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Kaikhosru Sorabji’s critical writings on British music in The New Age (1924-1934) 1985

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KAIKHOSRU SORABJI'S C R I T I C A L WRITINGS ON B R I T I S H MUSIC IN THE NEW AGE ( 1 9 2 4 - 1 9 3 4 ) BY NAZLIN BHIMANI B.Mus., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1981 M.L.S., The U n i v e r s i t y o f W e s t e r n O n t a r i o , 1984 A THESIS IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f M u s i c ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA May 1985 © b y N a z l i n B h i m a n i , 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date MFW 5 0 * ^ 8 6 " DE-6 (.3/81) ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s examines the music c r i t i c i s m of K a i k h o s r u S h a p u r j i S o r a b j i (1892- ), a w e l l known composer and music c r i t i c a c t i v e i n England from the e a r l y 1920s t o the l a t e 1940s. A l t h o u g h many a u t h o r s have r e f e r r e d t o S o r a b j i ' s music and c r i t i c i s m , n e i t h e r has been t r e a t e d i n a s u b s t a n t i v e manner. The p r e s e n t study f o c u s e s on S o r a b j i ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o The New Age, a weekly j o u r n a l , and p a r t i c u l a r l y on h i s a r t i c l e s t h e r e i n d e a l i n g w i t h contemporary B r i t i s h composers. I t i s of i n t e r e s t t h a t S o r a b j i ' s c r i t i c i s m d e a l s w i t h a v i b r a n t p e r i o d of music h i s t o r y , known as the E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e . An e x a m i n a t i o n of S o r a b j i ' s w r i t i n g s , p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e s and p r i v a t e correspondence r e v e a l s him t o be a h i g h l y complex p e r s o n a l i t y . H i s m a r g i n a l p o s i t i o n i n E n g l i s h s o c i e t y , based p a r t l y on h i s r a c i a l background and h i s n e g a t i v e v iews of the B r i t i s h , l e d him t o view the m u s i c a l scene from a p e r s p e c t i v e d i f f e r i n g from t h a t of o t h e r c r i t i c s . Not f u l l y a d m i t t e d i n t o the i n n e r c i r c l e s of the m u s i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t , S o r a b j i surrounded h i m s e l f w i t h a s m a l l , e l i t e group of f r i e n d s and a d m i r e r s , which i n c l u d e d w e l l known composers and l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s such as B e r n a r d van D i e r e n , P e t e r Warlock, W i l l i a m Walton, John I r e l a n d , S a c h e v e r a l l S i t w e l l , Hugh McDiarmid and C e c i l Gray. I t i s w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h a t S o r a b j i r e d e f i n e d the r o l e of the music c r i t i c and c r i t i c i s m t o s u i t h i s p e r s o n a l v a l u e s and s t y l e which were much i n f l u e n c e d by h i s involvement i n the m y s t i c a l t r a d i t i o n of T a n t r i c Hinduism. _ i i A d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f S o r a b j i ' s w r i t i n g s on t h e B r i t i s h c o m p o s e r s D e l i u s , E l g a r , Bax, Vaughan W i l l i a m s , H o i s t , I r e l a n d , v a n D i e r e n , W a l t o n , L a m b e r t , Smyth, B e r n e r s , B u s h , W a r l o c k , H o w e l l s , B l i s s , B o u g h t o n , S c o t t , G o o s s e n s a n d B r i t t e n r e v e a l s t h a t t h e c r i t i c ' s m u s i c a l a f f i n i t i e s were c o n s e r v a t i v e t h r o u g h o u t h i s c a r e e r a s m u s i c c r i t i c f o r The New Age. An a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e w r i t i n g s shows a c l e a r - c u t p a t t e r n o f l i k e s a n d d i s l i k e s . S o r a b j i p r a i s e d h i g h l y t h e m u s i c a l s t y l e s t h a t a p p e a l e d t o h i m a n d w r o t e i n a h a r s h and n e g a t i v e manner a b o u t m u s i c t h a t he f o u n d d i s t a s t e f u l . W h i l e t h i s e m o t i o n a l i s m t a i n t e d many o f h i s r e v i e w s , i t a l s o e n c o u r a g e d t h e s u p p o r t o f t h o s e who s h a r e d h i s o p i n i o n s . N o n e t h e l e s s , S o r a b j i ' s use o f h a r s h a n d b l u n t l a n g u a g e o f t e n t u r n e d t h e t i d e o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n a g a i n s t h i m . Y e t , i t i s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e , w h i c h c a n s o m e t i m e s be humourous a n d r a c y and o t h e r t i m e s h a r s h t o t h e p o i n t o f c r u e l t y , t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s S o r a b j i w r i t i n g s f r o m t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f m u s i c c r i t i c i s m . An a p p e n d i x l i s t s S o r a b j i ' s w r i t i n g s i n The New Age d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1915 t o 1934. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i Chapter I . INTRODUCTION 1 I I . SORABJI, THE CRITIC FOR THE NEW AGE 4 The New Age 9 S o r a b j i ' s Career as music c r i t i c f o r The New Age 12 I I I . SORABJI'S WRITINGS IN THE NEW AGE 19 S o r a b j i ' s g e n e r a l m u s i c a l a f f i n i t i e s 23 S o r a b j i ' s w r i t i n g s on contemporary B r i t i s h composers .31 F r e d e r i c k D e l i u s 34 S i r Edward E l g a r 45 S i r A r n o l d Bax 51 Gustav H o i s t 58 Ral p h Vaughan W i l l i a m s 64 S i r John I r e l a n d 69 Other B r i t i s h Composers 74 Be r n a r d van D i e r e n 75 S i r W i l l i a m Walton 77 Cons t a n t Lambert 79 Dame E t h e l Smyth 80 L o r d B e r n e r s 81 A l a n Bush . 8 2 P e t e r Warlock 83 H e r b e r t H o w e l l s 85 A r t h u r B l i s s 87 R u t l a n d Boughton 87 C y r i l S c o t t 89 Eugene Goossens 90 Benjamin B r i t t e n 92 i v . I V . CONCLUSION 93 SOURCES CONSULTED 103 APPENDIX 114 v LIST OF TABLES 1. Total Number of Contributions (Musical and Others) Made per Year by Sorabji in The New Age from March 20, 1924 to July 26, 1934 17 2. Writings by Sorabji on Contemporary B r i t i s h Composers in The New Age (1924-1934). 32 vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge the f i n a n c i a l support f o r t h i s t h e s i s p r o v i d e d by the Aga Khan Foundation (Canada), the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Summer Research F e l l o w s h i p and my pare n t s . The completion of t h i s t h e s i s was made p o s s i b l e by the a s s i s t a n c e of many i n d i v i d u a l s . Foremost among these i s my husband who l i v e d through every problem p a t i e n t l y p r o v i d i n g continous support and encouragement. I t i s with t h i s i n mind that I d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s to you, Alnoor. I wish to express my deep a p p r e c i a t i o n to P r o f e s s o r J . Evan K r e i d e r f o r h i s expert and i n s i g h t f u l c o u n s e l l i n g , advice and encouragement i n the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . My thanks a l s o to Pr o f e s s o r H. R. Cohen f o r h i s guidance d u r i n g the formative stages of t h i s study. I am a l s o p a r t i c u l a r l y indebted to Mr. Kenneth Derus f o r p r o v i d i n g me with much of the m a t e r i a l s used i n t h i s study as w e l l as f o r h i s unceasing i n t e r e s t i n my work, and P r o f e s s o r Paul Rapoport f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n s u p p l y i n g some o u t - o f - p r i n t p u b l i c a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , I acknowledge with g r a t i t u d e the warm support, encouragement and pray e r s from my parents, my s i s t e r Yasmin, my bro t h e r - i n - l a w Iqubal, and my dear f r i e n d E l i z a b e t h Lamberton. v i i I . INTRODUCTION Many peopl e have mentioned the w r i t i n g s of K a i k h o s r u S h a p u r j i S o r a b j i (1892- ), but few have examined or read them i n t h e i r t o t a l i t y . 1 T h i s i s p r i m a r i l y due t o the f a c t t h a t these w r i t i n g s a r e s c a t t e r e d i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s e r i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s and books, many of which a r e o u t - o f - p r i n t and/or i n a c c e s s i b l e . 2 S o r a b j i ' s music c r i t i c i s m has been c i t e d i n v a r i o u s j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s and l e t t e r s . However, an e x t e n s i v e study of S o r a b j i as music c r i t i c has not y e t been made. The p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , examines S o r a b j i ' s c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s which appeared i n E ngland d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t of t h i s c e n t u r y . The l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h S o r a b j i ' s j o u r n a l i s t i c output i s m i n i s c u l e , c o m p r i s i n g of a two-page a r t i c l e by A r n o l d W h i t t a l i n the 1960s, 3 a pa r a g r a p h by P a u l Rapoport i n h i s book Opus E s t , 4 as w e l l as sta t e m e n t s i n the l e a d i n g music e n c y c l o p e d i a s and d i c t i o n a r i e s . 1From the " P r e f a c e " by P a u l Rapoport i n : K a i k h o s r u S h a p u r j i S o r a b j i : C o l l e c t e d W r i t i n g s From F i v e S e r i a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , ( U n p u b l i s h e d , 1977). 2 A p a r t from the m i c r o f i l m e d c o l l e c t i o n of w r i t i n g s c o m p i l e d by Kenneth. Derus and P a u l Rapoport, and S o r a b j i ' s two books Around Music (1932) and Mi^ c o n t r a f a (1947), most of the w r i t i n g s a r e i n the p o s s e s s i o n of h i s c l o s e a c q u a i n t a n c e s , museums, and p r i v a t e and p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s . 3A. W h i t t a l l , " S o r a b j i a n a , " M u s i c a l Times 107 (March 1966):2 16-217. 4 P . Rapoport, Opus E s t : S i x Composers from N o r t h e r n Europe, (New York: T a p l i n g a P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1979), pp. 162-163. 1 T h i s t h e s i s w i l l i n t r o d u c e the c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s of S o r a b j i on contemporary B r i t i s h composers p u b l i s h e d i n the newspaper The New Age: a weekly review of p o l i t i c s , 1 i t e r a t u r e and a r t d u r i n g the p e r i o d March 20th 1924 t o J u l y 26th 1934. The New Age c o n t a i n s S o r a b j i ' s f i r s t c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s , w hich, f o r t u i t o u s l y , came a t a time when England was r e d i s c o v e r i n g i t s m u s i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y by b r e a k i n g away from c o n t i n e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s and r e c o g n i s i n g the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of i t s own composers. 5 S o r a b j i was a p a r t of t h i s t r a d i t i o n , h a v i n g been born and educated i n E n g l a n d . 6 He w i t n e s s e d not o n l y t h e changes t h a t took p l a c e d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t of t h i s c e n t u r y , but a l s o the r e s u l t s of t h e s e changes. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t h i s views on B r i t i s h music be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s l i g h t , f o r o n l y then w i l l 5 T h i s phase i n the h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h music has been c a l l e d t h e E n g l i s h M u s i c a l R e n a i s s a n c e . 6 I n s p i t e of t h i s , S o r a b j i r e f u s e d t o be c a l l e d " B r i t i s h " or have a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h the E n g l i s h : "I w i l l not be c a l l e d a " B r i t i s h " composer. Hear t mind body and s o u l I am I n d i a n , and would w i s h n o t h i n g e l s e , though d u l y g r a t e f u l f o r the soupcon of S p a n i s h . . . ." ( L e t t e r t o P h i l i p H e s e l t i n e d a t e d F e b r u a r y 11, 1916. [ c o p i e s of the " H e s e l t i n e L e t t e r s " were k i n d l y s u p p l i e d t o the p r e s e n t w r i t e r by Mr. Kenneth D e r u s ] . "You w i l l be d o u b t l e s s vexed w i t h me t o l e a r n t h a t under no c i r c u m s t a n c e s w i l l I a l l o w i t [ t h e Second P i a n o C o n c e r t o ] t o be p u b l i s h e d i n E n g l a n d . N o t h i n g can or w i l l shake my c o n v i c t i o n t h a t i t [an E n g l i s h r e p u t a t i o n ] i s h o p e l e s s . B e s i d e s , any s o r t of E n g l i s h r e p u t a t i o n has no a t t r a c t i o n s whatever f o r me except w i t h such s e l e c t s o u l s as your own dear s e l f , and such as you a r e i n a p r o p o r t i o n of perhaps 1/100,000." ( L e t t e r t o H e s e l t i n e d a t e d F e b r u a r y 23, 1916). 2 h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s s e r v e t o e n r i c h o u r k n o w l e d g e o f B r i t i s h m u s i c h i s t o r y a n d B r i t i s h m u s i c c r i t i c i s m . T h r o u g h t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s s t u d y , we s h a l l s e e how S o r a b j i p e r c e i v e d t h e m u s i c o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s a n d i n what ways c h a n g e s i n t h e E n g l i s h m u s i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n f l u e n c e d h i s j u d g e m e n t . The s t u d y w i l l a l s o e x a m i n e S o r a b j i ' s c a r e e r a s m u s i c c r i t i c f o r The New Age, and h i s a e s t h e t i c s a s t h e y r e l a t e t o m u s i c a n d m u s i c c r i t i c i s m . 3 I I . SORABJI, THE CRITIC FOR THE NEW AGE K a i k h o s r u S h a p u r j i S o r a b j i , the composer and c r i t i c , was born on August 14, 1892 i n C h i n g f o r d i n the county of E s sex, E n g l a n d . H i s f a t h e r was a r i c h i n d u s t r i a l i s t of P e r s i a n and I n d i a n o r i g i n , h i s mother, an opera s i n g e r of S p a n i s h - S i c i l i a n d e s c e n t . S o r a b j i grew up i n England and s t i l l l i v e s i n the s o u t h e r n p a r t of the c o u n t r y i n Wareham. S o r a b j i was well-known as a c r i t i c i n England from the e a r l y 1920s t o the l a t e 1940s. H i s j o u r n a l i s t i c o u t p u t spans a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s from 1920 t o 1965, d u r i n g which time he was a f r e q u e n t c o n t r i b u t o r t o s e v e r a l of the l e a d i n g weekly papers and B r i t i s h music j o u r n a l s i n c l u d i n g Sackbut (1920-1921), The New E n g l i s h Weekly (1932-1945), M u s i c a l Times (1916-1965), C h e s t e r i a n (1919), Music Review, and M u s i c a l O p i n i o n . Some of t h e s e w r i t i n g s have been r e p u b l i s h e d by S o r a b j i i n two books, Around Music ( 1932) 1 and Mi^ c o n t r a f a : the i m m o r a l i s i n g s of a M a c h i a v e l l i a n M u s i c i a n (1947). In a d d i t i o n t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 644 c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o j o u r n a l s 2 and the two books of c o l l e c t e d w r i t i n g s d e a l i n g w i t h 1 R e p r i n t e d : ( W e s t p o r t , Conn.: H y p e r i o n P r e s s I n c . , 1979). 2 A c c o r d i n g t o the l i s t of c o n t e n t s c o m p i l e d by Derus and Rapoport i n the m i c r o f i l m e d package of c o l l e c t e d w r i t i n g s , the t o t a l s of these c o n t r i b u t i o n s number 644. (See: K a i k h o s r u S h a p u r j i S o r a b j i : C o l l e c t e d W r i t i n g s From F i v e S e r i a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , ( U n p u b l i s h e d , 1977) , pp. i i - x T x T . T h i s package can be o b t a i n e d by w r i t i n g t o Mr. Kenneth Derus, 827 S. Dryden P l a c e , A r l i n g t o n H e i g h t s , I l l i n o i s 6005, U.S.A. 4 m u s i c a l m a t t e r s , S o r a b j i i s a l s o t h e a u t h o r o f numerous l e t t e r s t o some o f t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l B r i t i s h m u s i c a l a n d l i t e r a r y p e r s o n a g e s d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y i n c l u d i n g t h e h i s t o r i a n - c o m p o s e r P h i l i p H e s e l t i n e ( P e t e r W a r l o c k ) , Hugh M a c D i a r m i d ( C . M. G r i e v e , t h e famous S c o t t i s h p o e t a n d l i t e r a r y c r i t i c ) a n d c o m p o s e r s s u c h a s B e r n a r d v a n D i e r e n , F e r r o c c i o B u s o n i , E r i k C h i s h o l m a n d J o h n I r e l a n d , e a c h o f whom h a d immense r e s p e c t f o r S o r a b j i ' s c r i t i c a l j u d g e m e n t . S o r a b j i ' s i m p o r t a n c e a s a c r i t i c was n o t e d a s e a r l y a s 1932 when A l f r e d R i c h a r d O r a g e ( 1 8 7 3 - 1 9 3 4 ) , 3 t h e i n f l u e n t i a l f o u n d e r a n d e d i t o r o f t h e two s o c i a l i s t - o r i e n t e d w e e k l y n e w s p a p e r s f o r w h i c h S o r a b j i w r o t e , The New Age a n d The New E n g l i s h W e e k l y , h i g h l y recommended S o r a b j i a s a f i r s t - r a t e c r i t i c who c o u l d c o m m u n i c a t e h i s e n t h u s i a m w i t h v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e m u s i c . I n r e f e r e n c e t o S o r a b j i ' s m u s i c c r i t i c i s m i n The New Age, Or a g e w r o t e : As I c o n t i n u e d t o r e a d Mr. S o r a b j i ' s a r t i c l e s . . . I became g r a d u a l l y a ware o f an i n c r e a s i n g a u t h o r i t y i n h i s o p i n i o n s , o f an i n c r e a s i n g r e s p e c t f o r and s u b m i s s i o n t o h i s j u d g e m e n t s . . . a n d I do n o t remember t h a t he h a s e v e r f a i l e d me.fl 3 A l f r e d R i c h a r d O r a g e was r e g a r d e d a s a f o r c e f u l a n d p e r s u a s i v e w r i t e r who was q u i c k t o d e t e c t a n d e n c o u r a g e t a l e n t i n o t h e r s . He was a l s o an " u n c o n v e n t i o n a l t h i n k e r who e x e r c i s e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e l i t e r a r y i n f l u e n c e a n d d i s p l a y e d h i g h e d i t o r i a l v i r t u e s i n t h e s e l e c t i o n , p r e s e n t a t i o n , a n d i n t e g r a t i o n o f l i t e r a r y t e a m s " . (The D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l B i o g r a p h y , 1931-1940, s . v . "A. R. O r a g e , " by H. B. G r i m s d i t c h ) . "A. R. O r a g e i n t h e " F o r w a r d " t o S o r a b j i ' s A r o u n d M u s i c ( 1 9 3 2 ) , pp. x - x i . I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r S o r a b j i ' s c a r e e r a s m u s i c c r i t i c w o u l d have l a u n c h e d i n t o a s s u c c e s s f u l a r o u t e a s i t d i d i f s u c h an i m p o r t a n t p e r s o n a s O r a g e h ad n o t s u p p o r t e d h i m . 5 In 1933, C l i n t o n G r a y - F i s k (d. 1961), the c h i e f c r i t i c of M u s i c a l O p i n i o n f o r over s i x t e e n y e a r s , a c c l a i m e d S o r a b j i as one of the l e a d i n g music c r i t i c s i n En g l a n d , s u r p a s s i n g even the famous George B e r n a r d Shaw and E r n e s t Newman. One can o n l y t h i n k of two w r i t e r s on music, who f o r f o r c e of e x p r e s s i o n , e r u d i t i o n , and b r e a t h of sympathy, approach S o r a b j i t o w i t , E r n e s t Newman and B e r n a r d Shaw, and of thes e Shaw cannot speak w i t h the h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l a u t h o r i t y of S o r a b j i , w h i l e Newman, a t any r a t e i n h i s j o u r n a l i s t i c work i s c o m p e l l e d t o moderate h i m s e l f t o the r e q u i r e m e n t s of the laws of l i b e l . 5 The composer B e r n a r d van D i e r e n (1884-1936) was a l s o h i g h l y impressed w i t h S o r a b j i ' s c r i t i c a l judgement. In the mid-1940s, he wrote a l e t t e r t o S o r a b j i i n which he s p e c i f i c a l l y e x p r e s s e d a d m i r a t i o n f o r S o r a b j i ' s c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s : I am v e r y f l a t t e r e d t o read your h i g h o p i n i o n of my work i n g e n e r a l and your v e r y p e n e t r a t i n g and c l e a r o b s e r v a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the performance of the p i e c e s p r e s e n t e d on t h i s o c c a s i o n . W i t , b r e v i t y , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and f o r c e f u l p r o s e a r e such r a r e t h i n g s everyone of them t h a t i t i s a memorable e x p e r i e n c e t o f i n d them c o n t a i n e d i n one s i n g l e c r i t i c i s m . . . . . . . I am more than a n x i o u s t o t e l l how v e r y much I v a l u e your c r i t i c i s m and what v e r y h i g h o p i n i o n s I have of your l i t e r a r y powers not t o mention your m u s i c i a n s h i p and e r u d i t i o n . 6 Some twenty y e a r s l a t e r , Hugh McDiarmid wrote w i t h the h i g h e s t p r a i s e about S o r a b j i ' s music c r i t i c i s m i n h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h y , The Company I've Kept: Where e l s e i n any book p u b l i s h e d i n B r i t a i n , or i n any B r i t i s h ' p e r i o d i c a l , i n the l a s t h a l f - c e n t u r y w i l l you f i n d m u s i c a l c r i t i c i s m of t h i s q u a l i t y ? S o r a b j i ' s 5C. G r a y - F i s k i n a rev i e w of S o r a b j i ' s Around M u s i c , (New Age 52 [ F e b r u a r y 16, 1 9 3 3 ] s 1 8 9 ) . 6 E x t r a c t from a l e t t e r t o S o r a b j i r e p r i n t e d i n Mi_ c o n t r a f a , pp. 154-156. 6 m u s i c a l c r i t i c i s m . . . has an unmatched a u t h o r i t y , d e r i v e d from the f a c t t h a t the w r i t e r u nderstands the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s from i n s i d e , and has h i m s e l f made g r e a t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the a r t s or the a r t s he w r i t e s about and i s one a t the l e v e l w i t h the g r e a t e s t of those he c r i t i c i z e s . 7 S o r a b j i ' s importance as a c r i t i c was a l s o noted by v a r i o u s s c h o l a r s who d e s c r i b e d him as a " m o d e r n i s t " , t h a t i s , a c r i t i c who p r o p a g a t e d not o n l y contemporary B r i t i s h music, but one who a l s o i n t r o d u c e d s e v e r a l unknown composers t o the E n g l i s h a u d i e n c e s . 8 For example, S o r a b j i was the f i r s t i n England t o w r i t e i n p r a i s e of such composers as A l k a n , M a h l e r , Medner, B u s o n i , and Szmanovsky (whose music was r a r e l y h eard i n England d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t of t h i s c e n t u r y ) . S o r a b j i has been d e s c r i b e d by v a r i o u s a u t h o r s as b e i n g the most d i r e c t , s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , j u s t , h o n e s t , and r e l i a b l e of music c r i t i c s . He has been c i t e d as a c r i t i c who would n o t , under any c i r c u m s t a n c e s , "put up w i t h nonsense"; 9 a c r i t i c " i n c a p a b l e of b e i n g a f f e c t e d i n the sense of b e i n g d e f l e c t e d from h i s tremendous and u n r e m i t t i n g o u t p u t by s o - c a l l e d ' c r i t i c s ' or p r o p h e t s of woe who p o i n t t o the overwhelming t r e n d 7 M c D i a r m i d devoted an e n t i r e c h a p t e r i n h i s book t o d i s c u s s i n g S o r a b j i the composer and the c r i t i c . T h i s essay was a F e s t s c h r i f t i n honour of S o r a b j i ' s b i r t h d a y . I t was w r i t t e n i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the composer Ronald Stevenson and the p i a n i s t John Ogden. (H. McDiarmid, The Company I've Kept, [London: H u t c h i n g s o n of London, 1966], pp. 66-67TI 8The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Music and M u s i c i a n s , s.v. " S o r a b j i , K a i k h o s r u , " by Donald Garvelmann. 9 S a c h e v e r a l l S i t w e l l , " K a i k h o s r u S o r a b j i " i n the programme notes t o Yonty Solomon's c o n c e r t a t the Wigmore H a l l , London, December 7, 1976, p. 7. 7 o f t h e t i m e s , t h a t i s what t h e ' e m a n c i p a t e d m a s s e s ' w a n t " ; 1 0 and "a c r i t i c w i t h t h e a b i l i t y t o c u t down t h e p r e t e n t i o u s nobody t o s i z e . " 1 1 T h u s , i n S o r a b j i we h a v e "a phenomenon d i f f e r e n t n o t o n l y i n d e g r e e b u t i n k i n d f r o m e v e r y o t h e r w r i t e r on m u s i c a l m a t t e r s i n B r i t a i n t o d a y . " 1 2 S u c h comments i n d i c a t e t h a t S o r a b j i was r e g a r d e d a s an i n f l u e n t i a l a n d i m p o r t a n t m u s i c c r i t i c , a t l e a s t among h i s c o l l e g u e s a nd c l o s e a c q u a i n t a n c e s . However, n o t a l l o f S o r a b j i ' s r e a d e r s p r a i s e d h i s m u s i c c r i t i c i s m . C o n s i d e r f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r t o t h e e d i t o r o f The New Age: S i r , — T h e l a n g u a g e o f f i s h - p o r t e r s a p p l i e d t o m u s i c a l c r i t i c i s m w o u l d be more t o l e r a b l e i f Mr. S o r a b j i ' s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e c s t a t i c s a n d a b u s e were d i s c r i m i n a t e . . . . I s u g g e s t t h a t Mr. S o r a b j i ' s p e r s o n a l i d i o s y n c r a s i e s , m a s q u e r a d i n g a s c r i t i c i s m , a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e r e s t i n g t o c a r r y t h e w e i g h t o f t h e r i o t o f w o r d s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e s e t d o w n . 1 3 I n a s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d by t h e n e w s p a p e r i n November 1925, o n l y a y e a r a f t e r S o r a b j i began w r i t i n g f o r t h e w e e k l y , n e g a t i v e comments were p u b l i s h e d : " I t h i n k t h e c i r c u l a t i o n m i g h t i n c r e a s e among p e o p l e who m a t t e r i f , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e v i o l e n t o p i n i o n s o f S o r a b j i were o m i t t e d . . . . " 1 4 1°Hugh M c D i a r m i d , The Company I ' v e K e p t , p. 5 1 . 1 1 N o r m a n P e t e r k i n , "A N o t e on K a i k h o s r u S o r a b j i , " Programme n o t e s t o S o l o m o n ' s 1976 Wigmore H a l l p e r f o r m a n c e , p. 9. 1 2 H . M c D i a r m i d , The Company I ' v e K e p t , p. 64. 13W. T. S., " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M u s i c C r i t i c i s m , " New Age 36, No. 1 ( O c t o b e r 30, 1 9 2 4 ) : 1 0 . 1 4 " W h a t o u r r e a d e r s a r e s a y i n g , " New Age 38, No. 3 (November 19, 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 5 . 8 T h u s , l i k e e v e r y o t h e r m u s i c c r i t i c , S o r a b j i had h i s f r i e n d s , who e n c o u r a g e d and p r a i s e d h i m , a n d h i s e n e m i e s who w r o t e w i t h a r d e n t a n i m o s i t y i n t h e a t t e m p t t o i n d u c e t h e e d i t o r t o c e a s e p u b l i s h i n g h i s c r i t i q u e s . I n s p i t e o f t h i s , S o r a b j i ' s c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s a p p e a r e d f o r a n o t h e r n i n e y e a r s i n The New Age. THE NEW AGE The New Age, a w e e k l y j o u r n a l f e a t u r i n g r e v i e w s on p o l i t i c s , l i t e r a t u r e , a n d t h e a r t s , had a r a t h e r l o n g and c o m p l i c a t e d h i s t o r y . 1 5 The j o u r n a l i n i t i a l l y b egan p u b l i c a t i o n i n L o n d o n i n 1894, b u t due t o s e v e r e f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ( w h i c h were p r e v a l e n t t h r o u g h o u t i t s f o r t y - f i v e y e a r l i f e s p a n ) i t c e a s e d p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1937. From i t s e a r l y y e a r s i t h a d e s t a b l i s h e d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r b e i n g one o f t h e most b r i l l i a n t a nd p r o v o c a t i v e w e e k l i e s i n E n g l a n d . 1 6 The j o u r n a l s o u g h t , a b o v e a l l e l s e , p r o g r e s s i v e v i e w s n o t o n l y on p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c i s s u e s , b u t a l s o on t h e a r t s a n d l i t e r a t u r e . T h r o u g h o u t i t s h i s t o r y , i t c h a m p i o n e d s u c h new c a u s e s a s G u i l d S o c i a l i s m a n d 1 5 S e e : P a u l S e l v e r , O r a g e a n d t h e New Age C i r c l e : R e m i n i s c e n c e s a n d R e f l e c t i o n s , ( L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1959) and P h i l i p M a i r e t , A_j_ R^ O r a g e : A M e m o i r , (New Y o r k : U n i v e r s i t y B o o k s , 1 9 6 6 ) . 1 6 T h e New Age was r e g a r d e d a s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l j o u r n a l a s i t p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e s on s u c h r a d i c a l t o p i c s a s " E q u a l i t y b e t w e e n t h e S e x e s " " A b o r t i o n " " B i r t h C o n t r o l " " F e m i n i s m " a n d " S e x u a l i t y " . 9 C o l o n e l D o u g l a s ' S o c i a l C r e d i t T h e o r i e s ; i t was t h e f i r s t j o u r n a l t o s u p p o r t r e p e r t o r y t h e a t r e a t a t i m e when t h e r e was o n l y one s u c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n E n g l a n d ; a n d i t was one o f t h e f i r s t j o u r n a l s t o a d v o c a t e B r i t i s h a n d E u r o p e a n c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s i c t h r o u g h r e v i e w s and a r t i c l e s a t a t i m e when E n g l a n d was r e l a t i v e l y i g n o r a n t o f t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n on t h e c o n t i n e n t . The e d i t o r o f The New Age, A. R. O r a g e , was w i t h o u t d o u b t a r a d i c a l . He e s t a b l i s h e d t h e j o u r n a l ' s w e l l - k n o w n r e p u t a t i o n f o r p u b l i s h i n g some o f t h e most u n o r t h o d o x and o p i n i o n a t e d w r i t i n g s w h i c h c a n be d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g s h o c k i n g l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a n d r a t h e r c r u d e i n t h e i r d e l i v e r a n c e o f t h e m e s s a g e . 1 7 The r e s u l t o f i n c l u d i n g s u c h a r t i c l e s was a j o u r n a l t h a t was i n f o r m a t i v e i n t h e p r o g r e s s i v e t r e n d s o f t h e t i m e , r a c y and e n t e r t a i n i n g t o r e a d a n d a s h e e r d e l i g h t f o r i t s u n i n h i b i t e d manner o f p r o s e . The c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h e j o u r n a l w o r k e d w i t h o u t p a y f o r t h e 1 7 T a k e f o r e x a m p l e E z r a P o u n d ' s r e v i e w o f a p i a n o r e c i t a l f o u n d i n an e a r l y i s s u e o f t h e j o u r n a l . What o t h e r e d i t o r w o u l d h a v e p e r m i t t e d s o m e t h i n g a s o u t r a g e o u s l y r u d e a n d i n s u l t i n g a s t h i s r e v i e w t o be p r i n t e d ? "Mr. H a l l i b u t C l a v e r l y g a v e a p i a n o r e c i t a l a t t h e A n a t o l i a n H a l l l a s t T h u r s d a y e v e n i n g . We w o u l d a g a i n r e m i n d Mr C l a v e r l y t h a t a p i a n o i s n o t a k n e a d i n g - t r o u g h o r a lawn-mower o r a pop-gun o r a p a t e n t steam-hammer. I t i s j u s t a p i a n o . We a s k h i m n o t t o r i d e i t , o r t o s h o v e i t a l o n g , b u t t o p l a y i t . L a s t autumn we m i l d l y p o i n t e d t h i s o u t t o Mr C l a v e r l y a n d a l t h o u g h o u r l a n g u a g e was, we b e l i e v e , l u c i d a n d c o u r t e o u s , he i s up t o h i s o l d t r i c k s a g a i n . F o r e x a m p l e , i n an u n f o r t u n a t e a f f a i r o f S c a r l a t t i ' s . . . ." ( P . S e l v e r , O r a g e a n d t h e New Age C i r c l e , p p . 3 2 - 3 3 ) . 10 m a j o r i t y o f t h e t i m e . 1 8 I t was o n l y a t c e r t a i n t i m e s when t h e f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n o f t h e j o u r n a l i m p r o v e d s l i g h t l y t h a t t h e c o n t r i b u t o r s were p a i d f o r t h e i r w o r k . Thus i t was t h a t t h e j o u r n a l was n i c k - n a m e d t h e "No Wage" by i t s s t a f f ! B u t s u r p r i s i n g l y , The New Age a t t r a c t e d some o f t h e most d i s t i n g u i s h e d w r i t e r s i n E n g l a n d i n c l u d i n g D r . O s c a r L e v y and A. M. L u d o v i c i — t w o N i e z s c h e a n s who, a c c o r d i n g t o S e l v e r , w r o t e more t h a n h a l f t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e j o u r n a l and d e v o t e d t h e i r e f f o r t s t o t h e b e t t e r m e n t o f t h e w e e k l y . 1 9 O t h e r c o n t r i b u t o r s i n c l u d e d G e o r g e B e r n a r d Shaw, K e i t h C h e s t e r t o n , H. G. W e l l s , H i l a i r e B e l l o c , H a v e l o c k E l l i s , A r n o l d B e n n e t t , a n d J o h n G a l s w o r t h y . I n t h e m u s i c s e c t i o n , t h e r e a p p e a r e d c r i t i c i s m by e q u a l l y w e l l - k n o w n w r i t e r s s u c h a s E z r a P o u n d , H e r b e r t Hughes ( t h e c r i t i c f o r t h e D a i l y T e l e g r a p h ) , C e c i l G r a y , C l i n t o n G r a y - F i s k and K a i k h o s r u S o r a b j i . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t S o r a b j i s h o u l d c h o o s e t o l a u n c h h i s c a r e e r i n The New Age, f o r t h i s was a j o u r n a l t h a t w o u l d a l l o w h i m t o c r o s s t h e bounds s e t by l i b e l l a w s and t o p r e s e n t h i s o p i n i o n s i n t h e most d i r e c t manner. 1 8 T h e New Age was a p r o j e c t o f a s m a l l team. By u s i n g pen names, t h e c o n t r i b u t o r s c o n t i n u e d t o c r e a t e t h e i l l u s i o n t h a t t h e j o u r n a l h a d q u i t e a l a r g e s t a f f . 1 9 P . S e l v e r , O r a ge and t h e New Age C i r c l e , p. 21. 1 1 SORABJI'S CAREER AS MUSIC CRITIC FOR THE NEW AGE S o r a b j i ' s c a r e e r as music c r i t i c f o r The New Age began i n March 1924, a t the age of t w e n t y - n i n e . He was a p p o i n t e d c h i e f music c r i t i c when the former c r i t i c , C e c i l Gray r e s i g n e d a f t e r the e d i t o r s h i p of the paper changed h a n d s . 2 0 S o r a b j i was an a t t r a c t i v e c a n d i d a t e f o r the music c r i t i c p o s i t i o n h a v i n g a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f w i t h the r e a d e r s of The New Age as a knowledgeable man i n the f i e l d of music t h r o u g h h i s l e t t e r s t o the p r e v i o u s e d i t o r . 2 1 When asked why he began w r i t i n g music c r i t i c i s m , S o r a b j i merely r e p l i e d , " f o r the fun of i t . " 2 2 However, the l e t t e r s 2 0 A c c o r d i n g t o Gray's a u t o b i o g r a p h y , f o l l o w i n g A. R. Orage's r e s i g n a t i o n , the paper f e l l i n t o the hands of a " c o l l e c t i o n of c r a n k s " (none o t h e r than Major A r t h u r Moore, a st a u n c h d i s c i p l e of C o l o n e l Douglas and h i s S o c i a l C r e d i t t h e o r i e s ) and i t s r e p u t a t i o n was s e v e r e l y damaged. Gray and the o t h e r l e a d i n g c o n t r i b u t o r s of the j o u r n a l d e c i d e d t o go on a s t r i k e i n the hope of d i s s u a d i n g the new e d i t o r i n h i s v e n t u r e and of e v e n t u a l l y t a k i n g over the paper i n t o t h e i r own hands. U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r Gray, the p l o t f a i l e d as the e d i t o r was a b l e t o h i r e new c o l l a b o r a t o r s i n t i m e . (C. Gray, M u s i c a l C h a i r s or Between Two S t o o l s . B e i n g the L i f e and Memoirs of C e c i l Gray, (London: Home and Van T h a i , 1948), pp. 287-288. 2 1 S o r a b j i ' s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h the e d i t o r of The New Age began i n 1915, n i n e y e a r s b e f o r e h i s appointment as c h i e f music c r i t i c f o r the weekly. The e a r l y l e t t e r s of 1915 and 1916 a r e m o s t l y l e t t e r s of r e v o l t a g a i n s t the t r e a t m e n t of f o r e i g n e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the I n d i a n s , by the B r i t i s h . These l e t t e r s a r e a p t l y t i t l e d " F o r e i g n e r s i n En g l a n d . " The l e t t e r s w r i t t e n a f t e r F e b r u a r y 1917 a r e on m u s i c a l s u b j e c t s . I t was t h r o u g h t h e s e l e t t e r s t h a t S o r a b j i was a b l e t o prove h i m s e l f a competent r e v i e w e r of m u s i c a l e v e n t s t o the e d i t o r and t o the r e a d e r s of the j o u r n a l . 2 2 S o r a b j i r e p l i e d t h u s when P a u l Rapoport c o n f r o n t e d him w i t h t h i s q u e s t i o n . ( L e t t e r t o the p r e s e n t w r i t e r from Dr. Rapoport d a t e d March 2, 1983). 12 w h i c h S o r a b j i w r o t e t o P h i l i p H e s e l t i n e r e v e a l t h a t he had been s e r i o u s l y c o n t e m p l a t i n g b e c o m i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l c r i t i c f r o m a s e a r l y a s 1914. I h a v e t h i s y e a r g i v e n up my o t h e r s c h o l a s t i c s t u d i e s t o d e v o t e m y s e l f e n t i r e l y t o m u s i c a l s t u d y w i t h a v i e w of b e c o m i n g a " c r i t i c " ! I p a s s e d t h e L o n d o n M a t r i c . some y e a r s ago and i n t e n d t o work f o r I n t e r . Mus. w i t h an eye t o Mus. B a c h . An a c a d e m i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s an enormous h e l p o v e r h e r e , where p e o p l e a r e i m p r e s s e d by t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s . . . . A few y e a r s a g o , I h a d no t h o u g h t o f t a k i n g up m u s i c s e r i o u s l y , b u t now I f i n d t h a t o n l y w i t h i t c o u l d I r e a l l y be h a p p y . 2 3 I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t f r o m t h e t i m e he was n i n e t e e n , S o r a b j i was d e t e r m i n e d t o become a p r o f e s s i o n a l m u s i c c r i t i c . He was e n c o u r a g e d c o n t i n o u s l y i n h i s c h o i c e o f c a r e e r by P h i l i p H e s e l t i n e a n d some o f t h e o t h e r c o l l e a g u e s s u c h a s Hugh M c D i a r m i d , B e r n a r d v a n D i e r e n , C l i n t o n G r a y - F i s k , a n d A. R. O r a g e , e a c h o f whom c h a m p i o n e d S o r a b j i ' s v i e w s t h r o u g h o u t h i s l o n g p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r . Y e a r s o f w r i t i n g c r i t i c a l r e v i e w s on m u s i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n l e f t S o r a b j i f e e l i n g w e a r y a n d d e p l e t e d . As e a r l y a s 1930, he began t o w i t h d r a w s l o w l y f r o m t h e c u r r e n t m u s i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t by a t t e n d i n g f e w e r c o n c e r t s , o r o n l y t h e more s p e c i a l o n e s b e c a u s e o f h i s d e c r e a s i n g t o l e r a n c e f o r t h e s t a n d a r d o f p e r f o r m a n c e s a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c o n c e r t s i n L o n d o n . 2 * 2 3 F i f t h l e t t e r t o H e s e l t i n e d a t e d F e b r u a r y 3, 1914. pp. 6-7. 2"Some h i s t o r i a n s w o u l d a g r e e w i t h S o r a b j i ' s v i e w s on t h e l o w s t a n d a r d o f p e r f o r m a n c e s i n E n g l a n d d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s c e n t u r y . The p e r c e i v e d d e t e r i o r a t i o n was t h o u g h t t o be c a u s e d by t h e mass m u s i c e d u c a t i o n programmes w h i c h t h r u s t numerous u n q u a l i f i e d a m a t e u r p e r f o r m e r s o n t o t h e L o n d o n s t a g e s . ( S e e : E. D. M a c k e r n e s s , A S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h M u s i c , 13 S o r a b j i h a s c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d h i s v i e w s on t h i s s u b j e c t i n an e s s a y " I l G r a n R i f u t o : R e a s o n s f o r n o t a t t e n d i n g c o n c e r t s . " 2 5 I t i s t h u s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t when a s k e d d i r e c t l y why he s t o p p e d w r i t i n g m u s i c c r i t i c i s m a f t e r s o many y e a r s , S o r a b j i r e p l i e d t h a t he was u t t e r l y b o r e d w i t h t h e d u l l , u n i n t e r e s t i n g , a n d l o w - s t a n d a r d o f p e r f o r m a n c e s i n L o n d o n , and t h a t w r i t i n g r e v i e w s o f s u c h c o n c e r t s h a d become more of a c h o r e f o r h i m t h a n a p l e a s a n t a c t i v i t y . 2 6 As a s u b s t i t u t e f o r l i v e p e r f o r m a n c e s , S o r a b j i t u r n e d t o gramophone r e c o r d i n g s o f m u s i c f o r w h i c h he had a p a r t i c u l a r f o n d n e s s . I n h i s o p i n i o n , r e c o r d i n g s g e n e r a l l y h a d a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d o f m u s i c a l e x e c u t i o n t h a n most l i v e p e r f o r m a n c e s . They were " s a v i o u r s " i n t h a t t h e y w o u l d s l o w l y e l i m i n a t e s e c o n d - a n d t h i r d - r a t e p e r f o r m a n c e s , a s p e r f o r m e r s w o u l d s t r i v e t o i m i t a t e t h e i r i d o l s . 2 7 2 4 ( c o n t ' d ) ( L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1 9 6 4 ) ; a n d F. Howes, The E n g l i s h M u s i c a l R e n a i s s a n c e , ( L o n d o n : S e e k e r a n d W a r b u r g , 1 9 6 6 ) . S o r a b j i ' s a t t i t u d e o f d i s g u s t t o w a r d s t h e m u s i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d m u s i c i a n s h a s n o t c h a n g e d up t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . The f o l l o w i n g r e v e a l s t h e c r i t i c ' s f e e l i n g on t h i s s u b j e c t . ( S o r a b j i a s i n t e r v i e w e d on a BBC-TV programme t i t l e d " A q u a r i u s " [ J u n e 11, 1 9 7 7 ] . A c a s s e t t e r e c o r d i n g o f t h i s i n t e r v i e w was s u p p l i e d t o t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r by K e n n e t h D e r i i s . ) " I l o a t h e m u s i c i a n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r f o r m e r s . You h a v e t o be i n a c o n c e r t h a l l w i t h them t o s m e l l t h e i r s p i r i t u a l and m o r a l a u r a . I t ' s a r e a l s t e n c h . " 2 5 K . S o r a b j i , " I l G r a n R i f u t o , " i n M i C o n t r a f a , pp. 141-142. 2 6 L e t t e r t o t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r f r o m D r . P a u l R a p o p o r t d a t e d M a r c h 2, 1983. 2 7 S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e i m p r o v e m e n t s o f w i r e l e s s t r a n s m i s s i o n s ] , " New Age 38, No. 14 ( F e b r u a r y 4, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 6 7 . (The page number o f t h i s a r t i c l e i n t h e m i c r o f i l m e d p a c k a g e c o m p i l e d by D e r u s a n d R a p o p o r t i s 58. H e n c e f o r t h t h e s e page n u m b e r ( s ) w i l l be a n n o t a t e d t h u s : [DR 5 8 ] ) . 14 As S o r a b j i became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i s c o u r a g e d by the m u s i c a l scene i n London, and as he s l o w l y stopped a t t e n d i n g p u b l i c c o n c e r t s , he adopted the h a b i t of r e v i e w i n g gramophone r e c o r d i n g s which were s u p p l i e d t o him i n g r e a t abundance by the l e a d i n g r e c o r d m a n u f a c t u r e r s of the t i m e . He was one of the f i r s t music c r i t i c s i n England t o encourage the t e c h n i c a l advancements made i n the r e c o r d i n g of music and was a l s o the a u t h o r of s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s d i s c u s s i n g v a r i o u s gramophone and w i r e l e s s s e t s . By 1932, S o r a b j i had a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f as a well-known and s u c e s s f u l r e c o r d - r e v i e w e r whose judgement was h e a v i l y r e l i e d upon by some of the most p o w e r f u l r e c o r d companies. In f a c t , from May 28, 1931 onwards, the m a j o r i t y of S o r a b j i ' s m u s i c a l r e v i e w s were based on performances heard e i t h e r on t h e w i r e l e s s or on the gramophone. A f t e r 1934, S o r a b j i , r a r e l y wrote a p u b l i c c o n c e r t r e v i e w . I f he d i d , i t was o n l y when a g r e a t composer or p e r f o r m e r was i n v o l v e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n . But even th e s e few e x c e p t i o n s were o f t e n d i s a p p o i n t i n g f o r S o r a b j i . C o n s e q u e n t l y , S o r a b j i f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t o withdraw from the m u s i c a l scene a l t o g e t h e r . S o r a b j i was not a r e g u l a r weekly c o n t r i b u t o r t o The New Age. A l t h o u g h complimentary t i c k e t s were o f t e n a v a i l a b l e t o him, S o r a b j i l i k e o t h e r c r i t i c s , wrote r e v i e w s o n l y when he c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r t t o be of s u f f i c i e n t i m p o r t a n c e , or i f he b e l i e v e d a s p e c i f i c p e r f o r m e r or composer d e s e r v e d 15 a t t e n t i o n . 2 8 S i n c e t h e j o u r n a l d i d n o t pay i t s c o n t r i b u t o r s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , S o r a b j i d i d n o t f e e l o b l i g a t e d t o s u b m i t a w e e k l y r e v i e w f o r i t s m u s i c s e c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e i s no p a t t e r n t o t h e f r e q u e n c y o f S o r a b j i ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e j o u r n a l . I n f a c t , b e c a u s e he f e l t t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c o n c e r t s were i n s i g n i f i c a n t , S o r a b j i f r e q u e n t l y w o u l d n o t summit an a r t i c l e f o r s e v e r a l weeks a t a t i m e . O f t e n S o r a b j i w o u l d c o m b i n e r e v i e w s o f s e v e r a l c o n c e r t s and s u b m i t a l o n g a r t i c l e i n s t e a d o f s h o r t r e v i e w s o f s i n g l e c o n c e r t s f o r e v e r y w e e k l y i s s u e o f t h e j o u r n a l . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e a r t i c l e i n t h e f o r t y - f i r s t v o l u m e o f t h e j o u r n a l 2 9 c o m p r i s e s r e v i e w s o f s e v e n d i f f e r e n t c o n c e r t s t h a t t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g t h e week o f May 16 t o 23, 1927. 2 8 S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e a b u n d a n c e o f c o n c e r t t i c k e t s a n d t h e l a c k o f g ood c o n c e r t p r o g r a m m e s ] ; L.S.O Q u e e n ' s . O c t o b e r 27," New Age 48, No. 1 (November 6, 1 9 3 0 ) . (DR 2 0 7 - 2 0 8 ) . 2 9 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Mme. Wanda L a n d o w s k a (Wigmore H a l l , May 1 6 ) , " New Ag_e 4 1 , No. 6 ( J u n e 9, 1927) : 1 69. (DR 8 8 - 8 9 ) . 16 TABLE 1 TOTAL NUMBER OF CONTRIBUTIONS (MUSICAL AND OTHERS) MADE PER YEAR BY SORABJI IN THE NEW AGE FROM MARCH 20, 1924 TO JULY 26, 1934 YEAR NUMBER OF LETTERS TO THE EDITOR NUMBER OF ARTICLES TOTAL NUMBER OF CONTRIBUTIONS 1924 6 13 19 1925 2 1 6 18 1 926 2 19 21 1927 1 18 19 1 928 6 25 31 1929 5 26 31 1930 3 22 25 1931 1 18 19 1 932 1 16 1 7 1 933 - 7 7 1 934 - 14 14 TOTAL 27 1 94 221 17 T a b l e 1 i n d i c a t e s t h e number o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s p e r y e a r t h a t were made by S o r a b j i i n The New Age f o r a p e r i o d j u s t o v e r t e n y e a r s . 3 0 S o r a b j i ' s most a c t i v e y e a r s were 1928 t o 1930; 1933 was h i s l e a s t p r o d u c t i v e y e a r , i n w h i c h he s u b m i t t e d o n l y s e v e n a r t i c l e s . 3 0 F o r a c o m p l e t e l i s t o f w r i t i n g s by S o r a b j i , s e e A p p e n d i x 1. 18 I I I . S O R A B J I ' S W R I T I N G S I N T H E N E W A G E Musical c r i t i c i s m which had reached i t s pinnacle in the writings of Fet i s and Berlioz in France and Wagner, Hanslick, and Wolf in Germany during the nineteenth century, slowly rose from i t s slumber of conservatism in England. During the early nineteenth century, English music c r i t i c i s m had " d r i f t e d into backwater" 1 due to the conservative tastes of such c r i t i c s as H. F. Chorley and J. W. Davison who had dominated the c r i t i c a l opinion in England for a period of approximately f i f t y years, from 1830 to 1879. For these writers, the giants in music were Beethoven, Mendelssohn and Rossini; Germany was regarded as the leader in music. The conservative opinions of these c r i t i c s buried even the most heroic attempts of the English composers. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, George Bernard Shaw aroused the English musical establishment with his l i t e r a r y and imaginative style and together with Ernest Newman l i t the world of B r i t i s h musical c r i t i c i s m . Shaw and Newman promoted the works of both the acknowledged Masters as well as lesser contemporary European and B r i t i s h composers. Thus, Shaw' introduced the music of Wagner to the English public and Ernest Newman brought the achievements of many contemporaries to the limelight. The c r i t i q u e s of Shaw and 1The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, s.v. "Cr i t i c i s m , " by Winton Dean. 19 Newman were not mere r e v i e w s of performances but r a t h e r f u l l - f l e d g e d e s s a y s on the music i t s e l f . The name of S o r a b j i must be added t o the company of w r i t e r s t h a t reformed B r i t i s h music c r i t i c i s m . He championed the works of many contemporaneous B r i t i s h and European composers, i n c l u d i n g A l k a n , M a h l e r , Medtner, B u s o n i , S i b e l i u s , Szymanovsky, D e l i u s , Walton, Lambert and Vaughan W i l l i a m s . In f a c t , because of h i s l o n g - s t a n d i n g sympathy f o r modern music, S o r a b j i wrote p r i m a r i l y on contemporary music: I have always f r e e l y c o n f e s s e d my e x t r e m e l y keen a p p r e c i a t i o n o f , and l i v e l y sympathy w i t h the u l t r a - m o d e r n i s t phase of contemporary music. . . . i t i s among the u l t r a - m o d e r n s t h a t I am i n my m u s i c a l element, t h e r e i s t h a t i n t h e i r music which s a t i s f i e s me c o m p l e t e l y , what i t i s I cannot d e f i n e , but whatever i t i s , t h i s i s something f o r me a t any r a t e , l a c k i n g i n much of the o l d e r m u s i c . 2 The n a t u r e of the weekly The New Age was such t h a t i t emphasized p r e s e n t - d a y a c t i v i t i e s more so than h i s t o r i c a l ones. S o r a b j i wrote l a r g e l y about c u r r e n t e v e n t s and m u s i c i a n s i n London i n c l u d i n g s i n g e r s , i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s , c o n d u c t o r s , o r c h e s t r a s , c h o i r s , o p e r a s , r e p e r t o r y , c o n c e r t h a l l s , t he s t a t e of m u s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , music c r i t i c i s m , and the music c o p y r i g h t b i l l . He a l s o wrote on the most h o t l y - d e b a t e d t o p i c s of the day such as s o c i a l i s m , r a c i s m , f e m i n i s m , b i r t h - c o n t r o l , a b o r t i o n , unemployment and B r i t i s h r u l e i n I n d i a . An example i l l u s t r a t i n g S o r a b j i ' s scope of c r i t i c i s m of a g i v e n performance i s h i s review of the performance of Wagner's 2 F i r s t l e t t e r t o H e s e l t i n e d a t e d October 3, 1913, w r i t t e n a t the age of e i g h t e e n , pp. 1-2. 20 R i n g c y c l e a t Covent Garden i n 1927. 3 S o r a b j i wrote about the o r c h e s t r a l p l a y i n g , the conduct of the a c t o r s on the s t a g e , the l i g h t i n g , s tage s e t s , scene-changes and the music i n g r e a t d e t a i l . A review of the same work by E r n e s t Newman, f o r i n s t a n c e , f o c u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y on the music a l o n e . " S o r a b j i ' s c r i t i q u e s were geared toward r o u s i n g the f e e l i n g s of even the p a s s i v e r e a d e r s . He was c e r t a i n l y a b l e t o w r i t e w i t h p r a i s e , e n t h u s i a s m , and encouragement. What p e r f o r m e r , f o r example, would not dream of r e c e i v i n g a r e v i e w such as t h i s one on Egon P e t r i ' s performance? On Sunday e v e n i n g , 8 t h , f o r a s h o r t h a l f - h o u r some m i l l i o n s of peopl e were a d m i t t e d i n t o the i n n e r s h r i n e of m u s i c — o n e says a d m i t t e d , r a t h e r s h o u l d one say, the doors t h e r e o f were opened t o them th r o u g h the t r a n s c e n d e n t power and g r e a t n e s s of Egon P e t r i ' s B a c h - p l a y i n g . Imagine the superb p r e c i s i o n , the g i g a n t i c c o n t r o l l e d power of the movement of some g r e a t e n g i n e , the f i n e s s of l i n e , the m a t c h l e s s b a l a n c e of mass a g a i n s t mass, the incomparable draughtsmanship, the sense of d e s i g n of a Duerer e n g r a v i n g . i n terms of sound, and perhaps t h i s w i l l convey some i d e a of P e t r i ' s Bach p l a y i n g . Here i s not Bach - b y - t h e - y a r d so f a s h i o n a b l e i n Eng l a n d , but a Bach on which w h i l e a l l e x i g e n c i e s of s t r u c t u r e and phrase a r e p r e s e r v e d t o the utmost, a r e t u r n e d a l l the c o l o u r , nuance, r h y t h m i c a l and t o n a l s h a d i n g t h a t an u n c a r i n g sense of T i g h t n e s s d i c t a t e s t o an a r t i s t of g e n i u s — r u b a t i , so e l a s t i c and s u b t l e , t h a t the rhythm p u l s e s t h r o u g h them smooth and v e l v e t y w i t h no j o l t nor j a r nor d i s t u r b a n c e p e r c e p t i b l e , a d i v e r s i t y of tone c o l o u r l i k e a h a r p s i c h o r d or organ, and a m a j e s t i c b r e a t h of s t y l e and a s e r e n i t y t h a t a r e the ve r y essence t h a t escapes 999 out of 1,000 p l a y e r s , n a t u r a l l y enough, s i n c e o n l y the c l a i r v o y a n t f a c u l t y t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s g e n i u s i s c a p a b l e of r e v e a l i n g i t and 3 S e e : K. S o r a b j i , "Music: Covent Garden: Der Ri n g des N i b e l u n g e n , " New Age 41, No. 4 (May 26, 1927):45, (DR 8 7 ) . ."See: E. Newman, The Testament of M u s i c , (London: Putnam and Co. L t d . , 1962), p. 286. 21 e x p r e s s i n g i t . 5 B u t S o r a b j i c o u l d a l s o w r i t e i n t h e most d e n i g r a t i n g v u l g a r and s a t i r i c a l manner, p r o v i n g h i m s e l f a v e r i t a b l e ' M a s t e r o f I n s u l t ' w i t h h i s s c a t h i n g r e m a r k s : And a s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t h e B a c h sung and p l a y e d by M i s s e s X and Y r e s p e c t i v e l y t o l d us a g r e a t d e a l more a b o u t t h e s e l a d i e s t h a n a b o u t B a c h . I do n o t p r o p o s e t o g i v e them t h e h o n o u r o f e v e n d i s p a r a g i n g m e n t i o n by name i n a p e r i o d i c a l o f s u c h d i s t i n c i o n a s o u r s , h e n c e t h e X. a n d Y. S u f f i c i e n t be i t t h a t t h e one i s a p o p u l a r i s h s o p r a n o o f t h e b a l l a d e t y p e , t h e l a t t e r a s t i l l more p o p u l a r c h o r y b a n t i c p i a n i s t o f t h e w r i t h i n g , i n t e n s e t y p e , t h e k i n d t h a t p l a y s w i t h e v e r y p a r t of h e r b o d y , n a t u r a l l y e x c e p t t h e p a r t most c o n c e r n e d , h e r f i n g e r s . Her s u c c e s s , I am c o n v i n c e d i s c h i e f l y due t o h e r s i n u o s i t i e s , o u r a u d i e n c e s b e i n g f a r t o o much c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s i n f u l l u s t s o f t h e eye t o e n a b l e p r o p e r l y t o a t t e n d w i t h t h e i r e a r s . . . . . . . N e i t h e r p o s s e s s e s t h e g l i m m e r i n g s o f a p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e n e e d , o f t h e most a b s o l u t e t e c h n i c a l p r e c i s i o n t h a t d r a w i n g o f f i n e , s t e a d y , f o r m , c l e a n l i n e s , w i t h o u t w h i c h B a c h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d o e s n o t b e g i n . N e i t h e r c a n h o l d a p h r a s e w i t h o u t l e t t i n g i t s a g i n t h e m i d d l e l i k e a c l o t h e s - l i n e , and e a c h has r e c o u r s e t o i n j e c t i n g i n t o t h e m u s i c t h a t e x t r a n e o u s a n d h i d e o u s l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e " f e e l i n g " t h a t i s t h e h a l l m a r k o f t h e b a d p e r f o r m e r and a p r o o f t h a t t h e r o o t o f t h e m a t t e r i s n o t i n h i m o r h e r . 6 5 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On Egon P e t r i ' s p i a n o r e c i t a l , Sunday S e p t e m b e r 8, 1 9 2 9 ] , " New A^e 45, No. 22 ( S e p t e m b e r 26, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 1 5 9 ) . 6 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : The P o w e r s o f t h e A i r , " New Age 43, No. 18 ( A u g u s t 30, 1 9 2 8 ) : 2 1 5 , (DR 1 2 5 ) . 22 SORABJI'S GENERAL MUSICAL A F F I N I T I E S B e f o r e l o o k i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y a t S o r a b j i ' s w r i t i n g s on B r i t i s h c o m p o s e r s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t h i s g e n e r a l m u s i c a l a f f i n i t i e s be d i s c u s s e d a s t h i s w i l l p r o m o t e a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c r i t i c ' s a e s t h e t i c s on m u s i c . W i t h o u t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f S o r a b j i ' s p h i l o s o p h y o f c r i t i c i s m , h i s j u d g e m e n t s may i n i t i a l l y seem i r r a t i o n a l , i n c o n s i s t e n t and i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l . S o r a b j i had w r i t t e n , i n h i s l e t t e r o f 1913 t o H e s e l t i n e , t h a t he a p p r e c i a t e d m o s t l y t h e m u s i c o f t h e " u l t r a - m o d e r n " c o m p o s e r s o r what he c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e a v a n t g a r d e i n m u s i c . However, a c u r s o r y a n a l y s i s o f h i s w r i t i n g s on s u c h c o m p o s e r s a s S t r a v i n s k y , S c h o e n b e r g , H i n d e m i t h , H o n n e g e r an d B a r t o k ( e a c h o f whom p r o p a g a t e d new m u s i c a l s t y l e s ) r e v e a l s t h e o p p o s i t e t o be t r u e . F o r S o r a b j i , t h e u l t r a - m o d e r n s c o n s i s t e d o f a g r o u p o f n i n e t e e n t h - a n d e a r l y t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y r o m a n t i c , p o s t - r o m a n t i c and i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c c o m p o s e r s t h a t d i d n o t s t r a y t o o f a r i n t o t h e t w e l v e - t o n e h a r m o n i c l a n g u a g e . S o r a b j i ' s d i s l i k e o f t h e a v a n t g a r d e was immense. H i s w r i t i n g s i n The New Age a b o u n d w i t h n e g a t i v e c r i t i c i s m o f s u c h m u s i c . F o r i n s t a n c e , he d e t e s t e d t h e m u s i c o f S t r a v i n s k y , e s p e c i a l l y t h e p o w e r f u l l y p o u n d i n g r h y t h m i c o s t i n a t o s , t h e l o u d o r c h e s t r a l e f f e c t s and t h e c h o r d a l c o m b i n a t i o n s e v i d e n t i n t h e e a r l y w o r k s . I n a 1925 r e v i e w , S o r a b j i c o m p a r e d S t r a v i n s k y ' s Le S a c r e du P r i n t e m p s ( 1 9 1 3 ) t o S t r a u s s ' o p e r a E l e k t r a ( 1 9 1 0 ) : 23 The g r e a t o p e r a t i c e v e n t h a s been t h e r e t u r n o f " E l e k t r a " . . . One r e a l i s e s a g a i n s t i l l more a c u t e l y t h a t "Le S a c r e du P r i n t e m p s " i s a f t e r t h i s t h e mere s t a m m e r i n g f u m b l i n g o f an i n t e l l e c t u a l b a b y . T h e r e i s more b r a i n power i n t h e f i r s t f i v e p a g e s o f " E l e k t r a " t h a n i n a l l o f S t r a v i n s k y ' s work p u t t o g e t h e r . . . . 7 H i s s u b s e q u e n t v i e w s on t h e m u s i c o f S t r a v i n s k y r e m a i n e d t h e same t h r o u g h o u t h i s c a r e e r a s m u s i c c r i t i c f o r t h e j o u r n a l . Any m u s i c t a i n t e d by e v e n a t r a c e o f " S t r a v i n s k y i s m " was q u i c k l y condemned by S o r a b j i . F o r i n s t a n c e , H o n n e g e r ' s o r a t o r i o Le R o i D a v i d ( 1 9 2 1) was c r i t i c i s e d b i t i n g l y f o r what S o r a b j i p e r c e i v e d t o be o f S t r a v i n s k y ' s i n f l u e n c e . A v e r y t y p i c a l s p e c i m e n o f t h e work t u r n e d o u t by t h e e p i g o n i o f S t r a v i n s k y — a s t e x t u r e l e s s and i n c o h e r e n t a s t h e w o r s t w o r k s o f t h e i r m a s t e r w i t h a c r u d i t y a n d c l u m s i n e s s o f w o r k m a n s h i p t h a t g o e s e v e n b e y o n d h i s . T h e r e i s t h e same " s t u n n i n g monotony o f r h y t h m " ( t o q u o t e a d e v o t e d d i s c i p l e ) w h i c h i n t h i s c a s e h a s n o t e v e n t h e p a s s i n g p a t h o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t i t h a s i n h i s , s i n c e w i t h them i t i s a s o r t o f m a l i n g e r i n g . 8 The e a r l i e r w o r k s o f S c h o e n b e r g w h i c h t o o k Wagner's c h r o m a t i c i s m t o u n p r e c e d e n t e d h e i g h t s were much a d m i r e d by S o r a b j i . V e r k l a e r t e N a c h t ( 1 8 9 9 ) was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a " s u p e r b p i e c e o f m u s i c " i n 1 9 2 7 ; 9 t h e s c o r e o f G u r r e l i e d e r ( 1 9 1 1 ) was "a m i r a c l e , a p o l y c h r o m a t i c m a r v e l o f e v e r y c o n c e i v a b l e t i n t , a g l o w i n g 7 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f S t r a u s s ' E l e k t r a ] , " New Age 37, No. 6 ( J u n e 11, 1 9 2 5 ) : 6 8 , (DR 4 8 ) . B K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Queen's H a l l O r c h e s t r a ; B.B.C. C o n c e r t . A l b e r t H a l l , M a r c h 17: M i s s V i o l e t G o r d o n Woodhouse," New Age 40, No. 23 ( A p r i l 17, 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 7 3 , (DR 8 4 - 8 5 ) . 9 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : R o y a l C h o r a l S o c i e t y , J a n u a r y 29; B . B . C , F e b r u a r y 3; S o l i t o de S o l i s , F e b r u a r y 15," New Age 40, No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 24, 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 9 7 , (DR 82) 24 f a b r i c of incomparable r i c h n e s s and i m a g i n a t i v e b e a u t y " ; 1 0 and the second s t r i n g q u a r t e t of 1908 was a "modern work, t h a t i s , the o n l y work t h a t had a v i t a l i t y of i t s own as d i s t i n c t from the e x t r a n e o u s l y o r i g i n a t e d j e r k s and j o l t s of the m a r i o n e t t e s of M e s s r s . A r t h u r B l i s s and the r a g - d o l l s of Mr. P a u l H i n d e m i t h . " 1 1 However, S o r a b j i was a v e r s e t o Schoenberg's l a t e r harmonic and v o c a l e x p e r i m e n t s . A review of a r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y work of Schoenberg u t i l i z i n g the new e x p e r i m e n t a l methods of c o m p o s i t i o n , Das Buch der Haengenden Ga e r t e n (1908) w r i t t e n i n 1929, p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e of S o r a b j i ' s l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p a r o c h i a l d i s l i k e of the new s t y l e : . . . the "songs" as a whole are a l l but a d e n i a l , a n e g a t i o n of the human v o i c e , s p r i n g i n g from the p e r v e r s e a n t i - v o c a l o b s e s s i o n of the l a t t e r - d a y Schoenberg . . . . On the whole, the f r i g i d i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t o r t i o n s of the music seem a c u r i o u s a e s t h e t i c r e a c t i o n t o t h e s e warmly, r i c h l y c o l o u r e d poems. 1 2 S o r a b j i s subsequent r e v i e w s on the music of t h i s composer r e f l e c t 1 0 K . S o r a b j i , "Music: G e r a l d Cooper C o n c e r t : A e o l i a n , J a nuary 24.; G u r r e l i e d e r , Schoenberg: Queen's H a l l . January 27," New Age 42, No. 15 ( F e b r u a r y 9, 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 7 5 , (DR 107). 1 1 K. S o r a b j i , "Music: B.B.C. Modern Chamber C o n c e r t . A r t s T h e a t r e C l u b : October 15.; C o n c e r t of Tcheko-Slovak M u s i c . Queen's: October 16," New Age 43, No. 26 (October 25, 1928):309, (DR 129). S o r a b j i c o u l d never u n d e r s t a n d the p r e s e n t - d a y c r a z e over the music of P a u l H i n d e m i t h . In a r e v i e w of Hindemith's o v e r t u r e t o the comic opera Neues vom Tage (1929) and h i s V i o l a C o n c e r t o (1925) S o r a b j i s t a t e s d i r e c t l y h i s reasons and o p i n i o n s f o r d i s l i k i n g t h i s composer's music. See: "Music: B r i t i s h Women's Symphony O r c h e s t r a . ; W i r e l e s s . H i n d e m i t h works," New Age 48, No. 3 (November 20, 1930):32, (DR 209). 1 2 K . S o r a b j i , "Music: B.B.C. Chamber C o n c e r t . ; Egon P e t r i . Wigmore, November 9," New Age 46, No. 3 (November 21, !929):32-33, (DR 172-1737. 25 the same o p i n i o n . 1 3 In an undated l e t t e r t o Hugh McDiarmid, S o r a b j i wrote of h i s contempt f o r the modern s t y l e s of music of the day: For the p r e s e n t - d a y i d o l s , the S t r a v i n s k y s , the H i n d e m i t h s , the Schoenberg l i c k s p i t t l e s , o f f s h o o t s and t o a d i e s , I have n o t h i n g but l o a t h i n g , e x e c r a t i o n and contempt. As f o r s e r i a l i s m . . . w e l l ! T h i s i s n o t h i n g but a j i g s a w i n terms of notes i n s t e a d of words. They ar e always p r a t t l i n g of the i n t e n s e l o g i c of i t a l l . . . Ebbene . . . i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o conduct an argument t h a t i s so s y l l o g i s t i c a l l y f l a w l e s s from p r e m i s e s t h a t a r e i n h e r e n t l y n o n s e n s i c a l , r e a c h i n g a l o g i c a l l y sound c o n c l u s i o n but one t h a t i s f a c t u a l l y n o n s e n s i c a l . So i t i s w i t h the t o n e - r o w e r s , s e r i a l i s t s , and a l l of t h e m . 1 4 Other exponents of new m u s i c a l s t y l e s were a l s o r o u n d l y condemned by S o r a b j i . For example, he was shocked at the " b a r b a r i s m " of B a r t o k ' s music which he heard a t a c o n c e r t i n 1930 and c o u l d h a r d l y b e l i e v e t h a t "such b l u n t n e s s t e n d i n g o f t e n t o an u ncouthness, i s r e a l l y c o m p a t i b l e w i t h m u s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n a t i t s h i g h e s t . . . ." 1 5 I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t S o r a b j i ' s m u s i c a l t a s t e s were r a t h e r o l d - f a s h i o n e d . H i s heroes were the g r e a t r o m a n t i c s B e r l i o z , L i s z t and Wagner ( f o r whose works he had the g r e a t e s t a f f i n i t y ) . S o r a b j i adored the warm, dense, and r i c h o r c h e s t r a l c o l o u r s i n 1 3 S e e f o r example S o r a b j i ' s r e v i e w s on Schoenberg's opus 31 V a r i a t i o n s f o r O r c h e s t r a (1926-28): "Music: [On Maggie Teyte's b r o a d c a s t r e c i t a l ] : Helen M i l v a . ; Schoenberg: F r i d a y November 13," New Age 50, No. 4 (November 26, 1931.) :40-41 f (DR 232). 1"Hugh McDiarmid, The Company I've Kept, pp. 60-61. 1 5 K . S o r a b j i , "Music: B a r t o k R e c i t a l . A r t s T h e a t r e C l u b : January 7. B.B.C; H a l l e C o n c e r t . Queen's: January 10.; The M u s i c a l C o p y r i g h t B i l l , " New Age 46, No. 12 (January 23, 1930):137, (DR 184) . 26 t h e i r w o r k s , t h e v i g o r o u s , p a s s i o n a t e a n d i n t e n s e s t y l e , t h e s t r o n g c h r o m a t i c t e x t u r e s t h a t a b o u n d e d w i t h s u dden m o d u l a t i o n s a n d t h e v a r y i n g d i s s o n a n c e s . He was i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e huge f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n Wagner's t i t a n i c work Der R i n g d e s N i b e l u n g e n ( 1 8 5 4 - 7 5 ) . F o r S o r a b j i , Wagner was a super-human g e n i u s . 1 6 I n r e g a r d t o t h e m u s i c o f H e c t o r B e r l i o z , S o r a b j i was a s t o u n d e d by t h i s c o m p o s e r ' s R e q u i e m Mass ( 1 8 3 7 ) : T h i s m i g h t y a n d o v e r w h e l m i n g w ork, a g r a n i t e r o c k - h e w n t e m p l e , i s one o f t h e most a m a z i n g p o w e r f u l and o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t i o n i n a l l m u s i c . One d o e s n o t know what t o a d m i r e and m a r v e l a t m o s t , t h e t r i u m p h a n t l y s u c c e s s f u l u s e o f t h e f o u r b r a s s o r c h e s t r a s . . . , t h e a s t o n i s h i n g d a r i n g o f t h e t r e a t m e n t a s a w h o l e , t h e v o l c a n i c power a n d b u r n i n g i n t e n s i t y o f t h e i n s p i r a t i o n , o r t h e o r i g i n a l i t y o f e v e r y n o t e . I w o u l d g i v e t h e w h o l e o f t h e s y m p h o n i e s o f B e e t h o v e n f o r one page o f t h e R e q u i e m . 1 7 The p o s t - r o m a n t i c c o m p o s e r s G u s t a v M a h l e r a n d R i c h a r d S t r a u s s were a l s o f a v o r i t e s o f S o r a b j i . When he c o u l d , S o r a b j i w o u l d w r i t e o f h i s l o n g i n g t o h e a r t h e M a h l e r S y m p h o n i e s a s w e l l a s c o m p l a i n w i t h r a n c o r a b o u t t h e l a c k o f p e r f o r m a n c e s o f t h i s c o m p o s e r ' s m u s i c and t h e o v e r a l l n e g l e c t o f M a h l e r by t h e E n g l i s h . M a h l e r ' s s y m p h o n i e s were a p p r e c i a t e d f o r t h e i r g i g a n t i c s t r u c t u r e s , number o f p e r f o r m e r s , t h e r i c h n e s s o f d e t a i l , t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y v i v i d o r c h e s t r a l c o l o u r s , t h e l o n g l y r i c a l 1 6 K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Wagner's ' R i n g ' , " New Ag_e 3 5 , No. 5 (May 29, 1 9 2 4 ) : 5 4 , (DR 1 8 - 2 0 ) . 1 7 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : M a d e m o i s e l l e Y o u r a G u l l e r ( A e o l i a n . J a n u a r y 1 5 t h ) ; B.B.C. ( R o y a l A l b e r t H a l l . J a n u a r y 2 0 t h ) ; S o l i t o de S o l i s ( A e o l i a n . J a n u a r y 2 6 t h ) , " New Age 40, No. 15 ( F e b r u a r y 1 0, 1927) : 177, (DR 8 1 ) . 27 m e l o d i e s , and t h e i n t e n s e e x p r e s s i o n a n d " s i n c e r i t y " o f t h e m u s i c . I n r e g a r d t o t h e Symphony No. B in. E f l a t ( 1 9 0 7 ) , S o r a b j i w r o t e i n a 1930 r e v i e w : T h i s g r e a t a n d g l o r i o u s w o rk, t h e summit a n d c r o w n i n g a c h i e v e m e n t o f M a h l e r ' s l i f e w o r k , r e c e i v e d i t s f i r s t E n g l i s h p e r f o r m a n c e — a f t e r n e a r l y t w e n t y y e a r s ' e x i s t e n c e . . . . The b u r n i n g e x a l t e d s p i r i t o f t h e m u s i c — t h e work o f a v e r y g r e a t a n d a r d e n t m u s i c a l s o u l — m a d e t h e o c c a s i o n one o f t h e g r e a t e s t e x p e r i e n c e s o f a l i f e t i m e . No work s i n c e t h e B m i n o r Mass has more w o n d e r f u l l y , n o r w i t h g r e a t e r l o f t i n e s s , n o b i l i t y a n d s u c h a l l - c o n s u m m i n g p a s s i o n a t e s i n c e r i t y , e x p r e s s e d t h e C a t h o l i c s p i r i t . 1 8 S o r a b j i o f t e n c o m p a r e d M a h l e r ' s i n t e n s e l y i n t r o s p e c t i v e w o r k s w i t h t h e b r i l l i a n t f r e n z y o f R i c h a r d S t r a u s s ' c o m p o s i t i o n s . I n S o r a b j i ' s o p i n i o n , S t r a u s s h a d r e a c h e d h i s c o m p o s i t i o n a l p i n n a c l e i n t h e o p e r a Salome (1905) a n d i n t h e o r c h e s t r a l t o n e poem E i n H e l d e n l e b e n ( 1 8 9 8 ) . A l l o t h e r w o r k s o u t s i d e t h e s e m a s t e r p i e c e s were r e g a r d e d a s " t r i v i a l commonplace b a n a l i t i e s . " 1 9 S o r a b j i ' s a f f i n i t y t o w a r d t h e m u s i c o f p o s t - r o m a n t i c c o m p o s e r s p r o m p t e d h i s a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e r o m a n t i c s t y l e o f t h e F i n n i s h c o m p o s e r J a n S i b e l i u s . S o r a b j i l i k e d S i b e l i u s ' m u s i c f o r i t s " s t a r k l a c o n i c q u a l i t i e s , i t s f r e e d o m f r o m f r i l l s , a n d i t s a l o o f n e s s f r o m a l l t h e f a s h i o n a b l e j a r g o n 1 8 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : M a h l e r E i g h t h Symphony: Queen's H a l l , A p r i l 15," New Age 4 7 , No. 1 (May 1, 1 9 3 0 ) : 7 , (DR 1 9 6 ) . 1 9 S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : C e c i l G r a y ' s Book [A S u r v e y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c ] , " New Age 36, No. 8 ^ D e c e m b e r 18, 1 9 2 4 ) : 9 3 , (DR 36) f o r S o r a b j i ' s comments on S a l o m e ; and " M u s i c : The P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r ; The H a l l e O r c h e s t r a ; A New S y s t e m o f Sound R e p r o d u c t i o n , " New Age 36, No. 6 (December 4, 1 9 2 4 ) : 6 6 ~ 6 7 , (DR 35) f o r S o r a b j i ' s r e v i e w on E i n H e l d e n l e b e n . 28 of the d a y " . 2 0 Debussy and R a v e l were the two most h i g h l y admired of the I m p r e s s i o n i s t S c h o o l . S o r a b j i was i n sympathy w i t h almost a l l of t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c c o m p o s i t i o n s . The s u b t l e , d e l i c a t e and e v o c a t i v e imagery of such works as the t h r e e N o c t u r n e s (1899), P e l l e a s e t M e l i s a n d e (1902), La Mer (1905), and I b e r i a were h i g h l y p r a i s e d . 2 1 The c o n c e r t v e r s i o n of R a v e l ' s b a l l e t Daphnis et Chloe' (1912) a l s o r e c e i v e d a g l o w i n g r e v i e w i n 1928. In S o r a b j i ' s o p i n i o n , Daphnis et Chloe was R a v e l ' s b e s t w o r k ; 2 2 but the works composed a f t e r Daphnis showed a d e f i n i t e d e c l i n e i n R a v e l ' s c o m p o s i t i o n a l s t y l e . 2 3 S o r a b j i was not i n f a v o u r of R a v e l ' s t u r n towards a more a b s t r a c t c l a s s i c a l s t y l e which i s e v i d e n t i n the composer's Le Tombeau de C o u p e r i n (1917) and T z i g a n i (1924) f o r v i o l i n and p i a n o . 2 * The l a t e r s o n atas 2 0 K . S o r a b j i , "Music: B e r l i n P h i l h a r m o n i c : December 4.; R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c , December 8; I m p e r i a l League of Opera M e e t i n g , December 9; P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r , December 14; Sophie Wyss. A e o l i a n , December 14," New Age 42, No. 10 (January 5, 1928):117, (DR 103). 2 1 S e e : "Music: [ R e g a r d i n g the P h i l h a r m o n i c C o n c e r t of F e b r u a r y 26, 1 925]," New Age_ 36, No. 21 (March 19, 1925):246, (DR 41);' "Music: Pe'lleas e t M e l i s a n d e ; "The E x p e r t " Gramophone," New Age 47, No. 11 ( J u l y 10, 1930)s130-131, (DR 102); "Music: B.B.C. F r i d a y , 3 1 s t . Queen's.; Birmingham C i t y O r c h e s t r a , v i a B.B.C. Fe b r u a r y 13.; K i r k b y Lunn," New Age 36, No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 19, 1925):201, (DR 38) r e s p e c t i v e l y . 2 2 K . S o r a b j i , "Music: R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c : J a n u a r y 5.; Mr. Bertram Jones on the B e r l i n O r c h e s t r a , " New Age 42, No. 13 (January 26, 1928):149, (DR 106). 2 3 I b i d . 2*K. S o r a b j i , "Music: [On the R a v e l C o n c e r t ] , " New Age 35, No. 3 (May 15, 1924):31-32, (DR 16-17). 29 ( 1 9 1 5 - 1 9 1 7 ) o f D e b u s s y were n o t a p p r e c i a t e d by S o r a b j i f o r s i m i l a r r e a s o n s . 2 5 I n f a c t , S o r a b j i d i d n o t g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r t h e c l a s s i c a l s t y l e a s i s e v i d e n t i n h i s r e v i e w s on t h e m u s i c o f Brahms, M o z a r t a n d t h e e a r l y w o r k s o f B e e t h o v e n . 2 6 T h e r e a r e many s u c h r e v i e w s by S o r a b j i s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t The New Age. S u f f i c e i t t o s a y t h a t S o r a b j i a p p r e c i a t e d most o f t h e w o r k s t h a t a r e s t i l l r e g a r d e d a s m a s t e r p i e c e s — B a c h ' s B M i n o r M a s s , t h e G r o s s Fugue and t h e l a t e p i a n o s o n a t a s and s t r i n g q u a r t e t s o f B e e t h o v e n , t h e Messe d e s M o r t s o f B e r l i o z a nd B u s o n i ' s F a n t a s i a C o n t r a p p u n t i s t i c a . 2 7 I n t h e s e w o r k s , S o r a b j i was i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e c o m p o s e r s ' use o f B a r o q u e t e c h n i q u e s a n d t h e c o n t r a p u n t a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l s . T h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f a c t t h a t many o f S o r a b j i ' s own 2 5 K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : C e c i l G r a y ' s Book [A S u r v e y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c ] , " New Age 36, No. 8 (December 18, 1 9 2 4 ) : 9 3 , (DR 3 6 ) . 2 6 S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : V l a d i m i r C e r n i k o f f ; The B e r l i n P h i l h a r m o n i c O r c h e s t r a . Queen's, December 1," New Age 42, No. 8 (December 22, 1 9 2 7 ) : 9 4 , (DR 1 0 2 ) ; M u s i c : [ R e v i e w on M o z a r t ' s R e q u i e m M a s s ] , " New Age 38, No. 21 ( M a r c h 25, 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 5 0 , (DR 62) and " M u s i c : Egon P e t r i , " New Age 50, No. 1 (November 5, 1931 )s 7, (DR 2 3 1 ) ; " M u s i c : M a h l e r E i g h t h Symphony: Queen's H a l l , A p r i l 15," New Age 47, No. 1 (May 1, 1 9 3 0 ) : 7 , (DR 196) " M u s i c : Egon P e t r i , " New Age 50, No. 1 (November 5, 1 9 3 1 ) : 7 , (DR 231) r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r S o r a b j i ' s w r i t i n g s on t h e s e c o m p o s e r s . 2 7 F o r S o r a b j i , B u s o n i was t h e M a s t e r o f m u s i c a l c r e a t i o n . H i s a d m i r a t i o n a n d r e s p e c t f o r B u s o n i a s b o t h p i a n i s t a n d c o m p o s e r was immense. S o r a b j i was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by B u s o n i ' s c o m p o s i t i o n a l s t y l e a n d S o r a b j i ' s l a r g e - s c a l e c o n t r a p u n t a l w o r k s a r e d i r e c t d e s c e n d e n t s o f some o f B u s o n i ' s b i g g e r c o m p o s i t i o n s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , S o r a b j i ' s monumental Opus C l a v i c e m b a l i s t i c u m ( 1 9 2 9 - 3 0 ) , whose s t r u c t u r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i s b a s e d on t h a t o f B u s o n i ' s F a n t a s i a C o n t r a p p u n t i s t i c a ( 1 9 1 0 - 1 2 ) s e r v e s a s a p e r f e c t e x a m p l e o f t h e i m p a c t B u s o n i had on S o r a b j i t h e c o m p o s e r . 30 c o m p o s i t i o n s use the same t e c h n i q u e s . C l e a r l y , S o r a b j i ' s m u s i c a l t a s t e s were c o n s e r v a t i v e i n r e l a t i o n t o the r a p i d changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n the m u s i c a l scene d u r i n g the f i r s t two decades of the c e n t u r y . S o r a b j i ' s a f f i n i t i e s w i l l be c l a r i f i e d f u r t h e r i n our study of h i s w r i t i n g s on the music of contemporary B r i t i s h composers. I t w i l l be seen t h a t the composers who wrote i n ro m a n t i c i d i o m s were r e v i e w e d f a v o u r a b l y , w h i l e t h o s e who reached towards newer developments were condemned. In o t h e r words, S o r a b j i a d v o c a t e d c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c q u a l i t i e s i n music and was n e g a t i v e toward o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I f a m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n c o n t a i n e d the s p e c i f i c t r a i t s deemed p o s i t i v e by S o r a b j i , t h a t p i e c e of music was pronounced s u c e s s f u l ; i f the music was found l a c k i n g i n the r e q u i s i t e p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the work was c o n s i d e r e d t o be e i t h e r a f a i l u r e or i n f e r i o r . SORABJI'S WRITINGS ON CONTEMPORARY BRITISH COMPOSERS S o r a b j i wrote on the music of t w e n t y - f o u r B r i t i s h composers d u r i n g h i s term as c h i e f c r i t i c f o r The New Age. Ta b l e 2 shows the t o t a l number of a r t i c l e s which S o r a b j i devoted t o d i s c u s s i n g the music of each of these composers and the number of a r t i c l e s which c o n t a i n r e f e r e n c e s t o the composer and/or a p a r t i c u l a r work by t h a t composer. 31 TABLE 2 WRITINGS BY SORABJI ON CONTEMPORARY BRITISH COMPOSERS IN THE 'NEW AGE' (1924-1934) COMPOSER NUMBER OF ARTICLES BY SORABJI (IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER) ON THE MUSIC WITH REFERENCE TO MUSIC/COMPOSER TOTAL NO. 1. Elgar, Edward (1957-1934) 12 7 9 2. Smyth, Ethel (1858-1944) 2 0 2 3. Delius, Frederick (1862-1934) 14 16 30 4. Hoist, Gustav (1874-1934) 7 5 12 5. Ireland, John (1874-1962) 7 4 1 1 6. Gardiner, Balfour (1877-1950) 0 1 1 7. Holbrooke, Joseph (1878-1958) 0 1 1 8. Boughton, Rutland (1878-1960) 3 1 4 9. Scott, C y r i l (1879-1970) 4 2 6 10. Scott, George Francis (1880-1958) 0 1 1 11. Vaughan Williams, Ralph 7 (1880-1958) 3 10 12. Berners, Lord (1883-1950) 2 1 3 32 TABLE 2 - Continued COMPOSER NUMBER OF ARTICLES BY SORABJI (IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER) ON THE MUSIC WITH REFERENCE TOTAL TO MUSIC/COMPOSER NO. 13. Bax, Arnold (1883-1953) 12 3 15 14. Van Dieren, Bernard (1884-1936) 7 5 12 15. a Beckett, Williams (1890-1956) 0 1 1 16. B l i s s , Arthur (1891-1975) 2 3 5 17. Howells, Herbert (1892-1983) 4 2 6 18. Goossens, Eugene (1893-1962) 3 6 9 19. Warlock, Peter (1894-1930) 1 2 3 20. Walton, William (1902-1983) 3 2 5 21 . Chisholm, Erik (1904-1965) 0 3 3 22. Lambert, Constant (1905-1951) 3 1 4 23. Br i t t e n , Benjamin (1913-1976) 0 1 1 24. Bush, Alan (1900- ) 1 0 1 33 As t h e t a b l e shows, t h e t h r e e most f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d c o m p o s e r s a r e F r e d e r i c k D e l i u s , S i r Edward E l g a r a n d S i r A r n o l d Bax. O t h e r c o m p o s e r s r e c e i v i n g s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i n c l u d e G u s t a v H o i s t , V aughan W i l l i a m s , S i r J o h n I r e l a n d a n d B e r n a r d v a n D i e r e n . The m u s i c o f t h e r e m a i n i n g B r i t i s h c o m p o s e r s i s d e a l t w i t h i n f o u r o r f e w e r a r t i c l e s e a c h . S o r a b j i d i d n o t d e v o t e a r e v i e w s o l e l y t o t h e c o n c e r t p e r f o r m a n c e o f one c o m p o s e r ' s m u s i c ; i n s t e a d , he d e a l t w i t h a v a r i e t y o f c o m p o s e r s , p e r f o r m e r s a n d m u s i c a l e v e n t s i n t h e same r e v i e w . I n many c a s e s , S o r a b j i m e n t i o n e d t h e m u s i c o f a p a r t i c u l a r c o m p o s e r i n a r e v i e w b u t o f t e n c u r t a i l e d any d e t a i l e d c r i t i c i s m o f t h e m u s i c . Our s t u d y o f S o r a b j i ' s w r i t i n g s on i n d i v i d u a l c o m p o s e r s w i l l b e g i n w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c r i t i q u e s o f t h o s e c o m p o s e r s a b o u t whom S o r a b j i w r o t e a t l e n g t h i n The New Age. T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by an a n a l y s i s o f S o r a b j i ' s w r i t i n g s on o t h e r B r i t i s h c o m p o s e r s who a r e n o t m e n t i o n e d a s f r e q u e n t l y , b u t who a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s p r o m i n e n t f i g u r e s i n t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y E n g l i s h m u s i c . FREDERICK DELIUS ( 1 8 6 2 - 1 9 3 4 ) F r e d e r i c k D e l i u s was t h e most f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d c o m p o s e r i n S o r a b j i ' s w r i t i n g s . I n h i s r e v i e w s , S o r a b j i d e a l t w i t h some t w e n t y c o m p o s i t i o n s o f D e l i u s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f w h i c h were l a v i s h e d w i t h h i g h p r a i s e . As T a b l e 2 shows, S o r a b j i w r o t e a b o u t D e l i u s ' m u s i c i n f o u r t e e n r e v i e w s a n d made r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e c o m p o s e r a n d / o r h i s m u s i c i n s i x t e e n o t h e r r e v i e w s . S o r a b j i 34 o f t e n c h a l l e n g e d the v a r i o u s a t t a c k s by the E n g l i s h P r e s s upon D e l i u s ' " f o r m l e s s n e s s " , " a m a t e u r i s h n e s s " and l a c k of t e c h n i c a l competence. 2 8 S o r a b j i ' s a d m i r a t i o n f o r D e l i u s and h i s music was immense. In h i s o p i n i o n , D e l i u s was "the c r e a t o r of r a d i a n t m a s t e r p i e c e s " , 2 9 "the g r e a t e s t and p u r e s t N ature poet t h a t music has ever known"; 3 0 he was "of the whole e a r t h , a i r and sky, which speak and s i n g t h rough him i n a way t h a t i s perhaps unique i n a l l m u s i c " , 3 1 and a "master who c o u l d e x p r e s s m u s i c a l l y the mood of e c s t a t i c and t r a n s c e n d e n t c o n t e m p l a t i o n which i n I n d i a i s c a l l e d S a m a d h i . " 3 2 Such g l o r i f y i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s of D e l i u s and h i s music a r e not uncommon i n S o r a b j i ' s r e v i e w s of t h i s composer who was r e l a t i v e l y u n a p p r e c i a t e d a t the time of the s e w r i t i n g s . In l i g h t of S o r a b j i ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n of the r o m a n t i c , p o s t - r o m a n t i c and i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c i d i o m s , i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t he s h o u l d w r i t e so f a v o u r a b l y about D e l i u s ' music, which 2 8 S e e : K. S o r a b j i , "Music: The D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . ; T e t r a z z i n i . A l b e r t H a l l . October 20.; D e l i u s F e s t i v a l , " New Age 46, No. 1 (November 7, 1929):8-9, (DR 168-169). 2 9 K . S o r a b j i , "Music: [ R e g a r d i n g the performance of the second v i o l i n and p i a n o c o n c e r t o of D e l i u s on March 20, 1925]," New Age 36, No. 23 ( A p r i l 2, 1925):272-273, (DR 4 3 ) . 3 0 K . S o r a b j i , "Music: [On the performance of D e l i u s ' Song of the High H i l l s by the P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r on March 11, 1926]," New Age 38, No. 21 (March 25. 1926):250, (DR 6 2 ) . 3 1 K . S o r a b j i , "Music: L.S.O.; Mr. George P a r k e r . A e o l i a n . A p r i l 12," New Age 40, No. 26 ( A p r i l 28, 1927):310, (DR 8 6 ) . 3 2 K. S o r a b j i , "Music: B.B.C. Symphony C o n c e r t . ; D e l i u s F e s t i v a l , " New Age 46, No. 2 (November 14, 1929):20-21, (DR 170-171). 35 d i s p l a y e d a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e t r a i t s . D e l i u s was a g e n u i n e r o m a n t i c - i m p r e s s i o n i s t who a m a l g a m a t e d t h e r i c h o r c h e s t r a l t o n e - c o l o u r s , l u s c i o u s s c o r i n g a n d c h r o m a t i c h a r m o n i e s o f t h e W a g n e r i a n g r o u p o f r o m a n t i c a n d p o s t - r o m a n t i c c o m p o s e r s , a s w e l l a s t h e e x o t i c i s m , t h e i n t e n s e l y e v o c a t i v e i m a g e r y a n d f u s i o n o f f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e i m p r e s s i o n i s t s t y l e . S o r a b j i ' s a d m i r a t i o n f o r D e l i u s ' m u s i c p r o m p t e d h i s u s e o f a g g r a n d i z i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s s u c h a s t h o s e f o u n d i n a 1925 r e v i e w o f P a r i s : A N o c t u r n e . t T h e Song o f a G r e a t C i t y ( 1 8 9 9 ) : " P a r i s , " t h e f i n e s t work o f D e l i u s ' s e a r l y p e r i o d , i s a g l o r i o u s a n d g l o w i n g mood poem; i t i s one o f t h e o r c h e s t r a l m a s t e r p i e c e s o f o u r t i m e , a t o n c e v i v i d a n d s u b t l e , h i g h l y - c o l o u r e d a n d y e t s e n s i t i v e , a work w i t h w h i c h o f i t s k i n d i s f i t t o compare no work o f any " B r i t i s h " c o m p o s e r l i v i n g . I t i s a l i g h t a n d b u r n i n g w i t h a w h i t e h o t i m a g i n a t i o n , e x u l t a n t , a n d i s s h o t t h r o u g h w i t h t h a t n o s t a l g i a , t h a t " t r i s t e z z a , " w h i c h i s s u c h a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f D e l i u s , a n d w h i c h a t t a i n s t o s u c h p o i g n a n t a n d p i e r c i n g i n t e n s i t y i n t h e g r e a t e s t m u s i c a l N a t u r e ' s e l x g i a c e v e r w r i t t e n . . . , 3 3 S o r a b j i ' s o p i n i o n o f t h i s work d i d n o t c h a n g e , f o r i n a n o t h e r r e v i e w w r i t t e n a l m o s t a y e a r l a t e r , he w r o t e w i t h e q u a l l y h i g h p r a i s e , u s i n g t h e same s t y l e o f l a n g u a g e . 3 " I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t S o r a b j i s h o u l d d e s c r i b e t h e c o m p o s i t o n t h u s l y , f o r i t s r o m a n t i c t r a i t s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e c o m p o s e r ' s u s e o f an o r c h e s t r a o f S t r a u s s i a n p r o p o r t i o n s a n d i n t h e u s e o f c h r o m a t i c h a r m o n i e s w h i c h e v o k e a t m o s p h e r i c i m p r e s s i o n s a n d c o n t e m p l a t i v e 3 3 K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e L.S.O. C o n c e r t where D e l i u s ' P a r i s was p e r f o r m e d ] , " New Age 36, No. 21 ( M a r c h 19, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 4 6 , (DR 4 1 ) . 3 " S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : S i r Thomas Beecham," New Age 38, No. 19 ( M a r c h 11, 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 2 5 , (DR 6 1 ) . 36 moods. S o r a b j i ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h i s work a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h o s e o f o t h e r m u s i c c r i t i c s . F o r i n s t a n c e , C h r i s t o p h e r P a l m e r , w r i t i n g a l m o s t f i f t y y e a r s l a t e r , d e p i c t s D e l i u s ' m u s i c i n much t h e same w a y . 3 5 N e v i l l e C a r d u s w r o t e a b o u t t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f d e s c r i b i n g D e l i u s ' m u s i c t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . I n h i s o p i n i o n , a m u s i c a l c r i t i c i s t e m p t e d by D e l i u s t o p r o d u c e l i t e r a r y " f l u m m e r y " — v a g u e m e a n d e r i n g s a b o u t t r a n s l u c e n t h a r m o n i e s , dawns t h a t s h immer, a n d w h i t e p o o l s o f p e a c e . 3 6 The w o r k s b e l o n g i n g t o D e l i u s ' s e c o n d s t y l e p e r i o d ( 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 0 7 ) r e c e i v e d s i m i l a r r e p o r t s i n S o r a b j i ' s r e v i e w s . I n a 1927 r e v i e w o f D e l i u s ' i n t e r l u d e , "A Walk t o P a r a d i s e G a r d e n " , f r o m t h e o p e r a A V i l l a g e Romeo a n d J u l i e t ( 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 0 1 ) , S o r a b j i w r o t e t h a t t h e m u s i c was " o f p i e r c i n g a n d h e a r t - s t a b b i n g b e a u t y " ; 3 7 The c a n t a t a S e a - D r i f t ( 1 9 0 2 / 0 3 ) , r e v i e w e d i n t h e same y e a r , was r e g a r d e d a s D e l i u s ' "most m o v i n g a n d p o i g n a n t o f n a t u r e poems . . . [ w h i c h e x p r e s s e s ] t h e u n u t t e r a b l e s a d d n e s s o f t h e v a s t s p a c e s w i t h a t t i m e s an a l m o s t u n b e a r a b l e p a t h o s a n d 3 5 S e e : C. P a l m e r , D e l i u s : P o r t r a i t o f a C o s m o p o l i t a n , ( L o n d o n : D u c k w o r t h , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 38. 3 6 N . C a r d u s , " D e l i u s : H i s M e t h o d a n d M u s i c , " M a n c h e s t e r G u a r d i a n ( O c t o b e r 14, 1 9 2 9 ) : n . p , r e p r i n t e d i n C h r i s t o p e r Redwood, e d . , A D e l i u s C o m p a n i o n , ( L o n d o n : J o h n C a l d e r , 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 87. 3 7 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Mme. Wanda L a n d o w s k a (Wigmore H a l l , May 1 6 ) , " New Age 4 1 , No. 6 ( J u n e 9, 1 9 2 7 ) : 6 9 ~ 7 0 , (DR 8 8 - 8 9 ) . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t S o r a b j i d e s c r i b e s t h e m u s i c a s s u c h f o r many of t h e q u a l i t i e s he a d m i r e d i n m u s i c a r e e v i d e n t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r work. T h e s e i n c l u d e D e l i u s ' u s e o f t h e W a g n e r i a n l e i t m o t i f t e c h n i q u e a n d an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c u s e o f a c h r o m a t i c - h a r m o n i c s t r u c t u r e w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f a p o l y c h r o m a t i c s t y l e j u x t a p o s i n g d i a t o n i c a n d m o d a l h a r m o n i e s — t h e l a t t e r b e i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f G r i e g , whom D e l i u s a d m i r e d g r e a t l y . 37 b e a u t y " 3 8 Two l a t e r p i e c e s f o r o r c h e s t r a , B r i q q F a i r ( 1 9 0 7 ) and I n a Summer G a r d e n ( 1 9 0 8 ) , r e v i e w e d two y e a r s l a t e r h ad t h e same " l o v e l y a nd d e l i c a t e l y , y e t w a r m l y g l o w i n g t e x t u r e s a s S e a - D r i f t . 3 9 S o r a b j i ' s f a v o r i t e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h i s s e c o n d p e r i o d , h o w e v e r , was D e l i u s ' A Mass o f L i f e ( 1 9 0 4 - 5 ) , one o f t h e c o m p o s e r ' s l a r g e s t c h o r a l w o r k s b a s e d on N i e t z c h e ' s t e x t . T h i s work i s s t a r k l y l a t e - r o m a n t i c i n i t s c o n c e p t i o n . C e c i l G r a y , i n 1924, c a l l e d i t D e l i u s ' l a r g e s t a n d most a m b i t i o u s work t h o u g h n o t a p e r s o n a l work b e c a u s e o f t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g i n f l u e n c e o f s o l i d - G e r m a n c r a f t s m a n s h i p . * 0 T h i s o p i n i o n i s a l s o p r e s e n t e d by P a l m e r who r e g a r d s t h e Mass t o be " D e l i u s ' s most G e r m a n i c 3 8 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : L.S.O.; Mr. G e o r g e P a r k e r . A e o l i a n . A p r i l 12," New Ag_e 40, No. 26 ( A p r i l 28, 1927) ; 310, (DR 8 6 ) . I n t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n , S o r a b j i a l s o d i s c o v e r e d many p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h f o r h i m , f i l l e d t h e m u s i c w i t h a s p i r i t u a l i n t e n s i t y a n d e m o t i o n a l i m p u l s e . A n t h o n y P a y n e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s c o m p o s t i o n s e r v e s w e l l t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e s e f e a t u r e s (The New G r o v e , s . v . " D e l i u s , F r e d e r i c k , " by A n t h o n y P a y n e ) : " D e l i u s p r e s e n t s a s t r e a m o f s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a f l o w o f c h r o m a t i c harmony whose i n t e n s i t y i s n e v e r b r o k e n , a n d a v a r i e t y o f c o l o u r a n d p a c e i s a c h i e v e d a l m o s t i m p e r c e p t i b l y , y e t w i t h u t m o s t d i r e c t n e s s . " 3 9 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e b r o a d c a s t programme where S i b e l i u s ' F i f t h Symphony was p e r f o r m e d ] ; D ' A l v a r e z . A e o l i a n , O c t . 9.; Egon P e t r i . Wigmore, 1 1 t h . ; F i r s t C o n c e r t o f t h e D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . Q u e e n ' s, 1 2 t h ; J e r i t z a . A l b e r t H a l l , 1 3 t h , " New Age 4 5 , No. 26 ( O c t o b e r 24, 1 9 2 9 ) : 3 0 8 - 3 1 0 , (DR 1 6 5 - 1 6 7 ) . *°C. G r a y , A S u r v e y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c , ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 2 4 ) , p. 69. 38 s c o r e , " " 1 a work which borrowed from the t r a d i t i o n s of the g r e a t masters of the p a s t and a n t i c i p a t e d a m a s t e r p i e c e i n the f u t u r e : A Mass of L i f e i s b u i l t on an enormous s c a l e , a pagan o r a t o r i o stemming i n a d i r e c t l i n e of descent form the 'An d i e Freude'of the N i n t h , B r u c k n e r ' s Te Deum and the c h o r a l e f i n a l e of M a h l e r ' s R e s u r r e c t i o n Symphony and a n t i c i p a t i n g the two f o l d s t r u c t u r e of the mighty Symphony of a Thousand which had y e t t o be w r i t t e n . In the huge c h o r a l d i t h y r a m b s which open e i t h e r p a r t of the Mass and i n the hymnic s e t t i n g of Z a r a t h u s t r a ' s M i t t e r n a c h t s l i e d which forms the apex of the e n t i r e c o n s t r u c t i o n we f i n d a sinewy a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t r e n g t h and a t e x t u r a l s o l i d i t y and b r e a d t h of c o n c e p t i o n u t t e r l y Germanic i n temper." 2 Henry Raynor, w r i t i n g i n 1980 made a c l e a r r e f e r e n c e t o romantic i n f l u e n c e s i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the work: A Mass of L i f e . . . [ i s a work where] s e v e r a l of Z a r a t h u s t r a ' s g r e a t r h a p s o d i e s , . . . are s e t t o music of g r e a t power, i n t e r p o s e d w i t h l y r i c a l passages of g r e a t beauty; the work ends w i t h a s e t t i n g of Z a r a t h u s t r a ' s " M i d n i g h t song" i n which D e l i u s ' s l a y - o u t and g e n e r a l s t y l e seems f o r some minutes t o draw near t o the f i n a l overwhelming e c s t a s y of M a h l e r ' s E i g h t h Symphony." 3 The g r e a t a r c h i t e c t o n i c p r o p o r t i o n s of the Mass (which r e c a l l the Wagnerian music-dramas and the l a r g e - s c a l e symphonic s t r u c t u r e s of Mahler and B r u c k n e r ) , the d r a m a t i c s e t t i n g , the l y r i c a l m e l o d i c passages, and f l o w i n g p h r a s e s c l e a r l y a t t r a c t e d S o r a b j i . H i s p r a i s e f o r t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n was a b s o l u t e . The pagan r e l i g i o s i t y of the work was compared t o the p u r e l y C h r i s t i a n s p i r i t of Bach's B minor Mass and S o r a b j i r e v e l l e d i n the " 1C. Palmer, D e l i u s : P o r t r a i t , p. 97-98. * 2 I b i d . " 3H. Raynor, Music i n E n g l a n d , (London: Robert H a l e , 1980), p. 184. 39 s p i r i t u a l e m o t i o n a l i s m o f t h e m u s i c . " ' 1 S i m i l a r l y , i n a r e v i e w w r i t t e n a b o u t f o u r y e a r s l a t e r , S o r a b j i s t a t e d : . . . h e r e i s a t e a m i n g , a b u n d a n t , a nd o v e r f l o w i n g " l i f e " e x u l t a n t a n d v i v i d . . . . The work h a s a s u r g e a n d sweep, t h e b r e a d t h a n d l e n g t h o f p h r a s e t h a t a r e i n s t a n t l y r e c o g n i s a b l e a s t h e s i g n - m a n u a l o f t h e g r e a t e s t m u s i c . . . .* 5 I n c o n t r a s t , a p u r e l y i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c c h o r a l - o r c h e s t r a l w o r k , An A r a b e s k ( 1 9 1 1 ) was a l s o a d m i r e d by S o r a b j i a n d c o n s i d e r e d u n i q u e i n D e l i u s ' a r t : 4 6 I t i s s u r e l y one o f t h e most a s t o n i s h i n g e v o c a t i o n s i n s o u n d o f p o i s o n o u s , p e r v e r s e , t u b e r o s e - l i k e b e a u t y t h a t e x i s t s . I t i s u n d e s c r i b a b l y i n s i n u a t i n g , a n d t h e mood o f t h e s u b t l y b e a u t i f u l poem, w i t h i t s d e a d l y p e r f u m e , " p o i s o n o u s l i l y ' s b l i n d i n g c h a l i c e , " i s e x p r e s s e d w i t h m i r a c u l o u s i n s i g h t a n d p o w e r . The work i s t e c h n i c a l l y a n d a e s t h e t i c a l l y un p r o d i g e , t h e m u s i c a l t h o u g h t o f a p p o s i t e n e s s a n d u t t e r r i g h t n e s s . . . [ a r e ] o v e r w h e l m i n g . * 7 T h i s p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f S o r a b j i ' s m u s i c a l a c c o r d w i t h D e l i u s ' c o m p o s i t i o n s , t h a t i s , t h o s e w o r k s u s i n g r o m a n t i c a n d i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c t r a i t s , e i t h e r s e p a r a t e l y , a s i n t h e c a s e o f A Mass o f L i f e a n d An A r a b e s k o r i n f u s i o n a s i n t h e tone - p o e m P a r i s . 4 4 S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f D e l i u s ' Mass by t h e R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c S o c i e t y ] , " New Age 36, No. 26 T A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 0 8 , (DR 4 4 ) . a 5 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : B.B.C. Symphony C o n c e r t . ; D e l i u s F e s t i v a l , " New Age 46, No. 2 (November 14, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 0 - 2 1 , (DR 1 7 0 - 1 7 1 ) . 4 6 S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On D e l i u s ' m u s i c i n g e n e r a l ] , " New Age 36, No. 26 ( A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 0 8 , (DR 4 4 ) . 4 7 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : The D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . ; T e t r a z z i n i . A l b e r t H a l l . O c t o b e r 2 0 . ; D e l i u s F e s t i v a l , " New Age 46, No. 1 (November 7, 1 9 2 9 ) : 8 ~ 9 , (DR 1 6 8 - 1 6 9 ) . 40 A Song of the High H i l l s (1911) composed during Delius' t h i r d style period was also favoured by Sorabji. It was, in Sorabji's opinion, "one of the supreme and transcendent masterpieces of music." 4 8 Sorabji wrote three reviews on this work which are a l l consistent in their praise, and which again demonstrate Sorabji's musical sympathies. 4 9 In the last review of 1931, Sorabji emphatically declared that with every hearing of the work "the cogency and mastery of inner essential logic and coherence becomes more convincing and patent." 5 0 Sorabji was deeply impressed with the intensity of the work and i t s romantic framework. However, not a l l of Sorabji's reviews on the music of Delius contain such glowing reports. The l a t e r , more contemporary works such as the Cello Concerto (1921) and the Second V i o l i n Sonata (1925) that employ c l a s s i c a l formal structures lost t h e i r wonderful and magical q u a l i t i e s which had e a r l i e r caused Sorabji to be so enthusiastic. For example., of the Cello Concerto Sorabji wrote in 1929: . . . the trouble comes when Delius remembers he i s 4 8K. Sorabji, "Music: [On the Philharmonic Choir Concert on March 11, 1926 where the Song of the High H i l l s was performed]," New Age 38, No. 21 (March 25, 192677250, (DR 62). 4 9See: K. Sorabji, "Music: [On the Philharmonic Choir Concert on March 11, 1926 where the Song of the High H i l l s was performed]," New Aĝ e 38, No. 21 (March 25, 192677250, (DR 62); "Music: [Regarding the Philharmonic Choir Concert at the Queen's Hall on June 13, 1929]," New Age. 45, No. 9 (June 27, 1929): 104, (DR 152); and "Music: [Newman on Music C r i t i c i s m ] ; Wireless. B.B.C," New Age 50, No. 8 (December 24, 1931 ): 92, (DR 235). 5 0 I b i d . 41 w o r k i n g w i t h a c o n c e r t o and t h a t a c o n c e r t o o u g h t t o h a v e a q u i c k s e c t i o n ; t h e n he f a l l s i n t o one o f t h o s e j o g - t r o t c r o c h e t - q u a v e r movements t h a t a r e r a t h e r a c l i c h e w i t h h i m , m a n i f e s t l y i l l a t e a s e . . . and o n l y w a t c h i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e t u r n t o t h e p r e v a l e n t mood an d s t y l e t h a t he s h o u l d n e v e r h a v e l e f t . 5 1 S o r a b j i was n o t a l o n e i n c r i t i c i s i n g t h e w o r k ' s weak f o r m a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . C e c i l G r a y , f o r i n s t a n c e , w r o t e i n a s i m i l a r v e i n i n 1 9 2 4 , 5 2 a n d i n 1980 A n t h o n y P a y n e came t o t h e same c o n c l u s i o n i n r e g a r d t o t h i s work and an e a r l i e r o ne, t h e D o u b l e C o n c e r t o f o r V i o l i n a n d C e l l o ( 1 9 1 5 - 1 9 1 6 ) : D e l i u s was n o t t h e c o m p o s e r t o o r g a n i z e s u b t l e i n t e r p l a y o f f o r c e s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e c o n c e r t o f o r m . . . . He was c l e a r l y u n s u r e o f what t o do w i t h h i s s o l o i s t s a t t i m e s , a n d i n v e n t e d some p e r f u n c t o r y p a s s a g e work. C l u t t e r e d s o l o w r i t i n g mars p a r t o f t h e C e l l o C o n c e r t o . 5 3 H o w e v e r , S o r a b j i d i d n o t w r i t e u n f a v o u r a b l y a b o u t t h e e a r l i e r D o u b l e C o n c e r t o f o r V i o l i n a n d ' C e l l o . To h i s m i n d , t h e " l o v e l y p o i g n a n t s o n g o f t h e two i n s t r u m e n t s " was e v i d e n c e o f t h e c o m p o s e r ' s " c h o i c e s t i n s p i r a t i o n s . " 5 * No m e n t i o n i s made o f t h e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s work a n d i t i s u n c l e a r a s t o w h e t h e r S o r a b j i r e g a r d e d t h e c o m p o s i t i o n p o s i t i v e l y i n a l l r e s p e c t s o r w h e t h e r he c h o s e t o i g n o r e D e l i u s ' w e a k n e s s e s w h i c h t o h i s m i n d 5 1 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e ' A l l - E n g l i s h E v e n i n g a t t h e Proms' on S e p t e m b e r 29, 1 9 2 9 ] , " New Age 45, No. 20 ( A u g u s t 12, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 3 9 , (DR 1 5 7 - 1 5 8 ) . S o r a b j i w r o t e an e q u a l l y n e g a t i v e r e v i e w o f t h e S e c o n d V i o l i n S o n a t a o f 1925. ( S e e : " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e chamber c o n c e r t on M a r c h 20, 1 9 2 5 ] , " New Age 36, No. 23 ( A p r i l 2, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 7 3 , (DR 4 2 ) ) . 5 2 S e e : C. G r a y , A S u r v e y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c , p. 76. 5 3 T h e New G r o v e , s . v . " D e l i u s , F r e d e r i c k , " by A n t h o n y P a y n e . 5 < tK. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e O r c h e s t r a l C o n c e r t o f B e a t r i c e a nd May H a r r i s o n a t t h e Queen's H a l l on J u n e 14," New Age 45, No. 9 ( J u n e 27, 1 9 2 9 ) : 1 0 5 , (DR 1 5 2 - 1 5 3 ) . 42 were m i n i s c u l e i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e c o m p o s e r ' s s t r e n g t h s . S o r a b j i h a s p r o t e c t e d D e l i u s f r o m t h e a l l e g e d c r i t i c i s m o f t h e " f o r m l e s s n e s s " a n d " a m a t e u r i s h n e s s " o f h i s m u s i c i n s e v e r a l r e v i e w s . I n h i s o p i n i o n , D e l i u s was g r e a t e r t h a n e v e n B r u c k n e r i n r e g a r d t o t h e f o r m a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h i s m u s i c . D e l i u s h a d o v e r c o m e B r u c k n e r ' s d e f i c i e n c e s by f u s i n g t h e d e l i n e a t i o n s w h i c h m a r k e d t h e o l d e r f o r m s . 5 5 I n a r e v i e w d a t e d 1931, S o r a b j i gave an e x a m p l e o f t h i s m ethod o f D e l i u s ' f o r m c o n s t r u c t i o n i n A Song o f t h e H i g h H i l l s a n d l a s h e d o u t a t c r i t i c s who c l a s s i f i e d t h i s p i e c e o f m u s i c ( w h i c h h a s a t h r e e - p a r t t e r n e r y f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e ) a s b e i n g " f o r m l e s s " . 5 6 A p p a l a c i a ( 1 9 0 2 / 0 3 ) , a work f o r c h o i r a n d o r c h e s t r a was a l s o u s e d a s an e x a m p l e t o w a r d o f f t h e p o p u l a r l e g e n d o f t h e t i m e o f D e l i u s ' " a m a t e u r i s h n e s s " , a s t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s D e l i u s ' m a s t e r l y t r e a t m e n t o f t h e v a r i a t i o n f o r m : T h i s w o n d e r f u l s e r i e s o f v a r i a t i o n s s h o u l d a l o n e s e r v e t o e x p o s e t h e a b s u r d i t y o f t h e a c c u s a t i o n o f a m a t e u r i s h n e s s t h a t i s s o o f t e n made a g a i n s t D e l i u s on t e c h n i c a l g r o u n d s . F o r a more c o n s u m a t e s e t o f o r c h e s t r a l v a r i a t i o n s d o e s n o t , I s u b m i t e x i s t ; t h e v a r i e t y a n d i n v e n t i v e n e s s o f t h e t r e a t m e n t a r e e q u a l l e d by t h e s u p e r b s k i l l w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e " p u t a c r o s s " . 5 7 S e v e r a l a u t h o r s have a g r e e d w i t h S o r a b j i on t h e s e p o i n t s . F o r 5 5 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ C o p y r i g h t B i l l ] ; R a c h m a n i n o f f . A l b e r t H a l l : Nov. 24.; C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t . Nov. 20," New Age 46, No. 5 (December 5, 1 9 2 9 ) : 5 7 , (DR 1 7 7 - 1 7 8 ) . 5 6 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [Newman on M u s i c C r i t i c i s m ] ; W i r e l e s s . B . B . C , " New Ag_e 50, No. 8 (December 24, 1 9 3 1 ) : 9 2 , (DR 2 3 5 ) . 5 7 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : The D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . ; T e t r a z z i n i . A l b e r t H a l l . O c t o b e r 20.; D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . " New Age 46, No. 1 (November 7, 1 9 2 9 ) : 8 ~ 9 , (DR 1 6 8 - 1 6 9 ) . 43 i n s t a n c e , t h e w r i t e r a n d co m p o s e r Norman Demuth s t a t e d some t w e n t y y e a r s l a t e r : The c h a r g e o f f o r m l e s s n e s s w h i c h was a m a t t e r f o r d i s a p p r o v a l among a c a d e m i c m i n d s i s q u i t e u n f o u n d e d . . . . I n s t e a d o f t h e u s u a l m u l t i - m o v e m e n t d e s i g n he [ D e l i u s ] u s e d e i t h e r t h e e a r l y E n g l i s h p h a n t a s y . . . o r t h a t o f v a r i a t i o n . I t i s t r u e t h a t s o m e t i m e s t h e sh a p e becomes l o o s e , b u t i t i s i n v a r i a b l y t i g h t e n e d up by some l i n k i n g f i g u r e l i k e t h a t o f t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e V i o l i n C o n c e r t o . 5 8 F o r S o r a b j i , D e l i u s r e m a i n e d a m a s t e r m u s i c i a n t h r o u g h o u t h i s c a r e e r a s m u s i c c r i t i c f o r t h e j o u r n a l a n d many o f h i s w r i t i n g s t o t h e l a s t y e a r s o f h i s o f f i c e , c o n t a i n f a v o u r a b l e o p i n i o n s a n d p o s i t i v e r e f e r e n c e s t o D e l i u s a n d / o r h i s w o r k s . When he had t h e c h a n c e , S o r a b j i w o u l d r u s h t o d e f e n d h i s " h e r o " a n d p l e a d w i t h t h e m u s i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t t o p r o v i d e more c o n c e r t s f e a t u r i n g D e l i u s ' w o r k s . A l r e a d y one c a n d e t e c t S o r a b j i ' s f a v o u r a b l e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r k s o f a c o m p o s e r w h i c h a r e r o m a n t i c a n d / o r i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c i n s t y l e a n d a d i s a p p r o v a l o f t h o s e c o m p o s i t i o n s by t h e same a r t i s t , w h i c h c o n t a i n c l a s s i c a l t e n d e n c i e s , a n d / o r t r a i t s t h e c r i t i c condemned. 5 8 N . Demuth, M u s i c a l T r e n d s i n t h e 2 0 t h C e n t u r y , p. 128. 44 S I R EDWARD ELGAR ( 1 8 5 7 - 1 9 3 4 ) S i r E d w a r d E l g a r was t h e n e x t m o s t - w r i t t e n a b o u t B r i t i s h c o m p o s e r d e a l t w i t h by S o r a b j i i n The New A g e , w i t h t w e l v e r e v i e w s b e i n g d e v o t e d t o E l g a r ' s m u s i c a n d s e v e n o t h e r s m e n t i o n i n g h i s w o r k s , S o r a b j i ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f E l g a r ' s m u s i c was g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e , f o r S o r a b j i b e l i e v e d t h a t E l g a r p o s s e s s e d a " v e r y g r e a t m u s i c a l m i n d , b r o a d d e e p a n d p o w e r f u l . " 5 9 S o r a b j i a d m i r e d o n l y t h o s e w o r k s o f E l g a r ' s w h i c h were r o m a n t i c i n s t y l e . E l g a r s u c c e e d e d i n c r e a t i n g a s t y l e u n i q u e l y h i s own, one t h a t c o m b i n e d t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f m a j o r r o m a n t i c c o m p o s e r s s u c h a s Wagner, Brahms, Schumann, B e r l i o z a n d C e s a r F r a n c k t o f o r m a l u x u r i o u s , e x t r a v a g a n t , p o w e r f u l a n d g r a n d i l o q u e n t s t y l e . 6 0 T h i s s t y l e was t y p i c a l l y r o m a n t i c i n i t s h a r m o n i c l a n g u a g e , f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e , a n d o r c h e s t r a t i o n . E l g a r r e m a i n e d c o n s e r v a t i v e i n a l l t h e s e a r e a s a n d was r e g a r d e d a s a l e s s a d v e n t u r o u s c o n t e m p o r a r y o f R i c h a r d S t r a u s s by t h e c r i t i c s o f t h e t i m e . 6 1 E l g a r ' s s u c c e s s stemmed f r o m h i s u s e o f m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l s w h i c h 5 9 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t : Q u e e n ' s , M a r c h 18," New Age 46, No. 22 ( A p r i l 3, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 1 9 4 ) . 6 0 H . R a y n o r , M u s i c i n E n g l a n d , p. 181. 6 1 H . R a y n o r , M u s i c i n E n g l a n d , p. 182. 45 a p p e a l e d t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c : 6 2 s t r o n g m a r c h i n g r h y t h m s , a t r a d i t i o n a l n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y h a r m o n i c l a n g u a g e a n d s u c h m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l s a s f o l k t u n e s o f common a p p e a l . The Pomp and C i r c u m s t a n c e m a r c h e s ( 1 9 0 1 - 1 0 ) e x e m p l i f y h i s more p o p u l a r w o r k s , e m b o d y i n g B r i t i s h a f f e c t i o n f o r p a g e n t r y . T h e s e p o p u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n E l g a r ' s m u s i c d i d n o t a p p e a l t o S o r a b j i i n t h e l e a s t . I n f a c t , t h e i n c l u s i o n o f s u c h m a t e r i a l was r e g a r d e d a s a s e r i o u s w e a k n e s s by S o r a b j i . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e o r a t o r i o The K i n g d o m (1906) c o n t a i n e d , i n S o r a b j i ' s o p i n i o n , some o f E l g a r ' s b e s t a n d w o r s t q u a l i t i e s : O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e m u s i c r i s e s t o h e i g h t s o f e t h e r e a l i s e d , r a r e f i e d p u r i t y a n d b e a u t y , t o d e s c e n d p r o m p t l y i n t o t h e w o r s t E l g a r i a n m a u d l i n o f t h e amorous s e c t i o n s o f t h e " C o c k a i g n e " o v e r t u r e o r t h e d e t e s t a b l e bombast o f h i s j i n g o i s m , s u c h a s "L a n d o f Hope a n d G l o r y " . 6 3 S o r a b j i d i d n o t a p p r e c i a t e E l g a r ' s p a s s i o n f o r m a r c h i n g r h y t h m s and h i s u s e o f b r a s s a n d p e r c u s s i o n i n t h e C o c k a i g n e o v e r t u r e o f 1901. S o r a b j i o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o t h i s t y p e o f m u s i c a s E l g a r ' s " b o m b a s t i c m a g n i l o q u e n c e " . 6 " L i k e w i s e , C e c i l G r a y i n d i c a t e d t h a t E l g a r ' s u s e o f p o p u l a r i d i o m s r e f l e c t e d a l a c k o f s p i r i t u a l 6 2 N o r m a n Demuth i s a l s o o f t h i s o p i n i o n ( M u s i c a l T r e n d s , p. 1 1 6 ) : " E l g a r ' s m u s i c a l p r o x i m i t y t o t h e man i n t h e s t r e e t was p h e n o m e n a l . He g a v e t h a t man s o m e t h i n g he c o u l d s i n g , s o m e t h i n g he c o u l d t a k e home w i t h h i m , s o m e t h i n g he c o u l d g r a s p a t a s i n g l e h e a r i n g . " 6 3 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f E l g a r ' s K i n g d o m by t h e L o n d o n C h o r a l S o c i e t y u n d e r A r t h u r Pagge w i t h t h e L . S . 0 . 3 , " New Age 37, No. 2 (May 14, 1 9 2 5 ) : 1 8 , (DR 4 7 ) . 6"K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Queen's H a l l P r o m e n a d e s , " New Age 39, No. 21 ( S e p t e m b e r 2 3 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 4 2 , (DR 7 4 ) . 46 b r e a d t h a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g . 6 5 S o r a b j i and o t h e r s ( e . g . , Hugh M c D i a r m i d a n d B e r n a r d va n D i e r e n ) b e l i e v e d s t r o n g l y t h a t h a v i n g m u s i c succumb t o t h e i n f e r i o r t a s t e s o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c b e l i t t l e d t h e s p i r i t u a l a n d c r e a t i v e q u a l i t i e s g r a n t e d t o t h e m u s i c i a n . S o r a b j i c o n s i d e r e d m u s i c t o be t h e h i g h e s t a r t f o r m w h i c h e x i s t e d , one r e q u i r i n g " P r i e s t s w o r t h y a n d f i t t i n g f o r t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e A l t a r , " and n o t j u s t o r d i n a r y p e r s o n s . 6 6 T h u s , m u s i c was i n t e n d e d f o r t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f an e l i t e c l a s s , a h i g h e r g r o u p o f i n d i v i d u a l s who were s p i r i t u a l l y a w a re o f i t s g e n i u s . 6 7 S o r a b j i ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l v i e w o f m u s i c t h e r e f o r e h e l p s one c o m p r e h e n d why E l g a r ' s more a c c e s s i b l e m u s i c was n o t r e v i e w e d f a v o u r a b l y . S o r a b j i ' s f a v o r i t e c o m p o s i t i o n s o f E l g a r were t h e V i o l i n C o n c e r t o o f 1910, t h e S e c o n d Symphony i n E f l a t ( 1 9 1 1 ) a n d t h e s y m p h o n i c s t u d y , F a l s t a f f o f 1913. The V i o l i n C o n c e r t o he r e g a r d e d a s one o f t h e f i n e s t B r i t i s h w o r k s o f i t s k i n d i n a 1926 r e v i e w . 6 8 S o r a b j i p r e f e r r e d t h i s p i e c e t o e i t h e r o f E l g a r ' s s y m p h o n i e s o r t h e s u c c e s s f u l E n i gma V a r i a t i o n s o f 1899 b e c a u s e t h e C o n c e r t o d i d n o t c o n t a i n a n y o f t h o s e mundane and 6 5 C . G r a y , A S u r v e y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c , p. 79. 6 6 K . S o r a b j i , " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : ' M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m ' , " New Age 36, No. 23 ( A p r i l 2, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 7 5 , (DR 4 3 ) . 6 7 S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : ' M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m ' , " New Age 36, No. 23 ( A p r i l 2, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 7 5 , (DR 4 3 ) ; a n d " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : ' M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m ' , " New Age 36, No. 26 ( A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 1 3 , (DR 4 5 ) . 6 8 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Queen's H a l l P r o m e n a d e s , " New Age 39, No. 21 ( S e p t e m b e r 23, 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 4 2 , (DR 7 4 ) . 47 commonplace p o p u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s g e a r e d t o a p p e a l t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . 6 9 S o r a b j i , i t seems, was i n f a t u a t e d by t h e a r d e n t s w e e t n e s s a n d l u s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e m e l o d i c c o n t e n t , t h e l u x u r i o u s l e n g t h o f t h e w o rk, a s w e l l a s t h e m y s t i c a l s e n s u o u s n e s s and t h e v i r t u o s i c e l e m e n t s . The C o n c e r t o i s one o f E l g a r ' s most r o m a n t i c o f c o m p o s i t i o n s , r e c a l l i n g g r e a t n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y w o r k s by s u c h m a s t e r s a s P a g a n i n i a n d L i s z t . The S e c o n d Symphony i n E f l a t ( 1 9 1 1 ) was a l s o w e l l - r e c e i v e d by S o r a b j i , who seemed t o p r e f e r t h i s r a t h e r c o n s e r v a t i v e p i e c e o f m u s i c t o t h e more c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s i c o f t h e t i m e : The meat o f t h e programme was t h e E l g a r S e c o n d Symphony, one o f t h e most r e m a r k a b l e w o r k s o f i t s k i n d t h a t e x i s t . A f t e r t h e t h i n , f e e b l e t r i c k l e o f a c r i d c o n t e m p o r a n e i t y , what a r e l i e f t o h e a r a g r e a t , g e n e r o u s f l o o d o f m u s i c , r i p e , f u l l , a n d m e l l o w . . . . One d o e s n o t know w h i c h i s more i m p r e s s i v e , t h e m a g n i f i c e n t r i c h n e s s and m a s t e r y o f i n v e n t i o n , t h e w o n d e r f u l l y u n i f i e d y e t s o v a r i e d t r e a t m e n t , t h e d a z z l i n g a c c o m p l i s h m e n t w i t h w h i c h a l l i s d o n e . . . . Some s e v e n t e e n y e a r s h a v e p a s s e d s i n c e I h e a r d t h e E l g a r , b u t t h a t p a s s a g e o f t i m e l e a v e s t h e work more s t r i k i n g l y o r i g i n a l a nd i n d i v i d u a l t h a n e v e r , a n d i t s t e c h n i c a l b r i l l i a n c e s t a n d s o u t i n e v e n g r e a t e r r e l i e f by c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e p r e v a i l i n g a m a t e u r i s h n e s s a n d i n c o m p e t e n c e w h i c h i s a g r e a t d e a l more n o t i c e a b l e now t h a n t h e n . 7 0 T h i s r e v i e w n o t o n l y i l l u s t r a t e s S o r a b j i ' s a d m i r a t i o n f o r E l g a r ' s c r a f t m a n s h i p , b u t a l s o e x e m p l i f i e s S o r a b j i ' s c o n s e r v a t i v e t a s t e s i n m u s i c . E l g a r ' s S e c o n d Symphony, w h i c h was composed a l m o s t n i n e t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e S o r a b j i w r o t e h i s f i r s t 6 9 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Queen's H a l l P r o m e n a d e s , " New Age 39, No. 21 ( S e p t e m b e r 23, 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 4 2 , (DR 7 4 ) . 7 0 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : H a l l e O r c h e s t r a : Q u e e n ' s . J a n u a r y 24.; P r i v a t e O r g a n R e c i t a l : S t . L a w r e n c e J e w r y , J a n u a r y 2 5 , " New Age 46, No. 14 ( F e b r u a r y 6, 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 6 4 , (DR 1 8 7 ) . 48 r e v i e w on t h e w o rk, was n o t a t r u l y c o n t e m p o r a r y p i e c e o f m u s i c f o r i t r e c a l l e d t h e " c l a s s i c a l " s y m p h o n i c t r a d i t i o n o f Haydn, M o z a r t , B e e t h o v e n , S c h u b e r t , Schumann, M e n d e l s s o h n and Brahms i n i t s f o u r - movement s t r u c t u r a l f r a m e w o r k . E l g a r ' s u s e o f c y c l i c a l themes a n d t h e s e q u e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s e themes i n t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t a l p h a s e s r e c a l l e d t h e s y m p h o n i c m e t a m o r p h o s i s o f L i s z t ' s s y m p h o n i c poems. A n o t h e r work o f E l g a r ' s w h i c h was p r a i s e d h i g h l y was t h e s y m p h o n i c s t u d y F a l s t a f f o f 1913. S o r a b j i c o n s i d e r e d t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n i n two r e v i e w s (1928 a n d 1 9 3 0 ) . F a l s t a f f was r e g a r d e d a s "an a s t o n i s h i n g work f l o o d i n g w i t h a v e r v a , une s e v r e a s t h e F r e n c h s a y , a r i c h n e s s a n d s u p p l e n e s s o f i d e a s and t r e a t m e n t n o t r e a c h e d by t h e c o m p o s e r b e f o r e n o r s i n c e . " 7 1 S o r a b j i was i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e m u s i c b u t he c o u l d n o t r e l a t e t o i t s " l i t e r a r y p r o v e n a n c e " i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i n S h a k e s p e r e ' s p l a y . 7 2 I n s p i t e o f t h i s , "No F a l s t a f f e v e r d i d o r c o u l d go t h r o u g h t h e immense s p r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e s o f w h i c h i t seems t o me ' F a l s t a f f i s t h e e x p r e s s i o n , a n d s u p e r b e x p r e s s i o n . " 7 3 I n t h e s e c o n d r e v i e w , S o r a b j i r e f e r r e d t o F a l s t a f f a s one o f E l g a r ' s " r i p e s t " w o r k s , f o r i n i t , E l g a r 7 1 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : K a t h e r i n e Heyman. Wigmore: O c t o b e r 25.; M e d t n e r : R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c . Queen's: Nov. 1," New Age 44 (November 15, 1 9 2 8 ) : 3 0 , (DR 1 3 1 ) . 7 2 I b i d . 7 3 I b i d . 49 " a t t a i n s an e l o q u e n t f r e e d o m , r i c h n e s s and v a r i e t y . . . . " 7 < t S o r a b j i s t a t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h i n f l u e n c e s o f S t r a u s s were e v i d e n t , t h e g e n e r a l t o n e a n d f e e l i n g s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . I n h i s F a l s t a f f , E l g a r had s u r p a s s e d t h e i n t e n s i t y a nd e m o t i o n a l i s m o f t h e m u s i c o f S t r a u s s , whose w o r k s were "much more p i c t o r i a l i n an e x t e r n a l way--so much so t h a t e n j o y m e n t o f them i s much e n h a n c e d by a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e programme . . . [ w h e r e a s ] E l g a r ' s w o r k s d i d n o t e v e n r e q u i r e a programme t o s u p p l y t h e e m o t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e m u s i c . " 7 5 The m u s i c o f F a l s t a f f , was "an end i n i t s e l f . . . [ a s i t t o l d ] i t s own t a l e w i t h o u t n e e d i n g o r w i s h i n g t o t r a n s l a t e t h a t t a l e i n t o v e r b a l c o n c e p t s . " 7 6 S o r a b j i was c o r r e c t i n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f S t r a u s s i n t h i s s y m p h o n i c poem o f E l g a r . F a l s t a f f h a s been r e f e r r e d t o a s E l g a r ' s most S t r a u s s i a n w o r k . 7 7 The w h o l e c o n c e p t i o n i s r o m a n t i c a n d p o s t - r o m a n t i c w i t h t h e u s e o f a theme w h i c h i s t r e a t e d i n a l e i t - m o t i f manner, t h e u s e o f t h e S t r a u s s i a n o r c h e s t r a a n d i n t h e i n d u l g e n c e o f l a r g e i n t e r v a l l i c l e a p s w h i c h a r e r e m i n i s c e n t o f S t r a u s s ' s t one-poem Don Q u i x o t e . I t i s no wonder t h e n t h a t t h e work a p p e a l e d t o S o r a b j i i n i t s e n t i r e t y . The r o m a n t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a s w e l l a s t h e l a c k o f 7*K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t : Q u e e n 's, M a r c h 18," New Age 46, No. 22 ( A p r i l 3, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 1 9 4 ) . 7 5 K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t : Queen's, M a r c h 18," New Age 46, No. 22 ( A p r i l 3, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 1 9 4 ) . 7 6 I b i d . 7 7 N . C a r d u s , e d . , S a m u e l L a n g f o r d . M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m , ( L o n d o n : Humphrey M i l f o r d , 1 9 2 9 ) , p. 7. 50 p o p u l a r i d i o m s i n t h i s work c a u s e d E l g a r t o a t t a i n , i n S o r a b j i ' s o p i n i o n a s p i r i t u a l a w a r e n e s s . 7 8 T h e r e f o r e , we s e e on c e a g a i n , a t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y c o m p o s e r u s i n g p r e d o m i n a t l y t h e m u s i c a l l a n g u a g e o f t h e r o m a n t i c e r a a p p r o b a t i v e l y r e c e i v e d by S o r a b j i i n h i s c r i t i q u e s . T h i s c o m p o s e r , t o g e t h e r w i t h D e l i u s , was r e g a r d e d a s one o f t h e l a s t p o e t s o f t h e r o m a n t i c age i n E n g l a n d ; S o r a b j i r e g a r d e d t h e i r a c h i e v e m e n t s a s b e i n g t h e h i g h e s t e x p r e s s i o n i n m u s i c . SIR ARNOLD BAX ( 1 8 8 3 - 1 9 5 3 ) S i r A r n o l d Bax r e g a r d e d h i m s e l f a s a " b r a z e n r o m a n t i c " whose " s e n s e s were d r u n k w i t h Wagner, n e r v e s a - t w i t c h t o t h e t i t i l l a t i n g p e r v e r s i t i e s t h a t R i c h a r d S t r a u s s was o b t r u d i n g . . ., w h i l e [ h i s ] b r a i n s t a g g e r e d a t t h e man's c o m p l e x a u d a c i t i e s o f c o u n t e r p o i n t a n d i n f e r n a l o r c h e s t r a l c l e a v e r n e s s . " 7 9 H i s e a r l y w o r k s composed b e f o r e 1920 r e p r e s e n t a t y p i c a l l y r o m a n t i c s t y l e a s he a s s i m i l a t e d t h e t h e m a t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f L i s z t ' s s p i r i t u a l c o n f l i c t , 8 0 t h e v i r t u o s i c u se o f t h e o r c h e s t r a , t h e r i c h o r c h e s t r a l c o l o u r s , t h e e p i c 7 8 S o r a b j i ' s a f f i n i t y w i t h E l g a r ' s m u s i c composed i n t h e r o m a n t i c v e i n h a s been e x p l a i n e d by h i s s y m p a t h y w i t h t h e m u s i c o f Wagner whose i n f l u e n c e c a n be s e e n i n many o f E l g a r ' s c o m p o s i t i o n s . S e e : The New G r o v e , s . v . " E l g a r , E d w a r d , " by D i a n e McVeagh. 7 9 P e r c y Y o u n g , A H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h M u s i c , ( L o n d o n : Benn, 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 570. 8°The New G r o v e , s . v . "Bax, S i r A r n o l d , " by A n t h o n y P a y n e . 51 p r o p o r t i o n s a n d . t h e c h r o m a t i c h a r m o n i e s o f Wagner and S t r a u s s . T h i s was s u p p l e m e n t e d by an i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c s t y l e , more i n vogue w i t h R a v e l t h a n w i t h D e b u s s y . The h a r m o n i c s t y l e o f t h i s p e r i o d u t i l i z e d t h e r o m a n t i c l a n g u a g e i n an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c manner e m p h a s i z i n g an u n d e r l y i n g h a r m o n i c s t r u c t u r e w h i c h r e m a i n e d d i a t o n i c w h i l s t t h e d e c o r a t i v e m a t e r i a l was r i c h l y c h r o m a t i c . The w o r k s composed a f t e r 1920 c o n s i s t e d o f a more a c a d e m i c s t y l e i n w h i c h Bax c o n c e n t r a t e d on d i s p l a y i n g h i s t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e by p r o v i d i n g c l e a r e r f o r m a l o u t l i n e s a n d m a k i n g s u b s t a n t i a l u se o f l i n e a r c o u n t e r p o i n t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , B a x ' s w o r k s l o s t t h e i r c r e a t i v e s p o n t a n e i t y . 8 1 The m a j o r i t y o f t h e w o r k s o f h i s l a t e r y e a r s , t h e r e f o r e , l o s t much o f t h e i r f r e e - f l o w i n g s u p p l e n e s s a n d r o m a n t i c / i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c q u a l i t i e s , a s w e l l a s t h e i r d r a m a t i c e l e m e n t s . I n s p i t e o f t h e i n h e r e n t r o m a n t i c / i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s i n t h e e a r l y w o r k s o f B a x , many o f S o r a b j i ' s r e v i e w s on t h e m u s i c o f t h i s c o m p o s e r were n e g a t i v e i n t o n e . S o r a b j i d i d n o t a p p r e c i a t e B a x ' s m u s i c a n d he f e l t Bax was a " f a n t a s t i c a l l y o v e r p r a i s e d " c o m p o s e r , 8 2 c o m p o s i n g m u s i c w h i c h l a c k e d i m a g i n a t i o n a nd s t r u c t u r a l s t r e n g t h . I n h i s r e v i e w s o f 1927 and 1929, S o r a b j i r e f e r r e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e c o m p o s e r ' s m u s i c a s b e i n g d e v o i d o f 8 1 T h e New G r o v e , s . v . "Bax, S i r A r n o l d , " by A n t h o n y P a y n e . 8 2 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e o f B a x ' s T h i s W o r l d ' s J o i e 3 , " New Age 35, No. 9 ( J u n e 26, 1 9 2 4 ) : 1 0 9 , T D R ~ 2 4 - 2 5 ) . 52 " s i n c e r i t y " , 8 3 p a s s i o n , a n d d r a m a t i c s u b s t a n c e . Two c o m p o s i t i o n s o f Bax w h i c h S o r a b j i r e v i e w e d i n 1927 were t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t ( 1 9 1 5 ) and t h e Oboe Q u i n t e t o f 1922. I n t h e s e r e v i e w s , S o r a b j i o u t l i n e s t h e c o m p o s e r ' s w e a k n e s s e s i n r e g a r d t o t h e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e o f h i s m u s i c : The two p r i n c i p a l w o r k s p l a y e d on t h i s o c c a s i o n , t h e Oboe and P i a n o q u i n t e t s were c a l c u l a t e d t o g i v e t h e w o r s t p o s s i b l e o p i n i o n o f t h i s c o m p o s e r . They a r e c o m p act o f a t e p i d v i s c i o u s g l u c o s i t y , c o m p l e t e l y l a c k i n g i n f i r m n e s s o f o u t l i n e and l i n e d r a w i n g a n d o v e r a l l b r o o d s t h a t m a r s h misma o f f o g g y - h e a d e d n e s s t h a t u s e d , I b e l i e v e , t o be c a l l e d t h e C e l t i c t w i l i g h t , p r o d u c i n g a s i n g u l a r l y r e p e l l e n t r e s u l t . . . . The c o m p o s e r f a i l s c o m p l e t e l y t o g a i n t h a t e s s e n t i a l i n n e r c o h e r e n c e w h i c h a l o n e c o n s t i t u e s " f o r m " , and t h e l a c k o f w h i c h no i n g e n i o u s and s p e c i o u s j e r r y - b u i l d i n g w i t h " t h i r d s " f i r s t a n d s e c o n d s u b j e c t s a n d a l l t h e r e s t o f t h e programme a n a l y s t s c l a p t r a p w i l l c o n c e a l o r s u b s t i t u t e f o r — i n d e e d , i n d e f a u l t o f i t t h e s e d e v i c e s a r e a v e r y m i n o r and p a l p a b l e p i e c e o f a r t i s t i c d i s h o n e s t y , so t r a n s p a r e n t t h a t one i s a s t o n i s h e d a t a n y o n e i m a g i n i n g us s i m p l e - m i n d e d enough t o be i m p r e s s e d , l e t a l o n e t a k e n by t h e m . 8 " S o r a b j i f e l t t h a t i n t h e s e w o r k s , Bax made e x c e s s i v e u s e o f themes and o r n a m e n t a l f i g u r e s , r e s u l t i n g i n a n e e d l e s s l y c o m p l e x t e x t u r e a n d weak f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e l a c k i n g o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s was t h e c r i t i c ' s o p i n i o n i n s p i t e o f B a x ' s u s e o f a r o m a n t i c s t y l e o f o r c h e s t r a t i o n , t h e l y r i c a l b e a u t y o f t h e m e l o d i c c o n t e n t a n d t h e e v o c a t i v e t i t l e s o f e a c h movement s u g g e s t i n g n o n - m u s i c a l i n s p i r a t i o n s i n t h e s e w o r k s . A n o t h e r 8 3 B y " s i n c e r i t y " i n m u s i c , S o r a b j i p r o b a b l y meant a d i r e c t a n d i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c c o m p o s i t i o n a l s t y l e . 8 f lK. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : M i s c h a L e v i t z k i (Queen's H a l l , O c t o b e r 2 0 ) ; A r n o l d Bax (Wigmore, O c t o b e r 2 0 ) ; I t u r b i ( A e o l i a n , O c t o b e r 2 2 ) ; D i n h g i l l y ( G r o t r i a n , November 1 ) , " New Age 42, No. 2 (November 10, 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 2 , (DR 9 5 ) . 53 r e a s o n S o r a b j i may n o t have e n j o y e d t h e s e q u i n t e t s was b e c a u s e o f B a x ' s u s e o f a c o m b i n a t i o n o f two o r more s c a l e s — s o m e o f w h i c h a r e m o d a l i n n a t u r e — a s w e l l a s t h e u s e o f t o n a l i t i e s a nd o p p o s i n g r e g i s t e r s w h i c h were more modern i n c o n c e p t i o n t h a n r o m a n t i c o r i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c . The s t a n d a r d o f p e r f o r m a n c e may a l s o h a v e i n f l u e n c e d S o r a b j i ' s j u d g e m e n t s o f t h e s e w o r k s c o n s i d e r a b l y . L e w i s Foreman s t a t e d t h a t Bax was i n t e n t o n l y on " c r e a t i n g a mood w i t h a f l o o d o f p i a n o t e c h n i q u e i n t h e P i a n o Q u i n t e t " . 8 5 S o r a b j i ' s d i s l i k e o f t h e s e w o r k s may h a v e been c a u s e d by t h e p e r f o r m e r ' s i n a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t B a x ' s m u s i c p r o p e r l y . T h e s e o p i n i o n s h a v e been e c h o e d by Norman Demuth: B a x ' s t e c h n i q u e a n d i d i o m i n c r e a s e d i n t h i c k n e s s a s he grew t o m a t u r i t y . T h o s e who p l a y Bax h a v e t o be t h o r o u g h l y i n s y m p a t h y w i t h h i s s t y l e . They h a v e t o be u l t r a - s e n s i t i v e i n t h e i r c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d r e s p o n s e . . . . The e x e r c i s e o f i m a g i n a t i o n , a l w a y s e s s e n t i a l w i t h r o m a n t i c m u s i c , h a s t o be u s e d t o t h e f u l l w i t h B a x , o t h e r w i s e t h e m u s i c becomes a mere j u m b l e o f s o u n d . 8 6 Of a l l t h e w o r k s o f B a x , S o r a b j i a d m i r e d most t h e S y m p h o n i c V a r i a t i o n s o f 1918. I n a 1924 r e v i e w , he p r o c l a i m e d t h e V a r i a t i o n s t o be " t h e b e s t l a r g e work f o r p i a n o and o r c h e s t r a o f any c o n t e m p o r a r y c o m p o s e r . . . a n d i n c o n t e s t a b l y t h e b e s t p i e c e 8 5 F o r e m a n w r i t e s t h a t Bax, i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e p i a n i s t V i v i a n L a n g u i s h ' s q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r a p a r t i c u l a r n o t e was a m i s p r i n t , s t a t e d t h a t "odd n o t e s d i d n o t m a t t e r so l o n g a s t h e s t y l e a n d a t m o s p h e r e were r i g h t . " T h i s o n l y g o e s t o show B a x ' s h a p h a z a r d t r e a t m e n t o f t h e m u s i c a l i d e a s , a n d t h e s e v e r e d i f f i c u l t i e s p e r f o r m e r s must have f a c e d i n t h e i r s t u d y o f t h e m u s i c . ( S e e : L. F o r e m a n , B a x : A Composer and H i s T i m e s , ( L o n d o n : S c h o l a r P r e s s , 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 1 1 9 ) . 8 6 N . Demuth, M u s i c a l T r e n d s , p. 158. 54 o f p i a n o w r i t i n g o f any k i n d by a modern B r i t o n . . . . 8 7 S i m i l a r r e m a r k s were s t a t e d i n a r e v i e w w r i t t e n f o u r months l a t e r , 8 6 b u t t h e n a l t e r e d d r a s t i c a l l y i n a s t i l l l a t e r r e v i e w o f 1927 a s a r e s u l t o f t h e low s t a n d a r d o f p e r f o r m a n c e : The Bax V a r i a t i o n s d i d n o t s o u n d so w e l l on t h i s o c c a s i o n a s b e f o r e . T h i n g s one w a i t e d f o r w i t h t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n o f b e i n g moved by them on p r e v i o u s o c c a s i o n s seemed t o m i s s t h e i r e f f e c t a nd s o u n d l a m e . . . . [ t h e ] r e s u l t o f i n d i f f e r e n t o r c h e s t r a l p l a y i n g . 8 9 S i m i l a r s e n t i m e n t s were e x p r e s s e d by S o r a b j i i n a 1924 r e v i e w o f B a x ' s S e c o n d P i a n o S o n a t a ( 1 9 1 5 , r e v i s e d 1 9 2 4 ) . 9 0 However, S o r a b j i a d m i t e d t h a t h i s o p i n i o n s o f t h i s work d i f f e r r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m t h e o p i n i o n s o f o t h e r s o f t h e m u s i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e t i m e . T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e , f o r many a c c l a i m e d t h e P i a n o S o n a t a t o be one o f t h e g r e a t e s t m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s o f B a x . 9 1 R a c h m a n i n o f f , f o r i n s t a n c e , d e l a r e d t h i s work t o be " t h e g r e a t e s t work f o r p i a n o s i n c e t h e L i s z t S o n a t a " and S c h n a b e l r e f e r r e d t o i t a s " t h e g r e a t e s t p i a n o 8 7 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e c o n c e r t o f t h e C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c s p o n s o r e d by t h e B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y on May 13, 1 9 2 4 ] , " New Age 3 5 , No. 7 ( J u n e 12, 1 9 2 4 ) : 8 0 , (DR 2 1 - 2 3 ) . 8 8 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e Bax S y m p h o n i c V a r i a t i o n s by H a r r i e t C o h e n ] , " New Age 35, No. 26 ( O c t o b e r 2 3 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 3 0 8 , (DR 3 0 ) . 8 9 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ M i s s D a i s y K e n n e d y ' s p u b l i c p r o t e s t ] ; Queen's H a l l P r o m e n a d e s , " New Age 4 1 , No. 20 ( S e p t e m b e r 15, 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 3 8 , (DR 9 3 - 9 4 ) . 9 0 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e c o n c e r t o f C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c s p o n s o r e d by t h e B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y on May 13, 1 9 2 4 ] , " New Age 3 5 , No. 7 ( J u n e 12, l 9 2 4 ) : 7 9 - 8 0 , (DR 2 1 - 2 3 ) . 9 1 L . F o r e m a n , Bax: A Composer a n d H i s T i m e s , p. 363. 55 work o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . " 9 2 E v e n t o d a y , t h e c o m p o s i t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be one o f t h e c o m p o s e r ' s b e s t p i a n o w o r k s , b o t h f o r B a x ' s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l and f o r h i s e x t e n s i o n o f t h e s o n a t a p r i n c i p l e by t h e u s e o f t h r e e m a i n t h e m e s . 9 3 S o r a b j i ' s v i e w s on B a x ' s c h o r a l w o r k s a r e s i m i l a r , f o r t h e c r i t i c r e g a r d e d T h i s W o r l d ' s J o i e ( 1 9 2 2) f o r u n a c c o m p a n i e d c h o i r a s " t h e compound o f s l i m e and t r e a c l e " . 9 " The c o m p o s i t i o n , t h e c r i t i c w r o t e , i n a J u n e 26, 1924 r e v i e w , . . . c o n t a i n e d s e v e r e t e c h n i c a l d e f i c e n c e s due t o t h e m e c h a n i c a l m a t i n g o f h i s means of e x p r e s s i o n . . . [ t h e l a c k o f ] f u s i o n o f t h o u g h t a n d e x p r e s s i o n , t h a t i n t e r i o r l o g i c e s s e n t i a l c o h e s i o n . . . [ a n d ] , h e s i t a n c y o f u t t e r a n c e , [ w i t h ] a s e n s e o f g r o p i n g f o r t h e r i g h t e x p r e s s i o n . . . . 9 5 H e r e S o r a b j i i s p r o b a b l y r e f e r r i n g t o t h e c o m p o s e r ' s c o n s t a n t u s e o f h o mophonic a n d p o l y p h o n i c t e x t u r e s i n an a l t e r n a t i n g o r s i m u l t a n e o u s manner t o c r e a t e s h a r p c o n t r a s t s i n t e x t u r e . A n o t h e r c o m p o s i t i o n , S t . P a t r i c k ' s B r e a s t p l a t e ( 1 9 2 3 ) f o r c h o r u s a n d o r c h e s t r a had c e r t a i n " i m p r e s s i v e moments," b u t . . . a s i n so many o f t h e l a r g e r w o r k s o f B a x , one f e e l s a m u s i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u g g l i n g t o a t t a i n a s p a c i o u s n e s s o f s t y l e a nd a m a s s i v e b r e a t h o f e x p r e s s i o n t h a t i s r a t h e r p a i n f u l l y b e y o n d i t . . . . 9 6 9 2 L . F o r e m a n , Bax; A Composer a n d H i s T i m e s , p . 3 6 3 . 9 3 T h e New G r o v e , s . v . "Bax, S i r A r n o l d , " by A n t h o n y P a y n e . 9"K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f T h i s W o r l d ' s J o i e by t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r on J u n e 5, 1 9 2 4 ] , " New Age 35, No. 9 ( J u n e 26, 1 9 2 4 ) : 1 0 3 - 1 0 4 , (DR 2 4 - 2 5 ) . 9 5 I b i d . 9 6 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e o f M a r c h 11, 1926 where S t . P a t r i c k ' s B r e a s t p l a t e 56 W a l s i n g h a m ( 1 9 2 6 , d e d i c a t e d t o P h i l i p H e s e l t i n e ) f o r s o l o t e n o r , c h o r u s and o r c h e s t r a was c r i t i c i z e d by S o r a b j i b e c a u s e o f i t s " s c r a p p y d i s j u n c t i v e q u a l i t y " a n d i t s " h e a v y and e x t e n d e d t r e a t m e n t . " 9 7 S o r a b j i was p r o b a b l y r e f e r r i n g t o t h e c o m p o s e r ' s e x c e s s i v e u s e of c o n t r a p u n t a l d e v i c e s , w h i c h i n h i s o p i n i o n , d i d n o t q u i t e f i t t h e mood o f t h e " s l e n d e r poem a r o u n d w h i c h i t i s w r i t t e n . " 9 8 The o n l y work o f t h i s c o m p o s e r r e v i e w e d p o s i t i v e l y by S o r a b j i was t h e T h r e e P i e c e s ( 1 9 2 8 , f o r o r c h e s t r a ) w h i c h was a "welcome c o n t r a s t t o t h e u s u a l s p r a w l i n g , i n v e r t e b r a e p r o d u c t i o n s o f t h i s c o m p o s e r " . 9 9 T h r e e P i e c e s was " e a s i l y t h e f i n e s t t h i n g Bax h a s p r o d u c e d s o f a r . . . [ b e c a u s e o f t h e ] p r e g n a n c y o f t h o u g h t , [ a n d ] an u r g e n c y o f u t t e r a n c e . " 1 0 0 T h i s m u s i c i s f u l l o f r o m a n t i c i m p r e s s i v e a n d e x p r e s s i v e moments a n d i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t S o r a b j i l i k e d t h e w o r k . H o w e v e r , i n s p i t e o f t h i s p o s i t i v e r e v i e w , S o r a b j i ' s o v e r a l l o p i n i o n o f t h e m u s i c o f Bax r e m a i n e d d i s p a r a g i n g t o t h e e n d . 1 0 1 9 6 ( c o n t ' d ) was p e r f o r m e d ] , " New Age 38, No. 21 ( M a r c h 2 5 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 5 0 , (DR 6 2 ) . 9 7 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e o f W a l s i n g h a m a t t h e Queen's H a l l on J u n e 6, 1 9 2 9 ] , " New Age 45, No. 9 ( J u n e 27, 1 9 2 9 ) : 1 0 4 , (DR 1 5 2 - 1 5 3 ) . 9 8 I b i d . 9 9 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Queen's H a l l , Wednesday, O c t o b e r 2: Brahms; T h u r s d a y , O c t o b e r 3: A l l - B r i t i s h Programme," New Age 4 5 , No. 25 ( O c t o b e r 17, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 9 6 - 2 9 7 , (DR 1 6 4 ) . 1 0 0 I b i d . 1 0 1 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e b r o a d c a s t programme f r o m P a r i s o f t h e Symphonie C o n c e r t a n t e o f F l o r e n c e S c h m i t t w h i c h i s c o m p a r e d t o t h e m u s i c o f Bax i n g e n e r a l ] , " New Age 52, No. 26 57 Among S o r a b j i ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , C e c i l G r a y was a l s o o f t h e same m i n d c o n c e r n i n g t h e m u s i c o f Bax. G r a y s t r e s s e d t h a t a m i d B a x ' s w o r k s t h e r e was n o t a s i n g l e c o m p o s i t i o n w h i c h was w h o l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y a s t h e com p o s e r w r o t e much t o o q u i c k l y a n d w i t h o u t m a t u r e d e l i b e r a t i o n . 1 0 2 B l o m , Y o u n g , S e a r l e a n d L a y t o n h a v e a l s o a c k n o w l e d g e d B a x ' s w e a k n e s s e s w h i c h s t e m f r o m t h e c o m p o s e r ' s t e n d e n c y t o swamp h i s work i n d e c o r a t i v e d e t a i l . 1 0 3 T h e r e f o r e , S o r a b j i was n o t a l o n e when w r i t i n g t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e m u s i c o f B ax. S o r a b j i m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e c o m p o s e r l a c k e d t h e most i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , t h a t o f t e c h n i c a l c o m p e t e n c e , a n d t h a t he h a d c o n s e q u e n t l y f a i l e d i n h i s a t t e m p t s t o c o m m u n i c a t e h i s m u s i c a l t h o u g h t s . GUSTAV HOLST ( 1 8 7 4 - 1 9 3 4 ) Of a l l t h e B r i t i s h c o m p o s e r s a b o u t w h i c h S o r a b j i w r o t e , G u s t a v H o i s t was t h e one who r e c e i v e d r e v i e w s t h a t were a l m o s t a l w a y s n e g a t i v e . S o r a b j i a b s o l u t e l y d e t e s t e d h i s m u s i c a nd c o n s i d e r e d H o i s t t o be . . . a m a n i p u l a t o r o f c u r r e n t c l i c h e s l o o s e l y t a c k e d t o g e t h e r w i t h no o r g a n i c o r i n h e r e n t c o h e s i o n , a s e t o f i d e a s d e v o i d o f i n t r i n s i c d i s t i n c t i o n o r i n d i v i d u a l i t y 1 0 1 ( c o n t ' d ) ( A p r i l 2 7, 1 9 3 3 ) : 3 1 0 , ( D R 2 6 2 ) . 1 0 2 C . G r a y , A S u r v e y , p. 253. 1 0 3 S e e : E. B l o m , M u s i c i n E n g l a n d , (West D r a y t o n , E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n B o o k s , [ 1 9 4 7 ] ) , p. 256; P. Young, A H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h M u s i c , p. 5 7 1 ; a n d H. S e a r l e a n d R. L a y t o n , T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y c o m p o s e r s V o l . I I , p. 38. 58 o f e x p r e s s i o n . 1 0 4 C o n s e q u e n t l y , S o r a b j i r e s e r v e d some o f h i s most c o l o u r f u l c r i t i c i s m s f o r t h e m u s i c o f G u s t a v H o i s t , w r i t t t e n i n p r o s e w h i c h may a t t i m e s p r o v e a l m o s t e m b a r r a s i n g t o t h e r e a d e r . One s u c h d e r o g a t o r y r e v i e w o f H o i s t ' s o p e r a A t t h e B o a r ' s Head (1 9 2 4 ) s e r v e s a s an e x a m p l e o f S o r a b j ' s i n t e n s e d i s l i k e o f h i s m u s i c : . . . t h e f e e b l e s t work e v e r w r i t t e n f o r t h e o p e r a t i c s t a g e . . . . [ I t i s a ] c r a z y , c l u m s y , j e j u n e p a t c h w o r k o f m e a n i n g l e s s f r a g m e n t s u t t e r l y d e v o i d o f c o h e r e n c e o r s u s t a i n e d s e n s e o f c o n t i n u i t y , a n d i n c o m p e t e n c e o f h a n d l i n g a l m o s t u n b e l i e v a b l e ; v o c a l w r i t i n g a t r o c i o u s , s o b a d t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o h e a r more t h a n an i s o l a t e d w ord o r two h e r e a n d t h e r e , a n d t h i s w i t h f a l s e s t r e s s e s , m i s p l a c e d a c c e n t s ; no t r a c e o f s t y l e i s t o be f o u n d i n t h e work f r o m t h e f i r s t b a r t o t h e l a s t , a n d t h e a m a t e u r i s h g a u c h e r i e o f t h e w h o l e w o u l d d i s g r a c e a s t u d e n t . 1 0 5 T h i s i s t h e f i r s t o f s e v e r a l s u c h r e v i e w s on H o i s t ' s m u s i c i n The New A g e , and t h e r e m a i n d e r r e f l e c t t h e same i n p u g n i n g a t t i t u d e . F o r S o r a b j i , t h e o p e r a l a c k e d a l l t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e q u a l i t i e s deemed e s s e n t i a l i n a m u s i c a l p i e c e , t h a t i s , i n n e r c o h e r e n c e , t e c h n i c a l c o m p e t e n c e , i m a g i n a t i o n , o r i g i n a l i t y , s i n c e r i t y a n d e x p r e s s i o n . He c o u l d n o t f i n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s t a v e r n e s c e n e s t a k e n f r o m S h a k e s p e r e ' s p l a y H e n r y V a n d t h e s c e n e s i n H o i s t ' s o p e r a and t h u s r e f e r r e d t o t h e work a s b e i n g m e a n i n g l e s s . I n a d d i t i o n t h e c r i t i c d i d n o t 1 0 4 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f H o i s t ' s C h o r a l Symphony a t t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C o n c e r t on O c t o b e r 29, 1 9 2 5 ] , " New Age 38, No. 3 (November 19, 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 1 - 3 2 , (DR 5 4 - 5 5 ) . 1 0 5 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On H o i s t ' s o p e r a The B o a r ' s Head a n d h i s r e p u t a t i o n i n E n g l a n d ] , " New Age 37, No. 2 (May 14, 1 9 2 5 ) : 1 8 , (DR 4 7 ) . 59 a p p r e c i a t e H o i s t ' s a d o p t i o n o f f o l k - t u n e s w h i c h f o r m t h e b a s i s o f t h e m e l o d i c c o n t e n t o f t h e w o rk, f o r t h i s u s e o f d e m e a n i n g , commonplace and p o p u l a r m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l s r e p r e s e n t e d a l a c k o f o r i g i n a l i t y , s i n c e r i t y a nd i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n . S o r a b j i ' s s e c o n d r e v i e w o f H o i s t ' s m u s i c — a l m o s t s i x months l a t e r — f o c u s e d on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e C h o r a l Symphony ( 1 9 2 3 - 2 4 ) by t h e L o n d o n P h i l h a r m o n i c O r c h e s t r a on O c t o b e r 29, 1925. The work c o n t a i n e d : The same c l u m s i n e s s a n d g a u c h e r i e , t h e same l a c k o f c e r t a i n t y , o f i n e v i t a b i l i t y , t h e u n f a i l i n g h a l l - m a r k o f t h e h a i l e d m a s t e r p i e c e s o f Mr. H o i s t i s h e r e a s e v e r y w h e r e e l s e i n h i s w o r k . The c h o r a l w r i t i n g i s s p l a y f o o t e d a n d u n v o c a l ; i n d e e d H o i s t ' s l a c k o f v o c a l s e n s e i s as c o n s p i c i o u s a s h i s l a c k o f o r c h e s t r a l s e n s e . He seems t o h a v e no f e e l i n g f o r t h e medium f o r w h i c h he i s w r i t i n g . H i s h a r m o n i c a n d m e l o d i c i d e a s w a v e r b e t w e e n d i a t o n i c c ommonplaces on t h e one h a n d , a n d p o l y t o n a l on t h e o t h e r . H i s p o t t e r i n g s a b o u t a n d f i d d l i n g s w i t h c h o r d s i n f o u r t h s t r u c t u r e s h a v e no more m e r r i t o r i n t e r e s t t h a n R e b i k o v ' s a f f a i r s o f t e n o r t w e l v e y e a r s ago . . . . 1 0 6 S o r a b j i ' s v i e w s on t h i s work h a v e been c o n s o n a n t w i t h t h o s e o f Imogen H o i s t . A c c o r d i n g t o h e r , H o i s t ' s C h o r a l Symphony " s u f f e r s f r o m h i s i n a b i l i t y t o w r i t e i n e x t e n d e d f o r m . . . . i n t h e f i r s t movement a n d t h e f i n a l e he [ H o i s t ] was d e f e a t e d by t h e p r o b l e m o f t r y i n g t o d e v e l o p h i s i d e a s t o t h e r e q u i r e d l e n g t h a n d b r e a d t h o f a s y m p h o n y . " 1 0 7 Norman Demuth a l s o c o n s i d e r s t h i s 1 0 6 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e C h o r a l Symphony a t P h i l h a r m o n i c c o n c e r t ] , " New Age 38, No. 3 (November 19, 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 1 - 3 2 , (DR 5 4 - 5 5 ) . 1 0 7 I . H o i s t , The M u s i c o f G u s t a v H o i s t , p. 76. 60 compost ion to have "unbalanced a d a p t i b i l i t y . " 1 0 8 However, he quickly confirms that Hoist was well aware of the capacity of the human voice and his mastery of choral technique, combined with his e l a s t i c i t y of rhythm, always bent to suit the text, placed him in the forefront of choral composers." 1 0 9 Sorabji often associated Hoist's rhythmic style with that of S t r a v i n s k y . 1 1 0 Indeed, according to Wilfred Mellers, Hoist greatly admired the music of Stravinsky, and "every element in Hoist's technique assumes an abortive form from S t r a v i n s k y ' s . " 1 1 1 There are various examples of t h i s influence in the Choral Symphony, including the bacchanal of the f i r s t movement which has been described as "exciting in i t s pagan orgy of sound" due to the rhythmic ostinatos which predominate. 1 1 2 In his review of the work, Sorabji also mentioned Hoist's manneristic use of consecutive fourths and f i f t h s ; Imogen Hoist states, "the habit had become a menace, and was threatening to undermine the whole structure of the movement." 1 1 3 This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c perhaps explains Sorabji's reference to the 1 0 8N. Demuth, Musical Trends, p. 139. 1 1 0K. Sorabji, "Music: Mr. Robert Hull [Book review on Hull's Contemporary Music 3," New Age 42, No. 5 (December 1, 1927):57, 1 1 1 W i l f r e d Mellers, Romanticism and the 20th Century, (Fair Lawn, New Jersey: Essential Books Inc., 1957), p. 174. 1 1 2 I. Hoist, The Music, p. 78. 1 1 3 I b i d . 1 0 9 I b i d . 61 i m p r e s s i o n i s t composer V l a d i m i r I v o n o v i c h Rebikov (1866-1920), whose e a r l y works r e v e a l an e x c e s s i v e use of thes e i n t e r v a l s . S o r a b j i d i d not w r i t e about H o i s t ' s music a g a i n u n t i l 1929 when he rev i e w e d the c h o r a l - o r c h e s t r a l work Hymn of Jes u s (1917). As w i t h p r e v i o u s works, t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n was a l s o re g a r d e d as b e i n g i n s i n c e r e i n e x p r e s s i o n , and a c c o r d i n g t o S o r a b j i , H o i s t ' s a s p i r a t i o n s were t o o grand f o r h i s mind: . . . f o r the s u p e r f i c i a l empty p r e t e n t i o u s n e s s and e n t i r e l a c k of r e a l m y s t i c a l f e e l i n g i n t h a t work t o be doubly exposed. N o t h i n g s h o r t of the h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e source of i n s p i r a t i o n do f o r Mr. H o i s t — a n e n t i r e Cosmos i n t he P l a n e t s ' V e d a n t i c thought i n the Rig-Veda Hymns and the A p o c r y p h a l New Testament i n the Hymn of J e s u s , and indeed they do, "do f o r " him i n q u i t e a n other sense by showing h i s l a m e n t a b l e i n a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h them or c a t c h even a f l e e t i n g g l i m p s e of the shadow of a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r g r e a t n e s s . 1 1 * Thus, the c r i t i c was not ready f o r the a u s t e r e s t y l e of H o i s t ' s music. T h i s was because, the Hymn of J e s u s was the composer's . . . most s t r i k i n g l y o r i g i n a l work [and] has n o t h i n g i n common w i t h the 19th c e n t u r y E n g l i s h o r a t o r i o . To the audien c e of the 1920s the music was a r e v e l a t i o n w i t h i t s l e a p i n g rhythms and i t s p i e r c i n g d i s c o r d s . . . . I t a l s o g i v e s i t s l i s t e n e r s and i t s p e r f o r m e r s a sense of overwhelming r e l i g i o u s e x a l t a t i o n . 1 1 5 For S o r a b j i , the work was i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e , l a c k i n g mystery and drama. Imogen H o i s t e x p l a i n s t h a t . . . l i s t e n e r s . . . were not p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t such a s t o u n d i n g l y u n f a m i l i a r r e l i g i o u s music. H o i s t had no use whatever f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y : he was u t t e r l y f r e e from r o u t i n e p i e t y , h i s memories of the B minor Mass were of e c s t a s y , h i s S a n s k r i t s t u d i e s taught him t o 1 1 * K i S o r a b j i , "Music: [ R e g a r d i n g the performance of the Hymn of Je s u s by the P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r a t the Queen's H a l l on June 6, 1929]," New Ag_e 45, No. 9 (June 2 7 ) , 1929) : 104, (DR 152-153). 1 1 5 I . H o i s t , The M u s i c , p. 59. 62 t h i n k beyond the boundaries of Europe, and h i s idea of C h r i s t i n c l u d e d the t e r r i f y i n g unexpectedness of the Byzantine m o s a i c s . 1 1 6 Gustav H o i s t was composing i n a modern twentieth-century s t y l e which was not a p p r e c i a t e d by S o r a b j i , the champion of the more the t r a d i t i o n a l romantic s t y l e of the n i n e t e e n t h century. G e n e r a l l y speaking, H o i s t had only a few e n t h u s i a s t i c admirers i n England during the e a r l y p a r t of the century, f o r the E n g l i s h h e l d much the same op i n i o n s as S o r a b j i : The E n g l i s h had looked f o r 'warmth' i n m u s i c — t h e q u a l i t y that was p e r c e i v e d i n the great mass of o r a t o r i o c h o r a l t r a d i t i o n on the one hand, and i n the harmonic idioms of the l a t e 19th century on the other. H o i s t i n t r o d u c e d a new e l e m e n t — o f c o l d n e s s . T h i s i s why he i s more of a 20th-century c o m p o s e r . 1 1 7 H o i s t ' s music l a c k e d the romantic warmth and l u s c i o u s n e s s , the ardent emotionalism and the t r a d i t i o n a l harmonic language which served to p r o v i d e the dramatic impulse i n much of the music of the romantic e r a . H i s l a t e r works were more d i r e c t i n e x p r e s s i o n and economical i n t h e i r d e l i v e r a n c e . The composer's music has been d e s c r i b e d by Raynor as being austere, uncommunicative and c o l d i n i t s bareness of t o n e . 1 1 8 S o r a b j i reviewed three other works of H o i s t i n the j o u r n a l over the l a s t two y e a r s : the Double Concerto f o r two v i o l i n s (1929), Hammersmith (1930), and the s e t t i n g of Witman's Ode to Death (1919). The f i r s t two works l i s t e d above r e c e i v e d 1 1 6 I . H o i s t , The Music, p. 59. 1 1 7 P. Young, A H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Music, p. 555. 1 1 8 H . Raynor, Music in England, p. 193. 63 c r i t i c i s m s s i m i l a r t o the e a r l i e r music d i s c u s s e d by S o r a b j i . 1 1 9 However, the Ode t o Death, a work which was t w e l v e y e a r s o l d a t the time of S o r a b j i ' s 1931 r e v i e w , . . . showed i n d i c a t i o n s of an i m a g i n a t i v e s e n s i t i v e n e s s and s u b t e l t y t h a t , as f a r as I am concerned, have been c o m p l e t e l y [ l a c k i n g ] . . . i n o t h e r works of t h i s composer . . . . 1 2 0 S o r a b j i may have been r e f e r r i n g t o the calm and t r a n q u i l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by H o i s t of Whitman's opening l i n e s 'Come, l o v e l y and s o o t h i n g death' when he wrote of the music as b e i n g i m a g i n a t i v e , s e n s i t i v e and s u b t l e . Here, more so than i n any o t h e r c o m p o s i t i o n of H o i s t ' s , the music r e f l e c t s the meaning of the t e x t i n the romantic sense, t h a t i s , t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e emotion which i s c o m p r e h e n s i b l e i n l i g h t of t r a d i t i o n a l t h i n k i n g . A l s o , b e i n g an e a r l i e r c o m postion, H o i s t used a more t r a d i t i o n a l harmonic language t o which S o r a b j i was a t u n e d . 1 2 1 RALPH VAUGHAN WILLIAMS (1872-1958) R a l p h Vaughan W i l l i a m s was a composer g r e a t l y admired by S o r a b j i and i n d e e d , by n e a r l y a l l of E n g l a n d . S o r a b j i r e g a r d e d 1 1 9 S e e : K. S o r a b j i , M u s i c : [On the performance of S o r a b j i ' s P i a n o Sonata No. 4 j ; P h i l h a r m o n i c : A p r i l 3.; B.B.C. C o n c e r t : A p r i l 4," New Age 46, No. 24 ( A p r i l 17, 1930):284, (DR 195) and "Music: [On Walton's B e l s h a z z a r ' s F e a s t ] ; R o y a l C h o r a l S o c i e t y : Nov. 28," New Age 50, No. 6 (December 10, 1931):66, (DR 233-234). 1 2 0 I b i d . 1 2 1 S e e a l s o : I . H o i s t , The M u s i c , p. 64. 64 him as a man "of deep s e r i o u s n e s s and a man w i t h p r o f o u n d r e v e r e n c e towards h i s a r t " 1 2 2 and "an a r t i s t t o whom h i s a r t i s not merely a p r o f e s s i o n , but a v o c a t i o n . " 1 2 3 S o r a b j i r e v i e w e d s i x c o m p o s i t i o n s of Vaughan W i l l i a m s i n The New Age. H i s f a v o r i t e work by t h i s composer was the t h i r d P a s t o r a l Symphony of 1922. In a 1926 r e v i e w of t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n , S o r a b j i wrote t h a t the P a s t o r a l Symphony was "one of the b e s t , s i n c e r e s t , and most d e e p l y - f e l t p i e c e s of music t h a t have come from a B r i t i s h composer i n r e c e n t y e a r s . " 1 2 * In a r e v i e w w r i t t e n almost a year b e f o r e , S o r a b j i was more s p e c i f i c : W i t h the Vaughan W i l l i m s P a s t o r a l Symphony we once more e n t e r e d the domain of music. I t i s on the whole a v e r y remarkable work, d i s f i g u r e d perhaps by the t r i a d i c mannerisms of harmony, and by the u n i f o r m i t y of mood of t h r e e out of i t s f o u r movements, as i t l a c k s the s t r o n g c o h e s i o n t o make such a p r o t r a c t e d e x p r e s s i o n c o n v i n c i n g and s a t i s f y i n g . But i t i s q u i e t , d e e p l y t r e a t e d i n t r o s p a c t i v e m u s i c - - a t i t s b e s t the p u r e s t n a t u r e of music unmarred by t h e i n t r u s i o n of any j a r r i n g disharmony of human element. Even the v o c a l s o l o i n the l a s t movement i s d e t a c h e d , remote, and s t r a n g e l y extra-human i n q u a l i t y , and t h a t i s not the l e a s t p a r t of i t s power, which " r e c o l l e c t e d i n q u i e t n e s s " makes one d e s i r e t o hear i t a g a i n . I t i s w i t h o u t doubt the most i m p o r t a n t and i n d i v i d u a l symphony w r i t t e n s i n c e the E l g a r works, and one f e e l s i t i s music w i t h s t a y i n g p o w e r . 1 2 5 1 2 2 K . S o r a b j i , "Music: [ R e g a r d i n g the l a s t P h i l h a r m o n i c C o n c e r t of the Season of 1925]," New A£e 37, No. 1 (May 7, 1925):7, (DR 4 6 ) . 1 2 3 I b i d . 1 2*K. S o r a b j i , "Music: S i r Thomas Beecham," New Age 38, No. 19 (March 11, 1926):225, (DR 6 1 ) . 1 2 5 K . S o r a b j i , "Music: [ R e g a r d i n g the l a s t P h i l h a r m o n i c C o n c e r t of the 1925 season where the symphony was p e r f o r m e d ] , " New Age 37, No. 1 (May 7, 1925) : 7, (DR 4 6 ) . 65 Many w r i t e r s , l i k e S o r a b j i , h ave h e r a l d e d t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n a s V a u g han W i l l i a m s ' g r e a t e s t w o r k . M i c h a e l Kennedy r e g a r d e d t h e work a s a t o u r de f o r c e , 1 2 6 a n d Norman Demuth a l s o w r o t e i n h i g h p r a i s e o f t h e work a s he c o n s i d e r e d i t t o c r e a t e a d i s t i n c t l y E n g l i s h s t y l e . 1 2 7 I n t h i s symphony, Vaughan W i l l i a m s i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f E n g l i s h f o l k - s o n g i n an i n t e n s e l y r o m a n t i c s t y l e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e f u s i o n o f f o l k - s o n g e l e m e n t s i n t o a r o m a n t i c s t y l e , t h e c o m p o s e r ' s o v e r a l l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l was h i g h l y r e m i n i s c e n t t o t h a t o f L i s z t a n d t h e i m p r e s s i o n i s t c o m p o s e r s . As M i c h a e l Kennedy s t a t e s , The t u n e s o f t h e P a s t o r a l Symphony a r e n o t ' d e v e l o p e d ' a s t h e c l a s s i c a l s y m p h o n i s t u n d e r s t a n d s t h e t e r m . T h e r e a r e few e x a m p l e s o f s e q u e n c e s o r d i m i n u t i o n s , i n s t e a d t h e r e i s a f r e e e v o l u t i o n o f one t u n e f r o m a n o t h e r , a p r o c e s s of r e g e n e r a t i o n , l i k e s t r e a m s f l o w i n g i n t o e a c h o t h e r , c o a l e s c i n g and g o i n g on t h e i r w a y . 1 2 8 T h i s t r e a t m e n t a l m o s t s u g g e s t s a t h e m a t i c m e t a m o r p h o s i s c r e a t i n g a f l u d i t y o f s o u n d s t h a t s t e m f r o m i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c i d i o m s . T h e r e f o r e , S o r a b j i d i d n o t h a v e t o v e n t u r e t o o f a r f r o m h i s c o n s e r v a t i v e t a s t e s t o a p p r e c i a t e V aughan W i l l i a m s ' symphony. The s u i t e f o r s o l o v i o l a , s m a l l c h o r u s a n d o r c h e s t r a , F l o s Campi (1925) was a l s o p r a i s e d by S o r a b j i a s i s e v i d e n t i n a 1928 r e v i e w . The c o m p o s i t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d t o be "one o f t h e f i n e s t a nd m a t u r e s t o f i t s c o m p o s e r ' s w o r k s " b e c a u s e i t was a "moving 1 2 6 M . K e n n e d y , The Works o f R a l p h Vaughan W i l l i a m s , ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 106. 1 2 7 N . Demuth, M u s i c a l T r e n d s , p. 145. 1 2 8 M . K e n n e d y , The Works o f R a l p h Vaughan W i l l i a m s , p. 170. 66 and deeply f e l t work." 1 2 9 Sorabji must have approved of thi s piece of music because of i t s impressionistic (and romantic) q u a l i t i e s . In this composition, Vaughan Williams shows a preoccupation with sonorities and the extra-musical quotations from the Song of Solomon displaying a clear connection between the text and the m u s i c . 1 3 0 In addition, there is the use of a vi r t u o s i c solo part in the romantic t r a d i t i o n . However, Shepherds of the Delectable Mountains (1921), a pastoral episode, did not fare as well. For Sorabji, Vaughan Williams had captured "The Pilgrim's Progress" rather crudely with a morbid r e l i g i o s i t y that was "narrow, sour, petty, Puritanism," e s p e c i a l l y when "coupled with unpleasant and cheap s e n t i m e n t a l i t y . " 1 3 1 Sorabji suggested in his review that the composer would do well to study some of the great Catholic t h e o l o g i a n s — e s p e c i a l l y the Je s u i t s . This advice may have been given by Sorabji because Vaughan Williams was an aethist and the c r i t i c f e l t that his portrayal of r e l i g i o s i t y was not sincere. Sorabji also referred to the composition as being "monotonous, lacking in o r i g i n a l i t y , feeble and poor in idea and invention, 1 2 9K. Sorabji, "Music: B.B.C. Friday, 31st. Queen's.; Birmingham City Orchestra, via B.B.C. Feb. 13.; Kirkby Lunn," New Age 46, No. 17 (February 27, 1930):201, (DR 189-190). 1 3 0M. Kennedy, The Works, p. 211. 1 3 1K. Sorabji,, "Music: Season of Light Opera: Court.; Budapest Philharmonic Orchestra," New Age 43, No. 11 (July 12, 1928):129-130, (DR 119-120T7 67 and e x a s p e r a t i n g l y r e p e t i t i v e . " 1 3 2 Of a l l t h e w o r k s r e v i e w e d by S o r a b j i , t h e S h e p h e r d s was t h e most modern i n s t y l e o f t h e c o m p o s e r ' s w o r k s . As Kennedy s t a t e s , " t h e p s a l m - s i n g i n g c o u l d o n l y h a v e been w r i t t e n by a t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y c o m p o s e r . " 1 3 3 S o r a b j i a p p a r e n t l y d i d n o t a p p r e c i a t e Vaughan W i l l i a m s ' m i x t u r e o f m o d a l h a r m o n i e s , p o l y t o n a l c o u n t e r p o i n t , and t h e use o f b l o c k c h o r d s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n a " m o d e r n - a r c h a i c m u s i c a l s p e e c h " 1 3 4 w h i c h was c l e a r l y a move away f r o m t h e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y h a r m o n i c i d i o m s . I t was a k i n t o t h e s t y l e o f H o i s t ' s a u s t e r e c o m p o s i t i o n s a n d , a s s e e n p r e v i o u s l y , t h e c r i t i c was o p p o s e d t o t h i s s t y l e . A g a i n we have e v i d e n c e o f S o r a b j i ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e m u s i c o f a c o m p o s e r who u s e s a r o m a n t i c / i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c s t y l e p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n h i s w o r k s . T h o s e w o r k s o f Vaughan W i l l i a m s w h i c h u t i l i z e d t h e t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y t e c h n i q u e s were n o t f a v o u r e d i n t h e c r i t i c ' s r e v i e w s a n d were t r e a t e d i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n t o t h e w o r k s o f G u s t a v H o i s t composed i n t h e same v e i n . 1 3 2 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : S e a s o n o f L i g h t O p e r a : C o u r t . ; B u d a p e s t P h i l h a r m o n i c O r c h e s t r a , " New Age 43, No. 11 ( J u l y 12, 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 2 9 - 1 3 0 , (DR 119-12077 1 3 3 M . K e n n e d y , The W o r k s , p. 172. 1 3 4 G e r a l d Abraham, A H u n d r e d Y e a r s o f M u s i c , ( C h i c a g o : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 268. 68 S I R JOHN IRELAND ( 1 8 7 9 - 1 9 6 2 ) S o r a b j i h e l d b o t h J o h n I r e l a n d a n d h i s m u s i c i n h i g h e s t e e m . F o r S o r a b j i , I r e l a n d was "one o f t h e few c o m p o s e r s a n y w h e r e w o r t h y t o be c a l l e d a s e r i o u s m u s i c a n , t o whom h i s a r t i s s t i l l an a r t , and a v e h i c l e f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . " 1 3 5 S o r a b j i ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r I r e l a n d ' s m u s i c was i n s p i r e d by t h e c o m p o s e r ' s t h o r o u g h l y o r i g i n a l , i m a g i n a t i v e a n d i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c s t y l e w h i c h i n c l u d e d i n f l u e n c e s o f D e b u s s y , R a v e l , E l g a r and S t r a v i n s k y . H i s was a q u a s i - i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a n d r o m a n t i c s t y l e w h i c h c o m b i n e d E l g a r ' s E n g l i s h l y r i c i s m and t h e h a r m o n i c l a n g u a g e , t e c h n i q u e a n d s t r u c t u r a l s e n s e o f t h e c l a s s i c a l - r o m a n t i c t r a d i t i o n . 1 3 6 T h e r e a r e a l s o t r a c e s o f S t r a v i n s k y ' s i n f l u e n c e b u t t h e s e a r e " t r a n s l a t e d i n a d i l u t e d manner" i n h i s w r i t i n g f o r p i a n o . 1 3 7 The f i r s t c o m p o s i t i o n o f I r e l a n d ' s r e v i e w e d by S o r a b j i was t h e C e l l o S o n a t a ( 1 9 2 3 ) , w h i c h t h e c r i t i c h e a r d a t a c o n c e r t a t t h e C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c C e n t r e o f t h e B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y on May 13, 1924. S o r a b j i c o n s i d e r e d t h i s s o n a t a t o be one o f t h e 1 3 5 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : E l i z a b e t h Schumann. Que e n ' s : November 3.; A r t s T h e a t r e : G r o t r i a n , " New Age 44, No. 5 (November 29, 1 9 2 8 ) : 5 7 , (DR 1 3 2 ) . 1 3 6 T h e New G r o v e , s . v . " I r e l a n d , S i r J o h n , " by Hugh O t t a w a y . 1 3 7 M . V. S e a r l e , J o h n I r e l a n d . The Man a n d H i s M u s i c , ( G r e a t B r i t a i n : The P i t m a n P r e s s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p.66. 69 f i n e s t p i e c e s o f modern chamber m u s i c he had e v e r h e a r d : " I t i s i n c o m p a r a b l y t h e b e s t B r i t i s h work o f i t s k i n d , and p e r h a p s t h e b e s t modern E u r o p e a n work a s w e l l . " 1 3 8 S o r a b j i a d m i r e d t h e work f o r i t s i n n e r c o h e r e n c e 1 3 9 o r m u s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d u n i t y a s w e l l a s f o r t h e s i n c e r i t y o f i t s e x p r e s s i o n : The s p e e c h i s a b s o l u t e l y s u r e and c e r t a i n , t h e r e i s no f u m b l i n g f o r a w o r d , no h e s i t a n c y , a n d t h e work h a s a b r u t a l d i r e c t n e s s a n d u n c o m p r o m i s i n g f o r c e f u l a u s t e r i t y . . . . I t i s s t a r k and s t r o n g , l i k e a S a x o n C r o s s hewn o u t o f g r a n i t e , a n d , i f i t be p e r m i s s i b l e t o p r e s s t h e s i m i l i e s t i l l f u r t h e r , t h e work h a s much o f t h e t e x t u r e i n s o u n d , o f g r a n i t e i n s t o n e . 1 * 0 S o r a b j i was n o t a l o n e i n a d m i r i n g t h e w o r k , f o r a c c o r d i n g t o M u r i e l S e a r l e , t h e C e l l o S o n a t a o f I r e l a n d was h i s most i m p o r t a n t a n d most s u c c e s s f u l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e m i d - 1 9 2 0 s . 1 * 1 I t s l y r i c a l a n d s t r u c t u r a l q u a l i t i e s , a s w e l l a s t h e i n t e g r a t e d w r i t i n g f o r p i a n o d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n o f I r e l a n d f r o m a l l h i s o t h e r w o r k s . 1 * 2 I t was t h e c a r e f u l p o n d e r a n c e o v e r e v e r y n o t e a n d t h e d i r e c t s t y l e t h a t s o i m p r e s s e d S o r a b j i . 1 3 8 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : J o h n I r e l a n d , " New Age 39, No. 7 ( J u n e 17, 1 9 2 6 ) : 7 5 , (DR 6 8 ) . 1 3 9 B y " i n n e r c o h e r e n c e " S o r a b j i meant t h e " p r o g r e s s f o r m p o i n t t o p o i n t [ a n d an] . . . i n d u c t i b l e d r i v e t o w a r d s a c l e a r l y r e a l i z e d e n d . " ( " M u s i c , " New Age 54, No. 20 ( M a r c h 15, 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 3 4 , [DR 2 6 9 ] ) . 1*°K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c C e n t r e / B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y C o n c e r t on May 13, 1 9 2 4 ] , " New Age 35, No. 7 ( J u n e 12, 1 9 2 4 ) : 8 0 . (DR 2 1 - 2 3 ) . E. J . M o e r a n ( 1 8 9 4 - 1 9 5 0 ) , a p u p i l a n d f r i e n d o f J o h n I r e l a n d d e s c r i b e d t h e work i n s i m i l a r t e r m s . ( S e e : M. S e a r l e , J o h n I r e l a n d . The Man a n d H i s M u s i c , [ G r e a t B r i t a i n : The P i t m a n P r e s s , 1 9 7 9 ] , p. 67. 1* 1M. V. S e a r l e , J o h n I r e l a n d , p. 66. 1 * 2 T h e New G r o v e , s . v . " I r e l a n d , S i r J o h n , " by Hugh O t t a w a y . 70 A n o t h e r c o m p o s i t i o n a d m i r e d by S o r a b j i was I r e l a n d ' s s y m p h o n i c r h a p s o d y Mai-Dun ( 1 9 2 0 - 2 1 ) . S o r a b j i a p p r o v e d o f t h i s work f o r p r e c i s e l y t h e same r e a s o n s he l i k e d t h e C e l l o S o n a t a . T h i s i s a work w h i c h , l i k e h i s f i n e C e l l o S o n a t a , i s s t r i p p e d u t t e r l y b a r e o f a l l t r i m m i n g s a n d f r i p p e r i e s ; b u t i t s s h a r p g a u n t f o r m o n l y s t a n d s o u t t h e more f o r t h a t . D i r e c t a n d f o r c i b l e t o a d e g r e e , i t i s by no means t o be a p p r e h e n d e d a t o n c e , f o r i t i s t h e work o f an u n u s u a l l y e a r n e s t a nd s i n c e r e m u s i c a l i n d i v i d u a l i t y . . . . 1 4 3 T h i s s y m p h o n i c r h a p s o d y was I r e l a n d ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e Roman c o n q u e s t o f t h e M a i d e n - C a s t l e i n A.D. 43. The r h a p s o d y e v o k e s t h e b a t t l e b e t ween t h e B r i t o n s a n d t h e Romans a s I r e l a n d c o m p r e h e n d e d i t . 1 4 4 M u r i e l S e a r l e w e l l d e s c r i b e s t h e c o m p o s e r ' s u s e o f i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c i d i o m s i n t h e r h a p s o d y . The work was a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by I r e l a n d ' s s t u d y o f L i s z t ' s o r c h e s t r a l poems, w h i c h h e l p s e x p l a i n S o r a b j i ' s a f f i n i t y t o t h e r h a p s o d y . S o r a b j i was a l s o i m p r e s s e d by many o f I r e l a n d ' s p i a n o p i e c e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n 1926, S o r a b j i w r o t e o f A m b e r l e y W i l d B r o o k s ( 1 9 2 1 ) , t h e P r e l u d e i n E f l a t M a j o r (1924) a n d Two P i e c e s ( ' A p r i l ' a n d 'Bergomask') o f 1924-25 a s b e i n g " e x t r e m e l y good p i a n o p i e c e s " b u t was v e r y d i s a p p o i n t e d w i t h I r e l a n d ' s p u b l i c p e r f o r m a n c e o f them s i n c e he had h e a r d t h e com p o s e r p l a y t h e same w o r k s b e t t e r p r i v a t e l y . 1 4 5 I n f a c t , S o r a b j i was g e n e r a l l y f r u s t r a t e d w i t h t h e low s t a n d a r d o f p e r f o r m a n c e o f I r e l a n d ' s 1 4 3 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e l a s t P h i l h a r m o n i c c o n c e r t o f t h e 1 925 s e a s o n ] , " New Ag_e 37, No. 1 (May 7, 1925) :7, (DR 4 6 ) . 1 4 4 S e e : M, S e a r l e , J o h n I r e l a n d , p .58. 1 4 5 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : J o h n I r e l a n d , " New Age 39, No. 7 ( J u n e 17, 1 9 2 6 ) : 7 4 , (DR 6 8 ) . 71 m u s i c a n d r e l a t e d t h i s t o t h e o v e r a l l n e g l e c t o f t h i s c o m p o s e r ' s m u s i c i n E n g l a n d . 1 " 6 I r e l a n d ' s P i a n o C o n c e r t o (1930) was r e v i e w e d t w i c e by S o r a b j i , t h e f i r s t t i m e a t i t s d e b u t p e r f o r m a n c e i n 1930 a n d t h e s e c o n d t i m e a y e a r l a t e r , i n 1931. I n t h e f i r s t r e v i e w , S o r a b j i d e c l a r e d t h e C o n c e r t o t o be I r e l a n d ' s b e s t w o r k , i n s p i t e o f t h e d e p l o r a b l e p e r f o r m a n c e w h i c h c a u s e d t h e m u s i c t o s o u n d i n c o h e s i v e . S o r a b j i a d m i r e d I r e l a n d ' s f r e e d o m o f e x p r e s s i o n , i n v e n t i v e n e s s , i n g e n i o u s w r i t i n g f o r t h e p i a n o a n d t h e e s s e n t i a l l y " m a s c u l i n e t e n d e r n e s s " o f t h e w o r k . 1 * 7 He was a g h a s t a t t h e y o u n g f e m a l e - p e r f o r m e r who " p l a y e d t h e s o l o p a r t w i t h a p r e v a i l i n g a n d l a m e n t a b l e p r e t t i n e s s , t h e l a s t q u a l i t y on e a r t h t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e g e n u i n e l y v i r i l e m u s i c . . . ." 1 * 8 I n t h e s e c o n d r e v i e w o f t h e w o r k , S o r a b j i a g a i n r e f e r r e d t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a s b e i n g one o f I r e l a n d ' s b e s t w o r k s . 1 " 9 H o w e v e r , t h e c r i t i c ' s o v e r a l l o p i n i o n o f I r e l a n d ' s t e c h n i c a l c o m p e t e n c e seems t o ha v e c h a n g e d r a t h e r d r a s t i c a l l y . Two m a j o r f a c t o r s 1 " 6 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : J o h n I r e l a n d , " New Age 39, NO. 7 ( J u n e 17, 1 9 2 6 ) : 7 4 , (DR 6 8 ) . 1 " 7 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : The Promenades a nd O t h e r M a t t e r s . ; Promenade C o n c e r t s . M a h l e r I V . Symphony.; The G o o s s e n s a n d I r e l a n d C o n c e r t o s . O c t o b e r 3," New Age 47, No. 25 ( O c t o b e r 16, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 9 7 , (DR 2 0 6 ) . 1 " 8 I b i d . T h i s y o u n g l a d y t o whom S o r a b j i was r e f e r r i n g t o was no o t h e r t h a n H e l e n P e r k i n f o r whom I r e l a n d h a d composed t h e p i e c e a n d whom he had c o a c h e d f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p e r f o r m a n c e . ( S e e : M. S e a r l e , J o h n I r e l a n d , p. 7 7 ) . 1 " 9 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e b r o a d c a s t p e r f o r m a n c e o f I r e l a n d ' s P i a n o C o n c e r t o ] ; The O p e r a ; 'Sadko'," New Age 49, No. 9 ( J u l y 2, 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 0 4 , (DR 2 2 3 ) . 72 m a r r e d t h e work f o r S o r a b j i a t t h i s h e a r i n g : I r e l a n d was " r u l e d by t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f ' f o r m ' " i n t h a t he d i s r e g a r d e d t h e " i n n e r n e c e s s i t i e s " o f t h e m u s i c s u c h t h a t . . . s u b j e c t s come t r o t t i n g b a c k , n o t b e c a u s e t h e i r i s any r e a s o n why t h e y s h o u l d i n t h e i n h e r e n t s t u f f o f t h e m u s i c , b u t b e c a u s e t h e c o m p o s e r c a n ' t f o r t h e moment t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g b e t t e r t o do, a n d s o r e l i e s on a f o r m a l i s t i c c r u t c h t o h e l p h i m o v e r a b a r r e n p a t c h . 1 5 0 The s e c o n d f a c t o r was t h e h a r m o n i c w r i t i n g w h i c h , i n S o r a b j i ' s o p i n i o n , was o f t e n s p o i l t b y : . . . a t e n d e n c y t o a q u a s i d i a t o n i c m a w k i s h n e s s i n t h e m e l o d i c w r i t i n g — a t h i n g t h a t i s s o d i s t r e s s i n g l y f a m i l i a r i n t h e c a s e o f modern c o m p o s e r s o f whom one f e e l s t h a t t h e i r harmony i s o u t o f r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r m e l o d y , i s i n v a r i a b l y a t b o t t o m d i a t o n i c , o r b u t s l i g h t l y c a m o u f l a g e d d i a t o n i c c o m m o n p l a c e . 1 5 1 I n s p i t e o f t h i s , t h e P i a n o C o n c e r t o r e v e a l e d I r e l a n d ' s p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m a " c o n s t r i c t i n g . . . manner o f w r i t i n g a n d t h i n k i n g a n d t h e e p i s o d i c p a t c h i n e s s t h a t h a s h i t h e r t o s o much d i s f i g u r e d h i s work . . . [ t o ] an e n g a g i n g a n d a t t r a c t i v e s t y l e . " 1 5 2 K e n n e t h D e r u s a r g u e s t h a t t h i s r a d i c a l c h a n g e o f a t t i t u d e i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f S o r a b j i ' s p e r s o n a l i t y : . . . S o r a b j i i s g i v e n t o l i k i n g s p e c i f i c c o m p o s e r s . . . and s o m e t i m e s s p e c i f i c w o r k s . . . on some o c c a s i o n s a n d d i s l i k i n g them on o t h e r s . 1 5 3 1 5 0 K . S o r a b j i : [On t h e b r o a d c a s t p e r f o r m a n c e o f I r e l a n d ' s P i a n o C o n c e r t o ] ; The O p e r a ; 'Sadko'," New Age 49, No. 9 ( J u l y 2, 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 0 4 , (DR 2 2 3 ) . 1 5 1 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c , " New Age 49, No. 9 ( J u l y 2, 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 0 4 , (DR 2 2 3 ) . 1 5 2 I b i d . 1 5 3 L e t t e r t o t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r f r o m K e n n e t h D e r u s , C h i c a g o , J u n e 19, 1983, p. 2. 73 I n summary, one c a n s e e t h a t S o r a b j i was i n s y m p a t h y w i t h I r e l a n d ' s m u s i c a n d a p p r e c i a t e d a n d a d m i r e d h i s i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e , h i s t e c h n i c a l c o m p e t e n c e , a nd t h e s i n c e r i t y a n d d i r e c t n e s s o f e x p r e s s i o n i n h i s m u s i c — a l l o f w h i c h were m o u l d e d i n t o an i n d i v i d u a l l y r o m a n t i c / i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c s t y l e . E x c e p t f o r t h e l a s t r e v i e w on t h e P i a n o C o n c e r t o , S o r a b j i was c o n s i s t e n t i n h i s o p i n i o n s on t h e m u s i c o f J o h n I r e l a n d . OTHER B R I T I S H COMPOSERS S o r a b j i ' s r e v i e w s o f t h e m u s i c o f o t h e r B r i t i s h c o m p o s e r s r e f l e c t t h e same a t t i t u d e s d i s c o v e r e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s s t u d y . The q u a l i t i e s S o r a b j i a d v o c a t e d i n t h e m u s i c o f D e l i u s , E l g a r , V aughan W i l l i a m s , a n d I r e l a n d a r e a l s o f o u n d i n t h e m u s i c o f s e v e r a l o t h e r E n g l i s h c o m p o s e r s ; a n d t h o s e q u a l i t i e s he r e j e c t e d i n t h e m u s i c o f Bax a n d H o i s t a r e a l s o e v i d e n t i n some o f t h e m u s i c o f c o n t e m p o r a r y B r i t i s h c o m p o s e r s . L e t us b e g i n t h i s s e c t i o n by l o o k i n g a t S o r a b j i ' s w r i t i n g s on B r i t i s h c o m p o s e r s whose m u s i c he a d m i r e d . The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s B e r n a r d Van D i e r e n . 74 B e r n a r d v a n D i e r e n ( 1 8 8 4 - 1 9 3 6 ) S o r a b j i w r o t e o n l y a p p r o v i n g l y on t h e m u s i c o f B e r n a r d v a n D i e r e n a s t h e c o m p o s e r was r e g a r d e d t o be a p a r a g o n among a r t i s t s . F o r S o r a b j i , v a n D i e r e n was "one o f t h e most r e m a r k a b l e and i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e s i n . . . m u s i c . " 1 5 " What s t r u c k t h e c r i t i c most a b o u t v a n D i e r e n was t h e "immense m a s t e r y o f t h e com p o s e r i n so many d i f f e r e n t d e p a r t m e n t s o f m u s i c , n o t t o s p e a k o f t h e a m a z i n g a n d s t r a n g e b e a u t y t h a t e merges f r o m h i s m a r v e l l o u s l y f l e x i b l e a n d s u b t l e w r i t i n g . " 1 5 5 S o r a b j i a d m i r e d i n t e n s e l y a l l o f v a n D i e r e n ' s m u s i c r e v i e w e d i n t h e j o u r n a l . The F o u r t h S t r i n g Q u a r t e t ( 1 9 23) w h i c h S o r a b j i h e a r d a nd c r i t i q u e d i n 1925, h a d " p e r f e c t c l a r i t y o f s t y l e a n d t e x t u r e . " 1 5 6 S o r a b j i was g r e a t l y i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e d e l i c a t e a n d b e a u t i f u l l y woven t e x t u r e s o f t h i s two-movement c o m p o s i t i o n , t h e i n n o v a t i v e a n d u n o r t h o d o x c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t s a n d t h e i m p e c c a b l e b a l a n c e and s h a r p l y d e f i n e d f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e . The S e r e n a d e o f 1923 was an a s t o n i s h i n g work b e c a u s e o f i t s " l o n g f a b r i c o f l o v e l y m e l o d i e s . . . [ t h a t a r e ] e x q u i s i t e l y i n t e r w o v e n " a n d t h e 1 5 " K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : B e r n a r d v a n D i e r e n . Wigmore: November 10.; L.S.O.: Queen's H a l l , November 11," New Age 44, No. 6 (December 6, 1 9 2 8 ) : 6 8 , (DR 1 3 3 - 1 3 4 ) . 1 5 5 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : B e r n a r d v a n D i e r e n . Wigmore: November 10.; L.S.O.: Queen's H a l l , November 11," New Age 44, No. 6 (December 6, 1 9 2 8 ) : 6 8 , (DR 1 3 3 - 1 3 4 ) . 1 5 6 K . S o r a b j i , " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : ' M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m ' , " New Age 36, No. 26 ( A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 0 8 , (DR 4 5 ) . 75 " d e l i c a t e l y b a l a n c e d l i n e a r b e a u t y and t e x t u r e s . " 1 5 7 The g r o u p o f s o n g s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e s e t Frammento de ' Z e n o b i a ' ( n . d . ) w h i c h S o r a b j i h e a r d i n 1928, were t h e e p i t o m e o f p e r f e c t i o n a s Van D i e r e n u n d e r s t o o d c o m p l e t e l y t h e s i n g e r a n d h i s p r o b l e m s . 1 5 8 Van D i e r e n ' s s o n g s r e f l e c t upon t h e b e l c a n t o s t y l e o f s i n g i n g a n d d e f i n i t e l y show i n f l u e n c e s o f R o s s i n i , D o n i z e t t i , a n d B e l l i n i . I t i s no d o u b t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t y i n t h e s o n g s o f v a n D i e r e n t h a t a p p e a l e d t o S o r a b j i i m m e n s e l y . S o r a b j i w r o t e two r e v i e w s o f Van D i e r e n ' s Thema c o n V a r i a z i o n e ( p u b . 1 9 2 8 ) . I n t h e f i r s t r e v i e w , w r i t t e n i n 1927, b e f o r e t h e work was p u b l i s h e d , S o r a b j i w r o t e o f h i s d e l i g h t w i t h t h e b e a u t i f u l theme and t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c q u a l i t y o f t h e s e t o f v a r i a t i o n s . They were deemed t h e f i n e s t v a r i a t i o n s he h a d e v e r h e a r d a n d S o r a b j i was c o m p l e t e l y t a k e n a b a c k by t h e i r " a l o o f n e s s f r o m t h e j a r g o n o f t h e day . . . , 1 5 9 S o r a b j i ' s s e c o n d r e v i e w o f t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n r e f l e c t e d t h e same o p i n i o n s . 1 6 0 Thus v a n D i e r e n ' s m u s i c was i m a g i n a t i v e , o r i g i n a l , 1 5 7 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Van D i e r e n . Wigmore: November 10.; L.S.O. Queen's H a l l , November 12.; S i r Thomas Beecham: R o y a l A l b e r t H a l l , November 11," New Age 44, No. 6 (December 6, 1 9 2 8 ) : 6 8 " 6 9 , (DR 1 3 3 - 1 3 4 ) . 1 5 8 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : ' A i d a ' : C o v e n t G a r d e n , J u n e 8; F r i d a K i n d l e r a n d J o h n G o s s (Wigmore, J u n e 9 ) , " New Age 4 1 , No. 9 ( J u n e 30, 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 0 5 , (DR 9 0 ) . 1 5 9 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : ' A i d a ' : C o v e n t G a r d e n , J u n e 8; F r i d a K i n d l e r a n d J o h n G o s s (Wigmore, J u n e 9 ) , " New Age 4 1 , No. 9 ( J u n e 30, 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 0 5 , (DR 9 0 ) . 1 6 0 S e e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : 'Carmen': The O l d V i c , May 10.; M e s s i a h ( B e e c h a m ) : C r y s t a l P a l a c e , May 5.; W i r e l e s s : May 2, 9.30," New Ag_e 43, No. 5 (May 31 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 5 3 , (DR 1 1 7 ) . 76 and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c f o r S o r a b j i . I t was n o t a common m u s i c , b u t a m u s i c t h a t was s p i r i t u a l l y on a d i f f e r e n t p l a n e t h a n most c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s i c . I n v a n D i e r e n ' s m u s i c , S o r a b j i a d m i r e d t h e r o m a n t i c i s m o f t h e v o c a l a n d h a r m o n i c s t y l e w h i c h was c h r o m a t i c , t e n d i n g t o w a r d s a c e n t r a l t o n i c e v e n t h o u g h t h i s t o n i c may n o t be s o u n d e d f o r a w h i l e . The h a r m o n i e s a r e s o m e t i m e s t r e a t e d " i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a l l y " when v a n D i e r e n ' s c h o r d s b l e n d i n t o one a n o t h e r c r e a t i n g v a r i e d s o n o r i t i e s . The m u s i c i s a l s o v e r y c o m p l e x a n d v i r t u o s i c i n n a t u r e , h a r k i n g b a c k t o r o m a t i c m u s i c . Thus we h a v e y e t a n o t h e r c o m p o s e r who i s a d m i r e d by S o r a b j i b e c a u s e o f h i s use o f t r a d i t i o n a l m u s i c a l t e c h n i q u e s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e . S i r W i l l i a m W a l t o n ( 1 9 0 2 - 1 9 8 3 ) A c o m p o s e r whose w o r k s S o r a b j i r e v i e w e d p o s i t i v e l y was S i r W i l l i a m W a l t o n . The V i o l a C o n c e r t o o f 1929 r e c e i v e d a good r e v i e w f r o m S o r a b j i a f t e r i t s f i r s t p e r f o r m a n c e f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : t h e C o n c e r t o h a d i n n e r c o h e r e n c e , i t showed t e c h n i c a l c o m p e t e n c e on t h e p a r t o f t h e c o m p o s e r a s i t was a " ' c l o s e - k n i t ' p i e c e o f m u s i c [ a n d ] f i n e l y b a l a n c e d and p r o p o r t i o n e d . " 1 6 1 I t h a d an o r i g i n a l i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n a s i t d i d " n o t e m p l o y . . . a s i n g l e 'modern' t r i c k , " a n d b e c a u s e i t 1 6 1 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Queen's H a l l ; Wednesday, O c t o b e r 2: B rahms; T h u r s d a y , O c t o b e r 3: A l l - B r i t i s h Programme," New Age 45, No. 25 ( O c t o b e r 17, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 9 7 , (DR 1 6 4 ) . 77 " c o m p l e t e l y s h e d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f S t r a v i n s k y " ; 1 6 2 and i t s i m p r e s s i v e a n d e m o t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s were a p p a r e n t i n " t h e s e r i o u s s o b r i e t y o f . . . [ t h e ] w o r k , i t s q u i e t t h o u g h t f u l n e s s a n d d i g n i f i e d r e a s o n e d u t t e r a n c e . " 1 6 3 The m u s i c a l s o h a d a "most a t t r a c t i v e c o l o u r i n g w h i c h was a k i n t o t h e l u s h c o l o u r i n g o f r o m a n t i c m u s i c . 1 6 " S o r a b j i ' s a t t r a c t i o n t o t h i s work i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , f o r a s S e a r l e a n d L a y t o n s t a t e , " [ t h e V i o l a C o n c e r t o ] i s p e r h a p s t h e f i r s t p i e c e o f work i n w h i c h W a l t o n e x p r e s s e s t h e v e i n o f n o s t a l g i a w h i c h he s h a r e s w i t h E l g a r . " 1 6 5 S o r a b j i d i d n o t a p p r o v e o f W a l t o n ' s e a r l i e r w o r k s w h i c h showed i n f l u e n c e s o f S t r a v i n s k y a n d e v e n S c h o e n b e r g ( e . g . , t h e F i r s t S t i n g Q u a r t e t o f 1 9 2 2 ) . I n h i s 1931 r e v i e w on W a l t o n ' s o r a t o r i o B e l s h a z z a r ' s F e a s t ( 1 9 3 1 ) , S o r a b j i e m p h a s i z e d h i s r e l i e f a t t h e c o m p o s e r ' s h e r o i c s h e d d i n g o f t h e s e "modern" i n f l u e n c e s : To t h o s e o f us who h a v e known W i l l i a m W a l t o n ' s work p r a c t i c a l l y f o r m i t s b e g i n n i n g s , a n d t h e n o x i o u s a n d unwholesome i n f l u e n c e t h a t were a t one t i m e t o o p r o m i n e n t i n i t , t h e r a p i d i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e e m e r g i n g p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e now u n q u e s t i o n a b l y most d i s t i n g u i s h e d a n d i n t e r e s t i n g f i g u r e i n modern E n g l i s h m u s i c , h a s m a t u r e d , t h e a l m o s t r u t h l e s s d e t e r m i n a t i o n w i t h w h i c h t h o s e h a m p e r i n g i n f l u e n c e s h a v e been c a s t o f f i s one o f t h e most d e l i g h t f u l a n d i n t e r e s t i n g s p e c t a c l e s i n 1 6 2 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Queen's H a l l ; Wednesday, O c t o b e r 2: Brahms; T h u r s d a y , O c t o b e r 3: A l l - B r i t i s h Programme," New Age 45, No. 25 ( O c t o b e r 17, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 9 7 , (DR 1 6 4 ) . 1 6 3 I b i d . 1 6 " l b i d . 1 6 S H . S e a r l e a n d R. L a y t o n , T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y C o m p o s e r s , p. 4 5 . 78 m u s i c a l h i s t o r y . . . . 1 6 6 T h i s p a r t i c u l a r work was r e g a r d e d a s an e x c e l l e n t a r t i s t i c a c h i e v e m e n t by t h e c r i t i c . I n S o r a b j i ' s o p i n i o n , W a l t o n ' s o r a t o r i o s t o o d t o g e t h e r w i t h R e g e r ' s s e t t i n g o f P s a l m 100 a n d B e r l i o z ' s R e q u i e m M a s s . 1 6 7 S o r a b j i l i k e d t h e work b e c a u s e o f " t h e f r e s h a n d v i v i d m u s i c a l i m a g e r y , t h e f l a i r f o r d r a m a t i c e f f e c t a nd r e a l i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n o f v i o l e n t c o l l e c t i v e e m o t i o n . . . [ a s w e l l a s ] f o r i t s s e n s e o f t r a d i t i o n . " 1 6 8 C o n s t a n t L a m b e r t ( 1 9 0 5 - 1 9 5 1 ) A f r i e n d o f W a l t o n ' s ( a n d o f S o r a b j i ' s ) , whose m u s i c was p r a i s e d h i g h l y by t h e c r i t i c , was t h e c o m p o s e r C o n s t a n t L a m b e r t . L a m b e r t t o o , " l i k e W i l l i a m W a l t o n h a s r a p i d l y t h r o w n o f f a l i e n i n f l u e n c e s a n d more d e f i n i t e l y a n d u n m i s t a k a b l y shows h i s own e s s e n t i a l i n d i v i d u a l i t y . . , , " 1 6 9 w r o t e S o r a b j i i n 1932. S o r a b j i f o u n d t h e s t r i k i n g l y i m a g i n a t i v e a n d o r i g i n a l p e r c u s i o n - a c c o m p a n i e d c a d e n z a f o r p i a n o i n L a m b e r t ' s R i o G r a n d e 1 6 6 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f W a l t o n ' s B e l s h a z z a r ' s F e a s t ] ; R o y a l C h o r a l S o c i e t y ; Nov. 28," New Age 50, No. 6 (December 10, 1 9 3 1 ) : 6 , (DR 2 3 3 - 2 3 4 ) . 1 6 7 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f W a l t o n ' s B e l s h a z z a r ' s F e a s t 3; R o y a l C h o r a l S o c i e t y ; Nov. 28," New Age 50, No. 6 (December 10, 1 9 3 1 ) : 6 , (DR 2 3 3 - 2 3 4 ) . 16 8 T h e N e w G r o v e , s . v . " W a l t o n , S i r W i l l i a m , " by Hugh O t t a w a y . 1 6 9 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e P r e s s and B r i t i s h m u s i c i a n s ] ; W i r e l e s s . B.B.C. C o n t e m p o r a r y C o n c e r t s , " New Age 50, No. 10 ( J a n u a r y 7, 1 9 3 2 ) : 1 1 6 , (DR 2 3 6 ) . 79 ( 1 9 2 7 ) e x c e p t i o n a l l y b r i l l i a n t . 1 7 0 The d e l i c a t e a n d s k i l f u l b a l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e p i a n o a n d o r c h e s t r a i n t h e C o n c e r t o f o r P i a n o a n d N i n e I n s t r u m e n t s ( 1 9 3 0 - 3 1 ) was a l s o h i g h l y r e g a r d e d by S o r a b j i i n h i s 1932 r e v i e w , 1 7 1 a n d M u s i c f o r O r c h e s t r a (1927) was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a " w e l l - k n i t , c o n s i s t e n t p i e c e o f w o r k . " 1 7 2 S o r a b j i p r o b a b l y l i k e d t h i s p i e c e b e c a u s e o f i t s e x t r e m e o r i g i n a l i t y . I t was, a c c o r d i n g t o R i c h a r d S h e a d , " q u i t e u n l i k e a n y t h i n g by o t h e r c o m p o s e r s " . 1 7 3 A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t shows i n f l u e n c e s o f D e l i u s i n t h e h a r m o n i c l a n g u a g e a n d u s e s L i s z t ' s ' f r e e f a n t a s i a ' f o r m , a n d some p a s s a g e s o f t h e work a c t u a l l y r e f e r t o t h e " G r e t c h e n " movement o f L i s z t ' s F a u s t S y m p h o n y . 1 7 " Dame E t h e l Smyth ( 1 8 5 8 - 1 9 4 4 ) A c o m p o s e r S o r a b j i a d m i r e d g r e a t l y was Dame E t h e l Smyth ( 1 8 5 8 - 1 9 4 4 ) , whom he f o u n d e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t i n g " n o t so much f o r h e r m u s i c , a s f o r h e r s e l f , t h e i n t e n s e v i t a l i t y a n d 1 7 0 I b i d . 1 7 1 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e P r e s s a n d B r i t i s h m u s i c i a n s ] ; W i r e l e s s . B.B.C. C o n t e m p o r a r y C o n c e r t s , " New Age 50, No. 10 ( J a n u a r y 7, 1 9 3 2 ) : 1 1 6 , (DR 2 3 6 ) . 1 7 2 I b i d . 1 7 3 R . S h e a d , C o n s t a n t L a m b e r t , ( L o n d o n : Simon P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 7 3 . 1 7 " I b i d . , p 7 3 . 8 0 v i v i d n e s s o f h e r p e r s o n a l i t y . . . . 1 7 5 S o r a b j i ' s r e v i e w s , h o w e v e r , a r e a l s o i n d i c a t i v e o f h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r Dame Smyth's m u s i c : S l e e p l e s s Dreams ( 1 9 1 2 ) , Hey Nonny No ( 1 9 1 1 ) , The B o s u n ' s M a t e ( 1 9 1 3 - 1 6 ) , a n d t h e Mass i n D ( 1 8 9 1 ; r e v i s e d 1 9 2 5 ) . Of t h e s e S o r a b j i a d m i r e d most t h e Mass i n D: T h i s 4 0 - y e a r o l d Mass i s t r u l y an a s t o n i s h i n g w o r k . F o r o r i g i n a l i t y , f o r c e f u l n e s s , t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e , a n d m a s t e r y , i t i s f a r a n d away t h e g r e a t e s t t h i n g I h a v e e v e r h e a r d o f Dame E t h e l ' s . . . . Even a t t h i s d i s t a n c e o f t i m e , i t i s s e e n t o be a work l i k e none o t h e r , h a v i n g i n i t s e l f t h a t e s s e n t i a l o r i g i n a l i t y o f t h o u g h t t h a t so l o n g o u t l a s t s t h e m e r e l y s u p e r f i c i a l o r i g i n a l i t y o f u t t e r a n c e , o f e x p r e s s i o n . . . , 1 7 6 T h i s M a s s , a s M i c h a e l H u r d s t a t e s , " h a r k s b a c k t o B e e t h o v e n , " 1 7 7 a n d i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t S o r a b j i a p p r e c i a t e d t h e r i c h warmth o f t h i s p o w e r f u l l y s t r i k i n g w o r k . I t seems t h a t f o r S o r a b j i , t h e c r e a t i v e u s e o f t r a d i t i o n a l n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y m e t h o d s o f c o m p o s i n g was t h e b e s t way a c o m p o s e r c o u l d be o r i g i n a l a n d i m a g i n a t i v e . L o r d B e r n e r s ( 1 8 8 3 - 1 9 5 0 ) L o r d B e r n e r s , t h e E n g l i s h c o m p o s e r , w r i t e r a n d p a i n t e r , was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a t r u l y o r i g i n a l c o m p o s e r by S o r a b j i , f a r 1 7 5 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On Dame E t h e l S myth's 7 5 t h - b i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s i n 1 9 3 4 ] , " New Age 54, No. 23 ( A p r i l 5, 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 7 2 , (DR 2 7 0 ) . 1 7 6 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On Dame E t h e l S myth's 7 5 t h - b i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s i n 1 9 3 4 ] , " New Age 54, No. 23 ( A p r i l 5, 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 7 2 , (DR 2 7 0 ) . 1 7 7 T h e New G r o v e , s . v . "Smyth, Dame E t h e l , " by M i c h a e l H u r d . 81 s u p e r i o r t o S t r a v i n s k y . S o r a b j i a d m i r e d most t h e n e o - c l a s s i c i s m o f B e r n e r ' s F a n t a s i e E s p a n o l e ( 1 9 2 0) a n d t h e b a l l e t s u i t e L u n a P a r k ( 1 9 3 0 ) . I n a r e v i e w o f t h e b a l l e t s u i t e , S o r a b j i l a m e n t e d t h e l a c k o f r e c o g n i t i o n g i v e n t o t h i s c o m p o s e r : The s p r i g h t l y v i v a c i t y , d e l i c a t e - t o u c h e d s k i l l s a n d m u s i c i a n l y q u a l i t y o f L o r d B e r n e r s ' s b a l l e t s u i t e , L u n a P a r k , c a u s e d one t o m a r v e l a f r e s h a t t h e c o m p a r a t i v e n e g l e c t o f t h i s v e r y a c c o m p l i s h e d m u s i c i a n ' s work by h i s own c o u n t r y m e n i n f a v o u r o f v a r i o u s p r e t e n t i o u s b u n g l e r s - - m a n u f a c t u r e s o f s p u r i o u s s o l a r s y s t e m s — c e l a n e s e — S t r a v i n s k y p u r v e y o r s a n d what n o t . 1 7 8 S o r a b j i f o u n d B e r n e r s ' m u s i c t o be more c o n v i n c i n g and a u t h e n t i c t h a n some o f t h e o t h e r B r i t i s h m u s i c w h i c h showed i n f l u e n c e s o f S t r a v i n s k y . T h i s was b e c a u s e o f t h e r a t h e r s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i d e a s i n most o f B e r n e r s ' m u s i c w h i c h c r e a t e d a u n i q u e s t y l e . A l a n B u s h ( 1 9 0 0 - ) A c o m p o s e r who i s s a i d t o s t a n d b e t w e e n t h e two g r e a t e s t o f E n g l i s h c o m p o s e r s , R a l p h Vaughan W i l l i a m s and B e n j a m i n B r i t t e n , i s A l a n B u s h . S o r a b j i t h o u g h t h i g h l y o f B u s h ' s m u s i c a n d , i n h i s 1931 r e v i e w o f B u s h ' s Dance O v e r t u r e ( 1 9 3 0 ) , c o n g r a t u l a t e d t h e c o m p o s e r b o t h on n o t h a v i n g f a l l e n t o t h e i n f l u e n c e s o f S t r a v i n s k y a n d on t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f h i s m u s i c a l s t y l e : . . . a most i n t e r e s t i n g , i n g e n i o u s , a n d r e a l l y b r a i n y p i e c e o f work f o r m i l i t a r y b a n d by Mr. A l a n B u s h , c a l l e d a Dance O v e r t u r e . The c o m p o s i t i o n shows n o t o n l y a m i n d 1 7 8 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : The P r o m e n a d e s , " New Age 49, No. 23 ( O c t o b e r 8, 1 931):272 , (DR 2 2 7 - 2 2 8 ) . 82 b u t a p o i n t o f v i e w , and I f i n d I l i k e Mr. B u s h ' s work a s w e l l a s t h a t o f any o f t h e y o u n g e r E n g l i s h c o m p o s e r s whom I know. He i s r a t h e r u n i q u e , t o o among modern E n g l i s h m e n i n t h a t he h a s n o t a t some t i m e g r o v e l l e d a t t h e f e e t .of S t r a v i n s k y . I n c l o s e n e s s o f t h o u g h t and g o o d , f i r m , i n t e l l e c t u a l t e x t u r e Mr. B u s h h a s s p i r i t u a l k i n s h i p r a t h e r w i t h t h e S c h o o l o f S c h o e n b e r g and B e r g t h a n w i t h t h e d a n c i n g ( m a r i o n e t t e ) d e r v i s h e s j i g g l i n g d u t i f u l l y a r o u n d S t r a v i n s k y . I n s h o r t , h e r e i s a m u s i c a l t h i n k e r , r a t h e r t h a n a torn torn b a n g e r . . . . 1 7 9 S o r a b j i f o u n d an a f f i n i t y w i t h B u s h ' s t o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n a l s t y l e w h i c h h a s b een d e s c r i b e d a s c o n t a i n i n g l y r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n , p a i n s t a k i n g c r a f t s m a n s h i p , d r a m a t i c moments, h a r m o n i c i n t e n s i t y , power a n d r h y t h m i c v i t a l i t y . S o r a b j i ' s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c o m p o s e r ' s a f f i l i a t i o n t o t h e s c h o o l o f S c h o e n b e r g was a s t u t e , f o r t h e c o m p o s e r , i n M a c D o n a l d ' s w o r d s , t r e a t e d h i s t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l s i n much t h e same way a s S c h o e n b e r g d i d h i s s e r i e s o f t w e l v e t o n e s . T h a t i s , B u s h " d e r i v e d e v e r y p h r a s e o f an e n t i r e movement f r o m a s i n g l e t h e m e . " 1 8 0 S o r a b j i was i n s y m p a t h y w i t h B u s h ' s m u s i c b e c a u s e t h i s modern method o f u s i n g t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l was p u t i n t o a r o m a n t i c f r a m e w o r k and seemed somewhat r e l a t e d t o t h e s y m p h o n i c m e t a m o r p h o s i s o f L i s z t . P e t e r W a r l o c k ( 1 8 9 4 - 1 9 3 0 ) L e t us l o o k now a t S o r a b j i ' s w r i t i n g s on t h e l a s t o f t h e B r i t i s h c o m p o s e r s he a d m i r e d : P e t e r W a r l o c k ( P h i l i p H e s e l t i n e ) . 1 7 9 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : O p e r a : ' R o s e n k a v a l i e r ' ; W i r e l e s s , " New Age 4 9 , No. 4 (May 28, 1931)s 4 1 , (DR 2 1 3 ) . 1 8 0 M a l c o l m M a c D o n a l d , "The M u s i c t o One P a i r o f E a r s , " I n : A l a n B u s h : An 8 0 t h B i r t h d a y Symposium, E d i t e d by R o n a l d S t e v e n s o n , ( K i d d e r m i n s t e r : B r a v u r a P u b l i c a t i o n s ) , p. 26. 83 W a r l o c k was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by B e r n a r d v a n D i e r e n ' s c o n t r a p u n t a l s t y l e o f w r i t i n g a nd h a r m o n i c l a n g u a g e . Thus i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t S o r a b j i l o o k e d upon W a r l o c k ' s m u s i c p o s i t i v e l y . F o r S o r a b j i , W a r l o c k was a " g r e a t , an h o n o u r e d and d e e p l y a d m i r e d f r i e n d . " 1 8 1 He was "one o f t h e f i n e s t m u s i c a l m i n d s . . ., a c r i t i c a n d w r i t e r o f u n p a r a l l e d b r i l l i a n c e , i n s i g h t a nd s u b t l e t y . " 1 8 2 C l e a r l y , S o r a b j i a d m i r e d W a r l o c k i n t e n s e l y , n o t o n l y f o r t h e r e a s o n s g i v e n a b o v e , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e W a r l o c k was a m a j o r s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n a n d e n c o u r a g m e n t t o S o r a b j i d u r i n g h i s y o u t h and a l s o d u r i n g h i s e a r l y y e a r s a s m u s i c c r i t i c f o r The New Age. W a r l o c k b e l o n g e d t o t h e same g r o u p o f f r i e n d s a s S o r a b j i , t h a t i s , C e c i l G r a y , S a c h e v e r a l l S i t w e l l , W a l t o n , L a m b e r t a n d v a n D i e r e n . Thus S o r a b j i h a d f i r s t - h a n d a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h W a r l o c k ' s m u s i c a n d many o f h i s r e v i e w s a p p l a u d e d t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h i s c o m p o s e r . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e c o m p o s e r ' s o r c h e s t r a l s u i t e C a p r i o l ( 1 9 2 8) was r e v i e w e d t h u s by S o r a b j i : B u t t h e o u t s t a n d i n g new work was t h e " C a p r i o l " o f t h a t a c c o m p l i s h e d and d e l i g h t f u l P r o t e u s - c h a m e l e o n p e r s o n , W a r l o c k - H e s e l t i n e . The work i s c a s t i n a s e t o f a n c i e n t d a n c e f o r m s a n d b a s e d on themes f r o m t h e " a r c h e s o g r a p h i e " o f T h o i n o t A r b e a u , w h i c h was i s s u e d a w h i l e b a c k u n d e r t h e a b l e e d i t o r s h i p o f t h e c o m p o s e r . I t i s a p i e c e o f d e l i c a t e a n d e x a c t s k i l l , d e l i c i o u s m u s i c i a n s h i p , w i t h an a n t i q u e f l a v o u r so a u t h e n t i c a s t o show t h a t h e r e i s no mere m u s i c a l p e r i o d - f u r n i t u r e s n o b , b u t a man who i s r e a l l y a modern i n c a r n a t i o n o f one 1 8 1 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ O b i t u a r y on P e t e r W a r l o c k ] , " New Age 48, No. 11 ( J a n u a r y 15, 1 9 3 1 ) t 1 2 8 , (DR 2 1 1 ) . 1 8 2 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e A l l - E n g l i s h E v e n i n g a t t h e Proms on T h u r s d a y 2 9 t h A u g u s t 1 9 2 9 ] , " New Age 4 5 , No. 20 ( S e p t e m b e r 12, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 3 8 , (DR 1 5 7 - 1 5 8 ) . 84 s p i r i t u a l l y a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y dutems j a d i s . The o r c h e s t r a t i o n was a j o y and t h e c o m p o s e r ' s a p p a r e n t l y wooden c o n d u c t i n g d i d n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h h i s power t o g e t what he w a n t e d , t h o u g h he l a c k s t h e t r i u m p h a n t l y a n d v e r y p r o f e s s i o n a l l y c o m p e t e n t c o n d u c t o r ' s s t r o k e o f Mr. C o n s t a n t L a m b e r t . 1 8 3 T h i s r e v i e w e x e m p l i f i e s a l m o s t a l l o f S o r a b j i ' s r e v i e w s on W a r l o c k ' s m u s i c . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e S o r a b j i ' s f r a n k a p p r a i s a l o f t h e c o m p o s e r ' s c o n d u c t i n g , i n s p i t e o f t h e i r c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p . H e r b e r t H o w e l l s ( 1 8 9 2 - 1 9 8 3 ) L e t us t u r n now t o S o r a b j i ' s w r i t i n g s on B r i t i s h m u s i c o f w h i c h he d i d n o t a p p r o v e . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l c o m p o s i t i o n s w h i c h S o r a b j i d i s l i k e d v i o l e n t l y b e c a u s e t h e m u s i c l a c k e d t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e q u a l i t i e s he e x p o u n d e d . H e r b e r t H o w e l l s ' m u s i c , f o r e x a m p l e , was c o n s i d e r e d t o be " h o l l o w and i n s i n c e r e " by S o r a b j i i n e v e r y r e v i e w d i s c u s s i n g t h e m u s i c o f t h i s c o m p o s e r . 1 8 " The P i a n o Q u a r t e t ( 1 9 1 6 ) , an e a r l y chamber work o f H o w e l l s w h i c h r e c e i v e d t h e C a r n e g i e a w a r d , was d e s c r i b e d by S o r a b j i a s . . . a work i n w h i c h i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r any m u s i c a l i n d i v i d u a l i t y w h a t e v e r . I t i s now mock Vaughan W i l l i a m s , now w a t e r e d - d o w n p e r v e r t e d E l g a r , now D e l i u s gone b a d , w i t h o c c a s i o n a l d i p p i n g s i n t o t h e promenades 1 8 3 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e A l l - E n g l i s h E v e n i n g a t t h e Proms on T h u r s d a y 2 9 t h A u g u s t 1 9 2 9 ] , " New Age 4 5 , No. 20 ( S e p t e m b e r 12, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 3 8 , (DR 1 5 7 - 1 5 8 ) . 1 8 " S e e f o r e x a m p l e : K. S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e K i n s e y P i a n o Q u a r t e t p e r f o r m e r s ] , " New Age 36, No. 21 ( M a r c h 19, 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 4 6 , (DR 4 1 ) . 85 o f R a v e l a n d D e b u s s y . . . . 1 B 5 T h i s i s t o t a l l y i n c o n t r a s t t o what Hugh O t t a w a y w r o t e : " t h e P i a n o Q u a r t e t . ... r e c a l l s b o t h a n a t u r a l p o e t i n s o u n d and a m u s i c i a n k e e n l y a l i v e t o s t r u c t u r a l p r o b l e m s . " 1 8 6 S o r a b j i was l i k e w i s e n o t i m p r e s s e d w i t h H o w e l l s ' S e c o n d P i a n o C o n c e r t o o f 1924: Of t h e H o w e l l s C o n c e r t o t h e b l u n t e s t s p e a k i n g o n l y w i l l meet t h e c a s e . What c o n c e i v a b l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i n c l u d i n g a work so u t t e r l y w o r t h l e s s , o f s u c h p r e t e n t i o u s n u l l i t y , a l o n g s i d e o f h i g h l y m e r i t o r i o u s w o r k s , s u c h a s t h e I r e l a n d R h a p s o d y a n d t h e Vaughan W i l l i a m s P a s t o r a l Symphony, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s e e u n l e s s f o r t h e m o t i v e s u g g e s t e d a b o v e . 1 8 7 A p p a r e n t l y , S o r a b j i , was n o t t h e o n l y p e r s o n who d i s l i k e d t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n , f o r he c o n g r a t u l a t e d t h e " c o u r a g e o u s and s t r o n g - m i n d e d man i n t h e b a l c o n y who g o t up . . . a n d e x c l a i m e d i n t o n e s a u d i b l e a l l o v e r t h e h a l l , 'Thank Heaven i t ' s o v e r ' . " 1 8 8 S o r a b j i c o n c l u d e d t h a t H o w e l l s ' m u s i c was u n o r i g i n a l , u n i m a g i n a t i v e , l a c k i n g i n d i v i d u a l i t y a n d t h a t i t was p r e t e n t i o u s . T h e s e s u r p r i s i n g a c c u s a t i o n s c o n t r a s t w i t h what o t h e r a u t h o r s h a v e w r i t t e n on t h e same m u s i c . F o r e x a m p l e , B a c h a r a c h p r a i s e d t h e c o m p o s e r f o r h i s command o f f o r m and h i s 1 8 5 I b i d . 1 8 6 T h e New G r o v e , s . v . " H o w e l l s , H e r b e r t , " by Hugh O t t a w a y . 1 8 7 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e l a s t P h i l h a r m o n i c C o n c e r t o f t h e 1925 s e a s o n ] , " New Age 37, No. 1 (May 7, 1 9 2 5 ) : 7 , (DR 4 6 ) . 1 8 8 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c , " New Age 37, No. 1 (May 7, 1 9 2 5 ) : 7 , (DR 46) . 86 l y r i c i s m w h i c h c o m b i n e d w i t h h i s a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t r e n g t h s . 1 8 9 Hugh O t t a w a y r e f e r r e d t o t h e c o m p o s e r a s b e i n g " t h e f i n e s t - g r a i n e d o f t h e G e o r g i a n s , " a n d some o f h i s m u s i c , n a m e l y h i s s o n g s , " a r e among t h e f i n e s t by E n g l i s h c o m p o s e r s i n t h i s c e n t u r y , " w h i l e h i s m a t u r e s t y l e i s "a f u s i o n o f many t h i n g s . . . r a n g i n g f r o m P a r r y t o W a l t o n " 1 9 0 - - c o m p o s e r s whose m u s i c S o r a b j i a d m i r e d . S o r a b j i p r o b a b l y d i d n o t c a r e f o r H o w e l l s ' a m a l g a m a t i o n o f v a r i o u s s t y l e s a s t h i s was n o t an o r i g i n a l o r i m a g i n a t i v e method o f c o m p o s i n g . Even t h o u g h H o w e l l s ' h a r m o n i c s t y l e was a m i x t u r e o f m o d a l i t y a n d c h r o m a t i c i s m , a n d h i s u s e o f f o r m was t r a d i t i o n a l , S o r a b j i was n o t e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t h i s m u s i c . A r t h u r B l i s s ( 1 8 9 1 - 1 9 7 5 ) a n d R u t l a n d B o u g h t o n ( 1 8 7 8 - 1 9 6 0 ) S o r b j i d i d n o t a p p r e c i a t e t h e m u s i c o f e i t h e r A r t h u r B l i s s o r R u t l a n d B o u g h t o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e " a i m l e s s m e a n d e r i n g s a n d 'modern' c o m m o n p l a c e s " o f B l i s s ' Oboe Q u i n t e t ( 1 9 2 7 ) p a r t i c u l a r l y i r r i t a t e d S o r a b j i f o r . . . i t p a r t a k e s o f t h e n a t u r e o f Mr. B l i s s ' s p o s t b e l l u m p r o d u c t i o n s w h i c h a r e l i t t l e more t h a n S t r a v i n s k y a n d a g r e a t d e a l o f l u k e - w a r m w a t e r . 1 9 1 1 8 9 A . L. B a c h a r a c h , e d . , B r i t i s h M u s i c o f Our T i m e , ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h , M i d d l e s e x : P e l i c a n B o o k s , [ 1 9 4 6 ] ) , p. 193. 1 9 0 The New G r o v e , s . v . " H o w e l l s , H e r b e r t , " by Hugh O t t a w a y . 1 9 1 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : B.B.C. Modern Chamber C o n c e r t . A r t s T h e a t r e C l u b ; O c t o b e r 15.; C o n c e r t o f T c h e k o - S l o v a k M u s i c . Q u e e n ' s : O c t o b e r 16," New Age 43, No. 26 ( O c t o b e r 25, 1 9 2 8 ) : 3 0 9 , (DR 1 2 9 ) . 87 Once a g a i n , S o r a b j i was d i s a p p o i n t e d w i t h a c o m p o s e r ' s m u s i c b e c a u s e o f i t s i n h e r e n t S t r a v i n s k i a n i n f l u e n c e s . S o r a b j i was e x t r e m e l y s a r c a s t i c i n h i s r e v i e w s o f t h e m u s i c o f R u t l a n d B o u g h t o n . I n f a c t , t h e c r i t i c c o u l d n o t c o mprehend how t h e m u s i c o f t h e " e g r e g i o u s " B o u g h t o n c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d o f e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h a t o f Vaughan W i l l i a m s , I r e l a n d , a n d e v e n B a x . 1 9 2 B o u g h t o n ' s p o p u l a r m u s i c drama, The I m m o r t a l Hour (1913) w h i c h h a d r e c e i v e d 216 c o n s e c u t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e s b e t w e e n 1921 a n d 1923, was e x c o r i a t e d by S o r a b j i i n a 1928 r e v i e w : . . . one h a d b u t t o l i s t e n ( i f one c o u l d b r i n g o n e s e l f t o i t ) t o two e x c e r p t s f r o m Mr. R u t l a n d B o u g h t o n ' s " I m m o r t a l H o u r " , w r i t t e n when he was a l r e a d y o l d e nough t o be t h e f a t h e r o f t h e S c h u b e r t o f t h e 4 t h Symphony. The one i s t h e r a t h e r raw y o u t h o f g e n i u s , t h e o t h e r a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e s o p r e v a l e n t and a d m i r e d i n f a n t i l i s m w h i c h t r a d e s u n d e r t h e name o f s i m p l i c i t y . 1 9 3 S o r a b j i d i d n o t l i k e t h e " s t r o n g v e i n o f s i m p l e m e l o d y , much i n f l u e n c e d by f o l k s o n g , t o a q u a s i - s y m p h o n i c o r c h e s t r a l s t y l e a n d a b o l d u s e o f c h o r u s , d e r i v e d p a r t l y f r o m o r a t o r i o and p a r t l y f r o m t h e o p e r a s o f G l u c k , " w h i c h was p r e v a l e n t i n t h i s work o f B o u g h t o n ' s . 1 9 * S o r a b j i p r e f e r r e d a r i c h , warm and c o l o u r f u l s t y l e o f m u s i c t h a t was s a t u r a t e d w i t h m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l t h a t c o u l d be w o r k e d i n d e f i n i t e l y . 1 9 2 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ I n t h e c o n t e x t o f a d i s c u s s i o n on H o i s t ' s o p e r a The B o a r ' s H e a d ] , " New Age 37, No. 2 (May 14, 1 9 2 5 ) : 1 8 , (DR 477. 1 9 3 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : M a h l e r I V . Symphony ( W i r e l e s s : A u g u s t 5 ) . ; B.B.C. Modern Chamber C o n c e r t s . ; Promenade: S e p t e m b e r 6.; P r o m e n a d e : S e p t e m b e r 13," New Age 43, No. 22 ( S e p t e m b e r 27, 1 9 2 8 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 1 2 7 ) . 1 9 " T h e New G r o v e , s . v . " B o u g h t o n , R u t l a n d , " by M i c h a e l H u r d . 88 C y r i l S c o t t ( 1 8 7 9 - 1 9 7 0 ) Of C y r i l S c o t t ' s m u s i c S o r a b j i w r o t e i n an e q u a l l y n e g a t i v e v e i n . S c o t t ' s a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e R u s s i a n c o m p o s e r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , I g o r S t r a v i n s k y , was n o t a p p r e c i a t e d by t h e c r i t i c i n t h e l e a s t . Nor d i d S o r a b j i a p p r o v e o f S c o t t ' s " c h u n k " s t y l e o f h a r m o n i c l a n g u a g e , t h e l a c k o f t e x t u r e , c o u n t e r p o i n t , any s i g n i f i c a n t m u s i c a l i d e a s a n d t h e l a c k o f movement and b a l a n c e , w h i c h a l l r e s u l t e d i n an empty and b a n a l s o u n d . The S t r i n g Q u a r t e t No. 1 (1920) w h i c h S o r a b j i r e v i e w e d i n 1924 was, . . . u n b e l i e v a b l y b a d , an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f t h e w o r s t a nd s t a l e s t o f h i s t r i c k s , t h e e v e r l a s t i n g s l a b s , c h u n k s o f harmony, l a c k o f t e x t u r e a n d c o u n t e r p o i n t , a n d t h a t u n p l e a s a n t f l i p a n c y o f r h y t h m a s a p e r t chamber m a i d i n moments o f a n i m a t i o n . 1 9 5 S i m i l a r l y , t h e P i a n o C o n c e r t o (1 91 4 ) , a c c o r d i n g t o S o r a b j i , s o u n d e d " u t t e r l y empty a n d b a n a l o f s u b s t a n c e , t e x t u r e , o r l i n e " a n d he was d i s g u s t e d w i t h t h e " c o n s t a n t r e p e t i t i o n o f f i g u r e s i n b r o k e n f o u r t h s i n t h e p i a n o p a r t i n m e c h a n i c a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s . " 1 9 6 Thus S c o t t was a " r u b b e r - s t a m p c o m p o s e r " whose c o m p o s i t i o n s s h a r e d t h e same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f monotony 1 9 5 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On t h e c o n c e r t o f t h e C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c C e n t r e o f t h e B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y on May 13, 1 9 2 4 ] , " New Age 35, No. 7 ( J u n e 12, 1924}:8, (DR 2 1 - 2 3 ) . 1 9 6 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Promenade C o n c e r t , S e p t e m b e r 15," New Age 49, No. 21 ( S e p t e m b e r 24, 1 9 3 1 ) : 2 4 5 , (DR 2 2 5 ) . 89 i n S o r a b j i ' s o p i n i o n . 1 9 7 S e v e r a l a u t h o r s h a v e a g r e e d w i t h S o r a b j i ' s j u d g e m e n t s on t h e m u s i c o f C y r i l S c o t t . A c c o r d i n g t o B a c h a r a c h , S c o t t was u n a b l e t o a c h i e v e i n t e g r a t i o n o f h i s a r t i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t y a n d t h i s r e s u l t e d i n h i s m u s i c b e c o m i n g l e s s c o m p e l l i n g . 1 9 8 Blom condemned S c o t t f o r h i s u n o r i g i n a l m a n n e r i s t i c s t y l e o f c o m p o s i n g , 1 9 9 a n d P a u l R o s e n f e l d , who d e v o t e d an e n t i r e c h a p t e r i n h i s M u s i c a l C h r o n i c l e t o t h e m u s i c o f S c o t t , w r o t e i n a s i m i l a r v e i n . 2 0 0 B e s i d e s d i s c u s s i n g t h e f o r m a l w e a k n e s s i n the- m u s i c o f S c o t t , R o s e n f e l d a l s o m e n t i o n e d t h e c o m p o s e r ' s manner o f r e p e a t i n g m u s i c a l m a t e r i a l s e n d l e s s l y a n d h i s l a c k o f i m a g i n a t i o n w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n a "hammering monotony" i n some o f h i s m u s i c . 2 0 1 I t f o l l o w s , t h e n , t h a t S o r a b j i ' s a r g u m e n t s a g a i n s t t h e m u s i c o f C y r i l S c o t t were f a v o r a b l y r e c e i v e d by some o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . Eugene G o o s s e n s ( 1 8 9 3 - 1 9 6 2 ) Of Eugene G o o s s e n s , S o r a b j i w r o t e m o s t l y i n r e g a r d t o h i s 1 9 7 I b i d . 1 9 8 A . L. B a c h a r a c h , e d . , B r i t i s h M u s i c o f Our T i m e , p. 188. 1 9 9 E . B l o m , M u s i c i n E n g l a n d , p. 265. 2 0 0 S e e : P. R o s e n f e l d , M u s i c a l C h r o n i c l e ( 1 9 1 7 - 1 9 2 3 ) , (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d Company, 1 9 2 3 ) , p. 93. 2 0 1 I b i d . , pp. 94-9 5 . 90 c o n d u c t i n g a b i l i t i e s . 2 0 2 A l m o s t a l l o f G o o s s e n s ' m u s i c r e v i e w e d by S o r a b j i i n The New Age was condemned. The R h y t h m i c Dance ( 1 9 2 8 ) f o r o r c h e s t r a was a " n o i s y b r a g g a d o c i o and i n a n e b o m b a s t " ; 2 0 3 an e a r l i e r w o r k, S i n f o n i e t t a ( 1 9 2 2) was " t h o r o u g h l y empty a n d h o l l o w w i t h t h a t o f f e n s i v e a s s e r t i v e n e s s t h a t so o f t e n g o e s w i t h an empty p r e t e n t i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y " ; 2 0 4 a n d t h e c o m p o s e r ' s Oboe C o n c e r t o o f 1927 was r e v i e w e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: The t e x t u r e i s t o o s l a c k , t h e d e l i b e r a t e s t r u g g l e t o a v o i d c l i c h e o f e x p r e s s i o n when i t was o b v i o u s l y a c l i c h e o f t h o u g h t b e h i n d was u n p l e a s a n t l y o b v i o u s a n d t h e b a c k b o n e l e s s n e s s a n d l a c k o f meat i n t h e work I f o u n d v e r y t i r i n g . 2 0 5 T h e s e c o m p o s i t i o n s w e r e , f o r S o r a b j i , l a c k i n g i n i n d i v i d u a l i t y , o r i g i n a l i t y , a n d i n n e r c o h e r e n c e . H owever, G o o s s e n s ' o p e r a J u d i t h ( 1 9 2 9 ) was w e l l - l i k e d by t h e c r i t i c . S o r a b j i ' s f i r s t r e v i e w o f t h i s work was b a s e d on i t s p r e m i e r p e r f o r m a n c e a t C o v e n t G a r d e n . S o r a b j i was h i g h l y i m p r e s s e d by t h e " e l a b o r a t e a n d v i v i d s c o r e " o f t h e o p e r a a n d by t h e c o m p o s e r ' s " a l e r t a d u l t 2 0 2 S e e f o r i n s t a n c e : " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C o n c e r t on J a n u a r y 29, 1 9 2 5 ] , " New Age 36, No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 19, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 0 1 , (DR 3 8 ) . 2 0 3 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : Queen's H a l l ; Wednesday, O c t o b e r 2: Brahms; T h u r s d a y , O c t o b e r 3: A l l - E n g l i s h Programme," New Age 4 5 , No. 25 ( O c t o b e r 17, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 9 7 , (DR 1 6 4 ) . 2 0 " K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : The P h i l h a r m o n i c Symphony O r c h e s t r a o f New Y o r k . ; C o l o g n e O r c h e s t r a : Queen's 6 t h , " New Age 47, No. 8 ( J u n e 19, 1 9 3 0 ) : 9 2 , (DR 2 0 0 ) . 2 0 5 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : The P r o menades a n d O t h e r M a t t e r s . ; Promenade C o n c e r t s . M a h l e r I V . Symphony.; The G o o s s e n s and I r e l a n d C o n c e r t o s . O c t o b e r 3," New Age 47, No. 25 ( O c t o b e r 16, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 9 7 ) , (DR 1 6 4 ) . 91 m i n d . " 2 0 6 However, S o r a b j i d i d n o t t h i n k t h a t t h e b a l l e t i n t e r l u d e s i n J u d i t h p r o v i d e d t h e n e c e s s a r y d r a m a t i c r e l i e f , a n d m o r e o v e r , t h e l i b r e t t o o f Mr. A r n o l d B e n n e t h i n d e r e d t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e w o r k . 2 0 7 B e n j a m i n B r i t t e n ( 1 9 1 3 - 1 9 7 6 ) O n l y a few l i n e s i n a 1934 r e v i e w i n The New Age a r e d e v o t e d t o E n g l a n d ' s f o r e m o s t c o m p o s e r o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , B e n j a m i n B r i t t e n . The c r i t i c f o u n d t h e c h o r a l v a r i a t i o n s , A Boy was B o r n ( 1 9 3 3 - 3 4 ) t o be d r e a r y a n d d u l l , " t r i c k e d o u t w i t h a l l t h e q u i n c a i l l i e r i e o f m o c k - a r c h a i s m l i k e t h e G o t h i c R e v i v a l . " 2 0 8 S o r a b j i was n o t i m p r e s s e d w i t h B r i t t e n ' s v e r y a d v a n c e d E n g l i s h s t y l e w h i c h u t i l i z e d d i s s o n a n c e s a b u n d a n t l y . 2 0 6 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [On s i n g e r s a n d s i n g i n g ] ; D ' A l v a r e z Song R e c i t a l . Q ueen's: J u n e 2 5 t h ; Mark R a p h a e l Song R e c i t a l . Wigmore: J u n e 26.; ' J u d i t h ' C o v e n t G a r d e n : J u n e 2 7," New Age 45, No. 11 ( O c t o b e r 16, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 9 7 , (DR 1 6 4 ) . 2 0 7 I b i d . 2 0 8 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e c h o r a l v a r i a t i o n s o f B e n j a m i n B r i t t e n p e r f o r m e d a t t h e f o u r t h o f t h e B.B.C. c o n c e r t s o f C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c ] , " New Age 54, No. 20 ( M a r c h 15, 2 3 4 ) , (DR 2 6 9 ) . 92 IV. Conclusion S o r a b j i i s , f i r s t a n d f o r e m o s t , a c o m p o s e r o f c o n s i d e r a b l e t a l e n t , whose w o r k s h a v e been d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n b o t h t e c h n i q u e a nd f o r m . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s r e v e a l s t h a t he was a c o n s u m a t e c r a f t s m a n o f t h e h i g h e s t o r d e r . He was a c c u s t o m e d t o l a v i s h i n g a t t e n t i o n on b o t h t h e s m a l l d e t a i l s a nd t h e s w e e p i n g f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s t h a t mark h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s . U n l i k e s o many o f h i s c r e a t i v e c o l l e a g u e s , h o w e v e r , S o r a b j i d i d n o t l i m i t h i s h o r i z o n s t o c o m p o s i t i o n a l o n e . R a t h e r , h i s c a r e e r was a t w o - f o l d one i n v o l v i n g h i s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e a r e a o f m u s i c c r i t i c i s m where he became an a r t i c u l a t e spokesman f o r an e l i t e g r o u p o f c o m p o s e r s w h i c h i n c l u d e d B e r n a r d v a n D i e r e n , C e c i l G r a y , P e t e r W a r l o c k , S a c h e v e r a l l S i t w e l l , W i l l i a m W a l t o n a n d J o h n I r e l a n d . I t i s t h i s r o l e o f s p o k e s m a n , o f m u s i c c r i t i c , t h a t d e s e r v e s s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , f o r i t h e l p s us u n d e r s t a n d t h e m u s i c w r i t t e n by S o r a b j i . An i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s b e t w e e n S o r a b j i ' s c r i t i c a l a e s t h e t i c s a nd h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , an e a r l i e r work L e J a r d i n P a r f u m e ( p u b . 1927) r e f l e c t s an i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c s t y l e , w h e r e a s t h e monumental Opus C l a v i c e m b a l i s t i c u m ( 1 9 3 0 ) e m b o d i e s a t o t a l l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c s t y l e . S o r a b j i ' s m u s i c c r i t i c i s m r e v e a l s t h a t he h a d an a f f i n i t y t o b o t h t h e s e s t y l e s a nd h i s u s e o f them i n h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s e v i n c e s t h i s c l o s e t i e b e t w e e n t h e c o m p o s e r a n d t h e c r i t i c . 93 T h u s , h i s l i k e s a nd d i s l i k e s i n f l u e n c e d h i s a d o p t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r m u s i c a l g e n r e s i n h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s . I n t h i s r e g a r d , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y h a s f o c u s e d on S o r a b j i a s t h e m u s i c c r i t i c . S o r a b j i ' s m u s i c c r i t i c i s m d u r i n g t h i s t i m e c o n t r i b u t e s t o o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s e n t i m e n t s s h a r e d by o t h e r p r o m i n e n t m u s i c i a n s who were a l s o h i s c l o s e s t f r i e n d s . S o r a b j i ' s v i e w s o f t h e L o n d o n r e p e r t o i r e d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1924 t o 1934, o f i t s p e r f o r m e r s , o f t h e r o l e o f c o n c e r t s , a n d e v e n o f t h e r o l e a n d n a t u r e o f m u s i c c r i t i c i s m i t s e l f a r e s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e v i e w s deemed a c c e p t a b l e by t h e l a r g e r m u s i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e t i m e . I n e s s e n c e , S o r a b j i r e d e f i n e d t h e r o l e o f t h e m u s i c c r i t i c . I t i s t h e n a t u r e o f h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y t h a t s e t s S o r a b j i a p a r t f r o m o t h e r c r i t i c s . H i s b e i n g a f o r e i g n e r i n E n g l a n d meant t h a t he d i d n o t h a v e t o d e f e n d t h a t w h i c h was B r i t i s h f o r r e a s o n s o f n a t i o n a l i s t i c p r i d e ; r a t h e r , he c o u l d h a v e been an i m p a r t i a l w i t n e s s t o m u s i c a l e v e n t s . H i s b u r n i n g c o n v i c t i o n s a b o u t what c o n s t i t u t e d e x c e l l e n c e i n c o m p o s i t i o n , h o w e v e r , f o r c e d h i m t o be a c h a m p i o n o f t h o s e c o m p o s e r s whose i d i o m s e m b r a c e d t h e r o m a n t i c , p o s t - r o m a n t i c , a n d i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c s t y l e s . The u n b r i d l e d f r e e d o m w i t h w h i c h he w r o t e h i s r e v i e w s was made p o s s i b l e by t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e v e r a l u n u s u a l t r a i t s a n d c i r c u m s t a n c e s . S o r a b j i was an i n d i v i d u a l o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y c o n v i c t i o n a n d p e r s o n a l s t r e n g t h , one t h a t b e l i e v e d i n h i s v i e w s u n f a i l i n g l y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , he was o p i n i o n a t e d a n d w i l l i n g t o s h a r e h i s e v a l u a t i o n s i n a l a n g u a g e t h a t l e f t no d o u b t a b o u t h i s 94 j u d g m e n t s . I n p a r t h i s m u s i c c r i t i c i s m was i n f l u e n c e d by h i s e m o t i o n a l o u t l o o k a n d s u b j e c t i v e s e n s e o f what c o n s t i t u t e d t h e ' t r u t h ' a n d ' s i n c e r i t y ' o f m u s i c . S o r a b j i s t a t e d h i s o p i n i o n s f o r c e f u l l y u s i n g b l u n t l a n g u a g e , p o w e r f u l w o r d s , c o m p e l l i n g p h r a s e s a n d p o e t i c i m a g e r y . He a r g u e d , I t i s i n my o f f i c e , a s I s e e i t , t o s e t down w i t h o u t any a r r i e r e p e n s e . . . c e r t a i n o b s e r v a t i o n s , a n d t o s e t them down a s c o m p l e t e l y a n d u n c o m p r o m i s i n g l y a s p o s s i b l e a s f a r a s my own f a c u l t i e s o f e x p r e s s i o n a n d o b s e r v a t i o n w i l l e n a b l e one t o do. I n t h e c o u r s e o f d o i n g t h i s , I s h a l l b e — I do n o t d o u b t — o n o c c a s i o n , c o a r s e , v u l g a r , c r u d e , venomous, s p i t e f u l , a n d a number o f t h i n g s t h a t no one who h a s t r i e s t o g e t a r o u n d a c r i t i c s ' c i r c l e o u g h t t o be. P e r h a p s I am t r y i n g t o do s o m e t h i n g w o r s e , . . . s q u a r e . . . o r e v e n b y - p a s s i t ! 1 E v e n a c u r s o r y e x a m i n a t i o n o f S o r a b j i ' s c r i t i c a l r e v i e w s r e v e a l s t h e i r " b l a c k a n d w h i t e " q u a l i t y , t h e i r a b s o l u t e c o n t r a s t s . What i s v i e w e d n e g a t i v e l y i s done so i n an e x t r e m e and r e l e n t l e s s f a s h i o n . I n c o n t r a s t , what S o r a b j i a p p r o v e d o f was g i v e n t h e h i g h e s t p r a i s e . I t i s t h i s e m o t i o n a l c o n t r a s t t h a t i s t h e f a s c i n a t i n g a n d y e t d i s t u r b i n g f e a t u r e o f h i s m u s i c c r i t i c i s m . How c o u l d any m u s i c c r i t i c h a ve been a l l o w e d t o b r i n g t o t h e a r e n a o f " o b j e c t i v e " c r i t i c i s m s u c h a p e r s o n a l a n d e m o t i o n a l o u t l o o k ? I t i s c l e a r t h a t S o r a b j i d i d n o t s h a r e t h e 1K. S o r a b j i , Mi_ c o n t r a f a , p. 15. The e d i t o r o f The New Age, A. R. O r a g e , s h a r e d S o r a b j i ' s o u t l o o k on t h e r o l e o f m u s i c c r i t i c i s m . A c c o r d i n g t o Hugh M c D i a r m i d , O r a g e was i n f a v o u r o f any c r i t i c a l j u d g m e n t t h a t s o u g h t t o d i s c o v e r t h e t r u t h . S o r a b j i ' s e m p h a t i c d e c l a r a t i o n s on t h e m e r i t s o f c e r t a i n m u s i c a l w o r k s c o n t a i n e d p e r s o n a l t r u t h s w h i c h O r a g e c o n s i d e r e d t o be v a l i d a s a b s o l u t e j u d g m e n t s . T h u s , f o r O r a g e , S o r a b j i was t h e u n f a i l i n g g u i d e i n m u s i c f o r he s h a r e d t h e same n o t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e a n d n a t u r e o f c r i t i c i s m ; O r a g e c o u l d r e l y on h i s c r i t i c t o be c a n d i d a n d t o s t a t e o n l y what he b e l i e v e d t o be t h e t r u t h . ( S e e : H. M c D i a r m i d , The Company I ' v e K e p t , p p . 6 7 - 6 8 ) . 95 n o r m a t i v e v a l u e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s a s c r i b e d t o t h e r o l e o f t h e c r i t i c i n h i s t i m e s . R a t h e r , h i s i n s i s t e n c e on t h e t r u t h o r what he c a l l e d t h e " s i n c e r i t y " o f a m u s i c a l p i e c e a s b e i n g t h e k e y s t o n e o f i t s s u c c e s s a n d p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n h a s t o be u n d e r s t o o d f r o m a n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e , n a m e l y h i s p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s a n d v a l u e s . Y e t , i t i s t h i s b l a c k a n d w h i t e q u a l i t y o f h i s m u s i c c r i t i c i s m , t h i s o b s e s s i o n w i t h c o n v e y i n g t h e t r u t h i n b l u n t and u n c o m p r o m i s i n g t e r m s , t h a t s e r v e s t o d e m a r c a t e h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e d t h e e s s e n c e o f m u s i c c r i t i c i s m . A l t h o u g h S o r a b j i was b o r n and r a i s e d i n B r i t a i n i n t h e t r u e E n g l i s h f a s h i o n , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y he t e n d e d t o r e j e c t t h e B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n a l t o g e t h e r . H i s r e m a r k s i n t h e H e s e l t i n e l e t t e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r e v i n c e h i s s t r o n g d i s l i k e a n d c o n d e s c e n s i o n f o r t h e E n g l i s h . As someone h a v i n g a P e r s i a n - I n d i a n f a t h e r and a S p a n i s h - S i c i l i a n m o t h e r , he f o u n d t h e E n g l i s h e x t r e m e l y r a s c i s t a n d u n f e e l i n g . He a b h o r r e d t h e i r l o w s t a n d a r d s a n d y e t he was f o r c e d t o l i v e among them. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f S o r a b j i ' s p e r s o n a l l i f e r e v e a l s h i m t o be an a d h e r e n t o f t h e Y o g i c t r a d i t i o n t h a t i s r o o t e d i n t h e I n d i a n m y s t i c a l r e l i g i o n o f T a n t r i c H i n d u i s m . T a n t r i c H i n d u i s m e m p h a s i z e s t h e e m o t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f l i f e s i n c e i t a r g u e s t h a t t h e e m o t i o n s a r e one p a t h t h r o u g h w h i c h s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n c a n o c c u r . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s b e l i e f - s y s t e m may h a v e h a d p r o f o u n d e f f e c t s on S o r a b j i ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s b o t h m u s i c c o m p o s i t i o n a n d m u s i c c r i t i c i s m . 2 2 A c c o r d i n g t o K e n n e t h D e r u s , S o r a b j i h i m s e l f h a s s t a t e d t h a t h i s t a n t r i c p a r t n e r i n l i f e i s m u s i c . ( P e r s o n a l d i s c u s s i o n , C h i c a g o , A p r i l 24, 1 9 8 3 ) . 9 6 S o r a b j i ' s d i s d a i n f o r t h e B r i t i s h a n d h i s own m a r g i n a l p o s i t i o n i n t h a t s o c i e t y may h a v e been a n o t h e r d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n s h a p i n g h i s d i s t i n c t i v e s t y l e a n d o u t l o o k . B e i n g m a r g i n a l , S o r a b j i was d e n i e d e n t r a n c e i n t o m a i n s t r e a m B r i t i s h s o c i e t y w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f h i s c l o s e f r i e n d s . F u r t h e r , h i s l a c k o f m e m b e r s h i p i n a n y t h i n g r e s e m b l i n g a c l o s e c o m m u n i t y b a s e d on t i e s o f e t h n i c i t y a n d l a n g u a g e may h a v e f u r t h e r e x a c e r b a t e d t h i s f e e l i n g o f m a r g i n a l i t y . S o r a b j i a l w a y s f e l t somewhat d e t a c h e d f r o m L o n d o n ' s m u s i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t , f o r he was n e v e r f u l l y a d m i t t e d i n t o i t s c i r c l e . I n l i g h t o f t h i s , h i s s t r o n g c r i t i c i s m s were n o t t a i l o r e d t o p r o t e c t h i s s t a t u s w i t h i n t h i s e s t a b l i s h e d c i r c l e . R a t h e r , h i s c r i t i c i s m s p o r t r a y h i s d i s r e g a r d f o r t h e v e r b a l e t i q u e t t e a n d t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e a t t i t u d e t h a t was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . S o r a b j i ' s s t y l e h a s s u s t a i n e d t h e e f f e c t s o f t i m e . F o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s h i s s t y l e o f m u s i c c r i t i c i s m h a s r e m a i n e d u n c h a n g e d . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l f a c t o r s t h a t h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s . I n p a r t , t h i s f i x i t y i n c r i t i c a l s t y l e h a s r e s u l t e d f r o m S o r a b j i ' s m a r g i n a l i t y a n d h i s i n s i s t e n c e on r e m a i n i n g d i s t i n c t . F u r t h e r , S o r a b j i h a s r e l i e d e x t e n s i v e l y on h i s c l o s e f r i e n d s f o r s u p p o r t i n g h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f m u s i c c r i t i c i s m . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e most e x t e n s i v e p e r i o d o f h i s w r i t i n g t o o k p l a c e u n d e r O r a g e ' s e d i t o r s h i p o f The New Age. When O r a g e t o o k up t h e e d i t o r s h i p o f The New E n g l i s h W e e k l y , i n 1934, S o r a b j i a l s o b e gan c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s j o u r n a l . E v e n a t t h i s s t a g e o f h i s c a r e e r , S o r a b j i ' s 97 reviews are s t r i k i n g l y similar to those found in The New Age. It can be argued that Orage's strong support, as well as the encouragement provided by Heseltine, Gray, van Dieren and McDiarmid, were the i n f l u e n t i a l factors leading Sorabji to maintain his pa r t i c u l a r brand of music c r i t i c i s m . It i s interesting to note that the death of some of these close friends coincided with Sorabji's withdrawal from the musical scene. After Orage's death, Sorabji's writings appeared only sporadically in various journals. In part, t h i s withdrawal may also have resulted from the rapid changes that were occuring in the musical climate of the time. Innovative musical st y l e s , emanating from both the Continent and America, were gradually seeping into the B r i t i s h c u l t u r a l milieu. It can be surmised that Sorabji's withdrawal from the musical scene was in part a response to thi s rapidly changing milieu. Sorabji may have recognized his own musical conservatism, for without the support of his friends he may not have been able to withstand the onslaught of these progressive musical trends. Without a vehicle such as The New Age, however, i t i s doubtful that many of Sorabji's best writings would have been printed. The editors of this unusual journal permitted Sorabji to write whatever he li k e d , however he l i k e d . This meant that he could make statements which today would surely be construed as li b e l o u s . Sorabji was allowed to create new attitudes towards music c r i t i c i s m in London, to redefine the c r i t i c ' s role and the 98 manner i n w h i c h c r i t i c i s m i t s e l f was o f f e r e d t o t h e i n t e r e s t e d r e a d e r s h i p . S o r a b j i ' s s u c c e s s a s a m u s i c c r i t i c c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . F i r s t , h i s c r i t i c a l s t y l e was c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a n d i n f o r m a l , u n l i k e t h a t o f s u c h a c a d e m i c c r i t i c s a s B e r n a r d Shaw, E r n e s t Newman, N e v i l l e C a r d u s , a nd e v e n Samuel L a n g f o r d . As Hugh M c D i a r m i d s t a t e s : S o r a b j i i s a s u p e r b c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t — t h o u g h n o t o f t h e t y p e who t h i n k t h e y a r e e x c h a n g i n g i d e a s when t h e y a r e m e r e l y g o s s i p i n g - - a n d I c a n i m a g i n e w i t h o u t d i f f i c u l t y h i s s a y i n g i n t h e c o u r s e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a n y t h i n g i n h i s p u b l i s h e d c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s . 3 S o r a b j i r a r e l y u s e d t e c h n i c a l l a n g u a g e when d i s c u s s i n g m u s i c a n d c r i t i c i z e d t h e a p p r o a c h a d o p t e d by o t h e r w r i t e r s i n t h e d o m i n a n t m u s i c p e r i o d i c a l s i n E n g l a n d . He a r g u e d t h a t , A l l t h a t i n f a n t i l i s t i c b a b b l e a b o u t " f o r m " , " s u b j e c t s " , " d e v e l o p m e n t " a n d t h e r e s t o f t h e c l a s s r o o m c l a p t r a p , t e l l s us n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e m u s i c ; . . . I f i t d i d , a n d i f i t were p o s s i b l e t o v e r i f y , we w o u l d be i n t h e r e a l m n o t o f a r c h e o l o g y b u t p s y c h o m e t r y . I t i s h i g h t i m e t o d e c l a r e r o u n d l y t h a t a l l p s e u d o - a n t o m i c a l n o n s e n s e o f t h e t e x t b o o k s a n d t h e a n a l y t i c a l programme i s s o much p e r n i c i o u s a n d n o x i o u s r u b b i s h , c o n f u s i n g t h e i s s u e s a n d d a r k e n i n g c o u n s e l . I t d i s t r a c t s a t t e n t i o n f r o m what m a t t e r s — t h e m u s i c - - t o s u b o r d i n a t e a nd s u b s i d i a r y m a t t e r s t h a t , i n t h e t o t a l i t y o f t h e m u s i c , a r e a s germane t h e r e t o a s a man's s k e l e t o n t o t h e w h o l e o f h i m . " S e c o n d , S o r a b j i ' s c r i t i c a l s t y l e was h i g h l y d e s c r i p t i v e . I t was e a s y f o r t h e common l a y m a n t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d i t p o i g n a n t l y r e c o u n t e d d e t a i l s o f t h e m u s i c . When r e v i e w i n g m u s i c t h a t was p l e a s i n g t o h i m , he p o s e d l o g i c a l a n d p e r c e p t i v e q u e s t i o n s . I n a 3 H . M c D i a r m i d , The Company I ' v e K e p t , p. 67. "K. S o r a b j i , M i c o n t r a f a , p. 15. 99 1920 r e v i e w o f S c h o e n b e r g ' s G u r r e l i e d e r , S o r a b j i a s k e d t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s w h i c h he w o u l d t h e n p r o c e e d t o a n s w e r , t h u s p r o v i d i n g h i s r e a d e r w i t h a t h o r o u g h d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m u s i c an d a s o u n d a n a l y s i s . . . . how i s t h e work m a d e ? — i s i t a w e l l - p l a n n e d m a s t e r f u l s t r u c t u r e ? — h a s i t a b s o l u t e m a s t e r y o v e r a l l i t s m e a n s ? — d o e s i t move i n e v i t a b l y a n d w i t h c o n v i c t i o n a n d p o w e r ? - - h a s i t t h e a u t h e n t i c g l o w o f g r e a t m u s i c ? 5 I t seems t h a t S o r a b j i a v o i d e d d i s c u s s i n g i n d e t a i l a ny m u s i c t h a t he d i d n o t c o n s i d e r " a u t h e n t i c " o r h a v i n g t h e " g l o w o f g r e a t m u s i c " . T h e r e a r e many i n s t a n c e s w h e r e , i n a s e n t e n c e o r t w o , he b e l i t t l e d t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s o f a c o m p o s e r w i t h whose m u s i c he was n o t i n s y m p a t h y . S o r a b j i was a b l e t o i n c l u d e more o f h i s p o w e r f u l a d j e c t i v e s i n a s i n g l e s e n t e n c e t h a n most c r i t i c s d a r e d t o u t i l i z e i n an e n t i r e r e v i e w . The f o l l o w i n g r e v i e w o f a T o c h c o n c e r t o i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i n t e n s i t y o f S o r a b j i ' s c r i t i c i s m . The T o c h c o n c e r t o I d i d n o t h e a r . I know t h e w o r k , h o w e v e r , t o be b e n e a t h c o n t e m p t . I t i s a f a i r s p e c i m e n o f t h e i n f a n t i l e i n e p t i t u d e s o f t h e y o u n g h o p e l e s s o f modern G e r m a n y — s t e r i l e , v a p i d , v a c u o u s a n d n u l l . 6 I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i t must be n o t e d t h a t S o r a b j i h a s n o t r e c e i v e d t h e k i n d o f a c a d e m i c a t t e n t i o n t h a t h a s been a c c o r d e d t o o t h e r E n g l i s h m u s i c c r i t i c s . He i s r a r e l y m e n t i o n e d 5 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : G e r a l d C o o p e r C o n c e r t : A e o l i a n , J a n u a r y 24.; G u r r e l i e d e r , S c h o e n b e r g : Queen's H a l l . J a n u a r y 2 7," New Age 42, No. 15 ( F e b r u a r y 9, '1928):175, (DR 1 0 7 ) . 6 K . S o r a b j i , " M u s i c : B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y . 4c L a n g f o r d P l a c e , S t . J o h n ' s Wood: F e b r u a r y 18.; R u d o l f S e r k i n . A e o l i a n : F e b r u a r y 2 1 . ; B.B.C. Queen's: F e b r u a r y 2 1 . ; G e r h a r d t . 2L.O.: F e b r u a r y 24," New Ag_e 46, No. 18 ( M a r c h 6, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 0 9 , (DR 1 9 1 ) . 100 i n t h e m a j o r b i o g r a p h i e s o f B r i t i s h c o m p o s e r s o r i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s o f B r i t i s h m u s i c . H i s w r i t i n g s h a v e r e m a i n e d i n o b l i v i o n f o r o v e r f i f t y y e a r s . T h i s i s due t o two m a j o r r e a s o n s : (1) j o u r n a l s s u c h a s The New Age ( a n d The New E n g l i s h W e e k l y ) were g e a r e d t o w a r d s a s m a l l , r a d i c a l r e a d e r s h i p — a g r o u p t h a t c a n be d e s c r i b e d a s a c u l t d e v o t e d t o p r o m o t i n g t h e S o c i a l i s t v i e w s o f C o l o n e l D o u g l a s ; 02) i t a p p e a r s t h a t e v e n when S o r a b j i e n j o y e d some measure o f p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n , he was n e i t h e r w e l l - l i k e d n o r u n d e r s t o o d by t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e m u s i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t e s o f t h e d a y . When v i e w e d a s a c o m p o s e r , S o r a b j i ' s l a r g e - s c a l e w o r k s ( a b o u n d i n g w i t h t e c h n i c a l c o m p l e x i t i e s ) were n e i t h e r c o m p r e h e n d e d n o r a p p r e c i a t e d by t h e m u s i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t . H i s famous 1936-ban on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f h i s m u s i c , h i s r e t i r e m e n t i n t o s e c l u s i o n f o r p e r s o n a l a e s t h e t i c r e a s o n s , a s w e l l a s h i s r e f u s a l t o d i v u l g e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t h i m s e l f i n c r e a s e d h i s i s o l a t i o n a nd t h e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s u r r o u n d i n g h i m . I n s o f a r a s h i s m u s i c c r i t i c i s m was c o n c e r n e d , S o r a b j i ' s s u p e r c i l i o u s w r i t i n g s t y l e o f t e n s e v e r e d a n y p o t e n t i a l s u p p o r t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t he m i g h t have e n j o y e d w i t h h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . H i s own n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s o t h e r s r e i n f o r c e d h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s p e r c e p t i o n o f h i m a s a mad a n d e c c e n t r i c c o m p o s e r whose work d i d n o t m e r i t any s i g n i f i c a n t a t t e n t i o n . C o n s i d e r f o r e x a m p l e , t h e s a r c a s t i c manner i n w h i c h he d e s c r i b e d b o t h h i m s e l f and t h o s e a r o u n d h i m : . . . a s I grow o l d e r , I f i n d my d i s l i k e o f my f e l l o w - c r e a t u r e s i n c r e a s e s by l e a p s and b o u n d s . I f i n d my f a i l i n g s a n d f o i b l e s a s much a s I c a n b e a r w i t h a b e c o m i n g e q u a n i m i t y , t h o s e o f o t h e r s a d d e d , I f i n d an 101 i n t o l e r a b l e b u r d e n . The s i g h t of them i n t h e i r v a r i o u s d e g r e e s a n d k i n d s o f m e n t a l u g l i n e s s i s a d i s t a s t e f u l a n d h u m i l i a t i n g r e m i n d e r t h a t I am one o f them; t h a t d i s p l e a s e s me. I know i t , I d o n ' t want i t u n d e r l i n e d . I f i n d a l s o t h a t t h e v o c a l a n d p h o n e t i c n o i s e s w i t h w h i c h t h e y t h i n k t h e i r b r a i n s a r e w o r k i n g — q u i t e i r r e s p e c t i v e , o f c o u r s e , a s t o w h e t h e r t h e r e a r e any b r a i n s t h e r e t o work do n o t , s o f a r a s I am c o n c e r n e d make a s u i t a b l e p l e a s i n g n o r h e l p f u l b a c k g r o u n d a g a i n s t w h i c h t o l i s t e n t o m u s i c . 7 S o r a b j i ' s h i g h l y w i t t y , r a c y , c u t t i n g a n d a m u s i n g w r i t i n g s a r e b o t h e n t e r t a i n i n g a n d i n f o r m a t i v e . I n S o r a b j i we s e e a c r i t i c who i s more t h a n j u s t a b r i l l i a n t p o l e m i c i s t , f o r he knew t h e a r t o f m u s i c a t i t s d e e p e s t l e v e l . U n l i k e B e r n a r d Shaw an d E r n e s t Newman, o r N e v i l l e C a r d u s and S amuel L a n g f o r d — K a i k h o s r u S o r a b j i was a p r a c t i t i o n e r o f t h e a r t , n o t o n l y i t s c r i t i c . A s t u d y o f S o r a b j i ' s m u s i c a l c r i t i c i s m i s o f f u n d a m e n t a l i m p o r t a n c e b o t h f o r what i t s a y s a b o u t t h e m u s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s i n E n g l a n d d u r i n g t h e 1920s a n d 1 9 3 0 s , a n d a l s o f o r what i t r e v e a l s a b o u t S o r a b j i t h e c r i t i c / c o m p o s e r . As A r n o l d W h i t t a l h a s a p t l y s t a t e d , I f S o r a b j i a s a c r i t i c i s w o r t h a t t e n t i o n t o d a y i t i s b e c a u s e a l e s s e x t r e m e a t t i t u d e — o t h e r t h a n i n d i f f e r e n c e — i s p o s s i b l e . 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F o r p u r p o s e s o f c l a r i f i c a t i o n a n d e a s e o f r e f e r e n c e , t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r h a s i n c l u d e d r e l e v a n t t i t l e - i n f o r m a t i o n d e n o t i n g t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e a r t i c l e / l e t t e r i n b r a c k e t s . A l s o i n c l u d e d w i t h t h e b i b l i o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s a "DR" n u m b e r ( s ) o r " D e r u s - R a p o p o r t " n u m b e r ( s ) i n p a r e n t h e s i s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e page n u m b e r ( s ) o f t h e a r t i c l e o r l e t t e r i n t h e m i c r o f i l m e d p a c k a g e o f c o l l e c t e d w r i t i n g s c o m p i l e d 106 by K e n n e t h D e r u s a n d P a u l R a p o p o r t . The numbers h a v e been g i v e n a s t h e p a c k a g e of c o l l e c t e d w r i t i n g s i s t h e o n l y e d i t i o n t o d a t e . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : B a c h a n d V o i c e P r o d u c t i o n . " New Age 34, No. 21 ( M a r c h 20, 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 4 9 , (DR 1 0 ) . " M u s i c : [On C o v e n t G a r d e n , t h e B.N.O.C. a n d t h e G r a n d O p e r a S y n d i c a t e ] . " New Age 34, No. 25 ( A p r i l 17, 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 6 9 , (DR 14) . " M u s i c : [On t h e R a v e l c o n c e r t ] . " New Age 35, No. 3 (May 15, 1 9 2 4 ) : 3 1 - 3 2 , (DR 1 6 - 1 7 ) . " M u s i c : Wagner's ' R i n g ' . " New Age 35, No. 5 (May 29, 1 9 2 4 ) : 5 4 , (DR 1 8 - 2 0 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c C e n t r e / B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y c o n c e r t on May 13, 1 9 2 4 ] . " New Age 35, No. 7 ( J u n e j l 2 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 7 9 - 8 0 , (DR 2 1 - 2 3 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f B a x ' s T h i s W o l d ' s J o i e a nd V a u ghan W i l l i a m s ' S p r i n g Time o f t h e Y e a r by t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r on J u n e 5, 192417" New Age 35, No. 9 ( J u n e 26, 1 9 2 4 ) : 1 0 3 - 1 0 4 , (DR 2 4 - 2 5 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e Bax S y m p h o n i c V a r i a t i o n s by H a r r i e t C o h e n ] . " New Age 35, No. 26 ( O c t o b e r 23, 1 9 2 4 ) : 3 0 8 , (DR 3 0 - 3 1 ) . " M u s i c : The P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r ; t h e H a l l e O r c h e s t r a ; A New S y s t e m o f s o u n d R e p r o d u c t i o n . " New Age 36, No. 6 (December 4, 1 9 2 4 ) : 6 6 - 7 , (DR 3 5 ) . " M u s i c : C e c i l G r a y ' s Book [A S u r v e y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c ] . " New Age 36, No. 8 (December 18, 1 9 2 4 ) : 9 3 , (DR 3 6 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C o n c e r t j on J a n u a r y 29, 1 9 2 5 ] . " New Age 36, No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 19, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 0 1 , (DR 38) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C o n c e r t o f F e b r u a r y 26, 1925; On t h e L.S.O. c o n c e r t where D e l i u s ' P a r i s was p e r f o r m e d ; a n d on t e K i n s e y P i a n o Q u a r t e t p e r f o r m e r s ] . " New Age 36, No. 21 ( M a r c h 19, 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 4 6 , (DR 4 1 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e S e c o n d V i o l i n C o n c e r t o 107 o f D e l i u s on M a r c h 20, 1 9 2 5 ] . " New Age 36, No. 23 ( A p r i l 2, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 7 5 , (DR 4 3 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m . " New Age 36, No. 23 ( A p r i l 2, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 7 5 , (DR 4 3 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f D e l i u s ' Mass a n d on h i s m u s i c i n g e n e r a l ] . " New Age 36, No. 26 ( A p r i l 2 3 , 1925) :308, (DR 4 4 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m . " New Age 36, No. 26 ( A p r i l 23, 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 1 2 , (DR 4 5 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e l a s t P h i l h a r m o n i c C o n c e r t o f t h e 1925 s e a s o n where t h e P a s t o r a l Symphony o f Vaughan W i l l i a m s was p e r f o r m e d ] . " New Age 37, No. 1 (May 7, 1 9 2 5 ) : 7 , (DR 4 6 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f E l g a r ' s K i n g d o m by t h e London C h o r a l S o c i e t y u n d e r A r t h u r Pagge w i t h t h e L.S.O.; On H o i s t ' s r e p u t a t i o n i n E n g l a n d a n d h i s The B o a r ' s H e a d ] . " New Age 37, No. 2 (May 14, 1 9 2 5 ) : 1 8 , (DR 47T " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p r e f o r m a n c e o f S t r a u s s ' E l e k t r a ] . " New Age 37, No. 6 ( J u n e 11, 1 9 2 5 ) : 6 8 , (DR 4 8 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f H o i s t ' s C h o r a l Symphony a t t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c c o n c e r t on O c t o b e r 29, 1 9 2 5 ] . " New Age 38, No. 3 (November 19, 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 1 ~ 3 2 , (DR 5 4 - 5 5 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e i m p r o v e m e n t s o f w i r e l e s s t r a n s m i s s i o n s ] . " New Age 38, No. 14 ( F e b r u a r y 4, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 6 7 , (DR 5 8 ) . " M u s i c : S t r a v i n s k y : C a s a l s . " New Age 38, No. 16 ( F e b r u a r y 18, 1926) s 1 9 0 , (DR 5 9 ) . " M u s i c : S i r Thomas Beecham." New Age 38, No. 19 ( M a r c h 11, 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 2 5 , (DR 6 1 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r ' s c o n c e r t on M a r c h 11, 1926 where t h e M o z a r t R e q u i e m M a s s , D e l i u s ' Song o f t h e H i g h H i l l s a n d B a x ' s S t . P a t r i c k ' s B r e a s t p l a t e were p e r f o r m e d ] . " New Age 38, No. 21 ( M a r c h 25, 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 5 0 , (DR 62) . " M u s i c : J o h n I r e l a n d . " New Age 39, No. 7 ( J u n e 17, 1 9 2 6 ) : 7 5 , (DR 68) . " M u s i c : Queen's H a l l P r o m e n a d e s . " New Age 39, No. 21 ( S e p t e m b e r 2 3 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 4 2 , (DR 7 4 ) . B.B.C. C o n c e r t a t t h e A l b e r t H a l l . " New Age 40, No. 1 (November 4, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 1 , (DR 7 8 ) . 108 " M u s i c : K r e i s l e r : R o s e n t a l : C u r z o n : The P a n a t r o p e . " New Age 40, No. 6 (December 9, 1 9 2 6 ) : 7 0 , (DR 7 9 ) . " M u s i c : M a d e m o i s e l l e Y o u r a G u l l e r ( A e o l i a n . J a n u a r y 1 5 t h ) ; B.B.C. ( R o y a l A l b e r t H a l l . J a n u a r y 2 0 t h ) ; S o l i t o de S o l i s ( A e o l i a n . J a n u a r y 2 6 t h ) . " New Age 40, No. 15 ( F e b r u a r y 10, 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 7 7 , (DR 8 1 ) . " M u s i c : R o y a l C h o r a l S o c i e t y , J a n u a r y 29; B.B.C., F e b r u a r y 3; S o l i t o de S o l i s , F e b r u a r y 15." New Age 40, No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 24, 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 9 7 , (DR 8277" " M u s i c : Queen's H a l l O r c h e s t r a ; B.B.C. C o n c e r t . A l b e r t H a l l , M a r c h 17; M i s s V i o l e t Gordon-Woodhouse." New Age 40, No. 23 ( A p r i l 17, 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 7 3 , (DR 8 4 - 8 5 ) . " M u s i c : L.S.O.; Mr. G e o r g e P a r k e r . A e o l i a n . A p r i l 12." New Age 40, No. 26 ( A p r i l 28, 1 9 2 7 ) : 3 1 0 , DR 8 6 ) . " M u s i c : C o v e n t G a r d e n : Der R i n g d e s N i b e l u n g e n . " New Age 4 1 , No. 4 (May 26, 1 9 2 7 ) : 4 5 , (DR 8 7 ) . " M u s i c : Mme. Wanda L a n d o w s k a (Wigmore H a l l , May 1 6 ) . " New Age 4 1 , No. 6 ( J u n e 9, 1 9 2 7 ) : 6 9 ~ 7 0 , (DR 8 8 - 8 9 ) . " M u s i c : ' A i d a ' : C o v e n t G a r d e n , J u n e 8; F r i d a K i n d l e r a n d J o h n G o s s (Wigmore, J u n e 9 ) . " New Age 4 1 , No. 9 ( J u n e 30, 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 0 5 , (DR 9 0 ) . " M u s i c : [ M i s s D a i s y K e n n e d y ' s p u b l i c p r o t e s t ] ; Queen's H a l l P r o m e n a d e s . " New Age 4 1 , No. 20 ( S e p t e m b e r 15, 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 3 8 , (DR 9 3 - 9 4 ) . " M u s i c : M i s c h a L e v i t z k i (Queen's H a l l , O c t o b e r 2 0 ) ; A r n o l d Bax (Wigmore, O c t o b e r 2 0 ) ; I t u r b i ( A e o l i a n , O c t o b e r 2 2 ) ; D i n h G i l l y ( G r o t r i a n , November 1 ) . " New Age 42, No. 2 (November 10, 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 2 , (DR 9 5 ) . " M u s i c : Mr. R o b e r t H u l l [Book r e v i e w on R. H u l l ' s C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c ] . " New Age 42, No. 5 (December 1 , 1 9 2 7 ) : 5 7 , (DR 9 8 ) . " M u s i c : V l a d i m i r C e r n i k o f f ; The B e r l i n P h i l h a r m o n i c O r c h e s t r a . Q ueen's, December 1." New Age 42, No. 5 (December 22, 1927) :94, (DR 1 0 2 ) . " M u s i c : B e r l i n P h i l h a r m o n i c : December 4.; R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c : December 8.; I m p e r i a l L e a g u e o f O p e r a M e e i n g , December 9.; P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r , December 14." New Age 42, No. 10 ( J a n u a r y 5, 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 1 7 , (DR 1 0 3 ) . " M u s i c : R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c : J a n u a r y 5.; Mr. B e r t r a m J o n e s on t h e B e r l i n O r c h e s t r a . " New Age 42, No. 13 ( J a n u a r y 26, 1928) :149, (DR 1 0 6 ) . 109 " M u s i c : G e r a l d C o o p e r C o n c e r t : A e o l i a n , J a n u a r y 24.; G u r r e l i e d e r , S c h o e n b e r g : Queen's H a l l . J a n u a r y 27." New Age 42, No. 15 ( F e b r u a r y 9, 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 7 5 , (DR 1 0 7 ) . " M u s i c : 'Carmen': The O l d V i c , May 10.; M e s s i a h ( B e e c h a m ) : C r y s t a l P a l a c e , May 5.; W i r e l e s s : May 2, 9.30." New Age 43, No. 5 (May 3 1 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 5 3 , (DR 1 1 7 ) . " M u s i c : S e a s o n o f L i g h t O p e r a : C o u r t . ; B u d a p e s t P h i l h a r m o n i c O r c h e s t r a . " New Age 43, No. 11 ( J u l y 12, 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 2 9 - 1 3 0 , ( D R . 1 1 9 - 1 2 0 ) . " M u s i c : The P o w e r s o f t h e A i r . " New Age 43, No. 18 ( A u g u s t 30, 1 9 2 8 ) : 2 1 5 , (DR 1 2 5 - 1 2 6 ) . " M u s i c : M a h l e r I V . Symphony ( W i r e l e s s : A u g u s t 5 ) . ; B.B.C. Modern Chamber C o n c e r t s . ; Promenade: S e p t e m b e r 6.; Promenade: S e p t e m b e r 13." New Age 4 3 , No. 22 ( S e p t e m b e r 27, 1 9 2 8 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 1 2 7 ) . " M u s i c : B.B.C. Modern Chamber C o n c e r t . A r t s T h e a t r e C l u b : O c t o b e r 15.; C o n c e r t o f T c h e k o - S l o v a k M u s i c . Q u e e n ' s : O c t o b e r 16." New Age 43, No. 26 ( O c t o b e r 2 5 , 1 9 2 8 ) : 3 0 9 , (DR 1 2 9 ) . " M u s i c : K a t h e r i n e Heyman. Wigmore: O c t o b e r 2 5 . ; M e d t n e r : R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c . Q ueen's: Nov. 1." New Age 44, No. 3 (November 15, 1 9 2 8 ) : 3 0 , (DR 1 3 1 ) . " M u s i c : E l i z a b e t h Schumann. Q u e e n ' s : November 3.; A r t s T h e a t r e : G r o t r i a n . " New Age 44, No. 5 (November 29, 1 9 2 8 ) : 5 7 , (DR 1 3 2 ) . " M u s i c : Van D i e r e n . Wigmore: November 10.; L.S.O. Queen's H a l l , November 12.; S i r Thomas Beecham: R o y a l A l b e r t H a l l , November 11." New Age 44, No. 6 (December 6, 1 9 2 8 ) : 6 8 , (DR 1 3 3 - 1 3 4 ) . " M u s i c : R o y a l O p e r a , C o v e n t G a r d e n : 'Der R o s e n k a v a l i e r ' . " New Age 45, No. 3 (May 16, 1 9 2 9 ) : 3 0 , (DR 1 4 7 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e o f B a x ' s W a l s i n g h a m a n d H o i s t ' s Hymn o f J e s u s a t t h e Queen's H a l l on J u n e 6, 1929; R e g a r d i n g Eugene G o o s s e n s ' c o n c e r t a t t h e Queen's H a l l on J u n e 13; a n d on t h e o r c h e s t r a l c o n c e r t o f B e a t r i c e a n d May H a r r i s o n a t t h e Queen's H a l l on J u n e 1 4 , 1 9 2 9 ] . " New Age 45, No. 9 ( J u n e 27, 1 9 2 9 ) : 1 0 5 , (DR 1 5 2 - 1 5 3 ) . " M u s i c : [On s i n g e r s a n d s i n g i n g ] ; D ' A l v a r e z Song R e c i t a l . Q u e e n ' s : J u n e 2 5 t h ; Mark R a p h a e l Song R e c i t a l . Wigmore: J u n e 26; ' J u d i t h ' C o v e n t G a r d e n : J u n e 27." New Age 4 5 , No. 11 ( J u l y 11, 1 9 2 9 ) : 1 2 9 , (DR 1 5 4 ) . 1 10 " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e A l l - E n g l i s h E v e n i n g a t t h e Proms on T h u r s d a y 2 9 t h A u g u s t , 1 9 2 9 ] . " New Age 45, No. 20 ( S e p t e m b e r 12, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 3 8 , (DR 1 5 7 - 1 5 8 ) . " M u s i c : [On Egon P e t r i ' s p i a n o r e c i t a l , Sunday S e p t e m b e r 8, 1 9 2 9 ] . " New Age 45, No. 22 ( S e p t e m b e r 26, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 159) . " M u s i c : Queen's H a l l ; Wednesday, O c t o b e r 2: Brahms; T h u r s d a y , O c t o b e r 3: A l l - B r i t i s h Programme." New Age 45, No. 25 ( O c t o b e r 17, 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 9 6 - 2 9 7 , (DR 164T7" " M u s i c : [On t h e b r o a d c a s t programme where S i b e l i u s ' F i f t h Symphony was p e r f o r m e d ] ; D ' A l v a r e z . A e o l i a n , O c t . 9.; Egon P e t r i . Wigmore, 1 t h . ; F i r s t C o n c e r t o f t h e D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . Q u e e n ' s, 1 2 t h ; J e r i t z a . A l b e r t H a l l , 1 3 t h . " New Age 4 5 , No. 26 ( O c t o b e r 24, 1 9 2 9 ) : 3 0 8 - 3 1 0 , (DR 165-16777" " M u s i c : The D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . ; T e t r a z z i n i . A l b e r t H a l l . O c t o b e r 2 0 . ; D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . " New Age 46, No. 1 (November 7, l 9 2 9 ) : 8 - 9 , (DR 1 6 8 - 1 6 9 ) . " M u s i c : B.B.C. Chamber C o n c e r t . ; Egon P e t r i . Wigmore, November 9." Nev Age 46, No. 3 (November 2 1 , l 9 2 9 ) : 3 2 - 3 3 , (DR 1 7 2 - 1 7 3 ) . " M u s i c : [ C o p y r i g h t B i l l ] ; R a c h m a n i n o f f . A l b e r t H a l l : Nov. 24.; C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t . Nov. 20." New Age 46, No. 5 (December 5, 1 9 2 9 ) : 5 7 , (DR 1 7 7 - 1 7 8 ) . " M u s i c : B a r t o k R e c i t a l . A r t s T h e a t r e C l u b . : J a n u a r y 7. B . B . C ; H a l l e C o n c e r t . Queen's J a n u a r y 10.; The M u s i c a l C o p y r i g h t B i l l . " New Age 46, No. 12 ( J a n u a r y 23, 1 0 3 0 ) s 1 3 7 , (DR 1 8 4 ) . " M u s i c : H a l l e O r c h e s t r a : Q u e e n ' s . J a n u a r y 24.; P r i v a t e O r g a n R e c i t a l : S t . L a w r e n c e J e w r y , J a n u a r y 2 5 . " New Age 46, No. 14 ( F e b r u a r y 6, 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 6 4 , (DR 1 8 7 ) . " M u s i c : B . B . C F r i d a y , 3 1 s t . Q u e e n ' s . ; B i r m i n g h a m C i t y O r c h e s t r a , v i a B . B . C F e b . 13.; K i r k b y L u n n . " New Age 46, No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 27, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 0 1 , (DR 1 8 9 - 9 0 ) . " M u s i c : B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y . 4 c , L a n g f o r d P l a c e , S t . J o h n ' s Wood: F e b r u a r y 18.; R u d o l f S e r k i n . A e o l i a n : F e b r u a r y 2 1 . ; B.B.C. Queen's: F e b r u a r y 2 1 . ; G e r h a r d t . 2L.O.: F e b r u a r y 24." New Age 46, No. 18 ( M a r c h 6, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 0 9 , (DR 1 9 1 ) . " M u s i c : C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t : Q u e e n 's, M a r c h 18." New Age 46, No. 22 ( A p r i l 3, 1 9 3 0 ) ; 2 6 1 , (DR 1 9 4 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f S o r a b j i ' s P i a n o S o n a t a No. 4 ] ; P h i l h a r m o n i c : A p r i l 3.; B.B.C. C o n c e r t : A p r i l 4." New Age 11 1 46, No. 24 ( A p r i l 17, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 8 4 , (DR 1 9 5 ) . " M u s i c : M a h l e r E i g h t h Symphony: Queen's H a l l , A p r i l 15." New Age 47, No. 1 (May 1, 1 9 3 0 ) : 7 , (DR 1 9 6 ) . " M u s i c : The P h i l h a r m o n i c Symphony O r c h e s t r a o f New Y o r k ; C o l o g n e O r c h e s t r a : Queen's 6 t h . " New Age 47, No. 11 ( J u l y 10, 1 9 3 0 ) : 9 2 , (DR 2 0 0 ) . " M u s i c : P e ' l l e a s e t M e l i s a n d e ; 'The E x p e r t ' Gramophone." New Age 47, No. 11 ( J u l y 10, 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 3 0 - 1 3 1 , (DR 2 0 1 ) . " M u s i c : The P r o m e n a d e s . " New Age 47, No. 23 ( O c t o b e r 2, 1930) :274, (DR 2 0 5 ) . " M u s i c : The Promenades a nd o t h e r m a t t e r s . ; Promenade C o n c e r t s . M a h l e r I V . Symphony.; t h e G o o s s e n s a nd I r e l a n d C o n c e r t o s . O c t o b e r 3." New Age 47, No. 25 ( O c t o b e r 47, No. 25 ( O c t o b e r 16, 1 9 3 0 ) 7 2 9 7 , (DR 2 0 6 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e a b u n d a n c e o f c o n c e r t t i c k e t s a n d t h e l a c k o f good c o n c e r t - p r o g r a m m e s ] ; L.S.O. Queen's. O c t o b e r 2 7." New Age 48, No. 1 (November 6, 1 9 3 0 ) : 8 - 9 , (DR 2 0 7 - 2 0 8 ) . " M u s i c : B r i t i s h Women's Symphony O r c h e s t r a . ; W i r e l e s s . H i n d e m i t h W o r k s . " New Age 48, No. 3 (November 20, 1 9 3 0 ) : 3 2 , (DR 209) . " M u s i c : [ O b i t u a r y on P h i l i p H e s e l t i n e - P e t e r W a r l o c k ] . " New Age 48, No. 11 ( J a n u a r y 15, 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 2 8 - 9 , (DR 2 1 1 ) . " M u s i c : O p e r a : ' R o s e n k a v a l i e r ' ; W i r e l e s s . " New Age 49, No. 4 (May 28, 1 9 3 1 ) : 4 1 , (DR 2 1 8 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e b r o a d c a s t p e r f o r m a n c e o f I r e l a n d ' s P i a n o C o n c e r t o ] ; The O p e r a ; ' S a d k o ' . " New Age 49, No. 9 ( J u l y 2, 1931) :104, (DR 2 2 3 ) . " M u s i c : Promenade C o n c e r t , S e p t e m b e r 15." New Age 49, No. 21 ( S e p t e m b e r 24, 1 9 3 1 ) : 2 4 5 , (DR 2 2 5 ) . " M u s i c : The P r o m e n a d e s . " New Age 49, No. 23 ( O c t o b e r 8, 1 9 3 1 ) : 2 7 2 , (DR 227-877 " M u s i c : Egon P e t r i . " New Age 50, No. 1 (November 5, 1 9 3 1 ) : 7 , (DR " M u s i c : [On M a g g i e T e y t e ' s b r o a d c a s t r e c i t a l ] ; H e l e n M i l v a . ; S c h o e n b e r g : F r i d a y November 13." New Age 50, No. 4 (November 26, 1 9 3 1 ) : 4 0 - 4 1 , (DR 232T7 " M u s i c : [On t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f W a l t o n ' s B e l s h a z z a r ' s F e a s t ] ; R o y a l C h o r a l S o c i e t y : Nov. 28." New Age 50, No. 6 1 12 (December 10, 1 9 3 1 ) : 6 , (DR 2 3 3 - 2 3 4 ) . " M u s i c : [Newman on M u s i c C r i t i c i s m ] ; W i r e l e s s . B . B . C . " New Age 50, No. 8 (December 24, 1 9 3 1 ) : 9 2 , (DR 2 3 5 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e P r e s s a n d B r i t i s h M u s i c i a n s ] ; W i r e l e s s . B.B.C. C o n t e m p o r a r y C o n c e r t s . " New Age 50, No. 10 ( J a n u a r y 7, 1932) :116, (DR 2 3 6 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e b r o a d c a s t programme f r o m P a r i s where F l o r e n t S c h m i t t ' s S y m p h o n i c C o n c e r t a n t e was p e r f o r m e d a n d on B a x ' s m u s i c i n g e n e r a l ] . " New Age 52, No. 26 ( A p r i l 2 7, 1933) :310, (DR 2 6 2 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e C h o r a l V a r i a t i o n s o f B e n j a m i n B r i t t e n p e r f o r m e d a t t h e f o u r t h B.B.C. c o n c e r t o f c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s i c ] . " New Age 54, No. 20 ( M a r c h 15, 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 3 4 , (DR 269) . " M u s i c : [On Dame E t h e l Smyth's 7 5 t h - b i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n c o n c e r t i n 1 9 3 4 ] . " New Age 54, No. 23 ( A p r i l 5, 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 7 2 , (DR 270) . 1 13 APPENDIX 1 THE WRITINGS OF KAIKHOSRU SORABJI INJTHE NEW AGE ( 1 9 1 5 - 1 9 3 4 ) The f o r m a t f o r t h i s a p p e n d i x i s b a s e d on t h a t o f t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y ( I I ) t o t h e t h e s i s : The common h e a d i n g s " M u s i c " a n d " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r " s i g n i f y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n , t h a t i s , w h e t h e r i t i s an a r t i c l e o r a l e t t e r ; t h e "DR" o r " D e r u s - R a p o p o r t " numbers have been i n c l u d e d f o r e a s e o f r e f e r e n c e ; a n d where a t i t l e h a s n o t been p r o v i d e d f o r by S o r a b j i , t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r h a s i n c l u d e d r e l e v a n t t i t l e - i n f o r m a t i o n d e n o t i n g t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e a r t i c l e o r l e t t e r . O r i g i n a l p u n c t u a t i o n h a s been r e t a i n e d where p o s s i b l e t o g i v e t h e r e a d e r f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f t h e l a c k o f e d i t i n g i n t h e j o u r n a l by The New Age s t a f f . 114 " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : F o r e i g n e r s i n E n g l a n d . " New Age 16, No. 24 ( A p r i l 15, 1 9 1 5 ) : 6 5 3 f (DR 1 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : F o r e i g n e r s i n E n g l a n d . " New Age 16, No. 26 ( A p r i l 29, 1 9 1 5 ) : 7 0 7 , (DR 2 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : F o r e i g n e r s i n E n g l a n d . " New Age 17, No. 3 (May 20, 1 9 1 5 ) : 6 9 , (DR 3 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : C u r r e n t C a n t i c l e [ R e g a r d i n g t h e p i a n i s t Mr. M u r d o c h a n d t h e m u s i c a l c r i t i c i s m o f W. J . T u r n e r ] . " New Age 19, No. 1 (May 4, 1 9 1 6 ) : 2 2 , (DR 4 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : The P r e s s and M a n n e r s . " New Age 20, No. 16 ( F e b r u a r y 15, 1 9 1 7 ) : 3 8 3 , (DR 5 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : Mr. Van D i e r e n a n d h i s c r i t i c s . " New Age 20, No. 23 ( A p r i l 5, 1 9 1 7 ) : 5 5 0 , (DR 6 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : The p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s o f m u s i c . " New Age 2 1 , No. 9 ( J u n e 28, 1 9 1 7 ( : 2 1 4 - 2 1 5 , (DR 7 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M u s i c [On B r i t i s h a n d A m e r i c a n p i a n o s and t h e r e p e r t o r y f o r t h i s i n s t r u m e n t ; On Mr. A t h e l i n g ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f c e r t a i n s i n g e r s ; on t h e s t a t e o f B r i t i s h m u s i c b e f o r e t h e war a n d famous B r i t i s h m u s i c i a n s ] . " New Age 2 2 , No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 2 1 , 1 9 1 8 ) : 3 3 9 , (DR 8 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M u s i c [A r e s p o n s e t o t h e p r e v i o u s l e t t e r on t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e s t a t e o f B r i t i s h m u s i c ] . " New Age 22, No. 21 ( M a r c h 2 1 , 1 9 1 8 ) : 4 2 3 , (DR 9 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : B a c h a n d V o i c e P r o d u c t i o n . " New Age 34, No. 21 ( M a r c h 20, 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 4 9 , (DR 1 0 ) . " M u s i c : [On S o l i t o de S o l i s ' p i a n o r e c i t a l ; C o v e n t G a r d e n , t h e B.N.O.C. an d t h e G r a n d O p e r a S y n d i c a t e ] . " New Age 2 6 9 - 2 7 0 , (DR 1 1 - 1 2 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : [ R e p l y t o a l e t t e r on modern methods o f v o i c e p r o d u c t i o n ; on s i n g e r s a n d t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f B a c h a n d o t h e r 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y c o m p o s e r s ] . " New Age 34, No. 24 ( A p r i l 10, 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 8 8 , (DR 1 3 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e f l o o d o f b a d s i n g e r s ; on t h e j o i n t p i a n o and h a r p s i c h o r d r e c i t a l o f V i o l e t C l a r e n c e a n d A v e r i l C a s s i d y w i t h B e c k e t W i l l i a m s a s t h e g u e s t p e r f o r m e r ; on t h e S a l z b u r g F e s t i v a l programmes and t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J u r y s y s t e m ] . " New Age 34, No. 25 ( A p r i l 17, 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 9 6 - 2 9 7 , (DR 1 4 ) . 1 15 " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : [ R e s p o n s e t o Mr. J u d g e ' s l e t t e r ; S o r b j i ' s s t r i c t u r e s upon t h e a v e r a g e c o n t e m p o r a r y s i n g e r ' s t e c h n i q u e ] . " New Age 35, No. 1 (May 1, 1 9 2 4 ) : 9 , (DR 1 5 ) . " M u s i c : On t h e Lo n d o n c o n c e r t s e a s o n ; on p r e s e n t - d a y newpaper c r i t i c i s m ; on t h e R a v e l c o n c e r t where t h e p i a n i s t G i l . M a r c h e x p e r f o r m e d ; on t h e A u s t r a l i a n s o p r a n o E v e l y n S c o t n e y , t h e I t a l i a n s i n g e r U m b e r t o U r b a n o a n d on D i n h G i l l y ; on t h e B.N.O.C.'s s e a s o n a t H i s M a j e s t y ' s a n d C o v e n t G a r d e n a n d on t h e C a r l R o s a Company's s e a s o n a t t h e S c a l a ] . " New Age 35, No. 3 (May 15, 1 9 2 4 ) : 3 1 - 3 2 , (DR 1 6 - 1 7 ) . " M u s i c : Wagner's ' R i n g ' . " New Age 35, No. 5 (May 29, 1 9 2 4 ) : 5 4 " 5 6 , (DR 18-207. " M u s i c : [On t h e c o n c e r t a t t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s i c c e n t r e by t h e B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y ; on t h e r e v i e w o f S o r a b j i ' s c o m p o s i t i o n by A n t c l i f f e ; on Der R o s e n k a v a l i e r ; on C y r i l S c o t t ' s m u s i c a n d on 'de R e s z k e ' s i n g e r s ; on t h e p i a n i s t A l e x a n d e r B o r o w s k y ' s Wigmore H a l l r e c i t a l ; on t h e D o m i n i o n A r t i s t ' s C l u b ] . " New Age 35, No. 7 ( J u n e 12, 1 9 2 4 ) : 7 9 - 8 1 , (DR 2 1 - 2 3 ) . " M u s i c : [On a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s o f m u s i c i a n s ; on t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r c o n c e r t ; on t h e o r g a n i s t M a r c e l D u p r e ; on t h e o r g a n , i t s b u i l d e r s a n d r e p e r t o r y ; on Compton M a c k e n z i e ' s p a p e r a n d t h e 'Gramophone'; on t h e New^edison Diamond D i s k P h o n o g r a p h ] . " New Age 35, No. 9 ( J u n e 17, 1 9 2 4 ) : 1 0 3 - 1 0 4 , (DR 2 4 - 2 5 ) . " M u s i c : [On o p e r a i n t h e v e r n a c u l a r ; on t h e E n g l i s h o p e r a , t h e B a l l a d o p e r a , t h e G r a n d O p e r a S y n d i c a t e p o l i c y c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r o p e r a company's p o l i c i e s ] . " New Age 35, No. 12 ( J u l y 17, 1 9 2 4 ) : 1 4 0 - 1 4 1 , (DR 2 6 - 2 7 ) . " M u s i c : The D e a t h o f B u s o n i [ O b i t u a r y ] . " New Age 3 5 , No. 16 ( A u g u s t 14, 1924):189, (DR 2 8 ) . " M u s i c : [Book r e v i e w on W. J . T u r n e r ' s l a t e s t book ( t i t l e n o t g i v e n ) ; on M o s e i w i t s c h ' s p i a n o r e c i t a l ] . " New Age 35, No. 24 ( O c t o b e r 9, 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 8 6 , (DR 2 9 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e c o n c e r t s o f p i a n i s t Mark Hambourg a n d s i n g e r J o h n McCormack; on H a r r i e t C ohen's p l a y i n g o f t h e Bax S y m p h o n i c V a r i a t i o n s ; on t h e p i a n o p l a y i n g o f S o l i t o de S o l i s a n d R a c h m a n i n o f f ] . " New Age 35, No. 26 ( O c t o b e r 2 3 , 1 9 2 4 ) : 3 0 8 - 3 0 9 , (DR 3 0 - 3 1 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m [ R e g a r d i n g H a r r i e t . Cohen's p l a y i n g — a r e p o n s e t o W. T. S.'s l e t t e r ] . " New Age 36, No. 2 (November 6, 1 9 2 4 ) : 2 1 , (DR 3 2 ) . 116 " M u s i c : [On modern F r e n c h m u s i c c r i t i c i s m ; on t h e s i n g i n g o f G a l l i C u r c i ; on t h e p i a n i s t V i c t o r S c h o e l e r ; on t h e R a h m a n i n o f f r e c i t a l ] . " New Age 36, No. 4 (Nobember 20, 1 9 2 4 ) : 4 5 , (DR 3 3 - 3 3 a ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M u s i c C r i t i c i s m [ R e g a r d i n g a l e t t e r by Mr. Meade and a r e p l y t o H. C. V. B a i l e y on H a r r i e t C o hen's p i a n o p l a y i n g ] . " New Age 36, No. 4 (November 20, 1924) :45-46, (DR 3 3 a ) . " M u s i c : The P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r ; The H a l l e O r c h e s t r a ; A New S y s t e m o f Sound R e p r o d u c t i o n . " New Age 36, No. 6 (December 4, 1 9 2 4 ) : 6 6 - 6 7 , (DR 3 4 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r . : M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m [ R e p l y t o J . M a c k e n z i e ' s l e t t e r on t h e s u b j e c t o f H a r r i e t C ohen's p i a n o p l a y i n g ] . " New Age 36, No. 6 (December 4, 1 9 2 4 ) : 7 1 , (DR 35) . " M u s i c : C e c i l G r a y ' s Book [On G r a y ' s S u r v e y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c ] . " New Age 36, No. 8 (December 18, 1 9 2 4 ) : 9 3 , (DR 36) . " M u s i c : [On B l a n c h M a r c h e s i ' s r e c i t a l ; on G a l l i C u r c i ; on t h e m i s u s e o f t h e word ' c o l o r a t u r a ' a nd ' f i o r i t u r a ' ] . " New Age 36, No. 13 ( J a n u a r y 22, 1 9 2 5 ) : 1 5 0 , (DR 3 7 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e p r o m o t i o n o f m u s i c i a n s by f a l s e a d v e r t i s i n g ; on t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c c o n c e r t ] . " New Age 36, No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 19, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 0 1 , (DR 3 9 ) . " M u s i c : [On Egon P e t r i ' s r e c i t a l s ] . " New Age 36, No. 18 ( F e b r u a r y 26, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 1 1 , (DR 39T7" " M u s i c : [On m u s i c a p p r e c i a t i o n i n E n g l a n d ] ( i ) A r e a u d i e n c e s more i n t e l l i g e n t a n d d i s c r i m i n a t i n g ? ; ( i i ) I s t h e s t a n d a r d o f p e r f o r m a n c e h i g h e r ? ; ( i i i ) I s t h e r e any r e a l e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e p u b l i c t a s t e i n m u s i c h a s i m p r o v e d ? " New Age 36, No. 19 ( M a r c h 15, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 2 4 - 2 2 5 , (DR 4 0 ) . t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c c o n c e r t ; on t h e New E d i s o n Diamond D i s k P h o n o g r a p h and some r e c o r d r e v i e w s ] . " New Age 36, No. 21 ( M a r c h 19, 1925) :246, (DR 4 1 ) . " M u s i c : [On Egon P e t r i ' s r e c i t a l ; on t h e chamber c o n c e r t o f J o h n G o s s , Sammons a n d M u r d o c h ] . " New Age 36, No. 23 ( A p r i l 2, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 7 2 - 2 7 3 , (DR 4 2 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m [ R e s p o n s e t o ' F a i t c h a ' s " l e t t e r ] . " New Age 36, No. 23 ( A p r i l 2, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 7 5 , (DR 4 3 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e f i r s t p e r f o r m a n c e o f v a n D i e r e n ' s F o u r t h S t r i n g Q u a r t e t a t t h e B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y c o n c e r t ; on t h e R o y a l 11 7 P h i l h a r m o n i c S o c i e t y ' s p e r f o r m a n c e o f D e l i u s ' s Mass o f L i f e ] . " New Age 36, No. 26 ( A p r i l 2 3 , 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 0 8 T 7 D R 4 4 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m . " New Age 36, No. 26 ( A p r i l 23, 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 1 2 , (DR 4 5 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e l a s t P h i l h a r m o n i c c o n c e r t o f t h e s e a s o n ] . " New Age 37, No. 1 (May 7, 1 9 2 5 ) : 7 , (DR 46. " M u s i c : [On t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f E l g a r ' s K i n g d o m by t h e L o n d o n C h o r a l S o c i e t y w i t h t h e L o n d o n Symphony O r c h e s t r a ; on t h e E n g l i s h r e c e p t i o n o f H o i s t ' s o p e r a The B o a r ' s Head; on t h e o p e r a G i a n n i S c h i c c h i o f P u c c i n i ] . " New Age 37, No. 2 (May 14, 1 9 2 5 ) : 1 8 , (DR 4 7 ) . " M u s i c : [On S t r a u s s ' E l e k t r a a n d i t s p r o d u c t i o n ; on Wagner's T r i s t a n and i t s p r o d u c t i o n ] . " New Age 37, No. 6 ( J u n e 11, 1 9 2 5 ) : 6 8 , (DR 4 8 ) . " M u s i c : [On Mr. C o e ' s c r i t i c i s m o f C e c i l G r a y ' s S u r v e y of C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c i n " L a Revue M u s i c a l e " ; on Beecham's b a n k r u p t c y h e a r i n g s ; on t h e r e c i t a l s o f A r t h u r S c h a u b t , I v a n P h i l l i p o w s k y a nd t h e g e n r a l s t a t e o f c o n c e r t p e r f o r m a n c e s i n L o n d o n ; on t h e Don C o s s a c k C h o i r ] . " New Age 37, No. 7 ( J u n e 18, 1 9 2 5 ) : 8 1 , (DR 4 9 ) . " M u s i c : The O p e r a [ T o s c a and I_l B a r b i e r a d i S i v i q l i a a t C o v e n t G a r d e n ] . " New Age 37, No. 9 ( J u l y 9, 1 9 2 5 ) : 1 1 5-116, (DR 5 0 - 5 1 ) . " M u s i c : [On Newman's m u s i c c r i t i c i s m ; on t h e f i r s t Promenade c o n c e r t o f t h e s e a s o n a n d t h e o r g a n r e p e r t o r y a t t h e s e c o n c e r t s ] . " New Age 37, No. 22 ( O c t o b e r 1, [ 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 6 2 - 2 6 3 , (DR 5 2 ) . " M u s i c : [On P e r c y S c h o l e s l e c t u r e s on m u s i c c r i t i c i s m a n d t h e L o n d o n P r e s s ; on t h e r e c e p t i o n o f f o r e i g n m u s i c i a n s i n E n g l a n d ; on Kwast Hodapp's p i a n o r e c i t a l ; on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e s e c o n d L i s z t c o n c e r t o by M. de G r i e f a t t h e P r o m enades a n d o t h e r w o r k s ] . " New Age 37, No. 23 ( O c t o b e r 8, 1 9 2 5 ) : 2 7 1 , (DR 5 3 ) . " M u s i c : [On N i n a K o s h e t z ; f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e i n L o n d o n ; on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f H o i s t ' s C h o r a l Symphony a t t h e f i r s t P h i l h a r m o n i c on O c t o b e r 29; on Lamond's r e c i t a l a t t h e Queen's H a l l on November 3 ] . " New Age 38, No. 3 (November 19, 1 9 2 5 ) : 3 1 - 3 2 r (DR 5 4 - 5 5 ) . " M u s i c : [On Lamond's s e c o n d r e c i t a l ; on t h e Hambourg r e c i t a l ; on K i r k b y L u n n ' s r e c i t a l ; on gramophone r e p r o d u c t i o n o f m u s i c and M e s s r s . A l f r e d I m h o f ' s H i s M a s t e r ' s V o i c e i n s t r u m e n t ] . " New Ag_e 38, No. 8 (December 24, 1 9 2 5 ) : 9 4 ~ 9 5 , (DR 5 6 ) . 118 " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : D o l l a r C u l t u r e [ R e g a r d i n g G o u l d F l e t c h e r ' s e s s a y 'The A m e r i c a n M i n d ' ] . " New Age 38, No. 11 ( J a n u a r y 14, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 3 1 , (DR 5 7 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e ' c e l e b r i t y ' s t a r c o n c e r t s a t t h e A l b e r t H a l l on J a n u a r y 10; on S i r Thomas Beecham w i t h t h e L.S.O.; on t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e o f m u s i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e s a n d t h e r a p i d i m p r o v e m e n t s i n w i r e l e s s t r a n s m i s s i o n a n d gramophone m u s i c a l r e p r o d u c t i o n s ] . " New Age 38, No. 14 ( F e b r u a r y 4, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 6 6 - 1 6 7 , (DR 5 8 ) . " M u s i c : S t r a v i n s k y : C a s a l s . " New Age 38, No. 16 ( F e b r u a r y 18, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 9 0 , (DR 5 9 ) . " M u s i c : E l i z a b e h t Schumann; The B u d a p e s t S t r i n g Q u a r t e t . " New Age 38, No. 18 ( M a r c h 4, 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 1 3 , (DR 6 0 ) . " M u s i c : S i r Thomas Beecham." New Age 38, No. 19 ( M a r c h 11, ) 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 2 5 , (DR 6 1 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f L i s z t ' s m u s i c by Mr. E m l y n D a v i e s ; on t h e p i a n o l a d e v i s e d by Mr. F r e d e r i c k E v a n s ; on t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c c o n c e r t on M a r c h 11; on t h e f u n d - r a i s i n g e v e n t s p o n s o r e d by t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r , t h e c h o i r ' s r e p u t a t i o n i n E n g l a n d a n d t h e i r r e p e r t o r y ] . " New Age 38, No. 21 ( M a r c h 25, 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 5 0 , (DR 6 2 ) . " M u s i c : [On Newman's h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s on Wagner, Schumann and M o z a r t ; on t h e L.S.O. p e r f o r m a n c e on A p r i l 1 2 ] . " New Age 38, No. 26 ( A p r i l 29, 1 9 2 6 ) : 3 0 8 , (DR 6 3 ) . " M u s i c : [ W i r e l e s s r e v i e w o f S t a n i s l a s N i e d z i e l s k i ' s p l a y i n g o f t h e F m i n o r C h o p i n C o n c e r t o ; on t h e p i a n o r e c i t a l o f N i c o l a s O r l o f f ] . " New Age 39, No. 4 (May 27, 1 9 2 6 ) : 3 6 , (DR 6 4 ) . " M u s i c : [On Egon P e t r i ' s r e c i t a l s on A p r i l 24 a n d 3 0 ] . " New Age 39, No. 5 ( J u n e 3, 1 9 2 6 ) : 5 0 , (DR 6 5 ) . " M u s i c : The R i n g [ o f W a g n e r ] . " New Age 39, No. 6 ( J u n e 10, 1 9 2 6 ) : 6 1 - 6 2 , (DR 6 6 - 6 7 ) . " M u s i c : J o h n I r e l a n d . " New Age 39, No. 7 ( J u n e 17, 1 9 2 6 ) : 7 5 , (DR 68) . " M u s i c : The P a s s i n g o f t h e P u b l i c C o n c e r t . " New Age 39, No. 10 ( J u l y 8, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 1 0 , (DR 6 9 ) . " M u s i c : The P a s s i n g o f t h e P u b l i c C o n c e r t I I . " New Age 39, No. 11 ( J u l y 15, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 2 1 - 1 2 2 , (DR 7 0 - 7 1 ) . " M u s i c : O p e r a - O t e l l o ; L ' H e u r e E s p a g n o l ; G i a n n i S c h i c c h i . " New Age 39, No. 12 ( J u l y 2 2 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 3 4 , (DR 7 2 ) . 119 " M u s i c : [On M o r i z R o s e n t h a l ' s r e c i t a l a t t h e Queen's H a l l ] . " New Age 39, No. 14 ( A u g u s t 5, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 5 8 , (DR 7 3 ) . " M u s i c : Queen's H a l l P r o m e n a d e s . " New Age 39, No. 21 ( S e p t e m b e r 23, 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 4 2 , (DR 7 4 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : T r u t h a n d O b s c e n i t y [ I n r e g a r d t o G e o r g e R y l e y S c o t t ' s a r t i c l e ' I s T r u t h O b s c e n e ? ' ] . " New Age 39, No. 21 ( S e p t e m b e r 2 3 , 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 4 3 , (DR 7 5 ) . " M u s i c : J o s e p h M a r x ; B.B.C. Programme." New Age 39, No. 24 ( O c t o b e r 14, 1 9 2 6 ) : 2 7 7 , (DR 7 6 ) . " M u s i c : The P r o m e n a d e s . " New Age 39, No. 25 ( O c t o b e r 2 1 , 1926) :289, (DR 7 7 ) . " M u s i c : B.B.C. C o n c e r t a t t h e A l b e r t H a l l . " New Age 40, No. 1 (November 4, 1 9 2 6 ) : 1 1 , (DR 7 8 ) . " M u s i c : K r e i s l e r : R o s e n t h a l : C u r z o n : The P a n a t r o p e . " New Age 40, No. 6 (December 9, 1 9 2 6 ) : 7 0 , (DR 7 9 ) . " M u s i c : The A u g u s t r o . Rome. December 26." New Age 40, No. 11 ( J a n u a r y 13, 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 2 9 , (DR 8 0 ) . " M u s i c : M a d e m o i s e l l e Y o u r a G u l l e r ( A e o l i a n . J a n u a r y 1 5 t h ) ; B.B.C. ( R o y a l A l b e r t H a l l . J a n u a r y 2 0 t h ) ; S o l i t o de S o l i s ( A e o l i a n . J a n u a r y 2 6 t h ) . " New Age 40, No. 15 ( F e b r u a r y 10, 1927) :177, (DR 8 1 ) . " M u s i c : R o y a l C h o r a l S o c i e t y , J a n u a r y 29; B . B . C , F e b r u a r y 3; S o l i t o de S o l i s , F e b r u a r y 15." New Age 40, No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 24, 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 9 7 , (DR 8277" " M u s i c : S o l i t o de S o l i s . A e o l i a : F e b r u a r y 2 2 .; Godowsky. A e o l i a n : F e b r u a r y 26." New Age 40, No. 19 ( M a r c h 10, 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 2 5 , (DR 8 3 ) . " M u s i c : Queen's H a l l O r c h e s t r a ; B.B.C. C o n c e r t . A l b e r t H a l l , M a r c h 17; M r s V i o l e t Gordon-Woodhouse." New Age 40, No. 23 ( A p r i l 7, 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 7 3 - 2 7 4 , (DR 8 4 - 8 5 ) . " M u s i c : L.S.O.; Mr. G e o r g e P a r k e r . A e o l i a n . A p r i l 12." New Age 40, No. 26 ( A p r i l 28, 1 9 2 7 ) : 3 1 0 , (DR 8 6 ) . " M u s i c : C o v e n t G a r d e n : Der R i n g d e s N i b e l u n g e n . " New Age 4 1 , No. 4 (May 26, 1 9 2 7 ) : 4 5 , (DR 8 7 ) . " M u s i c : Mme. Wanda L a n d o w s k a (Wigmore H a l l , May 16; [On t h e t e n o r S i g n o r T i t o S c h i p a a t t h e Queen's H a l l on May 16; on t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f P a r c i f a l a t C o v e n t G a r d e n on May 17; on t h e l e c t u r e by D i n h G i l l y a t t h e M a r l e b o n e S t u d i o s on May 18; on t h e S e g o v i a G u i t a r r e c i t a l a t t h e Wigmore H a l l on 120 May 19; on Mme. I v o g u e n ' s r e c i t a l a t t h e A l b e r t H a l l on May 2 2 ] . " New Age 4 1 , No. 6 ( J u n e 9, l 9 2 7 ) : 6 9 - 7 0 , (DR 8 8 - 8 9 ) . " M u s i c : ' A i d a ' : C o v e n t G a r d e n , J u n e 8; F r i d a K i n d l e r a n d J o h n G o s s (Wigmore, J u n e 9 ) . " New Age 4 1 , No. 9 ( J u n e 30, 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 0 5 , (DR 9 0 ) . " M u s i c : T u r a n d o t . ( C o v e n t G a r d e n , J u n e 1 5 ) ; M a n u e l de F a l l a . ( A e o l i a n H a l l , J u n e 2 2 ) ; Carmen. ( C o v e n t G a r d e n , J u n e 2 4 ) . " New Age 4 1 , No. 10 ( J u l y 7, 1 9 2 7 ) : 1 1 8 , (DR 9 1 ) . " M u s i c : [On M i s s D a i s y K e n n e d y ' s p u b l i c p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e t r e a t m e n t o f s o l o i s t s ] ; Queen's H a l l P r o m e n a d e s . " New Age 4 1 , No. 20 ( S e p t e m b e r 15, 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 3 8 , (DR 9 2 ) . " M u s i c : Wigmore ( S e p t e m b e r 22) [On a s o n g r e c i t a l h e l d a t t h e Wigmore H a l l ] ; Mark Hambourg ( Q u e e n ' s , S e p t e m b e r 2 4 ) . ; A l b e r t H a l l ( S u n d a y , O c t o b e r 7 . ) ; H a r o l d R u t l a n d ( A e o l i a n , O c t o b e r 1 2 ) . ; The B u d a p e s t T r i o (Wigmore, O c t o b e r 1 2 ) . " New Age 4 1 , No. 26 ( O c t o b e r 27, 1 9 2 7 ) : 3 0 9 - 3 1 0 , (DR 9 3 - 9 4 ) . " M u s i c : M i s c h a L e v i t z k i (Queen's H a l l , O c t o b e r 2 0 ) ; A r n o l d Bax (Wigmore, O c t o b e r 2 0 . ) : I t u r b i ( A e o l i a n , O c t o b e r 2 2 . ) ; D i n h G i l l y ( G r o t r i a n , November 1 . ) . " New Age 42, No. 2 (November 10, 1 9 2 7 ) : 2 2 , (DR 9 5 ) . " M u s i c : The W i l s o n P a n h a r m o n i c H o r n a s A d a p t e d a n d M o u n t e d by W. R. C o l l i e r a n d G. B r a d l e y ; J o h n I r e l a n d ( O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , November 2 . ) . " New Age 42, No. 3 (November 17, 1 9 2 7 ) : 3 2 - 3 3 , . (DR 9 7 ) . The S e c o n d L e v i t z k i R e c i t a l (Queen's 2 n d ) . ; M. D i n h G i l l y ( G r o t r i a n 8 t h ) . ; Mr. B r a d l e y a n d t h e W i l s o n H o r n . " New Age 42, No. 4 (November 24, 1 9 2 7 ) : 4 5 , (DR 9 7 ) . "Mr. R o b e r t H u l l [On H u l l ' s b o o k , C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c ] . " New Age 42, No. 5 (December 1, 1 9 2 7 ) : 5 7 , (DR 9 8 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c [ S o r a b j i ' s r e p l y t o H u l l ' s l e t t e r o f p r o t e s t o f t h e c r i t i c ' s book r e v i e w ] . " ' New Age 42, No. 6 (December 8, 1 9 2 7 ) : 7 2 , (DR 9 9 ) . " M u s i c : M. D i n h G i l l y . G r o t r i a n H a l l , November 15.; S i r Thomas Beecham's O p e r a Scheme.; Mr. P h i l i p L e v i : The C o u r t H o u s e , November 28." New Age 42, No. 7 (December 15, 1 9 2 7 ) : 8 1 ~ 8 2 , (DR 1 0 0 - 1 0 1 ) . " M u s i c : V l a d i m i r C e r n i k o f f ; The B e r l i n P h i l h a r m o n i c O r c h e s t r a . Q u e e n ' s , December 1." New Age 42, No. 8 (December 22, 1 9 2 7 ) : 9 4 , (DR 1 0 2 ) . " M u s i c : B e r l i n P h i l h a r m o n i c : December 4.; R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c , 121 December 8; I m p e r i a l L e a g u e o f O p e r a . M e e t i n g , December 9; P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r , December 14; S o p h i e Wyss. A e o l i a n , December 14." New Age 42, No. 10 ( J a n u a r y 5, 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 1 7 , (DR 1 0 3 ) . " M u s i c : 'The M e s s i a h . ' A l b e r t H a l l , December 18; R o l a n d H a y e s . Wigmore, December 15; The ' V o x a u r e a ' Gramophone." New Age 42, No. 11 ( J a n u a r y 12, 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 2 8 , (DR 1 0 4 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : The W i l s o n P a n h a r m o n i c H o r n . " New Age 42, No. 11 ( J a n u a r y 12, 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 3 1 , (DR 1 0 5 ) . " M u s i c : R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c : J a n u a r y 5.; Mr. B e r t r a m J o n e s on t h e B e r l i n O r c h e s t r a . " New Age 42, No. 13 ( J a n u a r y 26, 1 9 2 8 ) : 1 4 9 , (DR 1 0 6 ) . " M u s i c : G e r a l d C o o p e r c o n c e r t : A e o l i a n , J a n u a r y 24.; G u r r e l i e d e r , S c h o e n b e r g : Queen's H a l l , J a n u a r y 2 7." New Age 42, No. 15 ( F e b r u a r y 9, 1928):175, (DR 1 0 7 ) . " M u s i c : A r t h u r S c h n a b e l . A e o l i a n : 3 1 s t . ; Egon P e t r i ( A e o l i a n : 2 n d . ) ; C u r r e n t M u s i c a l C r i t i c i s m . " New Age 42, No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 23, 1928):198, (DR 1 0 8 ) . " M u s i c : V i e n n a S t r i n g Q u a r t e t . A e o l i a n : F e b r u a r y 1 4 t h . ; M e d t n e r R e c i t a l . A e o l i a n : F e b r u a r y 1 6 t h . ; M r s . G o r d o n Woodhouse. A e o l i a n : F e b r u a r y 2 1 s t . ; Mme. L a n d o w s k a . Wigmore: F e b r u a r y 2 9 t h . ; E l i z a b e t h Schumann. Wigmore: M a r c h 2 n d . " New Age 42, No. 20 ( M a r c h 15, 1 9 2 8 ) : 2 3 6 - 2 3 7 , (DR 109-11077" " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : A f o o l a n d h i s money." New Age 42, No. 22 ( M a r c h 15, 1 9 2 8 ) : 2 3 9 , (DR 1 1 1 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M r s . Woodhouses's H a r p s i c h o r d R e c i t a l . " New Age 42, No. 22 ( M a r c h 29, 1 9 2 8 ) : 2 6 3 , (DR 1 1 2 ) . " M u s i c : Lamond. A e o l i a n : M a r c h 1 0 t h . ; The B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y C o n g r e s s ; P l u n k e t G r e e n e . A e o l i a n : A p r i l 30; The E s t e y O r g a n . " New Age 42, No. 24 ( A p r i l 12, 1928):281, (DR 1 1 3 ) . " M u s i c : [On Dame E t h e l Smyth's book A F i n a l B u r n i n g o f B o a t s ] ; B a c h . S t . J o h n P a s s i o n . ( Q u e e n ' s . Good F r i d a y . 7 7 Godowsky." New Age 43, No. 1 (may 3, 1 9 2 8 ) : 6 , (DR 1 1 4 ) . " M u s i c : M. D i n h G i l l y ' s l e c t u r e s - G r o t r i a n : F r i d a y , A p r i l 2 0 , e t s e q . ; D o n a l d T o v e y (Wigmore: A p r i l 2 7 t h ) . ; M. D i n h G i l l y , T h i r d L e c t u r e : May 4." New Age 4 3 , No. 3 (May 17, 1 9 2 8 ) : 3 2 , (DR 1 1 5 ) . " M u s i c : [On Dame E t h e l Smyth's book A F i n a l B u r n i n g o f t h e B o a t s and h e r r e p u t a t i o n i n E n g l a n d ; on S o r a b j i ' s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e m u s i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ] . " New Age 43, No. 4 (May 24, 1 9 2 8 ) : 4 4 , (DR 122 116). "Music: 'Carmen': The Old Vic, May 10.; Messiah (Beecham): Crystal Palace, May 5.; Wireless: May 2, 9.30." New Age 43, No. 5 (May 31, 1928):53, (DR 117). "Music: Mass of L i f e (Delius): Queen's, May 16.; Rachmoninoff: Queen's, May 19.; E. Ewlyn Davies: Westminster Congregational Church, May 17." New Age 43, No. 6 (June 7, 1928):70, (DR 118). "Music: Season of Light Opera: Court.; Budapest Philharmonic Orchestra." New Age 43, No. 11 (July 12, 1928):129-130, (DR 119-120). "Music: Covent Garden, June 21st.; Vladimir Rosing, Aeolian, June 8th.; 'Turandot,' Covent Garden.; Marchesi R e c i t a l , Grotrian, June 28th." New Age 43, No. 12 (July 19; 1928):140, (DR 121). "Music: Paul Robeson (Drury Lane: July 5).; Turandot (Covent Garden: July 9)." New Age 43, No. 14 (August 2, 1928):165, (DR 122). "Music: [On Newman's comparisons between the musical conditions in England in the 1860s and the 1920s; on jazz and Constant Lambert's a r t i c l e on t h i s topic in " L i f e and L e t t e r s " ] . " New Age 43, No. 15 (August 9, 1928):177, (DR 123). "Reviews: History of Music. By C e c i l Gray. (Kegan Paul. 12s. 6d.)." New Age 43, No. 15 (August 9, 1928):179, (DR 124). "Music: The Powers of the Air [on broadcast r e c i t a l s ] . " New Age 43, No. 18 (August 30, 1928):214-215, (DR 125-126). "Music: Mahler IV. Symphony (Wireless: August 5).; B.B.C. Modern Chamber Concerts.; Promenade: September 6.; Promenade: September 13." New Age 43, No. 22 (September 27, 1 928) :260-261 , T M 1 27) . "Letters to the Editor: L i t e r a r y Censorship." New Age 43, No. 23 (October 4, 1928):275, (DR 128). "Music: B.B.C. Modern Chamber Concert. Arts Theatre Club: October 15.; Concert of Tcheko-Slovak Music. Queen's: October 16." New Age 43, No. 26 (October 25, 1928):309, (DR 129). "Music: Florence Austral. Queen's: October 20.; Eduard Stevermann. Grotrian: October 22." New Age 44, No. 1 (November 1, 1928):9, (DR 130). 123 "Music: Katherine Heyman. Wigmore: October 25.; Medtner: Royal Philharmonic. Queen's: Nov. 1." New Age 44, No. 3 (November 15, 1928):30, (DR 131). "Music: E l i z a b e t h Schumann. Queen's: November 3. A r t s Theatre: G r o t r i a n . " New Age 44, No. 5 (November 29, 1928):57, (DR 132) . "Music: Van D i e r e n . Wigmore: November 10.; L.S.O.: Queen's H a l l , November 12.; S i r Thomas Beecham: Royal A l b e r t H a l l , November 11." New Age 44, No. 6 (December 6, 1928):68-69, (DR 133-134). " L e t t e r s to the E d i t o r : Miss Heyman." New Age 44, No. 6 (December 6, 1928):71, (DR 135). "Music: Moor Double Keyboard Piano. Queen's: November 17.; Mrs. Gordon Woodhouse. G r o t r i a n : November 20." New Age 44, No. 7 (December 13, 1928):80-81, (DR 136). "Music: [On Hugh Wakefield's book G a i l l i m a u f r y ; Dinh G i l l y . G r o t r i a n . " New Age 44, No. 12 (January 17, 1929):164-165, (DR 138). "Music: 'Carmen.' Teatro Reale d e l l ' O p e r a . Rome, January 19." New Age 44, No. 14 (January 31, 1929):164-165, (DR 138). "Music: 'La T r a v i a t a . ' T e a t r o Reale d e l l ' O p e r a . Rome. January 26." New Age 44, No. 15 (February 7, 1929):178, (DR 139). "Music: 'Fra Gherardo.' Teatro Reale d e l l ' O p e r a . Rome." New Age 44, No. 18 (February 28, 1929) :214, (DR 140). "Music: [On the standard of org a n - p l a y i n g i n Rome as compared t o England]." New Age 44, No. 20 (March 14, 1929):237-238, (DR 141-142TT" " L e t t e r s to the E d i t o r : Feminism." New Age 44, No. 21 (March 21, 1929):251, (DR 143). "Music: Rome. Academia d i S. C e c i l i a . March 8.; T r i s t a n . Teatro Reale d e l l ' O p e r a . March 9. L u c i a . March 15." New Age 44, No. 22 (March 28, 1929):260,.(DR 144). "Music: Rome. Te a t r o d e l l ' O p e r a . " New Age 44, No. 25 ( A p r i l 18, 1929):296-297, (DR 145). "Music: Royal Opera, Covent Garden: 'Der Rosenkavalier.' May 1." New Age 45, No. 3 (May 16, 1929):30, (DR 147). "Music: Royal Opera, Covent Garden: Second C y c l e - 'Der Ring das Nibelungen.'; Das Rheingold. May 6.; Die Walkure. May 9." New Age 45, No. 5 (May 30, 1929):57, (DR 148). 124 "Music: S i e g f r i e d . May 13.; Gotterdammerung. May 15.; S p i r i t u a l s ; T r i s t a n and I s o l d e : Covent Garden: May 22." New Age 45, No. 6 (Juen 6, l92 9 ) : 6 9 - 7 0 , (DR 149-150). "Music: [On music a p p r e c i a t i o n i n g e n e r a l ; s i n g e r s a t Covent Garden; the a r t i s t and the c r i t i c ; on s i n g e r s ] . " New Age 45, No. 7 (June 13, 1929):81, (DR 151). "Music: Dolmetsch C l a v i c h o r d and H a r p s i c h o r d R e c i t a l : G r o t r i a n . June 6.; P h i l h a r m o n i c C h o i r : Queen's. June 6.; Norma. Covent Garden, May 28 and June 7.; Eugene Goossens' C o n c e r t . Queen's. June 13.; O r c h e s t r a l C o n c e r t : B e a t r i c e and May H a r r i s o n . Queen's. June 14." New Age 45, No. 9 (June 27, 1929):104-105, (DR 152-153). "Music: [On s i n g e r s and s i n g i n g t e c h n i q u e s ] ; D ' A l v a r e z Song R e c i t a l . Queen's: June 2 5 t h . ; Mark Raphael Song R e c i t a l . Wigmore: June 26.; ' J u d i t h . ' Covent Garden: June 27." New Age 45, No. 11 ( J u l y 11, 1929):129, (DR 154). "Music: Speech-Chorus from the Goetheanum.; 'Tannhauser' ( C a r l R o s a ) . ; ' R i g o l e t t o ' ( R o y a l Academy)." New Age 45, No. 13 ( J u l y 25, 1929):151-152, (DR 155-156). "Music: [On the ' A l l - E n g l i s h ' E v e n i n g a t the Proms on Thursday 29t h ; on the performance of S t a n f o r d ' s F i r s t I r i s h R h a p s o d y ; on Constant Lambert's Music f o r O r c h e s t r a and the C a p r i o l S u i t e of Warlock; on the E n g l i s h S i n g e r s ; on D e l i u s ' C e l l o C o n c e r t o ; and on the performance of t h i s w o r k ] . " New Age 45, No. 20 (September 12, 1929):238-239, (DR 157-158). "Music: [On Egon P e t r i ' s p i a n o r e c i t a l on the 8 t h ] . " New Age 45, No. 22 (September 2 6 , 1 9 2 9 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 159). "Music: [On the B.B.C.'s "Radio T i m e s " ] . " New Age 45, No. 23 (October 3, 1929):273-274, (DR 160-161. "Music: [On E r n e s t Newman's a r t i c l e s i n "The Sunday Times"; on the programmes f o r the B.B.C. Symphony C o n c e r t s and the Queen's H a l l O r c h e s t r a Symphony C o n c e r t s ] . " New Age 45, No. 24 (October 10, 1929):285-286, (DR 162-1637. "Music: Queen's H a l l , Wednesday, October 2: Brahms; Thursday, October 3: A l l - B r i t i s h Programme." New Age 45, No. 25 (October 17, 1929):296-297, (DR 164TT~ "Music: [On the b r o a d c a s t c o n c e r t f e a t u r i n g the 5 t h Symphony of S i b e l i u s ] ; D ' A l v a r e z . A e o l i a n , O c t . 9.; Egon P e t r i . Wigmore 11th; F i r s t c o n c e r t of the D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . Queen's 12th.; J e r i t z a . A l b e r t H a l l , 13th." New Age 45, No. 26 (October 24, 1929):308-310, (DR 165-1677. 125 "Music: The D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . ; T e t r a z z i n i . A l b e r t H a l l . October 20.; D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . " New Age 46, No. 1 (November 7, 1929):8-9, (DR 168-169). "Music: B.B.C. Symphony C o n c e r t . ; D e l i u s F e s t i v a l . " New Age 46, No. 2 (November 14, 1929):20-21, (DR 170-171). "Music: B.B.C. Chamber C o n c e r t . ; Egon P e t r i . Wigmore, November 9." New Age 46, No. 3 (November 21, 1929):32~33, (DR 172-173). "Notes of the Week: [On B i r t h C o n t r o l and the L e g i s l a t i o n of A b o r t i o n ] . " New Age 46, No. 4 (November 28, 1929):37, (DR 174). "Music: K l a r i L e n a r t . Wigmore: November 15.; H a l l e O r c h e s t r a . Queen's: November 15.; F r i e d a and Hans K i n d l e r . 5GB: November 17.; L.S.O. Rachmaninoff. November 18." New Age 46, No. 4 (November 28, 1929):44~45, (DR 175-176). "Music: [ C o p y r i g h t B i l l ] ; Rachmaninoff. A l b e r t H a l l : Nov. 24.; C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t . Nov. 20." New Age 46, No. 5 (December 5, l 9 2 9 ) : 5 6 - 5 7 , (DR 177-178). " L e t t e r s t o the E d i t o r : L e g a l i s e d A b o r t i o n . " New Age 46, No. 5 (December 5, 1929):58-59, (DR 179). "Music: [ C o p y r i g h t B i l l ] ; Salome. Cologne Opera House. November 29.; B e r l i n P h i l h a r m o n i c O r c h e s t r a . December 3. Queen's.; B.B.C. Contemporary Chamber M u s i c . December 2. A r t s T h e a t r e . ; A l e x a n d r a P a l a c e . Organ R e c i t a l . December 7. (Mr. R. D. Cunningham.)." New Age 46, No. 8 (December 26, 1929) :93-94, (DR 180-181). "Music: [ C o p y r i g h t B i l l ] . " New Age 46, No. 9 (January 2, 1930) :105 r (DR 182). " L e t t e r s t o the E d i t o r : Ecce Herum the M u s i c a l C o p y r i g h t B i l l . " New Age 46, No. 11 (January 16, 1 930): 1 31 , (DR 183). "Music: B a r t o k R e c i t a l . A r t s T h e a t r e C l u b : January 7. B.B.C; H a l l e C o n c e r t . Queen's: January 10.; The M u s i c a l C o p y r i g h t B i l l . " New Age 46, No. 12 (January 23, 1930):137, (DR 184) . "Music: S c h n a b e l . Queen's.; Th i b a u d . P a l l a d i u m . " New Age 46, No. 13 (January 30, 1930):151, (DR 185). " L e t t e r s t o the E d i t o r : M u s i c a l C o p y r i g h t B i l l . " New Age 46, No. 13 (January 30, 1930):154, (DR 186). "Music: H a l l e O r c h e s t r a : Queen's. January 24.; P r i v a t e Organ R e c t i a l : S t . Lawrence Jewry, January 25." New Age 46, No. 1 26 14 ( F e b r u a r y 6, 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 6 4 , (DR 1 8 7 ) . " M u s i c : 'Das L i e d von d e r E r d e ' ( C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t : Queen's, 2 9 t h ) . " New Age 46, No. 15 ( F e b r u a r y 13, 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 7 6 , (DR 1 8 8 ) . " M u s i c : B.B.C. F r i d a y , 3 1 s t . Q u e e n ' s . ; B i r m i n g h a m C i t y O r c h e s t r a , v i a B.B.C. F e b . 13.; K i r k b y L u n n . " New Age 46, No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 22, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 0 1 - 2 0 2 , (DR 189-19077 " M u s i c : B r i t i s h M u s i c S o c i e t y . 4 c , L a n g f o r d P l a c e , S t . J o h n ' s Wood: F e b r u a r y 18.; R u d o l f S e r k i n . A e o l i a n : F e b r u a r y 2 1 . ; B.B.C. Queen's: F e b r u a r y 2 1 . ; G e r h a r d t . 2L.O.: F e b r u a r y 24." New Age 46, No. 18 ( M a r c h 6, 193.0): 209, (DR 1 9 1 ) . " M u s i c : B u s o n i a nd Mr. P h i l i p L e v i : M a r c h 7.; Newman on O r i e n t a l M u s i c . " New Age 46, No. 20 ( M a r c h 20, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 3 7 , (DR 1 9 2 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : G e r h a r d t . " New Age 46, No. 21 ( M a r c h 27, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 5 1 , (DR 1 9 3 ) . " M u s i c : C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t : Q u e e n 's, M a r c h 18." New Age 46, No. 22 ( A p r i l 3, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 6 1 , (DR 1 9 4 ) . " M u s i c : [On S o r a b j i ' s r e c e n t v i s i t t o G l a s g o w where he p e r f o r m e d h i s F o u r t h P i a n o S o n a t a ] ; P h i l h a r m o n i c : A p r i l 3.; B.B.C. C o n c e r t : A p r i l 4." New Age 46, No. 24 ( A p r i l 17, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 8 4 , (DR 1 9 5 ) . " M u s i c : M a h l e r E i g h t h Symphony: Queen's H a l l , A p r i l 15." New Age 47, No. 1 (May 1, 1 9 3 0 ) : 7 , (DR 1 9 6 ) . " M u s i c : V i e n n a P h i l h a r m o n i c O r c h e s t r a : A p r i l 2 7 ." New Age 47,, No. 3 (May 15, l 9 3 0 ) : 3 3 - 3 4 , (DR 1 9 7 - 1 9 8 ) . " M u s i c : D r . M e n g e l b e r g a n d t h e C o n c e r t g e b o u w O r c h e s t r a . " New Age 47, No. 5 (May 29, 1 9 3 0 ) : 5 6 , (DR 1 9 9 ) . " M u s i c : The P h i l h a r m o n i c Symphony O r c h e s t r a o f New Y o r k . ; C o l o g n e O r c h e s t r a : Queen's 6 t h . " New Age 47, No. 8 ( J u n e 19, 1 9 3 0 ) : 9 2 - 9 3 , (DR 2 0 0 ) . " M u s i c : P e l l e a s e t M e l i s a n d e ; 'The E x p e r t ' Gramophone." New Age 47, No. 11 ( J u l y 10, 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 3 0 - 1 3 1 , (DR 2 0 1 ) . " M u s i c : C o v e n t G a r d e n : 'L'Amore d e i t r e Re*." New Age 47, No., 13 ( J u l y 24, 1 9 3 0 ) : 1 5 1 - 1 5 2 , (DR 2 0 2 - 2 0 3 ) . 9 " M u s i c : [On t h e p o e t a n d c r i t i c C. M. G r i e v e ' s a r t i c l e on S c o t t i s h m u s i c ; on t h e F r e n c h a r t i s t a n d e n g r a v e r L u c i e n M a i n s s i e u x whose c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n s i n t h e p e r i o d i c a l " V i e n t de P a r a i t r e " S o r a b j i e x p o u n d s ; on n a t i o n a l i s m i n m u s i c ; on t h e m u s i c o f E r i k C h i s h o l m ] . " New Age 47, No,. 20 127 ( S e p t e m b e r 11, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 3 6 , (DR 2 0 4 ) . " M u s i c : The P r o m e n a d e s . " New Age 47, No. 23 ( O c t o b e r 2, 1930) :274, (DR 2 0 5 ) . " M u s i c : The Promenades a nd O t h e r M a t t e r s . Promenade C o n c e r t s . M a h l e r I V . Symphony.; The G o o s s e n s a nd I r e l a n d C o n c e r t o s . O c t o b e r 3." New Age 47, No. 25 ( O c t o b e r 16, 1 9 3 0 ) : 2 9 7 , (DR 206) . " M u s i c : [On t h e a b u n d a n c e o f c o m p l i m e n t a r y t i c k e t s a n d t h e l a c k o f g o o d p e r f o r m a n c e s i n L o n d o n ] ; L.S.O. Queen's. O c t o b e r 27." New Age 48, No. 1 (November 6, 1 9 3 0 ) : 8 - 9 , (DR 207 - 2 0 8 7 . " M u s i c : B r i t i s h Women's Symphony O r c h e s t r a . ; W i r e l e s s . H i n d e m i t h W o r k s . " New Age 48, No. 3 (November 20, 1 9 3 0 ) : 3 2 , (DR 2 0 9 ) . " M u s i c : P e t r i : Wigmore, November 16.; G a l l i C u r c i : A l b e r t H a l l , November 17." New Age 48, No. 4 (November 27, 1 9 3 0 ) : 4 5 , (DR 2 1 0 ) . " M u s i c : [ O b i t u a r y on P h i l i p H e s e l t i n e / P e t e r W a r l o c k ] . " New Age 48, No. 11 ( J a n u a r y 15, 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 2 8 - 1 2 9 , (DR 2 1 1 ) . " M u s i c : [On f o r e i g n m u s i c i a n s i n E n g l a n d ] . " New Age 48, No. 13 ( J a n u a r y 29, 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 5 3 , (DR 2 1 2 ) . " M u s i c : A l e x a n d r a T r i a n i . G r o t r i a n : J a n u a r y 14.; R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c . Q u e e n ' s, J a n u a r y 15.; C o n c h i t a S u p e r v i a : A l b e r t H a l l , J a n u a r y 18." New Age 48, No. 14 ( F e b r u a r y 5, 1931) :162, (DR 2 1 4 ) . " M u s i c : H a l l e C o n c e r t : S i b e l i u s V t h Symphony. J a n . 2 3 . ; C l i f f o r d C u r z o n : Wigmore. F e b 5." New Age 48, No. 16 ( F e b r u a r y 19, 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 8 8 , (DR 2 1 5 ) . " M u s i c : [On S o r a b j i ' s v i s i t t o Rome a n d h i s v i s i t t o t h e o p e r a h o u s e where he h e a r d 'Der R o s e n k a v a l i e r ' ] . " New Age 48, No. 25 ( A p r i l 23, 1 9 3 1 ) : 2 9 4 , (DR 2 1 6 ) . " M u s i c : C o u r t a u l d C o n c e r t s : A p r i l 15 a n d 17. M a h l e r S e c o n d Symphony." New Age 48, No. 26 ( A p r i l 30, 1 9 3 1 ) : 3 0 7 , (DR 2 1 7 ) . " M u s i c : O p e r a : ' R o s e n k a v a l i e r ' ; W i r e l e s s . [B.B.C. C o n c e r t ] . " New Age 49, No. 4 (May 28, 1931) : 41 , (DR 2 1 8 ) . " M u s i c : W i r e l e s s a n d O p e r a . ; F l e d e r m a u s . C o v e n t G a r d e n . " New Age 49, No. 6 ( J u n e 11, 1 9 3 1 ) : 6 7 - 6 8 , (DR 2 1 9 - 2 2 0 ) . " M u s i c : T u r a n d o t . " New Age 49, No. 7 ( J u n e 18, 1 9 3 1 ) : 7 9 - 8 0 , (DR 1 28 2 2 1 - 2 2 2 ) . " M u s i c : [On a b r o a d c a s t programme f e a t u r i n g t h e p i a n o c o n c e r t o f I r e l a n d a n d t h e f i f t h symphony o f S i b e l i u s ] ; The O p e r a ; 'Sadko'." New Age 49, No. 9 ( J u l y 2, 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 0 4 , (DR 2 2 3 ) . " M u s i c : [On Newman's r e m a r k s on t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s o f p r e s e n t - d a y I t a l i a n s i n g e r s ; on a w i r e l e s s b r o a d c a s t o f a p i a n o r e c i t a l by M i k l o s S c h w a l b ; Emmi L e i s n e r . ; W i r e l e s s . " New Age 49, No. 11 ( J u l y 16, 1 9 3 1 ) : 1 2 8 - 1 2 9 , (DR 2 2 4 ) . " M u s i c : Promenade c o n c e r t , S e p t e m b e r 15." New Age 49, No. 21 ( S e p t e m b e r 24, 1 9 3 1 ) : 2 4 5 , (DR 2 2 5 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : M u s i c : A C o r r e c t i o n . " New Age 49, No. 22 ( O c t o b e r 1, 1 9 3 1 ) : 2 6 2 , (DR 2 2 6 ) . " M u s i c : The P r o m e n a d e s . " New Age 49, No. 23 ( O c t o b e r 8, 1 9 3 1 ) : 2 7 2 - 2 7 3 , (DR 2 2 7 - 2 2 8 ) . " M u s i c : P a d e r w s k i : O c t o b e r 6.; J o a n C r o s s , O c t o b e r 7.; M y r a H e s s , O c t o b e r 10." New Age 49, No. 25 ( O c t o b e r 22, 1931) :296-297, (DR 2 2 9 - 2 3 0 ) . " M u s i c : Egon P e t r i . " New Age 50, No. 1 (November 5, 1931 ):7, (DR 231 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e b r o a d c a s t r e c i t a l f e a t u r i n g M a g g i e T e y t e ] ; H e l e n M i l v a . ; S c h o e n b e r g : F r i d a y November 13." New Age 50, No. 4 (November 26, 1 9 3 1 ) : 4 0 - 4 1 r (DR 2 3 2 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f W i l l i a m W a l t o n ' s B e l s h a z z a r ' s F e a s t ] ; R o y a l C h o r a l S o c i e t y : Nov. 28." New Age 50, No. 6 (December 10, 1 9 3 1 ) : 6 6 - 6 7 , (DR 2 3 3 - 2 3 4 ) . " M u s i c : [On Newman's p h i l o s o p h y on m u s i c c r i t i c i s m ] ; W i r e l e s s . B.B.C." New Age 50, No. 8 (December 24, 1 9 3 1 ) : 9 2 , (DR 235) . " M u s i c : [On t h e L o n d o n P r e s s a n d t h e p r o - B r i t i s h m u s i c i a n c a m p a i g n ] ; W i r e l e s s . B.B.C. C o n t e m p o r a r y C o n c e r t s . " New Age 50, No. 10 ( J a n u a r y 7, 1 9 3 2 ) , (DR 2 3 6 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g an a r t i c l e i n t h e " M u s i c a l T i m e s " on t h e B.B.C. a n d t h e p r o m o t i o n o f d a n c e m u s i c by t h e B . B . C . ] . " New Age 50, No. 1 ( J a n u a r y 14, 1 9 3 2 ) : 1 3 0 , (DR 2 3 7 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e g a r d i n g t h e a r t i c l e i n t h e " R a d i o T i m e s " on B u s o n i ] ; W i r e l e s s . B . B . C . " New Age 50, No. 13 ( J a n u a r y 28, 1932) :153-154, (DR 2 3 8 - 2 3 9 ) . " M u s i c : B r u c k n e r : S t . A l b a n ' s , H o l b o r n , J a n . 2 1 s t . ; W i r e l e s s . " New Age 50, No. 14 ( F e b r u a r y 4, 1 9 3 2 ) : 1 6 4 - 1 6 5 , (DR 129 2 4 0 - 2 4 1 ) . " M u s i c : C e c i l G r a y on S i b e l i u s . " New Age 50, No. 16 ( F e b r u a r y 18, 1 9 3 2 ) : 1 8 7 - 1 8 8 , (DR 2 4 2 - 2 4 3 ) . " M u s i c : [On Emmy H e i n ' s l i e d e r s i n g i n g ] B.B.C. Symphony C o n c e r t s . " New Age 50, No. 18 ( M a r c h 3, 1 9 3 2 ) : 2 1 4 , (DR 224) . " M u s i c : [On t h e l a s t R o y a l P h i l h a r m o n i c S o c i e t y c o n c e r t o f t h e s e a s o n and t h e w o r k s o f M a u r i c e R a v e l ] ; B.B.C. C o n c e r t s . S u n d a y , F e b r u a r y 28." New Age 50, No. 20 ( M a r c h 17, 1 9 3 2 ) : 2 3 6 - 2 3 7 , (DR 24577" " M u s i c : [On t h e s i n g e r F l o r e n c e - E a s t o n ] ; R a c h m a n i n o f f ; P h i l h a r m o n i c S o c i e t y . " New Age 50, No. 21 ( M a r c h 24, 1 9 3 2 ) : 2 5 0 , (DR 2 4 6 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c e r t s d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t s e a s o n ; on t h e B.B.C. programmes c o m p a r e d t o b r o a d c a s t i n g programmes i n A m e r i c a ; on t h e r e c i t a l o f s i n g e r M a r i a B a s i l i d e o ; on t h e u p c o m i n g o p e r a s e a s o n a t C o v e n t G a r d e n ] . " New Age 50, No. 24 ( A p r i l 14, 1 9 3 2 ) : 2 8 4 , (DR 247) . " M u s i c : B . B . C , The B M i n o r M a s s . " New Age 50, No. 25 ( A p r i l 2 1 , 1 9 3 2 ) : 2 9 7 , (DR 2 4 8 ) . " M u s i c : The C i t y S t r i n g P l a y e r s . Conway H a l l , A p r i l 1 4 t h . ; D ' A l v a r e z . P a l l a d i u m , A p r i l 1 7 t h . " New Age 50, No. 26 ( A p r i l 28, 1 9 3 2 ) : 3 0 9 , (DR 2 4 9 ) . " L e t t e r s t o t h e E d i t o r : 'The M i r a c l e ' . " New Age 50, No. 26 ( A p r i l 28, 1 9 3 2 ) s 3 1 1 , (DR 2 5 0 ) . " M u s i c : 'The Mass o f L i f e . ' ; T r i s t a n ( B r o a d c a s t ) . " New Age 5 1 , No. 4 (May 26, l 9 3 2 ) : 4 5 - 4 6 , (DR 2 5 1 - 2 5 2 ) . " M u s i c : [On c o n t e m p o r a r y s i n g i n g c o m p a r e d t o t h e c e l e b r i t y s i n g e r s on an o u t - o f - p r i n t gramophone r e c o r d i n g ] . " New Age 5 1 , No. 8 ( J u n e 23, l 9 3 2 ) : 9 2 - 9 3 , (DR 2 5 3 ) . " M u s i c : D r . S c h w i e t z e r . " New Age 5 1 , No. 9 ( J u n e 30, 1 9 3 2 ) s 1 0 5 , (DR 2 5 4 ) . " M u s i c : N o t e s on t h e c o m i n g s e a s o n . " New Age 52, No. 3 (November 17, 1 9 3 2 ) : 3 3 , (DR 2 5 6 ) . " M u s i c : [On S o r a b j i ' s t h i r s t f o r g ood m u s i c w h i l e i n I n d i a ] . " New Age 52, No. 8 (December 22, 1 9 3 2 ) : 9 2 , (DR 2 5 7 ) . " M u s i c : R e f l e c t i o n s upon I n d i a n m u s i c . " New Age 52, No. 19 ( M a r c h 9, 1 9 3 3 ) : 2 2 3 - 2 2 4 ) . 130 " M u s i c : Mr. M u r r i l l on S t r a v i n s k y . ; M a g g i e T e y t e . B.B.C. R e c i t a l . F e b r u a r y 26." New Age 52, No. 20 ( M a r c h 16, 1933) :238-239, (DR 2 6 0 ) . " M u s i c : L a e l i a F i n n e b e r g . Wigmore, M a r c h 29." New Age 52, No. 24 ( A p r i l 13, 1 9 3 3 ) : 2 8 8 - 2 8 9 , ( D R 2 6 1 ) . " M u s i c : [On r a d i o b r o a d c a s t programmes f e a t u r i n g P a r c i f a l ; on t h e m u s i c o f F l o r e n t S c h m i t t ] . " New Age 52, No. 26 ( A p r i l 27, 1 9 3 3 ) : 3 3 1 0 , (DR 2 6 2 ) . " M u s i c : W i r e l e s s . ; B.B.C.,•Sunday, A p r i l 23, M a h l e r I V . Symphony.; M o l l i e B r y n e : Wigmore H a l l , A p r i l 24.; R a c h m a n i n o f f : Q u e e n 's, A p r i l 28." New Age 53, No. 2 (May 11, 1 9 3 3 ) : 1 9 - 2 0 , (DR 2 6 3 - 2 6 4 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e e d i t o r i a l c o r r e c t i o n s i n t h e O x f o r d e d i t i o n o f t h e w o r k s o f C h o p i n ; W i r e l e s s . F l o r e n t S c h m i t t ' s S axaphone c o n c e r t o (May 1 3 ) . ; C o v e n t G a r d e n . 'Das R h e i n g o l d ' - ' D i e W a l k u r i e ' . " New Age 53, No. 5 ( J u n e 1, 1 9 3 3 ) : 5 3 , (DR 2 6 5 ) . "The M u s i c L i b r a r y [book r e v i e w on G e r a l d Abraham's T h i s Modern S t u f f 3." New Age 53, No. 9 ( J u n e 2 9, 1933):1027~TDR 26677 " M u s i c : T i l l y C o n n e l l y a n d J o h n T o b i n . A e o l i a n , F e b r u a r y 2.; L.P.O., Quee n ' s . , F e b r u a r y 4.; B.B.C. Symphony C o n c e r t , F e b r u a r y 8." New Age 54, No. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 2 2 , 1934) :200-20l"TTDR 2 6 7 - 2 6 8 ) . " M u s i c : [On t h e B.B.C. C o n t e m p o r a r y M u s i c c o n c e r t ; on B r i t t e n ' s c h o r a l v a r i a t i o n s ; on t h e new p i a n o s o n a t a o f C y r i l S c o t t ; on some new H. M. V. r e c o r d s ; on some r e c o r d s r e l e a s e d by C o l u m b i a ] . " New Age 54, No. 20 ( M a r c h 15, 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 3 4 , (DR 269) . " M u s i c : [Oh t h e t r i u m p h o f a g e - - t w o e x a m p l e s o f w h i c h a r e Dame E t h e l Smyth a n d T e t r a z z i n i ; on t h e 7 5 t h b i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s o f Dame E t h e l Smyth; on T e t r a z z i n i ' s r e c i t a l ] . " New Age 54, No. 23 ( A p r i l 5, 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 7 2 - 2 7 3 , (DR 270) . " M u s i c : G. T h a l b e n B a l l . O r g a n R e c i t a l . R. A. H a l l . M a r c h 25; The C i t y S t r i n g P l a y e r s . (Conway H a l l , M a r c h 2 2 ) . " New Age 54, No. 25 ( A p r i l 19, 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 9 8 , (DR 2 7 1 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e c o r d r e v i e w s o f t h e l a t e s t r e l e a s e s f r o m H. M. V, P a r l o p h o n e a n d D e c c a ] . " New Age 54, No. 26 ( A p r i l 26, 1 9 3 4 ) : 3 0 8 - 3 0 9 , (DR 272-2737. " M u s i c : [On S z y m a n o v s k y ' s S y m p h o n i e c o n c e r t a n t e ] ; M a g g i e T e y t e B r o a d c a s t R e c i t a l , A p r i l 19.; S a d l e r W e l l s . ' B a r b e r o f S e v i l l e ' A p r i l 17."New Age 55, No. 2 (May 10, 1 9 3 4 ) : 2 1 , (DR 2 7 4 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e c o r d r e v i e w s on new r e l e a s e s i n May ' 3 4 ] . " New Age 131 55, No. 4 (May 24, 1 9 3 4 ) : 4 6 , (DR 2 7 5 ) . " M u s i c : [ R e c o r d r e v i e w s on some P a r l o p h o n e r e c o r d s ] . " New Age 55, No. 5 (May 3 1 , 1 9 3 4 ) : 5 9 , (DR 2 7 6 ) . " M u s i c : [On a w i r e l e s s a n d a e r i a l r e c i e n t l y s u b m i t t e d t o S o r a b j i f o r t e s t i n g by M e s s r s . The C e n t r a l E q u i p m e n t Co., L t d . ; on S a c h v e r a l l S i t w e l l ' s new book on L i s z t ] . " New Age 5 5 , No. 6 ( J u n e 7, 1 9 3 4 ) : 6 7 , (DR 2 7 7 ) . " M u s i c : The F i n n i s h N a t i o n a l O r c h e s t r a . " New Age 55, No. 8 ( J u n e 2 1 , 1 9 3 4 ) : 9 4 , (DR 2 7 8 ) . " M u s i c : R e c o r d R e v i e w s . " New Age 55, No. 11 ( J u l y 12, 1 9 3 4 ) : 1 3 0 , (DR 2 7 9 ) . " M u s i c : [On r e c o r d s s u b m i t t e d t o S o r a b j i by M e s s r s . The Gramophone Company L t d . (H. M. V . ) ] . " New Age 55, No. 12 ( J u l y 19, 1 9 3 4 ) : 1 4 1 - 1 4 2 , (DR 2 8 0 - 2 8 1 ) . " M u s i c : Gramophone R e c o r d s . " New Age 55, No. 13 ( J u l y 26, 1934) : 153, (DR 2 8 2 ) . 132

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