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Donoso, a narrative cycle of fiction Shamash, Eve Marie 1984

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DONOSO, A N A R R A T I V E C Y C L E  OF  FICTION  By EVE B.A.,  The  MARIE  University  SHAMASH  of  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN  British  Columbia,  PARTIAL FULFILLMENT  1977  OF  THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E OF MASTER OF  ARTS  in THE  FACULTY  (Department  of  We a c c e p t to  THE  OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S '  Hispanic  this the  and  thesis  required  Italian  as  conforming  standard  U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H September Eve M a r i e  Studies)  COLUMBIA  1984  Shamash,  1984  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the head o f my  department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s for financial  gain  permission.  Department o f  DE-6  (.3/81)  It i s thesis  s h a l l not be allowed without my  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  thesis  Columbia  written  ABSTRACT  This E  thesis  ste—do-mingo  >  studies -EJ.  lugar  noche ) o f the C h i l e a n The  thesis cycle  theme  destruction.  destruction on  fantasy,  Parallel  to  this  Donoso's  literary  techniques  traditional of  This  the the  next,  grotesque  increasing  and on t h e i r r a t i o n a l .  emphasis on the u n r e a l , t h i s study  increased  experimentation  with  innovative  as t h e novels move towards a t o t a l r e j e c t i o n and i t s a t t r i b u t e s of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e . In  proposes  that  the  archetypal  structure of the  de l a noche i s v i t a l  development i n each n o v e l and from one n o v e l t o  i n a c y c l i c a l c o n t e x t . The t h e s i s uses t h e a n a l y s i s o f  destruction  structure.  the  Coronacion t o E l obsceno pajaro  archetypal  elements  on  novel with  t o be the most s i g n i f i c a n t .  thematic  outlines  The t h e s i s demonstrates t h a t t h e theme o f  Donoso's w r i t i n g : Henry James and V7illiam Faulkner  study  from  the  de i a  f i c t i o n which i s l i n k e d together by a common  realism  on  are considered  to  EI obsceno p a i a r o  n a r r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e , t h i s study p o i n t s out key l i t e r a r y  influences  novels  ,  ( Cpronacion ,  t h a t these four n o v e l s form a coherent  increasing  outlines  terms  sin limites  i s developed i n each s u c c e s s i v e  emphasis  of  four novels  /  proposes of  first  author Jose Donoso, born i n 1924.  narrative of  the  structure  i s organized  to and  demonstrate orchestrated.  how  the  This  theme  study  of also  the main b i o g r a p h i c a l , e x i s t e n t i a l and p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l which  are  integrated  into  the  broader  archetypal  The  archetypal  approach  of  restating  and  basis and  analysis  Northrop  l a r g e l y f o l l o w s the  Frye.  reshaping  This  of  analysis  recurrent  methodological  outlines  Donoso's  archetypes which are  the  of the b i b l i c a l myths t h a t bourgeois s o c i e t y has c u l t i v a t e d  which Donoso presents This  thesis  i n a demonic i n v e r s i o n .  concludes  that  the B i b l e , as myth, p r o v i d e s  synthesizing  archetypal  fiction  proposes t h a t the m y t h i c a l  mainly  and  organized  by  a  s t r u c t u r e to Donoso's n a r r a t i v e c y c l e of  apocalyptic  patterns  imagery and  i n the novel  are  demonic parody, an  i n v e r s i o n of C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f s . The  study  presentation fall  of  of the  Donoso's process  first of  four novels as a mytho-poetic d e s t r u c t i o n and  demonstrates the a e s t h e t i c u n i t y , beauty and  s i g n i f i c a n c e which make Donoso a great  - iii -  writer.  of the the  eternal  richness  of  T A B L E OF  CQNTE17T5 PAGE  ABSTRACT  i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS C H A P T E R ONE  v •'.  1  C H A P T E R TWO  25  CHAPTER THREE  66  C H A P T E R FOUR  102  CHAPTER F I V E  131  CONCLUSION  151  BIBLIOGRAPHY  156  - i v -  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I and  would  Dr. Derek  l i k e t o thank Dr. Isaac Ruoio, Dr. Maria Tomsich Carr  for their  c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n t h e form o f  s u g g e s t i o n s , support and p a t i e n c e . I  would  also  like  to  thank  worthv/hile.  v -  my f a m i l y who made i t a l l  This thesis i s dedicated to Sarah, R a c h e l , David and l i t t l e  - vi  Gabriel  Chapter  Jose public  Donoso in  is  South  recognized America  today  and  America,  as  Latin  American  w r i t e r . Although  the  are  s t i l l  Latin, American alive  Donoso's is  well  fourth book  recognition  and  success  works. the  "boom"  Cedomil  «creaciones  to  notables  El  contemporanea"l.  as  of  .  .  America."2 la  t h e most  Many o t h e r  noche  Hernan  one  in  similar  Vidal,  as  Donoso  l a noche  (1970)  (Emir  obsceno  pajaro  se  eleva  is  described  Rodrigues  associated  l a noche  como u n a la  to  emerge  El  obsceno  the  from  las  book Latin  pajaro  Hugo  Donald  de  in  literatura  describes  Monegal,  Quinteros,  brought  outstanding  de  en  P h i l i p Ward  Isis  and  the period's  powerful novels  Zunilda Gertel,  de  imaginacio'n  c r i t i c s have terms  of  novela  la  interesting  such  The n o v e l  one  in  novels.  pajaro  author.  as  extent  "boom"  novelists  new  reading  the  the  hispanbamericana ".  successful,  publicity  esta  de  a lesser  stimulated  counted  " . . .  to  c r i t i c s consider  obsceno  appraises  terms:  mas  most  be o v e r ,  El  which  and Goic  following  to  novel,  the  the  and,  and p u b l i s h i n g  clearly  with  c r i t i c s and by t h e  established,  novel  and w e l l  by  Europe  North  of  a  one  de  Achugar,  Shaw,  Ronald  Shwartz)3. Donoso  has  chronology which  of  he  written  the  imitates  classifying  Latin  situates  1965  as  "boom": the  1970).  own  ironic  Historia  trend  American to  his  set  by  writers Donoso's  -  1  personal  -  critics of  the  "ranking  interpretation d e l boom in  (1972),  categorizing  period order"  is  and in and  (which  he  similar  or  identical  to  that  articles:  an  elite  Donoso  and  Cortazar, of  fact  Donoso, Lima,  appears in  critical  Fuentes,  G a r c i a Marquez, Vargas  period. This  along  with  Cabrera  consistently  "superboom" l e a v e s  his Historia  writers  Infante, in  personal  Salvador Sarduy, Jorge  classification are  reputation  occurs appear  personal  del  already  been  convenient excellent It and  among  but firmly  boom  ,  Donoso's  last  two  own  boom  niche.  to  classification  a  and  what  literary will  Safnz, to  Naturally and some  standing  disappear;  critical  o r "boom  categories  particular  will  in this  Gustavo  e s t a b l i s h e d . As Donoso w r o t e  the  reduced  division  and i n  Borges continues  h i s own s p e c i a l  the  himself  Sanchez,  Edwards and many o t h e r s .  variations  overlapping  Nestor  and o c c u p i e s  by t h e  the second-file d i v i s i o n  junior":  there  the rest  O n e t t i , S a b a t o , P u i g and  The y o u n g e r w r i t e r s compose t h e t h i r d  defy  Llosa,  s u c h as R u l f o , Roa  d e l boom he p l a c e s  Garmendia,  and  r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e " g r a t i n " by  category.  Severo  essays  t o be d i v i d e d among t h e " p r o t o b o o m " , f o l l o w e d  Lezama  Vinas,  of  dominates t h i s  junior".  Bastos,  i n most a n t h o l o g i e s ,  of superstars,  composed  the f i e l d  "boom  found  and  in Historia  indeed  i t has  artifact  for  are  few  remain  a  novels. i s the o r i g i n a l i t y  surpassing  trends  o f Donoso's c r e a t i o n , p r o j e c t e d  beyond  and c a t e g o r i e s , w h i c h h a s won h i m u n i v e r s a l  recognition. Donoso's (1966), noche coherent  El  first luaar  (1970),  four novels: sin  create  limites his  n a r r a t i v e process  Coronaciop (1967),  personal culminating  -  2 -  (1957), E s t e  domingo  E l QbscenQ pajflCQ de l a  image  of  the  world  in a  i n E l obsceno p a j a r o  de l a  noche  .  This  contains  The  of  the as  r e a l i s m and  its  The  of  Donoso's  in  is  logical fiction  Donoso's  technique  his  original  new  direction  more  vision. in  attributes  of  surmises4,  perhaps  new  a  direction  80's.  this  latest  set  novelitas  la  is  dominated  noche  which on  the  repetition by  the  emphasis with  main  on  the  technical traditional  that  is  and  the  after  in  his  novels,  la Marquesita  narrative.  de  and  hypothesis.  -  3  -  of  campo  and  the world  , is  -  not  represents  a  returns  a  As  Ronald that  to  realistic Schwartz  will  narrative  (1978),  to  noche  changes  the  and  (1980),  appear  of  destroys  la  by  anti-novel",  de L o r i a  burguesas  What  (1973)  characterized  Casa  theme  -  de  the novel  novelists  several  conclusion  pajaro  burguesas  "anti  ends  destruction.  vision  literary career;  an  dominant  change.  his  and  in  function  of  obsceno  distinct  novelitas  the  logical  object  El  completes  and p r e s a g e d  u l t i m a t e and  L a t i n American  de  Tres  is  the  r e j e c t i o n of  Coronacion  technique,  desaparicion by  de  expressing  Tres  by  experiments  f a i r l y conventional  for  Donoso's  in  a  Donoso's  traditional  pajaro  itself  in  fiction  grotesque,  increasing  total  character  shows  the  of  verisimilitude.  its  that  on  and  the  and  cycle  together  themes  stories  to his  narrative  Donoso's  of  short  The  It  linked  towards  begun  taken -  are  obsceno  process  narrator-  himself.  El  fantasy,  develops  attributes  is  on  P a r a l l e l to  moves  early  destruction  a narrative  constant  he  reason  narrative  the  of  author  innovations  the  novels  destruction.  unreal,  ends  emphasis  four  development  theme  novel  increasing  irrational. and  last  La  mark in  a  the  misteriosa  continue  the  trend  confirm  Schwartz's  In  this  narrative  cycle,  analyzed  as  mentioned by  the  these  thesis, the  unifying  are  element  mansions,  home  splendors  of  aspects  Chilean  scenario main  expressed  in Donoso's n a r r a t i v e  to  a  four  past  -  the  stage  constant own  constant  the  e x t e r n a l order of The and  theme  four  metamorphosis  that  ambiguous  nature  describir  un asi,  juego  in  of  novels  that  decaying  all  emerge  destruction  is  fictional and  mutations,  rigid  explore from the  process  of  Donoso  desintegro.  has  order  y uno s o l o .  mascaras,  violentamente."5  4 -  collapse  around  is  Donoso's  selves  in  through  vision  of  the  that  :  "Al  es,  por  realidad  como  personaje  trapos.  from  repeated  destruction  Veo l a  these  repeated of  inner  stated  Un  characters,  the  their  social  repeatedly  i n the  to Donoso's personal  reality.  -  another  that  free  disfraces,  turn,  relationships  search to  lo  In  the  disintegration  t r e i n t a personajes de  The f o u r  provided  for  e r e c t e d by s o c i e t y  a continuous  personaje  of  and  briefly  setting,  eventual  corresponds of  themes.  nostalgic  personalities  a repressively  novels  cycle  world  the  of Donoso's  reality  futile  studied  past.  their  the  for  themes  progressive  in their  all  of  a  oligarchy  and s e r v a n t s .  the  and  novels  moribund  of Donoso's  of  constant  -  of  confines  of  a complete  u n i t . We have  the  fragmentation  the  a global  as  be  in  the  characters  will  Chilean  of  fragmentations  novels  l i n k e d to a p a r t i c u l a r  in  un  of  in the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n  characters.  four  works  development  masters  various  The  and  the  between  decirlo  parts  the thematic u n i t y  themes  Donoso's  individual  constituting  repetition  evolve  viewing  La  deshago  In  Donoso's  first  four  repressed  and  bourgeois  s o c i e t y , emerges  Primitive and as  instincts  madness. the  the  hidden  the  from  the  sexuality  conventions  the  that  is  established  by  characters'  as c a t a l y s t s unleashing  unconscious.  v i o l e n c e , death  Madness, f o r Donoso's a l i e n a t e d c h a r a c t e r s ,  masks  and  appears  form o f r e a l i t y , which f r e e s the s e l f  disguises  inherent  to  hierarchical  from  social  In t h e s t r a t i f i e d world of r i c h and poor, masters and  servants,  the  mutations  under  act  most a u t h e n t i c  structures.  novels,  as  play  they  of  search  masks  evolves  for their  with  the  characters'  " t r u e " s e l v e s among another  c l a s s i n a danse macabre t h a t i n e v i t a b l y leads t o v i o l e n c e . Donoso's  characters  express  h i s v i s i o n o f the ambiguity o f  human  reality.  while  p r i m i t i v e i n s t i n c t s represent  limits  of  a  existential instincts  They a r e a l i e n a t e d , l e a d i n g i n a u t h e n t i c l i v e s and  repressive isolation  and  destruction  and  offer  an answer t o t h e i r  i n a meaningless u n i v e r s e ,  responses  of  culture  a p o s s i b l e s a l v a t i o n from t h e  the  are  ultimately  characters.  This  these p r i m i t i v e  t h e cause of chaos and process  of  primitive  mechanisms  s t r a i n i n g the c h a r a c t e r s ' t i e s t o apparent r e a l i t y and  destroying  t h e i r masks, thereby c r e a t i n g a new r e a l i t y o f p a s s i o n  and  hate and d e s i r e and c o n f l i c t s  r e s u l t i n g i n madness and death,  is  a p e r s i s t e n t motive i n Donoso's f i r s t  of  the  main  destructive  theme  of  mechanism i n the human psyche i s p a r t o f t h e destruction,  an  ( p a r a d o x i c a l l y ) a l l of Donoso's f i r s t As  the  conjunction  four n o v e l s . T h i s motive  element four  which  sustains  novels.  study of thematic u n i t y and thematic development, i n with  the  p a r a l l e l development of Donoso's n a r r a t i v e  -  5 -  techniques a  in  narrative  points  of  is  loss  are  a l l  are  the  and the  four  fall,  biblical  based  on  which  into  neat  f i t  Donoso's  use  of  of  the  perception infinite mechanisms  of  metaphors the  of  novels  vital  to  novel  to A  the the  framework  structuring  of  writer  method  exorcises  biographical  own  his  element,  the  of  as  and  personal  own  narrative of  the  symbols  contrary, with  He the  the  irrational in  the  organization  pajaro  each  his  uses  r e a l i t y expressed  de  novel  his in  From of  - 6 -  is  obsessive  la  noche  and  from  the  another world.  layers  of  dreams,  novels this  catharsis  past. part  system On  elements  images,  stated,  ghosts  Donoso's  merely  through  unconscious  flow of  often  in  and  of is one  context.  Donoso's  Donoso  sexuality,  developed  archetypal  in  salient  society  not  as  paradise,  of  reality.  obsceno  psychoanalytical  As  a  El  of  desires.  is  to  a cyclical  subterranean  process  The  development  explore  of  interior  lost  consistent  channeled  in  to  his  myth  Coronacion  the  away  nature  the  bourgeois  closed  is  viewed  outlined.  violence  are  and  be  the  .patterns.  unconscious.  reality,  chasing  novels  elements  characters'  in  fall,  the  are  thesis,  should  themes  defined  ambiguous  factor  psychoanalysis  his  allegorical  thematic  next,  eternal  main  which  this  approach  the  a well  their from  of  mythical  his  of  c u l t i v a t e d by  course  possibilities  novels,  innocence,  myths  Of  structures  focus  the  of  basis  novels.  four  critical  corruption  structural  first  the  appropriate  inevitable  the  first  author's  cycle,  an  The  the  sense,  and  this  He  of of  are  related  interior repressed  a means the  genesis  of  of the  of  creative  l i b e r a t i o n as point  uses  view,  the the  creative  process, In  assumes  each  more  novel,  we  autopsychoanalysis of  aesthetic  personal are  value  his  This  Donoso  reaches  greater  the  will  the  configurating  and  human  also  It  the  world which  determines  the  strong  in  analysis  Donoso's  background how an  social,  each n o v e l original  profound  is to  ideologically interested validity  in nor  I  not  the their  factors  provide  in  in  and  innerworld  of  fiction  The  and  author's  to  us  as  he  of  these  in  the  who o f f e r s  themes  author.  truth. the  As  of I  he  don't  field  - 7  of  -  social  of  human  and  which  novels.  have as  well  path  as  to  relevant  contextual  understanding  m u l t i p l e components as  with.  believe  in  ".  He .  l i t e r a t u r e is  who  is . I  believe their  a  be.  a message or  neither  into  i t presents  r e a l i t y may us  and  outlined  literary  deals  I  work  are  c r e a t i v e process  Donoso s a i d :  ideas.  of  concept  significance this  which  vision  four  we  and  links  his  his  the  that  disturbing  novels  believe that  of  a critical  rich  an a u t h o r  oriented  significance  become  general  psychoanalytical,  is  resolve  of  and  personal  coherence  synthesis  r e a l i t y , however  answer  either.  its  writers. level  thematic  foundation  itself  -  creation  Donoso an  in  on t h e  philosophical  information  past  the  communicated  author's  the  the key  archetypal,  historical,  other  reality.  Donoso's  the  is  narrative  biographical,  of  narrative  of  of  memories  is  focus  is  in  The  in  language.  elements  reality.  levels his  and  reality  than  surpasses  imaginary  this  own o r i g i n a l study  moment  nightmares into  of  i n Donoso  how  in  obsessions,  interpretation  beings  see  and  transformed  creates  importance  has  not am  in  an not  their  permanence,  something  more  oneiric, of  much more  the  the  themes  author's  that  in  assign  the to  expresses  meaning  from E l  reading  the  another  raised  of  one,  la  a l l  noche  pajaro  it  de  in  turn  its on  la  coincided with the  "boom"  recognition, rereading 1961,  on D o n o s o .  had  (when  already  Latin  Latin  Yanez,  Pedro  Paramo  profundos  by  rios Carlos  Onetti  virtually  had  unknown  The  :  "My  the  unities  the  t e x t but  as  Emir  I  in and we  Rodrigues sense  experience believed I  immediately (or  a stage  a defined  when  was  illegitimate)  of  while  entangled  in  with as  a t h i r d which  internal ambiguity  Ever  in  the again  fact  El  obsceno  d i r e c t i o n from  earlier  since has  that  of  most  new w a v e  a flourishing  El  of  and  in  the p u b l i c a t i o n of been  appearance  obsceno  the  major  achieved  of  by  Rulfo,  Jose  Maria  already  Hijo  general.  and  -  as  8 -  Al  filo  de h o m b r e by 1  Arguedas,  been  Chile  such  El  published, i n most  of  de  novels  of  Roa  these  and  Although  by  Foundation del  agua  Bastos,  a s t i l l e r o by  South  of  pajaro  activity  received the W i l l i a m Faulkner novels  El  international  critical  literature in  American  in  that  there  a whole  Coronacion  major  poche  a change  American  Award)  la  grasping  been p u b l i s h e d  generating  of  the  noche  works  the  to  c a r r i e d me t o  on D o n o s o .  la  order  aspects  ambiguity".7  critical noche  of  got  represents  commentaries  obsceno  de  legitimate  emphasis  1  critical  as  analyzing  new  is  d e f i n i t e meaning.  precisely  and w h i c h  Monegal s de  pajaro  presents  each n o v e l  can g i v e  one  meaning,  in  By  elusiveness  was  was  t h e theme  pajaro  the  work  Donoso and  we  any  obsceno  a  that  previous  texts  novel  Each  dialogue.  them  Monegal  possession  preoccupy  interior  repetitions can't  subconscious".6  works  America  by Los  Juan were (other  than  in  their  literary was  countries  innovation  of  that  o r i g i n ) . Therefore,  marked the genesis  as  later  critics  would  devote  c r i t i c s were mainly C h i l e a n s , viewing The falls  critical into  exceptions  two  recent  tend  production  taking  the  Latin  "new"  development  they  of  the  traditional  decadent  Donoso's  to  viewing  point  and  his  social  verisimilitude  of  competence  reproducing  social with  classes. the  Donoso story  his  the  generation  as in  cuento referred  a  of 1950  Donoso  narrative own  as  logically  There  are  some  the main t r e n d s :  of  chileno  9  "China", published  1)  eighties in  Donoso's  early  of the development of w e l l as the  production;  novelistic  2) E a r l i e r  critical  e a r l y to m i d - s i x t i e s emphasizing what  narrative  with C h i l e a n  within  the  context  r e a l i s m . These e a r l y c r i t i c s in accurate  psychological and  was  tend  p o r t r a y a l of  and  situations, his  to the  linguistic different  Donoso's e a r l y a s s o c i a t i o n  which encouraged c r i t i c s  was  included  by  Enrique  to  typecast short  i n A n t o l o g i a d e l nuevo Lafourcade i n 1954,  the authors i n t h i s anthology as the  - 9 -  of  sociological  p a r t i c u l a r speech h a b i t s of it  social  s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d w r i t e r . His f i r s t p u b l i s h e d  Spanish,  to  readings  characters  Perhaps  context.8  the s e v e n t i e s and  out Donoso's s k i l l  bourgeoisie,  in  of  be Donoso's p r e o c c u p a t i o n  Chilean  constantly  represent  propose  American  fifties  and  on  categories.  categories  early  i t . Donoso's e a r l y  in a Chilean  i n t o account the process  within  perceived  reality  general  to  to  available  commentaries  critics  v/orks  basic  but these two  more  which  bibliography  him  of  of the boom p e r i o d ,  not given as much c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n i n the f i f t i e s and  sixties  The  the process  "generacio'n  who del  50".  In  1959,  title  Cuentos This  Lafourcade de  debate  definite  account  Donoso's and  accompli"  for  referred  to  "generacion  and of  existing  50"  a  to  the generation with a  (Center  both  degree  Personal  of  is  of  of  in  sense  which  of  the  Inter-American  category  own  in  Relations,  much a  it to  (largely  became is  a  "fait  standardly  of  provides  50". a  The  framework  s i t u a t e Donoso and  a t t e n t i o n on Donoso  this  as  as  an  category  expresses  Spanish  answer  provided  N.Y.  this  American  it  part  l i t e r a r y consciousness  Donoso  Boom  render  who w e r e p r e s e n t e d  his  stimulation.  t r i e d to  generation  importantly,  of  of  Donoso  that  critical  More  new  subject  himself)  and  the  in  with the  characteristics.10  critics  important  38.  articles  Lafourcade  trends  a  of  a  generational  young w r i t e r s  of  History for  by  amount  group of  itself  spate  this  same a n t h o l o g y .  was  member  literary  of  with  "a  an u n u s u a l  Donoso  in  subsequent as  50  generation's  promoted  del  new  a whole  this  the  del  label  inclusion  publicized  focused  generacio'n  generational  critical  of  la  reissued  and  in  his  Literature  1977):  "Nearly a l l t h e o t h e r C h i l e a n w r i t e r s o f my g e n e r a t i o n the so-called generation of 50 t h a t i t i s s a i d t o have been invented by Enrique Lafourcade, who was strongly criticized for t h i s i n v e n t i o n , w h i c h g a v e me my first r e a l l i t e r a r y s t i m u l u s and a c o n s c i o u s n e s s of what I was able t o do - w e r e i n t h e same p o s i t i o n a s I." ( p . 23) By  1968,  destacada was  not  y prestigiosa only  generation, of  Latin  Cedomil  Goic de  considered  he was American  also  referred to  la  generacion  the  major  achieving  literature.  -  -  as  "la  a c t u a l " . By  Chilean  recognition The  10  Donoso  figura  then,  novelist in  the  Donoso of  larger  William Faulkner  mas  his orbit  Foundation  Prize  was  Carlos in  New  York  and  in  Spain.  reviews  1966 Wider  and  Times  ,  Spectator  ,  and  1968,  second both  emphasized  Subsequently version  1965.  Barral  ,  to  published  Italian  version novel  D o n o s o v/as m a r k e d  York  ,  Supplement  An  was  (due  d i s t r i b u t e d the  of  New  Shprt F i c t i o n  Times  Book  Abroad  by  Review  Review  Saturday  BPPKS  the  In  1968,  In  this of  a  of  Donoso's  the  author's Cedomil  article,  as  opposed  canon  of  traditional  concentrates  to on  to  ,  ,  , Hispania  ,  the  Sarduy in  article  signals  previous  importance of  on  end  critics.  The  themes  Freudian  in  and viev;  Donoso of  the  critic Donoso's  elements  Goic  published  w h i c h made earlier  realism. to  it  an the  Andres  of  technically  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  readings Goic  analysis  of  in  the  used  Coronacion  he  develops  -  11  article  Rodriguez  -  "new" the  study  of  an  the  term " e x i s t e n c i a  e x i s t e n t i a l i s t aspects published  innovative  the his  1968  Coronacion  the novel w i t h i n  in  which  1967  the  constant  lugar  from which to  Abalos  in  El  (English v e r s i o n s  Nuevol2  of  and  novels.  the  refer  domingo  Monegal's  Goic p o i n t e d out  novel  Este  perspective  Rodriguez  Mundo  and  1966  wider  in  Coronacion  inautentica"  in  persistence  world of  t h i r d novels  Emir  1967  the  14  Seix  the  published  critics  reading  limites  in  recognition in  and  narrative.  Severo  in  London  1961.  etc.11  "social"  aspects  in  in  in  .13  later  critical  published  structure  English  studies  allowed  narrative  the novel's  Literary  limites  Donoso's  in  London)  Donoso's  1972)  Coronacion  commentaries  (of  observer  sin  to  Fuentes' e f f o r t s )  followed in  awarded  on E l  Monegal's  which  also  . luoar  sin  statement  that  "El  mundo El  travest^ . real o simbolico,  infernal"15.  lugar  sin  aparencia  He w r i t e s  limites  de  inversion  metonimica  de  progresion  narrativa".  mascara  Donoso  puesto  had  of  moved  European Latin and  and  explains new  es  in  exiles.  in  which  the  him  article  what  uses  the  the  contingent  Perhaps in  the  of  this  in  concepts Baudry  c o u l d be c a l l e d t h e  Le  partly  the world  and J e a n - L o u i s  of  Spanish  were p u b l i s h e d  newspapers.16  de  Donoso  t h e r e f o r e more p a r t  on  la  (sin  in  to Donoso.  in  la  esa  heroe  interesting  approaches  Barthes,  of  domina  el  (  cadena  y barba:  que  "fashionableness"  Derrida,  decir, una  w i t h him appeared  Sarduy's  orbit  is  este  "realidad"  included a large  articles  increased  Lacan,  Donoso  ella)  European  criticism.  of  por  Interviews  newspapers, major  contaminado  article  la  de  l a novela es  pintadas es  a n d was  de  en s i :  esa  1967  secreta  transpuestos,  "Cejas  critical  "scene"  inversion  mascara:  Sarduy's  Spain  other  la  clave  travestismo,  desenlaces  una  to  literary  places  todo  Donoso's  theories  es  evolution of  Italian  es  la  significado  el  He c o n c l u d e s :  the  American  Monde  de  (p.73).  literary  "El  que  sexual,  que  que  enuncia"  context  mas  "vuelcos",  enmascarada  limites,  )  that:  es  "Tel  of and and  Quel"  clique. The Barral books  publication in  on  literary  book  El  obsceno  stimulated the  Donoso's  most  Vidal's (Ediciohes  Jose  novel  with his  Donoso.  Aubi,  completely dedicated to  pajaro  appearance  recent  production beginning  Hernan instintos  1970  of  of as  de  numerous well  earliest  Spain,  studying  Donoso's  12  -  as  noche  y  1972)  by  Seix  articles his  short  surrealismo  Gerona,  -  la  and  previous  stories.  r e b e l i o n de was  novels.  the Vidal  los  first uses  Jungian  theories  unconscious is  in  many  another  of  mundo  the  myth in  ,  of  to  interpret  a period  Cornejo  Polar,  1975), world is  where  in  the  society  book:  narrative  She  points  psychoanalysis  and  psychoanalytical  1979)  them  his  to  Achugar  Garcia  de  obsceno  the  a un  Cambeiro  pajaro  a cycle.  of de  Antonio  development  of  the  to  as  "el  Donoso  Donoso.  cycle out the  una  insurreccion  Madrid,  first  rooted  four  own  of  a  very the  Chilean  debt  complex  development  is  within  enormous  progressively his  novels  in Donoso's  Donoso's  to  1978)  contra  to  structural  mythical  and  elements.  (Centro  Caracas,  El  To  represented  on t h e c o h e r e n c e  referring  Donoso's  novels  Achugar's  Donoso  work.  destruccion  end o f  and  Ediciones,  of  links  Donoso's  Jose  de  a  Hugo  is  critics  destruccion."  framework  of  La  to  the  importance  novel  Fernando  emphasis  marking  and  view Donoso's  Donoso,  Donoso,  analysis  aspects  as  the  comprehensive  background.  the  published  last  from Coronacion  seen  (Hispanova  of  this  by A n t o n i o  Qu'interos'  realidad  that  to  In  destruction  Isis  from which  clear  analyses  la  was  Donoso.  which  de  burguesas  for  Aires,  Polar  novelista  was  narrative  noche  theme  novelitas  direction  Buenos  Cornejo  Jose  and  characters  perspective  it  (edited  Donoso's  la  Tres  critics  change  la  c o n f l i c t s of  1973,  yet  Ed.,  archetype  transformation. In  had  of  book: de  Estudios  analyses subsequent  concentrates  Ideologia  on  y  Estructuras  Latinoamericanos  Donoso's novels,  early  short  covering  Donoso's  - 13 -  Narrativas  Romulo stories  the period  rejection  of  an  en  Gallegos, and  links  1950-1970. alienated  society (as  in  expressed Este  domingo  George is  aimed  with  a more  and  Donoso's  particular  and  Monegal, Ediciones  up  of  unity  development  of  , _JLL  domingo  which Other  multidisciplinary group  of  study  (in  sociological sociological relationship  including  by  Antonio (in  1981)  in  Boston  1979)  previous  books  the  of  survey  novelitas Freudian  of  a l l  of  burguesas  ,  elements  and  V i d a l , Achugar,  Quinteros,  the  Cornejo  Emir  have  critics on  was  Latino  of text  as  14  paiaro  is as  society.  it  Este de  la  representative  of  methodology.  A  Coronacion  1980) a  of  cycle.  D'Auiourd 'hui  D'Editions,  -  ,  by  literary critics.  emphasis  -  found  parallel  Coronacion  analyse  and  literature  the  a narrative  to  Americaine  and  with  obsceno  are  I  and  understanding  critical  used  Generale  El  Donoso  sociologists  ideological  the  viewed  in  useful  fiction.  a better  , and  current  approach  Union  on D o n o s o ' s  conjunction  Rodriguez  Hispanoamericana,  a l l provided  technique  limites  in  reading  in  Polar,  Narrativa  achieving  studies  between  Series,  than  Tres  use  Nueva  narrative  sin  Literature  and  games  straightforward  development  these  Paris,  public  information  historians,  Cerisy,  myths,  elements.  helpful  trends  (Twayne  on D o n o s o ' s  and  recent  different  and  Donoso's  of  ,  reading  Shaw  lvigac  a l l  Donoso  fairly  by  and  of  imagination.  Madrid,  insights  thematic  de  to  Donald  particularly  noche  a  i d e o l o g i c a l models  criticism  Catedra,  relevant them  general  articles  and  the  emphasis  books  the  Jose  existentialist  The essays  and  presents  fiction  Sartrean  )  McMurray's  at  mentioned  through  good  ,  Their  Colloque  with a  strong  example  focusses  a  on  of  a  the  Pamela Willed  Bacarisse  in  Process  of  Fiction,  Seven  Essays  Academic  Press,  "symbolically  in  systematic  process  lose  by  of  i t .  of  "ontological  fear  "engulfment",  Bacarisse  what  schizophrenic  swallowed another  up,  Bacarisse process work  of  that  obsceno  (p.29). basic  drowned,  she  supposed that  is  de  telling  Pamela outline  significance  of  -  up,  a l l  series  his  story  so  of  approach than  -  15  -  of  order  typical  -  who and  or  more  symptoms  says be  a  of  that  "to  enclosed, in  or  by  Pamela  originality  in  one  he w i l l of  reduce  the  lies  might  expect  nature.  says  not  the  exploring  significance.  in  stifled  be  novel  schizophrenia  to  of  patients  to  Bacarisse  explanation study  Laing  autobiographical  that  defence  consists  of  is  comprehension."17  self-revelation  P.  of  story  smothered,  great  of  internal  identity  life a  embracing  ,  rather  is  be  the  depersonalization"  engulfed,  to  for  schizophrenic  and  Scottish novel  description  is  noche  a case  his  (p.27).  la  pseudopsychoanalytical of  Laing's  American  the  a series  insecurity"  is  Bacarisse's of  us  Donoso's not  of  noche;  that  basically  Hudito's  eaten  suggests  pajaro  narrator  tells  evasion,  of  which  la  Latin  accounts  terms  R.D.  "El  correctly  claims  in  insecurity",  that  he  person's  she  narrator  ontological  understood  and  de  Bacarisse,  suggests  "petrification  concludes  accurately,  1980),  quotes  pajaro  Salvador  autodestruction  She  cases  obsceno  Contemporary  by  novel  the  El  (in  Edited  the  used  be  Evasion  Edinburgh,  mechanisms  to  essay  autobiographical"  contradictions  not  her  and  novel other  the in  In  that  a El  "The  understood." follows uses to  the  Laing's  one levels  level of  Salvador which  Donoso  their  Bacarisse  states  that  "could  said  reflect  societies, Yet,  Donoso  least  obvious  does  reflect  current  Latin  American  Dorfman's  American  thesis  90%  de  de  manana"  (p.15)  is  Dorfman en  que  imposible  que  los  latinoamericano  esta  novels, of  es  the  violencia  va  danza  la  de  salida personaje  ya si  a no  cada  uno  se  y  la  a  siente  No  soporta ."  explanation  destruction  repeatedly  herir  es  de  que  los  los  pequena, a los  Latin  sin  . .  ."  "en  saber  absurda, su  y  energia  of  dominance  of  characters.  -  16  -  the  (p.37). is  In the  donde  que  en una  thesis  in  personaje  por  bailando:  la  parece  mediocre  Dorfman's  manifested  por  u n mundo  es  alia  American  personajes"  (p.26). the  mas  .El  hombres  dema's,  fuerza  engendrado  todo  estan  present,  amenazado,  position  culpable a  in  violencia.  enredado,  saben  agresion  .  y  vivera  of  guerra  que  si  eviten.  la  desatando  interesting  fictional  y  la  untenable  dificil  destruccion.  mismo.  amenaza  la  At  social  mundo  that  issues.19  de  (p.11).  siquiera  un  in  the product  continuo,  reflected  "en  issues  precisely  is  sistema  "autodestruccion  hombre  no  saber  personajes  atando  un  in  social  America  saqueo  por  condenado  says  geografia"  that  characters  sexual,  su  "creada  says  the  cada  un  inevitably  imposiblemente  autolimita,  Latin  de  toda  habitantes  violencia,  Donoso's  en  violence  sus  literature.  that  prolongada,  fratricida  al  is  social  way  way."18  Dorfman  Latin  Donoso's  an  Ariel  y  contra  in  critic,  civil  todo  not  r e a l l y no  current  marxist  violencia  result  to  is  a  Briefly, "una  at  be  there  y  se  y  la  macabre  buscan  una  cuando  el  se  dirije  offers  an  theme  of  disintegration  of  the  Zunilda terms: the  Gertel20  "Myths  are  boundaries  world ruled,  by  (vertical  axis);  axis)  3)  and  axis).  ambiguity" formula of  states  His  some  their  Chronology  numerous  which  his  Different should  be  although  I  themselves in I  and  suggest  this have  organization  the is  horizontal  structure,  vertical  resolves  me. A n o t h e r and  the Gertel  dissolution  transformational  the  obverse  of  what  particular  a  new  critical  to).  Donoso  misleading is  most  Personal us  useful  or  unhelpful  enlightening  History with  a  of  the  wealth  information  and  amusing.  Boom a s of  about  when  well  as  biographical  the  context  in  written.  critical  shall  sure  of  at  passage,  a basic  turn  not  are  provide  were  used  am  as  found  opposition  metamorphosis  in  belongs  other  novels  (I  works, 27  and  is  to  are  1)  intermediary  inversion  authors  interviews  background  used  (p.22)  and  algebraic  transformation  process:  ambiguous  continual  in  the balance  Every  ordered  "the  myth  form and  (new p a r a d i g m a t i c  implies  methodology  Although discussing  "The  of  where  (transit  remains  reverse  transformation"  and  that it  algebraic  mutation.  mediation  that:  the  this  recurring  but  figures  category;  ending  claims  use  supernature  transformation  (p.23),  these  school  a 2)  Gertel  in  a logical  a never  however,  Donoso's  expressed  of  undergoes  explains  quite  approaches  to  Donoso's  profitably  to  complement  refrain several  from  algebraic  appropriate  novels each  equations.  approaches  can  other,  The  which  and  novels will  be  study. already and  mentioned  the  psychoanalytical  -  17  -  importance elements  in  of the  archetypal thematic  development narrative been  of  Donoso's  cycle.  The  under  These moments  as  are  socio-ideological  and  the p h i l o s o p h i c a l  context  are  a l l of  existing each can  be  seems  clear  father  in  influence, literary to  Borges). short  English  the  writer's  us  has  a  also  analysis  like  of  (as  in  literature workshop Henry  in in  James  world  as  of  the  text  and  historical  reach  a  a  clearer  expressed  framework and  of  his  in  his  already also  case  Chile Iowa.  in  in  of  at  a  sixties  was  that  his  Freudian  in  Donoso's  l i t e r a t u r e goes  back  Cortazar  wrote  his  taught  and  first English  creative writing often  mentioned  recognizes  it  Chilean  Chronology  Fuentes,  he  of  influences  the  prevalent  taught  and  analysis  read Freud.  Donoso has  - 18 -  in  Princeton,  links  past  generation,  childhood,  and  the  the  early  anglosaxon  studied  of  f i f t i e s and  was  of  in  prevalent  had  the  and  the  major  most  English  English,  specific  the  The  mentions  influence  at  factors  to  forces  the  twenties  learned in  for  as  period.  existentialism,  Donoso  and  admiration  early  youth  stories  an  between  be d i s c u s s e d .  In  Donoso  m i l i e u . The  Donoso's  in  currents,  the  existentialism  milieu.  like  of  and  will  Donoso, the  the  enabling vision  outlined.  by  intellectual  viewed  appearing  relationship political  traditions  that  influenced  are  elements  some  were w r i t t e n w i t h i n  framework  briefly  products  historical  novels  this  and  elements  and  literacy  novel  The  Donoso's  society  Donoso's  biographical  reflecting  process.  society,  particular  which  particularly relevant  cultural  history  understanding  of  novels  discussion.  novels in  four  importance  already-mentioned  the novels  first  with  at his  him.  Both  Emir  Rodriguez  Donoso's  use  and  creation  his  of  discussed  in  interview  with  once  of  i t " . Donoso says  some  day.  Aside  i n Donoso and to  going  won't  be  once  said:  the  the  to to  .  express  of  remarks  Monegal,23 so  fine  that  quotes  that  he w o u l d  I  idea  a deeper  ideas want  them  an  characters  Henry  Donoso,  like  this  I  a novel.  saw  in  an  are not  literature"  useful  in  understanding  and  I  essay.  an  Eliot of  an  applied  to  symbols in  and their  Donoso  p r a c t i c a l ideas  If  be  in  a shadow  similarity lies  express  James  a comment  never  to  will  and m e s s a g e s . To q u o t e  to  in  refer  (this  individual novels).  James,  . If  express  by  from s p e c i f i c s i m i l a r i t y of  novels  ".  Quinteros22  s i m i l a r l y used  fictional  had a mind  again:24  not  similar  James:"He  violated  Isis  symbols  Rodriguez  idea  aversion  of  and  Emir  about  characters  specific  the context  made  himself  Monegal  I  am  write a novel,  it  As  (p.39).  Gertrude  The  Stein  influences  I  i  have  mentioned  context  and  in  Finally,  Donoso's  communicates in  the  the  themes, The vital  his  moment  writer  and  significance  novels  personal he  of  leads  and  to the  narrative  fundamental of  vision  creates  manipulates  images  study  are  Donoso's  his  situating assessing are  his  verbal  own  language.  structures heart  of  determining  fiction.  - 19 -  words,  Donoso's  and  in  a more  the  writer  an a e s t h e t i c  object  The  of  analysis  dialogue,  how  symbols,  artistic creation.  structure the  exact  writing.  structures:  and p r o d u c e s  technique in  Donoso  in  the novels  aesthetic  value  is and  Chapter  1. mundo  Cedomil  (Buenos A i r e s : 2.  Philip  Literature 3. and  exact  1970,  73,  Madrid,  Fall,  Donoso As  found  Reviews  d e s t r u c t i o n de  Ed,  Nomads.  1975),  Companion  Press,  1978),  be d i s c u s s e d  at  p.  un  124.  to  Spanish  p.  17.  greater  length  provided.  Exiles  Narrative  p.  and  Emigres.  (N.J.London,  The  Rebirth  Scarecrow  Press,  cuentos",  primarily  IlUStradP Chilean published  of ,  for  Inter-American  his La  Nacion or  p.  in  Santiago,  Indice  , No.  288,  Atenea  (No.  15,  1958),  El  378,  13,  p.  criticism  39.  1957;  published  -  of  19,  El  1957), La  y  Other Diario  , Atenea  1958),  "Dos  "Veraneo  -  Coronacio'n  November  to  newspapers.  16,1955. in  Noticias  Reviews  are  Arrietas:  October  (January  -  Monegal,  N.Y.  Chilean  February  October  20  in  D^as  Early  Mercurio  -  early  Reman  Ultimas  magazines.  in  Relations,  of  were  Las  Rodriguez  38-39.  Santiago,  stories ,  Emir  published of  Mercurio,  short  newspapers  reviews  pseudonym  Mercurio, El  by  expected, examples in  "Alone", El  Donoso,  Josi  i n t e r v i e w , Monegal,  cuentos",  reviews  Center  be  appeared  72.  with  might  by  (January  will  with Jose'Donoso,  Interview  8.  otros  la  106.  6.  be  Oxford  University  views  American  Interview  7.  The  Oxford  Schwartz,  Donoso,  G a r c i a Cambeiro  ed.,  critics'  Latin  5.  Review  others),  Fernando  (Oxford:  notes  bibliographical references  p.  XXVI,  (and  Ward  Ronald  the  1980)  ,  These  4. of  Goic  one  a l l were  Ercilla Gaceta  (March  9,  (March  15,  Este  1958), 1958).  Domingo  mid-sixties, joined  and  a  June  1959  Donoso  publications  and  talked  about  examples  ocaso  de  Coronacion 9.  una  Fernando Donoso,  clase"  anthology  included  the  Balmaceda, Alfonso  Espinosa,  Garcia,  Gloria  generacion  In  "generacion del  p u b l i s h e d by following  critics  had  been  American  and  other  review  i n Marcha i n Sur  , May  commentaries  de  en  to of on La  Chile,Zigzag, s t i l l  con  que  se d e s c r i b i a  literary  element  50  Extremo,  1959,  the  Aguirre,  Guillermo  Edwards,  Mario  ,  Zigzag, Santiago  authors:  Blanco, Jorge  Maria  Yolanda  Montaldo,  Sanbueza.  baptized  the  Fernando A l e g r i a  essential  Guillermo  Ricardo Guerra,  Eugenia  1970,  , Santiago  the  Echeverria,  Pablo  Molleto,  as  by  critical  fuerza realista  in  el in  .  In t h i s  Lafourcade  "gran  XX  as  reviews  but  Coronacioli  of e a r l y  late  del siglo  the  of  Noticlas  devoting a r t i c l e s  Rosa C h a c e l ' s  o u t s i d e o f C h i l e ) . As chjlena  novels,  m a g a z i n e s and  review  Ultimas  also carried  of European, North  and  1958  rare  1958), Las  subsequent  newspapers,  Benedetti's  are  literatura  Cesar  Donoso's  March  9,  same p u b l i c a t i o n s  critics  (Mario  Montevideo,  (March  wide spectrum  American  Donoso.  The  Chilean  by  Latin  El Sialo  Gutierrez,  Herbert  a  second  del  50",  following  Armando  Eugenio  -  Guzman,  Chile,  authors  -  Mario  Maria newly  C u e n t o s de l a  Editorial  d e l Nuevo  were i n c l u d e d : M a r g a r i t a  G a r c i a , Maria  21  Jose  Enrique  dedicated to the  Enrique Lafourcade, de  Emerich,  M u l l e r , A l b e r t o Rubio,  B l a n c o , Armando C a s s i g o l i ,  Espinosa, Pablo  Cassigoli,  Gertner, Claudio Giaconi,  anthology  Santiago  Chile,  Margarita Aguirre,  Edwards, F e l i x  Elena  de  Jose  Donoso,  Elena Gertner,  Jorge Luis  A.  Heiremans,  Muller,  Waldo V i l a ,  10.  This  literatura article of  Alejandro Jose  which  existentialism in 11.  is  summarized  Cuadernos  one  Enrique  Molleto,  Herbert  Zanartu.  debate  chilena",  in  Jodorowsky,  of  the  by L a f o u r c a d e  Americanos  ,  No.  recurring points  relation to  the generation  N.Y.  Times  Book  Review  , March  14,  N.Y.  Times  Book  Review  , November  in  was  19, the  of  "La  nueva  1959,  an  importance  1950.  1965,  Section VII,  p.  51.  p.  26,  1967,  Section  VII,  66 Times  -  London  -  L i t e r a r y Supplement,  Saturday  Review  , N.Y.,  Observer  , June  20,  Studies Books  in  Abroad  Hispania  , No.  sampling  of  1965,  Fiction  , V.  , LIV,  Spectator A  Short  XLVII,  XVII,  No.  4,  7147,  other  p.  March  1971,  , Winter  December June  13,  1,  1965,  1965, p.  563  27  791  , Winter No.  July  18,  1979,  pp.  55-58  196 8 pp.  957-959  1965  well-known publications  to  comment  on  Donoso: La  Quinzaine  Litteraire  ,  Paris  No.  136,  March  1-15,  July-December  1971,  1972 Paese  Sera  Revista pp.  , Rome,  January  Iberoamericana  1,  1973  , No.  76-77,  517-536 L e Monde Punch 12.  Emir  (March  17,  , CC X L V I I I , Rodriguez  1969) June  23,  1965  Monegal,"El  -  22  -  mundo  de J o s e  Donoso",  Mundo  Nuevo  , No.  12,  (Although of  justified).  in  Monegal  las  novelas  de  que  hasta  habia  lectura  mas  honda  el  Cedomil  Dniversitaria, 14.  Sarduy,  16.  See  p.  Paris,  un  footnote  No.  Laing,  Salvador Fiction  19.  Ariel  (Santiago:  La  "social  his  position  punto  reflejar (anda  por  cronicas),  que  esas  novela  ahf  para  ficciones  (p.  chilena  vista  simplemente  encantadores encumbren  de  un una  es  un  83).  ,  Santiago,  Ed.  Mundo Nuevo  ,  No.  72-74.  p.83. 11.  e d i t i o n 1962)(as  ,  The D i v i d e d quoted  Bacarisse, (Edinburgh:  Dorfman,  by  Self P.  , Harmondsworth, Bacarisse's  preface  Scottish  Imaainacion  to  Penguin,  essay)  p.  Contemporary  Academic  Press,  29. Latin  1980).  y v i o l e n c i a en A m e r i c a  Latina  E d i t o r i a l U n i v e r s i t a r i a , 1970) .  20.  Zunilda Gertel,"Metamorphosis  , Fall,  1973  Isis ,  Emir  "Chronology",  Quinteros,  (Madrid:  as  Metaphor  of  the  World",  N.Y.  Jose''Donoso,  22.  23.  de  pp.  (1st 18.  case  any  163.  R.D.  realidad  desde  Donoso parecen  mundo  17.  21.  "Si  Sarduy,"Escritura/Travestismo",  1968,  15.  Review  in Donoso's  c r o ' n i c a de c o s t u m b r e s  Goic,  1968^  Severo  February  American  criticizes  v i o l e n c i a , de p e s a d i l l a , de t e r r o r . "  13.  1972  77-85  usually  general,  r e a l i d a d f a m i l i a r , una  a m b i t o de  pp.  writes:  critico  20,  1967,  Monegal  literature  superficial una  July  Rodriguez  reading is  Paris,  Jose  Kispanova  Rodriguez  Review  Donoso.  de  Monegal,  una  , Fall  1973,  insurreccion  Ediciones, Mundo Nuevo  N.Y. contra  la  1978). , No.  12,  July  1967,  Paris,  p.  78.  24.  Interview,  25.  Review  73  Review , p.  73  , Fall,  39.  -  24  -  N.Y.,  p.  39.  Chapter  Coronacion first  novel,  was  published  in  Donoso  published  Veraneo  collection  of  Fiesta  Grande,  en  short old  houses  appear  in  novels.  The  relations  setting  linked to  rigidly can  of  result  short  which  stories.  writing rather  is  not  As  through disguises  a  process and masks  reality.  the  the  of  of  will  evocation  of  innocence,  between people of  in  identities  conformity of forms  are  the of  thematic  earliest  published  pointed out, these  and  Donoso's  obsessions  but  obsessions. y  will  otros  go  through  many  of  . They  go  changing  of  in  Coronacion  that  is  both  and  a simultaneous very  25  cuentos  appear  mutations  -  has  a  these  stories  instinctive  from h i s  In  that  of  d e s t r u c t i o n . These work  ,  dilapidated  short  fusion  repressive  description  of  of  a nostalgic  the  this  Tocayos,  Cartas).  repetitions  dependence  to  China,  inevitable loss  of  use  Dos  subsequent  Moixl  i n Veraneo  Donoso's  Prior  cuentos  repeated use  emergence  creation.of  that  (Veraneo,  structures,  and  1957. otros  thematic  the  Maria a  in y  contain  Donoso's  Ana  processes  the  and  chaos  merely  characters  same  and  theme o f  the  mark  a continuous  The  find  from dependence,  in  1955  in Donoso's  social  resulting  obsessions  in  i n Veraneo  and  Chile  Dinamarquero,  domination  classes,  existence,  and  the  stratified  upper  of  a  already  stories  the  stories  E l Guero,  Coronacion  past  that  short  we c a n  as  the  the  six  stories  two  old  -  a  presentation characters  of  often  two  facets  expresses  this  ambiguous  perception  personality  of  unconscious  l e v e l o f e x p r e s s i o n on top o f t h e i r conscious  and  the two  personality where  levels  of  In  o l d allows t h e superimposing  appear  and  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . In t h i s manner, the  the u n r e a l  appear  as  superimposed  and  , E l i s a Grey de Abalos, a s e n i l e o l d woman i n  n i n e t i e s i s s l o w l y dying i n her decaying mansion. Andres, her  lives  grandson i s i n h i s f i f t i e s . He does not have t o work and a  leisurely  collection  of  grandmother.  life  walking  Andres'  occupied sticks,  i s an  visit  h i s grandmother,  to  has  never  girl  who  old  woman  fantasies insights Andres  really  even  covet  his  life  individual  French  well  o f involvement,  and  visits and  to h i s placid  o f emotions. At each  he i s t e r r i f i e d o f death although he The a r r i v a l o f E s t e l a , a young country  Misia  farther.  history, h i s  ordered  i n t o the d e c r e p i t household  stimulates  into  him  lived.  i s imported  into  obsessed  avoidance  with  politics  superficially  existence  all  reality  i n a process o f d i s i n t e g r a t i o n .  Coronacion  bachelor  quite  of t h e i r  t h e very o l d i n c a r n a t e s Donoso's ambiguous world  the r e a l  interdependent  her  the very  o f r e a l i t y as the decomposing, s e n i l e  The  Elisa's  already  o l d woman's  t o care f o r the active  maliciously  sexual obscene  Andre's' repressed d e s i r e f o r E s t e l a g r a d u a l l y prod an  with  awareness  Estela  as  of  h i s f u t i l e e x i s t e n c e . He becomes  the awareness of h i s wasted l i f e makes  p o s s e s i o n of her as a way o f r e c a p t u r i n g and redeeming and escaping t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t o l e r a b l e burden o f " h i s existence.  different h i s hopes  from  I n e v i t a b l y , E s t e l a ' s needs and d e s i r e s a r e those of Andres. By the time he has pinned  o f a u t h e n t i c a t i n g , h i s l i f e on p o s s e s s i n g her, she  -  26 -  is  already  Estela's but  pregnant by Mario, a working c l a s s boy. The r e s u l t o f  rejection  effectively  values  and  the  brother  and  attempt  to  climax  with  of  of  Andres  i s p a r t of the novels e l a b o r a t e l y  contrived  climax.  world  grinding  of  sister-in-law,  Mario,  d r i v e n by the s o r d i d  poverty  agrees  to  he shares with h i s  use  Estela  b u r g l a r i z e M i s i a E l i s a ' s house. The n o v e l reaches i t s t h e f a i l u r e o f the robbery due t o E s t e l a ' s  rejection  Andres. Andres subsequently f i n d s refuge i n madness and E s t e l a  and  Mario  future. tragic  flee  from  t h e Abalos  mansion  towards an u n c e r t a i n  The tone o f the climax i s mordant and macabre rather than as  the  novel  closes  with  t h e grotesque c o r o n a t i o n and  death o f M i s i a E l i s a as madness and d e s t r u c t i o n In  situating  context  of  initially  Coronacion  i t s time,  received  Coronacion of  i n order t o  almost  we  i n the  must  triumph.  literary  first  see  and  how  the  the s o c i a l n o v e l was  and i n t e r p r e t e d . E a r l y readers and c r i t i c s o f a l l found the same message i n the n o v e l : t h a t  t h e decadence o f the C h i l e a n b o u r g e o i s i e brought about by i t s  own  vices  Donoso  and  recalls  chilena  fue  caught  i n the p r o c e s s of h i s t o r i c a l change2. As  in Historia  cuasi  unanime  retrataba  * l a decadencia  parte  los lectores  de  intencion."3 limitations realism ambiguous surface  a l alabar de  esa  l a ' r e a l i d a d ' con que yo  l a clase e r a mi  a l t a ' , ya que para gran  meta,  mi  f i n , y toda mi  In H i s t o r i a P e r s o n a l d e l Boom , Donoso d e s c r i b e s t h e of  the  Chilean  i n Coronacion allusions of  P e r s o n a l d e l Boom : " A s i l a c r i t i c a  ,  which  "faithfully  critics  without the  praised  understanding  novel  depicted  who  develops  reality".  - 27 -  the l a y e r o f the world  of  p a r a l l e l t o the  When Coronacion was  published  in  1957,  message,  as the  literary  production  most  regionalism  of  habitually  denounced  as  the  the  Dora,  are  dichotomy of  unjust  not  elements  creative  family,  h i s brother  social class  to  the  their  Rene and  by  into a and  revolving  servants  and  his sister-in-law  t h i s s t r u c t u r a l dichotomy as a  reduction  of Coronacion to only a  novel's more complex and  process to  in  only  the  nature  social  important  and  an  aspect  Donoso's  in in  but  understanding three  element  narrative the  also  the  factors in  itself  thematic  provide a  dominance  subsequent n o v e l s , in  i s of a  psychoanalytical,  the n o v e l . These key the  and  (which  writing)  philosophical,  configurating  social  r i c h n e s s . These l e v e l s i n  social  in  present  Coronacic^n  essential  have  aesthetic  biographical,  path  destruction  and  one  c l e a r l y when a c r i t i c a l approach i s used  archetypal  human and  Abalos  interpreted  more  of  we  of  appear  synthesis  that  who  and  accessory  We  " e s c r i t o r comprometido"  significance  encompasses  critical  the  The  secondary,  the  the  p r e s e n t e d i n a l t e r n a t i n g episodes  critics  is  Coronacion  the  based on  exploitation  Mario,  dichotomy.  levels  the  dominated  s o c i a l l e v e l s of the haute b o u r g e o i s i e  of  and  early  social  s o c i a l r e a l i s m t h a t had  from  the  two  lives  acquaintances  that  message  proletariat  around  found i n the novel a  Because the s t r u c t u r a l a x i s of Coronacion d i v i d e s  dichotomy the  a  and  critics  i n C h i l e s i n c e " c r i o l l i s m o " , was  conveyance  another.  Chilean  of  which i s  Donoso's p e r c e p t i o n  of  u n f a i r advantage over Donoso's e a r l y c r i t i c s  in  reality.  can view Coronacion i n the l i g h t of h i s subsequent novels  as p a r t of emerging l i t e r a r y trends and  -  28  -  changes. When we  view  Coronacion  in  Coronacion  may  process the  personal  larger  express  in Chile  writer's la  this  in  .  It  Donoso's  three  society,  but  background critics  aspects  of  the  socioideological  the 1950's, these aspects a r e a c c e s s o r y t o  world from Coronacion  i s t r u e t h a t Coronacion following  primarily  novels, in  the  t o E l obsceno p a j a r o de , i n the same measure as  i s deeply particular  rooted i n C h i l e a n milieu  o f Donoso's  and- of h i s p a s t . The r e a l i s m of Coronacion  lauded, l i e s  obsessive  some  c o n f i n e s o f C h i l e which c o n s t i t u t e the b a s i s o f the  narrative  noche  c o n t e x t , i t becomes c l e a r t h a t while  and  that early  i n Donoso's p e r c e p t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n o f h i s  repetitive  world as he e x o r c i z e s h i s own p a s t . As  I s i s Quinteros e x p l a i n s : su obra no es una cosmogonia. En e l l a aparece un C h i l e p e r s o n a l y c o n f i n a d o : e l C h i l e de Jose Donoso, cuya 'realidad' creada, recreada y fundida a la realidad multi-facetica e insondable d e l prdprio e s c r i t o r es l a que c o n f i g u r a toda su n a r r a t i v a . 4 In  this  relevant  to  Coronacion  sense, some s e l e c t i v e b i o g r a p h i c a l background i s as the  to  genesis  El  socio-historical  of  obsceno  and  the  paiaro  literary  c r e a t i v e process de  Donoso's  of  past  in  the w r i t e r ' s c r e a t i o n . In Coronacion  clearly  can  ghosts  is vital  recognize  i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e s the f i r s t  this  autobiographical,  undercurrent and  catharsis  as  i s the  C h i l e - h i s f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , s c h o o l s , c i t y - the web  memories  we  ,  background. The p e r s o n a l c o n f i n e s  of  novels  l a noche  l e a d i n g from  of  obsessions  demons  and  which  and i n Donoso's f o l l o w i n g  personal  anecdotal  impulse  element, form,  i f not i n a  definitely  as  and e v o c a t i o n s and a l l u s i o n s to past the  novel,  in  an  act  of  personal  l i b e r a t i o n , seeks t o e x o r c i z e . Donoso's w r i t i n g i s  -  29  -  a  continuous  creation  autopsychoanalysis  as  subject  in  these  imagination  language  to  produces  Donoso He  and  novels  us  obsessions  Donoso,  becomes  communicated  of  and  becomes  the  up  the  of  his  family  lived  grandmother.  Donoso  recalls  creator,  for  as  the presence  the  literary  interpreted own  and  original  novel.  the  ten years  beyond  being  his  the author's  object, the  in the m i l i e u of  goes  beyond  reality  creation  an a e s t h e t i c  grew  the w r i t e r , goes  imaginary as  which  "burguesia  with his of  this  acomodada".  ailing  maternal  woman d u r i n g  his  adolescence: El gradual p r o c e s o de su d e t e r i o r o , e n t r e m e z c l a d o c o n relampagueantes destellos de memoria y de saber familiar, hasta s u m u e r t e mas d e d i e z a n o s d e s p u e ' s , e s uno de los episodios que mas h a m a r c a d o m i v i d a , n o porque yo amara a e s t a a n c i a n a , s i n o p o r q u e su demencia puso t a n c r u e l m e n t e en e v i d e n c i a l a s i r o n i a s de l a v i d a f a m i l i a r y l o s h o r r o r e s de l a v e j e z y l a a g o n i a . 5 Hisia not  Elisa a  parody  referring todo  to  a as  como p a r a  The  Donosos' maids,  servants, in  the  Donoso's  Chilean  dominant  in ,  critics  have  :  demasiado  "estoy  etc.  The  of  four  Donoso  from the past  suggested.  As  Donoso  -  said  metido a l l ' d e n t r o  social  obsceno talks  and  are  are  novels.  The  and  de  "criada"  and L o u r d e s  pajaro  de  -  30  Teresa  -  t h e masks  another  la  cooks,  masters  constantly  Rosario  about  servants:  between  dependence  systems,  novels,  from  i n c l u d e d many  relationship  mutual  c y c l e of  El  ghost  parodiarlo".6  family household  character  Ponce'  Cronologia  poder  hierarchical first  Peta  some  roles  Donoso's  a  confrontation with this  Coronacion  eso  gardeners,  wear  is  people  explored  thematic  and  in  link  in  in particular,  is  in  noche  Vergara,  Coronacion .  the  In  his  "criada"  to own of  the  Donoso  family  v/ho  brought  him  hermanas,  hermanos,  primos  cocineros,  jardineros  y doncellas,  mi  familia  dedicated this  por  to  "Teresa  dedication  comprometiendo, la  mis  old  the  mansions,  impact the  in  amidst also  senile an  mainly  run  subsequent  in  the  their  of  Donoso  "sin  sido  .  nuestros con  otros  cuentos  is  and  relation  to  in  saberlo,  me c r i d ' .  "Sus  en s i m b i o s i s  me  tematica. Teresa  senile  of  is  .  estaba  Vergara  , es  la  sick by  is  between  by  madre  era de  of  past,  uncles)  to  themes.  In  growing  a  in  disguises  personalities  and  human the  and  servants,  developed  in  personality. house  and  theme  as  of  another  relation  the maid  and  symbolic  r e l a t i o n to In  but  theme  Coronacidn  and  up  household  r e l a t e d to Donoso's  s e l f - i n t e g r a t i o n . The  also  profound  grandmother in  the  relation  spent  his  costumes  masters  the  only  and is  its  recurrent  disintegration  for  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of mistress  (not  different  search  in  a childhood  servants  marked  Donoso's  important  aunts  of  of  r e l a t i v e s , made a  Donoso's  relatives  process  futile  the  y  leer"  settings  impact  is  of  una  quien  childhood,  theme  of  says  the  various  relationship  theme the  The  assume  recollection  of  organized  novels  characters  this  bedridden  and  sabe  r e c o l l e c t e d facet of  destruction.  roles  and  assortment  vivido  Veraneo  and  realization  the  han  han  writes:  "8  servants,  Donoso  particular,  fue  characters  the  literary  .  y  y  no  eligiendo  padres .  que  author  estaba  viejas.  Clearly  Vergara  Donoso  sobrinas,  siglo."7  the  c r i a d a de m i s  todas  of  medio  y  up.  the to  servant,  says: Again human  it's my obsession with p e r s o n a l i t y . The s e r v a n t i s  the non-unity of the another p a r t , another  incarnation, at a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l , of the mistress. She is both the mistress and the s e r v a n t . They a r e two faces of the same being. It's good and bad bound together. Because t h e r e i s a moment w h e n t h e b e a u t i f u l woman t u r n s i n t o a m o n s t e r 9 . The the  complex  domination  relationship  and  the poor  another  that  In  his  the the  process  by  main  By  published (1943).  first  as  development  themes  the  e n d o f W o r l d War  La From  Nausee the  Within  in  the  (1938),  beginning,  clearly  and  32  Donoso's should and  organization  structural basis  of  studied.  (1939)  -  structuring  characterization  archetypal  Jean Paul  was  the  in  framework,  psychoanalysis  fundamental  Mur  concepts  explained.  of  . The  Sartre  -  undergo  framework  conceptual  Sartre  existentialist Le  to  thematic  intellectual  this  be s u b s e q u e n t l y II,  one  them.  characters  and F r e u d i a n  a system  the  a  rich  framework  the novel's  understood  in Coronacion  which provides  figure  this  Sartrean  of  of  psychoanalysis.  more  part  will  of  e x i s t e n t i a l i s m and  main  dominant  structure  uses  disintegrates  his  on  symbiotic  attraction for  intellectual  of  a  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . The  disintegration  theme  in  focus  the precariousness  obsessive  an  be b e t t e r  of  other  uses  Andres.  can  servants  then  components  Donoso  framework  Coronacion  and  e x i s t e n t i a l i s m and  destruction  analysed  Donoso's  the  The  of  to  and  them and  archetypal  psychology  the  thematic of  Donoso  characterization of  conceptual be  susceptibility  ,  larger  each  theme o f  an u n c o n s c i o u s  particular  Andres' of  its  of  the  alternately unites  provided In  develops  have  development. are  between masters  dependence  Coronacion  organize within  and  that  personality and  relations  and  had  emerged  movement. L'Etre  interested  in  et  He le  as had  Neant  psychology  and  especially  Transcendance d'une  views  the  relevance  easy  postwar of  range  the  psychoanalysis. psychoanalytical  are  specific  writings  Briefly,  nature  the  and  and  experience; emphasizes future  extreme  and  central  of  anguish  consciousness.  to  said  be of  was  a diffusion  in  literature  these are  movements  of  interest  themes  of  of in  being  the  feelings  experiences  are  viewed  is  of our  is  as  French absurd,  the  aid  the  Sartre of  developed  the  absurdity;  the  of  dread,  own  as  importance to  every  one of day  complacency, developed  possibility  the  extreme  one's  to  says  there  f  are:  contrast  an  that  are  of  existentialism  human n a t u r e . experience  in  in  Existentialism  and  stresses  found  50's  role  awareness anxiety  Existentialism  existence fact  of  it  us.  and  the  made  influence  existentialism  communication.  continuous  the  to  of  existentialist  which  of  underlying  and  general  the  nature  existentialist  claimed the  the  understanding  e x i s t e n t i a l i s m has  intentionality;  self-deception.  is  be  in  La  Esquisse  characterization  choice;  which  that  by  his  (  summary o f  of  of  void.  thesis the  recurrent  exceptional  experiences conformity,  there  these  basic  significance  and  the  and  (1940),  useful  in  influence  within  systems;  the  death  confronts  covered  influence  concepts  consciousness  incorporation  same m i g h t  While  and  individual  views  The  is  , particularly  most w i d e s p r e a d  writers.  in Donoso's  (1939) . A v e r y  Donoso's  of  of  L'Imaainaire  existentialism  Coronacion  The  for  by  of  structure  (1936) ,  Emotions  expressed  in  particular  l'Ego  des  main  Andre's.  the  de  The'orie  concepts  in  that  freedom  of  the of  the  choice feeling human  In  the  conceal  face  this  freedom, human beings  internal  consciousness gives  covert the  and  itself  put  human  duality  thinks  condemns  of  attempt on  of  consciousness  to  i t s freedom.  by human consciousness a  as  hopeless  since  while  choice.  a  described  Thus  genuine  logical  by S a r t r e  (being  is  consciousness  precluded  which  makes  content i t clear  novels, more It  of  project  being  the  dramatic  undertaking  of t h e two kinds o f being  negating  creates  for i t s e l f -  aspect  anew  provide  the  dialogue  reality  that  we have, summarized  i n t h e form o f p l a y s and  L'Etre  et  characters lonely  best  le  Ne^ant  and  of  Daniel  argument.  i n l o n e l i n e s s and doubt  for existentialist  Sartre  human  t r e a t i s e s , i s a form of e x p r e s s i o n  t h a t people l i v i n g  characters  of  the d i s t i n c t i o n s  c o n s i s t e n t with S a r t r e ' s i n t e n t i o n s than d e d u c t i v e commonplace  an  t o overcome.  r a t h e r than s y s t e m a t i c  is a  are  constituting  i n i t s e l f - en s o i , being by  beings  hopeless  e x i s t e n t i a l i s t philosophy  that  itself  i s not t h e r e s u l t  of  is a  synthesis  perpetually  such a s y n t h e s i s i s intended The  the  self-sufficient  soi)  which  Although S a r t r e  human  of  because  ina  l e v e l with t h i n g s , he u l t i m a t e l y sees t h e  f o r their choices, their existence  ontologically  in  to objectify  responsible their  resulting  i t s e l f as a t h i n g a t the same time t h a t  recognition  enterprise  pour  can attempt t o  i t from themselves by a v a r i e t y o f d e v i c e s  paradoxical  it  of  n o v e l s . Perhaps the  understood and which he focused developed  and  Roquentin  us  in  in  the  earlier  i s the  on i n  fictional  psychology o f the  individual.  What  interests  -  Coronacion  34  -  is  hov;  Donoso's  characterization Throughout solitary  ".  y precario  no  Andre's  Coronacicri person:  absurdo ya  of  tenia  , Andres .  con  solo  Andres  bachelor,  a  . la  la  hasta an  c h a r a c t e r i z e d as  Ademas, la  only  child,  solitude  to  his  Estoy  solo  que nunca  antes,  no  senora  only  an  de  la  essentially el  lazo  osaria  por  todo  living  y  El  confesarse  falleciera." orphan  mas  existencia.  friend Carlos  excluido  concepts.  an  representaba  emocional  que  his  existentialist  anciana  lazos.  confesses mas  is  realidad  otros  completamente is  follows  (p. alone.  Gros: de  16)  ".  todo."  He .  .  (p.  131) Andres by  repeatedly  experiences  a sensation  of  terror  evoked  death: Que uno moria era indudable. Pero en el f o n d o de Andres, en algun r i n c o n o c u l t o e i n f a n t i l - q u i z a ' s un resabio de la fe r e l i g i o s a que d e s c a r t d ' de una v e z y para siempre al finalizar su a d o l e s c e n c i a - , e x i s t i a una certeza fiera, a r r a i g a d a t e n a z y h o n d a m e n t e en s u s temores mas i n c o n f e s a d o s , que e l jamas m o r i r T a , que l a m u e r t e e r a p a r a o t r o s , no p a r a e l . . . O i r a su a b u e l a h a b l a n d o de l a m u e r t e en l a forma mas n a t u r a l d e l m u n d o , e r a como l e v a n t a r l a t a p a hacia u n a s i n i e s t r a p o s i b i l i d a d d e h o r r o r . Ho h a b £ a q u e ceder a l a t e n t a c i o ' n de a s o m a r s e p o r e l r e s q u i c i o , e r a necesario m i r a r a o t r a p a r t e , h u i r , h u i r de esa v o z que queria obligar brutalmente a Andre's a e n f r e n t a r a l g o que s a b i a que a l g u n a v e z i b a a t e n e r que e n f r e n t a r . (p. 38-39) Y ahora, ique' e x p e r i e n c i a me q u e d a ? , l a muerte, nada mas. No puedo p e n s a r en o t r a c o s a . Y en ella no puedo pensar ma's que con t e r r o r porque se demasiado b i e n que t o d a s l a s t e o r i a s f i l o s o ' f i c a s , t o d a s las satisfacciones de v i v i r y toda creencia r e l i g i o s a son falsas, todas mentiras para ahuyentar el gran p c i n i c o de l a e x t i n c i d n . . . ( p . 156) Andre's  anguish, novel  in  of the  has  abandoned  his  confrontation recurrence  of  catholic  with a  the  nightmare: -  35  -  faith void  and are  his  feelings  expressed  in  of . the  Solia sonar que i b a a t o d a v e l o c i d a d p o r un l a r g u i s i m o puente suspendido por un vacio. Pero e l p u e n t e , de pronto", terminaba antes de llegar a la otra o r i l l a , dejando un trecho en q u e n o h a b i a n a d a , n a d a mcis q u e abismo. En su, veloz ansiedad por a l c a n z a r a l a o t r a orilla, Andres cafa dando gritos de terror al precipitarse en ese vacio. Despertaba transpirando y sobresaltado. Ningun libro, ni la filosofia, ni la ciencia que t a n t a s d i s c u s i o n e s s u s c i t a b a con C a r l o s Gros eran capaces de darle medios para llegar, material y conscientemente, a la otra o r i l l a . Todo desembocaba en cero, en otra pregunta ma's, en la i n t e r r o g a n t e de l a m u e r t e .  el  . y en l a n o c h e d e l p u e n t e , dando  final  Andre's c a i a alaridos.  por  el  abismo  por  pero continuaba s o n a n d o que e l p u e n t e no llegaba a l a o t r a o r i l l a , y se p r e c i p i t a b a a u l l a n d o en el fondo de s u s u e n o , h a s t a p e r d e r s e en e l a b i s m o . (p. 62-63) Sartre's nature.  In  accepting his  atheism Coronacio'n  an  the  In  to  awareness theme  of  of  individual,  The the to  its  own  novels.  novels  beliefs  anguish  and  It  society  (religion  in  as  establish  the  of  to  a  ideology  in  and the  upon  the  framework  of fear  within  -  36  -  is  link  the of  of  an to  caused  by  the  facet  of  the  one and  in  between  extended  to  traditions,  which  from  according  class  Coronacion  thematic  concepts life,  linked,  This  to  disintegrating  derives  bourgeois  whole,  particular),  closer  belonging  developed a  human  consciousness  the  main  on  the  dominant  the  is  existentialist  meanihglessness  so  views  progressively  existentialism of  his  expressing  disintegration.  is  it  of  this  atheist  of  moves  of  ,  disintegration  subsequent four  capable  awareness  of  the  consequence  Andres  Coronacion  interpretation Sartre,  a  ,  ideology  anguish,  world.  is  Donoso's the  first  include  the  values  and  society  is  based.  absurdity  of  existence,  death  which  are  used by  Andres'  Donoso  character  is  developed. of  Andres  repeatedly  expresses  his  sense  of the  absurdity  existence: Vida e r a una s o l a , a h o r a l o v e i a tambien iba a morir, y pasarian de millones de anos, y de e l planeta seguina rodando por intersiderales hacia un d e s t i n o ( p . 76)  con c l a r i d a d . Luego e l miles, millones, miles no q u e d a r i a n a d a , y e l los negros espacios absurdo e i n e x i s t e n t e .  El, en cambio se hallaba d e s n u d o b a j o un f i r m a m e n t o hostil, que s6lo p o d i a s e n a l a r l e s u p r o p i a p e q u e n e z , y l a i n u t i l b r e v e d a d de s u c o n c i e n c i a . ( p . 155) Andres' daily  fear  of death prevents  routines  passive  are  him from experiencing  a form of s e l f - d e c e p t i o n , of  a c c e p t a n c e o f h i s own  life  and h i s  resignation,  of  futility:  Rebelarse, tratar de dar un significado a la vida, hacer algo, tener cualquier fe con l a c u a l i n t e n t a r traspasar .el limite del actual, era estupido, pretencioso, pueril, lo unico razonable era la acceptacibn muda e i n a c t i v a . Ihe g u s t a b a l e e r h i s t o r i a de Francia? Leeria historia de F r a n c i a . &Le g u s t a b a pasear en las tardes por las calles tranquilas? Pasearia. Andre's s i n t i d " p o r p r i m e r a v e z que sus p o b r e s pes' pisaban t e r r e n o f i r m e , que l o g r a b a s a l t a r desde e l extremo puente hasta la orilla lejana. Para otros, sentir lo que e'l a c a b a b a de s e n t i r q u i z a r e s u l t a r a un pozo negro de angustia. P a r a e l , s i n embargo, e r a l a justificacioVi de no hacer nada, de no a v e n t u r a r s e a nada, la l i b e r a c i o n c o m p l e t a de t o d o compromiso c o n l a v i d a . ( p . 65) In foi),  what Andres,  existence  and  concludes  that  Sartre  would  call  when  faced  when  confronted  madness  is  his  with  an  t h e need with  only  a c t of bad f a i t h  his  to give  (mauvaise  meaning  own s e n s e  of  to  his  failure,  alternative:  Ojala me v o l v i e r a loco para a s i no t e n e r que a b o c a r directamente, claramente, a la luz p l e n a y c o n tc^da conciencia, e l p r o b l e m a de l a muerte y de l a e x t i n c i o n . iQu^ m a r a v i l l o s a manera de e s c a m o t e a r s e de l a n e c e s i d a d de m i r a r de f r e n t e . . . , e s o . . . ! ( p . 133) el u n i c o o r d e n es l a l o c u r a , porque l o s l o c o s son los que se han dado c u e n t a d e l caos t o t a l , de l a imposibilidad de explicar, de r a z o n a r , de a c l a r a r , y -  37  -  como no pueden hacer nada ven llegar a la verdad es unirse 157) At  the  himself,  novel's  to  Sartre's  put  at  the  himself  concept  consciousness  conclusion,  of  in  a  the  which  same t i m e t h a t  on  Andre's level  attempts with  paradoxical  consciousness  it  que l a u n i c a manera de a la locura total, (p.  covertly  to  things  exemplifying  internal  thinks  of  recognizes  duality  itself  its  objectify  as  a  of  thing  freedom:  El ya no era un ser v i v o , y a no e r a h o m b r e . Estaba reducido a cosa, a m a t e r i a que a g u a r d a e l momento de integrarse a la nada donde no hay ni tiempo mi extensidh. Dentro de pocos anos e l i b a a m o r i r , y ese finalizar de su c o n c i e n c i a i n d i v i d u a l que l o s e p a r a b a con una h n e a de c l a r i d a d d e l r e s t o de l o s o b j e t o s , e r a tambien el fin de eso que a l g u n o s saben l l a m a r a l m a , ( p . 212) The a  emphasis  literary  previous  in  theme,  is  literary  injustice  and  Coronacion one  generation.  of  criticizing.  Rather,  in  general  the  this  latter  existentialist such  as  intellectual. inner  and  but  The  his his  surface  de  la  and  of  novel,  so  without  of  while  explores  Andres  the  of  makes  crises  the  literature.  the  the a  malaise fetish  Lukacs  the  of of  Linked  as  the  to of  critic, of  the  bourgeois individual  calls  "le  as  is  surrounding  society  the  he  social  impact  his  the  condition  individualism  fetichisee"10)  view  human  of  as  objective  in particular.  debased  (what  in  shows  individual. A Marxist  the  a symptom  it  from  the primary  assertion  that  incarnated  followers  appearance  say  interiorite  own v a l u e s many  on  bourgeois  experiences  permanent find  is  The  the  philosophy  i n d i v i d u a l problems  which Donoso d i f f e r s  Coronacion  is  would  in  does  anguish  theme  Lukacs,  existentialist  area  inequality,  and  on A n d r e s '  carnaval unable  society.  to  Lukacs  r e a l i t y behind  the  Although  Donoso  intent,  Coronacion  of  author's  the  larger  social  analysis  of  characters  is does  created  the  the  w i t h any  but  period  of  also  Dorfman, of  social  confines  tangentially,  he w r o t e  generation  the novels  obvious  nofc<only t h e p e r s o n a l  narrative, Ariel by  that  writer  experience,  of  Chilean  a  reflect,  social  trends  characteristics  not  i n . In  a  the  marxist  w r i t i n g about  1950,  the p e r i o d have  points in  the  out  the  common:  El personaje no s e mueve, p o r q u e no t i e n e h a c i a donde huir; el i m p u l s o r e n o v a d o r que d e n u n c i a l a r i g i d e z , se resuelve en la i n c e r t i d u m b r e , en e l p a r e n t e s i s , en l a mascara . . . rodeado por s o l u c i o n e s f a l s a s , s o c i a l e s , futuras, interiores, el hombre se hace r a d i c a l m e n t e ambiguo . . . 11 Donoso, does  like  reflect  according  to  the  some  other  aspects  Chilean writers of  the  social  of  his  reality  generation,  they  live  in,  Dorfman:  Enfrentan el desahucio de la Utopia americana, enfrentan el f r a c a s o de un s i s t e m a , e x p r e s a n h a s t a l o s limites que sus demonios se lo permiten, que lo rebelarse, lo grotesco y r i d i c u l o l a u n i c a manera de expresarse, la fragmentacidn, la manera de amar, l a mctscara l a u n i c a c a r a . 1 2 In  Coronacion  irrational well  as  those  rebelion  de  escalate The  la  in  briefly  characterization main  component  the  a l l  r e l i g i o n and  noche  ,  emphasis  aspects  against  of  forms  sex.  these  i n t e n s i t y and  basic  see  grotesque  related to  pajaro  been  and  we  on  reality of  moral taboos  From C o r o n a c i o n  aspects  of  Donoso's  to  as  especially El  obsceno  fiction  will  scope.  outlined,  in  ambiguous,  and p e r s o n a l i t y  e x i s t e n t i a l c o n c e p t u a l framework  of  the  largely  Andres. the  in  Psychoanalysis conceptual  -  39  -  in Coronacion  relation provides  framework  has  to  the  the  other  developed  in  Coronacion's  system  clearly  present  reading  Freud  Freud's  psychoanalytical  Of  Dream?  ,  characterization. Freudian  the n o v e l .  in  the  the  of  illustrated within the  in  the  most  the  Pleasure  of  Symptoms  these  aspects  functioning  are  intimately  particularly  sexual  the  result  Freud in  of  pointed  thinking,  of  the  through  instincts provoked  and  shawl for  (this her  birthday  the  Eao  and  and  and  stated  they that  ,  the  are evolve  many  development  of and  conflicts,  anxiety  are  conflict within of  of  Sexuality  childhood  often  oneself.  instinctual conflict  analysed  processes  both  typical  of  repression. mores the  symbolic image  sexual  of  psychology  mental  significance  Andre's,  and p l e a s u r e . by  of  was  (1926)].  and Andre's  to  father  the  occurring  defensive in  dreams,  defense.  Freudian sexual  ,  Freud  are  Interpretation  (1920), The  Freudian  human  phenomena  regression,  cases  neuroses  vital  mental  upbringing  bourgeois  of  related  out  religious of  of  recognition  Elisa  [ The  and A n x i e t y  Elisa  his  the Theory .  elements  t h e main body  1926,  c o n f l i c t s . G u i l t , shame and  a f f e c t and  Misia  on  theories.  the  unconscious  function  of  that  complete  theories  important  by  Principle  characters  framework  was  Essays  Three  basic  the  indeed,  theory  (1923), I n h i b i t i o n s . Many  Donoso mentions  and  20*s  (1900),  Beyond  (1905), Id. ,  in  of  their They  which  Freud  repression  images.  results  in in  For El an  -  40  social  class,  repressive are  classic of  denounced  inducive  of  early  example, sin  outburst  -  a  artifice  obsession  luaar  of  i l l u s t r a t e the  from  Misici E l i s a ' s  reappears  products  of  as  chilhood with the  limites  of  sexual  sexuality  gift )  of  from  escalating  a  is  pink  Andres  intensity  and  obscenity  aimed  at  Estela:  Este chal t a n l i n d o l e v a a s e n t a r m u c h o mas a l a Estela. A e l l a s i l e q u e d a r i a b i e n de v e r a s . M i r a n i n a , lo que t e t r a j o t u n o v i o , un c h a l c i t o r o s a d o . P a r a que t e ^ veas rosadita cuando despiertes a su l a d o en l a manana . . . , t o m a , p r u e ' b a t e l o . . . I Pruebate tu chal! Pruebate tu chal rosado, que a t i t e l o t r a j o d e r e g a l o ! S i me l o t r a j o a mi seria un i n s u l t o , p o r q u e es un c h a l de p u t a , s i , de puta, no para una s e n o r a que merece una c o r o n a de santa y reina, como yo. jPruebate tu chal, te digo, china! i I n d i a p u t a ! |Las c o s a s m u g r i e n t a s que l e habeas e n s e n a d o a h a c e r e n l a c a m a ! . . . c o c h i n a , v i c i o s a , . . . ( p p . 5 0 , 5 1 , 52) Andre's' rigidly the  adult  ordered  search The  for  by  repression  sex  of one  dominated  His  and  his  scenes  of  example  of  associated  has  cycle of  with  his  in  The sexual  religious  a his  by  life.  tenets  to  and  symbolizes  traumatic  basic  episodes  desires.  the  in  been,  behavior  ten canes  Andre's'  several  sexual  sexual  ritual  discipline  illustrates  early  by  c o l l e c t i o n of  character  the  repression  Andre's'  of  Andre's'  determined  is  c o n t r o l , order  with  psychology.  and  routines.  description  encounters  provides  life  childhood  of  Freudian  great  extent,  life  following desire, moral  and by  the  quotation guilt,  fear  strictures  in  youth. Cuando Andre's tuvo que confesarse p a r a p r e p a r a r su primera comunio'n, se l o c a l l d ' t o d o , a b s o l u t a m e n t e t o d o , lo de V e l a r d e y su amigo, l a s p o s t a l e s , sus s u e n o s , e l sillon que s e l l a m a b a L o u r d e s y t o d o l o dema's. C o m u l ^ en pecado mortal. No fue, como l e d i j e r o n que d e b i a ser, el dia ma's feliz de su vida. Porque estaba condenado, y s u c a r n e a r d e r i a en l o s i n f i e r n o s p o r l o s siglos de l o s s i g l o s . S o l o su a b u e l a y Lourdes se ira'n al cielo. ^Cuantash veshesh, hiho? - l e preguntaria e l padre Damian, s i contaba. /  . The  . . y  eso  importance  jamais p o d r i a of  confesarlo.  sexuality  -  41  -  in  (p.  Andre's'  59) unconscious  is  revealed palms de  in  several  (reminiscent  una  persona  Lourdes) Andres  1  mind,  repressed  his  impulses  palms  mechanisms. Andre's'  world  own  recurrent  by  of  of  between  repeated  old  obsessions  evolution.  tension  Donoso Andre's  Andres  conflict.  The  novel's  precarious  balance.  characters first  balance  encounter "Don  Andre's  como  el  resto  poco  rosado,  resto  de  como  la piel  de  pink  of  a  Finally,  his  in  an  it  marks of  of  submerged  follow  this  the steps  momentum a s  and  and  the an  repetitive  in the the  sexual  increasing  shatters and  of  provokes  routine  palms  and  element  to  them c r e a t e s  compulsion  order  individual  momentum  and  defense  eventually  denouement  augmenting  his  established  ritualized  final  obsessive  a l l  sense  pink  desires.  desires.  an  as  of  for  fascinating  palms  perceives  Andre's  tension  world  as  c o n t r o l . Upon  1  is his  Andres'  Estela:  observo  de  is  Estela's  between  with  it  with  fixation  Estela,  is  cuerpo  a  impulses,  develops  This  Donoso's  of  pink  layers  sexual  f o r Andre's,  Andres  life  of  that  of  order.  como e l  associates  repressed  destroy  natural  and  attraction  to  Estela's  unconscious  unconscious  intrusion  Estela's  intrusion  typical  a fetish  rosado  the a r t i f i c i a l l y  and  the  motive  of  the  vitality  collapse  Andre's'  erosion  his  of  Andres  the  arousing  become  y  which  penetrates  threatening  The  instinctive  (p.57) ,  instincts,  erupt,  The m o t i v e  "silicon pequeno  gradually  all  his  the  progressively  pink  by  of  desnuda"  Estela's  the  dream sequences.  que  la piel . la  .  .  solo  el  l a palma , como s i  muchacha."  -  42  (p.  -  dorso era  de  unos  estuviera 17)  l a mano tohos ma's  era  mas  cobrizo  clara,  desnuda  que  un el  Later  on: Andres desvio' la vista de esas palmas descubiertas, p r e s a de i n c o m o d i d a d y de un i n e x p l i c a b l e pudor; como s i h u b i e r a s o r p r e n d i d o a l g u n a i n t i m i d a d de la m u c h a c h a . En e s a l i g e r a v a r i a c i o n de c o l o r d e l c o b r e opaco del d o r s o a l r o s a m u l l i d o y s i n duda t i b i o de l a palma desnuda, inconvenientemente desnuda, Andre's se vio acechado por algo i n s t i n c t i v o , algo casi salvaje, inadmisible e n s u mundo d o n d e t o d o e r a c i v i l i z a c i o n . . . (P.40)  Then, pink  shawl  on  the  provokes  occasion her  of  outburst  Misia  Elisa's  against  birthday,  when  the  Estela:  Estela no se m o v i o ' . L e v a n t a n d o un p o c o l a s manos como quien pide a y u d a , m i r a b a a Andre's, que d e s v i o l a vista a ver esas palmas, acosado t a n t o por l a presencia, de esa carne fresca y rosa que se le antojo descaradamente indecente, como por la locura de su abuela, que de manera tan inconveniente los habia unido. ^Donde m i r a r , a q u i e n a c u d i r en b u s c a de o r d e n ? ( p . 51) Estela s e h a b i a e n v u e l t a en e l c h a l , a p r e t a n d o l o a su cuerpo. Andre's la vio rosada e n t e r a , como s i l a desnudez de l a p a l m a d e s u s manos s e h u b i e r a e x t e n d i d o impudicamente p o r t o d o s u c u e r p o , como s i M i s i c t E l i s i t a la h u b i e r a jdesnudado con sus palabras enloquecidas, para e n t r e g a r s e l a . L a mente de Andre's pugnaba p o r e c h a r mano de c u a l q u i e r c o s a p a r a c u b r i r o a l e j a r e s a i m a g e n , p e r o e r a i n u t i l . ( p . 52) This Andres  scene  gives  probably  with  sexuality.  His  Andre's'  sexual  his  in  Estela  and  unconscious  desires  surge  a pink  his  grandmother  fantasies  repressed  particularly  grandmother  influenced  obsession  and  is  rich  in Freudian  shawl  for  choice his  of  the  Elisa  she  of  connection  attraction for  because  colour  association  makes  forth.  her  suffers  birthday. by pink  his  the  shawl  Elisa's  same  is  female  the  understand  from  He  growing  with  between  E s t e l a . Then  can w e l l  psychology.  own  Andre's' sexual  repressions. When  Andre's  sees  the palms  -  of  43  Tenchita,  -  the  antique  dealer's  wife  (she  is  wearing  a pink  shawl):  , . , En l u g a r de T e n c h i t a y e i a a E s t e l a , e n v u e l t a en el chal que el habia regalado a su a b u e l a . . . y Estela despertaba en el lecho junto a e'l. El calor joven de la muchacha. Su c u e r p o l e v e m e n t e h u m e d e c i d o por el s u e n o t i b i o l o t o c a b a . T e n f a v i v o en l a n u c a e l aliento de Estela al ayudarlo a ponerse e l abrigo, y ante sus o j o s se h a l l a b a a b i e r t o e l p e l i g r o desnudo de s u s p a l m a s . . . ( p . 113) After desire  this  for  encounter,  Andre's  accepts  the  existence  of  his  Estela:  Deseaba a E s t e l a . Sus manos e n p u n a d a s en l o s bolsillos de su abrigo imaginaron l a suavidad desnuda de las palmas de la muchacha, y en l a s r e t i n a s de Andre's hirvieron sus o j o s n e g r o s . La t i b i e z a s u b i t a de - la respiracion de Estela al ayudarlo a ponerse su abrigo una noche hacia mas de un mes, r e p i t i o un aliento a r d o r o s o en su c u e l l o . S i . D e s e a b a a E s t e l a . L a deseaba como c r e y o q u e j a m a ' s i b a a s e r c a p a z d e d e s e a r . ( p . 115) Then they felt  Andres  are for  in^  porque era  su  vio  amor,  of  was  si,  This not  amor  que  and M a r i o  blow  just  no  cuya  becomes  living  Estela  edificio  claro  Andres of  love.  Estela  "Todo  sees  leads  desire  together him to  but  and  realizes  believe  that  esperanza  qued^  desecho.  era  s<5lo  lo  sentfa  aware  that  a u t h e n t i c a l l y and  deseo  que  clavaba." loving  escaping  what  he  love:  de  certeza lo  that  Estela,  (p.117)  Estela  his  por  Desecho,  is  empty  his and  last  chance  sterile  mode  existence: El deseo no e r a s u f i c i e n t e p a r a l i b e r a r l o de l a n a d a y de la muerte, de l o s d i a s p i a n o s de su p a s a d o , n i d e l abismo f u t u r o que de p r o n t o v i o r o d e a ' n d o l o c o n su f r i o . s6lo e l amor j o v e n y a r m o n i o s o como e l de e s e p a r p o d i a r e s c a t a r l o . ( p . 118) At  efforts  the of  "El,  end  Mario dentro  of  the  novel,  and Rene',  appears  de  un  Estela, to  momento,  -  44  yield iba  -  a  under to  the  manipulative  Andre's:  acariciar  esas  palmas  humedas, el, El  rosadas,  revelctndole las  todos  necesitaba,  This  is  marks  the  After  Estela  from  muelles,  last  of  the  ultimately  of  madness.  Cedomil  in  Coronacion  a esas  vision  of  inadequacy, Goic  iban  su  palmas."  (p.  209)  Estela's  pink  up  poder.  palms  and  motive.  he d e l i b e r a t e l y  escapes  the  of  a  this  alienation  sums  a acariciar todo  development  r e j e c t s Andre's,  of  lo  entregandole  reiterative  feelings  through  palmas  secretos,  rousing  his  world  esas  determinadamente  the  end  sus  y  and  anguish  process  into  Andres  a  goes  :  De este modo c u a n d o e l e n g a n o d e l a m u c h a c h a y e l sentimiento de su rebajamiento, d e s u enajenaci6n l o arrojan en la c o n c i e n c i a d e l absurdo y d e l s i n s e n t i d o de todo, s e p r e c i p i t a r ^ en l a e x i s t e n c i a de l a l o c u r a , se enajenarci consciente y l i b r e m e n t e p a r a e v a d i r s e de la angustia atroz y d e l a c a f d a i n s o p o r t a b l e . De e s t e modo la existencia i n a u t e V i t i c a m o d i f i c a d a l u e g o en l a angustiosa a u t e n t i c i d a d c o n c l u y e p o r d e s e m b o c a r en o t r o modo de existir en que la conciencia anulada, aniquilada, a b r e l a p o s i b i l i d a d de e s c a p a r p a r a s i e m p r e a l temor y a l temblor d e l e x i s t i r consciente.13 Andre's' on  the  voluntary  brink  existence  of  a total  provoked (symbolized  the  palms)  reappear lugar  sin  pajaro  de  and  be  is  la  noche  the  in  into in  outcome in  before  madness  the  of  by the  after  established  primitive  Coronacion  one  explored  limites  change  by  instincts pink  submersion  forces Estela  and  in  being  resolved  to  finally Jose  order  of the  Promis  Este  his  irrational motive  domingo in  been  of  same c o n f l i c t w h i c h  d i f f e r e n t ways  . According  he h a s  El  of  will  and  El  obsceno  Ojeda:  Las tres novelas de Donoso p l a n t e a n , p u e s , cada una desde un angulo especifico, u n m i s m o p r o b l e m a o , m^s bien dicho, una misma o b s e s i d ' n : l a p r e c a r i e d a d de l a existencia. . . en E l o b s c e n o p a j a r o de l a n o c h e , l a obsesid'n deja de s e r p l a n t e a m i e n t o y s e t r a n s f o r m a en mundo. De aqui que afirmemos que con e s t a n o v e l a se cierra y se cumple un ciclo, mas a l i a d e l c u a l no existe otra posibilidad e x p r e s i v a . Como e n e l c a s o d e  Cien Anos de S o l e d a d , l a n o v e l a que cierra una etapa, despue's c a m b i a r de rumbo.14 The  cyclical  basic  related  These  two  areas:  areas  narrative  aspects  have  already  of  and  pertaining all  and  the  of  the  a  the  the  coherent  human  caste  irrational  disintegration and  of  elements; and  the  dominant  of  beliefs  human  roles  systems;  the  upon  on  condition  instinctive the  in  focus  ambiguous,  by  taboos;  t r a d i t i o n a l values  thematic  Donoso's  personal  author's  narrative  links  masks and  individual,  which  and  techniques  evolve  away  which  structure  negation In  as of  expressing  an  the  the  human from  traditional realist  objective, concrete  capable  in  society  of  case  of  expressing El  obsceno  elements reality. the  pajaro  The  limits  of  attributes  of  reality, his  of  towards  questioning de  la  noche  a of ,  reality.  Coronacion  presentacion  and  assert  and,  configurating  social  fiction  reality  the  of  verisimilitude  narrative  are  vision  factual  to  moral  of  the precariousness  revealed  hierarchical social theme  the  techniques.  based. These  his  order  against  englobing  society is  to  on  of  two  initiated  out:  aspects  emphasis  part  themes  pointed  and p e r s o n a l i t y ;  established  rebellion  been  e l broche s6lo cabe  involves  narrative  thematic  metaphysical  reality  and  novels  i n p a r a l l e l as  main  the  four  content  developed  individual;  existence the  are  and  Donoso's  thematic  The  existentialist the  of  process.  Coronacic'n  and  nature  de Donoso es de la cual  , Donoso uses  "una  univoca  narrative  sublevacid'n de  la  contra  realidad."15  -  46  -  techniques  The  todo interior  appropriate intento  de  reality,  or  the  interior  Andre's,  is  realismo  achieved  de  descriptiva realidad  el  una  the  the  into  use  del  determined  by  compleja  the of  of  of he  se y  de  as  as:  "la  que  la  particularly  Jitrik  fuera  r e a l i t y of  technique  Noe  psiquico  expresa  each c h a r a c t e r  this  what  rica  interior  characters,  defines  fluir  the narrator  what  example  novel's  which  campo  imagen  omniscience  one  by  conciencia", en  penetration  is  of  concreta y mensurable,  propone  the  coherence  bien  los  es  una  canales  realidad."16  each  "el  penetracidn  si  de  calls:  character  This limits  the narrative perspective is  thinking  applied to  and  y  feeling.  is  Here  Andres:  i Y su a b u e l a ? <i No p a g a b a p a r a q u e c u i d a b a h a s u a b u e l a a t o d a s horas del d£a y d e l a n o c h e , como e r a n e c e s a r i o a s u s anos? icon qu6 derecho esta c h i q u i l l a l a dejaba sola para s a l i r a b e s u q u e a r s e c o n un c u a l q u i e r a en l a c a l l e ? Quizes este no fuera el primero, pero iba a ser e l ifltimo. ] En s d l o t r e s m e s e s ! S f , s u p o b r e a b u e l a t e n i a razon, Estela e r a una c o r r o m p i d a , c a s i una p r o s t i t u t a . j Su pobre abuela no e s t a b a l o c a , e r a n e s t o s j o V e n e s los l o c o s , los sucios y envenenados! ( p . 118)  Seeing characters perfected. through  a  the is  story  a  narrative  Suspense, limited  attempted  through  It  seems  more  of  the  himself It  is  natural; and to  not  only  Coronacic'n  which  is  Elisa  the  and  device  of  it  places  Donoso's  James  created  reader  reader  view of  the  favoured  and  and  filtered  e f f e c t i v e than  in  of  the  the mental  when  story. v/orld  interpret things  for  story.  use  of  of  evolves  47  of  manipulation  the  the  reminiscent  -  Henry  be more  godlike  makes  she  that  emotion  follow the  setting  limited point  view can  omniscient,  he w a n t s  the  tension,  point  characters if  through  -  this  Henry in  is  narrative James.  The  similar  to  technique  in  character  of  that  of  the  senile Isis a  old  woman  Quinteros  symbolic  use  of  that  the  has  Screw  Donoso  of  made  an  ,  the  in  in  The  images  James's  and  Jamesian,  and  lives  continent"  of  in  of  period  seemingly  Henry  James'  . Quinteros  states  to  of  Henry  James.  as  Thomas  C.  and The T u r n  of  d e v e l o p e d by  Jamesian  both  as  important  as  Donoso's  approach  internalization  i n f l u e n c e on D o n o s o accurate  context,  is  to  of  the  useful  v/hich  is  in  larger  critics.  conceptual  framework of  the  is  particular  into  what  milieu surface  with  as  Donoso  contradictory perception  -  48  of  -  women  of  sexual "dark the  Victorian  inhibitions  the in  deft  portray  a c u l t u r a l defense portrays  Ramon;  c a l l e d the  truly  respectability,  operates  and  couples*  couples  in  bourgeois  series  Freud  These  replete  Elisa  a  these  sexuality.  particularly  unattractive  contains  into  turmoil.  characters,  non-ideological  Coronacion  hypocrisy of  not  insights  bourgeois  where  to  two d i f f e r e n t g e n e r a t i o n s :  female  characteristics prudery  similar  with  exploration  Adriana.  relationships,  prototype  early  Donoso's  psychoanalytical  a  a more  psychoanalytical  Carlos  in  in  The  sex  .  the house  latent terror  are  anglo-saxon  p e r c e i v e d by  married  Papers  of  between Coronacion of  Aspern  use  Poynton  psychological  that  in  is  image  James's  Coronacio'n  evidence  Donoso's  of  associations  literature  than  i n The  James.17  with  situating  this  atmosphere  techniques,  The  that  Spoils  owes  identification  novel.  out  association  specific  settings,  Venetian palazzo  the maternal being  certainly  and Henry  The  a  points  image  Donoso  Meehan  also  image  this  in  and  mechanism  problem of  a bourgeois  the  milieu  where,  on  Elisa's  one power  equilibrium, or  as  subjection of  hand of  they  are  feared  engulfment  d i d Ramon women t o  the  and  -  e.g.  her  and,  on t h e  role  of  threat other  sexless,  El abuelo le t e n i a t a n t o miedo pura, que p o r eso se i b a a l c l u b abuela a vezes l l o r a b a encerrada ( p . 59) eCreeras moral que Ram^n, me dormiamos corona de en e l c i e l o  Andres  who  to  hand  perceives  his the  frigid  mental  elevation  angels:  a su m u j e r , porque e r a todas las noches, y l a en su d o r m i t o r i o . . .  que s i e m p r e he s i d o una m u j e r t a n b u e n a , t a n n u n c a en t o d o s mis anos de c a s a d a p e r m e t i que mirara el cuerpo? Nunca, n u n c a , y eso que en l a misma c a m a . Ya v e s , dime se no m e r e z c o santa. E n f i n , D i o s p r e m i a r a mis s a c r i f i c i o s , dcindomela a l i a ' , (pp. 149-150)  . t o d o s l o s hombres l o u n i c o que q u e r e n es a b u s a r con nosotras. . ., y e l p l a c e r es una c o c h i n a d a , una inmundicia. i;La vida es un asco y hay que b u s c a r refugio en la religion para no verse obligada a d e s c e n d e r h a s t a e s o y c o n t a m i n a r s e ! ( p . 151) Al ver aparecer a su m a r i d o , e l g e s t o de A d r i a n a se paralis^ en el aire, dej6 el pote en el velador, limpiandose autom^ticamente los dedos e n ^un panito celeste. No sentia miedo n i r e p u g n a n c i a . E s t e e r a un deber como c u a l q u i e r o t r o , n e c e s a r i o de v e z en c u a n d o , aunque preferia que fuera lo ma's de t a r d e en t a r d e p o s i b l e . ( p . 165) Adriana era capaz de quererlo hasta como para entregarle su cuerpo para que lo usara, como e s t a noche, por ejemplo. P e r o C a r l o s y a no t e n i a d e r e c h o a pedir que compartiera sus e m o c i o n e s . I F r i a l d a d ? Has bien no. Era simplemente un d e s e o de v i v i r t r a n q u i l a porque a su a l t u r a nada e r a p e o r que a b r i r n e c e s i d a d e s que se ahaban c o m o d a m e n t e s e l l a d a s en un r i n c d n de s u ser, casi, casi, olvidadas. (p.166) A of  psychohistorian,  female  sexuality  rapid  change  means  exclusive  the  defense  Denial  of  and  and  theory  of  for  values, female  Freud  sexuality  Peter  fears  uncertain  mechanism  female  s u c h as  male  49  the  frigidity -  thus -  would  as  the  in  that  a classic "reaction  fears  a period  dominant  a subconscious -  argue  dominance  trigger  analysed is  Gay,  but  of  by  no  example  of  formation".  male attempt  to  reinforce In move  his  supremacy  Coronacion towards  symbolic  ,  assuming  present  of  in  treatment  and  dimension evolve,  of  in  significance  the  Coronacion  archetypal  character  -  who  women  the  and  symbolic  to  us  skeletal  usually Elisa's  of  as  dimensions  the  of  themes  to  the  universalized  significance novels.  of  is  As  the  destruction  and  changes  in  the  systems  of  main  female  characters  basic  literary  death;  Estela:  life;  to  the  actions  of  reacting  to  Elisa:  catalysts  constantly  analyse  Donoso d e p i c t s  death.  Elisa  to  These  human e x i s t e n c e  are  myths  represented  Dora:  the  the presence  of  male  of  in  the  their  function.  Let Elisa.  value  later  parallel  incarnate  Misici  act  are  main  are  roles  They  characters  system  Donoso's  objects  functions.  correspond  This  and  narrative.  , the  women  events  symbolic  which  the  there  symbolic.  The  characters,  representational  in  of  primarily  poverty.  a  events  Coronacion  upheaval.18  and  existence.  disintegration  In  mythic  and  human  and  novel's  assign  objects  dimensions  a time of  the  functions  characters,  in  (in  first  the  Elisa  in  Her  appearance  object.  Donoso  contrast  associated symbolic  to with  is  terms no  often the  sexual  of  incarnation  that  emphasize  longer  really  associates  the  connotations  Estela) .  incarnation  rostro, y cierta  archetypal  Here  are  of  her  of some  the  -  closeness  human, color  death  she  is  a  white, w i t h color  examples  pink of  death:  la s e n e c t i t u d b a r r i o t o d a i n d i v i d u a c i d n de su dejando s o l o l a o s a m e n t a de una n a r i z s o b e r b i a f i j e z a i n s i s t e n t e en s u s o j o s de l o c a . (p.19)  A v e c e s , a l g u n muchacho d e l con su bicicleta divisaba  -  50  -  Emporio entre  F o r m i n o que e n t r a b a l o s v i s i l l o s de una  ventana del segundo piso el nonagenaria que miraba l a l u z , 25)  rostro bianco de que m i r a b a e l a i r e .  la (p.  El lecho de Misia Elisa G r e y de A b a l o s e r a una g r a n embarcacion de madera r e l u c i e n t e y o b s c u r a . La a n c i a n a se hallaba incorporada, blanca entre las sabanas. Con un espejo en una mano t e m b l o r o s a - e r a i n c r e i b l e q u e esos ojos de p^rpados como h a r a p o s f u e r a n c a p a c e s de recoger su i m a g e n en e l 6valo m i n d s c u l o de l a l u n a - y armada de una pinza, se e s t a b a s a c a n d o l o s p e l o s de menton. . . Ahora estoy como l o s ^ c a d a v e r e s , d i c e n que e l pelo les s i g u e c r e c i e n d o d e s p u e s que l o s e n t i e r r a n . . . ( P . 38) Dando dos que a c a r n e  palmadas de d e l e i t e . . . ( p . 50)  que  sonaron  mas  a  huesos  La anciana seguia gimoteando. Sus fuerzas cesaron pronto, deja'ndola convertida en un ovillo insignificante y blanquecino e n t r e l a s s a b a n a s , en e l que la vida apenas exist la, apenas palpitaba. Sus manos, con un rosario entre los dedos, se habian plegado sobre s u pecho como l a s d e un m u e r t o , p e r o s u s l a b i o s s e m o v i a n . ( p . 53) . . . Estela fue senora, tan blancas h i l a d o . . . ( p . 94)  r e u n i e n d o l a s mechas b l a n c a s de l a y t a n t r a n s p a r e n t e s como c r i s t a l  La luz d i b u j a b a su n a r i z e s t u p i d a m e n t e a g u i l e n a , f i r m e aun, lo unico firme salvado del naufragio de e s t e rostro de escualidas blanduras, de esa mascara de anfractuosidades s u e l t a s blanqueadas por los anos, todo e m p e q u e n e c i d o p o r e l t i e m p o ( p . 195) En el silencio de la alcoba se escuchaba solo l a respiracid'n de las viejas dormidas, y una ultima levisima pluma blanca fue depositada por e l a i r e sobre la mano de M i s i a E l i s i t a , donde aun c o r r i a un p o c o de sangre por l a s venas a z u l o s a s . ( p . 203) From  the beginning  house  she  house  where  similar la this  has  Andre's  terms  casa, house  p.  been  as 48)  like  of  the novel,  confined grew  up.  to  for  In  fact,  Elisa,  it  is  as  is  a corpse  she  a ghost,  Elisa more the  a cadaver  her  of  white -  51  -  of  is  associated  than  with  the  tv/enty y e a r s ,  the  house a house  is  described  (el  cadaver  a woman. Dona E l i s a  face  occasionally  in de  haunts  glimpsed  at  a  window.  of  Elisa  The house and  non-functional,  is  described  i n terms  that  resume  Andre's,  c o n t r i v e d , w i t h an excess  somber,  useless:  of  the  lives  decorations,  La casa donde M i s i a E l i s a G r e y de A b a l o s v i v i a c o n sus dos ancianas c r i a d a s , L o u r d e s y R o s a r i o , e r a un c h a l e t adornado con b a l c o n e s , p e r i l l a s y e s c a l i n a t a s , en medio de un v a s t o j a r d i n humedo c o n d o s p a l m e r a s , u n a a c a d a lado de la entrada. Adema's de l o s dos p i s o s , a r r i b a habia otro p i s o o c u l t o p o r m a n s a r d a s c o n f i t a d a s c o n un sin fin de t o r r e c i t a s almenadas y r e c i r t e s de m a d e r a . La c a s a t e n i a un d e f e c t o : e s t a b a o r i e n t a d a c o n t a n p o c o acierto que l a fachada r e c i b i a s o l escasas horas . . . ( p . 13)  quedO o b s e r v a n d o e s a c a s a d e f e n d i d a p o r de a r b o l e s h u m e d e c i d o s , g o t e a n d o aun despue's de la l l u v i a de l a t a r d e ; e r a una v i s i o n de l o i n u t i l , con sus adornos de mala c a l i d a d c o n f u n d i e n d o l a l i n e a esencial h a s t a b o r r a r l a a f u e r z a de pequenos torreones, mansardas innecesarias, terrazas, balcones que no se a b r i a n a p i e z a a l g u n a . ( p . 160) esqueletos  We and  have  seen  provokes,  in  se  how E l i s a ' s him  grandmother's  pervasive  his  is  madness,  identity,  a  feeling  of  to death  anxiety  i n f l u e n c e , which w i l l  embodied  threatening  proximity  in  the  his mental  house  disturbs  and  Andre's  terror.  eventually  lead  and p e n e t r a t e s  His to  Andres  equilibrium:  Esta casa, en c a m b i o , de v i e j a s maderas i m p r e g n a d a s la voz de la enferma, era la p e o r amenaza p a r a c o r d u r a d e A n d r e ' s , ( p . 43)  de la  A l i i no podia p e r m a n e c e r . Su a b u e l a e s t a b a v i v a en e l cuarto de abajo. Con cada una de sus debiles respiraciones, la nonagenaria lo i b a c o c i e n d o mas y ma's a l a a n g u s t i a d e l o s d i a s a n t e r i o r e s . . . ( p . 1 2 5 ) Tengo miedo, s i , e s t a c a s a . ( p . 199) Andres Both  perceives  represent  obliteration, engulfment  an  miedo  t h e house  all-engulfing  of death which  i n Coronacio'n  is  de acostarme  and h i s  t h e mouth -  52  grandmother  maternal  can swallow  -  a dormir as  a  repression,  him up. Another  which appears  as  a  aqui  en  threat.  a form  of  image  of  symbolic  value  of  female  (Estela)  and  toothless  repulsion  hags,  holes  which  cerro'  los  aun  ojos  desdentada desdentada  myth  boca  said  e r a de c i e n Estela  character  function  she,  Elisa,  the  characters  human e x i s t e n c e Estela, Elisa  from  in  assumes  instinctual the  mansion  she  in  of  40). the  Lourdes  when  help  vio  her  pink  she  care an  and Dora  (p.  -  124)  cavernous Mario  cavidad  donde  . .  are  inmensa.  esa  (p.31) .  . .  .  "su  "La  boca  caverna  172). another and  presence  basic  literary  this  symbolic  in  a catalyst  moribund,  symbolic life.  arrives for  to  the  to  in  the  the  actions  of  dimension  of  por  algo  palms  with well  are  oligarchic  incarnation of  sexuality,  She  is  17  work  in  the  years  in  Her  Estela  of  casi  a symbolic  which appears throughout  in  the  fresh Abalos  presence  Andres:  i n s t i n c t i v o , algo part  old,  decaying  Elisa.  response  sexuality as  repressed,  dying  instinctive  pink  and T e n c h i t a as  the  light,  acechado  Estela's color  as  boca  borrar  (p.  life  attraction  represents.  the  "Andres  -  of  threatening,  incarnates  to  the novel  evokes  (p.  react  to  immediately se  who  responses,  to  para  forms Elisa  "Abrio' l a  anos"  acts  contrast  country  up:  as  extraido",  archetypal  male  appear  entreabierta"  that  like  Elisa).  todo,  mal  hallaba  have  of  dente  extreme  and  one  para borrarlo  de su  its  mouths  swallow  el  se  in  (Dora  their  can  sangraba  We  sexuality  .  .  .  salvaje"  association relation  to  novel:  . . un s i l l o n p e q u e n o y r o s a d o como e l c u e r p o de u n a persona desnuda. Lourdes, que ya engordaba, debia p a r e c e r s e a e s e r e c h o n c h o s i l l o n c a p i t o n e . ( p . 57) . su c u e r p o desnudo b a j o sin duda e r a baftado p o r l a l u z v e l a d o r . ( p . 128)  -  53  -  e l tosco camisdh s u e l t o , r o j i z a de a l a m p a r i a d e l  We  have  Andre's'  repressed  associated sexual  with  how E s t e l a ' s sexual  the  connotation  attraction with  seen  (Estela)  Tenchita,  caricature  of  desires.  mouth, of  colour  Estela's  become  in  in  this  its  (Tenchita).  appears  attraction for  in  a fixation  the. case  presents pink  repulsion  female s e x u a l i t y  palms As  Donoso  the  and  pink  of  for  sexuality  image  extreme When  and  the  forms  of  associated  a grotesque,  repulsive  Andres:  Despues d e ^ unos instantes aparecio Tenchita ataviada con un penador de s e d a . E r a como un g r a n p a s t e l c o l o r rosa, adornado con anillos, prendedores, aros de f a n t a s i a , ( p . 112) La fiebre le producia escalofrios, aseguro, envolviendose los hombros en su chal de fina lana rosada. . . . Donaldo me l o t r a j o a n o c h e d e r e g a l o , fijese que es a m o r o s o . D i j o que q u e r i a verme r o s a d i t a entera c u a n d o me d e s p e r t a r a e n s u l a d o e n l a m a n a n a . . al indicar a su marido, descubrid* a l o s o j o s de Andre's la palma de su mano, r o s a d a , m u e l l e , c r u d a . (p, 113) It  is  opposite of  Interesting  extremes  that  (e.g.  of  Elisa  opposites  within  strength  of  of  a t t r a c t i o n and inspire  extremes  the  use  same  technique  grotesque  repulsion.  recurs  images  this  that  in  appear  parodies  This  his in  of  dual  subsequent Coronacion  shawl).  and Andres  carries  Donoso's  which  frequently using the pink  note  symbolic  attraction  presentation novels  of  to  her  belong the  to  an  o l d , dark,  dying  world.  power  of  youth,  spark  of  the  life  Estela and  a  will:  Entonces Mario la v i o e n t e r a i l u m i n a d a , como s e f u e r a el c e n t r o mismo de l a g r a n l l a m a r a d a a z u l y p e l i g r o s a . . d e n t r o de e l l a se h a b i a i d o r e s t a n d o l a f a c u l d a d de entregarse, manteniendo, s i n embargo, v i v o y o c u l t o e l germen de su voluntad y de sus g u s t o s , l o s que una manera o de o t r a y s i n que n a d i e l o s u p i e r a , t e r m i n a b a p o r c u m p l i r . ( p . 46)  -  54  -  Solo s u s o j o s , s i e m p r e g a c h o s , p e r m a n e c i a n i g u a l e s : clos ranuras hdmedas y oblicuas. Pero ahora no e r a r a r o verlos a b r i r s e de p r o n t o p a r a m i r a r de f r e n t e , y en e s e fondo negrisimo surgia subitamente algo como una i n t e n s a l l a m a r a d a a z u l . ( p . 49) Estela life  and  and  Elisa  death  represent  which  symbolically  alternately  frighten  the  and  opposite  attract  poles  of  Andre's:  Erraba interminablemente de h a b i t a c i o n en h a b i t a c i o h , vestido de b a t a y p a n t u f l a s , p e r o s i e m p r e s i n e n t r a r a l cuarto de la nonagenaria, y esquivando posibles encuentros con Estela. Su angustia se hallaba suspendida entre esos dos extremos, uno y o t r o e r a n objetos de su huir que lo m a n t e n i a f l o t a n d o en una existencia c r e p u s c u l a r despue's de l a v i d a y a n t e s de l a m u e r t e . . . ( p . 126) Estela's lover,  sexuality  and A n d r e s ,  affects but  and  also  attracts  not  only  Mario,  her  Carlos:  . en e l momento mismo d e e n t r a r en e s e c u a r t o c o n olor a colcho'n en desuso y a armario vacio, la presencia a n i m a l de E s t e l a t e n d i d a en e l l e c h o l o h a b i a perturbado. . . . Con su antebrazo, la muchacha defendia sus o j o s de l a l u z de l a a m p o l l e t a d e s n u d a que colgaba en el m e d i o d e l t e c h o , d e modo q u e d e b a j o d e la blusa los tendones de l a a x i l a e r g u i a n sus pechos. Carlos busco' ese color rosado muelle de l a s palmas descrito con t a n t a t u r b a c i d ' n p o r Andre's y a l v e r l o , un violento deseo de p a l p a r a E s t e l a a c o m e t i d * a l medico, ( p . 154) The of  girl's  life  world:  and  her  "Desde  mientras  que  producian  otra  The Estela she  pregnancy separation ese  el  vida  carries  shadowed inevitable  by  the  de  todo Estela  completando spark  within  with  from the  momento  vientre  enduring  escapes  emphasizes  Mario  of her  is  dos  vidas  and  evoked  at  55  fue  en  of  conjugadas  bellamente  de p e r f e c c i o n . "  (p.  the  will  strength  the  novels  of  towards  of  machismo,  the  and  the  155) that  conclusion  mansion  -  Andres'  disminucidh,  Abalos  innocence  -  incarnation  sterility  Andre's  ciclo  values  of  archetypal  moribund  para  life  from the  degraded  corruption  un  her  a  as  future  seemingly  descent  into  destruction.  Estela's the  flicker  only  of triumph at the novel's  finale  is  slightly  optimistic  towards  an u n c e r t a i n , ambiguous f u t u r e :  note  climatic  Donoso  injects  Ella, como sonimbula, s i n escuchar los insultos del muchacho, con las facciones manchadas de sangre, caminaba. Sus p i e r n a s c a s i no l e obedecian. Pero en e l fondo de las tinieblas de su d o l o r f i s i c o habia una chispa que podia t r a n s f o r m a r s e en c l a r i d a d , una c e r t e z a f i e r a de su t r i u n f o . (p. 211) Dora  also  character  -  described  as  incarnates  another  basic  myth  of  archetypal  she r e p r e s e n t s p o v e r t y , misery, d e g e n e r a t i o n . She i s a  hag, whining, c r y i n g , i n her d i r t y , c o l d , s m e l l y  h o v e l surrounded by hungry  children:  la mujer de Rene, ahora era un e s p e c t r o . E l escaso ,pelo graciento l e colgaba t i e s o d e t r a s de l a s o r e j a s . Su cara era como s i a l g u i e n h u b i e r a abandonado un t r a p o l a c i o encima de alambres t o r c i d o s en l a forma de sus f a c c i o n e s de antes y e l t r a p o se h u b i e r a quedado a l i i , un remedo c o l g a n t e de su a n t i g u a c a r a . (p. 30) La " u l t i m a vez fue t a l e l asco que l e produjo su mujer, no s6lo su cuerpo e n v e j e c i d o y mal o l i e n t e , s i n o que ma's aun, esa pas i o n , esa s e n s u a l i d a d anhelante y frustrada, que permanecid' muchos d i a s s i n i r a su c a s a . (p. 96) La Dora lloraba todo e l d i a por su embarazo, y l o s chiquillos, con l o s mocos chorreando, d e t e n i a n sus juegos insoportablemente b u l l i c i o s o s para, p e d i r de comer una y o t r a y o t r a vez. (p. 135) La m i s e r i a de l a c a s a , l a f e a l d a d de l a mujer que l o reciibid', e l o l o r a l a comida y a cama s i n hacer y a ninbs s u c i o s , . . . (p. 183) embarazada. rebeldia Dora's  e  . . .  incomodidad  degeneration  pessimistic  e l embarazo persistio,ha»iendola q u e j a r s e de durante  and  projection  poverty towards  horas that the  e n t e r a s . " (p. 122) embodies  future.  Donoso's  It is most  What i s to prevent  Mario and E s t e l a from becoming the same as Rene and Dora? Mario's  relationship  with  Estela  - 56 -  is  based  on  the  same  degraded  values  perceives  love  towards  Estela  reassure  his  of as  machismo a  and  own p r i d e  trap a  as  Rene' and  and  he  compulsion and  sense  relationship.  constantly to  of  Dora's  feels  humiliate  male  her  He  resentment in  order  to  superiority:  Era chica y huasa, y s e l e h a b i a e n t r e g a d o . En o t r a s mujeres h a b i a s e n t i d o e l p e l i g r o s o d e s e o de e n v o l v e r l o , seducirlo, vencerlo, pero no de e n t r e g a r s e . E s t e l a s e h a b i a e n t r e g a d o . Por eso todo e r a t a n p e r f e c t o . " - A y i f d a m e , no se' . . . " Sdbitamente, sus propias palabras dichas en un momento de. ardor confuso r e g r e s a r o n a su memoria p a r a derribar el orgullo. Mird' a esa mujer que cosia satisfecha, como para d e s t r u i r l a con su r e s e n t i m i e n t o por conocerlo tan d e b i l y d e s n u d o . I P o r c u l p a de e s a s malditas p a l a b r a s que l o a m a r r a b a n , y a no s e r i a p o s i b l e comentar nada con sus a m i g o s ! No, no i b a a d e c i r n i una sola palabra, aunque se r i e r a n de e l cuando c o n t e s t a r a a l a s p r e g u n t a s c o n e v a s i v a s . En r e a l i d a d , l o m e j o r e r a no volver al Condor, i Por culpa de E s t e l a se v e f a reducido a la suerte de l o s e n a m o r a d o s ! Una m a r e a de odio hacia ella l o d e j o ' e s t u p e f a c t o . \ N o , il n o h a b i a caido en el g a r l i t o ! £ Enamorarse? \ Eso e r a p a r a l o s imbeciles que no c o n o c i a n a l a s m u j e r e s ! A h o r a 4l l a s conocia bien. E ' s t a n o e r a ma's q u e u n a e n t r e l a s m u c h a s mujeres que iba a seducir, t o d a s i g u a l e s . ? A c a s o no sigui6 c a d a uno de l o s p a s o s de l a t a n c o n o c i d a t e c n i c a de l a s e d u c c i d n , y e l l a cayo" i g u a l que t o d a s ? S i , todas iguales, lo demas era cosa de imbeciles . . . (p. 100-101) Estela's ultimate Dora's  pregnancy  female  trap  and  terrifies he  sees  Mario his  who  future  perceives in  terms  of  it  as  Rene'  the and  situation: Estela se cubrio' e l ventre con l a s m a n o s como p a r a protegerlo. Nada mas. Y las manos de Mario se suavizaron apenas un segundo s o b r e l o s hombros de l a muchacha al ver su g e s t o . Pero inmediatamertte, p o s e i d o de una furia mayor y mas p e l i g r o s a , s a c u d i d * a E s t e l a u n a y o t r a v e z , a u n c o n mas v i o l e n c i a : d'.'Estai esperando, jetona de mierda? I 'Estai esperando? ? E s t a i esperando? Su voz t e m b l a b a a l r e p e t i r l a p r e g u n t a de n u e v o y de nuevo, premiosa, aterrada, furibunda, mientras sacudia a E s t e l a como s i q u i s i e r a d e s a r m a r l a , m i e m b r o a miembro. ^ - S i . . . - murmuro ella. Entonces, como si t o d a l a f u e r z a de Rene h u b i e r a  -  57  -  poseido su cuerpo, Mario d i d un g o l p e s a l v a j e c o n l a mano abierta en l a c a r a de E s t e l a , q u e lanscS un g e m i d o de a n i m a l . t a m b i e n quleres j o d e r m e , h u e v o n a de m i e r d a ? Y huyo , dejando a Estela sola, palpandose la m e j i l i a c o n l a p u n t a d e s u s d e d o s . ( p . 13 8) 7  A Estela! El ya no e r a n i n g u n i n c a u t o que s e i b a a dejar pescar por la primera mujer a quien l e habia hecho u n c h i q u i l l o ! No e r a l a p r i m e r a v e z q u e p a s a b a , a muchos de sus amigos les habia sucedido y siempre lograban esconderse o huir. f'Cualquier cosa menos dejarse pescar! Y m e n o s p o r E s t e l a , q u e ademcfs d e t o d o era una l a d r o n a , s i , l a d r o n a , p o r q u e a e l no l e i b a n a contar cuentos, esos cinco mil pesos eran robados. J Como no! ^.Para q u e ' l a m u j e r l o h i c i e r a t r a b a j a r como un caballo, y e l l a a n d u v i e r a r a b i o s a y quejcindose todo el tiempo, y despues del segundo o t e r c e r c h i q u i l l o quedara convertida en un espantap^jaros asqueroso, igual que la Dora? No, n o . Con r a z o n l o s c a b r o s d e l club se reian de ^1 porque ahora l o encontraban tan s e r i o . i J u n t a r s e c o n e l l a ? I P a r a que*? E l m u n d o , y s o b r e todo el mundo de Rene', estaba l l e n o de m u j e r e s con quienes era facil pasarlo bien sin necesidad de amarrarse. Porque el, a h o r a , no i b a a d e j a r s e a m a r r a r por n a d i e . (p. 139-40) Like  Rene,  order  to  feels  insecure  to  Mario  justify  reassure  about  himself  others  with his  courage  -  the  his  needs  to  abusive, his  about  macho  his  situation  on  a woman  e x p l o i t a t i v e treatment of  own m a s c u l i n i t y his  male prowess,  classic  blame  his  and  he  virility.  He  strength,  his  her.  constantly seeks  to  in He  needs impress  independence,  his  syndrome:  - I La j e t o n a se l o t r a g d ! - r i d Rene. Mario repitid* la p a l a b r a , r i e n d o con su hermano, la s a b o r e o p r o n u n c i a n d o l a una y o t r a v e z , muchas v e c e s , las mas veces que pudo. H a c e r l o quiza's d i s o l v i e r a sus ultimas ataduras c o n E s t e l a , q u i z a s b o r r a r a un t e m b l o r que sentfa, uri trepidar que se insinuaba en sus visceras, e n s u s m u s c u l o s , e n s u s n e r v i o s , como s i t o d o estuviera nadando i n g r a v i d o e n s u i n t e r i o r . ApretO l o s dientes para dominar ese temblor, para hacer algo, cualquier cosa que l o o b l i g a r a a m a n t e n e r su e n t e r e z a , porque ya era imposible e c h a r p i e a t r a s . E s t o no e r a momento para f a l l a r . A l f i n y a l c a b o n i 4l n i t a m b i e ' n la Dora y los chiquillos; y l a m i s e r i a que l o h a b f a obligado a a b a n d o n a r s u b u e n e m p l e o en e l e m p o r i o p a r a ir en busca de Rene; y su reloj perdido; y esta  -  58  -  necesidad ahogadora de evadirse se su p r o p i a sombra para rozar s i q u i e r a d e s d e l e j o s l a s c o s a s b u e n a s de l a vida, e s a s c o s a s que l o s h a b i t a n t e s de l a c a s a que v e i a en la acera del frente d e b i a n t e n e r a manos l l e n a s ; todo eso culpable, no e ' l . J Y a u n q u e Rene' y e'l f u e r a n culpables, que' importaba? L a p o l i c i a y l o s a n o s en l a carcel carcomiendole poco a p o c o l o s escombros de su dignidad, en el fondo de una celda fetida? ? No importaba un b l e d o ! H a b i a que a r r i e s g a r s e , p r o b a r a h o r a o n u n c a que e r a un h o m b r e ! ( p . 2 0 4 - 1 0 ) In  their  characters  reactions  advance  Carlos  and  social  classes  are  which  the  dichotomy, feminine points actions of  the  and Rene  interior  of  in  and  exterior  social  the  characters  of  the  male  characters,  will  lugar  sin  with  limites  and  as  a  novels)  once For  lost  are  characters  a l l  social  caught  up  the and  text  the  and  by  world  of  the  into  Mario),  by p r o v i d i n g  being  therefore  divides  the  reference  catalysts  determining  a  for  the  the  process  action. an  some El  paradise  prevailed  of  narrative  presents  recur,  appears  nostalgia.  also  They  two  decomposition.  the Abalos  male  which  boundaries.  and  the  existential conflicts  the  Coronacion  symetrical positions  novel.  male  a c t i o n . Andre's  male  of  of  of  the main  the  organize  level  in  the  for  narrative  level  structure  world  characters,  A l l  human a n d  archetypes  female  occupy  social  lineal  (the  the  narrative  transcend  the process While  the  depicted  faced with  chaos in  Mario  to  and  archetypal  variations,  obsceno where this  pajaro  order past  is  (so  in de  reduction Este la  domingo  noche  important  often  of  evoked  . The  time, ,  El  past  in  Donoso's  in  terms  of  example:  "tPero esta paz era un mendrugo cuando Andres recordaba a s u a b u e l a en o t r o s t i e m p o s ! t'Tan a r m o n i o s a entonces, tan diestra y callada! Toda l a casa h a b i a respirado s e r e n i d a d en a q u e l l a e p o c a , l o que t o c a b a i b a adquiriendo orden y sentido. iiY habia sido tan  -  59  -  hermosa!" The  past  is  (p.19). evoked  in  terms  of  its  serenity,  security  and  beauty: En l a s t i e n d a s de c o s a s u s a d a s , en c a m b i o , p o l v o r i e n t a s y en desorden, atendidas por caballeros un poco zarrapastrosos y d e o r i g e n o s c u r o , como t a m b i i n e n e s o s objetos y volumenes duenos de ma's h i s t o r i a que e l , existfa un algo indefinible que le proporcionaba apaciguamiento y confianza no c a r e n t e s de m i s t e r i o , como si esos cuartos r e p l e t o s de t r a s t o s y de l i b r o s viejos estuvieron deliciosamente domesticados, sin las a r i s t a s de l a s t i e n d a s de o b j e t o s n u e v o s . ( p . 108) Hallaba de su epocas 109)  una seguridad palma aquellas y continentes  Tanto existencia viaje de imposible ( p . 145) As  Jose  repitiendo  a trave's  nostalgia espacio  del  Lourdes como e l p a r e c i a n haber o l v i d a d o l a de todo el mundo, h a b e r s e e m b a r c a d o en un regreso a una epoca en que p a r a e l l o s e r a perderse porque todo v a l o r les era conocido. Ojeda de  has  (p.41)  lost  comments:  las  parafso,  m e t a f f s i c o de  Andres vida"  Promis  el  la  "ese  from the  unbearable  refuge  in  i t .  Madness  order  with the  los  la  present,  represents  se  va  precisamente,  la  por  que  reencontrar  el  permanencia."19  que  away  motivos  es,  de hombre  y  orden  turns  de  de Donoso  anhelo  felicidad  when Andre's  "Uno  novelas  escapes  associates  c o l m a d o r a a l s e n t i r en e l h u e c o empunaduras que o t r a s manos, en d i s t a n t e s , habian e n t i b i a d o . (p.  era  la  from any he  esencia hope  chooses  order  for  of  misma  de  a future  madness, Andre's  he  la and  takes  and  he  past:  " . . . todo no es ma's que un desorden, una injusticia, un juego de l o c u r a d e l C o s m o s . S i h a y un Dios que v e l e por e l d e s t i n o de l o s h o m b r e s , no puede ser sino un Dios l o c o . <f Que' l o c u r a ma's c o m p l e t a q u e haber dotado a los hombres de c o n c i e n c i a p a r a d a r s e cuenta del desorden y del terror, p e r o no h a b e r l e s dotado de algo para vencerlos? . . . e l ifnico orden es la l o c u r a , p o r q u e l o s l o c o s son l o s que se han dado cuenta d e l caos t o t a l . " ( p . 157)  -  60  -  Madness Donoso's return  to  of  a  form  following the  nostalgia, have  is  an  of  novels)  lost  order and  for  paradise,  infantile  (another  i m p o r t a n t theme  Andres,  to  lost  regression.  madness  innocence,  This  is  the  is  also  a refuge  last  in  image  a in we  Andres: "Quando Carlos p a r t i o , Andre's se puso sus g a f a s y extendi^ el perio'dico. Despue's l o p u s o a su l a d o y s e dirigio' a la b i b l i o t e c a en b u s c a de un c o r t a p l u m a s . Corto el diario en trozos regulares, bien cuadrados, con lo que fue h a c i e n d o p a j a r i t a s de p a p e l , como l a s que su abuela le habia ensenado a h a c e r d u r a n t e un invierno muy lluvioso y muy f r £ o q u e e ' l p a s c ^ e n c a m a enfermo de e s c a r l a t i n a , c u a n d o a r e m u y , muy n i f f o . " (p. 218) . -  The on  the  future ambiguity  actions Abalos the  mansion  have  as  is  (as  actions  and  not  some  Consistent and  Estela's  presented earlier  their the  fate  as  same  Rent's  relationship Estela's  Promis  Ojeda  seems  degraded w i t h Dora  the  as  critics of  emphasis  reality  together  away  would have the  values based,  believe)  be t h a t "machismo"  appear  as  of  the  towards  inevitable fall. to  of  us  these  from  a utopic projection  destined  is  with Donoso's ambiguous  flight  a temporary postponement  said,  and  human  Mario  Dora  Mario  ambiguous.  of  create,  future  rather  is  As  Rene  upon  but we and  which  impediments  to  salvation. resumes  this  pessimistic  outlook:  "Si aceptamos que la decadencia proviene de la vaciedad de un f a l s o o r d e n e s t a b l e c i d o , s i g n i f i c a que tambien debemos suponer la c a i d a d e l mundo d e R e n e y Dora. Este s e r i g e a s i m i s m o p o r un f a l s o o r d e n , b a s a d o fundamentalmente en e l m a c h i s m o y en e l o d i o , es d e c i r , tambieVi en valores degradados. El machismo es, al respecto, el obstciculo que se tiende entre Mario y Estela . . . Tanto e l mundo d e A n d r e s c o m o e l d e R e n / s o n , pues, mundos f i n a l e s , d e g r a d a d o s , mundos donde e l o r d e n precario que l o s s o s t i e n e e s t a ' a p u n t o de q u e b r a r s e . E l  -  61  -  colapso inminente de ambos sectores sociales se manifiesta en forma a p a r e n t e m e n t e d i s i m i l , p e r o no se trata mas que de sintomas distintos de una mdtua solidariedad en la desaparicio'n y l a m u e r t e . . . Se trata, en el fondo, de m o s t r a r l a c a i d a f i n a l de un mundo entero que agoniza por haber perdido e l s e n t i d o ma's p r o f u n d o d e s u s e r " . 2 0 The Donoso's of  theme  of  novels  and  destruction  it  orchestrates  act  characters:  Andres,  a symbol  perceive  and-  although  they  of  in  life  these to  male  them  action.  Rene'and  fall The  these  from theme  innocence,  the  the  recurrent  treatment  fall the  dominates process  element  of  the  in  themes  said  catalysts  to  the  actions  is  who  a t t r a c t e d by  fears  Elisa  evolution  of  act  as  and  of  Mario,  the  the  feminine the  youth  and  for  the  continuity  and  Elisa  forces death  who in  also  women,  strength actions  a t t r a c t i o n and the  main  of  Rene, see  relationships  Andres  of  they  catalysts  advances  narrative  the  incarnation  engulfment  alternating  that  and  in  disintegration  life-giving  Mario  a t t r a c t e d to  women  the  the  repression;  pov/ers  whose  as  the  Coronaci<5n  of  have  The  and  the  organizes  determines  narrative  of  repulsion level  of  in Coronacion  is  between Andre's  and  and,  to  a  lesser  Dora.  relationships,  paradise of  of  maternal  a l l ,  extent,  of  main  We  who  characters  Estela  the  essence  initially  women.  the  is  novel.  the  are  Estela,  In  of  fear  After by  the  and  largely  provided  and  as  incarnates  as  the  theme  in  archetypes  Estela  fall  disintegration.  archetypal  destruction  and  is  This that and  and  the  the  into fall,  violence  woman f u n c t i o n s  earthly the of  chaos  lost  sexuality  -  62  -  and  as  cause  eventual  paradise, are  the  the  the old  for  the  destruction. corruption  biblical  of  myths  which  bourgeois  essential  society  structural  Andres,  who  himself  an  has  has  cultivated  basis  of  abandoned  atheist,  is  and  CoronaciOn  his  Catholic  inescapably  a  .  which p r o v i d e  It i s i r o n i c that  faith part  the  and  of  proclaims  this  biblical  legacy. The  culminating  Misia  Elisa  lugar  sin  image, Misia  by  lfmites  which Elisa's  triumph  her  point drunken  the  represents  novel  i s the c o r o n a t i o n  ends with a grotesque,  a d i s i n t e g r a t i n g world. The  coronation  is  of  s e r v a n t s . L i k e Este domingo and E l  , Coronacion  of madness. And  crowning  of  a  death  ritual  symbolic  ceremony of  symbolizing  the  as i n the case of Andres* madness, i n the  of M i s i a E l i s a ' s madness as she l i v e s her death there i s  a sense of refuge, of reaching towards p a r a d i s e : "Quedaba apenas una llamita de v i d a en l a serfora, . casi, c a s i nada de c o n c i e n c i a . S i n embargo, d i v i s d ' estrellas a trave's de los vidrios llovidos de la ventana, y como ya no era capaz de d i s t i n g u i r d i s t a n c i a ni c e r c a n f a , a l ver l u c e s remontando por l o s regueros de m o s t a c i l l a s d e l s u e l o h a s t a l o s b r i l l o s de su v e s t i d o de gran aparato, penso" que tambien eran e s t r e l l a s d e l firmamento, y que la envolvian e n t e r a . Supuso", entonces, que ya habia muerto, y que iba subiendo entre tanta y tanta estrella, subiendo muy suavemente a camino d i r e c t o d e l c i e l o . Despue's cerr<5 l o s o j o s . Estaba tan agotada que no se d i o cuenta de que s6lo en ese i n s t a n t e morl'a, y no antes, cuando creyd* ver a todas l a s c o n s t e l a c i o n e s rodea'ndola". (p. 219) As terms  a  novel,  Coronacion  outlined,the f i r s t  i s , i n the thematic  and n a r r a t i v e  s t e p towards the "unsubdued f o r e s t where  the wolf howls and the obscene b i r d of n i g h t  -  63  -  chatters."21  Chapter All Edition,  quotes 1969  from  two  Coronacio n  notes taken  /  1. Ana Maria Moix, Prdlogo (Barcelona: Seix B a r r a l , 1971).  to  from Seix Cuentos  Barral  Second  Jose'  Donoso  ,  2. A more d e t a i n e d a n a l y s i s o f e a r l i e r ( p r e 1970) critical commentaries of Coronacion reveals a fairly wide range of differing emphasis and o p i n i o n s ( o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y ) w i t h i n t h e general interpretive framework of traditional realism. For example: Fernando A l e g r i a ( L a l i t e r a t u r a c h i l e n a d e l s i a l o XX , Santiago: Zig-Zag 2nd E d . , 1962) p p . 9 3 - 9 4 , s a y s t h a t t h e n o v e l lacks profoundness and maturity; Carlos Rauld ("Jose' Donoso, Coronacion", Finis T e r r a e , No. 17, Y e a r V, 1958, p. 81-82) s a y s that the novel is close to total m a t u r i t y and i n c a r n a t e s an existential attitude towards l i f e ; R i c a r d o Lachman ("Coronacio/n por Jose' Donoso", C a r n e t C r i t i c o , Ed. A f a , M o n t e v i d e o , 1962, p. 190-93) e m p h a s i z e s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e n o v e l ; Thomas C. Meehan ("Jose' D o n o s o , C o r o n a c i o n " , Books A b r o a d , V o l . 4 3 , No. 2, Spring 1969, p. 233) s t a t e s t h a t D o n o s o i s t h e s u c c e s s o r to Eduardo Barrio in the t r a d i t i o n of Chilean p s y c h o l o g i c a l novel; Enrique Lafourcade ("Jose Donoso, Coronacion", Cujtura Universitaria , Caracas, July-August, 1958) emphasizes the novel's solid structure and i t s a l t e r n a t i n g b r u t a l r e a l i t y and poetic ingenuity; Hernan Poblete Varas ("Novelistas de H o y " , Atenea , No. 389, I 9 6 0 , p. 175-77) m a i n t a i n s t h a t Donoso i s so limited by traditional realism that he completely neglects d e v e l o p i n g f a n t a s y and i m a g i n a t i o n . 3. Jose Donoso, Historia Personal E d i t o r i a l Anagrama, 1972), p.36. 4. realidad  ,  (Barcelona:  7, 8. 1973,  Jose p. 12,  Donoso, "Cronologfa", "Chronology", t r a n s l a t e d by I s i s Quinteros.  10. George Lukacs, Nagel, C o l l e c t i o n Pens^e, 11. 12. narrativa  contra  la  Donoso, "La n o v e l a como ' h a p p e n i n g ' " , Revista V o l . X X X V I I ( J u l y - December, 1 9 7 1 ) , No. 7 6 - 7 7 ,  9. Interview with JosO Review , F a l l , 1973, p. 37.  la  "Boom"  Isis Quinteros, J o s e ' Donoso. una insurecciOn ( M a d r i d , H i s p a n o v a de E d i c i o n e s , 1 9 7 8 ) , p.13.  5. 6. Jose Iberoamericana , p.519). Fall,  del  Donoso,  by  Existent ialisme 1948) p. 3 1 .  Review  ,  Emir  Rodriguez  Monegal,  ou  Marxisme?  (Paris;,:  Ariel D o r f m a n , " N o t a s p a r a un a n a l i s i s raarxista de c h i l e n a de l o s u l t i m o s a n o s " , C a s a de l a s A m e r i c a s , -  64  -  No.  69,  mundo  de pp.  13. ,  Year  XII,  p.  75;  p.  35.  Cedomil G o i c (and o t h e r s ) . D o n o s o , l a d e s t r u c c i o n de un (Buenos A i r e s : F e r n a n d o G a r c i a C a m b e i r o , E d . , 1975) p.55.  14. Jose* u n mundo , 30-31. 15.  November-December,  Promis (Buenos  Salvador  O j e d a (and o t h e r s ) , Donoso. l a A i r e s : Fernando G a r c i a Cambeiro  Elizondo,  El  Grafo'logo  ,  (Mexico,  destruccion Ed., 1975), n.p.,  1972),  p.67. 16. NoO Jitrik, "Realismo y antirealismo" in Actual narrativa latinoamericana (Havana: Centro de Investigaciones L i t e r a r i a s , C a s a de l a s A m e r i c a s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 2 5 . 17. Thomas Abroad , V o l . 43,  C. No.  Meehan, "Jose 2, S p r i n g 1969,  Donoso, p. 233.  18. Peter Gay, "The Bourgeois Freud", Volume I, Education of the University Press, 1983). 19. sons ) .  20.  Jose  Promis  Ojeda, pp.  Coronacio'n",  Books  Experience: Victoria to Senses (England: Oxford  16-17,  21. Henry James Sr., e x t r a c t from a l e t t e r w r i t t e n to his Henry and W i l l i a m ( P r e f a c e t o E l o b s c e n o p a j a r o de l a n o c h e  -  65  -  Chapter  Este 1966.  domingo  El  lugar  publication  is  sin  of  Jose  volume o f s h o r t s t o r i e s , The Ana  short stories  Maria,  reflect short  the  of  innocence;  upper  social  systems;  destroy  order.  exorcist his  of  style  and  pervasive  also theme  by  evolution more  and  a  of  thematic  repeatedly reality  the  more  inevitable  in  hierarchical  madness when  of  previous  s e x u a l i t y of  instincts  that a writer  i s an  launched  self-defining  o f h i s p a s t . The  from in  unity.  The  a  process  e v o l u t i o n i n form  c h a r a c t e r i z e s and  single  and most  illuminates  i s that of d e s t r u c t i o n . are p a r t o f Donoso's n a r r a t i v e  author's  gradual  techniques  complex  -  ( E l Hombrecito,  i s implacably  search  another  1960.  repressed  a progressive  strong  narrative a  the  to exorcize himself  a  in  ,  i n Donoso's  Vargas L l o s a once s a i d  on  the  Paseo, S a n t e l i c e s )  dependence  demons. Donoso  Between  theme o f t h e  c a t a c l i s m o f d e a t h and  illustrate  towards  and  in E l Charleston  traditional  realism  domination  which  stories  present : the  in  dominao  , appeared  paradise;  i s marked by  Donoso's a p p r e h e n s i o n The  lost  writing  search  of Este  Cerrada,  obsessions  the  own  process  Puerta  published  i n 1966.  in E l Charleston  Coronacion  Mario  earliest  this  the  his  never-ending of  contained  in  classes;  and  E l Charleston  same t h e m a t i c and  second novel  a l s o appeared  i n 1957  Charleston,  stories  loss the  El  Donoso's  limites  CoronaciOn  three  66  and  shift  away f r o m  their  attributes  n a r r a t i v e f o r m where  -  the of  ambiguity  dominates. to  a  Donoso moves s t e p  world  different world  of  versions  whose  needs.  the  is  themes  Este  life  are  emanating  obsessed  from  and  presents  a schizophrenic  driven  by t h e i r  T h e s e c h a r a c t e r s , d r i v e n by t h e i r  perhaps the s h o r t  sterile  vitality.  palms  for  in  own  obsessions,  in  The  dog  a l l her  like  events  and  memories. Donoso  The to  i n P a s e o becomes repressed  ). Matilda  , a first  characters  and  I n P a s e o and E s t e  enhances  the  for  innocence  of childhood  aware  the  the  narrator process decay,  of  nostalgic  of  poignant Este  novel  a  seen  in  Donoso  evocation dominao  is and  of that  a  different  Este  .  filters  h i s childhood used  perception  by of  p o i n t of view a l s o and t h e n o s t a l g i a  from t h e p o i n t o f view o f a loss  vital  pink  domingo  frequently  of the past  inevitable  chaos  is  domingo t h e c h i l d ' s  evocation  Estela's  submerged i n h e r  through  children  class  for Matilda, a  subjective narrator  the d e s t r u c t i o n of childhood  violence,  destruction  a  present  reality.  (like  of  as i n c a s e d i n  and Chepa i n E s t e  person,  of  a fetish  instincts  world  on t h e l o w e r  i s an i n d i v i d u a l  of  personality  incarnate  i s depicted  dependent  Andre's i n C o r o n a c i o n  E s t e domingo  resumes many o f  and a n t i c i p a t e s t h e n o v e l i s t i c  routine r i t u a l s ,  Coronacion  obsessions  s t o r y which b e s t  . In Paseo t h e upper c l a s s  of  fixation  the  reality  i n Coronacion  domingp  for  As  environment  u s u a l l y overcome by c h a o s and d e s t r u c t i o n . Paseo  a  of  from a r e a l i s t i c  f a n t a s y and m y s t e r y . The a u t h o r  characters  unconscious are  dream,  by s t e p  of that innocence,  aspect  domingo  of  innocence.  The  the f a l l  into  the  theme  of  i s t h e most s u b t l e and  process.  i s concerned with  - 67 -  t h e same u p p e r  class  Chilean  family  world  mansion,  of  family  providing  hostile  bourgeois  main  wife  alone  in  place  for  a  their  large  their and  formally  couples  Coronacio'h  grandmother lives  with  locked  of  Este  rich upperclass family  children one  the  psychopathic  in  : a  decaying  (Chepa), a measure  servants of  sexual  uncommunicative  of  and  whom  family  domingo couple  home,  is  cook  are:  in  which  now  and  the  is  and  Alvaro's  Vives  fifties  the  are  Violeta,  mistress; as  meeting  important  narrator;  abandoned  and  living  Sunday  who  adult  family,  Alvaro  their  grandchildren  c r i m i n a l from a poor  Maya,  a  a child  by  mother. Alvaro  is  inauthentic vitality from  and  the  like  a  .  teniamos  He  white y  personaje  in  de  point no  con  farsa  a  useless  seems a l i v e  el  and  traje  muy b i a n c o  como  and  Alvaro's  relationship  Ramon  and  Carlos  and  other  sexually  another  life,  seeking  echaba  juegos  the  him  "la  evoked  Elisa  children  Chepa  68  -  llamabamos  de p o r c e l a n a (p.  -  similar  in  Coronacidn  has  always Chepa,  in  he  is  muneca":  la  era  un  muneca  envejecida,  y  17)  is  unsatisfied.  -  resembles  call  polvos."  Adriana and  when  ridiculamente. entallado,  en n u e s t r o s  and  to  they  Chepa  husband  sterile  -  strangely  view,  se  v/ith each  Andres  of  t e o r f a de que  communicate  to  Violeta. Alvaro,  doll  que  respects  a servant,  longer  e r a muy b i a n c o , la  in  porcelain  seco  many  leading  sexuality  child's  "Pequeno  porque  similar  character  Coronacic'n  her  a  sterile  characters  Chepa,  characters  and  masters'  by  in  relationships.  The  his  described  dominated  their  stimulation,  his  ritual  to  that  of  . They  been like  Elisa cannot  frigid Elisa  with and  Adriana,  her  trapped  in  nearly  bourgeois  counterpart  a contradictory dual  rendered  Alvaro  For terms of  the g r a n d c h i l d r e n ,  of  nostalgia  harmony and  of  Coronacidn  r o l e of  impotent  repressive matriarch continually  in  on  a pure sexless  their  seeking  to  wedding  engulf  Chepa and A l v a r o ' s  a lost  paradise.  ,  It  angel  who  and a  dominate. is  represents  been  night  and  house  has  evoked  a bygone  in era  tranquility:  Aquf l a i n e s t a b i l i d a d de d e p a r t a m e n t o s y c a l l e s y c a s a s que yo habitaba c o n mis p a d r e s d u r a n t e un ano o dos y despue's abandonabamos para mudarnos a barrios distintos, se transformaba en ^ p e r m a n e n c i a y s o l i d e z , porque mis abuelos siempre h a b i a n v i v i d o a q u f y nunca se cambiarfan. Era l a confianza, e l orden:-un trazado que reconocer como proprio, un s a b e r donde e n c o n t r a r los objetos, un c a l z a r de d i m e n s i o n e s , un r e c o n o c e r l o significado de los olores, de los colores en e s t e s e c t o r d e l u n i v e r s o que e r a mao. ( p p . 12-13) This The  tranquility hidden  destroys the  process  is  realization  progression  Alvaro which  repressed  infernal  world  all is  aware  evoked on  one  life.  as  civilized  erupts  of  Este  the  real  Este  the  approaching  represents domingo  . Chepa  of  As  her  with  ) of  Violeta  evidence d e a t h , Chepa  - 69 -  the  in Coronacion  relationship Andres,  of is  this  with  the  h e r breakdown  in.  converges  domingo  is  similar  t h e s l u m s h e has  ( Este  cataclism  i n her which c o i n c i d e s  domingo  and  a  basis  desire.  disintegrate.  with  In  ritual-  violently  this  Estela,  with Andres  sexual  Sunday  confronted his  of  that  aspect  the characters  foretells  like  mental chaos  in  facade  who,  sense Chepa  provokes  this  of  o r d e r . What p r o v o k e s  Maya  with  becomes  Maya  chaotic,  of  primitive  occurs  gradually  which  behind  the appearance of  instinctive,  The  m a i n t a i n e d by a f a c a d e  sexuality  appearance  with  is  in a final is  geometrical crisis  k i l l e d by  afer Maya,  a cancerous  growth  reduced to  mental  incoherence  (she  grandchildren The  world  is  cease of  virtally  lifeless),  spending  childhood  Sundays  games  in  and  the  the  c h i l d r e n and  grandparents  imagination  has  the  house. vanished  forever. Este  domingo  simultaneously. luoar In  sin  fact,  Este  The  Isis  comparison More reassessed  Este  subtle is  artistic  merit"  and  "a  Chavez  Antonio  destruction  in Este  approaches reading  of  these are  that  granted  to  out  that  several  critics  published luoar  terms  earlier  critics  as  critics'  habit  content  profoundly  of  sees  the  Cornejo domingo  its  of  the  of  Este  domingo  of  have  These  McMurray,  away  in  have  as  Este  intensity  and  Monegal,  a more  Coronacion focussed  in  the novel  a  profound  .3 R a u l  on t h e  Bueno  theme  and  of  analyzed  recent  from the  and  that  Rodrigues  more  .  dismissed  concludes  domingo  El  1.  greater  structuring  shift  accorded to  technical innovations  McMurray  themes  almost  inferior novel  George  Este  parameters.4  an  as  2. E m i r  Polar as  as  limites  creation  analysis,  critical  earlier  social  novels.  exploration  recreation  of  praise  sin  such  development.  typical  Donoso's  Donoso's mythical  in  e x p l o r a t i o n of  within  than  than Coronacion  and  it  El  fictional  Freudian  subtle  and  l i m i t e s were p u b l i s h e d critical  first  critics,  domingo  sin  and  points  was  thematic  domingo  basically  it  Coronacion  recent  lugar  greater  Quinteros when  to  El  success  l i m i t e s was  domingo  more  and  of the  of  his  obsessive swan  song  reducing  his  irritated  relationship with his themes of  70  first  -  often  a vanishing  Donoso.  -  was  novels In  an  in  a  i n t e r p r e t e d by  social to  past  class.  their  interview with  The  social Libre  ,Donoso commented  at  length  on  this  point:  Nada me i r r i t a t a n t o como l o s c r i t i c o s que r e d u c e n m i s novelas a sus e l e m e n t o s s o c i a l e s , e s o s que q u i e r e n que yo haya escrito el canto de cisne de las clases sociales chilenas. . . . l a s c l a s e s s o c i a l e s , t a l como las dibujo en m i s l i b r o s s o n i m a g i n a r i a s . Me e x p l i c o : nacf en una f a m i l i a de p o s i c i < 5 n s o c i a l a m b i g u a , c o n un pie en la oligarquia y otro en l a c l a s e m e d i a p e r o desterrada de ambas; y c r e c i en una e p o c a en que l a s clases sociales iban perdiendo importancia, los matices se c o n f u n d i a n y quedaban s o l o p i n t o r e s c o s r e s f d u o s . Por razones psicol<5gicas personales, neurosis juvenil o lo que s e q u i e r a l l a m a r l a e s e m i n i m o m a t i z de d e s t i e r r o a l que ya nadie daba importancia m^s que yo se fue hinchando en mi como un abceso, se hizo doloroso, cruel, obsesivo, y durante mucho t i e m p o e s t e d e s f a s e subjetivisimo - adem£s de o t r o s d e s f a s e s s u b j e t i v o s que se hicieran abceso y deformaron otras areas de mi personalidad me s i r v i d ' de l u p a p a r a m i r a r e l mundo, magnificando algo insignificante. Sin embargo esta insignificancia tomo en m i l a f o r m a de un s e n t i m i e n t o de marginacidn, vivido con tanta fuerza en cierta epoca, que determiner mi eleccidn entre m i l l o n e s de materiales posibles, el juego de c l a s e s s o c i a l e s , su derrumbe, su poder, su magia, su s u j e c i d n . A l e s c r i b i r estilice', sublime", exagere , condene', d e f e n d i , i d e a l i c e ' . 7  lo que h a y en m i s n o v e l a s no es un r e t r a t o de un mundo que tiende a desaparecer dentro d e l panorama chileno actual: en la r e a l i d a d e s e mundo d e s a p a r e c i c f hace decenios. Hay, en cambio, un retrato de mi relaciOn con e s e mundo a p e n a s a t i s b a d o , c a s i p u r a m e n t e imaginado, pero que por alguna razon produjo mi o b s e s i v a r e l a c i o ' n c o n e s e mundo.5 Donoso's importance of  his  in  these  comments largely  of  the  novels  on  his  writing.  Henry  Although  the  Donoso strong  James  also  revealing  both  factor  the  terms  creative  of  the  genesis  the n a r r a t i v e  process  he  develops  a  critic  accepts  an  author's  without  of  in  in  of  comments  metaphor  process  very  terms  these  the  of  in  fiction  confirm  instance  are  autobiographical  and  novels.  particular, narrative  comments  the  reservations, and  "lupa  develops, ascendance confined  rarely  his  - 71 -  are para  Donoso's  i l l u m i n a t e d by mirar  us  of  James  Henry  fiction  them.  e l mundo"  provides  to  with in  texts  as  In the  another Donoso's  a limited  world  which  he  glass.  analyzed  Although  imaginary their  human  worlds  they  only  analysis  both  to  domingo  .  CoronaciOn  the  of  under  a  magnifying  Donoso's  aspect  multiple  their  of  or  James'  reality,  through  facets  personal  Each  of  Chilean  society  past  of as  from  Donoso  the  of  vision  the  and  in  this  of  single  social  and  In  II  a  act  the  genesis  is  of and  his  transcends  Este in  Chapter  II).  catharsis  and  mark  Este  the  creation  of  in  personal  attempts In  Two  rooted  past  his  own d e m o n s .  fictional  in  personal  facets  and  deeply  summarized  of  his  ,  Chapter  delineate Donoso's  we o u t l i n e d D o n o s o ' s  in  conceptual Coronacion  organization which  Este  framework  to  in  the  to  free  domingo level  , of  and  interpretation  an  existentialist  reality.  characterization  of  an  of  his  psychoanalytical  essence  that  we b r i e f l y  surpasses  Chapter  structural  relevant  self-definition  burden  autopsychoanalysis  In  is  outlined  Coronacion  recollected  for  again  imaginary  (which  Donoso  search  himself  equally , like  novel  writer's  is  domingo  and  liberation  element  Este  aspects  background  of  one  of  create  minutely  confines  reflect  autobiographical  relation  of  limited  and  reality. The  the  the  exhaustive  aspect,  exhaustively  is  domingo  operates  character's  philosophical  the  in  of  the  eternal , this  framework within  the  main  theme  of in  system  of  of  archetypal  destruction,  the  fall.  subtle  personality.  In  between  -  his  overall  e x i s t e n t i a l i s t and  a more  conversations  use  72  -  f o r m as  an  Coronacion Andres  and  psychoanalytical integral the Carlos  element lengthy in  which  Andre's of  describes  life  flow.  stand  out  rather also  hinder  Este  domingo  montage  the ,  the  meaninglessness  obtrusively  and  disrupt  development  of  Donoso  occasionally  explanatory  dreams  advance  the narrative  of  skilfully  and  integrates  the  reality  in  its  destructive nature  characterization  as  on  narrative  fall  El  lugar  and  narrative into  the  appear  as  a  which  discourse.  structure.  e x i s t e n t i a l and  the  the  In  psychoanalytical  the  converge  absurdity  flashbacks  to  of  and  insights  framework  apprehension of  of  •psychoanalytical  smooth  existential  comments  the  psychosexual  obvious  method  sense  somewhat  Similarly,  character's  and  his  Donoso's  appears  in  his  psychoanalytical  disintegration  of  the  characters. In  Este  domingo  as  pajaro  de  la  noche  living  in  an  absurd  possible. to  Este  the by ,  In  in  elimination  like  again  in  and  operates  Recurrent significance important  of  the  is  a thematic  slight  ray  to Mario.  Coronacion  l i m i t e s and  experience  where  intensity  out  sin  characters  universe  the  reaching  those  loneliness  , the  fact, there  domingo  Estela's  in  no  hope  within  existentialist  of  of  choice  aspects  Donoso's  existentialism and  the  in  in  futile  of  as of  of  the  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of  Chepa  are  t o t a l l y unable  and  in  provided  Este  domingo  existence,  characterization  conceptual  such  nature  Coronacion  Coronacion  own  system  from  isolation  characters  -  themes  is  of  alienation an  r e a l communication  escalation  their  obsceno of  individual  perceive  El  sensation  of  The  the  in  the  framework. nature  and  communication  are  Chepa  and A l v a r o  in  particular. Alvaro  and  -  73  -  to  communicate  with  each  other.  There  example,  "Ella  venganza Ella  miedo  no  when  thinks:  .  is  possibility  Alvaro sera  elegante, se  de  quedara  que  There  se is  la  grandson n a r r a t o r  ultima  si  uno  participar  a  and h i s  his  en s a b e r l o .  quisiera  arrebate."  also  communication  contemplates  la  sin  of  en  (p.  total  cancerous .  . Que  vengarse. su  between  no  Pero  muerte.  No  no es  them.  For  growth,  he  lo es  sepa. eso.  venganza.  Una .  . Es  32-33)  lack  of  communication  between  the  parents:  .jugaba cerca de ellos en l a s a l a , intentando atrapar la vista de mi p a d r e y m e d i a n t e una sonrisa arrancarlo de su universo para recordarle que yo existia. (p. 11); . . . y o me c u e l g o d e l c o g o t e d e l a Antonia, bescfndola, h a b l a n d o l e , riendome con e l l a p a r a que mi p a d r e c r e a q u e no l o o i g o y a s i no s e de" c u e n t a de que no t e n g o g a n a s de d e s p e d i r m e de e l , y p a r t e s i n insistir, sin darse cuenta de mi e n o j o . Nunca se da c u e n t a de n a d a . A  similar  grandchildren  lack  and  the  of  communication  exists  between  the  grandfather:  Todos los sabados, al llegar, pasabamos por esta estricta ceremonia: un estirado ritual, siempre idlntico, suplantaba la relacion que mi abuelo era incapaz de t e n e r c o n n o s o t r o s . . . . d e s p u e s y a c a s i no nos miraba y jamas nos d i r i g i a l a p a l a b r a , n i s i q u i e r a p a r a r e f t i r n o s . ( p . 18) Alvaro of  death,  is  c h a r a c t e r i z e d as  a classic  an  existentialist  isolated  individual,  terrified  character:  Pasaba poco t i e m p o en c a s a y a l i i s i e m p r e e n c e r r a d o en su e s c r i t o r i o j u g a n d o i n t e r m i n a b l e s p a r t i d a s de a j e d r e z c o n u n a d v e r s a r i o f a n t a s m a l q u e e r a 4l m i s m o . ( p . 1 8 ) Pienso  en e l e g o i s m o , en l a i n d i f e r e n c i a de s u v i d a . . pienso en su v a n i d a d , en e s e t e r r o r s u y o , mudo, ineficaz, a n t e l a s o r d e r a y l a v e j e z que a v a n z a b a n . (o. 21)  Tiene 55 anos - l a decada d e l c a n c e r . C u a t r o d i a s p a r a hacer la b i o p s i a , e s a s c o s a s de b r u j o s que l o s m e d i c o s llaman cultivos . y despues de ese breve aplazamiento la caida a l f o n d o d e l t e r r o r y no d o r m i r  - 74 -  nunca  ma's  hasta  dormirse  definitivamente.  (p.  31)  Cuando p o r u l t i m o f u i l a A n t o n i a me c o n t d ' q u e l a m u n e c a lloraba y lloraba, y g r i t a b a que no q u e r i a m f t r i r s e y pedia auxilio porque tenia miedo. . . . siempre supo que su muerte se aproximaba paso a p a s o , y con su meticulosidad de s i e m p r e c o n t a b a e s o s p a s o s y g e m i a de t e r r o r a l c o n t a r l o s . ( p . 205) Chepa's to  find  final salvation  existentialist of  choice  results  live  human  and  in  death  consumes  his  of  a  Sartrean  her  of  and  the  fear  classic  choice  is  the  central  which  For  Donoso  -  the  Chepa, she  Alvaro  Again  of  order  a  fall.  .  in  is  experiences  framework  destruction  of  Maya  life  absurdity  the  for  philosophy.  in her  the  life,  of  typical  down  Este  domingo  delineates  and  the  domingo  deftly  in  Coronacion  personalities  aged  search  possibility  doubt  in  relationship  conflicts  y  and  to  to  same t e r r o r  of  uses  the  existence,  the  death,  within  destroys  continues  Donoso of  this  the  isolated  he  organizes  which  inevitably  overtakes  and  characters. in  individual  Dios  others  establish  consistently  is  outcome  of  to  Again  middle  an  concepts  process  Este  in  in  meaninglessness  chart  nature  Andres  individual  meaning the  loneliness  existentialist  choice  -  drags  as  the  and  pattern  factor  herself  conscious  the  of  ,  the using  a  integrated  sabe  que  Alvaro  despue's  fue  todo  into  never the  comenzo cerrar  development the  development  of  experienced narrative:  los  ojos  75  -  eso  Donoso  human p s y c h e . Chepa,  en  al .  to  unconscious  a  In  frigid  satisfaction,  envidio  en mi  in  framework  to  sexual  "No  y pensar  ,  disintegration  of  a matar  -  of  mechanisms  psychosexual  Coronacion  psychoanalytical  psychosexual  has  in  course  destructive  v/oman who  as  mes .  lo  sexual.  de  casados  . Dios,  para  que  termine  Coronacion and  pronto ,  confronted with  mechanisms. needs  and  The  (p.  the  sexuality  desires  153)  Like  e r o s i o n of that  Andre's  her  emerges  p r e c i p i t a t e s madness,  in  control from  her  destruction  death. When  becomes as  is  Chepa  defense  unconscious and  y ne d e j e t r a n q u i l a . "  Chepa  associated  Andres  sexual  first  in  her  Coronacid'n  attraction  mole w i t h her  in  meets  for  Maya,  the  mind w i t h h i s associated  h i m , Chepa  own s u b c o n s c i o u s  mole next  to  attraction for  Estela's  associates  pink  his her.  palms  Maya's  mouth  mouth  Just  with  her  and  the  desires:  Este si. Este es Maya. E l lunar tenia las facciones disueltas en su r o s t r o d e s p o j a d o de t e n s i o n e s : s o l o e l enfasis de ese l u n a r t a n o s c u r o e r i z a d o de p e l o s en e l b o r d e d e l l a b i o s u p e r i o r , ( p . 115) Y e s a mancha en e l l a b i o que s e mueve p o c o c u a n d o h a b i a de esa manera tan plana . . . stflo cuando s o n r i e e l lunar baila y descubre sus d i e n t e s grandes, fuertes. Claro. Roto nortino. C a l c i o . T a n t a m i n a . L a s o n r i s a de Maya es s e n c i l l a m e n t e e n c a n t a d o r a . ( p . 127) Maya esta e n o j a d o . Come u v a . U n a p e p a s e l e h a q u e d a d o prendido en el labio. La Chepa e s t i r a l a mano p a r a . sacarsela. No es pepa. Es l u n a r . Los o j o s de Maya s e l l e n a n de l u z a l r e u s e , ( p . 135) 1  Se quedo parado en e l u m b r a l s o n r i e n d o como l a C h e p a jamas lo habia visto sonreir, el labio superior flexible, el lunar un a d o r n o i n s i n u a n t e , una c i a r i d a d nueva, como si h u b i e r a n d e s p e j a d o s u c a r a de una c a p a de p o l v o p a r d u s c o . ( p . 154) Estiro' l a mano p a r a t o m a r l a d e M a y a y s e l a tono e n t r e las dos suas que l e . a r d i a n . Me a r d e n o s o l o l a mano sino que la cara y todo el cuerpo y la.' sangre . cantahdome l a s v e n a s . Me l l e v a l a s m a n o s a l a b o c a y me l a s b e s a . ( p . 155)  out  Both  Emir  that  Chepa  possession.  Rodrigues  Chepa  is  Monegal  attracted is  more  to  than  -  and  76  Isis  Maya  Quinteros in  twenty years  -  an  have'  pointed  oedipal desire  older  t h a n Maya  of and  their  situation  substitute' child. Chepa  assumes  for  Maya,  Maya in  his  an  who  incestuous  was  abandoned  own c o n f u s e d  r e f l e c t s Chepa's  passion  nature. by  perception  and  maternal  Chepa  his of  is  a  mother  own m o t h e r  his  as  attraction  a to  instincts:  Y cada vez que Maya l e p r e g u n t a b a c o n l a b o c a s e c a de ansiedad: I Y quO ma's? ella siente ese remezdn de placer, como s i M a y a f u e s e s u g u a g u a y e l l a l e d i e r a s u seno r e p l e t o de l e c h e y e l c h u p a r a p o r q u e su hambre e r a inagotable y c h u p a r a ma's y m a s , como a e s a m a d r e q u e l e dijo a una v e c i n a que l e c u i d a r a a l c h i q u i l l o un p a r de dfas mientras ella iba a h a c e r unos t r a m i t e s a. o t r o pueblo con el minero con quien estaba v i v i e n d o , y se subid' al a u t o b u s en una nube de p o l v o p o r e l d e s i e r t o . No volvio. Y una v e z , e s a v e z m a r a v i l l o s a y t e r r i b l e , Maya en medio del verano, con e l s o l machacando l a tierra seca del patio, Maya l e d i j o que c a d a v e z que ella se alejaba por e l p a t i o e r a como e s a v e z c o n l a nube de polvo, y temia que l o o l v i d a r a y n u n c a ma's v o l v i e r a . (pp. 136-137) Chepa  again  embodies  The  image  of  suckling  and  Maya  She  wants  the  expresses to  the  t a k e Maya  the  dominant  infant  and  symbiotic  over  engulfing  mother  nature  in  of  mother,figure.  r e l a t i o n to  their  Chepa  relationship.  completely:  . . n a d i e e s m i o mas q u e M a y a , q u e n o p o d i a s a l i r y yo l o p u s a en l i b e r t a d , que no c o n o c i a l o s a ' r b o l e s , que me preguntaba que ma's, q u e mas y y o l e c u e n t o y y o s o sus ojos y sus oidos y su p i e l y sus suenos y sus r e c u e r d o s y sus p r o y e c t o s . . . ( p . 155) The results Chepa  in and  Chepa.  and  Maya's  and  determined  v/hich  destroy drag  situation  punishment  Once  violence is  incestuous  the  and  oedipal  again, Chepa's  is  an  expiation. passion  as  sexuality, drama  is  the  eruption  the  s u p e r f i c i a l order to  -  77  is  of  their  -  expiates  instincts  myth  of  the  needs  the bourgeois fall.  always  i d e n t i f i e s her  unconscious of  that  V i o l e t a who  Maya  biblical  the  dov;n  It  primitive  by  characters  a r c h e t y p a l one  In  provoke.  fall and  with  which desires  conventions  Chepa's  case,  in  her  search  "Ella  for  sigue  sus  pies y  tratando  de  perro  quedan se  Chepa  su  she  se  sacarlos 199)  Maya,  salta  subir  pegados  hunden  herself  literally  just  en  cima  (p.  199)  Again,  provides  the  central basis  a pile  todo  esta  ma's  hasta  que  another  piece  of  garbage:  como  si  no  y  the  ella theme  for  basura  of  the  Donoso's  no  puede  fuera and  of  a  garbage:  revuelto  podrida  fall  use  of  tan  la  de  basura."  o bajar,  into  en  ma's  is  sinks  y no y  y  puede  cae."  (p.  "Un  nino  con  m£s  que  of  otra  destruction  psychoanalytical  framework. The  more  subtle  characterization  with  elements  domingo  in  Este  structure.  Este  technically  complex  Donoso  abandons  of  his  of  view  first and  The specific down, and  the the  central system first  day  -  Maya  of  and  a  also  structure than  Alvaro aware  a  of  psychoanalytical real novelty,  that that  is  of  far  its more  Coronacion  chronological  points  of  Chepa's  her  of  marriage  sexual  desire  narration in  axis  moves  time  in  a  the  one  breaks  for  Maya  from  this  counterpoint  the  three  sections  of  the  tv/o  sections  written mainly  and  using  novel's  -  as  sequence  alternating  temporal  and  backwards  on A l v a r o of  system  flow. around  and  and  and  novel's  V i o l e t a . The  between  the  s k i l f u l l y handles  day  kills  a  the  conventional  becomes  technique  to  sophisticated  the  focussing  of  has  organized  memories  view  due  temporal  forwards  alternating  Donoso's  is  of  existential  largely  Chepa  point  person  points  the  is  day  person  third  and  a shifting  Sunday  its  dominao  novel  novel  integration  alternating  -  in  Chepa.  event  78  grandson's  in  or  a forwards  superimposed and  backwards  temporal  flow  evoking  corresponds  to  personality  and  complete  In  and  The  this  perspectives  fragmentation to  of  apprehend  the  human  an  integrated,  sections  games  bury  but,  devoted  foretell  the  the  grandson's  level  frustrations  intuitively  and  grandmother's  on  tragic  to Alvaro  eventual  character  a double  the  mainly  Chepa's  imaginary  of  between  downfall  Mariola of  and  in  passions  the  as  Roncafort.  perception  a metaphoric  fate  and  -  of  their  level,  symbolic  the  they  burial  Roncafort. sections  de  Este  two  unaware  their  Mariola  Charles  the  from d i f f e r e n t  parallel  Donoso p r e s e n t s  are  The  in  the  way,  foretell  symbolic  children's  grandparents  Noche  of  impossibility  a  symbolically  children  of  the  is  narrative  they  vision  events  reality.  There  Chepa.  his  these  titled:  Domingo Tatum,  domingo  are  the  En  l a Redoma;  narrated  by  child point  Los  Chepa's  of  view  Juegos  Legftimos;  grandson.  serves  According  several  Una to  functions  :  1) to make a statement about how a s t h e . i n d i v i d u a l matures, the innocent and f a b u l o u s v/orld of. c h i l d h o o d slowly changes and becomes corrupted 2) t o g i v e t h e reader a perspective on the a d u l t world seen through the child narrator's eyes 3) to reveal the Oedipal relationships p e r p e t r a t e d b y t h e a d u l t s on t h e c h i l d r e n and 4) to set a pattern which suggests a kind of c y c l i c a l "eterno retorno".6 Through in  conveying  tranquility his  the the as  innocence  retrospect events  use  the  caused  the and  of  child's  atmosphere child's  of  point  of  It  is  his  frustration  of  of  only  childhood and  - 79  v i e w Donoso  apparent  perspective  naivete.  events by  the  -  c a l m and reality as  an  that  repressed  succeeds  superficial  is  limited  by  adult  viewing  in  sequence  of  the  sexuality  become  clear.  The  Alvaro  at  comienza y  su  of  the  a existir  At  the  end  his  Chepa the  own  and  lonely ser  of  fate  his  viejo  concludes:  his the  will  own  solteron  of  a  tenia su  edad  adult  of  his  following out:  in  "El  descendencia."  7  is  ahora  of  awareness  comes a The  fear  memory  a veiled -  (p.  aware  this  as  abuelo  tengo  way  a sterile  narrador As  Charles  of  his  process  of  existence  neverending  mi  absurdo."  pattern.  be  the  su  childhood,  to  points  que yo  world. With  refers  suggests  en  same age  narrator  he  Vidal  cyclical  y  and  seems  the  que  ancianidad  follow a similar vivid  is  momento  la  childhood  sin  thus  "El  adults  life  Hernan  "Donoso  characters  of  de  domingo  domingo t h e  remains  existence.  un  al  Este  of  life  Alvaro  pattern  Este  beginning:  junto  facade  the pathetic  in  en mi memoria  nace  shattered  that  narrator  novel's  recuerdo  23) the  adult  of to and  parece Tatum  fictional loss  of  innocence".8 When element begins thing  the of  to -  now a d u l t  the  narrator  experiential  becomes  world,  discover  that  progress  a conclusion  that  Alvin  and  aware  the  of  the  formerly  disintegration  Greenberg  destructive naive are  child  the  same  calls:  the paradoxical lesson of the world in contemporary fiction. . . It is in this sense of decay disintegration, deterioration, however i t is called that, rooted in a c o n t e m p o r a r y a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y human sense of time and analogous to the scientific formulation of the temporal p r o c e s s as w e l l , a major development of the modern novel, which may w e l l b e c a l l e d the novel of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , is involved.9 Donoso's by the  the  preocupation  passage  physical  of  time  ravages  of  the  is  best  of  age  disintegrative  illustrated contrasted  youth:  -  SO  -  in to  his the  process  wrought  descriptions former  beauty  of of  La V i o l e t a f u e e n v e j e c i e n d o . E s a c a r n e que f u e t a n d u r a y tan blanca mientras f u e a c t i v a , a l r e p o s a r se puso fofa y amor a t a d a y cualquier cosa le costaba un e s f u e r z o t r e m e n d o . ( p . 45) Las piernas l u z ^de la deseno sobre  de l a V i o l e t a e s t a n l l e n a s de v a r i c e s . calle a l a t r a v e s a r l o s v i s i l l o s imprime s u r o s t r o : o t r a s v a r i c e s , ( p . 54)  Tiene el trasero como p o s t e s l l e n a s  La su  verdaderamente enorme y l a s p i e r n a s de m o r e t o n e s y l l a g a s . . . ( p . 56)  Alvaro espera antes de a v a n z a r , c o n t e m p l a n d o desde su cuarto la terrible destruccidn de sus nalgas maltratadas por la ^celulitis. Hay que esperar: el portaligas e l c o r p i n o , l a s m e d i a s . £ No s e d a c u e n t a d e q u e e s o b s c e n o ? ( p . 83) f  Pero alcanzas a ver: t u s o j o s son demasiado c h i c o s y juntos, lo mas debil de t u r o s t r o , y no l o s q u i e r e s porque en los ojos e s d o n d e mas s e t e n o t a n l o s a n o s que no pasan en v a n o , mi v i e j o , que no p a s a n e l v a n o , el iris descolorido, e l p e r f i l de l o s p a r p a d o s apenas enrojecido, escasez de pestanas que nunca fueron abundantes . . . mira tus ojos que pueden e s t a r m u r i e n d o s e . ( p . 32) The graphic  cancer  which  example of  the  will  eventually  disintegrative  k i l l  Alvaro  is  another  process:  Como si las m e t a s t a s i s y a s e m b r a d a s en t u h i g a d o y t u prostata, en tu c e r e b r o , en t u r o d i l l a , en t u v e j i g a , h u b i e r o n c h u p a d o t o d o e l v i g o r d e t u o r g a n i s m o . ( p . 32) Donoso characters and decay  also and  of  accompanies their  their  the p h y s i c a l  disintegrating  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of  world with the  the  decrepitude  houses:  Y todo ese s i l e n c i o en l a p i e z a , donde l a V i o l e t a e s t a * poniendo recipientes jpara r e c i b i r las goteras a l lado de los muebles, i n c r e i b l e m e n t e d e s t e n i d o s que f u e r o n de l a s a l i t a de s u m a d r e . ( p . 54) Sigue deshabitada: el jardin finmalezado, las paredes descolor idas. La avidez de la buganvilla tumbo" el b a l c d n de m a d e r a de n u e s t r o m i r a d o r . ( p . 208) Cuando puertas antes. zocalos  entregan la casa a los demoledores abrira'n l a s y las ventanas. L a l u z v o l v e r a ' a e n t r a r como Encontraran la casa despojada de puertas y y jambas y g u a r d a p o l v o s y p a r q u e t s , un c a s c a r o n  -  81  -  que caera a l o s p r i m e r o s g o l p e s de l a p i c o t a hecho montd'n d e e s c o m b r o s en e l j a r d i n e n m a l e z a d o . ( p . 210) Alvin  Greenberg  descriptive well  device  as  pajaro  West.  de  that  may  over  to  chaos  la  of  entropy  he  applies  to  Celine  Donoso's noche  William novels  the  tendency  of  an  disorder,  to  from  which  it  may  emerged,  state that  de  of  development  moving  process  at  best  El  to  a  that  drift  total.  obsceno system  universe  into  towards  is  Este an  to  go  original  toward  an  domingo  is  increasingly  culminates  the gradual  The  he  narrator  evokes  retraces  his  an  the  corruption  inclusion  in  the  disintegrative  past,  of  the  human  innocence.  child's Thus  child's time towards  world  gone death  path  of  is  Donoso,  point  his  inevitable  of  leads  back  final  ambiguous  awareness  recuperating  to  Heller,  entropy,  ordered  is  e q u i l i b r i u m which  represents  a  Joseph  as  in  El  obsceno  elimination  note  and  of  tenuous,  hope is  of in  absent  .  adult as  of  regeneration.  was  domingo  development  equilibrium that  entropic  of  v/hich  the  sink  of  critically  .  this  possibility  As  have  process  noche  of.  from Este  of  state  la  Coronacion  v/hich  concept  a  in particular  Coronacion  of  Part  through  from  i l l u s t r a t e the as  as  Burroughs,  state  unstructured  any  concept  a  of  pa'iaro  the  Beckett,  be d e f i n e d  unstructured part  which  Samuel  Nathaniel  uses  un  of by, and  the  towards loss  the  only  using  going  decay.  way  The to  provides  In  this  his  and  recover of  the way,  the  an  eventual  evocation  a  This  innocence,  world  a vision  against  we f o l l o w  adulthood.  of  adult  process.  view, of  childhood,  of  the  a kind past  seen  possibility current Donoso's  of  of  of  time  use  of  a  specific  liberates full  of  sense  technique the  thematic  sensual of  domestic  manipulating material.  experiences.  recollection. details  memories, evocation  -  we in  of  find Este  in  similar  domingo  Este  Proust  life a  In  The  a child's past  domingo  fully  a  is  a  of  of  refuge,  there  is  exploited  household.  sense  point  a  viev;  rich  -  and  Proustian  the  minute,  In  the  grandson's  tender  and  nostalgic  :  La Antonia me alcanzo mientras yo, inclinado bajo e l ilang-ilang, estiraba mis medias y f i j a b a l a s h e b i l l a s de mis pantalones preparandome para una entrada triunfal. A l p r e g u n t a r l e c o m o me v e i a me p a r e ' muy t i e s o para que me examinara. La l u z que quedaba e r a honda como la de un e s t a n q u e : s i y o me m o v i a , s i c u a l q u i e r cosa se m o v i a , l o s o b j e t o s que r e p o s a b a n d e n t r o de e s a luz fluctuarian silenciosamente y s o l o d e s p u e s de un instante recobrarian la perfeccion de sus formas q u i e t a s . ( p . 16) La casa estaba llena de armarios y de alacenas y subterraneos, de p u e r t a s f a l s a s o c u l t a s por c o r t i n a s o condenadas con una tranca de p a l o que e r a f a c i l i s i m o desclavar de maletas c u b i e r t a s con e t i q u e t a s fabulosas y batiles nominalmente p r o h i b i d o s que a b r i a m o s con una horquilla retorcida para disfrazarnos con sus contenidos, de posibilidades de que o t r a s sombras se desprendieran de l a s s o m b r a s , y p a s o s de l a o s c u r i d a d , y aranas de los t e c h o s y de p r o n t o e l d e l e i t e de una ventana abierta de p a r en p a r s o b r e e l j a r d i n donde l a l u z a m a r i l l e a b a e n t r e l a s h o j a s . ( p . 25) Y en l a noche d e l sabado - l a v e n t a n a a b i e r t a a l j a r d i n en el verano, las escamas p u r p u r a s de l a b u g a n v i l l a formando un d r a g o n f a s c i n a d o que s e asomaba a l b a l c d h esperctbamos los t r e s p r i m o s , L u i s , A l b e r t o y yo que mi abuelo y mi a b u e l a s e q u e d a r a n d o r m i d o s y e n t o n c e s , en silencio, las dos primas, Marta y Magdalena, subian hasta el cuarto del mirador y comenzaban nuestros j u e g o s . ( p . 26) Proust's association also  echoed  which  the  sensual of in  the the  "empanadas"  imagination  sensual  in  s t i m u l a t i o n of  passages provide  and  describing  t h e mnemonic  -  83  -  the  particular  smell "olor  stimulus:  his  w i t h memory  is  a domingo"  in  En un i n s t a n t e e l a u t o e n t e r o s e l l e n a d e l f e s t i v o o l o r de las empanadas calientes . . . de l o s d o m i n g o s de toda la vida . . . este olor dorado, t i b i o . . . este olor a domingo que llena e l a u t o , a domingo, a este domingo . . . este domingo, e s t e o l o r a domingo, a domingo en la m a n a n a p e r o n o muy t e r a p r a n o , c u a n d o l a s sirvientes est^n atareadas en la c a s a p e r o en o t r a s partes de l a c a s a , una l i m p i a n d o e l s a l o n c o n un t r a p o amarrado en l a c a b e z a , o t r a a t e n d i e n d o a mi m a d r e , o t r a vistiendo a mi hermano menor, o t r a regando l a s p l a n t a s de la g a l e r f a , otra canturreando l a cocina a l destapar el h o r n o p a r a v e r como e s t c i n l a s e m p a n a d a s , y e n t o n c e s , en ese momento, e s t e o l o r a domingo en l a manana p e r o no muy temprano se pone a c i r c u l a r l e n t a m e n t e por l a casa desde e l f o n d o d e l p a t i o de l a c o c i n a , g a l e r i a s y corredores, escurriendose por los i n t e r s t i c i o s debajo de las puertas para entrar a las habitaciones cerradas donde aun no terminamos de d e s p e r t a r - se c u e l a por debajo de mi p u e r t a h a s t a mi d o r m i t o r i o p a l d e a d o p o r l a manana de verano, cerradas las persianas, corridas las cortinas l a sabana c a s i tapandome l a c a b e z a y e l o l o r a masa apenas dorcfndose vence a los dem^s olores calientes de mi c u a r t o y l l e g a a mi n a r i z e desde a h i manda c o m u n i c a c i o n e s h a s t a e l fondo de mi sueno t i b i o . . . (pp. 56-107) Este aspects. past  domingo  is  ' the  reader  As  in  Este  alternating forwards  points  his  of  of  the  fall  preestablished, that  is  not  view, in  to  the only  forms  Donoso,  like  of  counts  are  several in  one  temporal axis  Faulkner,  links  With act  the  techniques  i n t e r i o r monologue,  The  the  in  immersion  the n a r r a t i v e  obsessions.  inevitable.  Faulkner  characters  of  time around  their  is  what  reminiscent  follows  it  Faulkner.  characters  Faulkner,  of  ,  and backwards  reminiscent of  domingo  also  moving  which  the  Donoso,  of  are  destiny as  with  of  the  downfall  is  antecedents  and  the  process  in  Chepa's  fall.  There desperate  is and  also  a  very  disastrous  strong  search  always  presents  his  characters  their  infernal  and  tortuous  for as  flavour Maya.  Kafka,  totally  descent  - 84 -  of  alone,  into  Kafka unlike  Faulkner,  w i t h no G o d ,  hell  through  in the  labyrinth  of  their  These often it  a  Donoso more  a  Vargas  break  and  the  his  The which  alternate from  narrator  who  Alvaro.  largely of  Este  domingo  titled  interior  point on  Although  the  action of  is  view  the  world  "primera  of  of  and  the  and  Cortazar,  Borges,  of  writers  modern  omniscient  narrator  techniques  adults, and as  uses  subtle  broader  nature  able of  "segunda  to  human  as  are  omniscient  mainly  on  Chepa  "segunda p a r t e "  in  to  parte"  sections  apparently  character's  are  viewed  several  and  an  parte"  Donoso  situate  in  narrative  of  has  reality.  parte"  techniques varied  the using  Donoso,  the  This  the' fragmented  of  rather  c r i t i c s who  efforts  grandson's  into  -  recognizable  of  nature  narrations,  penetration  reality,  is  the  "primera  the  focusses  , the  of  ambiguous  with  the  earlier  (Fuentes,  following  vision  the  t h i r d person  form  of  of  domingo  literary context.  authors  unity  personal and  than  unilateral vision  of  sections  written  and  the  in  w h i c h Donoso h i m s e l f  Este  literary affiliation  Donoso,  with  personality  Chilean  Latinamerican  concept  express  no way d i m i n i s h  narrow  Llosa).  some o f  l i t e r a r y context  cosmopolitan major  influences,  in  larger  in  other  to  literary  mentioned,  in  obsessions.  Coronacion  interior  ,uses  reality.  achieve he  are  the  In  sense  manipulates  a  of  points  view. In  the  narrative thinking  perspective and  conciencia."10 third  "primera  person  parte", is  which  often  determined  feeling,  what  Noe  Donoso  uses  indirect  narration,  direct  focusses  Jitrik  calls  interior  interior  - 85 -  by  on  Alvaro,  what "el  Alvaro  is  realismo  de  monologues  monologues  the  in  in  a  first  person  narration,  narration examples  and of  direct  interior  which  interior  monologues  monologues  in  in  second  first  person  person  narration,  follow:  Se mira en el v i d r i o d e l mayor de sus a n a q u e l e s . No. Asi no. Doblado s o b r e su b r a z o e l c u e l l o de su a b r i g o no debe caer junto al ruedo, es necesaria una diferencia, el cuello a la altura del Stendhal empastado en tela verde flordelisada, el r u e d o mas abajo, s o b r e e l C a r l y l e en una p a s t a b a s t a n t e o r d i n a r i a que t a n t o s d e s e o s t i e n e de c a m b i a r . ( p . 31) Estoy pensando en a l g u i e n , a l g u i e n que c o n o z c o p o c o y me desagrada, p e r o que ha e s t a d o a q u i en mi c a s a y que tiene un lunar como la s a l t a d u r a de l a t e t e r a en l a arista del labio. A l g u i e n . . . q u i e n s e r a : e n f i n , no importa. Lo que i m p o r t a es que a v e c e s l o s nombres s e me quedan a t a s c a d o s en l o s r e p l i e g u e s d e l c e r e b r o . ( p . 29) Y si n o , mi v i e j o , t e c o n f o r m a s con l a p a s t a c o r r i e n t e que tienes y te pasas la tarde encerrado en tu escritorio leyendo On H e r o e s and H e r o W o r s h i p , que a l fin y al cabo no es m a l a p r e p a r a c i d n p a r a l a m u e r t e . (p.-32) These  are  reader  in  favorite the  These William  Jamesian  character's  interior  Faulkner,  instantaneous  mental  are  not  insight  into  such  as  reflect  the  characters  interior  monologues  state  thoughts of  analyzes  are  and  a  Donoso great  human  egocentricity.  For  an  those  attempt  the  to  mental  psychic  which place  of  Henry  r e c r e a t e an  chaos  of  style  and  flow.  the  In  Donoso's  their  avoids of  doubts,  Joyce's  their  prolific  plausibility.  relationships example,  reconstructing  from  we u n d e r s t a n d -  86  -  the  the  exact  the  and  spelling  characters' the  original  characters' their  verisimilitude  his  or  characters  anguish,  Donoso,  inside  James  even  a l i t e r a r y r e e l a b o r a t i o n of  feelings.  deal  like  a t t e m p t e d , where  conscience,  egocentrism, achieves  Joyce  devices  world.  monologues,  thoughts  chaotic  narrative  like  but  James,  characters'  resentment  and  hostility charity  Alvaro projects  feels  towards  during  the  C h e p a who week  is  always  and w i t h her  busy w i t h  her  grandchildren  on  weekends: La Chepa s a l e tercprano y l l e g a t a r d e t o d o s l o s d i a s de la semana. Lo d e j a s o l o en l a c a s a s i n nada que h a c e r ahora que ha j u b i l a d o , s i n p r e g u n t a r l e s i q u i e r a c u a l es su programa para el dia, si quiere que hagan a l g o juntos como los demas matrimonios de su edad y posicion, ir al c i n e , o a l g u n a v i s i t a de f a m i l i a o de pesame. E l l a se v a . Q u i e n sabe donde. A h , s i . Donde sus pulguientos. Y en l a n o c h e r e g r e s a d e s p e n a d a . Con l o s zapatos embarrados, con olor a p a r a f i n a o a f u e g o de l e r f a en l a r o p a . ( p . 36) Although Chepa's  these  activities  absolute  lack  of  Chepa's  activities  Later  on,  see  nature  of  her  socially  interest  view,  we  are  from  are  in Alvaro  merely  Chepa's  charitable  laudable,  a  point  and  from h i s  form of of  they  cover  point  of  r e j e c t i n g him.  view the  compensatory  activities:  iPero que voy a h a c e r ? Con l a m i s e r i a puedo v e r m e l a s . Y con' l a mugre. Eso e s t a a mi a l c a n c e p o r q u e yo soy una pobre mujer i g n o r a n t e : l a i n s t i t u t r i z n o me ensenO ma's que a l e e r y a e s c r i b i r y a s a c a r c u e n t a s . En e l p i a n o nunca pase del Czerny mas s i m p l e y e l f r a n c o s s e me olvido todo. Pero a e l l o s l o s p o b r e s l e s doy a l g o que se, cuando les e n s e n o que no d e b e n s e g u i r v i v i e n d o en la mugre, cuando l e s empapelo l a p i e z a con p a p e l e s de diario porque s i no l o hago yo misma e l l o s no l o h a c e n y el viento d e l i n v i e r n o t r a e l a s p u l m o n i a s , s i yo se a y u d a r l o s , d e j e n m e a y u d a r l o s . . . ( p . 119) The  alternating  underlines Another  the ambivalence  factor  ambivalence  and  Polar  the  each  calls  of  in  Este  c h a r a c t e r can  third  person.  In  which  implies  a  the  is  narrative  reality that  the  that  points is  being  increases  use  of  into  another,  domingo  questioning  there  of  -  87  human  -  at  is  of  sense  what A n t o n i o  least  a system  to  in of  i d e n t i t y and  view  narrated.  the  substituci6'n"ll. According  change Este  of  domingo  ambiguity " l e y de  different  this  of  Cornejo "lav;",  t h e mind  of  a  substitution actions.  This  system sin  is  limites  obsceno This  pajaro  which  de  is  the  making  bourgeois  which Donoso v / i l l  and  system  between when  one  la  reaches  noche  most  characters love  girls  of  to V i o l e t a  he  its  which  clearly  continue  to  develop  ultimate  t o t a l l y negates displayed  Este  in  domingo  imagines  in  her  the  . For place  in  El  conclusion human  lugar in  El  identity.  sexual  relations  example,  Alvaro,  the pure  virgin  knows:  e n t o n c e s , de n o c h e , t a r d e , l l e n o de d e s e o p o r la Alicia o la Pola, a q u i e n e s ha dado s a c r a t i s i m o s besos, entra a la p i e z a de l a V i o l e t a que s i e m p r e l o ac'epta y rueda con ella por la cama, t r a t a n d o de conjurar de ese cuerpo c a l i e n t e y r o l l i z o y l l e n o de deseo, la finura de l o s b r a z o s de l a P o l a , e l c u e l l o largo y la cabeza pequena de la A l i c i a , l o s senos jovenes apenas insinuados de l a S o f i a , e r e s l a S o f i a , si, e r e s l a S o f i a y manana sera" l a A l i c i a y o t r o d i a l a Pola, t o d a s , p o s e o a t o d a s e s a s muchachas i m p o s i b l e s en t u c a r n e r o l l i z a y c a l i e n t e . ( p . 74) Violeta  participates  sexually  satisfy  in  this,  charade  of  identities  in  order  to  Alvaro:  . cuando r e g r e s a b a d e s p u e s de p a s e a r con l a P o l a y se metia en su cuarto para revolcarse con e l l a dicie'ndole Pola, mi linda, aprie'tame Pola que te quiero, apretame y l a c a r n e g o r d a de l a V i o l e t a se transformaba en la carne glacial de l a P o l a , en l o s pechos apenas^insinuados y dolorosamente deseados, pero que solo p o d i a t b c a r y g o z a r en l o s p e c h o s i n m e n s o s de la V i o l e t a , que l e d e c i a , s i , s i , s o y l a P o l a , su P o l a , mijito . . . Ella era todas. La P o l a , l a Laura, l a Alicia, sus primas . . . todas. Tambien era l a Chepa. ( p . 78) On  his  imagining  wedding that  she  night, is  Alvaro  can  only  make  love  to  Chepa  by  Violeta.  No es la Chepa la que se estremece en s u s brazos esperando, es la V i o l e t a . A c a r i c i a una a x i l a , s i , s i , es la axila de la Violeta y se es l a a x i l a de l a Violeta es l a V i o l e t a e n t e r a , V i o l e t a , m i j i t a , V i o l e t a , conte asi", tocame por acit, ahora actui mijita. Y cerrando los ojos . . . s i , s i puedo, s i puedo, y duro ahora y s e g u r o h i z o e l amor c o n l a V i o l e t a en l a c a r n e i g n o r a n t e d e l a C h e p a . ( p . 88)  -  88  -  Violeta  makes  love  hornetown  boyfriend:  to  Alvaro,  pretending  that  he  is  Marin,  her  . . me v o l v i a l o c a e s e v e r a n o p e n s a n d o e n e"l t o d o e l tiempo sola en la cama a q u i e n l a c i u d a d , me v o l v i a loca, h a s t a que l o e n c o n t r e ' a u s t e d p u e s , don A l v a r i t o , y cuando u s t e d me t o c a y me h a c e d e t o d o p i e n s o e n e\L. U s t e d es e " l , e l h u a s o M a r i n , ( p . 76) Maya  imagines  porque y  siempre  me  besa  como  that  la  Marujita  e s t / acordahdose  en  la  cama,  cerra  si  yo  fuera  usted.")  Violeta,  he  feels  that  with  Violeta:  controlarlo, comenzo'  v  each  always  .  .  ambiguous  sexual  .  ."  person  perception  El  .  of  identity  las  y  que  Each  a  and  -  which  the  world  una  se  is  esta  and  when M a y a  whom h e  como  me  -  emphasis  the  identity anticipates is  based  of  the  on  y  entonces  to  the  este  another  reality  another on  kills  tragarlo,  dejd"  concrete  covering  nombre,  identifies  comerlo, a dejar  solos  borracho  d i j o su  transferable  another  mask  estamos  vez  iba  mire  act  constant  sexual  cuando  queriamos  e l no  and  limites roles  dos  into  only  y  y  187-188)  Chepa,  172)  r e a l i t y . This  sin and  que  Misia (p.  ojos  ("Nunca  k i l l i n g Chepa,  dissolves  relationships  luoar  .  pegarme,  sinverguenza and  "  los  is  Chepa  de u s t e d ,  (pp.  he  deshacerlo,  a  is  is  possible  ambiguity  of  the  of  reversal  world of  " t r a v e s t i " , whether  sexual real  or  symbolic. So are which  far  integrated is  what  destruction, out  we  relevant  the  have into  o u t l i n e d key the  organizes essence  elements  novel's and of  overall  best which  biographical,  is  the  89  -  Este  domingo  archetypal  reveals  existential -  in  the  fall. and  which  structure  main We h a v e  theme  of  pointed  psychoanalytical  elements  in  the  integration perception We which  of of  system narrative  mentioned  brings  us  to  component  elements  archetypal  analysis  focus  In of  to  literary  the the  of  the  Este  a  Este  represents  house  was  the  the  child's  point  paradise  towards less  of  this  y  of  and and  the  through future  innocence.  The  In  of  Eden.  The a  grammar  provides creation  are'  a to  organized  la  reduction  the past past The  For  filtering  appears  as  evoked  in  is  grandson  the  orden."  (p.  el  the past  the  longing  through for  a metaphysical  this  sense,  the  child  the  state  of  innocence  of  civilization.  suggests  Este  -  The  a cyclical  domingo  of  grandparents'  the  confianza,  recapture  domingo  90  from  and b e a u t y .  to  restore  -  the  with both  myth,  this  expresses  in  of  basis.  archetypal  Donoso  child  domingo  a l l  the main  patterns  of  attempt  Este  as  device  the process  in  provide  . Again,  solidez,  permanence. to  structural  a similar  Garden  view,  Este  imagery.  security lost  in  us  p r e v a i l e d and  narrative  archetype  the  the  author's  provideo  extending  Coronacidn  " l a permanencia  collectively  the  structure.  mythical  find  serenity,  Through  an  express  as  complete  Bible,  demonic  we  where  13)  as  well  synthesizing  the B i b l e  structure  order  happiness  as  the pact  overall  The  paradise  house  an  in  in  its  whole  dQmJlngp  and  that*expressed  of  of  a  domingo's  domingo  terms  lost  of  Este  by a p o c a l y p t i c and  lost  necessity  archetypes.  apocalypse.  as  of  symbols  archetypal  In  which  importance  into  synthesizing  time  techniques  the novel  Donoso,  largely  characterization  reality.  have  central  of  begins  the  space  functions lost  projection process  his  of  memories  at  about  madre  the  me  como  yo  a  was  in  sure  nunca, of  ir  this,  grandfather he  of  explico iba  writes  age  en  que al  ano  the  child's  and  in  would como  he b e g i n s  gente  proximo  is  nada,  before  la  he  he  loneliness  six,  his  ignorante  .  .  never  isolation,  (p.  fifties,  memory.  e'l."  ."  (p. he  go  to  que ho 99).  the  like  22)  The  cut  al  When t h e same  Alvaro: narrator  off  school:  iba  narrator as  was  "Yo  no  a  his child,  iba  projects  from his  "Mi  colegio  age  When t h e n a r r a t o r  be  is  to  hacer  an  aura  family:  dSon ellos o s o y yo q u i e n s e ha quedado a i s l a d o de los medallones fabulosos de la alfombra g a l l e t a d e l mirador? ( p . 204)  en uno color  Ahora, mi a b u e l o y mi a b u e l a e s t a n muertos y mis p a d r e s y mis tios son c a s i a n c i a n o s . Y m i s p r i m o s . . j, que" ser^ de e l l o s ? I D6nde e s t a r a h , q u e e s t a r a n h a c i e n d o ? . . d e p r o n t o me d o y c u e n t a d e q u e n i s i q u i e r a s e s i l a Marta t i e n e h i j o s , y s e l o s t i e n e , n o s e cOmo s e l l a m a n y ni que a p e l l i d o l l e v a n , n i s i se van a a l m o r z a r los d o m i n g o s a una c a s a que yo no c o n o z c o . ( p p . 2 0 6 - 2 0 7 ) This  similarity  suggests of  a  the  Elisa death.  porcelain  doll to  with  in  he  will  is is  loneliness  retorno".  narrator  appearance  extremidades Elisa  the  "eterno  Coronacion  His  belongs  Alvaro's  cyclical  cycle in  with  no  longer and  another  species,  "talvez  Coronacion  y  sus ,  the  gestos  Donoso  often  represents reach  -  children el  de  los  angulosos". associates  which  the  end  death.  Like  incarnation  r e a l l y human,  muneca),  :  a pattern  archetypal  (la  flacas  Alvaro  eventually  another  sets  he  think  is  the  white  perhaps  insectos (p.  a  22)  con As  colour  of  he sus  with white  Alvaro: b a j o , s u s p a n t a l o n e s p l a n c h a d o s como c u c h i l l o s colgaban unos c o r d o n e s b l a n c o s , completamente r i d i c u l o s con ios que ataba a sus canillas los calzoncillas largos que nunca n i e n e l v e r a n o ma's t o r r i d o , d e j a b a n de p r o t e g e r l a f r a g i l i d d a d de s u c u e r p o . ( p . 2 0 - 2 1 )  -  91  -  los como  livianas  montones de c a m i s a s de mi a b u e l o e s p u m a . . . ( p . 25)  blancas  . . jamas l o h a b i a n o t a d o h a s t a que empezo a o s c u r e c e r sobre su p e l b l a n q u f s i m a . . . (p. Alvaro  even  gelatinas depicts  eats  white  blanquizcas Alvaro  food:  "Como  en f o r m a de  several  times  as  postre  estrella a  .  solo .  ."  reflection in  a crecer, 30)  comia  (p.  y  18)  unas Donoso  the mirror,  for  example: Llegamos a darnos c u e n t a de que e s c u d r i n a b a s u p r o p i o reflejo en los cristales de sus a r m a r i o s de l i b r o s , arreglandose inecesariamente el nudo de la corbata, pascfndose la mano sobre el- cuidadoso peinado que parecia p i n t a d o s o b r e su c a b e z a , v i g i l a n d o y t i r o n e a n d o su chaleco de modo q u e n o h i c i e r a n i u n a s o l a a r r u g a , como si en e s o s c r i s t a l e s f u e r a a e n c o n t r a r una imagen perfecta de si mismo destacada sobre el crepusculo r i q u i s i m o d e l o s e m p a s t e s . ( p . 20) This the  is  archetypal  like  Elisa,  mannequin.  Manuela  in  this  his  his  Latent lugar Tha  of  is  El  also  sin  on  the  limites  . 12  his  is  is  not  , but  lack  as  sexual  duality of  The  feels  duality is  92  an of  -  in in is  a  Emir  prototype  of  muneca"  sexually  passive  c a s t r a t e d by  Chepa's  is  vain,  front Este  obsessed  with  he  love  of  is the  domingo  nonetheless  important the  corpse,  "la  Narcissus,  hours obvious  unity  -  Like  to  Alvaro,  character.  nickname  a true narcisist,  spends  a living  a masked  i d e n t i t y . He  appearance. He  is  inherent  writing.  ambivalent  that Alvaro  sexual  He  image.  limites  character,  sexually  sin  quality  in Donoso's  w i t h V i o l e t a and  masculine-feminine  emphasis  a  ambiguous  bisexuality  the p l a s t i c  ghostly  suggests  and  own  a  lugar  of  significance  truly  nature.  clothes  with  example  relationship  domineering his  level  Monegal  suggests in  good  * is He  Rodriguez la  a  aspect  in  mirror. as  in  El  suggested. of  Donoso's  human p e r s o n a l i t y ,  its  fragmentation  and,  dissolution dualities  and  in  the  cas.e  obliteration.  within  exploited,  as  the  human  destroyer  female.  As  Joseph  ultimate  mythogenetic  and  Chepa,  Donoso  mind  -  creator,  Campbell  of  has  its  apocalyptic  constantly  emphasizes  good and madness  stated,  evil, and  the  exploiter  reason,  and  male  human m i n d  and  is  the  zone:  For the human mind in its p o l a r i t y o f t h e male and female's modes of experience, in its passages from infancy to a d u l t h o o d and o l d age, i n i t s t o u g h n e s s and tenderness, and in its continuing dialogue with the world, is t h e u l t i m a t e m y t h o g e n e t i c zone - t h e c r e a t o r and d e s t r o y e r , t h e s l a v e and y e t t h e m a s t e r , of a l l t h e gods.13 Chepa,  in  an  contrast  view  is  archetypal  life,  the b o u n t i f u l  to  Alvaro,  from the  incarnation  of  children's  life.  She  is  the  point  of  tree  of  cornucopia:  Nos trepctaamos a ella como a un a r b o l c u a n d o e r a m o s pequeffos, exigiendole cuentos y dulces y caricias y preferencias y regalos, como a una cornucopia inagotable. Mas tarde, ya crecidos, no podiamos treparnos a su cuerpo p e r o e s t a r en s u c a s a e r a como seguir pegados a ella fisicamente, y la c a s a como extencio'n del cuerpo de mi abuela, configuraba la cornucopia: era como inventada por mi abuela para n u e s t r o d e l e i t e . ( p . 26) Chepa,  as  the  This  emerges  with  fire.  become ser  a  more  domingo  life,  clearly  miraculous  and  in her  animita:  milagrosa  (p.  is part  of  99) is  The  endowed  lo  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Chepa's  era  prolongaciOn  cuerpo  en  el  centralizes  mother  93  -  was  estaba  image also  and to  destinada llenos  action  significance  but  house  destined  colegio, the  earth  structure,  with the  Chepa  mi a b u e l a  de mi a b u e l a " )  -  apocalyptic  that  with a special  its  del  "Que  contamos  house  the  association  grandchildren believe  The  animita  orgullo."  t r e e of  not  ("esa  in  de  Este  only casa  because  a  it  in que is  a  refuge,  a sanctuary  children  ("un  continuation gusta  que  asilo  of  the  estos del  derramandose  todavJfa."  the  as  he  imagines  vital  forces  se  en su  memoria".  words  Este  domingo  beauty, death and  of in  reaching  she  is  Northrop  Frye  has  symbolism  apocalyptic  world.  in fire  the in  Bible,  w o r l d midway  who  identified  the  is  animita of The  are  part  McMurray empanadas another  of has  regeneration  "una are  the  on h e r out  the  of  incarnates: esa  casa la  the  the  t r e e of  sense  the  the  window  fire  heaven  with  is  Elisa's  with  the  Pentecost,  the  lyric  heaven.  surrounding  and  final  of  through  at  future  gigantesca  stars  to  life  the  in  "fire  human  assumes  we f i n d  to  era  cornucopia  animita  same  a "Me  que  house  association  fire  210),  that  passage  street  the n a r r a t o r ' s  way  the  descending  a  the  seraphim  the  coal  of  spiritual  or  divine."  also  of  in  14  Chepa,  a burning  tree,  occultism. the  apocalyptic  also  suggested  proves  sees  and  the  apocalyptic  as  convey  associate  garden,  symbolizes  for  (p.  aun:  sense,  they  imagery  v/ith t h e  paradisal  this  These  the  between  popular  se  viviera  paradise  dead  and  mouth  Chepa  como  210)  she  flames  angelic  In  pointed  The  the  Isaiah's  (p.  when  apocalyptic  life  ahi,  house  and  already  later  a m y t h i c a l p r o j e c t i o n tov/ards  tov/ards  Coronacion  thinks  210)  burning  encendida in  of  refugian  (p.  and  vagabundos")  de mi a b u e l a  mind,  the  grandchildren ninos  cuerpo  narrator's  the  de  ninos  prolongacid'n  in  for  the  of  structure that  the  regenerative  image.15 to  tree  be  In  illusory  -  94  -  life, in  the  imagery  Este  domingo  Sunday  ritual  power  of  Este  domingo  as  Violeta's  the  , the  of .  fire  George of  the  Eucharist, concept  d e a t h marks  of the  end  of  the  paradisal hubo  Sunday  world  fin."  n i mas a l m u e r z o s  and  "Como  also  the  end o f t h e  murio' l a V i o l e t a , y a no  dominicales.  Fue e l p r i n c i p i o  ( p . 206)  The  counterpart  presentation  of  confusion,  the  conclusion  -  The  ritual  o f t h e grandmother:  ma's e m p a n a d a s  del  empanada  demonic  the  this  world  of  labyrinth  the  into  apocalyptic nightmare  imagery, of the slum,  the  Chepa  imagery  feels  is  terror,  falls  at. t h e n o v e l ' s  the Eucharist  of  that  the  pain and  r e p l e t e w i t h demonic  o f t h e empanadas,  is  symbolism  and  w h i c h Chepa  existential hell  counterpart  apocalyptic labyrinth  to  imagery. symbol  cannibalism.  she i s i n danger  In of  of the  being  devoured: Esa sensacion que a veces t i e n e con l o s pbbres de su poblacio'n: son voraces, quieren devorarla, sacarle pedazos de carne para a l i m e n t a r s e de e l l o s . . . ( p . 192) Senor, como llamar para q u e me s a l v e n de estos chiquillos que q u i e r e n d e s c u a r t i z a r m e y devorarme. (p.. 195) These the  grotesque  entropic  personal  process  identity,  world  into  false  facade,  falls  into  controls  has  stated  a  chaos. an  is and  destructive,  scenes and  depict  the  disintegrative  Chaos  has always  illusion  the  are visual  result  conventions  instinctual  of  imaginary  obliteration  process been  order.  bourgeois  elements  of  which  there,  of  of  Chepa's  throws h e r  hidden  The grotesque  of the erosion of  projections  behind  chaos  and undermining civilization  h e r own s e x u a l i t y .  a  Chepa of the  by  the  Donoso  that: Uno de l o s destrucci6"n, reduccic'n a  grandes terrores mios es e l t e r r o r de l a de l a a b y e c c i d n de l a no e x i s t e n c i a , de l a nada, d e l s e r que se e l i m i n a , de l a -  95 -  explotacion del s e r humano p o r e l s e r humano, en t o d o s los p i a n o s d e l a d e s t r u c c i d h . E l t e m a n o me i n t e r e s a e n el s e n t i d o s o c i a l ; me i n t e r e s a e l s e r h u m a n o e x p l o t a d o , destructor y destruido.16 Chepa  represents  nurturing a  mother  castrating,  channeled  passion it.  marriage  and  of  her  and  most  the  erotic  slum  is  a  of  vitality  negative  frustrated  becomes  consumes common  the  one  form  of  relations  and  incest  Chepa's  disintegration passion  also  whose  projection,  incestuous  The  and  positive  as  a  destruction  as  sexual  energy  is  relationship.  expiation.  the  of  relation  the  moral  punishment and  as  and  female  erotic  destroys is  a  figure  incestuous  demonic  Incest  slum  an  that  assume  earth  duality  engulfing  into  The  a  of  for  her  a  fierce  that the  seeks  a  agony  in  personality  f u l f i l l  parody  demonic  crime the  to  demonic  biblical  is  destructive  of  imagery  followed  labyrinth is  the  by  of  the  expiation  Maya.  labyrinth:  . . un l a b e r i n t o de a d o b e s y p i e d r a s y e s c o m b r o s , de latas y tablas y calaminas hacinados de cualquier manera, s i n orden . . . (p. 183) Pero aqui no hay p e r i f e r i a : a l e s t a b l e c e e l caos y se i n i c i a e l  p"i£ m i s m o d e l a c o s t a l a b e r i n t o ( p . 184)  se  Va cruzando l a , c a n c h a de f u t b o l c e r c a d a p o r e l m o n s t r o de la poblacion que se extiende y crece, por ese laberinto de covachas que d i b u j a su l i n e a a'spera b a j o la tapa del cielo: tiene que e n t r a r en e l l a b e r i n t o para p o d e r s a l i r . No s a b e p o r d o n d e n i h a c i a d o n d e . (p. 189) In  contrast  demonic  labyrinth  a negro  .  to  algo .  ."  Chepa's  a (p.  the is  light in  and  fire  darkness:  cualquier  cosa  ".  .  contar  of  celestial  . s i de  solo salir  imagery,  pudiera de  este  the  llegar  .  laberinto  196).  anguished wandering  -  96  in  -  the  slum  is  the  demonic  image  of  lost  the  direction,  apocalyptic  Isaiah.  Chepa's  the  way,  the  final  biblical  identification  Donoso's  integration  by  imagination  infuses  i s the  straight  collapse of  in  filth  road the  with  demonic c o u n t e r p a r t  creates  the  element  a visual  f o l l o w i n g quotes  impact  God  to  prophesied  garbage  evil;  of the monstruous nature  h i s w r i t i n g with  G o y a as t h e  labyrinth  of  hell of  heap  of by  follows  is a foul p i t .  reality  deformed  "esperpOntico"  reminiscent  which  of B u n u e l  or  illustrate:  Huye. Siguen abriOndose alveolos irregulares, multiplicandose los muros hechos con d e s p e r d i c i o s de construccion, de l a t a , madera y a d o b e , una p a r e d con un umbral s i n puerta y nada detra"s, v e n t a n a s m i n u s c u l a s sin vidrios, una a m p o l l e t a que c a s i no i l u m i n a r o d e a d a de seis c a r a s que comen, humo de f r i t a n g a , e l b a l b u c e o demente de una radio, un boliche que vende p a p a s y v o l a n t i n e s d e l ano p a s a d o y c o c a c o l a . (p. 1 8 9 ) Pero no hay nadie. T o d a s l a s p u e r t a s s e han c e r r a d o . Todas las ampolletas extinguido, y l a C h e p a camina a ciegas entre f o r m a s i r r e g u l a r e s como r o c a s , que a p e n a s l e d e j a n e s p a c i o p a r a p a s a r . (p. 1 9 0 ) Unas narices chorreando, un cogote flaco, y luego, cuando la comienzan a empujar, a t o c a r , l o s a l i e n t o s fetidos, las manos pegajosas de mugre . . . S e q u i t a las m a r t a s y l a s t i r a p o r e l a i r e a l medio d e l g r u p o de chiquillos: r u g e n a l s a l t a r p a r a t r a p a r l a s p i e l e s y se lanzan al suelo gritando, mordiel-idose, esa masa de c u e r p o s v i o l e n t o s que l a o l v i d a n . (p. 1 9 5 ) El suelo esta blando, y alia', al otro lado, las siluetas de l o s g a s o g e n o s con l u c e s que se p r e n d e n y se apagan: rojas, amarillas, y el c i e l o c h a t o como una tapa de nubes . E l g r u p o se d i l u y e , d i s t r a i " d o s , jugando en e l b a s u r a l a l a l u z de l a l u n a que l a s nubes de pronto descubren en su vuelo y luego vuelven a cubrir: encuentran zapatos y se los prueban, otro desentierra una escupidera y o r i n a en e l l a e n t r e l a s risas de los dema's, y g r i t a n a s u s p e r r o s . . . sus pies se quedan q u e d a d o s en l a b a s u r a p o d r i d a y no puede sacarlos y se hunden mas y ma's h a s t a que no p u e d e , no puede y c a e . (p. 1 9 7 ) In  t h e g r e a t e s t moments o f D o n o s o ' s w r i t i n g ,  climactic  finales  which  characterize -  97  -  his f i r s t  i n the  grotesque  four novels,  we  have  a sense  moved our  into  a  center  literary  centre,  total,  provides endless  of  of  in self  essence  and  of  is  center  the  words  about.  thematic  This  design  create  the  a  mythical  destruction  and  is  and  the  total  apocalypse fall.  there  the generic  which  otherwise  associations  as  what  of  illuminates  novels  seen  analysis  and  of  and  have  Unless  archetypal  vortex  analogies  and  we  would never  events  and  inevitable  Donoso's  been  and  c r e a t i o n and  the  of  archetypes  the  Donoso's  of  feeling that  with the p r i n c i p l e of  suggestive  terms  of  While  us  it  understanding  treated  use  the  order  has  characters  necessary  series  to  of  time,  the  Donoso's  experience  provides  nature  perception  of  structure.  novels  recurrent  significance,  Donoso's  complete  Donoso's  inner  converging  the  whole  such  us  of  and  forms.  leads  Life  is  awakening  of  the  eternal fall  is  the  of  destruction  and  functions  the  disintegration. In cause  Este' for  the  destruction. clear  cut  from paradise  of  El  e a r t h l y chaos  Este  domingo  do n o t  assume  Elisa',  Estela  and Dora  eventual such in  some  of  the p o s i t i v e  well  some  of  the maternal .repressive  as  Alvaro  This  which  as  and  as  embodies  while  death.  ambiguity  world  as  Elisa, of  in  , woman  into  incarnations  Chepa  Estela  of  i n Coronacio'n  characters  Thus  of  incarnation  the  The  .  elements  sexual  fall  , as  archetypal  Coronacion elements  domingo  is  lugar  duality  suggested sin  Perhaps  as  Northrop  Frye  writers  in  g e n e r a l , Donoso  ressembles of in  l i m i t e s and  has is  -  El  suggested resistant  98  -  Elisa  i d e n t i t y as  Este  to  domingo Paiaro in  in  well  as  his the  , anticipate de  regard  having  lifegiving  his  la to  Noche  .  modern  archetypes  "spotted",  so  versatile  as  to  speak,  due  possible  to  a natural  and  not  anxiety  limited  to  to  keep  one  them  as  exclusive  interpretation.17 However, myths  that  essential  we  structural  basis  and  bourgeois  He  accomplishes  is  of  regeneration. communication  bleak  as  Yet,  El  than  Este  as  an  Instead and  the  pessimistic to preclude lugar  man  redemption.  love  sin  domingo  an  myths.  and  In  best  a false  illusion  archetypal The  perception  surrounded domingo  the of  possibility far  .  -  99  is  -  hell by  of  order.  b a s e d on on  earth,  solitude  with  , Donoso d e s t r o y s  support the  of  superficiality  structure  present  novel's  theme  create  of  a  the  the  emphasizes  is  reveal  biblical  the  exposes  Este  isolation  old  Donoso  existential  limites  domingo the  cultivated provide  is  he  any  Este  and  which  using  Christian  inevitable  of  This  this  in  has  disintegration.  conventions  of  possibility concept  how  society  of  fall  seen  bourgeois  destruction  inversion  have  and  a  the the no the  possible  impossibility  of  individual. the of  human c o n d i t i o n presenting  worse  and  total  seems  a darker hell  on  so  view. earth  Chapter  Three  All quotes from E s t e domingo Joaquin Mortiz, Mexico, 1968.  Notes  refer t o e d i t i o n published by  1. Isis Quinteros, Jose Donoso. una i n s u r r e c c i o n c o n t r a l a realidad , (Madrid: Hispanova de E d i c i o n e s , 1978) p. 1 1 4 . As examples of early negative criticisms o f E s t e domingo , I s i s Quinteros quotes two reviews w r i t t e n i n 1966: " . . . Coronacion l o colocd' en e l p r i m e r p i a n o de l a n o v e l a c h i l e n a . R e c i b i o e l o g i o s dentro y fuera del pais. Tuvo premios y traducciones y fue convirtiOndose e n u n g r a n compromiso para e l f u t u r o . M i l e s de entusiastas esperaban e l nuevo paso que d a r f a e l a u t o r . Ahora l o ha dado y e s , en g r a n p a r t e , un p a s o f a l s o . " G u i l l e r m o B l a n c o , Ercilla , (December 2 1 , 1966); ^ S i Este cominoo fuese e l l i b r o de ^ a l g u i e n muy j o v e n r e p r e s e n t a r i a s i n d u d a b u e n o s m e r i t o s ; p e r o Jose Donoso, segun l a s o l a p a , c u e n t a c o n 42 a n o s d e e d a d y u n a publica carrera de e s c r i t o r , cosas ambas q u e n o s c o n f i e r e n e l derecho a exigir una obra significativa de nuestro acervo literario . . . E s t e domingo es un l i b r o a s a z m a l o g r a c o . " M . C . G . , ( P . E . C . , No. 2 0 9 , December 3 0 , 1 9 6 6 ) . 2. George P u b l i s h e r s , 1979), Nuevo  McMurray, p. 72.  Jose'  ,  (Boston:  3. Emir R o d r i g u e z M o n e g a l , " E l mundo d e Jose"Donoso", , No. 1 2 , V o l .1 2 , June 1967, p p . 79-85. *  4. Raul Bueno Chavez, Donoso, l a destrucci6*n de Garcfa Cambeiro, 1975). ",  Donoso  5. Libre  Antonio u n mundo  Twayne Mundo  Cornejo P o l a r and o t h e r s , , (Buenos A i r e s : Fernando  " E n t r e v i s t a a p r o p o s i t o de E l o b s c e n o p a j a r o de l a noche , N o . 1 , S e p t e m b e r / O c t o b e r / N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 1 , p p . 13-16.  6. Charles Tatum,"The Child's Point of View i n Donoso's Fiction", Journal of Spanish Studies Twentieth Century , Spring 1973', V o l . 1 , N o . 1 , p . 1 8 8 . 7. Hernan Vidal, S u r r e a l i s m o y rebelicfn de l o s i n s t i n t o s (Barcelona: Ediciones A u b i , 1972), p. 111. 8.  ,  Tatum, p. 195.  9. Alvin Greenberg, "The Novel of Disintegration; paradoxical impossibility i n contemporary fiction", wisconsin Studies i n Contemporary L i t e r a t u r e , W i n t e r - S p r i n g 1 9 6 6 , V o l . 1, No. 1 , p . 1 0 3 . 10. narrativa  Noe" J i t r i k , "Realismo latinoamericana (Havana: -  100 -  y  antirealismo" in Actual Centro de Investigaciones  Literarias,  Casa  de  las  Ame'ricas,  1970),  p.  25.  11. Antonio Cornejo P o l a r , " J o s e ' Donoso y l o s p r o b l e m a s de la nueva narrativa hispanoamericana", Acta L i t e r a r i a Academiae S c i e n t i a r i u m H u n o a r i c a e , T o m u s 17 ( 1 2 ) , 1 9 7 5 , p . 2 2 1 . 12.  Rodriguez  Monegal,  p.  80.  13. (England:  J o s e p h C a m p b e l l , The Masks of God. P r i m i t i v e M y t h o l o g y Penguin Books, 1976), p. 476.  14. Atheneum,  Northrop 1967) , p.  15.  McMurray,  Frye, 145. p.  Frye,  p.  of  Criticism  ,  (New  York:  84.  16. Quoted by Emir novela como happening", 76-77, July-December 1971, 17.  Anatomy  ,  Rodriguez Monegal i n "Jose'Donoso; la Revista Iberoaroericana , V o l . 38, No. p. 521.  102.  -  101  -  Chapter  El 1966.  lugar  It  sin  was  written  Carlos  Fuentes'  Carlos  Fuentes  as  shift  in  marks  a  lugar  sin  cycle  which  paiaro which to  la  most  that  Coronacion insanity to  noche  are,  .  roles,  Este  El  The  lugar  latter  interview  of  in  originated  as  obsceno  pajaro  la  de  transformee qui,  pages. en  un  sin  J'en roman  The  depicted  system,  unlike  of  and  obsceno  is.the Este  novel  domingo  characters  w h i c h Donoso El  obsceno  to  de  of  i l l u s t r a t e the In  the m a t e r i a l destined  to  become  qui  devait de  des  milliers  je  l ' a i  etre El  lugar  la  sexual  inevitable fall. out  and  lugar  une,  of  continues  pajaro  inversion  decay  man's  "J'avais  El  narrative  El  :  it  ,  that  pris  urban  in  .The  and  d e s t r o y e d by death  points  ai  in  domingo  v/ith E l  limites  travesty,  Donoso  une page  the  sin  were  atrophy  noche  est  feudal  human  Este  ends  l a noche  that  use  and  Coronaci6n a n d  l i m i t e s and  part  en s u b s t a n c e , society  de  d e s t r u c t i o n and  limites  milliers  lucar  were  Although  the n o v e l i s t i c  entropic process  France,  de  El  pajaro  both  affection.  and  the world of  s p i r i t u a l and p h y s i c a l process  of  wife  in  dedicated to Rita  from Coronacion  fact,  the  is  g r a t i t u d e and  domingo  of  The book  Coronacion  . In  t h i r d novel, published  where Donoso and h i s  integral part  obsceno  part  in  inexorable 1972  El  of  with  noche  and  depict  an  clearly links  of  Mexico  setting  begins  Donoso's  guests.  a sign  is  is  in  house  limites  de  limites  Four  a sin El  et  des  agrandie  et  sin  limites  ,  "1'Oiseau"".1  El  lugar  m i l i e u of  - 102 -  sin the  limites "haute  is  under  a  bourgeoisie"  in  Donoso's  small  rural  Estacion  el  en  two  novels.  town  the  central  e l pueblo  miedo"(p.  cuando  heredo'  Olivo  para  The  decay:  entre  one  The  day  virgin,  Alejo's  the  and  Hace  que  q u i e r e . Todos  lo  a l l powerful:  Y tanto poder: hizo  construir y  a  Chile,  is  siglo  The  se  Don la  le  Alejo,  Estacio'n  llevara  sus  i m m i n e n t doom  and  La  the  hombrazo  grandote  aqui"(p.  58).  one  que  un p o t r e r o c r u z a d o p o r  is  run  par  de  es  mas  que  l a g e o m e t r i a de  las  vinas  of  Vega  la  La  woman  as  a sort  (la of  on t h e  the  four  a n d Don  Manuela's  one  Japonesa  pornographic  who  dances  supermacho,  la  no  Manuela  Pancho 26); and  - 103 -  la  town's  eucaliptos un  desorden que van  brothel  a  and  main c h a r a c t e r s :  an a g i n g and  only  grande),  and act  la  Vega,  mas  la Japonesita  of  sexual for  Don  produced.la  the-customers,  a truck  hombre  year  pathetic  staged  peep-show,  flamenco for  "El  y  Alejo..  l a Manuela,  y bigotudo"(p.  Both  del  Japonesita, a f r i g i d eighteen  father,  a  local  debajo  life  by  of  de c o n c r e t o , r e s q u e b r a j a d o  "El Olivo  Pancho  Manuela,  attracts  mas  is  action centers  the  tranvestite.  benefit  era  20);  her  with  no  town  s i t i a d o por  in  and  Japonesita.  of  who  d e t u v i e r a a h i mismo  hinojos  l a Manuela,  intercourse  region  is  Alejo -  i n v a l i d o , un anden  46)  brothel  homosexual  in  "Ahora  ruinosas  Japonesita,  old  t r e n se  the novel  by a w e a l t h y l a n d owner  plata.  de m e d i o  ..."(p.  tragarselo."(p. depicts  "Tanta  los  estrafalarios, casas  Don  of  92).  un s e m a ' f o r o  tumbado  de  el  -  setting  interior  como un D i o s .  74);  que  The  founded  Cruz  es  atmosphere  inevitable  was  h a c e mas  productos"(p.  linea,  It  Alejandro  tienen  el  in  Olivo.  politician, "Aqui  previous  driver: macho are  de  "Ese por  similarly  afraid of  of  and a t t r a c t e d t o Pancho  Pancho  Vega's  Vega  latent  es  tocarlo y ...  allcf que  the b r o t h e l signals  homosexuality  increfblemente desea  to  fiesta,  e l v i e j o maricdn es  como  triggers  an  explosion  iba  to  a  "Echarjfa barro  aba j o  donde  Alejo  will  die  todos  sus  alone  to  the  death. their old  of  unattractive  seductive, para  avanza  atraves  puerta,  la  luz  and  le  que  y  mientras  borrarfa  los  esa  El  leads  tries  homosexual  se  by  dancer:  de  l a Manuela,  de  for  calles los  whom h e  the  La le  asperas  de  a  and  de e l  Japonesita asaran  "No  town:  paredones  despues  y  126)]  good:  destroy  to  have  la Don  porque is  left  e l arado  "  overcome  yo,  como  - 104 -  el  escucha las  to  one  la  is  por  overtaken  destruction  his  rebel  last  ser  ...  vestido.  against  t i m e as voy la  a ir  ...  artistas  an a a  Manuela  o c u i t a detra's  grandes  and  s i t u a t i o n as  Manuela  como d e b e  entallandose entrar  limites  tried  appearing  alegre  persigna  sin  inevitably to  Manuela  antes  solo  deja bailar  t i e r r a . " ( p . 69),  que  lugar  characters  patio  que  anhelando" (p.  las  adobes  "Hasta  in  which  sea  e l , e l sabe  137)  everyone  todo  que  e'l se  Alejo will  the main  del  el y  quedaref nada  death:  Pancho y  then disappears  araria  "no  climax.  r e t o r c e r s e no s e a  fracasaron."(115)  await  irresistible  bailar  ese  para  against  Don  casas,  surjieron y  entropic process  condition:  hasta  las  volveria a unir  and  que  Pancho  el pueblo."(p.  Three  bailando  kills.  137).  awaited a r r i v a l  the n o v e l ' s  que b a i l a p a r a  m£s"(p.  proyectos  Everything by  esta  violence  himself  slowly  long  increiblemente asqueroso  of  todas  de  encima a todo  eso  The  e'l, tambien, estuviera  and  nunca  y bonigas,  tierra  se  pulp  a volver  ["Eso  a c a r i c i a r l o , desea  ...  beats  Vega.  avanza de  la  antes  de  salir  a  la  virginity quien su  luz."(pp.  and  eres  escape  pesado de  sonando  pegaba,  que  adentro  de  who  may  in  sin  tener  to  que  hasten  the  The  make  of  lfmites  the was  is  of  apprehension traditional including  undergoing  'an' of  to  Donoso,  but  such  as  vaya,  que  quedara  "  of  authority ...  la  to  of  algo anb  que  38)  ella  frio  del  the  rebel  Don  Alejo,  All  not  la  de  libertad, el  escape  aspirations,  el  de  Un  sufrir,  veneer  role  saber  calor  Pancho.  nadie."(p.  El  lugar  granted was  to  enormous a  sin  solo  of  their  their  final  only  period  to  fail  but  that  of  period  more  commonly  of  Cortazar,  Vargas  resulted  in  a  literary  criticism  focusing  on  Latinamerican  -  significant  1957.  By  lugar  sin  attempts  express  literary  eventually  105  El  reality,  Marques,  -  to  associated  in  a  Latinamerican  conscious  language,  This  represents  renovation.  question  Fuentes,  limites  Coronacidri  evident  renovate  reality,  realism.  authors  to  it.  of  ese  her  world.  sixties,  writers  "Para  hacia  the  chaos,  their  from that  part  con  plays  of  life: y  lose  v i o l e n c i a , debajo  father:  out  to  hoy  la  algo  a  wants  mano  se  "Pero  esa  cuentas  their  esa  patriarchal  real  her  el  que  en  who  reaction  clearly  Latinamerican  aunque  pero  f u l f i l l  evolution  literature  famous  to  critical  end  his  order  collapse  substantial the  be  of  sabres y  121);  the  rendirle  disintegration,  lo  encontraba  defy  Japonesita  monotony  Sonando  Pancho,  fact  to  el.  violentaba,  58)  wants  ahora  noche."(p.  ella,  Lucifer,  cold  entonces,  con  la  invierno."(p.  efforts  y  esta  llevaba  o  the  Japonesita,  cuerpo  siquiera  127-128);. La  to  a  by new  reject  renovation, with the Llosa,  most  Garcia  evolution  in  literature  in  general  and Donoso  Although by  the  with  some  emergence  literary  values,  the  approaches  such  Dorfman,  available comparison  and  artistic  this  for  new  various  forms,  structuralist,  of  Sarduy,  Emir  Quinteros,  Fernando  r e f e r e n c e t o Donoso to  the  limited  critical  from the  critical  the  new  methodological  explore  Turner, in  The  methodology,  the  and  "boom".  Monegal,  Ariel  Hugo A c h u g a r  analysing  bibliography  mid-sixties material  new  faced  archetypal  to  approaches  varied  of  critical  Rodriguez  Moreno  when  phenomenon.2  marxist,  Severo  enormously  most,  success  literary  posed  formulated  appropriate  schools  methodological  the problem  which  international searched  of  works  avenues  .3 A n  in  and  ignore  ample  different limites  and  to  provided  as  Isis  continued  authors  methods  burgeoning  psychoanalytical  sin  of  examine  particular  these  critics  narrative, to  continued  Critics  particular.  national  Latinamerican  in  in  El  use lugar  becomes  onwards,  previously  in in  existence. The  "nueva  Fuentes,  in  genealogy for  a  Fuentes  La  of  valid the  the process  the  novela" nueva  novela  "nueva  critical  searching  novela"  task for  a  "nueva  critica".  hispanoamericana  approach  fundamental of  required  and  to of  and  outlines  , 1969, his  understanding  Carlos  presents  basic  a  criteria  i t . According  to  t h e new L a t i n a m e r i c a n w r i t e r  is  elaborating  a new  language:  La nueva novela h i s p a n o a m e r i c a n a s e p r e s e n t a como u n a nueva fundaciOn d e l l e n g u a j e c o n t r a l o s prolongamientos calcificados de nuestra falsa y f e u d a l fundacidh de origen y su lenguaje igualmente falso y anacrdhico. ...nuestra literatura es v e r d a d e r a m e n t e r e v o l u c i o n a r i a en cuanto le n i e g a a l o r d e n e s t a b l e c i d o e l l e x i c o que este quisiera y l e opone e l l e n g u a j e de l a a l a r m a , l a renovacidn, el desorden y el h u m o r . E l l e n g u a j e , en  suma, de la ambiguidad: de significados, de la constelacioh apertura.4 Fuentes's limites which  ,  comments  which  are  a  ambiguous  reality. of  organization biblical  whose  addressing limites  En  de  ese  del  is  inversiones:  surrealistas. travestismo,  de e s t a s  es  decir,  en  desenlaces  transpuestos,  lugar  limites  reshaping cycle  of  Donoso's two  si:  Isis El  authors'  la  una  is  of  sin  of  the  malignant  deity.6  la  of  the  first points  limites of  themes Fernando  of  out  descent  into  d e s t r u c t i o n , the  Moreno  Turner  los  que  racfs  sexual,  es  el la  'vuelcos',  de  narrativa."5  El  restating  and  the  narrative  their  thematic  similarities Pedro  novela.  asiduidad  v/hich g i v e  the  la  tradicion mitica  ongoing  and R u l f o ' s  the  una  de  novels  critica"  desencadena  inversion  four  Severo  sin  de  progresio'n  of  lugar  novela,  Donoso's  parody  El  con  metonlmica  forms  Donoso's  "nueva  la  m y t h i c a l themes  treatment  treatment  apariencia  part  la  sin  archetypal  estructura  continua  de  cadena  Quinteros  lugar  l a Manuela,  practicaron  domina  recurrent  comprised  coherence.  . que  s i g n i f icado  inversion  sin  limites  of  in  de la  a multiple,  the  the  out,  la  sin  and  b e l i e f s . As  of  de  sucesion  into  is  Christian  points  lugar  on a d e m o n i c  a good example  r e v e l s ' ,  El  of  based  central, la  lugar  al  is  El  element  reality  novela",  inversion  'mundo  structural  inversion  "nueva  El  main  to  techniques  to penetrate  ambiguous  article  sentido  language,  Donoso  novel which  an  the  "la  The  the  myths,  Sarduy,  for  an  of  p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant  a novelistic  vehicle  presentation  se'rie  has  are  la pluralidad de a l u s i o n e s : de  Paramo  hell,  the  between in  these  mythical  lost  paradise,  the  and D o n a l d  Shaw f i n d  the  treatment in  51  senor In  lugar  is to  view,  in  an a  lugar  reality  escalation El  lugar  of  The  which  and  dimensions.8  By  opposing  without  as  one  identity.  old  or  luoar  the sin  is  many  in  already  and  Este  and  into  what  alternates points of  El  lugar  Just very  found as  physical as  process only  l i m i t e s he  Manuela's  uses  a continuation  and  the grotesque  of  destruction but  a world of of  v i e w as  the  Donoso de  o s c i l l a t e s between  by  refuge  and  his or  of Este  own  is  ambiguity  security view of  in  the  domingo  transvestite to  la two  female, l a Manuela  destroyed  a homosexual  the  grotesque  lenguaje  Coronacion  and  are  calls  "el  in  psychic  aberrations,  point  and  In and  reality,  male  - IOC -  grotesque  surrounding  a permanent  in  limites  fragmented.  physical  of  .  decrepitude  , but  Donoso used the p o i n t  young  sin  d i s t o r t i o n . The  of  the  of  domingo  d i s t o r t e d and  a  are  Este  consciousness  eventually  flashbacks  r e l a t i o n to ,  Fuentes  Alternately  and  central  narrative  destroyers  penetration  having  found  same  domingo  not  la  and  that  the  constant  includes  l a Manuela's  torn  ever  novel  grotesque  presenting  realities.  constantly  , the  uses  describes  creating  ambiguicad",  domingo  domingo  of  creators  dominant in  Este  characters, with their psychic  participants  succeeds  to  The  Three  remains  Coronacidn  disintegration  novel's  which  limites  similar  a Sunday,  l i m i t e s the atmosphere  sin  reality.  , and  Este  deterioration  deity  in  day,  present.  in Chapter to  , as  one  escalation  sin  tangible  in  domingo  compared  reflects  limites  the  Este  discussed  represents  El  sin  illuminate  However,  a malignant Asturias.7  encapsulated  as  devices  t h e theme o f  p r e s i d e n t e ""by  El  action used  of  ,  any very  in  EI  incarnate  and  present  and  an  the  ambiguous  unreal  p e r c e p t i o n of  appear  as  reality,  superimposed  where  in  a  the  real  process  of  disintegration. In  El  lugar  exceptionally  sin  and  rarely  pervasive.  The  characters  integrity  limites  .  further lucar  of  female  Alejo's  godlike  malevolence. reveals  the  In  El  fictional Manuela  sin  form  material  only  a  and  thematic  filtered  Pancho  their  of  hours,  beginning  10:00  A.M.:  "La  action with  la  the  Vega  is  in  El  succession  of  " b a i l a r i n a " is  Manuela  masks  -  109  -  a  which  a subtle The  a  frigid Don and never  presentation  each  of  la  presenting  objective lapse  a  ambiguity  reality. of  nineteen  on S u n d a y  dificultad  of  individual  a pervasive  awakening con  integration  consciousness  within a time  despego'  is  benevolence  isolates  creates  Manuela's  sin  and  a l i e n a t i o n , and t h r o u g h  occurs  lugar  ambiguity.  a u n i l a t e r a l p e r c e p t i o n of  novel's  the  between  content.  through  the  a l a t e n t homosexual,  game  underlying  p e r c e p t i o n s , Donoso  undermines  is  of  Coronacio'n  whorehouse  l i m i t e s Donoso a c h i e v e s  emphasizing of  macho,  becomes  terms El  only  psychological  a constant  the  ,  new p r o p o r t i o n s  roles:  of  in  and  in  , assumes  alternates  l a J a p o n e s i t a or  multiplicity  The  madam local  domingo  begins  changing  domingo  amplified in  presents  manipulates  face,  lugar  character,  novel  the the  Este  which appears  Este  substitutions  domingo  playing  and  is  which  character  real  or  of  . The  Vega,  in  identity  Este  Donoso  narrative  which  in  impersonator, Pancho  of  of  characters  virgin,  found  identity  lfmites  ambiguous  Coronacion  system  developed sin  in  ambiguity  The  transferences  l i m i t e s the grotesque,  sus  around ojos  laganosos,  se  donde  doumia  Cinco  para  estiro la  diez.  ...  and  ending  11),  Japonesita  goes  "  hicieron  ...  cerca  la de  las  siempre se  Manuela's are their  encounter.  centered  Don la  la  on  the  Manuela  Alejo's Manuela  in  antes  de  siquiera  The  these The  Chapter  and  six  when  middle  of  which  five  seven,  development,  la  McMurray which  the  El  lugar  climax of  Coronacion sin  of  Andres's  limites  v i o l e n c e and and C h e p a ' s  and  Este  are  driven  domingo by  psychosexual  110  la  chapters  outcome  the  of are  arrival  celebration seduction  resulted  "Thus, to  of  zigzags  in  except  both  of  plot  la for and  forwards,  e m o t i o n a l momentum,  and  chapters."9  -  , Donoso's  their  d e s t r u c t i o n . As  -  into  seventh,  Grande's  action  final  in  of  essential  the  As  and  the  heightening  the  sixth  the  part  accumulating  of  and  y  159)  five  namely  climactic events, impact  last  events,  postponing  pieza  c e n t e r e d on  A l e j o , which  central  (p.  ser  Nelly  p e r f e c t l y fused  summarizes:  are  la  are  Japonesa  w i t h Don  Deben  Nelly y  are  la  link:  vela."  the  as  ...  E n t r o ' en su  meeting  past  el Olivo  George  la  the  chal  a unifying  una  return,  chapters,  a bet  a  chapters  two c h a r a c t e r s  Estacidn  birth.  day  encender  r e c o l l e c t i o n of  part  the next  madrugada.  Vega's  electoral victory, as  A.M.  rosado.  de  reloj. el  llorar  la  first  Pancho  Japonesita's  thematic  oye  el  con  chal  porque  tomar  hombros  en su  unit.  on  5:00  twelve chapters  awaiting  centered  at  opuesto  los  arrebozarse  cama s i n  symmetrical  cubrio'  lado  para  providing  m e t i d ' en su  has  Se  mano  el  shawl  cinco  novel  alargo'la  hacia  the pink  un p o c o  one  of  to bed,  llora  The  y volcandose  Japonesita,  las  rosado."(p.  apenas  characters  own o b s e s s i o n s  Donoso p l o t t e d t h e  development  and  the  into  in a  course erosion  of  their  control  El  lugar  sin  la  Manuela's  mechanisms  limites  by  , Donoso  emotional  their  own  emerging  carefully plots  development  towards  sexuality,  Pancho  their  Vega's  final  in and  climactic  encounter. The  narrative  begins  gradually,  in  the  refers  the  characters'  to  estaria  tocando,  first  ronca  (p.12);  "Sin  enojara,  incline'  de  estropajo. no,  Mejor  parece  que  componerlo." stance the  and  then  the  character.  monologues sympathy  often  The  ,  identification trago  -  Yo  -  Pero  Era  of  irony."10  focuses  "Y  tone  in  which  in of  on  para  focus  to  to  el  an  c i e r t o . Mejor  no  -  I l l  the  ...  sobaco  ...  el  narrative  the  no  them, to  narrator's  ..."  as  interior  matter  how  narrated  attitudes  same t e c h n i q u e  interior  mind  identification  "But  narrator  ahora  -  corpino  objective  surrounds  no.  acordarse  Un  a certain  uses  el  abrio.  to  character:  y  la  person  characters  plata  se  a first  agregar:  me d e b e s  no  hija  with  no. tu  a  figural  t h i r d person  and  escote,  loca  l a Manuela's  that  commit  novel  the  maleta y  Conn comments: text  su  tocc'. Alzo' e l  with  narrator  the  the  narrator  lo  begins  Dorr i t  tend  domingo  Pero  la  seguidos  volver  que  but  monologue  minutos  para  para  estropeado,  the  As  sacd'  narrated  cinco  como  ruido  alternates  themselves or  hacer  the  commits  form of  insistente,  tan  narrator  the  "Casi  Donoso  narrows  This  thoughts:  nuevo,  esta  t r a d i t i o n a l t h i r d person a  tocarlo.  14)  t h i r d person  'impersonal'  Este  no  (p.  monologue. with  ni  the  chapter,  e  cualquiera." se  in  found  point  thoughts  of  of in  view in  an  This  third  describe an  observer  voz  Manuela,  time, place  who  assumes  "Es  and  first  provide  psychological  greater  Throughout Manuela, first  person  who,  as  novel  Vega,  interior  Japonesita  and  la  Don  is  It  is  shape  the  interior  the  view  flow of  of  o lo  and diria  (p.  136)  the present  narrative  with  provide  the  events  and  the  novel and  stimuli.  lo La  r e a l i t y but  the  narration  unstable,  e l bracero  They  to  becomes  doubt  sintio'."  their  point  of  of  and  from the  characters'  impenetrable  undoubtedly  la  the  the  of  Grande. from  la  often  and  view  seen  view  Japonesita,  monologues,  Japonesa  never  unscrutable,  the  thoughts  point  mythic,  sobre  of  previously,  the  him  lo  sensorial  the  Japonesita,  point  past,  into  la  interior  from  Alejo  the  with  monologues.  temporal  or  mentioned  characters'  the  sometimes  is  as  the  The  they their  future  frequent  also  gives  it  between  la  agility.  the  Pancho  Japonesita  into  dialogue  f l u i d i t y and  la  ella  function  expresses  inclinado  interior  towards  of  y  with a varied  f l u i d i t y to  incorporation*  la  event  and  dijo  pensara  insights  flows  se  Cespedes  person  only  characters,  viewing  Don  Vega  and  identification  luna,  Pancho  whose g e n e r a l  described  hay  lo  orientation  seen  cue  solo  not  through  being  o talvez  direct  other  an  talvez  narration  also  situate  alta, o  their  to  situation  hesitation:  diria  narrator,  and  ambiguous  en  person  la  Japonesa third  Grande  person  identifies situation.  Manuela,  Unlike  within  alternates  the and  different  narrator with  the  Don  Alejo  is  Pancho  Vega,  la  latter  characters,  Donoso's  angles  using  method  of  reinforces  his  which  the  role.  Manuela's  - 112 -  character  is  central  focus  of  the  Manuela's  consciousness  awareness  of  It  is  the  partly  identity,  through  the  in  permeated flamenco  Manuela's  consciousness  cohesive  unit.  novel  sixteen  aspirations At  and  (p.  of  A  explained:  "A  Japonesita  y  ambiguity  role  no,  tu"  no,  "  eres  bajando  los  queden  desnudos  estoy  haciendo  gozar  (p.  the  novel  elements,  unifying  and  link  and  a  symbol  the  reader  is  sexual novel  like  threads  the  and  Olivo.  the whole  -  novel, the  character  name  this  me  text  la  of  la  into  a  throughout  of  of  voy  sexual erotic  in  la  the  Manuela's  te  yo  yo  soy  124)  -  113  bien  (p.  is  -  an  a  soy  female,  ..."  el  negated  The  assumes  sosten  (p.  l a macha y  and a  la  sexual merely  la  Manuela  a  passive  role: ves para  "  como que  123);  "  tu  hembra  la  the  cualquiera."  12)  macha,  la not  of  c a r r i e d beyond  la  to  montadas,  a c t i v e male  quito  goza'rtelos  porque  be  because  loca  l a Manuela  Grande  como  must  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  mujer Manuela, y  presented  identity is  ..."  roles  v/hich  Japonesa  volver  a montar  papa  is  also  feminine  las del  y yo  but  como p a r a  later  calzones  pechos  that  the  of  el  Manuela's  constantly  the  la  terms,  part  Estacion  la  are  ...  dos  la  of  la  information  referred to  Grande  and  of  Other  the  inversion  Japonesa  and p e o p l e  feminine  in  gains  is  maricon  terms  feminine  estoy  al  and  linguistic la  the  las  reader  through-  seduction. of  paragraph  largely  ambiguity.  i m m e d i a t e l y assumes  attitude:  12)  and  times  feminine  because  narrative  the  is  ambiguity  in  dress  the beginning  Manuela only  to  dress,  The  It  linguistic  with  Manuela's  -  that  characteristics  expressed  becomes  narration.  ...  yo  ... te tus te ..."  La anos  Japonesita's  bien  tocaba her  un  cumplidos  ni  hombre  salia  su  cama hija  como  para le  el.  ...  papa'."  146) ;  "Y  hombres  todos  que  ambivalence  [  con  que  "...  y no  venga  el  centro desde  deja bailar  alia y  que  estuviera  anhelando.  nadie  6\4  se  quisiera agitaridose  en  alternatingly  Que  cuenta.  agarrarla  no  Alejo.i*Que  "Lo  conocia  seria  demasiado  El asi,  de  and la  tiempo  para  -  114  de no  -  este  ir  "El  y  es  sepa.  No  que  los  rien  y  me  su  unico sexual mi  esa  de  la  loca  sea  que  desea  solo  alia"  deja mirar para  si  e l ,  el  y  lo  soba  cuerpo  144)],  Don  role  ["Y  Estacidn  sin  el?"  que  y el  tambien,  de' c u e n t a .  l a Manuela  cuenta  el  e l mib  divine  darse  de  en  se  ese  me (p.  sabe  se  no  a dormir  baila  como  maricdh  Vega's  no  Pancho  ...  papa''."  corazon,  que  139);  (p.  la  Mi  Pancho  quebrarla,  benevolent  gente  del  "  entonces  se  de  ..."  un  pegan y es  comprar  16);  le  porque  hasta  of  de  No.  retorcerse  no  ambiguity  aqui,  (p.  baile  brazos  malevolent  Don  risa  la  hombres  maricoV q u e  Octavio  asi,  sus  viejo  Pero  (p.  divertirme,  piel,  ...  los  a tener  ese  dieciccho  queria  hija  mama.  158)],  ..."  que  da  ...  ser  hijita  quiero  su  el  the  suya."  destino  (p.  voy  quiero,  ya  su  sus  todavia  siquiera  tu  que  que  sin  noche  ...  con  25)],  la  porque  y dice  contra  en  soy  de  malos  a salvarnos  sino  una  nunca."  esta  ["Ni  Claro,  el  abandone  ...  c h i q u i l l a de m i e r d a ,  y . a c a r i c i a r l o , desea  acariciar se  lo  de  (p.  verguenza  cancicn  llora  seria  mi mujer  Manuela,  en  "-  son  no  tocarlo  57);  paps'  daba  bueno,  a l l / , que mi  cada  ["  llegaba  father  le  la  que  casa  que  le  corriendo"  dormir  bueno, (p.  regla  her  con  que  apoyo,  poder  ambiguity  la  despue's  entonces  dice  with  grito'  digas  y  y  relationship  otra  sexual  Que y  el  olisco Alejo's  tan  bueno  (p.  algo  20) ;  estaba  tramando. turbios all  Siempre de  que  central  habia  lo  which  overall  archetypal  inversion  of  sustains sense,  is  the  structured  of  and  (p.  of  an  of  the  57)]  norm.  beliefs  and  the  its  structure.  in  with  its  The  reveals  narrative  and  archetypal  are  ambiguous  limites  the  limites  negocios  sin  psychoanalytical  to  esos  lugar  inversion  social,  sin  inversion  El  de  politicos."  perspective an  of  myths  accessories lugar  enemigos  by  analysis  novel's  El  sus  p i l l a r l o en uno  Donoso's  principle  are  provides  to  Christian  this  contexts  acusaban  aspects  reality  querido  an form  In  this  existential  structure  essential  which  level  of  limites  is  dominated  by  significance. Like  Donoso's  previous  structured  by  Donoso's  the  of  destruction  theme  limites  is  supposed to  hell  on  use  earth,  become.  As  novels, of  biblical  and  the  a demonic  George  El  lugar imagery  eternal parody  McMurray  has  sin and  fall.  of  El  lugar  the paradise  pointed  it  sin was  out:  In Hell H a s No L i m i t s D o n o s o r e i n t e r p r e t s b i b l i c a l a n d classical myths a s a means o f p u t t i n g human s i t u a t i o n s and m e t a p h y s i c a l c o n c e p t s i n t o new p e r s p e c t i v e . Indeed, the symbolic allusions to the biblical myth of t h e creation and the fall p r o v i d e a p o e t i c framework f o r the d e p i c t i o n o f an a b s u r d w o r l d b a s e d a t l e a s t i n p a r t on e x i s t e n t i a l i s t p r i n c i p l e s . i l The  schematic  corruption, analysing  the the  archetypal  task  of  lost  of of  rendering  of  while  the the  of  paradise,  structure  outline,  development reflection  relations  it  novel,  overall the  El  biblical the  is  fall  lugar  explains not  themes:  sin the  play  sheer  -  plastic  115  -  a vital  limites  . A  structure  necessarily  l i t e r a r y experience quality  of of  innocence,  the  role  in  schematic  and  thematic  an  accurate  reader.  Donoso's  The  writing  is  more d i f f i c u l t .  reader it  aware  helps  of  to  integration El  to  the  By  Donoso always,  using  powerful  and  the  opportunity Donoso's  center  of  characters  are  consumed  chaos:  by  whole  caught  is  and  is  a novel  that Vega,  these  at  in  techniques  in  the  although and  their  grotesque  themes  Donoso  is  on t h e t h e m e s  of  his  magnificent  experience of the  vortex  artistic  consequently in  of  of  distortions  Japonesita -  statements  most  themes  p e r f e c t l y to  are la  which the  virtuosity its  literary  make  writing provides  lend themselves  Pancho  necessarily  content.  greatest  up  not  narrative  imaginative  fall for  of  characters  language  our  use  limites fall  does  Donoso's  thematic  Don A l e j o ,  make  destruction  sin  and  Manuela,  able  the  the novel's  lugar  presentation. la  the pleasure  illuminate his  to  destruction  Textual analysis  provide  writing. and  the novel  As  becomes when  destruction  his and  No la  a l c a n z o ' a m o v e r s e a n t e s que l o s hombres b r o t a d o s de zarzamora s e a b a l a n z a r o n s o b r e e ' l como h a m b r i e n t o s . talvez no f u e r o n e l l o s s i n o o t r o s hombres que penetraron l a mora y l o e n c o n t r a r o n y se l a n z a r o n s o b r e e'l y lo patearon y lo pegaron y lo retorcieron, jadeando sobre e'l, los cuerpos c a l i e n t e s .retorcie'ndose. sobre l a M a n u e l a que y a no p o d f a n i g r i t a r , l o s c u e r p o s pesados, rigidos, los tres una sola masa viscosa retorcie'ndose como u n a n i m a l f a n t S s t i c o d e t r e s c a b e z a s y multiples extremidades heridas e h i r i e n t e s , unidos los t r e s p o r e l v d m i t o y e l c a l o r y e l d o l o r a l l f en e l pasto, buscando quien es el culpable, castigandolo, castig^hdola, c a s t i g ^ h d o s e d e l e i t a d o s h a s t a en e l f o n d o de la confusidn dolorosa, el cuerpo endeble de l a Manuela que y a no r e s i s t e , q u i e b r a b a j o e l p e s o , y a no puede ni aullar de dolor, bocas calientes, manos calientes, cuerpos babientos y duros h i r i e n d o e l s u y o y que r i e n y que i n s u l t a n y que b u s c a n romper y q u e b r a r y destrozar y reconocer ese m o n s t r u o de tres cuerpos retorciendose, hasta que y a no q u e d a n a d a y l a M a n u e l a aoenas v e , a p e n a s o y e , a p e n a s s i e n t e , v e , n o , no ve . . ." (pp. 150-151) v  As  in Coronacion  and  Este -  domingo  116  -  ,  in  El  lugar  sin  limites  it  is  feminine  precipitates  the  Manuela's  fall  expiation  of  destruction  acto  and his  al  deseo,  asumir  macho  -  Pancho and  ese  Octavio  their  attack  described  como  in an  1  en  aura  el  babientos La  imagen  of  la  with  jadeando sus  hiriendo  variety  of  instead  presenting  in  from  limits a very  of  an  Manuela's explicit  Jamesian  Donoso, in  la  terms  of  mismo  vuelve  y  points  su  is  con le  ("Se  e*l; unidos calientos  to  propio  impone,  el  possession rape  the  tres;  and  is  violence  abalanzaron los  "El  verdugo."12  a  and  and  Octavio  su  physical  similar  her the  out,  secuaz  que e s t e  for  of  Vega's  inquisidor,  violence  final  sobre  el  deleitados  retorciendose;  cuerpos  suyo.") that  of  a  homosexual  psychological a  linear  interior  phenomena  sequence reality  psychological  transvestite,  of thus  v/hich  straight  Donoso, realism,  transcending  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  the  character,  characteristic.  like the  Pancho  La an  limites  de a f r o n t a r s e  sensuality sobre  "case",  sin  erotic connotations  el  a  views  se  cuerpos  illustrates of  si  of  Manuela's  Sarduy  Pancho  Manuela  sadistic  fondo;  Manuela's  -  substitute  of  y duros  de  revels  a language  hambrientos;  hasta  perpetran  v/hich  destruction.  expiation  lugar  Severo  l a p o s e s iOn. I n c a p a z la  La  stimulates  As  a man -  character  Chepa's SI  in  and  the  nature.  In  act.  que  travesti* al  and  •assumes  de  assumes  Manuela  sadistic  substituye de  la  present  violence  than  Maya.  of  final,  case,  against  terrible for  sexuality  saclico  this  cataclysm of  crime  more  final  in  destruction  passion  Octavio's  -  final  is  incestuous feminine  sexuality  James  and F a u l k n e r ,  experience  of  -  several  117  -  presents  a given  participants  -  an  situation objective  recapitulation deviates  of  difference  and  the  In  a  assorted  Manuela's  in  particular, between  is  la  tragedy  Donoso's the  we  Manuela  and  reflect  character interior  on  both  an  an  being  level  levels  obliterated  sin limites  misbegotten  of  experiencing  of sexual  which  interior nature  axis  to express  novel's  but  and i d e n t i t y . this  Manuela  dissolves  grotesque,  la  the  in the Manuela,  of r e a l i t y  -  on an e x t e r i o r a n d of the character  is literally into  In  duality  reveals  in  h i s concept  perceived  their  a t t r a c t i o n and  which  on t h e d e s t r u c t i o n La  and h i s p e r s o n a l i t y  But i n l a  o f r e a l i t y . The c h a r a c t e r s duality  is  story  We f e e l  o f a mask,  dimension  simultaneously  action.  as a  of the  reflects  is that  ambivalent  - converges of  character  ,  outsider  of view  passions.  feel t h e power  a  t o an  appears  heroism.  as  inevitably  sin limites  point  desperate  dimension  use of a double  an  and  may a p p e a r  the characters  E l luoar  as i t  In E l lugar  s e a r c h i n g for a s e n s e o f s e c u r i t y  o f t h e ambiguous a l l  as t h e y  through  kind  pain,  an e x t e r i o r  "esperpentico"  novel  a  impossible  intention.  l a Japonesita*s a c t u a l  and  agony  seen  perversions  there  i s thus  events  synopsis,  and  confusion the  between  same e v e n t s  crucial.  events  story  from t h e n o v e l i s t ' s  the  of  the  physically  uncertainty:  La Manuela t e r m i n g de a r r e g l a r e l p e l o de l a J a p o n e s i t a en la forma de una colmena. M u j e r . E r a mujer. E l l a se iba a quedar con Pancho. E l e r a h o m b r e . Y v i e j o . Un maricdn pobre y viejo. Una l o c a aficionada a las fiestas y al vino y a l o s trapos y a l o s hombres. E r a facil olvidarlo a q u f , p r o t e g i d o en e l p u e b l o , s f , t i e n e razcin, mejor quedarnos. Pero de pronto l a J a p o n e s i t a l e decia esa palabra y su p r o p r i a imagen s e b o r r o n e a b a como s i hubiera caido encima una gota de agua y e l entonces, se perdia de v i s t a a s f misma, mismo, yo misma n o s4, 4l n o s a b e ni v e a l a M a n u e l a , y no quedaba nada, esta pena, e s t a i n c a p a c i d a d , nada mas, e s t e g r a n b o r r d n d e a g u a e n q u e n a u f r a g a . ( p . 52)  - 118 -  In use than  Este  of "point in  The  provided  in  of  the  interior  reality  characterization unity  existential  as  and  archetypal  asthetic  destruction. integration the  Each  narrative  metaphor perception integrated exemplify  narrative  in  of  characters' and  their  psychoanalytical of the novel's  content,  narrative  elements  unique  form  are  fused  hell  on e a r t h  and in  a  in a  myths. of E l lugar  and  sin limites  psychoanalytical  unified  by  the  integrates  elements  thematic  i n t o an  emphasis  o f D o n o s o ' s shows an i n c r e a s i n g l y  psychoanalytical  structure  and  o f human e x i s t e n c e of  that  , are integrated  experience  i s part  later  system  s i n l i m i t e s . The  framework w h i c h d e p i c t s  novel  a  domingo  human  of a  concepts  Donoso's  integrates  thematic  existential  of  of  structure  synthesis  for  and E s t e  psychoanalytical  mytho-poetic  novel's  framework  which the  are part  t h e view o f s o c i e t y  psychoanalytical  i n E l lugar  demonic p a r o d y o f b i b l i c a l  the  and  absurdity  to  portrayed  p e r s o n a l i t y , a s i n James'  Coronacion  framework  experience  The  s i n l i m i t e s , the increased  for limiting  characters  intellectual  a poetic  cohesive  allows  existential  an  aesthetic  E l lugar  the aspects being  This  the  characterization into  ,  vision.  heightening  novels.  and  o f v i e w " means a l e s s d i r e c t p o r t r a i t u r e o f s o c i e t y  Coronacion  character's but  domingo  and e x i s t e n t i a l  content.  i n E l lugar  The  absurd  sin limites  on  subtle  framework t o becomes  a  and Donoso's  t h e ambiguous and d e s t r u c t i v e n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y i s the  ambiguity  characterization and  of  the  characters  who  a n n i h i l a t e hope as t h e y a l l c o n v e r g e i n  disintegration.  -  119  -  Donoso set  up  the  limites a  uses basis  . The  unified  structure myths.  creation  of  the  la  machismo  is  resigns  es  de s i e m p r e , The  in  novel's is  the  faustico"14. indirectly brothel.  image as  La with  La  echarla,  Don  Manuela  porque de  tantas  que  Voy  ". la  a  a  est^n  casas  from  that  in to  find  y  asi',  seria de p u t a s  -  120  Japonesita  and  downfall of  a l l  imminent  Pancho emerges  Vega's  hope  of  que  no  concluyendose.  Lo  las  cosas  a volver  .  .  Mephistopheles's  used  part  of  the  represented  in  the  of  with to  la  of  "hombre  Japonesa  Grande,  propietaria,  porque  se  co-ov/ner of  nadie  mandar.  ponia  la  the  and p e a c e  Podria  concludes  connotations,  become  security  as  which  incarnation  suya.  -  the  w i t h no  of  system  order  with  la  connotations  made a p a c t  on  156)  , also  inverted  begins  . voy  the place  this  In  reveals  and  y  .  sin  facing  death  .  lugar  El  mainly  death,  one  Faustus  hell.  Alejo,  casa  (p.  of  .  is  siempre  a Talca  a system  hoped  to  living  ir  taken  has  Alejo  to  based  la  the  t e r m i n a n dan paz  a twisted,  Manuela  arrangement:  to  Doctor  of  core  and  imagery  limites  imagery  beaten  de s i e m p r e . "  for  sin  the b i r t h of  and in  latent homosexuality  indicates  basis  appears  his  title,  epigraphl3,  Manuela  echado  . lo  and  e n d , Don  concluirse,  Marlowe's  the mythical  this  savagely as  lugar  disintegration  is  cosas  .  and  novel's  esperanza. .  El  universe  structural  the  a  novel's  speeches  in  "Las  la  Olivo  herself  comienzan  terrible  novel  At  destroyed  regeneration: cambian  biblical  town's  Manuela  Japonesita  .lo  the  of  narrative  el  narrative  mythological  analysis  of  Estacion  with  from b i b l i c a l  the  This  characters.  death,  of  archetypal  biblical  concludes  elements  tan  of mind  the in  podria  La  habian  loca  cuando  comenzaba  la  signified  for  inverted Olivo,  a  (p.  nunca  para 107);  he  sinking  down  casa  tanto  .  Lucifer  tengo  y  apisonarlo  (p.  21)  myth  as .  arrives,  it  death.  and  nature  continuing which  of  of  is In  in El  of  the  itself  and  the  itself  are  c o m p l e t e d as  its  in which of  the  only  ashes.  -  121  -  hell:  el  baile of of  of  v/ho  brings  rebel  Vega angel  Alejo's.  the grotesque  development  El  angel  myth,  and  an  evolution  in  of  the  of  in  imagination  r e a l i t y and  the  him  Pancho  p a r a l l e l e d by  de  brought  Vega  Don  que  talvez  awaited  case,  .  The  into  inversion  the  .  yo  limites  consciousness  una  128)  para  only  el  literally  salon,  Pancho  sin  creative  inner  (p.  fact  ultimate conclusion  the  luz,  descent  del  long  this  and  de  in  i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of  r e a l i t y are  destruction  is  has  a biblical in  era  c e r t a i n elements  form of  lugar  Estacioh  en un c a l a b o z o  sirviera  pact  which  already  s e n t £ que  structural  his  the  designs,  reaches  noche  the  when  exploration  de  to  la  and  que  uses  Manuela's  inversion  evolution  para  part  his  me e n g a n a r o n . "  of  pact,  in  un p o c o  rundown,  Donoso  La  darkness  ambiguous  burnt  porque  sumiendo.  pajaro  is  a ver  e l piso  estaba  another  destruction  siempre  . . .  the  who o p p o s e s G o d ' s  Donoso's  que  image  and  The  . claro  .  derecho  hoyo,  of  remain  a clear  and  incarnates  ".  this  he must  y meterme p a r a  este  limites  agony  that  earth,  Faustus  deliverance  is  of  inversion  into  Doctor  failure  total  and  se  sin  result  decrepit  bajando."  the  de  The  present,  siguio'  him  . yo  rocillarlo  lugar  a  freedom:  apresarme ".  87)  Manuela  of  salido at  (p.  nature,  loss  brothel  "La  la  sexual  traici<5n ."  fiesta."  of left  the in  theme  El  obsceno  eliminates narrative the  novel  In of  El  the  as  it  The  it  sustained  based  beliefs  terms and  benevolent  as  he the  biblical  earth,  hell  unity  on  the  of  a demonic the  downfall  Estacion  to  become,  and  central archetypal  el  parody  promised  El  their  the  of  land  lugar  the  they  Cruz,  town's  name) of  to  attempt prays  as  Don  to  of  d e v i l w i t h whom h e made  Their  faith  in  symbolic  in  a pact  in  as  dominates  deity.  Pancho God  a style  a and  from t h a t  a malignant  A l e j o both  in  assumptions  a p o w e r f u l God  from  structure  live  obviously  escape  t o Don  recur  coherence.  Alejo shifts  that  images  limites hold  is  wine,  unifying  novel's sin  structure  images:  These  e x i s t e n t i a l concerns.  perception  fervently  of  the  name,  deity  concrete  darkness.  themselves,  (whose is  light,  which provide  from t h e i r  as  recurrent  clearly part  in  desperate  Octavio,  of  myths  paternal  Manuela's  into  of  are  universe  Cruz  novel  and  they  developed  biblical  only  destruction  dogs,  characters  Alejo  the  body  black  on b i b l i c a l  mythological  Don  a  four  The  not  the physical  supposed  aesthetic  by  that  , we w i t n e s s  Alejo.  novel's  often  but  was  by Don  vineyards,  limites  degenerates  paradise  prophesied  so  sin  a l l the characters  Olivo  is  lugar  of In  Vega the  a la  and  father  reminiscent  psalms:  . . d e f i e n d a m e d e l m i e d o , u s t e d me p r o m e t i d * q u e n u n c a me iba a pasar n a d a , q u e s i e m p r e me i b a a p r o t e g e r y por eso me quede en ese pueblo y a h o r a t i e n e que cumplir su promesa de defenderme y sanarme y consolarme, nunca antes se l o h a b i a p e d i d o n i l e h a b i a cobrado su palabra pero ahora si, sd'lo u s t e d , s o l o usted . . . no s e h a g a e l s o r d o , Don A l e j o . . . u s t e d es e l s e n b r y l o p u e d e t o d o . ( p . 149) Don Olivo  the  Alejo  Cruz  "promised  has  land"  promised  the  inhabitants  with electricity • -  122  -  bringing  of  Estacion  new v i g o r  el and  energy  to  town,  a  light  and  town:  he  of  wine  is  also  has  I  the the  Lord  do  the  in  la Don  chaos  these  In  A l e j o . As  the  order  El  Don  the  the  Alejo  ye  are  Northrop  Frye  brought  the  the  maker  the branches"  through  the  B i b l e , Don or I  or  make p e a c e ,  limites  and  ,  linked has  create  to  power  Donoso's which  la.Manuela as  the  darkness:  character and  and  has  45:7) . D i v i n e  sin  an  is  is also  actively  p a t e r n a l God. this  pointed  in  Eucharist  Alejo  lightness  of  Vega  is  the  founded  vineyards,  a benevolent  fall  to  creation  he a l t e r n a t e l y a p p e a r s and  light  identified with Christ  lugar  Pancho  bring  God's  (Isaiah  duality  destroys of  in  things"  evil.  as  vine,  darkness;  Japonesita,  theme  of  Christ  or  ambivalent  the Don  owner  with  a l l  Alejo  terms.  to  darkness.  am t h e  create  who  of  "I  and  power  novel,  and  the Creator  either  light,  in  malevolent  perception  said  to  t h e power  symbolically  associated  of  presented embodied  are  p o t e n t i a l t o be  perception  the  Jesus  create  the  chaos  l a n d l o r d , the  Similar  to  has  in b i b l i c a l  (vineyards as  form  evil:  to  the  Bible,  Alejo  power  order is  ritual). power  t o w n . Don  divine  the wine  the  "I  the  In  ambivalent  out:  It is with the " f a l l " t h a t the l e g a l metaphor begins that persists a l l t h r o u g h t h e B i b l e , o f human l i f e a s subject to a t r i a l and judgement, w i t h p r o s e c u t o r s and defenders. In this metaphor Jesus is the counsel f o r the defense, and t h e p r i m a r y a c c u s e r i s S a t a n . . ..In the e m o t i o n a l response t o C h r i s t i a n i t y a t any r a t e , t h e role of God as F a t h e r , h o w e v e r d e f i n e d i n dogma, k e e p s shifting from the benevolent to the d i a b o l i c a l , from a being genuinely concerned for man t o an e s s e n t i a l l y malicious being compounded o f w r a t h and c o n d e m n a t i o n . One consequence of having a c r e a t i o n myth, w i t h a f a l l myth inseparable from i t , has been t h e sense of b e i n g objective to God, or, more specifically, of being constantly watched and observed, by an a l l - s e i n g eye that is always p o t e n t i a l l y h o s t i l e . 1 5 Don  Alejo  condemns  Estacidn  -  123  el Olivo  -  to  disintegration.  He  has  no  to  i n t e n t i o n of  incorporate  buying has  out  town  is  earth, place  the  a l l  bypassed  which  is As  the  "Podria  decirse  se la  de  the  que  en  el  and  vineyards  the  their  Olivo  biblical  ruins  parody and  The  Don  Alejo's  image  the  four  black  The  four a  the  of  made  of  a  into  dogs  of  black  narrative  Don  out, an  is  no  highway  future.  it  is  The  hell  on  sterile,  misery in  plans slowly  the  and/or of  he  El  going lugar  absolute  personal  o  a on sin  value: grupal,  especificidad historica, categoria  absoluta:  destino."16  been  and  a l l  the  c o n d e m n e d b y Don  l a n d l o r d emerge with  harvest to  the  as  Jesus and  that slums  dogs,  harvest food  points  cierta  l a b y r i n t h of  black  is  aging  un d e s t i n o  Manuela  similar  four  is  is  on  is  are  l i m i t e s en una  el  the  places  into  Manuela  and  have  wasteland  transformed  es  la  of  sin  and  paradise,  becomes  fue  t o w n as  doomed,  nothingness,  a una  association  b i b l i c a l . imagery demonic  que  lugar  d e s t r u c c i o n , entonces  Estacion  of  is  there  earthly  inhabitants  manera  Japonesita,  left,  destruction lo  51  have  the  vineyards  town  Cornejo Polar  of  to  i n t o more  the  abyss  alguna  convierte  La  by  of  human  theme  site  youth  Antonio  limites  referido  the  only  electricity  i n h a b i t a n t s . The  opposite  and t h e  endlessly.  town  the  i t ,  the  bringing  vintage  where the  A l e j o to  the  in  Este  Chepa  endless  vintage  t o be consumed  by  darkness  ideal  i n . This  of  domingo  -  of  .  The  collapses  are  is  wrath  death  of  world  context  vineyards  in which l a Manuela and  of  a demonic parody  and  found  inhabitants  haunted  destroyed. in which  la  symbolized  by  Alejo.  dogs  accompany  level  Don  they provide  -  124  -  A l e j o everywhere along  with la  he  goes  Manuela's  flamenco  dress,  another  mentioned  constantly  In  like  fact,  times.  On  Don  endemoniados"  sounds  novel's  who  will  dogs  Moro,  paradox  of  church  with  interesting evil  limites  .,  Alejo's This  Cana):  the  parody  is in  (which  is  a  se  .  the  . todos  Cruz  that  y  trataba  wine  is  of  the  drunk  the  sabian  sabian una  the  death.  beasts (p.  world the  dogs  into is  "djinns",  with El  blood,  luaar  sin  celebrating  Don  wedding  at  Cana.  a l i n g u i s t i c parody  e l e c t o r a l v i c t o r y c e l e b r a t i o n of'  que  c a r i c a t u r e of iban  donde fiesta  -  125  a festejar  y como  lo  en h o n o r  -  the  festejar.  d e l Senor  y  of the  celebration  e l t r i u n f o de  iban a  At  XVIII).  In  feast  at  133),  Islam  the  (Koran,  the  o f t e n p a r a l l e l e d by the  the  with  Eucharist.  at  (p.  illustrate  identified  new w i n e  grotesque  de  is  four  barking  Muslim  the Koran,  dogs  the  el Olivo  the  to  "perros  inferno  Estacion  association  black  of  Alejo brings  t r a d i t i o n of  rite  his  literally  Don  The  form of  parodies  as  ".  46).  the  t h e new w i n e  They  sixteen  dogs*  galloping  with  novel.  are of  messengers  for  the  are  contribute  the  unleashes  death  raisa".  Bible,  style  Alejandro porque  in  through  demonic  brothel  (p.  of  associated  la  assume t h e  election  biblical  en  him  Throughout  and  dogs  parody  of  they  mentioned  novel,  sounds  Alejo  Sultan).  moros  because  particularly  Don  names  Negus,  genies  the  destruction have  "hay  the  as  d e i t y . They  demonic  In  with  are  black  malignant  manifest  conclusion,  (Otelo,  a  four  thread,  throughout  they  thematic association  announce  The  intervals  the  apocalypse.  their  the  or  a  associated  reinforcing  155).  are  the  are  as  unifying  dress,  level,  Alejo  and  of  regular  flamenco  thematic  establishing  horsemen  at  the  a  important,  at Don  Pero  cualquier  cosa que se r e l a c i o n a r a con e l Senor e r a buena, . . . " (p. 75) Donoso demonic  parody  beliefs;  In  symbol  of  them  consistently of  Christian  theological  the  uses  life  biblical myths,  an  imagery  present a  i n v e r s i o n of C h r i s t i a n  terms the v i n e y a r d s  of the Lord are the  g i v i n g f a i t h and t o be allowed  i s a s i g n of grace. In E l lugar s i n l i m i t e s  to c u l t i v a t e  , the vineyards  are  a  the  highway  the  a n t i t y p e o f the s t r a i g h t way, t h e path o f redemption so v i t a l  to  sign  to  o f d e s t r u c t i o n as they take over t h e town. The t w i s t has taken, t h e r e f o r e bypassing  C h r i s t i a n i t y . I s a i a h a s s o c i a t e s the b u i l d i n g of a path  the  desert  bringing Este  into  the  domingo  apocalyptic sin  a  straight  ,  Donoso  straight  nothingness  no  redemption  of  limites  absent  i n E l l u g a r s i n l i m i t e s as i n a  demonic . c o u n t e r p a r t  to the  moves and  in  a  single  direction  towards  death. As i n Este domingo there i s  or r e g e n e r a t i o n . However i n E l lugar s i n  t h e refuge  i n the r i c h t e x t u r e of c h i l h o o d memories i s  and the tender  e v o c a t i o n of domestic l i f e which marks Este  domingo  i s eliminated i n E l lugar s i n l i m i t e s .  In  the  last  two  chapters  of  E l lugar s i n l i m i t e s  , when  i s no p o s s i b i l i t y o f s a l v a t i o n f o r the c h a r a c t e r s , there i s an  desperate is  imagery of  we do not f i n d the g e n t l e v i s t a open t o t h e past of one's  childhood,  there  presents  with f e r t i l i t y  through  way - l o s t d i r e c t i o n , dead end. In E l lugar  l i m i t e s . everything  hope  highway  d e s e r t to l i f e . Again  destruction,  also  Estacion e l Olivo, i s  in  absence as  sharp  characters  of  the  memory.  The p r e s e n t , which i s as bleak and  f u t u r e , dominates the novel's  c o n t r a s t t o the p r e c e d i n g  live  t e n chapters  i n an i n t e r i o r v/orld f i l l e d  - 126 -  conclusion. This i n v/hich the  by past memories and  illusions  for  characters' illusions As  in  archetypal  novel's  structure  demonic  twist.  memory.  La  La  of  The  the  for  the  and  Este  novel  progresses,  future are  with  a l l  f r u s t r a t e d and  past  and  la  Vega.  For  lugar  reduction  Manuela  and  Vega  la  in  of the  remember remembers  Japonesa  sin  the  their  limites  consistent  consistently  Pancho  Manuela  better days.  this  appears  , El  t i m e , but  inversion,  Pancho la  domingo  reduction of  Japonesita  Japonesita,  town's  As  demolished. Coronacion  an  encounter  future.  aspirations  are  presents  the  with  t i m e has  a  characters'  their his  Grande  the  previous  childhood.  remember  the  example:  La Japonesa Grande recordaba, h a c i a e l f i n a l , que en otra epoca la misa de d o c e en e l v e r a n o a t r a i a a l o s bracks y a l a s v i c t o r i a s mas e n c o p e t a d o s d e l a r e g i d h , y l a j u v e n t u d e l e g a n t e . . . se r e u n i a a l a t a r d e c e r , en caballos e s c o j i d o s , a l a p u e r t a d e l c o r r e o que t r a i a e l tren. Los muchachos, tan comedidos de dia como acompanantes de sus h e r m a n a s , p r i m a s o n o v i a s , de noche se ' s o l t a b a n el p e l o en l a c a s a de l a J a p o n e s a , que no c e r r a b a nunca. (p. 45) This present ." is  lost  paradise  ("Ahora (p.  the  consuming  the  e r a ma's  However,  20).  past  no  in  contrasts  which  town and  que  this are  its  strongly  un p o t r e r o  lost found  cruzado por  paradise the  la  evoked w i t h  roots  i n h a b i t a n t s . As  with the void  of  the  Fernando  evil  of  the  linea  .  nostalgia which  Moreno  is  Turner  summarizes: Este paraiso que se anbra nostalgicamente, que se recrea para e v a d i r e l p r e s e n t e , no es t a l s i n e m b a r g o . La inversion u n a v e z mas h a c e d e l a s s u y a s . E n e f e c t o , el t i e m p o p r e t e " r i t o no e s t a e x e n t o de c u l p a , e l p a r a i s o no es p u r o ; en r e a l i d a d es en e l p a s a d o d o n d e e s t a ' n l a s raices del mal que aquejan al presente. Son esas celebraciones, esos ritos donde se r i n d e j p l e i t e s i a . a l Dios satcfnico, las que provocan la caida. En e s a s fiestas, donde la Japonesa Grande viene a s e r ^ un equivalente de la sacerdotisa del gran senor,  - 127 -  encontramos el presente Time  is  destroys:  ".  engullirlos the  the  only  .  siempre 134).  hell  El a  and  el  ."  (p. in  to  sin  limites  of  the  in  four  novel  cuatro  that  eternal  announcing  escape  the  destructive  a l l  are of  held  and  gives is  the  the  and  of  novel  igual  forces captive  What its  mytho-poetic  destruction.  .  .  . . . "  biblical  destruction.  inexorable.  queria  deterioration  Alejandro use  and  are  de Don  , Donoso's  en  death  perros  which  fall  que  siempre  by  significance  dogs  vivo  Otelo  limites  what  y  que  advances  Moro,  destruction and  inexorably  peligroso  The  Sultan,  sin  which  inevitable destiny  their  of  143).  dominated  limits  their  richness,  the process  lugar  tiempo  the  los  v/orld  preordained, lugar  .  .  "Negus,  without  succumb  .  perfectos In  creates  eternal destroyer  constant  destruction:  e l fundamento d e l u n i v e r s o degradado ha l l e g a d o a su p u n t o c u l m i n a n t e . 1 7  of  (p. myths  evil,  until  Their  .  a  they  fall  is  in  El  counts aesthetic  unity  presentation  of  Chapter  All published  four  notes  quotes from El lugar sin limites by E d i t o r i a l E u r o s , B a r c e l o n a , 1975.  1. H. Biancotti, S. Sarduy, Instrument pour se connaitre", Q u i n z a i n e L i t t d r a i r e , No. 136, March  refer  to  edition  "Jose' Donoso: Le roman? interview published in 1 9 7 8 , p. 8.  Un La  2. Good examples of these a p p r o a c h e s a r e t o be f o u n d i n : Roberto Fernandez Retamar, "Para una teoria de l a l i t e r a t u r a hispanoamericana", Casa de las A m e r i c a s , No. 80, 1973; Carlos RincOn, "Sobre critica e historia de la literatura hoy en Latinoamerica", Casa de las Ame'ricas , No. 80, 1973; Kurt Schnelle, "Acerca del p r o b l e m a de l a n o v e l a l a t i n o a m e r i c a n a " i n E l e n s a y o y l a c r f t i c a l i t e r a r i a en I b e r o a m e r i c a , T o r o n t o , 1970. 3. S e v e r o S a r d u y , " E s c r i t u r a / t r a v e s t i s m o " , Mundo Nuevo , N o . 20, February 1968, p p . 7 2 - 7 4 ; E m i r R o d r i g u e z M o n e g a l , " E l mundo de J o s e ' D o n o s o " , Mundo Nuevo , No. 1 2 , J u n e 1 9 6 7 , p p . 7 9 - 8 5 ; Isis Quinteros, Jos/ Donoso, una insur reccidh contra la realidad (Madrid: Hispanova de Ediciones, 1978); Ariel Dorfman, Imaginacidh y violencia en America Latina (Santiago: E d i t o r i a l Universitaria, 1970); F e r n a n d o M o r e n o T u r n e r , " L a i n v e r s i o n como norma a p r o p d s i t o de E l L u g a r S i n L i m i t e s " i n Jose^ Donoso, l a destruccidh de un mundo ( B u e n o s A i r e s : F e r n a n d o G a r c i a C a m b e i r o Editorial, 1975); Hugo . A c h u g a r , Ideologfa y estructuras narrativas en Jose Donoso (Caracas: Centro de Estudios L a t i n o a m e r i c a n o s Rdmulo G a l l e g o s , 1979). 4. C a r l o s F u e n t e s , La nueva n o v e l a E d i t o r i a l J o a q u i n M o r t i z , 1969), p. 32. 5.  Sarduy,  p.  72.  6.  Quinteros,  pp.  7. Moreno hispanoamericana  hispanoamericana  (Mexico:  146-151.  Turner, (Madrid:  p. 100; Ediciones  Donald Shaw, Nueva n a r r a t i v a C a t e d r a , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 146.  8. An interesting a r t i c l e on t h e g r o t e s q u e d i m e n s i o n i n E l lugar sin limites is by K i r s t e n N i g r o , "From C r i o l l i s m o t o the Grotesque: approaches to J o s e Donoso" i n T r a d i t i o n and R e n e w a l , Essays on T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y L a t i n - A m e r i c a n L i t e r a t u r e and C u l t u r e , Centre for Latin-America and Caribbean Studies, No. 2, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1975. 9.  George  McMurray,  J o s / Donoso  -  12S  -  (Boston:  Twayne  Publishers,  1979),  pp.  102-103.  10. Dorritt Cohn, Transparent Minds, Narrative Presenting Consciousness in Fiction (Princeton: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 117. 11.  McMurray,  12.  Sarduy,  13.  To D r . F a u s t u s question: " T e l l me, w h e r e i s t h e p l a c e Mephistopheles replies: "Under the heavens.  p.  p.  Modes f o r Princeton  90.  74. 1  •  •  that  men c a l l  hell?"  •  W i t h i n the bowels of these elements W h e r e we a r e t o r t u r e d , a n d r e m a i n f o r e v e r . H e l l h a t h no l i m i t s , n o r i s c i r c u m s c r i b e d I n o n e s e l f p l a c e ; b u t w h e r e we a r e i s h e l l , A n d w h e r e h e l l i s , t h e r e m u s t we e v e r b e . .  ."  14. The similarities between El lugar sin limites and Marlowe's Doctor Faustus are p o i n t e d o u t by an a r t i c l e by J o s e Promis: " E l mundo i n f e r n a l d e l n o v e l i s t a J o s e D o n o s o " i n T i e r r a y mundo en l a n o v e l a h i s p a n o a m e r i c a n a , E d i c i o n e s de l a U n i v e r s i d a d d e l N o r t e , A n t o f a g a s t a , C h i l e , 1969. 15. (Toronto:  Northrop Academic  F r y e , The G r e a t Code, t h e B i b l e P r e s s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 2 ) , p . 11.0.  16. Antonio Cornejo P o l a r , "Jose la nueva narrativa hispanoamericana", S c i e n t i a r i u m H u n g a r i c a e , T o m u s 17 ( 1 2 ) , 17.  Moreno  Turner,  p.  96.  -  130  -  and  Literature  D o n o s o y l o s p r o b l e m a s de Acta L i t e r a r i a Academiae 1S75, p. 220.  Chapter  El  obsceno  Donoso's  fourth  by  critics.  most  eight in  years  terms  novel.  describes  novel It  on  of  In  pajaro  la  and  it  a  long  is  noche  is  ,  considered  book,  544  i t . Some b i o g r a p h i c a l  the  an  de  five  circumstances  interview  a period  of  with  complete  published  in  to  masterpiece  pages,  and Donoso  the  Rodriguez  insanity  his  information  surrounding Emir  be  which  he  1970,  is  is  worked  interesting  writing  Monegal,  of  the  Donoso  suffered:  . . t u v e o t r a h e m o r r a g i a d e u ' l c e r a y me t u v i e r o n q u e hacer una operacidh de emergencia. A causa de mi intolerancia a la morfina, pase va'rios dias enloquecido, con alucinaciones, doble personalidad, paranoia e i n t e n t o s s u i c i d a s . . . l o s e f e c t o s de e s t a locura demoraron un p a r de a n o s a d e s a p a r e c e r . . . En un esfuerzo sin pausa durante ocho meses, todavia sufriendo de p e s a d i l l a s y p a r a n o i a , empece a r e e s c r i b i r desde el principio E l o b s c e n o p a j a r o de l a noche . E l recuerdo de los m i l e s de p a g i n a s que y a h a b i a e s c r i t o dio al material una organizacidn quiza redescubierta t r l f s mi e x p e r i e n c i a con l a locura.1 Donoso of  the  also novel  discussed  with  after  experience  his  another  interviewer  with  the  reorganization  insanity:  Empece^ l a n o v e l a " d a c a p o " , e s d e c i r i n t e g r a l m e n t e c o m o si nunca l a h u b i e r a comenzado, e l t r a b a j o de ocho anos como que lo ingeri y a t r a v e l d e e s t a l o c u r a s e me ordend' en l a forma que a p a r e c e a h o r a . Lo e s c r i b i * desde el 15 de marzo hasta e l 15 d e o c t u b r e d e l m i s m o aftb (1969) incorporando t o d o e l m a t e r i a l de l o s ocho a n o s , p e r o d a n d o l e e l o r d e n q u e me h a b i a s u g e r i d o l a l o c u r a . 2 We  know  mansion, servants. doubt  has  that  filled The as  Donoso,  with  fictional its  as  senile, world  genesis  child,  eccentric old of  many -  a  El  obsceno  elements  131  -  of  lived  in  a large,  relatives pajaro the  de  and  old  run  by  l a noche  no  author's  personal  background familiar  and  the  socio-histor ical  context  the  v/riter  is  with.  Donoso, as  the  in  initial  an a r t i c l e  element  of  he  the  wrote,  novel's  describes  what  conception  in  he  perceives  1960:  . cuando de p r o n t o v i que s e d e t u v o j u s t o d e l a n t e de nosotros un gran coche oscuro, lujosisimo, con chofer con librea de l o s que no s e v e i a n - y s u p o n g o que ahora tampoco s e vera'n en S a n t i a g o . E l c h o f e r e r a rubio, de ojos azules, e l e ' c t r i c o s , buen mozo, con l a barbilla partida, como l o s A z c o i t f a e n m i n o v e l a . P e r o esta p r e s e n c i a no h u b i e r a b a s t a d o p a r a s u g e r i r n a d a : en el asiento de atra"s, e l e g a n t i s i m o , s o l i t a r i o , i b a un monstruo, un n i n o c o n l a c a r a c o s i d a ^ y z u r c i d a , e n a n o y con j o r o b a . Iba a l l a m a r l e l a a t e n c i o n a Fernando sobre esta vision y e s t e c o n t r a s t e -I C u a l de l o s dos e r a e l triunfante? i Cual de los dos e l h u m i l l a d o ? - , cuando cambiaron las l u c e s , e l coche partid", y l a conversacidn nos l l e v d * c a s i i n m e d i a t a n e n t e a c o s a s t a n l e j a n a s de l a reciente v i s i o n no c o m p a r t i d a , que p o r e n t o n c e s no d e j o " ninguna h u e l l a en mi i m a g i n a c i d h y p a r e c i d " b o r r a r s e p o r c o m p l e t o de mi m e m o r i a . 3 Donoso of  the  finally  concludes,  referring  to  the  material at  the  origin  novel: Los resultados han sido, casi siempre, infinitamente distintos a l o s p r i n c i p i o s , s e m i l l a y no p l a n t a , p i a n o azul y no casa, de modo que no solo nadie se "reconoce", lo que seria imposible, p u e s t o que c a d a personaje y cada situacidn esta'n compuestos de i n f i n i t a s , c a p a s de t i e m p o y s e n s a c i o n e s y e m o c i o n e s que necesariamente deforman e l o r i g i n a l , s i es que l o hubo claro y unrvoco; si no tampoco n a d i e sabe que e s t a ^ unido al comienzo mismo de la e s p i n a d o r s a l - como testigo, como i l u m i n a d o s o j o s que m i r a n y por l o t a n t o que t a m b i e n m o d i f i c a n - de l o que he e s c r i t o . 4  With pointless creative in  any to  ghosts.  try  process.  Donoso's  writer's  literary to  Donoso's  it  retrace a l l the  In  previous  past,.an  creation  the  case  of  novels,  exercise statements  in  the  elements obsceno novel  exorcism,  are  -  El  is  -  at  impossible the  origin  pajaro  de  is  search  a  in  and  of  the  l a noche for  a confrontation with  fascinating  132  both  terms, of  what  as the  past they  reveal  of  h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and psychology but not deeply  relevant  in  terms of a p r o d u c t i v e r e a d i n g of E l obsceno pcTjaro de l a noche  on  the  do  illuminate  of  practical narrative l e v e l .  the  some aspects of the c r e a t i v e process  novel  throughout  However, the a u t h o r ' s  and  the  as  such,  deserve  note,  comments  at the o r i g i n  particularly  novel we f i n d echoes of the c r e a t i v e process  Donoso has r e f e r r e d to i n the  as that  interviews:  l e c o n f e s d a Don Jerdnimo que no pudo d e j a r de admirar al artista, no sabxa c u a l era l a r e a l i d a d , l a de adentro o l a de a f u e r a , s i habia inventado. l o que pensaba o lo que pensaba habia inventado l o que sus ojos veian. E r a un mundo s e l l a d o , ahogante, como v i v i r adentro de un s a c o , tratando de morder e l yute para buscar una s a l i d a o d a r l e una entrada a l a i r e y ver s i era afuera o adentro o en o t r a p a r t e donde estaba su destino, beber un poco de a i r e f r e s c o no confinado por sus obsesiones, donde comenzaba a ser d l y dejaba de ser l o s dem£s . . . (p. 245) Humberto no t e n i a l a vocacidn de l a s e n c i l l e z . Sentia. necesidad de retorcer lo normal, una e s p e c i e de compulsion por vengarse o d e s t r u i r y fue t a n t o l o que complied' y deformd' su proyecto i n i c i a l que es como s i il mismo se h u b i e r a p e r d i d o para siempre en el laberinto que iba inventando lleno de o s c u r i d a d y terrores con mas c o n s i s t e n c i a que il mismo y que sus demas p e r s o n a j e s , siempre gaseosos, f l u c t u a n t e s , jama's un ser humano, siempre d i s f r a c e s , a c t o r e s , m a q u i l l a j e s que se disolvfan . . . s f , eran ma's importantes sus obsesiones y sus odios que l a r e a l i d a d que l e era n e c e s a r i o negar . . . (p. 488) One  could  say  overexposure. analysing  There  it.5  sociological,  that is  an  thematic, readers  surprising  fact  that  of  pleasure  abundance  suffers of  Donoso's his  from  articles  critical  and reviews  for so much m o r a l ,  symbolical, structural, psychoanalytical  that  to  novel  The novel has been the occasion  analysis,  justice  this  the  may  miss  the  simple  and  apparently  book i s very enjoyable to r e a d . To do  w r i t i n g , to convey the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y  work can p r o v i d e i s - 133 -  especially d i f f i c u l t  i n the  case  of  of  El  obsceno  trying  to  impoverishment critic  of  El  represent novel  what  obsceno that  read  ,  la  once  has  and  the  inevitable  their the  the  inadequacy  context,  problem  richness  of  the  how  to  of  Donoso's  the  critics'  tedious. novel  the  most  of  novel  differ  elusive.  meaningless  . One  Coleman:  "The  have  in  quite  noche  you  that  happens  interpretation  de  and  from  noche  scope  from the  of  the  only  finished  in  more  The  the  traditional  context  honest  fact  you  can  reading  it,  is  rendering  of  El  comments  is  assert that  about  you  have  it."6 The a  text  of  mental  functions  Mudito  El  obsceno  to  e l Mudito.  invent of  a  Humberto  invent of  usual  family el the  sense.  the  is  name  Mudito?  nothing  is  what  obsceno  essential  except  or  de  la  possibility  134  clearly "I"  -  which  the of  one Does  confers  authorship?  invent  is  of  factual.  which  the Does  himself?  psychological  The in  transformations,  atmosphere  noche  structure  monologue  undergo  bizarre  the  hallucinations  i d e n t i t y of  an  appears  -  and  c e r t a i n l y not  in  the  has  interior  e l Mudito  is  pajaro  noche  other  characters  fact El  the  characters  neutrality. In  the  Does  hallucinations  identity.  certain  and  substitutions, In  la  a long  Penaloza,  The  de  obsessions  Nothing  Humberto  identity  definition  pajaro  delirium, basically  according  character,  the  novel  la  the  complex  Alexander  Bird  de  v e r i s i m i l i t u d e are  pajaro  of  The  of  . Apart  separated  actually  comprehensive  principles  of  a  noche  the  pajaro  magnitude,  such  of  la  passages  becoming  is  accounts any  of  the  de  summarize  obsceno  without It  pajaro  of  plausible  defined  individual  norm  is  change.  the El  mask,  obsceno  pcnaro only  see  de  la  narrative  nosotros",  narrator  a l l  the  the  mode  to  character assortment  reveals  that  there  what is  in  an  decipher goes of  lies  behind  the  mask,  we  emptiness.  alternates  interwoven  reader  as  bewildering tell  never  the p o s s i b i l i t y  The  forces  noche  from often  the  "tu,  usted,  ambiguous  mutations  through  of  context  el, that  identity.  transformation  i d e n t i t i e s as  yo,  and  The  adopts  a  he-she-it-we-you-they-I  story: . . . soy^la septima v i e j a , t o d o s l o s d i a s . ( p . 130) Yo, para  e s t a c o r t e z a que n a d a . ( p . 217)  Las 119)  siete  Yo  soy  viejas  e l padre  es  impudor  Humberto  tendemos  del hijo  tu  de  • So£. e l Mudito. A vezes muneco de l a I r i s . ( p . 431)  a la soy  me l o  Penaloza, la  Iris  Iris.  (p.  otra  en  demuestra  no  le  la  cama.  nacer. ( p . 448)  Una  manana  amaneci  (p.  94)  vieja  mas.  Soy  el  no no  es te  cama de  la  No existe Humberto Penaloza, es una invenci<5n, una p e r s o n a s i n o un p e r s o n a j e . . . M u d o , M u d i t o , v a y a s , no d e s a p a r e z c a s . . . ( p . 447) Tengo que Iris . . .  servia  en  la  Tu cuarto esta* oscuro. N u e s t r o c u a r t o . . . . tomo t u mano dormida y c o n e l l a r c z o m i c u e r p o . Me t i e n e s q u e reconocer, Inls, acceptame si q u i e r a a h o r a , t a l como soy, sea quien sea, Humberto, M u d i t o , ^ v i e j a , guagua, idiota, . . . line's! D e s p i e r t a s . - Jeronimo . . . (p. 465) Ahora me e l i m i n a r e ' ' y o p a r a q u e t e d e s p l o m e s y t e p a r t a s en mil fragmentos a l c a e r y p o n d r a n l o s f r a g m e n t o s en el c a r r o d e l M u d i t o y e l M u d i t o l o s a r r a s t r a r a h a s t a su patio para que la lluvia y e l tiempo y e l viento te corrompan y t e e l i m i n e n . Tengo muchas p a g i n a s en b i a n c o esperando que yo escriba tu f i n , t e n g o mucho t i e m p o para i n v e n , t a r t e e l f i n mas a b y e c t o p o r q u e a h o r a e s t o y a salvo aqui en la Casa . . . n o s o t r a s y a no tememos n a d a , y o y a no temo a P e t a P o n c e . . . ( p p . 4 7 1 - 4 7 2 )  -  135  -  As  John H a s s e t t  comments  on e l M u d i t o ' s  narration:  Central t o M u d i t o ' s . n a r r a t i o n i s t h e u s e o f an i n t e r i o r monologue which from one moment t o t h e n e x t s u d d e n l y externalizes itself by r e p r e s e n t i n g the c o n v e r s a t i o n s of all the other c h a r a c t e r s . As a k i n d o f r o v i n g eye limited by n e i t h e r t i m e n o r s p a c e , M u d i t o has t h e power not only to record the c o n v e r s a t i o n s of those around him, b u t t o r e p r o d u c e c o n v e r s a t i o n s t h a t may or may n o t have taken p l a c e . . . B e c a u s e t h e r e i s no d i s t i n c t i o n made between what a p e r s o n t h i n k s and what he a c t u a l l y verbalizes, dialogues become embedded w i t h i n M u d i t o ' s continuous monologue. Such a blending of the presentational forms o f n a r r a t i o n i n t o t h e body o f t h e text results from Donoso's refusal to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between a character and t h e i d e a o f t h a t c h a r a c t e r i n h i s n a r r a t o r ' s mind.7 The  narrative  traditional time  notion  and s p a c e ,  importance fiction  voice  of  is  the  narrative.  As  an  blending the  one  considers  of  past  the  question  chronology  integrated  of  clearest of  character  and p r e s e n t ,  manipulation  of  he  destroys  the  fusing  point Jamesian  point  of  of  and d e s t r o y s as  it  drifts  characters. view  in  in The  Donoso's  influences. v i e w as  the  Donoso  vital  to  his  comments:  Mi posibilidad de d e s t r u i r l a c a p a r a z o h c l a s i c a de l a novela se presenta no b a j o l a f o r m a d e l i d i o m a l u j o s o como el de Garcia Mcfrquez, por e j e m p l o , no b a j o l a forma de una ideoiogla o un p l a n t e a m i e n t o de V a r g a s Llosa; se plantea b a j o e l modo d e l p u n t o de v i s t a . E l punto de vista es el gran elemento para e x p l o r a r y hacer y r e h a c e r y d e s h a c e r l a ^ e s c r i t u r a de una n o v e l a . En mis primeros ensayos tenia que u s a r e l p u n t o de vista mas proximo: el Yo, del a u t o r . Se u n i f i c a l a literatura con la autobiograffa. Es un c o m i e n z o . De Oste, ochocientas m i l formas. Del yo, primera persona, puedo construir l a s mas i n c r e i b l e s v a r i e d a d e s de p u n t o de vista. La ultima novela, S I o b s c e n o pa/jaro de l a noche , es un e j e r c i c i o en p u n t o de v i s t a ; es e l metodo de una cosa ya c o m p l e t a m e n t e b a r r o c a . Es e l p u n t o de vista desarrollado, exacerbado, ldcido, implicado, j u g a n d o en t o d a s l a s posibilidades.8 Henry portrayal  James of  saw  the  the devious  novelist  elusiveness  - 136 -  as of  a  poet  and i n  el Mudito's  Donoso's  m i n d , we  find  the  delight  in  imagination  to  methods  El  in  intractable v?ith of  -  total  unusual obsceno  and  the  creative  Hudito's  consciousness  structure  of  place  one  labyrinthine  El  psychofiction  can at  the  and  the  concretely metaphor In  an  point the  of  of  to  that  is  The  life  the  of  inextricably  tied  relationships  narrative  la  in  noche of  his  the  structure  four  main  the  on  la  of  the  maze  of  labyrinth  the  of  el  narrative sense  of  narrative  Chimba  is  the  and becomes  the  novel.  interior  narrative  verge  between  Chilean  de  the  dealing  the  the  novel  collage  is  . Donoso's  Encarnacidn in  artistic  express  interior  point  aspects  biographical  the of  Azcoitia  relationship  Ine's-Peta;  de  la  create  a basic  Penaloza,  of  the  the  monologue  bases  which  memories, v/hich  we are  dreams,  the  reader  follow.  There  Mudito.  relationship  kaleidoscopic  v/hich  to  m a t e r i a l he  c l a r i f y e l Mudito's  his  able  the  element  are  Donoso's  schizophrenic  focal  de  are  the  and  labyrinthine  there  of  uses  the  Casa  out  that  noche  inspires  aging  pajaro  described the  an  v/hich  invention.  la  central  to  hallucinations,  Humberto  as  attempt  origin  attempts  de  Casa  obsceno  of  of  character  Donoso  and  main  p^iaro  mental d e l i r i u m of  decrepit  most  flight  elusive  collapse.  is  exploration  first  and  second  There  are  and  servant:  by  - 137  the  -  life  of  becoming  el  base  v/hich  a series  is of  is  with the  equally symbiotic  Ines-Humberto;  e t c . The  offshoot  the  inextricably  narrative  Azcoitia  Humberto-Jerdnimo,  constituted  before  intertwined  Ine*s  master.  describing  e l Mudito  The  Peta Ponce.  between  is  is  family.  Peta-Humberto; block  of  Humberto  Jerdnimo to  "I"  thread  of  third  this  basic  symbiotic  master-servant created  for  thread  is  asylum  for  interweaving, him  the  few It  hallucination milagroso". a  full  live  These  the  of  the  to  become  has  Casa  with  had  a l l  restrospect These  an  its  and  the  t i m e . So  narrative so  of  the  many  is  up  at  crones the  the  Mudito  and  which  what  the  him or to  or  of  by The at  have  the  "el  its  Ine*s  at  the  bags  and  a creature  that  From  this  perspective  of  conclusion.  mentioned  is  for  burlap  novel's  to  servants  and  witches).  believes  nino  complete  novel book  is  themselves  reject  the  former  the  imbunche  shut  What  creates  and  the  into  reader  accept  are  sewn  or  the  de A z c o i t i a comes  is  we  her.  Ines  of  evident  else  Mudito  an  of  i n t e r r e l a t e d and  length  past.  Chimba,  servants  Gigante  who  (the  his  el  world  narrative  Encarnacion  beginning  sewn  someone  to  critics  is  attention no  taken  visible  then  are  the  basic  ancient  el  and  are  or  someone  really  amazing  is  what  they  that  the  themselves else  happens the  see  in  at the  insistence  as  the  facts  novel.  What and  is  has  evokes  characters  sometimes same  old  orifices  only  the  that  blocks  "imbunche"  e l Mudito is  Casa  the  el  and  Boy  fourth  la  aristocratic  P e t a was  into  confinement  of  It  de  Mateluna,  the  conclusion,  transformed  the  The  Casa  orphans  narrative  when  what  the  Iris  aristocracy.  novel's  of  in  about  monstruous  Rinconada.  stray  is  circle  at  la  story  a  aristocracy.  in  the  point  Donoso subplots,  also is  amazing  held  in  trying  incorporates each  one  long  in  capable  is  the  after to  it  has  become  figure  out  what  the of  fact  novel creating  - 13G  -  a  reader's obvious  is  really  number  a sense  of  of  interest  that  there  happening. fascinating  anticipation  of  discovery: has  the  sexual  Gigante;  the  the  world  of  whose  flair  old  her;  priest  who  and  man who w i l l who  pov/erful  her  legend  of  wanders  and  in  mask  "nina  bruja  through  the  Ine's and  el  girl's to  keep  creates  illiterate  millionaire  who  of  this  determined  the  a the  of  the  p o l i t i c i a n who  naked  marriage  are  son;  makes  wear  believe  b i r t h and  monstruous  the  L o l l o b r i g i d a orphan  a  servant  and  whose  santa";  the  convent;  the  Jeronimo  and  many,  period  from  more. narrative  approximately Allende).  The  last  of  year  funeral  and  funeral). really  I  to  of  the  1970  (based  actual  or  and  to  him  to  useful  insights  into Donoso's  Coronacion  El  motives,  , Este  takes  chapter  events  Donoso. be  authors.  e f f o r t but  familiar  first  one  his  the process  to  requires  of  events  to Verdun in  begins  year  past  of  place  and  the  and the  with  after the  a  this novel  retrospective  memory.  contemporary  reader  a  references  reimagines  of  noche  The  the  refers  partial  consider  of  the  deformation  covers  on t h e  (as  e l Mudito  p r o j e c t i o n of  rewarding  life  subsequently  clearly  novel  narration  e l Mudito's  the  am  written  1915  Humberto  delirious  the  any  virgin  business  for  the Gina  women  his  courtship  The  is  and  for  for  v/orks  ritualized many  old  wealthy  freaks  mistress  Iris,  with  senile  conception  secret;  senile  of  intercourse  immaculate it  story  domingo  also  one  of  narrative  -  139  -  everything  he  has  fascinating  and  obsceno  panaro  de  la  as  well  as  finds  many  of  pleasure  development.  pajaro  lugar  El  sheer  characters , El  like  t h e most  Reading  provides  obsceno  I  de and  sin  la  noche  language  limites  , and  that El  make  obsceno  pajaro  de  la  narrative deca'y and  cycle.  and  a  Donoso's  whose  de  la  desdentadas"  enfermas,  noche  en de  is  peopled  no  "ojos esta  confunden  In  each  world by  se  is  (page  condenada,  quejan y  the  El  de  of  obsceno  familiar  "entre  "bocas  estas  viejas  imbeciles,  de v e r d u g o s  frio  one  characters  portrayed.  rodeada  tienen  linguistic  pathetic  24)  de a b a n d o n a d a s ,  and  consistently  aging,  graphically  leganbsos"  Casa  y  is  thematic  e x c e p t i o n . We f i n d  miserables,  se  cohesive  fictional  decrepitude  and  decrepitas,  que  such  disintegration  places  pajaro  noche  y  y hambre  de  victimas  . . . "  (p.  29)  that  of  the  symbiotic and  novel rich  and p o o r ,  relationships.  develops  Ines,  we h a v e  this  Jeronimb,  seen  that El  of  masters  obsceno  persistent  Humberto,  the presentation  Peta  and  p/jaro  motive  two  servants  de  again,  of  la  worlds,  and  noche  their  explores  particularly in  the  symbiosis:  Usted sabe que l o s s i r v i e n t e s se quedan con una p a r t e de sus patrones, s i s a b e , como no l o v a a s a b e r s i y o me quede' con l o p r i n c i p a l s u y o c u a n d o u s t e d me t u v o a sueldo como t e s t i g o de su d i c h a . . . . No e r a n c a p a c e s de vivir sin la presencia de mi mirada envidiosa c r e a n d o s u f e l i c i d a d . . . ( p . 84) . . jama's, p o r n i n g u n m o t i v o , l a i b a a s e p a r a r de l a Peta Ponce. Desde e s a n o c h e J e r o n i m o e Ine*s j a m a s h a n e s t a d o s o l o s en e l l e c h o c o n y u g a l . ( p p . 1 8 6 - 1 8 7 ) The  motive  of  consistently  through  de  and  the la  la  noche  demonic mascara  demonio, motive  its  men w e a r  descomunal, .  Donoso's  and  Donoso's  reaches  mask  muneco in  masks  .  fiction height  to  (p.  fiction, -  make  the  love  to  pecosa,  89)], the 140  dominates  in  colorada, .  disguises  El  subplot Iris de  emphasizing substitution  -  which  also  runs  obsceno of  el  p/jaro  Gigante,  Mateluna  [  payaso,  titere,  another  frequent  of  .  identity  .  .  in  sexual  relationships.  de  noche  la  attraction  are  to  Sexual  based  the  relationships  on  the  in  El  substitution  obsceno  of  pajaro  identity,  the  mask:  . . en e s a s t i n i e b l a s y o p u e d o no h a b e r dado m i amor a Ines sino a otra a la P e t a , a l a P e t a P o n c e que sustituyo a Ines por ser ella la pareja que me corresponde . . . en e l momento d e l o r g a s m o e l l a g r i t d ' : J e r d h i m o . Y y o g r i t e * : I n e ' s . ( p . 224) Masks  are  one  obsceno  pajaro  defined  autonomous  encuentra  from  dura  Coleman  el  Ifmites  ,  signs  their  of The  they  identity:  ".  .  yo  terrifying  pajaro  mutually is  archetypal  devil,  the  manana  uno  es  la  noche  identity.  In  what  aspects one  one  of  a  no  me  que  es  reveal  the  Alexander the  world  dualities  of  virgin-prostitutes, a n o t h e r , v/hich  another.  travesty  the  El  characters  doubleness",  presents  of  lo  fictional  de  of  in  illusion  y  porque  saint-witch,  demonic  imagery  again  present  in  obsceno  is  recurrent  \'le f i n d  the  yo  Donoso's  noche  v/orld o f  destruction  As  where  in  El  coexist  lugar  sin  " a l l objects  are  opposites",9  significance  myths.  hoy  pa'jaro  excluding the  level  overall  la  interrelated  this  of  de  .  confusion  male-female,  novels  body  155)  personal  previous  a  (p.  of  destroy  me e n c u e n t r o  of  recurrent  of  mismo  nature  as  than  as  disfraz."  "a  theme  noche  obsceno  master-servant,  rather  the  El  obsceno  God-devil,  of  to  calls  El  la  ni  Coronacion  fragmentary  of  de  nadie  mientras  aspect  the  El  demonic  v / h i c h v/e o u t l i n e d and  structure  of  four  dogs,  labyrinth,  141  which  the  sterility  -  to  the  p a j a r o de l a n o c h e  imagery  black  vital  novel  a demonic  and  -  is  in  Donoso's  archetypal . There  clearly part based  on  of  the  biblical  yellow bitch,  impotence,  is  darkness  a  she and  night,  the  perhaps  "nino  the  milagroso".  demonic  image  associations  together  into  epigraph  of  the book.  In  portrays  the b i r d  James  Sr's  image  in of  terms the  eroticism,  malevolence  death.  obsceno  El  Bosch's woman hell of the  "Garden is  on  the  characterizes the  for  the  de  links  the  unit  of  as  l a noche"  of  which  la  night  fall  is  noche  is In  a modern both  s a l v a t i o n . The El  rich  painting, demonic.  obsceno in a For  title  and  use  a constant  from paradise  of  of  the  resumes  of  the  Eenry  aura  of  reminder  of  version  of  world,  earthly  chaos,  exuberant  archetypal  Bosch  artists'  into  pajaro  is  series  Earthly Delights",  Delights".  infuses  quality  to  bird  de  hope  p/jaro  l a s c i v i t y and D o n o s o ' s  obscene  the  Bosch's  erotic allied  "Garden  of  Earthly  writing  plastic  his  best  cohesive  and n i g h t  e a r t h , w i t h no  Donoso's same  cause  "obsceno  that a  pajaro  of  The  de  la  lyricism  noche  symbolism  with that  supernatural presentation  of  example:  quedamos en la o s c u r i d a d t o t a l , q u i z a * n o ha habido nunca ojos contemplandonos y todo haya s i d o siempre oscuro, no, a h i estah l o s ojos a m a r i l l o s , soy yo o t r a v e z , t e d e s e o mas q u e n u n c a a h o r a p o r q u e s e * q u e esta's cansada y porque yo estoy cansado, esos ojos amarillos y legalfdsos ven como te penetro, como revives, l o s o j o s l e g a * n o s o s c e r c a d e l o s n u e s t r o s , ma's, mas, h a s t a q u e Trie's l a n z d e l g r i t o f i n a l , M a d r e B e n i t a , que no fue solo un grito de p l a c e r s i n o tambie'n un grito de terror, porque a l a b r i r los ojos para ver l a constelacidh de miradas relucientes de los testigos alrededor del rostro de Jerdnimo, vio a la perra amarilla que se a c e r c d ' a h u s m e a r l o s o a l a m e r l o s j u g o s que sus cuerpos dejaron sobre las hojas: la perra amarilla, acezante, babosa, cubierta de granos y verrugas, el hambre i n s c r i t a en l a m i r a d a , e l l a , d u e n a d e l poder p a r a p r o v o c a r e l g r i t o . (pp. 193-194) As  Martin  Stabb  summarizes:  . for him the e r o t i c i s a dark f o r c e , t i n g e d w i t h the satanic and l e a d i n g o n l y t o o b s e s s i v e d e s i r e and a fruitless quest f o r p l e a s u r e or r e l e a s e . . . . we k n o w that b e h i n d t h e masks o f e v e r y d a y e x i s t e n c e t h e r e l u r k s  -  142  -  a world of elemental f e a r , of implacable d e s t r u c t i v e power, of crippling impotence and of gnawing, unsatisfied lust. In short, the erotic is clearly a defining characteristic of t h a t obscene n i g h t b i r d . . . 10 Donoso's aristocracy real  illustrates  emotions  description marriage the  the  (e.g.  narrator  system  and  should  be  as  and  a  -  The  Sacred  should  seen  and  which the  ritualized  to  aware  should  see  it  is  of  each  requires  Donoso  uses  For  an  As  in  subtleties  in  this  other use  that  of  of  the  and  treatment Henry  of  accepted  of  James's  element the  constantly  the  for  courtship  ritualized  as  the  the  essential  the  the  is  his  of  example,  imaginative  aristocracy.  ),  world  camouflage  Chile,  Donoso's  the  Fount  social  surface.  participants  always  image  of  of  be  the  the  return  typical  routines  that  game  cover  is  the  elaborate  below  Jeronimo's  Ines  rituals  of  the  lurking  of  to  fiction  in  descriptions  that  social society  involved  appearances  "medallon":  Las reglas y las formulas, e l r i t u a l tan f i j o y tan estilizado como l o s s i m b o l o s de l a h e r a l d i c a , que i b a n regulando e l p r o c e s o d e l n o v i a z g o , i n s c r i b i a n su p r o p i a figura y la d e I n e ' s , e n t r e l a z a d a s como i b a n d e b a j o de los arboles cargados de f r u t a , como en un m e d a l l o h de piedra: este medallon no era mas que una e t a p a d e l friso e t e r n o c o m p u e s t o s p o r muchos m e d a l l o n e s , y e l l o s , los novios, encarnaciones momentaneas de designios mucho ma's vastos que los d e t a l l e s de sus sicologias individuales. El cuerpo y e l a l m a de Ine's, i n t a c t o s , esperaban que e'l l a a n i m a r a p a r a s a c a r l a de ese p r i m e r medallon y hacerla ingresar en la suntuosidad del m e d a l l d n s i g u i e n t e . ( p . 179) Routines acceptable  and  pattern  raw e m o t i o n s  of  underneath  Donoso's moments  rituals  where  writing the  in  decorum  which  superficial in  plastic  El  the is  - 143 -  an  elaborate  provide cover  an  for  the  noche  has  appearance.  obsceno visual  aristocracy  paiaro  impact  is  de on  la  a poetic,  lyric,  sensual  level  reminiscent  of  Proustian  passages:  Un diamante azul se e n c i e n d e e n t r e l o s m a t o r r a l e s d e l parque, s e a p a g a y v u e l v e a e n c e n d e r s e d o r a d o ma's a l i a " , titila ma's a c c f y s e a p a g a o t r a v e z y e n t r e e s o s m a c i z o s de plantas oscuras nacen mas f u l g o r e s que nos e s t a l i mirando a t i y a mi que d e s a p a r e c e n , j o y a s , astros, ojos, f u l g o r que d i s i m u l a n l a s h o j a s , v u e l v e a a p a r e c e r multiplicandose, desvanecidndose, pasecfhdose e n t r e l o s arbustos oscuros, no al a c e c h o s i n o que v i g i l a " h d o n o s porque son los ojos de mis p e r r o s vagando e n t r e l a s hortensias, lentos ahora, rojo, rosa, atentos, a l i a " s e extinguieron esos dos ojos de acero que ahora se encienden ma's cerca . aqui, entre los matorrales a l pie mismo del corredor donde tii y yo estamos tendidos, centellas fixas en la l i n e a d e c l a r i d a d f i n a como e l canto de una h o j a que i n s i n u a t u p e r f i l p e r f e c t o . (p. 191) In a  the  novel,  different  context)  multifaceted :  In  El  exaustive  obsceno  obliterated.  magnifying a  glass  demonic  structural  system  similar in  It  for to  previous  alienation  of  individual  are  El  paiaro  obsceno  "lupa"  (in  detailed  apreciar  de  la  la  and noche  suntuosidad  noche  we w i t n e s s of  a detailed  r e a l i t y being  the n a r r a t i v e that  and  the  seen  distorts,  is  which provides  negated, narrator  through  the the  and  the  culmination archetypal  novel.  this  and  archetypal El  obsceno  The  Donoso's  - 144 -  the  system  Donoso  pajaro  elements  absurdity  consciousness, to  structure,  psychoanalytical  novels.  human basic  the  process  characterization in  existential  the  la  grotesquely  the  the  210)  negated, a  of  describes  the process  is  metaphor  para  apocalyptic obsession  basis  of  de  of  which  Subordinate his  (p.  pajaro  i d e n t i t y being  in  lupa  detalles."  presentation  individual being  sus  con  the  best  richness  mirarlas de  uses  which  linguistic  "  maniatica  of  e l Mudito  of  de as  la  in  noche  those  existence,  loneliness of  uses  of  ,  found the the  characterization,  while  psychoanalysis  unconscious images,  of  layers dreams,  of of  Biographical, integrated  into  structure  incorporated  interior  repressed  obsceno  in  the  r e a l i t y , the desires  existential El  which  is  exploration  subterranean  and m o r b i d  de  reveals  organizes  and  best  writing,  as  we  la  elements  noche's the  flow  of  fantasies.  and p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l pajaro  of  are  archetypal  dominant  theme  of  destruction. In  Donoso's  Bible as  provide  myth,  the  provides  from c r e a t i o n ' to In  El  biblical  of  archetypal  myths  pa'jaro  again de  the  de  la  fulfills  la  noche  archetypal  noche  an is  a  structure, i n man's  as  Donoso's  we a r e  v/hich  in  the  the  v/orld  of  The  perception  reality  la  of  confusion,  la  muerte.  is  woman  incarnated Mudito's  . who in  .  of  The  el  the  Bible,  extending  Peta  essence  eternal f a l l .  constantly terms  of In  the  of  self d e s t r u c t i o n o f  symbolized desorden,  cause  del of the  the  by  una  the  145  fall.  of  161)].  The  archetypal  -  of  which the  image  novel death, images of  the  grotesque infernal  Boy  ["  Once of  .  peor again the  o l d v/oman i s ,  destruction  is  an  forma d i s t i n t a pero (p.  imagery  forest"  monstruous  chaos"  element  -  those  the  El  group, of  "unsubdued  are  role.  faced with  chaos,  images  of  demonic  the  Ponce,  consciousness,  where  the  thematic  parody  structural  to  versidn  the  demonic  leads  demonic  . esta is  In  novel  caricature.il  era  ones  destruction.  we f i n d  epigraph,  preceding  the  novel  apocalyptic destruction  decrepitude,  symbols  structure  essential  again 'in  the  l i t e r a r y archetypes.  a synthesizing  obsceno  underscores  grammar  seen,  apocalypse.  pajaro  obsceno  main  have  behind  .  .  que it  witch in  el  every  event  [  ".  .  implacable,  .  la  puedo  confundir  dejas  en p a s "  as  in  "  cercania  de  224);  .  que  ".  encontrarcf oire'  y  .  el  la  muerte  que  . l a  P e t a no  ha  .  .  but  In cyclical  of  is  parallel  the  past.  alternance owner  of  the  la  engulfing,  ha  venido  the  Humberto of  me  no  of  order  castrating  sexo  nuevo"  porque  l a Peta  no  rabia  despue's  de  cerrarme  sinister is  (p. lo  de  mother  la .  en m f  rugido  witch.  which  que  agusanado por  is  que  no los  not  the  Peta  Ponce,  the  the  novel.  Peta  throughout  the  la  a buscar  archetypal  eternal  ma's  porque  destroyer  vieja,  parte  The  Casa,  to  is  with  lugar  between  de  la  a  sin  noche  within it  "mundo the  del  very  is  de  la  already his  revel",  essence  of  mythic  noche  black  as  is  dogs,  is  and  presents  malevolent  and  benevolent  creator  -  146  of  the  La Rinconada,  -  circular  on  of  to  lost  earth.  reminiscent same  of  ambiguous  d e i t y . Be the  of , and  parallel  a novel  hell  the  perception  the present  limites  the  emphasizes  r e p e t i t i v e and  present  four  Donoso a  the present,  pajaro  future  Jeronimo,  the  otra  destroyer,  obsceno  El  an  t r a g a r a ^ su  generations  future  in  se  pajaro  the  Alejo  the  despertare^  irrationality  the  Don  no  299) .  is  Don  as  lasciva  la  novel.  nature  and  de d i s t i n g u i r  . vieja  as  robar,  (p.  obsceno  El  .  peligrosa,  d e v o r d ' mi m a r a v i l l o s o  a  Time  illusions  de  buscar  haunts  of  the  El  sexo  eternal sorcerer  embodiment in  and  Yo  definitely  the  .  novels  noche  ."  witch,  is  existence  a  mas  dificil  vieja  quiere  buscado. La  mas  la  Woman f u n c t i o n s  previous  ira'  archetypal Ponce  84)].  la  fue  se  virgin  time.  cualquier  nada.  pantalones  the  con  .  siempre  Ponce,  feroz,  (p.  .  Peta  ma's  Donoso's  menace:  la  is  employer  the of  Humberto  Penaloza,  politician.  "As  for  creates  whom h e  where  only In  ,  the  _E_1  this  God  their  as  nuestro  milagroso  obliteration  the  culmination  courses  of  Mudito  moves  to of  of  nothingness.  It  full  with  circle to  Coronaciori Madness  and  fragile  noche  is  novel  moves  total  w i t h no  El of  Donoso's  narrative novels  as  El  to  if  to  illusion  order  pcTjaro de obsessions.  cycle  of  thematic  of la  of  cielo  no  .  of  .  ."  of  la is  in the  the state  Casa .  .  128)].  novel  la  noche  the  el  total  reduced  has  completed and  to  the  v/hich A n d r e s  the  cosmic  in  madness.  alternatives  entropic  a  only  that  of  is  is  obsceno  .  characters'  de  noche  only El  ["  the  destruction,  de  of  the  (p.  fictional  narrative  hope  Jesus  pajaro  collapses.  unstructural  -  iTmites  sin  crones  substance  are  of  lugar  character  join  chaos  apotheosis  possibility  old  obsceno  as  La Rinconada  leaves  previous  pajaro  follow:  an  El  parody  destruction  to  final  in  the  main  son  enter. as  Donoso's  obsceno  of  can  ultimate  inexorable  towards  obsceno  El  abdication  the  the  consciousness  escape chose  of  as  -  llevara'al  the  seems  paradise  twisted  nos  In  towards  of  that  Donoso's  destruction.  disintegration  solution  of  a  powerful  a monstruous  organization baby  a  produced  l a noche  is  ashes  landowner,  has  parody  de  que  a l l  he  monsters  The  Saviour  The  wealthy  archetypal  redemption.  hijo  a  Father"  p/iaro  demonic  await  the  "noble"  obsceno  or  is  a demonic  most  salvation  the  he  pajaro  process  equilibrium  when de  as  la the  that  is  regeneration. noche  is,  in  a way,  a summation  It  constitutes  a  grand  fiction  constituted  by  Donoso's  development  and  - 147  -  narrative  finale  technique  of  all  to  the  first evolve  four in  conjunction violence,  in  a  its  great  to  we  final  ashes,  lyrical  of  and  have  are  destruction.  in  El  apocalyptic reduced  dust  beauty  grotesque  followed  resolution  biblical  the narrator  "ashes  decay  v/hich  typically  and  crescendo  death,  destruction reaches  a  and  to  to  dust"  -  The  main  throughout  obsceno climax  ashes  distortion,  and  another  pajaro  theme  Donoso's de  la  i n v/hich t h e dispersed Donosian  madness,  in  of work  noche  in  narrative the wind  final  scene  of  intensity:  El viento dispersa e l humo y l o s o l o r e s y l a v i e j a s e acurruca sobre las p i e d r a s p a r a d o r m i r . E l fuego arde un rato j u n t o a l a f i g u r a a b a n d o n a d a como o t r o p a q u e t e ma's de harapos, luego comienza a apagarse, e l rescoldo a atenuarse y se agota cubriehdose de ceniza muy liviana, que el viento dispersa. En unos cuantos minutos n o q u e d a n a d a d e b a j o d e l p u e n t e . S<5io l a m a n c h a negra que el fuego dejd* en las p i e d r a s y un t a r r o negruzco con asa de alambres. El viento lo vuelca, r u e d a p o r l a s p i e d r a s y c a e a l r f o . ( p . 543)  -  148  -  Chapter  All quotes edition published 1. de Emir Revista 1971, p .  Five  Motes  from El obsceno pa-jaro by S e i x B a r r a l , B a r c e l o n a ,  de la 1970.  noche  refer  to  "JosO  D o n o s o : L a n o v e l a como ' h a p p e n i n g ' . Una e n t r e v i s t a R o d r i g u e z M o n e g a l s o b r e E l o b s c e n o p a j a r o de l a n o c h e " , Iberoamericana , No. 76-77, P i t t s b u r g h , July-December 530.  2. Luis Llosa, "Una v i s i o n e n f e r m a d e l mundo. novelista chileno Josi Donoso", El Comercio , N o v e m b e r 19, 1970, p . 40. 3. Jose D o n o s o , 2, S a n t i a g o , N o v e m b e r 4. D o n o s o ,  "Del  "Del monstruo a l 1972, p p . 3-4. monstruo  al  pajaro",  pajaro",  p.  Reportage a l Lima, Peru,  Ouinta  Rueda  ,  No.  3-4.  5. For example: Pamela B a c a r i s s e , " E l obsceno p a j a r o de l a noche: A W i l l e d Process of Evasion" i n Contemporary L a t i n a m e r i c a n Fiction (Edinburgh: Scottish A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) , p p . 18-32; Alicia Borinsky, "Repeticiones y m a s c a r a s : E l o b s c e n o p c t j a r o de la noche", Modern Language Notes , 88, N o . 2, M a r c h 1973, p p . 281-293; John C a v i g l i a , " T r a d i t i o n and M o n s t r o s i t y i n E l o b s c e n o pa'jaro de l a n o c h e " , PMLA , 93, J a n u a r y 1978, p p . 33-45; A n t o n i o Cornejo Polar, " E l o b s c e n o p a j a r o de l a n o c h e : l a r e v e r s i b i l i d a d de la metcffora", in Jose Donoso. la d e s t r u c c i o n de un mundo (Buenos Aires: Fernando Garcia Cambeiro, 1975) pp. 101-112; Eduardo Chamorro, "Del e s f u e r z o i m a g i n a t i v o a l a s t r a i c i o n e s de las transcripciones: El obsceno p a j a r o de l a n o c h e " , T r i u n f o , No. 456, February 27, 1961; Ariel Dorfman, "Hotas para^. un analisis marxista de l a n a r r a t i v a c h i l e n a de l o s u l t i m o s anbs", Casa d e las A m e r i c a s , N o . 69, N o v e m b e r - D e c e m b e r 1961, p p . 65-83; Zunilda Gertel, "Metamorphosis as a Metaphor of the W o r l d " , Review , Fall 1973, p p . 20-23; C e d o m i l G o i c , " E l n a r r a d o r e n e l laberinto", in J o s e f D o n o s o , l a d e s t r u c c i d n d e u n mundo , ( B u e n o s Aires: F e r n a n d o G a r c f a C a m b e i r o , 1975) p p . 113-124; A n i t a M u l l e r , "La diale'ctica de l a r e a l i d a d en E l o b s c e n o p a ' j a r o de l a n o c h e " , Nueva Narrativa Hipanoamericana , I, H o . 2, S e p t e m b e r 1971, p p . 133-138; Charles Tatum, "El obsceno pajaro d e , l a n o c h e : The Demise o f F e u d a l S o c i e t y " , L a t i n a m e r i c a n L i t e r a r y R e v i e w , I, No. 2, Spring 1973, pp. 99-103; F r a n c e s W e b e r , " L a dinefmica de l a alegorfa: El obsceno pajaro de la noche de Jose Donoso", H i s p a m e r i c a , I V , N o s . 11-12, 1975, p p . 23-31. 6.  Alexander  Coleman,  - 149  "Some  -  Thoughts  on  Donoso's  Traditionalism", 157. Fall  7. John 1973, p.  Studies  Hasset, 28.  in  Short  "The  Fiction  Obscure  Bird  , VIII, of  the  Winter Night",  1971,  p.  Review  ,  8. Guillermo Castillo, " A r t i s t s and A u t h o r s : J o s e ' D o n o s o y su ultima novela (Extractos de una e n t r e v i s t a a Jose''Donoso a fines de d i c i e m b r e de 1 9 7 0 , en V a l l v i d r e r a ) " , H i s p a n l a , L I V , No. 4, December 1 9 7 1 , p. 959. 9.  Coleman,  p.  158;  Hasset,  p.  29.  10. Martin Stabb, "The E r o t i c Mask: New N o v e l " , S y m p o s f u m , X X X , N o . 3 , Summer  Notes 1976,  on Donoso p . 17 8 .  and  the  11. "Every man who h a s r e a c h e d e v e n h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l t e e n s begins to suspect t h a t l i f e i s no f a r c e ; t h a t i t i s n o t g e n t e e l comedy even; that i t f l o w e r s and f r u c t i f i e s on t h e c o n t r a r y o u t of t h e p r o f o u n d e s t t r a g i c d e p t h s o f t h e e s s e n t i a l d e a r t h i n v/hich its subject's roots are plunged. The natural i n h e r i t a n c e of everyone v/ho i s c a p a b l e o f s p i r i t u a l l i f e i s an unsubdued forest where the wolf howls and the obscene b i r d of night c h a t t e r s . " Henry James Sr,. v / r i t i n g t o h i s s o n s Henry and W i l l i a m , e p i g r a p h t o E l o b s c e n o p a j a r o de l a n o c h e  -  150  -  Conclus ion  The clear  four  novels  influences  Donoso's  of  Donoso  from  Faulkner,  cosmopolitan,  style  which  noche  impossible  Chilean.  evolves  Yet  representative authors,  a  that  wide from  v/e h a v e  Proust,  ranging  Coronacion  categorize  as  these  influences  and  some o f  group  to  the  to  El  have  James  obsceno  literary  Donoso  revealed  and  influences  Kafka.  make  pajaro  authentically  greatest  which  Joyce,  literary  to  of  studied  and  the  de  uniquely  ascendences  contemporary  la  are  Latinamerican  d e f i n i t e l y belongs.  Donoso's  r education  at  European He  for  avoided  any  develop  He h a s  r e a l i t y and  of  the  approach  his  of  valid has  used  flights and  satire, own  disintegration.  to  his  the  his  use  total  novels  of  where  level. he  has  consistently  involvement  well-defined  world which  talent  and  archetypal version  four  destruction  studied,  a  imagination,  particular first  ideological with  current  is  the  or and  starting  fiction..  great  of  Donoso's  towards  the  tv/enty y e a r s . or  and  literary  Europe  man  is  life  in  a  his  inexorably  past  exile  however,  any  surrealism  self-imposed  the  nomadic  international  He  point  spectacular  an  intellectual  vision  Donoso  of  in  h i m on  his  direct  original for  school,  place  remains  most  affiliation.  In  English  residency  presently  lived  an  and  v/e h a v e  - 151 -  his  affinity  demonic  of  novels  creativity,  the  portray  his with  structure  literature a world  to of  moving  chaos.  seen  a series  of  characters  whose  lives  are  destroyed  sexuality  present  bourgeois  society.  rigid  under  and  when  repressed  the  are  unable  to  repressive psychic  Donoso's  communicate,  which  condemned  to  by  the  is  largely  fall  structural  as of  and D o n o s o ' s element  Donoso's  the  language  at  personal  obsessions  Of clearly  the  the  Donoso's theme  of  previous  novels  is  dissolution  glory great  and  of  of  These  Donoso man  v/e h a v e  for  is  and  destroyed society  the  which  novels  is  myth,  of  past  it  essential  undoubtedly people.  bleak  Yet  his  imagination  and  r e a l i z a t i o n v/hich c r e a t e s  his  a  studied.  most  consciousness,  is  myths  is  a  inexorably  bourgeois  myths  by  portrays is  biblical  these  and  characters  spiritual  and  cycle  masks  a  disintegration  civilization  depressing  a transformation experiences  the  of  and  his  inner  reality.  ambitious,  destruction  into  of  of  emotional,  This  the  in  stifled  v/hich  of  evolve  isolated,  human c o n d i t i o n  studied,  resolved  erupt.  emotion.  aesthetic  into  most  order  Christian  the  novels  in  narrative  imaginative  four  mental,  inversion  centre  dominant  the  the  the of  Donoso's  into  false  and p r o b a b l y  affirms  sensation.  of  view  pessimistic  sensations  by  a play to  and  conventional  that  condemned  are  and  instincts  sustained  are  but  disintegration.  man  the  are  they  and  violence  conformist,  instincts  suffer  alienates  emergence  cultivates  prose  They  fragmentation  society  and  characters of  of  the  relationships  system  forces  society.  emotions,  surface  complex  social  disguises  the  the  The  hierarchical  by  in  El  obsceno  complex v/hich  El  nothingness,  - 152  and  -  pajaro  ashes  de  la  successful  Donoso  obsceno the  pajaro  of  book.  explores de the  la  noche  is The  in  the  noche  with  fire  that  the  wind  silently  all  of  Donoso's  fictional El  world  coherent  pa'jaro  novelistic  earlier.  increase  in  It  complexity Donoso's  point  El  obsceno  appear  construction noche  .  pajaro  fully  increased  use  of  chronology,  the  multiple  narrators  develops  in  obsceno  ,• a  pajaro  change  of  subsequent unrelated  la  literary to to  El the  reality.  the  culmination  v/hich n a r r a t i v e in  design. la  with  from the  , the  three  increasingly  completed  in  El  obsceno points  incorporation narrative of  noche  particular  is  de  Chilean  and  scenario  of  la the  Donoso  ambiguity.  noche  de  ambiguity  which  after  inevitable. la  complex  view,  the  completed,  becomes  pcfjaro  myth,  vantage  pajaro of  elements  complexity  a cycle  expression  of  the  preceding  an  shifting  the  techniques  of  of  of  thirteen  conjunction  Viev/ed  noche  of  complete  elements  are  obsceno  realization  enclosed,  inner  is  in  de  progression de  self  creativity  thematic  is  literary  began w i t h C o r o n a c i o n  process  formulative  which  The  abolition of  as  a  noche  which  and  the  ambiguous  la  a  is  into  but  de  is  of  novels  novel  process  expansion of  The  obsessions  of  obsceno  creative years  disperses.  With  El  v/hich  a  The  novels  explore  themes  the  four  novels  studied. We used  have in  studied  Donoso's  psychoanalytical structure largely  of  fiction.  concepts  elements The  the  development  determine  the  great  oniric  c y c l e . We h a v e elements,  of  seen the  of  unity  repeated  -  an  consistently  existential overall  persistent  penetration  - 153  of  into  thematic the  v/hich a r e  use  integrated  involve  narrative the  a series  and  archetypal  motives  in Donoso's  which Chilean  use  and  development  into  the  minds'  of  psychic  flow, the of loss  of  the  eruption  alienation the  and  archetypal  of  innocence  The  theme  of  primitive  existential  engulfing and  of  the  cycle.  is  revealed  by  novels  destruction, pajaro  de  of  la  Donoso's resonance who  and  once  y  realidad: para  como  It  in  succeeded. achieved  His  this  que  an  si  del  female,  masks,  of  individuals,  the  archetypal  is  this  In  myth  that  su  of  and  it  each  of  novel.  inexorable  sense  provide  Bl  obsceno  novels  Marquez  "una  novela  su  contenido  penetracidh la  with  Garcia  be por  de  de v o l t e a r  his  by  would  inquiete poder  in  v/ork.  achieved  novel  solo  capaz  otro  structure  fall.  and  link  each . n a r r a t i v e  doom,  ideal  es  of  important  impending  to  por  latter  of  isolated  most  apocalyptic  no  sino  creation  recognition  axis  of  the  aun es  the  archetypal  similar  libre,  mostrar  the  archetype  that  y mejor  is  of  social,  is  eternal  truly  scope  said  absolutamente politico  is  use  is  books  man's  noche  It  the  are  of  castrating  destruction  narrative  Donoso's  anguish  v/hich d e s t r o y  fall.  Donoso's best  and  forces  realidad  al  en  la  r eves'  lado."l part  that  profoundly  universal  original  stature.  >  - 154  Donoso has  -  most  and  has  brilliantly deservedly  Conclusion  notes  1. Cited by M. Fernandez Braso, Ma^rguez ( M e x i c o : n . p . 1 9 7 1 ) p . 3 5 1 .  -  155  La  -  soledad  de G a b r i e l  Garcia  Bibliography  Primary  Sources  Novels Donoso,  Jose.  CoronaciOh  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Z i g - Z a g , 1966.  Este  El Mortiz, -  -  Seix  . Santiago: domingo  lugar  .  sin  Santiago:  limites  1957.  Editorial  .  Mexico:  la  noche  Joaquin  1966.  - -. E l obsceno Barcelona: Editorial B a r r a l , 1970. Short  D o n o s o , Jose. Veraneo y otros Universitaria, 1955. Barral,  Nascimiento,  1971.  Cuentos  p a j a r o de  .  Stories  cuentos  .  Santiago:  Editorial  . Barcelona: Editorial  Seix  Autobiography Donoso, Jose'. Editorial -  -  Historia personal Anagrama, 1972.  - - - - - - - _ . 12-20.  del  "Chronology".  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