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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A territorial regional perspective for resource settlement planning Bell, James William Stanley 1985

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T E R R I T O R I A L REGIONAL P E R S P E C T I V E FOR RESOURCE SETTLEMENT PLANNING by JAMES W I L L I A M STANLEY  BELL  .B.A., S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1980  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILMENT  OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School  Of C o m m u n i t y And R e g i o n a l  We a c c e p t  this  t h e s i s as  to the r e q u i r e d  Planning  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA. May  ©  1985  James W i l l i a m S t a n l e y B e l l ,  1985  In  presenting  requirements  f o r an  Columbia,  I  available  for  permission  this  agree  for  thesis  Library  shall  reference  and  study.  I  extensive  be g r a n t e d  representatives. of t h i s  without  Department  of  my  by  thesis  copying  of  for  is  thesis  financial  gain  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Community And Columbia  Regional  British  it  for  freely  that  that  scholarly  or  by  copying  shall  written permission.  S c h o o l Of  the  agree  Department  understood  of  make  further  this  t h e Head of my It  of  the U n i v e r s i t y  the  or  allowed  fulfilment  that  may  publication  partial  advanced degree at  purposes her  in  Planning  not  his or be  i i  Abstract This  thesis  instability assuming  that  settlement the  and  a  traditional  and  a  The  through  external  long  base  i s dependent  policy  I t stems  is  and  in  focus  the  towns.  This  stable  community  in  the  goal  the  is a  physical  literature  planning  the  "external"  Its on  part  in  expressed  literature.  social  the  the  through  perspectives  "internal"  term  has  no  failure The  a  radical  The  stability on  is  literature.  economy.  the  demand.  approach.  dominant  and  on  i s addressed  a  from a  a t t a i n e d by  provinical  its  of  planning,  i s dependent  a t t a i n e d by  perspective  be  is  problem  town  assumes  a  can  be  a p p l i e d at  the  which  level.  demand  community  t o be  resource  settlement  perspective  physical  settlement  and  The  two  of  community  settlement  stems  resource to  resource  towns --the  attributes  workforce  community  the  internal  supply  problem  theoretical  of  The  labour  achieved  new  resource  social  stable  of  resource  perspective.  on  approach.  synthesis on  the  stable resource  planning  literature  stable  focuses a  development  from  addresses  to address  of  a  The  research  planning  theory,  Its  is  stable  The the  goal  r e s t r u c t u r i n g of literature  flaw  of  need  methods c o m p r i s e  the  i s flawed  term  labour  regional  assumes  that  employment  over  internal  for long  critical  the  community's  e x t e r n a l markets  for settlement  resource  the  resource  external perspective  prescription  by  critical  fluctuating  control.  expressed  which  the  perspective stable  labour  by  the  absence  of  a  of  the  literature  on  planning. a  review  settlement  planning  and  regional  development.  The  comparison  theoretical  of  provincial Elkford, The  policy  in  the  result  is a  approach  long  as  planning  approach  territorial  regional -  an  -  social  a composite social,  •  the  short of  than  and  regional and  economic  of  the  which  serve  A  strategic  representation The the  goal  resource  settlement  of  the  region's  Tumbler  provincial  to  of  on: which  region,  resource  utilizes  of  and  development.  stability region  by  the  goal  i s comprised  interlinked  of  settlements  population;  process  which  institutions  Ridge  policy;  comprised  dimensions;  use;  community  resilient  involving local  based  economic  politically  planning  interpretation  goals;  of  A  and  the  E l k f o r d and  current  settlement stability  for development  in evaluating  resilience. socially  •  external  community  planning  p h y s i c a l and  perspective  economically, jointly  and  resource  functional  focus  a  regional  Columbia.  internal  proposed  settlement  -  of  Columbia  term.  a  interpretation  replacement  British  resource  the  a c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t approach  The  British  a  are-.  cultural,  run  through  recent a p p l i c a t i o n s ;  alternative  -  long  the  addresses  points  development  local  of  current  three  Northwestern  an  rather  internal  in  synthesis  which  i s elaborated  with  manifest  w e l l as  salient  A  concepts  providing  The  •  as  perspective  T u m b l e r R i d g e and  perspectives planning  proposed  case 1.  employs and  interest  studies Rely's  bottom  groups.  indicate on  a  up  that  strategic  iv  planning  representation effective current  in  Columbia.  •  to  move  this  term community  regional  thesis  plans  term  tested  up  3.  i s  and  But  the  stability. planning  for  planning  bottom  stability.  settlement  was  "ideal"  towards  settlement  has not addressed long  Suggested  approach  Northwest  actions  British  f o r Northwest  Columbia a r e :  A shift  i n f o c u s from examining  serve  best  short  territorial  developed  best  attempts  implementing  in creating  The  •  in  policy  British  2.  process,  mining  interests  serve regional  A development  development  options  t o an a n a l y s i s  which  will  o f how m i n i n g c a n  development;  strategy  and  settlement  the  which  looks  relationship  at  alternative  between  forms  of  them a n d t h e m i n i n g  proposals; •  The use of t h e mine p r o j e c t s  diversification the  northwest  in existing  •  The  use  of  Given  existing  c a n be  existing foster ahead.  institutions  regionally  options.  approach  and  social  i n t h e southern part of  and i n t e r e s t  groups  i n the  and implementation phase; and  settlement  steps  settlements  economic  region;  • G r e a t e r use of l o c a l planning  t o encourage  based  provincial  taken  to  move  t o resource settlement settlement  regionally  systems,  based  criteria  in  resource settlement towards  a  planning: and 2 .  economic  examining  policies,  territorial 1.  the  two  regional  use and b u i l d  upon  use resource p r o j e c t s t o  d i v e r s i feat ion  by  planning  V  Table  Abstract L i s t of Figures Acknowledgement  of C o n t e n t s  i i viii ix  Chapter I RESOURCE S E T T L E M E N T P L A N N I N G : P A S T AND P R E S E N T 1 1 .1 Introduction 1 1 .2 Def i n i t i o n s 2 1.2.1 T e r r i t o r i a l 2 1.2.2 R e g i o n a l R e s i l i e n c e 2 1.2.3 S t r a t e g i c P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 3 1.2.4 B o t t o m Up R e p r e s e n t a t i o n 3 1.3 S e t t i n g T h e S t a g e 4 1.21 T h e T r a d i t i o n a l A n d T h e C r i t i c a l R e s o u r c e Town L i t e r a t u r e : The I n t e r n a l And E x t e r n a l P e r s p e c t i v e s ..4 T h e T r a d i t i o n a l R e s o u r c e Town L i t e r a t u r e ....5 1 . 3 . 1 . 2 T h e C r i t i c a l R e s o u r c e Town L i t e r a t u r e 9 1 . 3 . 1 . 3 T h e L i m i t a t i o n s Of T h e T r a d i t i o n a l A n d T h e C r i t i c a l R e s o u r c e Town L i t e r a t u r e 11 1.3.2 T h e E v o l u t i o n O f P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c y F o r R e s o u r c e Towns 12 T h e B u s h Camp 13 T h e C o m p a n y Town 15 I n s t a n t Towns 18 L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t T o w n s 21 Summary: The Need F o r The A r t i c u l a t i o n Of A P e r s p e c t v i e W h i c h B r i d g e s The T r a d i t i o n a l And The Critical Literature 24 1.4 T h e s i s S t r u c t u r e 26 1.4.1 J u s t i f i c a t i o n 26 1.4.2 M e t h o d 27 1.4.3 L i m i t a t i o n s 28 1.5 C o n c l u s i o n s 29 Chapter I I TERRITORIAL REGIONAL PLANNING 31 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 31 2.11 D e f i n i t i o n s 31 2.2 S e t t l e m e n t T h e o r y , R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t T h e o r y A n d R e s o u r c e Town S e t t l e m e n t P l a n n i n g : T h e T r a d i t i o n a l F u n c t i o n a l View 33 2.2.1 A n O v e r v i e w O f T r a d i t i o n a l F u n c t i o n a l Settlement Theory 33 2.2.2 S e t t l e m e n t T h e o r y A n d R e s o u r c e T o w n s 40 2 . 2 . 3 R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t T h e o r y A n d R e s o u r c e T o w n s ..42 2.2.4 S u m m a r y : T h e L i m i t a t i o n s O f A F u n c t i o n a l Approach 45 2.3 S e t t l e m e n t T h e o r y , R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t T h e o r y A n d R e s o u r c e S e t t l e m e n t P l a n n i n g : The A l t e r n a t i v e T e r r i t o r i a l P l a n n i n g View 47 2.3.1 T h e L i m i t s A n d P o t e n t i a l O f T e r r i t o r i a l Planning  vi  For Resource Settlement Planning 50 2.3.2 A F o c u s F o r T e r r i t o r i a l P l a n n i n g : R e g i o n a l Resilience 52 2 . 3 . 2 . 1 T h e C o n c e p t s Of R e s i l i e n c e A n d S t a b i l i t y ...52 2.3.3 S u p p o r t F o r R e g i o n a l R e s i l i e n c y : R e c e n t R u r a l S e t t l e m e n t Trends And A l t e r n a t i v e S e t t l e m e n t C o n c e p t s 59 R e c e n t R u r a l G r o w t h T r e n d s 59 C h a n g i n g R e g i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t P a t t e r n s 61 I m p l i c a t i o n F o r R e s o u c e S e t t l e m e n t P l a n n i n g 63 2.4 C o n c l u s i o n 64 Chapter I I I THE I M P L E M E N T A T I O N OF T E R R I T O R I A L R E G I O N A L P L A N N I N G : A SUGGESTED S T Y L E ...66 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 66 3.2 An A l t e r n a t i v e P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 67 3.2.1 T h e S o c i a l E c o l o g i s t / S y s t e m s V i e w Of P l a n n i n g - ...67 3.2.2 B o t t o m - U p P l a n n i n g V e r s u s T o p - D o w n P l a n n i n g : T h e Case F o r L o c a l Government 74 3.3 T h e O p t i o n F i e l d O f R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g S t y l e s 76 3.3.1 T o p - D o w n M a s t e r P l a n n i n g 76 3.3.2 T o p - D o w n S t r a t e g i c P l a n n i n g 78 3.3.3 B o t t o m - U p M a s t e r P l a n n i n g 81 3.3.4 B o t t o m - U p S t r a t e g i c P l a n n i n g 81 3.3.5 L e s s o n s L e a r n e d •. .' 83 3.4 T h e R e q u i r e d O b j e c t i v e s T o A c h i e v e R e g i o n a l R e s i l i e n c e 84 3.4.1 T e r r i t o r i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g 84 3.4.2 B o t t o m - U p R e p r e s e n t a t i o n 85 3.4.3 A S t r a t e g i c P r o c e s s 85 3.5 C o n c l u s i o n 86 Chapter IV C A S E S T U D I E S : COMPARISON OF THE T E R R I T O R I A L R E G I O N A L P L A N N I N G P O L I C Y WITH THE P R E S E N T L O C A L GOVERNMENT P O L I C Y .87 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 87 4.2 E l k f o r d 87 4.2.1 H i s t o r y 87 4.-2.2 S e t t l e m e n t P l a n n i n g H i s t o r y 92 4.2.3 E v a l u a t i o n : A p p l i c a t i o n Of C r i t e r i a 96 T e r r i t o r i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g 96 4 . 2 . 3 . 2 B o t t o m Up R e p r e s e n t a t i o n 99 S t r a t e g i c P r o c e s s 100 Summary: E l k f o r d 103 4.3 T u m b l e r R i d g e 106 4.3.1 H i s t o r y 106 4.3.2 S e t t l e m e n t P l a n n i n g H i s t o r y 110 4.3.3 E v a l u a t i o n 115 T e r r i t o r i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g 115 4 . 3 . 3 . 2 B o t t o m Up R e p r e s e n t a t i o n 118 S t r a t e g i c P r o c e s s 119 4 . 3 . 3 . 4 T u m b l e r R i d g e Summary ...121  vi i  4.4 C o n c l u s i o n  123  Chapter V NORTHWEST B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A : THE A P P L I C A T I O N OF A T E R R I T O R I A L R E G I O N A L RESOURCE S E T T L E M E N T P L A N N I N G P O L I C Y 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 5.2 H i s t o r y 5.3 S e t t l e m e n t P L a n n i n g H i s t o r y 5.4 E v a l u a t i o n 5.4.ITerritorial Planning 5.4.2 R e p r e s e n t a t i o n : B o t t o m U p 5.4.3 S t r a t e g i c P r o c e s s 5.5 C o n c l u s i o n  125 125 125 129 133 133 138 140 143  Chapter VI C H A P T E R 6: SUMMARY AND P R O P O S A L S 144 6.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 144 6.2 S y n o p s i s O f T h e T e r r i t o r i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Perspective 144 6.3 T e r r i t o r i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g A n d E x i s t i n g Provincial Policy 148 6.3.1 E x i s t i n g P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c y 148 6.3.2 P o l i c i e s F o r I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Of A T e r r i t o r i a l R e g i o n a l A p p r o a c h F o r R e s o u r c e S e t t l e m e n t P l a n n i n g 149 S e t t l e m e n t P o l i c y 150 E o n o m i c P o l i c y 151 LITERATURE CITED  155  viii  List  1. S u m m a r y C h a r t :  Internal  2. E v o l u t i o n  of P r o v i n c i a l  3. T h e M a j o r  Contributors  4. V o n T h u n e n ' s L a n d 5. W e b e r ' s L o c a t i o n  of F i g u r e s  and E x t e r n a l  14  to Settlement Planning  34  36 Place  Theory: Market  Areas of 38  7. A C o m p a r i s o n o f E c o l o g i c a l Settlement Concepts  Concepts with  Resource 57  Process Model  of Styles  10. T h e E l k V a l l e y  35  Model  8. A R e v i s e d P l a n n i n g  5  R e s o u r c e Town P o l i c y  Use Model  6. C h r i s t a l l e r ' s C e n t r a l Central Places  9. O p t i o n F i e l d  Perspective  f o rRegional  72 Planning  77  Area  88  11. The N o r t h E a s t A r e a  107  12. T h e N o r t h W e s t A r e a  126  ix  Acknowledgement  Researching guidance,  and the  writing  a master's  assistance  support.  This  thesis  guidance  of  financial  support  Gary  would Paget,  of not the  thesis  one's of  requires  colleagues  been  of Canada Mortgage  and  and  possible  assistance  of  Housing.  insightfull financial  without  Brian  and  the the  1  I.  RESOURCE  S E T T L E M E N T P L A N N I N G : P A S T AND  PRESENT  1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n A  review  of  the  objective  of  through  community  resource  (1971) developed passes  literature town  stability  the  h a s been  towns  the assumption  of  the maturing  create  labour  planning stable  this the  thesis  a  these  i s  town  stability  planning. largely  regional"  of  resource  i s an  outcome  stability  will  on t h e s e t t l e m e n t  I t i s assumed dependent  that a  on a  stable  p e r s p e c t i v e i s proposed model  to  by  achieve  community. regional"  four  key  philosophy  perspective  elements.  of  planning process The  i n the remainder  These  i s defined are:  t e r r i t o r i a l i t y ; a focus stability;  and bottom  remainder  terms and " s e t the stage"  concepts  resource  focusses  community  process.  the  thesis  as opposed t o community  strategic  planning  This  Lucas town  maturation  a s t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n n i n g  as having  resilience  the  of  Since resource  community  town  "territorial  development  much  stability  a  that  of resource  aim of a stable A  of  and  A "territorial  the accepted  workforce  which  t h a t community  o f a town  resource  thesis  of stages  encourage  stability.  aspect  settlement.  to  i s  that  (Paget,1983,p.8).  focus  literature on  planning  h i s typology  through,  suggests  for  a  regional  on  regional  the u t i l i z a t i o n  up p a r t i c i p a t i o n  of the  of the t h e s i s .  in this  the chapter development  in  of the  will  define  of  these  2  1 .2 D e f i n i t i o n s 1.2.1  Territorial  The approach in  difference  by  Friedmann  concentrates  attributes A  of a  territorial •  a  "territory"  t o r e g i o n a l development  depth  approach  between  and  on  region,  approach  Internally  and  Weaver  the  planning  (1979).  functional  a territorial encompasses  generated  and  a "functional"  has  been  Whereas a linkages  approach  the  as  functional  and  i s more  following  development  examined  spatial holistic.  points:  opposed  to externally  imposed; •  Community  derived  goals  as  opposed  to  externally  imposed  goals; • A composite  definition  historical, •  Respect  •  A  long  cultural,  opposed  the  social,  f o r the n a t u r a l run as  of  region  p h y s i c a l and  e c o l o g i c a l base  to  a  which  short  of  economic the  term  includes ties;  region;  view  of  and  regional  development.  1.2.2  Regional  Resilience  Chapter should  be  2  replaced  and  resilience  by  ecologists  equilibrium For  resource  • employment  argues by  a  that  the  regional  "community resilience  a r e a t t r i b u t e s of a as  "the  state after a towns  this  ability temporary implies  system. of  a  stability" focus.  Stability system  disturbance only  slight  focus  Stability i s defined  to return  to  an  (Holling,1973)". swings  in  the  base.  Resilience  ,on  the other  hand,  " i s a property  that  allows  a  3  system  to  absorb  and  utilize  (Holling,1978,p.104)". strategy  accepts  community parts  to  may  the  the  change  inter1inkages resilience  is  the  the  1.2.3  plan  and  resilient  strategy at Planning  strategic  planning.  bust) key  for  the  focus  the  This  has  be  spatially,  resilient  r e g i o n a l or  the  from  and  important  planned  policy assumes  for  and/or  stochastic  temporally  systems wide  the  system's  stability  strategy  the  component  the  is  change  resilient  diversity  ensuring  community  adopts  and  in  a  "safe  to  master  level.  Process process  main p o i n t s of  •  P r o a c t i v e : Implements p o l i c y  •  Process  Oriented:  a  system  but  to  scale.  towns  shifts  t h e r e f o r e can  planning  The  resource  s t r a t e g y assumes change  a  a  b e n e f i t from)  resilient  unpredictable  Therefore,  Strategic A  regional strategy  impacts  magnitude. failure"  A  In a  system are  predictable  controlled. and  region.  A  even  u n p r e d i c t a b l e and  the  ramifications. change  terms of  ( t o w n s boom a n d  of  at  In  (or  Does not  to  a  i s an  alternative  strategic effect  pretend  process  are;  change;  to deliver  a  final  end  steps  which  are  product; •  Incremental:  Takes  small  cumulative  reversible; •  F l e x i b l e : ' Can the  •  parameters  Experimental: process  1.2.4  adapt  B o t t o m Up  as  the  problem  is better defined  or  as  l e a r n i n g to ensure  the  shift; Encourages  evolves  with  the  Representation  continued problem.  4  A a  top  planning down  hierarchy  process  process (e.g.  planing).  In  decisions  military  bottom  organizational  by a p r o b l e m  to  problem.  bottom  up  government  for  settlement  1.3  up  down  a r e t h e ones  the  most  of resource  and  the  up  the  the people  to find  a  regional  most  solution  settlement  on  In  corportate  move  i s that able  up.  organizational  decisions  reliance  planning  or bottom  and t r a d i t i o n a l  The concept  implies  the  flow  planning  In the case  planning  t o p down  planning  hierarchy.  effected the  c a n be e i t h e r  planning, and  local  implementation  of the  option.  S e t t i n g the Stage  1.21  The T r a d i t i o n a l  Internal The  and E x t e r n a l traditional  descriptive physical  and  sociological  the  Canadian  of  resource  literature The  In  resource  (Viet,1978)  (Graham,1979).  and on  single  and assumes  p r o v i s i o n o f an a t t r a c t i v e ,  centering planning. The  the l i t e r a t u r e on  improving  I t s focus critical  Town  Literature;  social  i s internal  literature  describing towns  The  goal  "there  is  social  and  literature  is  a r e volumes of in  a stable  Canada  workforce  achiveable  through  and p h y s i c a l l y ,  numerous and  both  towns  is  this  i s  the  the  industry  socially  proposes  resource  town  prolific;  literature's  (Hightower,1985)  Therefore  Resource  Perspectives  normative.  conditions  encompassing  supply  and the C r i t i c a l  normative  physical  town,. actions  resource  town  t o t h e town.  town  literature  emerged  in  the  5  seventies.  It  argued that a s t a b l e labour  supply  on a s t a b l e labour demand (Hightower,1985). based  on  a  political  without  massive  economy of which resource the  towns are part  argument  changes  Labour supply stability  Social/ physical at the community level.  Labour demand stability  Political/ economic a t the r e g i o n a l global l e v e l  is  towns and  resource  town  is  to the g l o b a l  ( f i g u r e 1) the focus i s  towns".  SOLUTION  ENVIRONMENT  GOAL  Figure  a  ASSUMPTION  FOCUS  Critical Literature; External Perspective  in  structural  " e x t e r n a l environment of resource  Traditional Literature; Internal Perspective  This  economy assessment of resource  concludes that a s t a b l e labour demand impossible  i s dependent  Improve s o c i a l and physical planning t o encourage commu n i t y development.  Work w i t h i n t h e the system t o f i n d a shortterm s o l u t i o n . Long term s t a b i l i t y i s unachievable withi n t h e system.  Change t h e system.  ^  1 - Summary Chart: I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l Perspective The T r a d i t i o n a l Resource Town L i t e r a t u r e The t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e i s cost  of  concerned  with  the  "boom and bust" towns and the i n d u s t r i a l cost  from the high  labour  turnover  rates.  social stemming  As Robinson notes;  the reason f o r such high rates of turnover i n resource towns and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of those who leave have recieved considerable attention by researchers (Robinson,1984,p.7).  These include Lucas (1971), Matthiasson (1974).  More  recently,  Langin  (1981)  (1971) has  and  MacMillian  i n v e s t i g a t e d the  6  factors contributing to satisfaction  with l i f e  i n E l k f o r d from a  women's p e r s p e c t i v e . The  a s s u m p t i o n made i n t h e  instability  "convert  i s that  workforce  stems from t h e u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t o r l a c k of p h y s i c a l  and/or s o c i a l community therefore,  literature  attributes  i s t o encourage " s o c i a l residents  into  and  processes.  The  goal  i n t e g r a t i o n by d e s i g n " a n d t o  citizens  (Siemens,1973)".  To q u o t e  Marchak; ( c o m m u n i t y ) i n s t a b i l i t y i s v i e w e d by many researchers and t h e c o m p a n i e s a s a p r o b l e m t o be c u r e d by s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s : m a k i n g t h e town a s a t t r a c t i v e as p o s s i b l e (Marchak,1984,p.303) .  Examples  are  Port  Alice  (Horsfall  (Lozovsky,1970) and F o r t McMurray By  community  generally  stability,  refers to a  etal,l978),  Gold  River  (Matthiasson,1971). the  traditional  literature  stage  of community development i n r e s o u r c e towns t h a t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f an e s t a b l i s h e d core p o p u l a t i o n , a sound economic b a s e , a network of s o c i a l services, programs and f a c i l i t i e s , a low r a t e of criminal activity and citizen participation in community a f f a i r s (Viet,1978,p.IV-6) This The  definition  i s b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t o f a town l i f e  a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t a town h a s s e v e r a l l i f e  most h i g h l y e v o l v e d first stages  to of  describe  stage the  these  being  t h e mature stage.  life  stages  h i s hierarchy  t r a n s i t i o n and m a t u r i t y  stages  are:  (Lucas,1971).  t o s i x stages:  • n a t u r a l or prediscovery;  Riffel  with  the  L u c a s was t h e  of a resource  construction,  cycle.  town.  The  recruitment,  ( 1 9 7 5 ) e n l a r g e d on  7  • prospecting to  survey;  •  industrial  a n d town c o n s t r u c t i o n ;  •  industrial  and community  operation;  • community  diversification;  • community  maturation.  Bradbury view  added  an  additional  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  speed  up  based  the  intervening  process  (1971)  In  a  that  Fort  By d o i n g  the  retained  the  residents  resident's  with  rapid  integration  town  planning  satisfaction  into  or of  an e n v i r o n m e n t  policy on  with  a  decrease Fort  reflected  lifestyle. t h e town  the  McMurray,  argues,  propensity  In  to  community  McMurray  t h e town's community.  speeded  normative  so , M a t t h i a s s o n  w i t h a " s m a l l town" and outdoor  resulting  providing  to skip  concluded planning.  satisfied  and c o n c e n t r a t e s  study  community  The  emphasized  1971  successful town  --decline.  has  The o b j e c t i v e b e i n g  stages.  Matthiasson  stage  literature  maturation  solutions.  and  to  Thus, led to  short,  the their  "good"  up t h e t h e town's m a t u r a t i o n  process  which  to  encouraged  residents  be  by  become  citizens. The recent  community  literature.  emphasized to  Paget  the importance  encourage  states  satability  resource  t h a t he  theme i s s t i l l  (1982),  Paget  of d e v e l o p i n g  community  and "true"  stability.  i s s u p e r v i s i n g a study  apparent  i n more  Walisser local  (1983)  government  Robinson  (1985)  on;  the p o t e n t i a l f e a s i b i l i t y o f c o - o p h o u s i n g a s a means of minimizing labour and community turnover and achieving greater community stability, in resource towns ( f o o t n o t e , p . 2 1 ) . In  a recent  study  f o r a townsite  for  the  Athabasca  O i l  Sands  8  Project stable  a  major  workforce  expressed  f o r t h e company".  study  concentrated  that  "community  and  maturing The  study (of six •  on h o u s i n g services  process  community  by V i e t  focus  primarily  external  and  s e r v i c e s and  •  single  •  employment  detached  role  states  five  themes,  beyond  local  The  traditional attempted standards,  focus  review  identifies  These a r e : including  mining  policies;  and  recent  t h a t macro  i n the design focussing  argument  on  the  latter  economic concerns  towns  i s supported  towns  resource  social  on  are  control.  resource  "normal"  and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .  has c o n c e n t r a t e d  resource  literature,  participation While  the assumption  effective  (1978)  in a  units;  the l i t e r a t u r e  to create  literature  labour/management  or even p r o v i n c i a l  more  i s a l s o apparent  stability.  people;  of t r a d i t i o n a l  with  stabilizing  facilities;  housing  "community"  comparison 50's  on  the  professionals;  of l o c a l  that  issue  Fisher,1982)".  • development of o p t i o n s ; j o b s , access Viet  of a  issues noting  i n the  perspective) Viet  and  this  service  considerations  change  resident service  examine  B a s e d on an e x t e n s i v e  of community  •  "the a t t r a c t i o n  of the l i t e r a t u r e  economic  technolgical  To  play a v i t a l  the i n t e r n a l  "determinants  was  and commuity  (Roberts  (1978).  • community  concern  visual  of t h e 1940's and  towns.  Relying  settlement through  and government  early  on  the  planners  have  high  urban  p l a n n i n g and encouragment  the  by a  of  design citizen  of the towns.  community,  the  traditional  9  literature  i s cognizant  developing  community  reason  of the e x t e r n a l economic stability  in  resource  much o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , h a s s u g g e s t e d  Clegg  (1958) a r g u e d  regional  centers  formation  of  assess  should  regional  (1978:11-7) concluded  for  stability  region"  by  improving  reccommendation Force  on  of  Mining  development  potential  would  the  then that  new the  the  serve  and  report  to  (1962)  suggested  agencies  several portable reasonable  to  regional  regional  centers towns.  way  stability  planning  this  approach.  develop  only  on  diversified  development  i s to foster  regional  For  a regional  Robinson  "the only  towns  Communities  and p l a n n i n g "  and  towns.  c a n become  (1975) s u g g e s t e d  Viet  in  that  built.  planning  Riffel  which  towns  be  resource  plans.  be b u i l t  only  should  regional  settlement  that  constraints  to plan i n the  function.  A  of t h e F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Task  (1982)  in  reviewing  "community  states:  The regional planning concept, i f i t can be implemented f o r r e l a t i v e l y large geographic areas, clearly offers a strategy f o r minimizing the vulnerability of the central community to the fluctuations i n fortunes of any single mining or renewable resource a c t i v i t y (page 4 0 ) . The what  problem  i s that  the literature  a r e g i o n a l approach  observed  by V i e t ,  processes, beyond  i s o r how  the l i t e r a t u r e  on t h e a s s u m p t i o n  the j u r i s d i c t i o n  critical  explain  i t i s t o be i m p l e m e n t e d . on  t h e macroeconomic  of l o c a l / p r o v i n c i a l  literature  fully  has concentrated  that T h e C r i t i c a l R e s o u r c e Town The  does not  As  community  concerns are  control.  Literature argues  that  a long  term  stable  10  labour  supply i s impossible  labour of  demand w h i c h  the c r i t i c a l  traditional stability extent stated  resource  town  theory,  s u p p l y i s dependent  unstable.  literature  recognizes  f o r community  by  labour  i s inherently  literature  in  since  stability  economic  the in  The s t a r t i n g i s  that  stability  i s  point  while  importance of  practice  on  the  economic  ,and  to  some  not addressed.  As  Marchak:  Because few r e s e a r c h e r s have c o n c e r n e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h the external environment within which resource communities exist, the vast m a j o r i t y o f s t u d i e s on these towns a r e c o n c e r n e d with social conditions, t h i s c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s of the employers and g o v e r n m e n t s who w a n t t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h c o m b i n a t i o n o f social conditions leads t o the least transient labour force, assuming a stable external environment (Marchak,1984,p.304).  In  an  concluded; stability  analysis  "the c y c l i c a l which  conclusion  i n turn  forestry  between  sustainned  stability.  Bradbury and them.  1972  yield  Whereas, Byron  construction of  (1976).  Byron forest  did  stabilty  stability".  labour  A  similar  I n an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e  stability  and  observed  a  the  the  no  management  observe and  prevents  (1974)  British  correlation and  strong price  community correlation  of  exported  lumber. the  i s  community  community  industry;  community  Columbia  nature of the industry impedes  between  Columbia  One  mining communities, MacMillian  i s r e a c h e d by B y r o n  relationship  between  of  major  Bradbury's  works 1977  r e s o u r c e towns b u i l t were  Bradbury  a  failure.  concluded that  on  resource  towns  doctoral  thesis.  in British  Columbia  He c l a i m s  in  British  According to between  1962  s t a b i l i t y eluded a l lof  the planning  f o c u s was m i s p l a c e d ;  11  stability since of  would  the causes the  commitment A  by  sub  Gunder  company  of  a  from  (1981).  the  He  work,  short,  The expressed  Town  community stability  resource  traditional regional  i s further  the strategy a  to  locally  of  "normalize" council  subsidization  consumption.  In other  t o pay  would  cost  addressed  elected  represents  resident  worker  term.  --the t r a n s f e r r i n g  literature towns.  that  ,through  receive  f o c u s s e s on  It  argues,  r e s o u r c e towns w i l l on  Limitations  as  part  external  from a  political  never  unstable foreign  of  the  be  stable  so  markets.  the T r a d i t i o n a l  and  the  Critical  Literature  the  level is  long-term  consumption.  limitations by  domination  corporations.  r e s o u r c e town has  urban  the c r i t i c a l  The  short  to the worker  single  f o r what an  of  thesis  of v o l u n t e e r i s m  they a r e dependent  Resource  expected  by m i n i m i z i n g c o l l e c t i v e  economy p e r s p e c t i v e , as  companies  processes  i s the  multinational  suggests that  of a  community  instability  t h r o u g h home o w n e r s h i p ,  resident  environment  long  through  by  t h e company  his collective In  economy  theme of B r a d b u r y ' s  industry,  volunteer of  while  towns  words,  achieved  r e s o u r c e towns  the encouragement the  be  t h e c o m p a n y ' s c o m m i t m e n t was  the town  and  of  provincial  Consequently,  of  never  the  critical for policy  avoided literature  centers  of  with  traditional  literature. action,  --dependency has a  noted  literature By  focussing  the  root  on  foreign  the  diversified  are  cause  importance economy.  of  clearly on  the  community  markets.  The  of d e v e l o p i n g However,  in  12  practice,  the  The  d e r i v e d p o l i c i e s are  critical  contribution  by  literature.  The  of  policy  guidance  governs  the  informed  the  need can  one  instructive community  has  a  literature is a  existing  critical  as  "the  focus  of  of  option  restructuring  traditional  community  attempting to  policy  Evolution  The  traditional lack  little  provincial  structure  which  literature suffers  structural  trap  of  an  the  world  literature  of  the  critical  i n the  search  model  traditional literature.  economy  suggest  alternative planning  focus the  of  the which  literature This  thesis  for this solution  --the  r e s i l i e n c e " model.  Before  The  important  (p.265)".  development  possible  an  l i t e r a t u r e provides  current The  community.  the  capitalist  the  global  of  the  l i m i t a t i o n s of  the  critical  critical  (1979) d e s c r i b e s  the  provided  given  of  "regional  1.3.2  and  the  the  town p l a n n e r  unlikelihood  reconcile  offers  resource  inactivity  f o r the  with  The  has  at  shortcomings  p r o v i n c i a l economy.  Smith  The  the  l i m i t a t i o n of  policies  from what  and  delineating  relevance.  to the  economic  literature  directed  history  to develop  review over  the  the  the  evolution  past  one  Provincial Policy  of  resource by  of  hundred  of  been c h a r a c t e r i z e d  alternative  four general  private  to public  •  worker  dependence  in  trends.  governance; to worker  is  resource  years.  from: •  i t  provincial  for Resource  town p l a n n i n g  model  independence;  Towns  British  Columbia  These are  trends  1 3  •  one company  •  strictly  t o multi-company  physical  towns; and  planning  t o broader  physical  and s o c i a l  planning.  These  trends  have  emerged  in  characterizes  the  evolution  roughly  four  phases  of p r o v i n c i a l resource  which  town  policy  (Figure 2). Examples of a l l phases e x i s t and a r e s t i l l where c i r c u m s t a n c e s  The Bush This  Camp  category  includes  forms of accomodation  World  War  development  overnight the  collapse  City  "over  of  of other  these  Prior  to  camps a n d towns m a t e r i a l i z e d a r o u n d t h e The towns were c h a r a c t e r i z e d inflooding  when t h e r e s o u r c e  Phoenix,  a n d some o f t h e m o s t  f o rminers and loggers.  through  two dozen h o t e l s  scores of  one r e s o u r c e  the earliest  or the forest enterprise.  rapid  utilized  warrant.  recent  mine  being  rapidly and  thriving  businesses"  towns a r e t h e ghost  was e x h a u s t e d .  reached  saloons,  towns  entrepreneurs,  churchs,  a  dot  ,like  size  with  school,...and  ( B a r l e e , 1970). which  and  Some  considerable  by  The  the  legacy  province's  landscape. Whereas of  the early  the  early  towns were  camps were a s s o c i a t e d  At  that  time  the logging  and  often  part-time  logging  industry outfits  generally with  the  mining logging  was d o m i n a t e d who r e l i e d  towns,  most  industry.  by s m a l l  scale  on p o r t a b l e  mills  (Marchak,1984). The  purpose  o f t h e camps was t o p r o v i d e  basic  accomodation  1 4  Phase  Type  I  Purpose/Goal  Privately  '1800-  S h o r t term accommodation  Owned  presen  Company  Long term accommodation f o r workers and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Goal; workforce s t a b i l i t y  Town  presen b  Town  1970's  Town  Figure  of  is  term  and/or  coastal  inlets  longer  life  camp a t  of the h a r v e s t .  the  being  isolated  Whereas  are dotted  with  end  of  Knight  Elkford, Tumbler Ridge  Policy  exist  resource  where t h e n a t u r e  small  scale,  some o f w h i c h have  towns.  Inlet  Gold River  short  p l a n t and a c c o m o d a t i o n .  camps,  t h a n many r e s o u r c e  Mackenzie,  the unplanned  exploited dictates a industrial  Cassier  R e s o u r c e Town  an a n a c h r o n i s m , t h e camps s t i l l  the resource  Kitsault,  PROVINCE, LOCAL GOVERNMENT, Resource Company  2 - E v o l u t i o n of P r o v i n c i a l  the duration  town  Phoenix C i t y  RESOURCE COMPANY, Province, L o c a l government.  Workforce s t a b i l i t y : fair-sharing of r i s k s ; l o c a l c o n t r o l of land; l o c a l self-government; i n t e g r a t e d housing market.etc.  IV Local 1980's Government  for  B a k e r Lake,  RESOURCE COMPANY  Workforce s t a b i l i t y through; home owners h i p , l o c a l government and a q u a l i t y p h y s i c a l plan.Risk minimization  Instant  1964-  RESOURCE COMPANY  Example  Gamp  II 1920-  III  P r i n c i p a l Acto r  had  The a  F o r example the l o g g i n g  dates  from  the  nineteen  15  thirties.  The  preforming camps time  a  are  camps  specific also  operator  task  the  who  are  generally enclave for  dominant  still  their form  occupies  a  industrial  corporate  u s e d by niche  the  in the  plants  parent.  The  individual  small  precious  mineral  sector. The  o b j e c t i v e of  the  workforce.  cost  but  high  employee's leads  For  the  b u s h camp i s  the  employer,  operating costs  needs d u r i n g  the  to a p a t e r n a l i s t i c  employer.  The  camp  stability  through  this  s i n c e he time  competitive  the  accommodation  i m p l i e s minimum  must p r o v i d e  she/he  relationship  addressses  basic  the  problem  of  wage s c a l e s a n d  capital  for a l l  i s i n camp.  between  of  This  worker  the  often  and  the  labour  force  attractive  fringe  benefits. The  Company  Town  The  company  town phase can  post and  world the  period  war  second of  The  anticipated  built later other latter Others  war  As  the  died,  were  spans  site  some d i d e v o l v e  economic include,  functions Trail,  have e n j o y e d  i n the  such  and  as  into  the  relatively  long  the  first  the  such  as  had  pulp  and were  such  towns  Examples River  the  towns  settlements  Powell lives  1900's  which  m a j o r i t y of  (Bradbury,1977).  and  the  c o a l m i n e s and towns,  pre  p o r t i o n of  projects  permanent  Rossland,  the  southern  resource while  between  with  resource  with nonplanned  resource  divided into  associated  served  life  roughly  company towns b u i l t  development  towns  long  mills. at  world  The  resource  province.  paper  two.  be  and  taking of  on the  Fernie.  Houston,  Tasu,  16  Ocean F a l l s With towns  and  Cassier.  regard  to  reflected  technology, tenure  world  industrial  to  the  the  early  plant.  second on  The  world  projects  and  towns  concerted  govvernment  example  is  transnational midlevel  Glass  over  policy  the  Changing  the  forest  individual  from  and  used  reflected  and  urban of  "urban i n the  centers urban  A  Along  amenities"  post to  of  the  New  the  along with world  profound resource a  program  growth  of  boss  with  from York  or  corporate Toykyo. post  war  force  was  "Consequently,  a  labour  with  higher  offering war  during  resources.  changing  skilled  the  m a r k e t s and  company  orders  attract the  a  resource  abroad.  amenities,  b e n e f i t s the  development  community.  that  and  (1983,p.64)".  fringe  world  the  their  recruitment.  owned  isolated  to  replaced  company  who  more n o r t h e r n  roads  received  early  p e r i o d had  more  to develop  L a z a r o v i c h a l s o note  became n e c e s s a r y salaries  war  from expanding  era  the  for minerals  Furthermore,  in this who  demand  i n perhaps Vancouver, Toronto,  quality  on  that  provincial  entrepreneurs  post  Larger  federal  effected  recruited  the  the  resulted  firms  and  technology  by  and  town.  the  managers  headquarters  focus  the  firm  argues  industry.  b u s h c a m p s , many o f  (Glass,Lazarovich,1983).  also  and  increase world  war  company  higher  i n the  large  operated  the  An  change  markets  favoured  t o w n s were owned and  effect  towns, Marchak  (Marchak,1984).  Similar  the  base  structural  growing  system  operator  forest  two  competitive company  workers.  traditional  wages  This  town was  literature's  17  The  company  ensuring  a  workforce  participant  in  the company. has  been  (1983).  t o w n was  the  "private  "...(T)he  company.  I t s housing  stock  services  are  and  on  The town. bunk  owned For  townsite.  with  The  "recreational  (Horsfall  et  While  the  the  development  costs  and  risks  the  resource  by  of  recreational  company  worker  (Paget  and  is  totally  is  a good example  of a  company  Port  Alice  started  and  evolved  1900's  provided  including  court...,  into  subsidized  a  as w e l l  out as a  bowling  housing,  alley,  as a doctor  a  movie  and a  hospital  al.,1974,p.8)".  existed  outside  o f a company the  criticised.  disenfranchising  development  reason  i n the e a r l y  (Horsfall,1974),  second  by  was  Walisser  i t s commercial and  company  tennis  been  the  criticism was  of  Community  the  Walker  was  liked  rights  notes  laws  of  the  by  company  company  Canada  by and  diversification  was  town the  a  was  further  towns  effectively  that  1977). community  paucity  private  many  i n t h e company  (Walker,1953 i n Bradbury,  hindered class  town  limited  urban  the c i t i z e n s  managerial/professional class.  and  the pulp m i l l ,  facilities  town have  A  major  Paget and  i s administered  Alice  the paternalism  employees  town  this  by  the investment  operated  Port  settlement  and  The  of  t h e company.  Conceived  theatre  plant.  community  governance"  company  original  house  resource  company b e a r s a l l  Walisser,1983)".  method  d e v e l o p m e n t a n d management of t h e town  failure.  dependent  industrial  approach to  called The  for  the  This  viewed as a c o s t - e f f e c t i v e  service impeded  of  a  sector by  the  18  omnipotent  presence  of  the  employees  to invest  situation  (Viet,1978;Paget  The p e r c e i v e d company  a n d p u t down and  social  townhave  company roots  the wariness  i n an i n h e r e n t l y  of the  unstable  Walisser,1983).  and  been  and  community  well  deficiencies  articulated  by  the  of  the  traditional  literature.  Instant The  Towns  instant  operationalize resource  was  constructed  Bradbury  this  period.  amendments  • Changing  t o some  extent  literature. under  to the Municipal  seventies.  town"  phase  the t r a d i t i o n a l  towns  amendments  during  town  Act  (1980)  This  from  1965 nine  attempt  phase  t h e so c a l l e d  identifies  According  an  up  to  refers  to  "instant  town"  to  early  the  towns  t o P o r t e o u s (1970)  constructed  the  "instant  reflect;  values  --from  group  dependence  to  group  i ndependence; • An •  increase  Improved  i n government  transportation  • More p o w e r f u l • A desire for  by f i r m s  providing  • A continued development The private  trade  industry's  government's  to divest  for  town"  adequate  responsibility  amendments  with  settlements  as  a r e a s was e n c o u r a g e d by  concern with  concern  t h e m s e l v e s of t h e  a c c o m o d a t i o n ; and  of f r o n t i e r  "instant  and communication n e t w o r k s ;  unions;  living  need  intervention;  to the Municipal  high  community  labour health.  resource government.  Act  turnover The  reflect and  the  instant  town  19  provisions of  are enabling  sections allowing  p r e v i o u s l y company-run  Rooted  in  the  forthe  incorporation  s i n g l e - e n t e r p r i s e t o w n s o r new  traditional  perspective,  the  original  advvocated  by t h e amendments were p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g ,  government  and worker  through would •  these  i s  satisfaction  The u n d e r l y i n g  possible  isolated •  ownership.  means w o r k e r  increase.  I t  home  a  Municipal subject  planned  community  and  plan  Affairs to  the  self  stated;  of  plan.  of  Municipal  due  t o i t s attachment  new  community.  a in  urban  Affairs  This  (chapter new P o r t  spectacular  commitment  in  --  previous  company  Minister should  community responsible by  was i n e f f e c t  "carved  the  be  plan f o r the  Minister i n stone"  t o the L e t t e r s Patent o f a " t o p down  of  of the  master  plan  3) t o p l a n n i n g .  vista.  centering  The  resulting  was  worker  (Horsfall,1978).  Once a p p r o v e d  a good example  provision  environment,  official  company  as a schedule  Alice  streets  an  the plan  exemplifies  was d i s m a n t l e d  design  through  key.  "developments  existence  o f t h e community  townsite  that  a stable workforce  government  was c o n s i d e r e d  drafting  old  and r e t a i n  high-quality built  The  The  believed  were;  may b e a c h i e v e d  (Bradbury,1977,p.177)".  approach"  self-  areas; and  home o w n e r s h i p a n d l o c a l The  was  means  local  and community  assumptions  to attract  Residential satisfaction of  It  towns.  a n d a new t o w n s i t e  The p l a n n e r s multiple on  a  t h e i n s t a n t town p h a s e .  relied  housing  service core.  involvement  were erased  was l o c a t e d  on t h e l a t e s t  options  on  In theory with  self  The with  thinking  curvilinear a l l signs of government  20  and  home o w n e r s h i p The  policy  instant to  resource fifties  being implemented  (Horsfall  town amendments were p a r t  develop  the  extraction. and e a r l y  hinterland  Marchak  of a broad  provincial  by e n c o u r a g i n g  In d e s c r i b i n g  sixties  (1974).  provincial  (1984)  large-scale  policy  of  the  comments:  The p r o v i n c i a l government of t h e p e r i o d in i t s eagerness t o provide l e g i s l a t i o n the 'opening of the n o r t h ' . . .  was e x u b e r a n t and a i d f o r  G o v e r n m e n t ' s r o l e i n t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d be t o facilitate the investment of c a p i t a l by p r o v i d i n g l e g i s l a t i o n and p u b l i c funds f o r t o w n s i t e s , roads and other infrastructure; a n d by g r a n t i n g l i b e r a l terms for extraction rights to the resources (Marchak,1984,pp.39-40).  Bradbury that  growth  the  corporations this  of  regional  in  This  the  Instant  towns  Horsfall  (1974)  transience  of  workforce  the  dissatisfaction. ownership. of  Another amenities  The the  The  most  workers  instability  concern  found  to  concern  believed  produce  the  no a p p r e c i a b l e  common  of the workers  them a s  insistance  regional  evaluating  and  of  The  failed  In  experience,  by u s i n g  to  of site was  literature.  apparently  workforces.  i n theory)  towns a t t h e r e s o u r c e  expressed  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  or  towns"  development.  locating  policy.  He g o e s o n t o s u g g e s t  (at least  "instant  a feature  communities  light  argument.  by government  location  p o l e s t o spur  undermined also  a similar  t h e r e was a n a t t e m p t  rationalize  the  makes  Port  decrease  a great deal concern  was  of  economic  was t h e l a c k  such a s e n t e r t a i n m e n t , consumer  Alice i nthe  residential with  i t was a n e c o n o m i c  external  stable  home trap i n  conditions.  of c h o i c e of urban  items  and  schooling  21  for  teenagers. A  is  more  that  significant  the  instant  transfering workers  itself  cost  and l o c a l  of  a  left  more q u a l i f i e d A major  objective  notes  tardiness  local  failure  to often  councils  often  and  town  burden.  through  true  be t r u l y  worker  "in  home  to divest  The c o u n t e r a r g u e m e n t i s  i t s m u n i c i p a l taxes and  Yet local  "local".  has  t o t h o s e who a r e  amoung  1983).  not  In fact  t h e y may  the c r i t i c a l  For example, by  one  restricted  town  management  ( Marchak,  to  be no d i f f e r e n t  and i t s  the l o c a l  could  the  literature  company  the workers  However,  necessarily  t o w n a m e n d m e n t s " was  self-government  up b e i n g d o m i n a t e d  resentment  i s  communities.  that  h a s e n a b l e d t h e company  of the " i n s t a n t  of  Walisser,  "failure"  succeeded  t h e company t o t h e  I t i s alleged  government.  ended  created  Paget  from  literature  t o do s o .  of  which  pays  only  p l a n n i n g and r u n n i n g of a town  fostering the  financial  the c r i t i c a l  has  of r u n n i n g a town  s t i l l  the  from  approach  government  major  t h e company  only  town  (Bradbury,1980;p.34)".  ownership  that  the  criticism  1984;  argue  this  resource  base  from  other  small  councils. L o c a l The  Government local  government  policy.  The p o l i c y  of  instant  the  Ridge,  Towns  has emerged  town  and the H i g h l a n d  The  local  phase  policy  is  the  i n response and exemples  current to the  provincial inadequacies  are Elkford,  Tumbler  Valley.  government  phase,  while  still  community  focussed,  22  u s e s a more process  flexible  is articulated  publication Settlement  •  Options  1979  Community  the  range  of  expanded  towns  and  rural  Choosing  the  drawing  Securing  1979, In  making  a balance  the  through  executive  reviewing  range  ,in theory,  "instant  phase.  demonstrates economic  this  stability  multi-employer evaluation existing  of  towns.  The  critical  The  towns  of takes  social,  establishing  an  the  implications,  option;  and  i t  n e g o t i a t i o n (Rabnett,  May  In  a more  for regional  question  the  success  Tumbler  decision of  this  on  within  the  Columbia,  the  a To  one  new  Ridge) the  and  the  context t o be  with  the  promotes  strategy will  resource  town  address  phase  strategy i s yet  that this  local  than  building impacts.  the  view  British  government  and  suggests based  to  local  (Elkford  settlement  still  opposed  option  regional  southeastern  concern  The  their  option—implementing  settlement  as  literature  are  selecting  Elkford  towns the  towns,  summary).  the  to expand  are;  implications;  option,  p l a n n i n g and  Choosing  options--new  organizational  and  Affairs  for  steps  settlements—and  selected, settlement  provincial  town"  three  settlement  sheet  planning  of M u n i c i p a l  choices, understanding  government phase  decision  the  preferred settlement  for up  and  suggested  Ministry  (Rabnett,1979).  physical  The  P l a n n i n g : Framework  Developing  criteria  •  i n the  Resource  financial,  •  planning process.  of seen.  fail.  economic  23  diversification A final the  l i m i t e d to the s e r v i c e  suggested d i f f e r e n c e between the " i n s t a n t town" and  " l o c a l government" phase i s the r o l e played by government.  While i n d u s t r y was the key there the  sector.  i s greater "local  in  between  phase.  industry  The  local  towns"  phase,  settlement  decision  is  and the p r o v i n c i a l government, i n  c o n s u l t a t i o n with l o c a l government. "true"  "instant  n e g o t i a t i o n between i n d u s t r y and government i n  government"  negotiated  player  In the case of a  new  government i s encouraged and every e f f o r t  town  i s made  to reduce i n d u s t r y ' s r o l e to taxpayer and guarantor of debt. As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned the l o c a l government phase r e f l e c t s the  evolution  provincial  of  the  policy.  problems  literature  as  well  as  An e v o l u t i o n which has had some success i n  encouraging community soical  traditional  development and i n addressing many of the  usually  associated  with resource communities  (chapter4). The t r a d i t i o n a l  l i t e r a t u r e and the current  government concur on the f o l l o w i n g  • Do not c r e a t e  policy  of the  points;  i s o l a t e d resource towns;  • U t i l i z e e x i s t i n g towns i f at a l l p o s s i b l e ; • B u i l d i n t o e x i s t i n g settlement networks; • Avoid new towns, i f at a l l p o s s i b l e ; and • If  a  new  town  is built, diversify  i t as much as p o s s i b l e  w i t h i n a r e g i o n a l system. The major c r i t i c i s m of the above p o l i c y perspective,  i s that  ,from  the root cause of community  a  critical  stability  —  24  economic  stability  literature  argues  settlements  i s o n l y a secondary t h a t a community  i s economically  resource  produced  while  stated policy  the  the  resource  government, successful  one  (Marr  company i t has  economy w h i c h with  vulunerable. development  of  demand  for  1980).  The  the  --how  staple  upon t h e and  region's  a  staple  with  not  "staple  thesis  export value  m a r k e t s as is  decision  of  issue i s s t i l l  to a v o i d the  Innis'  result  Furthermore  be  company.  d e p e n d e n c y of a r e g i o n on other  atrophy.  the  of one  interests  settlement  p e r s p e c t i v e t h e major  processing The  markets.  on  t h a t t h e government may  t h e power of  i s dependent  little  skills  accepted  that Innis i d e n t i f i e d Paterson  foreign  i n n e g o t i a t i n g the  t o be  critical  u n s t a b l e when i t i s d e p e n d e n t  acknowledges the economic  the c r i t i c a l  and  The  or even a r e g i o n a l network  unstable  i n overcoming  From old  for  concern.  of  suggest a  one  trap" that  staple  added,  is  the  an  good,  extremely  staple  retards  e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l and  technical  shrinking  when  exports  economy  c o l l a p s e s (Marr  the and  Paterson,1980,p.454).  Summary; The  which B r i d g e s The is  the T r a d i t i o n a l  e v o l u t i o n of  reflected  literature.  In an  towns  worker/employer  and  the C r i t i c a l  the p r o v i n c i a l  i n the p r o g r e s s attempt  towns have moved from employer  Need f o r t h e A r t i c u l a t i o n  one  with  of  the  local  relationship.  Literature settlement  traditional  to ensure  employer  resource  of a P e r s p e c t i v e  a stable  company  run  government  In p l a n n i n g  the  policy  resource  town  labour  supply  towns  to  multi-  a  normal  and towns,  the  planners  25  and  architects  design  aspects.  from a focus woods"  has  attractive  physical  still  articulated critical  by  in  order  (1984) and Bryon resource  tenure  markets.  i s that  To a c h i e v e  processing  that  major  i s  base clearly  i s dependent  i n labour in  regional,  base  for internal  to  export  consumption  For example,  changes  on  demand t h e  the  resource  (Weaver,1984).  the  Marchak forest  system  t o e n c o u r a g e more p r o d u c t i o n  for local  higher  order  providing  a n a l y s i s the c r i t i c a l  broader  settlements  resource  supply  change  production  (1976) suggest  the  financial  The c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e  stability  radical  socially  limitation  stable labour  constructive  given  the  towns.  f o r the  single  literature.  and  the  on  This  consumption  relevance  in  and  However,  dependent  i s replaced with  higher  of resource  physically  a n d g l o b a l economy i n o r d e r  production  h a s moved  suburbia  towns and a concern  perspective advocates  provincial  problems  more  the c r i t i c a l  demand.  literature  --"the  enterprise failure.  literature  labour  external  the social  export  a s much a s t h e p h y s i c a l  t o a much more s o p h i s t i c a t e d h o l i s t i c  economically for  social  attributes  multi-company  extracted  and  the t r a d i t i o n a l  resulted  of resource  stable  Similarly,  i n addressing  This  are  the  (Robinson,1962)--  approach  risk  on  emphasize  the  capitalist  existing  processing.  While  literature  provincial  economy w h i c h  has l i m i t e d  political  the provincial  policy  economy and economy  i s  pa r t o f . Similarly literature economy.  the  are limited Is  there  policies in their an  advocated  by  e f f e c t i v e n e s s by  alternative  the the  perspective  traditional political to  guide  26  provincial  policy  addressed  by  through  synthesis  a  resource  1.4  Thesis  1.41  this  town  literature  for resource thesis. of;  The  the  literature,  and p l a n n i n g  towns?  This  thesis  the  searches  traditional,  regional  theory  is  question  f o r an  and  the  development  answer  critical  and  location  literature.  Structure  J u s t ifi c a t ion There  First,  are four  there  is  a need  underlying  resource  the  nature  "bust"  consideration resource The current  arguments  town  of the theory  second  argument  will  contribute to that A third regional  behind  planning  focuses  on  without  the location  of  demonstrating settlement  the  planning  final  for this  in  to  thesis  i s that  an o p p o r t u n i t y  town p o l i c y .  the for  This  thesis  i s the current  state  reassessment. thesis  British  by t h e p r o v i n c i a l  hopes  this  sector provides  i t sresource  justification  planning  thesis  A  theory  the a l t e r n a t i v e s  for undertaking  to reassess  b e n e f i t s of r e g i o n a l  This  Recent l i t e r a t u r e  towns and  thesis.  of the l o c a t i o n  or p r i n c i p l e s  i n the resource  Province  the  location.  this  towns.  lull  regional  undertaking  f o r an a n a l y s i s  of resource  the  of  for  Columbia. government  p l a n n i n g have contribute  importance for resource  justification  of  a  not to  The (Bill  been  this  regional  attack 9)  on  suggests  articulated.  articulation perspective  by in  communities.  for this  thesis  i s the schism  within  27  the  resource  part  of  and  the  policy  1.4.2  community  this  chapter  there  critical  i s to  be  literature.  As  i s a need  bodies  demonstrated  to bridge  of  literature  the  method  i n the  the  first  traditional  i f resource  community  advanced.  Method There are  the  first  i s the  settlement the  province.  based  The  model on  a  Traditional  •  Regional  The by  The  second  part  and  provides  the  model.  To  (planning  context  current  policy  f o r the  literature  of  thesis:  for  resource  of  direction the  model.  The  review.  It  planning; or  growth  location  theory  literature;  theory)  of  for  literature:  the  problem  addressed  The  settlement  model,  i s drawn  on  by  applied  and  literature.  approach.  alternative the  this  literature  town  rural  operationalize  ecologist/systems  a  the  foundation  policy  settlement  recent  by  model  testing  bodies  resource  and  outlines the  normative  through  three  critical  including  and  a  i s the  i s constructed  source  model  of  employed  model p r o v i d e s  ecologist/systems  first the  development  development  literature Social  to  s y n t h e s i s of  •  •  parts  planning.  normative is  two  second planning  the  to develop  social a  planning  process. The two  model  recent  communities  is first  examples in  the  tested of  of  being  settlement British  retroactively  planning  Columbia.  for The  to  resource  purpose  is  to  28  deliniate  the  provincial In  p o l i c y and  chapter  5  hypothetical problem. The  similarities  the  case  hypothetical  preliminary  selected  model's  two  potential  options for  the  •  They p r o v i d e  •  The  on  are  Tumbler  Northwest resource  following  rich  decisions  Municipal  is  Affairs,  existing  this  thesis.  town  Ridge  British  and  planning Elkford.  Columbia  development The  through  and  case  where  potential  studies  were  reasons:  range of  were  by  the  i s demonstrated  have been c o m p l e t e d .  a  between  p o t e n t i a l resource  studies  case  studies  differences  p o l i c y model proposed  a p p l i c a t i o n to a  The  settlement  the  and  decisions  made b y using  a  the  on  resource  same b o d y ,  the  s i m i l a r process  in  is relatively  easy  towns;  Ministry both  of  cases;  and •  Information  The  source  of  on  the  decisions  information  •  Existing literature  •  Interviews making  1.4.3  with  for  on  the  these  case  the  three  key  actors  studies  case  obtain.  i s :  studies;  involved  to  and  i n each  decision-  process.  Limitations The  main  substantiate the  abstract  alternative This  thesis  limitation the  findings.  nature approach is  i s the  of to  this  lack  empirical  However, e m p i r i c i s m t h e s i s and  settlement  building  of  its  planning  hypotheses,  not  evidence would  restrict  exploration for  to  resource  t e s t i n g them.  of  an  towns. While  29  abstract  in  foundation  1.5  nature,  for  future  this  thesis  would  provide  a  useful  industry in planning  resource  analysis.  Conclusions The towns  goal  is  literature to  of  create  has  focussed  the  this  literature  internal  which town  therefore  unstable  traditional  This  and  on  workforce.  the  community  a  "stable"  of  p e r s p e c t i v e are  dependent  has  of  the  current  have y e t  recent  resource  inpart,  by  the  by  t o be town  fully  regional  strategy  for  settlement  planning.  Unfortunately  be  truly  province. planned In critical address  analyzed,  Resource  policy  literature resource  making  and  in  and  criticism  the  many o f  the  towns.  policy. the  The  economic the  most  This  i s recognized  ,  i t s  refrain  a  and  for  resource  regional concept-has or  a  markets  even  development the  The  critical  resource  i s that  with  articulated  projects  this  provincial  inherently unstable.  traditional  level  unachievable  with  address  best  the  in addressing  e v o l u t i o n of  provincial  by  external  p h y s i c a l problems a s s o c i a t e d  limitations  to  is  the  force supply.  noted  I n s p i t e of  progressed  traditional  being  work  unstable  demand.  The  as  stability  on  labour  literature  and  stable  suggests  i s demonstrated  concerns  a  issue  resource  social  government  to  address  limits  of  implemented  towns are  still  in  proposed  yet the and  singularly. short,  there  literature the  root  i s a gap w h i c h has  cause  of  between  the  resulted resource  traditional  in policy town  which  and fails  instability.  the to The  30  solution  to bridging  of  the  political  and  t h e community  alternative called  is  this  economic focuss  offered  "a t e r r i t o r i a l  perspective literature  draws as w e l l  gap  on  of by  would  analysis the  perspective.  as the p l a n n i n g  develops the " t e r r i t o r i a l "  this  alternative  perspective.  of the c r i t i c a l  thesis.  regional  two  to l i e i n a  traditional  this  regional" the  appear  and  literature  literature. The  alternative  This  development  theory  synthesis  is  alternative and  literature.  the "regional"  One  location Chapter  components  of  31  II.  2.1  TERRITORIAL REGIONAL  PLANNING  Introduction A regional approach postulated  by b o t h  Yet  neither  is.  To  with  resource  the c r i t i c a l  perspective  articulate  defines  strong  impact  on t h e o r y  exploration  i s  function"—  which  regional impact  based  resource  the  on  the  literature  traditional  settlement  two  dominated  themes  begins  of r e g i o n a l have  had  hence the  a  planning.  This  —"territory  and  the regional settlement  and  and  both  settlement  approach  chapter  underpinnings  theory;  f o r resource  have  development on  deveopment  this  i s  perspective.  what a r e g i o n a l  " r e g i o n a l " approach  and r e g i o n a l  planning  and the t r a d i t i o n a l  clearly  a  settlement  an e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  settlement  2.11  to  have  had  critical  a  and  strong  perspective  of  planning.  Definitions The an  Region:  "The r e g i o n  objective reality"  regional  definition  imagination. synthesis region's broad  d e f i n i t o n of.the  ( E n g l i s h and Mayfield,p.425) i s  only  In the c l a s s i c a l  limited sense  human  inhabitants  the  planning  concept have  territory  and f u n c t i o n .  Function:  Since  by  the  the region  of the p h y s i c a l environment  view,  regional  i s a spatial  a  t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War  a  o f Man's  i s viewed  as  a  and the a c t i v i t i e s of the  region,  alternated  not  and as such width  (Weaver,1984,p.60). of  mind,  Within  this  and t h e approaches t o  between  two  main  a region  has been  themes;  perceived  32  as  functional  Julliard  defined  and  acts  by " i t s  self-sufficiency goods between definition  i s Urban  on  urban  nodes.  The  use of t h i s World  unifying export  of  the  United  a  region  certain space.  stems  by  of  self-  Therefore, a  region  i t generates".  from  Simmons'  He d i v i d e s  the ability  definition-  i s  development  This  (1979)  Canada  In aggregate the regions functional  ,according to  degree  core and periphery.  demonstratedSystem".  a  networks  region  cohesion to a region  Territory; the  with  core and the  War I I r e g i o n a l  base"  example,  as functional  the region's  "Canadian  post  For  ( 1 9 6 2 ) , i s endowed  sufficiency is  space.  into  The  t o move  functional concept  of a  regions  based  cover a l l of Canada. also  demonstrated  by  t h e o r y which assumes " t h e  i s i t s development  around  a common  (North,1955,p.346). In  describing  States  Friedmann  the evolution and Weaver  of regional  (1979)  planning i n  note;  When we review the changing course of regional planning doctrines over t h e p a s t h a l f - c e n t u r y , two major f o r c e s of s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n appear t o a l t e r n a t e with each other: territory and function....The territorial f o r c e d e r i v e s f r o m common b o n d s o f s o c i a l order forged by h i s t o r y within a given place. Functional ties a r e based on m u t u a l s e l f - i n t e r e s t . Given i n e q u a l i t i e s at the s t a r t , a functional order i s a l w a y s h i e r a r c h i c a l , a c c u m u l a t i n g power at the top (page 7 ) . Prior territorial dates the "real  back early  to view  World of  War  regions.  t o t h e "Utopian 1800's  historical  institutions,  II  regional The  socialist  (Weaver,1984)".  planning  concept  of  and anarchist The r e g i o n s  reflected  territoriality l i t e r a t u r e of were viewed a s  p l a c e s w h i c h s h a r e d a common h i s t o r y ,  and patterns  of human/environmental  a  social  relationships"  33  (Weaver,1984,p.60). m e t r o p o l i t a n ism" regionalist region  and  ways  to  (1938) drawing technology  over  the  rural a  the  folk  assisting  with a  was  to  the  create  "flood  search  the  II  of  the  sprawling  f o r ways t o  of  region,  the  of  Mumford  envisioned  manufacturing  "ruralization  form of  economically  preserve  example,  redistribution  cottage  War  attributes  For  being  of  preWorld  from  definition  result  return to  supposedly  region  lifestyle.  i n the  the  the  terrritorial the  goal  to  Weaver,1979) the  territorial  landscape;  industry" would  The  on  new  on  and  preserve  city.  traditional  reaction  (Friedmann  focussed  industrial the  In  of  production.  This  balanced  regions  for spatial  patterns,  (1938,p.339). Settlement has  largely  planning, with  been  shaped  spatial  patterns.  between  settlement  2.2  Settlement Settlement  2.2.1  An  spatial  effect "is a  the  and  to  for patterns  is spatial the  Functional  differentiate Location  activity of  relationship  and  Resource  View  Theory  between theory  settlement  describes  ( M o s e l y , 1 9 7 4 ) and  of  (Weaver,1974). location  and  the  settlement  human o r g a n i z a t i o n i n  interaction"  development  regional  the  Functional Settlement  theory.  economic  search  focus  contributors  of  Traditional  of  towns.  Development Theory  does not  location  analysis  section explores resource  Traditional  literature and  and  of  functional  next  theory  P l a n n i n g : The  theory  theory  The  a  Theory, Regional  Overview The  by  i t s concern  The  space major  settlement  34  theory  a r e : J.H.  Von Thunen; A.  Weber; W.  C h r i s t a l l e r ; A.  fi  Losch; and W. linking  these  Isard  (Figure  theorists  3)  (Haggett,1972).  together  The  thread  i s a common concern over the  importance of the " f r i c t i o n of d i s t a n c e " as a determinant of the l o c a t i o n of economic a c t i v i t y .  J.H Von Thunen (1800)  A.Weber  (iyiu)  W. Christaller (1930  A.Losch W. Isard (1950) (After Haggett,1972)  Figure  Von  3 - The Major C o n t r i b u t o r s to Settlement  Planning  Thunen , w r i t t i n g i n the e a r l y 1800's, was the f i r s t  d e s c r i b e a c o r r e l a t i o n between s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n and the of  land u t i l i z a t i o n .  Looking  with  constant  uses  the produce t o market.  an i s o l a t e d s t a t e , centered  reflected  the cost  returns to the h e c t a r e .  paid for transportation.  of  Von Thunen's model assumed  on a market and a homogeneous  the f a r t h e r from the market the higher profit  patterns  at a g r i c u l t u r a l land use patterns  he p o s t u l a t e d that the d i f f e r e n t transporting  to  The model concluded  plane that  the p o r t i o n of the gross  Therefore, a break i n land use  35  w i l l occur where the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n cost consumes a l l the or R i c a r d i a n land  use  rent. with  theoretical  end  At t h i s point there w i l l be a  lower  state  production  is  concentric  c e n t e r i n g on a market (Abler  Von  Thunen's  model  pattern of resource  shift  (Figure  circles  of  to  4).  The  land  use  has  also The  been  used  resources  to e x p l a i n closest  to  f o r c e s : t r a n s p o r t a t i o n cost d i f f e r e n t i a l s ;  differentials industries;  ,which and  determine  "tend to concentrate  given  region"  where  to  agglomeration  the  regional  agglomeration economies and  latter  of  or d i s p e r s e  diseconomies.  industries  within  locate  gain  firm  to  basic  distribution  Weber addressed the  economies:  the  labour  (Isard,1956,p.172). a  the  first.  Weber, w r i t t i n g in the e a r l y 1900's, emphasizes three location  a  etal,1971;Barlowe1972).  extraction.  market w i l l be e x t r a c t e d  cost  a  profit  maximum  at the source of the raw  cost of The any  question  benefit  from  m a t e r i a l ; at  36  the market or at an intermediary ,in i t s simplest  site.  Weber's  location  form, i s based on a s s i g n i n g a value  model  represented  by  weight  to the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s of each p o t e n t i a l s i t e .  The  l e a s t c o s t l o c a t i o n represents the e q u i l i b r i u m point between  the p o t e n t i a l s i t e s  (Figure 5).  The  major  criticism  of  the  E x p l a n a t i o n : "A l o c a t i o n model f o r a steel mill". The l o c a t i o n of a s t e e l m i l l w i l l r e f l e c t a trade o f f between the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s (as r e p r e s e n t e d by weight) o f t h r e e v a r i a b l e s ; the i n p u t s o f c o a l and i r o n and the c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t i n g the product to market.  Figure Weber  model  p a t t e r n s and  is  5 - Weber's L o c a t i o n Model  the  lack  of  concern f o r . h i s t o r i c a l l o c a t i o n  the i n f l u e n c e of non-economic f a c t o r s  on  location  decisions. Published "central  in  place  settlement  1933,  theory"  theory.  by is  a student still  Central  place  of Weber, C h r i s t a l l e r ' s  the  most  theory  widely postulates  applied that a  h i e r a r c h y of c e n t r a l places e x i s t s based on each centre's market area.  The  smallest and most numerous centre i s the hamlet.  hamlet has  the smallest market  order  goods.  of  c i t y has  At  area  and  provides  the  lowest  the top of the pyramid i s the c i t y .  the l a r g e s t market area and  " c e n t r a l goods"  and  "central  The  The  o f f e r s the highest order of  services"  such  as  luxury  car  37  dealers,  jewelry  Two  concepts  "threshold" to  stores  and  "range"  good  measured  refers  purchase the  central  central  good  size  the  for a  directions,  the  range  market  areas  to  threshold  break  even.  range  willing  While  break-even  The  The  are  theory  refers It  of a  to  are  is  central  travel  to  the  threshold  determines  point,  number of  customers  t h e maximum s a l e s the good,  the  area of  the  larger  the  to m a i n t a i ni t .  isotropic  circle.  people  determines  an  perfect  good.  h i g h e r the o r d e r of  required  Given  Christaller's  firm  in question.  range The  to  number o f p e o p l e .  good's market  good.  threshold  in  specialists.  of a c e n t r a l  to the d i s t a n c e  the  required,  medical  central  t h e minimum market  usually  and  of  plane, with  form  costs  the goods of a c e n t r a l  W i t h more t h a n will  travel  one  hexagons  central  (Figure  equal  place w i l l  p l a c e the  6)  ina l l be  a  individual  g i v e n the  following  assumptions: • An of •  unbounded  isotropic  plain  with  homogeneous  distribution  p u r c h a s i n g power;  Central  goods a r e p u r c h a s e d  • A l l parts  of a p l a i n  m u s t be  from  the nearest c e n t r a l  s e r v e d from  the nearest  place; central  place; •  C o n s u m e r m o v e m e n t m u s t be  • No  excess p r o f i t s  Christaller's same r a n k center  order size  the  Losch,  fewer a  and  may  be  findings  minimized; earned also  were .spaced  of  any  central  indicated  regularly  more d i s p e r s e d  contemporary  by  and  that  and  t h e y were  Christaller,  place. c e n t e r s of  the  larger  the the  (Haggett,1972). i s known  for his  38  Figure  "general  6 - C h r i s t a l l e r ' s C e n t r a l P l a c e Theory: Market A r e a ' s of C e n t r a l P l a c e s theory  Christaller's,  of  Losch's  homogeneous p l a i n raw  materials,  with  theory equal  ubiquitous  even d i s t r i b u t i o n a p e r f e c t market  limits  of market a r e a ,  within  e a c h market a r e a "  resulted comprised Losch  series  more  have t h e  and  the  possiblities  on  tastes. these  and  Finally,  assumptions  which p r e d i c t " s i z e  location  of  an  production  and  sites  (Richardson,1969,p.107). to  of t h e less  centers.  of a  industrial  central  place  hierarchy.  theory  same s i z e  rigid  W h i l e most a p p l i c a b l e  number of  hierarchy  "Therefore  same f u n c t i o n s "  and  centers  was  Christaller's  h i e r a r c h y of c e n t r a l p l a c e s with  of c e n t e r s a  Based  with  the assumption  identical  of e q u a t i o n s  flexible  i n a stepped  of  transportation  contribution  developed  sequence not  a  a  As  costs at a l l points for  i s in operation.  generated  postulate  i s b a s e d on  of p o p u l a t i o n w i t h  Losch  Losch's  (Richardson;1969).  location"  with of  the  a  each  to  model tier  functions. continuous  same s i z e  need  (Haggett,1972;p.293). in  traditional  agricultural  areas  39  (Berry,1967) , community theory  level  to  explaining  theory place  central place  is  explain the  assumes  multinational  firms  as  Examining W e b e r by  on  "Overcoming  imperative  i n an  transport In  the  simplest  transport  rates  manufacturing smeltering  manufacturing  of  the  the  process  process,  easier  discourage  central  growth  the  Isard  of  distance  as  followed  determinant became the  costs space  input" over  of  major  for  required  locate one  raw  goods. at  the  a brewery, Isard  source A  of  outlets  off versus  losing"  raw  material.  "weight  gaining"  will  include  in the  trade  "weight  economies  factor  concentration.  a  locate  further addressed  deglomeration  to marketing  time  material  A  example.  based  (Richardson,1969).  location reflects  deglomeration  industrial  as  "transport  over  agglomeration  access  major  the  cost  Weber,  and  1950's,  discounting  s u c h as  on  encouraging  The  is  of  place  (Weaver,1984,p.81).  finished  will  process  agglomeration  industry, scale.  rate  for  Building  Factors  to  general  (Richardson,1969);  the  of  a  the  migration;  change;  points.  costs  is  example a p l a n t  transport  market.  concept  clause  nodal  in  at  central  factors:  markets  friction  discounted  between  A  the  Similar  input  growth,  many  theory  Isardian world"  basic  "ton-miles".  world  transport  location.  Isard's  too  economies and  location  focussing  urban  However, as  technological  serving  agglomeration  a l s o been a p p l i e d  c e t e r i s paribas  away  patterns;  has  markets.  of  The  historical  well  local  process  incomplete.  theory  theory  on  i s "higher  the  the  impact  location.  nearness and  at  to  service  economies rents"  of  which  40  2.2.2  Settlement Rural  central  Theory  and  settlements  place  towns, which  theory  are  the  Resource are  generally  predominant  Columbia,  bear  Resource  towns are  located to  and  resource  not based  geographical Berry  a  that  resource  as is  main the  for  within favoured The  by  by  final  option  week o f f .  expected  size.  One  many  from a could  resource  t h r e s h o l d and  The  f o r an This  This  traditional t o be  distance.  long  extended option  company distant  This  has  the  become  place  that  the  nonexistant  same.  of the  resource the  three  towns  site  of  the  options  for  the  resource  site  The  second  industrial strategy  towns and commuting  work p e r i o d  central  argue  towns. the  from  residential  located at  from  deviants  larger  location  company  separate  more r e c e n t is  be  patterns.  means a  l o c a t e at  severe  specialized  also  are  most  the  factor leaves  town can  resource  have  typical  towns  range  p l a n t must  commuting the  settlements one  the town  daily  be  a  theory.  the  settlement  Berry  them  in  Furthermore,  are  of  resource  place  Columbia,  to  gives  Yet  needs of  towns  According  exploited.  town.  the  resource  towns  industrial  resource  British  terms  settlement  to central  r e g i o n a l market.  f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the  being  typified  of  --their  in  rural  to geometrical  that  would  market  nature  area  The  the  than  similar  isolated market  resource  of  s e r v i c e the  such as  theory.  form  resemblence  restrictions  of  population  is  regions,  place  functions  no  service a  (1967) c o n c l u d e s  central  with  to  explained  ( C h r i s h o l m , 1 9 7 9 ; B e r r y , 1 96,7 ) .  British  firm  Towns  (i.e., feasible  plant has  instant from two  option  been towns. existing  w e e k s on  with  but  and  portable  41  towns  (Parker,1963)  (Glass,Lazarovich,1983) In  choosing  making  a  residential to  trade  to  willingness into  options  will,  models  in  between  The  characteristics  the planner  will  be  Weber's  and  reflect  anticipated  workforce)  represents  a  the choice  tradeoff  commuting  "Preliminary  (life  between  costs  and  maximizing  Report Coal"  on  According reflects  a  and h i s  having  taken  of the area  the three  r e s i d e n t s and  recent  t o work  of  the  Northeast  Development,1977)  more  planner,  to  Feasibility For  costs  (suitability  and p r o j e c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  Development  camp.  part,  commuting  habitation)  minimizing  bush  the selected residence  for liveability.  site  options  (Alonso,1960;Kain,1962).  model  the user  t o pay  account  in/out  of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s and p e r h a p s  residential  off  the three  which  location  an u r b a n  f l y  r e p l a c i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l  between  decision  I s a r d ' s models  and  for  project  and  options  will  the firm  between  liveability.  The  Townsite/Community  (Ministry  of  Economic  stated;  From a community l a n d use p l a n n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e t h e key r e l a t i o n s h i p i s between t h e p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e and t h e place of employment. Ideally, t h e s e two l a n d u s e s s h o u l d be p h y s i c a l l y c l o s e t o one a n o t h e r a s possible while ensuring that the r e s i d e n t i a l environment i s not a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by s u c h p r o x i m i t y ( p 1 6 ) .  A  final  resource the  factor towns  residents  to  consider  i s that of  in  numerous  resource  the  surveys  towns  location suggests  enjoy  their  and d e s i g n that  "rural  many  of of  location"  (Roberts,Fisher,1984). Under Columbia  t h e most the  recent  location  resource  decision  has  town to  policy  in  some e x t e n t  British become a  42  "negotiated"  decision  (Paget and Rabnett,1983).  the  decision  o f a r e s o u r c e town  location  "exercise 1  Besides  i n least-cost economic  policies, ensure  for  that  the  considered  complexity firm  i s  called  and  environmental a  concerns.  a  decision  reflects  town  which  a trade o f f  reflect between  also Not  increase  the bottom  will  are  proposal.  which  and  Development",  concerns  concerns, decision,  guidelines  f o r Coal  resource  additional  economic  the  line  f o rthe  the  Weberian  the  various  costs.  the  for  regional  social  --location  Since  provincial  "Guidelines  evaluating  an  (Chisholm,1961;p.97).  the  of the the l o c a t i o n  transportation  analysis"  existing  reason  h a s become more t h a n  example  these  an  principle  costs,  in  withstanding  location  For this  fifties, regional  This  the resource settlement l i t e r a t u r e framework  regional  development  to  concept  address  relies  t h e o r y — as opposed  these  to  some  to regional  has  multiple e x t e n t on settlement  theory.  2.2.3 R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t The  1950's  government well This  1960's  encouragement  of  as the p r o l i f e r a t i o n period  regional theory The  and  Theory  was a l s o  planning  by s c h o l a r s  resource  awareness  of  town the  a and  and Resource witnessed  frontier  Towns  provincial  resource  of the l i t e r a t u r e  time  of  such as I s a r d , literature literature  of regional  the  time  on " r e g i o n a l i s m "  as  towns.  experiments  M y d r a l , Alonso and of  federal  development  on r e s o u r c e  government  t h e advancement  and  with  development Hirschman.  demonstrated  an  by p r o m o t i n g t h e  43  concept  of  resource the  regional  development.  resource  instructive planning  To  town  during  this  first  Here is  a  better  outline  regional  understand the for  has  are three the  numerous d e f i n i t i o n s  and  therefore  examples  coordination  encouragement  d e m o n s t r a t e d by  common,  is  delivery. British  third  1 9 6 0 ' s was promote  The  i n the  "regional regional  type of  Growth  ,which  poles  were  first  (Darwent,1969).  The  industry  of  or group  attraction.  A growth  the  "growth  pole  no  spatial  implications.  a  by  on  the area surrounding  which  most  service  districts  in  receiving  the  and  purpose  the  was  induced  suggested  "to  urban  vehicles  " f u n c t i o n a l " view of  Francois  was  describes The  The  The  concept o r i g i n a l l y firms  the  centers".  reflect  postulated  Economic  1950's  through  (Weaver,1984,p.79). and  and  planning  The  development  functional  development". growth  .  of R e g i o n a l  regional  during  physical  Columbia  economic  for  of  planning.  scale  planning,  regional  literature  "growth poles"  region,  Department  regional  economic  industrialization"  large  in British  subdivision  economic  regional  of a r e a wide  federal  form of  of of  i s the primary r o l e  Columbia.  most d i s c u s s i o n  were  the  geographical  This  is  regional  the  The  i t  of  second  Expansion.  planning  of  thrust  such as N o r t h e a s t c o a l  best  approach f o r  "affection"  regional  of the major  development is  planning  era.  planning  applications.  and  literature  to b r i e f l y  Regional  The  centers  the an  referred center  economic  c o n c e p t m a k e s no  the growth  pole.  Perroux  in  the 1950  to a  dominant  of  economic  phenomenon  mention  of  with  impact  44  Whereas center  concept  concept, argued by  the  is  regional  that  centers.  center"  will  and  the  The  growth  hierarchy the  effects  of  growth  concentrate  Hirschman more  faith  policy  c a n be e n c o u r a g e d  will  investment i s  that  growth  pole  analysts  have  and  on  directed,  pre-selected  the choosen  The  develop rapidly  benefits  and t h e whole  from  the  will  region  "spread"  dispersing  economic  the  t h e growth  reach a "take o f f " threshold,  phrase  effects  on  public  assumption  economies.  coined  and  private  center  (1957)  negative  and  i s descriptive  Drawing  development  eventually  external  settlement  theorists  public  growth  pole concept  normative.  regional  focussing  stage  growth  to  and  of  similar  i n t h e market  which  internal down  benefit.  describe  wealth and p o l i t i c a l ,  reached  trickle  "backwash"  tendency  at  through  will  "growth  the  the  Myrdal positive  t o describe the  growth  centers  to  power.  conclusions  to Myrdal but with  place.  W h a t e v e r t h e r e a s o n , t h e r e c a n be l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t a n economy, t o l i f t i t s e l f t o h i g h e r income l e v e l s , must and will first d e v e l o p w i t h i n i t s e l f one o r s e v e r a l r e g i o n a l c e n t e r s of economic s t r e n g t h s . T h i s need f o r the emergence of "growing p o i n t s " o r "growth p o l e s " i n the course of the development p r o c e s s means that international and i n t e r r e g i o n a l i n e q u a l i t y of growth i s an i n e v i t a b l e c o n c o m i t a n t and c o n d i t i o n of growth itself" (Hirschman,1958,pp.183-184). The also  enthusiaism  permeated  critical study  until  resource  towns which  have  should  built.  be  growth  centers  t h e r e s o u r c e town p l a n n i n g  analysis  of  for  recently.  towns  Similar  literature  F o r example,  Robinson  the propensity  in public  (1962)  with the  regional  have been  has  little classic  suggested only  to evolve into  sentiments  in  policy  those  centers  e x p r e s s e d by  45  other  writers including  Riffel  Task  Force  Communities  reasons Ridge  on  given  Mining  in British  Columbia  (Taylor,1983).  center"  i s different  scale,  centers the  they  grounds  i s  concentration  self  that  will  words,  economic  growth c e n t e r s , developed up  to  questioned  by  (Hudson a n d  2.2.4  Summary: The  has  one o f t h e of  that a "regional  literature  are  in  diversified will  force  for  the  Regional  with  with  result  expectations  region's  regional  are  a  provided  assumptions  and  The  from  to create Yet,  have  being  development  by  resource  r e g i o n a l impacts.  similar  on  economies.  focussing p u b l i c investment activity  terms  promoted  f u n c t i o n s and the boost  critical  Tumbler  underlying assumptions.  develop  the  t o become a r e g i o n a l  The L i m i t a t i o n s o f a F u n c t i o n a l  growth  center  draining the  "polarization".  as a t o o l  Experience  t h e gap between  periphery  economic  (Friedmann,1966).  policy  success.  exacerbates  benificial  and  not  seriously literature  Lewis,1982).  had l i m i t e d  policy by  their the  town  be a r g u e d  diversification  labour  In other  i t may  settlement  regional  the  generating  lived  In f a c t ,  i t s potential  similar  they  of  centralizing projects.  (1983).  (1975)  from a "growth c e n t e r " , at l e a s t  have  that  was While  i n the resource  assumption  Bancroft  f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e new  center  of  (1976),  of  Myrdal  any  suggests  capital  growth  named  called i t  centre  and t h e p e r i p h e r y without  throughout  (1958)  (1957)  of r e g i o n a l development  the center  spinoffs  Hirschman  Approach  spreading  the this  "downward  region  phenomenon circular  46  causation". this  drain  singular  Resource by  a c t i n g as  function  restricts  "value  The  industrial  have  strong  leak  plant  of  wage p a y m e n t s .  from  (Jacobs,  the  region  not  a l l  regional  policy  c o n c e n s u s has  developed.  effect. by  A  Aydalot  results, centers  that  by  towns w i l l  inevitably  with  the  its  region.  the  the  to  firm  resource the  i t s level  of  parent In  other  blocking town  region  singular transfer also  the  the  between  level.  criticised use  local  in  the  for host  firm's  One  view  found,  that  have  (1967), core  Growth  and is in  tends  to  development.  capital parent  and  to  the  of  grown.  more  has  at  a  also  transnational  local To  wealth  for  have  had  policy  in  the  expected  designated  growth poles  periphery  large  country.  growth pole to  of  negative  policies  dependency  policy  critical  general  the  A  the  the  extract  a  were not  and  totally  contrast  i s that  center  favouring  in  which  neo-marxist  the  i s that  analysis  areas  ones  t h e o r i s t are  Moseley,1974)  recent  Andrew Gunder F r a n k , disparity  (i.e.  (1984)  were the  expressed  global  orientation resources.  c o n t r i b u t i o n to  this  The  of  linkages  Often,  in proportion  growth center  France  export  i n t e r n a l i z e d by  sole  Yet  resources.  to  1970,1984).  While  little  are  contributing  processing  outside  region.  plant's  their  based  backward  of  regional  order  resource  profits the  for  higher  and  accused  towns and  suppliers  s p i n o f f s to  industrial  direct  resource or  the  towns are  a conduit  added"  and/or  words, most of  its  of  forward  corporation  economic  based  as  growth  critical  view  theorists  like  exacerbate r e g i o n a l and been  the a  heavily  f i r m which  can  accumulation  quote Friedmann  and  Weaver  47  (1979);  "the  ideology  growth center  and  planning  doctrine  approach  of  i s completely  the  attuned  to  the  transnational corporation"  (1979,p.188). In the  terms  location  Weberian forget  social  that  and  The center"  always  by  decisons  for  and  the  complicated lend  Settlement  refers  by  themselves  Theory, Planning:  While of  centers  the  region, t o an  can  be  drawn.  better  place  First,  explained  theory.  This  commuting c o s t s  recent  also reflect,  least  at  by  the  i s not  to  resource in  theory,  concerns. i s that  resource  theory  is  central  conclusion  strategy  towns  minimizing  environmental  Settlement  type  than  location  second  conclusions  resource  besides  regional  further  2.3  of  two  r e g i o n a l development  reviews use  theory,  principle  settlement  for  of  towns  concept  as  a  the  them has  strategy location  to a  have  for resource of  resources  i n i t s most  recent  of  to  development  planning.  In  the  "Development  From Above  or  Below?",  based  mixed  development  is  do  not  Resource  Planning  i t  and  to  View  describes  economic  their Taylor  book, (1981)  state: The key issue discussed in this book inequalities can be reduced by higher effective f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n , b o t h on and an international scale; or whether  a  generally  regional  introduction Stor  tool  To  territoriality  functionally  a  criticism.  and  reincarnation  alternative  As  strategy.  Development Theory  concept  "regional  which  Alternative Territorial  classical  a  received  come u n d e r  regional center's  Regional  of  i s questionable.  regional centers  behind  The  the  i s whether or more a national internal  48  territorial integration (Friedmann and Weaver,1979) and a g r e a t e r d e g r e e of internal self-reliance with "selective spatial c l o s u r e " ( S t o r and T o d t l i n g , 1 9 7 8 ) w o u l d be m o r e e f f e c t i v e ( I 9 8 " 1 , p . l ) .  Territorial opposed  to s t r i c t l y  development  based  encouraged, cultural  on  taking  ties.  development region  planning  This  is  one's  As Weaver  and  planning  success.  Today,  world  (1981). a  export,  large  in  the  account  would  appear  Friedmann was  as  Great  community  ,as  economic  historical  and  sense  terms  document  planning  as  is  since  that  this  the  means  territorially  more  exemplified planning  by  mixed  associated  with  Stor  i s gaining  and  more  by  some a n a l y s t s  The  Canada  and  urban economic  (Hudson  governments,  the  United  in  Taylor  favour  i n t e n s i v e r e g i o n a l development  assessed  based  1900's w i t h  p o l i c y i n western nations.  resulted in senior  Britan, based  is  region's  advocated i n the e a r l y  territorial  scale, capital  has  In  of  development  t o make e c o n o m i c  (1979)  territorial  However,  eds.,1982),  the  based  as  Instead  encouraging the a c t i v i t i e s  at doing.  development  west  internally  into  l e g i t i m a t e development  of  development  comparative advantage.  regional  third  holistic  f u n c t i o n a l l y based development.  p r e m i s e d on  i s most a d e p t  exploiting  emphasizes  as  failure projects  and  such  Lewis places  States, encouraging (Hutton,1984,p.7;  redevelopment  Weaver,1984). The  the  concept  than  a normative theory  Stor  and  Taylor  of  "territory",  , presents  being  a problem  more a  for  philosophy  planners.  state:  There s e e m s t o be n o w e l l - s t r u c t u r e d t h e o r y a v a i l a b l e as y e t f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e p a r a d i g m of d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m  As  49  below However,  (1981,p.41).  t h e r e have been  paradigm.  One  example  underdeveloped  several  i s Friedmann's  rural  areas  communalization  of  access  (Friedmann  t o power  A  "use To  by  value  Weaver  the  suggests  the  take  advantage  corporations  would  corporations  to  of  popular  enter  share  several  attention" the  to a  internal  or  An  •  Community based  •  A  holistic  region  cultural •  Respect  as  for  reliance,  wealth,  and  for developed  "production  of  into  joint  on  equal  is  focus  on  i s to for  exchange".  regional  division  ventures  of  with  specialized  to  nations  economies  regional corporations.  t o Weaver,  To  labour  the  other  regional  services.  Within  r e g i o n a l development, i s to  for regional production  a concrete  territorial local as  of  well  space,  paradigm  planning  initiative  opposed  defined  f o r the  a  and  the  role  "identify  the  b r i n g these  to  (1984,p.156).  view  culturally The  to  spatial  according  l a c k of  tenets  self  Weaver approach  opposed  approach  possibilites  •  •  The  compatible  territorial  Despite  strategy  the  regional planning,  concrete  productive  establishment of  such  Weaver,1979).  based  (1984).  develop  espouses  multinational strangle hold  Weaver  new  and  to  "Agropolitan" approach  which  means o f  p r o d u c t i o n " as  break  this  the  territorially  suggested  attempts  to  appears  to  These  are:  approach.  p e r s p e c t i v e on  externally  development as  there  development;  imposed  --socially,  be  goals; politically,  economically;  as  a  economic ecological  composite space base  and of  of  historical  political the  region;  space; and  ties,  50  •  A  long  run  perspective.  al,1978;Friedmann  The  next  territorial  2.3.1  The  section  planning  L i m i t s and  Settlement  of  Taylor  and  concurr  alternative  by  forms  boom t o w n i s m "  of  that  approach  remains;  for  Resource  like  perspective  town  Weaver,  on  the e x p l o i t a t i o n  of  Stor  the cause  of  undeveloped  corporations costs  to  literature.  Friedmann,  literature  limits  perpetrates  (i.e.,  foregone  and  economic  instablity  truly  relevant  is a  i t s  parameters  there based  first with  the  on  development two  planning  argument  and  functional  focus  the  or  for settlement since  i t from a t e r r i t o r i a l  approach.  is  decisions  Given  these  the a p p l i c a t i o n  of  planning.  settlement  relationships  which  settlement  "economic"  against  regional  functionally  of  in question.  arguments  i s that  planning,  secondly  spatial  influence  the resource are  settlement  focussed  surrounding  territorially  "how  for resource  Furthermore,  practice  of  (Weaver,1984).  oriented?"  concerned  Planning  resource  development)  community  planning  critical  multinational  inherently  The  relevancy  alternative  rents, opportunity  the question  territorial  an  the c r i t i c a l  instability;  frontiers  offers  planning  with  l o s s of economic  Yet  the  settlement.  of T e r r i t o r i a l  the  territorial  town  resource "the  discusses  for resource  approach  traditional  resource  (2.3.1)  Planning  Advocates and  et  Weaver,1979).  Potential  A territorial the  and  (Gunder,1981;Sullam  i t  The  planning  i s impossible  second  is to  argument i s  51  that  w i t h i n the current  project  decision  contribute this  will  to the  framework  territorially  s t r u c t u r e of our reflect  a  economy,  based  would  appear  settlement  resource  f u n c t i o n a l mindset  f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n of there  the  t o be  policy,  and  the region.  no  will  Within  room t o i m p l e m e n t  even  i f  such  a  a  policy  were p o s s i b l e . To  address  approach  the  as  concept  argument,  of  the  as  history,  and  approach view.  region.  economic  allows  which  settlement  understanding  a  greater  bearing  argument global  of  regions  does  appears  to  be  for  planning  and  much o f  North  and  America  the  provides has  For example,  can  be  of  territorial of  the  by  a l l  the  of  the  the  examples  of where  the t h e s i s  tentative  "the  settlement  The  to which But  to  a  there  settlement  explores  regional planning steps  an  functional  degree  approach  of  on  providing  implemented.  a territorial  some  territorial  implementation.  the  remainder  taken  —culture,  only  will  reinforces restrict  region  acceptability  concentrating  economy  approach  question  to  the  i s a question  "territorial" room  on  the  from a  service industries  complete  understanding  a  a  the  integration  of  for  contribute to local  that  adoption  planning  to i t i s a  attributes  linkages  factor.  second  i m p l i e s an  functional  of d i s t a n c e "  The  Central  the  opposed  market?  territorial  relationships within  The  as  expanded  This  territorial  base.  have  location  friction option  region's  examines  This  factors  the  a  than a theory.  f u n c t i o n a l l i n k a g e s and  well  fact  first  i s more a p h i l o s o p h y  "holistic" of  the  towards  this in a  52  "territorial In  examining  approach of  section  resource  alternative compatible  2.3.2  approach".  2.3.2  with  planning;  regional  of  the concept  literature,  the  most  from  perspective,  both  are  of  common the  appears as e l u s i v e  examples  of  to  The  next  community  planning  approach,  Regional  words  in  section  is  and as  will  which to  goal  stability,  and  t o be  an  more  Resilience the  traditional  "region".  ever  and  argue  the  critical  there  are  to resource  that  on  town  Yet i n practice  as  with  a  few  settlement  an a l t e r n a t i v e  i s compatible  focus  resource  and  "regional" approach  stability,  the t r a d i t i o n a l  community  Planning;  stability  planning.  "territorial"  "territoriality".  "stability"  a truly  of a  r e s i l i e n c e , which appears  for Territorial  Two  aspect  b e g i n s by e x p l o r i n g  settlement goal,  A Focus  the implementation  goal  territorial  achieving  "regional  resilience".  The  Concepts  Stability definitions  "the  after  none  of  a  ability  It  may  recently  system's be  of  ecology  a temporary More  and  Stability  and r e s i l i e n c y are d i f f c u l t  Traditionally, as  of R e s i l i e n c e  which  are  and o t h e r  of a system disturbance ecology  resistance  particularly  fields  have  to return  with  varying  satisfying.  defined  stability  t o an e q u i l i b r i u m  state  (Holling,1973)".  has d e f i n e d  stability  to displacement  r e f l e c t e d i n the rate  concepts  of r e t u r n  as  from an  a  "measure  equilibrium.  to equilibrium  after  a  53  purturbation the  greater  more and  or i n the amplitude the rate  stable  the system  stability  distinction  systems  the  property  persist  "first  that  of r e s i l i e n c e  strike  systems.  strategies  since  the l i m i t s  As  an  "resilience utilize  that  "a  fully  adaption  (through  their  limited  demonstate  that  distinction  Stability  measurement  change  stemming  a  a  i s  to  to  offers;  absorb  This  one  that  and  definition persists  change  is little  A highly  in  by the  a  distincition  stable  changing  more  between  from p e r t u r b a t i o n .  the system  (1978)  (p.104)".  without  of  partially management  f o r pushing  system  there  Holling's  suggests a strong  only  (Rees,1985).  definitions  purtubation  with  this  respond t o .  feedback)  and s t a b i l i t y .  still  implied  limited  Holling  system  i t i s embedded  resilience.  i s  allows  from) change  negative  initial  resilience  definition  resilent  i n which  could  and  "as  revised  i t  when d e a l i n g  be a c o n c e r n  strategy  change  that  a the  resilience  later  definition  the system  benefit  implies,  survive  early  would  i s a property  environment  capacity"  alternative  (or even  By  This  there  (1978)  on t h e g r o u n d s  absorption  For Holling,  defined  t o absorb  Holling  sees  the appropriate  first  the  resilience  Holling  and r e s i l i e n c e .  a systems  general,  fields  synonymous,  Holling  allowed  In  the amplitude  I n many  i n determining  management.  understood  between  stability  (Holling,1973)".  definition  beyond  (Rees,1985)".  i s important  for  and the smaller  a r e t r e a t e d as being between  definition  of r e t u r n  of displacement.  system  and  therefore  recent  resiliency  definitions  and  stability.  system's a b i l i t y Resilency  i s  may  a  to  resist  measurement  54  of  a  will  system's not  ability  necessarily  purturbation  but  t o adapt t o change.  return  to  stabilize  e x a m p l e , a town w h i c h l o o s e s  of  flux  through  able  to  return  attracting  a  at a smaller  population  sector  or  employer  period  on j o b s e x t e r n a l  the  same  level  demonstrates  a m a j o r e m p l o y e r and  retains  i s worth noting  that  stabilizes  population  but  t o t h e town o r i n a d i f f e r e n t  a s y s t e m may  a t one t i m e a n d s p a t i a l s c a l e different To draws  examine on  several  the  Herbert  appear  resilient  non-resilient  at  a  attributes  Simon's  of  (1973)  resilience Holling discussion  of  (1978)  hierachical  A l l systems a r e h i e r a r c h i c a l b e i n g c o m p r i s e d of  level.  "Each l e v e l c o n s i s t s  different  higher  and  a p p e a r t o be  t i m e and s p a t i a l s c a l e .  organizations.  functions  whose  o f a number  of  components  i n t e g r a t i o n produces the next  level".  E a c h l e v e l has a d i s t i n c t higher  the  spatial  scale.  numerous  level  the  levels  with  illustrate he  this point. is  example The  The  the  is  small  interrupted  b e i n g worked on.  t i m e and s p a t i a l  slower  Resilience  H o l l i n g uses Simon's  When  point.  demonstates r e s i l i e n c y .  It  with  after  an e m p l o y e r and a f t e r a  replacement  A town w h i c h l o o s e s  reliant  point  t o i t s p r e v i o u s employment  stability.  becomes  equilibrium  system  at a d i f f e r e n t e q u i l i b r i u m  For  is  an  A resilient  displayed  s t e p s between of  first the  time  two  scale  and  the  s c a l e and l a r g e r  the  when  has  a  system  the v a r i o u s  Swiss  watch  w a t c h maker b u i l d s  damage i s c o n t a i n e d  s e c o n d w a t c h maker b u i l d s  from  levels.  makers in  to  stages.  i n the stage the  basic  55  elements.  Everytime  having  yet  to  maker  by  taking  failure" the  reach  a  is  interrupted  he  has  "stable configeration".  small  strategy.  assumption  he  The  steps  is  using  that  the  unexpected  The  a  s e c o n d watch maker  start  over  first  resilient  takes  ,an  to  large  watch  or  "safe  steps  on  interuption, will  not  occure. To  summarize,  dependent between  on  steps  greater  the  the  partially  known o n e s " .  to maximize  not  of  safe"  required  failure  is  concludes  while  will  the to  the  result  steps,  climb  in  second  prefered  in  step.  if  the  terms watch  of  maker  for totally  known  "uncertain,heterogeneous  the  is  the  the  increased that  appropriate  for  Instead,  of  resilience  interconnection  larger  approach  appropriate  and  diversity  The  investment  power p l a n t  is  Limited  Holling  fail  systems,  diversity  hierarchy.  magnitude  "the  nuclear  of  parts.  does o c c u r r .  management the  in  ecological perspective,  kinds  component  the  unexpected  an  knowledge and  Therefore,  and  certain  the  larger  from  management  and  style  resilience;  would emphasize the need t o keep o p t i o n s open, the need to view events i n a r e g i o n a l r a t h e r than a local context and the need to emphasize heterogeneity. Flowing from t h i s would be not the presumption of sufficient knowledge, but the recognition of our i g n o r a n c e ; not the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t f u t u r e events are expected, but that they will be unexpected (Holling,1973,p.21)". While other  one  must e x e r c i s e  fields,  s y s t e m s do  there  share  similarities  are  similar  between  caution  in borrowing  p r e c e d e n t s and  attributes. economic  and  For  concepts  from  e c o l o g i c a l and  social  example,  strong  ecological  the  systems  are  56  documented  by  history  using  of  (Herbert In  an  earlier  •  A  and  e c o l o g i c a l and  and  •  A  long  •  Spatial  of  and  a  real  of  interactive short  estate  critical shares  resource  the  other  of  both  stability  stable  literture The labour  the  and  assumes  the  of  ecological  view  stochastic  events. from  and  are  strong  comparing  Holling  notes  connected  the  by  a  towns.  critical  This  view  stability and  a  and  and  both plan  the  to  bodies  literature  of  accordingly. argues  that  external  i s closer to a  settlement  They  maintain  unstable  are  7)  similar  resiliency.  ability  is the  literature  systems  resource  modern e c o l o g y  of  literature  given  that  limits.  (Figure  Also,  is predicable  point  literature  the  change.  one  traditional  stability as  at  and  and  concept  the  settlement  event  i n space;  ecological of  an  thresholds  both  acccepting The  that  points  nonobtainable  resource  the  which  resiliency  future  is  in  systems  have;  traditional  resist  resource  stability  environment  diverges  The  concept  state  critical  long  the  s y s t e m s by  market model.  settlements,  traditional  definition define  examine urban  (1969) examines  which ensure  throughout  literature.  with  a  pathways;  S t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s such as  theme  to  has  term h i s t o r y ;  have a f f e c t s at  constant  geography  social  components  attributes  Regarding  a  Holling  e c o l o g i c a l systems both  variety  •  paper  between  l a r g e number  will  urban  e c o l o g i c a l approach  Smith,1979).  predator/prey  social  a  an  (1981) and  and  similarities a  Berstein  modern  subject  to  literature  i n i t s management  57  TRADITIONAL  DEFINITION ECOLOGY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY  DEFINITION RESOURCE SETTLEMENT LITERATURE  MANAGEMENT STRATEGY  Figure  strategy. goal  CRITICAL/MODERN  Stability/Resilience = a b i l i t y to r e s i s t perturbation.  S t a b i l i t y = equilibrium . R e s i l i e n c e - adaptability .  Assumes a p r e d i c table future. R e l i e s on " f a i l safe" planning.  Assumes an unpredictable future. R e l i e s on "safe f a i l u r e " planning  S t a b i l i t y = short Stability=long term l a b o u r term l a b o u r desupply s t a b i l i t y . mand s t a b i l i t y . R e s t r u c t u r e the Assumes a p r e d i c economy to c r e a t e table future. a stable predicR e l i e s on " i n t e r table future. Fanal" processes. L1 sa£e p l a n n i n g .  7 - A Comparison of E c o l o g i c a l Concepts with Resource Settlement Concepts Assuming that labour demand s t a b i l i t y  i n the long  term,  the c r i t i c a l  r a d i c a l r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the economy. based  on  the concept  s t a b i l i t y , accepts create  a  failure  strategy. the above  resiliency  and goal  perspective has  existing  l i t e r a t u r e argues f o r  An  resilience conditions  feasible  ecological  rejects and  strategy  the goal  explores  of  ways to  system which can adapt to p u r t u r b a t i o n through a safe  From  possible  of  is a  of  discussion  the r e s u l t i n g  to bridge  management  the i n t e r n a l  the resource  r e c e n t l y been p a r t i a l l y  the e c o l o g i c a l  settlement explored  style and  Paget  provides  the  literature.  by  concept  of a  external T h i s theme  and W a l l i s s e r  58  (1983).  They  planning  should  able  to  all  suggest be  that  resilient  withstand  the  resource  period  the  "goal"  of  resource  communities  defined  or  misfortune  sporadic  communities  at  some  as  community  "communities that  point  besets  in  time  (Paget,Walisser,1983,p.1:2). The is  limits  that  the  distinction In  Paget  focus  between  contrast,  resilient planning  for  resource  of  contribution  the this it  to  strategy implies  system's perfect In region •  to  spread,  proposed  new  "a  large  and  defined  Diversified: of  --a  step"  as  the  knowledge  and  shift  necessitates large  terms  focus  This  might  imply  and  the  high  from terms  risks  of  Under  priority  of  of  in  approach.  least  terms  regional  options  benefits  the  in  in  a  since  settlement expenditure,  failure.  ecological definition  a  resilient  being:  Economically economic  terms of  a  In  failure  given  of  diversity.  the  the  operationalize  resilience.  potential for on  to  settlement  safe  be  adoption  the  a  and  hazy.  i s at  implies the  level  limited  level  space,  therefore  summary, b a s e d be  and  of  resilience  remains  the  Holling,  regional  town w o u l d  k n o w l e d g e and  can  to  this  project  very  hierarchy  best  examining to  that  creating  in time  resource a  on  planning  stability  policies  The  of  community  resilience  acceptance  according  focus  treatment  the  argues  implies  community  at  and  failure".  settlement  their  still  stability  strategy, the  Walisser's  Holling  "safe  with  and  is  strategy  "resilient" level  to  i n terms of activity,  "richness"  of  the  types  culturally life  as  and  and  well  as  numbers  socially a  in  strong  59  personal  •  Intra-regionally  adoption  regional  services,  This  definition  of  a  space,  economic  makes  of  the  some o f t h e c r i t i c i s m The  concept  traditional  of the c r i t i c a l  attractive  i n theory,  receives  of  rural  Support  some  Recent Recent  significant grew were  Qadeer, the  American  urban  smallest  a  ties,  the  region cultural  space.  with  the goal  move  perspective  beyond  of the  and t o answer  perspective.  support  while  not  from an  R e s i l i e n c y : Recent  only  examination  Rural  Settlement  have  documented  Concepts  Canadian  shifts areas  towns  theories  during  census data the  1970s.  Rural  and t h e f a s t e s t growing and  1983; Long and DeAre,  prevailing  to  Trends  and  demographic  f a s t e r than the  Growth  similar  of  patterns.  f o r Regional  Rural  are  sharing  region;  to  resilience,  Trends and A l t e r n a t i v e Settlement  i s  approach combined  regional  2.3.3  strong  and p o l i t i c a l  i t possible  settlement  settlements  of h i s t o r i c a l  space  of  changing  a  territorial  composite  of a t e r r i t o r i a l  with  definition a  being  focus  individual  interconnected  resilience  community  f o r the region;  interlinked;  highly  The  affinity  of  rural  t h e open c o u n t r y s i d e  1983).  This  trend  u r b a n i z a t i o n which  i s  areas areas  (Hodge a n d counter  sees  to  continued  60  growth  of megacities  advanced  industrial  Changes resulted  in  in  this  technology  mobility  improved  industries  urban  base  Increased which have  to  and  and  r u r a l growth  by  contributing  to  the expansion  of  r u r a l areas,  providing  rural  made  rural  industry  areas  rural  public  which has  areas  development;  areas  the attractiveness  businesses  Recent  r u r a l growth a r e ;  and s o c i a l  between  improved  previously  mega-cities.  factors  into  services  for technological linkages  an  to agriculture;  the q u a l i t y of l i f e  attractive  people,  The m a i n  allowing  a l t e r n a t i v e economic of  and  and the r e s u l t a n t  service  spread  of production  changes a r e s p u r r i n g  innovation  private  • The  •  migration  a r i s i n g from  1981).  a n d modes  societal mobility.  • Technological  an  (Robinson,  and economic  increasing  and  society  rural/urban  technological increasing  and r e f l e c t s o p p o r t u n i t i e s  and  and urban  of r u r a l  (Bradshaw  more  centers  areas and  for  Blakely,  1982). North Americans small above to  and  three  age  range,  upper  the  factors  Bradshaw  urban—rural  were p r e v i o u s l y  1982).  a significant portion  tend  classes  a preference  (Zuiches,  their preference.  (McRae,l980;  which  stated  towns and r u r a l a r e a s  exercise  wide  have a l w a y s  Today's  t o be w e l l  and  are  and  moving  for  living  in  As a r e s u l t of t h e o f t h e m a r e now  rural  educated,  for  migrants  belong life  able  span  a  to the middle style  reasons  Blakely,1982).  migration considered  i s void  revitalizing of any economic  rural and  areas social  61  future.  Six  identified 1980).  ideal  in  the  types  of  literature  • Retirement  and  Beale,l98l;  are  Berry,  • Resource In  based  British  boom  and communities.  Columbia  resource based  Between  communities;  communities;  • Tourism communities;  boom  there  a r e examples  community  1971 a n d 1981 t h e r e  was  a n d t h e medium  British  size  predominant  significant  (5,000  Columbia  of a l l of these  being the  t o 2,000,39% g r o w t h ) , t h e medium  growth), in  (Brown  communities  communities;  • University/professional  (1,000  growth  These a r e :  • Government/trade  the  rural  growth  small  form.  i n the small  (2,500-5,000;39%  t o 10,000;44% growth)  (UBC  with  Center  towns  for  Human  Settlements,1984,p.10). C h a n g i n g The a  non-economic  significant  rural  Fred  continued  19%  impact  communities.  Ontario,  in  Regional Settlement basis  o f much  on t h e f u n c t i o n In a case  Dahms  to lose  Patterns  (1983)  economic  of the r u r a l and  spatial  study of a r u r a l found  that  functions  (since  functions  had been  specialized examples The  since  have  in  1966.  an  attractive  of  town  had  i n population  --a  and employment  centres  place  while  to live.  i n the United  States  rural  has  areas  i n southern  the  The t o w n ' s s e r v i c e s  been documented  specialization  town  of  1966 a 2 2 % d e c r e a s e  u s u r p t e d by o t h e r r e g i o n a l  being  has had  structure  while  b u s i n e s s e s ) t h e town had c o n t i n u e d t o g a i n increase  growth  (Hart,  created  i t  Similar 1975). rural  62  communities terms  of  which  are .quite d i f f e r e n t  settlement  from h i e r a r c h i c a l l y described function or  by  ordered  and  their  function.  central  places  Christaller,  into  on  the  area's  dominant  describe  the  new  based  predecessors  They have  serving a  communities attribute  in  evolved  region  ,as  specialized  in a  be  i t  sunshine  minerals. To  literature  has  concept.  The  urban  single  urban  entity  (Hayes,1976).  or  describing  that  in losing  country  who  lived use  have  the  use  best  in village the of  (1983) suggest  A  in a  that  their  city, In  is applicable.  are  place  center trends  in  be  areas  a  most  Hart  uses  context.  He  functions  have  the  suggests,  similar  in village  of  another,  to  different  Hart  group  patterns.  rural  might  city"  f u n c t i o n i n g as  i t s most a b s t r a c t  settlement this  one  to a  t o one  trade  central  there  w o u l d .work  recreational rural  slightly  restaurants.  1975).  refer  appears  of  settlement  "dispersed  and  It  in retail  specialized;  i n the  (Hart,  land  revitalization  concept  another  the  measured, the  to  rural  in close proximity  non-urban  city  villages  zones of  concept  easily  the  (1963) used  of  towns and  analysis  generally  tracts  hypothesizes  and  is  Burton's  by  dispersed  dealer,  Ian  trends  size,  In  are  term  settlement  similar  noticeable,  the  borrowed  nodes of  separated  C  patterns  from  B,  best as  car  there  zones of  use  form  a  person  shop  in  village their  i n Canada Hodge and  Qadeer  of  the  D.  in  In  interpretation  village  small  dispersed  That;  small centers no longer function according to the concepts of m e t r o p o l i t a n dominance and central-place theory...A review of the trade center r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the work commuting patterns suggests that many  city  63  basic needs are provided by r e g i o n a l complexes of towns and v i l l a g e s . In each r u r a l l o c a l i t y a number of small c e n t e r s c o l l e c t i v e l y p r o v i d e f r o m t h e i r own distinctive arrays of stores, services, jobs and social and cultural a c t i v i t i e s f o r the residents of s m a l l towns and t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . (page 9 7 ) .  There  would  appear  demonstrated resilient  which  The  the  an  analogy  growing Both  are highly  between  ,resilient, are  of r u r a l  planning.  of  attempts sharing  t o encourage  There  (Ontario  regions  of  and  specialized  has been  recognized  are several policy  settlement  s e r v i c e s and g e n e r a t i n g  Manitoba  rural  resilience  interlinked.  of r e g i o n a l r e s i l i e n c e  field  the  comprised  concept  the  and  be  ecosystems.  organisms  of  by  to  clustering  economies  examples  f o r the purpose  of scale  Government,1978; F a c u l t y  in  of  in Ontario  Environmnetal  Studies,1974)  I m p l i c a t i o n f o r Resource  Settlement  It  changing  provide  would  appear  a valuable  resilient resiliency settlements  i s  the  in  investment  often on  part  the  degree  A similar  settlements  concentrating  f o r resource  dependent  and  interconnected. human  lesson  settlement is  that  to  Yukon  rural  settlement  settlement  which  of  the  the  region  (Denike,1979).  in a  a and  region's  settlements  i s reached  i n Whitehorse, Denike  patterns  planning;  of a r e s i l i e n t  diversity  conclusion  the  Planning  are  paper,  on  As opposed  to  argues;  The s t r a t e g y w h i c h would c o n t r i b u t e t o real benefit, in terms of q u a l i t y of life, to residents i s to encourage p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e s e r v i c e towns and t o a l l o c a t e p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t t o t h e s e r v i c e towns and  64  several The of  rural  attempting  isolated would  growth  to  seem  create  logical especially  resilience  of e x i s t i n g  long  For  d i s t a n c e commute half  of  potential  resource  a l s o demonstrates  stable  resource  location.  Under  alternatives  those  options  settlement  example, chapter  southern  the  a  that  explored,  (p.93).  literature  and unpleasent  areas.  2.4  of the hamlets"  options  from  Northwestern development  resource  which  notes  British  an  could in  towns  be  enhance the  less  the p o t e n t i a l  existing  in  circumstances, i t  networks  five  futility  community  such to  the  isolated of using  communities Columbia  in  to  p r o j e c t s i n the northern  the  service half  of  region.  Conclusion The bust on  goal  of " r e g i o n a l  nature  of resource  communities  level  diversity  and  recent  through  growth  best a  to  key  i s  on  t h e boom a n d  that to  the  This  literature  and  impacts  plan  developing  linkages.  by t h e e c o l o g y  at  the  regional  asscertion  is  in practice  by  "resiliency"  is  trends.  "path"  "territorial  "center/periphery"  The  concentrate  intra-regional  i n theory  rural  The  and  acknowledges  p r o j e c t s but contends  c a n be d a m p e n e d .  regional  supported  resiliency"  to  the goal  regional"  domination  regional  settlement  and  holistic  approach.  Holistic,  advocated  which  builds  of r e g i o n a l  approach.  concept  development  replaces  of the f u n c t i o n a l l y approach  internally  on t e r r i t o r i a l  It  ties  with  based and  a  the based more  development i s  i s  ecologically  65  sound  and  replace In  long  "place  the  He/she  implemented mobility;  exploration territorial essentially to  chapter  outlook.  with  to  This  the worker  move  in  regional/territorial  times  moves  of  f o r the  from  economic most  planning an e x a m i n a t i o n  enables  "jobmobility"  literature has  the worker  in  in  mobility"  traditional  mobility".  region  term  (Hightower,1985).  i s resigned  search  of  approach  job  to  hardship.  appropriate approach.  job  emphasises  job  to  of theory  the three  same i s an  implement reason  of theories' "of" planning  two's e x p l o r a t i o n  "place An  Chapter  this  to  work.  within  theory For  the worker t o  " i n " planning  as  a  i t i s opposed  66  III.  THE  I M P L E M E N T A T I O N OF  T E R R I T O R I A L REGIONAL PLANNING:  SUGGESTED  3.1  A  STYLE  Introduction Chapter as  an  two  proposed  "territorial  alternative  approach  to  resource  settlement  questions  of  what  type  "territorial  participate  i n the  of  literature. provides  an  alternative  to  process  question  policy  for  addresses  the  is  required  model and  of  paradigm  this  who  to  should  to  the  planning  "rational  Based  "strategic"  planning  rational  through  comprehensive  an  theory  l i t e r a t u r e i n the  paradigm.  theory, the  i s addressed  ecologist/system  emergence  planning  of  chapter  regional planning"  social  alternative  discussion  planning  process"  the  The  (Faludi,1978)  of  This  provincial  model  implementation.  planning  examination  present  planning.  implement a  "The  the  regional planning"  1960's  comprehensive"  on  this  initial  i s suggested  "master  plan"  as  an  planning  process. The  "paricipation"  down"  with  styles  for resource  Out  of  "bottom  this  options  is  examples  from  question  up"  the  planning  settlement  theoretical  established. field  of  i s explored and  the  comparing  "top  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  both  planning.  discussion a The  by  options  regional  typology are  planning.  of  examined  planning through  67  2 An  2.1  Alternative  The  Social  Planning  Ecologist/Systems  Paralleling questioning on  analysis defined to  view  and  are  the  the  dichotomy science (the  right  paraphrase wicked  •  Rittel tame  engineering  or  of  of  the  ecology  to  system  the  of  the  a  was  process.  way  accepted  adoption  is  of and  and  a  Drawing  and  systems  problems  planning  were  process  systems-ecological  conclusion that  where the  the  problem  Webber  wicked  (1973)  policy  reference  It  right  wrong) and  of  wrong  answer  Mason  and  or  is  organized or  Mitroff  context who  problems.  problem.  "problem  problems  making  sixties  points  shifting.  by  is a  late  examined  led planners open  Planning the  fields  The  redefinition  of  of  policy  literature  w i t h i n an  solution  problem  the  problems.  continually  articulated  and  appropriateness  world  occur  This  in  View  t u r m o i l of  planning  planning  these  of  problems  the  social  evolving  the  tackle  the  of  concepts  Process  A  easily has  (1981)  the  the  tame p r o b l e m defined,  is a  testable  finality.  problem  best  developed  complexity".  correct  was  A  There  wicked is  definition.  characteristics  no To of  are:  Interconnectedness:  each  problem  is  connected  to  other  problems; •  U n c e r t a i n t y : the uncertain  problems e x i s t  environment;  in  a  dynamic  and  largely  68  •  Ambiguity: there  •  Conflict;  •  Societal  competing  Resource  a  The c r i t e r i a  used  included  ecological  potential  forcreating  attrative  the for  wildlife.  of  the  problem  planning  coal  Tumbler  prices  and  difficulties problems coal. there  between  Ridge  to The  proceed with  sector  and p r o v i n c i a l northeast coal  was b a s e d  (site  The  the  i m p a c t on  Ridge.  "uncertainty"  aspect  by t h e c u r r e n t low and  mine.  Both  f o r Northeast Ridge  i n that  whether  or  not  "Conflict"  was  also  There  and the p r o v i n c i a l  reflects  producation  Quinette  the p r o v i n c i a l  governments.  of  created  over  built.  on p o l i t i c a l  most  location)  made  be a c o n c e n s u s  government,  the private  local  decision  and  the  "interconnectedness"  Tumbler  Tumbler  the  greatest  surrounding  been  as  Of a l l t h e s i t e s while  troubles by  the  options  well  phase  have  with  as  i n the planning  ambiguity  should  settlement  the  i s poignantly  experienced  associated labour  the  financial  p r o b a b l y never  government, between  i s  has  impact).  were u n a n t i c i p a t e d  will  closely  the  being  There  Tumbler  Ridge  i s Tumbler  site,  o f one p r o b l e m  (ecological  An e x a m p l e  stability.  habitation,  solution  social,  a l l  the  Ridge  demonstrates  by  display  parameters  force  Tumbler  human  This  problems; another  final  examine  social  labour  limited  constraints.  problem.  to  and  are  problems  wicked  of the problem;  c a n be e x p e c t e d ; a n d  and p o l i t i c a l  of  view  solutions  settlement  characteristics  considered  interests  constraints:  organizational  Ridge.  i s no o n e c o r r e c t  was  and the f e d e r a l governent  Finally  "societal  and s o c i a l  conflict  and  the decision  constraints".  considerations  as  69  well as  as economic. a  catalyst  The p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t for  the  Columbia.  The o p p o s i t i o n  taxpayer's  money.  The  traditional  rational  development has viewed  planning  comprehensive  approach  Rational  comprehensive  World  War  e r a where  to  solve  technological  cost-benefit  analysis,  programming  and budgeting  approach  "deterministic  extrapolation  of  world  the unexpected  where  planned  future  modern  world  system  based  provides  (Ozbekhan,1966) (Friend  we  a  should  inadequacy  of using  "wicked"  problems  Planning; situations (Belllagio The  range  which  of  by t h e m a s t e r  developed  tools  included  The  be  Trist  possible  the  and  in are  social  argues,  in a  Since the  we  uncertainty should  be  (Trist,1978). to  The tackle  by t h e B e l l a g i o D e c l a r a t i o n  planning  today  inherently  bad  i s more  a  consequences  s c i e n t i f i c - e n g i n e e r i n g processes stated  on an  therefore  t o manage  futures  this  we a r e l i v i n g  and  planning  planning  based  i s not planning. choices  post  (1966) c a l l e d  contrast, that  the  and  f o r the future  expected  trends  Or a s  was w e l l  "science  be  i s the  were  In  numerous  and Jessop,1969).  creating  policy  on p a s t  solving  solutions  t h e o r i s t s argue can  f o r the  in  Ozbekhan  trends.  and  sinkhole  achievement matrices  systems.  ecologists  British  flourished  problems.  " - - i tp l a n s  past  northeastern  and i s t y p i f i e d  technological  goal  project  t o problem  planning  (tame)  the  i t as a  approach  plan.  Two  of  viewed  often  used  on  t o make  efficiently  bad"  Declaration,page 8). adoption  problem  of  a social  definition  ecologist/system  has l e d t o a  new  model  perspective for  of  problem.  70  solving.  A  themes.  •  emphasis;  policy--we  (e.g.we  t h i s new m o d e l  traditionally  do i t b e c a u s e  build  technology  bigger  resulting  broadened  society  (expert  the  (Jantsch,1975;  foranalysis  B o t t o m Up;  planning  •  from  focus  on  of the  of both  itself  of planning whole  must  system  of  Or a s F r i e d m a n n  "functional"  rationality  rationality  on t h e m o s t  efficient  (or w h o l i s t i c  thinking  t h e ends and t h e means).  be  performed  at  the  lowest  a maximun o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n  and i n i t s implementation"  choice  environment"  experimentation  which  Declaration,1968). This  (Bellagio  only  Yet  the  the  choice i n  and Jessop,1969);" to  possible  emphasized  suggest  "continuous  must c o n t i n u e  i s  are  involves  (Friend  the process  society  useful.  we h a v e t h e  should  the  focussess  "must  strategic  Experimental; with  t o do i t  1968);  Flexibility; changing  questioning  bombs b e c a u s e  to  l e v e l t o make p o s s i b l e  Declaration,  a  prominent  the technology  Churchman,1968).  which  --concern  the planning  little  the boundaries  we m u s t move  knowledge  effective  i s  planning  specific  means) t o " s u b s t a n t i a l "  •  five  (Ozbekhan,1969);  from  (1973) suggests  in  suggests  and t h e o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n  Interdisciplinary thinking; be  •  we h a v e  Instead,  t o be d o i n g  goals  there  and b e t t e r  t o do i t ) .  w h a t we o u g h t  •  of  These a r e ;  Policy of  precis  evolve i f  in  step  learning  and  (Trist,l978;  knowledge  generation  generated and  and  use  Bellagio must of  be  both  71  personal  and  Personal and  processed  knowledge  therefore  is direct  is  Processed  observations  and  processed  in  past  based  our  knowledge  measurement  explaining  (Friedmann,1973).  knowledge  reflected  aspirations.  with  knowledge  is  based  and  create  experience  values,  goals  on  For  a distorted  and  systematic  is generally  relationships.  knowledge can  on  concerned  this view  reason  of  reality  (Friedmann,1973).  The  development  classical  back  and  the  portrays  made  The a  been  focus  each  level  w h a t we  formulate of  interdisciplinary policies  from  the  impacts  such  as  approach  stratgeic bureaucracy  at  the  social  of  "ought  the  (i.e.  and  is  being  planners"  five  themes.  formulating is  to maximize  the  Similarly the  planning  include  broader  concerns. corporate  the  The  attempt  in widening  from  8  formulation  parties.  shifted  feed  Figure  every  to  filter  strong  In  level  profit)  to  and  the  normative,  still  policy  and  lowest  the  i t s  t o do".  environmental in  redrawn  tiers.  the  where  becomes key  i s a l s o advocated planning  on  impacted  thinking specific  the  i s advocated  policy  with  changed  between  normative  has  policies  has  based  bottom-up approach  to  While  process  i s on  themes  model  level  g r a f t e d on  i s the  participation  up  planning  of  planning  point  occurs. policy  have a  five  operational levels.  emphasis  loops  starting  these  hierarchical  strategic down,  of  This  bottom  sector  where  the  line  "isolated managers  (Businessweek,1984) . The  strategic  planning  level  is  key  in  "wicked  problem  72  n  S o c i e t a l Norms  Policygoals Strategic  ,.  .Normative P l a n n i n g  , ,  objectives—Ak_^_ Operational targets —  __ *  __ *  n  S t r a t e g i c  Plannin  §  . „ Operational Planning  Resources E x p l a n a t i o n ; T h e double arrows i n d i c a t e the a r e a o f g r e a t e s t c o n c e r n f o r p l a n n e r s . S o c i e t a l norms and r e s o u r c e s are cons t r a i n i n g f a c t o r s which must be r e s p e c t e d .  Figure solving".  Feeding  operational is He  "how  8 - A Revised  advice  " a c h i e v a b l e " and  planners. planner  based  experimentation the problem  little  strategic  Finally, to ensure  the  to  strategic has  two  develops  to give d i r e c t i o n  flexibility  forward  planner  he  the level  roles.  to  manage the  strategic  are  "strategic  to the o p e r a t i o n a l  objectives  t h i n k i n g to understand  problems.  and  makers on what p o l i c i e s  the p o l i c i e s  In e s t a b l i s h i n g emphasizes  Most  on  Model  f o c u s of the  strategic  the p o l i c y  w h i c h a r e used  interdisciplinary the  to  The  Process  normative  of p l a n n i n g the  i t be done".  provides  objectives"  back t o t h e  level  can  Planning  the  strategic  uncertainty  and  systemic  nature  planner  encourages  e v o l u t i o n of t h e p l a n n i n g  process  of  as  evolves. planning  q u e s t i o n i n g of  still  occurs at the o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l  the norms.  It i s  what  people  with  generally  73  mean  in  usually  using  the  assumed  term  as  given  assumptions.  Within  focussing  "what  on  implementation. defined  the  model, the  the will  context  critical  strategic  traditional  planning  given  policies.  Columbia's, M i n i s t r y of the  implement thesis at  the  be  done",  a  process the  defines  done" and  "what c a n  be  as  An  analytical planning  and  planning  i s the done".  Assuming  "subdivide  that  organization to  strategic  planning  whole—the  task  of  i s no  a problem  attempts  to  of  planning the  that  master  local  level  "ought  the  understand  (Mason and  problem  nature By  to  does  of  the  being the  will not  level,  which  is  strategic into  its  linkages holistic  problem  Mitroff,1981).  be  Instead,  normative  analytical  complex  This  unexpected  s o l v i n g process  to  Planning  plan.  the  being a  British process.  sense.  the  than  s t r a t e g i e s to  Province  at  i t s complexity".  attempts  of  broader  at  to determine  synthesis  well  Strategic  n a t u r a l f o r c e s and  utilizes  and  give  respects  By  planning.  between what  defined  elements  but  (0'Riordan,1984).  in a  problems  to  with  ecologist/system's  strategic  filter  wholistic.  attempts  used  by  approach.  i s the  policy  s o c i e t y ; there  planning  synonomous  t o o l s are  generated  to  strategic  is  generation  example  attempt  the  operational level,  social  the  are  their  strategic  planning  address  of  of  strategic  to  levels  a more e n c o m p a s s i n g meaning  happen  remodel  two  has  provincial  level  a  Environment,  strategic  strategic  of  s t a t e g i e s are  given  the  systems  other  questioning  planning  component  definition  little model  of  planning  The  new  is generally defined  implement  Under  with  Traditional  w i t h i n the  As  "planning".  as  a  74  In  contrast  capable  of  to  incorporating  ecologist/systems planning  i s  3.2.2  in  a  the  position  can i n c o r p o r a t e  strategic  suggested By  By  being  versus  of  holistic "policy  being  "flexibility"  planning  tenets  t o encourage  thinking".  Bottom-Up P l a n n i n g  Local  planning,  perspective.  "interdisciplinary planning  master  social  strategic  emphasis" and  analytical  and  a  i s  strategic  "experimentation".  Top-Down P l a n n i n g :  The Case f o r  Government Top-down  planning  i s  Decisions  flow  down  exemplified  by t r a d i t i o n a l  opposed  to public participation. planning  centralized  decision. master  to  put  in  Similarly,  planning  on  place  top  required  requires  planning  i s  planning  structure in  based  down to  as  regional  planning  since  designate  i s  as the  on p u b l i c r e v i e w  t h e mechanisms  down  which  top  above.  Planning  Functionally  relies i s  from  planning.  " t o p down" r e l y i n g  d e c i s i o n making  and  imposed  organinzational  corporate  realm  centers  often  the  public  development  i s  the  planning  growth  t o implement the compatible  with  imposed a u t h o r i t y t o implement  polic ies. Bottom-up ecologist/systems level"  perspective;  and t h e r e f o r e  allowing  people  also  compatible  very The  the  question  planning  a  "planning  i s compatible  to plan with  their  tenet  own  with  of at  the  social-  lowest  effective  strategic  planning.  By  f u t u r e , bottom-up p l a n n i n g i s  the concept  of  "territoriality".  i s , how d o e s o n e f a c i l i t a t e  p r o c e s s when t r a d i t i o n a l l y ,  participation  public input  in  into the  75  planning policy to  process  issue  public  people  participation  is  through  truly  authority  i s  of power  to  economic  governments higher  are regarded  contrast,  they  the d i v e r s i t y  funds.  The  expenditure  decisions  are  source--the  local  greater  of  governments  thriftiness  Another meaningfull  Trist  in  payer.  of  of community  community  to  the state.  (1978a)  gives  strong  the core  theory  several  examples  of  affected  are Local than  funds;  demands.  programs result  this  In  which,  in  ensures  poor that  the  funding  should  enforce  government  i n the decision  economic of  is  making  more process  (Deballa,1983).  This  ramifications.  innovation  Directions self  there  (Oates, 1 972).  local  has  "New  --the  of p u b l i c  to  from t h e community  In h i s a r t i c l e  local  effective  government  related  the d i r e c t i o n and  and  can  independence  independence  local  government.  blanket  local  In  participation  (1978) a r g u e s t h a t  periphery to  public  argument,  local  impose  and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y  benefit  the b u i l d i n g  rise  tax  local  of  of  to the c i t i z e n ' s  closely  of  government.  situations, use of  review  approach  i n the a l l o c a t i o n  sensitive  the  use of  association  philosophical  of l o c a l  The  up  a s more e f f i c i e n t  a r e more  centralized  allocation  bottom  is local  of government  form  concerns.  a  of  the i n s t i t u t i o n  smallest  this  review  t o move f r o m p u b l i c  reasons f o r encouraging  levels  presumably  and  with  the  public  representative  over l o c a l  compatible  Notwithstanding  given  a  w h i c h , i n most c a s e s ,  strong  to  method  assuming  goverment  restricted One  with  devolution  been  i n question?  government; government  has  level of  help--local  i s from the (bottom-up) Hope"  Trist  initiatives,  76  generated  by  a  development center  in  Option F i e l d  styles  approach  to 9)  four  quadrant  parties.  e v e n t s and an  terms  a  manifested growth  of  2001  Edingburgh  along  "participation" the  option  regional  planning.  of o p t i o n s  by  Sudbury  The two  axis.  field  of  territorial Option  field  axises; The  the  result  four quadrants.  The  are four  below.  Planning represents  The  to  example  of  the  of  Styles  the t r a d i t i o n a l  a r e made b y a d e c i s i o n m a k i n g  Columbia,  A  the  to the backwater  d i s c u s s i o n i s an  settlement  knowledge  shape would  regional  the  be  hydro  planning  policy  and  final dam  and  outcome. planning  requires  and  on  the  based  on  to predict In  i n the  master  to regional imposed  approach.  imposed  the a b i l i t y  top-down  i n the f u n c t i o n a l approach center  body  planning  d e c i s i o n s are comprehensive  a s s u m p t i o n of complete  future  Planning  represented  Top-Down M a s t e r  effected  In  and  are discussed  Decisions  the  resource  spawned  (Trist,1978a).  f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of  axis  This  are  have  Society outside  project  foregoing  which  relegated  Examples  of Regional  broad options  options  were  shows a c o n t i n u u m  "process"  community,  Festival  York  form the  potential  (figure  that  the C r a i g m i l l a r  Arising  of  development.  t h e J a m e s t o w n New  3 The  3.1  sense  areas  dominated  project, and  strong  British 1950's.  planning  is  development.  authority  to  be  effectvive. An  example  from  regional planning  i s the  1970  Northwestern  77  MINIMAL PARTICIPATION  Top-down Strategic Planning PREDOMINATELY MEANS ORIENTED  Top-down Master Planning  Process  Continuum Bottom-up Master Planning  Bottom-up Strategic Planning  MAXIMUM  Figure Ontario  PARTICIPATION  9 - Option F i e l d of S t y l e s f o r Regional development  strategy  (Ontario  1970 s t r a t e g y was based on c l a s s i c a l settlement place  respectively.  development s t r a t e g y " , as  "primate  the  filter  designated the  point  centers  be  development  The and  down  the  economic  discouraged  "take  hierarchy regional  off".  that and  infrastructure  growth  from  centers  Settlement  growth  several  based on t h e i r  The assumption was  settlement  and  designated  opportunity"  r e g i o n a l centres once the of  i t s e l f a "comprehensive  strategy  of  o r i e n t e d towards f a c i l i t a t i n g the would  Government,1970).  regional  Calling  1970  p o t e n t i a l as "growth c e n t r e s " . would  Planning  theory with emphasis on "growth c e n t r e s " and " c e n t r a l  theory"  centres  PREDOMINATELY ENDS ORIENTED  would  reached  policy  centres.  New be  the  was towns  targeted  78  towards  the s e l e c t e d growth  In  summation,  assumptions  of  predictable down  extent  how  had away  on t h e s e  plan  process  Strategic  in  practice, This  systems  evolved. from  would  work. Rittel  that  This  of the region  the  and of a  i t adopted  reinforced  the  functional  i n the literature,  a n d t o some  "master  appear  a n d Webber  of  model  a top  planning  of planning  i n response  i s the  (Ontario  a better that  the a  was n o t  myth move  growing  producing  with  One  1978  understanding  reflected  experimentation  An e x a m p l e  "strategic  a better  a l s o argue  "stategic planning".  Strategy  to  H o l l i n g (1973)  (1973)  comprehensive  to  planning"  to reflect  To p a r a p h r a s e  led  planning.  Development  a move  the c l a s s i c a l  interpretations  initiated  on  assumptions  which  from  rational  results.  strategic  based  Planning  1970's w i t n e s s e d  consensus  was  functional definition Based  planning". of  strategy  of the region.  3.3.2 T o p - D o w n The  a  1970  future.  master  definition  the  centers.  various  f o r m w a s t o p down Northwest  Government,1978)  to the inconclusive results  Ontario  which  was  the  1970  of  strategy. The the  strategy, while  geographical  strategy. 1978  1978  Accepting  strategy  achievable  and  the premise  replaced  that  top-down,  deterministic  objectives.  was t o e n s u r e  still  a set  of  of  i n part  the  1970  of an u n p r e d i c t a b l e  future the  unrealistic  with  The p u r p o s e  existing  approach  rejected  of this  settlements  would  goals  strategic be i n  a  more  approach position  79  to  take  advantage  emerged type  i n .  of economic  The  and l o c a t i o n  1978 s t r a t e g y of  strategic  approach  knowledge  is  opportunity  future the  unobtainable  d i d not attempt  economic  1978  no m a t t e r  the  Adopting  accepted  future  form i t  t o predict the  activity.  document  and  what  is  a  that  complete  not  entirely  predictable. Moving . s l i g h t l y region,  t h e 1978 s t r a t e g y  faced  by  better  dialogue  and  both  include  The theory  flexible  1978  with  the exception  community  clusters.  Three  to  patterns  influence In  approach  on  administrative  a flexible  settlement  economic  short, to  this  goals  involved  the  within  with for  problems  arising  from  was  perspective,  to  goals.  This  settlement  economic  center  local  strategy  since  c e n t r a l place  centres  of the  --industry,  a strict  context.  and growth of Thunder  t h e 1978  pole Bay.  strategy  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n within the  community  cluster's  clustering  potential  approach  do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  links.  and  the  to  were  develop  This  again  belief  that  have t o be h i e r a r c h i c a l  development.  t h e 1978 p l a n a  areas  policy  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  strategic  the  as economic  of the primate  areas  to  territorial  settlement  rejected  definition  1978 s e t t l e m e n t  as w e l l  clustering  possible  based  commercial,  solutions  a l t e r n a t i v e t o growth  suggested  identified  the  The  viewed  strategy  a settlement  reflects  of  social  w e r e no l o n g e r  territorial  and underdeveloped  governments.  more  a  the actors  in reflection  a  patterns  As  between  explicit  to  saw  developed  provincial  broadened,  led  towards  strategic  moved  i n part  approach  and  from began  a  master  plan  t o move f r o m  a  80  functional  to a  territorial  territoriality development The as  the  well  as  implement  was  settlement policy to ensure  the  strategy  a  1978  of  is  Environmental  example  of  the  Manitoba  1974  a  government,  at  of  rural decline  to  the p u l l  of  the metropolis.  the  Manitoba  strategy  The  study  viewed was  as  to  settlements function." of  proposed  each  strategy  settlement state.  on  in  regional  the  (Faculty  of  Faculty  of  Toronto, attempt  a viable of a  and  to  the  address  alternative  settlement policy  settlement cluster  concept.  a number of c e n t e r s "have a number  of  one  consequently huge c e n t r e " .  interdependent  community  specialized  role  be  linkages, of  to  providing  the  To  adopted  strategy  e f f o r t by  In terms  social  future.  an  "functionally  Government's  focussing  end  a  functional  The  by  that  linkages.  was  approach  i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  with  decentralization  the  of  development.  s t u d y was  having the a t t r i b u t e s  create  terms  encompass  University,  the d e r i v e d  problems  functional  joint  York  concluded that  of  development  A  the  must  approach  strategic  Studies,1974). Studies  In  functional  holistic  strategic  the u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y  Environmental  common  establishing  concerns  Another  Manitoba  more t h a n  that  region.  document a c c e p t e d the assumption  economic  recognition  planning  1978  requires  conclusion  d e f i n i t i o n of  would  be  The  goal  system  of  in a  particular  the  promotion  to support  inter-community  may  of  mobility  and  the  "strategic"  by  services. displays  "actionable"  networks. Instead,  The  signs  being  policies  strategy  i t  of  to  d i d not  identified  a  improve  offer  an  problem  existing  alternative and  suggested  81  incremental If  and a c t i o n a b l e s t r a t e g i e s t o a d d r e s s  r e s o l u t i o n of t h e problem  reversible. building  The  policies  resiliency  settlement  structure  but c o u l d adapt and  3.3.3  Bottom-Up M a s t e r By d e f i n i t i o n ,  willfully most  neighbourhood area  in  system  so  3.3.4  planning  and  is in  designating the  an  being  A  be a  situation  they  want  plausible  a  their  exercise  and more c o n t a i n a b l e attempt  at  and  master  b o t h b o t t o m - u p and s t r a t e g i c i n o r i e n t a t i o n t h i s  social  ecologist/system's  the  This option i s  In t h i s  future.  community  Planning  i s most i n l i n e w i t h  that  a  level.  option  assumption  future  example would  what  i s somewhat s m a l l e r  at a broader  is  plan.  l a n d use m a s t e r p l a n .  Bottom-Up S t r a t e g i c By  proposed  parameters.  planning  t h e r e f o r e n o t a s " w i c k e d " a s c o m p a r e d t o an planning  the  on one p o s s i b l e  a range of f u t u r e  bottom-up master  like  problem  that  Planning  community  the  are  b a s e d on t h e p r e m i s e of  not dependent  utilize  urban  based  community t o l o o k since  also  d r a w i n g up and a d o p t i n g a m a s t e r  apparent  local  the  was  problem.  i s not f o r t h c o m i n g , the a c t i o n s were  into  the  i s that  the p l a n n i n g view  of  s o c i a l problems  style  s u g g e s t e d by  planning. are  The  "wicked  the  underlying  problems"  and  t h e b e s t a p p r o a c h t o s o l v i n g them i s w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i m p a c t e d p a r t i e s and t h r o u g h a p r o b l e m  emphasizes  the suggested t e n e t s  perspective.  An  example  of  of this  a  of  s o l v i n g process which  social option  ecologist/systems is  the  "Tug  Hill  82  Program" Tug  (Deballa  etal,l978).  Hill,  rural  experiencing early Tug  a  externally  1970's. Hill  In  local  to  product,  the of  describe broadly  Working  •  Balancing  •  Respecting  The  end  they  local  with  an  goal  inter-municipal  practiced  and  towards  joint  regional  promoting success action  in and  nature  the  and  plans  fringe  economic  successful Local  the  councils  area Tug  other  selling also  the  comprised  of  was  given  In  their  focus the  Deballa making  (bottom-up  the  learned  of  the  reaction  to  from  a  traditional etal  (1981)  ...bolstered  by  planning).  The  and  rural  areas.  Town P l a n n i n g granted  and  them  main  joint  Boards"  based  power.  function  Several  was  resolution  on  to  of  work  common  problems). Hill  program the  areas.  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the in  what  their  development  several  established  area.  interests;  agreements which  established  While  the  region;'  "Cooperative  were  (e.g.,  in  and  overcome  decision  local  special  boards  problems  local  identifiable  was  To  was  on:  outside the  changed  process.  on  the  State,  pressures  was  groups  for  assistance"  premised  •  plan  York  government  interest  the  New  development  state  Commission  "reliance  based  upper  Commission  regional  to  planning  p r o g r a m was  The  the  plan,  as  the  local  develop a  opposition  dislike  response,  of  in  generated  Commission.  representatives mandate  area  need the  was  criticized  program The  was  program  p o l i c y making for  planning  benefits  of  for  not  considered  a  fostered  process to  the  local  and  was  residents.  collective action  in  83  dealing  with  The the  senior  Tug  Hill  commission  making.  The  structure  agencies.  program being  bottom  since  approach  state  The  decision  incremental towards "all  approach  identifiable  or nothing" One  planning"  style  move  a  to  as a  on  were bound  3.3.5  and  by  are  pros  where  other.  the  For  which  resilience"  arguable  a  top  down  t h e mandate of  the  commission.  strategic.  based  on  It  the  objectives  goal as  used of  an  working  opposed  to  an  approach. the  Hill  opposed Tug  "bottom-up Commission  to  Hill  a  defined  sense  of  area  strategic reflects  strictly  region  functional linkages.  to their  by  decision  established  that  The  local  of  and  t h e Tug as  common  circumstances  on  by  mandate  Tug  a  functional  was  delineated  Hill  was  perceived  i n which  the  residents  a  mutually  belonging  and  lifestyle.  Learned  There  Based  argue  culturally  a  threat  Lessons  required  was  of the r e g i o n .  socially  and  planning  adopted  the  the program  achievable  also  more t h a n  perceived  and  territorial  perspective based  and  with  defined  t o some e x t e n t  master  could  was  initiated  b o u n d a r i e s of the program was  up"  enough t o encourage  the  making  "bottom  wide  up  the  was  one  a  cons  to each  approach  purpose is  and  and  of  is  more  this  compatible "territorial  approach  with  literature  discussed  that  these requirements are  applicable  there  are  than  the  thesis a planning the  regional  the  and  and  goal  of  planning" case  fulfilled  style  "regional approach.  studies by  a  is  i t  is  "strategic"  84  process  implemented  strategic concept style  4  The  the  of  process  resilience  i s compatible  Required Based  settlement three  on  4.1  planning  the  can  be  we  up"  being  with  the  the  suggested  "territoriality".  Regional R e s i l i e n c e  d i s c u s s i o n a model The  model  regional  for  i s comprised  planning",  process".  d e f i n e d as  resource  The  of  "bottom-up  objectives  and  follows.  Planning  can  summarize  territorial  planning  as  having  attributes;  Internally  generated This  socially,  development  as  opposed  includes a holistic  politically,  Community based (this  of  presented.  are  By  systems p r i n c i p l e s  concept  "strategic  Regional  two  following  a  participation.  "bottom  to Achieve  criteria  imposed.  •  being  by  aforegoing  and  composite  From c h a p t e r  •  and  objectives; "territorial  Territorial  the  similar  with  the  " b o t t o m up"  shares  Objectives  representation" their  through  goals  i s enlarged  culturally  as  opposed  upon below  as  to  view  of  well  as  development  the  --  economically;  to externally  under  externally  imposed  o b j e c t i v e of  goals bottom  up r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ) ; •  A composite  definition  historical, opposed these  to  ties  cultural, just  the  social,  economic  Respect  f o r the  •  A  run  development.  as  ties  and  natural ecological opposed  to  region  p h y s i c a l and  t o c r e a t e a d i v e r s e and  •  long  of  a  an  which economic  effort  to  interlinked base of  short  term  includes  the  ties  build  as on  region; region;  view  of  and  regional  85  4.2  Bottom-Up Representation From the d i s c u s s i o n on "bottom-up"  we  can conclude  compliance  representation  that a resource settlement planning process, i n  with the c r i t e r i o n of "bottom up",  would:  • Involve to the maximum p r a c t i c a l extent r e g i o n a l government  and  public  bodies  and  local  ( i . e . h o s p i t a l and  school  boards) i n the a n a l y s i s of the settlement i s s u e s ; • Encourage  the  full  development  government i n the implementation  4.3  A Strategic As  an  and/or  use  and of  local  of settlement o p t i o n s .  Process  objective  for  a  t e r r i t o r i a l approach to resource  settlement p l a n n i n g we would expect a s t r a t e g i c based  (3.3.2)  process  to  be  on the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a ;  • Proactive: respond  Implements  to change.  thinking  or  "functional"  policy  This  to e f f e c t change r a t h e r than  requires  "substantial"  as  a  focus  on  holistic  to  strictly  opposed  rationality.  • Process o r i e n t e d : Does not pretend to d e l i v e r  a  final  end  product; • Incremental:  It  takes  small  cumulative  steps  which are  reversible; • F l e x i b l e : I t can adapt  as the problem i s b e t t e r  defined  or  • Experimental: I t encourages continued l e a r n i n g to ensure  the  as the parameters s h i f t ;  and  process evolves with the problem.  86  In  comparison  oriented,  3.5  a  non-strategic process  s y n o p t i c and  assumes c o m p l e t e  i s often  reactive,  ends  knowledge.  Conclusion In e x a m i n i n g is  to  be  how  achieved,  ecologist/systems  of  defined  at  the  resource  on  settlement  "regional  evaluate  Ridge.  of  chapter The  two  recent  resource  the  drawn  i s most c o m p a t i b l e  approach social that with  Bottom-up i s d e f i n e d  level";  strategic  d i s c u s s i o n of  planning  planning  presented.  the  is three  r e g i o n a l approach;  process.  explores  conclusion is  process  effective  planning  planning  a the as is  oriented planning.  resiliency",  territorial strategic  this  regional  regional planning.  "lowest  as p r o c e s s  Based  phase  planning  territorial  planning  this  literature.  bottom-up s t r a t e g i c goal  a territorial  In cases  chapter of  the  settlement  processes With  o b j e c t i v e s of  a model f o r a  o b j e c t i v e s are  province's planning  of  t h e model a r e : a  bottom-up p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; 4 these  goal  "local —Elkford  and  a  used  to  government" and  Tumbler  87  IV.  C A S E S T U D I E S : COMPARISON  OF THE T E R R I T O R I A L  REGIONAL  P L A N N I N G P O L I C Y WITH THE P R E S E N T L O C A L GOVERNMENT P O L I C Y  4.1  Introduction The  purpose  studies,  Elkford  and  conjunction  with  Columbia's  "local  planning. and To  Tumbler  chapter Tumbler  Ridge  t o demonstrate  "local  decision  regional  planning"  following  format  • history •  and  evaluation established  the  model. be  were  case  planned i n of  an  British  existing  in Britih of  of  the  case  The the  v i s a v i s the proposed  town  Columbia.  the  be u s e d .  strengths  In examining  two  f o r resource settlement  the c r i t e r i a  and  the  Province  r e c e n t town  proposed purpose existing  "territorial studies  the  process.  The  used:  background;  settlement planning history;  • evaluation  which  p l a n n i n g model w i l l  policy  will  analyze  was t o e x p a n d  studies  weaknesses  government"  of  policy  i s t h e most  regional  to  Ridge,  government"  e v a l u a t e t h e two case  is  i s  t h e development  The E l k f o r d  territorial  4.2  of t h i s  of will  the  and  settlement  be a c c o m p l i s h e d by  i n chapter  planning applying  the  criteria  three.  Elkford  4.2.1  History The  Crowsnest  Pass/Elk  River  area  (figure  10)  has  88  EAST  KOOTENAY  EXISTING COAL  REGION:  A N D PROPOSED  DEVELOPMENTS LEGEND •  Existing mine  A  Proposed mine  FORSYTH CREEK o// '-^ ^ (Propose*) / / ._ // A b o r t i n g North M  r  Proposed highway , , Coal bearing areas  ELKFORD I  BRITISH C O L U M B I A ALBERTA SPARWOOD.  •LMRMOIIEt  Wheeler  CRANBROOK  •Coleman Colleries  ERNIE  A CorMn  SPAKWOODLETHBRIOGE 1*3 kn  » B r « n Creek  A  Source: M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . March 1979- Resource Community P l a n n i n g : E v a l u a t i o n o f the Unper E l k V a l l e y Business S e c t o r . P r o v i n c e o f B.C. V i c t o r i a . p 3 ( P r e f a c e ) . Figure  10 - T h e E l k V a l l e y  Area  89  experienced  three major  1800's  the  The  to  impetus  American 1885 the  f o r the  CPR  coal.  was  to  of  laying  and  coal  boom  steel  the  Fernie  coal  1940s;  construction  Similarly  up  the  initial  railroad  the  pushed  1930s;  periods  in  from  i n the  to  area the  was  present. North  1800's. to  from  the  late  the  pass  Railway  to exploit  the  late  Crowsnest  Northern  1904  prosperity:  1967  f r e n z y of  i n the  Great  based  In  access  Montana  surrounding  was coal  fields. The  first  Nest  Pass  1967  and  1978.  major  Coal the  The  1897  with  mines  in  coal  company. present  and  in  with  numerous h o t e l s ,  brewery, and  This  prosperity the  North  (Fernie  thirties.  war  an  stemmed  from  American  War  initial The as  effort.  first  and  and  warehouses,  a  colleries  surface mines second  by  1903  into  the  later  which  with got  Maund,l984; the a  were d e v e l o p e d boom was  to  brought  away.  At  town  i n the  area  economy w i t h  and  a  industry,  the  provided  region's coal  regional  for  market  Clegg,l958).  depression reprieve  six  Kootenays.  processing  Fernie  in  faded  the major  food  i t had  prosperity  for a developing  Society,1967;  Elk River area  operations  a diversified  consulate.  boom e n d e d  of  flooding  r a i l w a y s and  This  era  F e r n i e was  the  began  l e a s e d l a n d and  churches,  American  Company  prospered  century  Historical  The  World  the  lumber m i l l s ,  even  Coal of  Numerous towns were b o r n , of  Crow's  K a i s e r Resources  entrepreneurs  turn  the  owner, BRIC, purchased Pass  purchased  was  in  acres  the  area  R a i s e r Resources  operation.  settlers  I t was  i n the  by  Crow's Nest 10,000  company  of  with supply  short-lived.  the the the  nineteen Second Canadian  Technological  90  change and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y supplies  of  Kootenay's Writting  o i l curtailed  s t a g n a t e d from in  o f what The  appeared market  for  the m i d - f i f t i e s  1958 C l e g g q u o t e s  to  to  be  unlimited  coal.  the East  the  the Vancouver  mid-sixties.  Sun o f F e b r u a r y  14  1958; T h i s h a r d - l u c k community near the B r i t i s h ColumbiaAlberta border may b e d e a d a s a c o a l t o w n . . . , things are tough here. B e t t e r t h a n h a l f t h e c i t y ' s 800 wage e a r n e r s h a v e b e e n u n e m p l o y e d s i n c e J a n u a r y 31 when t h e colleries ,that have supplied Fernie's economic l i v e l i h o o d f o r s i x t y y e a r s , s h u t down f o r l a c k o f c o a l markets...  Clegg and  indicated  subsidies As  owe t h e i r  existance  and  Sparwood  benefited  Municipal  Affairs,  residents  villages of  to  the local  Kaiser  seventies.  a  a  coal  million townsite  dollars opened  Elkford  to the coal  mining  In the mid s i x t i e s two  The s e c o n d  Based  expansion  boom o f  the small  assembly  t o t h e town c o u n c i l  hamlet  program,  of of  began mining  was t h e p u r c h a s e Company  overseas markets, operations.  Kaiser  mid  Ministry  Coal  constructed  c e n t r e i n Sparwood.  the  dilapitated  Pass  of the coal  workforce Kaiser  The  development  on a n t i c i p a t e d  funds  boom, S p a r w o o d a n d  developments. land  seeking  (Clegg,1958).  coal  o p e r a t o r , Crow's Nest  major  shopping  economy  of a d j a c e n t abandoned and/or  Sparwood.  the a n t i c i p a t e d  actively  of the f i r s t  t h r o u g h an urban  Resources.  undertook  and  from  was  the c i t y ' s  was a c h i l d  sixties  moving  council  to diversify  Fernie  Elkford  the Fernie  housing  donated  (Bancroft,1975).  Kaiser  t o house  employee also  by  a  half  The  new  i n 1970.  owes i t s g e n e s i s t o F o r d i n g C o a l .  In anticipation  91  of  a  Elk of  growing  overseas  Valley  coal holdings.  the  Elk River  parent  prepare an  in  a  new  Elkford, Fording  reaching  over  on  to  lagging  In  an  background  of  In  the  c o m m e n t s w e r e made  by  the  decade  of  boom  for  the  Unecon  month  to  townsite  for  The  decision by  year,  the  amount for  under  the  f o r one  Town"  phase the  i n s t a n t town  and  utilities  dollar. of  It is  provincial  major  player.  i n d u s t r y E l k f o r d grew 1975.  But  and  physical  as  rapidly  with  other  infrastructure  relations  supply  (Bancroft,1975,p.45).  the  expected  region.  According  government  area.  were  Vancouver  Kooteney  article.  a  September,15,1979).  labour  East  to  building  allowance  a l l services  1979  provincial  by  one  per  c o a l boom was  September  the  Sun,  social  the  on  with  by  short  Fording's  costs;  i n d u s t r y was  coal  demand,  by  travel  government  2,125  report  economist  and  when  Elkford's  seventies  in  "Instant  expanding  owned  overall  dollars  incorporated  policy  in extremely  indefinitely.  pay  local  confluence  than  commuting  its  the  designed  less  (Vancouver  the  behind  the  to  developed  at  (Langin,1981)."  million  was  the  of  towns"  was  2.5  was  imaginative  Municipal Act  a population  "instant  housing  the  settlement  Based  on  in Fernie  example  resource  based  Coal  built  land  "given  350  had  on  Elkford  of  Elkford  turned  Creek  were  saved  have  1971  E l k f o r d was  modern and  t o w n was  amendments of  were  who  workforce  based  In  good  1969  would  demand, F o r d i n g  Cominco.  Fording  workforce  were  Bovin  a distinctly  ultimate  build  a  and  company,  Consultants  market  the  Sparwood  bad  to  continue  Sun  did  a  The  following  to  a  senior  1980's w o u l d and  and  Elkford  be  a  were  92  predicting increase been  a  one  billion  in population  constructed  been  received.  main c o m p l a i n t Fernie  was  stores  evaluated  under policy  Settlement  in  Ltd's  of  catalyst  stage  the two  coal  of  the  100  report of  Elco's  argument  •  The  1978.  proposed  development  from  argument the  new  townsite than  had  small The  Elkford from  which Alberta  income.  proposed  a  proposal  major  was  the  new  coal  first  government"  government.  to  Elco's  Based  E l k f o r d near for a  numerous  competition  to  be  resource  E l k f o r d was  on  government  E l k f o r d was  submitted  years. an  had  the  residents.  of  production  was  north  new  in  an  History  report  years  of  the  expansion  in August  reserves  the  "local  Provincial  park  service industries.  for active provincial  guidelines of  evolving  the  of  The  with  applications for lots  i n the  and  area  industrial  accomodation  Elk Valley.  Planning  planning  from  the  recipient  The  l a c k of  22  i n the  a l s o recorded  bright picture Elco  i n the  4.2.2  Sun  new  resident's disposable  development  eventual  A  and  stories  benefiting  this  settlement  Vancouver  the  expansion  16,000.  Elkford  success was  f o r the  With  in  The  entrepreneurial  of  dollar  i t s these  in favour  two  had  Elkford;  more  under  report  property  Company  the  of  a  new at  coal  predicted  with  36  potential  p r e d i c t i o n s a major  proposed minesite  t o w n made t h e  Elco Mining  cabinet  stage  involvement  townsite Forsyth  theme 50  km  Creek.  following points;  suitable  terrain  for  urban  93  •  A potential of  new  the upper  in  the  Only  a  Elk valley  best  development •  slight  The  new  town  workers  a  and  position  (the road capital  as a t o w n s i t e •  road to Calgary  and  to  would  a  economy  would  the  be  ensuing  service  between  a new  ensure a  on  forest  difference  the  townsite  capitalize  i s presently cost  diversify  the proposed  constructing  site  would  road;  using  Elkford  town;  short  requirement f o r a t t r a c t i n g  commute  f o r the  a competent  mine  workforce;  and • A new in  The  as  reasons. would  would  the upper  Ministry  Elkford  •  town  Elk Valley  of M u n i c i p a l  the base Elkford  give  the  A greater  encourage  (Elco's  Affairs  for Elco's  was  development,  range  of  argued  tourism,  II Report,1978).  i n favour  workforce  considered  residents  Stage  especially  of  primarily  the better  site  utilizing  for  since  social  expansion  Elkford;  of employment  opportunities  especially  for  women; •  A wider  range  •  Greater  stability  •  Increased employers  •  Improved  o f human a n d and  economic (Elco  array  services;  of commercial  stability  and  community  commercial  steming  F o r d i n g ) i n one stability  from h a v i n g town;  (Paget and R a b n e t t , J u n e , 1 9 8 3 ) .  It  appear  community  with  this  last  point  more ammenites w o u l d  assumed reduce  two  major  of  labour  and  through lower l e v e l s  turnover  would  services;  that  labour  the  turnover  larger which  94  would  in turn  of  traditional  the  labour  l e a d to community  agreed  recommendation town.  This  guideline of  process.  many  to  In  by  and  community  the  going  coal  plan and  or  a  control  as  coal  i s s u e was  just  problems  under  process.  planning  gap  By  process  than  was  the  who's  could  filled  by  planning  and  "financial  and  p a r c e l s of  What t h e  foster  resilience  in Elkford.  To  achieve  through  qualities local  inplementation  this  the  the  in  support  goal and  key  the  apparently  the  government goal  without  land  town  l e a d e r s h i p and  represented  to  local/provincial  the  from  scope  This  key  good p o l i t i c a l  c o n t r o l of  new  unknown q u a n i t y . . . ,  of  s t r a t e g y was  • Village  and  in  Affairs a  issue  settlement  town  w e r e an  ministry's  A  to  Elkford.  these  •  leads  building  impact  Affairs  on  and  to  townsite  process.  was  r e g i o n a l communities  planning  a  Walisser,1983)".  i t was  the  more r e s o u r c e s  Building  the  reverse  Municipal  c o a l g u i d e l i n e s review  Municipal for  of  settlement  point  review  capabilities  for  the  i n motion  Elkford  (Paget  district.  in  i s the  stability  opposed  environmental  set  phases  1978  townsite  the of  administrative  other  Ministry  this  required considerably  Ministry  had  the  E l k f o r d as  through  inplementation  a  Up  social  provided  the  community  d e c i s i o n removed  d e c i s i o n Cabinet  which be  with  to expand  consideration its  that  This  stability.  Cabinet  one  argument  stability.  from  regional of  the  community  steps  taken  p h a s e s were the f o l l o w i n g ;  land; project  committee  to  supervise  the  95  expansion  programme  allocating •  provincial  A  the  A  develop  the  f o r the  was  securing  and  the  h i r e d by  the  village  to  village; was  developed  by  the  project  enabling  the  village  village;  a g r e e m e n t was  residential  signed  subdivisions primarily  financed  by  province;  Critical were  •  of  community p l a n  local/provincial to  •  role  funds);  expansion  comprehensive co-ordinator  •  major  A professional project co-ordinator coordinate  •  (a  human s e r v i c e s , p o l i c e a n d  education  in  particular,  secured;  Plans  for  the  development  redevelopment  of  an  of  industrial  the  town c e n t e r  park  were  and  prepared  the and  executed; •  An  industrial  valley •  A  property  region  was  a  base  instituted;  professional social out  tax  planner  human s e r v i c e p l a n  sharing  scheme f o r the  Elk  and was  with  contracted  the  town  to  help  residents  work  (Paget  and  Walisser,1983). Based  on  government" "instant  strategy  town"  physical company or towns  above  approach;  provincial  progress  describe  was to  the  one  could  argue  i s a c o n s o l i d a t i o n of  infrastructure  implementation 1979  the  the but  emphasis using  the  i s on  local  that  the  best  parts  government  rapid  E l k f o r d moved s m o o t h l y  E l k f o r d as  phase.  booming w i t h  a  As  with  Newspaper  the and  rather  initiative.  development  of  building social  government and  "local  than  a l l  new  from  the  reports  r a p i d l y expanding  from retail  96  and  commercial  In  1983  Elkford  development Exposition  4.2.3  sector  of R u r a l  question  Regional  i s "has  the  under  community's  social  "Community  development"  an  the  (Rabnett At  a  economy  "a  a  plan  was  of t h i s  criterion been  use  local  Update"  p r o c e s s was  policy"  the  policy  plan  concludes that  diversification  Only  concept  with  suggestions  focus  while  is  services Elkford to  that  — i m p r o v i n g the  infrastructure. is  to  i s the  In  similar  on the  used  For example  to  town  based  with  of  the  "internal  for  economic  opportunities  highly  desirable"  Assoc.,1984,p.47).  regional  tourism  level,  and  commissioned  i t  planning  Plan  through internal  been  since  and  1983).  are usually  development  agreement  physical  The  community  International  Walisser,  In terms  "instant  recognized  limited  1984  development".  and  diversification. are  to the  support for product d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n ?  under  1984  "outstanding  settlements  imposed  based to  market.  Planning  f o c u s of the o r i g i n a l  used  an  housing  Criteria  development.  mine a p p r o a v a l t i e d and  of  private  ( P a g e t and  Resource  internally  companies  as  for presentation Development  imposed  t o ask  encourage  the  selected  Development.  externally  a developing  Application  Territorial  Internal  was  project"  Evaluation:  and  has  little  development.  recreational by  has  plan  been  done  to d i v e r s i f y  Only  recently  done  f o r the region.  The  of  but  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  the  not g a i n e d the s u p p o r t of the l o c a l  has  the  region  there  governments,  97  its  potential  impact  on  interview,  1984).  in  i s minimal.  the area  the  amenities its  Elk  20,1984).  second  home  between  Elkford  diversity  which,  i s  "holistic"  The r e g i o n  potential (Globe  view  of  addressed  the physical  Composite View physically  development  i s  for  naturally i t s natural  i s  upgrading  (Globe  and M a i l  tourist  on t o h a v e  t h e , 1988  and  the road Olympics. product  20,1984).  Regarding  of the nine  programs f o r  The r e m a i n d e r  With  within a well  component  communities. rivalry  for  Fernie  attracting  three  concerns.  f o rthe crystalization  competition  occurring  f o r n a t u r a l g a s a n d some c o a l  and economically,  The  i s  push  completed  of the Region.  interview).  also  a  potential  community  district  were  a  concerned  infrastructure.  linked  historically  by t h e r e g i o n a l  part, reflects  and Mail,October  social  (Rabnett  centers.  i s  and  and Calgary  also  in  questionable  t h e d e s t i n a t i o n market  development  diversification  with  valley  to attract  October  Elkford  and s o c i a l  i s  planning  and l i n k a g e s t o urban  s k i area  There  region  Similarly,  Some e c o n o m i c within  the  rivalry the  competition  i s perhaps  the  provincial  resource  of winners  hopefully  generate  there of there  apparently  communities  would appear  t o be a  a  view  regional i s a great  deal  settlement  great  by of  the  inter-  Affairs,,1980;Rabnett  stems  from  community  the various coal projects.  r e i n f o r c e d by t h e c o m m u n i t y  and l o s e r s . more  three  region --geographically,  of Municipal  b e n e f i t s from  This  perception  defined  Instead,  (Ministry  the  policy  A strong  inter-community  which  focus of  creates  a  r e g i o n a l focus  could  cooperation.  As an  98  aside  i t is interesting  there  is  regional they  greater  view  lack  to note  imputus  in tackling  the  financial  that  among  their  with  the  that  being  communites  economic  resources  times  to  problems. t h e y had  tough adopt  a  Ironically,  when t i m e s  were  good. One  step  sharing" to  scheme  ensure  program  taken to build  a  implemented more  based  community.  Tax  more e q u i t a b l e regional the in  the  on  tax  distribution  Sparwood of  sharing  "tax and  has  been  tax revenue.  In arguing  for their  the communities  have  and  to  the  in creating  a  fostering  a  in  appropriate  had  The  r e s i d i n g i n each  successful  arrangement  base  Elkford  t a x e s from the c o a l mines  sharing  Appreciation. matters  community  policy.  For  acknowledges  level  t o examine  A Long  View.  Run  anticipation  of  portion their  t h a n one  provincial  t o u c h e d on  of  role  land  to  regional  provincial  Update  reserve,  (1984) wildlife  f o r e s t s and f l o o d p l a i n s .  W h i l e a l l i n s t a n t towns a  concern,  at the  deterrence  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  long  life,  d e c i s i o n t o expand  more  in  a  the E l k f o r d Community P l a n  within  provincial  lightly  primarily  example, land  Largely  are only  preserves,  that  Fernie,  i s the  region.  ecological  initial  linkages  t h e number o f m i n e w o r k e r s  base  revenue  Ecological  and  municipal  awareness.  tax  between  equitable  distributes  communities  regional  employer  reality  E l k f o r d was would  are  i s often made  increase  built  with  the  different.  The  on  the  long  term  assumption stability.  99  The  Community  with  policies The  are  concrete  would  research goals  policies the  to  station. while  and The and  the  planning  technical  community  government  "provide  "community  development  program planning Program)  drew  as  a  coal  Elkford's  of the and  to  upon  grants,  and  other  potential  program".  provincial sewage  to prepare Elkford  The  resources  and  the  by was  (Paget,1980).  the  Parks  various  f o r expansion.  Project  of  comprised  of  Housing oversaw  components Highway's  and  of  Ministry  and  Co-ordinator  water grants  resources  t o development  also  (i.e.  The  government  "Elkford  support  of Lands  Project  down.  the f i n a n c i a l  Chaired  committee  The  District  establish  direction  top  the p r o v i n c i a l  provided  from the M i n i s t r y  of E l k f o r d .  initially  the Regional  also  the  the V i l l a g e  was  made b y  (Paget,1980)".  Affairs  representatives  was  and  capability  to  Municipal  such  to  based.  process  Elkford  by E l k f o r d  provincial  Committee"  reflect  which  Representation  to expand  supported  coal  are  or p o l i c i e s  w o u l d have- h a d m o r e c l o u t  regionally  Elkford  decision  resources  the goals  been  The  development  they  probably  economic There  a r e b a s e d on  if  4 . 2 . 3 . 2 B o t t o m Up  for  than p o l i c y .  on  directly  base.  Secondly, the p o l i c i e s  the p o l i c i e s  had  based  more  Update  economic  renewable  activity  issue  economic  Plan  generate  area's  communities they  the community's  of t h e Community  economic  and  addresses this  more s t a t e m e n t s of g o a l s  utilize  diversify  Update  to diversify  proposals  diversity no  Plan  and the  of  the  grants,  Industrial  Parks  100  Elkford  appears  representation.  In  to  preparing  responsible  consultant  council  at  and,  aspirations. role, of  as  least  In  providing  developing  the  notes  the  and  the  better  as  "bottom  Community  Update  the  directed  reflects  community's  the  describes  "leading  expertise  Plan  up"  " U p d a t e " was  consultant  co'ordinator,  direction  1984  that  in theory,  contrast,  project  be  on  his  by  initial  c o u n c i l " i n the  sense  how  rapid  to  plan  for  expansion. Support  for  representation auspices  this comes  of  the  interview).  interpretation from  recently  "Community  They  found  community  involvement  sense  of  "where  A  1982  survey  project  in  citizens  in terms  i t i s going" Praxis  Alberta of  found  evolving  held  Elkford decision  has  a  a committment  Ltd  for  " q u a l i t y of  the  life"  high  m a k i n g and  was  up" the  Project"(Rabnett  with  Elkford  "bottom  workshops under  Development  that  in local  d o n e by  of  has  to  indicators  a  the  Canstar highly  degree  of  strong future.  o i l  rated  sands by  its  (Roberts  and  Fisher,1984). At has to  the  yet the  to  regional  level  materialize.  tourism  strategy  a  strong  However,  study  locally the  suggests  based  joint there  regional  community  force  approach  i s movement  in  that  di rect ion. S t r a t e g i c Proactive. The  decision  review  The was  process,  Process initial  decision  made u n d e r  the  is reactive.  to  expand  "Coal In  E l k f o r d was  Guidelines"  comparison,  the  reactive.  which, planning  as  a  done  101  by  Elkford  sense.  in preparing  The  various  implemented that  the  appropriate  was  little  the  coal  project  implement  a  impacts  the  of  proactive initial  Elkford's reinforce  reactive  markets  start  busts  i n the  system, economic  short  derived  Community  decision  an  The  expanded  ensured  i t  is  decision  be  and  arguable  was  made  government to  on  two  Elkford will  to  had  prepared  this  circle,  ways t o  perhaps a work  on  coal  always  l e v e l s as  to  for  the  a  a  be  will  responding  proactive  dampen t h e  long  mines  international coal  provincial  the  initial  term  approach  booms and  "heritage  the fund"  s o l u t i o n based  E l k f o r d community  the  from a p r o c e s s  oriented  Update  community  future  extent  Elkford,  process  ends o r i e n t e d ,  makers  Flexible. the  While  Plan  ennunciates  perfect  one  on  diversification.  some e x t e n t  product  Once t h e  employment  begin  in  decision.  exploring  term,  would  Process Oriented. to  by  However,  dependence  break  proactive  provincial  reactive  To  off  and  the  planning;  fluctuate.  would  actions.  planning  changing  was  a n t i c i p a t e d p o t e n t i a l problems  choice.  continued  dramatically  expansion  policies  there  allow  to  for  in  i s not initial  that  only  Elkford.  provide  update  acknowledges  derived  by  the  to  options  The  parameters  accomodation  approach.  uncertain guide  goal  The  future  the  a  and  community A  path  to  a  plan. Elkford  were c o n s i d e r e d ;  for  was  example of  uncertainty.  expand  two  or  an  future  process  a certain rigidity  planning  p r i n c i p l e s to  handling offered  i s a good  plan  governing X  the  number o f  oriented  was a  rigid new  town  expansion workers,  process.  to or of also  1  With but  Elkford presently  with  recognized an  uncertain  f u t u r e , the  the  necessity  for  f u t u r e and  cooperation  Incremental. several  to  The  levels.  reduce  criteria  At  the  Elkford,  represents  an  incremental  step  than  building a  cost  to expand  given  respond can to  be  size to,  has has  expect  the  instead almost  of  advantages. more  expansion  The  counter  comparable  to  hardly  project  case truly  approval,  approach  to  other  Sparwood First,  attractive  should By  park  i n an the be  sharing would  costs be  a  built.  process  in  must  approach comparison  project  scale  was to  project  "incrementalism"  and  industrial  explored.  and  Furthermore,  For  park  sharing This  we  along an  Secondly,  and a  an  example, with  industrial  strategy  "better"  would  recommend  future.  of  the  town  E l k f o r d ' s case  the  option  i s that  p r o j e c t would have  reason,  In  the  smaller  new  the  large  at  town,  is a  Although  If a  new  incremental  reflect  planning  community  an  the  f o r what e v e r  to  applied that  argument  below  incremental  investing heavily  has  private  a  settlement  discussed  Update  be  building a  level.  project planning. plan  and  incremental.  conditions dictated.  community  every with  be  i n post  incremental  park  To  can  decision since  that  Ridge  plan  acknowledges  provincial  building  inconceivable  i n as  role  opposed  was  the  growth,  i t i s arguable  i t seems  been g i v e n a  level,  the  at  plan  incrementalism  p r o j e c t which  Tumbler  phased  greater  the  incremental. be  of  of  town.  decision  implemented  the  new  The  to  E l k f o r d was  the  the  as  of  uncertainty.  project  of  state  "community Update"  flexibility.  suggests  expansion  therefore  i n a more s t a b l e  an  uncertain  sector  02  has  two  hopefully better  park  103  should  result  in  a  attract  even  more  larger  Initially  planning  Elkford.  However,  the programs  knowledge. the the  nine  objectives  Many  relied  had  industry,  the study  in  on  the  tourism  on  were  never  mainly  Analytical studies  coal  which  theory  should  industy.  Experimental. for  cliental  on  been  used  i n the before.  d e s c r i p t i v e and p r o c e s s e d  such things  impact of the road were  implemented  lacking  as  the  future  to Calgary  and  (interview  of even  with  R.  Rabnett). Summary: Elkford  was  government"  with  would  yet  to a  first  for  attempt at  resource  the extent  and  from  this  and  analysis  i t s ramifications  implementing the  towns.  strong.local  "sense of community  appear  resilience  the  policy  successful along  Elkford  The  policy  government  for  However,  the question  community  was  has d e v e l o p e d  direction".  that  "local  of  i t  regional  stability  have  t o be a d d r e s s e d . In  planning, little  economic  In process taking  to  the  development  was  externally  done  economy.  actions  comparison  at  the  tenets  regional  W h i l e the community diversification  or  plan  i t  of  imposed local  level  largely  the lead.  There  top  down  would  regional  there  has  been  to d i v e r s i f y the the  acknowledges  need  the  for  limited  level.  terms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the E l k f o r d was  and  acknowledges  also  a v a i l a b l e a t the community  territorial  with  settlement  planning  the p r o v i n c i a l  government  s e e m t o be  a move  towards  bottom  104  up  representation  largely  a  The plan  local  process  of  was  initial  process  the  more r e f l e c t i v e  the  maded  region's  a  goal  there  has  settlements  three  being  the  strategic  least  master  end.  The  Since  the  planning  has  in regard  appear in  on  one  a  similar  t o be  the  Elk  recreational options  valley  is  highly  resources,  besides  the  to  Calgary  kilometers close  base commuting  are is  of  a  enough  the  well  been  to i t s  the  the  interlinked  region. tourism  to  a  the  for  the  development  of  and  wide  climate,  range the  of Elk  The  valley's potential  and  some l o g g i n g .  If  the  Elk  be  large metropolitan  the  valley  center.  weekend  potential  that, while  and  of  resiliency.  reasonable  daily  existing  Unfortunately,  function, dormitories  constructed,  fact  diversify  expansion  Offering a  The  the  the  Valley. a  Elkford  still  that  f o r the  gas,  for  was  to  with  are  the  potential  and  (Barker,1978).  a l s o a s s i s t e d by  movement  another.  liveable  coal,  focus  contribute to  outdoor  a  The'  i t i s arguable  settlements  a l l preform  divesification  no  resilience"  strengthened  dependent  There would  is  Update  oriented.  at  "regional  been  mines, w h i c h does not  considered  process  Although,  The  200  ends  progress.  Elkford.  degree  of  little  s t r u c t u r e was  within  the  E l k f o r d ' s community  strategic  economy.  road  Plan  closer to  than  r e a c t i v e and  settlement  coal  Community  plan.  c o m m u n i t y and  certain  rather  process,  of  Concerning process  1984  f o r E l k f o r d was  scale  initially  planning  community  the  product.  planning  end  with  for  will This  is  recreationally diversification  three  communities  1 05  of  the Elk v a l l e y  region,  they  some e x t e n t  have  apparently d e p e n d e n t on  limited  experience  recognize regional  working  t h a t community resilience.  together  stability  as a i s to  1 06  4.3 T u m b l e r 4.3.1  Ridge  History The  single  Northeast  project  Pacific  cumulative  cost  the  fields 1700's.  northwest With  The c o a l  and  lack  their  development.  been  to  transport The  fields  reserves of  a  the coal  to tide  necessary  the b u i l d i n g of a  bridges;  construction  line; and  construction  finally,  people  by  federal  government  at Prince  from  Prince  was  Rupert  George  provincial  nine  Dease Lake e x t e n s i o n  kilometre  responsible  restricted has and  the  rail  line  which  and  eleven  transmission  t o Tumbler  o f a town  Ridge;  t o house  6,000  For i t s part  f o r the Ridley of  project  the  Island  main  CNR  the Coal line  Rupert.  W.A.C. the  to  electrical  and Associates,1981).  of t h e n o r t h  of  from-  project  tunnel  from Chetwynd  and f o r upgrading  government.  has  coal  o f t h e B.C.R  127 k i l o m e t r e  to Prince  development  (figure 11). distance  network  contribution  the constuction  1986 ( R a b n e t t  the  water.  of a highway  overseeing  Port  The  of a  in  infrastructure to extract  and upgrading  required  northeast  Hope  only  a  a t the end of  i n the southeast years,  of the with  The  Hudson  of the northeast  government's  expansion  dollars.  by t h e f u r t r a d e r s  border  largest  the construction  transportation  the  "the  January,19,1983)"  billion  o f 100 p l u s  provide  includes;  since  called  s t r e t c h from  The f o c u s  provincial  been  (Echo,  noticed  the Alberta  estimated  markets  Railway  first  has  Columbia  t o 1983 o f 2.8  were  to  project  in British  Canadian  coal  coal  BCR  has a l w a y s been a dream Bennett and  initiated  the  Peace  of the  the infamous River  Hydro  107  LEGEND ........... — — — — —  existing aCRail & C N . Rail Tumbler Ridge Branch Line (under construction) existing pawed highway paved highway (under construction) gravel road B.C. Hydro 230 KV line (under construction) 8.C Hydro 25 KV line (under construction) Peace River Coal Field 5  3*""Tsm.*.  Source: Harkness, Gary. Gary Paget. November 1982. Community B u i l d i n g To Support Resource Development: The New Community o f Tumbler Ridge B r i t i s h Columbia. M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . V i c t o r . F i g u r e 2.  Figure  11 - T h e N o r t h E a s t  Area  108  projects for  and  the  germinating  sixties  and  interest  i n the  early  provincial  Development,  northeast,  a  with  assistance  to  of  society  planning  assistance,  was  Chaired  through  the  investigate  by  committee noticeably Municipal  -the  was  absent Affairs.  reports  northeast to  "Cabinet 1976.  to  of  were  of  the the  chair  coal. a  five The  economic  The  goal  stabilize  the  regional  the  Development" given  development  resource  subcommittees  to  committee  to  of  the  of  the  and  the  coal  write  seven  Municipal  undertake  coal  ministers,  Environment act  the  issues.  various  Ministry  federal  Northeast  c o m m i t t e e was  initial  the  economy  with  Coal  of  of  problems  Development,  The  of  managed  eliminate  Ministers  the  compromise*  Economic  (Taylor,1978). strike  for  The  government,  and  by  Report  restriction  in developing  policy  East  comprehensive  coal  The  Economic  growth  C o m m i t t e e on  The  coal  comprised  was  asked  role  to  a  provincial  then M i n i s t r y  committee on  in  to  and  heightened  of  North  emphasis.  through  lead  the  approach.  was  late  interest  Ministry  for  most  to  increased  the  the  companies.  government  faire"  profile  the  establised  to  the  The  undertook  project  from  responsible In  led  possible  initatives  region  approach.  by  DREE,  uneven development the  the  of  "laisser  initiative"  and  was  a  range  project.  resource  to  scenarios  received  with  major  from  in part,  o i l prices  Undertakened  profiles  associated  rising  by  was,  northeast  responded  "government  "government  mandate  of  seventies  four  growth  development",  which  the  study.  the  profile,  coal  idea  northeast  outlines  future  government  government  commissioning  1975  the  Barrett  Affairs  preliminary  109  townsite depth  report.  i n these early  critics. would  A newspaper  lose  Northeast  coal  community  of  impact  while  June  marked  Chetwynd receiving  and  the  1980  by more i n  markets  i t  northern  was  prepared to  economic  expressed fears positive  be d e v e l o p e d a t  Sun,Febuary,18,1977). subsidize  development. of negative  compensation  1982  full  gear  in  Tumbler was  and  that  (Vancouver  and  The social  (Vancouver  on n o r t h e a s t  coal  Victoria  fighting  officially  announced  with  be b u i l t  the project  two c o a l  mines self  ahead  was t o  with  Sun,May  160,000  financing.  i n temporary  marred t h e town  entrepreneurs  24,1983).  By  232  i t s t a x base, the  by  of Tumbler  in  May  the 1983  disputes. Ridge  taking  housing the service the  was  accomodation  labour  of inadequate and i n s u f f i c i e n t  attracting  cover  on a l l c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e p r o j e c t  1982 was a l s o  speed  of  be o v e r s e e n by a n  within  4,000 w o r k e r s h o u s e d  Ridge.  at a cost  would  The m u n i c i p a l i t y  t o make t h e t o w n  In s p i t e was  Ottawa  Ridge would  construction  full  and  o f 1981 t h e g o v e r n m e n t  of Tumbler  being  in  shape.  that  little  commissioner.  objective  1983  (Vancouver  also  thereby placing  By  a year and would  the project  responsibility.  dollars  hectares  was n o t w i t h o u t i t s  were y e a r s o f i n d e c i s i o n  spring  t h e town  appointed  town  t o encourage  financial  million  dollars  responded  by weak c o a l  In that  followed  4,1977).  1979  over  were  s u g g e s t e d i n 1977 t h a t  of southeast coal  government  Sun,  studies  stages the project  article  100 m i l l i o n  expense  The  initial  studies. Even  the  These  town  raw  industry had  a  1 10  permanent related 1983  population  of  150  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e were n e a r i n g  the  first  plummeting  coal  coal  was  prices  in  1984  B o t h Chetwynd and  in  growth  increased  centers  for  March June  After  1984  coal  East  "government  Preliminary  • •  r o l e s as  firms  official and  of  and  in  was  November Inspite  high  in  expressed  Ridge  of the  confidence  alternative  Tumbler  and  service  (Vancouver  three  of  house  the  the  and  1977  of  a  new  Economic  Feasibility  labour  gas  years  Tumbler of  Ridge.  construction  town  dates  the  1975  Development,1975).  The  suggested  force  for  that  the  to  a  new  Sukunka  town project  plant.  the  Coal  report  of  History  interventionist" profile to  opening  production.  R e p o r t " M i n i s t r y of  subcommittee's  •  the  consideration  Febuary  subcommittee  •  in  p o t e n t i a l sawmill In  Dawson C r e e k  and  projects  t i d e water.  optimism  their  planning  was  established  and  of  Planning  Initial  be  residents  witnessed  Settlement  "North  on  to  coal  25,1984).  s i x years  Northeast  4.3.2  the  based  The  completion  shipped  Northeast.  Sun  families.  Townsite/Community  Committee Report.  of The  Cabinet  Development  published  purpose  of  was;  " t o d e t e r m i n e t h e t y p e , number and l e v e l of community s e r v i c e s / f a c i l i t i e s t h a t w o u l d be r e q u i r e d i f c o a l and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , were d e v e l o p e d ; to estimate the "order of m a g n i t u d e " c o s t of t h e s e required services/facilities; t o d e t e r m i n e i f a new community would be needed to provide these s e r v i c e s / f a c i l i t i e s ; to identify and evaluate p o t e n t i a l s i t e s that could accomodate a community of s u f f i c i e n t s i z e t o s e r v e the  its the  111  • •  The  proposed coal mine operations and other potential resource developments i n the region; t o a s s e s s t h e p h y s i c a l i m p a c t s t h a t t h i s c o m m u n i t y may h a v e on l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t ; a n d to assess the impacts that the proposed coal development may have on e x i s t i n g c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e region.  study  focused  Wolverine might The  properties.  be n e c e s s a r y  assumptions •  on t h e a r e a s  no  new  of t h e Sukunka and  The r e p o r t  to service  the  of the a n a l y s i s  single  .employer  also  the  suggested  more  Babcock-  a second  southerly  town  properties.  included: towns  i f an e x i s t i n g town c a n b e  used; •  p o t e n t i a l l y developable identified;  • minimun  The  report  to  the  expectancy  termination  concluded  size  of  a new  the  could  from  Of  Bullmoose •  Creek  shorter  • closer • More •  have  been  commute  required  primarily  (approximately mines.  The  Chetwynd  Tumbler  f o r the following  25 y e a r s t o  debt.  were q u i c k l y  options,  or  2500)  f o r the  Sukunka the  due  new  workers town.  rejected.  Ridge  was  prefered  over  reasons;  cost;  t o the regional  strategically  closer  coal  either  to a townsite  the townsite  mines of a t l e a s t  c o m m u n i t y was  workforce  Bullmoose  Alternatives  of  of municipal  Babcock-Wolverine commute  corridors  and  life  ensure  transportation  center  located  to the region's  o f Dawson  as a regional  major  Creek; transportation  recreation/scenic  features;  hub;  112  •  greater  separation  between  t h e town and t h e r a i l w a y ;  • closer to potential airport •  estimated  lower  central  capital  and  water/supply/treatment  facilities; •  annual  site; operating  cost  and  sewage  more  attractive  for  disposal  and  biophysical  features  created  a  living  e n v i ronment. In and  examining  Dawson  regional  Creek.  impacts  The r e p o r t  significantly  impacted  by  developments  in  area.  the  Chetwynd had s u f f i c i e n t expected  growth  planning  was  concluded  services. options  dismissed of  growth In  from  associated  as being  with  distances.  for  Chetwynd  mine  and  the  report  could for  the  use  gas  felt  that  absorb  the  the  report  the anticipated  i t s public  settlement  be  and s e r v i c e  Creek  cope w i t h  would  natural  to  land  Dawson  t o w n s ; a n d a new  and  option  private only  townsite.  three camp;  The camp  was  i m p r a c t i c a l due t o t h e a n t i c i p a t e d l o n g e v i t y  i t s size camps.  although The  As  demand  grounds of i m p r a c t i c a l i t y involved,  that  Chetwynd  s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e r e p o r t : a  existing  the project,  adequate  Creek  in  examined  service capacity  as  considering  were g i v e n  commuting  long  Sukunka However,  excess  Dawson  concluded  the  undertaken.  that  incremental  so  the report  as  well  as  The commute and c o s t s  there  1977 R e p o r t  are  the  option  stemming  examples  of  saw t h e t o w n s i t e  T h e r e f o r e , i t was d e c i d e d d u r i n g the sub-committee's study that  "social" was from  problems  r e j e c t e d on t h e the  distances  similar  commuting  as the best  option.  the early stages of i f a suitably located  1 13  t r a c t of l a n d c o u l d be identified on which a new community could be established, i t would be more d e s i r a b l e than developing a large, long term, "bunkhouse" town. Furthermore, potential oppertunities for the development of other resources (e.g., gas, f o r e s t p r o d u c t s ) h a d b e e n i d e n t i f i e d a n d w o u l d be benificial in broadening the economic b a s e o f a new community (Townsite/Community Development Subcommittee ,1977,p.18). It the  appears that  settlement  primarily over  options.  lifespan  justified  on  The  development  of  the grounds  o p t i m i s m was in  the  an  levels.  The  relationship  1978  "Conceptual Its  study of  10,000  reference new  came  of  a town  The  become a  between  and  regional  building was  for  natural  settlment  study  studies  a  people within f o r the study  eight  plan  were t o p r o d u c e  community  i n the terms of  ought  reference  was  of the f i n a l  comprehensive  sector  was  done  and  The  undertaken Patners  the  mandate  The  lack  remarked  — t h e  (1978).  agreement  "a d o c u m e n t  was  gas  town  start-up.  t o be".  centre.  emmployment  for a targeted  y e a r s of  also  examined.  Federal/Provincial  on N o r t h e a s t c o a l .  was  regional  analysis  by T h o m p s o n , B e r w i c k , P r a t t and from  based  required  regional  a new  not  was  town  potential  forestry  i n examining  employees  fields.  i n depht  done  to build  a perceived  to produce a conceptual  recommendations Being  i t would  was  e x a m i n a t i o n of the changing r e g i o n a l  Plan"  permanent  component  that  the next major  o v e r 80 was  coal  of the a r e a ' s r e s o u r c e s  funding  funded  the  Y e t no  of  development  decision  tourist,  outside  analysis  o f t h e number  b a s e d on  (Taylor,July,1983).  In  limited  on a p r o j e c t i o n  the  This  only  which  of  the  population  The  terms  of  of  what  a  of a on  regional in  the  report.  in covering  a l laspects  of b u i l d i n g  a  114  community, ends w i t h plan.  the two  In  potential  townsite  between social  relationships The June,  1978  by  with  Ministry  District  and  a  doing The  so  Tumbler  and  residents  i n t o the To  were  community p r o d u c e an  work  social-spatial  was  for  accepted  ensued  markets.  In  while the  Northeast  contracted  f o r an  social,  was  coal  physical,  in the  fall  update  incorporated  appointed 1983).  to  local  full  the  "trustee  not  to  of the  of  the  financial  for  forgotten  project  on  also  supposed  to  as The  on  both  April  "mayor  commissioner  self-government  ensures  the  the  community,  director  to  from  time  the  future  that  the  i n the and  assist in  and  was and  to in  residents". interests  quest on  9,  to  of  minimize  budget.  The  i n t e g r a t i n g the  new  region.  implement  normal  density  everything  option  up  Rabnett,  supposed  was  high  and  escalations.  coal  Ridge  was  was  commissioner town  of  commissioner  keep  follow  a  theme  plans.  as  and  and  covers  density  expected  act  costs  plan  cost  low  to  future  density  i t s constituent  transition  was  and  Affairs  a community  constraints  improved  commissioner  the  site  decision  and  low  Limited  for  The  oversee  to  costs  Municipal  (Paget  a  plan's  cabinet.  plan  council"  a  capital  organizational  1981  a  to  s t a r t s with  conceptual  problems  "go"  of  conceptual and  the  waited a  plan  plans:  conceptual  government 1980  conceptual  of  conceptual  the  Social  District  of  Development  services, develop a information  plan's  health  programme t o  goal  Tumbler to and  of  working  Ridge a l s o  coordinate social  f o s t e r the  towards appointed  delivery  services community  of  center, image  115  and  develop  (Paget  4.3.3  and  community  spirit  associations  Regional Planning  Development.  Tumbler  Ridge  addressed  is  under  the  imposed  For  example,  of  local  can  t h e c o m p a n y be  Tumbler  As  to  service  the  imposed" i s "what  industry  with  to  d'etre  development.  internal  The  for issue  and  locate  to  development?"  t h e company  for building  persuaded  rasion  steps are being taken  facilitate  the agreement  specify  the  maintenance  office  use  work  personnel  or in  Ridge?  From t h e ' l i t e r a t u r e peripherally economic  reviewed  addressed  stablity  financial risk  Elkford,  criterion  project  does  with  "externally  this  use  and  i t appears  only  of Tumbler  this  in relation  Ridge.  The  from  the  the  resource firms  servicing  of debt  ensure  that  i f the coal  levels  were  not  services While  "internally  met,  with an  no  the  growth".  issue  to  an  of The  left  with  the  of  the  financial were  unsold goal  lots  was  to  employment unsold  lots  f o r them. t h e g u a r a n t e e s do  A l t h o u g h , they might  surrounding the  increasing  projected  be  only  Guarantees  interview).  not  was  concern  f o r the purchase  town would  issue  to reduce  issue.  soured and  means t o pay  make i t m o r e a t t r a c i v e  this  (Paget  market  important  based  uncertainty  touches  to  central  component of the c o n c e p t u a l p l a n ,  to the m u n i c i p a l i t y ,  obtained  the  and  Evaluation  Internal  and  clubs  Rabnett,1983). T e r r i t o r i a l  and  through  future  of  entrepreneur.  not  reduce  generate some  t h e town w h i c h This  of  would  concept  is  116  espoused  by  the conceptual plan:  By becoming visibly involved in the development p r o c e s s , the p r o v i n c e i s seen to stand behind the town. The p e r c e p t i o n o f r i s k i s r e d u c e d and b u s i n e s s people need not fear the town's demise ( T h o m p s o n , B e r w i c k , P r a t t and P a r t n e r s , 1 9 7 8 ) .  Curiously, "diversifying even  though  potential Update  the the  Conceptual  economic  the townsite for  does  logging  note  the  commercial  Under  policy,  is  reduce  entry  Regarding plan  the  given  create  and  land  strategy  justified  natural  services"  a  gas.  of  a  to a physical  sense  focus  of  retention  level  plan,  area's  Conceptual  of  non  Plan  "viable  and  do  residential  not  develop  of development,  The also  deficiency  land which  example,  no  adjacent communities  individual was  plan a  approach  nor  in  joint  considered.  was  weight plan  t o t r y and based  h o l i s t i c view is  a  and  further  was  economic,  not addressed except  equal  town h a l l  reflected  or even  the conceptual  financial  development  social  in this  Holistic,  with  plan,  of a t r a d i t i o n a l  which  was  social  Holistic  history.  the plans.  regional For  of  The  the  risk  ( R a b n e t t and A s s o c i a t e s , 1 9 8 1 ) .  view  plan.  needs"  development.  on  The  mention  to reduce  encouraging  monopolies  holistic  i n the b u i l d i n g  "individual  with  in part  a  not  for small businesses.  organizatonal  reflected  way.  as  does  i s a p p p a r e n t l y c o g n i z a n t of the concept  being  the  was  government  suggested to ensure  would  base"  importance  competitive this  Plan  the  indusrial  of  comunity  development very  on  at  general strategy  1 17  Composite View of the Region. by  economic  parameters.  share  i n g r o w t h and  when  one  in  c e n t r e was  theory  also  development  by d i v e r s i f y i n g  from a s t a p l e t h e o r y view,  mainly  as  alternative  employment  Lazarovich,1983). contributing  t h e economy.  The  i s t h a t the s i z e  would  The  to  coal  regional  counter  argument,  of  the  coal  mine  i n the l o n g run reduce r e g i o n a l d i v e r s i t y .  The  region  will  the  development  become  d e p e n d e n t on t h e m i n e s w h i c h w i l l  of l o c a l m a r k e t s and The  Conceptual  intraregional  systems  no  included  through  recognized  At  a  commissioner  of  bus  fostering  services and  level  ,a w e l l  known and  (Paget,  interview).  Tumbler R i d g e . regional  in  the  respected his  the  planning  What i s u n f o r t u n a t e  district  has  played  good c o m m u n i c a t i o n It  l i n a k g e s are  is  developing  that  politician, the R e g i o n a l  of  commerce,  implemenation the  limited  i n T u m b l e r R i d g e and  c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h a j a c e n t l o c a l government i n the  the has  Board  the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ,  chamber  is  suggested  local  s e a t on  and  an  operations.  been  Regional agencies, and  resilience.  A r e g i o n a l n e w s p a p e r and  has  through  regional hospital d i s t r i c t involved  it  a  of  isolation  telecommunication.  s e r v i c e have s t a r t e d  bonds  importance  regional  and  that intra-regional  political  regional  the  a means t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r  private sector i n i t i a t i v e .  i n t r a r e g i o n a l plane  built  as  television  to note  hinder  entrepreneurship.  P l a n Update  mention  --radio,  interesting  local  linkages  there i s  Suggestions  also  provide  viewed  identified  hoped t h e t h r e e c e n t r e s  down ( G l a s s and  was  but  r e g i o n was  I t was  development  will  The  the were  p h a s e s of role the  the  limited  planning  and  1 18  building  of  Tumbler  governments of  the  Ridge.  region  The  next  stage  cooperating  i s to get  with  joint  the  local  development  strategies.  Ecological  Appreciation.  well-being, Conceptual were  ecological Plan.  A Long  to  mitigation  run View.  a more  realistic  4 . 3 . 3 . 2 B o t t o m Up While  the  Rabnett,1983b) included The  regional reason  interview). amount proposal to  of  of  initial the  planning  the  studies  damage  and  the  process  and  resulting  Ridge.  The  guanantees  f o r Tumbler and  the  town  demonstrated  future.  planning stage  of  involved  of  use  An  example  snowfall  to locate  the  policy  were and  in  i s the  in  school  chamber  the  of  was  local  school i n the with  the  Another  input.  commerce.  One  to  tap  townsite  example  of  stages  the  downtown c o r e support  and  district,  p e r s o n a l knowledge of  the a r e a .  but  (Paget  implementation  agencies  designing  down  to s o l i c i t  the the  regional  top  and  workshops  district  use  was  planning  regional  for  provincial  in  impact  environmental  the company  latter  hospital  knowledge  whole  between  agencies  for the  environmental  social  Representation  a series  regional  a m e n i t i e s and  given high p r i o r i t y  minimal  long l i f e  view  were  site  measures.  The  reducing risk  of  numerous  ensure  documents assumed a for  concerns  Overall,  conducted  appropriate  In terms  the  local  (Rabnett, the  annual  i s that  was  the  contrary  local  school  119  board  the  planners  merits.  (Paget  were a b l e  workshops  on  role  in developing  the  community  At "local  the  involvement. part, planning  elected  by  improved  of  example,  have  been a  that  project  of and  northeast  Taylor  and  Columbia's actions  reactive revenue  "proactive"  regional  agencies  commissioner  are  to  g o v e r n m e n t and  with  principle  regional  A  full  The  process  the  input  addition.  has,  could  of  the  the  local will  have  the  in  in  council  into  valuable  public  input  evolution  balance,  coal  project  the  settlement  be  been  regional  local  to  history.  levels. steps  the  the  town  Tumbler to  break  policies  to  led  the  option coal  resource  However,  diversify as  is proactive  northeast  government  planning  g u a r a n t e e s and  the  of  add  (1978) c a l l s  comprehensive  limited  that  labour  Process  The  British  to  arguable  policy  b o t t o m up  stage.  of  its  settlement  on-going  1986.  widening  Proactive.  most  Ridge  end  the local  Tumbler  the  For  of  the  development  the  of  Ridge.  of  apparent  ministry  also  resource  concept  the S t r a t e g i c  examined.  the  in  would  the  Tumbler  suggests  the  a  is  the  assuage  formation  in  and  with  workshops. council  used  to  level the  rapid  stage  government  and  Evidence  been  It  were u s e f u l  government"  encourage  convince  interview).  regional their  to  as  economic responds  Ridge  has  "reactive  facilitate  i n the were  the  jointly  largest  planning with  Elkford,  changing  made  some  cycle"  with  business  and  project  base ensures a to  sense  entry.  in the  future  employment tentative the  "risk"  1 20  Process While the  Oriented. an  plan  Tumbler  end p h y s i c a l  plan  Ridge  towards  i t s goal  the  "social"  i s  sensitivity". ensure  This  fits  The  incremental  i s  "process"  but  the  of being  into  three  approach  with  "principles"  principle  of  i t s surrounding  study  to  by  guide  a mature community.  settlement each  oriented.  w h a t was s t r e s s e d  One  "environmental  p r i n c i p l e has l e d t o design  t h e town  Incremental.  Plan  was p r e s e n t e d ,  was n o t t h e e n d s t a t e  example  will  The C o n c e p t u a l  criteria  which  environment.  studies building  demonstrate on  an  the  previous  Ridge  instills  one.  Flexibility.  The  decision  "rigidity"  i n that  production  f i g u r e s a r e wrong  shut the  down  Tumbler  planning  exercise enables  future  not  "on  a n d "on b u d g e t " .  as  possible  also  of  prebuilding  swimming recreation to  pool, fund  c h o o s e what  Tumbler  leaving  the  be e s t a b l i s h e d they  flexibility.  want".  Plan  to "allow  framework  ensure  concerns  Plan's  to  local  of  being  for a  t h e community  on  residents  For example,  recommends  role  emphasis  to future  facilities,  to  attempted  and t o  a s many d e c i s i o n s  Conceptual  difficult  rigid  has  by t h e l a r g e r  recreational  projected  The c o m m i s s i o n e r ' s  The C o n c e p t u a l  demonstrates  major  this  Ridge  t o problems  overshadowed  If  be p o l i t i c a l l y  However, w i t h i n  guickly  are  while  limited.  of f l e x i b i l i t y .  concerns  principles  Tumbler  are  i twill  and b u i l d i n g of  him t o respond  build  options  Ridge.  the c r i t e r i o n  time"  to  instead  example  a  community residents  121  Experimental;  The Tumbler  experimental.  Ridge experience  The c o m m i s s i o n e r a n d many  strategies  s u c h a s t h e p r o m i n e n t town  resource  towns.  Tumbler  experience.  Examples  reduce  and the s t r a t e g i e s  risk  as q u i c k l y the  final The  are  Ridge the  as p o s s i b l e with outcome  processed  plans  b a s e d on s e v e r a l  and  in  community experts.  on  the  for  Elkford  agreement  a "local  combined  with  and  to  government" t o shape  workshops,  the experience  The  studies.  British were  the  For  in was  stemming  sized  Similarly,  pinpointed  planners  example  of s i m i l a r  knowledge  in  conceptual  Columbia.  knowledge of  effective  knowledge.  processed  personal  extent  b a s e d on a s u r v e y  problems This  some  background  coal  Alberta  to  personal  p r o j e c t i o n s were  involving  extent  ideas  t h e a u t h o r i t y and r e s o u r c e s  demographic  potential  new  townsite  to activate  were  combining  towns  were  drew  company  some  of the Conceptual Plan  centre  also  to  of t h e town.  Conceptual Plans  were  was  workshops apparently  from  regional  involved  and  the  commissioner. T u m b l e r  Ridge  Tumbler  Ridge  government  to  settlement  policy.  successful evolving spirit In  to and  Summary was  implement  the  As  the i t s  Elkford,  that to  a t t e m p t by t h e p r o v i n c i a l  "local  with  extent  ,according  second  local  newspaper  government" the  resource  policy  government accounts,  has i s a  been  rapidly community  has d e v e l o p e d q u i c k l y . contrast to Elkford,  there  has  been  greater  attention  122  paid  to  developing  province. of  the  community  The p r i m a r y Conceptual  was  from  fluctuating  coal  markets.  terms  of the goal  of  "regional  objectives  to  achieve  development  i s very  to  are  strategies  and  t o encourage  "holistic"  growth  is  as  they  There  joint  regional  even  share  limited  to facilitate  development  regional  (Rabnett  regional  Dawson  closer  ties  inherently  top  and  on  imposed  cooperate  had  the  the  be  evidence  different  that  i f Tumbler  Ridge  The  Ridge  was  attempt  Ridge that  t o do a  linkages  or  cooperation i s inter-community a perusal of sector  the  in  b e n e f i t s of  region regional  stage  final had been  initially  was p l a n n e d was  then  agenices  as t o whether of Tumbler  outcome would planned  and  was  by t h e p r o v i n c e  of the p l a n n i n g  on t h e s h a p e  the  There  But  business  recognized  i s inconclusive  impact  some  has  Ridge.  While  i n the latter  made  have  the  Ridege  Ridge.  regional  the While  Tumbler  t h e o t h e r hand,  The p r o j e c t  region.  into  litle  i s  ,and  approach.  Inter-community  that  Tumbler  down.  a significant  enhance  there  component  t o t h e community  Tumbler  of Tumbler has been  w i t h Tumbler in  imposed,  On  suggests  i n the project.  "workshops"  could  that  Chetwynd  Participation  Ridge,  plan,  Plan  by t h e  i s observed.  business entry  interview).  and  defined  resilience"  a territorial  services.  newspaper  Creek  building  in  go.  and i t i s suggested  rivalry the  steps towards  risk  following  much e x t e r n a l l y  a few t e n a t i v e  as  reduce  i t , the  made  far  as  of the F i n a n c i a l  Plan  stemming In  concern  resilience  asked  to  participated for  Tumbler  or not they  Ridge.  A  case  n o t be a l l t h a t  w i t h no l o c a l  input  1 23  and  built  by  Corporation. generating the  Tumbler  local  Coal  was  Ridge  as the B r i t i s h  has a p p a r e n t l y  governemnt  overall  t o some  Tumbler  Ridge  Conceptual  and community  Columbia  been  Building  successfully  involvement  attempted,  the Northeast planning  extent has  Plan  parameters)  4.4  such  in  in running  town. While  and  one a g e n c y  "master  building  some  Tumbler  a  implemented  proactive, with  planning",  demonstrated  has  process  process  the  strategic a  for Northeast planning  approach.  The  (given  i t s  relative  oriented  success, t o ensure  for  approach  flexibility  and  in  has  planning  Ridge.  Conclusion Elkford of  the  and Tumbler  provincial  settlements.  policy.  foreign  has  difficult  do  s o on  demonstrate  government"  resource  from  results  of the instant  the  the  not resulted a  for  the results  subject  t o imagine  policy  success  i n that  government  and  the relative  i s limited  developed,  has  is  and  short  towns to  are  booms  i n economic  situation  where  term  s t i l l  and  are not  community dependent  busts.  diversification local  town  government  on  Local and i t will  i t s own.  This achieving  approach  local  markets  government  either  different  While  stability  "local  The s u c c e s s  funadmentally  Ridge  i s demonstrated the  Elkford is  goal or  not  by t h e a n a l y s i s ;  of r e g i o n a l Tumbler  used  t h e key c r i t e r i o n f o r  resilience  Ridge.  A  h a s n o t been  regional  nor i s the planning  process  met i n  territorial truly  bottom  1 24  up.  This  i s unfortunate  geography, valley  economic  a l l suggest  encouraged  developing  The  "natural"  British  three  ties  Elkford  since  and h i s t o r y  regional  Columbia  focus  towns  suggest  presents  through  indicate  on.  the  of the E l k  which  can  be  the  more o b s t a c l e s t o  territorial a  regional  regional settlement  However, t h e heavy s u b s i d i z a t i o n  c o a l and t h e present  employer  of  makers.  w h i c h c a n be b u i l t  Northeast  major  a  case  social  "regional resilience"  planning.  of  the  base,  by t h e p o l i c y  Northeastern  pattern  in  financial  existing  difficulties  situation  of  the  i s some  what  a r t i f i ci a l . The reflects,  above d i f f e r e n c e in  part,  between  town.  planning  i s  only  suitable  explores  how  a  "territorial  resource  towns  location  for this  mine  This  could  proposals.  suggests  be  senario  settlement  and  Tumbler  Ridge  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between a n o n - f r o n t i e r and a  frontier  resource  Elkford  that  regional"  i n non-frontier regions. regional"  implemented i s northwest  study  "territorial  planning  in a  frontier  British  Chapter  5  policy  for  area.  The  Columbia  has r e c e n t l y been c o m p l e t e d  where  a  f o r nine  125  V.  NORTHWEST B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A : THE  A P P L I C A T I O N OF  R E G I O N A L RESOURCE S E T T L E M E N T P L A N N I N G  5.1  TERRITORIAL  POLICY  Introduction In  1983,  settlement published report in as  as  option by  starting  format  a  comprehensive  of  Municipal  settlement options  British  point,  this  Columbia  four  •  History  and  •  Settlement  •  E v a l u a t i o n of  i s as  British  Affairs  demonstrates  policy  study,  Columbia (1983).  for nine mining  ( F i g u r e 12).  chapter  settlement  chapter  regional  report for Northwestern  resource  of  of  the M i n i s t r y  Northwestern a  part  e v a l u a t e s the  regional  5.2  A  Using how  could  be  a  a was The  projects  this  study  territorial  applied.  The  follows:  background; planning history;  and  the  settlement planning  is  t h e most  process.  History The  northwest  Columbia. portion Rupert, The  The of  the  Terrace,  northern  have more t h a n have  major  only  settlements are  region Kitimat,  zone has a  few  rudimentary  thinly  a  along  the  settled  located highway  16  Hazleton, Smithers, scattering  hundred  of  and  in  the  British southern  corridor-and  communities  r e s i d e n t s or  infrastructure  in  area  Prince  Burns none of  is incorporated. limited  economic  Lake. which Most bases.  126 SETTLEMENT OPTIONS  LEGEND -*-* Elating Railway 0 Editing Commucrtltt • Eniting Mint* Pot«itlol Mintt Potato Sltt for Rttowct Town m Mining Comp  &  Ministry Industry and S m a l l B u s i n e s s Development. Northwest Economic Development S t u d i e s ; Summary Report. Govt, o f B.C. Sept. 1983.  Figure 1 2 - The North West Area  1 27  Approximately whom of  still  the  two.  to  The  with the  outside  wage  tourism)  and  basic  economic  through various  southern  zone, of  overseas  with  The policy Economic  northwest  market,  f o r m s of  value  has In  1977  r e p o r t , was  to development the  lack  of  of  area  (i.e.  its  a  ties,  of  hunting, Atlin  has  manage  to  conduit east  An The  variety  activity.  the  as  still  Valley.  residents  self-reliant  a  On  area.  Likewise,  in  In for  to  the the  markets  between. overlooked  North a  are  fishing,  sources  been  by  West R e p o r t  descriptive  published. the  in  19,1984).  in  region.  surrounding  involved  but  the  River  as  such  territorial  a  the  chapter  economies  communities  is  added  not  zone  in  enclave  corridor  from  Development,1977),  conservative limits  activity  resources  makers.  August  16  southern  communities  outside  Stikine  activities  Highway  little  the  residents  survive  shipping  to centers  the  Sun,  the  They a r e  with  productive  the  resource  culturally,  700  of  more a c c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d  strong  (Vancouver  major  be  and  many  sizable portion  expressed  have  supports  subsistence  definition  numerous n a t i v e  Creek  Indian A  only  and  i s Telegraph  valley  "region"  regional ties.  the  native  lifestyle.  existing  economy  and  is  negotiation.  the  functional ties  economically  no  The  h a n d many o f  the  example  with  of  zone would  limited  strong  claims  concept  area.  have  other  land  the  northern  population  subsistance  some e x t e n t  geographical Cassier  the  i s under  terms of  complies  of  practice a  area  In  25%  77  and  I t concluded  northwest  were  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and  an  the  a  Victoria  ( M i n i s t r y of economically that soft  the  main  mineral  u n d e r u t i l i z e d and  1 28  under-skilled  labour  term  development  for  economic  toured  1981  the  the area.  inter-agency  public  was p e s s i m i s t i c o n  but o p t i m i s t i c  "Cabinet  on t h e f u t u r e  study  short  potential  of Industry  and Small  published  Region:  A British  Columbia  more d e s c r i p t i v e t h a n of  initiated  discussion  in  the  and  Regional  with  i s entitled  Economic the  The The  Study  report  a more p o s i t i v e  first  Northwest  1982  i s  and  northwest  Business,1982,p.5)".  analytical,  .  Being  largely  an  presentation of  potential.  an a r t i c l e  o n t h e 1982 r e p o r t  Sun,September 16,1982) realistic  suggests  Brian  that  the  i n i t s a n a l y s i s of t h e market  development  in  report  dwells  market  and  1977  further  development  1982  t h e 1977 r e p o r t  area's In  in  Development"  f o r a c t i o n they  "encourage  economic  was  the  to  to calls  on  report  update  C o m m i t t e e on E c o n o m i c  In response  dialogue  (Ministry  the  on  northwest.  constraints  problems  force problems which  (Vancouver  1977 r e p o r t was  According  infrastructure  labour  Kirian  to  to Kirian while  more  mineral t h e 1982  ignoring  the  were h i g h l i g h t e d i n t h e  report. The  for  The r e p o r t  development. In  an  force.  1982 r e s e a r c h  future  mineral  d i d indicate that  development  projects.  In  of 1983  the  the i m p l i c a t i o n s of these  sector.  The  ministries Ministry  reports  were a j o i n t  of t h e p r o v i n c i a l of  Industry  northern  seven  examining  and  nine  best  zone  reports  opportunity l a y with  were  nine  published  projects f o r the public  effort  government Small  the  by t h e m a i n  coordinated  Business  resource  through  Development.  the The  1 29  analysis  was  based  infrastructure suggestion would  be  was  the  phase  5.3  on  the  i t  marks  the  and  focused  Tumbler  on  which  can  and  "a  provide and  for  task  reflects  was  the The  projects  absorption. of  Municipal  options the  each  (Ministry  The  stages.  for  each  Ministry  of  planning  on  builds  Resource  Settlement  Options  f o r Tumbler  Ridge.  settlement  s e c u r i n g agreement  northwest In  settlement  review the and  of  the  settlement  work and  on  task  various  securing  further  discussion  Municipal  traditional  I t used  option options  to prospective developers,  research, of  process  developing  mine group  decisions  force stated that the  stages:  for choosing  guidance  direct  experience.  o p t i o n s ; and  two  framework  planning  prepared  options.  first  clarification,  investigations The  the  settlement  f o r Choosing  three  settlement  the  options  provided  policy  by  initial  Ridge  Framework  outlines  report  uncertainty  cost  settlement  settlement  Paget,1979) which  selecting  settlement  of  History  selected settlement  force  the  of  (Ministry  predominately  m i n i s t r y ' s northwest  framework  options;  Options  most  private sector.  viability  potential  Done  Planning  and  the  i n c r e a s e d government  the  Community P l a n n i n g ; A  The  the  by  of  northwest.  Elkford  (Rabnett  absorbed  Settlement  examined  f o r the  The  with  Affairs,  Settlement  assumption  a l s o made t h a t  projects.  Municipal  the  being  sub-report;  Afairs,l983) of  cost  enhanced  The  on  reduce  involving  specific  site  Affairs,1983,p.6.0)".  i t s primary  objective is  literature  perspective  social that  a  1 30  mature community  will  create  labour  stability.  I t states:  "The optimum settlement strategy should lead to socially cohesive communities conducive t o a t t r a c t i n g and retraining a skilled workforce (Ministry of Municipal Affairs,1983). It  i s  arguable  suggested  that  settlement  this  i s a l s o an economic  options  t o meet t h i s  objective.  objectiveare:  •  sponsored  e x t r a - r e g i o n a l commute  from an e x i s t i n g  town;  •  sponsored  intra-regional  from an e x i s t i n g  town;  •  unsponsored  commute  The  intra-regional  commute  from  an  existing  intra-regional  commute  f r o m a new  town;  and • In  unsponsored reviewing  several •  each  reasonable  mine  settlement  Specifying criteria  • Using  these  settlement • Analyzing  proposal  the  options  to  attempts  to  rank  f o r each p r o j e c t by;  f o r developing  criteria  study  town.  develop  settlement a  options;  reasonable  range  of  options; a l l  reasonable  settlement  options  for  each  project; • Ranking  the o p t i o n s ; and  • Forwarding The  a framework  report concludes  southern  part  for  commuting.  daily  distance, regional In  for future decisions. that  existing  regional centers  of t h e r e g i o n a r e t o o f a r from  sponsored,  Therefore,  strong  extra-regional  in  the  t h e mine p r o j e c t s  support  i s given  to long  commuting  from  existing  comunities. reviewing  the c a p a c i t y of the northern  communities the  131  report  concludes  location mines.  to The  be  commuting"  shift  (i.e.  two  to  commute  ,at  the  project  site.  the  social  they  lack  utilized  for  report  time  reap  that  suggests as  an  employment  development preclude  the  bifercation  one  Using  enable  benefits  a  i n one  town of  village  to  flexible  residents from  the  and  block  extended  work  be  able  community  the  region  mine w i t h o u t  social  the  proposed  would  of  to to  the  major  locating a  major  (Dixon,1978).  incomes  the  their  r e s u l t form  other  and/or  sponsored,  residents  of  frequently  potential of  distance,  week o f f )  would  which  project  "long  commuting  company's e x p e n s e ,  This  disruptions  infrastructure  daily  option.  w e e k s on the  the  This  problems  erosion  does  not  s u c h as  of  the  traditional  activity. New  towns are  the  Schaft  the  underdeveloped  new  Creek,  town  regional  would  are  town  sites  are  socially  out the  an  state  have  the  as  Klappan  to  two  to  the  be  part  inflict  "new  projects town  on  the  settlement  project  northern of  a  half  larger  these  sites  of  5.2).  the  railways  trade-offs  and  the  biophysical  for Given  region  strategy  projects".  involve  options  (diagram  highways,  support  preferred  possible  Coal  of  since  needed  for  will  suggested In  and  development  supplies  project  suggested  a  concerning and  energy  A l l potential between  impacts  which  environment  what each  of  the  report  lays  sites.  the  concluding  agenda  "for  proposed  incorporated  chapter  further  mines  are  the  settlement  work o v e r in  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  an the  the area  next  option few  where  Regional  years". there  District  Since are  for  no the  32  1  most  northerly  portion  incorporated government following • • •  the  of  first  development. should  the  be  item  the  for  yet  consideration  Specifically,  looked  S t i k i n e , has  the  report  to  is  be  local  suggests  "the  at:  the adequacy of e x i s t i n g r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t b o u n d a r i e s ; a l t e r n a t i v e ways of delivering local services to r u r a l c o m m m u n i t i e s ; and l o c a l government o p t i o n s f o r C a s s i a r ( M i n i s t r y of Municipal Affairs,p.7.1).  The  objective  development policy.  is  which  The  to  encourage  would  second  appear item  relations  solution  on  indian  through  Alaska.  native  economic  listed  for  strengths areas  planning  the  recent  study,  the  item  i s more  in  the  some o f  making  the  this  northwest  settlement  seven Columbia  component Regional  reports Economic  to  a  of  suggested  the  proceed exercise  Study,1982  Northwest provide  item  ascertain system  and  help. settlement case  for  territorial  indications  i n the  a  social  final  appropriate  First,  to  region  the  preliminary an  the  on  would  are  near  future  relevant  (The  Sun,November26,1984). of  the  the  presents  will  movement  settlement  assistance  hypothetical  Province,December2,1984;The  And  improving  i n v e s t i g a t i o n to  policy.  mine p r o j e c t s  the  research  local  of  is  access  commuting.  application  resource  agenda  and  regional  to past p r o v i n c i a l  facilitate  completion  the  contrary  is regional  weaknesses  hypothetical  regional that  and  participation in  issues  third  action  be  to  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  further  to  where p r o v i n c i a l government With  the  The  local  on  federal/provincial  and  region,  Second,  Region:A an  the  British easily  1 33  accessible  source  exercise. other  A  final  resource  harsh  information  point  i s that  frontier  areas  to  the  conduct  this  northwest  i n Canada w i t h  hypothetical  is  similar  to  i t s isolation  and  environment. The  following  conjecture. conjectural objectives  5.4  of  section  It will  c o m m e n t on  suggestions of  the  will  for  steps  future  territorial  be  part taken  action  comment so  f a r and  based  on  regional planning  the  and  part  will  make  goals  and  model.  Evaluation  5.4.1  Territorial  Planning  Internal  Development.  The  external  development.  There  alternative report  ways  partially  of  of  participate  more  settlement  report  and  somewhat radical  the  explored  confines  the  economic  costs.  communities  were  desires  and  this  to  of  the  regional  study,  three  report  the  which  "residents  development. forms  of  to  the to The  economic  of  expand.  settlement  existing  used  community Similarly  report  c o m m u n i t i e s can  considered  criteria  existing to  recommending  for d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n  reviewing  settlement  capacity  given  on  The.settlement  allow  other  is  economies.  In  The  by  to  suggests  study  consideration  isssue  in  allow  Northwest  economies.  government  also  "holistic". change  local  effectively  p o t e n t i a l community Given  as  be  improving  local  i n the  is little  acknowledges  development  development  focus  to  social  resources, the  absorb  as  evaluate  is  well  existing  commmunity  commute  options  1 34  are  based  on s o c i a l  Composite View projects  report the  benefit that  would  selected  evaluating  commuting  center.  settlement  option.  contribute  options  for  to the  in  the  mine  regional  to social,  political  The  settlement  issues  of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n suggests  but  at  be  The r e p o r t from  also  existing  the size  Klappan  Coal  for  considered notes  southern  for  when that  a  centers  i s  the economic  t h e main c r i t e r i a be  the report  "opportunities  should  to diversifying  However,  appears  used  development.  development"  of blocktime  on t h e n i n e  above.  The r e p o r t  a settlement  focus  non-functional  the importance  resource  i t  was  of regional  as noted  somewhat c o n f u s i n g .  evaluating  the  level  a  concerns.  was g i v e n  some o f t h e s e  discussing  further  the  perspective  parameters  community  With  consideration  acknowledges  In is  Little  cultural  as economic  of the Region.  a functional  analysis. and  as w e l l  base of  evaluating  of the workforce. Project  the  In  report  concludes: A commuting scheme was not considered initially because the o r i g i n a l production estimate involved a workforce of 1,250 persons, s u f f i c i e n t t o support a new c o m m u n i t y . . . . C o m p a r e d t o t h e t o w n s i t e o p t i o n s , t h e camp option i s prefered ( f o r t h e low production senario) because of the l e s s e r environmental impacts r e s u l t i n g from fewer p e o p l e . However, as argued in s e c t i o n 4.4.3 a b o v e , t h e camp w o u l d n o t be a d e s i r a b l e o p t i o n from t h e s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e , except f o r t h e low production mine scenario (Ministry of Municipal A f f a i r s ; sec,5.2.3).  In  short,  providing  t h e main c r i t e r i a an  attractive  are  short  term  environment  for  social the  concerns,  workers,  and  •1 35  environmental Two  concerns.  of  potential commute  the  to  contribute  option  government. implemented is  settlement  to  The and  the  used  A  captured  by  centers) halves  the  and  where  they  on  commute local  towns  foster a The  feel  i f  local properly  i s not  feasible,  ties  in  the economic  rent  would  opposed  stronger  that  distance  and  option,  to  identity  argument  their  the be  non-regional  between  is  r e s e n t m e n t among t h e n o r t h e r n may  the  north/south  (as  counter  16  commuting  of  have  the long  highway  strengthen  southern  build  ties:  percentage  would  could  overlooked; going  to  of the r e g i o n .  program  regional  distant  only  greater  suggestions  centers  long  a viable strategy  region.  to  report's  the  that  such  towns  resources  two  and  a  that  are  jobs  are  to outsiders. The  suggestion  contribute stronger  to  territorial  voice  Ecological  to strengthen  i n planning  Appreciation.  ecological  concerns  used as  factor  depth systems  one  analysis and  encourage  ways  of  Run  View.  option  report  ties the  As  by  with  in evaluating the  government giving  Elkford  and  the settlement  significance  development  the terms  a t t e m p t e d t o be  the  also  residents  long  of  Tumbler  separately  of  i n which the environment  Within  would  a  region.  were c o n s i d e r e d  self-sustaining  A long  local  was  and  existing might  results  options.  be  No  in  ecological  exploited  to  undertaken.  reference,  term.  the  Ridge  The  the  emphasis  settlement on  long  1 36  distance future of  block  ghost  towns.  developing  resource  a  based  Suggestions  time  steps  are  diversity  of  are  This  development  reliance  Sun  by  limited  life? is a  result  the  acceptance  on  the  on  The  In  the  if  the  key  the  building  importance  through  in a  multiple  food  the  Should  the  settled  this  source  For  expanse  right and  the  northwest of  the  ore  concept region  of  with  example, 700  renewable  activity  large own  the  supports  economic  its  territorial  lifespan  state  several  maximizing  of  resources.  wild  stage  of  First,  thinly  northwest's in  goal  redefining  of  i t an  resource  planning  i f any  beyond  renewable  19,1984).  diversifying of  of  Diversification the  the  Tumbler  establishment  An  survive  primary  begining  adjunct.  with  of  of  with  the  people  economy  that  a  be  has  a  pristine significant  scientific  research  ial.  Finally, the  to  imposing  recreational,  at  base  achieved.  is a  in i t s relative  destroyed  potent  economic  be  economies  August  wilderness  to  might  and  Stikine. River  risk  a l s o acknowledged  warranted  is  local  settlements  the  towns.  planning  (The  report  diversified  regional  high  The  reduced  for further action.  additional  bodies.  commuting  resource  example would  the  settlement  Ridge  firm be  the  also  this  park be  economy  planning  attempted  a provincial could  local  locally  s e r v i c i n g , of  initiated  not  some e x t e n t  an  encouraged  to contract  be  process  to  and  should  industrial through  where  equipment  an  with  the  park.  negotiations  ever  and  as  possible.  the  use  of  3 7  1  local  contractors. For  the  native  non-cash  they  can  short  term,  would  be At  populations  without  compatible  i n the  losing  half  with  of  (1984) argument, that  block  the  that  and  explore  an  Each  function both  and  local  would  industrial  development economic New  towns  should  thereby  should  regional  connecting and  should  implies  well be  the  region.  would  as  the  The  of  be  concept  that  specialize  in  f o r m an  areas",  benefit base  from  of  i s room  dispersed a  a greater  aggregate  city  for northern share  of  to city  particular  diversification.  base  the  communities'  there the  and  Jacob's  rural  southern  on  larger  capture  likely  northern  economic  regional a  ensure  This  would  suggest  would  and  will  in  with This  resource  the  generated  rent. towns  residents  of  they  them t o a c t  and  strengthen their  community  to  encouraged.  region  another  specialization  enable  be  strategy centered  together  created  lead development  i n the  engaged  commuting.  should  expansion  p r o x i m i t y t o one  concept.  time  northern  relative  be  l i n k a g e s between  "cities  communities  actively  non-wage economy.  region  the  diversification southern  still  wage e c o n o m y , w h i c h  their  a more macro l e v e l ,  suggests  are  economy, o p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d  participate  southern  ,who  be  only  be  considered  territorial  infrastructure their sited  to enhance  from  access the  can  through  their  w i t h i n the  r e g i o n a l economic  developed  recruited  ties  i f they  role.  r e g i o n and  The  used  Spatialy  new  every  future the  flows.  town's  effort  to  location,  region, their  inter-settlement roads.  be  new This  residents should  be  138  made  to  facilitate  residence  f o r example,  Economically, their  the  nearest  should  encouraged. The  term  associated the  for if  nine  the  region.  region's  5.4.2  input federal bands. Tug  this  in a  Hill  the  that  diversity  this  policy.  advantage  of  social  the  costs  commute o p t i o n , a l s o between  the  north  has  and  the  the  alternaitve example. to  development  options  for  be  viewed  development which  was  and  as  should  will  prepared important  regional model  Local  assist  not  a  panacea  only  contribute  proceed to  the  Up  Report"  initial  in British  towns so  destroy i t .  Bottom  established  approach  their  manner  not  government, An  resort.  region.  "Northwest  in  without  ties  projects should  Representation:  take  with  commuting.  last  with  of  schedules.  economic  to  The  a  existing  and  communities mining  Instead,  done  using  as  i s compatible  stronger  mine  work  place  service functions  built  improved  to the  previous  inter-community  be  on  projects.  resiliency,  The  the  be  only  resource build  share  encourage  commute o p t i o n  of  their flexible  should  are  benefits  of  of  concentrate  allows  The  i t can  to  option  with  halves  towns  linkages  potential  south  use  towns s h o u l d  the  commute  short  new  first  intra-regional  visiting  the  neighbours  H o w e v e r , new Policy  their  i s the  planners  the  Columbia  down.  planning  governments bottom  forums and  the  top  up  is  the  Slocan  An  no  from  the  approach  their  northwest.  phase or  advisory in  T h e r e was  the  indian used  in  groups c o u l d  be  analysis  of  example of report  (  this Slocan  1 39  Valley  Community  Further the to  Forest  Action.  The N o r t h w e s t  strenghening participate  Management  of  local  more  effectively  on  local  effective.  The  experience  drawn  well  this for  as  towns  options  and  and  in  government in  the  indian  their  concludes with to  as  elaboration  and Tumbler  Tug H i l l . along  in  This to  be  could  existing  with  explore  role  Ridge  For  for  residents  requires  to  prospective  local  development.  resources,  reserves  enable  a call  regional  Elkford  such models  suggests providing the  Report  institutions  conclusion  on a s  Project,1974).  be  towns  incorporation,  local light  development of  the  mining  proposals. A  final  dispersal  suggestion concerns of  implications a  the  if  As the  regional  be  region  boundaries  is  must  physical,  cultural,  economic  Given  geography  of  which  ,in  the  subregions northwest senior  region  levels  This study.  The  are  Resource  in  an  reflect and  might a  common c o n c e r n s  local  the  the  entail  broad  suggest  development  and  space of  future  region.  deliniating  overview  when  wide  regional  with  of  present  political  form  step  stage  the  this  their  utilized,  in  early  The  of  dealing  the with  government. of  "which  Area"  is  developed  aggregate,  sub-regions  summary  "Kutcho  and  commuting  region  presenting  concept  subregions these  of  the  government.  projects  block  government  government. the  proposed  ,especally  regional  regional  "Northwest  can Creek  and  is  the  be  planned  Resource "Schaft  recognized Report" in  in  identifies  relative  Area",  the  the  Creek/Stikine  northwest three  independence", "Mount  Klappan  Resource Area"  1 40  (Ministry  of Industry  compatible  with  district,  the  affected  involved  with  and S m a l l concept  sub-regions  would  perspective  to  of l o c a l  villages  deliniating  Business,1983.,page  and  government,  indian  and i n i t i a t i n g  a l s o be t h e m o s t l o g i c a l undertake  any  new  57).  To  be  the regional  reserves  would  be  the sub-regions.  The  body  town  from a bottom  planning  i f  up  deemed  necessary.  5.4.3  Strategic  Proactive. proactive  Process The  planning.  consequences northwest the  "Northwest  of  An  private  does  not  response  i s based  attempt  ,as s u g g e s t e d  substantial  rationality  opposed  to  In  short  end  planning  approach.  the  first  step  we  can  expect  development options.  futures.  the  i n the  However, government  There  i s  no  strategies to create as  opposed  to  report  focusses  on t h e  process  plan.  I t lays out options  and  the options.  Report  The r e p o r t  detailed  anticipate  The s u g g e s t e d  of  establishes  an  strongly states that  i n a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e more  endorsement of  on.  product  The N o r t h w e s t  to  functional  i s relied  s t r a t e g i e s to achieve  Incremental.  policy  t o present  The s e t t l e m e n t an  made  initiated  range  by T r i s t ,  futures.  suggests  i s  sector  on a n a r r o w  Oriented.  i s a strong  go f a r e n o u g h .  alternative  as  attempt  and t o s e t out government  report,  Process  Report"  reports  analysis. focused  incremental i t i s only  This  suggests  on m o r e  specific  141  geographic projects  areas as government p o l i c y  The  long  i s  term  report  looks  high,  block  is  process  for a flexible  uncertainty and  to this  "long  Experimental. experimental.  The Building  resource  settlements,  framework  t o analyze  innovative  In  ideas.  proceed  life  the  The commute  This  i s an  approach. settlements  expectancy  Therefore, Klappan  report  government's  settlement  settlement  more  of  even t h e  and  schaft  failures. option  the  a  safe  the  on  i s when  in  lowered.  predicting  settlement  the  i s possible.  resource  as p o t e n t i a l  i f  here  with  such a s Mount  the  investment  reversed  to a fail  inaccurate.  Where  predictable  public  planning  are  a  uncertainty i s  experience  highly  provides  years),  followed  must  as opposed  term",  be v i e w e d  Where  since  of d e t a i l e d  risks  a  15  easily  principle  that  of  i s  i s  have  than  towns.  planning  i s that  the a r t  labled  should  so  failure  projects  projects  British  private  uncertainty.  projects  i s promoted  The  the report  greater  strategy  high,  fashion  that  resource  Creek,  i s  of a safe  suggests  the  of  reduce  on new  i s low t h e l u x u r y  incremental  caveat  e.g.  occurs.  When u n c e r t a i n t y  The  (  favourably  and  to  and the mining  time commuting  unanticipated uncertainty  low  more  orientation  approach  lifespan  minimized  example  and  are formalized.  Flexible. basis  is clarified  options options  somewhat  experience  report and  i s  uses  to  a  with logical  generate  are a novel  some  approach i n  Columbia. terms of information  used,  the  Northwest  studies  are  1 42  primarily  descriptive.  extrapolation Most  of market  of the impacts  exception  effects  native  "subsistence  The  the proposed  time  the  recommends  commute  research  should  development research  Can t h e y  requriements  top the may next  reducing  guanatees  can  down  be  have  strategic  nature  generation be f i l l e d planning  gaps  The one  the  risk"  existing economy  risk  i s acted  upon.  For  proposals  under  this  a  reason forms of  ,as with  stages?  the firms  w e l l .as the  mine  What  regarding  kind future  services?  strategic This,  process  in part, which  and p e r s o n a l  i f the recommendation  implementation  alternative  i n smaller  information.  consequences of  the  associated  by  information.  of the research,  on  mining  gap i n t h e  input  in  uncertainty.  conducted  the  on  of the e x e r c i s e , t o date,  stages  on  on t h e s o c i a l  and government  of l o c a l  impacts.  commodity p r o d u c t i o n  acknowledges  provided  The m a i n  requirements.  outfitting.  be d e v e l o p e d  f o r labour  Action. of  will  The p u r p o s e  be  to the "high on  proposals.  dearth  mines  i s t o reduce also  on an  a n a l y s i s which acknowledges the  research  option.  process,  Future  order  commuting as w e l l as r e s e a r c h  strategic  of  report  manpower  are first  and independent  settlement  report  block of  considered  on t r a p p i n g a n d g u i d e The  f u t u r e s t a t e s based  c o n d i t i o n s and  i s the socio-economic  ripple  based  They d e s c r i b e  i s  the  reflects  the  has  restricted  knowledge.  f o r more l o c a l  input  This  gap  in  the  1 43  5.5  Conclusion The based  1983  on  the  northeastern Ridge  and  analysis  and  stems  on  reliance  from  as  extent  the the  development  territorial  planning  resilience.  I n s t e a d of  serve  the  options as  r e g i o n the can  best  "regionalism"  issue  of  these  planners  and  functional  view  It  is precisely  in  this  might  be  thesis  the  concepts  how  this  dictated  are  advocates.  implementation  which  the  the to  view  Chapter  given  project.  willing  territorial shift  adjunct  by  of  new  such limits  can  adapt regional  mine can  the  best  settlement  questions  to  the  The  shift regional  such  central  limits  economic  to  development  focus  from  a  development.  perspective  s i x e x p l o r e s how  existing  for  creating  how  is  by i t s  framework  Subsequently,  resource  are  f a r they to a  mines.  indicated  proposed  makers examine  " r e s i l i e n c e " are  developing  pursuing  the  the  namely  policy  process on  in  settlement  justification  focus  is  Tumbler  study,  provincial  planning  how  with  i n the  overriding  and  examining  policy  a  This  settlement  As  r e g i o n s as  study  developed  frame the  The  as  concepts  serve and  which  d e f i n i t i o n of  the  being  Columbia.  policy.  coal.  settlement  limitations  parameters  northeast  to which  model"  British  major  resource  regional  Columbia  government  functional  on  British  southeastern  regional a  projects the  "local  Elkford,  provincial based  Northwestern  presented  such  a  provincial policies.  shift  1 44  VI.  CHAPTER  6: SUMMARY AND  PROPOSALS  6.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n This second  6.2  chapter  i s  to  h a s two p u r p o s e s .  suggest  territorial  regional  of  provincial  existing  Synopsis  starting  to  provide  a stable  traditional  sociology, life  views  cycle  traditional the  soical  of  traditional  taken  Regional  of  this  the goal labour  the  thesis  settlement town  of resource through based  literature.  literature  town  planners  "community in  town  stability  as the mature  a  Focussing  on " i n t e r n a l  advocates  policy  has  literature.  pre-building  as  paralleled Current t h e most  confines  i s the internal  community town.  "a  Planning Perspective  resource  supply  towards  policy.  t r a p p i n g s of a mature community. the  An  leads to has been  stability".  planning  and  state  the  in  processes" the  and  encouraging  Provincial  resource  evolution  provincial  and  of  the  policy  advocates  appropriate vehicle  to nurture  stability. limitations  by t h e c r i t i c a l the  be  settlement  literature,  government"  community The  point  literature  settlement  "local  resource  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  observation that  The  can  perspective of the resource  examination the  steps  i s a summary, t h e  planning perspective" within  of the T e r r i t o r i a l  The external  what  The f i r s t  critical  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  resource literature  settlement  literature  literature.  i s ; labour  stability  are expressed  The p r e m i s e in a  of  resource  1 45  settlement unstable  is in  literature, when t h e base.  resource community  resource However  economic is  impossible  and  is The  i t  provides  projects  will  proceed  must  still To  be  thesis  of  implies and  that  a  The  approach  the  concept  Functionally  should of  This  be  achieved economic  the  critical  the  on  based  " f r i c t i o n of  and  "growth c e n t e r "  world's  literature Resource  settlement  a  resource  regional to date,  concepts view  of  option  literature  implies that  planning  settlement planning, relies  regional Stability  acceptance  and  on  and  policy  emerges  has  includes  "central  place"  to e x p l a i n settlement  to e x p l a i n economic  perspective,  is a  from  theory.  generally  development  which  an  suggests  r e g i o n a l development  settlement  this  regions.  regional planning" and  the  stability is  theory. resource theory patterns  development.  i s more p h i l o s o p h i c a l than  territorial  beyond  "territorial  creating resilient  based  policy  critical  settlement  d i s t a n c e " models  territorial  the  t h e s i s argues  "territorial  i s that  planning  from  be  only  for planning.  resiliency  for resource  and  region,  critical  "regional resilience".  changes w h i l e  functionally  settlement  of  regional settlement  conclusion  A  goal  t o change.  The  on  the  given  planning  alternative  focus  relied  settlement  an  goal  of  on  and  the  review  event  direction  inherently  diversified  the  traditional  resisting  unrealistic  a  of  decisions  resource  with  adaption  and  has  limit  little  to  stability will  unlikely  main  is  According  the  suggests  planning"  an  demand  made.  advance  limitations  labour  in question  this  that  labour  settlements.  town  structure.  since  normative.  holistic  A  concept  1 46  comprised  of  homogeneous  functional social  framework  and  view  is  a l l  than  economic  territorial theory  as  and  distinct  development.  being  are  interlinked  territorial focus  of  economic  the  manageable obvious two  choice  rural  for  i s part  unit.  of  trends  a  support  a  planning  generating  r e g i o n a l growth with  to  the  the  a  place  that  a  which  the  community the  of  a l s o the  most  premise  draws  regional  i s an  a  resilient Second,  resilience. of  resilient  obvious  "growth c e n t e r "  internally  on  attribute  settlement.  part  global more  system's  of  a  region, a  is  This  region the  more  literature  narrows  towns are  replaces  much  central  regional level;  concept  small  as  settlements  of  region  network  resilient  which  of  and  First,  the  territorial  suggests  incorporates  a  political  settlements the  bodies  The  resilient  A  a  territorially.  external perspective  support.  Finally,  territorial  and  perspective  instances, resilient  regions.  of  the  part,  cluster  two  i s more a p p l i c a b l e a t  growth  many  the  common  of  for nurturing resiliency.  sources  community  a  perspective  geographical  "resilience"  In  of  in  functionally  internal  focus  terms  of  history,  viewed  i n i t s a n a l y s i s and  for  regional  a  development  In  i s comprised  synthesis  common  boundaries.  rejects,  to narrow  region  a  with  a makeup,  geographical  encompassing  resilient  As  cultural  perspective  highly  linkages,  goal  of  concept  generated  regional  territorial  regional  growth. The  suggested  planning  model  planning  "theory  process is  drawn  to  implement  from  literature.  the It  the  social rejects  ecologist/systems the  traditional  147  "rational process  comprehensive"  implemented  When litmus  we  test  the  f o r the  government"  results  emerge.  the  suggested  become  territorial  most  recent  The c a s e  there  i s  that  the  settlement  planning process.  A  application  settlement  a  results  to in  has  "regional  in  part  bottom  o p t i o n and  concerns. stem  which  The  from t h e  frames the  on e x t e r n a l l y  imposed  involvement  and the  suggested  "community  resiliency"  and  policy stability" holictic  a different  resource  settlement  on, has the p o t e n t i a l  to alter  t h e t o p down  development. option  e x a m i n e how  can  best  Instead serve  t h e mine c a n best  of  examining  t h e mine, serve  up  policy  the from  towards  development  local  switch i n focus  specific  i f acted  regional  would  how  policy  relying  of  interesting  t o encourage  limitations  restricted  Provincial  a s l i g h t move  The p r o v i n c i a l based  some  of regional  development  hypothetical  development  of  has  strategic  the  of the settlement  major  resiliences.  project  which,  This  of  process  an a t t e m p t  of r e g i o n a l  demonstrates and  economic  t o p down a n d f u n c t i o n a l l y  development.  of a  perspective as a  policy  present  an acknowledgement  regional  building  settlement  The  provincial  is  regional  examples  i n the implementation  suggests  i n favour  studies indicate  perspective.  i s at least  evidence  style  bottom-up r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  resource  strategic,  participation there  through  use  "local  planning  policy form  how  the  the policy  maker  the region.  1 48  3 Territorial  3.1  Existing  Regional  Planning  Provincial  Policy  Existing stated  provincial  and E x i s t i n g  resource  Provincial  settlement  Policy  policy  has  been  as:  "In order to provide the l e v e l of public services r e q u i r e d by t o d a y ' s s o c i e t y a n d t o p r o v i d e stability and diversity in community social life, the establishment of single-company and/or s i n g l e resource communities a s s o c i a t e d with coal developments w i l l be avoided where possible. If the significant requirements f o r a trained, stable workforce alone are t o be s a t i s f i e d , c o m m u n i t i e s must i n c l u d e t h e l e v e l o f s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s and s t a b i l i t y which w i l l a t t r a c t and keep people i n coal mining areas. Development of multi-resource communities which may outlive activities associated with coal mining will be encouraged i n the planning of coal developments (MEMPR,1977, quoted in Ministry of Municipal Affairs,1984).  In  short,  n o new  towns u n l e s s  unavoidable,  required  plan  town w i t h  a high  encourage  economic d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n .  There  l e v e l of s o c i a l  i s no  justified. way  as i f t h e town w i l l  clear  According  t o make  i s a political  suggest  criteria  into  account  • existing patterns,  to  survive  stating  when report  the decision  new  a  and  town  is  there  i s no  that  the  final  report  does  maker.  The  easy  criteria  factors:  characteristics  of  the  region  and  • characteristics  a  is  by b u i l d i n g  However, t h e northwest  assist  town  infrastructure  and i t i s arguable  one.  two m a i n  forever  and p h y s i c a l  to the Northwest  such a d e c i s i o n  decision  takes  policy  a n d i f a new  of t h e p r o j e c t  i n question.  and  settlement  1 49  The for  current  resource  Rooted  towns has been  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l  stability. suited  Local  to achieve  studies,  the  relies  local  the  provincial  on  this  goal.  i t s goal  approach.  is  community  promoted as the v e h i c l e ,as n o t e d  government" p o l i c y  in  i s process  i n the planning  current The  provincial  planning  t o p down, r e s p o n d i n g  Regional  and  local  and  of the settlement  Regional  concerns  best  the  case  o r i e n t e d and  implemntation  has been  played  options  short  term  are  still  based  community on  one  imposed  associaed economic  t o the p r o j e c t .  stability. resource  from  of  the  and Tumbler Ridge  a secondary  successful i n generating  and  deviates  to externally  and a l t e r n a t i v e  a s an a d j u n c t  policy  for Elkford  government  planning  policy  is  government  policy  option.  policy.  viewed  implementation  a local  In theory  initially  been  and  literature,  involvement  In p r a c t i c e , stated  called  government  "local  settlement  planning  was  projects. role  i n the  with each p r o j e c t . activity  have  The  government  local  community However, with  only  involvement  the  communities  little  economic  diversification.  6.3.2  Policies  Approach  f o r Resource  Through and  i t s use  statements to to  For Implementation  compile  Settlement  of a T e r r i t o r i a l  Planning  t h e development of the " t e r r i t o r i a l to have  evaluate  Regional  the  case  been g e n e r a t e d .  The  these  statements  into  a  the resource  settlement  planner.  studies purpose  format  regional" numerous  of t h i s  which w i l l  Individually  model policy  section i s be  of  most of  use these  1 50  statements and  do n o t d e v e i a t e  have been  the  policies  "stable  settlement  regions".  • No  •  and  project town This  the  in  goals  long  the suggested  interact  from  term goal  policies  of  have  In fact  the  a n d one s e t c a n n o t be  statement  the  i s : "use  and  system".  This  implies:  when  one  resource  only  environment  i s too harsh  build  i s  upon  to  be  f o r prolonged  settlement.  I f the l i f e  expectancy,  m a k e s a new  should  reduce  • Use b l o c k provides  town  and  location  the only  feasible  into  existing  c o n s t r u c t i o n of good  t h e new  services  size  be c o n n e c t e d  implies  between  to  policy  towns, e s p e c i a l l y  exploited human  towards  As a p a c k a g e  influencing the other.  regional settlement  new  a shift  policies  Policy  general  existing  existing  and economic p o l i c i e s .  and economic p o l i c i e s  Settlment The  implying  For c l a r i t y ,  settlement  implemented without  radical  communities"  divided into  from  previously i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  are quite  resource  "resilient been  cited  substantially  between  town  and e x i s t i n g  towns  of  a  resource  o p t i o n , then  settlement  patterns.  transportation linkages  towns and t h e s h a r i n g  to facilitate  the  movement  of people  of and  costs.  time  commuting  greater  as an a l t e r n a t i v e  flexibility  t o new  a s a management  towns.  strategy.  It  151  •  Use  existing  time the  •  regional  commuting. local  Encourage within  •  region.  •  faster  history,  •  region  Provide  their  areas for block  employment  and  an  open  t o choose  a hire  residents  the  building  local  experience  and a i d  where  have a  regional  interests up  and  with  to  communities  say and  a stake i n  boundaries  the economic  the  status  they can and for  be  can  have  the  power  more e f f e c t i v e  boom  a  more and  based  base.  constiutent  and  meaningfull  planning  housing  t h e y want  suggests  more  settlement  roads,  policy.  problems.  problems  good  company  together to address mutual  so t h a t  workforce  town.  meaningfull  common  districts mutual  and  when t h e  develop bottom  comming  workers  government,  more  should  local  are  system,  allows  running of  Design  help  Examples  transit  the  local  mature the  a  which  within  Foster  will  staging  t h e movement o f p e o p l e , g o o d s  implementing  live  This  as  economy.  the  policy  settlements  Regions  communities  for in  regional  addressing  active bust  on  of  role  in  resource  projects. E c o n o m i c The  Policy  general  policy  statement  i s : "use  the proposed  project  1.52  to  foster  ahead".  regionally This  •  Proceed  •  Tie  in incremental  locally,  industries local  diversification  by  planning  steps.  t o an  purchase  and  agreement  with  locally,  i f necessary  industry to  machinery  Use  economic  implies:  project approval  hire  •  based  service  assist  the  the  use  local  i n the  mine  proponent  to;  service  establishment  (e.g.  of  construction,  maintance).  local  financial  instituions  for pension  funds,  pay  role  etc.  •  Encourage  the  resource  firm  to  relocate office  staff  in  the  region.  •  If  building  other  •  Along an  new  potential  with  the  economc  early  regional  in  l o c a t e i t where the  initial  of  community  building  conjunction will  plan  infrstructure  town can  service  resoruce p r o j e c t s .  level,  economic  town  development  stages  sought  An  a  be  would  p l a n , an  officer a  new  with  should town.  address  the  such  i s required to attract  be  plan  utilized  The  adjacent  to d i v e r s i f y  economic  goal,  communities region's questions  economic  and  in  the  to  be  at  a  economy. as  what  development,  1 53  what  i s  the  government  • Persue  together having  sector  •  the  at the regional  and senior  Implement  Pursue  development  and  project  provincial  policy that  applicable  not  at  level.  This  framework; the  growth  will  to building  i n every  guidelines  to  perspective  i n the  above case,  those  and i s  from  existing  the  for  best  firm  private  thereby  to  level  being  top  easily  for  down so  resource  know how  serve  i t s  to these  from  that  f i t into  as a  firm.  as opposed  necessary  ensure  overservicing  by t h e r e s o u r c e  region w i l l  policies  offered  the  sharing  planning  regional  they  sharing costs  and c o o p e r a t i o n .  regional  i twill  the  project  the  the  specific  thereby  base  liable  settlement  i s a c t e d upon  contribute  While  tax  guanantees  are  planning  proposal  what  of government.  economic  protection  level  of market m i s c a l c u l a t i o n s  • Ongoing  being  levels  regional  communities  result  and  development.  when a p p r o a c h i n g  intercommunity  risk  advantage  c o - o p e r a t i o n i n economic  a common p o s i t i o n  encouraging  •  comparative  grants are available?  intercommunity  Plan and  regions's  an  the  when  a  existing  t o respond interest  so and  resilience.  are  not  comprehensive  do p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e by b o t h  the internal  resource  settlement  and  set  and of  external  literature.  1 54  While  adherence  resilient path of  region  which  resource  to  suggested  i n t h e short term  a t worst projects more  the  will  of  resilient  effects  o f boom a n d b u s t  they  will  do o f f e r  not create a  an  alternative  m i t i g a t e some o f t h e n e g a t i v e  and a t best  future  policies  and  will  lead  democratic  are minimized.  to  an  regions  impacts  alternative where t h e  155  LITERATURE  CITED  Abler, Ronald. 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