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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Wu Wenying and the art of Southern Song ci poetry Fong, Grace S. 1984

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WU WENYING AND THE ART OF SOUTHERN SONG CI POETRY by GRACE SIEUGIT FONG B .A . , U n i v e r s i t y Of T o r o n t o , 1975 M.A . , U n i v e r s i t y Of T o r o n t o , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department Of As i an S tud i e s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1984 © Grace S i e u g i t Fong, 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head of my D epartment o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e partment of A s i a n S t u d i e s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e : O c t o b e r 15, 1984 i i A b s t r a c t The t h e s i s s t u d i e s t h e c i _ p o e t r y o f Wu Wenying ( c . 1 2 0 0 -c.1260) i n t h e c o n t e x t of S o u t h e r n Song c_i_ p o e t i c s and aims t o e s t a b l i s h i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n c o n t e m p o r a r y d e v e l o p m e n t s and i n t h e t r a d i t i o n of c i c r i t i c i s m . C h a p t e r One e x p l o r e s t h e m o r a l and a e s t h e t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s of Wu's l i f e a s a " g u e s t - p o e t " p a t r o n i z e d by o f f i c i a l s and a r i s t o c r a t s , and p r o f i l e s two r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Wu's l i f e , t h e l o s s of w h i c h g e n e r a t e d a u n i q u e c o r p u s of l o v e p o e t r y . To d e f i n e t h e a r t of S o u t h e r n Song c _ i , C h a p t e r Two e l u c i d a t e s c u r r e n t s t y l i s t i c t r e n d s , p o e t i c s , and a e s t h e t i c s o f c i , e x a m i n i n g c r i t i c a l c o n c e p t s i n two l a t e Song t r e a t i s e s , t h e Y u e f u z h i m i and C i y u a n . The Y u e f u z h i m i ' s c r i t i c a l c a n o n s embody Wu's p o e t i c s of i n d i r e c t i o n , w h i c h f a v o u r s a l l u s i v e and c o n n o t a t i v e l a n g u a g e and p r o d u c e s i m a g i s t i c and s e m a n t i c d e n s i t y i n t h e p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e . I n o p p o s i t i o n t o Wu's p o e t i c s o f d e n s i t y , an a s p e c t of i n d i r e c t i o n , t h e C i y u a n p r o p o s e s a p o e t i c s of t r a n s p a r e n c y . F i n a l l y , t h e c h a p t e r a n a l y z e s Wu's p o e t i c s o f d e n s i t y t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h i s a r t . C h a p t e r T h r e e p r o v i d e s s t y l i s t i c , t h e m a t i c , and s t r u c t u r a l e x e g e s e s o f Wu's poems w i t h i n a l i t e r a r y - h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . The d i c h o t o m y between v e r b a l a r t i f i c e and p o e t i c metaphor i n h i s yongwu c i (poems on o b j e c t s ) and between s e l f and o t h e r i n h i s o c c a s i o n a l poems i s f o u n d t o r e s t on t h e f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between p o e t r y a s s o c i a l a r t and p o e t r y a s s e l f -e x p r e s s i o n . • S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e m e t a p h o r i c d i m e n s i o n o f h i s yongwu poems i l l u s t r a t e s e v o l u t i o n a r y p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t h e s u b g e n r e i n c _ i . Wu's l o v e p o e t r y o r i g i n a t e s i n an i d e e f i x e , a p e r s i s t e n t l o n g i n g f o r t h e b e l o v e d , w h i c h i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o r e c u r r e n t images and m o t i f s embedded i n h i s most e l e g a n t d i c t i o n , r e p r e s e n t i n g a s u p e r b u n i o n of l a n g u a g e and e m o t i o n . The t h e s i s c o n c l u d e s w i t h an o v e r v i e w o f Wu Wenying c r i t i c i s m , w h i c h shows a dominant f o c u s on t h e s t y l i s t i c a r t o f S o u t h e r n Song c _ i . Wu's p o e t r y has won b o t h c r i t i c a l a c c l a i m and d i s p p r o b a t i o n f o r i t s s u r f a c e e l e g a n c e and v e r b a l d e n s i t y . O n l y i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y d i d t h e Changzhou S c h o o l of c_i_ c r i t i c i s m , w i t h i t s e m p h a s i s on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f meaning as t h e c r i t e r i o n , a c h i e v e an i n t e g r a l a p p r e c i a t i o n o f Wu Wenying's p o e t r y . Tab le of Contents A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgement v Chapter I BIOGRAPHY 1 I . EARLY L IFE 1 I I . THE SUZHOU PERIOD (C.1232-C.1244) 6 I I I . EMERGENCE OF VANISHED LOVE 16 IV. LATE YEARS: INTEGRITY VERSUS IMPROBITY OR A MAN WITHOUT PRINCIPLES 20 Chapter II THE ART OF SOUTHERN SONG CI 49 I. INTRODUCTION 49 I I . TRENDS IN SOUTHERN SONG CI POETRY-LATE 12TH CENTURY 53 I I I . THE YUEFU ZHIMI AND CIYUAN-POETICS AND AESTHETICS IN THE LATE SONG STYLE OF CI POETRY (13TH CENTURY) 62 IV. THE POETICS OF DENSITY 77 Chapter III THE POETRY OF WU WENYING: MAJOR THEMES AND SUBGENRES 118 I. YONGWU C I : POEM AS ARTIFICE AND POEM AS METAPHOR . .118 I I . POEMS IN REMEMBRANCE OF LOVE 147 I I I . SELF AND OTHER IN OCCASIONAL POETRY 177 Chapter IV CRITICAL VIEWS 227 BIBLIOGRAPHY 251 APPENDIX A - CHINESE TEXTS OF CI POEMS 271 V Acknowledgement I am deeply grateful to my advisor, Professor Chia-ying Chao Yeh, who taught me how to read and appreciate c_i poetry. Without her guidance and her t i r e l e s s patience in reading through and discussing with me the entire c o l l e c t i o n of Wu Wenying's c i , this thesis would not have been possible. To Professor E. G. Pulleyblank I owe a special debt of gratitude for his guidance in my study of the history of the Song period and for his valuable comments and support throughout the writing of the thesis. My translations of the poems owe much to the invaluable discussions I had with Professor Jerry Schmidt; many also benefitted from helpful readings by Professor Hightower and by Professor Michael Bullock and fellow students in his 1982-83 Translation Workshop in the Creative Writing Department. I would also l i k e to thank Dr. Ron Egan, Executive Editor of the Harvard  Journal of A s i a t i c Studies, as well as the anonymous subeditor for their useful suggestions for improvements in the section on Yongwu c i for publication. 1 I . BIOGRAPHY I . EARLY L I F E p r o v i n c e . 1 D u r i n g t h e Song, t h e S o u t h e a s t c i r c u i t s were s t e a d i l y b ecoming t h e l e a d i n g e conomic and c u l t u r a l nexus i n t h e e m p i r e . When t h e n o r t h was c a p t u r e d by t h e J u r c h e n s i n 1126, t h e s u b s e q u e n t p o l i t i c a l t u r m o i l f o r c e d t h e S o u t h e r n Song c o u r t t o e v e n t u a l l y r e l o c a t e t h e c a p i t a l t o Hangzhou i n 1138. I r o n i c a l l y , t h e s h a m e f u l l o s s o f h a l f an e m p i r e and t h e r e s u l t a n t g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s l o c a t i o n o n l y c o n s o l i d a t e d an o n - g o i n g f u n d a m e n t a l s o u t h w a r d s h i f t t h a t began s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s a g o . 2 In t h e t r i e n n i a l c i v i l s e r v i c e e x a m i n a t i o n s t h a t f u r n i s h e d t h e s t a t e b u r e a u c r a c y w i t h p o t e n t i a l new r e c r u i t s , t h e S o u t h e a s t , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e two most p o p u l o u s and u r b a n i z e d c i r c u i t s - Z h e d o n g and F u j i a n , came t o s u p p l y most o f t h e c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e c o m p e t i t i o n . 3 I n Wu Wenying's own t i m e , a s i g n i f i c a n t s h a r e of s u c c e s s f u l j i n s h i g r a d u a t e s came from h i s n a t i v e d i s t r i c t Y i n C o u n t y . " Not s u r p r i s i n g l y h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r was on t h e l i s t o f g r a d u a t e s f o r t h e y e a r 1217. 5 A l t h o u g h Wu Wenying h i m s e l f n e v e r a t t a i n e d t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , w h ether due t o l a c k of p a r t i c i p a t i o n or t o f a i l u r e i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s , t h e v e r y l o c a l e i n w h i c h he grew up b e s p e a k s a c u l t u r e d and s o p h i s t i c a t e d m i l i e u . Of Wu Wenying's r e l a t i o n s , o n l y two b r o t h e r s b e a r i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t surname Weng 33 a r e known. No r e c o r d e d s o u r c e 2 accounts for the disparity in the surnames, the most plausible explanation being that Wu Wenying, ne Weng, was adopted into a Wu family. 6 Wu's elder brother Weng Fenglong ^jg i[^,i|lt (2. Jike "5j , h. Shigui /Q ) attained his j inshi degree in 1217, and is known to have held the position of Vice-administrator of Pingjiang ~Y j^ L^ F (present day Suzhou) for a period between 1237 and 1240.7 Not only did Weng Fenglong di s t i n g u i s h himself by passing the c i v i l service examination and thereby entering a career in officialdom, he also acquired some recognition as a shi | ^ poet. 8 He was mentioned by Dai Fugu ^ (1167-after 1246), an important poet of the "Rivers and Lakes" School of the Southern Song, 9 in a poem e n t i t l e d "On reading the manuscripts of the four poets Weng Jike, Xue Yishu, Sun J i f a n and Gao Jiuwan." 1 0 There are two extant poems addressed to Weng Fenglong in Wu Wenying's c o l l e c t i o n . Judging from their tone and content, i t appears that the brothers had a rather' congenial relationship with some contact maintained throughout their l i v e s . One poem, to the tune pattern Liushao qing (Quan Song c i [hereafter QSC] 2928/5), 1 1 dated post 1243 from the preface, was composed on the occasion of viewing snow with Weng Fenglong from a tower named Yanyi #fj ^ . 1 2 The other poem (QSC 2928/4), written at a la t e r date and poignantly su b t i t l e d , "Ascending Yanyi after Guiweng (Weng Fenglong) had passed away," reminisces with sadness about the i r r e t r i e v a b l e times when they had been together, revealing through the imagery and all u s i o n s a measure of brotherly intimacy that had existed between them. The younger brother, Weng Yuanlong ^ j{j ^  (z. Shike 3 »j , h. Chujing / | . | f f ), seems to have f o l l o w e d in Wu Wenying 's f o o t s t e p s . Not hav ing passed the examinat ion and en te red o f f i c i a l d o m , _ h e a l s o made a name among h i s con tempora r i es as a c i =?) poe t , though one whose r e p u t a t i o n , to 1308) o b s e r v a t i o n , may have been somewhat e c l i p s e d by Wu's o w n . 1 3 Neve r t he l e s s to a l l appearances he l i v e d by h i s t a l e n t as a c_i poet and en joyed the patronage of c e r t a i n h i g h o f f i c i a l s . A m e t a p h o r i c a l l y ph ra sed , h i g h l y compl imentary p o s t s c r i p t to h i s c i poe t ry i s p rese r ved in the c o l l e c t e d w r i t i n g s of the c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r Du Fan ^-i , (d . 1 245) , who i s known to have been Wehg Yuan long ' s p a t r o n . 1 " There are a l s o two ex tan t poems by Wu t o h i s younger b ro the r (QSC 2881/3, 2931/6) . In s p i t e of the p a u c i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n , the few d e t a i l s we have of the b ro the r s suggest a l i t e r a t i f am i l y background and an educa t i on tha t perhaps c u l t i v a t e d in them a love of l i t e r a t u r e and he lped shape t h e i r shared p o e t i c t a l e n t . Very l i t t l e i s known about Wu Wenying 's e a r l y l i f e . When Weng Fenglong became a j i n s h i ho lde r in 1217, Wu was in h i s l a t e a d o l e s c e n c e . I t i s p o s s i b l e that Wu was brought i n t o con tac t w i th a broader l i t e r a r y s o c i e t y tha t had connec t i ons w i th the government bureaucracy around t h i s t ime as a consequence of h i s b r o t h e r ' s success and subsequent debut in o f f i c i a l l i f e . From r e f e r e n c e s made in some l a t e poems, i t can be i n f e r r e d that as a youth Wu Wenying had made some t r a v e l s away from h i s n a t i v e d i s t r i c t and had a l s o so journed in the c a p i t a l Hangzhou p e r i o d i c a l l y f o r a p e r i o d of ten y e a r s , where he had h i s f i r s t judge by the l a t e Song poet and w r i t e r Zhou M i ' s (1232-4 l o v e a f f a i r w i t h a s i n g i n g g i r l . 1 5 W u ' s e a r l i e s t p o e m i s d a t e d t o 1 2 2 4 . 1 6 I t w a s c o m p o s e d i n D e q i n g C o u n t y i ^ ^ f ^ i n Z h e x i c i r c u i t ( n o r t h e r n Z h e j i a n g ) w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o l i n e s 1 1 - 1 5 , h e e v i d e n t l y h a d a l r e a d y v i s i t e d s o m e t i m e p r i o r t o t h i s d a t e . T o t h e t u n e He  x i n l a n g a n d p r e f a c e d " A l y r i c o n S m a l l R a i n b o w B r i d g e w r i t t e n f o r M a g i s t r a t e Z h a o o f D e q i n g , " t h i s y o u t h f u l a n d r a t h e r a r t f u l a t t e m p t r e a d s : 1 W a v e s r e f l e c t w r i n k l i n g t o r t o i s e s h e l l p a t t e r n s . D i p p e d i n m i s t , h a l f m o i s t e n e d a r e t h e r e d a n d g r e e n O f w i n d o w s p i l l o w e d o n t h e s t r e a m . L a z i l y r e c l i n i n g o n t h e w a t e r , a t h o u s a n d f e e t o f r o s e a t e c l o u d -5 M y r i a d f o l d s o f s i l k s c r e e n s t h r o n g i n g i t s b e a u t y . A g a i n a n d a g a i n , t h e b o a t s t o Wu t u r n t h e i r b o w s , A n d w i l d g e e s e r e t u r n i n g n o r t h w o u l d n o t r e a c h L a k e T a i : I a s k t h e man f i s h i n g t h r o u g h s n o w i n t h e v a s t n e s s i f h e k n o w s -A w o o d m a n ' s s o n g , r e m o t e , 10 T r a v e r s e s t h e d e e p v e r d u r e . C o m i n g h e r e a g a i n I a r r i v e d i n t i m e f o r t h e b l o s s o m s . I r e c a l l l i n g e r i n g a m o n g t h e s e e m p t y h i l l s i n t h e n i g h t r a i n , T h e n s p r i n g w i n e a t t h e p a v i l i o n o f p a r t i n g . 5 Under newly p l a n t e d peach and plum t r e e s where a f oo tpa th forms, 15 A l l t h i s a f t e r the wanderer l e f t . S t i l l the noble prunus at the East Lodge i s d e l i c a t e l y t h i n . A p l a s h of oars- the landscape deepens i t s g r een . Du r ing the day the swallows are s i l e n t , the wind s t i l l s , c u r t a i n s hang m o t i o n l e s s . In the hushed c h i l l , 20 With s l e e ves d a n g l i n g I c han t . (QSC 2898/4) T h i s poem se r ves to i l l u m i n a t e s e v e r a l a spec t s of Wu Wenying 's l i f e . F i r s t , i t demonstrates the minimum extent of Wu's t r a v e l s to da t e , i n v o l v i n g a route tha t c o u l d e a s i l y have taken him through the m e t r o p o l i s Shaoxing and the c a p i t a l H a n g z h o u . 1 7 Second ly , s i n c e t h i s poem was w r i t t e n fo r a mag i s t r a t e (upon h i s r e q u e s t ? ) , Wu Wenying may a l r e ady have en joyed some fame as a young poe t , and M a g i s t r a t e Zhao on ly inaugura tes a long l i s t of government o f f i c i a l s and h igh d i g n i t a r i e s wi th whom he a s s o c i a t e d and fo r whom he composed many poems throughout h i s l i f e . S t y l i s t i c a l l y , t h i s poem a l r e a d y e x h i b i t s c e r t a i n s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Wu's verse as a whole: the penchant fo r unusual words and nove l images ( 1 . 1 ) , metonymic language (1.2-3 ) , an i m p l i e d r a the r than e x p l i c i t l o g i c in the s t r u c t u r e , and f requent use of a l l u s i o n s . Thus f a r we can p i c t u r e Wu Wenying as a young man, not 6 t e r r i b l y a m b i t i o u s , in a l l l i k e l i h o o d devo t ing much of h i s time and energy to l e a r n i n g the a r t of w r i t i n g c_i poe t r y and growing p r o f i c i e n t in i t . He ranks among the few Southern Song c_i poets w i th an exper t knowledge of mus i c ; there are a number of much admired tune p a t t e r n s c r e a t e d by h i m . 1 8 Wu's so l e fame as a c i poet and h i s apparent l a ck of success in p u b l i c l i f e have occas i oned one w r i t e r ' s remark t h a t , though no doubt i n t e l l i g e n t , Wu might have been of the type that was " a d d i c t e d to poe t r y and d u l l in the C l a s s i c s . " 1 9 Ins tead of t r e a d i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l t ime-honoured path to wo r l d l y s u c c e s s , Wu t r a v e l e d , c u l t i v a t e d the f r i e n d s h i p of o f f i c i a l s - t h o s e who had a l r e a d y made the' mark, and perhaps t r i e d to f i n d in t h e i r employ or patronage some means of s u p p o r t . In f a c t , the next known p e r i o d in Wu's l i f e , the e a r l y 1230 ' s , f i n d s him in the s t a f f of the G r a i n T r anspo r t O f f i c e i n Suzhou. I I . THE SUZHOU PERIOD (C.1232~C.1244) The exact da tes of Wu Wenying 's move to Suzhou and of h i s en t r y i n t o the G ra i n T r anspo r t O f f i c e ^ remain o b s c u r e . 2 0 The p r e f a ce to a poem dated 1232 (QSC 2920/3) p r o v i d e s some b a s i s fo r assuming that Wu had a l r e a d y been working at the G ra i n T r anspo r t O f f i c e fo r a t ime : "In the company of c o l l e a g u e s from the Granary I a t tended a f a r e w e l l banquet he ld fo r Sun Wuhuai at the garden r e s i dence of Guo X idao on the day be fo re the l eap Double N i n t h . " 2 1 He was then in h i s t h i r t i e s . Beg inn ing from around t h i s t ime and l a s t i n g u n t i l about 1244, h i s so jou rn in Suzhou con t i nued fo r rough ly twelve y e a r s . For a number of these y e a r s , Wu was employed on the c l e r i c a l s t a f f of the G ra in 7 T ranspo r t O f f i c e . 2 2 With the e x c e p t i o n of some p o s s i b l e o f f i c i a l a ss ignments , which took him to a few l o c a l e s w i t h i n the gene ra l c o n f i n e s of Zhexi c i r c u i t ( J i angsu and Z h e j i a n g ) , and some t r i p s to Hangzhou, Wu's a c t i v i t i e s , f o r the most p a r t , were c e n t r e d in the v i c i n i t y of S u z h o u . 2 3 P re f a ces tha t can be dated to t h i s p e r i o d p rov ide the on l y s u b s t a n t i v e and s p e c i f i c r e co rd of Wu Wenying 's a c t i v i t i e s . From them i t can be gathered tha t he c i r c u l a t e d among the s t a f f of the G ra i n T r anspo r t O f f i c e , o f f i c i a l s in the d i s t r i c t , " c a r e e r " p o e t s , 2 4 and a group of f r i e n d s of appa r en t l y wealthy gent ry b a c k g r o u n d . 2 5 Together these members of the educated e l i t e c u l t i v a t e d a s t y l e of l i v i n g which was imbued w i th the e legance and re f inement a f f o r d e d by the m a t e r i a l p r o s p e r i t y of the Southern S o n g . 2 6 The more a f f l u e n t among them had e s t a t e s on which were c o n s t r u c t e d l u x u r i o u s l y l andscaped gardens and v i l l a s where f r equent s o c i a l ga the r i ngs were conduc ted . The ways and manner of en te r ta inment and l i t e r a r y d i v e r s i o n were c o n s i d e r a b l e and o f t en l a v i s h ; we come a c r o s s o c c a s i o n s such as the banquet aboard a l a r g e deco ra ted boat where po t t ed peon ies p r o v i d e d the theme of a t t r a c t i o n (QSC 2890/1) , or the morning garden p a r t y at which the gues t s engaged in games of chess and l u t e - p l a y i n g - t h e p o l i t e a r t s of a scho la r-gent leman (QSC 2919/4) , or the s imple c e l e b r a t i o n of the comple t ion of a new house (QSC 2925/4) . The oc cas i ons f o r s o c i a l a f f a i r s seemed end l e s s and a l l c a l l e d fo r ve rse-mak ing . Wu Wenying consequen t l y l e f t a l a r g e volume of o c c a s i o n a l and commemorative cd poems, w r i t t e n at b i r t h d a y and f a r e w e l l banque ts , f lower-v iew ing and other p a r t i e s , and d u r i n g 8 e x c u r s i o n s to s c e n i c and h i s t o r i c s i t e s . G iven the p o p u l a r i t y of c_i poems fo r such o c ca s i ons in the Southern Song and Wu's fame as a c i p o e t , we may i n f e r tha t Wu was commissioned to w r i t e some of these poems, and in f a c t i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y tha t many of these were impromptu l y r i c s , each w r i t t e n w i th in a t ime l i m i t and per formed on the very o c ca s i on which the l y r i c c e l e b r a t e s . 2 7 Much i s j o t t e d down that i s mere ly t e c h n i c a l l y s k i l l f u l , f l o a t i n g , or suggested by the e x i g e n c i e s of rhyme or the demand fo r a p p r o p r i a t e a l l u s i o n s . As p o e t r y , many in t h i s ca tegory l a ck i n t r i n s i c l i t e r a r y mer i t but are v a l u a b l e fo r the v i g n e t t e s of l i t e r a r y s o c i e t y they o f f e r . Wu Wenying seems to have d e l i g h t e d in the company of h igh s o c i e t y and , w i th h i s p o e t i c t a l e n t , must have f u l f i l l e d h i s r o l e w i th consummate ease . The p r e f a c e to the poem dated 1236, which he wrote on the n igh t of the Lan te rn F e s t i v a l (15th day of the f i r s t month) r e v e a l s a y o u t h f u l exuberance soon to be c l ouded by age and p e r s o n a l t r a g e d i e s : T h i s year the Lantern F e s t i v a l in Suzhou was more s p e c t a c u l a r than u s u a l . Whi le l o d g i n g in a q u i e t and sec luded ward, I met many eminent people of the t i m e . A banquet w i th wine was thrown, f o l l owed by the joys of p o l i t e company. I t was indeed a grand a f f a i r . I r e c e i v e d the rhyme word j i n g . (QSC 2919/2) Dur ing t h i s r e l a t i v e l y long and s t a b l e p e r i o d in Suzhou, Wu Wenying e s t a b l i s h e d l a s t i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s w i th c e r t a i n h igh f u n c t i o n a r i e s , which may have p e r m i t t e d him to l a t e r adopt a mode of l i f e whose economic b a s i s r e s t e d on an a r t i s t - p a t r o n a f f i l i a t i o n . Most no tab le among these a s s o c i a t i o n s were those 9 w i th Wu Qian Jjtz_/g (11 96-1262), the top cand ida te among the j i n s h i g raduates of 1217, and Shi Z h a i z h i ^ ^ \ ^ (1205-1249), from both of whom Wu enjoyed some form of patronage in c e r t a i n p e r i o d s a f t e r he l e f t Suzhou. A l though the re i s no d i r e c t e v i d e n c e , a t h i r d f i g u r e , Yin-Huan (j i n s h i 1217), who toge the r w i th Shi Z h a i z h i commands the l a r g e s t extant number of poems addressed to him by Wu Wenying, c o u l d a l s o be i n c l u d e d in t h i s c a t e g o r y . Not much i s known about Y in Huan o ther than tha t he a l s o ob t a i ned h i s j i n s h i in 1217, the same year as Weng Fenglong and Wu Q i a n ; was promoted to the p o s i t i o n of L e f t D i v i s i o n Ch i e f jj_ )^ ^ in the Department of M i n i s t r i e s "^ -43- ib" ^ Q "e in 1247; and i s known to have composed c_i p o e t r y . 2 8 Most impo r t an t l y in r e l a t i o n to Wu Wenying, Y in Huan wrote a s u r v i v i n g p r e f a ce to a no longer extant c o l l e c t i o n of Wu's c_i p o e t r y . One may r e c a l l the C o u n c i l l o r Du F a n ' s p o s t s c r i p t to Weng Yuan long ' s c_i p o e t r y ; i t was not an uncommon p r a c t i c e fo r pa t rons to w r i t e a p r e f a c e or p o s t s c r i p t to t h e i r p r o t e g e s ' work. One may we l l ask at t h i s po in t how Wu Wenying managed the l o g i s t i c s of c u l t i v a t i n g these r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and i f there was not more f a c t u a l p roof fo r patronage than i n f e r e n c e s and i n d u c t i o n s ? Two f a c t o r s shou ld c l a r i f y the f i r s t q u e s t i o n : Wu Weny ing 's growing renown as a c_i poet and pe r sona l connec t i ons through h i s e l d e r b ro the r Weng Fenglong enab led him to meet and be n o t i c e d by the o f f i c i a l c l a s s in Suzhou. Take fo r example h i s f r i e n d s h i p wi th Y in Huan and Wu Q i a n ; one cannot ove r look the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r f e l l o w j i n s h i connec t i on w i th Weng 10 Fenglong be ing the o c c a s i o n of Wu Wenying 's i n i t i a l i n t r o d u c t i o n to them. Towards the end of t h i s p e r i o d in Suzhou, Wu Wenying was demonstrably an a c comp l i shed , mature poet of s u b s t a n t i a l r e p u t a t i o n . H i s poems were be ing i n c l u d e d in contemporary a n t h o l o g i e s of c_i p o e t r y . 2 9 H i s " canon " of c_i compos i t i on was r eco rded in the Yuefu zh imi -^g 1^ by the poet and c r i t i c Shen Y i f u ~/AL>2fe >C. ( ? ~ a f t e r 1297), who f i r s t met Wu in 1243 toward the end of the Suzhou p e r i o d . 3 0 A l though no dates can be a s s o c i a t e d wt ih t h e i r appearances , sources i n d i c a t e tha t Wu Wenying 's poems were p r i n t e d d u r i n g the Song in an e d i t i o n of poe t r y e n t i t l e d L i u s h i j i a c i [C i by S i x t y P o e t s ] , 3 1 and tha t a manuscr ip t of h i s poe t r y in h i s own handwr i t i ng e n t i t l e d Shuanghua yu Q7v was in c i r c u l a t i o n . 3 2 The no longer extant c o l l e c t i o n to which Y in Huan had composed a p re f a ce must have been compi l ed at the end of t h i s p e r i o d or s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s , s i n c e t h i s p r e f a ce was p a r t l y quo ted , a long wi th a s e l e c t i o n of Wu Wenying 's poems, in the antho logy of c_i poe t r y compi l ed by Huang Sheng ll ( f l . 1240-49 ) in 1249. In t h i s p r e f a c e , Yiri a c co rds Wu h ighes t honours among h i s con t empora r i e s : " I f one were to seek models of c_i poe t r y in our age of the Song, there was Zhou Bangyan in the past and now there i s Wu Wenying. These are not on ly my words, but the unanimous o p i n i o n w i t h i n the four s e a s . " 3 3 While Weng Fenglong was V i c e - a d m i n i s t r a t o r of Suzhou from 1237 to 1240, the r e co rd of A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 7\a in the Suzhou g a z e t t e e r Wuxian z h i shows th ree names f o r t h i s p e r i o d which , 11 s i g n i f i c a n t l y , a re a l s o found in Wu Wenying 's c o l l e c t i o n of p o e t r y . 3 " From 1237 to 1238 the post was he l d by Wu Q i a n , to whom we s h a l l r e t u r n at a l a t e r stage in Wu's l i f e , and from 1239-1241, by Zhao Yuchou ,|, ( f l . 1 2 4 0 s ) , whose d i r e c t r e l e vance to Wu's l i f e i s a t t enua t ed by reason of there be ing on l y one s u r v i v i n g poem addressed to him (QSC 2907/3) . The a d m i n i s t r a t o r of Suzhou in these yea rs whose r e l a t i o n s h i p wi th Wu Wenying o f f e r s t a n g i b l e a reas fo r s p e c u l a t i o n i s Shi Z h a i z h i . A l s o a n a t i v e of S im ing , and son of the n o t o r i o u s c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r Shi Miyuan j% ^ ( 1 1 6 4 - 1 2 3 3 ) , 3 5 Shi Z h a i z h i began h i s o f f i c i a l c a r e e r wi th the emperor ' s bestowal of a j i n s h i degree in 1 233 . 3 6 Shi had two terms of o f f i c e in Suzhou; succeed ing Wu Qian in 1238, he l e f t f o r the c a p i t a l in 1239 when Zhao Yuchou assumed the post and r e tu rned in 1241 fo r a second term, which l a s t e d t i l l the beg inn ing of 1243. Dur ing h i s f i r s t term as A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Suzhou, Sh i renovated the h i s t o r i c a l p u b l i c b u i l d i n g Qiyun T o w e r . 3 7 There i s a poem by Wu Wenying w i th t h i s b u i l d i n g as sub jec t (QSC 2884/2) . Both the poem and Wu's acqua in tance wi th Shi are thought to date from about t h i s t i m e . 3 8 As ment ioned e a r l i e r , among the c i r c l e of people to whom Wu addressed poems, Shi Z h a i z h i and Y in Huan top the l i s t in r e c e i v i n g the l a r g e s t number. Though Shi was a few years Wu's j u n i o r , the d e f e r e n t i a l te rms, x iansheng J i _ and weng =p?) , with which he i s i n v a r i a b l y addressed by Wu suggest more than might be warranted s imply by the f o r m e r ' s s e n i o r i t y in rank. Fu r the rmore , a l l the poems in q u e s t i o n were e i t h e r c o n g r a t u l a t o r y or w r i t t e n at banquet ga the r ings-on j u s t those 1 2 o c cas i ons when an e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t a l e n t was c a l l e d f o r . The above f a c t o r s would tend to support the p o s s i b i l i t y of a pa t ron-a r t i s t r e l a t i o n s h i p . Of the s i x poems whose p l a ce of compos i t i on can be de te rm ined , one was w r i t t e n at a banquet on a boat in Suzhou (QSC 2801/1) , three were c o n g r a t u l a t o r y l y r i c s w r i t t e n in Hangzhou (QSC 2875/5, 2919/5, 2935/4) , another was from a n igh t banquet h e l d at S h i ' s garden r e s i d e n c e , p robab l y l o c a t e d in h i s na t i v e d i s t r i c t S iming (QSC 2914/1) , and the l a s t one was composed d u r i n g an e x c u r s i o n to view snow at F e i y i Tower in Shaoxing (QSC 2916/1) . Of the remain ing f i v e poems, th ree were w r i t t e n at S h i ' s r e s i d e n c e , though at which one of h i s r e s i d e n c e s i s not c l e a r . Look ing at these v a r y i n g l o c a l e s where Wu had composed poems fo r S h i , i t i s f a i r l y sa fe to say tha t Wu had formed pa r t of S h i ' s entourage at t imes . C o n s i d e r i n g Shi Z h a i z h i ' s pu rpo r t ed i n t e r e s t in p o e t r y , 3 9 i t seems l i k e l y that he may have i n v i t e d Wu Wenying to ac t as a k ind of p o e t - i n -res idence p e r i o d i c a l l y d u r i n g the p e r i o d from 1241 when he assumed h i s second term of o f f i c e in Suzhou u n t i l h i s death in Hangzhou in 1249. When Wu's movements between Suzhou and Hangzhou became d i s c e r n i b l e in 1243 and 1244, l e a d i n g to h i s even tua l move from Suzhou in 1244, t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to Shi Z h a i z h i ' s depa r tu re from Suzhou in 1243 may be seen to be more than mere ly c o i n c i d e n t a l . The two yea rs 1243 and 1244 brought sudden changes and u n c e r t a i n t i e s . Concern ing Wu's l i f e in Suzhou at t h i s t ime , we no longer know whether he was s t i l l employed at the G r a i n T r anspo r t O f f i c e . The l i k e l i h o o d i s that he was n o t . The 1 3 p o s s i b i l i t y looms l a r g e tha t he had a l r e a d y changed h i s mode of l i f e to tha t of a guest poet dependent on the patronage of wealthy n o t a b l e s . Shi Z h a i z h i , as we have seen , may have been an important pat ron whose depar tu re from Suzhou in 1243 c o u l d have s i g n a l l e d a s e r i o u s l o s s . Owing to the independent p r e s e r v a t i o n of a group of s i x t e e n poems, toge the r wi th s e v e r a l o the rs dated to these two y e a r s , we are ab l e to d i s c e r n a vague o u t l i n e of Wu's movements and p o s i t some of h i s concerns at t h i s t ime . The Ming work Tiewang shanhu c o n t a i n s a manuscr ip t of s i x t e e n poems by Wu Wenying t i t l e d " D r a f t of New c_i Poems," and s igned "From Wenying w i th one hundred obe i sances in f ea r and a n x i e t y . " 4 0 O r i g i n a l l y in Wu's own h a n d w r i t i n g , the manuscr ip t was i n c l u d e d in the s e c t i o n Shupm -g •aa as a c a l l i g r a p h i c spec imen. Though i t i s imposs ib l e now to t r a c e the t r a n s m i s s i o n of t h i s d r a f t from i t s provenance to i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n in the Tiewang shanhu, the l a t e Qing s c h o l a r Zheng Wenzhuo 1=|f X, (1856-1918) has argued from c i r c u m s t a n t i a l and t e x t u a l ev idence that these s i x t e e n poems were a l l composed i n the course of the year guimao, tha t i s between January 1243 and February 1244 in the Western c a l e n d a r . a 1 An examinat ion of the poems y i e l d s no s p e c i a l o rder of arrangement , except fo r the placement of the f i r s t p i e c e which was addressed to Fang Wanl i (j i n s h i 1211), the r e c i p i e n t of the manuscr ip t who h e l d the o f f i c e of R e g i s t r a r at one of the Imper ia l Cou r t s ;+ "M i n Hangzhou at the t i m e . " 2 To the tune Ruihe x i a n , the poem i s s u b t i t l e d "For c e l e b r a t i n g your 1 4 vene rab le b i r t h d a y in the year g u i m a o . " 4 3 The poem begins wi th the l i n e s : Wu Wenying was send ing t h i s b i r t h d a y poem a long wi th a sma l l c o l l e c t i o n of h i s recent compos i t i ons to the o f f i c i a l Fang W a n l i . Not on ly i s the d e f e r e n t i a l p h r a s i n g of the s i gna tu r e r e v e a l i n g of Wu's humble s t a t u s in r e l a t i o n to the add ressee , but he a l s o s igned the manuscr ip t w i th h i s p e r s o n a l name, which i s used when an i n f e r i o r person i s a d d r e s s i n g a h igh personage ; these s i gns leave l i t t l e doubt r e g a r d i n g t h i s manuscr ip t as an ins t rument of p a t r o n a g e - s e e k i n g . ' " In modern p a r l a n c e , Wu was a t t empt ing to 'market h i s t a l e n t ' by p r e s e n t i n g a manuscr ip t of poems to an o f f i c i a l in the c a p i t a l on a s u i t a b l e o c c a s i o n . The number of poems i n c l u d e d ( s i x t een ) would a l s o c o n s t i t u t e an a p p r o p r i a t e l y s i z e d s c r o l l f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n . The t a rge t may have been Fang Wanl i p e r s o n n a l l y , or more b r o a d l y , the o f f i c i a l c o t e r i e by v i r t u e of c o n n e c t i o n s . Of i n t e r e s t i s the f a c t tha t th ree poems in t h i s group are w r i t t e n to tunes tha t Wu h imse l f had composed t h i s y e a r , i n d i c a t i n g a marked p e r i o d of c r e a t i v i t y . 4 5 The term "new l y r i c s " i$\ h*\ in the t i t l e of the d r a f t and a l s o in the tex t of two poems then takes on a double meaning, deno t ing not s imply newly w r i t t e n poems but a l s o L i k e a p u l l e y t u r n i n g , autumn comes a g a i n . I remember s w i f t l y j o t t i n g down new l y r i c s , E n t r u s t i n g them to the w i l d geese by the r i v e r . (QSC 2876/1) 1 5 i n c o r p o r a t i n g the idea of newly composed t u n e s . 4 6 A degree of unrest in Wu's l i f e can be d i s c e r n e d from the p r e f a c t o r y con ten t s of some of these poems. They show, fo r example, tha t Wu made at l e a s t th ree t r i p s to Hangzhou t h i s y e a r : once i n s p r i n g , once in autumn, and then aga in i n w inter when he s tayed through the lunar New Y e a r . 4 7 H i s e l d e r b ro the r Weng Feng long had a l s o been in Hangzhou t h i s w i n t e r . 4 8 Was Wu Wenying approach ing some pe r sona l or f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s and seek ing h i s b r o t h e r ' s he lp as we l l ? There i s no way of t e l l i n g . D e f i n i t e answers cannot be p r o v i d e d fo r many q u e s t i o n s conce rn i ng conc re t e d e t a i l s in Wu's l i f e ; an e v o l u t i o n a r y movement, as i t were, i s a l l tha t can be mapped o u t . One t h i n g d e f i n i t e that can be repeated at t h i s p o i n t about Wu Wenying i s h i s obv ious l ack of p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t in contemporary p o l i t i c s and government, ev idenced by a near absence of poems e x p r e s s i n g such c o n c e r n s . T h i s t r a i t i s of course a l o g i c a l ex tens ion of tha t temperament which e a r l i e r eschewed the p u r s u i t of a c a ree r among the o f f i c i a l e l i t e , and which the d i v e r s e and more p e r m i s s i v e s o c i e t y of the Southern Song c o u l d comfo r t ab l y accommodate. X i a Chengtao observes t h a t , in the beg inn ing years of the 1240s, wh i le the Mongols were beg inn ing to p ress southward a c ros s the border i n t o Song t e r r i t o r i e s , Wu was s i n g i n g about a l i f e that was comp le t e l y d i v o r c e d from p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s . 4 9 A poem w r i t t e n on the f i f t t e e n t h of the f i r s t month in 1243 c o n t a i n s these l i n e s : I s t i l l remember when I f i r s t came to Wu Park , 16 No f r o s t t hen , now i t has f lown To s t a r t l e the h a i r at my t emp les . S p o r t i n g I have passed my t ime here Where the scenery i s i n f i n i t e With b r i g h t songs and p r e t t y dances . Now s t a l e marks on the t r a v e l e r ' s robe , An o l d face in the ornate m i r r o r , A l l my happ iness i s ended. Under the f a d i n g lamp my dream i s b r i e f , The morning horn p l ays "Plum B lossom"-For whom does i t chant i t s lament? (QSC 2880/4) These l i n e s t y p i c a l l y bespeak Wu's a e s t h e t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d l i f e of wine and song, h i s n o s t a l g i a fo r you th , and the absence of r e f e r e n c e to the Southern Song 's p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s . However, i t may do we l l to remember that the exp re s s i on of d i d a c t i c i s m and r e a l i s m i s not t y p i c a l of the c_i genre , and in the case of Wu Wenying, tha t he was a f t e r a l l shaped by h i s r o l e as a l i t e r a r y dependent , r a the r than as a concerned government o f f i c i a l . I l l . EMERGENCE OF VANISHED LOVE A f t e r a w i n t e r , and perhaps s p r i n g as w e l l , in Hangzhou, we f i n d Wu Wenying t e m p o r a r i l y l o d g i n g in the area o u t s i d e Suzhou 's Pan Gate in the e a r l y summer of 1244, as i s s t a t e d in h i s p r e f a ce to Manj iang hong (QSC 2877/1) , w r i t t e n on the o c ca s i on of the Double F i f t h F e s t i v a l . The poem r e vea l s a d i s s o l v e d 17 r e l a t i o n s h i p . X i a Chengtao has observed that a l l four poems dated to t h i s year c o n t a i n r e f e r e n c e s to the same t r a g i c e v e n t . 5 0 The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s event cannot be undermined by v i r t u e of i t s p ro found i n f l u e n c e on the themat ic development of Wu Weny ing 's p o e t r y ; n ea r l y one q u a r t e r of the t o t a l corpus of h i s poe t r y i s devoted to v a r i o u s e x p l o r a t i o n s on the theme of l o s t l o v e . 5 1 What i s known of the a c t u a l c i r cums tances su r round ing the r e l a t i o n s h i p remains vague and shadowy, n e v e r t h e l e s s , a few d e t a i l s can be g leaned from some poems. Dur ing h i s e a r l y years in Suzhou, Wu took on a concubine wi th whom he d o m i c i l e d fo r rough ly a decade, and by whom he had more than one c h i l d . 5 2 In the s p r i n g of 1244 they separa ted fo r reasons unknown. I t seems tha t the concubine was d i s m i s s e d , but at the same t ime , a f e e l i n g of h e l p l e s s n e s s can be sensed in the s i t u a t i o n , and her depa r tu re l e f t a deep wound in Wu's hear t from which many poems of sorrow f lowed . As specu l a t ed above, Wu's l i v e l i h o o d may have been p a r t i c u l a r l y i n secu re at t h i s t ime , and the concub ine was sent away out of some unavo idab le n e c e s s i t y . Toward the end of the y e a r , even t h e i r c h i l d r e n were l e f t at a temple in Gua j ing ' , a l i t t l e south of Suzhou, whi le Wu went to Z h e j i a n g . 5 3 X i a Chengtao suggests that Wu's concubine subsequent l y became a p r o s t i t u t e in Hangzhou. A poem he quotes by Muoqi Shaozhi /5* \^ ^ does l end support to t h i s v i e w . 5 " To the tune J i a n q s h e n z i and s u b t i t l e d " P resen ted to a s i n g i n g g i r l and sent to Mengchuang," the poem i s thought by X i a to have been w r i t t e n fo r Wu's Suzhou c o n c u b i n e . 5 5 It i s set in her v o i c e and 18 sums up her p l i g h t : 1 Ten years-my h e a r t ' s concern r i s e s to my brows, S t a r t l e d that a dream has f aded , By the c o l d l a t t i c e d window. L i k e c l oud and c a t k i n I f o l l ow the wind, 5 For thousands of m i l e s c r o s s i n g mountains and p a s s e s . Nowhere can I f i n d The soulmate who knew my l u t e ' s sound. Pa le my powdered f a c e , Loose the go ld b r a c e l e t . 10 H i s poem s c r o l l s in the jade caske t I am l o a t h to r e a d . Remembering our former j o y , I shed sec r e t t e a r s . I am a l r e ady c r o s s i n g over 15 To Chang'an in a f l y i n g s k i f f . P l ease say fo r me tha t I am ravaged by g r i e f , And seek from him A brocade m i s s i v e in r e t u r n . (QSC 2948/4) From the content of the poem, i t seems that Muoqi Shaozhi had encountered the woman who was Wu's concubine on her journey to Hangzhou a f t e r t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n . She spoke g r i e v o u s l y of the broken a f f a i r and her p resen t f a t e , and reques ted Muoqi to be 19 the messenger of her a f f l i c t i o n . The on l y p robab le s e q u e l , however, was a chance encounter between Wu and h i s former concubine a year or two l a t e r at West Lake in Hangzhou; the s e p a r a t i o n was to be p e r m a n e n t . 5 6 At t h i s p o i n t , a t t e n t i o n shou ld be drawn to another e q u a l l y a f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p in Wu's l i f e , of which a b r i e f mention was made in the s e c t i o n on h i s e a r l y l i f e . In past s t u d i e s , the e x i s t e n c e of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s unanimously acknowledged, but conc re t e d e t a i l s conce rn i ng i t are a lmost e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g and i t s ch rono logy has never been e s t a b l i s h e d . X i a Chengtao, a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e examinat ion of Wu's poems fo r c l u e s , was ab le to determine tha t Wu' Wenying met t h i s concub ine i n Hangzhou, tha t she d i e d sometime a f t e r he l e f t , and tha t he d i s c o v e r e d her death when he r e tu rned to Hangzhou some yea rs l a t e r . 5 7 The poem Y i n g t i xu (QSC 2907/4) frames the Hangzhou love a f f a i r in a c l e a r n a r r a t i v e sequence. S ince the poem i t s e l f i s not da t ed , i t i s not p o s s i b l e to f i t the b i o g r a p h i c a l e lements i t c o n t a i n s - t h e mee t ing , love a f f a i r , p a r t i n g , her dea th , and h i s r e tu rn- in to . any t ime s l o t in Wu's l i f e . In the absence of any dated poems on the s u b j e c t , I can on l y hazard the guess , based on the y o u t h f u l f e e l i n g of t h i s romance and the ev idence tha t Wu had spent t ime in Hangzhou as a young man, tha t t h i s a f f a i r took p l a ce be fo re he took up r e s i dence in Suzhou as a c l e r i c at the G ra i n T ranspo r t o f f i c e . The i n f o r m a t i o n apropos of these two r e l a t i o n s h i p s , however meagre, f u r n i s h e s a mean ingfu l con tex t in which to unders tand the source f o r an important body of Wu Wenying 's p o e t r y . 20 IV. LATE YEARS: INTEGRITY VERSUS IMPROBITY OR A MAN WITHOUT PRINCIPLES Ev idence fo r Wu's l a s t so journ in Suzhou i s p r o v i d e d by a poem he wrote in the autumn of 1245 (QSC 2921/4) c e l e b r a t i n g the b i r t h d a y of Wei Jun , who was then A d m i n i s t r a t o r of S u z h o u . 5 8 For the next few y e a r s , he seemed to have s tayed main ly in and around Hangzhou. There are poems from 1246 and 1247 i n d i c a t i n g h i s presence in the a r e a . 5 9 He c o n t i n u e d much in the s t y l e of l i f e he had e s t a b l i s h e d in Suzhou, p l a y i n g the poet l a u r e a t e fo r the o f f i c i a l d o m at t h e i r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s . Compared w i th the l a r g e number of lower grade o f f i c i a l s and c l e r i c s , and p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s of weal th that made up the compos i t i on of h i s c i r c l e of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n in h i s e a r l y years in Suzhou, h i s a s s o c i a t i o n s in t h i s p e r i o d be long more to the e s t a b l i s h e d h igh rank ing bu reauc racy . In p r e f a c e s to poems, we now f i n d names such as Wei Jun , whose wi fe was no l e s s than Emperor L i z o n g ' s s i s t e r , and who was r e c a l l e d to the c a p i t a l from Suzhou in the s p r i n g of 1246 fo r the promot ion to Execu t i v e of the M i n i s t r y of J u s t i c e fVj %f i'f ; 6 0 L i Boyu ^-"ifa £. , the r i g h t e o u s P r o f e s s o r of the N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y ^ ^ i whose fame rose wi th h i s memorial in defense of two censors a g a i n s t the a c c u s a t i o n s of the power-monopol iz ing c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r Shi Songzhi J 6 1 an <3 a n old f r i e n d and p a t r o n , Y in Huan, whose promot ion in 1247 from the G ra i n T ranspo r t in the suburbs of the c a p i t a l to that of L e f t D i v i s i o n Ch i e f in the c e n t r a l government in Hangzhou was c e l e b r a t e d by Wu in two poems (QSC 2889/1, 2902/2) . 21 At the same t ime , s c a t t e r e d through Wu's c o l l e c t i o n of poe t ry are a number of poems addressed to c o u r t e s a n s , Buddhis t and T a o i s t nuns, a pa l ace r i t u a l a t t e n d a n t , a brush-maker, and the book-dea ler Chen Qi fJfLit^ , 6 2 showing h i s con tac t w i th a spectrum of people who, l i k e h i m s e l f , are on the p e r i p h e r y of the e l i t e s t a t u s and yet dependent on t h i s h igh s o c i e t y fo r patronage and s u p p o r t . 6 3 The e x i s t e n c e of these poems p o i n t to the complex s o c i a l f a b r i c of urban c en t r e s such as Hangzhou of which Wu formed a p a r t . Dur ing the w inter of 1249, Wu Wenying appears to have j o i n e d Wu Q i a n ' s s t a f f in Shaox ing . Sources i n d i c a t e tha t Wu Qian had h e l d the o f f i c e s of A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Shaoxing ^P-% and P a c i f i c a t o r of Zhedong ;#[ > v^ ^ from the e i g h t h month of 1249 u n t i l the beg inn ing of 1 2 5 0 . 6 " The poem J i angdu chun c o i n c i d e s wi th the c i r c u m s t a n c e s ; i t s p r e f a ce s t a t e s , " I n s c r i b e d on the l a n t e r n sc reen at Peng la i P a v i l i o n -Liiweng (Wu Qian) i s commanding Yue" (QSC 2911/3) . Shaoxing p r e f e c t u r e , r e f e r r e d to as Yue, was where Peng la i P a v i l i o n was l o c a t e d . 6 5 Wu Qian we have met many years ago, in 1217, when he and Weng Fenglong both became j i n s h i . The s o c i a l i t y between Wu Qian and Wu Wenying goes back at l e a s t to 1237 and 1238, when he was A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Suzhou. It was a l s o du r i ng these yea rs a f t e r he l e f t Suzhou that Wu Wenying made the acqua in tance of J i a S idao i p M 1 ^ - ( 1 2 1 3 -1275), the "bad l a s t m i n i s t e r " who became the i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e a rch v i l l a i n in Southern Song h i s t o r y . 6 ? Because of the an imos i t y which l a t e r arose between Wu Qian and J i a S i dao , and 22 of Wu Q i a n ' s subsequent demot ion , banishment , and supposed murder by the f o u l mach ina t ions of J i a S i dao , much ink has been s p i l l e d over the e x i s t e n c e of e i gh t poems in Wu Wenying 's c o l l e c t i o n , four each addressed to Wu Qian and J i a S i d a o , and the p o s s i b l e moral i m p l i c a t i o n s of Wu Wenying 's involvement w i th the two p o l i t i c a l a n t a g o n i s t s . 6 7 The o r i g i n of t h i s concern stems from the c r i t i c a l judgment passed on Wu Wenying the man by the e d i t o r s of the S i ku quanshu © J^l "j£L^|| in the e i gh t een th cen tu ry when they remarked tha t " . . . t h e r e are s e v e r a l p i e c e s c e l e b r a t i n g the b i r t h d a y of J i a S i dao . T h i s shows tha t he (Wu Wenying) p robab l y l o s t h i s p r i n c i p l e s l a t e in l i f e , l i k e Zhu sa l vage or condemn Wu Weny ing 's moral c h a r a c t e r or l a ck of i t have h inged on the d a t i n g of one p a r t i c u l a r poem to J i a S idao (QSC 2909/3) , on whether or not i t was w r i t t e n p r i o r to the f i n a l enmity between the two men which l e d to Wu Q i a n ' s e x i l e i n 1260. In her d e f i n i t i v e study of t h i s aspec t of Wu Wenying 's l i f e , Yeh Ch i a-y i ng has proven beyond doubt tha t t h i s poem was w r i t t e n p r e c i s e l y at the t ime when Wu Qian was be ing demoted from the rank of L e f t Grand C o u n c i l l o r 7^ 7%' and ban i shed , wh i l e J i a S i d a o , in h i s p o s i t i o n as R ight Grand C o u n c i l l o r , was be ing r e c a l l e d to cour t in the summer of 1 2 6 0 . 6 9 The case in p o i n t i s not s imply tha t Wu Wenying had compromised h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p wi th Wu Qian s p e c i f i c a l l y , as has o f t e n been the emphasis in the p a s t , but tha t more fundamenta l l y Wu Wenying, as h i s l i f e s t y l e and a c t i o n s demonst ra te , d i d not f o l l o w a r a t i o n a l code of Con fuc i an p r i n c i p l e s and i d e a l s . Dunru Subsequent a t tempts to 23 Fu r the rmore , in examining the " f r i e n d s h i p " between Wu Wenying and Wu Qian which dates back to Wu Wenying 's Suzhou days , i t i s not at a l l c l e a r what the r e a l nature of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p was. From the poems they exchanged, i t can be seen tha t Wu Wenying accompanied Wu Qian on a number of s o c i a l o c c a s i o n s , such as o u t i n g s and banquets , and the re i s a sugges t i on of a degree of s e r i o u s r e f l e c t i o n and communicat ion between them, as tha t conveyed in the poem J i n l u ge , s u b t i t l e d "V iewing plum blossoms at Canglang Garden in the company of Mr. L i i z h a i . " (QSC 2939/5) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the extant poems they exchanged a re too few-seven in t o t a l - t o p rov ide a f i r m b a s i s f o r s p e c u l a t i o n , much l e s s a c o n c l u s i v e statement on t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . 7 0 Tak ing i n t o account the p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s of a p l a u s i b l e i n i t i a l connec t i on through Weng Fenglong and the l eng th of t ime they have known each o t h e r , i t i s s t i l l not c e r t a i n t h a t , as f a r as Wu Qian was conce rned , Wu Wenying was ever more tha t a l i t e r a r y g u e s t - f r i e n d whose t a l e n t e d and s e n s i t i v e presence p rov ided o c c a s i o n a l d e s i r a b l e company and d i v e r s i o n from the r o u t i n e of o f f i c i a l d u t i e s . In o ther words, there was no th ing r e a l l y i n d i s p e n s i b l e about Wu Wenying; he p l ayed a r o l e which c o u l d be adequate l y r e p l a c e d by any number of peop le in h i s c l a s s . Wu Wenying 's younger b ro the r Weng Yuan long , f o r example, a l s o en joyed some form of patronage from Wu Qian d u r i n g the l a t t e r ' s S iming) from 1255 to 1 2 5 8 . 7 1 In n e i t h e r case was the re any s i gn of mutual commitment. O f f i c i a l s w i th t h e i r f requent t r a n s f e r s from one p o s t i n g to another d i d not as a r u l e take a long t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s h i p of Qingyuan p r e f e c t u r e ( i . e 24 l i t e r a r y en tou rage . The gene ra l p r a c t i c e seems to have been fo r d r i f t i n g s c h o l a r - a r t i s t s to seek out a r i s t o c r a t s and h igh o f f i c i a l s as shor t- te rm p a t r o n s , e a rn ing cash and other rewards fo r a l i v i n g from t h e i r v i s i t s to these househo lds . The l a t e Song and e a r l y Yuan w r i t e r Fang Hui J] ^ (1227-1307) g i ves a v i v i d account of the s i t u a t i o n in Wu Wenying 's l i f e t i m e : A f t e r the Qingyuan and J i a d i n g r e i g n s (1195-1201, 1210-1225), the re began to appear poets a c t i n g as v i s i t i n g gues ts (of prominent o f f i c i a l s ) . People l i k e L i u Guo of Longzhou were many, and Stone Screen (Dai Fugu) was one of them. These peop le f o l l owed one another to form a f a sh i on to the extent that they would not s tudy fo r the c i v i l s e r v i c e examina t i on . They sought the l e t t e r s of one or two people i n important p o s i t i o n s as a r e f e r e n c e , which they c a l l e d the ' b road t a b l e t , ' to be supplemented wi th t h e i r own poems, and o f t e n in one v i s i t ob t a ined s e v e r a l thousand, or even ten thousand c a s h . For i n s t a n c e , Song Q i a n f u of Hushan, in one v i s i t p a i d to J i a S i dao , ob ta ined 200,000 c a s h , which he used to b u i l d a l u x u r i o u s house . The l akes and h i l l s of Q iantang ( i . e . , Hangzhou) were f u l l of such people forming groups of tens and h u n d r e d s . 7 2 The nature of the a s s o c i a t i o n between Wu Wenying and J i a S idao i s even more tenuous and comp le t e l y l a c k i n g in conc re t e d e t a i l s . The on l y ev idence to go on are four poems addressed to J i a by Wu Wenying, two w r i t t e n on the o c ca s i on of J i a ' s b i r t h d a y and two d e s c r i b i n g J i a ' s r e s i dences in Hangzhou. Were these poems aimed at g a i n i n g some favour from J i a , immediate or otherwise? J i a was known to have been a n o t o r i o u s megalomaniac who r e l i s h e d c_i poems c e l e b r a t i n g h i s b i r t h d a y to the extent that he conducted poe t r y c o m p e t i t i o n s on these y e a r l y o c c a s i o n s . Winners were l a v i s h l y r e w a r d e d . 7 3 It i s q u i t e c o n c e i v a b l e tha t Wu would have p a r t i c i p a t e d , i f not in the a c t u a l c o m p e t i t i o n s , 25 then in p r e s e n t i n g l y r i c s as a means to ob ta in m a t e r i a l reward and pa t ronage , or an i n f l u e n t i a l i n t r o d u c t i o n or recommendation from J i a to o ther p r o s p e c t i v e p a t r o n s . The c i r cumstances of the l a s t years of Wu Wenying 's l i f e c o u l d suggest j u s t such an i n t e rmed i a r y f u n c t i o n tha t J i a S idao may have f u l f i l l e d . Wu Q i a n ' s f a l l and J i a S i d a o ' s s imul taneous r i s e to the monopoly of power were t i e d to the q u e s t i o n of s u c c e s s i o n to the h e i r l e s s L i z o n g . When L i zong sought Wu Q i a n ' s adv i c e conce rn ing h i s i n t e n t i o n to des igna te h i s b ro the r P r i n ce S i r o n g ' s fflvj ^ $ _ son (the f u tu r e Duzong) h e i r appa ren t , Wu Qian not on ly r e f r a i n e d from g i v i n g any a d v i c e , but d i d so in such a b lun t manner as to imply L i z o n g ' s own q u e s t i o n a b l e s u c c e s s i o n to the throne so that he i n c u r r e d the emperor ' s g rea t d i s p l e a s u r e . J i a S i dao , on l e a r n i n g of the i n c i d e n t , a c t ed o p p o r t u n i s t i c a l l y by m e m o r i a l i z i n g fo r the naming of the h e i r appa ren t , thereby g a i n i n g L i z o n g ' s c o n f i d e n c e . 7 " In the f o u r t h month of 1260, wh i le J i a S idao was be ing summoned to the c a p i t a l , Wu Qian was s t r i p p e d of h i s o f f i c e as c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r and demoted. Once back in c o u r t , J i a s w i f t l y man ipu la ted Wu Q i a n ' s e x i l e to J i anchang Commandery Q ! ^ in J i a n g x i in the seventh month of 1260. Meanwhi le , the h e i r apparent had en te red the Eas t e rn Pa lace and J i a S idao had been g i ven the a d d i t i o n a l t i t l e of Lesse r P recep to r of the He i r Apparent Tv-}- %^ . In the t en th month, Wu Qian was f u r t h e r e x i l e d to Chaozhou in the f a r s o u t h . Where was Wu Wenying around t h i s t ime? From a l l appearances , he was g r a v i t a t i n g towards J i a S idao and h i s 26 c i r c l e . In the autumn of 1259, Wu wrote a f a r e w e l l poem (QSC 2906/1) to Weng Mengyin =^ 3L ^ w a s o n ^ i s way to J i a S i d a o ' s r e t i n u e in Hube i . Be long ing to the c l a s s of " v i s i t i n g p o e t s " which Fang Hui d e s c r i b e d , Weng Mengyin was no s t ranger to J i a S i d a o ' s company and ext ravagant g e n e r o s i t y . Zhou Mi t e l l s of how we l l Weng Mengyin was r e c e i v e d by J i a S idao in Yangzhou when the l a t t e r was a d m i n i s t r a t o r there in 1250. J i a was r e p o r t e d l y so p l eased wi th Weng's p a r t i n g poem tha t he showered Weng with " t ens of thousands" of p r e c i o u s d r i n k i n g v e s s e l s used at the b a n q u e t . 7 5 Now in 1259, wh i le J i a was in Hubei as S p e c i a l Great Commissioner fo r J i nghube i c i r c u i t s TV) %fy if) it'S^T^f^, Weng Mengyin was perhaps j ou rney i ng there to seek h i s fo r tune aga in from J i a . Wu Wenying took the o p p o r t u n i t y to e u l o g i z e J i a S idao in the poem to Weng by l i k e n i n g him to the t a l e n t e d Han o f f i c i a l J i a Y i j=i J^fL , p l a y i n g on the same surname. Wu wrote the poem J i n z h a n z i (QSC 2909/3) in the summer of 1260, s i n g i n g about J i a S i d a o ' s sumptuous l i f e s t y l e and r e s i d e n c e by West Lake , s h o r t l y a f t e r J i a ' s t r iumphant r e c a l l t o Hangzhou and d u r i n g the months when m i s f o r t u n e s b e f e l l Wu Q i a n . By the e i g h t h month, Wu Wenying seems to have been s e c u r e l y ensconced as r e s i d e n t poet at the r o y a l e s t a t e in Shaoxing of the h e i r a p p a r e n t ' s n a t u r a l p a r e n t s , P r i n ce S i r ong and h i s w i f e . One can on l y take a guess at the connec t i ons through which he managed to enter i n t o the p r o t e c t i o n of t h i s a r i s t o c r a t i c h o u s e h o l d . There are a l t o g e t h e r e i g h t poems in Wu Weny ing 's c o l l e c t i o n to P r i n ce S i r ong and h i s w i f e . In view of the unmis takab le a l l u s i o n s to the crown p r i n c e , f i v e of these poems are dated to 27 a f t e r the s i x t h month of 1260, tha t i s , a f t e r P r i n ce S i r o n g ' s son had been des i gna t ed h e i r a p p a r e n t . 7 6 That Wu Wenying p robab ly en joyed at t h i s time the most secure and extended patronage in h i s l i f e i s i n d i c a t e d by h i s r e f e r e n c e s to P r i n ce S i rong in these poems by a l l u d i n g to L i ang Xiaowang ^ jfc- of the Han, who was famous fo r be ing a pa t ron to many s c h o l a r s , and a l s o by the four b i r t h d a y poems to P r i n ce S i r ong and h i s w i f e , which can s a f e l y be assumed to have been composed on more than one b i r t h d a y . Wu Wenying d i e d in the e a r l y 1 2 6 0 ' s . 7 7 H i s l a s t y e a r s , p robab ly u n t i l h i s dea th , were spent at the r o y a l r e s i dence of P r i n ce S i r o n g . In r e t r o s p e c t , i t can be seen tha t Wu Wenying had l i v e d fo r the g rea te r pa r t of h i s l i f e as a " gues t-poe t " suppor ted by the patronage of o f f i c i a l s and . a r i s t o c r a t s . The c l a s s of c a r ee r poets was a growing phenomenon in the second h a l f of the Southern Song, and, to a l l appearances , was w e l l accep ted by contemporary uppe r- c l a s s s o c i e t y . Some well-known f i g u r e s of the Lakes and R i v e r s Schoo l l i v e d t h i s mode of l i f e . Among ci_ p o e t s , the most e x a l t e d " g u e s t " i s undoubtedly J i ang Kui ^ - 1 ^ ( c . 1155-c .1221 ) , whose c e l e b r a t e d l i t e r a r y a s s o c i a t i o n w i th h i s one-time p a t r o n , the poet-statesman Fan Chengda (1120-93), was a lmost a legend in i t s own t i m e . 7 8 The na ture and extent of these a r t i s t - p a t r o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s v a r i e d w i d e l y : there are ones between f e l l ow p l e a s u r e - s e e k e r s at p a r t i e s , ones between bureauc ra t and s e c r e t a r y- cum-1 i t e r a r y a d v i s o r , and in some c a s e s , between c l o s e f r i e n d s and long-term companions. I r o n i c a l l y , of a l l p a t r o n s , 28 J i a S idao can c l a i m p r i d e fo r hav ing had a ra re f r i e n d in a l i t e r a r y r e t a i n e r who remained f a i t h f u l to him even a f t e r he f e l l from power, and who e v e n t u a l l y chose s u i c i d e r a the r than h u m i l i a t i o n fo r h i s a s s o c i a t i o n wi th J i a . 7 9 But the q u e s t i o n of l o y a l t y i s c i r c u m s t a n t i a l and seldom a r i s e s out of c o n t e x t . Appa ren t l y Wu Wenying d i d not f e e l tha t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i th Wu Qian warranted abso lu t e l o y a l t y . The re fo r e we f i n d an extant poem addressed to J i a S idao w r i t t e n a f t e r Wu Qian had been demoted and sent i n t o e x i l e . There i s no i n d i c a t i o n that Wu Wenying was c r i t i c i z e d fo r t h i s by h i s con t empora r i e s . Zhou M i , who reco rded c o u n t l e s s g o s s i p s and o p i n i o n s c u r r e n t in the l a t e Song, c e r t a i n l y made no mention of i t and on ly thought the best of Wu Wenying as a c_i poe t . T h i s breach of i n t e g r i t y was f i r s t commented on by the e d i t o r s in the S i ku quanshu zonqmu  t i y a o , which was w r i t t e n in a p e r i o d when the i s sue of l o y a l t y was a s e n s i t i v e o n e . 8 0 S t i l l no l i t e r a r y c r i t i c du r i ng the Qing p a i d any heed to t h i s moral b l emish in Wu Wenying 's l i f e . Only wi th the growing repute of Wu Wenying 's c_i in the l a t e Qing d i d t h i s b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l make i t s appearance in p r e f a c e s w r i t t e n to s e v e r a l e d i t i o n s of h i s cji p r i n t e d in the p e r i o d . 8 1 Al though Wu Wenying 's u n c e r t a i n a f f i l i a t i o n w i th both J i a S idao and Wu Qian may be a po in t of b i o g r a p h i c a l i n t e r e s t , in i t s e l f , i t does not bear re l evance to the study of h i s p o e t r y . It i s r a the r the l i f e s t y l e he adopted as poet in the l a t e Song p e r i o d which i s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h i s mode of l i f e i s o f t e n r e f l e c t e d i n the sub jec t and occas ion of h i s c o m p o s i t i o n . As a p e r i o d phenomenon, i t f o s t e r e d p a r t i c u l a r concerns in the 29 w r i t i n g of c _ i . Wu Wenying 's c_i s tands in the f o r e of developments i n Southern Song c_i poe t r y which m i r r o r the a e s t h e t i c t endenc i es in the l a t e Song Z e i t g e i s t . These are areas which w i l l be exp lo r ed in the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s . 30 In w r i t i n g a b iography of Wu Wenying, the l a ck of o f f i c i a l documentat ion on h i s l i f e n e c e s s i t a t e s the r e l i a n c e on v a r i o u s contemporary 13th cen tu ry sources-such a s , the works of o ther poe ts and s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s , i n fo rma l essay-type r e c o r d s of people and e ven t s , a n t h o l o g i e s of c_i p o e t r y , and l o c a l g a z e t t e e r s - f o r f u r n i s h i n g i n f o rma t i on s i g n i f i c a n t in shedding l i g h t on both the l i f e and p e r s o n a l i t y of the p r i n c i p a l and on the s o c i e t y in which he was a c t i v e . Da ta , e i t h e r in the o f f i c i a l h i s t o r y or in i n fo rma l w r i t i n g s , on the peop le he a s s o c i a t e d w i th have proved h e l p f u l in r e c o n s t r u c t i n g c e r t a i n p e r i o d s in h i s l i f e . But Wu Wenying 's own p r e f a c e s ( s u b t i t l e s ) to h i s poems, in the gene ra l absence of m a t e r i a l , a re no l e s s important as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n , f o r they o f t e n c o n t a i n c i r c u m s t a n t i a l f a c t o r s -da t e , p l a c e , and oc cas i on of c o m p o s i t i o n , and the person to . whom the poem i s add re s sed . In f a c t , they p rov i de the s t a r t i n g p o i n t of any sea rch fo r h i s obscure l i f e . T h i s b i o g r a p h i c a l ske tch f o l l ows b a s i c a l l y the ch rono logy e s t a b l i s h e d by X i a Chengtao in "Wu Mengchuang x i n i a n , " in Tang Song c i r e n n ianpu (Shangha i : Shanghai g u j i chubanshe ,1979 ) , pp .455-491. Yang T i e f u ' s "Mengchuang s h i j i k a o , " in Mengchuang c i q u a n j i j i a n s h i ( T a i p e i : Haixue chubanshe, 1975), pp .359-378, i s a l s o c o n s u l t e d . In p l a c e s where they d i f f e r , I have g e n e r a l l y favoured X i a ' s more s o l i d s c h o l a r s h i p . A recent a r t i c l e by Chen Bangyan proposes 1212 to post-1272 fo r Wu Wenying 's d a t e s . I f i n d h i s ev idence i n s u f f i c i e n t and h i s argument u n c o n v i n c i n g . See Chen 31 Bangyan, "Wu Mengchuang shengzu n ian g u a n j i a n , " Wenxue  y i c h a n , 1 (1983), 64-67. For a summary of the southward s h i f t of the demographic , economic , and c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s of g r a v i t y in Song t imes , see Ho P i n g - t i , Ladder of Success in Imper i a l Ch ina (New York : Columbia Un i v . P r e s s , 1964), pp .226-230. The fundamental s h i f t took p l a ce a f t e r the An Lushan R e b e l l i o n when the Tang cou r t began to r e l y c h i e f l y on the south fo r f i n a n c i a l suppo r t . See Denis T w i t c h e t t , e d . , Cambridge H i s t o r y of  C h i n a , V o l . 3 : 1 (New York : Cambridge U n i v . P r e s s , 1979), pp .22-24 . See E. A . K racke , J r . , " Reg ion , Fami l y and I n d i v i d u a l in the Examinat ion Sys tem, " in Ch inese Thought and I n s t i t u t i o n s , ed . John K. Fa i rbank (Ch i cago : Un i v . of Ch icago P r e s s , 1957), pp .255-57 . Between the years 1214-1232 approx imate l y 15% of the s u c c e s s f u l c and ida tes from Zhe j i ang p r o v i n c e h a i l e d from Y in County . T h i s i n f o rma t i on i s based on f i g u r e s in juan 127 of Zhe j i ang t o n g z h i , comp. Shen Y i j i et a l . (1736; 1 r p t . Shangha i : Commercial P r e s s , 1934). Baoqinq S iming z h i , comp. Luo Jun and Fang W a n l i , in Song  Yuan d i f a n q z h i conqshu ( T a i p e i : Zhongguo d i z h i y a n j i u h u i , 1978) ) , V o l . 8 , i-10/13b 32 Both X i a Chengtao and Yang T i e f u agree on t h i s as the most common and n a t u r a l e x p l a n a t i o n fo r the d i s c r e p a n c y . See Tang  Song c i r e n n i anpu , p.456 and Wu Mengchuang c i q u a n j i j i a n s h i , p .361 . An a l t e r n a t i v e suggested by L i u Yusong (quoted by X i a Chengtao in Tang Song c i r e n n i anpu , p .456 ) , tha t Wu Wenying 's mother may have had a lowly p o s i t i o n in the Weng househo ld , i . e . a ma id/concub ine , and that a f t e r g i v i n g b i r t h to Wu Wenying may have r emar r i ed i n t o a Wu househo ld , i s d i s c r e d i t e d by X i a and Yang on the b a s i s that s i n c e Wu Wenying i s the second-born of the th ree b r o t h e r s , h i s mother c o u l d not have r e tu rned to the Wengs to have the t h i r d son . My p o s i t i o n i s t h a t , wi thout f u r t h e r e v idence , no c o n c l u s i v e ' statement can be made on t h i s i s s u e . However, L i u ' s theory i s t enab le i f we do not exc lude the p o s s i b i l i t y of Wu Wenying and the two Wengs be ing h a l f b r o t h e r s , in o ther words, Weng Fenglong and Weng Yuan long ' s mother would be the p r i n c i p a l w i fe or concub ine , and Wu's mother , a secondary concub ine who, when r e m a r r i e d , took him a long to her new f a m i l y . L i E, Songshi j i s h i (Shangha i : Commercial P r e s s , 1937), v o l . 1 0 , 1671. For Song o f f i c i a l t i t l e s I f o l l ow E. A . Kracke J r . , T r a n s l a t i o n of Sung C i v i l S e r v i c e T i t l e s ( P a r i s : Mouton & C o . , 1957). Weng F e n g l o n g ' s c o l l e c t e d poe t ry i s not ex t an t . The Songshi  j i s h i r e co rds two poems by him, i b i d . 33 T h i s s choo l was composed of poets who d i d not take o f f i c i a l s e r v i c e and l i v e d in r e t i r e m e n t ; i t s members were a c t i v e towards the end of the 12th cen tu ry and the f i r s t qua r t e r of the 13th c e n t u r y . On Dai Fugu and t h i s s c h o o l , c f . Yoshikawa K o j i r o , An I n roduc t i on to Sung Poet ry (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v . P r e s s , 1967), pp .175-179. Sh i p i ng s h i j i (S ibu conqkan xubian e d . ) , j . 6 / 4 6 b . The e d i t i o n of Wu Wenying 's c_i used i s in Quan Song c i ( h e r ea f t e r QSC) , comp. Tang Guizhang ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua s h u j u , 1965), V o l . 4 , 2 8 7 3 - 9 4 2 . References are to the page number, and a f t e r the s l a n t , to the numer i ca l o rder on the page of the poem c i t e d . In subsequent c h a p t e r s , on l y volume and page r e f e r e n c e w i l l be c i t e d . The p r e f a ce r eads , "I ascended Yanyi w i th Guiweng to view the snow, and r em in i s ced about our e x c u r s i o n on horse to Broken B r idge one morning in the 12th month of the year guimao (1243 ) . " Thus i t da tes the p resen t poem post 1243. Zhou M i , Haoranzha i yatan (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 170. There are twenty c_i poems by Weng Yuanlong e x t a n t , see QSC, V o l . 4 , 2942-46. The p o s t c r i p t i s in Du Q ingx i an j i , S i ku quanshu zhenben e r j i ( T a i p e i : Commercial P r e s s , 1971), j . 1 7 / 1 3 a - 1 4 b . 34 The p r e f a ce to an undated poem (QSC 2903/1) r eads , " I t has a l r e a d y been t h i r t y - f i v e years s i n ce I went wi th J i ang Sh izhou to t r a v e l a long the r i v e r s T i a o and X i a . Re tu rn ing now I am g r i e v e d by the p resen t and memories of the p a s t , so I wrote t h i s poem to s i n g my f e e l i n g s . " The T i a o and X i a are two r i v e r s in Z h e j i a n g ; the T i a o passes through Hangzhou and Deq ing , and when i t reaches Wuxing i t becomes the X i a R i v e r . The time i n d i c a t e d in t h i s p r e f a ce may c o i n c i d e wi th Wu's f i r s t or second t r i p to Deqing (see t ex t f o l l o w i n g ) . In any c a s e , i t shows that Wu had t r a v e l e d in h i s you th . For v i s i t s to Hangzhou, see QSC 2930/5 ( l i n e s 10-14), 2891/1, 2935/1 ( l i n e s 23-28) ; Chang'an in these poems s tand fo r Hangzhou. On the love a f f a i r , see S e c t i o n 3. See X i a Chengtao, Tang Song c i r e n n i a n p u , pp .459-60. As Deqing l i e s no r th of Hangztiou, in o rder to t r a v e l from the c o a s t a l d i s t r i c t S iming which l i e s southeas t of i t , the normal course would be to go west through Shaoxing f u , the p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l of Zhedong c i r c u i t , then nor th through Hangzhou. As c_i became a l i t e r a r y genre in the hands of s c h o l a r -o f f i c i a l s not so we l l ve r sed in mus i c , " f i l l i n g in words" i^-'Sj) came to be the s tandard p r a c t i c e . On t h i s p r a c t i c e , see G len Bax te r , " M e t r i c a l O r i g i n s of the T z ' u , " in S tud i e s  in Ch inese L i t e r a t u r e , ed . John L. B i shop (Cambridge: Harvard 35 Un i v . P r e s s , 1966), pp .187-88 . A l though i t was the vogue among l a t e Southern Song c_i poets to pay much a t t e n t i o n to the m u s i c a l aspect of ci_, Wu Wenying was among the few c_i poets who a c t u a l l y composed some of t h e i r own tunes . Yang T i e f u , Wu Mengchuang c i q u a n j i j i a n s h i , p .361 . Suzhou ( i . e . , P i n g j i a n g fu) was one of the th ree main c e n t r e s of g r a i n t r a n s p o r t and s to rage in the Southern Song. R i c e , as r e g u l a r tax g r a i n and s p e c i a l r e q u i s i t i o n s , was t r a n s p o r t e d by c ana l to Suzhou. See Caoyun (Gra in T r anspo r t ) s e c t i o n in Song s h i , comp. Tuo Tuo ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua s h u j u , 1977), V o l . 1 3 , 4250-61. Dur ing the Song, the c i r c u i t f i s c a l in tendant had charge of g r a i n t r a n s p o r t and s t o r a g e . To be employed at the granary or g r a i n t r a n s p o r t o f f i c e p robab ly meant be ing on the c l e r i c a l s t a f f under the f i s c a l i n t e n d a n t . See Zheng Q i a n , Cixuan (Ta ipe i :Huaguang chubanshe, 1972) ) , p .131 . A l s o c f . en t r y on zhuanyunshi in Songsh i , V o l . 1 2 , 3964-65. For the d a t i n g of t h i s poem, see X i a Chengtao, Tang Song  c i r e n n i a n p u , p .460-461. That Wu Wenying was w i th the G ra i n T ranspo r t O f f i c e fo r some time i s suggested by the f o l l o w i n g : (a) There are four poems wi th p r e f a c e s that make d i r e c t mention of the G ra in T ranspo r t O f f i c e and of the names of c e r t a i n c o l l e a g u e s (QSC 2899/4, 36 2916/3, 2920/3, 2926/2) . It i s reasonab le to assume that these were w r i t t e n over an extended p e r i o d . The on l y dated poem, as s t a t e d in the t e x t , i s from 1232; (b) The p re f a ce to Mulanhua man, "An e x c u r s i o n to T i g e r H i l l w i th c o l l e a g u e s from the G ra i n T r a n s p o r t . At t h i s t ime Wei Y i z h a i has a l r e ady been s e l e c t e d fo r t r a n s f e r , and Chen Fenku and L i Fang 'an w i l l soon f i n i s h t h e i r te rms" (QSC 2916/3) , imp l i e s that he had seen the a r r i v a l and depar tu re of c o l l e a g u e s at the Gra in T r a i n s p o r t O f f i c e in r e l a t i o n to t h e i r terms of s e r v i c e . Poems which suggest t r a v e l on assignment a r e : J i n z h a n z i (QSC 2909/4) , Yan q inqdu (QSC 2883/3) , X i q i an y i nq (QSC 2918/3) . Some poems w i th r e f e r e n c e s to Hangzhou du r i ng t h i s p e r i o d are Tan fang x i n (QSC 2919/1) and L i u shao q ing (QSC 2928/5) . T h i s i s a c l a s s of wandering p o e t s , i n c l u d i n g some of the poets of the "Lakes and R i v e r s " Schoo l such as Dai Fugu, who d i d not study f o r the c i v i l s e r v i c e examinat ion but t r i e d to l i v e on t h e i r p o e t i c t a l e n t s by seek ing out prominent o f f i c i a l s as p a t r o n s . Two poems from t h i s p e r i o d were w r i t t e n to Sun Weix in (1179-1243), one of the well-known e c c e n t r i c s of t h i s group (QSC 2904/2, 2923/2) . On Sun We ix in , see Shuen-fu L i n , The T r ans fo rma t i on of the Chinese  L y r i c a l T r a d i t i o n ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n Un i v . P r e s s , 1978), p p . 3 4 , 56-57, and 197. 37 Ding Yu (QSC 2888/2 and 4, 2899/3, 2901/1, 2918/1, 2921/1) , Mao Hetang (2892/2, 2896/5, 2904/3, 2905/3°, 2914/3, 2922/4, 2924/2, 2934/1) , Guo X idao (2893/2, 2899/2, 2911/1, 2912/1, 2918/1, 2920/3, 2925/4) and L i Fang ' an (2904/2, 2916/3, 2919/1, 2927/2) a l l appear to have be longed to the same c o t e r i e . Moreover , they a l l seem to have owned r a the r ex t ens i v e p r o p e r t i e s wi th gardens and v i l l a s where i n cessan t banquets and ga the r i ngs were h e l d . Though Suzhou was a prosperous t e x t i l e and t r a d i n g c e n t r e in the Song, I h e s i t a t e to suggest tha t any of these peop le c o u l d have been wealthy merchants . F i r s t of a l l , the t r a d i t i o n a l scorn h e l d toward the m e r c a n t i l e c l a s s would have d i s cou raged i n t e r a c t i o n . I f , however, some of these peop le were indeed nouveaux r i c h e s of merchant background, the i n f o r m a t i o n would have been d i s c r e e t l y suppressed in a l i t e r a r y r e co rd such as a p r e f a ce to a poem. For a c o n c i s e account of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the economic p r o s p e r i t y of the Southern Song and the upper c l a s s e s ' s t y l e of l i v i n g , c f . Shuen-fu L i n , The  T r ans fo rma t i on of the Ch inese L y r i c a l T r a d i t i o n , pp .13- 16. On such o c c a s i o n s Wu would not be a lone as the v e r s i f i e r . Of ten there would be other poe ts and p a r t i c i p a n t s , making a k ind of poe t r y c o n t e s t . One custom r e f e r r e d to i n v o l v e d c a r v i n g a notch in the s i d e of a c a n d l e . The d u r a t i o n of the con tes t would be the t ime i t took f o r the cand le to burn down 38 to the n o t c h . See Yan q i ng du , 1.14 (QSC 2883/3) and J i ang  du chun, 1.4 (QSC 2911/2) . It i s r e co rded in the Xianchun L i n ' a n z h i , a Song Hangzhou g a z e t t e e r , tha t Y in Huan was s s u p e r v i s o r y o f f i c i a l in 1246, and in 1247 he was promoted to the L e f t D i v i s i o n See j . 5 0 / 1 1 b , in Song Yuan d i f a n g z h i congshu, V o l . 7 . Wu Wenying, however, r e f e r s to Y in be ing promoted to Fengchi y i n (QSC 2902/2) . T h i s d i s c r epancy may be an i n s t ance of t e x t u a l c o r r u p t i o n in the t r a n s m i s s i o n of Wu's c o l l e c t i o n of p o e t r y . Y i n Huan 's c o l l e c t i o n of p o e t r y , three c_i poems by h im, see V o l . 4 , 2708. T h i r t e e n s e l e c t i o n s are found s c a t t e r e d in Yangchun b a i x u e , compi led by Zhao Wenli c i r c a 1244, Yueyatang congshu ed . Huang Sheng i n c l u d e d n ine in juan 10 of Zhongxing y i l a i  juemiao c i x u a n , in h i s an tho logy Hua'an c ixuan (P re face 1249; r p t . Hong Kong: Zhonghua s h u j u , 1962), pp .354-57 . Yuefu zh im i• (C ihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 229. the p o s i t i o n of R ight D i v i s i o n Ch i e f e n t i t l e d Mei j in j i i s not e x t a n t . QSC r e co rds See Zhang Yan (1248-1320?), C iyuan (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 201. From Zhang Yan ' s p h r a s i n g , i t seems tha t t h i s work was a l r e a d y l o s t or hard to come by even in h i s day . 39 Zhou Mi and Zhang Yan, two of Wu's younger con tempora r i e s , both wrote c_i poems as co lophons to t h i s manusc r i p t . Zhou M i ' s poem Yu lou c h i (QSC 3288/3) i s s u b t i t l e d " I n s c r i b e d on Wu Mengchuang's Shuanghua yu C i C o l l e c t i o n . Zhang Yan ' s c o l l e c t i o n c o n t a i n s two poems on t h i s s u b j e c t . Sheng sheng  man (QSC 3481/4) has two s u b t i t l e v e r s i o n s : "On a remain ing c a l l i g r a p h y by Wu Mengchuang," and " I n s c r i b e d at the end of Mengchuang's manuscr ip t w i th h i s own tune compos i t i on Shuanghua y u ; " Zui luopo (QSC 3496/4) i s s u b t i t l e d " I n s c r i b e d on the c_i manuscr ip t in Wu Mengchuang's own handwr i t i ng in the c o l l e c t i o n of Zhao X i a g u . " Zhongxing y i l a i juemiao c i x u a n , in Hua'an c i x u a n , p .354. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to say a b s o l u t e l y whether t h i s c o l l e c t i o n i s the same as the handwr i t ten manuscr ip t Shuanghua yu as the l a t t e r ' s date of c o m p i l a t i o n i s not e s t a b l i s h e d . S ince the poem to the tune Shuanghua yu (QSC 2901/2) i s about an e x c u r s i o n to Stone Lake in the Suzhou e n v i r o n , X i a Chengtao s p e c u l a t e s tha t Shuanghua yu c o u l d e i t h e r be the manuscr ip t c o l l e c t i o n of h i s poe t r y made in the Suzhou p e r i o d , or i t c o u l d be a c o l l e c t i o n tha t was made in h i s o l d age . See X i a Chengtao, Tang Song c i r e n n i anpu , p .482 . Judg ing from i n t e r n a l ev idence (1.6 and 8 ) , t h i s poem seems to be a work d a t i n g from a f t e r h i s so journ in Suzhou. T h i s be ing the c a s e , the handwr i t ten manuscr ip t that bears the same t i t l e would n e c e s s a r i l y be from a l a t e r p e r i o d . 40 In Wuxian z h i , comp. Wu X i u z h i et a l . (1933; r p t . T a i p e i : Chengwen chubanshe, 1970), V o l . 1 , 100. juan 7. Shi M i yuan ' s b iography i s " in Song s h i , V o l . 3 5 , 12415-19. A power fu l c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r d u r i n g N i n g z o n g ' s r e i gn (1195-1224), Shi eng ineered the murder of h i s p r e d e c e s s o r , the the a r b i t r a r y d e p o s i t i o n of the de s i gna t ed h e i r apparent and the i n s t a l l m e n t of L i zong as the next emperor a f t e r N i n g z o n g ' s d e a t h . Indebted to Shi M iyuan , L i z o n g showered f avours on h i s descendan ts , among them Shi Z h a i z h i . Bas i c Anna ls of L i z o n g , Song s h i , V o l . 1 , 799. Lu X i o n g , Suzhou f u z h i (1379; Se ikado Bunko) , 2 . 8 / 5 a . X i a Chengtao, Tang Song c i r e n n i anpu , p .463 . The poem, w r i t t e n to the tune Qi t i a n yue , i s d i s c u s s e d in C h . 3 , S e c . 3 . See Shidao p i t a i "|^ - ^ ^ en t r y in Zhou M i ' s Qidong yeyu (Xue j in taoyuan ed . ) 1 6/8a-9a. Zhou s t a t e s that a f t e r the i n c i d e n t over the p u b l i c a t i o n of subve r s i v e poe t r y in the R i v e r s and Lakes C o l l e c t i o n , the w r i t i n g of sh i poe t r y was suppressed by Shi Miyuan from 1225-1227, and that i t was due to S h i ' s s o n , Shi Z h a i z h i , and son- in- law, Zhao Rumei 's infamous Han Tuozhou H i s o ther n o t o r i o u s ac t was tha t the ban was l i f t e d two years l a t e r . 41 Tiewang shanhu, comp. Zhu C u n l i (Rpt . T a i p e i : G u o l i zhongyang tushuguang, 1966), V o l . 2 , 463-70. A l s o in S iming congshu, comp. Zhang Shouyong (1936; r p t . T a i p e i : Guofang y a n j i u y u a n , 1966), V o l . 1 , p t . 2 . The QSC page r e f e r ences to these s i x t e e n poems a r e , in the order found in the manusc r i p t : Ruihe x i an 2876/1, Qin yuan chun 2905/5, Yu lou c h i 2909/2, Gu x ianq man 2941/4, Qi t i a n yue 2884/4, S i j i a k e 2933/1, Su wu man 2887/4, Basheng Ganzhou 2926/3, Tan fang x i n 2902/1, J iangnan  chun 2900/3, Shu i l ong y in 2879/1, Bai x ingyue man 2818/4, X i  p ing yue 2891/1, Ding x ianq j i e 2889/2, Hua fan 2893/2, Huan  j i n g l e 2888/3. Zheng Wenzhuo, Mengchuang c i j i a o y i , i n S iming congshu, comp. Zhang Shouyong, V o l . 1 , p t . 2 ; p a r t i a l l y quoted in X i a Chengtao, Tang Song c i r e n n i anpu , p .466. Fang was co-author of the g a z e t t e e r Baoqing S iming z h i , p r e f a ce da ted 1227, see A Sung B i b l i o g r a p h y , e d . Yves Hervouet (Hong Kong: The Ch inese Un i v . P r e s s , 1978), pp .143-44. The QSC v e r s i o n of the s u b t i t l e f o l l o w s that found in Mao J i n ' s J iguge e d i t i o n , which r eads : "In guimao (1243) c e l e b r a t i n g the b i r t h d a y of the Court R e g i s t r a r Fang H u i y a n . " The Tiewang shanhu v e r s i o n , based on Wu Wenying 's own handwr i t ten manusc r i p t , i s more r e l i a b l y the o r i g i n a l and t h e r e f o r e g i ven h e r e . For a s i m i l a r reason and fo r 42 c o n t e x t u a l sense , in the f i r s t l i n e of the poem, the Tiewang  shanhu v a r i a n t 'autumn' r a the r than the QSC ' s p r i n g , ' i s adopted . See n.32 on the v a r i o u s handwr i t ten manusc r ip t s by Wu Wenying a p p r e c i a t e d by Zhou Mi and Zhang Yan, which were e i t h e r in c i r c u l a t i o n or in p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s in the l a t e Song and e a r l y Yuan. T h e i r e x i s t e n c e c o r r o b o r a t e s the f u n c t i o n of c e r t a i n manusc r ip t s p o s t u l a t e d h e r e . Gu x iang man, Tan fang x i n , and J iangnan chun . See n.40 for ' page r e f e r e n c e s . In the same sense as tha t immor ta l i zed by J i a n g K u i ' s usage of the term in h i s sh i poem about h i s two most famous tunes which he had j u s t composed. The r e l e v a n t l i n e s r e a d : "The rhymes of my newly composed tunes are most cha rming , wh i l e X iao Hong s i ngs q u i e t l y I p l a y the f l u t e . " See Shuen-fu L i n , The T r ans fo rma t i on of the Ch inese L y r i c a l T r a d i t i o n , p .53 . Wu Wenying 's l i n e , in a poem w r i t t e n on New Y e a r ' s eve in 1243, r e ads , " S i n g i n g my new tunes I see the year o f f . " (QSC 2934/6) The poems which i n d i c a t e h i s r e s p e c t i v e presence in Hangzhou are X i p i ng l e ( s p r i n g ) , QSC 2891/1, and Qin yuan chun (autumn), QSC 2905/5, both in the Tiewang shanhu manusc r i p t , and L i u shao q ing (QSC 2928/5) and S i j i a k e (QSC 2934/6) . 43 See p r e f a c e to L i u shao q i n g (QSC 2928/5) . X i a Chengtao, Tang Song c i r e n n i anpu , p .465 . The four poems a r e , in the order in which they were composed: Manj iang hong (QSC 2877/1) , Feng q i wu (2937/5) , Wei fan (2928/1) , and X i q i an y i ng (2918/4) . See X i a Chengtao, Tang  Song c i r e n n i anpu , pp .467-68. Termed hua i r en c i " j *^ kjq^ in C h i n e s e . Yang T i e f u ()u Wu Mengchuang c i quan j i j i a n s h i , pp.364-67) c i t e s 102 t i t l e s p e r t a i n i n g to t h i s c a t e g o r y . See a l s o the ones c i t e d in X i a Chengtao, i b i d . , pp .467-70. The p r e f a ce to X i q i an y i n g (QSC 2918/4) r e ads , "In 1244, on the w in te r s o l s t i c e I went to l i v e in Yue ( Z h e j i a n g ) , wh i le my sons were l e f t at X i ao Temple in G u a j i n g . " A l s o , l i n e 15 in Yu zhu x i n (QSC 2881/1) , "I remember i t was when you were t i r e d of embroidery and d e s i r e d sour t h i n g s , " seems to r e f e r to the c o n c u b i n e ' s pregnancy , the d e s i r e f o r sour th ings and f a t i g u e be ing common symtoms of pregnancy . See n .52 . Noth ing more i s heard about the c h i l d r e n . No i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s conce rn i ng Wu's acqua in tance wi th Muoqi S h a o z h i , whose g r e a t - g r a n d f a t h e r , Muoqi Xue / ) f i ^ y^j was one of the o f f i c i a l s who p l o t t e d Yue F e i ' s death wi th Qin K u i . 44 X i a Chengtao, Tang Song c i r e n n i a n p u , pp .468-69. The second s tanza of Sao hua you (QSC 2886/1) d e s c r i b e s what seems to be a chance meeting w i th h i s former concub ine d u r i n g the Co ld Food F e s t i v a l . Yang T i e f u dates t h i s poem to 1245, see Yang T i e f u , Wu Mengchuang c i q u a n j i j i a n s h i , pp .54-55 . X i a Chengtao, Tang Song c i r e n n i a n p u , p .469 . For the d a t i n g of t h i s poem, see i b i d . , p .470. I b i d . , pp .471-72 . QSC 2904/1 and i b i d . , p .471 . QSC 2911/2 and i b i d . , p .471 . QSC 2885/4. Chen Qi was the Hangzhou bookdea ler who compi l ed and p u b l i s h e d the p o e t i c works of h i s contemporar i es in an an tho logy c a l l e d the R i v e r s and Lakes C o l l e c t i o n from which the " R i v e r s and Lakes " schoo l d e r i v e d i t s name. On the i n c i d e n t over c e r t a i n subve r s i ve p o l i t i c a l comments in the c o l l e c t i o n , see Yoshikawa K o j i r o , An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Sung  Poe t r y , pp .175-77 . When Wu Wenying became acqua in t ed w i th Chen Qi in the l a t e 1240s and e a r l y 1250s, the a f f a i r l ay at l e a s t twenty years in the p a s t . Wu's poem a l l u d e s to the r e c l u s i v e l i f e Chen was l e a d i n g now. 45 The term g u i r e n j i a (noble or weal thy household) which Wu used a few t imes l eads one to suspect that he keenly f e l t the d i s t i n c t i o n between h i s own commoner s t a t u s and the e l i t e s t a t u s of the wealthy and p r e s t i g i o u s . See QSC 2938/4, and 2920/4, and 2906/2. Bas i c Annals of L i z o n g , Song s h i , V o l . 1 , 841. Wang X i a n g z h i , Yudi j i s h e n g (p re face 1221; r p t . T a i p e i : Wenhai chubanshe, 1960), V o l . 1 , 103. B iography in Song s h i , V o l . 3 9 , 13779-87. C f . the modern r e a p p r a i s a l by Herber t F ranke , " C h i a Ssu-tao (1213-1275): A 'bad l a s t m i n i s t e r ' ? " , in Con fuc i an P e r s o n a l i t i e s , ed . A r thu r Wright ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d Un i v . P r e s s , 1962), pp .215-34. C f . (a) L i u Yusong ' s long p r e f a ce in defense of Wu's c h a r a c t e r in "Mengchuang c i g a o zhuke xuba" in S iminq congshu , comp. Zhang Shouyong, V o l . 1 , p t . 2 , (b) Hu Y u n y i ' s d i s p a r a g i n g remarks in Songci y a n j i u (Shangha i : Zhonghua shu ju , 1926), p .179 , (c) X i a Cheng tao ' s s p e c i a l essay on the s u b j e c t , "Mengchuang wannian yu J i a S idao j u j i a o b ian , " in Tang Song  c i r e n n i anpu , pp .484-86, and (d) Yeh C h i a - y i n g ' s d e t a i l e d examinat ion of t h i s problem in " C h a i s u i q i b a o l o u t a i : tan Mengchuang c i z h i x i a n d a i g u a n , " in J i a l i n g t a n c i ( T a i p e i : Chunwenxue congshu ,1970 ) , pp .188-97. 46 S iku quanshu zongmu t i y a o (Shangha i : Commercial P r e s s , 1933), V o l . 4 , 4447. See Yeh J i a l i n g , J i a l i n g t a n c i , pp .231-36. There are four poems to Wu Qian in Wu Wenying 's c o l l e c t i o n (QSC 2893/5, 2905/2, 2911/3, 2939/5) , and th ree to Wu Wenying in Wu Q i a n ' s c o l l e c t i o n (QSC 2730/2, 2735/1, 2741/8) . The g a z e t t e e r Baoqing S iming xuzh i (p re face 1259, in Song  Yuan d i f a n g z h i congshu, V o l . 8 ) covers the p e r i o d from 1255-1258 when Wu Qian was A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Qingyuan f u . It c o n t a i n s t h r ee juan of s h i poe t r y by Wu Qian w r i t t e n in tha t p e r i o d . There are two sh i poems addressed to Weng Yuanlong in j . 1 0 and four c_i poems in j . 1 1 and 12. Page r e f e r e n c e s fo r the c_i poems in the QSC a r e : 2746/4, 2747/1 and 2, Fang H u i , Y i ngku i l u s u i ( S iku quanshu zhenben b a j i ) , j . 2 0 / 7 3 b - 7 4 a ; t r a n s . Shuen-fu L i n , The T r ans fo rma t i on of the  Ch inese L y r i c a l T r a d i t i o n , p .34 . I have changed the roman iza t i on to p i n y i n . 2762/3. See en t r y in Zhou M i , Qidong yeyu (Xue j in taoyuan ed) , j^ . 1 2/1 Ob-1 2b. On L i z o n g ' s enthronement, see n .35. The i n f o rma t i on fo r the 47 c o n f l i c t between Wu Qian and J i a S idao are found in t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b i o g r a p h i e s and the Bas i c Anna ls of L i zong in the Song s h i . Haoranzha i yatan (Cihua conqbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 1 7 4 . QSC 2879/4, 2882/5, 2885/2, 2886/5, 2915/2. The g e n e r a l l y accepted date of Wu Wenying 's death as suggested by X i a Chengtao i s between 1260 and 1262. See X i a Chengtao, Tang Song c i r e n N ianpu, p .480 . The reason he g i v e s to support the cho i ce i s that important events in the next few years which might have been r e f l e c t e d in Wu's p o e t r y , such as the comple t ion in the f i r s t month of 1262 of J i a S i d a o ' s i m p e r i a l l y bestowed r e s i d e n c e , the Houleyuan of 1262, Duzong 's enthronement in the t en th month of 1264, and P r i n ce S i r o n g ' s i n v e s t i t u r e as Reg iona l Commandant of month of 1264, are comple te l y absen t . See Shuen-fu L i n , The T rans fo rma t i on of the Ch inese L y r i c a l  T r a d i t i o n , pp .53-54 . A s c h o l a r by the name of L i ao Y ingzhong . See b i o g r a p h i c a l note and two c_i by him (one i s a b i r t h d a y poem to J i a S idao) i n QSC 5/3318. See a l s o Herber t F r anke , " C h i a S s u - t a o , " by West Lake , Wu Q i a n ' s death in the s i x t h month Wukang and N i n g j i a n g e l e ven th 48 pp .232-33 . For the h i s t o r i c a l background of the S i ku quanshu, see L. C. G o o d r i c h , The L i t e r a r y I n q u i s i t i o n of C h ' i e n - l u n g ( B a l t imo re : Waverly P r e s s , 1935). These p r e f a ce s are c o l l e c t e d in S iming congshu , comp. Zhang Shouyong, v o l . 1 , p t . 1 . 49 I I . THE ART OF SOUTHERN SONG CI I. INTRODUCTION By the t ime Wu Wenying wrote h i s c_i poems in the mid t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the c_i genre had evo l ved from i t s o r i g i n s in popu la r l y r i c s in the l a t e Tang and F i v e Dynas t i e s p e r i o d to a h i g h l y r e f i n e d and s o p h i s t i c a t e d a r t form toward the end of the Southern Song. The p rocess of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n in the hands of i n n o v a t i v e c_i poets who brought new s t y l i s t i c and themat ic d imens ions to the genre through t h e i r p r a c t i c e has been d e l i n e a t e d in s e v e r a l modern s t u d i e s . Most s t u d i e s , however, focus on the ge rmina l p e r i o d in the development of the cj^, tha t i s , from the l a t e Tang through the Nor thern Song p e r i o d . The r e fo r e on l y works by s i g n i f i c a n t poets of tha t time p e r i o d of gene r i c watersheds are d e a l t w i t h . 1 The t r a n s i t i o n from Nor thern Song to Southern Song in the development of the c_i i s o f t e n regarded by modern Ch inese l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s , a l b e i t i m p l i c i t l y , as a t r a n s i t i o n from ma tu r i t y to decadence, from c r e a t i v i t y to s t a g n a t i o n and a r t i f i c i a l i t y , or at b e s t , to a mannered and overwrought s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . The account g iven by L i u Da j i e i t 1 ] 7v_ in h i s s t a n d a r d , o f t -quo ted H i s t o r y of the  Development of Ch inese L i t e r a t u r e , a f t e r drawing on v a r i o u s views of pas t c r i t i c s , conc ludes wi th the judgment t h a t : The Southern Song produced many m u s i c i a n s , t h e r e f o r e i t s c_i poe t r y has beauty of mus i c a l rhythm and of d i c t i o n , f o r m a l i s t i c e legance and a n t i q u a r i a n f l a v o u r . But i t l a c k s l i f e and c h a r a c t e r . 2 50 Lu Kuanru and Feng Yuanjun 'Hj 7 X J ^ in t h e i r work, H i s t o r y of Ch inese Poe t r y , d e s c r i b e the s t a t e of c_i poe t r y in the Southern Song as hav ing gone from i t s z e n i t h to i t s c r a f t smen " and Wang Guowei i s we l l known fo r h i s extreme nega t i ve b i a s a g a i n s t Southern Song c i . 5 T h i s adverse view i s by no means the on l y v iew. Southern Song c_i poe t r y has en joyed i t s share of e n t h u s i a s t s and de fenders as w e l l . The Qing s cho l a r and poet Zhu Y izun a t t a i n p e r f e c t i o n , and on ly at the end of the Song d i d i t exhaust i t s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . " 6 Wang Guowei compla ins tha t c i poets who came a f t e r Zhu Y izun too o f t e n succumbed to h i s o p i n i o n . 7 L i t e r a r y h i s t o r y i n d i c a t e s that the e v a l u a t i o n of a genre , a p e r i o d s t y l e , a p a r t i c u l a r s choo l or poet i s never a b s o l u t e . A e s t h e t i c s tandards are o f t en a matter of changing t a s t e , and change i m p l i e s a r e l a t i v i t y of v a l u e s . What i s a p p r e c i a t e d and p r a i s e d by one group or one age may be condemned by o t h e r s . Of ten n e g l e c t e d authors are r e s u r r e c t e d a f t e r long e c l i p s e and g iven p l a c e s of prominence in the l i t e r a r y pantheon. A g iven l i t e r a r y phenomenon, be i t a p a r t i c u l a r gen re , s t y l e , or s c h o o l , may pass out of f a s h i o n , indeed become o b s o l e t e , be fo re c i r cumstances b r i n g about i t s r e v i v a l . A case in p o i n t i s the c i genre . A f t e r the Mongols conquered the Song, c_i g r a d u a l l y grew out of f a s h i o n as an e f f e c t i v e p o e t i c medium. Through the Yuan and Ming d y n a s t i e s , few poets wrote c_i and s c a r c e l y any d e c l i n e . 3 Hu Shi d i s p a r a g i n g l y the c_i of op ined that " o n l y in the Southern Song d i d the c_i 51 c r i t i c a l work on ci_ was produced du r i ng these c e n t u r i e s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, in the Qing r e v i v a l of c_i, the Southern Song s t y l e as seen in the works of s e v e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e poets came to be dominant . The poe ts and c r i t i c s of major s choo l s uphe ld i t s s e v e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s as unquest ioned models fo r emu la t ion in the w r i t i n g of c_i p o e t r y . What then c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s Southern Song s t y l e which i s at once decadent and semina l ? What were the concerns of c_i poets at that t ime? Who were the i n f l u e n t i a l f i g u r e s and in what manner were they i n f l u e n t i a l ? How d i d Wu Wenying come to be regarded as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s s t y l e ? How does h i s poe t r y s tand in r e l a t i o n to the p o e t i c s c u r r e n t in h i s t ime? And what s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n s t i t u t e ou t s t and ing f e a t u r e s of h i s poe t ry ? Even i f the c_i had indeed ended wi th the Song dynasty these q u e s t i o n s would s t i l l have r e l evance in an examinat ion of gene r i c demise , but in the l i g h t of the r ena i s sance of c_i in the Qing dynas t y , t h e i r l i t e r a r y - h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s a l l the more c r u c i a l . To answer some of the q u e s t i o n s posed above, the re are at l e a s t two a reas tha t need some d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n . One i s the broader i s s u e of p e r i o d s t y l e , an i s sue which e n t a i l s an e l u c i d a t i o n of t r ends i n Southern Song p o e t i c s . To do t h i s , in a d d i t i o n to su r vey i ng developments in the Southern Song p o e t i c s cene , I w i l l examine two important l a t e Song t r e a t i s e s on ci_ p o e t r y , the Yuefu zh imi ^ ^ and the C iyuan |i) =Jjj^. The o ther i s of course the examinat ion of the s p e c i f i c s of Wu Weny ing 's s t y l e which , from h i s own time down to the present 52 day, has e l i c i t e d many c o n t r o v e r s i a l and d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed assessments . I b e l i e v e the c o n t r o v e r s y su r round ing Wu's s t y l e , e s p e c i a l l y among l a t e Qing and modern c r i t i c s , i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the l a r g e r s p l i t between p a r t i s a n s and d e t r a c t o r s of the Southern Song s t y l e ve rsus the Nor thern Song s t y l e ; an examinat ion of i t w i l l e l u c i d a t e some of the broader i s sues i n v o l v e d . The f i n a l chapter d i s c u s s e s c r i t i c a l v iews on Wu Weny ing 's p o e t r y . Be fore a proper d i s c u s s i o n of the Southern Song s t y l e of c_i poe t r y i s under taken , some d e l i m i t a t i o n of the term "Southern Song" as a d e s i g n a t i o n of a l i t e r a r y s t y l e i s in o r d e r . P o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y d e f i n e s the Southern Song as the p e r i o d which beg ins in 1127 wi th the f a l l of the Nor thern Song c a p i t a l , K a i f e n g , and the l o s s of the e n t i r e h a l f of Nor th Ch ina to the J u r chens , and ends in 1279 when the Mongols t o o k ' o v e r the r u l e of the whole of C h i n a . L i t e r a r y h i s t o r y , however, does not n e c e s s a r i l y p a r a l l e l p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y . As d e f i n e d by Wel lek and Warren, "a p e r i o d " in l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y " i s a t ime s e c t i o n dominated by a system of l i t e r a r y norms, s t anda rds , and c o n v e n t i o n s , whose i n t r o d u c t i o n , s p r e a d , d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , i n t e g r a t i o n , and d i sappearance can be t r a c e d . " 8 Developments in the c_i genre d i d not occur o ve rn igh t w i th the p o l i t i c a l changeover . C_i poets such as L i Qingzhao 1^=) (1084-1147) and Zhu Dunru ^ %k^_ \% (c . 1 0 8 4 - c . 1 1 75) , who l i v e d through the t r aumat i c p o l i t i c a l t r a n s i t i o n , con t i nued to w r i t e in a s t y l e tha t i s r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and a l l u s i o n - f r e e and g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th the o v e r a l l Nor thern Song s t y l e , 53 though t h e i r themes and tone may have changed. C o n v e r s e l y , the roo t s of what i s now commonly denoted as the Southern Song s t y l e are r e cogn i zed as be ing t r a c e a b l e to the works of the Nor thern Song master , Zhou Bangyan. The Southern Song s t y l e shou ld p r o p e r l y be c a l l e d the l a t e Southern Song s t y l e as i t s normat ive p o e t i c s d i d not c r y s t a l l i z e u n t i l the gene r a t i on of poets who wrote a f t e r the tu rn of the c e n t u r y , in the 1200s. Even when the p r e f i x i s not a p p l i e d , in speak ing of a Southern Song s t y l e , l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s and h i s t o r i a n s are u s u a l l y r e f e r r i n g to the " l a t e " s t y l e . I I . TRENDS IN SOUTHERN SONG CI POETRY-LATE 12TH CENTURY The p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n in the f i r s t h a l f of the Southern Song p e r i o d produced c_i poets w i th a d i s t i n c t v o i c e ; these were the " p a t r i o t i c p o e t s " gil , thus d e s i g n a t e d d u r i n g the new dawn of Ch inese n a t i o n a l i s t i c consc i ousnes s in the twen t i e th c e n t u r y . These poets o f t e n wrote in a grand and h e r o i c manner (haofang lament ing the f a l l of the Nor thern Song and e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r pa in and f r u s t r a t i o n at the Southern Song government 's f a i l i n g s in revanche . A l though the themat ic and l i n g u i s t i c scope of the haofang s t y l e was deve loped and e s t a b l i s h e d in the Nor thern Song, no tab l y by the v e r s a t i l e gen ius Su Shi j^s ( 1 036-1 1 01 ) , 9 as a p e r i o d s t y l e , Southern Song p a t r i o t i c - h e r o i c poe t r y i s c o n s t i t u t e d by the e x p r e s s i v e v o i c e of the poets which r e v e a l s a common concern and emot ion . Shuen-fu L i n observes that " d u r i n g the beg inn ing decades of the Southern Song p e r i o d , song-wr i t e r s tended to adopt a s t r ong rhythm and an i n t e n s e l y p r o p o s i t i o n a l l a n g u a g e . " 1 0 He c i t e s the 54 p r o l i f i c X in Q i j i ) 7 ^ ^ ^ (1140-1207) as the prime example of t h i s d i s c u r s i v e t r e n d . In my v iew, what I c a l l the " e x p r e s s i v e v o i c e " and L i n ' s " s t r o n g rhythm and p r o p o s i t i o n a l language" are two s i d e s of the same c o i n . C_i poems in t h i s " e x p r e s s i v e " mode tend to be w r i t t e n wi th h y p o t a c t i c syntax-the necessa ry l i n g u i s t i c medium fo r p r o p o s i t i o n a l l anguage, the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of many prose elements such as pronouns and p a r t i c l e s , a " m a s c u l i n e " vocabu la r y w i th an abundance of h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n s , and h y p e r b o l i c d i c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g an tho logy p i e c e by X in Q i j i e x h i b i t s a lmost a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s enumerated above : To the tune Yong yu l e Remembering the Past at Be igu P a v i l i o n in J ingkou (date of c o m p o s i t i o n : 1205) 1 In these h i l l s and r i v e r s of a thousand ages The hero cannot be found In the domain of Sun Quan. Dance h a l l s and s o n g - f i l l e d p a v i l i o n s , 5 A l l romance and charm, have been Beaten by r a i n , blown by the winds. S e t t i n g s u n l i g h t on scrubby t r e e s , O rd ina r y l anes and pathways, Where people say the r o y a l J i n u once l i v e d . 10 Remembering those days When golden l ances and i r o n c l a d horses Wi th s p i r i t swallowed ten thousand m i l e s l i k e t i g e r s . 55 The c a r e l e s s n e s s of the Yuan j i a r e i g n -To s a c r i f i c e on Mount Langjuxu 15 Only earned the emperor f e a r f u l g l ances to the n o r t h . F o r t y - t h r e e years s i n c e , Gaz ing at the scene I s t i l l r e c a l l The road to Yangzhou d o t t e d by b e a c o n - f i r e s . How can I bear to look back? 20 Beneath the sh r i ne of B i l i the t a r t a r k i n g , A chorus of temple crows and r i t u a l drums. Who s h a l l be sent to ask , "Gene ra l L i an Po i s indeed o l d , Can he s t i l l eat a peck of r i c e ? " 1 1 (QSC 3/1954) T h i s poem i s r e p l e t e wi th h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n s , in p a r t i c u l a r those wi th r e f e rence to m i l i t a r y - p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s or events a s s o c i a t e d wi th J ingkou (p resent day Zhen j i ang in J i angsu p rov ince ) from the S ix Dynas t i e s p e r i o d . 1 2 X in Q i j i , wh i le r e f l e c t i n g on the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n in the d i v i d e d China of the S ix D y n a s t i e s , i m p l i e d the uncanny p a r a l l e l he saw to tha t of h i s own day . The d i c t i o n i s mascul ine-we f i n d h y p e r b o l e , r e f e r e n c e s to heroes and v i l l a i n s , and images of m a r t i a l f a n f a r e . What i t expresses are the i n tense f e e l i n g s of a f r u s t r a t e d h e r o i c temperament. The emot iona l con ten t of the poem i s r e i n f o r c e d by the s y n t a c t i c rhythm. To see t h i s , we shou ld be aware of the common p r a c t i c e fo r poets w r i t i n g in the tune p a t t e r n Yongyu l e to begin the f i r s t s t r o p h e , which 56 c o n s i s t s of th ree l i n e s of four c h a r a c t e r s each , w i th two p a r a l l e l l i n e s (4//4/4) , such as in a l l th ree poems Wu Wenying wrote to t h i s tune p a t t e r n . 1 3 Moreover , these p a r a l l e l l i n e s would be end-stopped sen tences . The s t r u c t u r e of the s t r o p h i c u n i t i s b a l a n c e d , w i th r h e t o r i c a l / s e m a n t i c pauses c o i n c i d i n g w i th the s y n t a c t i c / m e t r i c a l b r ea k s . The slow movement thus c r e a t e d a l l ows the reader to concen t r a t e on the images p resen ted l i n e by l i n e , as in Su S h i ' s b e a u t i f u l opening to h i s Yonqyu l e : The b r i g h t moon i s l i k e f r o s t , The f i n e wind l i k e water-I n f i n i t e i s t h i s pure scene . (QSC 1/302) Or in Wu Wenying 's l i n e s : S t o r i n g snow, the c l ouds are low, Sweeping sand, the wind i s gus t y ; S t a r t l e d w i l d geese l oose t h e i r f o r m a t i o n . (QSC 4/2910) In c o n t r a s t , X in Q i j i opens h i s poem wi th th ree run-on l i n e s which must be read in f u l l to a r r i v e at semantic comple teness . The r e fo r e in X i n ' s c a s e , the s y n t a c t i c rhythm has i n s t e a d a f o r c e f u l , sweeping movement which accords we l l w i th the in tense emot iona l under tone . The second s t rophe w i th a 4/4/5 m e t r i c a l d i v i s i o n aga in p r o v i d e s two s t r u c t u r a l cho i ces-4//4/5 or 4/4/5-57 and X in rushes on wi th h i s con t inuous rhythm. In X i n ' s poems of the man type ( long t u n e s ) , 1 " he very o f t en employs t h i s d i s c u r s i v e syntax in which s t r o p h i c u n i t s are enjambed u n t i l the rhyme word. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as e x e m p l i f i e d by X in Q i j i became the s t o c k - i n - t r a d e of the haofang mode of c_i p o e t r y . With the c o n v e n t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l s t y l i s t i c impu l se , which was d i r e c t e d towards exp re s s i on of m a s c u l i n e , h e r o i c s en t imen t s , be i t anger or g r i e f , there was a tendency among fu tu r e p r a c t i o n e r s and i m i t a t o r s of t h i s s t y l e toward f u r t h e r a m p l i f i c a t i o n , o f t e n r e s u l t i n g in a g r a t u i t o u s g r u f f n e s s . 1 5 L i u Kezhuang ^ (1187-1269), 'Wu Wenying 's s l i g h t l y o l d e r contemporary , was an i n d e f a t i g a b l e h e i r of t h i s s choo l whose work c l e a r l y shows the l i m i t s of the s t y l e ; h i s c o l l e c t i o n of c_i poe t r y i s r e p l e t e w i th examples w r i t t e n in the h e r o i c mode. L i u Kezhuang was h imse l f a great admirer of X in Q i j i , and by tha t y a r d s t i c k he i s judged by l a t e r c r i t i c s to be i n f e r i o r . 1 6 Among h i s own con tempora r i e s , L i u Kezhuang was more an anomaly than the norm in h i s c o n s i s t e n t p r a c t i c e of t h i s s t y l e . For the next wave of the h e r o i c s t y l e on ly arose at the f a l l of the Song when the v o i c e of p a t r i o t i s m was aga in heard in the c_i poe t r y of Confuc ian-minded men l i k e (1236-1283). Even then the h e r o i c mode was f a r from be ing the mainstream of c_i p r a c t i c e at the t i m e . 1 7 Towards the l a s t years of the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , among such age ing l u m i n a r i e s of the s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l c i r c l e of poets as X in Q i j i and Fan Chengda (1120-1193) the re moved a younger l i t e r a r y L i u Chenweng (1232-1297) and Wen T i a n x i a n g 58 f i g u r e whose s l i m volume of e igh ty-odd s u r v i v i n g c_i poems ( r e i n f o r c e d by h i s almost l egendary image as a bona f i d e poet whose l i f e was comple te l y devoted to the a r t of poe t r y ) has secured him the r e p u t a t i o n as a major poet of the l a t e Southern Song s t y l e . T h i s f i g u r e i s J i ang K u i . J i ang K u i ' s s i g n i f i c a n c e in the development of Southern Song c_i i s t w o f o l d . With h i s p ro found knowledge of mus i c , he r e d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n to the mus i c a l t e c h n i c a l i t i e s of c_i. The l i t e r a r y aspect of h i s c_i poe t r y e x h i b i t e d c e r t a i n i n c i p i e n t t endenc i es away from the language and s t y l e of the h e r o i c mode s t i l l p r e v a l e n t in h i s day. As important as these two t r a i t s are in J i ang K u i ' s c i , be fo re e l a b o r a t i n g on them i t i s necessary to p o i n t out and emphasize the most ly ove r looked t r a n s i t i o n a l and h y b r i d c h a r a c t e r of h i s s t y l e . A scann ing of J i ang K u i ' s sma l l c o l l e c t i o n of c_i poe t r y in f a c t y i e l d s numerous examples of l i n g u i s t i c and s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s much more ak in to the h e r o i c mode r a the r than the l a t e Southern Song s t y l e . In d i c t i o n and syn tax , s i m i l a r i t i e s are e s p e c i a l l y pronounced. J i ang K u i ' s c_i_ poe t r y r e t a i n s many prose f e a t u r e s found in the more e x p l i c i t r h e t o r i c of the h e r o i c mode. Occur rences of pe r sona l pronouns- wo 4^  a n ^ jun ^ and gong ^jX ( you) , and y_i_ \ ^ (he, she , i t ) - a r e common; the re i s a h igh i n c i dence of sentence f i n a l p a r t i c l e s such as z a i 'P^; , Y-i ^ yu r ye Sfp , and of c o n j u n c t i o n s - ran , e£ ' 11 A. "used in p r o s e ; and a l s o of f u n c t i o n words (xuz i A phrase l i k e J|>J ^ ' But then i s i t not s o ? ' , ex t remely " u n p o e t i c , " may be r a r e , and perhaps i m i t a t i v e of X in 59 Q i j i ' s s t y l e s i n c e i t o c c u r s i n a p o e m w r i t t e n t o m a t c h X i n ' s r h y m e s ( Q S C 3 / 2 1 8 8 ) . B u t p r o s y l i n e s s u c h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e c o m m o n : I am d r u n k a n d w a n t t o s l e e p , i t k e e p s me c o m p a n y . ( Q S C 3 / 2 1 7 7 ) M a s t e r W e i h a s g o n e . % fcf £ (QSC 3 / 2 1 8 1 ) My i n s p i r a t i o n i s a l s o v a s t . (QSC 3 / 2 1 8 7 ) D e i c t i c a n d m o d a l e l e m e n t s b r i n g s e m a n t i c e x p l i c i t n e s s t o t h e p o e m b y i m p a r t i n g a n i m m e d i a c y t o i t s t o n e . T h e f o r m e r p o i n t s d i r e c t l y t o t h e s p e a k e r o r t h e r e c i p i e n t / r e a d e r o f t h e p o e m o r t h i n g s p o k e n a b o u t ; t h e l a t t e r i n d i c a t e s t h e m e n t a l a n d e m o t i o n a l s t a t e o f t h e s p e a k e r - b y i n d i c a t i n g a s t a t e m e n t o f f a c t , a n e x p r e s s i o n o f d o u b t o r s u r p r i s e e t c . , t h e s p e a k e r i n t e n d s h i s m o o d t o b e k n o w n a n d e s t a b l i s h e s a p o i n t o f c o n t a c t w i t h t h e r e a d e r . F u n c t i o n w o r d s , o f t e n u s e d i n l e a d - w o r d ( l i n g z i z^^r ) p o s i t i o n s , f u l f i l a s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n b y c r e a t i n g s e m a n t i c e x p l i c i t n e s s . ( T h i s c a t e g o r y w i l l b e e x a m i n e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . ) W h a t J i a n g R u i ' s p o e t r y i s n o t e d f o r , a l m o s t t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e f e a t u r e s we h a v e e x a m i n e d a b o v e , i s t h e 6 0 emergence of a new p o e t i c s e n s i b i l i t y which in t ime came to c h a r a c t e r i z e the l a t e Song s t y l e . S t y l i s t i c a l l y t h i s p o e t i c s e n s i b i l i t y i s most apparent in a c e r t a i n semantic ambigu i t y a r i s i n g from the i m p l i c i t embodiment of emotion in imagery, the use of a more complex language i n v o l v i n g f requent a l l u s i o n s and metonyms, and a denser s yn tax , e lements a l l c o n t r i b u t i n g to the q u a l i t y of " o p a c i t y " (g_e ^ ) which Wang Guowei found so o b j e c t i o n a b l e in Southern Song c_i p o e t r y . 1 8 Let us look at Shuy ing , one of J i ang K u i ' s two famous p i e c e s on the plum blossom fo r e l u c i d a t i o n : 1 Mossy branches decked w i th jade-There are t i n y b l u e b i r d s Roost ing , on them t o g e t h e r . Meet ing each other in our wander ing, 5 At dusk by the co rne r of the f ence , Word less she l eans on the s l ende r bamboos; Zhaojun unaccustomed to the remoteness of b a r b a r i a n sands , Only longed in s e c r e t f o r the Y a n g z i ' s s h o r e s . I t must be the one wi th jade pendants tha t r e tu rned on a moon l i t n i g h t , 10 That t rans formed i n t o t h i s f lower so s o l i t a r y . I s t i l l r e c a l l the o l d t a l e in the deep pa l a ce-That beauty was then s l e e p i n g When i t f lew near her dark moth-eyebrows. 61 Don ' t be l i k e the s p r i n g b r e e z e , 15 C a r e l e s s of f u l l b l o s soming , But e a r l y prepare fo r i t a g o l d chamber. If one l e t s a l l the p e t a l s d r i f t w i th the c u r r e n t , He w i l l r esent the sad tune fo r the Jade Dragon f l u t e . If one wa i t s t i l l then to f i n d aga in the sub t l e s c e n t , 20 It w i l l have en te red the h o r i z o n t a l s c r o l l over the sma l l w indow . 1 9 (QSC 3/2182) The s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e of the poem remains on the whole h y p o t a c t i c and e x p l i c i t , p a r t i c u l a r l y towards the end when the l i n e s are s t r u c t u r e d wi th c o n j u n c t i o n s . The complete suppress ion of s u b j e c t i v e emot iona l e x p r e s s i o n , however, produces an ambigu i t y in the o v e r a l l meaning. One i s l e f t w i th a s e r i e s of images and a l l u s i o n s connected by grammar wi thout ever be ing shown the p r i v a t e emotion which shou ld u n i f y them. T r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s have always been eager to go on a l l e g o r i c a l hunts in obscure poems which o f f e r i s o l a t e d h i n t s . In t h i s c a s e , the a l l u s i o n to Wang Zhaojun, the Han pa lace lady who was mar r i ed o f f to a X iongnu c h i e f t a i n and spent her l i f e in e x i l e in ba rba r i an d e s e r t l a n d s t r i g g e r s a f o r c e d compar ison wi th the l a s t Nor thern Song emperor who was cap tu red no r th a long w i th h i s i m p e r i a l concub ines by the Jurchen i n v a d e r s . A more p l a u s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s o f f e r e d by modern s c h o l a r s who read in i t the p o e t ' s r emin i s cence of a woman a s s o c i a t e d in h i s mind wi th the plum b l o s s o m . 2 0 C e r t a i n l y the f i r s t s tanza i s pervaded by 62 femin ine p resence-the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the plum t r ee as a b e a u t i f u l woman and the blossoms seen as the i n c a r n a t i o n of Wang Zhaojun. The poem, however, i s not s t r u c t u r e d on the theme of r e m i n i s c e n s e ; i t be longs to a poe t r y of mood in which c e r t a i n g e n e r a l i z e d moods and f e e l i n g s are r ep resen ted in a me taphor i c a l and a l l u s i v e l anguage . The pe rvad ing mood in the f i r s t s tanza i s one of s o l i t a r i n e s s and s e c l u s i o n , and in the second , r eg re t at the t r a n s i e n c e of beauty symbo l i zed by the f a d i n g plum b lossoms . At t h i s s t age , a u n i f i e d me tapho r i c a l d imens ion in the c_i ( p a r t i c u l a r l y in the yongwu subgenre to which t h i s poem be longs) was s t i l l i n the p rocess of deve lopment . T h e r e f o r e , there was as yet i n s u f f i c i e n t ground fo r i n t e g r a l hermeneut ics .• The l i n g u i s t i c appur tenances are t h e r e , we w i l l f i r s t proceed to examine what they are be fo re see ing how they are used to c r ea t e a new mode i n Southern Song c_i p o e t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y in the yongwu subgenre as i t came to be t r e a t e d in the l a t e Song. I l l . THE YUEFU ZHIMI AND CIYUAN-POETICS AND AESTHETICS IN THE LATE SONG STYLE OF CI POETRY (13TH CENTURY) Wu Wenying d i d not l eave to p o s t e r i t y any c r i t i c a l t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s on p o e t r y . But f o r t u n a t e l y h i s views on the matter have been reco rded in a sma l l t r e a t i s e on the a r t of c i w r i t i n g e n t i t l e d the Yuefu zh imi [A Guidebook to S o n g - l y r i c s ] w r i t t e n by a contemporary f e l l o w poet Shen Y i f u ^ t ^ j ^ / / x ^ ( ? -a f t e r 1279) some time in the second h a l f of the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 2 1 The Yuefu zh imi i s an ext remely t e r s e work c o n t a i n i n g a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n f o l l owed by 28 i t ems , each 63 c o n s i s t i n g of at most a few sen tences , on v a r i o u s a spec t s of the compos i t i on of c_i p o e t r y . The s t y l i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s i t espouses ev idence c u r r e n t t a s t e s in l a t e Southern Song c_i p o e t i c s , i n d i c a t i n g the p reva l ence of a e s t h e t i c fo rmal i sm rep resen ted by Wu Wenying 's s t y l e of ci_ p o e t r y . T h i s work i s t h e r e f o r e very v a l u a b l e in the i n s i g h t s i t o f f e r s to a e s t h e t i c p r e f e r e n c e s in l a t e Song c_i and in terms of i t s e x p o s i t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Wu Wenying 's s t y l e . The other t r e a t i s e to be examined, the C iyuan was authored by Zhang Yan and dates from the e a r l y 1 3 0 0 s . 2 2 In two j uan , the f i r s t dea l s e n t i r e l y w i th the mus i ca l compos i t i on of c_i, the second concerns i t s e l f w i th the l i t e r a r y c r a f t of the c_i and i s of a s i m i l a r format as the Yuefu z h i m i . 2 3 Whi le the C iyuan a f f i r m s and e l a b o r a t e s some of the same concepts found in the Yuefu z h i m i , i t supplements the Yuefu zh imi by p o s t u l a t i n g what in e f f e c t i s an o p p o s i t i o n p o e t i c s to tha t embodied in Wu Weny ing 's c_i s t y l e and expounded by Shen Y i f u . Because of the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s in a e s t h e t i c emphases and the r e l a t i v e p r o x i m i t y in t ime of c o m p o s i t i o n , these two works are ext remely important fo r an unders tand ing of p r e v a i l i n g as we l l as changing p o e t i c t a s t e s and norms in the l a t e Song and immediate post-Song e r a . In the i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n of the Yuefu zh imi Shen Y i f u beg ins by r e c o u n t i n g h i s f i r s t meet ing in 1242 wi th Wu Wenying 's younger b ro the r Weng Yuan long, and in 1243 wi th Wu h i m s e l f , and the subsequent d i s c u s s i o n s they exchanged on the a r t of w r i t i n g c i . Shen, in a l l modesty as a l a t e beg inner in the genre and an i n f e r i o r in compar ison to the two accompl i shed p o e t s , 6 4 acknowledged h i s r e a l i z a t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of t h i s a r t and h i s indebtedness to the two b r o t h e r s . Shen e x p l a i n e d that he dec ided to set down t h e i r views and adv i c e on w r i t i n g c_i f o r r e f e r ence when s tuden ts began to seek adv i c e from him on the ma t t e r . He then se t s f o r t h the four t ene t s to be observed in the w r i t i n g of c i . It i s obv ious from the p h r a s i n g of the i n t r o d u c t i o n and c o r r o b o r a t i n g f e a t u r e s in Wu Wenying 's poe t r y that Shen 's s tatements on the four t ene t s a r e , i f not quoted ve rba t im from Wu, then c e r t a i n l y i n f l u e n c e d by and d e r i v e d from Wu and h i s b r o t h e r ' s v i ews . As I have p o i n t e d out in the b i o g r a p h i c a l c h a p t e r , Wu Weny ing 's s t a t u r e as a c_i poet s tood above tha t of h i s younger b r o t h e r ; f u r the rmore , j udg ing from the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t h e o r i e s expressed in t h i s work and the gene ra l p r a c t i c e c a r r i e d out by Wu in h i s c_i c o m p o s i t i o n , i t can be s a f e l y assumed tha t Wu Wenying i s the v o i c e of a u t h o r i t y beh ind these words. The four p r i n c i p l e s on the compos i t i on of c i enumerated by Shen Y i f u a r e : The tones of words shou ld be in harmony w i th the mus i c ; i f they do not harmonize , the r e s u l t would be j u s t s h i poe t r y in l i n e s of unequal l e n g t h . The d i c t i o n shou ld be e l e g a n t , o the rw ise i t would resemble that of popu la r songs . The use of words shou ld not be too e x p l i c i t , as e x p l i c i t n e s s i s b lun t and abrupt and l a cks deep, p ro longed a f t e r e f f e c t s . The exp re s s i on of ideas shou ld not be too g r a n d i o s e ; o the rw ise you end up wi th w i l dness and e c c e n t r i c i t y and l o s e s e n s i b i l i t y . 2 " From the above f o rmu l a t i ons we can e x t r a p o l a t e the key concepts of m u s i c a l i t y , e l egance , i n d i r e c t i o n and s e n s i b i l i t y . 6 5 Among these , s e n s i b i l i t y can be subsumed under e legance as they both dea l w i th language and e x p r e s s i o n ; though i n d i r e c t i o n . beg ins w i th how p o e t i c language shou ld be used , i t concerns the i d e a l method or manner of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s , these concepts w i l l be c o r r e l a t e d wi th c r i t i c a l comments in the two works and examined in the contex t of the development of c i . Music was an i n t e g r a l pa r t of the c_i genre as i t was p r a c t i s e d in Song t i m e s , 2 5 yet i t became a p rob l ema t i c aspect q u i t e e a r l y on in the development of the ci_. A l r eady in Su S h i ' s t ime , c r i t i c s were g i b i n g at the unw ie ld iness of some of h i s c_i poe t r y fo r s i n g i n g ; i t was s a i d that the t o n a l p a t t e r n s of h i s words o f t e n d i d not a c co rd w i th the notes of the m e l o d y . 2 6 S h o r t l y a f t e r , the poe tess L i Q ingzhao , an exper t in her knowledge of mus i c , v o i c e d her c r i t i c i s m on the u n m u s i c a l i t y of c_i w r i t t e n by l i t e r a t i s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s such as Su Shi and sh i poe t r y w i th untrimmed phrases and sen tences . The crux of the p rob lem, as she saw i t , seemed to l i e in the much f i n e r t o n a l and harmonic d i s t i n c t i o n s and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s tha t e x i s t in c i poe t r y which p r a c t i t o n e r s of sh i p o e t r y , accustomed to the s imple d i s t i n c t i o n between l e v e l and o b l i q u e t ones , c o u l d be g u i l t y of n e g l e c t i n g . 2 7 L i Q i n g z h a o ' s acute d i s a p p r o b a t i o n c o u l d be pa r t of a genera l r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t a p e r c e p t i b l e d e c l i n e in the m u s i c a l i t y of ci_ p o e t r y . Her near contemporary Zhou Bangyan, the exper t 'mus ic ian and c_i poet who came to be h i g h l y r eve red and i m i t a t e d in the l a t e Southern Song, devoted Ouyang X iu s a y i ng tha t t h e i r song l y r i c s were but 66 c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t to examining and de t e rm in ing c o r r e c t v e r s i o n s of o l d music s co res wh i le he served as D i r e c t o r of the years of the Nor thern Song. In the wake of the f l i g h t south a f t e r the Jurchen i n v a s i o n , i t was i n e v i t a b l e tha t numerous c_i music s co res would be l o s t . When the Southern Song populace f i n a l l y s e t t l e d down to a comfo r t ab l e l i f e in the l u sh environment and t h r i v i n g economy of the sou th , poe ts aga in began pay ing a t t e n t i o n to the t e c h n i c a l a spec t s of ci_ mus i c . Towards the end of the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , J i ang Kui and the c i r c l e he moved in ( i n c l u d i n g Fan Chengda and h i s s i n g i n g g i r l s h i g h l y t r a i n e d in music ) pursued the matter w i th a v i d d e d i c a t i o n . J i ang K u i ' s long p r e f a c e s to h i s c_i poems o f t e n c o n t a i n h i s musings on mus i c , harmony and p rosody , and d e s c r i b e the long and p a t i e n t p rocess by which he r e s o l v e d c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s in the music s c o r e . 2 8 The music of c i , however, had become such a s p e c i a l i z e d and i n t e l l e c t u a l a r t tha t i t n e c e s s a r i l y remained c o n f i n e d to c e r t a i n members of the c u l t u r e d e l i t e who had the l e i s u r e , l e a r n i n g and i n c l i n a t i o n to i ndu lge in i t s abs t ruse i n t r i c a c i e s . The p r eoccupa t i on among c_i s p e c i a l i s t s w i th the music and language of c_i was, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , in i n v e r s e p r o p o r t i o n to the p o p u l a r i t y of c_i among s o c i e t y at l a r g e . 2 9 By Shen Y i f u ' s t ime , the p rocess of s e p a r a t i o n between the t ex t and the music of c_i was becoming acute as each tended to f a l l i n t o the " p o s s e s s i o n " of d i s c r e t e s o c i a l g roups . The paradox of the s i t u a t i o n as Shen observed was tha t no one would s i n g c_i which were pa r t of the Bureau from 1116 to 1118 in the l a s t 67 l i t e r a r y l egacy because they o f t en d i d not a c co rd w i th the mus i c , but on the o ther hand p o p u l a r l y sung ci^ w r i t t e n by p r o f e s s i o n a l mus i c i ans and e n t e r t a i n e r s a b s o l u t e l y l a cked l i t e r a r y m e r i t . 3 0 Towards the end of the Song, when the ci^ mus i c a l t r a d i t i o n was s t i l l a l i v e though becoming a s u b t l e and e s o t e r i c s u b j e c t , i t was n a t u r a l f o r concerned p r a c t i s i n g c_i_ poets to emphasize what was in f a c t a d e f i n i n g gene r i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . By the end of the Song and i n t o the e a r l y years of the Yuan dynas t y , t h i s p r eoc cupa t i on sometimes reached the p r o p o r t i o n s of an o b s e s s i o n , as e x e m p l i f i e d by Zhang Yan. The e n t i r e f i r s t juan of the Ciyuan c o n s i s t s of' a most thorough and e r u d i t e t reatment of mus i c a l theory and c o m p o s i t i o n . Zhang Yan ' has o f t e n been f a u l t e d by l a t e r c r i t i c s fo r h i s f a s t i d i o u s concern wi th music to the de t r iment of the l i t e r a r y aspect of the c i . 3 1 Wu Wenying, in h i s own time and a f t e r , was known and admired fo r h i s e x p e r t i s e in mus i c . He c r ea t ed a number of new tune p a t t e r n s and h i s c_i are m u s i c a l l y c o r r e c t . 3 2 T h i s pronouncement in the Yuefu zh imi on the importance of s t r i c t adherence to mus i ca l harmony u n d e r l i n e s h i s major concern as a c i poet fo r formal p e r f e c t i o n . As much as the harmony between words and music was tantamount to an a u t h e n t i c p r a c t i c e of w r i t i n g c_i, i t i s c l e a r tha t the p r a c t i c a l as we l l as t h e o r e t i c a l concerns among the p r a c t i t i o n e r s of the genre at l a r g e were f o c u s i n g on the l i t e r a r y a s p e c t s . In the main, l a t e Southern Song c_i poets p a i d me t i cu l ous a t t e n t i o n to form ( s t r u c t u r e ) and language ( va r ious 68 aspec t s of s t y l e ) , as a p e r u s a l of the con ten t s of the Yuefu zh imi and the Ciyuan w i l l i n d i c a t e . Both c o n t a i n d i s c u s s i o n s on such s t r u c t u r a l a spec t s of the c_i as s t a n z a i c t r a n s i t i o n , open ing , c l o s u r e and l i n e s t r u c t u r e ; l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s such as a l l u s i o n , metonymy, and rhyme; and c r i t i c a l t h e o r i e s , however t e r s e , on d i c t i o n , e legance and so o n . 3 3 And, as we w i l l see , the remain ing th ree t ene t s set down by Shen Y i f u a l l r e l a t e to the l i t e r a r y - t e x t u a l compos i t i on of c_i p o e t r y . The second tenet i n t r o d u c e s the idea of e legance i t s t a t e s tha t the d i c t i o n of c_i shou ld be e l e g a n t . The concept of e legance had by t h i s t ime become c e n t r a l to Southern Song v iews of the c_i. I t had appeared e a r l i e r in Southern Song remarks on c_i and the term y a c i ^ ' e l e g a n t c_i' was a p p r o p r i a t e d fo r the t i t l e s of s e v e r a l c o l l e c t i o n s and a n t h o l o g i e s of c_i p o e t r y . 3 4 I t s importance was in a sense f o r t u i t o u s - i t a r i s e s from the c h a r a c t e r ' s o r i g i n a l meaning as zhengsheng vt _5p ' c o r r e c t , p roper sound' and i t s c l a s s i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i th music-yayue ^ was the proper music of a n c i e n t t i m e s . From t h i s p r imary meaning the secondary meaning of c u l t u r e and re f inement became the p r i n c i p l e beh ind a p o e t i c s of e l e g a n c e . Of the s i x poets on whose c_i poe t r y Shen Y i f u p r o f f e r e d p i t h y e v a l u a t i v e comments, four were c r i t i c i z e d f o r v a r y i n g degrees of v u l g a r i t y , the a n t i t h e s i s of e l e g a n c e . 3 5 I n v a r i a b l y they were f a u l t e d fo r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n ( i nadve r t en t or o therw ise ) of " low v u l g a r " language 1% ^\ in t h e i r c i . B a s i c a l l y t h i s vu lga r language breaks down i n t o c o l l o q u i a l 69 exp re s s i ons and hackneyed c l i c h e s in the vocabu la r y of popu la r s i n g e r s and m u s i c i a n s . 3 6 It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that t h i s c o l l o q u i a l s t y l e of c_i, which f i r s t r a i s e d a few eyebrows among the l i t e r a t i c l a s s when the Nor thern Song c_i_ poet L i u Yong p e r s i s t e d down to the end of the Song d e s p i t e a l l the nega t i ve c r i t i c i s m that had been l e v e l l e d at i t from more orthodox q u a r t e r s . L i Qingzhao fo r one s a i d of L i u Yong that h i s language was "below d u s t . " Wang Zhuo i #3/ ( f l . 1 149) c a u s t i c a l l y compared the " s u b s t a n d a r d " but i n f l u e n t i a l p o p u l a r i t y of L i u ' s s t y l e to the " p o i s o n in the s a l i v a of a w i l d f o x . " 3 7 T h i s p e r s i s t e n c e of the " v u l g a r " i s a s i g n of the complex and uns t ab l e nature of the c_i genre , of i t s r e v e r s i b l e metamorphosis from popu la r song to l i t e r a r y genre , and of the r e s u l t a n t ambiva lent boundary between the two which our e x p e r t s were a t t empt ing to d e f i n e c l e a r l y . At the same t ime , p r o s a i c e lements prominent in the h e r o i c s t y l e d e r i v e d from the language of the c l a s s i c s and h i s t o r i e s are c o n s i d e r e d s t i f f and a f f e c t e d , and t h e r e f o r e a l s o i n a p p r o p r i a t e fo r the d e l i c a t e and e l egan t d i c t i o n expected in c i • The above i s e legance in d i c t i o n n e g a t i v e l y de f i ned- the avo idance of c o l l o q u i a l i s m s and bana l c l i c h e s forms the b a s i s for e l egance . To go from t h e r e , a f f i r m a t i v e s tatements on e legance in d i c t i o n are d i s a p p o i n t i n g l y meagre and s i n g u l a r l y u n i n s p i r i n g in both the Yuefu zh imi and the C i y u a n . Both authors express the o p i n i o n that i t d e r i v e s from the s k i l f u l i n t e g r a t i o n of l i n e s of sh i p o e t r y , e s p e c i a l l y those by Tang p r a c t i s e d i t w i th enormous p o p u l a r i t y , had 70 p o e t s . On t h i s p o i n t , Shen Y i f u op ines that " i n seek ing [ m a t e r i a l f o r ] d i c t i o n , one shou ld look fo r f i n e and unvulgar l i n e s from the poe t r y of Wen T ingyun , L i He and L i Shangy in , " wh i l e Zhang Yan p r a i s e s Wu Wenying and the Nor thern Song poet He Zhu f o r t h e i r s k i l l in c r e a t i n g a r e f i n e d , p o l i s h e d d i c t i o n by adap t i ng l i n e s from the poe t r y of Wen T ingyun and L i He. The ornamented s t y l e of the l a t e Tang o b v i o u s l y had grea t appea l to Southern Song t a s t e . 3 8 To them Zhou Bangyan, who con t i nued to be admired a f t e r the Song fo r h i s ' c r a f t ' above a l l e l s e by g e n e r a t i o n s of c_i c r i t i c s , ep i t om ized the a r t f u l t echn ique of b o r r o w i n g . 3 9 The poem most o f t e n quoted fo r i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s t e chn ique i s among Zhou Bangyan 's most famous p i e c e s . Wr i t t en to the tune p a t t e r n Ru i l ong y i n , the poem i s a lmost a p a s t i c h e of adapted l i n e s from poems and p r e f a c e s to poems of no l e s s than four Tang p o e t s . " 0 The adapted l i n e s , however, a re woven so n a t u r a l l y i n t o the con tex t that the r e s u l t i s a s t y l i s t i c a l l y u n i f i e d poem h i g h l y admired by d i s c e r n i n g readers of the c i . E l e g a n c e , t hen , i s s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and re f inement grounded in a l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . That what nowadays would be regarded as a k ind of p l a g i a r i s m shou ld be looked upon as a pr imary techn ique of a c h i e v i n g p o e t i c e legance i s not too s u r p r i s i n g in view of a predominant t r a d i t i o n a l Ch inese a t t i t u d e towards l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n that i s e s s e n t i a l l y backward l o o k i n g - i t seeks to b u i l d on , echo and t r ans fo rm an o l de r t r a d i t i o n . Dur ing the Song, t h i s a t t i t u d e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y pronounced in the p o e t i c theory and method of the i n f l u e n t i a l J i a n g x i s choo l of sh i p o e t r y . " 1 S ince a few prominent J i a n g x i s choo l poets wrote in both genres , 71 i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e tha t t h e i r views had some impact on the g e n e r a l approach to p o e t r y . 4 2 The concept of e l egance , as I have ment ioned , goes beyond the domain of d i c t i o n ; i t a l s o governs music and the e x p r e s s i o n of s en t imen t , a reas of use which r e f l e c t the o r i g i n a l meaning of y a . On mus i c , Shen Y i f u a d v i s e d tha t c_i poets of h i s " g e n e r a t i o n shou ld choose tunes of c l a s s i c e l e g a n c e . a s models and shou ld not w r i t e [words] to those that have been p o p u l a r i z e d . " 4 3 Concern ing sent iment Zhang Yan admonished tha t "when c_i poe t r y becomes the s l ave of p a s s i o n , i t l o s e s i t s e l egan t and c o r r e c t t o n e . " The l i n e s he quoted f o r c r i t i c i s m , such as " For her my t ea r s f a l l , " "I am a f r a i d tha t she w i l l ask and ask fo r news, / Th inness w i l l r u i n the l u s t r e of her l o o k s , " and "A l o t of t r o u b l e / A l l because at the t ime , / For a moment I sowed l o v e , " are by no l e s s a name than Zhou B a n g y a n . 4 4 What i s l a c k i n g in these l i n e s fo r Southern Song t a s t e i s a r t and s u b t l e t y . A c c o r d i n g to the l a t e Song i d e a l of e l egance , t hey a l l f a l l shor t because of the o v e r l y s imp le and d i r e c t manner in which e x c e s s i v e l y emotive s tatements are made, some to the po in t of sounding f a c i l e . Though Zhang Yan d i d not comment on i t , the f a c t tha t most of these l i n e s are h e a v i l y c o l l o q u i a l in tone would render them twice removed from e l egance . In the same v e i n , Zhang Yan a l s o c r i t i c i z e s the Southern Song h e r o i c mode p r a c t i s e d by X in Q i j i et a l f o r be ing i n e l e g a n t . 4 5 Obv ious l y the v i r i l e s p i r i t and a s s e r t i v e language of the X in s t y l e are too d i r e c t in t h e i r own way. As I p o i n t e d out b e f o r e , Shen Y i f u ' s f o u r t h tenet on s e n s i b i l i t y r e a l l y p e r t a i n s to an aspec t of 72 e legance and, what i s more, i t i s d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the same v i r i l i t y of exp re s s i on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the h e r o i c mode which Zhang Yan c e n s u r e s . Both Shen and Zhang 's i n j u n c t i o n s on music and the v a r i o u s aspec t s of e legance are at bottom r e a c t i o n s a g a i n s t the e x p r e s s i v i t y in both the h e r o i c and popu la r t r ends in the c_i genre from c r i t i c s who fo l l owed and t r i e d to uphold the orthodox l i n e . E legance in c_i poe t ry meant to these poets and c r i t i c s an a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y that can be best ach ieved by i n d i r e c t i o n , both in manner of e x p r e s s i o n and in the c r e a t i o n of an a l l u s i v e and c o n n o t a t i v e l anguage . T h i s p o e t i c language f u n c t i o n s l i k e a p r i sm r e f r a c t i n g a source of l i g h t i n t o a r i c h spectrum of c o l o u r s - t h e s u r f a c e text of the poem i s extended and en r i ched by levels^ of i n t e r t e x t u a l meaning. So that in f a c t i f we were to p o i n t to a s t y l i s t i c p r i n c i p l e which u n d e r l i e s the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of ci^ in the Yuefu z h i m i , i t i s tha t of i n d i r e c t i o n s t a t e d in the t h i r d t e n e t : The use of words shou ld not be e x p l i c i t , as e x p l i c i t n e s s i s b lun t and abrupt and l a cks p ro longed a f t e r e f f e c t s . Lu means l i t e r a l l y " exposed " or " o p e n , " t h e r e f o r e " o v e r t " or " e x p l i c i t . " I t s oppos i t e i s advocated by Shen Y i f u , spokesman fo r the poet whose s t y l e i s the u l t i m a t e , at t imes e x c e s s i v e , embodiment of t h i s p r i n c i p l e . I n d i r e c t i o n best t r a n s l a t e s the p r i n c i p l e and method fo r i t s r e a l i z a t i o n which aim fo r sugges t i on and c u r t a i l d i r e c t obv ious e x p r e s s i o n . H i s 73 d i s c u s s i o n s on c l o s u r e , a l l u s i o n s to names, the use of metonyms p r i n c i p l e of i n d i r e c t i o n on one l e v e l or ano the r . The passage on c l o s u r e i s i n t e r e s t i n g fo r i t s more profound i n s i g h t and e x p r e s s i o n of Ch inese p o e t i c s e n s i b i l i t y : C l o s u r e shou ld evoke end less r e v e r b e r a t i o n s . I t i s bes t to conc lude a poem wi th a scene which embodies emot ion , f o r a l t hough a c l o s u r e which expresses emotion i s a c c e p t a b l e , i t can e a s i l y sound t r i t e and e x p l i c i t . " 6 That i s to say , an image which c o n c e a l s and h i n t s at the emotion i s p r e f e r r e d to u n d i s g u i s e d emot ion . The assumpt ion i s that a f e e l i n g s t a t e d d i r e c t l y i s apprehended at once, l e a v i n g no f u r t h e r e v o c a t i o n , whereas . the s u c c e s s f u l merging of a conc re te image and an uns ta ted emotion c r e a t e s an e l u s i v e n e s s which expands the r e a d e r ' s expe r i ence of the poem. If we look at the example he c i t e s of the c l o s u r e to Zhou Bangyan's aforementi 'oned Ru i l ong y i n , "Hear tbroken in the c o u r t y a r d , / A c u r t a i n f u l l of windblown c a t k i n s , " we w i l l see that the v i s u a l image of the l a s t l i n e i s n e i t h e r random nor p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e ; i t i s s e l e c t e d to e l i c i t emot iona l response and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l amb igu i t y , however, makes the image not an o b v i o u s , d e f i n i t e symbol but the nuc leus of a range of p o s s i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n s in a complex network of echoes and cor respondences both w i t h i n the tex t of the poem i t s e l f and i n t e r t e x t u a l l y . In t h i s c a s e , a sense of c o n f u s i o n , s e p a r a t i o n , f o r l o r n e s s are a l l suggested by the p r o f u s i o n of de tached , f l o a t i n g c a t k i n s . ^ v an& poems on o b j e c t s r e l a t e to the 74 T r a d i t i o n a l Ch inese c r i t i c s h i g h l y va lue t h i s k ind of e l u s i v e c l o s u r a l imagery fo r i t s r i c h s u g g e s t i v e n e s s ; 4 7 i t has become an a r t i s t i c means to be c o n s c i o u s l y f o l l o w e d . What Shen has to say about a l l u s i o n s to names, metonyms and poems on o b j e c t s sounds r a the r pedan t i c and s u p e r f i c i a l . For i n s t a n c e , in a l l u d i n g to names, one i s adv i sed not to use the f u l l name wi thout some form of a l t e r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y when i t i s used in a p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e to another name. He d i s app roves of Zhou Bangyan 's f requent use of f u l l names in p a r a l l e l l i n e s , as in "Yu X i n ' s sorrows are many, / J i a n g Yan ' s r e g r e t s are e x t r e m e . " 4 8 As a modern s c h o l a r n o t e d , in Wu Wenying 's c_i on the c o n t r a r y , a l l u s i o n ' s to names are u s u a l l y a l t e r e d ( o f t en by r e d u c t i o n to one c h a r a c t e r ) , as in the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : " S o many t imes pass ing winecups around we mourned Fu ( i . e . , Tu Fu ) , / Ho ld i ng chrysanthemums we summoned the s p i r i t of Qian ( i . e . , Tao Q i a n ) . " 4 9 In t h i s way, the a l l u s i o n i s not o b t r u s i v e and there i s l i t e r a l l y more room to deve lop semant ic and i m a g i s t i c i n t e r p l a y . With r ega rd to poems on o b j e c t s Shen admonishes that words c o n t a i n e d in the t i t l e of the poem shou ld not be used in the t ex t of the poem; and metonyms are deemed an i n d i s p e n s a b l e d e v i c e fo r p o e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . In o ther words, the i d e a l language of the c_i shou ld be o b l i q u e - a s much as p o s s i b l e no th ing shou ld be s t a t e d d i r e c t l y . One can e a s i l y see the inheren t p i t f a l l of obscu ran t i sm in t h i s p r i n c i p l e when i t i s c a r r i e d too f a r . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , e lsewhere in the Yuefu zh imi Shen Y i f u p o i n t s to Wu Weny ing 's o c c a s i o n a l o b s c u r i t y in d i c t i o n and use 75 of a l l u s i o n as h i s s t y l i s t i c w e a k n e s s . 5 0 Al though Zhang Yan ma in ta ined many of the same a e s t h e t i c v a l ues expressed in Shen 's t r e a t i s e , h i s own C i y u a n , w r i t t e n somewhat l a t e r , r ep re sen t s a r e a c t i o n to the c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of the p o e t i c s of i n d i r e c t i o n found in Wu Wenying 's p o e t i c s t y l e . In Zhang 's own i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks in the second juan of the C i y u a n , Wu i s c i t e d among f i v e p o e t s - i n c l u d i n g J i ang Kui-as we l l - r epu ted poets who had deve loped t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e . Wu i s f u r t h e r c i t e d f a v o r a b l y in the three s e c t i o n s on l i n e s t r u c t u r e , d i c t i o n , and shor t l y r i c s . I t i s c l e a r tha t in the l a t e Song and e a r l y Yuan, Wu Wenying'was a major i n f l u e n c e to be reckoned w i t h . I f we make a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the poets Zhang Yan r e f e r r e d to in the C i y u a n , the s h i f t in t a s t e becomes q u i t e appa ren t . Zhou Bangyan, wh i le s t i l l regarded as a grea t maste r , i s by no means he l d up as the p e r f e c t or on l y model . Frequent p o s i t i v e r e f e r e n c e s are made to other Nor thern Song c_i p o e t s - i n p a r t i c u l a r Su Shi and Qin Guan-hardly mentioned in the Yuefu z h i m i . 5 1 These Nor thern Song poets s tand fo r a more n a t u r a l , f l ow ing s t y l e be fo re Zhou Bangyan i n i t i a t e d the t r end towards " s u b t l e t y and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n " - t o use James L i u ' s t e r m i n o l o g y 5 2 - i n v e r b a l s t r u c t u r e s and the e x p r e s s i o n of s en t imen t s . In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , Zhang Yan sought a s t y l e which r e t a i n e d some of the rhythmic f low of the Nor thern Song s t y l e and at the same time e x h i b i t e d c e r t a i n d e s i r a b l e Southern Song s e n s i b i l i t i e s . He found t h i s in the c_i of J i ang K u i . H i s concept of qmgkong j _ ' t r a n s p a r e n c y , ' which he fo rmula ted 7 6 with J i ang K u i ' s c_i as the u l t i m a t e model , forms the core of h i s o p p o s i t i o n to c e r t a i n a spec t s of Wu Wenying 's p o e t i c s of i n d i r e c t i o n , which he c h a r a c t e r i z e d as z h i s h i ^ ^ ' d e n s i t y . ' Consequent ly the re i s no s p e c i a l d i s c u s s i o n on metonyms in the C i yuan , and h i s adv i ce on the use of xuz i 'empty words' i s a n t i t h e t i c a l to Shen Y i f u ' s . 5 3 In h i s famous statement on qinqkong ve r sus z h i s h i , he p i t s J i ang Kui a g a i n s t Wu Wenying in a passage tha t has come to occupy the c o n t r o v e r s i a l s t a r t i n g po in t for any c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of Wu Wenying 's s ty le . : C i poe t r y shou ld be t r anspa ren t and not dense . If t r a n s p a r e n t , i t w i l l have a r c h a i c e legance and v i g o u r ; i f dense , i t w i l l be s tagnant and obscu re . J i ang K u i ' s c_i i s l i k e a w i l d c l o u d that f l i e s a l o n e , coming and go ing wi thout a t r a c e , and Wu Wenying 's c_i i s l i k e a many-jewel led e d i f i c e which d a z z l e s the eye , but when i t i s taken apar t i t does not form c l a u s e s or s e n t e n c e s . 5 4 T h i s statement perhaps says as much about the c r i t i c as about the poet c r i t i c i z e d . I t s i n t ense m e t a p h o r i c a l n e s s , as we w i l l see , on ly amounts to Zhang Yan ' s concern fo r the language aspect of the c_i. Both Shen Y i f u and Zhang Yan n o t i c e d the b r i l l i a n t su r f a ce s t r u c t u r e of Wu Wenying 's poe t ry ( e . g . , in p r a i s i n g the beauty of h i s d i c t i o n ) and seem to have missed the emot iona l depth underneath and t h e r e f o r e the f i n a l h o l i s t i c a r t which comes from a f u s i o n of d a z z l i n g sensuousness of imagery wi th f l i g h t s of imag ina t i on and a p a l p a b l e depth of f e e l i n g . 77 IV. THE POETICS OF DENSITY Zhang Yan ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of Wu Wenying 's s t y l e as "dense " i s unques t i onab l y p e r s p i c a c i o u s . That he i s c r i t i c a l towards t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r o n g l y r e f l e c t s h i s p e r s o n a l t a s t e and p r e f e r e n c e . However, h i s i n c i s i v e view p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l p e r s p e c t i v e in which to examine the p o e t i c s of Wu Weny ing 's c i . The o p p o s i t i o n which Zhang Yan set up between q ingkong ' t r a n s p a r e n c y ' and z h i s h i ' d e n s i t y ' r e vo l v e s around the use of sh i j i 'ra^ ' f u l l words' and x u z i ]|L 'empty wo rds , ' the two c a t e g o r i e s under which words were t r a d i t i o n a l l y c l a s s i f i e d . These two terms have been used in d i s c u s s i o n s of poe t r y s i n ce Song t i m e s . 5 5 Cu r ren t Song usages of the terms s h i z i and x u z i i n d i c a t e tha t the two terms a l r e a d y c o n s t i t u t e d an i m p l i c i t b i na r y system of word c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Song d e f i n i t i o n s of these terms are r a r e , but the neo-Confuc ian p h i l o s o p h e r Lu J iuyuan fl>'M (1139-1193) l e f t one in h i s c o l l e c t e d works: "The ideas words r ep resen t can be empty or f u l l . In the case of empty words we can on ly speak of the meaning in the word, whereas in the case of f u l l words we can speak about something r e a l / c o n c r e t e ( sh i ) that the word r e f e r s t o . " 5 6 The d e f i n i t i o n suggests that words wi th a p e r c e p t u a l or image con ten t are c o n s i d e r e d f u l l words, and words devo id of such conc r e t e r e f e r e n t s are c o n s i d e r e d e m p t y . 5 7 In the l a t e Q i n g , Ma J i anzhong wrote the p i o n e e r i n g comprehensive grammar of c l a s s i c a l Ch inese , the Mashi wentong. In i t he d e f i n e s f u l l words as " those which r e f e r to some d e f i n i t e phenomenon that can be e x p l a i n e d " . a n d empty words as 78 " those which r e f e r to no d e f i n i t e phenomenon but which modify the nature and c o n d i t i o n of f u l l w o r d s . " 5 8 A f u n c t i o n a l c r i t e r i o n fo r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the two word c l a s s e s i s p rov ided by the contemporary Ch inese l i n g u i s t Zhou Fagao: f u l l words can f u n c t i o n as the sub jec t or p r e d i c a t e of a sentence whereas empty words cannot . With r e spec t to t h e i r f u n c t i o n s , Zhou s u b d i v i d e s f u l l words i n t o s u b s t a n t i v e s (nouns) and p r e d i c a t i v e s (verbs and a d j e c t i v e s ) , and other l e s s e r c a t e g o r i e s ; and empty words i n t o adve rbs , c o n n e c t i v e s , p r e p o s i t i o n s , i n t e r j e c t i o n s , and p a r t i c l e s . 5 9 In an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " F u l l words, Empty words, and A l l u s i o n s , " the modern s c h o l a r Yuan Zhai notes tha t i n t r a d i t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n s of p o e t r y , nouns and some verbs and a d j e c t i v e s are counted as f u l l words, the r e s t f a l l i n t o an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d ca tegory of empty w o r d s . 6 0 These modern e x t r a p o l a t i o n s of the meaning and scope of f u l l words and empty words agree on the b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e in semantic content and grammat ica l f u n c t i o n between the two word c l a s s e s . In p o e t r y , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e between words wi th an image content and those which express p r i m a r i l y grammat ica l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a f f e c t s the s y n t a c t i c and semantic f low in the p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e . In the c o n c e n t r a t e d , image-or ien ted language of p o e t r y , the use of empty words i s u s u a l l y reduced and prose p a r t i c l e s in p a r t i c u l a r are a v o i d e d , except in i n s t ances when the poet i s a iming fo r a s p e c i a l e f f e c t , such as a c o l l o q u i a l , d i s c u r s i v e , or e r u d i t e tone . Ye t , even in sh i p o e t r y , in which s t r u c t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n i s m in ima l l y o rgan i zed on the r e p e t i t i o n of the c o u p l e t , the presence of empty words in s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n s i s 79 o f t e n v i t a l to the f low and meaning, fo r empty words are grammat ica l markers which f u n c t i o n to c r e a t e h y p o t a c t i c syntax and semantic coherence between l i n e s and c o u p l e t s by making c a u s a l l i n k s and l o g i c a l t r a n s i t i o n s . S t a ted i n v e r s e l y , the coherence and f low of a poem i s more d i f f i c u l t to ach ieve in a p r o p o r t i o n a t e absence of empty words. Yuan Z h a i , in the a r t i c l e mentioned above, quotes a poem by the Tang poet Wei Yingwu as an example in which the r e l a t i v e l y h igh percentage of empty words are used e f f e c t i v e l y to b r i n g out the emot iona l f l o w . 6 1 The poem, w r i t t e n in p e n t a s y l l a b i c r e g u l a t e d form, i s t i t l e d "I r e j o i c e d in encoun te r ing an o l d f r i e n d from L iangzhou on the Huai R i v e r ; " L i angzhou i s an a r c h a i c name fo r the southwestern pa r t of Shaanxi around the Han r i v e r . Once so jou rne r s on the Yangzi and Han R i v e r s , Each time we met we r e tu rned drunk. F l o a t i n g c l o u d s - a f t e r we p a r t e d , F lowing water-a p e r i o d of ten y e a r s . Happy and l a u g h i n g , our f r i e n d s h i p same as in the p a s t , Sparse and t h i n , our h a i r i s a l r e ady spo t t ed w i th g rey . Why do I not r e tu rn ? There are autumn h i l l s around the H u a i . 6 2 Upon s c r u t i n y , many of the empty words p o i n t e d out by Yuan Zhai in t h i s poem turn out to be adverbs and p r e p o s i t i o n s deno t ing a sense of t ime , which toge the r produce a smooth tempora l t r a n s i t i o n . A r e f l e c t i v e compar ison between the past and 80 present i s expressed through the tempora l framework set up by the use of these empty words. The p o e t ' s happy sen t imen ts-h i s fond memories of a past f r i e n d s h i p and joy about the p resen t meet ing-are combined wi th a c e r t a i n w i s t f u l n e s s at the passage of t ime in a d e c e p t i v e l y s imple and n a t u r a l manner. In the case of c_i_ p o e t r y , and we are here p r i m a r i l y concerned w i th the manei form p r e v a l e n t in the Southern S o n g , 6 3 i t s r e l a t i v e comp lex i t y in s t r u c t u r e - t h e i r r e g u l a r i t y of l i n e l e n g t h s , s t r o p h i c and s t a n z a i c d i v i s i o n s - a n d mus i c a l f u n c t i o n genera ted new m e t r i c a l / s t r u c t u r a l developments which i n vo l v e s p e c i f i c usages of empty words. Of course the o v e r a l l d i s t r i b u t i o n of empty words in a p i e c e remained important in the way i t a f f e c t s the f low, s i m i l a r to the e f f e c t i t produces in sh i p o e t r y . But the l eng th and asymmetry of manei , r e l a t i v e to x i a o l i n g ' s h o r t c_i l y r i c s ' and r e g u l a t e d s h i , r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t means in s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o the r than p a r a t a c t i c and h y p o t a c t i c p a r a l l e l i s m and c o u p l e t movement. The most no tab le new f ea tu re i n t r o d u c e d in the s t r u c t u r a l p o e t i c s of manei i s a c l a s s of "empty words , " in p r e s c r i b e d tones used in p r e s c r i b e d p o s i t i o n s in manei tune p a t t e r n s , d e s i g n a t e d by the term l i n g z i I7L J " l e a d i n g - w o r d " . 6 4 The Nor thern Song ci_ poet L i u Yong i s c r e d i t e d w i th hav ing been i n s t r umen ta l in p o p u l a r i z i n g the use of manei tune p a t t e r n s and in d e v e l o p i n g t h i s new f e a t u r e . 6 5 These p o s i t i o n e d "empty words" in manei form a s p e c i a l i z e d group which i n c l u d e s c o n v e n t i o n a l empty words from the grammat ica l word c l a s s , but which i n c l u d e s c e r t a i n verbs as w e l l . They c o n s i s t of segments rang ing from one to th ree . 81 c h a r a c t e r s and i n v a r i a b l y occupy the i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n in a l i n e and may govern from one to four c o n s e c u t i v e l i n e s . For t h i s reason they are c a l l e d in Qing and pos t-Q ing ci_ p o e t i c s l i n g ju  z i ' l i n e - l e a d i n g words' or s imp ly l i n g z i ' l e a d i n g -words . ' Dur ing the Southern Song, no s p e c i a l t e rm ino logy e x i s t e d fo r lead-segments , they were r e f e r r e d to as "empty words" or "empty words at the beg inn ing of the l i n e . " 6 6 As many l ead-segment words do be long to the grammat ica l c l a s s of empty words, i t may e x p l a i n why the term was used . When c_i were a c t u a l l y w r i t t e n to e x i s t i n g tunes and sung, as i t was t h e ' p r a c t i c e d u r i n g the Song, the p r e s c r i b e d s y n t a c t i c p o s i t i o n and s t r i c t t o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n govern ing lead-segments suggest that they bore an i n t e g r a l r e l a t i o n to the mus i c a l p a t t e r n . Not on l y do lead-segments occupy the i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n in a l i n e , but they occur in the f i r s t or second l i n e of a s t r o p h i c u n i t , i n d i c a t i n g some cor respondence to rhythmic s t r e s s or t r a n s i t i o n . T h i s i s suppor ted by the predominant use of c h a r a c t e r s in the f a l l i n g tone fo r l e a d - s e g m e n t s . 6 7 X i a Chengtao has observed tha t " the f a l l i n g tone has a s p e c i a l s t a t u s in c i ; i t i s used in p l a c e s where the mus i c a l p i t c h p l a y s a c r i t i c a l r o l e in the t u n e . " 6 8 The heavy s t r e s s of the f a l l i n g tone i s c o n s i d e r e d v i g o r o u s and e x p r e s s i v e , 6 9 thus t h i s t o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s e x p l o i t e d in lead-segments , both in r e l a t i o n to the mus i c a l and the p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e . It shou ld be noted tha t the p r e s c r i b e d i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n f o r lead-segments makes fo r s y n t a c t i c f l e x i b i l i t y , o f t en r e s u l t i n g in l i n e s w i th o therwise ungrammatica l s yn tax . T h i s i s a common f ea tu re unique to the 82 s t r u c t u r e of m a n e i • 7 0 L i u Yong ' s germina l p r a c t i c e of us ing lead-segments e s t a b l i s h e d a s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e which came to be c a r e f u l l y obse r ved , not on l y in that set p o s i t i o n s are f o l l owed in a p a r t i c u l a r tune p a t t e r n , but a l s o in the gene ra l c h o i c e of words to be used as lead-segments . By f a r the great m a j o r i t y of l ead-segments are m o n o s y l l a b i c . They average two to s i x occu r r ences in a manei tune p a t t e r n and t h e i r p r e s c r i b e d p o s i t i o n s are r i g i d l y f o l l o w e d . P rev ious s t u d i e s have noted tha t most l e ad-segments tend to c o n s i s t of adverbs and verbs which o f t e n serve as c o n j u n c t i v e s and i n t e r r o g a t i v e s ; some, e s p e c i a l l y p o l y s y l l a b i c lead-segments , are c o l l o q u i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . 7 1 The s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n of l e a d - s e g m e n t s ' e f f e c t s an i n t e g r a t i o n of e x p r e s s i v e and i m a g i s t i c l anguage , and produces a sense of t r a n s i t i o n as we l l as f low and c o n t i n u i t y . In the f o l l o w i n g example from a c_i by L i u Yong, the lead-segment connec ts the two l i n e s by i n t r o d u c i n g the conten t of p e r c e p t i o n to the verb in the p r e ced ing l i n e ; i t a l s o g i v e s c o n t e x t u a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n to the images i t gove rns : [On] the homeward j ou rney : Even where I gaze i n t e n t l y , Only / sunset and dusky haze f i l l the g rassy p l a i n . 7 2  (Mulanhua man, QSC 1/47) Another i l l u s t r a t i v e example i s L i u Yong 's much admired second 83 in h i s poem to the tune Basheng Ganzhou; in i t the l e ad-u n i f i e s a s e r i e s of images by p r o v i d i n g a tempora l w i th a preposed adverb which governs th ree consecu t i v e G r a d u a l l y / the f r o s t y wind [becomes] c h i l l y and h a r s h , The mountain pass and r i v e r d e s o l a t e , The f a d i n g t w i l i g h t [ f a l l s ] on the p a v i l i o n . -*r % «l41* ,% >$ % ,i\ ?3, t %, (QSC 1/43) As fo r ve rbs used fo r lead-segments , by f a r the most common v a r i e t i e s are those which denote p e r c e p t i o n , men ta t i on , or emot ion . In r e v e a l i n g the s u b j e c t i v e l y r i c a l expe r i ence of the poe t , these v e r b a l lead-segments a l s o ac t as s t r u c t u r a l l i n k s in the way they i n d i c a t e the s h i f t s in e x p e r i e n t i a l s t a t e s between s t rophes and a r t i c u l a t e the l i n e s they govern as the content of the e x p e r i e n c e . The opening s t rophe of Basheng Ganzhou beg ins w i th a lead-segment p o s i t i o n , and L i u Yong beg ins i t w i th a ve rb which b r i n g s out h i s p e r c e p t i o n : I face s p l a s h i n g / r a i n at dusk s p r i n k l i n g r i v e r and sky , Once more c l e a n s i n g c l e a r autumn. % % : t > % ^ 4 >^, - 4 ^ . (QSC 1/43) s t rophe segment context 1 i nes : Then he proceeds to the second s t rophe quoted above, l e d by an 84 adverb which lends a tempora l d imens ion to h i s e x p e r i e n c e . The two s t rophes suggest tha t the p e r s o n a ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the autumn even ing landscape was a p ro longed a c t . The t r a n s i t i o n between the s t r o p h i c u n i t s and the l i nkage of the l i n e s are so s k i l f u l l y s t r u c t u r e d on these two lead-segments tha t they are a lmost seamless . Of the four s t r o p h i c u n i t s in the second s tanza of Basheng Ganzhou, the f i r s t three each c o n t a i n s a lead-segment p o s i t i o n . 7 3 L i u Yong uses th ree c o n s e c u t i v e v e r b a l lead-segments which i n d i c a t e r e s p e c t i v e l y p e r c e p t i o n , emot ion , and men t a t i on : f i r s t , the verb "gaze upon" e l i c i t s the conten t of h i s p e r c e p t i o n , which in tu rn causes him to " l ament " about h i s p resen t c o n d i t i o n of be ing away from home and h i s l o v e r , then he " i m a g i n e s " the s t a t e of h i s l o v e r faraway (QSC 1/43). A g a i n , the t w i s t s and tu rns of the l y r i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s are p resen ted d i s t i n c t l y by the use of such v e r b a l l ead-segments . We w i l l l a t e r have o c ca s i on to compare the lead-segments in Wu Weny ing 's Basheng Ganzhou wi th t h i s model by L i u Yong. That the use of empty words and lead-segments had become an e s t a b l i s h e d s t r u c t u r a l dev i ce of importance can be surmised from the d i s c u s s i o n s on t h i s t o p i c con t a i ned in both the C iyuan and Yuefu z h i m i . As we have seen , the views expressed in these two t r e a t i s e s a c co rd wi th each other on most mat ters conce rn i ng the a e s t h e t i c s and p o e t i c s of c_i, but t h i s i s one a rea in which they d e c i d e d l y d i v e r g e d . F i r s t , l e t us examine Zhang Yan ' s comments in the C i y u a n : Sh i and c_i are d i f f e r e n t . L i n e s in c_i can have anywhere from two to e i gh t c h a r a c t e r s . I f one p i l e s up f u l l words, [the c_i] would not even make smooth 85 r e a d i n g , how can one then g i ve i t to a s i n g i n g g i r l to per form? One shou ld c o o r d i n a t e i t w i th empty words, those of one c h a r a c t e r such as "now" i t , " b u t " A— , " i t i s t h a t / w h y " ^ , and " l e t " y i i . ; those of two c h a r a c t e r s such as " i s i t not t h a t " ^ T % . , " then a g a i n " iJL SL , and "how can I bea r " ; and those of th ree c h a r a c t e r s such as "moreover how can one, bea r " ^ , "most unreasonable t h a t " jfk. i and "ye t aga in i t i s " 3<L ^ " f . However, these empty words shou ld be used a p p r o p r i a t e l y in p l a c e s where they b e l o n g . If as many as p o s s i b l e of these empty words are used , the language w i l l n a t u r a l l y come a l i v e ; i t c e r t a i n l y w i l l not be dense , and the reader w i l l not s c o f f at i t by c l o s i n g the book. [ Va r i an t r ead ing of the l a s t s e c t i o n : I f one uses a l l empty words, the language w i l l be v u l g a r . Though i t c e r t a i n l y w i l l not be dense , one cannot a v o i d be ing mocked at by the reader c l o s i n g the b o o k . ] 7 " Zhang Yan ' s d i s c u s s i o n at once concerns the o v e r a l l use of empty words and the use of empty words as lead-segments . The l a t t e r p o i n t may not be immediate ly apparent due to the l ack of a s p e c i f i c term* fo r lead-segments . But i t can be i n f e r r e d from the examples of empty words c i t e d by Zhang Yan, as they are most ly used in lead-segment p o s i t i o n s , and a l s o from h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n tha t " these empty words shou ld be used a p p r o p r i a t e l y in p l a c e s where they b e l o n g . " From the l i s t , we can a l s o see tha t these "empty words" are nea r l y a l l a d v e r b i a l c o n j u n c t i o n s , i n t e r r o g a t i v e s , and c o l l o q u i a l e x p r e s s i o n s ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , by employ ing them a poet can c r ea t e h y p o t a c t i c syntax and e x p l i c i t r h e t o r i c . The importance p l a c e d on the use of empty words/lead-segments by Zhang Yan in f a c t c o n s t i t u t e s the backbone of h i s p o e t i c s of t r a n s p a r e n c y . Lead-segments, as we have seen , are d e n o t a t i v e l i n k s which thread toge the r and make man i f e s t the v a r i e d d imens ions of image, though t , and f e e l i n g in a manei , thus enhanc ing i t s f low and c o n t i n u i t y . 86 T h e r e f o r e , Zhang Yan a s s e r t s that the f requent use of empty words in proper p l a c e s w i l l make the language "come a l i v e . " The v a r i a n t r ead ing i s noteworthy fo r i t s admoni t ion conce rn ing the adverse e f f e c t of v u l g a r i t y r e s u l t i n g from an abundant use of empty words: f l u e n c y i s d e s i r e d , not an o v e r l y c o l l o q u i a l t one . Even more s i g n i f i c a n t i s the po in t made in both r ead ings that the language " c e r t a i n l y w i l l not be dense" i f empty words are employed. T h i s d i s c u s s i o n immediate ly precedes the famous passage c r i t i c i z i n g the " d e n s i t y " of Wu Wenying 's c_i. A l though Zhang Yan never s t a t e s e x p l i c i t l y tha t Wu Wenying 's d e n s i t y h inges on the use of empty words, or want of i t , at l e a s t h a l f the e x p l a n a t i o n l i e s p r e c i s e l y in t h i s ma t t e r . We may r e c a l l that the model Zhang Yan upholds fo r h i s p o e t i c s of t r anspa rency i s J i ang K u i ' s c_i. J i ang Kui does tend to use c o n j u n c t i v e lead-segments and empty words w i t h i n l i n e s to e f f e c t h ypo t ax i s and c o n c a t e n a t i o n . On l y , as we have d i s c u s s e d in the l a s t s e c t i o n , in h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e works the emot iona l and concep tua l p rocess remain suppressed , and the f low i s ma in ta ined foremost on the s y n t a c t i c and s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l . B i a s sed though Wang Guowei i s towards Southern Song ci^, h i s summary comment on J i ang Kui i n t e r e s t i n g l y r e f l e c t s t h i s dua l aspec t in J i a n g ' s c_i: " B a i s h i ( J iang Kui ) has s t y l e but no f e e l i n g . " 7 5 Other c r i t i c s and readers g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e J i a n g ' s c i , I b e l i e v e , at l e a s t in pa r t f o r the ambigu i ty and e l u s i v e n e s s produced by t h i s union of o p p o s i t e s which leave something to savour . Zhang Yan shou ld have used h imse l f as an example of h i s own 87 p o e t i c s ; he i s a c r i t i c who does put theory i n t o p r a c t i c e . H i s c i are sometimes t r anspa ren t to the p o i n t of be ing naked. Not on l y do h i s poems e x h i b i t an ext remely f l u e n t s t r u c t u r e c o n s t r u c t e d w i th lead-segments and a h igh r a t i o of empty words, by means of these s t r u c t u r a l e lements he a l s o l a y s bare h i s hea r t and mind. One example w i l l s u f f i c e to show h i s p r a c t i c e , f o r Zhang Yan i s q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t s t y l i s t i c a l l y . On t ak i ng l eave of an o l d f r i e n d a f t e r a chance v i s i t , Zhang e f f u s e s h i s r e l u c t a n c e to fo r sake h i s companion w i th the a i d of many empty words: • • • • D i d n ' t p l an to meet each other on an o l d p a t h . Jus t when I was doubt ing i t was a dream, I was then aga in s t a r t l e d awake. L i g h t breeze on the w i l l o w s , The r i v e r sways wi th white waves, The boat l eaves at the wake of dawn. No matter tha t I had come a g a i n , I t i s b e t t e r not to d e p a r t , How can I bear t h i s f e e l i n g i n my bosom? Who w i l l know that once aga in the gate wi th the f i v e w i l l ows w i l l be dese r t ed Where I had heard the cuckoos c r y . ( Shu i lonq y i n , QSC 5/3471) A s i d e from the s t rophe evok ing the scene of d e p a r t u r e , the 88 s tanza i s q u i t e devo id of images. With the h y p o t a c t i c c o n j u n c t i o n s " j u s t when . . . t hen a g a i n " . . . SCl^i > " n o matter t h a t . . . i t i s b e t t e r " ^ . . . ^if® ; and the i n t e r r o g a t i ves "how can I bea r " / { f , ^ and "who would know t h a t " # f X - » the s tanza a c q u i r e s a l oose syntax and a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l tone . T h i s i s f u r t h e r enhanced by Zhang Yan ' s p r o p e n s i t y f o r v e r b a l r e s u l t a t i v e s ; the s t anza ends wi th two of h i s f a v o r i t e s - d e in t i ngde ~f{fc\ \^ 'had hea rd ' , and l i a o in t i l i a o "vp J 'had c r i e d . ' Wu Wenying 's p r a c t i c e i s d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed to tha t of Zhang Yan. The two r ep resen t a n t i t h e t i c a l extremes in l a t e Southern Song s t r u c t u r a l p o e t i c s . In order to see Wu's t h e o r y , we w i l l aga in turn to h i s spokesman Shen Y i f u ' s r e c o r d in the Yuefu z h i m i : Tunes o f t e n have l i n e s which shou ld beg in w i th an empty word, such a s : " t o lament" , "how can one bea r " ^ , "how much more" >X_J , "even more" V 5 . , " then a g a i n " 3t_ , " t o imagine" /pj- , " t o t h i n k / i m a g i n e " , " j u s t when" 2L , and " i t i s t h a t " $ . These can be used wi thout harm. However, i t w i l l not be good i f they are used two to th ree t imes in one c_i, in which case they w i l l be c a l l e d empty head-words ^ j z J L . I t i s f a r b e t t e r to use i n s t e a d a s t a t i c word ^ r i g h t at the beg inn ing [of the l i n e ] to l e ad the f o l l o w i n g ; then the l i n e s t r u c t u r e w i l l be v i g o r o u s . Yet they shou ld not be used too o f t e n . 7 6 The passage c l e a r l y concerns the use of monosy l l ab i c l e ad-segments. What i s immediate ly apparent i s the way i t c o n t r a d i c t s Zhang y a n ' s a d v i c e . Whereas Zhang Yan encourages the use of empty words in lead-segment p o s i t i o n s , Shen Y i f u c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e i r repeated use . P e r f u n c t o r y and redundant 89 use of empty words as lead-segments r e s u l t in what he c a l l s "empty head-words , " a k ind of mean ing less r e p e t i t i o n . Shen goes f u r t h e r to suggest the s u b s t i t u t i o n of an empty word in a l e ad-segment wi th a " s t a t i c word . " W i th in t h i s con tex t in which " s t a t i c word" i s used in o p p o s i t i o n to empty word, i t means e v i d e n t l y f u l l w o r d . 7 7 The f a c t tha t Shen does not p rov ide any example of s t a t i c words a l s o suggests that they r e f e r to a broad l e x i c a l ca tegory unders tood as f u l l words. S ince nouns cannot f u n c t i o n s t r u c t u r a l l y as monosy l l ab i c lead-segments , the c h o i c e of s t a t i c words fo r t h i s purpose has to be drawn l a r g e l y from verbs and a d j e c t i v e s . Moreover , Shen ' s l i s t i n c l u d e s one emotive verb ( " to lament" ) and two verbs of menta t ion ( " to imagine" and " t o t h i n k " ) , i t thus exc ludes two of the common c a t e g o r i e s of verbs used as lead-segments from h i s in tended range of s t a t i c words. By i n f e r e n c e , we a r r i v e at verbs which denote a more " v i s i b l e " semantic c o n t e n t . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s would s t i l l be end l e s s were i t not f o r the t o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n which s e v e r e l y l i m i t s the number of such verbs (and a d j e c t i v e s ) to be used as lead-segments and, not l e a s t i s the f i n a l c a u t i o n in Shen 's passage not to o v e r - e x p l o i t t h i s t echn ique of s u b s t i t u t i o n . Shen proves to be a very observant d i s c i p l e , f o r h i s adv i ce i s suppor ted by Wu Wenying 's p r a c t i c e . To be s u r e , Wu Wenying fo r the g r ea t e r pa r t employs the more common adverbs and verbs in the accepted r e p e r t o r y of l e ad-segments. But h i s d e v i a t i o n s from accep ted norms are what c o n t r i b u t e s to the d e n s i t y of h i s s t y l e . There e x i s t s in Wu's corpus a number of s t r a y verbs which he v a r i e s j u d i c i a l l y w i th 90 the more commmonly used lead-segment words. The f o l l o w i n g are some i l l u s t r a t i v e e x a m p l e s : 7 8 1. R i ve r herons j u s t began to f l y ; D r i f t i n g / thousands of mi l es-wh i te c l o u d s , The s k y ' s h o r i z o n seems ba thed . -3- « & * D % , % 4 % i - f , f t - t ^ '-A-. (Sanbu yue, QSC 4/2874) 2. M o i s t e n i n g / c o l d plum blossoms-a f i n e d r i z z l e , I t puts out l a m p l i g h t s , in darkness the dust i s scented \m « m m % . $L tel a, s | * % . (Mulanhua man, QSC 4/2917) 3. Pass ing / a few drops of r a i n at sunse t , Weeping on s i l k , t r a c e s of c o l d powder. (Faqu x i a n x i a n y i n , QSC 4/2888) 4. The c h i l l y sky i s pa le b l u e ; G i r d l e d w i th / l i g h t c l o u d s s c r een ing the w i l l o w s , And deep mis t p r o t e c t i n g the f l o w e r s . ^ /& % , f f X ^ , 5 1 I*; J$ . (Sao hua you, QSC 4/2886) 5. I d e t e s t s p r i n g fo r be ing too j e a l o u s , S p l a s h i n g / her ou t i ng s k i r t , I r eg re t even more Her phoenix shoes s o i l e d by d u s t . i k ^ A i ? • M~ I T It £ , i|Li^ j | ^ (Sao hua you, QSC 4/2886) 91 6. Impr in ted / on the l i c h e n her p a i r e d l o v e b i r d shoes , I r e c a l l our walks through the deep woods. (San shu me i , QSC 4/2923-24) I n v a r i a b l y the use of these verbs in lead-segment p o s i t i o n s h i g h l i g h t s the sensuous aspec t of the images; they do not " l e a d " or l i n k the l i n e s s t r u c t u r a l l y in an obv ious way. Moreover , s i nce many lead-segment ve rbs are in tended as s i g n p o s t s of the l y r i c a l v o i c e , t h e i r d i sp l acement cannot but submerge i t to some degree . Ins tead of be ing made e x p l i c i t by verbs i n d i c a t i n g s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , i t remains i m p l i c i t in the p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e . In the l a s t two examples, the presence o f . t h e l y r i c a l v o i c e i s c l e a r l y d i s c e r n i b l e through the use of the verbs " d e t e s t " , " r e g r e t " , and " r e c a l l " ; but i n t e r e s t i n g l y , though " d e t e s t " and " r e c a l l " , be ing in the f a l l i n g tone , can be used as lead-segments , they are d i s p l a c e d from these s t r u c t u r a l l y prominent p o s i t i o n s . It i s e s p e c i a l l y c l e a r in the l a s t example tha t i t i s the image aspec t that the poet wants to s t r e s s . What i s r a re and q u i t e unorthodox in Wu's cho i ce of words fo r monosy l l ab i c lead-segments i s the use of a d j e c t i v e s . In a s t r u c t u r a l l y prominent p o s i t i o n , an a d j e c t i v e i n t e n s i f i e s the image aspec t of the l i n e ( s ) i t m o d i f i e s , but does not s a t i s f y the p i v o t a l f u n c t i o n u s u a l l y expected of a lead-segment . For that r ea son , they form on l y a sma l l p o r t i o n of lead-segment words in Wu's c o r p u s ; they are n e v e r t h e l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t fo r 92 c o n t r i b u t i n g to the impact of sensuousness and d e n s i t y in h i s c i : 1. P l a c i d / her sp r i ng t ime pose and snow-white beauty , [ L i ke ] c o l d plum blossoms f r e s h and pu re . -~A 4 £ t & . * * M * b . (Rui he x i a n , QSC 4/2876) 2. Far o f f / mis ty sands-a f l y i n g s a i l , Dusky h i l l s d i s p l a y t h e i r g r een . & 4 fig -fH,, | . JH (Qi t i a n yue, QSC 4/2885) 3. Resplendent / dragon rays suddenly soaked, C loud vapors on apr i co t-wood r a f t e r s . n u t $ ' r u t , . (Sao hua you , QSC 4/2886-87) 4. Ten yea rs by the r i v e r map les , Co ld / f r o s t y waves turn i n t o p a t t e r n e d s i l k . t $ *L, >f & *& . (Wei f a n , QSC 4/2927) 5. Tea rdrops s t r e t c h to the lone c i t y w a l l , End l e s s / g rassy p l a i n , ex tend ing m i s t . (Wei f a n , QSC 4/2927) 6. I imagine at the v i l l a by West Lake , love i s most f e r v e n t , Luminous / the p a i n t e d boat in the moon l i gh t , [And you] drunk w i th your pa l a ce robe of b rocade . 93 (Dong x i an qe, QSC 4/2904) I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e in t r a n s l a t i o n tha t these a d j e c t i v a l lead-segments tend to b lend in as pa r t of the d e s c r i p t i o n of the image and l o se the d i s t i n c t c h a r a c t e r of lead-segments as d i r e c t i v e s and c o n n e c t i v e s . In the o r i g i n a l , some of the l i n e s which beg in wi th a d j e c t i v a l lead-segments form c u r i o u s s y n t a c t i c i n v e r s i o n s of normal p e n t a s y l l a b i c l i n e s . For i n s t a n c e , (1) would norma l l y read "Her sp r i ng t ime pose and snow-white beauty a re p l a c i d " ^ 1^- ^ f 7 ^ , (4) may be cons t rued as " F r o s t y waves, f rozen i n t o pa t t e rned s i l k " v ^ ^ , and (6) "The moon be ing b r i g h t , the p a i n t e d boat i s luminous" ^ ^8 ~% can be thought of as both i n v e r s i o n and e l l i p s i s combined, whose normal syntax would be : "The grassy p l a i n e n d l e s s , the mist e x t e n d i n g " '$ h) ^F4).79 In a l l c a s e s , the s y n t a c t i c d i s r u p t i o n , the " s t a t i c " q u a l i t y of d e s c r i p t i v e lead-segments , and the r e l a t i v e l a ck of i n t e r n a l empty words, wh i l e making f o r i m a g i s t i c d e n s i t y , at the same time i n t e r r u p t the normal f l u e n c y of language expected in r e c i t a t i o n . Thus Zhang Yan can say tha t " i f one p i l e s up f u l l words, the c_i would not even make smooth r e a d i n g " , much l e s s can i t be g iven to an o r d i n a r y s i n g i n g g i r l to pe r fo rm . The statement of course f i r s t speaks fo r Zhang Yan ' s p r e f e r ence fo r a f l u i d s t y l e enhanced by the use of empty words. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the mus i ca l tune shou ld c a r r y the words a l o n g ; the m e t r i c a l c on fo rm i t y of the l i n e s to the mus i c a l p a t t e r n must 94 have e f f e c t e d a degree of t r a n s i t i o n and flow in the performance of a c_i. We shou ld a l s o remember that Wu g e n e r a l l y uses the more common lead-segment words and on ly o c c a s i o n a l l y v a r i e s them wi th " s t a t i c " words. The lead-segments in the poem Wu wrote to the tune Basheng  Ganzhou i l l u s t r a t e we l l h i s v a r i a t i o n of " s t a t i c " and "empty" lead-segments , though even t h i s work i s e x c e p t i o n a l among Wu's poems in i t s " s t a t i c " p r e f e r e n c e in regard to lead-segments . The poem i s about an e x c u r s i o n to Mount L ingyan near Suzhou, the anc i en t pa l ace s i t e of Ring Fucha of Wu. It has come to be one of Wu's most well-known works and i s t y p i c a l of h i s condensed s t y l e in i t s use of a l l u s i o n s and of unusual and complex imagery, and in i t s genera l eschewal of empty w o r d s . 8 0 As p r e v i o u s l y noted in L i u Yong ' s example, the f i r s t two s t rophes of the tune p a t t e r n Basheng Ganzhou both begin w i th a monosy l l ab i c lead-segment p o s i t i o n . L i u Yong ' s hand l i ng p resen t s a d i s t i n c t l y r i c a l p resence and tempora l p r o g r e s s i o n by means of the lead-segments "I f a c e " and " g r a d u a l l y . " In Wu Wenying 's v e r s i o n , the c o n s e c u t i v e s t rophes each beg ins wi th a d e s c r i p t i v e lead-segment: End l e s s / v o i d and mis t to the four d i s t a n c e s , What year was i t the meteor f e l l from a c l e a r sky? I l l u s o r y / green c r ags and c l o u d t r e e s , • C e l e b r a t e d b e a u t y ' s chamber, F a i l e d L e a d e r ' s pa l a ce w a l l . 8 1 (QSC 4/2926) 95 C l e a r l y , " e n d l e s s " and " i l l u s o r y " do not p rov i de s t r u c t u r a l l i n k s in the obv ious sense . Ra ther , they impart the p a r a d o x i c a l q u a l i t i e s of t ime l e s snes s and i l l u s i o n to the images they modify ( three l i n e s in the case of " i l l u s o r y " ) . In f a c t , the o p p o s i t i o n posed by the lead-segments " e n d l e s s " and " i l l u s o r y " i s c r u c i a l to the meaning of the poem. The poet i s not concerned w i th a s e q u e n t i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of an exper i ence but w i th the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t e n s i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n between c o n t i n u i t y and d i s c o n t i n u i t y , r e a l i t y and i l l u s i o n , seen in the r e l i c s l e f t behind from a bygone age . I t has been s a i d of Wu Wenying 's c_i t h a t , due to the l ack of empty words, s t r u c t u r e and f low are ma in ta ined through the "method of i n t e r n a l t r a n s i t i o n m y s t i c a l ; but we do get a sense of Wu's alchemy in t h i s poem where the su r f a ce l i n k s are deemphasized and the coherence d e r i v e s from an u n d e r l y i n g i d e a . Through the more c o n v e n t i o n a l v e r b a l lead-segments employed in the second s t a n z a , past h i s t o r y g i v e s way to l y r i c a l p resence in a complex p rocess of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n : In the pa lace the K ing of Wu i s dead drunk , Sending / the weary t r a v e l e r of F i v e Lakes To ang le a l o n e , c o l d sobe r . [I] ask / the b lue waves: they won't t a l k ; How can white h a i r cope w i th the moun ta in ' s green? (QSC 4/2926) of h idden The t echn ique sounds r a the r 96 The weary t r a v e l e r , whi le a l l u d i n g to the h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e Fan L i , a l s o takes on shades of a pe r sona , a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which i s completed in the next s t r o p h e . "White h a i r " i s c l e a r l y a metonym fo r the poe t , but i t a l s o echoes the weary t r a v e l e r . 8 4 I t i s the poet who asks the b lue waves, and the q u e s t i o n u n d e r l i e s the poem's concern wi th the impermanence of man a g a i n s t the permanence of na tu re . Where L i u Yong beg ins the next s t rophe wi th a lead-segment : "I imagine the fa i r , one / gaz ing hard from her boudo i r chamber" (QSC 1/43), Wu r e p l a c e s i t w i th an image: "Water enve l op ing the v o i d / from the b a l c o n y ' s h e i g h t . " On the l e v e l of s t r u c t u r a l p o e t i c s , t h i s poem shows tha t the image content of f u l l words, e s p e c i a l l y in the case of d e s c r i p t i v e s used as lead-segments , per forms a d i f f e r e n t o p e r a t i o n on the p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e from normat ive lead-segments . It does not "move" the poem a long but i n s t e a d i n c r e a s e s the v i s u a l " d e n s i t y " by f o c u s s i n g on the images in a p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e a l r eady i n c l i n e d towards " p i l i n g up f u l l words . " However, t h i s poem a l s o shows tha t the t r a n s i t i o n s are e f f e c t e d on a deeper s t r u c t u r e of thought . Compared to most Southern Song c_i p o e t s , Wu Wenying does r e l y much l e s s on empty words fo r f low , whether throughout the t ex t of the poem or s p e c i f i c a l l y in lead-segment p o s i t i o n s . Sometimes he even d i spenses wi th monosy l l ab i c l ead-segments . The ten poems he wrote to the tune p a t t e r n Shu i l ong y i n p rov ide an extreme example. The l a s t s t rophe of the f i r s t s t anza shou ld beg in w i th a monosy l l ab i c lead-segment which d i r e c t s two t e t r a s y l l a b i c l i n e s . In f i v e of the ten poems Wu wrote to t h i s 97 tune , he does wi thout t h i s lead-segment and the l i n e s y i e l d normal p e n t a s y l l a b i c l i n e s . 8 5 He does of course observe the f a l l i n g / r i s i n g tone r u l e govern ing tha t p o s i t i o n . The second s tanza beg ins w i th an o p t i o n a l d i s y l l a b i c lead-segment p o s i t i o n ; 8 6 of the t e n , on ly three opted fo r a d i s y l l a b i c l e ad-segment. In c o n t r a s t , X in Q i j i employs a d i s y l l a b i c segment in seven out of the e leven poems he wrote to t h i s tune , a lmost the exact r eve rse of Wu in r a t i o . X in Q i j i , w r i t i n g in the haofang s t y l e , n a t u r a l l y tends to use more empty words in the poem and in lead-segments . Ye t , when Wu Weny ing 's manei poems are compared to those w r i t t e n to the same tunes by Zhou Bangyan and J i ang K u i , the r e s u l t s are g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t in showing Wu to be enamored of f u l l w o r d s . 8 7 Wu's h a n d l i n g of t r i s y l l a b i c lead-segments a l s o c o r r o b o r a t e s h i s p r e f e r ence fo r semantic and i m a g i s t i c d e n s i t y . T r i s y l l a b i c lead-segments occur in l i n e s of longer l e n g t h , the most common be ing h e p t a s y l l a b i c and o c t o s y l l a b i c . In order to f u n c t i o n m e t r i c a l l y as a lead-segment , the i n i t i a l c h a r a c t e r of the t r i s y l l a b i c c l u s t e r has to be in the f a l l i n g (or r i s i n g ) tone , and i s o f t e n fo l l owed by one or two more ob l i que- tone c h a r a c t e r s . 8 8 Moreover , many s tandard t r i s y l l a b i c lead-segments compr ise empty words which form c o l l o q u i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , e x e m p l i f i e d by the examples Zhang Yan o f f e r e d . T h e i r c o l l o q u i a l tone lends a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e x p r e s s i v e n e s s and f low to the l i n e ( s ) . Wu Wenying does employ a number of them in h i s mane i . But he more o f t e n than not takes the a l t e r n a t i v e of us ing a monosy l l ab i c segment to l ead the l i n e , w i th the caesura 98 ma in ta ined a f t e r the t h i r d s y l l a b l e . I t i s obv ious tha t t h i s a l l ows fo r more development of imagery. For i l l u s t r a t i o n , l e t us examine the t r i s y l l a b i c lead-segments in the f i v e c_i Wu wrote to the tune p a t t e r n X i q i u h u a . T h i s i s a tune Wu h imse l f composed and one to which he wrote the g r e a t e s t number of poems among tunes of h i s own c o m p o s i t i o n . The t h i r d s t rophe in the f i r s t s tanza and the f o u r t h s t rophe in the second both c o n t a i n t r i s y l l a b i c lead-segments in a l l f i v e p o e m s . 8 9 None of them are t r i s y l l a b i c c o l l o q u i a l f o rmu lae . The t r i s y l l a b i c c l u s t e r s a l l beg in w i th monosy l l ab i c lead-segments tha t can be d i v i d e d i n t o th ree c a t e g o r i e s . The f i r s t c o n s i s t s of the more c o n v e n t i o n a l a d v e r b i a l and v e r b a l l ead-segments : 1. Lady Autumn's t e a r s dampen the e v e n i n g ; Once aga in over the whole c i t y / l i g h t r a i n and s l i g h t wind. (QSC 4/2912) 2. On e a r t h the dream i s on the o ther s i de of the west wind, I reckon tha t in heaven / a year i s j u s t the b l i n k of an eye . A. !S\ f % a ® - % ^ A f - 3% > (QSC 4/2912) 3. In great haste we pour the f a r e w e l l cup , I r eg re t our meet ing / [ i s l i k e ] the g a t h e r i n g and d i s p e r s i n g of c l ouds and duckweeds. 99 (QSC 4/2913) 4. A t i n y boat lodged at n igh t on the Wu R i v e r , Jus t at a time when water pendants and rainbow s k i r t s a re c o u n t l e s s . (QSC 4/2913) 5. With my g r i e f dusk ga the r s i n t o emerald c l o u d s , I have i t be chanted i n t o / the music of the L i u yao tune . (QSC 4/2913) T h i s type of lead-segments , as expec t ed , do per form the pr imary f u n c t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l l i n k a g e . They c o r r e l a t e the two l i n e s of the s t rophe w i th a l o g i c a l connec t i on as we l l as impar t i ng a forward movement to the l i n e s in which they o c c u r . In the second c a t e g o r y , we f i n d v e r b a l lead-segments which are v i s u a l l y o r i e n t e d , and the s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n i s l e s s o b v i o u s : 1. The Autumn Goddess, endowed wi th l e i s u r e d f e e l i n g , Lean ing on the jade cup / t i n y brows j u s t r a i s e d . as; i f n n &. (QSC 4/2912) 2. The m i r r o r of West Lake covered by dust and sand, Dimming the dawn r e f l e c t i o n / of the h i l l ' s c o i f f u r e 100 r u f f l e d by c l o u d s . (QSC 4/2912) When we come to the t h i r d ca tegory of a d j e c t i v a l lead-segments , a d e s c r i p t i v e and q u a l i f y i n g f u n c t i o n p r e v a i l s : 1. Peng l a i P a v i l i o n a c ross r i s e s in dark c l o u d s , P l a c i d the r u s t i c scene / the h i l l ' s mien ga the rs in sadness . (QSC 4/2912) 2. A l l f r a i l f l owers cannot endure autumn, I l l u s o r y g l o s s y jade / l u s c i o u s red [so] b r i g h t and l o v e l y . (QSC 4/2913) The l a s t example in p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t i t u t e s a l i n e which i s packed w i th c o l o u r and t e x t u r e , and g e n e r a l l y p e r c e p t u a l q u a l i t i e s . I t occurs in a poem on the autumn-f lower ing h i b i s c u s . The l i n e thus maximizes the sensuousness of t h i s showy f l o w e r . Next to a l l the w i l t e d and w i l t i n g f l o w e r s , i t s vo luptuous glamour must appear i n c r e d i b l e and u n r e a l . In the way i t emphasizes t h i s c o n t r a s t e s t a b l i s h e d in two l i n e s , " i l l u s o r y " can be s a i d to f u l f i l l a s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n in the t r a n s i t i o n . But t h i s i s by no means apparent when such an 101 unusual word i s encountered in a lead-segment p o s i t i o n , f o l l owed by a s t r i n g of metonyms. Immediate unders tand ing i s d e f e r r e d , however s l i g h t l y , in the absence of e x p l i c i t r h e t o r i c . I f we r ep l a ce " i l l u s o r y " w i th a more common and p e r f e c t l y t enab le v e r b a l lead-segment such as guai , p roduc ing "I marvel at the g l o s s y jade / l u s c i o u s red [so] b r i g h t and l o v e l y , " the meaning of the l i n e i s somewhat more t r a n s p a r e n t . But not much more, fo r i t i s a l s o d e f e r r e d by the metonymic components which r e q u i r e a p rocess of t r a n s l a t i o n to a r r i v e at t h e i r r e f e r e n t s . However spontaneous t h i s p rocess of t r a n s l a t i o n may be in the case of we l l - ve r sed readers of c_i p o e t r y , i t i s none the l ess t h e r e . I f the b a s i c f u n c t i o n of empty words and lead-segments i s to e f f e c t a k ind of s t r u c t u r a l k i n e t i c s , t h i s k i n e t i c s i s o f t e n the r e s u l t of the e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of s u b j e c t i v e s t a t e s and of s e q u e n t i a l p r o g r e s s i o n ach ieved through normat ive a p p l i c a t i o n s of these s t r u c t u r a l e l ements . Wu Wenying 's r a d i c a l t endenc i es in the use of lead-segments and h i s d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e r e d u c t i o n of empty words represen t a r e v e r s a l of the normat ive s t r u c t u r a l p o e t i c s deve loped and p e r f e c t e d by L i u Yong. H i s d e v i a t i o n s produce the oppos i t e r e s u l t of i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of s u b j e c t i v e e lements and ambiguous tempora l s t r u c t u r e s . However, these t r a i t s a lone do not adequate l y account fo r the d e n s i t y , or c o m p l e x i t y , of Wu Wenying 's c_i. I t i s when they are combined wi th h i s p r o c l i v i t y f o r an image-or iented language-a metonymic and a l l u s i v e d i c t i o n - t h a t the e f f e c t s of d e n s i t y are most v i s i b l e . Metonymy, in i t s s u b s t i t u t i o n of an image through 1 02 a s s o c i a t i o n s of a t t r i b u t e s and q u a l i t i e s , tends to anatomize the image i n t o i t s sensuous components of c o l o u r , shape, and t e x t u r e . In a l i t e r a r y genre as i nb red as the c_i had become in the l a t e Song, metonymy c r e a t e s a conno t a t i v e t e x t u a l su r f a ce whose c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t en have d e f i n i t e a s s o c i a t i o n s and e voca t i v e power. S i m i l a r l y , the s k i l f u l use of a l l u s i o n s , by condens ing and i m p l i c a t i n g d imens ions of thought and meaning from a body of i n t e r t e x t s , imparts added depth and comp lex i t y to the poem. But behind a l l the a r t i f i c e , there i s the a r t i f i c e r , and one wi th a s e n s i t i v e hear t and mind. We shou ld t h e r e f o r e tu rn to look at how these d i s p a r a t e elements c o n s t i t u t e an i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e and c o m p e l l i n g p o e t r y . 103 See fo r example James J . Y. L i u , Major L y r i c i s t s of the  Nor thern Sung ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n Un i v . P r e s s , 1974) and Kang-i Sun Chang, The E v o l u t i o n of Ch inese T z ' u Poet ry from  La te T ' a n g to Nor thern Sung ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1980). An excep t i on i s Shuen-fu L i n ' s study of J i ang K u i , The T r ans fo rma t i on of the Ch inese L y r i c a l  T r a d i t i o n . L i u D a j i e , Zhongguo wenxue fada s h i ( T a i p e i : Zhonghua s h u j u , 1962), V o l . 2 , 120. Lu Kanru and Feng Yuanjun, Zhongguo s h i s h i ( B e i j i n g : Zuo j i a chubanshe, 1956), V o l . 3 , 670. Hu S h i , C ixuan (Shangha i : Commercia l P r e s s , 1928), p .10 . Wang Guowei, Ren j i an c i hua (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 2 ) . Zhu Y i z u n , " C i z o n g f a f a n , " in C i zong (1691; r p t . Shangha i : Shanghai g u j i chubanshe, 1978), V o l . 1 , 10. Wang Guowei, Ren j i an c i hua (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 2 ) , 4263. Rene Wel lek and A u s t i n Warren, A Theory of L i t e r a t u r e (New York : H a r c o u r t , 1962), p .265 . 1 04 For Su S h i ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the development of the c_i genre , see Kang-i Sun Chang, The E v o l u t i o n of Chinese T z ' u Poetry  from La te T ' a n g to Nor thern Sung, pp.158-206, and James J . Y. L i u , Major L y r i c i s t s of the Nor thern Sung, pp .121-60. Shuen-fu L i n , The T r ans fo rma t i on of the Ch inese L y r i c a l  T r a d i t i o n , p .183 . Adapted from the t r a n s l a t i o n by I r v i n g Lo , Hs in C h ' i - c h i (New York : Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1971), p . 7 1 . For an e x p l a n a t i o n of the a l l u s i o n s see Zheng Q i a n , Cixuan ( T a i p e i : Huaguang chubanshe, 1970), PP.100-101, and I r v i n g L o , i b i d . , pp .71-72 . QSC 4/2910. T r a d i t i o n a l l y c_i i s d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g to l eng th i n t o x i a o l i n g i A. O v —- i yJ ^ ( shor t l y r i c s under 58 c h a r a c t e r s ) and manei "j-^ ^ 5J (slow or long tunes between 59 and 240 c h a r a c t e r s ) . Manei i s f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o zhongdiao ||fj (medium l e n g t h tunes 90 c h a r a c t e r s ) . See Wang L i , Hanyu s h i l u xue (Shangha i : Shanghai j i a o y u chubanshe, 1963), p .518 . S ince the p o p u l a r i z a t i o n of manei a f t e r L i u Yong (985-1053) among the l i t e r a t i , i t remained the dominant form used throughout the Song. w i th 59-90 c h a r a c t e r s ) ( long tunes over 1 05 T h i s i s a common view among Qing c r i t i c s . See f o r example Zhou J i ' s comment , "Later poets t r i e d to i m i t a t e J i axuan (Xin) by us ing crude h e r o i c s , " J i e c u n z h a i l u n c i zazhu (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 5 ) , 1627. A l though the Qing c r i t i c Chen T ingzhuo thought tha t L i u Kezhuang was f a r i n f e r i o r to X i n , he s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d L i u one of the more ab l e ci_ poets of t h i s s t y l e . Ba i yu zha i c i hua (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 1 ) , 3818. By the l a t e Southern Song, the language of the c_i had evo lved a me tapho r i c a l and a l l e g o r i c a l d imens ion , and major poets of the time such as Zhou M i , Zhang Yan, and Wang Y i sun chose to express t h e i r lament over the c o l l a p s e of the Song in an o b l i q u e / a l l e g o r i c a l mode r a the r than the h e r o i c / e x p r e s s i v e . See t h e i r r e l e v a n t works con t a i ned in Huang Zhaox ian , Yuefu  b u t i y a n j i u j i j i a nzhu (Hong Kong: Xuewen chubanshe, 1975). Wang Guowei, Ren j i an c i hua (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 2 ) , 4250-51. Adapted from the t r a n s l a t i o n by Shuen-fu L i n , The  T r ans fo rma t i on of the Chinese L y r i c a l T r a d i t i o n , p .172 . See Shuen-fu L i n , The T r ans fo rma t i on of the Ch inese L y r i c a l  T r a d i t i o n , pp .172-177. 1 06 Shen Y i f u was a n a t i v e of Zhenze ^ in J i a n g s u . H i s r e p u t a t i o n r e s t e d on be ing a neo-Confuc ian s c h o l a r of some l e a r n i n g . He had l e c t u r e d at the White Deer G r o t t o Academy where Zhu X i had t augh t . None of Shen ' s other w r i t i n g s have s u r v i v e d , the Yuefu zh imi be ing h i s on l y extant work. See X i a Chengtao and Ca i Songyun, C iyuan zhu Yuefu zh imi j i a n s h i ( B e i j i n g : Renmin wenxue chubanshe, 1981), p .89 . There are th ree poems in Wu's c o l l e c t i o n add ressed to Shen ( J iangnan  hao QSC 2903/2, Yonqyu l e 2910/3 and Shengsheng man 2930/5) . In a l l th ree Wu matched the rhymes used by Shen i n h i s poems. P re face by Qian L i angyou dated 1317, see X i a Chengtao and Ca i Songyun, i b i d . , p .50 . For a summary of the juan on mus i c , see Rulan P i a n , Song  Dynasty M u s i c a l Sources and T h e i r I n t e r p r e t a t i o n (Cambridge: Harvard Un i v . P r e s s , 1967), pp ;21-22 . Yuefu zh imi (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 229. Song c_i poe t r y was w r i t t e n to music and sung. But the p r a c t i c e from the i n c e p t i o n of the genre fo r poets to w r i t e words to e x i s t i n g tunes 1^] i n s t e a d of always i n v e n t i n g new ones l e d to i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n p a i d to the number of c h a r a c t e r s and the sequences of tones and rhymes used i n the tune p a t t e r n s , thus l a y i n g a f ounda t i on fo r the s e p a r a t i o n of music from the m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n . When ci^ music was l o s t , the 1 07 post-Song p r a c t i c e of ' f i l l i n g in words' became and con t inues to be the on ly procedure i n w r i t i n g c_i p o e t r y . As my focus i s on the l i t e r a r y aspec t of the cj^, d i s c u s s i o n of music would be l i m i t e d to a l i t e r a r y - h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e r a the r than the t h e o r e t i c a l . For w r i t i n g s on the music of c i , see Rulan P i a n , Song Dynasty M u s i c a l Sources and T h e i r  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Wu Zeng, Nengga izha i manlu (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 83. L i Q i n g z h a o ' s " C i l u n , " r e co rded in Hu Z i , T i a o x i yuy in  conghua ( B e i j i n g : Renmin wenxue chubanshe, 1981), V o l . 2 , 254. For example, see the p r e f a c e s to Manj iang hong (QSC 3/2176), Zh i zhao , (QSC 3/2182-83), and Q i l i a n g f a n , (QSC 3/2183-84). The d i ve rgence between c_i and popu la r songs in the Southern Song can be deduced from Shen and Zhang's admoni t ions to ci^ w r i t e r s not to be a s s o c i a t e d wi th popu la r songs in language or mus i c . Yuefu zh imi (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 232-33. The passage o f t en c i t e d fo r c r i t i c i s m r e l a t e s how Zhang Yan ' s f a the r Zhang Shu, whom he regarded an exemplary c_i w r i t e r , had changed one c h a r a c t e r in a l i n e three t imes be fo re he f e l t tha t i t agreed wi th the mus i c . Meaning h a r d l y seemed to 108 matter as the sentence went from "The l a t t i c e d window i s deep" to " The l a t t i c e d window i s dark " to "The l a t t i c e d window i s b r i g h t . " See Ciyuan (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 203. In d i s c u s s i o n s of t o n a l and mus i c a l a spec t s of c_i p o e t r y , Wu Wenying i s o f t en c i t e d fo r i l l u s t r a t i o n a long wi th Zhou Bangyan and J i ang Kui as good mode ls . See fo r example Wu M e i , C ixue tong lun (Hong Kong: T a i p i n g s h u j u , 1964) , pp .10-11 and p . 4 1 . For f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e , see the conven ien t headings in the t a b l e of con ten t s made fo r the annota ted e d i t i o n of the two works in X i a Chengtao and Ca i Songyun, C iyuan zhu Yuefu zh imi  j i a n s h i . L i Qingzhao in her " C i l u n " had a p p r a i s e d the c_i poe t r y of the Southern Tang kingdom of the F i v e Dynas t i e s p e r i o d as hav ing " c u l t u r e d e legance See Hu Z i , T i a o x i yuy in conghua, V o l . 2 , 254. Wang Zhuo recorded in h i s B i j i manzhi that Muoqi Yong fj i^ i^C^ (c . 1 050-c . 1 1 30) , Zhou Bangyan 's c o l l e a g u e in the Bureau of Mus i c , d i v i d e d h i s c_i poe t r y i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : " e l egan t cj_" {^JL^ ^ a n d " e r o t i c c_i" l l l j s'j? . See B i j i manzhi (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 33. Wang Zhuo a l s o remarks tha t c_i poe t r y shou ld e x h i b i t the e legance and c o r r e c t n e s s ih. of anc i en t mus i c . See Luo Genze ' s d i s c u s s i o n of Wang Zhuo 's c r i t i c a l b i a s in Zhongguo wenxue 109 p i p i n g s h i ( Shangha i : Gudian wenxue .chubanshe, 1957), V o l . 3 , 252-53. The modern s c h o l a r Zhao Wanl i observed that e legance in ci_ was h i g h l y esteemed in the Southern Song. He quoted s e v e r a l t i t l e s of c_i c o l l e c t i o n s which use the c h a r a c t e r d ^ j ^ to demonstrate t h i s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s concern r ega rd ing e legance among Southern Song c_i poets and a n t h o l o g i z e r s . See Zhao 's p r e f a c e in h i s J i a o j i Song J i n Yuan ren c i ( T a i p e i : T a i l i a n guofeng chubanshe, 1971), V o l . 1 , 2a . They are the Nor thern Song poet L i u Yong and the three Southern Song poets Kang Yuzhi Jp: ^ X- , Shi Yue ^ j ^ " . and Sun Weixin Shen used the term "market p l a ce e x p r e s s i o n s " "H" ^) a n < 3 the "usage of p r o f e s s i o n a l m u s i c i a n s " in h i s r e s p e c t i v e c r i t i c i s m of Sun Weixin and Shi Yue. See a l s o Ca i Songyun's d i s c u s s i o n of I'rf ^ ^ n x ^ a chengtao and Ca i Songyun, C iyuan zhu Yuefu zhime j i a n s h i , p.47 n .4 . L i Q ingzhao , " C i l u n , " in Hu Z i , T i a o x i yuy in conghua. Wang Zhuo, B i j i manzhi (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 34-35. Yuefu zh imi (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 231. C iyuan (Cihua congb ian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 206-207. Yuefu z h i m i , i b i d . , pp .229-30. C i y u a n , i b i d . , p .201 . N. B. The term \^ a] i s m i s p r i n t e d as 5!} «J in t h i s e d i t i o n . 110 X i a Chengtao g i v e s the sources fo r Zhou 's adapted l i n e s in X i a Chengtao and Ca i Songyun, C iyuan zhu Yuefu zh imi j i a n s h i , p .30 , n . 1 . See a l s o James L i u ' s e x p l i c a t i o n of t h i s poem in Major L y r i c i s t s of the Nor thern Sung, pp .165-73 . s i m p l i s t i c a l l y - t o express a new or d i f f e r e n t idea based on an o l d word formula and c o n v e r s e l y , to express a s i m i l a r idea (to an o l d one) in d i f f e r e n t words, r e s t s h e a v i l y on a reve red p r e e x i s t i n g body of p o e t r y . On the o r i g i n s of these concepts in Huang T i n g j i a n (1045-1105), see Ade le A. R i c k e t t , "Method and I n t u i t i o n : The Poe t i c T h e o r i e s of Huang T ' i n g -c h i e n , " in Ch inese approaches to L i t e r a t u r e from C o n f u c i u s to  L i ang C h ' i - c h ' a o , ed . Ade le A. R i c k e t t ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s ) , pp .97-119. In the Southern Song, the i n f l u e n c e of J i a n g x i School p o e t i c s was p e r v a s i v e . Shi poets o f t e n began t h e i r p o e t i c c a r e e r s as a p p r e n t i c e s in t h i s s c h o o l , though j u s t as o f t e n they r e j e c t e d i t l a t e r ( e . g . , Yang Wan l i , Lu You and J i ang K u i ) . J i a n g x i Schoo l p o e t i c s emphasizes t e c h n i q u e ; many terms from t h e i r c r i t i c a l v o c a b u l a r y , such as " l i n e s t r u c t u r e " ^) , adopted by c_i c r i t i c s . See Zhu Dongrun, Zhongquo wenxue  p i p i n g s h i dagang ( n . p . : Kaiming shud i an , 1944), p .202 . T h e i r p o e t i c s of " c r e a t i v e s t a t e d were Yuefu zh imi (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 234-35. 111 Ciyuan (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 218. C iyuan (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 219 . Yuefu zh imi (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 230-31. T r a d i t i o n a l Ch inese p o e t i c s have p l a c e d great importance on the proper d i s t r i b u t i o n between n a t u r a l scene and l y r i c a l f e e l i n g s , i . e . on the i n t e r a c t i o n between image-or ien ted and e x p r e s s i o n - o r i e n t e d l anguage . Shen ' s s t r e s s on the t reatment of c l o s u r e i s but a s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s gene ra l p r i n c i p l e . In t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m , c r i t i c s have drawn a t t e n t i o n t o , but have not e x p l i c a t e d p o e t i c segments which f u l f i l l t h i s c r i t e r i o n . One can compare the d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s Zhou Bangyan 's i m p l i c i t imagery has g i ven r i s e to in modern e x e g e s i s . C f . James J . Y. L i u , Major  L y r i c i s t s of the Nor thern Sung, p.173 and James R. H ightower , "The Songs of Chou Pang-yen, " in HJAS 37 (1977) , 245. Yuefu zh imi (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 234. The l i n e s a re from Shengsheng man (QSC 2/2930). T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s made by Wu Mei in h i s p r e f a ce to the Yuefu  zh imi j i a n s h i quoted in X i a Chengtao and Ca i Songyun, C iyuan  zhu Yuefu zh imi j i a n s h i , pp .90-92 . Yuefu zh imi (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 230. 1 12 5 1 Su Shi i s mentioned on l y once in the Yuefu z h i m i . Shen conceded that some of S u ' s c_i poems w r i t t e n in the non-hero ic mode d i d a c co rd wi th mus i c . Yuefu zh imi (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 234. 5 2 James J . Y. L i u , Major L y r i c i s t s of the Nor thern Sung, p .161 . 5 3 T h e i r d i f f e r e n t views on the matter w i l l be taken up in the next s e c t i o n . 5 4 C iyuan (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 207. 5 5 I am indebted to P r o f e s s o r E. G. P u l l e y b l a n k fo r a l e r t i n g me to t h i s f a c t . For a conven ien t l i s t of Song and post-Song sources in which the terms s h i z i and xuz i o c c u r , see Guhanyu  yufaxue z i l i a o h u i b i a n , comp. Zheng Dian and Mai M e i q i a o , comp. ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua s h u j u , 1964), pp .91-104. Dian and Mai M e i q i a o , p . 95 . 5 7 T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s borne out by the examples of verse l i n e s quoted in the Sh i r en y u x i e , a Southern Song work c o n t a i n i n g comments and c r i t i q u e s on p o e t r y . The examples are p e n t a s y l l a b i c and h e p t a s y l l a b i c l i n e s i l l u s t r a t i n g the use of f u l l words and empty words in d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s in the l i n e . Nouns wi th p h y s i c a l c o r r e l a t e s are c l e a r l y c o n s i d e r e d 5 6 From quoted in Zheng 113 f u l l words; f u n c t i o n words such as p r e p o s i t i o n s and adverbs as empty words; but the s t a tus of verbs and a d j e c t i v e s are not so c l e a r and c o n s i s t e n t . See Wei Q i n g z h i , Sh i r en yux i e ( Shangha i : Zhonghua shu ju , 1961), v o l . 1 , 77-80; a l s o quoted in Zheng Dian and Mai M e i q i a o , pp .93-4 . Ma J i a n z h o n g , Mashi wentong j i a o z h u ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua s h u j u , •1 954) , V o l . 1 , 1 . Zhou Fagao, Zhongguo gudai y u f a : zao ju b i a n , Vo l .1 ( T a i p e i : I n s t i t u t e of H i s t o r y and P h i l o l o g y , Academica S i n i c a , 1961), 22. Yuan Z h a i , " S h i z i xuz i yu y o n g d i a n , " Y i l i n c o n g l u , 4 (1964) , 52. i b i d • , p . 53 . QTS, v o l . 6 , 1898; the v e r s i o n quoted in Yuan Zhai has "g reen h i l l s " i n s t e a d of "autumn h i l l s " in the l a s t l i n e , see " S h i z i xuz i yu y o n g d i a n , " p .53 . See n .14 . For a gene r a l d i s c u s s i o n of l i n g z i , see X i a Chengtao and Wu X ionghe , Duci changshi ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua shu ju , 1962), p p . 9 4 - 9 . Shuen-fu L i n a l s o p r o v i d e s an e r u d i t e d i s c u s s i o n on 1 1 4 the sub jec t in The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the Ch inese L y r i c a l  T r a d i t i o n , pp .131-41 . On L i u Yong and the development of l i n g z i , see Kang-i Sun Chang, The E v o l u t i o n of Ch inese T z ' u Poe t r y , pp .122-147; and Winnie L. Leung, " L i u Yung and H i s T z ' u " (M.A. t h e s i s . Un i v . of B r i t i s h Columbia 1976), pp .149-166. See Ciyuan and Yuefu zh imi (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 207 and 233 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Some c h a r a c t e r s in the r i s i n g tone are a l s o used , but these form a sma l l m i n o r i t y . X i a Chengtao and Wu X ionghe , Duci c h a n g s h i , p .59 . i b i d . , p . 60 . Shen Y i f u a l s o s t r e s s e s the importance of the f a l l i n g tone in tune p a t t e r n s ; see Yuefu zh imi (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 232 For examples of s y n t a c t i c a b n o r m a l i t i e s in manei , see Wang L i , Hanyu s h i l u x u e (Shangha i : Shanghai j i a o y u chubanshe, 1963), pp .659-661 . Kang-i Sun Chang, The E v o l u t i o n of Ch inese T z ' u Poe t r y , pp .128-29 ; and Winnie L. Leung, " L i u Yung and H is T z ' u , " p .150 . 115 The s l a n t i n d i c a t e s the caesura a f t e r the lead-segment . I am f o l l o w i n g Kang-i Sun Chang 's coun t , The E v o l u t i o n of  Ch inese T z ' u Poe t r y , p .128 . S t r i c t l y speak ing , the l i n e immediate ly f o l l o w i n g the one w i th the t h i r d lead-segment shou ld a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d as s t a r t i n g wi th a lead-segment . X i a Chengtao and Ca i Songyun, C iyuan zhu Yuefu zh imi j i a n s h i , p.15 and p .16 , n .2 . The C ihua congbian e d i t i o n of the Ciyuan adopts the v a r i a n t r e a d i n g , V o l . 1 , 207. Wang Guowei, Ren j i an c i hua (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 2 ) , 4252. Yuefu zh imi (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 233. In Ca i Songyun 's anno t a t i on of the Yuefu z h i m i , he e x p l a i n s j i n g z i as " f u l l words which convey the form of t h i n g s and i s used in o p p o s i t i o n to d o n g z i . J i n g z i expresses an accompl i shed scene or c o n d i t i o n , and dongzi an a c t i o n to be a c c o m p l i s h e d ; " X i a Chengtao and Ca i Songyun, p .74 . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s taken ve rba t im from Ma J i a n z h o n g ' s d e f i n i t i o n of j i n q z i , a term which Ma uses to s tand fo r a d j e c t i v e s . See Mashi wentong, p . 5 . In Shen Y i f u ' s passage , the term i s used in o p p o s i t i o n to x u z i , and shou ld imply a broader range than a d j e c t i v e s . 1 1 6 7 8 A l l examples of lead-segments are g iven in the contex t of the s t rophe in which they o c c u r . For p r a c t i c a l pu rposes , I take the rhyme p o s i t i o n s as marking s t r o p h i c d i v i s i o n s . 7 9 T h i s i s p o i n t e d out by Wang L i in Hanyu s h i l u xue, p .660 . 8 0 T h i s poem i s ana l yzed in d e t a i l in Ch i a-y i ng Yeh Chao, "Wu Wen-ying 's T z ' u : A Modern V i ew , " in S tud i e s i n Chinese  L i t e r a r y Genres , ed . C y r i l B i r c h ( Be rke l ey : U n i v . of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1974), pp .179-191. See a l s o C h . 3 , Sec .3 f o r complete t r a n s l a t i o n and f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . 8 1 T h i s i s adapted from James H igh tower ' s t r a n s l a t i o n in Ch i a-y i ng Yeh Chao, "Wu Wen-ying 's T z ' u , " p .179-80. The v e r s i o n here aims to h i g h l i g h t the presence of the monosy l l ab i c l e ad-segments. 8 2 X i a Chengtao and Ca i Songyun, C iyuan zhu Yuefu zh imi j i a n s h i , p. 75. 8 3 See n .81 . 8 " See C h i a - y i n g Yeh Chao, "Wu Wen-ying 's T z ' u , " pp .188-89. 8 5 QSC 4/2879: the f i r s t , t h i r d , f o u r t h , and e i g h t h poem l i s t e d under Shu i l ong y i n ; and QSC 4/2935. 1 1 7 6 D i s y l l a b i c lead-segments seem to be the l e a s t c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . T h i s d i s y l l a b i c lead-segment p o s i t i o n i s p o i n t e d out in X i a C h e n g t a o and Wu X ionghe , Duc i c h a n g s h i , p .95 . G e n e r a l l y speak ing , p o l y s y l l a b i c lead-segment p o s i t i o n s are l e s s a s s i d u o u s l y o b s e r v e d ; they may be " f i l l e d " w i th f u l l words i n s t e a d . But the cho i c e would of course a f f e c t the r e l a t i v e d e n s i t y of the s t y l e . 7 See fo r example the f o l l o w i n g tune p a t t e r n s : An x i a n g , QSC 4/2902 (Wu), 3/2181 ( J i a n g ) ; Yan Q ingdu , 4/2882-83 (Wu), 2/604 (Zhou) ; Faqu x i a n x i a n y i n , 4/2888 (Wu), 2/602 (Zhou) , 3/2178 ( J i ang ) . 8 See Wu M e i , C ixue Tonglun (Hong Kong: T a i p i n g shu ju , 1964), p .45 . 9 There are some v a r i a t i o n s in l i n e d i v i s i o n in t h i s p a t t e r n which a f f e c t l ead-segments . For example, the opening s t rophe v a r i e s between hav ing a t r i s y l l a b i c lead-segment , a monosy l l ab i c lead-segment , or no lead-segment . The two t r i s y l l a b i c lead-segment p o s i t i o n s which I have chosen fo r i l l u s t r a t i o n do occur in a l l f i v e poems. Fu r the rmore , not a l l p o s t - t r i s y l l a b i c pauses mark the occu r rence of l ead-segments. I t has been p o i n t e d out that t r i s y l l a b i c l e ad-segments u s u a l l y have the f i r s t two or a l l th ree c h a r a c t e r s in o b l i q u e t o n e s ; see Wu M e i , C ixue t o n g l u n , p . 45 . 1 18 III . THE POETRY OF WU WENYING t MAJOR THEMES AND SUBGENRES I. YONGWU C I : POEM AS ARTIFICE AND POEM AS METAPHOR The term yongwu =7^C^ti] means to c e l e b r a t e o b j e c t s in p o e t i c d i s c o u r s e . When i t was used in the s i x t h cen tu ry by the great a n t h o l o g i s t X iao Tong | j | (502-31) in the p r e f a c e to Wenxuan, i t r e f e r r e d to an a l r e a d y w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d subgenre 1 in the f u , or rhymeprose: When i t comes to f_u d e s c r i b i n g one event or c e l e b r a t i n g a s i n g l e ob j ec t ( %7]c —tyi) ) , such as those on wind, c l o u d s , p l a n t s and t r e e s , or the ones about f i s h , i n s e c t s , b i r d s , and b e a s t s , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r range , i t i s q u i t e imposs ib l e to l i s t them a l l . 2 As X i ao Tong ' s statement i n d i c a t e s , the ca t ego ry of o b j e c t s s u i t a b l e fo r d e s c r i p t i o n in the f_u i s a lmost i n f i n i t e l y expandable-any l i v i n g t h i n g or n a t u r a l phenomenon as we l l as an a r t i f a c t i s a p o t e n t i a l cand ida te fo r p o e t i c e l a b o r a t i o n . T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y the case w i th the ca tegory yongwu fu (or f_u on ob j e c t s ) as i t s r e p e r t o r y grew from the Han through the S ix Dynas t i e s p e r i o d . A l though i t would be an exagge ra t i on to say that by X i ao Tong ' s t ime there ha rd l y remained an ob jec t in the n a t u r a l wor ld which had escaped treatment in the f u , one cou ld s a f e l y say that i t s range had become t r u l y e n c y c l o p e d i c . 3 Nor i s t h i s s u r p r i s i n g in view of the nature of the f_u, a genre that i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by exhaus t i ve and ext ravagant d e s c r i p t i o n s of a t o p i c . I n so fa r as i t s o r i g i n l i e s in the f_u, the element of d e s c r i p t i o n remained c e n t r a l to the yongwu mode. The cumula t i ve d e s c r i p t i v e techn ique and e p i d e i c t i c r h e t o r i c of the f_u, by 119 which d e t a i l s are enumerated in l u s h ve rb i age in an e f f o r t to cap ture the appearance as we l l as the essence of a t h i n g , were mod i f i ed in s h i and c i poe t r y and i n yongwu fu of the l a t e S ix Dynas t i e s to e f f e c t a more s e l e c t i v e p o r t r a y a l of the o b j e c t . Thus as the yongwu subgenre evo l ved a c ros s gene r i c bounda r i e s , c e r t a i n conven t ions a s s o c i a t e d wi th the yongwu fu were c a r r i e d o v e r , wh i le each genre in tu rn a l s o imposed i t s own r u l e s and requ i rements on the yongwu mode. We f i n d , f o r • example, tha t the k ind of yongwu poe t r y which c o n s t i t u t e s a p r a c t i c e d by the L i ang cou r t a r i s t o c r a c y , i s s h a r p l y c u r t a i l e d in sub jec t matter and l eng th and i s w r i t t e n fo r the most pa r t in shor t p e n t a s y l l a b l e sh i w i th an economy and p r e c i o s i t y of language undreamed of by the exuberant and e f f u s i v e Han f_u w r i t e r . These changes r e f l e c t developments brought about by both s o c i a l and l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s . In the case of the pa lace s t y l e yongwu, the s h e l t e r e d l i v e s of p r i n c e and c o u r t i e r and a growing sense of normat ive a e s t h e t i c s both c o n t r i b u t e d to a narrowing of the p o e t i c wor ld to the man-made l u x u r i e s and tamed aspec t s of nature found in the pa l ace env i ronment . Yongwu then became a p e r f e c t v e h i c l e fo r v e r b a l i ngenu i t y and d i s p l a y ; s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a r t i s t r y f l i r t e d w i th such p o e t i c d e v i c e s as p a r a l l e l i s m , paronomas ia , and t o n a l euphony, then a l l in vogue. The very p r a c t i c e of w r i t i n g about a s p e c i f i c ob j e c t in a h igh p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n demands tha t a p p r o p r i a t e r h e t o r i c a l and f i g u r a t i v e d e v i c e s be used and formal r u l e s of v e r s i f i c a t i o n adhered t o . The l i t e r a r y conven t ions expected in yongwu render s t a p l e subgenre of pa l ace no tab l y as 1 20 i t an ext remely s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a r t form. A r t i f i c e becomes an i n e v i t a b l e h a l l m a r k . When yongwu poe t r y se rves the a d d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n of s o c i a l o c c a s i o n a l p o e t r y , which i t o f t e n d i d in the course of i t s h i s t o r y , the element of c r a f t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y dominant . I t was d u r i n g the age of pa l a ce s t y l e poe t r y ( roughly co r r e spond ing to the l a s t th ree Southern D y n a s t i e s , the Q i , L i ang and Chen) , when under a r i s t o c r a t i c pat ronage poet ry fo r the f i r s t time was t o t a l l y d i v o r c e d from p o l i t i c s and from moral i n t e n t and was i ndu lged in as an a r t f o r i t s own sake , tha t the yongwu subgenre was f i r m l y t r a n s p l a n t e d i n t o sh i p o e t r y . To the cour t poets and t h e i r r o y a l p a t r o n s , ep i t om ized by the c o t e r i e 57] \ pre S su r round ing Emperor J ianwen of the L i ang ^ fgj "x, '-j7 , no th ing seemed more amenable to l i t e r a r y past ime than a form of verse which a f f o r d s the p a r t i c i p a n t s communal d e l i g h t in an ob jec t and which enhances the p l ea su re d e r i v e d from the ob j e c t wi th recherche d e s c r i p t i o n s in a p r e s c r i b e d mode. In the antho logy Yu ta i x inyong [New Songs from a Jade T e r r a c e ] , commissioned by Emperor J ianwen, yongwu poems f i l l not j u s t a few p a g e s . " Among the f a v o r i t e o b j e c t s fo r c e l e b r a t i o n are c e r t a i n upper c l a s s l uxu ry a r t i c l e s - c a r v e d c a n d l e s , bronze m i r r o r s , mus i c a l i n s t r umen t s , and the l i k e - a n d p o e t i c c l i c h e s of nature such as wind, moon, and f l o w e r s . The s u p e r f i c i a l a r t i s t r y in the t reatment and the unabashed s e n s u a l i t y g e n e r a l l y e x h i b i t e d have earned t h e i r c o u r t l y au thors the opprobium of l a t e r s e r i o u s -minded c r i t i c s as e f f e t e and decaden t . The d e s c r i p t i o n s in these poems g e n e r a l l y p resen t a s e r i e s 121 of the a t t r i b u t e s , s t r i k i n g e f f e c t s , and unusual p r o p e r t i e s of the ob j e c t c e l e b r a t e d , o f t e n in f l o r i d and orna te d i c t i o n wi th a p p r o p r i a t e use of set a s s o c i a t i o n s and p o e t i c f i g u r e s . S ince the aim i s d i s p l a y of wit and r e f i nemen t , the m a j o r i t y of the poems are a d r o i t l y executed "sensuous w o r d - p i c t u r e s " 5 l a c k i n g any deeper emot iona l or i n t e l l e c t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e that would t r u l y i n v o l v e the r eade r . The f o l l o w i n g s u c c i n c t l i t t l e p i e ce i s by He Sun \ \^ (c . 480-c. 530) , who was much admired by h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . It i s w r i t t e n in p e n t a s y l l a b i c form wi th two p a r a l l e l c o u p l e t s , the second of which a n t i c i p a t e s Tang r e g u l a t e d ve rse in i t s p e r f e c t t o n a l a n t i t h e s i s . S t r u c t u r a l l y , the f i r s t c o u p l e t t r i e s to cap ture the essence of the ob j ec t wh i le the second d e p i c t s some of the wondrous- e f f e c t s which have caught the p o e t ' s f ancy : "On Sp r ing B reeze " A u d i b l e yet i n v i s i b l e , May be heavy, may be l i g h t . Be fore the m i r r o r s p i l l e d powder s w i r l s , Ac ross the l u t e l i n g e r i n g notes are e c h o e d . 6 The word-game nature of the p i e ce i s a l l too appa ren t : the mys te r ious e n t i t y of the wind i s not named in the l i n e s themse l ves . The wind, as observed or imagined by a c o u r t i e r , does not r u s t l e through a h e r m i t ' s bamboo grove but m i s c h i e v o u s l y s c a t t e r s the cosmet ic powder which a pa lace lady i s u s i ng and at the same t ime p l a y s w i th the s t r i n g s of the i d l e 1 22 l u t e p robab ly l y i n g by her s i d e . Desp i t e the charge of decadence made du r i ng the Con fuc i an reforms of Emperor Wen of the s h o r t - l i v e d Sui d y n a s t y , 7 t h i s t r a d i t i o n of the c o u r t l y yongwu, a l ong wi th other p o e t i c norms and models deve loped d u r i n g the p e r i o d , con t i nued i n t o the e a r l y Tang unabated . Tang Ta i zong ( r . 627-49 ) , f o r example, took ingenuous d e l i g h t in w r i t i n g in the o rna te pa l a ce s t y l e , much to the c o n s t e r n a t i o n of h i s more mora l l y i n c l i n e d c o u r t i e r s . 8 Ye t , in the seventh c e n t u r y , even wh i le many yongwu p i e c e s were s t i l l tu rned out on the numerous c o u r t l y o c c a s i o n s when poems were w r i t t e n to i m p e r i a l command ( y i n g z h i 7^ ,"^ ) > fenghe ^ tp* ), at the same time when w r i t i n g poems of a more p e r s o n a l and s e l f - e x p r e s s i v e na tu re , poe ts began to sub jec t the yongwu subgenre to c o n s c i o u s expe r imen ta t i on in an a l l e g o r i c a l mode . 9 In such poems, the ob j ec t i s no longer s imply d e s c r i b e d w i th a r t f u l d e x t e r i t y f o r l i t e r a r y en te r ta inment but the d e s c r i p t i o n now se rves to s i g n i f y something o u t s i d e of i t s e l f . In Luo B inwang's ^ 3L (ca.640-84) dense and a l l u s i v e poem on the c i c a d a , the i n s e c t which i s nou r i shed on the wind and dew i s used as a symbol of the p o e t ' s own p u r i t y . 1 0 Another e a r l y example i s Chen Z i ' a n g ' s ^ J ) - ^ (661-702) a l l e g o r i c a l poem on the f r a g r a n t o r c h i d in h i s Ganyu ' S t i r r e d by t h i n g s encounte red ' s e r i e s (No .2 ) : The f r a g r a n t o r c h i d grows in s p r i n g and summer, How b r i g h t l y l u x u r i a n t in i t s p r ime . Hidden and a lone in the empty woods, V e r m i l i o n blossoms appear on i t s p u r p l e stems. 1 23 S lowly the b r i g h t day tu rns to e ven ing , S o f t l y the autumn winds beg in to r i s e . When the y e a r ' s f l o w e r i n g has a l l f a l l e n away, What becomes of i t s f r a g r a n t i n t e n t i o n s ? 1 1 The statement i s q u i t e obv i ous : the f lower of the " L i Sao" s tands aga in as a symbol of h igh-minded men whose v i r t u e s and t a l e n t s go u n r e c o g n i z e d . As Chen Z i ' a n g ' s use of " L i Sao" symbolism s u g g e s t s , the a l l e g o r i c a l mode was by no means new in the Ch inese p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n , nor was i t wi thout precedent in the yongwu subgenre . A l l e g o r i c a l f u on ob j e c t s had been w r i t t e n in the l a t e H a n , 1 2 and poets w i th a penchant fo r a l l e g o r y l i k e Cao Zhi ( 1 92-232) f u r t h e r e d i t s development. By the l a t e t h i r d cen tu ry yongwu fu had become a common a l l e g o r i c a l medium. The v a r i o u s fu on mus i c a l ins t ruments or n a t u r a l phenomena o f t e n aimed to express ideas beyond the immediate l i m i t s of t h e i r s u b j e c t . 1 3 The t r a j e c t o r y of yongwu fu from o b j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n to d e s c r i p t i v e symbol ism was p a r a l l e l e d by the course of i t s coun te rpa r t in the sh i genre , which s i m i l a r l y moved from the i n t r i c a t e word-p i c tu res of the pa l a ce s t y l e to the a l l e g o r i c a l yongwu of the e a r l y Tang and b e y o n d . 1 " T h i s development in yongwu poe t r y can be seen as a r e f l e c t i o n of the tendency in ve rse to move towards comp lex i t y and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n in methods and modes of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Yet in a s p e c i f i c a l l y Chinese c o n t e x t , i t a l s o bears a c r u c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to the dominant concept of poe t r y i n h e r i t e d from 1 24 a n t i q u i t y , one which bears the mark of the Con fuc i an e t h o s . From the Shanqshu dictum "poe t r y expresses i n t e n t " % /{v and i t s e l a b o r a t i o n in the Great P re f ace to Shi j i n g , p o e t r y was g i ven a d i d a c t i c d e f i n i t i o n from which i t never e n t i r e l y f r eed i t s e l f . A l though " i n t e n t " , was equated w i th " emot i on " \ % in the Great P r e f a c e , thus making the l y r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n of emotion a prominent f ea tu re of p o e t r y , in the depths of the Ch inese p o e t i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s , the t enac i ous no t i on p e r s i s t e d tha t p o e t r y , to be of t rue v a l u e , shou ld somehow serve e t h i c s ; f a i l i n g t h i s , i t should at l e a s t not subver t i t . The Han f_u was c r i t i c i z e d i n i t s day fo r ext ravagance in language and c o n t e n t , which was judged to have the e f f e c t of encourag ing the very v i c e s i t was to r e s t r a i n . C l e a r l y , the moral message commonly tagged on at the end of a fu d i d not s u f f i c e to r i g h t the ba lance of p ro longed indu lgence in t a n t a l i z i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s . However, i f the d e s c r i p t i v e p rocess i t s e l f can se rve to a r t i c u l a t e the a u t h o r ' s s e r i o u s thoughts and emot ions , thus c r e a t i n g an e x t r a - l i t e r a l or me tapho r i c a l d imens i on , the r e s u l t a n t compos i t i on would serve to " express i n t e n t . " The grea t s i x t h cen tu ry c r i t i c L i u X i e ' s _^'J ififo e l u c i d a t i o n of the f u . a s " w r i t i n g i n t en t by embodying an o b j e c t " ^^^(J] ^ To' t e s t i f i e s to the t h e o r e t i c a l merging of the boundar i es of the ob jec t and i n t e n t in a l l e g o r i c a l yongwu f u . 1 5 Pa lace s t y l e verse remained o u t s i d e t h i s r e l a t i o n between a l l e g o r y and c o n t e n t . We need on l y go to the p r e f a c e of the Yu ta i x inyong to con f i rm t h i s f a c t . Xu L i ng ^ | ^ , the c o m p i l e r , avowed that the purpose of the antho logy was fo r the 1 25 d i s t r a c t i o n of b e a u t i f u l pa l ace l a d i e s in t h e i r b o r e d o m . 1 6 To " express i n t e n t " was s imply not the cour t p o e t s ' concern when w r i t i n g p a l a c e s t y l e v e r s e , they made no p r e t e n s i o n s to i t , and i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g tha t yongwu s h i in the pa l a ce s t y l e f a i l e d to deve lop an a l l e g o r i c a l d imens i on . T h i s h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e on the yongwu subgenre as i t e vo l ved i n the fu and sh i suggests tha t s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s of development in the ci_ may a l s o be found . The dua l p o t e n t i a l i t y of the yongwu mode as a v e h i c l e f o r l i t e r a r y amusement and fo r symbol i c e x p r e s s i o n i s bound to have an i n f l u e n c e on the e v o l u t i o n of yongwu c i . However, be fo re go ing i n t o the sub jec t of yongwu c i p r o p e r , I want to c o n s i d e r a few s a l i e n t a spec t s of the c_i genre , and i t s r e l a t i o n to s h i and the or thodox concept of p o e t r y . Yongwu c i , as we w i l l see , e v e n t u a l l y came to occupy a s i g n i f i c a n t p l a c e in a complex c o n f i g u r a t i o n of l i t e r a r y -h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t o n s h i p s . The c_i, o r i g i n a t i n g as i t d i d in a new song form which f i r s t became popu la r in the en te r ta inment q u a r t e r s d u r i n g the Tang, d i d not have the p r e r o g a t i v e s of orthodox p o e t r y , s h i , as a t ime-honoured v e h i c l e fo r p e r s o n a l and e t h i c a l e x p r e s s i o n . The heterodox s t a tus of c_i, however, c o n v e n i e n t l y f r e e d those l i t e r a t i poe ts i n t e r e s t e d in the form from any d i d a c t i c o b l i g a t i o n s when t r y i n g t h e i r hands at w r i t i n g l y r i c s to the popu la r t u n e s . With t h e i r l i t e r a r y t r a i n i n g and s k i l l , they c r e a t e d song-poems in a r e f i n e d and e legant d i c t i o n which cou r t esans and s i n g i n g g i r l s pe r fo rmed . The l y r i c s c l o s e l y r e f l e c t e d the psyche and boudo i r environment of these den izens 1 26 of the demimonde, wi th the r e s u l t tha t c_i from the l a t e Tang through the F i v e Dynas t i e s p reponde ran t l y focused on e x p l o r i n g the moods and emotions of the f a i r and o f t e n l a n g u i s h i n g female p e r s o n a . Such an emphasis was in marked c o n t r a s t to and complements the predominant l y "human-equals-man" wor ld of sh i p o e t r y . One of the consequences was tha t sh i and c_i began to assume d i s t i n c t gene r i c r o l e s . The f i r s t acknowledged master of example, d e a l t w i th s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t themes in h i s sh i p o e t r y . C_i subsequent l y evo lved i t s own p o e t i c c o n v e n t i o n s , by which the poet evokes c e r t a i n moods and f e e l i n g s through i m a g i s t i c d i c t i o n w i th l i t t l e regard fo r mimetic r e a l i s m or argumenta l development of thought . Song poets of the t en th and e l e v e n t h cen tu ry who wrote c_i i n h e r i t e d t h i s p o e t i c s of mood and r e a l i z e d more of i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s fo r emot iona l p r o j e c t i o n , whether of the s u b t l e and e l u s i v e v a r i e t y of the Yan Shu-Ouyang i s we l l known, took the oppos i t e d i r e c t i o n , towards i n c r e a s i n g r e a l i s m and d i s c u r s i v e n e s s . In an a e s t h e t i c s of ci_ where premium i s p l a ced on the emot iona l a s s o c i a t i o n and resonance of images, o f t e n at the expense of t h e i r l o g i c a l and d e s c r i p t i v e u n i t y , the u n s u i t a b i l i t y of d e s c r i p t i v e yongwu shou ld be appa ren t . And indeed fo r a lmost two c e n t u r i e s f o l l o w i n g the l i t e r a t i adopt ion of c_i_ in the l a t e Tang , except fo r the ra re i s o l a t e d example, yongwu poems were absent from the corpus of c j i . 1 8 The f i r s t the c_i, the l a t e Tang poet Wen T ingyun (8137-70), f o r A7]\ / (?!?\. \7fj) I j , s t y l e , or of the more pe r sona l and d i r e c t L i u Yong / fy~f y\{_ t ype . 1 7 • Shi p o e t r y , meanwhile, as 1 27 epoch of yongwu c i began in the second h a l f of the e l e ven th cen tu ry wi th c_i_ w r i t t e n by the many-sided gen ius Su Shi and h i s c i r c l e of s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l p o e t s . T y p i c a l of Su S h i ' s gene ra l d a r i n g and i nnova t i v e s p i r i t in a r t i s t i c m a t t e r s , in h i s c i Su demol i shed some of the e s t a b l i s h e d gene r i c boundar i es between sh i and c_i poe t ry by p u t t i n g c_i to purposes p r e v i o u s l y r e s t r i c t e d to s h i . Su wrote c_i poems wi th p h i l o s o p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l themes and i n t r o d u c e d the f requent use of a l l u s i o n s , even from the c l a s s i c s and h i s t o r i e s , p r a c t i c e s which were anathema to more orthodox views of c_i. Su S h i ' s unorthodox approach has e l i c i t e d both p r a i s e and blame from h i s contemporar ies and l a t e r c r i t i c s , but the important p o i n t f o r us in Su S h i ' s depar tu re from t r a d i t i o n concerns the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the yongwu subgenre i n t o c_i p o e t r y . It i s no doubt the s o c i a l o c c a s i o n a l f u n c t i o n which c_i poe t r y now assumed in the hands of Su Shi and h i s f r i e n d s which in pa r t s t i m u l a t e d the appearance of a s i z e a b l e q u a n t i t y of yongwu poems. In the p r e f a ce which they o f t en p r o v i d e d f o r t h e i r c_i poems, i t s e l f a new f e a t u r e , one sees the m u l t i f a r i o u s o c c a s i o n s - f a r e w e l l s , banquets , excu r s ions-on which c_i poems are now composed. In a s o c i a b l e m i l i e u where l i t e r a t i g a t h e r i n g s of a l l d e s c r i p t i o n s abounded, the yongwu mode once aga in l e n t i t s e l f to v e r s i f i c a t i o n when extemporary poems were c a l l e d f o r . The ob jec t f u r n i s h e d a common theme fo r i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s , and the f i n i s h e d p roduc t s c o u l d then be sung. I n c i d e n t a l l y , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the p o p u l a r i t y of f l ower-v i ew ing and t e a - d r i n k i n g in Song l i f e p r e c i p i t a t e d a great number of yongwu 1 28 poems, wi th those on f lowers outnumbering a l l the o t h e r s . Once i n s t i t u t e d , the yongwu remained a major and s t a p l e subgenre in the c_i, r e a c h i n g i t s apex in the Southern Song. As an index of i t s con t i nued p o p u l a r i t y in the Southern Song, we can tu rn to the r e i g n (1127-62) of Emperor Gaozong, when not long a f t e r the 1127 l o s s of the no r the rn h a l f of the empire to the J u r chens , yongwu c i poems w r i t t e n to i m p e r i a l command and ci_ poems c e l e b r a t i n g i m p e r i a l b i r t h d a y s were h a p p i l y produced by h i s cou r t o f f i c i a l s . 1 9 In a Southern Song s h e l t e r e d by an expens ive peace b a r t e r e d from the J u r chens , yongwu c i t h r i v e d among the en te r t a inments the c u l t u r e d upper c l a s s e s d e v i s e d fo r themse lves . The phenomenon of c_i poe t r y c l u b s a l s o made i t s appearance at t h i s t ime , p r o v i d i n g yet another c o n g e n i a l environment in which yongwu f i g u r e d as an eminent l y a p p r o p r i a t e l i t e r a r y f o r m . 2 0 The above account suggests a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f u n c t i o n of c_i. poe t r y as o c c a s i o n a l verse and the r i s e of the yongwu subgenre , but i t does not f o l l ow tha t a l l yongwu c i are o c c a s i o n a l poems. In f a c t , a g rea t ma jo r i t y of those yongwu  c i fo r which the p r e f a ce s imply g i v e s the name of the ob jec t are not o c c a s i o n a l . In many i n s t a n c e s they be long to the ca tegory of p e r s o n a l y o n g w u . 2 1 What approach d i d a poet take when w r i t i n g a yongwu poem in the c_i genre? By d e f i n i t i o n the yongwu mode takes the ob jec t as the o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e and, on the most e lementary l e v e l , the c i poet r e a d i l y s u b s c r i b e s to the conven t ions of the subgenre by man ipu l a t i ng the common l o r e of p o e t i c images, a l l u s i o n s , and 129 stock symbols a s s o c i a t e d w i th the p a r t i c u l a r ob j ec t in f a s h i o n i n g h i s l y r i c . I n e v i t a b l y a g rea t many i n s i p i d d e s c r i p t i v e p i e c e s were p roduced . I f we examine s t y l i s t i c e lements of yongwu c i , however, we can d i s c e r n a s h i f t - w i t h g r a d a t i o n s - i n the yongwu mode, a s h i f t which ep i t om izes the gene ra l t r a n s i t i o n from the r e l a t i v e l y d i r e c t and e x p l i c i t r h e t o r i c of the Nor thern Song c_i_ s t y l e to the dense and a l l u s i v e mannerism of the Southern Song s t y l e . At i t s most t y p i c a l , the Nor thern Song yongwu c i , from Su Shi to Zhou Bangyan, ma in ta ins a p o e t i c v o i c e independent of the o b j e c t . Both Su Shi and Zhou Bangyan o f t e n employed the techn ique of s u s t a i n e d p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n - h i t h e r t o l i t t l e exp l o r ed but a p r i n c i p l e dev i ce in l a t e r yongwu c i - t o p r o j e c t the ob j ec t onto the human p lane fo r p o e t i c e f f e c t . By c o n c e i v i n g of the ob j ec t as hav ing human a t t r i b u t e s , the poet a s s e r t s h i s own s e l f as the l y r i c a l consc i ousness musing on the o b j e c t . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t rue of Su S h i ' s yongwu c i , in which h i s p e r s o n a l i t y dominates as o b s e r v e r . Examples are h i s famous an tho logy p i e ce w r i t t e n to the tune Shu i l ong y i n on the w i l low c a t k i n (QSC 1/277) and the f o l l o w i n g shor t l y r i c on the red plum b lossom: To the tune Ding fenq bo On red plum blossoms 1 Fond of s l e e p , too l azy to b loom, she does not mind be ing l a t e , She p i t i e s h e r s e l f because her i c y face i s not 1 30 becoming. At t imes she puts on l i t t l e red b lossoms, in the c o l o u r of peach-and-ap r i co t . Easy and g r a c e f u l 5 She s t i l l ma in ta ins her l o n e l y and s l i m pos ture of snow and f r o s t . Don ' t l e t your i d l e hear t f o l l ow the manner of o t h e r s ; But why D id the wine make you somewhat f l u s h e d , cause your hea r t to r e t i n t your complexion? The o l d poet does not know where the s p i r i t of the plum blossom l i e s , As he chants 10 He goes on to look fo r green l eaves and new b r a n c h e s . 2 2 (QSC 1/289) Through the p o e t ' s l i v e l y i m a g i n a t i o n , the f l o w e r i n g plum i s d e p i c t e d as a woman, w i th the f l o w e r ' s t r a d i t i o n a l symbol i c va lues made over as a t t r i b u t e s of the woman. The p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n makes i t p o s s i b l e fo r the poet to address the plum t r ee in the second s t a n z a , f u r t h e r h i g h l i g h t i n g i t s red c o l o u r through the c o n c e i t of a w ine- f lushed f a c e . Su ' s presence as an imator i s s t r o n g l y f e l t in the second s tanza as by h i s commanding p resence , he d e l i n e a t e s an e s s e n t i a l image of the f l o w e r . The s u b j e c t i v e vo i c e of the persona i s a l s o ma in ta ined in 131 many of Zhou Bangyan 's yongwu c i , but the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sub jec t and ob j e c t in the poem beg ins to change in some of them. Rather than m a i n t a i n i n g the d i s t i n c t r o l e s of observer and obse rved , an empathic cor respondence i s deve loped between the l y r i c a l s e l f and the ob j ec t "sung a b o u t . " In other words, through the s u b j e c t ' s encounter w i th the o b j e c t , v a r i o u s nuances of s u b j e c t i v e f e e l i n g are evoked, echoed, and f i n a l l y embodied by the o b j e c t . For example, in Zhou Bangyan's L i u chou, on faded r o s e s , the poet beg ins by l ament ing the t r a n s i e n c e of l i f e , shown by the p a s s i n g of s p r i n g . T h i s r eg re t f i n d s i t s " o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e " in the faded f l o w e r s , p e r s o n i f i e d as pa lace b e a u t i e s , dead and b u r i e d . The p o e t ' s r eg re t and l o n g i n g i s f u r t h e r a m p l i f i e d by sad images-bees and b u t t e r f l i e s tha t s t i l l seek the van i shed f l o w e r s , the b ranches , now bare of b lossoms, tha t t r y to " d e t a i n " the poe t , as i f seek ing some so l a ce fo r t h e i r l o s s , and the w i l t e d rose which he puts in h i s t u r b a n , a f o i l to the remembered rose in f u l l bloom worn in h i s l o v e r ' s h a i r . 2 3 In such a poem, i t i s the mood and emot iona l a s s o c i a t i o n s roused by the ob jec t r a the r than any r e a l i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n or i n t e l l e c t u a l con temp la t i on of the ob jec t which form the co re of the l y r i c . T h i s p roces s of empathic o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n of one ' s p e r s o n a l moods and s en t imen t s , whose beg inn ings can be seen in some of Zhou Bangyan 's yongwu c i , i s deve loped i n t o an extreme i n t e r i o r i z a t i o n of s u b j e c t i v e s e n s i b i l i t y in the yongwu works of major Southern Song c_i poets such as J i ang K u i , Wu Wenying, Zhou M i , Zhang Yan and Wang Y i sun i—'/^f* ")/JV • With the yongwu mode 1 32 thus tu rned i n t o a metaphor ic p r o j e c t i o n of the p r i v a t e rea lm, i t i s i n e v i t a b l e that ambigu i t y and o b s c u r i t y would r e s u l t . S ince the p o e t ' s i n t e n t i o n a l i t y i s no longer p u r e l y d i r e c t e d towards a d e s c r i p t i v e r ende r i ng of the o b j e c t , but aims to metaphor ize some pe r sona l emotion through the o b j e c t , even f a m i l i a r a l l u s i o n s and kennings s e l e c t e d from the usua l l i t e r a r y fund a v a i l a b l e fo r a g i ven ob jec t may prove to be s e m a n t i c a l l y e l u s i v e in the p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t . We are no longer sure of t h e i r t rue r e f e r e n t : they s i g n i f y some aspec t of the ob jec t which i s i t s e l f in t u rn on l y a s i g n i f i e r , whose u l t i m a t e r e f e r e n t may remain c o n j e c t u r a l . The h i g h l y complex r e f e r e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e of these l a t e Song yongwu c i i s compounded by the then c u r r e n t p o e t i c s of i n d i r e c t i o n - a p o e t i c s which f avours a l l u s i v e and c o n n o t a t i v e language-to produce a dense , sometimes a lmost opaque, t e x t u r e and meaning. It i s easy to see how these poems have o f f e r e d c r i t i c s in the t r a d i t i o n of ci_ hermeneut i cs f e r t i l e ground fo r e n t h u s i a s t i c exeges i s as we l l as p e j o r a t i v e c r i t i c i s m . I t i s t rue tha t these l a t e Song poets con t i nued to wr i t e yongwu c i of a d e s c r i p t i v e or o c c a s i o n a l n a t u r e , in which case a c l e v e r , l i t e r a r y d e s c r i p t i o n of the ob j e c t remains a p r i o r i t y . But t h e i r most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e yongwu p i e c e s show an unmis takab le tendency towards extreme s u b j e c t i v i t y . The ob j e c t mere ly p r o v i d e s a tenuous th read on which the poet s t r i n g s toge ther g l impses of past memories, e l u s i v e t hough t s , and s u b t l e emotions through a p a r t l y formal ( i . e . , o b j e c t - o r i e n t e d ) and p a r t l y p e r s o n a l ( i . e . , s e l f - o r i e n t e d ) a s s o c i a t i v e p r o c e s s . 2 " In o ther 1 33 poems, the s u b j e c t i v e vo i c e of the poet d i s appea r s from the s u r f a c e of the poem a l t o g e t h e r ; the re i s no longer a s u b j e c t / o b j e c t dichotomy and the ob j e c t takes on the f u l l weight of a c t u a l i z i n g p r i v a t e moments and e m o t i o n s . 2 5 For e x e g e t i c a l pu rposes , I have s e l e c t e d th ree yongwu poems from Wu Weny ing 's c o l l e c t i o n , each to exempl i f y a d i f f e r e n t aspect of the yongwu subgenre , a r t i f i c e , l y r i c i s m , and metaphor. The f i r s t poem i s a model of an o c c a s i o n a l yongwu: To the tune Shengsheng man A f r i e n d e n t e r t a i n e d gues ts wi th a d i s p l a y of plum b lossoms , o r c h i d s , daphnes and n a r c i s s u s , which he named the Four F r a g r a n c e s . In the d i s t r i b u t i o n of rhymes I r e c e i v e d the c h a r a c t e r £ e n q . 1 In mountain v a l l e y s deep in c l o u d s , Or r i v e r marshes c h i l l e d by m i s t , Rare i t i s in l i f e to meet one ano the r . S m i l i n g toge ther be fo re the l a n t e r n s , 5 Sp r ing t ime faces a r ranged in rows of two. Pure f r ag r ances v i e by n i g h t in t h e i r t rue forms, S t i r r i n g f r e s h scen t s to confuse the eas t w ind . The hand tha t ga thered the f lowers Must a r range fo r them a go lden chamber: 10 The romant ic o f f i c i a l i s at a l o s s . Haggard are the s l a n t i n g f e a t h e r s and w i l t e d g i r d l e -pendants , . How sad the Jade Maiden has grown t h i n , 134 D r i f t i n g to f o l l ow the l i g h t swan. I ask my bosom f r i e n d : 15 Whose charms are most a l l u r i n g be fo re the gob l e t ? Aga in and aga in we c a l l f o r Purp le C loud to keep our d r i n k i n g company. The l i t t l e c l o v e , on ly j u s t r e v e a l i n g a f a i n t r e d ; I f i t unders tands words, I w i l l take i t home to make r a i n in a dream. (QSC 4/2920) The p r e f a ce f u r n i s h e s the d e t a i l s r e g a r d i n g . t h e o c cas i on of the c o m p o s i t i o n ; i t was a l i t e r a r y g a t h e r i n g to view f l o w e r s , to which the poet had been i n v i t e d . T h i s p r e f a t o r y i n f o rma t i on o r i e n t s the reader to a p a r t i c u l a r way of r ead ing and i n t e r p r e t i n g the poem. On one l e v e l at l e a s t , the e n t i r e poem can be read as r e f e r r i n g to the s o c i a l even t : the poet w i l l per form the fea t of m a g i c a l l y b r i n g i n g to l i f e the unique f l o r a l assembly of plum b lossom, o r c h i d , daphne and n a r c i s s u s . To do so o n l y , however, i s to miss h a l f the meaning, or perhaps h a l f the f u n , of the poem, fo r Wu Wenying s k i l f u l l y combines apt a l l u s i o n s wi th the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n dev i c e to produce a p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e wi th two s imul taneous se t s of r e f e r e n t s . To be s u r e , the formal d e s c r i p t i o n of ob j e c t s i s t h e r e , but through the t ropes and s t r u c t u r e employed in the d e s c r i p t i o n , the poet aims at p o r t r a y i n g another r e a l i t y . The poem u n f o l d s as a n a r r a t i v e , moving s p a t i a l l y from the n a t u r a l environment of the f lowers to the l i v e l y scene at the 135 pa r t y where they are the main a t t r a c t i o n . At t h i s p o i n t , the i d e n t i t y of the f lowers undergo a m e t a m o r p h o s i s - p e r s o n i f i e d , e n t e r t a i n e r s who were brought toge ther f o r the o c c a s i o n . T h e i r compet ing charms i r o n i c a l l y are c aus ing some c o n f u s i o n to the host who has brought them t o g e t h e r . The a l l u s i o n which comes at the c l o s e of the f i r s t s tanza c o n s o l i d a t e s the f l o w e r s ' p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p to the h o s t . "Go ld chamber , " a term o r i g i n a t i n g in a s t o r y about the love of Emperor Wu of Han as a c h i l d fo r h i s cous i n A j i a o , i s a c o n v e n t i o n a l f i g u r e s ymbo l i z i ng the care and p r o t e c t i o n a man shou ld g i ve to the woman he l o v e s . 2 6 N In the new s tanza we w i tness in the w i l t i n g of the n a r c i s s u s , o r c h i d , and plum, how some of the s i n g i n g g i r l s l o s t in the compe t i t i on fo r f a vou r . True to yongwu conven t ions in o c c a s i o n a l v e r s e , the f l owers are d e f t l y r e f e r r e d to by f a m i l i a r a l l u s i v e kenn ings , which are a l s o , a p p r o p r i a t e l y , femin ine a c c e s s o r i e s , and by a woman's name. The two fo ld d e s c r i p t i o n of f l owers and women i s thereby ma in t a i ned . By u s i n g the c h a r a c t e r h a i r ornaments, the poet by a metonymic t rope r e f e r s to both the n a r c i s s u s , w i th i t s l o n g , f ea ther-shaped l e a v e s , and a woman wi th a d i s a r r a y e d headdress . In the term " w i l t e d g i r d l e -pendants " , the o r c h i d i s t h i n l y d i s g u i s e d by an a l l u s i o n to the " L i sao " l i n e , "I s t rung together autumn o r c h i d s f o r g i r d l e - p e n d a n t s . " 2 7 By d e s c r i b i n g the o r ch id-pendan ts as w i l t e d , one of the " L i sao" themes-being out of f a v o u r - i s borrowed, they now a l s o represen t r e a l women, s i n g i n g g i r l s or which means long f e a t h e r s as we l l as a woman's 1 36 minus i t s a l l e g o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , to a m p l i f y the d e j e c t i o n f e l t by some of the s i n g i n g g i r l s a l r e a d y suggested by the word " h a g g a r d . " Thus the c r a f t of yongwu poe t r y can be merely l a p i d a r y . The precedent fo r us ing the name Jade Maiden to r e f e r to the plum blossom l i e s w i th the i n v e n t i v e gen ius of Su S h i . In one of h i s s h i poems on the plum b lossom, Su p e r s o n i f i e s the plum blossom as the b e a u t i f u l concub ine of a nobleman of the Southern Q i , whose name was Jade M a i d e n . 2 8 Wu here d e s c r i b e s the f ad ing and f a l l i n g of the plum p e t a l s in the image of an e t h e r e a l maiden so s l ender as to f l o a t away, her motion i n harmony w i th the g r a c e f u l movements of a swan. With the d i s p o s a l - o n l i t e r a l , m e t a p h o r i c a l , and s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s - o f th ree out of four of h i s s u b j e c t s , Wu devotes the r e s t of the poem to the hand l i ng of the daphne, whose a t t r i b u t e s are man ipu la ted f o r ingen ious wordplay to complete the v e r b a l a r t i f i c e . By the a s s o c i a t i o n of c o l o u r , the daphne i s p e r s o n i f i e d as Pu rp le C l o u d , the name of a s i n g i n g g i r l whom the Tang poet Du Mu d e s i r e d , 2 9 and perhaps one whom our poet d e s i r e s on the p resen t o c c a s i o n , as the l a s t l i n e seems to sugges t . L ine 17 s u s t a i n s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n by a metonymic s u b s t i t u t i o n . By a s s o c i a t i o n through c o l o u r and shape, the daphne i s r e f e r r e d to as the clove> which i s , c o n v e n i e n t l y , the c o n v e n t i o n a l f i g u r e for a woman's tongue . The l i n e may be paraphrased as "Her smal l c l o v e tongue, on l y j u s t r e v e a l i n g i t s f a i n t r e d . " The note of e r o t i c i s m thus i n t roduced i s consummated in the l a s t l i n e ; " c l o u d and r a i n " or "moving r a i n , " e s p e c i a l l y in a dream, i s a s tock image f o r sexua l encounter 1 37 whose l o cus c l a s s i c u s i s in the "Gaotang f u " a t t r i b u t e d to Song Y u . 3 0 The r e f e r ence to a dream in the l a s t l i n e , moreover , a l l u d e s o b l i q u e l y to the daphne, whose a l t e r n a t i v e name i s the f lower aspec t of the poem to the end. Such an i n v o l u t e system of s i g n i f i c a t i o n in the o c c a s i o n a l yongwu serves as no more than e r u d i t e and l i t e r a r y embel l i shment in a poem which i s o therwise devo id of deeper meaning. Here i s a poem of a r t i f i c e par e x c e l l e n c e , and one which i s r em in i s cen t of the g l o s s and wit of i t s Southern Dynas t i e s an teceden t . In Wu Wenying 's use of the yongwu mode when the o c ca s i on i s not a s o c i a l one, there i s a tendency to v i o l a t e the pr imary conven t i on of the subgenre by d e v i a t i n g from the d e c l a r e d t o p i c . The f o l l o w i n g poem on m e d i c i n a l b ro th i s an example: To the tune Xinghua t i a n On b ro th 1 Southern g inger and cardamon-the t a s t e of l o v e , I reckon i t was in the s p r i n g breeze beneath her tongue. R i v e r ' s p u r i t y t e n d e r l y g i ven to d i s p e l a l i n g e r i n g drunkenness , A haggard Wenyuan rose from i l l n e s s . ' s l e e p f r a g r a n c e , ' thereby a r t f u l l y ma in t a i n i ng 5 I s topped my ne i gh ing horse-her brows f u l l of song conveyed her f e e l i n g s , I remember dawn c o l o u r s in a dream by the ea s t e rn c i t y 1 38 w a l l . Pu rp le sandalwood, hazy and l i g h t , f r a g r a n t g l ances so d e l i c a t e , Hear tbreak in the l i t t l e qua r t e r w i th weeping w i l l o w s . (QSC 4/2933) T h i s i s h a rd l y what one would expect to f i n d in a yongwu on m e d i c i n a l b r o t h . There shou ld have been some more e l a b o r a t i o n on the p r e p a r a t i o n of the b ro th and more p r a i s e of the b r o t h ' s h e a l i n g p r o p e r t i e s and mag i ca l e f f e c t s . For compar i son , we can take a look at a shor t c_i poem by Zhang Yan on the same s u b j e c t , which does e x a c t l y what the form r e q u i r e s : To the tune Ta suo x ing On b ro th 1 C o l l e c t i n g f r ag r ances of r a re he rbs , g a t h e r i n g mercury from immortal f l o w e r s , Where the i c e wheel g r i n d s , scented dust i s s t i r r e d . On a s tove wi th bamboo the b ro th warms over a redden ing f l ame. A f t e r the b l e n d i n g by jade hands, i t was d e l i v e r e d w i th song. 5 I wave away the C l a s s i c of Tea , h ide the Eu logy of Wine, En joy i ng a cup of pure f l a v o u r wi th wonder fu l g u e s t s . Immorta l i t y has always been ga ined by g a t h e r i n g h e r b s , 139 Don ' t be f o o l e d by the love p o t i o n at Ind igo B r i d g e . (QSC 5/3510) The me thod i ca l d e s c r i p t i o n in the f i r s t s tanza of Zhang Yan ' s poem makes f o r a f l a t r ead ing and , toge the r wi th the l i t t l e T a o i s t i n j u n c t i o n at the end , g i ve i t a d i s c u r s i v e f l a v o u r more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t r ends in Song p e r i o d sh i poe t r y than c i . Wu Wenying, on h i s p a r t , used t h i s t o p i c as a warp on which he wove a sma l l but t ouch ing human i n c i d e n t ; the poem becomes a v e h i c l e fo r the memory of a tender e x p e r i e n c e . The poe t , s u f f e r i n g from i l l n e s s and a hangover , was nursed back to h e a l t h by a p r e t t y and l o v i n g s i n g i n g g i r l in the b r o t h e l d i s t r i c t in the ea s t e rn pa r t of H a n g z h o u . 3 1 Then came the p a r t i n g i n e v i t a b l e in a l l such encoun te r s , made sad here by a genuine sense of the tenderness and care which had t r a n s p i r e d . There i s very l i t t l e d e s c r i p t i o n of the ob jec t i t s e l f e x c e p t ' t h a t the b r o t h , made of g inger and cardamon, i s c l e a r l i k e a r i v e r and r e g e n e r a t i v e l i k e l o v e . The i n g r e d i e n t s of the b ro th a l s o a l l u d e to the tender age and beauty of the g i r l who made i t . The term "cardamon" M_ 7^, has s tood fo r an a t t r a c t i v e young g i r l ever s i n ce one was c e l e b r a t e d by Du Mu: D e l i c a t e and p r e t t y , a l i t t l e over t h i r t e e n , The t i p s of cardamon branches at the s t a r t of M a r c h . 3 2 The e p i t h e t f o r g i n g e r , man ' s o u t h e r n , ' may echo the name of Bo J u y i ' s young concub ine , X iao Man ') v , , Jr , who has become a 140 s tock p o e t i c f i g u r e fo r a young charming m i s t r e s s . These l i t e r a l and l i t e r a r y i n g r e d i e n t s impart an ambiguous and m i l d l y e r o t i c tone to the f i r s t two l i n e s . The t a s t e of love i s the g i r l h e r s e l f , expe r i enced by the poet through the " s p r i n g breeze beneath her t ongue , " tha t i s , the p l e a s i n g songs and words which come f o r t h from her mouth. Concea led in t h i s image i s a l s o the p o s s i b i l i t y that the t a s t e of love i s d e r i v e d from the manner in which she feeds him the bro th-wi th her mouth. " S p r i n g " here i s read wi th i t s romant ic and e r o t i c c o n n o t a t i o n s . The p a r t i n g and hear tbreak in the second s t a n z a , seemingly f a r removed from the su r f a ce t o p i c , h inge on an i m p l i e d ana logy between the s i n g i n g g i r l and m e d i c i n a l b ro th-both are c u r a t i v e and b e n e f i c i a l but not everyday f a r e . As b e f i t s the p e r s o n a l nature of t h i s poem, Wu Wenying makes fewer r e s o r t s to r h e t o r i c a l t r opes or embe l l i shmen ts . The a l l u s i o n s to Du Mu's poem and to Bo J u y i ' s concub ine f i t i n t o the t ex t of the poem very n a t u r a l l y . The on l y o ther a l l u s i v e name, Wenyuan , d e r i v e d from the t i t l e of the Han poet Sima X i a n g r u . A popu la r r e f e r ence r i c h w i th the a s s o c i a t i o n s of l i t e r a r y t a l e n t , romant ic d i s p o s i t i o n , and f a i l i n g h e a l t h , Wu o f t e n uses the term fo r h i s pe r sona . What becomes apparent in r ead ing t h i s yongwu poem i s tha t the v i o l a t i o n of form may serve as an a s s e r t i o n of l y r i c i s m in a p o e t i c mode which o therw ise cou ld tend toward e x c e s s i v e i m p e r s o n a l i t y and a r t i f i c i a l i t y in language and sen t iment . The l a s t poem we w i l l c o n s i d e r i s w r i t t e n to the tune Suochuang han and i s s imply s u b t i t l e d "The M a g n o l i a " : 141 1 Magenta s t rands on l a y e r s of c l o u d , C l e a r cheeks of moist jade-The Woman A d r i f t f i r s t a p p e a r s , 3 3 Southern s tench not yet washed o f f , 5 The s e a f a r e r ' s hear t i s f u l l of sad r e g r e t . Far they journeyed on the magic r a f t to r i d e on h igh winds . Pos ses s i ng the nob l e s t f r ag rance in the kingdom, her s e c r e t hear t opens , [one c h a r a c t e r m i s s i ng ] l e a v i n g sweet scent but c o n c e a l i n g c o l o u r , Her r e a l beauty i s q u i e t and subdued-10 A r e s u r r e c t e d sou l from the land of Sao. One g lance Exchanged fo r a thousand p i e c e s of g o l d . Then s m i l i n g she accompanies Master L e a t h e r - f l a s k , Together they r e tu rn to Wu Park . 15 Amid s e p a r a t i n g m i s t s and so r rowfu l waters She dreams of faraway southern s k i e s on an autumn even ing . F r a i l when she came, more so now, Co ld f r ag rance seep ing i n t o her bones she g r i e v e s at the d i s t a n c e of her na t i v e s o i l . Saddest of a l l i s see ing the guest o f f i n X i anyang , 20 Sash t i e d to the p l a i n t of the west w ind . (QSC 4/2873-74) 1 42 The ove r t sub j e c t of the poem i s the magno l i a , but even an i n i t i a l r e ad ing w i l l show that the image of the f lower i s i n e x t r i c a b l y bound up wi th and superseded by the image of a woman in the p o e t ' s v i s i o n . The d i s c u s s i o n here w i l l not aim to e x p l i c a t e the meaning of the poem so much as to show how the metaphor ic d imens ion i s brought about in the yongwu mode. The poem beg ins with the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the f lower as the Woman A d r i f t . Behind t h i s f i g u r e i s a s t range t a l e of romance from the Tang set in the south of Ch ina and conce rn ing an i l l - f a t e d love between a water-nymph from the dragon pa l ace and a young s c h o l a r . 3 " The f i g u r e of the Woman A d r i f t i s not uncommon in poems on fl'owers-Wu Wenying uses i t e lsewhere in h i s p o e t r y , and so does Zhou M i . 3 5 But in a l l cases i t i s used f o r f l owers which grow in water, such as the l o t u s and n a r c i s s u s . The f a c t tha t the magnol ia i s a t r ee or shrub which does not even have to grow near water d e s t r o y s the mimetic cor respondence of the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n and throws i n t o r e l i e f another element a s s o c i a t e d w i th the Woman A d r i f t t a l e : i t i s the sou th , a water count ry and b a r b a r i c r eg ion d u r i n g the c l a s s i c a l age, the n a t i v e growing range of the magno l i a , and here the s e t t i n g fo r a p o e t i c reenactment of the sad romance. The f i r s t s t anza t e l l s of a s e a f a r e r ' s meet ing wi th a flower/woman and t h e i r journey toge ther to a d i s t a n t kingdom where the f r ag rance and beauty of the flower/woman are enhanced by the happ iness she f e e l s . With the s t a n z a i c change the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the f lower i s r e i t e r a t e d in the f i g u r e of X i S h i , the legendary "kingdom-t o p p l i n g " beau ty . One t r a d i t i o n has i t that she wandered o f f 143 with Fan L i (Master L e a t h e r - f l a s k ) , the Yue m i n i s t e r who had eng ineered the ruse to use her beauty to de fea t the kingdom of W u . 3 6 Except fo r the equa t ion between the beauty of X i Shi and that of the flower/woman, any mimetic cor respondence to the magnol ia has a l l but d i s appea red in t h i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . T h i s does n o t , however, a f f e c t the s t r u c t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n in t h i s yongwu as i t i s c l e a r l y not a c t i v a t e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n of the o b j e c t , but by the q u a s i - n a r r a t i v e made p o s s i b l e by the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . The p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n at the beg inn ing of the second s tanza repea ts the journey mot i f on l y to dramat ize the f i n a l denouement: the r e s t of the poem a b r u p t l y tu rns i n t o a t a l e of g r i e f , d e c l i n e , and p a r t i n g . Even in t h i s seemingly b i z a r r e account of the magno l i a , yongwu conven t ions are s t i l l obse r ved . The d e s c r i p t i o n of the Woman A d r i f t i n the f i r s t two l i n e s of the poem i s a l s o a p e r f e c t d e s c r i p t i o n of the magno l i a . Through the h i g h l y c o n n o t a t i v e d i c t i o n of c_i, in which terms l i k e c l oud and jade can have a wide range of r e f e r e n t s depending on the c o n t e x t , the woman wi th c l o u d l i k e c u r l s , her h a i r adorned wi th red r i b b o n s , i s a l s o the magnol ia wi th i t s c l o u d l i k e white p e t a l s marked w i th p u r p l i s h red s t r e a k s at the base ; the s o f t d e l i c a t e t ex tu re and white c o l o u r of the p e t a l s are l i k e n e d to the woman's s o f t , nephr i t e-wh i t e cheeks . These f i r s t two l i n e s a c t u a l l y e s t a b l i s h a s t rong mimetic co r respondence , but one which i s d e s t r o y e d , or at l e a s t f r u s t r a t e d , as the poem immediate ly veers i n t o the s t range realms of the p o e t ' s p r i v a t e w o r l d , metaphor ized in a q u a s i - n a r r a t i v e . Much of the power and movement, and perhaps 1 44 o b s c u r i t y , of the poem d e r i v e s from t h i s t ens i on between the yongwu demand fo r mimesis and the p o e t ' s own me tapho r i z i ng impu l se . U l t i m a t e l y , mimesis ( I use i t here in the narrow sense of r ep roduc ing the ob j ec t v e r b a l l y ) i s ma in ta ined on l y in the s u r f a c e t e x t . On one l e v e l , the poem deve lops the i m a g i s t i c p o s s i b i l i t e s in the name of magno l i a . S ince the magno l i a , u n l i k e the plum blossom and other f l owers wi th impress i ve yongwu p o r t f o l i o s , l a c k s even a l i t e r a r y an teceden t , the poem's f i g u r a l r e f e r e n c e s to the magnol ia are d e r i v e d from i t s c o n s t i t u e n t c h a r a c t e r s - y u and lan j^J , " j a d e - o r c h i d . " These two c h a r a c t e r s deno t ing the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the m a g n o l i a - i t s white c o l o u r and o r c h i d l i k e scen t-a re amply e x p l o i t e d ; in a sense we can read the e n t i r e poem, w i th the excep t i on of a few s t r o p h i c u n i t s , as a s e r i e s of d e s c r i p t i o n s genera ted by y_u and l a n . We have a l r e ady looked at an example of the a m p l i f i c a t i o n of y_u in the opening two l i n e s . As fo r l a n , there i s the a l l u s i o n at the end of the s t a n z a : " the l and of Sao" j fr^ i s the "many an a c r e " fl± on which the L i Sao poet tended h i s be loved o r c h i d s ; 3 7 and' in the c l o s i n g l i n e s of the poem, the re i s an o b l i q u e r e f e r ence to the w i l t e d o r c h i d of the power fu l c o u p l e t by L i He (791-817) on the g r i e f of p a r t i n g : "The w i l t e d o r c h i d sees o f f the guest on X ianyang road , / If heaven had f e e l i n g , heaven too would grow o l d . " 3 8 When the poem i s thus ana l y zed s o l e l y on the l e v e l of adherence to the yongwu t o p i c , i t does stand in danger of f a l l i n g i n t o d a z z l i n g fragments of jade and o r c h i d . But as we 1 45 have a l r e ady seen , the r e a l code i s not the magnol ia as ob jec t but the magnol ia as a metaphor or a p r i v a t e symbol of a woman, wi th the poem e x p r e s s i n g a metaphor ic t a l e of l o v e . The u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e i s l o c a t e d in the p o e t ' s me tapho r i z i ng impu lse , which merges the yongwu t ex tu r e and the s t r u c t u r e of events and emot ions together in an o rgan i c whole. It may be u s e f u l here to r e c a l l Su S h i ' s poem on the red plum blossom fo r compar i son . Even though Su Shi d e s c r i b e s the plum blossom through i t s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n as a woman, he remains m i m e t i c a l l y committed to the a c t u a l ob jec t and we do not suspect f o r a moment tha t he i s w r i t i n g about any th ing but a p a r t i c u l a r spec i e s of p runus . In Wu Wenying 's poem, the subve r s i on of t rue mimetic involvement c r e a t e s a metaphor ic d imens ion no longer commensurate w i th the p h y s i c a l o b j e c t . T h i s change c o n s t i t u t e s a d e c i s i v e t u r n i n g po in t in the development of Southern Song yongwu c i . In the yongwu works of c_i poets a gene ra t i on be fo re Wu Wenying, s i g n s of t h i s d i s s o c i a t i o n from the ob j ec t can a l r e ady be d e t e c t e d ; 3 9 in some of Wu's yongwu c i the d i s s o c i a t i o n i s r a d i c a l and comple te . Less than two decades a f t e r Wu Wenying 's dea th , the Southern Song f e l l to the Mongols . In 1279, a group of men ga thered in s e c r e t to mourn the M o n g o l - i n s t i g a t e d l o o t i n g of the Song i m p e r i a l tombs and the d e s e c r a t i o n of i m p e r i a l c o r p s e s . Among them were the c_i poets Zhou M i , Wang Y isun and Zhang Yan. The medium they chose fo r the e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r thoughts and emotions about t h i s h u m i l i a t i n g i n c i d e n t was yongwu c i , w r i t t e n in the a l l e g o r i c a l m o d e . " 0 T h i s cho i c e i s s i g n i f i c a n t in two 1 46 r e s p e c t s . One, wi th r espec t to the yongwu subgenre , i t r ep resen t s a l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n to the development of yongwu in c i poe t r y from d e s c r i p t i o n to a l l e g o r y , comparable to i t s e v o l u t i o n a r y p a t t e r n s in the f_u and s h i . And two, w i th respec t to the c_i genre , i t demonstrates c o n c r e t e l y the e l e v a t i o n of the gene r i c s t a t u s of c_i in the l i t e r a r y or thodoxy to a form c o n s i d e r e d proper fo r the e x p r e s s i o n of i n t e n t . Both p rocesses had been e v o l v i n g a l l a l o n g . On the f i r s t p o i n t , I have t r i e d to show, by c e r t a i n s t y l i s t i c and s t r u c t u r a l changes the g radua l s h i f t in the yongwu mode s i n c e i t was f i r s t taken up by c_i_ p o e t s . On the second, i t i s the v i o l a t i o n of g e n e r i c boundar ies between sh i and c_i p r a c t i c e d by Su Shi and h i s f r i e n d s that marks a d e f i n i t e s tep in the e l e v a t i o n of c i to a s e r i o u s l i t e r a r y genre . The p rocess was not f a s t and the goa l perhaps never c l i n c h e d . From extant c r i t i c a l comments, i t seemed tha t Su ' s con tempora r i es and nea r-con tempora r i e s , governed by a s t rong gene r i c e x p e c t a t i o n that c_i shou ld be d e l i c a t e , s u b t l e , and m u s i c a l , were more c r i t i c a l of the t e c h n i c a l f a u l t s of h i s new c i than aware of h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s in widening the sub jec t matter of c_i. Ye t , as c_i became more e s t a b l i s h e d as a l i t e r a r y genre in the hands of l i t e r a t i s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s , the moral demands of the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n began to make themselves f e l t in the minds of i t s c r i t i c s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s . In the e a r l y Southern Song, the c r i t i c Wang Zhuo, who expressed the h ighes t esteem fo r Su S h i ' s c_i, began a d i s c u s s i o n of the o r i g i n of c_i by quo t i ng the sh i yan z h i ' p o e t r y expresses i n t e n t ' d i c t u m . " 1 147 Coining at the end of the Song, Zhang Yan s i m i l a r l y s t a t e s in h i s c r i t i c a l t r e a t i s e , the C i y u a n , tha t "c_i shou ld be e legant and p r o p e r ; i t i s where the h e a r t ' s i n t e n t g o e s , " a l s o t ak i ng the Great P re f ace as h i s a u t h o r i t y ( " Poet ry [ sh i ] i s where the h e a r t ' s i n t e n t g o e s " ) . ' 2 In u s i ng the orthodox d e f i n i t i o n of sh i fo r t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of c_i, these c r i t i c s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s of c i e age r l y s u b s c r i b e d to the or thodox concept of poe t r y and sought to e l e v a t e ci_ to the same s t a t u s as sh i p o e t r y . That they d i d not e n t i r e l y succeed i s r e f l e c t e d both in the renewed e f f o r t s of t h e i r Qing suc ces so r s to l e g i t i m i z e c_i a long the same l i n e s and in the ambiva lent and sometimes d e p r e c i a t i y e a t t i t u d e towards the genre expressed by some Qing p e r i o d c^ L p r a c t i t i o n e r s . But t h i s p r o p e r l y be longs to another chapte r i n . the h i s t o r y of the c_i. Yongwu c i poe t r y as w r i t t e n in the a l l e g o r i c a l mode at the end of the Southern Song was both a c o n f i r m a t i o n in p r a c t i c e of what c_i c r i t i c s he l d in theory- the h ighe r f u n c t i o n of c_i poet ry-and an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the e v o l u t i o n a r y p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the yongwu subgenre . I I . POEMS IN REMEMBRANCE OF LOVE Memory i s v i c a r i o u s exper i ence in which the re i s a l l the emot iona l va lue of a c t u a l expe r i ence --John Dewey Of the 340 extant poems by Wu Wenying, c l o s e to one t h i r d are poems w r i t t e n in memory of h i s two m i s t r e s s e s . " 3 An account of the events in Wu Wenying 's l i f e which gave r i s e to the " 148 ou tpour ing of these poems of remembrance has been g i ven in Chapter One. Here I w i l l j u s t r e c a p i t u l a t e the e s s e n t i a l s : in h i s youth Wu Wenying had an i l l - f a t e d romance wi th a s i n g i n g g i r l i n Hangzhou which ended t r a g i c a l l y w i th the g i r l ' s death wh i le he was absen t . L a t e r on in h i s l i f e , du r i ng h i s so journ in Suzhou ( ea r l y 1230s to 1240s) , Wu l i v e d wi th a m i s t r e s s fo r a number of y e a r s , but fo r some unc l ea r reason they were e v e n t u a l l y f o r c e d to p a r t . These two l o s s e s l e f t him wi th i n d e l i b l y b e a u t i f u l , and t h e r e f o r e a l l the more s ad , memories. Remembrances and l o n g i n g s fo r h i s van i shed l o ves became almost o b s e s s i v e themes in h i s p o e t r y . In the wake of l a t e Qing i n t e r e s t in Wu Wenying 's c_i s t y l e , there was a renewed e f f o r t among c_i s p e c i a l i s t s in the e a r l i e r pa r t of t h i s c en tu r y to c a r r y out b i o g r a p h i c a l and e x e g e t i c a l s t u d i e s on Wu Wenying and h i s poe t r y in the t r a d i t i o n a l formats of b i och rono logy and annotated e d i t i o n s . 4 " I t was in these works that the e x i s t e n c e of these love poems was f i r s t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y noted and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e du l y acknowledged. A few decades l a t e r , in an i s o l a t e d b r i e f a r t i c l e on Wu Wenying, a main land s c h o l a r made the a s tu t e comment tha t " [Wu's] love and l o n g i n g fo r the depar ted m i s t r e s s e s . . . are g rea t sorrows in h i s l i f e and c o n s t i t u t e the very core of emotion in h i s p o e t r y . " " 5 In view of the sheer q u a n t i t y and e x c e p t i o n a l q u a l i t y of these love poems, i t i s i n e v i t a b l e tha t any s e r i o u s attempt to examine Wu Wenying 's poe t r y would i n vo l ve examples from t h i s c o r p u s . Indeed, the most recent c r op of a r t i c l e s on Wu Wenying by main land s c h o l a r s w i th t h e i r marked focus on the " n o u v e l l e 1 49 vague" aspec t of Wu's p o e t i c s t y l e - n o t a b l y in t h e i r penchant fo r c h a r a c t e r i z i n g i t as the Ch inese t h i r t e e n t h cen tu ry p ro to type of twen t i e th cen tu r y "s t ream of c o n s c i o u s n e s s " t e c h n i q u e - s e l e c t examples fo r i l l u s t r a t i o n or g e n e r a l i z a t i o n that are most o f t en from among h i s love p o e m s . " 6 Whi le i t may be somewhat s i m p l i s t i c and f o r c e d to app ly a h i g h l y s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a r t form deve loped in modern f i c t i o n in c h a r a c t e r i z i n g Wu Wenying 's poe t r y and the endeavour symptomatic of a c e r t a i n t r e n d i n e s s in the resurgent c r i t i c a l c l i m a t e of the post-Mao y e a r s , the at tempts in t o t o s i g n a l a r i s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n of Wu's i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e tha t i s perhaps most r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e i n the love poems. A common a t t r i b u t e of Wu's love poems which may l end them to f a c i l e a n a l y s i s a l a mode i s the d i s t i n c t i v e h a l l u c i n a t o r y ambience they e x h i b i t ( to some extent t h i s can be s a i d of h i s poe t r y as a who le ) . Frequent t r a n s p o s i t i o n between r e a l i t y ( a c tua l expe r i ence ) and the i l l u s o r y expe r i ence of dream and r e v e r i e , v i s i o n and f l a shback i s a pronounced f e a t u r e in the morphology of these love poems. As the deve lopment , or movement, of the poem i s p r i m a r i l y gu ided by memory, emot iona l a s s o c i a t i o n , and sense p e r c e p t i o n ( image-making), r a the r than by any apparent l o g i c , time sequence i s o f t e n d i s r u p t e d and s p a t i a l t> v i ewpo in t s h i f t e d wi thout any c l e a r demarca t i on : the poem moves back and f o r t h between remin i s cence and d e s c r i p t i o n , between the past and the p r e s e n t . The f i r s t s t anza of Shuang ye f e i , a poem w r i t t e n on the Double N in th f e s t i v a l , i s an extreme example which c l e a r l y shows these t r a i t s : 1 50 I n t e r v e n i n g mist and p a r t i n g f e e l i n g s , Th ings tha t concern the h e a r t . The s e t t i n g sun ' s redness h ides beh ind f r o s t y t r e e s . H a l f a j a r of autumn water I o f f e r to the ye l low f l o w e r , 5 I t s f r ag rance sprays the west wind and r a i n . I l e t go the jade r e i n - l i g h t l y f l i e s a sw i f t b i r d . So d e s o l a t e , no one mourns fo r the a n t i q u i t y of t h i s d e s e r t e d t e r r a c e . I remember drunken ly t r e a d i n g on Nanping H i l l : The p a i n t e d fan sobs , the c o l d c i c a d a i s weary of dreaming, 10 Not knowing Man or Su. (QSC 4/2874-75) N o t e s : 1.8 Nanping H i l l i s i n the southern o u t s k i r t s of Hangzhou. 1.10 "Man-Su" i s an acronym made from the names of the The poem moves from an i n t e r n a l r e f l e c t i o n (1.1-2) to e x t e r n a l d e s c r i p t i o n (1 .3-5 ) , to f l a shback (1 .6-8 ) , and f an tasy (1 .9-10 ) . The on ly ove r t i n d i c a t i o n of t ime and space i s 1.8: "I remember drunkenly t r e a d i n g on Nanping H i l l , " except what f o l l o w s i s ha rd l y a s e n s i b l e r e c o l l e c t i o n of the h i k e . What l i n k s the succes s i on of scenes and images i s the " c o n c e r n , " the emot iona l c u r r e n t , exp ressed at the beg inn ing of the poem. In the 151 i n a b i l i t y to f o rge t t h i s concern w i th the p a s t , an acute a p p r e c i a t i o n i s born fo r a moment of autumnal beau ty , as we l l as a s o l i c i t u d e fo r the autumn chrysanthemum, and a lament a s s o c i a t e d w i th the Double N in th fo r the past ( h i s t o r i c a l ) . But u l t i m a t e l y i t i s the obsess i on wi th a p e r s o n a l pas t which r e a s s e r t s i t s e l f , expressed in s t r a n g e l y s u r r e a l i m a g e s . 0 7 When the corpus of l ove poems i s examined f o r Wu's h a n d l i n g of the theme, they y i e l d a v a r i e t y of modes and s e t t i n g s ; c h i e f among them are the me tapho r i c a l yongwu mode ( d i s c u s s e d in the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n ) , l y r i c a l and n a r r a t i v e modes, and seasona l and f e s t i v a l s e t t i n g s . Many f e s t i v a l s observed on the t r a d i t i o n a l lunar c a l enda r f r e q u e n t l y f i g u r e as s e t t i n g s in Wu's love poems, wi th the Qingming Z-^ 9j=j f e s t i v a l in s p r i n g , the Double F i f t h o c ca s i ons which Wu p a r t i c u l a r l y f avoured fo r r e m i n i s c i n g about h i s past l o v e s . I t i s a u n i v e r s a l f e a tu r e of f e t e s and f e s t i v a l s tha t they i n v o l v e f a m i l i e s and groups in communal r i t u a l observances and c e l e b r a t i o n s . Thus f o r those who are a lone or away from home, f e s t i v a l s become t imes when they would f e e l a s t rong l ong ing fo r f r i e n d s and loved ones . Ch inese poets over the c e n t u r i e s had a penchant fo r composing f e s t i v a l poems which express t h e i r thoughts fo r home and f am i l y when away; the gene ra l f l a v o u r can be seen cap tu red in the Tang poet Wang We i ' s famous l i n e s w r i t t e n on a Double N i n t h : " A l o n e , a so jou rne r in a s t range l a n d , / Whenever a f e s t i v a l comes a round , thoughts of k in i n c r ease m a n i f o l d . " " 8 In Wu's love poems, the cons tan t in autumn be ing the most common. They seem to be in summer, and the Double Seventh and Double N in th 1 52 in te rweav ing of f e s t i v a l m o t i f s wi th the theme of remembrance and yea rn ing c o n s t i t u t e s a unique f e a tu r e which deserves s tudy . X i a Chengtao has f u r t h e r noted that these love poems r e co rd d i s t i n c t memories of the two women by means of d i f f e r e n t seasona l and g e o g r a p h i c a l i n d i c a t o r s , which are tempora l and s p a t i a l segments a s s o c i a t e d w i th the r e s p e c t i v e l o v e r s - s p r i n g and Hangzhou a l l u d e to one, summer, autumn and Suzhou to the o t h e r . 4 9 In the ensu ing d i s c u s s i o n s , examples w i l l be s e l e c t e d from the d i f f e r e n t modes and s e t t i n g s used i n t h i s corpus of poems. A t t e n t i o n w i l l be g i ven to the a n a l y s i s of key images and m o t i f s whose v i t a l presence marks these poems as supe rb l y c r a f t e d and moving love l y r i c s . Moreover , in the u sua l absence of t rue r e f e r e n t i a l p r e f a c e s in t h i s group of l ove poems , i t i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r ecu r rence of l e i t m o t i f s which f u n c t i o n as codes fo r i n t e r p r e t i n g the e n t i r e s e r i e s as s u c h . Desp i t e i t s b r e v i t y , the f o l l o w i n g unpre faced poem, w r i t t e n to the tune Feng  ru song , c o n t a i n s a number of s i g n i f i c a n t l e i t m o t i f s : 1 L i s t e n i n g to wind, to r a i n , I pass Grave-sweeping Day, Too weary to w r i t e an e p i t a p h f o r b u r i e d f l o w e r s . Be fore the p a v i l i o n , green shade obscures our path of pa r t ing-One s p r i g of w i l l ow , one i n ch of tender f e e l i n g . 5 C h i l l y in the s p r i n g c o l d I got d r u n k . . . The c h i r p i n g o r i o l e s mingle i n my daybreak dream. 1 53 Day a f t e r day I sweep the wooded arbour in the West Garden , R e l i s h i n g the new c l e a r weather as in the p a s t . Aga in and aga in ye l low bees s t r i k e the sw ing ' s ropes 10 Where f r ag rance from her d e l i c a t e hands s t i l l c l i n g s . G r i e v e d tha t her mandarin-duck shoes do not come, O v e r n i g h t , moss has grown on the sec luded s t e p s . (QSC 4/2906) Memories of the dead are a s s o c i a t e d w i th Grave-sweeping Day, which t r a n s l a t e s the Qingming f e s t i v a l in s p r i n g when the Ch inese t r a d i t i o n a l l y make t h e i r annual v i s i t s to the f a m i l y g r a v e s i t e s to c l e a r them of weeds and make r i t u a l o f f e r i n g s . Thus t h i s f e s t i v a l o f t en serves in Wu Wenying 's l ove poems as an apt dev i ce to c a l l up po ignant memories of h i s deceased l o v e r . The a s s o c i a t i o n w i th death evoked in the opening l i n e i s immediate ly r e i n f o r c e d by " e p i t a p h " and " b u r i e d f l o w e r s " in 1.2; the image of the f a l l e n f lowers of s p r i n g , ravaged by wind and r a i n , a c t s then as an i m p l i e d metaphor fo r the young l o v e r who d i e d in the s p r i n g of l i f e . In another poem, Wu Wenying employs a s i m i l a r metonymic f i g u r e , " i n t e r r e d jade and b u r i e d f r a g r a n c e , " in r e f e r r i n g to h e r . 5 0 The element of time p l a y s an important r o l e in these poems of r e m i n i s c e n c e : i t s i r r e v o c a b l e passage o f t en forms an a n t i t h e s i s to the i r o n i c p e r s i s t e n c e of memory. Whi le the l apse of t ime o b l i t e r a t e s the past as e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y , i t s f a i l u r e to e rase the s tubborn t r a c e s of memory becomes a source of 1 54 b i t t e r s w e e t p a i n . Wu Wenying in these love l y r i c s w i l l t y p i c a l l y use images which emphasize the p r o t r a c t e d remoteness of t ime p a s t , and then c o n t r a s t , a lmost d e f y , them wi th images which s i g n i f y undying emot ion . T h i s poem c o n t a i n s a s e r i e s of b i n a r y images which express t h i s t e n s i o n . Sometimes one and the same image would embody the p o l a r i t y , as fo r example the w i l low (1 .3-4 ) , which through t ime has grown to b lock out p h y s i c a l l y a view of the p a s t , 'yet p a r a d o x i c a l l y , in i t s very growth and p r o l i f e r a t i o n i s lodged the p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y i n c r e a s e d emotion ( tenderness and love ) a s s o c i a t e d w i th the p a s t . The e n t i r e second s tanza foregrounds t h i s c o u n t e r p o i n t between time and f e e l i n g . The persona enc l o ses h i m s e l f in the West Garden , the symbol ic wor ld of the past which he p e r s i s t s in l i v i n g i n . Sweeping i t s grounds becomes a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y pregnant ac t of c l e a r i n g away what i s on the su r f a ce to r e v e a l what i s h i d d e n , to push a s i d e p resen t r e a l i t y in o rder to r e c r e a t e the p a s t . The ve rb " t o sweep" i s m o d i f i e d by the a d v e r b i a l phrase "day a f t e r d a y , " emphas iz ing the p e r s i s t e n c e of the a c t i o n . In another poem a l s o set at the t ime of Qingming, images of the past are con ju r ed up through the same ac t of sweeping the ground : K i o sks and a rbo r s newly swept, Impr in ted on the l i c h e n , t r a c e s of her p a i r e d l o v e b i r d shoes , I r e c a l l our walks through the deep woods. (San shu me i , QSC 4/2923) 1 55 In l i n e s 9 and 10, the poet p r o j e c t s h i s own p e r s i s t e n t l ong ing fo r the pas t onto the f r ag r ance-seek ing bees which " aga in and a g a i n " a l i g h t on the sw ing ' s ropes where the perfume from the dead l o v e r ' s hands i s imagined to s t i l l remain . T h i s v i v i d and haunt ing imagery has been very much admired by t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s fo r i t s beauty and power of e v o c a t i o n . 5 1 In the c l o s u r a l image, however, even the i l l u s o r y presence of the l o v e r i s negated by the accumula t ion of moss growth, which i n d i c a t e s c o n t r a r i w i s e the t r u t h of her long absence . The f i g u r a t i v e o ve rn igh t growth of the moss i s e x p r e s s i v e of the compressed i n t e n s i t y of u n f u l f i l l e d l o n g i n g and d e s i r e . The imagery of the gardenscape i s i n f u s e d w i th emot iona l symbol ism. In t h i s shor t poem we have encountered three of the most common metonyms Wu Wenying uses fo r the l ove r-he r d e l i c a t e hands, her s h o e s / f o o t p r i n t s , and her per fume. These o f t e n c o n s t i t u t e h a l l u c i n a t o r y , p a r t i a l and f l e e t i n g a p p a r i t i o n s of the l o ve r p e c u l i a r to these poems; they are f ragmentary images made a l l the more potent by t h e i r symbol i c c o n d e n s a t i o n . Set in a n a r r a t i v e mode wi th the season of the Qingming f e s t i v a l as i t s background, the poem w r i t t e n to the l onges t c_i p a t t e r n Y inq t i xu i s an eng ross i ng tour de f o r c e in i t s r e c o l l e c t i o n of and lament fo r a bygone l o v e : 1 The l i n g e r i n g c h i l l a f f l i c t s one s i c k w i th wine-I c l o s e ornamented doors of a loewood. Swallows come l a t e , f l y i n g over the western c i t y w a l l , As i f announcing the end of s p r i n g . 1 56 5 Pa i n t ed boats have a l r e a d y c a r r i e d away the Qingming f e s t i v a l ; In c l e a r i n g mis t tender are t h e W u Pa lace t r e e s . I muse on how the t r a v e l e r ' s moods d r i f t on , Changing i n t o l i g h t c a t k i n s in the wind. Ten years ago at West Lake , I t e t h e r e d the horse by the w i l low And fo l l owed charmed dust i n a s o f t haze . T r a c i n g red p e t a l s upstream s tep by s t e p , I was summoned to F a i r y C reek , And Brocade Maid f u r t i v e l y conveyed your deep f e e l i n g s . By the s i l v e r screen s p r i n g was i ndu lgen t but our dream was c o n f i n e d : Soon f a l l i n g rouged t e a r s soaked your s i n g i n g fan and go ld- th r ead gown. At dusk the d i ke was empty. L i g h t l y we took the sunset And r e tu rned i t a l l to the g u l l s and e g r e t s . O r ch i d s q u i c k l y age, 20 P o l l i a s grow a g a i n , And I s t i l l journey among r i v e r v i l l a g e s . S ince p a r t i n g I 've r e v i s i t e d S ix Br idges-no news. Our a f f a i r ' s in the p a s t , f l owers have w i l t e d , I n t e r r e d jade and bu r i ed f r ag rance 1 0 1 5 1 57 25 Have gone through much wind and r a i n . Long waves env ied your g l a n c e , D i s t a n t h i l l s were shamed by your brows, F i s h i n g lamps s c a t t e r e d r e f l e c t i o n s in the s p r i n g r i v e r n i gh t-I r e c a l l our sma l l boat at Peach Root C r o s s i n g . 30 The green chamber seems a mirage Where I i n s c r i b e d poems at p a r t i n g on wa l l s now c rumb led , Tears and ink are d u l l e d by dust and s o i l . From a h i g h p a v i l i o n I gaze on the h o r i z o n -Co lour of g rass to the w o r l d ' s edge; 35 I s i g h at my h a i r , h a l f tu rned wh i t e . S e c r e t l y I count the p a r t i n g t e a r s and happy s t a i n s S t i l l c o l o u r i n g your s i l k handke r ch i e f-The d a n g l i n g phoenix l o s t i t s way back, The l u a n - b i r d on the broken m i r r o r no longer danced. 40 F e r v e n t l y I want to wr i t e down My e t e r n a l sorrow in a l e t t e r , But i n t o b lue mis t over a d i s t a n t sea p a s s i n g w i l d geese s i n k . In v a i n I p l a y my l o ve-yea rn ing i n t o the mournfu l z i t h e r ' s s t r i n g s . G r i e v i n g over a thousand l i_ south of the . r i v e r , 45 With r u e f u l song I summon you a g a i n , But i s your severed sou l s t i l l the re ? 1 58 (QSC 4/2907-08) No t e s : 1.6 "Wu Pa lace t r e e s " s tand fo r t r e e s in Hangzhou. Hangzhou was the c a p i t a l of the Wu-Yue kingdom d u r i n g the F i v e Dynas t i e s p e r i o d . I t was of course the Southern Song c a p i t a l d u r i n g Wu's l i f e t i m e . Depending on the c o n t e x t , 'Wu' or 'Wu P a l a c e ' can a l s o r e f e r to Suzhou. 1.12 T h i s a l l u d e s to the s t o r y about L i u Chen and Ruan Zhao , who met two f a i r y maidens on Mount T i a n t a i by a stream l i n e d w i th peach t r e e s . See You minq l u sf\ ( L i n l a n g mish i  congshu e d . ) , 15b-16b. 1.13 Brocade Ma id : a name which stands f o r a maidservant who a c t s as a s e c r e t go-between fo r her m i s t r e s s , d e l i v e r i n g messages to her l o v e r . 1.22 S ix B r i d g e s : a s cen i c spot at West Lake in Hangzhou. 1.29 Peach Root C r o s s i n g i s not a r e a l p l a ce name but i s r e c o n s t i t u t e d from the J i n poet Wang X i a n z h i ' s X~ 2L, two poems about h i s m i s t r e s s Peach L e a f . See Yu t a i x i n yong , j . 1 0 . The name i s used f o r the sake of i t s romant ic c o n n o t a t i o n s . The n a r r a t i v e mode in t h i s poem e f f e c t s an uncommon s e q u e n t i a l f low in the p r e s e n t a t i o n s t r u c t u r e d a long the d i v i s i o n of the tune p a t t e r n i n t o four s t a n z a s . A f t e r the d e l i n e a t i o n in the opening s tanza of the season ( l a t e s p r i n g ) , p l a ce (Hangzhou), and mood ( s o l i t a r y and r e s t r o s p e c t i v e ) of the p e r s o n a - f a m i l i a r s i g n i f i e r s of a l ove poem of remembrance in Wu's system of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , the past u n f o l d s as the r e c o l l e c t i o n beg ins in the second s t a n z a . With t y p i c a l s t y l i s t i c compress ion , Wu d e p i c t s t e l e s c o p i c a l l y in t h i s s tanza the contour of the romance and i t s accompanying emot iona l p r o c e s s , from the exc i tement of the meeting and the subsequent involvement to the joy of the 1 59 consummation of l o v e , and f i n a l l y to the sorrow of s e p a r a t i o n , a l l in a few m a s t e r f u l s t r o k e s . In t e l l i n g h i s s t o r y , Wu a l l u d e s to a t a l e of romance about two men who met two f a i r y maidens on Mount T i a n t a i by a stream l i n e d wi th b lossoming peach t r e e s . By c a s t i n g h i s own romant ic encounter in t h i s f a i r y t a l e mode, he g i v e s i t an e l u s i v e and d reaml ike q u a l i t y so a p p r o p r i a t e to the d e s c r i p t i o n of a b e a u t i f u l love a f f a i r which has v a n i s h e d . The l a s t th ree l i n e s of the s tanza sums up s y m b o l i c a l l y the c a r e l e s s l e t t i n g go of an enchanted l o v e : "At dusk the d i ke was empty. / L i g h t l y we took the sunset / And re tu rned i t a l l to the g u l l s and e g r e t s . " The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these somewhat en igmat i c l i n e s h inges on the word "empty " : to the persona the d ike at West Lake , the scene of the romant ic p a s t , i s now empty, d e p r i v e d of the love he had t h o u g h t l e s s l y fo regone . The sunse t , something b e a u t i f u l but ephemera l , c o u l d s tand fo r t h e i r love as we l l as the p l e a s u r e s they had enjoyed t o g e t h e r , and i t had been too e a s i l y , too u n t h i n k i n g l y r e l i n q u i s h e d . The c a r e f r e e g u l l s and eg re t s are as separa te from human a f f a i r s as the past i s severed from the p r e s e n t . The sugges t i on of r eg re t in these l i n e s f o l l o w s l o g i c a l l y from the imminence of the l o v e r s ' s e p a r a t i o n i m p l i e d in the p reced ing two l i n e s : "By the s i l v e r sc reen s p r i n g was i ndu lgen t but our dream was c o n f i n e d , / Soon f a l l i n g rouged t e a r s soaked your s i n g i n g fan and go ld- th read gown." Stanza th ree con t i nues the n a r r a t i v e a f t e r the p a r t i n g , when the persona r e tu rned to Hangzhou a f t e r h i s t r a v e l i n g and 160 d i s c o v e r e d tha t h i s l o v e r had d i e d sometime ago. T h i s t r a g i c d i s c o v e r y t r i g g e r e d more f l a s h b a c k s of t h e i r t ime together and of t h e i r doomed p a r t i n g . Here a l s o , the image of the d i l a p i d a t e d wa l l s in her chamber where he had i n s c r i b e d p a r t i n g poems and of the i n s c r i p t i o n now covered by dust both c o n c r e t i z e the long passage of t ime . T ime, however, never seems to b r i n g him o b l i v i o n nor does i t ease h i s " e t e r n a l so r row . " The c o n c l u d i n g s tanza i s an unconso l ab l e l amenta t ion over the l o v e r ' s dea th . Very d i f f e r e n t in mood and e x p r e s s i o n but e q u a l l y moving i s a shor t i m a g i s t i c poem w r i t t e n to the tune Huan' x i sha : 1 Behind the ga t e , dense f l o w e r s : I dream of the o l d haunt . In a word less sunset mournfu l the swa l lows ' r e t u r n . D e l i c a t e white hands s t i r f r ag rance around a smal l c u r t a i n hook. N o i s e l e s s f a l l i n g c a t k i n s , t e a r s shed by s p r i n g . 5 Behind shadows of moving c l o u d s , a demure moon. At n i g h t f a l l the eas t wind i s c o l d e r than autumn. (QSC 4/2894) Nowhere in t h i s l y r i c does the persona express h i s emotions d i r e c t l y . Yet in the way the images are c o n s t r u c t e d , a w i s t f u l mood, sadness and n o s t a l g i a unmis takab ly permeate the world expressed in the poem. As the poem beg ins by d e p i c t i n g a dream 161 of the " o l d h a u n t , " i t immediate ly i m p l i e s a past in the p e r s o n a ' s l i f e which he cannot f o rge t and which has remained to haunt h im. The dream mot i f of the opening l i n e l eaves the remain ing two l i n e s of the f i r s t s tanza ambiguous and e l u s i v e , hove r i ng as i t were between dream and memory. T h i s ambigu i t y in f a c t a s s e r t s the equ i va l ence between dream and memory, both whose con ten t s are impa lpab l e . Whi le the me l ancho l i c atmosphere c r e a t e d by p a t h e t i c f a l l a c y in 1.2 can be an a t t r i b u t e of the dream, i t can a l s o be long to the d reaml ike content of memory. A dead s t i l l n e s s and i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y sur round the past which s u r f a c e s i n dream and memory; the persona i s sepa ra ted from the " o l d h a u n t , " the scene of past romance, by tempora l and s p a t i a l d i s t a n c e , r ep resen ted by the t h i c k growth of f l owers and the ga t e , and the l onged- fo r v i s i o n of the be loved i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y f l e e t i n g and metonymic. The second s tanza con t i nues to dep loy images of a s p r i n g n igh t in a d reaml ike ambience. But the memory of the be loved s u b t l y c o l o u r s the p e r c e p t i o n of these sp r i ng t ime images-endowed wi th femin ine s e n s i t i v i t y , the f a l l i n g c a t k i n s are p e r c e i v e d to be t e a r s shed by s p r i n g and the moon p a r t l y obscured by c l ouds to be shy , so tha t the e lements of dream/memory and r e a l i t y remain f u s e d . Throughout the poem, the nega t ion of sound i n t e n s i f i e s the v i s u a l q u a l i t i e s of the images. Not on ly i s the sunset " w o r d l e s s " and the f a l l i n g c a t k i n s " n o i s e l e s s , " but nature images which are o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i th sound-swal lows and wind-are apprehended through emot iona l empathy and thermal s e n s a t i o n , r a the r than a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n . 1 62 The s t y l e of t h i s poem e x e m p l i f i e s the p o e t i c s of i n d i r e c t i o n at i t s best a p p l i c a t i o n . The l a s t l i n e in p a r t i c u l a r has been c i t e d by the eminent Qing c r i t i c Chen T ingzhuo ^ ^ as an exemplary p o e t i c c l o s u r e which subsumes emotion in imagery, i d e a l in the way i t d e f e r s f o r e c l o s u r e of emot iona l response even at the end of the p o e m . 5 2 In order to f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e the s u b t l e a r t and emotion of the c l o s u r a l l i n e , we shou ld take note of the key words " f l o w e r s , " " s p r i n g , " and " eas t w i n d , " whose f u n c t i o n as c y c l i c a l c ons t an t s in the realm of nature c o n t r a s t s wi th v i c i s s i t u d e s in the wor ld of man. The poem beg ins w i th the p e r s o n a ' s dream of a b e a u t i f u l s p r i n g in the past a s s o c i a t e d w i th h i s l o v e , which i s c o n t r a s t e d w i th the l o n e l y l o v e l e s s s p r i n g of the p r e s e n t . T h i s i m p l i e d c o n t r a s t produces the po ignant i r ony of the l a s t l i n e in which the persona expe r i ences s p r i n g , a season of warmth and growth, as be ing c h i l l i e r than a u t u m n . 5 3 In the next poem to be examined, w r i t t e n to the tune Manj iang hong, the season i s summer, the l o c a l e Suzhou. The poem's p r e f a ce p r o v i d e s an unusua l l y s p e c i f i c r e f e r ence to the time and p l a ce of compos i t i on in the corpus of love poems: "In the year J i a chen (1244) , I passed the Double F i f t h wh i le l o d g i n g o u t s i d e Pan G a t e . " Pan Gate remains today as a gateway on the southwestern l i m i t of Suzhou , .w i th both l and and water rou tes to areas to the s o u t h . I f we r e c a l l from the b i o g r a p h i c a l c h a p t e r , the yea rs 1243-1244 were a p e r i o d of un res t and t r a n s i t i o n in Wu Wenying 's l i f e . Dur ing these two yea rs he t r a v e l e d s e v e r a l t imes to Hangzhou, and e v e n t u a l l y t e rm ina ted h i s p e r i o d of 163 r e s i dence in Suzhou. Indeed 1244 tu rned out to be a d e c i s i v e l y t r a g i c year in h i s pe r sona l l i f e as he had to pa r t w i th h i s Suzhou m i s t r e s s . A l l four poems wi th p r e f a ce s da ted 1244 were w r i t t e n on f e s t i v a l o c ca s i ons and , wi thout e x c e p t i o n , c o n t a i n o b l i q u e r e f e r e n c e to the s e p a r a t i o n . 5 " C h r o n o l o g i c a l l l y the poem under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the e a r l i e s t e x p r e s s i o n of r eg re t and l o n g i n g a f t e r the depar tu re of the Suzhou m i s t r e s s : 1 With a r t e m i s i a bound i n t o f a i r y shapes , Demons howl ing on r a f t e r s are s t i l l not q u e l l e d . Ou t s ide the d e s o l a t e c i t y , L i s t l e s s , I look on i d l y -5 A t r a c e of r u s t i c smoke. Baby plums have not ye l l owed and I am depressed by the n igh t r a i n , The pomegranate f lower i s not seen worn in autumn-snow h a i r . A g a i n - w r i t i n g f r a g r a n t l y r i c s in s c a r l e t words on f o l d e d s i l k -The f e s t i v a l of past y e a r s . 10 A f f a i r beh ind the c u r t a i n , Only the swallows speak about . J o ined-happ iness s i l k s t r i p s , A p a i r of b r a c e l e t s . S ince f r ag rance van i shed wi th her f l u s h e d arms, 15 Past f e e l i n g s have a l l changed. 1 64 Z i z a n i a l eaves mourn the X iang R i v e r ' s depar ted s o u l , No dream of Yangzhou, h a l f the bronze m i r r o r i s m i s s i n g . I ask the f l u t e to blow asunder c l ouds in the n ight sky , To see the new moon! (QSC 4/2877) No tes : 1.7 What I have t r a n s l a t e d as 'autumn-snow h a i r ' i s s imply 'autumn snow' fcK,*^ in the o r i g i n a l , a metonym whose r e f e r e n t i s npt e n t i r e l y o b v i o u s . As ob jec t of the ve rb zan 4^- ' t o p i n on a c a p , ' i t can be i n t e r p r e t e d as r e f e r r i n g to the p o e t ' s white h a i r . I t i s to be expected that in a poem e x p r e s s l y s t a t e d as w r i t t e n on the Double F i f t h , the imagery and a l l u s i o n s would be dominated by the m u l t i f a r i o u s appurtenances of t h i s important f e s t i v a l . 5 5 S ince Han t imes , the Double F i f t h has become the major summer f e s t i v a l , combining the dua l f u n c t i o n of commemorating the drowned s p i r i t of Qu Yuan and of r i t u a l p r e ven t i on of e v i l i n f l u e n c e s , d i s e a s e s and p e s t i l e n c e brought by the onset of summer hea t . The J i ngchu s u i s h i j i , a s i x t h century work d e s c r i b i n g seasona l observances in s o u t h c e n t r a l C h i n a , p r o v i d e s a c o n c i s e account of the customs and r i t u a l p r a c t i c e s of the Double F i f t h as i t came to be observed s ince the Han: The f i f t h month i s p o p u l a r l y known as the e v i l month. One shou ld a v o i d r o o f i n g a house . . . . It i s s a i d that one shou ld not c l imb a roof in the f i f t h month, as one i s apt to encounter demons up t h e r e . . . . On the f i f t h 165 day of the f i f t h month, people gather a r t e m i s i a to make man-shaped f i g u r e s fo r hanging on doorways. T h i s i s done in order to e x o r c i s e nox ious i n f l u e n c e s . On t h i s day boat races are h e l d ; i t i s the custom fo r mourning the death of Qu Yuan who drowned h imse l f in the M i l o . . . . F i v e - c o l o u r s i l k s t r eamers , c a l l e d "charms to ward o f f weapons," are worn on the arm fo r p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t d i s e a s e s and e p i d e m i c s ; p resen t s of b r a c e l e t s and other woven a r t i c l e s are a l s o exchanged [on t h i s o c c a s i o n ] . . . 5 6 T h i s passage shows at a g lance how thorough l y Wu Wenying has i n c o r p o r a t e d Double F i f t h m a t e r i a l i n t o the t ex t of the poem. In what f o l l o w s , we w i l l see how the same imagery and a l l u s i o n s are a l s o used to e f f e c t mood and atmosphere and to express p e r s o n a l s en t imen t s . As i n d i c a t e d by the numerous a p o t r o p a i c p r a c t i c e s , the f i f t h month was regarded as an ominous t ime of year when e v i l f o r c e s are on the ascendent . The f i r s t two l i n e s of the poem capture the s i n i s t e r aspec t of the Double F i f t h , p r o v i d i n g a p e r f e c t backdrop to the p e r s o n a ' s nega t i ve s t a t e of mind expressed in the two succeed ing s t r o p h i c u n i t s . It i s n o t , however, u n t i l 1.7 that the reader gets a h i n t of the reason f o r the p e r s o n a ' s despondency. The f a c t tha t the pomegranate f l owe r , in i t s f i f t h month b r i l l i a n t red c o l o u r , i s m i s s i ng from the p o e t ' s capped white h a i r underscores the absence of the woman-she was not there to p i n i t on fo r h im, o r , in her absence , he was i n too despondent a mood to put on such a symbol of g a i e t y . Once the note of romant ic remembrance i s i n t r o d u c e d , the poem's imagery s h i f t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y to the c o l o u r f u l and sensuous a spec t s of the Double F i f t h a s s o c i a t e d wi th the 1 66 presence of the woman in the p a s t . L.8 a l l u d e s to the making of s i l k amulets to be hung on gates or worn on the c h e s t . 5 7 Whether or not in the p rocess " f r a g r a n t l y r i c s , " tha t i s love poems, i n s t e a d of a p p r o p r i a t e demon^quel l ing s p e l l s were w r i t t e n on the s i l k becomes i m m a t e r i a l , that i t was an a c t i v i t y shared in the past w i th a l o v e r / m i s t r e s s endows i t w i th romant ic a s s o c i a t i o n s . But tha t was the Double F i f t h of former y e a r s . Images in the second s tanza r e v e a l the l o s t romance from d i f f e r e n t Double F i f t h a n g l e s . The s i l k s t reamers and b r a c e l e t s , charms which would have been worn on the person of the woman on t h i s o c c a s i o n , are now l e f t unused. Even g rammat i ca l l y they are l e f t as i s o l a t e d nouns, put i n t o a s t r o p h i c u n i t wi thout verb or c o n t e x t . Yet the mere f a c t of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e genera tes a con t iguous v i s i o n of her sensua l arms where these ob j e c t s would have be longed . An emphatic tw i s t of a Double F i f t h a l l u s i o n occurs in 1.16, in which the pe r sona l element t h r ea t ens to over take the l egenda r y : in " Z i z a n i a l eaves mourn the X iang R i v e r ' s depar ted s o u l , " the o s t e n s i b l e r e f e r ence i s to Qu Yuan and the custom of commemorating h i s s u i c i d e by throwing r i c e c a k e s wrapped in z i z a n i a l eaves i n t o the r i v e r . But the u n d e r l y i n g d r i v e of the l i n e i s a deep l o n g i n g fo r a depa r ted person (the m i s t r e s s ) , a r ead ing which i s l en t support by the a l l u s i o n s in the p a r a l l e l l i n e ( 1 .16 ) . L i ne 16 i n v o l v e s a complex melange of a l l u s i o n s . Coming at the c r u c i a l p o s i t i o n of the penu l t ima te s t rophe as the second h a l f of a p a r a l l e l c o u p l e t , t h i s l i n e bears the s t rong burden of summing up both the sub jec t matter of the Double F i f t h and the 167 theme of l o s t romance to complement the p a r t i c u l a r c l o s u r e techn ique used in t h i s poem. The d i s s o l u t i o n of romant ic love i s conveyed c l e v e r l y enough through a l l u d i n g to the gay c i t y of Yangzhou, l ong turned i n t o a p o e t i c symbol of romance and p l e a s u r e by Du Mu's p o e t i c r e co rd of h i s d a l l i a n c e t h e r e . T e x t u a l l y Du Mu's famous l i n e : " A f t e r ten years at l a s t I wake from my Yangzhou dream" accounts fo r the f i r s t h a l f of the l i n e -"No dream of Yangzhou" s i g n i f i e s the l o s s of romant ic l ove and g a i e t y . 5 8 The second h a l f of the l i n e h i n t s at a s t o r y of pa r t ed l o v e r s who, when s e p a r a t i n g , broke a m i r r o r and each kept h a l f as a love- token which they would t r y to match toge the r a g a i n . 5 9 In t h i s poem, the f a c t tha t h a l f the m i r r o r i s s t i l l m i s s i n g p r e c l u d e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of. r e u n i o n . How does a l l t h i s r e l a t e to the Double F i f t h ? C o n s c i e n t i o u s c ra f t sman tha t he i s , in h i s use of a l l u s i o n s Wu seldom s t r a y s from the t o p i c . Though in t h i s c a s e , the a p p l i c a t i o n of the Yangzhou a l l u s i o n and the m i r r o r image to the Double F i f t h tu rns out to be q u i t e s u p e r f i c i a l and f a c t i t i o u s : a c c o r d i n g to the Tang work Tang  guoshi bu , a former t r i b u t e to the cou r t from Yangzhou used to be a s p e c i a l bronze m i r r o r c a s t in the middle of the r i v e r on the Double F i f t h ! 6 0 P l a i n l y , the l a y e r s of r e f e r e n c e s and c r o s s -r e f e r e n c e s which t r y to s a t i s f y two appa r en t l y u n r e l a t e d sub j e c t s d e t r a c t from each o ther and weaken the immediate impact of the l i n e when the s t r u c t u r a l demand r e q u i r e s an emot iona l c l imax to o f f s e t the e f f o r t at s e l f - t r a n s c e n d e n c e expressed in the c l o s u r e . In c o n t r a s t to the opaqueness in some of the p r e ced ing a l l u s i o n s , the c l o s u r a l e x p r e s s i o n of t ranscendence of 1 68 sor row-us ing the symbol ic imagery of b reak ing through the c l ouds a f t e r the r a i n (de lus ion ) to see the new moon at the beg inn ing of the month ( l i g h t , t r u t h ) , i s r e f r e s h i n g l y c l e a r and t r a n s p a r e n t . Two months l a t e r , in the seventh month of the same year (1244) , a poem was w r i t t e n w i th a p r e f a ce tha t da tes from the n igh t of the Double Seventh f e s t i v a l : To the tune Feng q i wu N ight of the Seventh in the year J i a chen (1244) 1 The southern bough hav ing b lossomed, f l owers f i l l the y a r d . Under a new moon in the west chamber We had promised to th read need les t o g e t h e r . On t a l l t r e e s c i c a d a s are see ing the even ing o f f w i th a few c h i r r s 5 When the homecoming dream i s s h a t t e r e d at t w i l i g h t . In the n igh t scene the M i l k y Way i s one expanse of f e e l i n g . S t o l e n joy beneath a l i g h t canopy-A s i l v e r cand le g r i e v e d bes ide the s i l k - f o l d i n g s c r e e n . Past t r a c e s d i s p e r s e l i k e mis t blown by the dawn wind. 10 The c l a s p that ho lds up the c u r t a i n ga the rs cobwebs in v a i n . (QSC 4/2937) 169 The n igh t of the seventh day of the seventh month c e l e b r a t e s the annual r eun ion between the Weaver G i r l and Herdboy, two s t a r ( - c r o s s e d ) l o v e r s (Vega and A q u i l a ) separa ted by the r i v e r of the M i l k y Way. Legend has i t tha t magpies form a b r i dge on t h i s p r e c i o u s n igh t to h e l p the Weaver G i r l c r o s s the c e l e s t i a l r i v e r to meet her l o v e r . I t i s q u i t e n a t u r a l t h a t , g i ven the background, poems w r i t t e n on t h i s f e s t i v a l o c c a s i o n would c o n t a i n over tones of l o v e - l o n g i n g . I n ' t h i s poem, the one ove r t r e f e r e n c e to the Double Seventh (1.3) i s the custom fo r women to th read need les in the moonl ight on t h i s n igh t and pray fo r s k i l l in s e w i n g . 6 1 Wu uses t h i s custom in a pe r sona l and nove l way by imp l y i ng tha t he and h i s m i s t r e s s had a r ranged fo r her to r e tu rn and th read need les t o g e t h e r , meaning to c e l e b r a t e the o c c a s i o n t o g e t h e r , a n d tha t she had f a i l e d on some account to keep her p romise , thus p r o l o n g i n g t h e i r s e p a r a t i o n . The l o n e l i n e s s of the present l eads to r e v e r i e s and memories of the past in the second s t a n z a . In the p r e s e n t a t i o n , the t ime sense i s f o r e sho r t ened and past and p resen t are i n t e r m i n g l e d . The e n t i r e d u r a t i o n of the past romance i s s y m b o l i c a l l y embodied by one n igh t in the image-bank of h i s memory: the empathet ic cand le which w i tnessed the " n i g h t " of l ove f e l t g r i e f fo r i t s b r e v i t y . S ince the l a t e Tang , w i th l i n e s such as "The wax c a n d l e ' s hear t s u f f e r s at our p a r t i n g : / I t s t e a r s d r i p fo r us t i l l the l i g h t of dawn" by Du M u , 6 2 and "The cand le-wick turns to ashes be fo re i t s t e a r s d r y " by L i S h a n g y i n , 6 3 a g u t t e r i n g cand l e has become a f a v o r i t e image of l o v e . Through t h i s c o n c e i t , love i s p e r c e i v e d to be evanescent 1 70 and s e l f - c o n s u m i n g . The n igh t of p a s s i o n ( " S to l en joy beneath a l i g h t canopy" ) s ymbo l i z i ng the bygone years i s p resen ted as i f i t were the p resen t n i g h t . But in the l i g h t of morning ( r e a l i t y ) , a l l dreams and v i s i o n s of the past recede i n t o i n s u b s t a n t i a l i t y . The d e s o l a t e s t a t e of the p r e s e n t , l ong severed from the sustenance of the p a s t , i s a l l too apparent in the s p e c t r a l imagery of the l a s t l i n e . The happy oc cas i on of the c e l e s t i a l l o v e r s ' reun ion a c t s as a sad reminder to the p o e t ' s own f o r l o r n s t a t e in another poem w r i t t e n on the Double Seventh : To the tune L i zh i x iang j i n N ight of the Seventh 1 Doz ing l i g h t l y I hear from time to t ime The d i n of even ing magpies in the c o u r t y a r d t r e e s . Aga in they are say ing that t o n i g h t at the c e l e s t i a l f o r d The j o y f u l reun ion w i l l be by the west sho re . 5 Cobwebs have i m p e r c e p t i b l y l o cked in the red p a v i l i o n Where swallows had f l i t t e d through the c u r t a i n s . In heaven, love cannot be as b i t t e r as on e a r t h . My autumnal h a i r has changed, I envy S i s t e r Moon her e t e r n a l charm. 10 Rain passes in the west wind, The few l eaves on the paulownia by the we l l dance s a d l y . 171 In a dream I reach Ind igo B r i d g e : A few s c a t t e r e d s t a r s sh ine on a v e r m i l i o n door-Tea rd rops on the sandy shore where I s tand and wa i t . (QSC 4/2890) Dream, myth and r e a l i t y are a l l ming led in the images of the poem. The l egendary magpies h e r a l d i n g the j o y f u l event in the heavenly realm a s , t h e y set out to per form t h e i r a l t r u i s t i c deed on l y b r i n g to the poet a rude awakening to h i s e a r t h l y p l i g h t . The t o t a l i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y of a b e a u t i f u l past i s most f o r c e f u l l y conveyed through the image of the red p a v i l i o n l o cked in t h i c k cobwebs. Hence the pa in of h i s own i r r e v o c a b l e s e p a r a t i o n from h i s m i s t r e s s i s p e r c e i v e d to be g r ea t e r than tha t s u f f e r e d by the Weaver G i r l and Herdboy, who at l e a s t have . the c e r t a i n t y of be ing toge the r once a y e a r . In the end he can on l y t r y to seek love and d e l i v e r a n c e in dream at Ind igo B r i d g e . Ind igo Br idge i s an a l l u s i o n o f t e n used in love poems, be ing the p l a ce in a Tang wonder t a l e where a mor ta l man encountered and wed a f a i r y m a i d e n . 6 " However, the wish fo r a love-meet ing i s a dream w i t h i n a dream that cannot be f u l f i l l e d . The poem ends w i th a dream landscape s k i l f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d w i th Double Seventh imagery, in which the persona f i n d s h imse l f w a i t i n g fo r h i s l o v e r by the shores of the M i l k y Way ( i r o n i c tw i s t of f a t e ! ) . Through the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of s t a r s and t e a r d r o p s , a me t apho r i c a l l i n k between the two images i s p roduced , evok ing a p e r v a s i v e sense of sadness . In one of the most l y r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s w i th a b r i e f 1 72 r e c o l l e c t i o n of the p a s t , the a l l u s i o n to Ind igo B r idge f i g u r e s aga in as a symbol of an u n a t t a i n a b l e s t a t e of l o v e : To the tune Qi t i a n yue Thoughts wh i le d r i n k i n g white wine a lone 1 Dew in the hear t of the l o t u s at m i d n i g h t , Lush f r ag rance r i n s e d i n the s p r i n g water of the jade w e l l . I wash the s i l v e r cup , And s low ly beg in the pa l e d r i n k . 5 The moon f a l l i n g i n t o an empty cup has no r e f l e c t i o n . When shadows in the c o u r t y a r d are not yet da rk , The c i c a d a s make a new song Whose autumn rhymes mer i t l i s t e n i n g t o . My t h i n bones seem immersed in i c e , 10 I f ea r they are s t a r t l e d by the deep n i g h t ' s c o l d on the bamboo mat. In t imes past we c a r r i e d wine on the l a k e , Where emerald c l o u d s p a r t e d , A snow-white face in a m i r r o r of waves. S t i r r e d to the depths by t h i s n e p h r i t e b r o t h , 15 With a thousand s t a l k s of snowy h a i r -M i s t l o c k s in the path of f l owers by Ind igo B r i d g e . I l i n g e r in the dusky scenery Jus t to s t e a l a l i t t l e s o l i t a r y joy And t r y to he igh ten the autumn mood. 1 73 20 Drunken I lean on the t a l l bamboos, The n igh t wind b lows, making me h a l f sobe r . (QSC 4/2884) No tes : 1 .14 ' N e p h r i t e b ro th * ^ ' has a double meaning: in the contex t of the poem, i t s tands fo r the white wine he i s d r i n k i n g ; in the con tex t of the a l l u s i o n to Ind igo B r idge of which i t forms a p a r t , i t i s the name of the love e l i x i r which was o f f e r e d by the f a i r y maid to Pei Hang in the s t o r y . Most of the poem i s b u i l t on a d e s c r i p t i o n of the s o l i t a r y imb ib ing of a p a l e - c o l o u r e d wine in an autumn even ing . Consequent ly many of the images have a l i m p i d and t r a n s l u c e n t q u a l i t y , p a r t a k i n g of the water element-dew, s p r i n g water of the jade w e l l , i c e , snow-white face e t c . ; t h e i r coo lnes s m i r r o r s the sedate mood of the poe t . In t h i s autumnal calm of both scene and emot ion , the past s u r f a c e s b r i e f l y in a s l i g h t l y i n t o x i c a t e d s t a t e of mind in a v i v i d v i s i o n of the b e l o v e d ' s f a c e , on ly to d i s s o l v e q u i c k l y aga in in the sober s o l i t u d e of the p resen t moment. The f a i l u r e of the sea rch f o r l ove i s symbol ized by the i m p e n e t r a b i l i t y of a m i s t - l o c k e d Ind igo B r i d g e . Wu Wenying wrote a number of love poems in the yongwu mode. I n v a r i a b l y the o b j e c t s of these poems are s p e c i e s of f l owers-r e a l as we l l as pa in ted-which are a s s o c i a t e d in h i s mind wi th h i s former m i s t r e s s e s or wh ich , on p a r t i c u l a r o c c a s i o n s , s t i r up memories of them. Yongwu love poems in the former ca tegory u s u a l l y attempt to combine some formal d e s c r i p t i o n of the ob jec t w i th r e f e r e n c e to the l o v e r , as in the opening s t rophe of 174 Suochuang han on the magnol ia d i s c u s s e d in the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . In the l a t t e r c a t e g o r y , ob j e c t s ( f l owers ) o f t en f u n c t i o n as s t i m u l i to f r ee a s s o c i a t i o n . In such c a s e s , r e f e r e n c e s to the ob j ec t are main ly t e x t u a l and not d e s c r i p t i v e . In o ther words, o b j e c t - r e l a t e d t e x t u a l a l l u s i o n s are there by v i r t u e of yongwu c o n v e n t i o n s , but t h e i r d e s c r i p t i v e f u n c t i o n , be ing i r r e l e v a n t to the l y r i c a l core of the poem, i s l a r g e l y i g n o r e d . To the tune Feng ru song C a s s i a The magno l ia boat t o s ses on r i s i n g waves, I g r i e v e tha t i t i s ba r r ed by the low b r i d g e . In even ing haze and d r i z z l e , on the way to West Garden , I have missed Lady Autumn, brows l i g h t l y touched wi th p a l a c e - y e l l o w . Once aga in I order wine, moored at the posthouse Where I had seen her o f f in the t w i l i g h t . C i cada-no tes drag on in v a i n on another b r anch , L i k e a melody that does not become the autumn mode. By a gauze screen she waved her s i n g i n g f a n : 10 I r e c a l l opening a window o v e r l o o k i n g West Lake . With wine I seek once more that obscure dream, Only the scent has a l r e a d y van i shed from the faded q u i l t . (QSC 4/2906-07) 1 5 175 Notes : 1.4 Q iun iang Autumn), a common term in c i which s tands f o r a cour tesan or concub ine , o r i g i n a t e s in two Tang poems w r i t t e n about two women with t h i s name: Du Mu's poem on a cou r t esan named Du Q iun iang and L i Deyu 's ^ ^ . / ^ r P o e m "Dreaming of J i angnan " which mourns the death of h i s concubine X i e Q i u n i a n g . It i s t h e r e f o r e an apt e p i t h e t f o r Wu's own m i s t r e s s . 1.6 The l i n e i s l i t e r a l l y "Where I had seen the guest o f f in the t w i l i g h t . " In Wu's c_i the c h a r a c t e r ' g u e s t ' ^ i s o f t e n shor t fo r ' Z i t h e r G u e s t , ' 5$ the name of the Tang poet L i u Hun 's Jflf^jE s i n g i n g g i r l - cum-concub ine who was made to ' remarry . The obv ious f a c t o r which i d e n t i f i e s t h i s as a yongwu poem i s the s t a t e d s u b t i t l e " C a s s i a , " an autumn-f lower ing shrub w i th f r ag r an t c l u s t e r s of t i n y y e l l o w i s h b lossoms. To an un tu to red eye , there may seem to be no th ing about the c a s s i a in the poem. There a r e , however, three r e f e r e n c e s to the c a s s i a : in 1.1 "magnol ia boa t " c a r r i e s an o b l i q u e t e x t u a l r e f e r ence by a l l u d i n g to the Chuci l i n e : " C a s s i a oars and magnol ia b o a t - s w e e p s " ; 6 5 in 1.4, Lady Autumn wi th the f a s h i o n a b l e ye l low brow-makeup s tands as a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the autumn c a s s i a ; and the " s c e n t " in the l a s t l i n e i s xunxiang ^ % in the o r i g i n a l - i n c e n s e burnt in a b r a z i e r f o r per fuming c l o t h e s and bedd ing . In the p resen t contex t i t sugges ts the k ind made from c a s s i a . 6 6 When the r e f e r ences are de te rmined , i t i s a l l the more obv ious tha t the c a s s i a does not c o n s t i t u t e the sub j e c t of the poem; a l t hough i t s c o l o u r and f r ag rance have worked l i k e the t a s t e of P r o u s t ' s p e t i t e Made le ine in a rous ing memories of the pas t-o f the t ime of p a r t i n g and of an i d y l l i c love at West Lake . The poem beg ins 176 and ends wi th images that ac t as o b s t a c l e s to the p o e t ' s r e a l i z a t i o n of the love remembered and longed f o r . With the d i sappearance of the s c e n t , the l i n k to the remote dream of the past i s s e ve r ed . Love poems in the c_i genre tend towards the extremes of an o b j e c t i v e i m p e r s o n a l i t y or f rank e r o t i c i s m in e x p r e s s i o n , as e x e m p l i f i e d by the r e s p e c t i v e works of Wen T ingyun and L i u Y o n g . 6 7 These t r a i t s in pa r t r e f l e c t the c a s u a l nature of amorous r e l a t i o n s h i p s in the gay q u a r t e r s . In h i n d s i g h t we can say tha t the e r o t i c and the impersona l assumed the form of gene r i c c o n v e n t i o n s , fo r l a t e r Song c_i_ poems on women and love in the main con t i nued to be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by these t r a i t s . Wu Wenying 's corpus i s e x c e p t i o n a l in that i t i s h i g h l y pe r sona l and r e vo l v e s around two r e l a t i o n s h i p s in h i s l i f e which he c o u l d not f o r g e t . The memory of these expe r i ences was g i ven v a r i o u s e x p r e s s i o n in h i s p o e t r y . By way of c o n c l u s i o n , i t may be i n t e r e s t i n g to note a Western p a r a l l e l . The E n g l i s h n o v e l i s t Thomas Hardy wrote more than one hundred poems c o v e r i n g a p e r i o d of for ty-two y e a r s , a l l c e n t r i n g around the r e l a t i o n s h i p wi th h i s w i f e . C a r l Weber, in h i s p r e f a c e to Ha rdy ' s Love Poems, ranks Ha rdy ' s poems t h i r d in E n g l i s h love p o e t r y , a f t e r Shakespea re ' s and E l i z a b e t h B rowning 's love s o n n e t s . 6 8 They c e r t a i n l y p resen t a tempt ing case fo r compar ison wi th Wu's c o r p u s . Weber contends that t h e i r preeminence l i e s in " [ t ] h e i r emot iona l range and v a r i e t y : the i n t e n s i t y , the o r i g i n a l i t y , the t ende rness , the po ignancy , the d e l i c a c y , the w i s t f u l n e s s , are 1 77 a l l r e f l e c t e d in a p a r a l l e l i n g p r o f u s i o n of metres and s t a n z a i c f o r m s . " 6 9 The same can be s a i d fo r Wu's love poems, except that they go beyond the v a r i e t y of tune p a t t e r n s employed to the v a r i e t y of modes and s e t t i n g s we have examined. If one were to rank Hardy and Wu Wenying, w i th ready b i a s pe rhaps , Wu's e x p e r t i s e in the c_i genre endows h i s love poems wi th an e legance of d i c t i o n and imagery bes ide which Ha rdy ' s poems do seem to p a l e . I l l . SELF AND OTHER IN OCCASIONAL POETRY The d i r e c t i o n in which o c c a s i o n a l c_i poe t r y deve loped in the Southern Song can be regarded in many ways as r e p r e s e n t i n g the d e c l i n e of a genre . As I have d i c u s s e d in the s e c t i o n on yongwu c i , e a r l y l i t e r a t i c_i were main ly songs fo r en t e r t a i nmen t , w r i t t e n in a d i c t i o n marked by e legance and-modal and emot iona l imagery, to be per formed by s i n g i n g g i r l s at banquets and p a r t i e s , and i t was not u n t i l Su Shi tha t c_i_ began to be used as a common verse form fo r o c c a s i o n a l p o e t r y . T h i s new f u n c t i o n to which c_i was put was r e f l e c t e d in the appearance of i n f o r m a t i o n - o r i e n t e d p r e f a c e s which i n d i c a t e the s i t u a t i o n or event o c c a s i o n i n g the c o m p o s i t i o n , and in a co r r e spond ing broaden ing in vocabu la r y and themat ic scope . Even then , there were major mid and l a t e Nor thern Song p o e t s , such as Qin Guan y^lL%j ' H e z ^ u ' a n o - Z n o u Bangyan, whose works on the whole d i d not r e f l e c t these changes and who con t i nued to w r i t e c_i a long With the t r a n s i t i o n to the Sou th , the s i t u a t i o n changed c o n s i d e r a b l y . What was a nascent f u n c t i o n in the Nor thern Song more orthodox l i n e s . 1 78 became an en t renched p r a c t i c e . Look ing at the works of many h igh- rank ing bu reauc ra t s in the Southern Song e r a , i t can almost be s a i d that c_i f l o u r i s h e d by v i r t u e of i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y as a t o o l f o r s u p e r f i c i a l s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e . A c l e a r s i g n of t h i s " c i poems c e l e b r a t i n g b i r t h d a y s " - a formal o c ca s i on l e s s than s t i m u l a t i n g to the c r e a t i o n of good p o e t r y . Yet cou r t o f f i c i a l s composed formal c_i poems c e l e b r a t i n g the august b i r t h d a y s of the i m p e r i a l f a m i l y , f r i e n d s and o f f i c i a l s p resen ted b i r t h d a y poems to each o t h e r , and poets to p a t r o n s . Seldom are these poems informed wi th any d imension of the s e l f of the person w r i t i n g i t , e i t h e r on the l e v e l of thought or f e e l i n g ; most o f t e n they are s imply a p a s t i c h e of hackneyed images, c l i c h e s , and p l a t i t u d e s des igned to p lease and f l a t t e r the addressed p a r t y . 7 0 B i r t hday poems may rep resen t the extreme degene ra t i on of s o c i a l o c c a s i o n a l c_i p o e t r y . But in the hands of l e s s e r poets and o f f i c i a l s w i th p r e t e n s i o n s to w r i t i n g p o e t r y , o ther o c c a s i o n a l poe t r y f a r ed no b e t t e r . In the a f f l u e n t and c u l t u r e d s o c i e t y of the Southern Song, every c o n c e i v a b l e s i t u a t i o n and event in l i f e or nature became an o c ca s i on to be commemorated in v e r s e . The performance aspect of c_i no doubt l e n t i t to be used as a popu la r form of s o c i a l and a e s t h e t i c pas t ime . Thus when s o c i a l conven t ion ra the r than i n d i v i d u a l i n s p i r a t i o n d i c t a t e d the ex igency of v e r s i f i c a t i o n , the p roduc t s are i n v a r i a b l y a r t i f i c i a l and d u l l . With the overwhelmingly s o c i a l nature of o c c a s i o n a l c_i poe t r y in the Southern Song, the e lements of " s e l f " and " o t h e r " sad tu rn of a f f a i r s i s the sudden 1 79 become obv ious c r i t e r i a in d i s t i n g u i s h i n g what c o n s t i t u t e s mere ly a p e r f u n c t o r y s o c i a l a r t as opposed to genuine p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n . S e l f and other are of course very o f t e n t i e d to the nature of the o c c a s i o n . Some occas i ons d e c i d e d l y r e q u i r e verse which i s comp le te l y o r i e n t e d towards the o the r- the pa r t y fo r whom one i s w r i t i n g ; some obv ious i n s t ances are found in poems c e l e b r a t i n g b i r t h d a y s , o f f i c i a l p romot ion , or someone t a k i n g on a concub ine , where the on ly aspec t of s e l f tha t may be a p p r o p r i a t e l y expressed i s one that t r i e s to c u r r y favour or makes a show of envy and a d m i r a t i o n . Other o c c a s i o n s p rov i de more freedom in o r i e n t a t i o n , wh i le some are more conduc ive to s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . P a r t i n g poems are good examples of o c c a s i o n a l poe t r y which can be d i s p a t c h e d e a s i l y w i th e s t a b l i s h e d conven t i ons and c l i c h e sen t imen t s , or which can i n s p i r e more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c t r ea tment , accompanied by e x p r e s s i o n s of genuine emotion and thought . On the whole, however, t r i t e examples are the r u l e . The f o r m a l i t y of the s i t u a t i o n , the r e l a t i o n between the add resse r and addressee ( e . g . tha t between two o f f i c i a l s of s i m i l a r rank, s u p e r i o r and i n f e r i o r , poet and p a t r o n ) , and the cause fo r the depa r tu re are a l l f a c t o r s which might a f f e c t the s t y l e used and sent iments e x p r e s s e d . T h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n g to the combinat ion of f a c t o r s , the poem can be mechan i c a l l y churned out wi th a readymade s to r e of s tock symbols , a p p r o p r i a t e a l l u s i o n s , and in a proper l e v e l of l anguage . If the person i s l e a v i n g to assume a new p o s t , i t w i l l be s u i t a b l e to mention the m e r i t s and honours he w i l l a t t a i n , u s i ng mascu l i ne , ' h e r o i c ' e x p r e s s i o n s 180 with proper a l l u s i o n s to h i s t o r i c a l mode ls ; s i m i l a r l y , i f the person i s go ing to r e t i r e from o f f i c i a l du t y , the poem shou ld be seasoned w i th a l l u s i o n s e x a l t i n g the e r e m i t i c i d e a l . P a r t i n g poems by X in Q i j i are o f t en e x c e p t i o n s which bear the stamp of h i s s t y l i s t i c temperament; he u s u a l l y f e e l s and expresses s t rong emotions towards the pa r t y l e a v i n g . O f ten he would f i n d something in common which he h imse l f shares wi th the d e p a r t i n g p e r s o n , whether i t be a view of l i f e , p a t r i o t i c sent iments or d r i n k i n g , and by do ing so makes the o ther person in some way mean ingfu l and important to h i m s e l f . The pa in of p a r t i n g i s thus g i ven the r e a l i t y of expe r i ence as the p o e t ' s emot iona l s e l f i s engaged. X in can even be t r u l y i nnova t i v e in w r i t i n g a p a r t i n g poem. In h i s famous poem w r i t t e n to the tune He x i n l a n g on the o c c a s i o n of p a r t i n g from h i s c o u s i n , he s t r u c t u r e d the e n t i r e poem on the idea of s e p a r a t i o n . 7 1 F i r s t he d e s c r i b e s the cuckoos ' c r i e s as symbol ic of the r eg re t they f e l t f o r the ' p a r t i n g ' of s p r i n g , then c o n t r a s t s n a t u r e ' s r eg re t w i th the g r ea t e r pa in at p a r t i n g s u f f e r e d in the human wor ld by a l l u d i n g to f i v e h i s t o r i c a l ep i sodes a s s o c i a t e d w i th s e p a r a t i o n , and in do ing so i n t e n s i f i e s the p e r s o n a l g r i e f he expe r i enced on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r o c ca s i on of p a r t i n g from h i s c o u s i n . Among o c c a s i o n a l c_i p o e t r y , those w r i t t e n on v i s i t s to h i s t o r i c s i t e s are o f t en most e x p r e s s i v e of the p o e t ' s thoughts and f e e l i n g . However, t h e i r q u a n t i t y i s r e l a t i v e l y sma l l compared to tha t in o ther c a t e g o r i e s of o c c a s i o n a l c_i. There are s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s fo r t h i s : v i s i t i n g h i s t o r i c s i t e s was not an a c t i v i t y as f r e q u e n t l y engaged in as a t t e n d i n g 181 the end less Southern Song v a r i e t i e s of banquets and c e l e b r a t i o n s ; i t was not an o c ca s i on which n e c e s s i t a t e d commemorative ve rse as a banquet ga the r i ng o f t e n d i d ( t h e r e f o r e i f one was not moved to compose p o e t r y , the re would be no poem); and i t may a l s o be the r e s u l t of gene r i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n e x e r c i s e d by both c_i poets and poets who wrote in both sh i and c i , the l a t t e r might have p r e f e r r e d to use the ' s e r i o u s ' genre in which the con temp la t ion of h i s t o r y was a we l l e s t a b l i s h e d theme wi th a vene rab le t r a d i t i o n . X in Q i j i s tands aga in as a s t r i k i n g e x c e p t i o n . H i s l a r g e c_i c o l l e c t i o n c o n t a i n s many e x c e l l e n t p i e c e s w r i t t e n at h i s t o r i c s i t e s . I t shou ld be obv ious from the above d i s c u s s i o n s as we l l as from the b i o g r a p h i c a l chapter tha t Southern Song uppe r- c l a s s s o c i e t y and l i f e s t y l e exe r t ed a grea t measure of i n f l u e n c e on the k ind of o c c a s i o n a l c_i produced under t h e i r a e g i s . Wu Wenying, hav ing l i v e d much of h i s l i f e as a guest-poet on the s t a f f of prominent p a t r o n s , was in that sense very much a poet of h i s t imes . He had to s a t i s f y what must have been f requent demands fo r s o c i a l o c c a s i o n a l poems, and h i s c o l l e c t i o n s tands as l i v i n g t e s t imony . Acco rd ing to the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d in the p r e f a c e s , n e a r l y h a l f of the e n t i r e c o l l e c t i o n can be des i gna t ed as s o c i a l o c c a s i o n a l poems. In the s u p e r f i c i a l range, i t runs from the h i g h l y ornate and i n s i p i d b i r t h d a y poems fo r P r i n ce S i r o n g to a p r e t t y poem dashed o f f a t a ga l a banquet at the request of th ree s i n g i n g g i r l s . 7 2 In a l l f a i r n e s s to Wu, X i a Chengtao conc ludes h i s b i o ch rono logy by remarking tha t among the p e r e g r i n e poets of the Southern Song, Wu was never a 182 sycophant in h i s o c c a s i o n a l poems w r i t t e n to peop le of weal th and p o w e r . 7 3 Mora l ex tenua t i on a s i d e , these are r i g h t l y not the poems f o r which Wu Wenying i s remembered. P a r t i n g poems are of course l e g i o n among Wu Wenying 's o c c a s i o n a l v e r s e . They were w r i t t e n to a l l manner of f r i e n d s and a c q u a i n t a n c e s , o f f i c i a l s and p a t r o n s . The f a c t no tw i t h s t and ing tha t many of these are p u r e l y o c c a s i o n a l p i e c e s in the sense tha t they do not s tand on t h e i r own beyond the o c c a s i o n of c o m p o s i t i o n , in some of them a nove l mot i f can be observed which i s as much a topos p e c u l i a r to c_i as i t i s a p e c u l i a r i t y of Wu Wenying. T h i s i s the amorous nuance which Wu o f t e n i n j e c t s i n t o a ' p a r t i n g poem, a f l a i r which i s not ev iden t in f a r e w e l l poems w r i t t e n in c_i, and would s u r e l y be a f l a g r a n t v i o l a t i o n of decorum in s h i . Woven among common m o t i f s found in a p a r t i n g poem-scene and time of d e p a r t u r e , a n t i c i p a t e d journey ahead, imagined l i f e a f t e r a r r i v a l , e t c . , a l i n e or two, or perhaps a s t r o p h i c u n i t , would make r e f e r ence to the romant ic l i f e of the d e p a r t i n g p a r t y . Wu may i n t ima te the sadness f e l t by the l o v e r s and concub ines be ing l e f t b e h i n d , or he may p i c t u r e the happy reun ion ahead i f the person i s t r a v e l i n g home. The p a r t i n g poem to Feng Qufe i '%) ^ ^ , 7 4 an o f f i c i a l who was Wu's one-time f r i e n d in Suzhou, on t h i s o c c a s i o n on a homebound j ou rney , c l o s e s w i th the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s d e p i c t i n g a p r o j e c t e d romant ic scene upon Feng ' s a r r i v a l : Quick s k i f f c r o s s i n g reeds on the r e t u r n i n g t i d e : Jus t then by the west window, l amp l i gh t blossoms h e r a l d the 183 joyous news. With w i l lowy Man and c h e r r y - l i p Su Se r v i ng wine, f i g h t i n g fo r a f f e c t i o n , You c a n ' t he lp but be i n e b r i a t e d . (Zhuying yao hong, QSC 4/2914-15) Commenting on a f a r e w e l l poem w r i t t e n to Y in Huan, Wu's f r i e n d and p o s s i b l y p a t r o n , Chen Xun notes that " the t i t l e i s about Wu Wenying see ing o f f Y in Huan, the l y r i c concerns g r i e f at Y in Huan 's d e p a r t u r e , but the g r i e f i s that of someone e l s e . Wu assumes the stance of a sympathet ic o b s e r v e r . " 7 5 The f i r s t two s tanzas of t h i s poem are taken up wi th p o r t r a y i n g the emot iona l s t a t e of Y in Huan 's l o v e r : To the tune Ru i l ong y i n Sending o f f M e i j i n (Y in Huan) 1 S o u l - s e a r i n g the p a r t i n g ! Broken-hear ted at the duckweed borne away on water , The h a l t e d boat moored by a w i l l ow . P r e t t y moon and g r a c e f u l f l owers of Wu Pa lace-5 To h i s drunken ve r se her sorrows l e a n , Young Cardamon of the southern r i v e r . Dash ing o f f sp r ing-embro ide red l i n e s . From h i s b r u s h , how many l o v e l y sent iments For her s p a r k l i n g eyes and c r e s cen t brows. 10 New garden l o cked t i g h t in gloomy shadows, .184 Dewy chrysanthemums w i l t in v a i n , Ha l f an acre of c o l d f r a g r a n c e . (QSC 4/2891) No tes : 1.9 ' C r e s c e n t brows' t r a n s l a t e /|j , brows a rched l i k e the contour of h i l l s . The language of the poem i s ext remely f i g u r a t i v e : Y in Huan 's depa r tu re i s compared to duckweed d r i f t i n g away, h i s romant ic l y r i c s are compared to v e r n a l embroidery ( l i t e r a l l y "spewing f o r t h s p r i n g e m b r o i d e r y " ) , h i s l o ve r appears in the kenning "cardamon" wh ich , as we have seen , i s used to stand fo r a pubescent b e a u t y , 7 6 her l o n e l i n e s s i s r e f l e c t e d in the image of the de se r t ed garden , and her despondency du r i ng h i s absence to chrysanthemums f a d i n g away, uncared f o r . The metaphor ic imagery toge the r w i th the e l l i p t i c a l s h i f t s in t ime p e r s p e c t i v e - f r o m the p resen t (1 . 1-3 ) , to past (1 . 4-9 ) , and to fu tu re (1 .10-12)-are both r em in i s c en t of Wu's own love poems. By i n c o r p o r a t i n g romant ic e lements i n t o p a r t i n g poems Wu i s on the one hand b reak ing conven t ions tha t have evo l ved around t h i s subgenre . However, in so f a r as the exp re s s i on and e x p l o r a t i o n of v a r i o u s a spec t s of love be longs in the gene r i c t r a d i t i o n of c_i, such l i b e r t i e s do not seem e n t i r e l y out of p l a c e . That Wu d i d have a tendency to do t h i s i n d i c a t e s perhaps that he was on i n t ima te terms w i th c e r t a i n f r i e n d s and p a t r o n s , and was we l l a cqua in ted wi th t h e i r p r i v a t e l i v e s and f e e l i n g s , at l e a s t to the extent that he f e l t comfo r t ab l e enough to make 185 p o e t i c r e f e r e n c e to them. T h i s tendency may be at the same time a d i s p l a c e d , s u b l i m i n a l exp re s s i on of h i s own pe r sona l conce rns , a p o s s i b i l i t y we l l a t t e s t e d by the preponderance of love poems in h i s work. Wu sometimes would r e vea l h i s own thoughts and a t t i t u d e s in p a r t i n g poems w r i t t e n to p o e t - f r i e n d s who be long to more or l e s s the same s t a t i o n in l i f e as h i m s e l f , tha t i s to say , the c l a s s of poets dependent on pa t ronage . These poems communicate a spec t s of the s e l f which do not su r f a ce in the more f o r m a l , p u b l i c k ind of p a r t i n g poems. A p a r t i n g poem he wrote to Weng Mengyin f u r n i s h e s an e x c e l l e n t example which a l s o i n v i t e s e x t r a -l i t e r a r y s p e c u l a t i o n : To the tune Mulanhua man See ing Weng Wufeng o f f to h i s t r a v e l s in J i a n g l i n g 1 See ing the autumn c l o u d o f f to thousands of m i l e s , I t r o l l s and u n r o l l s , does i t have a hear t of ca re? I s i g h at the path winding and t u r n i n g Where men b u i l d d w e l l i n g s , swal lows n e s t s ; 5 F r o s t s cover the wanderer ' s h a t p i n , A s s a i l e d by sorrow. S l eeves covered wi th t h i c k d u s t , Though e n f e o f f e d , what i s there to envy the Marquis of Hua i y in ? J us t be drunk wi th f i n e c r e s s and d e l i c a t e p e r c h , 10 Not hav ing the hear t to l e t p ine and chrysanthemum grow o l d untended. 186 P a r t i n g mus i c : I hear aga in the west wind-The t r ee by the g o l d we l l s t i r s in autumn chan t . My gaze f a i l s over the r i v e r at dusk , 15 Far f a r away f l i e s the w i l d goose , In the dark solemn sky . Tears wet my l a p e l s At the n o c t u r n a l notes of the p i p a , Ask Yang Q iong , events of the past come to the c o l d f u l l i n g b l o c k . 20 How can i t compare to the y e a r ' s end amidst l akes and h i l l s , Or sha r i ng a cup under the f r ag rance of serene plum t r e e s . (QSC 4/2917) No tes : 1.9 Cress t r a n s l a t e s chun -ff1 , aq. e d i b l e water p l a n t . Chun soup and s l i c e d perch (here in the euphemis t i c " s l i c e d jade" ) were the r e g i o n a l d e l i c a c i e s of the southeast where the J i n o f f i c i a l Zhang Han came f rom. Zhang gave up h i s o f f i c e in the nor th to r e t u r n to the c o u n t r y s i d e fo r these r u s t i c en joyments . J i n shu , i . 9 2 , v o l . 8 , 2384. 1.19 The meaning of the l i n e i s amib iguous . Presumably , Yang Q iong , i d e n t i f i e d by Yang T i e f u (Mengchuang c i q u a n j i j i a n s h i , p.241) as a l o ve r of music i n a n c i e n t t imes , would unders tand why Wu i s moved by the sound of the p i p a . The f u l l i n g b lock u s u a l l y r e f e r s to women washing c l o t h to p repa re c l o t h e s fo r t h e i r d e p a r t i n g husbands; i t may h i n t at a woman in Weng's l i f e in the p a s t . The poem s t a t e s unequ i voca l l y . Wu's nega t i ve a t t i t u d e towards 187 pa t ronage-seek ing as opposed to a l i f e of r e c l u s i o n . I w i l l dea l w i th the e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s a t t i t u d e in the poem in d e t a i l f u r t h e r on ; f i r s t , the p re f a ce c a l l s f o r some expans ion . Reference has been made to Weng Mengyin in the b i o g r a p h i c a l c h a p t e r . Weng i s c h i e f l y known as a p e r e g r i n e poet who had been a p e r i o d i c ' g u e s t ' on the s t a f f of J i a S i d a o . The f requency of h i s t r a v e l s , o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i th seek ing out p a t r o n s , can be surmised from the th ree poems-a l l w r i t t e n at p a r t i n g - a d d r e s s e d to him in Wu's c o l l e c t i o n . I t i s un fo r tuna te that the poem under c o n s i d e r a t i o n cannot be d a t e d , f o r i t c o n t a i n s sent iments which form a p e r p l e x i n g a n t i t h e s i s to the poem Qinyuan chun (QSC 4/2906) , dated to 1259 and r e f e r r e d to in the b i o g r a p h i c a l c h a p t e r , which i s f u l l of p o s i t i v e sent iments r ega rd ing Weng Mengy in ' s journey to j o i n J i a S i d a o ' s r e t i n u e in H u b e i . I t i s u n l i k e l y that t h i s poem was w r i t t e n a f t e r 1259, s i n c e Wu Wenying h imse l f became a guest-poet at the r e s i dence of P r i n c e S i rong around that t ime . I t would then have been h i g h l y improper and h y p o c r i t i c a l to espouse such an t i -pa t ronage v i ews . Whatever the date of compos i t i on or the e x t e r n a l c i r cums tances su r round ing Weng's t r i p , i t i s apparent from the,poem that Weng had not been f a r i n g too we l l at the t ime : he was growing o l d and s t i l l roaming around in search of suppo r t . Wu a d v i s e s him not to get i n v o l v e d in the l i f e of o f f i c i a l d o m and p o l i t i c s and s i ngs the p r a i s e of a l i f e of r e t i r e m e n t . A l l these thoughts are conveyed through a consummate b l end ing of metaphors su i  g e n e r i s , h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n s and c o n v e n t i o n a l symbols . Weng Mengy in ' s wandering i s compared to the d r i f t i n g of autumn 188 c l o u d s ; autumn because i t was the season when Weng was l e a v i n g . The autumn mot i f r e cu r s aga in in l i n e s 9 and 10 and in the beg inn ing of the second s t a n z a . Not hav ing "a hear t of c a r e " i s an apt enough e p i t h e t fo r scudd ing c l o u d s , but a p p l i e d to Weng in the extended metaphor, i t i m p l i e s a c o n t r a r y r e a l i t y beneath decep t i v e appearances : Weng was in t r u t h q u i t e careworn . Weng's f r a z z l e d s t a t e i s made e x p l i c i t in the second s t rophe in which l i f e i s seen as a long and u n c e r t a i n road on which man and beast t r y to b u i l d up comfort and s e c u r i t y , e f f o r t s which u l t i m a t e l y do not a l l e v i a t e the a s s a u l t s of o l d age and sorrow. The h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n to Han X in 11| , the Marquis of H u a i y i n , i s a most potent warning to the dangers of involvement in p o l i t i c a l l i f e . The s u c c e s s f u l c a r ee r of Han X i n , a man of humble o r i g i n s , in the end on l y earned him d e c a p i t a t i o n and the ex t e rm ina t i on of h i s c l a n . 7 7 Though Weng Mengyin was not seek ing p u b l i c o f f i c e h i m s e l f , to be a l i t e r a r y r e t a i n e r on the s t a f f of a p u b l i c f i g u r e c o u l d e n t a i l r i s e and f a l l w i th the p o l i t i c a l f o r tunes of the pa t ron which are beyond o n e ' s c o n t r o l . 7 8 In c o n t r a s t to such p o t e n t i a l hazards (perhaps q u i t e r e a l i f the conc re t e s i t u a t i o n su r round ing Weng's t r i p were known), Wu p o s i t s the peace and i n t e g r i t y to be found in a l i f e of r e t i r e m e n t , r ep resen ted by the f a m i l i a r e r e m i t i c symbols of c r e s s and p e r c h , p ine and chrysanthemum. Most of the second s tanza i s taken up wi th e x p r e s s i n g the sadness which Wu f e l t at the scene of p a r t i n g , and the poem c l o s e s wi th a r e i t e r a t i o n of the r u s t i c n o b i l i t y of the r e c l u s i v e l i f e . The message i s s t rong and c l e a r : "Don ' t g o ! " Weng Mengyin must have been in 189 despera te c i r cums tances i f he l e f t a f t e r r e c e i v i n g such an i l l -omened poem. S u b j e c t i v e a t t i t u d e s are r a r e l y expressed so o v e r t l y in Wu Weny ing 's o c c a s i o n a l p o e t r y . But p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t i o n s not i n f r e q u e n t l y take form in h i s poems w r i t t e n on v i s i t s to h i s t o r i c s i t e s . These poems, though very few in number, compr ise some of the f i n e s t and most f r e q u e n t l y a n t h o l o g i z e d p i e c e s among h i s work, and j u s t i f i a b l y s o . The emot iona l depth in these poems a r i s e s from the concerns of the s e l f , but these go beyond the pe r sona l scope of the love poems and extend to the b roade r , more u n i v e r s a l l e v e l s of man, na t i on and h i s t o r y , in shor t l i f e i t s e l f in the t r a d i t i o n a l Con fuc i an Weltanschauung. Ye t , s u r e l y , emot iona l ampl i tude a lone does not s u f f i c e to make good poe t r y no matter how proper the sub jec t of emotion i s ; i ndeed , second-ra te poets of the h e r o i c s t y l e have been c r i t i c i z e d p r e c i s e l y fo r an emot iona l exces s i v eness which mars t h e i r works. Wu's g rea tness l i e s in h i s superb p o e t i c a r t which fuses p ro found thought and emotion w i th b r i l l i a n t imagery, thereby g i v i n g them t a n g i b l e and a f f e c t i v e form. At the same t ime , i t i s t rue that t h i s image-or ien ted p r a c t i c e produces a f ragmentary and d i s j o i n t e d e f f e c t in h i s l e s s e r poems, a weakness which has i n c u r r e d c r i t i c i s m . Wu's m a s t e r p i e c e , w r i t t e n on a v i s i t to Mount L ingyan near Suzhou, i s c i t e d by Shuen-fu L i n as exemplary of the sensory impact found in Southern Song c i : To the tune Basheng Ganzhou 190 An Out ing on Mount L ingyan wi th c o l l e a g u e s from the G ra in T r anspo r t 1 An end l e s s v o i d , mis t to the four d i s t a n c e s . What year was i t The meteor f e l l from the c l e a r sky? I l l u s o r y green c r ags and c l o u d t r e e s . 5 C e l e b r a t e d b e a u t y ' s Golden Chamber, F a i l e d L e a d e r ' s pa l ace w a l l s . On Arrow Creek a sour wind impales the e yes , Creamy water s t a i n s the f l o w e r ' s s t e n c h . At t imes t r i p p i n g l o v e - b i r d s echo: 10 An autumn sound in c o r r i d o r l e a v e s . In the pa l ace the K ing of Wu i s dead drunk , Leav ing the weary t r a v e l e r of F i v e Lakes To ang le a l o n e , c o l d sobe r . Ask the b lue waves: they d o n ' t t a l k . 15 How can grey h a i r s cope w i th the moun ta in ' s green? The water enve lops the v o i d ; From the b a l c o n y ' s he igh t I f o l l ow random crows and s l a n t i n g sun d ropp ing beh ind F i she rman ' s I s l e . Aga in and aga in I c a l l f o r wine 20 And go to c l imb Lute Tower: Autumn l e v e l w i th the c l o u d s . 7 9 (QSC 4/2926) L i n comments tha t " [e ]ven h i s a l l u s i o n s impress us more fo r 191 t h e i r sensory content than fo r t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e s . " 8 0 Though t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n on l y p o i n t s to one s i d e of the p i c t u r e , Wu's a r t of c r e a t i n g a s u r f a c e b r i l l i a n c e i s u n d e n i a b l e . As I w i l l t r y to demonstrate in the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s e s , the s u s t a i n i n g power of t h i s b r i l l i a n t s u p e r s t r u c t u r e i s very much based upon a v i t a l concep tua l c o r e . Wu Wenying 's long so journ in the a n c i e n t and c u l t u r e d m i l i e u of Suzhou l e f t i t s mark in h i s o c c a s i o n a l p o e t r y . Ment ion has been made in the b iography of the many s o c i a l o c c a s i o n a l p i e c e s he wrote the re which be long to the ca t ego ry of " o t h e r . " But the a n t i q u i t y of the a r e a , p a r t i c u l a r l y the h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s and s i t e s a s s o c i a t e d w i th the a n c i e n t s t a t e of Wu, seemed to have had a grea t dea l of a f f e c t i v e power on him which he t r a n s l a t e d i n t o m a s t e r f u l poems in con temp la t i on of the p a s t . Wi tness in the Basheng Ganzhou quoted above the dramat ic r e c r e a t i o n of a g h o s t l y pas t a s s o c i a t e d w i th K ing Fucha on Mount L ingyan and h i s own pro found response to tha t h i s t o r y . T i g e r H i l l , l o c a t e d j u s t o u t s i d e the nor thwestern pa r t of Suzhou, i s another h i s t o r i c a l s i t e a s s o c i a t e d wi th the s t a t e of Wu. I t i s there w i th th ree thousand swords under a pond which came to be known as the Sword P o n d . 8 1 T h i s h i s t o r i c h i l l o c cas i oned two poems in Wu's work, one of which i s the f o l l o w i n g : To the tune Mulanhua man An e x c u r s i o n to T i g e r H i l l w i th c o l l e a g u e s from the G ra i n T r a n s p o r t . At t h i s t ime Wei Y i z h a i - h a s a l r e ady been s e l e c t e d fo r t r a n s f e r , and Chen Fenku and L i Fang 'an w i l l soon f i n i s h t h e i r r eco rded tha t K ing He lu the f a the r of Fucha , was b u r i e d 192 terms. Black-maned bays ne igh ing on f rozen g r a s s , Dawn c l ouds v e i l the f rowning peaks . Now snow has j u s t van i shed from the o r c h i d b l a d e s , On the p i n e ' s waist the jade i s t h i n , L i k e a worn and weary Zhen Zhen. With l i g h t canes we th read our way through s teep stone s t e p s , T read ing on w i l d moss we s t i l l can d i s c e r n t r a c e s of the bu r i e d f l owe r . P e r e n n i a l g r i e f fo r a thousand ages ' r i s e and d e c l i n e , On m i d - h i l l , f ad ing sunset and a s o l i t a r y c l o u d . Opening winejugs We mourn aga in the ghost of Wu. The emerald c h i l l of the mountain mist c l e a r s our l i g h t i n t o x i c a t i o n . How many t imes l odg ing here at n igh t Have I r i s e n in the moon l ight to watch-Pa t t e rns of s t a r s on the sword-entombing pond. Though we c l imb here to gaze , we w i l l i n e v i t a b l y d e p a r t , But s t i l l fo r the f r a g i l e b lossoms, there w i l l be e a r l y seekers of t h e i r f r a g r a n c e . Look ing back-blue waves, a n c i e n t pa rk , At dusk in misty r a i n and f a l l i n g plum b lossoms . (QSC 4/2916) 1 93 No tes : 1.17 Wu o f t e n uses the term " s o f t r e d " -ft- & x , t r a n s l a t e d as " f r a g i l e b lossoms, to r e f e r to the wo r l d l y sp l endors a s s o c i a t e d w i th the c a p i t a l . As Suzhou used to be the c a p i t a l of Wu, ruanhong c a r r i e s that i m p l i c a t i o n as we l l as be ing the more obv ious metonym fo r f l o w e r s . 1.18 "B lue waves" makes r e f e r e n c e to the a n c i e n t topography of the a rea around T i g e r H i l l . T i g e r H i l l was o r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d Sea-surg ing Mountain 5-^  L i - ) in the Sp r i ng and Autumn p e r i o d , as i t was surrounded by l akes and marshes. See Wujun  t u j i n g x u j i (Xue j in taoyuan e d . ) , 2 * 2 / 1 8 b . The poem i s a complex working in c_i of the hua igu subgenre , which i n v o l v e s m e d i t a t i o n occas ioned by the v i s i t to an anc i en t h i s t o r i c a l s i t e . R e f l e c t i o n s on t ime-on the changes wrought by t ime , on permanence ve r sus impermanence-const i tu te the c e n t r a l theme. It i s presaged in a seemingly o f fhanded manner in the p r e f a c e : Wu c a s u a l l y mentions th ree names of people whom he has worked wi th and b e f r i e n d e d in the G r a i n T r anspo r t o f f i c e ; however, i t shou ld be noted tha t i t i s done in the con tex t of t h e i r imminent d e p a r t u r e . The e x c u r s i o n was undertaken as an a f f i r m a t i o n of f r i e n d s h i p be fo re f r i e n d s were sepa ra ted by l i f e ' s c u r r e n t . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , the o c c a s i o n must have been dominated by a mood of p e n s i v e n e s s , and i t i s r e f l e c t e d in the poem i t s e l f . In r e c o r d i n g the thought and exper i ence of an o c c a s i o n , t h i s poem p resen t s p robab ly the most c l e a r l y s t r u c t u r e d tempora l and s p a t i a l p r o g r e s s i o n to be found in Wu's o the rw i se e l l i p t i c a l s t y l e . It i n d i c a t e s the ma t ina l scene of d e p a r t u r e , the scenery upon a r r i v a l , the a s c e n t , the ove rn igh t s tay and the r e t u r n , 1 94 n e a t l y framed by seasona l i n d i c a t o r s . Worked i n t o t h i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d n a r r a t i v e p r o g r e s s i o n of the event i s a comp lex i t y of tempora l d imens ions-of t ime past and time f u t u r e , and of t i m e l e s s e t e r n i t y , and the concommittant m e d i t a t i o n on man's l o t in the scheme of t ime and h i s t o r y . The comp lex i t y of t ime and thought d imens ions i s main ly a ch i eved through two h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n s , one woven i n t o the s e m a n t i c a l l y t i e r e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the scenery in the f i r s t s t a n z a , the o ther c o o r d i n a t e d wi th the t o p i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s of d e n g l i n Eu?i2 , " t o ascend to a h igh p l a ce and contempla te (the p a s t ) . " The f i r s t a l l u s i o n i s i n t roduced through the d e s c r i p t i o n of the scenery at the d e s t i n a t i o n of the e x c u r s i o n due to the requi rement of rhyme), was a famous cou r t e san of the Wu reg ion whose grave was a l s o s i t u a t e d at T i g e r H i l l . I t was s a i d tha t v i s i t o r s , moved by her legendary beauty , competed to c e l e b r a t e i t by i n s c r i b i n g poems on the t r ee by her g r a v e . 8 2 With t h i s background, the l i n e "on the p i n e ' s wa is t the jade i s t h i n " takes on d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of meaning. On the l i t e r a l l e v e l , i t i s d e s c r i p t i v e of the a c t u a l scenery of e a r l y s p r i n g at T i g e r H i l l , ' j a d e ' be ing used as a metonym fo r snow, forming a p a r a l l e l to the me l t i ng snow on the o r c h i d g rass in the p r e v i ous l i n e . On a f i g u r a t i v e l e v e l , " t h i n j a d e , " genera ted by the metonym ' w a i s t ' used fo r the p ine t runk , a c q u i r e s nuances of f e m i n i n i t y , thus b r i n g i n g in the t r e e ' s a s s o c i a t i o n wi th Zhen N i a n g ' s g r a ve . On t h i s l e v e l , the l i n e ' s r ead ing approx imates : " the p ine i s d e l i c a t e and s l i m l i k e a woman's w a i s t . " T h i s ( 1 .3-5 ) . Zhen Niang Tl Lady Zhen" (changed to Zhen Zhen 195 meaning i s made e x p l i c i t by the j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i th "a worn and weary Zhen Zhen" of the next l i n e . The j u x t a p o s i t i o n not on l y evokes a sense of d e s o l a t i o n in the scenery around the tomb, but i t a l s o evokes the presence of the famous cour tesan whose p h y s i c a l beauty has not s u r v i v e d the passage of t ime . The past remains to haunt the imag ina t ion of s e n s i t i v e minds in the form of a grave and a l egend . The t i e r e d d e s c r i p t i o n con t i nues in the next two l i n e s as the pa r t y of f r i e n d s proceed up the bou lder-paved path of T i g e r H i l l : "With l i g h t canes We th read our way through s teep stone s t e p s , / T r e a d i n g on w i l d moss we s t i l l can d i s c e r n t r a c e s of the b u r i e d f l o w e r s . " Whi le the image of w i l d moss g on the bou lde r s i n t e n s i f i e s the sense of b l eakness a l r e ady i n t r o d u c e d , i t a l s o s i g n i f i e s the timeworn a n t i q u i t y of the s i t e . In t h i s thought-provok ing l andscape , f a l l e n f l o w e r s , a c o n v e n t i o n a l symbol of t r a n s i e n c e , are d e s c r i b e d as " b u r i e d " w i th remnants s t i l l v i s i b l e ; they are not s imply p e r c e i v e d as s i gns of n a t u r e ' s ephemeral beauty but hark back to the r e l i c s of the b e a u t i f u l c o u r t e s a n . Thus fa r the poem has r e f r a i n e d from any d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n of thought or emot ion ; the theme of m u t a b i l i t y seen from the aspec t of beauty i s comp le t e l y submerged in the d e s c r i p t i v e imagery which p e r t a i n s to both the n a t u r a l and the human w o r l d . As though no longer ab l e to bear the s t r a i n of suppressed emot ion , the l a s t s t rophe of the f i r s t s tanza e rup ts on m i d - h i l l i n t o a lament fo r the c e a s e l e s s c y c l e s of change in h i s t o r y , and s i g n a l s the t r a n s i t i o n to the p h y s i c a l as we l l as the con temp la t i v e goa l of the c l i m b . 196 The "ghost of Wu" i s of course K ing H e l u , the mighty r u l e r of Wu d u r i n g the Sp r ing and Autumn p e r i o d . The group of f r i e n d s commemorated h i s past g l o r i e s wi th l i b a t i o n s when they reached h i s underwater tomb on top of T i g e r H i l l . The sombre o c c a s i o n c a l l s f o r more c o n t e m p l a t i o n : on a moon l i t n i g h t , on the summit of t h i s b u r i a l mound, an i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e c o n f r o n t s momentar i l y the i n t e r s e c t i o n between the images of n a t u r e , h i s t o r y , and e t e r n i t y as the poet watches the s t a r s r e f l e c t e d on the pond water e n g u l f i n g H e l u ' s swords. Wu c l e a r l y e x c e l s in c a p t u r i n g the p r o f u n d i t y of the moment in i t s beauty , and i t s beauty in the p r o f u n d i t y . The r e s t of the poem i s devoted to an e l a b o r a t i o n of the d e n g l i n topos and the d e p a r t u r e . For a Chinese poe t , to ascend to an e l e v a t i o n and look i n t o the d i s t a n c e means to contemplate yet aga in the sobe r i ng theme of human t r a n s c i e n c e in the face of n a t u r e ' s p e r p e t u i t y . In Meng Haoran ' s ^2,'^ ^ poem "On ascend ing Mount X ian wi th some f r i e n d s , " t h i s idea i s e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d : Human a f f a i r s r i s e and d e c l i n e in s u c c e s s i o n , . Coming and g o i n g , they make up pas t and p r e s e n t . Mounta ins and r i v e r s l eave t h e i r beauty , We aga in c l i m b up to have a l o o k . . . . 8 3 Wu Wenying sees the ac t of d e n q l i n as pa r t and p a r c e l of the cons tan t f l u x in human l i f e , be ing i t s e l f a marker of the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of change and movement: "Though we c l i m b here to 197 gaze , we w i l l i n e v i t a b l y d e p a r t . " In the same b r e a t h , Wu a l s o a f f i r m s t h i s ac t and the evanescent sp l endo r s of t h i s wor ld in t h e i r sure r e cu r r ence-no t on ly t h i s t ime , t h i s g roup , but in f u tu r e t i m e s , i n a l l t imes , o ther peop le have done and w i l l do the same a g a i n . The f i n a l v i s i o n , the l o o k i n g back, b r i d g e s the time gap by f u s i n g the r a in-shrouded h i l l of the p resen t wi th the h i l l sur rounded by l akes of H e l u ' s t ime . V i s i t i n g a Suzhou garden w i th a more recent h i s t o r y b r i n g s t o p i c a l a l l u s i o n s i n t o the on ly poem in which Wu comments d i r e c t l y on the s t a t e of a f f a i r s in the l a t e S o n g : 8 " To the tune J i n l i i ge V iewing plum blossoms at Canglang Garden in the company of Mr. Luzha i 1 C louds and vapours r i s e from l o f t y t r e e s Where we search fo r r e l i c s of the hero of the R e s t o r a t i o n , And s e c r e t l y ponder pas t e v e n t s . Scant he lp d i d the war s h i p s get from the east wind: 5 H i s dream was s h a t t e r e d in the o l d kingdom. Soon a f t e r , he b u i l t a l i t t l e d w e l l i n g in the i d l e grounds of Wu P a l a c e . In the moonl ight the n igh t crane r e tu rns to the p i l i a r , S i g h i n g over the f l owers and bamboos of o l d now come to t h i s . Dew on the branches , s p i l l i n g c l e a r t e a r s . 198 10 The g o v e r n o r ' s l i t t l e s p r i n g - o u t i n g t r o o p , T r ead ing on green moss, seek ing sec luded spots by the detached w a l l , To ask the plum whether i t has f l o w e r e d . Aga in we s i n g new tunes by the plum t r e e s To hasten the s p r o u t i n g of f rozen buds on c o l d t w i g s : 15 Hear t s w i th the same d e s i r e as the s p r i n g god. The- f u t u r e w i l l not compare to the p r e s e n t , the present to the p a s t . Both wo rd l e s s , f a c i n g each other by the waters of the Cang lang . Ha rbour ing t h i s g r i e f , We seek so l a ce in a l a s t d r i n k . (QSC 4/2939-40) P r e f a c e : L i izha i i s Wu Q i a n ' s s o b r i q u e t . T h i s poem i s dated to 1238 when Wu Qian was A d m i n i s t r a t o r of Suzhou. (See c h . 1 , p . 1 1 ) . 1.7 The n igh t crane a l l u d e s to the s t o r y of a man. by the name of Ding L ingwei ~5 /a in the Sou shen j i 4 ^ 3 ^ f£j . D ing l e f t home to study to become an immor ta l . When he r e tu rned in the form of an immortal c rane to the p i l l a r by h i s v i l l a g e cemetery , he found tha t the f aces of peop le in the v i l l a g e were a l l new and u n f a m i l i a r . The Canglang Garden , whose s i t e dates back to the F i v e Dynas t i e s p e r i o d , i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d wi th i t s e a r l y Nor thern Song owner, But even more so , and e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g Wu's t ime , i t i s known fo r hav ing been the r e s i dence of the grea t Southern Song gene r a l No tes : the s cho l a r -poe t Su Shunqin who gave i t i t s name. 199 Han Sh izhong ^ 1&/(y (1089-1151) d u r i n g the Shaoxing p e r i o d ( 1 1 3 1 - 1 1 62 ). 8 5 In f a c t Wu Q i a n , whom Wu Wenying accompanied on t h i s v i s i t , r e f e r s to i t as "Han ' s Canglang Garden" in the p r e f a c e to h i s poem w r i t t e n on t h i s o c c a s i o n to match Wu Wenying 's r h y m e s . 8 6 The f i r s t s tanza makes t o p i c a l r e f e r e n c e to the ca ree r of the famous g e n e r a l , a p t l y s t y l e d here as the "hero of the R e s t o r a t i o n . " In the e a r l y years of Gaozong ' s r e i gn (1127-1161) in the 1130 ' s , Han Shizhong and two other p a t r i o t i c g e n e r a l s , b r i l l i a n t v i c t o r i e s aga in s t the Jurchens in an e f f o r t to recove r the n o r t h . 8 7 When Gaozong e v e n t u a l l y dec ided in favour of an appeasement p o l i c y towards the J u r chens , the gene ra l s were o rde red to r e t u r n to cou r t from the f r o n t in 1141. Yue F e i was subsequent l y impr i soned w i th trumped-up charges and murdered. At odds wi th the p o l i c i e s , Han Shizhong r e t i r e d from p o l i t i c s w i th hopes fo r revanche premature l y c r u s h e d . Wu uses two d e t a i l s from Han ' s l i f e w i th p o e t i c l i c e n s e to maximize the sense of f u t i l i t y and f r u s t r a t i o n a man of Han 's temperament must have f e l t under the c i r c u m s t a n c e s . L i ne 4 a l l u d e s to the on ly b a t t l e r eco rded in Han ' s c a ree r at which h i s f l e e t had s u f f e r e d a heavy c a s u a l t y due to the l a ck of a f a vo r ab l e w ind , and the enemy was ab l e to escape back n o r t h . 8 8 T h i s de fea t took p l a ce in 1130 and was not by any means the end of Han 's amb i t i on to r ecap tu re the nor th the way i t i s p o r t r a y e d in the poem, as Han went on to g r ea t e r b a t t l e s and v i c t o r i e s in the next ten y e a r s . The r e a l cause which e v e n t u a l l y s h a t t e r e d ' H a n ' s and Chang were s c o r i n g a s e r i e s of 200 r e vanch i s t dream i s c a r e f u l l y d i s p l a c e d , i t be ing the h u m i l i a t i n g peace t r e a t i e s w i th which the Southern Song bought i t s e x i s t e n c e from the J u r chens . Ac co rd ing to h i s b iography in the Song s h i , Han r e t i r e d in Hangzhou and not Suzhou, though i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e that he spent time at the Canglang Garden du r i ng the ten years of r e t i r ement u n t i l h i s death in 1151. The po in t i s , these d i s p a r a t e h i s t o r i c a l e lements f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h i n the l o g i c and s t r u c t u r e of the poem to evoke the pathos embodied in the f r u s t r a t e d ca ree r of Han Sh i zhong . T h i s pathos i s i n t e n s i f i e d by the a l l u s i o n in the next l i n e ( 1 . 7 ) . The a l l u s i o n to the r e tu rned crane by the p i l l a r g e n e r a l l y sugges ts the v i c i s s i t u d e s and t r a n s i t o r i n e s s of human l i f e . In Wu's a p p l i c a t i o n , he puts a q u a l i t a t i v e judgment on these changes ; he i s in e f f e c t say ing that were Han S h i z h o n g ' s s p i r i t to r e t u r n l i k e the immorta l c r a n e , he would on ly see that the t imes have changed fo r the worse. The c r a n e ' s s i g h , the t e a r f u l dewdrops on the branches become a l s o symbols of the p o e t ' s own lament at the d e t e r i o r a t i o n from the past to the p r e s e n t . The cha in of d e t e r i o r a t i o n i s seen even to go beyond the p resen t i n t o the f u t u r e , imperv ious to man's ardent hopes and d e s i r e s fo r the c o n t r a r y . Wu s p e l l s out h i s pess imism q u i t e p l a i n l y in the second s t a n z a . Such a d e s p a i r i n g view of t h i ngs has not earned him p r a i s e by l a t e r c r i t i c s , but i t may i n pa r t e x p l a i n h i s eschewal of p o l i t i c s both in l i f e and in p o e t r y . The o c c a s i o n of p a s s i n g by the grave of an anc i en t h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e brought to Wu's mind a l e s son to be l e a rned from h i s t o r y , and the poem which r eco rds t h i s expe r i ence a l s o 201 r e f l e c t s a b a s i c d i s t r u s t of the wor ld of p o l i t i c s : To the tune Gao yang t a i P a ss ing Zhong Mounta in-the grave of Wen Zhong of Yue 1 S a i l s drop w i th the incoming t i d e As I r e t u rn to the a n c i e n t kingdom; With heavy hear t I roam aga in t h i s mountain t o p . The bow was snapped in the f r o s t y c h i l l , 5 By a scheming mind the s e a g u l l was f e l l e d . Be fore the lamp a p r e c i o u s sword-the l i g h t breeze s topped , J us t then there on F i v e Lakes , a r a i nha t of bamboo on a t i n y boa t . Most u n f e e l i n g These w i l d f l owers on the c r a g , 10 I n f u s i n g s p r i n g ' s sorrow w i th t h e i r sangu inary odor . At tha t t ime , from the pa th of white rocks and green p i nes He tu rned back h i s r e i n s to the i m p e r i a l c a r r i a g e -' M i s t s h ide the mounta in ' s shame. The woodcut te r s ' song has come to an end, 15 Youth a dream on the d e s o l a t e h i l l s . Year a f t e r year the west wind comes to the anc i en t pa r k, And w i l d geese c r y in g r i e f amidst autumnal reeds in green wa te rs . 202 Don ' t c l i m b up to gaze-Only a few t r e e s in f a d i n g haze 20 From the t a l l tower in the nor thwes t . (QSC 4/2923) No tes : P r e f a c e : Zhong Mountain was so c a l l e d because Wen Zhong, m i n i s t e r of the s t a t e of Yue, was b u r i e d t h e r e . I t i s l o c a t e d in Shaox ing , Zhe j i ang p r o v i n c e . In Song t imes i t had comp to be an o l d name fo r Wolong Mountain i t H LJ-| . See Shaoxing f u z h i , comp. L i Hengte ( T a i p e i : Chengwenchubanshe, 1975), v o l . 1 , 77. In order to decode the montage of images in t h i s poem, one needs to know the h i s t o r i c a l t ragedy which in forms i t . One can a l s o assume that in the case of t r a d i t i o n a l Ch inese r e a d e r s , t h i s knowledge i s taken fo r g r a n t e d ; Wen Zhong was a key f i g u r e in the i n t r i g u e s between the s t a t e s of Wu and Yue in the Sp r ing and Autumn p e r i o d . One of the two ab le m i n i s t e r s who a s s i s t e d K ing Gou j i an ^ of Yue to s tage h i s f i n a l de fea t of Wu, Wen Zhong s tayed on in the s e r v i c e of Gou j i an a f t e r the v i c t o r y , whi le Fan L i , the o ther m i n i s t e r , wandered o f f as a r e c l u s e . In the Shi  j i account of the a f t e r m a t h , Fan L i i s r epo r t ed to have r e l a yed a message to Wen Zhong, warning him of G o u j i a n ' s d i s t r u s t f u l and r u t h l e s s c h a r a c t e r , and a d v i s e d him to l e a v e . S ince Gouj ian had f u l f i l l e d h i s amb i t i on to conquer Wu, Wen Zhong 's a b i l i t y as a s t r a t e g i s t would be regarded as a l i a b i l i t y . Wen, however, d i d not heed Fan L i ' s adv i ce and met h i s f a t a l end as Fan L i p r e d i c t e d when G o u j i a n , s u s p i c i o u s of s e d i t i o u s p l o t s , o rdered him to commit s u i c i d e by s w o r d . 8 9 203 F i n d i n g h imse l f at the b u r i a l s i t e of t h i s s e l f - immo la t ed v i c t i m , Wu f e l t p ro found l y a f f e c t e d by Wen Zhong's d e a t h , which he saw as the r e s u l t of a mis taken cho i ce between two l i f e s t y l e s . The g r i d of symbol i c images and a l l u s i o n s both conducts the emot iona l c u r r e n t and accen tua tes the c o n t r a s t between a v i o l e n t death and d e l i t e s c e n t f reedom. Wen Zhong 's gory f a t e i s f i r s t symbol ized by the shoo t i ng of an unsuspec t ing g u l l by a h u n t e r ' s (Gouj ian) d e s i g n ; the ac t of h i s s u i c i d e i s r ep resen ted by the sword; and h i s d e a t h , the c e a s i n g of the wind. A f t e r t h i s r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n of death symbols , the sudden appearance of the ra incapped f i g u r e , the wandering r e c l u s e Fan L i d r i f t i n g c a r e f r e e on a boat in the mis ty l a k e s , evokes by power fu l c o n t r a s t the p a t h e t i c i r ony of Wen Zhong 's c h o i c e . The f i r s t s tanza ends wi th a p e r c e p t u a l exp re s s i on of Wu's deep sympathy fo r Wen Zhong: "Most u n f e e l i n g , / These w i l d f l owers on the c rag / I n f u s i n g s p r i n g ' s sorrow wi th t h e i r sangu inary o d o u r . " The f lowers which s t i l l bloom at the s i t e are seen as " u n f e e l i n g , " i n s e n s i t i v e . Wu's own acute s e n s i t i v i t y to the d i s j u n c t i o n between n a t u r e ' s i n s e n t i e n t c o n t i n u i t y and the v i o l e n t and b loody v i c i s s i t u d e s in human h i s t o r y t r a n s l a t e s i n t o a p e r c e p t u a l language which compounds these oppos ing q u a l i t i e s i n t o e x p r e s s i v e imagery. Here , the sweet f r ag rance of the f l owers i s i n s t e a d p e r c e i v e d as sangu inary s t e n c h , as hav ing been contaminated by and thus c a r r y i n g the scent of Wen Zhong 's s p i l l e d b l o o d . In the Basheng Ganzhou quoted above, which was w r i t t e n on Mount L i ngyan , the s i t e of K ing Fucha ' s anc i en t pa l ace grounds , the l i n e "Creamy water s t a i n s the f l o w e r ' s 204 s t ench " c a r r i e s a s i m i l a r c o n n o t a t i o n : na ture con t i nues i t s seemingly o b l i v i o u s e x i s t e n c e , but the poet sees i t branded w i th the s i g n s of human f o l l y . Be fore f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n of the hua igu theme in c o n j u n c t i o n w i th the d e n g l i n t opos , both i n t e g r a l to a poem w r i t t e n at a h i s t o r i c a l tomb on a mounta in , the second s tanza beg ins wi th a r e i t e r a t i o n of Wen Zhong 's f a t a l mis take of not hav ing chosen the e r e m i t e ' s l i f e of f reedom. T h i s i s repeated both f o r emphasis and to p rov ide a themat ic l i n k to the f i r s t s t a n z a . "The P roc l amat ion on Nor th M o u n t a i n , " an essay in p a r a l l e l prose by Kong Zh igu i ^L>^F£ i-^ (447-501) , e s t a b l i s h e d the conven t ion of employing p a t h e t i c f a l l a c y to underscore the abhorrence at a hermit who abandons h i s p u r i t y by t a k i n g up o f f i c e . 9 0 In i t , n a tu r e , the h e r m i t ' s abode, i s po r t r a yed as r e a c t i n g to the apostasy in a f u l l range of human emotions-c l ouds are angered , streams d i s a p p o i n t e d , mountains and v a l l e y s express t h e i r contempt, c ranes and apes a re g r i e v e d , -woods h u m i l i a t e d , and so on . In l a t e r p o e t r y , these become c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d m o t i f s to be used when an o c c a s i o n p resen t s a p o t e n t i a l f o r a n t i t h e t i c a l p l ay between o f f i c e and r e t i r e m e n t . For example, in a p a r t i n g poem to an o f f i c i a l who i s t r a n s f e r r i n g from one post to ano the r , i t i s not unusual tha t mention w i l l be made of a g r i e v e d crane w a i t i n g fo r him in the mounta in . The second s tanza of t h i s poem beg ins wi th Wen Zhong 's t u r n i n g away from the "pa th of white rocks and p i n e s " -the l i f e of r e t i r e m e n t , thus the mountain i s d e s c r i b e d as be ing shamed by h i s d e s e r t i o n . I t shou ld have been h o r r i f i e d . The 205 pathos of t h i s passage l i e s in the r e a d e r ' s knowledge of the d e s t i n y tha t awa i ted Wen Zhong. The r e s t of the poem r i s e s above the l i f e and death of an i n d i v i d u a l to the r i s e and f a l l of a s t a t e . The s h i f t in p e r s p e c t i v e i s even more d i s h e a r t e n i n g , f o r in h i n d s i g h t h i s t o r y seems to be an i nexo rab l e d e c l i n e . Yue ' s v i c t o r y d i d not l a s t f o r e v e r , i t was in tu rn wiped out by Chu a cen tu ry and a h a l f l a t e r . The r i s e and f a l l of Yue i s d e p i c t e d in one s t roke through the a l l u s i o n to the woodcut ters ( 1 .14 ) , who were men Gou j i an sent i n t o the mountains to ob t a i n lumber to present to K ing Fucha of Wu, to encourage him in h i s ext ravagance in b u i l d i n g p a l a c e s . T h i s was pa r t of the longterm s t r a t e g y of revenge des igned fo r Gou j i an by Wen Z h o n g . 9 1 The a l l u s i o n t h e r e f o r e s tands f o r the p r e - v i c t o r y days of G o u j i a n , and by e x t e n s i o n , to the Yue s t a t e in i t s ascendent p e r i o d . But t h e i r song has "come to an end"-what i s l e f t of the v i c t o r i o u s Yue are on l y r u i n s seen from a gloomy h i l l . I f con temp la t i on from a h i l l a l r e a d y b r i n g s one to an emot iona l n a d i r , to ascend to a h i ghe r vantage p o i n t would s u r e l y p lunge one i n t o the abyss . The c l o s u r e , t h e r e f o r e , i s s u e s a d i r e c t warn ing : "Don ' t c l i m b up to gaze from the t a l l t owe r ! " The emot iona l d e v a s t a t i o n i s subsumed in the imagined view of d e s o l a t i o n from the tower. By making r e f e r ence to another p lane of con temp la t ion-both p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l -wi thout d e v e l o p i n g i t , the c l o s u r e i s a lmost too obv ious as a t echn ique to extend the emot iona l scope of the poem. In the con tex t of p o e t i c c o n v e n t i o n , the emot iona l i m p l i c a t i o n s c r e a t e d 206 by the c l o s u r a l a r r e s t wouid be c l e a r l y unde r s tood , as " c l i m b i n g a tower" c o n s t i t u t e s a we l l e s t a b l i s h e d subgenre of poems e x h i b i t i n g a s t rong con temp la t i ve bent . As e a r l y as the Han, Wang Can 5L wrote h i s c e l e b r a t e d "Fu on c l i m b i n g a tower" ^ -^LliJl^in which he expressed h i s homesickness as an e x i l e , 9 2 and many Tang poets l e f t memorable works w r i t t e n at the v a r i o u s t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o l o s s i . The subgener i c convent ions a s s o c i a t e d wi th " a s cend ing a tower" evo l ved such tha t the o c cas i on became a medium fo r i n t r o s p e c t i v e v e r s e ; the poem c a l l s fo r some comments, whether p e r s o n a l , h i s t o r i c a l , p o l i t i c a l or p h i l o s o p h i c a l . W i th in the t r a d i t i o n , i t i s unders tood and expected tha t the sheer p h y s i c a l e l e v a t i o n shou ld provoke such a r esponse . One would o f t en f i n d the immensity of the view from the tower reproduced in some d e s c r i p t i v e l i n e s , more o f t e n perhaps than d e a l i n g wi th the h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the p a r t i c u l a r tower. We may r e c a l l Tu F u ' s we l l known "Ascend ing Yueyang Tower" ^ fjj) , one of h i s many " a scend ing a tower" poems, and L i Shangy in ' s "The Tower on the c i t y wa l l of And ing " ^ ^ . 9 3 Both poems beg in by e s t a b l i s h i n g the vantage p o i n t , f o l l owed by a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the v i s t a , then move on fo r the g r ea t e r pa r t to s e l f - i n t r o s p e c t i v e thought . L i Shangy in ' s poem in h e p t a s y l l a b i c r e g u l a t e d form i s the' more extreme in that on ly the f i r s t c oup l e t r e f e r s to the a c t u a l tower and v iew, the remain ing three c o u p l e t s a l l express h i s p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s and amb i t i ons in a s e r i e s of a l l u s i o n s : 207 The c i t y wa l l s t r e t c h e s f a r ; the tower s tands a hundred f e e t . Beyond the green wi l low b ranches , I see no th ing but banks and i s l e t s . Master Ch ia in h i s youth in va in shed t e a r s ; Wang T s ' a n in s p r i n g once more went on a d i s t a n t j ou rney . Forever remembering the r i v e r s and l akes to which I would r e t u r n , w h i t e - h a i r e d , I yet wish to tu rn around heaven and e a r t h be fo re e n t e r i n g a t i n y boa t . Not knowing the r o t t e n r a t was c o n s i d e r e d t a s t y , The phoenix u n w i t t i n g l y a roused end l e s s s u s p i c i o n s ! 9 " Wu Wenying 's opus c o n t a i n s on l y a few " tower " poems. Some of these deserve ment ion , i f not f o r t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n of the subgenre in c_i, then at l e a s t f o r t h e i r sheer v e r b a l a r t . For in Wu's c a s e , the e l e v a t e d f i e l d of v i s i o n seems to have e x c i t e d h i s imag ina t ion as much as i nduc ing i n t r o s p e c t i o n , at t imes perhaps more. Inasmuch as these t o w e r - b u i l d i n g s were ones l o c a t e d in Hangzhou, Suzhou and Shaox ing , they had served as popu la r p l a ces where the Southern Song upper c l a s s e s gathered fo r banquets , d r i n k i n g p a r t i e s and o ther s o c i a l o c c a s i o n s . Some of Wu Wenying 's poems w r i t t e n at these l o c a t i o n s are c l e a r l y o c c a s i o n a l , as i n d i c a t e d by e i t h e r the p r e f a ce or c o n t e n t . There are three o c c a s i o n a l poems he wrote at the Abundant Happiness P a v i l i o n ^ ^ ^ / j ^ i n Hangzhou. A c c o r d i n g to the 208 contemporary work Meng l i a n g l u , t h i s t o w e r - p a v i l i o n was s i t u a t e d on the bank of West Lake j u s t ou t s i de Fengyu Gate , the western c i t y ga t e . I t f u r t h e r r e co rds that i t was to rn down and r e b u i l t by the o f f i c i a l Zhao Yuchou du r i ng the Chunyou p e r i o d (1241-1252) ; upon comp le t ion i t s he igh t " reached up to the c l o u d s , " commanding a ma j es t i c view of the lake and sur round ing s c e n e r y ; and that s c h o l a r s and o f f i c i a l s had f requent ga the r i ngs t h e r e . 9 5 In f a c t , Wu Wenying 's p r e f a c e to one of the three poems r e a d s , "Abundant Happiness Pav i l i on-new l y b u i l t by J i e z h a i (Zhao Yuchou) " (QSC 4/2907). The poem i s w r i t t e n to the f ou r-s t anza tune p a t t e r n Y ing t i xu , and Wu r e p o r t e d l y brushed i t on the wa l l of the p a v i l i o n to " a d v e r t i z e " h i m s e l f . 9 6 A s i d e from the o s t e n t a t i o u s d e s c r i p t i o n exagge ra t i ng the f a n t a s t i c he igh t of the b u i l d i n g in the f i r s t s t a n z a , which was o b v i o u s l y w r i t t e n to d a z z l e the eye , the poem i s an u n i n s p i r i n g p i e ce of o c c a s i o n a l ve r se w r i t t e n fo r Zhao Yuchou (at the opening banque t ? ) : i t e u l o g i z e s the p e a c e f u l t imes they l i v e i n , Zhao 's work on the b u i l d i n g and h i s l i f e as an o f f i c i a l . I have s e l e c t e d i n s t e a d another poem w r i t t e n at the Abundant Happiness P a v i l i o n . Even though judg ing from the p r e f a c e , t h i s poem a l s o seems as o c c a s i o n a l as o c c a s i o n a l can be, the poem i t s e l f has an emot iona l conten t that i s pe r sona l and a language tha t does d i s p l a y the p o s i t i v e a spec t s of Wu's s t y l e : To the tune Gao yang t a i At Abundant Happiness P a v i l i o n , I ob t a ined the c h a r a c t e r ru when rhyme words were d i s t r i b u t e d . 1 T a l l bamboos in g l o s s y d r e s s 209 And w i l l ows hanging down e n t i c e r i d e r s to s t o p : By the r a i l i n g a few l i g h t s t r o k e s become a p a i n t i n g . Who w i l l p l a ce an i n s c r i p t i o n on t h i s mountain landscape? 5 Before the p a v i l i o n w i l d geese w r i t e a s l a n t i n g l i n e . The s p r i n g wind has tens the s e t t i n g s u n ' s d e p a r t u r e , Rev i v i ng w i n t e r ' s c h i l l as I grow sober from the even i n g ' s wine. A lone and deep ly moved: How many more years have I w i th these f lowers ? 10 For suddenly X i angru grows o l d . It i s not on a t a l l p a v i l i o n tha t I lament fo r s p r i n g , But propped on a p i l l o w by the lamp, Bes ide the c l o t h e s - c e n s e r wh i le i t r a i n s o u t s i d e . I h e s i t a t e to moor my p l e a s u r e boat-15 Look ing i n t o the stream I cannot bear my t h i n n e s s . I f f a l l i n g p e t a l s reach the bottom of West Lake , Noth ing but so r row fu l f i s h would churn up emerald waves. Don ' t come back! A f t e r the f r ag r an t c a t k i n s have a l l been blown away, 20 Tears w i l l f i l l the g rassy p l a i n . (QSC 4/2922) No tes : 1 .10 The Han poet Sima X i ang ru i s used as a persona of the poe t . 210 As i s wont, the poem opens wi th a d e p i c t i o n of the groundview seen from the he igh t of the p a v i l i o n . What i s nove l i s the d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s landscape as d e t a i l s in a p a i n t i n g and the l i n e fo rmat ion of w i l d geese in f l i g h t a c ross the sky i s imagined to be the i n s c r i p t i o n on t h i s p a i n t i n g . The t r a n s i t i o n from d e s c r i p t i o n to con temp la t i on i s e f f e c t e d i n the po ignant imagery of l i n e 6, in which the sunset i s compared to a guest be ing seen o f f by the s p r i n g wind. A moment of beauty q u i c k l y d i s a p p e a r s , and the poet i s reminded of youth and l i f e s l i p p i n g away from h im. H i s thoughts leave the p a v i l i o n a l t o g e t h e r in the second s tanza as he de l ves i n t o the theme of lament fo r the p a s s i n g of s p r i n g , an obv ious symbol of youth and beauty . The unusual a f f e c t of an o therw ise commonplace theme comes from the r e v e r s a l of the emot iona l vantage p o i n t . The poet r e f u t e s the c o n v e n t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n of he igh t w i th he igh tened emot ion : " It i s not on a t a l l p a v i l i o n that I lament f o r s p r i n g , " he d e c l a r e s , but down in h i s room, wh i le l i s t e n i n g to the r a i n at n i g h t . The r a i n i m p l i e s tha t the f l owers in bloom are be ing damaged, and t h e r e i n l i e s h i s r eg re t f o r the d e s t r u c t i o n of youth and beauty , which i s a l s o m i r r o r e d by h i s own emaciated form. Moving a long t h i s i n v e r t e d v e r t i c a l s c a l e of sorrow, the p o e t ' s imag ina t i on d i v e s i n t o the bottom of West Lake wi th the r a i n - s c a t t e r e d p e t a l s , to impute to even the f i s h p l a y i n g in the depths t h i s p e r v a s i v e sadness . The c l o s u r e r e v e r t s back to the proper emot iona l s c a l e a s s o c i a t e d w i th the e l e v a t e d view from the p a v i l i o n . However, i t does so on l y to a s s e r t the u t t e r i n e s c a p a b i l i t y of l i f e ' s t r a n s i t o r i n e s s and the ana logous 21 1 t o t a l i t y of man's sorrow. Not a l l of Wu Wenying 's f i n e r works are so l u g u b r i o u s and grave in t one , as the above poems may sugges t . To end t h i s chapte r on a p o s i t i v e no te , I have s e l e c t e d a poem he wrote p robab ly in the sunn ie r p e r i o d of h i s manhood, be fo re h i s v i s i o n was c louded by l i f e ' s shadows: To the tune Qi t i a n yue Leve l-w i th-C loud Tower 1 At the break of dawn, a shadow from Yang Te r r a ce Flew from the firmament and s tayed h e r e . I t s p i l l a r s are l e v e l w i th O r i o n , And c u r t a i n s hook onto the D i p p e r ' s c u r v e : 5 How h igh t h i s tower on the northwest w a l l , C e l e s t i a l sounds resemble v o i c e s . L i g h t l y I push open the gates of the empyrean pa l ace - And smoothly ascend the rainbow r i v e r , Wondering through how much r a i n and sh ine 10 I t has l o r d e d over the p l a i n s of Wu, d e f y i n g t ime . H i l l s to the west, l i k e darkened brows, a re seen in t h e i r emerald hues, But even sharp eyes cannot reach The mis ty h o r i z o n where eg re t s v a n i s h . The p l a i n t i v e chant of the bamboo f l u t e 15 Suddenly rends the l a ye r ed fog-A c o l d moon spreads i t s hazy l i g h t a c r o s s many m i l e s . 212 I dance i n t o x i c a t e d in the V o i d , Dreaming of a marble white b a l u s t r a d e Changing i n t o f l y i n g m i s t . 20 Red and green are c l e a n s e d When a sudden r a i n sweeps a c r o s s the azure s ea . (QSC 4/2884) No tes : P r e f a c e : The name of .the tower a l l u d e s to i t s h e i g h t . I t i s d e r i v e d from the f i f t h of the "N ineteen O ld Poems,." the f i r s t c o u p l e t of which r e ads : "In the northwest there i s a t a l l tower , / I t s top s o a r s , l e v e l w i th the c l o u d s . " Wenxuan, v o l . 1 , 632. L i ne 5 a l s o a l l u d e s to t h i s c o u p l e t . 1.1 Yang Te r race was the d w e l l i n g of the goddess in Song Y u ' s Gaotang f u . She had d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as the "dawn c l o u d . " The l i n e a l l u d e s to the c h a r a c t e r " c l o u d " i n the name of the tower. The o b l i q u e a l l u s i o n to t h i s m y t h i c a l t a l e in the Gaotang fu i n t r o d u c e s a mys te r ious and f a n t a s t i c d imens ion to the he igh t of the tower . 1.20 "Red and g reen " i=) ft-1- are o f t e n employed in Wu's poems as metonym fo r an e d i f i c e , as they are common in the c o l o u r scheme of t r a d i t i o n a l Ch inese a r c h i t e c t u r e . In t h i s poem Wu d i spenses w i t h , or s u b v e r t s , subgener i c conven t ions and g i v e s f r ee r e i n to h i s imag ina t i v e power. What comes f o r t h i s sheer v e r b a l magic . Through h i s wonderfu l imag ina t i on and magn i f i c en t d e s c r i p t i o n , the reader d e r i v e s v i c a r i o u s enjoyment of the e x h i l a r a t i o n of be ing in the c e l e s t i a l realms on the top of the tower, and f i n a l l y expe r i ences the same sense of p u r i f i c a t i o n at the c l o s e of the poem. 213 I f o l l o w Stephen Owen's use of the term subgenre " t o d e s i g n a t e the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by sub jec t matter and occas ion and the term genre f o r the f o r m a l , m e t r i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . " In Poe t r y of of the E a r l y T ' a n q , (New Haven: Ya le U n i v . P r e s s , 1977), p .445 , n .13 . T r a n s , by James R. Hightower in "The Wen Hsuan and Genre T h e o r y , " HJAS, 20 (1957) , 520. A p e r u s a l of the t a b l e of con ten t s of the L i d a i fuhu i w i l l demonstrate t h i s f a c t . For a complete t r a n s l a t i o n of the Yu ta i x i n yong , see Anne B i r r e l l , New Songs from a Jade Te r r a ce (New York : Columbia Un i v . P r e s s , 1982). John Marney, L i ang Chien-wen t i , Twayne's World Author S e r i e s (Bos ton : G.K. H a l l & C o . , 1976), p .108 . Yu t a i x inyong (Shangha i : S h i j i e s h u j u , 1935), p .281 . T r a n s l a t i o n adapted from Anne B i r r e l l , New Songs from a Jade  T e r r a c e , p .278 . For the ex ten t and d u r a t i o n of Emperor Wen's re form measures a f f e c t i n g the l i t e r a r y h e r i t a g e , see Ar thur Wr igh t , The Sui  Dynasty (New Haven: Ya le Un i v . P r e s s , 1978), pp .122-25 . 214 See L i u Su, Da Tang x inyu (Congshu j i cheng chub ian e d . , v o l . 2 7 4 1 ) , 28; and J i Yougong, Tangsh i j i s h i ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua s h u j u , 1965), V o l . 1 , 6. In the Ch inese p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n , a l l e g o r y has the narrower sense of p o s s e s s i n g a s p e c i f i c a l l y moral or p o l i t i c a l t eno r . The a l l e g o r i c a l mode was f i r s t c o n s c i o u s l y employed in some of the Chuc i poems, and a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a hermeneut ics wi th pre-Qin o r i g i n s s p e c i f i c a l l y a p p l i e d to the Book of Odes, was f i r s t f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d in the Han wi th the sys temat i c d i s t o r t i o n of the Shi j i n g poems to e l u c i d a t e t h e i r mora l or p o l i t i c a l message. In l a t e r ages , a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was of course not r e s t r i c t e d to the Sh i j i n g . " Z a i yu yong c h a n , " Quan Tang sh i [ h e r ea f t e r QTS] ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua s h u j u , 1979), V o l . 3 , 848. QTS V o l . 3 , 890. T r a n s , adapted from Stephen Owen, Poet ry of  the E a r l y T ' a n g , p .218 . Mi Heng 's ( c . 173-198) "Yingwu f u " f o r example; see W i l l i a m T . Graham, J r . , "Mi Heng 's 'Rhapsody on a P a r r o t ' , " HJAS, 30:1 (1979) , 39-54. X i Kang ' s Ijj^ "Q in f u " i s a good example; see X i Rang j i  j i a o z h u ( B e i j i n g : Renmin wenxue chubanshe, 1962), pp .82-109. In t h i s p i e c e X i Rang i s not j u s t i n t e r e s t e d in d e s c r i b i n g 215 the e x t e r n a l a t t r i b u t e s of the g i n and i t s mus i c , but in e x p r e s s i n g c e r t a i n t r u t h s about the nature of mus i c , human emot ion , and the Dao. I am indebted to Stephen Owen's d i s c u s s i o n s of Tang yongwu poe t ry in Poe t ry of the E a r l y T ' a n g ; see in p a r t i c u l a r , pp .281-93. L i u X i e , Wenxin d i a o l o n g zhu ( B e i j i n g : Renmin wenxue chubanshe, 1958), p .134. T h i s p r e f a ce has been t r a n s l a t e d by James R. Hightower i n "Some C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of P a r a l l e l P r o s e , " in S t u d i e s in  Ch inese L i t e r a t u r e , ed . John L. B i shop , pp .108-39 . The f o l l o w i n g works c o n t a i n d i s c u s s i o n s on the s t y l e s of these four c_i p o e t s : Kang-i Sun Chang, The E v o l u t i o n of  Ch inese T z ' u P o e t r y ; James J . Y. L i u , Major L y r i c i s t s of the  Nor thern Sung; and Yeh C h i a - y i n g , J i a l i n g t a n c i . In the e a r l i e s t an tho logy of c_i p o e t r y , the Hua j i an j i , c e r t a i n tune t i t l e s s t i l l se rved as the sub jec t matter of the poems, thus g i v i n g us some poems on o b j e c t s . The sma l l number of poems w r i t t e n to the tune L i u z h i and Y a n g l i u z h i are u s u a l l y about w i l l o w s . Huang Q i n g s h i , in h i s essay "Tan yongwu c i , " does not ment ion any of these w i l low poems but quotes N iu Q i a o ' s two Meng J i angnan on the swallow and 216 mandarin ducks (which he mis takes fo r one ci_ w i th two s tanzas ) as be ing the f i r s t example of yongwu c i ; Y i l i n  c o n g l u , 5 (1964), 84-91. Be fore the mid Nor thern Song p e r i o d , examples are r a re i ndeed ; the re i s one in Ouyang X i u ' s co rpus-L i angzhou l i n g (QSC 1/146), and four in L i u Yong 's-Huangy inger (QSC 1/13) and Mulanhua ( three ) (QSC 1/52). See the c_i c o l l e c t i o n s of Cao Xun % (1098-1174), in QSC 2/1206-39, and of Rang Yuzh i ( f l . 1 1 4 0 s ) in QSC 2/1302-10. A l though on l y a sma l l number of Kang Y u z h i ' s ci_ poems s u r v i v e , he i s known in the Southern Song fo r hav ing produced g rea t numbers of them. See Huang Sheng 's comment in Zhongxing y i l a i juemiao c i x u a n , in Hua 'an c i x u a n , p .161 . Xue L i r u o in h i s Songci tong lun goes so f a r as to c h a r a c t e r i z e Southern Song c_i of the middle and l a t e p e r i o d ( i . e . , beg inn ing in the l a t e t w e l f t h cen tu ry ) as the product of c_i poe t r y c l u b s ( T a i p e i : Kaiming shud i an , 1958), pp .50-52 . Some of the e a r l i e s t o c cu r r ences of the term sheyou, " c l u b f r i e n d s , " are found in Sh i Dazu ' s ^ " ^ ^ J l ( 1155-1220) p r e f a c e s to h i s c_i, e . g . , Dian j i angchun (QSC 4/2337) and Long y i n qu (QSC 4/2345) . W i l l i a m T . Graham, J r . , in h i s a r t i c l e pn Mi Heng 's rhapsody (p. 51 ) , c l a s s i f i e s yongwu fu i n t o two broad c a t e g o r i e s of the s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l . He suggests that in w r i t i n g s o c i a l 217 p i e c e s the poet adhered to s t r i c t c o n v e n t i o n s , whereas in the pe r sona l he i s a f f o r d e d almost u n l i m i t e d l i c e n s e in approach ing the s u b j e c t . Whi le the d i s t i n c t i o n may not be as c l e a r - c u t in the case of yongwu c i , the same gene ra l t endenc i e s can be obse rved . T r a n s , adapted from Kang-i Sun Chang, The E v o l u t i o n of  Ch inese T z ' u Poe t r y , p .178 . QSC 2/610. See a l s o James J . Y. L i u ' s a n a l y s i s of t h i s poem in Major L y r i c i s t s of the Nor thern Sung, pp .173-78. Examples are J i ang K u i ' s Shu y i ng (QSC 3/2182) and Wu Wenying 's Xinqhua t i a n ( a n a l y s i s to f o l l o w ) . An example i s Wu Wenying 's Suochuang han (ana lyzed be low) . Ban Gu, Han Wu g u s h i , in Xu tan zhu (Congshu j i c h e n g chub ian e d . , V o l . 2 7 2 ) , p .64 . Zhu X i , Chuc i j i z h u (Shangha i : Shanghai g u j i chubanshe, 1979), p . 3 . Su ' s poem i s e n t i t l e d " A f t e r the rhymes of Yang G o n g j i ' s poem on the plum blossom (no. 4) " ' t . B1! \% See Wang Wengao's anno ta t i ons in Su s h i b ianzhu j i c h e n g (1888 e d . ) , j . 3 3 / l b - 2 a . 218 Tanqshi j i s h i , p .849 . X iao Tong, Wenxuan (Hong Kong: Commercia l P r e s s , 1978), v o l . 1 , 392. Hangzhou in Song t imes had a b r o t h e l d i s t r i c t in i t s eas te rn s e c t i o n . See en t r y on £^ ^ in L i E, Dongcheng z a j i (Congshu j i c h e n g chubian e d . , v o l . 3 1 7 4 ) , p . 43 . From the f i r s t of two poems e n t i t l e d "Wr i t t en at p a r t i n g " h] , QTS, v o l . 1 6 , 5988. The f e l i c i t o u s r ende r i ng of the term • as "Woman A d r i f t " comes from James R. H ightower ; see C h i a - y i n g Yeh Chao, "Wu Wen-ying 's T z ' u , " pp .162-63. Recounted by Shen Yazhi as "An Account of the Unhappy Person by the X iang R i v e r " ^@ in Shen X i a x i a n j i (S ibu congkan e d . ) , j [ .2/14a-b. A t r a n s l a t i o n of the s to r y by James R. Hightower i s found in C h i a - y i n g Yeh Chao, "Wu Wen-ying's T z ' u , " pp .162-63 . Wu's poem wi th the term "Woman A d r i f t " are Q i t i a n yue (QSC 4/2884) and Q i l i a n g fan (QSC 4/2927) ; and Zhou M i ' s i s Y izeshang guoxiang man (QSC 5/3290). See L i u Wenying, "X i Shi d i x i a l u o w e n t i , " Y i l i n c o n g l u , 5 219 (1964) , 315-20. 3 7 The l i n e i s "I had tended many an ac re of o r c h i d s . " T r a n s , by Dav id Hawkes, Songs of the South (Ox fo rd : Ox fo rd Un i v . P r e s s , 1959), p .23 . The l a s t c o u p l e t of the poem "Song of the Bronze Immortal v o l . 1 2 , 4403) . 3 9 J i ang Kui i s of course the most obv ious example; see Shuen-fu L i n , The T r ans fo rma t i on of the Ch inese L y r i c a l T r a d i t i o n . But even some yongwu c i by X in Q i j i e x h i b i t t h i s d i s s o c i a t i v e • t r e n d . 4 0 In a l l , f ou r t een men p a r t i c i p a t e d on d i f f e r e n t o c cas i ons and wrote a t o t a l of 37 c_i u s i ng 5 tune p a t t e r n s on 5 d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t s . The poems were assembled in a c o l l e c t i o n e n t i t l e d the Yuefu b u t i . See X i a Chengtao, " Yuefu b u t i k a o , " in Tang  Song c i r e n n i anpu , pp .376-82, and Huang Zhaox ian , Yuefu b u t i  y a n j i u j i j i a n z h u . 4 1 Wang Zhuo, B i j i manzhi (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 19. 4 2 Zhang Yan, C iyuan (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 218. 4 3 For a l i s t of tunes c i t e d as love poems, see X i a Chengtao, b i d d i n g f a r e w e l l to the Han 220 Tang S o n g . c i r e n n i anpu , pp .467-69 ; and Yang T i e f u , "Wu Mengchuang S h i j i k a o , " in Mengchuang c i q u a n j i j i a n s h i , pp .364-67 . Bes ides the above two works, see a l s o Chen Xun ' s commentaries on a s e l e c t i o n of Wu Wenying 's poe t r y in h i s H a i x i a o shuoc i (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 2 ) , 4401-43. Chen L i a n z h e n , "Du Mu Mengchuang c i , " f i r s t p u b l i s h e d in Guangming D a i l y , 28 A p r i l 1957; r p t . in Tang Song c i y a n j i u  lunwenj i ( n . p . , 1969), p .189 . See in p a r t i c u l a r Tao E r f u , "Shuo Mengchuang c i Y ing t i x u , " in Wenxue y i c h a n , No.3 (1982) , pp.1 10-19; and Xu Yongduan, "Xuan ren yanmu de j i n g j i e , " i n C i x u e , No.1 (1981) , pp .176-79. C f . C h i a - y i n g Yeh Chao ' s a n a l y s i s of these two l i n e s in " Wu Wenying 's c_i_," p. 160. Though my t r a n s l a t i o n f o l l o w s the d i f f e r e n t punc tua t i on in the QSC, the imagery of these two l i n e s i s not any l e s s s t r a n g e . QTS, v o l . 4 , 1306. X i a Chengtao, Tang Song c i r e n n i a n p u , p .469 . In Y ing t i xu , the next poem to be d i s c u s s e d . 221 In f a c t , not on ly these l i n e s but the whole poem has mer i t ed h igh p r a i s e ; c f . the v a r i o u s comments on i t quoted in Songci  sanbai shou j i a n z h u , ed . Tang Guizhang (1931; r p t . T a i p e i : Xuesheng s h u j u , 1971), p .213 . Ba i yuzha i c i h u a (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 1 ) , 3807-08. Ch inese c r i t i c s have quoted l i n e s by e a r l i e r poets which p lay wi th the idea of the spr ing/autumn d i sp lacement to show the p recedents f o r t h i s l i n e . See Yu P ingbo , Tang Song c i  xuanshi ( B e i j i n g : Renming wenxue chubanshe, 1979), p .252, n .5 . In the way i t subsumes emotion and conveys i t e n t i r e l y through imagery, Wu's l i n e surpasses i t s models in s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . Bes ides Man j i a n g hong, the other th ree are X i q i an y i n g , QSC 4/2918; Wei f a n , QSC 4/2928; and Feng q i wu, QSC 4/2937. The l a s t ment ioned i s d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r on in t h i s s e c t i o n . For an i n f o r m a t i v e s tudy of the Double F i f t h and i t s amalgamation of c e r t a i n Summer S o l s t i c e obse rvances , see Chapter 8 in Derk Bodde, F e s t i v a l s i n C l a s s i c a l Ch ina ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n Un i v . P r e s s , 1975). Zong L i n , J i ngchu s u i s h i j i (S ibu be i yao e d . ) , 7b-8b. Derk Bodde d i s c u s s e s i n s c r i b e d Double F i f t h s i l k charms wi th 222 quotes from Han sources in F e s t i v a l s in C l a s s i c a l C h i n a , p .306-307. i n QTS, v o l . 1 6 , 5998. Meng Q i , Benshi sh i (Congshu j i c h e n g chubian e d . , v o l . 2 5 4 6 ) , 1 . L i Zhao, Tang guoshi bu (Shangha i : Gudian wenxue chubanshe, 1957), p .64 . See Zong L i n , J i ngchu s u i s h i j i , 9a . In the second of two q u a t r a i n s e n t i t l e d "At P a r t i n g " in QTS, v o l . 1 6 , 5988. " U n t i t l e d " A?§ , in QTS, v o l . 1 6 , 6168-6169. The s t o r y e n t i t l e d "Pe i Hang" c o l l e c t e d in T a i p i n g guangj i (X iaoshuo congshu daguan e d . ) , j . . 5 0 / 2 7 a - 2 8 a . In "X i ang j un " of the "Nine Songs , " in Chuci j i z h u , p . 33 . From the q u a t r a i n e n t i t l e d "Wr i t t en There are numerous l i n e s in Tang poems which r e f e r to the bu rn ing of c a s s i a fo r f r a g r a n c e . C f . L i Shangy in ' s l i n e "The b r a z i e r i s warm wi th h idden embers of c a s s i a " in h i s poem 223 " A p r i c o t B l o s s oms , " in QTS, v o l . 1 6 , 6179. See James J . Y. L i u ' s d i s c u s s i o n on the wor ld of romant ic love in cj_ poe t r y in h i s a r t i c l e "Some L i t e r a r y Q u a l i t i e s of the L y r i c , " in C y r i l B i r c h , e d . , S tud i e s in Ch inese L i t e r a r y  Genres , p p . 1 3 5 f f . C a r l J . Weber, e d . , H a r d y ' s Love Poems (London: Macmi l l an and Co. L t d . , 1963), p p . v f f . i b i d . , p . v i i i ; the l i s t a f t e r the co l on i s taken from p . v i i . Eminent s c h o l a r - o f f i c i a l s in the Southern Song such as Wei Kezhuang were a l l p r o d i g i o u s w r i t e r s of b i r t h d a y and other s o c i a l o c c a s i o n a l c_i poems, see the numerous examples in t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e works in QSC, v o l . 4 . He x i n l a n g : " P a r t i n g from my t w e l f t h cous i n M a o j i a , " in QSC 3/1914-15. QSC page r e f e r e n c e s fo r Wu's b i r t h d a y poems to P r i n c e S i rong and h i s w i fe are g iven in c h . 1 , n .76 . The banquet poem r e f e r r e d to i s Shengsheng man, QSC 4/2920. , Wu Q i a n , L i Zengbo and L i u X i a Chengtao, Tang Song c i r e n n i a n p u , p .483 . 224 7 " F eng ' s b iography i s in Song s h i , v o l . 3 6 , 12677. 7 5 Chen Xun, H a i x i a o shuoc i (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 2 ) , 4425-26. 7 6 See a n a l y s i s of. X inghua t i a n in Sec.1 of t h i s c h a p t e r . 7 7 See Han X i n ' s b iography in Han shu ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua s h u j u , 1962), v o l . 7 , 1861-78. 7 8 The c_i poet Shi Dazu had h i s face t a t t o o e d as a punishment a f t e r h i s p a t r o n , the c h i e f c o u n c i l l o r Han Tuozhou, f e l l from power. See Ye Shaoweng, S i chao j ianwen l u (Congshu j i c h e n g  chub ian e d . , v o l . 2 7 6 3 ) , 151. 7 9 T r a n s , by James R. Hightower in Ch i a-y ing Yeh Chao, "Wu Wenying 's T z ' u-, " pp . 167-68; quoted by Shuen-fu L i n , The  T r ans fo rma t i on of the Ch inese L y r i c a l T r a d i t i o n , p .184. In her a r t i c l e , P r o f . Chao p rov i des p e n e t r a t i n g and exhaus t i ve exegeses f o r t h i s poem and another w r i t t e n about a v i s i t w i th Feng Qufe i to the grave of Yu (Qi t i a n yue, QSC 4/2883). These two poems w i l l not be d e a l t w i th in d e t a i l he r e . 8 0 Shuen-fu L i n , The T r ans fo rma t i on of the Ch inese L y r i c a l  T r a d i t i o n , p .185 . 8 1 Yue jue shu (S ibu congkan e d . ) , j . 2 . 225 2 Fan Shu, Yunxi youy i (Congshu j i c h e n g chubian e d . , v o l . 2 8 3 2 ) , 35. 3 QTS, v o l . 5 , 1643. 8 < t With the p o s s i b l e excep t i on of the undated poem Shu i l ong y i n : "Send ing o f f Wan x i n z h o u " (QSC 4/2880) . As suggested by Zheng Q i a n , the opening l i n e s : "How o f t e n have we d i s c u s s e d over and aga in cu r r en t e ven t s , / At the banquet we both r eg r e t the s e t t i n g s u n ' s d e c l i n e , " may be a comment on the c u r r e n t , more advanced d e t e r i o r a t i o n in Southern Song p o l i t i c s , in compar ison to i t s i n i t i a l y e a r s ; C i x u a n , p .134 . 8 5 Gong M i n g z h i , Zhongwu j iwen (Congshu j i c h e n g chubian e d . , v o l . 3 1 5 5 ) , 21. 8 6 QSC 4/2730. 7 See t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b i o g r a p h i e s in Song s h i , v o l . 3 6 , 11355f f ; 11375f f ; and 11297ff . 8 A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s b a t t l e i s found in L i X inchuan , J i anyan y i l a i x i n i a n y ao lu ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua s h u j u , 1956), v o l . 1 , 634-35. 9 Shi j i , 2.41 ( B e i j i n g : Zhonghua s h u j u , 1959), v o l . 5 , 1746-47. 226 9 0 In Wenxuan, v o l . 2 , 957-60. T r a n s , by James R. Hightower in "Some C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of P a r a l l e l P r o s e , " pp .118-122. 9 1 Yue jue shu , 2_.9. 9 2 Wenxuan, v o l . 1 , 221-223. 9 3 QTS, v o l . 7 , 2566 and v o l . 1 6 , 6191-92 r e s p e c t i v e l y . 9 4 T r a n s , by James J . Y. L i u wi th notes and commentary, in The  Poet ry of L i Shangyin (Ch i cago : U n i v . of Ch icago P r e s s , 1969), pp .129-130. 9 5 Wu Zimu, Meng l i a n g l u ; r p t . in Dong j ing menghua l u  wa i s i zhong (Shangha i : Gudian wenxue chubanshe, 1957), p .230 . 9 6 See X i a Chengtao, Tang Song c i r e n n i a n p u , pp .476-77 . 227 IV. CRITICAL VIEWS C r i t i c a l o p i n i o n r ega rd ing Wu Wenying 's c_i became d i v i d e d s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s l i f e t i m e wi th Zhang Yan ' s famous c r i t i q u e in the C i y u a n . Whi le Wu had been lauded by h i s con tempora r i es Y in Huan and Shen Y i f u as be ing the equa l of the Nor thern Song c_i master Zhou Bangyan, Zhang Yan e m p h a t i c a l l y f a u l t e d him fo r the o b s c u r i t y and f ragmenta t ion he found in h i s p o e t r y . Zhang Yan was h imse l f an important l a t e Song poet and c r i t i c ; h i s c r i t i c a l views t h e r e f o r e bore weight and i n f l u e n c e among h i s s u c c e s s o r s . Zhang 's c r i t i c a l statement on Wu Wenying 's c_i had two no tab l e consequences : f i r s t , i t drew a t t e n t i o n to v e r b a l d e n s i t y and su r f a ce e legance as the s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Wu's c_i and , second , i t emphasized the nega t i ve s i de of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . L a t e r c r i t i c a l views on Wu o f t e n echo Zhang Yan ' s view e i t h e r in agreement and easy d i s m i s s a l of Wu's c_i or in d isagreement and counter e l a b o r a t i o n in defense of i t . However, a r t i c u l a t i o n of these c r i t i c a l t r ends d i d not beg in to su r f a ce u n t i l s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s a f t e r the death of both poet and c r i t i c . With the post-Song d e c l i n e of the c_i as a p o e t i c genre , i t f e l l o u t s i d e the mainstream" of c r e a t i v e p r o d u c t i v i t y and c r i t i c a l i n t e r e s t . The subsequent Yuan and Ming p e r i o d s represen t more than three bar ren c e n t u r i e s both in the w r i t i n g of c_i and in c_i c r i t i c i s m . The hand fu l of works on c_i_ w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d c o n t a i n no c r i t i c a l i n s i g h t of no t e , and Wu Wenying 's name h a r d l y f i g u r e in them at a l l . 1 Post-Song c_i p o e t i c c r i t i c i s m i s p r o p e r l y a l egacy of the Qing p e r i o d r e v i v a l 228 of the genre . Renewed i n t e r e s t in c_i poe t r y began in the l a t e Ming and e a r l y Qing when poets aga in took up the w r i t i n g of c i . The Ming l o y a l i s t Chen Z i l o n g f^-f-^|j (1608-1647), and many e a r l y Qing l i t e r a r y t a l e n t s such as Wu Weiye -7^ . lij- 7?^ (1609-1672), Zhu Y izun (1629-1709), and Chen Weisong P^&l£jj^  < 1625-1682), to name but a few, a l l l e f t beh ind r epu tab l e c o l l e c t i o n s of c_i p o e t r y . C r i t i c a l i n t e r e s t in the genre a l s o r e v i v e d , i n d i c a t e d by the appearance of contemporaneous w r i t i n g s devoted to the d i s c u s s i o n of c_i p o e t r y . Some of these w r i t i n g s c o n t a i n the e a r l i e s t comments on Wu Wenying. H i s name i s g e n e r a l l y mentioned in the context of comments on Southern Song c_i, o f t en in compar ison to c_i of the Nor thern Song p e r i o d . In the eyes of e a r l y Qing c r i t i c s , Nor thern Song c_i emanated a q u a l i t y of " n a t u r a l n e s s , " wh i le that of the Southern Song e x h i b i t s s t y l i s t i c s u b t l e t y and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . Though the two " s t y l e s " seem to have been va lued each f o r i t s own m e r i t s , some of the comments show a marked a p p r e c i a t i o n fo r the " a r t " in the Southern Song s t y l e , w i th which Wu Wenying i s at once a s s o c i a t e d . T h i s f a vo rab l e d i s p o s i t i o n towards Southern Song ci_ i s e s p e c i a l l y e v iden t in the w r i t i n g s of the eminent sh i poet •and t h e o r i s t Wang Shizhen jL i ^ (1634-1711) and h i s f r i e n d s Zou Zhimo ^ j 5 ^ i f ^ f l . 1666) and Pang Sunyu fj "7^ (1631-1700). In the Huacao mengshi Wang noted t h a t : S ince the Song moved sou th , wi th poets such as Me ix i (Shi Dazu ) , B a i s h i ( J iang K u i ) , Zhuwu (Gao Guanguo), and Mengchuang (Wu Wenying) , c_i reached i t s u l t i m a t e in e legance and beauty . Even Qin [Guan] and L i [Qingzhao] cannot be t h e i r match in some ways. 229 A l though t h e i r c_i may have l e s s resonance and n a t u r a l n e s s , one i s made to s i g h wi th admi r a t i on at t h e i r unsurpassed e x c e l l e n c e . 2 To Wang Sh i zhen , the on l y weakness i n the Southern Song s t y l e i s a d i m i n u t i o n of the resonant and n a t u r a l q u a l i t y found in Nor thern Song c_i, a f a c t which does not seem to de te r h i s e s t i m a t i o n of i t s a r t i s t r y . Wang's view i s echoed by Zou Zhimou in h i s d i s c u s s i o n s on manc i : Long tunes were the l a s t development in c_i. The ou t s t and ing works among Southern Song poets a l l e x c e l in t h i s fo rm. In the works of Me ix i (Shi Dazu ) , B a i s h i ( J iang K u i ) , Zhuwu (Gao Guanguo), and Mengchuang, l o v e l y sent iments and b e a u t i f u l d i c t i o n reached the h i g h e s t e x p r e s s i o n . Moreover , t h e i r embel l i shment and p o l i s h have a marve l of movement l i k e the s u b t l e t r a c e s l e f t by snakes and earthworms l i n k e d in a con t i nuous f l o w . 3 Zou made t h i s statement in support of h i s view that the manei form was handled p e r f e c t l y on l y by Southern Song c_i p o e t s . E lsewhere he even c r i t i c i z e d Zhou Bangyan 's manei f o r t h e i r c rude f l u e n c y . " But the s t y l i s t i c ornamentat ion which Zou notes wi th such admi r a t i on i s to him as much or even more of an achievement than s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Poe t i c d i c t i o n i s an engaging c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Southern Song fo r these c r i t i c s . In Wu Wenying 's c a s e , Pang Sunyu p e r c e i v e s i t to be excess i v e and thus to overshadow the e x p r e s s i o n of emot ion . He notes wi th r eg re t that " a l t hough Mengchuang's ci_ i s f u l l of o rnamenta t ion , i t i s somewhat l a c k i n g in emot iona l a p p e a l . " 5 The comments made by Wang S h i z h e n ' s group are i l l u m i n a t i n g 230 in tha t they show the s t rong s t y l i s t i c appea l of Southern Song c i d u r i n g the e a r l y s tages of the Qing r e v i v a l and Wu Wenying to be i n the vanguard of tha t a p p e a l . The group , however, d i d not fo rmu la te any c o n s i s t e n t t h e o r i e s nor d i d i t advocate any models f o r e m u l a t i o n , and Wang Sh izhen h i m s e l f gave up the study and w r i t i n g of c_i very e a r l y on in h i s c a r e e r . Consequen t l y , t h e i r w r i t i n g s d i d not have s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on l a t e r deve lopments . I t i s w i th a contemporary of Wang Sh i zhen , the e a r l y Qing poet Zhu Y i z u n , tha t d e f i n i t e t r ends were set in the wor ld of c i . Zhu Y izun was a p r o l i f i c ci_ poet w i th a commanding r e p u t a t i o n among h i s con tempora r i es and a s c h o l a r of v e r s a t i l e t a l e n t ; but he d i d not leave beh ind any work on c_i c r i t i c i s m . Y e t , through h im, Southern Song c_i was. p l a ced on the p e d e s t a l of p e r f e c t i o n . T h i s was the r e s u l t both of the models Zhu p r o f e s s e d to emulate in h i s p r a c t i c e of w r i t i n g c_i and of the i n f l u e n t i a l an tho logy of ci_ poe t r y he c o m p i l e d . The C i z o n g , completed in 1678, was the f i r s t c_i an tho logy to appear in the Qing and was t i m e l y in i t s appearance as i n t e r e s t in c_i was bu rgeon ing . In i t the major l a t e Song poets are favoured w i th the g r e a t e s t number of s e l e c t i o n s . We have a l r e a d y quoted Zhu Y i z u n ' s famous pronouncement in the exp l ana to ry foreword to the C i zong in which he c l a imed tha t " o n l y in the Southern Song d i d the c_i a t t a i n i t s p e r f e c t i o n , and on ly at the end of the Song d i d i t exhaust i t s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . " T h i s i s immediate ly f o l l o w e d by the statement tha t " J i ang Yaozhang ( J i ang Kui) i s the most ou t s t and ing [c_i poet in the l a t e S o n g ] . " 6 In p r e f a ces 231 Zhu wrote to c_i c o l l e c t i o n s by h i s con tempora r i es and in h i s own poems, he s t a t e s in no u n c e r t a i n terms h i s p r e f e r e n c e fo r J i ang Kui among Southern Song c_i p o e t s . 7 He c o n c e p t u a l i z e s J i ang K u i ' s poe t r y as the mat r ix of the l a t e Song s t y l e from which ten o t h e r s , among them Wu Wenying and Zhang Yan, r ep re sen t o f f s h o o t s . 8 In p r a c t i c e , he advocates J i ang Kui and Zhang Yan as models fo r i m i t a t i o n . 9 S ince Zhu Y izun i s comp le t e l y at one wi th Zhang Yan ' s i d e a l of c_i p o e t r y , one wonders where Wu Wenying stands in h i s scheme. In p o i n t of f a c t , most ly in p e a c e f u l shadows by d e f a u l t . For Zhu d i d not f o l l ow Zhang Yan ' s l ead in us ing Wu as a f o i l to h i s p o e t i c i d e a l , and l e f t no s p e c i f i c comment r ega rd ing Wu Wenying 's p o e t r y . 1 0 Wu Wenying, a long w i th most o ther c_i poets of the p a s t , remained subo rd ina t e names fo r a cen tu ry or so from Zhu Y i zun*s t ime . Dur ing t h i s p e r i o d when poets i n t e r e s t e d in the genre were engaged in the w r i t i n g of c_i, s t y l i s t i c models became the catchword fo r many. The most prominent models were of course J i ang Kui and Zhang Yan r e p r e s e n t i n g the l a t e Song s t y l e of e legance and r e f i nemen t , which had i t s r i v a l in the haofang ' h e r o i c ' s t y l e mode l led a f t e r Su Shi and X in Q i j i . 1 1 By the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , o b j e c t i o n s were r a i s e d at the p r a c t i c e of Qing ep igones , who were thought to have succeeded on l y in deve lop ing the worst t r a i t s of each s t y l e . The c r i t i c i s m h a i l e d from a group of c_i p o e t s / c r i t i c s in Changzhou ( J iangsu) wi th the c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r Zhang Huiyan (1761-1802) as i t s found ing a u t h o r i t y ; the group subsequent l y became known as the Changzhou Schoo l of c_i 232 c r i t i c i s m . 1 2 To r e c t i f y the f a u l t s to which Qing c_i w r i t e r s had degenera ted , and to e l e va t e the c_i genre to a proper s t a tus in the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , Zhang Huiyan compi l ed an antho logy of c_i p o e t r y , the C ixuan ( p r i n t e d i n 1797), in which he advanced and a p p l i e d the method of a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to c_i_ poe t r y a f t e r the manner of Shi j ing and Chuc i exegeses , to r e v e a l the o poems' h idden moral and p o l i t i c a l t e n o r . 1 3 However f o r c e d Zhang H u i y a n ' s me thodo log i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n may have appeared to l a t e r c r i t i c s , the unde r t ak ing was g r a f t e d on a venerab le t r a d i t i o n and i t was not ques t i oned by h i s immediate f o l l o w e r s . With r e spec t to the development of c_i c r i t i c i s m , Zhang H u i y a n ' s epoch-making c r i t i c a l approach p ro found l y a f f e c t e d the course of Qing s t u d i e s on the genre . It s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n to meaning and content from the so l e p r eoccupa t i on w i th s t y l e p r e v a l e n t in h i s day. Zhang 's t h e o r e t i c a l emphas is , however, e n t a i l e d s t rong p a r t i a l i t y . The s e l e c t i o n s be t ray a p r e d i l e c t i o n fo r c^ poems wi th i n d e f i n i t e and ambiguous r e f e r e n c e , which are open to a l l e g o r i c a l t r ea tment , a n d ' f o r c_i in which there are d i s c e r n i b l e s igns of an a l l e g o r i c a l ' d imens ion . The former tend to be shor t l y r i c s by poets from the l a t e Tang to the Nor thern Song, the l a t t e r , c_i_ poems by Southern Song poets such as X i n Q i j i and Wang Y i s u n . 1 " Zhang Huiyan exc luded Wu Wenying from h i s antho logy w i th one p i t h y comment in the p r e f a c e : " S c a t t e r e d p a r t s that do not form a w h o l e . " 1 5 T h i s i s j u s t Zhang Yan ' s c r i t i q u e put in a c a p s u l e . I t i s e v iden t from the above overv iew that the re had been no r e a l c r i t i c a l i n t e r e s t in- Wu Wenying fo r we l l over a cen tu ry 233 i n t o the r ena i s sance of c_i_, and Zhang Huiyan c o u l d even d i s m i s s him so summar i ly . I r o n i c a l l y , the t u r n i n g p o i n t f o r Wu Wenying successo r to Zhang Huiyan in the Changzhou S c h o o l . A few decades a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the C i xuan , Zhou J i e l a b o r a t e d on and r e f i n e d Zhang H u i y a n ' s c r i t i c a l app roach . In Zhou J i ' s works, Wu Wenying was c a t a p u l t e d from neg l e c t i n t o a p o s i t i o n of prominence . Zhou J i l e f t beh ind two a n t h o l o g i e s of c i p o e t r y , the C i b i a n [C i D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s ] and the Song s i j i a c ixuan [Ci  by the Four Masters of the Song] , and a shor t work of c r i t i c a l • comments, J i e c u n z h a i l u n c i zazhu [M i s ce l l aneous Notes on C i from  J i e c u n S t u d i o ] . Zhou J i ' s c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s are con t a i ned in the J i e c u n z h a i l u n c i zazhu and the p r e f a ce s to the two a n t h o l o g i e s . Zhou was not a p r o l i f i c c r i t i c , but what he d i d w r i t e i s i n c i s i v e and r e f l e c t s a s o l i d c o n n o i s s e u r s h i p that can on l y be the r e s u l t of d e d i c a t e d study combined w i th a n a t i v e s e n s i t i v i t y to the sub jec t of h i s i n t e r e s t . In view of Zhou J i ' s s t a t u r e as a c i c r i t i c and h i s importance in the h i s t o r y of Wu Wenying c r i t i c i s m , i t i s worthwhi le to take a b r i e f look at Zhou 's own e v o l u t i o n in h i s involvement wi th ci_, e s p e c i a l l y when he h i m s e l f p r o v i d e s a most c a n d i d account in the p r e f a ce (dated 1812) to h i s e a r l i e s t work, the C i b i a n . Zhou J i s a i d he began w r i t i n g c_i a t the age of s i x t e e n ( in the same year Zhang H u i y a n ' s C ixuan was p r i n t e d ) . In 1804, when s t i l l a young man of twenty-three (and a year be fo re he ob ta ined h i s j i n s h i d e g r e e ) , Zhou J i came i n t o con tac t w i th Zhang H u i y a n ' s . t h e o r i e s through meet ing Zhang ' s nephew Dong came w i th Zhou the most important 234 S h i x i rfc. %>rj) ( f 1 • 1 81 1 ) • A c c o r d i n g to Zhou, Dong S h i x i , who was h i s j u n i o r , was a l r eady a more accomp l i shed c_i poe t . Two years f o l l owed w i th d i s c u s s i o n s and arguments between the two f r i e n d s over d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e i r c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n s r ega rd ing c_i poets of the Song. Over the course of the exchanges , most s i g n i f i c a n t l y Zhou conv inced Dong of Zhang Yan ' s i n f e r i o r i t y as a c_i p o e t - " h i s ideas end w i th h i s words , " and through Dong 's c o a c h i n g , Zhou a c q u i r e d a deep a p p r e c i a t i o n fo r Zhou Bangyan 's c i , which he at f i r s t d i s l i k e d . La t e r (sometime be fo re 1812 when t h i s p r e f a c e was w r i t t e n ) , wh i le Zhou J i was i n Wusong ( J iangsu) t u t o r i n g a s tudent surnamed T i a n on how to w r i t e c i , he compi led ten juan of c_i poe t r y which he e n t i t l e d C i b i a h , an antho logy meant to i l l u s t r a t e v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s in c_i, both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e , w i th examples drawn from the p a s t . 1 6 The o r i g i n a l manuscr ip t of the C i b i a n , Zhou r e co rds l a t e r in the p o s t f a c e to J i e cu f i zha i l u n c i z azhu , was g i ven to h i s s tudent T i an who was'^t/raveling no r th by boa t , and a c c i d e n t a l l y f e l l i n t o the r i v e r . Zhou subsequent l y managed to reassemble on ly the f i r s t two juan from memory . 1 7 Zhou J i i s noted for d e v e l o p i n g Zhang H u i y a n ' s s i m p l i s t i c method of l o c a t i n g a l l e g o r i c a l meaning i n t o a s o p h i s t i c a t e d concept of a l l e g o r y which a l l ows fo r a k ind of r eader- induced p l u r i s i g n a t i o n : the re i s no one f i x e d meaning to a poem, and each reader a r r i v e s at h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , h i s own " t r u t h , " from the i n t e r a c t i o n w i th the me tapho r i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the p o e m . 1 8 T h i s idea was i n t roduced in the p r e f a c e to the C i b i a n . In Zhou 's l a t e r e l a b o r a t i o n s on a l l e g o r y (j i t u o ^ from the 235 p o e t ' s and a s p i r i n g p o e t ' s po in t of v iew, he d i s t i n g u i s h e s between " i n t e n t i o n a l " and " u n i n t e n t i o n a l " a l l e g o r y . In these d i s c u s s i o n s , however, Zhou remains c i r c u m s c r i b e d by Zhang H u i y a n ' s a l l e g o r i c a l models . He sees an a l l e g o r i c a l d imension in some l a t e Tang and Northern Song c_i_ poe t r y which i s u n i n t e n t i o n a l , wh i le the a l l e g o r i c a l content in Southern Song c_i i s seen to be i n t e n t i o n a l . Moreover , the former type of poe t r y i s judged to be s u p e r i o r , an i d e a l one shou ld aim fo r in w r i t i n g In the con tex t of c r i t i c a l v iews on Wu Wenying, the Changzhou S c h o o l ' s focus on the content aspect of ci_ poe t ry must have i n d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e d to Zhou J i ' s i n s i g h t i n t o the " s u b s t a n c e " of Wu Wenying 's p o e t r y . In the J i e c u n z h a i l u n c i  zazhu , Zhou J i has t h i s to say about Wu Wenying: Y in Huan knew what he was say ing when he compared Mengchuang to Qingzhen (Zhou Bangyan) . In Mengchuang's c_i there are o f t e n l eaps and tu rns in the v o i d ; i t can on l y be ach ieved i f one had grea t mental power. I t i s t rue that the re are d i f f i c u l t and obscure p i e c e s in h i s work, but they are f a r b e t t e r than any empty and f a c i l e poem. What 's more, h i s best poems have the f e e l of c e l e s t i a l r ad iance and c l o u d r e f l e c t i o n s undu l a t i ng in green waves; one can never t i r e of e n j o y i n g them and seek ing a f t e r t h e i r e l u s i v e n e s s . Junte (Wu Wenying) has deep thoughts about the t i m e s . But the manner in which he expresses h i s emotion i s not t i g h t l y s t r u c t u r e d and makes i t d i f f i c u l t to i n f e r i t s p r e s e n c e . 2 0 For the f i r s t t ime a c r i t i c pene t r a t e s what had seemed to be a b l i n d i n g b r i l l i a n c e of s t y l e and takes cogn izance of the subst ra tum of thought and emotion in Wu Wenying 's p o e t r y , and e x p l a i n s , however b r i e f l y , why i t i s not easy to get at t h e i r 236 meaning. In another passage , Zhou J i a l s o accounts fo r the gene ra l f a i l u r e to p e r c e i v e what i s s u b t l e and p ro found in c_i p o e t r y , and Zhang Yan i s found to be the c u l p r i t : Shuxia (Zhang Yan) was a la te-comer to the c r i t i c s ' s cene . He was a contemporary of B ishan (Wang Y isun ) and moreover d i f f e r e d from Mengchuang in s t y l e . T h e r e f o r e he ove res t ima ted B a i s h i ( J iang Kui ) and advocated the p o e t i c s of t r anspa rency to the e x c l u s i o n of e v e r y t h i n g e l s e . In l a t e r ages , h i s v iews l e d to an i n a b i l i t y to c a r e f u l l y examine comp lex i t y and depth in c_i p o e t r y . 2 1 Zhou J i ' s c r i t i c i s m was p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d at the d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t the overwhelming p o p u l a r i t y of J i ang Kui and Zhang Yan ' s s t y l e s had on c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . The r e f e r ence to Wu Wenying a l l u d e s to the o p p o s i t i o n between the p o e t i c s of t r anspa rency and d e n s i t y p o s t u l a t e d by Zhang Yan, which had put Wu in an un favo rab l e l i g h t . The widespread i n a b i l i t y to a p p r e c i a t e dep th , t h e n , encompasses an inadequate unders tand ing of Wu Wenying 's p o e t r y . A l though Zhou J i ' s rumina t ions on a l l e g o r y have t h e i r source in the genera l con tex t of Changzhou t h e o r i e s , h i s remarks on s p e c i f i c poets o f t en impress one as h i g h l y o r i g i n a l and p e r c e p t i v e . C e r t a i n l y the i m p a r t i a l r e c o g n i t i o n he g i v e s Wu Wenying in the J i e c u n z h a i l u n c i zazhu i s wi thout precedent in the Q i n g . But the comments in the J i e c u n z h a i l u n c i zazhu on ly mark the beg inn ing of Zhou J i ' s growing esteem fo r t h i s somewhat c o n t r o v e r s i a l p o e t i c f i g u r e . In 1832, a lmost t h i r t y years a f t e r he f i r s t came i n t o con tac t w i th the c r i t i c a l canons of the Changzhou S c h o o l , Zhou J i came out w i th h i s own an tho logy of 237 Song c_i p o e t r y , the Song s i j i a c i x u a n . The work stands fo r Zhou J i ' s d e f i n i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of c_i poets of the Song. A l o n g s i d e Zhou Bangyan, X in Q i j i , and Wang Y i s u n , Wu Wenying i s des igna ted as one of the four exemplars of Song ci_, under whose l e a d i n g s t y l e s o the r major Song c_i poets are c o n s i g n e d . Zhou J i beg ins the p r e f a c e to the antho logy w i th a b r i e f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of these four p r i n c i p a l s t y l e s : Qingzhen (Zhou Bangyan) i s the grea t s y n t h e s i z e r of s t y l e s . J i axuan (Xin Q i j i ) puts i n check h i s h e r o i c amb i t i ons and f i n d s an o u t l e t in l o f t y t unes ; he t r ans fo rms the d e l i c a t e mode i n t o an e x p r e s s i o n of t r a g i c sor row. B i s h a n ' s (Wang Y isun) burdened hear t keeps to the p r i n c i p l e of speak ing about one t h i n g and r e f e r r i n g to ano the r ; the tone and e x p r e s s i o n in h i s poe t r y can a l l be t r a c e d . Mengchuang's poe t r y has e x t r a o r d i n a r y thought and i n t ense beauty ; i t soars to the h e i g h t s and plumbs the d e p t h s ; i t t u rns away from the sha l l ow c l a r i t y of the Southern Song and r e t u r n s to the f u l l r i c h n e s s of the Nor thern S o n g . 2 2 Higher p r a i s e than these comments, which cap tu res the essence of what i s s u p e r l a t i v e in Wu Weny ing 's p o e t r y , would be s u p e r f l u o u s i f not i m p o s s i b l e . If we examine the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the four p o e t s , i t s t i l l p o s i t s the Nor thern Song s t y l e as the i d e a l of c i poe t r y and , f u r the rmore , Wu Wenying as the one poet whose s t y l e approaches the " r i c h n e s s " of Nor thern Song ci_. The l a t t e r po in t may seem both vague and u n t e n a b l e . But the c l u e to i t s l o g i c l i e s i n the cho i ce of Zhou Bangyan as the orthodox model , the supreme master of a l l t i m e s . Zhou Bangyan 's s t y l i s t i c s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and re f inement embraces much of the mainstream developments in the Nor thern Song and became the model of i n s p i r a t i o n beh ind much of the Southern Song ' s concern w i th 238 e legance and a r t i s t r y . The gap i s thus not so d i f f i c u l t to b r i dge between Zhou Bangyan and Wu Wenying. In f a c t t h e i r names had been l i n k e d together in the Southern Song, f i r s t by Y in Huan (whose remark i s judged to be a p p o s i t e by Zhou J i ) , and then by Shen Y i f u , who b e l i e v e d that Wu Wenying "had t r u l y ob ta ined the s e c r e t " of Zhou B a n g y a n . 2 3 Zhou J i ' s scheme, wh i l e upho ld ing the Nor thern Song s t y l e as i d e a l , a c t u a l l y comes c l o s e to a t o t a l a f f i r m a t i o n of much Southern Song c_i in c r i t i c a l a p p r e c i a t i o n . In the program he proposes fo r the a s p i r i n g c_i p o e t , Wu Wenying r e p r e s e n t s an important stage to be r eached : "Seek the way of B ishan (Wang Y i s u n ) , then go through J i axuan (Xin Q i j i ) and Mengchuang to r e t u rn to the wholeness of Qingzhen (Zhou B a n g y a n ) . " 2 " If the d ic tum i s c o n s i d e r e d in c o n j u n c t i o n wi th Zhou J i ' s e x p o s i t i o n of the four s t y l e s , i t can be paraphrased as f o l l o w s : "Beg in wi th i m i t a b l e good t e c h n i q u e , express r e s p e c t a b l e emot ion , fuse the two in an o r i g i n a l way, and then you can approach p e r f e c t i o n . " Zhou J i ' s e l e v a t i o n of Wu Wenying i s no th ing l e s s than a f l a t c o n t r a d i c t i o n of Zhang Hu i y an ' s d e n i g r a t i o n . As a f o l l owe r of Changzhou t e n e t s , Zhou J i o f f e r s an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the d i s c r e p a n c y : "Gaowen (Zhang Huiyan) d i s m i s s e d Mengchuang because h i s v i s i o n was c i r c u m s c r i b e d by the pa th of B ishan (Wang Y i s u n ) ; " and e l a b o r a t e s on h i s own approba t i on of Wu Wenying: "Mengchuang expresses e l e v a t e d thought wi th f a r - r e a c h i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s . The r e s t cannot equa l him in t h i s r e s p e c t . " 2 5 Presumably , Zhang Huiyan c o u l d d i s c e r n a l l e g o r i c a l e lements in Wang Y i s u n ' s c_i, but wi th Wu Wenying 's c_i, he c o u l d not even put 239 the p i e c e s t o g e t h e r , much l e s s see any th ing beyond. Zhou J i , however, i s not wholy u n c r i t i c a l towards Wu Wenying, as the r e f e rence in the J i e c u n z h a i l u n c i zazhu to the d i f f i c u l t y and o b s c u r i t y in some of Wu's c_i a leady i n d i c a t e d . The p resen t passage a l s o goes on to p o i n t out another f a u l t : "But he d e l i g h t s too much in o rnamenta t ion , and has thus been c r i t i c i z e d fo r i t . Y e t , among h i s works, those which ach ieve ba lance between the a b s t r a c t and the conc re t e cannot be surpassed even by Qingzhen (Zhou B a n g y a n ) . " 2 6 Wu Wenying has always been p r a i s e d and condemned on the same ground of h i s f i g u r a t i v e d e n s i t y . It took a man of Zhou J i ' s c r i t i c a l acumen and p o e t i c s e n s i t i v i t y to e l u c i d a t e the r e a l s t r e n g t h of Wu Wenying as a poe t-h i s a b i l i t y to express what r e a l l y moves him in superb language. contemporary of Zhou J i , who seems to have independent l y a r r i v e d at a s i m i l a r view r ega rd ing Wu Wenying 's c _ i . 2 7 Ge Z a i ' s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t in ci^ i s p rosody . H i s an tho logy of c_i, the Song q i j i a  c ixuan [Ci by Seven Masters of the Song] which came out in 1837, was compi l ed to i l l u s t r a t e the e l egan t sound of ci_. The seven poets he s e l e c t e d a r e , w i th the excep t i on of Zhou Bangyan, a l l the noted Southern Song " t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s . " Ge Z a i ' s c r i t e r i a fo r i n c l u s i o n of p a r t i c u l a r poems are " p e r f e c t i o n in s t r u c t u r e and meaning and f i n e s s e in meter and r h y m e . " 2 8 Because of the nature of h i s i n t e r e s t , Ge Zai o f f e r s very few l i t e r a r y - c r i t i c a l comments. But he does come to defend Wu Wenying from Zhang Yan ' s cha rge : C r e d i t shou ld a l s o be g i ven Ge ( f 1 . 1 8 2 1 ) , a 240 Mengchuang's c_i e x c e l s in the s u b t l e and b e a u t i f u l . The ideas he conveys are p ro found and h i s t echn ique in d i c t i o n and s t r u c t u r e i s unfathomable and v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t from the o t h e r s . On the su r f a ce h i s poems may seem g l u t t e d w i th f i g u r a t i v e embe l l i shment , but they are a c t u a l l y animated by an inner f o r c e . I f one reads and r e c i t e s them c a r e f u l l y , one w i l l f i n d tha t t h e i r f l a v o u r i s more e x q u i s i t e than [ F a n g ] h u i ' s (He Zhu) c_i, and be l e d i n t o a s t a t e of enchantment. They can n e i t h e r be f a u l t e d fo r o b s c u r i t y nor fo r a r t i f i c i a l o r n a t e n e s s . 2 9 Ge Z a i ' s who lesa le r e b u t t a l of Zhang Yan ' s c r i t i q u e a r i s e s in pa r t from h i s own i n o r d i n a t e fondness fo r Wu Wenying 's c_i. He con fesses tha t he has not succeeded in h i s attempt to model h i s own c_i a f t e r Wu Wenying and , s i n ce he " love's Wu's c_i to the ex t reme , " he has i n c l u d e d more s e l e c t i o n s by h i m . 3 0 Wu Wenying 's p o s i t i o n in the h i e r a r c h y of c_i c r i t i c i s m became f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d in the mid Qing wi th the p ionee r championship of Zhou J i and Ge Z a i . By i l l u m i n a t i n g i t s e s s e n t i a l m e r i t s , t h e i r d i s c e r n i n g remarks i n d i c a t e to the reader what to look f o r in Wu Wenying 's c_i, and thus a way to i t s a p p r e c i a t i o n . Subsequent c r i t i c s most ly f o l l owed s u i t w i th comments tha t are l a r g e l y v a r i a t i o n s on a theme. Wu i s d i s c u s s e d on the same l e v e l as Zhou Bangyan and J i ang K u i , as a major r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the s u b t l e and d e l i c a t e mode in c i . Vaga r i e s in t a s t e s t i l l produced d i f f e r e n c e s in g rad ing the r e l a t i v e s u p e r i o r i t y of the t h r e e , and there i s a l i n g e r i n g note of c i r c u m s p e c t i o n wi th regard to the p o t e n t i a l l y nega t i ve elements in Wu's s t y l e f o r a l e a r n e r ; but on the whole, Wu i s viewed from an ext remely p o s i t i v e a n g l e . Major l a t e Qing 241 made f a v o r a b l e o b s e r v a t i o n s about Wu's p o e t r y . Among them, Kuang Zhouyi i s an avowed admirer of Wu Wenying 's g rea tness as a poe t . One of h i s remarks i s an apt and r e a d i l y unders tood metaphor ic d e s c r i p t i o n of Wu's p o e t r y : In the dense t ex tu r e of h i s poems, Mengchuang can animate c o u n t l e s s b e a u t i f u l words i n t o a l i v e l y dance, l i k e the p r o f u s i o n of f lowers that c r ea t e s p r i n g . 3 1 C r i t i c i s m , as we have a l r eady no t ed , i s but one s ide of the Qing i n t e r e s t in the c_i. Most c_i c r i t i c s were c_i poets as w e l l , and the p u r s u i t of an e f f e c t i v e model remained an abso rb ing c o n c e r n . Many c r i t i c a l remarks w r i t t e n in the l a t e Qing on Wu and other poets were in f a c t d e l i v e r e d from the p e r s p e c t i v e of w r i t i n g ci_. With the c r i t i c a l s c a l e t i p p e d so much in favour of Wu Wenying, i t i s i n e v i t a b l e tha t h i s s t y l e would be sought a f t e r as a d e s i r a b l e mode l ; Ge Zai had a l r e a d y h e r a l d e d the t r e n d . At the he igh t of i t s p o p u l a r i t y in the l a t e Q i n g , Wu Wenying 's s t y l e became the hegemon among models to be i m i t a t e d . In o ther words, e x i t Zhang Yan. Even J i ang Kui a t t imes d i d not escape from the a s s o c i a t i o n wi th Zhang Yan. In 1876, the c r i t i c Tan X ian \^ I^A. (1832-1901 ) r eco rded i n h i s d i a r y tha t " r e cen t t a l k s are a l l c e n t r e d on the c_i poets of the Southern Tang and Nor thern Song, and on Qingzhen (Zhou Bangyan) , Mengchuang and Zhongxian (Wang Y i s u n ) ; Yu t i an (Zhang Yan) and Sh izhou ( J iang Kui ) are regarded as o l d straw d o g s , " tha t i s , wo r th l e s s models to be d i s c a r d e d . 3 2 In 1937, Wu Mei (1884-1939), another 242 l a t t e r - d a y l o v e r of Wu Wenying 's p o e t r y , summarized the extent of Wu's i n f l u e n c e , a l b e i t r a the r h y p e r b o l i c a l l y : "In our age, people who i m i t a t e Mengchuang a lmost number h a l f the w o r l d . " 3 3 Wu M e i ' s s ta tement , at the t ime i t was made, a l r e ady be longed to another wor ld in another age . Hu S h i ' s antho logy of c i , the C i x u a n , had a l r e ady been p u b l i s h e d in 1928, and wi th i t , c i ven tu red i n t o the domain of modern, post-May Fou r th non-ci s p e c i a l i s t s , whose va lues and c r i t i c a l s tandards n e c e s s a r i l y r ep resen t a break wi th the p a s t . Hu Sh i emphasizes the " h i s t o r i c a l " p e r s p e c t i v e , and i s t y p i c a l l y v o c a l in h i s c r i t i c a l judgments. He endorses the popu la r o r i g i n and v e r n a c u l a r aspect of c_i and v iews the gene r i c e v o l u t i o n s o l e l y as a degene ra t i on from an " a l i v e " l i t e r a t u r e of the common people to a "dead " p l a y t h i n g of the l i t e r a t i . _ Need less to say , Southern Song c i -the "c_i of c r a f t smen "-s t ands at the bottom of h i s s c a l e of v a l u e s . 3 " With some he lp from Zhang Yan, Hu Shi c a t e g o r i c a l l y denounces Wu Wenying 's cj^ as an incoheren t heap of c l i c h e s and a l l u s i o n s devo id of any meaning or emot iona l a p p e a l . He f u r t h e r notes tha t many recent ci^ poets have been " p o i s o n e d " by i t . 3 5 In m o d i f i e d and more moderate f a s h i o n , Wu Wenying 's c_i has been c r i t i c i z e d a long the same l i n e s by the " m o d e r n s . " 3 6 S ince 1949, the Ma rx i s t p e r s p e c t i v e has emphasized the s o c i a l d imens ion of l i t e r a t u r e in c r i t i c i s m . C_i poets who stand up best under i d e o l o g i c a l s c r u t i n y are the " p r o g r e s s i v e " p a t r i o t i c heroes of the Southern Song, wi th X in Q i j i in the l e a d . The l a ck of proper i d e o l o g i c a l content and the dominance of a e s t h e t i c fo rma l i sm in Southern Song ci_ have earned i t the 243 deroga tory e p i t h e t of " d e c a d e n t . " In a n t h o l o g i e s and h i s t o r i e s of Ch inese l i t e r a t u r e , Wu Wenying 's poe t r y appears as one of the worst examples of c_i in i t s d e c l i n e ; i t shows a dec ided absence of " c o n t e n t , " that i s to say , concern wi th s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s . 3 7 Research and c r i t i c a l s t u d i e s on c_i came to a complete h a l t w i th the onset of the C u l t u r a l R e vo l u t i on (1966-1976). For n e a r l y a decade, not a word was w r i t t e n on the s u b j e c t . Only in the mid s e v e n t i e s d i d some c_i poets reappear in a r t i c l e s d ressed up in l e g a l i s t and p a t r i o t i c g a r b . 3 8 I n t e r e s t in Wu Wenying began in the e a r l y yea rs of the p resen t decade, l a r g e l y s t imu l a t ed by the 1980 main land p u b l i c a t i o n of Yeh C h i a - y i n g ' s which c o n t a i n s a c r i t i c a l r e e v a l u a t i o n of Wu Wenying 's c _ i . 3 9 But even in the l a t e s t a r t i c l e (1984) on Wu Wenying, the ma in land author s t i l l f e e l s a need to defend him on the grounds of " c o n t e n t . ' " " 0 My own study has aimed to show p r e c i s e l y the l i t e r a r y q u a l i t i e s of Wu Weny ing 's poe t r y in the contex t of Southern Song c i ; that h i s poe t r y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an extremely metonymic d i c t i o n , s y n t a c t i c d e n s i t y , an a s s o c i a t i v e and i m p l i e d r a the r than e x p l i c i t l o g i c in s t r u c t u r e , and a unique hand l i ng of imagery. In h i s best works, these d i v e r s e elements of h i s " a r t " are u n i f i e d i n t o superb p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e s tha t are in formed wi th s i g n i f i c a n t themes. Today in the West, we can perhaps read .and enjoy Wu Wenying 's poe t r y w i th f r e s h eyes wi thout i g n o r i n g the t r a d i t i o n to which i t b e l o n g s , and at the same time acknowledge c o l l e c t i o n of essays on ci_, the J i a l i n g l u n c i conggao, 244 i t s pa r t in the a f f i r m a t i o n of the a r t i s t i c i n t e g r i t y of l i t e r a t u r e . 245 Only four works by Ming au tho r s are i n c l u d e d in the C ihua c o n g b i a n , see v o l s . 1 and 2. Huacao menqshi (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 2 ) , 675. Yuanzh izha i c i z h o n g (Cihua congb ian e d . , v o l . 2 ) , 647. I b i d . J i n s u c i hua (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 2 ) , 707. In C i z o n g , v o l . 1 , 10. See the t h i r d poem under the tune Shui d i ao ge t o u , in Pushut ing c i , pp .36-37 , in Qing mingj i a c i , ed . Chen N a i q i a n , (Hong Kong: T a i p i n g shu ju , 1963), v o l . 3 . See Zhu 's p r e f a c e to Shen A n d i n g ' s c_i c o l l e c t i o n , H e i d i e z h a i  c i , p . 1 , i n Qing mingj i a c i , v o l . 4 . Zhu does not e l a b o r a t e on how the poe t r y of these ten poets represen t d i f f e r e n t a spec t s of J i a n g K u i ' s s t y l e . The sentence i s repea ted by Wang Sen, the co-compi l e r of the C i z o n g , in the p r e f a c e he wrote to the an tho logy ; see C i z o n g , V o l . 1 , p . 1 . See Zhu 's p r e f a c e to Cao Rong 's c_i c o l l e c t i o n , the J i n g t i t a n g  c i , p . 1 , in Qing mingj i a c i , v o l . 1 . 246 1 0 Zhu d i d i n c l u d e a good number of Wu Wenying 's c_i_ (45) in the C i z o n g , see j . 1 9 . 1 1 Zhu Y izun and h i s f o l l o w e r s who took J i ang Kui and Zhang Yan as models r epresen t the Zhexi S c h o o l . Poets who wrote in the haofang s t y l e were c o l l e c t i v e l y known as the Yangxian S c h o o l . Each schoo l was named a f t e r the r eg ion to which most of i t s members be longed . Chen Weisong was the l e a d i n g poet w r i t i n g in the haofang s t y l e . 1 2 For a d e t a i l e d study of the c r i t i c a l theory and p r a c t i c e of the Changzhou s c h o o l , see Ch i a-y ing Yeh Chao, "The Ch ' ang-chou Schoo l of T z ' u C r i t i c i s m , " HJAS, 35 (1975), 101-32. A r e v i s e d v e r s i o n of t h i s a r t i c l e appears in Chinese Approaches  to L i t e r a t u r e , ed . Ade le A. R i c k e t t , pp .151-88. See a l s o Wu Hongy i , Changzhou pa i c i x u e y a n j i u ( T a i p e i : J i a x i n s h u i n i gongs i wenhua j i j i n h u i , 1970). 1 3 I t i s commonly noted that Zhang H u i y a n ' s t r a i n i n g as a c l a s s i c i s t i n f l u e n c e d h i s approach to ci_. Zhang p rov i des a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n fo r 40 of the 1 16 c_i in the C i x u a n . 1 4 On Wang Y i s u n ' s yongwu c i , see Ch i a-y i ng Yeh Chao, "On Wang I-sun and H i s Yunq-wu T z ' u , " HJAS, 40, No.1 (1980), 55-91. 1 5 Zhang Hu i yan , Cixuan (1797; r p t . B e i j i n g : Zhonghua s h u j u , 247 1957), p . 8 . 1 6 See Zhou J i ' s p r e f a ce to the C i b i a n in Tanping C i b i a n Song  s i j i a c i xuan ( T a i p e i : Guangwen s h u j u , 1962). 1 7 J i e c u n z h a i l u n c i zazhu (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 5 ) , 1629. 1 8 C f . Ch i a-y i ng Yeh Chao ' s d i s c u s s i o n in "The Ch 'ang-chou S c h o o l , " pp .126-32. 1 9 S e e . J i e c u n z h a i l u n c i zazhu (Cihua congbian ed . , v o l . 5 ) , 1624; and the p r e f a c e to Song s i j i a c i xuan (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 5 ) , 1630. 2 0 J i e c u n z h a i l u n c i zazhu (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 5 ) , 1626. 2 1 I b i d . , 1623. 2 2 P re face to Song s i j i a c ixuan (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 5 ) , 1630. 2 3 Yuefu zh imi (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 ) , 230. 2 " P re face to Song s i j i a c ixuan (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 5 ) , 1630. 2 5 I b i d . , 1633. 248 I b i d . Ge Za i moved in a d i f f e r e n t c i r c l e and there i s no i n d i c a t i o n of i n t e r a c t i o n wi th the Changzhou group . See He Guangzhong, Lun Qing c i , in L i d a i s h i s h i changb i an , ed . Yang J i a l u o ( T a i p e i : Dingwen s h u j u , 1971), v o l . 2 3 , 20-21. "Song q i j i a c i xuan t i c i , " 1a, in Song q i j i a c i xuan (Hong Kong: Wenchang s h u j u , n .d . ) I b i d . , j . 4 / 3 8 a b . I b i d . Hu i feng c i hua (Hong Kong: Commercia l P r e s s , 1961), p . 47 . Futang c i hua (Cihua congbian e d . , v o l . 1 1 ) , 4025. U n t i l t h i s c e n t u r y , " S h i z h o u " s\i ^  was taken to be one of J i ang K u i ' s s t y l e names. The cause fo r t h i s mistaken i d e n t i t y comes from a number of poems in Wu Wenying 's c o l l e c t i o n addressed to a person by the name of J i ang S h i z h o u . X i a Chengtao has proven that J i ang Kui and J i ang Sh izhou were in f a c t two d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e ; see J i a n g B a i s h i c i b i ann i an j i a n j i a o (Shangha i : Zhonghua shu ju , 1958), pp .283-86. Tn h i s p r e f a ce to Ca i Songyun 's Yuefu zh imi j i a n s h i , in X i a Chengtao and Ca i Songyun, C iyuan zhu Yuefu zh imi j i a n s h i , 249 p .92 . 3 " Hu S h i , C ixuan (Shanghai : Commercia l P r e s s , 1928), p p . 5 - 1 1 . 3 5 I b i d . , p .343 . 3 6 See fo r example, Hu Y u n y i , Songci y a n j i u (Shangha i : Commercial P r e s s , 1926), pp .176-79 ; and Zheng Zhentuo, Chatuben Zhongguo wenxueshi (1932; r p t . Hong Kong: Commercial P r e s s , 1961), v o l . 3 , p .589 . 3 7 See Hu Y u n y i , more than t h i r t y yea rs l a t e r , in Songci xuan (Shangha i : Zhonghua shu ju , 1962), pp .361-62. The emphasis on " c o n t e n t " i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d in the i n t r o d u c t i o n . We have a l r e ady r e f e r r e d to L i u D a j i e ' s view in h i s Zhongguo wenxue f adash i in Ch . 2. 3 8 X in Q i j i i s the a l l t ime p a t r i o t . Chen L i ang (1143-94) i s not noted fo r h i s c_i; but the u t i l i t a r i a n bent in h i s prose w r i t i n g s made him i n t o a " l e g a l i s t " whose ci_ was worth d i s c u s s i n g . See a r t i c l e s l i s t e d in C ixue y a n j i u l u n w e n j i : 1949-1979 (Shangha i : Shanghai g u j i chubanshe, 1982), pp .535-36. 3 9 It c o n t a i n s the o r i g i n a l Ch inese v e r s i o n of Ch i a-y ing Yeh Chao, "Wu Wen-ying 's T z ' u . " 250 1 , 0 Chen Bangyan, "Du Mengchuang c i q i a n y i , " Wenxue y i c h a n , No.1 (1984), 84-92. 251 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ban Gu 3^t£-lf) . Han shu ' % B e i j i n g : Zhonghua s h u j u , 1 962 Han Wu gush i ^ ^ J , in Xu tan zhu  Congshu j i c h e n g chubian ed . V o l . 2 7 2 . Bax t e r , G len W. Index to the Imper i a l R e g i s t e r of T z ' u P rosody . Cambr idge: Harvard-Yenching I n s t i t u t e , 1956. " M e t r i c a l O r i g i n s of the T z ' u . " In S tud i e s in Ch inese  L i t e r a t u r e . Ed . John L. 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