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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Geography of Vancouver Lopatin, Ivan Alexis 1929

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U . S . C . LIBRARY CAT  ^ 3  *rr  G E O G R A P H Y  OF  r &  V A N C O U V E R  ty  IVAN ALEXIS LOPATIN  A THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  IN THE DEPARTMENT of GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY  P.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Part 1 Physical Geography I.  Topography (a) World Relations (t) Regional Topography (e) Local Topography  II*  1. 2. 4.  Orography a) b)  Ill*  Page  Regional Orography Local Orography; The Burrard Peninsula The Northern Ridge The Southern Ridge The Surrey Upland The Boundary Upland Point Roberts The Recent Delta of the Fraser The Islands of the Fraser Delta The Mountain System  Hydrography  4. 11. 11. 12. 13. 14. 14. 15. 16. 18. 19. 22.  IV. The Geology of Vancouver & Vicinity (a)  General Geology. 1.Palaeozoic and Mesozoic 2.Tertiary Burrard Formation Kitsilano Formation Boundary Bay Formation Prospect Point Eruptives  28. 30. 30. 31, 33. 34.  II. (a)  (b)  3.Quaternary Page Pleistocene Glacial Deposits Point Grey Formation Glacial Outwash Deposits Interbedded with Till, Raised Delta & Morine Deposits Recent Geobycial History Origin of Physical Features  (c) Economic Geology SAnds and Gravels Clays Coal Peat Oil and Gas Possibilities Soils V.  36. 36. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 43. 46. 47. 47. 47. 48. 50.  Climate of Vancouver Climate in General Temperature The Larger Temperature Relations Mean Annual Temperatures Midwinter Temperatures Midsummer Temperatures Mean Annual Ranges of Temperature Temperature Changes during twenty-four hour Intervals Mean Daily Maximum and Minimum Ranges of Temperature The Differences in Temperature from Day to Day Warmest and Coldest Months Temperature Extremes Pressure Distribution and Prevailing Rinds Precipitation Mean Annual Precipitation Mean Monthly Precipitation Number of Rainy Days Snowfall Relative Humidity Sensible Temperatures Sunshine  51. 54. 54. 55. 56. 58. 60. 61. 63. 64. 66. 67. 68. 70. 71. 73. 75. 76. 77. 79. 80.  III. Cloudiness Distribution of Cloudy Days Fog Thunderstorms The Essential Characteristic of Vancouver Climate  Page  82. 83. 84. 86 * 88.  VI.  Flora of the Vicinity of Vancouver  89.  VII.  Fauna of the Vicinity of Vancouver  92.  The Aboriaenes  96.  VIII.  Part II. Historical Geography I*  History of Geographic Discoveries Along the Coast of Northwestern America 1. Northwest Passage * 2. Apocryphal Vogages 3. Spanish Explorations 4. Russian Explorations Bering's Second Expedition Bering's Voyage Chirikoff's Voyage The Result of Bering's Second Expedition The Voyages of Russian Traders and Adventures The Expeditions of Glotoff & Synd The Russian-American Company Russian Geographical Expeditions in the Period 1768-1867 The Result of Russian Expeditions 5. Spanish Expeditions in the Latter Half of the Eighteenth Century The Expedition of Peres The Expedition of Heceta The Expedition of Arteaga The Result of the Spanish Expeditions  104. 105. 106. JL09. 111. 115. 116. 119. 120. 121. 122. 122. 123. 124. 125. 125. 127. 128. 130.  IV.  6. British Exploration Captain James Cook The Maritime Fur Traders The Ntotka Sound Controversy Captain George Vancouver Overland Explorations Sir Alexander Mackenzie Simon Fraser The Oregon Question  Page 131. 131. 134 137. 139. 144. 145. 148. 150.  II*  The Brief History of the Principal Settlements in B. C.  III.  The Brief History of the City of Vancouver  154. 156  Part III. Economic Geography I.  II*  Population 1. Growth and Distribution of Population Growth of Population Sex Distribution Age Distribution Conjugal Condition Racial Origin Birthplaces Immigrants Religions 2. Vital Statistics Birth Rate Death Rate Natural Increase of Population 3. Public Health Hospitals and Sanatoriums Supply of Water 4. Labor Conditions, Wages and Cost of Living Industries of the City of Vancouver Agriculture Fishing Lumbering  163. 163. 164. 166. 168. 168. 170. 171. 172. 174. 175. 177. 178. 179. 180. 183. 184. 189. 192.  V. Mining Manufacturing Industry Wood manufacturing industry Manufacture of food products Metal manufacture Manufacture of the Non-Metallic minerals Textiles Manufacture of Fur goods Printing and Publishing  page 193 194 198 200 202 204 206 207 208  III*  Transportation and Communication.  211  IV-  Port of Vancouver. Facilities of the Port Port Administration Commerce of the Port Coastwise Service and Traffic Tonnage Exports Imports Passenger Traffic  213 216 218 219 220 222 22p 224 226  V.  Trade of Vancouver. Lumber Fish Grain Flour Apples Fish Oil and Fish Meal Pulp and Paper  227 229 233 240 242 293 244  Geographical Distribution of Vancouver Trade by Countries  246  Exports by Countires imports by Countries  249 2^4  VI.  Finance  257  VII.  Education Elementary and Secondary Education Higher Education. The University of British Columbia.  239 261 262  VIII. City Planning  264  IX.  265  Public Buildings, Parks, Scenery and Game.  GEOGRAPHY OF VANCOUVER Part I. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY  I. TOPOGRAPHY, (a). World Relations The city of Vancouver is situated at 49^17'northern latitude and 123°5 western longitude*  Compared with other grd&t  cities, it lies a little more to the south than London, England, and a little more to the north than Montreal, Que.  The relation  of Vancouver to the world can be shown by a map of two hemispheres prepared in a certain way*  Taking Vancouver as a centre  of the world we may divide the globe into two hemispheres, one of which will contain Vancouver with neighbouring parts of land and ocean, and the opposite, the antipodes of Vancouver with its surroundings.  On the map this division of the globe is as follows  The Vancouver hemisphere contains the whole continent of North America, the northern parts of Asia and Europe, and the northern parts of the Pacific and Atlantic.  The nearest countries  to Vancouver are, besides all of North America, Kamchatka, Japan and Siberia. The nearness of Asia is very interesting from the geographical point of view.  The  Bering Strait is too narrow to  separate entirely the two continents.  Fhysico-geographical  conditions are similar on both sides of the strait.  But most  interesting is the fact that the fauna and aborigines of North America have a elose relationship with those of Asia. The transpacific distances and the relation of land masses to each other may be shown by the following map  —  The map with the North Pole at its centre shows convincingly that the distance from Yokohama to Vancouver is shorter than to any other Pacific port of North America.  Thus the  distance from Yokohama to Vancouver is 4250 nautical miles, and from Yokohama to San Francisco, 4536 nautical miles.  But the  Pacific Ocean with cheap freights makes the Orient still nearer, and, therefore, Japan, China and the Russian Far East are the nearest neighbours of Vancouver. The result of these distances between Vancouver and the Orient is that the largest foreign trade of Vancouver is with Japan.  The trade with China also amounts to a considerable sum. The antipod of Vancouver, that is, the most remote  point, is a point in the Indian Ocean at 49 17 southern latitude and 56 55 eastern longitude. (b). Regional Topography. The regional topography of Vancouver is interesting in many respects.  The city is situated on Burrard Inlet, which  represents a part of the Strait of Georgia.  The latter is a  large body of water between Vancouver Island and the mainland, connected with the Pacific Ocean by means of the Strait of Juan de Fuca on the south, and by the Queen Charlotte Sound on the north.  To the southward the Strait of Georgia mixes its waters  with those of Paget Round.  The latter has numerous narrow arms  on one of which the city of Seattle is situated. Vancouver Island represents the largest member of a group of numerous islands which fringe the coast from the southern end of the Strait of Georgia northward to Mount Fairweather, a distance in a straight line of about 1,200 miles.  These  mountainous islands, practically inumerable, vary in size from 15,000 square miles (Vancouver Island) to the smallest rock pinnacles rising above the surface of the sea. Vancouver Island is the largest island on the Pacific coast of America.  It has a length of 280 miles, and an average  width of about 50 miles, with an area about equal to that of Switzerland.  The city of Victoria is situated on the south-  eastern part of the island.  The passage between Vancouver  Island and the mainland has a maximum width of 50 miles, but a multitude of islands are situated in this intervening space. To the northwest of Vancouver Island the Queen Charlotte islands form a triangular shaped group with an acute apex pointing southward.  Still farther north Alexander Archipelago forms a laby-  rinth of islands and passages. d  The longer axes of all these  islands usually correspon/with the trend of the Coast Range. Particularly it is marked north of Vancouver Island. The coast of the mainland as well as of the larger islands is deeply dissected by a multitude of fiords and passages which surpass those of Norway and of any part of the world in dimensions and complexity. more or less winding.  Most of them are straight; some are  Fiords nearer to Vancouver are Howe Sound,  Seeohelt Inlet and Jervis Inlet. The result of the indentation of the coast either of mainland and islands by fiords and passages is that their waters are completely sheltered and many good anchorages are furnished, while the coast south of this region (south of Cape Flattery) has only an occasional harbour. (c).  Local Topography  Vancouver is situated on the southern shore of Burrard Inlet, thirty miles north of the International Boundary line and occupies two peninsulas between the mouth of the Praser River and the Burrard Inlet. 2.  O^GG.iAPHY  (a). Regional Orography The regional orography of Vancouver has two striking features.  To the north of the city lies a  mountainous region ?hile to the south spread the lowlands.  These lowlands extend from the neighbor-  hood of Burrard Inlet to the International bou^d^ry and beyond into the State of Washington.  Their west-  ern limit is the Strait of Georgia from which they extend eastward up to the foot of the Cascade Mountains, a distance of about one hundred miles.  The lowlands  embrace a large area and include the Fraser River Valley and recent delta and also a part of the ancient delta of the Fraser stiver, which in the glacial period  S. -5-  waa formed at the edge of the lee sheet and latter waa modified by the presence of a river of large dimenaiona. Northward from the lowland just beyond the Bnrrard Inlet riaes Coast ^ange which borders the Pacific Ocean for a distance of 90Q milea extending in a N. N. H. direction up to the head of Lynn Canal in Alaska.  This  Coast ^aaga is a member of the Cordilleran System, a great mountainoua area which in the latitude of Vancouver has a width of 450 miles, and for its length and breadth, although not for altitude, represents the largest mountainous area in the world*  The Cordilleran 3yatem of  mountains lies between the prairies on the east and the Pacific Oeean on the west*  The order of the members of  Cordillera from east to wast ia: 1* 2. S.  The Rocky Mountains. The gold Rangea. The interior Plateau.  4.  The Coast Range.  All of these constitute a family of mountains which are merely geographically related,  in reality they are  of different geological ages and origin.  There is no  similarity in their rock composition nor uniformity of their structures, and hence they have responded in different ways to eroaion. The youngest members of the Cordillera are the Rocky Mountains, having strata within their structurea which belong to the Laramie period.  At the parallel of  Vancouver they have an average width of sixty miles. On the west, the -ockies are separated from the next  members of the Cordillera  -- the Gold ranges by "The  Rocky Mountain Trench," a narrow but most persistent depression eight hundred miles in length, which is occupied by the headwaters of the Kootenay, Columbia, Fraser, Finlay, Parsnip and Xachika nivers. The Gold ranges consist of several range units such aa the Selkirk, Pnrcell, Columbia, Cariboo, m d Qmenica Mountains.  These are the oldest mountains in the Cord-  illeran System.  It is in this rugged region that some  of the most remarkable scenery of Western Canada occurs. Between the Golden Ganges on the east and the Coast nange on the west (which is a northward extension of the Great Basin region of the United States) stretches the Interior Plateau*  Between the latitudes of 49° and  55**30' it has an average elevation of 3,5J0 feet and has the highest altitude in Canada. Northward towards the Yukon, the elevation is more moderate, 2,000 to 2,200 feet.  The Interior Plateau extends from the 49th  parallel of latitude far northward into Alaska with an average width of 100 miles.  The Interior Plateau  originated from a once level area which was broadly and gently uplifted to the present height.  The erosion by  streams and rivers aided by the Pleistocene glaciers has deeply trenched the area and now the interstream parts of the Plateau have become sufficiently prominent to be called mountains. In general, the Coast Range forms an efficient  watershed, sap rating the streams which enter the Strait of Georgia from those which drain into the rivers of the Interior Plateau.  However, a considerable portion of  the drainage from the Interior Plateau also makes a complete traverse of this range and reaches the waters of the Pacific*  Among the more important of the rivers that  cross the Coast ^sage may be mentioned the Bomalko, Xlena-Xlone, Bella Coola, Dean, Skeena, Nasa, Stiklna, and the Takn*  Piercing the Coast Range these rivers  flow in canyons with precipitous sides.  She Fraser  River flows also in a canyon between the Coast and the Skagit mountain ranges. Farther to the south the Coast Range continues into a chain of successive ranges —  the Cascades, the Sierra  Nevada and the Sierra Hadre. The Cordilleran family of mountains is not limited by the four ranges described above*  There is one range  mora, which shows itself in the chain of numerous islands fringing the coast of British Columbia and Alaska.  These  islands are so arranged that lengthwise they are parallel to the trend lines of the other members of the Cordilleran $yetem.  The straits separating these islands are  very deep*  The ragged slo^& with precipitous walls  descend into water.  It is obvious that a deeply dissected  mountain range has there been depressed at least 2,000 feet belXow its former altitude* thus allowing the sea to fluod its deep valleys.  This submerged mountain chain  -8- ^  J) was called by 6.M. Dawson/^The Vancouver Range".  This  range forming the axis of these islands which lie in a north north-west, south south-east bearing and is the northerly continuation of the Olympian Mountains of the State of Washington.  But it^s southerly extention may be  marked much farther.  Thus Burwashy^ointed oat that this  most westerly suecessioa of ranges begins in the State of California.  Its principal members are the mountains  of Lower California, the group of seven islands off the coast of Southern California, the coast ranges of California and Oregon, the Olympics of Washington, and the Vancouver Range of British Columbia, which reappears to the northward in the ^ueen Charlotte Islands, and is continued in the Alaskan Islands and the St. Elias Range, where it has its maximum development at its junction with the east and west range of the Southern p-rt of the Alaskan Peninsula . The length of the mountain system or succession of ranges refeied to is between 3,500 and 4,000 miles. 7) (1} Traaa. Royal Society ef Canada, Vol. Vlll, See.4., / (2) Vaaoouver Island and Adjacent Coasts, by S.M. Dawson, Ann. aept., Geol. Surv. of Canada, 1887, p. 7B 4) The Geology of Vancouver and Vicinity oy E.H.J. Burw^sh. The University of Chicago Press. 1918.  -9-  Bctwsen the Coast and Vancouver ranges there is a geosinoline tending in a 3.N.W. and S.S.E. direction.  The  trough of it is occupied by the strait of Georgia, Queen Charlotte Sound and Hecate Strait*  The most northerly  section of the coast structural trough lies within the territory of Alaska and extends from the southern end of Prince of Wales Island to the head of the Lynn Cannal. This geosinoline extends also far southward and may be seen in the valley of Paget Sound and the Willamette Valley. The northern part of the depression is largely submerged while in its southern part there is sufficient lowland, to be occupied by the cities of the Paget Sound (Seattle, Everet, Bellingham and Tacoma) by cities of Vancouver and Victoria. The geosinoline extends still farther southward representing a succession of long, relatively narrow brains, situated end to end and "constituting what may be termed a valley chain."/ This series of Basins includes, in their order from north to south, the great Valley of California, the Gulf of Catalina, the San Pedro and the Santa Barbara channels.  The most southern extension of the geosinoline  represents the Gulf of California. In British Columbia and farther north the geosinoline between the Coast and Vancouver ranges was profoundly modified by glaciation in the Pleistocene time.  Ice tongues  from the Cordilleran ice sheet formed large piedmont glaciers  North America, by Israel C. mussel.  1904  3H& filled the Salf eg Georgia with an ice stream which found its eatleta through the Qaaea Charlotte awaad, the Strait of Jnaa &e Faga and the Paget ^onnd Valley^ The influence of the Pleistocene glaciers had a conaidor^&le effect in deepening the eld river valleys,  ahem the ice-  atreaaa melted, the aes was permitted to eater the valleys, ee aa te farm numerous deep, narrow, steep-walled fiords, which are the meet premimaat feature of the coast of British CelBabia*  The fiords* therefore, represent the old lines  of drainage, developed during early Cretaceous and possibly lata Jurassic time, when the Coast Range suffered from vigorous erosion, and was modified by glitoi^tioa in the Pleistocene time* The fiords are bounded by steep and precipitous walls, in many places rising sheer for hundreds of feat from the water's edge*  "Where the fiord is narrow, particularly  near the head wharo the mountains attain their greatest height, with a shore line marked by an entire absence of harbours aad beaches, the general aspect is mast impressive*" As it has been stated, in the region where the city of Vancouver is situated , two distinct physiographic types are developed*  To the south lie the lowlands and the  northern portion represents a part of tha Coast -sage. $*Rw #aMBea* "#lasiat&aa ef the Cordillera*" ^ Aw&y&saa (153) -%) Preliminary report on a Portion of the Main Gaast of ^ B.C. and Adjacent Islands* 3y 0*E* Lu Ley*  The latter has a rugged mountainous aspect and the first, en the contrary, represent a surf tee which is sculptured in comparatively lew relief* Burrard Inlet lies as the dividing line between these apposite types of relief. The lowland portion is marked by a few low parallel ridges of glaeial drift with east and west tread* places the country is dessected by ravines.  In some  South of the  Fraser, the country is plateau—like in character. The north western end of this general lowland portion is occupied by the city of Vancouver, and, therefore, this territory will be the subject of a detailed geographical description wh'^t is the aim of the present paper. According to  Johnstonrthe lowland portion under  consideration may be divided into two parts differing in physical characteristics; 1) the Recent delta of the Fraser, and 2) the highland ares in the general lowland section in the Valley of the Fraser.  The latter include 1) the  Burrard Peninsula, 2)the Surrey upland, 3) the Boundary Upland, and 4) the Point Roberts or English Bluff upland. The Burrard Peninsula. The Burrard Peninsula is bounded by the Fraser River on the south and Burrard Inlet on the north, having Point Prey as its western extremity <nd the Pitt River as its Geology of Fraser :iver Delta Map-area, by W.A.Joanston Canada Department of Mines. Geological survey. Memoirs 135. laas.  eastern end*  Its dimensions are: the width from north to  south is about 8§ miles; and the length from east to west, about &R& miles*  Its surface is generally low, not more  than 400 feet above sea-level but there is a ridge along its northern edge the height of which is fron 900 to 1,500 feet. The Burrard Peninsula consists of two ridges tending east and west and separated by two valleys, the general direction of which is north-west*  The eastern part of this  depression forms the valley of Still creek, Brunette river, Bumaby and Deer lakes.  The western part contains the  water of the shallow inlet known as false Creek.  Both  ridges are connected in their central part by a cross ridge known as Grand View heights which forms a divide at the heads False and Still creeks. The Northern ridxe. The northern ridge of the Burrard Peninsula is occupied by the principal part of the city of Vancouver while its eastern end is occupied by the municipalities of Coquitlam and Bumaby.  The northern ridge extends along the south  side of Burrard Inlet south-e^stw^rd from Stanley Park to the junction of the Pitt and Fraser rivers, a distance of about 18 miles.  This ridge becomes gradually higher  towards its east end reaching an elevation of 1,135 feet at its highest part known as Bumaby Mountain.  This  mountain represents the highest point in the general lowland portion*  Generally the surface of the northern ridge is not  more than 4J0 feet.  The northern Ride of the ridge is much  ateeper than the southern ana, ^aa becosi^a nearly vertical at the- First and Second nrrowa of B&rr^rd Inlet*  The  northern f$oe of Burn&by Mountain ia also steep*  Near  Rsrmat it aecomea aa.ata^p t h t l^rge l^ad^lides h^ve occured although the greater nnmhar of them took pl<ea in previous geological times*  The village of Baraet is situ ted on one  at these lindelidee.  The composition of the Northern ridge  ia chiefly bedrock which on the eou&hera slopes and in the aroaa valleys ia overlid by drift deposits of considerable thickneas. Between the Coquitlag ^ad Pitt rivers, ^t the eiat end of the northern ridge, ia an isolated elevation —Mary'a Hill* which la a detached autlfer af the ridge*  A law  Valley which runs from the eastern corner of Jurrard inlet westward to the Pitt river separates the northern ridge from the meuataiaoua region on the north* The Southern ridae. The southern ridge of Burrard Peninsula extends from Paint &ray on the west to the junction of .lynnette Creak and the Fraaer River*  It extends 5 miles farther weat than  the northern ridge, its maximum length being 1?§ miles. Its ^ver-Age height is about 300 feat*  The central part  being over 4JO feet and the western end highest part of the ridge ia a hill known  feet*  The  Little fountain.  The petrographies! composition of the southern ridge ia nearly the same as that of the northern ridge: partly of drift and partly of bedrock*  The southern ridge is occupied by the city of New Westminster at its south-eastern end, by the entire municipalities of South Vancouver and Boint Prey, and by the southern part of the city of Vancouver* The Snrrey Upland. To the south of the Fraser from New Westminster to the Nicomek-Serpentine Valley lies a flat-topped named Surrey Upland. level.  It rises seme 200 feet above the sea  Its dimensions are about 7 miles by 3 with its  longer side running from north-east to southwest*  The  Surrey upland is bound d on all aides by steep slopes which exhibit in many places river and wave-cut terraces.  The  most noticeable feature of this upland is the extreme levelness of its surface, slightly varied here and there by a few shallow depressions.  In places the area is dissected  by recent stream valleys.  The Surrey Upland is divided into  two parts by a broad, flat-bottomed valley.  The upland is  formed chiefly of glacial drift; bedrock outcrop occuris only at one point at South Westminster* The Boundary Upland. To the south of the Serpentine-Nicomekl valley the land rises to a height of 200 to 400 feet. the Boundary Upland,  it extends from the Nicomekl-Serpentine  Valley to the International Boundary* irregular*  This area is kaown as  Its surface is  The Boundary Upland is formed of heavy morainic  deposits, no root outcrop being known*  The glacial drift is  very thick; in some places it is at least 350 feet, as  shown by borings.  This morainie deposit probably marks the  southern boundary of the interglaoial Fraser estuary. There is a sen-cliff 100 to 200 feet high on the eastern side of Boundary bay, in which a good section of the morainie deposits of the Boundary Upland are exposed.  This  sea-cliff was cut by Wiive-action. Point Roberts. The Point Roberta or English Bluff Upland extends from the seaward part of the Fraser delta to the International Boundary near its western extremity and has its southern limit in the state of Washington.  The Point Roberts upland or  English Bluff is an isolated highland composed of glacial drift. A sea-cliff about 200 feet high has been out by wave-action along the west side of the highland.  This  cliff extends into the Strait of Georgia and exhibits a section of the drift deposits.  "No bedrock is exposed  but it may underlie the area at no great depth, for the thick deposits of glacial drift in this isolated area appear to require the existance of an underlying rock nucleus." / The geology of Vancouver and Vicinity, Moore Jackson Burwash. g.A. Johnston. area.  by Edward  Geology of Fraser River delta map-  -16-  Th e Surrey Upland and Point Roberts are now connected by the deposits of the recent delta. The receot delta of the Fraser. The delta of the Fraser has its ^/bex  at the city  of New Westminster, where the first distributary is given off*  The front of the delta lies 19 miles westward  projecting into the Strait of Georgia.  It extends south to  Point Roberts, and also to Point Grey at the western extremity of English Bay in a sinuous line, a distance of about 17 miles. The Fraser traverses it by two principal distributaries, of which the southern is the larger. The northern distributary flows close to the southern side of the Burrard Peninsula ridge, at the foot of which lie a few flat areas which properly belong to the delta. A large part of tie delta lies to the south of the main channel and extends seaward from the western side of the Surrey Upland.  The delta occupies also the lower part of  the broad valley in which the Nicomekl and Serpentine rivers flow.  There is no doubt that this valley, at a  comparatively late period, was occupied by a distributary of the Fraser but was abandoned because of uplift of the area*  At the present time it furnishes an excellent  railroad route between the Fraser Valley and the Fraser Delta. Above New Westminster a large area known as Pitt Meadows extends from the Fraser north to Pitt lake. The tides still affect the flow of the Fraser in this part  -17-  and  lso the waters of the Pitt River and Lake, which is  a distance of over 33 Miles from tha sei and nerve to increase the deposition of ailt ia this area*  Therfo.e the  Pitt Meadows may be considered as part of the Recent delta of the Fraser* Resides the unsubmergad portion of the delta there is a submarine one, known as the " S a n d - h e I t  extends  about 5 miles seaward, and its front describ a roughly an are of some  extending from Point Grey to Point Roberts*  The Sand-heads are divided by the navigable channel into two parts-Berth Sand-he d and South Saad*he.d+  This  channel h*a shown some tendency to shift its position. The old channel of the Fraser south of Sand Scad lighthouse is new entirely closed to large craft, and the navig^ale entrance is one and three-quarter miles northwest of the lighthouse*  Dams and tr ining walls have been built to  allow for scour, and to prevent the present channel from being silted up.  Sand-heads are largely bare at low tide.  The portions of Sand-he da situated na*r the shore form two banks the northern one which is known as the Sturgeon Bank a^d the southern as the Roberts Ranks* Besides Sand-he-ds, a submerged terrace liee on the north side of Point Grey*  It is known as Spanish Bank  and ia probably formed by the wavo-cutting of the material which forma Point Prey. The highest parts of the delta are in places 8 or 9 feet auove high-tide level and are covered with pe t.  -18-  The ^cent delt-^ 1& o^i.^ formed ^nJ. in rapidly extending ^eav^rda.  its sedimentation grows cut into the  Rtrait of Georgia at an average r-te of iOeut 1Q feet a year. The  o^ th  Jr.sor delta.  in and between the diatributariaa of th-n Eraser are some forty-five iol nds, of which the largest is ^ulu island, ae.-., .^esthm, Ann.-cis, Douglas and Tilomy are also islands of considerable siae. Lulu island hug its eastward end just 3pp site New Westminster, Bank.  its westerly limit continues into Sturgeon  The longest axis of Lain island is IS miloe.  The  eastern a^d of Lulu island is narrow but &e.m the river oellcw Aanaeis island it becomea wider and wiaer reaching its maximum bredth, about 6 miles ^t the line connecting Marpole, Jambi:? and Garden city st-tiona.  The surface of  Lulu island is not leas than 9 feit acove high-ti..^  aval ^nd  for the most part is covered with swanp vegetation,  aut  the present tiae . large .saount of the land is uader cultiv:tion.  The population of the isl-nd is growning ;ad  there are now such populated centres as ateveaton, Cardan City, Gambia ana others. .nascis island is situated ne*r the narrow east-riy extension of Lala island.  Ats length is 3 ail<3 and the  maximum width -.oout 1 mile, of the island .re taperinf.  aoth the upper and io-ver ends ge^r the upper and of ,,anaoia  ialtad lias Aobson ialana am near its right side lies  *1$-  Ratrle ial^nd*  Both the latter ialands ara small*  Th^ KouB^aia Jyattms. Aa already stated, the lowland ia bounded on the by apura from the ak git  ange of the Caocadoa*  The Coiat  range, ia the maater feature of western British Columbia." ^ The range has a general tread of north-aoxthwest, bat at the southern ana it altars to m aast-ana-wact direction and fellows t h t bearing slang the north side of Burrard Inlet and the Fraser Valley* The Coast range is of a composite character, being broken by fiords and prominent valleys into a series of subordinate ranges which vary ia height from 3,000 to 6+309 feat, with individual pe^ks from 1,000 to higher*  feet  The whole mountainous region is extremely rugged,  and divided by two deep valloya-*Capil.no--and Seymour into three ridges*  The most westerly of these ridges riaea  between Here Sound and the Cayilano Valley*  Thia ridge haa  four high summits which succeed each other along its crest item south to north in the following ordar: Black Mountain (&&0J fact), Mount Strahan (5000 foot). The Liana (5000 feet) aad Mount Brunswick (5903 fa t)*  ^oant Strah^n  nd Mount  Brunswick ^re composed o* FaleoRolo roof pendants*  The  othera ara ecapoaea of the masaive diorite%f the Ooaat ^  0.B* L& Ray* Preliadaary report aa ^ pertiea ef the main oo^at of ^ritiah Oolustaia ana adjacent lalands. B*K*J* Barwaah*  The geelogy ef Vancouver and Vicinity.  Batholith*  neatem ridge has aoaidea its four named  aummita also a flat^topped southerly extension known aa Hollybum ^idga* The oentr .il ridge at&sA^ between (iapilano and Saym&ar eraoka* -and ia bifurcated by tha valley of lynn Crack* Thara Era 4 aummits along its woatem fork:  Srouaa Mountain  (4830 feet), Dam Mountain (4393 feet), 8oat Mountain (470J fast) mad Ci-own Mountain  feat)*  laat aummit  praaents a sharp knife-edge of granitoid rook which ita being rapidly aro&ad*  Its western and Aaaoends ay a aMsbsr of  tf&rraca-li^o steps* The eastern fork of tha control ridge has on its aouth^m and & oh^in of aammita known aa  gaaKa*  Farther to tho north of thsaaa stands th# ilat-toppo& submit Of White Mountain f&SQU feet) w i aatlii to the north of it is Cathedral Noant^la (303& feat)* The oaat^ra ri&go kna^n aa Soymor nidge ooaupiea the area between SayatORr Crook and tha North arm of Jurrard Inlet*  it haa two  Of considerable heights  Saytaaar {8030 feet) and Msnnt Bishop (4830 ieatli Haymoar  The  has at its southern and two platans*li*e  terraces one af whieh has aa elevation of 49#Q fast*  Mount  feat and other  Small lakes an their sarfag^s occupy the bottoms  af cirques cut ia the tayraea fronts. Horthw^rd, toward the heart of the range* the summits show a ai&il^r formation.  Farther to the north they ^aoamo  higher, and thu most northerly el them, &ount Garibaldi is  <*31-  the highest in this ragisa*  It is a volcanic cone of the  Pleiatooeao age, 8703 foet In altitude* Many of the summits are vrtry sharp "homa", shaped by cirque catting, while others aae rounded*  The gentler slopes  are forested, while the steeper slopes are bare* or support a saanty growth of stunted pine.  Land aiidss, Which have  eceared from tiae to time, havo loft huge asars on many of the more precipitous f cea. The mountains described furnish the most magnificent scenery, especially "the Liana" and Grouse Mountain*  These  present outstanding fo...turos of natural charm aa^ beauty* From the position aod hai,ht of Vancouver's claim as "3he Lion—guarded City" is reoogniaad by everyone who visits the city of VaaeauP^r* The Coast fountains are dtasaatag by deep* precipitous valleys, som^ o' which ire mare than 4939 f^ot ^eep* valleys are of  onnyea type  These  are oeonpied by swift  etregaa with a succession of fails ^nd rapids*  The valley  bottoms hava teas wall ro-ndeR by glaciers., and high grade deltas composed of sand aad gravel hava fotsed at their mouths* In the bottoms of the %l*soi3tid valleys, poet glacial erosion has produced youngnt^e^,-aided cau^cna w i m M depth in some placea reaches 400 feet*  Thaxe are three principal valleys  in the coast lL^aga in the vicinity of Vancouver, namely the valleys of the Capila^u, iyan. and Seymour creeks*  Iheee  valleys are nearly parallel aad analogous to the fiords of Rows Sound and the Sarth ^iia.  ^f/td^V-^y jn 3ydronraphy. The Hy&rograpby of Vancouver may be divided, into two parts**!) Marine ana  fresh-water hydrography*  ^O the  first belong English Bay, Burrard inlet, False Creek, Boundary Bay and Indian Arm* English Bay is a part of the Rtrait of Georgia cutting into the land between Point Atkinson on the north and Point Grey on the south and reaching Stanley Park em the east* In the north-south direction English Bey is sad in the west-east  miles*  miles long  At its aouth English B^y  is S6& feet deep; in its middle part 1Q& feet and at the entrance into aurrard Inlat—lien's Gate--S6 feet at low tide*  The south-weatora. shore of English Bay represents a  shallow area known as Spanish Banks, the south-eastern slso , Shallow margin is called Sitsilano 3aach* Burrard Inlet represents a north-eastern extension of English Bay*  The entrance named Lion's Gate or First  narrows is a channel between rroapyct Point and the north shore, about l,atK) feat wide*  The length of iurr^rd Inlet  from Prospect Point to tha aost eastward point of Port Moody is l&g miles*  The bottom of Burrird inlet represent a long  trough whieh is divided at the .iaoond R^rrows into eastern and western parts*  The latter haj a saaxirauta width of Rg  miles and ^ depth of garrowa  depth is  fa^t in feet.  middle. At the Second ^.^atern p^rt of Burrxrd  Inlet between the *3e<3aad Narrows And the i^orth Arm is acre than one mile wide and 198 feet deep in i&s deepest section.  Beyond the North Arm Bnrrard Inlet becomes gradually more shallow, having 35 feet of depth near Port Moody. The eastern extremity of Bnrrard Inlet is very shallow* The average rise and fall of the tide in Burrard Inlet is a little lass than twelve feet*  The narrowing of Burrard  Inlet at the Lion's Gate produces a strong tidal current which varies from 8 to 10 knots.  Burrard Inlet has no islands  except a small one, Deadman's Island, in the southwestern corner, ne^r Stanley Park* Indian Arm or North Arm is a northerly extension of Burrard Inlet 12 miles in length and Rbont one mile wide. It lies mostly within the mountainous section and has a considerable depth ouch greater than Burrard Inl^t. At its mouth it is about 90 feot deep but becomes much deeper northward, reaching 348 feet in the middle of its long axis. False Creek represents a southeastern extension of English Bay.  Its entrance is ^ mile wide.  line False Creek is 4^ miles long,  In a straight  its m^xi^um width is  about one mile. At the entrance False Creek has a depth of 15 feet at low tide, and 26 feet in the middle part. Boundary Bay lios to the southeast from the mouth of the Fraser ^iver being crossed by the international boundary whence it derives its n me.  The northern extension of  Bay ia Mad Bay *** a v^ry shallow body of water where the Serpentine and Nicomekla divers flow in and make a sedimentation of great iumtities of mad. ward from Mud Bay lies a large sand bank.  West-  The Eastern  -24-  extension of Boundary Ray is known as Semiamu Bay* The fresh water hydrography of Vancouver may be subdivided into:  1) Fraser River delta, 2) small streams on  the low land tributarying to the Fraser. and 3) small lakes. Besides that in the ne*r vicinity of Vancouver two other types of rivers occur.  In the mountainous region beyond  Burrard inlet are some typical mountain streams, and on the low-land, in the southeastern part of the section there are two rivers of meandering type the Nieomekl and Serpentine rivers.  The Fraser niver occupies the first place in the  hydrography of Vancouver.  The mouth and the delta only  of this river oelong to the region under consideration, the middle and upper courses of the river being outside of the region.  The Fraser is the principal river in British Columbia  whesa hasin lies eatirely within the province.  It'has a  length of 790 miles and drains an area of 91,700 square miles, that is the whole province from  to 49° R., except  the extreme south-eastern corner, which is within the basin of the Columbia, and its tributary the Ecoteney.  It enters  the Strait of Georgia just in the vicinity of Vancouver, a little north of the United States boundary line. is navigable for 100 miles in its lower course.  The Fraser The river  is a typical mountain stream, rapid and impetuous through all its length, and like most of its tributaries is in many parts not navigable even by canoes.  On its southern course  between iytton and Yale, while bursting its way through the Coast Range, it flows through majestic canyons.  The Lower  Fraser is subject te floods-"-("freshet8*')--from April to August, often rising  feet above normal high water in the  narrow reaches and covering about 2J0,JJ9 acres in the valleys lower down,  duch floods prevail during that so ..son in many  parts of Mcrth western America.  The whole Pacific slope—  eslifexaAat Orsgssa, WsMagton and British ColEmbia-*owiag to the physical structure of this part of the continent, la more or lees liable to Revere floods over low lying districts BSAtF rivers*  The flood waters come chieily from the melting  of the snow in the interior*  The greit fresheta occur in  those years in which hot weather comes early in a season proceeded by heavy snowfall,  in the vicinity of Hew West-  minster the delta land of the Fraser is dyked to exclude the flood waters* Extreme low water ia the Fraser may occui in any month from November to March*  "Raring the lo^-wnter stage the  river is affected by tho tid#s an far up as Chi-liwack (60 miles)*  The current ia reversed in the river by the flood-  tide, however, oniy as far as Fort Langley (30 miles)* The semi-dsily tides in the strait of Georgia are characterized by marked diurnal inequality*  The me *n range at the  entrance of the Fraser river is 6*4 feet*  The maximum  range of the greit flood tides la 15 feet and of the gra-t abb tides ia 14 feet*'*J/ ^ /  Sedimentation of the Fraser River Delta by W*A. Johnston* Canada, Geologicaurv*, Hamolr 18^, 1981*  -26-  At New Westminster the Fraser river gives off its first distributary, North Arm, which at Marpele gives off its own distributary, North Arm Jetty*  The main stream of the Fraser  divides near its mouth into Woodwards Slough and Sea Reach, the latter gives off Canoe Bass to the south*  The mouth of  the Fraser River is situated between two large banker Sturgeon to the north and Roberts to the south* The small rivers of Vancouver and the vicinity are as follows:  Coqaitlam, Brunette and Still creek.  The Coquitlam  flows into the Fraser River four miles above the city of New Westminster*  Its length is about 7 miles*  The Brunette  river eaters the Fraser just at the eastern end of the same city*  This stream has its origin on the southeastern slope  of Bumaby mountain;  its length is about 4 miles.  Still  creek flows from the Cross ridge, connecting the northern and southern ridges into Bumaby lake, and is about 4 miles in length*  The Brunette and Still creek valleys separate  the northern and southern ridges in the eastern part. Besides these rivers there are numerous stre ss in the vicinity of Vancouver which are of the intermittent, or wet weather type*  They have no well-defined valleys and their  courses are along joint planes, or other accidental channels. There are five small lakes in the region of Vancouver and vicinity*  The largest o^ them is Bumaby lake which lies  between Vancouver and New Westminster in the depression between the Northern and Southern ridges. the lake is about two miles.  The long axis Of  Still creek enters the lake  *gy*  and a small atream flows eat of it, connecting the lake with Brunette river* Deer lake,  To the a oath-west froa Bo m a by lake lies  ita length is lass than § mile,  it receives  some small intermittent streams from the Cross and Southern ridgea*  Welcome lake lias to the northeast from Sew West-  minster.  Trout lake lies near the eastern and of the city  of Vancouver.  3esver lake lies in Stanley Park*  All three  latter lakes are small; less than i mile* in length. The rivers $f the mountain type are Capilano, Lynn, Seymour and Cypress creeks*  They originate among the  mountains of the Coast Range and ran in the very steepsided canyons which they have cut through the rock and drift barriers near their mouths. strewn with boulders.  Their channels are thickly  Near the heads of the valleys steeper  gradients and deeper drift-cuts are met with. Many cascades occur in the course of these rivers. Capilaao creak ia about 18 niles in length gaining into -i the sea just at the Lion's Gate. Seymour Creek originates in a small lake which has an elevation of 3, 300 feet.  The gradient of the river for the  first twenty-one miles is about sixty feet per miles, for the upper four miles of its course, about 500 feet per mile^ sad in the ease of the latteral tributaries this gradient is much exceeded^ Seymour greek is about twenty miles in length. /  Stream data obtained from "Report of Rater eights', Department of Landa, Victoria, 1913.  Seymour Creek empties into Burrard Inlet at the Second Narrows* lynn creek flows from a lake which lies in a steep-j sided cirque*  The length of this river is about 10 miles*  The Serpentine river originates on the Surrey Upland and empties into Mud Ray, being about 16 miles in length* Nieomekl river originates in the depression between the Surrey upland and the Boundary upland* miles*  Its length is about 15  This river also empties into Hud Bay below Clovsrdale,  both these rivers flow in one common, broad valley.  4*  The Geology of Vancouver and Vicinity* a) General Geology. 1) Palaeozoic and Mesozoic*  The eldest formation in the region discussed is a small area of rocks to which the name Caulfield formation is given* It occurs in Caulfield, near Point Atkinson on the northern side of the entrance of Burrard Inlet and consists of banded schistose rock.  Le Roy and Sarwash%uggested that the rock  is Palaeozoic and probably to be raftered to the Texadan group*  Dykes of hornblende, diorite, porphyrite and olivine  diabase cut the rock* Next in age are the Coast Range 8atholitic rocks which outcrop only along the southern border of the nountain y Le Roy. Preliminary report on a Portion of the Rain coast of B.C* and Adjacent Islands, Included ia New Westminster and Nanaimo Districts* Geol. 3urv., Can. Pub. No* 996, 1908. aurwash, E.M.J* The Geologh of Vancouver and Vicinity. University Chicago Press. < !  00  "S  yu v) IW s *!  w*  S-  o <rt  w-  <  P <  <  i C. r* Co  <  P  P o ?  C3  -29-  section.  The reeks consist of quartz diorite, grano-diorite,  diorite.  The contact exposed in the bed of Capiiano Creek  in the lower canyon above Keith Road bridge shows that Eocene sedimentary rocks rest on a deeply weathered and eroded surface of the batholith. bathelith was intruded*  There are no rocks into which the  They mast have been eroded almost  entirely in this region before the deposition of the Eocene* S.J. Schofield and 6* Hanson^summariz ed the evidence for the Upper Jurassic age ef the Batholith.  These geologists also  refer later granitic intrusions in the Coast Mountain region to the Laramide revelation at the close of the Cretaceous. There are probably two or more series of dykes which intruded the batholithic rocks.  One series is mineralogieally  similar in composition to the batholith itself; others differ considerably.  Their ages are supposed to be Socene and  older, up to Jurassic.  The dykes occur at several places  along the coast east of Coalfield and in the bad of Capiiano Creek, north of the contact of the Eocene basal conglomerate and the batholith. a short distance above Keith noad bridge* Many dykta occur in the northeastern part of the area. A dyke eats the quartz diorite on a small isolated hill one mile west ef Pitt river, and three miles north of the Canadian Pacific railway.  Some dykes occur near point  Atkinson. Seel. 3urv., Can., Mem. 132, 1922, p. 25.  -30-  ^  Tertiary. Yeuager than the Coast Range batholitha are the bedrock strata in the Fraser delta area which are mostly of Tertiary age*  They are divided into three formations:  the oldest,  the Burrard formation of Middle or Upper Eocene age, the Kitailano formation of Upper Eocene or lower Oligocene age, and the youngest, the boundary Bay formation, of Pliocene or Miocene age* Burrard Formation*  Thia formation is thejowest of the  Tertiary series in Vancouver region and rests unconformably on the granitic rocks of the Coast Range batholith* and possibly in places on older rocks*  It is overlain by the  Kitsilano formation, of Upper Eocene or lower Oligocene age* Good exposures of the base of the formation occur only in the ewer canyon of Capilano Creek, about 100 yards above Keith Read bridge,  lower beds of the formation outerop in  a stream valley, entering Capilano Creek from the west, below Keith Road bridge, on the tidal flats at Dandarave, and are exposed at the end of the Capilano street car-line. Higher aeds of the formation are exposed at Prospect point and along the coast south of English Bay beach.  The rocks  of the formation are exposed also at various places along the south shore of Burrard Inlet between Vancouver and Bamet. The formation consists of a basal conglomerate and an overlying series axR sandstone and shales.  No marina fossils  have been found in the beds of the Burrard formation but the land plant remains are very abundant and consist mainly  -31-  3f leaf impreaaioas in the shale bods*  J.94- Bawsoa and  professor g&ward g. Bsrry of/the Johns Hop&ins University studied these plant remains and found th^t the fossils represent a mixture of warm-elisate species, such as the fig* with those of a oolder plimate*  Prof. Berry determined the  fossil plants to ae Middle or Upper Beoena* The Burrard formation <<aa deposited "mostly in shallow water and in part S ^ ^ r ^ j j / en am a&lavial piedmont plain wader hamid warm climate conditions and nearly at aaa*laval**jP Zitsilano formation.  $hia formation rests on the eroded  surface of the Burr&rd formation*  The contact oetween the  two formation is well exposed in shore-cliff sections along Barrard inlet west of Second Narrows* and near second narrows* gmall outcrops of the &ower part also occur at other places along Barrard Inlet and on the northern face of Buraaby Mountain* where land-slides h^ve exposed the bedrock about 909 feat* of which about 173 feat is sandstone and shale. A small exposure occurs at low tide at the first point south of English Bay first oe^oh.  Good outcrops of the middle  or upper portions of the formation are seen along the coast ^  grama* ^ay* Sea*. Can** Vol* 1* sea -&*' and Johnston, W*A* Pleistocene iaterglaoine Deposits in ths Vancouver region, 3.C+ Trans* AQy.,^oc.*Jan. Vol. 16 sec 4 ^ /  Johaataa* Geology of Fraaer ivar Delta Cann ^eal* Sarv. Mam* 135* 1$%3*  at Sitsilano beach, in ravines south of False creek, and in a catting on the Great Northern railway through Grand View heights*  The formation probably extends south and southwest  beneath the younger rocks of the region under discussion* The Xitsiiano formation consists of a thick basal conglomerate overlain by sandstones and shales.  The conglo-  merate contains pebbles one to throe or four inches in diameter and sometimes stones up to eight or ten inches ia diameter*  The conglomerate has an imbricated structure  as is shown in a section exposed on the south shore of Burrard Inlet at the point west of Second narrows.  The  stones are arranged so that they have a uniform dip towards the e-st aad show that this part of the conglomerate was formed from river gravels.  Iha rocks of nhich the peoblee  of the conglomerate consist aie derived moatly from the Joaat ^aage batholith, but the conglomerate contains also shistoae rocks, probably derived rrom older rocks, and pebbles, of shale, apparently from the Barrard formation* The sandstones aad shales farming the middle and upper parts of the Xitsilano formation contain numerous thin lenses and irregular masses of lignite, generally only one-half to one inch thick; aad contain alxo remains of drift logs only partly changed to lignite* -Ika Zltsilaao formation has a general dip 6 to 9 degrees towards the south.  Its thickness as shown by the borings and  the sections exposed is at least M J J fe^t.  & conservative  estimate of the thickness would be 15J0 feet*  '  :  '  -33-  The fossils of the Xitsilano formation have been found in the sea-cliff along Xitailano haach mainly at a point 100 yards west of the pier and at the end of Balaclava street*  They sonsist of plant remains*  Bat the age of t&s  formation may be determined from these fossils only approximately.  Professor Berry agrees that there is no  objection to considering the Xitailano plants as Upper Eocene or ^swer Oligocene* The basal conglomerate of the formation probably was formed from an ancient alluvial fan by cementation of the gravels*  it was chiefly formed above sea-level, because it  has imuricated structure, indicative of river action.  As  has already been stated the source of supply of its materials was the Coast ^ange; therefore it thins and becomes finer in grain towards the south and west* The upper sandy part of the formation was laid down in shallow fresh water* The Boundary Bay formation,  it has no outcrop being  severed by the Pleistocene and recent deposits*  It is known  only from borings at Boundary Bay by the Boundary Bay Oil Company.  In all probability the formation underlies some  part of the region near Boundary Bay.  The rocks of the  formation consist of gravel and poorly cemented conglomerate, sandstone, sand, volcanic ash and sandy shale*  The rocks are  slightly consolidated and some of them are unconsolidated. The age of the formation is not definitely knovn and is supposed to be Pliacena or Miocene.  P f Q ^ c t Fpiat  The Garrard and ^itsilano  formations are intruded ay a number of dykes of igneous rooks*  The largest vertical dyke ooaura at Prospect point,  being §0 feet wide and 800 feat high*  it forms a prominent'  cliff just at the entrance into the harbour*  Another vertical  dyke 10 feet wide occurs near Siwash rook, an the west side of Stanley park*  it is exposed only at lew tide.  Jesides  these two there are numeroua small dykes one to six feat thick which occur on the tidal flats at Kitsilam beach and south of the beaeh near the corner of 10 th* avense and Trafalgar street but they are too small to be shown on the map* The eruptivea are represented also by a flew or sill exposures which occur at several places along tae road and along tae edge of the cliff southwest from rrospect point, and near tha reservoir*  A similar flaw or sill also occurs  little nountain, a reservoir ^eiag excavated in it* Volcanic tuffa intruded by dykes occur on the south side of False Creek near the end of 3th avenue. wall exposed in two axoavationa:  Similar rocks are  one of which was made by  the Great Northern railway and the othar was made for the Capital theatre en Granville street* fhe groandmaaa of the dykes at Prospect Point has a wa&l*&avelepa& flew structure*  It is a basalt*' The igneous  rock at Little Mountain is a fina-grained augite-olivine basalt.  The flow or sill near the reservoir Southwest of  Prospect Point consists of the rock which may be classified  -35-  ae augite andeaite. The structure of the Prospect Point eruptives (glass, spheralites) indicates that they chilled rapidly and not far from the surface, while the flow structure suggests that cooling took place shortly after the magma reached its present position. The contact between the Prospect Point eruptives and sedimentary rocka is exposed in many places, for instance in the vicinity of Slwash rock./ Several tongues of igneous rocka intruded the sandstones there and considerably baked and altered them. Saeh aandatone*  Siwask aoek itself,consists mostly of  This metamorphased sandstone has resiated  eroaion well in consequence of which Siwash j&ock ia now a *  high stack above the surface of the sea.  it is a marine  erosion remnant. The Prospect Point eruptives intrude the Burrard and gitailano formation of Upper Eocene or Lower Oligocene but their surface exposed in the reservoir at Little Mountain is well glaciated. Pre-Pleistocene.  Therefore their age is past-Eocene and  Since the Boundary Bay formation has  volcanic ash, it is reasonable to suppose that it was derived from venta in the area and that the Boundary Bay formation and the Proapect Point eruptives are, therefore of the same age.  /  Johnston. Geology of Fraser -liver Delta  Map-area.  -36-  3) Quaternary. ajPleistoceue. The Pleistocene formations of the Frasar Delta area have a considerable thickneas—ia places over 1030 feet. Thay eonaiat of glacial and interglacial deposits.  There  ware at least $wa advancea and two retreata of the ioe-aheet durlag the Pleistocene period. Glacial Deposits (Till sheets),  ^he direct depoait of  the ice-sheets\/in theVancouver region, which outcrop in a few places together.  A good exposure occurs in a section on  Bnrrard Inlet near the Burrard Lamber Company mill at the*, end of Queen street.  Another exposure is seen in a aection  af the sea-cliff between White Rack and Ocean Park.  The  upper till is expoaed in sections on the south aide of the Eraser River, about 1-1/& miles below New Neatmimstar, near the aid brick-yard of the Fraaer River Brick Company.  It  ia shown also in the section at Point Grey. The upper till contains in several places numerous fossil marine shells.  Its upper part has a slightly weathered  oharacter and shows that final advance and retreat of the lea secured late in Pleistocene timea. aovared by atratified deposits: and gravela.  The lower till is  atony clays, silt, aanda  It is evident, therefore, that the till was  partly deposited below water-level.  Many other features  af the glacial depoaits also show that, during the Pleistocene time, the Fraser Delta area was, for the most part, b e l w aea-level.  Burwash is inclined to think that the  aaa ataod at least 760 feet and perhaps 800 feet higher than  -37-  it dees now. Point Grey formation finterglaeial).  Glacial outwash  including the stratified deposits overlain and underlain by till represents the Point Grey formation.  It outcrops  only in the sea-cliffs that border the Point Grey peninsula on the northwest, west, and southwest sides.  The formation  consists of stratified sand, silt, and clay and peat.  The  ^rorisontally bedded sands and silts have a thickness of about 40 feet.  The lowest bed contains, in several places  on the north and west sides of the peninsula, plant remains which consist of numerous poorly preserved leaf impressions. The upper part of the series contains peat beds which are throe in number and are from 2 to 5 inches thick.  They  occur in the face of the cliff near the end of the peninsula, 100 yards porth of an old pier. A collection of plants from the Point Grey formation, made in 1921 by <*.A. Johnston, was examined by Professor E.W. Barry, who found there Salix barclayi Andreas, Salix myrtilloides Linne, Chamoedaphne Calyeulata (Linne) Moench., Kalmia alanc^ Ait, and Vaccinium ovalifolium J.E. Smith, and besides that fruits of a Populus.leaves of Arctostavhylos. framents of the leaves of grasses or sedges and a considerable number of lignified branches, as well as fragments of leaves that are not determinable.  Prof. Berry is inclined to think  Geology of Vancouver  tnd Vicinity  —38—  "that the fossil plants found *t Point 8rey represent a warm interval in lata glacial time, probably subsequent to the maximum advance of the Miseonsin ice-sheet of the northeastern part of north Amarica+^The plant-bearing bads are clearly alluvial plain deposits  nd the formation is  Pleistocene and int^rglacial. Biapl 1 O^twish ^poei^alMey-^dd^d w^,^ Till (Admiralty Sediraenta). W.A. Johnston has pointed o, t that besides the Point Orey formation thare are glacial outw.eh deposits which appear to ha str tigraphie^lly below the interglacial beds*  The deposits "consist of stratified  sands, gravals.and silty clays.  They underlie a considerable  part of the Point Grey peninsula and form the greater part of the materials exposed in the aea-oliffa around the point. They are exposed in sections near the end of Queen street and are shown by axposnres in ravines and along the Fraser liver to form a considerable part of the Surrey upland in its western part.  Sections along the coast between  White Rock and Crescent be ch show that the upland adjacent to this part of the coaat is largely composed of stratified deposits.  They also form part of the English Bluff upland.  Roll sections shew that they probably underlie the upper till she<Kt over a considerable part of the area, 7 Trans,  sines  ^ay, Sea., Can., Vol. RT1, 1983. See IV.  -39-  they are mostly covered by till, they outcrop only in the faces of cliffs and in ravines where the till has been eroded away*  They attain a thickness of at least 200 feet  and are probably much thicker in places." y i aised Delta and Marine Deposits.  As has been stated,  the Fraser Delta area w.s below sea-level during the final retreat of the ice-sheet.  According to the geologists who  have made their research work on the geology of Vancouver and Vicinity, there is no doubt that the Eraser Delta area stood at least 650 feet below se -level at the time of tha last retreat of the ice-sheet. At the present time this is well shown by stratified clays, which contain marine fossils high above sen-level and overlying the glacial drift. The raised beaches and terraces indicate this also very well. The post-glacial marine submergence is represented by characteristic sediments. The marine or brackish wate^ deposits of clays occur in Langley valley , where they are especially thick; and alsa in depressions on tha uplands at various places.  The  marine deposits outcrop in a section exposed by the construction of the Pacific highway along the side of the hill on the south side of the Fraser ..iver,  milssaaave Nev  Westminster, at the Port Haney brick-yard, and in tha Seacliffs.  These deposits consist of scratified silts and clays,  raised delta deposits are exposed at the mouth of y  W.A. Johnston. area, P.43.  Geology of Fraser River Delta,  . -40-  Cspilano, Lynn, and Seymour Creeks on the north side of Barrard Inlet, and north of Pert Coqnitlam along the Coquitlam river.  They aonsist of stratified sands and gravel*.  Fossil marine shells in the diacuased depoaita were found by W*A* Johnston in an excavation for a sewer along 16th. Avenue, West, Kitsilano, Vancouver.  The shell bed  occurs at a height of 50 feet above sea-level.  Another  collection of shells was made in a section 1-1/3 miles above New Westminster on the south side of the Fraser*  Fossil  marine shells alao occur in excavations at the Port Haney brick-yard and in wella in the drift near Central Park and in the vicinty of Mnrrayville and even as far up the Valley aa Abbotsford* The fossils were determined by E.J*%hittaker, who states that they are "quite comparable with the inshore j^ana of the British Columbia coast at the present t i m e . "The assemblage represents a typical inshore mixture of inter-tidal and shallew-water forms.# (c)  RECE3T  The youngeat formations in the area are the Recent delta and alluvial depoaita of the Fraser and other rivers such aa Capilane, Lynn and Seymour Creeka*  gravels, sands,  ailts and clays form these formations Which have been deposited during the past few thousand years.  These format-  ions are unconsolidated and there is no folding or faulting deforming them.  The relationship of sea and land during  this time haa been quite constant, or nearly ao.  fa)  GEOLOGICAL HISTORY  The history of tha Fraser delta region begins with the sedimentation in Palaeozoic and LowerJgeaozoie time.  The  region where the Coast Range now rises represented in those times a broad synclinal basin of deposition.  The sediments  mast have been of considerable thickness and extent.  The  next important geological event in the history of the region was an aplift in Upper Jurassic times.  The beds were folded  and intruded by the Coast range Patholiths.  It is probable  that the low section of the Fraser delta existed in that time as a depression and did not form part of the mountainous region. In Cre^tsceons times dr great eresloa took place, when the rocka, into which tha Intrusion of thejpatholiths took place, were largely eroded away and the Coast Mountain* were <  Warm down sufficiently to expose the ignions recks. ' A  The  general surface of the lowland section was probably produced also by this erosion. la Kesozoic Era, therefore, the general features of the region were quite clearly formed.  There was already a  Boast Mountain system to the north and a low-land section to the south. During Middle Eocene time, depression of tha Fraser Delta region took place and the sediments of the Bnrrard formation were deposited. Near the end of Eocene times the Coast Mountains were uplifted again and the Bnrrard formation was partly eroded.  -51-  After that sedimentation of the Kitsilano fo.motion took place, accompanied by farther depression of the Fraser delta region. Deposition of the Kitsilano formation probably continaed into Oligocane time. e Daring the Middle or late Tertiary time, ign&oan rocks intruded into sedimentary rocks of the Barrard and Kitsilano formations, and the sediments of the Boundary Bay formation were laid down. After that dona warping and probably faulting of the basin of sedimentation occurred. In Pliocene timo, the whole region was uplifted higher above sea-level than it is now, and was deeply eroded.  This  erosion cat river valleys xhich now extend far below sealevel. During Pleistocene time glaciers or continental icesheets twice over-rode the Fraser dp.ta region.  The direction  of their moving as it is suggested by the forms of the Indian Arm, Bowe Sound and other fiords, as well as by Pitt and  Coquitlsm lakes, was approximately from north to south.  The periods of the advances of the glaciers were intervened by a period of temperate climate.  The first ice-  sheet left a great deal of glacial oatwash after its retreat. An extensive alluvial or uplifted marina plain was formed of it, which was deeply dissected during the interval of temperate climate.  The depression of land took place after  the first glaciation.  In;er-glacial beds (Admiralty Sed-  iments) containing fossils were laid down in this depression aad after that the sediments of the Point Grey formation  were deposited. Near the close of the interglacial tiue the whole region was uplifted and eroded.  The uplift of the land was  followed by t&e second glaciation of the region.. In this time, glacial outwsah deposits were formed  <giin*. They  overlie the Paint Grey formation.. The second glaciation was accompanied by depression of the land. Near the close of and after this glaciation the country was beneath the sea., Marina clays., stratified sands, gravels and silts containing marine fossils were deposited in that time. After the final retreat of the ice the country was uplifted to its present position and raised beaches have been formed.. The oscilations of se^-level secured, therefore, several times during the Pleistocene ti<T*e+ Splift and depression of the land corresponded in tite to two main advances and retreates of the ice-sheet*  This coincidence  of depression and uplift with the advance and retreat of ice suggests that crustal movements were isostatic in character.  Origin of Physical Futures* ^s hast been stated tha chief physiographic^! features of the Vancouver region Wore already formed in Meaosoic Bra.  The mountainous section to the north from  Burrard Inlet represents the bajhcliths which were intruded in Jurassic time.  The region was uplifted and the sedimentary  -44-  rocka aince that time were erode! away and now the mountains represent the batholiths dissected by erosion into three ridges with several high summits. The origin of thu lowl.ads is due to deposition of aedi ants the material of which has been derived from the mountainous section.  The physiographic 1 features of the  lowlands represent partly  result of erosion of the ..  bedroeka^and partly the result ^f deposition and erosion of the surface deposits.  The erosion of bedroc^a/created the  hills and cliffs along the pcuth side of Burrard Inlet and south of False Creek and English bay.  3She fiord-like Burrard  Islet, Pitt lake and the narrow rock eanyona of Capilano, Lynn, and Seymour creeks and the wave-cat marine platforms are also due to the erosion of b^diock^.  The highland are^a  in the general lowland section and the recent dalt&a of the Eraser amd other smaller rivere are due to the deposition and erosion of th3 surface deposits, chiefly, glacial drift, and to a email extent of stream erosion ia past-glacial time*  They have bean uplifted but have not ooen warped or  folded, at least to any appreciable extent. The origin of th.* cliff at the south side of the First narrows is due to the  ea'atant character of the igneous  rock of which it is aomposed.  A siailar origin h^ve the  Bumaby and Jittlc-mountains.  The sumnit of Ba^naby mountain  ia formed of the conglomerate beds which have strongly resisted erosion while the surrounding lowland 3oction is composed of less resiatant rocks and therefore haa easily been eroded.  -45-  Little Mountain is built ..up^.of igneous rock, the surrounding rocks being much less resistant* Burrard lalet is of erosional, not structural, origin. As has been stated it is deep in tho upper and partly driftfilled in the lower part.  Undoubtedly Burrard inlet with  its eastward extension to Pitt Meadows was an old channel of the Fraser river which has been abandoned in favor of the more southerly channel owing to the elevation of the land to the north towara the mountain axis,  ^he valley of  Burrard Inlet appears to be incised in the underlying Eocene rocks*  Ruling the Pleistocene tine this old valley was,  undouotedly, over-deepened ay ica erasian. Falsa creek valley is a shallow depression paxtly below sea-level.  The bedrock in this depression is probably at  no great depth from the surface, and is ave^lain by drift deposits.  False creek vaaiey is of erasianal arigin and  like Burrard inlet was also an ancient channel af the Fraser ^iver.. This channel seams to have been in Burnaby lake-Faiae creek trough and lolloped in the directicn ef the Brunette river—Burnaby lake, Still creek and False creek* in the Glacial epoch False creek varley was madified by ice erosion* The fiord-like valleys of inaian Arm and Pitt laife differ fram erdinary stieam valleys in several ways*  No  daubt these valleys existed as river valleys in preglacial times, but at the present day they are mostly straight sided and have not the interlocking spurs characteristic of many  -46-  stream valley*,  in their upper parte theae valleys are  wider and deeper than in their lover parte and many of their tributary valleys are hanging nearly U J J feet aoove the aottem of the valley.  This undoubtedly could not have  been produced by normal stream erosion.  There is no doubt  that theae fiord-like valleys were over-deepened Oy ice erosion during the glacial epoch.  "The nearly vertical aides  of tha valleys la places is due to vertical joints in tha root, and since faults occur in tha area it is probable that the valleys owe their origin, in part, also, to faulting." The geological history of tha valleys of Capiiano, iynn and Seymour creeks shears that in th  time immediately following  the recession of tha ice sheet, they at first contained fiords bat as uplift progressed theae fiords became lakes.  Tha  rock and frift barriers which retained their waters were out end the l k e a yore drained by post-glacial canyons.  Economic Geology. Sands and Gravels. The glacial outwash and intirglaoial deposits contain a large quantity of sands and gravels which of considerable commercial i portance as structural material.  But theae  deposits are moatly overlain by boulder olay and appear at the surface only in the se-i-cliffa and in ravines, whore erosion has exposed them.  They o^our also in the raised  -y $*olagy ef Fraser &-ivei Bolts Map-Area, by <**A+ Johnston, v page 58.  -47-  delta and alluvial deposits of Capilano, Lynn and Seymour creeks and Coquitlam river.  Some of these deposits exposed  at the surface as late glacial deposits.  The best of all  these sands are those from the bed of the Fraser river because they are remarkably even grained and free from silt or clay and do not contain salt* Clays* This region has deposits of good clays.  The Pleistocene  stratified clays occur at Port Haney, and are used by the Port Eaney Brick and Tile Company.  The deposits of the post-  glacial clay occur in tha Langley valley. from stones or other impurities.  These are free  There is also surface delta  on Lulu Island. Clay shale from the Upper part of tha Burrard formation occurs on the south side of Burrard inlet, one mile east of Second narrows, at the north end of Queens avenue. The clays are used for the manufacture of bricks, tile and other wares by the soft-mud process.  Coal. Seams and lenses of lignite occur in the Tertiary rocks of the region near Vancouver.  The seams have a maximum  thickness of only about one foot and at tha present tine are of no commercial importance. Peat. The peat deposits occur in many places of the region. The oldest of them occurs in the inteiglacial beds at Point Cray.  Others are all post-glacial in age.  Humorous peat  -48- ^  bogs occur in Bnrnaby Lake valley and along the Fraser above New Westminster.  All peat oogs are deep, especially  a small bog along Fraser avenue, south of False Creek, which ia from 30 to 40 feet deep and at one place even 60 feet* deep. The peat of the region is slightly altered because there is no oscillation of the groundwater level or free circulation of the groundwater and, therefore,there is little opportunity for oxidation of the material.  The value of the peat, as  fuel material, is not high.  Oil and Gas Possibilities Gas springs are found in many places in the neighbourhood of Vancouver; and fl ws of natural gas hiVe been obtained in aeveral of the wells.  Gas springs occur also at Pitt meadows  near Pitt lake, along Still creek near the he^d of Bumaby lake, at Steveston, at Boundary Bay, and on the north arm of the Fraser near the entrance.  They also occur at various  places in the low swamp ground along the Fraser ana its tributaries.  Some of the gas springs,(the springs at  come partly from the bedrock. are springs of swamp gas.  But most of them  This is a dry gas and, therefore,  is probably not a petroleum gas. Gas flows have been struck in several of the wella drilled in this^Iea.  The gas cornea partly from the unconsolidated  surface deposits and partly from the bedrock,  it is in all  probability swamp gas, and not associated with petroleum.  It waa found in the Boundary Bay wall that natural gas la present in the rocks at considerable depths, and under considerable pressure.  it may be taken as evidence that a  favorable structure for gas accumulation exists but the lens like character of the freshwater strata and the fine-grained character of the marine strata seem to show that reservoirs of gas are not of sufficient size to be of commercial importance Oil seepages have been reported to occur at several points in the area.  The best of them is known as the Burnauy, and  is located in a peat bog just south of the Sreat Northern railway, about 2,000 feet west of Sperling avenue (Poleline road), near the west end of Surnaby lake*  6. Estlin, under  whose direction borings were made, states that 10 barrels Of oil were recovered from this seepage*  But the oil was  obtained from the peat, several aquare yards of which were saturated with the oil.  No oil was found in the clay under the  peat* The hope of obtaining oil in commercial quantities has been based on the occurence of a thick series of sedimentary rocks which might prove to be oil-bearing. few rock outcrops in the area. by drilling began.  But there are  Therefore, a search for oil  Over $1,000,000 has already been spent  for this Tpxgpese. Regarding the rocks of the area it may be aaid, that the strata underlying the Fraser Delta map-aiea are mostly freshwater.  This indicates that they are not likely to be oil or  gas-bearing in origin.  But it may be that they are underlain  **50—  by marina beds from which the oil or gas may have imigrated* "It is not definitely known wither older sedimentary racks underlie the Tertiary rocks in places in the area, but even if they do, they are probably beyond the reach of tha drill. It must be concluded, therefore, that the prospects of obtaining commercial supplies of oil or gas in the Fraser Delta area  Roils. Since the last pages of geological history in the vicinity of Vancouver were Pleistocene and -ecent ages it is quite natural that the soils of the region are almost all drift moils.  They are derived 410m superficial deposits of Pleist-  ocene and -meant.  The soils of the region may be divided  into four main classes:  1) glacial drift, 2) alluvial and  delta, 3) raised delta and 4) swamp soils. The glacial drift soils cover the uplands. mostly sandy or sandy-loam soils.  They are  The alluvial and delta  soils are mostly clay loam or silty clay loam soils; there are also some clay soils amongst them.  They have a fine-  grained character and contain abundance of organic matter both in the surface soil and in the subsoil. render them exceptionally fertile.  These pecularities  They are highly productive  even in very diy seasons because of their good water-holding %.A. Johnston.  Geology Fraser River DElta map-area*  -51-  capacity and of the ne rness to the surface of the groundwater. They offer great inducement to the agriculturist and are capable of supporting a large agricultural population.  The  raised delta soils are partly marine clay soils and partly sand soils.  The sandy soils are developed in the raised  deltas of Capilano. Lynn, and Seymour creeks.  The clay soils  contain clay or clay loam free from stones and occur in the Langley valley and along Fraser river near Port Hammond and Port Haney,  They form extensive tracts known since the early  days of settlement as "prairies".  They have probably never  been wooded, and now represent highly valuaole agricultural lands. ^The swamp soils cover a considerable part of the delta of the Fraser, and especially Lulu and others islands, of acidity their adaptability for agricultural purposes is not high.  The peaty soils along the Fraser Liver above New  Westminster and in the Pitt Meadows flats contain certain amounts of river silt and, therefore, are more fertile. A Climate of Vancouver. Climate in geneial. The climate of Vancouver is influenced j^r three chief factora--the latitude (49** 17') the neighbourhood of Pacific Oce^n and the relief of tha region*  The first factor in-  evitably indicates a temperate climate in general.  The Pacific  Ocean represents an inexhaustiole source of moisture and latent heat.  Besides that, there is the warm Japan Current  in the Ocean, which orings a gre^t quantity of warm water just in the direction to the coast of British Columbia.  The  -52-  influence of the Pacific Ocean results in heavy rainfall and, alight range in temperature. The relief of tha area modifies the influence of the Pacific and is the; ?hiaf factor in the distribution of precepitation, and temperature. The relief of tha region, as has been discussed in the above chapters, consists of the lowlands--the Fraser .Aver Delta and the Coast and Cascade Mountains, which separate it from the interior plateau and expose them to the influence of the warm Pacific.  These mountains protect the Eraser River  Delta feom the severe cold waves which prevail in the same latitude in winter ti e on the plains of the interior.  On  tha other hand, the mountains represent a resistance to the eastward movement of the moisture-laden winds from the Pacific Ocean.  These saturated air-streames le ve their moisture  on the western slopes or the mountains thereby greatly increasing the rate of precipitation, and setting free much of the latent heat of vaporization. Fraser  The result is that the  iver Delta has a warmer climate and  a gre tar rain-  fall, then that of the interior of the province.  This climate  is unlike those elsewhere in the country and in many respects resemble those of western nd southern Europe.  The most rem-  arkable characteristics of tha cliaate of Vancouver are its prevailing mildness and equability. The contrast between tha climate of the Frasei ^ivor Delta and that of the of the Central Plateau lying behind the Coast ..ange is the most striking featuie of loc^l climatology.  Passing over the Coast ,ange, the westerly winds,  rrs a-  E  o  .C'5 ,3  I —c s.  -P to  O  i)  -C  which prevail ia this region* deposit a  share af their  moisture oa the western slops of tha Coast ..ange and give little precipitation on the eastern slapa of the mo ntains and oa the Central Plateau. Although #41y a short distance aapatates the Central i'lataau from the coast district, the climate of it is very dry* with extremes of temperature and, therefore, ie in every respect a continental climate*  This  region is known as th: Dry Belt* The contrast in climate of the different places of British Columbia in the east-western direction may be explained and illustrated by the following oroaa-aection of the country. Wherever the westerly winds blow ov^r highlands, th^ ascending air la cooled, and elands may form and rain fall. For this reason, the windward aides of highlands in the westerly wind belt are lively ta be rainy, while the leaward sides are gaaar<*ly d.;y*  aaather types vary seasonally in the eoast district over the city of Vancouver.  These typas result fiom a combination  Of periodic elements under the control of the sun, and of aon-pariodic, cyoioaic and aatiayclonia elements.  Fraasnra  Of atmosphere changes over the coast of North ^est ^ama.ica seasonally,  fha e is a high pleasure a,aa during aumner and  law pressure a.aa da.lag wiate  over the coast,  Tharfora,  along this coast and that of neighbouring pa.-$ of tha Pacific cyclases h ve thai, origin in winter, and aa&icyolonea in  -54-  aummer. All winter long a procession of cyclonic are^s keeps moving eastward across the Pacific slope, generally fol&owiag the international boundary. precipitation.  These cyclones bring heavy  On the contrary, a characteristic of the warmer  months is the presence of a more enduring anticyclone over the northwestern Pacific coast. is a Summer dry season.  The inevitable result of this  The prolonged rainy and cloudy spells  and lower temperatures of winter give way to pleisanter warm weather of summer. Temperature. Latitude, nearness to the Ocean and relief control distribution of mean temperatures.  Rut in the cage of Vancouver  and the vicinity the two last factors prevail. The Larger Temperature Relations. The larger facta regarding temperature are best seen on the isothermal map which shows the course of the isotherms over the continent of North America.  The striking facts  are that the isotherms show poleward derlections over the Pacific coast and them another gentle equatorward trend as they approach the Atlantic.  It means that the mean annual temp-  erature of the northwestern coast is much higher then that of corresponding points of the interior and Of the Atlantic coast. In particular, the Pacific coast in the latitude of Vancouver is distinctly warmer than the eorreaponding part of the Atlantic Coast.  These systematic isothermal deflections are  chiefly due to the general flow of the great ocean currents  namely; the warm Rare Siwo which brings the great quantity of warm water to the coast of North America just in the latitude of Vancouver, and the cold Labrador current which flows along the corresponding coast of the Atlantic.  These  isondmalies are mere marked in January and less so in July. Mean Annual Temperatures. Latitude, nearnesu totthe ocean and orography control the distribution of mean annual temperature in the vicinit y Of Vancouver.  Thus mean annual temperature at Vancouver is  49.1,at Victoria 49.4 and at Xelowna 46.0.  The figures for  Victoria are slightly higher than for Vancouver because the former city is situated nearer to the warm Pacific than Vancouver and the topography of Victoria is more favorable for sunshine than that of Vancouver. Kelowna situated farther from the Ocean and higher above sea-level than Vancouver, therefore its mean annual temperature is lrwer than at Vancouver* Same explanation may be applied to the distribution of mean annual temperature among the cities of whole the Dominion.  Thus southern and morine cities have higher mean  annual temperature.  On the contrary lower temperature occur  ay the cities situated in the prairie provinces, as it is shown by the following table; This-  rndicatoo 6h9f6 Vanoouvor. ansd VluLu la -33*3  -56-  No.  Cities  1.  Victoria  49<4  2.  Vancouver  49.1  3.  Toronto  4.  Montreal  42.4  5.  Ottawa  41.8  6.  jgredericton  40.6  7.  Quebec  39,0  8.  Edmonton  36.8  9.  Winnipeg  35.2  Mean Annual Temperature  Midwinter Temperatures. /^Seaost striking feature in the Pacific Coast region is the parallelism of the westernmost isotherms with t e coast.  From north to seuth there is  only a slight increase in temperature,  latitude is obviously  here a very subordinate control, especially when the Pacific coast is compared with the Atlantic.  The January poleward  temperature gradient on the Pacific Coast of British Columbia is 0.65** E.per latitude degree, i.e. the same as that of tha western coast of Europe.  It is noteworthy in general that  the January gradient along the whole Pacific coast of North America, from Los Angeles as far to'.,tha north as^itka, Alaska, is essentially like that of Europe.  So the mean  January temperature of Prince rupert in the latitude of 54° 25^ is 33° and that of Vancouver (49° 1?') is 36°. Comparing Northeastern America and Eastern Asia with  -57-  Western America in.latitude of Vancouver, the latter is much warmer.  The existence of the cold currents along the coast  of Eastern Asia and North-eastern America represents the Explanation of the gieater January gradient along these coasts, and the prevalence of onshore winds from the relatively warm Pacific Ocean explains the moderate and noticeably uniform winter temperatures along the Pacific coast of North America. The greatest differences in temperature between different paits of British Columbia occur in winter,and it is then that the contrasts between land and water controls are most marked. Being exposed to the influence of the Pacific, with the prevailing winds blowing directly from the conservative ocean, th? Fraser Stiver Delta has a mild and equable climate, with slight seasonal fluctuations.  The seasonal contrasts  are most marked where the marine influence is lessened, as in the valleys to the east of the Coast Range.  Continental  features increase rapidly over the sections which are most Affectively shut oif from the ocean influences.  fh;8  Clavoqout, Vancouver, Hope, Penticton, Nelson and Ferule lie in the same latitude, but their mean January temperature loweres very rapidly in the direction from west to east. Clavoqout lies on the westerly extremity of the district being fully exposed to the influence of the Pacific and its mean Janury temperature is the warmest--39.  Next to the  east are Vancouver and Hope and their mean January temperature are 36 and &8 respectively.  Penticton and Nelson are separated  from the coast district by the Coast ^ange and the Cascade Mountains and, therefore, their m e n January temperatures  -58-  are still lower being 26 for Penticton and 25 for Nelson. Fernie is the farthest point in this direction being separated by the Selkirk Mountains,  its me n temperature for January  therefore, is the lowerest—17. Comparing midwinter temperatures of different Canadian cities we see that the warmest winter among them is in Victoria and Vancouver as it is indicated by the following table: (figures are taken from the Canada Year Book, 1927-28).  Cities and Towns  Mean daily temperature of January  Victoria  38.6  Vancouver  35.6  Toronto  22.1  Montreal  13.3  Frede lotion  13.0  Ottawa  11.8  Quebec  9.8  Edmonton  6.3  Port Arthur  6.3  Winnipeg  -2.7  Midsummer Temue^atares. In the vicinity of Vancouver there are two very striking features on the map.  The seaward isotherm* closely parallel  the coast line, giving as Blodget remarked, "almost absolutely equal temperatures"along this coast./ Lorin Blodget, "Climatology of the United States," 1857.  -59-  This Is a general feature of the '.3hole Pacific coast. "One may travel from the Strait of Juan de Fuca as far south as San Francisco without any change in the mean monthly temperature, and continue the trip to the southern-most part of th^ coast without reaching a Eg n temperature as high as 70**, The temperature gradient between San Diego and the Strait of Juan de Fuca is only 0.7° per latitude degree; that is, one may travel north nearly twelve hundred miles without changing the me n temperature more than about 12**, or  to a hundred m i l e s . A  second notable feature is  the rapid temperature gradient between the immediate seacoast with its cool summers resulting from the prevailing onshore winds, aad the gre tly heated Central Plateau (Dry Belt). The superheating of these interior districts is due to their abundant sunshine, dry air, an^ effective inclosure from the sea.  it has been stated above that in winter tha Pacific  coast is much warmer than the Atlantic,,but now it must be kept in mind that the Burners on the Pacific coast are on tha contrary as a whole several degrees cooler than those on the Atlantic* At Vancouver the July mean is 63°.  Farther to the west the  summer means temperatures became lower, and farther to the east, higher.  Thus at Victoria th^ figure is 60°, at  Clavoquot only 57°.  On the contrary at Hope 64°, Penticton  The climates of the United States^ by Robert DeCourey Ward. 1925.  -60-  680 agd Roods Lake even 69^. Comparing midsummer temperatures of Canadian cities with each other we see th t the hotest summer is in Montreal and the coolest in Victoria and Vancouver as is showed by the following table:  (Figures are taken from the Canada  Year Book 1927-38). Cities  Mean daily temperature of July  Victoria  59.9  Vancouver  63.3  Quebec  65.6  Fredsricton  66.0  Winnipeg  66.6  Toronto  68.1  Ottawa  69.1  Montreal  69.6  Mean Annual Ranges of Temperature. Mean annual ranges show the difference between the mean temperature of tha warmest and the coldest months.  The  seasonal contrast in temperature ure cinveniently summarized by it.  Vancouver has a mean annual r<nge of 27.99, f  The  greatest differences between the ms m temperatures of January and July are found over the Central Plateau; namly at Xelowna (Bahkhead) 43°, W06d Lake 45°, Princeton. 46°aad Xamloops 47°. On the contrary, tto the west from Vancouver the ranges become smaller.  Thus at Victoria 21**, at Clavoquot only IS**.  -61-  Comparison of mean annual ranges of temperature between Canadian oities may be showed by the following t ble:  Cities  1 Victoria 2 Vancouver  Mean Ananal * ef Temporatt 21*3 27.9  Cities  Mean manual I.ange ef Temperature  6 Quebec  55.8  7 Montreal  56.3  3 Toronto  46.0  8 Port Arthur  56.6  4 Fredericton  53.0  9 Ottawa  57.3  8 Edmonton  58.2  10 !*ianipeg  69.3  Temperature Chafes  Ante.va^p,  The temperature changes during the twenty-four-hour interval are very important, because they have a great effect upon human activities, and comfoit or disoomfo t. having the smaller daily range being aettor*  The climate  The Pacific  coast in general has a fairly uniform tempe atuie day and ,.o night*  At Vancoavei the daily  angos are under 15 , whereas  on the Central Plateau they are m oh greater . There are  o  sudden, or irregular changes of temperature in Vancouver as are characteristic of the Hast of Noith America. daily ranges of temperature,  esulting  The g.eatest  rom the no.mil warm-  ing by day and cooling by night, occur over the western Plateau Provinces o^' Canada and over the great Central rlain of the U.S.A. in summer.  Ee.e. in July, practically the whole  o area has average daily range of over 30 , but mush of it has a range Of over 35.  Differences of 50^ between early  morning and noon are not uncommon, individual cases of a rise o o from near the freezing-point to 80 and even to 90 ara on record."  ^  Temperature changes during twenty-four-hour intervals of Vancouver are as follows: Months  January February March April Ray June July August September October November  Mean daily maximum 39.6 43.3 48.9 55.9 62.7 63.3 73.4 71.7 64.7 55.6 47.3  %?</  Mean daily Minimum 31.7 33.3 35.6 39.4 45,1 49.3 53.3 52.9 48.2 43.2 38.1  Mean daily range 7.9 10.0 13.8 16.5 17.6 18.5 20.1 18.8 16.5 12.4 9.4  Temperature changes during twenty-four -hour intervals or, in o&her words, mean daily ranges of the settlements neighbouring Vancouver may be shown by the following table. *  The climates of the United States by #ard. ^eeambc!.' 42?!' -T.J'—  .  Mean Daily Maximum,. and Minimum and -anges of Temperature  Mean Minimum  summer Mean -ange Maximum  Winter Mean Mimkmum  Mean Maximum  ^ange  48.6  65.4  16.8  35  46.5  11.5  50.5  67.7  17.x  36.2  44.5  8.3  Vancouver  57  78  2g  33  42  9  Chilliwaek  51  Y4  2b  31  43  12  ugassiz  48  76  28  30  42  12  Penticton  50  78  24  35  11  Kolowna  50  72  28  KO  35  13  Princeton  44  77  33  10  30  20  Clayoquot Victoria  28  The figures are taken from,"The Temperature and Precipitation of British Columbia;* by A.J. Connoi.  The meteorological  sorv. of Canada Dept. of Morine, and Fisheries, 1915. The table given above shows that the ranges apparently increase as we proceed in an easterly direction, what would naturally be expected from topographical consideration.  The  ranges are greater on the Central Plateau (Dry Belt) than on the coast, the smalles being on the west cesat, of Vancouver Island (Clayoquot).  At Vancouver they slightly gieater than  a# Victoria but are much less than on the Central Plateau. Mean daily ranges for year of 10 principal Canadian Cities are as follows:  RH*' -64-  Cities 1* 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  ilean daily ,ange  Victoria Vancouver Montreal Quebec Toronto Ottawa fort Arthur Fredericton Winnipeg Edmonton  13.0 14.0 15.2 16.3 16.3 18.5 19.6 21.0 21.9 22.7  The table above shows that in respect of temperature Vancouver has a mild and equabile climate with only slight variations throughout the year.  Vancouver and Victoria have  the best climate in the whole Dominion. The differences in Temperature from Day to Day. The annual marches of monthly mean temperatures at Vancouver and selected points of the Vicinity may be presented by the following table. Vancouver  Victoria  Clayoquot  Xamloops  January February March April May June July August September October November December  35.6 36.3 42.2 47.6 53.9 59.0 63,3 62.6 56.4 49.4 42.7 38.3  38.6 40.4 43.6 48.4 53^0 57.0 59.9 59.9 56,0 50.4 44.6 41.0  39 40 42 45 50 54 57 58 55 50 45 41  21.8 26.8 S7.9 49.6 57.7 64.5 69.8 68.3 53.6 47.6 35.6 27.2  Year  49.1  49.4  48  47.1  Eonths  The figures are taken from the Canada year Book 1927-28 and "Climate of British Columbia" Department of Bulletin No. 27, 1915 (for Clayoquot).  Many fast* concerning temperature may be clearly and conveniently summarized in curves.  Thus tha diagram showing  the annual marches of monthly me na at Vancouver, Clayoquot and Hamloopa is as XoliowiHg.  It is s&3n on this diagram that tha difference between the mean temperatures of successive months (diurnal variability) is changeable,  in the case of Vancouver diurnal variability  between January and February is 3**, between February and March  between March and April  and btween the remaining  months the figures are as follows: 7°,  1°, 4°, 7°,  7°, 4^,  Rean diurnal variability of temperature in c o winter at Vancouver is 4.5 , at Victoria 3.5 , at Clayoquot o o 3 , and at Aamloopa 7.8 .  The decrease from the interior  to the racific oo-st is ve^y observable.  Comparing these  figu^ea with those of the central interior of Canada in the latitude of Vancouver, we find that the latte. is 10° o and decreases from there in all directions, to ajout A.5 on tha o Pacific coast oetweon Seattle and San Francisco and 2  on tha  south Pacific coast. The mean dia^aal variabilities of temperature are of great igpotance in ^elation to human comfort, health and activity.  The most suitable temperatures are those which show  the smallest (day Le day.  changes in tempe-ata^e from day to  ^e see than that the climate of Vancouver in this  aspect  -66-  is an agreeable one. warmest and coldest months.  It is seen on the diagram  that, in the case of Vancouver, the temperature increases from January to July. the coldest month.  The latter is the warmest and former  But the decrease of temperature is more  gradual in August as was the increase in June, August is only o one degree colder than July; June is 4  colder than July.  The warmest month in reality is not July but the month including the second half of July and the first of August. This phenomena is more notieable in the case of Victoria where the means of July and August are equal, and still more so in the case of the neighbouring point of Vancouver as Clavoquot, Shawnigan lake, Britania Beach, Masset and Prince Rupert, where the means of August are higher than those of July.  Therefore, in the latter points the warmest month is  August. in all the above mentioned cses minima are also retarded, i.e, tha coldest month is not January but the montR between 15th January and 15th February. This interesting phenomena of retardation of maxima and minima is a peculiar ^eatura of the whole Pacific coast of North America.  At Ban Francisco, for instance, September is  its warmest month, and October is actually warmer than July and August.  The explanation being that the coaat has a gie^t  warm body of w ter--the Pacific Ocean, which ASwers July extreme but raises the temperature of tha cooler months (August and September).  -67-  The retardation of maxima and minima, small range of temperature and some other features make the climate of Vancouver and the neighbouring coast similar to tha climate of tha Pacific coast of North America in general.  The climate of Vancouver,  as well as that of Seattle, Portland and other cities of the coast, is reffered to as the North Pacific type. Temperature Extremes. Extreme highest summer temperatures of 92** have been registered at Vancouver during several years sinse 1889. o Extreme toweat winter temperatures of 2  have been experienced  sometimes frequently during the same period.  The destribution  of the extremes is similar to that of the means.  The highest  summer and lowest winter extremes occur on the Central Plateau (Dry Belt) while on the coast summer extremes are much lower and winter extremes are higher, as the following table shows: Temperature Extremes Extreme highest  Extreme lowest  Clayoquot  91  13  Victoria  90  2  Vancouver  92  New Westminster  94  0  100  -13  Penticton  96  -IJ  Princeton  1J0  -49  Xamloops  102  -31  Xelowna  96  -22  Nelson  94  Agassis  2  -17  The figures are taken from "Tho Temperature and Precipitation of British Columbia."  jy A.J. Connor, ciimato.ogist  $f the Meteorological Service. Dep. of Marina and  The Meteor. 3erv. of Canada  iaharies.  Ottawa, 1915.  Temperature extremes at ten principal Canadian cities may be ahiwn by the foliowing taole* (Figures a.e t^ken from the Canada year Book No* 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  Cities Victoria Vancouver Montreal Predericton Quebec Ottawa Port Arthur Edmonton *i^nipeg  Tempo rat u. e ' Highest -OW< 90 2 2 92 96 -27 -36 96 97 -34 98 -33 -51 99 98 -57 -46 103  Pressure ^iat ^butigp and Prevailing **inda. There is a marked 1 w pressure area in the North Pacific during winter*  This low pressure area controls winter winds*  in spring the low pressure *rea of the North Pacific is substituted b  a high pressure a ea whose oow§ad isobars en-  o cache on the la id along North ^me ica*  This high p easu.e  a*ea controls the summer winds* The direction of tho prevailing winds dating winte  ovor  the Vancouver is east and during summer south; the spring and autumn winds have southeastern direction. The summer and winter winda over the Pacific coant have a g.eat velocity*  Their average vel cities are much higher  than those at exposed points on the Atlantic coast.  Bat  —69*  Vancouver is well protected from the wind by the mountains. Because of the local topography there are no great storms or severe winds in Vancouver. Average hourly velocity of wind over the city fluctuates between 3.7 and 5.0.  For year figure  la 4.4. The strongest wind recorded had 40 miles per hour. The fallowing table gives the information ia respect of wind in details* Aver,res of ^ind. The figures aie taken from the Canada Year Book 1927-28. Months  Average No of Rales  Average hourly  velocity  Prevailing) Strongest direction? wind recorded Milw Diree* per tion hour  January February March April May June July August September October November December  Average less than one per month  4ir 4.0  8.0  4.8 4.8 4.5 4.1 3.7 4*6 3.8 4.3 4.4  E. E. SE. E. S s  's  SE E  40 &6 30 25 23 27 22  SE  20  26 35 25 30  na  Comparing Vancouver With other principal Canadian cities the former is one or the most quiet cities.j^trong wind is very rare over Vancouver. Hext in the order follows Ottawa, and Winnipeg and Quebec being the most windly cities of the Dominion. The following table showes averages of wind, of tsn principal Canadian cities in details.  -70-  ,  Cities  Vancouver Ottawa 3. Edmonton 4. Calgary 5 . Fredericton 6. Victoria 7. Toronto 8 . Mentral 9 . Queoee ie. Winnipeg 1. a*  Average no of gales  verage hourly velocity  --  4.4 7.5 5.3 6.4 7.9 8.6 10.9 13.6 13.5 12.9  1 1 12 24 37 43 63 66  Prevailing direction  SE S^  a  sa* s SH  S s  Strongest .Wind Miles directio per horr 40 —  42 52 49 59 60 66 72 66  NR --  NW Nn  N^  SE N^  NR' E; NW  The figures are taken from tha Canada Year Book 1927-28. Precipitation. Precipitation and topography are very closely related on the Pacific slope.  The heaviest precipitation ocouss  either on the close proximity of the Pacific Ocean or on the seaward slop of the Mountains fthe Coa^t ^ange.SCascades and northern Sierra Nevada).  The mountain barriers in the path  of the onshore winds are the dominant controls.  Behind the  mountains is a dry belt with the smallest precipitation,  in  British Columbia it is the Central Plateau; in Washington the Josemith Valley; in California the Sacramento Valley;and San Joaquin Valley.  "Beautiful climatic cross sections,  contrasting the rainy windward and dry leeward sides, may be obtained when crossing wither the Case des or the Sierra Nevada Mts. by train.  The contrast between the treeless lower lands,  east of the Cascades in Washington, and the densely forested western slopes is wonderfully impressive.v ^ dard.  "The climates of the United States."  -71-  In respect of precipitation, the no them Pacific coast in the latitude of Vancouver, is similar to the coasts of —'in Scotland, Norway and Chile.  The heavy rainfalls al all these  countries are similar in origin.  Scandinavia especially with  its rainy western fiords and drier interior(eastem) districts, presents a striking analogy with British Columbia. Mean Annual Precipitation. The annual precipitation at Vancouver is 58.65 inches. The destribution of ppecipitation over the vicinity of Vancouver ad it is shown by the diagram above, depends upon the relief of the country*  Thus at Claycquot, which is exposed in full  to the oceanic influence, the annual precipitation is the largest, namly, 119.13 inches and at PentictOn, an the Central Plateau only 11.05 inches although Vanco  er and these two  points lie approximately in the same latitude. Comparing the mean ananal precipitation at Vancouver with that at Victoria, we find that the latter is much less, namely, 27.65 inches.  The explanation is in the character  of the local tcpogtaphy.  Victoria is separated from the  immediate oceanic influence ani the prevailing .moistureladen winds by a comparatively high mountain ridge.  There  is a great depression between Victoria and Vancouver and the latter is situated near the rainy windward slope of the Coast .ange, as the foil wing figure shows  -72-  irsrarg^ojrtraapBaooioa b^t^uun  aag-Victoria.  Still mere striking is tha fact that even on the territory of Vancouver the amo at of precipitation changes very markedly. Thus at atoveston, the me n annual precipitation is 33.5% inches, at South Vancouver 49+40, at Vancouver (city Rail) 53.91, Vancouver 55.81 and Capilano 130.00 inches.  The  explanation being that all the mentioned points are situated in the direction of prevailing rainy winds and the elevation af the points is going up.  The precipitation is largely  deposited upon tha higher levels, the low levels remaining comparatively dry*  Thus Steveston is situated on ^ulu  Island in the Eraser Dolt *, and is the  1=3..ast  point of the area  South Yanco ver is situated highe^, on the Southern  idge  of Barrard Peninsula; Vancouver City Hall is still higher, and Capilano is the highest point of them all being situated on an elevated terrace at the foot of Grouse Mountain. Amoag 9 principal Canadian cities Vancouve  is one whoae  mean annual precipitation is the largest as is shown by the foil wing tabSe: The figures a retaken from the Canada Ye^r Book. 192?-a8 Re.  Precipitation ia inches  No.  Vancouver  58.65  6. Toronto  33.46  Fredericton  4k,.78  7. Victoria  29.70  3.  Quebec  41.35  8. Winnipeg  4.  Montreal  41.16  9. Edmonton  5.  Ottawa  33.51  1.  Cities  Cities  PrecipH tian  17.61  Mean Monthly Precipitation. The annual marches of monthly mean precipitation at Vancouver are shown by the following t^ble; Jan. Fab. March. 8.40 6.03 4.98  April* 3*29  Oct*  Nov.  Dec.  Year.  5*65  9*52  8*2^  o8*65  May* 2.99  June. 2*57  July. Aug. Sept. 1.23 1.7J 4.07  It is seen on this diagram that Vancouver has wall-marked winter rains, with dry summers.  The rainest month is December  and the rainy season extends from November to March*  July  precipitation is nearly one tenth of that of December* Seasonal destribution of precipitation at Vancouver and the Vicinity is as followa:Vancouver  Victoria  Clayoiuot  Winter  22.34  13*95  44.05  Spring  11*11  5.58  25.07  Summer  5*86  1.94  9.79  21*26  6.46  39.43  Fall  This proportion appears to be roughly in Vancouver: winter, Spring, Summer, Fall, in the ratio, 4:2:1:3. Comparing Vancouver with Candian cities of prairy and Eastern Provinces in regard to precipitation we see a striking difference*  <=*o at Edmonton, Winnipeg and other psairy cities  thereare w&ll-marked summer tains with comparatively dry winter. At eStawa, Montral, Queued and other cities of Eastern Canada distribution of precipitation is equable throughout year, as the foil wing table indicates.  -74-  Mean Monthly irecipitation in inchesJan. Van. 8.40 ; Ed. 0.88 #in.0.89 Ott.S.Ol Rent. 3.88  Feb. 6.03 0.6$ 0.79 2.46 3.45  Mar. 4.98 0.73 1.14 2.62 3.47  ^pr. 3.29 0.84 1.34 2.22 2.68  May. 2.99 1.60 1.98 2.76 2.98  June. 2.57 3.SB 2.95 3.21 3.49  July,. Aug. Sept . Bo*. Nov. 1.23 1.7J, 4.J7 5.65 9.52 3.37 2.57 1.36 0.74 0.70 3.18 2*08 2.25 1.32 1.09 3.30 2.98 2*80 2.52 3.47 3.75 3.61 3.27 3.51  Dec . Yr. 8*22 58.65 0.80 17.64 0.92 20.02 2.90 33.51 3.76 41.16  The precipitation type of Vancouver is siailar to that of the laeific Co^st in general*  The Pacific type is sub-  divided into two types: tie North and South Pacific types. To the former belong the states of Washington and Oregon. Vancouver may be Peffered to in this type also. Pacific type beongs the state of California.  To the South  The North Pacific  type is characterised by s&gnificent sumaer rains. Pacific type entends over five hundred  The South  miles or moee along  the coast with wholly or practically rainless sum ers. The south Pacific type is eometiaes called Mediterranean type because it le ches its best development and has been most studied Sound the Mediterranean a ea.  But it s&so  occurs in parts o- Chile, in South Africa ro^nd Cape Colony, and in South, and South-western  Australia.  Generally, it  is characteristic of lands lying on tha western side o^ continents, in the latitudes between tropical and temperate, and is therefore sometimes called the mariti e sab-tropical climate. The North Pacific type is not quite the Mediterranean type of climate but yet it has some very characteristic features.  The most important character, next to the mild  temperature, is the fact th t very little rain falls in  Jt^tu^o^j  e)  in nj^  c?  t) O-!  —a.  o  R**a RoatMy, rreQi^i^at^an ip ipa&ea. Jan. Van. 8.43 3d. 0.88 din.0.89 Ott.S.Ol iant. 3.62  Feb. 6.03 0.69 0*79 2.46 3.45  Mar. 4.98 0*73 1*14 2*62 3.47  pr. 3.29 0.84 1.34 2.23 2.68  May. 3.99 1*60 1*98 2.76 *.98  June. a.37 3.33 2.95 3*21 3.49  July. Aug. 1.23 1.7J 3.37 2.5? 5.18 *.08 3.30 4.98 3.47 3.75  dept. Bet. 4.J? 5.65 1.36 0.74 2.^5 1.32 a.73 2.80 3.61 3.27  3ov. 9.52 0.70 1.09 *.52 3.51  Dec. 8.22 0.80 0.92 2.90 3.7J  Yr. 58.J6 17.64 20.02 33.51 41.16  The precipitation type or Vancouver is similar to th t of the Pacific Co.st in general.  She pacific type is sua-  divided into two types: t e Jorth and South Pacific types. To the former belong the states of Washington and Oregon. Vancouver may be feffa-ed to in this type also. To the South Pacific type 00014 s the state of California.  The North Pacific  type is ahar^oteriaed by significant summer rains. Pacific type entonde over five hundred  The South  milas or moee along  the coast with wholly or practically rainless sum a s . The south Pacific type is sometimes called Mediterranean type because it  ohea its aeat development and has been  most studied tound the Mediterranean area.  But it a&so  oeoura in pa ts 0- Chile, in South Africa rornd Cape Colony, and in South, and South-weatem  Australia.  Gene.ally, it  is char acteristic of lands lying an the #asta. n side or continents, in tha latitudes betwen tropical and temperate, and is therefore sooati.aes called the mariti e sab-tropical climate. The NOith Pacific type is act quite the Mediter anean type of cli ate but yet it has some vary characteristic features.  The moat important characte., next to the mild  temperature, is the lact th t ve.y little rain fulls in  75-  summer and the greater part of precipitation occurs in winter, It ia this winter rainfall and the summer drought which determine the Mediterranean type of climate.  Besides that,  there are some aua-tropical species of plants grewing in Vancouver and the Vicinity,(see the chapter "FloroLof Vancouver and the Vicinity") which make the sub-tropical colour of Vancouver still more observa&le. The explanation of both types of the Pacific climates is as foil ws.  The cyclonic storm belt which controls rains,  has two seasonal migrations.  tilth the advance of autumn  and winter it migrates towards the pole.  The result is, that  during winter, the coast is dominated by the low pressure with heavy precipitation; and during summer, on the contrary tha high pressure predominates over the coast with gone ally clear skies and conditions unfavorable to rainfall. Number of -jainy Days. "8n the Pacific coast, where there ia a well-marked rainy season, the number of rainy days is closely related to the annual amounts of rainfall, the number of rainy days being greatest where the rainfall is heaviest, year on th  -ain falls during nearly half tha days of the extreme northwestern coast.^ At Vancouver the  number of rainy days in 1924 was 151 and 9 snowy days, total being 160 days with precipitations.  At Victoria —129 rainy  and 3 snowy days. At Prince iiupert 231-15. *iard. The climates of the United States  76  The distribution of rainy days among months in Vancouver is very characteristic.  Thus in 1924 there was only 3 rainy  days in August, 7 in July, 6 in May and 19 in October, 33 in February*  Comparing the number of rainy d.ys at Vancouver  with those of another parts of North America we find that, over the eastern part of the United States, the average number of rainy days exeeds 100 a year; over the western, rain falls on less than 100 days. From the 95th meridian eastward there is an increase in the numher of rainy days toward the Atlantic Ocean and especially toward the Gre^t Lakes (maximum of 170). SNOWFALL, The snowfall over Vancouver is of little importance. It is very light and seldom. round whole the year.  Of total 58.65 inches of precipitation  only 3.1 indhes fall in snow. mountains.  Sometime there is no snow  But it is frequent on the  Covering their summits snow makes the landscape  more beautiful although it is of no importance from the stand point of agriculture. Average snowfall at Vancouver ia 30.1 inches.  Comparing this with the snowrall at other  principal Canadian cities we find as follows: /The figures are taken from the Canada Yea-Book  NO^.L SNOWFALL* No.  Cities  Snowfall in inches  1, 2+ 3. 4. 5. 6. 7* 8. 9.  Victoria Vancouver Edmonton ainnipeg Toronto Ottawa Fredericton Quebec Montreal  14.8 30.1 45.6 49.9 66.0 97.1 97.8 116.2  118.0  RELATIVE HUMIDITY. Relative humidity is a real and definite factor in  climate.  "It is directly indicated by organic substances.  It reacts upon them."  "To a considerable degree it affects  the sensation of heat or of cold which human beings experience Relative humidity is an expression of the physical moisture or dryness of climate in relation to its temperatures,  in  both annual and diurnal periods relative humidity is, highest when the temperature is lowest, and lowest '.'/hen the temperatur is highest.  The geographical distribution of relative  humidity depends chiefly on the temperature, the direction of the prevailing winds, the distance and direction of the Chief source of moisture supply, and the tppography. The Pacific coast represents a belt of umiformly high relative humidity because of the proximity of the great body of water—the Pacific.  This high humidity remains here  fairly constant throughout the year. The Coast Range, Sierra Nevada and the Cacades control the distribution of relative humidity over the region. 1)  Ward,  The windward sides of tho mountains  The Climates of the United States.  JMyPgy "  < ;  -78-  have high relative humidity and low values of relative humidity are on the lee sides.  At Vancouver, average relative humidity is 81 per cent for the year, with comparatively little seasonal variation. Victoria averages 80 per eent for the year, with less seasonal variation because it lies nearer to :he Ocean which supplies it with moisture umiformly and constantly throughout the year. The lesser percentage of  elative moisture at Victoria is  explained by the char cter of the relief as it has bean pointed out in the regard to the precipitation.  A good ex-  ample of the significance of topography is sean in the difference between the relative humidity of the damper Pacific coast and that of the drier Central Plateau, east of tha Coast Range.  Thus Xamloops averages 70 per cent for the  year, that is 11 per cant lower than Vancouver, and its seasonal variation is much greater than that at Vancouver, namly, 24**+  Comparing the relative humidity of Vancouver with that of the different points of North America, we find that "most of the eastern United States, inland from the coast and east of the Great Plains, averages about 70 to 75 per eent for the year, with comparatively little seasonal variation.  Tha Plateau districts average, as a whole, some  10 to 20 per cent &ower.  The Plains are intermediate between  the damper eastern and the drier Plateau districts." The geographical distribution of relative humidity along 1) Ward.  "The climates of tha United States."  -79-  the Pacific coast is in general similar to that on the Atlantic Coast and along tha Coast of the Gulf of Mexico.  The lines  of equal relative humidity show a distinct tendency to parallel the eeacoast.  This feature is most clearly indi-  cated on the Pacific sl^pe, especially during the warmer months, It means that latitude is not an important factor in the regard to relative humidity.  Thus Prince Rupert lying 5°  farther north than Vancouver has nearly the same relative xgtattZN humidity as Vancouver, naaly 79 per cent for the year, with approximately the same seasonal variation^ The annual marches of monthly averages are shown by the following table. ^iATlVh R'jRrr'rTY. (Percentage) (Average, 10 or more years).  Vancouver  37 36 78 73 73 73 73 77 83 39 91 30 81  Victoria  86 83 79 75 75 73 75 76 79 85 87 87 80  Prince Rupert  78 78 78 76 74 77 81 8a 82 82 83 81 79  Zamloops  81 79 73 60 60 61 58 61 66 73 79 82 7J  It is Seen on the table above that the relative humidity at Vancouver has its maximum during the winter months (November, December and January, and its minimum during the months of April, May, June, and July).  Summer temperatures at Vancouver.are not high, therefore, muddy oppressive conditions never occur in Vancouver, winter, the damp air is not too cola there to establish  in  -80-  severe coldness. temperatures.  Vancouver rejoices in relativelyliow sensible  Comparing Vancouver with different points or  North America, we find that high sensible temperatures are felt along the southern Atlantic and Gulf coasts, where, for much of the summer-, the air is both hot and damp, and 1) hence becomes muddy and oppressive. SUNSHINE. The Northern Pacific coast as a whole has the minimum percentage of sunshine.  The points exposed to the oceanic  influence have less than 40 per cent or sunshine. Average of sunshine at Vancouver is as follows: Months  January February March April May June July August September October November Decemoer Year  Sunshine Average BO Percentage of hours pe of possible month duration 17.1 26.9 37.5 43.3 50.2 47.6 58.0 56.4 47.6  46 76 138 178 228 230 282 250 179 111 55 40  20.1 15.8  1,813.  This table shows that the summer months are the sunniest in Vancouver. 1) The Climates of the U.S.,  Ward.  -81-  During July Vancouver and Victoria have the maximum amount of aanahino*  The increase in tha amount of sunshine from  winter to summer ia very marked*  ^hile tha sunshine conditions  in tha interior of Canada and the United States vary slightly during the four seasons, they differ greatly around Vancouver. Tha annual variation of sunshine is generally greater in the North-west than anywhere else ia North America.  The explanat-  ion ia that the region hag marked seasonal variation in cyclonic activity. Comparing Vancouver with different points of tha continent of North America with the regards to sunshine, we find that the maximum percentage of sunshine (over 85 pe- cent J ia in the extreme southwestern inta io .  California has been  called tha "sunshine center* of the United States.  The lake  region, the northern and central portion of the Appalachian area, and the Northeast have slightly higher percentage (from 45 to 50 par cent) than the No^th Pacific Coast. Elsewhere east of the Mississippi ^iver and over the northern tier of states from the upper Great Lakes westward to the Rockies, the percentages range from SO to 60. For the United States as a whole the average annual amo nt of suhshine is about 60 per sent, of tha possible amount. ^^ In this respect the Northern Pacific coast is very simila. to  he Atlantic coast of Europe.  The percentage of  sunshine at Vancouver is approximately the same at London, England o* Amsterdam or Antwerp. 1} gard.  The Cliaates of the united States.  Easpariaan of average auaa&ine at Vancouver with ether great Canadian cities may be shown by the fell wing t ble. Averages ef Sunshine at. Canadian Cities. (Tha figures are taken from the Canada Year Rook, 1937-26) No^ 1 2 3 4 6 7 6 9  . . .. . . . . .... .... .... .... .... .... ....  Pities  So of hoars ne. Ront^.  .....  Quebec*.**.. Vancouver... . . . . . Montreal.... Predericton* Victoria.... Ottowa...... Toronto..... Winnipeg.... Edmonton....  1,765 1,818 1,829 1,986 1,997 2,014 2,061 2 ,122 2,145  ..... ..... . .. ...* * .. .... *  .. .. . .. .. .  CLOUDfgaRg Cloudiness is the complement of sunshine. between them is very si pie:  The relation  the more cloud the lass sunshine,  and tiee versa. The Pacific coast in the latitude ef V necuver ia the district of maximum cloudiness in North America. The points exposed to the Ocean have over 60 par cent cloudiness. Two factors ara responsible for this:  (1)  That this coast  is under marked cyclonic control especially in the colder months, while tha general prevailing winds blow across the body cf water, aad (2) that the presence of mountains close to the coaat causa coadenaatioa.  The maximum el udiness aad  maximum rainfall correspond closely in time*  That is one of  the reasons why the season ef rain aad the seaon of maximum cloudiness go ol sely hand in hand.  Winter is the cloudiest  season on the Pacific Coaat and Summer the dlea est.  "Roughly, from mid-summer to e^rly winter there is an equator ward movement ov the belt of maximum elo&diness, and from midwinter to summer there is a general northward retreat. This seasonal movement of the isonephs is associated with the corresponding equatorward and poleward migration of the general storm oelt, and the latter in turn depends upon the seasonal changes of temperature. ^ Comparison of Vancouver with different points of Canada and the United States in regards to cloudiness shows that the region of the Great Lakes is as ele&dy as Vancouver (over 60 per cent).  Southern Arizona and the central and South*  eastern parts of California have less than 30 per cent. A smaller area cintered around Wnma, Arizona, has less than 20 per cent. 3) DlST.dJUTiUN Or PL UJY D^YS. The table given below shows the average number of completely clouded days at Vancouver. January ............ 17 February 10 March 7 April 4 May 3 June 2 July 2 August 2 September .......... 5 October 8 November... 13 December. 15 Year ^ 2)  R. Dec. Ward.  Hard.  88 The climates of the U. S., p. 296  The climates of the U. S.  -84-  It is seen on this table that at Vancouver there are 88 completely clouded days and that there is well—marked cloudy season, the summer being cloudless and winter the most cloudy season. Comparing Vancouver with other larger Canadian cit&es in respect ot cloudiness the former is the most cloudy city as it is shown by the following table: No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  Cities  Average Ho. days Completely clouded.  Vancouver ... ... ... ...Fredericton... ... . . . . ..  88 84  . * Winnipeg...... .... 75 * .  .. . . .. .. Edmonton...... ... * .  54  FOG. The Pacific coast represents a district of maximum fog frequency. At times fogs may extend along the entire coast from Fuget Sound to southern California.  San Francisco  especially is frequented by fogs (over 30 days). Fogs of the Pacific coast are really marine phenomena and are chiefly the result of mixture.  "The warm, moist air moving toward the  land from the ocean passes across the cold ocean current close to the shoes, mixes with the colder air ove^ that current, and is also itself chilled by conduction." ^  ^Kt^VanssxxNxxx  in San Francisco logs occur in summer time;  On the con-  trary, in Vancouver fogs occur in winter, when the air over 1)  Ward.  The climates of the U. S,  -85-  Vanoouver is moisture l^den.  Fogs ocour ofter clear war^ days  and are especially dense in clear nights when there is no wind. It is interesting to notice the relationship of fog to smoke.  The latter increases the number of foggy days and  produces the so-called city fogs. example of this phenomena.  London, England is a good  The increase in number of foggy  days there corresponds to the increase in the industraliaation of the city.  So in 1871-75 there were 50.8 foggy days per  annum; in 1876-80 ---58.4 " 1881-85 ---62.3 " 1886-90 ---74.3 Smoke causes condensation of water vapor in air, because dust particles are black; they radiate rapidly and cool quickly. There is no doubt, that the smoke of the industrial plants in Vancouver increase the number of foggy days in this city. Vancouver does not suffer from fogs as much as San Francisco.  The number of foggy days in Vancouver is considerably  less: in the year 1924 there were only lldays. days with fog at Vancouver is 24 in year. of foggy days is seasonal in character.  Average number  The distribution  Thus there is no foggy  day during warm period from March to September and the most forgy days are in cold period--October to February, as it is shown by the table below:  January... .. February.......... March............. April.... ^SLay............... June..*...*.....*. July.............. August............ September October.. . November..........  *  December.........*  4  Year  3 4 1  2 6 4 24  Comparing Vaacouve, with other iargei Canadian cities in respect to foggy days the fo.me, is the most foggy city as the taule below indicates* Cities  8o. 1 3 8 ^ S $ 7 8 9  ** *. *. .. .* .. ..  Average Jo days with fo?;<  Vancouver **....... Frede icton... ^icto ia............ Toronto.....*.....** Honteal...........* aobec**..*.......** Edmonton*........... Ottawa*...*......... Winnipeg.  .. *  24 22 15 15 9 8 5 4 2  In the neighbourhood of Vancouver thu derate ms a.e comparatively infrequent and usually light* seldom in tha city itself.  They occur ve  Thus av^. go number days with  thunder at Vancouver is 6 in ye r* They are distributed as follows:  -87January. February March.. April*. May.... June... July... AUgUSt. September October. November December Year. In the Eraser valley  and on the mountains in  the vicinity of Vancouver thunderstorms occur ruch more fpequenly, They are characteristic summer phenomena on the hggher mountain slopes and furnish much of the "dry season" rainfall there. Thunderstorms are very frequent in Toronto, Ottawa, Winnipeg and Edmonton. The following table shows average number days with thunderstorms at larger Canadian cities. No 1 3 4 5 o 7  8  Cities  Average no days with thunderstorms  Toronto............ Ottawa Winnipeg.... Edmonton . ... Montreal.. Frederioton........ Quebec............. Vancouver 1.  24 23 18 11 9 ? 8 6  THE ESSENTIAL CliA^'.CT,R-.IST10 VANC0UV3L CLIMATE In vancouver and the vicinity, climatic conditions are quite unlike those elsewhere in Canada, resembling in many respects conditions in northwesternand wester Europe.  Exposed  to the influence of the warm Pacific, and protected on the east and north by high mountains, Vancouver has a modified coastal climate.  In its main features, it is distinguished by  mildness and equability, only slight variations throughout the year. No such severgcold waves a e experienced here comparable to those east of the Rocky Mountains or even to these of the Central Plateau of British Columbia.  During the year, the  rainfall occurs at regular periods, the maximum being in winter and the minimum in summer. importance.  The snowfall is of little  The winters are, as a rule, mild, while the summ-  ers are moderately hot,tempered by cool mights. / f Vancouver is not subject to sudden and violent weather -changes, suffering neither from severe storms, nor from the terrible atmospheric disturbances such as the tornadoes of the United States, nor r'rom the cold waves and blizzards of other parts of America, nor from winds like those of the east Asiatic typhoons.  Even in the rainy season of winter, the rains are  not very he^vy; they are not steady and continuous, but are usually separated by periods of fine weather. The climate of Vancouver is a temperate one being affected neither by extreme cold not extreme he it. The fact that vegetation is f^sh and green nearly all the ye-r ^ound is a  proof of the mildness and equibility of the climate. One finds there many sab-tropical plants growing out of doors even in winter. Spring and Summer are the favorite seasons in Vancouver. It is then that Vancouver's opportunities for an outdoor life attract increasing numbers of tourists as well as of permanent settlers. From the standpoint of health the Vancouver olimate is a good one.  Its mildness and equability, without the enervating  qualities makes Vancouver a delightfully healthy northern summer resort besides offering many attractions in the way of scenery and outdoor pleasures. FLO^A OF TEE VICINITY OF VAUCOUVlLl During the glaciation in Pleistocene time, the Vicinity of Vancouver was covered with a thick ice sheet and, therefore, whatever vegetation may have flourished in the  egion before  the glacial period it disappeared. Many species weie, no doubt, destroyed entirely, but other managed migrated southward as the ice advanced,  to survive and  ^ith the return of a  warmer climate and the gradual recession of the continental ice, vegetation began to move back northward, with the Arctic types as a vanguard followed by more temperate and southern ones.  Generally speaking, the flora of the region under the  consideration may therefore be said to be composed of immigrants that took possession of the country after the glacial period.  -90-  The present flora of the Vicinity of Vancouver jel.ngs to the Pacific botanical province, which extends from the southern Alaska southward to Mexico*  ^The iagian is the home  of several species which a^e vary local in their occurrence and which, as far as is known at present, do not grow ..nywhere else^ ^^  Owing to the long growing season, tha  high average temperature, and the abundance of the precipitation, the vegetation in the valleys and lowlands of tho Coast range is almost sub-tropical in appeaiance* The charaote-istio fe ..tura of the fl^ra is the nrmber both of individuals and of species and the g^e t size and magnificence of conifers*  Variation in genera  and species  of plants in the region uepends upon humidity, soil and elevation*  As tho timber-line in this region has an elevation  of about &,60o feat, large portions jf tha. mountain are treeless and barren*  Along tha mountain shores of the fio^d  and channels the gre ter piopartian of the trees a.a small and of infeiiof quality that is due to the lack of soil covering.  The mast dense and majestic forests clothe tha  valley and mare level a.aas*  These fo euts si the vicinity  Of Vancouver a e widely known for the large sloe af their individual trees*  .rom a commercial point of view these  forests a^e of immense importance. Douglas fir (Pacudoteuga Douglasii), Hemlock (Tsuga me-tenaianaj, Ceda- and Spruce attain to magnificent siae and constitute oy lo- the mast important timber produca-S. ^^ M*0* Malta, fhe -lora of Janada* Soak 1922-28*  The C nada Yea,  -91-  Other coniferous species useful in lumoer industry are as fellows:  Western cedar (Thuja gigantea), Mengies Spruce  (Picea sitchensis) yellow cypress (Thuja excelsa ) and the white pine (Pinus monticola). In contrast with the Atlantic region, the Pacific forest province is singularly lacking in broad—leaved trees, and such as are found are usually of small size and little economic importance.  A few shrubley forms of the evergreen arbutus  (Arbutus Menziesii) occur sonewhere in the ^egion. deciduous trees are:  Other  Yew (Taxus brevifolia) alder (Alnus rubia)  and the broad leaved maple (Acer macrophyllum). All these trees thrive in close association with dark conifers. Beneath the deep shade of the lofty boughs there is a luxuriant thicket-like undergrowth which is interspersed with fallenttrees.  The alder, elder, dogwood, willows, crab apple,  salmon berry, blackberry and raspbe^..y, are tha common members Of this undergrowth family.  The aroad-leaved and excessively  spiny devil's-olub is too abundant plant in this lower forest. Of still more lowly habits are the fains, mosses,and lichens.  The herbaceous vegetation is very rich, especially  along the coast.  Of more important plants of this kind may  be mentioned skunk cabbage, trillium, wild lily-of-the-valley, yellow pond lily, fringe-cup, false mitrewort, alum root, bleeding heart, goat's beard, twinflower, aster, etc. As it has been stated above, the vioinity of Vancouver is characterized by a number of species which a^e more 01 less 1)  Israel C, mussel.  North America, 1904.  *  -  -92-  of a Californian (aub-tropical) type and which occur nowhere else in Canada.  Among them the most conspicuous ones are  several species of brome grasses, camas, wild hyacinth, blueeyed grass, spring-beauty, lapins, bird-foot clover, tall vetch, marah hollyhock, godetia, gilia, grove-lover, paintbruah, etc*  Elevation is another factor that has a determining influence on the distribution of vegetation in the vicinity of Vancouver. A rise up the mountains produce conditions that otherwise would only occur at considerable distance to the noith.  The vegetation of the slopes and tops of the  mountain, therefore, belongs to the sub-arctic and arctic botanical zones.  The plants of these zones represent  "relicts" of an ancient flora, which covered the whole region in the time of the recession of the ice sheet.  These relicts  are now isolated on the mountain tops far from their natural geographical habitats,—boreal islands in a sea of more southern life. FAuHA Or TRF VICINITY Or VANCOuV,H. The fauna of Northwestern America has a close relationship with the fauna of Northeastern Asia.  Various authorities  have explained this fact by the intercontinental connection which must have been made and broken many times in geological  history.  Even at the present time the Bering Strait does not  much prevention to migration of animals from America to Asia or vice versa.  That this connection was in the far north and  in What is now arctic or sab-arctic climate did not prohibit a continual interchange of warmth-loving species, for the presence of coal in very high latitudes points to milder if not tropical or sub-tropical conditions where now we find perpetual snow and ice.  "We must therefore conceive of a pre-  glacial time when tree-firns and other luxuriant coal-producing forests occupied extreme northern lands, and such animals as elephants, horses and other warmth-loving species could spread from one continent to the other."  ^  The present fauna of North America is divided into three regions, a Boreal, Austral and a Tropical one, with the first two each divided into three life zones:  the Arctic, Rudson-  ian and Canadian zones for the Boreal region and the Transition, and Upper and lower Austral zones for the Austral region,  in Canada we have five of these zones represented—  from the noith: the Arctic, Hudsonian, Canadian, Transition and Upper Austral.  These extend across the continent, roughly  agreeing with latitude, but thrown out of regularity by local conditions and agreeing closely with the mid-summer isotherms or temperature belts.  The distribution of  animals also depends upoxf the arrangement of land and water or mountain ranges forming barriers or highways of migration and the rainfall and humidity jf climate. 1)  2J) ^  This has a primary  f.A. Taverner. Faunas of Canada. Year Book 1921.  The Canada  direct influence upon the animals as well as a secondary and indirect one through the plants and insects which give them food or shelter. The coast of British Columbia is warmed by the grateful temperature of the gre t final sweep of the Japan current. A great ind fundamental influence this ocean current has on the distribution of plants and aai als upon the coast of it. T%e result of those favorable climatic conditions is that the fauna of the Vicinity of Vancouver is somewhat southern ih character.  It is refered to the Transition Zone and is  penetrated by extension of the Upper Austral fauna along warm lowland.  Here many northen  ad southern fo^ms meet.  The cotton-tail, Jack-rabbits and the American elk found here the northern limit of their range and on the contrary, the varying hare the southern li It of its distribution. The common mole of the south meets the Btar-nosed and Brewer's mole of the north and the wild cat pa tially replaces the Canada lynx.  Amongst birds, the wild turkey, bob-white,  two cuckoos, towhee, wood thrush and yellow-throated vireo are at the northern limit of their ranges, and the Baltimore oriole, bluebird, catbird and boboliak overlap the solitary vireo aad ailson's thrush. 1) Black and cinnamon beais are common in the region, Columbian or coast deer inhabits the lower wooded slopes. The mountain goat lives on rougher and higher levels, being most numerous on Bute and Knight inlets.  Among the more  elevated peika the big-horned mountain sheep may still be 1) P.A. Taverner. Faunas of Canada. The Canada Yea^ Book,1921.  found*  A hundred years ago the region was famous for the  grssenee of otter, mink, marten, and beaver,, which were plentiful there*  This fact played an outstanding role in the history  of British Columbia, because the latter valuable fur-bearing animals attracted humorous fur-traders and caused quicker colonization and exploration of the country^ (see the chapter "History of the geographical discoveries along the coast of Northwestern America).  But now these animals are rarely seen*  The steep cliffs and lofty trees are a natural habitat for numerous eagles, hawks and crows*  The large blue grouse,  the ruffed grouse and the spruce patridge inhabit the sunny spots where the forest is least dense. Aquatic birds, gulls and several varieties of duck are abundant, large colonies of the former using Mittlenach island in the Strait of Georgia nesting grounds* The Upper Austral zone represented in the region by some interesting southern forms.  The opossum is perhaps the most  distinctive of the mammals of this zone and among birds there are the yellow-breasted chat, mocking bird, Carolina wren, Carolina chickadee, orchard oriole, barn owl, a number of distinctive southern warblers and some southern sub-specifie forms allied to more northern variations* The more important fish in the waters of the region are five varieties of salmon.  The most valuable from commercial  point of view being'the cockeye*  Other varaieties a e the  eohoe=, spring, pink and chum salmon.  The salmon inhabit the  deep sea where individuals live and grow during four ye-^s.  After that period fish come from the sea in great multitude into the rivers and spawn.  The eggs hatch out but all the  mature individuals die because their life cycle is completed. Among other fishes the more impo-tant are red and rock cod, herring, dogfish, and oolachans. seal has been frequently seen.  The hairy or harbour  Whales and combating with  them swordfishes were numerous, especially in the vicinity of of Bate and Teba inlets. are aituated.  On many of the islands clam flats  "This shell-fish forms are an important element  in the food of the Indians, the kitchen middies, which are of frequent occurrence, consisting chiefly of their shells."^ A large variety of starfish of a rich purple hue, a few brilliantly coloured sea-anemons, and numerous craos are also prominent inhabitants of the littoral zone.  In the rivers,  streams and la&eer; trout are most abundant. TEE A BO. f GENES. There are no Indian people among the population of the city of Vancouver*  But they lived the^e  ecently and left  many marks of their habitation on the territory of the city. Thus monumental gaily coloured and fantastically carved totem poles of Stanley Park and pictography of Xitsilaao Canyon are the characteristics which attract the attention most closely upon approaching. From the Indiana the white man bo-rowed U  J. Austen Bancroft; Geology of the Coast and Island between the Strait of Georgia and Queen Charlotte Sound, B.C. Geology Surv., Memoir 23, 1913.  many hosts of local geographical names such as Kitsilano, Kipilano, Maple, Slwaah, and others.  Thus the geography of  Vancouver would not be complete without a mention on the Aborigenea. The Indians who previously inhabited the territory of Vancouver city belonged to Salish, a separate linguistic stock, which still is the most hameroua in the aouthwestern part of the province extending into the neighbouring states of the American Union.  There are 16 dialects in the Salish stock,  which may be grouped as the interior.  1) coast dialects and 2) dialects of  The coast dialects are subdivided as follows:  14 Bellaaoola, a group of tribes on Bentinck arm and Dean inlet, Brit. Colum.; 2) Comox group on the northern portion of the Strait of Georgia, 3) Cowiohan group in the neighbourhood of Nanaimo on Vancouver island, and in the valley of lower Fraser river nearly to Spuzzum, 4) Squawmi&h group, including the Squawmish of Burrard inlet and Howe sound and Nookaak of northern Washington, 5) Songish group, on Juan de Fuaa Strait, San Juan ialand, and portions of the coast of Washington and British Columbia,  Niequalli group, embracing  all tribes east of Puget sound and south to mountain rainier, and, en the west  the region up to Olyqgpia, except Hood  Canal, 7) Twana group, on Hood canal, Fuget Sound, 8) Chehalia group in northwestern Washington and f) Tillamook group on the coast of Oregon. The area of the ei&y of Vancouver proper was inhabited by SquawAiah, a Saliah tribe who use to live on Burrard inlet, north of the mouth of the Fraser river and on Howe Sound.  There were formerly 100 1' of their village communities or bands but only five villages are now inhabited: Burrard inlet Be.3, (north shore Burrard inlet, near North Arm), Kapilano Mission, Seymour Creek and Sqmamish.  Snauk, a Squawmish  village, community disappeared recently, population was 45* 399 in 1911*  in 1911 its  The total population of the Squawmish was  The total population of coast Saliah in Canada  ia 4, 874, and there are 25,694 of Indian population in British Columbia. The Indians of British Columbia appeag to be a wholly separate race from the Indians of the eastern and prairie provinces*  Physically they represent a middle type between  the pan-American and Mongoloid types. As it is well known the panrAmeriean visage consists of a well-formed ovaled face in which a decidedly acquiline and somewhat pointed nose forms the chief feature, dark eyes and hair and a red or coppery akin*  All Indians of North and South America belong to thia  type*  The ^Mongoloid jyype is characterized by an unusual  breadth of face, the nose is concave and spreading, the cheek bones high and prominent, the mouth coarse, and the colour a p&lish yellow*  Eskimos belong to this type.  The intermediate position of Indians of British Columbia would aeem to indicate that the native races of the province have received a latter infusion of gast-Aaian blood th-n the natives in more distant parts of the continent.  "This view  is entirely in harmony with the beliers commonly held by The figure is taken from "Handbook of Indian of Canada. Geographic Board, Canada, 1913.  mytatsMHggf!!  -99-  American students, the consensus of opinion now being that this continent was originally peopled from the West, and that the East-Asian hordes did not enter the country in one great wave, but rather in successive m$ner waves, and therefore the natives of British Columbia, being presumably the latest comers, are more closely allied to the Mongoloid people of Bast-Asia than are the tribes or stocks farther east or south. As to the sutiquity of man in the province all tha geological evidence point to the conclusion that he came after the Glacial epoch but it was "an event of the far distant past a ti"ie so remote, in fact, that it pertains to geology rather 21 than to ethnology."  '  The culture of the coast Salish forms the southern extention of the North-west Coast culture.  The Salish  dwellings were long houses with shed roof, wall planks horizontal and permanent smoke-holes. families wach with its own fire.  They contained several  The chief occupation of the  Coast Salish was fishing^ Shell-fish played also the important part in their diet. employed.  The cedar "dug-outs" canoes were greatly  They knew nothing about agriculture and had no  domestic animals except dog.  Pottery was not known to these  people and they used the bark kettle and the water-bucket and and other bark vessels and ware extremely skillful in making baskets. Unlike the more northern Haida, Tlingit and Tsimshian, 1) 2)  Charles Hill Tout. The Native .aces of British Columbia. British Columbia from the Earliest Times to the Present. 3y E.O. Scholefield., V. 1. l.C. mussel. North America.  -100-  Salish usually reckoned their descent through the father. Slavery §nd the potlaeh were regular institutions among them* One of the most characteristic customs was artificial headflattening*  Totemism and Shamanism constituted the religion  .  of 3alish.  The former is the belief in guardian spirits-  souls of ancestors, which are believed to have the shape of some animals.  3alish worshiped these animals.  is the belief in the medicine man's power.  The Shamanism  Bat at the present  time all Salish are christians and have almost abandoned their old primitive religion, and old customs. At the present time Indians of the neighbourhood of Vancouver live in thw white man's houses and to a certain extent adapted some sides of the white man's culture.  Their  chief occupation at the present day is fishing and working in salmon canneries* Indians are minors under the law, and their affairs are admlnistred by the Department of Indians Affairs uader the authority of the Indian Act*  BIBLIOGRAPHY. (Only the more important works are mentioned). OReSRAPBY AND GEOLOGY. Russell, Israel C*  "North America", 1904.  Russell, J. Smith. Johnston W.A.  'North America"  "Geology of Fraser River Delta Map-area", Geological Survey. Canada, Mam. 135, 1923. "Sedimentation of tha Fraser River Delta. Geol. Surv., Can. Mam., 125, 1921.  Barwash, E+M.J.  "The Geology of Vancouver and Vicinity. The University of Chicago Press, 1918.  Camsell, C.  "Coast nange, Lytton to Vancouver," Gaol. Surv., Can., Guide Book No. 8, 1913, pt 11, pp 256-273.  Daly,  "The Geology of the region Adjoining tha Western Part of the International Boundary," Gaol. Surv., Can., Sum. -apt., 1901, pp. 39A-51A. "Geology of the North American Cordillera at tha Forty-ninth Parallel, Gaol. Surv., Can., Mem. 38, pt 11, 1912.  Dawson, G.M.  "The Physical Geography and Geology of Canada. Handbook of Canada. Toronto, 1897. "Vancouver Island and Adjacent Coast." Ann. nept. G. S, of C. 1887.  Le Roy, 0.$.  "Preliminary Report on a Portion of the Main Coast of British Columbia and Adjacent Islands, Included in New Westminster and Nanaimo Districts." Geol. Surv., Can., Pub. No. 996, 1908.  Bancroft, J. Austen.  Geology of the Coast and islands between the Strait of Georgia and Queen Charlotte Sound, B.C. Gaol. Surv., Can. Mem. 23., 1913.  Connor, A.3.  The Temperature and Precipitation of British Columbia. Tha Meteorological Service of Canada, 1915+  Climate of British Columbia* Department of Agriculture* Victoria, B.C* 1928. Sard, -.DeC*  The Oli.ntos of the United States* 1925.  Province of British Columbia* Its climate and Resources. Victoria, B.C* 1883.  FLQhA AND FAJHA. Joseph gaya Henry* Kowsll Thomas. Piper Oh*,V.  "A Flora of Northwest America." Portland, Oregon, 1903.  and  John Reaat Aord*  "Flora of Southern British Columbia and Vancouver island* Toronto 1915.  Eent Baattie. "Flora of the Northwest Coast*" 1915. The Naturalist in British Columbia*, Vol, I. and 11*  Canada* Sessional Papers, .apart of the Superintendent General of tha Department of Indian Affairs, annual* Canada and its Provinces, through index in volume ^3 under Indiana. Bancroft, H* H. gative Races, vol. 1, 3, 5 (index). U* S.  Bureau of American Ethnol gy.  Bulletin 30,  2 parts*  "Handbook of American Indiana."  Handbook of the Indiana of Canada. British Assoc. of Advancement of Science. 1894. Indian Tribes.....Fraser ^iver, p. 454. Hill-Tout, C. British North America, pt. I. Wsst.  Boas-  The Far  Payne, E. J. History of the New World called America. Farrand, L*  Basis o^ ^meric^n History.  Huntington, E. Teit, J*  The ^ed Man's Continent*  Folk Tales of Salishan Tribes.  Canada. Special Committee ... Claims of the ... Indian Tribes of B*C* ... .sport and Evidence* Barbeau, M.  The Downfall of Temlaham.  Barbeau, M*  Canadian Rays in the Canadian hookies*  Indian Notes and Monographs, published by Museum of the American Indian Reye Foundation, New York, nos. 13, 19, 23, 61, Niblack, A. P. Coast Indians of ... B.C. in Report of U. S. Nat. Museum ror 1888* Boas, F* Tribes o^ the North Pacific Coast (Toronto, 1906).  PART II HISTORICAL  GEOGRAPHY.  The history of the exploration of the northwest coast of North Amerioa is no less interesting than that of the eastern shores of the continent.  This exploration culminated in a  long series Of noble efforts wo thy o^ admiration.  The  explorers braved cold and hunger in this removed and wild region in earlier dpys, suffered untold hardships, unknown dangers and sickness, and soma of them as Bering (Russian) even payed with their lives. Three nations made the contribution to the discovery and geographical knowledge of Northwestern America: Groat Britain, Russia and Spain.  They exhibited a keen interest  in the distant and unknown region. early as 1528.  Spain started first as  Next was masia discovering Bering Strait  in 1647 and reaching the coast of British Columbia of to-day and Alaska in 1741.  Gre-t Britain appeared in this region in  1778. All the expeditions of Spaniards were fitted out n o m **  their establiahments on the Mexican Pacific seaboard. Russians used to coma from their post on the Kamchatka Peninsula and British used the Sandwich islands as a base fotheir operations on the northwest coast.  The United States  exibited their interest in the region very late. geographical discovery waa made in 1792.  Thei^ firat  The history of geographic exploration o^ northwestern America begins with the search for a channel leading to the Orient, so called Northwest Passage.  I)  SOtnTHtVEST PASSAGE.  After the diacove y of the continent of America many leading navigators triad to find a passage though this continent*  At that time no one knew how far the continent  extended from east to west*  It was believed in those days  that at most a raw hundred leagues separated the Atlantic and Pacific oceans*  The effort to discove  a navigable sea  route westward from Europe to Cathay (China) and India, via the ocean to the no th of Ame ica began with the voyages of the Sabots (1497)and was pursued intermittently by save al European Powers.  This effort ended with the Franklin exped-  ition (1847^ whose seamen, as Richardson says, "forged the last link of the northwest passage with their lives*" The chief purpose of these efforts was not acconpliahed, the Northwest passage was never discovered but these heroic voyages resulted in many important discoveries*  Thus the  Baffin Bay region was discovered (1616) and the islands situated between that bay and Beanfort Sea, as well as the entire coast lines of-the North.  The discovery of the North-  west coast of America, and of numerous islands, straits and inlets resulted from the search for the northwest passage. The voyages of the Spaniards, of Captain Cook, and of many other explorers had the chief aim to -ind the %e^thT%a.stt  passage.  The discovery of Burrard inlet where the city of  Vancouver is now situated was made by Captain George Vancouver^ who also was trying to find the northwest passage. The existence of this passage might have been of great importance for European nations at that time; espeoially for Spain, France and England as their colonies in America were engaged in trade with East Asia.  Mhen the Hudson's Bay  Company was incorporated and granted certain territories in North America, together with exclusive p ivileges of trade and commerce the search for the Northwest Passage had been specifically included in the charter of 1670 as one of the Company's special duties.  2) APOCRYPHAL VOYAGES. When the first navigators had failed to find tha northwest passage, a rumour was spread over all Europe that the desired passage had already been found.  Such a story gave  great impetus to navigators and geographers to continue the search and new adventurers sailed in the appointed direction to examine the passage and to establish a communication with East Asia.  The first extravagant story about such voyages  was that of Martin Chake, a Portuguese, who is alleged to have sailed in 1555 from the Atlantic to a point on the Pacific coast north of California in latitude 590.  After him Juan  Fernander de radrillaro, a Spaniard professed tint he had certain knowledge of a passage north of New Spain.  Both  these stories were a more tissue of untruths, but they  exited many daring navigators who could not restrain from searching for this mythical passage. was Maldoaado, a Portugese.  The next impostor  He wrote a manuscript in 1588  which is preserved to this day, entitled "A Relation of the discovery of the Strait of Anian, made oy me. Captain Lorenzo Ferrer de Maldonado',  la thia ha describes his  course of navigation, the situation of the place, and the manner of fortifying it.  He also relates that he crossed  the North Atlantic to Davis Strait, and moving on, entered the North-west Passage, or as he called it, the Strait of Anian.  He assured that he had reached China and returned  to Rarope by the same passage.  The manuscript was published  many years after the date on which the voyage itself was declared to have been undertaken.  The story of Maldonado  was regarded at one time as authentic by the French scientist, Baache and also by some other geographers.  Maldonado*a  narrative,of course, ahould at first have excited the curiosity of seamen and geographers.  Bat when many new  efforts were made in vain a new story appeared with a meaaage of the discovery of the Strait of Anian.  It was the account  of Juan de Fuca'a voyage, by Michael Lok, a reputable merchant trading in the Levant. place in 1592.  The voyage was said to have taken  The story, which rests entirely upon the  testimony of lok, was published by Samuol Purehas in "His Pilgrimes" in 1625.  Of course, the story created a stir  ih the world of adventure, and many efforts were again made in the same direction but in vain.  The apocryphal voyage of Juan de Fuea is the most interesting of all the stories of that kind to the student of the history of British Columbia and particularly of the history of geographical discoveries and explorations of North nest America*  The strait of Anian was Indicated by Juan de Fuea  as being in the same latitude as that of the vicinity of the city of Vancouver*  It is remarkable that the strait was  described hy Juan de Fuea in a manner which coincided so nearly with the description and facts as certified by Captain Berkley in 1786.  Although this strait was named the Strait  of Juan de Fuea, it is not at all the northwest passage through the whole continent of America as Juan de Fuea believed. A new rumour was created that de Fonte sailed oh April 3. 1640 from Lima in an easterly direction into a large inlet, which by "means of a chain of rivers and lakes opened into the Sea ef donquillo, that in turn communicated directly with the North Sea, or Atlantic Ocean, between Baffin and Hudson Bays." De Fonte's narrative was not published until April, 1708. All these apocryphal voyages stimulated adventurers and navigators of those days, and a belief in the existance of the Strait of Anian was general throughout the world.  Even  such geographers and men of science as Baache, Jeffey8^17da) Amoret&i, Goldson (1793) defended Maldonado, de Fuea and de Fonte.  3)  SPANISH EXPLORATION.  Spain was the first nation to hoist her flag on the continent of America, and to set her seal upon the coast of the Pacific Ocaan.  Twenty years after the discovery of  America by Ch. Columbus, the Spaniards had already reached the Pacific.  In the year 1513, Balboa sighted the greatest ocean  from the Isthmus of Darien.  This discovery waa of great  importance from the geographical and political points of view and gave a new impulse to the quest, which from that time was carried on with unabating zeal. new discovery followed.  Soon after this a  Magellan, a Portuguese, in the service  of Spain, discovered the strait which bears his name.  Ha  reached the gre.t ocean which separates America from Asia and was the first European tO' sail into the Pacific from the East. In the years 1519 and 15RO a new achievement was made by the Spaniards in America.  Cortes conquered Mexico and new direc-  tien was given American affairs at this juncture.  Because  from the subjugation of this rich and powerful country sprang many things, not the least ef which wastha exploration of the western coast of North America,  Near Mexico but farther  to tha north and west, was "terra incognita" which allured the curious and greedy Spaniards.  Cartas pushed his conquest to  the Pacific seaboard and with gra^t energy prepared to explore the unknown region of the North.  At this time a rumour was  spread about that a passage existed between tha Atlantic and the Pacific somewhere in the northern part af America ("Strait of  Anian").  Many navigators endeavored to find it.  Philip il,  king ef Spain being informed of the efforts of the English to find this passage, ordered Cortes to search for the Pacific outlet of the said Strait of Anian.  Cortes, in pursuance of  instructions given him by the king ordered Hour vessels to be built.  It was difficult to fulfil this order because the  country was in a constant state of revolt.  Skillful artisans  were scarce and geographical conditions arere not favourable for shipbuilding.  All the materials used for building these  ships had to be transported six hundred miles and in the end everything was destroyed by fire.  More ships were built but  were burned just as they were ready to start on their expedition. At last ships were ready and Pedro Nunex ^aldonado sailed from the mouth of the river ^acatula towards the Northwest in July, 1528.  Re returned in the course of six months,  bringing with him an imaginary accounts of "tha extent, richness, and fertility of the lands he had seen." Cortes visited Spain at this time in order to settle some political questions and on his return to Mexico, ha instilled a new spirit into the affairs of the Pacific. brought with hia many workmen and sailors.  He  The Spanish king  desired to hold undisputed sway over the whole of America and even over the whole world. All his agents and officers and amongst them Cortes made all efforts in same direction. Six expeditions were fitted out by the governmemt of Mexico in tha period between 1532 and 1608, for the exploration of the northwestern coast of North America and for hhe  the northwestern passage.  The last expedition was  that of Vizoano in 1698. From that time nntil 1774, a period Of 166 years Spain had made ho further effort to explore, although it controlled the Northern part of the Pacific ocean. The results of the Spanish explorations of those days (16081774) ware insignificant.  The Spaniards did net sail farther  to the North of Southern California (the state) of today. They never reached the coast of British Columbia.  Their  charts and journals of the expeditions were not good*  Indeed,  in a few years after the voyage of Vizcaino so utterly forgotten were the Spanish explorations that California was looked upon not aa a peninsula, bat as a large island of unknown length and  breadth*  So it was represented on a map  of North America by Samuel Purchas, in the third volume of his book "His Pilgrimes," 1625*  4) RUSSIAN EXPLORATIONS,  Russians moved from Europe to the East continuously since the sixteenth century.  In 1582 they conquered Siberia  and ai&er 60 years creased victoriously the whole continent of Asia and reached the coast of the Pacific * Vaailii Poiarkoff made a famous expedition from lakoutsk to the mouth of Amur and a voyage through Okhotsk sea in 1643-1646. A still more brilliant voyage was made by Semen Dejneff in 1647.  It was a heroic achievment ungratefully forgotten by  following generations.  This brave man, with a small detach-  ment at his command, went from lakontsk Ostroy (or stockaded poet) down a river to the shore of the Arctic ocean.  Here  he bailt three Kcchas (small ships) and with them he sailed along the coast to the extreme point of the continent of Asia cape Dejneff.  Than he sailed Bering Strait and reached  the month of the Anadyr river.  Having ascended this river  to a considerable distance he founded Anadyrski Ostrog, and subjugated the natives of that country,daring warlike Chukchees and collected from them iasak (tribute^ in the name ef the Russian Czar.j Since that time up to the present this palisaded fort has maintained Russian authority in the extreme notheast of Asia.  Semen Dejneff was the first European to  sail between Asia and America, he discovered the passage between these two continents.  He considered his discovery  to be of great importance since he made a report to his cheif the Voevoda of lakoutsk and even made a long journey to Moscow and pressnted himsslf to the czar Alaxei Mihailovich by whom he was rewarded.  Dejneff presented a journal of his  voyage to the voevoda of iakoutsk.  But this manuscript was  laid in the Archieves and was found in 1733 by the academist Mailer, a member of the expedition of Bering and Chirikoff. Soon after Dejneff's death his discovery was forgotten, and after 81 years Bering re-discovered the passage between Asia and America. In 1697 Atlasoff conquered Kamchatka.  Ivan Kosyrevski  was ordered to explore this peninsula to its southern  extremity, and same ef tha Karile Islands*  In 1719 he  despatched Tevreinoff and Imshin to ascertain whether Aaia aad America were connected.  From these and various other  expeditions waa collected a great mass of information touching the geography of Eastern Aaia, the sea of Okhotsk, peaiasala ef Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands. As it has been already mentioned Dejnefi's discovery ef the passage between Asia aad America was forgotten and up te the time of the Raaaiaa Czar, Peter the Great, nobody in Ramaia or even in eastern Europe knew anything about it. Peter the Great was vety much interested in solving the great question of that age—Whether Asia and America were connected, er separated? *** i^sr* there northwest and northeast passages? He decided to fit out an expedition to settle this question. Re was incited te such a great task by a desire to know the natural boundaries of his immense dominion.  He was influenced  too by the French Academy and other scientific institutions of western Europe.  The Czar's inquisitive mind was dwelling  on the possibility of establishing a line of communication to the Spanish colonies in central America.  "Whatever may have  beea the motives which prompted his activities, his great enterprise certainly brought Russia into the front rank of those nations engaged in geographical exploration." 1) 1)  British Columbia from the earliest limes to the present by E.O. Scholefield, aad F,W. Eoway.  Bering fulfilled only a half of the instruction given him by Peter the Great.  By his voyage around tha north-  eastern earner of Asia he demonstrated that the two great continents were separated by a sea.  Bat he failed, however,  to find the limits of this sea, and he did not reach the continent of America.  Therefore he himself as well the  Russian Admiralty and Academy of Science were imbued with a desire to continue the explorations and to sail the unknown sea in order to reach the American coast.  A new great  expedition was fitted out by Anna, Empress of Russia in 1783.  Bering was made the chief of this enterprise.  Alexei Chirikoff was second in command.  The academical branch  ef the expedition, in charge of the astronomer La Croyere, the physicist Gmelin (the elder) and the historian Mailer, was luxuriously equipped.  The expedition "consisted in all  Of five hundred and seventy men, in which total, however, the thirty or fourty acadamists and their attendants are not included." The expedition began to move from St. Petersburg in detachments in early months of 1733.  The starting point of  the sailing was now Okhotsk, a small Russian village in those days on the coast of the sea of Okhotsk.  The sufferings and  hardshops endured on that hazardous journey from St. Peterburg to Okhotsk were indeed terrific. Boring built two ships at Okhotsk and named them St. Peter  and St. Paul in honour of the patron saints of the day (June 39) an which they were launched.  The St. Peter was  aommandad by Vitas Bering and the St. Paul by Alexei Chirikoff. With Baring sailed the aataraliat George Steller, whoae journal of the expedition may be counted among the most interesting af geographic memoirs.  The geographer, Joseph de  la Croyere, accompanied Chirikoff.  The expedition sailed in  September, 1740 from Okhotsk far Kamchatka, where Bering foaadad the seaport and aamed it Pertapavlavsk after hia ships.  Rare the ships were frugally outfitted far a summer'a  eraise*  On the 4th of June, 1741 the vessels started on their memorable voyage* Saaa after they were separated by a storm and fog, and continued their cruises independently. The "St* Peter" took a north-easterly course toward the coast of America.  At noon July 16, 1741 laad was seen to the  northward,and on the 30th the St. Peter cast anchor off an island, which Bering named St. Eliaa.  Stellar described the  country as being "high, rugged and covered with anow, and the eoaat indented and girt with inhospitable rocks; behind, in Splendour, a snow-capped mountain peak towered ao far into the clouds that it could be aeon at a distance of 70 miles." The veasel remained here a few days and then proceeded to the northweat and viaited the region of the Ksdiak Island.  On  August SOth it anchored off the Shumagia, a group of barren  and reeky islands Hear the coast of Alaska.  "Bering was ae  ill that he eonld not stand, and one-third of the crew was stricken with scurvy. To refresh the sick they were carried they ley hnddled together, sad saA ssrrswfnl# Confusion, nneertainty and despair marked these dark days*" 1) This unfortunate stay on the Shumagin Islands was marked with death nmd disaster. Leaving the Shumagin Islands, Bering turned his course toward Kaaahatka, hat he never saw its coast any more*  On  the voyage back nearly all the officers and crew on board of St. Peter were stricken with scurvy and there was lack of fresh water and provision*  Finally, on November 4th they  reached a desert island, since named the Bering Island*  The  St* Peter had miraculously drifted into a safe horbour. "On landing, the place was found to be teeming with animal life never before disturbed by predatory human beings*  The  sea-lion and far-seal were found in great numbers, while the ponderous sea-cow fed upon the rich algae of the seashore*" The animals were entirely new and strange even to the scientist steller and shewed no fear whatever* namberless sea-ottera.  There were  "Arctic foxes flocked about them  in snch numbers that they could strike do^b three or four score of them in a couple of hours*  The most valuable for-  bearing animals stared at them curiously*" ^  British Columbia etc* F*W. Howay* $ritish Colunbia etc,  by E*0* Scholefield and by Scholefield and Roway*  The commander was helpless, however, as he was practically at death's door with scurvy. Most Of the members of the expedition were ia the same sad condition*  Stellar and such  af his companions as could stand the work, dag pits and roofed them over with driftwood and clothing.  "The frozen bodies of  the fazes they had killed were piled against the sides to prevent the arctic wind finding its way through the cracks and crevices.  The sick were gradually taken ashore and placed  under canvas on the beach.  Some died as they were carried  an deck, and others in the boats as they were being taken an shore.  On every side lay the sick and the dying.  Some  complained of cold, others of hunger and thirst, and the majority of them were so afflicted with scurvy that their gams, like a dark brown sponge, grew over and entirely covered their teeth. The dead became the prey of the foxes, of which countless numbers gathered about the encampment ready to devour the dead or attack the dying."  ^  Undar such terrible conditions, officers and crew of the St. Pater were compelled to winter there.  Bering died  on the Sth af December. Many of the officers and crew died also during the winter.  Next spring the surviving members  os the expedition sailed to Kamchatka and then returned home. British Columbia etc.  by Scholefield and Howay.  CaiRIKOFF'S VOYAGE. Chirikoff being separated from Bering by storm and fog aonsalted his officers and then decided to continue the easterly conrae, and en Jane 26 ha reached the latitude of 48*  It chanced that Bering was only 20 miles south of that  paaition on Ja&a 30.  After some days he sighted the moder-  ately high lead of the west coast of the Archipelago of Alexandria, near the latitude 58^ 21* and on the following morning aaw the conspicuous promontory afterwards named Cap. A&dingtan.  After that tha navigator abserved a group  ef islands afterwards named the Hazy Islands by Captain Dixon in 1787.  The course ef the St. Paul ran N.iK.W.  parallel to tho coast under the steep, woody ridge north of the Cape Ommaney of Captain Vancouver, the Cape Tschirikoff of the French navigator La Be rouse. Om the 17th of July the St. Paul reached the region of Sitka Sound, in latitude 57**.  In this neighbourhood a terrible  disaster befell Chirikoff and his people.  The commander of  tha St* Paul despatched a boat manned by 10 men to tha shore, in order to get fresh water.  As this boat did not return  for a long time, Chirikoff aant the second boat the only one remaining, in search of it*  which was  But neither of them  ever returned nor were they heard of again.  The men were  probably murdered by the savages of the country,which were powerful, overbearing and agressive in those days.  They  retained their warlike reputation even up to the time of tha  occupation of the country by the U* 3*  Chirikoff with the  council of officers decided that further attempts at geographical discovery were impracticable and that they must return to Kamchatka. After spending four months in that ssa, Chirikoff returned to Kamchatka*  He and many of the officers and crew  had been victims of the dreaded scurvy. After having recovered from his illness, Chirikoff searched the neighbouring seas in the hopes of finding Bering, but he was destined sever to meet him again. THE RESULTS OF BERING'S SECOND EXPEDITION. Bering's second expedition, like the first, was very Important geographically*  Even some foreign historians  said that "The two expeditions of Vitus Bering are possibly unique in the history of far northern explorations." 1) It resulted in tha discovery of hitherto unknown sea. Since named the Bering sea, in the observation of the northwest coast of the American continent, in the discovery of several islands with immeasurable wealth in land and sea, and also in the discovery of hitherto unknown fur-bearing animals such as the sea-otter, sea-bear, fur-seal,and arctic fox also sea-lions, sea-cows and other useful animals*  Steller and  other scientists, members of the expedition, made a rich collection on the zoology, botany and geology of the visited ^  E.O.S*  Scholefield, British Columbia etc.  region. Foreign historians appreciated the contributions made by the Russians in this expedition.  Thus Mr* Scholefield,  soys; "After the navigators of the nations of Western Europe had for two centuries wearied themselves with the search for a northwest passage and had made strenuous efforts to mavigate the Strait of Anian, Russia sought to solve the problem, perhaps in a more practical manner, first of all by looking  for the outlet of the strait and starting out on  a voyage round the northern part of the Old World,"  ^  Peter Lauridsen has written: "in the greatness of the tasks undertaken, in the perseverance of their leaders, in difficulties, dangers and tragic fates, the Russian explorations stand worthily at their aide*" Russians were the first Europeans to explore the northwestern coast of America and the northern part of the Pacific ocean.  They were also the first to sail along the coast of  the British Columbia of today.  THE VOYAGES OF RUSSIAN TRADERS AND ADVENTURES. Chirikoff's report in St. Peterburg regarding the immeasurable wealth of the discovered islands and the sea spread aver all Russia and incited many traders and adventurers with the desire to make fortunes in the fur trade.  These  enterprising individuals rushed to the Bering sea and the Commander Islands to hunt the sea-otter. ta '  Several hundred of  E.O.S. Soholefield. British Columbia etc. by Scholefield and Roway.  these daring men left cassia for this distant inhospitable region every year*  They were men of no education.  Never-  theless their voyages resulted in the discovery of npw islands and in adding much to tha knowledge of the Aleutian Islands. They established some settlments on the Aleutian Islands, and before 1778, when Captain Cook visited that region, the Russians were firmly established there.  THE EXPEDITIONS OF 6L0T0FF AND 3YND. Meanwhile the two expeditions were fitted oat by the Russian government*  One under the command of Glotoff which  reached the Kadiak Island in 1763; and the other, under Synd, $ Lieutenant ofthe Russian Navy, explored the Bering Strait in 1764-68.  Daring years 1745-1780 many Russian Companies were formed f&p the hamate* of the sea-otter*  One ef the founder of these  Companies was Gregory Shelekoff a Russian merchant.  He  fitted out three vessels and in 1781 traversed the Pacific to the Peninsula of Alaska and took possession of it in the name of Catharine II, the sovereign Quean of Russia.  After  a time he organised at Irkutsk the Shelekoff Company which was changed into the"Russian-American Company" by the Emperor Paul on June 8, 1799.  This grant gave to the Company the  control of all the coasts of America on the Pacific north of  latitude 5 5 %  Alexander Baraaoff was appelated manager at  KeAiak and Cook's Inlet.  The Russian-American Company was  a powerful organization similar to the Hudson's Bay Company and the Bast India Company.  Practically this Company became  the agent of the Russian Czar within the region named.  For  a period af sixty-eight years*-from 1799 to 1867, the Conpaay ruled Alaska. Rnasiaa navigators sailing from Russia te Alaska landed in many points of the Pacific coast of America *  Cace on  this way they took possession of a considerable piece of land ia California near San Francisco of to-day, In 1867 all the Russian territories in America were sold to the United States aad thus the activities of Russia ia America eaded.  RUSSIAN 6E06R&PEIC.L KXPKDITIOES IB TH,3 PERIOD 1768-let*". During their control of Alaska the Russians sailed very often iato the Beriag sea and along the coast line of America. Usually the Russian vessels made their course from St. Petersburg te London, Lisbon, through the Magellan Strait, aad along the western shore of South and North America to Alaska.  On the way, the Russian navigators made many geog-  raphical discoveries.  Besides this various scientific  expeditioas were fitted out by the Government of Russia. Notable among them were the^xpeditioa of Kraseastera aad Lisiaaski ia 1804-1806.  2) that of langsdorff, 3) of Golovnia  in 1897,and again in 1810, 4} af Kotsebae, in 1815, 5) of La^&a, 6) Wraagall, 7) Etolin, 8) J^azareff*  These expeditions  ware lax&rioualy equipped for scientific purposes and the sciantis^s, who were members of the expeditions, investigated and described the discovered islands, volcanoes, flora, fauna and native population of the region thoroughly*  THE RESULTS OF TME RUSSIAN EXPEDITIONS. The results of the Russian expeditions in the North Pacific were great*  The Russians discovered the passage into  the Arctic aaa in 1647 and ra-discovered it in 1728; they discovered, examined thoroughly and charted the Baring sea, the Aleutian islands and Alaska.  They subjugated the natives  af the country* converted them into Christianity and made an affart to civilize them.  The Russian Government established  schools, hospitals and the Russian Clergy built churches and. established missions and monasteries*  The Russians colonized  the inhabitable region of Kamchatka, many islands and Alaska* Daring 66 years the Russians controlled Alaska; they exploited its natural resources and exhibited great enterprise in the commercial activity*  Even at the present time there is a  Russian population in Alaska and the Russian language is still in use there*  5) SPANISH EXPLORATION IS THE lATTEa HALF OF TEE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. Daring 166 years (1606-1774) Spain made no effort to explore the northwest coast of America* the northern part of the Pacific*  Although it controlled  But the successful activit-  ies of the Russians in Alaska and on the Alsatian Islands and even in California perturbed the Court of Madrid*  Moreover,  the acquisition of Canada by Great Britain and the increased efforts of British navigators to penetrate into the northern part of the Pacific, induced Spain to give renewed life to her claim to the sole sovereignty of Northern America washed by the Pacific*  The attempts of Great Britain to advance  westward across the American continent rendered the discovery of the Northwest Passage of great importance to that power as well as to Spain*  In view of these events Spain adopted a  policy of expansion.  In consequence of this a Marine  Department was created in Mexico in 1774 for the special purpose of promoting and fostering the expedition to the Northwest coast of America*  The port of San-Bias was selected  as the base of operations* THE EXPEDITION OF $he first expedition fitted out by the Marine Department was that of Don Jnan Perez, who sailed on a little corvette, the "Santiago," in 1774*  He was ordered by the Viceroy of  Mexico to examine the coast as far north as the 65** of latitude*  Two Franciscan friars, father Crespi and father  Pena, accompanied him ana wrote a journal of the expedition. Perez started on the 85th of January but, because of heavy fogs, sighted land only on 18th of July,  it was the western  seaboard of the Queea Charlotte Islands in 53** 58* north latitude.  On the 20th of July a canoe approached tha  Santiago*  In it were natives who sang songs and scattered  feathers on the water.  The Spaniards thought that the natives  wanted to propitiate them by this means.  At first the natives  did not venture to come nearer, but on seeing handkerchiefs, beads and biscuits offered by the Spaniards, they approached and took these gifts but immediately returned to the shore and disappeard.  Perez gave the name of Santa Margarita, to  the insulated cliff first sighted by him.  He also named the  islands, promontories and mountains of that region. Leaving Cape Santa Margarita, Perez sailed southward, and having reached the 49** of north latitude, drew nearer to the coast and came anchored on the 19th of August.  Nearly  three centuries elapsed before the Spaniards started to explore the northwest coast of America; and only after this long period of time, they were at last able to set their seal upon the northwest coast. After landing Perez learned that it was impossible to fulfil the order given to him by the Viceroy and therefore he turned his ship southward and sailed back to Mexico.  TRg EXPEDITION OF R3CETA. Next Spanish navigator to explore the Northwest of America was Naval Lieutenant Den Bruno Reeeta, who sailed from San-Bias in 1775 by order of the Viceroy.  The ship was the  same Santiago now accompanied by a little schooner, Sonera, under Lieutenant Juan Francisco de Bodega y Quadra*  On July  11th the navigators sighted land in latitude 48^ 26*. From this ;pa$nt they searched for the entrance to tho Strait of Juan de Fgea but in vain.  On July 14th the navigators aneh0  ored near Point Granville, in latitude 47 experianced a great disaster.  20* where they  Heceta, the commander of  Santiago, with the officers and a few sailors, went to the shore in ar&er to erreet a cross and to perform the ceremony of taking formal possession of the country in the name of the Spanish king. Meanwhile, some of the crew of the Sonera want ashore in the only boat to get fresh water*  Suddenly  the Indiana, to the number of three hundred, rushed upon them and atar&ered them all. After the massacre on the shore the Indiana attacked the Sonera from their canoes, bat tha Santiago arrived in time to rescue the Sonera and its crew. In commemoration of the event, the point was called Panta de Martires —  Martir's faint; and the island, a little to  the northward, was for the same reaaon, named lala de DoloraR --Island of Sorrows.  "This island, 12 years later was called  Destruction Island, by Captain Berkley, because some of his craw were massacred on the mainland opposite." ^ I) British Columbia etc. by Scholefield and Howay.  After this disaster Heoeta turned his ship southward and sailed has* to Mexico.  On his homeward way ha landed on  the west ccsat of Vancouver Island, near the 50^ of latitude sad, farther to the south, discovered the mouth of the Columbia river*  This,he thought, was the strait of Asian reported to  have been found by Juan da Fuea in 1592* The Sonora, under the command of Quadra with the pilot Maurella, continued the voyage farther tto the north and made a desperate attempt to reach 65th parallel*  Bat these  navigators of mere than ordinary determination and courage reached only the neighbourhood of the 50th parallel and, after that, returned to Mexico*  On the way they discovered the  beautiful snow-capped mountain, which was later named Mount Edgeccmb by Captain Coot.  The ports Remedies and Guadelnpe,  (the Norfolk Sound of today)* and also Sucareli Sound, were also discovered by them, their names remaining on the map until this day*  Later Quadra and Msnrelle crossed Dixon's  entrance, which was named by them Entrada de Perez and soon afterwards they sighted Cape Santa Margarita (Cape North)* On November 20, 1775 they at last reached Saa Bias in Mexico, after an absence of eight mohths.  "Their achivement indeed  was a brilliant example of Spanish seamanship."  TEE EXPEDITION OF ARTEAGA, In 1779 Igaacio Arteaga, the commander of two ships— Brincesa and Favorita—sailed to the Northwest, accompanied by Bodega y gaadra and Maurelle.  They reached the Port Bucareli,  discovered by Qaa&ra and Mauralie In 1775+ and remained there for several seeks, surveying the bay and trading with the motives*  After that they sailed farther to the Northwest and  made the highest point yet reached by the Spaniards, sighting the magnificent mountain of St* Eli as, so named by Bering, the Russian navigator, thirty - eight years before*  They  searched in vain for a passage which might lead into the Arctic Sea, and which had been discovered by the Aassian Cossack* Semen Dejneff, in 1647 and re-discovered by Soring in 1728* The Spanish explorations towards the and of eighteenth century* were more productive and successful than those of earlier days*  The most brilliant ef them was tha expedition  lander the command of Malaspina and especially of a detachment from it, consisting of two little vessels, the "Sutil" and "Mexicans," commanded respectivlj by Don Dianiaio Galiano and Don Cayetano Yaldes.  The vessels sailed Ircm Mexico on  March 8, 1792 and reached Nootka on May 12*  The voyage was  undertaken for the purpose of continuing the examination of the Strait of Fuca but these Spanish navigators had entered the Strait five days after tha British expedition under command of Captain George Vancouver, who met them at Point Grey, where he intented to land. After some days Galiano and Valdez continued the exploration of the coasts partly surveyed by Spanish officers in previous years*  Galiano  touched at the Port of Cordova, where the city of Victoria now stands*  Both these navigators carefully wrote their  journals which contain the mast valuable information regarding the coast of British Columbia especially the west and south sides of Vancouver island and of the neighbourhood of the oify of Vancouver*  These original journals have been specially  translated for the Archives Department of British Columbia*  THE RESULTS OJ THE SPANISR EXPLORATION.  The results of the Spanish expeditions to the Northwest were insignificant*  During 264 years they had made many ef-  forts to explore the Northern part of the Pacific and to hold their undisputable sway there*  The Northern Pacific was a  "Closed S*a* to other power*. From a gepgraphical point of view, the Spanish contributions to the knowledge of this retion may be summarized as follows:  1) The Spaniards made  a cursory examination of seme points, 2 ) they ascertained the general trend of the coast line*  %) Galiano and Valdex  enriched the literature of travel and geography by the close and detailed examination of the coast of British Columbia. The chief aims of the Spaniards were not achieved.  They failed  to reach the passage leading into the Arctic sea and they were unable to establish themselves firmly on the islands and mainland discovered by them; excepting Nootka and the Port of Nunez Gaona (Neah Bay) they did not even try to colonize them*  Spain never did justice to her navigators.  journals were often not published.  Their  The Spanish literature  on the subject of the Northwest coast of America is meagre in the extreme.  ^  6) BRITISH SXPLO^TION.  The first British vessel te sail near the northwaatern saast of America was the "Golden Hind" under the command of Francis Drake.  In 1579 this bold sea*rover rounded the Horn  and came lata these forbidden waters seeking a route home by way af the Northwest Passage aad in his futile quest he aeems ta have gene as far north as 43**. Soma early writera asaert that Drake evan reached the latitude of in the Strait of Juan de Fuoa.  and anchored  He took possession of the  country in the name of Queen Elizabeth and called it Albion. Bat this event had no result.  Sars and other matter of atate  prevented England fellow crake's discovery*  After 300 years  anly British appeared in thia region again.  It waa the  famous Captain Cook with the members of his expedition*  CAPTAIN JAMES COOK.  The Northweat Passage became again the subject of animated discussion amongst geographers and man of science in the aeeond half of the eighteenth century.  The celebrated  defence of Haldonado, de Fuca and other mythical explorers by the scientists, ruache, Jafferya, Amoretti, GolAaon and other learned men, created a stir among the learned societies af Europe in those days *  Great Britain waa very much  interested in this qnestion at this time, because the acquisition of Canada rendered the discovery af the Northwest  Passage of importance te that power.  The activities of the  Russians and Spaniards on the northeastern coast of the Pacific gave additional reasons for viewing with dissatisfaction any attempts of her rival to advance notthward in that ocean* In view of these events the Admiralty in London determined to send a scientific and exploring expedition to the northwest coast of America.  The chief purpose of this  expedition was to establish "the truth or falsity of the accounts regarding the existence of a navigable waterway connecting tha two great oceans."  Captain Cook was selected  to be commander of this enterprise.  Re sailed from Plymouth  on the 12th of July, 1776 in the ship "Resolution," which as followed on 1 August, by the "Discovery*" under the command of Captain Charles Clarke, who joined the Resolution at the Cape of Good Rope on the 10th of November.  The two ships  Sailed together from the Cape en November SO, touched at Van Diemen's Land and New Zealand, and spent the following year among the islands of tha South Pacific.  Cook discovered at  thia time the Sandwich Islands (named in honour of Lord Sandwich)*  He afterwards sailed to the northwest coast of  America and, on March 7, 1778, sighted the coast of Oregon, bat was driven back by a severe gale accompanied by flurries ef snow.  Only on Marc% 22, he reached land again ia latitude  48° 22^' (Cape Flattery).  Ia this neighboarhood, he searched  in vain far the Strait said te have been discovered by Juan de Fuea ia 1592.  We fiad written in his journal a few terse  sentences, upon the oft repeated account of that mythical pilot's vpyage: "It is in this veiy latitude where we now are that geographers have placed the pretended Strait of Jaan &e Pnea.  Bat we saw nothing like it; nor is there the  least probability that any such thing ever existed." On March 29, 1778, Cook reached Vancouver Island and anchored in a safe haven in Noetka Sound*  The expedition  was gladly welcomed by the natives, who in many canoes gathered about the Ships and made a long harangue, in the course of v&ieh they east white feathers upon the water, while seme sf them threw haadfala of red dust* Cook stayed in Nootka Sound for four weeks*  Re with his  officers examined the west side of the Sound, while other members of the Expedition were engaged in their several occupations*  Webber, the artist, drew the scenery and the  savages; Anderson, the surgeon of the expedition, collected examples of implements and various objects in common use among the natives*  He prepared an extended account of the  manners and customs of the aborigenae. Cook named the Sound "Nootka" because he thought that it was the title by which the place was known to the natives. Bat it was a mistake*  Cook was not aware of the insular  character of the Sootka region*  It was discovered 14 years  later by Captain George Vancouver* On April 86, 1778, Cook sailed along the coast, to the north making almost a continuous running survey as far north aa Icy Cape, from which being nnable to penetrate farther.  B9*  After examining the islands and  advanced regions, he went to the Sandwich Islands where he was murdered by the natives.  THE MARITIME FURTA&DE^S.  Daring the expedition of Captain Cook, immeasurable wealth was discovered in the vast forests and in the neighbouring seas of the Northwestern America.  The skin of the  sea-otter was especially valuable and attractive. M . b e r . .f Coot', expedition get  The  skins .f the ...-otter  and aald them in 6hina for a high priae.  In consequence of  this the men of the Resolution and Discovery were so excited that, in spite of their long and tiresone voyage, they wished to return at once to Nootka Sound to purchase more skins* The commander of the Discovery wrote in M s diary!  "The rage  with which the seamen wore possessed to return to Cook's River was not far short of mutiny." These facta originated a rumour about the immense wealth of fur in the Northwest of AmericafSritish Columbia of to-day}, which obtained much more currency immediately after the publication of Cook's voyage. As a result of this, a number of adventurers and furtraders rushed to Northwestern America. It should be kept in mind, that the Russian fur-traders started to go to Alaska much earlier and they were the first to discover the value of the skin of the sea-otter and its great market in China.  Sat the Russian Government did not permit to  fur-traders ef any ether nation to take part in commerce on the territory of Alaska.  The missian-American Company was  granted a monopoly of trade in that country till 1867. After tha Ceok^s expedition the northwest coast of t* America became the scene af a keen commercial rivalry. Adventurers of many nations gathered there to try their lnek. Eat the country was a wild one in those days*  The competitors  suffered many hardships and brave* many dangers, all for tha sake of the rich far of the sea-otter* The earlieat expeditions of west Euopean fur-tradera started from China*  Tha first was that of Captain Hanna  she sailed in a small brig, carrying a craw of thirty men* The vessel left China in April, 1785, and reached Noetka in Angaat of the aame year*  The expedition was a aueeeasful one;  the furs were sold at Canton for a little more than $30,000* Lowrie and Guise, the next adventurers ware more successful, obtaining six hundred and fear skins and odd pieces of fur, which fetched $34,000 in China* The next far trading expedition waa that of Captain Berkley of the British trading Ship "Imperial Eagle" who sailed from England, in 1786*  Ha discovered the Strait named  by him in honour of the mythical here, Juan do Fuca, known under thia name up to the present time* John Meares, tetired nontenant, sailed in 1786* compelled to winter at Nootka*  He was  This voyage, with all its  hardships and privations, is typical of the fur trading expeditions*  His vessel was not capable of resisting the  intense sold, agnryy attacked the crew, and some of the officers*  The aargsen ef the expedition and 23 men died in  the beginning ef the winter*  "Every advantage," Maares  writes in his journal, "the sick could receive from the most tender and vigilant attention, they received from myself, the first officer and a seaman, who ware yet in a state to do them that service*  Bat still we continued to see and lament  a gradual diminution of oar crew from this terrible disorder* Pee often did I find myself called to assist in performing the dreadful office of dragging the dead bodies across the lee, to a shallow sepnlaher which oar own hands had hewn oat for them on the shore*  The sledge on which we fetched the wood  was their hearse and the chasms in the ice their greys*" Next spring Captain George Dixon came in the "Queen Charlotte" and relieved Meares and his officers and men, who welconed him "as a guardian angel, with tears of joy*" Captain Dixon added not little to the store of scientific knowledge both in discovery and in the gathering of information respecting the flora and fauna of the northwest coast of North America*  On July 35, 1787 he discovered a group of  islands which were named the Queen Charlotte islands, after his ship the "Queen Charlotte*" Suffering and failure did not dampen Meares' ardour, for in the following year, he organized another expedition to Nootka*  At this time, Meares purchased a piece of ground  from Maquilla, chief of Nootka Sound Indians, and built a house, and some other buildings and also made a secure  fortification*  This enterprise was the genoeia of the famous  Neetka affair of the following years and waa destined to alter the whole tread ef international political events at that period* The far tradera and adventurera aalled np and down the ooaat and gonad harboura and anohoragea of which they drew roagh charts far their own guidance.  Th<? operations of theae  daring men added act a little to the world'a atore of geographical knowledge and the far trading period especially waa productive of a largo assortment of local charts*  NQ9TK4 SO^NJ C^JToVE..SY* After the occupation of Alaska by the Russians, and the establishment there of a powerful organisation, the "Russian-ABM!riaan Company, and alao the invasion of the northwest eeaat &y the far tradera, Northwestern America became the scene ef a keen commercial and political rivalry* The ancient Spaaiah claim to exclusive aoveroignty, and the navigation and commerce on the North Pacific wore threatened by the successful activities of Raasia and Great Britain* Martinez and Hero, Spanish navigators, after their investigation of the ^Hseian settlement in Alaska, and of the base ef the far traders at Nootka Sound in 1786, reported to hhe Viceroy of Mexico abeat this threatened trespass upon alleged Spanish territory*  The Viceroy immediately gave Martina*  the necessary instructions governing his conduct in the event of his meeting Britiah, .nasian, or American Veeaele and if  naaaasary, ta repel force by force, aalonists and missionaries, The Spanish Government determined at that time to extend her settlements along the caast. On Febraary 17, 1789+ Martinaz with Raro as second in aammaM, sailed from Saa Bias in the Prlneassa and the San earlas,  Baslda tha ragalar areas, these ships carried a  notary, two ahaplaias and faur Praneisaaa friars.  Reaching  Naatka, Martlaez foand there same British and American ships. After a dispute, he seized three British ships {amongst them, twa belonged to Maaraa),  The British flags wars hauled dawn  and the Spanish flaga hoisted.  Captain Calaett and other  British officers were arrested and sent ta Mexiao*  Maaras's  land and buildings were confiscated by Martinez and wars used by Spaniards far raising fortifications and as dwellings for military foraas* The cousequeiMea af these actions wars very serious far the home governments*  Nhan Maaraa brought home the infer*  mation of the events which had takan place at Haotka, the government and the populace of Great Britain were greatly exaitad and preparations far war want vigorously forward. In aecardanca with the terms af the Triple Alliance Great Britain galled apan Holladd aad Prussia far assistance* Meanwhile the diplomats of both aationsmade their exertions ta end tha dispute. And, on October 28, 1790* the Nootka Sound Convention was signed*  Spain abandoned her claim to so-  vereignty in the latitude of Nootka Sound aad agreed ta restore the buildings aad lan& and to make indemnity to Maaraa far his leasee,  CAPTAIN GEORGE VANCC^VEm. .Cook's voyage did not kill the belief in the Strait of Asian*  Many navigators and geographers still olung to this  false theory*  The daring far trader* John Meares, endeavoured  to revive interest in the ancient relations, and his positive assertions inflaenoed the opinion of some geographers for a time*  "Just at this time Baache* the French geographer,  astonished Europe by proving* to his own satisfaction at leant* that the Strait of the charlatan Ealdonado was not a figment of the imagination bat a reality*" After the Noct&a Sound Convention England decided that an officer should be sent oat to Nootka Sound "to receive hack in form the territory which the Spaniards had seized," and also to make an accurate survey of the coast northwards from the 30th degree of north latitude in order to lay at rest once and forever all crude theories respecting navigable rivers and lakes (the Strait of Anian)*  Captain George  Vancouver* who had also sailed with Cook as mid-shipman* was selected for this duty*  The Discovery, a ship which had  been engaged in Cook's last expedition was again selected tor this voyage of exploration * As She was already fitted out* Vancouver was at once appointed to command her*  His  instructions were dated March 8, 1791 and with them a letter was transmitted from the Spanish Government addressed to the Wwvsgacr er&ommaB&sr of the "Bert at St* Lawmenee" (Neotkai instructing that office* to immediately surrender the lands 1) British Columbia etc.  and houses at Neotka Sound which Meares claimed, had been wrested from him in May* 1789s  The Discovery finally sailed  from Falmouth on April 1, having in company the Chatham tender, commanded by lieutenant William Robert Broughtoa. As the route was left te Captain Vancouver, he followed Cook's teaching and went westward, teaching at the Cape of Good Hope, aad surveying the southwest coast of Australia, where he discovered and named several poin&s.  Than, paaaiag oa to  New Zealand, he examined the recesses of Dusky Bay*  Re  reached Tahiti on the 30th of December, 1791 and ia the following year he reaehed North Rest America.  On April 29,  1792 the Discovery and Chatham reached the Strait of Juaa de Fuea.  Cap* Vancouver them commenced his careful aad laborious  survey of each bay and harbour, each inlet aad sound and numerous islands which studded the sea, thus making a remarkable chart ef the coast in that region*  By means of this  survey* Vaaeeuver proved once and for all that neither the Strait ef Juan de Fuea, aor any other Strait of that regioa, was the northwest passage through the whole continent of North America* On April 30th the Discovery and Chatham anchored off New Dungeness aad their sailed through Admiralty Inlet, to Paget Sound. After having carefully examined all poiata ef tha sound, the vessels sailed into the southern end of the Gulf of Georgia which was named by Vancouver in honour of the reigning Sovereign, George ill. Thence the vessels sailed oa te Semiahmeo and Boundary Bays, Points Roberts and  Grey, to the entrance of Burrard Inlet. Rere Vancouver found a long canal (Burrard Inlet of te*day), which he examined with care, "little thinking that on the ahore of thie inlet was to ariaa a great city, "destined to bear hia name and to be the western metropolis of the Greatest Dominion of the Empire*  1) This inlet was named after Sir Harxy Barrard.  returning to Point Grey, Vancouver net two small Spanish vessels, the Sutil and the Mexicans, commanded respectively by Don Dioniaio Galiano and Don Cayetano Valdez.  An inter-  change of hospitality and courtesy followed the meeting of the navigators of the two nations*  The Spanish officers  informed Vancouver, that Bodago y Quadra, the commandant of San Bias and of Port San Lorenzo de Bootka was awaiting him at Noetka, in order to restore '.to him the land and houses in accordance with the terms of the Nootka Convention. The British and Spanish officers then continued their minnte examination of the continental shore together for several days, and than the two expeditions parted at the entrance of Desolation Sound on July 13* Vancouver then went into the canal which aeparate* Vancouver Island from the mainland*  The ships anchored under  Point Gordon and Vancouver despatched the small boats in several directions to chart the various inlets, small bays, islands and rocks*  This observation resulted in the estab-  lishment of the important geographical discoveiy that the Nootka region was insular in character.  This island after-  wards received its name in honour of its discoverer Brit* Col*  Vancouver Island.  Vancouver continued northward through  Johnstone Strait, also named after one of the officers of his expedition* Raving reached Queen Charlotte Sound, Vancouver went to Nootka (Pert San Lorenzo}*  Be found there the Spanish brig  "Aotiva" commanded by Don Juan Franciaco de la Bodega y Quadra. After an interchange of military salutes Vancouver, accompanied by some of his officers, called upon Bodega y Quadra and was received with the greatest cordiality.  But  Vancouver and Bodega y Quadra were unable to agree on the meaning of the Convention.  This affair was finally settled  only in 1794 when Great Britain and Spain agreed to withdraw their people and to auild no permanent establishment at Nootka*  Vancouver left Nootka on October IS, 1792  for San Francisco and then went to the Sandwich Islands for the winter*  Next spring he turned his vessels' prows north-  ward and reached Nootka on May 20, 1793. After a delay of several daya, he sailed northward to take up his work where it had ended in the proceeding year*  On June 5 he was in the  vicinity of Dean's Canal and Cascade Canal which Alexander Mackenzie reached about the 22nd of the following month* The officers of the Discovery and Chatham made a survey of the continental shore and examined the various winding canals, fiords and nummerous islands.  They paid careful attention  also to the habits and customs of the natives* visited the western shore of the  Tha vessels  ueen Charlotte Islands and  reached Cape Decision in latitude 58**. Vancouver then went  southward to California and tha Sandwich Islands which wara by him on January 8, 1794*  Next summer he sailed for Nootka  once more and on October 16, 1794 bade adieu to the coast of British Columbia forever*  In 1795 Vancouver returned So  England by Valparaiso, 3apa Born, and St* Helena* On his return to England he devoted himself to preparing his journals for publication*  When the task was virtnaly  completed,he died on May 10 1796, at Petersham, England; and a few months later his brother John published his journal entitled "A voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and round the World in the years 1790-1795 (3 vols, with atlaa of plates, London, 1798). The results of Captain George Vancouver's explorations ware very great*  1) Ha made an accurate survey of what is  now known as the British Columbia coast. 3) He discovered the insalar character of the Nootka region (discovered Vancouver Island). 3) He discovered Burrard Inlet, where the city of Vancouver was destined to rise*  4} He solved  once and for ever the problem of the Northwest Passage— the problem of these centuries, proving that in the region of North-Westera America there is no such passage at all. The dream of generations of navigators melted into air with the charting of this coast. Bat Vancouver as Captain Cook was unsuccessful in his attempt to penetrate into the Arctia ocean*  He was even  inclined to believe that no such passage connecting the Pacific with the Arctic existed*  Another Vancouver's failure was that he did not notice tha two principal rivers of Northwestern America, the Columbia and the Fraser.  There was a great significance in the failure  to discover the Columbia river, because a gaw months latter Captain Robert Cray of the American ship Columbia entered the river*  This gave the claim of Columbia River to the United  States and the whole territory drained by this river (Oregon). Great Britain appreciated Captain Vancouver's achievements. %is portrait has been placed in the National Portrait Gallery, London since 1878.  Bat the best monument for Captain  Vancouver is the city of Vancouver, which now bears his name*  OVERLAND EXPLORATIONS. Overland explorations of North America were carried on very slowly*  Two hundred and ninety six ye^rs had elapsed  between the discovery of the east coast of America and Alexander Mackenzie's arrival at the west coast after his journey overland.  The Hudson's Bay Company and other fur  trading companies did not at first extended their operations far westward.  Their policy was to bring the Indians to the  forts near shore and there to barter their furs,  in this way  the Companies saved the expense of establishing inland forts, and thsit servants were protected from the attacks of the natives.  The knowledge of the extention of the continent  was very meagre in those days*  The fur traders reached only  as far as the Saskatchewan river, where the most remote French post had been buit.1**  Some daring fur traders tried to  penetrate farther westward in order to secure for themselves the preference of the Indians and to injure their competitor*. "Thus, in the Indian territories of tha West, each man became a master unto himself, and took the law into his own hands." This competition resulted very badly for the fur trading business.  Therefore in 1783-84 these different companies were  united into one powerful association —  The North West Company  After this there were only two competitors -- The Hudson's gay Company and the North West Company.  Bat tha latter  prospered because its agents were always moving farther west and north.  These daring fur traders made great contributions  to geographical knowledge respecting the North Rest part of the American Continent.  Their overland journeys were "no  less important than the coastwise explorations of the mariner; nor ware their expeditions leas arduous or less hazardous than theae of the men who voyaged the trackless ocean.  They had  to pass from one savage tribe to another, generally with a mere handful of men, and it was only by the exercise of patience and diplomacy that they could overcome the prejudices armed resistance, and treachery of the natives."  31^ ALEXANDER MACKENZIE.  One of these far traders was Alexander Mackenzie.  Re  gained a remarkable local knowledge and experience during his several years' residence at Fort Chippawayan, a trading pest 1), 2).  Brit.  Columbia.  with the Chippewas, at the head of Lake Athabasca, in the Radeon's Bay territory.  This knowledge proved to his employers  that Mackenzie was a fit person to explore the unknown region of the north-west*  At first he made a famous expedition to  the north which resulted in the discovery of a great river which has since borne his name*  After aome years, Mackenzie  decided to undertake a new expedition with the object of reaching the Pacific coast, and enterprise never before attempted by any European.  Re atarted again from Fort Chip-  pewayan, on October 10, 1792. His party consisted of ten men Alexander Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay, six voyageurs and two Indians to act as hunter and interpreters.  Re reache the  Peace River at the junction of a large stream and wintered there*  Next spring, on May 9, 1793, Mackenzie left hi8  winter quarters and went westward. Arriving at the fork formed by the junction of the Parsnip and Finlay rivers, the party aacended the former. Mackenzie and his party were the first white men who crossed the Rocky Mountains. Soon after Mackenzie met two Indians from whom he elicited a confused account of tribes who lived to the westward.  On  June l?th the party reached the bank of the Great River, now known as the Fraser.  Having ascended the river to a point  not far from the place where Alexandria stands today, Mackenzie decided to abandon the river and to continue his journey overland.  "Each man carried a pack of ninety pounds  and Mackenzie and Macgay seventy pounds each, besides their arms and ammunition. Mackenzie also carried his telescope,  to his burden*  ^  On July 20+ Mackenzie passed the site of what is now Bella Coola aad reached Beatiaek Arm*  Ha paddled down the  loag fiord aad then reached the entrance of Cascade Canal. Ar last he reached the Pacific co^st ne^r Cape Meazies, in latitude 52° 21' North aad longitude 128° 12' Rest Greenwich, on July 22, 1793.  jie was the fiist European to reach the  Pacific Ocean overland.  Re wanted to go to the main water  ef the ocean but the hostility of the savages did not allow him to fulfil his wish. Mackenzie considered that he was to carry British sovereignty across the continent to the shores of the Pacific Ocean*  Therefore he inscribed on the face of  a rock the date of his visit, a not unnecessary precaution, as he and his party were attacked by the natives just as they were starting oat oa their retura journey the next day. Mackenzie arrived ia safety at Fort Chlppewayaa at the and af 1793*  Re published in England ia 1801 aa account of  his two expeditions eatitled "Voyages on the River 3t. Lawrence and through the continent of ^orth America to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans in the years 1789 and 1733." 1802 Mackenzie was Knighted. 1)  Brit. Columbia.  On February 10,  SIMON FjdASEn.  After Sir Alexander Mae&enzie's journey no one attempted to cross the aooky Mountains, and the vast country beyond them was still a virgin wilderness peopled by aboriginal tribes.  Bat daring fur traders of the North ^eat Company  made continuous efforts to move the frontier farther wast* One of these men Simon Fraser, made a brilliant achievment which not only enriched the Company with a vast new territory to trade in bat added considerably to geographical knowledge. In 1792, Simon Fraser entered the service of the North nest Company,and in 1803 he became a partner in the Company* In 1805 he was placed in charge of the Company's operation beyond the ^ocky Mountains, and began to make a plan for exploring the country westward*  Re organized a party and, in  August, 1305, left his headquarters, Fort William, following the usual route of the fur traders.  Re reached a point on  Peace River and established there a pest named Rocky Mountains, Rouae*  Than he ascended the Peace and Parsnip Rivers to  Mcleod Lake and again established a post named Mcleod, which was the first post ever built in the territory west of the Rocky Mountains. Next §pring Fraser left his winter quarters and proceeded on his journey up the Parsnip River.  On July 10, 1806  after untold hardship, the party reached the north fork of the Fraser River known aa the"Great River in those days. Raving arrived at lake Na'kal of the Indians, the explorer  founded a post which afterwards became the celebrated fort Rt. James*  Here Fraser stayed for more than one year.  After receiving reinforcements from the headquarters of the North Nest Company, he proceeded on his journey in order to explore the "great ^iver,"without loss of time*  At the  confluence of the Nechaco and Fraser Rivers ha established another post which he called Fort George. Prom Eay till the 10th of June, tha party went sweeping down with the current in ordinary birch bark oonoes.  But after Juno the party  continued their journey by land along the banks of the Fraser niver.  On July a , Fraser reached a dense virgin forest  which covered the hill where the city of New Westminster is now situated.  Then tha explorer followed the North Arm of  the Fraser ^iver and at last caught a glumpse of the Gulf of Georgia. Fraser desired very much to reach the Pacific but he was compelled to turn back because of the hostility of the Indians and of his lack af supplies. Sir Alexander Mackenzie's journey was a recnnoitring one. He did not make any attempt to take possession of land. It was too early for establishing settlements.  On the contrary,  Simon Fraser seized upon tha most favorable location for a post, and began to erect buildings.  During his famous  expeditions he established four posts which are in existence to the present day. Columbia.  They were the first posts.in British  It is a fact of great importance, that the first  British posts were established not on the coast but in the interior.  Simon Fraser was the first Suopean to descend  ta ita month the rivar ^hiah, a w baars M a mama A Ia acknowledgement ef hi a services, Simon Fraser was offered the honour of Knighthood in 1811 hat he declined it* The Journal ef Fraser'a exploration has been preserved aad ia one of the cherished possessions of the Toronto Pablia Library*  A transcript of part of Fraser's journal  ia reserved in the Academy of Pacific Coast History of the University of California.  The fall manuscript of Fraser's  journal waa published by the Senator L*R* Masson in his valuable work "Las Baargeols de la Csmpagne da Nord- uest," Vol*I, Quebec, 1889.  THE OREGON QUESTION.  As has been pointed out, in the spring of 1792, Captain Vancouver reached the north-west coast of North America and proceeded northward past the mouth of the Columbia without suspecting the existence of the great river*  Mayll. 1792  Captain Robert Gray of Beaton passed the bar of this river and anchored 10 miles above its mouth.  Afterwards he sailed  up the river 13 or 15 miles left on the 36th of the same months, calling it Columbia after his ahip*  On his way  south. Captain Vancouver found the mouth of the Columbia river, ia early October, in the same ye ir.  Lieutenant Broughton  an officer of Vancouver'a expedition ascended the river a much greater distance than did Captain Gray. These discoveries by Vancouver and Gray afforded a basis  '  -  L for tho claim of both powers to the Oregon territory. This question became still more complicated after three overland expeditions.  Earlier of them was that of Captain  M. Lewis and e. Clark.  These explorers were sent ant with a  party by the order of President Jefferson, in 1804. followed the Miasuori River to its headwaters, creased Reeky Mountains, reached the Columbia River and followed it down to the Pacific*  They encamped on the north side af the  month of the Columbia, on Cape Disaappointment, wintering there, 1805-06 and returned to Saint Louis in September 1806. John Jacob Aster, an American, organized the Pacific Far Company, and in 1811 founded a trading post at the mouth of the Columbia, which they called Astoria *  Soon after that  these far traders set up a number of minor posts on the Willamete, Spokane and Okanogan rivers*  The same year, 1811,  another famous Canadian explorer, David Thompson of tha North Rest Company completed his jaurney along the Columbia river from its scares to the sea, where he found the newly established trading post, Aataria.  The Pacific Fur Company  failed to make a success of its business.  On hearing of the  supposed war between Great Britain and the United States Aster, deeming Astoria untenable, sold the property in October 1813 to the Narth-wast Company* These events made the Oregon question very complicated* Englana basing on The Captain Cook's ana Vancouver's discoveries claimed the Oregon territory, which included the Pacific coast of North America extending inland eastward to the  Rooky Mountains and bounded upon the south by the parallel of 42** North latitude upon the north by the parallel of Sgo 40' marking the southern limit of what was formerly Russian America. The claims of tha United States were similar to the clamis of Great Britain and were baaed upon the Captain 6ray?s discovery and on the exploration of lewis and Clark and also on account of the settlement made by Aster (Atoria)*  War  having broken out, a British warship arrived into the mouth of the Columbia river and its captain took formal possession of the peat Astoria and renamed it Port George.  However, at  the close of the war of 1812-14, all confiscated territory was returned to the original holders and, further, the agreement of 1818 provided for joint occupation of the Oregon territory by Britain and the United States u t i l the Boundary should be determined* In this period competition between the Northwest and Hudson's Bay Companies became so keen, as to endanger the fur trade*  Hence, in 1821 the both Companies were united  under the name ef Hudson's Bay Company, and the prosecution ef the trade in the Oregon territory was carried on with redoubled energy.  The vast territory,including tha present  states of Washington, Oregon and I&aho, in reality belonged to the powerful Hudson's Bay Company under the direction of Dr* John Mclaughlin,  The headquarters of the Company became  Fort Vancouver, newly erected on the Columbia River in 1825. The great success of the Hudson^s Bay Company attracted a  flead ef Am&riwaR far tradera who domaaded that this territory should bo centroled By their government*, The Oregon question became again very keen,  The pay of "&&0 43' or fight* phrased  the ultra aggressive aoatiaant an the part of the United States*  This movement at last wana ended by the Oregon Treaty  at Washington ia 1846.  The boundary line agreed upon waa  the parallel of 49** from tha Roaky Mountains weat^ard to "tha middle of tha channel which separates the continent from Vancouver's Ishand'and thaaoe southerly through the middle of th? said channel, and of Fuoa'a Strait, to the Pacific Oaoaa,*"  Bat it waa soon discovered that there were t w main  channels separating "the continent from Vancouver's Island and the island of 3an Juan l^y betwoaa them*  This question -  waa solved by the arbitration of tha Emperor of in 0otoberll8?2 who confirmed the olain of the United Statee to tha island of Ssa Juan. Mexico claimed tha Oregon territory on the basis of the earlier discoveries by tha Mexico explorers*  Since tha  war with Mexico broke out contemporaneously with the passage of tha amended Oregon notice to Groat Britain and "as a result of the war with Mexico and the Oregon Treaty with Great Britain, .the United States acquired ito present sovereignty over the great territory woat of the ^ooky Mountains with a frontage of same 1 , 8 3 0 miles on tha Pacific*" Tha Oregon Treaty, 1B46 lad to tha withdrawal of the Hudson's Say Company from active operation on the lower CelaaRia riv^r*  Vancouver Island and the mainland territory  of British Colombia of to-day wore selected by John Mclaughlin as area of the operation of the Company*  THE BRIEF HISTORY OF THf PRINCIPAL SETTLEMENTS IS BRITISH COLOMBIA*  Fear years before the boundary line was settled by the Oregon Treaty chief factor McLaughlin gave an instruction to his chief trader James Douglas to find oat a place for hha new headquarters of the Company*  After examining various  sites James Douglas selected a place on the south eastern side of Vancouver Island known by the Indians as Camosun.  In  1843 the fort Oamesun was erected here, which soon grew up and received the name of the city of Victoria. Meanwhile port Nass had been established in 1830 and port Simpson in 1884, which became sea ports of priae importance in those days.  In 1849 the headquarters of the  Company was transfered from Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River to Victoria and after that time this city became the center of the whole British possession lying along the Pacific coast* But the British possession on the Pacific coast had no connection with Canada in those days.  "Until the gold  discovery in California, the idea was perhaps never conceived that England's domain in the north-west would form one with her Canadian possessions*" Bat in 1849 gold was found in 1) The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft, vol.XXXII, History of British Columbia, 1792-1887., page 641.  California and the consequent rush of thousands ef golddiggers occured to this region*  It now became evident that the  surplus population of Canada West was destined to overflow into the United States; while, on the other hand, Vancouver Island and the mainland were in danger of falling into the hands of foreigners.  Then it was that Great Britain first realized  the importance of her possessions on the Pacific.  In  order te forestall possible complications Great Britain declared Vancouver Island a Crown colony in 1849.  Richard  Blanchard was the first governor, but in 1851 James Douglas suceoded him* In 1856-58 there oecured the great gold discoveries on the Fraser river and a steady stream of miners rushed into the region*  The British Government si ilarly to the C9ge of  Vancouver Island declared the mainland a Crown Colony in 1858 aad gave to it the name of British Columbia.  "The real  industrial center of the province was the Cariboo gold district, in which the magig city of Barkerville sprang up, and for a tiae became the Mecca of the great far Rest.  Tha Cariboo,  Omineca and Cagsiar gold-fieldsled to the occupation cf this region in advance of any of the present more thickly settled districts of the province, while the fur trade of the northern interior, and the fish and seal trade of the coast regions about the mouth of the Sheena and Nasa rivers, opened up avenues of commerce through it entire bre dth." 1) 2)  B)  H.H. Bancroft, vol,XXXII, History of British Columbia page, 641. Central British Columbia, by F.R. Zitto 1922, page 14.  THE BRIER HISTORY OF TEE CITY OF VANCOUVER.  The eity of Vancouver waa incorporated oa the 6 of April, 1886+  The porta Simpson, Nass, Rsquimalt and Victoria were  thriving centers of trade &ong before the very beginning of the port of Vancouver*  So as ha& been noticed the port Nass  was established in 1880 and the port Simpson in 1834.  On the  mainland, fort Langley, on the Fraser River, distance about seventeen miles from the Hew Westminster of to-day, was the chief trading centre of the new colony and a favorite residence aa well as rendezvous for sportsmen*  For a long time Fort  langley even was favored as the seat of the provincial government, bat Colonel Moody, commander of the forces and chief commissioner of land and works of British Columbia, reported in favor of New Westminster.  So the latter town  was designated as the Capital of the province*  Bat the governor  and some of the public officials, however, continued to stay in Victoria. Next to New Westminster, Yale ranked first among the settlements of the mainland, "containing a resident white population of five or six hundred souls*" The history of Vancouver as a town dates back to the time of the project for a railroad between the Atlantic and Pacific. Before that there was no settlement on the Burrard Inlet and dense, wild forests covered the shores of it in every direction. 1)  Bancroft, vol. XXXII, History of B.C.  Bat it was not until tha discovery of tha Fraser River go!&fields in 1858 that "the project for the transcontinental railroad and the idea of a united British American Empire first took definite shape."  Bat for a long tiae British  Government did not know which route should be taken for the railway*  Seme officials and engineers advised to choose a  northern route, by way of Peace or Pine river,and, in general, the project in those days seemed almost impracticable. Because no suitable pass had as yet been discovered, no column of emigrants, bringing wagons and herds from the Canadian settlements, had penetrated the forest and snow-clad mountains. Moreover, the country was far remote from Canada.  Therefor^,  for a time, the project was forgotten. Fifteen years passed and British Government again raised the question.  Bat even at that ti a none of the surveys were  approaching completion on any portion of the line between the Pacific and Atlantic and tha direction was not determined in which instrumental surveys should be carried on.  Tha  Barrard Inlet was now taken into the consideration as to being tha terminus, but the engineer-ln-chief stated expressly that it wag lass eligible than Esquimalt, and that the choice of the Bnrrard Inlet as a terminus had not given satisfaction to the people of British Columbia.  In a report of the privy council  of Canada, dated June 6, 1873, it was ordered, "that Esjulmalt should be tha terminus, though the alignmemt on the mainland had not then bean determined. lf&2)  Bancroft, vol, AJLXli, history of B.C.  When it wan announced by the Hscdonald minstry that Eaquimalt had been selected as the terminus, in July 1875 "certain members cf'%he government proceeded to Esquimalt, and after driving the firs& stake for the location survey of the Canadian Pacific Railway at the aouth-e.st corner of tha dock-yard fence, hoisted a flag upon it, and qualfied champagne in honor Of the occasion*"  I)  But tha population of the mainland  protested and tha question was to be considered again. "Between 1871 and 18%3 the dominion government expended some $3,253,000 for exploration and surveys before tha chief engineer finally decided that the route through British Columbia should be along tha valleys of the Thompson and Fraser rivers, and its terminus on Burrard Inlet."  This lecission had been of the  greatest significance in the destiny of the city of Vancouver. Immediately after that the population of the settlement on tha Burrard Inlet started to grow extremely fast and next year after the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway (1885) the settlement was incorporated as city o# Vancouver (1886) with a population about 2000.  "Had the Canadian Pacific  Railway followed the route of the Yallowhead pass and Skeena river, and had old Fort Simpson, the seaport of airly days, been chosen as capital of the united colonies, what a difference there would have bean*"  )  ^  Bancroft, vol, XXXII, Central British Columbia by F*H. Kitto  Bat the history of Vancouver may oe traced little earlier than 1886.  The foundation of the first settlement on  the shore of Burrard Inlet wag laid by Jack Morton, a native of Yorkshire, England. there ia 1862.  This first p&oneer built his log hat  After a time other settlers joined him and  their small settlement soon became known as Gastown and then Granville.  At the time of the incorporation Sir W*C+ Vanhorne  suggested the name far the new town it now bears  Vancouver*  The year of Vancouver's birth, however was an ill-fatted one, for on June 13, 1866 a terrible disaster overtook this small town in the way sS a fire and every thing was swept cat of existence.  "So complete was the destruction wrought that after  the conflagration the city Councillors were obliged, for lack af a building to meet in a tent."  Bat thia catastrophe was not  able ta at&p the growth of the town, on the contrary, the determination of the inhabitants was strengthened with the disaster*  Within six months 350 new buildings had been  sraatad at a cast of $500,000; the Hastings lumber mills had laid the foundation of an immense business; the Canadian Paalfia Railway Company had eammeaaed the canstraction of an hotel (Vancouver Hotel); and "when the new trans-continental railway arrived at its western and ooaan terminus on 23 May 1887 a new town was ready to receive it." '  in the following  *  year much af the town waa rebuilt in better forma.  The inferior  wooden buildings at first erected have been largely replaced by stoma and brick structures, giving a handsome appearence to the principal streets. ^  All official and public buildings  F^^erick^R^Buscombe. The Amerioana.Anuniversal  '  .  '  ;  '  soon received a magnificent view which they have new.  ^y  and by the streets ef the town have become well paved and now the city is wall supplied with water, electric lighting, electric ears and all the improvements of a modern large city. After the completion of the Canadian Pacific railway the progress of Vancouver was phenomenal and substantial.  The  town was made a customs pert; Canadian 3anks established branches there; aaw*milis, iron works, factories, breweries, shipyards and other enterprises were established.  In 1890 the British  Columbia Iron Works commenced Sperations and a sugar refinery was established.  In 1891 Vancouver earns into fresh tou&h  with the trade of the Orient through the inauguration of the Canadian Pacific Railway Steamship Line and the anchoring in its port ef tha Empress steamers playing between British Columbia and Japan and China.  Tha inauguration of tha Hew  Nestminatereand Vancouver Electric Railway took place in July 1891 and connected the ei#y with tha Fraser Valley country. During 1892 and 1893 a wave of commercial depression swept over the place, the mining industry of the interior lay dormant and the Kootanays ware only beginning their period of development. drawback.  The Fraser River floods of 1894 were another  But the trouble did not last long.  "In June 1893  tha Miovera, the first vessel of a second Pacific line ef steamers, reached Vancouver hahbeur from Australia; in 1895 the great mining development of the Koetanay and interier Regions became pronounced; and the city prospered greatly as  the commercial and distributing centre for the mainland of the province*  Then came another brief period of depression,  followed by the Klondyke "boom" of 1897-8 and the enormous requirements An the way of outfits, and supplies and transshipment*  Since then progress has been steady and business  permanently prosperous*" From 1915 Vancouver is the seat of the provincial University* On the first January, 1929 an amalgamation of the three municipalities (Vancouver, South Vancouver and Point Grey) took place*  At the present time there are 226 churches and  missions in Vancouver.  The city is the seat of an Anglican  bishop and a Roman Catholic archbishop* Since the incorporation up to the present time there ware 21 mayors*  The first mayor of Vancouver was M. A. Maclean,  1886*1887: the present mayor is W.H* Malkin.  ^  Frederick R  Rise om be.  BIBLIOGRAPHY. (Only the more important works of the extensive literature are mentioned^. Bancroft Hubert Howe.  History of British Columbia vol. XXXII*  Begg+ Alexander.  History cf British Columbia from Its Earliest Discovery to the Present Time. Toronto, 1894.  Macfie, M.  Vancouver Island and British Columbia. Their History, Resources and Prospects. London 1865.  Macdonald.  \  British Columbia.  Soholefield, E.O, and F.w. Howay.  British Columbia From the Earliest Times to the Present., vol.1, 11, III, IV.  Canada and Its Provinces* Msyne* Begg* Alexander  British Columbia. history of the North West. vol, 1,13, and III, 1894. ?  Burpee, Lawrenco J.  The search for the West rn Sea. 1908.  Bancroft, Hubert Rowe.  History of the Northwest Coast. New York., vol. land II.  Macbeth.  Romanes of Weatem Canada.  .RARR in ^Spa!^ Geography POPULATION I* §ptyyt& of ^B^^tiPA. She pep^latien of the city of Vancouver in January 1929 v^s 228, 701*  The attaioMnt of this figure in the history of the city has  been remarkable in many aspects. Vancouver was incorporated in 1886 with a population of less than 2,000. Since that time the statistical story of the growth has bean as fellows:  1886 — 1896 13% 1916 1926 1923 1929  — — — — — —  2,000. 19,000. 52,000* 95,000. 137,197. 142,150. 228,701. (at the amalgamation of the three manic ipal it ies.)  But the latter figure represents the population of Vancouver only from the administrative point of view.  In reality the figures  are much greater for the reason that there are no natural limits between the city ef Vancouver and the municipalities both of n orth Vancouver and West Vancouver. Broadly speaking, today more than half the population of British Columbia is concentrated within a twentymile circle, in which are included the cities of Vancouver, North Vancouver and New Westminster, and the contiguous manicipalities of Bumaby and Richmond, and the larger part of Delta, and parts of Surrey and Coqaitlam. This places Vancouver in an important position among the leading centres ef population not only in the Dominion of Canada bat an the continent of North America.  <* 164 -  8* J^K .PAjb^t iaSs. It is noteworthy, that in Vancouver as well as in the whole of British Caltm&ia tJaers is aa excess of male pepalatien. characteristic feature of eveiy new country. The  It Is a cause of this  phenomena is the preponderance of males among imnigrants ana the growth ef papulation of new countries is chiefly due to immagration. The whole Dominion has such an excess ef male population and it has had from the commencement of its history, the first census of this shaming 2,034 males to only 1,181 females.  In 1764, when the English  speaking immigration to Canada for purposes of settlement was commending, there were 54,064 males and 50,759 festales in the country. The great immigration of the first decade ef the present century resulted in raising what is called the "masculinity" of the Canadian population (i.e., the excess of males over females per 180 of population) to the highest point in recent history, viz. 6.07 in 1911. The Great 3ar, however, both checked immigration and took some 60,000 young Canadian male lives as its toll, with thre result that at the census of 1921 the masealinity of our population was only 3% - 516 males to 485 females per 1,000 of population. Thus masculinity in the country as a whole and also in all the provinces except Prince E dward Island, has been since 1911 on the decline - a phenomenon vihich most be regarded with satisfaction, since an approximation to equality in the numbers of the sexes is desirable both in the interests of morality and also as promotive ef the birth rate (an important consideration in a country where the density of population is only 2.41 to the square mlle.^* 1. The Canada Year Book, 1927-28.  The excess ef sale population in Vancouver is the greatest aHpw&ere in Canada. The eag&anatien of this is that Vanoouver is a new city and besides that, a pert. Its population is chiefly due to iaasigration aad eosMserce, and in both these lines males predominate above feaoales. JBa. the table below statistics are presented showing the population aad maaenlinity in ten Caaaddaa eitiee.  Population by Sex in Ten Canadian Cities, 1871-1921. Figures are taken frwm the Canada Year Book 1387-28. POP U L A T 10 N Posnle Male Total 1891  13,709  8,932  4,767  Males per 100 Females 187.58  1901  87.019  15,978  11,038  144.83  1911  130,401  60,287  40,174  149.32  1981  117,217  65,230  54,987  113.17  Vletoraa  1981  38,787  20,107  18,620  107*99  EE&Boaten  1981  58,821  29,609  29,818  101.36  sas&atoon  1981  25,739  12,932  12,807  100.98  Winnipeg  1981  179,087  87,737  89,350  100.43  Hontreal  1931  613,506  300,327  317,582  94.75  1981  581,893  250,an  270,949  92.62  Ottawa.  1331  107,845  50,245  57,593  87.83  Quebec  1981  95,133  44,198  50,995  86.67  Cities Vancouver  The table above shews that the excess of male population in  VamocKwer has beam decreasing since 1891, due to the decrease ef immigration in this period. The statistics of the following table show the position of Canada aaaag ether countries of the world in regard to masculinity. It is well seen en this table that the masculinity of Canada ia very high aad that Canada is only surpassed by Argentine, and exceeds all the rest ef the countries of the world.  2&RcaHa&ty Of the BoptRation # Various Countries. Bote. The minus sign (-) indicates a deficiency of males. Figures are taken fron the Canada Year Book, 1927-28. Countries Year  Excess of Bales over Countries Year Females in ea. 100 population  Excess of Males over Females in each 100 population.  Argentine  1918  7*27  Denmark  1921  -2.44  Canada  1921  3*00  England  1921  -4.34  5* S. A^,  1920  1*98  German Bap.  1919  -4.78  France  1911  -1.74  Russia  1920  -4.78  Italy  1911  -1*81  Portugal  1911  -5.08  3* AR9 DiftKHPAtiPa? The same causes which in the past have rendered the sex distribution of population in Vancouver somewhat unusual have also affected its age distribution.  In the first stages of the settlement  of Vancouver men in the prime of life constituted the bulk of the population, and wmen and children were conspicuous by their absence,  <*  167 -  ao t^at thMPe was a dlsproport iobately large male population between the ages of 20 and 50$ together with a lew birth  rate.  As time has  g&ae en such a disproportion both in sexes and ages has decreased. Bat even at the present time there is a strikingly email proportion of children under 5 years in Vancouver * only 7*83% of the total population. Among seventy mine Canadian cities with a population of 7,500 and over there are only three which exceeded Vancouver in this respect: Broelcville, Ont. - 7.64%, Victoria, B.C, - 7.56% and Westmount, Que. 5*3^* She highest percentages are in Grand'Hera, Qae. ** 17.43%, SSiawinigan Falls, One. - 16.12%, Hull, Que. - 15.36%. The greatest proportion of the population of Vancouver is aged 21 years and over, 66*37% being of this age, while the majority of the population of a rand' Mere, Quebec and Shawinigan Balls, Quebec are under 21 years in age. The table below shows per cent distribution of the total population in six cities and towns ef 7,500 and over, by age groups in detail, 1921. Cities and Towns  All Ages  Under 21 Under 5 to 21 Years 5 Yean! & over Years 14  15 25 to to 24 yrs. 44  45 (MS Age to & not< 64 Over giben  Vancouver, B.C. 100.00 33.63 56.37 7.85 16.99 14.95 38.60 18.31 3.20 .12 Toronto, Ont.  100.00 36.36 63.64 8.99 X7.79 16.94 35*61 16.58 3.92 .17  Ottawa, Ont.  100.00 40.16 59.84 9.95 19*24 18.71 30.99 15.95 4.73 .43  Montreal, Qae* 100.00 44*11 55.64 11.26 21.45 18.77 30.50 13.88 3.50 .64 Qaebec, Qae*  100.00 46.45 53.55 12.75 21.94 19.00 26.71 14.25 5.14 .21  arand'Mere, oAt .100*00 53.07 76.13 17.73 25.29 18.18 26.64 10.28 2.18  -  <* ige -Ss^i&iB&iE. EEpa&iaUy wtaMLe is the laiger percentage ef the married British horn population and still larger percentage ef aarried foreign sera papulation ef Vancouver as compared wi^ that ef the Canadian bom population. Noteworthy also is the larger percentage of divorced and legally separated in recent years. She ooajogal condition of the 1921 population of Vancouver is showa by the following table: Total All Classes  Single S&rried Wid- Divor-Notp owed cad Stated  117,217 58,449 52,912 5,384  131  Canadian born  57,260 38,631 16,425 1,960 114 130  Brttish bom  38,712 13,354 22,615 2,617 126  -  2&reiga&orm  21,245  1.  6,464 13,872  807 101  8* ^Qjal The population ef Vancouver includes mere than s^ different nationalities. She British population predominates. In 1927, of the total 117,217 there were 93,509 British amounting to 7%. The English race occupies the first place aaong British people: in the same year there were 49,931 English amounting to 42% of the total Vancouver popalatlon. The second place is occupied by the Chinese race which in 1921 had 6,484 of its representatives. The third place belongs to the Japanese race with 4,246 representatives in 1921. The French race is the fourth in the rank of the nationalities of Vancouver. The table  below shews the pepalation of Vancouver classified in detail according to racial origin, 19B1. Nationalities British  Total 93,609  Male  Fema3  46,896  46,717  1  English  24,884  25,047  2  Seeteh  14,074  13,804  S  Iris^h  7,026  7,100  *  Others  912  702  &'  CMnese  5,899  583  6  JapaaMse  2,529  1,717  y  Frwach  2,252  1,098  1,154  8  Italian  1,590  901  689  9  Se&rw  1,270  674  596  M  Swedish.  1,238  697  541  n.  German  1,117  546  571  H&rwegian  893  434  409  Batch  738  353  385  235  219  454  14  Danish  M  Riaaiam  357  200  157  M  Gree^  328  220  88  17  Negro  384  165  159  IS  Fianish  301  155  146  19  Austrian  271  149  122  20  Belgian  228  121  107  21  Polish  179  95  79  — 1Y0 — <r  i  Nationalities  Total  Male  Fassale  at  Swiss  154  97  57  as  Serbo-Croatian  327  83  44  3*  Eraaian  107  25  Galioian  76  41  35  26  Ukronian  31  22  9  27  Syrian  94  41  53  28  Icelandic  75  28  47  29  Greek  72  45  27  SO  Indian  59  20  39  31  Roumanian  34  18  16  32  Hungarian  25  32  13  S3  Unspecified  246  113  133  34  varions  350  273  77  44  s. BirthplapeH. The majority of the population of Vancouver waa bora under the British flag, namely, 81.88%, but compared with that of the whole Dominion it is a low percentage. In 79  Canadian  cities and towns of  7500 and over, only four have a lower percentage of British bom than Vancouver; ibrt William, Ont. * 80%; Winnipeg - 80.70%; Port Arthur, Ont. - 80.89% and Medicine Hat, Alta  8l4l6%4 All other Canadian  oities and towns have a much higher percentage of British bom than Vancouver. The Canadian bom of Vancouver furnishes 48.85% of the total population of the city. It Is a very low percentage and there is only  -171 *  one other city and one town and M M town among 79 Canadian cities and towns, mentioned above, which have a still lower percentage of Canadian bom population; Victoria * 46.48% and Banaimo, B.C. - 44.4^. Vancouver haa a higher percentage of foreign bom - 18.12%. The percentage of Asiatics bom in Vancouver is the highest in the Dominion . The table below shows the birth places of the Vancouver population in detail and in congHM-ison with other Canadian cities.  Per 39Ht distribution by Birthplace^_gf populatiQB J^n & Cities^l921.  City of Residence  PROPORTION OF POPULATION OF CBBIES BORN IN British ........ aspire/Foreign ..Countries Brit. Other All Total Canada Isles Brit.Total Europe Asia U.S. Others  Vancouver,B.C.81.88 40.85 31.45 1.S8 18.12 3.93 7.57 8.52 0.10 Levis, One.  98+89 98.65  .23 0.01 1.11 0.26 0.13 0.70 0.32  Quebec, Que. 98.28 96.90 1.21 0.09 1.72 0.72 0.14 0.85 0.01 Ottawa, Ont. 94.62 83.22 11.13 0.27 5.38 2.95 0.34 2.05 0.04 Montreal,Que. 90.17 81.31 8.30 0.56 9.83 6.81 0.41 2.54 0.07 Toronto, Ont. 90.81 62.23 27.67 0.91 9.19 5.82 0.46 2.86 0.05  7. Immigrants furnish the most part of the population of Vancouver50%. There is only one city in Canada where immigratut population is still greater. That is Victoria, B.C. with 53% of izssigrants. The explanation for this is that Vancouver and Victoria are new cities. Such settlements usually have better potentialities and always attract immigrants. Old Canadian cities such as Quebec, Hull, NUntreal and others have very low percentage of immigrants as indicated by the table  HHL.  percent proportion of total population, 1921. Bar of poytiatjon Native Immigrants  Atal  1.  Victoria, B. C.  46.4  39.7  13.9  83.6  3*  Vancouver, B. C.  49.9  33.0  18.1  51.1  3.  Toronto, Oat.  62*2  28.6  9.2  37.8  4.  Ebntreal, Que.  81.3  8.9  9.8  18.7  .5  Ottawa, Ont.  83.2  11.4  5.4  i6.8  a.  Tgree Rivers, Ont.  94.8  1.4  3.8  5.2  Hull, One.  96.9  1.1  2.0  3.1  Quebec, Que. '  97 .e  1.3  1.7  3.0  Religions.  There are over 59 different religions denominations to which people of Vancouver belong. The first place among them belongs to Anglicans, the second to Presbyterians, the third to Methodists, and the fourth to Roman Catholics. In recent years there will be noted cetaln changes in the religions distribution of the popalat ion, corresponding in a considerable degree to the changes in racial origin noted above. F or example, contemporaneously with the increase in the percentage of persons of the English race during the past 20 years, there has taken place an increase in the Anglicans. The Presbyterians, to some extent as a result of Scotlsh immigration, have also increased. Farther, synchronizing with increasing immigration from Russia after Bolshevik revolution the Greek Orthodox has increased. The adherents ef the latter religion possess at the  <* 175 present time two church build toga. With Increasing Immigration from comtlnetal Sarepe and especially from 6e3many. the Lutherana also have increased, while increasing Asiatic immigrat ion is reflected in the growth ef the adherents ef Eastern religJ^as such as Buddhlam and Confucianism. It is interesting to note that there is no pagan temple in Vancouver and the number of Mahonsaedans is very small - only 6 persona. The anmber of persona belonging to each religion ia given in the following table. Population of Vancouver Classified according to Religious Denominations, 1921. Rank  Religions  Rumb<  35,137  15. Salvation Army  447  Presbyterians  31,595  Methodists  14,988  16. International Bible 291 Students Aae'n  Religions  Number  1. Anglicans  4* Roman Catholics  10,848  5. Confucians  5,916  6. Baptists  5,475  y. Buddhists  2,794  8. Lutherans  2,036  9. Christian Science  1,369  10. Jewe 11. He Religion  1,248 989  33. Congregationalists  829  13. Greek Orthodox  541  14. Protestants  474  3aak  17. Brethren  259  18. Plymouth Brethren  182  19. Unitarians  147  20. Sikhs and Hinds  141  21. Apostolic Brethren  132  22. Adventlata  110  23. Spiritualists  106  24. Christians  105  25. Mormons  100  26. Christian Church  62  27. Church of Christ  60  -  28. Agaaatiea  no  43. M&yaviaaa  29. Paatacootal  58  44. UadasomiaatioBalista 17  30. Christadelphians  HKh  45. Holiness Movement  10 10 7  16  32.. nonconformists  38  44. United Brethren in Christ 47. Uni verbalists  33. Friends  37  48. SwedenbOKglan (NO)  7  34. New ThoT^ht  37  49. Mission  7  35. Thoosophists  36  50. Gospel People  7  3&. Free Thinkers  32  51. Mohammedans  6  37. Atheists  31  52. Reformed Church  5  38. Catholic Apostolic 24  53. Union Church  4  39. Evangelical Ass'n a)  2 2  31. Diaelples of Chriet 39  40. ^anaonitas  20  54. Church of God (New Dunker) Dutch Reform 55.  41. Bonsectarian  17  56. DouXhobora  1  42. Shinto s  17  57. People's Church  1  59. Not Given  188.  2. VITAL STATISTICS I* Vancouver has a hig^i birth rate par 1,000 af population: 25.97 in 1927, 22.94 in 1926 and even 28.23 in 1925. These figures are the highest in British Columbia, the average birth rate for which, in 1925 was 17.4 per 1,000. In other provinces the figures varied from 25.3 in Bear Brunswick to 32.1 in Quebec. The latter province has the highest  - 175*. birth ante Mh amy civilized country. Because of tha influence of Quebec the crude birth rate in Canada stands at the comparatively high figure of 24.6 per 1,000 in 1926. Vancouver's high birth rata indicates the comparative high morality Of the population! high mages, low cost of living, and batter conditions of life in the eity, in general. 2. 2aath Hate,. The death rate in Vancouver is comparatively high - 12.2 in 1927. Bat it is influenced by a very high death rate among the Asiatic population of the city. The table below shows the death rate in Vancouver during the period from 1923 to 1927. Rhite  Asiatic  JEaSaA  1923  10.000  15.234  10.962  1924  11.151  17.251  11.637  1925  10.797  16.667  11.259  1926  11.956  17.226  12.371  1927  11.649  19.100  12.223  Based upon Medical Health Officer's Report from year 1927, City of Vancouver. In 1926 in British Columbia the death rate was 9.6, in the Dominion of Canada - 9.3. Comparative death rates of different countries may be shown by the following table:  " ^ 176 -  Crude Death Bates of various Countries in Recent Years. Taken from Canada Year Book 1327-23 and Simplified by An '" ' Crude Year Death Cpantriaa Year Death Bates 7^4 1. Saskatchewan 11. United State 1926 i2.1 1926 e.3  12. New Bronswiek "  12.2  "  6.5  IS. Scotland  13.0  4. British Columbia "  9.6  14.  2. Sbnltoba 3. Alberta  "  Irish F ree State"  5. Norway  "  10.6  15. Quebec  6. Ontario  "  11.4  16. France  7. England &n&les  "  1U6  17. Japan  11.7  18. 9gypt  *  11.8  19. Chile  1925  11.9  20. Br^sh M i a 1924  ' $ 4 OeHSBa^y 9. Hava Scotia 10. Prussia  *  1923  14.0 14.5 17.5  1925  20.3  26.2 n  27.8 28.5  The table above indicates that Vancouver occupies the sixth place among the 20 countries mentioned in the report of the death rates of the shite population of the city. In the report of Infantile mortality Vancouver occupies the luckiest place. Among 12 Canadian cities of 40,000 population and over Vancouver has the lowest infant death rate, 55.4, with London the next lowest, 69.1. The table below shows the position of Vancouver among these cities. PpgaMtlas SAties 1.  Vancouver  2.  London  1925 43.4  1926 55.4  68.8  69.1  ** 177 —  ^iMm-  per MOQ.Hv&ys H M ^ 1925  1936  3. Winnipeg  69.1  69.6  4. BEamilton  62.0  72.0  5. Toronto  72.7  7S.6  6. Egmenton  70.0  83*4  7* Calgary  66.1  83.5  8. Halifax  95.7  93.9  9. St. John  122.0  107.7  115.0  119.9  11. Montreal  -  144.0  12. Q&ebec  -  185.6  10. Ottawa  Vancouver occupies one of the more favorable places among the greater cities of the world in respect of infantile mortality. To give particular examples, the rate of infantile mortality in London, England was 64.0 per 1,000 living births in 1926, Near York 64.0, Paris 98.0, Berlin 93.0, and Vienna 99.0.  Vancouver has a high natural increase - 14.41 (average for 12 last years, 1916-1927In the province of British Colombia the rate of natural Increase in 1926 was 7.9,in Alberta 15.3, in Saskatchewan 17.7, in Ontario 10*0* This brings the average for Canada (exclusive of the teritories) up to 17.8 per 1,000 In 1921, 14.7 In 1923 and 13.3 1m 1926. So that Vancouver compares quite favorably with other cities and towns of the Dominion.  " **i78**  The rates of natural lnerea.se for other cotmtri.es is the later yaaza are as fellows: Year  CpuRtrAe§ N4tupa,l,  iaas  Japan  14.6  1986  Netherlands  14*0  1926  Spain  10.9  1925  Italy  10.9  19525  Denmark  10.2  1926  Sorcnay  1925  Finland  6.8  iaas  Switzerland  6.2  1925  s&we&en  5.8  1926  Prance  l.S  Since the %ancouvor climate is mild and the taaperatuie is not object to violet and sadden changes, the natural conditions of the city are most conducive to public health and a low rate of mortality, and epidemics are of infrequent occurrence. Such epidemics as cholera, the Bubonic plague, sleeping sickness, pellagra, yellow fever or other plagues that have proved so destructive of human life and demanded the most drastic aanitaay measures to check or exclude them have never occurred in Vancouver. H09pitals_.ani3. SanatoriWSP. There are 41 hospitals and aanatoriums in Vancouver, the largest being General Hospital with an accomodation for 84o persons, and St. Paul's Hospital with 279.  atWPly .Mf ^ e y . Vancouver's water supply is ons which places the city ahead of any ether community im Narth Amsrica. It is literally insshaustible and Of the purest quality. The accompanying analysis indicates the degree of its purity. **Ths policy of the Water Board provides for a population always five years in advance of that of any given year. Today the supply is sufficient for a million people. She city owns both the Capilano and Seymour Creek watersheds, both of 3&.lch are free from human habitation, thus considerably lessening the danger from pollution. The water does act require to be subjected either to chlorination or filtration." "She present development is within twelve miles of the city. Several other sources may be used as the city grows. These are of such extent that they are capable of providing for a population as large as that of New York, nor will Vancouver have to pipe it half so far as Nsw York is doing today. Therefore the city's industrial future is adequately and economically provided for in the great natural reservoirs in the mountains near at hand."^* Analysis of 3ater Bartsper 1,000,000. 1927 1926 19E5 19S4 1923 1921 1^20 Total Residue Dried S7.20 29.1 31.5 33.0 31.6 3^7 35.7 29.1 at 100% Residue after Ignition 21.24 16.6 18.0 20.7 19.8 22.1 19.7 17.5 Organic Residue Chlorine  15.96 12.5 13.5 12.3 11.8 13*6 16.0 11.6 2.69  2.6  2.63 2.65 2.61 2.77 2.85 2.67  Ammonia Free 0.017 0.009 0.014 0.012 0.010 0.014 0.020 0.016 1. City of Vancouver Industrial Sarvey 1927, Issued by the Industrial Survey Committee of the City Council.  - ISO <*.. Aaalys,iS Of  Rarta^rl#(M0#e00  ,„'  1927 1926 1935 Ammonia Albuminoid  ,  1924 1923 1922  1920  0.027 0.017 0.022 0.030 0.026 0.028 0.058 0.040  Nitrogen as Nitrate* 0.58 1.00 0.01 0.62 0.63 0.71 0.68 0.62 Nitrogen of Nitrites none none none none none none sane none Beastion  neutral  ,:  neutral  neutral  neutral  -' papteriolPPRoal examination ^^ w^gr  Saaples are made every seek at the Vancouver Qeneral Hospital Laboratories. Ti^ following are the results: Bomber of Samples Examined  -  Capilano  *-  50.  Number of Samples Rsamlned  -  Seymour  -  48.  Average Count for the Year  Per c.c.  37^ - Capilano -  21.  Average Count for the Year Per c.c.  37° - Seymour -  40.  Coodltioaa* Rages a?id_CaajLjof .Livisg.  Vancouver is in the foreground as a labor centre In comparison with other industrial centres of Canada. The city constitutes a splendid labor mag-Bat of experienced, reliable workers in every branch of industry. The nationalities of workers are as follows: Engl ish Spealcing  70.92%  Continental Europe  15.62%  active of Asiatic Countries 11.56% From other Countries  1.90%  The total number of wage earners in the manufacturing plants in Vancouver for the year 1911 was 38,788 and for the year 1921 - 41,460.  Average yearly earnings were in 1921, §725.05 and in 1911. #785.86^  Tha department of Labor for the province of British Columbia  reports that for tha year 1986 tha average industrial weekly wage was #37.99 compared with $31.51 in 1920. The prevailing wages, taken from tha official Labor Gazette, in various trades in Vancouver for the year 1926 were as follows: J^jMi^S Trades Plasterers  Blacksmiths  per hr.  Bricklayers  #1.12^ w w  Plumbers  31.05  M w  Echini st s  Stone Cutters  #1.00  H M  Iron Moulders  .93  tt M  Electrical workers $ .90  M H  Sheet natal t3orkers  Carpenters  Boilerssakers  $ .87^ W M  Painters  Laborers $.95 to $ .56  M M  A comparison of wages in the Building and natal Trades in Western Canadian cities may be shown by the following table, taken from the Department of Labor ?age report, 1926; gyade  .Xanatwvar  Bricklayers Carpenters Electrical Workers  Calaarv  nas&BSg  $1.12^  $1.35  $1.25  .93§  1.00  .90  1.00  1.00  .90  #. These figures were taken from the Dominion census.  $1.15 .90 to .95 .90 to 1.00  Exgga  j&BaaHEgi  H m ^  .oai^w  Painters  $.87^-  $.85  $.75 to $.82^- $.70 to $.75  Plasterers  1.18^  1L35  1.15- 1^20  1.15  Plumbers  1.05  1.12^  1.00  1.00  Stone Cutters  1.00  1.12^  1.10  1.10  .35 - .50  .30 -.50 .70 - .80  Building Laborers .45 - .56 .40- .50 Blacksmiths  .75 -.87^ .60 - .80  .60  Boilermakers  .75 - .87^ .60 - .72  .60  .70  Machinists  .75 -.81^ .60 - .80  .65  .70  Iron moulders  .75 - .83^ .55 - .70  .80  .70  Sheet 23etal UorXers 1*00  .60 - .90  -  .85 -.90  The living costs, according to an offioial compilation of food, rent, clothiag, fael and light prices, ware IS per cent lower in Vancouver than in the Eastern cities of Rsgina, Winnipeg, and Toronto. A comparative cost of living from the government record of the average cost of the weekly family budget of 29 staple foods, rent, light and fael, for the year 1926, in four industrial cities mentioned above is as follows: Vancouver  $31.35  Toronto  24.15  Winnipeg  24.70  Regina  24.75  Aftim. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^  ^ ^ ^ ^ r v a x ^ . ^ ^ $1.37  $.38  Flour per 24 Ib.bag  Rib roast per lb*  .27  Rolled oats per lb.  .05^  Round steak per lb.  aJM*  Jam  .64  Chuck roast per lb.  .15^  Rice per lb.  . 38..  Boiling beef per lb.  .09  Beans (navy! per lb.  .06  Fork chops per lb.  .35  Potatoes (old) per lb.  .01^  Bacon (smoked) per lb.  .42  Com (canned} per 2*s  Ham per lb.  .41  Peas (canned! per lb.  .15  lamb (leg) per lb*  .41  Apples per lb*  .08  Milk (fresh) per lb.  .11  Tomatoes (canned! 3%'s  .14^  Sugar (granulated) per lb *  .07  Sirloin steak per lb.  Milk (evaporated? per tin .11 Batter (daizy} per lb.  .39  Tea, per lb.  .57  Cheese per lb.  .33  Coffee per lb.  .53  Lard per lb.  .19  Prunes per lb.  E^ga per dozen  .36  Raisins per lb.  .16  Bread per lb.  .09  Coromea! per lb.  .06^  Vancouver is a centre of a large industrial area. Between the United States and Alaska there is no other block of fertile land of similar extent to that of the lower Fraser Valley, the nortwest comer of which is occupied by Vancouver and its suburban communities. This block consists of seven or eight hundred thousand acres of productive  - 104 * . lands, dew ted to vegetables, fruits, poultry and dairy products. The shale af this district is at tidewater level* The easternmost point of tha district is Chllliwaek. The industrial area stretches along both aides of the Fraser for nearly sixty miles and is served by many railways: The Canadian Pacific, the Canadian National, tha Great Northern and also by tha British Columbia E lectric Railway's interurban system, the Pacific and Great Eastern Railway, the Kettle valley Railway, and by splendid auto roads on both sides of the river. The Surrey Upland and all the other uplands in the Fraser Delta area are now alee tha territories of the intensive industries. Rapid transit facilities have given a possible extension of urban area to a considerable extent; so that the 1500 square miles of country between Ohilliwack and the Gulf of Georgia falls within the urban sphere that centres in Vancouver. Vancouver is now passing to the stage of industrial development and it is to be hoped that the future of this city and its metropolitan district may continue to develop and prosper under this stabilized industrial system. AQIMCWtTURE Tha climate of Vancouver and surroundings is suitable for agriculture, and the soils of the Fraser TRtlley are of superior quality Tha district has a great deal of fine arable land. It is the only large mass of choice agricultural land anyehere on the mainland of the north Pacific slope that has a shipping port in its midst. The land offers an unrivalled field for mixed farming, dairying, beeXaeping,  fruit grewing and weed production, as wall as for raising livestock and poaltry. On both banks of the Fraser, from its month up to CShilliwaek, there are almost continuous chains of cultivated farms* All the cereals can he successfully groan, hut oats and barley are the principal crops. The hay crop is generally heavy, three and a half tons to the acre being not uncommon. Sop culture has been established since the very beginning of the first settlement of British Colusnbla. "There is not a country on the face of the earth better adapted for this culture than British Columbia". * Fine hops have been produced in the Vancouver district. In Vancouver climate no renewal of seedlngs would be necessary, as there is no such thing as throwing up the roots by frost. TShis industry offers a sure and large reward. As in similar low-lying districts everywhere, summer floods or "freshetaf occur in the Fraser Delta and some agricultural lands at the mouth of the Eraser are subjected to tidal overflow. But at the present time thorse lands are protected against these freshets by means of dyking and draining. Much dyking has been done on the lowlying islands at the mouth of the Frasen and now a great area that is without exception the most productive and richest land in the country. Agriculture is developing more and more in the vicinity of Vancouver and it is now the second most Important industry of British Columbia, lumbering coming firsts mining third on the list. That the I* Province of British Columbia, Canada. Its climate and Resources: with info nsat ion for emigrants. 71ctoria,B.C.  **186 — pwavinee ia becoming more self-sustaining is shown by the fact that in 1926 British Columbia's farms producred #71,362,809, and increase of  per cent ever the production of the previous year.***'  X4v9 StooR ana Painr Excellent beef is raised in the vicinity of Vancouver: also dairy produce in abundance. The natural conditions are very favorable for such kind of farming. In addition to Mhat the cultivated fields ef the district produce, there is an immense growth of wild grasses, such as red top, bunch grass, clover, etc. affording ample feed for cattle, and only on occasional winters do stock require extra feeding. Dairying is the chief industry on the rich, heavy bottom lands adjoining the Fraser from Chllliwaek to the Gulf. The greater creameries are located at Chilllwack, Clayburn, and Vancouver. Considerable quantities of batter and cheese are produced hew. At the present time 150,000 dairy cattle supply milk to ever thirty manufacturing ereamerles and to a number of cheese factories, condenserles and many ice cream plants. In 1926, dairying products and live stock represented a value of over #31,000,000, and still rapidly increasing* iRHltiry* Within recent years large poultry ranches have been establised and developed in the vicinity of Vancouver. I&gy farms of this kind 1. Industrial Survey, 1927, City of Vancouver. Issued by the Industrial Survey Committee of the City Council.  w e situated along tM B. 0. Electric Rsilway at Abbotsford, Chilliwack, and ether points. The mild climate and well-drained, protected slopes are very fawrable natural conditions for the poultry Industry. The supply of food and all the ether articles for birds Is abundant and cam be got at easy terms. The city is a great marSoet for the poultry industry. Besides that, the agents of such firms as Bums, Spencer and others tax* eggs immediately from the fans*. The farmers have no trouble in the marRatlag of poultry products. The Dominion G ovemmaent maintains at Agassis an experimental farm Which serves these valley lands ef the Lower Fraser. Because of all the mentioned conditions poultry raising Is fast becoming a hlg factor in the agricultural growth of the vicinity of Vancouver as well as throughout the province in general. There are ever 3,000,000, birds at present day in the provide. Millions of eggs are exported annually. Poultry proceeds totalled $3,000,000. Culture, Fruits ef every kind can be raised to any extent in the vicinity of Vancouver. The apples, prunes, apricots are equal to the best of any in North American orchards. She same may be said In regard to Cherries and all the small fruits. The fruit district Which is the nearest to the city is located on the north bank of the Fraser, from Pitt Meadows to Yale. Fins fruit and quantities of early vegetables produced in this part are the first to be sold In the city markets. Different kinds of local fruits such as apples, pears, plums, and cherries grow &ell here. Cherries, and particularly raspberries and loganberries are characteristic crops  ** 186 ** of this diatriet. Ane^ter fruit district is located near Chilliwaek. The higher lands of this locality also produce quantities of fruit. The ORanagan and Kooteney Lake districts are the leading fruit parts of British Columbia. Apples are the prime crop there, followed by peaehes, pears, cherriee, plums and small fruits. T he fruit industry is steadily expanding and the prospects for future prosperity look veacy promising. The year's output of fruit amounted to $7,000,000. "Fruit growing has increased rapidly sines irrigation was introduced in the famous Okanagan district, British Columbia having produced more than 4,5000,000 boxes of apples last year."l* VaKetable Fanmhg?. Vegetable faming is carried on in the vicinity of Vancouver. Hazy farms are in the neighborhood of the city. The best vegetable farms are located on the north bank of the Eraser from Pitt Beadows to Yale and also on the higher lands of the Chilliwaok district. These farms, at Vancouver's back door provide the city with fresh produce. The worth and wealth of agriculture in the province can be shown by the following tablei Description 1. Live Stock 2. Fodders  Iggg  j923  1924  1925  314,550,494 $15,920,028 $16,790,007 $1S,256,229 12,467,332  12,312,725  10,671,69B  11,629,132  3. Dairy Products 8,001,135  9,234,576  9,769,549  10,629,350  1.  Industrial Survey, 1927.  *  j.922  189 1923  1924  1925  3* Vegetables $5,847,772 $5,853,626 $6,83t,983 #7,660,453 Fruits  4,915,605  6,034,976  5,419,238  5,413,894  Poultry  4,015,838  3,952,979  4,232,562  4,745,723  T* Grains  3,488,726  3,966,837  4.253,512  4,251,321  8. Meats  1,413,911  7,188,170  1,310,676  1,781,896  9* Miscellaneous 824,159  695,881  707,005  785,515  Totals  55,322,971 59,159,798 60,029,224 65,153,513  The table given above shows that the first industry is live stock, the second fodders, the third dairy, the fourth vegetables, the fifth fruits, the sixth grains, etc. Fodder industry was decreasing, but since 1935 is increasing again! all the other industries are ssrasedly increasing. Fishing.  In this industry British Columbia leads the provinces of the Dominion, because it is fortunate in owning idch and prolific fishing grounds. Salmon is caught while it is entering therivers. The mouths of all the large rivers, both of the mainland and Islands represent the fishing grounds. Large canneries are in operation here {at the mouths of the Fraser, Skeena, Bass Rivers, and at the head of Rivers InletJ. The halibut and cod banRs are located off the west coast of Vancouver Island, and Mound the Queen Charlotte Islands. The most valuable fish in British Columbia Is the Pacific Salmon. There are several varieties of it, the best being the sockeye.  - 190 * . Other varieties ere the cohoa, spring, pink and cham salmon. Besides salmon* there are ether Mads of fish val^HAe from a eensaereial point of view, namely, halibut, herring, eod, pilchard and clams. Quantity and value of the chief eeanereial fish in British Columbia earn he shown by the following tables H M  J^g.  I.Salmon  l^g  j^A  319,073,927 $11,936,668 $13,027,251 $14,^3,885 $13,776,762 3,918,441  6,276,993  5,427,542  3,891,819  4,543,720  3. Salmon (cwt) 1,509,075  1,514,765  1,965,159  1,873,376  2,125,555  4.a&rrlag  850,734  1,338,450  1,398,580  1,717,985  1,528,734  1,0(^.519  1,035,823  1,157,625  1,437,875  1,301,269  20,342  19,492  27,485  318,973  969,958  812,871  203,086  288,829  264,036  336,759  8 .Halibut {Cwt) 293,184  334,667  331,382  318,240  315,095  106,055  92,036  82,881  182,911  127,257  lO.Clams  68,206  87,216  153,472  161,764  65,404  H.Cod (cwt}  28,190  29,251  40,530  31,636  39,105  12.Clams(bbl) 14,466 26,527 11,974 20,030 Figures are taken Awi Bominion of Canada Census.  12,812  Z.Bailbut  5.Herring " 6.Pilcharde" 7.Cod  9.Pilchards  The total amount of fish and fish products marketed in 1924 was approximately 200,000 tons, valued at, roughly. $21,500,000. This value is considerably larger than the total value of the same commodities marketed in the combined states of Washington and Oregon, notwithstanding the fact that the frontage en the Pacific Ocean of these two states is approximately equal to that of British Columbia. The salmon catchalonc for the 1926 season totaled 2,125,553 ewt., which was over  ** 191 —  250,000 ewt. ever that of 1985. The valne of the fisheries production ef British Colsaabia la 1926 aas ^7,357,109 eos^ared with #22,414,618  British celaaMa'e fishery products represent approximately 50 per cent of those of all Canada. A large proportion of the fish caught is used locally or is carried by rail to inland points, hut a considerable quantity, chiefly salmon and herring, is ^tipped overseas. The total nEmiber ef establishments In operation in 1923 was M5, including 77 salmon canneries, $ clam canneries, 67 fish curing establishments and 18 redaction plants. The salmon canneries accounted for 79 per cent of the total value in 1926 and 62 per cent in 1925. "The number of salmon canneries shows an increase of 12, reduction plants and increase of 6, and fish curing establishments and clam canneries each an increase of one."^* The aaa&ar of persons employed in the establishments is increasing. Thus In 1926 there were 8,051 persons, 613 persons more than were in the proceeding year. Hen employed in vessels, boats, nets, traps, etc., in 1926 nambered 12,162 as compared with 9,944 in 1925. "Daring the last two or three years a growing number of fish reduction plants have made their appearance. This is a branch of the fishery industry devoted to the manufacture of fertilizer from fish. Sher fertilizer is sold in all available markets for application to orchard and field erops."^* During the last years the production of fish oil and meal has become an iagmrtant part of the fisheries industry of British Columbia. 1. Industrial Survey, 1927. 2. Industrial Survey*  "The output ef these Items in 1986 having & total value ef $l,sa5,67R. Pilchard oil ie of chief iBportance with 1,898,731 gallons, valued at #734,078, idtila the quantity ef pilchard meal was 7,948 tons, valued at $371,365. Fish oil, fish meal and flab fertiliser, n.e.s., made chiefly from gray fish aad herring, had an output valued at $196,808. With recovery of conditions in the United Kingdom and other count rise Where new trade treaties have been concluded, this indicates great scansion In the industry." i* Total fisheries product Ion in British Columbia during last five years can be shown lay the following table; 1921  §13,953,670  1922  18,849,658  1933  20,795,914  1924  21,357,567  1925  22,414,618  1936  27,367,109  Ramanse timber reserves prove one of the most important natural resources of British Columbia. The western slopes of the mountains are covered with dense forests. Especially those on the western slopes of the Coast Range and on Vancouver Island. The douglas fir, red cedar are the most valuable from the commercial point of view. The province possesses imtiamee area ef soft woods. The total standing timber in the province is ample to support the indsutry already developed and to permit 1. Industrial Survey, 1927.  - 193*.  of & substantial increase in perpetuity. For purposes ef co3E^parison It may be stated that this stand ef timber is greater than that in the states ef either s&ahington or California and approximately e-.jual to that ef Oregon. Government records show that British Colun&ia possesses 95 per cent of the standing commercial soft wood in the British aspire. The province's timber reserves contain two-thirds ef the marketable saw-timber in Canada. Two new forest reserves were added to the Provincial Forest Reserves in 1925, totalling 1,206,000, bringing the the total forest reserve acreage of the province up to 6,701,154 acres. It is noteworthy that the most valuable forests are situated quite near the much-indented coast and on Vancouver Island. These conditions are very favorable for the transportation of the wood. The logs can be readily brought to tidewater. From this they are towed tc some convenient harbour. Thus, mambers of logs in the shape of haage beams or rafts reach False Creek, and other Vancouver harbours, where they are cut into lumber at the sawmills. 3&gnificent forests of fir, cedar, and hemlock are found In the calley ef the Pitt, Harrison and Stave rivers, the tributaries of the Fraser* Logs are cut there and come down the rivers to the Fraser. At tide water, and near the lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Canadian National Hallway are found the big lumber mills. MinUM?. British Columbia stands second as a mining province (the first being Ontario), and it now leads in the production of silver, lead, copper and sine.  - 194-  In tha beginning of mining development in the province, gold et first held indisputed sway. Great quantitites of this mineral mere obtained from the sands of the Eraser and its tributaries; but now it is extracted from the crashed rock by means of lode mining ,. At the present day coal has the leading position. Copper is the next mineral in importance. The coal mines are located at N anaimo and Cumberland on the east coast of Vancouver Island, near Femie in the Crow's Nest Pass, and at Herritt and Princeton, in the Nicola and Similkameen Valleys. The largest of the copper mines is at Anyox on Observatory Inlet. The Kooteney district is the location of the silver, lead and zinc mines. The famous Sullivan lead-zinc mine is at Kimberlay. Value of minerals produced in British Columbia in 1926 was #986,108,470. ^MHfaaturiHg  V^Q^veiL.  British Columbia has 4521 industrial plants, mainly centered in Vancouver. JUanufacture depends upon convenient supplies of raw materials, low power and light costs, lower water transportation and railways, taxation, labor conditions, banking and markets. All these factors are very favorable for Vancouver and this city is more able than any other point in the province to offer greater combined advantages in this respect. Raw materials essential to industry, drawn from the mine, soil and orchard,, are within easy distance Sf Vancouver, and available to the manufacturer. As it has been already stated, British Columbia is one of the wealthiest provinces in the  - 195*.  Dominion In raw material* and power resources. There la little doubt that the southern portion of the province, adjacent to the coast and international boundary, traversed by mighty rivers and their tributary branches reaching out into the fertil valleys of the Interior, has the city of Vancouver as its natural geographical centre.  As far as fuel is concerned, Vancouver has inexhaustible resources of coal and wood, The chief source of coal for consumption in Vancouver is mainly Hanaimo, where immense deposits of high grade bituminous coal exist. The coal is shipped by coast barges direct to Vancouver's Industrial plants. This coal is suitable for coke as well ae for general use. The second coal source is the Nicola-Princeton deposits. Fuel oil has become an important item in lowering production costs in the Vancouver manufacturing plants. Owing to cheap ocean rates from California, the average price of fuel oil in 1926 was approximately 4^r to  cents per imperial gallon. In 1924, 98,351,974 imperial  gallons of fuel oil were imported into Vancouver; in 1925,100,335,183 gallons and in 1926, 106,150,145 imperial gallons. pod fuej. 13uch of the waste from the mills, located within Vanco ver, in the way of sawdust, shavings and edgings, is consumed in huge burners, Mid great quantities of cordwood are available for fuel and are consumed In the heating of business houses and apartment blocks. Electric energy is also one of the most important factors in the present day development of the Vancouver manuRicturing industry. Natural conditions are remarkably favorable for producing electric energy at low prices. In the near vicinity of Vancouver there are numerous water-falls  — 195 —  and rapid river. Seme of them are used to supply electric power. So at Lake Buntzsn near the North Arm and at Stave River, abundant hydro -  - ,  eleetrlc energy is developed. The British Columbia Electric Railway Company has seven large hydro-electric plants and serves a territory of over 1500 square miles. It has IS substations and 396 miles of hightension transmission lines. Electric power is distributed over 1546 miles of wires. Power is sold as far south as Blaine and Bellingham In the United States of America. Cqpt Pf Pawejri Industrial power rates with load factor discount as low as one cent per K.W. hour and even lower. "Assuming the power requirements of a medium size plant, requiring a connected load of 400 horsepower a deamand of 224 K.W. and a load factor of 28 per cent, giving a monthly consumption of energy of 45,686 K.3?.H., works out in comparison with other cities, ahere there have been remarkable strides in industrial development, as follows: Vancouver  -  $541.20  Winnipeg  -  595.37  Seattle  -  733.*%  Portland  -  657.60  San Francisco  -  650.05  Note: The above exasg?le does not show up Vancouver's po./er rate to greatest advantage. If the demand were 1 horsepower more, t he customer is entitled to an extra 5 per cent discount. Which would bring the monthly bill to #513.74 instead of ^541.20, as shown.  - 197-  Ordinarily, the Company is lenient in this resepect, and the customer would he given the benefit of the additional horsepower of # demand." Comparison of Industrial Power Rates in Two Canadian and Two United States Cities. Monthly Connected Load Consumption Vancouver Toronto Seattle ^m_Fxmci.sc.e 43 K ^ t H *  10,000  1.4  0.91  1.35  1.56  50 "  20,000  1.2  0.637  1.26  1.23  200 "  40,000  0.%  0.91  1.42  1.38  200 "  80,000  0.731  0.637  1.08  1.03  500 "  100,000  0.88  0.91  1.23  1.22  500 "  200,000  0.855  0.637  0.94  0.935  700 "  150,000  0.834  0.91  1.139  1.18  750 "  300,000  0.628  0.337  0.868  0.89  50h.p.  "In calculating the above power costs, a demand factor of 80 per cent is allowed in each caee."^* gaaJ&Ssa. Gas for industrial plants is sold in Vancouver as low as 80 cents per 1000 cubic feet.  Minerals are found in abundance in the near neighbourhood of Vancouver, and also fish, timber and agricultural products. 0 her raw materials, which are absent in the province, can be brought to Vancouver ty low ocean rates from many countries bordering on the Pacific^ such # Industrial Sorvey, 1927, p. 32. 1.Industrial Survey, 1927.  - 138*.  as coffee, spices, rubber, walnuts from South America, tea, silk from China and Japan, hardwoods for the manufacture of furniture from the Philippine Islands and Japan, mahogany from Hanchuria and the West Ooast ef Sautemala. To supply woolen mills at Vancouver, there are large quantities of wool available from Australia, and an abundant home supply from Brirish Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan.  Vancouver is a great centre of the manufacture of wood products, such as lumber, lath, shingles*, sash, doors, furniture, show-cases, refrigerators, etc., A local manufacturer can draw for his supply on the greatest timbered section of any country in the world. There are 31 sawmills in Vancouver. Some of the largest of the sawmills are located at the following points: Mission, Haney, Hammond, Coquitlam, Ebume, and Hew Westminster. The location of these sawmills are almost ideal, they are in fresh water, and free from the ravages of the teredo and yet they open to the deep sea tonnage for ocean export as well as being ready for inland prairie commerce via the great trans-continental railways. The Eraser sawmills of the Canadian Western Lumber Company, near New Westminster, are the largest in the province. 23any sawmills are found even in the city of Vancouver. Thus fourteen lumber mills and fifteen mills are in operation along the city's shoreline. From the Vanco uver city limits eastward along the south shore of Burrard Inlet to Port Moody, and westward along the north shore of the inlet to North Vancouver, sixteen lumber and shingle mills are in operation. The Tanco ver district is one of the great lumber manufacturing centres of all Canada.  - 199 -  Thirty-O&e aawailla in Vancouver represent an investment of ^12,426,569. Salaries and wages paid for 1925 were #3,544,327. Cost of materials was #5,000,669 and value of products - $10,711,318. There were 3,309 persons employed at the 31 sawmills. Other wood working plants are: planing mills, sash and door factories, brooms and broom-handles, manufactories of boxes, wood pipe, cooperage, canoes, coffins, and caskets, etc. Altogether 93 manufacturing plants in Vancouver city are busily turning the logs into finished articles for the markets of the Dominion as well as those of the world. Pulp and paper manufacture was not establish:3 in British Columbia on a commercial basis until 1912. Yet, already the province ranks third in this industry in all Canada. "British Columbia's stand of 300,000,000 cords of spruce and other pulp woods represents the largest stand in the world" Palp and paper production can be shown in the following table:  Sulphite  1924 TSRS  1925 Tons  1926 Tons  89,839  92,514  108,381  14,403  16,856  15,000 136.123 259,504  Ground wood Total Paper Pr&dMPt  112.001  121.363  216,234  230,733  Newsprint  136,281  148,201  176,924  9.653 145,934  9.261 157,462  10.389 187,303  Other papers Total #  Industrial Survey, 1927.  -* 200 The value of wood manufacture Is shown in the following table  Sawmills Planing  Capital Salaries Cost of Value of Eat* RBDlQKoes & ^Jaaes ^terials 31 12,426,569 3,309 3,544,327 5,800,669 10,711,318 19  945,983  462  577,953  684,333 1,510,331  16  704,785  174  231,417  367,612  009,275  Boxes  3  547,943  233  293,062  361,773  788,559  Canoes, etc  5  217,601  85 116,222  73.398  206,644  Coffins & Caskets 3  97,832  33  36,652  55,982  118,621  3  150,671  56  71,583  99,510  208,768  wood products 5  329,546  69  107,268  218,329  367,433  Allwood other producta—R  5^598  83  113.698  192.387  615,936  mils  Furniture  Brooms, etc Miscellaneous  93 15,970,723 4,554 5,092,182 7,853,993 15,336,905  HaaagMSKKe .af Food PaadHsta* There are abundant supplies of raw materials close at hand for the manufactrer of certain food products in Vancouver. The Fraser River Valley, the Okanagan galley and Vancouver Island are the greatest agricultural producing centres of the province, and all vegetables, fruits, and cereals possible to a temperate zone are grown coaKnercially within these areas. "Grains of all description are also available. Sugar beets can be produced locally. Vegetable oils of all descriptions can be produced locally in large quantities."# #  Industrial Survey, 1927  - 201*. Other raw materials can he easily imported from the South and far East. Thus, the raw sugar is brought in large freighters from Cuba, Peru and from the Islands of the Indies. It is made fit for use at the refinery and from here sent to all parts of the province and to the prairies as well, So coffee, cocoa, tropical fruits and spices aye brought into Vancouver also. This wide range of agricultural produce raised so close at hand and brou#it easily from countries neighbouring tha Pacific should enable Vancouver to compete successfully with manufacturers of food elseahere. The chief lines of food products now being manufactured are: (1} Vegetable products, (2) Slaughtering and meat packing, (5) Bread, etc., (4} Boffee and spices, (5} C reameries, (6f Biscuits and confectionery, (7) Fish curing and (8) Jams and Jellies. Altogether there are 128 manufacturing plants in Vancouver City, \shich employ 2519 people. The capital invested in manufacturing of all the mentioned industries is #20,006,735. The salaries and wages paid by Vancouver manufactureres is $3,377,477, and the value of products is $32,820,359. The worth and wealth of manufacturing food products in Vancouver can be seen by the following figures:  —  195  —  &&anfa<?tures pf RtadJPgodaoM (Dominion of Canada Census).  Capital Salaries Cost of Value of _Eg&. I^plpyees ^teriaj$ Product^ 1. Vegetable Products 15 12,660,346 780 1,023,624 10,646,557 14,356,763 2. Slaughtering and seat pacSng  4  2,039,999 435  578,477 4,483,418 5,921,326  55  1.173,965 433  595,737 1,338,388 2,529,450  4. Coffee & spices  6  406,962 68  62,921 1,955,628 2,433,585  5. Creameries 6. Biscuits and  7  979,422 314  406,449 1,725,428 2,296,060  25  1,263,931383  415,001  821,624 1,623,943  10  1.075,146 133  172,347  842,733 1,125,853  3. Bread, etc.  confectionery 7. Fi^ oaring  8. Jams and jellies——6 3a§*362— $8 62, 92955,628__.2,43g^585. 128 20,006,735 2619 3377,477 24,269,408 32,620,369  .MHjal ^anufactmps. Asit has been already stated Vancouver has an abundant metal supply close at hand and, therefore, the manufactures engaged in the product ion of any type of metal work will find within easy reach large supplies of raw materials, which may be brought by boat at low transportation cost, or by rail from the interior parts of the province. "Sieet metals, plates, etc., now largely imported from Great Britain, Belgium, France and other parts, can be reduced in Vancouver. 3aw materials for the production of cast and rod iron, angles and sheets, are available as well as large supplies of copper, of which British Columbia produces 67 per cent of Canada's total output. By bringing  - 203 -  saai-raw i^terials by mil or boat, the metal manufacturer here cam connote with the Eastern manufacturer in this territory, because the freight rates on his raw materials are much less than on the finished product At the present time there are 60 metal manufacturing plants in Vancouver, employing 1516 people; the capital invested in these industries is ^6,178,332; the wages paid by Vancouver metal manufacturers is .§2,054,940. The cost of raw material used #4,532,993, while the value of the products $8,115,475. The most important of the metal manufactures is the manufacture of sheet metal products. There are 12 plants of this kind in Vancouver, employing 586 persons and producing annually articles to the amount of #4,126,306. Next in line are castings and forging.. Twelve manufacturing plants of these employing 355 people. Six plants employing 176 persons are busily turning steel into boilers and engines. Five plants employing 99 people manufacture wire and wire goods. All descriptions of metal manufacture of Vancouver can be shown by the following table. ^tal_m^actnre of VancQuyer (Dominion of Canada Census)  Capital  Salaries Value of Cp.at Pgodusts  1. Sheet metal products 12 2,089,460 563 842,773 2,832,301 4,126,306 2. Castings & forging  12 1,193,135 355 545,771  279,081 1,009,072  3. Wire & wire goods  5  783,459 99 145,745  477,745  740,718  4. Boilers & engines  6  778,375 176 273,683  255,121  704,729  #  Industrial Survey, 1927.  5. Auto parts,etc.  Hi  Cost of Value of -204 Capi.tal Products 7 206,314 98 153,731 140,037 362,803  6. Lead, tine & zinc products  3 175,334  22  28,449 140,430 209,070  7. Industrial mach'y  8 222,125  71  97,258 102,259 253,703  8. Hardware & tools  4 164,665  48  56,019  85,623 184,760  50,982  20  13,591  29,886  4 356,142  31  40,%0 111,181 306,765  30  38,980  9. Brass & copper prod.5 All ether iron & steel products  11* All ether noferrous products 2  69.861  83,144  61.279 134.400  68 6178,332 1516 2054,940 4532,993 8115,475  of She WenrH^lM^nismml^ Under this heading are Included monumental and ornamental stone, asbestos, graphites, gypsum, mica, clay products, cement, sandltme brick, coke, glass, illuminating and fuel gas, aerated waters, etc. Under the heading of clay products are the brick and tile industry, the day sower pipe, the fire brick and fire clay products industry, and the stoneware and pottery industry. "Vancouver is near to the source of supplies in the case of most of these industries. At Smsas Mountain, In the lower Fraser Valley, 47 miles from Vancouver, the shale, fireclay and china clay deposits are of great importance. There is no other locality thus far discovered in Canada ?giieh contains such a variety of materials adapted to the manufacture of pressed and paving brick, firebrick, fireproofing, sewer pipe and roofing tile. These raw materials are being mined and manufactured at Kilgard and Claybum."^ Large and Important deposits #  Industrial 3arvey, 1927.  - 205*.  of fireclay occur at Blue Mountain, near VRionneck, 37 miles from Vancouver. China clay is also found at Williams Lake, on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. Pottery clays from which a large variety of articles are made for sanitary and omametal purposes, occur in various places In British Columbia. "These clays and the china clays are of special interest to Old Country manufacturers. Canada imported last year $7,5%,750 worth of clay products and $7,297,916 worth of glass # and glassware." Vancouver is increasing In size and therefore brick, both common and pressed, fireproofing and and sewer pipe, are among the clay products in constant demand. But large cities lilae Vancouver are also calling for not a little terra cotta Mid ceramic. Material for the latter is found in abundance in the vicinity of Vancouver. There is almost every known type of clay and flint #iich compares favorably with anything that can be got elsewhere, and has the added advantage of low fuel cost. Por the glass manufacture there are huge deposits of sands, limestones, silicas, spars and other necessary materials available in commercial fornf, while Belgian silver sand can be delivered through Vancouver's port at the lowest cost as Callast in grain boats returning from British and Continental points."^* #The day is not far distant when scientific research and improved methods of extraction will lead to the utilization of a larger number of by-products of coal. With extensive coal fields near Vancouver this must result in adding to the city's producing plants." #, 1. & 2. Industrial Survey, 1927.  The moat important industry under the heading manufactures of the non-metallic minerals in Vancouver is the manufacture of paints. There are 6 plants of this kind, employing 56 persons and producing annually to the amount of #500,478. Next in line is the manufacture of artificial ice. Three plants are busily employing 39 people and producing annually ice to the amount of $174,641. Four plants make aerated waters employing 37 persons and producing annually articles to the amount of #195,475. Five establishments are busy. in the manufacture of monumental and ornamental stones, employing 34 people. All manufactures of non-metallic minerals can be shoim by the following table: . .Majyifactu^egL  .^aggajSA-  Emoloyees Cost of Walue of Egt. Capital Salaries 3%at. Products 1. Paints, etc. 2. art If leal Ice  6 3  426,002 419,230  56 39  64,915 274,217 500,475 64,041  39,864 184,641  3. Aerated waters  4  343,631  37  51,397 101,442 195,475  4. Monumental ornamental&stone  5  76,085  34  52,991  5. Plate, etc. & glass 4  15,518  11  10,013  6. All other chemical 16 products  29,477 120,968 7,525  16,843  7 726,604 117 154,477 435,817 842,941  7. All other nonmetallic products 5 7446,399 283 384,259 874,485 1825,803 43 9755,469 577 782,093 1762,827 3677,146  Tulles. There are great possibilities in certain lines for the  - 207*.  manufacturers of textiles in Vancouver. Raw materials available for the manufacture can he easily delivered at Vancouver from the interior. Thus the province of Alberta is the greatest wool product ing area in Western Canada and it is over 1000 miles closer to Vancouver than the wool markets of Eastern Canada. "Two-thirds of all the wool produced in Western Canada is raised in a territory from which it can e shipped to Vancouver at freight rates less than those applying to the Eastern centres of wool manufacture." * Besides that, raw cotton can he delivered at Vancouver" from central points in the south as cheaply as it can be delivered to New England or Eastern Canadian mills."^* Vancouver should have its own textiles. "Toronto andthe Maritime provinces are the largest wool-buying centres in Canada. There is no reason why British Columbia and Alberta wool Should be carried two thousand miles eastward to be scoured and made into fabrics, *it and the manufactured cloths shipped back into Western Canada for use". * There are now 14 plants in Vancouver manufacturing textile products, employing 299 persons and producing annually articles to the amount of $1,568,554. Manufacture of Fur Goodp, There are over thirty five fur farms in British Columbia, which brirg in more than ^1,500,000 annually. These fans supply the population of the province with furs. Besides that, many skins are brought to Vancouver from the northern parts of the province. All these 1, 2, & 3. Industrial Survey, 1S&7.  - 208*.  are turned into for goods at Che Vanc&iver factories. There are three plants of this kind which represented during the year 1925 an investment of $54,071, producting goods valued at #48,007, and paid out $27, 598 in wages and salaries to 18 workars. Minting .^d Publishing. There are 88 establishments in Vancouver Which are engaged in printing, publishing and book-binding. T hey represent an investment of $3,952,345, product  valued at $5,148,686, and paid out  $1,934,948 in wages and salaries to 1324 workers. This manufacture can be shown in detail by the following table: Est1. Job Printing & Bookbinding 46 2. Printing and Publishing  Capital ^^oxaaa Ua<=?es  Cost of Value of materials products  890,664 393 522,665 489,980 1,397,565  11 2,415,6J2 748 1142,142 872,022 3,122,376  3. Litographing & Engraving  8  4. Blue printing  3 68  616,735 173 257,615 171,141 9,534  10  9,586  4,666  606,462 22,283  3,932,345 1324 1931,948 1537,809 5,148,686  Amongst the other important industries of electric light and power are laundries, dyeing, men's furnishings, wonen's factory clothing, and leather boots and shoes. All manufactures of Vancouver can be shown by the following table:  - 209*.  ^ufagtwes Of VancewAr (Dominion of Canada Census). Coat of Wood mnofacture Food Products  Value of  93 15,970,723 4,554 5,092,182 7,853,993 15,338,905 123 20,006,735 2,619 3,377,477 24269,408 32,620,369  Hetal aanufacture  68 6,178,332 1,516 2,054,940 4,532,993 8,115,475  Non-23etallic  43 9,455,469  Printing & Publ.  68 3,932,345 1,324 1,931,948 1,537,809 5,148,686  577  782,093 1,762,827 3,677,146  Fur Goods  S  34,671  18  27,598  16,881  48,007  Leather boots & Shoes  6  460,385  142  157,772  265,848  428,308  Leather gloves  3  37,17b  27  23,990  30,698  70,648  3&n's Furnishings  6  131,784  116  98,815  304,745  498,853  Women's factory clothing  6  198,904  85  78,815  149,194  309,752  Aamings, Tents & Sails  4  230,944  46  53,268  129,925  222,803  Staioneiy goods  4,  123,308  42  42,103  116,992  200,798  Electric Ligbt & Power  4 41626,149  569  958,329  5,482,439  I&reing  13  125,277  9  109,563  Laundries  14  807,275  637  621,150  3  419,230  39  64,041  39,864  174,641  Rabber stencils,etc.. 3  40,804  20  22,458  11,371  53,433  Shipbuilding  5  804,757  164  265,225  127,840  567,456  All Other Animal Products  7  386,262  274  118,668  662,083  825,427  Art ifleal Ice  36,516  228,178  101,139 1,155,549  - 210 -  Cost of Value of n^^sEMM PrpdHo.tg  3!stt C^pi^^i All other Textile Product3  14 850,021  299  294.329  A H other Industries 9 570,104  111  129,973  Total -  1,124,607 1,568,354 250,450  514,915  507 102105028 13334 16384,973 42,020,970 75,823,721  In 1928 Vancouver had 600 industrial plants with 15,000 employees. It is seen from the above table that there are five hundred and seven industries in Vancouver, which represent an investment of $102,105,028, producing goods valued at $75,823,821, and paid out $16,384,973 in wages and salaries to 13,334 workers. "Vancouver now stands fourth in manufacturing output in the Dominion of Canada and, according to the official census, makes more than half of the products turned out in the province of British Columbia. The gain in value of the output of the factories of the province during the ten years, 1914-1924, was $109,064,235, or an increase of 150 per cent."^ Comparing the manufactures of Vancouver with that of the' whole province, we see that of the 25 principal cities and towns of the province listed in the 1924 census, the City of Vancouver had more manufacturing establishments than the other 24 cities and towns combined; "the capital invested in manufacturing in Vancouver was more than double the amount of capital employed in the 24 cities and tosvns in the province. The wages paid by Vancouver manufacturers were two times greater than # Industrial Survey, 1927.  - 211*.  the combined usages paid by the other 24 cities and towns. The amount of raw material used was also double, \shile the value of the output of 1. Vancouver more than doubled that of the other 24 centres mentioned." The 1926 Report of the Bureau of Labor declares that the estimate of the salaries and wages In connection with industrial operations in British Columbia daring 1926 reached a total of $175,173,836.47. 36.44$ of this total industrial payroll of British Columbia was located last year (1926) in Greater Vancouver, which Indludes Vancouver city, North Vancouver, South Vancouver, iaest Vancouver, Point Grey and Bumaby. The rest of the mainland had 46.31% , and 17.25% was dlstribted on Vancouver Island. The following apportionment of the industrial 2. payroll of the province for the past three years is as follows: Greater Vancouver Best of Mainland Vancouver Island Total  #54,449,749.95 $56,065,917.19 $65,833,346.01 67,992,347.26  73,469,545.69  81,123,003.67  28,595,220.99 30,424,357,92 30,217,486.79 151,037,316.20 159,959,820.80 175,173,835.47  Vancouver is a terminus of the principal transcontinental railway Lines on the one hand, and of transpacific steamship lines on the other. At the present time the city is served by the following railroads: Canadian Pacific Railway Canadian National Railway 1 &2  Industrial Survey, 19S7.  -212  -  Great Northern Railway Borthem Pacific Railway Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway Pacific Great Eastern Railway. In addition to the foregoing there is the terminal railroad designed to give all roads reaching the Port of Vancouver equal access to the waterfront. Eighteen passenger trains arrive and depart from Vancouver daily. The British Columbia Electric Railway Company provides railroad connection with local and Fraser Valley points and handles a considerable amount of freight in addition to passengers. One Hundred and fifty miles of electric railroad comprise interarban lines, one of ghich, from Vancouver to Chilliwack, is the longest electric interarban line in the Dominlogt, a distance of seventy-six miles. Four interarban lines radiate from Vancover city, the Central Park line, the Bumaby Lake line, and two Lulu Island lines, one to Steveston and one to New Westminster. She latter four lines are among the busiest in Canada, handling 10,000 to 15,000 passengers a day. Besides that there is the motor bus transportation in Vanco ver and the vicinity. A frequent service of coaches runs between Vancouver and New Westminster, while there are coaches operated as far as Chilliwack through the Fraser Valley. Communication between the city and the University of British Columbia is also provided by coaches. Supplementing these services the B. C. Electric Co. operates a line with freight trucks, shipping material to the towns in the Fraser Valley and also bringing to market the produce of the farmers.  - 213*.  B. C. Electric Railway Co. serves territory 1,500 square miles. About 77,000,000 passengers were carried by their city and suburban lines in 1928. She growth in public service in Vancouver may be show by the following table: 1906 Miles of Vancouver City car lines operated 29,739  1911  iaii  71.86  102.87 110.12  116.74  301.62 302.40  309.12  Miles of mainland car lines operated  15,75  208.70  Number of street cars  58  227  331  1921  319  1926  357  60,373,845 46,819,373 33,701,706 66,106,384  Somber of passengers carried Number of employees on payi-o 11  1,730  2,332  3,389  $1,643,907 $5,271,000 #3,824,857  Wages and Salaries paid  .8?nber of Telephones in Service December 31, 1906 (approx.)  3,700  December 31, 1916  "  26,132  December 31, 1921  "  46,278  December 31, 1926  "  63,421  Part of VanctmvSE. Vancouver has a large, commodious and sheltered harbour, open all the year around. The largest vessels may enter and find miles of docRs to receive their cargoes and there is ample warehouse accomodation which facilitates the handling of all conmodities. The harbour has a  -214 -  comnanding situation with plenty of elbow room for growth and industries. territory tributary to the Port of Vancouver is very large, embracing an area within a radius of 1,500 miles. Vancouver is today by far the most important and hi#Jy developed of all the Canadian Pacific ports and actually handles more than 90% of the sea borne commerce of its great interior tributary territory which reaches the Pacific Ocean. The port of Vancouver had its birth as a grain shipping port because the geographical conditions were favorable for that. The grain producing provinces are immediately behind the Rocky Mountains and the distance between them and the port is not very large. 3o the aocky Mountains do not bound the tributary territory of the port of Vancouver on the east. On the contrary, In the United States such a tributary territory is bounded on the east by the Rocky Mountains. The weason for this is the fact that the topography of the North American Continent is so ordained that, as one travels south, the Rock:/ I3ountains and their attendant mountain ranges are continually pushing the prairie wheat fields further to the east, and away from the Pacific Coast. As an example, the distance from the western edge of the prairie Hheat fields to the Pacific Coast ranges from 700 miles, in the Ponce River district to 640 miles at Calgary, to 1000 miles at Billings, Montana, to 1250 miles at Cheyenne, -Wyoming. This increasing distance means correspondingly high frieght rates, and, in consequence, these central fields, ire tributary to the east and the Gulf of Mexico, rather than to the Pacific.  ** 2IS ' **  The territory tributary to the port of Vancouver varies the year. This depends upon the fluctuation of ocean rates and lake rates on the east. So in the middle of gammer, when both lake and Atlantis ocean rates are low, territory tributary to the port of Vancouver is wry limited, extending a comparatively short distance Into the Province of Alberta* However* as autumn comes on, and the new erop commences to move, the eastern rate stiffens, on both lake and ocean, with the result that the territory tributary to the port of 9&neOiwr gradually increases until in the winter time, when the lake Route is closed, the dividing line moves east at least to Saskatoon, a distance of 1050 miles, and, under favorable conditions, fwther still. Vancouver Harbour includes all tidal waters lying east of a line drasaa from Point Atkinson Lighthouse southerly to the most westerly point of Point Grey. The total area of the Harbour is 48.70 square miles, of which over 28 square miles are land-lacked and undisturbed by wind from any direction. The total shore line is 98 miles. The average rise and fall of the tide is a little less than twelve feet. The entrance channel is about 1200 feet wide, with a minimum depth of 38 feet a t low tide. At present, the bulk of the shipping,both deep sea. andcoastwiae, is concentrated on the south shore of the central part of the Harbour, a body of deep water extending about five miles from the first to the Second Barrows, with an average width of  miles. The character of  the Harbour bed affords good anchorage for vessels handling cargoes in the stream by scows or lighters.  i* 216 ** M H A ^ a of t ^  M s  The total lineal feet of berthage at the port is 28,632. The approximate total net capacity of sheds, in tons, is 158,590. (Note: A measured ton equals 40 cubic feet capacity in tons equals two-thirds of area piled six feet high). Total Berthage: Sea-going vessels - 27. (Note - Out of above total, IS berths are available for ships taking grain). Tptal Trackage  P j a r ^ . Ya^Si  Ballantyne Pier  Miles  LaPointe Pier  6.36  No.l Grain Jetty No .3 Elevator Jharf V.H.C. Terminal Railway  .75  Total -  7.11  0. P. R. Piers & Yards  18.04  Miscellaneous Sidings  2.10  Total  27.25  The Burrard Bydock Company, Limited, operates a drydock on the north shore of the harbour, with following capacity: Length  556 feet, 6 inches  D.W. Capacity  15,000 tons  Breadth  98 feet.  The grain elevator storage capacity is as follows: No. 1 Elevator No. 1 Elevator Annex  1,250,000 bushels 800,000 "  - 217*.  Bo. 2 Elevator  1,623,000 bushels  No. 3 Elevator  1,650,000  "  2,000,000  "  100.000  "  Vancouver Terminal  Grain Co. Ltd.  Columbia Grain Elevator Co. Ltd. Total  7,575,00  "  The Port is equipped to take care of lifts up to 100 tons. Unlimited supplies of coal and oil fuel are available at reasonable prices. There are several responsible stevedoring companies whose work compares favorably with any on the coast, both as regards cost and efficiency. There are a number of towing companies who can supply powerful tugs.  The merchants' Exchange operates a free wireless  service for the benefit of ships reporting In and out. All the larger piers in the harbour are equipped to supply water and also to furnish direct telephone connection to the ship. The Vanco ver Harbour Commissioners have provided mooring buoys for ships wishing to load in the stream, which are available at low rates. The % miles of water frontage on and around the 48 square miles ef the Harbour of Vancouver are exceptionally well provided with the best facilities for securing electric power services for industrial purposes. There is still a considerable amount of vacant waterfront property fronting on the ha&bour, with good tracBage connection and deep water facilities, vjhich can be rapidly opened up, suitable for industries of all descriptions.  - 218*.  "Among recent developments carried ont by the Vancouver Harbour Commissioners was the reclamation of a waterfront area,  c e n t e rally-  located on the north shore, comprising between thirteen sad fourteen acres of land, to be leased for Industrial, commercial or shipping purposes on attractive terms. This area will be served by an extension of the Vancouver Terminal Railway in the fall of 1927." * Besides Barnard Inlet there are other water fronts: English Bay, and False Creek. The latter lies in the heart of the city and has many small industrial wharves and can accomodate coastwise shipping. The Fraser river provides many miles of good water frontage with ail the advantage of a fresh water harbour. Pact. The Port of Vancouver is administered by a body known as the Vancouver Harbour Commissioners, ishich was incorporated in 1913 by Act of Parliament of the Dominion of Canada. This Act of Parliament invested the Vancouver Harbour Commisssloners with powers to regulate and control by by-law, navigation and all works and operations within the Harbour, it also empowered them to administer and develop the port and to impose rates, fees and dues for Revenue purposes. A H by-laws are subject to the approval of the Govemor-in-General. Up to the year 1920 the Board's capital expenditure was comparatively insignificant, but since that date the Board has embarked upon an energetic programme of deve lops-sent and the capital expenditure in 1924 totalled approximately $14,000,000. All of this money has been borrowed from the Government of the Dominion of 1. Industrial Survey, 1927, City of Vancouver.  **219**  Canada under the authority of various Acts of Parliament. Interest is payable at 5 per cent and the Board is also responsible for the maintenance of an adequate sinking fund. The Board is self-sustaining, both interest and sinking fund requirements being met out of the revenue. ,Conferee of.  Portm.  She increase in the commerce of the Port of Vancouver has been very rapid. The number of deep-sea vessels entering the Port in 1927 was 1,123, as compared with 1,071 in the previous year, showing an increase of 52 vessels. In the year 1931 the number of deep-sea vessels entering the Port was 4 % with tonnage of 1,367,265 tons, and in 1909 the corresponding figures were only 71 vessels with 195,789 tons. The increase of the number of vessels entering the Port annually from 1909 to 1927 may be shown by the following table; yeagala, ..aiace isog. Ygag  no. of ..Jssae.la  Net Tons  1909  71  195,789  1910  84  236,579  1911  90  351,098  1912  112  288,656  1913  132  365,953  1914  No records available  1915  237  683,538  1916  343  928,006  1. Port of Vancouver.  ** 28 0 ** laar  No. of Vessels  1917  240  788,094  1918  298  851,186  1919 (9 mos)328  1,016,177  Net Tons  1920  336  1,163,6 99  1921  496  1,867,265  1922  717  2,474,724  1923  845  2,804,883  1924  1009  3,404,355  1925  916  3,175,885  1926  1071  3,698,006  1927  1125  3,779,015  Cpastwjse Services and Tya^fic^. The coastwise traffic of Britisii Colombia centering in the Port of Vancouver is greatly developed. The largos steamers employed on this service are of magnificent proportions and good equipment. "The tonnage of many of them exceeds 3000 tons, and the newer ones register approximately 3000 tons. A great number of companies are engaged in this service, but the larger ships are operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway, Canadian Government SBarchant &&rine and Union Steamship Company of British Columbia. These three companies alone operate over thirty steamers with a total gross tonnage in excess of 60,000 tons." "The ships operated by the other companies comprise both passenger and freight steamers, as wall, as taw boats., and, although  they aye smaller in else than those of the three companies mentioned, they are nany times as nomerous." The large and busy fleet of ships engaged in this coastwise service not only handles all the passenger traffic of the Coast, bat also, In the yearl924, carried well over 1,700,000 tons of general cargo, whilst the traffic in logs and lumber reached a tonnage almost, if not quite, as large as the general cargo." "The tourist trade is becoming of increasing value to these companies, as the scenery along the coast will bear comparison with any in the world, and as previously stated, the accomodation provided for the passengers is of the highest type."^* Comparative Local Coastwise/ " „ AM9K35&W 1921  11,095/390  11,485  Under tha heading of "Local  1922  15,619/526  16,145  Coastwise" are included all  1923  18,336/669  19035  vessels trading in British  1924  17,057/632  17,689  Columbia waters only* Under  1925  17,085/1,027  18,112  the heading of "Foreign  1926  17,148/1,548  18,696  Coastwise"are included all  1927  17,770/1,470  19,240  vessels trading to Paget Sound and AlasRa.  1. Port of Vancouver. Vancouver Harbour Commissioners.  **222 **  The total tonnage of all descriptions, including logs and lumber, moving in and out of the harbour, but excluding movements within the harbour, during 192? amounted to 10,303,257 tons, of which the deep sea. trade accounted for 3,779,013 tons. In the year 1321 the corresponding figure was approximately 3,200,000 tons, of which the deep sea portion was 1,000,000 tons. Of the 1,123 deep-sea vessels entering in 1927,  were of  British register, 327 U.S.A., 155 Japanese, and the balance distributed among otiter countries such as France, Norway, Denmark, Holland, Italy , Germany, etc., all in practically the same proportions as last year, (1926 ( - "a feature which emphasises the regualr character of the 1. business enjoyed by the Port of Vancouver." She Increase of the number of ocean-going vessels entering the Port since 1907 can be Shown by the following table: DeanRM*k jLtaly NOK33?gr BPits e gain 89* B ^ 7 ^ 1909 36 7 20 1 1910 56 10 13 1 27 7 1911 54 4 1 1912 Sy 1 1 37 1 i 4 5 7 1913 $7 l 48 4 1 1 Bo record available 1914 1915 76 115 37 2 «* 1916 102 175 46 14 .. t* 2 1917 87 3 102 34 IS 1 1918 96 146 41 10 2 1 (9 Months) 1919 122 5 3 114 28 17 32 1920 154 9 2 3 150 15 3 1921 190 6 6 190 84 5 4 10 1922 SOS 225 122 25 15 7 3 17 8 1 7 MRB 338 283 129 37 18 1 15 1324 422 293 123 71 19 5 21 11 4 20 27 1925 376 285 147 23 19 11 12 3 17 12 1 1926 430 283 153 63 23 19 21 18 24 5 1927 445 25 24 23 22 18 327 155 54 25 3 1. She Port of Vancouver. Harbor Commissioners Annual Seport, 1927. **  **  ** 223 **  1909 1910 1911 1912 19M, 13IS 1916 1917 1918 1920 1921 1922 1934 1925 1926 1927  HH^g  nsM^am  Begins  ^mt^^a  3  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  <*  -  3 1  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  *  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  1  -  5 2 -  1  2 -  -  7  -  -  -  -  -  2  -  1  -  - -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  1  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  **  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  1 2 1  1 2 -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -*  -  **  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  1 5  3 1  -  -  It ia noteworthy that during the Jorld  -  -  2  in 1914-1918 the  number of ships from the United States entering the Port was considerably store than that of Great Britain. Since the beginning of the World TSar the number of Japanese vessels increased greatly and still continues to increase. French vessels did not fregaent the Port of Vancouver between 1912 and 1919, but their number has greatly increased since the end of tae World Y<Sar. This phenomena is still mariaedly seen in regard to the number of Gezsaan shi^s. Store was no German dMp in the Port during the period between 1914 and 1923, bat during the last five years, their number has considerably increased. The total number of vessels of all classes entering the Port in 1927 was 20,383, bing 598 sore than in 1928, representing an increase in tonnage of 610,889 tons.  — 224' —  Deap-aea aborts amounted to 2,663,013 tona of total cargo, and logs and lumber 484,340,132 board feet, representing a value of $127,155,4% in 1927, against 579,069 tons valued at §49,971,071 in 1921. Local coastwise exports amounted to 580,062 tons of total cargo, and 11,868,127 board feet of logs and lumber, representing a value of $44,326,612 in 1927. Total exports amounted to 3,296,272 tons of total cargo and 585,891,926 board feet of logs and lumber, representing a value of $188,241,488 in 1927. The developing of exports during 1921-1927 may be shornby the following table: Total water-borne Trade of the Port of V&aco ver, B.C., exclusive of Inter-harbour movements. .Exports Local Tons  Year  Local Ima..  1921  276,009  579,089  855,098  1922  310,875  1,091,306  1,402,181  1923  474,427  1,693,770  2,168,199  1924  497,935  2,686,043  3,183,978  1925  553,679  2,046,088  2,600,167  1926  598,914  2,754,598  3,353,512  1927  580,062  2,716,210  3,296,272  Foreign  Deep-sea imports amounted to 1,285,389 tons of total cargo and  - 225*. and  board foot of logs and lumber, representing a value of  3234,251,334 in 1927 against 670,500 tons valued at $102,605,180 in 1921. Local coastwise imports amounted to 3,176,788 tons of total cargo and 943,878,334 board feet of logs aad lumber, representing a value of $53,627,385 in 1927. Foreign coastwise imports amounted to 51,178 tons of total cargo and 7,071,881 board feet of logs and lumber, representing a value of ^6,828,449 in 1927. Total imports amounted to 4,512,761 tons, representing a value of ^294,707,763 in 1927 against 2,351,367 tons valued at $197,406,832 in 1921.. The developing of the imports during the period of 1921-1927 can be shown by the following table: Total water-borne trade of the Fort of Vancouver, B.C., exclusive of inter-harbour movements.  Yeay  Local Tons  Import a  Foreign Tons  Local Tons  1921  1,680,867  670,500  2,351,367  1922  2,207,127  838,500  3,045,627  1923  2,466,391  946,794  3,431,185  1924  2,504,538  1,004,689  3,509,227  1925  2,789,099  1,025,710  3,814,809  1926  3,502,212  1,174,689  4,681,910  1927  3,176,788  1,336,567  4,512,761  226  The Bomber of passengers landed and shipped has increased considerably accordingly to increase ef the number of the vessels entering the Port. The following table shows the passenger traffic since 1921 to 1927. Passenaer Traffic P^eee^JCS.landed passengers shiwed 342,151  339,602  1922  354,100  362,959  1923  421,147  431,739  1^4  404,408  414,470  1925  479,967  485,386  1926  508,661  513,908  1927  478,024  499,148  The following table gives the monthly passenger traffic during 1927:  PaasepgeiLTraffis Passepgpps Shipped  January  18,882  S3 ,280  February  18,661  20,879  ^rch  23,133  23,354  April  30,498  31,128  35,495  34,638  June  55,315  56,998  July  100,027  110,422  227 **  HaaSM  ^ssigassm-LgsM  .shipped  August  73,174  75,401  September  78,832  48.241  October  27,542  28,452  November  21,286  24,189  December  25,901  Total  478,024  25JL48 499,148  It Is seen from the table above that there 1s a seasonal increase in the passenger traffic. From .March to July the number of passengers landed and shipped Is increasing, and after July, is decreasing, the least being In February (18,010 landed and 20,897 shipped) and the most in July (100,027 landed and 110,422 shipped). The explanation of this phenomena is that the fair sussaer weather attracts numerous tourists to Vancouver. %an<mnv$r's Trader Vancouver's foreign trade Airing the fiscal year (1927) amounted to #482,949,251, as compared with $474,954,752 in 1926 and #413,427,868 in 1925, the increase over 1926 amounting to 7,993,754 or 1.6 per cent and over 1325 to #69,520,638 or 16.8 per cent. Imports as well as exports show an improvement over the years from 1%1 to 1927, Imports were in excess of last year's figure, while exports were slightly less. The development of the imports during the period of 1921-1927 can be shown by the following table:  — ggs **  1921  $197,406,832  1922  207,031,629  1923  224,496,277  1924  201,011,919  1925  234,427,574  1926  267,877,255  1927  294,707,763  Exports were such less than imports. The following figures show the development of theexports during the same periods 1921  $ 85,270,046  1922  103,163,809  1923  133.165,453  1924  169,513,963  1925  179,000,294  1926  207,077,497  1927  188,241,488  (k)Hparing the external trade of Vancouver with that of the Dominion we see that the foreign trade of Canada for the fiscal year ended Bar. SI, 1927, amounted to ^2,298,465,647, compared with ^2,256,028,869 In 1926 and $1,878,294,180 In 1925, the Increase over 1926 amounting to $42,436,778 or 1.%, and over 1925 to $420,171,467 or 22.3%. From the comparison above it is seen that Vancouver takes a considerable part in the foreign trade of Canada. In 1927 the foreign  #  trade of Vancouver took 21% of the foreign trade of the Dominion.  - 229 #  The sum #84,949,231 represents the trade of the Port of Vancouver  including the trade with B. C. coast points and with Eastern Canada. In 1928 total exports of Vancouver took 13% of total exports of the Dominion and its total imports 6.5% of total imports of the Dominion. Vancouver is the second port of Canada and the third importing port as seen on the following table: P M .LeadjRg, Poj3.a _pf. .saaaga  .&M&R 1* Montreal  Ewrts  Import?.  Duty collected  #216,947,753 #212,901,307 #35,536,904  2. Toronto  1,921,776  228,015,957  35,687,329  3. Vancouver  116,920,027  69,390,839  12,606,353  4. St. John  79,146,671  21,338,672  4,805,104  5. Halifax  36,404,816  16,303,493  2,646,714  6+ Quebec  17,877,730  15,509,185  2,350,997  3,854,562  8,013,065  1,943,460  8. Bart William 82,047,529  6,689,815  994,365  9. Port Arthur 105,828,148  2,760,979  406,577  7. Victoria  But in the year ending March 1925, 4008 sea going vessels of 7,884,370 tons entered, giving Vancover first rank among the ports of the Dominion. Lumber. The first in order among the natural sources of British Columbia's wealth is the lumbering industry. Lumber is the leading commodity  -230 exported from Vancouver. The foreign export of lumber and logo in 1927 wan 4%,206,258 F.B.M. This figure occupies the second highest place in the history of this trade, that of 1926 being the first. The growth of the export of lumber and logs during the period from 1924 to 1987 has been given as follows: 1924 was with a total of 438,662,770 F.B.M. In 1925 the export total dropped to 381,620,070 F.B.M. , while in 1926 this total rose to 514,796,430 F.B.M. In 1927, lumber was Shi pod to thirty-two different destinations in greater or less quantity. Well over three-fourths of the total foreign lumber export went to Japan and the United States of America, the next highest purchasers being the United Kingdom, with nineteen million feet; Australia, with about the same amount; New Zealand, twelve million feet: South Africa, ten million feet; China, eight and a half million feet. During tae period from 1923 to 1927 the exports of lumber fluctuated between the lowest point 429,592,806 board feet in 1923 to the highest 629,053,309 in 1926. The first place among exporting countries in 1923 and 1924 belonged to Japan with 146,969,496 and 183,866,931 board feet respectively. In 1325 the first place was occupied by the United States but in 1925 and 1927 Sapan moved again into the first place. 265,617,202 board feet taken in 1926 was the highest amount exported by Japan during the period under consideration. The seond place in lumber exports in 1923 and 1927 was occupied by the United States. In 1925 this place was occupied by B. C. Coast P&ints and in 1926 and 1927 the United States again become the second country  - 231  in the exports of lumber. B.C. Coast Points always occupied the third place except year 1925 when they came second. The fourth place always has beam occupied by Australia and New Zealand. China, occupied the fifth place in 1925 bat in 1924 the United Kingdom took this place for three years (1924 - 1926) and was substituted in 1927 by .eastern Canada. The following table shows the exports of logs and lumber by 37 countries in the period of the above mentioned five years*  CouHtEiaa  ,  i9gg  I9g4  1325  19S6  1327  1. Japan  146,969,496 183,866,931 119,581,949 265,617,202 242,835,928  2. U.S.A.  128,482,672 139,958,497 159,275,012 152,255,779 138,644,561  3. B.J. Points 56,959,720 120,377,840 123,275,297 114,256,879 89,683,668 4. Australia & New Zealand 39,097,432 31,230,505 29,365,614 13,815,575 30,827,313 5. China  17,865,642 21,575,026 11,341,218  6. N. K.  16,616,510 30,196,713 22,586,851 18,761,749 19,003,430  3,672,027  8,560,887  7 ;East.Canada  7,710,881 10,708,848 13,519,518 18,092,736 25,454,019  7. S. Africa  5,674,606  7,397,747  5,952,997 10,512,332 10,098,880  9. India  3,967,121  4,155,411  5,331,404  10. Hawaii  2,596,323  958,505  26,498  11. Fiji  2,042,127  1,830,631  2,285,760  12. Mexico  776,566  -  13. Cuba  492,777  -  14. Philippines  211,782  -  15. Prance  53,182  103,762  248,550 2,347,350 -  348,444  1,537,507 -  3,342,417 -  1,261,523 15,392 465,800  1,036,055 892,525 1,624,835 -  446,066 919,633  Countries  1925  Siberia  1925  13:6  49,917 101,774  17. Holland  29,030  998,293  90,242  571,404  18. Norway  134,601  1,200  1$. Peru  124,217  49,098  18,343  1,570,890  497,890  102,600  20. Strait Settlements  64,713  -  -  21. Martinique  51,394  105,914  401,503  490,327  22. Germany  41,444  248,826  342,740  3,544,303  23. Belgium  20,320  352,917  599,229  303,173  24. Italy  20,005  103,372  244,895  758,089  4,826 1,853,712 1128,866  3,155,811  25. Ifrinidad 26. Argentine  -  611,158  27. Brazil  -  602,099  28. E^ypt  -  39.^%tatemala  -  65,111  30. Arctic  -  61,323  31. Dutch W. Indies  -  29,012  -  12,732 1116,424  32. British W. Indies  -  166,384 -  4032,689 1475,980 -  171,403 -  33. Vensznela  -  -  9,676  34. Sweden  -  -  13,200  35. Columbia  -  -  136,512  36. Denmark  -  -  53,893  37. British GuianO  -  -  69,393  Total  55,716  99,638 -  -  -  40,641 -  803,730 597,888 -  370,737 -  22,623  429,592,606 553030610 507895367 629053309 585891926 '  ' , ,  - ggg Fish Next in order among the principal eomaodities exported from Vancouver is figh. Canned fish is exported chiefly to the following countries, in order of importance* United Kingdom, Germany, France, Australia, Italy, the number of cases consigned t<S these countries ranging from one hundred and eighty-five thousand to two hundred and eighty-four thousand cases. The total export amounted In 1927 to 1,657,838 cases. The exports of canned fish in the preceding years were as following: in 1925-— 1,652,806 cases and in 1928 — 1,303.291 cases. The greater bulk of the salt and dried fish is shipped to China and Japan. In 1927 about 32,000 tons went to the former and 16,500 tons to the latter. Canned fish went in 1925 —  1927 to 67 countries. The first place  a ong them steadily was occupied by the United Kingdom. The second place was occupied in 1925 and 1927 by France, Egiich was substituted by Australia in 1326. The thrid place was occupied by the latter country in 1925 and 1927. Italy was the fourth exporter of eanned fish during the whole period of time under consideration. Eastern Canada iaas the fifth purchaser and New Zealand the sixth. The following table shows the exports of canned fish by 87 countries mentioned above during the period of three years ( 1925 -- 1927 ). It is interesting to note that China and Japan being the chief purchaser of salt and dried fish do not buy canned fish.  - 234*.  Reports of Canned Fish Shown in Cases by Countries daring the Period of Three Years - (1925 - 1927} CaBa&Kiaa  1925  1926  1927  1. United Kingdom  441,119  254,926  234,076  2. France  370,711  213,381  234,045  3. Australia  206,581  267,145  222,748  4. Italy  119,582  109,192  185,073  5. Eastern Canada  82,799  94,331  105,331  6. New Sealand  64,728  67,015  42,205  7. South Africa  48,042  44,858  44,515  a. Belgium  42,544  40,596  14,917  9. Chile  30,342  23,409  24,047  10. U. S. A.  24,208  18,156  17,190  11. W. Africa  23,538  22,040  39,459  12. Fiji  21,969  10,844  23,407  13. Philippines  21,500  14. Straits Settlements  18,163  19,835  29,396  13. China  12,657  3,0%  2,035  16. Java  11,692  4,565  13.702  17. Holland  11,453  9,503  9,367  18. British W.Indies  9,403  14,677  19. India  8,519  3,891  7,911  20. Peru  8,485  8,102  7,303  21. 2&rpt  7,830  4,422  6,475  22. Venezuela  7,469  8,128  8,615  7.  3,200  -  Countries 33. Bast Africa  **249 ** 1925 6,643  24^ Ecuador  6,547  3,505  6,125  25. Dutch W. Indies  5,523  912  241  2$. Mexico  4,846  7,638  3,500  27. Colombia  3,993  4,563  7,992  26. Trinidad  3,282  3,3.17  6,986  29. Martinique  3,051  30. Greece  2,615  9,810  7,211  31. British Guiana  1,643  2,075  1,081  32. Dutch Guiana  1,600  670  300  33. Germany  1,357  1,626  240,645  34. Cuba  1,248  4,094  2,550  35. Panama  960  3,241  2,192  3b . Haiti  855  255  37. Salta  550  1,105  643  30. Sweden  478  766  273  39. Guatssaala  470  304  250  40. Denmark  447  1,500  668  41. Algeria  425  100  42. Gibraltar  425  25  43. Morocco  350  14  44. Mioaragua  310  1,115  651  45. Canary Islands  300  755  1,371  46. British Honduras  160  239  -  47. Spain  195  25  -  46. Persia  165  -  9  1926 100  -  .1927 611  -  -  -  137 -  ** 236 —  132?  poimtr^B  100  49. Nbraay  100  50. Bolivia  100  607  51. Arabia  95  75  52. Salvador  60  120  115  53. Argentine  50  1,250  2,419  54. M^yopotamlan  25  152  100  9  3,234  55. Porto Rica  1,745  56. Japan  3,538  3,957  57. Palestine  1,830  266  58. Costa Rica  800  320  59. Syria  375  350  60. Tonga Islands  321  75  61. miaiy  200  62. French W. Indies  100  63. Bast Africa  100  611  64. Cook's Island  120  80  65. British Borneo  100  300  66. Cypress  72  67. Belgian Congo  25  68. Dutch East im*ia  25  69. French Indo China  20  70. Siam  25  71. Turkey  30  72. Sicily  350  100  3,343  -237 -  1^6  132?  73. Jamaica  -  -  4,935  74. Barbadoes  -  -  2*300  -  155  75. Dominican Bepubllc 76. Irish Free Stats  -  -  750  77. Czocho-Slovakia  -  -  100  78. Bahamas  -  -  25  79. St. Kits  -  -  45  80. Russia  -  -  20  81. San Domingo  -  0  100  82. New Guinea  -  -  245  Total  1,652,806  1,303,291  1,657,338  In 1925-27 salt and dried fish went to 16 countries, which are shown on the following table: gSBSSaa.Rf-^t.^3 Dried 3iLCom*2ies frpm_the PQ^.of V w o u y ^ J L ^ S - 1922. Countries  1925 Taas  1926 T.ohs  1927 Haas  1. Japan  20,165  24,140  16,521  2. China  18,915  25,889  31,986  3. C. S. A.  567  56  259  4. Germany  91  27  277  5. Australis  65  53  31  6. U. K.  18  127  25  3  1  7. New Zealand  -  238 -  Cmmtriga  Ig&S  19§3  1927  8. Fiji  2  1  2  9. British W. Indies  1  10. Sweden  -  23  11. Norway  -  18  12. Holland  -  17  13. Belgium  -  6  14. Denmark  -  -  14,  15. Dutch Bast Indies  -  -  1  Total  39,827  50,347  23  49,139  .9X3,In; Grain is t e next commodity exported from Vancouver. The port  ^  had its birth as a grain-shipping port in 1921, when one and a half million bushels passed through for United Kingdom ports and Japan. The amount of grain shipped through the port during the calendar year 1927 was 43,552,210 bushels. 43,229,903 bushels were exported in 1926. The chief purchesers of this oomm&dity are the following countries, in the order mentioned: United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, Holland, France, Italy, Belgium, China, and Sweden. The number of bushels consigned to these countries in 1925-27 is shown by the following table:  ,1,925 United Kingdom  1936  1927  18,502,880  21,934,342  18,066,974  Japan  6,817,340  11,887,567  7,826,511  China  4,436,672  2,933,429  1,321,670  Sweden  1,304,067  898,049  1,023,890  Belgium  1,224,926  1,800,785  1,453,693  France  661,567  718,666  2,552,322  Italy  468,344  637,900  2,552,090  Germany  446,667  277,493  2,971,500  Denmark  322,901  330,228  530,132  Norway-  205,334  517,999  181,812  Peru  186,066  427,290  433,264  Holland  103,064  660,798  2,944,432  Local Points  92,436  220,940  219,320  Malta  37,333  76,033  327,466  New Zealand  24,163  300,020  Philippines  21,298  24,326  14,767  Colombia  7,500  29,140  198,903  Australia  3,300  169,212  U* S. A.  1,666  47,311  -  -  6,437  Straits Settlements  502  Eastern Canada  166  4,950  -  Argentine  -  7,765  -  Brazil  -  88,633  -  -  -  - 240 RWintriee  1925  192$  1927  British -est Indies  -  255  Fiji  -  133  59  Gibraltar  -  164,000  603,399  a&xico  -  210,110  1,352  Panama  -  242,900  Spain  -  231,233  Switzerland  -  336,733  Trinidad  -  45,886  50,163  Jamaica  -  -  2,283  Nicaragua  -  -  2,524  Venezuela  -  -  56,847  Total  34,868,192 45229906  43,602,210  Flour shipments amounted in 1927 to 126, 053 tons, which, indicates an increase of 23,000 tons as compared with the exports of the preceding year. The balk of this commodity goes to China and Japan. , in 1927 the former consumed 60,932 tons and the latter 36,096 tons. The number of tons exported from Vancover by the different countries during the last three years (1925-1927) is show by the following Table:  - Ml  Countries  1J323  2=3&6  1927  China  60,865  69,541  60,932  Japan  8,075  7,810  36,096  Eorway  5,490  6,612  7,214  U. K.  5,051  9,462  6,430  U. S. A.  556  2,667  654  Philippines  454  2,627  2,713  Italy  221  New Zealand  119  801  Arctic  80  80  -  Peru  25  1  -  Australia  19  -  -  Fiji  4  10  30  Trinidad  -  1,642  2,015  British West Indies  801  64  Straits Settlemente  258  145  184 2,780  Belgium  -  132  Germany  -  68  355  61  49  French W. Indies  -  Chile  -  64  -  Salvador  -  30  -  Sweden  -  23  Russia  -  11  1,666 86  ** cammm  "i*  i^s  .1926  1927  Jamaica  -  -  3,551  ColoaRla  *  -  412  Denmark  -.  -  368  Eathonia  -  -  127  "  123  103,146  126,053  l&rtinique Total  80,959  Apples* Apples are exported In considerable quantities from Vancouver. In 1924 the shipment of this commodity amounted to 150,000 boxes, in 1925 - to 199,895 boxes, in 1926 - to 284,912 boxes and In 1927 to 210,605 boxes. The chief consumer of this commodity is the United Kingdom - above 50 per cent. The second place is occupied by New Zealand - 20 per cent. The third place is occupied by China, and the fourth purchaser is the Philippines. The following table shows the exports of apples during the last three years. The export of fruit from the Port of Vancouver is a present comparatively insignificant, yet there are great possibilities for t&* expansion ef this trade* In 1924 the total value of fruit produced, tributary to Vancouver, was approximately $5,420,000, of which $3,610,000 represented apples and $1,1150000 represented small fruits. The Industry is steadily expanding and the prospects for future prosperity look very promising.  -257*.  Countries  1923  1926  1927  United Kingdom  109,407  199,794  118,322  New Zealand  44,402  36,870  35,645  China  13,232  10,757  19,210  Philippines  12,512  19,022  7,848  Sweden  11,874  3,699  Holland  4,590  11,997  18,772  GenHaxgr  2,998  1,500  700  Fiji  795  557  532  Japan  44  India  41  -  -  **  106  120  Norway  -  600  7,200  U. 3* A*  -  10  544  Denmark  -  -  1,512  Hawaii  **  -  200  Total  199,895  284,912  210,605  Fj,^ Oil ^d,,Fish Fish oil and fish ^al are the commodities tshose manufacture has recently developed to considerable proportions and promises to become an important addition to the manufacturing industries of Vancouver* The amount of fish (pilchard) oil in 1926 was 1,163,378 gallons and that of fish meal - 7,120 tons.  -244 The eomaodities are exported to the United Kingdom and to Japan and China. PR&B,aad. Paja&s. Palp and paper are shipped to New Zealand. Australia and Japan. Pulp export amounted in 1926 to 22,483 tons as compared with 10,012 tons in 1985. Paper went in 1325 to the amount of 8,407 tons and in 1926 - 8,800 tons. ig?3A.93d x.iaa. Lead and sine are the chief mineral products exported from Vancouver. In 1926 lead was shipped to the amount of 76,421 tons and in 1927 - 101,583 tons. The first place among tho purchasers has been occupied by the United Kingdom. In 1926 the export to this country amounted to 31,454 tons, or 41% of total export and in 1927 to 41,354 tons, or 40.7%. She second chief purchaser of lead is Japan. The following table shows the exports of lead by countries in the period of 1926-27. Exports of le ad - Show- ih tana poultries  1926  192?  United Kingdom  31,454  41,354  Japan  25,652  33,693  Holland  4,425  7,812  China  4,353  4,019  France  3,401  1,901  Germany  3,304  5,369  Belgium  1,456  2,128  - 245 SPHRtries Italy  1926 1,661  1927 860  Denmark  448  Brazil  112  . S6  3aesia  84  3,447  Pern  28  29  Eastern Canada  25  -  Australia  12  -  West Africa  6  -  Norway  -  728  A3^entine  -  224  Sweden  -  112  Uruguay  -  07  Colombia  -  56  New Zealand  -  28  Total  76,421  -  101,363  Sine shipments have considerably developed daring the last years* in 1927 the xports of this oomnodity amounted to 51,540 tons. 12,366 tons went to the United Kingdom, 11,437 tens to Germany and 9,395 to Japan. Daring last two years (1926-1927} the exports of zinc were as follows:  - 246 Agg  1927  United Kingdom  11,300  12,366  Japan  10,628  2,395  Germany  5,065  11,437  Belgium  2,449  5,061  Holland  1,961  6,569  France  1,925  1,749  Argentine  1,793  224  Russia  1,123  3,385  Italy  672  258  China  433  208  India  235  -  Coiosa&ia  -  Sweden  *  Total  37,584  672 224 51,548  geographical DistrjbutiQRjaf Vancouver Trade by Countries . The geographical situation of Vancouver is the chief factor influencing its trade. The countries surrounding the Pacific Ocean are the leading customers of Vancouver, Japan, China, the United States, and Australia Ming the principal ones. B. C. C oast points and the United Kingdom, of course, take an outstanding part, too. The geography of Vancouver's trade is more conspicuous in imports. The  * 24? Pacific countries predominate in this kind of trade. For the most part Vancouver is the only Canadian port trading with these countries. Thus the whole trade of Canada with Japan, China, A ustralia and Hew Zealand, Fiji, India, and the Biilippines practically goes through the port of Vancouver. The leading countries in imports are arranged in the following order of importance: 1. Japan, 2. T he United States, 3. the United Kingdom, 4. China, 5. Australia and New Zealand, 6. Eastern Canada, 7. Fiji, 8. India, 9. Belgium, 10. Argentine, 11. Holland, 12. Brazil, 15. Trinidad, 14. Germany, and 15. Philippines. Trade with Eastern Canada, the United Kingdom and other Boropean Countries goes through the Panama Canal. The latter is of the greatest importance for Vancouver and its beneficiary influence is becoming still greater. Thus a very gratifying feature of the last years' trade was the continued expansion of both import and export business between Vancouver and Eastern Canada and Europe via the Panama Canal. Especially the trade with Eastern Canada increased considerably as shown by the following comparative figures: 1924 Exports to Eastern Canada  20,473 tons  1925  "  27,955  *  "  40,340  "  "  1927  "  "  "  1924 Imports from Eastern Canada 25,837 tons 1925  "  "  "  "  28,583  "  192g  "  "  "  "  35,978  *  Although lumber is included in the above figures, the comparative exports of this product for three years mentioned will be interesting:  - 248 1924 Iamber exported to Eastern Canada 10,708,848 F.B.M. 1925  "  M  w  a  w  13,519,318  "  1986  *  "  "  "  "  18,093,736  "  The Panama Canal made a short way to Earope and all the Old Uorld. So the Port of Vancouver Is now Offering great opportunities amd advantages as the Pacific doorway to the Dominion of Canada and a strategically situated shipping point on the highway to said from the markets of the world. Japan occupies the first place in trade with Vancouver. In 1937 this trade amounted to #182,114,875, furnishing 50.4% pf total external trade of the Port of Vancouver. B. C. Coast Points occupy the second plaee. Their total in 1937 amounted to $110,386,765 or 22.8% of total trade of the Port of Vancouver^ The next leading country is the Uhited Kingdom whose trade with Vancouver in 1927 amounted to $53,541,500 or 11% of the total trade of the Port of Vancouver. The United States of America occupies the fourth plaee, their trade amounting, 1927, to $28,340,535 or 5.8%. China occupies the fifth place. Its trade in 1927 amounted to $28,310,357 or 5.7% . Eastern Canada is the sixth in this order, the trade amounting to $10,911,443 or 2.2%. The seventh place is occupied by Australia with which the trade a^aoumted in 1927 to )13,527,795 or 2.1% of the total trade of the Port of Vancouver. There are 67 countries engaged in trade with Vancouver. The rest of the leading countries come in the following order of importance:  Hank  Countries  Value of  249  8# GeatMny  Value of 17. Gibraltar  $1,158,558  6.521,770  18. Argentine  1,052,773  10* Belgiur,  5,395,356  19. Colombia  1,002,461  11* ^*rance  5,189,6%  20. Trinidad  954,096  4,553,456  21. Straits Settlements 852,2%  13. Fiji  4,479,070  22. Peru  821,920  14. Philippines  2,113,845  23. Russia  804,922  13* Sweden  1,673,208  24. Denmark  744,419  16. India  1,522,794  23. Tahiti  741,488  New Zealand  Italy  24. nuTsay  716,177  Nzwtn W cptMatries? Vancouver Is exporting to 74 countries. In 1927 the first place among them belong to B. C. Coast Points which consume 30.1% of Vancouver's exports. The second, to the United Kingdom - 17.9%, the third to Japan - 14.8%, the fourth to China - 8.4%, and the fifth to the United States of American, which consumes 4.2% of Vancouver's total exports. The exporting countries may be arranged in the following order, according to the value of their trade: Rank  Countries Value of ____________ Trade  Rank  Countries  Value of  1. B.C.Coast Points 56,759,330  6. Australia  7,238,365  2. The United King. 33,825,752  7. Germany  6,663,264  3. Japan  27,631,806  8. France  4,719,191  4. China  12,177,996  9. Italy  4,358,572  8,043,177  10. Belgium  3,340,732  5. U. S. A.  - 250*.  Value of Exports  RanS  11.  Eastern Canada 2,939,188  933*  Value of ,  36. Brit.W. Indies  tal,202  12. New Zealand  2,814,758  37. Hawaii  56,778  is. HMlippines  1,576,404  38. Greece  36,977  14. Sweden  1,448,144  39. Egypt  34,584  15. Gibmltar  1,158,558  40. Newfoundland  31,260  15. Russia  804,922  41. Ecuador  29,037  17. Colombia  788,457  42. Mexico  19,863  16. Tahiti  741,488  43. Martinique  18,746  19. Denn&rk  740,256  44. Sicily  16,139  20. Norway  704,710  45. Cuba  11,916  21. Peru  675,227  46. Panama  11,418  22. South Africa  483,145  47. Bolivia  8,585  25. BMta  435,326  48. Brit. Guiana  7,854  24. Jamaica  326,514  49. Nicaragua  7,118  25. Fiji  302,094  50. C anary Islands  7,048  26. Trinidad  293,183  51. Irish Free State  5,250  27. West Africa  217,194  52. West Indies  4,771  26. Arctic  215,649  53. Brazil  4,148  29. Straits Settle.  205,663  55. French Indo China 4,020  30. Venezuela  136,354  3,268  31. Chile  112,735  56. ^.st Africa a 57. muritius  32. Java  90,867  58. Dutch Guiana  2,734  S3. Esthonia  74,309  86. Uruguay  2,458  34. Argentine  67,927  60. Costa Rica  1,604  35. India  65,522  61. Syria  1,695  3,099  - 233.  a&ajS  StHmtri99  62+ Borneo  Value of .^^SPPg&gL. 1,411  .Hank  Countries  value of Rxpox-tp  69. Slam  624  63. Bath E. Indies 1,687  70. Cseeho-S!ovakia  598  64. Palestine  71. Tongo Island  592  65. Duth W. Indies 1,295  72. Coo&'s Islands  461  66. Hew Guinea  1,200  73. Hejopotamia  446  67. Guatemala  1,195  74. Baminlcan BepublLc 229  Salvador  1,407  647  (AmN?al Report. Vancouver Harbour Commissioners).  la the last five years B. 0. Coast Points have occupied the first place aamng exporting countries except in 1^4 when this place was occupied by the United Kingdom. The second place during these five years w s occupied by the United Kingdom except 1924, Japan was always the third, China the fourth, and the United States of America fifth, and Australia the sixth. The seventh place was occupied in 1923 by Mexico, in 1924 and 1925 by France, and in 1925 by Belgium and in 1927 by Germany. The latter country has an interesting history in this respect. In 1923 it occupied the thirty first place. Export to this country amounted at that time to #7,959. In 1924 Germany moved Into the twenty second place and export to it amounted to #321,732, in 1925 into the eleventh, When export amounted to $1,661,558; in 1926 into the tenth with export amounting to $1,714,691 and at last in 1927 it was the seventh and export to it amounted to $6,663,264. This increase of trade of Germany was because of the improvement in economic conditions after the war and revolution.  - 252*.  Daring the lest five years (1922-1927) the exports of domestic produce in general Show an increase. T he exports to the B. C. Coast Point fluctuated having their maximum §57,145,863, in 1926, and their minimum ^39,217,980 in 1924. The exports to the United Kingdom started from $20,671,868 in 1923 and reached $33,825,752 in 1927 having their maximum $45,078,311 in 1924. The export to Japan steadily increased from ^20,857,011 in 1923 to $37,054,419 An 1926, hut there was a decrease from 1926 to 1927 amounting to $9,422,61$. The exports to China increased f m m 1923 to 1925 having reached the highest point of $17,831,647 and than decreased. Vancouver is, undoubtedly, the gateway to the Orient, and in view of the developing trade with Japan and China, as well as with Australia, it would be difficult to exaggerate its importance in this respect. T he exports to Gernapy steadily increased from #7,959 in 1923 to $6,663,264 in 1927. A similar increase also was in the exports both to Italy and Eastern Canada. She exports to the former country started from $594,704 in 1923 and reached #4,358,372 in 1927. That to the latter country increased from $653,881 in 1923 to ^2,939,188 in 1927. The exports to France fluctuated between the minimum #2,107,325 in 1923 to the maximum #4,719,191 in 1927. The exports to the Ihilippines steadily increased from 1923 to 1926, and slightly decreased from 1926 to 1927. In 1923 the export to this country amounted to $422,653 and in 1926 to $1,588,413, this figure being the highest in tha period under consideration. The exports to Sweden increased from 1923 to 1925 and then decreased in 1927. In 1923 the exports amounted to $64,775 and in 1925 to $2,136,246.  as; '*  *- 253 She following table shows the changing of exports by leading countries daring the period 1983 - 1927. ^SESFtA^SL^Leadlng Couatrigg CpRKtllRS  1923  1924  1925  1926  B.C.Coast Points 42,211^67 39,217,980 49,714,336 57,145,863 56,759,380 United Kingdom  20,671,868 45.078,311 39,551,316 43,471,347 33,825,752  Japan  20,857,011 24,064,753 26,521,191 37,054,419 27,631,806  China  13,645,811 16,819,647 17,831,647 16,905,121 12,177,996  U. S. A.  13,112,853 11,225,832 14,078,385 11,340,153 8,043,177  Australia  -  -  6,924,237 8,934,741 7,238,665  321,732 1,661,558 1,714,691 6,663,264  Germany  7,959  France  2,107,325 4,361,928 3,446,230 2,930,027 4,719,191 594,704 1,350,000 1,436,127 1,381,703 4,358,572  Italy Belgium Eastern Canada New Zealand Philippines Sweden  1,324,441 3,904,043 2,515,363 3,626,944 3,340,723 653,881 1,118,329 2,026,700 2,889,365 2,939,188 -  422,653 64,775  -  3,133,579 4,085,989 2,814,758  769,266 1,349,881  1588,413 1,576,404  788,811 2,136,246 1,381,069 1,443,144  As far as Australia is concerned there is no figures in the Report by Harbour Comsiss loners, but% they are combined with that for the exports So New Zealand. If we combine similarly the figures for these countries in 1925 and next years we get the following table illustrating the exports:  - 2M -  ty Australia and New Z^ala^d 1923  $ 9,649,312  1924  10,537,441  1925  10,087,816  1926  13,020,730  1927  10,053,723.  iMPOPtg W Thirty-nine countries took their share in  Vancouver's  imports in 1927. The first place among than belonged to Japan whose imports amounted to $154,483,069 or 66.^ of Vancouver's foreign imports. The seond place occupied B. 0. Coast Points whose imports amounted to #53,627,385 or 18.1% of total Vancouver's foreign imports. The fourth importer was the United Kingdom with $19,715,748 or 7.3% and the fifth was China - ^16,132,361 or 6.8%. All importing countries may be arranged in the order of importance as follows: Rank  Countries  1. Japan  Value of Imports 154,483,069  Rank  Countries  Value of Imports  9. Australia  3,289,130  10.Belgium  2,054,624  2. B.C.Points  53,627,385  3. U. S. A.  20,297,358  11. Argentine  984,846  4. United Kingdom  19,716,748  13. Holland  975,686  5. China  16,12B,361  14. Brazil  664,552 660,913  6. Eastern Canada  7,972,255  15. Trinidad  7. Fiji  4,176,976  16. Straits Stttlem,. 646,634  8. New Zealdnd  3,707,012  12. India  1,457,272  - 255*. Rank  Countries  Value of imports  Hank  &  Countries  Value of Imports  17. Germany  644,962  30. Panama  25,917  18. Philippines  537,441  31. Arctic  21,365  19. France  470,507  as. South Africa  17,443  20. Deepsea fisheries 400655  33. Venezuela  16,946  21. Hawaii  384,438  34. Norway  11,467  22. Sweden  225,064  35. Guatemala  23. Colombia  214,004  SS. Dutch East Indies 7,883  24. Italy  194,884  37. Salvador  7,315  25. Cuba  181,400  38. Denmark  4,183  Peru  146,693  39. Switzerland  27. Jamaica  146,667  28. Spain  105,631  29. Java  86,307  Total  8,419  566.  $394,707,018  Doping last five years Japan has occupied the first place amongst Vancouver importers. The imports by this country have increased with exception of 1924, ahen there seas a temporary decrease. The second place among the importers has belonged to B. C. Coast Points, whose imports increased from 1923 to 1926 and only in 1927 was there a decrease amounting to $7,813,014. The third place in 1923 was occupied by China, in 1324, 1925, and 1926 by the United Kingdom and in 1927 by the United States, The fourth place belonged In 1923, 1924 and 1925 to the United States, in 1926 to China, and in 1927 to the United Kingdom. The fifth place tssas occupied in 1923 by the United States,  in 1924 and 1925 by China, in 1926 by the United States and In 1927 by China. The imports by the United States have steadily been increasing from 1923 to 1927. The imports by the United Kingdom fluctuated from $18,565,504 in 1923 to $19,716,748 with a naximam amounting to #23,717,520 in 1926. The imports by China were changed irregularly. The highest figures occured in 1923 When Chinese imports amounted to $23,251,612 and the lowest $9,188,722 in 1984. T he reason for the low imports by China in 1924 and 1925 was the civil war of that time. The imports by Australia and New Sealand reached the highest point in 1336 when the value of the imports amounted to $8,580,710. Imports by both Belgium, and Holland have steadily been increasing up to the present time. The imports by Belgium increased from $415,189 in 1923 to 32,054,624 in 1927. The details of the changing of the imports by the leading countries during five years, 1923-27 can be seen by the foil wing table:  1923 Japan  1334  1925  1326  1927  102,594,488 86,537,817 106,344,109 113,150,933 154,483,069  B.C.Points  40,639,924 40,837,736 49,362,254 61,440,399 53,627,385  C. S. A.  16,120,001 16,189,550 17,018,167 18,914,588 20,297,358  United King.  18,565,504 20,845,325 19,685,903 23,717,520 19,716,748  China  23,251,612 9,188,722 14,685,885 20,044,207 16,132,361  Eastern Canada  968,643 5,687,483  6,267,459  9,521,627  7,972,255  Fiji  133,985  2,197,401  1,444,580  4,176,976  527,675  - 257*.  1923  New Zealdnd & Australia  1924  1925  1926  1927  5,566,287 8,034,136 7,888,142 8,580,710 6,996,142  Belgium  415,189  India  743,296 1,134,147 1,662,121 2,054,624  3,178,320 2,719,916 2,544,445 2,225,305 1,457,272  Argentine  -  Holland  223,130  Brazil  -  Trinidad  -  Straits Settle.  382,326  215,022  46,284  165,025  984,846  299,320  531,717  741,461  975,686  226,742  519,821  213,416  664,552  -  422,788  660,913  199,994  550,333  771,507  646,634  -  Germany  158,253  132,363  232,367  431,888  641,962  Philippines  370,655 1,176,121  514,114  296,806  537,441  Feance  242,074  80,790  62,413  99,494  470,507  Deep Sea Fisheries 122,692  67,334  91,637  84,242  400,655  The city of Vancouver is a financial centre for the tshola Canadian Pacific North West including even the province of Alberta. It is due to the geographical situation of the city and to its considerable population. "For many years it has been known as one of the centres for distribution of investment securities, both Canadian and foreign, bat latterly it has been remarkable for providing, of its own resources, the major portion of money required to finance the development of local industries and enterprises"^ #  Industrial Survey, 1927. City of 7 ncouver.  -256 -  The geographical distance of the city from the centres of banking has resulted in a self-reliant and ambitions effort at financial independence of Vancouver. It is recognised that local deposits are sufficient enough to provide far all normal requirements and for a considerable expansion of business. All large banks of Canada have their branches In Vancouver. Thus  Canadian Bank of Commerce has 20 branches. Royal Bank of Canada  " 17  "  Bank ef Montreal  " 12  "  Bank of Toronto  *  4  "  Bank of nova Scotia  "  4  "  Imperial Bank of Canada  *  3  "  Dominion Bank  "  1  "  OookThos. and Son  "  1  "  Total  62  Bank clearings in Vancouver can be shown by the following table Bank Clearings Ten yearly totals from 1808 to 1928, inclusive 1898  $ 8,414,923  1908  183,083,446  1918  545,368,714  1928  ?  -259 -  Education Illiteracy. The result of the census of 1921 with regard to literacy furnish most encouraging evidence of the progressive elimination of illiteracy in Vancouver. The rate of progeess shewn in the ease of the younger groups ought to mean that the practical extinction of illiteracy in Canada is in si#tt. As far as literacy of adult population is concerned, there were in the province of British Columbia in 1921, exclusive of Indians, 318,831 persons 21 years of age and over, ef ^hom 14,296 or 4.48% were unable to " read and write." But is was not a high percentage. A comparison with other Canadian Provinces indicate that the highest percentage of illiteracy {8.57%} for this class of the population was in Sew Brunswick, followed by Quebec with 7.97% and *&nitoba with 7.70% illiterate. In the city of Vancouver percentage of adult Canadian bom population was very low - 0.28. The proportion of that 10 - 20 years of age totally illiterate was 0.35. A comparison with other ganadian cities shows that Vancouver is one of the leading centres in literacy. So percentage of illiteracy in Montreal is 3.21, in Quebec 3.34 and in Hall, Que. 8.94. She latter is the highest percentage of illiteracy among all Canadian cities and towns of 10,000 population and over. The following table shows the illiteracy of the cities and towns mentioned above in detail.  M  an M 03 O M O 01 t-* a to tO Oi o -3 M  H O H H tO tD  *  o  O CO <3 (0 ^ M t-* H h-* an CD M ^ <# . to 63 ^ 63 -3 CD tO CD CD )-<  ^ ea CP CO  M m  63 a to O M M M  o  O 03  t-< ^ H M  tO 63 M 63  *  an  CO a to ^  !  M a O  t  . 03 CD  ^ M -3 a^ M  33  !  -3 CO 63  ro h-< o H O  t  ^ o  sO H <M CO  ^  -3  a CO 03  ^ * H -3  * 0) 63  H M CJi CD W O 63 )-* i-" M <b3 -C M h-* * * an O CD H Co M tO c c M O O ^ 03 -c CD H * 0 -3 tO tO o*  M O  H M  tO 00 tO ^ an t-j ^  -3 H CD M *  #  -a CD  o  M tO  M t-* * 00 -a  )  M to )  *  63 to ^ O M o *  -3 V t-* M 63 tO ^ <3 t-< CD O 03 63 M M M * a -O O (?! O^ M 63 M M M  63 O^ CD 03 M )-*  O -4! tO O! M + tO W-* t^ tO CO CP W o h-* o  M + M H  O CO  CO  ^ CO CD ^  M o SO CD -a  M O ^ M *  M  C^ O! 03 tO M o w t-<  * M M  H 03 CO M ^ )-* M cn to #  CO  M h-* * C!  t-< <y CO o w M W M t—< }—'  M 03 #  tO CD M O O V  }-*  M H CD H + O Co  CD O -C M  W t^  -3 CD  63 * 63 ^ tO }—t to  t  *  63 a M CO  an  H W CD  *  <  63 an  Os  an  #  *  #  M tO  tO CO ^  M  t-* 63  63 O to -3  *  t-<  -a m  63 CD W M O to H CD W # 63 M  ^ o CO to  H tO CD an  t-< O CD (-j #  (-*  CD  M  an  +  *  *  03 -3  CD CD CD  a CD Ui  t-< CO M ^  tO M 03 tO CD <  M M a M t 03 -3 O! M H h-* * t-< M CD -3 -3 *  *  ^ crs ro  H M O  )—^  M V CD -O  M  tO  03  *  *  -3 a CD CD  CO 63 CO o* t-* m  M M  M 63 CO  M  (  *  *  !  M  9 t^ 63 M O  an  t-* W O^ tO ^  M tD -3  CD M  CJt M  )-<  >  t^ O +  O a  )-*  M  M M h-*  O P t-* O  H t-" c+ O h! P c+ (5  W H W Wc+ (P ^ P c&  <-3 O c+ p H S O a  Ci E s p p* HP P td o  ^  M O h!  t-t  ^  }-<  H* c+ (D ^ P c+ CQ  o ct* P  O a  H H O t-< P M M 0 ca  )-*  o c+ P  M an  *  CD 63  H O c+ P  63 O  63 tO  H  w CD o  *  -a --3 CD  *  M 63  M  #  t-* 63 t^s CD OS  to CO  O M  ca  M H 63 -CO CD 00 ^ (7) t-< -3 CO CD  t-' t-* CD M  M CTs  03 . tO 63 M M t-< O <33 to o M  CD CD CD -a o M r^ M  M  * CD  +  M M Oi tO 63 + M CD  !  tO *  CD tO <0 M CD w  o c& hi  CD  . * Oi CD t-*  CD  #  W W W Hc+ CD ^ P clO  t-" CO y  o  P ^ CD 3 tr+ta  O ^ CD  3 63 O ^ P 3  <T) O t-t tdP 3 ! -< h!3 o ]—< a <rh W* O P CD M c+ hj CD ^ P c+ h! t-3 C& O rfcn o P p 3 w o b CD a t-< h! O H O H3 a O p C+ h"c+ h! (D ^ CD O & ^ ^ c+ P c+ CD O c+ O P3 H t-' w CD h-' CO n  rj B CT* CD ^ P 3 p. ^  o ^  o CD 3 o H) t-.. W }-* )-.. c+ CD ^ P ca t-* o M CD P h! 03 o t-^J p 03 CD P 3 p^ o CD ^ P <1 HC3  - 261*.  nLMmtary  SepOH&agR-Asa&SjB&s.  An historical summary of the enrolment and average attendance In publicly controlled schools in Vancouver from 1914 to 1928 may be shown as fellows: The figures talaan from Twenty-fifth Annual Report for the Year ending December 31,1927. Published by Board of school Trustees. Ygarg  Years,  lihrolment  1914  13,313  1921  19,053  1913  13,183  1922  19,485  1916  13,805  1923  19,649  1917  15,069  1924  20,283  1918  15,849  1925  20,845  1919  16,953  19S6  21,001  1920  17,933  1927  21,940  1929  36,489 (after amalgamation of three manicipallties).  Growth of school attendance of Vancouver Metropolitan area has been as follows:  1918 15,849  19gl 19,053  1924 19,877  883  1,372  1,595  4,702  6,684  7,366  8,590  Point Grey  1,226  2,315  3,472  5,012  Bumaby  1,388  2,282  2,854  3,796  ubst Vancouver Bmiclpality 200  380  510  790  351  569  666  788  City of Vancouver City of North Vancouver South Vancouver  North Vancouver  "  1926 21,601 -  - 262*.  After amalgamation of three municipalities (Vancouver, Point Grey and South Vancouver) there are in Vancouver 52 G rade Schools, 4 Junior High Schools, 9 High Schools, 1 Technical School and 1 Decorative and Applied Arts School, with value of school land ^3,403,670 and the value of school buildings,equlpment and supplies #6,272,730. The teaching staff of Vancouver Schools consisted in '927 of 101 men and 452 women. The statistical story of growth of number of teachers in the past was as follows: total  464  M  !t  510  470  M  !*  M  412  M  tt  546  148  M  409  tt  t!  557  1925  137  W  448  M  W  585  1926  158  M  433  M  M  591  1920  108  men  357 women  1921  120  H  390  1922  128  W  1923  134  1924  S35  1929 (after the amalgamation of three manicipalities 1,176.  m^Rer ^upatiOM*. Higher education in Vancouver is carried on in the University of British Columbia. The home of the University is situated on the western extremity of the Point Grey Peninsula. The site comprises an area of 548 acres, of which approximately one-half is campus. The University offers instruction in the four years of each of the the three Faculties, Arts and Science, Applied Science  ** s&s  (including Surslng) aad ^ri culture, leading to the degrees of Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Applied Science and Bachelor of Science in Agriculture. It is also possible to proceed to a Master's degree In each Faculty. She University has twelve buildings, three of vRtich are permanent, of fire-proof construction, the Science Building, the Library and the Power House* The rest, nine are semi-permanent buildings, Administration, Auditorium and Grill room, Arts, Applied Science, Agriculture; three Engineering Buildings, Mechanical, Electrical; Mining, Metallurgy and Hydraulics; and the Forest Products Laboratory Building. The University Library consists of 55,000 volumes and about 10,000 pamphlets, It includes representative works in all the courses offered by the University, and a growing collection of works on other subjects. The Library received regularly about 500 magazines and periodical publications.  The number of students registered in the University during the fourteenth session, 1982-29, was as follows: Faculty of Arts and Science  1274  faculty of Applied Science  258  Faculty of Applied Science (Nursing)  41  Faculty of Agriculture  48  Graduates  47  Teacher Training Course  j^L  1.P30  **'  **  Samper Session, Arts (1982)  402  Public Health Nursing  6  Occupational Course in Agrie.  7  Short Course in Agriculture Evening Class in Botany  138 24.  ,Degrees conferred, 19R8. Eao^lty Of ^rts a^d The Degree of Aster of Arts The Degree of Bachelor of Arts  17 117  Rarity of Applied. Science  The Degree of S3aster of Applied Science  1  The Degree of Bachelor of * Applied Science  20  The Degree of .Master of Science in /agriculture  1  The Degree of Bachelor of Science in Agrlc.  7.  Officers and Staff  146.  In affiliation with the University of British Columbia there are two colleges, 1. The Anglican Theological College of B. C., and 2. The Union College of B. C. (United Church of Canada).  - 264*.  Ciix-^MgmSng. A few Cities of both Canada and the United States have been built accordance with a comprehensive plan. From 1909 on there can be traced an uninterrupted growth in city planning as a movement to lay out new cities or extend old to the best advantage of the population as regards efficiency, health and attractiveness. Vancouver being a new city is notable for its city planning accomplishments. Its streets laid out on a rectangular plan, running north and south, east and west. Comparing Vancouver with old European cities, such as London, England, Hamburg, Amsterdam, and others the former is much better in the respect of city planning. It is more simple for the visitor to find his /ay in Vancouver than in any of the old cities mentioned above. The decimal system of house numbering gives added utility to the rectangular street planning. City planning of Vancouver is good enough to meet present traffic needs and provide for future expansion. Other planning features, such as the location of public building, and commercial parts, the routing of rapid-transit lines were fulfilled to a great satisfaction. Four main streets cross the city in general directions. Hsstings Street lies parallel to the shore of the harbour and Granville and ATain Streets cut its base at a right angle. Byoadway cuts Granville and again Streets also at a ri#it angle south from False Creek. The city of Vancouver covers an area of 3,7965.2 acres. This area may be subdivided into five zones - industrial, commercial, , apartment, park and open development, and residential.  There are  - - 265 a** four industrial zones, one of which lies on the southern shore ef the harbour. A numerous number of warehouses lie here between Hastings Street and the waterfront. The second zone is situated on the False Creek, the third lies on the north shore of Hurrard Inlet, 1-e. in %srth Vancouver, and the fourth on the Northern Arm of the Fraser River. Industrial Island, in False Creek, offers splendid opportunities and is operated! by the Harbour Commissioners. The commercial zone occupies Granville and Hastings Streets having a great centre at the intersection of theae streets. EBain Street and Broadway are also eontnercial streets. A. less significant commercial centre lies on Bnnbar Street. The residential zone occupies chiefly Point Grey, and South Vancouver, and contains innamezable handsome and stately homes. The most fashionable residential district is :3haug&nessy Heights. There are five bridges, connecting the business centre of the city with Point Grey, South Vancouver and North Vancouver. Two of them are worthy of notice, because of appearance and general utility. Granville Street Hi#i Level Bridge carries two sets of tram-lines and affords ample accomodation for vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The bridge over the Second Narrows represents a more serious engineering achievement.  In spite of its young age Vancouver possesses many splendid public buildings. Among the most interesting from the stand point of architecture are the Court-House, Canadian Paclclc Hallway Station, Post Office, Hotel Vancouver, Government Railway Station, and the  -  266 -  the Station of the Great Northern. The Court-House is the finest public building in the city. It was Milt in 1910 at a cost of #1,000,0000. The Canadian Pacific Hallway Station is a large and attractive building. The Post Office, 3*1 ich stands at the point of intersection of the two Important thorou#ifares of Hastings and Granville Streets is a massive stone edifice erected at a cost of $500,000. The Hotel Vancouver, "which was greatly enlarged and remodeled in 1917-18 is said to be one of the largest hotels in Canada." The Government Railway Station Tshich was opened for traffic in November 1919, is a fine structure, the cost of ?&ich is over a million dollars. "The Dominion Trust" and "The Jorld^, Swing to their height, can be seen from a very considerable distance. "The Worlds, building, in fact, is said to be the tallest within the British Empire". Daring the last 10-15 years an attempt has been made to reproduce in Vancouver the sRy-scrapers of New York. There are several banks which have erected spacious and architectually very interesting buildings. There are also several large churches representing the principal denominations and the finest among them is the Roman Catholic Cathedral. Free Library, the gift of nr. Oamegie, is a notable building, "containing a choice of volumes in many ways exceptional." On the upper floor of this library is located the museum, which was founded by the Vancouver Art, Historical and Scientific Association. Parks and Playgrounds. The parks of the city of Vancouver cover an area of 2,108.62 acres, and are in position to offer the facilities for making a more  - 367 expressive life for all the people of the city. They are based on a sane social and moral standard and are easily accessible to the populous centres. Seme of the parks are so designed as to satisfy the recreational needs of the people and to provide for educational uses. Stanley Park and Eastings Park can afford intinsate study of the flora an fauna indigenous to the vicinity of Vancouver. Some parks provide accomodations and facilities for children. "She pride and boast of Vancouver is Stanley Park," which cover lOCO acres, and is chiefly noticeable for the gigantic nature of its trees. Shere are trunks of trees 30 to 40 feet in .circumference in the park. A visitor can escape completely from city sights and sounds and enjoy the natural beauties of the landscape, because the park is "as nearly as possible in a state of nature except that is&lks and drives have been provided." There are, an athletic field, garden and soo in Stanley Park. the other noticeable parks of the city ere Hastings park, 160 acres, Central park, Little fountain, 105.71 acres, Trout Lake Bark, 88.17 acres, and others, 804.74 acres. Vancouver is noted for its bathing beaches, of ^ich there are four within the city limites. Kltsilano beach is south of Granville Steet. English Bay bath-houses are to be found near Stanley Park. Jericho beach is located near the Government Aerodrome, Jericho Gold and Country Club.  - 238*.  la addition to the parks there are a number of mountain resorts in the near vicinity of Vancouver, which offer to the tourists and fishermen new types of scenic effects, and innumerable game preserves. These mountain resorts attract tourists from every part of the world. Thug 91,972 autos, with 328,888 tourists visited Vancouver last year (1328 !* A most up-to-date scenic resort has been established on the top of Grouse fountain at an altitude of some 4000 feet.  Among the most  beautiful spots In the near vicinity of Vancouver are three Canyons, Capilano, Bynn and Seymour, Indian River Par<k and Wigwam Inn, and Hollybum Crest. In the further vicinity of Vancouver, Jest Howe Sound and Squamish, at the head of this Sound,offer most picturesque water trips and delightful susnier resorts.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Dominion of Canada Census. Published by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. The Canada Year Book, 1927-1928. City of Vancouver. Industrial Survey, 1927. Issued by the Industrial Survey Committee of the City Council. Ch. F. Roland, Industrial Survey Commissioner. Corporation of the City of Vancouver, B. C. Financial and Departmental Reports for the year ended December 31st, 1928. British Columbia. Its History, People, Commerce, Industries and Resources. Compiled by Henry J. Boam, edited by Ashley G. Brown, 1912. Port of Vancouver, B. C. Annual Reports, 1922-1927.  Game Trails in British Colmabla. Big Gams and other Sport in the Wilds of B. C. % A. Bryan Williams, B.A. N.Y* Ch. Scribner's Son. Sport and Life in British Columbia. By Sir Charles P. Piers, Bart. Sport in Vancouver and Newfoundland. B y Sir John Rogers. Toronto 1912. Sunset Canada. British Columbia and Beyond, by Archie Bell.  


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