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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Towards an archives of film Cameron, Martha Mary 1984

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TOWARDS AN ARCHIVES OF FILM BY MARTHA MARY CAMERON B.A., THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES IN THE FACULTY OF ARTS Administered by School of Librarianship and Department of History We accept this thesis as conforming to ythe required standard: THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1984 (c) Martha Mary Cameron^ ]_gg£j In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o>f f4l^f7rt /cj OJY^S ScA-ao I &F LUr-r^mdjyy^s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date ABSTRACT Despite i t s importance i n tw e n t i e t h century s o c i e t y , f i l m has proven d i f f i c u l t to use as a source of h i s t o r i c a l e v i -dence, l a r g e l y because of problems both p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l a s s o c i a t e d with i t s use. The h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h community has found f i l m to be e i t h e r i n a c c e s s i b l e f o r re s e a r c h purposes or l a c k i n g i n c r e d i b i l i t y as compared to other sources of evidence. H i s t o r i a n s can only b r i n g t h e i r c r i t i c a l methodology to the study of f i l m i f the m a t e r i a l can be brought under the same standards of c o n t r o l and maintenance that i s a f f o r d e d t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i v a l sources. From the p e r s p e c t i v e of a r c h i v e s , the problem i n v o l v e s developing a means by which f i l m can be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y acquired and documented so that the re s e a r c h community can e x p l o i t i t f o r i t s h i s t o r i c a l evidence. In addressing t h i s problem, t h i s study w i l l f i r s t examine the nature of f i l m and the evidence i t o f f e r s the h i s t o -r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r as r e f l e c t e d i n l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t . Then i t w i l l analyse the approach and p o l i c i e s with, regard to f i l m , taken by the f i l m i n d u s t r y i t s e l f , the l i b r a r y community and s p e c i a l r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n s , among the l a t t e r i n c l u d i n g some of the great r e p o s i t o r i e s f o r f i l m i n the world. The purpose of t h i s a n a l y s i s i s to demonstrate the ways i n which the treatment of f i l m i n these i n s t i t u t i o n s d i f f e r s from the treatment of a r c h i -v a l records i n t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l a r c h i v e s . The study w i l l conclude by proposing an approach to the p r e s e r v a t i o n of f i l m i n keeping with a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s and i n l i g h t of the needs of h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r s . Such an approach would see f i l m take i t s place beside other h i s t o r i c a l records preserved i n a r c h i v e s . ( i i ) TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I: I n t r o d u c t i o n : H i s t o r y , A r c h i v e s and F i l m : A Missed Opportunity 1 CHAPTER I I : F i l m as H i s t o r i c a l Evidence 8 CHAPTER I I I : R e p o s i t o r i e s of F i l m : Stock Shot L i b r a r i e s and the P u b l i c L i b r a r y System 23 CHAPTER IV: R e p o s i t o r i e s of F i l m : Research I n s t i t u t i o n s 37 CHAPTER V: Towards an Archives of F i l m 49 NOTES 57 BIBLIGRAPHY 6 5 ( i i i ) CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION: HISTORY, ARCHIVES AND FILM: A MISSED OPPORTUNITY In the years to come, h i s t o r i a n s of the twent i e t h century w i l l have a unique o p p o r t u n i t y to r e c o n s t r u c t the past through the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r study o f f e r e d by f i l m . Despite i t s v a r i e t y and scope, the w r i t t e n record can only be used to recon-s t r u c t a l i m i t e d v e r s i o n of the past. The motion p i c t u r e , as an h i s t o r i c a l source, can f i l l some of the gaps and c o r r e c t miscon-c e p t i o n s which a r i s e from h i s t o r y based e x c l u s i v e l y on the w r i t t e n r e c o r d . F i l m has the p o t e n t i a l to f a c i l i t a t e a more complete and b e t t e r understanding of the past. F i l m has f a i l e d to l i v e up to i t s p o t e n t i a l as source m a t e r i a l f o r h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s because of two u n r e l a t e d problems a s s o c i a t e d with i t s use. On the one hand, f i l m i s f r a g i l e and awkward to use. M a t e r i a l produced p r i o r to the 1950's presents f u r t h e r problems as the c e l l u l o i d base, which holds the image, i s both dangerous to handle and expensive to maintain or convert to a more s a t i s f a c t o r y m a t e r i a l . On the other hand, beyond these p u r e l y p h y s i c a l and t e c h n i c a l concerns, f i l m i s d i f f i c u l t to use because of the degree of a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e d to f u l l y understand i t . S c h o l a r s are only beginning to develop a c o n s i s t e n t r e s e a r c h methodology a p p r o p r i a t e to the medium. Films are cr e a t e d f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons, a l l of which come to be r e f l e c t e d i n the f i n i s h e d product. There are many d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with p r o v i d i n g adequate documentation of the context of p r o d u c t i o n , yet these f a c t o r s must not be ignored by the p o t e n t i a l r e s e a r c h e r . Even i f the p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s of f i l m can be over-(1) come, some degree of understanding of the medium must be obtained by the user i f h i s e f f o r t s are to be s u c c e s s f u l . The e x p l o i t a -t i o n of the f i l m m a t e r i a l cannot be undertaken s u c c e s s f u l l y using the same methodologies a p p l i e d to other a r c h i v a l sources, there-f o r e u n l o c k i n g i t s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l depend upon a new approach. As a form of communication, f i l m i s an enormously complex medium which depends upon the experience and knowledge of the audience. These elements, which determine the e f f e c t of the f i l m upon i t s audience, are d i f f i c u l t to i s o l a t e and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e d i f f i c u l t to measure. Indeed, the whole nature of f i l m , which i n v o l v e s e v e r y t h i n g from the d e t a i l s of i t s c r e a t i o n to i t s i n f l u e n c e upon f u t u r e p r o d u c t i o n s , must be acknowledged and understood i f f i l m i s to be u s e f u l as an a r c h i v a l source. The h i s t o r i a n may w e l l possess l i t t l e of t h i s e x p e r t i s e . His job i s to study the past i n order to r e c o n s t r u c t events so that they may be understood by contemporary s o c i e t y . By i t s very nature, however, f i l m i s r i d d l e d by b i a s e s and m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s the o r i g i n s of which are o f t e n not given s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n . Without a grasp of the nature of the medium and the methods by which i t communicates, the h i s t o r i a n i s too o f t e n r esigned to i d e n t i f y i n g the l i m i t a t i o n s of the medium and d i s m i s s i n g the evidence that may be d e r i v e d from i t . The r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of h i s t o r y , i n f a c t , depends upon a complex methodology which seeks evidence from a v a r i e t y of sources. Often, the value of t h i s evidence i s determined by i t s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n an a r c h i v a l framework. A r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s , as they have developed, guarantee t h i s value to the h i s t o r i a n who i s u l t i m a t e l y concerned with the accuracy of h i s evidence. F i l m , on (2) the other hand, l i e s o u t s i d e t h i s framework and, as a r e s u l t , i t i s r a r e l y regarded from a p o s i t i o n of a r c h i v a l a u t h o r i t y . Its evidence i s a l i e n a t e d from the h i s t o r i a n as f i l m i s not p r o t e c t e d by the same r u l e s which guarantee the a u t h o r i t y of more t r a d i -t i o n a l a r c h i v a l sources. A b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s t o r i c a l evidence w i l l however attempt to show that f i l m does have a l e g i t i m a t e p l a c e w i t h i n an a r c h i v a l framework. In a d i s c u s s i o n of documents generated by p u b l i c depart-ments of the B r i t i s h government i n the era of the F i r s t World War, S i r H i l a r y Jenkinson w r i t e s : These and t h e i r l i k e are c l e a r l y a r c h i v a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r that h i s t o r i c f a c t , the outbreak of war; and the q u a l i t y common to a l l of them i s that they are a c t u a l m a t e r i a l p a r t s of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and e x e c u t i v e t r a n s a c t i o n s connected with i t . The h i s t o r i a n , coming afterwards, may examine, i n t e r p r e t , analyze and arrange them f o r the purposes of h i s t r e a t i s e : they themselves s t a t e no o p i n i o n , voice no c o n j e c t u r e ; they are simply w r i t t e n memorials, a u t h e n t i c a t e d by the f a c t of t h e i r o f f i c i a l p r e s e r v a t i o n of events which a c t u a l l y occurred and of which they themselves formed a p a r t . l These ideas form the b a s i s of a r c h i v a l theory. The value of documents as a r c h i v a l sources depend upon these charac-t e r i s t i c s of c r e a t i o n and custody. A r c h i v a l documents, th e r e -f o r e , maintain a c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e innocence. T h e i r p o s i t i o n as " a c t u a l m a t e r i a l p a r t s of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and e x e c u t i v e t r a n s -a c t i o n s " and t h e i r custody by that a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o v i d e them with a s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r as sources f o r h i s t o r i a l study. How-ever they may r e v e a l or obscure the t r u t h , they are at l e a s t a r e f l e c t i o n of what the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i d . F i l m i s o f t e n regarded i n c o n t r a d i t i o n to these p r i n -c i p l e s . F i l m i s p r i m a r i l y recognized as p r e s e n t i n g very s p e c i f i c (3) opinions and b i a s e d c o n j e c t u r e s . But, more imp o r t a n t l y , f i l m i s a l s o an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y , or more a c c u r a t e l y , the r e s u l t of that a c t i v i t y . A comparison may be drawn here with a s p e c i f i c kind of a r c h i v a l document, the r e p o r t . A report produced by an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s almost always considered to be p a r t of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y and i s t h e r e f o r e p a r t of the record of that a c t i v i t y . The r e p o r t maintains i t s a r c h i v a l i n t e g r i t y when i t i s considered along with the whole a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d and not as an i s o l a t e d product. In c o n t r a s t , f i l m i s regarded i n i s o l a t i o n from the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y which cre a t e d i t , t h e r e f o r e j e o p a r d i z i n g i t s value as an a r c h i v a l document. The report gains from being p a r t of a l a r g e r body of documents r e f l e c t i n g the t r a n s c t i o n s of the c r e a t i n g body, whereas f i l m i s mostly t r e a t e d i n i s o l a t i o n from other documentation that would r e v e a l something of i t s p r o d u c t i o n and the purposes f o r which i t was c r e a t e d . It i s true to say, however, that as more h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r s look to f i l m f o r i t s evidence, they are i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of i t s p o t e n t i a l value i f only t h i s documentation were a v a i l a b l e . A l s o important i n Jenkinson's d e f i n i t i o n i s the n o t i o n of continuous custody. Jenkinson s t r e s s e s that " a r c h i v e q u a l i t y i s dependant upon the p o s s i b i l i t y of proving an unblemished l i n e of r e s p o n s i b l e c u s t o d i a n s . " 3 F i l m i s , i n f a c t , c r e a t e d to be d i s t r i b u t e d , o f t e n t r a v e l l i n g many miles and being housed by many custodians before coming to i t s f i n a l r e s t i n g p l a c e . These custodians o f t e n do not h e s i t a t e to e d i t the r e c o r d , e s p e c i a l l y when f i l m s cross i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundaries. I d e a l l y , one would hope that the f i l m a r c h i v e s would be o b t a i n i n g f i l m s i n the form ( 4 ) that they are r e l e a s e d and as t h e i r c r e a t o r s had intended them to be shown. The attendant documentation, which again i d e a l l y would be acquired at the time the f i l m i s accessioned by the r e p o s i -t o r y , provides the framework f o r e x p l a i n i n g the p r o d u c t i o n of that o r i g i n a l r e l e a s e . The concern over the multitude of custo-dians i s t h e r e f o r e e l i m i n a t e d . Other copies of the f i l m , i n c l u d -ing those e d i t e d by subsequent custodians w i l l a l s o be of value, however, as those e d i t o r i a l d e c i s i o n s speak of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l values and i n t e r e s t s . For Jenkinson, the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r of a r c h i v e s i s d e f i n e d by what he c a l l e d i m p a r t i a l i t y and a u t h e n t i c i t y . The i m p a r t i a l i t y of an a r c h i v a l document depends upon the f a c t that i t was c r e a t e d to serve an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or executive f u n c t i o n and not to serve p o s t e r i t y . Indeed, as he put i t : The only safe p r e d i c t i o n , i n f a c t , concerning the r e s e a r c h ends which A r c h i v e s may be made to serve i s that ... these w i l l not be the purposes which were contemplated by the people by whom the a r c h i v e s were drawn up and preserved.4 T h i s can, of course, be s a i d to be true of f i l m as w e l l . Films may be created f o r any number of reasons, the l e a s t of which i s l i k e l y to be any a r c h i v a l concern. Films are very much created f o r the present and r e f l e c t that present i n a unique way. It i s c e r t a i n l y t r u e , however, that w r i t t e n documents are not so com-p l e t e l y h i s t o r i c a l l y unconscious. If a h i s t o r i c a l consciousness i n t r u d e s i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or executive o f f i c e to e n t i c e o f f i c e h o l d e rs to w r i t e with an eye on p o s t e r i t y or to r e f l e c t a dominant i d e o l o g y , the h i s t o r i a n of the f u t u r e w i l l have to det e c t the ambiance i n which the records were created and analyze i t to d i s c o v e r the t r u t h . When f i l m i s used as the primary (5) record t h i s problem i s heightened, f o r f i l m o f t e n d e l i b e r a t e l y i n f l u e n c e s the viewer to see r e a l i t y i n a p a r t i c u l a r way. Once again, an understanding of the purposes of c r e a t i o n i s a b s o l u t e l y v i t a l . Under the r i g h t c o n d i t i o n s , f i l m w i l l occupy a l e g i t i -mate place w i t h i n the a r c h i v a l framework. But j u s t as those who make use of other a r c h i v a l sources f a i l to explore' the informa-t i o n contained w i t h i n the f i l m r e c o r d , so too do the i n s t i t u t i o n s which c o l l e c t f i l m f a i l to a f f o r d i t proper a r c h i v a l c o n s i d e r a -t i o n . In f a c t , f i l m c o l l e c t i o n s do not e x i s t f o r a r c h i v a l reasons, although they are o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as f i l m a r c h i v e s . F i l m i s a d i f f e r e n t kind of record whose shortcomings have o f t e n been overemphasized and value overlooked. In t h i s regard, Penelope Houston of the B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e has i d e n t i f i e d the l i m i t a t i o n s of f i l m as a source of h i s t o r i c a l evidence i n t h i s way: Cameramen have provided us with a kind of shorthand v i s u a l imagery f o r t h i s century; a B r i t i s h p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s means a crowd i n the r a i n o u t s i d e Number Ten; the dep r e s s i o n means cloth-capped men on s t r e e t c o r n e r s ; the general s t r i k e a shot of i d l e machinery or empty r a i l w a y l i n e s ; the B a t t l e of B r i t a i n t h a t shot from F i r e s Were S t a r t e d or f i r e hoses snaking away down a London s t r e e t a f t e r a r a i d . But look behind the shots and the f i l m image can't help you. What p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s ? How many men out of work? Which a i r r a i d and which s t r e e t ? ^ Indeed, f i l m cannot answer the same questions that are asked of the t r a d i t i o n a l r e c o r d ; r a t h e r i t s value l i e s i n i t s a b i l i t y to provide a d i f f e r e n t kind of i n s i g h t i n t o the past. As an i n t e g -r a l p art of twen t i e t h century l i f e , f i l m i s both an e x p r e s s i o n of s o c i e t y ' s c u l t u r a l values and an i n f l u e n c e on s o c i e t y ' s percep-t i o n s . The c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n using f i l m i s to ensure that r e s e a r c h e r s have a v a i l a b l e the i n f o r m a t i o n which would provide a ( 6 ) f u l l understanding of the context of c r e a t i o n and the u l t i m a t e i n f l u e n c e of the medium. Despite i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s , as source m a t e r i a l f o r h i s t o -r i c a l s t u d i e s , f i l m has remained o u t s i d e the t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i v a l sphere. C l e a r l y , some degree of understanding of the nature of f i l m and the nature of the evidence i t o f f e r s i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary i f the medium i s ever to be recognized by h i s t o r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s as a l e g i t i m a t e source of h i s t o r i c a l evidence and housed i n t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i v e s which observe a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s . In order to a p p r e c i a t e what i s i n v o l v e d i n b r i n g i n g f i l m i n t o i t s a r c h i v a l f o l d , t h i s study w i l l f i r s t e xplore the nature of f i l m i n the next chapter, and then look at the b i r t h and development of f i l m c o l l e c t i o n s beginning i n the e a r l y years of t h i s century. F i l m c o l l e c t i o n s as they e x i s t today have been i n f l u e n c e d by a s p e c i f i c framework of i d e a s . In order to understand these ideas, Chapters III and IV w i l l examine the kinds of i n s t i t u t i o n s that have been e s t a b l i s h e d to c o l l e c t and preserve f i l m f o r study. Knowing the background of e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , we can then t u r n to an examination of f i l m i n an a r c h i v a l context. In c o n c l u s i o n , Chapter VI w i l l d i s c u s s an i d e a l f o r f i l m a r c h i v e s with a l l the elements that would f a c i l i t a t e a b e t t e r and more complete understanding of the medium and accommodate a d i f f e r e n t user. I s o l a t e d examples of i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t are working towards t h i s end w i l l be c i t e d as evidence of the neces-s i t y of a p p l y i n g an a r c h i v a l methodology to the treatment of f i l m . (7) CHAPTER I I : FILM AS HISTORICAL EVIDENCE Fil m i s a most complicated instrument of communication which r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n degree of i n s i g h t i f i t i s to be used as a source f o r h i s t o r i c a l study. A p o t e n t i a l r e s e a r c h e r must f i r s t have a sound grasp of the nature of f i l m , i n c l u d i n g the types of f i l m and the v a r i e t y of ways they communicate. Beyond t h i s know-ledge, he must be aware of the context i n which f i l m was c r e a t e d , by whom i t was c r e a t e d , and f o r what purposes. In t h i s chapter, we w i l l d i s c u s s the nature of f i l m and the context of i t s c r e a -t i o n i n order to show how these f a c t o r s are important to i t s understanding. It i s necessary to begin by d i s c u s s i n g the v a r i o u s kinds of f i l m . Each of these groups represents a d i f f e r e n t approach and methodology and a l l o f f e r unique forms of evidence. There are f i v e main types of f i l m . F a c t u a l m a t e r i a l d e p i c t s f a c t s , persons, events or a c t i v i t i e s . It i s the m a t e r i a l from which newsreels and documentaries are made, and i s sometimes c a l l e d raw footage. F a c t u a l - e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l i s footage which has been e d i t e d i n t o newsreels or documentaries. Here, m a t e r i a l i s used " p r i n c i p a l l y f o r the purposes of e x p o s i t i o n and f o l l o w s a pre-determined p l a n of composition."* Whereas what has a c t u a l l y been photographed i s important with regard to f a c t u a l f i l m , i t i s the determined s c e n a r i o or e x p o s i t i o n which i s important i n the case of f a c t u a l e x p o s i t i o n . A r e c r e a t i o n i s a f i c t i o n a l account of a r e a l event. An a r t - c r a f t f i l m i s one which b a s i c a l l y i l l u s -t r a t e s advances, t e c h n o l o g i c a l and otherwise, i n the motion p i c t u r e i n d u s t r y . The s c i e n c e f i c t i o n f i l m , which o f t e n makes (8) extensive use of the l a t e s t s p e c i a l e f f e c t s , i s considered to be w i t h i n t h i s genre. And f i n a l l y , h i s t o r i c f i l m s are "those which, without regard to other q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , have played important r o l e s i n i n f l u e n c i n g ... thought or a c t i o n and have thus them-selve s become h i s t o r i c i n the same sense that the novel Uncle 2 Tom's Cabin has become h i s t o r i c . " Although some types of f i l m would be of g r e a t e r value to the h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r than o t h e r s , they a l l r e f l e c t the time and place of t h e i r c r e a t i o n and present a kind of evidence that cannot be found elsewhere. Despite t h i s p o t e n t i a l , however, few r e s e a r c h e r s have been able to e x p l o i t f i l m f u l l y . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , f i l m has been used by h i s t o r i a n s as an i l l u s t r a t i v e or teaching d e v i c e , and not as a r e s e a r c h source. As John Kuiper puts i t , d e s p i t e the " v i s i o n a r y statements about the unique h i s t o r i a l value of motion p i c t u r e s , they are not used by the m a j o r i t y of contemporary h i s t o r i a n s . " It i s worth p o i n t i n g out that these v i s i o n a r y statements came not from the academic community but from the e a r l y movers i n the f i l m i n d u s t r y who were best aware of i t s s p e c i a l v a l u e s . The problems to be overcome i f the motion p i c t u r e i s to become a record commonly cons u l t e d by h i s t o r i a n s are p e r p l e x i n g . Not the l e a s t of these problems i s the inherent d i s t r u s t of the medium by the r e s e a r c h community. A r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e view i s v o i c e d by h i s t o r i a n s J.A.S. G r e n v i l l e and N. Pronay: F i l m c o m p i l a t i o n s and documentaries are judged by h i s t o -r i a n s on the c r i t e r i o n of accuracy and are f r e q u e n t l y found wanting; t h i s i n t u r n has l e d to a r e j e c t i o n of f i l m m a t e r i a l as a whole which i s r a t h e r l i k e condemning the p r i n t i n g press because of the many books p u b l i s h e d which p e r v e r t the t r u t h . 4 Just as f i l m i s produced with a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t of view, so too ( 9 ) i s w r i t t e n documentation cr e a t e d with an inherent b i a s . H i s t o -r i a n s have a well-developed methodology to cope with a l l the shortcomings of the w r i t t e n r e c o r d , yet they r a r e l y acknowledge that the d i s t o r t i o n s of f i l m are comparable.^ In f a c t , because the r u l e s which govern the c o l l e c t i o n and maintenance of w r i t t e n records have not been a p p l i e d to the c o l l e c t i o n of f i l m , the h i s t o r i a n has l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y to d i s c o v e r and understand those d i s t o r t i o n s . The process of f i l m p r o d u c t i o n serves to heighten t h i s m i s t r u s t . F i l m i s expensive to produce and r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n r e l i a b l e patronage. The f i l m i n d u s t r y t h e r e f o r e must be s e n s i -t i v e to i t s mass audience and r e f l e c t i t s v a l u e s . F i l m may be considered as a document simultaneously r e f l e c t i n g both the c r e a t o r and the audience.^ The experience of viewing a f i l m i s not p a s s i v e but a c t i v e . T e c h n i c a l l y , f i l m i s a mere i l l u s i o n produced by l i g h t . The viewer i s o b l i g e d to p a r t i c i p a t e by c a l l i n g on previous experience and e x i s t i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of every-7 t h i n g from temporal scenes to c o n t r o v e r s i a l s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . What we may or may not b r i n g to a f i l m w i l l judge i t s success. The filmmaker does, however, maintain an enormous amount of c o n t r o l over h i s audience, which can be i n f l u e n c e d i n extremely s u b t l e but powerful ways. By manipulating the d i s t a n c e of the a c t i o n , the time of the a c t i o n or by p r o v i d i n g d i s t r a c t i o n s from the main a c t i o n , j u s t to mention a few t a c t i c s , a s p e c i f i c e f f e c t can be achieved. It i s important to remember that the audience 8 can never see more than i s allowed by the filmmaker. On f i l m , a u n i c o r n may be as r e a l as a horse. Film i s merely an i l l u s i o n of r e a l i t y , not the r e a l i t y i t e l f . As a l l i s i l l u s i o n , a l l i s (10) r e a l . And, f i n a l l y , the whole f i l m experience takes p l a c e w i t h i n a very c o n t r o l l e d p h y s i c a l space which helps to determine the o v e r a l l e f f e c t . The viewer's a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d and mani-pu l a t e d by what he sees on the screen. P h y s i c a l l y , the l i g h t and sound can achieve t h i s e a s i l y ; g i v e the viewer a s t o r y , and some-t h i n g to t h i n k about, and the hold i s even s t r o n g e r . * ^ Given these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , f i l m i s o f t e n regarded as l i t t l e more than a manipulative and powerful means of d i s t o r t i n g the t r u t h . It i s these very c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , though, which make f i l m t r u l y i n t e -r e s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l to the h i s t o r i a n . F i l m a l s o presents the user with some b a s i c p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s which must be considered i n a d i s c u s s i o n of the elements of f i l m as a h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d . L i k e other records, f i l m i s very much an ephemeral or t r a n s i t o r y medium. It demands proper handling under c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s . P r i o r to 1950, f i l m s were produced on a n i t r a t e based stock which i s h i g h l y inflammable and expensive to convert to a more s a t i s f a c t o r y mate-r i a l . U n l i k e other records, f i l m r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l equipment and e x p e r t i s e even to be viewed and t h i s a l s o presents problems to the p r o s p e c t i v e user. These problems are indeed of some conse-quence. As M a r t i n Jackson p o i n t s out, i n order to view a f i l m , the s c h o l a r must admit an i n t e r m e d i a r y between him and h i s source, which, he says, i s an untenable arrangement, f o r the very good reason that the p r o j e c t i o n i s t or t e c h n i c i a n comes between the s c h o l a r and h i s source m a t e r i a l . Few h i s t o r i a n s would be happy with a manuscript l i b r a r y that employed s t a f f to t u r n the pages of books f o r the r e s e a r c h e r , and so with f i l m a r c h i v e s , the s e r v i c e of a t e c h n i c i a n to " t u r n the pages" i s not a s e r v i c e at a l l but an impediment to research.11 (11) Such l i m i t a t i o n s can e a s i l y discourage a l l but those who f i r m l y b e l i e v e the study of f i l m to be worth pursuing. Another problematic c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the qu e s t i o n of a u t h e n t i c i t y . The h i s t o r i a n regards other a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l as a u t h e n t i c because of the circumstances of i t s c r e a t i o n , i t s main-tenance by the c r e a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , or l e g i t i m a t e successor, and by the continuous custody of that m a t e r i a l by that o r g a n i z a -t i o n . The a u t h e n t i c i t y of f i l m however, i s determined by other c r i t e r i a , u s u a l l y based on documenting the d e t a i l s of i t s produc-t i o n i n c l u d i n g p r o d u c t i o n c r e d i t s and dates. This i s not always p o s s i b l e as there i s a whole t r a d i t i o n w i t h i n the filmmaking i n d u s t r y which allows f o r , and indeed encourages, the use of stock shots out of context with the r e s u l t that things are o f t e n portrayed as something they are not. This i s unacceptable to the f a c t - f i n d i n g h i s t o r i a n . F i l m s , as documents, tend to i n v i t e m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Unless a shot i s o b v i o u s l y f a l s e , the audience i s f o r c e d to take i t at face value. C r e a t i n g an impression of r e a l i t y through a composite of d i f f e r e n t shots i n time or place i s a common prac-12 t i c e . Some of t h i s m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s a good deal more su b t l e than we would l i k e to b e l i e v e . During the making of a BBC s e r i e s on the Second World War, d i r e c t o r s went to a good deal of e f f o r t to l o c a t e and use footage where the enemy was seen as moving from r i g h t to l e f t across the screen, while the a l l i e s were always moving l e f t to r i g h t i n order to crea t e the e f f e c t of an enemy f o r e v e r r e t r e a t i n g , and a l l i e d armies f o r e v e r advancing. In some cases, the wording on the tanks was blacked out on the f i l m so that the audience would not be aware that the f i l m was (12) being run i n reverse to achieve the c o r r e c t d i r e c t i o n a l move-ment . A l s o important i n the p r o d u c t i o n of c o m p i l a t i o n or docu-mentary f i l m s , which use raw footage as t h e i r primary source, i s the need to achieve some degree of c o n t i n u i t y i n the f i n i s h e d product. Again, f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l w i l l be manipulated i n the i n t e r e s t of a s s u r i n g c o n t i n u i t y and dramatic e f f e c t . F i l m must have order and sequence, c r e a t e d by the s e l e c t i o n of s p e c i f i c m a t e r i a l and the e d i t i n g of that m a t e r i a l i n t o a new s y n t h e s i s . Indeed, the e d i t i n g process can produce an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t product, the whole not being equal to the sum of the p a r t s . In f a c t : The most s u b t l e form of cinem a t i c f a l s e h o o d i s the unspoken one; the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of two scenes taken at d i f f e r e n t times so that they appear part of the same a c t i o n , or the a c c i d e n t a l or d e l i b e r a t e omission of c e r t a i n key scenes.15 In making such a c c u s a t i o n s , however, we must not overlook the f a c t that the w r i t t e n record a l s o leaves out i n f o r m a t i o n which may a l t e r the o v e r a l l p e r c e p t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n . In e i t h e r case, the r e s e a r c h e r must judge what the record t e l l s him by judging the f u l l context i n which the record was c r e a t e d . Only then can he get at the t r u t h . D espite s i m i l a r i t i e s between the w r i t t e n and f i l m r e c o r d , the study of f i l m presents s p e c i a l problems of i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n f o r the h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h . Even f a c t u a l f i l m does not e x i s t to pr o v i d e evidence of r e a l i t y . Whenever anything i s photographed, i t immediately takes on c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which may have o r i g i n a l l y been of only s l i g h t s i g n i f i c a n c e to the filmmaker. A f i l m i s someone's p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y , yet the (13) audience which sees i t , with i t s own p e r c e p t i o n s , may i n t e r p r e t i t q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y . F i l m only captures an impression of some-thing that once happened and makes no attempt to f u l l y e x p l a i n the circumstances of that event which may be enormously compli-cated and r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e knowledge to f u l l y understand. Instead, the f i l m i l l u s t r a t e s a s e l e c t i v e approach to that event. Only a pa r t of that event w i l l be reproduced by the filmmaker i n h i s f i l m , c a p t u r i n g something of the mood or atmosphere which i s so d i f f i c u l t to a r t i c u l a t e v e r b a l l y but so c l e a r l y achieved v i s u -a l l y . If we accept that t h i s c a p t u r i n g of nuance or mood i s , i n f a c t , why f i l m i s c r e a t e d , then the question of the accuracy of footage becomes l e s s important. Penelope Houston of the B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e has a c c u r a t e l y assessed the use of war footage m a t e r i a l : One i s not charging the filmmakers with with any d u p l i -c i t y . T h e i r job was to communicate the mood of war, and to that end they were e n t i t l e d to employ whatever f i l m they could f i n d . They d i d n ' t guarantee the p r e c i s e accuracy or the provenance of every shot, and probably couldn't do so i n any case. If anything, i t i s the f i l m i t s e l f t h a t betrays them, as i t does when f o r an instance i n a b a t t l e sequence they s l i p i n t o the trap of using what looks l i k e f i c t i o n footage, when again one r e a l i z e s t h a t the camera has got i t s e l f i n t o a p o s i t i o n where no news r e p o r t e r would be.16 Un f o r t u n a t e l y , only those i n v o l v e d i n the f i l m i n d u s t r y , who best understand the nature of the media, r e a l l y understand t h i s func-t i o n of f i l m . A f i l m w i l l t h e r e f o r e always be accurate i n s o f a r as i t i s an accurate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the u n d e r l y i n g m o t i v a t i o n of i t s c r e a t i o n . Because of t h i s , f i l m i s never n e u t r a l . It w i l l never achieve that sought a f t e r value which c h a r a c t e r i z e s t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l - i m p a r t i a l i t y . The w r i t t e n r e c o r d has an (14) i m p a r t i a l i t y f i l m can never achieve. A p o l i t i c a l speech, recorded only i n p r i n t , and long s i n c e separated from i t s source, the speaker, can be analyzed at l e n g t h . But i f the speaker i s seen making that same speech, then suddenly other elements become 17 e q u a l l y , i f not more, important. As Penelope Houston puts i t : Why i s f i l m so r a r e l y completely n e u t r a l , why i s the bearded p o l i t i c i a n s i n i s t e r , the empty landscape r e a s s u r i n g ? It i s a matter of the d i r e c t i o n of the movement and p e r s p e c t i v e , the " p r o p o r t i o n of v i s i b l e sky," the way the l i g h t f a l l s : a reminder that even record f i l m i s , f i r s t and l a s t , f ilm.18 T h i s i s , i n f a c t , the process by which f i l m communicates. A b a t t l e scene i s not a record of the number of tanks or personnel i n v o l v e d , or even of the o r i g i n s and course of the b a t t l e , but r a t h e r i t i s only a part of the r e a l i t y of that event. The f i l m may r e v e a l the hopelessness of the s i t u a t i o n because of t e r r a i n or the inadequacy of equipment o p e r a t i n g under s p e c i f i c c o n d i -t i o n s to an extent that the w r i t t e n record could never achieve. It i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s k i nd of i n f o r m a t i o n that f i l m may p r o v i d e . The questions that one may ask of f i l m are d i f f e r e n t from those asked of the t r a d i t i o n a l r e c o r d because the nature of the evidence r e v e a l e d i n f i l m i s i n h e r e n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The p o t e n t i a l of f i l m was c e r t a i n l y recognized e a r l y i n the development of the i n d u s t r y . The problems and rewards of f i l m r e s e a r c h have yet to be d e f i n e d and a r e s e a r c h methodology 19 awaits f o r m a t i o n . In 1895, W.K.L. Dickson, who was very much in v o l v e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n and p e r f e c t i o n of the Edison machine, had high hopes f o r the record value of f i l m . As he argued: The advantages to students and h i s t o r i a n s w i l l be immea-su r a b l e . Instead of dry and misl e a d i n g accounts, t i n g e d with the exaggerations of the c h r o n i c l e r s ' minds, our ar c h i v e s w i l l be enriched by v i t a l i z e d p i c t u r e s of great (15) n a t i o n a l scenes, i n s t i n c t with a l l the glowing persona-l i t i e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e d them. What i s the f u t u r e of the kinetograph? Ask r a t h e r , from what c o n c e i v a b l e phase of the f u t u r e i t can be debarred. In the promotion of business i n t e r e s t s , i n the advance-ment of s c i e n c e , i n the r e v e l a t i o n of unguessed worlds, i n i t s e d u c a t i o n a l and r e - c r e a t i v e powers, and i n i t s a b i l i t y to immortalize out f l e e t i n g but beloved a s s o c i -a t i o n s , the kinetograph stands foremost among the c r e a -t i o n s of modern i n v e n t i v e genius.20 These are indeed o p t i m i s t i c words, yet those who are c l o s e s t to the i n d u s t r y , those who best understand i t , continue to make such clai m s . In 1948, John Bradley, the motion p i c t u r e c o n s u l t a n t f o r the L i b r a r y of Congress, echoed Dickson's judgment. Again i n motion p i c t u r e s we f i n d a new and f l e x i b l e instrument f o r r e c o r d i n g the h i s t o r y of people, t h i n g s , and events so that they a t t a i n a r e a l i s m never a t t a i n e d b e f o r e . The a n c i e n t s documented t h e i r h i s t o r y on t a b l e t s of stone, others i n monuments, p a i n t i n g s and f o l k t a l e s , and more r e c e n t l y the p r i n t i n g press has served t h i s b a s i c urge to be remembered e i t h e r as i n d i -v i d u a l s or n a t i o n s . Now we record i n motion and sound on film.21 Indeed, there i s nothing m y s t i c a l about f i l m as a document. It r e f l e c t s the s t a t e of our technology j u s t as c l a y t a b l e t s r e f l e c -ted ancient technology. Motion p i c t u r e s were o r i g i n a l l y developed to serve a s c i e n t i f i c need. In 1895, a French i n v e n t o r August Lumiere, maintained that f i l m was v a l u a b l e only as an a i d to s c i e n c e ; suggestions that i t be used f o r other purposes were ignored and 2 2 f i l m was thought to have "no economic s i g n i f i c a n c e . " The most famous e a r l y use of the motion p i c t u r e by s c i e n c e was the Edward James Muggeridge experiment of the mid-1800s. To t r y to prove that a l l four legs of a horse l e f t the ground while g a l l o p -i n g , Muggeridge mounted twenty-four cameras i n a row which took shots of a horse g a l l o p i n g by. The s t i l l photographs were placed (16) on a d i s c and r o t a t e d q u i c k l y , the i n d i v i d u a l shots coming i n t o view f o r only f r a c t i o n s of a second, thus g i v i n g the i l l u s i o n of 23 motion. Although the technology needed to be r e f i n e d , the moving image made new s c i e n t i f i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e a l i t y . It was not u n t i l f i l m technology as we know i t came i n t o being, with the s u c c e s s f u l p r o c e s s i n g of g e l a t i n emulsion by George Eastman i n 1880, the development of t r a n s p a r e n t , f l e x i b l e footage by Hannibal Goodwin i n 1887, and f i n a l l y the development and p e r f e c -t i o n of viewing equipment by Edison, that the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the medium could be f u l l y e x p l o i t e d . ^ By the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century, the s c i e n t i f i c purpose had been overtaken by entertainment. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t , although governments had long been using s t i l l photography, i t was not u n t i l the development of powered f l i g h t t h a t they e x t e n s i v e l y u t i l i z e d the p o t e n t i a l of f i l m , f o r "only the motion 2 5 p i c t u r e could do j u s t i c e to an a i r p l a n e i n f l i g h t . " The events of the F i r s t World War served to f u r t h e r t h i s i n t e r e s t i n the p o t e n t i a l of f i l m as a documentary means of communication. For the h i s t o r i a n , f i l m c ould be a v a l u a b l e r e s e a r c h t o o l . It presents a v i v i d n e s s that can bridge time, engender excitement, and can confirm a c t i o n s which from w r i t t e n evidence alone, could never s t i m u l a t e the imagination of l a t e r genera-t i o n s . Would we have b e l i e v e d the true dimensions of the Nazi holocaust i f no cameras had recorded i t ? F i l m can r e v e a l a t t i -tudes by showing how people r e a c t e d to events. It can, f o r example, p o w e r f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e the aging of a p u b l i c f i g u r e , where w r i t t e n documents f a l l s h o r t . It may pro v i d e a unique measure of the performance or e f f e c t i v e n e s s of machinery or i n d i -(17) v i d u a l s , as f o r example by c a p t u r i n g the essence of the f a i l u r e of a m i l i t a r y campaign where the d e s e r t environment overcame tanks. T h i s i s the nature of the evidence that f i l m can o f f e r the h i s t o r i a n . C l e a r l y , these values are q u i t e d i s t i n c t from those o f f e r e d by the t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l sources. Even f i c t i o n a l f i l m has a p l a c e i n h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h . S i r A rthur E l t o n Writes, that f i c t i o n f i l m s ... are source m a t e r i a l f o r h i s t o r y . For the f i c t i o n f i l m g i v e s a c l u e to the p o i n t of view of i t s time, to the popular a t t i t u d e towards l i f e . F i c t i o n f i l m s are today's f o l k l o r e , and w i l l be u s e f u l to the h i s t o r i a n , or at l e a s t to the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , as the b a l l a d and the f a i r y t a l e . 2 7 Perhaps the best way to i l l u s t r a t e the value of f i l m to h i s t o r y and the h i s t o r i a n i s to compare our understanding of the events of the t w e n t i e t h century to those of e a r l i e r times. Our under-standing of the l i f e and times of H i t l e r are indeed d i f f e r e n t from the era of Napoleon, and f i l m has played a p a r t i n t h i s 2 8 process. To ignore f i l m because of the shortcomings i t presents i s to misunderstand i t s enormous p o t e n t i a l . The making of a f i l m , whether i t be f i c t i o n or n o n - f i c -t i o n , i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a r t , but one that i s h i g h l y dependent upon technology. As an a r t , the f i l m i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the a r t i s t . S c h o l a r s of poetry study the v a r i o u s papers l e f t behind by poets, as the i n f o r m a t i o n they c o n t a i n could h o p e f u l l y a i d i n 29 the a p p r e c i a t i o n of that a r t i s t ' s work. F i l m , however, must be viewed as a c o r p o r a t e a r t , i n v o l v i n g a number of people to b r i n g the product to completion. The c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the i n d i -v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s must be acknowledged i f the f i l m i s to be understood by a p o t e n t i a l r e s e a r c h e r . F i l m i s a l s o a composite (18) e c c l e c t i c a r t which borrows from the other graphic a r t s , drama, l i t e r a t u r e , music, and dance, a l l of which have brought something to the c r e a t i o n of f i l m . Furthermore, filmmaking i s a business and u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s an enormous investment. If p r o f i t i s the motive, as i t o f t e n i s , the f i l m must be assured a l a r g e audience to make f u r t h e r p r o d u c t i o n p o s s i b l e . And f i n a l l y , f i l m i s an a r t which imposes c o n s i d e r a b l e " t e c h n i c a l b r i c - a - b r a c between the a r t i s t and h i s a u d i e n c e . " 3 ^ To understand f i l m i s a l s o to understand i t s technology. . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of a l l of these f a c t o r s must be d e f i n e d and documented i f the p o t e n t i a l of f i l m as a h i s t o r i c a l source i s to be r e a l i z e d . F i l m may be viewed by the h i s t o r i a n e i t h e r as a l i m i t e d v i s u a l r ecord of r e a l i t y , or a r e v e l a t i o n of o p i n i o n and a t t i t u d e s . As a form of v i s u a l communication, i t cannot e a s i l y r e v e a l p o l i t i c a l or i d e o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n , but i t can r e v e a l "the p h y s i c a l e x i s t e n c e of persons and p e r i o d s i n a manner unmatched 31 by any other source." As a r e f l e c t i o n of o p i n i o n , the r o l e of f i l m as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n cannot be ignored. In f a c t , here the t r a d i t i o n a l concern f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the a u t h e n t i c i t y or c r e d i t s i s unimportant. As M a r t i n Jackson has r e c o g n i z e d , This view of f i l m sources d i s r e g a r d s the questions of a u t h e n t i c i t y or p r e c i s e d a t i n g , f o r i t i s immaterial i f the the movie audience of 1938 saw r e a l or faked p i c t u r e s of H i t l e r ; what mattered was that the audience saw c e r t a i n kinds of p i c t u r e s , and i n a s e l e c t e d order, that the audience was, i n s h o r t , i n f l u e n c e d by film.32 Regardless of the p a r t i c u l a r use to which f i l m may be put, i t s a b i l i t y to capture v i s u a l d e t a i l o f t e n goes beyond i t s o r i g i n a l aims. The e a r l y f i l m s of the French filmmaker, Lumiere, f o r example, although o r i g i n a l l y intended only to e x p l o i t the a r t , (19) l e f t behind a unique record of the costumes and a t t i t u d e s of the French p r o v i n c i a l b o u r g e o i s i e at the end of the n i n e t e e n t h centu-r y . 3 3 Not u n l i k e other h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s , f i l m o f t e n captures v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i t had not o r i g i n a l l y intended to document. With regard to the study of contemporary h i s t o r y , a r e c o g n i t i o n should be made of the nature of the records of t h i s century. The records we c r e a t e today are, of course, d i f f e r e n t from those of the past. H i s t o r i a n s are accustomed to incomplete records which have s u f f e r e d from the e f f e c t s of time, and the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of h i s t o r y o f t e n i n v o l v e s a c a r e f u l s y n t h e s i s of a v a i l a b l e evidence. Today, the lens and the microphone record h i s t o r y i n a new way, one that may help to r e c r e a t e a more com-p l e t e p i c t u r e . But j u s t as with any other h i s t o r i c a l document, f i l m must be judged c r i t i c a l l y w i t h i n i t s own context. In f a c t , f i l m deserves the kind of methodical and c r i t i c a l approach that h i s t o r i a n s b r i n g to the examination of other sources, many of which r e q u i r e s i m i l a r knowledge and understanding. In one regard, f i l m s are l i k e newspapers i n the way they i n f l u e n c e p u b l i c o p i n i o n . Newspapers are a l s o recognized as having very s p e c i f i c b i a s e s , but t h i s has not discouraged the h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r from using them as a documentary source. B r i t i s h h i s t o r i a n , J.A.S. G r e n v i l l e sees f i l m i n t h i s c ontext: H i s t o r i a n s have paid a good deal of a t t e n t i o n to the r o l e of newspapers i n i n f l u e n c i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n . What about the r o l e of f i l m s ? For instance i n the l a t e t h i r t i e s there i s a great emphasis i n the newsreels of the h o r r o r s of a e r i a l bombardment, combined with d i s p l a y s of B r i t i s h might i n the a i r and on the seas. The newsreels might have confirmed p u b l i c o p i n i o n that war was to be avoided at a l l c o s t s , that B r i t a i n was safe and could argue from a p o s i t i o n of s t r e n g t h . 3 4 H i s t o r i a n s have been able to make such extensive use of newspaper ( 2 0 ) m a t e r i a l because of t h e i r command of t h i s medium. They are a l l aware of the d i s t o r t i o n s and p e c u l i a r i t i e s the newspaper presents and yet these problems have been overcome by a sound r e s e a r c h methodology designed with p a r t i c u l a r needs i n mind. One a r c h i v i s t , John Kuiper, argues that f i l m should be even more a t t r a c t i v e to the h i s t o r i a n because of q u a l i t i e s which are so much l i k e h i s t o r y i t s e l f : F i l m i s d e c e p t i v e l y l i k e h i s t o r y because i t i s based on our awareness of time. A f i l m document looks l i k e time recorded, i t has a "b e f o r e " and " a f t e r " ; i n a word, i t has " c o n t i n u i t y " , which i s e x a c t l y the q u a l i t y h i s t o -r i a n s t e l l us i s h i s t o r y . 3 5 Kuiper continues by ma i n t a i n i n g that h i s t o r i a n s ' p r e o c c u p a t i o n with the d i s t o r t i o n s of f i l m have delayed the development of a res e a r c h methodology that might cope with these shortcomings, j u s t as other c r i t i c a l methods have developed to cope with incon-s i s t e n c i e s i n the w r i t t e n r e c o r d . 3 ^ The evidence i s there but a means to e x p l o i t has not been e s t a b l i s h e d , p a r t l y because of a lack of awareness of the p o t e n t i a l value of f i l m by i t s c r e a t o r s . By i t s e l f , f i l m o f f e r s l i t t l e f o r i t does not e x i s t i n a vacuum and must be considered w i t h i n the l a r g e r realm of the context of i t s c r e a t i o n . Dorothy Arbaugh of the Museum of Modern Art has captured the essence of the matter. As she puts i t : A p i c t o r a l r e c o r d of events must be viewed i n the l i g h t of c e r t a i n f a c t s attendant to i t s making. In order that the o f f i c i a l or h i s t o r i a n of the f u t u r e know the t r u t h of scenes p r o j e c t e d on the screen, he should as f a r as p o s s i b l e (determine?) who took the p i c t u r e s , under what c o n d i t i o n s they were taken, f o r what purposes and on what occasions and dates. When they are thus documen-ted, motion p i c t u r e s w i l l have a r c h i v a l value f o r h i s t o -r i c a l purposes.37 It i s not enough to t r e a t f i l m s as i s o l a t e d and s e l f - c o n t a i n e d u n i t s and d i s r e g a r d t h e i r o r i g i n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , when a f i l m i s (21) accessioned by a r e p o s i t o r y , the attendant documentation i s r a r e l y i n c l u d e d . The reasons f o r t h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , but, i f a true a r c h i v e s of f i l m i s to be c r e a t e d , t h i s i s s u e must be r e s o l v e d . U n t i l f i l m can be set i n i t s context, i t s uses w i l l be s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d . Those who c r e a t e , a d m i n i s t e r , and use f i l m must be made aware that the value of f i l m s as documents f o r h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h w i l l be impaired so long as j u s t the f i l m s themselves without the attendant documentation are preserved. The f i l m i n d u s t r y e s p e c i a l l y must be made aware of the s p e c i a l needs of the h i s t o r i c a l community. One i n s i d e r i n the i n d u s t r y p o i n t s out that t h i s i s no easy task: Filmmakers, u n l i k e workers i n other a r t s , have never been encouraged to take t h e i r a r t very s e r i o u s l y . Every year, every day, v a l u a b l e papers, drawings, photographs and f i l m s are destroyed by a r t i s t s and t e c h n i c i a n s i n the motion p i c t u r e i n d u s t r y because they do not r e a l i z e t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l , a r t i s t i c or pedagogic value.38 The nature of the evidence i s very complicated and i t w i l l s u r e l y be many years before f i l m reaches the p o s i t i o n among h i s t o r i c a l sources that i t deserves. But generations of the f u t u r e w i l l undoubtedly have an awareness and understanding of t h i s century that we can never o b t a i n f o r those c e n t u r i e s before us. The motion p i c t u r e g i v e s us one more avenue, one more oppor-t u n i t y to understand the "how" and "why" of the past. A l l t h i s can only happen i f a sounder and more thorough approach i s taken to the c o l l e c t i n g of f i l m . (22) CHAPTER I I I : REPOSITORIES OF FILM: STOCK SHOT LIBRARIES AND THE PUBLIC LIBRARY SYSTEM I n s t i t u t i o n s devoted to the c o l l e c t i o n , p r e s e r v a t i o n , and use of f i l m are as old as f i l m i t s e l f . To d i s t i n g u i s h the nature of the v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s that have grown up to care f o r f i l m , i t i s necessary to examine the purposes f o r which r e p o s i t o -r i e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d because the uses to which f i l m i s being put l a r g e l y determine the approach taken towards c o l l e c t i o n p o l i c y , documentation and p u b l i c s e r v i c e . Not a l l r e p o s i t o r i e s of f i l m f i t the mold of f i l m a r c h i v e s . Two such c l a s s e s of r e p o s i t o r i e s , the stock shot l i b r a r y and the p u b l i c l i b r a r y , may be examined f o r the stance they have taken towards c o l l e c t i o n and use of f i l m , and f o r the c o n t r a s t they o f f e r with f i l m a r c h i v e s . The stock shot l i b r a r y i s an i n s t i t u t i o n that emerged e a r l y on to serve a s p e c i f i c p r o d u c t i o n need, whereas the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e l i b r a r y systems have been a c t i v e i n c o l l e c t i n g f i l m s f o r other reasons. These i n s t i t u t i o n s maintain s p e c i f i c a t t i -tudes which are bound up i n t h e i r o r i g i n s and p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r r o l e . T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y r e f l e c t e d i n how they t r e a t the m a t e r i a l they house i n regard to s e l e c t i o n , documentation and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of use. One of the e a r l i e s t r e p o s i t o r i e s of f i l m was a p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n c a l l e d simply The F i l m L i b r a r y . It was founded i n New York C i t y i n 1908 by Abram Stone who sought to c r e a t e "a f i l m l i b r a r y with an i n t e l l i g e n t l y c o l l a t e d s e l e c t i o n of stock scenes such as d e p a r t i n g or a r r i v i n g v e s s e l s , e x p l o s i o n s , sunsets, wrecks, parades, animals ... and many others [with] which a ( 2 3 ) d i r e c t o r can strengthen a weak s c e n a r i o . " The purpose of Stone's l i b r a r y was, q u i t e c l e a r l y , to s e r v i c e the needs of producers and filmmakers by the c o l l e c t i n g and managing of stock shot footage so that i t might be used again. The p r o d u c t i o n l i b r a r y i s regarded as a v a l u a b l e part of filmmaking but i t s legacy i s a very s p e c i f i c set of a t t i t u d e s and methods which have come to plague both the users and keepers of f i l m today. The s u c c e s s f u l r e c o g n i t i o n of f i l m as source mate-r i a l f o r h i s t o r y worthy of proper l i b r a r y and a r c h i v a l a t t e n t i o n has continued to elude those who would l i k e to see f i l m regarded 2 as more than j u s t stock shot m a t e r i a l . Indeed i n most i n s t a n -ces the user of f i l m a r c h i v e s does so without an understanding of the d i f f e r e n c e between the a r c h i v a l and stock shot f u n c t i o n s . During the p r o d u c t i o n of any f i l m , a much l a r g e r amount of footage i s u s u a l l y shot than i s a c t u a l l y used i n the f i n a l product. The remaining footage, or "out takes", becomes the stock m a t e r i a l when i t i s s e l e c t e d by producers f o r s a l e or f o r 3 use i n new p r o d u c t i o n s . When f i l m i s developed i t produces a negative which i s a s e r i e s of shots which are then numbered. From that n e g a t i v e a p o s i t i v e copy i s made, a l s o with numbered shots, and i t i s t h i s p o s i t i v e copy which i s e d i t e d to make the f i n a l f i l m . Meanwhile, the negative copy has been d i v i d e d i n t o shots so that the assembly of the negative c l i p s may be f a c i l i t a -ted once the e d i t o r i a l d e c i s i o n s have been made using the p o s i -t i v e . The newly assembled negative shots thus become what i s known as the master negative, from which p o s i t i v e p r i n t s of the f i l m can be made.^ What i s l e f t over becomes the stock footage. A t t i t u d e s towards the c o l l e c t i o n of stock shot footage (24) are best r e v e a l e d through an examination of the s e l e c t i o n c r i t e -r i a of stock shot c o l l e c t i o n s , f o r these r e f l e c t both the purposes and the aims of such an endeavor as w e l l as j u s t i f y i n g how the m a t e r i a l i s t r e a t e d . For example, m a t e r i a l that i s too short i n l e n g t h , or footage that i s p o o r l y photographed would not be r e t a i n e d as i t would not be probable that a request would be made f o r i t . If the footage i s too c o s t l y or perhaps even impos-s i b l e to r e c r e a t e , then i t would be r e t a i n e d . ^ These c r i t e r i a very much r e f l e c t the purpose of the stock shot i n s t i t u t i o n — to c o l l e c t and maintain footage f o r l a t e r p r o d u c t i o n . A good example of how s e l e c t i o n d e c i s i o n s are made i s i l l u s t r a t e d by Bernard C h i b n a l l of the S h e l l F i l m Unit Stock Shot L i b r a r y i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the p r o d u c t i o n of a f i l m about the Woodbridge T i d e m i l l . Footage of v a r i o u s t i d e m i l l s , a source of power ge n e r a t i o n through the use of changing t i d e s , was shot during the making of a f i l m on power ge n e r a t i o n by S h e l l . ^ Footage was s e l e c t e d and r e t a i n e d by the stock shot l i b r a r y on the b a s i s of three concerns. F i r s t l y , shots of the Woodbridge M i l l i t s e l f were s e l e c t e d because i t was one of the few m i l l s s t i l l working. Secondly, shots of the sea were s e l e c t e d "because they are always i n demand" and t h i r d l y , e x t e r i o r shots of d i f f e -rent t i d e m i l l s , even those no longer working, but placed i n "pleasant surroundings", were s e l e c t e d "because of the expense e n t a i l e d i n t a k i n g them ag a i n . " The very r e a l p r o d u c t i o n concerns of supply, demand and cost t h e r e f o r e played a s i g n i f i -cant r o l e i n the s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l i n t h i s i n s t a n c e . Indexing and c a t a l o g u i n g of stock shot m a t e r i a l a l s o emphasizes the s e r v i c e to the producer who o f t e n seeks to estab-(25) l i s h an "atmosphere - something to mean a hot summer's day, scenes c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t o u r i s t England, something showing the c o m p l i c a t i o n s of modern machinery." Consequently the c a t a -logue should, i f p o s s i b l e , r e f l e c t t h i s s o r t of demand. Acknow-ledg i n g that these are "concepts that cannot be catalogued i n advance," C h i b n a l l concludes by suggesting that here the memory q of the a r c h i v i s t or l i b r a r i a n can best serve the user. A l l of these a t t i t u d e s , which make up the "stock shot m e n t a l i t y , " have i n f l u e n c e d general a t t i t u d e s towards f i l m as a documentary source. But of a l l the assumptions of the stock shot m e n t a l i t y , the most s e r i o u s f o r a r c h i v i s t s and h i s t o r i a n s i s the n o t i o n that any footage, accurate or not, may be used to f i l l i n a gap, the "audience" being none the wiser. This p o i n t i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by C h i b n a l l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of another p r o j e c t : For example, we have r e c e n t l y made a short v e r s i o n of a Dutch f i l m showing the l a y i n g of a p i p e l i n e under a r i v e r . . . . We wished to make three p o i n t s i n the f i l m f o r which adequate f i l m m a t e r i a l was not a v a i l a b l e . The e d i t o r of the new v e r s i o n t h e r e f o r e turned to the stock shot l i b r a r y f o r shots of o i l storage tanks, a pipe being coated with bitumen and a l a r g e valve being opened i n a p i p e l i n e system. These shots were a v a i l a b l e i n the l i b r a r y , not of course taken i n the same l o c a t i o n as the f i l m , but t h i s would be q u i t e unnoticed when the shots appeare'd on the screen. By means of these shots, the p o i n t s could be s u c c e s s f u l l y covered i n the f i l m and the complete sequence flowed much more smoothly than would have been p o s s i b l e using the o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l . 1 0 A t t i t u d e s l i k e t h i s are common to filmmaking where the message the producer seeks to p o r t r a y and the c o n t i n u i t y of the f i n i s h e d f i l m are more important than the a c t u a l images used. F i l m can be used not only to represent something that does not e x i s t i n a c t u a l i t y , but a l s o to r e c r e a t e an event making i t appear, i n one way or another, " b e t t e r " or "more a c c u r a t e " than ( 2 6 ) i t r e a l l y was. H i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r s recognize t h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n inherent i n such widely p r a c t i c e d filmmak-ing techniques. The f a c t remains, however, that f i l m i s , more than any-t h i n g , an a r t . A r t , depending on an a e s t h e t i c , i s something that i s c r e a t e d with a s p e c i f i c image or purpose i n mind. Stock mate-r i a l abounds i n stock l i b r a r i e s w a i t i n g to be turned i n t o any-th i n g the ima g i n a t i o n might c r e a t e . One w r i t e r concludes, " f i l m technology i s enormously c l e v e r but i t i s n e u t r a l . It has no m o r a l i t y . Each filmmaker i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what bears h i s name, de s p i t e the buckpassing to tyrannous sponsors and the r e s t of i t . " " ^ From the a r c h i v i s t ' s p o i n t of view, i t i s not a matter of e l i m i n a t i n g the p o t e n t i a l f o r m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , that i s , attempting to ensure f a c t u a l accuracy of the f i n i s h e d f i l m . While he must be aware of the p o t e n t i a l f o r m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , he w i l l r ecognize that the techniques of filmmaking are o u t s i d e h i s c o n t r o l , but he may at l e a s t s t r i v e to acquire f o r r e s e a r c h e r s the documentation necessary f o r a f u l l understanding of the f i l m record he pr e s e r v e s . To many h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r s , t h i s apparent d i s r e g a r d f o r accuracy i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a keen d i s t r u s t f o r the evidence f i l m o f f e r s . Importantly, however, t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of f i l m p r o d u c t i o n does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that the f i l m r ecord i s an i n a u t h e n t i c r e c o r d , i n a r c h i v a l terms, and should not be regarded as such. Once again, a r c h i v a l a u t h e n t i c i t y i s based on the no t i o n of continuous custody. D e l i b e r a t e m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s such as those found commonly i n filmmaking do not j e o p a r d i z e the a u t h e n t i c i t y of the source because they are i n f a c t p a r t of the ( 2 7 ) process of p r o d u c t i o n and t h e r e f o r e v a l i d l y represent that p r o d u c t i o n . L i k e the stock shot l i b r a r y , the in-house commercial f i l m l i b r a r y serves a p r o d u c t i o n need. An e x t e n s i v e and w e l l -managed l i b r a r y i s e s s e n t i a l to the b r o a d c a s t i n g i n d u s t r y . For example, the BBC maintains s e v e r a l c o l l e c t i o n s of photographs, drawings, moving images and t e x t u a l r e f e r e n c e s to a i d i n d a i l y 12 p r o d u c t i o n of programming. The F i l m L i b r a r y of the BBC maintains completed f i l m s , f i l m r e c o r d i n g s , f i l m i n s e r t or sequences, new f i l m and spares of o f f - c u t s . The m a t e r i a l i s housed i n e i t h e r the c u r r e n t l i b r a r y , i f i t i s expected to be r e q u i r e d i n the course of up-coming p r o d u c t i o n s , or i n the Perma-nent L i b r a r y i f the m a t e r i a l i s deemed to be of value f o r perma-13 nent r e t e n t i o n . T h i s i s an e n l i g h t e n e d p r a c t i c e comparable to the records management c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of records as c u r r e n t and non-current. The b r o a d c a s t i n g i n d u s t r y provides a unique o p p o r t u n i t y to regard f i l m i n a manner s i m i l a r to that of other t r a d i t i o n a l r e c o r d s . In the case of the BBC, the f i l m they produce makes up a b i g part of the e n t i r e record they c r e a t e through t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . In one of the most important a r t i c l e s on f i l m scho-l a r s h i p , S i r A r t h u r E l t o n c r i t i c i z e s the BBC f o r f o l l o w i n g prac-t i c e s that do not encourage good f i l m s c h o l a r s h i p . * ^ E l t o n b e l i e v e s that the BBC has a s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a p u b l i c l y funded i n s t i t u t i o n to maintain i t s c o l l e c t i o n p r o p e r l y . Two problems plague the b r o a d c a s t i n g i n d u s t r y . F i r s t l y , the amount of m a t e r i a l produced i s enormous and, secondly, e d i t i n g d e c i s i o n s have to be made w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y small amount of time. Within ( 2 8 ) these c o n s t r a i n t s , a r c h i v a l concerns do not loom l a r g e i n the minds of producers who must cre a t e programs on a d a i l y b a s i s . As E l t o n sees i t , program personnel regard l i b r a r i a n s merely as " l i s t e r s of s h o t s . " Indeed t h e i r r o l e i s not one of b u i l d i n g a comprehensive re c o r d r e f l e c t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of the BBC."^ The b r o a d c a s t i n g i n d u s t r y maintains an immeasurable wealth of footage with enormous re s e a r c h p o t e n t i a l , yet i t s concerns l i e o u t s i d e any a r c h i v a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The b r o a d c a s t i n g i n d u s t r y c l e a r l y l a c k s an awareness of a l a r g e r conception of i t s r o l e i n contemporary s o c i e t y . To t u r n now to the r o l e played by the p u b l i c l i b r a r y system i n developing a t t i t u d e s towards f i l m , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to examine t h e i r e a r l y r o l e as f i l m d i s t r i b u t o r s . In 1939, the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board of Canada was c r e a t e d through the N a t i o n a l F i l m Act. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the Board included p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of f i l m s , many of which were to be i n s t r u c t i o n a l i n nature on such su b j e c t s as new farming implements, i n d u s t r i a l improvements and h e a l t h and c h i l d care i n f o r m a t i o n . ^ Importantly, d i s t r i b u t i o n channels had to be developed to disseminate t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . The p u b l i c l i b r a r y system seemed the l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n to John G r i e r s o n , the f i r s t head of the Board. The unique q u a l i f i c a t i o n of the p u b l i c l i b r a r y to act as c o o r d i n a t o r f o r the v i s u a l media l i e s i n the f a c t that i t i s the only i n s t i t u t i o n which serves the whole p u b l i c ... which c o u l d , i f m o b i l i z e d , become a powerful agency f o r the c r e a t i o n of an i n t e l l i g e n t community approach to the v i s u a l media.1? L i b r a r i e s were indeed a good p l a c e to s t a r t as they had m u n i c i p a l support, maintained a t r a i n e d s t a f f , had proper f a c i l i t i e s and (29) were c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n almost a l l urban c e n t r e s . Thus a long and e v o l v i n g t r a d i t i o n of f i l m i n l i b r a r i e s was born. There i s an assumption that l i b r a r i e s e x i s t to educate, that l i b r a r i e s are "the custodians and e f f e c t i v e d i s s e m i n a t o r s of e d u c a t i o n a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l media" r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r form. L i b r a r i a n s of the 1940's c e r t a i n l y recognized that f i l m had a growing importance i n the t w e n t i e t h century and that they ought to " . . . d e l i b e r a t e l y and r a t i o n a l l y b u i l d a new l i b r a r y , or reorganize an old one, to o f f e r a l l media to t h e i r communities, 19 whether s c h o o l , c o l l e g e or town." F i l m was, t h e r e f o r e , seen as p l a y i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the education process. It must be s t r e s s e d , however, that l i b r a r i a n s of the 1940's sought a f u n c t i o n a l , pragmatic form of e d u c a t i o n using f i l m . There was a good d e a l of a t t e n t i o n paid to f i l m s which, f o r example, supported l o c a l or n a t i o n a l campaigns f o r r a i s i n g standards of h e a l t h and c h i l d care as w e l l as those g i v i n g d i r e c t 20 i n s t r u c t i o n i n s i m i l a r s u b j e c t s . Films could educate a c o n s t i t u e n c y that books never c o u l d , and a s p e c i f i c k i nd of f i l m , d i d a c t i c i n i n t e n t , was p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l . It might w e l l be argued that the war years f i r e d t h i s enthusiasm s i n c e many of the f i l m s r e f l e c t problems brought about by the war; f o r i n s t a n c e , from the war p e r i o d there i s an abundance of m a t e r i a l on working mothers and improving a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n among other t o p i c s . F i l m was regarded as a medium f o r a wide range of people, and educators jumped at the o p p o r t u n i t y to take advantage of i t . L i b r a r i a n s tended to regard s e l e c t i o n and c o n t r o l of f i l m s as an e x t e n s i o n of programs f o r books. Because of the (30) p e r c e i v e d need f o r " i n s t r u c t i o n a l " f i l m s , a well-developed s e l e c -t i o n p o l i c y was never a r t i c u l a t e d . One w r i t e r from the mid 1950s suggested that l i b r a r i a n s should spend some time c o n s i d e r i n g f i l m programs where a s e r i e s of f i l m s on a r e l a t e d theme might be shown i n a program that r e f l e c t s c e r t a i n community needs or a t t i -21 tudes. In a process s i m i l a r to the s e l e c t i o n of books, l i b r a r i a n s were encouraged to ask questions l i k e , "What i s the author t r y i n g to say? How w e l l d i d he succeed? Was i t presented h o n e s t l y , with t a s t e and s t y l e ? How w i l l i t be u s e f u l to the 2 2 people whom the l i b r a r y s e r v e s ? " The l i b r a r i a n ' s concern f o r the community he serves i s of course a n o t i o n b a s i c to l i b r a r y t h i n k i n g . The c o l l e c t i o n s p o l i c y of a l i b r a r y must, by n e c e s s i t y , r e f l e c t the needs of the community i t se r v e s , otherwise i t would loose i t s very reason to e x i s t . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e r e f o r e , the f i l m m a t e r i a l the l i b r a r y seeks to c o l l e c t i s regarded w i t h i n t h i s context. An important d i s t i n c t i o n should be made here between l i b r a r y and a r c h i v a l methodology. An a r c h i v i s t serves a very d i f f e r e n t k i n d of community, and although he must be aware of the needs of that community, h i s c o l l e c t i o n s a t t i t u d e i s fundamentally d i f f e r e n t . The a r c h i v i s t c o l l e c t s m a t e r i a l , whether i t be f i l m of otherwise, which i s the record of some a c t i v i t y . His concerns are p r i m a r i l y f o r the documentary value, so that the re s e a r c h community he serves can make the f u l l e s t use of i t . In an a r t i c l e reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e of f i l m l i b r a -r i a n s h i p , Sam Kula a c c u r a t e l y notes that a b r i e f look at the l i t e r a t u r e might w e l l lead one to b e l i e v e that c a t a l o g u i n g i s the 23 only problem faced by f i l m l i b r a r i a n s and a r c h i v i s t s . There (31) i s indeed an enormous amount of l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t . The f a c t that they have w r i t t e n so much about f i l m c a t a l o g u i n g does i n f a c t i l l u s t r a t e how d i f f i c u l t the job r e a l l y i s . Leaving the mechanics of the e x e r c i s e a s i d e , i t i s important to ponder the r o l e of the f i l m catalogue i n the l i b r a r i a n ' s eyes. There i s a strong d e s i r e to i n c o r p o r a t e the f i l m i n t o the e x i s t i n g scheme of c a t a l o g u i n g t h e i r h o l d i n g s . Films should be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the book catalogue and c l a s s i f i e d according to the system employed by that, s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n . ^ 4 The f i l m i s , a f t e r a l l , l i k e a book i n many ways. It e x i s t s to i n s t r u c t , to a s s i s t i n education and r e c r e a t i o n , as does the book. When a user approaches a s u b j e c t heading i n the catalogue, a l l the l i b r a r y ' s resources on that subject should be made evident to him through that catalogue. L i b r a r i a n s work very hard at responding to the needs of t h e i r community, whether i t be s c h o o l , c o l l e g e or the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . In t h i s regard, f i l m has a s p e c i a l appeal because, being a b a s i c media, i t can be d i r e c t e d towards whole groups, and indeed shown to whole groups together at one time. S p e c i a l programs may be organized to c o i n c i d e with s p e c i a l events or to 2 5 appeal to s p e c i f i c groups w i t h i n the community. L i b r a r i e s do, i n the a n a l y s i s , serve a l l kinds of people. The f i l m p r o v i d e s a means of g i v i n g a more complete s e r v i c e . In f a c t , a f i l m s e r v i c e complements the l i b r a r y ' s p r i n t e d c o l l e c t i o n . The f i l m h o l d i n g s should not e x i s t i n i s o l a -t i o n of the p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l but should be an i n t e g r a t e d part of 2 6 the l i b r a r y as a whole. One w r i t e r goes as f a r as to conclude that h i s "paper i s w r i t t e n i n no sense as a p l e a to ( 3 2 ) r e p l a c e the l i b r a r y of books with f i l m s but r a t h e r as an appeal to l i b r a r i a n s to th i n k of the f i l m as another very important type 2 7 of book." L i b r a r i a n s are, of course, i n the "business of books" and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and methodology, which are w e l l d e v e l -oped and s u c c e s s f u l , must r e f l e c t t h i s . It i s c e r t a i n l y true that f i l m can be regarded from w i t h i n t h i s framework and does, i n f a c t , serve the l i b r a r y scheme w e l l . It i s important to p o i n t out here t h a t , although t h i s i s not an a r c h i v a l f u n c t i o n or treatment, i t i s a v a l u a b l e purpose to which f i l m may be put. The d i f f i c u l t y comes, however, when we t r y to take f i l m out of t h i s context and view i t from an a r c h i v a l s t a n dpoint. With regard to f i l m , the l i b r a r y legacy i s d i f f i c u l t to break away from. One f i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the l i b r a r i a n ' s treatment of f i l m has to do with the development of the f i l m program. The programming a c t i v i t i e s of l i b r a r i a n s has had an i n t e r e s t i n g development which i s marked by an encouraging s o p h i s t i c a t i o n regarding f i l m . As mentioned e a r l i e r , l i b r a r i a n s have used f i l m e x t e n s i v e l y i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to appeal to whole communities. Towards t h i s end, f i l m programs were developed with a s p e c i f i c community, or sometimes theme, i n mind. Some of these e a r l y schemes were, to say the l e a s t , s i m p l i s t i c and m a n i p u l a t i v e . One l i b r a r i a n , w r i t i n g i n the 1960s, suggests that f i l m programs can and have been used by groups to e x p l i c a t e s p e c i f i c themes. For example, he d e s c r i b e s programs designed to make white communities aware of the l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s of contemporary black communities or give b l a c k communities a sense of p r i d e and h i s t o r y . Of course examples l i k e t h i s must be considered w i t h i n (33) the l a r g e r s o c i a l questions that plagued Americans of the 1960s as they r e f l e c t the r o l e f i l m played during t h i s time. It i s e s p e c i a l l y t rue that the n o t i o n of the f i l m program i n f l u e n c e d l i b r a r i a n s to a l a r g e extent regarding s e l e c t i o n and d i f f u s i o n of m a t e r i a l and t h a t a t t e n t i o n and s e r v i c e to s p e c i f i c communities was a primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . As Kenneth Axthelm w r i t e s i n " M i n o r i t y Groups, Our M a j o r i t y Audience," "What they are saying to us i s that they want m a t e r i a l s d i r e c t l y to i n t e r e s t them. We must know what they want, s e l e c t the best of what i s a v a i l a b l e 2 9 and be able to t r a n s l a t e i t i n t o s e r v i c e . " Not u n l i k e the p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l i n the c o l l e c t i o n , i t i s a matter of duty to present the f i l m i n a l o g i c a l and coherent manner and to d i r e c t i t towards s p e c i f i c communities or problems. As the l i b r a r i a n s ' knowledge and understanding of f i l m expanded, f i l m programming evolved to r e f l e c t t h i s new s o p h i s t i -c a t i o n . In 1974 an e n t i r e i s s u e of the p e r i o d i c a l F i l m L i b r a r y  Q u a r t e r l y was devoted to t h i s new programming s t y l e . In the i n t r o d u c t i o n , W i l l i a m Sloan maintains t h a t , e a r l y on, f i l m programs were very much developed to reach out to c e r t a i n groups and that the f i l m s were catalogued by subject i n order to f a c i l i -t a t e t h i s k i nd of programming. More r e c e n t l y , however, l i b r a -r i a n s have begun to see f i l m i n a new l i g h t . F i l m , no longer must a handy means of "educating", i s more and more considered as 30 an a r t and programming i s changing to r e f l e c t t h i s . The l i t e r a t u r e of f i l m l i b r a r i a n s h i p of the 1970s concentrated on educating l i b r a r i a n s about the f i l m i n d u s t r y . There are d e s c r i p t i o n s of a l l v a r i e t i e s of f i l m s such as "inde-31 pendent f i l m s " and "cinema v e r i t e . " There are a l s o sugges-(34) t i o n s of how t h i s new type of f i l m program might be put together. One author notes that documentary f i l m s were t r a d i t i o n a l l y regarded as e d u c a t i o n a l and t h e r e f o r e chosen f o r t h e i r s ubject matter. Films about the ghetto, f o r example, were s e l e c t e d because of t h e i r subject content. The new programming s t y l e might a l s o run a s e r i e s of f i l m s on the ghetto but would do so to 32 r e f l e c t changing s o c i a l values as i l l u s t r a t e d through f i l m . In other words, f i l m f o r f i l m ' s sake. Other authors became even more p h i l o s o p h i c a l by suggesting that the works of a s i n g l e f i l m -maker could be presented i n a program to encourage "a v a r i e t y of understandings of a s i n g l e body of work." 3 3 A l l t h i s i s , r e a l l y r e f l e c t i o n of the i n c r e a s i n g maturity of both f i l m l i b r a r i a n s and the f i l m - g o i n g p u b l i c . F i l m i s considered as an a r t form, l i k e p oetry, and a t t e n t i o n i s given to the kinds of communication i t p r o v i d e s . The f i l m l i b r a r i a n has gone from educating people with f i l m s to educating people about f i l m s . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the a t t i t u d e s of two kinds of i n s t i t u t i o n s , the Stock Shot L i b r a r y and the P u b l i c L i b r a r y systems, has i l l u s t r a t e d the beginnings of some very prominent a t t i t u d e s r egarding f i l m . The Stock Shot L i b r a r y p r o v i d e s a unique s e r v i c e to producers who are eager to o b t a i n "stock scenes", i n the i n t e r e s t of expense, d e s p i t e t h e i r q u e s t i o n a b l e accuracy. Indeed, i n the i n t e r e s t s of a e s t h e t i c , f i l m lends i t s e l f to t h i s kind of h a n d l i n g . The P u b l i c L i b r a r y systems a l s o uses f i l m i n p r o v i d i n g a s e r v i c e to t h e i r communities as an extension of t h e i r book c o l l e c t i o n . These are c e r t a i n l y neces-sary s e r v i c e s , yet they are not a r c h i v a l s e r v i c e s even though a r c h i v e s are o f t e n asked to perform the same f u n c t i o n s . Impor-(35) t a n t l y , i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g these s e r v i c e s and concerns, i t must be s t r e s s e d that while an a r c h i v e maintains a c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , these other i n s t i t u t i o n s do not. In f a c t , both e x i s t very much f o r the present, and t h e r e f o r e regard f i l m from q u i t e another framework. The f i l m a r c h i v e s , as an emerging kind of i n s t i t u t i o n , i s s t i l l s t r u g g l i n g with i t s p e r s p e c t i v e , to some extent, because of the legacy of these i n s t u t i t i o n s and t h e i r f o u n d a t i o n s . In f a c t , n e i t h e r of these kinds of i n s t i t u t i o n s are i n t e r e s t e d i n the study of f i l m . Producing o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the BBC and the NFB are f r e e to ignore the needs of r e s e a r c h e r s because t h e i r arm i s to produce m a t e r i a l and t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s e x i s t to f u r t h e r t h i s cause. L i b r a r i a n s seek only to serve t h e i r p u b l i c through the use of f i l m i n a manner s i m i l a r to that of books. It was not u n t i l s p e c i a l i z e d i n s t i t u t i o n s devoted to the p r e s e r v a t i o n and study of f i l m emerged that h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r -chers began to be served, and even then as we s h a l l see i n the next chapter, the p e r s p e c t i v e i s at some va r i a n c e with that of t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l a r c h i v e s . (36) CHAPTER IV: REPOSITORIES OF FILM: RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS At f i r s t g lance, the var i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s devoted to the p r e s e r v a t i o n and study of f i l m that have grown up i n Europe and North America have a c l o s e r k i n s h i p with h i s t o r i c a l a r c h i v e s than do stock-shot and p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s . R e f l e c t i n g t h e i r concern f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n , many of these i n s t i t u t i o n s c a l l themselves a r c h i v e s , or have come to be considered as such. Moreover, they have developed t h e i r programs to serve r e s e a r c h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n c e r t a i n of the h i s t o r i c a l dimensions of f i l m . N e v e r t h e l e s s , they approach f i l m from an angle s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t than might be taken by t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l a r c h i v e s . In order to see these d i s t i n c t i o n s , we s h a l l examine the p o l i c i e s and programs of the Museum of Modern A r t , the L i b r a r y of Congress, the B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e and the Imperial War Museum. The e a r l i e s t widescale i n t e r e s t i n f i l m was sparked by the F i r s t World War. The use of f i l m during the war as a propa-ganda device brought about a keen awareness of the medium.* This i n t e r e s t continued i n t o the 1920s and r e s u l t e d i n the estab-lishment of many of the world's great f i l m c o l l e c t i o n s . In the United S t a t e s and Great B r i t a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s emerged dedicated to t h i s new awareness of f i l m and to the p u r s u i t of i t s under-stand i n g . Among these were the Museum of Modern A r t , i n New York C i t y , and the B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e and the Imperial War Museum, i n London. The Museum of Modern A r t was founded i n 1929 to e x h i b i t contemporary artworks. Within a few years the Museum r e a l i z e d that concern was mounting w i t h i n the f i l m i n d u s t r y and among (37) students of f i l m over the f u t u r e of the o l d s i l e n t motion p i c t u r e s . There was then no i n s t i t u t i o n which was devoted to e i t h e r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of d i s t r i b u t i o n of these o l d e r movies. Just as the Museum had responded to a s i m i l a r problem with regard to contemprary works of a r t , so i n 1935 a f i l m program was launched. To the Museum, f i l m was acknowledged as a form of modern a r t worthy of study with other a r t forms. The Museum's e a r l y success i s i n pa r t a t t r i b u t a b l e to i t s scheme to promote i t s program among e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the United S t a t e s . A l e t t e r was c i r c u l a t e d throughout the country d e s c r i b i n g the aims of the program and i t s i n t e n t i o n to develop and c i r c u l a t e f i l m programs to e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s that would demonstrate the h i s t o r y , technique, and a e s t h e t i c s of filmmaking. The Museum r e c e i v e d e n t h u s i a s t i c support from many i n s t i t u t i o n s which shared the arm of promoting the study of f i l m as a r t . 3 E d u c a t i o n was the primary t h r u s t of the Museum's e a r l y program: I n i t i a l l y , the Museum set out to t r a c e , o b t a i n and preserve important f i l m s , Amercian and f o r e i g n ; to e d i t and assemble such f i l m s i n t o programs a v a i l a b l e f o r e d u c a t i o n a l and non-commercial e x h i b i t i o n ; to arrange notes and c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l s of them; to assemble a l i b r a r y of books and data on f i l m ; and otherwise to make a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n concerning t h e i r a r t i s t i c , drama-t i c and h i s t o r i c a l aspects to a l l who may s e r i o u s l y be i n t e r e s t e d . 4 C l e a r l y , the program was cr e a t e d to serve as a s t a r t i n g p l a c e f o r the study of f i l m f o r f i l m ' s sake. Programs, such as one e n t i t l e d "A Short Survey of F i l m i n American 1895-1930," were developed and made a v a i l a b l e f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n . ^ With the encouragement and a c t i v e support of s e v e r a l prominent p e r s o n a l i -t i e s i n the i n d u s t r y , i n c l u d i n g Mary P i c k f o r d , Sam Goldwyn and (38) Walt Disney, the Museum experienced great e a r l y success i n a c q u i r i n g f i l m s . ^ But, i t i s noteworthy that the Museum set out to make "a c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n of sequences and scenes from 7 f i l m s r a t h e r than by whole f i l m s . " In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the c o l l e c t i n g , the Museum issued w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s promoting " f i l m s as a b a s i s f o r c r i t i c a l and s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h on the h i s t o r y , o a e s t h e t i c and technique of the motion p i c t u r e . " An extensive c o l l e c t i o n of programs, p o s t e r s , s t i l l s , s c r i p t s , c l i p p i n g s , musical scores and other movie memorabelia was a l s o begun.^ The Museum was amassing a formidable storehouse of i n f o r m a t i o n . The c o l l e c t i o n s , both p r i n t e d and c e l l u l o i d , have c e r t a i n l y come to be one of the most comprehensive i n the world today. The American F i l m I n s t i t u t e maintains a catalogue d e t a i l i n g a l l f e a t u r e f i l m s produced i n the United S t a t e s , not j u s t those housed by the I n s t i t u t e , and documenting c r e d i t s and other " f a c t s " of p r o d u c t i o n of i n t e r e s t to students of f i l m . The i n s t i t u t e r i g h t l y c o n s i d e r s i t s catalogue an important p a r t of i t s " a r c h i v a l " program. B e l i e v i n g i t s r o l e to be one of promot-ing the study of f i l m h i s t o r y , the I n s t i t u t e has developed a catalogue d e s c r i b e d as "a major r e f e r e n c e work i n f i l m s c h o l a r -ship with the p o t e n t i a l f o r r a i s i n g the standard i n a f i e l d that i s j u s t beginning to e s t a b l i s h standards.""^ The catalogue i n f a c t serves as a b i b l i o g r a p h y of American f i l m i n that i t serves to d e s c r i b e more than the ho l d i n g s of the I n s t i t u t e . In t h i s , i t goes beyond a t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n of a r c h i v e s i n d e s c r i b i n g i t s own c o l l e c t i o n s , and perhaps r e f l e c t s the nature of f i l m s , as i n e f f e c t , p u b l i s h e d items. The L i b r a r y of Congress launched i t s f i l m program i n (39) J u l y 1945 with the statement t h a t : "Photographic records i n gen e r a l and motion p i c t u r e s i n p a r t i c u l a r are p l a y i n g an i n c r e a s i n g l y important r o l e i n government, i n d u s t r y , s c i e n c e , education and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . Being a u n i v e r s a l language, t h e i r p o t e n t i a -l i t i e s f o r s e r v i c e and i n t e r n a t i o n a l g o o d - w i l l are beyond our present a b i l i t y to j u d g e . " H S i m i l a r i n s t r u c t u r e to other branches of the L i b r a r y , the f i l m p r o j e c t was o r i g i n a l l y designed to s e r v i c e the government agen-c i e s who produced f i l m s by a c t i n g as a p l a c e f o r d e p o s i t . Regarding d i s t r i b u t i o n , long range plans allowed f o r the estab-lishment of an i n t e r - l i b r a r y loan system modelled on that f o r 12 books. The l i b r a r y a l s o aimed to serve a stock-shot func-t i o n , s t r e s s i n g i t s a b i l i t y to provide unique footage f o r the 13 p r o d u c t i o n of new f i l m s . L i k e the Museum of Modern A r t , the L i b r a r y of Congress i s a l i b r a r y , not an a r c h i v e . The f i l m c o l l e c t i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , very much regarded from w i t h i n a l i b r a r y framework i n g e n e r a l . Again, d e s p i t e the face that the f i l m h o l d i n g s are e s s e n t i a l l y a l i b r a r y and not an a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n , the r o l e s are o f t e n confused. One of the g r e a t e s t f i l m c o l l e c t i o n s i n the world i s l o c a t e d i n London at the B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e . The I n s t i t u t e i s h i g h l y regarded f o r i t s a c t i v i t i e s i n support of f i l m s c h o l a r -s h i p . When i t was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1933, i t s arm was, to encourage the development of the a r t of f i l m , to pro-mote i t s uses as a record of contemporary l i f e and manners, to f o s t e r study and a p p r e c i a t i o n of i t from these p o i n t s of view, to explore and promote new or extended uses f o r f i l m , and to encourage, support and serve other bodies working i n the same f i e l d . 1 4 These are ambitious aims yet the a c t i v i t i e s of the I n s t i t u t e and i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the study and development of f i l m over the (40) years have c e r t a i n l y r e a l i z e d these g o a l s . When the I n s t i t u t e was e s t a b l i s h e d , one of i t s e a r l y endeavors was to e s t a b l i s h a " n a t i o n a l r e p o s i t o r y of f i l m s of permanent v a l u e . " In 1935, the N a t i o n a l F i l m L i b r a r y was created and, as a r e s u l t of support from the f i l m i n d u s t r y , the f i l m c o l l e c t i o n began to grow.*^ The growth and maintenance of t h i s c o l l e c t i o n has s i n c e been the s i n g l e most important a c t i v i t y i n the I n s t i t u t e . * ^ It i s important, however, to draw a t t e n t i o n to the f a c t that the N a t i o n a l F i l m L i b r a r y now e x i s t s under the name, the N a t i o n a l F i l m A r c h i v e . In 1955, the name was changed from " l i b r a r y " to " a r c h i v e " because i t was f e l t that the word " a r c h i v e " was more s u i t a b l e to the goal of p r e s e r v a t i o n , whereas the word " l i b r a r y " implied a d i s t r i b u t i o n l i b r a r y s e r v i c i n g the f i l m i n d u s t r y . The d i r e c t o r of the I n s t i t u t e , Ernest Lindgren, had c e r t a i n r e s e r v a t i o n s about the term " a r c h i v e " because, as he put i t , i t " r i n g s with a de a t h l y sound i n the world of cinema, 17 which i s so young, v i t a l and dynamic." At the time of t h i s name change, no other changes were made to e i t h e r the p o l i c i e s or a c t i v i t i e s of the l i b r a r y . The change, i t would appear, was only cosmet i c . The B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e has always had an en l i g h t e n e d a t t i t u d e towards the medium. In d i s c u s s i n g the s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l , Lindgren saw the need of a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . A f i l m can be a great popular success: look at i t ten or twenty years l a t e r , and you may th i n k 'what r u b b i s h ! ' But keep i t another ten or twenty years and you begin to r e a l i z e why i t was so popular at the p a r t i c u l a r moment of i t s r e l e a s e . As i n the case of feminine f a s h i o n , i t w i l l begin to acq u i r e a new charm or i n t e r e s t of i t s own.18 With c o n s i d e r a t i o n s l i k e these i n mind, the I n s t i t u t e e s t a b l i s h e d (41) four s p e c i f i c committees to undertake s e l e c t i o n . The General S e l e c t i o n Committee i s made up of c r i t i c s who advise on f e a t u r e s , with respect to t h e i r value as a r t and entertainment. N o n - f i c -t i o n f i l m s are s e l e c t e d by the H i s t o r y S e l e c t i o n Committee which i s made up of h i s t o r i a n s and sub j e c t experts. The Science S e l e c -t i o n Committee comprises s c i e n t i s t s and t e c h n i c a l experts who advise on s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l f i l m s . And f i n a l l y , the T e l e -v i s i o n A dvisory Committee, made up of i n d i v i d u a l s from BBC and t e l e v i s i o n c r i t i c s , advise on the s e l e c t i o n of t e l e v i s i o n mate-r i a l . 1 9 T h i s method of determining what m a t e r i a l should or should not be acquired i s not u n l i k e l i b r a r y p r a c t i c e , e s p e c i a l l y with r e f e r e n c e to academic l i b r a r i e s , who r e l y on the academic community to suggest a c q u i s i t i o n s . The a c t i v i t i e s of the B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e go beyond the s e l e c t i o n and maintenance of c o l l e c t i o n s . There i s a l s o an Education Department, which came i n t o being i n the 1950s i n response to the i n c r e a s i n g number of educators who were i n t e r e s -ted i n the use of f i l m i n education and produces p u b l i c a t i o n s aimed at teacher t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e s and youth o r g a n i z a t i o n s . It a l s o organizes and runs l e c t u r e s , o f t e n as many as one thousand a 2 0 year, as w e l l as weekend or day courses. Other departments w i t h i n the I n s t i t u t e are those f o r Catalog u i n g , S t i l l s , D i s t r i b u -t i o n , P r o d u c t i o n , and the N a t i o n a l F i l m Theatre which shows f i l m s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . F i n a l l y , the I n s t i t u t e p u b l i s h e s three p e r i o d i c a l s d e d i c a t e d to the Study of f i l m : S i g h t and Sound, 21 Contrast and Monthly F i l m B u l l e t i n . The B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e has a l s o been a c t i v e i n (42) e s t a b l i s h i n g a standard method f o r the c a t a l o g u i n g of f i l m mate-r i a l . The I n s t i t u t e maintains that the o b j e c t i v e i n book and f i l m c a t a l o g u i n g i s the same. While a l l the necessary informa-t i o n i s e a s i l y a t t a i n a b l e from the t i t l e page of a book, f i l m presents some o b s t a c l e s . For f i l m , there i s no t i t l e page, t a b l e of contents or index which i s easy to scan and r e v e a l s a l l the necessary i n f o r m a t i o n . The content of a f i l m can only be revealed through the much more time consuming process of examina-2 2 t i o n which r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l s k i l l s and equipment. F a c t o r s such as these may help to e x p l a i n the l a r g e backlogs of uncata-logued m a t e r i a l faced by most f i l m c o l l e c t i o n s . The main entry at the I n s t i t u t e i s the f i l m t i t l e . In book l i b r a r i e s , the main entry i s commonly the author yet i t seems i t i s more convenient to i d e n t i f y f i l m s only by t i t l e . The one e x c e p t i o n to t h i s p r a c t i c e i s the method of c a t a l o g u i n g by subject which i s more p r a c t i c a l i n the stock-shot l i b r a r y s i t u a -23 t i o n . Otherwise, f i l m s are d i v i d e d at the I n s t i t u t e i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : n o n - f i c t i o n m a t e r i a l , i n c l u d i n g newsreels, cine-maga-z i n e s , a c t u a l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t f i l m s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s and docu-mentaries; and f i c t i o n m a t e r i a l , i n c l u d i n g drama, comedy, detec-t i v e , t h r i l l e r , h o r r o r , musical and westerns. Except f o r the newsreels, a l l f i l m s are given a main entry under t i t l e and the card i n c l u d e s d e t a i l s of c a s t , p r o d u c t i o n s t a f f , date of r e l e a s e , country of o r i g i n , t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s , review r e f e r e n c e s and , 24 s u b j e c t catalogue t r a c i n g s . C l e a r l y , t h i s system i s akin to that of book c a t a l o g u i n g . There i s an i n t e r e s t i n g debate regarding the use of the f i l m t i t l e , as i t i s very common i n the f i l m i n d u s t r y to r e l e a s e (43) the same f i l m under d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s . Both the L i b r a r y of Congress r u l e s and the r u l e s e s t a b l i s h e d by UNESCO maintain that the f i l m should be catalogued under the name of the copy i n hand and not under the o r i g i n a l r e l e a s e t i t l e f o r 2 5 main entry purposes. T h i s disagreement i s s i g n i f i c a n t because i t i l l u s t r a t e s the c o n f u s i o n between'archival and l i b r a r y a u t h e n t i c i t y . As suggested e a r l i e r , t h i s a t t e n t i o n to the f i l m c r e d i t s i s equated with p r o v i d i n g v e r i f i c a t i o n i n the same way a t i t l e page serves t h i s f u n c t i o n f o r a book. This i s not the same as a r c h i v a l a u t h e n t i c i t y which i s a s s o c i a t e d with i m p a r t i a l i t y and continuous custody. The i d e a l f i l m a r c h i v e s could guarantee a u t h e n t i c i t y , i n a r c h i v a l terms, by v i r t u e of i t s a p p l i c a t i o n of the e s t a b l i s h e d a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s . For the a r c h i v e s , a u t h e n t i -c i t y i s not a v e r i f i c a t i o n process but r a t h e r a system of manage-ment which i s governed by the p r i n c i p l e s of i m p a r t i a l i t y and a u t h e n t i c i t y , thereby p r o t e c t i n g the r e c o r d . I d e a l l y , an a r c h i v e of f i l m would be j u s t t h a t , an i n s t i t u t i o n d edicated to c o l l e c t -ing and maint a i n i n g the record of f i l m p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s which would i n c l u d e not only the f i l m but a d d i t i o n a l documenta-t i o n a s s o c i a t e d with i t s p r o d u c t i o n . In maintaining that the o r i g i n a l r e l e a s e t i t l e of the f i l m i s the r i g h t f u l one, and should be recognized as such, the B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e i s , i n e f f e c t , paying more a t t e n t i o n to the a r c h i v a l a u t h e n t i c i t y , or provenance, than to the l i b r a r y a u t h e n t i c i t y , or v e r i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s . The documentation process at the I n s t i t u t e takes p l a c e i n three stages. When f i l m i s accessioned a simple l i s t i n g i s made, t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s noted, and the m a t e r i a l i s given a (44) l o c a t i o n number. The second stage i s the entry i n t o the perma-nent catalogue, which i s d i v i d e d i n t o s i x c a t e g o r i e s with s i l e n t and sound f i l m s each d i v i d e d i n t o three s e c t i o n s : newsfilm, f i c t i o n and n o n - f i c t i o n . It i s d u r i n g t h i s stage that indexing of the m a t e r i a l takes p l a c e . And f i n a l l y , the t h i r d stage i s the p r i n t e d catalogue. The B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e p u b l i s h e s p r i n t e d 2 6 v e r s i o n s of i t s main entry catalogue. Once again, the indexes at the I n s t i t u t e r e f l e c t s p e c i -f i c types of requests which, through experience, the s t a f f have come to expect. Requests most o f t e n come i n a form s i m i l a r to "What f i l m s d i d Mr. *X* make?" or "How many f i l m s d i d Mr. 'X' make i n 1901?" or "What Mr. 'X' comedies are i n the 2 7 a r c h i v e s ? " A c c o r d i n g l y , f o u r types of indexes e x i s t . The Production C r e d i t s Index i n c l u d e s p e r s o n a l i t i e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , c a s t , d i r e c t o r s , producers, s c r i p t w r i t e r s , music d i r e c t o r s , cameramen, p r o d u c t i o n companies, d i s t r i b u t i n g companies, sponsors and s t u d i o s . The Biography Index i s a guide to "shots of eminent and noteworthy p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n newsfilms and documentaries, and to the f i l m s made on the l i f e and/or works of such people." The Form Index i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i c t i o n and n o n - f i c t i o n and then sub-d i v i d e d i n t o country and date. A r e s e a r c h e r could t h e r e f o r e note at a glance a l l the comedies, f o r example, produced i n a g i v e n country f o r a g i v e n year. And f i n a l l y , the Treatment Index i s organized f o l l o w i n g the p a t t e r n of the Form Index, b r i n g i n g together f i l m s of l i k e treatment such as cartoon or puppet f i l m s . 2 8 These indexes a l s o i n d i c a t e the B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e ' s d e d i c a t i o n to the study of f i l m . T h i s kind of b i b l i o g r a p h i c ( 4 5 ) a t t e n t i o n i s very much d i r e c t e d towards c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c kinds of f i l m r e s e a r c h . The indexes attempt to draw a t t e n t i o n to what i s considered to be the important f e a t u r e s of f i l m , both i n d i v i d u a l -l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y . T h i s i s , of course, the reason f o r the B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e and the N a t i o n a l F i l m A r c h i v e . The work of the B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e , q u i t e c l e a r l y , encompasses the l i f e c y c l e of f i l m , from the h i s t o r y to the pr o d u c t i o n of the medium. The f i l m c o l l e c t i o n i s a b i g pa r t of that a c t i v i t y , yet i t does not e x i s t as a f i l m a r c h i v e but as a part of an o r g a n i z a t i o n d e d i c a t e d to a b e t t e r understanding and use of f i l m . The N a t i o n a l F i l m A r c h i v e grew out of the I n s t i -t u t e ' s concern f o r the promotion of f i l m and not from a d e s i r e to maintain the " a r c h i v a l " r e c o r d . One f i n a l i n s t i t u t i o n e s p e c i a l l y worthy of mention i s the Imperial War Museum, a l s o i n B r i t a i n . In 1919 the War O f f i c e of B r i t a i n made a d e c i s i o n to preserve a l l government footage from the F i r s t World War and t h i s m a t e r i a l became the beginning 2 9 of the Imperial War Museum c o l l e c t i o n . The Museum i s r a t h e r more s p e c i a l i z e d than the B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e . F ilm m a t e r i a l was c o l l e c t e d not because of i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the development of the a r t of f i l m , but r a t h e r because of i t s subject matter, that i s , as a document i l l u s t r a t i n g B r i t a i n ' s m i l i t a r y h i s t o r y . Furthermore, the nature of the m a t e r i a l and the nature of the c r e a t o r are a l s o d i f f e r e n t . Almost e x c l u s i v e l y , the f i l m mate-r i a l at the Museum i s n o n - f i c t i o n and was c r e a t e d e i t h e r by government agencies or by newsreel companies. It i s not s u r p r i s -ing, t h e r e f o r e , to l e a r n that the Museum's a t t i t u d e and treatment of the m a t e r i a l r e f l e c t s these f a c t o r s . ( 4 6 ) The c o l l e c t i o n at the Museum i s organized under each war, and s p e c i a l indexes provide access to s i g n i f i c a n t persons, 30 b a t t l e s , weapons, and l o c a t i o n s . E s p e c i a l l y important i s the Museum's p r a c t i c e of i n c l u d i n g the r e p o r t e r ' s "dope" sheets as par t of the c o l l e c t i o n . These camera r e p o r t s are considered by the Museum to c o n t a i n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n regarding the o r i g i n s of the footage and a s s o c i a t e d t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s . 3 * T h i s p o l i c y i l l u s t r a t e s a keen awareness of the kinds of evidence attendant documentation can provide f o r the understanding of the f i l m i t s e l f . Another d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Museum i s the nature of the f i l m programs o f f e r e d . Regarding some s p e c i a l programs designed by the Museum and presented at Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y , one s c h o l a r , C.H. Roads, d e s c r i b e s t h e i r aim. More recent experience at Cambridge has i n v o l v e d programs i n which d e l i b e r a t e j u x t a p o s i t i o n of primary m a t e r i a l from d i f f e r e n t sources but of the same campaign has attempted to focus a t t e n t i o n on the s u b j e c t i v i t y , not simply of the e d i t i n g of f i l m , but even of the choice of subject m a t e r i a l f o r f i l m i n g i n what would seem to be, on the face of i t , a s t r a i g h t h i s t o r i c a l record.32 Along with t h i s c l e a r l y more advanced approach to the nature of the f i l m as h i s t o r i c a l evidence comes a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t , by i t s e l f , the f i l m r e v e a l s l i t t l e . By drawing a t t e n t i o n to those " d i f f e r e n t sources" and p r o v i d i n g the documentation f o r t h e i r accurate and thorough understanding, the Museum i s p r o v i d i n g a much more comprehensive r e c o r d , something a k i n to an a r c h i v a l repos i t o r y . The o r i g i n s of the great f i l m c o l l e c t i o n s of today have played a v i t a l r o l e i n t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n . C l e a r l y , those which (47) grew out of a concern f o r f i l m as an a r t form or those that developed out of a concern f o r the promotion and understanding of the medium as entertainment w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t concerns q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from those of the h i s t o r i c a l community. The aims of the Imperial War Museum come c l o s e s t to s e r v i n g the h i s t o r i c a l community but i t i s safe to say that none of the examples d i s c u s -sed can be d i s c r i b e d as f i l m a r c h i v e s i n the s t r i c t sense i n s p i t e of t h e i r m i s l e a d i n g c l a i m s . The goals of these i n s t i t u t i o n s are indeed admirable and the legacy they w i l l pass on to f u t u r e generations w i l l be i n v a l u a b l e . T h e i r t h r u s t has been t h r e e f o l d . They are dedi c a t e d to an a p p r e c i a t i o n of f i l m as an enormously i n f l u e n t i a l t w e n t i e t h century a r t form. They seek to document the h i s t o r y of f i l m and filmmaking, and, they seek to promote the study of f i l m , from t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s , through t h e i r resources and commitment to p u b l i c education. Importantly, the t h r u s t of a f i l m a r c h i v e would d i f f e r from these o r i e n t a t i o n s . The major aim of an ar c h i v e i s to pr o v i d e f o r the documentation of s o c i e t y , regard-l e s s of the form that record may take. And secondly, an a r c h i v e , p r i m a r i l y d e d i c a t e d to the q u a l i t y of the documentation i t preserves through the a p p l i c a t i o n of the a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s , must have a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the c r e a t o r of that record so that an ongoing mechanism f o r a c q u i s i t i o n can be e s t a b l i s h e d . The i n s t i t u t i o n s we have j u s t d i s c u s s e d lac k these p e r s p e c t i v e s . In the next chapter, we w i l l c o n s i d e r how these elements could be a p p l i e d to the c o l l e c t i o n of f i l m . (48) CHAPTER V: TOWARDS AN ARCHIVES OF FILM If the complete p o t e n t i a l of f i l m as a h i s t o r i c a l source i s to be r e a l i z e d , then c l e a r l y a comprehensive record must be preserved. The o r g a n i z a t i o n and methodologies behind contempo-ra r y c o l l e c t i o n s may w e l l serve the purpose f o r which they were designed, but the demands of h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e a d i f f e -rent approach. In f a c t , the h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r d e s i r e s a true a r c h i v e s of f i l m , a comprehensive c o l l e c t i o n of a l l m a t e r i a l s needed to understand the context i n wich f i l m was c r e a t e d and used. In t h i s sense, the world's great f i l m c o l l e c t i o n s are not f i l m a r c h i v e s ; they were not o r i g i n a l l y created to document the a c t i v i t y of the filmmaking i n d u s t r y , t h e i r concerns and c o n t r o l p o l i c i e s do not r e f l e c t a r c h i v a l methodology, and the m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d does not have the value and i n t e g r i t y of a r c h i v e s . Given t h i s s i t u a t i o n , what remains i s to d e s c r i b e the i d e a l f i l m a r c h i v e s . Any f u l l bodied view of f i l m a r c h i v e s must f i r s t acknowledge the nature of the c r e a t i o n of f i l m when d e v e l -oping a c q u i s i t i o n and c o n t r o l programs. With regard to the p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l l i m i t a t i o n s f i l m presents to i t s c u s t o -d i a n s , success or f a i l u r e depends very much upon the knowledge and e x p e r t i s e of the a r c h i v i s t . P h y s i c a l l y , the m a t e r i a l demands s p e c i f i c maintenance and c a r e f u l use. The c u s t o d i a n must be w e l l aware of these unique needs. Furthermore, to o b t a i n a comprehen-s i v e f i l m r e c o r d , w i t h i n the bounds of a w e l l d e f i n e d a c q u i s i -t i o n s p o l i c y , r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n amount of knowledge of the mate-r i a l and the circumstances of i t s c r e a t i o n w i t h i n s o c i e t y . Here again, the f i l m a r c h i v i s t must have t h i s knowledge of the f i l m ( 4 9 ) i n d u s t r y i n general i f h i s c o l l e c t i o n i s to achieve i t s aims. Who then are the c r e a t o r s of f i l m and what are t h e i r problems? Films are produced by both the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e sphere. Those produced by governments may i n c l u d e e f f o r t s by i n d i v i d u a l agencies as part of i n f o r m a t i o n a l or experimental programs as w e l l as m a t e r i a l produced by s p e c i f i c f i l m producing branches of government. In Canada, the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board may be regarded as belonging to t h i s l a t t e r group. C o n t r i b u t i o n s from the p r i v a t e sphere i n c l u d e those f i l m s produced by produc-t i o n companies and independent i n d i v i d u a l s . M a t e r i a l produced by the t e l e v i s i o n i n d u s t r y must a l s o be considered as a source f o r f i l m a r c h i v e s . Although t e l e v i s i o n p r o d u c t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y a completely d i f f e r e n t area from f e a t u r e f i l m p r o d u c t i o n , the two i n d u s t r i e s can be compared with regard to t h e i r c a p a c i t y as p r o d u c t i o n u n i t s . The e v o l u t i o n of f e a t u r e f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n p r o d u c t i o n are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . In the 1950s when t e l e v i s i o n became something of a t h r e a t to f e a t u r e p r o d u c t i o n , both indus-t r i e s changed to accommodate a new r o l e . The best example of t h i s phenomena i s the newsreel f u n c t i o n t e l e v i s i o n took over from f i l m companies because of the immediacy and u b i q u i t y of the new medium and because the new technology meant that news was s t i l l news when i t was shown. I f , t h e r e f o r e , we do i n c l u d e t e l e v i s i o n m a t e r i a l as a p o s s i b l e source f o r f i l m a r c h i v e s , then we may con-s i d e r the Canadian Broadcasting C o r p o r a t i o n (CBC) as a p u b l i c l y funded i n s t i t u t i o n as w e l l as p r i v a t e networks such as the Cana-dia n T e l e v i s i o n Network (CTV). I d e a l l y , these i n s t i t u t i o n s would develop and maintain t h e i r own a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n s . They are, a f t e r a l l , i n the best (50) p o s s i b l e p o s i t i o n to do the job w e l l . They have the m a t e r i a l i n i t s p r i s t i n e form, at the time of i t s o r i g i n a l r e l e a s e , and as i t was intended to be seen; they have the attendant documentation that would e x p l a i n the circumstances and purposes of p r o d u c t i o n ; they could f a c i l i t a t e maintenance and use, as they have the tech-n i c a l e x p e r t i s e to do so; and by maint a i n i n g continuous custody, they would preserve the a u t h e n t i c i t y of the r e c o r d . This s c e n a r i o i s , i n f a c t , a good d e s c r i p t i o n of an i d e a l f i l m a r c h i v e , but, f o r var i o u s reasons, few f i l m or t e l e v i -s i o n p r o d u c t i o n companies have e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r own a r c h i v e s . Instead, i n s t i t u t i o n s independent of the companies have been compelled to perform t h i s f u n c t i o n , although they too were not e s t a b l i s h e d with the aims and o b j e c t i v e s to i d e a l a r c h i v e s i n mind. We are indeed f o r t u n a t e that i n s t i t u t i o n s have come forward to preserve f i l m i n the breach, but we may s t i l l look f o r fu t u r e improvements. It i s perhaps presumptious to imply that f i l m should so a u t o m a t i c a l l y be regarded f o r i t s h i s t o r i c a l p o t e n t i a l f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n companies. Such companies are i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , businesses. Here an i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l can be made with the development of business a r c h i v e s i n the United S t a t e s . David Smith, founder of the Walt Disney a r c h i v e s i n 1970, laments the of t e n d i s c o u r a g i n g approach of businesses to t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l l y important r e c o r d s . One of the e a r l i e s t businessmen to acknow-ledge the value of h i s company's records was Harvey S. F i r e s t o n e , who was motivated by h i s concern f o r the s e r v i c e the records could provide f o r f u t u r e decision-making. T h i s view was r a r e , however, and by 1958 fewer than twelve lar g e American companies (51) employed a r c h i v i s t s . 1 By the 1970s however, Smith p o i n t s out that the " n o s t a l -ga craze made i n s t a n t antiques or ' c o l l e c t a b l e s ' out of r e l a t i v e -l y recent products of many of our companies." Company museums marked the f i r s t stage of a growing awareness of the part business had played i n American h i s t o r y . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to c o n s i d e r that i t was the a r t i f a c t s of business that r e c e i v e d the e a r l i e s t a t t e n t i o n j u s t as i t was the a r t i f a c t s of f i l m produc-t i o n , the f i l m s themselves, which were the only product of t h i s business that r e c e i v e d r e g u l a r a t t e n t i o n . During t h i s era, Walt Disney Productions became i n c r e a s -i n g l y aware of the value of i t s m a t e r i a l . Although the company o r i g i n a l l y hoped to d e p o s i t i t s records with an e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n , the amount of m a t e r i a l and the company's own need f o r r e g u l a r r e f e r e n c e to i t s a r c h i v e s pursuaded i t to e s t a b l i s h 3 i t s own a r c h i v a l program. Other businesses are a l s o moving i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , but Smith i s c a r e f u l to p o i n t out that much of the i n i t i a t i v e has, and must continue to come from a r c h i v i s t s r a t h e r than businessmen.^ On the score of t e l e v i s i o n , Derek Reimer, the head of the Sound and Moving Image D i v i s i o n of the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia speaks of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between the producer and the a r c h i v e s . ^ With regard to agreements made between the CBC and both n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , Reimer acknowledges that the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia was not among them and e x p l a i n e d the reasons f o r h i s r e s e r v a t i o n s . F i r s t l y , the r e s u l t of t h i s multitude of agree-ments has brought about a wide d i s p e r s a l of CBC documents to a (52) number of p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The CBC " c o l l e c -t i o n " cannot be found i n one p l a c e . Secondly, the p r o p o s a l s , as they stood i n 1981, addressed only the broadcast r e c o r d , and ignored the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i c y records of the CBC. T h i r d -l y , the CBC i s a f e d e r a l agency and perhaps i t would be best served by one f e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n r a t h e r than a number of p r o v i n -c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and arrangements. And f o u r t h l y , as there are no agreed standards f o r s e l e c t i o n and documentation of the mate-r i a l , could an o u t s i d e agency hope to serve the record w e l l ? ^ Reimer introduces some important p o i n t s r e g a r d i n g the s p e c i f i c problems of maintaining the a r c h i v e s of the CBC. Espe-c i a l l y important are h i s concerns regarding the s e p a r a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l from i t s c r e a t o r to, not one, but a number of d i f f e r e n t custodians and the n o t i o n of who i s r e p o n s i b l e f o r the mainte-nance of m a t e r i a l i f the c r e a t o r w i l l not do the job. He c o n t i -nues by suggesting that one s o l u t i o n would be f o r the CBC to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s own a r c h i v e s . This would be the best p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n as, f i r s t l y , the c r e a t o r i s both know-ledgeable about the m a t e r i a l and b e t t e r able to c o n t r o l i t r a t h e r than a remote r e p o s i t o r y . Secondly, the CBC has both the t e c h n i -c a l e x p e r t i s e and equipment to maintain the m a t e r i a l . T h i r d l y , an in-house a r c h i v e would serve the CBC by " e l i m i n a t i n g the n e c e s s i t y of going to another i n s t i t u t i o n to gain access to t h e i r own a r c h i v e s . " And f o u r t h l y , by e s t a b l i s h i n g and supporting an a r c h i v a l scheme, the CBC could e s t a b l i s h a long awaited set of s e l e c t i o n and documentation procedures f o r t h e i r e n t i r e c o l l e c -7 t i o n , f i l m and otherwise. I t i s indeed apparent that a s i t u a -t i o n s i m i l a r to t h i s , however b e n e f i c i a l , i s not l i k e l y to (53) emerge. Instead, i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, (PAC), have taken on the c u s t o d i a l r o l e . Towards t h i s end, the N a t i o n a l F i l m , T e l e v i s i o n and Sound A r c h i v e s , a d i v i s i o n of the PAC, has become the premier c u s t o d i a n of f i l m m a t e r i a l i n t h i s country. In c o n s i d e r i n g the uses to which the m a t e r i a l might be put, p o l i c i e s were estab-l i s h e d which r e f l e c t the p o t e n t i a l use by c e r t a i n academic d i s c i -p l i n e s . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , the PAC submits t h a t : Not only the a c t u a l broadcast or f i l m i s of a r c h i v a l v alue: the paper s c r i p t , the "outs" or v a r i o u s k i n d s , the background documents are a l s o important, u s u a l l y i n that order. In some cases however, there i s another p r i o r i t y : f o r example, when s c r i p t content i s the most important element (as i n some news and t a l k s ) , only the s c r i p t need be saved.8 This p o l i c y statement int r o d u c e s a new element of the i d e a l f i l m a r c h i v e s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , f i l m c o l l e c t i o n s are j u s t t h a t , c o l l e c t i o n s of f i l m s . R a r e l y do they i n c l u d e m a t e r i a l s that are produced when a f i l m i s made: that i s , the a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e r e c o r d of p r o d u c t i o n . An a r c h i v e of f i l m , on the other hand, would acknowledge the importance of t h i s documentary mate-r i a l and c o n s i d e r i t to be c e r t a i n l y as v a l u a b l e as the f i l m i t s e l f . T h i s i s because the f i l m a r c h i v e s would serve a d i f f e -rent need. The f i l m c o l l e c t i o n of the Museum of Modern A r t , f o r example, does not consider t h i s supplementary m a t e r i a l to be important w i t h i n the context of t h e i r apoproach to the value of f i l m and the uses to which they may put t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n . But to the a r c h i v i s t , who seeks to preserve the most comprehensive and accurate record p o s s i b l e , i t i s imperative that the "whole" record be maintained. This record would of course i n c l u d e the documentary m a t e r i a l that was produced during the p r o d u c t i o n of a ( 5 4 ) f i l m . T h i s m a t e r i a l provides the res e a r c h e r with much of the missing i n f o r m a t i o n needed to e x t r a c t c e r t a i n kinds of inf o r m a t i o n from a f i l m and i s , indeed, most vauable when determining a r c h i v a l a u t h e n t i c i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y . Without the whole r e c o r d , the pa r t s are h i s t o r i c a l l y l i m i t e d . What then i s the i d e a l a r c h i v e s of f i l m ? C e r t a i n l y i t i s a c o l l e c t i o n that i s maintained and administered by i t s cre a -t o r . T h i s i s r e a l l y the best p o s s i b l e s i t u a t i o n as the a r c h i v i s t c ould c a l l on the knowledge and e x p e r t i s e of the p r o d u c t i o n s t a f f when making h i s d e c i s i o n s . It would f a c i l i t a t e use, both by the c r e a t o r , who would c e r t a i n l y be the predominant user of the c o l l e c t i o n , and by the re s e a r c h e r , who would b e n e f i t from i n -house s e l e c t i o n and documentation standards. Moreover, the c r e a t o r has the "whole" record as pa r t of i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s . To separate the f i l m and the documentary re c o r d i s to e f f e c t i v e l y cut i t s worth i n h a l f . In order that the h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r t r u l y understand and a r t i c u l a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a f i l m or c o l l e c t i o n of f i l m s he needs to know why and how c e r t a i n d i s c u s s i o n s and p o l i c i e s come about. Only the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e record of p r o d u c t i o n can answer such questions as who was the producer and how d i d h i s philosophy e f f e c t the f i l m ; why was a f i l m produced and r e l e a s e d at a s p e c i f i c time; were d e c i s i o n s based on any f i n a n c i a l or p o l i t i c a l concerns; who was the pro-ducer t r y i n g to appeal to and what d i d he hope the e f f e c t of h i s pro d u c t i o n would be on t h i s audience; what i n f o r m a t i o n was l e f t out of a p r o d u c t i o n , and what was in c l u d e d i n an e f f o r t to put across a c e r t a i n p o i n t of view and why were these d e c i s i o n s made? These are the types of questions that simply cannot be ( 5 5 ) answered without the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d . Once disassembled, the record has l i t t l e chance of becoming complete again and can t h e r e f o r e never be regarded w i t h i n an atmosphere of complete t r u s t and understanding. If c r e a t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s cannot be convinced of the value of such an e x e r c i s e , d e s p i t e t h e i r obvious regard f o r the medium i t s e l f , then those i n s t i t u t i o n s which do go about the task of c o l l e c t i n g and p r e s e r v i n g f i l m should be made aware of these concerns and the a l t e r n a t i v e s of n e g l e c t . F i l m a r c h i v i s t s must continue to work on e s t a b l i s h i n g a mechanism whereby they can a s s e s s i o n the complete f i l m r e c o r d . The f i l m , as a record of t h i s century and c e n t u r i e s to come i s undisputed f o r i t s unique and u n p a r a l l e l e d c o n t r i b u t i o n to our understanding and view of the world. When the a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s are a p p l i e d , f i l m as a h i s t o r i c a l source w i l l be recognized and w i l l take i t s p l a c e as a r e l i a b l e h i s t o r i c a l document. (56 ) NOTES FOR CHAPTER I 1. H i l a r y Jenkinson, A Manual of A r c h i v a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (London: Percy Lund, Humphries, 1965 ), pp. 3^4^ 2. I b i d . 3. I b i d . , pp. 8-11. 4. I b i d . , p. 12. 5. John B. Kuiper, "The H i s t o r i c a l Value of Motion P i c t u r e s , " American A r c h i v i s t 31 (October 1968): 387. (57) NOTES FOR CHAPTER II 1. Dorothy Arbaugh, "Motion P i c t u r e s and the Future H i s t o r i a n , " American A r c h i v i s t 2 ( A p r i l 1939): 109. 2. I b i d . 3. John B. Kuiper, "The H i s t o r i c a l Value of Motion P i c t u r e s , " American A r c h i v i s t 31 (October 1968): 386. 4. J.A.S. G r e n v i l l e , and N. Pronay, "The H i s t o r i a n and H i s t o r i c a l F i l m s , " U n i v e r s i t y V i s i o n 1 (February 1969): 3. 5. I b i d . 6. Eugene McCreary, " F i l m and H i s t o r y : Some Thoughts on T h e i r I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , " S o c i e t a s 1 (Winter 1971): 52-53. 7. I b i d . , pp. 62-3. 8. I b i d • , pp. 63-4. 9. I b i d . , p. 64 10. I b i d . 11. M a r t i n A. Jacson, " F i l m and Source M a t e r i a l : Some P r e l i m i n a r y Notes Toward a Methodoloty," J o u r n a l of  I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y H i s t o r y 4 (Summer 1973): 73-4. 12. Penelope Houston, "The Nature of Evidence," Sig h t and Sound 36 (Spring 1967): 89. 13. I b i d . 14. S i r Arthur E l t o n , " F i l m as Source M a t e r i a l f o r H i s t o r y , " ASLIB Proceedings 7 (November 1955): 210-11. 15. Newton M e l t z e r , "Are Newsreels News?" Hollywood Q u a r t e r l y 2 (1946-1947): 270. 16. Houston, "The Nature of the Evidence," p. 89. 17. I b i d . , p. 90. 18. I b i d . , p. 91. 19. E l t o n , "The F i l m as Source M a t e r i a l f o r H i s t o r y , " p. 73. 20. Kuiper, "The H i s t o r i c a l Value of Motion P i c t u r e s , " p. 385. 21. I b i d . 22. Hermine M. Baumhofer, "Motion P i c t u r e s Become Fe d e r a l Records," American A r c h i v i s t 15 (January 1952): 15. (58) 23. I b i d . , p. 16. 24. I b i d . , p. 17. 25. I b i d . , p. 18. 26. Kuiper, "The H i s t o r i c a l V a l i u e of Motion P i c t u r e s , " p. 389. 27. E l t o n , "The F i l m As Source M a t e r i a l For H i s t o r y , " p. 208. 28. I b i d . , p. 209. 29. Raymond F i e l d i n g , "Archives of the Motion P i c t u r e ; A General View," American A r c h i v i s t 30 ( J u l y 1967): 493. 30. I b i d . , p. 495. 31. Jackson, " F i l m as Source M a t e r i a l : Some P r e l i m i n a r y Notes," p. 79. 32. I b i d . 33. McCreary, " F i l m and H i s t o r y : Some Thoughts," p. 53. 34. G r e n v i l l e , and Pronay, "The H i s t o r i a n and H i s t o r i c a l F i l m s , " p. 3. 35. Kuiper, "The H i s t o r i c a l Value of Motion P i c t u r e s , " pp. 388-89. 36. I b i d . , p. 389. 37. Arbaugh, "Motion P i c t u r e s and the Future H i s t o r i a n , " p. 110. 38. F i e l d i n g , "Archives of the Motion P i c t u r e , " p. 493. (59) NOTES FOR CHAPTER III 1. Sam Kula, "The L i t e r a t u r e of F i l m L i b r a r i a n s h i p , " ASLIB  Proceedings 14 ( A p r i l 1962): 85. 2. I b i d . , p. 86. 3. Bernard C h i b n a l l , " S h e l l F i l m Unit Stock Shot L i b r a r y , " ASLIB  Proceedings 4 (May 1952): 59. 4. I b i d . 5. I b i d • , pp. 59-60. 6. I b i d . , p. 60. 7. I b i d . 8. I b i d . , p. 64. 9. I b i d . 10. I b i d . , p. 65. 11. F i l m Comment, "Use and Abuse of Stock Footage," F i l m Comment 4 ( F a l l / W i n t e r 1967): 52. 12. R.L. C o l l i s o n , " L i b r a r i e s of T e l e v i s i o n , " The L i b r a r y World 67 ( J u l y 1965) : 3-4. 13. I b i d . , p• 5. 14. S i r Ar t h u r E l t o n , "The F i l m as Source M a t e r i a l f o r H i s t o r y , " ASLIB Proceedings 7 (November 1955): 220. 15. I b i d . , pp. 220-221. 16. Dorothy Annesley, "Films and Canadian P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s , " American L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n B u l l e t i n 40 (June 1946) : 195. 17. Grace T. Stevenson, "The L i b r a r y Use of F i l m s , " American  L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n B u l l e t i n 50 ( A p r i l 1956): 211. 18. Annesley, "Films and Canadian P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s , " p. 196. 19. Paul G. C h a n c e l l o r , "Toward the A i l - I n c l u s i v e L i b r a r y , " American L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n B u l l e t i n 42 (October 1948): 384. 20. Annesley, "Films and Canadian P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s , " pp. 197-8. 21. Stevenson, "The L i b r a r y Use of F i l m s , " p. 213. 22. I b i d . , p. 214. 23. Kula, "The L i t e r a t u r e of F i l m L i b r a r i a n s h i p , " p. 87. (60) 24. C h a n c e l l o r , "Toward the A l l - i n c l u s i v e L i b r a r y , " pp. 384-6. 25. V i r g i n i a Beard, " L i b r a r y F i l m Programming," American L i b r a r y  A s s o c i a t i o n B u l l e t i n 50 ( A p r i l 1968): 215-6. 26. Marguerite K i r k , " F i l m and Book," American L i b r a r y  A s s o c i a t i o n B u l l e t i n 33 (October 1939): 218-9. 27. I b i d . , pp. 219-21. 28. Kenneth W. Axthelm, " M i n o r i t y Groups our M a j o r i t y Audience," Film L i b r a r y Q u a r t e r l y 1 (Summer 1968): 25-6. 29. I b i d . , p. 29. 30. W i l l i a m Sloan, " P r o j e c t i o n s , " F i l m L i b r a r y Q u a r t e r l y 7 (1974): 3. 31. Peter H i n s t e i n , "Programming Independent F i l m s , " F i l m L i b r a r y  Q u a r t e r l y 7 (1974): 10. 32. I b i d . 33. Ron Green, "Programming Works By A, S i n g l e Filmmaker," F i l m  L i b r a r y Q u a r t e r l y 7 (1974): 17. (61) NOTES FOR CHAPTER IV 1. F r i t z Terveen, " F i l m As A H i s t o r i c a l Document," U n i v e r s i t y  V i s i o n 1 (February 1968): 22-3. 2. I r i s Barry, "The F i l m L i b r a r y and How i t Grew," F i l m  Q u a r t e r l y 22 (Summer 1969): 19-20. 3. I b i d . 4. John E. Abbott, "Cataloguing and F i l i n g of Motion P i c t u r e F i l m s , " The L i b r a r y J o u r n a l 63 (February 1938): 93. 5. I r i s Barry, "Films For H i s t o r y , " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 30 (October 1939): 259. 6. I r i s Barry, "Why Wait For P o s t e r i t y , " Hollywood Q u a r t e r l y 1 (1945-1946): 132. 7. I b i d . , p. 136. 8. Barry, "Films f o r H i s t o r y , " p. 260. 9. I b i d . 10. Franches Jones, and Sam Kula, and Steve Z i t o , " F a c t s , Fancies and the American F i l m I n s t i t u t e C a t a l o g , " F i l m Q u a r t e r l y 25 (Summer 1972) : 44-6. 11. John G. Bradley, "L.C. Plans i t s F i l m Program," L i b r a r y  J o u r n a l 71 (November 15, 1946): 1593. 12. I b i d . , pp. 1595-7. 13. I b i d . , p. 1615. 14. Tony Hodgkinson, "The B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e " F i l m Comment 2 ( F a l l 1964): 31. 15. Ivan B u l t e r , To Encourage the A r t of F i l m : The Story of the  B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e (London: Robert Hale, 19 71), pp. 55-6. 16. Hodgkinson, "The B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e , " p. 31. 17. B u t l e r , To Encourage the A r t of F i l m , p. 60. 18. I b i d . , pp. 62-3. 19. I b i d . , p. 61. 20. Hodgkinson, "The B r i t i s h F i l m I n s t i t u t e , " pp. 33-4. 21. I b i d . , p. 61. 22. B u t l e r , To Encourage the Art of F i l m , p. 69. (62) 23. David G r e n f e l l , " S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n F i l m C a t a l o g u i n g , " The  J o u r n a l of Documentation 15 (June 1959): 83. 24. Joan M. F u l f o r d , "The N a t i o n a l F i l m L i b r a r y , " The L i b r a r y  A s s o c i a t i o n Record 54 (August 1952): 264-5. 25. Bernard C h i b n a l l , "The N a t i o n a l F i l m L i b r a r y and i t s Cataloguing R u l e s , " The J o u r n a l of Documentation 2 (June 1955): 81. 26. B u t l e r , To Encourage the A r t of F i l m , p. 70. 27. David C. Fanning, "The Cataloguing of Film M a t e r i a l i n the N a t i o n a l F i l m A r c h i v e , " The L i b r a r y World 62 (June 1961): 281. 28. I b i d . 29. Helen P. H a r r i s o n , F i l m L i b r a r y Techniques (London, F o c a l Press, 1973), pp. 20-21. 30. M a r t i n A. Jackson, " F i l m As Source M a t e r i a l : Some P r e l i m i n a r y Notes Towards a Methodology," J o u r n a l of I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y H i s t o r y 4 (Summer 1973): 76-77. 31. I b i d . 32. C.H. Roads, "A View of the Use of F i l m by U n i v e r s i t i e s , " U n i v e r s i t y V i s i o n 1 (February 1968): 12. (63) NOTES FOR CHAPTER V 1. David R. Smith, "A H i s t o r i c a l Look at Business A r c h i v e s , " American A r c h i v i s t 45 (Summer 1982): 275. 2. I b i d . , p. 276. 3. I b i d . 4. I b i d . , p. 277 5. Quoting Derek Reimer at the 1981 Annual Meeting of the A s s o c i a t i o n of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a . 6. Derek Reimer, "Commentary," A r c h i v a r i a 14 (Summer 1982): 159-60. 7. I b i d . , p. 161. 8. 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