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The acute effects of aerobic exercise on cigarette smoking Mikhail, Carmen 1983-12-31

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THE ACUTE EFFECTS OF AEROBIC  EXERCISE ON CIGARETTE SMOKING by  CARMEN MIKHAIL B.Sc,  The U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS SUBMITTED  of Lethbridge,  1979  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Psychology  We '  accept  this  Department  thesis  to the required  as  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August  ©  19 8 3  Carmen M i k h a i l ,  1983  e  6  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis  British  it  freely available  for  fulfilment of the  f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of  agree that  i n partial  Columbia,  I agree that f o r reference  permission  the Library  shall  and study.  I  f o rextensive  thesis  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my  understood for  that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  Department o f  7^S -V c^...c /o JAJ  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  Date  of this  It is thesis  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  (3/81)  further  copying o f t h i s  department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  DE-6  make  Columbia  written  i  ABSTRACT  The exercise tigated  e f f e c t s o f two i n t e n s i t i e s  i n 18 men, aged 20 t o 30 y e a r s .  be  subject,  who  days t o p e d a l  sufficient  a sta-  t o maintain  a  r a t e between 130-135 b.p.m. o r 160-165 b.p.m. o r t o  monitored while  mained  seated  was t h e n u s h e r e d  i n a c h a i r , f o r 10 m i n u t e s . into a waiting  f o r one h o u r w h i l e  cluding  number  duration  (time  elapsed  f o r the f i r s t  room where he r e -  i n d i c e s o f smoking b e h a v i o r i n -  from the i n s t a n c e  intake  t h e c i g a r e t t e was  i t was e x t i n g u i s h e d )  and number  cigar.ette post-exercise  o b s e r v e d by a c o n f e d e r a t e . cigarette  during  Subjects  the three  also  were  affected versely revealed  The o n l y  self-monitored  days o f t h e study.  Urine  following  smoking measure f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  by e x e r c i s e was c i g a r e t t e d u r a t i o n , related to exercise  intensity.  that high-intensity exercise  t h e u r i n e , and t h a t  of puffs  surreptitiously  s a m p l e s were c o l l e c t e d p r e - and 15 and 64 m i n u t e s exercise.  Each  a n d w e i g h t o f c i g a r e t t e s consumed, c i g a r e t t e  to the instance  taken  consecutive  b i c y c l e a t a work-load  subject  lit  Each  inves-  t o t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y , came t o t h e l a b o r a t o r y  a t t h e same t i m e on t h r e e tionary  and a no-  c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n o n c i g a r e t t e s m o k i n g were  was b l i n d  heart  of exercise  a significant  w h i c h was i n -  Additional  significantly  inverse  analyses acidified  correlation existed  ii between u r i n a r y condition. regard  pH change and c i g a r e t t e d u r a t i o n  The i m p l i c a t i o n s  for this  of t h i s f i n d i n g are discussed  t o Schachter's h y p o t h e s i s of n i c o t i n e  addiction.  in  iii  TABLE OF  CONTENTS Page  ABSTRACT  i  L I S T OF  TABLES  iv  L I S T OF  APPENDICES  v  INTRODUCTION Literature  1 Review on A e r o b i c  Smoking  5  A n e c d o t a l R e p o r t s and C o r r e l a t i o n a l S t u d i e s E x p e r i m e n t a l S t u d i e s on E x e r c i s e and Smoking P h y s i o l o g i c a l I n c o m p a t i b i l i t y between A e r o b i c E x e r c i s e and Smoking P s y c h o l o g i c a l Factors Related to Exercise and Smoking Summary o f R e s e a r c h on E x e r c i s e and Smoking S c h a c h t e r ' s M o d e l o f Smoking: Implications for Exercise  5 7  S t a t e m e n t o f P u r p o s e and  Exercise  Experimental'  and  Hypotheses  METHOD  REFERENCES  20 24  25 26 26 33  RESULTS  DISCUSSION  15 19  25  Subjects Apparatus . . . . Procedure Dependent V a r i a b l e s  Data A n a l y s e s M a n i p u l a t i o n Checks R e l i a b i l i t y Checks Dependent V a r i a b l e s Correlational Statistics  11  34 . . . . .  34 35 38 39 40 47 54  iv  L I S T OF  TABLES  Page Table  1.  Summary ANOVA T a b l e  Table  2.  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f Smoking Measures  41  C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Smoking M e a s u r e s following No-Exercise Condition  43  C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Smoking M e a s u r e s following Low-Intensity Exercise  44  C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Smoking M e a s u r e s following High-Intensity Exercise  45  Table  Table  Table  3.  4.  5.  f o r U r i n a r y pH m e a s u r e s  36  L I S T OF APPENDICES  Page A p p e n d i x A.  Information  A p p e n d i x B.  Physical Activity (PAR-Q)  A p p e n d i x C.  f o r Phone C o n t a c t  Physiological Among  66  Readiness Questionnaire 67  Responses t o E x e r c i s e  Smokers:  O u t l i n e o f Study  69  A p p e n d i x D.  C o n s e n t Form  70  Appendix E.  Subjective Ratings  Appendix F.  Experimental  Room  73  A p p e n d i x G.  E x e r c i s e and Smoking Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  75  A p p e n d i x H.  Post-Study  78  o f B r e a t h l e s s n e s s Form  Script:  Waiting  Questionnaire  72  vi  AC KNOWLEDGEMENT S  The advisor, Dr. also  author wishes  t o acknowledge  the help  D r . D a v i d L a w s o n a n d members o f h e r t h e s i s  R o b e r t McMahon a n d D r . J i m J o h n s o n . due t o D r . Ted Rhodes  to Dr. Kenneth Larochelle for which  of her thesis  Craig  their  help  f o r assistance with  f o r loan  and Ken Reesor  Special  o f equipment.  appreciated.  thanks a r e  t h e study and  Sam C h i w a ,  served as a s s i s t a n t s  i salso  committee,  Paul  i n the study,  1  INTRODUCTION  Cigarette gering medical  s m o k i n g i s an a d d i c t i v e and  to lung cancer, cular  c a n c e r o f t h e mouth and  1977).  and  view of the adverse prising  that  to q u i t  but  t o do  so  decreased  of t h i s  a l s o have i n i t i a t e d  billion  vast  at least  serious  the magnitude of the problems caused  treatment  amount o f r e s e a r c h i n t h i s  on  f o r smoking.  studies  smoking i n d i c a t e  (1971) summarized on  reduction  sura  desire  attempt  i n cigarette  smoking  area, the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  that  the r e s u l t s  smoking c e s s a t i o n .  by  Reviews o f  although  initial  of e i g h t  They f o u n d  a  to  Yet d e s p i t e the  a r e h i g h , a b s t i n e n c e r a t e s a r e much l o w e r .  Hammen  In  i n an a t t e m p t  s m o k i n g c e s s a t i o n methods i s u n i m p r e s s i v e .  rates  and  i t i s not  one  each  1976).  an e f f e c t i v e  literature  i s spent  t o smoking.  behavior  and  General  work p r o d u c t i v i t y  a number o f t e c h n i q u e s have b e e n d e v e l o p e d discover  linked  bronchitis  Surgeon  accidents attributed  effects  been  throat, cardiovas-  U.S. $27  stag-  t h e m a j o r i t y o f smokers n o t o n l y e x p r e s s  (USPHS,  Given  The  that approximately  i n m e d i c a l expenses,  work a b s e n t e e i s m ,  I t has  pulmonary d i s e a s e i n c l u d i n g  (Shillington,  (1979) e s t i m a t e d year  economic consequences.  d i s e a s e , and  emphysema  behavior with  of the  success  McFall  and  prominent  post-treatment  c o n s u m p t i o n t o 30-40% o f b a s e l i n e  2  frequency, r e t u r n i n g to 75% o f b a s e l i n e 6 month f o l l o w - u p .  Hunt and Bespalec  frequency a t a 4 t o (1974) summarized data  from 8 0 s t u d i e s on smoking c e s s a t i o n and found t h a t l e s s than o n e - t h i r d o f s u b j e c t s who a r e able t o q u i t smoking a t the end of treatment m a i n t a i n nonsmoking over the f o l l o w i n g s i x t o twelve months.  I t seems, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t one problem  w i t h p r e s e n t smoking c e s s a t i o n techniques l i e s i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y poor long-term e f f e c t s (Bernstein and Glasgow, 1979) . Another concern with methods f o r e l i m i n a t i n g smoking stems from the f a c t t h a t although nonaversive s t r a t e g i e s are a v a i l a b l e , a v e r s i v e techniques are more popular  (Lichtenstein  and Brown, 1980).  Rapid smoking i s the most common  technique, wherein  s u b j e c t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o p u f f r a p i d l y on  a c i g a r e t t e every f i v e t o s i x seconds, u n t i l they can t o l e r a t e no more.  aversion  i n h a l i n g normally,  While t h i s method  yields  f a v o r a b l e r e s u l t s (Lando, 1976; Best, Owen, and Trentadue, 1978) it  i t i s r a t h e r unpleasant t o the smoker.  induces i n s u b j e c t s  Furthermore,  a number of p o t e n t i a l l y harmful p h y s i -  o l o g i c a l changes which have been of concern t o s e v e r a l r e searchers ( t L i c h t e n s t e ' i h Logan, and Johnson,  and  1977).  Glasgow, 1977; M i l l e r ,  Schilling,  The use of r a p i d smoking,  there-  f o r e , seems t o be l i m i t e d by a c a r e f u l p r e s e l e c t i o n o f c l i e n t s i n view o f i t s p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s and unpleasant nature. From the above d i s c u s s i o n i t can be concluded t h a t two current  i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g t o smoking c e s s a t i o n techniques are  3 that:  1)  although  pressive,  rates  disappointing, aversive  initial  and  2)  most s t r a t e g i e s have  which are  undesirable  programs i n c o r p o r a t e o f n o n s m o k i n g and  It  which are  Matarazzo,  activity and  1973;  prevention, s u c h as  use  "lifestyle  wherein a  Brown,  1969;  1980).  "positively  (1973) s u g g e s t t h e  individually-tailored have r e s t e d  techniques  smoking.  the  a s s u m p t i o n t h a t an  t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between s m o k i n g and  exercise.  research  on  on  the  been l i m i t e d  e f f e c t s of e x e r c i s e  to date,  study demonstrating purpose of  this  with  no  t h a t the  A review of  the  in  an into  These inverse  sugrela-  However,  c i g a r e t t e smoking  has  s i n g l e adequately c o n t r o l l e d former i n h i b i t s  thesis, therefore,  o f e x e r c i s e on  and  Hunt  incorporated  programs f o r non-smoking. on  Engs  i n smoking  of e x e r c i s e are  in treat-  addicting"  replaces  use  that  (1980) and  balancing"  physical exercise  a p p r o a c h where s u p p o r t i v e  effects  maintenance  of exercise  Brown  have  cessation  (Bernstein,  L i c h t e n s t e i n and  L i c h t e n s t e i n and  (1982) d i s c u s s  Matarazzo  gestions  without  concerns  which f a c i l i t a t e  have recommended t h e  ment f o r s m o k i n g .  relapse  T h e s e two  nonaversive  im-  relatively  i s p a r t l y i n response to these suggestions  psychologists  Mulhall  not  t o s u g g e s t t h a t smoking  techniques  are  implemented  u n p l e a s a n t and  consequences.  l e d numerous r e s e a r c h e r s  Hunt and  rates  f o r maintenance o f nonsmoking are  techniques  potential  smoking r e d u c t i o n  the  latter.  i s to i n v e s t i g a t e  The  the  c i g a r e t t e smoking. research  suggesting  an  inverse  relation-  4 s h i p between  aerobic  e x e r c i s e and c i g a r e t t e s m o k i n g  sented  below.  theory  o f smoking w h i c h c o u l d p r e d i c t an i n c r e a s e  than decrease  I t i s followed  i n smoking  by an e x a m i n a t i o n o f a  following exercise.  statement of purpose f o r the present hypotheses are  presented.  study  and  i s precurrent  rather  Finally,  a  experimental  5 Literature Evidence exercise  and  two  suggesting  smoking  correlational also  suggest  and  E x e r c i s e and  experimental  research.  linked  below.  Morgan, G i l d i n e r survey  to determine  and  Wright  all  but  Of  the  141  a n e c d o t a l r e p o r t on  a b o u t t h e i r work and  s i x months.  They found  between h e a v y tennis  and  Although  self-report reduces  c l u b , who  leisure  of  smoking.  joining  a mail  35  smoking,  over  inverse  including  s m o k i n g i n men based  lat-  be-  miles  the c l u b .  (1975)  activity  a significant  f i n d i n g was  the  b e e n s m o k e r s , o f whom  Wilson-Davis  activity,  that  smoking  averaged  e x e r c i s e and  leisure  swimming, and  this  on  (1976) c o n d u c t e d  members, 35 had  M u l c a h y , B o u r k e , Graham and men  these  Studies  t h r e e abandoned s m o k i n g a f t e r  a similar  former  t h e e x e r c i s e p e r f o r m a n c e and  h a v i o r o f members o f a r u n n i n g p e r week.  between  to psychological v a r i -  These s t u d i e s are p r e s e n t e d  Correlational  as  studies  r e s e a r c h e x i s t s which suggests  of the  and  Various  incompatibility  e x e r c i s e are both  Reports  between  a n e c d o t a l r e p o r t s as w e l l  m e d i a t e an e f f e c t  Anecdotal  Smoking  inverse relationship  stems f r o m  Finally,  a b l e s w h i c h may ter.  an  a physiological  behaviors.  s m o k i n g and  Review on  exclusively  Hickey,  questioned the  previous  correlation  running,  25  In  t o 60  squash,  years o l d .  on r e t r o s p e c t i v e  change i n s m o k i n g , i t s u g g e s t s  that exercise  6 I n an a e r o b i c e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m f o r 237 NASA (Durbeck, Heinzelmann, S c h a c t e r , H a s k e l l , Nemiroff, o l d men  Limoncelli, Arnoldi,  Payne,  and F o x , 1972)  e x e r c i s e d f o r 30 m i n u t e s ,  three times  employees Moxley,  35 t o 55 p e r week.  t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e 12-month p r o g r a m a p p r o x i m a t e l y c e n t o f "good a d h e r e r s " r e p o r t e d a d e c r e a s e pared and  Two  e x e r c i s e adherers, correlational  e x e r c i s e on s m o k i n g . middle-aged vised  i n s m o k i n g , com-  to f i n d  Bonanno and L i e s male  an e f f e c t  smokers  i n a 12-week  s u b j e c t s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group nor those  matched  no-exercise control  Mulhall  undergraduates either  activity  or l e i s u r e  such  activity  15-week c o u r s e s as j o g g i n g and such  for  super-  in a  and university  requiring  conditioning  as b i l l i a r d s  and  No p r e - t o p o s t - p r o g r a m c h a n g e s i n s m o k i n g b e h a v i o r found  19  substan-  Engs  t h e smoking h a b i t s o f  b e f o r e and a f t e r  strenuous  exercises,  group d i s c o n t i n u e d o r  smoking d u r i n g the program.  (1982) i n v e s t i g a t e d  of  and j o g g i n g .  Neither  decreased  "fair"  (1974) e n g a g e d  a e r o b i c e x e r c i s e program o f w a l k i n g  tially  per-  respectively.  studies failed  coronary-prone  At  15  t o 10 and 5 p e r c e n t f o r e q u a l l y l a r g e g r o u p s o f  "poor"  year  riflery. were  f o r subjects i n either  group.  Interpretation  i n t h e above s t u d i e s i s d i f f i c u l t  of data  a number o f r e a s o n s .  o f Engs and M u l h a l l , specifically therefore  The r e s e a r c h e r s , w i t h  d i d not design t h e i r  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  they  between  the exception  s t u d i e s t o examine  t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s  lacked c o n t r o l procedures.  The  smokers  and  were  n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n as t h r e e o f  7 t h e s e p r o g r a m s were d e s i g n e d heart disease.  Consequently,  coronary-prone behaviors ficulty  intensity studies ly,  men  and  most s u b j e c t s were m i d d l e - a g e d  have b e e n c h a n g i n g  to physical  activity.  i s that  e x e r c i s e a d h e r e n c e was  based  leisure  cent  fact  The  latter  trained  men,  coronary  One  o f 100  effect (85  i n the  only a very  former  and  for  aspect  mask an  smoked a t l e a s t  small  12  per-  one  Smoking  i n s t u d i e s on and  coronary  Murray, B i l l i n g s ,  running  72  between e x e r c i s e and  activity  aged  Final-  daily.  25  supervised exercise,  j o g g i n g and  i n the  group) i n i t i a l l y  incidentally  Farhi, 106  frequency,  i n the group  smoke, and  S t u d i e s on E x e r c i s e and  between p h y s i c a l Garrett,  self-report.  g r o u p and  (2 p e r c e n t  relationship  investigated  activity  group) d i d not  package o f c i g a r e t t e s  Experimental  on  t h a t most s t u d e n t s  of subjects  i n the  dif-  retrospective  (1982) s t u d y w h i c h may  strenuous  activity  percentage  Another  lifestyle  not always monitored.  solely  Mulhall  of smoking i s the i n the  other  although the  t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f s m o k i n g b e h a v i o r was  100  f o r coronary  d u r a t i o n o f e x e r c i s e were r e p o r t e d i n most  o f t h e Engs and  of  may  interpretation  t h e most p a r t and  of  who  in addition  with  f o r those at r i s k  risk  Shute,  and  including  factors.  E a c h s u b j e c t was  Mann,  Schwarten  calisthenics, to reduce  been  relationship  t o 60 y e a r s , i n a s t r e n u o u s  i n an a t t e m p t  heart disease.  the  s m o k i n g has  (1969)  program  walking,  the r i s k  of  e x e r c i s e d a t one  of  8 three  intensities  according to h i s fitness  d a y s p e r week f o r s i x months. reported  a decrease  c o n t r o l group. this  study  i n smoking, v e r s u s  from  groups, then  7% f o r a n o - e x e r c i s e  with data i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n  the f a c t  t h a t no m e n t i o n i s made o f t h e  p r o p o r t i o n o f s u b j e c t s who i n i t i a l l y assumed t h a t  for five  A t t h e e n d o f t h e p r o g r a m , 22%  One d i f f i c u l t y  arises  level,  smoked.  smokers were p r o p o r t i o n a l l y  If i t i s  represented i n both  a s s u b j e c t s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e g r o u p s ,  the data suggest  that exercise i s inversely  related to  smoking. Heinzelmann and Bagley sedentary  men,  (1970) e x e r c i s e d 239  45 t o 59 y e a r s o l d , f o r one h o u r ,  p e r week f o r 18 months. of  e x e r c i s e performed;  it  was d e s i g n e d  at  risk  The s t u d y  three  times  does n o t m e n t i o n t h e n a t u r e  however, i t was most l i k e l y  t o improve c a r d i o - p u l m o n a r y  f o r coronary  initially  heart disease.  a e r o b i c as  function  A randomly  o f men  assigned  c o n t r o l g r o u p o f 142 men d i d n o t e x e r c i s e , b u t f i l l e d o u t :  questionnaires  on h e a l t h a t t i t u d e s  and b e l i e f s ,  and r e c e i v e d  m e d i c a l e v a l u a t i o n s a t s t a n d a r d t h r e e - t o four-month, vals.  Twenty p e r c e n t o f men i n b o t h  control It  groups r e p o r t e d smoking l e s s  may be t h a t  possible recruited  the c o n t r o l during  t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and a t t h e e n d o f 18 months.  f i l l i n g o u t t h e h e a l t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and  exposure from  inter-  to the experimental  t h e same u n i v e r s i t y  subjects to i n i t i a t e  the course  of the study.  s u b j e c t s , who were  setting,  their  may have  spurred  own e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m  The e x p e r i m e n t e r s  would  have  9 been uninformed trol  of t h i s  s u b j e c t s was Two  as c h a n g e i n e x e r c i s e h a b i t s o f  n o t a s s e s s e d a t the. end  unpublished  assess the e f f e c t s  tion  and  o f an  specifically  of e x e r c i s e i n treatment  f o r smoking.  fitness.  The  p e r day,  the  program o f w a l k i n g  w h i c h began a t t h e  self-monitoring,  c a t e no either  and  same l e v e l  relaxation  both programs s i g n i f i c a n t l y  to  67%  of b a s e l i n e frequency  component t r e a t m e n t  finding,  s m o k i n g was treatment tively) is  o f an i n -  Subjects i n both  instruction  cigarette  of smoking.  year  g r o u p and  in  refusal  Results  smoking,  indi-  groups  follow-up.  decreased  Subjects returning  follow-up.  t h e use  o f e x e r c i s e on  however, i s t h a t  significantly  inversely  aerobic capacity  as d e t e r m i n e d  related  30  of a  The multi-  package f o r smoking c e s s a t i o n p r e c l u d e s  assessment of the e f f e c t s  important  first.  a t a one-year  lack of a no-exercise control  on  a weekly e x e r c i s e s e s s i o n  training,  o r a t a one  the  consump-  involving  i n smoking b e h a v i o r between t h e  post-treatment  to  the e f f e c t s  consisting  to exercise,  behavioral analysis  difference  compared first  as t h e  in  any  (1979) a s s e s s e d  second  and  groups r e c e i v e d , i n a d d i t i o n  training  study  e x e r c i s e programs the  minutes of walking cremental  Wildman  8-week e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m on c i g a r e t t e  physical  s m o k i n g o f two  study.  s t u d i e s were d e s i g n e d  J o h n s o n , Rosenbaum, F r a m e r and influence  of the  con-  to i n i t i a l  by  post-treatment related  (r =  a step test,  level  smoking.  and  cigarette  t o p r e - and  r = -0.86,  fitness  and  post-  respec-  suggesting that  of p h y s i c a l  An  smoking  physical  10 improvement f o l l o w i n g I n a s t u d y by 2X2  factorial  separate  and  strategies an  exercise.  Howley, C a l l a h a n  design  was  implemented  on  smoking.  gradually  Subjects plan  increased  dealing with  for  contracting,  and  that  to determine  the  self-management  exercise  followed  i n c l u d i n g w a l k i n g and  running,  the  study.  Smokers i n  s e l f - c o n t r o l procedures In both groups  social  self-  f a c i l i t a t i o n were  final  a l l three  smoking r a t e  group r e c e i v e d  used  s e l f - m a n a g e m e n t t r a i n i n g components, w h i l e a a delayed  third  for  exer-  as  A  and  a  both  group served  adherence.  and  (1980),  group  smoking s i t u a t i o n s .  treatment  cise  i n an  during  a self-management group l e a r n e d  monitoring,  Yaeter  combined e f f e c t s o f e x e r c i s e  individualized exercise  w h i c h was  and  treatment c o n t r o l .  treatment groups s i g n i f i c a n t l y  and  that  there  groups p o s t - t r e a t m e n t nor  was  at  no  Results  indicate  reduced  their  d i f f e r e n c e among  s i x - w e e k and  six-month  these follow-  ups . In b o t h the physiological cise  indices of  adherence.  attributed cessation  alone  these studies  reflect  exercise  with data  recovery  Johnson e t a l . s t u d i e s ,  were u s e d  to assess  exer-  However, c h a n g e s i n t h e s e m e a s u r e s c a n n o t  s o l e l y to exercise  (Rode, Ross and in  Howley e t a l . and  is sufficient Shepard,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , as  smoking  t o improve a e r o b i c  1972).  I t may  be,  capacity  therefore,  p h y s i o l o g i c a l i n d i c e s of recovery adherence a c c u r a t e l y .  Another  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n these studies  be  did  that not  difficulty  stems f r o m t h e  fact  11 t h a t no liefs  c o n t r o l s were made f o r s u b j e c t  that  i n both  the  t r e a t m e n t would reduce smoking.  s t u d i e s were p r e s e n t e d  subjects  volunteering  f o r the  smoking p a r t l y o r w h o l l y treatment clusive et  factors  subjects study  i s hampered by  i n the  three  alone), while  of  these  effect  that  programs  reduced nonspecific Finally,  of e x e r c i s e  fact  are  f o u r of the  presented  nine  exercise  con-  i n the  seven of  f o r the  subjects  be-  treatments,  have  Hammen, 1 9 7 1 ) .  the  As  anti-smoking  a result  and  Howley  the  treatment groups dropped out  t o adhere to the  Physiological  as  s t u d i e s may  ( M c F a l l and  (no d r o p - o u t d a t a  failed  as  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f an  a l . study  expectancies  of  36 the  exercise  i n the  exercise  group group  regimen.  I n c o m p a t i b i l i t y between A e r o b i c  Exercise  and  Smoking There e x i s t s evidence suggesting is  incompatible  creases  cate  smoking.  cardio-pulmonary  physiological and  with  that:  diovascular  1) and  While a e r o b i c  opposite  Studies  d i r e c t i o n '(Cooper,  confirming  pulmonary t e s t s ,  2)  this  finding  programs.  smokers' e x e r c i s e  f o l l o w i n g c i g a r e t t e consumption,  nonsmokers r e s p o n d more f a v o r a b l y  below.  produces  smokers p e r f o r m w o r s e t h a n nonsmokers on  formance d e c r e a s e s  training  exercise  exercise i n -  f u n c t i o n , c i g a r e t t e smoking  c h a n g e s i n an  Bottenberg,1969).  that aerobic  A  review of  t h a n smokers t o  these  studies  is  and  Gey, indicarper3)  physical presented  12 I n a c o m p a r i s o n o f smokers'  and nonsmokers'  p u l m o n a r y p e r f o r m a n c e , Cunningham, Montoye, Keller  (1972) engaged male  stepping rates  test  Shaver  (1973)  between  found d i f f e r e n c e s  cardiovascular  and p u l m o n a r y  Furthermore, Franks  usual pattern  blood pressure,  and a r e p e t i t i v e  o f smoking  cigarette  test. abstain  f o r one d a y , t h e y  expe-  diastolic  and c a r d i a c s y m p a t h o - a d r e n e r g i c  S c h u e s s l e r and R e s n e k o v  In the f i r s t  aged 21 t o 27 y e a r s p e d a l e d  minute, r e s t e d  s e q u e n c e was l a t e r  that  the subject  minute r e s t  repeated  The a u t h o r s  K r o n e and R e s n e k o v  male  ergometer f o r  the exercise.  f o r a second s e s s i o n , except cigarette  during  f o u n d an i n c r e a s e  and a d e c r e a s e i n s t r o k e volume a cigarette.  nine  e l e v a t i o n o f up t o 150 b e a t s p e r  smoked a s i n g l e  period.  session  a bicycle  f o r 30 m i n u t e s , a n d r e p e a t e d  This  smoking  treadmill  test,  e x e r c i s e performance both before  smoking.  18 m i n u t e s a t a h e a r t r a t e  rate  a bench s t e p  i n response to e x e r c i s e .  (1972) d e t e r m i n e d s m o k e r s '  smokers  post-exercise.  i n t h r e e c a r d i a c measures:  s t r o k e volume  heart  on t h r e e m e a s u r e s o f  efficiency:  Krone, Goldbarg, B a l k o u r a ,  and a f t e r  higher  (1970) n o t e d t h a t when smokers  an improvement  activity,  i n a bench  i n e x e r c i s e performance  and nonsmokers  a 60 yar'd r u n - w a l k t e s t  rience  and f e m a l e smokers  p r e - and t h r e e m i n u t e s  f e m a l e smokers  from t h e i r  H i g g i n s , and  and f o u n d t h e y had s i g n i f i c a n t l y  t h a n nonsmokers  cardio-  t h e 30i n heart  during exercise  after  The same r e s u l t s were f o u n d by G o l d b a r g ,  (1971) u s i n g a s i m i l a r m e t h o d o l o g y  with  13 n i n e male h a b i t u a l Further between  support  aerobic  comparing training  s m o k e r s , a g e d 22 t o 26  f o r the p h y s i o l o g i c a l  exercise  t h e r e s p o n s e o f smokers and nonsmokers programs.  C o o p e r , Gey,  and B o t t e n b e r g  s i x weeks o f  rates  They found  compared  that  smokers had l o w e r  t o nonsmokers  i m p a i r m e n t was  both before  significant  to d a i l y  cigarette  and f o u n d t h a t (MV02) l e v e l s  consumption. 60 men  a t a lower r a t e  been l i n k e d monoxide  available  than  the f a c t  c a r b o n monoxide  between that  two  gen t r a n s p o r t more d i f f i c u l t also  receive  i n the b l o o d  A smoker may  p e r c e n t o r more o f h i s b l o o d c e l l s  exercom-  (CO) and n i c o t i n e ,  smoke b i n d s t o h e m o g l o b i n t h u s  19 8 0 ) .  have  Carbon leaving  (Montoye,  have a p p r o x i m a t e l y  b l o c k e d by CO,  making  ( A s t r a n d and R o d a h l , 1 9 7 0 ) .  less  Kelly  nonsmokers.  o f an i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y  f o r oxygen t r a n s p o r t  G a y l e and H i g g i n s ,  and  program  to decreased cardio-pulmonary e f f i c i e n c y .  i n cigarette  Body t i s s u e s  related  t h e i r maximal oxygen u p t a k e  and s m o k i n g a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i n cigarettes,  smoked  Peterson  i n an e i g h t - w e e k r u n n i n g  heart  training.  had  inversely  Similarly,  smokers i n c r e a s e d  The above f i n d i n g s  pounds  air-  respira-  and a f t e r  i n s u b j e c t s who  s i x months, and p e r f o r m a n c e was  (1969) c o n d i t i o n e d  tested  and o x y g e n c o n s u m p t i o n a t e q u i v a l e n t  for over  less  (1969)  (mean age 19.1 y e a r s ) b e f o r e and a f t e r  t o r y m i n u t e volume  cise  to p h y s i c a l  i n 419 young  training.  a running  studies  test  basic  This  incompatibility  and smoking i s p r o v i d e d by  endurance performance u s i n g men  years.  o x y g e n b e c a u s e CO  reduces  5  oxy-  14 p e r i p h e r a l blood capacity  flow,  pulmonary d i f f u s i o n c a p a c i t y  (Montoye e t a l . , 19 8 0 ) .  F u r t h e r m o r e , CO  airway r e s i s t a n c e , which i n t e r f e r e s w i t h capacity  and  resulting  causes vast  i n increased  Carbon monoxide, t h e r e f o r e , sible  (Rode and  i s at  o u t p u t and  stroke  stimulates  heart  rate  (Astrand  and  and  i n tobacco,  volume  the  therefore  Rodahl,  Collectively,  of  vessels,  Shepard,  aerobic  tively  and  the  Rodahl,  heart's  the  above f i n d i n g s  exercise.  1970).  physical  exercise  smoking i n o r d e r  performance.  f i t n e s s may,  smoking a b s t i n e n c e . and  Scott  following relapse,  indicate that  may  Conversely,  with  suggested  therefore,  encouraged  that  to  i f t h e y were  to  improved q u a l i t y  t h i s hypothesis,  improvement i n l u n g  t h a t p o s i t i v e feedback  with  regarding  maintenance  for  Paxton  function  inversely correlated  of  regarding  further motivation  change r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t e r  success.  those  p o s i t i v e feedback  Consistent  s m o k i n g c e s s a t i o n was  physiological treatment  This  the  provide  that  be  to  smoking  t o p a r t i c i p a t e more e f f e c -  i n turn,  (1981) f o u n d  and  It  work-load  It i s possible,  in physical activity.  exercise  cardiac  1970).  smoke l e s s t h e y w o u l d become aware o f their  A  catecholamines, which r a i s e  increase  smokers e x p o s e d t o a e r o b i c decrease t h e i r  respon-  function.  i n d u c e s numerous p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s o p p o s i t e p r o d u c e d by  1971) .  n i c o t i n e , decreases  ;(Astrand  release  increases  least partially  f o r smokers' r e d u c e d c a r d i o p u l m o n a r y  second harmful agent  also  rate  vital  oxygen-carrying  c o n s t r i c t i o n of blood  heart  and  of  15 Psychological Factors  Related  to Exercise  A number o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l either  an i n c r e a s e  Smoking  f a c t o r s have b e e n  t h e s e same v a r i a b l e s may  reduce p s y c h o l o g i c a l  Research suggests that  be a f f e c t e d by p h y s i c a l  and D u b b e r t , 1 9 8 2 ) . states  To t h e e x t e n t  r e l a t e d to increased  v a r i a b l e which i s n e g a t i v e l y  health  awareness.  likely  to guard t h e i r  Sutton,  and Wober  to b e l i e v e that  smoking o r i t may  modify  health  (1979)  'really  belts,  than a moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  towards h e a l t h smoking.  Two  attitude  to protect  their  (1970)  to believe  themselves from  health  i m p r o v e s one's  i t may  attitude  mediate a r e d u c t i o n i n i n health  programs.  f o u n d more p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s  and b e h a v i o r , w h i l e D u r b e c k  p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s about h e a l t h  p r e s u m a b l y w o u l d be a n t i t h e t i c a l  c o n c e r n o v e r one's h e a l t h  less  rather  a t t e s t t o t h e improvement  health habits increased  own  likely  health  following participation i n exercise  regarding reported  to r i s k  that exercise  H e i n z e l m a n n and B a g l e y  Eiser,  d a n g e r o u s ' , were  and were more l i k e l y  and w e l l - b e i n g , studies  are l e s s  f o u n d t h a t smokers were l e s s  s m o k i n g was  To t h e e x t e n t  smokers  t h a n a r e nonsmokers.  i n d i v i d u a l s have a r i g h t  risks.  r e l a t e d t o smoking i s  Research suggests that  prone t o wearing seat  Smoking  may  through these mediating v a r i a b l e s .  One  that  activity  that exercise  i n c r e a s e m e n t a l s t a t e s known t o r e d u c e s m o k i n g , smoking  l i n k e d to  o r d e c r e a s e i n c i g a r e t t e smoking  ( L i c h t e n s t e i n and Brown, 19 8 0 ) .  (Martin  and  patterns  t o an  and a smoker  e t a l . (1972)  status.  increased might,  16  therefore, his  newly a c q u i r e d  Gottlieb, in  abandon h i s s m o k i n g t o m a i n t a i n  fact,  cited  beliefs  regarding  h i shealth  Freidman, Cooney, Gordon and M a r l a t t find  i s provided  by S h i p l e y  with  an i n t e r n a l  health  Various feelings Bosse,  (19 81)  locus  t h a t one c o n t r o l s h i s / h e r than those with  of control  health)  (HLC - t h e b e l i e f  s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t e x e r c i s e and a n x i e t y  i n a NASA-US P u b l i c H e a l t h  Moreover,  decreased  f e e l i n g s o f s t r e s s and t e n s i o n  a "greater  (1963) r e p o r t e d  tension  reduction  a p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g program. seven s t u d i e s  1972) reported  a f t e r e x e r c i s i n g , as f o r coronary  1970; F o l k i n s ,  ability  of s t r e s s " f o l l o w i n g p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s  Health  et a l .  t h o s e i n e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m s f o r men a t r i s k  (1977) r e p o r t e d  to resist  training,  i n adults Morgan  Of t h e s e ,  decrement i n p e r c e i v e d  two f a i l e d  anxiety  1976).  a l l types  and C u r e t o n  participating in  (1979)  reviewed  i n which t h e e f f e c t s of acute a e r o b i c  investigated.  these  Subjects  Service  (Durbeck  (Heinzelmann and B a g l e y ,  decreases  smoking.  a n d Enhancement p r o g r a m  Cooper  longer  (McCrae, C o s t a and  a r e known t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  disease  ex-smokers  remained a b s t i n e n t  Education  heart  cessa-  an e x t e r n a l HLC.  of stress, tension  participating  reason  Further  who f o u n d t h a t  1978; L i c h t e n s t e i n a n d Brown, 1 9 8 0 ) .  factors  did,  as a m e d i a t i n g v a r i a b l e i n s m o k i n g  tion  are  (1981)  t h a t h e a l t h was by f a r t h e most common  f o r health  with  lifestyle.  by smokers t o a t t e m p t s m o k i n g c e s s a t i o n .  support  did  consistency  activity  t o demonstrate a  following exercise.  In both  17  s t u d i e s , however, t h e suggesting  exercise  that physical a c t i v i t y  to achieve a s i g n i f i c a n t remaining  studies,  subjects  ran  All  studies  five  and  four  one  investigating  the  tension  of  and  Sime  more Of  vigorous  the  five  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s where  i n anxiety  (1981) r e v i e w e d  and/or w e l l - b e i n g , (obtained  They n o t e t h a t  is particularly  initially  consisted  i n anxiety.  walking,  six  through studies  e f f e c t of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t r a i n i n g  improvement i n a f f e c t  tions  reduction  of  need t o be  demonstrated a r e d u c t i o n  Folkins  to e x e r c i s e .  may  simply  entailed participation in racquetball.  self-report.  anxiety,  consisted  by  the  evident  on  o f w h i c h a l l show self-report) in  an  response  decrement i n n e g a t i v e  with  subjects  who  are  emo-  either  l e s s p h y s i c a l l y f i t o r more p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y  dis-  tressed. Ikard  and  smoke f o r two and tain  Tompkins  (19 73)  major r e a s o n s :  to decrease negative  provide  to  affect.  s m o k i n g when t h e y r e a l i z e  increase  that  a s i m i l a r e f f e c t on  need f o r smoking. "feel better" Feinerman, studies and  after exercise  1970).  assessing  well-being.  post-exercise  Folkins the Of  affect.  e f f e c t of  these,  report  Sime  that  on  the  Brand  and seven  depression,  s i x demonstrated a as  exercise  subjects  (1981) r e v i e w e d  exercise  improvement i n a f f e c t ,  If  reward  decrease  (Morgan, R o b e r t s ,  and  smokers m a i n -  i t i s a source of  m e n t a l s t a t e , i t may  Numerous s t u d i e s  people  positive affect  Furthermore,  a n d / o r a means o f c o n t r o l l i n g n e g a t i v e has  evidence that  mood  significant  determined  by  18 questionnaire, not  w h i l e the  i n normal Further  seventh found t h i s  support  for increased  stems f r o m r e s e a r c h  releases  beta-endorphins,  opiates,  (Appenzeller, Atkinson,  1981;  1980).  pain  and  by  physically  fit.  ( H e i n z e l m a n n and  Furthermore,  and  a w a r e n e s s and  A  Exercise Bagley,  1970;  approval  affect, on  (Lichtenstein  b e c o m i n g more  approval. boredom  and  Willett,  ( L i c h t e n s t e i n and stimulation  1971;  one's to  Brown,  (Flaxman,  1979),  exercise.  above s t u d i e s be  confidence  Other f a c t o r s l i n k e d  combatted u s i n g  f a c t o r s may  and  might a c t u a l l y decrease  a need f o r s e n s o r i m o t o r  the  and  Collingwood  1980)  In c o n c l u s i o n ,  associated  exercise  enhances s e l f - i m a g e  therefore  be  exercise  negative  e f f e c t of  exercise  smoking i n c l u d e  of p s y c h o l o g i c a l  sym-  smoker m i g h t a l s o c u l t i v a t e s o c i a l  cigarette  b o t h o f w h i c h may  and  1980).  a l s o m e d i a t e an  need f o r s o c i a l  and  states  a l s o a c t i v a t e s the  Moss,  engaging i n r e g u l a r  C o o p e r , 1977)  to  Appenzeller  f a t i g u e , known t o be  ( D i m s d a l e and  Brown, 1 9 8 0 ) .  initial  Standefer,  Some p e o p l e smoke f o r s o c i a l  approval  b r a i n known  i m p r o v i n g mood  Moss, 1 9 8 0 ) . chronic  v a r i a b l e s may  smoking.  activity  system, r e s u l t i n g i n p o s i t i v e e m o t i o n a l  In a d d i t i o n to h e a l t h other  and  Physical exercise  f e e l i n g s of  with depression  indicating thatphysical  Appenzeller,  ( D i m s d a l e and  reduces  positive affect following  s u b s t a n c e s i n the  inhibiting  pathetic!; nervous states  but  subjects.  exercise  a c t as  i n depressed,  confirm  responsible  for  that  a  number  smoking.  19 Furthermore, exercise  h a s b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d t o be r e l a t e d t o  many o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . to p s y c h o l o g i c a l  states  I f s m o k i n g and e x e r c i s e i n an o p p o s i t e  are related  direction, exercise  p a r t i c i p a t i o n may i n d u c e a d e c r e m e n t i n s m o k i n g .  Summary o f R e s e a r c h on E x e r c i s e A l t h o u g h t h e above  studies  a n d Smoking indicate that  e x e r c i s e and  s m o k i n g may be i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d , f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s  regarding  the e f f e c t s o f e x e r c i s e  on s m o k i n g c a n n o t be made on t h e b a s i s  of evidence provided.  Of t h e s t u d i e s  were c o n c e r n e d  specifically  t i o n s h i p between results  o f two  these  e t a l . , 1980)  W h i l e Morgan  to the exclusion et al.  o f other  (1976) f o u n d a  s m o k i n g f o l l o w i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an e x e r c i s e  the  s t u d y was r e t r o s p e c t i v e , and i n f o r m a t i o n  provided  s o l e l y by s e l f - r e p o r t .  s t u d y by Engs and M u l h a l l in  Of t h e s e f o u r , t h e  l e a d t o a decrement i n smoking, b u t  i s not manipulated  ment f a c t o r s . in  two v a r i a b l e s .  may  smoking  but  only  following  a small  who consumed  enrolment  treat-  reduction program,  on s m o k i n g was  the c o r r e l a t i o n a l  to find  a decrease  i n p h y s i c a l education  percentage o f subjects  were r e g u l a r  courses, smokers  a t l e a s t one p a c k a g e o f c i g a r e t t e s p e r d a y .  on s m o k i n g i s o f t e n  studies  Finally,  (1982) f a i l e d  The r e m a i n i n g r e s e a r c h cise  four  w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a -  ( J o h n s o n e t a l . , 1979; Howley  suggest t h a t e x e r c i s e exercise  reviewed, only  assessing  on t h e e f f e c t s o f a e r o b i c  r e t r o s p e c t i v e and a n e c d o t a l ,  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  exerwith  t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s  20  only  as p a r t o f a l a r g e r p r o j e c t .  need  f o r w e l l - c o n t r o l l e d empirical research  effects  of aerobic  regarding  direction  i n smoking  to that  gested  increase  rather  that people  a decision  f o r Exercise  o f smoking  which  following exercise  s u g g e s t e d by r e s e a r c h  and s m o k i n g r e v i e w e d above; exercise  Implications  (1977) p r o p o s e d a m o d e l  opposite  in a  on e x e r c i s e  i . e . , i t would p r e d i c t a  than decrease  smoke t o r e g u l a t e  i n smoking.  postHe s u g -  n i c o t i n e , and t h a t an  internal  h o m e o s t a t i c mechanism  nicotine  levels  smoker's  nicotine reserves  for  l o s s by i n c r e a s i n g h i s c i g a r e t t e c o n s u m p t i o n .  this  Furthermore,  i n t h e body.  when u r i n e  jects  are stressed,  (Wesson, smoking  1969)'. i n order  Schachter verify 1977)  i s responsible According  are depleted  Schachter explains  i.e.,  f o r monitoring  t o S c h a c h t e r , when a he w i l l  compensate  t h a t when u r i n a r y pH  becomes more a c i d i c ,  a s i t does when  the rate of n i c o t i n e excretion  T h i s would r e s u l t t o compensate  regulate  i n increased  for nicotine  (1977) p r e s e n t e d  t h a t smokers  is a  u t i l i t y c a n be made.  S c h a c h t e r ' s M o d e l o f Smoking:  w o u l d p r e d i c t a change  there  exploring the  e x e r c i s e on smoking b e f o r e  its clinical  Schachter  In c o n c l u s i o n ,  he d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t h e a v y smokers  more l o w - t h a n h i g h - n i c o t i n e n a t e d on a w e e k l y b a s i s .  sub-  increases  rates of  loss.  a series of five  nicotine.  decreases,  studies to  In the f i r s t  (Schachter,  c o n s i s t e n t l y consume  c i g a r e t t e s when t h e s e a r e a l t e r -  I n a s e c o n d s t u d y , an i n c r e a s e i n  21 s m o k i n g was  found  intake,  smoking d i d not  using  but  following urine  sodium b i c a r b o n a t e  (Schachter, stein,  Kozlowski  K o z l o w s k i and  of party  g o i n g on  increase  o r was  and  on  effects  s m o k i n g , and  l e v e l s and  Liebling  a greater  of p u f f s  taken per  Finally,  Schachter,  the  design,  on  subjects  p l a c e b o and  Silverstein  were g i v e n  were p l a c e d  number o f p u f f s  indicate pH  was  observed.  significantly  bicarbonate  the  decreased,  p a r t i e s than  found  Perlick  the  urinary number  shock.  (1977)  separated urinary  factorial  or  low  stress  or  high-stress  room where  acidify  the  increased  that  placebo  whereas the  smoking  than p s y c h o l o g i c a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p between u r i n a r y  pH  un-  condition  high-stress  urine.  Results  smoking o n l y  s m o k i n g was  when  influenced  manipulations. and  a  condition.  f o r e a c h c i g a r e t t e were  acidified,  suggesting  Silverstein,  lower  In a 2 X 2  to a waiting  taken  In  on  e i t h e r sodium b i c a r b o n a t e  manipulations  pharmacological rather The  s m o k i n g more  s t r e s s from those o f  c o n d i t i o n d i d not  that  and  i n a high  r a t e and  that  i n s m o k i n g r a t e and  c i g a r e t t e smoking.  were t h e n e s c o r t e d  u r i n e was  report  cigarette following electric  Subjects  obtrusively  and  (197 7)  increase  e f f e c t s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l  acidification  pH  found  I n a p a r a l l e l manner, S c h a c h t e r ,  K o z l o w s k i , Herman, and pH  placebo  (1977) d e t e r m i n e d t h e  days i n which t h e y a t t e n d  'nonparty' days.  alkalized  Silver-  and  1977).  a  C  Next,  smokers have l o w e r b e d t i m e u r i n a r y cigarettes  vitamin  when u r i n e was  Silverstein,  pH  by  unchanged u s i n g  Schachter  urinary  acidification  smoking  as  by  22 predicted and  by  S c h a c h t e r was  Maxwell  (1981).  u n d e r s t r e s s by  also verified  by  Dobbs,  These i n v e s t i g a t o r s p l a c e d  leading  them t o b e l i e v e  t o speak i n f r o n t of graduate  tape  (S-S),  a c o n t r o l group s p e e c h and  s t u d e n t s and  (N-N)  treatment.  d i d not  during  urine for  baseline,  tape. and  rate two  treatment.  N-N  and  and  S-R  smoked d u r i n g  that  the  related  increase to urine  not  McCoy  urinary  puff  other  a d d i t i o n , c h a n g e s i n amount o f  ciga-  a 35-minute p o s t - t r e a t m e n t levels,  i n smoking under s t r e s s f u l  session  were  suggesting  conditions  was  acidification.  pH  may  mediate changes i n smoking  borne out  by  Marshall,  on  than  group than f o r the  urinary  pH  greater  decrease i n  above f i n d i n g s , S c h a c h t e r ' s  (1980) who  minutes  group  to the  that  post-  centimeters  f o r 35  S-S  a  measures  significantly  f o r the  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t r e a t m e n t pH  In c o n t r a s t tion  S-R  pH  r a t e and and  in  to give  35 m i n u t e s  a significant  amount smoked f o r t h e  negatively  and  before,  treatment  g r o u p s and  In  Subjects  Urinary  Analyses revealed during  s t r e s s groups.  rette  10  Subjects  (S-R), a s t r e s s -  (S-N).  In a d d i t i o n , measures of p u f f  acidification  the  tape  asked  faculty.  a n t i c i p a t e having  c i g a r e t t e smoked were o b t a i n e d  following  was  a neutral  l i s t e n e d to a neutral  were o b t a i n e d  of  or  .undergraduates  t h e y w o u l d be  were t h e n e x p o s e d t o e i t h e r a r e l a x a t i o n t a p e provoking  Strickler  examined the  Green, E p s t e i n , e f f e c t of c o f f e e  c i g a r e t t e smoking.  smokers were g i v e n  water, c o f f e e ,  suggesbehavior  Rogers  drinking  In a w i t h i n - s u b j e c t s coffee  and  and  sodium  and design  23  bicarbonate ly  asked  or  the  sessions  urine urine;  yet  ulations  failed  increasing  no  the  pH  indicated that  consumption,  changes.  points  to a c i d i f y alkalinity  able  above s t u d i e s a d d i c t i o n has  t o the  i n the  the of  urine.  the  urine  (Schachter,  f o r the  a p p r o x i m a t e l y one 1969).  As  urine  smokers w o u l d be sumption  some e m p i r i c a l  importance of u r i n a r y  to decrease urinary  of  present pH  study,  i s exercise,  acidification expected  pH  smoking.  hour a f t e r acute  following  coffee  Predid  not  drinking  difficulty  This  the  have  appre-  occurred.  support.  theory  The  has  one  vari-  important  f a c t o r known  which a c i d i f i e s  urine  strenuous a c t i v i t y nicotine  their  of  theory  a mediating  This  as  therefore  Schachter's  stimulates  manip-  alter  1 9 8 0 ) , and  as  with  i s important,  does n o t  since  to increase  exercise.  to  that  however, i s t h a t  indicate that  determination  implications  hour.  suggesting  One  c o n s e q u e n t change i n s m o k i n g s h o u l d  nicotine  subsequent-  smoked more c i g a r e t t e s i n  these r e s u l t s ,  nicotine excretion  The  were  a l t e r e d i n response to c o f f e e  than to u r i n a r y of  a c i d , and  room f o r one  subjects  following coffee  interpretation  ciably  ascorbic  analyses  s m o k i n g b e h a v i o r was rather  and  to remain i n a w a i t i n g  post-session acidify  coffee  for  (Wesson,  excretion,  c i g a r e t t e con-  24 S t a t e m e n t o f P u r p o s e and The effects  present  of  two  c o n t r o l on  intensities  designed of  s m o k i n g r a t e and  I t was inversely  s t u d y was  predicted  T h i s would apply cluding  the  that  to  no-exercise  i n t e n s i t y , being  greatest  intermediate f o l l o w i n g no  be  lowest  fol-  following  low-  exercise.  smoking i n d i c e s a s s e s s e d , i n -  weight of  c i g a r e t t e and  smoke was  a  c i g a r e t t e smoking would  f o r a l l the  number and  frequency per latency  and  and  acute  topography.  r e l a t e d to exercise  exercise,  t o examine t h e  exercise  lowing h i g h - i n t e n s i t y e x e r c i s e , intensity  Hypotheses  c i g a r e t t e s smoked,  cigarette duration.  expected  t o be  directly  puff  Furthermore,  related  to  exercise intensity. A  second purpose of  the  t i o n s h i p between u r i n a r y pH, according esis  holds  and  exercise  to Schachter's hypothesis. then, contrary  e x e r c i s e w o u l d be pH  s t u d y was  therefore  expected  to to  the  and  cigarette  to a decrease i n  increase  rela-  smoking  If Schachter's  above p r e d i c t i o n ,  lead  to a subsequent  t o examine t h e  hypoth-  strenuous urinary  i n smoking.  25  METHOD Subjects Eighteen (mean age years  = 2 5 . 5 ) , who  posted  at various  Kitsilano. 1.  The  respect  20  average of  for inclusion  to s e l e c t  20  i n the  t o 30  years  a homogeneous g r o u p o f  i n order  30  10.3  were r e c r u i t e d t h r o u g h  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  t o be  and  adver-  Columbia  campus  and  e x p e r i m e n t were: old.  It  subjects  to minimize extraneous  was with  f a c t o r s which  have i n f l u e n c e d e x e r c i s e .  2.  The  Activity  s u b j e c t had  t o be  had  no  participation  i n the  3.  c o u l d not  Subjects  their one  before  the  The  s u b j e c t had  tion  as  d e t e r m i n e d by  with  be  on  any  f u n c t i o n or  t o be  w h i c h was  (Physical completed  to  c o n d i t i o n which precluded  medication  his  which a l t e r e d  smoking r a t e d u r i n g ,  or  i n poor to average p h y s i c a l  h i s r e p o r t of weekly p h y s i c a l  questionnaire.  formed i n t o a e r o b i c  a PARQ  for  study.  4.  a screening  medical  by  study.  cardiopulmonary  day  screened  Readiness Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) ,  d e t e r m i n e t h a t he  on  ages d f  p u b l i c l o c a t i o n s i n West P o i n t G r e y  Criteria  t o age  between t h e  smoked f o r an  years)  a t the  s u b j e c t had  necessary  may  had  (range = 3 t o 17  tisements and  male s u b j e c t s  points  Weekly a c t i v i t i e s  ( C o o p e r , 1 9 7 7 ) , and  activity  were  only  condi-  trans-  subjects  a c c u m u l a t e d p o i n t s p l a c i n g them i n a b e l o w - a v e r a g e  fitness  26 category  were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e  5.  s u b j e c t s had  The  cigarettes a gap was  daily  i n the  t o have smoked a t l e a s t  f o r the  last  three years.  s u b j e c t ' s smoking h i s t o r y ,  lengthened  by  t h a t amount.  smoking c e s s a t i o n programs o r strategies, within  30  study.  as w e l l as  days o f the  those study  the  three-year  of been  period  participating  implementing  in  smoking r e d u c t i o n  attempted  were s c r e e n e d  package  I f t h e r e had  Volunteers  who  one  to quit  smoking  out.  Apparatus Urine containers Digital  s a m p l e s were c o l l e c t e d and  analyzed  I o n a l y z e r pH  r a t e was  amplifier, and  Blood and  recorded  blood  pressure  a Grass silver  measured w i t h cuff,  a Monark s t a t i o n a r y b i c y c l e .  u s i n g a Grass  centimeter  p r e s s u r e was  and  Wittner  polygraph  driver A,  silver-chloride electrodes. an A c c o s o n  a Dittman  balance.  D.C.  p r e a m p l i f i e r , model 7P4  C i g a r e t t e b u t t s were w e i g h e d on model 2603 a n a l y t i c  701A  meter.  model 7DAB and  Beckman one  specimen  u s i n g an O r i o n R e s e a r c h M o d e l  S u b j e c t s were e x e r c i s e d on Heart  i n 150ml p l a s t i c  sphygmomanometer  stethoscope. a Canlab  Sartorius  Other equipment i n c l u d e d a  S u p e r M i n i T a k t e l l metronome, a s c a l e f o r m e a s u r i n g  subjects'  body w e i g h t , and  two  stopwatches.  Procedure The  s t u d y was  conducted  i n two  classrooms,  one  designated  27 the  exercise  laboratory  Chemical Engineering Columbia.  and in  the  Each s u b j e c t  days a t the  and  explained  initial  the  study  session  form which s t a t e d  the  on  to  f i t the  monitoring  of  purpose of  the  teristics  and  Prior pleted  the  were r e q u i r e d  that  purpose of  the  study,  three  the  s t u d y was  to sign a  the  intended  sessions  t o m i n i m i z e demand  change i n s m o k i n g  a questionnaire  about t h e i r and  attempts  at reducing  o r q u i t t i n g s m o k i n g and  the  as  the  frequency  subjects  had  previously  engaged.  and  on selfof  the  charac-  also  com-  smoking  and  current present  i n t e n s i t y of  e n g a g e d and  of  behavior.  study subjects  Questions assessed past  t h e y were p r e s e n t l y  examine  and  subjects  histories.  which the  to  information  exercise  in  At  consent  s t u d y was  Misinforming  t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  s m o k i n g as w e l l  an  and  different intensities  i . e . , exercise  expectancies of  of  trained  experimenter  I t included  cigarette intake.  PAR-Q and  experimenter  specified criteria.  subjects  the  con-  monitoring  interested potential subjects  c i g a r e t t e smokers.  procedure of  four  a safety precaution  telephone contact,  p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of  exercise  three  at a l l sessions.  s c r e e n e d them t o e n s u r e t h e y first  Exercise  an  As  on  the  British  sessions,  a debriefing session,  same t i m e e a c h day.  present  room, i n  U n i v e r s i t y of  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n four  cardio-pulmonary r e s u s c i t a t i o n .  During  the  a waiting  f i t n e s s t e s t i n g were p e r f o r m e d by  a s s i s t a n t was  the  other  B u i l d i n g a t The  experimental sessions secutive  and  rate  exercise  i n which  28 S u b j e c t s were a s k e d half ing  t o a b s t a i n from smoking f o r  h o u r , f r o m e a t i n g , and caffeine  and  one-  from d r i n k i n g beverages c o n t a i n -  a l c o h o l f o r two  hours before  as  these would a f f e c t  their  if  they  abstained  from these  upon t h e i r  and  not  done s o were t o have b e e n  had  laboratory,  those  heart rate.  each s e s s i o n ,  having  S u b j e c t s were arrival  asked  at  the  rescheduled. Subjects 64 m i n u t e s the  provided  f o l l o w i n g e x e r c i s e and  no-exercise  containers  and  I o n a l y z e r pH  condition. analyzed  meter.  b e i n g washed and The design  u r i n e samples b e f o r e  design  w i t h i n f o u r h o u r s on  rinsed with study  at a different  distilled  each  two  s u b j e c t was  stationary resulting  of the  bicycle  a t one  ing  a t 50  after  measures  sessions,  Prior  to  each  b l o o d p r e s s u r e were sessions of t h e  130-135 bpm  the other  v i a a Grass  s e t a t 100 rpms.  i n three  different  beats  Subjects  Polygraph  (66% t o 69%  a one  of  160-165  bpm  Subjects' heart  rates  ECG  metro-  machine.  per minute, pacing started  taken.  study  intensities,  a heart rate of  o f maximal h e a r t r a t e ) .  were m o n i t o r e d nome was  o f two  i n a heart rate of  t o 85%  Digital  r e q u i r e d t o e x e r c i s e f o r 10 m i n u t e s on  m a x i m a l h e a r t r a t e ) and (82%  three  in  water.  exercise intensity.  first  and  sampling  c o n s i s t e d of a repeated  s e s s i o n m e a s u r e s o f body w e i g h t and During  a  in  c o n t a i n e r s were r e u s e d  i n which each s u b j e c t p a r t i c i p a t e d  e a c h one  a t 15  at equivalent intervals  T h e s e were c o l l e c t e d  Sampling  of the  and  A  subjects' pedal-  p e d a l i n g and  within 5  29  seconds a work-load high  intensity  seconds and  workout,  t o one minute  i fn e c e s s a r y ,  heart  o f two o r t h r e e  a recording  t o pedal  point  subjects  scale  normally.  until Blood  t o near  t e n minutes  zero  afterward rated  they  and  respiration  was t a k e n  rate  the target  subjects  two-minute  indicated that  pressure  until  recovery  and a t 30-second  their  55  of exercise, the  resistance  f o ran a d d i t i o n a l  Immediately  thereafter  After  After  w a s made o f t h e h e a r t  t h e w o r k - l o a d was i n c r e a s e d  w o r k l o a d was r e d u c e d  period.  f o ra low o r  r e s p e c t i v e l y , was a d d e d .  r a t e was a c h i e v e d .  continued  kiloponds  intervals  rates  they were  on a  seven  breathing  3 1/2 m i n u t e s  following  exercise. Maximal oxygen uptake subject  on t h e b a s i s  of h i sheart  work-load  during  intensity  and t h e subject's  and  Rodahl, In  chair.  minute o f low exercise  weight using  condition  a nomograph  subjects, their  heart  When h e a r t  subjects'  they  with  remained  the exception  r a t e w h i c h was d e l e t e d  rated  following  and t h e corresponding  (Astrand .  heart  rates  seated  were  i n a  p r o c e d u r e s w e r e t h e same a s t h o s e o f t h e  conditions,  respiration  tently  to sixth  f o r 10 m i n u t e s w h i l e  eight  rate  f o r each  1970) .  A l l other  exercise  last  the fourth  the no-exercise  monitored  (MV02) w a s p r e d i c t e d  as t h e f i r s t  breathing  rate  of the self-rating of  i n this  condition  ten volunteers  as being  f o r the  had consis-  'completely  normal'  monitoring.  rate monitoring  was c o m p l e t e d  and  blood  30  pressure into  measurements were r e p e a t e d ,  the waiting  were a d v i s e d To  activity  during  cigarette  urine  They were p r o v i d e d  to give urine  with  a schedule  samples.  In order  a urine  the w a i t i n g  room b e y o n d  Subjects whose p r e s e n c e  that  the observer  observer look  was i n s t r u c t e d t o ask-  The number and w e i g h t o f  6 4 minutes. o b s e r v e d by a male a s s i s t a n t  room was o s t e n s i b l y f o r t h e  the subjects  mens were t o be c o l l e c t e d .  s u b j e c t s were b r i e f l y  smoking  i f t h e s u b j e c t extended h i s time i n  i n the w a i t i n g  m i z e any i n t e r a c t i o n  to standardize  h i s c i g a r e t t e before  sample.  were u n o b t r u s i v e l y  purpose of prompting  they  s p e c i m e n , e i t h e r a t 15 o r  t h e s u b j e c t had f i n i s h e d  c i g a r e t t e s were p r o r a t e d  so t h a t  room, i f a s u b j e c t was  wait  a urine  session  e x a c t l y when  f o l l o w i n g e x e r c i s e , the observer  him t o p r o v i d e  reading  sample o f e a c h  64 m i n u t e s  ing  period.  were a l s o a s k e d t o r e m a i n i n  smoking i n t h e w a i t i n g  until  They  newspaper, Time, M a c l e a n s , and  the l a s t  when i t was t i m e t o p r o v i d e  this  period,  w o u l d know i n a d v a n c e o f a l l s e s s i o n s  w o u l d be a s k e d  ushered  f o r one h o u r .  the waiting  Subjects  gym c l o t h i n g u n t i l  was o b t a i n e d . they  during  including a daily  P e o p l e was p r o v i d e d . their  remained  t h a t s m o k i n g was p e r m i t t e d  standardize  material,  room where t h e y  s u b j e c t s were  a t t i m e s when u r i n e  In order  to standardize  speci-  and m i n i -  between t h e s u b j e c t and t h e o b s e r v e r , introduced  by f i r s t  w o u l d be w o r k i n g  name and were  i n the waiting  was a l s o i n s t r u c t e d t o be r e a d i n g  told  room.  The  or writing, to  up f o r a moment a n d t o s a y " H i " when i n t r o d u c e d .  In  31 addition, sation with  now,  class".  and  was  c o a c h e d on  initiated  you  clear  he  by  but  The  I've  observer  view of the  an  empty  got  a s t o p w a t c h and lighting  time.  The  from the  any  "I would l i k e  this  finished  smoke, b u t  had  converto  f o r my  on  a package of c i g a r e t t e s , matches  s m o k i n g l a t e n c y began f o u r m i n u t e s  room.  At  when t h e his f i r s t  observer  first  t h a t time the  subject  observer  took h i s f i r s t  c i g a r e t t e , the  also recorded  cigarette  the  inhalation  observer  recorded  number o f p u f f s  (a p u f f d e f i n e d  as  an  and  extinguished  with  t i m e when t h e  the  ashtray  As  an  c i g a r e t t e came i n t o i n i t i a l  while  being  cigarette butts  subjects'  stay  discarded  i n the w a i t i n g  T h i s was  done by  grams  (to f o u r d e c i m a l  tents  after  tray  and  the  i n an  ashtray  room were c o u n t e d .  deducting  places)  of  s e s s i o n from the  the the  the w a i t i n g  (defined  period.  hour  after  room was  combined w e i g h t ashtray  and  the  after the  Furthermore, calcuin  i t s con-  combined w e i g h t o f  as many u n u s e d c i g a r e t t e s o f  smoked d u r i n g  and  contact  s m o k i n g r a t e , one  t h e w e i g h t o f c i g a r e t t e smoked i n t h e w a i t i n g lated.  taken  extinguished).  a d d i t i o n a l measure o f  exercise,  the  instance  flaring)  t i m e a t w h i c h i t was  en-  activated  a smoker's l i p s  the  after  f r o m t h e b i c y c l e e r g o m e t e r when he  c i g a r e t t e i s i n contact with  the  next  h i s desk i n  where t h e  as  chat  ashtray.  the w a i t i n g  while  to get  d i d not  s u b j e c t dismounted  tered  terminating  subject with,  subject  Measurement o f the  the  politely  subject's  the  ash-  brand  32  A p i t c h e r o f w a t e r and jects  g l a s s e s were a v a i l a b l e  i n t h e w a i t i n g room t o e l i m i n a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  they would decrease induced  by  their  exercise.  smoking i n response  R e c o r d s were k e p t  to  w a t e r consumed was  taken  as  between t h e w a t e r p i t c h e r end  ject's  of the  session, with  small t a l l y  cards  cigarette  their and  their  into  sections corresponding  with  the o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d .  to permit  time  retired  at which they  provided  f o r t h i s was  slept  formance.  i n order  The  tally  and  at  i n the final  sub-  measure-  consumption  c a r d s were  t o an h o u r l y s e q u e n c e S u b j e c t s were a s k e d  divided  beginning to place a  segment e a c h t i m e smoking  they  and  awoke e a c h day.  t h a t i t was  necessary  The  s e s s i o n and  the  rationale  t o know how  to evaluate accurately t h e i r card a t the  had  rate.  to r e c o r d t o the n e a r e s t hour  S u b j e c t s handed i n a t a l l y  each experimental  long  exercise perbeginning  were p r o v i d e d w i t h a new  card  f o l l o w i n g day.  During tally  the  cigarette  a c a l c u l a t i o n of d a i l y  asked  the  before  daily  packages.  S u b j e c t s were a l s o  for  in milliliters  water remaining  mark i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e  a cigarette  of  amount o f  a p e n c i l which f i t c o n v e n i e n t l y  into  they  The  made.  Subjects monitored  tally  any  dehydration  a t the b e g i n n i n g  g l a s s r e t u r n e d to the p i t c h e r  ment was  using  the d i f f e r e n c e  contents  that  o f t h e amount o f  water drunk a t each s e s s i o n f o r each s u b j e c t .  the  f o r sub-  t h e . f o u r t h s e s s i o n s u b j e c t s handed i n t h e i r  c a r d and  completed  a post-study  q u e s t i o n n a i r e which  last  33 assessed The of  their  beliefs  questionnaire the  study  rationale  and  expectations  asked f o r t h e i r  i n order  provided  to assess  during  s u b j e c t s were q u e s t i o n e d  as  perceptions  the  initial  contact.  briefed  a c t u a l purpose of the  t i m e t o ask  questions.  information  regarding  w h i c h was  derived  smoking b e h a v i o r .  T h e y were p a i d their  exercise  of  the  Subjects  study, $25  study.  t h e .purpose  believed  and  and  physical fitness  from t h e i r  the  In a d d i t i o n ,  to whether they  their  to the  of  credibility  c i s e would a f f e c t as  regarding  exerwere  were  degiven  were o f f e r e d (aerobic  capacity)  performance.  Dependent V a r i a b l e s Smoking b e h a v i o r rate for  and  direct  and  each s u b j e c t .  self-monitoring  was  Smoking r a t e was  carded  during  ashtray  Topographical puff  frequency  following  e x e r c i s e , and  hour p o s t - e x e r c i s e .  by  smoking  topography  d e t e r m i n e d by  subjects'  h o u r and  23  a count of c i g a r e t t e b u t t s their  measures o f  smoke and  f o r the  stay  i n the w a i t i n g  smoking i n c l u d e d first  disroom.  latency  one  I n a d d i t i o n , c i g a r e t t e d u r a t i o n was  l i t , f o r the  first  to  c i g a r e t t e consumed  w e i g h t o f c i g a r e t t e ( s ) smoked  s u b t r a c t i n g e x t i n c t i o n time  c i g a r e t t e was  smoking  o f c i g a r e t t e s consumed f o r one and  c u l a t e d by  u s i n g measures of  i n d i r e c t measures o f  hours p o s t - e x e r c i s e , i n an  assessed  from the  time  cal-  the  cigarette following exercise.  34  RESULTS  Eighteen  volunteers  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the  One  a d d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t dropped out  and  h i s data Post  are  study  not  included  the  of the  a c t u a l purpose of the  did  not  being  that their  first  session,  administered  study.  to  subjects  t h a t they  Furthermore,  were unaware subjects  c i g a r e t t e or water consumption  monitored  i n the w a i t i n g  Subjects'  r e p o r t s of weekly p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y  subjects  questionnaire accumulated  (range = 5 t o sufficient  30),  these  (MV02) l e v e l s ,  which, a c c o r d i n g  t o 55  i t was 19.2  one's a e r o b i c data,  ml/kg/min  most v o l u n t e e r s  i n the  that points  (1977) i s i n -  fitness  level.  maximal oxygen  45.3  a  found  the  Con-  uptake  basis  low-intensity exercise,  (mean o f  on  aerobic  t o Cooper  p r e d i c t e d f o r e a c h s u b j e c t on  e x e r c i s e performance d u r i n g 36  and  a weekly average of  self-report  was  room.  were a n a l y z e d  for maintaining  s i s t e n t with  Data  the  study.  analyses.  debriefing session revealed  realize  screening  from  i n the  questionnaires  during  after  entire  of  ranged  ml/kg/min), p l a c i n g  low-average range f o r a e r o b i c  fitness.  Analyses H a r t l e y F-max t e s t s c o n d u c t e d on  analyses  of v a r i a n c e  a l l the  (ANOVAs) were c o n d u c t e d  data  before  indicated that  35 i n every case the variances geneous.  F o r measures o f u r i n a r y  homogeneous a c r o s s the  s a m p l e s were  Manipulation  condition,  and t i m e p e r i o d s  pH, t a k e n b e f o r e averaged  i n which  6.23  (SD = . 8 1 ) ,  no-exercise  a n d a t 15 a n d 64  6.28  (SD = . 8 1 ) , 5.94  (SD = .80) f o r t h e h i g h - i n t e n s i t y (SD = . 7 0 ) , 5.98  = .80) f o r t h e l o w - i n t e n s i t y  5.95  were  Checks  = .80) a n d 6.34  (SD  were homo-  taken.  minutes f o l l o w i n g e x e r c i s e ,  cise  the conditions  pH, t h e v a r i a n c e s  both c o n d i t i o n s  Measures o f u r i n a r y  (SD  across  5.94  condition,  (SD = .84) a n d 6.60  exercise  c o n d i t i o n , and  (SD = .88) a n d 6.20 respectively.  X time i n which t h e u r i n e  exer-  (SD = .87) f o r t h e  A two-way  sample was o b t a i n e d )  (condition repeated  m e a s u r e s ANOVA was c a l c u l a t e d on m e a s u r e s o f u r i n a r y pH, and  the r e s u l t s are tabulated  i n Table  1.  n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t  f o r time  a  f o r samples o b t a i n e d  significant  ing  exercise  cise  effect versus  (F(l,17)  those obtained  effect  (i.e.,  C  C  3  ~ 1 2 C  C  X  T  2  2  " 3' T  exer-  A significant interaction  conditions  a s 15 m i n u t e s v e r s u s ±  6 4 minutes f o l l o w i n g  i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e  as w e l l  - CC  follow-  (F(4,68) = 2.87, p < .05) w i t h a  condition versus exercise  3  15 m i n u t e s  f o r c o n d i t i o n by t i m e i n w h i c h t h e u r i n e  sample was o b t a i n e d significant  (F(2,34) = 17.15, p < .01) and  = 59.04, p < .01).  e f f e c t was f o u n d  T h e r e was a s i g -  X T,  and b o t h o v e r a l l  64 m i n u t e s f o l l o w i n g  F(2,34)  no-exercise  = 4.14,  p  < .05;  ^ ( 1 , 1 7 ) = 4.63, p < .05).  A  time  exercise  Table  1  Summary ANOVA T a b l e f o r U r i n a r y  error  pH  term  SS  C x S  c C  C  3 ""  C  1 2  l *'  C  2  C  l  - T T • 2 3  2 •" C x T T  (c  3  -  3  -  ( C  1  "  ( C  1  "  ( C  (c -  T  C.^)  1 T x S  —  C ) x S  <i  T T )  3  < C  T T  —  ( C  T  (T  3  2  —  x S  2  2  x S  3  T )  x S  3  C x T x S C  1 2 C  )  X  (T  x  - T T )  ( C  3  C  1 2  )  X  (T  2  - T )  < C  3  C  2 1 C )x(T  C  )  X  (  2  T  2  3  3  - T T ) 2 3' 3  2  ;  T  ( C  1  ( C  1  - C C )x(T 1  2  —  C  —  C )x(  —  C ^ x ^  —  CC)  l C 2  )x(T  2  T l  Measures  df  MS  1.602 1.401  2 1  .801 1. 401  .200  1  .200  4.929  2  2.465  .006  1  .006  4.924  1  4. 924  1.093  4  .273  2.872*  1  . 206  3.441  2  -  T )xS  .392  1  . 392  4.633*  - T T )xS  .269  1  .269  2.459  - T )xS  .227  1  .227  1.907  .598  2  .299  4.139*  1.698  2  . 849  5.909*  3  3  2  3  3  x T x S  2  T x S  3.560  2  1.780  T x S  0.764  2  0.382  62.152 27.848 4.887 6.470  17 34 34 68  3.656 „ .819 .144 .095  )  X  C  T/C-  ±  2  s  S x C S x T S x C x T high-intensity low-intensity no-exercise  exercise exercise  condition  condition condition  59.041**  .206  2  T/C  C  .028  T T )xS  1  1 2  17.147**  -  T/C  C  .347  1  <3 T x S  3  .978 1.319  * p < .05 ** p <  .01  12.388** 2.659  37  significant intensity the  e f f e c t was  exercise  but  dition. pre-  t h e r e was A  (F(2,34) = 5.91,  condition  time e f f e c t  t o 15-minute p o s t - e x e r c i s e  urine  first  pre-  alkalinity  = 2.57,  p <  f o r the  f o r the  no-exercise  revealed  con-  significant  acidification  (t(17)  p<  = 3.51,  p  for <  .01)  increase condition  were t a k e n f o r  ten  two  subjects  immediately  i n the  indicated  was  scale.  breathing  For  the  r a t i n g s were c o m p l e t e d subjects  rated  average of high,  and  (mean = 2.56 significant  (SD low,  and  Results  a l l volunteers "completely  = 1.31)  and  1.95  intensity exercise  1.81  had  f o r a l l 18  consistently  n o r m a l " on  subjects  first  ten  as  d e t e r m i n e d by  subjects  The  = 1.44)  1  seven-  first  after  ten  an  minutes  for  conditions respectively  subjects).  T h e r e was  a repeated  Significant  a  among  the  m e a s u r e s ANOVA,  (F(2,18) = 21.85, p <  of a Tukey s Honestly  a  breathlessness  normally (SD  sessions  c o n d i t i o n were  after exercising.  as b r e a t h i n g  the  control condition.  d i f f e r e n c e i n r a t i n g s of breathlessness  conditions  the  only  exercise  no-exercise  remaining eight  themselves  2.75  a f t e r the  i n t e r v a l s i n the  of breathlessness  their  the  .05).  as  for  and  low-intensity exercise  subsequently discontinued  three  .05)  Repeated r a t i n g s of b r e a t h l e s s n e s s  Ratings  the  high-  t o 64-minute p o s t - e x e r c i s e  a t the c o r r e s p o n d i n g  point  p <  the  (F(2,34) = 2.39,  urine  exercise condition  a significant  (t(17)  and  no  f o r time w i t h i n  t w o - t a i l e d Dunnett's t e s t  high-intensity  in  condition  low-intensity exercise  .01),  and  a l s o found  .001).  Difference  test  38 conducted  on a l l p o s s i b l e p a i r w i s e c o m p a r i s o n s  indicated  a  significant  d i f f e r e n c e i n b r e a t h l e s s n e s s r a t i n g s between t h e  no-exercise  and h i g h - e x e r c i s e g r o u p s  between t h e n o - e x e r c i s e 1.95)  (CV = 1.09,  conducted two  nificant  and l o w - e x e r c i s e  - 2 3' C  groups  p < .05, k = 3, r = 1 8 ) .  on c o m p a r i s o n s  (i.e.,  (X^ - X^ = 2.75)  C  C  2  (X^ - X^ =  A Scheffe  o f each c o n d i t i o n w i t h ~ 1 3' C  C  C  3  ~ 1 2^ i C  C  n  d  i  c  a  t  low-exercise  the  no-exercise  conditions versus  test  the other e  d  sig-  a  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e h i g h - e x e r c i s e v e r s u s  and  and  t h e no-  (F = 22.38, p < .01) and between  t h e h i - and l o w - e x e r c i s e  conditions  (F = 39.78, p < . 0 1 ) . Pulse recovery  r a t e s , taken  immediately  p e r i o d , were h i g h e s t  after  f o r the high  the two-minute intensity  condition  (mean = 120.3, SD = 9.34), i n t e r m e d i a t e  intensity  e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n (mean = 104.2,  lowest  i n the c o n t r o l  A repeated the  three  orthogonal  20.6, p C cise  .001)  conditions  Reliability  and  d i f f e r e n c e among  (F(2,34) = 353.93, p <C .001)  and c o n t r o l  (t(l,17)  = 11.87, p <  and  planned  d i f f e r e n c e be-  conditions  and b e t w e e n t h e h i g h  (t(l,17) =  and low i n t e n s i t y  exer-  .001).  Checks  Reliability on  SD = 5.46)  a significant  contrasts revealed a significant  tween t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  i n t h e low  c o n d i t i o n (mean = 69.6, SD = 9.34).  m e a s u r e s ANOVA showed conditions  exercise  26 p e r c e n t  c h e c k s were' made by an i n d e p e n d e n t  o f the o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  including  observer  l a t e n c y t o smoke,  39  time e x t i n g u i s h e d first  cigarette  perfect  a n d number o f p u f f s , smoked i n t h e w a i t i n g  room.  cigarette  extinction  per cigarette  time  ( r = .99, p < .001) and number o f  ( r = .98, p <  .001).  o f t h e number o f c i g a r e t t e s  the  waiting  the  number o f c i g a r e t t e s  room and s u b j e c t s '  c o r r e l a t i o n was self-report within  .76 (p <  f o r the observer's  smoked by t h e s u b j e c t i n  self-report v i atally  smoked d u r i n g  reliable  the experimental  session.  indicant  behavior  x c o n d i t i o n ) ^ r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s ANOVAs  with order e f f e c t s counterbalanced.  and t o p o g r a p h y ,  Analyses revealed  m a i n e f f e c t f o r o r d e r and no o r d e r by c o n d i t i o n any m e a s u r e s .  The c e l l s  were, t h e r e f o r e ,  no  interaction  collapsed  across  a n d one-way r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s ANOVAs were computed f o r  each o f t h e smoking  variables.  S c o r e s f o r t h e number o f c i g a r e t t e s post-exercise  the t a l l y  consumed  23 h o u r s  were a d j u s t e d by d i v i d i n g t h e s e s c o r e s by t h e  number o f w a k i n g h o u r s on  subjects'  o f smoking  were c o n d u c t e d on m e a s u r e s o f s m o k i n g r a t e  order  The  Var1ables  Two way '(order  on  cards of  t h e same p e r i o d .  .001), i n d i c a t i n g t h a t  i s a fairly  Dependent  f o r the latency  c o r r e l a t i o n f o r measures o f  P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d record  T h e r e was a  c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e two o b s e r v e r s  measure a n d a n e a r p e r f e c t  puffs  a l l taken f o r the  card  ' ( c a l c u l a t e d from t h e s u b j e c t ' s  o f t h e t i m e he r e t i r e d  T h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e  i n t h e ANOVA  report  a n d awoke e a c h d a y ) .  r e s u l t s of these  scores  40 and in  the  unadjusted  subsequent The  all  only  p <  and  o b t a i n e d was w h i c h was  shortest  orthogonal contrasts this  condition  following  (t(l,17)  and  standard deviations  exercise  = -2.45, p <  low-intensity  exercise  f o r a l l the  the  and  was pH  pre-  to  15  exercise  significantly.  following  in  order  A  high-intensity  the  culated parisons  by  difference  but  in and  not  between Means  smoking measures  are  between  significant  exercise  and  cigarette  urinary  pH  f o r which  inverse  relationship  change i n  (r = -.41,  urinary  p <.  .05).  between c i g a r e t t e  A  potential relationships  Bonferroni  d i v i d i n g the  correction level  i n each e x e r c i s e  of  for alpha  condition  and  by  duraconditions  among  l e v e l was  s i g n i f i c a n c e by  change  urine  r e m a i n i n g p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures a c r o s s  t o e x p l o r e any  variables.  Planned  conditions.  condition,  P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d and  control  conditions  minute p o s t - e x e r c i s e  f o u n d between c i g a r e t t e d u r a t i o n  tion  (F(2,34) =  Statistics  high-intensity  acidified  over-  exercise.  .05),  P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d  for  used  Table.2.  Correlational  duration  the  a significant  between t h e  high- versus  in  longest  after high-intensity  the  presented  cigarette duration  indicated  smoking v a r i a b l e  control  l a t t e r were, t h e r e f o r e ,  smoking measure f o r which a s i g n i f i c a n t  .05),  condition  the  analyses.  f i n d i n g was  3.31,  scores;  these cal-  s e v e n com-  s i x comparisons  in  Table 2 Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f Smoking M e a s u r e s i n the Three E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n d i t i o n s  Smoking Measures  CIG  1  CIG  23  WTCIG LAT  High I n t e n s i t y Exercise Condition  Low, I n t e h s i t y t ; Exercise Condition  Control Condition  Mean  S.D.  Mean  S.D.  Mean  S.D.  1.72  0.58  2.00  0.69  1.78  0.81  25.28  17.87  25.78  10.83  25.06  10.97  0.93  0.38  1.10  0.44  1.00  0.47  10.73  12.05  7.67  6.88  10. 86  12.64  PUFF  7.17'  2.50  7.94  3.28  7.33  2.06  DUR*  7.49  1.76  7.70  1.59  8.51  1.79  CIG 1 CIG 23 WTCIG LAT PUFF DUR *  number o f c i g a r e t t e s smoked i n w a i t i n g room 1 h o u r p o s t - e x e r c i s e number o f c i g a r e t t e s smoked 23 h o u r s p o s t - e x e r c i s e w e i g h t o f c i g a r e t t e ( s ) smoked i n w a i t i n g room l a t e n c y t o smoke i n w a i t i n g room p o s t ^ e x e r c i s e number o f p u f f s f o r f i r s t c i g a r e t t e smoked i n w a i t i n g room d u r a t i o n o f f i r s t c i g a r e t t e smoked i n w a i t i n g room a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p < .05) a c r o s s t h e t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s  42 the  control  condition,  were o m i t t e d  (Kirk,  f o r which r a t i n g s  1968).  .10 due t o t h e e x p l o r a t o r y resulted  An i n i t i a l  of breathlessness  alpha  nature of the analyses.  i n the adoption of alpha  l e v e l s o f .014  correlations  i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l  spectively.  None o f t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s  of  significance,  did  suggesting  l e v e l was  that  This  a n d .017 f o r  conditions,  attained  this  these p h y s i o l o g i c a l  not. m e d i a t e t h e e f f e c t o f e x e r c i s e P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n s were a l s o  set at  on c i g a r e t t e  calculated  re-  level variables  duration.  among t h e  s m o k i n g m e a s u r e s t o d e t e r m i n e any i n t e r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n them. These c o r r e l a t i o n s the  control  are presented  conditions  A Bonferroni  correction  for  an o v e r a l l a l p h a  for  the matrix  that ing  i n Tables for level  level,  a n d number  3, 4 a n d 5,  cise.  that  respectively.  i n an a l p h a  One  i n a l l the  hour and b o t h  (negative  of  puffs  smoked  in  latency  t o smoke  f o r the f i r s t  f o r the f i r s t  i n the waiting  exercise  condition.  the control  .007  finding  is /  conditions, by  three.significant correlations, consumed d u r i n g  of puffs  of  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not influenced  Additionally,  cigarette,  cigarette  the  and between  a n d number  of  That these r e l a t i o n s h i p s but i n neither  exer-  those  first  correlation)  and number  cigarettes  room, a r e s i g n i f i c a n t o n l y  condition  .10  consumed i n t h e w a i t -  b e t w e e n w e i g h t of. c i g a r e t t e (s)  number  level  consistent  of cigarettes  room were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d  indicating  and  of s i g n i f i c a n c e , using  resulted  i n each c o n d i t i o n .  the weight  f o r t h e two e x e r c i s e  i n t h e no-  were s i g n i f i c a n t  of the  exercise  Table 3 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Smoking M e a s u r e s No-Exercise Condition  cigl  clg23  r =  .52  wtcig  r =  .85**  lat  r =  puff  r =  dur  r =  cigl cig23 wtcig lat puff dur * **  = = = -= = =  -.54  .65*  -.28  cig23  wtcig  following  lat  puff  .43  -.32  -.63*  .52  .64*  -.29  -.,03  .09"  .02  number o f c i g a r e t t e s smoked 1 h o u r p o s t - e x e r c i s e number o f c i g a r e t t e s smoked 23 h o u r s p o s t - e x e r c i s e w e i g h t o f c i g a r e t t e ( s ) smoked 1 h o u r p o s t - e x e r c i s e l a t e n c y t o smoke p o s t - e x e r c i s e number o f p u f f s f o r f i r s t c i g a r e t t e p o s t - e x e r c i s e duration of f i r s t cigarette post-exercise  .P * p < .001 0  0  5  -.004  Table 4 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Smoking M e a s u r e s Low-Intensity Exercise  cigl  cig23  wtcig  following  lat  cig23  r =  .55  wtcig  r =  .84**  lat  r =  -.10  -.43  -.25  puff  r =  .39  .19  .46  -.25  dur  r =  .02  .24  .16  .03  cigl cig2 3 wtcig lat puff dur * **  = = = = = =  .49  number o f c i g a r e t t e s smoked 1 h o u r p o s t - e x e r c i s e number o f c i g a r e t t e s smoked 2 3 h o u r s p o s t - e x e r c i s e w e i g h t o f c i g a r e t t e ( s ) smoked 1 h o u r p o s t - e x e r c i s e l a t e n c y t o smoke p o s t - e x e r c i s e number o f p u f f s f o r f i r s t c i g a r e t t e p o s t - e x e r c i s e duration of f i r s t c i g a r e t t e post-exercise p < .005 < -001  P  puff  .47  45 Table 5 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r Smoking M e a s u r e s High-Intensity Exercise  cigl  cig23  wtcig  following  lat  cig23  r =  .41  wtcig  r =  .96**  lat  r =  -.41  -.18  -.32  puff  r =  .36  .19  .28  -.15  dur  r =  .27  .35  .37  -.18  cigl cig2 3 wtcig lat puff dur  = = = = = =  puff  .36  -.14  number o f c i g a r e t t e s smoked 1 h o u r p o s t - e x e r c i s e number o f c i g a r e t t e s smoked 2 3 h o u r s p o s t - e x e r c i s e w e i g h t o f c i g a r e t t e ( s ) smoked 1 h o u r p o s t - e x e r c i s e l a t e n c y t o smoke p o s t - e x e r c i s e number o f p u f f s f o r f i r s t e x e r c i s e c i g a r e t t e p o s t - e x e r c i s e duration of f i r s t cigarette post-exercise p p  < .005 < .001  conditions affected  suggests that  by e x e r c i s e .  the v a r i a b l e s  Finally,  i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that  t o p o g r a p h i c a l measure o f t h e f i r s t r a t e , was  significantly  are d i f f e r e n t i a l l y  c i g a r e t t e smoked,  correlated with a behavioral  a  puff by-  p r o d u c t o f s m o k i n g , c i g a r e t t e w e i g h t , and a measure o f s m o k i n g rate, tained  number during  of cigarettes the^ f i r s t  consumed, b o t h o f w h i c h were ob-  hour f o l l o w i n g  exercise.  47  DISCUSSION  A this  s i g n i f i c a n t inverse  study between e x e r c i s e  tion.  This  stration since of  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  the  would appear to  of  an  e f f e c t of  t h e r e was  no  lated  number o f  across  q u e n c y and  An  i n the are  urine  at  level  and  controlled  1982)  of  review  studies  finding i s that  while  number o f  between p u f f cigarettes  condition,  exercise  fre-  were  suggesting  affected  by  cigarette  duration.  No  did exercise  sig-  that  exercise.  s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced and  t h e r e was  a  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s change i n  other physiological Why  demon-  smoking,  exhaustive  sigpH  other s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n s were f o u n d b e t w e e n c i g a r e t t e any  dura-  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e -  minutes p o s t - e x e r c i s e  inverse  in  cigarette  cigarette  Dubbert,  differentially  high-intensity  nificant  on  correlations  control  Finally,  15  first  additional  b o t h w e i g h t and  these variables  pH  and  cigarettes  conditions,  nificant, only  the  exercise  l i t e r a t u r e (Martin  and  be  mention i n a recent  showing t h i s e f f e c t . weight  i n t e n s i t y and  found  duration  .and  measure. reduce c i g a r e t t e  duration  and  yet  fail  48 t o s u p p r e s s any is  that  other  smoking measure?  cigarette duration  exposure to sidestream into  the  air.  cigarette  The  r e m a i n i n g measures, except  contains  1980).  higher  (USPHS, 1 9 7 7 ) .  As  directly sidestream  by  smoker  exercise  i s one  of  r e l a t e d to sidestream  be  suppressed  This  study  following  i s the  first  the  t o the  smoke e x p o s u r e ,  more  indicate that multiple  topo-  exercise. to  pH  change.  smoking f o l l o w i n g u r i n a r y  the  dependent v a r i a b l e s  ing  smoked.  them t o b e l i e v e  significantly effect ies 1977;  on  In  pH  included  that  study,  t h e y w o u l d be  acidified  the  urine  b o t h smoking measures.  (Schachter,  Silverstein,  decrease  in urinary  smoked and  pH  and  I n one change puff  and  other  response  study  assess-  length  of  stressing subjects  by  required  speech  and  had  Two  of  to give  a  lead-  an i n h i b i t o r y the  Schachter  Herman, and  P e r l i c k , 1977)  i n b o t h number o f  number o f p u f f s ; p e r  in  (Dobbs, e t a l . , 1 9 8 1 ) ,  r a t e and  Kozlowski,  Schachter, S i l v e r s t e i n ,  extent  i t would  to e x e r c i s e ing  toler-  s m o k i n g m e a s u r e s most  affected differentially  or u r i n a r y  CO  r e d u c e s one's  g r a p h i c a l measures are  cigarette  (Frederiksen  I t may  thati c i g a r e t t e duration  likely  mainstream  o f b o t h n i c o t i n e and  that  of  smoke i s u n f i l t e r e d , i t  ance f o r t h e s e h a r m f u l smoke e l e m e n t s and,  directly  f o r weight  exposure to  the  smoker's  directly  concentrations be  reason  i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the  consumed, p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t  Martin,  possible  smoke, w h i c h i s r e l e a s e d  smoke, w h i c h i s i n h a l e d and  One  stud-  Liebling,  found  a  cigarettes  c i g a r e t t e i n a one  hour  waiting  49 period  following electric  Schachter study  shock.  (Schachter,  nor  the Marshall  the  influence  et a l .  Neither  K o z l o w s k i , and S i l v e r s t e i n ,  (1980) s t u d y , b o t h o f w h i c h  o f u r i n a r y pH on s m o k i n g , u s e d  a s p e c t s o f smoking i n t h e i r  analyses,  et  the  f o r further research  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t o p o g r a p h i c a l of cigarette  Although this  affected;only  found  finding.  cise  should  be g i v e n  duration  over a longer assessing  Furthermore, the raises  f i n d i n g due t o c h a n c e  i n future  alone.  on s m o k i n g ,  research  and t o s c h e d u l i n g period  directly  on s m o k i n g s h o u l d  topographical cise  on  weak as i t  one o f s i x v a r i a b l e s  of a s i g n i f i c a n t  o f longer  studies  exercise  an e f f e c t o f e x e r c i s e  To maximize t h e e f f e c t o f e x e r c i s e  sessions  future  changing  t h e need e x i s t s f o r r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t  consideration exercise  measures d u r i n g  one o f s i x s m o k i n g m e a s u r e s .  possibility  (1981)  t o examine  m a n i p u l a t i o n was a p p a r e n t l y  p r e s e n c e o f an e f f e c t on o n l y  Clearly,  (Engs and  smoking.  study  smoking, t h e e x e r c i s e  the  on s m o k i n g  studies  As s u g g e s t e d by F o y , R y c h t a n k and Pr.ue  i s a need, t h e r e f o r e ,  patterns  topographical  1982; Howley e t a l . , 1980; J o h n s o n e t a l . , 1979; .Morgan  a l . , 1976) .  there  1977)  assessed  nor d i d the four  d i r e c t l y examining the influence o f e x e r c i s e Mulhall,  the remaining  o f time.  repeated  exer-  In a d d i t i o n ,  the e f f e c t s of aerobic  continue  a s p e c t s o f smoking.  to providing  to include  assessment o f  I n d e e d , no e f f e c t o f e x e r -  on s m o k i n g w o u l d have b e e n f o u n d  i n the present  were i t n o t f o r a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e s e s m o k i n g m e a s u r e s .  study  50 If  t h e f i n d i n g o f an e f f e c t o f e x e r c i s e  replicated, ensue.  At a theoretical level,  a decrease would  b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l and c l i n i c a l  i n both urinary  urinary  According  leading  pH and s m o k i n g f o l l o w i n g  t o Schachter  to increased  n i c o t i n e homeostasis.  Schachter  resulted  studies  i n a decrease  smoking r a t e . colleagues  psychologically  This  these  amount smoked.  i n urinary  (1981).  In t h e i r  stressed  those in  stress  manipulations  pH and a c o n c o m i t a n t  study,  subjects  Results  who were  study,  puff  that  r a t e and  i n t h e low- and h i g h -  respectively.  s t u d y were o f a g r e a t e r  i n t h e Dobbs s t u d y , c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y  s m o k i n g w o u l d be e x p e c t e d .  over  a mean pH d e c r e a s e o f  f o r subjects  conditions,  tape  demonstrate  their  increase  by Dobbs and  pH d e c r e a s e o f s l i g h t l y  increased  In the present  changes i n t h e p r e s e n t  research  and l i s t e n e d t o a n e u t r a l  significantly  exercise  to restore  pH on s m o k i n g .  T h e s e f i n d i n g s were v e r i f i e d  0.248 and 0.347 was f o u n d intensity  i n urinary  demonstrated that  (as i n d i c a t e d by a g r a p h ) . subjects  rate of depletion of  h a s b e e n r e p l i c a t e d by  e x p e r i e n c e d an a v e r a g e u r i n a r y 0.2 pH  exercise  (1977), a r e d u c t i o n i n  smoking i n o r d e r  examining the.effect o f decreases  his  would  repeated demonstrations of  pH w o u l d r e s u l t i n a g r e a t e r  nicotine,  in  implications  s u g g e s t t h e need f o r r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f S c h a c h t e r ' s  hypothesis.  The  on s m o k i n g i s  Instead,  Since  t h e pH  magnitude  greater  than  increases  r e s u l t s df the present  s t u d y i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e i n c i g a r e t t e d u r a t i o n and no c h a n g e i n t h e o t h e r  smoking measures, i n r e s p o n s e t o u r i n e  51 acidification. relationship  Moreover, there  was  between c i g a r e t t e d u r a t i o n  What f a c t o r s m i g h t a c c o u n t results  between t h e  Dobbs s t u d i e s ? that  the  logical were  stress. due  present  One  present  low  This  smoking. present  study  involved  Therefore,  i n t u r n may  anxiety  have c u r t a i l e d  selected  item  i n the  exercise  correlated  to account  study reduced  research  and  not  6 of  rather  11  i t may  be  t h e s e two  pH  t h a t pH  of  exercise  on  to  these  most  fre-  i n smoking was  and  f a c t o r s may  that anxiety. be  i n determining  post-  changes::aire'merely  to evaluate  an  impetus f o r a  of Schachter's n i c o t i n e a d d i c t i o n hypothesis, effect  the  Further  the  pH  effects  smoking.  In a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g  an  in  change i n b o t h u r i n a r y  i s necessary  v a r i a b l e s on  due  the  tension  exer-  increased  subjects  c a u s a l l y r e l a t e d t o smoking.  state  experi-  than  subjects)  f e e l i n g s of  than u r i n a r y  levels  have  for reductions  examining p o s t - e x e r c i s e  psychological  pH  is  psycho-  i n response to  evidence that  ( s e l e c t e d by  smoking, or  studies  smoking f o l l o w i n g e x e r c i s e  e i t h e r more i n f l u e n t i a l  of  may  and  than  even though u r i n a r y  These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l  and  Schachter  In a p o s t - e x p e r i m e n t a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e  following exercise biking  the  physical rather  and  pH.  contradictory  to p h y s i c a l s t r e s s , subjects  study reduced  quently  and  inverse  urinary  m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e between t h e  There i s suggestive  factors.  and  f o r the  study  enced a decrease i n t e n s i o n cise.  a significant  re-examination  replication  s m o k i n g w o u l d have c l i n i c a l  of  implications.  52 If  future research  then e x e r c i s e  confirms  c o u l d be  used  ment o f O t h e r B e h a v i o r ) undesirable opment o f  behavior  use  of a v e r s i v e  ethically  and  Despite one  why  this  treatment be  the  has  encouraging  (Homer and  use  of  this  the  devel-  Peterson,  1980).  approach over  fewer s i d e e f f e c t s ,  literature (Barton  and  i t i s more results in  response reduction  (Homer  of  and  the.use o f Barton,  there this  1978).  exists  only  procedure One  for  reason  b e e n u s e d more r e g u l a r l y i n s m o k i n g  i s that very  few  behaviors  suppressive  be  with  smoking.  exercise  are  incompatible,  of  the  effect  while  the  present  indicates of  this  o f e x e r c i s e on  smoking, r e p l i c a t i o n  definitive  for further research smoking r e d u c t i o n  study demonstrated  conclusions  v a r i a b l e s can are  twofold.  u r i n a r y pH  be  i n smoking.  of  this  made.  First,  the  a  regarding  following post-exercise  a c i d i f i c a t i o n would l e a d t o a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n of and  use  to  a p p l i e d t o smoking i n t e r v e n t i o n .  i s necessary before  Implications  have b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d  If further research  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two  nicotine  the  not  In c o n c l u s i o n ,  stration  Reinforce-  a p p r o a c h has  s t r a t e g y may  the  responses  by  above a d v a n t a g e s o f DRO,  smoking  s m o k i n g and  finding  (Differential  1980).  incompatible  that  smoking,  f o r s m o k i n g c e s s a t i o n , where  generalizable  mention i n the  eliminating  reduces  r e s p o n s e e l i m i n a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s as  and  Peterson,  strategy  p r e f e r the  acceptable,  a more d u r a b l e  i n a DRO  i s eliminated  incompatible  Behavior modifiers  that exercise  demonurine  role  Secondly, e x e r c i s e  of could  53  be used t h e r a p e u t i c a l l y tion.  i n a DRQ  strategy  f o r smoking c e s s a -  54  REFERENCES  Appenzeller,  0.  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Education  r e p o r t of  Washington, D.C:  use  smoking m o t i v a t i o n , muscle  s m o k i n g , and  Department o f H e a l t h , and  Health  h e a l t h locus of  Experimental  U.S.  cigarette  Maintenance o f smoking c e s s a t i o n :  and  measures.  489-492.  of National Health  follow-up  sion,  21,  S e l e c t e d economic consequences of  of drugs d i r e c t o r a t e .  Shipley,  selected physical fitness  S.  Social  Journal  20-23.  Welfare.  Surgeon  Smoking  General.  DHEW P u b l i c a t i o n no.  (PHS)  79-50066,  1979.  U.S.  Public Health Atlanta:  Service.  Center  A d u l t use  f o r Disease  of  of tobacco,  Control,  1976.  1975.  65 U.S.  Public Health D.C. and  Wesson, L.  United Welfare,  G.  G r u n e and  Service.  The  Smoking D i g e s t .  S t a t e s Department of H e a l t h ,  Washington, Education  1977.  Physiology Stratton,  of  the  1969.  Human K i d n e y .  New  York:  APPENDIX A INFORMATION FOR  PHONE CONTACT  T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e s the p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t i n t e n s i t i e s o f e x e r c i s e on c i g a r e t t e s m o k e r s . We w i l l ask y o u t o come t o t h e l a b i n t h e C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g b u i l d i n g a t t h e same t i m e on 4 c o n s e c u t i v e d a y s t o p e d a l on a s t a t i o n a r y b i c y c l e f o r 10 m i n u t e s . D u r i n g one o f t h e s e s e s s i o n s , you w i l l j u s t be s i t t i n g on t h e b i k e w i t h o u t d o i n g any e x e r c i s e . We w i l l be t a k i n g v a r i o u s p h y s i o l o g i c a l m e a s u r e s b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r y o u e x e r c i s e on t h e b i c y c l e . T h e s e m e a s u r e s i n c l u d e b l o o d p r e s s u r e , ECG, a u r i n e s a m p l e , and w e i g h t . At t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n we w i l l ask you t o c o m p l e t e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e on y o u r s m o k i n g and e x e r c i s e h i s t o r y . A f t e r e a c h e x e r c i s e s e s s i o n , we r e q u i r e t h a t you w a i t i n an a d j a c e n t room f o r 1 h o u r u n t i l we have o b t a i n e d t h e l a s t u r i n e sample. However d u r i n g t h i s t i m e you a r e f r e e t o work q u i e t l y on w h a t e v e r y o u l i k e ( r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , homework, e t c . ) so be s u r e t o b r i n g s o m e t h i n g t o work on. You w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o a b s t a i n f r o m e a t i n g , o r d r i n k i n g c a f f e i n a t e d or a l c o h o l i c beverages f o r 2 hours before each s e s s i o n , and f r o m s m o k i n g f o r 1/2 h o u r b e f o r e e a c h s e s s i o n . I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r e x e r c i s e you w i l l be p e r m i t t e d t o smoke, and a p i t c h e r o f w a t e r w i l l be a v a i l a b l e i n c a s e you a r e t h i r s t y . / A f t e r t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n , we w i l l g i v e you a t a l l y c a r d t o k e e p t r a c k o f t h e number o f c i g a r e t t e s y o u smoke e a c h day between t h e e x e r c i s e s e s s i o n s , i . e . , f o r t h r e e d a y s . This i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l a s s i s t us i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e s among p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r m s o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s t o be observed f o l l o w i n g exercise sessions. A t t h e l a s t s e s s i o n , y o u w i l l r e c e i v e $25 f o r y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y and we w i l l g i v e y o u p e r s o n a l feedb a c k on t h e m e a s u r e s t h a t we have t a k e n . Do you have any questions? (Get sessions).  name, phone number, t i m e s a v a i l a b l e , and  schedule  67  APPENDIX PHYSICAL ACTIVITY A  i s designed  completion  you  are planning your  problem  o f PAR-Q  most  f o r Adults  yourself.  Many  r e g u l a r e x e r c i s e , and  i s a sensible first  to increase  people  o r hazard.  number  t h e amount  step  t o take i f  of physical  the type Common  questions. opposite  physical activity  PAR-Q h a s b e e n  of adults  inappropriate ing  you help  (PAR-Q)  activity  life.  For  small  to help  benefits are associated with  the  in  QUESTIONNAIRE  Self-administered Questionnaire  PAR-Q health  READINESS  B  who  of activity  Please  read  should  most  i s your  the question  designed  n o t pose any  to identify the  f o r whom p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y  o r those  sense  should  suitable  best  them  have m e d i c a l  guide  might  advice  be  concern-  f o r them. i n answering  carefully  and check  these  few  ( ; ) YES  i f i tapplies t o you.  YES (  )  1.  Has y o u r  (  )  2.  Do y o u f r e q u e n t l y h a v e  doctor  ever  said  y o u have  pains  heart  i n your  trouble?  h e a r t and  chest? (  )  3.  Do y o u o f t e n  feel  faint  o r have  spells  of  severe  dizziness? (  )  4.  Has a d o c t o r too  high?  ever  said  your  blood  pressure  was  68  Has or  a doctor  e v e r t o l d you  worse w i t h there  h e r e why  you  vigorous  has  e x e r c i s e , o r m i g h t be  made  exercise?  a good p h y s i c a l r e a s o n n o t you  even i f you Are  h a v e a bone  j o i n t p r o b l e m s u c h as a r t h r i t i s t h a t  b e e n a g g r a v a t e d by  Is  t h a t you  should wanted  o v e r age  65  exercise?  not  f o l l o w an  mentioned  activity  to? and  not  accustomed  to  program  69  APPENDIX C Physiological  R e s p o n s e s t o E x e r c i s e Among Outline  of  Smokers  Study  T h r o u g h o u t t h e 4 d a y s o f t h e s t u d y - R e f r a i n as much as p o s s i b l e f r o m t a k i n g any d r u g s , m e d i c a t i o n s and a l c o h o l s i n c e t h e s e s u b s t a n c e s may e f f e c t y o u r p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s ponses to e x e r c i s e . From y o u r f i r s t s e s s i o n t o y o u r l a s t , r e c o r d t h e t i m e a t w h i c h you smoke e v e r y c i g a r e t t e i n c l u d i n g t h o s e smoked d u r i n g , and between s e s s i o n s . 2 hours p r i o r to each s e s s i o n - a b s t a i n from e a t i n g , f r o m d r i n k i n g a l c o h o l and c a f f e i n a t e d b e v e r a g e s . 1/2  hour p r i o r  Sessions  A.  to each s e s s i o n  In the  from  smoking.  lab  1.  p r e - e x e r c i s e m e a s u r e s o f p u l s e and b l o o d p r e s s u r e w i l l be t a k e n and s a m p l e s o f u r i n e w i l l be c o l l e c t e d . (5 min.)  2.  ECG m o n i t o r i n g bicycle.  3.  post-exercise Total  B.  - abstain  In  the w a i t i n g  while  pedaling  measure o f b l o o d  time i n the  lab:  an  exercise (10 min.)  pressure. (5 min.) 20 min.  area  U r i n e s p e c i m e n s c o l l e c t e d a f t e r 15, minutes.  Note:  and  and  60  D u r i n g t h e h o u r s y o u s p e n d i n t h e w a i t i n g room, y o u may work a t t h e d e s k on any r e a d i n g o r s t u d y i n g y o u b r i n g w i t h you. A l t h o u g h y o u may smoke d u r i n g t h i s t i m e and d r i n k w a t e r w h i c h w i l l be p r o v i d e d , y o u may not e a t u n t i l the f i n a l measures a r e t a k e n .  70  APPENDIX D Consent  The logical 1 1/2  purpose of  w h i c h you  approximately which you the  be  attached  10  will  next.  will  will  will  minutes.  pedal,  W h i l e you  m o n i t o r e d by  heart is  rate  are an  (2)  engaging  i s unaffected  each  i n no by  vary  the  (ECG)  tape. be  via  drag  against  session  to  refrain  a l s o be  monitored while To  rate  electrodes  There w i l l  exercise.  a  you  ensure that  your  than e x e r c i s e , i t  from engaging i n  during  the  f o u r days of  from smoking, e a t i n g ,  and  drinking  other  the  coffee,  hours of each s e s s i o n ,  from consuming a l c o h o l i c  weekdays  bicycle for  f r o m one  f a c t o r s other  two  Four  changes i n your.-heart  rate w i l l  b e v e r a g e s e a c h day  and  study; tea, (3)  before  session.  In a d d i t i o n t o h e a r t in  r e s i s t a n c e or  sticky  (1)  c o l a beverages w i t h i n  refrain  consecutive  a stationary exercise  pedaling,  physical activity  refrain  s c h e d u l e d on  The  by  physio-  among c i g a r e t t e s m o k e r s .  instrument  e s s e n t i a l t h a t you:  vigorous  or  and  i s t o examine t h e  however, w i l l  to your chest  seated  be  pedal  s e s s i o n where y o u r h e a r t are  study  response to e x e r c i s e  hour s e s s i o n s  during  this  Form  changes t h a t  Accordingly,  we  occur will  r a t e c h a n g e s , we  i n the: u r i n e ask  t h a t you  as  are  a result  provide  also of  a urine  interested  exercise. specimen  71  before  e x e r c i s i n g and  waiting urine  room f o r one  specimens w i l l  completing  t h a t you  remain i n the  hour a f t e r w a r d . be  collected  according  t h a t you  to the  smoke them.  for  any  the After  to exercise  the c a r d p r o v i d e d of the the  response  t o the  the  study  and  the  assist  important number  of  times  at which  us  accounting  in  i n t e r m s .'of  e x e r c i s e i n which they  f o u r t h s e s s i o n , you  i n the  study  and  level  withdraw from the  I have r e a d a n s w e r e d t o my  the  in this  given  be  their  engage  p a i d $25  feedback  study  and  a t any  You  a l l my  hereby consent  study.  Participant's Signature:  would may,  time.  a b o v e , had do  for  i f you  bf a e r o b i c f i t n e s s .  description  satisfaction,  will  Date:  Witness:  may  smoke, i t i s a l s o  This information w i l l  i t r e g a r d i n g your  ticipate  after  sessions.  participating  course,  third  60 m i n u t e s  d i f f e r e n c e among t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  physiological  of  on  smoke d u r i n g  you  like  and  response  amount y o u  keep a t a l l y  c i g a r e t t e s you  during  15  s e c o n d and  the e x e r c i s e .  Since your p h y s i o l o g i c a l vary  The  laboratory  questions to  par-  72  APPENDIX S U B J E C T I V E RATINGS  Subject Please  Session  no. circle  E  OF B R E A T H L E S S N E S S  no.  t h e number w h i c h  FORM  Condition  represents  how y o u f e e l  no. right  now.  1. 2. As o u t o f b r e a t h as I've ever been  7. breathing completely normal  1. 2. As o u t o f b r e a t h as I've ever been  breathing completely normal  1. 2, As o u t o f b r e a t h as I've ever been  5.  7. breathing completely normal  2. 1. As o u t o f b r e a t h as I've ever been 1.  :  breathing completely normal 4V  breathing completely normal  As o u t o f b r e a t h as I've ever been 1. 2, As o u t o f b r e a t h as I've ever been  4. .  5.  6.  7. breathing completely normal  1. : A s . o u t o f '. b r e a t h as I've ever been  breathing completely normal  1. As o u t o f b r e a t h as ever been  breathing completely normal  2. 1 ve 1  1. 2 As o u t o f b r e a t h as I've ever been  5.  7. breathing completely normal  73  APPENDIX F Experimental S c r i p t :  At El:  first  session  (working a t the t a b l e , -• - k n o c k  E2:  W a i t i n g Room  i n v i e w o f where s u b j e c t w i l l s i t )  on t h e d o o r -  (El starts  (S's name, "You c a n s i t , r e l a x and work q u i e t l y  stopwatch)  (E2 g e s t u r e s  on w h a t e v e r  look through the magazines  towards  a seat),  y o u have b r o u g h t , o r  i f you l i k e .  This  i s(El's  name)"  El:  ( l o o k s up) " H i " (Then resumes  E2:  "He w i l l let  be w o r k i n g h e r e w h i l e y o u a r e w a i t i n g  y o u know when i t ' s  time t o take samples.  y o u t o w a i t i n y o u r gym s t r i p sampels for  El:  work)  have  been  taken.  a n d change  Any q u e s t i o n s ? "  after  and w i l l We'd  like  a l l the  (allow  time  S to respond).  (after  11 m i n u t e s )  specimen  just  like  "Okay  (S's name), t i m e f o r t h e u r i n e  before"  (Hand  S t h e c o n t a i n e r and  t h a n k h i m when he r e t u r n s ) .  El:  (after  60 m i n u t e s  y o u do t h e u r i n e (Hand  "The h o u r ' s o v e r sample  that w i l l  (S's name).  After  be i t f o r t o d a y " .  S t h e c o n t a i n e r and t h a n k h i m when he r e t u r n s ) .  74  Subsequent s e s s i o n s : Follow b a s i c a l l y considering  Deviations Any  t h a t S has  from  accomplished  their  I've  1)  and  Finally,  t h a t the  conversation:  finished  study  time.  next  so t r y and  A l s o , do  to  class"  be  to  chat  (or his  as  unobtrusive  not acknowledge  s e s s i o n S may  ask  for a light,  r e t u r n b a c k t o work  can  politely  "I'd l i k e  connected  light,  session).  2)  way  Acknowledge the  a t each  This  information  i s i n any  cigarette. then  f o r my  i s being observed  d u r i n g the  interaction  Remember, S d o e s n o t know t h a t  as p o s s i b l e i n n o t i n g t h e time  the  r e t u r n i n g b a c k t o work o r  to get t h i s  smoking b e h a v i o r  since  questions pertaining  as p o s s i b l e f r o m  additional  something s i m i l a r ) .  any  already.  smoking b e h a v i o r .  answering  as b r i e f l y  schedule  got  the procedure  S s h o u l d be m i n i m i z e d  influence their by:  t e r m i n a t i n g any but  been through  some m o d i f i c a t i o n  Script:  s u b j e c t may  the experiment on  same s c r i p t w i t h  conversation with  with be  the  with  Psychology.  or f o r a  r e q u e s t , g i v e them a c i g a r e t t e (make s u r e b o t h  are  at  or  available  75  APPENDIX G EXERCISE AND SMOKING QUESTIONNAIRE  Name:  Age:  Sex:  Address:  Phone Number:  Best  time t o c a l l :  Occupation: Do  you e x e r c i s e  cise  regularly?  I f yes,  describe  your  exer-  habits  Please c i r c l e following  list  f o u r weeks:  i n w h i c h y o u have e n g a g e d d u r i n g  aerial  calisthenics, (please  step  rowing, running  lacrosse,  Enter  other  dancing  golf,  racquetball,  (stationary), running/jogging,  sports  the a c t i v i t y ( i e s )  boxing,  cycling,  football,  s k i i n g , s q u a s h , swimming, t e n n i s ,  walking, wrestling,  priate  kung-fu,  i n the  the past  badminton, b a s k e t b a l l ,  below), fencing,  hockey, k a r a t e ,  rope-skipping, skating,  tennis,  curling, bicycling, stationary  specify  handball,  a l l of the p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s  volleyball,  n o t mentioned  y o u have c i r c l e d  above. i n the appro-  s p a c e ( s ) b e l o w a n d p r o v i d e as a c c u r a t e an e s t i m a t e a s  76 you can o f each o f the f o l l o w i n g : travelled  on e a c h o c c a s i o n  i n minutes  t o complete  t i m e s y o u engaged  quantity  (e.g., m i l e s ,  the a c t i v i t y ,  i n the a c t i v i t y  or  distance  yards,  sets),  time  and a v e r a g e number o f  each  week.  Average Activity  Circle 1.  Quantity/Distance  a number b e l o w  How  physically  1  active  active  you c o n s i d e r y o u r s e l f 3  4  average  inactive  active 2.  Your  Frequency  to indicate:  2  very  Time  t o be  now.  5 very inactive  current  1 very  l e v e l of physical 2 f i t  fitness.  3  4  average  unfit  fit  How many c i g a r e t t e s  5 very unfit  What b r a n d o f c i g a r e t t e  do y o u smoke?  p e r day do y o u smoke on t h e a v e r a g e on a  weekday?_ on w e e k e n d s ? _ How  Weekly  l o n g have y o u b e e n  smoking?  years  Have y o u made any a t t e m p t s  to quit  smoking i n t h e l a s t 6  months? Ye s  No  If  s o , when a n d f o r how l o n g ?  Are  you p r e s e n t l y attempting  Yes please  No specify  t o c u t down o r s t o p  smoking?  A r e y o u p r e s e n t l y on any m e d i c a t i o n ? the type,  I f so,  d o s a g e , and f r e q u e n c y :  Thank y o u f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n  in filling  out this  questionnaire.  78  APPENDIX Post-Study  1.  W h a t was  2.  Did  alter  your  specify affect  3.  make  purpose  any  smoking  what your  Did  study  you  the  you  of  Questionnaire  the  study?  deliberate  behavior?  d i d and  H  attempt Yes  whether  during the  No you  believe  study  I f so,  please  i t did in  fact  smoking.  you  expect  at  any  would  affect  your  time  that  smoking?  participation  in  to  the  79  Yes  No  I f y e s , what a s p e c t  of the procedure d i d  you  b e l i e v e would a f f e c t  How  d i d y o u e x p e c t y o u r s m o k i n g w o u l d be  Increased  y o u r smoking?  effected?  Decreased  When d i d y o u e x p e c t y o u r s m o k i n g would.be prior  to f i r s t  effected?  session  between 1 s t & 2nd  session  between 2nd & 3 r d s e s s i o n between 3 r d & 4 t h s e s s i o n following  4. of  fourth  Do y o u t h i n k the s e s s i o n s  yes,  how  was  t h e e x e r c i s e you engaged  a f f e c t e d y o u r smoking?  y o u r smoking a f f e c t e d ?  Why  do y o u t h i n k  5.  Check  account  that  i t was  Yes  any If  Decreased  a f f e c t e d i n t h i s way?  f o r t h e changes i n y o u r smoking f o r increased felt  No  Increased  any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s  Explanations  i n during  you  believe  behavior:  smoking:  more t e n s e and a n x i o u s due  to the e v a l u a t i v e  nature of the study or exposure to a promoting environment.  health-  80  you  were b o r e d  you  a l w a y s smoke i n w a i t i n g  you  read.  you  felt  other  Explanations I f you was  feel  i t f o r any  person i n the w a i t i n g  of the  room.  smoking: you  smoking b e h a v i o r  f o l l o w i n g reasons?  were t r y i n g  i.e.,  having  u n c o m f o r t a b l e s m o k i n g i n f r o n t of. t h e  decreased  you  rooms a n d / o r when  in exercise.  f o r decreased you  room.  wanted t o r e w a r d y o u r s e l f f o r  engaged you  i n the w a i t i n g  to recover  "catch your breath"  after  (please from the and  exercise  check): exercise,  smoking  hindered  this. participating  i n e x e r c i s e made y o u  y o u r h e a l t h h a b i t s and decrease your exercising anxiety;  Thank you  for f i l l i n g  thus motivated  you  to  smoking.  reduced  f e e l i n g s of  t h e r e f o r e , you  out  more aware  this  tension  n e e d e d t o smoke  questionnaire.  and less.  of  

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