Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Production of the public voice : public participation in the hearing process as contemporary democracy Hessing, Melody Beatrice 1984

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1984_A1 H48.pdf [ 13.23MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096409.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096409-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096409-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096409-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096409-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096409-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096409-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096409-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096409.ris

Full Text

PRODUCTION OF THE PUBLIC VOICE: PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN THE HEARING PROCESS AS CONTEMPORARY DEMOCRACY By MELODY BEATRICE HESSING B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f Denver, 1966 M.A., S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y , 1970 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f S o c i o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Ju n e 1984 © M e l o d y B e a t r i c e H e s s i n g , 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2 0 7 5 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V 6 T 1W5 D a t e O c*ofaM <4. A b s t r a c t The d i s s e r t a t i o n examines p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the h e a r i n g p rocess from the p e r s p e c t i v e of democra t i c t h e o r y . A l -though "democracy" i s p o p u l a r l y invoked as both r a t i o n a l e and e v a l u a t i v e s t anda rd f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l t h e o -r i s t s have n e g l e c t e d to examine the p r a c t i c e of hea r i ng i n t e r -v e n t i o n from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . The d i s s e r t a t i o n c h a l l e n g e s the p l u r a l i s t model of the h e a r i n g us ing a p a r t i c i p a t o r y c r i t i q u e of the h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . The d i s s e r t a t i o n argues tha t contemporary d i s c u s s i o n of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s f o rmu la t ed from the p e r s p e c t i v e of p l u r a l i s t democ ra t i c t h e o r y . P l u r a l i s t theory p e r c e i v e s the h e a r i n g as a forum through which p u b l i c a ccess to the a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e and p o l i c y - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s can be s e c u r e d . C e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , i n c l u d e a h e t e r o g e n e i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t e r e s t s (which i n -c l u d e s the p u b l i c ) , a f a i r n e s s of p r o c e d u r e s , and a n e u t r a l i t y of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . In c o n t r a s t , a p a r t i c i p a t o r y c r i t i q u e of p l u r a l i s t theory p o i n t s to a r e s t r i c t e d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a s y s t e m a t i c imbalance i n r e sou r ces a v a i l a b l e to t r i b u n a l p a r t i -c i p a n t s , and an advantage to and a l l i a n c e among s t a t e and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l i n t e r e s t s as f e a t u r e s of the t r i b u n a l . The d i s s e r t a t i o n s t u d i e s p u b l i c h e a r i n g s i n two t r i b u n a l s : the P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l Appea l Boa rd , and the Roya l Commission of I nqu i r y i n t o Uranium M i n i n g . The f i r s t i s an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l which hears appea l s conce rn i ng the app rova l of p e s t i -c i d e a p p l i c a t i o n s . In the s e cond , a c o n s u l t a t i v e t r i b u n a l , i i h e a r i n g s are h e l d f o r the purposes of r e c e i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and making recommendations about uranium min ing i n B r i t i s h Co lum-b i a . The methodology i n c l u d e s o b s e r v a t i o n , e thnography , i n t e r -v i e w i n g , and documentary a n a l y s i s of the p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o -cess . The d i s s e r t a t i o n f i n d s tha t the p r a c t i c e of the p u b l i c h e a r i n g i s genera ted from and g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i th a p l u r a l i s t democ ra t i c p e r s p e c t i v e : m u l t i p l e i n t e r e s t s p a r t i c i -p a t e ; q u a s i - j u d i c i a l p rocedures are f o l l o w e d by a l l p a r t i c i -p a n t s , and d e c i s i o n s are made by he te rogeneous , government-appo in t ed Boa rds . A p a r t i c i p a t o r y c r i t i q u e however shows the dominance of the p l u r a l i s t model of h e a r i n g s to be p r e d i c a t e d on a s o c i a l and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n i n which s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y and s t a t e hegemony are p r imary f e a t u r e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , s y s t e m a t i c s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t i e s such as d i f f e r e n t i a l a ccess to h e a r i n g r e sou r ce s d i sadvan tage p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups and p r e c l u d e a ba lance among compet ing f o r c e s w i t h i n the t r i b u n a l . S t r u c t u r a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l a l l i a n c e s among a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l f o r c e s f u r t h e r d e t r a c t from the i m p a r t i a l i t y o f the h e a r i n g . C o u n t e r i n g the p l u r a l i s t n o t i o n of the t r i b u n a l as an i n d e p e n -dent fo rum, t h i s a n a l y s i s p o i n t s to the h e a r i n g as a v e h i c l e of s o c i a l c o n t r o l and s t a t e l e g i t i m a t i o n . The d i s s e r t a t i o n c o n -c l udes w i th recommendations f o r the d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n of the f p u b l i c h e a r i n g . i i i T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S L I S T OF T A B L E S v i i L I S T OF I L L U S T R A T I O N S v i i i A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S i x C h a p t e r 1 . I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 1 .1 P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e H e a r i n g — T h e D e b a t e . . . 1 1 . 2 T h e T h e o r y o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n 11 1 . 3 A r g u m e n t a n d O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e D i s s e r t a t i o n . . . . 1 3 1 . 4 R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e 1 7 1 . 5 C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e D i s s e r t a t i o n 2 2 2 . D E M O C R A T I C T H E O R Y AND THE C O N C E P T OF P U B L I C P A R T I C I P A T I O N 2 5 2 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 2 5 2 . 2 H i s t o r i c a l P r e c e d e n t s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n 2 6 2 . 3 T h e E m e r g e n c e o f P l u r a l i s m 3 2 2 . 4 C r i t i q u e s o f P l u r a l i s t D e m o c r a c y 3 7 2 . 5 C o n t e m p o r a r y C a n a d i a n P l u r a l i s m 4 2 2 . 6 A P l u r a l i s t M o d e l o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e P u b l i c H e a r i n g 4 6 H e t e r o g e n e i t y o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n : R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e P u b l i c 46 F a i r n e s s o f P r o c e d u r e s 48 N e u t r a l i t y o f t h e D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g P r o c e s s 5 0 3 . R E S E A R C H METHODOLOGY AND I N T R O D U C T I O N TO THE C A S E S T U D I E S 5 3 3 . 1 R e s e a r c h M e t h o d o l o g y 5 3 3 . 2 T y p e s o f P u b l i c H e a r i n g s 6 0 3 . 3 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e C a s e S t u d y T r i b u n a l s : T h e P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l A p p e a l B o a r d H e a r i n g s 6 3 T h e L e g a l C o n t e x t a n d t h e I n i t i a t i o n o f t h e H e a r i n g s 64 i v M i l f o i l and the Herbicide Issue 69 A Chronology of the Okanagan Lakes 2,4-D Issue 74 The Royal Commission of Inquiry into Uranium Mining . 76 The Consultative Inquiry . 77 The Issues 80 A Chronology of the Uranium Mining Controversy 85 4. HETEROGENEITY OF PARTICIPATION: REPRESENTATION OF THE PUBLIC INTEREST 89 4.1 Introduction 89 4.2 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Participants and Interests.... 90 Pesticide Control Appeal Board Hearings 90 Royal Commission of Inquiry into Uranium Mining 92 Community Hearings 92 Technical Hearings 95 4.3 The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Public Interest 97 Personal Submissions .98 Public Interest Organizations 99 4.4 Heterogeneity and Public Interest Re-examined..106 5. FAIRNESS OF PROCEDURES: PREPARATION AND ORGANIZATION OF INTERVENTION 112 5.1 Introduction 112 Procedural Fairness 113 5.2 Description of Hearing Procedures 116 Quasi-Judicial Procedures 116 Procedures of the Case Study Tribunals 117 The Pesticide Control Appeal Board 117 The Royal Commission of Inquiry into Uranium Mining 119 Community Hearings 120 Technical Hearings 121 5.3 Making A Case — The Preparation and Organization of Intervention... 126 Making A Case: The Organization of Intervention 128 The Pesticide Control Appeal Board 129 The Royal Commission of Inquiry into Uranium Mining 137 Making A Case: Preparation for Intervention..140 The Pesticide Control Appeal Board 141 The Royal Commission of Inquiry into Uranium Mining 145 5.4 Procedural Fairness and the P l u r a l i s t Model 151 6. FAIRNESS OF PROCEDURES: THE PRACTICE OF INTERVENTION..158 6.1 Introduction 158 6.2 The Participatory Setting 158 v T h e P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l A p p e a l B o a r d . . . . , T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o f I n q u i r y i n t o U r a n i u m M i n i n g . C o m m u n i t y H e a r i n g s . . , T e c h n i c a l H e a r i n g s , T h e H e a r i n g S e t t i n g a n d P a r t i c i p a t i o n . 6 . 3 E x p e r t i s e i n P a r t i c i p a t i o n L e g a l C o u n s e l a s E x p e r t i s e E x p e r t W i t n e s s e s . . 6 . 4 H e a r i n g P r o c e d u r e s : T h e o r y a n d P r a c t i c e . 7 . T H E N E U T R A L I T Y OF THE D E C I S I O N - M A K I N G P R O C E S S . 7 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 7 . 2 T h e D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g P r o c e s s i n t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T r i b u n a l : T h e P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l A p p e a l B o a r d . . T h e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C o n t e x t o f D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g B a s i s o f a n d R e a s o n s f o r t h e D e c i s i o n 7 . 3 D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g i n t h e C o n s u l t a t i v e T r i b u n a l : T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o f I n q u i r y i n t o U r a n i u m M i n i n g T h e M o r a t o r i u m a n d T e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e I n q u i r y 7 . 4 S e l e c t i o n a n d C o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e B o a r d / C o m m i s s i o n T h e P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l A p p e a l B o a r d T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o f I n q u i r y i n t o U r a n i u m M i n i n g 7 . 5 T h e N e u t r a l i t y o f t h e D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g P r o c e s s . . . 8 . C O N C L U S I O N S 8 . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 8 . 2 T h e P l u r a l i s t M o d e l a n d t h e P u b l i c H e a r i n g H e t e r o g e n e i t y o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n F a i r n e s s o f P r o c e d u r e s N e u t r a l i t y o f t h e D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g P r o c e s s 8 . 3 T h e P a r t i c i p a t o r y C r i t i q u e a n d t h e P l u r a l i s t M o d e l H e t e r o g e n e i t y o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n -R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e P u b l i c I n t e r e s t F a i r n e s s o f P r o c e d u r e s T h e N e u t r a l i t y o f t h e D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g P r o c e s s 8 . 4 T o w a r d s a P a r t i c i p a t o r y D e m o c r a c y P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d t h e P l u r a l i s t M o d e l . . B e y o n d t h e P l u r a l i s t M o d e l 8 . 5 C o n c l u d i n g R e m a r k s A P P E N D I C E S B I B L I O G R A P H Y v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 APPELLANTS, OKANAGAN 2,4-D PCAB HEARINGS 91 2 NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS—RCUM COMMUNITY HEARINGS 93 3 REPRESENTATION OF INTERESTS BY ORGANIZATIONS KELOWNA COMMUNITY HEARINGS, RCUM 94 4 MAJOR PARTICIPANTS, RCUM TECHNICAL HEARINGS 96-97 5 USE OF HEARING TIME, 1978 PCAB HEARINGS 131-132 6 RCUM - LEGAL REPRESENTATION OF MAJOR PARTICIPANTS 178 7 RCUM - LEGAL REPRESENTATION BY INTEREST 179 8 RCUM - APPEARANCE OF WITNESSES ACCORDING TO INTEREST 184 9 PCAB APPEAL PROCEDURE .197 v i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Number 1 PCAB - 1978 HEARING SETTING 160 2 PCAB - 1979 HEARING SETTING 161 3 PCAB - 1981 HEARING SETTING 162 4 RCUM - KELOWNA HEARING 164 5 RCUM — TECHNICAL HEARINGS 167 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I owe thanks to a number of people who have been i n vo l ved wi th the e v o l u t i o n of the d i s s e r t a t i o n over the past f i v e y e a r s . My Committee members deserve i n d i v i d u a l mention fo r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s . Bob Ra tner , my a d v i s o r , has been a source of s u p p o r t , h e l p i n g to re-deve lop and guide my work through academic channe ls and to ma in ta in c o n t i n u i t y and d i r e c t i o n i n i t s deve lopment . Roy Turner r a i s e d ques t i ons which f o r c ed me to r e c o n s i d e r the t aken- fo r-gran ted aspec ts of much of my r e s e a r c h . P h i l Resnick c o n t r i b u t e d both an ex tens i ve p o l i t i c a l t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge, as we l l as d i r e c t i o n , momentum, and a c e r t a i n pragmat ism. John Mcmul lan , former Committee member, sharpened the d i r e c t i o n and l o g i c of the d i s s e r t a t i o n . A number of people c o n t r i b u t e d l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e s to the a n a l y s i s . Kim Roberts and M a r i l y n Kansky of the West Coast Env i ronmenta l Law A s s o c i a t i o n have shared t h e i r l e g a l knowledge of the hea r ing p r o c e s s , and responded to s p e c i f i c q u e r i e s r ega rd ing the case s t u d i e s . John Rogers and K r i s s B o g g i l d d i s c u s s e d wi th me t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s of the Bates Commission e x p e r i e n c e , whi le L i o r a S a l t e r ' s work c o n t r i b u t e d in a more gene ra l way to an unders tand ing of hea r ings and the r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e s s . i x A n u m b e r o f o t h e r p e o p l e w e r e h e l p f u l t o my u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l i s s u e s i n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . J a c k W a r n o c k p r o v i d e d a p o l i t i c a l e c o n o m i c p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s i n a d d i t i o n t o a r e c a l l o f t h e e v e n t s o f b o t h c a s e s t u d i e s . O t h e r s , e s p e -c i a l l y D o n B a r z , G i l Z e m a n s k y , J o h n R o b i n s o n , a n d B e c k y A b b o t t , h a v e d e a l t w i t h c o m m o n i s s u e s i n t h e i r a n a l y s e s , a n d h a v e i n s p i r e d my o w n i d e a s . S h a r o n M e e n a n d J e a n n e t t e A u g e r h e l p e d ' me t o b e m o r e c o n c i s e a n d d i r e c t i n my w r i t i n g . H o w e v e r , t h e m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o my c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n h a v e b e e n made b y t h o s e who h a v e c o n n e c t e d t h e p e r s o n a l t o t h e p o l i t i c a l . J a y L e w i s , my h u s b a n d , h a s b e e n s u p p o r t i v e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o c e s s . H i s d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t i n a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , a n d h i s h o u s e w o r k a n d c h i l d c a r e h a v e b e e n i n t e g r a l t o t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e d i s s e r t a -t i o n . I r m a D r e s s e l h a s b e e n a n u n f a i l i n g s o u r c e o f c h e e r , m o t i v a t i o n , a n d d a y c a r e . B a r b a r a F i n d l a y h a s b e e n f r i e n d a n d l e g a l c r i t i c . To t h e s e a n d o t h e r s who c o n t r i b u t e d i n n u m e r o u s w a y s t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n , I am i n d e b t e d . x CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1-Publ ic P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the H e a r i n g —  The Popular Debate The p u b l i c hea r ing has emerged as a dominant f ea tu re of t r i b u n a l s in Canada in recent y e a r s . The exper i ence of the Mackenzie V a l l e y P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y , A l aska Highway P i p e l i n e I n -q u i r y , and West Coast O i l Por ts I nqu i r y a t t e s t s to s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e c o g n i t i o n of the f o r ce of p u b l i c involvement i n 1 env i ronmenta l i s s u e s . Ex tens i ve media cove rage , as w e l l as the n a t u r e , s cope , and env i ronmenta l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the i s sues under d i s c u s s i o n , c o n t r i b u t e to the c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . The involvement of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups has generated con t rove r s y r ega rd ing the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and f a i r n e s s of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the forum. Th i s d i s s e r t a t i o n a d -d resses the p rocess and the problems of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the h e a r i n g . Members of the p u b l i c enter the hea r ing p rocess as i n t e r -veners or a p p e l l a n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g p u b l i c i n t e r e s t o r g a n i z a -t i o n s . Spokespersons t y p i c a l l y p resent submiss ions be fore the Board , are c ross-examined , summarize t h e i r arguments, and may query o ther p a r t i c i p a n t s , thus c o n t r i b u t i n g to the Boa rd ' s 1 e v a l u a t i o n of an i s s u e , and i t s subsequent d e c i s i o n s or recom-mendations. The hearing process i s thus one stage of a t r i b u n a l which serves i n an a d v i s o r y , r e g u l a t o r y , or j u d i c i a l c a p a c i t y to government by e l i c i t i n g and e v a l u a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on r e l e -vant i s s u e s . The popular controversy concerning p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the hearing has been d i r e c t e d to a number of r e l a t e d i s s u e s . The purpose of the t r i b u n a l , i t s r e l a t i o n to the p o l i t i c a l process, and the procedures by which hearings are conducted have been major p o i n t s of d i s c u s s i o n . The t r i b u n a l i s p o p u l a r l y viewed as a p o l i c y - g e n e r a t i n g or r e g u l a t o r y mechanism, s t r u c t u -r a l l y independent from and supplementary to government, acces-s i b l e to the p u b l i c , and governed by a f a i r hearing process. The p u b l i c hearing i s viewed as supplementing the e l e c t o -r a l process and p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l , more d i r e c t c i t i z e n ac-cess to the decision-making process. Environmental i s s u e s are r a r e l y e l e c t i o n i s s u e s , and the parliamentary system provides v i r t u a l l y no c o n t r o l over the important d e c i s i o n s of non-elected o f f i c e r s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . g i v e s the p u b l i c d i r e c t access to an ever-expanding...regulatory bureaucracy. Thus, p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be seen as democratizing the l e g i s l a -t i v e and b u r e a u c r a t i c decision-making process (Emond 1975: 786) . The h e a r i n g , from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , provides the p u b l i c with an o p p o r t u n i t y to address those i n power concerning a s p e c i f i c development or i s s u e . I t provides i n f o r m a t i o n to those making decisions/recommendations which may not be a v a i l a b l e , or may not be recognized as v a l u a b l e by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s (Elder 1973; S a l t e r 1978). The hearing and i t s t r i b u n a l are portrayed as separate 2 f r o m p a r l i a m e n t a r y g o v e r n m e n t , a n d t h i s i n d e p e n d e n c e i s s t a t u -t o r i l y g u a r a n t e e d ( D o e r n 1 9 7 8 ; L u c a s a n d B e l l 1 9 7 7 ; S a l t e r 2 1 9 7 8 ) . B o a r d o r C o m m i s s i o n m e m b e r s , a p p o i n t e d b y g o v e r n m e n t , a r e a s s u m e d t o h a v e g e n e r a l k n o w l e d g e o f r e l a t e d i s s u e s o r p r o c e d u r e s . T h i s k n o w l e d g e i s t h e p r o d u c t o f p a s t w o r k e x p e -r i e n c e a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l m e m b e r s h i p i n i n d u s t r y o r g o v e r n m e n t , a n d i s g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d a s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f c o m p l e x s c i e n t i f i c a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l i s s u e s ( A n d r e w a n d P e l l e t i e r 1 9 7 8 ; L u c a s a n d B e l l 1 9 7 7 ; L o w r a n c e 1 9 7 6 ) . C o m m i s s i o n e r s ' g e n e r a l e x p e r i e n c e i s v i e w e d a s a n a s s e t t o t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e , w h i l e t h e i r d i s i n t e r e s t e d n e s s i n t h e i s s u e s a t h a n d e n h a n c e s t h e o b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e t r i b u n a l . H e a r i n g s a r e v i e w e d a s p r o v i d i n g a f o r u m i n w h i c h t h e r e i s a n e x c h a n g e a n d b a l a n c e a m o n g m u l t i p l e , c o m p e t i n g i n t e r e s t s . P u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t e r v e n t i o n i s a s s u m e d t o c o u n t e r t h e i n f l u e n -c e s o f i n d u s t r y a n d g o v e r n m e n t . T h e A l a s k a H i g h w a y P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y , i n i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g a n d r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e d u r e s , n o t e d : P a r t i c i p a t i o n b y a l l i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s i s n e c e s s a r y t o e n s u r e t h a t c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s a r e f u l l y r e p r e s e n t e d b e f o r e t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b o d y . O n l y b y b a l a n c e d r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n c a n t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e c i s i o n s be made ( L y s y k 1 9 7 7 : 1 3 9 ) . H e a r i n g s a r e p u b l i c l y a c c e s s i b l e , a n d c i t i z e n s a r e a s s u m e d t o h a v e a r i g h t t o s p e a k o n m a t t e r s i n w h i c h t h e y h a v e a n i n t e r e s t . A s C o m m i s s i o n e r B e r g e r n o t e d , w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e M a c k e n z i e V a l l e y P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y : A l l t h o s e who h a d s o m e t h i n g t o s a y — w h i t e o r n a -t i v e — w e r e g i v e n a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o s p e a k . . . I d e c i d e d t h a t I s h o u l d g i v e n o r t h e r n e r s a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o s p e a k f o r t h e m s e l v e s . . . ! h a v e b e e n c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e 3 s h o u l d h a v e a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o s p e a k t o t h e I n q u i r y i n t h e i r own v i l l a g e s , i n t h e i r l a n g u a g e s , a n d i n t h e i r o w n w a y ( B e r g e r 1 9 7 7 : v i i - v i i i ) . P u b l i c a c c e s s t o t h e f o r u m p r o v i d e s f o r t h i s h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . H o w e v e r , a s L y s y k n o t e s , " T h e m e r e r i g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o e n s u r e e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a -t i o n . . . . p a r t i c i p a t i n g g r o u p s m u s t a l s o r e c e i v e f i n a n c i a l s u p -p o r t . . . . a n d t h e y m u s t h a v e a c c e s s t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o t h e d e c i s i o n s " ( 1 9 7 7 : 1 4 1 ) . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l o r e c o n o m i c i m b a -l a n c e a m o n g i n t e r v e n o r s i s a d d r e s s e d b y s u c h m e a s u r e s a s f u n d i n g o f i n t e r e s t g r o u p s f o r a c c e s s t o b o t h l e g a l a n d s u b -s t a n t i v e a d v o c a c y . T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e -m e n t a b o u t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e B e r g e r I n q u i r y b y Q u e e n ' s C o u n s e l I a n S c o t t : We d e c i d e d t h a t i t w a s v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h i s c o u n t r y t h a t w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t . . . t h a t t h e y c o u l d t a n g l e w i t h A r c t i c G a s a n d F o o t h i l l s o n e q u a l t e r m s . How d o y o u d o t h a t ? W e l l , t h e f i r s t t h i n g y o u d o i s y o u a l l o w t i m e s o t h e y c a n a b s o r b t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o c e s s . T h e s e c o n d t h i n g y o u d o i s y o u s e e t h a t t h e y g e t f u n d e d s o t h a t t h e y c a n h i r e b i o l o -g i s t s a n d a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s a n d s o c i o l o g i s t s a n d l a w y e r s . A n d t h e r e s u l t h o p e f u l l y i s i n t h e e n d t h a t t h e e n v i r o n -m e n t a l i s t s o n o n e h a n d , t h e C h a m b e r o f C o m m e r c e , t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d a n d t h e g a s c o m p a n y a r e a l l f i g h t i n g o n m o r e o r l e s s e q u a l t e r m s . A n d i f y o u d o t h a t a n d i f y o u ' r e s u c c e s s f u l i n a s s u r i n g t h a t k i n d o f e q u a l i t y , y o u ' v e g o t a t l e a s t a n e v e n s h o t t h a t y o u ' r e g o i n g t o h e a r t h e t r u e s t o r y i n t h e e n d ( N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d : 1 9 7 8 ) . T h e q u a s i - j u d i c i a l f o r m o f h e a r i n g p r o c e d u r e s i s p e r c e i v e d a s e n s u r i n g a n e u t r a l a n d o b j e c t i v e p r o c e s s , a n d o f t h e r e f o r e p r o d u c i n g a n i m p a r t i a l d e c i s i o n . M o r e o v e r , t h e j o i n t m e m b e r -s h i p o f i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s i n t h e h e a r i n g p r o c e s s i s s e e n t o p r o d u c e a s p i r i t o f c o o p e r a t i o n , m i n i m i z i n g t h e i n e q u a l i t i e s i n k n o w l e d g e a n d p o w e r w h i c h may e x i s t . A s F r a s e r n o t e s r e g a r d i n g 4 p u b l i c involvement in F o r e s t r y d e c i s i o n s , "The p rocess of working t o g e t h e r , in i t s e l f , c r ea t es a degree of e q u a l i t y and produces expec t a t i ons that the we l l - i n t ended layman's view i s as v a l i d as tha t of the t r a i n e d resource p r o f e s s i o n a l and tha t of the i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t e r ( 1980 :8 ) " . The s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the p o l i t i c a l p rocess through hea r ing i n t e r v e n t i o n are a l so emphas ized. S o c i a l c o h e s i o n , pe r sona l growth, educa t ion and community awareness are some of the deve lopmenta l p roduc ts a s s o c i a t e d wi th p a r t i c i p a t i o n (McCoy and P l a y f o r d 1967; Pateman 1970; G ibson 1975) . Increased p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l awareness a s s o c i a t e d wi th p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a " c i v i c c u l t u r e " (Almond and Verba 1963). Such d e s c r i p t i o n s of the hear ing p rocess r e f l e c t a norma-t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e of p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , one which i s produced by 3 and congruent wi th the dominant l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y . The commit-ment of the Trudeau L i b e r a l government to " p a r t i c i p a t o r y demo-4 c r a c y " has conf i rmed the l a r g e r p o l i t i c a l contex t fo r and app rop r i a t enes s of the p u b l i c hea r ing p r o c e s s . In c o n j u n c t i o n wi th t h i s p a r t i c i p a t o r y i d e o l o g y , hea r ing proponents c i t e the p r o d u c t i v e nature of the forum ( e . g . , time and cos t e f f e c t i v e -ness , d i r e c t examinat ion of c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s ) , and the independence and supplementary nature of the t r i b u n a l v i s - a - v i s e l e c t o r a l p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . However, con t rove r sy over the p u b l i c hea r ing has accompa-n ied i t s emergence as a p a r t i c i p a t o r y i n s t i t u t i o n . P o l i t i c a l t h e o r i s t s , l e g a l advocates and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t e r v e n o r s ques t i on the purposes and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a -5 t i o n w i t h i n the l a r g e r p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t . The a l l i a n c e of t r i b u n a l s t a f f and i n t e r e s t s wi th other i n s t i t u t i o n s and the unequal r esources a v a i l a b l e to competing i n t e r e s t s are r a i s e d as problems fo r the o b j e c t i v i t y of the forum. Thus , whi le the hea r ing i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the dominant l i b e r a l i deo logy as a c c e s s i b l e , independent and f a i r , i t s d e -t r a c t o r s would c h a r a c t e r i z e i t as s t r u c t u r a l l y a l l i e d wi th s t a t e and co rpo ra te i n t e r e s t s , and p r o c e d u r a l l y imbalanced in favour of these i n t e r e s t s . From t h i s c r i t i c a l v iew, p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the hea r ing p rocess i s l i m i t e d and i n e f f e c t i v e . P o l i t i c a l and l e g a l obse rve rs take i s sue wi th the l a r g e r p a r t i c i p a t o r y contex t of the p u b l i c h e a r i n g , b r i n g i n g i n to q u e s t i o n the r o l e and extent of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The genera l l ack of a p a r t i c i p a t o r y c l ima te i n Canada i s lamented by Lucas , f o r i n s t a n c e , who says , " C i t i z e n s ' r i g h t s to p a r t i c i p a t e in d e c i -s i ons by resource and env i ronmenta l agenc ies are not e x t e n s i v e " (1976). In a s i m i l a r v e i n , Howard s t a t e s that " the system in Canada, wi th few e x c e p t i o n s , i s des igned to exc lude c i t i z e n s from meaningfu l p a r t i c i p a t i o n " (1980:131-2) . The d i s c r e t i o n a r y nature of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s noted by l e g a l c r i t i c s , who r e f e r to the ad hoc nature of the Berger Inqu i r y and i t s d e s -cendants and who ques t i on the emergence of a " t r a d i t i o n " of c i t i z e n involvement in env i ronmenta l matters (Lucas 1978:51) . In c o n t r a s t to the popu lar view of t r i b u n a l s as i n f o r m a -t i o n - g e n e r a t i n g and po l i cy-mak ing i n s t rumen t s , a l t e r n a t i v e f u n c t i o n s of the forum have been no ted : I f p u b l i c hea r ings are not used by agenc ies to i n f l u -ence d e c i s i o n s , then how are they used? One use of 6 p u b l i c hea r ings i s to s a t i s f y minimum l e g a l requi rements fo r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Hear ings are he ld to document compl iance wi th f e d e r a l requi rements to ' p r o v e ' that c i t i z e n s have p a r t i c i p a t e d . . . . A n o t h e r use i s to p rov ide good p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s fo r the agency. Hear ings are he ld to b u i l d support f o r agency p l a n s . . . . A n o t h e r use i s to d i f f u s e antagonism. Hear ings are he ld to d i s p l a y c o n -c e r n , q u i e t the c r i t i c s , or take the heat o f f . . . . A n o t h e r use of p u b l i c hea r ings i s to l e g i t i m a t e a d e c i s i o n tha t has a l r e ady been m a d e . . . . I n a l l t h i s , p u b l i c hea r ings are used to ach ieve agency ends ra ther than to make e f f e c t i v e use of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Checkoway 1981:570-572).5 P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the hea r ing i s viewed as c o n t r i b u t i n g to the l e g i t i m a t i o n of the hea r ing and the l a r g e r p o l i t i c a l system. As l e g a l advocate Andrew Roman of the P u b l i c I n t e r e s t Advocacy Centre n o t e s : Many c i t i z e n groups have a deep-seated s u s p i c i o n tha t the reason t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d e s i r e d i s to add to the pe r ce i v ed l e g i t i m a c y of the hea r ing process by making i t appear to be a d v e r s a r i a l , whi le t h e i r l ack of r e s o u r -ces ensures tha t t h e i r puny i n t e r v e n t i o n cannot p o s s i b l y have any s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the r e s u l t . In my expe -r i e n c e , t h i s s u s p i c i o n i s not w i thout founda t ion (1979:30) . The e f f e c t of p u b l i c hea r ings in the l a r g e r d e c i s i o n -making contex t i s addressed by a number of t h e o r i s t s . Hear ings are regarded as an e x e r c i s e which l a cks fo r ce as a d e c i s i o n -making mechanism. Hear ings may be e f f e c t i v e as i n f o r m a t i o n -g e n e r a t o r s , but Commissioners l ack the power to implement t h e i r recommendations (Burton 1979; Checkoway 1981; OECD 1978; Wi l son 1973) . Other p o l i t i c a l t h e o r i s t s and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t e r v eno r s are c r i t i c a l of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t r i b u n a l , the s t a t e , and i n d u s t r y . The apparent independence of the Royal Commission from p o l i t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s i s addressed by S a l t e r : Inasmuch as the i n q u i r y i s t e c h n i c a l l y independent from both depar tmenta l and pa r l i amen ta r y p r o c e s s , i t f u n c t i o n s ou t s i de these c o n s t r a i n t s . T h i s apparent independence 7 a l lows the mandating government to separa te i t s e l f from the a c t i v i t i e s and recommendations of the i n q u i r y . The government . . .may then ac t in the dua l r o l e as judge or a r b i t r a t o r at the same time as p a r t i c i p a n t i n the d e t e r -m ina t ion of p o l i c y op t i ons (1978:7 ) . From the a l l i e d p e r s p e c t i v e of the Canadian p o l i t i c a l economic l i t e r a t u r e , some obse rve rs adopt a " cap tu red agent " p e r s p e c t i v e i n t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e s s , no t i ng the s t r u c t u r a l and i d e o l o g i c a l in terdependence between t r i b u n a l , s t a t e and co rpora te i n t e r e s t s (Mahon 1979; Doern 1978; Lucas and B e l l 1977). Other c r i t i c i s m s are d i r e c t e d to the assumption of a b a -lance among competing i n t e r e s t s . The i s sue i s not that agenc ies are n e c e s s a r i l y p a r t i s a n or captured by the i n d u s t r i e s they r e g u l a t e . I t i s tha t agency o f f i c i a l s o f t e n depend upon ou t s i de sources of i n f o rma t i on and support and respond to the most power fu l input they r e c e i v e . And i t i s those wi th an economic s take whose i n t e r e s t s and resources are grea t enough to in te rvene and make a d i f f e r e n c e (Checkoway 1981:569) . Thus , a l though there may be a he t e rogene i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c r i t i c s b e l i e v e that c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t s have d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y g rea te r access to resources than o t h e r s . Hear ing procedures are viewed by p u b l i c advocacy c r i t i c s as r e s t r i c t i n g p u b l i c a c c e s s , and c o n t r i b u t i n g to an imbalance of power among p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n e q u a l i t i e s in fund ing are seen by l e g a l c r i t i c s and p u b l i c i n t e r v e n o r s to d i m i n i s h the a b i l i t y of many c i t i z e n s ' groups to p resent an adequate c a se , whi le enab l i ng co rpo ra t e proponents to engage in ex tens i ve p r e p a r a -t i o n s (Howard 1978; Checkoway 1981). As E s t r i n no t e s : The proponent of a development comes to the hea r ings hav ing spent years and perhaps hundreds of thousands , i f not m i l l i o n s , of d o l l a r s h i r i n g exper t s and o b t a i n i n g massive r epo r t s to conv ince the t r i b u n a l that i t s p r o j e c t i s worthy. On the other s i d e , persons opposed or who 8 s imp ly wish to p a r t i c i p a t e to ensure that a l l the f a c t s are be fore the t r i b u n a l u s u a l l y have n e i t h e r the r e s o u r -ces to examine adequate l y and respond to such t e c h n i c a l p r e p a r a t i o n nor the resources to appear at the hea r ing through counse l ( E s t r i n 1979 :84 ) . Ebbin and Kaspar , in t h e i r s tudy of the nuc l ea r i n d u s t r y , note tha t "groups of d i s p a r a t e p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s must seek to agg re -gate and accrue from vo l un t a r y donat ions the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r -ces necessary to c a r r y t h e i r case through the uncharted admi -n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s . . . " (1974:14) . Temporal and geograph ic c o n s t r a i n t s are c i t e d by p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t e r v e n o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c r i t i c s as i n h i b i t i n g p u b l i c access and c o n t r i b u t i n g to the advantage of co rpora te and b u r e a u c r a t i c i n t e r e s t s (OECD 1978; Checkoway 1981) . Inade-quate l e g i s l a t i o n and l ack of access to i n fo rma t i on are c i t e d as f u r t h e r c o n s t r a i n t s to p u b l i c i n t e r v eno r s (Emond 1975; Pape 1978; Franson and Lucas 1975) . With regard to i n fo rma t i on a c -c e s s , Howard argues f u r t h e r t h a t : . . . t h e p resen t complete l ack of mechanisms fo r even seek -ing i n f o rma t i on on normal conduct of government a f f a i r s , l e t a lone procedures to appea l or review t h i s conduct , i s ex c l ud i ng Canadians from the i n fo rma t i on they need to p r o t e c t themselves and to assess t h e i r g o v e r n -ments . . . . There i s no e s t a b l i s h e d p u b l i c procedure whereby the c i t i z e n can take any a c t i o n to ob t a i n a r epor t or document . . . (Howard 1980: 132-3) . The formal and p r o f e s s i o n a l nature of hea r ing p r o c e e d i n g s , and the t e c h n i c a l nature of the i s sues have a l s o been c i t e d as problems fo r a ba lance and he t e rogene i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The dependence of c i t i z e n s on exper t s fo r p r o f e s s i o n a l guidance i n h i b i t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n by n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s (Chr is t iansen-Ruf f - r man 1979; Hadden 1981). Observers from the l e f t say tha t the t e c h n i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c o r i e n t a t i o n of the hear ing i s used to 9 obscure r e l a t i o n s of power and s o c i a l c l a s s . As N e l k i n o b -serves : From a p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , the p r o t e s t s d e s c r i b e d may be l e s s a g a i n s t s c i ence and techno logy than aga in s t the power r e l a t i o n s h i p s a s s o c i a t e d wi th them; l e s s aga in s t s p e c i f i c t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e c i s i o n s than aga in s t the use of s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n a l i t y to mask p o l i t i c a l cho i ces (1979:11) . In f u r t h e r c h a l l e n g i n g the he t e rogene i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c r i t i c s n o t e , "Hear ings appear to conform to the genera l p a t -t e rn i n which p a r t i c i p a t i o n in government a f f a i r s h i g h l y c o r -r e l a t e s wi th soc io-economic s t a tus (Checkoway 1981:569) . The q u a s i - j u d i c i a l nature of procedures i s s a i d to promote a m id -d l e - c l a s s b i a s (Emond 1975; S a l t e r 1975). Checkoway a l so n o t e s : F r e q u e n t l y , those who a t tend hea r ings are not r e p -r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e i r area p o p u l a t i o n . . . Low-income and m i n o r i t y c i t i z e n s in p a r t i c u l a r tend to be i nadequa te l y represented and unable to a f f o r d what i s r equ i r ed to make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n (1981:569) . A r e l a t e d c r i t i c i s m d i r e c t e d to p u b l i c access and to the h e t e -rogene i t y of the forum addresses the problems fo r unorgan ized i n t e r e s t s : One major problem of the p u b l i c hea r ing i s that the views presented are not u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the f u l l range of i n d i v i d u a l s a f f e c t e d by a proposed p r o j e c t or p o l i c y . They o f t e n r e f l e c t on l y the views of i d e n t i -f i a b l e i n t e r e s t g r o u p s . . . I n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s or non-es t -a b l i s h e d groups are o f t en i l l - i n f o r m e d about p u b l i c h e a r -i n g s , and i l l - p r e p a r e d to p resent t h e i r views e f f e c t i v e l y (OECD 1978:67) . Not a l l c r i t i c i s m of the hea r ing i s generated from a p e r -s p e c t i v e a l l i e d wi th p u b l i c i n t e r e s t g roups . Corpora te c r i t i c s would f u r t h e r l i m i t the p r a c t i c e and scope of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a -t i o n . Indus t ry laments the economic l o s s e s a s s o c i a t e d wi th the de lays a s s o c i a t e d wi th the hea r ing p r o c e s s . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a -10 t i o n can " r e s u l t i n undue i n f l u e n c e by those who are not accountab le fo r the consequences of d e c i s i o n s ; erode p roper t y r i g h t s ; de lay d e c i s i o n making and p l a n n i n g ; and i nc rease unpro -duc t i v e c o s t s and demands on the time of the p u b l i c and f o r e s t land managers. (Fraser 1980 :194 ) " . News r epo r t s of the hea r ing process r e f e r to the redundancy of c ross-examina t ion (Farrow 1979) . In response to sugges t ions which would expand p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c r i t i c s c i t e the p o s s i b i l i t y "o f f r i v o l o u s and vexa t ious a c t i o n s that would i n e v i t a b l y f o l l o w more l i b e r a l s t and ing r u l e s " (Emond 1975:791) . Others ques t i on the p u b l i c ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n i n to the complex t e c h n i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s su r round ing many env i ronmenta l i s sues (Fraser 1980). Thus , oppos ing views on the r o l e and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the hea r ing have been put fo rward . On the one hand, the hea r ing i s promoted as p u b l i c l y a c c e s s i b l e , o b j e c t i v e , and f a i r . On the o t h e r , c r i t i c i s m s of the o r g a n i z a -t i o n and procedures of hea r ing p a r t i c i p a t i o n as e l i t i s t , r e -s t r i c t i v e , and b i a sed ca s t s e r i o u s doubts on the h e a r i n g ' s p o t e n t i a l to e l i c i t s i g n i f i c a n t and e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a -t i o n . 1.2-The Theory of P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n The concept of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s de r i v ed from demo-c r a t i c t h e o r i e s of government which i n co rpo r a t e an i d e a l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the p u b l i c i n t h e i r government. I w i l l demon-s t r a t e i n t h i s work how the con t rove r sy about the p u b l i c h e a -r i n g i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n and generated by i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c -t i v e s about the i d e a l s and means of government. These l a r g e r 11 i s sues are o f t e n ignored in the immediate and s p e c i f i c c o n f l i c t over c e r t a i n aspec ts of v a r i ous h e a r i n g s . The ques t i ons and c r i t i c i s m r a i s e d about the hea r ing can be i n t e r p r e t e d as p r o b -lems of democra t i c t heo r y , q u e s t i o n i n g the very nature of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p rocess of government. Contemporary Canadian l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l theory i s domi -nated by a p l u r a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e , as I w i l l d i s c u s s more f u l l y in Chapter I I . P l u r a l i s t theory assumes tha t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d to and accommodated by the e l e c t o r a l p r o c e s s , but that ex t r a-pa r l i amen ta r y forums such as the p u b l i c hea r ing p rov ide fo r more d i r e c t communication between c i t i z e n s and government. A he t e rogene i t y of i n t e r e s t s i s m o b i l i z e d wi th respec t to any g i ven i s s u e , and the formal s e p a r a t i o n of and compe t i t i on among these i n t e r e s t s produces a ba lance or compro-mise in the dec i s ion-mak ing p r o c e s s . From the p e r s p e c t i v e of p l u r a l i s t i d e o l o g y , the t r i b u n a l i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as democra t i c and p u b l i c l y a c c e s s i b l e . Hear -ings supplement the e l e c t o r a l p r o c e s s , p r o v i d i n g more d i r e c t c i t i z e n access to the dec i s ion-mak ing p r o c e s s , and gene ra t i ng a he t e rogene i t y of i n fo rma t i on rega rd ing c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s . A number of competing i n t e r e s t s are represented in the forum. P a r t i c i p a t i o n by p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t e r v e n o r s p rov ides a ba lance to the input of co rpo ra te and b u r e a u c r a t i c i n t e r e s t s . The autonomy of the t r i b u n a l from the government, and the i m p a r t i a -l i t y of Commission members r e s u l t s in the p roduc t i on of an o b j e c t i v e d e c i s i o n . Moreover , the forum i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a f a i r n e s s of p rocedu res , which ensures an equa l bas i s f o r p a r t i -c i p a t i o n fo r a l l i n t e r v e n o r s . 12 However, a c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e cha l l enges the p a r t i c i p a t o -ry p r i n c i p l e s of p l u r a l i s t t heo r y . Developmental c r i t i c s argue that concern fo r a p r o d u c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t p rocess has o v e r -shadowed the humanist and s o c i a l concerns of democracy, r e s u l -t i n g i n l i m i t e d c i t i z e n involvement i n p e r i p h e r a l p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . E l i t e c r i t i c s note that the p l u r a l i s t concept of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s addressed to a m i n o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n , and f u r t h e r , tha t w i t h i n the dec i s ion-mak ing a r ena , a l l i a n c e s among e l i t e s produce a compe t i t i v e imba lance . S t a t i s t c r i t i c s deve -lop t h i s argument f u r t h e r by no t ing tha t a l l i a n c e s between s t a t e and i n d u s t r i a l i n t e r e s t s p rec lude an o b j e c t i v e d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s , r e s t r i c t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p u b l i c i n t e -r e s t groups and b r i n g i n g i n to q u e s t i o n the purpose of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . W i th in the context of the p u b l i c h e a r i n g , the c r i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t o r y l i t e r a t u r e c h a l -lenges the concept of a ba lance among p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and o ther competing i n t e r e s t s . In r e c o g n i z i n g the s t r u c t u r a l a l l i a n c e among s t a t e and co rpo ra te i n t e r e s t s , and the i n d i r e c t ex t ens ion of s t a t e c o n t r o l through s t a f f and procedures of the t r i b u n a l , the i m p a r t i a l i t y of the t r i b u n a l i s q u e s t i o n e d . From t h i s c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the hea r ing may be viewed as a means of c o n t r i b u t i n g to the l e g i t i m a c y of the s t a t e . I w i l l use t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e as a means of e x p l a i n i n g the con t rove r sy over the p u b l i c hea r ing p r o c e s s . 1.3 - Argument and O r g a n i z a t i o n of the D i s s e r t a t i o n I argue that the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the t r i b u n a l i s a product of contemporary l i b e r a l democracy. 13 F r o m t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e h e a r i n g i s v i e w e d a s s u p p l e m e n t a r y t o , y e t f o r m a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m , p a r l i a m e n t a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h e f o r u m i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f , a n d b a l a n c e a m o n g , c o m p e t i n g i n t e r e s t s . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s e n c o u r a g e d b o t h a s a m e a n s o f e n s u r i n g t h a t a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s w i l l b e r e p r e s e n t e d a n d a s a m e a n s o f b a l a n c i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t i n t e r e s t s . T r i b u n a l s r e f l e c t c o n t e m p o r a r y p l u r a l i s t p o l i c i e s o f g r e a t e r r e d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y t h r o u g h m e a s u r e s s u c h a s p u b l i c i n t e r e s t f u n d i n g a n d l e g a l a d v o c a c y s e r v i c e s . T h e t r i b u n a l i s t h e n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y w h i c h g u a r a n t e e s p u b l i c a c c e s s t o t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s o f g o v e r n m e n t . C o n t r o v e r s y o v e r t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y , f a i r n e s s , a n d i m p a r -t i a l i t y o f t h e t r i b u n a l s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p l u r a l i s t m o d e l i s n o t u p h e l d b y t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t e r v e n o r s . N o n e t h e l e s s , I a r g u e t h a t t h e g e n e r a l e x p e r i e n c e o f p u b l i c h e a -r i n g s d o e s c o n f o r m t o t h e i n t e n t o f p l u r a l i s t t h e o r y . B y a d o p -t i n g t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e c r i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t o r y l i t e r a t u r e , I w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e d e r i v e d f r o m a n d o b s c u r e d b y t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f p l u r a l i s t t h e o r y i t s e l f . F r o m t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e t r i b u n a l i s s e e n a s l o c a t e d w i t h i n a l i b e r a l a n d c a p i t a l i s t c o n t e x t w h i c h h a s c e r -t a i n c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r i t s a c t i v i t i e s . T h e p r o b l e m s o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t p a r t i c i p a n t s m u s t b e r e c o g n i z e d a s p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o -n o m i c i s s u e s o f c o m p e t i t i o n a n d p o w e r w h i c h o r i g i n a t e b e y o n d t h e t r i b u n a l , b u t w h i c h a f f e c t t h e c o m p e t i t i v e a b i l i t i e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n t h i s a n a l y s i s , a c o m p e t i t i v e i m b a l a n c e a m o n g t r i b u n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i s r e f l e c t e d b y s y s t e m a t i c a l l y g r e a t e r 14 a c c e s s i b i l i t y of co rpo ra te and b u r e a u c r a t i c i n t e r e s t s to h e a r i n g - a p p r o p r i a t e resources ( e . g . , f u n d i n g , advocacy s k i l l s , access to i n f o r m a t i o n ) . I t h e r e f o r e argue tha t p l u r a l i s t theory f a i l s to r ecogn ize the imbalance of compe t i t i on and the interdependence w i t h i n and between s t a t e and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l i n t e r e s t s which e x i s t as f e a -tu res of the t r i b u n a l . A l though inc reased a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the forum, and movement to e q u a l i z a t i o n of p rocedu ra l o p p o r t u n i t y have been g e n e r a l l y acknowledged, e x t e r n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s of s o -c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n have not been recogn ized as imped i -ments to a f a i r and compe t i t i v e hea r ing p r o c e s s . In a d d i t i o n , the ex i s t ence of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a l l i a n c e s w i t h i n which the t r i b u n a l i s l o c a t e d i s not t r e a t e d as a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the dec i s ion-mak ing p r o c e s s . From a p a r t i c i p a t o r y c r i t i q u e , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the hea r ing i s r ecogn ized as u s e f u l , not on l y fo r e x p l i c i t and immediate r e g u l a t o r y and c o n s u l t a t i v e purposes but fo r s t a t e l e g i t i m a t i o n and c o n t r o l . The conf inement of p a r t i c i p a t i o n to an i n fo rma t i on-gene ra t i ng r o l e in the t r i b u -n a l , and the use of the hea r ing to d i r e c t , absorb and c o n t a i n p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t s to the r e l a t e d , i f d i v e r s e , i n t e r e s t s of the s t a t e , are c o n s i s t e n t wi th t h i s a n a l y s i s . I w i l l e va lua te the gene ra l compatab i1 i t y of the hea r ing p rocess wi th the p l u r a l i s t model through the a n a l y s i s of case s t u d i e s of s c i e n t i f i c / t e c h n i c a l / e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s sues d i s c u s s e d i n two major types of t r i b u n a l s . The e m p i r i c a l ev idence which I have s e l e c t e d i s comprised of two case s t u d i e s of p u b l i c p a r t i -c i p a t i o n i n env i ronmenta l h e a r i n g s . The f i r s t , a s e r i e s of 15 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h e a r i n g s , concerned the use of the h e r b i c i d e 2,4-D in the Okanagan Lake system of B r i t i s h Columbia as a c o n t r o l f o r Eu ras i an water m i l f o i l . The hea r ings appea l i ng the use of t h i s chemica l were he ld annua l l y before the P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l Appea l Board from 1978 through 1981. These hea r ings are p r e s c r i b e d by l e g i s l a t i o n as a d i r e c t means fo r c i t i z e n i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e s s . The second p u b l i c hea r ing which I s e l e c t e d was the Royal Commission of I nqu i r y i n to Uranium M i n i n g , a Royal Commission of I nqu i r y which took p l ace in B r i t i s h Columbia from 1979-1980, when i t s F i n a l Report was r e l eased by the p r o v i n c i a l gove rn -ment. The government i n i t i a t e d t h i s i n q u i r y in response to p u b l i c concern over the fu tu re of uranium e x p l o r a t i o n and mining i n the p r o v i n c e . The t r i b u n a l was c a n c e l l e d prema-t u r e l y , in c o n j u n c t i o n wi th a seven-year moratorium on uranium e x p l o r a t i o n . In my a n a l y s i s I assess each hea r ing as an a p p l i c a t i o n of the p l u r a l i s t model of democracy. The o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r o c e -dures of these hea r ings are assumed to conform t o , or d i f f e r f rom, a p l u r a l i s t model of p a r t i c i p a t i o n which I a r t i c u l a t e in the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . Conformi ty to the model i n d i c a t e s that the p r a c t i c e of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the hea r ing i s democra-t i c , w i t h i n the parameters of l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l t heo r y . The t r i b u n a l ' s f a i l u r e to conform to the model can be exp l a i ned as a shor tcoming of the t r i b u n a l . T h i s a n a l y s i s i s l i m i t e d to a c e r t a i n extent by both me thodo log i ca l and t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The two case s t u d i e s have been s e l e c t e d and s tud i ed as " i d e a l t y p e s " of 16 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c o n s u l t a t i v e t r i b u n a l s , yet the d i v e r s i t y of t r i b u n a l s , the q u a n t i t y and v a r i e t y of d a t a , and d i f f e r e n t i a l exper i ence of p a r t i c i p a n t s p r e c l udes d e f i n i t i v e g e n e r a l i z a -t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , i t must be noted that the p a r t i c i p a t o r y c r i t i q u e has been invoked as a means of e x p l a i n i n g the i n a d e -quacy of p l u r a l i s t theory and of e x p l o r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s to p l u r a l i s t t heo r y , ra ther than as a t h e o r e t i c a l model in i t s own r i g h t . W i th in the parameters of t h i s r e s e a r c h , .I argue tha t a l though t r i b u n a l exper ience g e n e r a l l y conforms to the p l u r a -l i s t model , the i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of l i b e r a l democrat i c theory tends to minimize the problems of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and e f f e c t i v e l y l i m i t s the more ex tens i ve d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n of the t r i b u n a l . In t h i s f i r s t c h a p t e r , I have in t roduced the p u b l i c h e a -r i n g w i t h i n the contex t of the popu la r deba te , and have i n t e r -p re ted the problem as r e f l e c t i n g a l a r g e r p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o v e r -s y . In Chapter Two, I review and ana lyze democra t i c theory with r espec t to p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and generate a p l u r a l i s t model of hea r ing p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In Chapter Three I d i s c u s s the data and methodology adopted fo r the a n a l y s i s . Fo l l ow ing t h i s , I i n t roduce the two case s t u d i e s by b r i e f l y d e s c r i b i n g each of them, d i s c u s s i n g the i s sues which they add re s s , and p r o v i d i n g a b r i e f chrono logy of the events which were the impetus fo r and contex t to the h e a r i n g s . In Chapters Four through Seven, I ana lyze the d a t a , f o l -lowing the c r i t e r i a proposed by the p l u r a l i s t model . In Chap-t e r Fou r , I d i s c u s s the he t e rogene i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and 17 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p u b l i c , and assess the he t e rogene i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s in the h e a r i n g . Chapters F i ve and S ix examine the p r o c e d u r a l n e u t r a l i t y of the hea r ing p r o c e s s . In Chapter Seven I d i s c u s s the i m p a r t i a l i t y of the dec i s ion-mak ing p r o c e s s . Chapter E i gh t conc ludes the D i s s e r t a t i o n . Here I summarize the f i n d i n g s of the r e s e a r c h , and d i s c u s s the i m p l i c a t i o n s of my a n a l y s i s f o r p l u r a l i s t t heo r y , the p r a c t i c e of h e a r i n g s , and a democra t i c p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . 1.4-Review of the L i t e r a t u r e The i s sue of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the p u b l i c hea r ing has been addressed by the academic l i t e r a t u r e in a number of ways, which i n c l ude both e m p i r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d i e s . There i s l i t t l e i n t e g r a t i o n of the e m p i r i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of the p u b l i c hea r ing wi th the t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a p o l i t i c a l framework. Most of the r e l a t e d work addresses e i t h e r the p a r t i c i p a t o r y p r o c e s s , o_r the p u b l i c h e a r i n g , but f a i l s to connect the two. T h i s s e p a r a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s ' to f o rmu l a t i ons of the a c t i v i t y in r e s t r i c t i v e and mutua l l y e x c l u -s i v e te rms. The a n a l y s i s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n s u f f e r s from a l ack of d e f i -n i t i o n and c o n s i s t e n c y , and sys t emat i c at tempts to p resen t data o f t en ignore the l a r g e r p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l framework (Sadler 1978 :2 ) . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s consequent l y t r ea t ed apar t from the t h e o r e t i c a l and even s u b s t a n t i v e con tex ts in which i t takes p l a c e . D e s c r i p t i v e l i t e r a t u r e remains j u s t t h a t , f a i l i n g to i n c o r p o r a t e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s in i t s a n a l y s i s . I t thus t r e a t s s p e c i f i c problems a s s o c i a t e d wi th p a r t i c i p a t i o n as t r i -b u n a l - s p e c i f i c , r a the r than r e c o g n i z i n g the r a t i o n a l e fo r and 18 problems of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as o r i g i n a t i n g in a l a r g e r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t . The e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i s p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d to a n a l y s i s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and procedures of the h e a r i n g . W r i t e r s in the f i e l d s of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Law, and P lann ing view hear ings as ins t ruments of d e c i s i o n - or po l i c y-mak ing (Doern 1979, E lde r 1976; Emond 1975) . T h e i r emphasis i s on the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or l e g a l con tex t in which the p u b l i c hea r ing i s l o c a t ed and the d e c i s i o n i s produced by the t r i b u n a l . By p l a c i n g the t r i b u n a l w i t h i n the framework of the l a r g e r p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , obse rve rs a l so comment on the inadequac ies of the hea r ing to accompl i sh c e r t a i n i n s t rumen ta l goa l s ( Sa l t e r 1978; Lucas 1976; Pape 1978; H e b e r l e i n 1976) . The e m p i r i c a l work f a i l s to l o ca t e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the contex t of democra t i c t heo r y , thus i g n o -r i n g the impetus f o r , and l a r g e r p o l i t i c a l contex t o f , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e a l so i n c l u d e s s t u d i e s of s p e c i f i c examples of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , which range from town meetings to a d v i s o r y commit tees . One approach compares the products of the hea r i ngs to those of a l t e r n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t o r y modes (Burton 1978) . A s i m i l a r approach i s the e v a l u a t i o n of comparat ive 6 methods of p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Sadler 1978). T h i s l i t e r a t u r e a l s o n e g l e c t s the l a r g e r p o l i t i c a l and economic framework of p a r t i -c i p a t i o n , and tends to emphasize the i n s t rumen ta l goa l s ( e . g . , r e p o r t s , recommendations) of the p a r t i c i p a t o r y p r o c e s s . Another body of e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e l e van t to the t h e s i s i s tha t o r i e n t e d to the s u b s t a n t i v e nature of the i s sues 19 d e l i b e r a t e d b y t h e t r i b u n a l , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h o s e o f a n e n v i r o n -m e n t a l , s c i e n t i f i c a n d t e c h n i c a l n a t u r e . I s s u e s i n t h e s e r e a l m s a r e p e r c e i v e d a s s t i m u l a t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a s t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t (OECD) n o t e d i n i t s s t u d y o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n : I n c r e a s i n g l y a w a r e o f t h e s c a l e o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l u n d e r t a -k i n g s a n d o f t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i m p a c t s , p e o p l e a r e p r e o c c u -p i e d a b o u t d a n g e r s a n d r i s k s a n d t h e e t h i c a l d i l e m m a o f w h o s h o u l d s h a r e t h e m . L i m i t e d a c c e s s t o t e c h n i c a l f o -r u m s o f d e b a t e h a s r o u s e d p u b l i c s u s p i c i o n s a n d i n s p i r e d d e m a n d s f o r p o l i t i c a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y ( 1 9 7 8 : 1 1 ) . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d o m a i n s c h a r a c t e r -i z e d b y s c i e n t i f i c a n d t e c h n i c a l k n o w l e d g e h a v e b e e n a d d r e s s e d b y s o m e o b s e r v e r s ( L o w r a n c e 1 9 7 6 ; OECD 1 9 7 8 ; S a l t e r 1 9 8 1 ) . H o w e v e r , t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c n a t u r e o f t h e i s s u e s i n v e s t i g a t e d b y t r i b u n a l s h a v e b e e n i g n o r e d b y t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . W h i l e t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n c l u d e s b o t h s u p p o r t i v e a n d c r i t i c a l a p p r o a c h e s t o c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g , c e r -t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e r t a i n t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f e m p i r i c a l a n a l -y s e s . F i r s t , t h e l i t e r a t u r e c o n v e y s a r e f o r m i s t a p p r o a c h t o i t s s u b j e c t m a t t e r . I t a s s u m e s t h a t s p e c i f i c a n d p r a g m a t i c c h a n g e s i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l h e a r i n g w i l l f a c i l i t a t e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d r e n d e r t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g m o r e e f f e c t i v e . P r o v i s i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l f u n d i n g m e c h a n i s m s a n d p u b l i c a d v o c a c y s e r v i c e s p r o m i s e g r e a t e r e q u a l i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t o r y o p p o r t u n i t y . S e c o n d , t h e l i t e r a t u r e t e n d s t o s u f f e r f r o m a l a c k o f d e s -c r i p t i v e w o r k . A l t h o u g h c a s e s t u d i e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e f r e -q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d , t h e s e l a c k a n e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e e n g a g e d . T h e l i t e r a t u r e 20 assumes tha t the p rocess of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s known and under -s t o o d , and proceeds to g l o s s the " m i c r o - a c t i v i t i e s " and p r e -l i m i n a r y a c t i v i t i e s of i n t e r v e n t i o n wi th more a b s t r a c t terms (such a s , i ndeed , " p a r t i c i p a t i o n " ) . The conc re te and more mun-dane aspec ts of p a r t i c i p a t i o n remain undocumented, c o n t r i b u t i n g to the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the a c t i v i t y in an i d e a l i z e d , or c o n j e c t u r a l f a s h i o n . T h i r d , the l i t e r a t u r e pe rpe tua tes the image of the p u b l i c hea r ing as an independent , ad hoc and a p o l i t i c a l forum. The temporary s t a f f and s t r u c t u r e s , the l ack of d i r e c t d e c i s i o n -making power, and the absence of adequate l e g i s l a t i o n govern ing i t s p rocedures c o n t r i b u t e to the h e a r i n g ' s image as s p o r a d i c and un ique . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l cha rac t e r of the hea r ing remains undeve loped. F o u r t h , the ma jo r i t y of s t u d i e s , even those tha t are adequate l y d e s c r i p t i v e , l ack a t h e o r e t i c a l context ( S ad l e r , 1978) . S ince they are p r i m a r i l y accounts of i s sues and o r g a n i -z a t i o n , they neg l e c t the placement of p resent problems w i t h i n the p e r s p e c t i v e of gene ra l models . The subsequent p e r s p e c t i v e promotes a narrowness of v i s i o n , a l ack of overv iew, as w e l l as a tendency fo r obse rve rs to produce an a h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s . Moreover , the l ack of t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s combined wi th the l ack of a s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . The l i t e r a t u r e i g -nores the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , that i s , the i n t e r a c t i o n and s o c i a l l o c a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s in the hear ing p r o c e s s . I t r a r e l y addresses the hea r ing as an i n s t i t u t i o n which i s the product of s o c i a l and economic f o r c e s . A d m i n i s -t r a t i v e and l e g a l obse rve rs tend to view the hea r ing as a 21 b u r e a u c r a t i c and t e c h n i c a l p r o c e s s , r a the r than one mediated by a s o c i a l o r d e r , and i t s e l f a s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . F i n a l l y , there i s a tendency to a t tend to the problems of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n terms of s p e c i f i c and i n d i v i d u a l hea r ings (Ab-bo t t 1980; Wigmore 1980) . Problems of s p e c i f i c t r i b u n a l s are t r e a t e d as i f l o c a t e d i n h i s t o r i c a l c i r cumstance and the p e r -s o n a l i t y of Commiss ioners , r a the r than in i n s t i t u t i o n a l f e a -t u r e s . E v a l u a t i o n s of s p e c i f i c t r i b u n a l s promote the i n d i v i -d u a l i z a t i o n of the h e a r i n g . For i t s p a r t , the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e tends to ignore the p u b l i c hea r ing as a forum of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The p l u r a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e assumed by the contemporary democra t i c l i t e r a t u r e d i r e c t s the ma jo r i t y of d e s c r i p t i v e and a p p l i e d work to the e l e c t o r a l forum (Almond and Verba 1963; Dahl 1956, 1970; Rose 1967; Be re l son 1954). C r i t i c s of t h i s approach have extended the l o cus of p a r t i c i p a t i o n to the workp lace , (Hunnius 1971; Mansbridge 1979) , or s m a l l - s c a l e d e c e n t r a l i z e d government (Mansbridge 1979) . The ma jo r i t y of the t h e o r e t i c a l work exami -n ing p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a f e a tu r e of democracy thus f a i l s to address the unique problems a s s o c i a t e d with p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n the h e a r i n g . The e x i s t i n g work which does a t tend to hea r ings and p a r t i c i p a t i o n assumes an u n s p e c i f i e d democra t i c c o n t e x t , w i thout examining the v a r i e d t r a d i t i o n s of the p o l i t i -c a l system i n which i t takes p l a c e . Thus , the l i t e r a t u r e i n the area of p u b l i c involvement in the hea r ing f a i l s to i n t e g r a t e concepts of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the s p e c i f i c arena of the p u b l i c h e a r i n g . Both e m p i r i c a l and 22 t h e o r e t i c a l t r a d i t i o n s f a i l to take the other i n to accoun t . Th i s b i f u r c a t i o n in the l i t e r a t u r e makes i t not on l y d i f f i c u l t to eva lua te hea r ings in terms of t h e i r democrat i c a s p i r a t i o n s . I t i s a l so a problem fo r the development of an adequate p o l i t i -c a l theory which can r e f l e c t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e x t r a -e l e c t o r a l forms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , such as the p u b l i c h e a r i n g . 1.5- C o n t r i b u t i o n s of the D i s s e r t a t i o n The d i s s e r t a t i o n has both t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l s i g n i -f i c a n c e . I address the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e through an a n a l y -s i s of a p p l i e d p l u r a l i s t democra t i c t heo r y . As I noted above, both p l u r a l i s t theory and i t s c r i t i c s have neg l ec t ed e m p i r i c a l documentat ion of e x t r a - e l e c t o r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . By address ing e m p i r i c a l p r a c t i c e from the p e r s p e c t i v e of p o l i t i c a l t heo r y , the d i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to the r e f o r m u l a t i o n and the c r i t i c a l assessment of a p a r t i c i p a t o r y democra t i c theo ry . I a l so c o n t r i b u t e to the e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e by p r o v i d i n g a more ex tens i ve d e s c r i p t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s , which i s exc luded from most formal a c coun t s ; moreover , I have adopted a t h e o r e t i c a l framework which p rov ides a means of a s s e s s i n g other examples of p a r t i c i p a t i o n wi th respec t to t h e i r democra-t i c p o t e n t i a l . Thus I have augmented both the t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e by p r o v i d i n g a s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n which takes i n to account the p r o d u c t i o n of the hea r ing i n a s o c i e t y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i f f e r e n c e s in c l a s s and power. T h i s speaks to the n e c e s s i t y of an approach which encompasses the p o l i t i c a l and economic con tex ts of an a c t i v i t y . The work i s a l so d i r e c t e d to pragmat ic conce rns . C a l l s fo r more e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n cannot be answered u n t i l the na-23 t u r e o f e x i s t i n g c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t i s b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d . G i v e n d e m a n d s f o r a d d i t i o n a l h e a r i n g s a n d f o r m o r e e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a n d t h e p r o p h e c y o f c o n t i n u i n g i m p e n d i n g e n v i -r o n m e n t a l c o n f l i c t , a n a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e h e a r i n g a s a n i n s t i t u -t i o n i s n e e d e d ( F r a n s o n a n d L u c a s 1 9 7 5 ; OECD 1 9 7 8 ) . My a n a l y -s i s p r o v i d e s a m e a n s o f a s s e s s i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d i m p l e -m e n t a t i o n o f h e a r i n g s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d p l a n n i n g a u d i e n -c e s . R e a d e r s i n t h e s e a n d o t h e r a p p l i e d d i s c i p l i n e s , a s w e l l a s m e m b e r s o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l f i n d i n t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n a m e a n s o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e h e a r i n g a s a s o c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d a n d d e m o c r a t i c a l l y d e r i v e d f o r u m f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I T h e M a c k e n z i e V a l l e y P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y ( M a r c h 1 9 7 5 t o M a y 1 9 7 7 ) w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t o a s s e s s t h e s o c i a l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l , a n d e c o n o -m i c i m p a c t o f a g a s p i p e l i n e a n d e n e r g y c o r r i d o r o n t h e N o r t h . T h e A l a s k a H i g h w a y P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y ( A p r i l 1 9 7 7 t o A u g u s t 1 9 7 7 ) w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t o r e p o r t o n s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e p r o p o s e d A l a s k a H i g h w a y g a s p i p e l i n e . T h e W e s t C o a s t O i l P o r t s I n q u i r y w a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n M a r c h 1 9 7 7 , b u t t e r m i n a t e d p r e m a t u r e l y , a n d d e l i v e r e d i t s R e p o r t i n F e b r u a r y , 1 9 7 8 . I t w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t o a s s e s s t h e i m p a c t o f p r o p o s e d o i l p o r t s o n t h e W e s t C o a s t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 2 T h e l e g a l s t r u c t u r e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d c o n s u l t a t i v e t r i b u -n a l s w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e . 3 T h i s p o s i t i o n w i l l b e e x p l o r e d m o r e f u l l y i n C h a p t e r I I . I t i s d i s c u s s e d b y s u c h w r i t e r s a s M a c p h e r s o n ( 1 9 7 7 ) ; M a r c h a k ( 1 9 8 1 ) ; a n d P a t e m a n ( 1 9 7 0 ) . 4 A n u m b e r o f o b s e r v e r s h a v e d o c u m e n t e d t h e f o r m a l c o m m i t m e n t o f t h e T r u d e a u L i b e r a l g o v e r n m e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e m o c r a c y ( C h a p i n a n d D e n e a u 1 9 7 8 ; D r a p e r 1 9 7 8 ; L o n e y 1 9 7 7 ) . 5 C h e c k o w a y ( 1 9 8 1 ) p r o v i d e s n u m e r o u s e x a m p l e s a n d s o u r c e s o f t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f h e a r i n g s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 6 One e x a m p l e i s S a d l e r ' s s e a r c h f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n m e t h o d s i n t h r e e a r e a s : t h e r e c r u i t m e n t a n d i n -v o l v e m e n t o f t h e p u b l i c ; t h e a n a l y s i s a n d u t i l i z a t i o n o f p u b l i c i n p u t ; a n d t h e l a c k o f e v a l u a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m s ( 1 9 7 8 : 5 - 6 ) . 24 CHAPTER 2 DEMOCRATIC THEORY AND THE CONCEPT OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 2 . 1 - I n t r o d u c t i o n An e x a m i n a t i o n o f d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y r e v e a l s t h a t p o p u l a r d e b a t e c o n c e r n i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e , p u r p o s e , and means o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e h e a r i n g p a r a l l e l s a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n f l i c t among d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s o f democracy. I w i l l l o c a t e h e a r i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n t h e p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t o f d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y t o e x p l a i n t h e h e a r i n g c o n t r o v e r s y as one r e f l e c t i n g i s s u e s o f s o c i a l , e c onomic and p o l i t i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , I p r o v i d e a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f t h e c o n c e p t o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as i t o r i g i n a t e d and e v o l v e d i n t h e o r i e s o f d e m o c r a t i c g o v e r n -ment. I examine t h e r o o t s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f p a r t i c i p a t o r y d emocracy, and r e v i e w t h e emergence and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c o n -t e m p o r a r y p l u r a l i s t d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y . C r i t i c i s m s d i r e c t e d to t h i s t h e o r y a r e t h e n r e v i e w e d and i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the p u b l i c h e a r i n g c o n t r o v e r s y . I t h e n d i s c u s s t h e e v o l u t i o n o f c o n t e m p o r a r y C a n a d i a n p l u r a l i s m w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g and t h e r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e s s . I c o n c l u d e by f o r m u l a t i n g a p l u r a l i s t model o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g . The model p r e s e n t s c r i t e r i a a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h t h e c a s e s t u d i e s 25 w i l l be examined in l a t e r c h a p t e r s . 2 . 1 - H i s t o r i c a l P recedents f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n Democracy i s the w o r l d ' s new u n i v e r s a l r e l i g i o n . When i t s dogmas of l i b e r t y , e q u a l i t y , s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and human r i g h t s are v i o l a t e d so o f t e n and so ba rba rous -l y ; and the f a i t h f u l t end , as e ve r , to be fewer than the f a i t h l e s s , then i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g tha t we have, and ought to have, gene ra t i ons of t heo l og i ans t r y i n g to shape and c l a r i f y the democrat i c canon (Corcoran 1983:15) . A l though contemporary l i b e r a l democra t i c theory pe r c e i v e s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as l a r g e l y d i r e c t e d to the e l e c t o r a l p r o -c e s s , there are precedents fo r an ex tens i ve and d i r e c t p u b l i c involvement in government. The form, n a t u r e , and extent of 1 p u b l i c involvement have been debated fo r c e n t u r i e s . Corcoran c i t e s the c l a s s i c a l Greek s tandard of democracy, " the l aw fu l 2 r u l e of the many in the i n t e r e s t of the community" (1983:13) . P a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy r e f e r s to government in which c i t i z e n s e x e r c i s e some degree of power and c o n t r o l through t h e i r p a r t i -c i p a t i o n . E a r l y democra t i c theory i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an emphasis on ex tens i ve p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Corcoran 1983) . Rousseau argued tha t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the democra t i c p rocess developed pe r sona l f a c u l t i e s and f u r t h e r e d the educa t ion of the communi-t y . S o c i e t y was respons i ve to the needs of i t s c i t i z e n s ; they in tu rn a t tended w i l l i n g l y to c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the commonweal (Pateman 1970:22-27) . Rousseau 's S o c i a l C o n t r a c t , w r i t t e n in 1762, i n t roduced a r a d i c a l concept of popu la r s o v e r e i g n t y , one which took the r u l i n g f o r ce i n government to be the people themselves r a the r than a monarchy or an i n s t i t u t i o n such as P a r l i amen t . Rep resen ta t i on was an a l i e n a t i o n of t h i s sove -r e i g n t y : "The depu t i e s of the people t h e r e f o r e , are n o t , and 26 c a n n o t b e i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s : t h e y a r e m e r e l y i t s s t e w a r d s , a n d c a n c a r r y t h r o u g h no d e f i n i t i v e a c t s " ( R o u s s e a u 1 9 6 8 : 1 4 1 ) . He e n c o u r a g e d d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w h i c h w a s t o be e n a c t e d t h r o u g h l e g i s l a t i o n b y p e r i o d i c a s s e m b l i e s o f t h e p e o p l e , a n d t h r o u g h c o n t i n u i n g a n d p e r v a s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f i s s u e s . T h e c o m p l e x c i v i l a s s o c i a t i o n e n v i s i o n e d b y R o u s s e a u w a s " c a p a b l e o f p a s s i n g l a w s a d m i n i s t e r i n g p o l i c i e s a n d e s t a b l i s h i n g i n s t i -t u t i o n s o f r e l i g i o n , e d u c a t i o n a n d c e n s o r s h i p ( C o r c o r a n 1 9 8 3 : 4 ) . R o u s s e a u ' s t h e o r y r e q u i r e s p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y , w h i c h i s r e f l e c t e d b y t h e c o n c e p t o f a l l c i t i z e n s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i r g o v e r n m e n t . H i s d e m o c r a c y i s p r e d i c a t e d o n a c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y , w h e r e e c o n o m i c e q u a l i t y ( t h r o u g h a c o m m o n b a s i s o f p r o p e r t y o w n e r s h i p ) a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e a r e t h e c o r n e r s t o n e s : " N o c i t i z e n s h a l l b e r i c h e n o u g h t o b u y a n o t h e r a n d n o n e s o p o o r a s t o b e f o r c e d t o s e l l h i m s e l f " ( 1 9 6 8 : 9 6 ) . R o u s s e a u ' s f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e i n e q u a l i t i e s o f s o c i a l c l a s s h a s b e e n a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . H i s t h e o r y i s d i r e c t e d t o t h e p r e - i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n - s t a t e , a n d t h e c o n c e p t o f d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s r e g a r d e d t o d a y a s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r l a r g e -s c a l e , c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t e m p o r a r y g o v e r n m e n t . I n a s i m i l a r s p i r i t , A m e r i c a n d e m o c r a c y w a s c o n c e i v e d b y T h o m a s J e f f e r s o n a s a h i g h l y p a r t i c i p a t o r y g o v e r n m e n t ( A r o n 1 9 6 8 ) . J e f f e r s o n ' s a g r a r i a n m o d e l p r o v i d e d a d e c e n t r a l i z e d b a s i s f o r e l e c t o r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , b y w h i c h a l l c i t i z e n s c o u l d d i r e c t l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . A l e x i s d e T o c q u e v i l l e , i n h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e A m e r i c a n d e m o c r a t i c 27 e x p e r i e n c e , emphasized i t s ex tens i ve p a r t i c i p a t o r y b a s i s . T o c q u e v i l l e saw American democracy to be d i s t i n c t i v e i n i t s " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n a n d . . . . a s s o c i a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y " (Krouse 1983:71 ) . Loca l democracy, e . g . , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n mun i c i pa l bod ies and vo lun ta r y a s s o c i a t i o n in o r g a n i z a t i o n s , pe rm i t t ed American c i t i z e n s to p a r t i c i p a t e d i r e c t l y in the com-mon a f f a i r s of everyday l i f e . T o c q u e v i l l e f o l l ows Rousseau 's i d e a l s of d i r e c t , p o p u l i s t , d e c e n t r a l i z e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n wi th deve lopmenta l and normat ive assumptions f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i z i n g h i s obse r va t i ons of American democracy: . . . . t r u l y p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy i s f i r s t and foremost a p rocess of p o l i t i c a l educa t ion gene ra t i ng the i n t e l l i -gence and p u b l i c s p i r i t , the "moeurs " , necessary to s u s -t a i n a r e p u b l i c a n p o l i t y — . . . . c r e a t i n g wiser and b e t t e r human be ings (Krouse 1983:74-75) . John S tua r t M i l l con t inued to e l abo ra t e the p a r t i c i p a t o r y 3 and deve lopmenta l a t t r i b u t e s of democrat i c t heo r y . M i l l ' s c o n -cepts are invoked today by those who e x t o l the e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l v i r t u e s of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Pateman 1970; Gutmann 1980). C i t i n g i nc reased p u b l i c knowledge and community cohe -s i on as by-products of c i t i z e n involvement in dec i s i on-mak ing , M i l l noted the e d u c a t i o n a l and moral b e n e f i t s of a p a r t i c i p a t o -ry c l i m a t e . He argued t h a t : . . . . t h e on l y government which can f u l l y s a t i s f y a l l the e x i g e n c i e s of the s o c i a l s t a t e i s one i n which the whole people p a r t i c i p a t e ; that any p a r t i c i p a t i o n , even i n the s m a l l e s t p u b l i c f u n c t i o n , i s u s e f u l , that the p a r t i c i p a -t i o n shou ld everywhere be as great as the genera l degree of improvement of the community w i l l a l l o w , and tha t noth ing l e s s can be u l t i m a t e l y d e s i r a b l e than the admis -s i on of a l l (1910:217) . He thus suggested g rea te r p a r t i c i p a t i o n at the l o c a l p o l i t i c a l l e v e l and in the workp lace . I n d u s t r i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n would 28 t r a n s f o r m h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y t o o n e s o f c o o p -e r a t i o n o r e q u a l i t y ( 1 9 6 5 : 7 7 5 ) . P a r t i c i p a t i o n w a s f o r M i l l a m o r a l e n d e a v o r , r e s u l t i n g i n " t h e a d v a n c e m e n t o f c o m m u n i t y . . . i n i n t e l l e c t , i n v i r t u e , a n d i n p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y a n d e f f i c i e n c y " ( M a c p h e r s o n 1 9 7 7 : 4 7 ) . T h e w o r k o f R o u s s e a u a n d J . S . M i l l e m p h a s i z e d t h e e x t e n -s i v e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e p u b l i c i n a r a n g e o f p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s , a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l f u n c t i o n s o f t h i s a c t i v i t y . O t h e r t h e o r i s t s a t t r a c t e d t o a n e x t e n s i o n a n d d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w e r e a l a r m e d a b o u t t h e o l i g a r c h i c a l a n d s t a -t i s t t e n d e n c i e s o f g o v e r n m e n t . I n a n a n a r c h i s t v e r s i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a p p e a r e d i n l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y F r a n c e , P r o u d h o n c a l l e d f o r a d e c e n t r a l i z e d s c h e m e o f c o l l e c t i v e l y r u n p r o d u -c e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s , i n w h i c h a l l w o r k e r s w o u l d a c t a s c o -p r o p r i e t o r s ( R e s n i c k 1 9 7 3 : 7 2 ) . L i k e P r o u d h o n , M a r x w a s c o n -c e r n e d w i t h t h e i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y o f s t a t e r u l e a n d p u b l i c p a r t i -c i p a t i o n ( A r o n 1 9 6 8 : 3 3 1 ) . M a r x r e f e r s t o t h e P a r i s Commune a s a n e x a m p l e o f a d i r e c t p r o l e t a r i a n d e m o c r a c y . He e m p h a s i z e s t h e e l e c t o r a l b a s i s , d e c e n t r a l i z e d a n d e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y c h a r a c t e r , a n d w o r k i n g - c l a s s c o m p o s i t i o n ( a n d w a g e s ) o f t h i s 4 g o v e r n m e n t ( 1 9 4 0 : 5 4 - 6 9 ) . L e v i n o b s e r v e s t h a t a M a r x i s t p e r -s p e c t i v e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e f l e c t s t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m , a n d t h a t f o r M a r x a r e v o l u t i o n a r y s i t u a -t i o n : . . . . e v e n t u a l l y l e a d s t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s o c i a l i s t s y s t e m w h i c h b o t h r e l i e s o n a n d f a c i l i t a t e s t h e f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e p o p u l a r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( 1 9 8 3 : 9 3 ) . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s c e n t r a l t o t h i s e v o l v i n g t r a d i t i o n o f d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y . H o w e v e r , t h e i d e a l i s t i c , o r " u t o p i a n " ( M a c -29 p h e r s o n ) q u a l i t y o f t h i s t h e o r y h a s p r e v e n t e d i t s w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e b y c o n t e m p o r a r y p o l i t i c a l t h e o r i s t s . T h e c l a s s i c a l p a r t i c i p a t o r y p e r s p e c t i v e h a s b e e n g e n e r a t e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p r e - i n d u s t r i a l , a g r a r i a n , o r c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t i e s , w h i c h p r e s e n t s o b s t a c l e s f o r i t s c o n t e m p o r a r y a p p l i c a t i o n i n l a r g e -s c a l e , p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l ( s p e c i a l i z e d a n d b u r e a u c r a t i c ) c l a s s -d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s o c i e t i e s . N o n e t h e l e s s , p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y c o n t i n u e s t o e v o l v e . T h r e e a r e a s i n w h i c h t h e o r i e s a n d a p p l i c a t i o n s o f p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e m o c r a c y h a v e b e e n m o r e r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p e d a r e p o l i c y / p l a n n i n g , l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t , a n d i n d u s t r i a l o r w o r k p l a c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g -r a m s i n u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t w e r e d e v e l o p e d u n d e r t h e K e n n e d y a n d J o h n s o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s ( R i c h a n d R o s e n b a u m 1 9 8 1 ) . A m a n d a t e f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p u b l i c p o l i c y w a s e x p r e s s e d i n C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t p r o g r a m s o f t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s a n d e a r l y 1 9 7 0 ' s ( C h a p i n a n d D e n e a u 1 9 7 8 ) . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w a s e x p a n d e d i n g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s a s w e l l a s v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h r o u g h p r o g r a m s s u c h a s t h e C o m p a n y o f Y o u n g C a n a d i a n s ( 1 9 6 5 ) , L o c a l I n i t i a t i v e P r o j e c t s a n d f u n d i n g t o o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h a s t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f H u m a n R i g h t s a n d t h e C i v i l L i b e r t i e s A s s o c i a t i o n ( L o n e y 1 9 7 7 ) . A n o t h e r f o c u s o f c o n t e m p o r a r y p a r t i c i p a t o r y t h e o r y i s l o -c a l , s m a l l - s c a l e g o v e r n m e n t . M a n s b r i d g e , i n h e r s t u d y o n s m a l l - t o w n a n d w o r k p l a c e d e m o c r a c i e s n o t e s t w o f o r m s o f d e m o -c r a c y ( 1 9 7 9 ) . A d v e r s a r y d e m o c r a c y , f r o m h e r p e r s p e c t i v e , i s r e p u b l i c a n — l a r g e - s c a l e a n d c e n t r a l i z e d , a n d i t a s s u m e s a c o n -30 f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s . Un i t a r y democracy, on the other hand, i s a more h i g h l y p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e m o c r a c y — s m a l l - s c a l e , d e c e n t r a -l i z e d , and r e f l e c t s a commonality of i n t e r e s t s . Mansbridge advocates the r e c o g n i t i o n and adopt ion of u n i t a r y , or p a r t i c i -pa tory democra t i c p r a c t i c e s i n a d d i t i o n to those at the s t a t e / n a t i o n a l l e v e l : . . . . M y argument i s that we a c t u a l l y mean two d i f f e r e n t t h i ngs when we speak of " d e m o c r a c y " . . . . n e i t h e r c o n d i t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e under a l l c i r cumstances (1979: 7 ) . . . . . b y f o s t e r i n g d e c e n t r a l i z e d and h i g h l y p a r t i c i p a t i v e u n i t s , by ma in t a i n i ng a few c r u c i a l remnants of consen -sus , by i n s t i t u t i n g p r i m a r i l y coope ra t i v e economic r e l a -t i o n s , and by t r e a t i n g adversary methods not as a n . . . . i d e a l but as a . . . r e s o u r c e a na t i on can ma in ta in some of the c o n d i t i o n s fo r community, c omradesh ip . . . and i d e a l -ism (1979: 297) . Contemporary t h e o r i s t s advocate the ex tens ion of p a r t i c i -pa tory democra t i c p r a c t i c e s to the workplace (Mansbridge 1979; Gutmann 1980) . In October 1976, the Fede ra l government a n -nounced the Q u a l i t y of Working L i f e (QWL) programme fo r r e -forming i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s in Canada. Workers ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n was advocated on two l e v e l s : workplace reforms ( e . g . , job enr ichment and semi-autonomous work) and dec i s ion-mak ing i n management. A l though l a r g e l y c r i t i c a l of i t s f u n c t i o n s , Swartz notes t h a t , " . . . f o r m s of worker p a r t i c i p a t i o n mark r e a l advan -ces fo r working p e o p l e , extend ing past accompl ishments a n d . . . . 5 f u r t h e r i n g i n d u s t r i a l democracy, even s o c i a l i s m " (1981:55) . P a r t i c i p a t o r y democra t i c t h e o r i e s cont inue to emphasize the d i r e c t nature and deve lopmenta l f u n c t i o n s of c i t i z e n i n -vo lvement . The p u b l i c hea r ing con t rove r sy has emerged i n pa r t w i t h i n the con tex t of t h i s c o n t i n u i n g d i s c u s s i o n about the purpose and b e n e f i t s of p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy. C e r t a i n char-31 a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e h e a r i n g , s u c h a s i t s p r o v i s i o n f o r p u b l i c a c c e s s i b i l i t y a n d c o n c e r n f o r h u m a n i s t b e n e f i t s ( c o m m u n i t y c o h e s i o n , p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n ) h a v e b e e n d e r i v e d f r o m t h i s t r a d i -t i o n . H o w e v e r , o t h e r f e a t u r e s o f t h e h e a r i n g , s u c h a s t h e c o m p e t i t i o n o f i n t e r e s t s , n e u t r a l i t y o f p r o c e d u r e s , a n d o b j e c -t i v i t y o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , a r e f e a t u r e s o f t h e h e a r i n g w h i c h h a v e r o o t s i n a p l u r a l i s t t r a d i t i o n w i t h i n d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y . 2 . 3 - T h e E m e r g e n c e o f P l u r a l i s m P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a s s e r v e d a n u m b e r o f a d d i t i o n a l p u r p o s e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y a n d p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t d e s p o t i s m . T h e " p r o t e c t i v e " m o d e l o f d e m o c -r a c y w h i c h e m e r g e d i n 1 9 t h c e n t u r y E n g l a n d v i e w e d p u b l i c p a r t i -c i p a t i o n a s a m e a n s t o c o m b a t s t r o n g c e n t r a l i s t g o v e r n m e n t a n d p r o t e c t p r o p e r t i e d i n t e r e s t s ( M a c p h e r s o n 1 9 7 7 ) . J e r e m y B e n t h a m a n d J a m e s M i l l i n 1 8 2 0 e m p h a s i z e d t h e e l e c t o r a l p r o c e s s a s t h e m e a n s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , b u t o f f e r e d o n l y a r e s t r i c t e d f r a n c h i s e t o c e r t a i n ( m a t u r e , p r o p e r t i e d , e d u c a t e d ) s e g m e n t s o f t h e p o p u -l a t i o n . C o n c e r n w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s f r a n c h i s e , a n d w i t h t h e m e c h a n i c s o f t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r o c e s s h a v e c h a r a c t e r i z e d m a i n s t r e a m d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y t o t h i s d a y . T h e e m p h a s i s i n l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y d u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y w a s i n i t s p r a g m a t i c a t t r i b u t e s a n d t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s . T h e c o m p l e x n a t u r e o f i n d u s t r i a l a n d p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y w a s r e g a r d e d a s p r o b l e -m a t i c f o r d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . I n s t e a d , h i e r a r c h i c a l a n d o l i g a r c h i c a l s y s t e m s o f g o v e r n m e n t w e r e r e g a r -d e d a s m o r e s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p r e v a i l i n g l a r g e - s c a l e u r b a n i z e d , 3 2 c e n t r a l i z e d , a n d b u r e a u c r a t i c m o d e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n ( D u n c a n a n d L u k e s 1 9 6 7 ; P a t e m a n 1 9 7 0 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e t h r e a t o f t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m , a n d t h e e m p h a -s i s o n b a l a n c e a n d s t a b i l i t y c o n t r i b u t e d t o s o m e a p p r e h e n s i o n r e g a r d i n g e x t e n s i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n : T h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e W e i m a r R e p u b l i c , w i t h i t s h i g h r a t e s o f m a s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n t o f a s c i s m , a n d t h e p o s t -w a r e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t o t a l i t a r i a n r e g i m e s b a s e d o n m a s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a l b e i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n b a c k e d b y i n t i m i d a -t i o n a n d c o e r c i o n , u n d e r l a y t h e t e n d e n c y f o r ' p a r t i c i p a -t i o n ' t o b e c o m e l i n k e d t o t h e c o n c e p t o f t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m r a t h e r t h a n t h a t o f d e m o c r a c y ( P a t e m a n 1 9 7 0 : 2 ) . I n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t s w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s c o n -t r i b u t e d a s w e l l t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o n t e m p o r a r y p l u r a l i s t d e m o c r a c y . T h e e m e r g e n c e o f a n A m e r i c a n t r a d i t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e w i t h a n i d e o l o g i c a l t e n d e n c y f a v o u r i n g s o c i a l e q u i l i b -r i u m , a n d a m e t h o d o l o g y e m p h a s i z i n g e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n f l u e n c e d t h e e v o l u t i o n o f c o n t e m p o r a r y d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y ( B a y 1 9 6 7 ; D u n c a n a n d L u k e s 1 9 6 7 ; P a t e m a n 1 9 7 0 ) . J o s e p h S c h u m p e t e r , w h o s e w o r k i s t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r c o n -t e m p o r a r y p l u r a l i s t t h e o r y , e m p h a s i z e s t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a n d e l e c t o r a l b a s i s o f d e m o c r a c y : . . . . t h e r o l e o f t h e p e o p l e i s t o p r o d u c e a g o v e r n m e n t , o r e l s e a n i n t e r m e d i a t e b o d y w h i c h i n t u r n w i l l p r o d u c e a n a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e o r g o v e r n m e n t . . . t h e d e m o c r a t i c m e t h o d i s t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t f o r a r r i v i n g a t p o l i t i -c a l d e c i s i o n s i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s a c q u i r e t h e p o w e r t o d e c i d e b y m e a n s o f a c o m p e t i t i v e s t r u g g l e f o r t h e p e o p -l e ' s v o t e ( 1 9 4 3 : 2 6 9 ) . H i s t h e o r y r e v o l v e s a r o u n d t h e e l e c t o r a l p r o c e s s a n d t h e c o n -c e p t a n d p r a c t i c e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h e f r a n c h i s e o p e r a t e s t o m a i n t a i n g o v e r n m e n t ; e l e c t i o n s a r e a c o m p e t i t i v e s t r u g g l e a m o n g l e a d e r s f o r t h e p e o p l e ' s v o t e . W h i l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l l o w s f o r r u l e b y a n e l i t e , s e l e c t i o n o f d e l e g a t e s i s c o m p e t i t i v e a n d 33 occurs p e r i o d i c a l l y , thus a l l ow ing the r a t i f i c a t i o n or de fea t of l e a d e r s . E l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s are accountab le to a c o n -s t i t u e n c y through the e l e c t o r a l p r o c e s s . Once e l e c t e d , gove rn -ments shou ld be l e f t to r u l e (Dahl 1943: 291) . Schumpeter 's ideas were f u r t h e r deve loped by a number of w r i t e r s who a l s o viewed p a r t i c i p a t i o n as f u l f i l l e d by the e l e c -t o r a l p r o c e s s . C i t i z e n s v o t e , j o i n p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , and e l e c t and lobby r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , thereby c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r l e ade r s and produc ing an e f f e c t i v e government (Dahl 1956, 1961; Be re l son e t . a l . 1954; L i p s e t 1960; Almond and Verba 1965). The e l e c t o r a l p r o c e s s , a l though the "most p r a c t i c a l weapon i n the p l u r a l i s t armory" (Presthus 1970: 291) i s not the on l y weapon. Other a c t i v i t i e s such as r e f e r e n d a , task f o r c e s , and p u b l i c hea r ings supplement the e l e c t o r a l p r o c e s s , demonst ra t ing the respons i veness of government to p u b l i c p r e s s u r e , and i t s e f f e c -t i v e n e s s in d e a l i n g wi th i s s u e s . A g e n e r a l l y d i s i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c complements the democra-t i c p o l i t i c a l o r d e r . Dahl argues tha t lower soc ioeconomic groups are a p a t h e t i c , and s t a t e s tha t " p r e v a i l i n g norms are s u b t l e matters be t t e r ob ta ined by n e g o t i a t i o n than by the c r u d i t i e s and o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of p u b l i c debate (1961:321) . Apathy g i ves the system f l e x i b i l i t y (Freedman and Smith 1972:72 ) , p revents i t s c o l l a p s e beneath the s t r a i n s of excess i n p u t , and j u s t i f i e s the concept of minimal p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Morr is-Jones 1954:25-37) . M i l b r a t h n o t e s : . . . . m o d e r a t e l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the mass of c i t i -z e n s . . . . h e l p ba lance p o l i t i c a l systems which must be both r espons i ve and power fu l enough to a c t . . . . h i g h p a r t i c i p a -t i o n l e v e l s would a c t u a l l y be d e t r i m e n t a l to s o c i e t y i f 34 they tended to p o l i t i c i z e a l a rge percentage of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . . . . (1965: 153-4) . Low e x p e c t a t i o n s of p u b l i c involvement and concern fo r the pragmat ic aspec ts of government are compat ib le wi th t h i s fo rmu-l a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n : . . . . w h a t we c a l l ' democracy*—tha t i s , a system of d e c i -s ion-making i n which the l eade rs are more or l e s s r e s p o n -s i v e to the p r e f e r ences of non- leade rs—does seem to operate wi th a r e l a t i v e l y low l e v e l of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a -t i o n . Hence i t i s i naccu ra t e to say tha t one of the necessary c o n d i t i o n s fo r 'democracy ' i s ex tens i ve c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Duncan and Lukes 1967:168) . I n t e r e s t groups have r ep l aced the t r a d i t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a -l i s t focus of p l u r a l i s t theory (Presthus 1970:286) . O r g a n i z a -t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g heterogeneous and independent i n t e r e s t s such as c o r p o r a t i o n s , l a b o u r , the s t a t e , and the p u b l i c are a major source of p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t i v i t y . S cha t t s chne ide r fo r example r e f e r s to a " m u l t i p l i c i t y of i n t e r e s t s that i s somewhat a s t r o -nomica l in cha rac t e r and p r o p o r t i o n s " as a pr imary f e a tu r e of contemporary democra t i c s o c i e t y (1942:19) . A f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s w i l l m o b i l i z e on beha l f of t h e i r conce rns , ensur ing a ba lance i n the compe t i t i v e p r o c e s s : . . . . c o m p e t i t i o n among b ig b u s i n e s s , b ig l a b o r , and b ig government keeps each i n t e r e s t from misus ing i t s power. That the ma jo r i t y of c i t i z e n s and consumers a f f e c t e d by these g i a n t s remains unorgan ized i s not v i t a l , s ince they too cou ld o rgan ize i f they had the w i l l (Presthus 1970:284) . The a b i l i t y to m o b i l i z e resources in the compe t i t i v e s t r u g g l e i s dependent upon a number of v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g : . . . . t h e degree to which the i n t e r e s t group i s i n t e r n a l l y o r g a n i z e d , the q u a l i t y of l e a d e r s h i p . . . . , the c a p a c i t y of the i n t e r e s t group to fo rmula te a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y and present i t s i n t e r e s t s , the number of c i t i z e n s who are members of a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t group, ' and the needs of the i n t e r e s t group i n vo l ved (Card 1979:32 ) . 35 C o m p e t i t i o n a m o n g t h e s e i n t e r e s t s p r e v e n t s t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f a s i n g l e p o w e r a n d c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f a b a -l a n c e d g o v e r n m e n t , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a b r o a d a r r a y o f i n t e r e s t s ( S m i t h a n d F r e e d m a n 1 9 7 2 : 3 6 4 2 ) . T h e b a l a n c e o f t h e c o m p e t i t i v e p r o c e s s i s s t r u c t u r a l l y a s s u r e d b y t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f p o w e r s . T h u s , c o r p o r a t e i n t e r e s t s a r e o f f s e t i n t h e c o m p e t i t i v e a r e n a b y a d v e r s a r i e s s u c h a s p u b l i c i n t e r e s t g r o u p s . A s K o r n h a u s e r n o t e s i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r o l e o f i n t e r e s t g r o u p s : . . . . i n t e r m e d i a t e g r o u p s h e l p t o p r o t e c t e l i t e s b y f u n c t -i o n i n g a s c h a n n e l s t h r o u g h w h i c h p o p u l a r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y . . . . m a y b e d i r e c t e d a n d r e -s t r a i n e d . . . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s s p h e r e s o f s o c i e t y . . . . m e a n s t h a t a c c e s s t o e l i t e s i n o n e s p h e r e d o e s n o t d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e l i t e s i n o t h e r s p h e r e s . . . T h e s e s a m e f a c t o r s p r o t e c t n o n - e l i t e s f r o m e -l i t e s , s i n c e i n d e p e n d e n t g r o u p s g u a r d t h e i r m e m b e r s f r o m o n e a n o t h e r , a n d s i n c e o v e r l a p p i n g m e m b e r s h i p s a m o n g g r o u p s . . . . r e s t r a i n s e a c h g r o u p f r o m s e e k i n g t o t a l d o m i n a -t i o n o v e r i t s m e m b e r s h i p ( 1 9 5 9 : 7 8 ) . A s e p a r a t i o n a n d b a l a n c e o f p o w e r c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e p l u r a l i s t c o n c e p t o f t h e s t a t e . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e i d e a l i z e d m o n o l i t h w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d h i s t o r i c a l E u r o p e a n v e r s i o n s o f s t a t e p o w e r , t h e A m e r i c a n l i b e r a l v e r s i o n i s t h a t o f " p o w e r b r o k e r " , w i t h t h e s t a t e a s t h e b r o k e r o f c o m p e t i n g w i l l s ( P r e s -t h u s 1 9 7 0 : 2 8 5 ) . T h e s t a t e i s r e c o g n i z e d a s a n a c t i v e , b u t n e u t r a l p r e s e n c e . A s C a r d s t a t e s , " . . . . t h e r e i s n o d e f i n i t i v e p o w e r i n t h e s t a t e . . . . ( w h i c h i s r e g a r d e d ) . . . a s a b r o k e r a g e c o m -m i t t e d t o r e c e i v i n g , h e a r i n g a n d g i v i n g e q u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o a l l o f t h e i n p u t f r o m t h e v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s c o n c e r n e d " ( 1 9 7 9 : 3 3 ) . T h i s b e n i g n c h a r a c t e r o f s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s i s e n h a n c e d b y t h e e r o s i o n o f t h e n e g a t i v e c o n c e p t o f t h e s t a t e , a n d r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e c i v i l l i b e r t a r i a n a n d " p o s i t i v e " a s p e c t s o f s t a t e a c t i v i t y ( P r e s t h u s 1 9 7 0 : 2 8 7 ) . 36 In summary, compromise, b a l a n c e , and s t a b i l i t y in the p o l i t i c a l p rocess are c e n t r a l to p l u r a l i s t t heo r y . Checks and ba lances are p rov ided by d i v i s i o n s of power, competing p o l i t i -c a l p a r t i e s , and the i n t e rmed ia r y ro l e of i n t e r e s t g roups : The he t e rogene i t y and p e n e t r a b i l i t y of the p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s , the open and a l t e r n a t i v e channe ls of communica-t i o n , the d i s p e r s i o n of i n e q u a l i t i e s in the p o l i t i c a l r e s o u r c e s , and the e x i s t e n c e of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f reedoms, ensure tha t p o l i t i c a l compe t i t i on among the a l t e r n a t i v e e l i t e s and a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s (through the medium of f r ee e l e c t i o n ) w i l l not on l y g ive the masses a s i g n i f i -cant c o n t r o l over t h e i r government, but w i l l a l so enable the p o l i t i c a l system to f u l f i l l the needs of most groups w i t h i n the community (Ono 1967:104) . 2 . 4 - C r i t i q u e s of P l u r a l i s t Democracy A c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e cha l l enges t h i s p l u r a l i s t p e r s p e c -t i v e of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Deve lopmenta l , e l i t i s t and s t a -t i s t p e r s p e c t i v e s d i r e c t e d to the l a r g e r p o l i t i c a l p rocess a l s o address the problems of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the t r i b u n a l reviewed i n Chapter 1. Thus , debate concern ing the scope of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , compe t i t i v e ba lance among i n t e r v e n o r s , and im -p a r t i a l i t y of Board members may be i n t e r p r e t e d as a d i s a g r e e -ment over s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic power i n the l a r g e r democrat i c p r o c e s s . P a r t i c i p a t o r y t h e o r i s t s accuse the p l u r a l i s t v e r s i o n of democracy of be ing both s t a t i c and r e s t r i c t i v e in nature (Dun-can and Lukes 1967:180-184; Dav is 1967). P l u r a l i s m ' s p r e d i s p o -s i t i o n towards compromise and balance concea l s a r e s i s t a n c e to change. The o r i e n t a t i o n i s to an e m p i r i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power w i t h i n the p o l i t i c a l system: " P l u r a l i s t s thus ask 'who g o v e r n s ? ' i . e . , who a c t u a l l y has power—rather than de f i ne power i n a c e r t a i n way fo r the purposes of the 37 e x p l a n a t i o n of c o n f l i c t and change" (Balbus 1971:172) . Pragma-t i sm and dependence on e m p i r i c a l methodology have neg lec ted c o n s i d e r a t i o n of comparat ive h i s t o r i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l a p -proaches to government (McCoy and P l a y f o r d 1967; Bay 1967:12-37) . As w e l l , p l u r a l i s m i s s a i d to ignore h i s t o r i c economic i n e q u a l i t i e s : A l l c u r r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n compe t i t i on over scarce resources ( p o l i t i c a l , economic, m i l i t a r y ) appear to be s t r i p p e d of any b u i l t - i n advantages a f f o r d e d by t h e i r s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n i n an ongoing s o c i e t y wi th a p a r t i c u -l a r economic and c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y (Mankoff 1970:419) . Others c r i t i c i z e the t h e o r y ' s r e s t r i c t e d concept of p a r t i -c i p a t i o n . The e l a b o r a t i o n of a system that "works " , i s i n p r a c t i c e , and produces " r e s u l t s " , has tended to overshadow more a b s t r a c t no t i ons of human p o t e n t i a l and s o c i e t a l b e n e f i t , and economic e q u a l i t y (Bay 1967:3038) . C r i t i c s of p l u r a l i s t s ' i n -s t rumenta l goa l s c l a im that the humanist i d e a l s of c l a s s i c a l democracy have been r ep l aced by a narrow and a p p l i e d theory geared to the maintenance of e l e c t o r a l machinery (Pateman 1970; Macpherson 1977) . P a r t i c i p a t o r y t h e o r i s t s note tha t the e l e c t o -r a l p rocess a f f o r d s but meagre and i n f r equen t access to g o v e r n -ment. T h e r e f o r e , a l though c i t i z e n involvement in the r e g u l a t o -ry p rocess through hea r ing i n t e r v e n t i o n may be f o r m a l l y p o s s i -b l e , the supplementary nature of the a c t i v i t y , the minimal number of p a r t i c i p a n t s , and the ad hoc and s p e c i f i c nature of the i n q u i r y depr i ve i t of deve lopmenta l and dynamic p o t e n t i a l . The p l u r a l i s t concept of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n gove rn -ment i s regarded by many as e l i t i s t (Walker 1967; McCoy and P l a y f o r d 1967; Pateman 1970) . Developmental c r i t i c s p o i n t to 38 the r e s t r i c t e d nature of e l e c t o r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and the l i -mited c i v i c s p i r i t as i n d i c a t i o n s of an e l i t i s t o r i e n t a t i o n to p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n (McCoy and P l a y f o r d 1967). They suggest that apathy i s an a r t i f a c t of the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l sys tems, and tha t i t r e f l e c t s popu la r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n wi th the ope r a t i on of the p o l i t i c a l system (Walker 1967). C o n f l i c t t h e o r i s t s p o i n t to the r e l a t i o n s of p roduc t i on as a major source of p o l i t i c a l power. For M a r x i s t s , the c a p i t a -l i s t economic system i s p r e d i c a t e d on and perpe tua tes i n e q u a l i -t i e s i n weal th and power. C o n f l i c t t h e o r i s t s note that economic e l i t e s c o n t r o l p o l i t i c a l power, c o n t r i b u t i n g to an imbalance among competing i n t e r e s t s . A c co rd ing to C. Wright M i l l s , t h i s d i s e q u i l i b r i u m r e f l e c t s the r o l e of a "power e l i t e " which makes the key d e c i s i o n s f o r s o c i e t y . These are not separa te compe-t i n g f o r c e s but an i n t e r l o c k i n g and converg ing e l i t e who are the l o cus of dec i s ion-mak ing fo r the s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l sys tems. Where the p l u r a l i s t argument assumes d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and compe t i t i on among heterogeneous e l i t e s , i t s c r i t i c s p o s i t a h i e r a r c h y of i n t e r l o c k i n g e l i t e s , who nego t i a t e the d i s p o s i t i o n of power i n t e r n a l l y . Domhoff (1967), f o l l o w i n g M i l l s , demonstrates the i n f l u e n c e of the economic e l i t e on 6 government and p o l i c y - m a k i n g . Those c r i t i c a l of the i ndepen -dence of the hear ing p rocess from man ipu l a t i on by a "power e l i t e " would f i n d support in these arguments. S t a t i s t c r i t i q u e s f u r t h e r exp lo re the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c l a s s i n t e r e s t s and s t a t e power. Pan i t ch cha l l enges the p l u -r a l i s t view of s t a t e n e u t r a l i t y : " . . . t h e idea tha t the modern s t a t e a c t s at the behest of the dominant c l a s s in our s o c i e t y 39 has o f t e n seemed much more p l a u s i b l e than the p l u r a l i s t and s o c i a l democra t i c view of the s t a t e as a n e u t r a l a r b i t e r be -tween competing groups of c l a s s e s " (1977:3 ) . An a l l i a n c e be -tween s t a t e and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l f o r c e s cha l l enges the p l u r a l i s t no t i on of compe t i t i on among separa te and c o u n t e r v a i l i n g i n t e -r e s t s . The p l u r a l i s t no t i on of balance " i g n o r e s the sys temat i c b i a ses ev iden t i n c l a s s based s o c i e t i e s and the r e f l e c t i o n these have on r e l a t i o n s between the s t a t e and co rpo ra te wo r l d s " (Pani tch 1977:359) . Pan i t ch a l so notes tha t t h i s model " f a i l s to a cknow ledge . . . the unequal a l l o c a t i o n s of resources necessary to m o b i l i z e and r e a l i z e conce rns " (1977:359) . The s t a t e i s regarded by some as an inst rument of c l a s s r u l e , as Ratner e t . a l . note w i th respec t to the c r i m i n a l j u s -t i c e system: In c o n t r a s t to the p l u r a l i s t s , a correspondence of c l a s s power and s t a t e power i s s a i d to e x i s t because of the ove r t s i m i l a r i t i e s i n c l a s s background, i n t e r e s t s , and world-view between those who shape and run the econo -my and the pe rsonne l of the s t a t e and c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system. Common c l a s s p o s i t i o n , c l o s e e d u c a t i o n a l t i e s , f a m i l y and pe r sona l networks , snared i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c -t i v e s , and c l o s e working r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the domi -nant c l a s s and i n t e rmed i a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s . . . . p r e d i s p o s e s t a t e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e i n s t i t u t i o n s to favour dominant s o c i a l and economic i n t e r e s t s (Ratner e t . a l . 1983: 10 ) . A number of Canadian c r i t i c s adopt an i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t approach such as Clement who n o t e s , " i t i s c l e a r tha t the co rpora te e l i t e i s very a c t i v e i n both the s t a t e and p o l i t i c a l sys tems" (1975:347) . The compos i t i on of Canadian r e g u l a t o r y bodies r e -vea l s a s i m i l a r c l a s s b i a s (Andrew and P e l l e t i e r 1978). Fu r the r a n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i o n of s t a t e power to econo-mic i n t e r e s t s has r e s u l t e d in the a r t i c u l a t i o n of a number of 40 p o s i t i o n s which oppose the economic r educ t i on i sm inheren t in 7 t h i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t model . The s t a t e i s pe r ce i ved by a number of w r i t e r s as occupy ing a p o s i t i o n of " r e l a t i v e au tono -my" (Poulantzas 1973; B lock 1980; Ratner e t . a l . 1983). From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , the s t a t e has some l i m i t e d independence from c l a s s i n t e r e s t s and f a c t i o n s , but t h i s " can never be more than r e l a t i v e and l i m i t e d s i n ce the s t a t e ' s cont inued ex i s t ence u l t i m a t e l y depends on the revenues generated by c a p i t a l " (Rat-ner 1983 :14 ) . I t i s the s t r u c t u r e of s t a t e r e l a t i o n s which c o n t r i b u t e s to the dominat ion of i n t e r e s t s : . . . . t h e very s t r u c t u r e of the p o l i c y f o rmu l a t i on p rocess i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y ho lds vas t b i a ses which f a c i l i t a t e and exped i t e the accumula t ion and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of wea l th i n the hands of the economic power e l i t e . . . . I n t h i s regard i t has been argued that the s t a t e p redomi -n a n t l y f u n c t i o n s as an agent of i n t e r e s t r e a l i z a t i o n fo r those who own and c o n t r o l the means of p r o d u c t i o n . . . (Card 1979: 33 ) . S t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s of s t a t e a c t i v i t y has produced a num-ber of i n s t r u c t i o n s to e x p l a i n the d issonance between l i b e r a l and c r i t i c a l v e r s i o n s of hea r ing a c t i v i t y . F u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of s t a t e a c t i v i t i e s (Pan i tch 1977; Ratner e t . a l . 1983) i s i n s t r u c t i v e f o r t h i s s tudy as i t expands the purpose of hea r ing p a r t i c i p a t i o n from s p e c i f i c po l i cy-mak ing a c t i v i t y to the b r o a -der context of the s t a t e ' s ongoing requi rements ( e . g . , c a p i t a l r e p r o d u c t i o n and a c c u m u l a t i o n , and l e g i t i m a t i o n ) . Pan i t ch r e -f e r s to the " s t a t i s i z a t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l s p h e r e " , i n c l u d i n g developments such as s t a t e s u b s i d i e s to p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s ' e l e c t i o n campaigns, as an i n d i c a t i o n of the growing power of the s t a t e (1977). Loney f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i e s the s t a t e ' s s u b s i d i -z a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n as c o n t r i b u t i n g to i t s f u n c t i o n s of 41 l e g i t i m a t i o n , s o c i a l c o n t r o l , and c a p i t a l accumula t ion and r ep roduc t i on (1977). The " i d e o l o g i c a l hegemony" of the s t a t e r e vea l s i t s a b i l i t y to manipulate the b e l i e f system. P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n thus becomes understood as the s t a t e ' s a b i l i t y to generate and ma in ta in consen t . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of these c r i t i q u e s of p l u r a l i s m fo r an a n a l y s i s of hea r ing p a r t i c i p a t i o n are s e v e r a l . C h a r a c t e r -i z a t i o n of hea r ing procedures as e l i t i s t cha l l enges the concept of a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the t r i b u n a l , and ques t i ons the assumed balance among i n t e r v e n o r s . A l l i a n c e s among competing i n t e r e s t s or between i n t e r v e n o r s and Board members d isadvantage non-a l l i e d p a r t i c i p a n t s and q u e s t i o n the n e u t r a l i t y of the p r o c e s s . S t a t i s t c r i t i q u e s of p l u r a l i s m are d i r e c t e d to the o b j e c t i v i t y and independence c h a r a c t e r i z i n g s t a t e r e l a t i o n s , the m u l t i p l e f u n c t i o n s of s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n , and the i n c reased r o l e of the s t a t e . The formal independence of t r i b u n a l s from government, the appointment of i m p a r t i a l Board or Commission members, and the n e u t r a l i t y of the dec i s ion-mak ing process a l l assume a s e p a r a t i o n between economic and p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s which i s cha l l enged by t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . 2.5-Contemporary Canadian P l u r a l i s m A l though the c r i t i c i s m s vo i ced above are c o n s i d e r a b l e i n numbers and f o r c e , i t i s important to r ecogn ize the p e r s e v e -r ance , a d a p t a b i l i t y and dominance of p l u r a l i s t t heo r y . I t has evo lved i n response to m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s of change and to s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s , and i t s changes accommodate, to some e x t e n t , cha l l enges posed by the c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . A l -though there has been a de f a c to r e c o g n i t i o n by government of 42 the i n e q u a l i t y of economic power (we l f a re , p r o g r e s s i v e t a x a -t i o n , human resource programs) , the p l u r a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e c o n -t i nues to assume the e x i s t e n c e of a l i b e r a l i n d i v i d u a l i s t s o c i e t y based on a v i a b l e compe t i t i v e and mixed c a p i t a l i s t economy. Canadian p o l i t i c a l l i f e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a: . . . . h i g h degree of i n d i v i d u a l freedom and market a c t i v i t y w i t h i n a system of d e m o c r a t i c a l l y e l e c t e d government . . . . ( a n d i s po r t r a yed by) a benevolent compe t i t i on among i n t e r e s t groups wi th the s t a t e as independent r e f e r ee removing the excesses of the marketp lace (Doern 1978:3-4) . Contemporary Canadian p l u r a l i s t theory r e f l e c t s the expan-s i o n of the s t a t e as a means of s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and economic development. We l f a r e , p r o g r e s s i v e t a x a t i o n , and s p e c i f i c i n t e r -ven t i on such as the Trudeau government 's i m p o s i t i o n of income c o n t r o l s i n the mid-1970's r e f l e c t the r e d i s t r i b u t i v e f u n c t i o n of the s t a t e . The l i b e r a l e g a l i t a r i a n t endenc i es of the contem-pora ry p l u r a l i s t framework r e f l e c t a concern f o r d i s t r i b u t i v e e q u a l i t y which attempts t o : . . . . d e r i v e p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e from an unders tand ing of i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s . The arguments fo r we l f a re r i g h t s and fo r economic r e d i s t r i b u t i o n . . . . can be understood as outgrowths of a r e l a t i v e l y new l i b e r a l awareness of the m a t e r i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e s fo r e q u a l i z i n g o p p o r t u n i t y among i n d i v i d u a l s tha t appears w i t h i n contemporary advanced i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s (Gutmann 1980:218) . Gutmann extends the concept of l i b e r a l e g a l i t a r i a n i s m b e -yond the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of economic goods to i n c l ude expans ion and e q u a l i z a t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p a r t i c i p a t e in p o l i t i c a l l i f e (1980) . Ex t ens ion of p a r t i c i p a t o r y e q u a l i t y has been r e -f l e c t e d by both American and Canadian attempts at extend ing the p a r t i c i p a t o r y c l ima te (Rich and Rosenbaum 1981; Chapin and Deneau 1978) . Formal p o l i t i c a l support f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a -43 t i o n as a means of expanding p u b l i c access to government was vo i ced by the Trudeau L i b e r a l Government of 1968. Promises of i n c reased p a r t i c i p a t i o n then took three d i r e c t i o n s : e s t a b l i s h -ment of new c o n s u l t a t i v e b o d i e s , i n t r o d u c t i o n of grant programs to support o rgan i zed p u b l i c invo lvement , and reform of t r a d i -t i o n a l input mechanisms (Chapin and Deneau 1978 :14 ) . N a t i v e s , e t hn i c m i n o r i t i e s , women's groups and o the rs were f o r m a l l y i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e in the dec i s ion-mak ing p r o c e s s , to be i n c l uded on boards and committees of government (Loney 1977) . In a d d i t i o n to p o l i t i c a l invo lvement , Canadian l abour r e l a t i o n s r e f l e c t the expans ion of p a r t i c i p a t o r y e q u a l i t y in the workp lace . The Q u a l i t y of Working L i f e movement announced by Labour Canada i n 1976 endorses d i r e c t worker p a r t i c i p a t i o n in "shop f l o o r " democracy. P l u r a l i s t suppor te r s argue tha t c o n -c e s s i ons made by i ndus t r y concern ing resource d e c i s i o n s and work environments demonstrate the power of workers i n the dec i s ion-mak ing p r o c e s s , and r e f l e c t a l i b e r a l e g a l i t a r i a n p h i l s o p h y . In a d d i t i o n to the r e d i s t r i b u t i v e f u n c t i o n s of s t a t e i n -t e r v e n t i o n , the s t a t e ' s r e g u l a t o r y c a p a c i t y has a l so been more w ide l y r e c o g n i z e d , in c o n j u n c t i o n wi th a " r e l a t i v e s h i f t from expend i tu re p o l i t i c s to r e g u l a t o r y p o l i t i c s " i n the Canadian f e d e r a l s t a t e (Doern 1978: 17 ) . Regu l a t i on has been t r a d i t i o n -a l l y unders tood as d i r e c t e d to p r i m a r i l y economic conce rns , i n c l u d i n g "monopoly and excess i v e compe t i t i on and r e l a t e d l i c -ens ing and p r i c i n g p r a c t i c e s " (Doern 1978 :9 ) , but has s i n ce been expanded to i n c l ude d i s c u s s i o n of t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l 44 r e g u l a t i o n . Doern notes the f e d e r a l i s t , m i n i s t e r i a l , and p o l i -t i c a l dependencies of the r e g u l a t o r y process in the Canadian c o n t e x t , i n comparison to the more independent cha rac t e r of the American r e g u l a t o r y p rocess (1978:11-13) . The t h e s i s tha t r e g u l a t o r y agenc ies become " c a p t i v e agen ts " of i n d u s t r y , i s countered by a Canadian q u a s i - p l u r a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e which notes the : . . . . c o m b i n e d form of i n c r e a s i n g p rov inc i a l -gove rnment i n t e r v e n t i o n s and emerging and i n c r e a s i n g l y permanent p u b l i c i n t e r e s t g roups , many of which are funded by the s t a t e , through other government departments whose man-dates themselves p a r t l y c o u n t e r v a i l those of the r e g u l a -to ry agency" (Doern 1978 :28 ) . Many t h e o r i s t s respond to the r e c o g n i t i o n of i nc reased s t a t i s m by s t r e s s i n g the s o c i a l j u s t i c e r o l e of the s t a t e (Presthus 1970) . Con t i nu ing access of government p r o c e s s e s , such as r e g u l a t i o n , to p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups a t t e s t s to the p o t e n t i a l of the p l u r a l i s t model . As w e l l , c a p i t a l i s t p l u r a -l i s m i s compared w i th s o c i a l i s t , or n o n - c a p i t a l i s t systems (Dahl 1982) . The l ack of i n d i v i d u a l freedom and the dominance of the S ta te apparatus in n o n - c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e s i s seen to d e t r a c t from the p l u r a l i s t p o t e n t i a l of the system. A l though p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Sov i e t Un ion , f o r example, i s f o r m a l l y a v a i l a b l e fo r env i ronmenta l dec i s ion-mak ing pu rposes , N e l k i n observes that o l i g a r c h y and s t a t e hegemony e f f e c t i v e l y p rec lude the o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n from an e f f e c t i v e r o l e i n the p rocess (1979) . C i t i z e n involvement in the p u b l i c hea r ing thus r e f l e c t s the expanded p a r t i c i p a t o r y e g a l i t a r i a n i s m and the ex t ens i on of s t a t e r e g u l a t o r y power which are f ea tu res of a p l u r a l i s t con-45 s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y C a n a d i a n s t a t e . R e g u l a t o r y a n d p o l i c y - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s , a s s t a t e - m e d i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , i n c o r -p o r a t e t h e l i b e r a l e g a l i t a r i a n t e n d e n c i e s o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y p l u r a l i s t v i e w . P u b l i c a c c e s s t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d c o n s u l t a -t i v e t r i b u n a l s s u p p l e m e n t e l e c t o r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a n d f u n d i n g o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t g r o u p s p r o v i d e s g r e a t e r e q u a l i t y o f p a r t i c i -p a t o r y o p p o r t u n i t y . T h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g d i s p l a y s t h e m a j o r f e a t u r e s o f c o n t e m p o r a r y p l u r a l i s m , a s I w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m o d e l . 2 . 6 - A P l u r a l i s t M o d e l o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e P u b l i c H e a r i n g I h a v e d e v e l o p e d a m o d e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g i n o r d e r t o d e s c r i b e , c o m p a r e a n d a n a l y z e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g a s a c o n s t r u c t o f p l u r a l i s t t h e o r y . T h e 8 m o d e l t h u s f o r g e s a c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y a n d i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . I n t h i s m o d e l , I h a v e i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e c e n t r a l t h e m e s : H e t e r o g e n e i t y o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n : R e p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f t h e P u b l i c I n t e r e s t ; F a i r n e s s o f P r o c e d u r e s ; a n d N e u t r a l i t y o f t h e D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g P r o c e s s . H e t e r o g e n e i t y o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n : R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e P u b l i c I n t e r e s t P l u r a l i s t t h e o r y a s s u m e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f o p p o s i n g i n t e r e s t s w h i c h may be a f f e c t e d w i t h r e g a r d s t o a n y i s s u e . T h e s e i n t e r e s t s c o m p e t e f o r p o w e r i n f o r u m s s u c h a s t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g . T h e w o r k o f g o v e r n m e n t i s t o b a l a n c e t h e i n t e -r e s t s o f t h e s e c o m p e t i n g g r o u p s ( D a h l 1 9 5 6 : 1 4 4 - 1 4 6 ) . T h e t e r m " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " may b e u s e d i n a d i f f u s e c o l l e c t i v e s e n s e : . . . . t h e t e r m ' p u b l i c i n t e r e s t 1 d o e s n o t r e p r e s e n t a m o n o -l i t h i c i n t e r e s t t o be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t b y t h e g o v e r n -n m e n t . I t i s t h e n a t u r a l c o n s e q u e n c e o f p l u r a l i s m t h a t 46 t h e r e b e n o s u c h t h i n g a s a s i n g l e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ; r a t h e r , i n a n y g i v e n c o n t e x t , t h e r e may o n l y b e a m y r i a d o f d i v e r s e a n d s o m e t i m e s c o n f l i c t i n g g r o u p a n d i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s ( L a w R e f o r m C o m m i s s i o n 1 9 8 0 : 9 8 ) . H o w e v e r , t h e t e r m " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " i s t y p i c a l l y i n v o k e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e r e g u l a t o r y f r a m e w o r k t o i n d i c a t e t h e e x i s -t e n c e o f n o n - p r o d u c e r i n t e r e s t s . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t e n s u r e s t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f c o m p e t i t i v e b a l a n c e , b r i n g -i n g w i t h i t t h e n o t i o n o f o p p o s i t i o n a n d a n a d v e r s a r i a l s t a n c e v i s - a - v i s a n y p r o p o n e n t . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v i e w e d a s a m e a n s o f b a l a n c i n g t h e o p p o s i n g f o r c e s . P u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t w i l l t e n d t o l e s s e n r e g u l a t o r ' c a p t u r e ' b y r e g u l a t e e s , a n d w i l l t h e r e f o r e p r o d u c e m o r e ' b a l a n c e d ' d e c i s i o n s . . . . S i n c e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c y m u s t t a k e a n o b j e c t i v e p o s i t i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p u b l i c . . . t o b e c o m e i n v o l v e d s o t h a t s o m e v o i c e a p a r t f r o m t h e i n d u s t r y ' s w i l l b e h e a r d , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e t r a d i -t i o n a l l y ' u n r e p r e s e n t e d ' i n t e r e s t s w i l l h a v e a n i n f l u e n c e o n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . . . . ( L e n n y 1 9 7 6 : 4 9 1 ) . O b s e r v e r s h a v e n o t e d t h a t n o n - p r o d u c e r i n t e r e s t s h a v e n o t s e r i o u s l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e r e g u l a t o r y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o -c e s s , p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e " . . . . t h e r e g u l a t e d i n d u s t r y h a s a h i g h -l y c o n c e n t r a t e d s t a k e i n t h e r e g u l a t o r y o u t c o m e w h i l e c o n s u m e r i n t e r e s t s a r e w i d e l y d i f f u s e d a c r o s s t h e m y r i a d o f g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s t y p i c a l l y c o n s u m e d i n a l i f e t i m e " ( T r e b i l c o c k 1 9 7 8 : 1 0 1 ) . T h e n e c e s s i t y f o r c o u n t e r v a i l i n g p o w e r i n t h e f o r m o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t g r o u p s t o o p p o s e p r o d u c e r i n t e r e s t s h a s i n i -t i a t e d s t a t e s u b s i d i z a t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e r e g u -l a t o r y p r o c e s s . A h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n n o t o n l y c o n t r i b u t e s t o a b a l a n c e o f i n t e r e s t s , b u t i t a d d s t o t h e s t o r e o f s u b s t a n t i v e k n o w l e d g e a n d t h e r e b y t o t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f a b e t t e r r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m . P e t e r P e a r s e , r e p o r t i n g o n t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n 4 7 on F o r e s t Resources , s t a t e s tha t t h e : . . . . w i d e range of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the hea r ings c o n t r i -buted s u b s t a n t i a l l y to t h e i r s u c c e s s , and p rov ided me wi th a broad spectrum of i n fo rma t i on and a d v i c e . But apar t from t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s to me and my s t a f f , the hea r i ngs p rov ided a va luab l e forum fo r a c o n s t r u c t i v e exchange of views among those wi th va r y ing and o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s in the p r o v i n c e ' s f o r e s t resources (Pearse 1976: F 4 ) . A he t e rogene i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , wi th r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p u b l i c i s thus regarded as ensur ing a d i v e r s i t y of p e r s p e c -t i v e s , and a ba lanced c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f . t h e i s sues under d i s c u s -s i o n . The m u l t i p l i c i t y of represented i n t e r e s t s c o n t r i b u t e s to the gene ra t i on and e v a l u a t i o n of a range of i n f o r m a t i o n , know-l e d g e , and r e s e a r c h . F a i r n e s s of Procedures P l u r a l i s t theory assumes a hea r ing process which i s p o l i -t i c a l l y f a i r to a l l i n t e r e s t s . The forum i s a c c e s s i b l e to a l l a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s , i n c l u d i n g the p u b l i c . The p rocess i s r e g a r -ded as a compe t i t i v e one, which p l a ces a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s at a r e l a t i v e l y equa l advantage wi th regards to one ano the r . The o b j e c t i v i t y of the p rocess i s assumed to compensate f o r , or " n e u t r a l i z e " whatever compe t i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s may e x i s t among p a r t i c i p a n t s . Pape r e f e r s to t h i s compe t i t i v e stance w i t h i n a j u d i c i a l con tex t : The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e in common law j u r i s d i c -t i o n s i s based on the concept that i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s to a d i spu te must meet on an equal f o o t i n g to make t h e i r own case and meet that of t h e i r a d v e r s a r i e s (1978:35) . The q u a s i - j u d i c i a l format of the hea r i ngs i s assumed to promote both a c c e s s i b i l i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y . The r o u t i n e , s t a n d a r d i z e d nature of procedures assures unders tand ing by 48 p a r t i c i p a n t s , and p l a ces a l l i n t e r v e n o r s on a r e l a t i v e l y equal f o o t i n g be fo re the t r i b u n a l . The i n f o r m a l i t y of the p r o c e s s , and r e l a x a t i o n of procedures from courtroom format f a c i l i t a t e p u b l i c a c c e s s . P rocedu ra l r u l e s are d e s c r i b e d to i n t e r v eno r s p r i o r to h e a r i n g s , in order tha t p a r t i c i p a n t s may f a m i l i a r i z e themselves wi th the p r o c e s s , which u s u a l l y i n c l udes the submis -s i o n of e v i dence , summary and c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n . Lega l counse l may be r e t a i n e d by any p a r t i c i p a n t , a l though the q u a s i - j u d i c i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n process c h a r a c t e r i z i n g many t r i b u n a l s i s p r o c e d u r a l l y a c c e s s i b l e and unders tandab le to l ay i n t e r v e n o r s . Fu r the r e x p e r t i s e wi th regards to subs t an t i v e matters i s a v a i l a b l e through the use of exper t w i t n e s s e s . Funding i s f r e q u e n t l y made a v a i l a b l e to secure e x p e r t i s e and a i d p a r t i c i p a n t s in the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e i r c a s e s . Whi le co rpo ra te and government i n t e r v e n o r s are capable of bea r ing and absorb ing the cos t s of i n t e r v e n t i o n , p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups may r equ i r e s u b s i d i z a t i o n ( Enge lha r t : 1981 ) . T r e b i l c o c k s t a t e s , f o r example, tha t "consumers as an i n t e r e s t group w i l l not become an e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l f o r c e , an e f f e c t i v e counte rba lance to b ig b u s i n e s s , b ig l a b o u r , and b ig government in modern power c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , w i thout s t a t e a s s i s t a n c e " (1978:103) . P u b l i c i n t e r e s t p a r t i c i p a n t s may then be s u b s i d i z e d as a means of ensur ing a more ba lanced h e a r i n g . Thus , procedures are regarded as p o l i t i c a l l y f a i r in that they encourage the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a he t e rogene i t y and ba lance of competing p e r s p e c t i v e s . T h i s r e f l e c t s the contemporary p l u -r a l i s t pos tu re of an e q u a l i z a t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h i n the h e a r i n g . A l though p a r t i c i p a n t s may possess a d i f f e r e n t i a l of 49 power o u t s i d e of the h e a r i n g , t h e i r performance in the forum has been ba l anced . Hear ing procedures are are t h e r e f o r e cons ide red to be a p p r o p r i a t e to t h e i r t a s k s : the c o n s u l t a t i o n of the p u b l i c i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , r e s e a r c h , and e v a l u a t i o n of a p u b l i c i s s u e , or the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n or r e g u l a t i o n of matters of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . N e u t r a l i t y of the Dec is ion-Mak ing Process D e c i s i o n s (or recommendations) are cons ide red to be made by an i m p a r t i a l Commiss ion, which has been appo in ted by Gove rn -ment to a r b i t r a t e the hea r i ng p r o c e e d i n g s . A l though the Cana -d ian con tex t i n f e r s some degree of s t a t e dependency through f e d e r a l , - m i n i s t e r i a l , and p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n (Doern 1978), the formal s e p a r a t i o n of and p o l i t i c a l independence of t r i b u -na l s con t inues to be p o p u l a r l y uphe ld . As former Commissioner Lysyk s t a t e s , " . . . a l t h o u g h the i n q u i r y r e l i e s upon the gove rn -ment fo r i t s f u n d i n g , i t i s independent in every other r e s p e c t " (1978:3 ) . The i m p a r t i a l i t y of the t r i b u n a l i s r e f l e c t e d by the i n d e -pendence of Board members or Commissioners from the i n t e r e s t or development under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the f a i r n e s s of p rocedu res , and the s e p a r a t i o n of the hea r ing from i t s i n i t i a t i n g gove rn -ment. Members of the Board or Commission are s e l e c t e d by gov -ernment, and are assumed to possess some r e l e van t e x p e r t i s e whi le hav ing no d i r e c t i n t e r e s t in the i s sues at hand. Doern notes that members of Canadian r e g u l a t o r y boards are more l i k e l y to represen t b u r e a u c r a t i c than i n d u s t r i a l backgrounds, which i s congruent w i th the l a r g e r Canadian r e g u l a t o r y contex t 50 of s t a t e dependency (1978: 25 ) . However, the formal s e p a r a t i o n of s t a t e and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l i n t e r e s t s , and the p l u r a l i s t no -t i o n of the s t a t e as a n e u t r a l a r b i t e r cor respond to the popu -l a r assumpt ion of i m p a r t i a l i t y which c h a r a c t e r i z e s these Boards . The Terms of Reference f o rmu l a t i ng the i s sue are produced by Government so as to f u r t h e r ensure the independence of the t r i b u n a l from those i t r e g u l a t e s . The pr imary r o l e of the p u b l i c i n the dec i s ion-mak ing process i s seen to be i n the i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o c e s s . I n te r venors p rov ide the i n fo rma t i on and e v a l u a t i o n of t h i s i n f o rma t i on through which the d e c i s i o n s are made. D e c i s i o n s are cons ide red to be reached by Commission or Board members through the o b j e c t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i n f o r -mation presented be fo re the h e a r i n g . They are thus made i n d e -pendent l y of d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l and economic conce rns . The d e c i s i o n s or recommendations produced by v a r i ous t r i -buna ls as a r e s u l t of the p u b l i c hea r ing p rocess d i f f e r a c c o r -d ing to the type of t r i b u n a l , the s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s r e g a r -d ing the nature and f o r c e of the d e c i s i o n , the i s s u e s , and the compos i- t ion of the Board/Commission making the d e c i s i o n s . They range i n nature from a f f i r m a t i v e or nega t i ve s tatements r ega rd ing an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ma t t e r , to recommendations and p r o p o s a l s conce rn ing government p o l i c y . The d e c i s i o n s reached by the Board/Commission are d i r e c t e d to the a p p r o p r i a t e gove rn -ment agency, which responds by making a d e c i s i o n or s e t t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e p o l i c y or r e g u l a t i o n s . Thus , the d e c i s i o n s r e p r e -sent the input of an independent body to the p rocess of g o v e r n -ment. C i t i z e n s ' access to government i s thereby p rov ided 51 through p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the public hearing process. 1 Although participatory democracy has roots in Athenian p o l i t i c a l practice, the exclusion of slaves, women, and other non-citizens from p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y prevents i t s consideration as a democratic precedent. 2 Corcoran contrasts the concept of democracy—the rule of the masses—with that of p o l i t y or timocracy, the lawful view of the many in the true interests of the whole community, and notes that democracy was t r a d i t i o n a l l y viewed as a negative, rather than a positive option (Corcoran 1983:13). 3 See Pateman (1970) and Gutmann (1980) for a discussion of M i l l ' s dilemmas regarding educational a b i l i t y and capacity, and his evolving position regarding universal suffrage. 4 Although the Paris commune of 1871 and the Russian So-viets of 1905 and 1917 contained promises of f u l l p a r t i c i p a -t i o n , these were only temporary. Unfortunately, Marx f a i l e d to a r t i c u l a t e a theory of p o l i t i c a l democracy directed to society after the Revolution. 5 Swartz' larger argument is that worker p a r t i c i p a t i o n acts to "subordinate workers...to the requirements of c a p i t a l accu-mulation, and to weaken working class resistance by undermining the independence and effectiveness of trade unions as vehicles for working class struggle" (1981:56). 6 The monopolization of p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e (elected and ap-pointed by members of the upper and middle class, indicates the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p of s o c i a l class, economic e l i t e , and govern-ment (Domhoff 1967). 7 Ratner et. a l . (1983) have compared these di f f e r e n t per-spectives of the " r e l a t i v e autonomy" of the state, identifying instrumentalist, s t r u c t u r a l i s t , class c o n f l i c t and c a p i t a l logic positions. 8 I follow Macpherson's d e f i n i t i o n of "model" as "a theore-t i c a l construction intended to exhibit and explain the real relations, underlying the appearances, between or within the phenomena under study" (1977:2-3). 52 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE CASE STUDIES 3.1-Research Methodology I have s e l e c t e d case s t u d i e s of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n in two p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , and w i l l ana lyze t h i s data through the a p p l i c a t i o n of the p l u r a l i s t model deve loped i n the p reced ing c h a p t e r . The hea r i ngs i n c l ude an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e hea r ing and a c o n s u l t a t i v e hea r ing i n which p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was a p r i -mary and v i s i b l e f e a t u r e . These t r i b u n a l s d i f f e r e d i n terms of t h e i r mandates, s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s , t h e i r s i z e and s cope , and the i s sues i n to which they i n q u i r e d , a l though they both c o n -cerned matters of s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l deba te . I s e l e c t e d d i f f e r e n t types of t r i b u n a l s fo r a n a l y s i s in order to be ab le to compare the p a r t i c i p a t i o n p rocess w i thout emphasiz ing unduly the l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i n which each was l o -ca ted . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l , the P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l Appeal Board (PCAB) h e a r i n g s , took p l ace from 1978-1981 in the Okana-gan V a l l e y of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , and was concerned wi th the a p p l i c a t i o n of the h e r b i c i d e 2,4-D to the Okanagan l akes s y s -tem. The c o n s u l t a t i v e i n q u i r y , the Royal Commission of I nqu i r y 53 i n to Uranium Min ing (RCUM), took p lace from 1979-1980, and he ld hea r ings throughout the p r o v i n c e . These hea r ings were both i n q u i r i e s i n to env i ronmenta l conce rns , and both p a r t i c u l a r l y a f f e c t e d the Okanagan v a l l e y of B r i t i s h Columbia (See Map, Appendix 1 .1) . Methods of data c o l l e c t i o n i n c l uded o b s e r v a t i o n , i n t e r -v iews , e thnography, documentary research and an a n a l y s i s of w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s . My sources of data were v a r i e d , but I r e l i e d p r i m a r i l y on hea r ing t r a n s c r i p t s , o b s e r v a t i o n no t e s , newspaper a c coun t s , and p a r t i c i p a n t s ' correspondence and r e s e a r c h . Re-search was d i r e c t e d to a d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s of p a r t i c i p a -t i o n by the p u b l i c . In c o n j u n c t i o n wi th t h i s f o c u s , the m a j o r i -ty of data and sources r e f l e c t s the i n t e r e s t s , p rob lems, and concerns of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t g roups . My research methodology, a l though g e n e r a l l y s i m i l a r in both h e a r i n g s , i n c o r p o r a t e d the s p e c i f i c cha r a c t e r of each . Four years of the PCAB hea r ings (1978-1981) were s e l e c t e d fo r a n a l y s i s . W i th in t h i s p e r i o d , the 1978 hear ings were the major focus fo r a n a l y s i s , p a r t i a l l y because of t h e i r l eng th ( r e f l e c t i n g the ex tens i ve a p p e a l ) , and a l so because of the precedent e s t a b l i s h e d by the hear ing as the f i r s t he ld under i t s s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s . I a t tended approx imate l y s i x and one-h a l f of the seven and one-ha l f days of the 1978 h e a r i n g , and was p resen t f o r the e n t i r e appea l of the SOEC, the major a p p e l -l a n t . In 1979, I a t tended s e v e r a l hours of the two and one-ha l f day h e a r i n g , and in 1981 was present through the e n t i r e hea r ing p r o c e s s . My o b s e r v a t i o n s of the PCAB hea r ings i n c luded three types 54 o f w o r k : " m o n i t o r i n g " , " p r o b l e m - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " , a n d e t h n o g r a -p h y . I n " m o n i t o r i n g " , I k e p t n o t e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d r e g a r d i n g t i m e , s p e a k e r , t y p e o f a c t i v i t y , a n d t o p i c o f d i s c u s s i o n . T h i s l a t e r a c t e d a s a r e t r o a c t i v e a g e n d a , p r o v i -d i n g a n i n d e x f o r r e v i e w o f t h e h e a r i n g s , a n d a l l o w i n g me t o l o c a t e p o r t i o n s i n w h i c h I h a d a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . " P r o b l e m -i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " r e f e r s t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i s s u e s w h i c h w o u l d a f f e c t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s u c h a s s c h e d u l i n g , s e t t i n g , a n d c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f " m a k i n g a c a s e " , s u c h a s t h e d i s c r e d i -t i n g o f w i t n e s s e s d u r i n g c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , I c o m p i l e d a n e t h n o g r a p h y d e s c r i b i n g p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h s e t t i n g a n d p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n a m o n g p a r t i c i -p a n t s . T h e RCUM i n c l u d e d b o t h c o m m u n i t y h e a r i n g s , w h i c h w e r e h e l d i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e p r o v i n c e , a n d t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s , w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n V a n c o u v e r . My o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e RCUM h e a r i n g s w e r e s i m i l a r i n m a n y r e s p e c t s t o t h o s e o f t h e P C A B h e a r i n g s , a n d i n c l u d e d m o n i t o r i n g a n d p r o b l e m - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , a s w e l l a s a n e t h n o g r a p h y o f t h e h e a r i n g s . Two m a j o r f a c t o r s r e s u l t e d i n d i f f e r e n t o b s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . T h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t y p e d , o f f i c i a l t r a n s c r i p t s o f t h e h e a r i n g s a l l o w e d me t o f o c u s o n g e n e r a l i s s u e s a n d p r o b l e m s , r a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t i n g t o c a p t u r e e x a c t q u o t a t i o n s b y s p e a k e r s . M o r e o v e r , t h e l e n g t h o f t h e h e a r i n g s a n d v o l u m e o f t h e e v i d e n c e , a n d t h e s i z e a n d s c o p e o f t h e t r i b u n a l r e q u i r e d t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a f i n i t e s a m p l e o f h e a r i n g s t o o b s e r v e . ( D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e I n q u i r y , o v e r s e v e n m o n t h s o f h e a r i n g s w e r e h e l d , i n c l u d i n g t w o m o n t h s o f 55 community hearings, and seven months of technical hearings. These amounted to over 70 volumes of printed transcripts, t o t a l l i n g more than 13,000 pages.) I attended the Kelowna hearings because, as i t was the f i r s t community session, participants raised procedural issues in which I was interested. The r e l a t i v e l y large size of the community and i t s proximity to a large geographic area in which many mining claims had been staked also pointed to i t s s i g n i -ficance as a locus of discussion. Technical hearing sessions were selected according to several c r i t e r i a . I attended the entire Overview session and for the remaining phases, attended one to two sessions per week. I t r i e d to attend each Tuesday's proceedings, as this was the day on which procedural and "house-keeping" items were discussed. As well, I selected days for observation in which witnesses who had been i d e n t i f i e d by participants as controversial or especially interesting would appear. Transcripts of the hearings provided the other major source of my data. The PCAB proceedings were not o f f i c i a l l y transcribed, although the Board's secretary tape-recorded the proceedings. The South Okanagan Environmental Co a l i t i o n (SOEC), the appellant, also taped the proceedings, and I tran-scribed portions of these tapes which I considered relevant. However, the i n f e r i o r quality of the tapes, and the volume of material precluded documentation of the entire proceedings. The RCUM produced formal, written transcripts of a l l i t s hea-rings, and a set was made available to me for study purposes. Contextual analysis of transcripts of sessions which I attended 56 was a means of comparing my obse r va t i ons wi th the formal d o c u -mentat ion of e ven t s . I a l so s e l e c t e d p o r t i o n s of the t r a n -s c r i p t s which were i n d i c a t e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s and the Commis-s i o n ' s Index fo r more i n t e n s i v e s tudy . I used the t r a n s c r i p t s both as a means of gene ra t i ng ideas or exp l ana t i ons about the hea r ing p r o c e s s , and as a source of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s tatements about the hea r ing p r o c e s s . I a l s o s e l e c t e d data from the f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s : p u b l i c a -t i o n s of the case study t r i b u n a l s , correspondence between t r i -bunals and p a r t i c i p a n t s , news r e l e a se s and media r e p o r t s , and s tandard b i b l i o g r a p h i c r e f e r e n c e s . O f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s i s -sued by the case study t r i b u n a l s supplemented my documentat ion of the p r o c e e d i n g s . The PCAB documents c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y of communications wi th the a p p e l l a n t s , i n c l u d i n g p r o c e d u r a l r u -l i n g s and d e c i s i o n s , but the RCUM pub l i shed and d i s t r i b u t e d l a r g e amounts of d e s c r i p t i v e data concern ing the i s sues and the procedures of the Commiss ion. Weekly schedu les of s e s s i o n s , (not ing speakers and dates of appearance) were d i s t r i b u t e d at the beg inn ing of each s e s s i o n . The Inqu i r y pub l i shed a weekly r e p o r t , The Uranium Inqu i r y D i g e s t , in which the i s s u e s , s p e a -k e r s , and work of the Commission were d i s c u s s e d . The RCUM d i s -t r i b u t e d r e g u l a r l y an Index of p roceed ings and h o l d i n g s . In a d d i t i o n , I c onsu l t ed books, a r t i c l e s , and theses from a v a r i e t y of d i s c i p l i n e s concern ing v a r i ous aspec ts of the hea r ing p r o c e s s . P u b l i c a t i o n s by c i t i z e n s ' groups p rov ided a v a r i e t y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the i s sues and the hea r ing pro-c e s s . As w e l l , I a t tended numerous p u b l i c speeches and events 57 concern ing the h e r b i c i d e and uranium i s sues dur ing the resea rch p e r i o d . Media coverage of the hea r ings and the i s sues p rov ided yet another source of documenta t ion . Obse r va t i on and documentat ion of the hea r ings themselves p rov ided a record of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c i n t e -r e s t , government, and co rpo ra te i n t e r v e n o r s . However, as my pr imary focus was the a c c e s s i b i l i t y and exper i ence of the hea -r i n g p rocess by p u b l i c i n t e r e s t g roups , I d i r e c t e d a d d i t i o n a l r esea rch e f f o r t s s p e c i f i c a l l y to these g roups . I was e s p e c i a l -l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the p re-hea r ing o r g a n i z a t i o n and resources of i n t e r v e n o r s . I assumed tha t government and co rpo ra te i n t e r v e -nors were l o c a t e d w i t h i n b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e s of o r g a n i z a -t i o n through which p r epa r a to r y a c t i v i t i e s were mediated in con junc t i on wi th other ongoing p rocesses ( e . g . , r e s e a r c h , pub-l i c r e l a t i o n s , program imp lementa t ion ) . I was i n t e r e s t e d in how the p u b l i c implemented i t s p a r t i c i p a t o r y a c t i v i t y . Two major forms of r esea rch a ided i n t h i s t a sk : i n t e r v i ews of p a r t i c i p a n t s , and access to and use of t h e i r f i l e s . Dur ing the PCAB h e a r i n g s , and throughout the i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s , I i n te rv i ewed the major spokespersons fo r the SOEC in dep th . My membership i n the SOEC and marr iage to a key SOEC spokesperson c o n t r i b u t e d to the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of t h i s d a t a . In te rv iews i nc luded both s t r u c t u r e d s e s s i o n s and impromptu d i s c u s s i o n s , as w e l l as " a c t i v e " eavesd ropp ing , in which I i n t e r r u p t e d or que r i ed a c o n v e r s a t i o n . Dur ing the a c t i v e hea r ing p r e p a r a t i o n s fo r the PCAB a p p e a l s , i n f o rma t i on on the o r g a n i z a t i o n , s t r a -t egy , r e s e a r c h , p r e p a r a t i o n s , and post-mortems of the hea r ing was generated and documented. Much of c o u n s e l ' s p r e p a r a t i o n of 58 exper t w i tnesses took p l ace i n my home, and consequen t l y , I was p r i v y to many of the p r e l i m i n a r y aspec ts of the h e a r i n g . Dur ing the RCUM h e a r i n g s , I i n te rv i ewed p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n -ce rn ing t h e i r views of the I n q u i r y , wi th s p e c i a l r e fe rence to p r o c e d u r a l mat ters and the c ross-examina t ion p r o c e s s . I have cont inued to d i s c u s s the Inqu i r y p rocess wi th s e v e r a l of them s i n ce the c l o s u r e of the I n q u i r y . I a l so i n te r v i ewed lawyers fo r the West Coast Env i ronmenta l Law A s s o c i a t i o n , one of whom had served as counse l to a p p e l l a n t s i n the PCAB h e a r i n g s , and o the rs who had been a c t i v e in the RCUM. Another source of r esea rch was the f i l e s of the p a r t i c i -pant o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those of the SOEC, which were a c c e s s i b l e to the p u b l i c . For the PCAB h e a r i n g s , the f i l e s of the SOEC p rov ided resea rch and documentat ion of the i s s u e s , a chrono logy of e ven t s , p ress s ta tements , p u b l i c a t i o n s of the proponent , correspondence wi th other p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a n t o r g a -n i z a t i o n s i n vo l ved in s i m i l a r i s s u e s , and research m a t e r i a l s used i n p r epa r i ng and mounting t h e i r a p p e a l , and correspondence wi th government o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the proponent and the Board . Communications between the Board and the a p p e l l a n t i n c l uded statements of a p p e a l , d e s c r i p t i o n s of p rocedu re s , d e c i s i o n s , and other ma t t e r s . For the RCUM h e a r i n g s , the more p u b l i c ( e . g . , v i s i b l e , documented and p u b l i c i z e d ) nature of the p r o c e e d i n g s , and the g rea te r number of p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s u l t e d in i n c reased access to background and supplementary m a t e r i a l s . The RCUM a l s o mainta ined a l i b r a r y and l i b r a r i a n , who d i r e c t l y a ided my r e s e a r c h . 59 The data from which I have gathered m a t e r i a l fo r the a n a l y s i s cap tures the formal procedures of the h e a r i n g s , through t r a n s c r i p t i o n s and o b s e r v a t i o n s , as w e l l as p a r t i c i -p an t s ' views of the hea r ing p r o c e s s . A l though my c o n c l u s i o n s are drawn from study of on l y two t r i b u n a l s , I f e e l tha t these are g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the hea r ing p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o -c e s s . The s e l e c t i o n and c o l l e c t i o n of data r e f l e c t my t h e o r e -t i c a l focus on p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s of the h e a -r i n g . 3.2-Types of P u b l i c Hear ings The term " p u b l i c h e a r i n g " r e f e r s to the a c t i v i t y whereby submiss ions are p resented and examined p u b l i c l y before a Board or Commiss ion. Hear ings are one stage i n a l a r g e r i n v e s t i g a t i v e or r e g u l a t o r y process which may i n c l ude the f o l l o w i n g r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s : e s t ab l i shment or a c t i v a t i o n of a Board/Commiss ion, a r t i c u l a t i o n of terms of r e f e r e n c e , appointment of Board/Com-mi s s i on members, commiss ioning of r e s e a r c h , s e l e c t i o n and p r e -p a r a t i o n of exper t w i t n e s s e s , d e l i b e r a t i o n by Board members, and p r o d u c t i o n of i n t e r i m and f i n a l recommendations and/or d e c i s i o n s . The hea r ing i s thus j u s t one stage of an ongoing po l i cy-mak ing or r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e s s . P u b l i c hea r ings are he ld under the d i f f e r i n g mandates of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c o n s u l t a t i v e t r i b u n a l s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l i s a s p e c i a l i z e d body which oversees the work of government b o d i e s , by a c t i n g i n r e g u l a t o r y and j u d i c i a l c a p a -c i t i e s . Roberts notes that "much of the burden of ensur ing j u s t i c e , equ i t y and f a i r n e s s in a d m i n i s t r a t i v e matters has s h i f t e d from cou r t s of law to t r i b u n a l s " (T. Roberts 1980 :77 ) . 60 Th i s d e l e g a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s exp l a i ned in the f o l l o w i n g : Cour ts do not have the time to become s u f f i c i e n t l y exper t in the enormous v a r i e t y of sub j e c t s which t r i b u -na l s must dec ide e f f i c i e n t l y ; s i m i l a r l y government d e -partments do not have enough i m p a r t i a l i t y and freedom from p o l i t i c s to be c r e d i b l e as i m p a r t i a l d e c i s i o n - m a -k e r s . T r i b u n a l s are seen as a workable compromise: in t heo r y , they are more exper t than the cou r t s and l e s s f o r m a l ; more f l e x i b l e and speedy than c o u r t s . The c o u r t s ' use of precedent and r e l i a n c e on a u t h o r i t y tend to c r ea t e a conse r v a t i v e b i a s which t r i b u n a l s , not i n t e n -ded to be dominated by l e g a l v a l u e s , shou ld not share (Roman 1977 :4 ) . Fu r the r e x p l a i n i n g the comparat ive va lue of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i -bunals v i s - a - v i s the c o u r t s , Roberts notes such advantages a s : . . . . t h e i r g rea te r speed , l e s s e r c o s t , l e s s e r f o r m a l i t y and g rea t e r f l e x i b i l i t y of a c t i o n than c o u r t s . T r i b u n a l s can a l s o employ persons wi th p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r t i s e in the matter under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . D isadvantages are the p o s s i -b i l i t y f o r d e n i a l of a f a i r h e a r i n g , b i a s in favor of government p o l i c y ( t r i b u n a l members are o f t e n appo in ted by government ) , the u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of d e c i s i o n s because of the wide degree of d i s c r e t i o n a l l o w e d , and a narrow-ness of v iewpoint a r i s i n g from the p a r t i c u l a r compos i -t i o n of the Board (1980:77-78) . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e hea r ings p rov ide p u b l i c access to c e r t a i n r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e s s e s . They are governed by s t a t u t e and hea r ings f u n c t i o n i n a j u d i c i a l c a p a c i t y ( e . g . , Labour R e l a t i o n s Boa rd ) , by hea r ing d i s p u t e s between i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s , or in a r e g u l a t o r y c a p a c i t y , making d e c i s i o n s rega rd ing a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y , r a t e - s e t t i n g , or p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l . The v a r i a t i o n among a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l s i s noteworthy: . . . . T h e r e are l i t e r a l l y over a hundred t r i b u n a l s c r ea ted by the f e d e r a l government and rough ly 50 to 100 in each p r o v i n c e . T r i b u n a l s vary enormously in f u n c t i o n , p e r s o n -ne l and a c c e s s i b i l i t y (Roman 1977 :2 ) . The hea r i ng p rocess i s a c t i v a t e d through a number of p r o c e s s e s , such as the p roponen t ' s i n i t i a t i o n of a development or a p p l i c a -61 1 t i o n f o r a permit. D e c i s i o n s produced by the t r i b u n a l , such as approval or non-approval of a permit, are implemented by the ap p r o p r i a t e M i n i s t r y . The c o n s u l t a t i v e hearing, on the other hand, i s estab-l i s h e d by government w i t h i n the framework of a p u b l i c i n q u i r y to i n v e s t i g a t e i s s u e s of concern f o r the purpose of recommen-2 d a t i o n (Law Reform Commission 1977). The c o n s u l t a t i v e hearing i s one stage i n a Commission of Inquiry which i s s t a t u t o r i l y d e f i n e d at both p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l l e v e l s . The s u b j e c t matter of the i n q u i r y i s t y p i c a l l y urgent, of concern to more than one m i n i s t r y and l e v e l of government, and i s the su b j e c t of some con t r o v e r s y . I t i s intended to a n t i c i p a t e events and i s s u e s — t o i d e n t i f y , o b t a i n , and analyze i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to i t s unique terms of r e f e r e n c e . The c o n s u l t a t i v e hearing i s thus cre a t e d to i n v e s t i g a t e i s s u e s and formulate p o l i c y , r a t h e r than to produce f i n a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n s, l i k e i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c o n s u l t a t i v e t r i b u n a l s d i f f e r as hearing types i n three r e s p e c t s : t h e i r impetus, procedures, and decision-making powers. The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e hearing i s i n i -t i a t e d as a r o u t i n e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e / r e g u l a t o r y process by a pro-ponent's proposal or a p p l i c a t i o n f o r development. A d m i n i s t r a -t i v e hearings are bound by the r u l e s of n a t u r a l j u s t i c e ; proce-dures may be d i c t a t e d by s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s (which may be very general and d i s c r e t i o n a r y ) . D e c i s i o n s or recommendations reached through the hearing process are designed to lead to binding d e c i s i o n s on the M i n i s t r y i n q u e s t i o n . Examples of 62 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l s a r e t h e A t o m i c E n e r g y C o n t r o l B o a r d , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a U t i l i t i e s C o m m i s s i o n a n d t h e W o r k e r s ' C o m -p e n s a t i o n B o a r d . T h e c o n s u l t a t i v e h e a r i n g i s m o r e v i s i b l y s u b j e c t t o p o l i -t i c a l , e c o n o m i c , a n d s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s , a n d i s i n v o k e d a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t . I t s p r o c e d u r e s a r e s u b j e c t t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t o t h e B o a r d ' s d i s c r e t i o n . I n q u i r i e s may b e b o u n d b y r u l e s o f n a t u r a l j u s t i c e . T h e p r o d u c t o f t h e h e a r i n g t y p i c a l l y i s i t s F i n a l R e p o r t , i n c l u d i n g r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h a r e n o t g e n e r a l l y b i n d i n g , a n d may o r may n o t b e a d o p t e d b y g o v e r n m e n t . T h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n a n d b e t w e e n t h e s e t y p e s o f t r i b u n a l s . S o m e , s u c h a s t h e f e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t R e v i e w P a n e l ( E A R P ) , a r e a h y b r i d , e n c o m p a s s i n g f e a -t u r e s o f b o t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d c o n s u l t a t i v e h e a r i n g s . W h i l e t h e i n i t i a t i n g a c t i o n s o f t h e p r o p o n e n t r e f l e c t t h e a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e o r i g i n s o f t h i s t r i b u n a l , t h e r e l a x e d p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e E A R P h e a r i n g s a n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n - g a t h e r i n g a p p r o a c h a t t e s t t o i t s c o n s u l t a t i v e s t a t u s . T h e p r o c e s s o f p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e s e t w o t y p e s o f t r i b u n a l s , a l t h o u g h r e f l e c t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s i n f o r m , i s s u b j e c t t o d i f f e r e n c e s d e p e n d i n g o n t h e c o s t s , s t a t u s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , f o r m a l p r o c e d u r a l g u i d e l i n e s , a n d o t h e r f a c t o r s , a s t h e a n a l y s i s w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e . I h a v e s e l e c t e d o n e b o d y o f h e a r i n g s f r o m e a c h o f t h e m a j o r t y p e s o f t r i b u n a l f o r a n a l y s i s . I w i l l n o w i n t r o d u c e t h e s e c a s e s t u d i e s , d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r i m p e t u s a n d t h e i s s u e s , a r e a s , a n d e v e n t s c o n c e r n i n g w h i c h t h e h e a r i n g s w e r e h e l d . 3 . 3 - I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e C a s e S t u d y T r i b u n a l s 6 3 T h e P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l A p p e a l B o a r d H e a r i n g s T h e P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l A p p e a l B o a r d w a s a t r i b u n a l c r e a t e d b y t h e P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l A c t o f M a r c h 1 9 7 8 , w h i c h h a s s i n c e 3 b e e n s u p e r c e d e d b y t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l B o a r d . T h i s a c t p r o v i d e s f o r p u b l i c i n i t i a t i o n o f a n a p p e a l h e a r i n g p r o c e s s t h r o u g h f o r m a l o b j e c t i o n t o a n a p p r o v e d p e s t i c i d e a p p l i c a t i o n . B e g i n n i n g i n 1 9 7 8 , a n d c o n t i n u i n g o v e r t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e y e a r s , i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s o p p o s e d a p p l i c a -t i o n s b y m u n i c i p a l a n d g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s t o a p p l y t h e h e r b i -c i d e 2 , 4 - D i n t h e O k a n a g a n L a k e s s y s t e m t o c o u n t e r t h e s p r e a d o f E u r a s i a n w a t e r m i l f o i l . My a n a l y s i s w i l l f o c u s o n t h e O k a n a g a n 2 , 4 - D h e a r i n g s h e l d u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l A p p e a l B o a r d f r o m 1 9 7 8 t h r o u g h 1 9 8 1 . I i n c l u d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e l e g i s l a t i v e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e h e a r i n g p r o c e s s i s s i t u a t e d , a s i t d e f i n e s t h e s c o p e a n d n a t u r e o f t h e p u b l i c a p p e a l p r o c e s s . T h e L e g a l C o n t e x t a n d t h e I n i t i a t i o n o f t h e H e a r i n g s L e g i s l a t i o n g o v e r n i n g h e r b i c i d e u s e h a s b e e n c r i t i c i z e d a s c o m p l e x , d i s o r g a n i z e d , a n d i n a d e q u a t e ( L e e 1 9 7 8 ) . P r i o r t o t h e 1 9 6 0 * s , l e g a l c o n t r o l s o n p e s t i c i d e s w e r e l i m i t e d , b u t d e m a n d f o r m o r e s t r i n g e n t l e g i s l a t i o n w a s v o i c e d i n c r e a s i n g l y b y p u b -l i c i n t e r e s t g r o u p s ( T . R o b e r t s 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e r e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o f I n q u i r y i n t o t h e U s e o f P e s t i c i d e s a n d H e r b i c i d e s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s p e c t s o f p e s t i c i d e c o n t r o l w e r e i n a d e q u a t e , a n d d i f f i c u l t t o e n f o r c e ( L e e 1 9 7 8 ) . T h e l a c k o f c i t i z e n i n p u t t o t h e e x i s t i n g p r o c e s s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , a n d t h e l a c k o f g o v e r n m e n t c r e d i b i l i t y w e r e s p e c i f i c a l l y n o t e d : 64 A major de f e c t i n the p resen t arrangement f o r the c o n t r o l of p e s t i c i d e s in the P rov ince was r epea ted l y brought to the a t t e n t i o n of the C o m m i s s i o n . . . . a f r u s t r a -t i o n on the pa r t of c i t i z e n s about be ing unable to have any input i n to the dec i s ion-mak ing process on the use of p e s t i c i d e s . . . T h e r e was a genera l exp re s s i on of a l ack of c r e d i b i l i t y of government departments in matters of p e s -t i c i d e c o n t r o l (Royal Commission of I nqu i r y i n to Pes -t i c i d e s and H e r b i c i d e s 1975 1:253) . The j u r i s d i c t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to h e r b i c i d e s e x i s t s at both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s of government, and i s d i s p e r s e d among m i n i s t r i e s w i t h i n each . The pr imary f e d e r a l ac t w i th regards to p e s t i c i d e s i s the Pest C o n t r o l Products A c t , p r o -c la imed in 1972, which dea l s p r i m a r i l y wi th t e s t i n g , l a b e l l i n g , and r e g i s t r a t i o n of p e s t i c i d e s , and i s admin i s t e red by the De-partment of A g r i c u l t u r e . The Fede ra l Government a l s o governs the impor t/expor t of p e s t i c i d e s , and t h e i r i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l d i s -t r i b u t i o n (K. Roberts 1980 Speech) . In g e n e r a l , f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n c o n t r o l s the r e g i s t r a t i o n and l i c e n s i n g of chemica l s f o r use as p e s t i c i d e s . The a p p l i c a - t i o n of such produc ts i s governed by p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e . Fede -r a l l e g i s l a t i o n does not c o n t a i n mechanisms fo r p u b l i c i n v o l v e -ment i n the r e g u l a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p e s t i c i d e use . Thus , p u b l i c i n t e r v e n t i o n must be geared towards the a p p l i c a -t i o n , r a the r than the r e g i s t r a t i o n or l i c e n s i n g of h e r b i c i d e s , as i t i s on l y at t h i s l e v e l tha t such input i s p o s s i b l e . The B r i t i s h Columbia P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l A c t , which has ex -t ens i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n over h e r b i c i d e s , was p roc l a imed in March 1978. The Ac t " p r o v i d e s fo r l i c e n s i n g of a l l p e s t i c i d e uses , i t permi ts the a d m i n i s t r a t o r to revoke or suspend a l i c e n s e , permit or c e r t i f i c a t e when a use i s l i k e l y to cause an u n r e a -sonable adverse harm to man or the env i ronment" (Lee 1978:15-65 1 6 ) . T h e A c t c r e a t e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f A d m i n i s t r a t o r , r e s -p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e A c t ( s . 1 2 ) , a P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l C o m m i t t e e , a p p o i n t e d b y t h e M i n i s t e r ( s . 1 7 ) , a n d e s t a b l i s h e s t h e P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l A p p e a l B o a r d ( s . 1 4 ) g i v i n g t h e C a b i n e t p o w e r o f a p p o i n t m e n t . T h e A c t i s a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l B r a n c h o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f t h e E n v i r o n -m e n t , w h o s e p r o g r a m s i n c l u d e l i c e n s i n g , c e r t i f i c a t i o n , a n d t h e i s s u i n g o f p e r m i t s . I t i s w i t h t h e l a t t e r a r e a o f j u r i s d i c t i o n t h a t I am c o n c e r n e d , a s i t i s t h r o u g h t h e i s s u i n g o f p e r m i t s t h a t t h e a p p e a l p r o c e s s i s i n i t i a t e d . I w i l l n o w d e s c r i b e t h e a p p e a l p r o c e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h e a r i n g i s p r o d u c e d . T h i s may b e d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s t a g e s : a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e p e r m i t , a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s a p -p r o v a l , p u b l i c n o t i c e , a n d n o t i f i c a t i o n o f a p p e a l . ( S e e A p p e n -d i c e s 1 . 2 , 1 . 3 , a n d 1 . 4 ) On t h e a v e r a g e , s i x h u n d r e d p e r m i t s f o r p e s t i c i d e a p p l i c a t i o n a r e i s s u e d e a c h y e a r ( T . R o b e r t s 1 9 8 1 ) . A p p l i c a t i o n f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o a p p l y a p e s t i c i d e i s made t o t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f t h e P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l B r a n c h i n a c c o r -d a n c e w i t h t h e P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l A c t : s . 6 S u b j e c t t o t h e r e g u l a t i o n s , n o p e r s o n s h a l l a p p l y a p e s t i c i d e t o a b o d y o f w a t e r o r a n a r e a o f l a n d u n l e s s : a ) h e h a s a p p l i e d f o r a P E R M I T f r o m t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r t o d o s o a n d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r , o n b e i n g s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p e r m i t w i l l n o t c a u s e a n u n r e a -s o n a b l e a d v e r s e e f f e c t , h a s g r a n t e d t h e p e r m i t , a n d b ) h e a p p l i e d t h e p e s t i c i d e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e t e r m s a n d c o n d i t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e p e r m i t ( B . C . P e s t i c i d e C o n -t r o l A c t 1 9 7 8 : s . 6 ) . T h i s a p p l i c a t i o n i s c o n t i n g e n t u p o n t h e s c h e d u l e ( l e v e l ) o f p e s t i c i d e u s e d ( s c h e d u l e V p e s t i c i d e s a r e e x e m p t ) ; a n d t h e p r o -p o s e d m e a n s a n d p l a c e o f a p p l i c a t i o n . A l t h o u g h a l l u s e o f 6 6 p e s t i c i d e s on p u b l i c land i s t e c h n i c a l l y sub j ec t to permit r equ i r ements , the use of permi ts has g e n e r a l l y been reserved 4 fo r l a r g e - s c a l e and aqua t i c p u b l i c use . Permit a p p l i c a t i o n s f o l l o w the schedu le of p e s t i c i d e used , and the l o c a t i o n of proposed a p p l i c a t i o n . The proponent must make formal a p p l i -c a t i o n to the A d m i n i s t r a t o r of the P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l Board fo r such use . A p p l i c a t i o n fo r the permi t i n i t i a t e s a p rocess through which p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n may l a t e r o c c u r . The second s tep i s the review of the permit a p p l i c a t i o n by the A d m i n i s t r a t o r of the P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l B ranch , wi th the a i d of a P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l Committee. The l a t t e r i s composed of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the a g r i c u l t u r e , env i ronment , f o r e s t r y , h e a l t h m i n i s t r i e s , and o ther persons deemed a p p r o p r i a t e (s. 17 ) . The t e s t used fo r review of these a p p l i c a t i o n s i s whether or not use of the p e s t i c i d e w i l l cause an "unreasonab le adverse e f f e c t " (s . 4 ) . An "adverse e f f e c t " i s "an e f f e c t that r e s u l t s to damage to man or the env i ronment " . There are no s t a t u t o r y g u i d e l i n e s fo r de te rmin ing when an adverse e f f e c t i s " u n r e a s o n -a b l e " , a l l o w i n g the A d m i n i s t r a t o r and Committee c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c r e t i o n i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . There i s some disagreement c o n -ce rn ing p u b l i c access to t h i s review p r o c e s s . A l though K e l l e t t r epo r t s tha t the Branch "makes a v a i l a b l e to a p p e l l a n t s . . . the r epo r t s of the committee members" (1978), i t has been the exper i ence of s e v e r a l env i ronmenta l groups tha t t h i s i n f o r m a -t i o n i s cons ide red c o n f i d e n t i a l (K. Roberts 1981 I n t e r v i ew ) . Permits may be approved or denied by the a d m i n i s t r a t o r , and i f approved, may l a t e r be revoked i f h i s s t i p u l a t i o n s are not 67 f u l f i l l e d , or i f new ev idence of adverse e f f e c t s appears . Fo l l ow ing the A d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s approva l of the permit a p -p l i c a t i o n , n o t i c e must be made by the p e r m i t - h o l d e r . Th i s may be done through four methods: p u b l i c a t i o n i n the Government G a z e t t e , p o s t i n g of the permit in a consp icuous p l a ce on the land i n q u e s t i o n , through a p ress r e l e a s e , or adver t i sement in the l o c a l p r e s s . The A d m i n i s t r a t o r dec ides which method i s to be used , and makes i t a c o n d i t i o n of the p e r m i t . U s u a l l y , as was the case i n the t r i b u n a l s I s t u d i e d , n o t i c e i s g iven through adver t i sements in the l o c a l p r e s s . Ob j ec t i ons to the proposed a p p l i c a t i o n must be f i l e d i n the form of an a p p e a l , w i t h i n f i f t e e n days a f t e r the e f f e c t i v e date of the permi t (s . 49) . It i s at t h i s p o i n t tha t the p u b l i c may enter i n t o the p r o c e s s . An appea l must be i n i t i a t e d in order fo r c i t i z e n s to take pa r t in the h e a r i n g . The p u b l i c may appea l the permit D granted by the A d m i n i s t r a t o r through responding to the a p p l i c a -t i o n n o t i c e . Any member of the p u b l i c may f i l e an appea l (s. 12 ) . However, o r g a n i z a t i o n s can on l y appea l i f they have l e g a l s t and ing as " p e r s o n s " ( e . g . , i f i n c o r p o r a t e d as a r e g i s t e r e d s o c i e t y or c o r p o r a t i o n ) . In order to a p p e a l , the a p p e l l a n t n o t i f i e s the A d m i n i s t r a t o r of the P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l Branch of h i s /he r o b j e c t i o n . The A d m i n i s t r a t o r con f i rms r e c e i p t of the a p p e a l , and responds by r eques t i ng the a p p e l l a n t to send to the PCAB the grounds of a p p e a l . A l though s. 12(3) of the Act s t i p u -l a t e s tha t the a p p e l l a n t s may have to cover the cos t s of the 5 a p p e a l , t h i s was not r e q u i r e d i n the case s tudy h e a r i n g s . The Board r e p l i e s to the a p p e l l a n t , no t ing the l o c a t i o n , t ime , and 68 date of the h e a r i n g . Thus, the p u b l i c hearing i s but one stage i n an appeal process which i t s e l f i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n a complex p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l network of p e s t i c i d e j u r i s d i c t i o n . I turn now to the i s s u e s , l o c a t i o n , events, and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the case study hearing. M i l f o i l and the H e r b i c i d e Issue The r a p i d i n c r e a s e of Eurasian water m i l f o i l (Myriophyllum spicatum Linnaeus) i n the Okanagan Lake system of B r i t i s h Columbia has aroused c o n s i d e r a b l e concern. T h i s p e r e n n i a l water p l a n t has c o l o n i z e d many water bodies i n eastern Canada and the United S t a t e s , and has more r e c e n t l y spread to western North America. I t occurs i n lakes throughout B r i t i s h Columbia, i n c l u d i n g the Okanagan Lake system, l o c a t i o n of the case study (See map, Appendix 1.1). The p l a n t i s considered u n d e s i r a b l e f o r a number of r e a -sons. Brochures p u b l i s h e d by the Aquatic P l a n t Management Program of the B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment note that m i l f o i l i s regarded as a e s t h e t i c a l l y unappealing, i n that i t renders p r e v i o u s l y open areas of water a morass of "slimy, tangled weeds" ( B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Environment). Decomposition of the weed during summer months r e s u l t s i n shore accumulation of o d i f e r o u s and u n s i g h t l y fragments. I t r e -s t r i c t s water r e c r e a t i o n use i n shallow areas, e s p e c i a l l y swim-ming and powerboat use. I t i s thus viewed as economically and environmentally c o s t l y , e s p e c i a l l y i n areas, such as the Okana-gan, which are r e l i a n t on r e c r e a t i o n and tourism. The p l a n t has 69 been accused of damage to the sa lmonid environment by c o n t r i b u -t i n g to the s i l t a t i o n of spawning beds. M i l f o i l i s r e f e r r e d to as a " n u i s a n c e " and a " p r o b l e m " , and i t s growth has prompted c a l l s f o r i t s conta inment , to be accompl i shed by a v a r i e t y of methods, i n c l u d i n g h e r b i c i d e use . Other methods of weed man-agement i n c l u d e : root removal by mechanica l means such as r o tova to r s and h a r v e s t e r s , s u c t i o n d r e d g i n g , lake and r i v e r b a r r i e r s , and p u b l i c i n f o rma t i on and q u a r a n t i n e . Env i ronmenta l o r g a n i z a t i o n s argue tha t m i l f o i l i s not t o -t a l l y h a r m f u l . In t h e i r v iew, i t p rov i des h a b i t a t f o r f i s h , f i l t e r s water and improves i t s q u a l i t y , and impedes a lgae growth. Fu r the rmore , they say the r e s t r i c t e d appearance of the weed i n water under f i v e metres and en r i ched bottom e n v i r o n -ments l i m i t s the p o t e n t i a l spread of the weed, in the Okanagan example, to ten percent of the lake system (SOEC 1978) . A phenomenon of n a t u r a l d e c l i n e , or d i eback , has a l s o been c i t e d , sugges t ing tha t the p l a n t w i l l become more ba lanced in c o n j u n c -t i o n wi th other env i ronmenta l f a c t o r s (SOEC 1980) . The appea -rance and i n c rease of m i l f o i l i s an i n d i c a t i o n of env i ronmenta l change or d e g r a d a t i o n . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , env i ronmenta l groups s t a t e tha t a t t e n t i o n shou ld be r e d i r e c t e d to the r e d u c -t i o n or e l i m i n a t i o n of the p rocess of e u t r o p h i c a t i o n and n u -t r i e n t enr ichment of the l akes (SOEC 1978) . The means by which m i l f o i l r educ t i on and c o n t r o l i s to take p l ace has p rov ided the major source of deba te . Most o b s e r v e r s , i n c l u d i n g government and env i ronmenta l g roups , agree tha t some " c o n t r o l " of the weed i s both d e s i r a b l e and p r a c t i -c a l . The pr imary c o n f l i c t around m i l f o i l c o n t r o l has centered 70 around the chemica l means of t r ea tment . The h e r b i c i d e used in t h i s approach i s 2,4-D ( 2 ,4-d i ch l o rophenoxyace t i c a c i d ) , a c h l o r i n a t e d phenoxy compound deve loped du r i ng World War I I . The Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch (WIB) of the B .C. Department of Environment has proposed chemica l t reatment through the use of 2,4-D, i n c o n j u n c t i o n wi th other means, to c o n t r o l the m i l f o i l p rob lem. The WIB has advocated the use of t h i s h e r b i c i d e as e f f i c i e n t , economic , and s a f e . Approva l of the p e s t i c i d e a p -p l i c a t i o n permit by the A d m i n i s t r a t o r i n d i c a t e s that he c o n -dones the a p p l i c a t i o n (with the endorsement of the P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l Commit tee ) , and c o n s i d e r s that i t w i l l have no " u n r e a -sonable adverse e f f e c t " . However, c i t i z e n s and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups have f o r m a l l y opposed the proposed h e r b i c i d e t r ea tmen ts . T h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to h e r b i c i d e a p p l i c a t i o n s has i nc luded the f o l l o w i n g grounds , s t a t ed in t h e i r n o t i c e of appea l to the 1978 p e s t i c i d e a p p l i c a -t i o n permi t g ranted the WIB: 1. R isk to the h e a l t h of human b e i n g s , based on the mutagen ic , t e r a t o g e n i c , and c a r c i n o g e n i c e f f e c t s of 2,4-D on l i v i n g o rgan i sms . 2. R isk of harm to f i s h and w i l d l i f e in the genera l area su r round ing the p r o j e c t based on the t o x i c e f f e c t s of 2,4-D. 3. R isk of damage to a g r i c u l t u r a l c rops s u s c e p t i b l e to the e f f e c t s of 2,4-D. 4. R isk of harm as d e s c r i b e d i n the above 3 pa rag raphs , based on the p e r s i s t e n c e of 2,4-D and the l i m i t a t i o n s of the t e s t i n g equipment des igned to t e s t fo r the e x i s t e n c e of 2,4-D. 5. R isk of harm as d e s c r i b e d in paragraphs 1 through 3 as a r e s u l t of d r i f t o c c u r r i n g from the p r o j e c t a p p l i c a -t i o n s i t e s . 71 6. That no c o s t / b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s has been done on the use of 2,4-D in the Okanagan Lake System and the m i l f o i l c o n t r o l program to determine i f the 2,4-D a p p l i c a t i o n i s e conomica l l y j u s t i f i a b l e — p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t of the r i s k s i n v o l v e d . 7. That the use of 2,4-D w i l l not remove the m i l f o i l p rob lem, but w i l l merely n e c e s s i t a t e i t s r e a p p l i c a t i o n over s u c c e s s i v e years ( West Coast Env i ronmenta l Law A s s o c i a t i o n 1978) . A c co rd ing to the South Okanagan Env i ronmenta l C o a l i t i o n , there i s s u b s t a n t i a l ev idence tha t 2,4-D may be unhea l thy fo r humans and an ima l s . They s t a t e that there i s ev idence tha t 2,4-D ac t s as a c a r c i n o g e n , t e ra togen and a mutagen (Warnock and Lewis : 1978) . The aqua t i c a p p l i c a t i o n of the h e r b i c i d e i s viewed as p o t e n t i a l l y hazardous , due to the p o s s i b l e a b s o r p t i o n of the chemica l through the s k i n , the r e s i d u a l e f f e c t s , the p o s s i b i l i t y of d r i f t beyond e s t a b l i s h e d b u f f e r zones , and t o x i -c i t y to sa lmonids (SOEC 1978) . I r r i g a t i o n to v ineya rds wi th h e r b i c i d e - t r e a t e d water i s c i t e d as hazardous to grape c r o p s . The r i s i n g cos t of h e r b i c i d e a p p l i c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y mon i t o -r i n g , has a l s o been r a i s e d as a problem (SOEC 1978) . The con t rove r sy over the use of 2,4-D takes p lace w i t h i n a wider debate over the h e a l t h and s a f e t y dangers a s s o c i a t e d wi th h e r b i c i d e use . E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s i n d i c a t e tha t a l though the debate i s l a r g e l y r ecogn ized as a s c i e n t i f i c one, i t i s on another l e v e l an economic c o n f l i c t . The p e s t i c i d e i n d u s t r y in the Un i ted S t a t es i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n of development, condensed from T . Roberts : 1. Rapid growth in the p e r i o d between 1950-1975, a s s o c i a t e d wi th chemica l war fare resea rch dur ing W.W.II; a g r i b u s i n e s s , w i th i t s r e l i a n c e on monocu l tu re , mechan i -z a t i o n , and c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e p r o d u c t i o n ; and emphasis on s y n t h e t i c o r g a n i c p e s t i c i d e s . Between 1950 and 1975, p e s t i c i d e p r o d u c t i o n in the USA i nc reased by 10-15% per 72 annum. The tendency more r e c e n t l y (1970's +) has been to " i n t e g r a t e d pest management", which would be l e s s r e l i a n t on chemica l p e s t i c i d e s . 2. S y n t h e t i c p e s t i c i d e s a l e s in 1975 t o t a l l e d a p -p rox ima te l y $4 b i l l i o n , or 6% of the gross s a l e s of the chemica l i n d u s t r y . Corpora te c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s h i g h . 3. P e s t i c i d e demand i s now beg inn ing to dec r ease , and i s es t imated from 1976 to 1985 at 6% per y ea r . As North American markets have been s a t u r a t e d , new markets in the T h i r d World and Eas te rn Europe have been gene -r a t e d . 4. The chemica l i n d u s t r y has responded to f a l l i n g markets and growing concerns of the p u b l i c in the f o l l o w -ing ways: a d v e r t i s i n g , government l o b b y i n g , and i n d u s t r y involvement in s c i e n t i f i c s o c i e t i e s (such as CAST, Coun-c i l f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Sc ience and Techno logy ) (1981 :1-5 ) . Env i ronmenta l c r i t i c s note that 2,4-D i s one of the most w ide l y used p e s t i c i d e s in North Amer i ca ; tha t in Canada, i t accounts fo r 25% of a l l h e r b i c i d e and p e s t i c i d e s a l e s Warnock and Lewis 1982 :35 ) . The ex tens i ve use of h e r b i c i d e s in B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , a c co rd ing to env i ronmenta l c r i t i c s , has promoted an atmosphere of t a c i t a ccep tance . These c r i t i c s t h e r e f o r e argue tha t gov -ernment cho i ce of p e s t i c i d e (chemical ) t reatment r e f l e c t s the i n d u s t r y ' s past growth and cu r r en t demands. E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s a l s o note tha t A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, r a -ther than departments of Hea l th or the Env i ronment , i s r e s p o n -s i b l e fo r the r e g i s t r a t i o n of p e s t i c i d e s in Canada. Warnock and Lewis note the p o t e n t i a l b i a s of a g r i c u l t u r e s p e c i a l i s t s in the assessment of p e s t i c i d e s such as 2,4-D (1982:35) . Those a c c e p t i n g or advoca t ing p e s t i c i d e use on the o ther hand c i t e the checks and ba lances by which p e s t i c i d e s are t e s t e d , r e g i s -t e r e d , and approved (Ormrod 1982). Popular con t rove r sy over the chemica l 2,4-D r e f l e c t s a s c i e n t i f i c deba te , as Warnock and Lewis of the SOEC s t a t e : 73 S i n c e i t s d e v e l o p m e n t d u r i n g t h e c h e m i c a l a n d b i o l o -g i c a l w a r f a r e p r o g r a m d u r i n g W o r l d War I I a n d c o n t i n u i n g t h r o u g h i t s u s e i n V i e t n a m , i t ( 2 , 4 - D ) h a s d a m a g e d a g r e a t m a n y o r g a n i s m s b e s i d e s t h e v e g e t a t i o n a t w h i c h i t w a s a i m e d . T h e s c i e n t i f i c c o m m u n i t y i s d e e p l y d i v i d e d a s t o i t s s a f e t y , a n d r e g u l a t o r y d e c i s i o n s a r e c u r r e n t l y b a s e d o n d i s t o r t e d e c o n o m i c s ( ' w e c a n ' t a f f o r d n o t t o u s e i t ' ) r a t h e r t h a n b i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . M a n y p e o p l e d o u b t t h a t i t w o u l d b e r e g i s t e r e d u n d e r t o d a y ' s t e s t i n g p r o t o -c o l s ( 1 9 8 2 : 3 4 ) . T h o s e a d v o c a t i n g p e s t i c i d e u s e r e p l y t h a t t e s t i n g i s a d e q u a t e , a n d t h a t p e s t i c i d e u s e i s " s a f e " , e s p e c i a l l y i f e x p o s u r e i s m i n i m a l . T h u s , t h e c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r p e s t i c i d e u s e i s c o m p l e x a n d u n r e s o l v e d . A C h r o n o l o g y o f t h e O k a n a g a n L a k e s 2 , 4 - D I s s u e T h e i n c r e a s e o f E u r a s i a n w a t e r m i l f o i l i n t h e O k a n a g a n L a k e s s y s t e m e l i c i t e d c o n c e r n b e g i n n i n g i n t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s . T h e A q u a t i c P l a n t M a n a g e m e n t P r o g r a m w i t h i n t h e W a t e r I n v e s t i g a -t i o n s B r a n c h o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t i n i t i a t e d r e s e a r c h o n t h e g r o w t h o f m i l f o i l a n d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v a r i o u s h e r b i c i d e s b e g i n n i n g i n 1 9 7 2 . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o f I n q u i r y i n t o t h e U s e o f H e r b i c i d e s a n d P e s t i c i d e s , a p p o i n t e d i n 1 9 7 3 , c a r r i e d o u t i t s m a n d a t e o v e r a t w o - y e a r p e r i o d , m a k i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f h e r b i c i d e s , i n c l u -d i n g 2 , 4 - D . I n 1 9 7 6 , a n A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e o n t h e C o n t r o l o f E u r a s i a n W a t e r M i l f o i l i n t h e O k a n a g a n L a k e s y s t e m w a s a p p o i n -t e d b y t h e M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e f i r s t i n t e r i m r e p o r t o f t h i s C o m m i t t e e c a l l e d f o r t h e " p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e u s e o f h e r b i c i d e s " , t h e s e c o n d r e p o r t e n d o r s e d a n " a l l - o u t a t t a c k o n t h e w e e d s " , t o i n c l u d e a n i n t e g r a t e d p r o g r a m o f m e c h a n i c a l , h y d r a u l i c , b i o l o g i c a l , a n d c h e m i c a l ( e . g . , 2 , 4 - D ) c o n t r o l ( W a r n o c k a n d L e w i s 1 9 7 8 ) . T h e A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e h e l d a 74 s e r i e s o f p u b l i c m e e t i n g s i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 7 7 r e g a r d i n g t h e m i l f o i l i s s u e . On M a y 5 , 1 9 7 7 , t h e p r o v i n c e a g r e e d t o f i n a n c e , d e s i g n , a n d i m p l e m e n t a w e e d c o n t r o l p r o g r a m i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h l o c a l o f f i c i a l s . D u r i n g t h e s u m m e r o f 1 9 7 7 , c h e m i c a l a n d m e c h a n i c a l c o n t r o l m e t h o d s w e r e t o be t e s t e d i n f o u r O k a n a g a n L a k e s . M o r e w i d e s p r e a d u s e o f 2 , 4 - D w a s f o r e c a s t b y t h e A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e a n d t h e M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h e s u m m e r o f 1 9 7 8 . A c i t i z e n s ' g r o u p , t h e O k a n a g a n E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o a l i t i o n , w a s f o r m e d i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 7 7 , f o l l o w i n g t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g s o f t h e A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e . T h i s g r o u p o p p o s e d t h e p r o p o s e d u s e o f h e r b i c i d e s i n c o n t r o l l i n g m i l f o i l , a n d e n g a g e d i n p o l i t i c a l l o b b y i n g , p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n , r e s e a r c h , a n d n e t w o r k i n g w i t h o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o t h i s e n d . I n M a r c h , 1 9 7 8 , t h e P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l A c t w a s p r o c l a i m e d , a l l o w i n g f o r f o r m a l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h a s y s t e m o f a p p e a l s t o d e c i s i o n s a p p r o v i n g p r o p o s e d a p p l i c a t i o n s o f p e s t i -c i d e s . L a t e r t h a t s p r i n g , t h e W a t e r I n v e s t i g a t i o n s B r a n c h (WIB) o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t w a s g r a n t e d 1 5 p e r m i t s t o a p p l y 2 , 4 - D i n f o u r o f t h e m a j o r O k a n a g a n l a k e s . T h e s e w e r e a l l a p p e a l e d b y a n u m b e r o f a p p e l l a n t s , i n c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s , a n d l o c a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( s u c h a s t h e S O E C , S o c i e t y f o r P o l l u t i o n a n d E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l ( S P E C ) , a n d t h e C o n s u m e r s A s s o c i a t i o n o f C a n a d a ) . T h e h e a r i n g s w e r e h e l d i n J u n e , 1 9 7 8 , i n P e n t i c t o n , a n d w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s . I n t h e i r 1 9 7 8 d e c i s i o n , t h e P C A B u p h e l d f o u r o f t h e a p -7 5 pea l s (on Osoyoos Lake ) , but d i s a l l o w e d the remain ing e l e v e n . The SOEC requested a J u d i c i a l Review, which had the e f f e c t of ex tend ing the h e a r i n g s , and consequent l y d e l a y i n g the p e s t i c i d e a p p l i c a t i o n , caus ing r e d u c t i o n in the a p p l i c a t i o n s which were made. In the f a l l of 1978, the M i n i s t e r of Environment s t a t ed that no f u r t h e r h e r b i c i d e a p p l i c a t i o n s would be made on Okana-gan and Skaha Lakes . In 1979, the use of 2,4-D was con f i ned to Wood and Kalamalka Lakes at the nor th end of the l akes system. In both 1979 and 1980, appea l hea r ings took p lace i n Vernon , w i th d e c i s i o n s by the Board upho ld ing a l l the permi ts in both y e a r s . In 1981, the C e n t r a l Okanagan Reg iona l D i s t r i c t o b j e c -ted to many of the p e r m i t s , thereby c a n c e l l i n g them before p u b l i c hea r ings cou ld be h e l d . Permit a p p l i c a t i o n s were made f o r Osoyoos Lake by the Okanagan Water Bas in Board . These were appealed by the SOEC, and the Board aga in upheld the p e r m i t . In 1982, the PCAB had been r ep l aced by the Env i ronmenta l Assessment Board . H e r b i c i d e c o n t r o l programs had been cut back, and no permi t a p p l i c a t i o n s were made. The SOEC c l a ims that i t s e f f o r t s have been e f f e c t i v e , by reduc ing the proposed a p p l i c a -t i o n s , through the p rocesses of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l e c o l o g y , and b u r e a u c r a t i c d e l a y , but the p o s s i b i l i t y of f u tu re a p p l i c a t i o n s of 2,4-D remains . The " b u r e a u c r a t i c momentum" of the Water I n v e s t i g a t i o n s Branch (Warnock and Lewis 1981) , the lack of s i g n i f i c a n t p u b l i c v i c t o r i e s in the appea l p r o c e s s , the l ack of a s h i f t in agency p o l i c y and the c o n t i n u i n g e x i s t e n c e of the weed promise f u r t h e r c o n t r o v e r s y . The Royal Commission of I nqu i r y i n to Uranium Min ing The B r i t i s h Columbia Royal Commission of I nqu i r y i n to Ura-76 nium Min ing (RCUM), was e s t a b l i s h e d on February 16, 1979. Three Commissioners were named to head the I n q u i r y — D r . David Ba t es , P ro f e s so r of Med ic ine at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and o c c u p a t i o n a l h e a l t h s p e c i a l i s t ; Dr . James Murray, P ro f e s so r of Geology at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia ; and Mr. V a l t e r Raudsepp, C i v i l Engineer and former chairman of the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board and P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l Appea l Board . The Commission schedu led two se t s of p u b l i c h e a r i n g s : communi-ty h e a r i n g s , to be he ld twice throughout the p rov ince and t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s , to be he ld in Vancouver beg inn ing in Sep -tember, 1979. Funding was p rov ided to a i d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a n t s . In the midst of i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , the I nqu i r y was te rminated by the government on February 27, 1980, and a seven year mora-tor ium on uranium e x p l o r a t i o n and mining was put in e f f e c t . I w i l l now presen t an overv iew of the i s sues and the events a s s o c i a t e d wi th the R .C .U .M. The C o n s u l t a t i v e I nqu i r y Commissions of i n q u i r y are e s t a b l i s h e d by government as independent t r i b u n a l s to i n v e s t i g a t e matters of p u b l i c concern and p rov ide adv i ce to government on p o l i c y (Pape 1978). Theo -r e t i c a l l y , the commission of i n q u i r y supplements and s h o r t - c u t s the e l e c t o r a l p rocess by s e c u r i n g i n fo rma t i on and making recom-mendations which are then taken i n t o account by a p p r o p r i a t e branches of government. A l though not b i nd ing on government, recommendations are r a r e l y comple te l y d i s r ega rded (OECD 1978) , and i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , are submit ted to the L e g i s l a t u r e , becoming p u b l i c documents. The Royal Commission of I nqu i r y i n to Uranium Min ing was 77 e s t a b l i s h e d under the p r o v i n c i a l P u b l i c I n q u i r i e s Act (R .S .B .C . I960, c . 3 1 5 ) , which s t a t e s that the Cab ine t may e s t a b l i s h a commission of i n q u i r y to adv i se i t on " . . . . a n y matter connected w i th the good government of the P r o v i n c e ( s . 3 ) . The Ac t p rov ides fo r the appointment of commiss ioners and o u t l i n e s t h e i r d u t i e s ( s s . 3 f 9 ) . Under t h i s A c t , Commissioners a p p o i n -ted to the I nqu i r y are g i ven wide powers in de te rmin ing the matters under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n A c t , R . S .B .C . 1960 r e q u i r e s tha t a l l enactments , "be g i ven such f a i r , l a rge and l i b e r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as best ensures the a t ta inment of i t s o b j e c t s " (West Coast Env i ronmenta l Law A s s o -c i a t i o n 1979) . The Act thus g ran ts a l a rge share of d i s c r e t i o -nary powers to the Commiss ioners . The Terms of Reference set out by government in O r d e r - i n -C o u n c i l No. 170/179, and adopted by the RCUM are as f o l l o w s : (1) to examine the adequacy of e x i s t i n g f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l requi rements f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the h e a l t h and s a f e t y of workers a s s o c i a t e d wi th e x p l o r a t i o n , mining and m i l l i n g df uranium in B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , and fo r the p r o t e c t i o n of the environment and of the p u b l i c , and , (2) to r e ce i v e p u b l i c input on these ma t t e r s , and, (3) to make recommendations f o r s e t t i n g and ma in t a i n i ng s tandards f o r worker and p u b l i c s a f e t y as a r e s u l t of the e x p l o r a t i o n fo r the mining and m i l l i n g of uranium ores (RCUM 1980) . These e x p l i c i t l y d i r e c t the t r i b u n a l to " r e c e i v e p u b l i c i n p u t " . They d i r e c t the i n q u i r y to i n v e s t i g a t e the h e a l t h and s a f e t y of workers and the p u b l i c i n the mining and m i l l i n g of uranium. The Royal Commission as a mode of i n q u i r y g i ves i t s Com-m i s s i one r s a d i s c r e t i o n a r y r o l e . E a r l i e r Commissions are im-por tan t in shap ing the s t r u c t u r e and procedures of the I n q u i r y . 78 A number of p u b l i c i n q u i r i e s preceded the RCUM, s e t t i n g i n f o r -mal p recedents f o r the procedures and the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of i s s u e s . The Berger I nqu i r y (Mackenzie V a l l e y P i p e l i n e Inqui ry ) was i nnova t i v e i n i t s p r o v i s i o n of fund ing fo r p u b l i c p a r t i c i -p a n t s , and i t s e s t ab l i shment of both community and formal hea r i ngs (Berger 1977) . The West Coast Coast O i l Por ts I n q u i r y , a l though premature l y t e rm ina t ed , c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s t r a d i t i o n of h i g h - p r o f i l e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P u b l i c i n q u i r i e s i n to nuc l ea r i s sues and uranium mining have a l s o preceded the RCUM. In A u s t r a l i a , the Ranger Uranium Env i ronmenta l I nqu i r y was appo in ted i n 1975 by the Labour g o -vernment, and conducted i t s hea r ings in the f o l l o w i n g manner: Three commiss ioners he ld p u b l i c hea r ings from Septem-ber 1975 to August 1976. They l i s t e n e d to 281 w i tnesses from both pro- and an t i-uran ium groups , v i s i t e d major cen t r es and uranium mining l o c a t i o n s a l l over A u s t r a l i a , and cons ide r ed 354 w r i t t e n submi s s i ons . Un l i k e the Bates Commission (RCUM), i t i n t e r p r e t e d i t s g u i d e l i n e s to i n -v e s t i g a t e the env i ronmenta l impact and hazards of the Ranger mine fo r the miners themse lves , the A b o r i g i n a l l andho lde r s and the l o c a l e co l ogy , but a l s o the hazards and e t h i c a l ques t i ons su r round ing the e n t i r e nuc l ea r f u e l c y c l e — i n c l u d i n g waste d i s p o s a l , nuc l ea r power p l a n t a c c i d e n t s , nuc l ea r t e r r o r i s m , nuc l ea r p r o l i f e r a t i o n and r e p r o c e s s i n g (Newell and Hamel-Green 1979:13 ) . A l though the Ranger I nqu i r y had widespread p u b l i c suppo r t , i t s recommendations were by-passed by the L i b e r a l government which r e ce i v ed them. C o n t i n u i n g o p p o s i t i o n to uranium mining has been demonstrated by l a b o u r , church groups and env i ronmenta l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the form of b o y c o t t s , demons t r a t i ons , and c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e . The Ranger Inqu i ry p rov ided a v e h i c l e fo r m o b i l i z i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t promoted p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n , and focused the nuc l ea r debate , but the f a i l u r e of government 79 to implement i t s recommendations r a i s e d ques t i ons conce rn ing s t a t e and co rpo ra t e r e l a t i o n s and the f o r c e of the t r i b u n a l . Another p redecessor to the RCUM was the Bayda, or C l u f f Lake Board of I nqu i r y i n Saskatchewan. The Bayda Inqu i r y l a s t e d 15 months, beg inn ing i n J u l y 1974, and addressed q u e s -t i o n s tha t ranged from the s p e c i f i c p lans proposed fo r mining i n the C l u f f Lake area to the dangers of nuc l ea r p r o l i f e r a t i o n . I t s f i n a l r epo r t summarizes the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of nuc l ea r power, dea l s w i th the problems of energy s u p p l y , and approves the mining of uranium. A l though the scope of the Inqu i r y was w ide , and i n c l uded c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , econo -m i c , and e t h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the Inqu i r y has been c r i t i -c i z e d s t r o n g l y by opponents of uranium m in ing , who c l a im tha t the d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a rge resources of government and i n d u s -t r y enabled them to s l a n t the p rocess in t h e i r f a vou r . The Issues The RCUM was e s t a b l i s h e d to i n q u i r e i n to the adequacy of r e g u l a t i o n s conce rn ing the e x p l o r a t i o n , m in i ng , and m i l l i n g of uranium in B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , as i n d i c a t e d by the Terms of Reference c i t e d e a r l i e r . At the time of the appointment of the i n q u i r y , no uranium mines were ope r a t i ng in t h i s p r o v i n c e . A l though i n d u s t r y was a c t i v e l y e x p l o r i n g fo r uranium, p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n was mount ing. Among those i s sues con tes ted were the f o l l o w i n g : the h e a l t h and s a f e t y of uranium e x p l o r a t i o n , m i -n i n g , and m i l l i n g fo r workers and the p u b l i c ; the economics or uranium m i n i n g ; and the nuc l ea r f u e l c y c l e , i n which e x p l o r a -t i o n / m i n - i n g / m i l l i n g p l a y s a s t r a t e g i c r o l e . The i s sues of h e a l t h and s a f e t y are r e l a t e d to the r ad i o-80 a c t i v e nature of uranium and i t s daughter p r o d u c t s . A l though background r a d i a t i o n occurs on a n a t u r a l b a s i s , the a d d i t i o n a l r a d i o a c t i v i t y r e l e a sed through the mining of uranium i s r e c o g -n i zed as a p o t e n t i a l h a z a r d . E f f e c t s of exposure to r a d i a t i o n on human h e a l t h are documented, but the debate i s over what amount of exposure i s " a c c e p t a b l e " , who d e f i n e s i t , and the r i s k s and b e n e f i t s of uranium mining (Community I n t e r e s t Re-search Group 1980:29 ) . Opponents of uranium mining argue tha t i t c r ea t e s a h e a l t h hazard fo r mine workers and the gene ra l p u b l i c . They argue tha t r a d i o a c t i v i t y b iocumulates i n the food c h a i n , tha t r a d i o a c t i v i t y would e s c a l a t e in the water supp ly in the reg ions near mine s i t e s , and tha t radon gas would escape and d i s p e r s e i n the r eg ion of a mine. The Canadian C o a l i t i o n f o r Nuc lea r R e s p o n s i b i l i t y s t a t e s that mine workers run an i n c reased r i s k of i n c u r r i n g cance r : " . . . i t i s known tha t the number of miners who have d i ed as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of working i n Canada 's uranium mines runs i n to the hundreds" (1982:3 ) . The e x i s t e n c e of f e d e r a l hea l t h r e g u l a t i o n s and i ndus- t r y c o m p l i -ance wi th these s tandards form the bas i s fo r i n d u s t r y ' s r e p l y . The p e r s i s t e n c e of uranium daughter p r o d u c t s , and the problems of adequate t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l are among r e l a t e d e n v i -ronmental problems c i t e d by mining opponents . Uranium mining t a i l i n g s remain r a d i o a c t i v e fo r at l e a s t one m i l l i o n years (Canadian C o a l i t i o n f o r Nuc lear R e s p o n s i b i l i t y 1978) . E n v i r o n -m e n t a l i s t s c l a i m that techno logy fo r the permanent d i s p o s a l of t a i l i n g s does not p r e s e n t l y e x i s t : There i s no e x i s t i n g techno logy capable of d i s p o s i n g of the uranium mining wastes in a manner which would 81 assure no need fo r human i n t e r v e n t i o n and no danger from i nadve r t en t human i n t r u s i o n . . . . ( T o r r i e 1982:17 ) . . . . . T h e uranium mining i n d u s t r y con t inues to demonstrate a l a ck of env i ronmenta l s e n s i t i v i t y and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y i n i t s approach to the problem of r a d i o a c t i v e waste hand l i ng (To r r i e 1982:25) . Env i ronmenta l groups have noted tha t economics and the r o l e of government in the uranium i n d u s t r y were s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n the convening of the RCUM. At the time of the announcement of the I n q u i r y , uranium mining and m i l l i n g were a l r e a d y t ak i ng p l ace i n Onta r io and Saskatchewan. A l though mining had not yet begun i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , by the summer of 1978, l a rge amounts of uranium had been l o c a t e d in the Okanagan P l a teau and i n other areas of the p rov ince (Canadian C o a l i t i o n f o r Nuc lea r R e s p o n s i b i l i t y 1978 :1 ) . I t s p r i c e had e s c a l a t e d from $5 a pound f o r ye l lowcake (uranium p r i o r to p r o c e s s i n g i n to f u e l ) in 1971 to above $40 per pound in 1978 (Vancouver  Sun 1981) , c r e a t i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e p ressu re to mine i t . Opponents of uranium mining c i t e d s e v e r a l f a c t o r s which they f e l t would a l t e r the economic c l ima te fo r uranium m in i ng . They suggested that the nuc l ea r i n d u s t r y faced an imminent demise , due to the h igh c a p i t a l cos t s and government s u b s i d i z a -t i o n of much of the i n d u s t r y (RCUM 1979 3 :190) . D i s cove ry of Canadian p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l uranium c a r t e l was announced i n 1981. D i s s o l u t i o n of the c a r t e l , i t was w ide l y f e l t , would be fo l l owed by a c o l l a p s e of the market to more " n a t u r a l " l e v e l s of economic v i a b i l i t y . The dramat i c i n c r ease in shor t- te rm p r o f i t , combined wi th f o r e c a s t s fo r dec r eas i ng va lues in the 1 9 8 0 ' s , thus c r ea ted p ressure to mine i d e n t i f i e d d e p o s i t s as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . 82 D u r i n g t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s , i t w a s a n n o u n c e d t h a t s e v e r a l C a n a d i a n m i n i n g c o m p a n i e s h a d s i g n e d m u l t i m i l l i o n - d o l l a r c o n -t r a c t s t o s e l l B . C . u r a n i u m t o S o u t h K o r e a . T h e s e c o n t r a c t s , f o r a b o u t s e v e n m i l l i o n p o u n d s o f u r a n i u m o x i d e o v e r 11 y e a r s , c b e g i n n i n g i n 1 9 8 3 , w e r e e s t i m a t e d t o b e w o r t h a b o u t $ 3 0 0 m i l -l i o n . A s a r e s u l t o f t h i s d i s c l o s u r e , o n e m a j o r p a r t i c i p a n t , G r e e n p e a c e , w i t h d r e w f r o m t h e C o m m i s s i o n , s t a t i n g t h a t t h e c o n -t r a c t s w e r e " i n c o n t e m p t o f t h e u r a n i u m i n q u i r y p r o c e s s a n d w i l l p u t u n d u e p r e s s u r e o n t h e B . C . g o v e r n m e n t t o a d o p t h e a l t h a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a n d a r d s b a s e d o n e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y r a t h e r t h a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n " ( V a n c o u v e r S u n " 1 9 7 9 ) . A d e c l i n e i n t h e p r i c e o f u r a n i u m w a s a l s o p r e d i c t e d b e -c a u s e o f t h e l i m i t e d m a r k e t . A b o u t 9 0 % o f C a n a d a ' s u r a n i u m i s e x p o r t e d t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , a n d t h i s m a r k e t i s l i m i t e d t o w e a p o n r y a n d p o w e r g e n e r a t i o n ( K i n e s i s 1 9 8 2 : 1 5 ) . A l t h o u g h u r a -n i u m s a l e s f o r a r m a m e n t p u r p o s e s a r e r e s t r i c t e d , s a l e s t o t h i r d - w o r l d c o u n t r i e s h a v e b e e n j u s t i f i e d o n t h e b a s i s o f e n e r g y n e e d s ( C a n a d i a n C o a l i t i o n f o r N u c l e a r R e s p o n s i b i l i t y 1 9 7 8 : 1 ) C r i t i c s c i t e t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f s u c h " a t o m s f o r p e a c e " i n t o " c l a n d e s t i n e n u c l e a r a r s e n a l s " ( S p e c t r u m 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e y a r e a l s o s k e p t i c a l o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c e n t r a l i s t a n d c a p i t a l - i n t e n -s i v e n u c l e a r e n e r g y t o t h i r d - w o r l d n a t i o n s : " i n c o u n t r i e s i n w h i c h c a p i t a l i s s c a r c e a n d l a b o u r i s a b u n d a n t b u t p o o r l y t r a i n e d , t h e n u c l e a r o p t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a g r o s s m i s a l l o c a t i o n o f 6 r e s o u r c e s " ( R e g i n a G r o u p f o r a N o n - N u c l e a r S o c i e t y 1 9 8 0 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , m i n i n g o p p o n e n t s s t a t e t h a t : 8 3 nuc l ea r s a l e s cont inue because they s p e l l p r o f i t s to the s u p p l i e r n a t i o n s . Reactor o rde rs secure the t r a n s f e r of d e s p e r a t e l y needed development c a p i t a l to the h i g h -techno logy i n d u s t r i e s of the western wor ld (Regina Group f o r a Non Nuc lea r S o c i e t y 1980) . P o l i t i c a l economists note the ex tens i ve s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the nuc l ea r i n d u s t r y . The uranium c a r t e l c i t e d above i s one example of t h i s . The Canadian government has been e x t e n s i v e l y i n vo l ved in the uranium mining i n d u s t r y through n a t i o n a l i z a -t i o n , i n c e n t i v e s and d i r e c t equ i t y i n t e r e s t . The Community I n t e r e s t Research Group (CIRG) notes tha t in 1944, the f e d e r a l government n a t i o n a l i z e d the c o u n t r y ' s on l y uranium mine, to secure the l i m i t e d s u p p l i e s of uranium and ensure the ma in t e -nance of low p r i c e s (1980:36) . The Fede ra l Uranium Reconna i s -sance Program p rov ided government s u b s i d i z a t i o n of e x p l o r a t i o n , through a "10-yea r , $50 m i l l i o n programme to i d e n t i f y and d e l i n e a t e a l l p o t e n t i a l uranium-bear ing zones i n Canada" (Com-munity I n t e r e s t Research Group 1980:21 ) . P o l i t i c a l economists a l so note tha t c o n c e n t r a t i o n w i t h i n the energy i n d u s t r y has taken p l ace through v e r t i c a l and h o r i -z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n : the former a l lows u t i l i t i e s to c o n t r o l t h e i r o i l s u p p l i e s as we l l as energy g e n e r a t i o n ; wh i le the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of power h o r i z o n t a l l y l i n k s o i l , gas , and nuc l ea r f u e l s i n the same c o r p o r a t i o n s . Th i s p rocess has l ed to the i n c reased power of m u l t i n a t i o n a l s , and has taken p l ace wi th the a c t i v e suppor t of the f e d e r a l government, through the c a r t e l , and the p r o v i s i o n of a s t a b l e o p e r a t i n g c l ima t e (Community I n t e r e s t Research Group 1980 :42 ) . The t h i r d i s sue c e n t r a l to the con t rove r s y su r round ing uranium mining i s the r o l e of uranium in the nuc l ea r f u e l 84 c y c l e , which i n v o l v e s s i x major s t e p s : m in i ng , m i l l i n g , e n -r i chment , f u e l f a b r i c a t i o n , power p l a n t s , and r eac to r wastes . T h i s c y c l e produces two types of p r o d u c t s : weapons (ma te r i a l s fo r deve lop ing nuc l ea r warheads) ; and energy ( e l e c t r i c i t y i s generated from steam in the nuc l ea r power p l an t ) ( K i nes i s 1982:16 ) . Opponents of uranium mining argue tha t i t must be seen i n terms of l a r g e r s o c i a l consequences . The use of nuc l ea r energy fo r m i l i t a r y purposes (weaponry) has been argued s i n ce H i r o s h i -ma. Opponents say tha t t h i s source of energy i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e , not on l y to t h i r d - w o r l d , l e s s developed n a t i o n s , but fo r North American a p p l i c a t i o n as w e l l . They r e f e r to the sma l l p e r c e n -tage of e l e c t r i c a l power needs which nuc l ea r energy can supp ly and c i t e the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a l t e r n a t i v e s such as c o n s e r v a -t i o n , s o l a r , w ind , thermal and biomass sources (Brooks 1981; B rooks , Robinson e t . a l . 1983; L o v i n s , 1977) . Opponents of nuc -l e a r power warn of the h e a l t h dangers of nuc l ea r power, and suggest tha t d e c e n t r a l i z e d , more l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e forms of energy would be s o c i a l l y and e conomi ca l l y p r e f e r a b l e (Lov ins 1977) . A Chronology of the Uranium Min ing Con t rove r sy The con t rove r s y over uranium mining in B r i t i s h Columbia has i t s roo ts in the i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e to nuc l ea r t e c h -no logy . O p p o s i t i o n to a l l forms of nuc lea r t echno logy has taken p l ace s i n ce 1975 in B r i t a i n , through p u b l i c involvement in government i n q u i r i e s i n to r eac to r s a f e t y (The Windsca le I n q u i r y ) , p u b l i c demons t r a t i ons , and a pa r l i amen ta r y l obby . 85 I n S w e d e n , t h i s i s s u e h a s b e e n a f o c u s o f e l e c t i o n s a n d a r e f e r e n d u m i n 1 9 8 0 . A n t i - n u c l e a r g r o u p s h a v e b e e n a c t i v e t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e . O p p o s i t i o n t o n u c l e a r t e c h n o l o g y i n J a p a n a n d t h e P a c i f i c h a s a c c e l e r a t e d s i n c e 1 9 7 4 , w h e n t h e f i r s t N u c l e a r F r e e P a c i f i c C o n f e r e n c e w a s h e l d . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e T h r e e M i l e I s l a n d i n c i d e n t i n 1 9 7 9 f u e l e d t h e n u c l e a r c o n t r o v e r s y , p r e c i p i t a t i n g p u b l i c d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a n d p o l i t i c a l d e b a t e o v e r t h e s a f e t y a n d f u t u r e o f n u c l e a r t e c h n o -l o g y . P u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n t o n u c l e a r t e c h n o l o g y h a s t a k e n m a n y f o r m s . A l t h o u g h d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , s u c h a s t h e a n n u a l P e a c e M a r c h a r e a p o p u l a r a n d v i s i b l e f o r m o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , i n t e r v e n -t i o n a t p u b l i c h e a r i n g s h a s a l s o b e e n a s i g n i f i c a n t m e a n s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e n u c l e a r d e b a t e . I n t e r v e n t i o n i n A t o m i c E n e r g y C o m m i s s i o n r e g u l a t o r y h e a r i n g s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s a n d e a r l y 1 9 7 0 ' s , l e d t o t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f s t r i c t e r s a f e t y s t a n d a r d s o n t h e n u c l e a r i n d u s t r y ( K i n e s i s 1 9 8 2 : 2 1 ) . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C a n a d i a n i n q u i r i e s , s u c h a s t h e P o r t e r C o m m i s s i o n i n O n t a r i o , a n d t h e B a y d a h e a r i n g s i n S a s -k a t c h e w a n , c o n t r i b u t e d t o p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a n d a w a r e n e s s o f t h e n u c l e a r c o n t r o v e r s y . S p e c i f i c e v e n t s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c o n t r o v e r s y w i t h i n w h i c h t h e RCUM w a s a n n o u n c e d . A l t h o u g h t h e r e w a s n o a c t i v e m i n i n g o f u r a n i u m w h e n t h e C o m m i s s i o n w a s a n n o u n c e d , t h e r e w a s e x p l o r a t i o n a n d s t a k i n g o f u r a n i u m , t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . I n r e s p o n s e t o a c t i v e u r a n i u m e x p l o r a t i o n , a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n -t y - s e v e n e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s s t a t e d t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n ( S c h m i t t 1 9 7 9 ) . I n G e n e l l e , B . C . , t h r e e p e o p l e w e r e a r r e s t e d f o r b l o c k -8 6 ing uranium e x p l o r a t i o n work in the China Creek watershed, the source of the town's water s u p p l y . Th i s i n c i d e n t in p a r t i c u l a r r a i s e d p u b l i c awareness of t h i s i s s u e , and c o n t r i b u t e d to the government 's promise of a p u b l i c i n q u i r y . Abbott c i t e s M i n i s t e r of Mines H e w i t t ' s reasons for e s t a b l i s h i n g the i n q u i r y : (1) There was a need to p rov ide an assessment : ' . . . of the s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , which would be of s i g n i f i c a n c e i f uranium was mined i n the p r o v i n c e . (2) There were such s i g n i f i c a n t unknowns tha t a f u l l and open s tudy of the sub j e c t ( s a f e t y , h e a l t h and e n v i -ronmental p r o t e c t i o n ) was c a l l e d f o r ' (1980:8 ) . These , t hen , are the i s sues and events which p r e c i p i t a t e d the two case s tudy t r i b u n a l s . In the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s , I w i l l p resen t the p a r t i c i p a n t s of the t r i b u n a l s , and des c r i be the procedures and the dec i s ion-mak ing process i n g rea te r dep th . 1 In the case of the N a t i o n a l Energy Board , f o r example, the p r o p o n e n t ' s a p p l i c a t i o n fo r a development permit se t s i n motion a hea r i ng p r o c e s s . 2 The F e d e r a l I n q u i r i e s Ac t a l l ows the cab ine t to e s t a b l i s h an i n q u i r y to adv i se i t upon "any matter connected wi th the good government of Canada or the conduct of any pa r t of the p u b l i c bus iness t h e r e o f " ( s . 2 ) . P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i s e q u a l l y gene -r a l , e n t i t l i n g the Cab ine t to e s t a b l i s h a commission of i n q u i r y to adv i se i t upon " . . . . a n y matter connected wi th the good gov -ernment of the P r o v i n c e ( s . 3 ) 3 In 1982 the PCAB and the P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l Board were superceded by and amalgamated in the Env i ronmenta l Appeal Board . 4Most mun i c i pa l sp r a y i ng occurs on p u b l i c land wi thout p e r m i t . A l though s e c t i o n Four of the Ac t r e q u i r e s permi ts fo r p e s t i c i d e a p p l i c a t i o n s to land and water , S e c t i o n 22 of the Regu l a t i ons r e q u i r e s a permi t on l y fo r p u b l i c l and/water . In 1979, an o rde r- in-counc i1 exempted p r i v a t e land owners from r e q u i r i n g pe rmi t s on p r i v a t e land fo r a p p l i c a t i o n s of Schedule I I , I I I , or IV p e s t i c i d e s (T. Roberts 1981) . 87 5 Beg inn ing i n 1982, a p p e l l a n t s were r equ i r ed to submit $25 fo r each permi t appea l ed . 6For i n s t a n c e , the Regina Group fo r a Non-Nuclear Soc i e t y c i t e s Premier B lakeney of Saskatchewan as j u s t i f y i n g the export of uranium to deve lop ing na t i ons on the b a s i s that " to reduce the energy a v a i l a b l e to the wor ld i s to con f i ne the poores t na t i ons to un to ld misery and p r i v a t i o n " (1980). 88 CHAPTER 4 HETEROGENEITY OF PARTICIPATION: REPRESENTATION OF THE PUBLIC INTEREST 4 .1- I n t r oduc t i on P l u r a l i s t theory assumes a he t e rogene i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c o n s u l t a t i v e p rocesses of government which w i l l promote the a t ta inment of ba lanced d e c i s i o n s . In t h i s p r o c e s s , the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i s represented by a number of o r g a n i z a t i o n s which counter the i n f l u e n c e of co rpora te and other p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t e r e s t s . The d i v e r s i t y of i n t e r e s t s represented by hear ing p a r t i c i p a n t s in t h i s s tudy con f i rms to a c e r t a i n extent the p l u r a l i s t no t i on of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A number of i n t e r e s t s , i n c luded the p u b l i c , are represented in both case s t u d i e s , a l though the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h e a r i n g , by n a t u r e , i s l e s s s u c c e s s f u l i n a t t r a c t i n g a d i v e r s i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s . In both case s t u d i e s , i n t e r v e n t i o n by p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a n t s coun -t e r s , on a s u b s t a n t i v e b a s i s , the input by proponents or pro-development f o r c e s . The p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i s seen to be r e p r e -sented by a number of i n t e r v e n o r s , thereby p r o v i d i n g a h e t e r o -gene i t y of input to the d e c i s i o n - or po l i cy-mak ing p r o c e s s . None the l e s s , I w i l l argue tha t c e r t a i n f e a tu r e s of hear ing p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a i s e problems when sub jec ted to c r i t i c a l ana ly-89 s i s . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e h e a r i n g i s f l e x i b l e and d i s c r e t i o n a -r y ; i t f a i l s t o e n s u r e t h e d e l e g a t i o n and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f s p e a k e r s . The s u b j e c t i v e and v o l u n t a r y d e f i n i t i o n o f " i n t e -r e s t " on w h i c h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s based does n o t g u a r a n t e e t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l l r e l e v a n t i n t e r e s t s . From a c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e h e a r i n g f a i l s t o p r o v i d e f o r a f u l l h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n — o n e i n c o r p o r a t i n g " o b j e c -t i v e " i n t e r e s t s s u c h as t h o s e o f s o c i a l c l a s s and g e n d e r , and e x t e n d i n g t o a f u l l range o f a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l l a y t h e groundwork f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s by i n t r o d u c i n g t o t h e r e a d e r t h e p a r t i -c i p a n t s i n t h e h e a r i n g s under s t u d y . I w i l l b e g i n by i d e n t i -f y i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e two t r i b u n a l s , and c o n t i n u e by d i s c u s s i n g t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i s i d e n t i -f i e d . The h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t h e n a s s e s s e d . I c o n c l u d e w i t h an a n a l y s i s o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n as an i n d e x o f h e t e r o g e n e i t y and b a l a n c e . 4.2 - I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f P a r t i c i p a n t s and I n t e r e s t s In t h i s s e c t i o n I w i l l b r i e f l y i d e n t i f y t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e c a s e s t u d y t r i b u n a l s , t o g i v e t h e r e a d e r a s e n s e o f t h e i r numbers and t h e range and b a s i s o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l A p p e a l B o a r d H e a r i n g s In t h e P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l A p p e a l B o a r d c a s e s t u d y h e a r i n g s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s l i m i t e d t o a s m a l l number o f g r o u p s and a few i n d i v i d u a l s , a l l o f whom have f i l e d o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e a p p e a l 1 p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r o p o n e n t . A p p e l l a n t s may a p p e a r b e f o r e t h e B o a r d d i r e c t l y , o r be r e p r e s e n t e d by w i t n e s s e s and/or by l e g a l c o u n s e l . The p u b l i c c a n n o t t a k e p a r t d i r e c t l y 90 i n the hea r ing un l ess they have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the appeal p r o c e s s . Tab le 1 l i s t s the a p p e l l a n t s in the 1978-1981 Okana-gan 2,4-D PCAB h e a r i n g s . TABLE 1 - APPELLANTS, OKANAGAN 2,4-D PCAB HEARINGS 1978 - Mr . J im Foo rd , Mrs . George P r e t t y Consumers' A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada (CAC) Osooyoos Ratepayers A s s o c i a t i o n South Okanagan Env i ronmenta l C o a l i t i o n (SOEC) Soc i e t y fo r P o l l u t i o n and Env i ronmenta l C o n t r o l Kelowna Greenpeace 1979 - Mr. Ray Worsley I n d i v i d u a l (not i d e n t i f i e d ) Vernon and Kelowna SPEC Okanagan Greenpeace Foundat ion South Okanagan Env i ronmenta l C o a l i t i o n 1980 - Mr. Ray Worsley Vernon and Kelowna SPEC Okanagan Greenpeace Foundat ion South Okanagan Env i ronmenta l C o a l i t i o n 1981 - Mr. R.G. Johnson South Okanagan Env i ronmenta l C o a l i t i o n The PCAB case study covers a number of p a r t i c i p a n t s a p -p e a l i n g permi ts of the p e s t i c i d e 2,4-D in the Okanagan Lakes system over a four-year p e r i o d . Dur ing t h i s t ime , f i v e i n d i v i -dua l s and s i x o r g a n i z a t i o n s were f o r m a l l y r e g i s t e r e d as a p p e l -l a n t s . In 1978, a sma l l v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s were r ep r e sen t ed , i n c l u d i n g those of env i ronment , consumers, and l o c a l p r o p e r t y . Dur ing the remainder of the h e a r i n g s , on l y env i ronmenta l i n t e -r e s t s (SOEC, SPEC) were o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r ep r e sen t ed . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the PCAB h e a r i n g s , in summary, was con-2 f i n e d to a few i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The dominance of one o r g a n i z a t i o n (the SOEC), in i t s su s t a i ned appea ls throughout the study p e r i o d c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s case of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The nature of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h e a r i n g — t h e 91 t e c h n i c a l nature of the i s s u e s , the a d v e r s a r i a l nature of the appea l p r o c e s s , and the l ack of p u b l i c f u n d i n g — e f f e c t i v e l y r e s t r i c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n to a l i m i t e d number of i n t e r v e n o r s . In the case s tudy h e a r i n g s , the he t e rogene i t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s i s r e f l e c t e d by the a d v e r s a r i a l cha rac t e r of the appeal p rocess s t r u c t u r e which i s congruent with the p l u r a l i s t no t i on of a ba lance among competing i n t e r e s t s . Royal Commission of I nqu i r y i n to Uranium Min ing The Royal Commission of I nqu i r y i n to Uranium Min ing he ld two d i s t i n c t se t s of h e a r i n g s , both of which were open to p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the p u b l i c . As s t a t ed by the P r e l i m i n a r y R u l i n g s : . . . . t h e Royal Commission of Inqu i ry i n to Uranium Min ing w i l l ho ld p u b l i c hea r ings throughout the P rov ince of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia . To ensure maximum p a r t i c i p a t i o n the Commission w i l l gather ev idence and r e ce i ve p u b l i c com-ments r ega rd ing the matters d e s c r i b e d in i t s Terms of Reference by h o l d i n g p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , c o n s i s t i n g of f o r -mal hea r ings and l o c a l h e a r i n g s , and by r e c e i v i n g w r i t t e n b r i e f s (RCUM 1979) . I w i l l adopt the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s used by the RCUM and recorded i n i t s t r a n s c r i p t s . The number of p a r t i c i -pants and nature of t h e i r i n t e r e s t s d i f f e r e d between hea r ing types (community and t e c h n i c a l ) , thus war ran t ing separa te d i s -c u s s i o n . Community Hear ings Community hea r ings were he ld in communit ies e i t h e r c l o s e to known uranium d e p o s i t s or i n areas of i n t e r e s t to the u r a -nium mining i n d u s t r y , as determined by the Commiss ion. A l though two rounds of community hea r ings were s chedu l ed , the second was never h e l d , due to the e a r l y c l o s u r e of the Commiss ion. The 92 f i r s t round of community hea r ings was he ld in June and J u l y , 1979. These were in tended to e l i c i t i n f o rma t i on and concerns from l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n s , and to o b t a i n i n fo rma t i on from the mining companies. Tab le Two r e vea l s the l o c a t i o n , the a p p r o x i -mate audience s i z e and the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s , and the r a t i o of i n d i v i d u a l to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l submis s i ons . TABLE 2 - NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS—RCUM COMMUNITY HEARINGS I n d i v i d u a l June 5,6 June 8,9 June 11 June 18,19 June 20,21 June 21,22 June 26 June 27 J u l y 3 J u l y 4 Kelowna C learwater Kamloops Rock Creek Grand Forks C a s t l e g a r W i l l i ams Lake Vanderhoof Fo r t Ne lson A t i i n 6 15 9 8 5 19 6 1 8 77 O r g a n i z a t i o n 22 7 12 9 14 7 3 6 9 89 3 Audience 320 230 80 200 300 135 50 6 100 1421 Those who presented submiss ions before the Commission were on l y a sma l l p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l hea r ing aud i ence . Both " p e r s o -n a l " and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l submiss ions were p r e s e n t e d , a l though the r a t i o of these to one another v a r i e d among communi t ies . In the Kelowna h e a r i n g s , there were twenty-e ight submiss ions made to the Commission over a 2-day p e r i o d . S ix of these were from p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s . O r g a n i z a t i o n s represented the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r e s t s : 93 TABLE 3 - REPRESENTATION OF INTERESTS BY ORGANIZATIONS KELOWNA COMMUNITY HEARINGS, RCUM INTEREST ORGANIZATION Mining Industry (3) Envi ronmental (4) Health (3) P l a c e r Development L t d . PNC E x p l o r a t i o n (Canada) Co. L t d . Norcen Energy Resources Vernon Branch, SPEC South Okanagan Environmental C o a l i t i o n Greenpeace (Okanagan) Foundation S i e r r a Club of Western Canada, Okanagan Group Kelowna Chapter of Re g i s t e r e d Nurses Nurses A s s o c i a t i o n of B.C. South Okanagan Similkameen Union Board of Health Canadian P u b l i c Health A s s o c i a t i o n Church (5) A g r i c u l t u r e ( 2 ) Native (1) Labour (1) Peace/Anti-Nuclear (1) Women (1) M i s c e l l a n e o u s (1) B.C. Conference, United Church of Canada InterChurch Committee A n g l i c a n Church S t . Paul's United Church - Kelowna Holy S p i r i t P a r i s h Summerland United Church South and East Kelowna Okanagan M i s s i o n L o c a l , B.C. F r u i t Growers A s s o c i a t i o n South East Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t Union of B.C. Indian C h i e f s I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of M a c h i n i s t s Canadian C o a l i t i o n f o r Nuclear R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Kelowna Business and P r o f e s s i o n a l Women's Club I n t e r n a t i o n a l Hostess S e r v i c e T o t a l — 2 2 O r g a n i z a t i o n s 94 P a r t i c i p a n t s thus represen t a d i v e r s i t y of i n t e r e s t s . Each of these l i s t e d presented separa te submi s s i ons . A l though the r a t i o of v a r i ous i n t e r e s t s v i s - a - v i s one another d i f f e r e d among h e a r i n g s , each e x h i b i t e d some minimal d i v e r s i t y of r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n . T e c h n i c a l Hear ings T e c h n i c a l hea r ings were he ld by the RCUM in Vancouver , and were a l s o open to p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The Commission de f i ned p a r t i c i p a n t s to these hea r ings in i t s p r e l i m i n a r y r u l i n g s , as f o l l o w s : 1.1 Any person who adv i ses the Commission in w r i t i n g of h i s i n t e n t i o n to appear and g i ve ev idence at any formal hea r ing or who a c t u a l l y appears , g i ves h i s name and address to the Commission and s t a t e s h i s i n t e n t i o n to g i ve ev idence w i l l be deemed a p a r t i c i p a n t . . . . . 1 . 3 The Commission s h a l l , from time to t ime , i d e n t i -fy c e r t a i n p a r t i e s as 'major p a r t i c i p a n t s in the p r o c e e -d ings in the sense tha t they e i t h e r have i n d i c a t e d an i n t e n t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p roceed ings on a more or l e s s r egu l a r bas i s or have been i d e n t i f i e d as posses s i ng i n f o rma t i on of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t and re levance to the work of the Commiss ion. The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of these major p a r t i c i p a n t s s h a l l be governed by f u r t h e r p r o c e d u r a l r u l e s of the Commission (RCUM 1979) . Two forms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the t e c h n i c a l hea r ings of the RCUM are d e s c r i b e d . The Commission i t s e l f thus f o r m a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s between o c c a s i o n a l and/or l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and c o n t i n u i n g , or major p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Major p a r t i c i p a n t s are recogn ized f o r m a l l y by the Commiss ion, and may app ly fo r f u n -d ing by the Commiss ion. (See Tab le 4 on the f o l l o w i n g page fo r a l i s t of major p a r t i c i p a n t s ) . Dur ing the tenure of the RCUM, the cas t of major p a r t i c i p a n t s was a l t e r e d on l y s l i g h t l y , to i n c o r p o r a t e a d d i t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s , and to d i sm i s s i n a c t i v e 95 p a r t i c i p a n t s . TABLE 4 ~ MAJOR PARTICIPANTS, RCUM TECHNICAL HEARINGS INTEREST ORGANIZATION Indust ry (5) Government (3) Commission (1) Labour (2) Environment (5) Community/Regional (3) B .C. and Yukon Chamber of Mines C o n s o l i d a t e d Rexspar M ine r a l s and Chemica ls L t d . Min ing A s s o c i a t i o n of B.C. Norcen Energy Resources PNC E x p l o r a t i o n (Canada) L t d . B.C. M i n i s t r y of Energy, M ines , and Petroleum Resources B.C. M i n i s t r y of Environment B.C. M i n i s t r y of Hea l th Commission Counse l Con f ede r a t i on of Canadian Unions B.C. F ede ra t i on of Labour and Un i ted S tee lworkers of America Greenpeace Foundat ion West Coast Env i ronmenta l Law Assn . Yel lowhead E c o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n C l ea rwa te r ; and Kamloops Env i ronmenta l A l l i a n c e A g a i n s t Uranium Min ing A t l i n Community A s s o c i a t i o n C o a l i t i o n of Concerned C i t i z e n s of the Bulk ley-Nechako J o i n t Committee Uranium T e c h n i c a l Hear ings Peace/Ant i-Nuc lea r (3) A g r i c u l t u r e (1) Na t i ve (1) Church (1) Hea l th (1) ( T o t a l — 25) Kootenay Nuc lear Study Group South Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t Union of B .C. Ind ian C h i e f s B.C. Conference Un i ted Church of Canada B.C. Med i ca l A s s o c i a t i o n Tab le Four above i d e n t i f i e s the major p a r t i c i p a n t s of the 96 t e c h n i c a l hea r ings of the RCUM, as des igna ted by the l a s t e d i t i o n of P r e l i m i n a r y R u l i n g s , on October 10, 1979. P a r t i c i -pants represent a spectrum of i n t e r e s t s , i n c l u d i n g those of government, i n d u s t r y , and a number of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s — i n c l u -d ing h e a l t h , env i ronment , a n t i - n u c l e a r , and l a b o u r . Th i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to the p a r t i c i p a n t s of the case s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e s c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t r i b u n a l s which uphold the p l u r a l i s t model . A p l u r a l i t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and i n t e -r e s t s are represented at both se t s of h e a r i n g s . The RCUM as a c o n s u l t a t i v e t r i b u n a l i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a wider spectrum of i n t e r e s t s than the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e PCAB hea -r i n g s . Ex tens i ve p u b l i c i t y , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of fund ing fo r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the i n v e s t i g a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n of the I n q u i r y , the nature of the i s s u e s , and the prov ince-wide scope of the I nqu i r y have been f a c t o r s conduc ive to e l i c i t i n g more widespread input and s u p p o r t . 4.3 - The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the P u b l i c I n t e r e s t I n d i v i d u a l s and groups i d e n t i f y themselves as r e p r e s e n t i n g the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , or one of many p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s . The nature of t h i s p rocess i s vo lun ta r y and s u b j e c t i v e , a l though i t i s mediated by and may be de f i ned by the t r i b u n a l . The sense of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n tha t I use here i s a " speak ing on beha l f o f " , and does not i n c l ude the s p e c i f i c i t y and economic r e l a t i o n s h i p of l e g a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , nor the f o r m a l i t y and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y of p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Rep resen ta t i on i n the t r i b u n a l i s ra ther an i n f o rma l but r ou t i ne f ea tu re by which speakers extend t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n s to an i d e n t i f i e d c o n s t i t u e n c y and i n t e r e s t . 97 Although formal c r i t e r i a f o r i d e n t i f y i n g i n t e r e s t are absent, speakers r o u t i n e l y r e f e r to a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which l o -c a t e s , expands, and c r e d i t s t h e i r submissions as " p u b l i c " . Personal Submissions I n d i v i d u a l speakers connect themselves to a s o c i a l o r g a n i -z a t i o n which ranges from f a m i l y to o c c u p a t i o n a l and community bases. Speakers c l a i m to speak f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , spouse, parents, or the f a m i l y as a u n i t . Speakers r e f e r to a "communi-ty " with which they i d e n t i f y , r e f e r r i n g to geographic and s o c i a l , groupings. A community may be represented through a speaker's reference to others l i v i n g i n the same area or sha-r i n g s i m i l a r p o i n t s of view. Speakers c l a i m residence and geographic, r e g i o n a l , or community membership i n an area by p r o v i d i n g a minimal or expanded address. In the RCUM communi-ty h e a r i n g s , speakers f r e q u e n t l y prefaced t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n s with an address i n the area: "My name i s Nan McGarvie and I l i v e i n Rock Creek." (RCUM 10:1406) During the PCAB hearings, a p p e l l a n t s introduced themselves as r e s i d e n t s of the South Okanagan, c i t i n g t h e i r addresses, the l o c a l i t y of t h e i r work and a f f i l i a t i o n s . Speakers a l s o enhance claims of community membership with c h r o n o l o g i c a l and b i o g r a p h i c a l support. Spea-kers i n the community hearings of the RCUM o f t e n s p e c i f i e d that they had l i v e d i n an area a number of years, or had spent t h e i r childhood i n the area. I n d i v i d u a l speakers a l s o extend t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e capa-c i t y through t o p i c a l , or s u b s t a n t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . That i s , speakers may r e f e r to a community of b e l i e f s or p e r s p e c t i v e s with regards to an i s s u e . They r e f e r to a shared i d e o l o g i c a l 98 o r p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , a s i n t h e 1 9 8 0 P C A B h e a r i n g s w h e n M r . W o r s l e y o f V e r n o n s t a t e d t h a t h e s p o k e f o r h i m s e l f a n d " o t h e r s l i k e m e " , r e f e r r i n g t o a c o m m u n i t y o f s h a r e d p e r s p e c t i v e s . T h i s r e f e r e n c e t o a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f o t h e r s e x t e n d s t h e p e r s o -n a l t o t h e p u b l i c : . . . m y name i s D o u g P i t n e y , I ' m a r e s i d e n t o f K e l o w n a . I ' m s p e a k i n g o n b e h a l f o f , I g u e s s , J o e P u b l i c (RCUM 5 : 5 0 7 ) . T h u s , i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r e -s e n t t h e m s e l v e s a s s p e a k i n g o n b e h a l f o f g e n e r a l , a n d f r e q u e n t -l y u n s p e c i f i e d p o p u l a t i o n s . T h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n d i c a t e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c a p a c i t y w h i c h c o n v e y s t h e s p e a k e r ' s e x t e n s i o n b e y o n d t h e " p e r s o n a l " , t o t h e " p u b l i c " , ( a n d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s s t u d y , t o t h e " p o l i t i c a l " ) . H o w e v e r , t h i s e x t e n s i o n i s i n d i r e c t , i n f o r m a l , a n d h a s n o o f f i c i a l s t a t u s . " P e r s o n a l " s p e a k e r s a r e n o t a c c o u n t a b l e ; t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s a r e n o t o f f i -c i a l l y c o u n t e d a n d l a b e l l e d . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e t r i b u n a l b y i n d i v i d u a l s p e r s o n a l i z e s t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s — i t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . T h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s c o n t e x t a s b o t h c u m u l a t i v e , b u i l t o n t h e s u m o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s p e a k e r s , a n d c o l l e c t i v e i n i t s i n f o r m a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n a t u r e . P u b l i c I n t e r e s t O r g a n i z a t i o n s P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g , i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y p l u r a l i s t m o d e l , i s p r i m a r i l y e x e r c i s e d b y a n d o r i e n t e d t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r g r o u p s . T h i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y p r o v i d e s f o r g r e a t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y , a v o i d s r e d u n d a n c e a n d a d d s f o r c e t o s u b m i s s i o n s . I n t h e c a s e 9 9 s t u d i e s , the c o n s u l t a t i v e t r i b u n a l ' s formal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and fund ing requi rements of major p a r t i c i p a n t s r e i n f o r c e d t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h r u s t of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t e r v e n t i o n . Dr . Bates of the RCUM presented the f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s fo r f u n -d ing at the f i r s t of the h e a r i n g s , an overv iew s e s s i o n . There shou ld be an a s c e r t a i n a b l e i n t e r e s t that ought to be represented at the I n q u i r y . I t should be e s t a b l i s h e d tha t separa te and adequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of that i n t e r e s t w i l l make a s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to the I n q u i r y . Those seek ing funds shou ld have a record of concern fo r or shou ld have demonstrated in one way or ano the r , the i n t e r e s t which they r e p r e s e n t . I t should be i n gene ra l shown tha t those seek ing funds do not have s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c i a l r esources to enable them to b r i n g those concerns before us and w i l l r equ i r e funds to do s o , and those seek ing funds should have a f a i r l y c l e a r p roposa l as to the use they in tend to make of them and shou ld be s u f f i c i e n t l y we l l o rgan ized e i t h e r as i n d i -v i d u a l s or as groups to account fo r the funds In order to avo id d u p l i c a t i o n , v a r i ous groups of s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s in d i f f e r e n t pa r t s of the p r o v i n c e , w i l l be encouraged to j o i n t l y work towards a b r i e f fo r p r e s e n t a t i o n to avo id d u p l i c a t i o n and a l s o to a s s i s t such groups i n any way we can (RCUM 1979:9-10) . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i s thus d i r e c t e d by the c o n s u l t a t i v e t r i b u n a l fo r economic and b u r e a u c r a t i c pu rposes . O r g a n i z a t i o n s who met the c r i t e r i a of the RCUM were des igna ted 4 major p a r t i c i p a n t s . The s e p a r a t i o n of i n t e r e s t s , o r g a n i z a t i o -na l c r e d i b i l i t y , f i n a n c i a l need and c o o r d i n a t i o n of e f f o r t s c a l l e d fo r by the t r i b u n a l was a method of n e g o t i a t i n g who and how a l l i n t e r e s t s , i n c l u d i n g the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t would be r e p r e s e n t e d . For the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l , i n t e r e s t s were de f i ned through the a d v e r s a r i a l nature of the appea l p r o c e s s , and the Board d i d not p l ay an a c t i v e r o l e in the c o n s t r u c t i o n of i n t e r e s t s . A l though there i s no formal p r e s c r i p t i o n fo r the i d e n t i f i -100 c a t i o n of i n t e r e s t , a s i m i l a r i t y of methods i s used to c o n -s t r u c t a p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . As in the p roduc t i on of pe r sona l submi s s i ons , speakers r e l y on o c c u p a t i o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s to produce an i d e n t i t y . Speakers o f t e n present themselves as a member of a p r o f e s s i o n or t r a d e , whose work i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as r e l e van t to the i s sues at hand. As r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , speakers i n c o r p o r a t e t h e i r o c cupa -t i o n as w e l l as the o r g a n i z a t i o n of that occupa t i on to e s t a b -l i s h both re levance and the grounds of t h e i r i n t e r v e n t i o n . Hea l th p r a c t i t i o n e r s , such as doc to rs and r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e s , are among the occupa t ions c i t e d by speakers at the RCUM hea -r i n g s . In the f o l l o w i n g example, a doctor in the town of C lea rwate r d e f i n e s the nature of the i n t e r e s t s fo r which he speaks : D r . W o o l l a r d : My name i s Robert W o o l l a r d . I l i v e here i n C l ea rwa te r . I 'd l i k e t o , i f I may, wear two hats today , on separa te o c c a s i o n s . I n i t i a l l y , my hat as the Chairman of the Env i ronmenta l Hea l th Committee of the B r i t i s h Columbia Med i ca l A s s o c i a -t i o n and break (s ic ) a b r i e f statement and p r e s e n t a t i o n to the Commission of I n q u i r y , a f t e r which I would l i k e to make a pe r sona l b r i e f on beha l f of myse l f and my f a m i l y . The i n i t i a l d i s c u s s i o n , i s on beha l f of the B .C .M.A. The B .C .M.A. has been, as y o u ' r e aware, a c t i v e l y c o n -cerned about the uranium mining i s sue fo r two years now and we have , through the Env i ronmenta l Hea l th Committee, attempted to e s t a b l i s h a r e s p o n s i b l e a t t i t u d e and to he lp to fo rmula te the i s sues and t o , most p a r t i c u l a r l y fo rmu-l a t e p u b l i c involvement in the d e c i s i o n making l e a d i n g up to the p o s s i b l e i n t r o d u c t i o n of uranium mining in to B r i -t i s h Columbia (RCUM 1979:636-637) . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a s i s and the s u b s t a n t i v e i n t e r e s t of the speaker are revea led i n t h i s s ta tement . The formal o r g a n i z a -t i o n of g roups , and e s p e c i a l l y the d e s i g n a t i o n of o f f i c e , i n f e r the d e l e g a t i o n of a speaker . In a d d i t i o n , s u b s t a n t i v e r e l e -101 vance connotes a p a r t i c i p a n t ' s " r i g h t " to speak. Through Dr . W o o l l a r d ' s b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the p e r s p e c t i v e s and a c t i v i t i e s of the Env i ronmenta l Hea l th Committee, he e s t a b l i s h e s r e l e -vance , commitment, and knowledge concern ing the i s sues at hand. Through the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r work and the p e r s p e c -t i v e to be adopted conce rn ing the i s s u e s , p a r t i c i p a n t s e s t a b -l i s h re l evance and conce rn ; they j u s t i f y t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , in the present c o n t e x t , they extend the base of t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Let us examine a few more examples of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n cons t ru c t ed through subs t an t i v e i n t e r e s t s . In the community hea r ings of the RCUM, one p a r t i c i p a n t p re faced her remarks wi th the f o l l o w i n g : I am Doreen B u r n s t i l l and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e fo r the In ter-Church Committee who works fo r wor ld development and e d u c a t i o n . We are a very sma l l group and the A n g l i -can r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , we work wi th t h i r d wor ld people and with the i n t e r e s t of the Na t i ves and we sponsor SPEC and P e o p l e ' s Food Commiss ion, Na t i ve R igh ts and C .C .N .R . in t h e i r endeavours (RCUM 4: 251) . T h i s speaker i d e n t i f i e s the i n t e r e s t s she rep resen ts ( church , world development, e d u c a t i o n ) . In a d d i t i o n , she extends her p o t e n t i a l c o n s t i t u e n t s (those fo r whom she speaks) through d e s c r i p t i o n of her o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s l i a i s o n s . New o r g a n i z a t i o n s may be generated by the t r i b u n a l , as in the case of those groups wi th s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s who combined f o r c e s i n concurrence wi th the RCUM fund ing c r i t e r i a noted e a r l i e r : Mr. G a r r i c k . Thank you very much. We welcome the e s t ab l i shment and opening of the p u b l i c i n q u i r y i n to uranium development in B r i t i s h Co lumbia . My name i s David G a r r i c k wi th SPEC, whose address f o r the record i s 1603 West Fouth Avenue, Vancouver V6J 2L8. 102 I have been asked to p resent a j o i n t opening statement to the B r i t i s h Columbia P u b l i c I nqu i r y i n to Uranium M i n i n g , on beha l f of the Canadian S c i e n t i f i c P o l l u t i o n & Env i ronmenta l C o n t r o l S o c i e t y , the Western Canada Chapter of the S i e r r a C l u b , the Fede ra t i on of B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l i s t s , the Telkwa Foundat ion and the Greenpeace Founda t i on . We are a l s o represented here by l e g a l c o u n s e l , Ann Rounthwai te , who w i l l o u t l i n e our p r o c e d u r a l recommenda-t i o n s , a f t e r I p resent our recommendations on content (RCUM 1: 84 ) . Some speakers d e s c r i b e t h e i r d e l e g a t i o n as r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s , e i t h e r through no t ing t h e i r p o s i t i o n in the o r g a n i z a t i o n (as in the e a r l i e r example wi th Dr . Wool lard) or through a d e s c r i p t i o n of the mandate of t h e i r s e l e c t i o n , as in the f o l l o -wing RCUM e x c e r p t . My name i s Wayne McGrath. I r e s i de at 3102 13th S t r e e t , Vernon . My te lephone Number i s 542-7744. I'm here today r ep r e sen t i ng the B.C. Branch of the Canadian P u b l i c Hea l th A s s o c i a t i o n . I p r e s e n t l y serve as V i c e - P r e s i d e n t of that A s s o c i a t i o n . The Canadian P u b l i c Hea l th A s s o c i a t i o n , common-l y r e f e r r e d to as CPHA, i s a n o n p o l i t i c a l , non-government a s s o c i a t i o n , and i t ' s cons ide red to be the major vo i ce of Community Hea l th in Canada. On May 4th of t h i s y e a r , the Annual Genera l Meet ing of the B.C. Branch was he ld at which time a r e s o l u t i o n was presented and c a r r i e d by the membership of the B.C. B ranch . Obv ious l y we haven ' t had much time to prepare a b r i e f and i t i s our i n t e n t i o n , and i t was the s t a t e d i n t e n t i o n of the membership at the Annual Genera l Meet ing to present a more formal or t e c h n i c a l b r i e f t h i s f a l l in Vancouver . . . (RCUM 4: 389-90). Another method of e s t a b l i s h i n g a mandate fo r a s p e a k e r ' s d e l e -ga t i on i s to r e f e r to the o f f i c e , or f u n c t i o n of the speaker w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , as in the above example. In the 1978 PCAB h e a r i n g s , fo r i n s t a n c e , the spokespersons fo r the SOEC present themselves as " I n fo rmat ion D i r e c t o r " , and "Research D i r e c t o r " of tha t o r g a n i z a t i o n . 103 T h u s , s p e a k e r s r o u t i n e l y i n t r o d u c e t h e m s e l v e s , t h e o r g a n i -z a t i o n a n d t h e i n t e r e s t w h i c h t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h r o u g h c o n s t r u c -t i o n o f a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e p r o c e s s i s f l e x i b -l e a n d i n f o r m a l , i t i s r o u t i n e . H o w e v e r , t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n d o e s n o t a l w a y s g o u n c h a l l e n g e d . C o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e a d v e r s a r i a l n a t u r e o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l , i t i s s u b j e c t t o c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e , M r . P a r c h o m c h u k o f t h e O k a n a g a n W a t e r B a s i n B o a r d , ( t h e p r o p o n e n t ) , c r o s s - e x a m i n e s M r . L e w i s , o f t h e S O E C , ( t h e a p p e l l a n t ) , d u r i n g t h e 1 9 8 1 P C A B h e a r i n g s . M r . P a r c h o m c h u k : M r . L e w i s , y o u s t a t e d t h a t t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o a l i t i o n h a s 2 0 0 m e m b e r s . T h e l a t e s t a u d i t e d r e p o r t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e p r e s e n t l y o n l y 32 v o t i n g m e m b e r s a n d 3 2 n o n - v o t i n g m e m b e r s . C a n y o u e x p l a i n t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y ? M r . L e w i s : W e l l , we h a v e a l a r g e n u m b e r o f p e o p l e w h o a r e a c t i v e i n C o a l i t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , who c o m e t o o u r m e e t i n g s a n d s o o n a n d s o o n . A s y o u ' r e p r o b a b l y a w a r e , i f y o u h a v e o u r F i n a n c i a l S t a t e m e n t s a n d s o o n , w e ' v e o n l y b e e n i n c o r p o r a t e d u n d e r t h e S o c i e t i e s A c t f o r o n e y e a r . A n d s o , a l l o f o u r m e m b e r s h i p , a n d o u r m a i l i n g l i s t s , t h a t we m a i n t a i n a c t i v e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h , h a v e n o t b e c o m e d u e s - p a y i n g m e m b e r s y e t . M r . P a r c h o m c h u k : T h e A n n u a l R e p o r t a l s o s t a t e s t h a t n o n e o f t h e m e m b e r s h a v e p a i d d u e s , a s r e q u i r e d i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . I f t h i s i s p a r t o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , d o e s y o u r S o c i e t y i n f a c t e x i s t ? I f i t d o e s n o t e x i s t , a r e y o u t h e n r e p r e s e n t i n g y o u r s e l f o r t h e S o c i e t y ? M r . L e w i s : T h e S o c i e t y e x i s t s . We h a v e n o w o r d f r o m t h e R e g i s t r a r o f S o c i e t i e s t h a t we d o n ' t e x i s t . M r . P a r c h o m c h u k : B u t t h e m e m b e r s h a v e n o t p a i d t h e i r d u e s a s r e q u i r e d , s o h o w c a n t h e y b e c o n s i d e r e d a s m e m b e r s ? M r . L e w i s : . . . a l l o u r d u e s w e r e p a i d u p b e f o r e o u r l a s t a n n u a l g e n e r a l m e e t i n g . . . . M r . P a r c h o m c h u k : A r e y o u c u r r e n t l y a r e s i d e n t o f t h e O k a n a g a n v a l l e y ? 1 0 4 Mr. Lewis : Yes I am. Mr. Parchomchuk: Your r epor t i n d i c a t e s your address as be ing 3970 West 17th Avenue, Vancouver . Mr. Lewis : Yes , I 've been working down there p a r t - t i m e . In t h i s example, the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the a p p e l l a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n and the s p e a k e r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the i s sues and a c o n s t i t u e n c y i s que r i ed under c ross-examina -t i o n . The membership of the a p p e l l a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the geograph ic b a s i s of the s p e a k e r ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c a p a c i t y are c h a l l e n g e d . Th i s excerp t i s i n s t r u c t i v e because i t r e v ea l s the p o t e n t i a l f o r c e of any s p e a k e r ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c a p a c i t y . A l -though the p l u r a l i s t model assumes a no t i on of b a l a n c e , there i s no means to assess and compare the weight of any i n t e r e s t v i s - a - v i s o t h e r s . In the above example, the c ross-examina t ion p rocess i s an attempt to d i s c r e d i t the numer i ca l bas i s and the l o c a l cha r a c t e r of the a p p e l l a n t i n t e r e s t group. Th i s p o i n t s to the und i sp l ayed and t aken- fo r-gran ted cha rac t e r of r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n . W i th in the t r i b u n a l s , a l l i n t e r e s t groups are assumed to have the same we ight , and are capable of c h a l l e n g i n g any other i n t e r v e n o r . However, through speake r s ' c o n s t r u c t i o n s of i n t e r e s t , both s t r u c t u r a l and s u b s t a n t i v e , the d i s p a r i t y among i n t e r e s t groups becomes more v i s i b l e . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , a l though f o r m a l l y u n s p e c i f i e d , i s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y produced by speake rs . The c o n s t i t u e n t s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and i n t e r e s t s on beha l f of whom submiss ions are made, are taken to i n d i c a t e the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the p u b l i c . The means by which p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s are de f i ned range from p r e s e n t a t i o n of perso-105 n a l s u b m i s s i o n s t o a m o r e e l a b o r a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n . T h i s p r a c t i c e i s c o n g r u e n t w i t h a p l u r a l i s t p e r s p e c -t i v e , w h i c h a s s u m e s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n a t u r e o f p u b l i c p a r t i -c i p a t i o n t o b e b o t h a p p r o p r i a t e a n d e f f e c t i v e . 4 . 4 - H e t e r o g e n e i t y a n d P u b l i c I n t e r e s t R e - e x a m i n e d A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p l u r a l i s t m o d e l , t h e h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e t r i b u n a l c o n t r i b u t e s t o a b a l a n c e a m o n g c o m p e t i n g i n t e r e s t s , a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t e n s u r e s t h i s b a l a n c e . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s h a s r e v e a l e d g e n e r a l a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s m o d e l , a l t h o u g h d i f -f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e t r i b u n a l s a n d p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e s o f t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o c e s s r a i s e a d d i t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . I n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ( P C A B ) h e a r i n g s p a r t i c i p a t i o n w a s d e -f i n e d t h r o u g h t h e a p p e a l p r o c e s s . T h e r e w e r e f e w a p p e l l a n t s , b u t t h e s e r e p r e s e n t e d i n 1 9 7 8 a n u m b e r o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s , i d e n t i f i e d n o m i n a l l y a s c o n s u m e r , l o c a l e c o n o m i c , a n d e n v i r o n -m e n t a l a s w e l l a s p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s . I n t h e e n s u i n g y e a r s o n l y e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n t e r e s t s w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e b u l k o f t h e a p p e a l b e i n g c a r r i e d o v e r t i m e b y t h e S O E C . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e d o e s n o t r e f l e c t t h e d i v e r s i t y a s s u m e d b y t h e p l u r a l i s t p e r -s p e c t i v e , b u t i s e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t b y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t r i b u -n a l . T h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l b y n a t u r e r e q u i r e s o n l y o n e a p p e a l t o t r i g g e r i t s h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . T h e l a c k o f e x t e n s i v e a p p e a l s may b e e x p l a i n e d b y t h e c o m p l e x s t a t u t o r y r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t h e a p p e a l p r o c e s s , t h e l a c k o f h e a r i n g a n d t r i b u n a l p u b l i c i t y , t h e l a c k o f p u b l i c f u n d i n g , a n d t h e t e c h n i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e i s s u e s . T h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r i b u n a l i s e s s e n t i a l l y a n 1 0 6 adversa ry forum, and i t s con fo rmi t y to the p l u r a l i s t model i s i n i t s p r o v i s i o n of ba lance to the dec i s ion-mak ing process through p r e s e n t a t i o n of competing i n p u t . The RCUM hea r ings present a much more expans ive p i c t u r e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , both at community and f o r m a l / t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s . The spectrum of i n t e r e s t s covered by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g groups i n c l uded government, i n d u s t r y , l a b o u r , and a v a r i e t y of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t g roups , i n c l u d i n g chu r ch , a n t i - n u c l e a r , h e a l t h , l a -bour , n a t i v e , and env i ronmenta l g roups . The range and number of p a r t i c i p a n t s in t h i s forum are more compat ib le wi th a p l u r a -l i s t concept of h e t e r o g e n e i t y , and p rov ide a v a r i e t y of pro-and an t i -m in ing f o r c e s . A he t e rogene i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t e r e s t s , and i n t e r v e n -t i o n by p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups d i s p l a y congruence wi th the p l u r a l i s t model . Moreover , the f l e x i b i l i t y and i n f o r m a l i t y of t r i b u n a l procedures i s seen to encourage p u b l i c i n t e r e s t g roups ' i n t e r v e n t i o n . Speakers r o u t i n e l y c a l l upon a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p u b l i c , whether r e p r e s e n t i n g p u b l i c i n t e -r e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s or a more d i f f u s e and amorphous c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y . M o t i v a t i o n fo r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , in keeping wi th a l i b e -r a l p e r s p e c t i v e , r e f l e c t s c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the e x i s -tence of an open and p u b l i c l y r e c ep t i v e dec i s ion-mak ing p r o -cess . None the l e s s , a p a r t i c i p a t o r y c r i t i q u e of the hea r ing p r o -cess c h a l l e n g e s the extent of he t e rogene i t y and the b a s i s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n e x h i b i t e d i n the t r i b u n a l . I n t e r e s t s are i n d i v i -d u a l l y and s u b j e c t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s . There are no p r o v i s i o n s i n the hea r ing process fo r ensur ing tha t a l l 107 r e l e v a n t i n t e r e s t s b e i d e n t i f i e d a n d r e p r e s e n t e d . T h e t r i b u n a l p r o c e s s f a i l s t o a d d r e s s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f o b j e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s , w h i c h B a l b u s d e f i n e s a s : " a n e f f e c t b y s o m e t h i n g o n t h e i n d i -v i d u a l w h i c h c a n be o b s e r v e d a n d m e a s u r e d b y s t a n d a r d s e x t e r n a l t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s " ( 1 9 7 1 : 1 5 2 ) . T h u s , t h e r e i s n o g u a r a n t e e t h a t i n t e r e s t s w h i c h s t a n d t o be a f f e c t e d b y a p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t ( e . g . , o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , w o m e n , n a t i v e ) w i l l b e c o n s u l t e d b y t h e t r i b u n a l . A l t h o u g h t h e p r o p o n e n t may b e r e q u i r e d b y l a w t o p a r t i c i p a t e , b o t h t h e i n c e n t i v e a n d t h e m e a n s o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e m a i n d i s c r e t i o n a r y a n d v o l u n t a r y . T h e g e n e s i s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t h u s s t r u c t u r a l l y i m b a -l a n c e d , w i t h t h o s e w i t h a n e c o n o m i c o r b u r e a u c r a t i c i n t e r e s t h a v i n g e c o n o m i c a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n c e n t i v e . I n c o n t r a s t , n o n - p r o d u c e r i n t e r e s t s t e n d t o b e d i f f u s e , a n d t o l a c k a n e c o n o m i c b a s i s ( T r e b i l c o c k 1 9 7 8 ) . N o t o n l y i s t h e r e a n i m b a -l a n c e i n t e r m s o f m o t i v a t i o n f o r p r e p a r a t i o n , b u t t h e d i f f e r e n -t i a l a b i l i t i e s a n d r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o c o m p e t i n g i n t e r e s t s r e s u l t i n a f u r t h e r d i s e q u i l i b r i u m . A n i m b a l a n c e i n r e s o u r c e s o u t s i d e t h e h e a r i n g s i s r e f l e c t e d b y t h e r a n g e a n d d e p t h o f 5 p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n t h e t r i b u n a l . M o r e o v e r , t h e f o r m o f p u b l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p r a c t i c e d i n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g g i v e s n o a s s u r a n c e t h a t s p e a k e r s a r e a c c o u n t a b l e t o t h e i r r e p r e s e n t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r c o n s t i t u e n t s . F r o m a p a r t i c i p a t o r y a n d d e v e -l o p m e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e p r o c e s s d i s p l a y s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w h i c h may e x i s t o n l y o n a f o r m a l p r o c e d u r a l l e v e l . T h e a c t u a l i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e p u b l i c i n t h e i s s u e ( r e s e a r c h , e d u c a t i o n , 1 0 8 l obby ing ) may be m in ima l . The emphasis , r a t h e r , i s on the i n s t rumen ta l c h a r a c t e r of the hear ing p r o c e s s — t h e nature of the d e c i s i o n to be made. The l ack of formal methods of count ing and weighing the r e l a t i v e c o n s t i t u e n t s and c o n t r i b u t i o n s of p u b l i c and other p a r t i c i p a n t s i s taken to i n d i c a t e the ba lance of p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h i n the t r i b u n a l . However, i t may i n d i c a t e a f a i l u r e to make v i s i b l e the r e l a t i v e power of p a r t i c i p a n t s . The f i n a n c i a l b a s i s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u p p o r t , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p u b l i c , c o r p o r a t e , and government i n t e r e s t s , do not su r f a ce as r e l e van t i s s u e s . The p o t e n t i a l fo r over- and under- represen ta-t i o n of d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s i s not d i s c l o s e d by hea r ing p r o c e -dures which i n the p l u r a l i s t f a s h i o n , need on l y to p resen t the appearance of a m u l t i p l i c i t y of d i f f e r i n g p o i n t s of v iew. In a s i m i l a r v e i n , not a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s are p resent at a l l t imes du r ing the h e a r i n g s . For the PCAB h e a r i n g s , a l though there i s a formal p l u r a l i t y of a p p e l l a n t s , the SOEC dominated the h e a r i n g s , in the amount of time i t took in p r e s e n t i n g i t s s u b m i s s i o n s , c ross-examin ing and be ing c ross-examined , and i n the number and scope of i t s arguments. In the RCUM h e a r i n g s , Abbott notes the f requency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a few major p a r t i c i p a n t s — B.C. Med i ca l A s s o c i a t i o n , B .C. C o u n c i l f o r the Un i ted Church of Canada, Union of B.C. Ind ian C h i e f s , South East Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t , West Coast Env i ronmenta l Law A s s o c i a t i o n and Env i ronmenta l A l l i a n c e Aga ins t Uranium Mining (1980:49) . Thus , a l though a v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s may be o f f i c i a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d , not a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s spend the same amount of time 109 i n p r e p a r i n g a n d s u b m i t t i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n s , i n b e i n g p r e s e n t a t p r o c e e d i n g s , n o r d o a l l h a v e a v a i l a b l e t h e s a m e r e s o u r c e s i n m a k i n g t h e i r s u b m i s s i o n s . W h a t may s e e m f r o m a p l u r a l i s t p e r -s p e c t i v e t o b e a b a l a n c e d a n d h e t e r o g e n e o u s s a m p l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a n t s may i n p r a c t i c e b e a n u m b e r o f d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y a c t i v e o r p o w e r f u l p a r t i c i p a n t s , w h i c h c h a l l e n g e s t h e p u r p o r t e d b a l a n c e o f t h e f o r u m . W h i l e s o m e o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s , s u c h a s t h e l a c k o f h e t e r o -g e n e i t y i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h e a r i n g , i n d i c a t e t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f t h e t r i b u n a l , o t h e r s p o i n t t o t h e p l u r a l i s t m o d e l i t s e l f a s t h e d i f f i c u l t y . F r o m a c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e r e f o r e , r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c may be m i n i m a l a n d r e s t r i c t e d i n p r a c -t i c e t o a p a r t i c i p a t o r y e l i t e w h i c h h a s l i t t l e o r n o a c c o u n t a -b i l i t y t o i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s . T h e c o n f o r m i t y o f t h e h e a r i n g p r o c e s s t o t h e p l u r a l i s t m o d e l i n t e r m s o f i t s p r o v i s i o n f o r p u b l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c -t i v e o f s t a t e r e l a t i o n s . T h e d i s c r e t i o n a r y m e t h o d s b y w h i c h t h e t r i b u n a l m e d i a t e s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l l o w f o r t h e s t a t e t o c l a i m t h a t a d i v e r s i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n e x i s t s , a n d t h a t t h e p u b l i c i s r e p r e s e n t e d , w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e l e g i t i m a t i o n o f t h e f o r u m . T h e a p p e a r a n c e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n f u r t h e r e n d o r s e s s t a t e a n d i n d u s t r y a c t i v i t y i n t h e a r e a s u n d e r d i s c u s -s i o n ( h e r b i c i d e a p p l i c a t i o n s , u r a n i u m m i n i n g ) . 1 T h e p r o p o n e n t w a s t h e W a t e r I n v e s t i g a t i o n s B r a n c h o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t f r o m 1 9 7 8 t o 1 9 8 0 . I n 1 9 8 1 , t h e p r o p o n e n t w a s t h e O k a n a g a n B a s i n W a t e r B o a r d . 2 A u d i e n c e n u m b e r s r a n g e d f r o m z e r o t o t w e l v e , a l t h o u g h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e s s i o n s a t t r a c t e d o n l y t w o t o t h r e e o b s e r v e r s . 1 1 0 3 Audience F i gu res are approx imate , and from Abbott (1980: 84 ) . Other f i g u r e s are drawn from RCUM t r a n s c r i p t s . 4 See Appendix 2.2 - P a r t i c i p a n t Fund ing , fo r a d e s c r i p t i o n of the fund ing a l l o c a t e d to v a r i ous p u b l i c i n t e r e s t o r g a n i z a -t i o n s . 5 T r e b i l c o c k notes that the t o t a l r esources of 77 p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups are under $5 m i l l i o n , in c o n t r a s t to c o r p o r a t e , t r a d e , and p r o f e s s i o n a l l o b b i e s , who i n Ottawa a lone number 300, wi th budgets t o t a l l i n g more than $120 m i l l i o n a year (Ross 1981:24) . I l l CHAPTER 5 FAIRNESS OF PROCEDURES:  PREPARATION AND ORGANIZATION OF INTERVENTION  5 .1- In t roduc t i on Hear ing procedures are assumed by the p l u r a l i s t model to be governed by p o l i t i c a l s tandards of f a i r n e s s . D e s c r i p t i v e accounts of the hea r ing p rocess emphasize i t s o b j e c t i v i t y and ba l ance . However, formal d e s c r i p t i o n s of i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o c e -dures are t y p i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d to q u a s i - j u d i c i a l a c t i v i t i e s — p r e s e n t a t i o n of submis s i ons , c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n , and summation. They neg l e c t the p rocess and o r g a n i z a t i o n by which p a r t i c i p a n t s prepare to make a c a s e . T h i s i n c l udes assuming a burden of p r o o f , r e s e a r c h , a c c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , i d e n t i f y i n g and s e c u -r i n g w i t n e s s e s , comply ing wi th r u l e s of e v i dence , and other p rocedu res , some of which are i n i t i a t e d p r i o r to the a c t u a l hea r ing p r o c e s s . These a c t i v i t i e s take p lace w i t h i n a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which i s o f t e n temporary , v o l u n t a r y , and e x t e r n a l to p r o f e s s i o n a l and b u r e a u c r a t i c networks. Recogn i t i on and d e s c r i p t i o n of these a c t i v i t i e s and the o r g a n i z a t i o n through which they are produced r e vea l s an imbalance among i n t e r v eno r s i n the p r e p a r a t i o n and p r a c t i c e of the hea r ing p rocess which i s not r e f l e c t e d by the p l u r a l i s t model . 112 In t h i s chap t e r , I w i l l ana lyze the hea r ing procedures of the two case study h e a r i n g s . I w i l l beg in with an overv iew of hea r ing p rocedu re s , r e f e r r i n g to both the l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . A d e s c r i p t i o n of procedures of the case study hea r ings f o l l o w s . I then d e s c r i b e the p r e l i m i n a r y a c t i v i t i e s and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n through which p a r t i c i p a n t s prepare f o r and engage i n i n t e r v e n t i o n , and d i s c u s s the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s a n a l y s i s f o r the p l u r a l i s t model . P rocedura l F a i r n e s s The p l u r a l i s t model of p a r t i c i p a t i o n which I deve loped e a r l i e r i n the D i s s e r t a t i o n addresses the p u b l i c hea r ing p r o -cess from a p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . The l e g a l approach adopts a p e r s p e c t i v e of the hea r ing process which i s concerned wi th p r o c e d u r a l e n t i t l e m e n t and p rocedu ra l r i g h t s of a f f e c t e d i n t e -r e s t s . The ma jo r i t y of the l i t e r a t u r e on the p u b l i c hea r ing has l e g a l o r i g i n s , and i t i s necessary to unders tand ing the l i m i t a -t i o n s of t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e fo r a s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . In a genera l s ense , the s tudy of procedures i s : . . . . t h e s tudy of the procedures agenc ies are r equ i r ed to use and shou ld use ; more p a r t i c u l a r l y , i t i s the s tudy of the p r o c e d u r a l r i g h t s tha t i n d i v i d u a l s and groups have to p a r t i c i p a t e i n making d e c i s i o n s . . . e s s e n t i a l l y r i g h t s to p resent i n f o r m a t i o n , a n a l y s i s , and o p i n i o n s from other sources ( Evans :1980 :27 ) . There i s no u n i v e r s a l i t y w i th regards to hea r ing p rocedu re s . G e n e r a l l y , the procedures are dec ided through a mixture of the common law, l e g i s l a t i o n , and r e g u l a t i o n s . The law made by l e g i s l a t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n s " d i f f e r s g r e a t l y among the p r o -v i n c e s , and i n each one i t i s a bew i l de r i ng and d i v e r s e a r r a y , which d e f i e s g e n e r a l i z e d d e s c r i p t i o n " (Evans: 1980:28 ) . The Law 113 Reform Commission of Canada has recommended tha t " gene ra l l e g i s l a t i o n shou ld be enacted i n c o r p o r a t i n g minimum a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e procedure sa feguards or p r o v i d i n g the means fo r the deve -lopment of common p r o c e d u r a l g u i d e l i n e s " (Law Reform Commission of Canada :1980) . The two concepts which I w i l l b r i e f l y exp lo re wi th regards to hea r ing procedures are those of " n a t u r a l j u s t i c e " , and " f a i r n e s s " . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , f a i r n e s s was a s s o c i a t e d wi th a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ma t t e r s , wh i le the r u l e s of n a t u r a l j u s t i c e a p p l i e d to j u d i c i a l conce rns . The tendency towards j u d i c i a l , as opposed to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s , r e s u l t e d in g rea te r p r o c e -du r a l e n t i t l e m e n t . S ince 1978, that d i s t i n c t i o n has been d i m i -n i s h e d , w i th g r ea t e r emphasis on the second q u e s t i o n , the cho i ce and range of p rocedu res . There has been a tendency to move away from the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of t r i b u n a l s as e i t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or j u d i c i a l / q u a s i - j u d i c i a l , which has the e f f e c t of opening up more t r i b u n a l s to cour t review in p r o c e d u r a l ma t t e r s . The d i s t i n c t i o n between j u d i c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e matters has e roded , and a concern fo r f a i r n e s s i s being i n c r e a -s i n g l y a r t i c u l a t e d , a l though " f a i r n e s s i s s t i l l i n the d e v e l o p -mental s tage in Canada" ( Jordan: 1983) . Na tu r a l j u s t i c e i s thus u s u a l l y understood as i n c l u d i n g f a i r n e s s (Evans 1980:32) . P r i n c i p l e s of " f a i r n e s s " and " n a t u r a l j u s t i c e " are key to a l e g a l concern wi th p rocedu res . They are used in the l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n as a means of f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on p rocedu ra l ma t t e r s—as concepts on the bas i s of which p rocedu ra l i s sues are c o n t e s t e d . The p l u r a l i s t model of p a r t i c i p a t i o n draws on the l e g a l unders tand ing of f a i r n e s s , which i s a concern wi th 114 p r o c e d u r a l e n t i t l e m e n t . N a t u r a l j u s t i c e , or p rocedu ra l due p r o c e s s , addresses two elements pr imary in the p u b l i c h e a r i n g : procedures and b i a s . The two b a s i c r u l e s of n a t u r a l j u s t i c e a r e : "Audi A l te ram Par tem" , or " l e t the other s ide be h e a r d " , and "Nemo Judex in Sua C a u s a " , or " l e t no man be h i s own j u d g e . " Thus, in the l e g a l c o n t e x t , r u l e s of n a t u r a l j u s t i c e or f a i r n e s s mean tha t p a r t i c i p a n t s are t r e a t ed e q u a l l y , and that they have c e r t a i n r i g h t s , such as that of an unbiased d e c i s i o n , the o p p o r t u n i t y to hear the o ther s i d e , and the a b i l i t y to c ross-examine . The l e g a l concept of f a i r n e s s does not imply that p a r t i c i p a n t s have the same resources w i t h i n the t r i b u n a l . A p o l i t i c a l unders tand ing of procedures f u r t h e r i n t roduces concepts of compe t i t i on and ba l ance . The p l u r a l i s t model s u g -ges ts that hea r ing procedures are f a i r i n tha t they are n e u -t r a l , o b j e c t i v e and r a t i o n a l . Through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these p r o c e d u r e s , c i t i z e n s are engaged in a form of c o m p e t i t i o n , wh i ch , mediated through a mode of n e u t r a l i z e d o p p o s i t i o n , r e -s u l t s in a ba lance of d e c i s i o n s , a compromise. I t i s assumed tha t the n e u t r a l i t y of the hea r ing procedures w i l l e l i m i n a t e , or d i s s o l v e , the i n e q u a l i t i e s among p a r t i c i p a n t s . Cor respond ing to the r u l e s of n a t u r a l j u s t i c e , a p l u r a l i s t model of hea r ings assumes tha t each p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t e r e s t w i l l have a chance to be hea rd , and tha t the p roceed ings w i l l be a r b i t r a t e d by an i m p a r t i a l Board or Commiss ion. However, us ing a c r i t i c a l p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , one can cha l l enge both the p l u r a l i s t and l e g a l models of the hea r ing p rocess as i nadequa te . A concern wi th p rocedu ra l en t i t l emen t 115 f a i l s t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r a s s e s s i n g a n d c o m p a r i n g p a r t i c i -p a n t s ' r e s o u r c e s f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n . T h e l i b e r a l c h a r a c t e r i z a -t i o n o f i n t e r v e n t i o n a s t r i g g e r e d a n d m e d i a t e d b y a v a r i e t y o f r e l a t i v e l y e q u a l i n t e r e s t s d i s r e g a r d s t h e e c o n o m i c i n t e r e s t s a n d m o t i v a t i o n , a n d d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e a b i l i t i e s o f s o m e i n t e r v e -n o r s . T h e p l u r a l i s t m o d e l c a n b e r e c o g n i z e d a s p r e d i c a t e d o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d r i g h t s o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e l e g a l m o d e l . I t s i n a d e q u a c y i s o n l y r e v e a l e d b y e x t e n d i n g t h e a n a l y s i s b e y o n d t h e l e g a l f r a m e w o r k . 5 . 2 - D e s c r i p t i o n o f H e a r i n g P r o c e d u r e s Q u a s i - J u d i c i a l P r o c e d u r e s A l t h o u g h t h e l a c k o f s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n f o r p r o c e d u r a l g u i d e l i n e s h a s l e d t o s o m e d i v e r g e n c e a m o n g t r i b u n a l s , t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n r e l a t i v e l y s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n a d o p t e d b y a n u m b e r o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s . T h e n o t i o n s o f b a l a n c e a n d c o m p r o m i s e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p l u r a l i s t m o d e l a r e e m b o d i e d i n t w o g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e s . T h e h e a r i n g i s h e l d b e f o r e a n d m e d i a t e d b y a B o a r d o r C o m m i s s i o n w h i c h i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s a n i m p a r t i a l b o d y . H e a r i n g p r o c e d u r e s c a l l f o r a d u a l s t r u c t u r e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a d i a l o g u e a m o n g p a r t i c i p a n t s . E a c h p a r t i -c i p a n t s p e a k s , a n d i s h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a n d c r o s s - e x a m i n e d o n t h i s s u b m i s s i o n ; e a c h c r o s s - e x a m i n e s o t h e r s . R u l e s o f p r e -s e n t a t i o n a p p l y e q u a l l y t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g s t e p s : 1- P a r t i c i p a n t s p r o d u c e t h e i r w i t n e s s e s . I n a d m i n i -s t r a t i v e h e a r i n g s , t h e p r o p o n e n t i s u s u a l l y t h e f i r s t t o p r e s e n t e v i d e n c e . W i t n e s s e s a r e t y p i c a l l y c h o s e n o n t h e b a s i s o f e x p e r t i s e . T h e w i t n e s s e s p r e s e n t t h e i r e v i -d e n c e , e i t h e r t h r o u g h s t a t e m e n t ( w r i t t e n o r v e r b a l ) , o r 1 1 6 through ques t i on and answer. 2- The wi tness i s c ross-examined . The order of c ross-examina t ion i s s p e c i f i c to the t r i b u n a l . C r o s s -examinat ion may be done by the sponsor ing p a r t i c i p a n t , the Board , other p a r t i c i p a n t s , or the proponent , depen-d ing on the p r o c e d u r a l r u l e s adopted by the t r i b u n a l . 3- Summation of ev idence may be presented by the p a r t i c i p a n t , depending aga in on the p r o c e d u r a l r u l e s adopted by the t r i b u n a l . Then the process i s repeated fo r o ther p a r t i c i p a n t s . 4- The Board or Commission makes a d e c i s i o n or r e -commendations and/or f i l e s a F i n a l Repor t . Through t h i s p rocess i t i s assumed that a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t e r e s t s have a s i m i l a r oppo r tun i t y to p resent t h e i r p o s i t i o n , to query o t h e r s , and to be heard before an a r b i t r a t i n g body. Procedures of the Case Study T r i b u n a l s The P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l Appeal Board In Chapter 3 I d e s c r i b e d the appeal p rocedu re , by which the hea r ing p rocess i s f o r m a l l y i n i t i a t e d . P r i o r to the h e a -r i n g s , the Board ma i l s the p r o s p e c t i v e a p p e l l a n t b a s i c p r o c e -d u r a l g u i d e l i n e s (Appendix 1 .5) . S e c t i on 49(4) of the R e g u l a -t i o n s p rov ides t h a t , " the Board in hea r ing an appeal may d e t e r -mine i t s own procedure and s h a l l n o t i f y the a p p e l l a n t and other i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s of the procedures to be t a k e n " . A l though the Board must not breach the r u l e s of n a t u r a l j u s t i c e , I have noted tha t these a l l ow much v a r i a t i o n in i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Thus , the Board ho lds d i s c r e t i o n a r y power wi th respec t to i s s u i n g p r o c e d u r a l g u i d e l i n e s . In the f o l l o w i n g , I w i l l d e s c r i be the procedures by which the PCAB appeal hea r ings take p l a c e , and which any a p p e l l a n t must f o l l o w . The procedure i s a m u l t i - s t e p p r o c e s s , as f o l l o w s : 1. A p p e l l a n t s f i r s t produce t h e i r w i t n e s s e s . Witnes-117 s e s g i v e e v i d e n c e t h r o u g h a q u e s t i o n a n d a n s w e r f o r m a t , o r b y s t a t e m e n t . I f a s t a t e m e n t i s r e a d , i t may be t y p e d , w i t h c o p i e s g i v e n t o t h e B o a r d a n d p e r m i t - h o l d e r . 2 . T h e p e r m i t - h o l d e r c r o s s - e x a m i n e s e a c h w i t n e s s , f o l -l o w i n g t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n . 3 . T h e n t h e B o a r d c r o s s - e x a m i n e s t h e a p p e l l a n t ' s w i t -n e s s . 4 . T h e a p p e l l a n t s c a n t h e n r e - e x a m i n e i f new i n f o r -m a t i o n h a s b e e n d i s c l o s e d a t s t e p s 2 o r 3 . 5 . F o l l o w i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s b y t h e a p p e l l a n t s , t h e p e r m i t - h o l d e r c a l l s w i t n e s s e s . 6 . T h e a p p e l l a n t s c r o s s - e x a m i n e t h e p e r m i t - h o l d e r ' s w i t n e s s e s . 7 . T h e B o a r d c r o s s - e x a m i n e s t h e p e r m i t h o l d e r ' s w i t -n e s s e s . 8 . A f t e r a l l w i t n e s s e s o n b o t h s i d e s h a v e b e e n c a l l e d , e a c h s i d e s u m s u p t h e i r e v i d e n c e . T h e p e r m i t -h o l d e r g o e s f i r s t , a n d t h e a p p e l l a n t g e t s t h e " l a s t w o r d " . 9 . T h e n , t h e B o a r d m a k e s a d e c i s i o n , w h i c h i s u s u a l l y m a i l e d t o b o t h p a r t i e s w i t h i n a p e r i o d o f o n e t o t w o w e e k s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s , t h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h g o v e r n t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n o r r e c o r d i n g o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s . I n t h e P C A B h e a r i n g s , t h e p r o -c e e d i n g s a r e t a p e d b y t h e B o a r d ' s s e c r e t a r y . T h e y a r e n o t t r a n s c r i b e d . A p p e l l a n t s m u s t m a k e r e c o r d s o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s a t t h e i r o w n t i m e a n d e x p e n s e i n o r d e r t o r e a d i l y a c c e s s p a s t m a t e r i a l . O t h e r p r o c e s s e s s u c h a s t h o s e g o v e r n i n g t h e r u l e s o f e v i d e n c e , a r e e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e B o a r d a n d a r e l e s s f o r m a l t h a n c o u r t r o o m p r o c e d u r e s . E v i d e n c e s h o u l d b e r e l e v a n t t o t h e c a s e , a n d t h e P C A B a l l o w s s o m e f l e x i b i l i t y i n i t s a c c e p t a n c e o f e v i d e n c e . H e a r s a y i s a c c e p t e d , a s a r e d o c u m e n t s a n d e x h i b i t s a n d l e t t e r s o f o p i n i o n o r f a c t f r o m a b s e n t p e r s o n s ( M c D a d e 1 1 8 1981:3) . Royal Commission of I nqu i r y i n to Uranium Min ing Under the p r o v i s i o n s of the P u b l i c I n q u i r i e s A c t , the Commissioners appo in ted to the I n q u i r y , Mess r s . Ba t es , Murray and Raudsepp, are g i ven wide powers w i t h i n the Terms of R e f e -rence i n de te rmin ing the matters at i s s u e . L i ke the P e s t i c i d e C o n t r o l A c t , the p u b l i c hea r ing procedures are not a r t i c u l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h i n the s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s of the A c t . The Terms of Reference s p e c i f i e d by the Order-In-Counci1 e s t a b l i s h -ing the RCUM requ i r ed the Commissioners to " r e c e i v e p u b l i c input on these ma t t e r s " ( e . g . , uranium m in i ng , worker and p u b l i c h e a l t h and s a f e t y ) . Thus , a l though the powers of the Commission rega rd ing hea r ing procedures were not s t i p u l a t e d by the B.C. P u b l i c I n q u i r i e s A c t , l i k e the PCAB, the Commission had c o n s i d e r a b l e l a t i t u d e to des ign and implement whatever procedures they cons ide red i n o r d e r . The Commission f i r s t he ld an i naugu ra l meeting in Vancou-ver on March 6. T h i s meeting was he ld to g i ve members of the p u b l i c the chance " . . . t o adv i se us on your views concern ing our terms of r e f e r e n c e , the t im ing and conduct of the I n q u i r y , and to d i s c u s s how you or other members of the p u b l i c may most e f f e c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e in the work we have to do" (RCUM 1:6) . At t h i s t ime , the Commission announced i t s i n t e n t i o n to ho ld p u b l i c hea r i ngs in communit ies throughout the p r o v i n c e , as we l l as t e c h n i c a l hea r ings in Vancouver . A l though the Commission in tended o r i g i n a l l y to ho ld two se ts of community h e a r i n g s , one p reced ing the t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s , and one f o l l o w i n g , the l a t t e r were pre-empted by the c a n c e l l a t i o n of the I n q u i r y . In a d d i t i o n 119 to these h e a r i n g s , the Commission announced i t would accept w r i t t e n b r i e f s . Thus , p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the Inqu i ry would be p o s s i b l e i n one or more of the f o l l o w i n g ways: (a) by coming forward at the Community Hear ings he ld i n the v a r i o u s communit ies where uranium mining was of i n t e -r e s t , or (b) by at tendance at the T e c h n i c a l Hear ings where e v i -dence would be p resented and w i tnesses cross-examined on t h e i r e v i d e n c e , or (c) through w r i t t e n b r i e f s f i l e d wi th the Commission (RCUM 1980:279) . The Commissioners approved p r o c e d u r a l r u l i n g s (which are con ta ined i n Appendix 2 .1 ) , f o r the i n f o rma t i on of p a r t i -c i p a n t s . These r u l i n g s a l so con ta ined the names of Major P a r t i -c i p a n t s and announced the s t r u c t u r e of the T e c h n i c a l Hea r i ngs . I w i l l d i s c u s s the procedures in g rea te r depth below, wi th r e f e rence to the two major hea r ing t y p e s . Community Hear ings The RCUM announced a s e r i e s of "community" h e a r i n g s : " I t i s our i n t e n t i o n to v i s i t fo r as long a p e r i o d of time as i s r e q u i r e d , every community c l o s e to known uranium d e p o s i t s or areas of i n t e r e s t to the uranium mining i n d u s t r y " (RCUM 1:6) . The hea r ings were in tended " to he lp the Commissioners b e t t e r understand l o c a l concerns and hear ev idence based on pe r sona l e x p e r i e n c e s . " (RCUM 1980:279) . S e l e c t i o n of the communit ies i n -c luded the f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : . . . . C o m m u n i t i e s l o c a t e d near uranium e x p l o r a t i o n s i t e s and showings known to the Commission at tha t t ime ; the weight of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t in a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t in a p a r t i c u l a r r eg ion as expressed in l e t t e r s and te lephone c a l l s to the Commiss ion; the response at the Inaugura l Mee t ings ; and r e g i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (RCUM 1980 :3 ) . Dur ing June and J u l y , the Commission v i s i t e d the f o l l o w i n g 120 communi t ies , h o l d i n g hea r ings in each : Kelowna, C l e a r w a t e r , Kamloops, Rock Creek , Grand F o r k s , C a s t l e g a r , W i l l i ams Lake, Vanderhoof , Fo r t Ne lson and A t l i n . The f o l l o w i n g procedures were adopted fo r the community h e a r i n g s : 1. Min ing companies presented s u b m i s s i o n s , d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t s in the a r e a . 2. Members of the p u b l i c p resented t h e i r b r i e f s , under o a t h , and a c c o r d i n g to a l i s t drawn up by the Commission from p re v i ous correspondence wi th p a r t i c i p a n t s . 4 3. A f t e r hea r ing each b r i e f , the Commiss ioners , i f they w ished , ques t ioned the w i tness or commented on the b r i e f . There was no p r o v i s i o n fo r c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n . However, i f anyone i n at tendance wished a matter to be c l a r i f i e d , t h i s cou ld be done at the time through the Chairman or l a t e r in the T e c h n i c a l Hea r i ngs . Community hea r ing p a r t i c i p a n t s , as a r u l e , were not r e p r e -sented by l awyers . The p roceed ings were in tended to be as i n fo rma l as p o s s i b l e , " to permi t and encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n by o r g a n i z a t i o n s , groups of concerned c i t i z e n s , and i n d i v i d u a l s . Apar t from r u l e s of decorum, there were no formal r u l e s e s t a b -l i s h e d to govern these Hea r i ngs " (RCUM 1980 :1 ) . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures i n c l ude the documentat ion of the p r o c e e d i n g s . A complete t r a n s c r i p t of the p roceed ings was kep t , r e q u i r i n g the presence of o f f i c i a l r e p o r t e r s and m i c r o -phones. P a r t i c i p a n t s p r e s e n t i n g d e t a i l e d or t e c h n i c a l ev idence at the community hea r ings were encouraged by the Commission to f i l e p r e s e n t a t i o n s in advance wi th the Commiss ion. T e c h n i c a l Hear ings Fo l l ow ing the Community H e a r i n g s , T e c h n i c a l Hear ings were schedu led i n o rder to " b r i n g before the Commiss ioners , p a r t i c i -121 pan t s , and the p u b l i c the ex tens i ve mass of t e c h n i c a l ev idence hav ing a bear ing on the Commiss ion 's Terms of Re fe rence " (RCUM 1980 :2 ) . In these h e a r i n g s , t e c h n i c a l , env i ronmen ta l , and h e a l t h problems r e l a t e d to the e x p l o r a t i o n , m in ing , and m i l l i n g of uranium were to be d i s c u s s e d . The T e c h n i c a l Hear ings were he ld from September 25, 1979 through Februa ry , 1980, when the Morator ium on uranium mining was announced. The T e c h n i c a l Hear ings were a l l he ld in Vancouver , at the Ho te l Devonsh i r e . They were he ld on a r egu l a r b a s i s from Tuesdays through F r i d a y s of des igna ted weeks. The hea r ings were o r i g i n a l l y scheduled to run from September 25, 1979 to February 8, 1980. However, they were re-schedu led t w i c e , each time l eng then ing the schedu le to a l l ow fo r c ross-examina t ion of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . The time had been extended to June 30, 1980 at the time of the announcement of the morator ium and the hea r ing c a n c e l l a t i o n . The P r e l i m i n a r y Ru l i ngs drawn up by the Commission (and presented in Appendix 2 .1 ) , i d e n t i f i e d 10 d i s t i n c t phases of the hea r ings as a means of o r d e r i n g the s ch edu l i n g of w i tnesses and p r e s e n t a t i o n of e v i d e n c e . These phases were as f o l l o w s : Phase I. Overview Phase I I . E x p l o r a t i o n Phase I I I . Min ing Phase IV. M i l l i n g and Chemica l E x t r a c t i o n Phase V. Waste Management Phase V I . Environment Impact Phase V I I . P u b l i c and Worker Hea l th Phase V I I I . S o c i a l Impact 122 Phase IX. E t h i c a l Quest ions Phase X. J u r i s d i c t i o n , Regu la t i ons and Enforcement In Chapter Fou r , I d i s c u s s e d the formal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s by the Commiss ion. Anyone a d v i s i n g the Commission tha t they wished to take an a c t i v e pa r t in the p roceed ings was deemed a p a r t i c i p a n t , r e f l e c t i n g the s u b j e c t i v e and vo lun t a r y bas i s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n assumed by the p l u r a l i s t model . Those w ish ing to p a r t i c i p a t e in the p roceed ings on a r egu l a r b a s i s and take an a c t i v e pa r t in c ross-examina t ion were des igna ted "major p a r t i c i p a n t s " . A l though there was no c ross-examina t ion at the community h e a r i n g s , a major emphasis of the t e c h n i c a l hea r ings was the c ross-examina t ion of w i t n e s s e s . The number of major p a r t i c i p a n t s f l u c t u a t e d s l i g h t l y throughout the h e a r i n g s , but twenty- f i ve had been named by the t e r m i n a t i o n of the h e a -r i n g s (RCUM 1980 :2 ) . C e r t a i n major p a r t i c i p a n t s — m i n i n g compa-n i es who had ceased uranium e x p l o r a t i o n i n B . C . — withdrew from the Commission because t h e i r i n t e r e s t s were no longer a f f e c t e d . Other p a r t i c i p a n t s , such as the SOEC, withdrew due to i nadequa -cy of f u n d i n g . S t i l l o the r s res igned due to economic and p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s , such as the Greenpeace wi thdrawal f o l l o w i n g the announcement of the Korean n e g o t i a t i o n by Premier Bennett (See Chapter 3 ) . Thus , major p a r t i c i p a n t s were not f i x e d e n t i -t i e s , but the ma jo r i t y of them p a r t i c i p a t e d in a cont inuous manner. A summary of the procedures of the T e c h n i c a l Hear ings f o l l o w s . (See Appendix 2.1 fo r a more complete d e s c r i p t i o n ) . 1. Sworn w i tnesses p resen t t h e i r e v i dence . They are a l lowed 15-20 minutes in which to summarize t h e i r e v i -123 dence . F u l l s tatements have been f i l e d p r e v i o u s l y wi th the Commiss ion. 2. Wi tnesses are then cross-examined by Commission c o u n s e l , then by major p a r t i c i p a n t s , and f i n a l l y , by members of the p u b l i c . 3. Where time i s inadequate fo r submiss ion and c ross examina t i on , hea r ings are re-schedu led to cont inue the p r o c e s s . At the T e c h n i c a l Hea r i ngs , the p a r t i c i p a n t s d id not p resen t e v i dence , but ar ranged w i th the Commissioners to have exper t s p resent ev idence on t h e i r b e h a l f . P a r t i c i p a n t s a c t i v e l y c r o s s -examined, however. Thus , in the T e c h n i c a l Hea r i ngs , as com-pared to the Community Hea r i ngs , and, to a l e s s e r e x t e n t , the PCAB h e a r i n g s , the pr imary r o l e of p a r t i c i p a n t s was tha t of c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n . Many of the major p a r t i c i p a n t s were r e p r e -sented by l e g a l c o u n s e l , but not a l l . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures were s p e c i f i e d to a g r ea t e r degree i n the t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s , due to the c l o s e r con fo rmi t y of the hea r ings to courtroom p rocedu res . I t was r equ i r ed that ev idence be submit ted to the Commiss ion, and c i r c u l a t e d among major p a r t i c i p a n t s two weeks p r i o r to the appearance of the w i tness p r e s e n t i n g i t . A l l ev idence submit ted or r e f e r r e d to was f i l e d as an e x h i b i t . P roceed ings were documented by cour t r e p o r t e r s and cop i e s of the t r a n s c r i p t s were a v a i l a b l e the f o l l o w i n g day fo r major p a r t i c i p a n t s . P roceed ings were v i d e o -taped as w e l l , and shown in Vancouver and V i c t o r i a on t e l e v i -s i o n . The RCUM thus f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d procedures through the d e s i g n a t i o n of two types of hea r ings : community/ informal and V a n c o u v e r / t e c h n i c a l . The dichotomy of hea r ing procedures used 124 under t h i s format was not r i g i d . Many of the submiss ions p r e -sented i n the Community Hea r i ngs , most no t ab l y those of mining companies , but a l so those of i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n c l uded a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of t e c h n i c a l d a t a . The Commis-s i o n attempted to reduce the t e c h n i c a l / l a y d ichotomy, and f a c i -l i t a t e community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t e c h n i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s through two mechanisms. I t in tended to ho ld a second set of hea r ings in the communi t ies , f o l l o w i n g the t e c h n i c a l s e s s i o n s , i n which l o c a l concerns cou ld be p r e s e n t e d , informed by the t e c h n i c a l data which had been presented i n the i n t e r i m . I t a l so attempted to d i s semina te the t e c h n i c a l i n f o rma t i on to the communit ies through a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y system, d i s p e r s a l of v i d e o c a s s e t t e s of each phase of the t e c h n i c a l hea r ings and complete t r a n -s c r i p t s of the p roceed ings as we l l as o ther i n f o r m a t i o n . As I noted e a r l i e r , t e rm ina t i on of the Inqu i r y prevented the second se t of Community Hear ings from t ak ing p l a c e . The above procedures are those cons ide red to be the e s -sence of t r i b u n a l a c t i v i t i e s . They are g e n e r a l l y compat ib le wi th the p l u r a l i s t mode l ' s c r i t e r i a fo r f a i r n e s s . As a means of c o n t r i b u t i n g to g rea te r p u b l i c a c c e s s , procedures are c h a -r a c t e r i z e d as q u a s i - j u d i c i a l , and at tempts may be made by the Board/Commission to r e l ax p rocedures . I n s t r u c t i o n s to p r o s p e c -t i v e a p p e l l a n t s e x p l a i n the p rocess in r e l a t i v e l y s imple and non- l ega l te rms. S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of these e s s e n t i a l procedures ensures f a i r n e s s in tha t a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s in each forum are f o r m a l l y e n t i t l e d to engage in the same p r o c e s s , i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e i r i n t e r e s t . The submiss ion—cross-examina t ion—summat ion p rocess c o n t r i b u t e s to a d i a l ogue among p a r t i c i p a n t s , and en-125 sures the p o s s i b i l i t y of a reply to each position. Hearing procedures are thereby considered to mediate and equalize the competition among various interests. 5.3-Making A Case — The Preparation and  Organization of Intervention The hearing procedures described above, from the pers-pective of the p l u r a l i s t model, produce a balance of input to the t r i b u n a l . Competing interests, whether the permit-holder and the appellants in the PCAB, or the variety of positions adopted with respect to uranium mining in the RCUM, are enabled to present and defend themselves and to cross-examine their opponents through compliance with these procedures. The plura-l i s t model assumes that d i f f e r e n t groups w i l l engage in compe-t i t i v e strategies which use the various resources and a b i l i t i e s accessible to them. Differences in resources r e f l e c t more than economic bases—they are also related to leadership, commit-ment, organizational strategies and membership. These d i f f e -rent resources, although affecting participants' success to some degree, are balanced by the d i v e r s i t y of intervenors and the ne u t r a l i t y of the hearing process. Thus, the formal proce-dures adopted by the tribunals generally r e f l e c t the p l u r a l i s t model. Participants' preparation for and organization of the intervention process i s largely ignored by these o f f i c i a l de-c r i p t i o n s . Preparation for intervention i s individual and sub-j e c t i v e , which obscures two major aspects of the a c t i v i t y . F i r s t , although unacknowledged and i n v i s i b l e within the formal 126 h e a r i n g p r o c e s s , p r e p a r a t i o n i s e x t e n s i v e . S e c o n d l y , p r e p a r a -t i o n a n d i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s r e q u i r e o r g a n i z a -t i o n a l s u p p o r t , s k i l l s a n d r e s o u r c e s . I n t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r , I w i l l d i s c u s s t h i s p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n t e r v e n t i o n . P r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e h e a r i n g s r e q u i r e s i n t e r v e n o r s ' a c t i v i -t y i n o n e o r m o r e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : r e s e a r c h ; c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h p r o s p e c t i v e w i t n e s s e s ; p r e p a r a t i o n o f a b r i e f / s u b m i s s i o n ; c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w i t h g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s ; o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s p o n -s o r i n g g r o u p ; a n d " n e t w o r k i n g " w i t h k i n d r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . R e s e a r c h s k i l l s i n c l u d e a v a r i e t y o f p r o c e d u r e s . T h e a p -p e l l a n t s m u s t s e c u r e i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h w h i c h t o d e f e n d t h e i r c a s e . I n t h e h e r b i c i d e c a s e s t u d y , r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e d k n o w l e d g e o f a n d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h a t e c h n i c a l v o c a b u l a r y , m e t h o d o l o g y , e x p e r i m e n t s , c a s e s , a n d i s s u e s . T h e p r o c u r e m e n t o f s u c h i n f o r -m a t i o n i n v o l v e s c o n s u l t a t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s w h i c h i n c l u d e t e c h n i c a l / s c i e n c e l i b r a r i e s ( j o u r n a l s , t e x t b o o k s , e n c y c l o p e d i a s ) , r e s e a r c h e r s o r p r o f e s s o r s e n g a g e d i n t h e p r o -d u c t i o n a n d d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d l a y i n f o r m a -t i o n n e t w o r k s . I n f o r m a t i o n m u s t b e c o n t i n u a l l y u p d a t e d , e s p e -c i a l l y i n r e o c c u r i n g a p p e a l s , s u c h a s t h e P C A B e x a m p l e . T h e i n t e r v e n e r ' s s u b m i s s i o n p r e s e n t s t h e g r o u n d s , o r e v i d e n c e , a n d t h e l o g i c o f o n e ' s a p p e a l . P r e p a r a t i o n o f a s u b m i s s i o n , w h e t h e r v e r b a l , w r i t t e n , o r b o t h , r e q u i r e s e x t e n -s i v e w o r k . M a t e r i a l s i n s u p p o r t o f o n e ' s p o s i t i o n m u s t be o r g a n i z e d , p r e s e n t e d , a n d d o c u m e n t e d . I r e f e r t o t h i s p r e s e n -t a t i o n o f e v i d e n c e a n d a r g u m e n t i n s u p p o r t o f o n e ' s a p p e a l o r s t a n d a s " m a k i n g a c a s e " . I n m a k i n g a c a s e , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t 127 m u s t s u m m o n u p r e s o u r c e s , i n f o r m a t i o n , " e v i d e n c e " w h i c h s u p -p o r t s h e r / h i s p e r s p e c t i v e o n a g i v e n i s s u e . I e m p h a s i z e t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f e v i d e n c e ( t h e m a k i n g o f t h e c a s e ) , r a t h e r t h a n t h e s u b s t a n t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e e v i d e n c e a s t h e i m m e d i a t e c o n c e r n h e r e . M a k i n g a c a s e i n c l u d e s a n u m b e r o f a c t i v i t i e s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i s s u e s , r e s e a r c h o f t h e i s s u e s , n e t w o r k i n g w i t h o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t g r o u p s t o s e c u r e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d c o n t a c t s , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s a n d t e c h n i c a l s t a f f , c o n t a c t i n g p e r s o n s t o a p p e a r a s e x p e r t w i t n e s s e s , a n d t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f s t r a t e g y a r o u n d w h i c h t h e c a s e w i l l b e m a d e . T h u s , i n " m a k i n g a c a s e " , p a r t i