c i s tempted by D e l i u s t o p r o d u c e l i t e r a r y "flummery"—vague meanderings about t r a n s l u c e n t h a r m o n i e s , dawns t h a t shimmer, a n d w h i t e p o o l s o f peace. 3  The  6  works  (1900-1907) 1927  belonging to Delius'  received  similar  review of Delius'  wrote  that  beauty"; year, nature the  3 7  the music  was r e g a r d e d a s D e l i u s '  vast  and J u l i e t  Sea-Drift  period reviews. In a  to Paradise  spaces with  Garden",  (1900-1901),  Sorabji  and h e a r t - s t a b b i n g  ( 1 9 0 2 / 0 3 ) , r e v i e w e d i n t h e same  "most m o v i n g  and poignant of  . . . [which expresses] the unutterable a t t i m e s an a l m o s t  S e e : C. P a l m e r , D e l i u s : D u c k w o r t h , 1976), p. 38. 3 5  Romeo  style  i n Sorabji's  "A W a l k  was " o f p i e r c i n g  The c a n t a t a  poems  reports  interlude,  from t h e opera A V i l l a g e  second  Portrait  saddness of  unbearable pathos and  of a Cosmopolitan,  (London:  N . Cardus, " D e l i u s : H i s Method and M u s i c , " Manchester Guardian ( O c t o b e r 14, 1 9 2 9 ) : n . p , r e p r i n t e d i n C h r i s t o p e r Redwood, e d . , A D e l i u s Companion, (London: John C a l d e r , 1980), p. 87. 3 6  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Mme. W a n d a L a n d o w s k a ( W i g m o r e H a l l , May 16)," New A g e 4 1 , N o . 6 ( J u n e 9, 1 9 2 7 ) : 6 9 ~ 7 0 , (DR 8 8 - 8 9 ) . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t S o r a b j i d e s c r i b e s t h e m u s i c a s s u c h f o r many of t h e q u a l i t i e s he a d m i r e d i n m u s i c a r e e v i d e n t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r work. These i n c l u d e D e l i u s ' use o f t h e Wagnerian l e i t m o t i f t e c h n i q u e a n d an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c use o f a chromatic-harmonic structure which consisted of a polychromatic s t y l e j u x t a p o s i n g d i a t o n i c and modal h a r m o n i e s — t h e l a t t e r b e i n g the i n f l u e n c e o f G r i e g , whom D e l i u s a d m i r e d g r e a t l y . 3 7  37  beauty" In  Two  3 8  later  a Summer G a r d e n  "lovely  and  Sea-Drift.  not  favorite  Delius'  largest  i s starkly  1924,  called  solid-German who  yet  warmly  two  years  glowing  later  (1907) had  and  the  same  t e x t u r e s as  composition  A Mass of  choral  Life  of  this  second  (1904-5),  works based  on  one  period, of  the  Nietzche's text.  late-romantic in i t s conception. Cecil  i t Delius'  a p e r s o n a l work  Palmer  reviewed  Fair  3 9  h o w e v e r , was  work  for orchestra, Briqq  (1908),  delicately,  Sorabji's  composer's  pieces  largest  because  of  craftsmanship.*  regards  0  and the  most a m b i t i o u s overwhelming  " D e l i u s ' s most  Gray,  in  though  influence  This opinion i s also  t h e M a s s t o be  work  This  of  presented  by  Germanic  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : L.S.O.; Mr. G e o r g e P a r k e r . A e o l i a n . A p r i l 1 2 , " New Ag_e 4 0 , N o . 26 ( A p r i l 2 8 , 1 9 2 7 ) ; 3 1 0 , (DR 8 6 ) . I n t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n , S o r a b j i a l s o d i s c o v e r e d many p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which f o r him, f i l l e d the music w i t h a s p i r i t u a l i n t e n s i t y and e m o t i o n a l i m p u l s e . Anthony Payne's d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s c o m p o s t i o n s e r v e s w e l l t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e s e f e a t u r e s (The New G r o v e , s . v . " D e l i u s , F r e d e r i c k , " b y A n t h o n y P a y n e ) : 3 8  " D e l i u s p r e s e n t s a stream of s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h f l o w of c h r o m a t i c harmony whose i n t e n s i t y i s n e v e r b r o k e n , and a v a r i e t y of c o l o u r and pace i s a c h i e v e d almost i m p e r c e p t i b l y , yet w i t h utmost d i r e c t n e s s . "  a  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e b r o a d c a s t p r o g r a m m e w h e r e S i b e l i u s ' F i f t h S y m p h o n y was p e r f o r m e d ] ; D ' A l v a r e z . A e o l i a n , O c t . 9.; E g o n P e t r i . W i g m o r e , 1 1 t h . ; F i r s t C o n c e r t o f t h e D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . Q u e e n ' s , 1 2 t h ; J e r i t z a . A l b e r t H a l l , 1 3 t h , " New Age 4 5 , No. 26 ( O c t o b e r 2 4 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 3 0 8 - 3 1 0 , (DR 1 6 5 - 1 6 7 ) . 3 9  *°C. G r a y , University  A Survey of Contemporary M u s i c , P r e s s , 1 9 2 4 ) , p. 69.  38  (London:  Oxford  score,""  1  a work w h i c h b o r r o w e d  from the t r a d i t i o n s of t h e g r e a t  m a s t e r s o f t h e p a s t and a n t i c i p a t e d a m a s t e r p i e c e i n t h e  future:  A Mass o f L i f e i s b u i l t on an enormous s c a l e , a pagan o r a t o r i o stemming i n a d i r e c t l i n e of d e s c e n t form t h e 'An d i e F r e u d e ' o f t h e N i n t h , B r u c k n e r ' s Te Deum and t h e c h o r a l e f i n a l e o f M a h l e r ' s R e s u r r e c t i o n Symphony and a n t i c i p a t i n g t h e two f o l d s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m i g h t y Symphony o f a T h o u s a n d w h i c h had y e t t o be w r i t t e n . I n t h e huge c h o r a l d i t h y r a m b s w h i c h open e i t h e r p a r t o f t h e M a s s a n d i n t h e hymnic s e t t i n g o f Z a r a t h u s t r a ' s M i t t e r n a c h t s l i e d w h i c h f o r m s t h e apex o f t h e e n t i r e c o n s t r u c t i o n we f i n d a s i n e w y a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t r e n g t h and a t e x t u r a l s o l i d i t y and b r e a d t h o f c o n c e p t i o n u t t e r l y Germanic i n temper." 2  Henry  Raynor, w r i t i n g  influences  i n 1980 made a c l e a r  reference to romantic  i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e work:  A Mass o f L i f e . . . [ i s a work w h e r e ] s e v e r a l o f Z a r a t h u s t r a ' s g r e a t r h a p s o d i e s , . . . are s e t t o music of g r e a t power, i n t e r p o s e d w i t h l y r i c a l p a s s a g e s of g r e a t b e a u t y ; t h e work e n d s w i t h a s e t t i n g o f Z a r a t h u s t r a ' s " M i d n i g h t song" i n which D e l i u s ' s l a y - o u t and g e n e r a l s t y l e seems f o r some m i n u t e s t o draw n e a r t o the f i n a l overwhelming e c s t a s y of M a h l e r ' s E i g h t h Symphony." 3  The  g r e a t a r c h i t e c t o n i c p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e Mass ( w h i c h  the Wagnerian  m u s i c - d r a m a s and t h e l a r g e - s c a l e  recall  symphonic  s t r u c t u r e s o f M a h l e r and B r u c k n e r ) , t h e d r a m a t i c s e t t i n g , lyrical  m e l o d i c p a s s a g e s , and  Sorabji. His praise religiosity spirit " C. 1  f o r t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n was  o f t h e work was  of Bach's  flowing phrases c l e a r l y  P a l m e r , D e l i u s : P o r t r a i t , p.  attracted  a b s o l u t e . The  compared t o t h e p u r e l y  B m i n o r Mass and S o r a b j i  the  revelled  pagan  Christian i n the  97-98.  * Ibid. 2  " H. 184. 3  Raynor, Music  i n England,  39  (London: Robert H a l e , 1980),  p.  spiritual written  emotionalism  about  four  o f t h e music."'  years  later,  1  Similarly, in a  Sorabji  review  stated:  . . . here i s a teaming, abundant, and o v e r f l o w i n g " l i f e " e x u l t a n t a n d v i v i d . . . . The work h a s a s u r g e and sweep, t h e b r e a d t h a n d l e n g t h o f p h r a s e t h a t a r e i n s t a n t l y recognisable as the sign-manual of the g r e a t e s t m u s i c . . . .* 5  In  contrast,  w o r k , An A r a b e s k considered  a purely  impressionistic  ( 1 9 1 1 ) was a l s o  unique  i n Delius'  admired  art:  4  choral-orchestral  by S o r a b j i  and  6  I t i s s u r e l y one o f t h e most a s t o n i s h i n g e v o c a t i o n s i n sound of poisonous, p e r v e r s e , t u b e r o s e - l i k e beauty that exists. I t i s undescribably i n s i n u a t i n g , a n d t h e mood o f t h e s u b t l y b e a u t i f u l poem, w i t h i t s d e a d l y p e r f u m e , "poisonous l i l y ' s b l i n d i n g c h a l i c e , " i s expressed with m i r a c u l o u s i n s i g h t a n d power. The work i s t e c h n i c a l l y and a e s t h e t i c a l l y un p r o d i g e , t h e m u s i c a l t h o u g h t o f appositeness and u t t e r r i g h t n e s s . . . [ a r e ] overwhelming.* 7  This  provides  Delius'  further  compositions,  impressionistic Mass of L i f e  evidence that  traits,  i s , those  either  a n d An A r a b e s k  of Sorabji's  musical  works using  separately,  or i n fusion  accord  with  romantic and  as i n the case  of A  as i n t h e tone-poem  Paris. S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f D e l i u s ' M a s s b y t h e R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c S o c i e t y ] , " New A g e 3 6 , N o . 26 T A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 0 8 , (DR 4 4 ) . 4 4  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : B.B.C. Symphony C o n c e r t . ; D e l i u s F e s t i v a l , " New A g e 4 6 , N o . 2 ( N o v e m b e r 1 4 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 0 - 2 1 , 170-171). a 5  (DR  S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On D e l i u s ' m u s i c i n g e n e r a l ] , " Age 3 6 , N o . 26 ( A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 0 8 , (DR 4 4 ) . 4 6  K. Sorabji, H a l l . October 7, 1 9 2 9 ) : 8 ~ 9 , 4 7  New  " M u s i c : The D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . ; T e t r a z z i n i . A l b e r t 2 0 . ; D e l i u s F e s t i v a l , " New A g e 4 6 , N o . 1 ( N o v e m b e r (DR 1 6 8 - 1 6 9 ) .  40  A Song of the High H i l l s  (1911) composed d u r i n g D e l i u s '  t h i r d s t y l e p e r i o d was a l s o favoured by S o r a b j i . I t was, i n S o r a b j i ' s o p i n i o n , "one masterpieces of m u s i c . "  of the supreme and transcendent 48  S o r a b j i wrote  work which are a l l c o n s i s t e n t demonstrate of  1931,  three reviews on  this  i n t h e i r p r a i s e , and which again  S o r a b j i ' s musical s y m p a t h i e s .  49  In the l a s t  review  S o r a b j i e m p h a t i c a l l y d e c l a r e d that with every hearing  of the work "the cogency  and mastery of inner e s s e n t i a l  and coherence becomes more c o n v i n c i n g and p a t e n t . "  5 0  logic  Sorabji  was  deeply impressed with the i n t e n s i t y of the work and i t s romantic framework. However, not a l l of S o r a b j i ' s reviews on the music of D e l i u s c o n t a i n such glowing r e p o r t s . The contemporary  l a t e r , more  works such as the C e l l o Concerto (1921) and the  Second V i o l i n Sonata  (1925) that employ c l a s s i c a l formal  s t r u c t u r e s l o s t t h e i r wonderful and magical q u a l i t i e s which  had  e a r l i e r caused S o r a b j i to be so e n t h u s i a s t i c . For example., of the C e l l o Concerto S o r a b j i wrote  in  1929:  . . . the t r o u b l e comes when D e l i u s remembers he i s K . S o r a b j i , "Music: [On the Philharmonic Choir Concert on March 11, 1926 where the Song of the High H i l l s was performed]," New Age 38, No. 21 (March 25, 192677250, (DR 62). 48  S e e : K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [On the Philharmonic Choir Concert on March 11, 1926 where the Song of the High H i l l s was performed]," New Ag^e 38, No. 21 (March 25, 192677250, (DR 62); "Music: [Regarding the Philharmonic Choir Concert at the Queen's H a l l on June 13, 1929]," New Age. 45, No. 9 (June 27, 1929): 104, (DR 152); and "Music: [Newman on Music C r i t i c i s m ] ; W i r e l e s s . B.B.C," New Age 50, No. 8 (December 24, 1931 ): 92, (DR 235). 4 9  5 0  Ibid.  41  w o r k i n g w i t h a c o n c e r t o and t h a t a c o n c e r t o ought t o h a v e a q u i c k s e c t i o n ; t h e n he f a l l s i n t o one o f t h o s e j o g - t r o t c r o c h e t - q u a v e r movements t h a t a r e r a t h e r a c l i c h e w i t h him, m a n i f e s t l y i l l a t ease. . . and o n l y w a t c h i n g a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e t u r n t o t h e p r e v a l e n t mood a n d s t y l e t h a t he s h o u l d n e v e r h a v e l e f t . 5  Sorabji  was  not a l o n e i n c r i t i c i s i n g  construction. in  1924,  in  regard  for  and  5 2  Cecil  i n 1980  to this  Violin  and  Gray,  work  Cello  the work's  for instance,  Anthony and  an  1  Payne  wrote  weak  formal  in a similar  came t o t h e same  earlier  one,  the Double  vein  conclusion Concerto  (1915-1916):  D e l i u s was n o t t h e c o m p o s e r t o o r g a n i z e s u b t l e i n t e r p l a y of f o r c e s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e c o n c e r t o f o r m . . . . He was c l e a r l y u n s u r e o f what t o do w i t h h i s s o l o i s t s a t t i m e s , a n d i n v e n t e d some p e r f u n c t o r y p a s s a g e w o r k . C l u t t e r e d s o l o w r i t i n g mars p a r t of t h e C e l l o C o n c e r t o . 53  However, S o r a b j i Double  Concerto for V i o l i n  poignant  song  composer's formal  d i d not w r i t e  of t h e two  "choicest  structure  unfavourably  and  'Cello.  instruments"  inspirations." * 5  of t h i s  work  and  Sorabji  regarded the composition  whether  he  chose  To  mention  positively  earlier  the  e v i d e n c e of  i t i s unclear  to ignore Delius'  the  h i s mind,  was No  about  "lovely  the  i s made o f as t o  whether  in a l lrespects  weaknesses  the  or  which t o h i s mind  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [Regarding the ' A l l - E n g l i s h Evening at the P r o m s ' o n S e p t e m b e r 2 9 , 1 9 2 9 ] , " New A g e 4 5 , N o . 20 ( A u g u s t 1 2 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 3 9 , (DR 1 5 7 - 1 5 8 ) . S o r a b j i w r o t e a n e q u a l l y n e g a t i v e r e v i e w o f t h e S e c o n d V i o l i n S o n a t a o f 1925. ( S e e : " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e c h a m b e r c o n c e r t o n M a r c h 2 0 , 1 9 2 5 ] , " New A g e 3 6 , N o . 23 ( A p r i l 2, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 7 3 , (DR 4 2 ) ) . 5 1  5 2  See:  C.  5 3  T h e New  Gray, A Survey of Contemporary Grove,  s.v.  "Delius,  M u s i c , p.  Frederick,"  76.  by A n t h o n y  Payne.  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [Regarding the O r c h e s t r a l Concert of B e a t r i c e a n d May H a r r i s o n a t t h e Q u e e n ' s H a l l o n J u n e 1 4 , " A g e 4 5 , N o . 9 ( J u n e 2 7 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 1 0 5 , (DR 1 5 2 - 1 5 3 ) . 5 < t  42  New  were m i n i s c u l e Sorabji the  has p r o t e c t e d  "formlessness"  reviews. in  i n comparison  t o the formal  overcome Bruckner's marked  the older  example  of  the High H i l l s  piece as  of t h i s  of music  being  legend  variation  the alleged c r i t i c i s m  was a l s o  of h i s music  was g r e a t e r  than  5 5  In a review  method of D e l i u s ' and lashed  dated  even  Bruckner  5 6  used  Appalacia  had  of D e l i u s '  illustrates  formal  a work  masterly  gave  in A  as  treatment  Song this  structure)  f o r c h o i r and  t o ward o f f t h e  "amateurishness",  Delius'  which  who c l a s s i f i e d  ternery  (1902/03),  as an example  1931, S o r a b j i  form c o n s t r u c t i o n  out a t c r i t i c s  of  i n several  of h i s music. Delius  (which has a t h r e e - p a r t  of the time  composition  Delius  strengths.  d e f i c i e n c e s by f u s i n g t h e d e l i n e a t i o n s  "formless".  orchestra  from  construction  forms.  an  Delius  and "amateurishness"  In h i s opinion,  regard  t o the composer's  popular  this of t h e  form:  This wonderful s e r i e s of v a r i a t i o n s should alone serve to expose the a b s u r d i t y of the accusation of a m a t e u r i s h n e s s t h a t i s s o o f t e n made a g a i n s t D e l i u s o n t e c h n i c a l g r o u n d s . F o r a more c o n s u m a t e s e t o f o r c h e s t r a l v a r i a t i o n s does n o t , I submit e x i s t ; the v a r i e t y and i n v e n t i v e n e s s of the treatment a r e e q u a l l e d by t h e s u p e r b s k i l l w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e " p u t a c r o s s " . 5 7  Several  authors  have agreed  with  Sorabji  on t h e s e  points. For  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [Copyright B i l l ] ; Rachmaninoff. A l b e r t H a l l : N o v . 2 4 . ; C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t . N o v . 2 0 , " New A g e 4 6 , N o . 5 ( D e c e m b e r 5, 1 9 2 9 ) : 5 7 , (DR 1 7 7 - 1 7 8 ) . 5 5  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [Newman o n M u s i c C r i t i c i s m ] ; B . B . C , " New Ag_e 5 0 , N o . 8 ( D e c e m b e r 2 4 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 9 2 , 5 6  Wireless. (DR 2 3 5 ) .  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : The D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . ; T e t r a z z i n i . A l b e r t H a l l . O c t o b e r 2 0 . ; D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . " New A g e 4 6 , N o . 1 ( N o v e m b e r 7, 1 9 2 9 ) : 8 ~ 9 , (DR 1 6 8 - 1 6 9 ) . 5 7  43  instance,  t h e w r i t e r and composer  twenty years  Norman Demuth s t a t e d  some  later:  The c h a r g e o f f o r m l e s s n e s s w h i c h was a m a t t e r f o r d i s a p p r o v a l among a c a d e m i c m i n d s i s q u i t e u n f o u n d e d . . . . I n s t e a d o f t h e u s u a l m u l t i - m o v e m e n t d e s i g n he [ D e l i u s ] used e i t h e r the e a r l y E n g l i s h phantasy . . . or t h a t of v a r i a t i o n . I t i s t r u e t h a t sometimes t h e shape b e c o m e s l o o s e , b u t i t i s i n v a r i a b l y t i g h t e n e d u p b y some l i n k i n g f i g u r e l i k e that of the opening of the V i o l i n Concerto. 5  For his  8  Sorabji, Delius  career  as music  remained  critic years  to the last  opinions  and p o s i t i v e references  and  plead  concerts  with  featuring Delius'  Already the  works o f a composer  t h e same a r t i s t ,  traits  5 8  in style  N.  the c r i t i c  of h i s  contain  favourable  and/or  h i s works.  to Delius rush  establishment  to defend  to provide  h i s "hero" more  works.  one c a n d e t e c t  impressionistic by  of h i s o f f i c e ,  S o r a b j i would  the musical  throughout  f o r t h e j o u r n a l a n d many  writings  When h e h a d t h e c h a n c e ,  a master musician  Sorabji's  favourable  which are romantic and a d i s a p p r o v a l  which contain  classical  perception  and/or of those  compositions  tendencies,  condemned.  Demuth, M u s i c a l  Trends  i n the 20th Century,  44  of  p. 128.  and/or  SIR  EDWARD E L G A R  Sir  Edward E l g a r  composer reviews  dealt  with  generally  by  positive,  the next m o s t - w r i t t e n about  Sorabji  Sorabji's  for Sorabji  g r e a t m u s i c a l mind, admired  romantic  in style.  his  one  own,  composers Franck  that  grandiloquent  formal  broad  only  Elgar  Age,  and  evaluation believed  with  seven  the  luxurious,  style.  style  was  structure,  6  that  others  Elgar  in creating  a  contemporary  music  was  possessed  a  5 9  which  were  style uniquely  t e c h n i q u e s of major  extravagant, powerful  romantic and  Cesar  and  0  typically  and  twelve  deep and p o w e r f u l . "  succeeded  British  of E l g a r ' s  those works of E l g a r ' s  combined  romantic  orchestration.  a l l t h e s e a r e a s and  Elgar's  New  s u c h as Wagner, Brahms, Schumann, B e r l i o z  t o form a  This  i n The  t o E l g a r ' s music  h i s works,  Sorabji  in  was  being devoted  mentioning  "very  (1857-1934)  of R i c h a r d  s u c c e s s stemmed  was  i n i t s harmonic  Elgar  r e g a r d e d as a  S t r a u s s by from  remained  less  the c r i t i c s  h i s use  language,  conservative  adventurous of  the  time.  of m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l s  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t : Queen's, March A g e 4 6 , N o . 22 ( A p r i l 3, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 1 9 4 ) . 5 9  6 0  H.  Raynor,  Music  i n England,  p.  181.  6 1  H.  Raynor,  Music  i n England,  p.  182.  45  6 1  which  18,"  New  appealed  to the general  traditional musical  nineteenth-century  materials  as folk  Circumstance marches embodying  British  to Sorabji  material  6  2  strong  harmonic  tunes  marching  rhythms, a  language and such  o f common a p p e a l .  (1901-10) e x e m p l i f y  T h e Pomp a n d  h i s more p o p u l a r  works,  a f f e c t i o n f o r pagentry.  These popular appeal  public:  characteristics i n Elgar's i n the least.  was r e g a r d e d  In fact,  as a s e r i o u s  music  d i d not  t h e i n c l u s i o n of such  weakness by S o r a b j i . F o r  instance,  t h e o r a t o r i o The Kingdom  (1906) c o n t a i n e d ,  Sorabji's  opinion,  best  some o f E l g a r ' s  and worst  in  qualities:  O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e music r i s e s t o heights of e t h e r e a l i s e d , r a r e f i e d p u r i t y and beauty, t o descend promptly i n t o t h e w o r s t E l g a r i a n m a u d l i n o f t h e amorous s e c t i o n s o f t h e " C o c k a i g n e " o v e r t u r e o r t h e d e t e s t a b l e bombast of h i s j i n g o i s m , s u c h a s " L a n d o f Hope a n d G l o r y " . 6 3  Sorabji and  d i dnot appreciate  h i suse of brass  1901.  Sorabji often  "bombastic Elgar's  Elgar's  passion  and percussion referred to this  magniloquence". "  use of popular  6  idioms  f o rmarching  i n the Cockaigne type  Likewise, reflected  of music  Cecil  Gray  a lack  of  as  rhythms  overture  of  Elgar's  indicated  that  spiritual  N o r m a n Demuth i s a l s o o f t h i s o p i n i o n ( M u s i c a l T r e n d s , p. 116): " E l g a r ' s m u s i c a l p r o x i m i t y t o t h e man i n t h e s t r e e t w a s p h e n o m e n a l . He g a v e t h a t man s o m e t h i n g h e c o u l d s i n g , s o m e t h i n g h e c o u l d t a k e home w i t h h i m , s o m e t h i n g h e c o u l d grasp a t a single hearing."  6 2  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f E l g a r ' s K i n g d o m b y the London C h o r a l S o c i e t y under A r t h u r Pagge w i t h t h e L . S . 0 . 3 , " New A g e 3 7 , N o . 2 ( M a y 1 4 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 1 8 , (DR 4 7 ) . 6 3  "K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Queen's H a l l Promenades," 21 ( S e p t e m b e r 2 3 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 4 2 , (DR 7 4 ) . 6  46  New A g e 3 9 , N o .  breadth  and  McDiarmid music  understanding.  and  Bernard  succumb t o  the  belittled  the  musician.  Sorabji  which  of  the  was  intended  elite  c l a s s , a higher  aware  of  was  not  i t s genius.  Concerto symphonic  1926  of  one  review.  6 8  the  Concerto  C.  Gray, A  K. Age 6 6  of  music  to  and  not  the  the  appreciation  and  highest and  to  art  persons.  the form  fitting  for  were  the  Thus,  6 6  understanding  p h i l o s o p h i c a l view Elgar's  having  public  granted  i n d i v i d u a l s who  Sorabji's  Hugh  that  general  just ordinary  c o m p r e h e n d why  the  Second  F a l s t a f f of of  the  Sorabji the  did  the  be  (e.g.,  strongly  " P r i e s t s worthy  favorite compositions  study, as  believed  tastes  g r o u p of  6 7  others  of  an  spiritually of  music  more a c c e s s i b l e  music  favourably.  1910,  symphonies or  6 5  one  reviewed  Sorabji's  regarded  for  and  creative qualities  requiring  Altar,"  helps  and  considered  music  therefore  Dieren)  inferior  spiritual  e x i s t e d , one  service  van  Sorabji  6 5  finest  not  Survey  contain of  Symphony 1913.  The  British  preferred  successful  of  this  Elgar  in E  flat  Violin  of  Violin  (1911) and  Concerto i t s kind  piece  e i t h e r of  to  of  1899  t h o s e mundane  and  Contemporary Music,  p.  S o r a b j i , " L e t t e r s to the E d i t o r : 'Musical 3 6 , No. 23 ( A p r i l 2, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 7 5 , (DR 43).  the  he  works of  Enigma V a r i a t i o n s any  were the  in  a  Elgar's  because  79. Criticism',"  New  S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : ' M u s i c a l Criticism'," New Age 3 6 , No. 23 ( A p r i l 2, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 7 5 , (DR 4 3 ) ; a n d " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : ' M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m ' , " New Age 3 6 , No. 26 ( A p r i l 23, 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 1 3 , (DR 45). 6 7  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Q u e e n ' s H a l l P r o m e n a d e s , " New 21 ( S e p t e m b e r 2 3 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 4 2 , (DR 74). 6 8  47  Age  39,  No.  commonplace p o p u l a r general ardent  public.  characteristics  Sorabji,  6 9  s w e e t n e s s and  luxurious  l e n g t h of  s e n s u o u s n e s s and E l g a r ' s most  The  the  romantic  work, as  virtuosic of  Sorabji,  of  music  who  well  to  i n f a t u a t e d by melodic  mystical  elements.  The  Concerto  recalling  m a s t e r s as  flat  the the  i s one  and  Liszt.  also well-received  rather conservative  more c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s i c  of  of  great  Paganini  ( 1 9 1 1 ) was  the  content,  the  such  in E  to appeal  as  seemed t o p r e f e r t h i s  to the  the  compositions,  w o r k s by  S e c o n d Symphony  by  i t s e e m s , was  l u s c i o u s n e s s of  the  nineteenth-century  geared  the  piece  time:  T h e m e a t o f t h e p r o g r a m m e was t h e E l g a r S e c o n d S y m p h o n y , one o f t h e m o s t r e m a r k a b l e w o r k s o f i t s k i n d that e x i s t . A f t e r the t h i n , f e e b l e t r i c k l e of a c r i d contemporaneity, what a r e l i e f t o h e a r a g r e a t , g e n e r o u s f l o o d of m u s i c , r i p e , f u l l , and mellow . . . . One does n o t know w h i c h i s m o r e i m p r e s s i v e , t h e m a g n i f i c e n t r i c h n e s s and m a s t e r y of i n v e n t i o n , t h e w o n d e r f u l l y u n i f i e d y e t so v a r i e d t r e a t m e n t , t h e d a z z l i n g a c c o m p l i s h m e n t w i t h w h i c h a l l i s d o n e . . . . Some seventeen y e a r s have passed s i n c e I heard the E l g a r , but t h a t p a s s a g e of t i m e l e a v e s t h e work more s t r i k i n g l y o r i g i n a l and i n d i v i d u a l t h a n e v e r , and i t s t e c h n i c a l b r i l l i a n c e s t a n d s o u t i n e v e n g r e a t e r r e l i e f by c o n t r a s t w i t h the p r e v a i l i n g amateurishness and incompetence w h i c h i s a g r e a t d e a l m o r e n o t i c e a b l e now t h a n then. 7 0  This  review  Elgar's  not  craftmanship,  conservative  K. Sorabji, 21 ( S e p t e m b e r  illustrates but  nineteen  Sorabji's admiration  for  also exemplifies Sorabji's  tastes i n music.  composed almost  6 9  only  E l g a r ' s Second  years  before  Symphony, w h i c h  S o r a b j i wrote  " M u s i c : Q u e e n ' s H a l l P r o m e n a d e s , " New 2 3 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 4 2 , (DR 7 4 ) .  his Age  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: H a l l e O r c h e s t r a : Queen's. January P r i v a t e Organ R e c i t a l : S t . Lawrence J e w r y , J a n u a r y 25," 4 6 , No. 14 ( F e b r u a r y 6, 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 6 4 , (DR 187). 7 0  48  was  first 39,  No.  24.; New Age  review for  on  w o r k , was  i t recalled  Mozart, its  the  the  themes and  the  developmental Liszt's  symphonic  sequential phases  work  study  as  "an  sevre  the  Sorabji its  was  go  reached  a  by  provenance" 7 2  In  the  'Falstaff  expression."  7 3  one  of  piece  tradition  these  symphonic  w h i c h was 1913.  (1928  of  music  of  Haydn,  and  Brahms  of  cyclical  themes  in  their  metamorphosis  In of  the  the  and  of  flooding with and  but  this,  immense s p r i t u a l  second  he  to "No  "ripest"  could  this  of  not  for  ideas  of  and  7 1  relate  ever  in  did  which i t  to  i t , Elgar  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : K a t h e r i n e Heyman. W i g m o r e : O c t o b e r 25.; M e d t n e r : R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c . Q u e e n ' s : Nov. 1," New A g e 44 ( N o v e m b e r 1 5 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 3 0 , (DR 131). Ibid.  7 3  Ibid.  49  to  in  superb  Sorabji referred works,  une  since."  Falstaff  and  was  character  experiences  expression, review,  nor  the  the  a verva,  suppleness  before  in reference  i s the  h i g h l y was  1930). F a l s t a f f  music  s p i t e of  Elgar's  praised  composer  7 1  7 2  in  use  Sorabji considered  richness  the  impressed with  through  as  of  say,  s e e m s t o me  Falstaff  the  a s t o n i s h i n g work  Shakespere's p l a y . could  treatment  reviews  French  "literary  symphonic  framework. E l g a r ' s  Elgar's  Falstaff  regarded  not  contemporary  Schumann, M e n d e l s s o h n  recalled  of  i n two  treatment  truly  poems.  composition  as  Schubert, structural  symphonic  Another  a  "classical"  Beethoven,  four-movement  not  or  "attains Sorabji  an  eloquent  stated  the  general  his  Falstaff,  that although  tone  of  the music  in  an  by  and  of  a  w a y - - s o much so  even  in  . . . [as  of  Strauss  referred  leaps It  entirety.  are  wonder The  then  7 6  i n the  that the  i s much  the  tale  without  the  Falstaff The  w i t h the  manner, the indulgence  was  use  of  "an  needing  of  7 7  appealed  characteristics,  as  been  whole use  of  of a  theme  the intervallic  to Sorabji as  or  influence has  large  well  end  7 6  S t r a u s s ' s t o n e - p o e m Don work  Elgar's  emotional  concepts."  Elgar.  post-romantic  pictorial  them  Falstaff,  In  emotionalism  the  Quixote. in i t s lack  C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t : Queen's, March 3, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 194).  of  18,"  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t : Q u e e n ' s , M a r c h A g e 4 6 , No. 22 ( A p r i l 3, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 194).  New  18,"  Ibid.  N. Cardus, ed., Humphrey M i l f o r d , 7 7  of  of  Straussian work.  leit-motif  romantic  *K. S o r a b j i , "Music: A g e 4 6 , No. 22 ( A p r i l New  and  . . . [whereas]  verbal  poem o f  r e m i n i s c e n t of  7  7 5  into  7 < t  different.  "much m o r e  in his interpretation  and  o r c h e s t r a and  which  i s no  in a  music  i t s own  symphonic  i s romantic  Straussian  The  7 5  E l g a r ' s most  i s treated  programme  that tale  correct  in this  conception which  was  t o as  intensity  t h a t enjoyment  the  i t told]  to translate  Sorabji  significantly the  . . . . "  S t r a u s s were e v i d e n t ,  r e q u i r e a programme t o s u p p l y  f o r the m u s i c . "  wishing  were  variety  of  S t r a u s s , whose w o r k s were  framework itself  influences  surpassed  knowledge of  works d i d not  r i c h n e s s and  feelings  E l g a r had  external  enhanced  freedom,  Samuel L a n g f o r d . M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m , 1 9 2 9 ) , p . 7.  50  (London:  popular  idioms  in this  opinion  a spiritual  Therefore, using  composer, poets  awareness.  the musical  together  Sir whose  BAX  age i n England; the highest  Bax r e g a r d e d  " s e n s e s were drunk  obtruding  language  perversities  . . ., w h i l e  typically  7 9  This  a s one o f t h e l a s t  S o r a b j i regarded  their  i n music.  as a "brazen  that  Richard  Strauss  [ h i s ] brain staggered  style  romantic"  w i t h Wagner, n e r v e s a - t w i t c h  to the  was a t t h e man's  and i n f e r n a l  orchestral  H i s e a r l y works composed b e f o r e  romantic  transformations use  of the romantic e r a  expression  himself  complex a u d a c i t i e s of c o u n t e r p o i n t cleaverness."  composer  (1883-1953)  Arnold  titillating  in Sorabji's  a twentieth-century  w i t h D e l i u s , was r e g a r d e d  of the romantic  ARNOLD  to attain,  r e c e i v e d by S o r a b j i i n h i s c r i t i q u e s .  achievements as being  SIR  Elgar  7 8  we s e e o n c e a g a i n ,  predominatly  approbatively  work c a u s e d  1920 r e p r e s e n t  a  a s he a s s i m i l a t e d t h e t h e m a t i c  of L i s z t ' s  spiritual conflict,  of the orchestra, the r i c h  8  0  the virtuosic  orchestral colours, the epic  S o r a b j i ' s a f f i n i t y w i t h E l g a r ' s music composed i n t h e romantic v e i n h a s been e x p l a i n e d by h i s sympathy w i t h t h e m u s i c o f Wagner w h o s e i n f l u e n c e c a n b e s e e n i n many o f E l g a r ' s c o m p o s i t i o n s . S e e : T h e New G r o v e , s . v . " E l g a r , E d w a r d , " b y D i a n e M c V e a g h . 7 8  P e r c y Young, A H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Music, p. 5 7 0 . 7 9  8  ° T h e New G r o v e ,  s.v. "Bax, S i r A r n o l d , "  51  (London:  by A n t h o n y  Benn, Payne.  1967),  proportions T h i s was with  and.the chromatic harmonies  s u p p l e m e n t e d by  Ravel  utilized  an u n d e r l y i n g  whilst  The  works  expertise  substantial  use  of  works  lost  their  works  of h i s l a t e r  free-flowing as  spite  on not  overpraised" imagination  The  New  formal  therefore,  was  of t h i s  period  manner  chromatic.  o f a more his  vogue  remained  richly  outlines  in  academic  technical  and  making  C o n s e q u e n t l y , Bax's  8 1  The  lost  majority  much o f  of  the  their  romantic/impressionistic  qualities,  dramatic elements.  Bax's  romantic/impressionistic  works  o f B a x , many o f S o r a b j i ' s  composer music  composer,  8 2  were n e g a t i v e  and  structural  s.v.  he  composing  1927  "Bax,  felt  Bax  music  reviews  i n tone. Sorabji was  which  a  and  1929, music  Sorabji as being  S i r Arnold,"  lacked  referred devoid  by A n t h o n y  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [Regarding the Philharmonic p e r f o r m a n c e o f B a x ' s T h i s W o r l d ' s J o i e 3 , " New A g e (June 26, 1924):109, TDR~24-25). 8 2  52  did  "fantastically  strength.  t o the composer's  Grove,  more  which  consisted  spontaneity.  years,  h i s reviews of  specifically  8 1  creative  of t h i s  and  structure  counterpoint.  of the i n h e r e n t  appreciate  In  linear  style  on d i s p l a y i n g  clearer  i n the e a r l y  the music  1920  style,  Strauss.  individualistic  material  concentrated  s u p p l e n e s s and  their  tendencies  harmonic  composed a f t e r  by p r o v i d i n g  harmonic  i n an  the decorative  i n w h i c h Bax  In  The  the romantic language  diatonic  as w e l l  impressionistic  than w i t h Debussy.  emphasizing  style  an  o f Wagner and  of  Payne.  Choir's 3 5 , No. 9  "sincerity", Two the  the  compositions  Piano  reviews,  p a s s i o n , and  8 3  Quintet  of  Bax  which  (1915) and  Sorabji outlines  formal  dramatic  s t r u c t u r e of  the  the  his  substance.  S o r a b j i reviewed  Oboe Q u i n t e t  of  i n 1927  1922.  composer's weaknesses  In  were these  in regard  to  music:  T h e t w o p r i n c i p a l w o r k s p l a y e d on t h i s o c c a s i o n , t h e Oboe and P i a n o q u i n t e t s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d t o g i v e t h e worst p o s s i b l e o p i n i o n of t h i s composer. They a r e compact of a t e p i d v i s c i o u s g l u c o s i t y , c o m p l e t e l y l a c k i n g i n f i r m n e s s of o u t l i n e and l i n e d r a w i n g and over a l l b r o o d s t h a t marsh misma of f o g g y - h e a d e d n e s s t h a t u s e d , I b e l i e v e , t o be c a l l e d t h e C e l t i c twilight, p r o d u c i n g a s i n g u l a r l y r e p e l l e n t r e s u l t . . . . The composer f a i l s c o m p l e t e l y t o g a i n t h a t e s s e n t i a l i n n e r c o h e r e n c e w h i c h a l o n e c o n s t i t u e s " f o r m " , and t h e l a c k of w h i c h no i n g e n i o u s a n d s p e c i o u s j e r r y - b u i l d i n g w i t h " t h i r d s " f i r s t and second s u b j e c t s and a l l t h e r e s t of the programme a n a l y s t s c l a p t r a p w i l l c o n c e a l or s u b s t i t u t e f o r — i n d e e d , i n d e f a u l t of i t these d e v i c e s a r e a v e r y m i n o r and p a l p a b l e p i e c e of artistic d i s h o n e s t y , so t r a n s p a r e n t t h a t one i s a s t o n i s h e d a t a n y o n e i m a g i n i n g us s i m p l e - m i n d e d e n o u g h t o be i m p r e s s e d , l e t a l o n e t a k e n by t h e m . " 8  Sorabji themes and texture This  was  romantic melodic  felt  ornamental  and  weak  the  content  i n these figures,  formal  critic's  style  suggesting  that  of  works,  resulting  structure lacking  opinion  in spite  o r c h e s t r a t i o n , the  and  the  non-musical  Bax  evocative  of  in a needlessly  Bax's use  of  i n these  B y " s i n c e r i t y " i n music, S o r a b j i probably individualistic compositional style. 8 3  use  of  complex  overall organization.  lyrical  titles  inspirations  made e x c e s s i v e  beauty each  of  a  of  the  movement  works.  Another  meant a d i r e c t  and  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: M i s c h a L e v i t z k i (Queen's H a l l , O c t o b e r 2 0 ) ; A r n o l d Bax ( W i g m o r e , O c t o b e r 2 0 ) ; I t u r b i ( A e o l i a n , O c t o b e r 2 2 ) ; D i n h g i l l y ( G r o t r i a n , N o v e m b e r 1 ) , " New A g e 4 2 , No. 2 ( N o v e m b e r 1 0 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 2 , (DR 9 5 ) . 8 f l  53  reason of  Sorabji  Bax's use  which  may  not  of a c o m b i n a t i o n  are modal  in nature—as  opposing  registers  romantic  or  The  of  Bax  was  technique  w o r k s may  of  two  well  was  because  o r more s c a l e s — s o m e  as  the  use  were more modern  these  intent i n the  have  of  of  tonalities  in conception  and  than  Bax's music  by  Demuth:  may  also  have  influenced  works c o n s i d e r a b l y . Lewis  o n l y on  "creating  Piano Quintet".  been c a u s e d  interpret Norman  these quintets  impressionistic.  judgements  that  piano  these  which  of  s t a n d a r d of performance  Sorabji's stated  have e n j o y e d  properly.  by  85  Foreman  a mood w i t h a Sorabji's  the performer's  flood  dislike inability  These o p i n i o n s have been  of to  echoed  B a x ' s t e c h n i q u e a n d i d i o m i n c r e a s e d i n t h i c k n e s s a s he g r e w t o m a t u r i t y . T h o s e who p l a y B a x h a v e t o be t h o r o u g h l y i n s y m p a t h y w i t h h i s s t y l e . T h e y h a v e t o be u l t r a - s e n s i t i v e i n t h e i r comprehension and r e s p o n s e . . . . The e x e r c i s e o f i m a g i n a t i o n , a l w a y s e s s e n t i a l w i t h r o m a n t i c m u s i c , h a s t o be u s e d t o t h e f u l l w i t h Bax, o t h e r w i s e t h e m u s i c becomes a mere j u m b l e of sound. 8 6  Of  a l l the works of  Variations  of  Variations  t o be  any  1918.  contemporary  In a  "the  Bax,  Sorabji  1924  r e v i e w , he  best  composer  large  work  . . . and  admired  most  the  proclaimed  for piano  and  incontestably  Symphonic  the o r c h e s t r a of  the  best  piece  F o r e m a n w r i t e s t h a t Bax, i n r e s p o n s e t o the p i a n i s t V i v i a n L a n g u i s h ' s q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r a p a r t i c u l a r n o t e was a m i s p r i n t , s t a t e d t h a t "odd n o t e s d i d n o t m a t t e r so l o n g as t h e s t y l e and a t m o s p h e r e w e r e r i g h t . " T h i s o n l y g o e s t o show B a x ' s h a p h a z a r d t r e a t m e n t of the m u s i c a l i d e a s , and the s e v e r e d i f f i c u l t i e s p e r f o r m e r s must h a v e f a c e d i n t h e i r s t u d y o f t h e m u s i c . ( S e e : L. Foreman, Bax: A Composer and H i s T i m e s , (London: S c h o l a r P r e s s , 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 1 1 9 ) . 8 5  8 6  N.  Demuth, M u s i c a l T r e n d s ,  p.  54  158.  of  piano writing  Similar later, 1927  8  remarks but  6  as a  of  any  were  kind  stated  then a l t e r e d  result  of  the  by  a modern B r i t o n  in a  review written  drastically  low  . . . four  in a s t i l l  s t a n d a r d of  .  8 7  months  later  review  of  performance:  The Bax V a r i a t i o n s d i d n o t s o u n d s o w e l l on t h i s o c c a s i o n a s b e f o r e . T h i n g s one w a i t e d f o r w i t h t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n o f b e i n g moved by them on p r e v i o u s o c c a s i o n s seemed t o m i s s t h e i r e f f e c t and sound lame. . . . [ t h e ] r e s u l t of i n d i f f e r e n t o r c h e s t r a l playing. 8 9  Similar review  of  s e n t i m e n t s w e r e e x p r e s s e d by  Bax's Second  However, S o r a b j i differred musical  Piano Sonata  admited  considerably  that  from  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of  the opinions  c o m p o s i t i o n s of B a x .  delared  this  Liszt  Sonata"  and  in a  revised of  9 1  t o be  this  the true,  of  the  greatest  Rachmaninoff,  for  instance,  "the greatest  Schnabel  9 0  work  of o t h e r s of  referred  one  1924  1924).  the time. This i s c e r t a i n l y  musical  t o be  (1915,  h i s opinions  many a c c l a i m e d t h e P i a n o S o n a t a  work  Sorabji  work  for piano since  t o i t as  "the greatest  K . S o r a b j i , "Music: [ R e g a r d i n g the c o n c e r t of the M u s i c s p o n s o r e d b y t h e B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y on May New A g e 3 5 , No. 7 ( J u n e 1 2 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 8 0 , (DR 2 1 - 2 3 ) . 8 7  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [Regarding the performance S y m p h o n i c V a r i a t i o n s b y H a r r i e t C o h e n ] , " New A g e ( O c t o b e r 2 3 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 3 0 8 , (DR 3 0 ) . 8 8  for  the piano  Contemporary 13, 1 9 2 4 ] , "  o f t h e Bax 3 5 , No. 26  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [Miss D a i s y Kennedy's p u b l i c p r o t e s t ] ; Q u e e n ' s H a l l P r o m e n a d e s , " New A g e 4 1 , No. 20 ( S e p t e m b e r 15, 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 3 8 , (DR 9 3 - 9 4 ) . 8 9  K . S o r a b j i , "Music: [ R e g a r d i n g the c o n c e r t of Contemporary M u s i c s p o n s o r e d b y t h e B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y on May 1 3 , 1 9 2 4 ] , " New A g e 3 5 , No. 7 ( J u n e 12, l 9 2 4 ) : 7 9 - 8 0 , (DR 2 1 - 2 3 ) . 9 0  9 1  L.  Foreman, Bax:  A Composer and  55  H i s Times,  p.  363.  work of  the  considered for  twentieth century." to  be  Bax's treatment  extension themes.  of  the  critic  of  the the  sonata  views  regarded  "the  critic  of  composer's musical  principle  today, best  the  piano  m a t e r i a l and by  the  use  of  composition works,  for  is  both  his  three  main  9 3  Sorabji's  as  one  Even  9 2  This  compound of wrote,  on  in a  Bax's c h o r a l works are  World's J o i e slime  June  and  26,  (1922)  for  f o r unaccompanied  treacle". "  The  9  1924  similar,  the choir  composition,  the  review,  . . . c o n t a i n e d s e v e r e t e c h n i c a l d e f i c e n c e s due t o t h e m e c h a n i c a l m a t i n g of h i s means of e x p r e s s i o n . . . [ t h e l a c k o f ] f u s i o n of t h o u g h t and e x p r e s s i o n , t h a t i n t e r i o r l o g i c e s s e n t i a l c o h e s i o n . . . [ a n d ] , h e s i t a n c y of u t t e r a n c e , [ w i t h ] a sense of g r o p i n g f o r the r i g h t expression . . . . 9 5  Here S o r a b j i i s probably use  of  homophonic  simultaneous Another and  and  manner  polyphonic  to create  composition,  o r c h e s t r a had  referring  St.  to  the  composer's  textures  sharp  i n an  contrasts  "impressive  alternating  or  in texture.  Patrick's Breastplate  certain  constant  (1923) f o r  moments,"  chorus  but  . . . a s i n s o many o f t h e l a r g e r w o r k s o f B a x , one feels a musical p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u g g l i n g to a t t a i n a s p a c i o u s n e s s of s t y l e and a m a s s i v e b r e a t h of e x p r e s s i o n that i s r a t h e r p a i n f u l l y beyond i t . . . . 9 6  9 2  9 3  L.  Foreman, Bax;  T h e New  Grove,  A  s.v.  Composer and "Bax,  His  Times,  S i r Arnold,"  by  p.363.  Anthony  Payne.  "K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [Regarding the performance of T h i s World's J o i e by t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r on J u n e 5, 1 9 2 4 ] , " New Age 35, No. 9 ( J u n e 2 6 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 1 0 3 - 1 0 4 , (DR 2 4 - 2 5 ) . 9  9 5  Ibid.  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [Regarding the Philharmonic Choir's p e r f o r m a n c e o f M a r c h 1 1 , 1926 w h e r e S t . P a t r i c k ' s B r e a s t p l a t e 9 6  56  Walsingham tenor, its  (1926, d e d i c a t e d  c h o r u s and  orchestra  "scrappy d i s j u n c t i v e  treatment."  Sorabji  9 7  was  to Philip criticized  quality"  was  and  Heseltine)  for  by  because  Sorabji  i t s "heavy  probably referring  and  to the  excessive  use  of c o n t r a p u n t a l  devices,  which  not  f i t t h e mood o f t h e  "slender  poem a r o u n d  quite  written." The Sorabji  only was  work of  it  of  thing  pregnancy  of  of t h i s  music  o f Bax  (cont'd) 1926):250,  9 6  Pieces  (1928,  composer".  has  extended composer's  in his opinion, which  produced  of  positive remained  was (DR  for orchestra)  did  i t is  so  f a r . . . [because  Sorabji  Pieces  liked  review, Sorabji's disparaging  p e r f o r m e d ] , " New 62).  to the  Age  was  "easily of  of u t t e r a n c e . "  and  a  invertebrae  Three  urgency  by  w h i c h was  9 9  romantic impressive that  reviewed p o s i t i v e l y  sprawling,  t h o u g h t , [ a n d ] an  surprising  spite  composer  to the usual  this  Bax  is full  i s not  this  the Three  productions  music  of  9 8  "welcome c o n t r a s t  finest  solo  expressive  the  the] 1 0 0  This  moments  and  the work. However, i n overall end.  38, No.  21  opinion  of  the  1 0 1  (March  25,  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [Regarding the Philharmonic Choir's p e r f o r m a n c e o f W a l s i n g h a m a t t h e Q u e e n ' s H a l l o n J u n e 6, 1 9 2 9 ] , " New A g e 4 5 , N o . 9 ( J u n e 2 7 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 1 0 4 , (DR 152-153). 9 7  9 8  Ibid.  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Q u e e n ' s H a l l , W e d n e s d a y , O c t o b e r 2: B r a h m s ; T h u r s d a y , O c t o b e r 3: A l l - B r i t i s h P r o g r a m m e , " New A g e No. 25 ( O c t o b e r 1 7 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 9 6 - 2 9 7 , (DR 1 6 4 ) . 9 9  1  0  0  45,  Ibid.  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e b r o a d c a s t programme f r o m P a r i s of the Symphonie C o n c e r t a n t e of F l o r e n c e S c h m i t t which i s c o m p a r e d t o t h e m u s i c o f B a x i n g e n e r a l ] , " New A g e 5 2 , N o . 26 1 0 1  57  Among  Sorabji's  contemporaries,  same m i n d c o n c e r n i n g  t h e music  Cecil  Gray  of Bax. Gray  was a l s o  stressed that  B a x ' s w o r k s t h e r e was n o t a s i n g l e  composition  satisfactory  much t o o q u i c k l y  as t h e composer  mature d e l i b e r a t i o n . acknowledged tendency Sorabji of  Bax's weaknesses which  was n o t a l o n e  Bax. S o r a b j i  characteristic,  musical  from  these  was w h o l l y and without  that of technical  failed  i n h i s attempts  have  also  t h e composer's 1  0  3  criticisms  t h a t t h e composer  amid  Therefore, of the music  l a c k e d t h e most competence, and t h a t  t o communicate h i s  thoughts.  GUSTAV HOLST  Of  stem  i n decorative d e t a i l .  when w r i t i n g  maintained  had consequently  which  Blom, Young, S e a r l e and Layton  t o swamp h i s w o r k  important he  1 0 2  wrote  of the  (1874-1934)  a l l the B r i t i s h  composers about  which  Gustav  H o i s t w a s t h e o n e who r e c e i v e d r e v i e w s  always  negative. Sorabji  considered  absolutely  Sorabji  wrote,  t h a t were  almost  d e t e s t e d h i s music and  H o i s t t o be  . . . a manipulator of current c l i c h e s loosely tacked t o g e t h e r w i t h no o r g a n i c o r i n h e r e n t c o h e s i o n , a s e t o f ideas devoid of i n t r i n s i c d i s t i n c t i o n or i n d i v i d u a l i t y 1 0 1  1 0 2  (cont'd)  (April  C.  A Survey,  Gray,  27, 1933):310,  (DR262).  p. 253.  S e e : E. B l o m , M u s i c i n E n g l a n d , (West D r a y t o n , England: P e n g u i n B o o k s , [ 1 9 4 7 ] ) , p . 2 5 6 ; P. Y o u n g , A H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h M u s i c , p . 5 7 1 ; a n d H. S e a r l e a n d R. L a y t o n , T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y composers V o l . I I , p. 38. 1 0 3  58  of  expression.  Consequently, criticisms which  may  1 0  4  Sorabji  r e s e r v e d some o f h i s m o s t  f o r the music at times prove  of Gustav almost  s e r v e s as an  example of  writtten  embarrasing  such d e r o g a t o r y r e v i e w of H o i s t ' s (1924)  Hoist,  colourful  opera At  i n prose  t o the  reader.  the Boar's  Sorabj's intense  One  Head  dislike  of h i s  music: . . . t h e f e e b l e s t work e v e r w r i t t e n f o r t h e o p e r a t i c stage . . . . [ I t i s a] c r a z y , clumsy, j e j u n e patchwork of m e a n i n g l e s s f r a g m e n t s u t t e r l y d e v o i d o f c o h e r e n c e o r s u s t a i n e d sense of c o n t i n u i t y , and incompetence of handling almost unbelievable; vocal w r i t i n g atrocious, s o b a d t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o h e a r m o r e t h a n a n i s o l a t e d w o r d o r two h e r e a n d t h e r e , a n d t h i s w i t h f a l s e s t r e s s e s , m i s p l a c e d a c c e n t s ; no t r a c e o f s t y l e i s t o be found i n the work from the f i r s t bar t o the l a s t , and the a m a t e u r i s h g a u c h e r i e of the whole would d i s g r a c e a student. 1 0 5  This The  i s the New  first  Age,  and  of the  several  remainder  attitude.  For  qualities  deemed e s s e n t i a l  coherence, sincerity between  Sorabji,  technical and  Henry V and  the  r e v i e w s on H o i s t ' s m u s i c  reflect  the opera  He  lacked  taverne scenes  scenes  in Hoist's  work as b e i n g m e a n i n g l e s s .  a l l the  imagination,  could  not  find  taken opera  In a d d i t i o n  in  t h e same i n p u g n i n g  in a musical piece,  competence,  expression.  the various  such  that  i s , inner  originality,  the  from and  prerequisite  relationships  Shakespere's  thus  the c r i t i c  referred  play to  the  d i d not  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [Regarding the performance of H o i s t ' s C h o r a l S y m p h o n y a t t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C o n c e r t on O c t o b e r 2 9 , 1 9 2 5 ] , " New A g e 3 8 , No. 3 ( N o v e m b e r 1 9 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 1 - 3 2 , (DR 5 4 - 5 5 ) . 1 0 4  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On H o i s t ' s o p e r a r e p u t a t i o n i n E n g l a n d ] , " New A g e 3 7 , No. (DR 4 7 ) . 1 0 5  59  The B o a r ' s 2 (May 14,  Head and h i s 1925):18,  appreciate of  the  Hoist's adoption  melodic  content  commonplace and originality,  later—focused ( 1 9 2 3 - 2 4 ) by The  popular  sincerity  Sorabji's  1925.  of  the  f o l k - t u n e s which work,  musical and  individual  review  on  performance  the  for this  of  form  use  of  the  London P h i l h a r m o n i c  a  lack  of  expression.  Hoist's music—almost of  basis  demeaning,  materials represented  second  the  work  of  the  Choral  Orchestra  s i x months  Symphony on  October  29,  contained:  T h e same c l u m s i n e s s a n d g a u c h e r i e , t h e same l a c k o f c e r t a i n t y , of i n e v i t a b i l i t y , the u n f a i l i n g h a l l - m a r k of t h e h a i l e d m a s t e r p i e c e s of Mr. H o i s t i s h e r e as e v e r y w h e r e e l s e i n h i s w o r k . The c h o r a l w r i t i n g i s s p l a y f o o t e d and u n v o c a l ; i n d e e d H o i s t ' s l a c k of v o c a l s e n s e i s as c o n s p i c i o u s as h i s l a c k of o r c h e s t r a l sense. He s e e m s t o h a v e no f e e l i n g f o r t h e m e d i u m f o r w h i c h he i s w r i t i n g . H i s harmonic and m e l o d i c i d e a s waver between d i a t o n i c c o m m o n p l a c e s on t h e one h a n d , a n d p o l y t o n a l on the o t h e r . H i s p o t t e r i n g s about and f i d d l i n g s w i t h c h o r d s i n f o u r t h s t r u c t u r e s h a v e no m o r e m e r r i t o r i n t e r e s t than Rebikov's a f f a i r s of ten or twelve y e a r s ago . . . . 1 0 6  Sorabji's of  views  on  this  Imogen H o i s t . A c c o r d i n g  "suffers the  first  problem and  from  of  breadth  trying of  to her,  his inability  movement and  a  the  work have been c o n s o n a n t w i t h Hoist's Choral  to w r i t e i n extended finale  to develop symphony."  he  [ H o i s t ] was  h i s ideas 1 0 7  to the  those  Symphony form.  . . .  defeated  in  by  the  required length  Norman Demuth a l s o c o n s i d e r s  this  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [Regarding the performance of the C h o r a l S y m p h o n y a t P h i l h a r m o n i c c o n c e r t ] , " New A g e 3 8 , No. 3 ( N o v e m b e r 1 9 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 1 - 3 2 , (DR 54-55). 1 0 6  1  0  7  I .  H o i s t , The  Music  o f G u s t a v H o i s t , p.  60  76.  compost ion to have "unbalanced a d a p t i b i l i t y . " q u i c k l y confirms  However, he  1 0 8  that H o i s t was w e l l aware of the c a p a c i t y of  the human v o i c e and h i s mastery of c h o r a l technique,  combined  with h i s e l a s t i c i t y of rhythm, always bent to s u i t the t e x t , p l a c e d him i n the f o r e f r o n t of c h o r a l  composers."  109  S o r a b j i o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d H o i s t ' s rhythmic s t y l e with of S t r a v i n s k y .  1 1 0  Indeed, a c c o r d i n g  that  to W i l f r e d M e l l e r s , H o i s t  g r e a t l y admired the music of S t r a v i n s k y , and "every element i n H o i s t ' s technique assumes an a b o r t i v e form from Stravinsky's." in the Choral  1 1 1  There are v a r i o u s examples of t h i s  influence  Symphony, i n c l u d i n g the bacchanal of the  first  movement which has been d e s c r i b e d as " e x c i t i n g i n i t s pagan orgy of sound" due to the rhythmic o s t i n a t o s which p r e d o m i n a t e . h i s review of the work, S o r a b j i a l s o mentioned manneristic  use of consecutive  undermine  N.  the whole s t r u c t u r e of the movement."  1 0 9  Demuth, M u s i c a l Trends, p.  Imogen H o i s t  threatening 113  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c perhaps e x p l a i n s S o r a b j i ' s r e f e r e n c e 1 0 8  to  This to the  139.  Ibid.  K . S o r a b j i , "Music: Mr. Robert H u l l [Book review on H u l l ' s Contemporary Music 3," New Age 42, No. 5 (December 1, 1927):57, 1 1 0  W i l f r e d M e l l e r s , Romanticism and the 20th Century, ( F a i r Lawn, New J e r s e y : E s s e n t i a l Books Inc., 1957), p. 174. 1 1 1  1 1 2  1 1 3  I . H o i s t , The Music, p. 78. Ibid.  61  In  Hoist's  f o u r t h s and f i f t h s ;  s t a t e s , "the h a b i t had become a menace, and was  112  i m p r e s s i o n i s t composer V l a d i m i r I v o n o v i c h whose e a r l y w o r k s r e v e a l an e x c e s s i v e  Rebikov  (1866-1920),  use of these  S o r a b j i d i d n o t w r i t e about H o i s t ' s music a g a i n when he r e v i e w e d (1917). regarded  u n t i l 1929  t h e c h o r a l - o r c h e s t r a l work Hymn o f J e s u s  As w i t h p r e v i o u s as being  intervals.  works, t h i s composition  insincere i n expression,  was a l s o  and a c c o r d i n g t o  S o r a b j i , H o i s t ' s a s p i r a t i o n s were t o o g r a n d f o r h i s m i n d : . . . f o r t h e s u p e r f i c i a l empty p r e t e n t i o u s n e s s a n d e n t i r e l a c k o f r e a l m y s t i c a l f e e l i n g i n t h a t work t o be doubly exposed. Nothing short of t h e highest p o s s i b l e s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n do f o r M r . H o i s t — a n e n t i r e Cosmos i n t h e P l a n e t s ' V e d a n t i c t h o u g h t i n t h e R i g - V e d a Hymns and t h e A p o c r y p h a l New T e s t a m e n t i n t h e Hymn o f J e s u s , and i n d e e d t h e y d o , "do f o r " h i m i n q u i t e a n o t h e r s e n s e by s h o w i n g h i s l a m e n t a b l e i n a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h them o r c a t c h e v e n a f l e e t i n g g l i m p s e o f t h e shadow o f a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r greatness. * 1 1  Thus, t h e c r i t i c  was n o t r e a d y f o r t h e a u s t e r e  s t y l e of H o i s t ' s  m u s i c . T h i s was b e c a u s e , t h e Hymn o f J e s u s was t h e c o m p o s e r ' s . . . most s t r i k i n g l y o r i g i n a l work [ a n d ] h a s n o t h i n g i n common w i t h t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y E n g l i s h o r a t o r i o . To t h e a u d i e n c e o f t h e 1920s t h e m u s i c was a r e v e l a t i o n w i t h i t s l e a p i n g rhythms and i t s p i e r c i n g d i s c o r d s . . . . I t a l s o g i v e s i t s l i s t e n e r s and i t s p e r f o r m e r s a sense o f overwhelming r e l i g i o u s e x a l t a t i o n . 1 1 5  For  S o r a b j i , t h e work was i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e ,  drama. Imogen H o i s t e x p l a i n s  l a c k i n g mystery and  that  . . . l i s t e n e r s . . . were n o t p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t s u c h a s t o u n d i n g l y u n f a m i l i a r r e l i g i o u s m u s i c . H o i s t h a d no use w h a t e v e r f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y : he was u t t e r l y f r e e f r o m r o u t i n e p i e t y , h i s m e m o r i e s o f t h e B m i n o r Mass were o f e c s t a s y , h i s S a n s k r i t s t u d i e s t a u g h t h i m t o * K i S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e Hymn o f J e s u s by t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r a t t h e Queen's H a l l on J u n e 6, 1 9 2 9 ] , " New Ag_e 4 5 , No. 9 ( J u n e 2 7 ) , 1929) : 104, (DR 1 5 2 - 1 5 3 ) . 1 1  1  1  5  I.  H o i s t , The M u s i c , p. 5 9 .  62  t h i n k beyond t h e b o u n d a r i e s of E u r o p e , and h i s i d e a of C h r i s t i n c l u d e d the t e r r i f y i n g u n e x p e c t e d n e s s of the Byzantine m o s a i c s . 1 1 6  Gustav H o i s t style  w h i c h was  more t h e  was  not  composing  appreciated  traditional  Generally  romantic  speaking, Hoist  in England  during  h e l d much t h e  i n a modern  the  by  only  early part  same o p i n i o n s  S o r a b j i , the  style  had  as  twentieth-century  of  the  a few  of  the  champion  nineteenth  enthusiastic century,  of  the  century. admirers  f o r the  English  Sorabji:  The E n g l i s h had l o o k e d f o r 'warmth' i n m u s i c — t h e q u a l i t y t h a t was p e r c e i v e d i n the g r e a t mass of o r a t o r i o c h o r a l t r a d i t i o n on t h e one hand, and i n t h e h a r m o n i c i d i o m s of t h e l a t e 19th c e n t u r y on t h e o t h e r . H o i s t i n t r o d u c e d a new e l e m e n t — o f c o l d n e s s . T h i s i s why he i s more o f a 2 0 t h - c e n t u r y c o m p o s e r . 1 1 7  Hoist's  music  lacked  ardent  emotionalism  served  to provide  the  romantic  and  economical  the  over  the  last  ( 1 9 2 9 ) , Hammersmith Death  1  6  I.  1 1 7  1 1 8  H.  P.  ( 1 9 1 9 ) . The  Hoist,  The  being  tone.  two  of  language  i n much of  the  the which  music  in  expression  composer's m u s i c  austere,  of  uncommunicative  has and  1 1 8  other  the  M u s i c , p.  Young, A H i s t o r y  harmonic  d e l i v e r a n c e . The  works of H o i s t  Double C o n c e r t o  ( 1 9 3 0 ) , and  first  Raynor, Music  impulse  lusciousness,  works were more d i r e c t  three  years:  warmth and  traditional  Raynor as  reviewed two  the  later  in their by  romantic  dramatic  i n i t s b a r e n e s s of Sorabji  1  and  era. His  been d e s c r i b e d cold  the  the  f o r two  above  violins  received  59. B r i t i s h M u s i c , p.  63  journal  s e t t i n g of Witman's Ode  works l i s t e d  i n E n g l a n d , p.  i n the  193.  555.  to  criticisms  similar  However, t h e Ode  t o t h e e a r l i e r m u s i c d i s c u s s e d by  t o D e a t h , a work w h i c h was  the time of S o r a b j i ' s  1931  Sorabji.  1 1 9  twelve years o l d at  review,  . . . showed i n d i c a t i o n s o f an i m a g i n a t i v e s e n s i t i v e n e s s and s u b t e l t y t h a t , a s f a r a s I am c o n c e r n e d , h a v e been completely [lacking] . . . i n o t h e r works of t h i s composer . . . . 1 2  S o r a b j i may  0  h a v e been r e f e r r i n g  t o t h e c a l m and  tranquil  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by H o i s t o f Whitman's o p e n i n g l i n e s  'Come, l o v e l y  and s o o t h i n g d e a t h ' when he w r o t e o f t h e m u s i c a s b e i n g i m a g i n a t i v e , s e n s i t i v e and s u b t l e . H e r e , more so t h a n i n any o t h e r c o m p o s i t i o n of H o i s t ' s , t h e music the t e x t  i n the romantic sense, that  i s , there i s a  emotion which i s comprehensible i n l i g h t t h i n k i n g . A l s o , b e i n g an e a r l i e r t r a d i t i o n a l harmonic  of  definite  traditional  c o m p o s t i o n , H o i s t u s e d a more  l a n g u a g e t o w h i c h S o r a b j i was  RALPH VAUGHAN WILLIAMS  atuned.  1 2 1  (1872-1958)  R a l p h V a u g h a n W i l l i a m s was S o r a b j i and  r e f l e c t s t h e meaning of  a composer g r e a t l y a d m i r e d  i n d e e d , by n e a r l y a l l o f E n g l a n d . S o r a b j i  by  regarded  S e e : K. S o r a b j i , M u s i c : [On t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f S o r a b j i ' s P i a n o S o n a t a No. 4 j ; P h i l h a r m o n i c : A p r i l 3.; B.B.C. C o n c e r t : A p r i l 4," New Age 46, No. 24 ( A p r i l 17, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 8 4 , (DR 195) and " M u s i c : [On W a l t o n ' s B e l s h a z z a r ' s F e a s t ] ; R o y a l C h o r a l S o c i e t y : Nov. 28," New Age 50, No. 6 (December 10, 1 9 3 1 ) : 6 6 , (DR 233-234). 1 1 9  1 2 0  Ibid.  1 2 1  See also:  I . H o i s t , The M u s i c , p.  64  64.  him  a s a man  reverence  "of d e e p s e r i o u s n e s s and  towards h i s a r t "  not merely  1 2 2  and  a man  "an  artist  a p r o f e s s i o n , but a v o c a t i o n . "  six compositions  with  1 2 3  of Vaughan W i l l i a m s i n The  Symphony of  1922.  I n a 1926  review  "one  a year  reviewed  Age.  the t h i r d P a s t o r a l  of the  best,  most d e e p l y - f e l t p i e c e s o f m u s i c t h a t h a v e come  from a B r i t i s h composer i n r e c e n t y e a r s . " almost  Sorabji  of t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n , S o r a b j i  w r o t e t h a t t h e P a s t o r a l Symphony was s i n c e r e s t , and  t o whom h i s a r t i s  New  H i s f a v o r i t e work by t h i s c o m p o s e r was  profound  b e f o r e , S o r a b j i was  more  1 2  *  In a review w r i t t e n  specific:  W i t h t h e Vaughan W i l l i m s P a s t o r a l Symphony we o n c e more e n t e r e d t h e d o m a i n o f m u s i c . I t i s on t h e w h o l e a v e r y r e m a r k a b l e w o r k , d i s f i g u r e d p e r h a p s by t h e t r i a d i c m a n n e r i s m s of harmony, and by t h e u n i f o r m i t y o f mood o f t h r e e o u t of i t s f o u r movements, a s i t l a c k s t h e s t r o n g c o h e s i o n t o make s u c h a p r o t r a c t e d e x p r e s s i o n c o n v i n c i n g and s a t i s f y i n g . But i t i s q u i e t , d e e p l y t r e a t e d i n t r o s p a c t i v e m u s i c - - a t i t s b e s t the p u r e s t n a t u r e of m u s i c u n m a r r e d by t h e i n t r u s i o n o f any j a r r i n g d i s h a r m o n y of human e l e m e n t . E v e n t h e v o c a l s o l o i n t h e l a s t movement i s d e t a c h e d , r e m o t e , and s t r a n g e l y e x t r a - h u m a n i n q u a l i t y , and t h a t i s n o t t h e l e a s t p a r t o f i t s p o w e r , w h i c h " r e c o l l e c t e d i n q u i e t n e s s " makes one d e s i r e t o h e a r i t a g a i n . I t i s w i t h o u t d o u b t t h e most i m p o r t a n t and i n d i v i d u a l symphony w r i t t e n s i n c e t h e E l g a r w o r k s , and one f e e l s i t i s m u s i c w i t h s t a y i n g power. 1 2  5  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [Regarding the l a s t P h i l h a r m o n i c Concert of t h e S e a s o n o f 1 9 2 5 ] , " New A£e 37, No. 1 (May 7, 1 9 2 5 ) : 7 , (DR 46). 1 2 2  1 2 3  Ibid.  *K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : S i r Thomas Beecham," New ( M a r c h 11, 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 2 5 , (DR 6 1 ) . 12  Age  38, No.  19  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [Regarding the l a s t P h i l h a r m o n i c Concert o f t h e 1925 s e a s o n where t h e symphony was p e r f o r m e d ] , " New Age 37, No. 1 (May 7, 1925) : 7, (DR 4 6 ) . 1 2 5  65  Many w r i t e r s , l i k e as  Vaughan W i l l i a m s '  work as  a  praise  of  English  tour the  folk-song  greatest  force,  work as  style.  incorporated  In  de  1  2  the  i n an  style,  material  was  In  7  this  to the  the  i t to  create  fusion  of  wrote  a  in  the high  distinctly  English  style. folk-song  composer's o v e r a l l reminiscent  regarded  Williams  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  romantic  composition  Kennedy  symphony, Vaughan  c o m p o s e r s . As  this  Norman Demuth a l s o  considered  fundamental  highly  impressionist  he  work. M i c h a e l  and  1 2 6  intensely  addition  romantic  S o r a b j i , have h e r a l d e d  to  treatment  that  Michael  elements  of  Liszt  Kennedy  of  into the  and  a  musical  the  states,  The t u n e s o f t h e P a s t o r a l S y m p h o n y a r e n o t 'developed' as the c l a s s i c a l s y m p h o n i s t u n d e r s t a n d s the term. There a r e few e x a m p l e s o f s e q u e n c e s o r d i m i n u t i o n s , instead t h e r e i s a f r e e e v o l u t i o n o f one t u n e f r o m a n o t h e r , a p r o c e s s of r e g e n e r a t i o n , l i k e s t r e a m s f l o w i n g i n t o e a c h o t h e r , c o a l e s c i n g a n d g o i n g on t h e i r w a y . 1 2 8  This a  treatment  fludity  of  Therefore,  Campi  and  tastes  suite  ( 1 9 2 5 ) was  review.  The  maturest  suggests a  sounds that  Sorabji  conservative The  almost  for  did  not  to  have  viola,  praised  composition of  from to  appreciate  solo  also  stem  thematic  was  impressionistic venture  too  far  c h o r u s and  Sorabji  considered  i t s composer's works"  to  as  from  because  "one  orchestra,  of  i t was  M. K e n n e d y , The W o r k s o f R a l p h V a u g h a n W i l l i a m s , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 106. 1 2 6  1 2 7  1 2 8  N.  Demuth, M u s i c a l  M.  K e n n e d y , The  Trends,  Works of  p.  in a  the a  Flos  "moving  (London:  p.  1928  finest  145.  R a l p h Vaughan W i l l i a m s ,  66  his  symphony.  i s evident  be  creating  idioms.  Vaughan W i l l i a m s '  small by  metamorphosis  170.  and  deeply f e l t  piece  work."  129  S o r a b j i must have approved of t h i s  of music because of i t s i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c  qualities.  (and romantic)  In t h i s composition, Vaughan W i l l i a m s shows a  p r e o c c u p a t i o n with s o n o r i t i e s and the extra-musical  quotations  from the Song of Solomon d i s p l a y i n g a c l e a r connection between the  t e x t and the m u s i c .  virtuosic  s o l o part  1 3 0  In a d d i t i o n , there  i n the romantic  i s the use of a  tradition.  However, Shepherds of the D e l e c t a b l e  Mountains (1921), a  p a s t o r a l episode, d i d not f a r e as w e l l . For S o r a b j i , Vaughan W i l l i a m s had captured "The P i l g r i m ' s Progress" r a t h e r with a morbid r e l i g i o s i t y Puritanism,"  that was "narrow, sour,  petty,  e s p e c i a l l y when "coupled with unpleasant and cheap  sentimentality."  1 3 1  S o r a b j i suggested i n h i s review that the  composer would do w e l l t o study some of the great theologians—especially given  crudely  the J e s u i t s . T h i s advice  Catholic may have been  by S o r a b j i because Vaughan W i l l i a m s was an a e t h i s t and the  critic  felt  that h i s p o r t r a y a l of r e l i g i o s i t y was not s i n c e r e .  S o r a b j i a l s o r e f e r r e d t o the composition as being "monotonous, lacking  in originality,  f e e b l e and poor i n idea and i n v e n t i o n ,  K . S o r a b j i , "Music: B.B.C. F r i d a y , 31st. Queen's.; Birmingham C i t y O r c h e s t r a , v i a B.B.C. Feb. 13.; Kirkby Lunn," New Age 46, No. 17 (February 27, 1930):201, (DR 189-190). 1 2 9  130  M.  Kennedy, The Works, p. 211.  K . S o r a b j i , , "Music: Season of L i g h t Opera: Court.; Budapest Philharmonic O r c h e s t r a , " New Age 43, No. 11 ( J u l y 12, 1 3 1  1928):129-130, (DR 119-120T7  67  and  exasperatingly Of  a l l the  most modern "the  works  in style  psalm-singing  twentieth-century appreciate polytonal in  a  of  previously, Again  the we  fashion  a composer  the  who  the  mixture use  speech"  block  1 3 4  works of  K e n n e d y , The  opposed of  to  this  states,  did  not  harmonies, chords  demonstrated  clearly  idioms.  I t was  and,  seen  as  and  Gustav Hoist  a  move  akin  of  Vaughan  techniques  composed  style  Williams  were  were t r e a t e d  the  not  in a  i n the  similar  same v e i n .  L i g h t Opera: Court.; 4 3 , No. 11 ( J u l y 12,  Budapest  172.  G e r a l d Abraham, A Hundred Y e a r s of M u s i c , P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 268. 1 3 4  68  to  style.  romantic/impressionistic  reviews  the  a  Sorabji's appreciation  uses a  W o r k s , p.  Kennedy  w h i c h was  compositions  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: Season of P h i l h a r m o n i c O r c h e s t r a , " New A g e 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 2 9 - 1 3 0 , (DR 119-12077 M.  modal  harmonic  1 3 2  1 3 3  of of  twentieth-century  critic's  S h e p h e r d s was  Sorabji apparently  1 3 3  the  austere was  the  h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n by  i n h i s works. Those works of  i n the to  and  have e v i d e n c e  utilized  favoured  only  musical  critic  Sorabji,  c o m p o s e r ' s w o r k s . As  composer."  Hoist's  1 3 2  by  nineteenth-century  predominantly which  the  Vaughan W i l l i a m s '  the  style  of  of  counterpoint,  from  music  reviewed  could  "modern-archaic  away the  repetitive."  (Chicago:  Aldine  SIR  JOHN I R E L A N D  Sorabji esteem. For  held  still  an  to  John  called a  appreciation  individualistic  style  and  style  harmonic  language,  in his  The  first  which  writing  expression  the  Contemporary Music  May  13,  Ireland's  His  Sonata  and 3  6  high  whom h i s of  art  spiritual  Centre  Grove,  s.v.  are  the of  considered  "Ireland,  by  and of  Debussy,  English  lyricism  sense also  of  the  the  traces  "translated  and  and  in a  of diluted  1 3 7  reviewed  critic  the this  heard  British sonata  by at  Sorabji  was  a concert  at  Music  Society  to  one  be  of  on the  Schumann. Queen's: November 4 4 , No. 5 (November 29, S i r John,"  S e a r l e , J o h n I r e l a n d . The The P i t m a n P r e s s , 1979),  69  inspired  a quasi-impressionistic  Ireland's  which  was  influences  There are  piano. of  music  structural  for  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: E l i z a b e t h A r t s T h e a t r e : G r o t r i a n , " New Age 1 9 2 8 ) : 5 7 , (DR 132).  M. V. Britain:  to  imaginative  was  these  (1923),  Sorabji  1  1 3 5  1 3 7  the  in  composers  for  but  composition  Cello  New  few  musican,  included  tradition.  the  The  the  serious  original,  technique  influence  manner"  1 3 6  h i s music  of  which combined E l g a r ' s  classical-romantic  1924.  "one  for  Stravinsky.  romantic  Stravinsky's  a  vehicle  composer's thoroughly  Elgar  was  and  1 3 5  Sorabji's  Ravel,  Ireland  Ireland  be  a r t , and  experience."  the  both  Sorabji,  anywhere worthy is  (1879-1962)  Man and p.66.  by His  Hugh  Ottaway.  Music,  (Great  3.;  finest  pieces  incomparably best for  of the  he  best  i t s kind,  British  modern European i t s inner  well  modern chamber music  as  for  work as  coherence  the  1 3 9  work  of  well."  or  s i n c e r i t y of  1  3  musical its  8  had  ever  Sorabji  heard:  and  perhaps  admired  organization  "It  the  and  is the  work  unity  as  expression:  T h e s p e e c h i s a b s o l u t e l y s u r e a n d c e r t a i n , t h e r e i s no f u m b l i n g f o r a w o r d , no h e s i t a n c y , a n d t h e w o r k h a s a b r u t a l d i r e c t n e s s and u n c o m p r o m i s i n g f o r c e f u l a u s t e r i t y . . . . I t i s s t a r k and s t r o n g , l i k e a S a x o n C r o s s hewn out of g r a n i t e , and, i f i t be p e r m i s s i b l e t o p r e s s t h e s i m i l i e s t i l l f u r t h e r , t h e work has much of t h e texture i n sound, of g r a n i t e i n s t o n e . * 1  Sorabji Muriel  was  Searle,  important Its  not  and  lyrical  alone the  most  and  for piano  all  other  n o t e and  the  Cello  Sonata  successful  the  of  composition  distinguished  works. * 1  2  I t was  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: John 17, 1 9 2 6 ) : 7 5 , (DR 68).  this the  d i r e c t s t y l e that  1 3 8  work,  Ireland  structural qualities,  writing his  in admiring  0  so  as  for according was  of  his  the  well  as  composition  most  mid-1 the of  Ireland,"  New  920s.  *  1  1  integrated Ireland  c a r e f u l ponderance impressed  to  over  from every  Sorabji.  Age  39,  No.  7  (June  B y " i n n e r c o h e r e n c e " S o r a b j i meant the " p r o g r e s s f o r m p o i n t t o p o i n t [and an] . . . i n d u c t i b l e d r i v e t o w a r d s a c l e a r l y r e a l i z e d end." ( " M u s i c , " New A g e 5 4 , No. 20 ( M a r c h 1 5 , 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 3 4 , [DR 269]). 1 3 9  *°K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c C e n t r e / B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y C o n c e r t on May 1 3 , 1 9 2 4 ] , " New A g e 3 5 , No. 7 ( J u n e 12, 1 9 2 4 ) : 8 0 . (DR 2 1 - 2 3 ) . E. J . M o e r a n ( 1 8 9 4 - 1 9 5 0 ) , a p u p i l a n d f r i e n d of John I r e l a n d d e s c r i b e d the work i n s i m i l a r t e r m s . ( S e e : M. S e a r l e , J o h n I r e l a n d . T h e Man a n d H i s M u s i c , [ G r e a t B r i t a i n : The P i t m a n P r e s s , 1 9 7 9 ] , p. 67. 1  1  1  * M. 1  V.  * T h e New 2  Searle, Grove,  John s.v.  Ireland,  p.  "Ireland,  70  66. S i r John,"  by  Hugh  Ottaway.  Another symphonic work  composition admired  rhapsody  Mai-Dun  for precisely  by S o r a b j i  was  (1920-21). S o r a b j i  t h e same  r e a s o n s he l i k e d  Ireland's  approved  of  the Cello  this  Sonata.  T h i s i s a work w h i c h , l i k e h i s f i n e C e l l o S o n a t a , i s s t r i p p e d u t t e r l y bare of a l l trimmings and f r i p p e r i e s ; b u t i t s s h a r p gaunt f o r m o n l y s t a n d s o u t t h e more f o r t h a t . D i r e c t a n d f o r c i b l e t o a d e g r e e , i t i s by no means t o be a p p r e h e n d e d a t o n c e , f o r i t i s t h e work o f an u n u s u a l l y e a r n e s t and s i n c e r e m u s i c a l individuality . . . . 1  This  symphonic  rhapsody  Roman c o n q u e s t evokes  use  helps  i t .  1  4  4  Sorabji pieces. Brooks  was a l s o  Searle  of the  43. The  rhapsody  a n d t h e Romans a s  well  describes  the  Ireland  composer's  i d i o m s i n t h e r h a p s o d y . The work was  Sorabji's  For instance,  study of L i s z t ' s affinity  orchestral  poems,  i m p r e s s e d b y many i n 1926, S o r a b j i  of Ireland's  performance  wrote  Major  b u t was v e r y d i s a p p o i n t e d  o f them s i n c e  same w o r k s  better  of Amberley  (1924)  Wild  a n d Two  frustrated  with  with  Ireland's  he h a d h e a r d t h e c o m p o s e r  privately.  1 4 5  which  piano  a n d 'Bergomask') o f 1924-25 a s b e i n g " e x t r e m e l y  piano pieces"  also  t o the rhapsody.  (1921), the Prelude i n E f l a t  ('April'  interpretation  the Britons  Muriel  by I r e l a n d ' s  explain  was I r e l a n d ' s  between  of i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c  influenced  3  o f t h e M a i d e n - C a s t l e i n A.D.  the battle  comprehended  4  In fact,  Sorabji  t h e low s t a n d a r d of performance  good  public  play the  was of  Pieces  generally  Ireland's  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e l a s t P h i l h a r m o n i c c o n c e r t o f t h e 1 9 2 5 s e a s o n ] , " New Ag_e 3 7 , N o . 1 (May 7, 1 9 2 5 ) : 7 , (DR 4 6 ) . 1 4 3  1 4 4  See:  M,  Searle,  John  I r e l a n d , p.58.  K . S o r a b j i , "Music: John 1 7 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 7 4 , (DR 6 8 ) . 1 4 5  Ireland,"  71  New  Age 3 9 , No. 7  (June  music  and r e l a t e d  music  i n England. " 1  Ireland's Sorabji, second  the f i r s t  essentially  prevailing  second  the  t o be I r e l a n d ' s which  admired  caused  Ireland's  review,  best work,  t h e music freedom  with  the last  the genuinely v i r i l e  review o f t h e work, S o r a b j i a s b e i n g one o f I r e l a n d ' s overall  Sorabji  i n spite  ofthe  t o sound of expression,  f o rt h e piano andt h e  and lamentable p r e t t i n e s s ,  critic's  7  He w a s a g h a s t part  quality  music  with a on e a r t h  . . . ." * 1  again referred best works. " 1  9  8  In  to the However,  opinion  of Ireland's  technical  competence  rather  drastically.  Two m a j o r  factors  " K. S o r a b j i , "Music: John 1 7 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 7 4 , (DR 6 8 ) . 6  i n 1930 a n d t h e  f e m a l e - p e r f o r m e r who " p l a y e d t h e s o l o  seems t o have c h a n g e d  1  performance  1  composition  composer's  was r e v i e w e d t w i c e b y  i n 1931. I n t h e f i r s t  ingenious writing  be a s s o c i a t e d  the  of this  "masculine tenderness" of the work. *  t h e young  to  later,  Sorabji  inventiveness,  (1930)  time a t i t s debut  performance  incohesive.  neglect  6  the Concerto  deplorable  to the overall  Piano Concerto  time a year  declared  at  this  Ireland,"  New A g e 3 9 , NO. 7  (June  " K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : The Promenades a n d O t h e r M a t t e r s . ; Promenade C o n c e r t s . M a h l e r I V . Symphony.; The Goossens a n d I r e l a n d C o n c e r t o s . O c t o b e r 3 , " New A g e 4 7 , N o . 2 5 ( O c t o b e r 1 6 , 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 9 7 , (DR 2 0 6 ) . 1  7  " I b i d . T h i s y o u n g l a d y t o whom S o r a b j i w a s r e f e r r i n g t o w a s n o o t h e r t h a n H e l e n P e r k i n f o r whom I r e l a n d h a d c o m p o s e d t h e p i e c e a n d whom h e h a d c o a c h e d f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p e r f o r m a n c e . ( S e e : M. S e a r l e , J o h n I r e l a n d , p . 7 7 ) . 1  8  " K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e b r o a d c a s t p e r f o r m a n c e o f I r e l a n d ' s P i a n o C o n c e r t o ] ; T h e O p e r a ; ' S a d k o ' , " New A g e 4 9 , N o . 9 ( J u l y 2 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 0 4 , (DR 2 2 3 ) . 1  9  72  marred by  t h e work  f o r Sorabji  the exigencies  necessities"  at this hearing:  of 'form'"  of the music  i n that  such  Ireland  he d i s r e g a r d e d  was  "ruled  the "inner  that  . . . s u b j e c t s come t r o t t i n g b a c k , n o t b e c a u s e t h e i r i s a n y r e a s o n why t h e y s h o u l d i n t h e i n h e r e n t s t u f f o f t h e m u s i c , b u t b e c a u s e t h e c o m p o s e r c a n ' t f o r t h e moment t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g b e t t e r t o d o , a n d s o r e l i e s on a f o r m a l i s t i c crutch t o h e l p him over a barren p a t c h . 1 5 0  The  second  opinion,  factor  was t h e h a r m o n i c  was o f t e n  writing  which,  in  Sorabji's  s p o i l t by:  . . . a tendency t o a quasi d i a t o n i c mawkishness i n the melodic w r i t i n g — a t h i n g that i s so d i s t r e s s i n g l y f a m i l i a r i n t h e c a s e o f m o d e r n c o m p o s e r s o f whom o n e f e e l s t h a t t h e i r harmony i s o u t o f r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r melody, i s i n v a r i a b l y a t bottom d i a t o n i c , or but s l i g h t l y c a m o u f l a g e d d i a t o n i c commonplace. 1 5 1  In  spite  of t h i s ,  progression thinking  the Piano Concerto  from a " c o n s t r i c t i n g  and t h e e p i s o d i c h i s work  style."  Kenneth Derus argues  attitude  1  5  2  . . . [to]  i s an i n t e g r a l  part  Ireland's  . . . manner o f w r i t i n g  patchiness  disfigured  revealed  that  an e n g a g i n g that  this  of S o r a b j i ' s  has h i t h e r t o  and  s o much  and a t t r a c t i v e radical  change of  personality:  .  . . S o r a b j i i s given t o l i k i n g s p e c i f i c composers . . . a n d s o m e t i m e s s p e c i f i c w o r k s . . . o n some o c c a s i o n s and d i s l i k i n g them on o t h e r s . 1 5 3  K . S o r a b j i : [On t h e b r o a d c a s t p e r f o r m a n c e o f I r e l a n d ' s P i a n o C o n c e r t o ] ; T h e O p e r a ; ' S a d k o ' , " New A g e 4 9 , N o . 9 ( J u l y 2, 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 0 4 , (DR 2 2 3 ) . 1 5 0  K. Sorabji, (DR 2 2 3 ) . 1 5 1  1  5  2  "Music,"  2,  1931):104,  Ibid.  L e t t e r to the present J u n e 1 9 , 1 9 8 3 , p . 2. 1 5 3  New A g e 4 9 , N o . 9 ( J u l y  writer  73  from Kenneth Derus,  Chicago,  In  summary, one c a n s e e t h a t  Ireland's style,  music  h i stechnical  directness into  and appreciated  the  last  review  his  opinions  reviews  Elgar,  Vaughan W i l l i a m s ,  several  rejected  other  this  section  o f w h i c h were style.  Sorabji  of other  moulded  Except f o r  was c o n s i s t e n t i n  composers;  by l o o k i n g  at Sorabji's  he a d m i r e d .  Dieren.  74  composers  the course  i n the music  are also  found  are also  of  this  of Delius, i n t h e music  and those q u a l i t i e s  o f Bax a n d H o i s t British  British  during  advocated  and I r e l a n d  of contemporary  c o m p o s e r s whose m u s i c Van  Sorabji  English  i n t h e music  t h e music  and  Ireland.  t h e same a t t i t u d e s d i s c o v e r e d The q u a l i t i e s  of  of John  of t h e music  study.  of  h i s individual  romantic/impressionistic  on t h e P i a n o C o n c e r t o ,  with  COMPOSERS  Sorabji's reflect  and admired  inh i s music—all  on t h e m u s i c  OTHER B R I T I S H  was i n s y m p a t h y  competence, and t h e s i n c e r i t y  of expression  an i n d i v i d u a l l y  Sorabji  evident  he i n some  composers. L e t us begin writings  The f i r s t  on  British  of these  i s Bernard  Bernard  van D i e r e n  Sorabji Dieren  Fourth  flexible  String  textures  that  impressed  of t h i s  unorthodox  clarity  combination  melodies  the of the  n o t t o speak  1  5  Sorabji  of s t y l e  5  Sorabji  admired  i n the journal.  heard  and  and t e x t u r e . "  The  critiqued 1 5 6  and b e a u t i f u l l y  Sorabji woven  c o m p o s i t i o n , the i n n o v a t i v e and  of instruments and t h e impeccable  work because  . . . [that  struck  of music,  reviewed  sharply defined formal structure. astonishing  remarkable  emerges from h i s  with the d e l i c a t e  two-movement  What  writing."  (1923) which  1925, had " p e r f e c t  "  departments  and s u b t l e  Quartet  "one o f t h e most 1 5  van  among  t h e "immense m a s t e r y  a l l of van D i e r e n ' s music  was g r e a t l y  an  v a n D i e r e n was  of Bernard  t o be a p a r a g o n  i n . . . music."  the amazing and strange beauty  intensely  and  regarded  i n s o many d i f f e r e n t  marvellously  in  was  v a n D i e r e n was  figures  most about  composer of  For Sorabji,  individual  critic  o n l y a p p r o v i n g l y on t h e m u s i c  as t h e composer  artists. and  wrote  (1884-1936)  The S e r e n a d e  of i t s"long f a b r i c  are] exquisitely  of  balance  o f 1923  was  lovely  interwoven" and the  " K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : B e r n a r d van D i e r e n . Wigmore: November 1 0 . ; L . S . O . : Q u e e n ' s H a l l , N o v e m b e r 1 1 , " New A g e 4 4 , N o . 6 ( D e c e m b e r 6, 1 9 2 8 ) : 6 8 , (DR 133-134). 1 5  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : B e r n a r d v a n D i e r e n . Wigmore: November 1 0 . ; L . S . O . : Q u e e n ' s H a l l , N o v e m b e r 1 1 , " New A g e 4 4 , N o . 6 ( D e c e m b e r 6, 1 9 2 8 ) : 6 8 , (DR 133-134). 1 5 5  K. Sorabji, "Letters to the Editor: 'Musical C r i t i c i s m ' , " A g e 3 6 , N o . 26 ( A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 0 8 , (DR 4 5 ) . 1 5 6  75  New  "delicately of  songs  which  balanced linear  belonging  Sorabji  Dieren  Van  D i e r e n ' s songs  and  definitely  Bellini.  van D i e r e n  before the of  heard and  second  particular  published,  They  D i e r e n ' s Thema review,  Sorabji  quality  in  of  1927,  of t h e day  . . . ,  reflected was  1 5 9  the  with  of the s e t  variations  from the jargon  Thus van D i e r e n ' s music  and  con  written  taken aback  1 6 0  1 5 8  singing  wrote of h i s d e l i g h t  the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c  composition  of  i n the songs  completely  of t h i s  as  his problems.  Donizetti,  quality  were deemed t h e f i n e s t  Sorabji  (n.d.)  immensely.  1928). In the f i r s t was  and  was  review  opinions.  this  of R o s s i n i ,  group  of p e r f e c t i o n  the b e l canto s t y l e  r e v i e w s of Van  theme and  variations.  "aloofness  doubt  the singer  appealed to Sorabji  (pub.  t h e work  upon  The  1 5 7  'Zenobia'  were the epitome  influences  w r o t e two  beautiful  ever  reflect  show  that  Sorabji Variazione  i n 1928,  understood completely  I t i s no  textures."  t o t h e s e t F r a m m e n t o de  heard  Van  b e a u t y and  by  he  had  their  Sorabji's same  imaginative,  original,  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Van D i e r e n . Wigmore: November 10.; L.S.O. Queen's H a l l , November 12.; S i r Thomas Beecham: R o y a l A l b e r t H a l l , N o v e m b e r 1 1 , " New A g e 4 4 , N o . 6 ( D e c e m b e r 6, 1928):68"69, (DR 1 3 3 - 1 3 4 ) . 1 5 7  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: 'Aida': Covent Garden, K i n d l e r a n d J o h n G o s s ( W i g m o r e , J u n e 9 ) , " New ( J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 0 5 , (DR 9 0 ) .  J u n e 8; F r i d a Age 4 1 , No. 9  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: 'Aida': Covent Garden, K i n d l e r a n d J o h n G o s s ( W i g m o r e , J u n e 9 ) , " New ( J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 0 5 , (DR 9 0 ) .  J u n e 8; F r i d a Age 4 1 , No. 9  1 5 8  1 5 9  S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : ' C a r m e n ' : T h e O l d V i c , May 10.; M e s s i a h ( B e e c h a m ) : C r y s t a l P a l a c e , May 5.; W i r e l e s s : May 2, 9 . 3 0 , " New Ag_e 4 3 , N o . 5 (May 31 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 5 3 , (DR 1 1 7 ) . 1 6 0  76  and  individualistic  a music  that  was  contemporary romanticism tending be  spiritually  music.  In van  of the v o c a l  towards  sounded  for Sorabji.  "impressionistically"  a different  harmonic  tonic  The  even  creating  complex  and  T h u s we  h a v e y e t a n o t h e r c o m p o s e r who  because  of h i s use  individual  Sir  Walton  A composer  review  this  admired was  sonorities.  The  music  may  not  treated  in nature, harking  traditional  back  i s also  i s admired  musical  one  very  to romatic music. by  Sorabji  t e c h n i q u e s and  (1902-1983)  whose works  Walton.  Sorabji  reviewed p o s i t i v e l y  The  Viola  Concerto of  from S o r a b j i  after  i t s first  1929  received  performance  r e a s o n s : the C o n c e r t o had  inner  technical  c o m p e t e n c e on  the composer as  "'close-knit'  piece  proportioned." employ  1 6 1  . . .  of music  I t had a  the part  an  single  of  [and]  finely  originality 'modern'  a  coherence,  balanced  and  Sir  good  i t showed i t was  a  and  of e x p r e s s i o n  trick,"  was  f o r the  following  "not  chromatic,  tonic  sometimes  the  style.  William  William  of  which  but  most  Dieren's chords blend into  another  virtuosic  style  are  plane than Sorabji  though  harmonies  when v a n  varied  n o t a common m u s i c ,  Dieren's music,  and  a central  for a while.  on  I t was  as  i t did  because i t  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Q u e e n ' s H a l l ; W e d n e s d a y , O c t o b e r 2: B r a h m s ; T h u r s d a y , O c t o b e r 3: A l l - B r i t i s h P r o g r a m m e , " New A g e N o . 25 ( O c t o b e r 1 7 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 9 7 , (DR 1 6 4 ) . 1 6 1  77  45,  "completely  shed  impressive sobriety  and e m o t i o n a l  of  dignified  music.  surprising,  1 6  "  f o r as Searle  i s perhaps  expresses  the vein  Sorabji showed First  oratorio relief  thoughtfulness  The m u s i c  akin  also  to the lush  attraction to this  and L a y t o n  the f i r s t  state,  piece  of n o s t a l g i a  had a  of S t r a v i n s k y  Quartet  Belshazzar's  of  1922). Feast  and even  I n h i s 1931  (1931),  a t the composer's heroic  shedding  and "most  colouring work  of  i s not  i n which  shares with  review  Walton Elgar."  works  Schoenberg  Sorabji  serious  " [the Viola  of work  w h i c h he  and i t s i n "the  d i d not approve of Walton's e a r l i e r  influences Sting  w h i c h was  Sorabji's  Concerto]  1 6 3  1 6 2  were a p p a r e n t  i t s quiet  utterance."  colouring  of S t r a v i n s k y " ;  qualities  . . . [ t h e ] work,  reasoned  attractive romantic  the influence  on  1 6 5  which  (e.g.,  the  Walton's  emphasized h i s  of these  "modern"  influences: T o t h o s e o f u s who h a v e k n o w n W i l l i a m W a l t o n ' s w o r k p r a c t i c a l l y form i t sbeginnings, and t h e noxious and unwholesome i n f l u e n c e t h a t were a t one t i m e t o o prominent i n i t , the r a p i d i t y with which the emerging p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e now u n q u e s t i o n a b l y m o s t d i s t i n g u i s h e d and i n t e r e s t i n g f i g u r e i n modern E n g l i s h m u s i c , has matured, the almost r u t h l e s s determination with which t h o s e h a m p e r i n g i n f l u e n c e s h a v e been c a s t o f f i s one o f the most d e l i g h t f u l and i n t e r e s t i n g s p e c t a c l e s i n  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Q u e e n ' s H a l l ; W e d n e s d a y , O c t o b e r 2: B r a h m s ; T h u r s d a y , O c t o b e r 3: A l l - B r i t i s h P r o g r a m m e , " New A g e N o . 2 5 ( O c t o b e r 1 7 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 9 7 , (DR 1 6 4 ) . 1 6 2  Ibid.  1  6  3  1  6  "lbid.  1 6 S  45,  H.  Searle  a n d R.  Layton,  Twentieth  78  Century  C o m p o s e r s , p.  45.  musical This  history  particular  achievement oratorio  stood  Berlioz's "the  .  and  and  A  together Mass.  vivid  as]  highly  Lambert  too, "like  essential Sorabji  r e g a r d e d as an In S o r a b j i ' s  with 1 6  7  Reger's  Sorabji  musical  by  excellent opinion,  setting  liked  of Psalm  t h e work  of v i o l e n t of  artistic Walton's  imagery, the f l a i r  expression  100  because  of  for dramatic  collective  tradition."  and  1  6  emotion  .  8  (1905-1951)  of Walton's  praised  influences  1 6 6  f o r i t s sense  Lambert  friend  was  the c r i t i c .  realistic  . [as w e l l  Constant  work  Requiem  fresh  effect  by  . . . .  (and of  the c r i t i c , William  was  Walton  and more d e f i n i t e l y individuality  . . ,,"  found the s t r i k i n g l y  percusion-accompanied  and  cadenza  1 6 9  Sorabji's),  whose m u s i c  t h e composer  Constant  has  rapidly  thrown  was  Lambert.  off  alien  u n m i s t a k a b l y shows h i s wrote  imaginative  Sorabji and  in  own  1932.  original  f o r piano i n Lambert's  Rio  Grande  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f W a l t o n ' s B e l s h a z z a r ' s F e a s t ] ; R o y a l C h o r a l S o c i e t y ; N o v . 2 8 , " New N o . 6 ( D e c e m b e r 1 0 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 6 , (DR 2 3 3 - 2 3 4 ) .  Age  50,  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f W a l t o n ' s B e l s h a z z a r ' s F e a s t 3; R o y a l C h o r a l S o c i e t y ; N o v . 2 8 , " New N o . 6 ( D e c e m b e r 1 0 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 6 , (DR 2 3 3 - 2 3 4 ) .  Age  50,  1 6 6  1 6 7  16 8  T  h  e  N  e  w  Grove,  s.v.  "Walton, S i r W i l l i a m , "  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e P r e s s a n d W i r e l e s s . B.B.C. C o n t e m p o r a r y C o n c e r t s , " ( J a n u a r y 7, 1 9 3 2 ) : 1 1 6 , (DR 2 3 6 ) . 1 6 9  79  by Hugh  British New A g e  Ottaway.  musicians]; 5 0 , No. 10  (1927)  exceptionally  balance Piano  and Nine  Sorabji was  between  anything  1 7 1  The d e l i c a t e  0  this  piece  I t was, a c c o r d i n g  of Delius  1 7 3  was a l s o  because  to Richard  language  fantasia'  refer  t o t h e " G r e t c h e n " movement o f L i s z t ' s  Smyth  A composer (1858-1944), for  1  7  0  piece  Shead,  'free  Dame E t h e l  (1927)  of work."  "quite  unlike  i t shows and uses  o f t h e work Faust  Liszt's  actually  Symphony. " 1 7  (1858-1944)  Sorabji  admired  greatly  w a s Dame E t h e l  whom h e f o u n d e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t i n g  her music,  r e g a r d e d by  of i t s extreme  Additionally,  f o r m , a n d some p a s s a g e s  highly  for Orchestra  consistent  i n t h e harmonic  and s k i l f u l  i n the Concerto f o r  and Music  t o be a " w e l l - k n i t ,  by o t h e r c o m p o s e r s " .  influences  7  I n s t r u m e n t s (1930-31)  probably liked  originality.  1  t h e piano and o r c h e s t r a  i n h i s 1932 r e v i e w ,  considered  Sorabji  brilliant.  as f o r h e r s e l f ,  the intense  Smyth  " n o t s o much  v i t a l i t y and  Ibid.  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e P r e s s a n d B r i t i s h m u s i c i a n s ] ; W i r e l e s s . B . B . C . C o n t e m p o r a r y C o n c e r t s , " New A g e 5 0 , N o . 10 ( J a n u a r y 7, 1 9 3 2 ) : 1 1 6 , (DR 2 3 6 ) . 1 7 1  1  7  2  Ibid.  R. Shead, Constant Lambert, 1973), p. 73. 1 7 3  1 7  " I b i d . , p73.  80  (London:  Simon  Publications,  1 7 2  vividness  of her personality  however, a r e a l s o Smyth's m u s i c : Bosun's Mate Of  these  indicative  Sleepless  . . . . of his  Dreams  1  admired  most  Sorabji's  5  appreciation  reviews, for  Dame  ( 1 9 1 2 ) , H e y N o n n y No  (1913-16), a n d t h e Mass  Sorabji  7  in D  t h e Mass  (1891;  (1911), The  revised  1925).  i n D:  T h i s 40-year o l d Mass i s t r u l y an a s t o n i s h i n g work. F o r o r i g i n a l i t y , f o r c e f u l n e s s , t e c h n i c a l resource, and m a s t e r y , i t i s f a r a n d away t h e g r e a t e s t t h i n g I h a v e e v e r h e a r d o f Dame E t h e l ' s . . . . E v e n a t t h i s distance of t i m e , i t i s s e e n t o be a work l i k e none o t h e r , having in i t s e l f that e s s e n t i a l o r i g i n a l i t y of thought that so long o u t l a s t s t h e merely s u p e r f i c i a l o r i g i n a l i t y of utterance, of expression . . . , 1  This and  Mass, as M i c h a e l  Hurd  states,  i t i snot surprising that  warmth o f t h i s Sorabji,  powerfully  the creative  methods o f composing original  Lord  and  Berners  Lord considered  6  "harks back  Sorabji  striking  7  appreciated  work.  use of t r a d i t i o n a l was t h e b e s t  to Beethoven,"  1 7 7  the rich  I t seems t h a t f o r nineteenth-century  way a c o m p o s e r c o u l d  be  imaginative.  (1883-1950)  Berners,  the English  t o be a t r u l y  composer, w r i t e r  original  composer  and p a i n t e r ,  was  by S o r a b j i , f a r  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On Dame E t h e l S m y t h ' s 75th-birthday c e l e b r a t i o n s i n 1 9 3 4 ] , " New A g e 5 4 , N o . 23 ( A p r i l 5, 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 7 2 , (DR 270). 1 7 5  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On Dame E t h e l S m y t h ' s 75th-birthday c e l e b r a t i o n s i n 1 9 3 4 ] , " New A g e 5 4 , N o . 23 ( A p r i l 5, 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 7 2 , (DR 270). 1 7 6  1 7  7  T h e New G r o v e ,  s . v . " S m y t h , Dame E t h e l , "  81  by M i c h a e l  Hurd.  superior of  to  S t r a v i n s k y . S o r a b j i admired  Berner's  Park the  Fantasie Espanole  (1930). l a c k of  In a  review  of  most  (1920) and  the  recognition given  ballet  to  the  the  ballet  suite,  this  neo-classicism suite  Sorabji  Luna  lamented  composer:  The s p r i g h t l y v i v a c i t y , d e l i c a t e - t o u c h e d s k i l l s and m u s i c i a n l y q u a l i t y of L o r d B e r n e r s ' s b a l l e t s u i t e , Luna P a r k , c a u s e d one t o m a r v e l a f r e s h a t t h e comparative n e g l e c t o f t h i s v e r y a c c o m p l i s h e d m u s i c i a n ' s work by h i s own c o u n t r y m e n i n f a v o u r o f v a r i o u s p r e t e n t i o u s bunglers--manufactures of s p u r i o u s solar s y s t e m s — c e l a n e s e — S t r a v i n s k y p u r v e y o r s and what n o t . 1 7 8  Sorabji than  found  some o f  Stravinsky.  the  Alan  was  of  ideas  music  more c o n v i n c i n g and  B r i t i s h music  because  of  the  i n most of  (1900-  which  showed  authentic  i n f l u e n c e s of  rather straight-forward  Berners'  music  which created  c o m p o s e r who  i s said  composers, Ralph  is  Bush.  Alan  review  composer  of  both  Stravinsky  and  to  stand  h i g h l y of  Bush's Dance O v e r t u r e  on  not the  the  Vaughan W i l l i a m s and  S o r a b j i thought  on  between  having  fallen  individuality  greatest  Benjamin  Bush's music  (1930),  to the of  two  and,  in his  congratulated  the  i n f l u e n c e s of  his musical  K. Sorabji, " M u s i c : The ( O c t o b e r 8, 1 9 3 1 ) : 2 7 2 , (DR  P r o m e n a d e s , " New 227-228).  82  Age  49,  style:  No.  of  Britten,  . . . a most i n t e r e s t i n g , i n g e n i o u s , and r e a l l y b r a i n y p i e c e o f work f o r m i l i t a r y b a n d by Mr. A l a n B u s h , c a l l e d a D a n c e O v e r t u r e . The c o m p o s i t i o n s h o w s n o t o n l y a m i n d 1 7 8  a  )  English  1931  t o be  style.  Bush  A  other  This  presentation unique  Berners'  23  b u t a p o i n t o f v i e w , and I f i n d I l i k e Mr. B u s h ' s work as w e l l as t h a t of any of t h e y o u n g e r E n g l i s h c o m p o s e r s whom I k n o w . He i s r a t h e r u n i q u e , t o o a m o n g m o d e r n E n g l i s h m e n i n t h a t h e h a s n o t a t some t i m e g r o v e l l e d a t t h e f e e t .of S t r a v i n s k y . I n c l o s e n e s s o f t h o u g h t a n d g o o d , f i r m , i n t e l l e c t u a l t e x t u r e Mr. B u s h has spiritual k i n s h i p r a t h e r w i t h t h e S c h o o l of S c h o e n b e r g and B e r g than w i t h the dancing (marionette) dervishes jiggling d u t i f u l l y around S t r a v i n s k y . In s h o r t , here i s a m u s i c a l t h i n k e r , r a t h e r t h a n a torn torn b a n g e r . . . . 1 7 9  Sorabji which  found  has  an  a f f i n i t y with  been d e s c r i b e d  painstaking power and  as  craftsmanship,  rhythmic  the  composer,  materials twelve  movement  That  from a  material  put  Peter  to  the  Warlock  Let British  us  school  same way  single  because  related  the  i s , Bush  Bush's music was  dramatic  1 8 0  lyrical  of  treated  Sorabji  symphonic metamorphosis of  astute,  thematic series  of  an  and  of  entire  i n sympathy  using  framework  was  did his  was  intensity,  the  his  phrase  modern method of  romantic  to  Schoenberg  every  style  expression,  reference  Schoenberg  "derived  theme."  this  into a  as  compositional  moments, h a r m o n i c  i n MacDonald's words,  i n much t h e  tones.  containing  v i t a l i t y . Sorabji's  composer's a f f i l i a t i o n to for  Bush's t o n a l  with  thematic  seemed  somewhat  Liszt.  (1894-1930)  look  now  c o m p o s e r s he  at  Sorabji's  admired:  writings  Peter  Warlock  on  last  (Philip  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: Opera: 'Rosenkavalier'; Age 4 9 , No. 4 (May 2 8 , 1 9 3 1 ) s 4 1 , (DR 213). 1 7 9  the  of  the  Heseltine).  Wireless,"  New  M a l c o l m M a c D o n a l d , "The M u s i c t o One P a i r o f E a r s , " I n : A l a n B u s h : An 8 0 t h B i r t h d a y S y m p o s i u m , E d i t e d b y R o n a l d S t e v e n s o n , (Kidderminster: B r a v u r a P u b l i c a t i o n s ) , p. 26. 1 8 0  83  Warlock  was  greatly  contrapuntal not  style  surprising  positively. deeply minds  Sorabji  For S o r a b j i , friend."  . . ., a c r i t i c and  intensely, because  not  only  Warlock  was  same g r o u p  of  1 8 2  first-hand  "great, of  the  Sorabji  Walton,  an  Sorabji, Lambert  Age.  and  musical  also  Warlock  but  also  and during  Warlock  i s ,Cecil  van  Dieren.  orchestral  suite  to  Gray, Thus  of t h i s Capriol  his  belonged  acquaintance w i t h Warlock's music the achievements  and  brilliance,  above,  that  honoured  finest  inspiration  New  i t is  music  admired  h i s y o u t h and  f o r The  as  the composer's  t h u s by  language. Thus  of u n p a r a l l e d  source of  many o f h i s r e v i e w s a p p l a u d e d  reviewed  a  "one  Clearly,  during  friends  Sorabji  instance,  was  was  writer  critic  Sitwell,  For  harmonic  Dieren's  l o o k e d upon W a r l o c k ' s  a major  Sacheverall had  and  He  1 8 1  B e r n a r d van  f o r the reasons given  to Sorabji  y e a r s as music  by  Warlock  and  subtlety."  encouragment  the  of w r i t i n g  that  admired  insight  early  influenced  and composer.  (1928)  was  Sorabji:  B u t t h e o u t s t a n d i n g new w o r k was t h e " C a p r i o l " o f t h a t a c c o m p l i s h e d and d e l i g h t f u l P r o t e u s - c h a m e l e o n p e r s o n , W a r l o c k - H e s e l t i n e . The w o r k i s c a s t i n a s e t o f a n c i e n t d a n c e f o r m s a n d b a s e d on t h e m e s f r o m t h e " a r c h e s o g r a p h i e " o f T h o i n o t A r b e a u , w h i c h was i s s u e d a w h i l e back under the a b l e e d i t o r s h i p of the composer. I t i s a p i e c e of d e l i c a t e and e x a c t s k i l l , delicious m u s i c i a n s h i p , w i t h an a n t i q u e f l a v o u r so a u t h e n t i c a s t o s h o w t h a t h e r e i s no m e r e m u s i c a l p e r i o d - f u r n i t u r e s n o b , b u t a man who i s r e a l l y a m o d e r n i n c a r n a t i o n o f o n e K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ O b i t u a r y on P e t e r N o . 11 ( J a n u a r y 1 5 , 1 9 3 1 ) t 1 2 8 , (DR 2 1 1 ) .  Age  48,  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [Regarding the A l l - E n g l i s h Evening at P r o m s o n T h u r s d a y 2 9 t h A u g u s t 1 9 2 9 ] , " New A g e 4 5 , N o . 20 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 2 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 3 8 , (DR 157-158).  the  1 8 1  1 8 2  84  W a r l o c k ] , " New  s p i r i t u a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y dutems j a d i s . The o r c h e s t r a t i o n was a j o y a n d t h e c o m p o s e r ' s a p p a r e n t l y wooden c o n d u c t i n g d i d not i n t e r f e r e w i t h h i s power t o g e t w h a t h e w a n t e d , t h o u g h he l a c k s t h e t r i u m p h a n t l y a n d v e r y p r o f e s s i o n a l l y c o m p e t e n t c o n d u c t o r ' s s t r o k e o f Mr. Constant Lambert. 1 8 3  This  review  e x e m p l i f i e s almost  a l l of  Sorabji's  Warlock's  music.  It is interesting  appraisal  of  composer's c o n d u c t i n g ,  the  to note  reviews  Sorabji's  in spite  of  on  frank their  close  friendship.  Herbert  Let which  he  Sorabji  Howells  us  (1892-1983)  t u r n now  d i d not disliked  to Sorabji's  approve.  There  violently  qualities  e x a m p l e , was  c o n s i d e r e d t o be  in  every The  which  review Piano  he  on  several the music  expounded. Herbert  discussing Quartet  are  because  prerequisite  writings  "hollow  the music  (1916),  r e c e i v e d the Carnegie  an  and of  early  a w a r d , was  British  compositions lacked  which  music, by  composer.  for  Sorabji 1 8  "  chamber work of d e s c r i b e d by  of  the  Howells'  insincere"  this  music  Howells  Sorabji  as  . . . a work i n w h i c h i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r any m u s i c a l i n d i v i d u a l i t y w h a t e v e r . I t i s now mock V a u g h a n W i l l i a m s , now w a t e r e d - d o w n p e r v e r t e d E l g a r , now D e l i u s gone bad, w i t h o c c a s i o n a l d i p p i n g s i n t o t h e promenades  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [Regarding the A l l - E n g l i s h P r o m s o n T h u r s d a y 2 9 t h A u g u s t 1 9 2 9 ] , " New A g e 4 5 , ( S e p t e m b e r 1 2 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 3 8 , (DR 1 5 7 - 1 5 8 ) . 1 8 3  " S e e f o r e x a m p l e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e Q u a r t e t p e r f o r m e r s ] , " New A g e 3 6 , No. 21 ( M a r c h (DR 4 1 ) . 1 8  85  Evening No. 20  at  the  Kinsey Piano 19, 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 4 6 ,  of This  R a v e l and  is totally  Piano Quartet  Debussy  . . .  in contrast  . ...  keenly a l i v e  likewise  not  1 B 5  t o what Hugh O t t a w a y  recalls  musician  .  both a natural  to structural  impressed  with  poet  problems."  Howells'  Second  wrote:  "the  i n sound  and  Sorabji  1 8 6  a  was  Piano Concerto  of  1924: Of t h e H o w e l l s C o n c e r t o t h e b l u n t e s t s p e a k i n g o n l y w i l l meet t h e c a s e . What c o n c e i v a b l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i n c l u d i n g a work so u t t e r l y w o r t h l e s s , o f s u c h p r e t e n t i o u s n u l l i t y , a l o n g s i d e of h i g h l y m e r i t o r i o u s works, such as the I r e l a n d Rhapsody and the Vaughan W i l l i a m s P a s t o r a l Symphony, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o see unless f o r the motive suggested above. 1 8 7  Apparently,  Sorabji,  composition,  f o r he  strong-minded in  man  tones audible  over'."  pretentious.  5  1 8 6  i n t h e b a l c o n y who a l l over  lacking  These  praised  who  disliked  "courageous got  up  this  and  . . . and  exclaimed  'Thank H e a v e n i t ' s  that  Howells' music  individuality  surprising on  and  was  that  unoriginal, i t  was  accusations contrast  with  the  example,  the composer  same m u s i c .  For  f o r h i s command o f  form  what  and  his  Ibid. The  New  Grove,  s.v.  K. S o r a b j i , "Music: 1 9 2 5 s e a s o n ] , " New A g e 1 8 7  K. 46) . 1 8 8  the h a l l ,  a u t h o r s have w r i t t e n  Bacharach  8  the only person  c o n g r a t u l a t e d the  concluded  unimaginative,  1  not  1 8 8  Sorabji  other  was  Sorabji,  " H o w e l l s , H e r b e r t , " by [On 37,  " M u s i c , " New  the No. Age  86  Hugh  Ottaway.  l a s t P h i l h a r m o n i c Concert of 1 (May 7, 1 9 2 5 ) : 7 , (DR 4 6 ) . 37,  No.  1 (May  7,  1925):7,  the (DR  lyricism  which  Hugh O t t a w a y  combined  referred  finest-grained his  songs,  century," things music  with h i s architectural  " a r e among  the finest  w h i l e h i s mature  Sorabji  from  admired.  by E n g l i s h c o m p o s e r s  style Parry  Sorabji  a n d some o f h i s m u s i c ,  i s "a f u s i o n to Walton"  probably  original  o r i m a g i n a t i v e method o f composing.  Howells'  harmonic  Bliss  Sorbji or  Rutland  was a m i x t u r e  and h i s use of form  enthusiastic  Arthur  style  about  in this  o f many  d i d not care f o r  amalgamation  not  of v a r i o u s s t y l e s  namely  --composers whose  1 9 0  Howells'  chromaticism,  1 8 9  t o t h e composer as b e i n g "the  of t h e Georgians,"  . . . ranging  strengths.  as t h i s  was n o t a n  Even  though  of modality and  was t r a d i t i o n a l ,  Sorabji  was  h i s music.  (1891-1975) and R u t l a n d  Boughton  d i d not a p p r e c i a t e the music  (1878-1960)  of e i t h e r  Arthur  Bliss  Boughton. F o r i n s t a n c e , the "aimless meanderings and  'modern' c o m m o n p l a c e s "  of B l i s s '  particularly  Sorabji for  irritated  Oboe Q u i n t e t  (1927)  . . . i t p a r t a k e s o f t h e n a t u r e o f Mr. B l i s s ' s p o s t b e l l u m p r o d u c t i o n s w h i c h a r e l i t t l e more t h a n S t r a v i n s k y and a g r e a t d e a l o f luke-warm water. 1 9 1  A . L. B a c h a r a c h , e d . , B r i t i s h M u s i c o f Our Time, (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : P e l i c a n Books, [ 1 9 4 6 ] ) , p. 193. 1 8 9  1  9  0  T h e New  Grove,  s.v. "Howells,  Herbert,"  by Hugh  Ottaway.  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : B.B.C. M o d e r n Chamber C o n c e r t . A r t s T h e a t r e C l u b ; October 15.; C o n c e r t o f Tcheko-Slovak Music. Q u e e n ' s : O c t o b e r 1 6 , " New A g e 4 3 , N o . 26 ( O c t o b e r 2 5 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 3 0 9 , (DR 1 2 9 ) . 1 9 1  87  Once a g a i n , because  of  S o r a b j i was i t s inherent  Sorabji of  Rutland  how  the  equal Bax.  disappointed  was  music  of  In  the  importance  to  sarcastic in his  fact,  that  w h i c h had  received  1923,  excoriated  was  the  "egregious" of  Boughton's popular  1 9 2  216  a composer's  music  Stravinskian influences.  extremely  Boughton.  with  critic  could  Vaughan W i l l i a m s , music  Sorabji  not  Boughton c o u l d  d r a m a , The  consecutive  by  reviews  be  1928  the  music  comprehend considered  I r e l a n d , and  between  of  even  Immortal Hour  performances  in a  of  (1913)  1921  and  review:  . . . one h a d b u t t o l i s t e n ( i f one c o u l d b r i n g o n e s e l f t o i t ) t o two e x c e r p t s f r o m Mr. R u t l a n d B o u g h t o n ' s " I m m o r t a l H o u r " , w r i t t e n when he was a l r e a d y o l d e n o u g h t o be t h e f a t h e r o f t h e S c h u b e r t o f t h e 4 t h S y m p h o n y . T h e o n e i s t h e r a t h e r raw y o u t h o f g e n i u s , t h e o t h e r a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h e so p r e v a l e n t and a d m i r e d i n f a n t i l i s m w h i c h t r a d e s u n d e r t h e name o f simplicity. 1 9  Sorabji  d i d not  influenced  by  and  use  a  bold  partly work  from  of  like  of  the  style that  the  folksong,  "strong  operas  of  1 9  of  of  simple  derived  partly  Gluck,"  w h i c h was  be  that  was  worked  melody,  saturated  much  orchestral  from o r a t o r i o  * Sorabji preferred a  music  could  vein  to a quasi-symphonic  chorus,  Boughton's.  colourful material  3  prevalent rich, with  warm  style and  in  this  and  musical  indefinitely.  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ I n t h e c o n t e x t o f a d i s c u s s i o n on H o i s t ' s o p e r a The B o a r ' s H e a d ] , " New Age 3 7 , No. 2 (May 14, 1 9 2 5 ) : 1 8 , (DR 477. 1 9 2  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : M a h l e r I V . Symphony ( W i r e l e s s : A u g u s t 5 ) . ; B.B.C. M o d e r n Chamber C o n c e r t s . ; P r o m e n a d e : S e p t e m b e r 6.; P r o m e n a d e : S e p t e m b e r 1 3 , " New A g e 4 3 , No. 22 ( S e p t e m b e r 2 7 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 127). 1 9 3  1 9  " T h e New  Grove,  s.v.  "Boughton, Rutland,"  88  by  Michael  Hurd.  Cyril  Scott  Of vein.  (1879-1970)  Cyril  Scott's  particular,  admiration  Igor  in  the least.  of  harmonic  significant  S c o t t ' s music  S o r a b j i wrote  f o r the Russian  Stravinsky,  musical  the lack  ideas  No.  of S c o t t ' s  by t h e c r i t i c "chunk"  style  of t e x t u r e , c o u n t e r p o i n t ,  and t h e l a c k  w h i c h a l l r e s u l t e d i n an empty Quartet  negative  composers, i n  was n o t a p p r e c i a t e d  Nor d i d S o r a b j i approve  language,  i n an e q u a l l y  o f movement a n d  and banal  1 (1920) which S o r a b j i  any balance,  sound. The S t r i n g  reviewed  i n 1924 w a s ,  . . . u n b e l i e v a b l y bad, an a c c u m u l a t i o n of t h e worst and s t a l e s t of h i s t r i c k s , the e v e r l a s t i n g s l a b s , chunks of harmony, l a c k of t e x t u r e and c o u n t e r p o i n t , and t h a t unpleasant f l i p a n c y of rhythm a s a p e r t chamber maid i n moments o f a n i m a t i o n . 1 9 5  Similarly, sounded and  the Piano  "utterly  fourths  (1 91 4 ) ,  empty and b a n a l  he was d i s g u s t e d  broken  Concerto  with  whose c o m p o s i t i o n s  1 9 6  part  Thus S c o t t  shared  of substance,  the "constant  i n the piano  transportations."  according  to Sorabji, texture, or  repetition  of f i g u r e s i n  i n mechanical was a " r u b b e r - s t a m p  t h e same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  composer" of monotony  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e c o n c e r t o f t h e C o n t e m p o r a r y C e n t r e o f t h e B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y o n May 1 3 , 1 9 2 4 ] , " New 3 5 , N o . 7 ( J u n e 1 2 , 1 9 2 4 } : 8 , (DR 2 1 - 2 3 ) . 1 9 5  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Promenade C o n c e r t , September 4 9 , N o . 21 ( S e p t e m b e r 2 4 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 2 4 5 , (DR 2 2 5 ) . 1 9 6  89  line"  Music Age  1 5 , " New  Age  in  Sorabji's  opinion.  Several the  music  unable this  a u t h o r s have  of C y r i l  to achieve  resulted  in  music of  vein.  2  0  Rosenfeld  musical which  his  music.  the  music  2 0 1  less compelling.  t o the music  wrote  weakness  t h e composer's  materials  endlessly  and h i s l a c k of  Scott  i n a "hammering monotony" then,  were  that  Sorabji's  favorably  i n themanner  i n some o f  arguments  received  chapter  in a  mentioned  I t follows,  of C y r i l  of  also  resulted  was  Blom  1 9 8  style  of S c o t t ,  the formal  on  p e r s o n a l i t y and  who d e v o t e d a n e n t i r e  Besides discussing  0  judgements  t o Bacharach, Scott  becoming  Rosenfeld,  Chronicle  of Scott,  imagination  According  i n t e g r a t i o n of h i s a r t i s t i c  and Paul  1 9 9  repeating  Scott.  Sorabji's  f o r h i s unoriginal manneristic  h i sMusical  similar  agreed with  i n h i s music  condemned S c o t t composing,  1 9 7  against  b y some o f h i s  contemporaries.  Eugene Goossens  Of  1  9  7  (1893-1962)  Eugene Goossens,  Sorabji  wrote mostly i n regard  Ibid.  1 9 8  A.  L. B a c h a r a c h , e d . , B r i t i s h  1 9 9  E.  Blom,  Music  M u s i c o f Our Time,  S e e : P. R o s e n f e l d , M u s i c a l C h r o n i c l e ( 1 9 1 7 - 1 9 2 3 ) , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d Company, 1 9 2 3 ) , p. 9 3 . 0  1  Ibid.,  pp.  p. 188.  i n E n g l a n d , p. 265.  2 0 0  2  toh i s  94-95.  90  (New Y o r k :  conducting  abilities.  by  i n The  Sorabji  (1928)  New  0  Almost  2  Age  for orchestra an  2  was  was  bombast";  2 0 3  earlier  empty and  hollow with  goes w i t h  an  a  a l l of Goossens'  c o n d e m n e d . The  "noisy  that  offensive  empty p r e t e n t i o u s  c o m p o s e r ' s Oboe C o n c e r t o  of  Rhythmic  braggadocio  work, S i n f o n i e t t a  was  and  (1922)  2 0 4  reviewed  reviewed Dance  inane was  assertiveness  personality";  1927  music  "thoroughly  that  and  so  often  the  i n the  following  manner: The t e x t u r e i s t o o s l a c k , t h e d e l i b e r a t e s t r u g g l e t o a v o i d c l i c h e o f e x p r e s s i o n w h e n i t was o b v i o u s l y a c l i c h e o f t h o u g h t b e h i n d was u n p l e a s a n t l y o b v i o u s a n d the b a c k b o n e l e s s n e s s and l a c k o f meat i n t h e work I found very tiring. 2  These c o m p o s i t i o n s were, originality,  and  Judith  (1929)  review  of  Covent  Garden.  and  vivid  this  was  inner  0  5  for Sorabji,  coherence.  well-liked  w o r k was Sorabji  s c o r e " of  based was  by on  and  in  individuality,  However, Goossens'  the c r i t i c .  highly  the opera  lacking  i t s premier impressed by  opera  Sorabji's  first  performance by  at  the "elaborate  the composer's  "alert  adult  S e e f o r instance: "Music: [Regarding the Philharmonic Concert o n J a n u a r y 2 9 , 1 9 2 5 ] , " New A g e 3 6 , No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 0 1 , (DR 3 8 ) . 2 0 2  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Q u e e n ' s H a l l ; W e d n e s d a y , O c t o b e r 2: B r a h m s ; T h u r s d a y , O c t o b e r 3: A l l - E n g l i s h P r o g r a m m e , " New A g e No. 25 ( O c t o b e r 1 7 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 9 7 , (DR 1 6 4 ) . 2 0 3  45,  "K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : The P h i l h a r m o n i c Symphony O r c h e s t r a o f New Y o r k . ; C o l o g n e O r c h e s t r a : Q u e e n ' s 6 t h , " New A g e 4 7 , No. 8 ( J u n e 1 9 , 1 9 3 0 ) : 9 2 , (DR 2 0 0 ) . 2 0  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : The Promenade C o n c e r t s . M a h l e r I r e l a n d Concertos. October 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 9 7 ) , (DR 1 6 4 ) . 2 0 5  Promenades and Other M a t t e r s . ; I V . Symphony.; The G o o s s e n s and 3," New A g e 4 7 , No. 25 ( O c t o b e r  91  16,  mind."  However, S o r a b j i  2 0 6  interludes moreover,  devoted  of the  Britten  Only  was B o r n  (1933-34)  the q u i n c a i l l i e r i e  style  Bennet  the ballet relief,  and  hindered the  2 0 7  (1913-1976)  in a  1934 r e v i e w  t o E n g l a n d ' s foremost composer Britten.  that  the necessary dramatic  o f Mr. A r n o l d  work.  a few l i n e s  Benjamin  Sorabji  provided  the libretto  expression  Benjamin  i n Judith  d i d not think  The c r i t i c  and d u l l ,  of mock-archaism  was n o t i m p r e s s e d w i t h  Age a r e  of the t w e n t i e t h  found the choral  t o be d r e a r y  which u t i l i z e d  i n T h e New  like  Britten's  century,  variations,  A Boy  "tricked  out with a l l  the Gothic  Revival."  very  advanced  2 0 8  English  dissonances abundantly.  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On s i n g e r s a n d s i n g i n g ] ; D ' A l v a r e z S o n g R e c i t a l . Queen's: J u n e 2 5 t h ; Mark R a p h a e l Song R e c i t a l . Wigmore: J u n e 2 6 . ; ' J u d i t h ' C o v e n t G a r d e n : J u n e 2 7 , " New A g e 4 5 , N o . 11 ( O c t o b e r 1 6 , 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 9 7 , (DR 1 6 4 ) . 2 0 6  2  0  7  Ibid.  K . S o r a b j i , "Music: [Regarding the choral v a r i a t i o n s of B e n j a m i n B r i t t e n p e r f o r m e d a t t h e f o u r t h o f t h e B.B.C. c o n c e r t s o f C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c ] , " New A g e 5 4 , N o . 2 0 ( M a r c h 1 5 , 2 3 4 ) , (DR 269). 2 0 8  92  IV.  Conclusion  Sorabji talent,  i s ,first  and  foremost,  whose w o r k s have been  sophisticated compositions highest  i n both reveals  order.  He  the  small  his  compositions.  however,  described  technique that  was  and  h e was  Unlike  d i d not l i m i t  h i s career  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the area  became an a r t i c u l a t e included  Sacheverall  i s this  music  critical  impressionistic style,  Clavicembalisticum style. to  William  work  both  evinces  Sorabji's these this  to  one  Cecil  of the  Le J a r d i n whereas  mark  where  he  composers Warlock,  Ireland. that  us u n d e r s t a n d  the  relationship exists and h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s .  Parfume  ( p u b . 1927)  t h e monumental  reveals  s t y l e s and h i s use o f them  93  both  composition  Gray, Peter  (1930) embodies a t o t a l l y  t i e between  that  group of  f o r i t helps  aesthetics  on  colleagues,  of music c r i t i c ,  intimate  of h i s  involving his  Walton and John  music c r i t i c i s m  close  structures  f o r an e l i t e  van D i e r e n ,  b y S o r a b j i . An  an e a r l i e r  craftsman  of music c r i t i c i s m  r o l e of spokesman,  Sorabji's  instance, an  a two-fold  special consideration,  written  between  was  spokesman  Bernard  Sitwell,  examination  a consumate  h i s horizons  active  deserves  f o r m . An  considerable  highly  s o many o f h i s c r e a t i v e  Rather,  It  as being  d e t a i l s and t h e sweeping f o r m a l  Sorabji  of  accustomed to l a v i s h i n g a t t e n t i o n  alone.  which  a composer  reflects  Opus  individualistic  that  he h a d an  affinity  i n h i s compositions  t h e composer  For  and the  critic.  Thus, h i s l i k e s particular the  musical  present  study  Sorabji's our  the  who  London  the  the  he  focused  of  criticism  of  the  the  Sorabji  during  role  of  as  during this  sentiments  criticism  essence, nature  other  witness  have  of  the  by  are  the  the  by  friends.  this  music  regard, critic.  c o n t r i b u t e s to  other  to  even  prominent  1934,  of  strikingly  larger  of  S o r a b j i ' s views  1924  c o n c e r t s , and  In  time  shared  period  itself  champion  romantic,  r e d e f i n e d the  his individuality His  being  to defend  pride;  to musical  constituted  The  Sorabji  critics.  d i d not  the  of  of i t s role  and  different  musical  a  from  establishment  r a t h e r , he His  of  those  and  was  burning  Sorabji  conviction  personal  and  unfailingly.  was  an  of  Consequently,  his evaluations in a  he  however,  he  individual  was  94  meant  of  what  embraced  to  be  the  styles.  wrote h i s reviews traits  was and  of e x t r a o r d i n a r y  that believed in his  that  that  impartial  f o r c e d him  o p i n i o n a t e d and  language  apart  for reasons  several unusual  s t r e n g t h , one  critic.  c o n v i c t i o n s about  impressionistic  combination  circumstances.  music  sets Sorabji  British  idioms  u n b r i d l e d freedom w i t h which the  the  c o u l d h a v e b e e n an  c o m p o s e r s whose  post-romantic,  of  f o r e i g n e r i n England  t h a t which  events.  role that  excellence in composition,  made p o s s i b l e b y  share  on  were a l s o h i s c l o s e s t  nationalistic  a  in his compositions.  deemed a c c e p t a b l e  i s the  from  influenced his adoption  time.  In It  music  of music  views  genres  repertoire  performers, nature  dislikes  has  understanding  musicians  of  and  left  no  willing doubt  views to  about  his  judgments. emotional 'truth'  In part outlook  h i s music  using  was  i n f l u e n c e d by h i s  and s u b j e c t i v e s e n s e o f what c o n s t i t u t e d t h e  and ' s i n c e r i t y '  forcefully  criticism  blunt  phrases and p o e t i c  of music.  Sorabji stated h i s opinions  language, powerful  i m a g e r y . He  words,  compelling  argued,  I t i s i n my o f f i c e , a s I s e e i t , t o s e t d o w n w i t h o u t a n y a r r i e r e p e n s e . . . c e r t a i n o b s e r v a t i o n s , and t o s e t them down a s c o m p l e t e l y a n d u n c o m p r o m i s i n g l y a s p o s s i b l e a s f a r a s my own f a c u l t i e s o f e x p r e s s i o n a n d o b s e r v a t i o n w i l l e n a b l e one t o do. I n t h e c o u r s e o f d o i n g t h i s , I s h a l l b e — I do n o t d o u b t — o n o c c a s i o n , c o a r s e , v u l g a r , c r u d e , venomous, s p i t e f u l , a n d a number o f t h i n g s t h a t no o n e who h a s t r i e s t o g e t a r o u n d a c r i t i c s ' circle o u g h t t o b e . P e r h a p s I am t r y i n g t o d o s o m e t h i n g w o r s e , . . . square . . . o r even by-pass i t ! 1  Even a c u r s o r y reveals  their  contrasts. and  What  and white"  i s viewed  the highest  of Sorabji's c r i t i c a l quality,  negatively  their  i s done  How  the arena  emotional  could  praise. I t i s this  any music  critic  of " o b j e c t i v e " c r i t i c i s m  outlook?  reviews  absolute  so i n an  extreme  I n c o n t r a s t , what S o r a b j i a p p r o v e d o f emotional  the f a s c i n a t i n g and y e t d i s t u r b i n g f e a t u r e  criticism. to  "black  relentless fashion.  was g i v e n is  examination  I t i s clear that  have  contrast  that  of h i s music  been a l l o w e d  such a personal  to bring  and  S o r a b j i d i d not share the  K . S o r a b j i , Mi_ c o n t r a f a , p . 1 5 . T h e e d i t o r o f T h e New A g e , A. R. O r a g e , s h a r e d S o r a b j i ' s o u t l o o k o n t h e r o l e o f m u s i c c r i t i c i s m . A c c o r d i n g t o Hugh M c D i a r m i d , O r a g e was i n f a v o u r o f any c r i t i c a l judgment t h a t s o u g h t t o d i s c o v e r t h e t r u t h . S o r a b j i ' s e m p h a t i c d e c l a r a t i o n s on t h e m e r i t s o f c e r t a i n m u s i c a l w o r k s c o n t a i n e d p e r s o n a l t r u t h s w h i c h Orage c o n s i d e r e d t o be v a l i d a s a b s o l u t e j u d g m e n t s . T h u s , f o r O r a g e , S o r a b j i was t h e u n f a i l i n g g u i d e i n m u s i c f o r h e s h a r e d t h e same n o t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e a n d n a t u r e o f c r i t i c i s m ; O r a g e c o u l d r e l y on h i s c r i t i c t o be c a n d i d a n d t o s t a t e o n l y w h a t h e b e l i e v e d t o be t h e t r u t h . ( S e e : H. M c D i a r m i d , T h e C o m p a n y I ' v e K e p t , p p . 67-68). 1  95  normative critic he  values  in his  called  keystone  understood and  "sincerity"  from another Yet,  criticism,  this  uncompromising  Although  evince  As  unfeeling.  forced life is  to  rooted  Tantric it  live  reveals  of  born  strong  i n the  music and  to  be  an  Indian  that  the  have had  profound  composition  and  and  their  the low  to  mystical  occur.  It  music  father  English  of  the  path  is likely  of  of  true  British  Tantric of  in  for  the  rascist he  was  personal  tradition  that  Hinduism. life  since  which  this  belief-system  a t t i t u d e towards  both  2  According t o K e n n e t h D e r u s , S o r a b j i h i m s e l f has s t a t e d t a n t r i c partner in l i f e i s music. (Personal d i s c u s s i o n , A p r i l 24, 1983).  96  and  a  Sorabji's  through that  and  yet  aspects  Sorabji's  criticism.  2  music  i n the  extremely  Yogic  emotional  e f f e c t s on  his  definition  condescension  religion  one  beliefs  letters  s t a n d a r d s and  of  be  r e j e c t the  Heseltine  examination  adherent  to  in blunt  in Britain  tended  i n the  found  emotions are  can  the  personal  truth  what  criticism.  raised  dislike  a m o n g t h e m . An  him  the  a Persian-Indian  abhorred  being  to demarcate h i s  remarks  m o t h e r , he  as  the  t r u t h or  w h i t e q u a l i t y of  conveying  Hinduism emphasizes the  argues  music  his  He  self-realization may  His  piece  r o l e of  the  namely h i s  and  serves  someone h a v i n g  Spanish-Sicilian  black  p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y he  altogether.  particular  and  was  the  p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n has  essence  Sorabji  fashion,  English.  the  a musical  with  that  to  i n s i s t e n c e on  perspective,  obsession terms,  ascribed  his  of  i t is this  what c o n s t i t u t e d  tradition  Rather,  i t s s u c c e s s and  values.  English  expectations  times.  the of  and  that his Chicago,  Sorabji's position factor  disdain  in that  Sorabji  was  with  lack  membership  based  on  the  ties  exacerbated  never  this  strong this  fully  established  that  was  for  were not circle.  the  verbal  approximately remained  s t y l e has forty-five  resulted  to  from  this.  distinct.  his  friends  close  criticism.  extensive editorship The  New  to  this  period of  In  Sorabji's  remaining  music  his  The  English  to  and  his  several this  marginality Sorabji  his  for  he  this,  status  portray  his  within  his attitude  place  Sorabji  stage  97  took  of  also  his  style  has  on  extensively  on  of  of  the  the  under up  has  have  insistence  that  For  criticism  that  relied  note  When O r a g e 1934,  music  definition  to  time.  in c r i t i c a l  his  has  his  h i s w r i t i n g took  this  of  felt  conservative  factors  and  of  in  always  e f f e c t s of  fixity  is significant  j o u r n a l . Even at  the  s t y l e of  Age.  community  light  protect  his  contemporaries.  supporting  Weekly,  In  his criticisms  It  New  British  establishment,  years  part,  Being  further  Sorabji  the  Further,  for  have  sustained  unchanged. There are  contributed  a close  its circle.  etiquette  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  Sorabji's  marginality.  Rather,  determining  outlook.  l a n g u a g e may  tailored  marginal  friends. Further,  resembling  into  own  i n t o mainstream  from London's musical  admitted  his  s t y l e and  his close  in anything  f e e l i n g of  criticisms  disregard  of  and  been a n o t h e r  entrance  e t h n i c i t y and  somewhat d e t a c h e d was  have  denied  exception  of  British  his distinctive  society of  the  s o c i e t y may  in shaping  marginal,  for  role  most  Orage's  the  editorship  began  career,  of  contributing Sorabji's  reviews are s t r i k i n g l y can  s i m i l a r to those found i n The New Age. I t  be argued that Orage's strong  encouragement provided  support, as w e l l as the  by H e s e l t i n e , Gray, van Dieren and  McDiarmid, were the i n f l u e n t i a l  f a c t o r s l e a d i n g S o r a b j i to  maintain h i s p a r t i c u l a r brand of music c r i t i c i s m . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that the death of some of these c l o s e f r i e n d s c o i n c i d e d with S o r a b j i ' s withdrawal from the musical scene. A f t e r Orage's death, S o r a b j i ' s w r i t i n g s appeared sporadically  i n various  only  journals.  In p a r t , t h i s withdrawal may a l s o have r e s u l t e d from the r a p i d changes that were o c c u r i n g time. Innovative Continent  musical  i n the musical  c l i m a t e of the  s t y l e s , emanating from both the  and America, were g r a d u a l l y  seeping  i n t o the B r i t i s h  c u l t u r a l m i l i e u . I t can be surmised that S o r a b j i ' s withdrawal from the musical  scene was i n part a response t o t h i s r a p i d l y  changing m i l i e u . S o r a b j i may have recognized  h i s own  musical  conservatism, f o r without the support of h i s f r i e n d s he may not have been able t o withstand the onslaught of these musical  progressive  trends.  Without a v e h i c l e such as The New Age, however, i t i s doubtful  that many of S o r a b j i ' s best w r i t i n g s would have been  p r i n t e d . The e d i t o r s of t h i s unusual j o u r n a l permitted  Sorabji  to w r i t e whatever he l i k e d , however he l i k e d . T h i s meant that he c o u l d make statements which today would s u r e l y be construed  as  l i b e l o u s . S o r a b j i was allowed t o c r e a t e new a t t i t u d e s towards music c r i t i c i s m  i n London, t o r e d e f i n e the c r i t i c ' s r o l e and the  98  manner  i n which  criticism  itself  was o f f e r e d  to the interested  readership. Sorabji's several and  success as a music  factors.  informal,  First,  unlike  hiscritical  that  of such  S h a w , E r n e s t Newman, N e v i l l e As  Hugh M c D i a r m i d  critic  c a n be a t t r i b u t e d  style  was  academic  Cardus,  conversational  critics  and even  to  as Bernard  Samuel L a n g f o r d .  states:  Sorabji i s a superb c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t — t h o u g h not of the t y p e who t h i n k t h e y a r e e x c h a n g i n g i d e a s w h e n t h e y a r e merely g o s s i p i n g - - a n d I can imagine without difficulty his saying i n the course of conversation anything i n h i s published c r i t i c a l writings. 3  Sorabji music the  rarely  and c r i t i c i z e d  dominant music  used  technical  the approach periodicals  language adopted  when  discussing  by o t h e r w r i t e r s i n  i n E n g l a n d . He a r g u e d  that,  A l l that i n f a n t i l i s t i c babble about "form", " s u b j e c t s " , "development" and the r e s t of t h e classroom c l a p t r a p , t e l l s us n o t h i n g about t h e music; . . . I f i t d i d , and i f i t w e r e p o s s i b l e t o v e r i f y , we w o u l d b e i n t h e r e a l m not of archeology but psychometry. I t i s h i g h time t o d e c l a r e roundly that a l l pseudo-antomical nonsense of the t e x t b o o k s a n d t h e a n a l y t i c a l programme i s s o much p e r n i c i o u s and noxious r u b b i s h , c o n f u s i n g t h e i s s u e s and d a r k e n i n g c o u n s e l . I t d i s t r a c t s a t t e n t i o n f r o m what m a t t e r s — t h e m u s i c - - t o s u b o r d i n a t e and s u b s i d i a r y matters that, i n the totality of the music, are as g e r m a n e t h e r e t o a s a man's s k e l e t o n t o t h e w h o l e of h i m . " Second, was e a s y recounted pleasing 3  Sorabji's  critical  f o r t h e common l a y m a n details  of the music.  t o h i m , he p o s e d  H. McDiarmid,  "K. S o r a b j i ,  The Company  Mi contra  style  descriptive. I t  t o understand and i t p o i g n a n t l y When r e v i e w i n g  logical  f a , p. 15.  music  and p e r c e p t i v e  I've Kept,  99  was h i g h l y  p. 67.  that  was  questions.  In a  1920  review  of Schoenberg's G u r r e l i e d e r ,  following  questions  providing  h i s reader  and  a sound  w h i c h he w o u l d with  then  Sorabji proceed  asked the t o answer,  thus  a thorough d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e music  analysis.  . . . how i s t h e w o r k m a d e ? — i s i t a well-planned masterful structure?—has i tabsolute mastery over a l l i t s m e a n s ? — d o e s i t move i n e v i t a b l y a n d w i t h c o n v i c t i o n and p o w e r ? - - h a s i t t h e a u t h e n t i c glow o f g r e a t m u s i c ? 5  It music  seems t h a t  that  Sorabji  he d i d n o t c o n s i d e r  of  great  or  t w o , he b e l i t t l e d  music".  whose m u s i c  There  review  discussing  "authentic"  a r e many  instances  the accomplishments  he was n o t i n s y m p a t h y .  more o f h i s p o w e r f u l critics  avoided  dared  adjectives  to utilize  of a Toch c o n c e r t o  in detail  or having where,  any  t h e "glow  in a  sentence  of a composer  with  Sorabji  was a b l e  to  i n a single  sentence  than  i n an e n t i r e r e v i e w . illustrates  The  include most  following  the intensity  of  Sorabji's  criticism. T h e T o c h c o n c e r t o I d i d n o t h e a r . I know t h e w o r k , h o w e v e r , t o be b e n e a t h c o n t e m p t . I t i s a f a i r s p e c i m e n of t h e i n f a n t i l e i n e p t i t u d e s of t h e young h o p e l e s s o f modern G e r m a n y — s t e r i l e , vapid, vacuous and n u l l . 6  In not  the f i n a l analysis,  received  accorded  the kind  t o other  i t must be n o t e d  of academic  English  music  attention  c r i t i c s . He  that  that  S o r a b j i has  has been  i s rarely  mentioned  K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : G e r a l d Cooper C o n c e r t : A e o l i a n , J a n u a r y 2 4 . ; G u r r e l i e d e r , S c h o e n b e r g : Q u e e n ' s H a l l . J a n u a r y 2 7 , " New A g e 4 2 , N o . 15 ( F e b r u a r y 9, ' 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 7 5 , (DR 1 0 7 ) . 5  K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y . 4c L a n g f o r d P l a c e , S t . J o h n ' s Wood: F e b r u a r y 1 8 . ; R u d o l f S e r k i n . A e o l i a n : F e b r u a r y 2 1 . ; B.B.C. Q u e e n ' s : F e b r u a r y 2 1 . ; G e r h a r d t . 2L.O.: F e b r u a r y 2 4 , " New Ag_e 4 6 , N o . 18 ( M a r c h 6, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 0 9 , (DR 1 9 1 ) . 6  100  in  the  major  historical in  s t u d i e s of  oblivion  reasons:  biographies  for over  (1)  can  be  Socialist  views of  sophisticates large-scale  of  reasons, himself  the  His  increased  Sorabji's supportive  him.  eccentric attention.  into  as  His  own  he  negative  by  Consider  on  the  described  both himself  and  that  of  group  even  the  and  the  musical  those  of  his  aesthetic  information  about  misunderstanding  often  was  concerned,  severed  any  have e n j o y e d  a t t i t u d e towards  the  were  musical  criticism  might  of  him  merit  any  as  with  his  others a mad  and  significant  s a r c a s t i c manner around  potential  in  which  him:  ... a s I g r o w o l d e r , I f i n d my d i s l i k e o f my f e l l o w - c r e a t u r e s i n c r e a s e s by l e a p s a n d b o u n d s . I f i n d my f a i l i n g s a n d f o i b l e s a s m u c h a s I c a n b e a r w i t h a becoming equanimity, t h o s e o f o t h e r s a d d e d , I f i n d an  101  was  Sorabji's  performance  to divulge  whose work d i d not f o r example,  English  the  a composer,  the  his contemporaries perception composer  New  r e c o g n i t i o n , he  majority  as  h i s music  relationships that  major  readership—a  seclusion for personal  isolation  Insofar  The  remained  technical complexities)  1936-ban  his refusal  his  the  appreciated  famous  two  i t appears  public  When v i e w e d  the  to promoting  02)  by  to  (and  radical  supercilious writing style  contemporaries. reinforced  Douglas;  understood  day.  i s due  devoted  in  w r i t i n g s have  Age  small,  (abounding with  w e l l as  surrounding  he  nor  retirement  as  New  some m e a s u r e o f  comprehended nor  his  This  The  a cult  Colonel  works  establishment. music,  as  composers or  music. His  years.  towards a  described  well-liked  neither  British fifty  when S o r a b j i e n j o y e d neither  British  j o u r n a l s such as  Weekly) were geared that  of  i n t o l e r a b l e b u r d e n . The s i g h t o f t h e m i n t h e i r v a r i o u s d e g r e e s and k i n d s of m e n t a l u g l i n e s s i s a d i s t a s t e f u l a n d h u m i l i a t i n g r e m i n d e r t h a t I am o n e o f t h e m ; t h a t d i s p l e a s e s me. I know i t , I d o n ' t w a n t i t u n d e r l i n e d . I f i n d a l s o t h a t t h e v o c a l and p h o n e t i c n o i s e s w i t h w h i c h they think t h e i r b r a i n s are w o r k i n g — q u i t e i r r e s p e c t i v e , of c o u r s e , as t o w h e t h e r t h e r e a r e any b r a i n s t h e r e to w o r k d o n o t , s o f a r a s I am c o n c e r n e d make a s u i t a b l e p l e a s i n g nor h e l p f u l b a c k g r o u n d a g a i n s t w h i c h t o l i s t e n to music. 7  Sorabji's are  both  critic the  Ernest  music  was  and  a  Sorabji  for the  the  c u t t i n g and  informative.  just a  level.  the  what  i t says about  Unlike  the  critic/composer.  As  writings  see  a  f o r he  Bernard  Shaw  knew and  Langford—Kaikhosru only  i s of  1930s, and  we  polemicist,  a r t , not  criticism  amusing  Sorabji  Samuel  musical  1920s and  In  brilliant  i t s deepest  p r a c t i t i o n e r of  both  England during  racy,  N e v i l l e C a r d u s and  Sorabji's  importance  about  at  Newman, o r  of  witty,  i s more t h a n  of  Sorabji study  entertaining  who  art  highly  its critic.  A  fundamental musical  also  Arnold  for  activities  what  Whittal  i t has  in  reveals aptly  stated, I f S o r a b j i as a c r i t i c i s w o r t h a t t e n t i o n t o d a y i t i s because a l e s s extreme a t t i t u d e — o t h e r than i n d i f f e r e n c e — i s p o s s i b l e . Even h i s m i s q u o t a t i o n s . . . make an e f f e c t , a n d i n t h e g e n e r a l a t m o s p h e r e o f c r i t i c a l t i m i d i t y a n d c o n s e r v a t i s m h i s own colourful b r a n d o f r i g h t - w i n g p r o - r o m a n t i c i s m was invaluable. He a v o i d e d n a i v e t e by h i s v e r y v e h e m e n c e , a l e s s o n f o r any c r i t i c who a c c e p t s t h a t t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f h i s c r a f t d e m a n d t h a t , i f n o t h i n g e l s e , he be e n t e r t a i n i n g t o read. 8  7  K.  S o r a b j i , Mi^ c o n t r a  f a , pp.  8  A.  W h i t t a l l , "Sorabjiana,"  141-142.  Musical  102  Times  107  (March  1966):217.  SOURCES CONSULTED  I.  GENERAL  Abraham, G e r a l d . A Hundred Years P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1964.  of Music. Chicago:  B a c h a r a c h , A. L . , e d . B r i t i s h M u s i c o f O u r T i m e . M i d d l e s e x : P e l i c a n B o o k s " [ 1946T. Blom, E. 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( M i c r o f i l m e d by t h eU n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , Joseph R e g e n s t e i n L i b r a r y , D e p a r t m e n t o f P h o t o d u p l i c a t i o n , No. 4424). U n p u b l i s h e d , c. 1977.  D i c t i o n a r y of N a t i o n a l Biography, (1931-1940). A l f r e d R i c h a r d . " b y H e r b e r t B. G r i m s d i t c h .  S.v. "Orage,  Foreman, L e w i s . B a x : A Composer a n d H i s Times. F o r e w o r d by F e l i x Aprahamian. London and B e r k e l e y : S c h o l a r P r e s s , 1983. Gray,  Cecil.  "Les  S i x . " New A g e 34 ( D e c e m b e r  1 3 , 1923) : 8 1 .  . M u s i c a l C h a i r s o r B e t w e e n Two S t o o l s : B e i n g t h e L i f e and Memoirs o f C e c i l Gray. London: H o m e a n d Van T h a i , 1948. . A Survey o f Contemporary Music. London: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s a n d Humphrey M i l f o r d , 1924.  103  Oxford  Gray-Fisk, Clinton. "Kaikhosru Shapurji T o T t A p r i l 1 960) :230-32.  Sorabji."  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V o l . 2: B r i t i a n , S c a n d i n a v i a a n d The N e t h e r l a n d s . Searle, Muriel Britain:  V. J o h n I r e l a n d . T h e Man The P i t m a n P r e s s , 1979.  and  His Music.  Great  S e l v e r , P a u l . O r a g e a n d T h e New A g e C i r l e . R e m i n i s c e n c e s a n d R e f l e c t i o n s . L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n a n d U n w i n L t d . , 1959. Shead,  Richard. 1 973.  Constant  Lambert.  London:  Simon  Publications,  S i t w e l l , S a c h e v e r a l l . " K a i k h o s r u S o r a b j i . " I n programme n o t e s p i a n i s t Y o n t y S o l o m o n ' s c o n c e r t , p . 7. L o n d o n , W i g m o r e H a l l , D e c e m b e r 7, 1976.  ot  S o r a b j i , K a i k h o s r u S. A r o u n d M u s i c . L o n d o n : T h e U n i c o r n P r e s s , 1932; r e p r i n t e d . , W e s t p o r t , Conn.: H y p e r i o n P r e s s I n c . , 1 979. . B.B.C.-TV p r o g r a m m e ,  105  " A q u a r i u s , " London.  Interview,  June  11, 1977.  . Mi^ C o n t r a F a : T h e I m m o r a l i s i n g s o f a M a c h i a v e l l i a n M u s i c i a n . London: P o r c u p i n e P r e s s , 1947. S t e v e n s o n , R o n a l d , e d . A l a n B u s h : An 8 0 t h B i r t h d a y S y m p o s i u m . B r a v u r a S t u d i e s N o . 2. K i d d e r m i n s t e r : Bravura P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1981. W.  T. S. " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M u s i c No. 1 ( O c t o b e r 3 0 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 1 0 .  Criticism."  New A g e 3 6 ,  "What o u r r e a d e r s a r e s a y i n g . " New A g e 3 8 , N o . 3 ( N o v e m b e r 1 9 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 5 . ; New Acje 3 8 , N o . 4 TNovember 2 6 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 4 7 . Whittal, Arnold. "Sorabjiana." 1966):216-17.  Musical  Y o u n g , P e r c y . E l g a r ( X M^ A S t u d y James P l a c e , 1955. . A History of B r i t i s h  II.  W R I T I N G S BY K. S. S O R A B J I This  writings that and  of a Musician. Music.  I N THE NEW  (arranged  London:  forthis  specify  t h e s e c t i o n s under  letter.  Often,  titles  study.  Benn, 1967.  a list  which  S o r a b j i w r o t e an a r t i c l e  by S o r a b j i .  and ease of r e f e r e n c e ,  i n brackets.  Also  or  of the a r t i c l e  the present denoting  w r i t e r has  the contents  included with  of the  the bibliographic  parenthesis  representing  number(s) i n  t h e page number(s) o f t h e a r t i c l e package  106  or  For purposes of  i s a "DR" n u m b e r ( s ) o r " D e r u s - R a p o p o r t "  i n the microfilmed  "Music"  the j o u r n a l and  information  letter  of  T h e common h e a d i n g s  throughout  relevant title-information  article/letter  London: S t .  AGE  explaining the contents  were n o t p r o v i d e d  clarification  (March  c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y ) b y S o r a b j i i n T h e New A g e  " L e t t e r s t o the E d i t o r " occur  included  107  section of the bibliography contains  were c o n s u l t e d  letter  Times  of c o l l e c t e d  writings  or  compiled  by K e n n e t h D e r u s as  the package  and  Paul  R a p o p o r t . The  of c o l l e c t e d  writings  numbers have  i s the only  been  edition  given to  date.  " L e t t e r s t o the E d i t o r : Bach and V o i c e N o . 21 ( M a r c h 2 0 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 4 9 , (DR " M u s i c : [On C o v e n t Syndicate]." 14) .  Garden, New A g e  New  Age  t h e B.N.O.C. a n d t h e G r a n d O p e r a 3 4 , N o . 25 ( A p r i l 17, 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 6 9 ,  " M u s i c : [On t h e R a v e l c o n c e r t ] . " 1 9 2 4 ) : 3 1 - 3 2 , (DR 1 6 - 1 7 ) . "Music: Wagner's ' R i n g ' . " (DR 1 8 - 2 0 ) .  Production." 10).  New  Age  New  Age  3 5 , No.  3 5 , No. 5  (May  3  (May  29,  34,  (DR  15,  1924):54,  " M u s i c : [On t h e C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c C e n t r e / B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y c o n c e r t on May 1 3 , 1 9 2 4 ] . " New A g e 3 5 , No. 7 ( J u n e j l 2 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 7 9 - 8 0 , (DR 2 1 - 2 3 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of Bax's T h i s Wold's J o i e and V a u g h a n W i l l i a m s ' S p r i n g Time o f t h e Y e a r by t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r o n J u n e 5, 1 9 2 4 1 7 " New A g e 3 5 , N o . 9 ( J u n e 2 6 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 1 0 3 - 1 0 4 , (DR 2 4 - 2 5 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e Bax S y m p h o n i c V a r i a t i o n s b y H a r r i e t C o h e n ] . " New A g e 3 5 , N o . 26 ( O c t o b e r 2 3 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 3 0 8 , (DR 3 0 - 3 1 ) . " M u s i c : The P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r ; t h e H a l l e O r c h e s t r a ; S y s t e m o f s o u n d R e p r o d u c t i o n . " New A g e 3 6 , N o . 4, 1 9 2 4 ) : 6 6 - 7 , (DR 3 5 ) .  A 6  New (December  " M u s i c : C e c i l G r a y ' s B o o k [A S u r v e y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c ] . " A g e 3 6 , N o . 8 ( D e c e m b e r 1 8 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 9 3 , (DR 3 6 ) .  New  " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C o n c e r t j on J a n u a r y 2 9 , 1 9 2 5 ] . " New A g e 3 6 , No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 0 1 , (DR 38) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C o n c e r t of F e b r u a r y 26, 1 9 2 5 ; On t h e L . S . O . c o n c e r t w h e r e D e l i u s ' P a r i s was p e r f o r m e d ; a n d on t e K i n s e y P i a n o Q u a r t e t p e r f o r m e r s ] . " New A g e 3 6 , N o . 21 ( M a r c h 1 9 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 4 6 , (DR 4 1 ) . "Music:  [Regarding  the performance of the Second V i o l i n 107  Concerto  of D e l i u s on M a r c h 20, 2, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 7 5 , (DR 4 3 ) .  1 9 2 5 ] . " New  Age  "Letters to the E d i t o r : Musical C r i t i c i s m . " ( A p r i l 2, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 7 5 , (DR 4 3 ) .  3 6 , No. New  23  Age  (April  3 6 , No.  23  " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f D e l i u s ' M a s s a n d on h i s m u s i c i n g e n e r a l ] . " New A g e 3 6 , N o . 26 ( A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 0 8 , (DR 4 4 ) . "Letters to the E d i t o r : Musical ( A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 1 2 , (DR  Criticism." 45).  New  Age  3 6 , No.  26  " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e l a s t P h i l h a r m o n i c C o n c e r t o f t h e 1925 s e a s o n w h e r e t h e P a s t o r a l S y m p h o n y o f V a u g h a n W i l l i a m s was p e r f o r m e d ] . " New A g e 3 7 , N o . 1 (May 7, 1 9 2 5 ) : 7 , (DR 4 6 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f E l g a r ' s K i n g d o m b y t h e L o n d o n C h o r a l S o c i e t y u n d e r A r t h u r P a g g e w i t h t h e L . S . O . ; On H o i s t ' s r e p u t a t i o n i n E n g l a n d and h i s The B o a r ' s H e a d ] . " New A g e 3 7 , N o . 2 (May 14, 1 9 2 5 ) : 1 8 , (DR 47T "Music: [Regarding the preformance of S t r a u s s ' E l e k t r a ] . " A g e 3 7 , N o . 6 ( J u n e 1 1 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 6 8 , (DR 4 8 ) .  New  " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f H o i s t ' s C h o r a l Symphony a t t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c c o n c e r t on O c t o b e r 2 9 , 1 9 2 5 ] . " New Age 3 8 , N o . 3 ( N o v e m b e r 1 9 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 1 ~ 3 2 , (DR 5 4 - 5 5 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e i m p r o v e m e n t s o f w i r e l e s s t r a n s m i s s i o n s ] . " A g e 3 8 , N o . 14 ( F e b r u a r y 4, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 6 7 , (DR 5 8 ) .  New  "Music: Stravinsky: Casals." 1 9 2 6 ) s 1 9 0 , (DR 5 9 ) .  18,  New  Age  3 8 , No.  16  (February  " M u s i c : S i r T h o m a s B e e c h a m . " New 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 2 5 , (DR 6 1 ) .  Age  38, No.  19  (March  11,  " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r ' s c o n c e r t on M a r c h 11, 1926 w h e r e t h e M o z a r t R e q u i e m M a s s , D e l i u s ' S o n g o f t h e H i g h H i l l s and Bax's S t . P a t r i c k ' s B r e a s t p l a t e were p e r f o r m e d ] . " New A g e 3 8 , N o . 21 ( M a r c h 2 5 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 5 0 , (DR 62) . "Music: John 68) .  Ireland."  " M u s i c : Queen's H a l l 23, 1926):242,  New  Age  3 9 , No.  Promenades." (DR 7 4 ) .  B.B.C. C o n c e r t a t t h e A l b e r t 4, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 1 , (DR 7 8 ) .  New  Hall."  108  7  (June  Age  New  17,  3 9 , No.  Age  1926):75, 21  4 0 , No.  (DR  (September 1  (November  " M u s i c : K r e i s l e r : R o s e n t a l : C u r z o n : The P a n a t r o p e . " N o . 6 ( D e c e m b e r 9, 1 9 2 6 ) : 7 0 , (DR 7 9 ) .  New  Age 40,  "Music: Mademoiselle Youra G u l l e r ( A e o l i a n . January 15th); B.B.C. ( R o y a l A l b e r t H a l l . J a n u a r y 2 0 t h ) ; S o l i t o de S o l i s ( A e o l i a n . J a n u a r y 2 6 t h ) . " New A g e 4 0 , N o . 15 ( F e b r u a r y 1 0 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 7 7 , (DR 8 1 ) . " M u s i c : R o y a l C h o r a l S o c i e t y , J a n u a r y 2 9 ; B.B.C., F e b r u a r y S o l i t o d e S o l i s , F e b r u a r y 1 5 . " New A g e 4 0 , N o . 17 ( F e b r u a r y 2 4 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 9 7 , (DR 8277"  3;  " M u s i c : Q u e e n ' s H a l l O r c h e s t r a ; B.B.C. C o n c e r t . A l b e r t H a l l , M a r c h 1 7 ; M i s s V i o l e t G o r d o n - W o o d h o u s e . " New A g e 4 0 , N o . 23 ( A p r i l 1 7 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 7 3 , (DR 8 4 - 8 5 ) . " M u s i c : L.S.O.; M r . G e o r g e P a r k e r . A e o l i a n . A p r i l 4 0 , N o . 26 ( A p r i l 2 8 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 3 1 0 , DR 8 6 ) . "Music: Covent Garden: Der Ring des N i b e l u n g e n . " 4 (May 2 6 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 4 5 , (DR 8 7 ) .  1 2 . " New New  Age  Age 4 1 , No.  " M u s i c : Mme. Wanda L a n d o w s k a ( W i g m o r e H a l l , May 1 6 ) . " New 4 1 , N o . 6 ( J u n e 9, 1 9 2 7 ) : 6 9 ~ 7 0 , (DR 8 8 - 8 9 ) .  Age  " M u s i c : ' A i d a ' : C o v e n t G a r d e n , J u n e 8; F r i d a K i n d l e r a n d J o h n G o s s ( W i g m o r e , J u n e 9 ) . " New A g e 4 1 , N o . 9 ( J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 0 5 , (DR 9 0 ) . "Music: [ M i s s D a i s y Kennedy's p u b l i c p r o t e s t ] ; Queen's H a l l P r o m e n a d e s . " New A g e 4 1 , N o . 20 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 5 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 3 8 , (DR 93-94). " M u s i c : M i s c h a L e v i t z k i (Queen's H a l l , O c t o b e r 2 0 ) ; A r n o l d Bax (Wigmore, October 2 0 ) ; I t u r b i ( A e o l i a n , October 2 2 ) ; D i n h G i l l y ( G r o t r i a n , N o v e m b e r 1 ) . " New A g e 4 2 , N o . 2 ( N o v e m b e r 10, 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 2 , (DR 9 5 ) . "Music: Mr. Robert M u s i c ] . " New  H u l l [ B o o k r e v i e w o n R. H u l l ' s C o n t e m p o r a r y Age 4 2 , No. 5 (December 1 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 5 7 , (DR 9 8 ) .  " M u s i c : V l a d i m i r C e r n i k o f f ; The B e r l i n P h i l h a r m o n i c O r c h e s t r a . Q u e e n ' s , D e c e m b e r 1." New A g e 4 2 , N o . 5 ( D e c e m b e r 2 2 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 9 4 , (DR 1 0 2 ) . " M u s i c : B e r l i n P h i l h a r m o n i c : D e c e m b e r 4.; R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c : D e c e m b e r 8.; I m p e r i a l L e a g u e o f O p e r a M e e i n g , D e c e m b e r 9.; P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r , D e c e m b e r 1 4 . " New A g e 4 2 , N o . 10 ( J a n u a r y 5, 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 1 7 , (DR 1 0 3 ) . " M u s i c : R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c : J a n u a r y 5.; M r . B e r t r a m J o n e s B e r l i n O r c h e s t r a . " New A g e 4 2 , N o . 13 ( J a n u a r y 2 6 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 4 9 , (DR 1 0 6 ) . 109  on t h e  " M u s i c : G e r a l d Cooper C o n c e r t : A e o l i a n , J a n u a r y 24.; G u r r e l i e d e r , S c h o e n b e r g : Queen's H a l l . J a n u a r y 27." A g e 4 2 , N o . 15 ( F e b r u a r y 9, 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 7 5 , (DR 1 0 7 ) .  New  " M u s i c : ' C a r m e n ' : T h e O l d V i c , May 1 0 . ; M e s s i a h ( B e e c h a m ) : C r y s t a l P a l a c e , May 5.; W i r e l e s s : May 2, 9 . 3 0 . " New Age 4 3 , N o . 5 (May 3 1 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 5 3 , (DR 1 1 7 ) . "Music: Season of L i g h t Opera: C o u r t . ; Budapest P h i l h a r m o n i c O r c h e s t r a . " New A g e 4 3 , N o . 11 ( J u l y 1 2 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 2 9 - 1 3 0 , (DR.119-120). " M u s i c : The P o w e r s o f t h e A i r . " 1 9 2 8 ) : 2 1 5 , (DR 1 2 5 - 1 2 6 ) .  New  Age  4 3 , No.  18  (August  30,  " M u s i c : M a h l e r I V . Symphony ( W i r e l e s s : A u g u s t 5 ) . ; B.B.C. M o d e r n C h a m b e r C o n c e r t s . ; P r o m e n a d e : S e p t e m b e r 6.; P r o m e n a d e : S e p t e m b e r 1 3 . " New A g e 4 3 , N o . 22 ( S e p t e m b e r 2 7 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 1 2 7 ) . " M u s i c : B.B.C. M o d e r n Chamber C o n c e r t . A r t s T h e a t r e C l u b : O c t o b e r 15.; C o n c e r t o f T c h e k o - S l o v a k M u s i c . Queen's: O c t o b e r 1 6 . " New A g e 4 3 , N o . 26 ( O c t o b e r 2 5 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 3 0 9 , (DR 1 2 9 ) . " M u s i c : K a t h e r i n e Heyman. W i g m o r e : O c t o b e r 2 5 . ; M e d t n e r : P h i l h a r m o n i c . Q u e e n ' s : N o v . 1." New A g e 4 4 , N o . 3 ( N o v e m b e r 1 5 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 3 0 , (DR 1 3 1 ) .  Royal  " M u s i c : E l i z a b e t h S c h u m a n n . Q u e e n ' s : N o v e m b e r 3.; A r t s T h e a t r e : G r o t r i a n . " New A g e 4 4 , N o . 5 ( N o v e m b e r 2 9 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 5 7 , (DR 132). " M u s i c : V a n D i e r e n . W i g m o r e : November 10.; L.S.O. Q u e e n ' s H a l l , November 12.; S i r Thomas Beecham: R o y a l A l b e r t H a l l , N o v e m b e r 1 1 . " New A g e 4 4 , N o . 6 ( D e c e m b e r 6, 1 9 2 8 ) : 6 8 , (DR 133-134). " M u s i c : R o y a l O p e r a , C o v e n t G a r d e n : 'Der R o s e n k a v a l i e r ' . " A g e 4 5 , N o . 3 (May 1 6 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 3 0 , (DR 1 4 7 ) .  New  "Music: [Regarding the P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r ' s performance of Bax's W a l s i n g h a m a n d H o i s t ' s Hymn o f J e s u s a t t h e Q u e e n ' s H a l l o n J u n e 6, 1 9 2 9 ; R e g a r d i n g E u g e n e G o o s s e n s ' c o n c e r t a t t h e Q u e e n ' s H a l l o n J u n e 1 3 ; a n d on t h e o r c h e s t r a l c o n c e r t o f B e a t r i c e a n d May H a r r i s o n a t t h e Q u e e n ' s H a l l o n J u n e 1 4 , 1 9 2 9 ] . " New A g e 4 5 , N o . 9 ( J u n e 2 7 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 1 0 5 , (DR 152-153). " M u s i c : [On s i n g e r s a n d s i n g i n g ] ; D ' A l v a r e z S o n g R e c i t a l . Queen's: June 2 5 t h ; Mark R a p h a e l Song R e c i t a l . Wigmore: J u n e 2 6 ; ' J u d i t h ' C o v e n t G a r d e n : J u n e 2 7 . " New A g e 4 5 , N o . 11 ( J u l y 1 1 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 1 2 9 , (DR 1 5 4 ) . 1 10  " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e A l l - E n g l i s h E v e n i n g a t t h e Proms T h u r s d a y 2 9 t h A u g u s t , 1 9 2 9 ] . " New A g e 4 5 , N o . 20 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 2 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 3 8 , (DR 157-158).  on  " M u s i c : [On E g o n P e t r i ' s p i a n o r e c i t a l , S u n d a y S e p t e m b e r 8, 1 9 2 9 ] . " New A g e 4 5 , No. 22 ( S e p t e m b e r 2 6 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 159) . " M u s i c : Q u e e n ' s H a l l ; W e d n e s d a y , O c t o b e r 2: B r a h m s ; T h u r s d a y , O c t o b e r 3: A l l - B r i t i s h P r o g r a m m e . " New A g e 4 5 , N o . 25 ( O c t o b e r 1 7 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 9 6 - 2 9 7 , (DR  164T7"  " M u s i c : [On t h e b r o a d c a s t p r o g r a m m e w h e r e S i b e l i u s ' Fifth S y m p h o n y was p e r f o r m e d ] ; D ' A l v a r e z . A e o l i a n , O c t . 9.; E g o n P e t r i . Wigmore, 1 t h . ; F i r s t C o n c e r t of the D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . Q u e e n ' s , 1 2 t h ; J e r i t z a . A l b e r t H a l l , 1 3 t h . " New A g e 4 5 , No. 26 ( O c t o b e r 2 4 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 3 0 8 - 3 1 0 , (DR 1 6 5 - 1 6 7 7 7 " " M u s i c : The D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . ; T e t r a z z i n i . Albert Hall. October 2 0 . ; D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . " New A g e 4 6 , No. 1 ( N o v e m b e r 7, l 9 2 9 ) : 8 - 9 , (DR 168-169). " M u s i c : B.B.C. Chamber C o n c e r t . ; E g o n P e t r i . W i g m o r e , N o v e m b e r 9." N e v A g e 4 6 , No. 3 ( N o v e m b e r 2 1 , l 9 2 9 ) : 3 2 - 3 3 , (DR 172-173). "Music: [Copyright B i l l ] ; Rachmaninoff. A l b e r t C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t . N o v . 2 0 . " New A g e 4 6 , 5, 1 9 2 9 ) : 5 7 , (DR 177-178).  H a l l : Nov. 24.; No. 5 ( D e c e m b e r  " M u s i c : B a r t o k R e c i t a l . A r t s T h e a t r e C l u b . : J a n u a r y 7. B . B . C ; H a l l e C o n c e r t . Q u e e n ' s J a n u a r y 10.; The M u s i c a l C o p y r i g h t B i l l . " New A g e 4 6 , No. 12 ( J a n u a r y 2 3 , 1 0 3 0 ) s 1 3 7 , (DR 184). " M u s i c : H a l l e O r c h e s t r a : Queen's. J a n u a r y 24.; P r i v a t e Organ R e c i t a l : S t . L a w r e n c e J e w r y , J a n u a r y 2 5 . " New A g e 4 6 , No. 14 ( F e b r u a r y 6, 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 6 4 , (DR 187). " M u s i c : B.B.C F r i d a y , 3 1 s t . Queen's.; Birmingham C i t y O r c h e s t r a , v i a B.B.C F e b . 1 3 . ; K i r k b y L u n n . " New No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 0 1 , (DR 189-90).  Age  46,  "Music: B r i t i s h Music S o c i e t y . 4c, L a n g f o r d P l a c e , S t . John's Wood: F e b r u a r y 1 8 . ; R u d o l f S e r k i n . A e o l i a n : F e b r u a r y 2 1 . ; B.B.C. Q u e e n ' s : F e b r u a r y 2 1 . ; G e r h a r d t . 2L.O.: F e b r u a r y 2 4 . " New A g e 4 6 , No. 18 ( M a r c h 6, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 0 9 , (DR 191). "Music: C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t : Queen's, March 22 ( A p r i l 3, 1 9 3 0 ) ; 2 6 1 , (DR 194).  18."  New  Age  46,  No.  " M u s i c : [On t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f S o r a b j i ' s P i a n o S o n a t a No. 4 ] ; P h i l h a r m o n i c : A p r i l 3.; B . B . C . C o n c e r t : A p r i l 4." New Age 11 1  46,  N o . 24 ( A p r i l  17, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 8 4 ,  (DR 1 9 5 ) .  " M u s i c : M a h l e r E i g h t h Symphony: Queen's H a l l , 4 7 , N o . 1 ( M a y 1, 1 9 3 0 ) : 7 , (DR 1 9 6 ) .  April  1 5 . " New A g e  " M u s i c : T h e P h i l h a r m o n i c S y m p h o n y O r c h e s t r a o f New Y o r k ; Cologne O r c h e s t r a : Q u e e n ' s 6 t h . " New A g e 4 7 , N o . 11 ( J u l y 1 0 , 1930):92, (DR 2 0 0 ) . " M u s i c : P e ' l l e a s e t M e l i s a n d e ; 'The E x p e r t ' G r a m o p h o n e . " New A g e 4 7 , N o . 11 ( J u l y 1 0 , 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 3 0 - 1 3 1 , (DR 2 0 1 ) . " M u s i c : T h e P r o m e n a d e s . " New A g e 4 7 , N o . 2 3 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 7 4 , (DR 2 0 5 ) .  2,  " M u s i c : The Promenades and o t h e r m a t t e r s . ; Promenade C o n c e r t s . M a h l e r I V . Symphony.; t h e G o o s s e n s a n d I r e l a n d C o n c e r t o s . O c t o b e r 3." New A g e 4 7 , N o . 2 5 ( O c t o b e r 4 7 , N o . 2 5 ( O c t o b e r 1 6 , 1 9 3 0 ) 7 2 9 7 , (DR 2 0 6 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e a b u n d a n c e o f c o n c e r t t i c k e t s a n d t h e l a c k o f good concert-programmes]; L . S . O . Q u e e n ' s . O c t o b e r 2 7 . " New A g e 4 8 , N o . 1 ( N o v e m b e r 6, 1 9 3 0 ) : 8 - 9 , (DR 2 0 7 - 2 0 8 ) . " M u s i c : B r i t i s h Women's S y m p h o n y O r c h e s t r a . ; W i r e l e s s . H i n d e m i t h W o r k s . " New A g e 4 8 , N o . 3 ( N o v e m b e r 2 0 , 1 9 3 0 ) : 3 2 , (DR 209) . " M u s i c : [ O b i t u a r y o n P h i l i p H e s e l t i n e - P e t e r W a r l o c k ] . " New A g e 4 8 , N o . 11 ( J a n u a r y 1 5 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 2 8 - 9 , (DR 2 1 1 ) . " M u s i c : O p e r a : ' R o s e n k a v a l i e r ' ; W i r e l e s s . " New A g e 4 9 , N o . 4 (May 2 8 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 4 1 , (DR 2 1 8 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e b r o a d c a s t p e r f o r m a n c e o f I r e l a n d ' s P i a n o C o n c e r t o ] ; T h e O p e r a ; ' S a d k o ' . " New A g e 4 9 , N o . 9 ( J u l y 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 0 4 , (DR 2 2 3 ) .  2,  " M u s i c : P r o m e n a d e C o n c e r t , S e p t e m b e r 1 5 . " New A g e 4 9 , N o . 21 ( S e p t e m b e r 2 4 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 2 4 5 , (DR 2 2 5 ) . " M u s i c : T h e P r o m e n a d e s . " New A g e 4 9 , N o . 23 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 3 1 ) : 2 7 2 , (DR 227-877 "Music:  Egon  Petri."  New A g e 5 0 , N o . 1 ( N o v e m b e r  8,  5, 1 9 3 1 ) : 7 ,  " M u s i c : [On M a g g i e T e y t e ' s b r o a d c a s t r e c i t a l ] ; H e l e n M i l v a . ; S c h o e n b e r g : F r i d a y N o v e m b e r 1 3 . " New A g e 5 0 , N o . 4 (November 26, 1931):40-41, (DR 232T7 " M u s i c : [On t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f W a l t o n ' s B e l s h a z z a r ' s F e a s t ] ; R o y a l C h o r a l S o c i e t y : N o v . 2 8 . " New A g e 5 0 , N o . 6 1 12  (DR  (December  10, 1931):6,  (DR  233-234).  " M u s i c : [Newman o n M u s i c C r i t i c i s m ] ; W i r e l e s s . B . B . C . " New 50, No. 8 (December 2 4 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 9 2 , (DR 2 3 5 ) .  Age  " M u s i c : [On t h e P r e s s a n d B r i t i s h M u s i c i a n s ] ; W i r e l e s s . B . B . C . C o n t e m p o r a r y C o n c e r t s . " New A g e 5 0 , N o . 10 ( J a n u a r y 7, 1 9 3 2 ) : 1 1 6 , (DR 2 3 6 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e b r o a d c a s t programme from P a r i s where F l o r e n t S c h m i t t ' s S y m p h o n i c C o n c e r t a n t e was p e r f o r m e d a n d o n B a x ' s m u s i c i n g e n e r a l ] . " New A g e 5 2 , N o . 26 ( A p r i l 2 7 , 1 9 3 3 ) : 3 1 0 , (DR 2 6 2 ) . "Music: [Regarding t h e Choral V a r i a t i o n s of Benjamin Britten p e r f o r m e d a t t h e f o u r t h B.B.C. c o n c e r t o f c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s i c ] . " New A g e 5 4 , N o . 20 ( M a r c h 1 5 , 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 3 4 , (DR  269) . " M u s i c : [On Dame E t h e l S m y t h ' s 7 5 t h - b i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n i n 1 9 3 4 ] . " New A g e 5 4 , N o . 23 ( A p r i l 5, 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 7 2 , 270) .  1 13  concert (DR  APPENDIX 1  THE W R I T I N G S OF K A I K H O S R U S O R A B J I  The  format  bibliography "Letters that  for this  i s ,whether  numbers  and where  the present  title-information letter. give  signify  the nature  of the  a title  further  b y T h e New  included  Age  t h e "DR" o r  f o r ease of  has n o t been p r o v i d e d  w r i t e r has included  denoting  of the c o n t r i b u t i o n ,  or a l e t t e r ;  have been  f o r by  relevant  the contents of the a r t i c l e  Original punctuation  the reader  journal  (1915-1934)  a p p e n d i x i s b a s e d on t h a t  i t i s an a r t i c l e  "Derus-Rapoport"  Sorabji,  AGE  ( I I ) t o t h e t h e s i s : T h e common h e a d i n g s " M u s i c " a n d  to the Editor"  reference;  INJTHE NEW  has been  evidence staff.  114  retained  of the lack  where  or  possible  to  of e d i t i n g i n the  "Letters 24  t o the (April  E d i t o r : Foreigners i n England." 15, 1 9 1 5 ) : 6 5 3 (DR 1 ) .  New  Age  16,  No.  "Letters 26  to the (April  Editor: Foreigners 2 9 , 1 9 1 5 ) : 7 0 7 , (DR  i n England." 2).  New  Age  16,  No.  " L e t t e r s to the E d i t o r : F o r e i g n e r s i n England." 3 (May 2 0 , 1 9 1 5 ) : 6 9 , (DR 3 ) .  New  Age  17,  No.  f  " L e t t e r s tothe E d i t o r : Current C a n t i c l e [Regarding the p i a n i s t M r . M u r d o c h a n d t h e m u s i c a l c r i t i c i s m o f W. J . T u r n e r ] . " New A g e 19, N o . 1 (May 4, 1 9 1 6 ) : 2 2 , (DR 4 ) . "Letters 16  t o t h e E d i t o r : The P r e s s ( F e b r u a r y 15, 1 9 1 7 ) : 3 8 3 ,  " L e t t e r s t o the E d i t o r : 2 0 , No. 23 ( A p r i l  and (DR  M a n n e r s . " New 5).  Age  20,  Mr. Van D i e r e n and h i s c r i t i c s . " 5, 1 9 1 7 ) : 5 5 0 , (DR 6 ) .  No.  New  " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : The p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s o f m u s i c . " A g e 2 1 , No. 9 ( J u n e 2 8 , 1 9 1 7 ( : 2 1 4 - 2 1 5 , (DR 7 ) .  Age  New  " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M u s i c [On B r i t i s h a n d A m e r i c a n p i a n o s a n d t h e r e p e r t o r y f o r t h i s i n s t r u m e n t ; On M r . A t h e l i n g ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f c e r t a i n s i n g e r s ; on t h e s t a t e o f B r i t i s h m u s i c b e f o r e t h e w a r a n d f a m o u s B r i t i s h m u s i c i a n s ] . " New A g e 2 2 , No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 2 1 , 1 9 1 8 ) : 3 3 9 , (DR 8 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M u s i c [A r e s p o n s e t o t h e p r e v i o u s o n t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e s t a t e o f B r i t i s h m u s i c ] . " New 2 2 , No. 21 ( M a r c h 2 1 , 1 9 1 8 ) : 4 2 3 , (DR 9 ) . "Letters to the E d i t o r : No. 21 ( M a r c h 2 0 , " M u s i c : [On S o l i t o B.N.O.C. a n d (DR 11-12).  Bach and V o i c e 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 4 9 , (DR  de S o l i s ' p i a n o the Grand Opera  P r o d u c t i o n . " New 10).  Age  letter Age 34,  r e c i t a l ; Covent Garden, the S y n d i c a t e ] . " New A g e 2 6 9 - 2 7 0 ,  " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : [ R e p l y t o a l e t t e r on m o d e r n m e t h o d s o f v o i c e p r o d u c t i o n ; on s i n g e r s a n d t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f B a c h a n d o t h e r 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y c o m p o s e r s ] . " New A g e 3 4 , No. 24 ( A p r i l 1 0 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 8 8 , (DR 13). " M u s i c : [On t h e f l o o d o f b a d s i n g e r s ; on t h e j o i n t p i a n o a n d h a r p s i c h o r d r e c i t a l of V i o l e t C l a r e n c e and A v e r i l C a s s i d y w i t h B e c k e t W i l l i a m s a s t h e g u e s t p e r f o r m e r ; on t h e S a l z b u r g F e s t i v a l programmes and t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J u r y s y s t e m ] . " New A g e 3 4 , No. 25 ( A p r i l 1 7 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 9 6 - 2 9 7 , (DR 14).  1 15  " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : [Response t o Mr. Judge's l e t t e r ; S o r b j i ' s s t r i c t u r e s upon t h e a v e r a g e c o n t e m p o r a r y s i n g e r ' s t e c h n i q u e ] . " New A g e 3 5 , N o . 1 ( M a y 1, 1 9 2 4 ) : 9 , (DR 1 5 ) . " M u s i c : On t h e L o n d o n c o n c e r t s e a s o n ; o n p r e s e n t - d a y n e w p a p e r c r i t i c i s m ; on t h e R a v e l c o n c e r t where t h e p i a n i s t G i l . M a r c h e x p e r f o r m e d ; on t h e A u s t r a l i a n s o p r a n o E v e l y n S c o t n e y , t h e I t a l i a n s i n g e r Umberto U r b a n o a n d on D i n h G i l l y ; o n t h e B.N.O.C.'s s e a s o n a t H i s M a j e s t y ' s a n d C o v e n t G a r d e n a n d on t h e C a r l R o s a Company's s e a s o n a t t h e S c a l a ] . " New A g e 3 5 , N o . 3 ( M a y 1 5 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 3 1 - 3 2 , (DR 16-17). " M u s i c : W a g n e r ' s ' R i n g ' . " New A g e 3 5 , N o . 5 ( M a y 2 9 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 5 4 " 5 6 , (DR 18-207. " M u s i c : [On t h e c o n c e r t a t t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s i c c e n t r e b y t h e B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y ; on t h e r e v i e w o f S o r a b j i ' s c o m p o s i t i o n by A n t c l i f f e ; on D e r R o s e n k a v a l i e r ; on C y r i l S c o t t ' s m u s i c a n d o n 'de R e s z k e ' s i n g e r s ; o n t h e p i a n i s t A l e x a n d e r B o r o w s k y ' s Wigmore H a l l r e c i t a l ; on t h e D o m i n i o n A r t i s t ' s C l u b ] . " New A g e 3 5 , N o . 7 ( J u n e 1 2 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 7 9 - 8 1 , (DR 21-23). " M u s i c : [On a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s o f m u s i c i a n s ; on t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r c o n c e r t ; on t h e o r g a n i s t M a r c e l D u p r e ; on t h e o r g a n , i t s b u i l d e r s a n d r e p e r t o r y ; on Compton M a c k e n z i e ' s paper a n d t h e 'Gramophone'; on t h e New^edison D i a m o n d D i s k P h o n o g r a p h ] . " New A g e 3 5 , N o . 9 ( J u n e 1 7 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 1 0 3 - 1 0 4 , (DR 24-25). " M u s i c : [On o p e r a i n t h e v e r n a c u l a r ; on t h e E n g l i s h o p e r a , t h e B a l l a d opera, t h e Grand Opera S y n d i c a t e p o l i c y compared t o o t h e r o p e r a c o m p a n y ' s p o l i c i e s ] . " New A g e 3 5 , N o . 12 ( J u l y 1 7 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 1 4 0 - 1 4 1 , (DR 2 6 - 2 7 ) . " M u s i c : The D e a t h o f B u s o n i [ O b i t u a r y ] . " ( A u g u s t 1 4 , 1924):189, (DR 2 8 ) .  New A g e 3 5 , N o . 16  " M u s i c : [ B o o k r e v i e w o n W. J . T u r n e r ' s l a t e s t b o o k ( t i t l e n o t g i v e n ) ; o n M o s e i w i t s c h ' s p i a n o r e c i t a l ] . " New A g e 3 5 , N o . 24 ( O c t o b e r 9, 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 8 6 , (DR 2 9 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e c o n c e r t s o f p i a n i s t M a r k J o h n M c C o r m a c k ; on H a r r i e t C o h e n ' s Symphonic V a r i a t i o n s ; on t h e p i a n o S o l i s a n d R a c h m a n i n o f f ] . " New A g e 1 9 2 4 ) : 3 0 8 - 3 0 9 , (DR 3 0 - 3 1 ) .  Hambourg a n d s i n g e r p l a y i n g o f t h e Bax p l a y i n g o f S o l i t o de 3 5 , N o . 26 ( O c t o b e r 2 3 ,  "Letters t o the E d i t o r : Musical C r i t i c i s m [Regarding Harriet . C o h e n ' s p l a y i n g — a r e p o n s e t o W. T. S . ' s l e t t e r ] . " New A g e 3 6 , N o . 2 ( N o v e m b e r 6, 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 1 , (DR 3 2 ) .  116  " M u s i c : [On m o d e r n F r e n c h m u s i c c r i t i c i s m ; o n t h e s i n g i n g o f G a l l i C u r c i ; on t h e p i a n i s t V i c t o r S c h o e l e r ; on t h e R a h m a n i n o f f r e c i t a l ] . " New A g e 3 6 , No. 4 ( N o b e m b e r 2 0 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 4 5 , (DR 3 3 - 3 3 a ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M u s i c C r i t i c i s m [ R e g a r d i n g a l e t t e r by M r . M e a d e a n d a r e p l y t o H. C. V. B a i l e y on H a r r i e t C o h e n ' s p i a n o p l a y i n g ] . " New A g e 3 6 , No. 4 ( N o v e m b e r 2 0 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 4 5 - 4 6 , (DR 3 3 a ) . " M u s i c : The P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r ; The H a l l e O r c h e s t r a ; S y s t e m o f S o u n d R e p r o d u c t i o n . " New A g e 3 6 , No. 4, 1 9 2 4 ) : 6 6 - 6 7 , (DR 3 4 ) .  A 6  New (December  " L e t t e r s to the Editor.: M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m [Reply to J . M a c k e n z i e ' s l e t t e r on t h e s u b j e c t o f H a r r i e t C o h e n ' s p i a n o p l a y i n g ] . " New A g e 3 6 , N o . 6 ( D e c e m b e r 4, 1 9 2 4 ) : 7 1 , (DR 35) . " M u s i c : C e c i l G r a y ' s B o o k [On G r a y ' s S u r v e y o f M u s i c ] . " New A g e 3 6 , No. 8 ( D e c e m b e r 1 8 , 36) .  Contemporary 1 9 2 4 ) : 9 3 , (DR  " M u s i c : [On B l a n c h M a r c h e s i ' s r e c i t a l ; on G a l l i C u r c i ; o n t h e m i s u s e o f t h e w o r d ' c o l o r a t u r a ' a n d ' f i o r i t u r a ' ] . " New Age 3 6 , No. 13 ( J a n u a r y 2 2 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 1 5 0 , (DR 3 7 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e p r o m o t i o n o f m u s i c i a n s b y t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c c o n c e r t ] . " New A g e 1 9 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 0 1 , (DR 3 9 ) .  f a l s e a d v e r t i s i n g ; on 3 6 , No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y  " M u s i c : [On E g o n P e t r i ' s r e c i t a l s ] . " New A g e ( F e b r u a r y 2 6 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 1 1 , (DR 39T7"  36, No.  18  " M u s i c : [On m u s i c a p p r e c i a t i o n i n E n g l a n d ] ( i ) A r e a u d i e n c e s more i n t e l l i g e n t and d i s c r i m i n a t i n g ? ; ( i i ) I s t h e s t a n d a r d of p e r f o r m a n c e h i g h e r ? ; ( i i i ) I s t h e r e any r e a l e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e p u b l i c t a s t e i n m u s i c h a s i m p r o v e d ? " New A g e 3 6 , No. 19 ( M a r c h 1 5 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 2 4 - 2 2 5 , (DR 4 0 ) . t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c c o n c e r t ; o n t h e New E d i s o n D i a m o n d D i s k P h o n o g r a p h a n d some r e c o r d r e v i e w s ] . " New A g e 3 6 , No. 21 ( M a r c h 1 9 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 4 6 , (DR 4 1 ) . " M u s i c : [On E g o n P e t r i ' s r e c i t a l ; on t h e c h a m b e r c o n c e r t o f J o h n G o s s , Sammons a n d M u r d o c h ] . " New A g e 3 6 , No. 23 ( A p r i l 2, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 7 2 - 2 7 3 , (DR 4 2 ) . "Letters to the E d i t o r : Musical ' F a i t c h a ' s " l e t t e r ] . " New 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 7 5 , (DR 4 3 ) .  C r i t i c i s m [Response t o A g e 3 6 , No. 23 ( A p r i l 2,  " M u s i c : [On t h e f i r s t p e r f o r m a n c e o f v a n D i e r e n ' s F o u r t h S t r i n g Q u a r t e t a t t h e B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y c o n c e r t ; on t h e R o y a l 11 7  P h i l h a r m o n i c S o c i e t y ' s performance of D e l i u s ' s Mass of L i f e ] . " New A g e 3 6 , N o . 26 ( A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 0 8 T 7 D R 4 4 ) . "Letters to the E d i t o r : Musical ( A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 1 2 , (DR  Criticism." 45).  New  Age  36,  No.  26  " M u s i c : [On t h e l a s t P h i l h a r m o n i c c o n c e r t o f t h e s e a s o n ] . " A g e 3 7 , No. 1 (May 7, 1 9 2 5 ) : 7 , (DR 4 6 .  New  " M u s i c : [On t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f E l g a r ' s K i n g d o m b y t h e L o n d o n C h o r a l S o c i e t y w i t h t h e L o n d o n Symphony O r c h e s t r a ; on t h e E n g l i s h r e c e p t i o n o f H o i s t ' s o p e r a The B o a r ' s H e a d ; on t h e o p e r a G i a n n i S c h i c c h i o f P u c c i n i ] . " New A g e 3 7 , No. 2 (May 14, 1 9 2 5 ) : 1 8 , (DR 4 7 ) . " M u s i c : [On S t r a u s s ' E l e k t r a a n d i t s p r o d u c t i o n ; on T r i s t a n a n d i t s p r o d u c t i o n ] . " New A g e 3 7 , No. 1 9 2 5 ) : 6 8 , (DR 4 8 ) .  Wagner's 6 ( J u n e 11,  " M u s i c : [On M r . C o e ' s c r i t i c i s m o f C e c i l G r a y ' s S u r v e y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c i n " L a R e v u e M u s i c a l e " ; on B e e c h a m ' s b a n k r u p t c y h e a r i n g s ; on t h e r e c i t a l s o f A r t h u r S c h a u b t , Ivan P h i l l i p o w s k y and t h e g e n r a l s t a t e of c o n c e r t p e r f o r m a n c e s i n L o n d o n ; on t h e Don C o s s a c k C h o i r ] . " New A g e 3 7 , No. 7 ( J u n e 1 8 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 8 1 , (DR 4 9 ) . " M u s i c : The O p e r a [ T o s c a and I_l B a r b i e r a d i S i v i q l i a a t C o v e n t G a r d e n ] . " New A g e 3 7 , No. 9 ( J u l y 9, 1 9 2 5 ) : 1 1 5 - 1 1 6 , (DR 50-51). " M u s i c : [On Newman's m u s i c c r i t i c i s m ; o n t h e f i r s t P r o m e n a d e c o n c e r t of t h e season and t h e o r g a n r e p e r t o r y a t t h e s e c o n c e r t s ] . " New A g e 3 7 , No. 22 ( O c t o b e r 1, [1925):262-263, (DR 5 2 ) . " M u s i c : [On P e r c y S c h o l e s l e c t u r e s o n m u s i c c r i t i c i s m a n d t h e L o n d o n P r e s s ; on t h e r e c e p t i o n o f f o r e i g n m u s i c i a n s i n E n g l a n d ; on K w a s t H o d a p p ' s p i a n o r e c i t a l ; o n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e s e c o n d L i s z t c o n c e r t o b y M. d e G r i e f a t t h e P r o m e n a d e s a n d o t h e r w o r k s ] . " New A g e 3 7 , No. 23 ( O c t o b e r 8, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 7 1 , (DR 5 3 ) . " M u s i c : [On N i n a K o s h e t z ; f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e i n L o n d o n ; p e r f o r m a n c e o f H o i s t ' s C h o r a l Symphony a t t h e f P h i l h a r m o n i c on O c t o b e r 29; on Lamond's r e c i t a l Q u e e n ' s H a l l o n N o v e m b e r 3 ] . " New A g e 3 8 , No. 3 1 9 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 1 - 3 2 (DR 5 4 - 5 5 ) .  on t h e irst at the (November  r  " M u s i c : [On L a m o n d ' s s e c o n d r e c i t a l ; o n t h e H a m b o u r g r e c i t a l ; on K i r k b y L u n n ' s r e c i t a l ; on gramophone r e p r o d u c t i o n o f m u s i c and M e s s r s . A l f r e d Imhof's H i s M a s t e r ' s V o i c e i n s t r u m e n t ] . " New Ag_e 3 8 , No. 8 ( D e c e m b e r 2 4 , 1925):94~95, (DR 5 6 ) .  118  "Letters t o the E d i t o r : D o l l a r C u l t u r e [Regarding Gould F l e t c h e r ' s e s s a y 'The A m e r i c a n M i n d ' ] . " New A g e 3 8 , N o . ( J a n u a r y 14, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 3 1 , (DR 5 7 ) .  11  " M u s i c : [On t h e ' c e l e b r i t y ' s t a r c o n c e r t s a t t h e A l b e r t H a l l o n J a n u a r y 10; on S i r Thomas Beecham w i t h t h e L.S.O.; on t h e present s t a t e of m u s i c a l performances and the r a p i d improvements i n w i r e l e s s t r a n s m i s s i o n and gramophone m u s i c a l r e p r o d u c t i o n s ] . " New A g e 3 8 , N o . 14 ( F e b r u a r y 4, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 6 6 - 1 6 7 , (DR 5 8 ) . " M u s i c : S t r a v i n s k y : C a s a l s . " New 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 9 0 , (DR 5 9 ) . "Music: E l i z a b e h t Age 38, No. )  (February  18,  Schumann; The B u d a p e s t S t r i n g Q u a r t e t . " 18 ( M a r c h 4, 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 1 3 , (DR 6 0 ) .  New  " M u s i c : S i r T h o m a s B e e c h a m . " New 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 2 5 , (DR 6 1 ) .  Age  Age  3 8 , No.  3 8 , No.  16  19  (March  11,  " M u s i c : [On t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f L i s z t ' s m u s i c b y M r . E m l y n D a v i e s ; on t h e p i a n o l a d e v i s e d by M r . F r e d e r i c k E v a n s ; on t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c c o n c e r t on M a r c h 11; on t h e f u n d - r a i s i n g e v e n t s p o n s o r e d by t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r , t h e c h o i r ' s r e p u t a t i o n i n E n g l a n d a n d t h e i r r e p e r t o r y ] . " New A g e 3 8 , N o . 21 ( M a r c h 2 5 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 5 0 , (DR 6 2 ) . " M u s i c : [On Newman's h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s o n W a g n e r , S c h u m a n n a n d M o z a r t ; o n t h e L . S . O . p e r f o r m a n c e o n A p r i l 1 2 ] . " New A g e 3 8 , N o . 26 ( A p r i l 2 9 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 3 0 8 , (DR 6 3 ) . "Music: [ W i r e l e s s review of S t a n i s l a s N i e d z i e l s k i ' s p l a y i n g of t h e F m i n o r C h o p i n C o n c e r t o ; on t h e p i a n o r e c i t a l o f N i c o l a s O r l o f f ] . " New A g e 3 9 , N o . 4 (May 2 7 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 3 6 , (DR 64). " M u s i c : [On E g o n P e t r i ' s r e c i t a l s o n A p r i l 24 a n d 3 0 ] . " New 3 9 , N o . 5 ( J u n e 3, 1 9 2 6 ) : 5 0 , (DR 6 5 ) . " M u s i c : T h e R i n g [ o f W a g n e r ] . " New 1 9 2 6 ) : 6 1 - 6 2 , (DR 6 6 - 6 7 ) . "Music: John 68) .  Ireland."  New  Age  Age  3 9 , No.  3 9 , No.  6  7  17, 1 9 2 6 ) : 7 5 ,  (June  " M u s i c : T h e P a s s i n g o f t h e P u b l i c C o n c e r t . " New ( J u l y 8, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 1 0 , (DR 6 9 ) .  (June  Age  " M u s i c : T h e P a s s i n g o f t h e P u b l i c C o n c e r t I I . " New 11 ( J u l y 1 5 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 2 1 - 1 2 2 , (DR 7 0 - 7 1 ) .  10,  3 9 , No. Age  (DR 10  3 9 , No.  "Music: Opera - O t e l l o ; L'Heure E s p a g n o l ; G i a n n i S c h i c c h i . " A g e 3 9 , N o . 12 ( J u l y 2 2 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 3 4 , (DR 7 2 ) . 119  Age  New  " M u s i c : [On M o r i z R o s e n t h a l ' s r e c i t a l a t t h e Q u e e n ' s H a l l ] . " A g e 3 9 , N o . 14 ( A u g u s t 5, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 5 8 , (DR 7 3 ) . " M u s i c : Q u e e n ' s H a l l P r o m e n a d e s . " New 2 3 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 4 2 , (DR 7 4 ) .  A g e 3 9 , N o . 21  New  (September  " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : T r u t h and O b s c e n i t y [ I n r e g a r d t o George R y l e y S c o t t ' s a r t i c l e ' I s T r u t h O b s c e n e ? ' ] . " New A g e 3 9 , N o . 21 ( S e p t e m b e r 2 3 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 4 3 , (DR 7 5 ) . "Music: Joseph (October  M a r x ; B . B . C . P r o g r a m m e . " New 1 4 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 7 7 , (DR 7 6 ) .  " M u s i c : T h e P r o m e n a d e s . " New 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 8 9 , (DR 7 7 ) .  Age 3 9 , No.  A g e 3 9 , N o . 25 ( O c t o b e r  " M u s i c : B.B.C. C o n c e r t a t t h e A l b e r t H a l l . " ( N o v e m b e r 4, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 1 , (DR 7 8 ) .  New  21,  Age 4 0 , No. 1  " M u s i c : K r e i s l e r : R o s e n t h a l : C u r z o n : The P a n a t r o p e . " N o . 6 ( D e c e m b e r 9, 1 9 2 6 ) : 7 0 , (DR 7 9 ) . " M u s i c : T h e A u g u s t r o . Rome. D e c e m b e r 2 6 . " New ( J a n u a r y 1 3 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 2 9 , (DR 8 0 ) .  24  New  Age 4 0 ,  A g e 4 0 , N o . 11  "Music: Mademoiselle Youra G u l l e r ( A e o l i a n . January 15th); B.B.C. ( R o y a l A l b e r t H a l l . J a n u a r y 2 0 t h ) ; S o l i t o de S o l i s ( A e o l i a n . J a n u a r y 2 6 t h ) . " New A g e 4 0 , N o . 15 ( F e b r u a r y 1 0 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 7 7 , (DR 8 1 ) . "Music: R o y a l C h o r a l S o c i e t y , January 29; B . B . C , February S o l i t o d e S o l i s , F e b r u a r y 1 5 . " New A g e 4 0 , N o . 17 ( F e b r u a r y 2 4 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 9 7 , (DR 8277" " M u s i c : S o l i t o de S o l i s . A e o l i a : A e o l i a n : F e b r u a r y 2 6 . " New 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 2 5 , (DR 8 3 ) .  3;  F e b r u a r y 22.; Godowsky. A g e 4 0 , N o . 19 ( M a r c h 1 0 ,  " M u s i c : Q u e e n ' s H a l l O r c h e s t r a ; B.B.C. C o n c e r t . A l b e r t H a l l , M a r c h 1 7 ; M r s V i o l e t G o r d o n - W o o d h o u s e . " New A g e 4 0 , N o . 23 ( A p r i l 7, 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 7 3 - 2 7 4 , (DR 8 4 - 8 5 ) . " M u s i c : L.S.O.; M r . G e o r g e P a r k e r . A e o l i a n . A p r i l 4 0 , N o . 26 ( A p r i l 2 8 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 3 1 0 , (DR 8 6 ) . "Music: Covent Garden: Der Ring des N i b e l u n g e n . " 4 (May 2 6 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 4 5 , (DR 8 7 ) .  1 2 . " New New  Age  Age 4 1 , No.  " M u s i c : Mme. Wanda L a n d o w s k a ( W i g m o r e H a l l , May 1 6 ; [On t h e t e n o r S i g n o r T i t o S c h i p a a t t h e Q u e e n ' s H a l l o n May 1 6 ; o n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f P a r c i f a l a t C o v e n t G a r d e n o n May 1 7 ; o n t h e l e c t u r e b y D i n h G i l l y a t t h e M a r l e b o n e S t u d i o s o n May 18; o n t h e S e g o v i a G u i t a r r e c i t a l a t t h e W i g m o r e H a l l o n  120  May 1 9 ; on Mme. Ivoguen's May 2 2 ] . " New A g e 4 1 , N o . 88-89).  r e c i t a l a t t h e A l b e r t H a l l on 6 ( J u n e 9, l 9 2 7 ) : 6 9 - 7 0 , (DR  " M u s i c : ' A i d a ' : C o v e n t G a r d e n , J u n e 8; G o s s ( W i g m o r e , J u n e 9 ) . " New A g e 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 0 5 , (DR 9 0 ) .  F r i d a K i n d l e r and John 4 1 , No. 9 ( J u n e 3 0 ,  " M u s i c : T u r a n d o t . ( C o v e n t G a r d e n , J u n e 1 5 ) ; M a n u e l de F a l l a . ( A e o l i a n H a l l , June 2 2 ) ; Carmen. (Covent Garden, June 2 4 ) . " New A g e 4 1 , N o . 10 ( J u l y 7, 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 1 8 , (DR 9 1 ) . " M u s i c : [On M i s s D a i s y K e n n e d y ' s p u b l i c p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t r e a t m e n t of s o l o i s t s ] ; Queen's H a l l Promenades." 4 1 , N o . 20 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 5 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 3 8 , (DR 9 2 ) .  the New  Age  " M u s i c : W i g m o r e ( S e p t e m b e r 2 2 ) [On a s o n g r e c i t a l h e l d a t t h e Wigmore H a l l ] ; Mark Hambourg (Queen's, September 2 4 ) . ; A l b e r t H a l l (Sunday, October 7.); H a r o l d R u t l a n d ( A e o l i a n , O c t o b e r 1 2 ) . ; The B u d a p e s t T r i o ( W i g m o r e , O c t o b e r 1 2 ) . " New A g e 4 1 , N o . 26 ( O c t o b e r 2 7 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 3 0 9 - 3 1 0 , (DR 9 3 - 9 4 ) . " M u s i c : M i s c h a L e v i t z k i (Queen's H a l l , O c t o b e r 2 0 ) ; A r n o l d Bax (Wigmore, O c t o b e r 2 0 . ) : I t u r b i ( A e o l i a n , O c t o b e r 2 2 . ) ; D i n h G i l l y ( G r o t r i a n , N o v e m b e r 1 . ) . " New A g e 4 2 , No. 2 ( N o v e m b e r 1 0 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 2 , (DR 9 5 ) . " M u s i c : T h e W i l s o n P a n h a r m o n i c H o r n a s A d a p t e d a n d M o u n t e d b y W. R. C o l l i e r a n d G. B r a d l e y ; J o h n I r e l a n d ( O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , N o v e m b e r 2 . ) . " New A g e 4 2 , N o . 3 ( N o v e m b e r 1 7 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 3 2 - 3 3 , . (DR 9 7 ) . The  "Mr.  S e c o n d L e v i t z k i R e c i t a l ( Q u e e n ' s 2 n d ) . ; M. D i n h G i l l y ( G r o t r i a n 8 t h ) . ; M r . B r a d l e y a n d t h e W i l s o n H o r n . " New 4 2 , N o . 4 ( N o v e m b e r 2 4 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 4 5 , (DR 9 7 ) . R o b e r t H u l l [On H u l l ' s b o o k , C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c ] . " 4 2 , N o . 5 ( D e c e m b e r 1, 1 9 2 7 ) : 5 7 , (DR 9 8 ) .  New  Age Age  " L e t t e r s t o the E d i t o r : Contemporary M u s i c [ S o r a b j i ' s reply t o H u l l ' s l e t t e r of p r o t e s t o f t h e c r i t i c ' s book r e v i e w ] . " ' New A g e 4 2 , N o . 6 ( D e c e m b e r 8, 1 9 2 7 ) : 7 2 , (DR 9 9 ) . " M u s i c : M. D i n h G i l l y . G r o t r i a n H a l l , N o v e m b e r 1 5 . ; S i r T h o m a s Beecham's O p e r a Scheme.; Mr. P h i l i p L e v i : The C o u r t H o u s e , N o v e m b e r 2 8 . " New A g e 4 2 , N o . 7 ( D e c e m b e r 1 5 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 8 1 ~ 8 2 , (DR 1 0 0 - 1 0 1 ) . "Music: V l a d i m i r C e r n i k o f f ; Q u e e n ' s , D e c e m b e r 1." 1 9 2 7 ) : 9 4 , (DR 1 0 2 ) . "Music:  Berlin  Philharmonic:  The New  Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. Age 4 2 , No. 8 ( D e c e m b e r 22,  December 121  4.;  Royal  Philharmonic,  D e c e m b e r 8; I m p e r i a l L e a g u e o f O p e r a . M e e t i n g , D e c e m b e r 9; P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r , December 14; S o p h i e Wyss. A e o l i a n , D e c e m b e r 1 4 . " New A g e 4 2 , N o . 10 ( J a n u a r y 5, 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 1 7 , (DR 1 0 3 ) . " M u s i c : 'The M e s s i a h . ' A l b e r t H a l l , D e c e m b e r 1 8 ; R o l a n d H a y e s . W i g m o r e , D e c e m b e r 1 5 ; T h e ' V o x a u r e a ' G r a m o p h o n e . " New A g e 4 2 , N o . 11 ( J a n u a r y 1 2 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 2 8 , (DR 1 0 4 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : T h e W i l s o n P a n h a r m o n i c H o r n . " New A g e 4 2 , N o . 11 ( J a n u a r y 1 2 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 3 1 , (DR 1 0 5 ) . " M u s i c : R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c : J a n u a r y 5.; M r . B e r t r a m J o n e s B e r l i n O r c h e s t r a . " New A g e 4 2 , N o . 13 ( J a n u a r y 2 6 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 4 9 , (DR 1 0 6 ) .  on t h e  "Music: G e r a l d Cooper c o n c e r t : A e o l i a n , January 24.; G u r r e l i e d e r , S c h o e n b e r g : Q u e e n ' s H a l l , J a n u a r y 2 7 . " New Age 4 2 , N o . 15 ( F e b r u a r y 9, 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 7 5 , (DR 1 0 7 ) . " M u s i c : A r t h u r S c h n a b e l . A e o l i a n : 3 1 s t . ; Egon P e t r i ( A e o l i a n : 2 n d . ) ; C u r r e n t M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m . " New A g e 4 2 , N o . 17 ( F e b r u a r y 2 3 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 9 8 , (DR 1 0 8 ) . "Music: Vienna S t r i n g Quartet. A e o l i a n : February 14th.; Medtner R e c i t a l . A e o l i a n : F e b r u a r y 16th.; M r s . Gordon Woodhouse. A e o l i a n : F e b r u a r y 2 1 s t . ; Mme. L a n d o w s k a . W i g m o r e : F e b r u a r y 2 9 t h . ; E l i z a b e t h S c h u m a n n . W i g m o r e : M a r c h 2 n d . " New A g e 4 2 , N o . 20 ( M a r c h 1 5 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 2 3 6 - 2 3 7 , (DR 109-11077" "Letters 22  t o t h e E d i t o r : A f o o l a n d h i s m o n e y . " New A g e 4 2 , N o . ( M a r c h 1 5 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 2 3 9 , (DR 1 1 1 ) .  " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M r s . Woodhouses's H a r p s i c h o r d R e c i t a l . " New A g e 4 2 , N o . 22 ( M a r c h 2 9 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 2 6 3 , (DR 1 1 2 ) . " M u s i c : Lamond. A e o l i a n : M a r c h 1 0 t h . ; The B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y C o n g r e s s ; P l u n k e t G r e e n e . A e o l i a n : A p r i l 30; The E s t e y O r g a n . " New A g e 4 2 , N o . 24 ( A p r i l 1 2 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 2 8 1 , (DR 1 1 3 ) . " M u s i c : [ O n Dame E t h e l S m y t h ' s b o o k A F i n a l B u r n i n g o f B o a t s ] ; Bach. S t . J o h n P a s s i o n . (Queen's. Good F r i d a y . 7 7 G o d o w s k y . " New A g e 4 3 , N o . 1 (may 3, 1 9 2 8 ) : 6 , (DR 1 1 4 ) . " M u s i c : M. D i n h G i l l y ' s l e c t u r e s - G r o t r i a n : F r i d a y , A p r i l 2 0 , e t s e q . ; D o n a l d T o v e y ( W i g m o r e : A p r i l 2 7 t h ) . ; M. D i n h G i l l y , T h i r d L e c t u r e : M a y 4." New A g e 4 3 , N o . 3 ( M a y 1 7 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 3 2 , (DR 1 1 5 ) . " M u s i c : [ O n Dame E t h e l S m y t h ' s b o o k A F i n a l B u r n i n g o f t h e B o a t s and h e r r e p u t a t i o n i n E n g l a n d ; on S o r a b j i ' s p e r s o n a l experiences with the musical establishment and r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ] . " New A g e 4 3 , N o . 4 ( M a y 2 4 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 4 4 , (DR 122  116). "Music: 'Carmen': The Old V i c , May 10.; Messiah (Beecham): C r y s t a l Palace, May 5.; W i r e l e s s : May 2, 9.30." New Age 43, No. 5 (May 31, 1928):53, (DR 117). "Music: Mass of L i f e ( D e l i u s ) : Queen's, May 16.; Rachmoninoff: Queen's, May 19.; E. Ewlyn Davies: Westminster C o n g r e g a t i o n a l Church, May 17." New Age 43, No. 6 (June 7, 1928):70, (DR 118). "Music: Season of L i g h t Opera: Court.; Budapest Philharmonic O r c h e s t r a . " New Age 43, No. 11 ( J u l y 12, 1928):129-130, (DR 119-120). "Music: Covent Garden, June 21st.; V l a d i m i r Rosing, A e o l i a n , June 8th.; 'Turandot,' Covent Garden.; Marchesi R e c i t a l , G r o t r i a n , June 28th." New Age 43, No. 12 ( J u l y 19; 1928):140, (DR 121). "Music: Paul Robeson (Drury Lane: J u l y 5).; Turandot (Covent Garden: J u l y 9 ) . " New Age 43, No. 14 (August 2, 1928):165, (DR 122). "Music: [On Newman's comparisons between the m u s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n England i n the 1860s and the 1920s; on j a z z and Constant Lambert's a r t i c l e on t h i s t o p i c i n " L i f e and L e t t e r s " ] . " New Age 43, No. 15 (August 9, 1928):177, (DR 123). "Reviews: H i s t o r y of Music. By C e c i l Gray. 6d.)." New Age 43, No. 15 (August 9,  (Kegan P a u l . 12s. 1928):179, (DR 124).  "Music: The Powers of the A i r [on broadcast r e c i t a l s ] . " New 43, No. 18 (August 30, 1928):214-215, (DR 125-126).  Age  "Music: Mahler IV. Symphony ( W i r e l e s s : August 5 ) . ; B.B.C. Modern Chamber Concerts.; Promenade: September 6.; Promenade: September 13." New Age 43, No. 22 (September 27, 1 928) :260-261 , T M 1 27) . " L e t t e r s t o the E d i t o r : L i t e r a r y Censorship." New (October 4, 1928):275, (DR 128).  Age  43, No.  "Music: B.B.C. Modern Chamber Concert. A r t s Theatre Club: October 15.; Concert of Tcheko-Slovak Music. Queen's: October 16." New Age 43, No. 26 (October 25, 1928):309, (DR 129). "Music: F l o r e n c e A u s t r a l . Queen's: October 20.; Eduard Stevermann. G r o t r i a n : October 22." New Age 44, No. 1 (November 1, 1928):9, (DR 130).  123  23  " M u s i c : K a t h e r i n e Heyman. Wigmore: O c t o b e r 25.; M e d t n e r : P h i l h a r m o n i c . Queen's: Nov. 1." New Age 44, No. 3 (November 15, 1928):30, (DR 1 3 1 ) .  Royal  " M u s i c : E l i z a b e t h Schumann. Queen's: November 3. A r t s T h e a t r e : G r o t r i a n . " New Age 44, No. 5 (November 29, 1928):57, (DR 132) . " M u s i c : Van D i e r e n . Wigmore: November 10.; L.S.O.: Queen's H a l l , November 12.; S i r Thomas Beecham: R o y a l A l b e r t H a l l , November 11." New Age 44, No. 6 (December 6, 1928):68-69, (DR 133-134). " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M i s s Heyman." New Age 44, No. 6 (December 6, 1928):71, (DR 1 3 5 ) . " M u s i c : Moor D o u b l e K e y b o a r d P i a n o . Queen's: November 17.; M r s . G o r d o n Woodhouse. G r o t r i a n : November 20." New Age 44, No. 7 (December 13, 1928):80-81, (DR 1 3 6 ) . " M u s i c : [On Hugh W a k e f i e l d ' s book G a i l l i m a u f r y ; D i n h G i l l y . G r o t r i a n . " New Age 44, No. 12 ( J a n u a r y 17, 1929):164-165, (DR 1 3 8 ) . " M u s i c : 'Carmen.' T e a t r o R e a l e d e l l ' O p e r a . Rome, J a n u a r y 19." New Age 44, No. 14 ( J a n u a r y 31, 1929):164-165, (DR 1 3 8 ) . " M u s i c : 'La T r a v i a t a . ' T e a t r o R e a l e d e l l ' O p e r a . Rome. J a n u a r y 26." New Age 44, No. 15 ( F e b r u a r y 7, 1929):178, (DR 1 3 9 ) . " M u s i c : ' F r a G h e r a r d o . ' T e a t r o R e a l e d e l l ' O p e r a . Rome." New Age 44, No. 18 ( F e b r u a r y 28, 1929) :214, (DR 1 4 0 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e s t a n d a r d o f o r g a n - p l a y i n g i n Rome a s compared t o E n g l a n d ] . " New Age 44, No. 20 (March 14, 1929):237-238,  (DR 141-142TT"  " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : F e m i n i s m . " New Age 44, No. 21 (March 21, 1929):251, (DR 1 4 3 ) . " M u s i c : Rome. A c a d e m i a d i S. C e c i l i a . M a r c h 8.; T r i s t a n . T e a t r o R e a l e d e l l ' O p e r a . M a r c h 9. L u c i a . March 15." New Age 44, No. 22 (March 28, 1929):260,.(DR 1 4 4 ) . " M u s i c : Rome. T e a t r o d e l l ' O p e r a . " New Age 44, No. 25 ( A p r i l 1929):296-297, (DR 1 4 5 ) .  18,  " M u s i c : R o y a l O p e r a , C o v e n t G a r d e n : 'Der R o s e n k a v a l i e r . ' May 1." New Age 45, No. 3 (May 16, 1929):30, (DR 1 4 7 ) . " M u s i c : R o y a l O p e r a , C o v e n t G a r d e n : Second C y c l e - 'Der R i n g d a s N i b e l u n g e n . ' ; Das R h e i n g o l d . May 6.; D i e W a l k u r e . May 9." New Age 45, No. 5 (May 30, 1929):57, (DR 1 4 8 ) .  124  " M u s i c : S i e g f r i e d . May 13.; G o t t e r d a m m e r u n g . May 15.; S p i r i t u a l s ; T r i s t a n and I s o l d e : C o v e n t G a r d e n : May 2 2 . " New Age 45, No. 6 ( J u e n 6, l 9 2 9 ) : 6 9 - 7 0 , (DR 1 4 9 - 1 5 0 ) . " M u s i c : [On m u s i c a p p r e c i a t i o n i n g e n e r a l ; s i n g e r s a t C o v e n t G a r d e n ; t h e a r t i s t and t h e c r i t i c ; on s i n g e r s ] . " New Age 45, No. 7 ( J u n e 13, 1 9 2 9 ) : 8 1 , (DR 1 5 1 ) . " M u s i c : D o l m e t s c h C l a v i c h o r d and H a r p s i c h o r d R e c i t a l : G r o t r i a n . J u n e 6.; P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r : Queen's. J u n e 6.; Norma. C o v e n t G a r d e n , May 28 a n d J u n e 7.; Eugene G o o s s e n s ' C o n c e r t . Queen's. J u n e 13.; O r c h e s t r a l C o n c e r t : B e a t r i c e and May H a r r i s o n . Queen's. J u n e 14." New Age 45, No. 9 ( J u n e 27, 1 9 2 9 ) : 1 0 4 - 1 0 5 , (DR 1 5 2 - 1 5 3 ) . " M u s i c : [On s i n g e r s and s i n g i n g t e c h n i q u e s ] ; D ' A l v a r e z Song R e c i t a l . Queen's: J u n e 2 5 t h . ; Mark R a p h a e l Song R e c i t a l . Wigmore: J u n e 26.; ' J u d i t h . ' C o v e n t G a r d e n : J u n e 27." New Age 45, No. 11 ( J u l y 11, 1 9 2 9 ) : 1 2 9 , (DR 1 5 4 ) . " M u s i c : S p e e c h - C h o r u s f r o m t h e Goetheanum.; ' T a n n h a u s e r ' ( C a r l R o s a ) . ; ' R i g o l e t t o ' ( R o y a l A c a d e m y ) . " New Age 45, No. 13 ( J u l y 25, 1 9 2 9 ) : 1 5 1 - 1 5 2 , (DR 1 5 5 - 1 5 6 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e ' A l l - E n g l i s h ' E v e n i n g a t t h e Proms on T h u r s d a y 2 9 t h ; on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f S t a n f o r d ' s F i r s t I r i s h R h a p s o d y ; on C o n s t a n t L a m b e r t ' s M u s i c f o r O r c h e s t r a and t h e C a p r i o l S u i t e of W a r l o c k ; on t h e E n g l i s h S i n g e r s ; on D e l i u s ' C e l l o C o n c e r t o ; a n d on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h i s w o r k ] . " New Age 45, No. 20 ( S e p t e m b e r 12, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 3 8 - 2 3 9 , (DR 1 5 7 - 1 5 8 ) . " M u s i c : [On Egon P e t r i ' s p i a n o r e c i t a l on t h e 8 t h ] . " New No. 22 ( S e p t e m b e r 2 6 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 1 5 9 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e B.B.C.'s " R a d i o T i m e s " ] . " New Age ( O c t o b e r 3, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 7 3 - 2 7 4 , (DR 160-161.  45, No.  Age  45,  23  " M u s i c : [On E r n e s t Newman's a r t i c l e s i n "The Sunday T i m e s " ; on t h e programmes f o r t h e B.B.C. Symphony C o n c e r t s and t h e Queen's H a l l O r c h e s t r a Symphony C o n c e r t s ] . " New Age 4 5 , No. 24 ( O c t o b e r 10, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 8 5 - 2 8 6 , (DR 162-1637. " M u s i c : Queen's H a l l , Wednesday, O c t o b e r 2: Brahms; T h u r s d a y , O c t o b e r 3: A l l - B r i t i s h Programme." New Age 45, No. 25 ( O c t o b e r 17, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 9 6 - 2 9 7 , (DR 164TT~ " M u s i c : [On t h e b r o a d c a s t c o n c e r t f e a t u r i n g t h e 5 t h Symphony o f S i b e l i u s ] ; D ' A l v a r e z . A e o l i a n , O c t . 9.; Egon P e t r i . Wigmore 1 1 t h ; F i r s t c o n c e r t o f t h e D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . Queen's 1 2 t h . ; J e r i t z a . A l b e r t H a l l , 1 3 t h . " New Age 4 5 , No. 26 ( O c t o b e r 24, 1 9 2 9 ) : 3 0 8 - 3 1 0 , (DR 165-1677.  125  " M u s i c : The D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . ; T e t r a z z i n i . A l b e r t H a l l . O c t o b e r 20.; D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . " New Age 46, No. 1 (November 7, 1 9 2 9 ) : 8 - 9 , (DR 168-169). " M u s i c : B.B.C. Symphony C o n c e r t . ; D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . " New No. 2 (November 14, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 0 - 2 1 , (DR 170-171).  Age  46,  " M u s i c : B.B.C. Chamber C o n c e r t . ; Egon P e t r i . Wigmore, November 9." New Age 46, No. 3 (November 2 1 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 3 2 ~ 3 3 , (DR 172-173). "Notes  o f t h e Week: [On B i r t h C o n t r o l and t h e L e g i s l a t i o n o f A b o r t i o n ] . " New Age 46, No. 4 (November 28, 1 9 2 9 ) : 3 7 , (DR 174).  " M u s i c : K l a r i L e n a r t . Wigmore: November 15.; H a l l e O r c h e s t r a . Queen's: November 15.; F r i e d a and Hans K i n d l e r . 5GB: November 17.; L.S.O. R a c h m a n i n o f f . November 18." New Age 46, No. 4 (November 28, 1 9 2 9 ) : 4 4 ~ 4 5 , (DR 175-176). " M u s i c : [ C o p y r i g h t B i l l ] ; R a c h m a n i n o f f . A l b e r t H a l l : Nov. 24.; C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t . Nov. 20." New Age 46, No. 5 (December 5, l 9 2 9 ) : 5 6 - 5 7 , (DR 177-178). " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : L e g a l i s e d A b o r t i o n . " New (December 5, 1 9 2 9 ) : 5 8 - 5 9 , (DR 1 7 9 ) .  Age  46, No.  5  " M u s i c : [ C o p y r i g h t B i l l ] ; S a l o m e . C o l o g n e O p e r a H o u s e . November 29.; B e r l i n P h i l h a r m o n i c O r c h e s t r a . December 3. Q u e e n ' s . ; B.B.C. C o n t e m p o r a r y Chamber M u s i c . December 2. A r t s T h e a t r e . ; A l e x a n d r a P a l a c e . O r g a n R e c i t a l . December 7. (Mr. R. D. C u n n i n g h a m . ) . " New Age 46, No. 8 (December 26, 1929) :93-94, (DR 180-181). "Music: [Copyright B i l l ] . " 1930) :105 (DR 1 8 2 ) .  New  Age  46, No.  9 (January  2,  r  " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : E c c e Herum t h e M u s i c a l C o p y r i g h t B i l l . " New Age 46, No. 11 ( J a n u a r y 16, 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 31 , (DR 1 8 3 ) . " M u s i c : B a r t o k R e c i t a l . A r t s T h e a t r e C l u b : J a n u a r y 7. B . B . C ; H a l l e C o n c e r t . Queen's: J a n u a r y 10.; The M u s i c a l C o p y r i g h t B i l l . " New Age 46, No. 12 ( J a n u a r y 23, 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 3 7 , (DR 184) . " M u s i c : S c h n a b e l . Q u e e n ' s . ; T h i b a u d . P a l l a d i u m . " New 13 ( J a n u a r y 30, 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 5 1 , (DR 1 8 5 ) .  Age  46,  No.  " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M u s i c a l C o p y r i g h t B i l l . " New 13 ( J a n u a r y 30, 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 5 4 , (DR 1 8 6 ) .  Age  46,  No.  " M u s i c : H a l l e O r c h e s t r a : Q u e e n ' s . J a n u a r y 24.; P r i v a t e O r g a n R e c t i a l : S t . L a w r e n c e J e w r y , J a n u a r y 25." New Age 46, No. 1 26  14  (February  " M u s i c : 'Das L i e d 2 9 t h ) . " New 188).  6,  1930):164,  (DR 1 8 7 ) .  von d e r Erde' ( C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t : Queen's, A g e 4 6 , N o . 15 ( F e b r u a r y 1 3 , 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 7 6 , (DR  " M u s i c : B.B.C. F r i d a y , 3 1 s t . Q u e e n ' s . ; B i r m i n g h a m C i t y O r c h e s t r a , v i a B . B . C . F e b . 1 3 . ; K i r k b y L u n n . " New A g e N o . 17 ( F e b r u a r y 2 2 , 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 0 1 - 2 0 2 , (DR 189-19077  46,  "Music: B r i t i s h Music S o c i e t y . 4c, Langford P l a c e , S t . John's Wood: F e b r u a r y 1 8 . ; R u d o l f S e r k i n . A e o l i a n : F e b r u a r y 2 1 . ; B.B.C. Q u e e n ' s : F e b r u a r y 2 1 . ; G e r h a r d t . 2L.O.: F e b r u a r y 2 4 . " New A g e 4 6 , N o . 18 ( M a r c h 6, 193.0): 2 0 9 , (DR 1 9 1 ) . " M u s i c : B u s o n i a n d M r . P h i l i p L e v i : M a r c h 7.; Newman o n O r i e n t a l M u s i c . " New A g e 4 6 , N o . 20 ( M a r c h 2 0 , 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 3 7 , (DR 1 9 2 ) . "Letters to the Editor: Gerhardt." 1930):251, (DR 1 9 3 ) .  New  Age  "Music: C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t : Queen's, March 22 ( A p r i l 3, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 1 9 4 ) .  4 6 , No.  21  1 8 . " New  Age  (March  27,  4 6 , No.  " M u s i c : [On S o r a b j i ' s r e c e n t v i s i t t o G l a s g o w w h e r e h e p e r f o r m e d h i s F o u r t h P i a n o S o n a t a ] ; P h i l h a r m o n i c : A p r i l 3.; B . B . C . C o n c e r t : A p r i l 4." New A g e 4 6 , N o . 24 ( A p r i l 1 7 , 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 8 4 , (DR 1 9 5 ) . " M u s i c : M a h l e r E i g h t h Symphony: Queen's H a l l , 4 7 , N o . 1 ( M a y 1, 1 9 3 0 ) : 7 , (DR 1 9 6 ) .  April  1 5 . " New  " M u s i c : V i e n n a P h i l h a r m o n i c O r c h e s t r a : A p r i l 2 7 . " New N o . 3 (May 1 5 , l 9 3 0 ) : 3 3 - 3 4 , (DR 197-198).  Age  A g e 47,,  " M u s i c : D r . M e n g e l b e r g a n d t h e C o n c e r t g e b o u w O r c h e s t r a . " New 4 7 , No. 5 (May 2 9 , 1 9 3 0 ) : 5 6 , (DR 1 9 9 ) .  Age  " M u s i c : T h e P h i l h a r m o n i c S y m p h o n y O r c h e s t r a o f New Y o r k . ; C o l o g n e O r c h e s t r a : Q u e e n ' s 6 t h . " New A g e 4 7 , N o . 8 ( J u n e 19, 1 9 3 0 ) : 9 2 - 9 3 , (DR 2 0 0 ) . " M u s i c : P e l l e a s e t M e l i s a n d e ; 'The E x p e r t ' G r a m o p h o n e . " New 4 7 , N o . 11 ( J u l y 1 0 , 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 3 0 - 1 3 1 , (DR 2 0 1 ) . " M u s i c : C o v e n t G a r d e n : ' L ' A m o r e d e i t r e R e * . " New ( J u l y 2 4 , 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 5 1 - 1 5 2 , (DR 2 0 2 - 2 0 3 ) .  Age  Age  4 7 , No., 13 9  " M u s i c : [On t h e p o e t a n d c r i t i c C. M. G r i e v e ' s a r t i c l e o n S c o t t i s h m u s i c ; on t h e F r e n c h a r t i s t a n d e n g r a v e r L u c i e n M a i n s s i e u x whose c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n s i n t h e p e r i o d i c a l " V i e n t de P a r a i t r e " S o r a b j i e x p o u n d s ; on n a t i o n a l i s m i n m u s i c ; o n t h e m u s i c o f E r i k C h i s h o l m ] . " New A g e 4 7 , No,. 20 127  (September  11, 1930):236,  (DR 2 0 4 ) .  " M u s i c : T h e P r o m e n a d e s . " New A g e 4 7 , N o . 23 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 7 4 , (DR 2 0 5 ) .  2,  " M u s i c : The Promenades a n d O t h e r M a t t e r s . Promenade C o n c e r t s . M a h l e r I V . Symphony.; The G o o s s e n s a n d I r e l a n d C o n c e r t o s . O c t o b e r 3." New A g e 4 7 , N o . 25 ( O c t o b e r 1 6 , 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 9 7 , (DR 206) . " M u s i c : [On t h e a b u n d a n c e o f c o m p l i m e n t a r y t i c k e t s a n d t h e l a c k of g o o d p e r f o r m a n c e s i n L o n d o n ] ; L.S.O. Q u e e n ' s . O c t o b e r 2 7 . " New A g e 4 8 , N o . 1 ( N o v e m b e r 6, 1 9 3 0 ) : 8 - 9 , (DR 207-2087. " M u s i c : B r i t i s h Women's S y m p h o n y O r c h e s t r a . ; W i r e l e s s . H i n d e m i t h W o r k s . " New A g e 4 8 , N o . 3 ( N o v e m b e r 2 0 , 1 9 3 0 ) : 3 2 , (DR 209). " M u s i c : P e t r i : Wigmore, November 16.; G a l l i C u r c i : A l b e r t H a l l , N o v e m b e r 1 7 . " New A g e 4 8 , N o . 4 ( N o v e m b e r 2 7 , 1 9 3 0 ) : 4 5 , (DR 2 1 0 ) . " M u s i c : [ O b i t u a r y o n P h i l i p H e s e l t i n e / P e t e r W a r l o c k ] . " New A g e 4 8 , N o . 11 ( J a n u a r y 1 5 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 2 8 - 1 2 9 , (DR 2 1 1 ) . " M u s i c : [On f o r e i g n m u s i c i a n s (January 29, 1931):153,  i n E n g l a n d ] . " New A g e 4 8 , N o . 13 (DR 2 1 2 ) .  " M u s i c : A l e x a n d r a T r i a n i . G r o t r i a n : J a n u a r y 14.; R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c . Queen's, January 15.; C o n c h i t a S u p e r v i a : A l b e r t H a l l , J a n u a r y 1 8 . " New A g e 4 8 , N o . 14 ( F e b r u a r y 5, 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 6 2 , (DR 2 1 4 ) . " M u s i c : H a l l e C o n c e r t : S i b e l i u s V t h Symphony. J a n . 2 3 . ; C l i f f o r d C u r z o n : W i g m o r e . F e b 5." New A g e 4 8 , N o . 16 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 8 8 , (DR 2 1 5 ) . " M u s i c : [ O n S o r a b j i ' s v i s i t t o Rome a n d h i s v i s i t t o t h e o p e r a h o u s e w h e r e h e h e a r d ' D e r R o s e n k a v a l i e r ' ] . " New A g e 4 8 , No. 2 5 ( A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 2 9 4 , (DR 2 1 6 ) . " M u s i c : C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t s : A p r i l 15 a n d 1 7 . M a h l e r S e c o n d S y m p h o n y . " New A g e 4 8 , N o . 2 6 ( A p r i l 3 0 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 3 0 7 , (DR 217). " M u s i c : O p e r a : ' R o s e n k a v a l i e r ' ; W i r e l e s s . [ B . B . C . C o n c e r t ] . " New A g e 4 9 , N o . 4 ( M a y 2 8 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 41 , (DR 2 1 8 ) . " M u s i c : W i r e l e s s a n d O p e r a . ; F l e d e r m a u s . C o v e n t G a r d e n . " New A g e 4 9 , N o . 6 ( J u n e 1 1 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 6 7 - 6 8 , (DR 2 1 9 - 2 2 0 ) . "Music:  Turandot."  New A g e 4 9 , N o . 7 ( J u n e 1 28  1 8 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 7 9 - 8 0 , (DR  221-222). " M u s i c : [On a b r o a d c a s t p r o g r a m m e f e a t u r i n g t h e p i a n o c o n c e r t o f I r e l a n d a n d t h e f i f t h symphony o f S i b e l i u s ] ; The O p e r a ; ' S a d k o ' . " New A g e 4 9 , N o . 9 ( J u l y 2, 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 0 4 , (DR 2 2 3 ) . " M u s i c : [On Newman's r e m a r k s o n t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s o f p r e s e n t - d a y I t a l i a n s i n g e r s ; on a w i r e l e s s b r o a d c a s t o f a p i a n o r e c i t a l b y M i k l o s S c h w a l b ; Emmi L e i s n e r . ; W i r e l e s s . " New A g e 4 9 , N o . 11 ( J u l y 1 6 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 2 8 - 1 2 9 , (DR 2 2 4 ) . " M u s i c : P r o m e n a d e c o n c e r t , S e p t e m b e r 1 5 . " New ( S e p t e m b e r 2 4 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 2 4 5 , (DR 2 2 5 ) .  A g e 4 9 , N o . 21  "Letters to the Editor: Music: A Correction." ( O c t o b e r 1, 1 9 3 1 ) : 2 6 2 , (DR 2 2 6 ) .  New  " M u s i c : T h e P r o m e n a d e s . " New A g e 4 9 , N o . 23 1 9 3 1 ) : 2 7 2 - 2 7 3 , (DR 2 2 7 - 2 2 8 ) .  A g e 4 9 , N o . 22  (October  8,  " M u s i c : P a d e r w s k i : O c t o b e r 6.; J o a n C r o s s , O c t o b e r 7.; M y r a H e s s , O c t o b e r 1 0 . " New A g e 4 9 , N o . 25 ( O c t o b e r 2 2 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 2 9 6 - 2 9 7 , (DR 2 2 9 - 2 3 0 ) . " M u s i c : Egon P e t r i . " 231 ) .  New  Age 5 0 , No.  1 (November  5, 1931 ) : 7 ,  " M u s i c : [On t h e b r o a d c a s t r e c i t a l f e a t u r i n g M a g g i e M i l v a . ; S c h o e n b e r g : F r i d a y N o v e m b e r 1 3 . " New (November 26, 1 9 3 1 ) : 4 0 - 4 1 (DR 2 3 2 ) .  (DR  Teyte]; Helen Age 5 0 , No. 4  r  " M u s i c : [On t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f W i l l i a m W a l t o n ' s B e l s h a z z a r ' s F e a s t ] ; R o y a l C h o r a l S o c i e t y : N o v . 2 8 . " New A g e 5 0 , N o . 6 ( D e c e m b e r 1 0 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 6 6 - 6 7 , (DR 2 3 3 - 2 3 4 ) . " M u s i c : [On Newman's p h i l o s o p h y o n m u s i c c r i t i c i s m ] ; W i r e l e s s . B . B . C . " New A g e 5 0 , N o . 8 ( D e c e m b e r 2 4 , 1 9 3 1 ) : 9 2 , (DR 235) . " M u s i c : [On t h e L o n d o n P r e s s a n d t h e p r o - B r i t i s h m u s i c i a n c a m p a i g n ] ; W i r e l e s s . B.B.C. C o n t e m p o r a r y C o n c e r t s . " A g e 5 0 , N o . 10 ( J a n u a r y 7, 1 9 3 2 ) , (DR 2 3 6 ) .  New  " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g an a r t i c l e i n t h e " M u s i c a l T i m e s " on t h e B.B.C. a n d t h e p r o m o t i o n o f d a n c e m u s i c by t h e B . B . C . ] . " New A g e 5 0 , N o . 1 ( J a n u a r y 1 4 , 1 9 3 2 ) : 1 3 0 , (DR 2 3 7 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e a r t i c l e i n t h e " R a d i o Times" on B u s o n i ] ; W i r e l e s s . B . B . C . " New A g e 5 0 , N o . 13 ( J a n u a r y 2 8 , 1 9 3 2 ) : 1 5 3 - 1 5 4 , (DR 2 3 8 - 2 3 9 ) . "Music: Bruckner: S t . Alban's, Holborn, J a n . 21st.; W i r e l e s s . " New A g e 5 0 , N o . 14 ( F e b r u a r y 4, 1 9 3 2 ) : 1 6 4 - 1 6 5 , (DR 129  240-241). " M u s i c : C e c i l G r a y o n S i b e l i u s . " New A g e 18, 1 9 3 2 ) : 1 8 7 - 1 8 8 , (DR 242-243).  50,  No.  16  (February  " M u s i c : [On Emmy H e i n ' s l i e d e r s i n g i n g ] B . B . C . S y m p h o n y C o n c e r t s . " New A g e 5 0 , No. 18 ( M a r c h 3, 1 9 3 2 ) : 2 1 4 , 224) .  (DR  " M u s i c : [On t h e l a s t R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c S o c i e t y c o n c e r t o f t h e s e a s o n a n d t h e w o r k s o f M a u r i c e R a v e l ] ; B.B.C. C o n c e r t s . S u n d a y , F e b r u a r y 2 8 . " New A g e 5 0 , N o . 20 ( M a r c h 17, 1 9 3 2 ) : 2 3 6 - 2 3 7 , (DR  24577"  " M u s i c : [On t h e s i n g e r F l o r e n c e - E a s t o n ] ; R a c h m a n i n o f f ; P h i l h a r m o n i c S o c i e t y . " New A g e 5 0 , No. 21 ( M a r c h 1 9 3 2 ) : 2 5 0 , (DR 2 4 6 ) .  24,  " M u s i c : [On t h e l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c e r t s d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t s e a s o n ; on t h e B.B.C. p r o g r a m m e s c o m p a r e d t o b r o a d c a s t i n g p r o g r a m m e s i n A m e r i c a ; on t h e r e c i t a l o f s i n g e r M a r i a B a s i l i d e o ; on t h e u p c o m i n g o p e r a s e a s o n a t C o v e n t G a r d e n ] . " New A g e 5 0 , No. 24 ( A p r i l 14, 1 9 3 2 ) : 2 8 4 , (DR 247) . " M u s i c : B . B . C , The B M i n o r 1 9 3 2 ) : 2 9 7 , (DR 2 4 8 ) . " M u s i c : The C i t y D'Alvarez. ( A p r i l 28,  M a s s . " New  Age  50,  No.  25  (April  S t r i n g P l a y e r s . Conway H a l l , A p r i l 1 4 t h . ; P a l l a d i u m , A p r i l 1 7 t h . " New A g e 5 0 , N o . 26 1 9 3 2 ) : 3 0 9 , (DR 2 4 9 ) .  " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : 'The ( A p r i l 28, 1 932)s 311,  Miracle'." (DR 2 5 0 ) .  New  Age  50,  No.  " M u s i c : 'The M a s s o f L i f e . ' ; T r i s t a n ( B r o a d c a s t ) . " New No. 4 (May 2 6 , l 9 3 2 ) : 4 5 - 4 6 , (DR 251-252).  26 Age  51,  " M u s i c : [On c o n t e m p o r a r y s i n g i n g c o m p a r e d t o t h e c e l e b r i t y s i n g e r s on a n o u t - o f - p r i n t g r a m o p h o n e r e c o r d i n g ] . " New 5 1 , N o . 8 ( J u n e 2 3 , l 9 3 2 ) : 9 2 - 9 3 , (DR 2 5 3 ) . " M u s i c : D r . S c h w i e t z e r . " New (DR 2 5 4 ) .  51,  No.  9  " M u s i c : N o t e s on t h e c o m i n g s e a s o n . " 1 7 , 1 9 3 2 ) : 3 3 , (DR 2 5 6 ) .  New  Age  " M u s i c : [On S o r a b j i ' s New A g e 5 2 , No. "Music:  21,  Age  (June 52,  Age  30,  1932)s105,  No.  3  (November  t h i r s t f o r good music w h i l e i n I n d i a ] . " 8 (December 22, 1932):92, (DR 2 5 7 ) .  R e f l e c t i o n s upon I n d i a n m u s i c . " 9, 1933):223-224).  130  New  Age  52,  No.  19  (March  " M u s i c : M r . M u r r i l l on S t r a v i n s k y . ; M a g g i e T e y t e . B.B.C. R e c i t a l . F e b r u a r y 2 6 . " New A g e 5 2 , N o . 20 ( M a r c h 1 6 , 1 9 3 3 ) : 2 3 8 - 2 3 9 , (DR 2 6 0 ) . " M u s i c : L a e l i a F i n n e b e r g . W i g m o r e , M a r c h 2 9 . " New A g e 5 2 , N o . 24 ( A p r i l 13, 1933):288-289, ( D R 2 6 1 ) . " M u s i c : [On r a d i o b r o a d c a s t p r o g r a m m e s f e a t u r i n g P a r c i f a l ; o n t h e m u s i c o f F l o r e n t S c h m i t t ] . " New A g e 5 2 , N o . 26 ( A p r i l 2 7 , 1 9 3 3 ) : 3 3 1 0 , (DR 2 6 2 ) . " M u s i c : W i r e l e s s . ; B.B.C.,•Sunday, A p r i l 23, M a h l e r I V . Symphony.; M o l l i e B r y n e : Wigmore H a l l , A p r i l 24.; R a c h m a n i n o f f : Q u e e n ' s , A p r i l 2 8 . " New A g e 5 3 , N o . 2 (May 1 1 , 1 9 3 3 ) : 1 9 - 2 0 , (DR 2 6 3 - 2 6 4 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e e d i t o r i a l c o r r e c t i o n s i n t h e O x f o r d e d i t i o n o f the works of Chopin; W i r e l e s s . F l o r e n t S c h m i t t ' s Saxaphone c o n c e r t o ( M a y 1 3 ) . ; C o v e n t G a r d e n . 'Das R h e i n g o l d ' - ' D i e W a l k u r i e ' . " New A g e 5 3 , N o . 5 ( J u n e 1, 1 9 3 3 ) : 5 3 , (DR 2 6 5 ) . "The  M u s i c L i b r a r y [book r e v i e w on G e r a l d Abraham's T h i s Modern S t u f f 3." New A g e 5 3 , N o . 9 ( J u n e 2 9 , 1 9 3 3 ) : 1 0 2 7 ~ T D R 26677  " M u s i c : T i l l y C o n n e l l y a n d J o h n T o b i n . A e o l i a n , F e b r u a r y 2.; L . P . O . , Q u e e n ' s . , F e b r u a r y 4.; B . B . C . S y m p h o n y C o n c e r t , F e b r u a r y 8." New A g e 5 4 , N o . 17 ( F e b r u a r y 2 2 , 1934) :200-20l"TTDR 267-268). " M u s i c : [On t h e B.B.C. C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c c o n c e r t ; on B r i t t e n ' s c h o r a l v a r i a t i o n s ; o n t h e new p i a n o s o n a t a o f C y r i l S c o t t ; o n some new H. M. V. r e c o r d s ; o n some r e c o r d s r e l e a s e d b y C o l u m b i a ] . " New A g e 5 4 , N o . 20 ( M a r c h 1 5 , 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 3 4 , (DR 269) . " M u s i c : [ O h t h e t r i u m p h o f a g e - - t w o e x a m p l e s o f w h i c h a r e Dame E t h e l Smyth a n d T e t r a z z i n i ; on t h e 7 5 t h b i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s o f Dame E t h e l S m y t h ; o n T e t r a z z i n i ' s r e c i t a l ] . " New A g e 5 4 , N o . 23 ( A p r i l 5, 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 7 2 - 2 7 3 , (DR 2 7 0 ) . " M u s i c : G. T h a l b e n B a l l . O r g a n R e c i t a l . R. A. H a l l . M a r c h 2 5 ; The C i t y S t r i n g P l a y e r s . (Conway H a l l , M a r c h 22)." New A g e 5 4 , N o . 2 5 ( A p r i l 1 9 , 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 9 8 , (DR 2 7 1 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e c o r d r e v i e w s o f t h e l a t e s t r e l e a s e s f r o m H. M. V, P a r l o p h o n e a n d D e c c a ] . " New A g e 5 4 , N o . 26 ( A p r i l 2 6 , 1 9 3 4 ) : 3 0 8 - 3 0 9 , (DR 272-2737. " M u s i c : [On S z y m a n o v s k y ' s S y m p h o n i e c o n c e r t a n t e ] ; M a g g i e T e y t e B r o a d c a s t R e c i t a l , A p r i l 19.; S a d l e r W e l l s . 'Barber of S e v i l l e ' A p r i l 17."New A g e 5 5 , N o . 2 ( M a y 1 0 , 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 1 , (DR 2 7 4 ) . "Music:  [Record  reviews  o n new r e l e a s e s i n M a y 131  ' 3 4 ] . " New  Age  55,  No. 4 (May 2 4 , 1 9 3 4 ) : 4 6 ,  (DR 2 7 5 ) .  " M u s i c : [ R e c o r d r e v i e w s o n some P a r l o p h o n e r e c o r d s ] . " 55, No. 5 (May 3 1 , 1 9 3 4 ) : 5 9 , (DR 2 7 6 ) .  New  Age  " M u s i c : [On a w i r e l e s s a n d a e r i a l r e c i e n t l y s u b m i t t e d t o S o r a b j i f o r t e s t i n g by M e s s r s . The C e n t r a l E q u i p m e n t Co., L t d . ; on Sachverall S i t w e l l ' s new b o o k o n L i s z t ] . " New A g e 5 5 , N o . 6 ( J u n e 7, 1 9 3 4 ) : 6 7 , (DR 2 7 7 ) . " M u s i c : T h e F i n n i s h N a t i o n a l O r c h e s t r a . " New 2 1 , 1 9 3 4 ) : 9 4 , (DR 2 7 8 ) . "Music: Record Reviews." (DR 2 7 9 ) .  New  Age 5 5 , No.  11  Age 5 5 , No. 8 (July  12, 1 9 3 4 ) : 1 3 0 ,  " M u s i c : [On r e c o r d s s u b m i t t e d t o S o r a b j i b y M e s s r s . The G r a m o p h o n e C o m p a n y L t d . ( H . M. V . ) ] . " New A g e 5 5 , N o . ( J u l y 1 9 , 1 9 3 4 ) : 1 4 1 - 1 4 2 , (DR 2 8 0 - 2 8 1 ) . " M u s i c : Gramophone R e c o r d s . " 1 9 3 4 ) : 1 5 3 , (DR 2 8 2 ) .  New  132  Age 5 5 , No.  (June  13 ( J u l y  26,  12  

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