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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The larval stages of Hemigrapsus Oregonensis (Dana) and Lophopanopeus Bellus (Stimpson) Hart, Josephine Frances Lavinia 1931

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i i aii riii  •  ;  ?  \  \ J 1  i  > ^ . w- i \ f"S « S.  CAf WO, iCC.  IM»9-HZLL ...JSklf/  THE LARVAL STAGES OF HEMIGRAPSUS OREGONENSIS (DANA) AND LOPHOPANOPEUS BELLUS (STIMPSON). by JOSEPHINE  FRANCES  LAVINIA  HART.  A THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in th-j DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA* APRIL, 1931.  _  1.  INTRODUCTION. Little of the early life history of Pacific Coast Decapods has been studied. development  The only article on nost~enbryonic  is that on the commercial Pandalids of British  Columbia by Bp, A.A. Berkeley (1930).,  Elsewhere, hot/ever,  considerable work has been done on the larval stages of various Brachyura.  Of recent studies, those of Br. Marie Lebour ir  England, 0. v . Hyman In North Amor-"ca and Hiroakl Aikawr in Japan, are the nost useful for work on this coast. TTntil 1829, when E.V. Thomson hatched out the larvae of Cancer pagurv-s, zoeao and megalopae wore considered to be genera separate ^ron their Barents.  Couch (1855) was the first  to rear any crab as far as the megalopa, although several other workers hatched out the zoer.e. Life histories of a number of Prachyura hav? been described by obtaining the sta or from plankton.  Nearly related crabs have very similar larvae end so  this method is rather inaccurate.  Schlegol (1911) and Dr.  Lebour (1923) are apparently the only workers to succeed in roaring any crabs through all the larval stages. I am indebted to Dr. Lebour*s paper H928) for information on previous work apd further details may be obtained by consulting her work.  I wish also to express my an-reciation  of the helpful suggest* -ms and assistance give-" by Dr. Alfroda A. Berkeley, Dr. W. A. Clemens, and Dr. 0. McLean Praser under whose supervision the problem was undertaken-  METHODS OP HEAPING Grab larvae are difficult to rear in the laboratory. This is mainly because they thrive only on certain forms of actively moving food. lurida  The larvae of the native oyster, Ostrea  Carpenter, was found to be the most satisfactory food,  as even the smallest zoeae ate them.  Another advantage of the  oyster larvre was the fact that they remained alive in the aquaria for a considerable t*re.  When the spawning season of  this mollusc ended, the artificially fertilized young of the Japanese oyster, Ostrea gigas Th^nberg, we-e used.  These were  not very satisfactory, r or although the zoeae ate them, the larvae did not live long rnd m^re were obtained from a mcle and female than could be used at once.  The later zoeae fed on  the vellgsr larvae of varie s fudibranchs and the megalopae and young crabs thrived on small nieces of the muscle of Knssels. Berried females we e -nlaced ir> aquaria.  In the case  of srecies that eovld be obtained in number' only those fema]ep carry^nr e<"rs nearly roady to hatch were collected.  The  proximity of hatching was determined by the colour and the pigmentation of t^e eyes.  V7h.en the e gs hatched, the nrezoeee  and f r e s h l y - ^ n e r f i r s t zoeae swam abort near the surface of the water or the side of the iar r^ceivin^ the greatest intensitv These were pipetted off and nlaced in fresh sea of Jight. water with oyster of other larvae.  This water was changed only  when it becime cloudy with forei h material such as bacteria,  3.  protozoa, diatoms, etc. The larvae were examined microscopically daily and records of pigmentation kept by coloured drawings. stages were preserved In 5$ Formalin or  The various  Plankton preservat-  ive i 9B% Alcohol............100 parts Glacial Acetic Acid*•»»» »S parts 10$ Forma!delude........55 parts Water. ». .20 parts. FAMILY OKAPSIDAE Byman (1924) gives figures and descriptions of Sesarma, Planes end Pachygra^sus.  These are characterized by  the abscence of lateral spines on the carapace and the equal lengths of the antennae and frontal snfnes-  He is doubtful  that the larvae which Cano described as Planes and Euchirograpsus are correctly designated, because of the presence of well defined lateral seines.  However, Alkawa (1929) found  that the larvae of Hemlgraorvus, He tor pgr an su s, Sesarma and Eriochelr did not agr^e with Hym&n's generalszat?on of the family Orapsldae.  He says "But it is clear from my observations  as weil as from a comparison v/ith the larvae dr-scribed by Hym&n, that there is almost no common feature between the zoeas of the present family, and that the distinction between the larvae of Grans Ida e and Oeypodid&e is far more remarkable than Hynan supposes.  The larvae of the  resent- family fs fairly  heterogeneous In their forms, l l k e t h o s e o f ^nnotheric'ae." The first zoea of Henigrapsua oregonensis (Dana) has been found to be very like that of H. Longitarsis (Miers),  described by Aikawa (1929).  There are dorsal, rostral and  paired lateral spines on the carapace.  The antennae are about  one half the length of the rostral spine and there are no external teeth on the telson. HEM IGRAP SITS OREGOHENSIS (DANA). Berried crabs are common in March carry'n ~ newly-laid eggs.  The eggs hatch fron the middle of May until August.  The new eggs, which are abort .38 inn. in diameter, ran o in colour from purplish black to deen russet, and the late eggs, .45 mm., are a light brown. Ho tynical nrezoeal stage with embryonic spines was found.  When the eggs first hatch, the larvae are surrounded  by transparent membranes and the sn:*nes and setae are Invaginated, and when the first zoea emerges these are protruded. There are five zoeal stages and one megalonal before the adult form is reached.  The first yotuig stage is attained in abort  eight weeks in the laboratory.  Almost e moT*th was reqrtired  to resch the fifth zoeal stage, and a first zoea taken from plankton reached the young crab form in 58 days. FIRST ZOEA. (Plate I, fig. 1, Plate II, fig. 8, 15, 17 and 20. The first stage is very transparent with a general ^illowish tinge to the body. the laterals are brown.  The rostral s^>ine is vlolot and  Black chromatophores arp present at  the base of the dorsal end lateral snines, around the eyor, on the mouth ^G2.ts, on the bases of the first maxillipedes and on all but the socond abdominal segment.  Yellow end red pigment  surrounds the black on the abdomen.  Above the chromato^hore at  the base of the dorsal spine is a small red spot. The first zoea (fig. 1) is about 1,45 nm» In length, (measured from the front of the head to the tip of the telson fork1) . The dorsal spine *s about .5 mm. in length and the rostral is slightly shorter.  The lateral spines are about one half  the length of the dorsal..  The dorsal s^lne is usually erect  but In some cases is bent so as to lie parallel to the dorsal margin of the carapace.  The lower roster5or margin of the  carapace Is beset with minute hairs.  There are small teeth on  the posterior lateral rargfno of the abdominal segments.  The  second ahdorr.iti&l soviet-1 bea-s a ralr of sharp pointed knobs. The telson  (fig. 20) has six plunose setae med*oily end the  Inner margins of the cornua aro minutely seined. The antennuie (fig, B) cons is ts of a tubular sement bearing two aesthetes and ono short seta.  The antenna (fig.8)  Is composed of a basis hoarlng a spinous process, which Is considerably longer than the exopoc Its which bears two setae. The mandible Is bllobed, with the inner edge toothed.  The  first maxilla (fig. 17} consists of a two-jointed endooodite with six ^runose setae and basloodite and eoxor^odite each bearing five spines.  The second maxilla (fig, 13) has an exopodite  (scaphognathlte) with four plumose setae, an endopodlte with four, a basipodite with elrht, rnd a eoxorodfte with six  The  exopodites of the first and second n&xilllpedes have four long swlr— ing-setae. jointed.  The endonodites are respectively ffve and two  The position of the rudimentary th?rd maxilllpedes  and perlo^ods Is 'ndleated by a slight nrotruberance.  SECOND ZOEA. (Plat© I, fig. 2, Plate II, fig, 2 1 K The red chromatophore is more pronounced on the dorsal spine of the second stage.  Black pigmentation surrounds part  of the intestine. The second zoea (fig. 2) Is about 2 mm. long.  The  dorsal spine is romewhat shorter in proportion to the rostral than that of the first zoea.  There are a few long hairs on  the mid-roster!or margin of the carapace and more numerous ones on the lateral margins.  The telson (fig. 21 > has increased in  size. The antennule, antenna and first maxilla are very similar to "hose of the first zoea.  The scaphognathite of the  second maxilla now bears eight Plumose s#»tse.  There are six  plmose setae on th?' exonodites of the first and second maxillipedes.  The b"ds of the rw 5 imentary appendages havo  increased in size. THIRD ZOEA. (Plate I, fig, 5, Plate II, fig. 9,14 and 22). The black chroma tophor© s of the third stage are larger and more spreading than those of the earlier stages. There is a bright red sr.ot on the fourth abdominal segment. The third zoea (fig. 5) is about 2.3 mm. in length. There are now eight pilose setae on the median margin of the telson (fig. 22). The antennuie bears three aesthetes and one short seta.  There is a slight urotruberance on the basis of the  antenna (fig..9), which will grow to form the endorod4te or  flagellum.  There are abort twelve setae on the scaphognathite  of the second maxilla (fig. 14),  Eight setae are present on  the exopodlte of the first and second maxlllipedes. six very small limb buds  There are  and the ventral portion of the abdom-  en is somewhat swollen by the developing pleooods. FOURTH ZOEA. (Piste I, fig. 4, Plate II, fig. 10,15,18, IS and 23^ The fourth stage is similar *n co'orring to that of the third.  The saoea (fig. 4) is about •..-f mm. In length. The flagellum of the antenna (fig. 10) is s-:b~ equal  to the exopodlte.  The first (fig. 1BX and second (fig. 15^  maxillae are larger and are beset with more spines and setae. There are nine and ten setae on the exo^oaites of the first and. second maxlllipedes respectively.  The rudimentary third  maxilllpede is bilobed and the first periopod Is chelate.  The  pleopods are present as deflnate paired knobs. FIFTH ZOEA. (Plate I, fig, 5, Plate II, fig. 11,12,16 and 24). The colour in the fifth st: ge (fig. 5) is less brilliant than that of the earlier stages, long.  It is about 3,3 ran.  The median margin of the telson (fig. 24) bears ten  setae, the internal pair being very small. setae medially ?nd laterally  There are long  on the posterior portion of  the carapace. There is a lateral rrotruberance of the antennuie (fig. 12) and the base is swollen.  The unsegmented flagellum  of the antenna (fig. 11) is as long as the spinous port*on of the basis.  The coxopodite of the second maxilla (fig. 16)  bears four modified setae as well as the usual plumose ones. These specialized setae are tinned with a rosette of lobes. There are ton and eleven setae on the exopodites of the first and second maxillipedes . The rudimentary a-nr end ages are segmented  and Increase In size as the zoea develops.  The  pleopods are well developed. HEGALOPA. (Plate I, fig. 6, Plate V, fig. 48-58), The megalooa (fig. 6) Is yellow with spreading black chromatophores.  The pigment is on the eyestalks, on the median  portion of the carapace, en the segnents of the abdomen, on the ventral margin of the bases of the anternules anc mouth parts, and on the propodi of the third and fourth p»rlopods. The carapace is aboi^t 2 mru in length.  It Js some-  what rectangular In shape and the rostrum is bent downwards leaving a groove dorsally.  The posterior margin is beset with  fine hairs. The antennule (fir. 49) Is composed of a swollen basal segrent and a peduncle of two segnents, with two short flagella, one of which bears numerous sensory setae and the other, three small hairs,  'ihe antenna (fig, 48^ consists of  a six-jointed peduncle, the last segment of wh* eh bear s a very short flagellum and n^xr-erous long setae.  The oalp on the  mandible (fig. 51) is composed of two segments.  The first  maxilla (fig. 52) is much like that of the adult.  The second  maxilla (fig. 50) has developed a hairless endorodite.  The  first maxillinode (fig. 53) has an epipodite vith several long hairs attached.  The second maxlllipede (fig. 54) Is composed  9. of an endopodite with broadened terminal joints bearing stiff spines, a long slender exopod'te and a small eoipodite.  The  third maxillipede (fig. 5F>) has a large endor>odite, a smaller exopod^te and a large epipodite.  There  one gill attached.  The perioropods are as in the ad\ilt except that the dactylus of the last leg (fig. 56} bears three sensory setoe. periopods are all beset with fine hairs.  The  There are fourteen  setae on the last pleorod (fig. 57) and ten on the uropod (fig. 58). FIRST YOTJTTG CRAB STAGE. (Plate I, fig. 7) The first young crab (f?g. 7> is cream coloured. There may be on© of two centres of calcification and those are more opaque than the other oarts of the body.  There are a  few chromatophores on the bases of the antennules, the third na.xillioedec and the chell^eds, on the sixth abdominal segment, the carpus of the fourth periopod and the propodi of the third and fourth ^eriorods. 'rhe caraoace is about 2,7 mm. !n length and is some-vhat square in outline aid flattened dorso-ventrailer. The lateral margins are cut Into three large teeth, the margins of which are minutely serrated. The appendages are very like those of the me,'•alone The propodus of the fourth per-iopod is slightly swollen and there are no sensory hairs on the dactylus of the fifth legs. The pleopods are without hairs.  10.  FAMILY XANTHIDAE. More of the larva© of Xanthid crabs have been described than 4sf Grapsoid.  This is perhaps due to their  cosmopolitan distribution  and shallow water habitat.  The family Xanthida© is divided *nto two sub-families: Xanthinae and Menipplnae.  The zoeao of Xanthinae have a  rudimentary antennal exorsodite, and into this group falls IrPphopanopeus bellus (Stimpson), the only representative of the group found in British Culunbia Hyman (1925) gives descriptions and figures of some of the stages of Neopanope, Eurypanopens, Panopetis eus and Xantho,  T  Texopanop-  Connolly (1925) describes all the Irrval  stages of Rhithropanopeus harrisl (Gould).  Lebo^^r (1928)  gives the characteristics of the family and the life history of two species of Xsntbo.  Aikawa (1929) descr5bos the f^rst  zoeae of two species of Xantho. Lophopanonevs bellus is like the description of Rhi thropanopeus harrisl in that there is is only one lateral spine on the fork of the telson, wb/'le in all other described species there are several. L0 PHOPAj S OP bVS BE1XTJS (ST1V r SOU). Berried crabs are common 3n Pay and probably earlier. The early eggs are a d^ep purple r.nd the late a light brown. The eggs are deposited In such great numbers that the female id hampered in her movement?. about ,45 mm, in diameter.  When ready to hatch, they are  11.  There is a typical prezoeal or protozoeal stage, with well developed embryonic spines.  There are four zoeal stages  and one megalopal, before the young crab emerges.  A month  was required for the fourth zoea to develop from the egg. Fourth *oeae were taken from plankton and the megalopa and young crab obtained From these. PREZ0E&  (Plate III, fig. 25, Plate IV, fig. 35, 36. 45.  The presoea (fig. 25) 5s brightly coloured as are the later stages.  The body is yellow, relieved with russet.  There are black and red chromatophores on the carapace, on each abdominal segment, on the mouth parts and on the distal part of the maxlllipedes. The prezoea is about 1.4 mm. in length.  There Is  little indication of a dorsal spine on the carapace.  Small  knobs are present on the lateral mt rglns of the second *nd third abdominal segment.  The to1son (fig. 45) bears seven  embryonic snines, all of which are t>lumose except the fourth. The spines covering the antennule (fig. 36) are very unequal in length,  There are f >ur hairy spines covering the  exotvodite of the ant nna (fig. 35), while a hairless membrane surrounds the spinous process.  The mouth parts are covered  with a close fitting membrane and the spines are invaginated. FIRST ZOEA. (Plate TII, fig. 26, Pla Plate IV, fig. 33,39.42 end 44). The first stage is similar In colour to the prezoea. The slender rostral and lateral opines, the antennae and the telson are pin?: tinged.  There is a black chromatcmhore at  12. the base of each of the carapacial spines and a red one on the dorsal spine and the cornua of the telson. The first zoea (fig. 26) is about 1.7 ran. In length, the dorsal spine is .7 ir..t the laterals .2 mm. and the frontal .5 nri.  The dorsal spine is slender and curved backwards over  the caraoace.  There are small teeth on the posterior margins  of the third, fourth and fifth abdominal se. ments, and lateral knobs on the second and third.  There are six olumose setae on  the median margin of the telson and one smell spine on each of the cornua. The antennule consists of a tubular se.^ent bearing two aesthetes and a short seta.  The antenna (fig. 33N Is  composed of a basis "Ith a very much elongated orocoss and a rudimentary exopodite.  The mandible (fig. 44x 3s bilobed and  toothed on the inner mar-in.  The first me rille (fig. 42)  consists of a two-*jointed eceooodite with seven olumose setae, a basI-Dodlte with M v e srlnes end e eoxopodite with seven.  The  Broad exopodite of the second maxilla (fi >;. 39) bears three marginal setae, the er.dopoeit five and the coxopofiite sever.  five, the lobed basi^odito The oxorodltes of the first  end second maxillloedes bear four long swim?' 'ng setae. The endoood *tes ere of five and three segments. limvis ar-> Indicated only  The rudimentary  j slight protruborances. SECOND ZOEA. (Plate Til, fin;. 27, Plate IV, FJg. 37,40 end 4G).  The colo r of the second stage is less brilliant than that of the first. The length of the second zoea is about 2,1 mm.  The  13.  teeth on the th:*rd, fourth and fifth ahdcsninal segments are more pronounced. There are three aesthetes and a short seta on the antennule (fig. 37).  The antenna shows very little indication  of the developing endopodite.  Ther© are ten setae on the  exopodite of the second maxilla (fig. 40).  The exopodite of  the first maxillipede bears six setae and the second seven. The rudimentary appendages ate present as definate buds. THIRD ZOE/U (Plate III, fig. 2R, Plats IV, fig. 34 find 47>, Almost at the tiu of the dorsal spine, the antonnal spinoa and the forks of the tolson, are bands of russet. These bandv sorve to distinguish this spec-!es from others in the live ulan^ton. The third soea (fig. P.C* * a about  mm. <n longth.  The teeth on the lateral margins of the Miiro end fourth abdominal sogmants are well developed. on the posterior margin of the carapace.  There are fine hairs The telson (f?g* 47 )  bears an extra J)air of fine setae -"nt:?rnully. Ihe endopodite of the antenra (fig. -34) 5.3 present as a definate bud.  The  are eight seti'.o on the exopodite  the first rsaxlllipo&o and nine on the second. buds are praaont.  f  All the limb  The th'rd r.axillipodo is divided into  exopodite and endopedite and tli re  are two gill buds attached.  The chelfped is somewhat bilobed at * to extremity. ploouods ore pros out at small paired lobes.  The  14.  FOURTH ZOm.  (Plate III, fig. 29,  Plate IV, fig * 32,58,41 and 43). The colour of the fourth zoea is sirilar to that of the third, A well developed fourth zoea (fig. 29) is about 4.3 ran. 5n length.  The soines on the lateral abdominal segments  are sub-equal in length to the pleonods,  There are a r>a3r of  fine mines irsne&iately abova the median pair of setae of the telson. The basis of the antennuie (fig, 38) is swollen and the segments of the megalopal axmend&ge are indicated.  The  flagellum of the antenna (fig. 32> is slightly segmented. There is an unjointed pain op the mandible.  The f3rst maxilla  (fig. 45) is la?'ge and armed with heavy spines. maxilla (fig. 41) is broad and flattened.  The second  There are n5ne  setae on the ©xopodite of the first maxillinede and eleven on the second.  The third maxillinedes and perlonods are large  and there are indications of segmentation.  The pleonode are  long and slender. OGALOPA. {Plate III, fig. 30, Plate V, fig. 59-63). The dorsal surface of the body is yellow, v?th spreading black chromatonhores on the eyestalks, the cardiac and branchial regions as well as the distal m- rglns of the abdominal segments.  The mouth parts are russet and heavily  pigmented with black.  There is a natch of russet on the merl  and carni of all the nerionods, Th© carapace of the megclona (fig. 30) is about 1.9  15.  mm. long.  It Is somewhat spherical in shape and the rostrum,  nhich is beset with stiff hairs, *s quite short and depressed ventrally.  The exopodlte of the last pleopod bears fourteen  setae and the endorodite four small curved spines. are  There  sine end ten setae on the uropods (fig. 65) and four  small hairs on the terminal margin of the telson. The antennule (fig. 59) is conucs^d of a swollen basal portion end tx peduncle of two segments; the distal one lamer than the proximal end bearing two flagelia.  The antenna  (fig. 59) is made tip of a peduncle of eight segments, a very short flagellar* and numerous lonfi setae. of three segments on the mandible.  ^hore is a nalp  The f-^st and second  maxilla (fig. 60) are similar to those of Femigra-rsr.s oregonensis exce~t in size. (fig. 61) are 1  The basal seg erts of the £*rst maxillinede ? nd well ar*-«? wi t^ suites.  Thore is a  protrubermce of the protonedite of the second msxillinede suboqual to the e^i-nodite.  There are a •nair of gills attached  to each cheliued <~rd a large hook on the ventral side of the ischium,.  The  the fifth {fig.  arc all beret with long fine hairs and has three* cosrse hairs at the tin of the  dac1 ml us. FIRST YOTJlfG CRAB STAGE. (Plate III, fig.31) The first younp; crab is cream coloured and the legs are banded with brown.  The^a are black chromatophores on the  centre of the caranac-e and on the bases of the cholipods A bright orange snot is developed on the ischium of the third marcill inede.  16.  The carapace of the f'rst crab stage (fig. 33) Is about 2.1. mm. long. It is sparsely covered with long hairs and the lateral margins are cut into three teeth enterlorly. The atmendages are very similar to those of the megalopa.  REFERENCES. AIEAWA, HTHOAKI.  On Larval P o m s of Some Braohyura.  of Oceanographlc Works in Japan.  Records  The National Research  Council of Japan, Tokyo., vol. II, no. 1, 17-55, 1 text fig., pi. II-V, 1929. BERKELEY, ALFREDA A.  The Post-lmbryonic Development of the  Common Pandallds of British Columbia.  Contributions to  Canadian Biology and Fisheries, being Studies from the Biological Stations of Canada.  vol. VI* Ho, 6,  80-163, fig. 1-309 1930. CAHO, 0,  Svlluppo postembrionale del Porlpnldel, Leucosladi,  Corystolde? e Grapsldi - i'em. dell a Soc. Ital. c'elle Science, vol. 8, no. 4, 1891. CONNOLLY, G. J.  The Larval Stages and Megalops of Rhlthropan-  opens Harris! (Gould).  Contributions  to Canadian  Biology and Fisheries, being Studies from the Biological Stations of Canada, F.S., vol. IT, no, 15, 327-334, p3. I-IIT, 1925. COUCH, R. q. (C  Notes on the He tar1 orthoses of the Common Grab  pagnrus).  Penzance Nat, Hist and Antiquarian Society.  Report for 1853, 1854, 1855. KYTAN» 0. .  Stud!os on Larvae of Crabs of the Family Graosidae.  Proceedings TJ* S. National Krseum, vol . 65, art. 1 % no. 2523, 1-8, pi. 1-3, 1925. Studies on the Larvae of Cu be of the Family  XantMdee.  proceedings U.S. National Museum, vol . 67, art, 3= no. 2575, 1-P2, rl  1-14, 1926.  ii  LEBOUR, MARIE V.  The Larval Stages of the Plymouth Brachyura.  Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 473-560, text figs. 1-5, pi. I-XVI, 1928. SCHLB0BL, C.  Stir le Dfevelopuenent de Mala squinado Latr. 0. R.  de I'Accad. Sci. Paris, vol. cliii, 1911. THOMPSON, B.V.  Zoological Researches and Illustrations of  Natural History of Imperfeetly-knowv Animals in a ser'es of Memoirs. IIT, Cork, 1F28-34. MHmoir I. On the Hetamorph* osls of the Crnstocea and onZo^a, exposing their singular structure and demonstrating that they are not, as has been supnosed, a peculiar ge^us, but the larvs of Crustacea. 1829.  PLATE I. HK.!iaBAPS»TS ORKfrOWSNSIS ( AI5A) Fig. 1.  First Zoea  Fig. 2.  Second Zoea  Fig. 3.  Third Zoea  Fig. 4.  Fourth Zooa  Fig. 5.  Fifth Zoea  Fig. 6.  Megalo^a  F1g. 7.  F^rst Young Crab  x 26. x 26. x 26. x 26. x 26.  x 13. x 13  PLATE II.  HTTIORAPSTTS ORE 101 IKK SIS (DANA). Fig. 6.  First  Pig  Third Zoea, antenra  9.  Zoea, ^ntercnule and antenna  xl's0  x 100.  Fig. 10. Fourth Zoea, antenna  x 100.  Fig. 11. Fifth Zoea, antenha  x 100. j i Fig. 12, Fifth Zoea, ant ennui e x 10f . i / Fig. 13. First Zoea, second rfaxllla x 10^ . Fig. 14. Third Zoea, second maxilla r. IT*. * V Fig. 15. Fourth Zoea, s ec ond!maxilia x 100. J 16. Fifth Zoea, sec end • liftaxilis x 100. Fig. Fig. 17. First Zoea, first mfUilla  x 10 n .  Fig. 18. Fourth Zoea, first m&klila \  x ion.  \  rr.19. Fourth Zoea. mandible F3g. 20. First Zoea, telson  x 100.  x 100.  Fig. 21. Second Zoea, telsom x 1^0. i Fig. 22. Third Zoea, te£se!h x '  \  \  Fig. 23. Fourth Zoea,telsery ' x 100, ' i Fig. 24. Fifth Xoea, telsoiit x 100. \ ^ \  i  >  ii \  \  /  A  V  \  V  \  «  PLATE III.  OPfV'OWS B73LLTJS ( STIFFSOX-!) . Pi-;. 25  Brezoea  P3g. 26.  First Zoea  Fig. 27.  Second Zoea  x 26  Fig. 28.  Third Zoea  x 26.  F3g. 29.  Fourth Zooa  x 13  Fig. 30.  Me;:alopa  T riM r-* 31.  First Young Crab  x 26. x 26.  x 13.  / /  /  /  /  /  < i /  /  i  PLATE IV.  TOPHO PATIO PEtTS BELLTJS (STETSON) Pig. 32.  Fourth Zoea, .antenna  Pig. 33.  First Zoea, antenna  x l n 0.  Pig. 34.  Third Zoea, antenna  x 100.  Pig. 35.  Frezoea, antenna  Pig. 36,  Prezoea, antenmile  Pig. 37.  Second Zoea, ©ntennrle  x 100.  Pig. 38.  Fourth Zoea, an tennule  x 100.  Pig. 39.  First Zoea, second maxilla  Pig. 40.  Second Zoea„ second maxilla  x 100.  Pig. 41.  Fourth Zoea, second na»illa  x 10^.  F5g. 42.  First Zoea, first maxilla  Fig. 43.  Fourth Zoea. first maxilla  Pig. 44.  First Zoea, mandible  PJ i-O.* 45.  Prezoea, telson  Pig. 46  Second Zoea, telson  Pig. 47.  Third Zoea, telson  x 10~>.  x 100. x 100.  x 100.  x 100. x 100.  x 100.  x 100. x 100. x 100.  PLATE V.  TTSMTGFAP5US OREGONEIISIS (DANA).  Megalopa.  Fig. 48.  Antenna  x 43.  Fig. 49.  Ant ennui e  Pig. 50.  Second maxilla  Pig. 51.  Mandible  Fig. 52.  First maxilla  Fig. 53.  First maxillipede  Fig. 54.  Second maxillipede  Pig. 55.  Third maxillipede  Fig. 56.  Fifth periopod  Pig. 57.  ?3eopod of fifth segment  Pig. 58.  Telson and uropods  x 43. x 43.  x 43.  TOPHOPAKOPE<TS BEI.T.TTS (STTKPSON).  x 43. x 43. x 43. x 43.  x 43. x 43.  x 43.  Megalopa.  Pig. 59.  Antennule and antenna  Fig. 60.  Second maxilla  Fig. 61.  First  Fig. 62.  Fifth periopod  Fig. 63.  Telson and nropods  x 43.  x 43.  maxillipede  x 43.  x 43. x 43.  

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