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Bioregionalism : a territorial approach to governance and development of northwest British Columbia Aberley, Douglas Carroll 1985

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BIOREGIONALISM: A TERRITORIAL APPROACH TO GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF NORTHWEST BRITISH COLUMBIA By DOUGLAS CARROLL ABERLEY A., C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y a t Sonoma, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1985 (c) Douglas C a r r o l l A b e r l e y , 1985 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f S^V-gr t> -^ 6 ^ C^£^v^\^^^^^~^ (L^Jk T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main M a l l V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1Y3 D a t e DE-6 i i ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e x p l o r e t h e c o n c e p t o f b i o r e g i o n a l i s m as an a l t e r n a t e approach t o the governance and development of Northwest B r i t i s h Columbia. B i o r e g i o n a l i s m i s a t e r r i t o r i a l l y o r i e n t e d p e r c e p t i o n and p r a c t i c e b a s e d on t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f a bounded p h y s i c a l environment t o s u s t a i n b oth i t s n a t i v e ecosystems and a l e v e l of human a c t i v i t y . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t b i o r e g i o n a l i s m c o u l d b e t t e r g u i d e the N o r t h w e s t ' s governance and development i s argued by employing f i v e major p r e m i s e s . F i r s t , the Northwest i s i n t r o d u c e d as a r e g i o n where t h e e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y , based s o l e l y on l a r g e -s c a l e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n , i s becoming a m a j o r c o n c e r n o f r e g i o n r e s i d e n t s . The p o t e n t i a l t h a t N a t i v e p e o p l e w i l l s o o n e v o l v e methods o f s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h b e t t e r a d d r e s s t h i s c o n c e r n i s o f f e r e d as a l o g i c a l r e a son f o r non-Native r e s i d e n t s of the same r e g i o n t o i n v e s t i g a t e s i m i l a r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . S e c o n d , a r e v i e w o f 1 0 , 0 0 0 y e a r s o f Northwest h i s t o r y i s o r g a n i z e d t o d e s c r i b e s e v e n m a j o r e r a s o f e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y . T h i s o v e r v i e w shows t h a t the r e g i o n has one, a d i s t i n c t i n d e n t i t y , and two, t h a t European e x p l o r e r s , c o l o n i s t s and i n d u s t r i a l i n t e r e s t s have f o r two c e n t u r i e s b a d l y e x p l o i t e d b oth the r e g i o n ' s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s . The t h i r d p remise examines the s t r u c t u r e s of governance and development which c u r r e n t l y c o n t r o l the r e g i o n . These s t r u c t u r e s a r e shown t o have s e r i o u s f l a w s which p e r p e t u a t e absentee government and an economy based on w i d e s p r e a d ecosystem d e s t r u c t i o n . Extended i i i q u o t e s , o r i g i n a t i n g from r e g i o n i n t e r e s t groups, a r e o f f e r e d t o emphasize r e s i s t a n c e f e l t a g a i n s t t h e s e p r a c t i c e s and an o p t i m i s m t h a t a more p o s i t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e e x i s t s . The f o u r t h premise i n t r o d u c e s b i o r e g i o n a l i s m as one a l t e r n a t i v e way t o g u i d e the Northwest's f u t u r e . The c o n c e p t ' s l i t e r a t u r e i s r e v i e w e d , i t s 200-year i n t e l l e c t u a l p e d i g r e e o u t l i n e d and, from b o t h t h e s e e x e r c i s e s , a p r a c t i c a l U t o p i a n w o r k i n g s t r u c t u r e i s d e v e l o p e d . B i o r e g i o n a l t h e o r y i s shown t o be based on a s i n g l e dominant theme: t h a t a r e g i o n p o p u l a t i o n w i t h p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l over an e c o l o c i c a l l y r e g u l a t e d economy would be the b a s i c b u i l d i n g b l o c k of a modern and r e s p o n s i b l e governance s t r u c t u r e . The f i f t h premise a p p l i e s the i d e a s o f b i o r e g i o n a l i s m s p e c i -f i c a l l y t o the N o r t h w e s t . A b i o r e g i o n a l s u r v e y i s c o m p l e t e d which b o t h d e f i n e s the a r e a ' s new b o r d e r s and e x p l a i n s i n g r e a t d e t a i l the o u t p u t of i t s p r e s e n t economy. Annual e x t r a c t i o n and h a r v e s t l e v e l s of t h i r t y n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s over v a r y i n g p e r i o d s between 1877 and 1984 are p r e s e n t e d . These f i g u r e s demonstrate the Nor t h w e s t ' s n a t i v e w e a l t h and p r o v i d e a s t r o n g r e f e r e n c e f o r a more d e t a i l e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how t h e r e g i o n economy o p e r a t e s . F i n a l l y , b i o r e g i o n a l i s m i s shown t o be a l r e a d y u n c o n s c i o u s l y p r a c t i c e d a c r o s s t h e N o r t h w e s t , w i t h many more o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t i n g t o expand i t s i n f l u e n c e . T h i s extended argument i n f a v o u r o f a b i o r e g i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e f o r the Northwest makes s e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s . The concept would p r o v i d e a b e t t e r way to gu i d e the r e g i o n ' s f u t u r e . I t c o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented i n the Northwest o n l y , o r be more b o l d l y i v applied to a l l B r i t i s h Columbia bioregions, which are speculated as being equally r i c h . The broad structure of the thesis presentation, integrating both theory and place related topics, i s concluded to be a useful method to address complex problems of r u r a l regions. This approach has delivered a viable conceptual framework, a s t a r t i n g point from which systematic further investigation into the d e t a i l s of bioregionalism 1s application can be tested. V T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s Page A b s t r a c t i i Tab l e of Co n t e n t s v L i s t of T a b l e s v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s . v i i i L i s t of Maps x Acknowledgements x i 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 2.0 PLACE AND QUEST 5 3.0 NORTHWEST HISTORY 12 3.1 8000 B.C. - 1740 AD: Another World 14 3.2 1740 - 1835: The Gre a t E x p l o r a t i o n 26 3.3 1835 - 1890: C o l o n i z a t i o n 37 3.4 1890 - 1920: 'Boom' Years 50 3.5 1920 - 1940: The; Golden Age, Almost 59 3.6 1940 - 1975: War Abroad: War At Home 65 3.7 1975 - 1985: The P r e s e n t 79 4.0 NORTHWEST B.C. STRUCTURES OF GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT 82 4.1 Governance 82 4.2 Development . . . . . 107 4.3 S t r u c t u r e Success A g a i n s t R e g i o n a l Needs And A s p i r a t i o n s 130 5.0 BIOREGIONALISM 142 5.1 L i t e r a t u r e Review 143 5.2 R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g P e d i g r e e 175 5.3 I n t e g r a t i o n / E x p a n s i o n 205 6.0 APPLICATION TO NORTHWEST BRITISH COLUMBIA 219 6.1 P e r c e p t i o n 220 6.2 P r a c t i c e 2 5 1 7.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 274 Works C i t e d 2 8 4 Appendix A B i o r e g i o n Survey 298 Appendix B B i o r e g i o n Annual H e r r i n g and H a l i b u t C atches by Landed Weight: 1888-1982 . . . . . 423 v i Appendix C B i o r e g i o n Annual Salmonid C a t c h by S p e c i e s Weight: 1877-1982 (cwt) 426 Appendix D B i o r e g i o n Annual Salmonid Catch by S p e c i e s Numbers: 1877-1982 429 Appendix E B i o r e g i o n Major F i s h i n g Area Annual Catch by Weight and Numbers Weight (cwt) and Numbers 1877-1982 432 Appendix F Annual Cases of Salmonids Packed by Nass and Skeena R i v e r C a n n e r i e s : 1877-1958 435 Appendix G B i o r e g i o n Annual M i n e r a l P r o d u c t i o n by M i n e r a l : 1902-1953 ( m e t r i c ) 437 Appendix H Number of B i o r e g i o n Mines O p e r a t i n g by Year: 1900-1983 440 Appendix I P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual Timber H a r v e s t by S p e c i e s : 1914-1983 (cu f t ) . 442 Appendix J P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region T o t a l Annual Timber H a r v e s t by Coast and I n t e r i o r S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a s : 1914-1983 (cu f t ) 444 Appendix K P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual I n t e r i o r S t a t i s t i c a l Area H a r v e s t by S p e c i e s : 1937-1983 (cu f t ) 446 Appendix L P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual Coast S t a t i s t i c a l Area H a r v e s t by S p e c i e s : 1937-1983 (cu f t ) 448 Appendix M P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual Timber H a r v e s t C o n v e r s i o n s : 1914-1983 . . . . 450 Appendix N B i o r e g i o n P u l p and Paper P r o d u c t i o n : 1909-1984 ( m e t r i c t o n s ) . 452 Appendix 0 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Number of S a w m i l l s : 1915-1980 454 v i i L i s t of Tables No. T i t l e Page I Development P r o j e c t M a t r i x 8 I I Communities by S t a t u s and S u b r e g i o n 10 I I I B i o r e g i o n T o t a l M i n e r a l P r o d u c t i o n 1902-1983 ( m e t r i c ) . 244 IV S e l e c t e d Northwest B.C. R i v e r D i s c h a r g e Means (cms) . . 311 V P h y s i o g r a p h i c Regions 314 VI B i o r e g i o n Area 328 V I I B i o r e g i o n C l i m a t e L o c a t i o n Key • 331 V I I I B i o r e g i o n C l i m a t e P r o f i l e 333 IX B i o r e g i o n Growing Season 334 X B i o r e g i o n S o l a r Income 335 XI B i o r e g i o n P o p u l a t i o n : 1901-1981 338 X I I B i o r e g i o n Mine I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Key 375 X I I I B i o r e g i o n T o t a l M i n e r a l P r o d u c t i o n : 1902-1983 ( m e t r i c ) 379 XIV B i o r e g i o n M i n e r a l P r o d u c t i o n by D r a i n a g e A r e a : 1902-1983 ( m e t r i c ) 380 XV B i o r e g i o n M i n e r a l P r o d u c t i o n by Mine: 1902-1983 ( m e t r i c ) 381 XVI O p e r a t i n g L i f e of B i o r e g i o n Mines: 1902-1983 387 v i i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s No. T i t l e Page 1 N a t i v e S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n 17 2 Economic C y c l e o f the G i t k s a n 20 3 I n t e r c o r p o r a t e Ownership of the Northwest B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t I n d u s t r y 1980 80 4 C u r r e n t S t r u c t u r e and S c a l e of Governance 84 5 B u r e a u c r a t i c O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e 94 6 Changes i n B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y O r g a n i z a t i o n . . . 104 7 Energy P r o j e c t Review P r o c e s s . 116 8 I n t e r - A g e n c y Framework 117 9 C e r t i f i c a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s 118 10 B i o r e g i o n a l i s m ' s R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g P r e c u r s o r s 181 11 B i o r e g i o n Governance S t r u c t u r e 213 12 B i o r e g i o n Economic S t r u c t u r e 215 13 B i o r e g i o n Annual Salmon Catch by Numbers: 1877-1982 240 14 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual Timber H a r v e s t : 1914-1983 248 15 S e l e c t e d Northwest B.C. R i v e r D i s c h a r g e Means (cms) . . 312 16 B i o r e g i o n P o p u l a t i o n : 1901-1981 339 17 B i o r e g i o n Governance S t r u c t u r e 345 18 B i o r e g i o n Economic S t r u c t u r e . . 349 19 B i o r e g i o n Annual H e r r i n g Catch by Landed h e i g h t : 1877-1982 (cwt) 358 20 B i o r e g i o n Annual H a l i b u t Catch by Landed Weight: 1877-1982 (cwt) 359 21 B i o r e g i o n Annual Salmonid Catch by Numbers: 1877-1982 360 22 B i o r e g i o n Annual P i n k Catch by Weight (cwt) and Numbers: 1877-1982 . 361 23 B i o r e g i o n Annual Sockeye Catch by Weight (cwt) and Numbers: 1877-1982 362 24 B i o r e g i o n Annual Chinook Catch by Weight, (cwt) and Numbers: 1877-1982 . . 363 25 B i o r e g i o n Annual Chum Catch by Weight, (cwt) and Numbers: 1877-1982 364 26 B i o r e g i o n Annual Coho Catch by Weight, (cwt) and Numbers: 1877-1982 365 27 B i o r e g i o n Annual S t e e l h e a d C a t c h by Weight, (cwt) and Numbers: 1877-1982 366 28 Skeena R i v e r Annual Salmonid Catch by Numbers: 1877-1982 367 29 Nass R i v e r Annual Salmonid Catch by Numbers: 1877-1982 368 30 Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s Annual Salmonid Catch by Numbers: 1877-1982 369 31 B u t e d a l e - G a r d n e r Annual Salmonid Catch by Numbers: 1877-1982 370 i x 32 Annual Cases of Salmonids Packed by Nass and Skeena R i v e r C a n n e r i e s : 1877-1958 (48 l b . c a s e s ) . . . . 371 33 Number of B i o r e g i o n Mines O p e r a t i n g by Year: 1902-1983 388 34 B i o r e g i o n Annual Gold P r o d u c t i o n : 1902-1983 (gm) . . . 389 35 B i o r e g i o n Annual S i l v e r P r o d u c t i o n : 1902-1983 (gm) . . 390 36 B i o r e g i o n Annual Copper P r o d u c t i o n : 1902-1983 (kg) . . 391 37 B i o r e g i o n Annual Lead P r o d u c t i o n : 1902-1983 (kg) . . . 392 38 B i o r e g i o n Annual Z i n c P r o d u c t i o n : 1902-1983 (kg) . . . 393 39 B i o r e g i o n Annual Molybdenum P r o d u c t i o n : 1902-1983 (kg) 394 40 B i o r e g i o n Annual I r o n P r o d u c t i o n : 1902-1983 (;g) . . . 395 41 B i o r e g i o n Annual Minor M i n e r a l P r o d u c t i o n : 1902-1983 (kg) 396 42 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual Timber H a r v e s t : 1902-1983 (cu f t ) 404 43 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region H a r v e s t by Coast and I n t e r i o r S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a s : 1937-1983 (cu f t ) 405 44 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region S p e c i e s Comparison of T o t a l Coast and I n t e r i o r S t a t i s t i c a l Area H a r v e s t s : 1937-1983 406 45 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual Timber H a r v e s t i n S t a n d a r d Tree E q u i v a l e n t s : 1914-1983 407 46 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual Timber H a r v e s t i n Boxcar E q u i v a l e n t s : 1914-1983 408 47 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual Timber H a r v e s t i n F r e i g h t T r a i n Length E q u i v a l e n t s : 1914-1983 . . 409 48 B i o r e g i o n P u l p and Paper P r o d u c t i o n : 1909-1984 ( m e t r i c t o n s ) 410 49 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Number of S a w m i l l s : 1915-1980 411 50 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual F i r H a r v e s t : 1914-1983 (cu f t ) 412 51 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual Cedar H a r v e s t : 1914-1983 (cu f t ) 413 52 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual Spruce H a r v e s t : 1914-1983 (cu f t ) 414 53 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual Hemlock H a r v e s t : 1914-1983 (cu f t ) 415 54 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual Balsam H a r v e s t : 1914-1983 (cu f t ) 416 55 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual Lodgepole P i n e H a r v e s t : 1914-1983 (cu f t ) 417 56 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual C o t . t o n w 0 o d H a r v e s t : 1914-1983 (cu f t ) 418 57 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual Cypress H a r v e s t : 1914-1983 (cu f t ) 419 58 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual Hardwood H a r v e s t : 1914-1983 (cu f t ) 420 59 P r i n c e Rupert F o r e s t Region Annual M i s c e l l a n e o u s H a r v e s t : 1914-1983 (cu f t ) 421 X L i s t o f Maps No. T i t l e Page 1 Northwest B r i t i s h Columbia 6 2 I n d i a n N a t i o n s of Northwest B r i t i s h Columbia 15 3 Survey Base Map 223 4 B i o r e g i o n B o u n d a r i e s 229 5 B i o r e g i o n Governance U n i t s 235 6 Survey Base Map 302 7 H i s t o r i c C o l o n i a l and I n t e r n a t i o n a l B o u n d a r i e s : 1493-1906 304 8 F i n a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i v i s i o n 306 9 Composite I n t e r n a l B o u n d a r i e s 308 10 Watersheds . . . 310 11 P h y s i o g r a p h i c Regions 315 12 C l i m a t e D i v i s i o n 317 13 I n d i a n N a t i o n s o f Northwest B.C . 319 14 C u r r e n t Use P a t t e r n s 321 15 ' S p e c i a l ' or P s y c h o p h y s i c a l P l a c e s 323 16 B i o r e g i o n Composite B o u n d a r i e s 325 17 B i o r e g i o n B o u n d a r i e s 327 18 B i o r e g i o n C l i m a t e S t a t i o n L o c a t i o n s 332 19 N a t i v e S e t t l e m e n t P a t t e r n 340 20 P i o n e e r S e t t l e m e n t P a t t e r n 341 21 C u r r e n t S e t t l e m e n t P a t t e r n 342 22 B i o r e g i o n Governance U n i t s . 346 23 Salmonid Catch S t a t i s t i c a l Areas 357 24 B i o r e g i o n Areas of C o n c e n t r a t e d M i n i n g A c t i v i t y . . . . 378 25 Coast and I n t e r i o r Timber H a r v e s t Areas 403 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT T h i s t h e s i s i s d e d i c a t e d t o ray w i f e and d a u g h t e r , Amandah Lea and C h r i s t i n e L i n ; t o my p a r e n t s , Bob and M a r j o r i e , who have s u p p o r t e d me i n many ways; and t o Mayor A l i c e M a i t l a n d and H a z e l t o n , B.C., who have ta u g h t me 'home'. 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e x p l o r e the concept of b i o r e g i o n a l i s m as an a l t e r n a t e a p p r o a c h t o t h e g o v e r n a n c e and d e v e l o p m e n t o f N o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B i o r e g i o n a l i s m i s a t e r r i t o r i a l l y o r i e n t e d p e r c e p t i o n and p r a c t i c e b a s e d on t h e a b i l i t i e s of bounded p h y s i c a l environments t o s u p p o r t both themselves and human p o p u l a t i o n s on a s u s t a i n a b l e b a s i s . The worth of such an a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h as opposed t o the c u r r e n t c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l of s t r i c t l y human d e l i n e a t e d r e g i o n s w i l l be argued v i a the f o l l o w i n g f i v e major a r e a s of i n q u i r y . By way of b a s i c i n t r o d u c t i o n the f i r s t s e c t i o n w i l l i n t r o d u c e p r e s e n t . B r i t i s h Columbia as a r e g i o n where i n c r e a s i n g economic a c t i v i t y , based s o l e l y on l a r g e - s c a l e r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n , i s h e i g h t e n i n g c i t i z e n c o n c e r n s t h a t such a c t i v i t y i s e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y h a r m f u l and not c o n d u c i v e t o d e v e l o p i n g t h e a r e a f o r r e s i d e n t b e n e f i t . F o r e m o s t among gro u p s w i t h such c o n c e r n s are N a t i v e p e o p l e who are b e g i n n i n g t o r e f o r m u l a t e and a p p l y t r a d i t i o n a l b i o c e n t r i c approaches t o governance and development. The i n t r o d u c -t i o n of N a t i v e s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t , u s i n g what are e s s e n t i a l l y b i o -r e g i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s , i s used as a main argument t o b e g i n e x p l o r a t i o n of a s i m i l a r g u i d i n g s t r u c t u r e f o r the r e g i o n ' s n o n - I n d i a n p e o p l e s . The s e c o n d s e c t i o n w i l l o u t l i n e a h i s t o r y o f N o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h C o lumbia, h i g h l i g h t i n g the economic d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r e g i o n . T h i s r e v i e w w i l l i d e n t i f y s e v e n e r a s r e l a t e d t o the v a r y i n g r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s p u r s u e d by b o t h i n d i g e n o u s and f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t s . A b a s i c h i s t o r i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n 2 t o the Northwest w i l l p r o v i d e the f o u n d a t i o n upon which arguments i n f a v o u r of a b i o r e g i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e f o r the r e g i o n w i l l be based. T h i r d l y , t h e c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and Canadian c o n t r o l w i l l be b r i e f l y e x p l a i n e d . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n of governance and development s t r u c t u r e s w i l l be f r o m a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , a v i e w w h i c h w i l l t r y t o a r t i c u l a t e f r u s t r a t i o n s w i t h the d i f f e r e n c e s between the i d e a l s of c e n t r a l i z e d government v e r s u s i t s a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . I n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h i s argument w i l l be the p r e m i s e t h a t c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r e s do n o t s a t i s f y t h e i r i n t e r n a l , l i b e r a l i d e o l o g i c a l , c r i t e r i a f o r s u c c e s s . The c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r e s of governance and development w i l l then be l o o k e d a t i n t e r m s of t h e i r s u c c e s s a g a i n s t r e g i o n r e s i d e n t needs and a s p i r a t i o n s . By h i g h l i g h t i n g w r i t t e n o p i n i o n s of v a r i o u s r e g i o n g r o u p s a deep d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c u r r e n t c o n t r o l s t r u c t u r e s w i l l be e v i d e n c e d . I n c l u d e d i n t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s a r e r e p e a t e d r e q u e s t s t o a l l o w t h e r e g i o n t o d i s c o v e r ways of g o v e r n a n c e and development more s u i t e d t o i t s p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t and l o n g - t e r m b e n e f i t . The f o u r t h major p r o g r e s s i o n i n t h i s paper w i l l p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of b i o r e g i o n a l i s m i n t h r e e s t a g e s . A l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w w i l l p r e s e n t b i o r e g i o n a l thought t o as c u r r e n t a d e s c r i p t i o n as p o s s i b l e . B i o r e g i o n a l i s m w i l l t h e n be i d e n t i f i e d as t h e newest e v o l u t i o n of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g r e l a t e d t h e o r y s t r e t c h i n g back 200 y e a r s . The f i n a l s u b s e c t i o n w i l l attempt t o i n t e g r a t e and expand the b i o r e g i o n a l concept so t h a t i t can more e a s i l y be a p p l i e d by r e s i d e n t s of an a c t u a l r e g i o n . 3 The f i f t h s e c t i o n w i l l a p p l y the b i o r e g i o n a l model developed i n s e c t i o n f o u r t o the s p e c i f i c r e a l i t y of Northwest B.C. T h i s a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l t a k e two forms. F i r s t , and i n most d e t a i l , an attempt w i l l be made t o b u i l d a p e r c e p t i o n of j u s t what i s the Northwest b i o r e g i o n . T h i s l a y e r i n g o f p r e v i o u s l y a g g r e g a t e d d a t a w i l l f o r the f i r s t time a l l o w r e g i o n r e s i d e n t s t o d e s c r i b e 'home' i n terms of b i o r e g i o n p arameters. Second, a b r i e f attempt w i l l be made t o d e f i n e what would be b i o r e g i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n the r e g i o n . W i d e l y h e l d b i o r e g i o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s , l i n k e d w i t h a s y s t e m a t i c e x t e n s i o n of b i o r e g i o n a l p r a c t i c e , would combine t o c r e a t e a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o c u r r e n t governance and development s t r u c t u r e s . The f i n a l s e c t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e a summary of the major t h e s i s arguments and make a p r e d i c t i o n r e g a r d i n g the p o s s i b l e f u t u r e of b i o r e g i o n a l i s m ' s p o t e n t promise i n both Northwest B.C. and B r i t i s h C o lumbia. B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h the arguments o u t l i n e d above i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c l e a r l y e x p l a i n o v e r a l l t h e s i s s t r u c t u r e and scope, as w e l l as the o r i e n t a t i o n of the w r i t e r t o the t o p i c and r e g i o n of s t u d y . I t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h c o v e r s as g r e a t d e a l o f ' t e r r i t o r y ' . T h i s u n u s u a l l y b r o a d a p p r o a c h t o a t h e s i s has been adopted p u r p o s e f u l l y as the p r e f e r r e d way t o f r e e z e a m u l t i f a c e t e d t o p i c i n t o an a c c e s s i b l e framework of under-s t a n d i n g and a p p l i c a t i o n . T h i s type of p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l a l l o w b i o r e g i o n a l i s m t o be d e s c r i b e d as a p o p u l i s t movement and c u l m i n a t i o n 4 of l o n g c r o s s - d i s c i p l i n a r y c o e v o l u t i o n . I t w i l l a l s o f i r m l y ground e x p l o r a t i o n of the concept t o an a p p l i c a t i o n based on the s p e c i f i c r e a l i t y and o p p o r t u n i t y of Northwest B.C. As w i l l be shown, t h i s b a l a n c e of t h e o r y and a p p l i c a t i o n i s an e s s e n t i a l element of the b i o r e g i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e and d o v e t a i l s w i t h t h e w r i t e r ' s b e l i e f t h a t academic r e s e a r c h s h o u l d have p r a c t i c a l v a l u e . Because the b r o a d s t r u c t u r e a d o p t e d a l l a s p e c t s o f t h i s t h e s i s cannot be p r e s e n t e d i n g r e a t d e p t h . What w i l l be o f f e r e d i s t r e a t m e n t of a l l the premis e s i n a way which p l a c e s i n d i v i d u a l a r g u m e n t s i n p e r s p e c t i v e , i n o r d e r t h a t the next s t e p i n the r e s e a r c h can be e x p l a i n e d . Thus, more time has been spent on a r e v i e w of h i s t o r y , b i o r e g i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , and development of a b i o r e g i o n a l p e r c e p t i o n o f N o r t h w e s t B.C., t h a n on t h e o t h e r a r e a s o f i n q u i r y . More d e t a i l e d r e s e a r c h , beyond the i l l u s -t r a t i v e approach adopted i n t h e s e a r e a s i s n e c e s s a r y , b u t was beyond t h e time a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s work. A f u r t h e r c a u t i o n a r y note i s r e q u i r e d i n t h a t t h i s t o p i c i n v o l v e s i n t e g r a t i o n of many d i s c i p l i n e s of which the w r i t e r , o r a b i o r e g i o n a l i s t , i s master of none. The p e r s p e c t i v e i n c o r p o r a t e d i s t h a t of a p u r p o s e f u l g e n e r a l i s t who has been taught the v a l u e of both o v e r v i e w and b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r d i v e r s e i s o l a t e d s o u r c e s of knowledge. The f i n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s work i s t h a t the w r i t e r has a p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n the b i o r e g i o n a l movement and i s a l s o a decade l o n g r e s i d e n t of the r e g i o n t o which the concept w i l l be a p p l i e d . These t i e s i n c l u d e a l o n g s t a n d i n g membership i n the P l a n e t Drum F o u n d a t i o n , a t t e n d a n c e a t two major b i o r e g i o n a l 5 C o n g r e s s e s , as w e l l as l i v i n g / w o r k i n g i n N o r t h w e s t B.C. as a r e g i o n a l p l a n n e r , community p l a n n e r , m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r , concerned c i t i z e n , and p a r e n t . I f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t r o d u c e b i a s t o the f o l l o w i n g work the r e a d e r i s f o r w a r n e d . I t i s hoped t h a t advocacy w i l l be more than compensated f o r by the b e n e f i t s extended e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t o p i c and p l a c e w i l l a f f o r d . 2 . 0 PLACE AND QUEST Northwest B r i t i s h Columbia i s a c u l t u r a l l y and b i o p h y s i c a l l y d e f i n a b l e r e g i o n c o n s i s t i n g of a l a n d and water area of approx-i m a t e l y 71,875 s q u a r e m i l e s . T h i s a r e a has been i n h a b i t e d f o r upwards of 8,000 y e a r s and i s c u r r e n t l y home t o a human p o p u l a t i o n o f 80,000 persons (Borden, 1975, 20-21; B r i t i s h Columbia: 1978, 627). L o c a t e d i n an i s o l a t e d p a r t of N o r t h America and Canada the r e g i o n has o n l y r e c e n t l y l e f t c o n t r o l of i t s o r i g i n a l a b o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s t o become a f r o n t i e r z one o f w e s t e r n i n d u s t r i a l c i v i l i z a t i o n (Map 1 ) . D u r i n g the 175 y e a r s of t h i s o c c u p a t i o n , Northwest B r i t i s h Columbia has been e x p l o i t e d f o r a wide range of r e s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g a b o r i g i n a l l a b o u r , sea o t t e r and o t h e r f u r s , m i n e r a l s , s a l m o n i d s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a c c e s s t o i n t e r i o r Canada, f o r e s t p r o d u c t s and h y d r o e l e c t r i c power. T h i s e x p l o i t a t i o n has taken p l a c e l a r g e l y t o s e r v e a w o r l d market economy t h a t has seen t h e d r a m a t i c m a j o r i t y of h a r v e s t e d a r e a r e s o u r c e s s h i p p e d away f o r p r o c e s s i n g and c o n s u m p t i o n i n C h i n a , E n g l a n d , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and s o u t h e r n Canada. The b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g t o g e n e r a t i o n s of Northwest B.C. r e s i d e n t s so employed have been r e l a t i v e absence 7 of war, i n c r e a s e i n l i f e s p a n , i n t r o d u c t i o n of w e s t e r n t e c h n o l o g i e s , and v a r y i n g l e v e l s of s u p p o r t o f f e r e d by the c o n t r o l l i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada. As time has passed the number and s c a l e of r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s have i n c r e a s e d i n t h e r e g i o n . T h i s e s c a l a t i o n o f e f f o r t has c o i n c i d e d w i t h a growing i n t e r e s t by r e g i o n r e s i d e n t s r e g a r d i n g the impact of development p r o j e c t s on community, c u l t u r e and environment. To the p r e s e n t , t h i s c o ncern has been ex p r e s s e d by a wide range of a c t i o n s ; i n c l u d i n g l o b b y i n g by i n d i v i d u a l s , g r oups, and l o c a l governments; e n v i r o n m e n t a l a c t i v i s m ; a b o r i g i n a l l a n d - c l a i m movements; and i n extreme i n s t a n c e s , s a b otage. Viewed as a t r e n d , t h e s e r e g i o n based i n t e r e s t s s u r f a c e d i n the e a r l y 1900's and have e s c a l a t e d i n t o a s u s t a i n e d and s t e a d i l y growing c o n c e r n . I n t h e 1980's N o r t h w e s t B.C. has become a g r e a t l y more complex r e g i o n t h a t i s f a c i n g a del u g e of new economic development p r o p o s a l s . These p r o j e c t s , over 35 i n number and r e p r e s e n t i n g a c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t of t e n s o f b i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s , o f f e r a mix o f t a n t a l i z i n g b e n e f i t s a t c o s t s t h a t a r e a c h a l l e n g e t o human m i t i g a t i v e i n g e n u i t y ( T a b l e I ) . At w o r s t , t h e i m p a c t s o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s , p l u s those of the a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80 e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i a l o r i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a d v e n t u r e s , make up a s i t u a t i o n t h a t i s b e l i e v e d by many a r e a r e s i d e n t s t o be s o c i a l l y and e n v i r o n -m e n t a l l y unmanageable. C i t i z e n s of the r e g i o n ' s 13 i n c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , 21 u n i n c o r p o r a t e d s e t t l e m e n t s and 24 I n d i a n communities are i n c r e a s i n g l y aware t h a t l a r g e - s c a l e developments 8 Table I Development Project Matrix Area Stew. K i t i . Terrace Haz. P.R. Q.C.I. Nass Stik. Houst. Smith Proj. Type Sawmill 1/0 0 0/2 0/1 1/0 0 0 0 0/2 0/2 Grain Term. 0 0 0, 0 0/2 0 0 0 0 0 Pulp M i l l 1/0 0/1 0 1/0 0/2 0 0 0 0 1/0 Port 1/1 1/1 0 0 0/2 0 0 0 0 0 Road Net. 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 1/1 1/1 0/1 0/1 Dam 0 0 0 1/0 0/1 1/0 0 4/0 0 0 Smelter 0 2/1 1/0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Hydro Grid 1/0 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 0 0/1 1/0 0/1 0/1 Offshore Oil 0 0/1 0 0 0/1 1/0 0 0 0 0 Coal Mine 0 0 0 1/0 0 0 0 1/0 0 1/1 Nat. Gas 0 0/1 0/1 1/0 0/1 0 0 0 0/1 0/1 New Town 0/1 0/1 0 0 0 0 0/2 2/1 0 0 Rail 0 0/1 0/1 1/1 0/1 0 0 1/1 0/1 0/1 Logging 1/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 1/1 0/1 0/1 Copper 1/0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4/0 0 0 Salmon Hatch. 0 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/1 0/2 0 0 0 0/2 Moly. Mine 0 0 0 0 0 0 0/1 0 0 1/0 Silver Mine 0 0 0 0/1 0 0 0 0 0/1 0 Gold Mine 0 0 0 0 0 1/0 0 0 0 0 Airport 0/1 0 0/1 1/0 0/1 0/1 0 0 0 0/1 Petro Chem. 0 1/1 0 0 0/1 0 0 0 0 0 Coal Port 1/0 0 0 0 0/1 0 0 0 0 0 Oil Port 0 1/0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 LNG Port 0 0 0 0 1/0 0 0 0 0 0 Fish. Pro. 0 0 0 0 0/4 0 0 0/1 0 0 Total 7/5 5/12 1/9 6/7 2/21 3/5 1/6 15/5 0/8 3/11 Future/Existing 9 o c c u r on t e r m s w h i c h a r e o f t e n e x c l u s i v e o f l o c a l i n t e r e s t s ( T a b l e I I ) . T h i s r e a l i z a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y on the p a r t of I n d i a n p e o p l e s , has f o r c e d a l a r g e number of r e g i o n r e s i d e n t s t o expand t h e i r d e t a i l e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s t o i n c l u d e t o o l s o f w i d e r a n a l y s i s . Where a p r o j e c t was once ' s o l d ' l o c a l l y by t h e number o f j o b s i t w o u l d b r i n g , t h e f o c u s now i s more on measuring e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o s t s , i m p a c t s on community s t a b i l i t y and p o t e n t i a l f o r l o n g - t e r m and s p i n - o f f b e n e f i t s . In many cases t h e s e and a host of r e l a t e d i s s u e s have become the dominant f o c u s of p u b l i c c oncern over the e n t i r e r e g i o n . An outgrowth of t h i s t r e n d has been f o r a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s t o combine i n t o T r i b a l C o u n c i l s t o r e s e a r c h and d e f e n d v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f p e r c e i v e d s o v e r e i g n t y . An e x c i t i n g e v o l u t i o n of T r i b a l C o u n c i l a c t i v i t y has been a s t e a d y s h i f t from c r i s i s management t o a more s t r u c t u r a l l y o r i e n t e d problem s o l v i n g approach. I n s t e a d of o n l y r e a c t i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l i s s u e s which c o n f l i c t w i t h N a t i v e n o t i o n s of c u l t u r e o r community ' h e a l t h ' , t h e y have begun t o q u e s t i o n t h e v e r y s t r u c t u r e of governance t h a t c r e a t e s t h e s e c o n f l i c t s . In o t h e r words they a re b e g i n n i n g t o argue t h a t the governments of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada do not p o s s e s s the mechanisms by which the o b v i o u s bounty of the r e g i o n can be managed i n c o n s o r t w i t h t h e i r r e s i d e n t needs and a s p i r a t i o n s . The r e s u l t of t h i s t h i n k i n g i s a g e n e r a l l a n d -c l a i m p h i l o s o p h y t h a t would e s s e n t i a l l y t r a n s f e r l a r g e s e c t i o n s of the Northwest from P r o v i n c i a l government t o r e g i o n a l T r i b a l C o u n c i l c o n t r o l . R e g a r d l e s s of the e x a c t form, or degree, of 10 Table II Communities and Status by Subregion Non Indian Incorporated Regional Dis tr i c t Non Indian Unincorp. Indian Reserve Tr iba l Council 1. Masset Port Clements 2. Prince Rupert Port Edward Skeena/Q.C. Skeena/Q.C. Queen Char. City Juskatla Sandspit Oona River Dodge Cove Skidegate Masset Port Simpson Metlakatla Kitkatla Council of the Haida Nation North Coast Tribal Council 3. Terrace Kitimat-Stikine Copper River Lakelse Lake Thornhill Usk Rosswood Kitsumkalum Kitselas North Coast Tribal Council 4. Hazelton New Hazelton Kitimat-Stikine Two Mile South Hazelton Kispoix Vly. Ki iwanga CeJarvale 5. Smithera-Telkwa Bulkley-Nechako High Road 6. Stewart Kitimat-Stikine Meziadin Lk. 7. Kitimat Kitimat-Stikine Kitwancool Kitseguecla Hagwilget Gitanmaax Glen Vowell Kiapiox Kisgegas Kitwangak Moricetown Hartley Bay Klemtu Gitksan-Wetseweten Tribal Council Gitksan-W. T .C. Nisgha Tribal Council North Coast T .C. 8. Houston-Granisle Bulkley-Nechako Perow Topley Landing Babine Sekanni-Carrier 9. - Kitimat-Stikine Telegraph Ck. Kaska Kinaskan Iskut United Tahltans 10. - Kitimat-Stikine Nass Camp Kitsault Alice Arm Aiyensh Greenville Canyon City Kincolith Nishga Tribal Council 11 T r i b a l C o u n c i l s o v e r e i g n t y e s t a b l i s h e d , i t becomes e s s e n t i a l t o u n d e r s t a n d the impact t h a t such a b a s i c change i n the governance s t r u c t u r e would have. Without i d e a l i z i n g the r e s u l t s of t r i b a l c o n t r o l , w i d e s p r e a d s i t u a t i o n s w o u l d e x i s t where a c t i o n s o f r e g i o n a l l y m o t i v a t e d a b o r i g i n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s would be i n c r e a s i n g l y compared t o the l e s s r e s p o n s i v e a c t i v i t i e s of t r a d i t i o n a l V i c t o r i a and Ottawa based governments. I t i s a l o g i c a l s t e p t o t r a n s f e r the c o n c e r n t h a t a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s have developed t o the w i d e r p o p u l a t i o n of t h e e n t i r e r e g i o n . I f (1 ) development p r o j e c t s are c o n t i n u o u s l y b e i n g proposed t h a t d i s r e g a r d the needs and a s p i r a t i o n s of a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r c e n t a g e o f e x i s t i n g r e g i o n r e s i d e n t s , and ( 2 ) i f 20% of the r e g i o n ' s r e s i d e n t s who a r e of a b o r i g i n a l d e s c e n t w i l l be d e v e l o p i n g a s e p a r a t e and more l o c a l l y r e s p o n s i v e g o v e r n a n c e system, then (3 ) i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o e xpect t h a t n o n - I n d i a n r e s i d e n t s of the r e g i o n s h o u l d i n v e s t i g a t e a complementary a l t e r n a t i v e governance and development model. The n o t i o n of changing a l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d system of governance i s f r a u g h t w i t h r e a c t i o n a r y p i t f a l l s . A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s , and t o some e x t e n t the e t h n i c Quebecois, have a h i s t o r i c a l or c u l t u r a l i n s u l a r i t y t h a t makes c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f s p e c i a l g o v e r n a n c e t e c h n i q u e s at l e a s t m i n i m a l l y p a l a t a b l e t o C a nadians. I t becomes a much more n o v e l concept t o p r e s e n t t h e i d e a t h a t a r e g i o n , because of i t s b i o p h y s i c a l and m u l t i - c u l t u r a l p e r s o n a l i t y , s h o u l d a l s o be a l l o w e d t o e v o l v e unique t o o l s f o r r e l a t i n g i n w a r d l y t o i t s e l f , and o u t w a r d l y t o l a r g e r Canadian and w o r l d s o c i e t i e s . 12 T h i s e v o l u t i o n r e q u i r e s a freedom which i s u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c u r r e n t Canadian p o l i t i c a l and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n . But, upon r e f l e c t i o n , the changes r e q u i r e d t o a l l o w a b e t t e r s y s t e m o f t e r r i t o r i a l g o v e r n a n c e need n o t be a t a l l i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c o n t i n u e d l e g i t i m a c y of e x i s t i n g P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l governments. The c h a n g e s t h a t c o u l d be proposed would be p e a c e f u l , p r e s e r v e the s o v e r e i g n t y of Canada, m a i n t a i n many e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , and p r o t e c t the c a p i t a l i s t mannas of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and freedom t o p r o f i t . Growth would be encouraged and movement o f p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h i n and out of the r e g i o n would be u n r e s t r i c t e d . I f t h e above r e v o l u t i o n d i s c l a i m e r i s a c c e p t a b l e , t h e n h o p e f u l l y i t i s p o s s i b l e t o q u a l i f y the Utopian l a b e l . Whatever shape a b i o r e g i o n a l government and development model would u l t i m a t e l y t a k e , i t would not be i s o l a t i o n i s t o r so d r a s t i c a replacement as t o n o t i c e a b l y d i s t i n g u i s h the r e g i o n from o t h e r p a r t s of Canada. There would be no m e s s i a n i c l e a d e r s , s e p a r a t e r e l i g i o n s or a r m i e s . In f a c t , the model s h o u l d be so f l e x i b l e as t o be a b l e t o be i n s t i t u t e d over a l o n g p e r i o d of t i m e . The form of governance may someday be t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t than e x p e r i e n c e d today, but i t would have been a g r a d u a l change, c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the slow speed r e q u i r e d f o r b a s i c g o v e r n a n c e s t r u c t u r e r e f o r m and e v e n t u a l r e p l a c e m e n t . 3.0 NORTHWEST HISTORY I n t h e w r i t t e n h i s t o r i e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , Canada, and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , v e r y few r e f e r e n c e s a r e made t o e v e n t s i n 13 Northwest B r i t i s h C olumbia. T h i s i n v i s i b i l i t y may e x i s t f o r a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s , i n c l u d i n g the f a c t t h a t i s o l a t e d h i n t e r l a n d a r e a s u s u a l l y r a t e a mention o n l y when annexed o r f o u g h t o v e r . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n , N o r t h w e s t B.C. has a h i s t o r y which i s as r i c h and i n t r i c a t e as anywhere on e a r t h . S i n c e the 19 5 0 ' s , d o z e n s o f books have been p u b l i s h e r ' w i t h i n the r e g i o n t h a t h i g h l i g h t b i t s and p i e c e s of the a r e a ' s p a s t . T h i s awakening o f l o c a l a w a r e n e s s has been a major s t e p i n h e l p i n g people t o un d e r s t a n d more about how and why g o v e r n a n c e and d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r as they do. Y e t , t o d a t e , t h e r e has been no s i n g l e h i s t o r i c a l work which t r i e s t o t r a c e human a c t i v i t y i n the r e g i o n over the t i m e t h e a r e a has been o c c u p i e d . O n l y such an ov e r v i e w w i l l p r o v i d e a broad enough scope t o o u t l i n e the changing t r e n d s i n human a c t i v i t y which d e f i n e major h i s t o r i c a l e r a s . By i s o l a t i n g such major e r a s i t i s hoped p a t t e r n s emerge t h a t w i l l make c h a r t i n g a f u t u r e f o r the r e g i o n a s l i g h t l y e a s i e r p r o p o s i t i o n . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t h i s t o r y i s a v a l u e l a d e n memory: i t i s s e l e c t i v e , and u s u a l l y d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e a purpose. The h i s t o r y t h a t f o l l o w s i s o f f e r e d from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t t h e r e g i o n has s u f f e r e d from i t s r e l e g a t i o n t o s t a t u s as a f r o n t i e r h i n t e r l a n d . By way of b a l a n c e t o t h i s v i e w , the p e r i o d s o u t l i n e d have i d e n t i f i e d t h emselves v i a f a c t s g l e a n e d from r e a d i n g over 25 l o c a l h i s t o r i e s whose o n l y b i a s i s t h e i r l i m i t e d s c o p e . The d e t a i l o f t h e next pages w i l l h o p e f u l l y p r o v i d e o r i e n t a t i o n t o the n o t i o n t h a t f o r p e o p l e who l i v e i n a p l a c e , the h i s t o r y of t h a t p l a c e i_s the h i s t o r y of the w o r l d . 14 3.1 8000 B . C . - 1740 AD : Another World. I t i s s p e c u l a t e d t h a t the f i r s t human i n h a b i t a n t s of Northwest B.C. a r r i v e d from a r e a s o f what was t o become Yukon and n o r t h - c e n t r a l B r i t i s h C o lumbia. These p e o p l e s t r a v e l l e d mazes of i c e - f r e e openings t o e v e n t u a l l y s e t t l e a l l the major v a l l e y bottom and i s l a n d areas of th e r e g i o n (Map 2 ) . A f t e r c o m p l e x t r a n s i t i o n s i d e n t i f i a b l e c u l t u r e s d e v e l o p e d , nomadic i n the i n t e r i o r and r e l a t i v e l y s e d e n t a r y i n c o a s t and i s l a n d zones. From r o u g h l y 2000 B.C. onward t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t c u l t u r e s t h a t s t i l l i d e n t i f y the Haida, Coast T s i m s h i a n , Southern T s i m s h i a n , G i t k s a n , N i s h g a and H a i s l a were f l o u r i s h i n g ( B o r d e n : 1975, 2 1 ) . At t h e same t i m e , i n t e r i o r Athapaskan p e o p l e s of the T s e t s a u t , T a h l t a n and Wetsuweten t r i b e s , h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r c o a s t a l n e i g h b o u r s , were a d a p t i n g t o a more tenuous nomadic e x i s t e n c e i n u p r i v e r a r e a s of the r e g i o n . For the purpose of d e s c r i b i n g the h i s t o r y of what has been c a l l e d by K r o e b e r " p e r h a p s t h e most e l a b o r a t e n o n - p l a n t i n g , n o n - b r e e d i n g c u l t u r e i n t h e w o r l d " two d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s w i l l be used ( 6 1 ) . The f i r s t w i l l p r o v i d e a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f s o c i a l and m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x i s t i n g i n t h e r e g i o n . T h i s s t a n d a r d e t h n o g r a p h i c t e c h n i q u e a t t e m p t s t o b u i l d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a whole from d e s c r i p t i o n s of p a r t s . The second approach i n v o l v e s an attempt t o animate the essence of p r e - c o n t a c t N o r t h w e s t s o c i e t y by h i n t i n g a t t h e c o s m o l o g y w h i c h was the dominant r e g i o n / w o r l d view f o r n e a r l y 4000 y e a r s . T h i s s e c o n d method o f t r a n s l a t i n g what was an a b s o l u t e l y f o r e i g n r e a l i t y r e q u i r e s use of i m a g i n a t i o n f r e e d from as much e t h n o c e n t r i c b i a s 16 as p o s s i b l e . A c a u t i o n s h o u l d be i s s u e d t h a t the l e v e l of ov e r v i e w n e c e s s a r y i n both approaches w i l l b l u r many s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t r i b a l groups. As i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g u r e 1 the t r i b e s of the r e g i o n were o r g a n i z e d on f o u r main l e v e l s as f o l l o w s : 1. R e s i d e n t t r i b e s of the r e g i o n were l a b e l l e d as b e i n g c o a s t a l o r i n t e r i o r p e o p l e s . The Haida o c c u p i e d the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , t h e f o u r s e p a r a t e d i v i s i o n s of the T s i m s h i a n ( N i s h g a , G i t k s a n , Southern and C o a s t a l ) the Nass and Skeena b a s i n s and a d j a c e n t c o a s t l i n e s , and the H a i s l a the Douglas Channel - Gardner C a n a l a r e a . The T l i n g i t ranged i n t o the lower S t i k i n e but were not r e s i d e n t t h e r e . The i n t e r i o r Athapaskan p e o p l e s o c c u p i e d u p r i v e r t e r r i t o r i e s w h i c h b o r d e r e d on t h e s t r i c t l y p r o t e c t e d d o w n r i v e r homes of t h e i r c o a s t a l n e i g h b o u r s . The T a h l t a n ranged the mid and upper S t i k i n e , the T s e t s a u t were t r a g i c a l l y sandwiched on the upper Nass and Skeena between the Nishga and G i t k s a n , and the Wetsuweten c l a i m e d the B u l k l e y R i v e r t r i b u t a r y of the Skeena. The p r e - c o n t a c t r e g i o n p o p u l a t i o n i s e s t i m a t e d t o have been 20-30,000 i n d i v i d u a l s ( D u f f : 1 9 6 4 , 39; Hewes:1973, 1 3 5 - 1 3 7 ) . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 permanent w i n t e r v i l l a g e s and hundreds of food g a t h e r i n g t e r r i t o r i e s were m a i n t a i n e d . ( D u f f : 1964, 18-21). 2. V i l l a g e s w i t h i n t r i b e s were g e n e r a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t t e r r i t o r i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic u n i t s . A f f i l i a t i o n of s e t t l e m e n t on a t r i b a l l e v e l was m o s t l y l i m i t e d t o a common language and s h a r i n g of a u n i f o r m c l a n s t r u c t u r e . U s u a l l y t h e r e was no s i n g l e Figure 1 Native Social Organization Source: Compiled from Duff (1964), Garfield (1966), Git.-Car. Tribal Council (1981). 18 v i l l a g e l e a d e r , but a group of l e a d e r s w i t h v a r y i n g amounts o f power based on c e r e m o n i a l l y g a i n e d p r e s t i g e and t e r r i t o r y . 3. The two t o f o u r c l a n s w i t h i n each t r i b e were d e s i g n e d t o r e s t r i c t i n t e r - m a r r i a g e between m a t r i l i n e a l l y d e f i n e d r e l a t i v e s , and t o form a f f i n i t y groups based on a n c e s t r a l r e l a t i o n . M a r r i a g e bans and s u p p o r t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were m a i n t a i n e d between c o r r e s p o n d i n g c l a n s of d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s . 4. C l a n s i n e a c h t r i b e were b r o k e n down f u r t h e r i n t o houses. Each house c o n s i s t e d of an extended f a m i l y o c c u p y i n g a s i n g l e d w e l l i n g u n i t . Each house c o n t r o l l e d f o o d p r o d u c i n g t e r r i t o r i e s which were u n d e r t h e u l t i m a t e s t e w a r d s h i p o f t h e house c h i e f . For i n s t a n c e , the G i t k s a n and Wetsuweten were d i v i d e d i n t o r o u g h l y 50 s e p a r a t e l y a d m i n i s t e r e d l a n d a r e a s . L e a d e r s h i p was d e s i g n a t e d t h rough the p a s s i n g of names from l e a d e r t o l e a d e r , the most i m p o r t a n t names b r i n g i n g the g r e a t e s t power and r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y . The p r e s t i g e o f names was m a i n t a i n e d by a complex s e r i e s of a c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g p r o d u c t i o n and r i t u a l s h a r i n g o f s u r p l u s food and maintenance of an e l a b o r a t e s e t of house myths. Each myth, which r e c o u n t e d the v a r y i n g a s p e c t s of how a house had ga i n e d i t ' s t e r r i t o r y , was s y m b o l i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by a c r e s t . C r e s t s were p h y s i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d by totem p o l e s , which a c t e d as p u b l i c d i s p l a y s of a n c e s t r a l l y v a l i d a t e d t e r r i t o r i a l ownership. Houses w i t h i n the same c l a n a l s o a c t e d t o g e t h e r i n r i t u a l r e l a t i o n s between o t h e r c l a n s o c c u p y i n g the same v i l l a g e . W i t h i n t h i s s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a r i c h t e c h n o l o g y s p e c i -f i c a l l y adapted t o r a i n c o a s t , f o r e s t and marine h a b i t a t s d e v e l o p e d . 19 A r t i c l e s made from f u r s , bone and rock were used f o r c l o t h i n g , h o u s i n g , f o o d g a t h e r i n g , c o o k i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and a r t . The main s o u r c e of s u s t e n a n c e was salmon, of which i t i s e s t i m a t e d e a c h i n d i v i d u a l consumed between 260 t o 600 pounds p e r year (Hewes: 1973, 135-137). F i s h consumption tended t o be lower i n the c o a s t a l and S t i k i n e a r e a s due t o a v a i l a b i l i t y of o t h e r food s o u r c e s , w h i l e i n t e r i o r and u p r i v e r c o a s t a l t r i b e s depended much more on s a l m o n i d s f o r p r o t e i n and f a t s . Many o t h e r food s o u r c e s were tapped, i n c l u d i n g b e r r i e s , r o o t s , o o l i c h a n , s h e l l f i s h , seaweed, u n g u l a t e s and marine mammals. The abundance of f o o d , w h i l e g r e a t compared t o o t h e r r e g i o n s , was n o n e t h e l e s s not g u a r a n t e e d . E l a b o r a t e r i t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s were s t r i c t l y m a i n t a i n e d between h u n t e r and hunted and s e a s o n a l famine was not unknown. Trade between t r i b e s and v i l l a g e s o c c u r r e d r o u t i n e l y , w i t h t h e b o u n t y of one a r e a f e t c h i n g t h e d e l i c a c i e s o f a n o t h e r . A g r e a t number of w e l l - t r a v e l l e d t r a i l s s t r e t c h e d between v i l l a g e s and huge cedar canoes g l i d e d s i n g l y and i n f l o t i l l a s a l o n g t h e c o a s t (MacDonald: 1984,75). The day-to-day and y e a r - t o - y e a r h i s t o r y of the p r e - c o n t a c t n o r t h w e s t can be broken i n t o a n n u a l l y r e p e a t i n g a c t i v i t y c y c l e s w h i c h were p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o d u c t i o n of f o o d . The y e a r l y c y c l e of t h i s a c t i v i t y f o r the G i t k s a n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g u r e 2 (MacDonald: 1981, n.pag.) On a l a r g e r s c a l e , major events or t r e n d s o c c u r r e d which equate more t o t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l i n c a n t a t i o n . E a r l y s p r i n g o o l i c h a n f i s h i n g on the Nass R i v e r e s t u a r y t r i g g e r e d a mass m i g r a t i o n o f n e a r l y a l l t h e c o a s t a l Figure 2 Economic Cycle of the Gitksan Source: MacDonald: 1981, n.p. 21 p e o p l e s . C o n g r e g a t i n g i n N i s h g a t e r r i t o r y , the t r i b e s went through peace ceremonies and reduced tons of s m e l t - l i k e ' c a n d l e f i s h ' to a condiment known as ' g r e a s e 1 . The g a t h e r i n g of t h i s p r e c i o u s f a t a f t e r a long w i n t e r s ' over-supply of p r o t e i n was e s s e n t i a l to s u r v i v a l . E q u a l l y important was the exten d e d c o n t a c t between o t h e r w i s e i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s . T h i s annual c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n acted u n i q u e l y to d i s p e r s e new ideas and t o o l s q u i c k l y over the e n t i r e r e g i o n . The H a i d a d e v e l o p e d i n t o f a r r a n g i n g bands of c o a s t l i n e t r a d e r s and marauders. N i n e t y - f o o t c a n o es, burned and c a r v e d from g i a n t cedar, p l i e d a l l navigable r i v e r s i n the r e g i o n , as w e l l as the P a c i f i c shore as f a r south as San F r a n s c i s c o Bay. The G i t k s a n and Wetsuweten were b r o u g h t s t e a d i l y c l o s e r together through i n t e r m a r r i a g e a l l i a n c e s and s h a r i n g of a t r a d i n g and salmon f i s h i n g s i t e at Hagwilget Canyon. The T s e t s a u t were n e a r l y exterminated by neighbouring t r i b e s and harsh h a b i t a t . Remnants of t h i s now e x t i n c t race were f i n a l l y adopted by the Nishga. The Coast Tsimshian of the lower Skeena and the coast between the Skeena and Nass e s t u a r i e s , began t o e v o l v e a v i l l a g e and t r i b a l c h i e f s y s t e m . T h i s d e p a r t u r e from the independence of household c h i e f s came about from the s h a r i n g of t r a n s i e n t camping s i t e s d u r i n g m i g r a t i o n to o o l i c h a n f i s h i n g . A tendency to revere a p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g v i l l a g e house c h i e f was enlarged to s i m i l a r l y regard the power of the s t r o n g e s t v i l l a g e l e a d e r . In t h i s e v o l u t i o n 22 a dynasty of the house of Legaic developed which controlled trade on the Skeena River for over 60 years (McDonald: 1984, 42). The Tahltan and T l i n g i t l i v e d together every summer when the stronger c o a s t a l t r i b e would migrate to the juncture of the Tahltan and Stikine Rivers to catch and dry salmon. Through i n t e r m i t t e n t warfare between houses, v i l l a g e s and sometimes t r i b e s , slaves were taken both as emblems of status and as t o o l s by which a greater house food surplus could be generated. Elaborate a l l i a n c e s were maintained by inter-marriage and negotiation. Forts occupied strategic locations and t r i b a l contact was generally by regularized ceremonial occasions or via skirmish. The survival of the house, protection of t e r r i t o r y and enhancement of prestige were the major elements r u l i n g existence. General sources of the preceeding descriptions, other than those already c i t e d , i n c l u d e works c i t e d i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y by G a r f i e l d , Sequin et a l . , G i t k s a n - C a r r i e r T r i b a l C o u n c i l , Barbeau, Boas, Darling, and Harris. Beyond the l i s t i n g of temporal organization and technology l i e s an understanding of the way northwest coast peoples viewed the r e l a t i o n between themselves and the u t t e r l y d i f f e r e n t world they inhabited. The task of 'seeing' t h i s world i s extremely d i f f i c u l t . To be able to escape from the boundaries of one's own cosmology i s hard enough, i t i s harder s t i l l to r e c r eate the native universe that was l i t e r a l l y destroyed by European contact. Luckily there are students of these perceptions who are s i f t i n g through t r a d i t i o n a l ethnographic works to find what was i n v i s i b l e 23 t o t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s . M a r i e - F r a n c o i s e Guedon has s t u d i e d t h e T s i m s h i a n t o f i n d : a p e r s o n a l i z e d u n i v e r s e where t h i n g s a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y what they seem t o be, where b e a r s t a l k t o human b e i n g s , where a m a g i c a l box can t u r n i n t o a f r i e n d l y monster, where human b e i n g s t h e m s e l v e s can draw upon what they a r e , r a t h e r than what they a r e made of and so become c h i e f s , h u n t e r s o r h e a l e r s . (137) S i m i l a r l y , Margaret Seguin d e s c r i b e s t h a t "the t r a d i t i o n a l T s i m s h i a n d i d not view the u n i v e r s e a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c a l l y ; they were aware of p a r a l l e l w o r l d s , some i n h a b i t e d by a n i m a l p e o p l e , and some by naxox [any b e i n g e v e n t o r a b i l i t y which appears t o e x h i b i t or e x p r e s s some form of "power"]. ..."(118-119). A w o r l d e x i s t s where each a n i m a l s p e c i e s l i v e s i n a v i l l a g e as do humavts. In t h e i r v i l l a g e s a n i m a l s l o o k l i k e humans, o n l y p u t t i n g on t h e i r s p e c i e s ' s k i n s ' when s e e n by o t h e r b e i n g s . To humans, a n i m a l s , as w e l l as o b j e c t s and p u r e l y s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g s , a l l have power which must be r e s p e c t e d and can sometimes be t a p p e d . Such power comes t o ' r e a l 1 p e o p l e who l e a d p u r e l i v e s ; Shamen, h i g h c h i e f s , s e c r e t s o c i e t y d a n c e r s , h u n t e r s and o t h e r s . Shamen, because of the s p e c i a l p u r i t y of t h e i r a s c e t i c e x i s t e n c e , can jump between human and o t h e r w o r l d s and w i e l d the p o w e r f u l g i f t s such t r a n s f o r m a t i o n b r i n g s . A l l v i l l a g e members, r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h power, f o l l o w hundreds of p r e s c r i p t e d r i t u a l s and p r a c t i c e s t o m a i n t a i n e q u i l i b r i u m between a n i m a l s , s p i r i t s and the human community. E x p e r i e n c e s w i t h o t h e r w o r l d s are embodied i n h e r e d i t a r y names passed on from i n d i v i d u a l t o i n d i v i d u a l . These s t o r i e s a re 24 r e e n a c t e d i n r e g u l a r w i n t e r ceremonies, the f e a s t o r ' p o t l a t c h ' , w h i c h r e i n f o r c e d the p a r a l l e l w o r l d cosmology and i n v e s t e d the g i f t of p a s t s u p e r n a t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e on t h e new name h o l d e r . Power was i n v e s t e d i n the name, not i n the i n d i v i d u a l : t o ta k e on a name was t o a c c e p t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o use s u c h h e r i t a g e w i s e l y . Groups of ranked names made up the i n d i v i d u a l household s o c i e t y , the t r a n s c i e n t h o l d e r s of each name t h e n had a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e of the s o c i e t y was much more i m p o r t a n t t h a n any s i n g u l a r l i f e . H i s t o r y was not a l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n o f human c e n t e r e d e v e n t s , but a r e p e t i t i v e c y c l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between many f o r c e s m a i n t a i n e d on a h o m e o s t a t i c b a s i s . These e x p l a n a t i o n s go some d i s t a n c e i n d e s c r i b i n g the p h y c h i c a l -l y independent cosmology t h a t e x i s t e d i n the Northwest. What i s m i s s i n g t h o u g h i s the u n d e r l y i n g reason f o r i n v e s t i n g a n i m a l s , o b j e c t s , and t h e i r e n t i r e c u l t u r e , w i t h such a r e a l i t y . A s e m i n a l work by S t a n l e y Walens t i t l e d F e a s t i n g With C a n n i b a l s : An Essay on K w a k i u t l Cosmology seems t o p r o v i d e the a n i m a t i n g f o r c e we a r e l o o k i n g f o r . A l t h o u g h w r i t t e n about the s o u t h e r n neighbours of the T s i m s h i a n , Walens' work appears t o address elements of s o c i e t a l o r i e n t a t i o n which a r e a r g u a b l y common t o a l l Northwest c u l t u r e s . Two passages from Walens' work w i l l be q u o t e d t o g l i m p s e t h e u l t i m a t e l o g i c of the w o r l d we hope t o u n d e r s t a n d : The K w a k i u t l u n i v e r s e i s p r e d i c a t e d on a s i n g l e f u n d a m e n t a l a s s u m p t i o n : t h a t t h e u n i v e r s e i s a p l a c e where some b e i n g s a r e e a t e n by o t h e r b e i n g s and where i t i s the r o l e o f some b e i n g s t o d i e so t h a t o t h e r b e i n g s may f e e d on them and l i v e . T h e i r s 25 i s a w o r l d where the a c t of e a t i n g becomes t h e s i n g l e m e t a p h o r by w h i c h t h e r e s t o f t h e i r l i v e s i s i n t e r p r e t e d . Food p r o v i d e s f o r them a m o d e l o f t h e n a t u r e o f l i f e ; t he a c t of e a t i n g p r o v i d e s a model of a s s i m i l a -t i o n t h a t r e c u r s t hroughout e v e r y a s p e c t of t h e i r c u l t u r e ; and t h e f o o d c h a i n i t s e l f p r o v i d e s t h e l i n k b e t w e e n one human and a n o t h e r and between humans and t h e r e s t o f the w o r l d . (12) L i n k e d w i t h an o r a l i t y t h a t p e r m e a t e d c o a s t a l c u l t u r e was a busy e n v i r o n m e n t o f s p i r i t s , m a g i c , shamen, myth and l e g e n d as e x h i b i t e d by Walen's second o b s e r v a t i o n : Hunger i s the energy, the f o r c e , t h a t m o t i v a t e s the w o r l d , but u l t i m a t e l y i t i s m o r a l i t y t h a t i s the s o u r c e of power. Hunger i s p o w e r f u l , b u t the knowledge of how t o c o n t r o l hunger, t o use i t t o move the w o r l d i n the d i r e c t i o n one w a n t s , i s a f a r g r e a t e r power, and the man who masters hunger i s the r e a l master of power. M o r a l i t y i s the t r u e p r o p e r t y , the t r u e w e a l t h , of humankind. M o r a l i t y i s t h e g i f t humans c e l e b r a t e i n t h e i r c e r e m o n i e s , the g i f t they c h e r i s h above a l l o t h e r s , the g i f t t h a t m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n m y r i a d g u i s e s . One thanks the a n i m a l s not o n l y f o r g i v i n g t h e i r b o d i e s f o r f o o d , but a l s o f o r g i v i n g t h e i r b o d i e s so t h a t humans may have the chance t o p e r f o r m t h e p r o p e r r i t u a l s upon them. The s p i r i t s g i v e not freedom from hunger but the knowledge t o conquer and tame hunger. Knowledge, power, and m o r a l c h o i c e a r e t h e same; t o know i s t o c o n t r o l . The power o f h u n g e r i s b l i n d , b u t t h e power t o c o n q u e r h u n g e r i s n o t ; i t i s t h e r e s u l t of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , awareness, w i l l , c h o i c e , a c t i o n . (124-125) A d d i t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of w a y s - o f - b e i n g p e r f e c t l y s u i t e d t o the t e m p e r m e n t a l b o u n t y o f t h e N o r t h w e s t c o u l d f i l l many p a g e s . I t i s s u f f i c e t o summarize t h a t f o r thousands of y e a r s a p o p u l a t i o n of 20-30,000 p e r s o n s l i v e d i n r i c h c u l t u r a l and m a t e r i a l d i v e r s i t y . A l t h o u g h we can o n l y s p e c u l a t e on the e x a c t 26 d e t a i l s of t h i s h i s t o r y i t i s perhaps enough t o u n d e r s t a n d o n l y the b a r e s t r u c t u r e of a s o c i e t y t h a t was p e r f e c t l y matched t o time and environment. 3.2 1740 - 1835: The Great Exploration. The i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f E u r o p e a n c o n t a c t does r o t f o c u s e x c l u s i v e l y on N o r t h w e s t B.C., but on the s h i p and l a n d a c t i v i t i e s of f i v e n a t i o n s p u r s u i n g more g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s on t h e west c o a s t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a . These d i f f e r i n g but i n t e r r e l a t e d i n t e r e s t s i n c l u d e d e x p l o r a t i o n f o r the f a b l e d N o r t h w e s t P a s s a g e , e s t a b l i s h m e n t o r e x t e n s i o n of s o v e r e i g n t y , t r a n s i e n t and permanently based t r a d e , and c o l o n i z a -t i o n . To s o r t out the s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s of the competing n a t i o n a l p l a y e r s , as w e l l as t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d monopoly and independent t r a d e r s , i s a r e q u i s i t e s t e p i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the l a t e r h i s t o r y of the r e g i o n under s t u d y . Over a p e r i o d of e i g h t y y e a r s , b e g i n n i n g i n 1741, Northwest B.C. was v i s i t e d by S p a n i s h , B r i t i s h , R u s s i a n , A m e r i c a n and French e x p l o r e r s and t r a d e r s . Because r e p u t e d e x p l o r a t i o n s by de Fuca, de F o n t e , de A g u i l a r , Maldenado, Ch i n e s e and P o l y n e s i a n ' s cannot be v e r i f i e d , the honour of f i r s t a c c e p t e d presence on the c o a s t goes t o the R u s s i a n s ( S m i t h : 1969, 1 ) . Under o r d e r s from P e t e r the G r e a t t h r e e o f f i c i a l e x p e d i t i o n s were mounted i n 1723, 1741 and 1768. R e p o r t s of t h e s e j o u r n e y s by B e r i n g , C h e r i k o v and K r e n i t s i n s p a r k e d a r u s h by independent R u s s i a n t r a d e r s who began to e x p l o i t the a r e a ' s o b v i o u s bounty of v a l u a b l e sea o t t e r f u r s . 27 When t h e S p a n i s h r e c e i v e d word o f R u s s i a n a c t i v i t y o f f t h e n o r t h e r n c o a s t t h e y were m o t i v a t e d t o send e x p l o r e r s t o the a r e a t h e m s e l v e s . The S p a n i s h had been g i v e n s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r most o f N o r t h and S o u t h A m e r i c a by Pope A l e x a n d e r VI i n 1493 and wished t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r c e l e s t i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d mandate. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n 1774 C a p t a i n J u a n P e r e z was s e n t n o r t h from Monterey, C a l i f o r n i a i n the c o r v e t t e S a n t i a g o . A f t e r a 16 day j o u r n e y P e r e z and h i s 86 man crew s i g h t e d what i s now c a l l e d Langara I s l a n d o f f t h e n o r t h e r n t i p o f t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e s . P e r e z i s c r e d i t e d as b e i n g the f i r s t European t o t r a d e w i t h a Northwest n a t i v e group, the H a i d a , on J u l y 17, 1774 ( D a l z e l l : 1968, 1 4 ) . Two o t h e r e x p e d i t i o n s l e a d by Bodeqa y Quadra and A r t e g a were sen t n o r t h by the S p a n i s h i n 1775 and 1779. A f t e r t h e s e voyages the V i c e r o y i n Mexico f e l t h i s c l a i m t o the r e g i o n was s e c u r e and no o t h e r S p a n i s h e x p e d i t i o n v i s i t e d the r e g i o n u n t i l 1788. A f t e r h e a r i n g about S p a n i s h a c t i v i t y on the northwest c o a s t i t was the t u r n of the B r i t i s h t o become alarmed. In 1778 C a p t a i n James Cook's o f f i c i a l B r i t i s h e x p e d i t i o n reached Nootka Sound on the west c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d . The j o u r n a l s and mapping of t h i s e x p e r t n a v i g a t o r e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the f i r s t time the " b a s i c c o n t o u r s of n o r t h w e s t e r n geography" ( S m i t h : 1965,35). O f f i c i a l and u n o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s o f Cook's d i s c o v e r i e s were i n g e n e r a l c i r c u l a t i o n by 1784, i n s p i r i n g w i d e s p r e a d n a t i o n a l and commercial i n t e r e s t i n the r e g i o n . E s p e c i a l l y i n t r i g u i n g t o Cook's r e a d e r s was the f a c t t h a t sea o t t e r b l a n k e t s , o b t a i n e d i n the Northwest 28 t o keep crew members warm, s o l d f o r e x t r e m e l y h i g h p r i c e s t o l u x u r y c o n s c i o u s C h i n e s e . M e a n w h i l e t h e R u s s i a n s were c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n of sea o t t e r f u r s i n the A l a s k a a r e a . In 1783 Gregor S h e l i k h o v e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f i r s t permanent s e t t l e m e n t i n the n o r t h w e s t , a commercial t r a d i n g p o s t on K o d i a k I s l a n d . A f o u r t h o f f i c i a l R u s s i a n e x p l o r a t i o n was c a r r i e d out by B i l l i n g s t o f u r t h e r expand knowledge of the A l a s k a n c o a s t and i n t e r i o r . I n 1785 the B r i t i s h t r a d i n g r u s h t o the r e g i o n began w i t h the a r r i v a l o f t h e b r i g Sea O t t e r c a p t a i n e d by James Hanna. A f t e r r e t u r n i n g t o h i s p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e , C h i n a , w i t h a cargo of 560 sea o t t e r f u r s Hanna r e c e i v e d the p r i n c e l y sum of 20,400. S p a n i s h d o l l a r s from Cantonese merchants ( P e t h i c k : 1980, 79-80). I n s p i r e d by t h i s commercial s u c c e s s Hanna r e t u r n e d to the Northwest i n 1786, o n l y t o f i n d h i s once p r i v a t e t r a d i n g grounds o c c u p i e d by no l e s s than f o u r competing B r i t i s h v e s s e l s . Hanna's second j o u r n e y n e t t e d him a p a u l t r y 8,000 S p a n i s h d o l l a r s . The s u c c e s s of competing v e s s e l s was g r e a t e r . George D i x o n , C a p t a i n of the Queen C h a r l o t t e , bought 1821 p e l t s , many of which were o b t a i n e d o f f the i s l a n d s he named a f t e r h i s s h i p on August 3, 1787. As the s e a r c h f o r more s o u r c e s of sea o t t e r p e l t s was q u i c k l y expanded the Queen C h a r l o t t e s and the Haida became t h e " c e n t e r of the t r a d e " (Howay: 1932, 44-45). T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n was a d u b i o u s h o n o u r , f o r w h i l e g r e a t r i c h e s were r a i n e d on t h e H a i d a , a h o r r i b l e p r i c e i n l i v e s and d e g r a d a t i o n would a l s o soon be e x a c t e d . 29 A l t h o u g h B r i t i s h e n t r e p r e n e u r s were i n t e r e s t e d i n t r a d i n g i n t h e n o r t h w e s t they were r e s t r i c t e d by monopolies g r a n t e d t o the E a s t I n d i a and South Sea C o m p a n i e s . The s e a o t t e r t r a d e s u f f e r e d b e c a u s e any e n t e r p r i s e engaged i n t h e i r procurement had t o both be l i c e n c e d by, and s e l l t h e i r goods i n Ch i n a t h r o u g h , monopoly r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The c o s t of t h i s c o o p e r a t i o n was h i g h , e s p e c i a l l y when p r o f i t n e t t e d the t r a d e r s $20 f o r an o t t e r p e l t t h a t had a v a l u e of as much as $80 ( P e t h i c k : 1980, 18). The r e s u l t o f t h i s i n e f f i c i e n c y was f o r some B r i t i s h t r a d e r s t o make t h e i r voyages under the P o r t u g e s e f l a g , which t e c h n i c a l l y f r e e d them t o s e l l t h e i r p e l t s i n d e p e n d e n t l y . T h i s o p t i o n was s e i z e d by on John Meares, and h i s a s s o c i a t e C a p t a i n s , who became the f i r s t of many o p p o r t u n i s t i c and u n p r i n c i p l e d t r a d e r s i n the a r e a . I n c r e a s e d B r i t i s h and R u s s i a n t r a d i n g on t h e c o a s t once a g a i n s p u r r e d t o S p a n i s h i n t o a c t i o n . In 1788 two Sp a n i s h s h i p s were s e n t n o r t h f r o m M e x i c o t o r e e s t a b l i s h s o v e r e i g n t y . T h i s t a s k was completed as f a r n o r t h as U n a l a s k a , w e l l i n t o both the A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s and the R u s s i a n sphere of c o n t r o l . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r the same two s h i p s , the P r i n c e s a and San C a r l o s , were sen t n o r t h a g a i n , t h i s t i m e t o t a k e c o n t r o l o f Nootka Sound. Upon a r r i v a l Commander M a r t i r e z found a busy harbour o c c u p i e d d u r i n g h i s s t a y by s i x v e s s e l s of B r i t i s h and American r e g i s t r y . He s e i z e d s e v e r a l of the s h i p s , admonished the o t h e r s t o l e a v e , and on June 24, 1789 f o r m a l l y c l a i m e d the a r e a f o r S p a i n . S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r he r e c e i v e d o r d e r s t o abandon the f o r t i f i c a t i o n which S p a i n c o u l d no l o n g e r a f f o r d t o defend. He r e t u r n e d t o Mexico w i t h 30 c a p t i v e s and t h r e e f o r e i g n v e s s e l s as p r i z e s . The r e s u l t of t h i s b o l d S p a n i s h a c t i o n was p r e c i p i t a t i o n of a major i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n c i d e n t t h a t b r o u g h t S p a i n and E n g l a n d c l o s e t o war. A f t e r l e n g t h y n e g o t i a t i o n s an i n t i m i d a t e d S p a i n s i g n e d the f i r s t Nootka C o n v e n t i o n on Oct. 28, 1790. The t r e a t y gave England the r i g h t t o s e t t l e any p l a c e not a l r e a d y o c c u p i e d by the.Span'sh, and t o t r a d e f r e e l y a l o n g the northwest c o a s t . S p a i n ' s c o l o n i a l e r a e n t e r e d a d e c l i n e and d e s p i t e c o n t i n u e d o c c u p a t i o n of Nootka, and s e v e r a l f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n s , never a g a i n p l a y e d a major r o l e i n t h e r e g i o n . By t h e s i g n i n g of the t h i r d Nootka C o n v e n t i o n on J a n . 11, 1794 S p a i n agreed t o q u i t the northwest c o a s t f o r good. S h o r t l y b e f o r e the Nootka c o n t r o v e r s y a f o u r t h major n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t a r r i v e d i n t h e r e g i o n . In 1786, an o f f i c i a l F r e n c h e x p e d i t i o n l e a d by La Perouse spent two y e a r s e x p l o r i n g , m o n i t e r i n g f o r e i g n a c t i v i t y , and t r a d i n g . La Perouse was the f i r s t n a v i g a t o r t o v i e w t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e s as an a r c h i p e l a g o s e p a r a t e from the m a i n l a n d . B e c a u s e of t h e r e v o l u t i o n i n F r a n c e no o t h e r o f f i c i a l e x p e d i t i o n s were mounted u n t i l 1817. The o n l y o t h e r documented French p resence was t h a t o f a p r i v a t e t r a d e r named E t i e n n e Marchand, C a p t a i n of the La S o l i d e , who p r o v i d e d a d e t a i l e d e x p l o r a t i o n of Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s c u l t u r e i n 1791 ( S m i t h : 1969, 44) . U n l i k e the F r e n c h , the f i r s t 'Boston Man' t r a d e r s from the U n i t e d S t a t e s t r a v e l l e d the c o a s t i n 1788, and w i t h i n a d ecade became the dominant commercial i n t e r e s t i n the sea o t t e r t r a d e . With no monopoly r e s t r i c t i o n s t o hamper p r o f i t a b i l i t y , o r d r a i n i n g 31 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of f i g h t i n g the widespread European wars of t h i s p e r i o d , the Yankees proved t o be the most p r a c t i c a l i n i d e n t i f y i n g money-making r e f i n e m e n t s t o the t r a d e . Americans went from s i n g l e s e a s o n t r a d i n g , t o o v e r - w i n t e r i n g on the c o a s t , t o m u l t i - y e a r t r a d i n g t r i p s , t o a s o p h i s t i c a t e d i t i n e r a r y which would empty and f i l l t h e i r s h i p s w i t h p r o g r e s s i v e l y more v a l u a b l e c a r g o . A f t e r l e a r n i n g the t r a d e v e r y w e l l indeed a c a r g o o f t r i n k e t s w o u l d l e a v e Boston v a l u e d a t $4-20,000. These goods would be used t o o b t a i n o t t e r f u r s worth a r o u g h a v e r a g e o f $50,000 i n C h i n a . T h i s money would be i n v e s t e d i n o r i e n t a l t r a d e items d e s t i n e d f o r Boston which c o u l d p r o v i d e a f i n a l net p r o f i t i n t h e $200,000 range (Howay:1931, 117-149). A m e r i c a n p r e s e n c e on t h e c o a s t s i g n a l e d the b e g i n n i n g of a h a r d e r edged t r a d e , e s p e c i a l l y on the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . The f i r s t American s h i p i n the a r e a t r a d e d 200 c h i s e l s f o r 200 prime, p e l t s a t Langara I s l a n d , and l a t e r l anded the f i r s t n o n - I n d i a n s on Haida l a n d on June 11, 1789 ( D a l z e l l : 1968, 2 6 ) . T h i s b e g i n n i n g of good r e l a t i o n s was s h a t t e r e d when an o t h e r v e s s e l , the Columbia, C a p t a i n e d by John K e n d r i c k , v i s i t e d N i n s t i n t s l a t e r t h a t season. In a d i s p u t e o ver s t o l e n l a u n d r y K e n d r i c k u n c e r e m o n i o u s l y had two v i l l a g e c h i e f s , Koyah and S k u l k i n a n c e l a s h e d t o the s h i p ' s cannons. When most of the m i s s i n g items were r e t u r n e d , and p e l t s s u r r e n d e r e d which had been h e l d back from t r a d i n g , the C h i e f s were r e l e a s e d . T h i s i n c i d e n t was not t o be f o r g o t t e n by the m o r t a l l y i n s u l t e d H aida who, u n t i l they were k i l l e d i n 1795, l e d or i n s p i r e d s e v e r a l a t t a c k s on American s h i p s . In 1791 t h r e e crewmen were k i l l e d 32 from the American s h i p Lady Washington a f t e r t h r e e H a i d a were s i m i l a r l y o r d e r e d murdered f o r a p e t t y o f f e n s e by Cpt. C r o w e l l of the Hancock. In 1791, 40 t o 60 Haida were massacred a f t e r Koyah's u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt t o ta k e over the Lady Washington, now C a p t a i n e d by h i s n e m i s i s the i l l - t e m p e r e d K e n d r i c k . In J u l y 1794, v i o l e n c e f l a r e d a g a i n when 10 of the 11 man crew of the schooner R e s o l u t i o n were k i l l e d near Cumshewa I n l e t . A l s o i n 1794 Koyah f i n a l l y r e c e i v e d h i s revenge when a l l but one of the crew of the s h i p E l e n o r a were k i l l e d a t N i n s t i n t s . The f i n a l major b a t t l e of the Queen C h a r l o t t e s o c c u r r e d i n June 1895 when C h i e f Koyah was k i l l e d a l o n g w i t h f o r t y of h i s f o l l o w e r s d u r i n g an u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t a c k on John B o i t ' s s h i p , the Union. In a f i n a l t w i s t of f a t e , Koyah's o r i g i n a l A m e r i c a n enemy, Jo h n K e n d r i c k , d i e d s h o r t l y b e f o r e t h e H a i d a C h i e f o f f H a w a i i , when a s a l u t e f i r e d by a s i s t e r s h i p was a c c i d e n t a l l y aimed, f u l l y l o a d e d , a t K e n d r i c k ' s s h i p b o a r d q u a r t e r s ( P e t h i c k : 1980, 205-6). With the S p a n i s h s l o w l y moving out of the p i c t u r e and t h e Americans happy w i t h an average of 6 s h i p s per season t r a d i n g on the c o a s t i t was l e f t t o t h e B r i t i s h and R u s s i a n s t o b u i l d e m p i r e s . The B r i t i s h were s t i f l e d i n t r a d e by f a r e a s t monopolies but n o n e t h e l e s s managed t o have 35 s h i p s on the northwest c o a s t b etween 1785 and 1794 (Howay: 1932, 4 3 ) . There were a l s o two main developments which gave n o t i c e o f B r i t i s h d e s i g n s on t h e r e g i o n . The f i r s t was C a p t a i n V a n c o u v e r ' s o f f i c i a l mapping e x p e d i t i o n w h i c h c h a r t e d n e a r l y t h e e n t i r e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o a s t l i n e between 1792 and 1795. T h i s e x p l o r a t i o n missed l o c a t i n g 33 major r i v e r s of the Northwest ( t h e Skeena, Nass and S t i k i n e ) but managed t o g i v e many names t o p o i n t s i n the r e g i o n d u r i n g the summer of 1793. By f a r the g r e a t e r achievement was marked by an i n s c r i p t i o n l e f t on a r o c k a t the head of Dean Channel: A l e x a n d e r M a c k e n z i e , from Canada, by l a n d , t h e 22nd J u l y One Thousand Seven H u n d r e d and N i n e t y - T h r e e W i t h t h e s e words a march s t a r t i n g w i t h i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the Hudson's Bay Co. (H.B.Co.) on May 2, 1670 was r e a c h i n g one o f i t s major d e s t i n a t i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r the H.B.Co., A l e x a n d e r M ackenzie's s u c c e s s f u l c r o s s c o n t i n e n t e x p e d i t i o n was s p o n s o r e d by i t s b i t t e r r i v a l , the Northwest Company. Another Northwest Co. t r a d e r was Simon F r a s e r , who f i r s t i n i t i a t e d l a n d b a s e d e x p l o r a t i o n towards the Northwest. F r a s e r e s t a b l i s h e d the f i r s t p e rmanent E u r o p e a n s e t t l e m e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a t McLeod Lake, j u s t n o r t h of P r i n c e George, i n 1805. The next year F o r t S t . James and F o r t F r a s e r were e s t a b l i s h e d , j u s t e a s t o f t h e Skeena b a s i n ' s most e a s t e r l y b o r d e r . In 1907 F o r t George completed the network of i n t e r i o r t r a d i n g p o s t s . In o r d e r t o e x p l o r e the o u t l y i n g a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g t h e s e f o r t s D.W. Harmon and James McDougall h i k e d t o Babine Lake i n January 1812, the f i r s t n o n -Indians who can be p o s i t i v e l y c r e d i t e d as e n t e r i n g the Northwest from the e a s t ( L a r g e : 1981, 11). No o t h e r f o r t s were c o n s t r u c t e d u n t i l the Hudson's Bay Co. merged w i t h i t s r i v a l , thus g a i n i n g c o n t r o l of the Northwest Company's F r a s e r b a s i n p o s t s on M a rch 26, 1821. With no o t h e r B r i t i s h c o m p e t i t i o n the Hudson's Bay Co. was g i v e n 34 monopoly t r a d i n g r i g h t s t o the P a c i f i c s l o p e by R o y a l L i c e n s e on Dec. 5, 1821. S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , two a d d i t i o n a l p o s t s were con-s t r u c t e d a t Babine L a k e ( F t . K i l m a u r s ) i n 1822 and B e a r L a k e ( F t . C o n n o l l y ) i n 1826. These f i r s t n o n - I n d i a n s e t t l e m e n t s on t r i b u t a r y systems of the Skeena were i r o n i c a l l y not e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the f u r s i n the a r e a , but t o s u p p l y salmon t o the more i n l a n d f o r t s . From f i r s t c o l o n i z a t i o n , and c o n t i n u i n g the t r e n d s t a r t e d by t h e s e a o t t e r t r a d e , t h e N o r t h w e s t was an e x p o r t e r of i t s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . Other d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e r e g i o n i n c l u d e d H.B.Co.. f i r s t e x p l o r a t i o n s of the upper S t i k i n e watershed i n 1824 and 1833, the lower Skeena i n 1832, and the lower S t i k i n e i n 1833. D u r i n g t h e t i m e e x p l o r a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e s e a o t t e r t r a d e was o c c u r r i n g on, and s o u t h o f , the Queen C h a r l o t t e s , the R u s s i a n s were e q u a l l y i n d u s t r i o u s i n the A l a s k a a r e a . Gregor S k e l i k h o v , f o u n d e r of t h e f i r s t p ermanent n o r t h w e s t c o a s t a l s e t t l e m e n t a t Kodiak i n 1783, emerged as the most p o w e r f u l R u s s i a n t r a d e r i n t h e r e g i o n . W i t h a g r a n d d e s i g n f o r e x p a n s i o n he l o b b i e d f o r a s e r i e s o f U k a s e s , o r I m p e r i a l E d i c t s , from S t . P e t e r s b e r g . On Sept. 28, 1788, Empress C a t h e r i n e g r a n t e d S k e l i k h o v e x c l u s i v e t r a d i n g r i g h t s i n the immediate a r e a of h i s o u t p o s t s . In 1799 a n o t h e r Ukase g r a n t e d the newly formed R u s s i a n American Company a t o t a l t r a d i n g monopoly n o r t h of the Queen C h a r l o t t e s (55° n o r t h l a t i t u d e ) . T h i s mandate a l l o w e d f o r the s e t t l e m e n t of S i t k a i n 1799. Not d e t e r r e d by the massacre of n e a r l y the e n t i r e S i t k a n g a r r i s o n i n June of 1802, the p o s t was soon r e e s t a b l i s h e d and f l o u r i s h e d as a major depot c e n t r e . A f i n a l Ukase on Sept. 16, 35 1821, extended e x c l u s i v e R u s s i a n t e r r i t o r y f a r t h e r south to the n o r t h e r n t i p o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d (51° n o r t h l a t i t u d e ) . T h i s e x t e n s i o n was a c h a l l e n g e t o the B r i t i s h who had e s t a b l i s h e d a p o s t at F t . A s t o r i a on the Columbia R i v e r i n 1824. A f t e r d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h B r i t i a n , R u s s i a s i g n e d t h e A n g l o - R u s s i a n T r e a t y o f 1825 w h i c h d i v i d e d E n g l i s h and R u s s i a n spheres of i n f l u e n c e r o u g h l y a l o n g l i n e s drawn between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s today. F r e e t o move t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s northward, the Hudson's Bay Co. e s t a b l i s h e d F t . L a n g l e y i n 1827, F o r t Nass on the Nass R i v e r e s t u a r y on August 30, 1830, and F o r t M c L o u g h l i n a t B e l l a C o o l a i n 1833. A f t e r s e v e r a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n s f u r t h e r n o r t h w i t h the R u s s i a n s , n o t a b l y on June 18, 1834, a t the mouth of the S t i k i n e , the H.B.Co. r e t r e a t e d t o the o r i g i n a l t r e a t y d e m a r c a t i o n l i n e (54° 40') by moving F o r t Nass t o a more a c c e s s i b l e l o c a t i o n a t the t i p of the T s i m s h i a n P e n i n s u l a . With the f o u n d i n g of F o r t Simpson on August 30, 1834 the B r i t i s h had made t h e i r northernmost permanent o c c u p a t i o n on t h e c o a s t and e s t a b l i s h e d t h e s e c o n d m a j o r c e n t e r ( a f t e r S i t k a ) of European a c t i v i t y i n the r e g i o n . C o i n c i d e n t l y , 1834 marked the v i r t u a l e x t i n c t i o n of sea o t t e r p o p u l a t i o n s and n e a r l y the l a s t of 230 s e a s o n a l ' v i s i t s ' from over 100 d i f f e r e n t f o r e i g n s h i p s t o the a r e a . The o v e r a l l r e s u l t of t h i s f i r s t p e r i o d of c o n t a c t between Europeans and the Northwest's o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s was d r a m a t i c . T r a d e became i n c r e a s i n g l y more s o p h i s t i c a t e d . I n i t i a l i n t e r e s t i n i r o n , copper and t r i n k e t s was r e p l a c e d by a s t e a d y demand f o r b l a n k e t s , m u s k e t s , powder, s h o t , c l o t h , m o l a s s e s , r i c e , 36 bread and b i s c u i t s . S e c o n d a r y t r a d e i t e m s i n c l u d e d t o b a c c o , b e a d s , b u t t o n s , b r a s s w i r e , c h i s e l s , n e e d l e s , t h r e a d , k n i v e s , s c i s s o r s , s t o c k i n g s , and a p p l e s . The s p r e a d of t r a d e m u s k e t s , c o m p l e t e on t h e c o a s t by 1794, b r o u g h t e s c a l a t i o n i n t r i b a l w a r f a r e which began t h e d e c l i n e i n n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . T r a d e i n a l c o h o l a l s o f l o u r i s h e d w i t h e q u a l l y n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s ( D u f f : 1964, 5 7 ) . The l a r g e number of s h i p s t r a d i n g f o r sea o t t e r p e l t s drove t h e i r p r i c e ever h i g h e r , f l o o d i n g what was b a s i c a l l y a s t a t i c a b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e w i t h r i c h e s and t e c h n o l o g y beyond comprehension. One can o n l y imagine the d i s r u p t i o n caused by the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of so much time and energy spent h u n t i n g the sea o t t e r t o e x t i n c -t i o n . Even the c o s m o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of h u n t i n g a n i m a l s not f o r food or l o c a l use must have been s t a g g e r i n g f o r p e o p l e s whose e n t i r e c u l t u r e was based on s t r i c t human/animal r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c o n s e r v a t i o n e t h i c . C o n v e r s e l y the new w e a l t h was a l s o a d e q u a t e l y c h a n n e l l e d t h rough e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n v e s t i n g g r e a t e r power i n 'names' and i n s p i r i n g a r emarkable a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n . One g e t s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i f i t were not f o r the f i n a l d e v a s t a t i o n caused by i n t r o d u c t i o n of d i s e a s e , which the t r i b e s had no a b i l i t y t o a s s i m i l a t e , t h a t h i s t o r y beyond the e x p l o r a t i o n p e r i o d would have h a p p i l y been q u i t e a n o t h e r s t o r y . The w orst r e s u l t of the e x p l o r a t i o n p e r i o d was the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the sea o t t e r and the s e t t i n g of a n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e e x p l o r a t i o n t r e n d which s t i l l c o n t r o l s the r e g i o n 200 y e a r s l a t e r . As i s s t i l l t y p i c a l o f s u c h e x p l o i t a t i o n the sea o t t e r r e s o u r c e was 37 o v e r h a r v e s t e d by p a y i n g l o c a l r e s i d e n t s a f e e which was a f r a c t i o n of the r e s o u r c e ' s v a l u e . The h a r v e s t was c o n t r o l l e d from o u t s i d e t h e r e g i o n ( B o s t o n , S t . P e t e r s b e r g , L ondon) and r i c h e s o f t h e t r a d e bestowed upon men who never s e t f o o t i n the a r e a . I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t R u s s i a n sea o t t e r c a t c h e s a l o n e t o t a l l e d n e a r l y 200,000 p e l t s w i t h a v a l u e o f $ 50,000,000. The same s o u r c e s t a t e s t h a t upwards of 750,000 p e l t s were taken by a l l n a t i o n a l i t i e s on t h e c o a s t (McKraken: 1957, 280). From the b e g i n n i n g of i t s ' d i s c o v e r y ' by Europeans the Northwest was a s u p p l y r e g i o n f r e e t o be e x p l o i t e d a t w i l l . 3.3 1835 - 1890: Colonization. The next p e r i o d i n Northwest h i s t o r y i s o n l y a l i t t l e l e s s busy w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t r i g u e and i n t r o d u c e s , f o r good m e a s u r e , t h e a d d i t i o n a l elements of g e n o c i d e , C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s , and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f m i n e r a l , wood and salmon r e s o u r c e s . I t i s a time when the p o p u l a t i o n of n a t i v e p e o p l e i s c u t t o a f r a c t i o n o f o r i g i n a l numbers and p i o n e e r s of the commonwealth seek and f i n d o p p o r t u n i t y . A h i s t o r y e v o l v e s which i s much more d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , b u t l e n d s i t s e l f more t o a c t i v i t i e s of o v e r l a p p i n g i n t e r e s t groups such as the H.B.Co., m i s s i o n a r i e s , n a t i v e s , e n t r e p r e n e u r s , and the E n g l i s h government. F o r t S i m p s o n was an a r e a 240 f e e t square surrounded by a l o g s t o c k a d e 22 f e e t h i g h . C o r n e r b l o c k h o u s e s p r o t e c t e d s i x and n i n e pound c a n n o n s . B u i l d i n g s w i t h i n t h e w a l l s i n c l u d e d h o u s i n g f o r s e n i o r and w o r k i n g e m p l o y e e s , a s t o r e , w a r e h o u s e , 38 b l a c k s m i t h shop and garden. The f o r t was the c e n t e r of B r i t i s h a c t i v i t y on the n o r t h e r n c o a s t , w i t h n a t i v e s and t r a d i n g s h i p s f u n n e l l i n g f u r s t o t h e d e p o t . An e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t was f o r n i n e v i l l a g e s of the T s i m s h i a n t o r e l o c a t e t h e i r permanent s e t t l e -ments t o an a r e a i m m e d i a t e l y n e x t t o t h e s t o c k a d e . The head C h i e f of t h i s unique a g g l o m e r a t i o n was named L e g a i c . The power h i s name w i e l d e d was s u b s t a n t i a l , i n c l u d i n g as i t d i d e x c l u s i v e b r o k e r r i g h t s t o a l l f u r s f r o m t h e u p p e r S k e ena G i t k s a n and C a r r i e r t r i b e s ( M i l l e r : 1984, 30-31). Communication w i t h w e s t e r n h e a d q u a r t e r s of the H.B.Co. was by r e g u l a r s h i p t r a f f i c . Once a s o l i d base of o p e r a t i o n s was e s t a b l i s h e d , the H.B.Co. c o n t i n u e d t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i r t r a d e i n the r e g i o n . In 1838 a f o r t was e s t a b l i s h e d at Dease Lake (58° 40') a f t e r an e x p l o r a t i o n of the r e g i o n by Robert Campbell. In 1839 a l e a s e was s i g n e d w i t h t h e R u s s i a n - A m e r i c a n Co. f o r use of the A l a s k a panhandle. T h i s agreement a l l o w e d the opening of F o r t Durham on the Taku R i v e r (58° 40') and F o r t S t i k i n e a t t h e mouth of the S t i k i n e R i v e r (56° 4 0 ' ) . The l e a s e w i t h the R u s s i a n s a l s o s t i p u l a t e d S i t k a was t o be s u p p l i e d w i t h H.B.Co. goods a t moderate r a t e s . T h i s d i v e r s i f i e d t r a d e and h e l p e d t o make up l o s s e s which were mounting i n the f u r t r a d e . A m e r i c a n t r a d e r s were s t i l l a c t i v e on t h e c o a s t , and h a v i n g lower overheads, b a d l y u ndercut the Bay's c o s t s . The p r i c e of f u r s was i n c r e a s i n g l y a l c o h o l , which prompted r e g u l a r r e q u e s t s f o r B r i t i s h navy a c t i o n . The c u l p r i t s were e l u s i v e and l e f t the d e g r a d a t i o n caused by t h e i r greed t o be handled by the H.B.Co.. 39 The f u r s brought t o F o r t Simpson became m a i n l y those o b t a i n e d from i n l a n d l o c a t i o n s i n a c c e s s i b l e t o American v e s s e l s . A r c h i v e s of the Hudson's Bay Co. show a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h l i n k i n g t h e 'New C a l e d o n i a ' f o r t s i n the upper F r a s e r a r e a w i t h t h e i r c o a s t a l s u p p l y network. Emphasis was thus taken o f f o t h e r c o a s t a l f o r t s w i t h the c l o s i n g of F t . M c L o u g h l i n , F o r t Durham and F t . S t i k i n e i n 1843. The steam v e s s e l O t t e r became a f u r c o l l e c t o r i n these a r e a s u s i n g now ' P o r t ' Simpson and V i c t o r i a , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1843, as major d e p o t s . As more Europeans and Americans came t o the r e g i o n of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, England and the H.B.Co. became i n t e r e s t e d i n cementing t h e i r s o v e r e i g n t y w i t h p r o t e c t i v e C o l o n i a l s t a t u s f o r the a r e a . C o n s e q u e n t l y , Vancouver I s l a n d was made a c o l o n i a l t r u s t of the H.B.Co. on Jan 13,1849. The Queen C h a r l o t t e s were added t o t h i s a r e a on J u l y 29, 1852 t o f o r e s t a l l Yankee g o l d s e e k e r s f r o m ann e x i n g the a r c h i p e l a g o . By 1858 t h e B r i t i s h had d e c i d e d t o t r a n s f e r c o n t r o l o f the c o l o n y t o a governor independent of the H.B.Co. O r i g i n a l l y the c o l o n y was t o i n c l u d e o n l y Vancouver I s l a n d and the C h a r l o t t e s , but the C a r i b o o g o l d r u s h h u r r i d l y e xpanded t h e a r e a as f a r n o r t h as the mainstem Skeena R i v e r . On November 19, 1858 Governor Douglas, ex of H.B.Co. s e n i o r management, p r o c l a i m e d the "Act f o r the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia" t o be i n f o r c e . The c o l o n y expanded i t s b o u n d a r i e s y e t a g a i n on J u l y 19, 1862, when a s m a l l g o l d r u s h of 650 miners on the S t i k i n e R i v e r p r o v i d e d an excuse t o b r i n g the ' S t i k e e n ' T e r r i t o r y , e s t a b l i s h e d n o r t h of the mainstem 40 Skeena, under i t s c o n t r o l . T h i s a n n e x a t i o n brought the Northwest, as d e f i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y , under the B r i t i s h f l a g . On November 16, 1866 the ' S t i k e e n ' T e r r i t o r y was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s b o u n d a r y and t h e p r o v i n c e as we know i t today was c o n s t i t u t e d ( I r e l a n d : 1939, 2 6 3 - 2 8 2 ) . These moves were a l l c o m p l e t e d w i t h no c o n s u l t a t i o n of p i o n e e r s or n a t i v e groups i n the N o r t h w e s t , and were c l e a r l y d e s i g n e d t o grab economic c o n t r o l o f t h e a r e a f o r B r i t a i n . American s t r e n g t h t o the South, and t h e i r e v e n t u a l 'purchase' of A l a s k a on March 30, 1867, had sandwiched B r i t i s h e x p a n s i o n . A s t r a t e g y of c o n s o l i d a t i n g the Hudson's Bay Co. sphere of i n f l u e n c e was c a r r i e d out under t h r e a t of f u r t h e r U n i t e d S t a t e s encroachment. These e v e n t s s l o w l y f r e e d the Bay from o p e r a t i o n o f a c i v i l g o v e rnment i n t h e r e g i o n and t h e g r e a t t r a d i n g empire was a b l e t o pursue p u r e l y economic g o a l s . In 1871 B r i t i s h Columbia j o i n e d the Dominion of Canada and the Northwest was f i n a l l y s p l i t between B r i t i s h and American f l a g s . The dream of j o i n i n g the c o a s t a l and i n t e r i o r o p e r a t i o n s of the H.B.Co. was c h a l l e n g e d by rough topography and the w i l d n a t u r e of the f o u r major r i v e r s which t r a n s e c t e d the Coast M o u n t a i n s . Of t h e s e s t r e a m s t h e Skeena was t h e most n a v i g a b l e . A l t h o u g h I n d i a n c o n t r o l l e d canoe f r e i g h t i n g had been t h e r u l e on t h e S k e e n a , t h e f e e c h a r g e d f o r t r a n s h i p m e n t o f goods e v e n t u a l l y r o s e t o $60 per t o n . The Bay c o u l d not s u f f e r such a c o s t and d e c i d e d t o t e s t a r i v e r b o a t on the Skeena i n 1864. The Union f a i l e d t o n a v i g a t e the Skeena, as d i d s i m i l a r e f f o r t s mounted by the C o l l i n ' s O v e r l a n d T e l e g r a p h Company which e x p l o r e d the r e g i o n 41 i n 1865-6. T h e i r p l a n t o s t r e t c h a t e l e g r a p h l i n e a c r o s s North America and A s i a , t o Europe, f a i l e d w i t h the l a y i n g of the f i r s t t r a n s a t l a n t i c c a b l e . The v e n t u r e d i d b r i n g t h e f i r s t l a r g e number of no n - I n d i a n s i n t o the upper Skeena a r e a , many of whom remained t o p r o s p e c t ( F i t z g e r a l d : 1982, 23-63). R i v e r t r a f f i c , f o r the time b e i n g , remained l a r g e l y i n c o n t r o l of I n d i a n p a d d l e r s . A g o l d r u s h i n the Omenica r e g i o n of the upper F r a s e r watershed i n 1871 spa r k e d c o n t i n u i n g i n c r e a s e s i n t r a f f i c , and by 1872 had brought 2000 miners through the r e g i o n . The demand f o r m i n i n g s u p p l i e s exposed a major weakness i n the H.B.Co.'s method of o p e r a t i o n . O r g a n i z e d by a s t r i c t l y c e n t r a -l i z e d s t r u c t u r e the company h i e r a r c h y c o u l d not respond q u i c k l y t o new o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Because~of t h i s i n a b i l i t y , a t r e n d developed where H.B.Co. employees i n the Northwest would l e a r n the ar e a by wo r k i n g s e v e r a l f r u s t r a t i n g y e a r s a t P o r t Simpson and then q u i t t o s t r i k e o u t on t h e i r own. The two men who proved t o be t h e most r e s o u r c e f u l i n t h i s r e g a r d were Robert Cunningham and Thomas Hank i n . In 1870 thes e two p i o n e e r s l e f t the H.B.Co. t o s t a r t a s t o r e and f r e i g h t s e r v i c e t a i l o r e d t o the needs of Omenica g o l d s e e k e r s . In 1871 they founded the town of P o r t E s s i n g t o n on the e s t u a r y of the Skeena and a s i s t e r depot s e t t l e m e n t a t H a z e l t o n , the headwaters of canoe t r a f f i c . Such a good b u s i n e s s developed t h a t the H.O.Co. opened a s t o r e a t P o r t E s s i n g t o n w h i c h t r i e d u n t i l 1877 t o compete w i t h Cunningham's p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e e f f o r t . A s i m i l a r H.B.Co. o p e r a t i o n was opened a t H a z e l t o n i n 1880, a post which i s s t i l l open 105 y e a r s l a t e r . Thus a new e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l 42 e l e m e n t became e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e r e g i o n , p e r m a n e n t l y b a s e d merchants i n whose i n t e r e s t i t was t o d e v e l o p a r e g i o n a l economy and q u a l i t y of l i f e . Through p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e and encouragement of the C o l o n i a l government d i f f e r e n t economic development p r o j e c t s were attempted i n t h i s p e r i o d . The C owgitz c o a l mine o p e r a t e d b r i e f l y on the C h a r l o t t e s between 1870 and 1872. The f i r s t o f many salmon c a n n e r i e s was opened on the Skeena i n 1877. By 1890, 7 c a n n e r i e s o p e r a t e d on the Skeena and 2 on the Nass, w i t h a combined pack of 111,845 c a s e s o f s a l m o n . Cunningham and Hankin c o n s t r u c t e d a t o l l t r a i l between H a z e l t o n and B a b i n e L a k e u n d e r government c o n t r a c t i n 1872. A d o g f i s h o i l e r y was w o r k i ng a t S k i d e g a t e on the Queen C h a r l o t t e s i n 1876. Many o t h e r merchant v e n t u r e s were attempted and the g e n e r a l mood was one of government encouragement t o reap whatever p r o f i t a b l e r e s o u r c e s c o u l d be found and e x p o r t e d . A n o t h e r new g r o u p w h i c h g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d l i f e i n t h e r e g i o n , then and now, were C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s . With g r e a t f e r v o r t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s a t t e m p t e d t o f i l l a v o i d i n N a t i v e cosmology w i t h a V i c t o r i a n model of God, m o r a l i t y and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The f i r s t p r o f e s s i o n a l m o n o t h e i s t t o e n t e r the r e g i o n was F a t h e r N o b i l i who preached a t F o r t B a b i n e i n 1846. He s t a y e d o n l y two weeks but e s t a b l i s h e d e x c l u s i v e c l a i m of h i s s e c t t o the s h e p a r d i n g of the C a r r i e r and Wetsuweten. F a t h e r L a j a c q c o n t i n u e d t h i s m i n i s t r y by p e r i o d i c a l l y v i s i t i n g the C a r r i e r (Wetsuweten) as f a r west as H a g w i l g e t from 1869 t o 1880. In 1885 the most famous C a t h o l i c i n Northwest h i s t o r y , F a t h e r M o r i c e , e n t e r e d the r e g i o n 43 f o r a 19 year r e i g n t h a t saw o l d N a t i v e s p i r i t u a l ways n o m i n a l l y b a n i s h e d . As a s i g n of f i d e l i t y the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n of H a g w i l g e t c e r e m o n i a l l y burned a l l t h e i r shamanic p a r a p h a r e l i a t o h o n o r a v i s i t by F a t h e r M o r i c e . On a b r i g h t e r note the O b l a t e P r i e s t was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f i r s t a c c u r a t e map of the i n t e r i o r Northwest, the f i r s t C a r r i e r a l p h a b e t , and a remarkable h i s t o r y of i n t e r i o r 'New C a l e d o n i a ' . The A n g l i c a n Church M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y was f i r s t r e p r e s e n t e d by W i l l i a m Duncan, who a r r i v e d a t F o r t Simpson on Oct. 1, 1857. A f t e r l e a r n i n g the T s i m s h i a n language, Duncan s l o w l y won a f o l l o w i n g , and on May 27, 1862 moved f i f t y of h i s c o n v e r t s t o M e t l a k a t l a , 12 m i l e s s o u t h of the p o s t . I s o l a t e d from t e m p t a t i o n , Duncan e x e r c i s e d an i r o n w i l l as he undertook t o b u i l d a V i c t o r i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of u t o p i a . That the t a s k i n c l u d e d complete s e v e r i n g of thousands of y e a r s of c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n was o n l y a minor h u r d l e compared w i t h Duncan's problems w i t h h i s own Church. As M e t l a k a t l a grew t o over 1000 r e s i d e n t s a B i s h o p was a s s i g n e d t o o v e r s e e t h e q u e s t i o n a b l e r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e Duncan used t o c o n t r o l such a l a r g e f l o c k . Duncan and B i s h o p R i d l e y , who a r r i v e d 1879, had a n a s t y c l a s h of p e r s o n a l i t y which l e d t o e v e n t u a l v i o l e n c e between t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e N a t i v e f a c t i o n s . The r e s u l t was a major embarrass-ment w i t h i n the A n g l i c a n Church and Duncan's excommunication from the Church M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y . Duncan responded by t a k i n g over 500 o f h i s f o l l o w e r s t o New M e t l a k a t l a , j u s t i n s i d e A l a s k a n t e r r i t o r y , t o b u i l d anew h i s v e r y p e r s o n a l v i s i o n of i n d u s t r i o u s and p a t e r n a l n a t i v e C h r i s t i a n i t y (Usher: 1974, 119-135) . Duncan 44 d i e d i n 1918, but New M e t l a k a t l a e x i s t s as a American community t o t h i s day. In the t r a d i t i o n began by Duncan, o t h e r A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s s t a r t e d t h e i r own s e l f - s t y l e d U t o p i a s . Rev. R o b e r t T o m l i n s o n w o rked among the N i s h g a f o r 12 y e a r s , e s t a b l i s h i n g the m i s s i o n community of K i n c o l i t h . He l a t e r s t a r t e d a m i s s i o n near K i s p i o x V i l l a g e c a l l e d A n k i t l a s b u t a l s o r a n i n t o d i s p u t e s w i t h the i n d o m i n a b l e B i s h o p R i d l e y . Tomlinson f o l l o w e d i n Duncan's p a t h and a f t e r b r e a k i n g w i t h the Church founded a n o n s e c t a r i a n model community on the mid-Skeena at M i n s k i n i s h t i n 1888. Other A n g l i c a n p i o n e e r s i n c l u d e d Rev. R.A. Doolan who e s t a -b l i s h e d the f i r s t Nass a r e a m i s s i o n 1864. The Rev. J o h n F i e l d w o r k e d t h e H a z e l t o n a r e a f o r 30 y e a r s s t a r t i n g i n 1866. In November of 1876 Reverend and Mrs. C o l l i s o n s t a r t e d a m i s s i o n on the Queen C h a r l o t t e s . A f t e r 6 y e a r s a t M a s s e t t the C o l l i s o n ' s moved t o the Nass a r e a t o p r e a c h and r e m a i n e d t h e r e t h e r e s t of t h e i r l i v e s . The l a s t d e n o m i n a t i o n t o a r r i v e on the c o a s t were M e t h o d i s t s who o p e r a t e d a t P o r t S i m p s o n , K i t i m a t and t h e u pper S k e e n a . Thomas Crosby a r r i v e d a t P o r t Simpson i n 1873 and was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t a r t i n g a f l o a t i n g m i s s i o n on t h e E v a n g e l i n e i n 1881. Rev. W.H. P i e r c e , o f p a r t T s i m s h i a n a n c e s t r y , was o r d a i n e d i n 1887 and spent 15 y e a r s m i n i s t e r i n g a t K i s p o i x . The f l o a t i n g m e t h o d i s t m i s s i o n , now named the Thomas Crosby, s t i l l o p e r a t e s on the C o a s t . 45 The p e r i o d between 1835 and 1890 saw C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s o f v a r i o u s s e c t s a t t e m p t two v e r y d i f f e r e n t c o n v e r s i o n s t r a -t e g i e s . The A n g l i c a n U t o p i a n approach t r i e d t o i s o l a t e I n d i a n s i n a m o r a l V i c t o r i a n e n v i r o n m e n t , as c u t o f f as p o s s i b l e from c e n t u r i e s of t r a d i t i o n . T h i s approach c r e a t e d o a s i s s e t t l e m e n t s a t M e t l a k a t l a , M i n s k i n i s h t , K i n c o l i t h , G r e e n v i l l e and A i y a n s h which were s a n c t u a r i e s i n a N a t i v e w o r l d f l o o d e d by l i q u o r and w a r f a r e . The n e g a t i v e p a r t of t h i s s t r a t e g y was f o r a p a t e r n a l dependency t o d e v e l o p marked by the p e r s o n a l whim o f a s t r o n g n o n - I n d i a n l e a d e r . The w orst example of t h i s was a t M e t l a k a t l a , run by the v i s i o n of W i l l i a m Duncan. By f a i l i n g t o r e l i n g u i s h c o n t r o l of the community t o B i s h o p R i d l e y i n 1882, Duncan n e a r l y caused a major N a t i v e war. By f i n a l l y removing over 500 T s i m s h i a n from t h e i r home t e r r i t o r y i n 1887, he d i d perhaps a much g r e a t e r harm. By s p l i t t i n g the s t r o n g e s t Northwest I n d i a n t r i b e i n h a l f he l e s s e n e d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l a r e g i o n t h a t would soon be a c e n t e r even g r e a t e r of European development p r e s s u r e s . The s e c o n d m i s s i o n a r y a p p r o a c h was more c o n v e n t i o n a l and i n v o l v e d l i v i n g i n , or near, e x i s t i n g I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s . The t e a c h i n g was more o r i e n t e d towards how t o l i v e and work i n the h a l f - N a t i v e , h a l f - E u r o p e a n , w o r l d which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the Northwest at the t i m e . T h i s s t r a t e g y was l e s s d i s r u p t i v e , but a l s o l a c k e d the s u c c e s s e s of i s o l a t i o n and Utopian v i s i o n . A f t e r 1834, the sea o t t e r t r a d e d e c l i n e d and t h e N a t i v e people of the r e g i o n were b u f f e t e d by one d i s a s t e r a f t e r a n o t h e r . The w i d e a v a i l a b i l i t y of a l c o h o l and muskets a f t e r 1800 had l e d t o 46 c o n s t a n t i n t e r n e c i n e b a t t l e and p e r s o n a l d e g r a d a t i o n . On Oct. 16, 1836 a h o r r i b l e s m a l l p o x epidemic reached P o r t Simpson; over the next t h r e e y e a r s f u l l y o n e - t h i r d of a l l Northwest I n d i a n s d i e d of t h i s desease. An e s p e c i a l l y o d i o u s f o o t n o t e t o t h i s f i r s t major e p i d e m i c i s t h a t i n n o c u l a t i o n s were a v a i l a b l e t o Hudson's Bay Company s t a f f and some N a t i v e C h i e f s , b u t were not o t h e r w i s e d i s t r i b u t e d (McDonald: 1984, 4 2 ) . By t h e 1850's p r o s t i t u t i o n amongst n a t i v e women was common, which w i d e l y s p r e a d v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e s . The s p r e a d of t u b e r c u l o s i s , measles and t h e a l r e a d y mentioned m a l a d i e s i n c r e a s e d i n 1858 when thousands of Northwest N a t i v e s began annual t r i p s t o V i c t o r i a . Fur p r i c e s were h i g h e r i n the c o l o n i a l c a p i t a l , and i t had a more i n t e r e s t i n g , European environment. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , w i t h up t o h a l f the e n t i r e northwest N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n on Vancouver I s l a n d , d i s e a s e and w a r f a r e became even more w i d e s p r e a d . In A p r i l , 1862 a s h i p from San F r a n s c i s c o b rought a n o t h e r s m a l l p o x e p i d e m i c . The European l e a d e r s of V i c t o r i a d i s p e r s e d the N a t i v e s c o n g r e g a t e d t h e r e by b u r n i n g t h e i r i n f e c t e d encampments. By June 5, 1962, 85 Haida d i e d w h i l e q u a r a n t i n e d a t Ogden P o i n t near V i c t o r i a . On August 11 of the same year the Queen C h a r l o t t e s were i n f e c t e d by a w h i t e p r o s p e c t o r . Another o n e - t h i r d of the a l r e a d y decimated c o a s t a l p o p u l a t i o n d i e d i n t h i s second major s m a l l p o x e p i d e m i c . On the p o l i t i c a l f r o n t N a t i v e p e o p l e s c o n t i n u o u s l y t r i e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r s o v e r e i g n t y . I n 1851 a H.B.Co. s p o n s o r e d g o l d m i n i n g e x p e d i t i o n a t M i t c h e l l I n l e t on the Queen C h a r l o t t e s was n e a r l y m a s s a c r e d . The n e x t y e a r , on Sept. 26, 1852, the 47 H.B.Co. s h i p Susan S t u r g e s was a t t a c k e d by C h i e f Weah of Masset. The v e s s e l was l o o t e d and burned, and the crew was l a t e r ransomed f o r t r a d e i t e m s ( M e i l l e u r : 1980, 177). E s c a l a t i o n o f t h e l a n d t i t l e q u e s t i o n o c c u r r e d i n 1854 when t h e c o l o n i a l government d e n i e d the n e c e s s i t y t o e x t i n g u i s h n a t i v e ownership b e f o r e making l a n d g r a n t s . As European and American p r o s p e c t o r s c o n t i n u e d t o s c o u r the C h a r l o t t e s f o r g o l d a n o t h e r m i n i n g p a r t y was t h r e a t e n e d i n 1859. In 1865 c o n f r o n t a t i o n between a d e s t a b i l i z e d N a t i v e s o c i e t y and B r i t i s h backed a u t h o r i t y i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y . O s t e n s i b l y t o c u r t a i l t he l i q u o r t r a d e , but more r e a l i s t i c a l l y t o r e s t r i c t H.B.Co. c o m p e t i t i o n , B r i t i s h w a r s h i p s c r u i s e d t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t . On Sept. 30, 1866, the HMS C l i o f i r e d b l a n k s a l v o s over N i s h g a v i l l a g e s t o i n t i m i d a t e C h i e f s i n t o f o l l o w i n g B r i t i s h l a w s . In 1872 the HMS Scout was sent t o the Skeena t o mediate between t h e G i t k s a n and m i n e r s . A f t e r a y e a r o f s k i r m i s h e s , i n which a p r o s p e c t o r was k i l l e d and o t h e r s s h o t a t , u n e a s i n e s s between r a c e s had e s c a l a t e d t o the danger l e v e l . The people of K i t s e g u e c l a , on the upper Skeena, c l a i m e d t h a t c a r e l e s s n e s s on the p a r t of p a s s e n g e r s on a f r e i g h t canoe had caused t h e i r v i l l a g e t o burn down. Thomas Hankin had s e t t l e d the m a t t e r on h i s own, but o f f i c i a l s i n V i c t o r i a were l e s s s e c u r e . No l e s s than the L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r and A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l a r r i v e d w i t h a gunboat, met w i t h the v i l l a g e r s , and admonished them not t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h w h i t e s . They a l s o magnanimously passed out $600 t o cov e r the damage of 48 a d e s t r o y e d c o m munity. (Gough: 1984, 189-209; L a r g e : 1 9 8 1 , 31-32). At t h e same t i m e , f a r more d a n g e r o u s t h r e a t s t o I n d i a n s o v e r e i g n t y were o c c u r r i n g t o the s o u t h . The F e d e r a l government had a p p o i n t e d a C o m m i s s i o n e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n 1872. The d o l i n g out o f p r o t e c t e d t e r r i t o r i e s t o N a t i v e p e o p l e was p a r t of h i s mandate and r e s e r v e s were a l l o t e d t o the H a i d a , among o t h e r , i n 1882. A f u l l - t i m e I n d i a n Agent was a p p o i n t e d t o the r e g i o n i n 1883 but was not a c c e p t e d by t r i b a l l e a d e r s u n t i l 1888. In 1882 the N i s h g a began t h e i r s t i l l c o n t i n u i n g ' l a n d q u e s t i o n ' argument. The g e n e r a l mood o f t h e m a j o r i t y of r e g i o n N a t i v e p e o p l e s was t h a t no r e s e r v e s s h o u l d be a c c e p t e d , as a l l the l a n d was t h e i r s i n the f i r s t p l a c e . A f i n a l blow t o n a t i v e c o n t r o l and governance of the Northwest o c c u r r e d i n the t e r r i t o r y of the G i t k s a n . On F e b r u a r y 1, 1888 a man named K i t w a n c o o l J i m m u r d e r e d a shaman whom he f e l t was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s son's d e a t h . That the boy d i e d of a measle epidemic made no d i f f e r e n c e , J i m thought the K i t s e g u e c l a m e d i c i n e man was t r y i n g t o b l o c k the boys ascendancy t o a h i g h C h i e f ' s p o s i t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e some a c c o u n t s which say the shaman's death was s e t t l e d between v i l l a g e s , the i n c i d e n t was a l s o r e p o r t e d t o P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , f i v e s p e c i a l c o n s t a b l e s and the r e g i o n I n d i a n Agent were s e n t u p r i v e r from M e t l a k a t l a t o a p p r e h e n d J i m . On June 19th, 1888, two o f the c o n s t a b l e s were l e d t o Jim's h i d i n g p l a c e , where he was k i l l e d by a shot i n the back. The f i r s t k i l l i n g of the G i t k s a n by a w h i t e s e t o f f a wave 49 of bad f e e l i n g amongst the G i t k s a n , and made the s e t t l e r s i n and around i s o l a t e d H a z e l t o n f e a r f o r t h e i r l i v e s and p r o p e r t y . The Hudson's Bay Co. p o s t a t H a z e l t o n was f o r t i f i e d and u r g e n t r e q u e s t s f o r m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e s e n t s o u t h t o V i c t o r i a . Such r e l i e f was s e n t i n the form of HMS C a r o l i n e , ten s p e c i a l c o n s t a b l e s , 72 men of the Canadian M i l i t i a , the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l of B.C. and the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e . Upon l a n d i n g j u s t u p r i v e r from P o r t E s s i n g t o n , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t R o y c r o f t and the c o n s t a b l e s proceeded u p r i v e r t o q u e l l the u p r i s i n g . The m i l i t i a was l e f t b e h i n d as a backup f o r c e . A r r i v i n g i n H a z e l t o n , R o y c r o f t found a q u i e t e r s i t u a t i o n than p a n i c k e d s e t t l e r s had communicated. N e v e r t h e l e s s a m e e t i n g was c a l l e d a t which the G i t k s a n C h i e f s were t o be a d d r e s s e d by R o y c r o f t . Maureen C a s s i d y , i n her s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n of the e n t i r e i n c i d e n t , summarizes the meeting which o c c u r r e d as f o l l o w s : F o r t h e G i t k s a n t h e a f f a i r r e p r e s e n t e d the end of a way o f l i f e . On A u g u s t 3, 1888, S t i p e n d a r y M a g i s t r a t e N. F i t z s t u b b s and. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t R o y c r o f t c a l l e d t o g e t h e r t h e C h i e f s o f t h e G i t k s a n p e o p l e . The t h i r t e e n C h i e f s who came were i n f o r m e d by F i t z s t u b b s o f " t h e t e r m s on w h i c h f o r the f u t u r e we a r e t o l i v e . " These t e r m s were t h a t t h e " t h e l a w i s t h e B r i t i s h l a w n o t the I n d i a n law." No l o n g e r would the C h i e f s be a r b i t r a t o r s : "You may not s e t t l e your own q u a r r e l s . " S u p e r i n t e n d e n t R o y c r o f t was even more e x p l i c i t : " I f you e v e r d e f y t h e Queen's a u t h o r i t y , a l t h o u g h y o u may k i l l a g r e a t number o f w h i t e s , the Queen's s o l d i e r s would pursue you everywhere and shoot you down l i k e r a b b i t s . " (7-8) 50 The i n c i d e n t ended s e v e r a l weeks l a t e r when t h e m i l i t i a were s e n t home. R o y c r o f t . wrote h i s s u p e r i o r s t h a t the G i t k s a n "seem now p e r f e c t l y t o u n d e r s t a n d our power." ( C a s s i d y : 1984, 8 ) . So i t was t h a t d i s e a s e , i n t e r t r i b a l war, a l c o h o l , growing dependence on n o n - l o c a l t r a d e i t e m s , C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s , d i s l o c a t i o n , g u n b o a t d i p l o m a c y and t i g h t e n i n g B r i t i s h c o n t r o l came t o t h e r e g i o n . P e o p l e s who had been c o l l e c t o r s o f t h e w h i t e man's w e a l t h d u r i n g t h e m a r i t i m e f u r t r a d e y e a r s found t h a t p r o s p e c t o r s , f a r m e r s and l a n d based merchants d i d not s i m i l a r l y need t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n . A dependency developed t h a t saw problems caused by European c o n t a c t used as the e x c u s e t o l i m i t t r i b a l s o v e r e i g n t y and t o r e s t r i c t c u l t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n . The H a i d a , who numbered over 9,000 b e f o r e c o n t a c t were reduced t o 800 by 1885. A l l the o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s of the r e g i o n , s i m i l a r l y decimated, had e n t e r e d a p e r i o d t h a t can o n l y be d e s c r i b e d as a l o n g and h o r r i b l e n i g h t m a r e . 3.4 1890 - 1920 'Boom' Years. By 1890 the Northwest was f i r m l y w i t h i n the c o n t r o l of the B r i t i s h and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The f o c u s of a c t i v i t y s h i f t e d away from v e n t u r e s based e x c l u s i v e l y on I n d i a n g a t h