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Settlement planning and lake management in the Cariboo region, British Columbia Olmstead, Steven Dennis 1984

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SETTXEMENT PLANNING AND LAKE MANAGEMENT IN THE CARIBOO REGION, BRITISH COLUMBIA by STEVEN DENNIS OLMSTEAD B.A. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FUTJILIMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES The School of Ccranunity and Regional Planning We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1984 © Steven Dennis Olmstead, 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Cp^TTUi^u^ A+d deyerud! /fasrwh^ The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date DE-6 (3/81) ( i i ) ABSTRACT The over 1500 l a k e s i n the Cariboo r e g i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia represent a valued resource which has been subjected i n recent years t o i n c r e a s i n g pressure f o r v a r i o u s forms o f development. F i f t e e n years o f r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n growth, r i s i n g incomes, in c r e a s e d access due t o improved highways and g r e a t e r l e i s u r e time have produced, d e s p i t e economic r e c e s s i o n , a s i t u a t i o n o f continued strong demand f o r lakeshore r e s i d e n t i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o p e r t y . I n a d d i t i o n , l a k e shorelands may be important t o the lan d base o f the f o r e s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s ; wetlands are o f t e n c r i t i c a l w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t ; and the la k e s themselves used f o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and water supply. The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o evaluate the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t settlement p l a n n i n g process as a p o t e n t i a l method f o r a r r i v i n g a t s o c i a l l y acceptable s o l u t i o n s t o i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o l a k e management. To augment the e v a l u a t i o n , the general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the l a k e management problem are disc u s s e d ; the r e s u l t s o f an examination o f p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s , Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t l a k e shoreland rezoning a p p l i c a t i o n s and l a k e p l a n n i n g r e p o r t s r e l a t i n g t o the Cariboo are presented; and an overview o f approaches t o l a k e management i s provided. Normative c r i t e r i a are used t o assess the pro c e d u r a l requirements o f the settlement p l a n n i n g process as e s t a b l i s h e d i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t and by the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s approach i s based on the premise t h a t i f t h i s p l a n n i n g process complies w i t h c r i t e r i a d e r i v e d from the p r i n c i p l e s o f l i b e r a l democratic theory, l a k e management d e c i s i o n s ( i i i ) produced through settlement planning w i l l l i k e l y be "good" decisions. Normative c r i t e r i a used to assess the settlement planning process include: 1. opportunity for representation of interests; 2. adequacy of information; 3. opportunity for interaction among participants; 4. efficiency of the process; and 5. effectiveness of the process. The general conclusion drawn from the assessment i s that the settlement planning process represents a method that would be acceptable, i n light of the above c r i t e r i a , for making decisions relating to settlement and lake management. This conclusion i s subject to the proviso that a regional d i s t r i c t f a i t h f u l l y adheres to established procedures for preparing settlement plans. Recommendations for improving the settlement planning process, from a normative perspective, include the following: 1. The participation of non-institutional interests (such as the general public and interest groups) should become a required rather than a discretionary element of the settlement planning process at the plan i n t i t i a t i o n and plan preparation stages. 2. Settlement plan boundaries and terms of reference should be referred to agencies which had the opportunity to be represented i n the settlement planning process prior to the elimination of regional d i s t r i c t Technical Planning (iv) Committees at the i n i t i a t i o n of a plan to provide these agencies the opportunity to determine i f their interests are affected and their participation i n plan preparation warranted. 3 . A regional d i s t r i c t considering the preparation of a settlement plan that focuses on lake management issues should attempt to establish cooperative planning programs with other agencies that have interests i n land use planning and water resources management. 4. A regional d i s t r i c t should conduct public meetings and special purpose agency meetings during the preparation of a settlement plan to provide the opportunity for interaction among participants. 5. Both regional d i s t r i c t s and provincial ministries should continue efforts to improve the coordination of planning a c t i v i t i e s of interest to each level of government. The proposed application of settlement planning to lake management issues i s largely a . response to the changing environment i n which regional d i s t r i c t planning takes place. Recent changes include the elimination by the provincial government of regional d i s t r i c t authority to prepare regional plans and the cancellation of existing plans; the dissolution of Technical Planning Committees; changes i n regional board voting (v) procedures on planning matters; changes i n the municipal/regional d i s t r i c t funding arrangement whereby municipalities may decide they w i l l no longer p a r t i c i p a t e i n or share the costs of regional d i s t r i c t planning a c t i v i t i e s ; and a requirement that i n future, r u r a l plans must be supported by a referendum i n the area to be planned to q u a l i f y f o r p r o v i n c i a l funding. The l a t t e r two changes are p o t e n t i a l l y the most s i g n i f i c a n t , as they create the p o s s i b i l i t y that regional d i s t r i c t planning budgets could be reduced to the point where p o l i c y planning i s not economically viabl e . I t i s thus apparent that regional d i s t r i c t planning ex i s t s i n a turbulent environment and faces a highly uncertain future. ( v i ) TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS ( v i ) LIST OF TABLES ( i x ) LIST OF FIGURES ( x ) ACKNOWLEDGFJYIENT ( x i) CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 1 1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 3 1.3 THE CARIBOO REGIONAL DISTRICT 3 1.3.1 Location and Description 3 1.3.2 P o l i t i c a l Organization 8 1.3.3 Regional D i s t r i c t Settlement Planning 9 1.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LAKE MANAGEMENT PROBLEM ... 11 1.5 DEMOCRATIC THEORY AND NORMATIVE CRITERIA 16 1.6 THEORIES OF PUBLIC DECISION MAKING 21 1.6.1 The Rational Approach 21 1.6.2 Public Choice Theory 24 CHAPTER II: THE CARIBOO LAKE AND LAKE SHORELAND RESOURCE - USES, INTERESTS AND ISSUES 27 2.1 THE LAKE AND LAKE SHORELAND RESOURCE -MAJOR USES AND ASSOCIATED INTERESTS 27 2.1.1 Settlement Uses and Interests 28 2.1.2 Recreation Uses and Interests 33 2.1.3 Forestry Uses and Interests 36 2.1.4 Agriculture Uses and Interests 37 2.1.5 Nature Conservation Uses and Interests .... 39 2.1.6 Power Generation Uses and Interests 41 2.1.7 Mineral Resource Uses and Interests 42 ( v i i ) PAGE 2.2 LAKE MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN THE CARIBOO REGIONAL DISTRICT 4 2 2.2.1 Resource Allocation Issues 4 ^ 2.2.2 Environmental Quality Issues ^ CHAPTER III: OVERVTEW OF REGIONAL PLANNING APPROACHES TO LAKE MANAGEMENT 6 0 3.1 THE MINNESOTA SHORELAND ZONING PROGRAM 6 0 3.2 THE FRASER-FORT GEORGE REGIONAL DISTRICT LAKESHORE GUIDELINES 6 3 3.3 THE THOMPSON-NICOLA REGIONAL DISTRICT LAKES STUDY 6 6 3.4 THE CARIBOO REGIONAL DISTRICT LAKE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY 6 9 3.5 THE ALBERTA PLANNING BOARD APPROACH 7 3 CHAPTER IV: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SETTLEMENT PLANNING PROCESS 7 7 4.1 THE PREPARATION OF AN OFFICIAL SETTLEMENT PLAN ... 7 7 4.1.1 Initiation of an O f f i c i a l Settlement Plan . 7 8 4.1.2 Plan Preparation 7 9 4.1.3 Adoption of the Plan 8 0 4.1.4 Plan Implementation 81 4.2 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SETTLEMENT PLANNING PROCESS . 82 4.2.1 Representation of Interests 8 3 4.2.2 Adequacy of Information 8 9 4.2.3 Interaction Among Participants 93 4.2.4 Efficiency 9 4 4.2.5 Effectiveness 9 7 4.3 SETTLEMENT PLANNING AND LAKE MANAGEMENT 101 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS AND RECCMMENDATIONS 106 REFERENCES , 112 ( v i i i ) PAGE APPENDIX I: Sections 809 - 811 of the Municipal Act 1 2 1 APPENDIX II: Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t Lake Water Quality Information Processing System 124 APPENDIX III: Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t On-Site Effluent Disposal Guidelines for Lakefront Developments 149 APPENDIX IV: Draft Cariboo Regional District/Ministry of Lands Parks and Housing Agreement Regarding Incorporation of Crown Lands Use Plans into Regional D i s t r i c t O f f i c i a l Settlement Plans 158 ( i x ) LIST OF TABLES PAGE TABLE I : Summary o f Recommendations Regarding Lakeshore Rezoning A p p l i c a t i o n s i n the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t - June 1978 t o June 1983 4 4 TABLE I I : S e l e c t e d C r i t e r i a f o r Lake Trophic S t a t e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 104 (x) LIST OF FIGURES PAGE FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t L o c a t i o n Map ^ Schematic Representation o f Climate and Landforms. 6 T y p i c a l P a t t e r n o f La k e f r o n t Cottage Development.. 2 ^ The Thompson N i c o l a Regional D i s t r i c t Lake System Pla n n i n g Process 67 ( x i ) ACKNCWLF1)GEMENT The author r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e from a number o f people who provided v a l u a b l e i n p u t i n t o t h i s study. S p e c i a l thanks go t o Dr. W.E. Rees and Dr. A.H.J. Dorcey o f the School o f Community and Regional P l a n n i n g who s u p p l i e d i n s i g h t f u l comments on the v a r i o u s d r a f t s o f t h i s document. Thanks are a l s o extended t o the s t a f f o f the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t , e s p e c i a l l y Mr. A. Kuroyama, D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g , whose encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o the completion o f t h i s study. As w i t h any study o f t h i s nature the author i s p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l t o the t y p i s t s , Mrs. J . B e l l and Mrs. M. C r o f t , who spent many hours t y p i n g the "rough" and f i n a l d r a f t s . 1 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1.1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study i s to evaluate the regional d i s t r i c t settlement planning process as a potential method for arriving at socially acceptable solutions i n the management of a lake resource. The study focuses on lake management issues i n the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t (CRD). The Cariboo i s renowned for the number and diversity of i t s waterbodies; there are over 1500 lakes, ranging from the small alpine lakes of the high country i n the southwestern area of the region to the parkland lakes of the central interior plateau. The lake resource i s important to the Cariboo, and to the province, from a variety of standpoints. The natural landscape of a lake and i t s surrounding environment i s valued aesthetically for i t s beauty and serenity. Recreation experiences include travelling the magnificent wilderness of the Bowron Lakes c i r c u i t by canoe, fishing for trout i n one of the multitude of small to medium size lakes, and weekend cottaging and picnicking on the larger resort lakes. Tourism associated with lake-oriented recreation i s becoming an increasingly important segment of the regional economy. Moreover, lakes are frequently used as water supplies for domestic and irrigation purposes, their wetlands are often c r i t i c a l w i l d l i f e habitat, and their shorelands of value for forestry, agriculture and residential use. With the diversity of existing and potential uses of the lake resource and differing public preferences about how the 2 resource should be managed and used; problems are cre a t e d f o r planners who must develop s o c i a l l y acceptable s o l u t i o n s f o r resource a l l o c a t i o n and management. By what process, f o r example, should d e c i s i o n s be made reg a r d i n g the maximum d e n s i t y o f r e s i d e n t i a l development t o be pe r m i t t e d on the shorelands o f a p a r t i c u l a r lake? What measures, i f any, should be taken t o p r o t e c t the q u a l i t i e s o f l a k e environments t h a t a t t r a c t e d r e s i d e n t s i n the f i r s t p l ace? How can s o c i a l l y acceptable s o l u t i o n s be a r r i v e d a t when un r e s o l v a b l e c o n f l i c t s seem t o e x i s t between d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t groups? A v a r i e t y o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements are used by p l u r a l i s t i c democratic s o c i e t i e s t o a r r i v e a t p l a n n i n g and management d e c i s i o n s t h a t accord w i t h the s o c i a l w i l l . An i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement i s d e f i n e d by Fox (1976, p.743) as "an i n t e r r e l a t e d s e t o f e n t i t i e s and r u l e s t h a t serve t o organize s o c i e t i e s ' a c t i v i t i e s so as t o achieve s o c i a l g o a l s " . An e n t i t y i s an i n d i v i d u a l o r o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i l e a r u l e i s a law, r e g u l a t i o n o r e s t a b l i s h e d custom (Ibid) . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement f o r l a k e management e s t a b l i s h e s the c o n d i t i o n s under which the resource can be developed and used. I t a l s o provides resources and a u t h o r i t y f o r p r e s c r i b e d t a s k s t o be undertaken by o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s . The e v a l u a t i o n o f settlement p l a n n i n g as an i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement f o r making d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g management o f the Cariboo l a k e resource i s a c e n t r a l theme o f t h i s study. 3 1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The general goal of this study i s to develop a better understanding of the processes involved i n making lake management decisions. More specifically, this thesis has the following research objectives: 1. to provide an overview of approaches to lake management; 2. to identify interests associated with, and issues pertinent to, settlement planning and lake management i n the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t ; 3. to evaluate the potential of the regional d i s t r i c t settlement planning process as a method for producing socially acceptable lake management decisions; and 4. to identify institutional strategies which could contribute to improvement of the lake planning/management process at the regional d i s t r i c t level. 1.3 THE CARIBOO REGIONAL DISTRICT 1.3.1 Location and Description The Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t i s located i n the central interior of Br i t i s h Columbia, covering an area of approximately 69,000 square kilometres (see Figure 1.) The northern boundaries of the d i s t r i c t extend beyond the Nazko and Kluskus areas - the region through which Alexander Mackenzie f i r s t travelled i n the late 18th century. The northeast part of the Cariboo includes the FIGURE h LOCATION MAP CARIBOO REGIONAL DISTRICT BRITISH COLUMBIA NOT TO SCALE 5 Wells - Barkerville - Bowron Lakes area, the scene of the Cariboo gold rush of the late 1860's-. To the east the d i s t r i c t i s bounded by Quesnel Lake, Mahood Lake and the Cariboo Mountains. In the southeast i s the recreation oriented Interlakes area and i n the southwest Chilko Lake and the Coast Mountains. The western boundaries of the region extend into Tweedsmuir Provincial Park. The physiography of the Cariboo has been described by Holland (1964). The region contains parts of the Coast Mountains, Nechako Plateau, Fraser Plateau, Fraser Basin and Quesnel Highlands (see Figure 2). The Coast Mountains range i n height to about 3000 metres and they significantly influence the regional climate. The other physiographic features are components of the Interior Plateau, one of the major physiographic divisions of the province. The small portion of the Nechako Plateau within the boundaries of the regional d i s t r i c t i s an area of low r e l i e f ranging from 1200-1500 metres i n elevation. The Fraser Plateau, most of which l i e s i n the Chilcotin area west of the Fraser River, i s f l a t and gently r o l l i n g country with great expanses of undissected upland between 1200 and 1500 metres. The Fraser Basin i s an area of low r e l i e f containing the Fraser River and i t s major tributaries. The Fraser Basin i s generally defined by the 900 metre contour. Much of the basin i s poorly drained and numerous lakes occur throughout the f l a t to gently r o l l i n g terrain. The Quesnel Highlands are located i n the eastern part of the region between 1500 and 2000 metres and extend from the Bowron Lakes.to Mahood Lake. The climate of the Cariboo i s strongly influenced by the FIGURE 2» SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF CLIMATE AND LANDFORMS Elevations in Feet 9,000-Elevations in Meters . 3 ,000 M.A.R 2S0 em+-6 ,000 . 3 ,000 . M.A.R 150 cm + M.A.R 39 cm M. Jan.T. "I3°C , M. Jul.T. I3°C M.A.R 40 cm M.Jon.T. -|3°C M.Jul. T. I2°C ALEXIS CREEK M.A.R 40cm M. Jan.T. -|0°C M.Jul. T. I6°C M.A.P. 113cm M. Jan. T. -|0°C M. Jul. T. I2°C BARKERVII FRASER PLATEAU FRASER BASIN FRASER PLATEAU QUESNEL HIGHLAND CARIBOO MOUNTAINS .2 ,000 M.A.P -Mean Annual Precipitation M. Jan.T. - Mean Daily Temperature of January M. Jul. T. - Mean Daily Temperature of July Source-Chilton (1979) 7 region's physiography, as the effects of eastward moving Pacific a i r masses are minimized i n the lee of the Coast Mountains. Precipitation gradually increases from the 35-45 centimetre range in the Fraser and Nechako Plateaus to over 100 centimetres i n the Quesnel Highlands (Chilton, 1979). The location of the Cariboo region i n the interior of B.C. results i n a continental climate regime, as evidenced by the mean temperature range of about 25 ° Celsius between January and July (see Figure 3). Latitude (51° - 53° 20' North) and relatively high elevation (800 - 1500 metres above sea level over much of the region) results i n a short frost free period, which constrains the potential agricultural and forest productivity of the region. Archeological studies i n the Cariboo have yielded evidence that the region has been inhabited for at least 4000 years (Montgomery, 1979, p. 20) . Alexander Mackenzie was the f i r s t recorded European to v i s i t the area, i n 1793. Fifteen years later a second European expedition into the region was led by Simon Fraser ( Ibid., p. 14). Soon after these i n i t i a l explorations a fur trade was established which prospered through the 19th century u n t i l the time of the gold rush. The gold rush of the 1860's resulted i n a dramatic influx of white settlers into the Cariboo -the town of Barkerville was reputed to be at one time the largest settlement west of Chicago and north of San Francisco. The transportation routes to the goldfields influenced the pattern of settlement well into the 20 th century. The construction of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway i n the late 1920's stimulated further development by "opening up" the 8 agricultural and forestry development potential of the region. As these industries began to thrive, Williams Lake, Quesnel and 100 Mile House emerged as dominant processing and shipment centres. Today the majority of the regional population of 58,600 resides i n these settlements (Statistics Canada, 1983). Population growth has been rapid i n the Cariboo since the 1960's. The current population represents an 80 percent increase over the 1966 population of 32,500 and B.C. Research estimates that growth w i l l occur over the next 20 years at a moderate rate of 3.0 percent per annum (Forrester and Hamaura, 1983, p. 73). The Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t population i s therefore expected to reach 100,000 by the turn of the century. 1.3.2 P o l i t i c a l Organization In addition to the municipalities of Quesnel, Williams Lake and 100 Mile House, the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t i s comprised of twelve "electoral areas". The Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t Board of Directors i s a governing and executive body consisting of elected representatives from each of the electoral areas and appointed representatives from the councils of each municipality ( Municipal  Act, RSBC, 1979, Chapter 290, section 778). A scheme of weighted voting power and representation based on the population of each electoral area and municipality (in the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t one vote per 2500 population i n an electoral area or municipality) i s i n effect i n a l l regional d i s t r i c t s ( Municipal Act, section 779). In November, 1983, the twelve electoral area directors possessed a total of 22 votes and the municipal directors 9 possessed a total of 10 votes. As of November 18, 1983, however, voting on planning matters i s conducted on a one director/one vote basis. Regional d i s t r i c t s were created by the government of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1965 through an amendment to the Municipal Act. The B.C. Ministry of Municipal Affairs (1979, p. 2) has described a regional d i s t r i c t as "a governmental unit covering a large area of the province established to provide the means by which existing municipalities within a region, i n cooperation with unincorporated areas, can deal effectively with regional problems The Municipal Act delegates authority to regional d i s t r i c t s to perform certain general functions, such as land use planning. Some specific functions such as regional park and recreation programmes and the provision of community water and sewer services to specified areas may be granted to regional d i s t r i c t s by supplementary letters patent upon application to the provincial cabinet (B.C. Ministry of Municipal Affairs, 1979, p.2). 1.3.3 Regional D i s t r i c t Settlement Planning Until November, 1983 regional d i s t r i c t s were empowered under sections 807 and 808 of the Municipal Act to prepare o f f i c i a l regional plans, which were "a general scheme without detail for the projected uses of land within the regional d i s t r i c t " . Under the regional planning provisions of the Municipal Act , several regional d i s t r i c t s prepared policy plans relating to lakes within the d i s t r i c t . However, on November 18, 1983 the provincial 10 government passed an amendment t o the M u n i c i p a l A c t , which s t a t e d i n p a r t t h a t " A l l r e g i o n a l p l a n s and o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n s prepared o r designated before s e c t i o n s 807 and 808 were repealed are c a n c e l l e d and have no e f f e c t " (Municipal A c t , S. 808.1). The e l i m i n a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l p l a n s has, however, l e f t r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s w i t h a u t h o r i t y t o prepare o f f i c i a l settlement p l a n s as a method f o r addressing p o l i c y i s s u e s . The p r o v i s i o n s o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t concerning r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t l a n d use p l a n n i n g c l e a r l y r e l a t e t o settlement matters. A r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t may prepare o f f i c i a l settlement p l a n s which apply t o a l l o r p a r t o f a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t o u t s i d e m u n i c i p a l boundaries (ss. 809 (1) and ( 2 ) ) . A settlement p l a n must c o n t a i n "a statement o f broad s o c i a l , economic and environmental o b j e c t i v e s t o be achieved by implementation o f the p l a n " (s. 810 ( 2 ) ) . The p l a n must a l s o c o n t a i n "a statement o f the p o l i c i e s o f the r e g i o n a l board on the g e n e r a l form and c h a r a c t e r o f the f u t u r e l a n d use p a t t e r n i n the area covered by the p l a n " ( I b i d . ) . F u r t h e r , s e c t i o n 810 i d e n t i f i e s s p e c i f i c matters t o be addressed by the p l a n i n c l u d i n g : "the p r e s e r v a t i o n , p r o t e c t i o n and enhancement o f l a n d and water areas o f s p e c i a l importance f o r s c e n i c o r r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e o r n a t u r a l , h i s t o r i c a l o r s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t " (S. 810 (2) ( d ) ) . I n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f an o f f i c i a l settlement p l a n , c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n t o : (a) the probable s o c i a l , environmental and economic consequences o f proposed p o l i c i e s ; (b) the s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i c i e s and programs o f the government; (c) the s u i t a b i l i t y o f l a n d f o r v a r i o u s uses; (d) l a n d area requirements f o r uses r e l a t e d t o p r o j e c t i o n s o f p o p u l a t i o n and economic growth; and (e) the p r e v e n t i o n o f p o l l u t i o n o f a i r , water and l a n d . 11 (S. 810 (3)) The above p r o v i s i o n s o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t p r o v i d e a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t w i t h the op p o r t u n i t y t o prepare settlement plans t h a t , w h i l e c o n c e n t r a t i n g on l a n d use matters, may a l s o emphasize the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between la n d use and r e g i o n a l water resources. S e c t i o n 811 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the Board must "provide evidence t h a t the p u b l i c was gi v e n adequate o p p o r t u n i t y t o examine and comment on the proposed p l a n " when s u b m i t t i n g an o f f i c i a l p l a n t o the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s f o r approval. The Board must a l s o h o l d a p u b l i c h e a r i n g , i n accordance w i t h s e c t i o n 720 o f the A c t , p r i o r t o adopting an o f f i c i a l settlement p l a n . Upon adoption, an o f f i c i a l settlement p l a n " s h a l l be the b a s i s f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n and adoption o f lan d use r e g u l a t i n g by-laws" (S. 810 (1 ) ) . Although a p i a n , once adopted, does not commit the r e g i o n a l board t o undertake any recommended p r o j e c t , the board must not undertake works o r adopt a by-law a t v a r i a n c e w i t h the p l a n (SS. 809 (6) and (7)) . A settlement p l a n does not empower the board t o "i m p a i r , abrogate o r otherwise a f f e c t the r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s t o which an owner o f lan d i s otherwise l a w f u l l y e n t i t l e d " (S. 809 ( 8 ) ) . A copy o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t settlement p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i s contained i n Appendix I . 1 . 4 OiAPACTERISTICS OF THE LAKE MANAGEMENT PROBLEM Water resources, t o v a r y i n g degrees depending on the p a r t i c u l a r use, can be considered t o be "common property" resources. Common property resources e x h i b i t two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o n d i t i o n s : 12 "(1) unrestricted access to the resource system by a l l those who care to use i t , and (2) some type of adverse interaction among users of the system (i.e. the creation of externalities among users)." (Howe, 1979, p. 241) A further characteristic of a common property resource i s that an individual pursuing his own self-interest may not be motivated to conserve that resource. For example, a farmer drawing water from a lake to irrigate his croplands may compete with other farmers, lakeshore residents and others for a share of the lake's water supply. It i s unreasonable to expect the farmer, or any of the others, to re s t r i c t his individual consumption i n order to conserve the water supply i f there i s nothing to guarantee that others w i l l do likewise; because what one consumer does not use w i l l l i k e l y be used by the others. This type of situation, which Hardin (1968) refers to as "the tragedy of the commons", w i l l eventually lead to resource depletion i f the amount of water removed exceeds the inflow of water to the lake. Further, i f the lake i s also used by fishermen, reduction i n water quantity may be disastrous to f i s h habitat, thus imposing a negative externality on fisherman. The lake fishery i t s e l f i s another common property resource that may be subject to overexploitation i f no resource conservation measures are taken. The common property nature of the lake resource, and the d i f f i c u l t y of establishing prices for some of the services i t provides (can one charge admission to view a lake?) lead Swainson (1976, p. 11) to conclude that some form of social arrangement w i l l be required for making some (but not all ) decisions regarding lake management. Hardin argues that mutual coercion, "mutually agreed upon by the majority of people affected", i s necessary to effect socially 13 acceptable action on the part of self-interest motivated individuals (1968, p. 1247). The type of mutual coercion chosen by Canadian society to avert the problems associated with common property resources i s government regulation of how the lake resource w i l l be used and who w i l l benefit from that use. The prevention of adverse interaction among resource users w i l l involve the formation of management systems for resource allocation between consumptive and non-consumptive uses and between individuals and groups within each of these categories of groups (McGrenere, 1981, p. 15). Swainson (1976) and Fox et a l (1983) have identified several additional characteristics of water management problems, which are also applicable to lake management problems. The "technical" dimension of lake management focuses on matters such as the bio-physical characteristics of water which are important to quality management, the causes and effects of lake water quality deterioration, the methods available for preserving and enhancing lake water quality, economic aspects of lake management and technical uncertainty associated with certain management decisions (Swainson, 1976, p. 3). The quality of water can be measured i n terms of almost any number of bio-physical parameters and the relevance of any of these water quality parameters depends on the use being considered for a given water supply (Ibid, p. 4). Thus, water quality should not be considered i n isolation from water use, and the institutional arrangement for water management "must f a c i l i t a t e the generation on a continuing basis of technical information concerning extant water quality 14 conditions and the l i k e l y conditions associated with ... alternative forms of future development" ( Ibid., p.6). However, because of the diversity of ecological conditions and possible uses of the lake resource i n areas such as the Cariboo, detailed investigation and analysis of development potentials for even the four or five major uses and the impacts of these uses on the lake resource would require enormous expenditures of time and money. This leads Fox et a l (1983, p. 37) to qualify Swainson's information requirement: "Planning must be strategic i n nature: c r i t i c a l attention must be given to p r i o r i t i e s i n determining what data to collect ...". /Another aspect of the technical dimension of lake management problems relates to the systems nature of water quality management. Water quality i s influenced by interdependencies among four c r i t i c a l factors of geology, physiography, climate and land use (Slaymaker and Lavkulich, undated, p. 1). The system character of water quality invites the question: "What are the suitable boundaries for sub-systems to be used i n management since the water cycle i s a world-wide system?" (Swainson, 1976, p. 6). While the purpose of system boundary definition i s to achieve a focus that includes a l l relevant factors, clearly one cannot examine water quality management from the perspective of the global water cycle. Rather, one should attempt to avoid a system boundary definition problem that Bertalanffy referred to as "suboptimization" - the failure to examine the system from a sufficiently broad point of view (Davidson, 1983, p. 34). Slaymaker and Lavkulich (undated, p. 1) argue that, at a minimum, 15 the watershed i s an appropriate boundary for water quality systems analysis: "... the watershed physiography, atmospheric inputs, vegetation, geochemical composition of the unconsolidated sediments and the land use practices over the watershed w i l l necessarily influence water quality". Uncertainty must be recognized as a fundamental aspect of the resource management process i n general (Fox et a l , 1983) and water quality management i n particular (Swainson, 1976). As i t i s not possible to know everything of importance about complex water resource management problems prior to taking action, Fox et a l believe that: "Planning and management must be viewed as a continuing, repetitive process, i n which decisions are made with the knowledge that uncertainties exist. A l l results are, therefore, examined to provide the basis for making changes at the next stage that promise to improve management effectiveness" (1983, p. 38). Although technical considerations may appear at this point to dominate the management process, lake management involves much more than addressing technical questions. It also involves management of human a c t i v i t i e s that affect lake quality and use of the lake resource. The fact that people have different interests concerning how the lake resource w i l l be allocated among various uses complicates the management task. The institutional arrangement for lake management must therefore provide a framework for resolving conflicts among potential users. Fox (1976, p. 744) identifies the following as basic components of such an institutional framework: 1. The entities that establish the rules and laws about how water may be developed and used... 16 2. The rules and laws governing the development and use of water. 3. The entities that participate i n deciding what water development and use programs w i l l be undertaken. 4. The entities that implement the development and use programs decided upon. Management of human ac t i v i t i e s involves a "normative" dimension which, according to Swainson, refers to the "standard we view as applicable i n judging whether a given set of decision-making processes i s i n accord with certain pragmatic as well as some very basic ethical norms of our society" (1976, p. 3). A discussion of this normative dimension follows. 1.5 DEMOCRATIC THEORY AND NORMATIVE CRITERIA Mayo (1960, p. 70) provides the following as a "working definition" of a democratic p o l i t i c a l system: One i n which public policies are made, on a majority basis, by representatives subject to effective popular control at periodic elections which are conducted on the principle of p o l i t i c a l equality and under conditions of p o l i t i c a l freedom. Mayo identifies several distinguishing features or principles of operation i n the above definition, the basic principle being that of popular control over p o l i t i c a l decision-makers through the process of choosing representatives at elections held at more or less regular intervals. A second principle identified by Mayo i s that of p o l i t i c a l equality, which i s institutionalized as the equality of a l l adult citizens i n voting (e.g. one person/one vote, universal adult suffrage). P o l i t i c a l equality refers to individuals having an equal share i n control over decision makers not to an equal share i n decision making. The third principle i s 17 t h a t o f p o l i t i c a l freedom t o ensure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f popular c o n t r o l through s e c r e t b a l l o t s (so d e c i s i o n s can be made without i n t i m i d a t i o n o r c o e r c i o n ) , freedom t o run f o r o f f i c e (at l e a s t two candidates must be ab l e t o stand f o r e l e c t i o n i f they w i s h ) , and freedom t o speak, o r g a n i z e , and assemble f o r p o l i t i c a l purposes (candidates and t h e i r supporters are f r e e t o c r i t i c i z e present d e c i s i o n makers and propose a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s ) . The f o u r t h p r i n c i p l e i s t h a t o f m a j o r i t y r u l e - when the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s are d i v i d e d on a p a r t i c u l a r matter, the d e c i s i o n o f the m a j o r i t y p r e v a i l s . P r e c a u t i o n s , however, are necessary t o prevent tyranny o f m a j o r i t y i n t e r e s t s over m i n o r i t y i n t e r e s t s i n a d e c i s i o n making system. Considered i n normative terms, these o p e r a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s c o n s t i t u t e the moral j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f a democratic p o l i t i c a l system. The p r i n c i p l e s which form the b a s i s f o r democratic p o l i t i c a l systems must be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h i n the context o f the Canadian c u l t u r a l environment (Eyre, 1979). Eyre i d e n t i f i e s three i n t e r r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Canadian c u l t u r e which have i n f l u e n c e d the p r o c e d u r a l aspects o f the Canadian democraticsystem: the importance o f i n d i v i d u a l freedoms; c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y ; and Canadian h i s t o r y (1979, p. 27). While, as Eyre comments, the o r i g i n o f our emphasis on the importance o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n Canadian s o c i e t y i s u n c l e a r , i t can be argued t h a t t h i s emphasis d e r i v e s i n l a r g e p a r t from our B r i t i s h h e r i t a g e . For example, over a century ago John S t u a r t M i l l , the E n g l i s h p h i l o s o p h e r , wrote t h a t the appr o p r i a t e r e g i o n o f human l i b e r t y comprises: 18 F i r s t , »the inward domain of consciousness, demanding liberty of ... thought and feeling, absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on a l l subjects... Secondly, the principle requires liberty of tastes and pursuits, of framing the plan of our l i f e to suit our own character, of doing as we lik e ... without impediment from our fellow creatures, so long as we do not harm them ... Thirdly, from this liberty of each individual follows the liberty, within the same limits, of combination among individuals, freedom to unite for any purpose not involving harm to others (Mill, 1956, p. 16) These values are expressed p o l i t i c a l l y i n the democratic norms of p o l i t i c a l freedoms and p o l i t i c a l equality. Cultural diversity i s a product of Canadian history and i s recognized and acknowledged as an important contributing factor to the quality of l i f e i n Canada, as indicated i n the common reference to Canada as a "cultural mosaic" as opposed to a "cultural melting pot". The p o l i t i c a l , expression of this value i s contained i n the numerous policies and programs of government which address the special needs of many minority groups. The above discussion of democratic norms and principles provides a basis for establishing normative c r i t e r i a against which government decision making processes can be evaluated. The following c r i t e r i a are based primarily on Fox (1976). 1. Representation of Interests Implied i n the notion of representative democracy i s the idea that elected o f f i c i a l s represent the interests of the polity as a whole i n formulating public policy. However, as Davidson (1981) notes, with growing social complexity and increasing diversity of beliefs, values and preferences, representatives cannot r e a l i s t i c a l l y be expected to adequately represent the 19 i n t e r e s t s o f a l l those who may be a f f e c t e d by government d e c i s i o n s . A l l those groups and i n d i v i d u a l s who b e l i e v e t h e i r  i n t e r e s t s t o be a f f e c t e d by a p a r t i c u l a r d e c i s i o n should t h e r e f o r e be allowed t o p a r t i c i p a t e throughout the d e c i s i o n making process. 2. Adequacy o f Information The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t s i n the d e c i s i o n making process should be accompanied by access t o adequate i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o a range o f p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . The type o f i n f o r m a t i o n an i n t e r e s t group r e q u i r e s depends on the o b j e c t i v e s o f t h a t group. Information p e r t a i n i n g t o the outcomes o f a l t e r n a t i v e d e c i s i o n s can a i d a group i n judging the appropriateness o f each d e c i s i o n i n terms o f the extent t o which the d e c i s i o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o the group's o b j e c t i v e s . I n order t o make such judgements, adequate s o c i a l , economic, and environmental i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o the a l t e r n a t i v e s should be generated and communicated i n a manner understandable t o those i n v o l v e d . Adequate i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h a t which can be generated w i t h reasonable expenditures o f time and resources and should i n c l u d e feedback from experience from w i t h i n , and e x t e r n a l t o , the system (Fox, 1976, p. 747). 3. I n t e r a c t i o n Among P a r t i c i p a t i n g E n t i t i e s Since the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a number o f i n t e r e s t groups i s a n t i c i p a t e d i f c r i t e r i o n 1 i s met, i t i s assumed t h a t the i n t e r e s t s o f some of the groups w i l l c o n f l i c t . Resource management d e c i s i o n s r a r e l y i n v o l v e a " w i n n e r - t a k e - a l l " outcome, r a t h e r , d e c i s i o n s are i n c r e a s i n g l y r e q u i r i n g compromise among 20 i n t e r e s t s ( B a n f i e l d , 1955). To reach a compromise, i n t e r a c t i o n t o f a c i l i t a t e b a r g a i n i n g i s necessary. I n t e r a c t i o n among p a r t i c i p a t i n g e n t i t i e s should t h e r e f o r e be encouraged a t each stage o f the d e c i s i o n making process t o f a c i l i t a t e b a r g a i n i n g as a means o f r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t . 4. E f f i c i e n c y While a p l u r a l i s m o f i n t e r e s t s should be allowed t o represent t h e i r views, adequate i n f o r m a t i o n should be generated and i n t e r a c t i o n should be encouraged; e f f i c i e n c y i n terms o f time and resources expended should not be s a c r i f i c e d . E f f i c i e n c y can be enhanced by a v o i d i n g the unnecessary d u p l i c a t i o n o f other planning/management agencies' e f f o r t s . Regional d i s t r i c t s should l i m i t t h e i r i n t e r v e n t i o n i n other agencies a c t i v i t i e s t o those a c t i v i t i e s which o v e r l a p w i t h the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t ' s i n t e r e s t s (Minett, 1981, p. 8 ) . Another dimension o f the e f f i c i e n c y c r i t e r i o n i s t h a t o f p o l i t i c a l e f f i c i e n c y . Swainson (1976, p. 7) s t a t e s t h a t an i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement f o r d e c i s i o n making "must not in c o r p o r a t e assumptions concerning the w i l l i n g n e s s o f p o l i t i c a l a c t o r s t o run r i s k s and i n c u r c o s t s (to them) which are q u i t e u n r e a l i s t i c " . 5. E f f e c t i v e n e s s A d e c i s i o n making process should be e f f e c t i v e i n a c h i e v i n g s o c i a l l y acceptable s o l u t i o n s t o management problems. A measure o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s can be based on the extent t o which the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n , i n t e r a c t i o n and e f f i c i e n c y c r i t e r i a are achieved. The c r i t e r i o n o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s a l s o r e l a t e s t o the 21 implementation of decisions. The decision making body should have the legal and economic capability to implement i t s decisions, which should be implemented fa i t h f u l l y . 1.6 THEORIES OF PUBLIC DECISION MAKING 1.6.1 The Rational Approach The rational approach to decision making represents the dominant tradition i n Canadian planning and the "point of departure" for most other approaches to planning (Hudson, 1979, p. 388). In a normative context, the role of the planner who adopts the rational approach i s that of a technical expert or advisor who should approach planning from a systems perspective and emphasize quantitative methods and s c i e n t i f i c reasoning to analyze various means for achieving public policy objectives (Klosterman, 1978; Hudson, 1979). The goal of the rational approach i s to arrive at an optimal solution to a problem through a decision making process that involves four basic stages: 1) goal formulation; 2) identification of policy alternatives; 3) evaluation of alternatives; and 4) implementation of decisions (Banfield, 1959; Krueckeburg and Silvers, 1974; Friedmann and Hudson, 1974; Hudson, 1979) . Many variations and elaborations of the basic rational model have been propounded over the years. For example, Mason and Mitroff (1981, p. 24) offer the following variation: Problem Problem . Formal sensing M defining • modeling 7 Solution derivation Implemen- —^  Monitoring tation In the Mason and Mitroff model the problem solving process can be init i a t e d at any of the stages, although the usual f i r s t 22 phase i s the p e r c e p t i o n on the p a r t o f the d e c i s i o n maker t h a t some, as y e t undetermined, a c t i o n i s r e q u i r e d t o s o l v e a problem. The next phase o f the process i s t o i d e n t i f y the nature and scope o f the problem from one o r more "macro" p e r s p e c t i v e s , f o l l o w e d by the development o f a d e t a i l e d model o f the problem from a s i n g l e "micro" p o i n t o f view. I n systems terminology, the second and t h i r d phases o f Mason and M i t r o f f ' s model correspond t o system boundary d e f i n i t i o n and system m o d e l l i n g . The s o l u t i o n d e r i v a t i o n stage i n v o l v e s the use o f r e l e v a n t knowledge so t h a t a choi c e can be made between a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r s o l v i n g the problem. Dorcey (1983) i d e n t i f i e s two types o f knowledge used i n d e c i s i o n making - " d e s c r i p t i v e knowledge" and " f u n c t i o n a l knowledge". D e s c r i p t i v e knowledge d e s c r i b e s the elements o f a system, w h i l e f u n c t i o n a l knowledge s p e c i f i e s the c a u s e - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between elements. Dorcey s t r e s s e s t h a t i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o ac q u i r e f u n c t i o n a l knowledge i n order t o o b t a i n the p r e d i c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n necessary f o r d e c i s i o n making. Implementation i n v o l v e s o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g the chosen s o l u t i o n so the d e s i r e d r e s u l t s can be achieved. The mon i t o r i n g phase i n v o l v e s the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the system elements a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n time t o e s t a b l i s h i f , i n f a c t , the problem i s being so l v e d and t o generate i n f o r m a t i o n t o be used t o t e s t hypotheses i n o r d er t o develop new f u n c t i o n a l knowledge. I n t e g r a l t o a l l the v a r i a t i o n s o f the r a t i o n a l approach are the concepts o f feedback and i t e r a t i o n . According t o Deutsch (1966, p. 68), the concept o f feedback i n v o l v e s a "ccmmunication 2 3 network t h a t produces an a c t i o n i n response t o an i n p u t o f i n f o r m a t i o n , and i n c l u d e s the r e s u l t s o f i t s own a c t i o n i n the  new i n f o r m a t i o n by which i t m o d i f i e s i t s subsequent behavior" ( o r i g i n a l emphasis). An i t e r a t i v e d e c i s i o n making process i s one i n which a s e r i e s o f feedback responses permits c o r r e c t i v e adjustment a t any stage o f the process, l e a d i n g u l t i m a t e l y t o attainment o f the d e s i r e d outcome (Mason and M i t r o f f , 1981). The r a t i o n a l approach, d e s p i t e i t s p o p u l a r i t y and c o n t i n u i n g widespread use i n p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e , has been s u b j e c t t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree o f c r i t i c i s m . Downs, f o r example, l i s t s s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s t o r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making: 1) each decision-maker can devote o n l y a l i m i t e d amount o f time t o decision-making; 2) each decision-maker can m e n t a l l y weigh and c o n s i d e r o n l y a l i m i t e d amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n a t one time; 3) the f u n c t i o n s o f most o f f i c i a l s r e q u i r e them t o become i n v o l v e d i n more a c t i v i t i e s than they can c o n s i d e r simultaneously; hence they must normally focus t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on o n l y p a r t o f t h e i r major concerns, w h i l e the r e s t remain l a t e n t ; 4) the amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n i t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o every decision-maker about each problem i s o n l y a s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e on the s u b j e c t ; 5) a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n b e a r i n g on any p a r t i c u l a r problem can u s u a l l y be procured, but the c o s t s o f procurement and u t i l i z a t i o n may r i s e r a p i d l y as the amount o f data i n c r e a s e s ; 6) important aspects o f many problems i n v o l v e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t cannot be procured a t a l l , e s p e c i a l l y concerning f u t u r e events; hence many d e c i s i o n s must be made i n the face o f some i n e r a d i c a b l e u n c e r t a i n t y . (Downs, 1967, p.75) Simon (1957) a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t the requirements o f the r a t i o n a l model c o u l d not be met i n p r a c t i c e , so r a t h e r than maximize o r o p t i m i z e , d e c i s i o n m a k e r s ' s a t i s f i c e 1 . That i s , they " d i s c o v e r and c o n s i d e r o p t i o n s one a t a time, u s i n g as t h e i r 24 evaluation criterion for adoption or rejection a flexible aspiration level rather than r i g i d goals" (Alexander, 1984, p. 63). 1.6.2 Public Choice Theory In order to evaluate the performance of a management system, account must be taken of factors which influence the behaviour of the system. Public choice theory i s one theory which attempts to explain the decision-making of individuals with respect to policies that affect them collectively (Aucoin, 1979). The theory i s based on the assumption that a l l participants i n the decision making process are rational, self-interest maximizers (Mueller, 1979). Public choice theory maintains that the public decision making process does not function to achieve purely a l t r u i s t i c objectives. Politicians are assumed to be vote maximizers - they w i l l address only those issues they perceive are important to gaining re-election, i.e. those issues that directly affect the welfare of his or her constituents. Bureaucrats do not solely work towards achieving socially optimal decisions. Downs (1967) argues that a l l bureaucrats act at least p a r t i a l l y to further their own self-interests i n terms of increased power, income, prestige, convenience and security. Individual members of the public w i l l be concerned more about how their economic interests are affected by a decision than how i t affects the general welfare of the community. One of the objectives of public choice theory has been to design institutions "which would lead self-seeking bureaucrats or 25 politicians to generate public welfare i n the same sense that the market leads some self-interested businessmen to produce a social surplus" (Tullock, 1979, p. 32). Rational, self-interest maximizing behaviour, however, could hinder the formation and participation of interest groups i n a p l u r a l i s t i c decision making process, unless the group i s small or there i s some form of coercion (Olson, 1965). Olson identifies three factors that w i l l keep large, "latent" groups from acting i n their own interests: F i r s t , the larger the group, the smaller the fraction of the total group benefit any person acting i n the group interest receives .... Second ... the smaller the share of the total benefit going to any individual ... the less the likelihood any small subset of the group, much less any single individual, w i l l gain enough from getting the collective good to bear the burden of providing even a small amount of i t Third, the larger the number of members in the group, the greater the organization (required) and thus the higher the hurdle that must be jumped before any of the collective good at a l l can be obtained. (Olson, 1965, p. 48) The decision making process, because latent groups have no incentive to organize for the purpose of furthering their common interests, may be dominated by small groups which have more to gain from participating. The consequence can be the triumph of small, well organized groups over the numerically superior, but generally unorganized latent groups (Olson, 1965). Ostrum (1973) proposes the development of multi-organizational arrangements for taking into account the various interests involved i n the decision process. Ostrum argues that a multi-organizational structure can take advantage of overlapping jurisdiction and fragmentation of authority by 26 d i s t r i b u t i n g power both v e r t i c a l l y and h o r i z o n t a l l y among the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f government. Each agency should be accountable t o i t s p a r t i c u l a r ccmmunity o f i n t e r e s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a common property resource and should have same degree o f ve t o c a p a b i l i t y over other agencies i n order t o check t h e i r powers. Such a d e c i s i o n making system i n c o r p o r a t e s p l u r a l i s m and promotes adherence t o democratic p r i n c i p l e s i n the management o f a common property resource. Having d i s c u s s e d some o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f management problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the lak e resource and some o f the r e l e v a n t theory p e r t a i n i n g t o p u b l i c d e c i s i o n making, the f o l l o w i n g chapter w i l l examine the major s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p l a n n i n g f o r l a k e management. 27 CHAPTER I I : THE CARIBOO LAKE AND LAKE SHORELAND RESOURCE  - USES, INTERESTS AND ISSUES Chapter I e s t a b l i s h e d the context w i t h i n which pl a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be conducted by i d e n t i f y i n g the v a r i o u s uses o f , and i n t e r e s t s i n , the l a k e resource and by determining, i n a gene r a l manner, the nature and scope o f the i s s u e s . Chapter I I introduces the major uses o f the l a k e and l a k e shoreland resource i n the Cariboo and i d e n t i f i e s i n t e r e s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each use. I a l s o i d e n t i f y i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o l a k e management i n the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t , c o n c e n t r a t i n g on i s s u e s t h a t emerge through the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between settlement uses and the other uses o f the la k e resource. 2.1 THE LAKE AND LAKE SHORELAND RESOURCE - MAJOR USES AND ASSOCIATED INTERESTS The major c l a s s e s o f l a k e and l a k e shoreland use i n the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t i n c l u d e settlement, r e c r e a t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , nature c o n s e r v a t i o n , m i n e r a l e x t r a c t i o n and hydro-power generation. A s s o c i a t e d w i t h these uses are v a r i o u s p u b l i c and agency i n t e r e s t s . Fox (1976, p. 744) i d e n t i f i e s three types o f group - s e c t o r a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e g i o n a l - t h a t may have i n t e r e s t s i n how the use and development o f a g i v e n water supply i s determined. S e c t o r a l i n t e r e s t groups represent the 28 d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s o f use such as r e c r e a t i o n , domestic use, hydro power and i r r i g a t i o n . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s are those b u r e a u c r a t i c e n t i t i e s concerned w i t h the use and development o f the l a k e resource. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s are o f t e n a l i g n e d w i t h s e c t o r a l i n t e r e s t s , although, as Fox notes, o r g a n i z a t i o n s tend t o develop o b j e c t i v e s which may di v e r g e from s e c t o r a l i n t e r e s t group o b j e c t i v e s . Regional i n t e r e s t groups t h a t transcend s e c t o r a l boundaries may emerge when water development has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a l o c a l o r r e g i o n a l economy. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l p r o v i de a synopsis o f the major uses and some o f the i n t e r e s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these uses. 2.1.1 Settlement Uses and I n t e r e s t s /Among the broad v a r i e t y o f l a n d uses a s s o c i a t e d w i t h human settlements, commercial, i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l uses are u s u a l l y dominant. I n urbanized areas, t h i s i s a l s o u s u a l l y the case f o r lakeshore development. However, due t o the r u r a l nature o f the unincorporated areas o f the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t , i n d u s t r i a l uses are almost non-existent and commercial development o f l a k e shorelands i s l i m i t e d t o r e s o r t s and campgrounds. By f a r the most important l a n d use i n the v i c i n i t y o f Cariboo l a k e s from a settlement p e r s p e c t i v e i s permanent and seasonal r e s i d e n t i a l use. F or the most p a r t , shoreland r e s i d e n t i a l development i n the Cariboo takes p l a c e i n co n v e n t i o n a l s u b d i v i s i o n s , w i t h a s i n g l e d w e l l i n g u n i t l o c a t e d on a s m a l l acreage l o t . A d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the shoreland r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d use p a t t e r n i s i t s l i n e a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n - a s t r i p o f l o t s , one o r two rows deep, / 29 p a r t i a l l y surround most l a k e s where r e s i d e n t i a l development has occurred. F i g u r e 3, showing cottage development near the southwest end o f Green Lake, i l l u s t r a t e s the t y p i c a l p a t t e r n o f lakeshore r e s i d e n t i a l development - an access road p a r a l l e l i n g the s h o r e l i n e w i t h a s i n g l e t i e r o f r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s a l ong the lakeshore and a l a r g e l y undeveloped area on the upland s i d e o f the road. F i g u r e 3: T y p i c a l P a t t e r n o f Lakefront Cottage Development While the e x t e n t o f r e s i d e n t i a l development o f Cariboo l a k e shorelands i s minimal i n comparison w i t h many other r e g i o n s , 30 i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r shoreland p r o p e r t y , which f i r s t m a t e r i a l i z e d i n the l a t e 1960's and continued u n t i l the recent r e c e s s i o n , r e s u l t e d i n unprecedented s u b d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t y t o s a t i s f y the expanding market f o r l a k e f r o n t r e s i d e n c e s , summer cott a g e s , and commercial r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . F i f t e e n years o f r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n growth, r i s i n g incomes, in c r e a s e d access due t o improved highways, and g r e a t e r l e i s u r e time have produced a s i t u a t i o n o f continued s t r o n g demand f o r l a k e shoreland. To date t h i s demand has been l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o la k e s i n r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o the main p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s , but as the more a c c e s s i b l e l a k e s became developed and la n d p r i c e s r i s e , i n d i v i d u a l s and developers can be expected t o search f u r t h e r a f i e l d f o r l a k e s s u i t a b l e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l development. Demand f o r lakeshore r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y i n the Cariboo i s determined p r i m a r i l y i n terms o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f the l a k e from the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n centres and the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f the la k e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development. F a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development i n c l u d e s u i t a b i l i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n and an a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g environment. A t a s i t e s p e c i f i c l e v e l , p r i v a c y and easy access t o the l a k e are important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s (Vischer e t a l , 1981, p. 37) . I t i s assumed t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l demand i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o la k e a c c e s s i b i l i t y . Lakes i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes and p o p u l a t i o n centres w i l l experience the hi g h e s t l e v e l s o f demand. I n the Cariboo, d i s t a n c e and the type o f road i n f l u e n c e a c c e s s i b i l i t y , both p h y s i c a l l y and p e r c e p t u a l l y . 31 The necessity of travelling long distances over gravel or dirt-roads reduces demand for property on many lakes. Remoteness from population centres and physically d i f f i c u l t access severely constrains the development demand for lakes i n the Chilcotin and the eastern Cariboo. Regional d i s t r i c t planning interests, as defined i n Parts 24 and 25 of the Municipal Act (RSBC, 1979, C. 290), clearly relate to settlement matters. Sections 809 and 810 of the Municipal Act establish authority and set the requirements for regional d i s t r i c t s i n the preparation of settlement plans. The Municipal  Act (S. 810(2)) states that a settlement plan "shall contain a statement of broad social, economic and environmental objectives to be achieved by implementation of the plan and a statement of the policies of the regional board on the general form and character of the future land use pattern i n the area covered by the plan". Subsection (d) of section 810(2) states that a settlement plan shall include policies for "the preservation, protection and enhancement of land and water areas of special importance for scenic or recreational value ...". More generally, settlement plans shall give consideration to "the preservation of pollution of a i r , water and land", "the stated objectives, policies and programs of the (provincial) government", and "the s u i t a b i l i t y of land for various uses" (section 810(3)). In addition to establishing policies through settlement plans, regional d i s t r i c t s can regulate settlement related development through mechanisms such as zoning, subdivision and development permit by-laws. With this emphasis on settlement planning, groups 32 such as l a n d development i n t e r e s t s ( e s p e c i a l l y the r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r y ) community, ratepayers and p r o p e r t y owners a s s o c i a t i o n s take an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h a t segment o f the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t e d i n settlement and l a n d use i s s u e s . Due t o the broad scope o f settlement p l a n n i n g , s e v e r a l p r o v i n c i a l agencies w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e l a t e d t o o t h e r c l a s s e s o f l a n d and water use have an i n t e r e s t i n settlement p l a n n i n g . These agencies and t h e i r i n t e r e s t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d under subsequent headings. A number o f p r o v i n c i a l agencies, however, have v e r y d i r e c t i n t e r e s t s i n settlement uses. The M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s a d m i n i s t e r s the M u n i c i p a l A c t , under the a u t h o r i t y o f which r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s f u n c t i o n . I n p a r t i c u l a r , the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s oversees r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t l a n d use p l a n n i n g and r e g u l a t i o n . The M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways, under the Land T i t l e A c t (RSBC, 1979, C. 219), i s the approving a u t h o r i t y f o r s u b d i v i s i o n s o f l a n d i n unincorporated areas o f the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t . S e c t i o n 75 o f the Land  T i t l e A c t s t i p u l a t e s t h a t f o r l a k e f r o n t s u b d i v i s i o n s a 20 metre wide highway access t o the l a k e be provided a t d i s t a n c e s not g r e a t e r than 200 metres, o r 400 metres i n the case o f s u b d i v i s i o n s where each l o t exceeds 0.5 h e c t a r e . The Highway A c t (RSBC, 1979, C. 167, S. 6) g i v e s "absolute d i s c r e t i o n " t o the M i n i s t e r o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways t o designate and c o n s t r u c t highways, and f o r t h a t purposes may take possession o f any l a n d i n the p r o v i n c e . The M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r e g u l a t i o n o f 33 domestic sewage discharges to the ground of 5000 gallons per day or less under the Health Act (RSBC, 1979, C. 161). The Medical Health Officer conducts inspections of, and issues permits for, onsite sewage disposal systems for the purpose of protecting the public from bacteriological contamination of receiving waters. The Ministry of Health Septic Tank and Disposal Fie l d Regulations state that no septic f i e l d shall be located closer than 100 feet from the high water mark of a receiving body of water. The Ministry of Environment Water Management Branch, under the Water Act (RSBC, 1979, C. 429) issues licences for surface water consumption and regulates development i n flood hazard areas. Under the provisions of the Land Act (RSBC, 1979, C. 214), the Lands and Housing Regional Operations Division of the Ministry of Lands, Parks and Housing plans the allocation of non-forest Crown lands for various uses, including shoreland residential, through Crown Land Plans. This division i s also involved i n the marketing of shoreland residential lots under leasehold tenures. 2.1.2 Recreation Uses and Interests Traditionally, lake recreation i n the Cariboo occurs i n summer, with fishing, boating, camping, swinming, waterskiing, canoeing and viewing included i n the range of a c t i v i t i e s . Snowmobiling and cross-country skiing on lakes are becoming increasingly popular winter recreation a c t i v i t i e s . The recreation opportunities offered by Cariboo lakes attract area residents, summer "cottagers", and tourists who seek recreation experiences ranging from day trips to the lake to resort vacations or 34 wilderness adventures. Demand for most forms of lake recreation i s influenced by similar variables as for shoreland residential development. With the exception of wilderness recreation, which by definition i s relatively inaccessible, recreation demand for lakes i s inversely related to lake accessibility. In the Cariboo, distance and the type of road influence accessibility, both physically and psychologically. The necessity of travelling long distances over gravel or d i r t roads deters significant numbers of potential users. Remoteness from population centres and physically d i f f i c u l t access act as constraints to many forms of recreational use of lakes i n the Chilcotin area west of the Fraser River. Recreational s u i t a b i l i t y i s another variable which influences demand. Factors which can be used to identify recreation s u i t a b i l i t y include water quality for specific uses, the general aesthetic quality of a lake environment, and the surface area of the lake. With the wide range of recreation a c t i v i t i e s associated with the Cariboo lake resource, i t i s not surprising that there i s a large number of related interest groups. At the agency level, the Parks and Outdoor Recreation Division of the Ministry of Lands, Parks and Housing administers Provincial Parks and Provincial Recreation Areas under the Park Act (RSBC, 1979, C. 309). Fourteen Provincial Parks for camping, wilderness recreation, swimming, picnicking, boating and fishing are located i n the Cariboo. In addition to administration of Provincial Parks, the Parks and Outdoor Recreation Division, pursuant to an agreement 35 with the government of Canada, may regulate the use of motorboats on lakes under the Boating Restriction Regulations of the Canada  Shipping Act (B.C. Ministry of Lands, Parks and Housing, 1983, p. 8). The regulations permit the zoning of surface waters into eight use categories, ranging from waters on which no vessels are permitted to waters on which waterskiing i s prohibited, i n order to mLnimize conflicts and improve safety (Ibid.). Under section 104 of the Forest Act (RSBC, 1979, C. 140), the Ministry of Forests may designate forest recreation sites on Crown land within i t s jurisdiction. Most of the approximately 140 'Forest Service Recreation Sites' provided by the Ministry i n the Cariboo are primitive campsites located adjacent to lakes. Regional d i s t r i c t s may undertake, through supplementary letters patent, a regional parks function i f they desire ( Municipal Act , S. 776). Regional parks are usually complementary to provincial, Ministry of Forests and municipal f a c i l i t i e s . The Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t does not presently have the regional parks function. Regional d i s t r i c t s , through subdivision and development permit by-laws, can require: dedication of up to five percent of the land i n residential subdivisions for public open space; dedication of a seven metre public access along a lake, river or stream, and that a specified area of land above the high water mark of a lake remain free of development (Municipal Act, SS. 717 and 729). The Outdoor Recreation Council of B.C. was established to coordinate the a c t i v i t i e s and address issues of concern to organizations interested i n outdoor recreation, conservation and 36 education (Outdoor Recreation Council of B.C., 1984). This Council i s : "... primarily dedicated to elevating the p r o f i l e of outdoor recreation so that more residents of B.C. w i l l become interested i n the opportunities for lifelong involvement that outdoor recreation a c t i v i t i e s can offer". (Ibid.) Membership i n the Outdoor Recreation Council of B.C. currently consists of 41 associations, among which the following are l i k e l y to have some interest i n lake management: B.C. Camping Association, B.C. Federation of Fly Fishers, B.C. Interior Fishing Camp Operators Association, Federation of B.C. Naturalists, Federation of Mountain Clubs of B.C., Guide Outfitters Association of B.C., National and Provincial Parks Association, Nature Conservancy of Canada, Recreation Canoeing Association of B.C., Sierra Club of Western Canada, SteeLhead Society of B.C., and Western Canada Wilderness Committee. Many of these associations have regional a f f i l i a t e s i n the Cariboo. 2.1.3 Forestry Uses and Interests Forestry i s the major industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The Ministry of Forests, under the Forest Act (RSBC, 1979, C. 140) and the Range Act (RSBC, 1979, C. 355), administers about 80 percent of the land i n the province. Most of the Crown land i n the Cariboo i s within Provincial Forest reserves which are managed and used for: (a) timber production, u t i l i z a t i o n and related purposes; (b) forest production and grazing by livestock and 37 w i l d l i f e ; (c) f o r e s t o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n ; and (d) water, f i s h e r i e s and w i l d l i f e resource purposes. (Forest A c t , S. 5(4)) I n the Cariboo, the major p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n t e r e s t s i n f o r e s t r y are represented by the Cariboo Lumber Manufacturers 1 A s s o c i a t i o n . Regional d i s t r i c t s have no p l a n n i n g powers over P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t s o r l a n d designated i n a t r e e farm l i c e n c e o r t r e e farm c e r t i f i c a t e ( M u n i c i p a l A c t , S. 708). Therefore, i f these types o f Crown la n d are w i t h i n the boundaries o f a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t p l a n , they must be designated f o r uses compatible w i t h M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s o b j e c t i v e s . 2.1.4 A g r i c u l t u r e Uses and I n t e r e s t s A v a r i e t y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s take p l a c e i n l a k e shoreland areas, i n c l u d i n g c a t t l e g r a z i n g , l i v e s t o c k w a t e ring, forage crop p r o d u c t i o n and l i v e s t o c k w i n t e r i n g . Water from l a k e s and i n f l o w i n g streams used f o r i r r i g a t i o n purposes p l a c e s heavy demands on the s u r f a c e water supply. Over most o f the Cariboo, l a n d e x t e n s i v e o p e r a t i o n s are necessary t o m a i n t a i n economic v i a b i l i t y due, i n p a r t , t o environmental c o n s t r a i n t s such as c l i m a t e , topography, s t o n i n e s s , and s o i l f e r t i l i t y l i m i t a t i o n s . P r e s e r v a t i o n o f B.C.'s l i m i t e d supply o f l a n d w i t h good a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y has been e s t a b l i s h e d as a p r o v i n c i a l p r i o r i t y i n the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission A c t (RSBC, 1979, C. 9 ) . T h i s A c t i s not s u b j e c t t o any o t h e r A c t , except the I n t e r p r e t a t i o n A c t , Environment and Land Use A c t , and Waste 38 Management A c t , and powers granted under other A c t s must be i n accordance w i t h the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission A c t . Only where extenuating circumstances such as a g r i c u l t u r a l development being c o n s t r a i n e d by severe p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s w i l l the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission o f the M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Food, the agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the A c t , a l l o w e x c l u s i o n from, o r s u b d i v i s i o n o f , an A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve ( A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission A c t , SS. 11 and 20). Regional d i s t r i c t s a c t as l o c a l agents f o r the Land Commission, w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g l i a s i n g w i t h the p u b l i c and p r o c e s s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , the r e g i o n a l board pr o v i d e s recommendations t o the Commission e i t h e r i n support o f o r i n o p p o s i t i o n t o v a r i o u s a p p l i c a t i o n s . Other agencies w i t h a d i r e c t i n t e r e s t i n a g r i c u l t u r a l use i n c l u d e the M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s which, under the Range A c t , i s s u e s l i c e n c e s and permits f o r g r a z i n g and hay c u t t i n g on Crown range lands; the M i n i s t r y o f Lands, Parks and Housing which, under the Land A c t , i s s u e s v a r i o u s a g r i c u l t u r a l tenures such as lease-develop-purchase arrangements, and the M i n i s t r y o f Environment Water Management Branch which, under the Water A c t , i s s u e s l i c e n c e s f o r i r r i g a t i o n water consumption. The major p u b l i c group i n the Cariboo w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n a g r i c u l t u r e i s the ranching community, which i s represented by i n t e r e s t groups such as the Cariboo Cattlemen's A s s o c i a t i o n , an a f f i l i a t e o f the B.C. L i v e s t o c k Producers' A s s o c a t i o n . 39 2.1.5 Nature Conservation Uses and I n t e r e s t s The Cariboo r e g i o n provides h a b i t a t f o r an abundance o f w i l d l i f e i n c l u d i n g moose, deer, mountain sheep, c a r i b o u , mountain goats, bears, coyotes, wolves and cougars (Canada Department o f Environment, 1973). The most important h a b i t a t f o r ungulates occurs i n the bottom lands o f the major drainages, e s p e c i a l l y the F r a s e r and C h i l c o t i n R i v e r s . Most o f the F r a s e r P l a t e a u i s r a t e d by the Canada Land Inventory as having moderate c a p a b i l i t y f o r w i l d l i f e . The r e g i o n a l s o c o n t a i n s e x t e n s i v e areas o f waterfowl h a b i t a t . Prime waterfowl areas are l o c a t e d i n the grasslands i n the v i c i n i t y o f the C h i l c o t i n R i v e r and the area south o f W i l l i a m s Lake between the F r a s e r and San Jose R i v e r s . I n these areas, many shallow l a k e s and potholes w i t h marshy shorelands p r o v i d e moderate c a p a b i l i t y h a b i t a t f o r waterfowl p r o d u c t i o n . Many l a k e i n l e t and o u t l e t streams serve as spawning h a b i t a t f o r f i s h . Some shallow areas near the s h o r e l i n e are a l s o important spawning and r e a r i n g areas f o r c e r t a i n s p e c i e s , such as kokanee. The M i n i s t r y o f Environment, under the Environment  Management A c t (SBC, 1981, C. 14), i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n o f environmental management ,plans which address matters r e l a t e d t o f l o o d c o n t r o l , drainage, s o i l c o n s e r v a t i o n , water resource management, f i s h e r i e s and a q u a t i c l i f e management, w i l d l i f e management, waste management and a i r management (S. 2 ( f ) ) . The F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch o f the M i n i s t r y o f Environment, under the W i l d l i f e A c t (SBC, 1982, C. 57), has a primary r o l e i n management o f the f i s h and w i l d l i f e resource. The g o a l o f the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i s "... t o pr o v i d e s u s t a i n e d 40 b e n e f i t s f o r the people o f B r i t i s h Columbia through the management and p r o t e c t i o n o f f i s h and w i l d l i f e resources" (B.C. M i n i s t r y o f R e c r e a t i o n and Conservation, 1977, p. 3 ) . /Among the p r i n c i p l e a c t i v i t i e s the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch undertakes are an annual program o f s t o c k i n g Cariboo l a k e s w i t h rainbow t r o u t and other species f o r s p o r t f i s h i n g ; enhancement o f spawning areas; and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t management. The M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s a l s o has j u r i s d i c t i o n over w i l d l i f e management as i n d i c a t e d i n s e c t i o n 5 o f the F o r e s t A c t . Under the E c o l o g i c a l Reserve A c t (RSBC, 1979, C. 101), the Lieutenant Governor i n C o u n c i l may e s t a b l i s h reserves o f Crown lan d f o r e c o l o g i c a l purposes. Included among areas which may be designated as an E c o l o g i c a l Reserve are areas: (a) s u i t a b l e f o r s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h and e d u c a t i o n a l purposes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t u d i e s i n p r o d u c t i v i t y and other aspects o f the n a t u r a l environment; (b) t h a t are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e examples o f n a t u r a l ecosystems w i t h i n the Province; (c) t h a t serve as examples o f ecosystems t h a t have been m o d i f i e d by man and o f f e r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o study the recovery o f the n a t u r a l ecosystem from m o d i f i c a t i o n ; (d) where r a r e o r endangered n a t i v e p l a n t s and animals i n t h e i r n a t u r a l h a b i t a t may be preserved; and (e) t h a t c o n t a i n unique and r a r e examples o f b o t a n i c a l , ' z o o l o g i c a l o r g e o l o g i c a l phenomena. P u b l i c groups w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n nature c o n s e r v a t i o n i n c l u d e those which support consumptive o r non-consumptive uses. Groups such as the B.C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n , I n t e r i o r F i s h i n g Camp Operators A s s o c i a t i o n , and Guide O u t f i t t e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , supporting consumptive uses are p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the f i s h and w i l d l i f e resource. S e v e r a l l o c a l 'rod and gun' c l u b s i n the Cariboo have a f f i l i a t i o n s w i t h the B.C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n . 41 Ducks U n l i m i t e d (Canada), a p r i v a t e , n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n which promotes co n s e r v a t i o n o f North America's waterfowl resource i s a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n waterfowl h a b i t a t enhancement through the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f low l e v e l dams on s m a l l e r l a k e s t o c r e a t e marsh c o n d i t i o n s f o r n e s t i n g and s t a g i n g w a t e r f o r w l . Groups such as the F e d e r a t i o n o f B.C. N a t u r a l i s t s and the S i e r r a Club o f Western Canada support non-consumptive uses o f nature. The primary goals o f these and s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s are nature c o n s e r v a t i o n and nature education. 2.1.6 Power Generation Uses and I n t e r e s t s The B.C. Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y , under the Hydro and  Power A u t h o r i t y A c t (RSBC, 1979, C. 188), has the a u t h o r i t y t o c o n s t r u c t on r i v e r s , streams and waterways, anything f o r the generation and supply o f power; t o f l o o d and overflow l a n d ; and t o r a i s e o r lower the l e v e l o f r i v e r s , l a k e s , and streams. While there are p r e s e n t l y no h y d r o - e l e c t r i c generation p r o j e c t s , B.C. Hydro has i d e n t i f i e d the Homathko River/Tatlayoko Lake area i n the southwestern C h i l c o t i n as a p o t e n t i a l generation p r o j e c t (B.C. Hydro, 1980). B.C. Hydro's p r e l i m i n a r y engineering s t u d i e s o f the Homathko i d e n t i f i e d two a l t e r n a t i v e development schemes. One, i n v o l v i n g water d i v e r s i o n from the Taseko Lakes watershed i s no longer b e i n g considered (B.C. Hydro, 1982) . The second a l t e r n a t i v e , the 'Tatlayoko Storage P r o j e c t ' , would i n v o l v e r a i s i n g the l e v e l o f Tatlayoko Lake by nine metres, w i t h a drawdown range o f te n metres ( I b i d . , pp. 2-3). B.C. Hydro estimates t h a t the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e date o f completion would be 42 1995, although i t i s noted that the Homathko development i s not included i n B.C. Hydro's system plan at this time. 2.1.7 Mineral Resource Uses and Interests Mineral resource development has played an important role i n the history of the Cariboo - the Barkerville gold rush of the 1860's provided the impetus for the f i r s t major influx of white settlers. Today there are several operating mines i n the region and mineral exploration i s an on-going activity. None of the operating mines, however, are located i n the v i c i n i t y of lakes. The Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, under a variety of Acts, issues leases for the purpose of exploration, development and production of geothermal resources, coal, minerals, petroleum and natural gas, and placer minerals. Under the provisions of the Mineral Act (RSBC, -1979, C. 259), a free miner may enter Crown land or land under which mineral rights are vested i n the Crown and prospect and explore for, locate, mine and produce minerals ( Mineral Act , S. 6(1)(a)). The only exceptions to this provision are land occupied by a dwelling, orchard land, land under cultivation, and land where mineral rights have already been granted to others. Thus, the great majority of Cariboo land, including land i n close proximity to lakes, i s potentially available for mineral exploration and development. 2.2 LAKE MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN THE CARIBOO REGIONAL DISTRICT 4 3 In order to gain some perspective on the range of issues associated with Cariboo lakes, various sources of information have been examined - rezoning applications recently processed by the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t ; planning studies relating directly to the Cariboo situation; and planning studies prepared for other regions of B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada and the United States. There are three reasons for adopting this approach. F i r s t , a review of specific development applications provides, i n my opinion, a reasonable cross-section of public, interest group, agency and p o l i t i c a l comments and concerns regarding lake management issues at the regional d i s t r i c t level. It i s recognized that this approach has limitations i n that a l l interests and concerns may not have been represented. However, recent research by Gundry and Heberlein (1984) found that, i n terms of public meetings for citizen involvement, opinions expressed by self-selected participants did not d i f f e r significantly from randomly sampled surveys of general public opinions. Second, previous research i n the Cariboo can provide insight on issues of continuing concern i n the region. Third, as planning and management are essentially future oriented, i t i s important to recognize that problems associated with lakes and shoreland development elsewhere may at some time be experienced i n the Cariboo. Lakeshore rezoning applications on f i l e i n the Williams Lake office of the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t were another valuable source of information. During the period June, 1978 to June, 1983, 96 applications to rezone approximately 1000 hectares of lakefront land were considered by the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t 44 Board (see Table 1). The evaluation of a rezoning. application includes input from the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t Planning Department, the applicable Electoral Area Director and his/her Advisory Planning Commission, provincial government agencies (which, prior to November 1983 provided input through the Technical Planning Conmittee), and the public, through a formal public hearing process. Table I: Summary of Recommendations Regarding Lakeshore Rezoning Applications i n the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t - June 1978 to June 1983 Recommendation Approval Rejection No Response Advisory Planning Commission 62 25 9 Technical C.R.D. Planning Planning Committee Department 69 24 3 70 25 1 Public C.R.D. Hearing Board Decision 26 17 53 75 21 On 16 occasions no public hearing was held as the zoning amendment by-law was rejected by the Regional Board at the f i r s t and second reading stage so no hearing was necessary; on 37 occasions there was no "public" i n attendance at the public hearing. Rezoning applications, since they refer to specific development proposals, tend to draw very specific comments. Some comments concerned site specific development constraints such as steep topography, poor drainage or poor access that led to recommendations for rejection. Other common reasons for recommending rejection included the potential for new or additional development to adversely affect ranching operations or the rural character of a particular lake. When opposition to a 4 5 p r o p o s a l was expressed, however, the primary reason f o r t h a t o p p o s i t i o n was concern about p o t e n t i a l water q u a l i t y d e t e r i o r a t i o n . The main c o n c l u s i o n t o be drawn from Table 1, though, i s t h a t i t r e f l e c t s a g e n e r a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n the Cariboo, where a ' f r o n t i e r a t t i t u d e 1 toward government i n g e n e r a l , and l a n d use p l a n n i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s p r e v a l e n t . The e x i s t e n c e o f s t r o n g p e r s o n a l values r e g a r d i n g i n d i v i d u a l freedoms i s r e f l e c t e d i n the g e n e r a l b e l i e f t h a t n e i t h e r government nor planners have any business i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e i v e d r i g h t t o dispose o f h i s l a n d as he sees f i t . Thus, unl e s s there are v e r y s t r o n g reasons f o r o b j e c t i n g t o a development p r o p o s a l , t h a t p r o p o s a l w i l l i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d be approved. S e v e r a l p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s conducted i n recent y e a r s , whether t h e i r s p e c i f i c purpose was t o address l a k e management o r not, have rev e a l e d numerous concerns regarding the l a k e resource. The f i r s t major p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t commissioned by the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t was conducted by Canadian Environment Sciences (1971). An i n t e g r a l component o f t h i s study was a s e r i e s o f p u b l i c meetings h e l d i n 22 communities throughout the r e g i o n i n 1970. The purpose o f these meetings was t o d i s c u s s g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g i s s u e s w i t h Cariboo r e s i d e n t s and although a.wide range o f t o p i c s were d i s c u s s e d a t each meeting, one o f the r e c u r r i n g themes was the l a c k o f p l a n n i n g f o r the use and development o f the region's l a k e s . Concerns were r a i s e d i n numerous l o c a l i t i e s about p e r c e i v e d d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the water q u a l i t y o f p a r t i c u l a r l a k e s , comments were made about the need t o preserve the n a t u r a l 46 environments o f some l a k e s , and o p i n i o n s were expressed t h a t some lak e s had become overdeveloped. I n a complementary study t o Canadian Environmental Sciences (1971), K a r l s e n (1971, p. 2) summarized the main problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h inadequately planned shoreland development: - l o s s o f s c e n i c v a l u e s - p o t e n t i a l l o s s o f water q u a l i t y - overcrowding o f l a n d and water areas and r e s u l t i n g d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l environment - s e r v i c i n g problems - f i s h and w i l d l i f e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s - competing l a n d and resource uses. Har d c a s t l e ' s (1973) b r i e f t o the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t Board i d e n t i f i e s d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f kokanee spawning areas and p o t e n t i a l sewage contamination o f p a r t s o f the l a k e as major i s s u e s concerning Lac La Hache. Benoit's (1976) survey o f a t t i t u d e s toward r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f twelve Cariboo l a k e s i d e n t i f i e d l a k e s u r f a c e use c o n f l i c t s between a c t i v i t i e s such as f i s h i n g and w a t e r s k i i n g as concerns o f c o t t a g e r s , r e s o r t owners and members o f the p u b l i c . An i n v e n t o r y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s conducted the f o l l o w i n g year by B e n o i t e t a l (1977) i n c l u d e d observations t h a t problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the use o f a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e s (e.g. rangeland d e s t r u c t i o n ) were magnified i n shoreland areas; p u b l i c access p r o v i s i o n s i n shoreland r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s seemed t o be something l e s s than o p t i m a l ; and commercial r e s o r t operations can be expected t o r e a c t n e g a t i v e l y t o the p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s which are p e r c e i v e d by the r e s o r t owners t o be i n d i r e c t competition w i t h t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . Recently, S t i t t e t a l (1979) and McKean (1981) 47 identified, i n detailed studies of Williams and Dragon Lakes, serious water quality deterioration problems. The Ministry of Lands, Parks and Housing (1980) prepared a comprehensive land use plan aimed at resolving resource use conflicts i n the Chimney -Felker Lakes area. The Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t has addressed similar issues i n an o f f i c i a l settlement plan for the Interlakes area of the southeast Cariboo and Urban Systems Ltd. (1983) prepared a Management Strategy for Lake - Shoreland Development which addresses the lake water quality issues i n the regional d i s t r i c t . The latter study w i l l be discussed i n the following chapter. In addition to these studies relating directly to the Cariboo, lake studies have been undertaken i n many other regions of North America (Marsh et a l , 1975; Uttormark and Wall, 1975; Dillon and Rigler, 1975; Alberta Department of Municipal Affairs, 1978; Ontario Ministry of Housing, 1979; Regional D i s t r i c t of Fraser - Fort George, 1980; and Thompson - Nicola Regional D i s t r i c t , 1980 are but a few examples). Although the problems experienced elsewhere i n North America often have been substantially more severe than i n the Cariboo, the nature of the problems are by and large very similar to those outlined above. Significant exceptions include the water quality problems that have emerged i n recent years as by-products of various urban -industrial processes. Acid rain, which i s caused when "sulfur dioxide i s oxidized i n the atmosphere to sulfur trioxide which combines with water vapour and particulates to form sulfuric acid and sulfates" (Lang and Armour, 1980, p. 58), i s a growing threat 48 t o a q u a t i c and t e r r e s t r i a l resources i n e a s t e r n Canada and the north-eastern U n i t e d S t a t e s ( D i l l o n e t a l , 1977). The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reference Group on Great Lakes P o l l u t i o n from Land Use A c t i v i t i e s (PLUARG) i d e n t i f i e s d i s p o s a l o f r a d i o a c t i v e and other t o x i c wastes as an i n c r e a s i n g l y s e r i o u s concern (PLUARG, 1978). F o r the purposes o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , the many comments and concerns expressed i n the v a r i o u s r e p o r t s and regarding numerous rezoning a p p l i c a t i o n s w i l l be grouped i n t o two broad i s s u e c a t e g o r i e s - environmental q u a l i t y i s s u e s and resource a l l o c a t i o n i s s u e s . Environmental q u a l i t y i s s u e s r e l a t e predominantly t o water q u a l i t y problems, and i n p a r t i c u l a r those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a k e e u t r o p h i c a t i o n . Secondary environmental q u a l i t y i s s u e s i n c l u d e the environmental q u a l i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and a e s t h e t i c i s s u e s such as the q u a l i t y o f the v i s u a l environment. Resource a l l o c a t i o n i s s u e s d e r i v e from the competing demands o f v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s f o r use o f the resource base. Issues range from r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e r group c o n f l i c t s t o r e s i d e n t i a l encroachment i n t o shoreland a g r i c u l t u r a l areas. The remainder o f t h i s chapter c o n t a i n s a more d e t a i l e d examination o f these major l a k e i s s u e s . 2.2.1 Resource A l l o c a t i o n Issues With the range o f demands f o r use o f the Cariboo l a k e resources i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t i n t e r e s t s w i l l from time t o time come i n t o c o n f l i c t . Because r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i t y i s daminantly settlement o r i e n t e d , the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs o u t l i n e l a k e and l a k e shoreland use i s s u e s o f primary concern t o a 49 r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t - those r e l a t e d t o settlement and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r uses o f Cariboo l a k e s . Lakeshore r e s i d e n t i a l development can be compatible w i t h some forms o f l a k e based r e c r e a t i o n - not a b l y swimrning, b o a t i n g and w a t e r s k i i n g . These r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s are i n many cases the r a i s o n d'etre o f shoreland r e s i d e n t i a l development. However, w i t h i n c r e a s i n g pressure f o r both l a n d and water based r e c r e a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y on l a k e s near the region's urban c e n t r e s , a v a r i e t y o f use c o n f l i c t s has become apparent. A t Chimney Lake near W i l l i a m s Lake, f o r example, there are over 200 permanent and seasonal residences as w e l l as two F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s and a commercial r e s o r t . High l e v e l s o f use d u r i n g the summer months has r e s u l t e d i n c o n f l i c t s between r e s i d e n t s and users o f the p u b l i c and commercial r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ( M i n i s t r y o f Lands, Parks and Housing, 1980). S p e c i f i c problems i n c l u d e crowding, c o n f l i c t s between l a k e s u r f a c e uses such as swimming and w a t e r s k i i n g , vandalism, l a c k o f p a r k i n g and disturbance o f neighbouring r e s i d e n t s ( I b i d . ). The d r a f t Chimney - F e l k e r Lakes Land Use P l a n s t a t e s t h a t one f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o these problems i s t h a t the c a p a c i t i e s o f the F o r e s t S e r v i c e s i t e s are f r e q u e n t l y exceeded d u r i n g peak summer months ( I b i d . ). These f a c i l i t i e s were designed as p r i m i t i v e campsites t h a t were never intended t o serve a r e g i o n a l park r o l e ; b u t , because o f a l a c k o f a l t e r n a t i v e e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e f a c i l i t i e s f o r W i l l i a m s Lake area r e s i d e n t s , day and weekend r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s have become concentrated i n t h i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l area and the F o r e s t S e r v i c e s i t e s have assumed a r o l e f o r which they were not designed. 50 Decreasing o r inadequate p u b l i c access t o l a k e s as a r e s u l t o f p r i v a t e shoreland development has been a l o n g standing concern i n the Cariboo. T h i s problem was s u b s t a n t i a l l y m i t i g a t e d i n the e a r l y 1970's when the p r o v i n c i a l government d i s c o n t i n u e d the a l i e n a t i o n o f l a k e f r o n t Crown l a n d . P r i v a t e ownership o f l a k e f r o n t l a n d can s t i l l e f f e c t i v e l y r e s t r i c t p u b l i c access t o the water, however. For example, a l l l a n d f r o n t i n g on Bouchie Lake near Quesnel i s p r i v a t e l y h e l d , and although l o c a t e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o a r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n centre no p u b l i c access beyond the l e g a l ndnimum (a 20 metre r i g h t o f way every 200 metres) i s provided. A t other lakes, road access o n l y t o the p r i v a t e l y developed p o r t i o n o f the l a k e poses s i m i l a r problems. So w h i l e l a k e surfaces are p u b l i c l y owned, t h i s amounts t o l i t t l e more than a t e c h n i c a l i t y when p u b l i c access i s r e s t r i c t e d by shoreland development. The i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r shoreland development i s a l s o r e s u l t i n g i n i n t e n s i f i e d c o n f l i c t s w i t h f o r e s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s . The main i s s u e between shoreland r e s i d e n t i a l development and f o r e s t r y i s the p r a c t i c e o f c l e a r c u t l o g g i n g , as lakeshore r e s i d e n t s w i l l l i k e l y p r o t e s t a g a i n s t p l a n s t o c l e a r c u t w i t h i n the v i s u a l f i e l d o f t h e i r r esidences. From a f o r e s t r y p e r s p e c t i v e , i n c r e a s e d f o r e s t f i r e hazards and n o n - i n d u s t r i a l t r a f f i c on f o r e s t access roads are the major concerns. When r e s i d e n t i a l uses encroach on a shoreland a g r i c u l t u r a l area they begin t o l i m i t f u t u r e o p t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h a t area. Lakeshore r e s i d e n t s who are a t t r a c t e d t o the r u r a l atmosphere o f a l a k e t h a t a l s o happens t o be an a g r i c u l t u r a l area 5 1 may soon begin t o complain o f e a r l y morning n o i s e , noxious odors, e t c . and request t h a t o p e r a t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s be p l a c e d on neighbouring farms. R e s i d e n t i a l development may a l s o have the e f f e c t o f fragmenting e x i s t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l h o l d i n g s as higher l a n d p r i c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h lakeshore r e s i d e n t i a l development may induce farmers t o s e l l p a r t s o f t h e i r farms. The e x p e c t a t i o n o f impending non-farm development i n an a g r i c u l t u r a l area may discourage investment i n farm improvements t h a t c o u l d enhance a farm's l o n g term v i a b i l i t y and may e f f e c t i v e l y d e t e r the purchase o r l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes. While not p r e s e n t l y a major problem i n the Cariboo, c o m p e t i t i o n between a g r i c u l t u r e and r e s i d e n t i a l development f o r water supply and c o n f l i c t s r e g a r d i n g water use c o u l d became an i s s u e o f importance i n the f u t u r e . Numerous la k e s i n the r e g i o n have o u t l e t c o n t r o l s t r u c t u r e s which r e g u l a t e water l e v e l s f o r i r r i g a t i o n purposes. Water l e v e l f l u c t u a t i o n s can impact adjacent r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s by causing s h o r e l i n e e r o s i o n , i n the case o f prolonged h i g h l e v e l s , o r impaired r e c r e a t i o n a l q u a l i t y i n the case o f summer drawdowns. As the r e g i o n develops, water consumption f o r both a g r i c u l t u r e and r e s i d e n t i a l uses i s bound t o i n c r e a s e and d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g water a l l o c a t i o n w i l l have t o be made unle s s a c t i o n i s taken t o a l l o c a t e uses i n a manner t h a t avoids p l a c i n g e x c e s s i v e demands on the water supply. F i n a l l y , p r o t e c t i o n o f h a b i t a t i s e s s e n t i a l t o the maintenance o f the w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s o f the r e g i o n . The primary concerns r e g a r d i n g shoreland development from the p o i n t o f view o f w i l d l i f e management are the c o n t i n u i n g r e d u c t i o n s i n 52. h a b i t a t due t o r e s i d e n t i a l encroachment, i n c r e a s e d hunting pressure due t o improved access, fences b l o c k i n g m i g r a t i o n routes and harassment o f w i l d l i f e by man and h i s pets (Westover, 1982). The B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch i d e n t i f i e s a number o f trends t h a t are becoming i n c r e a s i n g concerns t o w i l d l i f e i n t e r e s t s , i n c l u d i n g : 1. Reduction i n d i v e r s i t y and abundance o f indigenous w i l d l i f e p o p u l a t i o n s ; 2. Gradual r e d u c t i o n over many years o f much o f the pr o d u c t i v e w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t and consequent decrease i n the number o f animals; and 3. P o t e n t i a l r a p i d a l t e r a t i o n o f much o f the remaining p r o d u c t i v e h a b i t a t over the next s e v e r a l decades. (B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, 1979, p. 18) 2.2.2 Environmental Q u a l i t y Issues Lake Water Q u a l i t y Maintenance o f good water q u a l i t y , p r e v e n t i o n o f water q u a l i t y d e t e r i o r a t i o n o r improvement o f poor l a k e water q u a l i t y i s a c e n t r a l o b j e c t i v e o f v i r t u a l l y a l l l a k e management a c t i v i t i e s . Concern about p o t e n t i a l water q u a l i t y d e t e r i o r a t i o n was a l s o the most common reason f o r o b j e c t i o n t o Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t l a k e f r o n t r e z oning a p p l i c a t i o n s g i v e n by the p u b l i c , A.P.C.'s, the T.P.C. and the C.R.D. pl a n n i n g department. Water q u a l i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were the primary reason the r e g i o n a l board would r e j e c t a rezoning a p p l i c a t i o n . A primary water q u a l i t y problem a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a k e s i s 53 eutrophication. Simply defined, eutxophication i s the enrichment of a lake with nutrients (Hasler, 1947; Goldman and Home, 1983) . Mthough the term eutrophication has come into general usage, a precise definition of the concept has yet to be agreed upon. Carlson (1980, p. 1) states that there are two fundamental aspects of the concept - the supply of nutrients to a lake or their concentration once i n the lake, and the biological productivity of a lake. Eutrophic lakes thus contain high levels or concentrations of nutrients which are manifested i n a high standing crop of algae or macrophytes. Oligotrophic lakes, at the other end of the trophic scale, are characterized by low levels of nutrients and limited biological productivity. Mesotrophic lakes are a trophic class i n the middle range between oligotrophic and eutrophic lakes. Under natural conditions, a lake may undergo a transition over time from one trophic state to another, i.e. that an oligotrophic lake may eventually became eutrophic. However, this transition may not occurr at a l l or the lake may become eutrophic and gradually revert to an oligotrophic state (Goldman and Home, 1983, pp. 350-351). Factors which influence these processes include geology, topography, climate, vegetation and catastrophic events ( Ibid. , p. 90). The effects of human activity i n a lake watershed can greatly accelerate the rate of eutrophication. The effects of this "cultural eutrophication" have been well documented. Eutrophic waters can be unpalatable for drinking due to objectionable taste and odors resulting from bacterial decay of organic matter which depletes dissolved oxygen and then generates 54 hydrogen sulfide (Suess and Dean, 1980, p. 357). Eutrophic waters have only indirect, i f any, adverse effects on human health, although Suess and Dean (1980, p. 358) comment that "Man i s a l l too w i l l i n g to drink polluted water i f i t looks and tastes f a i r l y good and eutrophication may serve as a warning that treatment should be applied". Excessive nutrient loading can stimulate aquatic plant growth that renders a lake unfit for recreation a c t i v i t i e s such as swimming and boating. The impacts of eutrophication on commercial and sport fisheries can also be severe, as algal blooms can cause extreme shifts i n dissolved oxygen and pH which can k i l l less tolerant species of f i s h ( Ibid. ). Algal blooms and aquatic weed growth can also detract from the visual qualities of the lake (Larkin, 1974). It should be noted that eutrophication can be regarded i n a positive light, especially i n non-Western societies, where the production of f i s h for food may supercede a l l other uses. A clear, oligotrophic lake which supports a very limited f i s h population would thus be considered an unproductive expanse of water (Gregor and Rast, 1980, p. 166). In B r i t i s h Columbia, a continuing experimental program i s being conducted on lakes i n the coastal region to investigate the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a r t i f i c i a l lake f e r t i l i z a t i o n for improved salmon fisheries. Under the auspices of the Lake Enrichment Program of the Federal - Provincial Salmonid Enhancement Program, eleven lakes are being a r t i f i c i a l l y f e r t i l i z e d with phosphorus and nitrogen compounds to determine i f any beneficial effects on fisheries productivity results (Costella et a l , 1983, p. 1). Shoreland residential development can be a contributor to lake eutrophication. A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency report states that total phosphorus wastes from human excrement represent about 2.2 grams per capita per day (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1974a, p. 86). In septic systems, which are the predominant form of sewage disposal system i n rural areas of the Cariboo, phosphorus i s removed by sorption after wastes have been discharged to the s o i l v i a a t i l e f i e l d . The total amount of phosphorus entering a lake from septic systems i s highly variable, depending on a number of factors, including s o i l type, depth to water table, depth to bedrock, topography, disposal system standards, number of dwellings, and whether occupancy i s permanent or seasonal (Maynard, 1979; Urban Systems Limited, 1983). Studies conducted on Cariboo lakes and elsewhere i n North America indicate that agricultural operations may contribute a significant component of the total nutrient load to a lake (Larkin, 1974; Gregor and Johnson, 1980; McKean, 1981). Animal wastes and agricultural land runoff are believed to be the most probable sources of phosphorus enrichment. In terms of animal wastes, several variables influence the potential contribution of nutrients, including: the number and density of animals, the location of feeding areas i n relation to water courses, s o i l types, climate, topography, and the method and location of manure disposal (McKean, 1981, p. 37). McKean found that livestock accounted for 33 percent of the total estimated phosphorus loading in Dragon Lake ( Ibid. , p. 45). Similar results with respect to phosphorus loading have been obtained for Williams Lake (Stitt 56 et a l , 1979). Water quality problems associated with overwintering of cattle on or near streams have been described by S t i t t et a l (1979, p. 36): Throughout the winter, the area around the bridge on Highway 97 at 150 Mile House was used extensively as a winter feed l o t . Cattle were fed directly upon the ice and on the frozen ground adjacent to the creek. /Approximately 30 or more cattle were fed last winter at this site. The accumulation of manure and frozen urine amounted to i n excess of one foot deep by spring break up. As the snow melted, the v i s i b l e surface runoff was stained a brownish color and the entire main stream of Borland Creek changed from a clear color above this ,area, to a yellowish brown color below. A l l water chemistry parameters showed extremely large increases from above to below this area as the snow melted. Nutrient loading i s only one of five categories of water pollution identified by Larkin (1974, pp. 32-37). Thermal, radioactive, toxic and organic pollution are four other categories of existing or potential pollution of aquatic environments. Radioactive wastes, whle being a particularly insidious form of pollution, would not f a l l within the regulatory purview of a regional d i s t r i c t and therefore are not considered further. Similarly, problems with the discharge of waste heat from large industrial complexes are not of concern i n the Cariboo, at least i n the context of lake environments, and w i l l not be discussed further. Toxic waste pollution, the fourth general category of pollution, has emerged as an increasingly important issue i n recent years and has received a great deal of attention both i n the s c i e n t i f i c literature and the popular press. The effects of broad spectrum poisons such as DDT only began to be understood i n the early 1970's and the effects of herbicides such as 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T are today the subject of much controversy. Again, toxic 57 waste p o l l u t i o n i s an i s s u e t h a t i s beyond the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t and i s thus beyond the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s . Organic p o l l u t i o n , as d e f i n e d by L a r k i n (1974, p. 32) i n c l u d e s sewage, animal and vegetable wastes, f o r e s t r y wastes and v i r t u a l l y any o t h e r waste products t h a t r e q u i r e oxygen f o r decomposition. Impacts o f o r g a n i c p o l l u t i o n on a r e c e i v i n g water body i n c l u d e oxygen d e p l e t i o n i n the immediate v i c i n i t y o f the discharge and i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y over the e n t i r e water body ( I b i d . , p. 38). Inadequate treatment o f sewage o r animals wastes can cause b a c t e r i o l o g i c a l contamination and present p u b l i c h e a l t h hazards i n areas where l a k e water i s used f o r domestic consumption o r contact r e c r e a t i o n . The c o l i f o r m group o f micro-organisms i s the most commonly used b a c t e r i o l o g i c a l i n d i c a t o r o f water q u a l i t y (Health and Welfare Canada, 1978, p. 25). T h i s agency s t a t e s t h a t the presence o f any type o f c o l i f o r m organism suggests e i t h e r inadequate treatment o f wastes o r contamination and suggests t h a t the o b j e c t i v e l e v e l f o r c o l i f o r m s should be no organisms per 100 ml ( I b i d . , p. 26). H e a l t h and Welfare Canada concludes t h a t i f any c o l i f o r m organisms are detected i n the course o f water q u a l i t y m o n i t o r i n g , immediate c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n such as c h l o r i n a t i o n , b o i l i n g o f water f o r d r i n k i n g , o r f i n d i n g a l t e r n a t i v e sources should be taken. M o n i t o r i n g o f water q u a l i t y from a p u b l i c h e a l t h p e r s p e c t i v e i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h . Thus, w h i l e the h e a l t h aspects o f organic p o l l u t i o n are not o f d i r e c t i n t e r e s t t o a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , the impacts on a q u a t i c ecosystems r e s u l t i n g from oxygen d e p l e t i o n o r n u t r i e n t enrichment 58 c o u l d be considered an i s s u e o f a t l e a s t i n d i r e c t concern i n a r e g i o n a l l a k e s p l a n . A e s t h e t i c Q u a l i t y I n reviewing Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t shoreland r e s i d e n t i a l r e z o n ing a p p l i c a t i o n s , numerous comments were r a i s e d by the p u b l i c about the need t o preserve the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y o f l a k e environments. These concerns were u s u a l l y expressed i n terms o f the need t o preserve the 'wilderness' aspect o f a p a r t i c u l a r l a k e . I n many in s t a n c e s the development a p p l i c a t i o n was on a l a k e t h a t c o u l d not by any s t r e t c h o f the imagination be considered a t r u e w i l d e r n e s s l a k e , as some development was alr e a d y present. The concerns are an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t these l a k e s s t i l l possess n a t u r a l a e s t h e t i c and v i s u a l q u a l i t i e s t h a t l o c a l r e s i d e n t s v a l u e and f e e l should not be destroyed by f u r t h e r development. Regarding d i s r u p t i o n o f the v i s u a l environment, the i s s u e a t hand i s whether i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y h o l d e r s have the r i g h t t o do w i t h t h e i r l a n d anything they see f i t . There are strong sentiments i n the Cariboo t h a t government a l r e a d y i n t r u d e s i n t o matters t h a t are r i g h t l y the concern o f the i n d i v i d u a l . The f e e l i n g i s t h a t the way an i n d i v i d u a l chooses t o use h i s l a n d i s a matter o f pe r s o n a l t a s t e and d i s p o s i t i o n . On the other hand, there are those who b e l i e v e t h a t l a k e s are used and va l u e d by many people who do not own pr o p e r t y and t h a t the b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g from a n a t u r a l environment should not be s a c r i f i c e d a t the ple a s u r e o f a r e l a t i v e l y few p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y owners. 59 R e c r e a t i o n a l Q u a l i t y A t h i r d form o f environmental q u a l i t y i s s u e i s t h a t r e g a r d i n g the q u a l i t y o f l a k e - o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n experiences. For most forms o f r e c r e a t i o n a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y and water q u a l i t y , d i s c u s s e d above, are important determinants o f the o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f a r e c r e a t i o n experience. Another f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the p e r c e p t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l q u a l i t y i s the number and type o f uses a l a k e i s subjected t o and the degree o f c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f those uses w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r form o f r e c r e a t i o n . The i s s u e o f environmental q u a l i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n can t h e r e f o r e be t r e a t e d as a s u b s i d i a r y i s s u e t o water q u a l i t y , a e s t h e t i c s and resource a l l o c a t i o n . The foregoing d i s c u s s i o n p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f the scope o f p o t e n t i a l i n t e r e s t s i n , and i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h , a settlement p l a n t h a t i s t o be used t o achieve l a k e management goa l s . The questions o f how the settlement p l a n n i n g process can be used as a t o o l f o r l a k e management and as a method f o r r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t among the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s w i l l be addressed i n Chapter IV. P r i o r t o examining the settlement p l a n n i n g process, however, Chapter I I I w i l l p r o v i d e an overview o f approaches t o l a k e management t h a t have addressed i s s u e s o f a s i m i l a r nature t o those d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s chapter. 60 CHAPTER I I I : CVERVTEW OF REGIONAL PLANNING APPROACHES  TO LAKE MANAGEMENT The previous chapter o u t l i n e d the d i v e r s i t y o f uses o f and i n t e r e s t s i n a r e g i o n a l l a k e resource such as t h a t found i n the Cariboo. Issues r e l a t e d t o settlement and l a k e management were i d e n t i f i e d and, though numerous, they c o u l d c o n v e n i e n t l y be grouped i n t o two broad c a t e g o r i e s - environmental q u a l i t y i s s u e s and resource a l l o c a t i o n i s s u e s . W i t h i n the environmental q u a l i t y i s s u e category were three subcategories - water q u a l i t y , r e c r e a t i o n q u a l i t y and a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y . The purpose o f t h i s chapter i s t o pr o v i d e an overview o f f i v e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g approaches - the Minnesota, F r a s e r - F o r t George Regional D i s t r i c t , Thompson-Nicola Regional D i s t r i c t , Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t and A l b e r t a - t o l a k e management which address i s s u e s s i m i l a r t o those i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter I I . T h i s overview w i l l i n c l u d e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the f i v e approaches which b r i e f l y summarize the o b j e c t i v e s , data base, method o f a n a l y s i s , and p o l i c y recommendations o f each methodology. A l s o i n c l u d e d i s a d i s c u s s i o n o f the gene r a l advantages and disadvantages o f each approach i n terms o f i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o settlement p l a n n i n g t h a t addresses the l a k e management i s s u e s and the extent t o which the approach recognizes the i n t e r e s t s i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter I I . 3.1 THE MINNESOTA SHORELAND ZONING PROGRAM The o b j e c t i v e s o f the Minnesota Shoreland Zoning Program are water q u a l i t y p r e s e r v a t i o n and the "wise" use o f shorelands 61 (Kusler, 1976, p. 9). A survey of 1923 lakes produced information regarding existing shoreland uses, s o i l characteristics, lake size, median depth, shoreline length and slope, aquatic vegetation and crowding potential (Hambroke, 1976, p. 70). This information forms the basis for a lake classification system. Existing shoreland development density i s the primary criterion i n determining the clas s i f i c a t i o n of a particular lake. Physical characteristics are given secondary consideration. Three classes of lakes are used i n the Minnesota system: Natural Environment lakes, Recreational Development lakes and General Development lakes. Natural Environment lakes include very small, fragile lakes; lakes over 60 hectares unsuited for development due to marshy shorelines or shallow depth; and lakes of unique ecological character ( Ibid. , p. 67). Recreational Development lakes have moderate levels of existing development and have physical characteristics which indicate s u i t a b i l i t y for development such as higher shoreline elevations and suitable s o i l characteristics for onsite sewage disposal. General Development lakes are intensively developed or are suitable for urban purposes. Minimum standards for development are established for each lake class. General Development lakes have the least restrictive standards: 20,000 square foot minimum lot size, 75 foot building setback, 100 foot ndnimum lakefrontage and 50 foot onsite sewage disposal system setback ( Ibid. , p. 68). Recreational Development lakes have the following standards: 40,000 square foot minimum lot size, 100 foot building setback, 150 foot minimum lakefrontage and 62 75 f o o t sewage d i s p o s a l system setback. N a t u r a l Environment l a k e s have an 80,000 f o o t minimum l o t s i z e , 200 f o o t b u i l d i n g setback and 150 f o o t sewage system setback. I n a d d i t i o n t o the minimum setback requirement f o r sewage d i s p o s a l systems, the base o f the s e p t i c system must be l o c a t e d a minimum o f f o u r f e e t above the hi g h e s t groundwater e l e v a t i o n ( I b i d . ) . As a method f o r a l l o c a t i n g a r e g i o n a l l a k e resource, the Minnesota Shoreland Zoning Program i s too l i m i t e d i n scope t o be a p p l i c a b l e t o r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t settlement p l a n n i n g . Although the l a k e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system suggests three separate and d i s t i n c t " r o l e s " f o r l a k e s , t h i s system b a s i c a l l y represents three r e s i d e n t i a l c a t e g o r i e s w i t h v a r y i n g d e n s i t y , setback and frontage requirements f o r l o t s on l a k e s i n d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s . I n my judgement the conceptual approach i s good but the execution i s poor. For example, the N a t u r a l Environment category represents " f r a g i l e " and e c o l o g i c a l l y unique l a k e s . However, the standards f o r t h i s l a k e category permit e x t e n s i v e r e s i d e n t i a l development t o occur r a t h e r than measures t o p r o t e c t o r preserve the n a t u r a l , unique o r f r a g i l e c h a r a c t e r o f these l a k e s . Second, the l a k e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i s based s o l e l y on t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , without c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p u b l i c needs o r expec t a t i o n s regarding the use o f l a k e s . I t would seem l i k e l y t h a t i f p u b l i c involvement i n the p l a n n i n g process had occurred, there would have been some degree o f o p p o s i t i o n t o a l l o c a t i n g i n excess o f 1900 l a k e s e x c l u s i v e l y t o r e s i d e n t i a l o r urban uses. The Minnesota Shoreland Zoning Program i n c o r p o r a t e s d e n s i t y r e g u l a t i o n and o n - s i t e sewage d i s p o s a l requirements f o r the 63 purposes o f water q u a l i t y p r e s e r v a t i o n . Although the permitted d e n s i t y o f development decreases as the p o t e n t i a l f o r water q u a l i t y d e t e r i o r a t i o n (because o f adverse s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , s m a l l s i z e and shallow depth o f a l a k e , etc.) i n c r e a s e s , the lowest permitted d e n s i t y o f one d w e l l i n g u n i t per 80,000 square f e e t i s comparatively h i g h f o r areas w i t h o n s i t e sewage d i s p o s a l . The concept o f r e l a t i n g development d e n s i t y t o p o t e n t i a l water q u a l i t y i s one t h a t c o u l d be a p p l i e d , l i k e l y w i t h some m o d i f i c a t i o n , w i t h i n the framework o f settlement p l a n n i n g . S i m i l a r l y , the approach i n v o l v i n g i n c r e a s e d h o r i z o n t a l setbacks and v e r t i c a l d i s t a n c e s t o water t a b l e o f s e p t i c d i s p o s a l systems based on s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s seems t o be a c o n c e p t u a l l y sound procedure t h a t a l s o c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n settlement p l a n p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g t o lake-shoreland r e s i d e n t i a l development. 3.2 THE FRASER FORT-GEORGE REGIONAL DISTRICT LAKESHORE GUIDELINES The Lakeshore G u i d e l i n e s developed by the F r a s e r - F o r t George Regional D i s t r i c t (Ableson, 1978; F r a s e r - F o r t George Regional D i s t r i c t , 1980) p l a c e s t r o n g emphasis on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between lakeshore development and l a k e t r o p h i c s t a t u s . T h i s emphasis i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the study o b j e c t i v e t o "preserve and enhance water q u a l i t y i n r e c r e a t i o n a l l a k e s " (Ableson, 1978, p. 1). Lake s i z e , mean depth and e x i s t i n g shoreland development are the primary v a r i a b l e s used t o c l a s s i f y l a k e s f o r v a r i o u s uses i n the F r a s e r - F o r t George management system. Secondary v a r i a b l e s i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system i n c l u d e water q u a l i t y (based on D i l l o n ' s 64 (1975) methodology), Canada Land Inventory (CLI) w i l d l i f e c a p a b i l i t i e s and, i n a v e r y c u r s o r y manner, access. The water q u a l i t y methodology t h a t Ableson (1978) borrows from D i l l o n (1975) i s one o f the more complex analyses and probably produces the most r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s o f the water q u a l i t y e v a l u a t i o n s contained i n the approaches surveyed. Based on the i n v e n t o r y o f i n f o r m a t i o n , and a s e t o f c r i t e r i a f o r l a k e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , l a k e s are grouped i n t o v a r i o u s recommended use c a t e g o r i e s . There are two development c l a s s e s (General Development Lakes and R e s t r i c t e d Lakes) and two environmental p r o t e c t i o n c l a s s e s ( C r i t i c a l Lakes and N a t u r a l Environment Lakes). An a d d i t i o n a l category, 'Development C o n t r o l l e d L a k e s 1 , represents those l a k e s which have reached o r exceeded the maximum a l l o w a b l e s h o r e l i n e development o r maximum perm i t t e d "use u n i t s " (cottage, campsite, p i c n i c s i t e , p u b l i c p a r k i n g space, etc.) per s u r f a c e area; and those l a k e s r e s t r i c t e d from f u r t h e r development f o r reasons such as p r o t e c t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l water supply ( F r a s e r - F o r t George Regional D i s t r i c t , 1980, p. 15). Maximum a l l o w a b l e development i s based on b i o p h y s i c a l (as per D i l l o n (1975)) and p e r c e p t u a l (maximum use u n i t s per s u r f a c e area) c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s . General Development l a k e s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by g r e a t e r s u r f a c e area, higher s o i l s u i t a b i l i t y f o r development and b e t t e r access than R e s t r i c t e d l a k e s . C r i t i c a l l a k e s are e u t r o p h i c , o r are s m a l l , shallow l a k e s w i t h slow f l u s h i n g r a t e s and t h e r e f o r e considered h i g h l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o e u t r o p h i c a t i o n . N a t u r a l Environment l a k e s are so c l a s s i f i e d because o f t h e i r 65 susceptibility to deterioration with respect to fisheries, w i l d l i f e , aesthetic or physiographic features should development occur (Fraser-Fort George Regional D i s t r i c t , 1980, p. 15). Minimum development standards for lakeshore residential lots are established i n the Fraser-Fort George Lakeshore Guidelines for each lake class. Minimum residential l o t sizes adjacent to General Development or Restricted lakes vary from 0 . 4 hectare to two hectares, depending on site s o i l conditions. Minimum lakefrontages of 30 metres to 90 metres and onsite sewage disposal system setbacks of 60 metres to 75 metres are also required. C r i t i c a l lakes have minimum l o t sizes of two hectares, sewage system setbacks of 75 metres and minimum lakefrontages of 75 metres. Natural Environment lakes are to have no lakeshore development other than resource related a c t i v i t i e s . These guidelines are implemented by adopting them as policy of the regional board through an amendment to the d i s t r i c t ' s o f f i c i a l regional plan. The Fraser-Fort George approach considers a broader range of potential lake uses than the Minnesota Shoreland Zoning Program. However, i n terms of the possible interests i n settlement planning and lake management identified i n Chapter II, forestry, agricultural, mineral extraction and hydro-power generation interests are not recognized. In a settlement plan that focuses on lake management, this perceived deficiency could be mitigated by broadening the scope of the plan to include concerns relating to these interests. /Another significant difference between the Fraser-Fort 66 George and the Minnesota approaches i s the p r o v i s i o n i n the F r a s e r - F o r t George p l a n f o r iraximum l e v e l s o f development on p a r t i c u l a r l a k e s i n accordance w i t h b i o p h y s i c a l and p e r c e p t u a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t i e s . The method f o r determining the b i o p h y s i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i s based on D i l l o n ' s (1974) model. T h i s model c o u l d be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a settlement p l a n t o i d e n t i f y the maximum development t h a t should occur w i t h i n a l a k e watershed, although the model would r e q u i r e c a l i b r a t i o n s t o be a p p l i c a b l e w i t h i n the v a r i o u s subregions o f the Cariboo. The p e r c e p t u a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , w h i l e c o n c e p t u a l l y good, i s r a t h e r a r b i t r a r y i n i t s implementation. I t would seem t h a t an o p i n i o n survey might be a b e t t e r method f o r i d e n t i f y i n g whether a l a k e i s beginning t o be pe r c e i v e d as overcrowded r a t h e r than r e l y i n g on c a l c u l a t i o n s o f "permitted use u n i t s " . 3.3 THE THOMPSON-NICOIA REGIONAL DISTRICT LAKES STUDY The Thcmpson-Nicola Regional D i s t r i c t (TNRD) Lakes Study focusses on p r e s e r v a t i o n o f d i v e r s e r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l a k e users and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s and amenities o f the l a k e resource (TNRD, 1980, p. 31). F i g u r e 4 o u t l i n e s the components o f the TNRD l a k e system p l a n n i n g process. 67 F i g u r e 4: The TNRD Lake System Pl a n n i n g Process Regional Lake Inventory Demand P r o f i l e Estimate the Supply o f Lakes Required t o Meet Demand f o r TNRD Lakes 4C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Lakes R e c l a s s i f y Lakes According t o Demand and Supply A s s i g n Demand t o the Appropriate Lakes Monitor Resource Q u a l i t y and Demand S a t i s f a c t i o n (adapted from Chess (1979)) Lake i n v e n t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e s present l a n d use, access, s h o r e l i n e ownership, topography ( s o i l s , s l o p e , e t c . ) , water q u a l i t y , l a k e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (area, depth), n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s , and Canada Land Inventory r a t i n g s f o r r e c r e a t i o n , waterfowl and ungulates. C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the v i s u a l environment, eg. the negative v i s u a l impacts o f l o g g i n g c l e a r c u t s , i s a unique f e a t u r e o f the TNRD l a k e s p l a n . A l a k e user survey was conducted t o assess r e c r e a t i o n a l demand and the r e s u l t s o f t h i s survey i n f l u e n c e d the process o f l a k e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Based on a n a l y s i s o f in v e n t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n and the r e g i o n a l demand p r o f i l e , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c r i t e r i a were developed and used as the b a s i s f o r d e s i g n a t i n g l a k e s i n t o one o f s i x management c l a s s e s : 1. Wilderness Lakes - no development, no motorized access, and Crown ownership o f s h o r e l i n e 2. N a t u r a l Environment Lakes - n e g l i g i b l e development, l i m i t e d access, h i g h w i l d l i f e o r s c e n i c v a l u e 68 3. General Use Lakes - public recreation oriented, with some private development 4. Development Lakes - suited for a variety of uses, including public recreation and private development 5. C r i t i c a l Lakes - not suitable for development due to trophic status, small size, shallow depth, health reasons, or crowding potential 6. Special Case Lakes - lakes which require individual consideration. (TNRD, 1980, pp. 41-56) A set of recommended management guidelines has been developed for each class of lake. No further development, except primitive campsite f a c i l i t i e s , i s to be allowed on Wilderness Lakes, Natural Environment Lakes and C r i t i c a l Lakes. Subdivision and development of up to 20 percent of a General Use Lake's perimeter, or two hectares of water surface per use unit w i l l be permitted. Allowable subdivision and development on Development Lakes i s 35 percent of the perimeter on lakes less than 800 hectares and 50 percent of the perimeter on lakes greater than 800 hectares, or 1.5 hectares of water surface per use unit, whichever i s less. Similar to the Fraser-Fort George guidelines, the lake classifications and accompanying policies i n the TNRD Lakes  Study were implemented by incorporating them into the o f f i c i a l regional plan. The TNRD approach i s essentially similar to the Fraser-Fort George approach, with one significant difference. The TNRD, rather than basing lake classification solely on biophysical 69 f a c t o r s , attempts t o i n t e g r a t e demand i n t o the a n a l y s i s through a user survey t h a t i d e n t i f i e s c i t i z e n a s p i r a t i o n s regarding the f u t u r e use o f p a r t i c u l a r l a k e s . B a l a n c i n g supply and demand i n the manner proposed by the TNRD leads t o a l a k e a l l o c a t i o n process t h a t has a hi g h e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f being responsive t o l o c a l and r e g i o n a l p u b l i c concerns and expectations r e g a r d i n g l a k e use and development. I n t h i s r e s p e c t the TNRD approach represents an improvement over the F r a s e r - F o r t George approach. 3.4 THE CARIBOO REGIONAL DISTRICT LAKE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY The Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t ' s Management Strat e g y f o r Lake Shoreland Development was developed t o achieve the f o l l o w i n g primary o b j e c t i v e : To preserve the water q u a l i t y o f l a k e s , r e c o g n i z i n g the importance o f a h i g h water q u a l i t y t o most l a k e o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , s p o r t f i s h h a b i t a t , domestic water consumption, and the a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y o f the l a k e . (Urban Systems L t d . , 1983, p. 2) The Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t Management St r a t e g y was t o be used as a guide by the r e g i o n a l board i n i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f shoreland rezoning a p p l i c a t i o n s . The impetus f o r the study was the board's concern t h a t i t was being f o r c e d t o d e a l w i t h many o f these a p p l i c a t i o n s i n an ad hoc , i n c o n s i s t e n t manner and on the b a s i s o f inadequate i n f o r m a t i o n . The primary concern o f the r e g i o n a l board was t h a t development a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s were bein g approved without c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the p o t e n t i a l impacts o f r e s i d e n t i a l development on l a k e water q u a l i t y . To a l l e v i a t e t h i s p e r c e i v e d d e f i c i e n c y , a l a k e water 70 q u a l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g system was conceived by Urban Systems L i m i t e d and Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Department s t a f f . Background m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g t o t h i s system i s presented i n Appendix I I . I t was a l s o recognized t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l s e p t i c systems, which are w i d e l y used i n the Cariboo, c o n t r i b u t e t o e u t r o p h i c a t i o n through the l e a c h i n g o f n u t r i e n t r i c h e f f l u e n t s i n t o the l a k e . I t was f e l t t h a t e x i s t i n g M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h r e g u l a t i o n s were inadequate, as they do not i n c o r p o r a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s o i l phosphorus removal c a p a c i t y as a c r i t e r i o n i n s e p t i c system design requirements. S o i l s w i t h r a p i d p e r c o l a t i o n r a t e s are u s u a l l y considered the most s u i t a b l e f o r s e p t i c systems by the M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h , as s o i l s w i t h t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c are most e f f i c i e n t w i t h respect t o e f f l u e n t drainage and l e a s t l i k e l y t o experience problems o f drainage f i e l d c l o g g i n g . S e p t i c d i s p o s a l systems are g e n e r a l l y not designed t o achieve h i g h l e v e l s o f e f f l u e n t treatment, and o p t i m a l s o i l c o n d i t i o n s f o r e f f i c i e n t d i s p o s a l ( i . e . v e r y g r a v e l l y ) are those most l i k e l y t o achieve the lowest l e v e l s o f n u t r i e n t removal. Urban Systems L i m i t e d (1983) developed phosphorus removal g u i d e l i n e s f o r o n s i t e sewage d i s p o s a l systems i n l a k e shoreland areas o f the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t . Urban Systems L i m i t e d s t a t e t h a t the major v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g the amount o f phosphorus removal are s o i l type and c o n t a c t d i s t a n c e o f the e f f l u e n t w i t h the s o i l m a t e r i a l . S e p t i c system phosphorus removal standards were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r d i f f e r e n t l a k e s , v a r y i n g according t o present t r o p h i c s t a t e ; the water q u a l i t y s e n s i t i v i t y r a t i n g o f 71 the l a k e as determined by the M i n i s t r y o f Environment; the proposed d e n s i t y o f development; and s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Shoreland r e s i d e n t i a l development adjacent t o "high s e n s i t i v i t y " l a k e s , because these l a k e s are considered t o be v e r y s u s c e p t i b l e t o e u t r o p h i c a t i o n , i s su b j e c t t o more s t r i n g e n t s e p t i c system design requirements than s i m i l a r development adjacent t o "low s e n s i t i v i t y " l a k e s . F u r t h e r , h i g h e r d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l development i s s u b j e c t t o more s t r i n g e n t design standards than lower d e n s i t y developments as the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f phosphorus per u n i t area would be g r e a t e r . T h i r d , the s e p t i c system design standards developed by Urban Systems L i m i t e d recognize the v a r i a b l e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d i f f e r e n t s o i l types i n removing phosphorus - f i n e r t e x t u r e d s o i l s such as s i l t s , loams and f i n e sands are more e f f e c t i v e than coarse, g r a v e l l y s o i l s . S e p t i c systems l o c a t e d on coarse s o i l s t h e r e f o r e are r e q u i r e d t o be a g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e above the groundwater t a b l e than systems l o c a t e d on f i n e s o i l s t o achieve the d e s i r e d amount o f phosphorus removal. A developer i s r e q u i r e d t o demonstrate compliance w i t h the o n s i t e d i s p o s a l g u i d e l i n e s p r i o r t o f i n a l adoption o f h i s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a shoreland r e s i d e n t i a l rezoning. G u i d e l i n e s f o r o n s i t e sewage d i s p o s a l i n the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t Management Strategy f o r  Lake Shoreland Development are i n c l u d e d as Appendix I I I . From a more gene r a l p e r s p e c t i v e , c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a shoreland rezoning a p p l i c a t i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d by f a c t o r s such as c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h adjacent l a n d uses, access, the a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y o f the l a n d , comments r e c e i v e d from agencies through a formal r e f e r r a l process and comments r e c e i v e d from l o c a l r e s i d e n t s 72 a t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g . The Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t Management Strategy f o r Lake  Shoreland Development a l s o contained p o l i c i e s and g u i d e l i n e s r e l a t i n g t o lakeshore r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n d e s i g n , the v i s u a l impact o f shoreland r e s i d e n t i a l developments, the p r o v i s i o n o f access t o the lakeshore, and the m i n i m i z a t i o n o f c o n f l i c t s w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l , f o r e s t r y and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t areas. As the focus o f the study was on managing i n d i v i d u a l developments, use o f a la k e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme such as those used by the F r a s e r - F o r t George Regional D i s t r i c t o r TNRD was thought t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e . P r i o r t o adoption o f the management s t r a t e g y as an amendment t o the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t O f f i c i a l Regional P l a n , the p r o v i n c i a l government introduced l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t e l i m i n a t e d r e g i o n a l p l a n s and o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n s . An amendment t o the M u n i c i p a l A c t , which s t a t e d t h a t : " A l l r e g i o n a l plans and o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n s prepared o r designated before s e c t i o n s 807 and 808 were repealed are c a n c e l l e d and have no e f f e c t " was passed i n t o law on November 18, 1983. T h i s l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n a f f e c t e d every r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t i n the p r o v i n c e . The Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t approach d i f f e r s from those d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y i n t h a t a l a k e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme does not form the c e n t r a l focus o f the s t r a t e g y . C o n s i d e r a t i o n i s not giv e n t o the appropriateness, w i t h the r e g i o n a l context, o f a proposed development on a p a r t i c u l a r l a k e . Rather, the CRD r e l i e s on p u b l i c and agency i n p u t provided through the zoning amendment process t o make a d e c i s i o n as t o whether a development i s s u i t e d t o a l a k e . Secondly, the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t attempts t o 73 apply " f u n c t i o n a l " knowledge regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o i l c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r phosphorus removal and l a k e water q u a l i t y . G u i d e l i n e s f o r o n s i t e sewage d i s p o s a l recognize t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p and more s t r i n g e n t requirements are developed f o r r e s i d e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s on s o i l s w i t h poor phosphorus removal c a p a c i t y o r which are l o c a t e d adjacent t o l a k e s t h a t have been determined t o be h i g h l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o water q u a l i t y d e t e r i o r a t i o n . These g u i d e l i n e s c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n the r e s i d e n t i a l p o l i c i e s s e c t i o n o f a settlement p l a n o r i e n t e d toward l a k e management i s s u e s . 3.5 THE ALBERTA PLANNING BOARD APPROACH The A l b e r t a P l a n n i n g Board approach i l l u s t r a t e s a method f o r pr e p a r i n g l a k e management plans from a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e . Although s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s r e l a t i n g t o the content o f a l a k e management p l a n are not i n c l u d e d i n the A l b e r t a g u i d e l i n e s , the methodology o u t l i n e s the e s s e n t i a l elements o f such p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The purpose o f r e g i o n a l l a k e management plans i n A l b e r t a i s t o provide a framework f o r making d e c i s i o n s according t o : 1. the n a t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y o f the lan d and water t o s u s t a i n v a r i o u s types and l e v e l s o f a c t i v i t i e s , and 2. the needs and expe c t a t i o n s o f A l b e r t a n s a t the l o c a l , r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . ( A l b e r t a P l a n n i n g Board, 1978, p. 3) Information t o be compiled i n a l a k e shoreland management p l a n i n c l u d e s b i o p h y s i c a l , ownership, present use and access data. B i o p h y s i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n should i n c l u d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f such 74 p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as l a k e l e n g t h , w i d t h and depth; drainage b a s i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; i n f l o w and o u t f l o w c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; s o i l s and geology; a q u a t i c v e g e t a t i o n ; and major w i l d l i f e s pecies ( I b i d . , p. 1 2 ). There are not s p e c i f i c a t i o n s t h a t water q u a l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n be i n c l u d e d . Ownership should be c a t e g o r i z e d as p r i v a t e o r p u b l i c and i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n regarding any m i n e r a l , g r a v e l e x t r a c t i o n o r other leases o r d i s p o s i t i o n s . Present use i n f o r m a t i o n , according t o the /Alberta g u i d e l i n e s , should i n c l u d e n a t u r a l resource uses ( a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , m i n e r a l e x t r a c t i o n , w i l d l i f e , etc.) and settlement uses ( r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial, i n d u s t r i a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , e t c . ) . I t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y noted by the A l b e r t a P l a n n i n g Board t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n compiled should be evaluated from both a t e c h n i c a l / s c i e n t i f i c p e r s p e c t i v e and a s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e . C o n s i d e r a t i o n must e s p e c i a l l y be g i v e n t o c i t i z e n a s p i r a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the l e v e l o f development o f shorelands and the conse r v a t i o n o f shorelands. Although management s t r a t e g i e s must be prepared and presented t o the p u b l i c i n a manner t h a t ensures the impacts o f development a l t e r n a t i v e s can be f u l l y understood by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t i s s t r e s s e d by the A l b e r t a P l a n n i n g Board t h a t the " r o l e " o f a l a k e should be r e l a t e d t o i t s r e g i o n a l context, i . e . an assigned r o l e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r l a k e would be somewhere on a spectrum o f uses ranging from w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n t o i n t e n s i v e development depending on r e g i o n a l needs and a s p i r a t i o n s and the c a p a b i l i t y o f the l a k e f o r p a r t i c u l a r uses. P u b l i c involvement i s t h e r e f o r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the process t o determine the 75 p a r t i c u l a r r o l e o f a l a k e . The purpose o f p u b l i c involvement i s t o provide f o r i n f o r m a t i o n exchange between pla n n e r s , i n t e r e s t groups and i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s t o be commenced a t the ou t s e t o f the pla n n i n g process t o inform the p u b l i c o f the nature o f the pla n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s proposed, the terms o f reference and f u t u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( I b i d . , p. 6 ). P u b l i c involvement i s viewed as an a c t i v i t y t h a t should be ongoing throughout the p l a n n i n g process: As the pl a n n i n g progresses, the p u b l i c should be kept informed as t o how t h e i r s p e c i f i c areas o f concern are being addressed ... through a f l e x i b l e process o f i n f o r m a l meetings o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s o r Regional P l a n n i n g Commissions. I n t h i s way the p u b l i c w i l l a l s o g a i n an adequate o p p o r t u n i t y t o review the o v e r a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f the development p l a n p r i o r t o i n i t i a t i n g the formal l a n d use by-law adoption procedure .... (Ibid.) Upon completion o f a l a k e shoreland management p l a n , the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y adopts i t as a l a n d use by-law, which provides the b a s i s f o r a p p r o v a l , m o d i f i c a t i o n o r r e j e c t i o n o f shoreland s u b d i v i s i o n and development a p p l i c a t i o n s . The general framework proposed by the A l b e r t a P l a n n i n g Board a l l o w s f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a range o f i n t e r e s t s t h a t c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s those i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter I I . Agency and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s are permitted t o p a r t i c i p a t e throughout the pl a n n i n g process so, i n comparison w i t h the other approaches d e s c r i b e d , i t can be concluded t h a t when l a k e s are designated f o r uses ranging from w i l d e r n e s s p r e s e r v a t i o n t o i n t e n s i v e development, these d e s i g n a t i o n s are more l i k e l y t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e c i s i o n s . The A l b e r t a approach i s a l s o notable f o r i t s balanced c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l - s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n and p u b l i c 76 needs and e x p e c t a t i o n s . P r o v i s i o n f o r p u b l i c and agency involvement throughout the process w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o a more democratic process r e g a r d i n g d e c i s i o n s concerning f u t u r e use o f the l a k e resource. F o r these reasons, the A l b e r t a l a k e p l a n n i n g method would serve as a u s e f u l s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n the development o f a settlement p l a n n i n g program t h a t i s intended t o address l a k e management i s s u e s . 77 CHAPTER TV: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SETTLEMENT PLANNING PROCESS The decision of the provincial government to eliminate regional d i s t r i c t authority to prepare regional plans and to cancel existing regional plans, although controversial, must be treated as a f a i t accompli . Attempts by regional d i s t r i c t s such as the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t to salvage their regional lake plans or management strategies under the incidental powers section of the Municipal Act should be considered as an interim response as opposed to a recommended procedure for future planning. This chapter w i l l evaluate the potential of an alternate approach to lake management - settlement planning - that i s available to regional government. However, because no settlement plans with the specific purpose of addressing lake management issues have been developed, the evaluation w i l l focus on a general assessment of the settlement planning process and i t s potential application i n arriving at socially acceptable lake management decisions. 4.1 THE PREPARATION OF AN OFFICIAL SETTLEMENT PLAN The Ministry of Municipal Affairs, i n documents entitled Technical Guide for the Preparation of O f f i c i a l Settlement Plans (1979) and Procedures for the Preparation of O f f i c i a l Settlement  Plans (1983), outlines i n detail the required planning process to be followed by regional d i s t r i c t s i n the development an O f f i c i a l Settlement Plan. There are basically four stages i n the settlement planning process: i n i t i a t i o n , plan preparation, 78 adoption and implementation. A discussion of each of these stages follows: 4.1.1 Initiation of an OSP When faced with a planning issue or an emerging problem related to the items i n section 810 of the Municipal Act , a regional board may decide to prepare an o f f i c i a l settlement plan for an area that covers a l l or part of the d i s t r i c t . By way of resolution, the board then instructs regional d i s t r i c t staff to prepare a boundary proposal and terms of reference for the plan. Terms of reference are prepared so that a l l parties involved i n the plan have a clear understanding of the purpose of the project and the manner i n which the end product w i l l be used when completed. The Ministry of Municipal Affairs recommends that terms of reference include: 1) a statement of reason for undertaking the plan; 2) a statement of the objectives of the planning activity (i.e. to address issues related to cottage development adjacent to a particular lake, or lakes i n general i n the regional d i s t r i c t ) ; 3) outlines of information gaps, background studies required, participants at various stages, and the plan preparation process; 4) a work schedule that advises other agencies when their participation w i l l be requested; 5) a statement of the method for involving the public i n the planning process; and 6) an estimate of the cost of the project (Ministry of Municipal Affairs, 1983, p. 4). The draft terms of reference are to be referred to the following agencies for comments and recommendations: 79 (a) M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s - Development S e r v i c e s Branch; (b) M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Food - D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t ; (c) M i n i s t r y o f Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources -Land Use C o o r d i n a t i n g O f f i c e ( V i c t o r i a ) ; (d) M i n i s t r y o f Environment - Regional D i r e c t o r ; (e) M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s - Regional D i r e c t o r ; (f) Regional M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r ; (g) Lands and Housing D i v i s i o n - Regional D i r e c t o r ; (h) Parks and Outdoor Recr e a t i o n D i v i s i o n - Regional D i r e c t o r ; (i) M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways - Approving O f f i c e r ; (j) The P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission; (k) Any l o c a l government j u r i s d i c t i o n adjacent t o the proposed p l a n area; and (1) The A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Cammisison f o r the area. The above agencies are r e q u i r e d t o forward, w i t h i n 30 days, any comments reg a r d i n g the terms o f r e f e r e n c e . S p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o be i n c l u d e d i n the p l a n are t o be submitted t o the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t w i t h i n 60 days. I n a d d i t i o n t o the l i s t e d agencies, the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s recommends t h a t the p u b l i c be g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t y t o comment on the terms o f r e f e r e n c e . 4.1.2 P l a n P r e p a r a t i o n A f t e r the terms o f reference have been approved and 60 days have passed s i n c e the request f o r s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the Board by r e s o l u t i o n i n s t r u c t s r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t a f f t o commence p r e p a r a t i o n o f the p l a n . Regional d i s t r i c t s have co n s i d e r a b l e f l e x i b i l i t y i n determining the scope and content o f a p l a n and d e c i d i n g which i s s u e s should be emphasized. The Board, however, must i n c l u d e an e x p l a n a t i o n i n a p l a n document re g a r d i n g why any items l i s t e d i n s e c t i o n 810 (2) o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t are not addressed by a settlement p l a n . The primary concerns o f the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s 80 axe t h a t i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s be a f f o r d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a n ' s p r e p a r a t i o n and t h a t the p l a n r e f l e c t the p o l i c i e s o f p r o v i n c i a l agencies when addressing matters under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . To t h i s end, the M i n i s t r y r e q u i r e s t h a t the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t a f f c o n s u l t w i t h p r o v i n c i a l agencies which i d e n t i f i e d i n t e r e s t s ' i n the p l a n , the r e l e v a n t a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commission(s), the p u b l i c and the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s v i a s p e c i a l purpose meetings o r through r e f e r r a l o f d r a f t s . I t i s the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o ensure i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s are g i v e n adequate o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n process. S i m i l a r l y , once ad v i s e d , agencies and the p u b l i c have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f making t h e i r p o s i t i o n s known t o the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t . I n the event o f c o n f l i c t t h a t cannot be r e s o l v e d by the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s w i l l a c t as a mediator. To ensure t h a t p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s and i n t e r e s t s have been r e f l e c t e d i n a settlement p l a n , p r i o r t o p u b l i c h e a r i n g a f i n a l d r a f t o f the p l a n must be r e f e r r e d t o agencies which p a r t i c i p a t e d i n i t s p r e p a r a t i o n . A p e r i o d o f 30 days i s provided f o r t h i s agency review. 4.1.3 Adoption o f the P l a n When c o n f i r m a t i o n t h a t the p l a n i s compatible w i t h the i n t e r e s t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies has been r e c e i v e d , the formal adoption process begins by the board g i v i n g the p l a n by-law two readings. S e c t i o n 809 (4) o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t r e q u i r e s t h a t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g i n accordance w i t h s e c t i o n 720 be h e l d p r i o r t o 81 adoption o f an o f f i c i a l settlement p l a n . N o t i c e o f a p u b l i c h e a r i n g , s t a t i n g i t s time and p l a c e , must be p u b l i s h e d i n a t l e a s t two consecutive i s s u e s o f a newspaper p u b l i s h e d o r c i r c u l a t i n g i n the area. I f no amendments, o r minor amendments f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n o n l y , are r e q u i r e d subsequent t o the p u b l i c h e a r i n g , the board may g i v e the p l a n t h i r d r e a d i n g , which i s approval i n p r i n c i p l e . I f "consequential" amendments are r e q u i r e d , the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t must resubmit the amended p o r t i o n s t o the a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commission and i n t e r e s t e d p r o v i n c i a l agencies. There i s no requirement f o r an a d d i t i o n a l p u b l i c h e a r i n g . A f t e r t h i r d r e a d i n g , the p l a n i s forwarded t o the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , where the p l a n i s reviewed and submitted t o the M i n i s t e r f o r approval. The p l a n must be accompanied by a summary o f comments r e c e i v e d through the p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program. I f there are c o n f l i c t s t h a t remain unresolved a t t h i s p o i n t , they w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o the app r o p r i a t e m i n i s t e r s o r t o an inter-agency s t a f f committee f o r r e s o l u t i o n p r i o r t o approval f o r adoption b e i n g granted. When the M i n i s t e r ' s approval i s r e c e i v e d , the r e g i o n a l board may r e c o n s i d e r and adopt the o f f i c i a l settlement p l a n by-law, a t which time the p l a n takes l e g a l e f f e c t . 4.1.4 P l a n Implementation Once adopted, an o f f i c i a l settlement p l a n must be implemented i n order t o be e f f e c t i v e . By making use o f a u t h o r i t y delegated t o i t i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t , a r e g i o n a l board may implement a p l a n through r e g u l a t o r y l a n d use by-laws prepared i n accordance w i t h the p l a n , by undertaking recommended p r o j e c t s such 82 as the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f community sewer and water systems, o r by adhering t o the i n t e n t o f the p l a n when a s s e s s i n g development pro p o s a l s . As noted above, the M u n i c i p a l A c t does not ccormit the board t o undertake p r o j e c t s recommended i n an o f f i c i a l settlement p l a n . F u r t h e r , p o l i c i e s o f the p l a n can be amended w i t h r e l a t i v e ease. Therefore, the onus i s on the r e g i o n a l board t o e x e r c i s e a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f commitment t o a p l a n f o r i t t o be implemented e f f e c t i v e l y . 4.2 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SETTLEMENT PLANNING PROCESS Thi s s e c t i o n w i l l u t i l i z e the normative c r i t e r i a developed i n the f i r s t chapter t o e v a l u a t e whether the p l a n n i n g process e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n o f o f f i c i a l settlement plans can be used t o reach l a k e management d e c i s i o n s t h a t accord w i t h democratic i d e a l s . F i r s t , however, i t must be r e i t e r a t e d t h a t there have been no settlement plans prepared t h a t d e a l p r i m a r i l y w i t h l a k e management i s s u e s . Therefore, the e v a l u a t i o n i s more gener a l i n nature i n t h a t i t examines the settlement p l a n n i n g process under the assumption i t i s d i l i g e n t l y adhered t o by a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t . An i n h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s approach i s t h a t g u i d e l i n e s prepared w i t h the b e s t o f i n t e n t i o n s are not always f o l l o w e d . Notwithstanding t h i s , I b e l i e v e t h a t the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s has developed a procedure t h a t w i l l r e q u i r e s u b s t a n t i a l compliance w i t h i t s g u i d e l i n e s before recommending a p l a n be approved. With t h i s i n mind, the settlement p l a n n i n g process w i l l be evaluated i n l i g h t o f the f i v e c r i t e r i a developed i n Chapter I - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t s , 83 adequacy o f i n f o r m a t i o n , i n t e r a c t i o n among p a r t i c i p a t i n g e n t i t i e s , e f f i c i e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s . 4.2.1 Representation o f I n t e r e s t s T h i s c r i t e r i o n represents a fundamental p r i n c i p l e i n t h i s assessment, f o r w i t h o u t an adequate o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l those who b e l i e v e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s t o be a f f e c t e d by a d e c i s i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d e c i s i o n making process, t h a t process cannot be deemed l e g i t i m a t e i n terms o f the democratic i d e a l s . Two b a s i c questions may be asked t o determine whether a p l a n n i n g process i s adequate w i t h r e s p e c t t o the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c r i t e r i o n : are those who p e r c e i v e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s t o be a f f e c t e d g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o represent these i n t e r e s t s t o d e c i s i o n makers, and a t what stages i n the p l a n n i n g process do o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n occur? Opportunity f o r Representation o f I n t e r e s t s As s t a t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter, p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s such as r e g i o n a l E l e c t o r a l Area D i r e c t o r s cannot be r e a l i s t i c a l l y expected t o represent the range o f i n t e r e s t s o f a l l those who may be a f f e c t e d by government d e c i s i o n s . The second chapter o u t l i n e d the major agency and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s i n l a k e management. Does the settlement p l a n n i n g process a f f o r d these i n t e r e s t s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e ? From an agency p e r s p e c t i v e , i t i s e v i d e n t from the l i s t o f agencies t o which the terms o f reference must be r e f e r r e d , t h a t o n l y B.C. Hydro does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y get a r e f e r r a l . From a 84 g e n e r a l settlement p l a n n i n g p o i n t o f view, t h i s amission would i n many cases be minor. However, over c e r t a i n matters t h a t c o u l d a f f e c t l a k e management p l a n n i n g , B.C. Hydro has v e r y powerful a u t h o r i t y and should be i n c l u d e d i n the c o n s u l t a t i o n process a t the terms o f reference/boundary p r o p o s a l stage. B.C. Hydro, l i k e o t h e r agencies, c o u l d decide on the b a s i s o f an a n a l y s i s o f the terms o f r e f e r e n c e p r o p o s a l whether i t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n was warranted. A r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t would l i k e l y want t o be informed, a t any r a t e , as t o whether B.C. Hydro had any plans f o r the settlement p l a n area. I t may t h e r e f o r e be concluded t h a t , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f B.C. Hydro, adequate o p p o r t u n i t y i s provided f o r agency r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r ot h e r i n t e r e s t s such as l o c a l l a n d owners, ratepayer groups, outdoor c l u b s o r the "general p u b l i c " t o p a r t i c i p a t e i s somewhat more nebulous. While d r a f t terms o f r e f e r e n c e must be r e f e r r e d t o agencies, the Procedures f o r the P r e p a r a t i o n o f O f f i c i a l Settlement Plans s t a t e s t h a t terms o f reference should be developed through y i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the p u b l i c . Thus, p u b l i c and i n t e r e s t group involvement a t the i n i t i a t i o n stage o f the p l a n n i n g process appears t o be a t the d i s c r e t i o n o f a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t . F u r t h e r , although terms o f reference should i n c l u d e an o u t l i n e o f the proposed p u b l i c involvement program, t h i s requirement again i s open t o a great d e a l o f d i s c r e t i o n . Methods suggested by the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l f o r p u b l i c involvement i n the settlement p l a n n i n g process i n c l u d e : " d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l s , u t i l i z a t i o n o f mass media, telephone and l e t t e r c o n t a c t s , w r i t t e n 85 submissions and p u b l i c meetings .... Each area should assess i t s own c a p a b i l i t i e s and requireemnts, and de s i g n the p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program i n t h i s l i g h t " ( M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , 1979, p. 24) . From my own experience, I know t h a t one o r two p o o r l y a d v e r t i s e d and attended p u b l i c meetings p r i o r t o a p u b l i c h e a r i n g has been considered adequate p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the M i n i s t r y . R e f e r r a l o f d r a f t terms o f reference t o the r e l e v a n t a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commission (APC) i s r e q u i r e d . These commissions, camposed o f persons appointed by the E l e c t o r a l Area D i r e c t o r , can be a u s e f u l source o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n . Because o f t h e i r monthly involvement i n r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g through p r o v i d i n g comments on rezoning and Land Commission a p p l i c a t i o n s , members o f APC's are g e n e r a l l y reasonably w e l l informed on pl a n n i n g i s s u e s . I n the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t , s e v e r a l APC's recommended, over a number o f yea r s , t h a t a l a k e s study be undertaken p r i o r t o the ccmmencement o f the Management Strategy  f o r Lake Shoreland Development . The persons who undertook the s e c c h i d i s k m o n i t o r i n g program i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h a t study were p r i m a r i l y APC members. I n the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t i t i s a board custom t o appoint an APC member from each l o c a l community i n an E l e c t o r a l Area. Reasonable geographic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i f not a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l v i e w p o i n t s , i s t h e r e f o r e achieved. I t i s a l s o important t o note t h a t a summary o f p u b l i c comments must be submitted t o the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s when a p l a n i s being considered f o r approval. I f the p l a n b l a t a n t l y ignored p u b l i c i n p u t , presumably the p l a n would be returned t o the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t t o make necessary amendments. I t can thus be concluded t h a t the settlement p l a n n i n g 86 process a f f o r d s adequate o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l agency i n t e r e s t s . The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c and i n t e r e s t group p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s determined l a r g e l y by the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t and, hence, c o u l d v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y . Stages o f Representation S o c i a l norms suggest t h a t i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s should be allowed t o p a r t i c i p a t e a t v a r i o u s stages throughout the p l a n n i n g process i n order t h a t a l l concerns and i n t e r e s t s can be recognized and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n a p l a n . Representation o f i n t e r e s t s should t h e r e f o r e be permitted (and encouraged) a t the i n i t i a t i o n , p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n , adoption and implementation stages. As much o f the above d i s c u s s i o n r e l a t e s t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t s a t the p l a n i n i t i a t i o n stage, the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l examine r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a t the p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n , adoption and implementation stages. U n t i l November, 1983, r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s were r e q u i r e d t o prepare an o f f i c i a l settlement p l a n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committee (TPC). The TPC c o n s i s t e d o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f those agencies l i s t e d as r e f e r r a l agencies, and o t h e r agencies i n c l u d i n g the l o c a l s c h o o l board, B.C. Hydro and B.C. R a i l . When a p l a n reached the f i r s t d r a f t stage, the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s (1979) T e c h n i c a l Guide f o r the  P r e p a r a t i o n o f O f f i c i a l Settlement P l a n s r e q u i r e d t h a t the p l a n be submitted t o the TPC f o r comment and review. Any d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n between p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies were t o be r e s o l v e d through the TPC. In November, 1983 T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Ccimmittees 87 were e l i m i n a t e d by the same p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t e l i m i n a t e d r e g i o n a l p l a n s . R e f e r r a l t o agencies a t the p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n stage remains a requirement o f the settlement p l a n n i n g process, which can be s a t i s f i e d through s p e c i a l purpose meetings w i t h , o r r e f e r r a l o f d r a f t s t o , i n t e r e s t e d agencies. The s t a t u t o r y requirements o f s e c t i o n 811 o f the M u n i c i p a l  A c t w i t h r e s p e c t t o p u b l i c involvement can be i n t e r p r e t e d t o r e f e r t o the p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n stage. However, as noted above, the requirement t h a t the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t p r o v i d e the m i n i s t e r evidence t h a t adequate o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c examination o f , and comment on, the proposed p l a n i s open t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n regarding the meaning o f "adequate o p p o r t u n i t y " . Adequate o p p o r t u n i t y c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean the issuance o f a press r e l e a s e , p u b l i c a t i o n o f a n o t i c e t h a t the p l a n i s a v a i l a b l e f o r i n s p e c t i o n a t the r e g i o n a l board o f f i c e d u r i n g r e g u l a r o f f i c e hours and t h a t w r i t t e n comments w i l l be accepted. Thus, w h i l e the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s urges r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t o i n v o l v e the p u b l i c i n p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n , the acceptable degree o f p u b l i c involvement appears t o be a t the d i s c r e t i o n o f the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t . The M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s r e q u i r e s t h a t a settlement p l a n be prepared i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission. Before a settlement p l a n can be adopted as an o f f i c i a l p o l i c y document o f a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , c o n f i r m a t i o n t h a t the p l a n r e f l e c t s p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s and i n t e r e s t s must be r e c e i v e d from p a r t i c i p a t i n g p r o v i n c i a l agencies. I f an agency's i n t e r e s t s have not been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n a p l a n t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h a t agency, and the c o n f l i c t cannot be r e s o l v e d between the agency and 88 r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t a t the l o c a l l e v e l , the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s w i l l a c t as a mediator. Thus, agencies would seem t o have adequate o p p o r t u n i t y t o ensure t h e i r i n t e r e s t s are represented a t the adoption stage. Formal requirements f o r p u b l i c involvement a t the adoption stage are e s t a b l i s h e d i n s e c t i o n 809 (4) o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t , which r e q u i r e s t h a t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g be conducted p r i o r t o f i n a l adoption o f an O f f i c i a l Settlement P l a n by-law. A p u b l i c hearing i s a q u a s i - j u d i c i a l process t h a t provides a l l persons who deem t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n propert y t o be a f f e c t e d by the p l a n an opp o r t u n i t y t o be heard and t o present t h e i r comments regarding the p l a n . As the chairman o f the he a r i n g ( u s u a l l y an E l e c t o r a l Area D i r e c t o r i n the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t ) i s supposed t o remain unbiased and have no pe r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n the proceedings, the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i a l o g u e i s r e s t r i c t e d . However, accepted p u b l i c h e a r i n g procedures r e q u i r e t h a t a summary o f the p l a n be presented, comments from members o f the p u b l i c be recorded, and these comments be t r a n s m i t t e d t o the r e g i o n a l board. The r e g i o n a l board must submit a summary o f the r e s u l t s o f the p u b l i c h e a r i n g t o the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s when seeking m i n i s t e r i a l approval o f a settlement p l a n . Implementation o f an o f f i c i a l settlement p l a n i s e s s e n t i a l l y a process t h a t i s separate from i n i t i a t i o n , p r e p a r a t i o n and adoption. The p l a n i s a p o l i c y document t o be used f o r g u i d i n g the r e g i o n a l board i n i t s other p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s (such as a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a zoning by-law). Zoning, s u b d i v i s i o n and development permit by-laws must be prepared i n accordance w i t h the 89 i n t e n t o f an o f f i c i a l settlement p l a n f o r an area. The process f o r adopting these by-laws, o r amendments t o them, r e q u i r e s a p u b l i c h e a r i n g and r e f e r r a l t o the noted p r o v i n c i a l agencies f o r comment. S i m i l a r l y , an amendment t o an o f f i c i a l settlement p l a n r e q u i r e s agency r e f e r r a l s and a p u b l i c h e a r i n g . A "major amendment" t o an o f f i c i a l settlement p l a n , d e f i n e d as any amendment t h a t i n v o l v e s : 1. a change i n boundaries; 2. a review, r e v i s i o n , o r a d d i t i o n o f a p o l i c y area; 3. a review, r e v i s i o n , o r a d d i t i o n t o the p o l i c i e s and/or d e s i g n a t i o n s a p p l y i n g t o a sub-area o f the p l a n , o r any area g r e a t e r than 40 hectares; 4. c r e a t i o n o r d e l e t i o n o f a p l a n d e s i g n a t i o n ; o r 5. i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f new i n f r a s t r u c t u r e p lans r e q u i r e s the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t t o f o l l o w the Procedures f o r the  Pr e p a r a t i o n o f O f f i c i a l Settlement Plans ( M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , 1983, p. 1 ) . Once ag a i n , i t must be concluded t h a t the op p o r t u n i t y f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t s a t the v a r i o u s stages o f the settlement p l a n n i n g process i s reasonably adequate. The opp o r t u n i t y f o r agency p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g process i s r e q u i r e d a t each stage o f the process, w h i l e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s recommended a t the i n i t i a t i o n stage and r e q u i r e d a t a l l o t h e r stages. 4.2.2 Adequacy o f Information I n Chapter I i t was noted t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o a 90 range o f p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s can a i d p a r t i c i p a n t s i n judging the appropriateness o f a p a r t i c u l a r d e c i s i o n . Moreover, i t was argued t h a t i n order t o make such judgements, adequate s o c i a l , economic and environment i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o the a l t e r n a t i v e s should be generated and communicated t o the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Adequate i n f o r m a t i o n was considered t o be t h a t which can be generated w i t h reasonable expenditures o f time and resources. For the purpose o f e v a l u a t i o n , these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s can be transformed i n t o the f o l l o w i n g questions: 1. Does the settlement p l a n n i n g process provide f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s which r e f l e c t the v a l u e s o f the v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s ? 2. Assuming s i m i l a r i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h a t used i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l l a k e plans would be used i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f settlement plans f o r l a k e management, i s the q u a l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n adequate? The matter o f communication o f i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be considered i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n o f t h i s e v a l u a t i o n . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f A l t e r n a t i v e s Because r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s have a l a r g e degree o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a settlement p l a n , the p l a n n i n g process t h e o r e t i c a l l y a l l o w s f o r the development o f a range o f a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s . However, r a r e l y i n settlement p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e are a l t e r n a t i v e s per se f o r m a l l y considered and presented as d i s c r e t e c h o i c e s . Rather, the comments r e c e i v e d through p r e l i m i n a r y c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h agencies, the p u b l i c and the 91 r e g i o n a l board are expected t o be r e f l e c t e d i n the f i r s t d r a f t o f a p l a n . Through the review process the p a r t i c i p a n t s are requested t o evaluate the d r a f t p l a n i n terms o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s . A settlement p l a n evolves through an incremental proces c o n s i s t i n g o f i t e r a t i o n s o f the c o n s u l t a t i o n , p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n and review components o f the p l a n n i n g process. Through t h i s process a l t e r n a t i v e settlement p l a n p r o p o s a l s , i f they can be considered as such, are presented a t p r o g r e s s i v e stages o f p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n u n t i l a p l a n document i s developed t h a t i s acceptable t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t e r e s t s . A t t h i s p o i n t the importance o f a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t making a concerted e f f o r t t o i n v o l v e v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s a t the i n i t i a t i o n o f a settlement p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t should be r e i t e r a t e d . C o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h i n t e r e s t s a t the ou t s e t can h e l p ensure t h a t a p l a n progresses i n the " r i g h t d i r e c t i o n " from the s t a r t . Otherwise a p l a n may proceed t o the d r a f t stage and be r e j e c t e d as completely unacceptable by i n t e r e s t s t h a t should have been con s u l t e d e a r l i e r . The r e s u l t i s a waste o f time, e f f o r t and money and probably a l o s s o f the confidence o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the a b i l i t y o f the settlement planner. Q u a l i t y o f Information Settlement p l a n n i n g f o r l a k e management would r e q u i r e a s u b s t a n t i a l divergence, i n one s i g n i f i c a n t r e s p e c t , from the type o f i n f o r m a t i o n upon which a p l a n i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y based. Whereas settlement p l a n n i n g i s l a n d use o r i e n t e d , settlement p l a n n i n g f o r l a k e management i n v o l v e s the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f la n d and water uses 92 and i s s u e s . Information used t o develop settlement p l a n s comes from p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the process. When the p l a n i s i n i t i a t e d v a r i o u s agencies are requested t o submit t o the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t any-s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o be in c o r p o r a t e d i n the p l a n . These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are accompanied by supporting w r i t t e n o r graphic i n f o r m a t i o n which pro v i d e s a r a t i o n a l e f o r p o l i c y o r settlement p l a n map d e s i g n a t i o n s an agency requests. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h a t generated by the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t and provided through p u b l i c involvement forms the b a s i s f o r f o r m u l a t i n g p o l i c y and d e s i g n a t i n g l a n d f o r s p e c i f i c uses. Through the settlement p l a n n i n g process a wider range o f i n t e r e s t s i s considered than i n the r e g i o n a l l a k e s p l a n s o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I I , which focus almost completely on r e c r e a t i o n a l and r e s i d e n t i a l i n t e r e s t s . A settlement p l a n f o r l a k e management w i l l r e q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n about present l a k e water q u a l i t y and the l i k e l y changes i n water q u a l i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s forms o f f u t u r e development. Some a t t e n t i o n , a t an elementary l e v e l , was g i v e n i n the previous chapter about the type o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s gathered t o i d e n t i f y e x i s t i n g water q u a l i t y and methods o f determining the s e n s i t i v i t y o f a l a k e t o water q u a l i t y d e t e r i o r a t i o n . The adequacy o f any o f the methods depends on the q u a l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n upon which the method i s based. I n the Cariboo, and probably most other regions i n the i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia, l a k e water q u a l i t y data i s scarce. F or a good understanding o f the water q u a l i t y o f a p a r t i c u l a r l a k e , accurate m o n i t o r i n g a t an ap p r o p r i a t e sampling frequency over a r e l a t i v e l y 93 l o n g p e r i o d o f time i s necessary. However, the m a j o r i t y o f Cariboo l a k e s have been subjected t o water q u a l i t y monitoring o n l y once, i f a t a l l . When o n l y t h i s type o f data f o r a l a k e are a v a i l a b l e , i t can probably be concluded they are su b j e c t t o h i g h l e v e l s o f e r r o r and u n c e r t a i n t y . No pl a n s t h a t I perused e x p l i c i t l y recognized data inadequacies as an a c t u a l o r p o t e n t i a l l i m i t a t i o n on the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the water q u a l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n used. 4.2.3 I n t e r a c t i o n Among P a r t i c i p a n t s I n Chapter I i t was argued t h a t the pl a n n i n g process should i n c l u d e the op p o r t u n i t y f o r d i a l o g u e between p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the settlement p l a n n i n g process a t the beginning o f t h i s chapter i t was noted t h a t a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t has two o p t i o n s f o r i n c l u d i n g agencies as p a r t i c i p a n t s - s p e c i a l purpose meetings o r r e f e r r a l o f d r a f t s . Do these o p t i o n s p r o v i d e the op p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r a c t i o n among p a r t i c i p a n t s ? I f a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t opts f o r r e f e r r i n g d r a f t s , an agency i s put i n the p o s i t i o n o f responding t o a p l a n i n i s o l a t i o n o f other p a r t i c i p a n t s . Therefore, i f t h i s o p t i o n was chosen, the i n t e r a c t i o n c r i t e r i o n would not be met. S p e c i a l purpose meetings would provide a forum f o r d i s c u s s i o n and r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t s . The d i s s o l u t i o n o f T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committees by the p r o v i n c i a l government was a r e g r e s s i v e step i n the e v o l u t i o n o f the settlement p l a n n i n g process i n terms o f the o p p o r t u n i t i e s provided f o r i n t e r a c t i o n between p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies. The monthly TPC meeting provided a s t r u c t u r e d forum through which 94 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the member agencies c o u l d present t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and en t e r i n t o d i s c u s s i o n s o f s p e c i f i c i s s u e s . The q u e s t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the settlement p l a n n i n g process has alr e a d y been d e a l t w i t h a t some l e n g t h . I f the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t s c r i t e r i o n w i t h respect t o p u b l i c involvement i s met through p u b l i c meetings, i t can be concluded t h a t the i n t e r a c t i o n c r i t e r i o n w i l l a l s o be met. 4.2.4 E f f i c i e n c y I t was suggested e a r l i e r t h a t the settlement p l a n n i n g process should not ccitmit e x c e s s i v e amounts o f time and resources t o attempts a t p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t s , generating adequate i n f o r m a t i o n and encouraging i n t e r a c t i o n among p a r t i c i p a n t s . A l s o , the e f f i c i e n c y o f the process can be inc r e a s e d i f the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t avoids d u p l i c a t i n g the e f f o r t s o f other agencies. T h i r d , from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e , i s the concept o f p o l i t i c a l e f f i c i e n c y . The p l a n n i n g process should not i n c o r p o r a t e assumptions regarding the w i l l i n g n e s s o f decision-makers t o take r i s k s and i n c u r p o l i t i c a l c o s t s . I n t h i s assessment o f the settlement p l a n n i n g process, i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o d i s c u s s i n a d e t a i l e d manner whether o r not the process i s e f f i c i e n t from a time and f i n a n c i a l p o i n t o f view. A t be s t , the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the e f f i c i e n c y o f a process i s a d i f f i c u l t matter because there i s no p r e c i s e p o i n t a t which a process can be judged t o become i n e f f i c i e n t . Thus, i t would be necessary t o r e l y on the perc e p t i o n s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a s p e c i f i c 9 5 settlement p l a n n i n g process t o evaluate i t s e f f i c i e n c y . I w i l l endeavour t o make some gene r a l comments, however. The recent i n c l u s i o n o f the requirement t o prepare terms o f reference a t the i n i t i a t i o n stage i s l i k e l y t o have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the settlement p l a n n i n g process i n terms o f e f f i c i e n c y . Terms o f refe r e n c e provide an opp o r t u n i t y t o c l a r i f y p u b l i c and agency expections about the p l a n a t the o u t s e t . C l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the i s s u e s a p l a n can o r cannot address may h e l p a v o i d l a c k o f support d u r i n g l a t e r stages o f the p l a n n i n g task which c o u l d r e s u l t i n lengthy delays i n completion o f the p l a n . Moreover, a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t cannot undertake o r implement a settlement p l a n without the cooperation o f other agencies. A t the i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g stage i n p a r t i c u l a r , a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t depends on ou t s i d e agencies f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n su p p l y i n g o r generating r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . O u t l i n i n g a work program w i t h i n a terms o f refer e n c e would provide agencies w i t h advance n o t i c e o f t h e i r r e q u i r e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n . That w i l l a s s i s t them i n e f f i c i e n t l y s cheduling t h e i r own work l o a d and h e l p the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t a v o i d d e l a y s i n r e c e i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from agencies. F i n a l l y , terms o f refe r e n c e l i k e l y w i l l be u s e f u l f o r f u t u r e m o n i t o r i n g o f the e f f i c i e n c y o f the p l a n n i n g process. Through comparison o f the work o u t l i n e i n the terms o f refe r e n c e w i t h the a c t u a l time and money spent i n p l a n p r e p a r t i o n , s p e c i f i c problem areas can be i d e n t i f i e d and appr o p r i a t e a c t i o n s f o r r e s o l v i n g the problems can be i n v e s t i g a t e d t o a v o i d t h e i r f u t u r e recurrence. On o c c a s i o n the area covered by a settlement p l a n w i l l o v e r l a p w i t h the area covered by a previous p l a n n i n g e f f o r t such 96 as a Crown Land Use P l a n . I n order t o a v o i d d u p l i c a t i o n o f pla n n i n g e f f o r t s and t o provide a mutually acceptable means o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g M i n i s t r y o f Lands, Parks and Housing l a n d use proposals i n t o Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t settlement p l a n s , an arrangement between the two agencies has r e c e n t l y been agreed upon whereby Lands, Parks and Housing Crown Land Use Plans w i l l be in c o r p o r a t e d i n t o C.R.D. settlement p l a n s . Correspondence which o u t l i n e s the nature o f the agreement i s i n c l u d e d as Appendix IV. A t present, t h i s arrangement a p p l i e s o n l y t o the W i l l i a m s Lake Development P l a n , which i s the C.R.D.'s e q u i v a l e n t t o a settlement p l a n f o r the W i l l i a m s Lake area. I f the arrangement proves t o be s u c c e s s f u l , e x p e c t a t i o n s are t h a t i t w i l l be a p p l i e d t o other settlement p l a n areas. Three advantages o f t h i s system are foreseen. One i s t h a t agencies such as the M i n i s t r i e s o f Lands, Parks and Housing, F o r e s t r y and the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch o f the M i n i s t r y o f Environment, which are concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h l a n d p l a n n i n g and resource management on Crown l a n d s , w i l l have concerns represented i n Crown l a n d p l a n s r e f l e c t e d i n d r a f t o f f i c i a l settlement p l a n s . The second advantage i s t h a t , as the o f f i c i a l settlement p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n process r e q u i r e s p u b l i c involvement, l a n d use proposals i n Crown la n d p l a n s w i l l be open t o the s c r u t i n y o f the p u b l i c . As p u b l i c involvement i s p r e s e n t l y not a r e q u i r e d element o f the Crown la n d p l a n n i n g , t h i s s i t u a t i o n w i l l i n d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o a more democratic Crown l a n d p l a n n i n g process. T h i r d , i n f o r m a t i o n u t i l i z e d i n Crown land p l a n n i n g i s a l s o r e l e v a n t t o settlement p l a n n i n g . I t has been the experience i n 97 the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t t h a t agencies o f t e n simply requested a "Resource Area" d e s i g n a t i o n on Crown lands, w i t h l i t t l e r a t i o n a l e provided. A more thorough a n a l y s i s i s undertaken i n Crown la n d p l a n s , thus i t can be concluded t h a t i f these plans are i n c o r p o r a t e d i n settlement p l a n s , the q u a l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n the l a t t e r w i l l be improved. F i n a l l y , the c r i t e r i o n o f p o l i t i c a l e f f i c i e n c y r e f e r s , i n my o p i n i o n , t o a planner r e c o g n i z i n g the p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r p l a n n i n g s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r than b l i n d l y supporting the maintenance o f the s t a t u s quo i n the name o f e f f i c i e n c y o r expediency. The p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y i s t h a t a p l a n must have the f u l l support o f the r e g i o n a l board o r , even i f adopted, the p l a n has l i t t l e chance o f being f a i t h f u l l y implemented. To t h i s end, p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c i a n s throughout the p l a n n i n g process i s e s s e n t i a l . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y important a t the o u t s e t i n order t o provide p o l i t i c a l d i r e c t i o n f o r a p l a n . The planner may adopt the r o l e o f advocate i n communicating the i n t e r e s t s o f o t h e r agencies and the p u b l i c t o the board, but a planner w i t h any sense o f s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n w i l l not advocate a c t i o n s which he concludes, on the b a s i s o f d i a l o g u e w i t h p o l i t i c i a n s , are unreasonable. 4.2.5 E f f e c t i v e n e s s The p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the settlement p l a n n i n g process can be p a r t i a l l y assessed i n terms o f the degree t o which the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n , i n t e r a c t i o n and e f f i c i e n c y c r i t e r i a can be achieved. The foregoing d i s c u s s i o n p o i n t s out a 98 number o f d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement f o r settlement p l a n n i n g , though the b a s i c c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t each c r i t e r i o n can be met. From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , the p l a n n i n g process can t h e r e f o r e be judged as a p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e one. Another c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n as s e s s i n g the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the process i s the a b i l i t y o f the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t t o implement a settlement p l a n . With r e s p e c t t o the primary focus o f r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g - settlement matters -the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t has a v a r i e t y o f methods f o r implementation o f p o l i c i e s . Zoning i s the primary method by which a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t r e g u l a t e s l a n d use and d e n s i t y o f development i n the unorganized t e r r i t o r y o f the d i s t r i c t . Three s p e c i f i c types o f zoning can be used t o implement settlement p l a n s : phased zoning, resource zoning and c o n d i t i o n a l zoning. The C.R.D. p r e s e n t l y uses a form o f phased zoning i n i t s zoning by-law. When zoning r e g u l a t i o n s were o r i g i n a l l y enacted by the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t i n the e a r l y 1970's, r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial and i n d u s t r i a l zones were designated on the b a s i s o f present l a n d use. Any lan d t h a t d i d not f a l l w i t h i n one o f these c a t e g o r i e s was zoned r u r a l , w i t h a minimum l o t s i z e requirement o f e i t h e r two o r f o u r h e c t a r e s , depending on the area i n which the land was l o c a t e d . T h i s approach ensures t h a t any development i n a r u r a l zone w i t h a proposed l o t s i z e o f l e s s than two o r f o u r h e c t a r e s , as a p p l i c a b l e i n the p a r t i c u l a r a r e a , w i l l r e q u i r e a zoning amendment. Each zoning amendment a p p l i c a t i o n i n a settlement p l a n area w i l l be reviewed by the Board and considered i n l i g h t o f the settlement p l a n recommendations f o r the area. 99 The second form o f zoning, resource zoning, i s used t o p r o t e c t "Resource Areas" from encroachment o f settlement uses. The Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t p r e s e n t l y has a zone w i t h a 32 hectare minimum l o t s i z e t o serve t h i s purpose. The C.R.D. uses c o n d i t i o n a l zoning as a method f o r g a i n i n g compliance w i t h o n s i t e sewage d i s p o s a l g u i d e l i n e s i n lakeshore areas. T h i s i n v o l v e s the d i s t r i c t e n t e r i n g i n t o a r e s t r i c t i v e covenant agreement w i t h a developer t o ensure a s i t e can and w i l l be developed i n accordance w i t h the d i s t r i c t ' s o n s i t e sewage d i s p o s a l g u i d e l i n e s p r i o r t o f i n a l adoption o f a zoning amendment by-law. S u b d i v i s i o n by-laws can be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h zoning by-laws t o r e g u l a t e the area, shape and dimensions o f p a r c e l s o f la n d . I n a s u b d i v i s i o n by-law the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t may r e q u i r e t h a t s u b d i v i s i o n s are s u i t e d t o the c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the l a n d , r e q u i r e t h a t the s u b d i v i s i o n be provided w i t h water, sewer and/or sur f a c e drainage systems; r e q u i r e d e d i c a t i o n o f up t o f i v e percent o f the subdivided l a n d as a p u b l i c open space; and r e q u i r e d e d i c a t i o n o f a seven metre p u b l i c access along a l a k e , r i v e r o r stream, among other t h i n g s ( M u n i c i p a l A c t , RSBC, 1979, c. 290, s. 729) . Development permits are zoning based l a n d use c o n t r o l devices which may be used t o r e g u l a t e the q u a l i t y o f development i n s p e c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l w i t h r e s p e c t t o the p h y s i c a l environment. A r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t may, i n a zoning by-law o r an amendment t o a zoning by-law, designate areas as development permit areas and r e q u i r e t h a t a permit be obtained before any new development commences 1 0 0 ( M u n i c i p a l A c t , s. 717(3)). With r e s p e c t t o matters p e r t i n e n t t o shoreland development, a development permit may: a) r e g u l a t e the s i t i n g o f b u i l d i n g s and s t r u c t u r e s - eg. r e q u i r e l a r g e r setbacks from the s h o r e l i n e than i n the zoning by-law; b) e s t a b l i s h landscaping standards so development may be screened from view from the l a k e ; c) r e q u i r e t h a t a s p e c i f i e d area o f l a n d above the l a k e s h o r e l i n e remain f r e e o f development; and d) r e q u i r e the p r e s e r v a t i o n o r d e d i c a t i o n o f n a t u r a l water courses w i t h i n the development. Under s p e c i a l circumstances, the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t may deem i t a d v i s a b l e t o a c q u i r e ownership o f l a n d i n order t o m a i n t a i n o r preserve the l a n d f o r p u b l i c use o r open space. A u t h o r i t y t o a c q u i r e l a n d i s granted under s e c t i o n s 529-531 o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t . Schwartz (1979, p. 8) comments t h a t a c q u i s i t i o n o f p r i v a t e property by the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t i s most u s e f u l where "the s e v e r i t y , s e l e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n o r p u r e l y a e s t h e t i c purpose o f the d e s i r e d p u b l i c a c t i o n p l a c e s an o v e r l y r e s t r i c t i v e burden on the i n d i v i d u a l l a n d h o l d e r " . With respect t o l a k e management, a c q u i s i t i o n may be d e s i r a b l e when the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t wishes t o prevent s u b d i v i s i o n o r development o f p r i v a t e l y owned i s l a n d s o r i s o l a t e d p a r c e l s o f p r i v a t e l y h e l d l a n d on environmentally s e n s i t i v e l a k e s . I t can thus be concluded t h a t a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t has a v a i l a b l e t o i t a v a r i e t y o f means t o implement p o l i c i e s r e s p e c t i n g settlement matters. However, as a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t has 101 n e i t h e r the resources nor the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y t o address a l l the i s s u e s t h a t may be addressed i n a settlement p l a n , s u c c e s s f u l implementation o f a settlement p l a n w i l l a l s o be dependent on the cooperation o f o u t s i d e agencies i n working toward the o b j e c t i v e s o f a p l a n . 4.3 SETTJuEMENT PLANNING FOR LAKE MANAGEMENT The preceeding assessment o f the settlement p l a n n i n g process leads t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t , notwithstanding c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s , t h i s process i s one t h a t c o u l d be used t o reach s o c i a l l y acceptable l a k e management d e c i s i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g paragraphs w i l l o u t l i n e some o f the s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t , based on the analyses i n the previous chapters, should be i n c l u d e d i n a settlement p l a n t h a t has the primary purpose o f being a s t r a t e g y f o r l a k e management. To a i d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , the d i s c u s s i o n w i l l f o l l o w the steps o u t l i n e d i n the Procedures f o r the  Pr e p a r a t i o n o f O f f i c i a l Settlement P l a n s . The M u n i c i p a l A c t makes p r o v i s i o n f o r a settlement p l a n t o cover a l l o r p a r t o f a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t . A settlement p l a n f o r la k e management prepared t o cover an e n t i r e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t (outside m u n i c i p a l boundaries) c o u l d probably be s i m i l a r i n scope, content and form t o the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s prepared by the Cariboo, Thompson-Nicola and F r a s e r - F o r t George Regional D i s t r i c t s . A settlement p l a n f o r l a k e management t h a t covers p a r t o f a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t should conform as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e w i t h the watershed boundaries upstream o f l a k e s w i t h i n the general area 102 b e i n g considered f o r i n c l u s i o n w i t h i n the p l a n . T h i s recommendation i s based on the r a t i o n a l e t h a t , as l a k e water q u a l i t y i s expected t o be an i s s u e , l a n d use i n the watershed i s an important determinant o f l a k e water q u a l i t y i n a d d i t i o n t o l a n d uses immediately adjacent t o l a k e s . Another important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the terms o f reference f o r a settlement p l a n f o r l a k e management. As t h i s type o f p l a n represents a departure from t r a d i t i o n a l settlement p l a n s , agencies and the p u b l i c should be advised t h a t a primary purpose o f the p l a n i s t o address l a k e r e l a t e d i s s u e s . Terms o f r e f e r e n c e can be used t o a d v i s e p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t r e a l i s s u e s e x i s t and they can expect the p l a n t o b r i n g some r e s o l u t i o n t o these. An e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t some i s s u e s are beyond the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t can reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y o f overexpectations about what the p l a n can achieve. An a n a l y s i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n Chapter I I o f t h i s t h e s i s c o u l d p r o v i d e u s e f u l background i n f o r m a t i o n i n the development o f a terms o f r e f e r e n c e . Use o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e surveys and/or agency and p u b l i c meetings c o u l d h e l p i d e n t i f y the s p e c i f i c concerns and p r i o r i t i e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a settlement p l a n area. The t r a d i t i o n a l focus o f settlement p l a n n i n g has been the f o r m u l a t i o n o f l a n d use o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s and the d e s i g n a t i o n o f areas w i t h i n the p l a n f o r s p e c i f i c uses. Lake water use o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s and the d e s i g n a t i o n o f l a k e s f o r p a r t i c u l a r uses would a l s o be an i n t e g r a l component o f settlement p l a n n i n g f o r l a k e management. Thus, i n a d d i t i o n t o the normal 103 type o f i n f o r m a t i o n compiled i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a settlement p l a n - la n d use surveys, p o p u l a t i o n and economic f o r e c a s t s , demand and supply analyses f o r v a r i o u s uses, a n a l y s i s o f socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the study area p o p u l a t i o n , e t c . - i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o present l a k e water use, demand f o r v a r i o u s l a k e - o r i e n t e d uses, supply o f l a k e s t o accommodate t h i s demand and e x i s t i n g water q u a l i t y should a l s o be compiled and analyzed. For example, some c r i t e r i a used t o determine l a k e t r o p h i c s t a t e are presented i n Table I I . S p e c i f i c s o f an i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g phase o f the settlement p l a n n i n g process would have t o be determined on the b a s i s o f the a r e a l extent o f the p l a n ( r e g i o n a l o r subregional plans would l i k e l y have d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f d e t a i l due t o resource c o n s t r a i n t s i n v o l v e d i n p r e p a r i n g a r e g i o n a l settlement p l a n ) , the e x i s t i n g data base (again, time and f i n a n c i a l resource a v a i l a b i l i t y would i n f l u e n c e the amount o f f i e l d data t h a t c o u l d be generated), and c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h r e l e v a n t agencies and the p u b l i c t o determine the type o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t should be compiled. The p o l i c y content o f a settlement p l a n f o r l a k e management would a l s o , o b v i o u s l y , r e f l e c t the increased emphasis on l a k e i s s u e s . Again, i f r e l e v a n t t o a settlement p l a n area, many o f the type o f p o l i c i e s development f o r r e g i o n a l l a k e p l a n s regarding water q u a l i t y p r e s e r v a t i o n (eg. o n s i t e sewage d i s p o s a l g u i d e l i n e s ) and resource a l l o c a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n (eg. the w i l d e r n e s s l a k e t o i n t e n s i v e development l a k e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes) c o u l d be inco r p o r a t e d w i t h i n the gene r a l settlement p l a n framework o f p o l i c i e s r e garding type, l o c a t i o n , d e n s i t y and phasing o f •fiiblell: Selected Criteria for Lake Trophic State Classific Purumeter or Teclinique Oligotrophic Mesotrophic Qianlcul 'total PlKJsphorus (ug/1) <14 'Ibtiil Pliosphorus (ug/1) <10 llyix>llinnetic Dissolved >80 Oxygen (% saturation) Hhyw.lcal Secehi Disk Depth (ra) >3.7 Secchi Disk Depth (m) >4.6 Secchi Disk Depth (m) >6.1 Mean Depth (m) >20 niologlcnl Chlorophyll a (ug/1) <4.0 Chlorophyll a (ug/1) <4.5 Chlorophyll a (ug/1) <7.0 Algal Bloom rare 14-30 10-20 10-80 2.0-3.7 2.0-4.6 3.0-6.1 4.0-10.0 4.3-8.8 7.0-12.0 Eutrophic Garments Reference >30 Par P-limited lakes National Academy of Science (1972) >20 Ibr P-limited lakes Vollenweider (1968), Dillon (1975) <10 Allum, Glessner and Gakstatter (1977) <2.0 <2.0 <3.0 <10 Based on data from 98 P-limited lakes U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1974b) Michigan (1977), cited in Rogers (1977) Dobson, Gilbertson and Sly (1974) Rawson (1955) >10.0 >8.8 >12.0 freqnent Nonmacrophyte dominated lalces Nonmacrophyte dominated lalces Dased on data from 98 P-limited lakes National Academy of Science (1972) Dobson, Gilbertson and Sly (1974) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1974b) Fruh et al (1966) Source: Taylor et al (1980, pp. 18-24) 1 0 5 development. Lakes c o u l d be designated on a settlement p l a n map f o r s i n g l e purpose o f m u l t i p l e uses through much the same process as l a n d use map d e s i g n a t i o n s are d e r i v e d . A f t e r the settlement p l a n document has been prepared and g e n e r a l l y agreed upon, the adoption and implementation stages r e q u i r e no s i g n i f i c a n t m o d i f i c a t i o n from the process o u t l i n e d a t the beginning o f t h i s Chapter. 106 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Thi s t h e s i s u t i l i z e s normative c r i t e r i a t o assess the p o t e n t i a l f o r a p p l y i n g the settlement p l a n n i n g process t o the problem o f a c h i e v i n g s o c i a l l y acceptable l a k e management d e c i s i o n s . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s approach i s based on the premise t h a t i f the settlement p l a n n i n g process complies w i t h c r i t e r i a d e r i v e d from the p r i n c i p l e s o f l i b e r a l democratic theory, l a k e management d e c i s i o n s produced through the settlement p l a n n i n g process are l i k e l y t o be "good" d e c i s i o n s . Normative c r i t e r i a used t o assess the settlement p l a n n i n g process i n c l u d e the o p p o r t u n i t i e s provided f o r i n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d by the p l a n t o represent t h e i r views, adequacy o f i n f o r m a t i o n , the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r a c t i o n among p a r t i c i p a n t s , the e f f i c i e n c y o f the process, and i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n drawn from the assessment i s t h a t , i f the procedures e s t a b l i s h e d by the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s are adhered t o f a i t h f u l l y , the settlement p l a n n i n g process represents an acceptable method f o r l a k e management d e c i s i o n making i n l i g h t o f the above c r i t e r i a . S p e c i f i c c o n c l u s i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o the v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a , and accompanying recommendations f o r improving the settlement p l a n n i n g process are: 1. The op p o r t u n i t y f o r the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f an a r r a y o f i n t e r e s t s i s provided through the formal requirements o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t and the g u i d e l i n e s produced by the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n o f 107 o f f i c i a l settlement p l a n s . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s a t the i n i t i a t i o n and p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n stages o f a settlement p l a n , however, i s a d i s c r e t i o n a r y element o f the process. While p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s suggested a t these stages, t o improve the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and i n t e r e s t groups t o represent t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , i t i s recommended t h a t : The p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s became a r e q u i r e d r a t h e r than d i s c r e t i o n a r y element o f the settlement p l a n n i n g process a t the i n i t i a t i o n and p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n stages. 2. I n terms o f the major agency i n t e r e s t s i n l a k e management i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter I I , o n l y B.C. Hydro i s not n e c e s s a r i l y provided the o p p o r t u n i t y t o represent i t s i n t e r e s t s . Other agencies which may have i n t e r e s t s i n settlement p l a n n i n g i n g e n e r a l , such as B.C. R a i l o r the school board, a l s o may not be provided the opp o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e . Although I do not p e r c e i v e t h i s t o be a major d e f i c i e n c y , i t i s recommended t h a t : Agencies which had the op p o r t u n i t y t o be represented i n the settlement p l a n n i n g process p r i o r t o the e l i m i n a t i o n o f T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committees be r e f e r r e d boundary and terms o f refe r e n c e proposals a t the i n i t i a t i o n o f a 108 settlement p l a n . An agency c o u l d then determine i f i t s i n t e r e s t were a f f e c t e d and i t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n was warranted. 3 . The i n f o r m a t i o n t o be compiled f o r a settlement p l a n depends the i s s u e s the p l a n w i l l address. I n settlement p l a n s which focus p r i m a r i l y on l a k e management, i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g l a k e uses and i s s u e s w i l l be r e q u i r e d i n a d d i t i o n t o the socio-economic and la n d use i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y compiled. As water q u a l i t y p r e s e r v a t i o n i s u s u a l l y a l a k e management i s s u e , c o n s i d e r a t i o n should be g i v e n t o determining the necessary water q u a l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , e x i s t i n g water q u a l i t y i n f o r m a t i o n i n the Cariboo i s o f inadequate q u a l i t y , t h e r e f o r e new i n f o r m a t i o n would l i k e l y need t o be generated. As r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t a f f would not normally have e x p e r t i s e i n water q u a l i t y management; i t i s recommended t h a t : A r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t c o n s i d e r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a settlement p l a n t h a t focuses on l a k e management i s s u e s attempt t o e s t a b l i s h cooperative p l a n n i n g programs w i t h other agencies t h a t have i n t e r e s t s i n l a n d use p l a n n i n g and water resources management. 109 I f such programs were e s t a b l i s h e d , funds and s t a f f time c o u l d be devoted t o the attainment o f mutual g o a l s w i t h o u t unnecessary d u p l i c a t i o n o f resources and e f f o r t . 4. The settlement p l a n n i n g process should i n c l u d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i a l o g u e t o occur between p a r t i c i p a n t s t o ensure a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e c i s i o n can be achieved. With the e l i n d n a t i o n o f T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committees, there i s no longer a formal requirement t h a t agencies be prov i d e d w i t h t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y . However, by choosing one o f two opt i o n s open t o i t , s p e c i a l purpose meetings r a t h e r than r e f e r r a l o f d r a f t s , a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t may s t i l l p r o v i d e the op p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r a c t i o n among agency p a r t i c i p a n t s . With r e s p e c t t o p u b l i c involvement i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a settlement p l a n , a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t has a gr e a t d e a l o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n determining how and when p u b l i c involvement w i l l occur. Of the p o t e n t i a l methods suggested by the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , o n l y p u b l i c meetings provide the op p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r a c t i o n among p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e recommended t h a t : A r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t conduct p u b l i c and s p e c i a l purpose agency meetings d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a settlement p l a n t o pr o v i d e the op p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r a c t i o n among p a r t i c i p a n t s . 110 5. The recent requirement t h a t terms o f r e f e r e n c e be prepared when a p l a n i s i n i t i a t e d w i l l l i k e l y c o n t r i b u t e t o improvements i n the e f f i c i e n c y o f the settlement p l a n n i n g process. To f u r t h e r improve e f f i c i e n c y by a v o i d i n g unnecessary d u p l i c a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s , an i n n o v a t i v e arrangement between the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t and the M i n i s t r y o f Lands, Parks and Housing has been agreed upon and i s being implemented. T h i s agreement i n v o l v e s the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t i n c o r p o r a t i n g a Crown Land Use P l a n i n t o a settlement p l a n and, i f t h i s i s done t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the m i n i s t r y , the Crown lan d p l a n w i l l be d i s c o n t i n u e d . Although t h i s arrangement as y e t a p p l i e s t o o n l y one p l a n area, i t i s a p o s i t i v e s t e p, not o n l y toward improving e f f i c i e n c y , but a l s o toward e n t r a n c i n g inter-agency cooperation i n p l a n n i n g matters o f mutual concern. I n l i g h t o f t h i s , i t i s recommended t h a t : Both r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s and p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t r i e s continue e f f o r t s t o improve the c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f i n t e r e s t t o each l e v e l o f government. 6. The above recommendations a l s o has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a settlement p l a n , e s p e c i a l l y one t h a t focuses on l a k e management. As o u t l i n e d i n Chaper I I , the i s s u e s r e v o l v i n g around l a k e management are many and v a r i e d . A r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , however, o n l y I l l has a u t h o r i t y t o address those i s s u e s r e l a t e d p r i m a r i l y t o settlement and t o implement p l a n p o l i c i e s through mechanisms such as zoning, s u b d i v i s i o n and development permit by-laws. For comprehensive water resources management t o occur, the need f o r a c o o p e r a t i v e , coordinated inter-agency approach i s r e i t e r a t e d . F i n a l l y , the proposed a p p l i c a t i o n o f settlement p l a n n i n g t o l a k e management i s s u e s i s l a r g e l y a response t o the changing environment i n which r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g takes p l a c e . Recent changes i n c l u d e the e l i m i n a t i o n by the p r o v i n c i a l government o f r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i t y t o prepare r e g i o n a l p l a n s and the c a n c e l l a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g p l a n s ; the d i s s o l u t i o n o f T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committees; changes i n r e g i o n a l board v o t i n g procedures on p l a n n i n g matters; changes i n the m u n i c i p a l / r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t funding arrangement whereby m u n i c i p a l i t i e s may decide they w i l l no longer p a r t i c i p a t e i n o r share the c o s t s o f r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s ; and a requirement t h a t i n f u t u r e , r u r a l p l a n s must be supported by a referendum i n the area t o be planned t o q u a l i f y f o r p r o v i n c i a l funding. The l a t t e r two changes are p o t e n t i a l l y the most s i g n i f i c a n t , as they c r e a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g budgets c o u l d be reduced t o the p o i n t where p o l i c y p l a n n i n g i s not economically v i a b l e . I t i s thus apparent t h a t r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g e x i s t s i n a t u r b u l e n t environment and faces a h i g h l y u n c e r t a i n f u t u r e . 1 1 2 REFERENCES Ableson, D.H.G. Proposed Guidelines for Control of Development of  Lakeshore Property - Protection of Non-renewable Resource. Prince George, B.C.: Lakeshore Management Ccmmittee, 1978. /Alberta, Department of Municipal Affairs. Regional Lake Classification: The Lakeland Region. Edmonton, May 1978. Alberta Planning Board. Guidelines for Use in Preparing Lake  Shoreland Management Plans. Edmonton, June 1978. Alexander, E.R. "After Rationality, What? 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(5) A bylaw under subsection (3) does not come into force until approved by the minister. (6) An official settlement plan does not (a) commit the regional board or any other local government body to under-take any project suggested or outlined in it; and (b) authorize the regional board or any other local government body to proceed with a project except in accordance with the procedures and restrictions laid down by any Act. (7) The regional board or the trustees of an improvement district shall not adopt a bylaw or undertake works contrary to or at variance with an official settlement plan. (8) Subsection (7) does not empower the regional board to impair, abrogate or otherwise affect the rights and privileges to which an owner of land is otherwise lawfully entitled. (9) On an official settlement plan coming into force, (a) section 814 (2) does not apply to a bylaw adopted under Division (3) or (4) of Part 21 thai regulates only the area of the regional district covered by an official settlement plan; (b) section 57 (2) ol: the Highway Act and section 80(1) ofthe Land Title Act do not apply to a zoning bylaw that regulates the area of the regional district covered by an official settlement plan if the Minister of Transporta-tion and Highways has approved the official settlement plan and the amendments to it; and (c) the Lieutenant Governor in Council may appoint an officer of the regional district as the approving officer under section 77 of the Land Title Act to approve subdivision plans within the area of the regional district covered by an official settlement plan. (10) An official community plan of a regional district adopted prior to September 1, 1977 shall be deemed to be an official settlement plan; but subsection (9) does not apply unless the plan is approved by the minister, the Minister of Transportation and Highways, or both, as the circumstances require. (11) Where, but for the approval of an official settlement plan under subsection (9) (b), a zoning bylaw would otherwise be subject to Part 6 of the Highway Act, site plans of commercial or industrial buildings exceeding 4 500 m2 in gross floor area require the approval of the Minister of Transportation and Highways. . 1977-57-25; 1978-25-335; 1978-30-15; B.C. Reg. 91/79; B.C. Reg. 537/79; 1983-2'2-6,7, effective November 18, 1983 (B.C. Reg. 431/83). 123 Requirements of official settlement plan 8 1 0 . (1) An official settlement plan, following its adoption, shall be the basis for the preparation and adoption of land use regulating bylaws and amendments to them. It shall be in writing and may include plans, maps, tables or other graphic material. . (2) An official settlement plan shall contain a statement of broad social, economic and environmental objectives to be achieved by implementation of the plan and a statement of the policies of the regional board on the general form and character of the future land use pattern in the area covered by the plan, including (a) the location, amount and type of major commercial, industrial, institu-tional, recreational and public utility uses; (b) the location, amount, type and density of residential development required to meet the anticipated housing needs over a period of at least 5 years in the area covered by the plan; (c) the protection of land areas subject to hazardous conditions; (d) the preservation, protection and enhancement of land and water areas of special importance for scenic or recreational value or natural, historical or scientific interest; (e) the preservation and continuing use of agricultural land for present and future food production; (f) the proposed sequence of urban development and redevelopment, includ-ing, where ascertainable, the proposed timing, location and phasing of trunk sewer and water services; (g) the need for and provision of public facilities, including schools, parks and solid waste disposal sites: (h) the location in schematic form of a major road system for the plan area; (i) the location, amount and type of development to be permitted within 1 km of a controlled access highway designated under Part 6 of the Highway Act; (j) the distribution of major land use areas and concentrations of activity in relation to the provision of existing or potential public transit services; (k) a program identifying the actions required by the regional board to implement the official settlement plan; and (1) other matters that may be required by the minister. (3) In preparing the official settlement plan, consideration shall be given to (a) the probable social, environmental and economic consequences of proposed policies; (b) the stated objectives, policies and programs of the government; (c) the suitability of land for various uses; (d) land area requirements for uses related to projections of population and economic growth; and (e) the prevention of pollution of air, water and land. (4) Official settlement plans shall be prepared and amended in consultation with the member municipalities of the regional district, elected electoral area representatives and the minister. . .: v " 1977-57-25; 1980-50-69, proclaimed effective May 17, 1980. Public access to proposals 8 1 1 . In submitting an official settlement plan or amendments for approval by the minister, the regional board shall provide evidence that the public was given adequate opportunity to examine and comment on the proposed plan or amendments, and shall provide a summary of the comments,received by the regional board. 1977-57-25. APPENDIX I I C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t L a k e W a t e r Q u a l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g S y s t e m ( r e p r i n t e d w i t h p e r m i s s i o n ) 125 1.0 I n t roduct ion and Ob jec t i ve s 1.1 General A bas i c understanding of the natural processes a f f e c t i n g lake water q u a l i t y i s e s sen t i a l before the q u a l i t y management s t r a t e g i e s proposed here in can be f u l l y apprec i a ted . The bas ic water q u a l i t y problem a s soc i a ted with natural water courses in general i s e u t r o p h i c a t i o n . E u t r o p h i c a t i o n i s the enrichment of sur face waters with n u t r i e n t s . N u t r i e n t poor lakes ( o l i g o t r o p h i c ) become n u t r i e n t r i c h (eut roph ic ) lakes as n u t r i e n t concentrat ions increase in the lake water. In e f f e c t , the lake becomes f e r t i l i z e d in the t r a n s i t i o n from o l i g o t r o p h i c to eutroph ic as i nd i c a ted by a s i g n i f i c a n t increase in p lant and algae growth. Genera l l y o l i g o t r o p h i c lakes are cons idered de s i r ab le by human s o c i e t y . O l i g o t r o p h i c lakes genera l l y have low t u r b i d i t y ( " c r y s t a l " c l e a r ) water, and are a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l ea s i ng . O l i g o t roph i c lakes are genera l l y e x c e l l e n t sources of domestic water. On the other end o f the s c a l e , eutroph ic lakes genera l l y are cons idered to have l e s s de s i r ab le or poor water q u a l i t y . As n u t r i e n t enrichment occurs which i s t y p i c a l of eutroph ic l akes , p lant a c t i v i t y increases r a p i d l y , d r i ven by so l a r energy (photosynthes i s ) . As the n u t r i e n t concent ra t ions increase and more p lant growth occurs the fo l l ow ing consequences are observed.(1) d i s so l ved oxygen concentrat ions e x h i b i t a d iurna l c yc l e of super sa tura t ion and d e f i c i t , and the lake bottom becomes d e f i c i e n t in oxygen. l o s s of community d i v e r s i t y and s t a b i l i t y , and b lue-green a lgae become more compet i t ive and dominant. 126 1.1 General ( cont 'd ) b lue-green algae blooms cause problems of t a s te and odor and e v e n t u a l l y , w i l l render water undes i rab le f o r domestic consumptive uses without treatment. r e c r e a t i o n a l and a e s t h e t i c values are d imin i shed, sk in rashes may be experienced a f t e r swimming. f i s h populat ions change from game f i s h to rough f i s h , l a r g e l y due to low d i s so l ved oxygen concentrat ions but a lso due to changes in the food source. aquat ic weed growth i n t e r f e r e with r e c r e a t i o n , and other uses. At the outset i t must be recognized that the t r a n s i t i o n from an o l i g o t r o p h i c to an eutroph ic s t a te in a lake i s a natura l aging process . Without the i n f luences of man's a c t i v i t i e s , the natural t r a n s i t i o n process may take thousands or m i l l i o n s of y e a r s . Nature f e r t i l i z e s lakes by the t ranspor t of sediments and natural organic debr i s i n f lowing water courses i n to a l a k e . Without human i n f l u e n c e s , lakes w i l l remain o l i g o t r o p h i c f o r long periods of t ime. The a c t i v i t i e s of man i n c l u d i n g a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , se t t lements , and shoreland hab i t a t i on increase the natural ra te of input of nu t r i en t s i n to a l a k e . As a r e s u l t , man i s in e f f e c t a c c e l e r a t i n g the natura l aging process of l ake s . In other words, the increased ra te of n u t r i e n t enrichment r e s u l t s in an a c c e l e r a t i o n of the t r a n s i t i o n from an o l i g o t r o p h i c to a eutroph ic s t a t e . The p reserva t ion of lake water q u a l i t y , (maintenance of an o l i g o t r o p h i c s t a te ) can be achieved by management and planning p o l i c i e s having the bas i c o b j e c t i v e of l i m i t i n g the n u t r i e n t enrichment process . Through 127 1.1 General ( cont 'd ) development p o l i c i e s d i r ec ted both a t the lakeshore areas and c o n t r i b u t i n g watersheds, n u t r i e n t enrichment of lakes can be minimized and the ra te of the t r a n s i t i o n from o l i g o t r o p h i c to eutroph ic s ta te can be reduced or stopped. Th i s min imizat ion of n u t r i e n t enrichment i s the under ly ing o b j e c t i v e of lake development gu ide l ines proposed h e r e i n . 1.2 T roph ic S ta te and Nu t r i en t s The fundamental con s i de ra t i on of lake management from the po int of view of water q u a l i t y i s the t roph i c s t a t e . In other words, management p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g to the water q u a l i t y of any p a r t i c u l a r lake must recogn ize the t roph i c s ta te of the l a k e . The po s i t i on of the lake in the natural aging process from an o l i g o t r o p h i c s ta te to an eutrophic s t a te must be q u a n t i f i e d . Three standard c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are used f o r d e s c r i b i n g the t roph i c s ta te of a l ake ; o l i g o t r o p h i c , mesotrophic and e u t r o p h i c . Mesotrophic i s def ined as the t r a n s i t i o n zone as a lake i s pass ing from an o l i g o t r o p h i c to a eutrophic s t a t e . Def in ing where a lake i s in terms of t roph i c s ta te i s in i t s e l f somewhat d i f f i c u l t as severa l f a c t o r s , in add i t i on to n u t r i e n t concent ra t i ons , have a bear ing . Before add i t i ona l cons ide ra t i on of t roph ic s t a t e , the f a c to r s which determine the t roph i c s ta te must be recogn ized: (1) Nu t r i en t s - P lant growth and r e s u l t i n g eu t roph i ca t i on requ i res severa l n u t r i e n t s , i n c l u d i n g n i t r ogen , phosophorus, i r o n , manganese, molybdenum, carbon and several o ther t race elements. N i t rogen , phosphorus and carbon are u sua l l y c a l l e d "macro-n u t r i e n t s " and the others " m i c r o n u t r i e n t s " . I t i s genera l l y a r a re occurance f o r a m ic ronut r i en t to be l i m i t i n g , u sua l l y o ccu r r i n g only with an overabundance of the macronutr ients . 128 1.2 T roph ic S ta te and Nut r ien t s ( cont ' d ) Genera l l y n i t rogen and phosphorus are l i m i t i n g nu t r i en t s a f f e c t i n g p l an t growth. In over 90% o f a l l lakes s tud ies and reported on, phosphorus i s the l i m i t i n g n u t r i e n t . Phosphorus i s accepted as the l i m i t i n g n u t r i e n t in lakes in the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t . Adequate q u a n t i t i e s of n i t rogen are genera l l y a v a i l a b l e from natural sources ; the p r i n c i p a l one being r a i n f a l l (2). (2) So l a r Rad ia t ion - Photosynthes is (p l an t growth) requ i re s s u n l i g h t . A lake may have a l l the requ i red nu t r i en t s f o r p lant growth but without sun l i gh t the growth react ions do not proceed. As an example, suspended s i l t s in Kamloops Lake prevents l i g h t penet ra t ion in Kamloops Lake and l i m i t s growth during the summer season (3). (3) Temperature (4) F lu sh ing Per iod (5) Mean Depth To some degree the f a c to r s presented above are somewhat i n t e r r e l a t e d . In terms of water q u a l i t y management as i t r e l a te s to the f a c to r s a f f e c t i n g t roph i c s t a t e , the only f a c t o r which can be c o n t r o l l e d i s n u t r i e n t s and in p a r t i c u l a r phosphorus. A l l other f a c to r s are i n e f f e c t e i t h e r r e l a t e d to seasonal c l imate patterns or the phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l a k e . P lanning s t r a t e g i e s r e l a t e d to lakes in the Cariboo are the re fo re d i r e c t e d to management of the a v a i l a b l e phosphorus. L i m i t a t i o n of the a v a i l a b l e phosophorus in a lake in e f f e c t preserves the t roph i c s ta te of the l a k e . 129 1.2 T roph i c S tate and Nut r ien t s ( cont 'd ) Research has been undertaken e s t a b l i s h i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the lake phys ica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , annual phosphorus load ing and the t r o p h i c s t a t e . One r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i l l u s t r a t e d in F igure 1 (4 ) . F i gu re 1 shows a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between annual phosphorus l oad ing , l ake mean depth and t roph i c s t a t e s . In terms of lake water q u a l i t y management, the bas ic o b j e c t i v e i s to maintain the cur rent t roph ic s t a tus of a l a k e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between phosphorus loading and t r o p h i c s ta te i s the bas i s of the management gu ide l ines proposed here in represent ing the Car iboo Lakes P l a n . 1.3 Car iboo Lake P lan - Water Q u a l i t y Management Ob jec t i ve s The preceding sec t ions have d iscussed the concepts of t roph ic s t a te and n u t r i e n t enrichment. In d e r i v i n g management and planning s t r a t e g i e s f o r lakes in the Car iboo , t roph ic s ta te and phosphorus a s s i m i l a t i o n . c apac i t y are the p r i n c i p a l water q u a l i t y r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . P lanning gu ide l i ne s from the po int of view of water q u a l i t y are d i r e c t e d toward the c a p a b i l i t y of a lake to a s s i m i l a t e add i t i ona l phosphorus without a s i g n i f i c a n t change in t roph i c s ta te ( d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n water q u a l i t y ) . 2.0 Water Qua ! i t y Management Methodologies 2.1 Phosphorus Sources An app rec i a t i on of po tent ia l sources of phosphorus i s necessary in d e r i v i n g management and planning p o l i c i e s f o r the preservat ion of the lake t r oph i c s t a t e . In connect ion with lake water q u a l i t y , lakeshore development and i n d i v i d u a l on s i t e sewerage systems are u sua l l y perce ived to be the primary " o f f e n d e r " a f f e c t i n g lake water q u a l i t y . 130 tor— ; r : r .oil : L_ L_ I 1 10 100 1000 MEAN DEPTH (m) figure 1 131 2.1 Phosphorus Sources ( con t ' d ) I t i s important to recognize the on s i t e sewage disposal systems are only one po tent i a l source of phosphorus n u t r i e n t s . In succeeding paragraphs, po tent ia l sources of phosphorus to a lake are descr ibed in a sub jec t i ve manner. Of f u r t h e r importance i s to recognize tha t phosphorus sources may be in the immediate v i c i n i t y of the lake or may be removed from the lake but w i th in the c o n t r i b u t i n g watershed. 2.1.1 Lakeshore Development On a per c a p i t a bas i s human wastes represent a to ta l phosphorus source of about 2.2 grams/day.(5) In a t y p i c a l lakeshore development, the phosphorus i s reduced to a minor degree by treatment in a sep t i c tank and to a g reater extent by absorpt ion i n the s o i l a f t e r d ischarge from a t i l e f i e l d . The amount of phosphorus enter ing a lake from waste water sources i s h i gh ly v a r i a b l e and depends on a number of f ac to r s i n c l u d i n g : s o i l types and disposal system standards seasonal or permanent res idency actual numbers of r e s i d e n t i a l un i t s both in the watershed of c o n t r i b u t i n g streams and along the lakeshore Recogniz ing the va r i ab l e s a s soc ia ted with the c o n t r i b u t i o n of phosphorus from r e s i d e n t i a l sources , the r e s i d e n t i a l component as a percentage of the to ta l phosphorus load ing on a lake i s h i gh ly v a r i a b l e . In northern O n t a r i o , where very shal low s o i l mate r i a l s over l ay bed rock, a l l phosphorus discharged from r e s i d e n t i a l development gains access to l akes . (6 ) In southern Ontar io where s i g n i f i c a n t s o i l depths are a v a i l a b l e , long term s o i l r e ten t i on of phosphorus from lakeshore development was reported to be as high as 88%.(7) A water q u a l i t y assessment study of s ix lakes in the Barns tab le Massachusetts area (8) reported tha t phosphorus c o n t r i b u t i o n s from shoreland sept i c systems represented between 6% and 40% of the to ta l phosphorus loads on the s ix lakes s tud ied . 132 2.1.2 Storm Drainage Storm drainage from an urban standard or higher dens i ty r e c r e a t i o n development area may represent a s i g n i f i c a n t source of phosophorus. Sources of phosphorus in storm drainage inc lude runof f from lawns and gardens conta in ing some res idua l f e r t i l i z e r s , eros ion of landscaped and graded areas , wastes r e l a t e d to pet populat ions and some d e - i c i n g compounds. A study of the impact of development on nu t r i en t loadings (9) reported a 70% to 400% inc rease in phosphorus loadings r e s u l t i n g from urban development in comparison to natural runo f f . Storm drainage as a source of phosphorus may be s i g n i f i c a n t from any urban standard or high dens i ty lakeshore development. Storm drainage as a phosphorus source from low dens i ty developments i s not a n t i c i p a t e d to be s i g n i f i c a n t . 2.1.3 Natural Runoff The amount of phosphorus enter ing a lake from natural watershed i s in many cases not s i g n i f i c a n t in comparison to other a c t i v i t i e s in the watershed. Runoff from n a t u r a l l y fo res ted (wi lderness) watersheds genera l l y represents the lowest potent ia l source of phosphorus expressed on an u n i t area b a s i s . A s i g n i f i c a n t change in in the p ropor t ion of f o r e s t land in the c o n t r i b u t i n g watershed may increase the phosphorus in natural runof f cons ide rab l y . Ontar io s tudies i n d i c a t e that i f 15% or more of the watershed i s c lea red (but u n f e r t i l i z e d ) the natural phosphorus load w i l l double (10). A s i m i l a r r a t i o of 50% more i s reported f o r grazed and managed f o r e s t watersheds (11). 133 2.1.3 Natural Runoff ( con t ' d ) Natural runof f as a source of phosphorus may be of major s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e l a t i o n to a s e n s i t i v e lake where a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of logging o r land c l e a r i n g f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i s proposed. In e i t h e r case, the natura l phosphorus load ing can be expected to at a minimum double. The inc reased n u t r i e n t e f f e c t s of c l e a r cut logging decrease with time and has been reported to approach a n e g l i g i b l e amount a f t e r a per iod of about 7 years in the P a c i f i c Northwest (12). 2.1.4 A g r i c u l t u r a l Sources A g r i c u l t u r a l sources of phosphorus may be a s i g n i f i c a n t component of the t o t a l phosphorus load to a l a k e . Pos s ib le sources of phosphorus a s soc ia ted with a g r i c u l t u r a l land use inc lude f e r t i l i z e r s , animal wastes, i r r i g a t i o n dra in waters, a g r i c u l t u r a l land runo f f and phosphorus-based p e s t i c i d e s . In r e l a t i o n to the Cariboo Regional -D i s t r i c t , animal wastes and a g r i c u l t u r a l land runof f are cons idered the most probable a g r i c u l t u r e r e l a t e d phosporus sources . As with r e s i d e n t i a l sources of phosphorus, many va r i ab l e s are invo lved which have a d i r e c t bearing on the amount of phosphorus o r i g i n a t i n g from a g r i c u l t u r e opera t i ons . In terms of animal wastes sources , severa l v a r i a b l e s inc lude the number of animals, dens i ty of animals, method of feeding and l o c a t i o n , s o i l types , c l i m a t e , topography, e t c . To a l a rge degree the phosphorus c o n t r i b u t i o n from a g r i c u l t u r e sources i s unp red i c t ab le . The Wi l l i ams Lake Study (13) and Dragon Lake Study (14) undertaken by the M i n i s t r y of Environment do however in these s p e c i f i c areas i d e n t i f y a g r i c u l t u r e operat ions as major n u t r i e n t c o n t r i b u t o r s . 134 2.2 Phosphorus Source Model I d e a l l y the planning of lake shoreland f o r permanent and seasonal r e s i d e n t i a l land use should be based on a phosphorus budget c a l c u l a t i o n f o r the lake under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Such methodology i s used by the M i n i s t r y of Environment in Ontar io and b a s i c a l l y invo lves c a l c u l a t i n g the excess capac i t y of a lake to a s s i m i l a t e phosphorus. Once t h i s excess capac i ty has been def ined in r e l a t i o n to the des i red water q u a l i t y of the l a k e , the average phosphorus load per dwel l ing u n i t i s d i v i d e d in to i t r e s u l t i n g in an actual number of un i t s which can be permitted on the lake shore land. Ontar io has used th i s budget model s ince 1975 and has confirmed i t s v a l i d i t y by actual post development f i e l d measurements. The Ontar io phosphorus budget model (15) invo lves three bas ic c a l c u l a t i o n s r e l a t i v e to the lake under cons idera t i on f o r development. D e l i n e a t i o n of a l l the equations and computational procedures invo lved i n the Ontar io phosphorus model i s not cons idered appropr i a te . The r a t i o n a l of the model however provides an i n d i c a t i o n of the complexity o f the model and thereby shows the amount of bas ic data requ i red to undertake a complex q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s . The Ontar io lake phosphorus model i s descr ibed conceptua l l y as f o l l ows : Step 1: Def ine the O b j e c t i v e Long Range Troph ic S ta te of the Lake I n i t i a l l y a dec i s i on i s made on the t roph i c s ta te o b j e c t i v e of the l a k e . Based on the se l ec ted t roph i c s t a t e , a permi s s ib le phosphorus load ing (grams per square meter) i s c a l c u l a t e d . The permi s s ib le phosphorus load ing requ i res data on: l ake sur face a rea , volume, mean depth r u n - o f f c o n t r i b u t i o n from watershed p r e c i p i t a t i o n and evaporat ion r e t e n t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t in lake of app l ied phosphorus response time of lake to increased phosphorus l oad ing 135 2.2 Phosphorus Source Model ( cont 'd ) The permi s s ib le phosphorus load ing i s q u a n t i f i e d i f a l l the above noted base l i n e f a c to r s are known. Step 2: Def ine Natural Phosphorus Loading The Ontar io model cons iders two bas ic natural phosphorus sources, p r e c i p i t a t i o n and runo f f . Both forms of natural phosphorus l oad ing are somewhat easy to quant i fy in Ontar io because a l l lakes are in a s i m i l a r geo log ica l s e t t i n g (Precambrian S h i e l d ) and the watersheds of the major i ty of lakes are natural f o r e s t areas. P o s s i b l e sources of natural phosphorus loads from a g r i c u l t u r a l operat ions i s not a f a c t o r in the Ontar io model because the watersheds of Ontar io lakes are p r i n c i p a l l y not s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . Step 3 : Def ine E x i s t i n g A r t i f i c i a l Loads The Ontar io model cons iders lakeshore development sep t i c tank and f i e l d systems as the only a r t i f i c i a l phosphorus source. The a r t i f i c i a l load i s simply c a l c u l a t e d by counting cottages and permanent res idences around the lake and m u l t i p l y i n g by a per c a p i t a phosphorus load f a c t o r . As def ined e a r l i e r , the assumption i s made in c a l c u l a t i o n tha t a l l phosphorus disposed enters the l ake because of a poor s o i l mantle. Th i s a r t i f i c i a l phosphorus load c a l c u l a t i o n i s cons iderab ly more complex in r e l a t i o n to the Cariboo because per c a p i t a occupancy s t a t i s t i c s would vary from lake to lake and s o i l mater i a l s are genera l l y present v/hich have some phosphorus r e ten t i on capac i t y . 136 2.2 Phosphorus Source Model ( con t ' d ) Step 4: Compute Add i t i ona l Development Permitted Once the e x i s t i n g phosphorus load ing from both natural and a r t i f i c i a l sources i s known, t h i s sum i s compared to the permi s s ib le l oad ing . I f the sum of e x i s t i n g phosphorus load ing i s l e s s than the permi s s ib le load then add i t i ona l development can be permi t ted. The number of un i t s can be accura te l y p red ic ted based on a per u n i t average annual phosphorus c o n t r i b u t i o n . The Ontar io phosphorus budget model has a p p l i c a t i o n in the Cariboo i f a d e t a i l e d assessment study of a lake i s to be undertaken. To use the Ontar io model f o r t h i s plan would have requ i red the assembly of volumes of data which i s not c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e . I t must a l so be recognized that geographic and hydro log i ca l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of lakes in the Cariboo i s h igh ly v a r i a b l e from reg ion to region in the Cariboo adding f u r t h e r to the compl i ca t ions of using the Ontar io phospnorus budget model. 2.3 Car iboo Lakes Plan - Water Q u a l i t y Eva lua t ion Methodology 2.3.1 General D e s c r i p t i o n Recogniz ing the budget c o n s t r a i n t s f o r data c o l l e c t i o n and the phys ica l number of lakes in the Car iboo, a s i m p l i f i e d water q u a l i t y eva lua t ion model was necessary. The methodology u t i l i z e d f o r the Cariboo Lakes plan r e l a t e d to water q u a l i t y i s b r i e f l y descr ibed as f o l l ows : 137 2.3.1 General D e s c r i p t i o n ( cont ' d ) (1) Sample Lake S e l e c t i o n : While the general p r i n c i p l e s of eva luat ing proposed lakeshore development have a p p l i c a t i o n to a l l 1600 lakes in the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t , sampling of a l l 1600 lakes i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y impos s ib le . To provide an i n d i c a t o r of lake water q u a l i t y a sample lake cross sec t i on c o n s i s t i n g of 16 lakes throughout the Regional D i s t r i c t were s e l e c t e d . Th i s lake sample i s r ep re sen ta t i ve of a l l geographic regions in the Car iboo. (2) Lake Water Q u a l i t y Sampling: In the spr ing of 1982, samples were taken of the water q u a l i t y from each of the 16 sample l ake s . Water q u a l i t y t e s t s performed inc luded t o t a l and to ta l d i s so l ved phosphorus, to ta l d i s so l ved -s o l i d s , pH and d i s so l ved oxygen. The sampling was scheduled to c o i n c i d e with spr ing " turnover " in each of the l ake s . A d i s s o l v e d oxygen- temperature p r o f i l e was undertaken at each sample po int to conf i rm that the lake was in a turnover c o n d i t i o n . Secchi disk measurements were a l so undertaken at the time of sampling. The spr ing phosphorus concent ra t ion as measured by the f i e l d sampling i s d i r e c t l y proport iona l to the summer ch l o rophy l l a_ concent ra t i on by a r e l a t i o n s h i p e s tab l i shed o r i g i n a l l y by D i l l o n and R i g l e r (16 ) and adapted by Nordin (17) f o r B.C. Lakes: l o g 1 0 [ c h l a ] = 0.9873 l o g 1 0 C P ] - 0.6231 where [ ch l a ] = summer ch l o rophy l l a concent ra t ion i n mg/cubic meter [P] = phosphorus concentra t ion at spr ing turnover in mg/cubic meter 138 2.3.1 General D e s c r i p t i o n ( cont 'd ) (2) Lake Water Qua l i t y Sampling: ( con t ' d ) The ch l o rophy l l £ concentra t ion der ived from the above equation i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the t roph i c s tates of the l a ke . The fo l l ow ing t a b u l a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h l o r o p h y l l a concent ra t i on and t roph i c s ta te (18). T roph ic S ta te O l i go t roph i c Mesotrophic Eutrophic The actual ch l o rophy l l £ concent ra t ion in r e l a t i o n to the l i m i t s shown above i s a measure of the r e l a t i v e degree of t r oph i c s t a tu s . For example, McLeese Lake has a computed c h l o r o p h y l l a_ " concent ra t i on of 1.6 mg/m3 i n d i c a t i n g the lake i s well down in the o l i g o t r o p h i c range or h igh ly o l i g o t r o p h i c . Wi l l i ams Lake has reported (19) c h l o r o p h y l l a_ concentrat ions of 20 to 60 mg/m3 i n d i c a t i n g the lake i s well above the eutrophic l i m i t of 7 mg/1 or the lake i s h i gh ly eu t roph i c . In summary, the sampling program enables d e f i n i t i o n of the present actua l t roph ic s ta te of the sample l akes . The def ined t roph ic s ta tes f o r the lakes cons idered in the sampling program may in many cases be genera l l y app l i c ab l e to other lakes in the same geographic reg ion . (3) T roph ic Status Change Rat ing Ch lo rophy l l a Concentrat ion 0 - 3 mg/m3 3 - 7 mg/m3 >7 mg/m3 Once the t roph ic s ta te or s tatus of the lake was determined, the c a p a b i l i t y of the lake to accommodate add i t i ona l development from a water q u a l i t y point of view i s a func t i on of how " f a s t " the t roph ic 139 (3) T roph ic Status Change Rat ing (cont 'd ) s t a tus may change. The Ontar io model using phys ica l parameters f o r the lake and watershed r e s u l t s i n a numerical c a l c u l a t i o n of t h i s parameter. In the Cariboo Lakes P l a n , a sub jec t i ve es t imat ion of the probable ra te of response of any p a r t i c u l a r lake was made cons ider ing the fo l l ow ing f a c t o r s : f l u s h i n g per i od : F lush ing per iod i s expressed in years and i s a measure of the time that natural runof f ( in f low) a c t u a l l y re sp laces the lake water volume. Lakes with a short re ten t i on time have a h igher capac i ty to a s s i m i l a t e add i t i ona l phosphorus without a change in t roph i c s ta te because a la rge percentage of the added phosphorus i s f lushed out of the lake-each year.; On the other hand lakes with a long f l u s h i n g per i od have a higher s e n s i t i v i t y to added nu t r i en t s because of the t y p i c a l r e t e n t i o n and accumulation of added n u t r i e n t s . F lu sh ing per iod values in r e l a t i o n to the c a p a b i l i t y of a lake to a s s i m i l a t e add i t i ona l phosphorus i s given in the t a b u l a t i o n f o l l o w i n g : Several of the lake in the Cariboo have f l u s h i n g per iods in excess of 50 y e a r s , f o r example, Sheridan Lake, which represents a major f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g the lakes a b i l i t y to a s s i m i l a t e n u t r i e n t s . Th i s f a c t o r alone may determine a high s e n s i t i v i t y r a t i n g . Add i t i ona l Nu t r i en t F lu sh ing Per iod 0 - 2 years 2 - 8 years g rea te r than 8 years A s s i m i l a t i o n Rat ing high average low 140 Troph ic Status Change Rat ing ( con t ' d ) mean depth/volume - As the mean depth of a lake increases in r e l a t i o n to i t s volume, the a s s i m i l a t i o n capac i ty of the lake i n c r e a s e s . Th i s increase i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to a g reater n u t r i e n t d i l u t i o n and a reduct ion in shal low or l i t o r a l areas where b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y genera l l y i s most pronounced. Mean depth va lues , expressed as a func t ion of a l a k e ' s a b i l i t y to a s s i m i l a t e add i t i ona l phosphorus, i s given in the tab le f o l l o w i n g : water q u a l i t y i n d i c a t o r s - Th i s cons idera t i on invo lves data compiled f o r t o ta l d i s so l ved s o l i d s , d i s s o l ved oxygen p r o f i l e s and secch i disk v i s i b i l i t y . In general lakes having low d i s s o l v e d s o l i d s ( l e s s than 100 mg/1) or some i n d i c a t i o n of oxygen d e f i c i e n c i e s are cons idered more l i k e l y to respond poor ly to changes in phosphorus l oad ing . The poor response b a s i c a l l y invo lves a r ap id d e t e r i o r a t i o n in t roph ic s t a t e . watershed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - T h i s cons idera t i on i s a s u b j e c t i v e conc lu s i on on pos s ib le add i t i ona l sources of nu t r i en t s other than r e s i d e n t i a l development w i th in the con t r i bu t i n g watershed o f the l a ke . Factors such as a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l , f o r e s t r y a c t i v i t i e s * and r e s i d e n t i a l development in the watershed were cons ide red . Lakes which may experience any s i g n i f i c a n t change i n land use in the watershed are l i k e l y to respond more r a p i d l y in terms of t roph ic s ta te change than a comparable Add i t i ona l Nu t r i en t Mean Depth l e s s than 5 m 5 m to 15 m g rea ter than 15 m A s s i m i l a t i o n Rat ing low moderate high 141 (3) T roph ic Status Change Rat ing ( cont 'd ) lake f o r which the watershed w i l l remain in i t s natural s t a t e . The watershed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s a sub jec t i ve assessment of po s s i b l e add i t i ona l phosphorus load ing from sources other than r e s i d e n t i a l development. Actua l data on f l u s h i n g pe r i od , mean depth/volume, water q u a l i t y i n d i c a t o r s and watershed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r each of the sample lakes i s presented on the eva lua t ion summaries f o r each lake which are conta ined in Appendix II " I nd i v idua l Lake Eva lua t i on Summaries". 2.3.2 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Sample Lakes The compi l a t ion of the t roph i c s ta te and f ac to r s a f f e c t i n g the ra te of change of the t roph i c s ta te r e s u l t s in a s e n s i t i v i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r each of the sample l akes . The s e n s i t i v i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s s t r i c t l y a -measure of the s e n s i t i v i t y of the lake ( in terms of d e t e r i o r a t i o n of water q u a l i t y ) to accept add i t i ona l n u t r i e n t evading from any source, i e . r e s i d e n t i a l development, a g r i c u l t u r a l opera t ions , natural runo f f , e t c . Three water q u a l i t y s e n s i t i v i t y r a t ing s u t i l i z e d are h igh, moderate and low. Typ i ca l examples of the a p p l i c a t i o n of these three s e n s i t i v i t y r a t ing s are descr ibed as f o l l ows : (1) high s e n s i t i v i t y - Th i s category cou ld inc lude lakes having a t r oph i c s tatus of o l i g o t r p h i c to s l i g h t l y eutrophic having a very low c a p a b i l i t y to a s s i m i l a t e add i t i ona l nu t r i en t s r e s u l t i n g from long f l u s h i n g p e r i o d , low mean depth, watershed development proposa ls or a combination of these f a c t o r s . Lakes having a high s e n s i t i v i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n requ i re the most s t r i n gen t standards in terms of n u t r i e n t management. 2.3.2 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Sample Lakes ( con t ' d ) 142 (2) moderate s e n s i t i v i t y - Lakes in t h i s category w i l l genera l l y be eutroph ic or o l i g o t r o p h i c with some add i t i ona l capac i t y to a s s i m i l a t e nu t r i en t s without a rap id change in t roph i c s t a t e . O l i g o t r o p h i c lakes in t h i s category w i l l genera l l y have a reasonable f l u s h i n g pe r i od , something in the 2 to 8 years range and a moderately high mean depth (5-15 m). Eutroph ic lakes in t h i s category may be s l i g h t l y in to the eutrophic s t a t e , again accompanied by f a c to r s suggesting the t roph ic s ta te i s reasonably s t a b l e . (3) low s e n s i t i v i t y - Lakes in t h i s category w i l l genera l l y be at e i t h e r the extremes of the t roph i c s c a l e . On the o l i g o t r o p h i c end o f the s c a l e , these lakes w i l l have a high capac i ty to a s s i m i l a t e a d d i t i o n a l nu t r i en t s due to short f l u sh ing per iods , l a r ge mean depth, probable natural s t a te of watershed or a combination of " these f a c t o r s . At the other end of the s c a l e , the lake may be s u f f i c i e n t l y advanced in to an eutrophic s ta te that add i t i ona l n u t r i e n t s w i l l not r e s u l t in a no t i ceab le f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n water q u a l i t y . Low s e n s i t i v i t y lakes are cons idered to be the most capable of accommodating add i t i ona l rec rea t i ona l or permanent r e s i d e n t i a l development. In Tab le 1, phosphorus concentrat ions at spr ing ove r tu rn , computed c h l o r o p h y l l a_ concentrat ions and computed secchi disk values f o r the bas i c 16 sample lakes are summarized. A l so given in Table 1 are average secchi disk observat ions taken throughout the summer of 1982 by i n d i v i d u a l re s i den t s at each l ake . Table 1 a l so g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s the t roph i c s tatus of the s i x teen lakes se lec ted f o r d e t a i l e d water q u a l i t y e v a l u a t i o n . 143 2.3.2 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Sample Lakes ( con t ' d ) Through cooperat ion of re s ident s on the sample l ake s , secchi disk measurements were taken in August, September and October 1982. The purpose of these measurements was to obta in a check of the computed secch i disk values in Table 1 w i th actual va lues . As shown in Table 1, the secchi disk measurements in some cases corresponded well with computed va lues , examples Puntchesakut, Sulphurous, R a i l , and Rose Lakes. In other cases , the measured secchi disk values were genera l l y h igher than computed va lues ; examples, Sher idan, Br idge, Watch, Deka, B ig and Ten M i l e Lakes. In only two l o c a t i o n s , Bouchie and McLeese Lakes, are the measured secch i disk values s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than computed numbers. In genera l , the numerical convers ion of phosphorus concentra t ion to c h l o r o p h y l l a_ concent ra t ion and secchi disk values appears to give a reasonably v a l i d and genera l l y conservat ive i n d i c a t i o n of the lake t r oph i c s t a tu s . Cons ider ing a l l f a c to r s i nc lud ing secch i disk measurements, the t roph ic s ta te c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the s i x teen sample lakes are summarized as f o l l ows : O l i g o t r o p h i c Mesotrophic Eut roph ic Ra i l Al ex i s Big Lake Deka Ten M i l e Rose Suiphurous McLeese Ruth Nimpo Bouchie Puntchesakut Sheridan Br idge Watch Anaheim Drewry TABU 1 SAMPLE LAKES WATER QUALITY DATA LAKE Spring Phosphorus mg/m* Computed Chlorophyll a Computed Sechhl Measured Secchi 1. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 iiigotrophic Hesotrophlc Eutrophic Alexis 2.0 3-4 X Ten Mile 30 , 6.8 2.7 6.0 - 7.5 X McLeese 7 1.62 6.0 3.5 - 4.5 X Douchle 6 1.40 6.5 3.0 - 4.0 X Puntchesakut 17 3.90 3.7 4.0 - 4.25 < Big Lake 64 . 14.5 l.B 4.0 - 4.6 X Rose 33 7.5 2.6 3.0 - 3.75 < Rail 6 1.4 6.6 5.0 - 6.0 X Deka 13 3.0 4.3 5.0 - 8.0 X Ruth 50 11.3 2.1 «.„_ . X Drewry 56 12.7 2.0 X Sulphurous S.S 1.3 7.0 6.0 - 7.25 X Sheridan 20 5.3 3.2 7.5 X Bridge 42 9.4 2.3 7.0 - 8.0 X Watch 60 13.6 1.88 4.5 - 6.25 X Nlnpo 11 2.7 4.63 X Anahtn 32 7.3 2.6 1 ( Green Lake 6.5 - 7.5 2.3.2 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Sample Lakes ( cont ' d ) 145 In Tab le 2, phosphorus data from several sources i s summarized in a s i m i l a r format to Table 1. The convers ion to c h l o r o p h y l l & concent ra t i on in Table 2 may not be s t r i c t l y v a l i d because the sampling t ime may not have co inc ided with spr ing over tu rn . The sample r e s u l t s are however expected to be reasonably repre sen ta t i ve of the lake t r o p h i c s t a tu s . TABLE 2 • WATER QUALITY DATA CARIBOO LAKES LAKE Phosphorus mg/ms Computed Chlorophyll a Data Source 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 401 p i 1gotrophic Mesotrophic Eutrophic Williams 50 '- 82 av. 70 IS 20; X Lac La Hache 10 - 23 av. 15.6 3.7 20 < Chimney 12 - 23 av. 16.2 3.8 20 X Horse 15 - 16 av. 15.5 3.7 20 X Felker 14 -23 av. 20 5.3 20 X Mcintosh N. 29 - 41 av. 35 7.6 20 < Dragon 17 - 39 av. 28 6.5 20 X Crooked 4* 21 Green 6* 21 Canlm 8* 21 Mcintosh S. 20* 21 * sample not at Spring overturn 147 Appendix I Water Qual i t y Considerations References C i t e d (1) "Comprehensive Management o f Phosphorus Water P o l l u t i o n " . U.S. Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA-600/5-74-010 February 1974 : page 24. (2) J . T . Winneberger "Ni trogen Eu t roph i ca t i on Sept ic -Tanks and Sewers" J u l y 1971 " page 6. (3) Personal Communication, D. Holmes, M i n i s t r y of Environment, Kamloops, A p r i l 1983. (4) "A Manual f o r C a l c u l a t i n g the Capacity of a Lake f o r Development". M i n i s t r y of Environment, Onta r i o . March 1975 : page 7. (5) "Comprehensive Management of Phosphorus Water P o l l u t i o n " . U.S. Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA-600/5-74-010 February 1974 : page 86. (6) "A Manual f o r C a l c u l a t i n g the Capacity of a Lake f o r Development". M i n i s t r y of Environment, Onta r i o . March 1975 : page 19. (7) I b id , page 19 - 21. (8) KV As soc i a te s Inc. "Water Qua l i t y Assessment of S ix Groundwater Lakes in Barns tab le , Massachusetts " , 1981. (9) Watson, Loucks et al "Impact of Development on Watershed Hydro log ic and Nut r ien t Budgets" Journal of Water P o l l u t i o n Contro l F e d e r a t i o n , December 1979. (10) "A Manual f o r C a l c u l a t i n g the Capac i ty of a Lake f o r Development". M i n i s t r y of Environment, On ta r i o . March 1979 " pages 15-17. (11) "Comprehensive Management o f Phosphorus Water P o l l u t i o n " . U.S. Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA-600/5-74-010 February 1974 : pages 81-82. (12) Slaymaker and Lavku l i ch "A review of Land Use - Water Qua l i t y I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a Proposed Method f o r t h e i r S tudy" . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Westwater Research Centre, August 1978. (13) S t i t t , Z i r n h e l t , and Holmes "The Troph ic Status of Wi l l i ams Lake, B.C. with Spec ia l Reference to Nu t r i en t Loading V i a the San Jose R i v e r " . B.C. M i n i s t r y of Environment, August 1979. 148 Page - 2 -(14) CJP McKean "Dragon Lake General Water Qua l i t y and Nu t r i en t Loading in 1980". B.C. M i n i s t r y of Environment, APP B u l l e t i n 24, March 1982. (15) "A Manual f o r C a l c u l a t i n g the Capac i ty of a Lake f o r Development". M i n i s t r y of Environment, Ontar io March 1975 : pages.3.4-50. (16) I b i d , page 34. (17) Personal Communication, Nord in , February 1982. (18) (19) S t i t t , Z i r n h e l t , and Holmes "The Troph ic Status of Wi l l i ams Lake, B.C. with Spec ia l Reference to Nu t r i en t Loading V ia the San Jose R i v e r " . B.C. M i n i s t r y of Environment, August 1979 : page 11. (20) B.C. Waste Management Branch, M i n i s t r y of Environment. Correspondence dated January, 1983. (21) B.C. Waste Management Branch, M i n i s t r y of Environment. APPENDIX I I I C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t O n - S i t e E f f l u e n t D i s p o s a l G u i d e l i n e s f o r L a k e f r o n t D e v e l o p m e n t ( r e p r i n t e d w i t h p e r m i s s i o n ) 150 1.0 Lake Water Q u a l i t y Management G u i d e l i n e s G u i d e l i n e s are presented in t h i s s e c t i o n f o r a l l primary phosphorus sources de f ined e a r l i e r in Appendix I. The g u i d e l i n e s are i n c r e a s i n g l y more s t r i n g e n t as the des ignated water q u a l i t y s e n s i t i v i t y of the lake i n c r e a s e s . The primary emphasis of the g u i d e l i n e s presented in t h i s s e c t i o n i s on o n - s i t e wastewater d i s p o s a l , r e cogn i z i n g tha t development i s a primary j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Regional D i s t r i c t . I t must be emphasized tha t wastewater phosphorus load ings may be order of magnitudes sma l le r than phosphorus l oad ings from a g r i c u l t u r e or natura l runo f f sources . 2.0 0n-S1te E f f l u e n t D i sposa l G u i d e l i n e s 2.1 General Approach The g u i d e l i n e s f o r e f f l u e n t d i sposa l recogn ize the s i g n i f i c a n c e of phosphorus on lake water q u a l i t y and are t h e r e f o r e se t f o r t h to ach ieve s p e c i f i c phosphorus reduc t i on goa l s . Phosphorus i s removed from wastewater as the e f f l u e n t passes through the s o i l m a t e r i a l s . Phosphorus i s b a s i c a l l y absorbed by i n d i v i d u a l s o i l p a r t i c l e s . The p r i n c i p l e v a r i a b l e s of the phosphorus removal process are s o i l type and the con tac t d i s tance of the e f f l u e n t with the s o i l m a t e r i a l . S o i l types which are most e f f i c i e n t a t removing phosphorus are g e n e r a l l y f i n e textured s o i l s c o n s i s t i n g of s i l t s , f i n e sands, loams and c l a y s . C lay s o i l s are e f f e c t i v e i n removing phosphorus however c l a y s o i l s are gene ra l l y not cons idered s u i t a b l e f o r e f f l u e n t d i sposa l because of t h e i r low pe rmeab i l i t y (low p e r c o l a t i o n r a t e ) . On the o ther end of the s c a l e , coarse m a t e r i a l s such as. uni form coarse sand or gravel have l i m i t e d phosphorus removal c a p a c i t y . The e f f l u e n t d i sposa l g u i d e l i n e s r e f l e c t the v a r i a b l e u n i t c apac i t y of s o i l s to remove phosphorus. 1 5 1 2.1 General Approach ( c o n t ' d ) The second v a r i a b l e i s the " t r a v e l " d i s t ance of the e f f l u e n t i n the s o i l m a t e r i a l . As the e f f l u e n t leaves a d i sposa l system, the e f f l u e n t g e n e r a l l y moves in a v e r t i c a l d i r e c t i o n down to the groundwater t a b l e . Upon e n t e r i n g the groundwater a l a t e r a l movement u s u a l l y takes p l a c e , w i th the groundwater and e f f l u e n t s u r f a c i n g in the lake or c o n t r i b u t i n g watercour se . The ma jo r i t y of the phosphorus i s removed in the v e r t i c a l downward movement. Phosphorus cont inues to be removed a f t e r the e f f l u e n t enters the groundwater, however the actua l amount removed i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to p r e d i c t . The e f f l u e n t d i sposa l g u i d e l i n e s are based on these two bas i c v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g phosphorus removal , s o i l type and v e r t i c a l t r ave l d i s t a n c e . To enable s e t t i n g minimum standards f o r v e r t i c a l d i s t ance in r e l a t i o n t o s o i l t ype , a l i t e r a t u r e search was conducted in which phosphorus removal e f f i c i e n c i e s in r e l a t i o n to s o i l type and t r a v e l d i s t ance were : d e f i n e d , The r e s u l t s of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e search i s summarized in Tab les 1 and 2. These data form the bas i s f o r the d e r i v a t i o n of the e f f l u e n t d i sposa l g u i d e l i n e s . 2.2 G u i d e l i n e s The proposed e f f l u e n t d i sposa l gu i de l i ne s f o r lakeshore development in the Car iboo Regional D i s t r i c t are presented i n Tab le 3 . Depending on the lake water q u a l i t y s e n s i t i v i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and the proposed dens i t y of development, l e v e l s of phosphorus removal o b j e c t i v e s are d e f i n e d . G e n e r a l l y as the lake s e n s i t i v i t y and the development dens i ty i n c r e a s e , the o b j e c t i v e s f o r phosphorus removal are more s t r i n g e n t . The dens i t y of development proposed i n general w i l l represent the gross number of r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s proposed. As the dens i ty i n c r e a s e s , i t i s probable tha t the gross number of u n i t s a l so i n c r e a s e . T h i s imp l ied r e l a t i o n s h i p between dens i t y and gross number of u n i t s i s f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the more s t r i n g e n t phosphorus removal standards wi th h i gher d e n s i t y . 152 TABLE 1 SOIL TYPE AND PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL DATA LOCATION TYPE OF SOIL DEPTH OF SAMPLE DEPTH TO GROUNDWATER S PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL HoWster, C a l i f . 1 HoWster, Calif.* sandy loam-coarse sand & gravel 2.7m 7m 5.8-9.2 m . 41 30 Lake George, N.Y.1 Lake George, N.Y.* Lake George, N.Y.1 clean sand clean sand clean sand 6.0m 8.3m 4.9m 83 98 57 Kilton, Wisconsin1 sand & gravel 2.4-8.8m 2-3m 26 Yf net and, N.J. sand l-4.3m 3.7m 82 Fort Devens, Mass| Fort Devens, Mass6 sand 5 gravel sand & gravel 1.5m 80-150m 3-12m 3-12m 82 85-90 Brookings, S.Dak.2 s i l l y clay 1 1.3m 2 1.3m 2 80-90. 2 Yoyager vm.Wls.5 Yoyager Ym.Wls.5 fine-medium sand & coarse sand fine-medium sand & coarse sand 2-3m 60m 9m 9E 95 99 Boulder, Colorado3 sandy loams S clay 2.4-3.On loams to lm underlain by coarse sand & gravel 0.9-l.Sm 60-90 Rushing lm fine loamy soil 9.1m (below '3m-. 40-80 underlain by coarse sand i gravel FJt., Arizona 8 FJf., Arizona 1 F.M., Arizona 1 F.M., Arizona' FJt., Arizona 7 Osayoos, B.C.^  sandy gravel basins) 6.1m (30m 3m downstream from basins) 9m 100m 9m 40m 70m 94 30-70 90+ 50-80 90+ 87 TABLE 2 PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL AT WHITBY, 153 F i l t e r Bed No. \ F i l t e r Media *P Removal (%) 4th y e a r |5th y e a r 2 3 4 5 6 Medium Sand (D = 0.24mm, Cu = 3.9) & Red Mud Block Sand (D = 0.30mm, Cu = 4.1) Foundry S lag (D = 0.60mm, Cu = 2.7) Medium Sand (D - 0.24mm, Cu = 3.9) F i ne Gravel wi th Sand (D = 1.0mm, Cu - 2.1) Pea Gravel (D = 2.5mm, Cu = 1.2) 67.6% 62.7% 43.9% 48.2% 46.0% 44.4% 41.5% 42.3% 1st y e a r 2nd y e a r 7 8 9 10 Medium Sand (D = 0.24mm, Cu = 3.9) & Red Mud Medium Sand (D = 0.24mm, Cu = 3.9) & Limestone (D = 0.24mm, Cu = 18.3) ^ Natural S o i l (55% s i l t & c l a y , 38% sand, 7% g rave l ) Medium S o i l (D = 0.24mm, Cu = 3.9) & s o i l (92% s i l t & c l a y , 8% sand) 87.1% 82.4% 69.1% 48.6%-65.5% . 47.9% 68.3% 54.9% *P removal equal to or l e s s than 85% o f the t ime. Some i s o l a t e d readings w i l l show h i g h l y v a r i a b l e P removals. Note: 1) The f i l t e r s are 76 cm deep. 2) Loading Rate - 75 l /m z /day (1.5 g p d / f t z ) 3) These are a l l experimental underdra ined s o i l f i l t e r s . Chowdhry s ta tes tha t Phosphorus removil i n the 5 y e a r o l d systems stays q u i t e constant i n F i l t e r Bed N o ' s . 2 -6. (P removal approx. 30-46%) Natura l s o i l (with high percentage of f i n e s ) on l y removes approximately 45% of a p p l i e d P a f t e r 2 year s of o p e r a t i o n . 154 TABLE 3 CARIBOO LAKES PLAN ON-SITE DISPOSAL SYSTEM GUIDELINES Design Objectives as Function o f Density and Lake S e n s i t i v i t y . DEVELOPMENT ' DENSITY LOW SENSITIVITY MODERATE SENSITIVITY HIGH SENSITIVITY Very Lew (2 ha l o t s ) Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Low Density (0.4 ha) Level 1 Level 1 Level 3 Med. Density (0.2 ha) Level 1 Level 2 Level 4 High Density {0.07 ha) Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Olsposal System Design Standards: Function of S o i l Type 4 Level Objective? • LEVEL OBJECTIVE DESIGNATION PHOSPHORUS REMQYAL OBJECTIVE VERTICAL UNSATURATED DISTANCE i U i L A ' iiUiL B iOi L C Level 1 0 - 30S 1.2 m 1.2 m 1.2 m Level 2 30 - 602 9 m 3 m 1.6 m Level 3 60 - 90S 15 m 5 ra ' 2 m Level 4 > 90S not recotmnended 8 m 3.5 m 155 EXPLANATORY NOTES TO TABLE 3: (1) S o i l Group D e s c r i p t i o n s S o i l Group A - G e n e r a l l y r a p i d l y dra ined s o i l types compris ing coarse uni form sands and g r a v e l . P e r c o l a t i o n Rate: 2 to 5 minutes / i nch S o i l Group B - Moderate ly dra ined s o i l types compris ing f i n e and medium sands and sands with some s i l t . P e r c o l a t i o n Rate: 5-15 min/ inch S o i l Group C - S lowly dra ined s o i l types compris ing s i l t s , s i l t y sand, s i l t with some c l a y and loams. P e r c o l a t i o n Rate: 15-30 min/ inch (2) Minimum setback ( h o r i z o n t a l ) from highwater mark of lake s h a l l bs 35 metres . (3) Conventional d i sposa l systems on coarse s o i l s (Group Des i gna t ion A) g e n e r a l l y w i l l not meet phosphorus removal o b j e c t i v e Leve l 4. Unconventional design standards app ly . (4) D i sposa l systems in s o i l group A to meet Leve l 4 o b j e c t i v e s or f o r s o i l types out s ide the des i gnat ions in t h i s Tab le s h a l l be designed on a s i t e s p e c i f i c bas i s by a q u a l i f i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l eng ineer . (5) For r e s o r t , m u l t i - f a m i l y , commercial land uses, the design o b j e c t i v e s h a l l be as f o l l o w s : Es t imated d a i l y f low <1000 gpd-use Low Dens i ty Des ignat ions Es t imated d a i l y flov? >1000 gpd & <2500-use Medium Dens i ty Es t imated d a i l y f low >2500 gpd-use High Dens i ty Land Use (5) V e r t i c a l Unsaturated D i s tance i s the v e r t i c a l s o i l d i s tance from the base of the d i sposa l f i e l d or mound to the groundwater t a b l e . When no groundwater t a b l e e x i s t s , the v e r t i c a l unsaturated d i s tance s h a l l be measured as the e l e v a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e from the base of f i e l d or mound to the h igh water e l e v a t i o n of the l a k e . (7) A minimum s o i l depth of 1.6 m measured from the base of f i e l d or mound to an impermeable zone such as c l a y or bedrock s h a l l be prov ided f o r systems designed to meet Leve l 2, 3 or 4 o b j e c t i v e s . (8) The B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Hea l th S e p t i c Tank and D i sposa l F i e l d Regu la t ions s h a l l apply to the design of a l l d i sposa l systems except f o r the v e r t i c a l unsaturated d i s tances as s p e c i f i e d h e r e i n . 156 2.2 G u i d e l i n e s ( c o n t ' d ) I t should be noted tha t the design standards i nc luded in Tab le 3 do not i n c l u d e a ho r i zon ta l setback from the lakeshore or high water mark. The v e r t i c a l d i s tances s p e c i f i e d in Tab le 3 w i l l however g e n e r a l l y r e s u l t i n a g rea te r setback from the lakeshore as the phosphorus removal o b j e c t i v e becomes more s t r i n g e n t . As an example, con s i de r a proposed medium dens i t y development (0.2 ha l o t s ) on lakes c l a s s i f i e d f i r s t as low s e n s i t i v i t y and secondly as high s e n s i t i v i t y . In both developments assume the average ground s lope of the development i s 10% and i n each case the s i t e s o i l s are in Group C l a s s i f i c a t i o n B. On the low s e n s i t i v i t y l a k e , l e v e l 1 phosphorus removal o b j e c t i v e s would apply i n which case any t i l e f i e l d would have to provide 1.2 meters of unsa tura ted d i s t a n c e . The natura l ground s lope would r e s u l t i n the s p e c i f i e d 1.2 m d i s t ance being achieved about 12 m from the l ake sho re . The setback i n t h i s case would be 35 meters , the s p e c i f i e d minimum. From Tab le 3, on the high s e n s i t i v i t y lake a v e r t i c a l unsaturated d i s t a n c e of 8 m i s requ i red to meet l e v e l 4 o b j e c t i v e s . Based on a 10% ground s l o p e , an 8 meter v e r t i c a l d i s t ance i s not provided unless the d i sposa l f i e l d i s at l e a s t 80 meters from the lake high water mark. The preceding example i l l u s t r a t e s how the s p e c i f i e d o b j e c t i v e s in Tab le 3 w i l l r e s u l t in an inc rease in d i sposa l f i e l d setback as the lake s e n s i t i v i t y i n c r e a s e s . The actua l setback w i l l vary from development t o development depending on the s i t e topography. I t should be recogn ized tha t phosphorus removal from e f f l u e n t may not be d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to the f i e l d setback from the l a k e . For developments proposed where s i t e s o i l s f a l l ou t s ide the general group d e s c r i p t i o n s in Tab le 3, an unconventional design prepared by a q u a l i f i e d p ro fe s s i ona l eng ineer i s suggested. T h i s s tandard i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important in a proposed development where s o i l ma te r i a l s a re g ranu lar ( p e r c o l a t i o n ra te f a s t e r than 5 minutes per inch) and where l e v e l 4 phosphorus removal o b j e c t i v e would apply. In t h i s example long term phosphorus removal of at l e a s t 90% would not normal ly 157 2.2 G u i d e l i n e s ( c o n t ' d ) be a v a i l a b l e from the g r a n u l a r s o i l s . Opt ions which may be a v a i l a b l e t o the d e v e l o p e r would be the p r o v i s i o n of a community sewer system d i s c h a r g i n g to s o i l m a t e r i a l s f a l l i n g w i t h i n the groups de s i gna ted i n T a b l e 3 o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a d i s p o s a l system u s i n g imported s o i l m a t e r i a l s . The M i n i s t r y o f Env i ronment 1n O n t a r i o has exper imented w i t h a m a t e r i a l c a l l e d " r e d mud" (11) which has a very h i gh phosphorus removal c a p a b i l i t y . I n c o r p o r a t i o n o f a m a t e r i a l s i m i l a r to " r e d mud" i n t o a d i s p o s a l f i e l d i n g r a n u l a r m a t e r i a l s shou ld be c o n s i d e r e d as an a c c e p t a b l e d e s i g n . Unconven t i ona l d e s i g n a t i o n f o r systems where p e r c o l a t i o n r a t e s a re s l o w e r than 30 minutes per i n c h i s the same d e f i n i t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n t he M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h sewage d i s p o s a l r e g u l a t i o n s ( 1 2 ) . In t h i s c a s e , phosphorus removal i s not as c r i t i c a l a concern as the a c tua l h y d r a u l i c c a p a c i t y o f the s o i l s to a c c e p t e f f l u e n t . The s o i l group d e s i g n a t i o n i n T a b l e 3 have been p u r p o s e l y s t a t e d i n a genera l manner f o r ease o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and g u i d e l i n e a p p l i c a t i o n . The s o i l group d e s i g n a t i o n s h o u l d be r ea sonab l y un i fo rm f o r the u n s a t u r a t e d d i s t a n c e s g i ven i n T a b l e 3 . Backhoe t e s t p i t s w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the s o i l m a t e r i a l s would no rma l l y be r e q u i r e d as s u p p o r t i n g documentat ion f o r a development a p p l i c a t i o n . F o r h igh d e n s i t y development p r o p o s a l s on l a k e s hav ing a h igh s e n s i t i v t y water q u a l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , d r i l l ho l e s may be r e q u i r e d to c o n f i r m adequate u n s a t u r a t e d d i s t a n c e s as shown i n T a b l e 3 . A s u f f i c i e n t number of d r i l l ho l e s would be neces sa ry to prove genera l comp l i ance w i t h the u n s a t u r a t e d s o i l d i s t a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . D r i l l ho l e s on each i n d i v i d u a l -proposed l o t would not no rma l l y be the i n t e n t u n l e s s the s i t e geo logy was u n u s u a l l y v a r i a b l e . . I t s h o u l d a l s o be noted t h a t phosphorus a d s o r p t i o n t e s t s f o r s p e c i f i c s o i l samples can be under taken by seve ra l commercial l a b o r a t o r i e s . These t e s t s may be r e q u i r e d to c o n f i r m the genera l a d s o r p t i o n c a p a c i t i e s from T a b l e 1. APPENDIX I V D r a f t C a r i b o o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t / M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s , P a r k s and H o u s i n g A g r e e m e n t R e g a r d i n g I n c o r p o r a t i o n o f Crown L a n d Use P l a n s I n t o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t O f f i c i a l S e t t l e m e n t P l a n s ( r e p r i n t e d w i t h p e r m i s s i o n ) 159 Fox Mountain: 0337665 Southside: 0315988 Williams Lake River: 031395_4> Williams Lake O.S.P.: WrflAl January 18, 1983 Alan Kuroyama Senior Planning O f f i c e r Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t #301 - 172 North 2nd Avenue Williams Lake, B. C. V2G 1Z6 Dear S i r : Re: Williams Lake O f f i c i a l Settlement Plan. Following our d i s c u s s i o n on January 11 regarding overlap of the Fox Mountain, Williams Lake River V a l l e y and Southside Williams Lake Crown Land Plans with the Williams Lake O f f i c i a l Settlement Plan, the f o l l o w i n g summarizes the Cariboo Lands and Housing Region's proposal to e s t a b l i s h a common planning response. Background: (1) In 1977 the Fox Mountain, Williams Lake River V a l l e y and Southside Williams Lake Crown Land Plans were i n i t i a t e d with review scheduled f o r l a t e 1982 - 1983. These documents provided land use designations f o r m u l t i p l e and s i n g l e purpose land uses on Crown land. (2) Subsequent to the p r e p a r a t i o n of the Crown Land Plans, the Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t commenced p r e p a r a t i o n of the Williams Lake O f f i c i a l Settlement Plan, which i s intended to provide zoning designations f o r p r i v a t e land and to in c o r p o r a t e recommendations f o r Crown land from Crown agencies. (3) The M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing has recognized t h a t i n areas where O.S.P.'s are prepared, they w i l l have precedence over Crown land plans, .although Crown agencies w i l l make recommendations i n t o O.S.P.'s f o r designations of Crown lands. 160 - 2 -In 1980 the M i n i s t r y of Forests proceeded with a program to e s t a b l i s h P r o v i n c i a l Forests throughout the Province. The Williams Lake P r o v i n c i a l Forest was proposed for the area surround W i l l i a m s Lake. In 1982 the M i n i s t r y of Forests and the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing agreed t h a t p o r t i o n s of the Fox Mountain, Williams Lake River V a l l e y and Southside Williams Lake Crown Land Plans would be excluded from the proposed Wi l l i a m s Lake P r o v i n c i a l Forest and managed by the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing f o r s i n g l e purpose uses or m u l t i p l e use, as appropriate. The Cariboo Regional D i s t r i c t has i n d i c a t e d that a p r i o r i t y has been assigned to completing the Wi l l i a m s Lake O.S.P. and that a review of the current d r a f t document w i l l occur, i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c meetings. The Cariboo Planning S e c t i o n of the Cariboo Lands and Housing Region i s charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to review the Fox Mountain, W i l l i a m s Lake River V a l l e y and Southside Williams lake Crown Land Plans during 1983. Proposal; That the Williams Lake O f f i c i a l Settlement Plan supersede the Fox Mountain, Wi l l i a m s Lake and Southside W i l l i a m s Lake Crown Land Plans. That the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing, i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with other resource agencies, provide recommendations f o r designation of Crown lands to the Williams Lake O f f i c i a l Settlement Plan f o r those areas which were excluded from the proposed Williams Lake P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t . That the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and Housing, may, i n conjunction with the M i n i s t r y of Forests, i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c p a r c e l s of Crown land which are c u r r e n t l y recommended f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t o the proposed P r o v i n c i a l Forest, f o r e x c l u s i o n f o r s i n g l e purpose use and accordingly be designated i n the O.S.P. That the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks.and Housing w i l l be a v a i l a b l e to discuss recommendations f o r Crown lands during the O.S.P. formulation process. 161 - 3 -(5, That the M i n i s t r y of Lands, Parks and H 6 u s i n g w i l l , with s a t i s f a c t o r y i n c o r p o r a t i o n of designations f o r Crown land i n t o the O.S.P., d i s c o n t i n u e the Fox Mountain, Williams Lake River V a l l e y and Southside Williams Lake Crown Land Plans. (6) That during subsequent reviews of the Williams Lake O.S.P. the M i n i s t r y o f Lands, Parks and Housing w i l l have opportunity to p r o v i d e input regarding d e s i g n a t i o n of Crown lands. The preceeding proposals are intended to avoid d u p l i c a t i o n of planning e f f o r t and l e a d to a mutually acceptable means of i n c o r p o r a t i n g Lands, Parks and Housing recommendations f o r Crown lands i n t o the Williams Lake O f f i c i a l Settlement Plan. I f you have any comments or wish to d i s c u s s the above proposals, please contact me. Also, i f you are i n agreement with .the above proposals, could you please advise a c c o r d i n g l y . Yours t r u l y , W. Bergen Planning O f f i c e r cc: Kent Boucher WB/ks 

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