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An iconographic study of "Ten Kings" paintings Watanabe, Masako 1984

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AN ICONOGRAPHIC STUDY OF "TEN KINGS" PAINTINGS By MASAKO WATANABE B.A., The Tokyo Woman's C h r i s t i a n University, 1969 Art History Diploma, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Fine  Arts)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required  st^fidard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1984 ©  Masako Watanabe, 1984  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements of B r i t i s h it  this thesis f o r an  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  understood for  f o r extensive copying of  by  that  h i s or  be  her  g r a n t e d by  f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  not  be  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  (3/81)  of  Columbia  make  further this  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department  the  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  the  University  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  department o r  the  I agree that  agree that permission for  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  freely available  in partial  written  ABSTRACT  In China and  Japan there  Kings of H e l l " but This  are innumerable p a i n t i n g s and  to date there has  been no  t h e s i s makes an attempt to c a t e g o r i z e  according  to i c o n o g r a p h i c  f e a t u r e s and  s u c c e s s f u l i n as much as a s e q u e n t i a l substantiated  by  t e n t h century  Japanese commentaries has  systematic  documents  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n has  was  "Ten  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of them.  these a r t works and  format. order  t e x t s of the  established  and  been  new  insight,  Tun-huang documents, Sung Buddhist r e c o r d s ,  been a t t a i n e d r e g a r d i n g  iconographic  and  and  iconological  properties. Tenth century i z e d by  Type A p a i n t i n g s of " T i - t s a n g  iconic presentation  seded by mid-tenth century Kings I l l u s t r a t i o n s " versions  i n l a r g e hanging s c r o l l  accompanied by Type Y t e x t s , the Type  c o n s i s t i n g of  e d i t e d and  and  "Ten  modified  X.  the unprecedented s u g g e s t i o n  a close iconographic  character-  format, were super-  i n v e s t i g a t i o n d i s c l o s e d an a f f i l i a t i o n between Ten Kings  t e x t s , and  t e x t s had  the Ten K i n g s , "  Type B n a r r a t i v e h a n d s c r o l l s  of t h e i r p r e c u r s o r ,  Textual and  and  and  t h a t Type A p a i n t i n g s and  paintings Type X  i c o n o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p Is made i n t h i s  paper. Comparative a n a l y s i s of I l l u s t r a t i o n s and t e x t , w i t h emphasis on iconologically and  that  t e x t s shows that  the concept of "Chui-shan" and  the Type X  "Yii-hsiu,"  corresponds  to the l a r g e Type A hanging s c r o l l s used i n the f u n e r a l s e r v i c e ,  the Type Y t e x t , which d e a l t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h " Y i i - h s i u " accompanied  the Type B h a n d s c r o l l s  used f o r a c c r u i n g  r e l i g i o u s merit.  T y p o l o g i c a l examination of t h i r t e e n t h and p a i n t i n g s executed by p r o f e s s i o n a l p a i n t e r s  fourteenth  century  Chinese  i n the Ning-p'o area,  as w e l l  s c r u t i n y of t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese h e l l p a i n t i n g s , l e a d s  to s p e c u l a t i o n that  as the  Ten Kings painting t r a d i t i o n between the tenth and  thirteenth centuries  was  already depicting f u l l y developed h e l l scenes, despite the fact that there i s a dearth of l i t e r a r y and p i c t o r i a l evidence. Fourteenth century Japanese Ten Kings paintings reveal that Chinese prototypes had undergone "Japanization" and that one p a r t i c u l a r set of paintings owned by Nison-in was  based on three separate Chinese prototypes:  two Ning-p'o  models, and the tenth century Type B t r a d i t i o n , as well as t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese motifs.  One  s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of the Japanization of this set i s discernible  i n the elaboration of the "Honjibutsu"  (origins of Buddhist d e i t i e s ) and  fact has been interpreted i n the context of fourteenth century Japanese Buddhism, the Zen sect i n p a r t i c u l a r .  i  this  -iiiTABLE OF CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT  i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  i i i  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  v i i  INTRODUCTION  - 1  CHAPTER ONE.  T i - t s a n g and t h e Ten Kings P a i n t i n g s , Type A  CHAPTER TWO.  The Ten K i n g s I l l u s t r a t i o n ,  Type B  17  1.  The F i r s t Scene, Sakyamuni P r e a c h i n g ( P l a t e 10-1)  18  2. 3.  The Second Scene, S i x B o d h i s a t t v a s ( P l a t e 10-2) The Scene o f a Messenger R i d i n g on a B l a c k Horse ( P l a t e 10-3) The Scene o f t h e F i r s t K i n g , Ch'in-kuang Wang ( P l a t e 10-4) The Scene o f the Second K i n g , Ch'u-chiang Wang ( P l a t e 10-5) The Scene o f the T h i r d K i n g , S u n g - t i Wang ( P l a t e 10-6) The Scene o f the F o u r t h K i n g , Wu-kuan Wang ( P l a t e 10-7) The Scene o f the F i f t h K i n g , Yen-lo Wang ( P l a t e 11-8) The Scene o f the S i x t h K i n g , Pien-ch'eng Wang ( P l a t e 11-9) The Scene o f t h e Seventh K i n g , T ' a i - s h a n Wang ( P l a t e 11-10) The Scene o f the E i g h t h K i n g , P'ing-cheng Wang ( P l a t e 11-11) The Scene o f the N i n t h K i n g , T u - s h i h Wang ( P l a t e 11-12) The Scene o f the Tenth K i n g , Wu-tao Chuan-lun Wang ( P l a t e 11-13) The L a s t Scene ( P l a t e 11-14)  19  4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.  CHAPTER THREE. , The Ten Kings Texts CHAPTER FOUR.  7  J a p a n i z a t i o n i n the N i s o n - i n Ten Kings P a i n t i n g s  19 20 21 22 23 23 24 25 25 26 26 27 30 36  CONCLUSION  52  NOTES  55  BIBLIOGRAPHY  71  APPENDIX PLATES  76 77  -iv-  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Plate T i - t s a n g and the Ten K i n g s : The Mus^e Guimet 983 A.D., h a n g i n g _ s c r o l l Tonko-ga no kenkyu P I . 108 T i - t s a n g and the Ten K i n g s : The N a t i o n a l Museum, New D e l h i 10 c^, hanging s c r o l l Tonko-ga no kenkyu P I . 109 T i - t s a n g and the Ten K i n g s : The Muse'e Guimet 10 c., h a n g i n g s c r o l l Tonko-ga no kenkyu P I . 111-b T i - t s a n g and the Ten K i n g s : The B r i t i s h Museum 10 c^, hanging s c r o l l Tonko-ga no kenkyu P I . 110-a T i - t s a n g and the Ten K i n g s : The N a t i o n a l Musum, New D e l h i 10 c^, hanging s c r o l l Tonko-ga no kenkyu P I . 111-a Ti-tsang: The British.Museum 10 c., hanging s c r o l l Tonko-ga no kenkyu P I . 105 An e s o t e r i c drawing o f T i - t s a n g : Ninna-j i 12 c. Rokudo-e P I . 27 T i - t s a n g , Tao-ming, and the L i o n : The Musee Guimet 981 A.D., h a n g i n g _ s c r o l l Tonko-ga no kenkyu P I . 113-b The Ten K i n g s and the H e l l Scene: The Kimiko and John Powers C o l l e c t i o n 14 c , hanging s c r o l l s K o b i j u t s u No. 23  The Ten K i n g s I l l u s t r a t e d T e x t : The Kuboso Museum 971 A.D.?, h a n d s c r o l l Kokka No. 621 The Ten K i n g s Illustrations: The ( P e l l i o t ) Muse'e Guimet ( t o p ) The ( S t e i n ) B r i t i s h Museum (middle) The H o j u i n , Koyasan (bottom) handscrolls "Juo zukan no kozo" pp. 289-295 T i - t s a n g and the Ten K i n g s : The B r i t i s h Museum 10 c^, hanging s c r o l l Tonko-ga no kenkyu P I . 110-b The t e x t s o f S h i h Wang Ching: Nihon Shodo Hakbutsu-kan (Type X) T h e _ P e l l i o t 2003 q. (Type Y) "Juo zukan no kozo" pp. 259-267 A s e t o f the Ten K i n g s : N i s o n - i n , a t t r i b u t e d to Tosa Y u k i m i t s u 14 c , hanging s c r o l l F i v e o f the Ten K i n g s : The M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t s , C h i n T a 1 3 _ c , hanging s c r o l l Chugoku k a i g a sogo zuroku V o l . 1 The Ten K i n g s : Hofuku-ji 14 c., hanging s c r o l l Juyo b u n k a z a i 8 P I . 300 The t h i r d K i n g , S u n g - t i Wang Seigan-ji 13 c.?, hanging s c r o l l The f i f t h K i n g , Y e n - l o Wang Jodo-ji 14 c , hanging s c r o l l The f i f t h K i n g , Yen-lo Wang Zendo-ji 13 c , hanging s c r o l l  -vi-  Plate 42  The sixth King, Pien-ch'eng Wang Zendo-ji 13 c , hanging scroll  43  A painting of the Ten Kings set: Daitoku-ji 14 c.?, hanging scroll  44  The Ten Categories of the Universal World (Jukkai-zu) Zenrin-ji ca. 1300, hanging scrolls Juyo bunkazai 8 PI. 83  45  Details of Jukkai-zu: a. a hell river Kobijutsu No. 23 PI. 8 b. a demon figure Jigoku-e PI. 65 c. a woman on a needle tree Kobijutsu No. 23 PI. 7  46  The_sixth King, Pien-ch'eng Wang Koto-in 13 or 14 c.?, hanging scroll  47  A scene of the f i r s t King, Ch'in-kuang Wang from the Ten Kings Illustrated sutra: Toji 14 c. handscroll Rokudo-e PI. 30 ±  48  Details from Rokudo-e: Shojuraigo-ji 14 c , hanging scroll Heibonsha Jigoku-e  49  A painting of the Ten Kings set: Kanazawa Bunko The tenth King, Wu-tao Chuan-lun Wang 13 or 14 c., hanging scroll  -vii-  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I would l i k e to express my wholehearted appreciation for the long-standing support and continuous  stimulation of Dr. Moritaka Matsumoto and Dr. Mary  Morehart of the Department of Fine A r t s .  Dr. Leon Hurvitz, of the Asian  Studies Department, was a source of invaluable advice i n the translation and interpretation of Buddhist manuscripts.  I wish to acknowledge the generosity  of the Ohira Foundation whose research grant gave me the opportunity to examine o r i g i n a l paintings i n Japan.  Lastly, I would l i k e to thank Ms. Lynn Katey for  much appreciated encouragement and the editing of this t h e s i s .  INTRODUCTION  The Ten K i n g s o f H e l l ( S h i h Wang  y* £  ) are the judges who  d u r i n g the  term o f t h r e e y e a r s between death and i n c a r n a t i o n , examine the deeds o f the dead and pass judgement.  S e n t i e n t b e i n g s are sentenced a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r  good and e v i l deeds and sent to one o f the s i x d e s t i n i e s , which are those o f the gods, men,  a s u r a s , a n i m a l s , hungry  ghosts and b e i n g s of h e l l .  In order  to e l i m i n a t e , or a t l e a s t decrease s u f f e r i n g a t the c o u r t o f each of the Ten K i n g s , and to be r e b o r n i n the realm o f gods a f t e r death, p e o p l e were encouraged  to perform such m e r i t o r i o u s deeds as the copying o f t e x t s , the  making o f i c o n s , and the performance performed  o f the mass o f the Ten K i n g s .  the Ten Kings observances t w i c e monthly  future l i f e  People  t o ensure a f e l i c i t o u s  f o r themselves, and on the dates when t h e i r deceased  relatives  would be f a c i n g judgement t o ensure t h e i r r e b i r t h s . T h u s the c u l t o f the Ten K i n g s , which was  e n t i r e l y r e l a t e d t o the ceremony f o r the dead and to  the concept o f death, became one o f the most p o p u l a r i n Buddhism a f t e r the l a t e T'ang Dynasty.  The Teh Kings c u l t was  most p r o b a b l y an  o f f s h o o t of the T i - t s a n g ( J i z o i n Japanese, K s i t a g a r b h a i n S a n s k r i t ) which became p o p u l a r i n the T'ang Dynasty t v a who  had made a vow  (618-907).  cult  Ti-tsang i s a bodhisat-  to save a l l b e i n g s , throughout the s i x d e s t i n i e s ,  d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f the Buddha's absence  from t h i s w o r l d .  As ceremonies i n  honor o f T i - t s a n g were commonly p r a c t i c e d by the l i v i n g f o r the dead,  the  c u l t o f the Ten K i n g s most l i k e l y emerged from the c o n t e x t o f the p o p u l a r T i - t s a n g c u l t , w i t h i t s r e l i g i o u s emphasis on s a v i n g the dead from h e l l . The dates a f t e r t h e i r deaths on which people meet the Ten K i n g s are as follows:  -2-  The f i r s t K i n g Ch'in-kuang Wang  on the f i r s t  The second K i n g Ch'u-chiang Wang  on the second seventh day  The t h i r d K i n g S u n g - t i Wang  ^  ^  i  .  seventh day  on the t h i r d seventh day  The f o u r t h K i n g Wu-kuan Wang  on t h e f o u r t h seventh day  The f i f t h K i n g Y e n - l o Wang  on t h e f i f t h  The s i x t h K i n g Pien-ch'eng Wang  on the s i x t h seventh day  The seventh K i n g T ' a i - s h a n Wang  on the seventh seventh day  The e i g h t K i n g P'ing-cheng Wang  on the hundredth day  The n i n t h K i n g T u - s h i h Wang  on the f i r s t  seventh day  year  The t e n t h K i n g Wu-tao Chuan-lun Wang  JDL  3=Zv-3WJl  on t h e t h i r d y e a r  S i n c e t h e d i s c o v e r y o f many p a i n t i n g s , and many c o p i e s o f the s u t r a s of  the Ten Kings  (Shin Wang  a t Tun-haung, s t u d i e s on t h e Ten Kings  have been undertaken by B u d d h o l o g i s t s and a r t h i s t o r i a n s . provenance  and development  However, t h e  o f the c u l t o f the Ten Kings i s s t i l l  shrouded  2 in  mystery. The d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n s t u d y i n g the development  o f t h e Ten K i n g s p a i n t i n g s  l i e i n t h e f a c t t h a t b o t h B u d d h o l o g i s t s and a r t h i s t o r i a n s have c o n c e n t r a t e d w h o l l y upon t h e i r own s p e c i a l i z e d r e s e a r c h w i t h o u t a t t e m p t i n g a i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the c u l t o f the Ten Kings as a whole.  comprehensive  This i n t e g r a l  approach  i n v o l v e s a combination o f t e x t u a l and i c o n o g r a p h i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In  g e n e r a l , t h e t e x t s o f p o p u l a r Buddhism were i n c l i n e d t o be a p o c r y p h a l  i n an e f f o r t t o a u t h e n t i c a t e the impure  and a d u l t e r a t e i d e a s a t t a c h e d t o  -3Buddhism.  In the case of the Ten K i n g s b e l i e f ,  the B u d d h i s t concepts o f  "karma" and the t r a n s m i g r a t i o n o f s o u l s were amalgamated w i t h the T a o i s t concept o f the j u r i d i c a l system o f the n e t h e r w o r l d as seen i n the T ' a i - s h a n cult  and the C o n f u c i a n concepts o f a n c e s t o r worship  and  filial  piety.  3 Texts o f the Ten Kings are d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e b a s i c t y p e s .  The  first,  h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as Type X, i s the s i m p l e s t , and the one i n which the Ten Kings are merely named f o r purposes o f r e c i t a t i o n r a t h e r than f o r i n d i -  4 vidual description.  The main theme o f Type X t e x t s i s concerned w i t h the  concept o f Chui-shan } $  #  ( T s u i - z e n i n Japanese), which r e f e r s to the  "f^i^  b e n e f i t s o f p e r f o r m i n g a mass f o r the dead, and the concept o f Y u - h s i u (Yoshu i n Japanese) which r e f e r s to the b e n e f i t s o f p r e p a r a t o r y done by the l i v i n g f o r themselves.  performances  The second type, h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o  as Type Y, i s a more developed v e r s i o n o f Type X c o n s i s t i n g o f a l t e r n a t e prose and s e v e n - s y l l a b l e v e r s e s d e s c r i b i n g the i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t s o f the Ten and emphasizing  the b e n e f i t s o f p r e p a r a t o r y performance  by  the  living."'  A f t e r the second h a l f o f the t e n t h c e n t u r y , the development o f Type Y completely superseded Type X. i s problematic. because  Kings  texts  The l a s t t y p e , h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as Type Z,  I t i s the most e l a b o r a t e o f the t h r e e Ten Kings  texts  both the s e v e n - s y l l a b l e v e r s e s and the prose c o n t a i n d e t a i l e d  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the Ten K i n g s .  Type Z a l s o i n c l u d e s H o n j i b u t s u ( o r i g i n s  o f B u d d h i s t d e i t i e s ) and t h i s f a c t puts i t s sources i n q u e s t i o n . Type X and Type Y t e x t s o r i g i n a t e d i n Northwestern  China and o t h e r s i t e s  w h i l e Type Y were found i n both Japan and Korea as w e l l . have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d a Japanese seen o n l y i n Japan, b u t because  o f the f a c t  Both  Type Z t e x t s  i n v e n t i o n s i n c e they were  t h a t some d e s c r i p t i o n s  found  o n l y i n Type Z are a l s o p r e s e n t i n t e n t h century Tun-huang p a i n t i n g s ,  one  -4-  theory As two  i s t h a t Type Z o r i g i n a t e d i n China. f o r the development o f the Ten Kings p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n ,  c r u c i a l periods.  The  there  are  f i r s t p e r i o d , c o v e r i n g the t e n t h c e n t u r y , i s g  represented  by  two  t y p e s , A and B.  In Type A  ( P l a t e s 1-5),  Ti-tsang i s  the c e n t r a l image which i s d e p i c t e d f r o n t a l l y , s i t t i n g upon a l o t u s p e d e s t a l , and w i t h a l a r g e h a l o .  The  Ten K i n g s are p r e s e n t e d  as s u b o r d i n a t e  juxtaposed, around T i - t s a n g .  As a r e s u l t of i t s r i g i d  and h i e r a r c h i c a l composition,  Type A p a i n t i n g s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by i c o n i c p r e s e n t a t i o n .  On  icons  symmetrical .-  the o t h e r hand, the Type B h a n d s c r o l l ( P l a t e s  10,11) i s a n a r r a t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n which T i - t s a n g i s reduced to a secondary image and  the Ten K i n g s are i n d i v i d u a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n continuous  scenes, accompanied by  texts.  In each scene, one  accompanying f i g u r e s are a s y m m e t r i c a l l y q u a r t e r view.  The  arranged  k i n g and and  small  a l l other  depicted i n three-  scenes i n f r o n t of each k i n g a r e ones of simple  torture  as a c t u a l h e l l scenes d i d not emerge u n t i l l a t e r i n the Ten Kings p a i n t i n g tradition.  The  i c o n i c type p r e s e n t a t i o n of Ten Kings p a i n t i n g s was  a pre-  c u r s o r to the n a r r a t i v e type p r e s e n t a t i o n , which most l i k e l y emerged i n the mid-tenth c e n t u r y ,  and  as b o t h types  c e r t a i n amount of  mingling  developed s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  between the t r a d i t i o n s .  p e r i o d , c o v e r i n g the t h i r t e e n t h and  The  t h e r e was  second  f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , saw  the  a  crucial production  of many s e t s o f Ten K i n g s p a i n t i n g s by p r o f e s s i o n a l p a i n t e r s i n the Ning-p'o area.  These s e t s ( P l a t e s 37-43,46,49) are markedly d i f f e r e n t , both  g r a p h i c a l l y and p i c t o r i a l l y ,  from those o f the t e n t h century phase, and  mass p r o d u c t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t the Ten K i n g s c u l t was p e r i o d although i n presentation.  t h e r e i s no  icono-  l i t e r a r y evidence  popular  to support  this  d u r i n g t h i s time  the s p e c i f i c  shift  T r y i n g to i n v e s t i g a t e the Ten Kings p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n i n  -5-  the few  c e n t u r i e s f o l l o w i n g the t e n t h i s p r o b l e m a t i c ,  but n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  I  w i l l s p e c u l a t e on the development of the t r a d i t i o n through t y p o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the Ning-p'o Ten K i n g s s e t s and t h i r t e e n t h and  corroborate  f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y Japanese s o u r c e s .  Ten Kings t r a d i t i o n , and  with  Examination of  Japanese Ten K i n g s p a i n t i n g s , which are enormously i n d e b t e d p r o t o t y p e s , w i l l r e v e a l t h a t they  this  the  to Chinese  c o n t a i n c l e a r f e a t u r e s of the Ning-p'o  t h i s J a p a n i z a t i o n of i c o n o g r a p h y - i s  a significant  a r t h i s t o r i c a l problem. The one  most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e example o f Japanese Ten Kings p a i n t i n g s ,  t h a t deserves s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n , i s a s e t owned by i n Kyoto ( P l a t e s 27-36) and  the N i s o n - i n  r e g i s t e r e d as a N a t i o n a l  and  temple  Treasure.  T h i s s e t i s comprised o f ten hanging s c r o l l s i n d i v i d u a l l y d e p i c t i n g each of the Ten K i n g s . h e i g h t by 42.8 gested  t o be  They are p a i n t e d i n c o l o r on s i l k , cm i n width..  The  execution  and measure 99.3  date o f t h i s s e t has been sug-  the second h a l f of the f o u r t e e n t h century,  the s e t , a c c o r d i n g  Yukimitsu.  The  o n l y e x t a n t work ever a t t r i b u t e d to t h i s p a i n t e r who r e i g n of Emperor Gokogon ( ^ C ^ C  indebted  the p a i n t e r o f the p r o f e s -  N i s o n - i n s e t i s the  was  a c t i v e during  ) (1351-1371), d e s p i t e the f a c t  there i s abundant l i t e r a r y m a t e r i a l r e g a r d i n g As we  and  to the Japanese a r t h i s t o r i a n , J i r o Umezu, was  s i o n a l c o u r t p a i n t e r Tosa (Fujiwara)  cm i n  the  that  Yukimitsu.  s h a l l soon demonstrate, the N i s o n - i n Ten Kings p a i n t i n g s  to Chinese Ten Kings p a i n t i n g s i n t h e i r p i c t o r i a l and  are  iconographic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and y e t c l e a r l y r e v e a l t r a i t s of Japanese a r t i s t i c vocabularies,  as f o r example i n the e l a b o r a t i o n o f H o n j i b u t s u  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the N i s o n - i n p a i n t i n g s . was  The  t h a t i s a prominent  iconography o f  o r i g i n a l l y developed as a p a r t o f E s o t e r i c Buddhism.  Honjibutsu  W i t h i n Mikkyo,  -6-  D a i n i c h i Nyorai  (Vairocana) was  i n the u n i v e r s e .  c o n s i d e r e d the o r i g i n  H i s m a n i f e s t a t i o n ( S u i j a k u ) was  (Honji) o f e v e r y t h i n g  the h i s t o r i c a l  Buddha  13 (Shakamuni).  T h i s main Hon-jaku r e l a t i o n s h i p was g r a d u a l l y expanded t o  i n c l u d e v a r i o u s d e i t i e s , and the r e s u l t a n t scheme was e x e m p l i f i e d by mandala presentation.  The N i s o n - i n s e t o f p a i n t i n g s d e p i c t s the Ten Kings and  their  Buddha and B o d h i s a t t v a o r i g i n s , as f o r example i n the s c r o l l o f the f i r s t K i n g where Ch'in-kuang Wang i s shown as the m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f Pu-tung Mingwang  (Fudo Miyo-o i n J a p a n e s e ) .  the e l a b o r a t i o n o f the H o n j i b u t s u , Japanese Buddhism.  This facet of Japanization,  s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the context o f  -7-  •  CHAPTER ONE T i - t s a n g and the Ten K i n g s P a i n t i n g s , Type A  T i - t s a n g and the Ten Kings p a i n t i n g s were a l r e a d y b e i n g the t e n t h c e n t u r y .  executed  Type A, i n hanging s c r o l l format, d e p i c t e d T i - t s a n g as  the c e n t r a l i c o n f l a n k e d by the Ten K i n g s ( P l a t e s 1 - 5 ) .  1  The e a r l i e s t  r e c o r d o f Type A p a i n t i n g s , i s found i n Shan-yu Shih-k'o Ts'ung-pien &  a  n  during  extant  J_| jfi  s t a t e s t h a t i n t h e l a s t y e a r of the T'ang Dynasty (907), a t  d  a sub temple o f Shen-f u-Shan-ssu  ffi^^^t  i n Shansi p r o v i n c e ,  a p a i n t i n g of 2  T i - t s a n g and the Ten Kings was executed along w i t h s i x t e e n Lohan p a i n t i n g s . Other l i t e r a r y r e c o r d s ,  particularly  a r t h i s t o r i c a l ones, suggest t h a t the  s u b j e c t o f T i - t s a n g and t h e Ten K i n g s continued Dynasties period  (907-959).  to be p o p u l a r i n t o t h e F i v e  A r e c o r d , Wu-tai Ming-hua P u - i  3». s t a t e s t h a t t h e F i v e D y n a s t i e s p a i n t e r Chang-t'u of T i - t s a n g and t h e Ten K i n g s d u r i n g  -$t4bitL' (907-912).~*  chung  to T'u-hua Chien-wen Chih shih  i  ^  "ir  3L/f\,^i^.^ executed  paintings  the r e i g n o f Emperor T ' a i t s u , Chu Ch'u'an-  Kuo Jo-hsii f$ tA/  , i n h i s 1074 p r e f a c e  , introduced  a p a i n t e r , Wang C h ' i a o -  , i n h i s s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h F i v e D y n a s t i e s p a i n t e r s , as  follows:^ Wang C h ' i a o - s h i h : S k i l l e d a t p a i n t i n g Buddhist and T a o i s t s u b j e c t s and s e c u l a r f i g u r e s and most fond o f doing t h e i c o n s of t h e B o d h i s a t t v a K s i t i g a r b h a ( T i - t s a n g ) and the Ten Kings o f Hell. More than a hundred v e r s i o n s o f t h i s theme have been p r e s e r v e d t o modern times. From l i t e r a r y accounts we can see t h a t many p a i n t i n g s o f t h e Ten Kings were d e p i c t e d  a l o n g w i t h the image o f T i - t s a n g d u r i n g  T'ang Dynasty and throughout the F i v e D y n a s t i e s  the l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e  period.  E x t a n t p a i n t i n g s o f T i - t s a n g and t h e Ten Kings l o c a t e d a t Tun-huang and considered  t o have been executed d u r i n g  the F i v e D y n a s t i e s o r e a r l y N o r t h e r n  -8-  Sung Dynasty p e r i o d s , s h o u l d have been s i m i l a r i n p i c t o r i a l and i c o n o g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n t o p a i n t i n g s o f T i - t s a n g and the Ten Kings sources.  recorded  i n literary  One Tun-huang p a i n t i n g housed i n the Musee Guimet ( P l a t e 1) w i l l  be used f o r c a r e f u l examination s i g n i f i c a n t information."'  o f Type A iconography  The p a i n t i n g i s dated  p ' i n g Hsing-kuo  as i t p r o v i d e s us w i t h  t o the e i g h t h year o f T ' a i -  (983) and g i v e s complete i c o n o g r a p h i c  i n i t s well-preserved  cartouches.  f o r c e a t the b e g i n n i n g century as evidenced  information  The Type A p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n , a l r e a d y i n  o f t h e t e n t h century,  by the 983 date  l a s t e d through the l a t e  tenth  f o r the Musee Guimet p a i n t i n g .  The Type A p a i n t i n g i s a h i e r a r c h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f f i g u r e s w i t h a l a r g e s c a l e T i - t s a n g l o c a t e d a t the a x i s o f the symmetrical  composition, and  the s m a l l e r s c a l e Ten Kings p l a c e d t o e i t h e r s i d e o f him, as i f they were attendants.  T h i s placement i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i c o n i c p r e s e n t a t i o n as  opposed t o Type B n a r r a t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n . than  the Ten Kings  T i - t s a n g i s a more important  i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y , as evidenced  by h i s c e n t r a l placement,  f r o n t a l d e p i c t i o n , l a r g e h a l o , and e l a b o r a t e canopy. arrangement o f the Ten Kings  and t h e i r a t t e n d a n t s ,  i n t h r e e q u a r t e r view suggests as a c u l t image. i n the w o r l d  figure  The M a n d a l a - l i k e  along with t h e i r p o r t r a y a l  a d o r a t i o n and enhances the concept  of T i - t s a n g  T h i s d e i t y , who had made the vow " t o make a l l beings  ripen  o f no e x i s t e n c e o f Buddha" and who had been i n s t r u c t e d by Buddha  "with your g r e a t compassion, you ( T i - t s a n g ) now w i s h t o undertake the i n c o n c e i v a b l e t a s k o f r e s c u i n g a l l those i n the s i x paths who s u f f e r f o r t h e i r o f f e n c e s , " had been worshipped as a Messiah image i n the w o r l d day o f the Law (Mappo  )  o f the l a t t e r  T i - t s a n g ' s p o r t r a y a l as a monkish f i g u r e ,  which i s based upon T i - t s a n g t e x t s , i s h i s most c r e d i b l e i c o n o g r a p h i c p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the context o f the e x o t e r i c Buddhist  tradition.  trait,  A t the same  -9-  time,  among p o r t r a y a l s o f him as a monk, t h e r e i s no c o n s i s t e n t use o f  a t t r i b u t e s o r mudras, most p r o b a b l y because t h e r e i s no d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of  his figure i n exoteric Ti-tsang texts. W i t h i n Type A p a i n t i n g s i c o n o g r a p h i c m o t i f s a r e r o u t i n e l y d e p i c t e d .  For  example, i n the Guimet p a i n t i n g , the major i c o n , T i - t s a n g , i s d e p i c t e d i n t h e same p i c t o r i a l and i c o n o g r a p h i c manner as h i s s o l i t a r y image i n o t h e r  tenth  century Tun-huang p a i n t i n g s , such as the B r i t i s h Museum p a i n t i n g ( P l a t e 6 ) . He i s seated upon a l o t u s p e d e s t a l , wears a hood over h i s head and s h o u l d e r s , i s surrounded by an e l a b o r a t e h a l o , and h o l d s a l o n g m e t a l s t a f f w i t h s i x rings. his  He does n o t c a r r y the u s u a l j e w e l l e d b a l l i n h i s l e f t hand . though  hand g e s t u r e i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f h i s f i g u r e i n , f o r example, t h e B r i t i s h  Museum p a i n t i n g .  T h i s s i m i l a r i t y o f hand g e s t u r e suggests  that a jewelled  b a l l s h o u l d be h e l d i n the l e f t hand o f the Guimet T i - t s a n g . and  In t h i r t e e n t h  f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y T i - t s a n g p a i n t i n g s o f China, Korea, and Japan, both  a m e t a l s t a f f and j e w e l l e d b a l l a r e f r e q u e n t a t t r i b u t e s . s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s d e i t y w i t h both a t t r i b u t e s was a p o p u l a r  The p i c t o r i a l and l o n g  pre-  lasting  tradition. The  aforementioned  i c o n o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s o f T i - t s a n g , though n o t  d e s c r i b e d by e x o t e r i c texts', were found and  t w e l f t h through f o u r t e e n t h century  i n l a t e r e s o t e r i c l i t e r a r y sources ; compilations of iconographic  L a t e r mention o f the s t a f f and j e w e l l e d b a l l a t t r i b u t e s can be found Buddhist  T i - t s a n g s e c t i o n o f a book w r i t t e n by Shingon p r i e s t Kakuzeni  f j ^ f (1143-1217).  drawings. i n the commentary)  The f o l l o w i n g quote i s  Amoghavajra's r u l e s o f drawing i c o n s ) T i - t s a n g s e c r e t e s h i s b o d h i s a t t v a p r a c t i c e i n h i m s e l f and manif e s t s a monkish appearance o u t s i d e . He h o l d s a j e w e l l e d b a l l i n h i s l e f t hand a m e t a l s t a f f i n h i s r i g h t hand, p e a c e f u l l y r e s i d i n g on the thousand-leaved and b l u e l o t u s f l o w e r s .  •?  -10-  A l t h o u g h Fuku g i k i i s not it  can be  extant  and  some s c h o l a r s suspect  i t s authenticity,  s a f e l y s t a t e d t h a t the T i - t s a n g iconography o f the Guimet p a i n t i n g  d i s c l o s e s a connection i n Kakuzen sho,  w i t h e s o t e r i c iconography.  p r i e s t Kakuzen i n s t r u c t e d how  In the Dojo-kan  a d e t a i l e d image of  c o u l d be m a n i f e s t e d through the p r a c t i c e o f v i s u a l i z a t i o n o f  Ti-tsang  Ti-tsang.  g  There i s a l o t u s flowered p e d e s t a l on a p l a t f o r m . On the top o f t h a t t h e r e i s a l e t t e r of ^ . The l e t t e r t u r n s i n t o a j e w e l l e d b a l l and the j e w e l l e d b a l l turns i n t o T i - t s a n g B o d h i s a t t v a , a p p e a r i n g i n the f i g u r e of a monk. He wears a monkish garment of $L 1$. (an " E m a n c i p a t i o n " b a n n e r ) . He h o l d s a j e w e l l e d b a l l o f p u r i f i e d Bodhi mind i n h i s r i g h t hand and i n h i s l e f t hand i s a m e t a l s t a f f of f u l f i l m e n t of s i x savings. T h i s v i s u a l i z a t i o n of T i - t s a n g i s remarkably s i m i l a r to the image of in  the Guimet p a i n t i n g and  drawings ( P l a t e 7 ) . Important and  Since  i n e s o t e r i c drawings such as the  seventeen^Nin-na  the p r a c t i c e of v i s u a l i z a t i o n i s one  unique p r a c t i c e s o f e s o t e r i c Buddhism, i t can be  the f i g u r e o f T i - t s a n g d e p i c t e d w i t h b o t h the s t a f f and  Ti-tsang  of the most concluded  jewelled b a l l  that  as  9 a t t r i b u t e s might have o r i g i n a t e d from, and In s h o r t , already popular  developed w i t h i n , t h i s  the e s o t e r i c iconography o f T i - t s a n g w i t h two a t T u n - h u a n g i n the t e n t h  s t a n d a b l e t h a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  century.  man,  asuras,  bottom, and the l e f t  the realms of devas, b e a s t s , The  deva, arranged from bottom to top, All  I t i s q u i t e under-  iconographic  motif,  the  In the Guimet p a i n t i n g , the d e s t i n i e s of  and h e l l , are i l l u s t r a t e d on  i n a s i m i l a r manner.  was  for i c o n i c representation.  Above the f i g u r e of T i - t s a n g , an i n s e p a r a b l e d e s t i n i e s , i s represented.  attributes  of T i - t s a n g i n Type A p a i n t i n g s i s t h a t  of a c u l t image, s i n c e t h i s i s a p p r o p r i a t e  six  tradition.  the r i g h t hand s i d e from top  to  and hungry demons are p o r t r a y e d  o r d e r i n g of s i x d e s t i n i e s from h e l l follows  the b a s i c t r a d i t i o n a l  on  to  presentation  the b e i n g s from the s i x d e s t i n i e s seem to have been saved by T i - t s a n g  and  his  compassionate vow as they a r e on t h e i r  ascending In  way t o t h e heaven h a l l on an  cloud.  the Guimet p a i n t i n g , beneath T i - t s a n g ' s p e d e s t a l , t h e r e i s a l i o n  on the r i g h t and a monk on h i s knees doing t h e a n j a l i mudra ( a g e s t u r e o f p r a y e r ) on t h e l e f t .  The cartouches i d e n t i f y  l i o n Chin-mao S h i h - t z u  the l i o n as t h e g o l d e n - h a i r e d  , and the monk as Tao-ming Ho-shang  There a r e two c o n t r a d i c t o r y accounts and Tao-ming which a r e r a t h e r p u z z l i n g . T'ung C h i  fa fa  about t h e g o l d e n - h a i r e d  The Sung B u d d h i s t  # & £ > and Shih Men Cheng T'ung u  sources Fo T s u  .#U^j£Jjvi) s t a t e t h a t i n  the T'ang dynasty, Tao-ming e n t e r e d p u r g a t o r y , c a r e f u l l y observed Kings p a s s i n g judgement, and upon r e t u r n t o t h e w o r l d t o l d seen."^ but  Huan Hun C h i  t h e Ten  o f what he had  N e i t h e r o f the Sung accounts mention Tao-ming i n r e l a t i o n  they do l i n k him t o t h e Ten K i n g s .  lion  to T i - t s a n g  A fragment o f the Tun-haung document,  ~!&Ji$b&fl> (the r e c o r d o f t h e r e t u r n i n g s p i r i t ) ( S t e i n 3092),  speaks o f Tao-ming and a g o l d e n - h a i r e d l i o n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h T i - t s a n g iconography  though t h e r e i s no mention o f the Ten Kings.''""'"  The s t o r y o f  Tao-ming i n Huan Hun C h i has been summarized by E i i c h i Matsumoto, and t h e f o l l o w i n g account  i s based  upon h i s r e n d e r i n g .  12  When he was taken i n t o p u r g a t o r y by mistake i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h y e a r o f T a - l i 7\. 1%. (778) he saw a m e d i t a t i n g monk w i t h a l i o n b e s i d e him. The monk's eyes looked l i k e b l u e l o t u s and h i s f a c e l i k e a f u l l moon. He was upon a j e w e l l e d l o t u s and h e l d a s t a f f i n h i s hand. Tao-ming i d e n t i f i e d him w i t h T i - t s a n g and t h e l i o n w i t h a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the B o d h i s a t t v a , M a n j u s r i . The appearance of T i - t s a n g was d i f f e r e n t from the t y p i c a l monkish image o f t h e figure. ( E . Matsumoto suggests t h a t the T i - t s a n g whom Tao-ming saw s h o u l d have been a hooded f i g u r e . ) 1 3 T i - t s a n g o r d e r e d Taoming to t e l l people i n t h i s w o r l d t h e d e t a i l s o f T i - t s a n g ' s appearance and t o a d v i s e them t o r e c i t e t h e mantra ) of T i - t s a n g . A f t e r Tao-ming came back from p u r g a t o r y , he recounted and drew what he saw t h e r e .  -12-  In k e e p i n g w i t h t h i s d e t a i l e d s t o r y o f Tao-ming t h e r e i s a Tun-huang, painting  ( P l a t e 8 ) , dated 981, which i l l u s t r a t e s Tao-ming and the l i o n  with a s o l i t a r y f i g u r e of Ti-tsang.  The above l i t e r a r y r e c o r d , w i t h i t s  i n t e g r a t i o n o f T i - t s a n g , Tao-ming, and t h e l i o n ,  l e a d s us t o b e l i e v e  that  the Ten Kings might be a l a t t e r a d d i t i o n t o t h e iconography t h a t i s exempli-  14 f i e d i n the Guimet T i - t s a n g and t h e Ten Kings p a i n t i n g .  E v e n t u a l l y the  iconography o f T i - t s a n g the Ten K i n g s , and Tao-ming and t h e l i o n became standardized.  R e f e r r i n g back t o t h e Sung r e c o r d s o f Fo T s u T'ung C h i and  S h i h Men Cheng T'ung, where a t i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p between Tao-ming and Ten K i n g s i s mentioned, we can see t h a t a s h i f t o c c u r r e d i n t h i s iconography and t h a t t h e Ten K i n g s came t o r e p l a c e T i - t s a n g . In the Guimet p a i n t i n g , the Ten K i n g s , S h i h Wang  , are positioned  on both s i d e s o f the T i - t s a n g f i g u r e , and arranged i n o r d e r from t h e f i r s t K i n g who i s met on t h e seventh day a f t e r death t o t h e t e n t h K i n g who i s seen i n t h e t h i r d y e a r a f t e r death.  Even though  each K i n g i s rendered  almost  i d e n t i c a l l y , i s i n t h e same pose, wears a Chinese o f f i c i a l - l i k e l o n g d r e s s w i t h a crown, and h o l d s a s c e p t r e , t h e r e a r e , f o r t u n a t e l y , c a r t o u c h e s t o i d e n t i f y the f i g u r e s . as Ch'in-kuang  The k i n g s a r e p o s i t i o n e d from the top r i g h t downward  Wang, ^ fc\  i - , Wu-kuang Wang J L upward as Pien-ch'eng Wang Wang  , Ch'u-chiang Wang ^ t f j t i , S u n g - t i Wang , and Yen-lo Wang  j ^ i  , T ' a i - s h a n Wang  and from bottom  iLvi.  left  , P'ing-cheng  -SpjE-i-  , T u - s h i h Wang %f~^^- , and Wu-tao Chuan-lun Wang 7? T& Sfc The f i f t h k i n g , Yen-lo Wang, i s conspicuous because o f h i s r e c t a n g u -  l a r shaped  crown, and t h e t e n t h k i n g , Wu-tao Chuan-lun  armor and helmet.  Wang because  of h i s  These two k i n g s p r o v i d e a means o f i d e n t i f y i n g t h e o r d e r  of t h e Ten K i n g s i n o t h e r Tun-huang p a i n t i n g s o f T i - t s a n g and t h e Ten Kings even when t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s a r e i l l e g i b l e o r t h e c a r t o u c h e s empty.  Having  -re-  e s t a b l i s h e d the i d e n t i t y o f these two k i n g s , i t may be p o s s i b l e t o draw s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t arrangements o f the group o f Ten Kings as a whole.  Their  o r d e r i n the Tun-huang p a i n t i n g s i s as f o l l o w s :  1.  The Musee Guimet v e r s i o n (date: 983) ( P l a t e 1)  2.  The New D e l h i Museum v e r s i o n ( P l a t e 2)  3.  The Musee Guimet v e r s i o n ( P l a t e 3)  4.  The B r i t i s h Museum v e r s i o n ( P l a t e 4)  <7  Vy ft  ^7  ft  -14-  5.  The New D e l h i Museum v e r s i o n ( P l a t e 5)  The l a t e r Japanese p a i n t i n g c o l l e c t i o n of K.&J. Powers ( P l a t e 9)  i  Despite  s  3  n  1  l»  s e v e r e damage to t h i s f i f t h p a i n t i n g , i t seems to me  i n the bottom r i g h t i s wearing armor and might be  the t e n t h  b  8  t h a t the f i g u r e king.  These drawings make c l e a r t h a t the n u m e r i c a l arrangement of the i s d i f f e r e n t i n every case, and  a p p l i e d and  t h a t the f i g u r e s appear i n even and  T h i s arrangement i s e v i d e n t  figures  y e t they are always i n l i n e a l o r d e r .  perhaps u s e f u l to note t h a t i n l a t e r Japanese Ten Kings p a i n t i n g s i s not  z  4  It is  this  pattern  odd-number sequences.  i n the p a i n t i n g owned by Kimiko and  John Powers  (Plate 9). In the Guimet p a i n t i n g , the Ten K i n g s are s u b o r d i n a t e to T i - t s a n g i n terms o f t h e i r i c o n o g r a p h i c  presentation.  v i d u a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between the Ten K i n g s were not importance and considered  Chin ijfy  considered  chi.  indi-  of primary  t h a t the impersonal and monotonous c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n  adequate.  Hsaing-ling-yen  I t seems t h a t  was  A b r i e f summary of the legend from T i - t s a n g P'u-sa  % %^ifyM$)$%b,  , i s as follows:"'""'  dated 989,  and  compiled by Ch'ang  -15-  D u r i n g the T ' i e n - f u e r a ^ . - f f ? (936-943) a w e s t e r n monk, Chih Yu ^ %ta brought a p a i n t i n g o f T i - t s a n g and t h e S a n s k r i t t e x t o f Pen-yuan Kong-te Ching ^ / j ^ 7 # #J~ (probably r e f e r r i n g t o T i - t s a n g P'u-sa Pen-yuan Ching 1&^%i'$Lfa.lw{ %!& . A hooded T i - t s a n g was d e p i c t e d i n a c i r c l e a t the c e n t r e o f t h e p a i n t i n g w i t h a s t a f f i n h i s hand and was accompanied by t h e Ten K i n g s . F i v e o f them a r e p l a c e d a t the l e f t and they a r e Ch'in-kuang Wang, Ch'u-chiang Wang, S u n g - t i Wang, Wu-kuan Wang, and Yen-lo Wang. The remaining f i v e a t the r i g h t a r e Pien-ch'eng Wang, T ' a i - s h a n Wang, P - i n g cheng Wang, T u - s h i h Wang, and Wu-tao Chuan-lun Wang. Each k i n g has a s s i s t a n t s such as Ssu-ming $ £^ and S s u - l u ^ . The o r i g i n a l s t o r y o f t h i s p a i n t i n g goes: a l o n g time ago i n I n d i a a b o d h i s a t t v a made a g r e a t vow t o save s e n t i e n t b e i n g s who s u f f e r and went t o the c a s t l e o f t h e Ten K i n g s w i t h t h e p a i n t i n g o f T i - t s a n g and o b t a i n e d t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e Ten Kings. Subsequently the f i g u r e s o f t h e Ten Kings were added to p a i n t i n g s o f T i - t s a n g . The  description of.the  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f T i - t s a n g and the Ten Kings i n t h i s .0  s t o r y i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i r d e p i c t i o n i n the. Guimet p a i n t i n g . In o t h e r words, s i n c e t h e 989 date o f T i - t s a n g P'u-sa H s a i n g - l i n g - y e n i s so c l o s e t o t h a t o f t h e Guimet p a i n t i n g , 983, t h e remarkable i n iconographic  and p i c t o r i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n  Chi,  similarities  o f T i - t s a n g and the Ten Kings  i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e was an e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n f o r t h e c u l t o f the Ten Kings and T i - t s a n g i n the l a t e t e n t h The  century.  f r o n t a l i t y of the c e n t r a l i c o n , T i - t s a n g ,  ment o f t h e Ten K i n g s around him, c r e a t e s tradition.  arrange-  an i c o n i c image o f t h e Type A  The e s o t e r i c a t t r i b u t e s o f T i - t s a n g p r o p e r can be understood  as m a n i f e s t a t i o n s Buddhism.  and the s y s t e m a t i c  of r i t u a l i s t i c a n d - d e v o t i o n a l factors of e s o t e r i c  The i n s c r i p t i o n i n the Type A Guimet p a i n t i n g  says t h a t t h i s p a i n t i n g was produced f o r a daughter o f Mr. Chang, a 16 s u b o r d i n a t e o f t h e l o c a l m i l i t a r y r u l e r , T'sao. to p r a i s e h e r m e r i t o r i o u s death.  The p a i n t i n g was meant  deeds w h i l e a l i v e , and t o wish h e r happiness a f t e r  I t i s obvious t h a t t h i s T i - t s a n g and the Ten K i n g s hanging  scroll  -16-  was meant to function as part of the funerary services f o r Miss Chang.  The  large size of this painting, and i t s hanging s c r o l l format, certainly correspond  to i t s public function i n the Chui-shan services  i t * (acquisition of merits f o r the dead). From the l i t e r a r y records cited previously, the t r a d i t i o n of Ti-tsang and the Ten Kings can be seen to have reached back as f a r as the end of the T'ang dynasty and to have lasted f o r some time.  -17-  CHAPTER  TWO  The Ten Kings I l l u s t r a t i o n , Type B  Another type of the early phase of the Ten Kings of H e l l paintings i s found i n i l l u s t r a t i o n s for the sutra of the Ten Kings (Shih Wang Ching, "j* >&§b.) °f which there are four i l l u s t r a t e d versions, (Shih Wang T'u Chuan, ~f ~£- 'JL?  } (Plates 10-16). ^  These i l l u s t r a t i o n s show clear differences  with the "Ti-tsang and the Ten Kings" type previously  discussed.  In the Type B each of the Ten Kings i s shown i n d i v i d u a l l y accompanied by a section from the sutra.  These continuing small scenes of the Ten Kings  give a narrative q u a l i t y to the i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  On the other hand, i n the  Type A Ten Kings and Ti-tsang paintings, a l l Ten Kings are neatly arranged around the c e n t r a l figure, Ti-tsang, and this placement imparts a devotional quality.  This difference of presentation, where the Type A are done as  hanging s c r o l l s and Type B as handscrolls, i s very s i g n i f i c a n t i n that i t suggests an iconographic  and i c o n o l o g i c a l development between the two  types.  Before i n t e r p r e t i n g these developments, the Type B Ten Kings i l l u s t r a tions w i l l be examined i n order to understand their iconographic  features.  Our attention w i l l f i r s t be focussed upon the Kuboso Museum version of the Ten Kings i l l u s t r a t e d sutra (Plates 10-11), the most s i g n i f i c a n t of the four Type B versions because of i t s c y c l i c a l date, Hsin Wei  (/5Jh  ) , which w i l l  be c r u c i a l i n reconstructing the t r a d i t i o n of the Ten Kings of H e l l paintings. The i n s c r i p t i o n at the end of this handscroll gives us a s i g n i f i c a n t clue when considering the function of Type B paintings. was  I t says that the s c r o l l  completed on the tenth day of the twelfth month i n the year of Hsin  and that a Buddhist d i s c i p l e , Tung Wen-yuan ^ of s i x t y - e i g h t .  jjr ^  , copied i t at the  Wei, age  -lo-  in  the f o l l o w i n g pages, I w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e how each i l l u s t r a t i o n  responds t o t h e t e x t and observe t h e i c o n o g r a p h i c  cor-  t r a i t s o f each scene I n  the Type B i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  1.  The F i r s t  Scene, Sakyamuni P r e a c h i n g ( P l a t e 10-1)  The  scene i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p r e a c h i n g  before  first  scene o f 'Sakyamuni a t K u s i n a g a r  e n t e r i n g N i r v a n a , and i s based upon the s e c t i o n o f Shih Wang Ching  which Immediately f o l l o w s t h i s scene.  I t i s comparable i n i t s  compositional  scheme t o the Type A T i - t s a n g and the Ten Kings p a i n t i n g housed i n the B r i t i s h Museum ( P l a t e 17) i n which t h e Ten Kings a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two groups and arranged d i a g o n a l l y so as t o meet a t t h e top. ming, the f o u r o f f i c i a l s , istic  Moreover, t h e m o t i f s  and the good and bad y o u t h s , which were  o f Taocharacter-  o f t h e iconography o f the Ten Kings and T i - t s a n g Type A p a i n t i n g s , a r e  revealed  i n this f i r s t  scene o f Sakyamuni p r e a c h i n g .  The remarkable  t i e s between them suggest t h a t t h i s scene o f Sakyamuni p r e a c h i n g  similari-  i n t h e Ten  Kings i l l u s t r a t i o n must have been c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o t h e t r a d i t i o n o f t h e Ten Kings and T i - t s a n g p a i n t i n g e x e m p l i f i e d On  by t h e B r i t i s h Museum v e r s i o n .  the o t h e r hand, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between the two types c l e a r l y  t h a t t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e , T i - t s a n g , and h i s a t t e n d a n t s ,  reveals  have been r e p l a c e d by  t h a t o f Sakyamuni and h i s two g r e a t d i s c i p l e s , S a r i p u t t a and Moggaltana.  The  d e p i c t i o n o f Sakyamuni and h i s d i s c i p l e s f o l l o w s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f Sakyamuni preaching bility  i n the t e x t , and i t was p r o b a b l y i n c l u d e d t o g i v e a d d i t i o n a l c r e d i -  t o t h e Shih Wang Ching, which has been regarded as a l a t e r  i n v e n t i o n s i n c e t h e Buddha's p r e a c h i n g sutra frontispiece i l l u s t r a t i o n .  3  Chinese  scene had become a common s u b j e c t f o r  -19-  In s h o r t ,  the m i x t u r e o f the two i c o n o g r a p h i c  Sakyamuni p r e a c h i n g , i n the f i r s t  2.  scene o f the Ten Kings  illustration.  ( P l a t e 10-2)  second scene i n t h e Kuboso Museum v e r s i o n r e p r e s e n t s  tvas, Ti-tsang  s i x Bodhisat-  Jffl %, , Lung-shu H #f , Chiu-k'u K u a n - s h i h - y i n $ C l § f$->l£  -f , Chin-kang-tsang The  and t h a t o f the Ten Kings and T i - t s a n g , i s m a n i f e s t e d  The Second Scene, S i x B o d h i s a t t v a s The  t r a d i t i o n s , that of  &$'\MK , Ch'ang-pei  , and T ' o - l o - n i  t e x t f o l l o w i n g t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n names these s i x B o d h i s a t t v a s  F&fe^ . who came  to Sakyamuni and unanimously p r a i s e d the compassion f o r o r d i n a r y  people  inherent  The f i g u r e s  i n h i s e x c e l l e n t dharma, as i t spared them from death.  o f these s i x B o d h i s a t t v a s  are placed  i n d e p e n d e n t l y on a p l a i n background,  w i t h no c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r n a t u r a l s e t t i n g , and t h i s g i v e s an i m p e r s o n a l and d e v o t i o n a l q u a l i t y t o the B o d h i s a t t v a s  t h a t i s q u i t e s i m i l a r t o the format  4 of an e s o t e r i c mandala.  3.  The Scene o f a Messenger R i d i n g on a B l a c k H o r s e . ( P l a t e  10-3)  T h i s scene i s a f a i t h f u l i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the accompanying t e x t . describes not  the K i n g , Y e n - l o , o r d e r i n g h i s messenger to determine whether o r  the dead have done m e r i t o r i o u s  i s dressed is  It  depicted  i n black,  deeds.  The messenger r i d e s a b l a c k  and c a r r i e s a b l a c k banner.  i n three-quarter  I n t h i s scene the messenger  view, which emphasizes h i s n a r r a t i v e  r a t h e r than h i s i c o n i c s i g n i f i c a n c e .  This i s the f i r s t  o f the whole.  function  time we n o t i c e the  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a n a r r a t i v e element t o these i l l u s t r a t i o n s . the opening two scenes, a l l others  horse,  I n c o n t r a s t to  c o n t r i b u t e toward the n a r r a t i v e q u a l i t y  -20-  The Hell.  f o l l o w i n g t e n scenes a r e i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f each o f t h e Ten Kings o f  Some o f these scenes  c l e a r l y show t h e i c o n o g r a p h i c t r a i t s o f the  K i n g s p i c t o r i a l l y , and c o n f i r m them i n t h e t e x t s , w h i l e o t h e r s simply r e p r e sent t h e Kings i n judgement and g i v e no s p e c i f i c i c o n o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n s in  their texts.  Although  t h e r e i s no c l e a r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n f o r some o f t h e  K i n g s , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o note t h a t a l l Ten Kings a r e rendered as j u d g e s , and t h a t a l l a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y , o c c u p y i n g s e p a r a t e scenes.  More-  over, placement  sug-  o f the t h r e e - q u a r t e r view f i g u r e s around  t h e Ten Kings  gests a s t a g e - l i k e s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between them and h e l p s t o c r e a t e an a c t i v e n a r r a t i o n o f t h e judgement scenes. ences  i n p i c t o r i a l i z a t i o n between Type B and Type A p a i n t i n g s where the Kings  are s i m p l y arranged around  4.  T h i s i s one o f t h e major d i f f e r -  a c e n t r a l i c o n , T i - t s a n g , and d i s p l a y no a n i m a t i o n .  4$: A  The Scene o f t h e F i r s t K i n g , Ch'in-kuang Wang  ( P l a t e 10-4)  The t e x t to t h i s scene n a r r a t e s as f o l l o w s : ^ On t h e f i r s t seventh day one passes Ch'in-kuang Wang. In p r a i s e one s a y s : 'On t h e f i r s t seventh day, the dead a r e i n t h e i n t e r v a l between t h e i n c a r n a t i o n s . The sheep d r i v e n i n t h e columns are numerous as g r a i n d u s t . B r i e f l y , f a c i n g the f i r s t k i n g , they l i s t t h e f a s t s . But they have n o t y e t f o r d e d the r i v e r Styx.' As t h e t e x t o n l y t e l l s us t h a t the r o l e common t o a l l o f t h e Ten Kings of  H e l l i s the judgement o f t h e dead, the i l l u s t r a t i o n here simply p r e s e n t s  the K i n g w i t h o u t any o f h i s s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e s .  Ch'in-kuang Wang, who  stands b e h i n d t h e desk w i t h two a t t e n d a n t s and one o f f i c i a l ,  i s investigating  -21-  the f o u r dead i n f r o n t o f him. The document on h i s desk i s p r o b a b l y a r e c o r d of t h e good and bad deeds done i n t h e i r l i f e t i m e .  Two o f the dead h o l d a  copy o f a s u t r a and a r e judged by t h e K i n g to have s a f e l y passed t h i s and to be ready to go on to the", n e x t .  The two remaining dead s o u l s *  the neck, a r e sentenced t o be p u n i s h e d because o f t h e i r bad deeds. mentioned  court shackled at  The m o t i f s  above a r e n o t l i m i t e d to t h i s scene b u t appear throughout t h e f o l -  l o w i n g scenes o f the Ten K i n g s .  5.  The Scene o f t h e Second K i n g , Ch'u-chiang Wang fa ;X_£- ( P l a t e 10-5) The t e x t o f t h i s scene says the f o l l o w i n g : On the second seventh day one passes Ch'u-chiang Wang. In p r a i s e one s a y s : 'On t h e second seventh day the dead c r o s s the r i v e r Styx. I n thousands o f herds and myriads o f columns they c r o s s t h e r i v e r ' s waves. Ox-headed demons who drag them on the way clamp the p o l e s oh t h e i r s h o u l d e r s And then demon s o l d i e r s t h a t egg them on c a r r y t h e i r p i t c h f o r k s u p r i g h t i n t h e i r hands.' T h i s scene i l l u s t r a t e s  the t e x t by showing  demons pushing  one p e r s o n i n t o t h e r i v e r w h i l e t h r e e o t h e r s c r o s s i t . t h i n g s as a thorny t r e e on which a b r i d g e , which seem text.  We a l s o see such  t o r n c l o t h e s a r e hung and a woman c r o s s i n g  t o r e v e a l an i c o n o g r a p h i c meaning n o t s t a t e d i n the  I t i s o n l y i n t h e Japanese  copy o f the s u t r a o f the Ten Kings o f H e l l ,  Type Z, t h a t we f i n d these m o t i f s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Ch'u-chiang Wang.  The  s e c t i o n o f t h i s K i n g i n t h e Type Z t e x t c a l l e d T j - t s a n g P ' i - s a F a - h s i n Yin-yuan Shih-wang Ch'ing p l a c e s t o c r o s s the r i v e r :  ^-f  £ f&  , says t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e  a rushing mountainstream,  a deep and wide  -22-  r i v e r , and a p l a c e c r o s s e d by a b r i d g e where t h e r e i s a b i g t r e e , "Iryoju  under which l i v e  called  two demons, an o l d woman who removes t h e  c l o t h i n g o f t h e dead, and an o l d man who hangs these c l o t h e s on the branches to weigh  the s i n s o f the dead.  Though the o l d man and woman under t h e t r e e  do n o t appear i n t h i s scene, we can i d e n t i f y the t r e e as I r y o j u and perhaps surmise t h a t t h e woman c r o s s i n g the b r i d g e has l e d a m e r i t o r i o u s " l i f e  %  ..  The scene as a whole p r e s e n t s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Ch'u-chinag Wang as understood by b o t h the t e x t accompanying Type Z t e x t . ^  t h i s scene and t h a t o f t h e  Furthermore, t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n o f Ch'u-chiang Wang i n v i t e s  us t o r e c o n s i d e r the o r i g i n s o f t h e Japanese s u t r a o f t h e Ten Kings o f H e l l  g i n the c o n t e x t o f t h e Chinese Ten Kings c u l t  6.  tradition.  The Scene o f the T h i r d K i n g , S u n g - t i Wang  j£- ( P l a t e 10-6)  The t e x t f o r t h i s K i n g does n o t g i v e any c l e a r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , b u t says as f o l l o w s :  On t h e t h i r d seventh day one passes S u n g - t i Wang. I n p r a i s e one s a y s , 'On the t h i r d , seventh day, the dead; a l l t h e more alarmed, are f i r s t aware o f the l e n g t h o f t h e steep road o f the n e t h e r w o r l d . Each name i s r e c o r d e d , and they a r e known whereabout i n herds they a r e d r i v e n to t h e k i n g , Wu-kuan Wang.' The i l l u s t r a t i o n f o r t h e t e x t s i m p l y shows a scene i n which the K i n g , S u n g - t i Wang, i n s p e c t s the dead.  T h i s scene i s another example o f t h e t y p i c a l  and f a m i l i a r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the K i n g ' s judgement s e c t i o n o f Ch'in-kuang Wang.  as seen i n t h e p r e v i o u s  -23-  7.  The Scene o f the F o u r t h K i n g , Wu-kuan Wang  J E . ^@ £~ ( P l a t e 10-7)  The t e x t f o r t h i s scene says the f o l l o w i n g : On the f o u r t h seventh day one passes Wu-kuan Wang. In p r a i s e one s a y s : 'Even i f Wu-kuan Wang's s c a l e of deeds stands i d l e , the young men t o t h e l e f t and t o the r i g h t c a r r y a complete r e g i s t e r o f a c t s . Can t h e i r l i g h t n e s s or g r a v i t y p o s s i b l y be a matter o f t h e i r own wishes? No,  t h e h e i g h t or depth o f t h e i r  destiny  n a t u r a l l y depends on (the) former causes and c o n d i t i o n s . ' The m o t i f o f t h e empty s c a l e appears i n a l l f o u r v e r s i o n s of the Type B Ten Kings o f H e l l and must be regarded as a d e f i n i t e i c o n o g r a p h i c a t t r i b u t e .  8.  The Scene o f t h e F i f t h K i n g , Yen-lo Wang  flfl  ( P l a t e 11-8)  The t e x t f o r t h i s scene says the f o l l o w i n g : On t h e f i f t h seventh day one passes Yen-lo Wang. In p r a i s e one s a y s : 'On t h e f i f t h seventh day, a l t h o u g h Yamaraja q u i e t s the v o i c e o f a l t e r c a t i o n  (Yen-lo)  the rancour i n t h e s i n n e r s ' h e a r t s i s n o t assuaged. When t h e i r h a i r i s p u l l e d and heads a r e l i f t e d , so t h a t they can see t h e m i r r o r o f t h e i r deeds, then f o r t h e f i r s t time, they have a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of events i n t h e i r former l i v e s . ' Yen-lo Wang i s seen here w i t h h i s i d e n t i f y i n g a t t r i b u t e , t h e m i r r o r . T h i s m o t i f i s c o n s i s t e n t l y p o r t r a y e d i n a l l the Type B v e r s i o n s and i s d e s c r i b e d i n the Japanese  copy.of Type Z as w e l l .  9  -24-  In t h e Kuboso Museum v e r s i o n , T i - t s a n g , Tao-ming and the l i o n , an i c o n o g r a p h i c u n i t a l s o seen i n Type A, i s arranged i n t h e background  left  of Yen-lo Wang, and t h i s i n c l u s i o n o f the f i g u r e o f T i - t s a n g needs t o be scrutinized.  I t i s worth m e n t i o n i n g t h a t the t e x t f o r t h i s scene has no  r e f e r e n c e t o T i - t s a n g , w h i l e i n T i - t s a n g P'u-sa F a - h s i n Yin-yuan Ching T i - t s a n g i s mentioned  as Yen-lo Wang."^  Shih-wang  T h i s j o i n t appearance o f  T i - t s a n g and Yen-lo i n t h e Type B p a i n t i n g shows c l e a r l y t h a t t h e r e must have been a d e f i n i t e c o n n e c t i o n between t h e Type B examples and T i - t s a n g P'u-sa F a - h s i n Yin-yuan  Shih-wang Ching, though  i t cannot y e t be s u b s t a n t i a t e d  w i t h any more c o n c r e t e evidence than t h a t mentioned  above.  9.  'l£ $KJ-  The Scene o f t h e S i x t h K i n g , Pien-ch'eng Wang The  ( P l a t e 11-9)  t e x t f o r t h i s scene says the f o l l o w i n g : On t h e s i x t h seventh day one passes Pien-ch'eng Wang. In p r a i s e , one s a y s : 'The dead a f t e r the s i x t h seventh day, e n t a n g l e d i n the n e t h e r w o r l d , a r e a c u t e l y f e a r f u l o f b e i n g r e b o r n as men and becoming a d d i c t e d i n t h e i r f o l l y t o t h e i r  thoughts.  Day a f t e r day, a l l they see i s the f o r c e of m e r i t s . But both t h e p a l a c e o f t h e gods and h e l l are f o r b u t a moment.'  itself  So f a r we have c o n c e n t r a t e d our a t t e n t i o n on the Kubuso Museum e d i t i o n but now we w i l l  c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e P e l l i o t v e r s i o n  ( P l a t e 14-9).  A faithful  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e t e x t shows two f i g u r e s a s c e n d i n g pn a c l o u d and. a glimpse o f h e l l , whereas the o t h e r t h r e e v e r s i o n s show o n l y a f a m i l i a r judgement scene p r e s i d e d over by a K i n g o f H e l l .  F o r some r e a s o n t h e  d e p i c t i o n o f Heaven and H e l l i n the P e l l i o t v e r s i o n o f Pien-ch'eng Wang  -25-  did not seem to become standard with the other Type B paintings.  10.  The Scene of the Seventh King, T'ai-shan Wang  7\ *k  (Plate 11-10)  The text says the following: On the seventh seventh day one passes T'ai-shan Wang. In praise one says: 'On the seventh seventh day, the dead i n the i n t e r v a l between incarnations and i n the nether world, single-mindedly seek an intimate reunion with their parents. Though their meritorious deeds at this time are s t i l l not determined, yet they see what causes they s h a l l create for rebirth as man or woman.' Since the l i t e r a l description of this King offers no iconographic p a r t i c u l a r s , the Kuboso Museum version simply i l l u s t r a t e s the scene of judgement presided over by the King, T'ai-shan Wang.  11.  The Scene of the Eighth King, P'ing-cheng Wang  J E ~ £ - (Plate 11-11)  The text for this scene says the following: On the hundredth day one passes P'ing-cheng Wang. In praise one says" 'Personally encountering stocks and p i l l o r y and suffering blows or whips. Both men and women, by s t r i v i n g to c u l t i v a t e merit, escape a f a l l and a long sojourn i n the b i t t e r place of h e l l . ' The I l l u s t r a t i o n corresponds f a i t h f u l l y to the text i n i t s depiction of an o f f i c i a l beating his subject and of the p i l l o r y as the torture mechanism. We learn here that these punishments  are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of P'ien-cheng Wang.  -26-  12.  The Scene o f the N i n t h K i n g , T u - s h i h Wang ffi'fe' %~ The  ( P l a t e 11-12)  t e x t f o r t h i s scene says the f o l l o w i n g : On the n i n t h f i r s t y e a r one passes T u - s h i h Wang. In p r a i s e one s a y s : 'Spending a year here, i n ever g r e a t l y s u f f e r i n g , what cause o f m e r i t s h o u l d men and women c u l t i v a t e ? E r e y e t t h e course o f g y r a t i o n through the s i x d e s t i n i e s has been  determined,  by copying s c r i p t u r e and b u i l d i n g images l e t them b r i d g e the f o r d o f s t r a y wandering.' The Kuboso Museum v e r s i o n d e p i c t s , j u s t as was t h e case w i t h the p r e v i o u s K i n g , a f a m i l i a r scene o f the K i n g c o n f r o n t i n g h i s s i n n e r s .  The P e l l i o t  v e r s i o n ( P l a t e 15-12), however, has the added p i c t o r i a l element  o f the s i x  d e s t i n i e s , i n d i c a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s by bands f l o w i n g upward from the s i d e o f the K i n g .  The i n s e r t i o n o f t h i s i c o n o g r a p h i c m o t i f i n the P e l l i o t  v e r s i o n can s a f e l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o the content o f the t e x t , w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t the d e c i s i o n w i l l f i n a l l y be made i n the c o u r t o f Wu-tao Chuan-lun Wang.  13.  The Scene o f the Tenth K i n g , Wu-tao Chuan-lun Wang ( P l a t e 11-13) The  3L5&,^%fi&r£-  t e x t says the f o l l o w i n g : On the t e n t h t h i r d year one passes Wu-tao Chuan-lun Wang. In p r a i s e one says: 'The l a s t t h r e e to .be t r a v e r s e d are these b a r r i e r s and f o r d s . Good and bad depend s o l e l y on the b a s i s o f m e r i t s (and o t h e r deeds)  -27-  and the e v i l are s t i l l (?) tormented by f e a r t h a t w i t h i n a thousand days, There are maybe premature b i r t h , s t i l l b i r t h , and e a r l y death.' I n a l l Type B v e r s i o n s  t h i s scene p r e s e n t s  Wang, w i t h h i s a t t e n d a n t s and a l r e a d y been sentenced, and realms has been d e c i d e d . of Type A r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  14.  the K i n g , Wu-tao Chuan-lun  the S i x realms, s u g g e s t i n g  that t h e i r ultimate  t h a t the dead have  d e s t i n y i n one  of the  Six  A d i s t i n c t i v e p i c t o r i a l f e a t u r e , which i s t y p i c a l of t h i s K i n g , i s h i s armor and  The  L a s t Scene ( P l a t e 11-14)  The  t e x t f o r t h i s scene says the  helmet.  following:  When the ten f a s t s ( f o r the Ten K i n g s of H e l l ) are complete, one w i l l be exempted from the ten c a r d i n a l s i n s and w i l l be p e r m i t t e d to be b o r n i n t o heaven. In p r a i s e one  says:  'One body i n the s i x d e s t i n i e s i s w i t h woe b e s e t . (Because o f ) the ten e v i l s f o r the three (lowest) d e s t i n i e s there i s no s u b s t i t u t e . For the d i l i g e n t k e e p i n g of the one's m e r i t i s p e r f e c t ,  fast  and s i n s as numerous as Ganges' sands simply melt away.' The  scene shows a s i n n e r , f r e e from the  a T i - t s a n g - l i k e f i g u r e , and man  tsang but  "Juo-zukan no  worshipping  a demon of h e l l on a c o i l e d snake t h r e a t e n i n g  i n f r o n t of the i r o n fence of h e l l .  article,  t o r t u r e s of h e l l ,  Y.  T o k u s h i and K.  Ogawa i n t h e i r  kozo," suggest t h a t the monk here might not be T i -  r a t h e r Tao-ming, because of h i s monkish a t t i r e i n s t e a d o f  hooded garb t r a d i t i o n a l f o r T i - t s a n g . a s t a f f and  a  a jewelled b a l l .  12  the  A l s o absent are T i - t s a n g ' s a t t r i b u t e s ,  I t i s t r u e t h a t t h i s f i g u r e i s rendered i n  -28-  a manner remarkably  s i m i l a r to the d e p i c t i o n o f Tao-ming i n the scene o f  Yen-lo Wang ( P l a t e 11-8), however, i n t h i s case i t would be more understanda b l e to i d e n t i f y him w i t h T i - t s a n g , as he has the a b i l i t y a l l o f the s i x realms, b u t p a r t i c u l a r l y from As demonstrated  hell.  above, the method o f i l l u s t r a t i o n employed i n the Type  B s e r i e s i s remarkably  d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f Type A.and, but f o r a few  cases o f n o t a b l e i d e n t i f y i n g correspondences, features are also divergent.  Wang  %UvLi-  and Wu-tao Chuan-lun  the i c o n o g r a p h i c a l and p i c t o r i a l  I n Type B p a i n t i n g s many o f the Ten Kings have  unique a t t r i b u t e s and s e t t i n g s . Ch'u-chiang  to save b e i n g s i n  P a r t i c u l a r l y r e v e a l i n g a r e the scenes o f  , Wu-kuan Wang  Wang & ^ ^ | ^ " i £ -  2.  , Y e n - l o Wang  The d i f f e r i n g  ,  characteristics  d r a m a t i c a l l y s e p a r a t e Type B p a i n t i n g s from Type A, i n which the main  purpose  of the f i g u r e s o f the Kings i s to form a m e a n i n g f u l i c o n o g r a p h i c e n t i t y r a t h e r than e s t a b l i s h any i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y .  The Kings a r e secondary i c o n s  whose f u n c t i o n i s to l e n d support t o the primary f i g u r e o f T i - t s a n g .  I n Type  B p a i n t i n g s the r o l e o f T i - t s a n g becomes s u b o r d i n a t e to t h a t o f the Ten Kings and he i s seen o n l y i n a n a r r a t i v e c o n t e x t w i t h the K i n g , Y e n - l o , or a g a i n i n the f i n a l How  scene. can these s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p i c t o r i a l and i c o n o g r a p h i c  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the Ten K i n g s o f H e l l i n Type A and Type B p a i n t i n g s be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the c o n t e x t of the c u l t o f the Ten Kings o f H e l l ? l e a d s us i n e v i t a b l y to the chronology o f the two t y p e s .  This question  As mentioned  pre-  v i o u s l y , the d a t i n g o f Type A p a i n t i n g s can be e s t a b l i s h e d as b e i n g from the l a t e days o f the T'ang dynasty i n the e a r l y t e n t h c e n t u r y through to the l a t e t e n t h c e n t u r y , as e x e m p l i f i e d by the 983 date f o r the Guimet p a i n t i n g o f T i tsang and the Ten K i n g s .  On the o t h e r hand, the d a t i n g of the Type B t r a d i t i o n  -29-  has not been solidly established since there are no firmly datable extant versions. 1%  The Kuboso Museum version has only the cyclical date, Hsin Wei  » and this offers as possible dates 911, 971 or 1031."^ To f i x the  date of the Kuboso Museum version, we must f i r s t investigate i t s text i n the light of the development of the tradition of the Ten Kings sutra.  -30CHAPTER THREE The .Ten'Kings  Texts  I n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n I w i l l d i s c u s s the t e x t s o f the Ten Kings and keep the d a t i n g o f t h e Kuboso Museum v e r s i o n open u n t i l a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the v a r i o u s t e x t s has been e s t a b l i s h e d . There a r e b a s i c a l l y The Type X t e x t s ,  two types o f 10th century S h i h Wang t e x t s , X and Y.  ( P l a t e s 18-26, upper s e c t i o n s ) ,  sages and the o t h e r , Type Y, ( P l a t e s  c o n s i s t o n l y o f prose pas-  18-26, lower s e c t i o n s ) , c o n s i s t o f prose  a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h the s e v e n - s y l l a b l e "gatha" form o f v e r s e . ^  The Type Y t e x t s ,  many o f which a r e accompanied by i l l u s t r a t i o n s , as seen i n the Kuboso Museum v e r s i o n f o r example, can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d Type B 2 p a i n t i n g s i n terms o f i c o n o g r a p h i c and i c o n o l o g i c a l i s s u e s .  The b a s i c content  o f b o t h Type X and Type Y i s i d e n t i c a l i n t h a t i t i s concerned w i t h Buddha's preaching j u s t before h i s Nirvana at Kusinagara. h i s impending  I t i s h e r e t h a t he p r e d i c t e d  Buddhahood t o Y e n - l o , a r u l e r o f h e l l ,  to p e r f o r m observances b e n e f i t s f o r themselves  and encouraged  a l l beings  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Ten Kings i n o r d e r t o i n s u r e a f t e r death.  The d i f f e r e n c e s between Type X and Type  Y texts are also c l e a r l y recognizable.  One o f these d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  differ-  3 ences i s the o r d e r i n g o f the Ten K i n g s .  S u n g - t i Wang, the second K i n g i n  a l l Type X t e x t s , i s the t h i r d K i n g i n a l l Type Y t e x t s . chiang Wang, t h e t h i r d k i n g i n Type X t e x t s , appears those o f Type Y.  S i m i l a r l y , Ch'u-  as the second k i n g i n  S i n c e the o r d e r i n which the Ten Kings a r e p r e s e n t e d r e l a t e s  s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the number o f days a f t e r death, t h i s o r d e r would be important i n any ceremonies  o f the Ten Kings c u l t , and any changes would i n d i c a t e some  d i s t i n c t i v e s h i f t i n the t r a d i t i o n o f the c u l t .  I n o t h e r words, i t s h o u l d  be i m p o s s i b l e f o r d i f f e r e n t o r d e r i n g s o f the Ten Kings to c o e x i s t i f each i s  -31-  representative Ten  o f a s p e c i f i c observance w i t h i n a m e a n i n g f u l sequence.  Kings were c o n s i s t e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d  I f the  as a group r a t h e r than as s t r i c t l y  o r d e r e d i n d i v i d u a l s then t h e d i f f e r i n g o r d e r  o f t h e Ten Kings might be seen  as an i n d i c a t i o n o f a change i n t h e development o f Shih Wang t e x t s from Type X t o Type Y. There i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g the two t y p e s .  t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence between  I n Type X t e x t s t h e Ten Kings a r e merely named, f o r purposes  of r e c i t a t i o n , and n o t g i v e n any i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n ( P l a t e s 23-25, upper s e c t i o n s ) . reminiscent  The l i s t i n g o f t h e K i n g s names, one a f t e r another, i s  o f Type A p a i n t i n g s where the f i g u r e s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d  i m p e r s o n a l " l i n e up," each one named by a c a r t o u c h e .  I n the Type Y t e x t s  each o f the Ten K i n g s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s e v e n - s y l l a b l e v e r s e , as i n Type B p a i n t i n g s .  lower s e c t i o n ) .  t h e same  Along with t h i s a d d i t i o n of s e v e n - s y l l a b l e  the name o f t h e monk, Tsang-ch'uan i n Ch'eng-tu.  i n an  "|  o f the Ta-sheng-tz'u-ssu  > appears a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t e x t Tsang-ch'uan i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d  to add t h e s e v e n - s y l l a b l e v e r s e s  verses 7\^J^),  ( P l a t e 18,  t o have been t h e one  between the prose s e c t i o n s i n the Type Y  t e x t w h i l e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f e d i t i n g and e l a b o r a t i n g upon i t , and so i n  4 e f f e c t was t h e c r e a t o r o f a new Type Y v e r s i o n . ch' uan must a l s o have been r e s p o n s i b l e and  t h i r d Kings.^  From t h e p r e c e d i n g  I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s , Tsang-  f o r r e v e r s i n g the order  o f t h e second  e v i d e n c e i t can be seen t h a t Type X  must have been p r i o r t o Type Y i n the chronology o f t h e t e x t s o f S h i h Wang.^ In r e g a r d  t o the e x e c u t i o n  date o f Type X, t h e r e a r e two v e r s i o n s o f  t h i s type which a r e f i r m l y dated; the Nakamura v e r s i o n , dated t o 936, and the S t e i n 6230 v e r s i o n , dated t o 926. versions  Since  these f i x e d dates o f Type X  suggest t h a t t h e Type X Shih Wang t e x t s were b e i n g  copied  i n the  32-  f i r s t h a l f o f the t e n t h century,  three o t h e r Type X v e r s i o n s w i t h  only  c y c l i c a l dates can p r o b a b l y be s a f e l y dated as f o l l o w s ; the y e a r of Mou Ch'en  f o r the S t e i n 4530 v e r s i o n , 908; the y e a r o f H s i n Wei ^  the S t e i n 5544 v e r s i o n , 911; and the y e a r o f Keng Ch'en 5531 v e r s i o n ,  date o f the Type Y t e x t accompanying Type B p a i n t i n g s i s  since there  the t e x t , b u t o t h e r the o r d e r  i s no l i t e r a r y e v i d e n c e c o n c e r n i n g  c i r c u m s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e can be employed.  o f t h e second and t h i r d k i n g s  to 983 i s r e v e r s e d , as the o r d e r  the i n v e n t o r o f F i r s t of a l l ,  i n the Type A Guimet p a i n t i n g dated  r e l a t i v e to the e a r l i e r Type X arrangement, i s the same  f o r these f i g u r e s i n T i - t s a n g P'u-sa H s i a n g - l i n g - y e n  to 989, and i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t f o l l o w e d  i n Type Y.  mentary l i t e r a r y s o u r c e , I Ch'u L i u T i e h  'j^./v  954),  f o r the S t e i n  920.  The e x e c u t i o n problematical  for  C h i dated  Secondly, a f r a g -  *tr7 ( d a t a b l e between 945-  has a l i n e t h a t i s i d e n t i c a l to the s e c t i o n o f the Type Y t e x t which  reads as f o l l o w s : ^  as**. 5-  t  i-«  *t**  *+m?t  Y e n - l o w i l l a t t a i n Buddhahood, be named Samantabhadratathagata, and f u l l y complete the t e n e p i t h e t s o f the Buddha. As the p h r a s e , Shih hao chu t s u "I" "f ^ J^.  , i s not i n c l u d e d i n e a r l y Type  X t e x t s b u t i s seen i n the Type Y t e x t , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t the t e x t o f Type Y was  c r e a t e d near the mid-tenth century,  the Type X t e x t s were p o p u l a r . Kuboso Museum v e r s i o n  o r a t l e a s t a f t e r the p e r i o d when  W i t h t h i s e v i d e n c e , the e x e c u t i o n  date o f the  (a Type B p a i n t i n g w i t h a Type Y t e x t ) should  at e i t h e r 971 o r 1031, r a t h e r than 911.  be s e t  T h i s date o f 971 can a l s o be taken  — 8 as the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e date f o r the Kuboso Museum v e r s i o n . The proposed p a r a l l e l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e x t and p a i n t i n g r e v e a l s a problem.  I f a case can be made f o r a s s o c i a t i n g Type B p a i n t i n g s w i t h Type Y  -33-  t e x t s , then we must address the q u e s t i o n o f whether Type X t e x t s can be l i n k e d i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y w i t h f e a t u r e s o f Type A p a i n t i n g s . l o w i n g s e c t i o n I w i l l attempt  I n the f o l -  to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h a t Type A p a i n t i n g s a r e  c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o Type X t e x t s i n terms o f t h e i r i c o n o g r a p h i c and i c o n o logical  features.  As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , one o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Type X t e x t is  the o r d e r i n g o f the second and the t h i r d K i n g s .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the o r d e r  of the second and t h i r d Kings w i t h i n Type A p a i n t i n g s i s i m p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y because n e i t h e r has any i d e n t i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and because t h e i r cartouches a r e i l l e g i b l e , where the date o f 983 question.  except i n the case o f the Guimet p a i n t i n g  i s a s c e r t a i n a b l e b u t much l a t e r than the p e r i o d i n  D e s p i t e q u e s t i o n s o f o r d e r , the Ten Kings as a whole are p r e s e n t e d  i n a s i m i l a r manner i n b o t h the Type A p a i n t i n g s and the Type X t e x t . t e x t g i v e s the names o f the k i n g s i n o r d e r b u t w i t h o u t d e s c r i p t i o n . p a i n t i n g s arrange the Ten K i n g s one above the o t h e r w i t h o u t  The The  differentiation.  In o t h e r words, a l t h o u g h both the t e x t and the p a i n t i n g i n d i c a t e t h a t i n the e a r l y t e n t h century  no s p e c i f i c iconography had y e t been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the  Ten K i n g s , t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n must have been based on some i c o n o g r a p h i c t r a d i tion.  I n o r d e r t o l o c a t e the source o f t h i s  t r a d i t i o n we must c o n s i d e r the  treatment T i - t s a n g ( t h e c e n t r a l m o t i f o f the Type A p a i n t i n g s ) i s accorded i n the Type X t e x t .  T h i s t e x t type stemmed from one o f the fundamental t e x t s o f  9 T i - t s a n g , T i - t s a n g P'u-sa Pen-yuan Ching.  The main theme o f c h a p t e r seven o f  the Pen-yuan Ching d e a l s w i t h the concept o f Chui-shan and the b e n e f i t s o f p e r f o r m i n g mass f o r the dead."^  The n i n e marked l i n e s o f Type X t e x t i n P l a t e  20 a r e quoted almost v e r b a t i m from c h a p t e r seven o f the Pen-yuan C h i n g .  This  -34-  chapter a l s o d e a l s w i t h the concept o f Y u - h s i u , and masses f o r the dead, s i x - s e v e n t h s  of the b e n e f i t w i l l be  performer, whose s u f f e r i n g w i l l be people were b e i n g but  i t says t h a t i n accrued by  a l l e v i a t e d a f t e r death.  encouraged to p e r f o r m these s e r v i c e s not  a l s o f o r t h e i r own  gain.  The  observing the  I t seems t h a t o n l y f o r the dead  i d e a o f the i n s e p a r a b i l i t y of Chui-shan  and  Y u - h s i u t h a t i s e x p r e s s e d i n the Type X t e x t c l e a r l y o r i g i n a t e d i n chapter seven of the Pen-yuan Ching. brought up h e r e , we  do  Though the Ten K i n g s are not  f i n d the b a s i c s o i l or r e l i g i o u s d i s p o s i t i o n from which  the c u l t of the Ten Kings c o u l d grow. i n our  specifically  T h i s i s perhaps as c l o s e as we  s p e c u l a t i o n , f o r the Pen-yuan Ching, a f t e r a l l ,  w i t h e l a b o r a t i n g upon T i - t s a n g and  his tradition.  is really  can come  concerned  I f t h i s i s so, i t can  understood t h a t the c e n t r a l f i g u r e of T i - t s a n g i n the Type A p a i n t i n g s i c o n o l o g i c a l l y support such f i g u r e s as the Ten Going back to Type Y t e x t s and s i g n i f i c a n c e of T i - t s a n g diminishes  could  Kings.  Type B p a i n t i n g s , we and  be  can see t h a t  t h a t t h a t of the Ten  Kings  because of the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s added by monk Tsang-ch'uan.  The  the  increases fact  that  a s h o r t t e x t on T i - t s a n g , Fo-shuo T i - t s a n g P'u-sa Ching , i s attached  to the b e g i n n i n g of the Kuboso Museum v e r s i o n  c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t the Type Y t e x t i t s e l f had  (Plate  10)  become s e p a r a t e from  the  t e x t of T i - t s a n g , w h i l e a t the same time, the i l l u s t r a t e d s u t r a o f the  Ten  Kings was  not y e t completely independent o f the c u l t of T i - t s a n g .  Y t e x t s the m e r i t  o f Chui-shan was  h s i u became much more pronounced. the words S h i n - s s u - c h i a Shin-s s u-wang-j en  ^y^llL.  n o t i c e a b l y weakened and  In Type  the v a l u e  of  Yu-  For example, i n the e a r l i e r Type X t e x t s , (the f a m i l y of the r e c e n t l y departed)  and  (the r e c e n t l y departed) appear i n s e v e r a l  s e c t i o n s t h a t d e a l w i t h the b e n e f i t s o f masses f o r the dead, but  i n the Type  -35-  Y t e x t s these e x p r e s s i o n s have been dropped.  The two types o f Ten K i n g s  p a i n t i n g s m a n i f e s t d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s emphasis. was used i n the Chui-shan h a n d s c r o l l was  The Type A Guimet p a i n t i n g  ceremony f o r Miss Chang, whereas the Type B Kuboso  d e d i c a t e d i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r e v e n t u a l death, ( Y u - h s i u ) .  Because b o t h Type A p a i n t i n g s and Type X t e x t s p r e s e n t the same i c o n o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s , a t i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p a i n t i n g s and the t e x t s i n the t e n t h c e n t u r y Ten K i n g s t r a d i t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d .  The message t h a t the b e n e f i t s  d e r i v e d from s e r v i c e s to the Ten Kings a r e bestowed b o t h upon the dead ( C h u i shan) and the performer  (Yu-hsiu) i s s t r o n g l y a s s e r t e d , and i s  i c o n o l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the c u l t o f T i - t s a n g .  The e a r l y , mid-tenth  century,  phase o f the Ten Kings t r a d i t i o n r e v e a l s a t r a n s f e r e n c e from a Type A/Type X a s s o c i a t i o n to a Type B/Type Y, and these Type B/Type Y i l l u s t r a t e d s u t r a s became more s i g n i f i c a n t e n t i t i e s b o t h i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y and p i c t o r i a l l y ; p o i n t o f b e i n g important c u l t images.  to the  The Ten Kings s e r v i c e s came to focus  most h e a v i l y on the b e n e f i t s earned by the performer o f Y u - h s i u  rites.  12  CHAPTER FOUR J a p a n i z a t i o n i n the N i s o n - i n Ten Kings P a i n t i n g s  In the two c e n t u r i e s f o l l o w i n g the t e n t h , i t i s d i f f i c u l t  to reconstruct  e i t h e r the Ten K i n g s p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n o r the development o f the Ten K i n g s c u l t because o f the l a c k o f l i t e r a r y and p i c t o r i a l m a t e r i a l .  The second  c r u c i a l p e r i o d i n the development o f the Ten Kings p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n was during  the t h i r t e e n t h and f o u r t e e n t h  c e n t u r i e s , and i t saw the p r o d u c t i o n o f  many s e t s by the p r o f e s s i o n a l p a i n t e r s around the Ning-p'o area."''  The N i n g -  p'o  tenth  Ten K i n g s p a i n t i n g s r e v e a l marked d i f f e r e n c e s from the e a r l i e r  century  phase, b o t h i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y and p i c t o r i a l l y .  F o r example, a l l the  c o u r t scenes d e p i c t l u x u r i o u s i n t e r i o r s where the K i n g s s i t upon o p u l e n t l y ornamented, e m b r o i d e r e d - c l o t h the s t a n d i n g  screens  chairs.  P l e a s i n g l a n d s c a p e s a r e p a i n t e d on  b e h i n d the K i n g s and these f i g u r e s , who a r e busy 2  examining deceased s o u l s , a r e d e p i c t e d i n t h r e e - q u a r t e r f l a n k i n g the Kings g e s t u r e  view.  The  attendants  t h e a t r i c a l l y as they a s s i s t i n the judgement  pro-  cedure, and the whole c o u r t scene i s so v i v i d l y d e p i c t e d , w i t h i t s t o r t u r e punishments, t h a t the viewer f e e l s p u l l e d i n t o the s t a g e - l i k e s e t t i n g . Each o f the Ten K i n g s I n d e p e n d e n t l y d e p i c t e d on one hanging results  scroll  i n a s e t o f t e n , r a t h e r than the s i n g l e t e n t h century  paintings or h a n d s c r o l l s .  Because o f the i n d i v i d u a l hanging s c r o l l  each Ning-p'o p a i n t i n g r e v e a l s a more complex composition. there are b a s i c a l l y Boston v e r s i o n  Ten Kings  I n each  scroll  two scenes d e p i c t e d , as e x e m p l i f i e d by the M e t r o p o l i t a n -  ( P l a t e 37) p a i n t e d by Chin Ta-shou  fe'K.HQ-  .  I n the upper  p a r t o f the s c r o l l t h e r e i s a c o u r t scene, and i n the lower, a h e l l D i v i s i o n i s e f f e c t e d by c l o u d and rock m o t i f s . a f a r more e l a b o r a t e  format  scene.  The c o u r t scene i s b a s i c a l l y  c o n t i n u a t i o n o f an e a r l i e r phase o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  while  -37-  the a d d i t i o n of h e l l scenes  to the e a r l i e r  t o r t u r e scenes  g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r Ten Kings p a i n t i n g s . i n v a r i o u s h e l l s was  i s a new  icono-  S u f f e r i n g of the deceased  r e a l i s t i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d , and  these  illustrations 3  correspond  to d e s c r i p t i o n s of h e l l i n both T i - t s a n g and H e l l  the M e t r o p o l i t a n - B o s t o n significant  texts.  Ning-p'o p a i n t i n g d e p i c t i o n of h e l l seems to be  as i t o c c u p i e s more than o n e - t h i r d of the t o t a l space.  the Ning-p'o Ten K i n g s p a i n t i n g s o f . t h e l a t e r t i n g u i s h a b l e from those of the e a r l i e r narrative quality resulting  tradition  a r e undeniably  from the p r e s e n t a t i o n of h e l l scenes  as the h e l l scenes were g r a d u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d and  shifted  to the Ten Kings  The Appendix d e s i g n a t e s  themselves,  who  and  disthe  the  L a t e r developments i n the  Ning-p'o Ten Kings p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n would a g a i n s i m p l i f y t h i s  was  In s h o r t ,  t e n t h century phase because of  consequent i n c r e a s e i n c o m p o s i t i o n a l c o m p l e x i t y .  complexity  In  were by  compositional  the major focus  then l e s s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l .  the major v e r s i o n s of • the Ning-p' o-.-Ten Kings \  p a i n t i n g s t y p o l o g i c a l o r d e r from the most complex c o m p o s i t i o n a l scheme to  the most  simple.  Type I i s a f u l l y d e p i c t e d h e l l scene c o u r t scene by f u l l - f r i n g e d  separated  clouds and r o c k s  from the accompanying  ( P l a t e s 37,38).  Type I I r e t a i n s some h e l l scenes but d e p i c t s f a r fewer h e l l m o t i f s Type I .  The  some, h e l l and  remnants of c l o u d and r o c k m o t i f s do not c l e a r l y c o u r t scenes.  than i n Type I ( P l a t e s 39, Type I I I has l o n g e r any  Less s p a t i a l 46,  separate  r e c e s s i o n i s c r e a t e d w i t h i n them  than Type I I and  t h e r e are  c l o u d or rock m o t i f s to s e p a r a t e the c o u r t scenes  no  from t h e s e .  T h i s type f o c u s e s more a t t e n t i o n upon the K i n g s ' examinations  and y e t  is s t i l l  screens  ( P l a t e s 40-42).  x  49).  even fewer h e l l scenes  a sense of s p a t i a l  than  depth l e a d i n g toward the s t a n d i n g  there  -38-  Type IV c o n f i n e s the Kings  to a s m a l l e r a r e a and  " c l o s e - u p " view, w h i l e at the same time completely scenes and The  d i v i s i v e m o t i f s , and  g i v e s the observer  e l i m i n a t i n g the  a  hell  r e d u c i n g the number of f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t e d . 43).  c o m p o s i t i o n a l scheme of t h i s type i s the s i m p l e s t of the f o u r ( P l a t e Because of the l a c k of l i t e r a r y evidence  and p a i n t e r s we  r e g a r d i n g Ning-p'o p a i n t i n g s  have no f i r m d a t i n g s f o r them.  Only the Z e n d o - j i v e r s i o n  has been dated p r i o r to i t s date of r e p a i r , 1 3 7 3 .  Based on a l a t e f o u r -  t e e n t h century date f o r the N i s o n - i n p a i n t i n g s , t e n t a t i v e d a t i n g c o u l d hopef u l l y be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r o t h e r Ten Kings p a i n t i n g v e r s i o n s .  In a d d i t i o n to  this,  individuality  t h e r e i s the problem t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e i c o n o g r a p h i c  to the k i n g s .  Cartouches have been the s o l e b a s i s f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  of course t h i s has Turning  r e s u l t e d i n c o n f u s i o n i n the s e t s where t h e r e are none.  to the Japanese Ten Kings  have quoted from, and The  founder  sho  "f  commented on,  t r a d i t i o n , many l i t e r a r y  of the N i c h i r e n s e c t , N i c h i r e n  Z-^^XPf  (.1199-1257),  0 ^HOtr , i n h i s w r i t i n g Juo  and  tfS^Jj^( d a t a b l e  and  J£\  ^ i^fafti,  S h i j u hyaku innen shu  to 1 2 9 7 ) , quoted from both c u l t are found  -fa$L &  )^  Because we  /rjdjb  i n such works "iLi^*  know t h a t t h i r t e e n t h  s a f e to assume t h a t p a i n t i n g s and/or s c u l p t u r e s were executed.  A t the p r e s e n t  Type  ( d a t a b l e to 1 2 5 7 ) ,  century Japanese o f a l l s e c t s were f a m i l i a r w i t h the Ten Kings  , i n Kamakura, has  ,  w r i t t e n by a.Jodo s e c t p r i e s t , Ryochu  w r i t t e n by Gukan J u s h i n ^yfj//' Ifc^ti . ^  <f  santan-  the Shingon p r i e s t Ryoki  Remarks r e g a r d i n g the Ten Kings  as H o j i San s h i k i  texts.  ( d a t a b l e to 1 2 5 4 ) , summarized the Type Z t e x t T i - t s a n g  i n h i s w r i t i n g Shodo shu Z texts.^  accounts  the t h i r t e e n t h century Ten Kings  p'u-sa F a - h s i n Yin-yuan Shih-wang Ching,  Y and  and  fragments of Ten Kings  time I t i s d i f f i c u l t  cult, i t i s The E n - o - j i  s c u l p t u r e d a t a b l e to  to see the o r i g i n a l i c o n o g r a p h i c  1251.  presenta-  -39-  t i o n of these works because of the e f f e c t s o f n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s and a d d i t i o n of f i g u r e s a t l a t e r d a t e s .  I t i s p o s s i b l e , from a l i t e r a r y  to determine t h a t a p a i n t i n g of the p a l a c e realms, and humans a w a i t i n g  the  o f Y e n - l o , the Ten  r e b i r t h i n heaven was  dedicated  account,  K i n g s , the  to B u k k o - j i  six in  g 1236.  T h i s p a i n t i n g seems to have been s i m i l a r to t h a t of the Ten  of the U n i v e r s a l World ( J u k k a i Zu and  given  ( P l a t e 44)  a p o s s i b l e date of 1300.  s c r o l l s i n c l u d e s one  The  o f Amitabha Buddha, who  owned by Z e n r i n - j i  Z e n r i n - j i p a i r of hanging  i s represented  the upper p a r t w h i l e f o u r of the s i x realms are r e p r e s e n t e d and both s i d e s o f the Buddha f i g u r e , and  one  accompanied, i n the lower p a r t , by  complete w i t h f u l l  i n the c e n t r e on  of T i - t s a n g , who  p o s i t i o n e d i n the upper p a r t of the s c r o l l f l a n k e d by and  i s centrally  f i v e of the ten K i n g s ,  d e p i c t i o n s of two  d e p i c t i o n s of hungry g h o s t s .  I t seems t h a t i n t h i r t e e n t h century  Kings were complemented by h e l l scenes. t h a t the Type ( t h i r t e e n t h and  realms of  hell  These Z e n r i n - j i s c r o l l s  scenes with, the Ten K i n g s , i t can be between the t e n t h t i o n s had  Taking i n t o consideration  I of the l a t e r phase of the Chinese Ten K i n g s  century  and  the t h i r t e e n t h and  f u l l y advanced h e l l scenes."^  The  fourteenth  Kings  h e l l scenes i n the lower h a l f . i n t o s e t s o f t e n and  fact  hell paintings  century  tradi-  Ti-tsang,  to the  Type A p a i n t i n g s i n the d e p i c t i o n of the c e n t r a l i c o n and  f i g u r e s i n the upper h a l f , and  Ten  paintings  hanging s c r o l l s w i t h  the Ten K i n g s , and v a r i o u s h e l l scenes d i s c l o s e s i m i l a r i t i e s century  the  d e p i c t i o n of  suggested t h a t the Ten  are  Bukko-ji  Japan, p a i n t i n g s of the  fourteenth, c e n t u r i e s ) m a n i f e s t e d f u l l  of  the bottom  remarkable i n t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y to the l i t e r a r y d e s c r i p t i o n s of the painting.  Categories  tenth  subordinate  to the Z e n r i n - j i v e r s i o n i n the i n c l u s i o n of The  Type I Ning-p'o p a i n t i n g s were d i v i d e d  gave the i m p r e s s i o n  t h a t one  l a r g e s c r o l l had been cut  -40-  into appropriate  p i e c e s , and  Z e n r i n - j i p a i r one  i f one  l o o k s a t the T i - t s a n g s c r o l l of  can see a l i k e p o t e n t i a l f o r d i v i s i o n .  The N i s o n - i n Ten K i n g s p a i n t i n g s judgement w i t h H o n j i b u t s u  ( P l a t e s 27-36) c o n s i s t of scenes of  i n the upper p a r t of the s c r o l l and  a view o f h e l l i n the lower p a r t .  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the H o n j i b u t s u ,  but  i s c r e a t e d by  t r a d i t i o n as w e l l as a s p e c t s h e l l paintings s p e c i f i c a l l y .  and models.  the K o t o - i n  Kings  Kings p a i n t i n g  of the Japanese B u d d h i s t p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n , The  f i r s t phase i s the t e n t h century  the Type B i l l u s t r a t i o n ,  (Type I - a ) , and  together  These Japanese Ten  phases of the Ten  and  and  Chinese,  the second i s the l a t e r phase of  the Ning-p'o p a i n t i n g s c h o o l s , e x e m p l i f i e d by  it  conspicuous  o t h e r w i s e a l a c k o f s t r u c t u r a l harmony  p a i n t i n g s are b a s i c a l l y composed of two  In o r d e r  the  i n the c o u r t scenes where the m o t i f s are patched  from d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s , s c h o o l s ,  particularly  occasionally  A sense o f c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h i n the s e t of  t e n s c r o l l s , i n terms o f the composition,  i s recognizable  the M e t r o p o l i t a n - B o s t o n  Zendo-ji versions  version  (Types I l - i b , I l l - b ) .  to understand the p i c t o r i a l f e a t u r e s o f the N i s o n - i n  i s n e c e s s a r y to t r a c e the o r i g i n s of the m o t i f s  examination w i t h  the  paintings  through comparative  o t h e r Ten Kings p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n s .  The  first  n o t i c e a b l e i n the N i s o n - i n p a i n t i n g s i s the f a c t t h a t the m o t i f s  thing used i n  the background are adopted from the contemporary Ning-p'o Ten Kings p a i n t i n g tradition.  We  n o t i c e t h a t b o t h s e t s of p a i n t i n g s r e v e a l s t a n d i n g  b e h i n d the K i n g s on which i n k monochrome landscapes are p a i n t e d . screens  c r e a t e a t h e a t r e - l i k e space i n the c o u r t scene.  them t h e r e i s u s u a l l y v e g e t a t i o n s k i r t e d desk.  The  and  fences,  d i s p o s i t i o n of the screens  c r e a t e s a d i a g o n a l space f o r h i s c o u r t . be  and  screens These  Behind and  beside  i n f r o n t o f the Kings a  and  desks b e f o r e  each  King  With c a r e f u l examination i t can. ...  a s c e r t a i n e d t h a t the d e p i c t i o n of the Kings and  t h e i r young  -41-  a t t e n d a n t s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y t h e i r o f f i c e r s , i s d e r i v e d from t h e Chin s c h o o l of t h e Ning-p'o Ten Kings p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n (Type I - a M e t r o p o l i t a n - B o s t o n version).  Since the Metropolitan-Boston  v e r s i o n i s h e a v i l y damaged, a r a t h e r f a i t h f u l Japanese copy o f a C h i n model ( a ) , the H o f u k u - j i v e r s i o n ( P l a t e 38), w i l l be employed f o r examination w i t h t h e N i s o n - i n p a i n t i n g s .  comparative  Since e i g h t of the ten N i s o n - i n  p a i n t i n g s a r e i d e n t i c a l t o t h e H o f u k u - j i p a i n t i n g s i n terms o f t h e d e p i c t i o n of t h e K i n g s , t h e i r young a t t e n d a n t s , and c o u r t o f f i c e r s ,  i t can be s a i d t h a t  the p i c t o r i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e Kings and t h e i r a t t e n d a n t s i s based upon a coherent  source from a C h i n model."'""''  The s c r o l l o f t h e s i x t h K i n g , P i e n -  ch'eng Wang ( P l a t e 32), o f t h e N i s o n - i n p a i n t i n g s , which i s i d e n t i c a l t o the H o f u k u - j i s c r o l l o f t h e t e n t h K i n g , g i v e s t y p i c a l evidence o f the p i t f a l l s o f d i r e c t copying. imposing,  F o r example, t h e K i n g o f t h e H o f u k u - j i v e r s i o n i s an  d i g n i f i e d , and s t a b l e f i g u r e , s i t t i n g s e r e n e l y i n a c h a i r and  p o s i t i o n i n g h i s arms f i r m l y on a desk, whereas the K i n g o f t h e N i s o n - i n v e r s i o n has a v e r y unbalanced  p o s t u r e and g i v e s an i m p r e s s i o n o f nervousness  and i n s t a b i l i t y because o f h i s s m a l l s i z e and a w k w a r d l y - t i l t i n g , bent T h i s i m p r e s s i o n i s f u r t h e r enhanced by h i s exaggerated  arms.  f a c i a l expression.  S i m i l a r l y , t h e two f i g u r e s a t t e n d i n g t h e K i n g were c o p i e d w i t h e x a c t l y t h e same g e s t u r e s as t h e o r i g i n a l , b u t n o t w i t h the c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t a b i l i t y o r weightiness.  Even such s m a l l d e t a i l s as the i n k box and document on t h e  desk a r e i d e n t i c a l t o the H o f u k u - j i v e r s i o n .  Thus i t can be i n f e r r e d t h a t  Chin s c h o o l Ten Kings p a i n t i n g s p l a y e d a major r o l e i n t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e Nison-in paintings. In t h e N i s o n - i n s e t , t h e seventh K i n g , T ' a i - s h e n Wang ( P l a t e 3 3 ) , wearing  armor and helmet, i s n o t found i n t h e p a i n t i n g s o f the Chin  -42-  s c h o o l o r the L i u s c h o o l o f the Ning-p'o t r a d i t i o n , b u t i s found i n the t e n t h century  Tun-huang Ten Kings p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n .  H i s costume i s i c o n o g r a p h i c -  a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e l a s t K i n g , Wu-tao Chuan-lun Wang, i n the e a r l y phase of the Tun-huang Ten K i n g s t r a d i t i o n , and so i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e o u t f i t o f T a i - s h a n Wang, i n the N i s o n - i n been meant f o r t h e l a s t K i n g . w i t h Japanese c o p i e s Hoju-in  s e t , might o r i g i n a l l y have  People i n t h e f o u r t e e n t h  o f t h e Ten Kings i l l u s t r a t e d  century  were f a m i l i a r  texts exemplified  ( P l a t e 16-13, bottom) v e r s i o n , and so should  by t h e  have been w e l l aware o f  the f a c t t h a t i n t h e o l d Ten Kings p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n the l a s t K i n g was depicted  as a g e n e r a l - l i k e f i g u r e i n . armour, and helmet. Moreover, the f i g u r e  a s c e n d i n g on clouds  t o heaven a l s o corresponds t o t h e o l d iconography o f the  l a s t K i n g , Wu-tao Chuan-lun Wang.  I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t a f t e r t h e execu-  t i o n o f the N i s o n - i n p a i n t i n g s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Kings was mixed up, s i n c e the s p e c i f i c iconographic disappeared.  t r a i t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l k i n g s had g r a d u a l l y  Furthermore, i n t h e f o u r p a i n t i n g s which have a H o n j i b u t s u o f  a Buddha i c o n , the f o u r Buddhas a r e n o t c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e , and t h i s c o u l d a l s o have c o n t r i b u t e d is  t o a mix-up i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e K i n g s .  t h e r e f o r e f e a s i b l e t h a t t h e K i n g i n armour and helmet i n the N i s o n - i n  p a i n t i n g s was o r i g i n a l l y d e p i c t e d The  It  as the l a s t K i n g , Wu-tao Chuan-lun Wang.  f a c t t h a t t h i s s p e c i f i c a l l y o l d - t r a d i t i o n m o t i f was used  with new-tradition  motifs,  simultaneously  i n c l u d i n g the p a r t i c u l a r l y Japanese m o t i f  of a  s h r i n e gate, r e v e a l s an important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Japanese Ten K i n g s p a i n t i n g s i n terms o f a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n . paintings  i s even more c l e a r l y o b s e r v a b l e ,  The J a p a n i z a t i o n  o f Ten K i n g s  i n a l l of the ten s c r o l l s , i n  the lower s e c t i o n s i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e beings f a c i n g judgement and h e l l  scenes.  These s e c t i o n s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i n c l u s i o n of o l d Chinese elements,  -43-  new Chinese Ning-p'o elements, In  the s c r o l l s  Indebtedness was  and Japanese  elements.  o f t h e f o u r t h ( P l a t e 30) and t e n t h Kings  t o the C h i n model (a) can be c l e a r l y seen.  ( P l a t e 36) g r e a t  The s u b j e c t matter  chosen from t h e models b u t was n o t rendered as exact copy work.  comparison o f the H o f u k u - j i f i r s t K i n g , Ch'in-kuang Wang ( P l a t e  A  38(1), w i t h  the N i s o n - i n f o u r t h K i n g , Wu-kuan Wang, r e v e a l s t h a t a l l the m o t i f s a r e I d e n t i c a l , w h i l e the composition o f the N i s o n - i n s c r o l l i s a r e v e r s a l o f the H o f u k u - j i s c r o l l ground space. types.  from  these scenes  o f the f o r e -  T h i s r e v e r s a l i s a common method o f m o d i f y i n g Chinese  The H o f u k u - j i s c r o l l  pendently  blended  composition w i t h a change i n the treatment  ( C h i n model (a)) d e p i c t s t h e h e l l  scene  protoinde-  the c o u r t scene by means o f a d i v i s i v e r o c k m o t i f and both  are p a r a l l e l .  On the o t h e r hand, t h e N i s o n - i n s c r o l l has  t h e h e l l and c o u r t scenes.  F o r example, t h e p u l l i n g o f tongues i s  a p a r t of the c o u r t scene and t h e d e p i c t i o n o f the b a l a n c e u n i f i e s the f o r e and middle  grounds.  The c o u r t scene i s c e n t r a l i z e d and enhanced by the  a d d i t i o n o f a new d i a g o n a l space i n the form o f a rock p l a t f o r m on which two m e r i t o r i o u s people s t a n d .  A g a i n , comparing the H o f u k u - j i s i x t h K i n g  ( P l a t e 38(6)) w i t h t h e N i s o n - i n t e n t h K i n g  ( P l a t e 36) r e v e a l s t h a t composi-  t i o n a l changes have been made, b u t ones t h a t d i f f e r i n the s c r o l l o f the f o u r t h King.  from t h e changes made  The N i s o n - i n p a i n t i n g d e p i c t s a h e l l  scene i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o f the H o f u k u - j i p a i n t i n g m o t i f - w i s e , b u t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e chase i s a g a i n r e v e r s e d , and t h e d i v i s i v e r o c k s a r e removed resulting i n a flat quality.  .•  I n o t h e r words, t h e r e n d i t i o n o f h e l l i n the  N i s o n - i n p a i n t i n g i s n o t so i l l u s i o n i s t i c and r e a l i s t i c as t h a t o f t h e H o f u k u - j i v e r s i o n , and p r e s e n t s a l e s s d r e a d f u l and h o r r i b l e h e l l  than the  C h i n model. Even though these two N i s o n - i h p a i n t i n g s r e v e a l t h e a r t i s t  copied  -44-  all  the major m o t i f s , he d i d n o t attempt t o make exact  replicas  but rather  to modify the C h i n model and somehow c r e a t e "Japanese" Ten Kings p a i n t i n g s . The  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h e l l i s weakened i n terms o f i c o n o g r a p h i c  by  t h e two d i f f e r i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n s As w e l l as b e i n g  indebted  implication  o f two o r i g i n a l c o m p o s i t i o n schemes.  t o Chin p r o t o t y p e s ,  the Nison-in  paintings  were a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e Ning-p'o p a i n t i n g s c h o o l o f . L u ,Hsin-chung fa \%  %  He ( o r h i s s t u d i o ) produced many s e t s o f Ten K i n g s  paintings  12 i n b o t h models (b) and ( c ) . l a r l y o f the Z e n d o - j i  With c l o s e comparative examination, p a r t i c u -  and Bunkacho v e r s i o n s , we f i n d the N i s o n - i n  are s t r o n g l y l i n k e d t o model ( b ) .  F o r example, a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e m o t i f o f  the f i f t h K i n g , Y e n - l o , a karma m i r r o r ,  Is evident  Chinese and Japanese Ten K i n g s p a i n t i n g s . (a),  paintings  i n a l l t h e s e t s o f both  Each model o f Ning-p'o p a i n t i n g  ( b ) , o r (c) d e p i c t s the c o u r t o f Emma i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t manner. I n  C h i n model (a) ( P l a t e 38(5)) a man i s f o r c e d , by a demon, t o f a c e t h e m i r r o r w h i l e an o f f i c e r h o l d s documents t h a t resemble t e x t s .  I n Lu model (c)  ( P l a t e 40) a man i s f o r c e d t o f a c e t h e m i r r o r , by a demon, b u t t h e documentl i k e items a r e t i n y and h e l d by two b i r d s .  The m i r r o r  i s r e f l e c t i n g the  karma o f the man's s o u l as a r e s u l t o f h i s h a v i n g k i l l e d lifetime. a demon is  I n L u model (b) ( P l a t e 41) b o t h a man and woman a r e f o r c e d to f a c e the m i r r o r , w h i l e a b u l l - h e a d e d  also depicted.  The N i s o n - i n  demon c a r r y i n g a long  an o f f i c e r .  by spear  f i f t h K i n g p a i n t i n g has e v i d e n t l y used L u  model (b) as a b a s i s w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f such m o t i f s and  a b i r d during h i s  as t i n y bound-souls  Whereas Chinese models d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o d e p i c t nude women,  the N i s o n - i n p a i n t e r a v o i d e d d e p i c t i o n o f nude f i g u r e s , and w i t h women, i n order  to hide  the breasts,  concealing motif.  endeavoured to show a back view o r i n s e r t a  The p r o h i b i t i o n o f n u d i t y  i n the Nison-in  s e t was most  l i k e l y imposed upon the p a i n t e r by t h e i m p e r i a l c o u r t which employed him.  -45-  The . Lu  Nison-in  model (b)  t e n t h K i n g p a i n t i n g employs a noteworthy a d a p t a t i o n  compositional  device  i n the s c r o l l of the K i n g ( P l a t e 28).  the model's f r a g m e n t a l scene of h e l l arranged d i a g o n a l l y and  i n the bottom l e f t  corner w i t h a s o u l impaled upon i t ,  the n e e d l e mountain i s a l s o i n the bottom l e f t and  In  ( P l a t e s 39,42,46), a n e e d l e mountain i s  a second s o u l i s shown f a l l e n i n t o a h o l e .  Impaled upon i t  of a  the female f i g u r e on  In the N i s o n - i n corner,  top of i t  but  hell  scene  the male f i g u r e  d i f f e r from the model 13  in  t h a t they conform to a p o p u l a r Japanese h e l l m o t i f , ( P l a t e  Borrowing the  compositional  s c r o l l neatly replaced of the  scheme from the Lu  model ( b ) , the  a t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese m o t i f ,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c methods of " J a p a n i z a t i o n "  c l o u d m o t i f u t i l i z e d i n the scene, p a r t i c u l a r l y f l o a t i n g from the l e f t ,  45-c). Nison-in  thereby employing  i n the s e t .  Moreover,  shows the same f u n c t i o n l e s s y e t d e c o r a t i v e  o f the D a i t o k u - j i compound temples ( P l a t e  Some o f the i n f l u e n c e d by can be  t o r t u r e scenes o f the N i s o n - i n  the Lu  model (b) p a i n t i n g s ,  seen i n the lower s e c t i o n s  Chin model (a) i n f l u e n c e can be  manner-  Kings p a i n t i n g s  f i r s t K i n g ( P l a t e 2.7) .  paintings  are  definitely  and what i s more, t h i s  of the s c r o l l s at the  influence  same time t h a t  i s revealed  In the f o r e g r o u n d  second demon hangs t h e i r c l o t h i n g on i s portrayed  matter of t h i s scene was  the  seen i n the upper s e c t i o n s .  s o u l i n t o the same h e l l r i v e r where t h r e e  Chinese man  and  46).  A l o n g w i t h the C h i n model i n f l u e n c e s , s u b j e c t matter from the phase of Ten  the  the h o r i z o n t a l dark c l o u d s  i s t i c treatment found i n the model (b) v e r s i o n of S e i g a n - j i ( P l a t e 39) Koto-in  one  i n the N i s o n - i n  p a i n t i n g of  the  a r e d demon i s about to throw a o t h e r s o u l s are drowning, and  the branches of a thorny t r e e .  r i d i n g over the h e l l r i v e r on a h o r s e . depicted  early  The  a  A subject  i n the s e c t i o n o f the second K i n g i n  the  -46-  Tun-huang Type B i l l u s t r a t e d identity  t e x t s ( P l a t e 10-5, 13-5), so the same problem o f  as t h a t o f the .armor and helmet p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , i s r a i s e d .  According  to Type Z t e x t s  the s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f the scene p r e s e n t s  character-  i s t i c s o f the second K i n g as e x e m p l i f i e d i n Tun-huang p a i n t i n g s , however, t h e Japanese c o p i e s o f the Type B t e x t s ( P l a t e s 13-5, bottom, 47) i l l u s t r a t e motif  f o r the f i r s t K i n g ,  this  so i t can be seen t h a t the N i s o n - i n p a i n t i n g adopted 14  this  iconographic motif  should be r a i s e d .  from the Japanese copy.  Two a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t s  The demons d e p i c t e d i n the foreground  scene o f the N i s o n -  i n p a i n t i n g a r e o f an old-man-demon and an old-woman-demon as i l l u s t r a t e d Type B  scrolls  and so a r e f a i t h f u l t o the e a r l y phase model w h i l e  a confusion regarding  the use o f the h e l l r i v e r .  T h i s r i v e r was  i n the  there i s  originally  c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f t h e r o u t e to the p a l a c e o f the second K i n g b u t i s d e p i c t e d , in  the N i s o n - i n p a i n t i n g , l i k e a p a r t o f h e l l .  context  o f Japanese B u d d h i s t  I t i s understandable,  i n the  a r t h i s t o r y , t h a t s i n c e t h i s m o t i f became an  iconography o f h e l l through the development o f h e l l p a i n t i n g , e x e m p l i f i e d by the Z e n r i n - j i  p a i n t i n g ( P l a t e 45-a), the N i s o n - i n p a i n t e r simply  t r e a t e d the  h e l l river  as a h e l l m o t i f .  The N i s o n - i n f i r s t K i n g p a i n t i n g i s remarkably  different,  c o m p o s i t i o n a l l y , from the o t h e r s c r o l l s because o f the f a c t  the h e l l scene i s e l a b o r a t e and the judgement scene i s e l i m i n a t e d . s e p a r a t i o n o f the ,King and the h e l l scene by clouds  type p a i n t i n g s o f the N i s o n - i n s e t a c t u a l l y decreased  the C h i n  proto-  the h e l l scenes.  e l a b o r a t i o n o f the h e l l scene i s g i v e n a d d i t i o n a l f o c u s by the f a c t demon, and o f f i c e r  The  reminds one o f the f u l l y  d e p i c t e d h e l l scenes o f the C h i n model ( a ) , y e t i r o n i c a l l y ,  King,  that  The  t h a t the  s t a r e down upon i t .  Though the N i s o n - i n p a i n t i n g s u t i l i z e s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s from d i f f e r e n t Chinese models, they d e f i n i t e l y c o u r t and h e l l s c e n e s .  manifest  "Japanese" elements i n the  The a r t i s t o b v i o u s l y attempted t o a v o i d  direct  -47-  r e p l i c a t i o n of Chinese Ten Kings paintings by addition of "Japanese" motifs and by replacement  of Chinese motifs with Japanese ones.  There are b a s i c a l l y  two devices used to present "Japanese" aspects, one being to employ t r a d i t i o n a l h e l l painting subject matter, iconography, and p i c t o r i a l i z a t i o n , and the other to substitute "Japanese" motifs, such as Japanese figures, f o r Chinese and so manifest the Japanese mid-fourteenth century point of view. In the Japanese h e l l painting t r a d i t i o n the treatment of demons i s characterized by application of a bright and simple color f o r the naked body, sometimes with graduation of a single coloration and employment of contour lines to emphasize t h e i r powerful physical imagery.  This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c rendition i s  c l e a r l y revealed i n the treatment of the Nison-in demons (Plate 33).  Their  appearance i s very similar to that of the fourteenth century Shojuraigo-ji h e l l painting (Plate 48-a).  In both the Shojuraig5-ji and  Nison-in paintings the demons expose upright fangs, glare from three eyes, and have conspicuously curly h a i r .  Moreover, i n the Nison-in painting of  Ch'u-chiang Wang (Plate 28), the demon that wears v e s t - l i k e armor d i r e c t l y over i t s naked body, shows f a r more s i m i l a r i t y to the Shojuraigo-ji demons (Plate 48-b) than those of Chinese Ten Kings paintings. One Japanese painting which shares many p i c t o r i a l and iconographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with the Nison-in paintings i s a hanging s c r o l l of the Ten Realms of the Worlds (Jukkai-zu) at Z e n r i n - j i (Plate 45-b).  The demons i n  this painting are depicted i n the same "Japanese" manner as i n the f i r s t King s c r o l l of the Nison-in set.  In addition, two p a r t i c u l a r motifs depicted i n  the Nison-in s c r o l l , those of souls crossing the h e l l r i v e r on a bridge, and male and female souls on a needle tree, are also seen i n the Z e n r i n - j i painting.  A c r u c i a l area i n which both s c r o l l s reveal a s i m i l a r i t y i s the  iconographic unity of h e l l and the Ten Kings, although Nison-in's iconography  -48-  of h e l l and t o r t u r e i s a l i t t l e  confused.  While  the p r e v i o u s s i m i l a r i t i e s  e x i s t , the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two p a i n t i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n the c o n t e x t of the Japanese  h e l l p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n , the Z e n r i n - j i type was executed  p r i o r t o the N i s o n - i n . format.  One s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two i s i n t h e  The Z e n r i n - j i p a i n t i n g d e p i c t s a l l the Ten K i n g s , a c e n t r a l image  of T i - t s a n g , the realm o f h e l l , and the realm o f hungry ghosts a l l t o g e t h e r i n one l a r g e hanging  scroll.  On the o t h e r hand, the N i s o n - i n s e t d e p i c t s  each o f the Ten K i n g s , a l o n g w i t h some h e l l m o t i f s , on a s e p a r a t e s c r o l l , as i f each K i n g was independent  from the c o l l e c t i v e body o f K i n g s .  An  i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the Z e n r i n - j i p a i n t i n g i s t h a t a l l the Ten K i n g s , who a r e c o m p l e t e l y based upon C h i n model ( a ) , more c l o s e l y resemble  those o f the model than those o f N i s o n - i n .  The s i n g l e  coloration  of t h e i r c l o t h i n g and the l a c k o f p a t t e r n r e v e a l s a f a i t h f u l r e p r o d u c t i o n of t h e model.  A t the same time some Japanese  a r t i s t i c f l a v o r can be d i s -  cerned i n the e l a b o r a t e p a t t e r n s on the c h a i r s behind the K i n g s . hand the newly c r e a t e d Japanese  On the o t h e r  Ten K i n g s t r a d i t i o n , under the i n f l u e n c e of  the Ning-p'o Ten Kings t r a d i t i o n o f L i u Hsin-chung r e v e a l e d i n the N i s o n - i n s e t o f s c r o l l s .  and C h i n Ta-shou, i s  J a p a n i z a t i o n i s obvious i n the  e l a b o r a t e treatment o f the K i n g s ' c l o t h e s and the p a t t e r n i n g on t h e c h a i r s behind the K i n g s .  We can most l i k e l y conclude t h a t the C h i n model (a) was  an e a r l i e r type o f Ning-p'o Ten Kings p a i n t i n g which f u l l y r e p r e s e n t s the o l d i c o n o g r a p h i c a l system amalgamating the Ten Kings and h e l l .  The Ten Kings  c o u r t scene o f the Z e n r i n - j i s c r o l l was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the C h i n model and to a much l e s s e r degree by Japanese p a i n t i n g s reproduced  a r t i s t i c t a s t e , b u t as a whole the  the o l d t r a d i t i o n o f the Ten Kings p a i n t i n g .  i n p a i n t i n g s , which borrowed n o t o n l y from C h i n b u t a l s o from Lu  The N i s o n and from  the o l d e r t e n t h c e n t u r y Ten Kings p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n , were p a r t o f a f u l l y  -49-  modified  "new  t r a d i t i o n " of Japanese Ten Kings p a i n t i n g .  As mentioned e a r l i e r , one  device  o f Japanese f i g u r e s f o r Chinese. p a i n t i n g , the woman who while  used i n J a p a n i z a t i o n was  F o r example, i n the N i s o n - i n f i r s t  The  Chinese a m e r i t o r i o u s good and bad  King  i s drowning i n the h e l l r i v e r i s a Japanese f i g u r e ,  the male f i g u r e on horseback who  r i v e r i s Chinese.  substitution  i s r i d i n g over a b r i d g e of the  Japanese f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s one.  karmas can be  Here and  a w i c k e d s o u l and  t h e r e throughout the N i s o n - i n  d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  t h i s use o f f i g u r e s .  hell  the paintings  On  the  o t h e r hand, the Z e n r i n - j i p a i n t i n g b a s i c a l l y d e p i c t s s o u l s as Japanese f i g u r e s w i t h no  d i s t i n c t i o n between bad  and  good.  This i s evident  p a r t of the p a i n t i n g where the Ten K i n g s are d e p i c t e d and where we  see  the realms o f the hungry ghosts and h e l l .  i n b o t h the upper i n the lower p a r t  I t can be  understood  t h a t the d i f f e r e n t treatment of f i g u r e s r e f l e c t s s h i f t i n g s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . By  the mid-fourteenth,  century  (execution  imagery would have been c o n s i d e r e d around 1300  date o f N i s o n - i n p a i n t i n g s )  Chinese  more " i d e a l " than i t would have been  ( e x e c u t i o n date of the Z e n r i n - j i p a i n t i n g ) .  The  e a r l y Muromachi  p e r i o d was  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e n t h u s i a s t i c a b s o r p t i o n of Chinese c u l t u r e  philosophy  by h i g h - c l a s s c i t i z e n s , Zen monks, and  the Emperors and A s h i k a g a Shoguns. considered  A n y t h i n g and  s u p e r i o r to Japanese e q u i v a l e n t s  and  everything  zest.^  Considering  Chinese  arts; was  therefore prestigious.  Zen monks o f Kyoto and Kamakura spoke Chinese and Chinese a r t works w i t h  the p a t r o n s of the  and  The  the Shoguns c o l l e c t e d  t h i s i d e a l i z a t i o n o f Chinese  cult-  ure, I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t the head o f the Emperor's c o u r t p a i n t e r s , Yukimltsu,  I n t e n t i o n a l l y depicted  the Chinese f i g u r e s f a v o r a b l y and  the  Japanese l e s s so. A p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e of the s e t of N i s o n - i n p a i n t i n g s i s the f a c t t h a t the H o n j i b u t s u t i o n a l scheme.  i s predominant and  governs the e n t i r e composi-  T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t to o t h e r Ten Kings p a i n t i n g s such as  the  -50-  Kanazawa Bunko  >ic ~/K  version  version  ( P l a t e 39)  ( P l a t e 49)  scroll,  p l a y a minor  In the N i s o n - i n  the Ten Kings c o u r t scene and  o n l y the remaining t h r e e - f i f t h s . Nison-in paintings counteracts the lower s e c t i o n s , and compositions.  The  hanging  o c c a s i o n a l h e l l scenes occupy  predominance o f the H o n j i b u t s u  result  i s ten w e l l - b a l a n c e d  In a l l ten s c r o l l s , the H o n j i b u t s u ,  based upon the Type Z t e x t , are d e p i c t e d h a l o or a u r a of l i g h t .  i n the  identifiable  surrounded by  an  Each s i t s upon a l o t u s p e d e s t a l , which i n  b u t s u above the c o u r t scenes c r e a t e s  the Type Z t e x t , i n the p a s t i t was  The  hovering  an i l l u s i o n i s t i c  and makes i t seem as though, they are a t t e n d i n g  of the  Honji-  spatial relationship  the judgements.  thought to be  because of some prominent Japanese e x p r e s s i o n s ,  Regarding  a Japanese o r i g i n a l  but  recent  re-evaluation  has made i t a p o s s i b l e Japanese m o d i f i c a t i o n of a Chinese p r o t o t y p e .  i n the t e n t h century  t h a t the t e x t d e s c r i b e s  s u b j e c t matter  Ten Kings p a i n t i n g s a t Tun-huang.  then the iconography of the H o n j i b u t s u  Bunko v e r s i o n executed by  depicted of  i s i n f a c t i n China,  A s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of  of Honjibutsu  i n the Kanazawa  the Chinese p a i n t e r , L i u Hsin-chung.  A c l o s e r l o o k a t b o t h the p a t r o n v i d u a l to whom the work was and N i s o n - i n  i s a l s o Chinese.  found i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n  This  I f the o r i g i n  Type Z t e x t , the o n l y Ten Kings t e x t to mention H o n j i b u t s u ,  t h i s o r i g i n can be  in  continuous  which are  f r o n t a l l y and  or descending c l o u d s .  o p i n i o n stems from the f a c t  the  the r a t h e r i n c o n s i s t e n t s t r u c t u r e e v i d e n t  the end  t u r n r e s t s upon f l o a t i n g  role,  paintings  o c c u p i e s the upper t w o - f i f t h s of each l o n g r e c t a n g u l a r  and  elaborate  Fukuoka S e i g a n - j i  i n which the H o n j i b u t s u  r a t h e r l i k e postage stamps on an envelope. Honjibutsu  and  of the N i s o n - i n  to be d e d i c a t e d ,  a r t i s t , Yukimitsu, received  a r t i s t , and  i s necessary.  Court  the  indi-  painter  commissions from Emperor Gokogon  16 and A s h i k a g a Shogun, Y o s h i a k i .  D u r i n g the emperor's r e i g n , h i s f a t h e r  -51-  Kogon Joko, died, and a large Chui-shan ceremony was held i n 1365 to honor the f i r s t year death anniversary (Jsshuki).  We can surmise that Yukimitsu was  commissioned by the emperor to produce the Ten Kings paintings for this posthumous ceremony, and that he probably created a new "Japanese" manner of presentation while at the same time being greatly indebted to Chinese prototypes.  -52CONCLUSION  As d i s c u s s e d the e a r l y t e n t h  i n the p r e c e d i n g  century,  chapters,  i t i s s a f e t o conclude t h a t  Type A, l a r g e hanging s c r o l l s o f " T i - t s a n g and  the Ten K i n g s " d e p i c t i n g T i - t s a n g as a c e n t r a l i c o n and the Ten K i n g s as s u b o r d i n a t e f i g u r e s , m a n i f e s t an i c o n i c p r e s e n t a t i o n , whereas the Type B, "Ten  Kings I l l u s t r a t i o n s " d e p i c t i n g each o f the Ten Kings i n d i v i d u a l l y b u t  i n continuous s m a l l scenes i n h a n d s c r o l l format, m a n i f e s t s a n a r r a t i v e representation  and must have commenced w i t h ,  o r a f t e r , the i n v e n t i o n o f  the Type Y t e x t around the middle o f the t e n t h  century.  The Type A p a i n t i n g  t r a d i t i o n was n o t swept away by the Type B p a i n t i n g t r a d i t i o n b u t c o - e x i s t e d w i t h i t f o r some time. A n a l y s i s o f the Ten Kings t e x t s makes i t c l e a r t h a t the Type Y t e x t , an e d i t e d and m o d i f i e d  v e r s i o n o f Type X text, c o m p l e t e l y superseded i t s  p r e d e c e s s o r a f t e r the second h a l f o f the t e n t h  century.  Regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t e x t s and p i c t u r e s , Type B paintings and  can be seen to have an i n t e g r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Type Y t e x t s ,  though t h e r e i s  . some  d i f f i c u l t y i n i n s i s t i n g t h a t Type A p a i n t i n g s  were based upon Type X t e x t s , they are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d both i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y and  i c o n o l o g i c a l l y ; b o t h began d u r i n g  the immature s t a g e s o f the c h a r a c t e r i -  z a t i o n o f the Ten Kings and under the i n f l u e n c e o f the T i - t s a n g c u l t highly  and a r e  compatible.  There was a m o d i f i c a t i o n i n the r e l i g i o u s importance p l a c e d ceremonies s t r e s s e d i n the t e x t s X and Y.  upon the  The Type X t e x t was an o f f s h o o t  o f the T i - t s a n g c u l t , and the main theme o f b o t h i t and the T i - t s a n g t e x t was a concern w i t h the concepts o f "Chui-shan" and " Y u - h s i u . "  The c o r r e s p o n d i n g  Type A p a i n t i n g s o f " T i - t s a n g and the Ten K i n g s " were used as p a r t o f these  -53-  funeral services.  On  the o t h e r hand, the Type B h a n d s c r o l l was  prepared  s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r use i n " Y u - h s i u " and d e d i c a t i o n to the Ten K i n g s , and Type Y t e x t d e a l t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h the m e r i t " Y u - h s i u " ceremonies  the  accrued  f o r the l i v i n g w h i l e c o n c u r r e n t l y d e c r e a s i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f T i - t s a n g and i n c r e a s i n g the importance  o f the Ten Kings through  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n added by the monk,. Tsang-ch'uan. opening  the  individual  In a d d i t i o n to t h i s ,  the  two l i n e s o f the t e x t i n t r o d u c e the name o f Amitabha Buddha and  the  r e c i t a t i o n o f i t i n the f i v e tunes."'"  The emergence o f t h i s r e f e r e n c e can  2 be seen to have stemmed, i n some way, I n chapter f o u r we  saw  from the Pure Land Buddhist  tradition.  t h a t the N i s o n - i n p a i n t i n g s were comprised  of  t h r e e d i f f e r e n t Chinese p r o t o t y p e s arranged so as to c r e a t e a more i n d i g e n o u s painting.  The C h i n model ( a ) , which c l e a r l y r e v e a l s the importance  of N i n g -  p'o models i n the e a r l y Japanese t r a d i t i o n , Ning-p'o model ( b ) , and the o l d t e n t h c e n t u r y Type B t r a d i t i o n  c o e x i s t e d w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese m o t i f s ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y s u b j e c t matter i n d i c a t i v e o f the e n d u r i n g h e l l p a i n t i n g t i o n , and t o g e t h e r r e s u l t e d i n s u c c e s s f u l J a p a n i z a t i o n o f the Ten  tradi-  Kings  paintings. One  o f the b e s t examples o f the f l e x i b l e b l e n d o f source m a t e r i a l s i s  the s c r o l l o f the f i r s t K i n g , i n which the h e l l scene i s f u l l y d e p i c t e d i n a manner c o m p o s i t i o n a l l y I d e n t i c a l to C h i n model (a) w h i l e the s u b j e c t matter i s d e r i v e d from the t e n t h c e n t u r y Type B t r a d i t i o n . Chinese  t r a d i t i o n s both o l d and new  i n Japan was  The  the r e s u l t o f  e c l e c t i c i s m , and Japanese p a i n t e r s , the N i s o n - i n a r t i s t l i k e l y adopted  Chinese elements  c r e a t i o n o f a r t works.  c o - e x i s t e n c e of u artistic  i n p a r t i c u l a r , most  r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r date o f o r i g i n i n the  -54-  I n a d d i t i o n to the combination  of d i v e r s e p r o t o t y p e s and  the e l a b o r a t i o n  of the H o n j i b u t s u as major.means of J a p a n i z a t i o h , minor d e v i c e s such as  reversal  i n the arrangement o f m o t i f s , s u b s t i t u t i o n o f Japanese f i g u r e s f o r Chinese (even demonic ones^ and heightened Of these t e c h n i q u e s ,  the one  meaning i s the embellishment  ornamentation  of f a b r i c s , were employed.  t h a t o f f e r s the b e s t i n s i g h t i n t o the of the H o n j i b u t s u .  p a i r e d i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y w i t h Buddhist  The  intrinsic  f a c t t h a t the k i n g s  are  d e i t i e s i s n o t a b l e , but i t i s the  d r a s t i c i n c r e a s e i n the H o n j i ' s s i z e , to the e x t e n t t h a t they s e i z e the viewer's a t t e n t i o n and overpower the o t h e r f i g u r e s , and attendance  a t the "Chui-shan"  p a i n t i n g s , supposedly  their  ceremony t h a t i s s i g n i f i c a n t .  c r e a t e d f o r use i n the "Chui-shan"  "symbolic" The  Nison-in  ceremony, and  i n c l u d i n g the e l a b o r a t e H o n j i b u t s u i n d i c a t i v e of the e s o t e r i c element, would have been h i g h l y a p p r o p r i a t e i n r i t u a l i s t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n and  c o u l d be  under-  stood i n the c o n t e x t of f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y Japanese Buddhism, Zen i n p a r t i c u l a r , as i t was  b o t h i n f l u e n t i a l and p o w e r f u l a t t h i s time and the  of patronage from emperors, A s h i k a g a  Shoguns, and  court nobles.  recipient  The  afore-  mentioned r i t u a l , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the a b s o r p t i o n of e s o t e r i c r i t u a l 'Jp i ^ '  Zen Buddhism f a c i l i t a t e d by the monk Muso S o s e k i s u c c e s s o r Shun-oku Myoha  , p l a y e d an important  into  and h i s r o l e i n the  3 p o p u l a r i z a t i o n of the B u d d h i s t The  f u n e r a l ceremony.  c u l t o f the Ten K i n g s , which stemmed from the T i - t s a n g c u l t , never  became p a r t o f mainstream Buddhism but remained a p o p u l a r sub-sect utilized,  that  was  from time to time, by such i n f l u e n t i a l s e c t s as Pure Land Buddhism  and Zen Buddhism.  As l o n g as the f e a r of death was  prevalentt-in society,  p i c t o r i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n and p r a c t i s e s of. the..,Ten Kings i n p o p u l a r Buddhist  custom.  the  c u l t remained r o o t e d '  -55-  NOTES  INTRODUCTION  1.  Fo-shuo Yu-hslu Shih-wang Sheng Sh-i Ching Dai-nihon zokuzo kyo  2.  KB  ^h^j^t^-  fa tb^ffi^  £-  i n  vol. 150, p. 385.  There are some different ideas on the provenance of the cult of the Ten Kings of Hell.  1. Gessho Sasaki tyx. 1 fc- )\  suggests that the  connection between Ti-tsang and the Ten Kings originated in India. Minao Hirose  and Yusho Tokushi  Ogawa Ah- " |  2.  and Kan'ichi  'fcjkjtfa^  suggest that the cult of the Ten Kings was indigenous  to China and stemmed from Taoism and folk cults. and Eiichi Matsumoto  faJ^f^Z.—  3. Tadao Sakai  emphasize the connection with  Manichean as well as with certain Chinese beliefs.  The references are as  follows: Manabe, Kosai  » Jizo-bosatsu no kenkyu  /t^ffi  pp. 111-112, Kyoto:  yjQj  jj^ •^'f^.^J^f^  >  Sanmitsu-do Shoten, 1960.  Tokushi, Yusho and Ogawa, Kan'ichi, "Ju5 shoshichi kyosan zukan no kozo •f 3L0--t  ¥  fe&t  in Chuo-ajia Bukkyo-bijutsu  &j£r<r>%&&^  Tv'T^^lB^J  » * p p  2 5 5 _ 2 9 6  »  Kyoto:  Hozokan, 1962. This  article w i l l hereafter be referred to as "Juo zukan no kozo." Sakai, Tadao, "Juo-shinko ni kansuru shomondai oyobi enrao Juki kyo  IS-htW  flfl t  5  H  ftJ - ^ f 5 t t l n Saito-sensai  koki-shukuga ronbun-shu jftffc fa £L 656, Tokyo: red  , pp. 611-  Toko Shoin, 1937. This article will hereafter be refer-  to as "Juo-shinko shomondai."  Matsumoto, E i i c h i , Tonko-ga no kenkyu Tokyo:  Toho-bunka Gakuin, 1937.  ^  f)/^f\'^_S  » ' 368-416, p p  -56-  3.  Textual Investigation of the Shih Wang Ching has been done by the following scholars: Tokushi Y. and Ogawa, K., "Juo zukan no kozo." Sakai, Tadao, "Juo-shinko shomondai." Tsukamoto, Zenryu  J ^ L ^ ^ r ^ T , "Inro-bosatsu-shinko to jizo-jiio i n Tsukamoto  zenryu chosaku-shu 400, Tokyo:  JL  % ] ^  , v o l . 7, pp. 315-  Daito Shuppan, 1975. This a r t i c l e w i l l hereafter  be referred to as "Jizo juo shinko." Izumi, Rokei j j ^  , "Juokyo no kenkyu  7v  i£ ft 23-4, pp. 1-24.  Gakuho 4.  The t i t l e s of Type X are various.  -f £ - * ) jSt{%  Otani  The simplest Type X text i s Fo-shuo  Yen-lo Wang Shou-ch'i Kuan-hsiu Sheng Ch'i Chai Kung-te Ching $k i %J% £± J  1  l  n  T  s  u  k  a  m  o  t  o  zenryu chosaku-shu v o l . 7,  pp. 366-371. 5.  Most Type Y texts are e n t i t l e d Fo-shou Yen-lo Wang Shou-chi Yu-hsiu Sheng-ch'i Wang-sheng Ching-t'u Ching fi^~t^5-fyhthe  6.  * have remarks of the monk, Tsang-ch'uan, at the head of  title.  Ti-tsang P'u-sa Fa-hsin Yin-yuan Shih-wang Ching "f" i  7.  an<  ^ - ^ " f c j ^ f S ^ 4-^.4^-  ^  n  ^Ml-^lS^-  Dal'^ihon zokuzo kyo v o l . 150.  As scholars such as E i i c h i Matsumoto and Genmyo Ono A^^f^^')^  have sug-  gested, this sutra should be re-examined i n the context of Chinese texts of Shih-Wang Ching.  See E. Matsumoto, "Tonko-bon juo zukan zakko" i n  Kokka No. 621, pp. 229-230 and G. Ono, "Tomatsu-godai jo-so no bukkyo-ga-3pp. 30, and Rokudo-e  " i n Kokka No. 516, y ^ 3 ^ , ^ l ^ - , Kyoto National Museum, pp. 64.  -57-  8.  E. Matsumoto i n Tonko-ga no kenkyu, dated the Tun-huang paintings of the Ten Kings broadly to the Five Dynasties and Northern Sung Period.  Lothar  Ledderose stated i n his recent a r t i c l e , "A King of H e l l " i n Suzuki  ^'j^%JLfc&&%1?£ &i'&r%.  kei-sensei kanreki kinen ronbun-shu  s  , that the Tun-huang Ten Kings of H e l l paintings a l l belong more or less to the same period, namely the tenth century (p. 37). 9.  The study of the Japanese Ten Kings painting t r a d i t i o n has been done by Ryoji K a j i t a n i  J^^lftjliz B ^  s e i r i t s u to tenkai geiijutsu  /K$rj£4fr  in his a r t i c l e , "Nihon n i okeru ju-o-zu no i : ti i t 5  N o  t i- ^  O A  jfc.  St. \%  " Bukkyo  « ' 9 7  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of each King w i l l be based upon that i n Kokka No. There Is a r e p l i c a of the Nison-in type owned by Jofuku-ji Kyoto.  See "Nikumi no juo-zu" written by J i r o Umezu  ifftf  ^"/^-/^^f*  786. in  in  Bukkyo-geiijutsu No. 36, pp. 32-36, 1958, and Reflections of Reality i n Japanese Art (Cleveland Museum of Art, 1983, pp. 220-222). There i s a fragment of the Nison-in type i n the c o l l e c t i o n of Yamato Bunka Kan  7V#0 X  In Nara.  See Yamato bunkakan shozohin zuhan mokuroku Vol. 2, Catalogue No.  10.  fctP  y  Umezu, J i r o  , "Nikumi no ju-o zu  Z-§£L<T>  f  ^  16. ll  ," Bukkyo  geijutsu No. 36, pp. 32-35, 1958. 11.  Miyashima, S h i n ' i c h i keifu  14  tiffi  " ^ i f e ^ T ^  K if I H  > "Juyon s e i k i n i okeru edokoroazukari no  f ^ f t j ^  Ofttt  .." B i j u t s u - s h i  ^4^t_  No. 88, pp. 87-104. Tani, Shin'ichi ^ " t i k 12.  >" Tokyo:  , "Muromachi j i d a i b i jutsu shi ron  #T  C  Tokyo-do, 1942, pp. 389-417.  The names of the Ten Kings and their Honjibutsu are as follows, based upon Ti-tsang P'u-sa Fa-hsin Yin-yuan Shih-wang Ching:  -58-  The f i r s t King, Ch'in-kuang Wang  Pu-tung Ming-wang  The second King, Ch'u-chiang Wang  Shih-chia J u - l a i  The third King, Sung-ti Wang  We^n-chu P'u-sa  The fourth King, Wu-kuan Wang  P'urhsien P'u-sa  The f i f t h King, Yen-lo Wang  Ti-tsang P'u-sa  The sixth King, Pien-ch'eng Wang  Mi-lo P'u-sa  The  seventh K i n g , T ' a i - s h a n Wang  Yao-shih J u - l a i  The  e i g h t h K i n g , P'ing-cheng Wang  Kuan-yin  The  n i n t h K i n g , T u - s h i h Wang  A-ch'u J a - l a i *  The tenth King, Wu-tao Chuan-lun Wang  P'u-sa  A-mi-t'o J u - l a i  •Another Honjibutsu of Tu-shih Wang i s Shih-chih P'u-sa "9$3~ ia" C*.  noted  in a d i f f e r e n t version of the Ti-tsang P'u-sa Fa-hsin Yin-yuan Shih-wang Ching. 13.  See Rokudo-e, Kyoto National Museum, 1982, pp. 63-64.  Matsunaga, A l i c i a , The Buddhist Philosophy of Assimilation - The H i s t o r i c a l Development of the Honji-Suijaku, Rutland and Tokyo:  Sophia  University i n cooperation with Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1969, pp. 213-214.  -59-  CHAPTER ONE  1.  Information on l i t e r a r y sources for the Ten Kings has been provided by Tsukamoto, Zenryu i n his a r t i c l e "Jizo-juo shinko."  2.  Ibid., pp. 377-378.  3.  Wu-tai Ming-hua P'u-yi it^f-  4.  4\ % %.  , compiled by Liu Tao-ch'un  , i n Ssu K'u Ch'uan Shu Chen Pen V o l . 5 G9 ft t£ %  T'u-hua Chien-wen Chih  Q ^fc Lfiflf &  f$%- 3- JH  by Kuo Jo-hsii %\% f$L  •  translated  by Alexander Soper, Kuo Jo-hsii's Experiences i n Painting, p. 29, Washington, D.C: 5.  American Council of Learned Societies, 1951.  Photocopies of the Guimet painting are found i n Kokka 515 (1933) and Tonko-ga no kenkyu.  6.  Hanging s c r o l l , color on s i l k , 2.25 x 1.59 m i n s i z e .  Ti-tsang Shih-lun Ching tt>  l  n  Taisho Tripitaka V o l . 13, p.  721c Sutra of the Past Vows of Earth Store Budhisattva, a translation of Ti-tsang P'u-sa Pen-yuan Ching by Heng Ching, p. 187. 7.  Kakuzen sho by Kakuzen In Dai nihon bukkyo zensho  %. tl  ^ %%. ^ § r  Vol. 48, p. 197. The same description of the Ti-tsang iconography as Kakuzensho i s also found i n Ryubu mandara g i k i  ijfa ^  $\ ^  (datable to 1377) i n Dai nihon bukkyo zensho edited by Honyen  pAj.  J^jfJ  Vol.  44, p. 450. 8.  Ibid., pp. 189-190.  9.  In esoteric iconography Ti-tsang Is usually depicted as a prince-like Bodhisattva, but monkish figures were also executed as described i n the Ti-tsang I-kuei  tH^i^pA*  translated by Subhakara (datable to 8th  century) Taisho T r i p i t a k a V o l . 20, p. 652 a-b. 10.  Fo Tsu T'ung Chi /jA £lL T'ung  faf^  &Li i n Taisho Tripitaka V o l . 49, Shih Men Cheng  jE.$b i n Dai-nihon zoku-zo-kyo, V o l . 30, p. 401.  -6011.  Huan Hun Chi, undated, generally thought to be a Five Dynasties t e s t .  See  E i i c h i Matsumoto, Tonko-ga no kenkyvi, pp. 378-379. 12.  Matsumoto, E i i c h i , "Jizb-juo-zu to inro-bosatsu ," Kokka 515, pp. 266-267.  He suggests a tenth century date for this  document. 13.  Bodhisattva figure.  Ti-tsang i s usually depicted as either a monk or a p r i n c e - l i k e  The "atypical appearance of the Ti-tsang figure" which E.  Matsumoto refers to i s that of the hooded Ti-tsang figure. 14.  E. Matsumoto, i n Tonko-ga no kenkyu, considers Tao-ming and the l i o n to be connected with Ti-tsang and the Ten Kings (p. 379).  However, through  examination of Huan Hun Chi and the Ti-tsang painting i n the Musee Guimet, i t can be concluded that the Ten Kings were later additions to the integrated iconography of Ti-tsang and Tao-ming and the l i o n . 15.  Ti-tsang P'u-sa Hsian-ling-yen 184..  16.  Kokka No. 515, p. 270.  Chi i n Dai-nihon zoku-zo kyo Vol. 149, p.  -61CHAPTER TWO  1.  The four versions of the i l l u s t r a t e d sutras of the Ten Kings are as follows: 1.  The Kuboso Museum version  ^  It ^ P i t  (Plates 10,11)  (previously i n the Nagao C o l l e c t i o n ) . 2.  The P e l l i o t version ( P e l l i o t 2003) (Plates 12-16).  3.  The Stein version (Stein 3961) (Plates 12-16).  4.  The Hoju-in version  This version i s considered  Japanese copy of a Chinese o r i g i n a l .  to be a  Tokushi and Ogawa suggest that  this was probably copied i n the Muromachi period ("Juo-zukan no kozo," p. 275).  E. Matsumoto suggests that this probably Is a copy  from a Sung o r i g i n a l (Tonko-ga no kenkyu, p. 398) (Plates 12-16). 2.  The Kuboso Museum version Is a handscroll, 11 3/4 i n . x 22 f t . 5 1/4 In. i n size, and done i n color on paper.  E. Matsumoto has written a r t i c l e s on  this handscroll i n Kokka 621, pp. 227-231 (1943) and i n Tonko-ga no kenkyu, pp. 405-412. 3.  E. Matsumoto mentions i n Kokka 621, p. 228, that the prototype of Type A paintings such as the B r i t i s h Museum painting (Plate 17), might have been based on the standard  format for the preaching  the f i r s t scene of the Kuboso Museum version.  scene, as exemplified by In other words, he  considers the Type B painting t r a d i t i o n to have been prior to that of Type A. 4.  There are no iconographical d i s t i n c t i o n s or i d e n t i f y i n g cartouches except for Ti-tsang.  5.  I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge Dr. Leon Hurvitz's assistance i n translating the gathas of the Ten Kings.  References for this translation are the Kuboso  Museum version, the P e l l i o t version, the Stein version, the Hoju-in  -62version, and the text In the Dai-nihon zoku-zo kyo V o l . 150, pp. 385-387. Xerox copies of the text of the P e l l i o t version (Plates 18-26, lower section) are included i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n s accompanying this paper. 6.  Ti-tsang P'u-sa Fa-hsin Yin-yuan Shih-wang Ching, i n Dai-nihon zoku-zo kyo Vol. 150, p. 381.  7.  In the Hoju-in version, this subject matter appears i n the scene of the f i r s t King, Ch'in-kuang Wang (Plate 13-4).  It i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  notable  that an old woman appears i n this version. 8.  See Introduction Notes, No. 7.  9.  The motif of the mirror of deeds and an ox-headed demon appear i n the B r i t i s h Museum version of the Type A painting (Plate 4).  They are  arranged beneath figures of Ti-tsang, Tao-ming and the l i o n , and are not represented  as s p e c i f i c attributes to Yen-lo Wang i n this arrangement.  10.  Dai-nihon zoku-zo-kyo Vol. 150, pp. 382-384.  11.  The motif of animal skins on a bar i n this scene i s not described i n either the accompanying text or i n the Japanese text.  12.  Y. Tokushi and K. Ogawa suggest that the monkish figure i n the Kuboso Museum version and the P e l l i o t version i s Tao-ming and that he may be a manifestation of Ti-tsang.  13.  See "Juo zukan no kozo," p. 286.  Y. Tokushi and K. Ogawa dated the Kuboso Museum version to 911. See "Juo zukan no kozo," p. 286. E. Matsumoto takes the date of 971, although he subtlely suggests that there i s another possible date, 1031, when discussing the o r i g i n of the Japanese text, Ti-tsang P'u-sa Fa-hsin Yin-ytian Shih-wang Ching, which describes the o r i g i n a l date of this text as the tenth year of T'ien-sheng  (1032).  Kuboso Museum version has been considered Ono,  Z. Tsukamoto and H. Izumi.  The date of 1031 for the  by other scholars such as G.  See "Tomatsu-godai-jo-so-jidai  no  bukkyo-ga," p. 301; "Jizo-juo shinko," p. 389; "Jiio-kyo no kenkyu," pp. 18-19.  -63-  CHAPTER THREE  1.  Type X:  There are approximately twenty-two extant versions, nine i n the  Peking National Library, eleven i n the Stein Collection, one i n the P e l l i o t C o l l e c t i o n and one i n the Nakamura C o l l e c t i o n . f.  ed., Tun-huang Yi-shu Tsung-mu So-yin  418, Peking:  Wang Chung-min i -  ffc. %% ^Jt  ® ^ ^  , P'  Shang Wu Yin Shu Kuan, 1962. I have examined most of the  above mentioned texts except for two of the Peking versions. The datable versions of the Type X text are as follows: 1.  The Stein 4530 (a c y c l i c a l date, Mou Ch'en, /% f%_ )  2.  The Stein 5544 (a c y c l i c a l date, Hsin Wei,  3.  The Stein 5531 (a c y c l i c a l date, Keng Ch'en,  4.  The Stein 6230 (dated the fourth year of T'ung Kuang, c y c l i c a l date, Ping Hsu, j£j  5.  % ) (SJjfcj  and a  , 926)  The Nakamura version (dated the third year of Ch'ing T ' a i , ?fj[ 4b  »  936) 2.  See the Type B painting l i s t , note 1 of Chapter Two.  3.  See Plate 23. No one except T. Sakai has noted the discrepancy i n the order of the Ten Kings i n Type X and Type Y.  T. Sakai i n "Juo-shinko  shomondai" (p. 615), says the order of the Ten Kings i n Type X i s simply a mistake.  However, a l l versions of Type X that I have examined  consistently show Sung-ti Wang as the second King and Ch'u-chiang Wang as the third King.  Thus  the order of the Ten Kings i n Type X i s not an  error but a well-established iconographical order. 4.  A l l scholars who have published a r t i c l e s on the Ten Kings agree that Tsang-ch'uan added the seven-syllable verses.  See Y. Tokushi and K.  Ogawa, "Juo zukan no kozo," p. 273; T. Sakai, "Juo-shinko shomondai," p. 642; Z. Tsukamoto, "Juo-jizo shinko," p. 358; H. Izumi, "Juo-ky5 no  -64kenkyu," p. 19-20. 5.  The i c o n o g r a p h i c change i n the o r d e r of t h e Ten Kings was p r o b a b l y due to the f a c t  that the name of the K i n g , Ch'u-chiang  r i v e r , " and r e f e r s t o N a i Ho, ^  Wang means "the f i r s t  (the R i v e r S t y x ) .  N a i Ho i s a r i v e r  which people must c r o s s a f t e r death i n order to proceed to the i n t e r v a l between i n c a r n a t i o n s ( M i n g - c h i e , ) Gokuraku to j i g o k u ,  ^-fjj*"^  t  fLM>1\»  (Iwamoto, H i r o s h i , ^ P* 191).  ,  The K i n g , Ch'u-chiang  Wang,  should have been p l a c e d a t the b e g i n n i n g i n the o r d e r of t h e Ten K i n g s . When Tsang-ch'uan changed and m o d i f i e d the o l d t e x t of Shih Wang Ching, he might  have exchanged the o r d e r of the second  effectively 6.  c h a r a c t e r i z e Ch'u-chiang  and t h i r d Kings so as to more  Wang.  Y. Tokushi and K. Ogawa i n "Juo zukan no kozo" suggests t h a t Type Y i s prior  to Type X ( p . 271).  T. S a k a i , i n "Juo-shinko  suggests t h a t Type Y i s contemporary in  "Juo j i z o  w i t h Type X ( p . 645).  takes as the date f o r the Kuboso Museum v e r s i o n  t h a t being the year that he (pp. 288-289).  See l i n e 16, lower s e c t i o n P l a t e 18, I-ch'u L i u - t i e h by I-ch'u, V o l . 13, No.  8.  Z. Tsukamoto  s h i n k o " o f f e r s a s e q u e n t i a l order i n which Type X i s p r i o r to  Type Y, and Type Y i s dated 971 a t the l a t e s t ,  7.  shomondai," h e s i t a n t l y  33, p. 362, Kyoto:  Hoyu Shobo, 1979.  The d a t i n g o f 911 o f f e r e d by Y. Tokushi and K. Ogawa i s too e a r l y . "Juo zukan no kozo"  ( p . 286).  See  As the Ten Kings s u t r a , T i - t s a n g P'u-sa  F a - h s i n Yin-yuan Shih-wang Ching i n d i c a t e s that the o r i g i n a l date of the Ten Kings t e x t was i n the t e n t h year of T'ien-sheng date f o r t h e Kuboso Museum v e r s i o n i s a l s o p o s s i b l e . of t h i s v e r s i o n should be s c r u t i n i z e d  ^  (1032), a 1031  The d a t i n g problem  f u r t h e r i n terms of i t s s t y l i s t i c  p r o p e r t i e s i n the wider c o n t e x t of t h e Tun-huang p a i n t i n g T h i s , however, must remain a s u b j e c t of f u r t h e r  study.  tradition.  -659.  Pen-yuan Ching, hereafter, refers to the f u l l t i t l e , Ti-tsang P'u-sa Pen-yuan Ching.  10.  Taisho T r i p i t a k a V o l . 13, p. 784 b.  11.  See the l a s t l i n e , upper section Plate 19, l i n e 5, upper section Plate 20 and l i n e 2 upper section Plate 26.  12.  The services of Yfl-hsiu might have been popular in the second half of the tenth century. i  According to the Sung Kao-seng Chuan  , the monk, Shou-chen  b u i l t two towers for the merits of Yii-hsiu  and died in 971, soon after the consecration  of the two towers.  See  , Chugoku k i n s e i jodo-kyo-shi no kenkyu pp. 289-290.  -66CHAPTER FOUR  1.  The study of the Ning-p'o professional paintings and painters has been done by the following scholars: Watanabe, Hajime  , "Shakki aru sogen butsuga  fyrt'tbhb  B i j u t s u kenkyu Suzuki, Kei  ^  ft  Tokyo: 2.  , Mindai kaiga-shi kenkyu . seppa ^  ^  Toyo bunka kenkyujo, 1968.  The ink monochrome landscape i s suggestive of the "pure land" heavenly realm i n contrast to the realm of h e l l .  Both ink monochrome landscapes  and h e l l scenes are a new development i n the later phase. 3.  Cheng-fa Nien-ch'u Ching jfc.  g£  i n Taisho T r i p i t a k a Vol. 17, pp.  1-379. Ti-tsang P'u-sa Pen-yuan Ching i n Taisho T r i p i t a k a Vol. 13, pp. 781. 4.  K a j i t a n i , Ryoji, "Riku shinchu hitsu ju-5 zu  "f  $  ," i n  Kokka No. 1020, 1979. 5.  Nichiren Ryoki  0  ^C^.  f i t  6.  ^  -  T i - W ^ t ^ "  , Futsu shodo shvt  chuseiteki tenkai M  , Ju-o santan sho  £  , Kyoto:  Ryochu  , pp. 196  i n Kodai bukkyo no  H fa/it *) f  t-Jfeffl, by  Shuichi Murayama  Hozo-kan, 1976.  , Hoji san s h i k i  >f* ^  "f^t"^ t&  V o l . 1, i n Jodo-shu zensho  Vol. 4. Gukan  %/7  , Shiju hyaku innen shu  fa  § ®frf<-!tV o l . 4 i n  Dai-nihon bukkyo zensho V o l . 148, pp. 60-73. 7.  Washizuka, Hiromitsu ^ fl/fo^  8.  i'^.^k.^fj , "Enno-ji no emma ju-o-zo n i tsuite  *>ft(|^&"f  Ogushi, Sumio  )KJ^t>kjf^  kenkyu No. 120, p. 30.  ," Bukky5 Geijutsu No. 89, 1972. > "Jukkai-zu ko  "f ^  l3 %  ," i n Bijutsu  f  -67-  9.  Ogushi,  "Jukkai-zu-ko"  No. 119, No. 120, 1941.  10.  This speculation can be made i f i t i s assumed that the systemic order of Type I-IV corresponds to the chronological order, and that the Chinese and Japanese art traditions are both In the same area of the East Asian painting t r a d i t i o n .  11.  The following Ten Kings of the Nison-in paintings are i d e n t i c a l to those of  the Hofuku-ji version.  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Ten Kings of the  Hofuku-ji version follows that found i n Juyo bunka z a i  12.  The Nison-in Version  The Hofuku-ji Version  The second King  The eighth King  The third King  The sixth King  The fourth King  The f i r s t King  The f i f t h King  The second King  The s i x t h King  The tenth King  The eighth King  The seventh King  The ninth King  The fourth King  The tenth King  The third King  Suzuki, Mindai kaiga-shi kenkyu . seppa , "Riku shinchu jii-o-zu  P H I & T £ fl ," Kanazawa bunko kenkyu  £ # # ! ! & , No. 136, 1967. "Chugoku kaiga - Rakan-Jiio zu "f |§  $\flfe'/%.' t Z- $  Kanazawa bunko k5en-kai s h i r i z u No. 10, 1974. 13.  Hell story:  An a t t r a c t i v e woman i s on the top of a needle tree. She  lures a man and he climbs up to the top of the tree, impaling himself on the sharp spines i n the process.  When he arrives at the top of the tree  he finds that the woman i s on the ground and proceeds to climb down again.  The tree has reversed the d i r e c t i o n of i t s spines and he now  impales himself going downward.  This karma w i l l repeat without end for  -68-  countless years.  (From Genshln  of Nihon shiso t a i k e i  13  &  pp. 15-16, 1970.) 14.  See page 22  of Chapter  15.  Tamamura, Takeji  , "Kitayama j i d a i zenrin no shicho  ^\\^^<n^M 6, Tokyo:  Two.  " In Suiboku b i j u t s u t a i k e i  ^L^H^s  Vol.  Kodansha, 1978, pp. 55-62.  16.  Miyashima, "Juyon s e i k i n i okeru edokoro azukari no k e i f u , " p. 90.  17.  It seems that after the thirteenth century a set of Ten Kings s c r o l l s was used for both the "Chui-shan" and "Yu-hsiu" ceremonies. century diary, Moromori k i £>f gu sho  %t\}> and the h i s t o r i c a l record, Zoku shi  » contain references to the "Chui-shan" ceremonies held  on the appropriate days after the emperor's death. diary, Kyogaku shiyo sho "Yu-hsiu" ceremonies. , Tokyo:  jftj.  , includes annual records of  Zoku Gunsho Ruiju Kansei-kai, 1971.  ffit$$i%% 'H  Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 1966, p. 64.  i n Shiryo sanshu.  The f i f t e e n t h century  Moromori k i Vols. 7-11 i n Shiryo sanshu  Vol. 2 i n Shitei zoho kokushi t a i k e i Tokyo:  The fourteenth  Zoku shi gu sho V o l . 14,  Kyogaku shiyo sho Vols. 1,2,3,4  -69-  CONCLUSION  1.  I , (Tsang-ch'uan),  d e f e r e n t i a l l y open and read the t e x t of Yen-lo Wang  Y u - h s i u Sheng C h ' i Wang Sheng C h i n g - t ' u Ching 7^" :£-&§",)•  *  n  o  t  that the Buddha vowed to encourage  e  to read the s c r i p t u r e s i n the f i v e tunes Amitabha. was 2.  f£\ ^  See l i n e s 3 and 4, lower  £  ffit  <f£  a l l having a nexus  to p r a i s e and to r e c o l l e c t  s e c t i o n P l a t e 18.  This translation  suggested by Dr. Leon H u r v i t z .  The mention  o f Amitabha emerging  here, as w e l l as the " f i v e  tunes,"  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e Type Y t e x t was to be i n some way regarded as stemming from, or b e l o n g i n g t o , the t r a d i t i o n of Fa Chao's Buddhism.  ^  Pureland  Fa Chao ( l a t e 8 c - e a r l y 9 c ) , from t h e Ssu-ch'uan, i n v e n t e d  the p r a c t i c e o f r e c i t i n g Amitabha and promoted Buddhism i n the T'ang dynasty.  Ts'ang-ch'uan, who was a l s o a c t i v e i n Ssu-ch'uan, was f a m i l i a r  w i t h the P u r e l a n d Buddhist p r a c t i c e of r e c i t i n g A  Nien Fo,  i n f i v e tunes (Wu Heui  )•  In f a c t , i n the e a r l y Sung Buddhist t r a d i t i o n , we f i n d v a r i o u s e s t a b l i s h e d s e c t s such as those of Ch'an %-*r , T ' i e n - t ' a n  ia  , and Lu '<f , a d o p t i n g  the p o p u l a r , p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s of P u r e l a n d Buddhism i n t o r e l i g i o u s system.  I t Is t h e r e f o r e q u i t e understandable  t r a d i t i o n as that of the Ten Kings of H e l l  t h e i r own that such a minor  i n c o r p o r a t e d the i n v o c a t i o n of  Amitabha i n t o i t s c a n n o n i c a l t e x t . T h i s tendency  of c o n f l a t i o n i n the t r a d i t i o n of the Ten Kings of H e l l  became more a c c e l e r a t e d  i n the l a t e r Sung dynasty, as e x e m p l i f i e d by the  Type Y t e x t from the T a - l i kingdom housed i n the F r e e r G a l l e r y of A r t . Z. Tsukamoto, " J i z o  juo s h l n k o , " pp. 384-388.  -70-  Kenneth Ch'en, Buddhism In China, pp. 348-349, P r i n c e t o n :  Princeton  U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973. Takao, Giken i^4J$\'9u  , Sodai bukkyo-shi  > PP• 1-12, Kyoto:  Ogasawara, Chugoku k i n s e i  no kenkyu  fo'  ^U,%^  Hyakka-en, 1975.  jodo-kyo no kenkyu ffij^fr t£>ffit$ffi^> *  ^'  p  M o r i t a k a Matsumoto  , "A New Approach to the Long S c r o l l of  Buddhist Images P a i n t e d by Chang Sheng-wen <y t of T a - l i "  i n Bukkyo g e i j u t s u No. I l l ,  of the kingdom  1977, pp. 52-77.  Thomas Lawton, Chinese F i g u r e P a i n t i n g s , pp. 91-93, Washington, Smithsonian 3.  Institute,  D.C:  1973.  Tamamura, T a k e j i , Muso k o k u s h i  , Kyoto:  Heirakuji  shoten,  1958. Akamatsu, Shunshu  #;MA#C 5t_tf JjS Imaeda, A i s h i n  rf*  » Kyoto:  Hozo kan, 1967.  ^%j^>ijj£_ |L  $f\'9t  Tamamuro, T a i j o  , ed., Nihon b u k k y o - s h i - c h u s e i hen  ^ • ^ A ' f ^ ^  » Tokyo:  i£ ' f l  Daihorinkaku,  %^f$i  1979.  , Chusei zenshu-shi no kenkyu  Tokyo daigaku  g £^  shuppan k a i , 1970.  , S o s h i k i bukkyo  ^j^jhXl  ,  Tokyo:  -71BIBLIOGRAPHY Akamatsu, Shunshu and others, Nihon bukkyo shi - Chusel hen - Kyoto: 1967. Auboyer, Jeannine, introd., R a r i t i e s of the Musee Guimet, New York: Society, Inc., 1974. Brandon, S.G.F., The Judgement of the Dead, New York: 1967.  Hozo kan, The Asia  Charles Scribner's Sons,  Busaghi, Mario, translated by Lothian Small, Painting of Central Asia, Geneva: Skira, 1963. Ching, Heng, translated, Sutra of the Past Vows of Earth Store Bodhisattva, New York: The Sino-American Buddhist Association, 1974. 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Hyakka-en,  Ogushi, Sumio, "Jigoku-e" i n Museum No. 42, 1954. .  :Jukkai-zu ko" i n B i j u t s u kenkyu Nos. 119 and 120, 1974.  Okazaki, J o j i , translated and adopted by E. Grotenhuis, Pureland Buddhist Painting, Tokyo: Kodansha. Ono, Gemmyo, "Tomatsu godai jo so j i d a i no bukkyo-ga-3-" i n Kokka No. 516.  -74-  Osabe, Kazuo, "Todai mikkyo n i okeru enrao to taizanfukun" i n Dokyo kenkyu Vol. 4, Tokyo: Henkyo sha, 1971. Overmyer, Daniel, Folk Buddhist Religion - Dissenting Sects i n Late T r a d i t i o n a l China, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1976. P r i e s t , Alan, "Five Chinese Paintings" i n B u l l e t i n of the Metropolitan Museum of Art V o l . 28, No. 6, 1933. Rosenfield, John, and ten Grotenhuis, Elizabeth, Journey of the Three Jewels, New York: The Asia Society, 1979. Ryoki, Hoji san s h i k i i n Jodo-shu zensho V o l . 4. Sakai, Tadao, "Juo shinko n i kansuru shomondai oyobi enrao Juki kyo" i n Saito sense! koki shukuga ronbun shu, Tokyo: Toko shoin, 1937. Sawada, Mizuho, Jogoku-hen, Kyoto:  Hozo kan, 1968/1976.  Schapiro, Meyer, Words and Pictures on the L i t e r a l and the Symbolic i n the I l l u s t r a t i o n of a Text, The Hague and Paris: Mouton, 1973. Shibusawa, Tatsuhiko, Jogoku-e, Tokyo, Heibon sha, 1974. Sanjonishi Sanetaka, Sanetaka koki, Tokyo, Zoku gunsho r u i j u kansei k a i , 1957. Sonkaku, Jodo kenbun shu i n Sonkaku hogo. Soper, Alexander, Kuo Jo-hsu's Experiences i n Painting, Washington, American Council of Learned Societies, 1951. Suzuki, Kei, Mindai kaiga-shi kenkyu . seppa, Tokyo: 1968. .  D.C:  Toyo bunka kenkyujo,  "Riku shinchu juo-zu" i n Kanazawa bunko kenkyu No• 136, 1967.  . "Chugoku kaiga - Rakan juo zu" i n Kanazawa bunko koenkai s h i r i z u No. 10, 1974. . ed., Chugoku kaiga sogo zuroku Vol. 1, Tokyo: shuppankai, 1982.  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"Jokin sen 'Jizo bosatsu ogenki' kokan n i s a i s h i t e " i n Yamato bunka kenkyu No. 100, 1966. Wakamori, Taro, ShugendSshi kenkyu, Tokyo:  Kawade shobo, 1943.  Waley, Arthur, A Catalogue of Paintings Recovered from Tun-huang by S i r Aurel Stein, London, The B r i t i s h Museum, 1931. Wang, Cung-min, ed., Tun-hung Yi-shu Tsung-mu So-yin, Peking: Kuan, 1962.  Shang Wu Yin Shu  Washizuka, Hiromitsu, "Enno-ji no emma ju5-zo n i t s u i t e " i n Bukkyo geijutsu No. 89, 1972. Watanabe, Hajime, "Shakki aru sogen butsuga" i n Bijutsu kenkyu No. 45, 1935. Welch, Holmes, The Practice of Chinese Buddhism, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1967. Yabukl, K e i k i , Sankaikyo no kenkyu, Tokyo:  Iwanami shoten, 1927.  Yamabe, Shugaku, Jigoku no shin kenkyu, Tokyo:  Shunju sha, 1932.  Yamato Bunka-kan, ed., Yamato bunka-kan shozohin zuhan mokuroku Vol. 2. Zokushigusho V o l . 2 i n Shintei zoho kokushi t a i k e i V o l . 14, Tokyo: kobunkan, 1966.  Yoshikawa  APPENDIX Ning-p'o P a i n t i n g T r a d i t i o n Types and Models  Types, D e s c r i p t i o n s  Model a (Chin Model)  Model b (Lu Model)  Type I F u l l y depicted *The M e t r o p i l i t a n h e l l scenes d i v i d e d from Boston v e r s i o n , c o u r t scenes by f u l l s i g n a t u r e o f Chin f r i n g e d clouds and rocks Ta-shou *Hofuku-ji version *Shitenno-ji version  Model c (Lu Model) *Morimura v e r s i o n , s i g n a t u r e of L u Chung-yuan  Type I I Some h e l l scenes, but i n much l e s s space w i t h remnants o f c l o u d and rock m o t i f s t h a t have no d i v i s i v e function  *Eda v e r s i o n ( P r i n c e t o n ) *Fukuoka S e i g a n - j i version *Koto-in v e r s i o n , s i g n a t u r e o f Lu Hsin-chung  *Honen-ji v e r s i o n , signautre of Lu Hsin-chung *Kanaza Bunko v e r s i o n , signature of Lu Hsin-chung  Type I I I A few h e l l scenes w i t h no clouds or rocks and a sense of s p a t i a l depth toward the s t a n d i n g screens  *Zendo-ji version, s i g n a t u r e o f Lu Hsin-chung *Bunkacho v e r s i o n s i g n a t u r e o f Lu Hsin-chung  *Eigen-ji version, s i g n a t u r e o f Lu Hsin-chung *Jodo-ji version, s i g n a t u r e o f Lu Hsin-chung  Type IV No h e l l scenes, no clouds and r o c k s , . much l e s s s p a t i a l depth, and fewer f i g u r e s  Model d  i  ON I  *Daitoku-ji version *Kanagawa M u n i c i p a l Museum v e r s i o n  T i - t s a n g and the Ten The Musee Guimet  Kings Plate  1  -78-  T i - t s a n g and the Ten Kings The N a t i o n a l Museum, New D e l h i  Plate  2  -79-  T i - t s a n g and the Ten Kings The Musee Guimet  Plate  3  -80-  T i - t s a n g and the Ten Kings The B r i t i s h Museum  Plate  4  -81-  T i - t s a n g and the Ten Kings The N a t i o n a l Museum, New D e l h i  Plate  5  An E s o t e r i c Drawing of Ninna-ji  Ti-tsang Plate  -84-  Detail:  T i - t s a n g , Tao-ming, and the L i o n The Musee Guimet  Plate 8  The Ten K i n g s w i t h H e l l  Scenes  Kimiko and John Powers  Collection Plate 9  Mil -!»»-(«• v» t  *1  ft*******  4 * 1 & •• flr  • ^ l i " Si 1  MS #w •j*vij>  !  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Di A 'iV/46 Sri Wi . • f i ' ni; in Hi 1® M IMI ffi H w i l «t 3£ -/fiei |"1 ® fill!  1  m  —  f  m  m  A  m  1^  m m' m  :  A  % mm  m  :  m m  m '{>i m <y m u -{•  S iy :  s  59 s IS) 60 58  n  (W.  57 55 •> 1  56 3«f  s li'l s  J)IL  JU. 54  '>  s  W  s  m  S  W. w\ m  Jfeo ifl! 61  M m  W, :  %i  m®  •m m  ±  52 51 wl; Sill 53 s •  u  49  48  50 IU M  s-  m m a;. m. •W w  .  1  •  {v.;43 47 45 43 . a s ' "44 S * 10.  u  Type Y The t e x t s o f Shih Wang Ching  P l a t e 22  m 42 s  „  -99-  in if  £  'ii  111:  m m  ft  m  IE  T'  Type X  iiff  $'  IIH  3r  ¥,1;  —. —  yi  <:l:  IE ft ^ Titr am 1 rH •li-  H  -t  t: in A 'M  5R  m  it  —— in  JL  #4 ft? ff.  4'-s £: HR A AS fit IE  Iffs  il  — ' 0 m tr A JS?{* IE  $>67# .  •  nH  — -fc  -  31 1?  .£  m  m  A  fM! 31  & te  fills W  ^62  SI fit  #  •m  if  .  ff# ^  fl?  IE ii&  fit S'i "let tr A  H  it  A g* 31  m  Eli! ift64 * #65 A |$S  2*  S  ff f!'f  s  IK 'fi!' &s § 6 8 2 L iifcs . 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A.  . i t — •fcl [iii  Jl98 lit ± n ff  s  &  ft .id •44 ia  s  :l:  11  tS W VT  lit 01  & ri- !!* ft Ti m  aii.  108 107106105 104100 ~ i'"  s  L*  IK  331  109  ii  $$99  IS #  fit  ffi rs  -  !  ± ?7.  ••fl IH] iii X% 3: 'ia 3-. W97 IH]  rioi-6  It  p  (HI  IR ioo ffi  ,11!  Ti  m  *  Ci  A iTii • tn m *M ;? te! w it  Type X at  1: iii -f ff! H 'it iii  97  96 s v  •f-  •u> r  110  :•<  s  10.'  99  103  .Ul Type Y The texts of Shih Wang Ching Plate 26  -103-  The F i r s t K i n g , Ch'in-kuang Wang Nison-in  Plate  27  -104-  P l a t e 28  -105-  The Third King, Sung-ti Wang Nison-in  Plate 29  -106-  P l a t e 30  P l a t e 31  -108-  The S i x t h K i n g , Pien-ch'eng Wang Nison-in  Plate  32  -109-  The Seventh K i n g , T ' a i - s h a n Wang Nison-in  Plate  33  -110-  P l a t e 34  -111-  Th e N i n t h K i n g , T u - s h i h Wang Nison-in  Plate  35  -112-  The Tenth K i n g , Wu-tao Chuang-lun Nison-in  Wang  Plate  36  F i v e of the Ten K i n g s The M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum of A r t s  Plate  37  The Ten Kings  Hofuku-ji  P l a t e 38  -115-  The T h i r d K i n g , S u n g - t i Wang Seigan-ji  Plate  39  -116-  The F i f t h K i n g , Y e n - l o Wang Jodo-ji  Plate  40  -117-  The F i f t h K i n g , Yen-lo Wang Zendo-ji  Plate  41  -118-  The S i x t h K i n g , Pien-ch'eng Wang Zendo-ji  Plate  42  -119-  P l a t e 43  -120-  The Ten C a t e g o r i e s o f the U n i v e r s a l World (Jukkai-zu) Zenrin-ji  Plate  44  -121-  a)  detail:  a hell  river D e t a i l s of J u k k a i - z u Zenrin-ji  Plate  45  -122-  The S i x t h K i n g , Pien-ch'eng Wang Koto-in  P l a t e 46  -124-  P l a t e 48  -125-  Th e Tenth K i n g , Wu-tao Chuan-lun Wang Kanazawa Bunko  P l a t e 49  

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