UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Social mix in urban neighbourhoods : an assessment of the concept and a review of social mix in Vancouver’s… Ng, Winnie Siu-Che 1984

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1984_A8 N04.pdf [ 6.24MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096373.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096373-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096373-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096373-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096373-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096373-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096373-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096373-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096373.ris

Full Text

SOCIAL MIX IN URBAN NEIGHBOURHOODS: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CONCEPT AND A REVIEW OF SOCIAL MIX IN VANCOUVER'S NEIGHBOURHOODS By WINNIE SIU-CHE^G B.Soc.Sc., University of Hong Kong, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Community and Regional Planning) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1984 © 1984 Winnie Siu-che Ng In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 4 ; ' h DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s reviews the concept of s o c i a l mix as i t has been developed and used by urban planners over the past s e v e r a l decades and i t p r o v i d e s an account of the degree to which Vancouver's twenty two neighbourhoods are " s o c i a l l y mixed". The two new s o c i a l l y mixed neighbourhoods planned and developed by C i t y of Vancouver, F a l s e Creek and Champlain Heights, are used as case s t u d i e s f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of the c r i t e r i a used to determine the degree to which an area i s " s o c i a l l y mixed". One c o n c l u s i o n drawn from the l i t e r a t u r e and from the C i t y of Vancouver case study i s that i t i s debatable as to whether s o c i a l mix as a s o c i a l p o l i c y t o o l i s an expedient means of accomplishing improved c o n d i t i o n s f o r the intended b e n e f i c i a r i e s . I f the aim i s to b e n e f i t lower income groups, these groups have problems and concerns which go w e l l beyond t h e i r l o c a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n a neighbourhood or c i t y . The problem of d e f i n i n g the area which should be s o c i a l l y mixed compounds the problem. There i s the micro l e v e l , meaning i n t e g r a t i o n of the b l o c k or neighbourhood, and the macro l e v e l , meaning i n t e g r a t i o n of the community but not of i t s b l o c k s or neighbourhoods. While i t i s f e l t that s t u d i e s of both micro and macro i n t e g r a t i o n are e s s e n t i a l elements of a s u c c e s s f u l s o c i a l mix p o l i c y , t h i s t h e s i s focuses on the macro l e v e l . The implementation of s o c i a l mix p o l i c y v i a the"new. area development approach" by the c i t y of Vancouver i s documented i n the case s t u d i e s of F a l s e Creek and Champlain Heights. Without p r e c l u d i n g the new area development s t r a t e g y , t h i s t h e s i s f i n d s the enrichment s t r a t e g y along the l i n e s of the now defunct Neighbourhood Improvement Program, or p o s s i b l y a c i t y - w i d e s o c i a l mix p o l i c y , can o f f e r f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o the present p r a c t i c e of c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the c r e a t i o n of new neighbourhoods while v i r t u a l l y i g n o r i n g the r e s t of the e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l areas. In order to p r o v i d e background data f o r c o n s i d e r i n g s o c i a l mix s t r a t e g i e s i n Vancouver, c e r t a i n socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the 22 neighbourhoods are presented and compared a g a i n s t the c i t y and m e t r o p o l i t a n averages based on the 1981 census. Vancouver has used the c i t y average as the c r i t e r i a f o r i t s new neighbourhood s o c i a l mix housing p o l i c y . T h i s study uses the same v a r i a b l e s used by the C i t y , t h at i s data on age, household type, household s i z e and income. In a d d i t i o n , tenure and l e n g t h of occupancy have been i n c l u d e d . The s o c i a l mix l i t e r a t u r e has shown that improvement of s o c i a l mix p o l i c y would r e q u i r e a d d r e s s i n g the complex i s s u e s o f t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f s o c i a l mix, c l a r i f y i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f a s o c i a l mix p o l i c y and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f m e a s u r a b l e c r i t e r i a . I f t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l g o a l s f o r d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o p u l a t i o n s i s t h e o v e r r i d i n g p u r p o s e , s o c i a l mix p o l i c y i s o n l y a v e r y s m a l l s t e p . M e asures w e l l b e y o n d a s o c i a l mix p o l i c y a r e r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e e xpanded c h o i c e and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p . However, g i v e n t h e l i m i t e d a u t h o r i t y and f u n d i n g o f t h e m u n i c i p a l l e v e l o f government i n Canada, a s o c i a l mix p o l i c y i s one o f t h e p o s i t i v e s t e p s a c i t y a d m i n i s t i v e body c o u l d implement, as l o n g as t h i s was v i e w e d as o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f a much b r o a d e r s t r a t e g y . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 1 . The Social Mix Debate 1 . 1 Definitions of s o c i a l mix 7 1 . 2 H i s t o r i c a l background and development... IQ 1 . 3 Objectives and goals 19 1 . 4 Arguments for s o c i a l mixing 23 1 . 5 Arguments against s o c i a l mixing ^1 CHAPTER 2. The Social Mix of Two Planned Neighbourhoods: False Creek and Champlain Heights 2 . 1 False Creek 4 3 2.2 Champlain Heights 5 5 CHAPTER 3. The Social Mix of Vancouver's Neighbourhoods 3 . 1 Methodology 5 3 3.2 Census data results Age; Household type; Household size; Income; Tenure; Length of occupancy s i 3.3 Overview of the Census data 90 v CHAPTER 4. Social Mix Policy -- F i n a l Comments 4.1 Operational d e f i n i t i o n 94 4.2 Establishment of C r i t e r i a 95 4.3 Evaluative Study 97 4.4 C l a r i f i c a t i o n of Policy Objectives 100 4.5 Enrichment strategy 102 4.6 Epilogue ]_05 APPENDICES A. Aggregation of 1981 Enumeration Areas into Neighbourhoods.. 108 B. Aggregation of 1981 Census Tracts into Neighbourhoods 115 C-l Age Dis t r i b u t i o n in Neighbourhoods H8 C-2 Household Type Dist r i b u t i o n in Neighbourhoods 119 C-3 Household Size D i s t r i b u t i o n in Neighbourhoods 120 C-4 Income Dis t r i b u t i o n in Neighbourhoods... 121 C-5 Average Incomes in Neighbourhoods 122 C-6 Tenure Di s t r i b u t i o n in Neighbourhoods... 123 C-7 Tenure and Length of Occupancy in Neighbourhoods 124 REFERENCES 125 v i TABLES 2.1 1981 Census Household Incomes - F a l s e Creek 54 2.2 1981 Census Age of P o p u l a t i o n P r o f i l e - F a l s e Creek. 2.3 1981 Census of Household Types - F a l s e Creek 54 2.4 1981 Census Household S i z e - F a l s e Creek 55 2.5 Comparison of F a l s e Creek w i t h Champlain Heights.... 62 2.6 Comparison of F a l s e Creek w i t h F a i r v i e w and Champlain Heights w i t h K i l l a r n e y 64 3.1 Age D i s t r i b u t i o n : Summary of Gre a t e s t V a r i a t i o n s . . . . 81 v i i FIGURES 2.1 False Creek, Phase 1 Site Plan 48 2.2 False Creek, Phase 2 Site Plan 49 2.3 False Creek Phase 3 Development Plan 50 2.4 Champlain Heights Site Map 57 2.5 Champlain Heights: Residential Land Use Areas A-D.. 59 2.6 Champlain Heights: Residential Land Use Areas E-F.. 5^ 2.7a 1981 Census Tracts 72 2.7b Neighbourhood Boundaries in Vancouver 73 3.1 Age D i s t r i b u t i o n in Neighbourhoods 74 3.2 Household Type d i s t r i b u t i o n in Neighbourhoods 75 3.3 Household Size D i s t r i b u t i o n in Neighbourhoods 75 3.4 Income Dis t r i b u t i o n in Neighbourhoods 77 3.5 Average Incomes in Neighbourhoods 78 3.6 Tenure D i s t r i b u t i o n in Neighbourhoods 79 3.7 Tenure and Length of Occupancy in Neighbourhoods... 80 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to ex p r e s s my deepest thanks t o Dr. Da v i d H u l c h a n s k i f o r h i s u n f a i l i n g s u p p o r t and guidance w h i l e I was w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s , and to Dr. Henry Hightower f o r h i s c o n t i n u o u s encouragemnet and c o n s t r u c t i v e comments. Thanks i s a l s o extended t o our f a m i l y f r i e n d s , the Chattaways, who have h e l p e d me i n the f i n a l f o r m a t t i n g o f the t h e s i s . L a s t b u t n o t the l e a s t , thanks to my f a m i l y members, Ch a i my husband and M i c h e l l e my daughter, f o r b e a r i n g w i t h me d u r i n g the time I went to the P l a n n i n g S c h o o l . i x INTRODUCTION Throughout the h i s t o r y of modern urban p l a n n i n g , many planners have looked to the i d e a l of the s o c i a l l y mixed community i n the hope t h a t a s p i r i t of community c o - o p e r a t i o n c o u l d be f o s t e r e d . T h i s p l a n n i n g i d e o l o g y , reduced i n some cases to s i m p l i s t i c environmental determinism, continues to have a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on the theory and p r a c t i c e of r e s i d e n t i a l p l a n n i n g i n North America.[1] S o c i a l mix, f o r example, has been s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as p a r t of the C i t y of Vancouver's housing g o a l . In the "Goals f o r Vancouver" p u b l i s h e d by the Vancouver C i t y P l anning Commission i n 1980, the f o l l o w i n g g o a l i s s t a t e d w i t h regards t o s o c i a l mix: Support Vancouver's s o c i a l development as a c i t y t h a t i s home to a wide v a r i e t y of people w i t h many d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l and group backgrounds and many d i f f e r e n t l i f e s t y l e s . S o c i a l mix r e f e r s to people w i t h d i f f e r e n t l i f e s t y l e s , ages, f a m i l y s t a t u s , e t h n i c o r i g i n s , incomes, r e l i g i o n s , and a l l the other t r a i t s t h a t comprise the human experience.[2] Vancouver's g e n e r a l housing p o l i c y i s aimed at m a i n t a i n i n g a stock of housing o f f e r i n g a range of tenures and d w e l l i n g types s u f f i c i e n t to meet the c u r r e n t housing demand and the needs of a range of socio-economic groups.[3] However, whether i n d i v i d u a l neighbourhoods should be Page 1 homogeneous in terms of housing types and income mixes accommodated or whether d i v e r s i t y or heterogeneity should be encouraged i s one of the more controversial issues r e l a t i n g to r e s i d e n t i a l development and redevelopment in the c i t y . The aim of th i s study i s to contribute to the understanding of the nature, content and implications of r e s i d e n t i a l s o c i a l mix p o l i c y . With s p e c i f i c reference to Vancouver, this thesis i d e n t i f i e s the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l mix of the c i t y ' s 22 neighbourhoods and discuss the issues r e l a t i n g to achieving a "better" s o c i a l mix. Delimitation of the boundaries of the 22 neighbourhoods i s provided in Chapter 2 (See Fig. 2.7b). The implementation of the Local Area Planning (LAP) programs. Neighbourhood Improvement Programs (NIP) and the Residential Rehabilitation Assistance Programs (RRAP) have generally made use of the c i t y ' s neighbourhood boundaries, though, they sometimes have involved only certain segments of a p a r t i c u l a r neighbourhood. In terms of scale, neighbourhood as i s used in th i s thesis covers greater physical span than i s being used for the above mentioned programs. The current central area planning process, known as Coreplan, has outlined broad directions and general actions required to deal with Vancouver's future growth based upon assumptions of central area growth. Fundamental q u a l i t i e s such as " v i t a l i t y " and "equity" are two of the c r i t e r i a for core change. We have yet to see whether t h i s on-going Core Plan process w i l l be able to Page 2 introduce p o l i c i e s capable of ensuring that s o c i a l mix becomes more than a planning slogan in the c i t y ' s planning p o l i c i e s . The s o c i a l mix concept i s usually advanced because some s p e c i f i e d or unspecified s o c i a l benefits are expected to accrue from the attainment of s o c i a l l y mixed communities. These benefits are deemed to be preferable to a condition of s o c i a l l y unmixed or "unbalanced" communities. Most expressions of the s o c i a l l y mixed community posits an undefined demographic arrangement i n which sub-areas of c i t i e s or metropolitan regions mirror, to some degree, the demographic composition of the whole. The p r i n c i p a l device to achieve t h i s o v e r a l l objective i s by expanded housing and loc a t i o n a l opportunities for s o c i a l groups which currently do not enjoy these choices. Therefore, to a large extent, most s o c i a l mix p o l i c i e s are to some degree housing integration p o l i c i e s . The Vancouver p o l i c y f a l l s in this category. This thesis accepts that the s o c i a l mix concept can o f f e r an e f f e c t i v e means for the achievement of these objectives. The d i s t i n c t i o n between the s o c i a l mix concept and s o c i a l mix p o l i c y i s an important one. There are vari e t y of ways in which the objectives of the concept, with i t s rationale for the s o c i a l and s p a t i a l integration of dif f e r e n t elements of the population, might be approached. Page 3 The much c r i t i c i z e d u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o g r a m was c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n p a r t a s o c i a l mix p o l i c y i n t h a t t h e b e t t e r - o f f p o p u l a t i o n s were e n c o u r a g e d o r a t t r a c t e d t o r e m a i n i n t h e i n n e r - c i t y . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t u r b a n "renewed" s i t e s were u s e d f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g , however, huge s o c i a l l y unmixed p r o j e c t s and c o m m u n i t i e s were c r e a t e d . The more t y p i c a l e x p r e s s i o n o f s o c i a l mix p o l i c y t o d a y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f h i g h u r b a n l a n d and h o u s i n g c o s t s and g e n t r i f i c a t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o r t h e encouragement o f t h e p r o v i s i o n o f low and m o d e r a t e income h o u s i n g i n a r e a s o f new u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t . I n t h e s e c a s e s , p u b l i c p o l i c y o f t e n t r i e s t o o f f s e t t h e t e n d e n c y f o r s u c h a r e a s t o become p r e d o m i n a n t l y o c c u p i e d by m i d d l e and u p p e r income h o u s e h o l d s . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s t o c l a r i f y t h a t t h e s o c i a l mix c o n c e p t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be b r o a d e r and more g e n e r a l t h a n any p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l mix p o l i c y , and t h a t a c c e p t a n c e o r o p p o s i t i o n t o any p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e c o n c e p t . SCOPE OF STUDY The s t u d y o f s o c i a l mix can b r o a d l y be d i v i d e d i n t o t h e m i c r o and macro l e v e l s . A t t h e m i c r o l e v e l , t h e q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e w h e t h e r u r b a n p l a n n e r s s h o u l d have t h e power t o i n f l u e n c e p a t t e r n s o f s o c i a l l i f e , and w h e t h e r some p a t t e r n s o f s o c i a l l i f e c a n be deemed t o be more d e s i r a b l e t h a n o t h e r s . C o n c e p t s s u c h as t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , p r i v a c y and Page 4 t h e c o n t e x t u a l e n v i r o n m e n t s o f l i f e s t y l e and l i f e c y c l e a l s o f a l l u n d e r t h e m i c r o s t u d i e s . W h i l e t h i s s t u d y a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e f a c t t h a t m i c r o s t u d i e s a r e e s s e n t i a l t o t h e f o r m u l a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t o f p o l i c i e s , t h i s t h e s i s does n o t d e a l i n d e p t h w i t h s u c h s t u d i e s . T h i s t h e s i s i s f o c u s e d on m a c r o - i n t e g r a t i o n , on how t h e p o l i c y as i s p r e s e n t l y i m p l e m e n t e d can be i m p r o v e d . A more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between macro and m i c r o i n t e g r a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d i n C h a p t e r 1.1. C h a p t e r 1 r e v i e w s t h e s o c i a l mix d e b a t e , i n c l u d i n g t h e p r o b l e m o f d e f i n i t i o n s . The p r o b l e m o f t h e s p a t i a l d e l i m i t a t i o n f o r a s o c i a l l y m i x e d a r e a i s t h e f o c u s . The h i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o n c e p t on a more u n i v e r s a l s c a l e i s t r a c e d . The g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s of s o c i a l mix a r e p r e s e n t e d . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d b y e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n s u p p o r t o f s o c i a l m i x i n g as w e l l as arguments a g a i n s t s o c i a l m i x i n g . C h a p t e r 2 p r o v i d e s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f how t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ' s p l a n n e r s d e f i n e d s o c i a l mix i n t h e p l a n n e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s o f F a l s e C r e e k and C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r t h e two c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h r e g a r d s t o s o c i a l m i x i n g c r i t e r i a a r e p r e s e n t e d . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s o c i a l mix p o l i c y w i t h a h o u s i n g o r i e n t a t i o n by t h e C i t y u s i n g t h e new a r e a d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y i s documented. C h a p t e r 3 p r o v i d e s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a f r o m t h e 1981 Page 5 census f o r the 22 neighbourhoods i n the C i t y . The p r o f i l e s f o r the neighbourhoods are drawn up and compared a g a i n s t the c i t y averages, the m e t r o p o l i t a n averages, and the c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d by the C i t y f o r F a l s e Creek and Champlain Heights. The data i n t h i s chapter p r o v i d e s a review of j u s t how s o c i a l l y mixed the e x i s t i n g neighbourhoods are. As the C i t y has approached the su b j e c t of s o c i a l mix i n demographic terms, the f i n d i n g s of t h i s chapter are intended f o r the c i t y ' s c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r dev e l o p i n g a c i t y - w i d e s o c i a l mix p o l i c y . In Chapter 4, some recommendations are made f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n of p o l i c y r e l a t i n g t o s o c i a l mix and f o r the improvement of present c i t y p o l i c y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , an attempt i s made to c l a r i f y the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of the p o l i c y and p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s . An enrichment s t r a t e g y i s proposed as an expansion of the present p o l i c y . METHODOLOGY The study i s based p r i m a r i l y on a l i t e r a t u r e review and on an e m p i r i c a l assessment of the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Vancouver neighbourhoods. The e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h i s based on the aggregation of 1981 census socio-economic data f o r the 22 neighbourhoods i n the C i t y of Vancouver i n order to prov i d e an e m p i r i c a l b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i n g the p o t e n t i a l impact of s o c i a l mix p o l i c y i n the C i t y . Page 6 CHAPTER ONE THE SOCIAL MIX DEBATE 1.1 DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL MIX The c o n c e p t o f " s o c i a l m i x " o r " s o c i a l l y b a l a n c e d " c o m m u n i t y i s one o f t h e c o n c e p t s i n t h e f i e l d o f u r b a n a f f a i r s w h i c h , w h i l e r e c e i v i n g r a t h e r w i d e s p r e a d u s a g e , does n o t have a c o r r e s p o n d i n g u n i v e r s a l o r w i d e l y a c c e p t e d d e f i n i t i o n . [ 4 ] The l a c k o f an a g r e e d - u p o n d e f i n i t i o n p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n c e p t i s l a r g e l y s u b j e c t i v e and e m p i r i c a l l y u n v e r i f i a b l e . D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n a l p r o b l e m i s n o n e t h e l e s s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e p r o c e s s o f p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n and p r o g r a m f e a s i b i l i t y . One t e r m commonly f o u n d i n t h e s o c i a l m i x l i t e r a t u r e i s s o c i a l b a l a n c e . T h i s t e r m i s u s u a l l y d e f i n e d as e i t h e r a c o n d i t i o n o f d y n a m i c e q u i l i b r i u m , a r a t h e r s t a t i c s t a t e , o r a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s t h a t p r o m o t e s a c o n d i t i o n o f g e n e r a l s t a b i l i t y w i t h i n a d y n a m i c s e t t i n g . One e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s r e v e a l e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t a b i l i t y . S h o u l d c o n c e r n o v e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t a b i l i t y be s u c h t h a t n e i g h b o u r h o o d c h a n g e i s u n a c c e p t a b l e , o r m i g h t some d e g r e e o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d c h a n g e be a p r e c o n d i t i o n t o t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e o v e r a l l c o m m u n i t y ? Page 7 S o c i a l balance g e n e r a l l y r e f e r s to a c o n d i t i o n of the presence of a v a r i e t y of ' s o c i a l groups' or 'socio-economic s t a t u s groups' w i t h i n some s p a t i a l l y d e f i n e d area-[5] But i s an area i n t e g r a t e d or balanced i f i t simply i s not homogeneous i n i t s p o p u l a t i o n components? Must an area r e f l e c t the socio-economic p r o p o r t i o n s of the c i t y or the m e t r o p o l i t a n areas i n order to be co n s i d e r e d balanced? What c r i t e r i a c o n t r i b u t e to "balance"? The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of what i s or i s not a s o c i a l l y mixed community i s a matter of s u b j e c t i v e judgment f o r which there are no g e n e r a l l y agreed upon c r i t e r i a . One may begin w i t h the gen e r a l d e f i n i t i o n of a s o c i a l l y mixed community as a sub-area of the o v e r a l l c i t y or m e t r o p o l i t a n area which reasonably r e f l e c t s the demographic composition of the c i t y or m e t r o p o l i t a n area. What c o n s t i t u t e s an a p p r o p r i a t e sub-area of the o v e r a l l l o c a l e f o r the measurement of the degree of s o c i a l balance or l a c k of i t i n v o l v e s much l a t i t u d e i n judgment. The d e l i n e a t i o n of s o c i a l areas f o r a n a l y s i s a f f e c t s the degree to which there i s or i s not evidence of ' s o c i a l balance" and i s c r i t i c a l w i t h r e s p e c t to the s o c i a l impact of a l t e r n a t i v e demographic arrangements. In a d d i t i o n to the problem of c r i t e r i a f o r s o c i a l mix, there i s no w i d e l y agreed upon c r i t e r i a f o r what c o n s t i t u t e s a "community", "neighbourhood" or even a " b l o c k " . [ 6 ] Together w i t h the problem of d e f i n i n g community Page 8 and n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s t h e f u r t h e r p r o b l e m o f measurement. S h o u l d , f o r example, a s o c i a l mix p o l i c y employ a s t a t i c o r dynamic d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l l y m i x e d community? A s o c i a l mix p o l i c y w o u l d a p p e a r t o r e q u i r e mechanisms f o r c o n t i n u a l m o n i t o r i n g o f t h e s o c i a l l y m i x e d a r e a s and p r o c e d u r e s f o r a ' f i n e - t u n i n g ' o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r o f t h e a r e a . In t h i s t h e s i s , t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f s o c i a l mix f o l l o w s t h e common e x p r e s s i o n o f d e m o g r a p h i c a r r a n g e m e n t i n w h i c h n e i g h b o u r h o o d s and p r o j e c t d e v e l o p m e n t s m i r r o r t h e d e m o g r a p h i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e c i t y and r e g i o n . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f s o c i a l mix must s t a r t w i t h a d i s t i n c t i o n between p o t e n t i a l ( o r p h y s i c a l ) and a c t u a l ( o r s o c i a l ) i n t e g r a t i o n . P o t e n t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n e x i s t s when h e t e r o g e n e o u s p e o p l e o n l y o c c u p y a d j a c e n t p h y s i c a l s p a c e , a c t u a l i n t e g r a t i o n e x i s t s i f s u c h p e o p l e a l s o i n t e r a c t s o c i a l l y . T h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n l e a d s t o a d i s t i n c t i o n between two v e r y d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f i n t e g r a t i o n p o l i c y : m i c r o - i n t e g r a t i o n and m a c r o - i n t e g r a t i o n . M i c r o - i n t e g r a t i o n means i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e b l o c k o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d ; m a c r o - i n t e g r a t i o n means i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e community b u t n o t o f i t s b l o c k s o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . Though m i c r o - i n t e g r a t i o n does n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e q u i r e a c t u a l i n t e g r a t i o n , i t c a r r i e s w i t h i t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c t u a l i n t e g r a t i o n , by t h a t p e o p l e o f Page 9 d i f f e r e n t c l a s s and r a c e s h a r e t h e p h y s i c a l s p a c e s t o engage i n a c t u a l i n t e g r a t i o n , w i t h o u t , however, p r e c l u d i n g i t . I n s t e a d t h e y have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o engage i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h h e t e r o g e n e o u s members on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s , t h e s p a t i a l s e p a r a t i o n f r o m h e t e r o g e n e o u s o t h e r s g i v e s them a c h o i c e . 1.2 SOCIAL MIX - HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT The i d e a o f s o c i a l mix i n town p l a n n i n g d a t e s f r o m e a r l y i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and has been a d v o c a t e d f o r a wide v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s . E a r l y a d v o c a t e s combined a r o m a n t i c n o s t a l g i a f o r r u r a l l i f e w i t h t h e u t i l i t a r i a n d r i v e t o make u r b a n l i f e more o r d e r l y and e f f i c i e n t . George C a d b u r y ' s B o u r n v i l l e was E n g l a n d ' s f i r s t example o f p l a n n e d r e s i d e n t i a l mix and i t was f o l l o w e d by t h e G a r d e n C i t y p l a n n e r s . The B r i t i s h f o u n d e r s o f t h e S e t t l e m e n t House movement p r o p a g a t e d a n o t h e r i d e a o f s o c i a l mix, t h a t o f e d u c a t i n g and ' u p l i f t i n g ' t h e u r b a n p o o r . T h e s e s o r t s o f movements c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e ' b a l a n c e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d " c o n c e p t on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e A t l a n t i c . The t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g o f P a t r i c k Geddes and L e w i s Mumford r a i s e d t h e i d e a l f a r above t h e modest aims o f i t s e a r l i e r p r o p o n e n t s . T h e i r i d e a s and i d e a l s were w e l l r e c e i v e d e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War. The C o l d Page 10 War, desegregation, slum clearance and the mushrooming growth of new suburban developments contributed to the acceptance of s o c i a l mix as a goal for planners. The idea was, however, widely challenged in the s i x t i e s . Today the arguments for and against s o c i a l mix remain largely unsupported by empirical evidence. It i s assumed thus that the current case for s o c i a l mix rests l a r g e l y on the t h e o r e t i c a l writings of i t s h i s t o r i c a l proponents. In 1845, a London architect proposed to b u i l d a v i l l a g e near I l f o r d station which would accommodate a mixed group of communities in 'pretty self-contained cottages 1 in an a t t r a c t i v e r u r a l s etting abounding in 'air and space, wood and water, schools and churches, shrubberies and gardens 1.[7] This has brought fort h two strands of Victorian thought favourable to the idea of s o c i a l mix. One strand was romantic and conservative. The highly v i s i b l e degradation of l i f e in the new c i t i e s of i n d u s t r i a l England caused many s o c i a l c r i t i c s to i d e a l i z e the p r e i n d u s t r i a l v i l l a g e of 'Merrie England'. The second trend was u t i l i t a r i a n . Segregation according to class and income was a general feature of new i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s , which were also overcrowded and short on housing and e s s e n t i a l services. Mixed communities would, i t was hoped, function better. Cadbury's Bournville. John Cadbury in 1849 devised the 'Model Parish Mission 1, a factory town with an Page 11 integration of r u r a l and urban pursuits, enforced temperance, and provision for the care of the aged. The project aimed at r a i s i n g the workers standards of health and morality. The f i r s t residents were selected with a view to gathering together as mixed a community as possible applied to character and interests as well as to income and s o c i a l class.[8] Ebenezer Howard and the Garden C i t y Movement. The spread of 'Garden C i t i e s ' on the model of Ebenezer Howard also contributed to the growth of the idea of s o c i a l mix. However, Howard's garden c i t y was segregated according to class and income on the micro-level,though taken as a whole, i t included a cross section of society. From 1903 to the F i r s t World War, the garden c i t y was publicized and popularized by many who promoted the limited form of r e s i d e n t i a l s o c i a l mix. A contemporary of Howard, A.R. Sennett, however, did not favour r e s i d e n t i a l mix on a small scale. To Sennett, r e s i d e n t i a l segregation was essen t i a l , any greater degree of mix would mean 'a dead l e v e l of equality, and hence mediocrity', for the outcry of equality had proved to be in his view the 'curse of i n d u s t r i a l England'.[9] The Settlement House and Co-partnership Movement. Samuel and Henrietta Barnett founded the f i r s t Settlement House in inner London in the 1880's 'to bring r i c h and poor Page 12 t o g e t h e r i n m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g ' . In A m e r i c a , L e w i s Mumford c l a i m e d t h e S e t t l e m e n t House l e d t o 'the new c o n c e p t i o n o f an o r i g i n a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d w h i c h i s f u n d a m e n t a l t o t h e b e s t h o u s i n g and community b u i l d i n g t h a t have been done d u r i n g t h e p a s t g e n e r a t i o n ' . [ 1 0 ] L e w i s Mumford. I n p r o p a g a t i n g t h e i d e a o f s o c i a l mix, Mumford has g i v e n t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g p h i l o s o p h i c s u p p o r t t o a m a j o r p l a n n i n g i d e o l o g y , w h i c h h o l d s t h a t town p l a n n i n g i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e p h y s i c a l b a s i s f o r b e t t e r u r b a n community l i f e . [ 1 1 ] Mumford s t r o n g l y o p p o s e d s e g r e g a t i o n o f a l l s o r t s and a r g u e d on f u n c t i o n a l l i n e s : 'the c i t y , i f i t i s t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y , c a n n o t be a s e g r e g a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e c i t y w i t h t h e s i n g l e c l a s s , w i t h a s i n g l e s o c i a l s t r a t u m , w i t h a s i n g l e t y p e o f i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y , o f f e r s f e w e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e h i g h e r forms o f human a c h i e v e m e n t t h a n a m a n y - s i d e d u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t ' . [ 1 2 ] As f o r s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s , t h e ' b a l a n c e d p e r s o n a l i t y 1 r e q u i r e s 'a c a p a c i t y f o r s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t and s o c i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n 1 t h a t c a n o n l y be a c h i e v e d i f 'a v a r i e t y o f o c c u p a t i o n s , a v a r i e t y o f e n v i r o n m e n t s , a v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l g r o u p i n g s ' a r e open t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . W i t h o u t v a r i e t y , i n n o v a t i o n w i l l be s t u l t i f i e d [ 1 3 ] , w i t h o u t t h e ' e s s e n t i a l human need f o r d i s h a r m o n y and c o n f l i c t 1 human p s y c h o l o g i c a l g r o w t h c a n n o t o c c u r . [ 1 4 ] He c l a i m e d t h e c i t y s h o u l d r e p r e s e n t , i n m i c r o c o s m , t h e w o r l d a t l a r g e . I t was Mumford who r e d u c e d t h e h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f t h e c i t y t o t h e Page 13 scale of the 'neighbourhood'. Although some modern planners praised the a l l -encompassing views of s o c i a l planning held by Mumford, many have attacked his ' h o l i s t i c ' approach for creating a planning myth of the 'urban whole', which causes planners to take an u n r e a l i s t i c view of the d i v e r s i t y by modern society. Herbert Gans, in his "The Balanced Community-Homogeneity or Heterogeneity in Residential areas?" concluded that population heterogeneity contributed r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e toward the achievement of c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l and educational ends or values which the planners advocated. Heterogeneity helps prevent undesirable i n e q u a l i t i e s in the le v e l of community services, but i t i s not the means to a l l e v i a t e glaring s o c i a l and economic inequality. Post-war Revival of Interest in Soc i a l Mix. Interest in s o c i a l mix was revived on a very large scale at the end of World War II for reasons with problems of post war society and the world at large. A desire to extend to the post-war, reconstructed society the 'togetherness and lack of s o c i a l barriers exhibited during the war years' in the armed forces and the c i v i l defence services, led to a renewed interest in the concept of 'soc i a l balance 1 at the neighbourhood l e v e l as the end of the war approached.[15] For many planners the material expression of the post-war ' s p i r i t of fellowship' was the neighbourhood unit. It was Page 14 i n the immediate post-war p e r i o d that the ' s o c i a l l y balanced' neighbourhood was given a s p e c i f i c a l l y s a n c t i f i e d p l a c e i n p l a n n i n g t e x t s , although n e i t h e r the degree of mix nor the means of a c h i e v i n g mix was s p e l l e d out very c l e a r l y . The p h y s i c a l c h a l l e n g e of S o v i e t and Chinese communism a f t e r the War gave the western democracies cause to re-examine, d e f e n s i v e l y , the j u s t i c e of t h e i r own economic system. S o c i a l mix, by removing impediments to e d u c a t i o n a l and other o p p o r t u n i t i e s , i s employed to secure a decent f a m i l y l i f e i n neighbourhoods which a f f o r d equal access to a l l . In America, c i v i l l i b e r t a r i a n s f ocussed on housing and p l a n n i n g as champions of s o c i a l mix to promote e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y and suppress r a c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n . The c o n t i n u i n g decay of i n n e r - c i t y r e s i d e n t i a l areas and the f l i g h t of the b e t t e r o f f to the suburban areas were matters of concern i n both America and England. Planners' a t t e n t i o n were drawn to the c e n t r a l c i t y ' s r e s i d e n t i a l areas when n a t i o n a l housing shortages a f t e r the war were eminent. S e r v i c e s had d e t e r i o r a t e d , housing standards had f a l l e n , crime was r i f e , and many areas were pronounced 'slums' by urban renewal a u t h o r i t i e s . In response to the p h y s i c a l problems of the 'decaying c o r e 1 and the s o c i a l problems which were seen as the product of hig h r e s i d e n t i a l m o b i l i t y and r a c i a l and c l a s s homogeneity, many planners advocated r e s i d e n t i a l s o c i a l mix. The emphasis on mix to encourage Page 15 community s t a b i l i t y was a l s o e x t e n d e d t o a r e a s o u t s i d e t h e i n n e r c i t y . P o o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s were u n a b l e t o s u p p o r t good s c h o o l s y s t e m s , p u b l i c t r a n s i t s y s t e m s , w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , t h e r e f o r e p l a n n e r s a r g u e d , ''a u n i t t h a t c o n s i s t s o f w o r k e r s , w i t h o u t t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s and r i c h g r o u p s i s u n a b l e t o s u p p o r t e v e n t h e e l e m e n t a r y c i v i c e q u i p m e n t o f r o a d s , s e w e r s , f i r e d e p a r t m e n t , p o l i c e s e r v i c e s , and s c h o o l s . " [ 1 6 ] R e - a p p r a i s a l s o f t h e S o c i a l Mix C o n c e p t . Re-a p p r a i s a l s o f s o c i a l mix began when t h e e x t e r n a l f o r c e s n u r t u r i n g t h e i d e a r e t r e a t e d . When t h e w a r t i m e m o b i l i z a t i o n i s r e p l a c e d by p e a c e t i m e c o m p e t i t i o n , t h e C o l d War by d e t e n t e , and t h e i d e a l o f i n t e g r a t i o n b y t h e i d e a o f b l a c k power i n A m e r i c a , t h e e x a g g e r a t e d c l a i m s made f o r s o c i a l mix were b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d . I t has become i n c r e a s i n g l y common i n r e c e n t y e a r s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s t o e x p r e s s s k e p t i c i s m a b o u t t h e f e a s i b i l i t y and ' d e s i r a b i l i t y o f i n t e r v e n t i o n t o f o s t e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c m i x i n g i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s ' . [ 1 7 ] In t h e S t a t e s , t h e b l a c k m i l i t a n t s were a n o t h e r g r o u p o f r e -a p p r a i s e r s who i n s i s t e d t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n t h r e a t e n e d t h e s o l i d a r i t y o f t h e g h e t t o , t h a t i t was a d e v i c e t o d e v i d e and r u l e . I n B r i t a i n , s o c i a l mix has a l s o been a t t a c k e d by t h e l e f t as an i n e f f e c t u a l l i b e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e t o s o c i a l change, an a t t a c k on w o r k i n g c l a s s v a l u e s , and an a t t a c k on w o r k i n g c l a s s s o l i d a r i t y . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e i d e a o f s o c i a l mix c o n t i n u e s t o Page 16 command a great deal of inte r e s t . In the Canadian scene, studies on the s o c i a l mix concept were done for the False Creek project on the west coast and the St. Lawrence project on the other side of the continent. Exclusionary Zoning. Throughout history, s o c i a l balance has been affected considerably by zoning as a public intervention measure. The application of thi s police power granted to the c i t y council appears to have provided part of the solution to creating s o c i a l l y mixed communities. However, zoning in land development can be two edged in i t s application. "Exclusionary zoning 1 for instance has posed as a barr i e r to the creation of s o c i a l l y mixed communities. Exclusionary zoning i s a process in which a subarea i s zoned for uses which would i n d i r e c t l y but e f f e c t i v e l y prevent the inmigration of low and moderate income families into the excluded area. Examples are zoning an area excluded for excessively large lots which made i t d i f f i c u l t for developers to implace anything but higher priced housing. The requirement of extensive f l o o r area r a t i o w i l l also force developers to b u i l d large and more expensive units. S i m i l a r l y , a l l r e s i d e n t i a l land uses except single family homes may be excluded from the exclusive area. In short, an area may be zoned to exclude non-conforming uses, when in effect the hidden rationale i s to exclude "non-conforming people". Page 17 Inclusionary Zoning. A recent trend in planning and s o c i a l p olicy, e s p e c i a l l y in the States, i s a reaction to exclusionary zoning and general r e s i d e n t i a l discrimination. Inclusionary zoning i s introduced. Inclusionary zoning can be viewed as a new area development p o l i c y in which a certain portion of the units on s i t e w i l l be low and moderate income housing. Other procedures to introduce more f l e x i b i l i t y into the zoning process are conditional zoning, bonus zoning, f l o o r area r a t i o s and planned community plans. Parliamentary delegation of l e g a l powers to l o c a l government stipulates that "A municipal council, in the exercise of i t s law-making powers, cannot authorize i t s e l f to judge each case on i t s merits".[18] This means that i t is not proper to pass a by-law providing that each applicant seek approval of his project from Council. Law i s conceived to deal with a class of cases, not with i n d i v i d u a l instances. However, there are two apparent exceptions to the rule where a development permit i s negotiated under S.717 of the Municipal Act, and in the case of on-spot zoning where only a single s i t e i s involved. It i s also stated that a municipal council cannot f e t t e r the l e g i s l a t i v e freedom of action of future councils. An exception to t h i s rule exists in the case of development permit provisions of the Municipal Act (S.717), there i s Page 18 " e x p r e s s s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y " t o b a r g a i n away r e g u l a t o r y z o n i n g powers i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e community. Whereas m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B.C. a r e g o v e r n e d by t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t , t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r i s g o v e r n e d by t h e V a n c o u v e r C h a r t e r . One o f t h e q u a s i - j u d i c i a l powers d e l e g a t e d t o t h e c o u n c i l by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government i s t h a t t h e c o u n c i l may a d j u d i c a t e t h e making, amendment, o r r e p e a l o f a z o n i n g - b y - l a w a t a m a n d a t o r y p u b l i c h e a r i n g ( S e c t i o n 566, V a n c o u v e r C h a r t e r ) . The e x c e p t i o n s t o t h e r u l e i n t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t and t h e p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r C h a r t e r w i l l a l l o w t h e C i t y C o u n c i l s t o pave t h e way f o r " i n c l u s i o n a r y z o n i n g " i n w h i c h a s o c i a l l y m i x e d community can be c r e a t e d . 1.3 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF SOCIAL MIX D i s t i n c t i o n s between p o t e n t i a l and a c t u a l i n t e g r a t i o n , and m i c r o - and m a c r o - i n t e g r a t i o n have been o u t l i n e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n . T h i s s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s t h e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f s o c i a l mix. The b e n e f i t s a c c r u e d f r o m b o t h m i c r o and macro i n t e g r a t i o n a r e n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n . The s t a t e d g o a l s o f s o c i a l mix as f o u n d i n t h e Page 19 s o c i a l mix l i t e r a t u r e a r e summarized as f o l l o w s : 1. To " r a i s e t h e s t a n d a r d s o f t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s " by n u r t u r i n g a " s p i r i t o f e m u l a t i o n " . E a r l y a d v o c a t e s a r g u e d t h a t t h e n e a t n e s s , c l e a n l i n e s s , and g e n e r a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p o o r c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o i m p r o v e t h r o u g h f r e q u e n t v i s u a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e h i g h e r o r d e r s ( P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s , 1 833). The s t a n d a r d s r a i s e d i n c l u d e h e a l t h [ 1 9 ] , e d u c a t i o n [ 2 0 ] and ' t a s t e ' [ 2 1 ] . T h i s g o a l was a d i r e c t r e s p o n s e t o t h e s l u m l i v i n g o f i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . 2. To e n c o u r a g e a e s t h e t i c d i v e r s i t y and r a i s e a e s t h e t i c s t a n d a r d s . The v i s u a l d i v e r s i t y o f b u i l d i n g s i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s o c c u p i e d by d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s and e t h n i c g r o u p s i s a n o t h e r a l l e g e d b e n e f i t o f s o c i a l mix. T h r o u g h a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n and a w e l l m a i n t a i n e d p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , b o r i n g u n i f o r m i t y can be a v o i d e d . 3. To e n c o u r a g e c u l t u r a l c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n . I n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l a d v a n c e s a r e p r o m o t e d by r e m o v i n g a r t and c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s f r o m t h e e x c l u s i v e c o n t r o l o f t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s . 4. To i n c r e a s e e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y . M i x e d c o m m u n i t i e s a r e e s s e n t i a l t o a s o c i e t y ' w i t h Page 20 f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e , f r e e d o m t o move up o c c u p a t i o n a l and s o c i a l l a d d e r s , and o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l l i f e ' . [ 2 2 ] R e a c h i n g t h e same c o n c l u s i o n f r o m n e g a t i v e e v i d e n c e , o t h e r s have c l a i m e d t h a t p r i v i l e g e d , homogeneous c o m m u n i t i e s become h o t beds o f r e a c t i o n a r y p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n t h a t aims a t l i m i t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d , and t h a t t h e s c h o o l s i n s e g r e g a t e d , p o o r c o m m u n i t i e s ' i m p a i r t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e c h i l d t o p r o f i t f r o m t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d him'. A l s o i m p l i c i t i n t h i s g o a l i s t h e f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e i n h o u s i n g , i n p a r t i c u l a r t o m i n o r i t y and d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s , i n terms o f l o c a t i o n , s i z e , p r i c e and g e n e r a l q u a l i t y . 5. To promote s o c i a l harmony by r e d u c i n g s o c i a l and r a c i a l t e n s i o n s . T h r o u g h m u t u a l e x p o s u r e and i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n among s o c i a l g r o u p s , a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g between c l a s s e s w i l l be p r o m o t e d . 6 . To i m prove t h e p h y s i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e c i t y and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . i ) L e a d e r s h i p - r e s i d e n t i a l mix aims a t p r o v i d i n g a g g r e s s i v e and competent l e a d e r s h i p f r o m t h e e s s e n t i a l group of k n o w l e d g e a b l e l e a d e r s f r o m t h e m i d d l e c l a s s who have t h e l e i s u r e and a f f l u e n c e t o f i l l l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s . S u p p o s e d l y , community's e f f i c i e n c y w i l l be i n c r e a s e d . Page 21 i i ) Employment and economic s t a b i l i t y - A d i v e r s i f i e d p o p u l a t i o n w i l l permit most of the c i t y ' s needs to be s a t i s f i e d w i t h i n the c i t y ' s l i m i t s and p r o v i d e s a range of employment which promotes ge n e r a l s e c u r i t y and s t a b i l i t y . [ 2 3 ] i i i ) To maintain e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s at minimum expense through mix i n housing - A d i v e r s i t y i n housing types to c a t e r f o r the needs of d i f f e r e n t workers i s a hard reason f o r mix. Housing must be p r o v i d e d so that b a s i c workers can a f f o r d to l i v e i n the c i t y and do the c i t y ' s work.[24] Cheaper and more comfortable p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t i s p o s s i b l e o n l y i f the r i c h and poor are mixed to 'generate the d e n s i t i e s , i n t e n s i t i e s , and f r e q u e n c i e s of use i n exchanges and c r e a t e meaningful, c o n t r o l l a b l e compactness'.[25] To support the most elementary c i v i c equipment' such as roads, sewers, f i r e departments, p o l i c e s e r v i c e s and s c h o o l s , a mix of income groups i s e s s e n t i a l . [ 2 6 ] Mix w i l l a l s o reduce s t r a i n on p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s and help to spread the peaks of non-use and over-use . 7. To help maintain s t a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l areas. A mix of housing types, s i z e s , c o s t s and tenures can accommodate changing l i f e - s t y l e s and l i f e - c y c l e s . Residents have a choice of s t a y i n g w i t h i n t h e i r own area as t h e i r housing requirements change. Age mix i s recommended Page 22 for the same reason. Advocates of a f a i r e r housing p o l i c y for low income families argue that a varied housing stock permits the most equitable a l l o c a t i o n of resources and may lower t o t a l housing costs.[27] 8. To r e f l e c t contemporary s o c i a l planning theory. A mixed r e s i d e n t i a l area encourages the d i v e r s i t y , s o c i a l stimulation and active democracy of our modern world. Writers who take a ' h o l i s t i c ' approach to planning have argued that the r e s i d e n t i a l area should r e f l e c t in i t s e l f and i t s immediate surroundings, the variety and mix of the wider physical and s o c i a l world.[28] 1.4 ARGUMENTS FOR SOCIAL MIX In the introduction, i t was pointed out that housing mix i s part of Vancouver c i t y ' s housing goal. Despite t h i s , there are dilemmas as perceived by residents in d i f f e r e n t sectors of the c i t y . For example, residents of largely homogeneous communities f e e l while a mixed community is possibly desirable, i t might bring "neighbour-to-neighbour problems and prevent r e a l community f e e l i n g developing."[29] While some desire mix land uses, others desire to maintain a segregation of land uses. The following two sections review some of the common arguments for and against s o c i a l mix. Page 23 J. Bryan in "Can Economic Mix in Housing Work?", explored the issue whether subsidized lower income families can be integrated successfully in the same development or project area with middle income families paying market rents or p r i c e s . He c i t e d examples of Massachusettes Housing Finance Agency which required at least 25% of the units in the housing development for low-incoem families with rents limited to 25% of income, and the New York State Urban Development Corporation which used a "70-20-10" formula (70% of the units for moderate income families, 20% for low-income families and 10% for low income elderly) as a p o l i c y of economic balance for i t s housing developments. The success of these projects led to the conclusion that mixing income levels i s not a deterrent to people seeking better housing and neighbourhoods so long as the development i t s e l f is well designed, b u i l t and managed. Economic mix i s a neutral factor. It i s the quality of the housing and the neighbourhood not the income l e v e l of the neighbourhoods that matters. The o v e r a l l conclusion of the much publicized Massachusettes study was that"... income mix 'works' or does not 'work' according to whether the mix occurs i s well-designed, well constructed, well managed developments. These l a t t e r factors are the c r u c i a l determinant of s a t i s f a c t i o n . Income mix and r a c i a l mix are in themselves, of no p a r t i c u l a r relevance."[30] Page 24 In L. Grissom's "Toward Balanced Suburbs: The San Diego Experience", the "balanced community" concept was i n t r o d u c e d as a p r o p o s a l to d e a l w i t h the trends towards r a c i a l s e p a r a t i o n . The concept c a l l e d f o r developers of l a r g e s u b - d i v i s i o n s t o i n i t i a t e a p o s i t i v e a c t i o n program to i n s u r e t h e i r developments w i l l be 'economically, e t h n i c a l l y and r a c i a l l y b a l a n c e d 1 . I t was an e f f o r t t o e l i m i n a t e the expensive, s t e r i l e , and r a c i a l l y , e t h n i c a l l y , and e c o n o m i c a l l y homogeneous suburbs developed around C a l i f o r n i a ' s c i t i e s . [31] The reasons why the 'balanced community'concept deserves c o n s i d e r a t i o n s was t h a t new jobs were being c r e a t e d p r i m a r i l y i n the suburbs while the c h r o n i c a l l y unemployed and underemployed p o p u l a t i o n was i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the i n n e r c i t y . Secondly, r e s i d e n t i a l s e p a r a t i o n of m i n o r i t y groups and the poor c r e a t e s segregated schools and segregated s c h o o l i n g per se has a harmful e f f e c t on students. Students i n segregated schools perform more p o o r l y than students i n i n t e g r a t e d schools and communities tend to s t i g m a t i z e segregated schools as i n f e r i o r . In p a r t i c u l a r , the 'balanced community' concept was given prominent a t t e n t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s because i t e x p l i c i t l y seeks to achieve a s o c i a l l y heterogeneous n a t i o n r a t h e r than a c c e p t i n g the movement towards a s p l i t s o c i e t y . A. Guest acknowledged he had r e s e r v a t i o n s about the White L i b e r a l ' s p o s i t i o n concerning the reasons f o r Page 25 r e s i d e n t i a l integration of neighbourhoods by s o c i a l and economic status. It i s unclear how much po s i t i v e effect in the improvement of the blacks would have in r a c i a l integration, whether contact among school children of dif f e r e n t classes has the alleged p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s , whether contact between members of d i f f e r e n t socio-economic groups w i l l necessarily lead to understanding, and whether lower status persons are r e a l l y hindered much in job opportunities by geographic location. But in the interest of d i s t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e , he concluded there was l i t t l e reason to support r e s i d e n t i a l segregation by s o c i a l class because presumably the worst urban services from government would be provided in lower status neighbourhoods. He opted for ind i r e c t attacks on r e s i d e n t i a l segregation by attacking the basic existence of s o c i a l and economic inequality. H. Gans in his study on the balanced community, came to somewhat sim i l a r conclusions as Guest. Many planners advocated heterogeneity as means for achieving four sets of c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l and educational ends or values. By studying t h e i r means-ends relationships, he concluded that population heterogeneity contributed r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e toward the achievement of these values. Heterogeneity helps to prevent undesirable i n e q u a l i t i e s in the l e v e l of community services, but i t i s not the means of a l l e v i a t i n g the glaring s o c i a l and economic inequality in metropolitan Page 26 areas. He urged planners to p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis on p o l i c i e s t h a t w i l l remove t h i s i n e q u a l i t y . When people can a f f o r d to have freedom of choice i n a more e g a l i t a r i a n s o c i e t y , g r e a t e r h e t e r o g e n e i t y i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas w i l l be brought about. He suggested g r e a t e r s o c i a l and economic e q u a l i t y would r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r homogeneity of income, education, e t c . extended to a l a r g e r number of people. T h i s a f f o r d e d them the o p p o r t u n i t y to make cho i c e s which would l i k e l y r e s u l t i n more h e t e r o g e n e i t y of a t t i t u d e and behaviour. T h i s i n t u r n would c r e a t e a demand f o r g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y i n housing, r e c r e a t i o n , t a s t e and i n other aspects of l i f e . The v i s i o n to achieve the ends of p o p u l a t i o n h e t e r o g e n e i t y , a c c o r d i n g to Hans, i s a l e g i t i m a t e p l a n n i n g g o a l . However, he claimed whether or not the g o a l can be achieved simply by r e q u i r i n g d i v e r s e people to l i v e together i s d ebatable. I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether a heterogeneous and balanced community would r e s u l t i n the envisaged way of l i f e . T h i s b r i n g s about the d i s c u s s i o n of s o c i o -p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects of s o c i a l mixing. I n e q u a l i t y , o p p o r t u n i t y and h e t e r o g e n e i t y . I n e q u a l i t y i s d e f i n e d as the d i s p e r s i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n over a p o p u l a t i o n of any of the rewards and s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s c o n f e r r e d by a s o c i e t y on i t s members - such as Page 27 income, wealth, l e v e l of l i v i n g , l e i s u r e , prestige, recognition, power, authority, s k i l l , information, c i v i l l i b e r t i e s , welfare, or l i f e chances.[32] Opportunity refers to the p r o b a b i l i t y of finding one's s e l f at a high, medium or low position on any of the scales of status or reward just mentioned, in so far as that p r o b a b i l i t y i s a function of the circumstances of b i r t h and rearing in a given family of orientation, l o c a l i t y , region, c u l t u r a l or ethnic group, or s o c i a l milieu.[33] R e s t r i c t i o n of opportunity i s synonymous with s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n which could be lessened by reduction in inequality i t s e l f . However, Blau pointed out that variations in heterogeneity among communities could have paradoxical consequences for intergroup r e l a t i o n s . Ingroup relations are more prevalent in homogeneous associations than intergroup r e l a t i o n s in heterogeneous associations. Thus the greater heterogeneity i s , the more pervasive are group barriers to s o c i a l associations. Whereas heterogeneity creates barriers to s o c i a l intercourse, much heterogeneity weakens these b a r r i e r s . This paradoxical conclusion follows from the d e f i n i t i o n of heterogeneity and the simple assumption that s o c i a l associations depend on opportunities for s o c i a l contacts. Increasing heterogeneity increases the p r o b a b i l i t y of intergroup r e l a t i o n s . There are few group barriers in Page 28 homogeneous c o m m u n i t i e s t o s o c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , b u t t h o s e t h a t do e x i s t i n h i b i t s o c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s more t h a n t h e more p r e v a l e n t group b a r r i e r s i n h e t e r o g e n e o u s c o m m u n i t i e s . By e n h a n c i n g t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s i n terms o f a n o m i n a l p a r a m e t e r , e . g . low income, age, s i n g l e p a r e n t , h e t e r o g e n e i t y l e s s e n s t h a t p a r a m e t e r ' s s a l i e n c e and t h e t e n d e n c i e s t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t o u t g r o u p s . When grou p d i f f e r e n c e s a r e c o n s p i c u o u s and i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s a r e r a r e , g r o u p p r e s s u r e w i l l l i k e l y a r i s e t o f u r t h e r d i s c o u r a g e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e o u t g r o u p . More f r e q u e n t i n t e r - g r o u p r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t g r o u p p r e s s u r e s d i s c o u r a g i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h o u t s i d e r s a r e weaker. S i n c e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s l a r g e l y r o o t e d i n i n g r o u p p r e s s u r e s t h a t p e n a l i z e a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h o u t g r o u p members, i n c r e a s e s i n h e t e r o g e n e i t y a r e a s t r u c t u r a l f o r c e r e d u c i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t o u t g r o u p s . D i v e r s e i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s , t h o u g h n o t i n t i m a t e , f o s t e r t o l e r a n c e , i m prove o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f a l a r g e s o c i e t y . The i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y depends on p e o p l e ' s weak bonds, n o t t h e i r s t r o n g o n es, b e c a u s e weak s o c i a l t i e s e x t e n d b e y o n d c l o s e d s o c i a l c i r c l e s and e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l c o n n e c t i o n s among g r o u p s . S e g r e g a t i o n o f g r o u p s among c o m m u n i t i e s o r among n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w i t h i n them impedes s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s between Page 29 t h e i r members. I f p r o p i n q u i t y promotes s o c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s because i t i n c r e a s e s the chances of c o n t a c t s , i t f o l l o w s t h a t s e g r e g a t i o n , which e n t a i l s low p r o p i n q u i t y among groups, reduces a s s o c i a t i o n s among them. Thus s e g r e g a t i o n strengthens ingroup bonds at the cost of i n t e g r a t i v e i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s i n a community. E x t e n s i v e i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s cannot develop unless there i s l i t t l e s p a t i a l s e g r e g a t i o n . The s p a t i a l s e g r e g a t i o n of s o c i a l s t r a t a r e i n f o r c e s the negative e f f e c t of i n e q u a l i t y on a s s o c i a t i o n s between persons i n d i f f e r e n t s t r a t a . In a cosmopolitan s e t t i n g , f o r i n e q u a l i t y to d i m i n i s h i t i s necessary that some low or middle s t r a t a experience upward m o b i l i t y or that some hig h e s t s t r a t a experience downward m o b i l i t y . I n e q u a l i t y i n t h i s case i s r e l a t i v e i n e q u a l i t y , m o b i l i t y r e f e r s to any change i n s t a t u s and low s t r a t a are those below median s t a t u s . Blau acknowledged that t h i s theorem i s d e t e r m i n i s t i c without much e m p i r i c a l content. I t i m p l i e d any program that seeks t o reduce i n e q u a l i t y must a f f e c t one of the two s t i p u l a t e d s t a t u s changes. However, he concluded that the p e r s i s t e n c e of s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t i e s i n h i s a n a l y s i s assumed these i n e q u a l i t i e s are i n e v i t a b l e and an i n t r i n s i c p a r t of human' nature. The programs to reduce any form of s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y can be e f f e c t i v e l y implemented, which may a l s o be u n r e a l i s t i c , but which i s designed to show how c o u n t e r a c t i n g f o r c e s can n e u t r a l i z e the e f f e c t s of such programs and Page 30 perpetuate inequalities.[34] 1.5 ARGUMENTS AGAINST SOCIAL MIXING This section i s a continuation of the previous one. Presented below i s a summary of the views of authors who approach s o c i a l mix from a d i f f e r e n t perspective than that adopted in this thesis. Taking into consideration the residents' attitudes towards the pros and cons of s o c i a l mix, the C i t y of Vancouver, in defining p o l i c y for housing mix, has come to agree to a large extent, with the view that a v a r i e t y of housing stock should exist in neighbourhoods, though not necessarily in a l l neighbourhoods. P. Mann in 1958, had launched one of the e a r l i e r attacks on the s o c i a l mix concept. He claimed that the s o c i a l l y balanced neighbourhood in which people of a l l s o c i a l classes are mixed together with the implication they w i l l discover common interests, the middle class w i l l provide the l o c a l leaders, and the community centre w i l l become a focus of l o c a l a c t i v i t y i s an id e a l of v i l l a g e l i f e in the past. It i s no longer applicable to the urban neighbourhood of the present day. In the urban neighbourhood, i d e n t i t y of interests and a concern for the conditions of the neighbourhood, except as they c l e a r l y affect personal, economic and s o c i a l a f f a i r s , tend to Page 31 disappear. Modern communications and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n make p o s s i b l e a wide p s y c h o - s o c i a l and t e r r i t o r y range. The i d e a l t h a t people of d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s should l i v e t ogether i n the same neighbourhood i s an i d e a l t h a t can be h e l d a c c o r d i n g to one's own b e l i e f s . To examine whether people w i l l do so, the r e s e a r c h of Jevons and Madge i n d i c a t e t hat i f people w i t h d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s and i n t e r e s t s are mixed together they w i l l look around u n t i l they can move to a new p l a c e where they w i l l f i n d ' t h e i r own k i n d ' . Mann found that the concept of the s o c i a l l y balanced neighbourhood u n i t i s based on an erroneous a n a l y s i s of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the urban s o c i e t y , and apart from i t s amenity aspects, i s an i d e a l t h a t i s u n l i k e l y to be a t t a i n e d without a complete change i n the s t r u c t u r e of our s o c i e t y . He urged r e t h i n k i n g from a s o c i o l o g i c a l r a t h e r than an i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s . The concept of the Neighbourhood Unit which envisages the b a s i c u n i t of an urban p o p u l a t i o n as a neighbourhood community i s concerned w i t h the planned r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n and the problems i t r a i s e s . G. Campleman, i n h i s a n a l y s i s of mixed-class neighbourhood p l a n n i n g , p o i n t e d out that s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s are d i s p e r s e d throughout the whole urban area and that there i s a c o n t i n u a l ebb-flow movement across neighbourhood boundaries, emphasizing the coherence of groups of neighbourhoods r a t h e r than s e l f -s u f f i c i n g i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n each neighbourhood. Although Page 32 c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g c an c o - o r d i n a t e a more e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e i r s p h e r e s o f a t t r a c t i o n more c l o s e l y c o - i n c i d e and t h u s making f o r a more s o c i a l l y i n t e g r a t e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d , i t i s u n l i k e l y and u n d e s i r a b l e t h a t n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w i l l be t o t a l l y s e l f -c o n t a i n e d . P r o x i m i t y c a n n o t be t h e o n l y c r i t e r i o n s i n c e i n s t i t u t i o n s v a r y i n q u a l i t y and s i z e , and t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o x i m i t y v a r i e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t age and s o c i a l g r o u p s . A d v o c a t e s o f s o c i a l mix assume t h a t s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n has l e d t o g e o g r a p h i c s e p a r a t i o n , w h i c h i n t u r n a c c e n t u a t e s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and p e r p e t u a t e c l a s s d i v i s i o n s . Campleman c l a i m e d t h a t i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c t o assume c l a s s d i v i s i o n s c an be overcome m e r e l y by r e d u c i n g t h e p h y s i c a l d i s t a n c e between c l a s s e s and i t i s h i g h l y i m p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s w o u l d u s e t h e same s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . A l l t h a t w o u l d be a c h i e v e d i s t h e p r e s e n t p a t t e r n o f s o c i a l and g e o g r a p h i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n on a s m a l l e r s c a l e . He r e j e c t e d t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t m i x e d -c l a s s n e i g h b o u r h o o d s - " t h e u r b a n c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h e v i l l a g e " , w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e s u l t i n a h i g h d e g r e e o f s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and community l i f e b a s e d on c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t f a c t o r s o f impeded m o b i l i t y , c o m p a r a t i v e r e m o t e n e s s , a dominant o c c u p a t i o n , and s t a b l e s o c i a l t r a d i t i o n s a r e n o n - e x i s t e n t o r s e r i o u s l y m o d i f i e d i n t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t . The o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s on t h e s i z e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . T h e r e i s more s c o p e i n a l a r g e r Page 33 p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s p e c i a l i z e d a s s o c i a t i o n s and g r o u p s , and t h e r e i s d e v e l o p m e n t o f many d i v e r s e o u t l e t s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l u r g e . [ 3 5 ] He c o n c l u d e d t h e l e s s e n i n g o f s o c i a l c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s must be t r e a t e d as an o b j e c t o f m a j o r n a t i o n a l p o l i c y , by t a x a t i o n and n a t i o n a l schemes o f s o c i a l b e t t e r m e n t . Any a t t e m p t s t o f o s t e r s o c i a l l y i n t e g r a t e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a r e doomed t o f a i l i f t h e p o p u l a t i o n c o n t a i n s m u t u a l l y i n c o m p a t i b l e e l e m e n t s . He p r o p o s e d t o p l a n r e a s o n a b l y s m a l l o n e - c l a s s n e i g h b o u r h o o d s as i n d e p e n d e n t c e l l s and t h a t t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s s h o u l d n o t become o b s t a c l e s t o movement o r s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e . F. P i v e n and R. C l o w a r d t o o k a more r a d i c a l a p p r o a c h a g a i n s t u r b a n d e s e g r e g a t i o n . They f o u n d i n t e g r a t i o n had worked a g a i n s t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f u r b a n Negro p o o r i n h o u s i n g and e d u c a t i o n . M e a s u r e s o f d e s e g r e g a t i o n w h i c h i n c l u d e d s l u m c l e a r a n c e , i m p r o v i n g t h e t a x b a s e , o r r e t r i e v i n g t h e m i d d l e c l a s s f r o m t h e s u b u r b s had i n t e n s i f i e d g h e t t o d e t e r i o r a t i o n . U rban r e d e v e l o p m e n t had r e s u l t e d i n t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f low-r e n t a l h o u s i n g and low-income c o m m u n i t i e s , so t h a t more p o o r p e o p l e a r e p u s h e d f u r t h e r i n t o t h e g h e t t o . A t t e m p t s t o p r o v i d e b e t t e r h o u s i n g f o r t h e Negro f a i l e d b e c a u s e t h e Negro i s f a r f r o m p o s s e s s i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l power t o g a i n s u b s i d i e s f o r new and r e h a b i l i t a t e d h o u s i n g i n t h e g h e t t o s and s l u m s , i . e . f o r i n t e g r a t e d low-income h o u s i n g . On t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s c e n e , t h o u g h s c h o o l s t h a t a r e Page 34 r a c i a l l y and economically heterogeneous are probably superior, Piven and Cloward believed removing class inequities in the quality of teachers and programs i s a more r e a l i s t i c and important goal. These educational improvements would not be achieved in the ghetto because sim i l a r to the housing s i t u a t i o n , the p o l i t i c a l power to acquire public action and expenditure required for such improvements i s absent. The authors concluded that physical desegregation i s not only irrelevant to the ghetto but can actually prevent the eventual integration of the Negro in the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e of the American society. Integration is interpreted as p a r t i c i p a t i o n in and shared control over the major i n s t i t u t i o n a l spheres of American l i f e . In a p l u r a l i s t i c society, they believe ethnic separatism i s a precondition for the eventual achievement of f u l l economic integration. A. Evans investigated the economic influences on s o c i a l mix. He dealt with p o s i t i v e economics and explained that the economic factors which determine the location of the i n d i v i d u a l household showed the preference of households in t h e i r choice of location lead to s o c i a l segregation. The size of a c i t y i s one determinant of the degree of s o c i a l mix in a c i t y . As the size of the urban area increases, the incentives for a household to optimize i t s location costs increase. Even without any desire for s o c i a l homogeneity by Page 35 h o u s e h o l d s , t h e r e i s l i k e l y t o be c o n s i d e r a b l e s o c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n i n any l a r g e c i t y . P e o p l e w i t h h i g h incomes and s m a l l c h i l d l e s s h o u s e h o l d s w i l l l i v e i n t h e i n n e r m o s t a r e a s o f t h e c i t y . H i g h income h o u s e h o l d s w i t h g r o w i n g f a m i l i e s w i l l l o c a t e i n t h e o u t e r s u b u r b s o f t h e c i t y . The i n n e r a r e a s o f t h e c i t y and c l o s e t o any m a j o r s u b c e n t r e w i l l be o c c u p i e d by low-income h o u s e h o l d s . T h e s e low-income a r e a s w i l l l i k e l y t o be more h e t e r o g e n e o u s i n f a m i l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a n t h e a r e a s o c c u p i e d by h i g h - i n c o m e h o u s e h o l d s . The T i e b o u t h y p o t h e s i s (1956) w h i c h p u t f o r w a r d t h e s o c i a l h o m o g e n e i t y o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s showed t h a t e a c h p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n t e n d t o be s o c i a l l y homogeneous, s i n c e t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f a h o u s e h o l d t o pay h i g h e r t a x e s can be assumed t o depend upon t h e amount t h a t i t e x p e c t s t o use t h e s e r v i c e s and hence upon t h e income and f a m i l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e h o u s e h o l d . The T i e b o u t h y p o t h e s i s i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e 'economic' argument f o r s o c i a l mix, i n t h a t a mix o f r i c h and p o o r i s e s s e n t i a l t o a community t o p r o v i d e a s u i t a b l e t a x b a s e t o s u p p o r t c i v i c s e r v i c e s . I t s u g g e s t s t h e r i c h have a s t r o n g i n c e n t i v e t o l i v e i n a r e a s w i t h low t a x e s ( a n d h i g h p r o p e r t y v a l u e s ) l e a v i n g t h e p o o r t o l i v e i n t h e a r e a s w i t h h i g h t a x e s , and t h e c h i l d l e s s have an i n c e n t i v e t o l i v e i n a r e a s w i t h low t a x e s and p o o r s c h o o l s , l e a v i n g t h o s e w i t h c h i l d r e n t o b e a r t h e c o s t o f t h e s c h o o l s i n t h e i r own a r e a s . M c G u i r e (1974) d e m o n s t r a t e s Page 36 t h a t i t i s e c o n o m i c a l l y more e f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w t h i s t o o c c u r and s o l v e t h e e q u i t y p r o b l e m by d i f f e r e n t i a l g r a n t s between a r e a s t h a n t o a t t e m p t t o s o l v e i t by e n f o r c e d s o c i a l mix. The f i n d i n g s o f g e o g r a p h e r s and s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s s u g g e s t t h a t t h r o u g h u t i l i t y i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e , p e o p l e can ma x i m i z e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f i n d i n g a c c e p t a b l e f r i e n d s i f t h e y l o c a t e so as t o m a x i m i z e t h e number o f p e o p l e w i t h s i m i l a r s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o t h e m s e l v e s w i t h i n t h e r a n g e a t w h i c h i n t e r a c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . P e o p l e s e l e c t t h e i r l o c a t i o n t o a v o i d s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n w h i c h w i l l r e s u l t i n s o c i a l a g g l o m e r a t i o n and r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s w i l l t e n d t o become s o c i a l l y homogeneous. The g r e a t e r t h e d e g r e e o f s o c i a l h o m o g e n e i t y o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , t h e l e s s t h e r i s k o f i s o l a t i o n f o r p e o p l e w i t h t h e dominant s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . U t i l i t y i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i s a l s o a f a c t o r i n t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f c h i l d r e n a t s c h o o l and hence i n t h e c h o i c e o f s c h o o l s by p a r e n t s . When s c h o o l s draw t h e i r c h i l d r e n f r o m d e f i n e d c a t c h m e n t a r e a s , t h e c h o i c e o f t h e p a r e n t s t o l i v e i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s b e c a u s e o f t h e s c h o o l s i s a n o t h e r f a c t o r l e a d i n g t o s o c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n . The r e s e a r c h e s o f L i t t l e and Mabey (1973) s u g g e s t e d so f a r as e d u c a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t s o c i a l mix i m p r o v e s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t f o r any group and some e v i d e n c e t h a t s o c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n i m p r o v e s t h e Page 37 e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e c h i l d r e n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p a r e n t s . The e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h p o i n t e d o u t one p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m i n v o l v e d i n any s o c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g aimed a t a c h i e v i n g an o p t i m a l s o c i a l mix. The mix r e s u l t e d i n s m a l l g a i n s i n a c h i e v e m e n t f o r c h i l d r e n f r o m u n s k i l l e d manual b a c k g r o u n d , and l a r g e l o s s e s f o r c h i l d r e n f r o m non-manual and p r o f e s s i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d . O n l y i f t h e g a i n s f o r t h e one g r o u p a r e w e i g h t e d much more h e a v i l y t h a n t h e l o s s e s f o r t h e o t h e r i n t h e p o l i t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s w i l l s o c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g t o a c h i e v e s o c i a l mix be c o n s i d e r e d b e n e f i c i a l f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e . E x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s i s a m a j o r f a c t o r w h i c h l e a d s t o t h e s e g r e g a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l g r o u p s . I f a r e a s a r e s o c i a l l y homogeneous and s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d by e a c h s o c i a l g r o u p can be p r o v i d e d a t t h e most e c o n o m i c s c a l e ; e x t e r n a l e c o n o m i e s c a n be g e n e r a t e d . T h e r e i s a c o u n t e r - a r g u m e n t t o one o f t h e s e m i - e c o n o m i c r e a s o n s f o r s o c i a l mix, t h a t i n l o b b y i n g f o r s t a n d a r d s t o be r a i s e d f o r t h e m s e l v e s , t h e e d u c a t e d m i d d l e c l a s s w i l l r a i s e s t a n d a r d s f o r t h o s e p o o r e r and l e s s v o c a l . T h i s may be t r u e a t a p o l i t i c a l l e v e l , t h o u g h e v e n t h e n i t may be d e f e a t e d by c l a s s h o s t i l i t y , b u t a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e r e t a i l s t o r e s , t h e e f f e c t may be n e g a t i v e . I n a r g u i n g t h a t t h e goods w h i c h t h e m i d d l e c l a s s wants s h o u l d be s t o c k e d , a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e s t o c k o f o t h e r goods w i l l r e s u l t ; i n a r g u i n g t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d s o f s e r v i c e s h o u l d be r a i s e d , a c o n c u r r e n t p r i c e r i s e w h i c h s u i t t h e Page 38 m i d d l e - c l a s s i s n o t d e s i r e d by t h e low income c u s t o m e r s . A n o t h e r e c o n o m i c argument f o r s o c i a l mix i n i m p r o v i n g s e r v i c e s i s t h a t i t c o u l d l e a d t o i m p r o v e d o r c h e a p e r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t . I t i s i m p l i c i t l y assumed t h a t t h e r e a r e e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e i n p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t , and t h a t t h e demand f o r p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t i n c r e a s e s w i t h income. What i s n e g l e c t e d i s t h e f a c t t h a t w e a l t h i e r f a m i l i e s l i v e a t low d e n s i t i e s so t h a t s o c i a l mix w i l l l e a d t o d e c r e a s e d d e n s i t i e s and a d e c r e a s e i n t h e v i a b i l i t y o f p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t . S i n c e p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t t e n d s t o be b e t t e r i n p o o r a r e a s t h a n r i c h a r e a s i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e l a t t e r e f f e c t w i l l o u t w e i g h t h e f o r m e r and t h a t s o c i a l mix w i l l n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d t o an improvement i n p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t . The ec o n o m i e s o f s c a l e , t h e income e l a s t i c i t y o f demand, t h e e f f e c t o f r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y and t h e p r i c e e l a s t i c i t y o f demand s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d f o r b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e t r a n s p o r t . No g e n e r a l answer c a n be g i v e n . E vans c o n c l u d e d t h a t e c o n o m i c w e l f a r e w o u l d be b e t t e r s e r v e d by s o c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n t h a n s o c i a l mix. But t h e n he added t h a t i f t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l arguments f o r s o c i a l mix i s more d o m i n a n t , c o n s i d e r a b l e m arket i n t e r v e n t i o n w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o e n s u r e h e t e r o g e n e i t y . Page 39 Chapter 1 Footnotes 1. Sarkissian, W. (1978) Social Mix: The Bournville  Experience, Bournville and Adelaide: Bournville V i l l a g e Trust and South Australian Housing Trust. 2. Vancouver, C i t y Planning Dept.(1980) Goals for Vancouver. 3. Vancouver, C i t y Planning Dept.(1981) Defining a Housing  Policy, May. 4. Clapp, J.A. (1973) Balanced Community Policy: An Evaluation of the Concept, i t s F e a s i b i l i t y and  Administrative Requirements for the Ci t y of San Diego. San Diego: Urban Observatory. 5. Ibid. 6. S t a t i s t i c s Canada c o l l e c t s data on the basis of enumeration areas and blocks as well as census tr a c t s , but such areas may evidence considerable s p a t i a l v a r i a t i o n . 7. Sarkissian, W. (1976) "The Idea of Soc i a l Mix in Town Planning: An H i s t o r i c a l Review," Urban Studies, Vol. 13, pp.231-246. 8. Bournville V i l l a g e Trust (1956) The Bournville V i l l a g e  Trust 1900-1955. 9. Sennett, A.R.(1935) Garden C i t i e s in Theory and  Practice, London: Bernrose. 10. Mumford, L.(1938) The Culture of C i t i e s , London: Seeker and Warburg. 11. Foley, D.L.(1960) " B r i t i s h Town Planning: One Ideology or Three?" B r i t i s h Journal of Sociology; Vol.2, No.3, Sept. 12. Mumford, L. (1938). 13. Ibid. 14. Ibid. 15. Thorns,D.C. (1972) Suburbia, London. Page 4 0 16. Mumford, L. ( 1 9 3 8 ) . 17. A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e t o D e p t . o f H o u s i n g and U r b a n a n d U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t ( 1 9 7 2 ) Freedom o f C h o i c e i n H o u s i n g , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. 18. R o g e r s , I.M. ( 1 9 5 9 ) "The Law o f C a n a d i a n M u n i c i p a l C o r p o r a t i o n s " i n L a n e , W.(1979) e d . S e l e c t e d r e a d i n g s  i n Law f o r L o c a l P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 19. W i l l i a m s , I - A . ( 1 9 3 1 ) The F i r m o f C a d b u r y , L o n d o n C o n s t a b l e . 20. "The E f f e c t s o f S e g r e g a t i o n and t h e C o n s e q u e n c e s o f D e s e g r e g a t i o n , A S o c i a l S c i e n c e S t a t e m e n t , A p p e n d i x t o A p p e l l a n t s B r i e f s : S c h o o l S e g r e g a t i o n C a s e s , " M i n n e s o t a  Law R e v i e w , V o l . 3 7 , No.6 May, 1953. 21. M umford. L. ( 1 9 3 8 ) . 22. F i t c h , L. ( 1 9 7 0 ) " E i g h t G o a l s f o r U r b a n i z e d A m e r i c a , " The C o n s c i e n c e o f t h e C i t y , M e y e r s o n , M. e d . , New Y o r k : B r a z i l l i e r . 23. M u m ford, L. ( 1 9 6 8 ) The U r b a n P r o s p e c t , L o n d o n : S e e k e r and W a r b u r g . 24. Abrams, C. ( 1 9 5 5 ) F o r b i d d e n N e i g h b o u r s . New Y o r k : H a r p e r . 25. C h e r m a y e f f , S. and T z o n i s , A. ( 1 9 7 1 ) Shape o f  Community: R e a l i z a t i o n o f Human P o t e n t i a l . Hammondsworth, E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n . 26. G a n s , H.(1961) "The B a l a n c e d Community: H o m o g e n e i t y o r H e t e r o g e n e i t y i n R e s i d e n t i a l A r e a s ? " A I P J o u r n a l , V o l . 2 7 , N o . 3 . 27. D o n n i s o n , D.V. ( 1 9 7 2 ) H o u s i n g t h e Low Income G r o u p s , M a l v e r n , V i c t o r i a : A u s t r a l i a n F r o n t i e r . 28. Mumford, L. ( 1 9 4 9 ) The P l a n o f L o n d o n C o u n t y , L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r . 29. V a n c o u v e r , C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p t . ( 1 9 8 1 ) D e f i n i n g a H o u s i n g P o l i c y . 30. B r y a n , J . ( 1 9 7 4 ) "Can E c o n o m i c M i x i n H o u s i n g W o r k ? " J o u r n a l o f H o u s i n g , #8, S e p t . 1974. Page 41 31. Grissom, L. (1971) "Toward Balanced Suburbs: The San Diego Experience", Paper presented t o A.I-P. San F r a n c i s c o , Oct.1971. 32. Duncan, 0. (1969) P o p u l a t i o n Index, Vol.35, 1969. 33. I b i d . 34. Biau, P.M. (1977) I n e q u a l i t y and Heterogeneity: A P r i m i t i v e Theory of S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , New York: Free Press. 35. Camplemann, G. (1951) "Some S o c i o l o g i c a l Aspects of Mixed C l a s s Neighbourhood Planning", S o c i o l o g i c a l  Review, Vol.43. Page 42 CHAPTER 2 THE SOCIAL MIX OF TWO PLANNED NEIGHBOURHOODS: FALSE CREEK AND CHAMPLAIN HEIGHTS In the C i t y of Vancouver the municipal involvement in the provision of housing during the early and mid 1970's expanded well beyond the t r a d i t i o n a l approach of building low income public housing projects or of providing subsidies to private developers.[1] In False Creek South and Champlain Heights, the aim was to create s o c i a l l y mixed "neighbourhoods" rather than homogeneous housing "projects". Different income and s o c i a l groups were housed in a mix of re n t a l and ownership, market and non-market, assisted and unassisted housing. The decision to develop the two planned communities was l a r g e l y a reaction to the much c r i t i c i z e d public urban renewal projects in the '60s and to the highrise, non-family type of housing being b u i l t by the private sector. The role of the public sector in providing housing was expanded to create new neighbourhoods rather than "projects". In False Creek and Champlain Heights the development of the s o c i a l mix objectives were somewhat d i f f e r e n t . There was no debate over the creation of a s o c i a l l y mixed r e s i d e n t i a l community in Champlain Heights located on land which was, from the s t a r t , s o l e l y c i t y owned. The goals and Page 4 3 o b j e c t i v e s w e r e l a i d o u t a t t h e o n s e t o f t h e p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t . However, t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s o u t h s h o r e o f F a l s e C r e e k as a s o c i a l l y m i x e d c o m m u n i t y f r o m i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e came o n l y a f t e r much p o l i t i c a l d e b a t e . 2.1 FALSE CREEK I t was t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s o v e r t h e l a n d u s e p o l i c y f o r F a l s e C r e e k S o u t h t h a t l e d t o t h e m u n i c i p a l l y d e v e l o p e d , s o c i a l l y m i x e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d . The g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e F a l s e C r e e k B a s i n was e v e n t u a l l y a g r e e d upon b y e a r l y 1970 i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t s 1 s f i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o p t i o n s f o r F a l s e C r e e k . From t h e p u b l i c s u b m i s s i o n s w h i c h f o r m e d t h e g e n e r a l c r i t e r i a f o r t h e p l a n n i n g a n d d e s i g n p o l i c i e s , t h e P l a n n i n g D e p t . h ad i n c l u d e d s o c i a l m i x : P l a n n i n g o f F a l s e C r e e k must be b a s e d on t h e ne e d s o f a l l t h e p e o p l e . Re-d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d p r o v i d e a c c o m m o d a t i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t i n c o m e g r o u p s , age l e v e l s , a n d h o u s e h o l d t y p e s . [ 2 ] I n t h e p l a n n i n g s t a g e s o f F a l s e C r e e k , c i t y c o u n c i l made a d e c i s i o n c l e a r l y s p e c i f y i n g t h a t t h e F a l s e C r e e k r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d be s o c i a l l y m i x e d , t h a t f a m i l y u n i t s s h o u l d n o t be i n h i g h r i s e , a n d t h a t h o u s i n g u n i t s s h o u l d be g r o u p e d i n t o n e i g h b o u r h o o d e n c l a v e s . The F a l s e C r e e k S t u d y Group ( 1 9 7 2 ) r e p o r t o u t l i n e d , f o r e x a m p l e . Page 44 t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : N e i g h b o u r h o o d E n c l a v e s The homogeneous c h a r a c t e r o f c i t i e s k i l l s a l l v a r i e t y o f l i f e s t y l e s . A r r a n g e u r b a n l a n d t o f o r m many s m a l l e n c l a v e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d , s e p a r a t e d f r o m one a n o t h e r b y s w a t h s o f n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d ( p a r k s , s c h o o l s , m a j o r p e d e s t r i a n s t r e e t s , ) w h i c h f o r m t h e e n c l a v e b o u n d a r i e s . Make t h e e n c l a v e s r e a l l y s m a l l , p e r h a p s no more t h a n 500 f e e t a c r o s s . H o u s e h o l d G r o u p i n g s L i m i t e d I f t h e r e a r e n o t e n o u g h s i m i l a r h o u s e h o l d t y p e s i n a n e i g h b o u r h o o d t h e n t h e i r l i f e -s t y l e w i l l n o t be s u p p o r t e d , b u t i f t h e r e a r e t o o many s i m i l a r h o u s e h o l d t y p e s t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d may become a g h e t t o . P l a c e u p p e r a nd l o w e r l i m i t s on t h e number o f c o n t i g u o u s h o u s e h o l d t y p e s s o t h a t d i s t i n c t l i f e - s t y l e s c a n be s u p p o r t e d w i t h o u t t h e c r e a t i o n o f g h e t t o s . T h r e e S t o r e y L i m i t f o r F a m i l i e s L i m i t f a m i l y a c c o m m o d a t i o n t o t h r e e s t o r e y s and e x c e e d two s t o r e y s o n l y when a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y . M a i n l i v i n g a r e a s s h o u l d n e v e r be b e y o n d 15 f e e t o f t h e g r o u n d p l a n e , a n d a l w a y s e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e g r o u n d , b o t h p h y s i c a l l y a n d v i s u a l l y . B u i l d i n g H e i g h t / W i d t h R a t i o L a r g e s l a b l i k e h i g h r i s e s t r u c t u r e b l o c k o u t e v e r y o n e ' s v i e w a nd t o t a l l y d o m i n a t e t h e p e d e s t r i a n b e l o w . A l l o w l o w e r b u i l d i n g l e v e l s o f l e s s t h a n t h r e e s t o r e y s t o be r e l a t i v e l y c o n t i n u o u s w i t h t h e a b i l i t y t o wrap a r o u n d , and r e s t r i c t h i g h e r l e v e l s t o more p o i n t a l f o r m s . [ 3 ] A d e s i g n c o m p e t i t i o n was h e l d i n w h i c h t h e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e i n c l u d e d "a s o c i a l l y v i a b l e m i x o f a l l i n c o m e s and l i f e s t y l e s w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g a c o n c e r n f o r e c o n o m i c s a n d t h e Page 45 p r a c t i c a l m a r k e t a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t . " [ 4 ] S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e s t a t e d : To a c c o m p l i s h t h e d e s i r e d i n c o m e m i x , we w i s h t o i n c l u d e a r a n g e o f d w e l l i n g s s u c h as c o o p e r a t i v e , s e n i o r c i t i z e n s h o u s i n g , c o n d o m i n i u m s , l o w and medium d e n s i t y a p a r t m e n t s a nd g a r d e n a p a r t m e n t s , a nd t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m s . . . T h e r e a r e many p o s s i b i l i t i e s , s u c h as some d w e l l i n g u n i t s f o r t h e p h y s i c a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d , new l i f e s t y l e s s u c h as f l o a t i n g homes, and t h e p h y s i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s . . . A c h a l l e n g e t o t h e t e r m s w i l l be t o i n t e g r a t e i n c o m e s a nd l i f e s t l e s o f t h e r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n b y means o f s i t e p l a n n i n g , s u i t e m i x e s , s u p p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , t h e g o v e r n m e n t a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m s , e t c . i n t o a v i a b l e c o m m u n i t y . [ 5 ] D u r i n g d i s c u s s i o n s i n d r a f t i n g t h e F a l s e C r e e k p r o p o s a l s on s o c i a l m i x , i t was p o i n t e d o u t b y t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t t h a t c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h o f f e r l i t t l e s o c i a l a n d p h y s i c a l d i v e r s i t y a r e u n h e a l t h y . P e o p l e l i v i n g i n them h a v e l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o t h e w i d e r a n g e o f v a l u e s , h a b i t s a n d b e l i e f s w h i c h i s t h e e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t o f u r b a n l i v i n g . To e n s u r e d i v e r s i t y a t t h e c o m m u n i t y l e v e l , F a l s e C r e e k a i m s t o p r o v i d e f o r v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f h o u s e h o l d t y p e s i n a d j a c e n t n e i g h b o u r h o o d e n c l a v e s . I t was a l s o a g r e e d p h y s i c a l d i v e r s i t y i s n o t e n o u g h , s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y i s o f e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e . A s e l f - o r d e r i n g o f s m a l l g r o u p s i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d e n c l a v e s w o u l d a l l o w f o r a v a r i e t y o f l i f e s t y l e s t o d e v e l o p . [ 6 ] I n t h e h o u s i n g d i s c u s s i o n , t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f h a d f o c u s s e d on t h e t y p e o f Page 4 6 v a r i a b l e s which c o n s t i t u t e a s o c i a l mix - income and household type (or l i f e s t y l e ) . The a n a l y s i s of demographic s t a t i s t i c s showed that i n the Vancouver r e g i o n , the f a m i l y l i f e s t y l e was being f o r c e d p r o g r e s s i v e l y f u r t h e r away from the downtown core. An e a r l y d e c i s i o n was made to focus the type of housing on f a m i l i e s . The p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s adopted f o r F a l s e Creek by the C i t y i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a r e l a t i n g to s o c i a l mix: - as a b a s i n wide o b j e c t i v e accommodation f o r the f o l l o w i n g household types should be p r ovided; f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n 25%; couples (young and mature) 25%; e l d e r l y 15% and s i n g l e s 35%. - The p o p u l a t i o n mix as r e f l e c t e d i n the Greater Vancouver Region be adopted as a b a s i n wide o b j e c t i v e . - Ownership of r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s should be encouraged. - P o p u l a t i o n mix should not unduly emphasize one c l a s s or age group.[7] The development of F a l s e Creek South i s d i v i d e d i n t o 3 phases. (See Figures 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3). A t o t a l of 852 housing u n i t s were b u i l t i n the Heather and Spruce neighbourhoods of Phase 1. The tenure mix of Phase 1 i s : - 2 p r i v a t e r e n t a l p r o j e c t s , 147 u n i t s (17%) - 6 condominium p r o j e c t s , 278 u n i t s (33%) - 4 p r i v a t e n o n - p r o f i t r e n t a l u n i t s , 257 u n i t s (30%) and - 1 n o n - p r o f i t c o - o p e r a t i v e , 170 u n i t s (20%) Page 4 7 FIGURE 2.1 False Creek, Phase 1 S i t e P l a n ro oo 1 Market C o n d o m i n i u m s 2 M a r k e t R e n t a l 3 Klwanis C l u b s e n i o r c i t i z e n s housing 4 Bertha O. Clarke Society s e n i o r c i t i z e n s housing 5 Netherlands Association n o n - p r o f i t r e n t a l 6 False Creek Cooperative 7 Creek V i l l a g e Condominiums 8 Marine Mews (University Non-Protit) Condominiums 9 H a n d i c a p p e d F A L S E C R E E K P H A S E 1 1 E n c l a v e ONE north S p r u c e N e i g h b o u r h o o d H e a t h e r N e i g h b o u r h o o d UMJJ LUJUJ-r r n T i Playtield / • T r r i g h t "of ..w'*Y  si x t h a vehu e s i x t h a v e n u e h r i r Source: C i t y of Vancouver, F a l s e Creek Development Group. FIGURE 2.2 FIGURE 2.3 F a l s e Creek Phase 3 Development P l a n Location of Development Area Site Areas and Built Areas D I A G R A M 1 fD O Sites Site Area Site Area Built Area Built Area Use (Acres) (Hectares) (Acres) (Hectares) A .93 (0.37) 0.83 (0.33) Mixed Use B 3.44 0.38) 2.30 (0.92) Residential C .23 (0.09) 0.23 (0.09) Community D 1.63 (0.65) 0 ( 0 ) Public Open Space E 1.20 (0.48) 0 ( 0 ) New Water Bay G 1.01 (0.40) 0 ( 0 ) Rights of Way and other Residual Areas Total 8.44 (3.37) _ _ ; ». .r-«~ * * 4 i t V ^ ' 1— . ' » « » - j . ^ . . . . > ^ j « „ , < < 4 4 i | y 0 / ^d^. n n i i > n ' n . DIAGRAM 2 Source: C i t y of Vancouver, F a l s e Creek Area Development P l a n f o r Area 10B, By-law No. 5207, 1978. H a l f o f t h e p r o j e c t s a r e p r i v a t e m a r k e t r e n t a l and o w n e r s h i p u n i t s a n d t h e o t h e r h a l f i s n o n - p r o f i t r e n t a l a n d c o - o p e r a t i v e o w n e r s h i p . S i m i l a r l y , u n i t a n d t e n u r e m i x was a h i g h p r i o r i t y f o r P h a s e 2 d e v e l o p m e n t . The p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n r e l a t i o n t o s o c i a l m i x f o r P h a s e 2 a r e : - F a m i l i e s w i t h y o u n g c h i l d r e n i n t h e m i d d l e i ncome r a n g e (110 t o 130 f a m i l y u n i t s ) . - M i x o f l i f e s t y l e s ( i n c l u d i n g s i n g l e s , c o u p l e s , f a m i l i e s a n d s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ) . - M i x o f i n c o m e s - a 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 m i x b e t w e e n t h e l o w e r , m i d d l e and u p p e r i n c o m e g r o u p s ( d i v i s i o n s b e t w e e n l o w e r / m i d d l e a n d m i d d l e / u p p e r i n c o m e a r e $13,500 and $21,000 p e r annum r e s p e c t i v e l y , b a s e d on 1978/79 p r o j e c t i o n s ) . - M i x o f r e n t a l a n d o w n e r s h i p ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50/50 ) . - M i x o f s u b s i d i z e d a n d n o n - s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g . [ 8 ] The P h a s e 2 s i t e p l a n n i n g g u i d e l i n e s a l s o s t i p u l a t e d t h a t s o c i a l a n d i n c o m e m i x s h o u l d be a c h i e v e d b y u n i t t y p e s a nd s i z e s a r r a n g e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s i t e t o accommodate t h e a n t i c i p a t e d n e e d s o f a number o f d i f f e r e n t f a m i l y t y p e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n i d e n t i f i e d . I n P h a s e 2 d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e r e a r e e i g h t s e p a r a t e Page 51 h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s : - t h r e e p r i v a t e m a r k e t c o n d o m i n i u m s (160 u n i t s , 25%) - t h r e e n o n - p r o f i t c o - o p e r a t i v e s (286 u n i t s , 44%) - two p r i v a t e n o n - p r o f i t p r o j e c t s (204 u n i t s , 31%) . - A t o t a l o f 75% o f t h e u n i t s i n P h a s e 2 a r e n o n - m a r k e t , e i t h e r p r i v a t e n o n - p r o f i t o r n o n - p r o f i t c o - o p e r a t i v e s . The l o c a t i o n o f t h e s i t e o f P h a s e 3 b e t w e e n two h i g h b r i d g e s h a d d i f f e r e n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e c i t y ' s s o c i a l and t e n u r e m i x o b j e c t i v e s . The s i t e was n o t c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r f a m i l y h o u s i n g . The C i t y d e c i d e d t o f e t c h maximum f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n s f r o m t h e s i t e b y p r o v i d i n g l u x u r y c o n d o m i n i u m s . As o f e a r l y 1984, 206 u n i t s a r e c o m p l e t e d , i n c l u d i n g 63 c o - o p e r a t i v e u n i t s a n d 143 MURB r e n t a l u n i t s . Have t h e g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s f o r s o c i a l m i x i n F a l s e C r e e k been a c h i e v e d ? I n 1983, t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t c o n d u c t e d an e v a l u a t i o n o f F a l s e C r e e k S o c i a l O b j e c t i v e s u s i n g t h e 1981 c e n s u s d a t a . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e h o u s e h o l d i n c o m e m i x and age m i x a r e t o r e f l e c t t h e GVRD inc o m e m i x and p o p u l a t i o n p r o f i l e . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e h o u s e h o l d m i x i s a b a s i n - w i d e h o u s e h o l d m i x o f f a m i l i e s ( 2 5 % ) , c o u p l e s ( 2 5 % ) , s i n g l e s ( 3 5 % ) a n d e l d e r l y ( 1 5 % ) . The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s o c i a l m i x o b j e c t i v e s h a v e b e e n s u c c e s s f u l l y met i n F a l s e C r e e k S o u t h . The income p r o f i l e was a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l t o t h e c i t y p r o f i l e , b u t s l i g h t l y more l o w income h o u s e h o l d s a n d s l i g h t l y f e w e r h i g h Page 52 income h o u s e h o l d s t h a n t h e GVRD a v e r a g e . The age p r o f i l e i s more t y p i c a l o f t h e r e g i o n a l t h a n c i t y age p r o f i l e . I t a p p e a r s t h a t a f f o r d a b l e f a m i l y accommodation a t t r a c t e d p e r s o n s o f c h i l d b e a r i n g age (who m i g h t have o t h e r w i s e moved t o t h e s u b u r b s ) . As a r e s u l t , F a l s e C r e e k h o u s e s a l a r g e number o f f i r s t home "owners" (age 2 0 - 4 4 ) . The s l i g h t l y l o w e r p r o p o r t i o n o f o l d e r r e s i d e n t s r e f l e c t t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f e s t a b l i s h e d h o u s e h o l d s t o move f r o m f a m i l i a r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . On h o u s e h o l d mix, t h e f i r s t p h a s e o f F a l s e C r e e k e x c e e d e d t h e b a s i n - w i d e f a m i l y o b j e c t i v e . T h e r e was a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f f a m i l i e s t h a n t h e C i t y b u t a s m a l l e r p e r c e n t t h a n t h e R e g i o n . The s u c c e s s f u l a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e s o c i a l mix o b j e c t i v e s shows t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o b u i l d a s o c i a l l y m i x e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d f r o m s c r a t c h t h r o u g h c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g o f market and non-market h o u s i n g and a mix o f t e n u r e s . Though i n a d e q u a t e government h o u s i n g programmes and o v e r a l l b u i l d i n g c o s t s have i n h i b i t e d t h e o b j e c t i v e o f e n c o u r a g i n g home o w n e r s h i p , t h e 35% o f p r i v a t e homeownership u n i t s on t h e s i t e i s i n c r e a s e d t o 66% n o n - r e n t a l u n i t s when c o - o p e r a t i v e s a r e added t o t h e homeownership f i g u r e s . The o b j e c t i v e o f e n c o u r a g i n g o w n e r s h i p o f r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s i s r e a l i z e d . Page 5 3 TABLE 2.1 1981 C e n s u s H o u s e h o l d Incomes Income F a l s e C r e e k C i t y GVRD - CMA $0 - 10,000 2 3 % 24% 19% $10,000 - 20,000 25 26 22 $20,000 - 35,000 28 27 31 E x c e e d i n g $35,000 24 23 28 100 100 100 TABLE 2.2 1981 C e n s u s Age o f P o p u l a t i o n P r o f i l e Age F a l s e C r e e k C i t y GVRD - CMA 0 - 9 12% 9% 12% 10 - 19 12 12 15 20 - 40 48 42 41 45 - 64 18 22 20 64 a nd o v e r 10 15 12 100 100 100 TABLE 2 . 3 1981 C e n s u s o f H o u s e h o l d T y p e s H o u s e h o l d Type F a l s e C r e e k C i t y GVRD-' F a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n 38% 32% 4 2 % C o u p l e s 20 24 26 N o n - F a m i l y H o u s e h o l d s 42 44 32 100 100 100 Page 54 TABLE 2.4 1981 Census H o u s e h o l d S i z e H o u s e h o l d S i z e F a l s e C r e e k C i t y 1 38% 38% 2 32 30 3+ 30 32 100 100 P r i o r t o t h i s q u a n t i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n b a s e d on t h e 1981 c e n s u s , J . V i s c h e r c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y o f r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n o f r e s i d e n t s o f F a l s e C r e e k S o u t h i n 1980. The c r i t e r i a f o r s u c c e s s o f F a l s e C r e e k u s e d i n t h e V i s c h e r s t u d y a r e : (1) t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s o c i a l mix; (2) t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f a mix o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e , as a r e s u l t o f e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a n d / o r as a r e s u l t o f t h e m u t u a l f o r b e a r a n c e and t o l e r a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l g r o u p s ; and (3) t h e a c t u a l d e f i n a b l e b e n e f i t s t h a t a c c r u e t o a l l as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f l i v i n g i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o , by i m p l i c a t i o n , by i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h one a n o t h e r . [ 9 ] V i s c h e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s o c i a l mix i n F a l s e C r e e k was s u c c e s s f u l a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f i r s t two c r i t e r i a . A mix has u n q u e s t i o n a b l y been implemented, and i t c o n t i n u e s t o e x i s t . In a d d i t i o n , t o l e r a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i o -e c o n o m i c g r o u p s i s e x h i b i t e d by r e s i d e n t s , and t h a t t h e Page 55 e x i s t e n c e o f a s o c i a l m i x i s n o t a h i g h p r i o r i t y on t h e r e s i d e n t s ' l i s t s o f c o n c e r n s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h i r d c r i t e r i o n , t h e m i x i s f o u n d t o be u n s u c c e s s f u l b e c a u s e i t d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o e n h a n c e o r s u b s t a n t i a l l y e n r i c h r e s i d e n t s ' l i v e s . However, t h e o b j e c t i v e o f a s o c i a l m i x p r o g r a m may n o t be t o c r e a t e a ' U t o p i a n ' c o m m u n i t y s o much as t o e n s u r e t h a t some s e m b l a n c e o f a ' n o r m a l ' i n n e r - c i t y c o m m u n i t y o c c u r s and t h a t p e o p l e o f a l l age a n d i n c o m e g r o u p s h a v e a c c e s s t o t h e s i t e . W i t h o u t t h e s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y a d o p t e d b y t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l , F a l s e C r e e k c o u l d h a v e e a s i l y become a ' g h e t t o ' o f a l l h i g h - i n c o m e o r a l l l o w - i n c o m e h o u s e h o l d s . 2.2 CHAMPLAIN HEIGHTS C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s i s l o c a t e d i n t h e s o u t h e a s t c o r n e r o f t h e V a n c o u v e r c i t y , b o r d e r i n g B u r n a b y on t h e e a s t . S o u t h -e a s t M a r i n e D r i v e on t h e s o u t h , K i l l a r n e y on t h e n o r t h and F r a s e r v i e w on t h e w e s t . C i t y manager F r i t z B o w e r s has o b s e r v e d : " I t i s c l e a r l y t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t y i n t h e c i t y , y e t most p e o p l e i n V a n c o u v e r have h a r d l y h e a r d o f i t - and e v e n i n C i t y H a l l i t has a much l o w e r p r o f i l e t h a n t h e f a r more v i s i b l e F a l s e C r e e k d e v e l o p m e n t . " [ 1 0 ] D e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g o f C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s b e g a n i n 1967. The d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n f o r t h e 441 a c r e s i t e ( a b o u t f i v e t i m e s Page 56 FIGURE 2.4 the size of the False Creek neighbourhood) included: (1) 3,000 housing units; (2) a mixture of housing types (apartments, townhouses, single family dwellings, etc.; and (3) a mixture i n age, income and int e r e s t s . The s i t e was sub-divided into six r e s i e d e n t i a l c l u s t e r s . Areas A to F. (See Fig.2.4) As of 1984, areas A to D in which development began in the early '70s have been completed and much of areas E and F are near completion. In areas A to D, i t was recommended that there should be a wide var i e t y of housing types, ranging from family dwellings to apartments, including townhouses, co-operatives and senior c i t i z e n s accomodations. The f i r s t housing Co-operative in Vancouver, and one of the e a r l i e s t in the country, De Cosmos V i l l a g e , was b u i l t i n Champlain Heights in 1972. This was c l o s e l y followed by the c i t y ' s second co-op, also in Champlain Heights, Kanata Housing Co-operative, established in 1975. In both co-ops turn-over has been quite low and both have long waiting l i s t s . Strata t i t l e and fee simple units are found in the remainder of areas A to D. A detailed breakdown of the unit type, number of units and the tenure of each project for Areas A to D i s provided in Fig.2.5. When the concepts for development of Areas E and F were being conceived, the objective that a va r i e t y of l i f e s t y l e s should be accommodated was high on the l i s t . An Page 58 FIGURE 2.5 CHAMPLAIN HEIGHTS: RESIDENTIAL LAND USE AREAS A - D Site No.* Unit type Total No. of Units Approx. Acreaqe Developer Tenure-Area A #3 • Senior citizens 112 2.58 Salvation Army Rental #9 Townhouses . 104 6.63 Community Builders Strata #10 Townhouses and apartments 112 28 6.58 G.B. Estates Ltd. Dividend #21 Townhouses and apartments 63 37 3.59 Prov. Fed. Pub!ic Housing Rental -subsidized TOTAL 456 19.38 Area B #11 Senior Citizens and personal care 109 2.0 Nicholas Kopernik Foundation Rental #12 Townhouses 16 1.22 Wall and Redekop Strata #13 Townhouses 22 1.6 Wall and Redekop Strata Detached 183 27.9 Individual Fee simple TOTAL 330 32.8 Area C #14 Townhouses 14 1.0 Hall and Redekop Strata #15 Home for retarded chiIdren 4 .8 Vane. Richmond Assoc. for M.R. #16 Townhouses 132 6.92 Dawson Dev. Strata #17 Townhouses 150 8.39 Embassy Estates Strata Single fam. detached 118 17.41 Fee simple TOTAL 418 34.5 Area D #18 Townhouses 110 6.85 Limited co-op Housing Society Co-op #20 Townhouses and apartments 141 22 10.2 Limited Housing Foundation Co-op Single family detached 13 1.83 Fee simple TOTAL 286 18.88 - City Planning Department Data; June 1979 * See following site map for location of particular housing unit Page 59 o v e r r i d i n g i d e a was to d i v i d e the area i n t o s e v e r a l enclaves w i t h designs t a i l o r e d to v a r i o u s l i f e s t y l e s . The community l i v a b i l i t y recommendations which i n c o r p o r a t e i m p l i c i t s o c i a l mix o b j e c t i v e s are the f o l l o w i n g : That Champlain Heights be planned and developed as a separate community w i t h i n the c i t y . That the development i n Champlain Heights p r o v i d e s f o r a wide mix of household types. That a mixture of neighbourhood c l u s t e r s or enclaves be p r o v i d e d w i t h a wide range of tenure arrangements: r e n t a l , fee simple, condominium and c o - o p e r a t i v e . But make sure that each enclave i s homogenous i n t e r n a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t to the chosen tenure system. S i m i l a r l y , s o c i a l mix o b j e c t i v e s are a l s o i m p l i c i t i n Champlain Heights income, land tenure and u n i t tenure recommendations. These are: That housing be p r o v i d e d f o r a wide range of income l e v e l s i n Champlain H e i g h t s . That Champlain Heights land remain i n the p u b l i c domain wi t h the o b j e c t i v e s of lowering i n i t i a l housing c o s t s , l i m i t i n g land s p e c u l a t i o n and m a i n t a i n i g land-as a p u b l i c l y owned r e s o u r c e . That t h e r e be a mix of u n i t t e n u r e s : independent fee simple ownership, condominium, co-op and r e n t a l . That r e s i d e n t s be c l e a r l y a d v i s e d b e f o r e moving i n of the meaning of t h e i r tenure, ownership r i g h t s , the management process and how to p a r t i c i p a t e i n making d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g the common p r o p e r t y . [11] (See Fig.2.6 f o r d e t a i l e d land use f o r Areas E and F ) . In a d d i t i o n , the General Design G u i d e l i n e s s t i p u l a t e d Page 60 FIGURE 2.6: CHAMPLAIN HEIGHTS: RESIDENTIAL LANDUSE.AREAS E - f AREAS E AND F Enclave 1 Enclave 2 Enclave 3 Enclaves 4-7 Enclaves 8-10 Enclave 11 Enclave 12 Enclave 13 Enclave 14 Enclave 15 Enclave 16 . Enclave 17 Enclave 18 Enclave 19 Enclave 20 Enclave 21 Enclave 22 Enclave 23 Enclave 24 Enclave 25 Enclave 26 Enclave 27 Enclave 28 Enclave 29 Unit type Zero lot-line single family housing. Townhouses & duplexes Townhouses J duplexes Townhouses & duplexes Townhouses Townhouses Townhouse/apartments Townhouse/apartments Senior citizens Townhouse/apartments Townhouses Townhouses Townhouses Townhouses Townhouse/apartments Townhouses Apartment Townhouse/apartment Townhouses Townhouses Townhouses Townhouses Townhouses Townhouses Total No. of Units 70 94 43 70 123 59 77 87 244 115 108 40 66 105 69 62 70 53 24 29 55 41 67 85 Approx. acreage 0.78 11.00 5.8 9.3 8.8 4.94 5.14 5.78 3.59 5.8 9.4 4.2 4.0 8.8 3.47 3.09 2.32 2.63 2.01 2.40 3.95 2.93 3.70 4.74 Developer Daon.Development and Lea Management Fore Development Corp. United Properties Ltd. United Properties Ltd. Columbia Housing Assoc. ' Community Builders Ltd. Columbia Housing Assoc. Royal Arch Masons Intrawest Properties Ltd. Community Builders Greentree Developments Ltd. Columbia Housing Assoc. Greater Vancouver Housing Corporation Uni ted Properties Tenure Freehold - fee simple 99 year lease bare land strata 99 year lease bare land strata 99 year lease bare land strata 60 year lease - co-op 99 year lease bare land strata 60 year lease - co-op 60 year lease 99 year lease - rental 99 year lease bare land strata 99 year lease bare land strata 60 year lease - co-op 60 year lease - rental 99 year lease bare land strata Intrawest Properties Intrawest Properties ) Greater Vancouver Housing ) Corp. 99 year lease bare land strata 99 year lease bare land strata 60 year lease - rental TOTAL 1,856 126.17 t h a t t h e h o u s i n g s c a l e p r e c l u d e s h i g h - r i s e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d t h a t b u i l d i n g s a r e recommended t o be k e p t t o a l o w s c a l e i n t h e e n c l a v e s . No e v a l u a t i o n has been c o n d u c t e d on C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s t o a s s e s s t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e m i x . I f t h e o b j e c t i v e i s t o r e p l i c a t e t h e c i t y ' s d i s t r i b u t i o n i n a g e , i n c o m e , h o u s e h o l d t y p e , h o u s e h o l d s i z e a n d t e n u r e , C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s i s n o t as " s u c c e s s f u l " as F a l s e C r e e k S o u t h i n a c h i e v i n g t h e m i x o b j e c t i v e s . ( S ee T a b l e 2.5) TABLE 2.5 COMPARISON OF FALSE CREEK WITH CHAMPLAIN HEIGHTS CHARAC- FALSE CHAMPLAIN CITY GVRD-CMA TE R I S T I C S CREEK HEIGHTS INCOME o, o a % Q, O $0 -10000 23 14 24 19 $10000-20000 25 18 26 22 $20000-35000 28 33 27 31 $35000 & o v e r 24 35 23 28 AGE . 0 - 9 12 12 9 12 10 - 19 12 15 12 15 20 - 44 48 41 42 41 45 - 64 18 20 22 20 65 a n d o v e r 10 12 15 12 HOUSEHOLD TYPE F a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n 38 64 32 42 C o u p l e s 20 22 24 26 N o n - f a m i l y 42 14 44 32 On t h e one h a n d , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n t r i n s i c a l l y g o od o r b a d a b o u t u s i n g t h e c i t y a v e r a g e as t h e c r i t e r i a f o r Page 62 measuring s o c i a l mix. The p o s i t i v e aspect of u s i n g the c i t y average i s that i t can be set as the go a l f o r a c h i e v i n g more balanced neighbourhoods i n the c i t y . On the other hand, we would have t o c o n s i d e r the d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s of the two planned communities, one i n the inne r c i t y neighbourhoods and the other i n the urban f r i n g e of the c i t y . The more recent non-market enclaves i n Champlain Heights r e c e i v e a subsidy i n the form of a 33% w r i t e down i n land l e a s e . The land w r i t e down cost f o r many of the non-market p r o j e c t s i n Fa l s e Creek South due to the in n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n of the neighbourhood was much hig h e r . What we are suggest i n g i s that i n Champlain Heights, s o c i a l mix o b j e c t i v e s are not n e c e s s a r i l y l e s s s u c c e s s f u l l y met than i n F a l s e Creek. A comparison of F a l s e Creek South and Champlain Heights w i t h the r e s p e c t i v e neighbourhoods i n which they are l o c a t e d (See Table.2.6) sheds some f u r t h e r l i g h t on the mix i s s u e . The F a i r v i e w neighbourhood (bounded by the F a l s e Creek s h o r e l i n e on the north, Cambie S t r e e t on the east, 16th Avenue on the south and B u r r a r d S t r e e t on the west), i s made up of r e s i d e n t s weighted to the low and moderate income range. F a l s e Creek South houses a much g r e a t e r percentage (24%) of hig h income r e s i d e n t s when compared to F a i r v i e w (11%). In Champlain Heights, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of income l e v e l s of r e s i d e n t s i s f a i r l y s i m i l a r to K i l l a r n e y (bounded by 41st Avenue on the north. Boundary S t r e e t on the ea s t . Page 63 M a r i n e D r i v e on t h e s o u t h a nd V i v i a n S t r e e t on t h e w e s t ) , w i t h t h e l o w e s t i ncome g r o u p s l i g h t l y e x c e e d i n g t h a t i n K i l l a r n e y . TABLE 2.6 COMPARISON OF FALSE CREEK WITH FAIRVIEW AND CHAMPLAIN HEIGHTS WITH KILLARNEY C h a r a c - F a l s e F a i r v i e w C h a m p l a i n K i l l a r n e y C i t y t e r i s t i c s C r e e k e x c l u d i n g H e i g h t s e x c l u d i n g F a l s e C r e e k C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s POPULATION 2,565 15,395 TOT.HOUSEHOLDS 1,175 9,915 AGE 0 - 9 14% 2% 10 - 19 12 4 20 - 44 49 52 45 - 64 16 19 65 a n d o v e r 9 23 HOUSEHOLD TYPE t w o - p a r e n t f a m i l y w i t h c h i l d r e n 22% 3% c o u p l e s ( w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n ) 20 20 s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l y 16 4 n o n - f a m i l y 42 73 HOUSEHOLD S I Z E 1 38% 69% 2 32 28 3+ 30 3 INCOME $0 -10,000 22% 27% $10,000-20,000 26 35 $20,000-35,000 28 27 $35,000 & o v e r 24 11 TENURE owners 35% 14% r e n t e r s 65 86 6,360 11,335 414,285 1,990 4,015 173,040 12% 11% 9% 15 16 12 41 34 42 20 25 22 12 14 15 46% 4 1 % 24% 22 26 24 18 8 8 14 25 44 12% 2 1 % 38% 29 29 30 59 50 32 14% 18% 24% 18 17 26 33 32 27 35 33 23 58% 7 1 % 45% 42 29 55 Page 64 On age d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e r e a r e more c h i l d r e n and much f e w e r e l d e r l y i n F a l s e C r e e k t h a n i n F a i r v i e w . F a l s e C r e e k a l s o has a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s w i t h c h i l d r e n ( 3 8 % ) c o m p a r e d w i t h F a i r v i e w ( 7 % ) . Though C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s has 64% f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s w i t h c h i l d r e n , t h e r e l a t i v e i n c r e a s e i n t h e s u b u r b a n s e t t i n g i s n o t as s t r i k i n g as F a l s e C r e e k i n t h e i n n e r c i t y s e t t i n g . T h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e i n t h e t e n u r e when c o m p a r i n g t h e two p l a n n e d c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . F a l s e C r e e k h a s e n c o u r a g e d home o w n e r s h i p and t h e r e f o r e c o n t a i n s 35% c o m p a r e d t o 14% i n F a i r v i e w . C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s i s a l s o a b l e t o i n t r o d u c e more b a l a n c e , b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e n t e r s f r o m 29% i n K i l l a r n e y t o 4 2 % i n t h e p l a n n e d c o m m u n i t y . F a l s e C r e e k and C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s a r e t h e two V a n c o u v e r e x a m p l e s p l a n n e r s g e n e r a l l y c i t e i n w h i c h s o c i a l m i x i s s u c c e s s f u l l y i m p l e m e n t e d a t t h e macro l e v e l . I t d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e c i t y ' s a b i l i t y t o s u c c e s s f u l l y p l a n f o r and i m p l e m e n t m i x c r i t e r i a b a s e d on c i t y - w i d e p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e two n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . However, t h e c a s e s t u d i e s do n o t r e v e a l a n y i n n o v a t i v e c o n c e p t u a l a p p r o a c h o r a t t e m p t r e l a t i n g t o t h e m i c r o a s p e c t s o f t h e s o c i a l m i x i s s u e . As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , V i s c h e r ' s s t u d y c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n F a l s e C r e e k , t h e m i x i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d s u c c e s s f u l a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c r i t e r i a o f e n r i c h i n g Page 65 r e s i d e n t s l i v e s . " T h e r e i s n o t a l o t o f e v i d e n c e s h o w i n g t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s m i x w i t h e a c h o t h e r I n t h i s s e n s e t h e s o c i a l m i x m i g h t be c a l l e d a f a i l u r e . " [ 1 2 ] P e r h a p s V i s c h e r ' s s u r v e y o f F a l s e C r e e k S o u t h h ad b e e n c o n d u c t e d t o o e a r l y i n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d f o r s o c i a l t i e s t o d e v e l o p b e y o n d t h e i m m e d i a t e n e i g h b o u r s . What i s n e e d e d i n o r d e r t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s o c i a l m i x d e b a t e a r e f u r t h e r , more d e t a i l e d r e s i d e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n s t u d i e s . N o n e t h e l e s s , i t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t a c h i e v e m e n t f o r t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r t o t a k e t h e i n i t i a t i v e a n d t o s u c c e s s f u l l y i m p l e m e n t a "macro" l e v e l s o c i a l m i x i n t o two new n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . By most any c r i t e r i a . F a l s e C r e e k S o u t h and C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s a r e much more d e s i r a b l e p l a c e s t o l i v e t h a n many, i f n o t a l l , o f t h e 1950's and 1960's u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s c a r v e d o u t by p r e v i o u s m u n i c i p a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Page 66 C h a p t e r 2 F o o t n o t e s 1. H u l c h a n s k i , J.D. ( 1 9 8 4 ) S t L a w r e n c e a n d F a l s e  C r e e k ; A R e v i e w o f t h e P l a n n i n g o f Two New I n n e r  C i t y N e i g h b o u r h o o d s . D r a f t . 2. V a n c o u v e r , C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p t . ( 1 9 7 0 ) R e p o r t  on S u b m i s s i o n s ^ F a l s e C r e e k B r o c h u r e . 3. F a l s e C r e e k S t u d y G r o u p ( 1 9 7 2 ) U r b a n Q u a l i t y ;  The P a t t e r n s , V a n c o u v e r . 4. C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ( 1974 ) F a l s e C r e e k T h r e e  D e s i g n C o n c e p t s , A P u b l i c I n f o r m a t i o n R e p o r t , May. 5. C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , F a l s e C r e e k D e v e l o p m e n t G r o u p ( 1 9 7 4 ) " B r i e f i n g S e s s i o n f o r D e s i g n Teams and C i t y ' s A d v i s o r y P a n e l " , F e b . 1 1 . 6. F a l s e C r e e k P r o p o s a l s . S e p t . 1971, R e p o r t 3. 7. V a n c o u v e r , C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p t . ( 1 9 7 3 ) F a l s e  C r e e k P o l i c i e s , November. 8. D o w n s / A r c h a m b a u l t e t a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) F a l s e C r e e k A r e a 6_ P h a s e 2: D e s i g n Handbook, V a n c o u v e r . 9. V i s c h e r , J . ( 1 9 8 0 ) F a l s e C r e e k A r e a 6 P h a s e 1;  P o s t O c c u p a n c y E v a l u a t i o n . O t t a w a , CMHC. 10. H a n s o n , P. ( 1 9 7 9 ) " T o u r o f E x a m p l e G o v e r n m e n t F u n d e d H o u s i n g P r o j e c t s " , e d . V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p t . , 1982. 11. C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ( 1 9 7 9 ) C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s Community  P r o f i l e . 12. V i s c h e r , J . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Page 67 CHAPTER THREE THE SOCIAL MIX OF VANCOUVER'S NEIGHBOURHOODS T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s d a t a on t h e s o c i a l m i x p r o f i l e s o f t h e 22 n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . N e i g h b o u r h o o d s a r e t h e s c e n e o f o u r e a r l i e s t m e m o r i e s and a d v e n t u r e s - w a l k i n g t o s c h o o l , r i d i n g b i k e s , p l a y i n g on t h e v a c a n t l o t . We grow up and o u r w o r l d e x p a n d s , b u t t h e p l a c e w h e r e we l i v e c o n t i n u e s t o s h a p e o u r l i v e s e v e r y d a y . B i g c i t i e s l i k e V a n c o u v e r n e e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t o make them l i v a b l e . I n t o d a y ' s m o b i l e s o c i e t y , u r b a n n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c a n g i v e us t h e s t a b i l i t y a n d l o c a l i d e n t i t y t h a t we a s s o c i a t e w i t h y e s t e r d a y ' s v i l l a g e s a n d s m a l l t o w n s . [ 1 ] N e i g h b o u r h o o d s h e r e r e f e r t o s m a l l , s e c l u d e d c o m m u n i t i e s . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , t h e c o n n o t a t i o n o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s e x p a n d e d i n t o l a r g e r d i s t r i c t s d e l i m i t e d b y d i s t i n c t b o u n d a r i e s i n t h e C i t y . 3.1 METHODOLOGY T h i s c h a p t e r s u m m a r i z e s d a t a drawn f r o m t h e 1981 c e n s u s , p r o v i d i n g an o v e r v i e w o f t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r ' s 22 n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . The i n t e n t i s t o show how t h e d i f f e r e n t Page 68 n e i g h b o u r h o o d s v a r y w i t h r e g a r d s t o s e v e r a l b a s i c i n d i c a t o r s o f s o c i a l m i x . I t i s a d e s c r i p t i v e summary b a s e d on t h e p o p u l a t i o n p r o f i l e s o f t h e 22 n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e e x e r c i s e i s t o p r o v i d e some e m p i r i c a l d a t a on t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s as a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f a s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y . I t i s t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t t h a t i n d e f i n i n g p o l i c y f o r h o u s i n g m i x , t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r h a s a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t a v a r i e t y o f h o u s i n g s t o c k s h o u l d e x i s t i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , t h o u g h n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n a l l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t s o c i a l m i x f a c i l i t a t e d b y a h o u s i n g m i x c a n be i m p l e m e n t e d w i t h l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n i n " e x c l u s i v e " n e i g h b o u r h o o d s s u c h as S h a u g h n e s s y . The q u e s t i o n i s t o what e x t e n t s h o u l d and t o what e x t e n t c a n t h e c i t y i m p l e m e n t s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y . The c i t y h a s s o f a r a d o p t e d t h e new a r e a d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y i n i m p l e m e n t i n g s o c i a l m i x . A r e t h e r e a n y r e a s o n s f o r e x p a n d i n g t h i s i n t o a more u n i v e r s a l a p p r o a c h ? The c r i t e r i a u s e d f o r m e a s u r i n g s o c i a l m i x i s t h e c i t y ' s a v e r a g e f o r e a c h o f t h e v a r i a b l e s u n d e r s t u d y . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a s o c i a l l y m i x e d c o m m u n i t y i s a s u b j e c t i v e j u d g m e n t f o r w h i c h t h e r e a r e no g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d upon c r i t e r i a . T h i s t h e s i s f o l l o w s t h e common e x p r e s s i o n b y u s i n g t h e c i t y ' s a v e r a g e s , n o t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n e c e s s a r i l y i d e a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s , b u t t h a t i t i s a c o n v e n i e n t s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h i n k i n g a b o u t s o c i a l m i x . Page 69 R e s i d e n t i a l c h o i c e c a n be more b r o a d l y a v a i l a b l e t o g r o u p s o f d i f f e r e n t i n c o m e s , a g e s , h o u s e h o l d t y p e s , h o u s e h o l d s i z e s a n d t e n u r e s i f n e i g h b o u r h o o d s more c l o s e l y r e f l e c t t h e c i t y ' s a v e r a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c i t y ' s a v e r a g e as e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a , t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d f o r t h e two p l a n n e d c o m m u n i t i e s F a l s e C r e e k S o u t h and C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s a r e a l s o h i g h l i g h t e d i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e o t h e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . The GVRD-CMA a v e r a g e s a r e a l s o u s e d f o r r e g i o n - w i d e c o m p a r i s o n . The v a r i a b l e s u n d e r s t u d y i n c l u d e : i n c o m e , a g e , h o u s e h o l d t y p e , h o u s e h o l d s i z e , t e n u r e a n d l e n g t h o f o c c u p a n c y . T h e s e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e t h e o nes u s e d i n t h e c i t y ' s F a l s e C r e e k E v a l u a t i o n S t u d y . I n a d d i t i o n , t e n u r e a n d l e n g t h o f o c c u p a n c y h a v e b e e n a d d e d . The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t e n u r e c h o i c e c a n p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e s o c i a l m i x i s s u e . N e i g h b o u r h o o d s s h o u l d be a c c e s s i b l e t o d i f f e r e n t t e n u r e a r r a n g e m e n t s . L e n g t h o f o c c u p a n c y i s i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e i t shows t o what e x t e n t t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a r e " s t a b l e " c o m m u n i t i e s . The p h y s i c a l b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e 22 n e i g h b o u r h o o d s do n o t c o i n c i d e p e r f e c t l y w i t h t h e 1981 c e n s u s t r a c t s . ( S e e F i g . 2.7) D a t a t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e s t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d b o u n d a r i e s as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e h a v e b e e n c o l l e c t e d . D a t a h a v e b e e n g a t h e r e d a t t h e e n u m e r a t i o n a r e a l e v e l . T h e r e a r e s t i l l a r b i t r a r y j u d g m e n t as t o what t o i n c l u d e a n d o m i t when Page 70 t h e e n u m e r a t i o n a r e a s c u t a c r o s s n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . The a g g r e g a t i o n o f e n u m e r a t i o n a r e a s i n t o n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i s p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x ( 1 ) . The c e n s u s d a t a a t t h e e n u m e r a t i o n a r e a l e v e l i s o n l y a v a i l a b l e f r o m c o m p u t e r t a p e s . D a t a a t t h e e n u m e r a t i o n a r e a l e v e l i s l i m i t e d t o h o u s e h o l d t y p e , h o u s e h o l d s i z e , age and t e n u r e . D a t a on i n c o m e and l e n g t h o f o c c u p a n c y a r e a v a i l a b l e o n l y a t t h e c e n s u s t r a c t l e v e l , t h u s t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d f o r t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s a r e b a s e d on a more c o a r s e a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d b o u n d a r i e s . The a g g r e g a t i o n o f c e n s u s t r a c t s i n t o n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i s p r o v i d e d i n A p p e n d i x ( 2 ) . Page 71 CENSUS TRACT BOUNDARIES FOR THE CITY OF VANCOUVER 1981 SOURCE i Statistics Canada I9BI CENSUS OF CANADA FIGURE 2.7a 1981CENSUS TRACTS FIGURE 2.7b NEIGHBOUSHOOD BOUNDARIES IN VANCOUVER Page 3TRATHC0NA pi 11 | i r | « « « M 2 i ^ ? ^ ; y ^ ^ • ^ £ i g g w s f v » i g ^ ^ > 0 AKRI DGE j T n n i T M M M ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ P c w g i 7 » « - s ^ ^ g ^ < 7 ^ FAIRVIEW i n n — -^y>^>r^^>^zp^ - T i ^ i ^ ^ r x ^ ^ DUNBAR |r i M M M ^ ^ y ^ ^ y T O w ^ TKSJ»C»CV{ SOUTHLANDS SUNSET , | | | | | i | | | | | | | — — ' " | M l In u h f i n | KILLARNEY | | l i l l i n n p H M M M W ^ y , 3 ^ ^ , , w , ^ f V W i 7 J T T 1 ta^sasegj RENFREW lllllllllllllllMMMMMMi , , 7 7 V 7 M A A ^ K?g^5<^ COLLINGWOOD GRANDVIEW p| III 111! I—— * 1 ^ / ^ y 7 ? ? W U TraSffiSgrt WOODLAND SHAUGHNESSY 11| 11111111 BM^BMMMMMMM„M>MM,MR—^—^^^JP^S-JP^^^J^Z^^T- T g s ^ o a a * WEST POINT llllllllllll——I ^^^^^NWWgSrl POrVSgggfl GREY CBD | m r r a M « « M i ? y ^ y ^ r ^ sgsv«^ga»<sg2!i^ HASTINGS I M|IIIM«H«BBMB&*^^^ raesaggct SUNRISE KENGSINGTON | | | | i | | | | | | | | | | | M M M B M M g r ? ' ' > ^ : ^ TOgggg* CEDAR COTTAGE VICTORIA IIIMIIIIIIIIIBBBMB^^^^^^ gooasaaq FRASERVIEW MARPOLE t ? g n T M — r ^ pssasaggs^ i RILEY PARK |||||||||||||IM—— ' " liltHI ifl n( I i f SOUTH CAMBIE | n | | | | | i | | p—— v ^ ^ T P P W v r s?s^ <?0O?s?w?e5<5<^ ARBUTUS RI DGE^npaaaMBK^j?^^^ s^^s^V'Og^ KERRISDALE | | | | | | | | | | i | | | — 1 lli'li Jl I I I I I I MT. PLEASANT |i|f| n i | i p — 1 ^ ^ ^ ^ - ^ ^ ftc*3ex$ FALSE CREEK 1 1 1 — ^ ^ / 7 V 7 7 V ^ \ L \ K ^ A > A ^ r T g X X ^ CHAMPLAIN pmirmnrfrwinMBMMMBMg" ^p^>^7KAywSAAyy -taara HEIGHTS CITY |||||i||||IH——j ^^^^^TTKKJvuuvr P ^ S ^ GVRD j \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\wmammMZZ2^?^^7^^ R T O t KEYS: 111 HI!rt 0 - 9 feSBBd 35-44 Fig.3.1;AGE DISTRIBUTION IN NEIGHBOURHOODS |22ZZ* 20-34 ' kS23j 6 5 and over P a g e 7 4 0% rL 3 § B , J saooHanoaHOiaN NI N o n n a r a i s i a a a x i aioHasnoH UUJiilMMmiliUMljML s p x o u a s n o q KrtmBj-uofl UiUiMiJJUllllJlJUUUUJUiilUiiliUJi,^ UUUUJJltuL. uLLLlJALIUUUuUIWllUiUUlJlllUJ-adA9 A l l 3 S1H9I3H Nitndwym "ZZZZZZZZZZZ^ ::H33d3 3Sltfd L'iL[lL(JUlUIUillltLiUUaUaLLaLlinii(fUiLllJU|llfl|| i , | i N M S W 3 - , d - 1 W U w u u j u u i i U U l i J i i ^ 3iy as i yy ay U l i u j j J U j j j J i i J J J J J l u U J i i u u J 1 1 1 1 u / i l l • • • • • • • • • • • • • ^ ! yj sninayy unjn iuauuui i iJumULi i iu ju.^ UIIUlllJ±UJU.U.UUJJJLllIJLILlUiU V^^^^^^^^X 3igwy3 HlflOS MUVd A3"liy tnjTD^ njuTiMTnninint)^  MZZZZZZZZ* lUlIUUUUUUUUUiJLUJL mLUlIUlllllUJJUllUU 3 i o d y y w M 3 i A a 3 s y y 3 39yno3 yya33 T&ZZZZZZZZrZZZZZZZa N019NIS9N3M 3 B i y N n s S Z Z 3 Z 2 3 Z 3 Z Z Z Z Z 2 2 2 a S9NI1SWH i i i u m u i j i a a u i u u m u t u i u i / i ixuuimauJuuuuuiJiii i i i iJL-U U U U J J l U U ± U l U l U l - U L U l l U J U U J l J J i U l J l / l U J inmUlilLliiJJluJUlJUUJ-tJLUllLLil JTTJMWMMBMMWWMW , 083 ONWHSIIX A3d9 iiMIOd 1S3M luuuiimMiiuiJiJiuiJL.-. K^£&£-^fcS<^^^ ASS3NH9flfHS , aNfiaooM LlU.UUUUUIluUumJlJlULIULUJ.UJJlllJl • • M B ^ ^ ^ i M3IAaNfd9 , a00M9N11103 uuiuuuumuuuu J m u u m j u i n i j a a I u m u u m u i u m i u i u i u u m u i i m j i m J I UJlJUULILmUUJJUmUlJUUlJliILlU.WJiUlJiJUUUjmMllllJL. UlJUIUUlJUIIiUUIUUlJJl—J 200T %08 %09 %0-<7 M3ddN3d ASNdtflllM 13SNnS s a i w i H i n o s yyaiMna M 3 I A d I f d 3 o a i y x w o y N O O H i y y i s 20% i 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 S T R A T H C O N A O A K R I D G E F A I R V I E W D U N B A R S O U T H L A N D S S U N S E T K I L L A R N E Y R E N F R E W C O L L I N G W O D D G R A N D V I E W W O O D L A N D S H A U G H N E S S Y W E S T P O I N T G R E Y K I T S I L A N O C B D H A S T I N G S S U N R I S E K E N G S I N G T O N C E D A R C O T T A G E V I C T O R I A r^y^j-r^-^^-40% 60% 80% 100% 'TT n nrpn-TTnTnAiTiTi-nmi-nTn-ni TrtiTinnTrniTiTTnnninMiTiTiTini -TrrnnffnTiTOnmnnnnmnnrmpttsi '~Tn7nnTi7mTnmiTnn7?riTT7nnTnTHTnpt -TintiTirtriTmi^ntTtrtnntirnnTirtTjirnirrrmTi -•nnTrrnnTTTiTrTnTinn^ -^ •TiTfnTiTiTTrinnTiriTiTrTnrTiin | in nnrmrt 'rrnnTnTynrrnii i un jnTnmir fg t - i|innnmrpin{ • ^ r r n i T i n r r n t r i T i i M i i i n i n T i J i i i i i m m ) i r r p t -HTiTiTn-fTnnTrTffrrnnnriTiTnnTrTririTiti F R A S E R V I E W M A R P O L E fessZI •7niTtwmmT»TiiTTiynnTmrTiT)mnTwnniTi r T T T n n T T r n m i i r u i R I L E Y P A R K TfTTiTrTnrrnTnrnrnTiTnTnirin S O U T H C A M B I E t ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ r -TrrTTrnnTnnnTnrTriTTmTTTiTiTj A R B U T U S R I D G E p ^ y y K E R R I S D A L E ryr^z^J^^^TrTTT M T . P L E A S A N T W E S T E N D F A L S E C R E E K ^ - y ^ f ^ T - ? •pnTntrrrniiTii u n m i TffnTrrrnTffnTiTmnmnriri "T.TTiTiTnnnTTn TU-ITJ -pirrrnTnrpTnn-rnrTni C H A M P L A I N H E I G H T S C I T Y G V R D K E Y S : -IrrnTrnTrrTnTnrrTnTnmrTnTnmnTimmri - n 7 r r r n T T r n - T r n r . T n n n i i 1 p e r s o n 2 p e r s o n s IKTWrrta 3 o r more p e r s o n s F i g . 3.3 HOUSEHOLD SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN NEIGHBOURHOODS Page 76 STRATHCONA OAKRIDGE FAIRVIEW DUNBAR SOUTHLANDS SUNSET KILLARNEY 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% • 1 ' ' 'lilllllll'lll E222S22L22ZZ22: w»Vir ^ 7,",, fill I11H III III I j £ 2 2 2 2 3 : RENFREW COLLINGWOOD GRANDVIEW ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ WOODLAND SHAUGHNESSY E22ZZaZZZZZZ TTTrrrrrrt WEST POINT GREY KITSILANO CBD HASTINGS SUNRISE KENGSINGTON CEDAR COTTAGE VICTORIA p^jrx^^r^y FRASERVIEW MARPOLE iiniiiiiiniiiiimiiiiutuiiiiiiumiiiiiuiiiiiiniiiimnnTi i i i i i i i i i i i i i m i i i i i i m i i u i i i m i n r ] i m i n i in m u in IL mm i mil m i i i ' M m u n i i n m u iiiiiiiiii]ii)ii)iii»|inin RILEY PARK \p^s-y^-^?>z^ZX-SOUTH CAMBIE \g225ZZZ%ZZZZl r ^ > ^ S y ^ S ^ S J I I I IUII IJilllJJHJll ARBUTUS RI DGEp-^r^ KERRISDALE ••TBMMMsasysys^^^ m immiiinniu u inrrrmi |niiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinnnnH ^••^SfS^WS^vjllllllllllJIIIIUIIIIIUIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIiml MT. PLEASANT ^p^^^y'^P^Z^J^^^^Pi' WEST END \?^yz^7*Z>*?^^s^s*z*vl— rrtrtrnn FALSE CREEK CHAMPLAIN HEIGHTS CITY GVRD iiiininim||mimmt KEYS: teZZ3 $0 - 9,999 trnrfnn $10,000 - 19,999 $20,000 - 24,999 $25,000- 34,999 $35,000 and over Fig.3.4: INCOME DISTRIBUTION IN NEIGHBOURHOODS Page 77 City, 24,856 Average STRATHCONA OAKRIDGE FAIRVIEW DUNBAR SOUTHLANDS SUNSET KILLARNEY RENFREW COLLINGWOOD GRANDVIEW WOODLAND SHAUGHNESSY WEST POINT GREY KITSILANO CBD HASTINGS SUNRISE KENGSINGTON — CEDAR COTTAGE VICTORIA FRASERVIEW MARPOLE RI L E Y PARK SOUTH CAMSIE -ARBUTUS RIDGE-KERRISDALE MT. PLEASANT -WEST END FALSE CREEK -CHAMPLAIN HEIGHTS CITY Z2. GVRD KEYS: 22: 2 -40% -20% Below c i t y average Above c i t y average +20% +40% +60% +80% +100% +120% +140% FiR.3.5: AVERAGE INCOMES IN NEIGHBOURHOODS Page 78 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% STRATHCONA | y ^ ? y y v ^ r ' — ' ' j-FAIRVIEW r ^ ^ T - ^ ^ ' ^ l •+ SOUTHLANDS ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 1 1 SUNSET r ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ r ^ ^ ^ ^ \ COLLINGWOOD ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ - ^ v ^ ^ - ^ T ^ - T ^ T % GRANDVIEW : j WOODLAND SHAUGHNESSY ^-^z^ -^-^-^ z>^y^ Z^^Z^J^^^^T \ GREY ~ 1 KITSILAMO p ^ ^ - p ^ ? ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ — • [ CBD p^x 1 SUNRISE V^^^^^^^~^^r~^ ^7^s~Z^s^ jf q KENGSINGTON \p^^^^^^7>^^^^^^^ ^^^Z^^P^^^J [ CEDAR COTTAGE FRASER VIEW ^ ^ ^ ^ f ^ Z ^ T ^ ^ r s-^>.jr-rr>^r S^T^STX 1 MARPOLE r ^ ^ ^ j ? ^ v ^ > - p ^ ^ ^ 7 1 RILEY PARK f j y y y y 1 SOUTH CAME IE p^-~ s~?>~^7r-j7- z^~z^Z>^^~^~^z>-^ zy~^ 1 ARBUTUS RI D G E p ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ - ^ T Q ^ - ^ ^ - 1 KERRISDALE J^^Z^^^^Z^^T^^^^T^T^T^^'-^ 1 MT. PLEASANT p - y y ^ y y j 1 WEST END F^TT 1 FALSE CREEK \^^z^y-^z^zrz-j^^z>j 1 CHAMPLAIN r > - ^ ^ ? ^ ^ _ ^ 1 HEIGHTS G V R D 1 KEYS: ' ' Z Z Z ^ Own Fig.3.6: TENURE DISTRIBUTION IN NEIGHBOURHOODS k I Rent Page 79 100% STRATHCONA OAKRIDGE FAIRVIEW DUNBAR SOUTHLANDS SUNSET KILLARNEY mTiTfTITnTI r m n r m pnnnnnTTnnn-fTnTi r ^ ^ - - 2 2 ^ r r r r f r / T n - m [D.Tm7Tnni7n RENFREW COLLINGWOOD GRANDVIEW (nn,n'nTinniT/TiTiTqTTTT| WOODLAND SHAUGHNESSY [niTiTnTri Xp^jrjrjryT^jrrTr^S'TTr^ **vv*zKZK?ur v?ryv7~y\ WEST POINT GREY KITSILANO CBD f r r o n n n T pnTTTTTllTITITf III. I If 11 prnnnnmrnnnnirnm p/n7?m7Trrrrnn HASTINGS SUNRISE KENGSINGTON frrrnnnrnTT CEDAR COTTAGE VICTORIA pnnmTTt FRASERVIEW MARPOLE trrrn TTr T T T r r n r r m* 1 » ^ ^ A ^ A A ^ -1 RILEY PARK jn.-TiTTTinT.nn SOUTH CAMBIE |rn T rr n T 7 T r n r T ARBUTUS RIDGEpnTinn KERRISDALE \t01W. MT- PLEASANT jnTITITirTfTnnTTnnnTTrTfl WEST END n n n T T n m T T u i i i i i i i i — FALSE CREEK fTipTiTrn-rrrtTiTTTi-n—— CHAMPLAIN HEIGHTS CITY GVRD KEYS: tnnmS 1 y r . 1 - 2 y r . tnTnn-rrrrnnnnrTrTriTii K X X ? T ^ X 7 r / a r T!| fcZSK* 3-5 y r . Fig.3.7: LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY IN NEIGHBOURHOODS V \ 6-10 y r . io y r . Page 80 3.2 CENSUS DATA RESULTS S i n c e t h e CBD i s p r i m a r i l y c o m m e r c i a l , t h i s " n e i g h b o u r h o o d " i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s . The r e s t r i c t i o n t o c o m m e r c i a l l a n d u s e r e s u l t s i n an a n o m a l o u s d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s who do l i v e i n t h e CBD. AGE Among t h e v a r i a b l e s u n d e r s t u d y , age a p p e a r s t o d e v i a t e l e a s t f r o m t h e c i t y a v e r a g e s i n a l l t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . The o n l y m a j o r age d e v i a t i o n s a r e a t t h e l o w e r ( 0 - 9 y e a r s ) a nd t h e h i g h e s t (65+) age b r a c k e t s . The age g r o u p s p r o v i d e d i n t h e 1981 c e n s u s a r e i n 5 y e a r i n t e r v a l s up t o t h e age o f 64, w i t h age 65+ a s i n g l e c a t e g o r y . H e r e t h e age i n t e r v a l s a r e g r o u p e d i n t o 0-9, 10-19, 20-34, 35-44, 45-64 and 65 a n d o v e r , a p p r o x i m a t i n g d i s t i n c t p e r i o d s i n t e r m s o f l i f e c y c l e a n d l i f e s t y l e . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s show t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s whose a v e r a g e s f o r c e r t a i n age g r o u p s d i f f e r b y t h e g r e a t e s t m a r g i n f r o m t h e c i t y a v e r a g e s . Page 81 TABLE 3.1 AGE DISTRIBUTION: Summary o f t h e g r e a t e s t v a r i a t i o n s Young c h i l d r e n 0-9 ( c i t y a v e r a g e - 9%, GVRD a v e r a g e - 12%) - West E n d 2% - K i t s i l a n o 3% - F a i r v i e w 4% A d o l e s c e n t s 10-19 ( c i t y a v e r a g e - 12%, GVRD a v e r a g e - 15%) - West E nd 3% A d u l t s 20-34 ( c i t y a v e r a g e - 3 0 % , GVRD a v e r a g e - 28%) - K i t s i l a n o 4 8% - Mount P l e a s a n t 4 2 % - West E nd 4 1 % - F a i r v i e w 4 0 % S e n i o r s 65 and o v e r ( c i t y a v e r a g e - 1 5%, GVRD-12%) - A r b u t u s R i d g e 28% - S o u t h Cambie 26% - S t r a t h c o n a 2 5 % The age p r o f i l e shows t h a t t h e West E nd has t h e s m a l l e s t p e r c e n t a g e ( 2 % ) o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n ( 0 - 9 y e a r s o l d ) . K i t s i l a n o ( 3 % ) and F a i r v i e w ( 4 % ) a l s o h a v e a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e as c o m p a r e d t o t h e c i t y a v e r a g e o f 9%. As f o r t h e 65+ age g r o u p . A r b u t u s R i d g e ( 2 8 % ) , S o u t h Cambie ( 2 6 % ) , a n d S t r a t h c o n a ( 2 5 % ) have e x c e e d e d r a t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h e c i t y ' s a v e r a g e o f 15%. F o r a d o l e s c e n t s ( a g e 1 0 - 1 9 ) , t h e West E nd h a s o n l y 3% w h i l e t h e c i t y ' s a v e r a g e i s f o u r t i m e s t h a t . The West E n d , t h e r e f o r e , has t h e f e w e s t c h i l d r e n o f any n e i g h b o u r h o o d . I n t e r m s o f age d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e two p l a n n e d c o m m u n i t i e s o f F a l s e C r e e k S o u t h a n d C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s a r e c l o s e s t t o b o t h t h e c i t y a n d GVRD a v e r a g e s . As F i g . 3.1 Page 82 i n d i c a t e s , t h e 20-64 age g r o u p f o r m s t h e d o m i n a n t p o p u l a t i o n s e c t o r i n e a c h o f t h e 22 n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s o i n K i t s i l a n o ( 7 7 % ) , West E nd ( 7 6 % ) , a n d Mount P l e a s a n t ( 7 2 % ) . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o l i s t w h i c h n e i g h b o u r h o o d s as a w h o l e d e v i a t e most f r o m t h e c i t y a v e r a g e s . Whereas t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r age g r o u p c o u l d d e v i a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e c i t y a v e r a g e , t h e o t h e r age c a t e g o r i e s a r e u s u a l l y n o t t o o d r a s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g c i t y a v e r a g e s . G i v e n t h e f i g u r e s p r e s e n t e d , t o g e n e r c i l i z e , more y o u n g c h i l d r e n c o u l d be h o u s e d i n t h e West End, K i t s i l a n o a n d F a i r v i e w ; a n d a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e (20-44 age g r o u p ) h o u s e d i n S t r a t h c o n a a n d K e r r i s d a l e -- i f b a l a n c e i n t e r m s o f age d i s t r i b u t i o n i s deemed t o be a d e s i r a b l e v a r i a b l e i n a s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y . HOUSEHOLD TYPE H o u s e h o l d t y p e s h a v e b e e n d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r e n t f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n , l o n e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , f a m i l i e s w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n a n d n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s . I n V a n c o u v e r , t h e c i t y ' s p r o p o r t i o n o f n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s i s 44%, a n d t h e GVRD a v e r a g e i s 32%. The West End ( 7 6 % ) t o p s t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w i t h t h e most n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s , f o l l o w e d b y F a i r v i e w ( 7 0 % ) a n d K i t s i l a n o ( 6 1 % ) . T h e i r d i f f e r e n c e f r o m t h e c i t y a v e r a g e r a n g e f r o m 17-32% a n d 29—44% f r o m t h e Page 83 GVRD a v e r a g e . The v e r y l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s i n F a i r v i e w has b e e n r e d u c e d b y t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e F a l s e C r e e k d e v e l o p m e n t w h e r e t h e p e r c e n t a g e f o r n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d t y p e i s 4 2 % . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s , t h e o t h e r p l a n n e d c o m m u n i t y , o n l y has 14% n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s . T h i s p l a n n e d c o m m u n i t y i s e s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s . F a m i l i e s w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n a r e q u i t e e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , w i t h O a k r i d g e h a v i n g a s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f 34%. B o t h t h e c i t y a n d GVRD a v e r a g e s f o r l o n e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i s 8% o f t h e t o t a l h o u s e h o l d s . The two p l a n n e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s F a l s e C r e e k S o u t h ( 1 6 % ) a n d C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s ( 1 8 % ) h a v e accommodated t h e b i g g e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f l o n e -p a r e n t f a m i l i e s as c o m p a r e d t o t h e o t h e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . The n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w h i c h accommodate a f a i r l y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f s i n g l e p a r e n t h o u s e h o l d s i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e c i t y a v e r a g e a r e : V i c t o r i a - F r a s e r v i e w ( 1 % ) , The West End ( 3 % ) , a n d F a i r v i e w ( 5 % ) . B e c a u s e F r a s e r v i e w i s a p r e d o m i n a n t l y f a m i l y o r i e n t e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d ( 7 7 % f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s ) , s i n g l e p a r e n t s m i g h t h a v e w a n t e d t o l i v e t h e r e i n o r d e r f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o be r a i s e d i n a " n o r m a l , h e a l t h y " f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t . F o r r e a s o n s o f b e i n g a b l e t o be c l o s e t o p l a c e s o f w o r k , s i n g l e p a r e n t s m i g h t a l s o want t o c h o o s e t o l i v e i n t h e West End and F a i r v i e w , n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a d j a c e n t t o t h e downtown. A c c e s s t o a n y Page 84 n e i g h b o u r h o o d f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t s as a g r o u p , a p p e a r s t o be r e s t r i c t e d b e c a u s e o f i n c o m e . A s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y m i g h t want t o f o c u s on a s p e c t s o f f a m i l y , e s p e c i a l l y s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s a c c e s s t o a more e x t e n s i v e r a n g e o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . The p l a n n e r s a c h i e v e d t h i s i n F a l s e C r e e k a n d C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s s o i t a p p e a r s t o be an a c h i e v a b l e v a r i a b l e i f t h e c i t y d e c i d e d t o f o c u s on t h i s o n e. HOUSEHOLD S I Z E H o u s e h o l d s i z e i s s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o 10 c a t e g o r i e s i n t h e 1981 c e n s u s , f r o m 1 - p e r s o n h o u s e h o l d t o 10 o r more p e r s o n s h o u s e h o l d . I n t h i s s t u d y , h o u s e h o l d s i z e i s g r o u p e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , 1 - p e r s o n h o u s e h o l d , 2 - p e r s o n s h o u s e h o l d a n d 3 o r more p e r s o n s h o u s e h o l d . The West End ( 6 8 % ) and F a i r v i e w ( 6 3 % ) h a v e t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e s o f 1 - p e r s o n h o u s e h o l d s . 2 - p e r s o n s h o u s e h o l d , w h i c h a r e most o f t e n c o u p l e s w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n , a r e q u i t e e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . H o u s e h o l d s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n F a l s e C r e e k S o u t h ( 3 8 % 1 p e r s o n h o u s e h o l d ; 32 % 2 p e r s o n s h o u s e h o l d ; 30% 3+ p e r s o n s h o u s e h o l d ) r e s e m b l e s c l o s e l y t h e c i t y ' s d i s t r i b u t i o n ( 3 8 % 1 p e r s o n h o u s e h o l d ; 30% 2 p e r s o n s h o u s e h o l s ; 32% 3+ p e r s o n s h o u s e h o l d ) , b u t n o t t h e GVRD d i s t r i b u t i o n ( 2 7 % 1 p e r s o n h o u s e h o l d ; 3 1 % 2 p e r s o n s h o u s e h o l d ; 42% 3+ p e r s o n s h o u s e h o l d ) . I n C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s , 3 o r more p e r s o n s Page 85 h o u s e h o l d s , w h i c h c a n g e n e r a l l y assumed t o be f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n c o m p r i s e an enormous 59% as o p p o s e d t o t h e c i t y a v e r a g e o f 32%. G e n e r a l l y , t h e h o u s e h o l d s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r b o t h t h e c i t y a n d GVRD r e f l e c t t h e h o u s e h o l d t y p e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e 22 n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . INCOME I n t h e c e n s u s , i n c o m e c a t e g o r i e s a r e g r o u p e d i n t o e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s : h o u s e h o l d s w i t h o u t i n c o m e ; u n d e r $5000; $ 5 0 0 0 - 9 9 9 9 ; $ 1 0 0 0 0 - 1 4 9 9 9 ; $ 1 5 0 0 0 - 1 9 9 9 9 ; $ 2 0 0 0 0 - 2 4 9 9 9 ; $ 2 5 0 0 0 - 3 4 9 9 9 ; a n d g r a t e r t h a n $ 3 5 000. I n t h i s a n a l y s i s , a n n u a l i n c o m e i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s : v e r y l o w -i n c o m e ( $ 0 - 9 9 9 9 ) ; l o w i n c o m e ( $ 1 0 0 0 0 - 1 9 9 9 9 ) ; m i d d l e income ( $ 2 0 0 0 0 - 2 4 9 9 9 ) ; u p p e r m i d d l e i n c o m e ( $ 2 5 0 0 0 - 3 4 9 9 9 ) ; and h i g h i n come ( g r e a t e r t h a n $ 3 5 0 0 0 ) . The c i t y a v e r a g e f o r t h e v e r y l o w i n c o m e g r o u p i s 24%. S t r a t h c o n a a nd G r a n d v i e w W o o d l a n d h a v e t h e h i g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f v e r y l o w i n c o m e h o u s e h o l d s , w i t h 62% and 4 1 % i n t h e $0-9999 i n c o m e g r o u p r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t h e c a s e o f S t r a t h c o n a , t h e d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e c i t y a v e r a g e i s as g r e a t as 38%. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e m i d d l e i n c o m e and u p p e r m i d d l e i n c o m e g r o u p s a r e f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t t h r o u g h o u t a l l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . Whereas t h e c i t y a v e r a g e f o r h i g h i n come c a t e g o r y i s 2 3 % , S h a u g h n e s s y ( 5 6 % ) , D unbar S o u t h l a n d s Page 86 ( 4 8 % ) a n d K e r r i s d a l e ( 4 1 % ) h a v e r e c o r d e d a much h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e i n h i g h i n c o m e f a m i l i e s . I n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e c i t y . F a l s e C r e e k S o u t h h a s a b o u t t h e same p e r c e n t a g e o f l o w a n d v e r y l o w inc o m e h o u s e h o l d s , a c c o m m o d a t i n g 4 8% v e r s u s 50% i n t h e c i t y . The m i d d l e i n c o m e c a t e g o r y d i s t r i b u t i o n i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e c i t y a n d t h e m i d d l e u p p e r i n c o m e d i s t r i b u t i o n d i f f e r s o n l y b y 1% f r o m t h e c i t y a v e r a g e . T h e r e i s a l s o s i m i l a r p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h i g h i n c o m e r e s i d e n t s , 24% v e r s u s 2 3 % i n t h e c i t y . When c o m p a r e d t o t h e GVRD a v e r a g e s o f 4 1 % f o r l o w a n d v e r y l o w - i n c o m e h o u s e h o l d s a n d 28% f o r h i g h i n c o m e h o u s e h o l d s . F a l s e C r e e k accommodates s l i g h t l y more l o w i n c o m e h o u s e h o l d s a n d s l i g h t l y f e w e r h i g h e r i n c o m e h o u s e h o l d s . H owever, when c o m p a r e d t o F a i r v i e w i n w h i c h F a l s e C r e e k i s l o c a t e d . F a l s e C r e e k h a s accommodated more h i g h income h o u s e h o l d s , 24% v e r s u s 1 3 % . The c a s e o f C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i n c o m e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e r e s i d e n t s . H i g h i n c o m e h o u s e h o l d s i n C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s a c c o u n t f o r 35%, w h i c h e x c e e d s t h e c i t y a v e r a g e b y 12% and t h e GVRD a v e r a g e b y 7%. The 32% o f l o w a n d v e r y l o w - i n c o m e c a t e g o r i e s i s a l s o s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r t h a n t h e c i t y a n d GVRD a v e r a g e s . The income d i s t r i b u t i o n i n C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s i s f a i r l y s i m i l a r t o K i l l a r n e y i n w h i c h i t i s l o c a t e d . ( S e e T a b l e 2.5 i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ) Page 87 The 1981 a v e r a g e h o u s e h o l d i n c o m e f o r t h e c i t y i s $24,856 a nd $27,688 f o r GVRD. F i g . 3 . 5 i n d i c a t e s t h a t S t r a t h c o n a ' s a v e r a g e i n c o m e i s 5 1 % b e l o w t h e c i t y a v e r a g e w h i l e S h a u g h n e s s y i s 150% above t h e c i t y a v e r a g e i n c o m e . The a v e r a g e i n c o m e f o r C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s i s 23% abo v e t h e c i t y a v e r a g e a n d F a l s e C r e e k S o u t h i s a modest 4% abo v e t h e c i t y a v e r a g e . TENURE 45 % o f t h e V a n c o u v e r h o u s e h o l d s i n t h e 1981 c e n s u s a r e home owners w h i l e 55% a r e r e n t e r s . The GVRD d a t a shows t h e r e i s 58% homeowners and 42% r e n t e r s i n t h e r e g i o n . The l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f r e n t e r s , 9 3 % i s f o u n d i n t h e West End, f o l l o w e d b y F a i r v i e w a n d Mount P l e a s a n t , b o t h h a v i n g 84% o f r e n t e r s . The l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f homeowners a r e f o u n d i n V i c t o r i a - F r a s e r v i e w ( 9 5 % ) and Dunbar S o u t h l a n d s ( 8 7 % ) . F a l s e C r e e k S o u t h i s 10% b e l o w t h e c i t y a v e r a g e o f homeowners w h i l e C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s i s 13% a b o v e t h e c i t y a v e r a g e , r e f l e c t i n g t h e i n n e r c i t y l o c a t i o n o f t h e f o r m e r and t h e s u b u r b a n l o c a t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r . As a w h o l e , n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w i t h a v e r a g e i n c o m e s much h i g h e r t h a n t h e c i t y a v e r a g e h a v e more owners t h a n t e n a n t s . T h i s i s t h e c a s e i n O a k r i d g e , Dunbar S o u t h l a n d s , S h a u g h n e s s y , West P o i n t G r e y , A r b u t u s R i d g e a n d K e r r i s d a l e . Page 88 S i m i l a r l y , n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w i t h a v e r a g e i n c o m e s much b e l o w t h e c i t y a v e r a g e have f e w e r home owners and more r e n t e r s . T h e s e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a r e S t r a t h c o n a , G r a n d v i e w W o o d l a n d , Mount P l e a s a n t a n d t h e West En d . T h e r e a r e two e x c e p t i o n s t o t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f i n c o m e t o t e n u r e i n t h e c i t y . V i c t o r i a - F r a s e r v i e w , w i t h a v e r a g e i n c o m e o n l y 4% a b o v e t h e c i t y a v e r a g e , has 95% o f o w n e r s . F a i r v i e w , w h i c h i s m o d e r a t e l y ('17%) b e l o w t h e c i t y ' s a v e r a g e i n c o m e , has 84 % o f r e n t e r s . LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY The l e n g t h o f o c c u p a n c y by t h e r e s i d e n t s i s s u b -d i v i d e d i n t o l e s s t h a n 1 y e a r , 1 - 2 y e a r s , 3-5 y e a r s , 6-10 y e a r s a n d o v e r 10 y e a r s . W i t h i n e a c h c a t e g o r y , t h e r e s i d e n t s a r e s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o homeowners a n d r e n t e r s . Among t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w i t h t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s i d e n t s w i t h o v e r 10 y e a r s o f o c c u p a n c y , Dunbar S o u t h l a n d s i s a t t h e t o p o f t h e l i s t w i t h . a l m o s t h a l f o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , 48% l i v i n g f o r o v e r 10 y e a r s i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . B o t h V i c t o r i a - F r a s e r v i e w a nd S h a u g h n e s s y h a v e 4 2 % , O a k r i d g e 4 1 % and K e r r i s d a l e 4 0 % o f t h e s e l o n g t e r m r e s i d e n t s . As f o r r e s i d e n t s w i t h l e s s t h a n one y e a r o f o c c u p a n c y , G r a n d v i e w W o o d l a n d has t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e , 30% i n t h i s c a t e g o r y f o l l o w e d b y Mount P l e a s a n t w i t h 2 8%. T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n Page 89 t e n u r e and l e n g t h o f o c c u p a n c y o f r e s i d e n t s . I n V i c t o r i a -F r a s e r v i e w , D unbar S o u t h l a n d s , S h a u g h n e s s y , O a k r i d g e a n d K e r r i s d a l e , w h e r e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f l o n g t e r m r e s i d e n t s a r e h i g h , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f o w n ers i s much g r e a t e r t h a n r e n t e r s . C o n v e r s e l y , G r a n d v i e w W o o d l a n d and Mount P l e a s a n t w i t h h i g h p e r c e n t a g e s o f s h o r t t e r m r e s i d e n t s , a l s o h a v e much more r e n t e r s t h a n o w n e r s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h e s t a b i l i t y o f a n e i g h b o u r h o o d c a n be a f f e c t e d b y t e n u r e ; homeowners b e i n g more s t a b l e a n d r e n t e r s more m o b i l e . S i n c e F a l s e C r e e k S o u t h a n d C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s a r e n e w l y p l a n n e d c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e '70s, t h e r e a r e no r e s i d e n t s w i t h more t h a n 10 y e a r s o f o c c u p a n c y i n F a l s e C r e e k S o u t h , w h i l e t h e r e i s o n l y 1% i n s u c h c a t e g o r y i n C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s . 3.4 OVERVIEW OF THE CENSUS DATA When c o m p a r e d t o t h e c i t y a v e r a g e s , age i s most e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d o f t h e v a r i a b l e s s t u d i e d i n V a n c o u v e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . I n t h e p l a n n e d c o m m u n i t i e s o f F a l s e C r e e k S o u t h a n d C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s , age d i s t r i b u t i o n i s a l s o t h e v a r i a b l e t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e s c l o s e s t t o t h e c i t y a v e r a g e s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t age m i x i s a r e l a t i v e l y e a s y v a r i a b l e t o a c h i e v e i n p l a n n i n g f o r a s o c i a l l y m i x e d new n e i g h b o u r h o o d . T h e r e i s g r e a t e r f l u c t u a t i o n i n i n c o m e d i s t r i b u t i o n f r o m n e i g h b o u r h o o d t o n e i g h b o u r h o o d . Income c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Page 90 h a v e o f t e n b e e n i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e " c l a s s " o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . I n s u f f i c i e n t i n c o m e may be t h e m a j o r r o a d b l o c k t o a h o u s e h o l d ' s a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o a p a r t i c u l a r n e i g h b o u r h o o d . One p o s s i b l e p o l i c y i s t o a l l o w p e o p l e o f d i f f e r e n t i n c o m e s , e s p e c i a l l y h o u s e h o l d s w i t h l o w i n c o m e s , t o h a v e a c c e s s t o n e i g h b o u r h o o d s l o c a t e d on l a n d o f h i g h m a r k e t v a l u e . T h e s e mean i n c r e a s i n g r e n t a l t e n u r e a nd s o c i a l h o u s i n g i n t h e s e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . B u t i s t h i s p o l i t i c a l l y f e a s i b l e , o r i s i t e v e n s e e n b y t h e r e s i d e n t s as des i r a b l e ? Amongst t h e h o u s e h o l d t y p e s , f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s w i t h c h i l d r e n i s t h e h o u s e h o l d c a t e g o r y t h a t e n c o u n t e r s t h e most p r o b l e m i n f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e a c c o m m o d a t i o n i n i n n e r c i t y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . F a i r v i e w h o u s e s o n l y 10%, West End 6% a n d Mt. P l e a s a n t , 19% o f f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s w i t h c h i l d r e n . One p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e c o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be t o t r y t o b r o a d e n t h e o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s g r o u p . Lone p a r e n t f a m i l i e s a l s o a p p e a r t o h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b l e m s f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e a n d a f f o r d a b l e a c c o m m o d a t i o n . C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s a nd F a l s e C r e e k S o u t h d e m o n s t r a t e how p l a n n e r s c a n meet t h i s n e e d . R e n t a l t e n u r e a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a s s i s t e d s o c i a l h o u s i n g must be a v a i l a b l e i n o r d e r t o do s o . I t i s r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o l o c a t e t h e s e h o u s e h o l d t y p e s i n new n e i g h b o u r h o o d s b u t much more d i f f i c u l t t o do s o i n e x i s t i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . W i t h r e g a r d s t o t e n u r e o p t i o n s , t h e c i t y s h o u l d t r y Page 91 t o e n c o u r a g e a b e t t e r m i x o f owners and r e n t e r s i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . The image t h a t n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i n w h i c h r e n t e r s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t a r e u n s t a b l e c a n be a l t e r e d . The m a j o r way o f i n c r e a s i n g i n c o m e m i x i s t o i n c r e a s e t e n u r e m i x . The d i s c u s s i o n has s o f a r c e n t r e d on h o u s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n s t e a d o f s o c i a l m i x . I n f a c t , t h e h o u s i n g o p p o r t u n i t y v e r s i o n o f s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y i s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , V a n c o u v e r ' s p o l i c y . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l i n t r o d u c e some r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s on e x p a n d i n g t h e h o u s i n g component o f s o c i a l m i x . I n a d d i t i o n , f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o i m p r o v e s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y a r e d i s c u s s e d . Page 92 C h a p t e r 3 F o o t n o t e s 1. C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , P l a n n i n g D e p t . ( 1 9 8 0 ) Q u a r t e r l y  R e v i e w , V o l 7, No.4, O c t . 2. C l a p p , J . ( 1 9 7 3 ) . Page 9 3 CHAPTER 4 SOCIAL MIX POLICY — FINAL COMMENTS T h i s s t u d y p r o v i d e s a f a i r l y b r o a d o v e r v i e w o f t h e s o c i a l m i x c o n c e p t , V a n c o u v e r ' s s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y , a n d t h e r e a l i t y o f s o c i a l m i x i n V a n c o u v e r ' s n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . As t h e s o c i a l m i x c o n c e p t d e a l s w i t h s o c i a l v a l u e s a nd a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e d y n a m i c s o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s among d i f f e r e n t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s , t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f what s o c i a l m i x i s and what s o r t o f s o c i a l m i x i s d e s i r a b l e i s an u n r e s o l v e d , and p e r h a p s , u n r e s o l v a b l e , p r o b l e m . T h e r e i s no w i d e l y a c c e p t e d d e f i n i t i o n o f an i d e a l s o c i a l l y m i x e d c o m m u n i t y . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s a m a t t e r o f s u b j e c t i v e j u d g m e n t . However, as d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 1.3, t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o n c e p t a n d w h i c h a r e b a s e d on some g e n e r a l a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s among d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s . P r o v i d e d b e l o w i s a s e l e c t i v e summary o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f r o m l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f i e l d on p o s s i b l e i m p r o v e m e n t s o f t h e s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y i n V a n c o u v e r . 4.1 O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n The r e v i e w o f V a n c o u v e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s has p r o v i d e d an i n t e r e s t i n g p r o b e o f t h e r e a l i t i e s o f s o c i a l m i x i n t h e c i t y . I t p o i n t s t o a more s o l i d a p p r o a c h t o s o c i a l m i x , an a p p r o a c h b a s e d on " h o u s i n g o p p o r t u n i t y " c r i t e r i a . B u t i n Page 94 t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , t h i s h o u s i n g o p p o r t u n i t y v e r s i o n o f s o c i a l m i x i s c a r r i e d o u t s o l e l y i n n e w l y d e v e l o p m e n t n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . T h i s i s n o t a v e r y s t r o n g o p e r a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g a s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y . A m a j o r d e c i s i o n i n t h e m a t t e r o f d e f i n i t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e s t o t h e c h o i c e o f some s p a t i a l l y d e f i n e d a r e a . The c i t y c o n t a i n s 22 n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w h i c h a r e g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as s u b - c o m m u n i t i e s . T h e s e m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e s u b - d i v i s i o n s f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c y . However, a p r o b l e m m i g h t a r i s e f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t n o t a l l o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s p o s s e s s e i t h e r t h e same a r e a l d i m e n s i o n o r e v e n g e n e r a l l y e q u a l p o p u l a t i o n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , o b j e c t i o n s m i g h t be r a i s e d b y some o f t h e s m a l l e r a r e a s o r t h o s e w i t h s m a l l e r p o p u l a t i o n s t h a t t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d was e m p l o y e d as a b a s i s f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f b a l a n c e o r t h e l a c k o f i t o r t h a t t h e y w e r e b e i n g a s k e d t o assume more t h a n what m i g h t be a r g u e d as a f a i r s h a r e o f t h e p o l i c y . T h e r e i s no o b j e c t i v e g r o u n d s f o r c o n s i d e r i n g h i s t o r i c a l l y d e f i n e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d u n i t s as a p p r o p r i a t e s u b -d i v i s i o n s f o r a s o c i a l mix" p o l i c y . N e i g h b o u r h o o d b o u n d a r i e s a r e v e r y a r b i t r a r y . 4.2 E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f C r i t e r i a The m e a s u r a b i l i t y o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f a s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y r e q u i r e s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c r i t e r i a . I n t h e F a l s e Page 95 C r e e k E v a l u a t i o n S t u d y c o n d u c t e d by t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , t h e c i t y a nd GVRD-CMA a v e r a g e s w e r e u s e d as e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a . The C i t y makes no c l a i m t o b e i n g s c i e n t i f i c i n t h e u s e o f c i t y a nd m e t r o p o l i t a n a v e r a g e s , t h e y a r e s i m p l y s t a t i s t i c s a g a i n s t w h i c h s o c i o -e c o n o m i c c e n s u s d a t a on t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c a n be m e a s u r e d . However, p r i o r t o c o n t i n u e d u s e o f e v e n t h e s e a v e r a g e s as e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a , t h e r e i s ample g r o u n d s f o r c o n s i d e r i n g o t h e r c r i t e r i a i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y . The C i t y s h o u l d u n d e r t a k e an i n t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f a r e a s w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d l a c k i n g i n s o c i a l b a l a n c e . S u p p l e m e n t a r y c r i t e r i a i n r a n k i n g t h e s e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s m i g h t i n c l u d e an a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r e v a i l i n g z o n i n g ( t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r c h a n g e s i n z o n i n g w o u l d c r e a t e b e t t e r c h a n c e s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l o w e r p r i c e d h o u s i n g ) , t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s c h o o l s , t h e e x t e n t o f employment o p p o r t u n i t y , t h e e x t e n t o f e x i s t i n g c o m m e r c i a l and s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e a r e a and t h e e x t e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n s p a c e a n d f a c i l i t i e s . T h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d i n t e r m s o f how t h e y w o u l d m a i n t a i n o r e v e n e n h a n c e a m e n i t y v a l u e s w h i l e a l s o p r o v i d i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s o c i a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o p u l a t i o n s . A r a n k i n g p o i n t s y s t e m c a n be d e v e l o p e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e o v e r a l l s t a t u s o f t h e a r e a w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s ' a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s ' t o t h e n eeds o f s o c i a l l y a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d r e s i d e n t s . T h i s assumes t h a t what t h e c i t y c o n s i d e r s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r new n e i g h b o u r h o o d s s u c h as F a l s e Page 96 C r e e k a n d C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s , i t a l s o c o n s i d e r s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o t h e r a r e a s . As an a d d i t i o n a l s t u d y , t h e c i t y m i g h t a l s o c o n d u c t an e x t e n s i v e s u r v e y o f h o u s i n g p r e f e r e n c e s a n d l o c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s among g r o u p s who a r e t h e e x p e c t e d b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f s o c i a l l y m i x e d c o m m u n i t i e s . I t s h o u l d I n c l u d e a m easurement o f p r e f e r e n c e f o r l i v i n g i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a l l y m i x e d s i t u a t i o n s a n d a l s o , a m easurement o f p r e f e r e n c e f o r l i v i n g i n s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g i n s u c h s i t u a t i o n s . The p u r p o s e s o f t h e s e v a r i o u s s t u d i e s a r e n o t o n l y t o p r o v i d e an e x p a n d e d e m p i r i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e n e e d f o r s o c i a l l y m i x e d c o m m u n i t i e s , b u t a l s o t o f u n c t i o n as a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p t o w a r d o p e r a t i o n a l c r i t e r i a f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f f u t u r e r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s i n e a c h a r e a . 4.3 E v a l u a t i v e S t u d y A l t h o u g h J . V i s c h e r has c o n d u c t e d a p o s t - o c c u p a n c y e v a l u a t i o n on F a l s e C r e e k , t h e r e h a s n o t b e e n a s i m i l a r s t u d y done f o r C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s . To r e f i n e a s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y , an e v a l u a t i o n s t a g e i s e s s e n t i a l . An u p d a t e d v e r s i o n o f t h e F a l s e C r e e k r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s t u d y s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n as w e l l as a s t u d y o f C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s . Page 9 7 The e v a l u a t i o n must a d d r e s s w h e t h e r t h e b a s i c i n s t r u m e n t s o f t h e p o l i c y a r e w o r k i n g o r a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h h a v e b e e n s e t f o r them. I t i s n o t a l w a y s a s i m p l e m a t t e r t o a s s e s s t h e r e a s o n s a p o l i c y w o r k s o r d o e s n o t w o r k . The p o l i c y may be w e l l c o n c e i v e d b u t u n d e r f u n d e d . Or, t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d e v i c e s may n o t f i t t h e c o n c e p t u a l d y n a m i c s o f t h e p o l i c y , o r o n - g o i n g s u p p o r t was n o t c o n s i d e r e d a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t r a t e g y . F o r p o l i c y d e s i g n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s t o a d v a n c e f r o m mere t r i a l a n d e r r o r , an e v a l u a t i o n p h a s e i s c r i t i c a l . The e v a l u a t i o n p h a s e o f t h e s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y p r o c e s s s h o u l d a l s o i n v o l v e c l i e n t a n a l y s i s . Any p o l i c y d e s i g n e d t o b r i n g a b o u t s o c i a l c h a n g e must i n v o l v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c y on t h e c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n s t o w a r d w h i c h t h e p o l i c y i s d i r e c t e d . To i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e x t e n t t h e s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y w i l l meet t h e n e e d s o f c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n s , t h e f o l l o w i n g s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . a. The i n t e n d e d b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f t h e s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y s h o u l d be s p e c i f i e d . The a s s e s s m e n t s o f 'need' and 'demand' w i l l h ave t o be c l a r i f i e d . The p o l i c y m i g h t be b a s e d on g e n e r a l a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t t h e n e e d f o r s u c h p u b l i c p r o g r a m w h e r e a s t h e Page 98 a c t u a l l e v e l s o f demand f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d a r e much l o w e r . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e c o n d a r y b e n e f i c i a r i e s i n t h e s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y , i . e . t h e ' upper c l a s s e s ' s h o u l d a l s o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e c l i e n t s p e c i f i c a t i o n p h a s e . b. The c r i t i c a l p o i n t i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s w i l l be an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p r o g r a m a c t u a l l y b e n e f i t e d f r o m i t . The t e s t o f a s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y w i l l be t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h assumed b e n e f i c i a r i e s h a v e m a t e r i a l l y o r o t h e r w i s e i m p r o v e d . E v a l u a t i o n s c o u l d i n v o l v e a v a r i e t y o f i n d i c e s , e . g . s e l f -p e r c e p t i o n h e a l t h , b e t t e r a c c e s s t o employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d s c h o o l s , more room t o r e c r e a t e , o r l e s s e n e d a n x i e t i e s f o r s o c i a l a d v a n c e m e n t . T h i s w o u l d be a l o n g t e r m p r o j e c t . c. I f one o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p o l i c y i n v o l v i n g s e c o n d a r y b e n e f i c i a r i e s i n v o l v e s c h a n g e s i n a t t i t u d e s o r b e h a v i o u r s o f t h o s e g r o u p s , e v a l u a t i o n t o a s s e s s t h e d e g r e e o f c h a n g e e f f e c t e d i s w a r r a n t e d . d. A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s s h o u l d be f o c u s e d on w h e t h e r t h e m e c h anisms d e s i g n e d f o r t h e p o l i c y t o i n c r e a s e t h e s u p p l y o f l o w - o r m o d e r a t e -i n c o m e h o u s i n g w o r k e d e f f e c t i v e l y as t h e y w e re Page 99 e x p e c t e d t o . e. S i n c e a s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s t h e p r i v a t e d e v e l o p m e n t s e c t o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s s h o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e c o n c e r n s o f d e v e l o p e r s a n d b u i l d e r s a n d r e a l e s t a t e i n t e r e s t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r i c i n g a n d m a r k e t i n g p r o c e d u r e s a n d p r o b l e m s . [ 1 ] P u b l i c p o l i c i e s s u c h as s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y w h i c h a r e somewhat e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d p o t e n t i a l l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l , s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d a n d r e - e x a m i n e d on a s y s t e m a t i c b a s i s . S u c h e v a l u a t i o n i s v i t a l f o r t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s a nd t h e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s upon w h i c h t h e o r i g i n a l p o l i c y i s b a s e d . 4.5 C l a r i f i c a t i o n o f P o l i c y O b j e c t i v e s What s h o u l d V a n c o u v e r ' s s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y be? I f t h e b a s i c p u r p o s e o f t h e c i t y ' s s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y i s t o c r e a t e b e t t e r a d v a n t a g e s f o r g r o u p s p r e s e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d as d i s a d v a n t a g e d , t h e m e a s u r e o f t h e s o c i a l u t i l i t y o f t h e s o c i a l l y m i x e d c o m m u n i t y i s w h e t h e r o r n o t i t w i l l p r o d u c e t h i s o b j e c t i v e . T h i s p o i n t i s s t r e s s e d b e c a u s e p o l i c y d e s i g n s o m e t i m e s f a l l s i n t o t h e t r a p o f e l e v a t i n g t h e means above t h e e n d s . T h e r e s h o u l d be a m e a s u r a b l e b a s i s upon w h i c h t o Page 100 e v a l u a t e w h e t h e r t h e s o c i a l m i x c o n c e p t o r p r a c t i c e a f f o r d s m e a s u r a b l e b e n e f i t s and i m p r o v e d s o c i a l w e l f a r e f o r t h o s e g r o u p s w h i c h t h e p o l i c y i s d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e . T h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y o f ends w h i c h a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s o c i a l m i x c o n c e p t . I t c a n be e n r i c h i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d s ' s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t s t o i n c o r p o r a t e v i t a l i t y , one c r i t e r i a f o r t h e c o r e c h a n g e s i n t h e C o r e P l a n , [ 2 ] t o e n r i c h a n d d i v e r s i f y t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l t o e n j o y a n d l e a r n f r o m u r b a n l i f e . I t c a n be p r o v i d i n g b e t t e r a c c e s s t o employment and e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h i s b e y o n d t h e e c o n o m i c r e a c h o f t h e p r e s e n t l y s e g r e g a t e d p o p u l a t i o n s . T h e s e o b j e c t i v e s m i g h t i m p l y and r e q u i r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f o r m u l a t i o n s o f p o l i c y . [ 3 ] The l a t t e r o b j e c t i v e s m i g h t n o t e v e n i n v o l v e h o u s i n g as t h e p r i n c i p a l p o l i c y component n o r i n v o l v e t h e c r e a t i o n o f s o c i a l l y m i x e d c o m m u n i t i e s . The b r o a d e r i s s u e i n v o l v e d i n t h e s o c i a l m i x q u e s t i o n i s i n e q u a l i t y i n g e n e r a l , i n p a r t i c u l a r i n c o m e i n e q u a l i t y . A c c o m p a n y i n g t h a t i s d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s i n h o u s i n g o p t i o n s f o r c e r t a i n s e c t o r s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . I f i n c o m e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n i s t h e s o l u t i o n , n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s must be c o - o r d i n a t e d t o h e l p t h e p l i g h t o f t h e p o o r . B u t e v e n t h e n , i f s h e l t e r a l l o w a n c e w e r e t o r e p l a c e s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g programmes s p o n s o r e d b y t h e F e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t , t h e p o o r m i g h t s t i l l f a c e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h e i r h o u s i n g c h o i c e s . ( S e e H u l c h a n s k i , 1983) A t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y l e v e l , Page 101 t h e r e i s l i t t l e t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t c a n do on t h e b r o a d e r i s s u e o f i n c o m e i n e q u a l i t y . However, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h o u s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s c a n be m i n i m i z e d b y a c a r e f u l c o -o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y . I t i s a t l e a s t a s m a l l , p e r h a p s v e r y s m a l l , s t e p i n t h e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . 4.5 E n r i c h m e n t s t r a t e g y I f V a n c o u v e r c i t y i s t o c o n c e n t r a t e on h o u s i n g m i x i n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y , a c o n c u r r e n t e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e e n r i c h m e n t s t r a t e g y c a n a c h i e v e more e f f e c t i v e r e s u l t s i n t e r m s o f an " e n r i c h m e n t " s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y . The l a n d u s e c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s w h i c h a r e w i t h i n t h e c i t y ' s r e a l m o f j u r i s d i c t i o n c a n f a c i l i t a t e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e two s t r a t e g i e s p r o v i d e d f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l f u n d i n g f o r s u c h t h i n g s as s o c i a l l y m i x e d h o u s i n g a r e f o r t h c o m i n g . A p o l i c y i n u s i n g t h e new a r e a d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y m i s s e s t h e much more e x t e n s i v e s t o c k o f e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g b y f o c u s i n g o n l y on new d e v e l o p m e n t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t s u f f e r s a l l t h e l i m i t a t i o n s c r e a t e d b y h i g h h o u s i n g c o s t s f o r new h o u s i n g a nd t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i n s u p p l y o f p u b l i c l y s u b s i d i z e d u n i t s . I n t h e c i t y o f San D i e g o , e n r i c h m e n t h a s b e e n recommended as an e x p a n s i o n o f t h e B a l a n c e d Community P o l i c y . [ 4 ] An e n r i c h m e n t p o l i c y w i l l n o t r e l y s o much on r e d i s t r i b u t i n g m i n o r i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c i t y o r t o new Page 102 d e v e l o p m e n t s ; r a t h e r i t w i l l r e l y on p o l i c i e s a n d p r o g r a m s t o p r o v i d e t h o s e a r e a s o c c u p i e d b y t h e s e g r o u p s an e x p a n d e d r a n g e o f h o u s i n g c h o i c e s , g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h i s b o t h e q u a l t o t h e o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c i t y a n d a l s o a c c o u n t s f o r t h e s p e c i a l n e e d s o f r e s i d e n t s o f t h o s e a r e a s . R e l o c a t i o n t o new d e v e l o p m e n t s may be a more r i s k y a nd t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e f o r m i n o r i t y g r o u p s , who h a v e had l e s s e x p e r i e n c e i n a d j u s t i n g t o new l i v i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s , who t e n d t o r e l y more on f r i e n d s a n d f a m i l i e s , and who w i l l h ave t h e p o t e n t i a l o f r e j e c t i o n f r o m m a j o r i t y members i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t o w h i c h t h e y r e l o c a t e . An e n r i c h m e n t s t r a t e g y may a l s o i n v o l v e more o p p o r t u n i t y b y t h e m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n s i n t h e a c t u a l d e s i g n , o p e r a t i o n a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t o f t h e p o l i c y . The p o l i c y w o u l d a p p l y t o c o m m u n i t i e s t h e y a r e a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r w i t h a n d t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s w i l l t e n d t o a p p r o a c h t h e p o l i c y more on a g r o u p b a s i s t h a n i n a new a r e a d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y w h i c h may be i n t e r p r e t e d as c o n s t r u c t i n g a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h members w i t h i n a n d b e t w e e n m i n o r i t y g r o u p s a r e c o m p e t i n g f o r t h e e x p a n d e d s u p p l y o f u n i t s . The e n r i c h m e n t o f e x i s t i n g a r e a s d o m i n a t e d b y s o c i o -e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s c a n be a means f o r s o f t e n i n g p o t e n t i a l r e s i s t a n c e i n o t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t o w a r d a c i t y w i d e d i s t r i b u t i o n p o l i c y f o r Page 103 l o w - a nd m o d e r a t e - i n c o m e h o u s i n g . Up t o now, t h e C i t y ' s N e i g h b o u r h o o d Improvement P r o g r a m ( N I P ) has c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e e n r i c h m e n t s t r a t e g y . I t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e C i t y c o n t i n u e s s u c h e f f o r t s a n d d e v e l o p f u r t h e r p r o g r a m s t o a t t r a c t t h e more a f f l u e n t s e c t o r o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t o move i n t o t h e m i n o r i t y - d o m i n a t e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . As p o i n t e d o u t i n t h e p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s , n e i g h b o u r h o o d s o f S t r a t h c o n a a nd G r a n d v i e w W o o d l a n d a p p e a r t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e e n r i c h m e n t p o l i c y . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e i n t e n t i o n h e r e i s n o t t o d i s c o u n t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e new a r e a d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y . I t p o s s e s s e s t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f new d e v e l o p m e n t s l i k e l y t o h a v e l e s s e n t r e n c h e d r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e i n f l u x o f m i n o r i t y g r o u p s i n t o t h e c o m m u n i t y . The C i t y w o u l d a l s o a p p e a r t o h a v e more l e v e r a g e w i t h t h e d e v e l o p e r i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t when t h e y r e q u i r e f a v o u r a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i s s i o n s f r o m v a r i o u s p u b l i c d e p a r t m e n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , a new a r e a d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y may be a b l e t o a f f e c t some s u c c e s s e s w i t h more d r a m a t i c e f f e c t w i t h n a s c e n t c o m m u n i t i e s . S u c h p r o j e c t s , i f s u c c e s s f u l , w o u l d f u n c t i o n as d e m o n s t r a t i o n c a s e s t o t h e c o m m u n i t y a t l a r g e . I t i s t h u s a p p r o p r i a t e t o p u r s u e b o t h t h e new a r e a d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e n r i c h m e n t s t r a t e g i e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Page 104 4.6 E p i l o g u e T h i s r e p o r t i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o q u e s t i o n t h e b a s i c i n t e n t i o n s o f s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y . I t h o p e s t o r e a f f i r m t h e n e e d f o r e f f e c t i v e p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t t o i n c r e a s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s i n C a n a d i a n c i t i e s . S o c i a l m i x i n p l a n n i n g t h e o r y t e r m s c a r r i e s w i t h i t a m i c a b l e g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s . I n p r a c t i c e , h o w e v e r , many c o m p l e x i t i e s a r i s e f r o m t h e i s s u e . I t i s n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r i n t e g r a t i o n w o u l d l e a d t o t h e e n v i s a g e d b r i d g i n g o f t h e gap b e t w e e n g r o u p s o f d i f f e r e n t i n c o m e s a n d l i f e s t y l e s , a n d t h a t s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w o u l d e n t a i l as a r e s u l t o f c l o s e p r o x i m i t y . I t i s n o t e v e n c l e a r w h e t h e r t h e m i n o r i t y g r o u p s w o u l d l i k e t o l i v e i n s o c i a l l y m i x e d c o m m u n i t i e s . What i s c l e a r i s t h a t b o t h t h e " u p p e r " a nd " l o w e r " i n c o m e g r o u p s w o u l d want t o l i v e i n d e v e l o p m e n t s a nd n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t h a t a r e a e s t h e t i c a l l y d e s i g n e d a nd w e l l m a i n t a i n e d . The e x t e n s i o n o f s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y i n t o t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i n V a n c o u v e r i s n o t a i m e d a t c r e a t i n g a " u t o p i a n " c i t y , b u t o f f e r i n g more e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y i n t e r m s o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t f o r a l l who l i v e i n t h e c i t y . I t s h o u l d a l s o be k e p t i n m i n d t h a t , i f t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l g o a l s f o r d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o p u l a t i o n s i s t h e o v e r r i d i n g p u r p o s e , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a Page 105 s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y a l o n e w i l l n o t be an a d e q u a t e m e a s u r e . A p o l i c y f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f e x p a n d e d c h o i c e and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o p u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r s t e p s i n more d i r e c t i o n s t h a n s i m p l y a m u n i c i p a l s o c i a l m i x p o l i c y . Page 106 C h a p t e r 4 F o o t n o t e s 1. C l a p p , J . ( 1 9 7 3 ) . 2. V a n c o u v e r , C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p t . ( 1 9 8 3 ) The C o r e P l a n I s s u e , Q u a r t e r l y R e v i e w , V o l . 1 0 , No.3, J u l y . 3. Gans, H. ( 1 9 7 3 ) New Towns: Why a n d F o r Whom? 4. C l a p p , J . ( 1 9 7 3 ) Page 107 APPENDIX A AGGREGATION OF ENUMERATION AREAS INTO NEIGHBOURHOODS Page 108 :.)•>. I '3/ MTS/SPSS, VERSION H. RELEASE 9.0. FEBRUARY 1, 1982 ORDER FROM MCGRAW-HILL: CURRENT DOCUMENTATION FOR THE SPSS BATCH SYSTEM SPSS, 2ND ED. (PRINCIPAL TEXT) ORDER FROM SPSS INC.: SPSS UPDATE 7-9 (USE W/SPSS,2ND FOR REL. 7, 8, 9) SPSS POCKET GUIDE, RELEASE 9 SPSS INTRODUCTORY GUIDE: BASIC STATISTICS AND OPERATIONS SPSS PRIMER (BRIEF INTRO TO SPSS) SPSS STATISTICAL ALGORITHMS KEYWORDS: THE SPSS INC. NEWSLETTER DEFAULT SPACE ALLOCATION.. WORKSPACE 286720 BYTES TRANSPACE 40960 BYTES 1 GET FILE ALLOWS FOR.. 409 TRANSFORMATIONS 1638 RECODE VALUES + LAG VARIABLES 6556 IF/COMPUTE OPERATIONS TENURE(TENURE) FILE TENURE HAS THE SUBFILES ARE . . 7 VARIABLES NAME TENURE NO OF CASES 667 2 COMMENT **** STRATHCONA (NBR=1) CPU TIME REQUIRED . . 0.36 SECONDS Cu o 3 IF 4 IF 5 COMMENT 6 IF 7 IF 8 COMMENT 9 IF 10 IF 11 IF 12 IF 13 IF 14 IF 15 IF 16 IF 17 COMMENT 18 IF 19 IF 20 IF 21 COMMENT 22 IF (FED EO 24) AND (EA GE (FED EO 24) AND (EA GE *** OAKRIDGE (NBR=2) (FED EO 27) AND (EA EO (FED EQ 27) AND (EA GE *** FAIRVIEW (NBR=3) (FED EO 23) (FED EO 23) (FED EO 23) (FED EO 23) (FED EQ 23) (FED EQ 23) (FED EQ 23) (FED EQ 24) AND AND AND AND AND (EA (EA GE (EA GE (EA GE (EA GE EQ AND (EA GE AND (EA EQ AND (EA GE *** DUNBAR SOUTHLANDS' (FED EQ 26) AND (EA GE (FED EO 26) AND (EA GE (FED EQ 27) AND (EA GE **** SUNSET (NBR=5) ((FED EQ 25) AND (EA GE 211 AND EA 228 AND EA 102))NBR=2 109 AND EA 001 AND EA 051 AND EA 056 AND EA 151 AND EA 154))NBR=3 201 AND EA 222))NBR=3 016 AND EA (NBR=4) 108 AND EA 151 AND EA 218 AND EA LE 223))NBR=1 LE 229))NBR=1 LE 120))NBR=2 LE 020))NBR=3 LE 053))NBR=3 LE 060))NBR=3 LE 152))NBR=3 LE 207))NBR=3 LE 024))NBR=3 LE 110))NBR=4 LE 164))NBR=4 LE 224))NBR=4 056 AND EA LE 059))NBR=5 23 IF ((FED EO 27) AND (EA GE 051 AND EA LE 053))NBR= = 5 24 IF ((FED EO 27) AND (EA GE 056 AND EA LE 065))NBR= = 5 25 IF ((FED EO 27) AND (EA GE 069 AND EA LE 070))NBR= = 5 26 IF ((FED EO 27) AND (EA EQ 101))NBR=5 27 IF ((FED EO 27) AND (EA GE 103 AND EA LE 108))NBR= = 5 28 COMMENT *•** KILLARNEY (NBR = i 6) 29 IF ((FED EO 25) AND (EA GE 001 AND EA LE 004))NBR= = 6 30 IF ((FED EO 25) AND (EA EO 007))NBR=6 31 IF ((FED EO 25) AND (EA GE 013 AND EA LE 015) )NBR = =6 32 IF ((FED EO 25) AND (EA EQ 022) )NBR = 6 33 IF ((FED EO 27) AND (EA GE 001 AND EA LE 010))NBR= =6 34 IF ((FED EO 27) AND (EA EQ 014))NBR=6 35 IF ((FED EO 27) AND (EA EQ 019) )NBR=6 36 IF ((FED EO 27) AND (EA GE 025 AND EA LE 026) )NBR = 6 37 COMMENT **** RENFREW COLLINWOOD (NBR=7) 38 IF ((FED EO 25) AND (EA GE 008 AND EA LE 012) )NBR = 7 39 IF ((FEO EO 25) AND (EA GE 016 AND EA LE 021))NBR= 7 40 IF ((FED EO 25) AND (EA GE 101 AND EA LE 104))NBR= 7 41 IF ((FED EO 25) AND (EA GE 106 AND EA LE 111))NBR = 7 42 IF ((FED EO 25) AND (EA GE 115 AND EA LE 119))NBR = 7 43 IF ((FED EO 25) AND (EA EQ 122))NBR=7 44 COMMENT GRANDVIEW WOODLAND (NBR= = 8) 45 IF ((FED EO 24) AND (EA GE 051 AND EA LE 057) )NBR = 8 46 IF ((FED EO 24) AND (EA GE 114 AND EA LE 1 15))NBR= 8 47 IF ((FED EQ 24) AND (EA GE 158 AND EA LE 159))NBR= a 48 IF ((FED EO 24) AND (EA GE 161 AND EA LE 164))NBR= 8 49 IF ((FED EO 24) AND (EA GE 168 AND EA LE 169))NBR= 8 50 IF ((FED EO 24) AND (EA GE 201 AND EA LE 210))NBR= 8 51 IF ((FED EO 24) AND (EA GE 224 AND EA LE 227) )NBR = 8 52 COMMENT SHAUNESSY (NBR=9) 53 IF ((FED EO 26) AND (EA GE 009 AND EA LE 010))NBR= 9 54 IF ((FED EO 26) AND (EA GE 065 AND EA LE 068))NBR= 9 55 IF ((FED EQ 26) AND (EA GE 069 AND EA LE 072))NBR=9 56 COMMENT WEST POINT GREY (NBR = = 10) 57 IF ((FED EO 26) AND (EA GE 201 AND EA LE 216))NBR= 10 58 COMMENT KITSILANO (NBR=11) 59 IF ((FED EO 22) AND (EA EO 153))NBR=11 60 IF ((FED EO 22) AND (EA GE 155 AND EA LE 159) )NBR = 1 1 61 IF ((FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 053 AND EA LE 055))NBR= 1 1 62 IF ((FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 061 AND EA LE 069) )NBR = 1 1 63 IF ((FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 101 AND EA LE 1 18))NBR = 11 64 IF ((FED EO 23) AND (EA EQ 153))NBR=11 65 IF ((FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 155 AND EA LE 169))NBR= 1 1 66 IF ((FED EO 26) AND (EA GE 165 AND EA LE 169))NBR= 1 1 67 COMMENT CBD (NBR=12) 68 IF ((FED EQ 23) AND (EA GE 208 AND EA LE 213))NBR= 12 69 IF ((FED EQ 23) AND (EA GE 551 AND EA LE 556))NBR= 12 70 IF ((FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 558 AND EA LE 560))NBR= 12 71 IF ((FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 568 AND EA LE 574))NBR= 12 72 IF ((FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 577 AND EA LE 578) )NBR = 12 73 COMMENT HASTINGS SUNRISE (NBR = 13) 74 IF ((FED EO 24) AND (EA GE 101 AND EA LE 1 13) )NBR = 13 75 IF ((FED EO 24) AND (EA GE 116 AND EA LE 119))NBR = 13 76 IF ( (FED EO 24) AND (EA GE 151 AND EA LE 157))NBR= 13 77 IF ((FED EO 24 ) AND (EA EO 160))NBR=13 78 IF ((FED EO 24 ) AND (EA GE 165 AND EA LE 167))NBR= 13 79 IF ( (FED EO 25) AND (EA EO 105))NBR=13 80 COMMENT KENSINGTON CEDAR COTTAGE (NBR= 14) 81 IF ( (FED EO 25) AND (EA GE 060 AND EA LE 07 1 ))NBR = 14 82 IF ( (FED EO 25) AND (EA GE 112 AND EA LE 114))NBR= 14 83 IF ( (FED EO 25) AND (EA GE 120 AND EA LE 121 ))NBR = 14 84 IF ((FED EO 25) AND (EA GE 151 AND EA LE 170))NBR= 14 85 COMMENT VICTORIA FRASERVIEW (NBR=15) 86 IF ( (FED EO 25) AND (EA GE 005 AND EA LE 006))NBR= 15 87 IF ( (FED EO 25) AND (EA GE 051 AND EA LE 055))NBR= 15 88 IF ( (FED EO 27) AND (EA GE 01 1 AND EA LE 013) )NBR = 15 89 IF ( (FED EO 27) AND (EA GE 015 AND EA LE 018))NBR= 15 90 IF ((FED EO 27) AND (EA GE 020 AND EA LE 024 ) )NBR = 15 91 IF ( (FED EO 27) AND (EA EO 27) )NBR = 15 92 IF ( (FED EO 27) AND (EA GE 054 AND EA LE 055))NBR= 15 93 COMMENT MARPOLE NBR = 16) 94 IF ( (FED EO 27) AND (EA GE 066 AND EA LE 068))NBR= 16 95 IF ((FED EO 27) AND (EA GE 151 AND EA LE 171))NBR= 16 96 COMMENT RILEY PARK (NBR=17) 97 IF ( (FED EO 26) AND (EA GE 001 AND EA LE 006))NBR= 17 98 IF ( (FED EO 26) AND (EA GE 01 1 AND EA LE 021))NBR= 17 99 IF ( (FED EO 26) AND (EA GE 051 AND EA LE 054))NBR= 17 100 COMMENT SOUTH CAMBIE (NBR = 18) 101 IF ((FED EO 26) AND (EA GE 007 AND EA LE 008))NBR= 18 102 IF ( (FED EO 26) AND (EA EO 022))NBR=18 103 IF ( (FED EO 26) AND (EA GE 055 AND EA LE 064) )NBR = 18 104 COMMENT ARBUTUS RIDGE (NBRM9) 105 IF ((FED EO 26) AND (EA GE 073 AND EA LE 074) )NBR = 19 106 IF ((FED EO 26) AND (EA GE 101 AND EA LE 107))NBR= 19 107 IF ( (FED EO 26) AND (EA GE 1 1 1 AND EA LE 121 ) )NBR = 19 108 COMMENT KERRISDALE (NBR'20) 109 IF ( (FED EO 27) AND (EA EO 12t))NBR=20 1 10 IF ((FED EO 27) AND (EA EQ 172))NBR=20 1 1 1 IF ( (FED EO 27) AND (EA GE 201 AND EA LE 217))NBR= 20 1 12 COMMENT MT. PLEASANT (NBR = 21 ) 113 IF ( (FED EO 24 ) AND (EA GE 001 AND EA LE 015))NBR= 21 1 14 IF ( ( FED EQ^ 24) AND (EA GE 058 AND EA LE 069))NBR= 21 1 15 COMMENT WEST END (NBR=22) 1 16 IF ( (FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 214 AND EA LE 221))NBR= 22 1 17 IF ( (FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 251 AND EA LE 264 ) )NBR = 22 1 18 IF ( (FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 301 AND EA LE 315) )NBR = 22 1 19 IF ( (FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 351 AND EA LE 363))NBR= 22 120" IF ( (FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 401 AND EA LE 414))NBR= 22 121 IF ( (FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 451 AND EA LE 464))NBR= 22 122 IF ( (FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 501 AND EA LE 514))NBR= 22 123 IF ( (FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 561 AND EA LE 567))NBR= 22 124 IF ( (FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 575 AND EA LE 576))NBR= 22 125 IF ( (FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 601 AND EA LE 614))NBR= 22 126 IF ( (FED EO 23) AND (EA GE 651 AND EA LE 668))NBR= 22 127 SORT CASES NBR TRANSPACE REQUIRED.. 10300 BYTES 103 TRANSFORMATIONS 0 RECODE VALUES + LAG VARIABLES 1271 IF/COMPUTE OPERATIONS CPU TIME REQUIRED.. 3.87 SECONDS 128 FREQUENCIES GENERAL=NBR GIVEN WORKSPACE ALLOWS FOR 20480 VALUES AND 6144 LABELS PER VARIABLE FOR 'FREQUENCIES' (D h-1 FILE TENURE (CREATION DATE = 01/26/84) NBR RELATIVE ADJUSTED ABSOLUTE FREQ FREO CATEGORY LABEL CODE FREO (PCT) (PCT) 0. 15 2.2 2.2 1. 15 2.2 2.2 2. 13 1.9 1.9 3. 47 7.0 7.0 4. 24 3.6 3.6 5. 26 3.9 3.9 6. 23 3.4 3.4 7. 27 4.0 4.0 8. 31 4.6 4.6 9. 10 1.5 1.5 10. 16 2.4 2.4 11 . 51 7.6 7.6 12. 24 3.6 3.6 13. 29 4.3 4.3 14. 37 5.5 5.5 15. 22 3.3 3.3 16. 24 3.6 3.6 17. 21 3.1 3.1 18. 13 1.9 1.9 ^ 19. 20 3.0 3.0 20. 19 2 . 8 2 . 8 (D 21. 27 4.0 4.0 CUM FREQ (PCT) 2.2 4.5 6.4 13.5 17. 1 21.0 24.4 28.5 33. 1 34.6 37 .0 44.7 48.3 52.6 58.2 61.5 65. 1 68.2 70.2 73.2 76.0 80. 1 SPSS C-'TCH c FILE TENURE (CREATION DATE = 01/26/84) 22. 133 19.9 19.9 100.0 TOTAL 667 100.0 100.0 VALID CASES 667 MISSING CASES APPENDIX B AGGREGATION OF CENSUS TRACTS I N THE 1981 CENSUS INTO NEIGHBOURHOODS FOR THE CITY OF VANCOUVER Page 115 APPENDIX B: A g g r e g a t i o n o f C e n s u s T r a c t s i n t h e 1981 C e n s u s i n t o N e i g h b o u r h o o d s f o r t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r NBR NO. NEIGHBOURHOOD CENSUS TRACTS 1 S t r a t h c o n a 57,58 2 O a k r i d g e 10 , 12 3 F a i r v i e w 40,49.1,49.2 4 Dunbar S o u t h l a n d s 8,23-26 5 S u n s e t 3,11,13.1,13.2 6 K i l l a r n e y 1,15.1,16.1 7 R e n f r e w C o l l i n g w o o d 1 6 . 2 , 1 7 , 3 5 , 3 6 . 1 , 36.2 8 G r a n d v i e w W o o d l a n d 50.2,56 9 S h a u g h n e s s y 20,21,28 10 West P o i n t G r e y 43,44 11 K i t s i l a n o 4 1,42,45-48 12 CBD 59.1,59.2,66 13 H a s t i n g s S u n r i s e 5 1 , 5 2 . 1 , 5 2 . 2 , 5 3 - 55 14 K e n s i n g t o n C e d a r C o t t a g e 1 8 . 1 , 1 8 . 2 , 3 2 - 3 4 , 37 15 V i c t o r i a F r a s e r v i e w 2,14,15.2 16 M a r p o l e 4-6 17 R i l e y P a r k 19,30,31 18 S o u t h Cambie 29 19 A r b u t u s R i d g e 22,27 20 K e r r i s d a l e 7,9 21 Mount P l e a s a n t 3 8,39,50.1 22 West E nd 60-65,67,68 Page 116 APPENDIX C DATA ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF VANCOUVER NEIGHBOURHOODS Page 117 APPENDIX C - l 1: AGE DISTRIBUTION IN NEIGHBOURHOODS NBR 0-9 10-19 20-34 35-44 45-64 65 + o, o O, "o Q. O % % % STRATHCONA 10 12 21 9 23 25 OAKRIDGE 7 14 18 9 29 23 FAIRVIEW 4 5 40 11 19 21 DUNBAR S.L. 11 16 23 14 23 13 SUNSET 12 16 27 10 22 13 KILLARNEY 12 17 25 12 22 12 RENFREW 13 17 26 11 23 10 COLLINGWOOD GRANDVIEW 11 12 34 10 20 13 WOODLANDS SHAUGHNESSY 10 18 20 13 26 13 WEST PT.GREY 9 13 27 13 22 16 KITSILANO 3 7 48 13 16 13 CBD 1 3 23 13 36 24 HASTINGS 11 16 27 11 22 13 SUNRISE KENSINGTON 12 16 29 11 21 11 CEDAR COTTAGE VICTORIA 11 15 24 11 25 14 FRASERVIEW MARPOLE 6 9 38 10 21 16 R I L E Y PARK 11 15 28 11 21 14 SOUTH CAMBIE 8 11 26 9 20 26 ARBUTUS RIDGE 6 11 18 11 26 28 KERRISDALE 9 14 19 12 25 21 MT. PLEASANT 8 8 42 11 19 12 WEST END 2 3 41 14 21 19 FALSE CREEK SOUTH 14 12 30 19 16 9 CHAMPLAIN HEIGHTS 15 18 27 15 18 7 CITY 9 12 30 12 22 15 GVRD 12 15 28 13 20 12 Page 118 APPENDIX C-2 2: HOUSEHOLD TYPE DISTRIBUTION I N NEIGHBOURHOODS NBR 2 PARENT FAM WITH CHILDREN FAM WITH NO CHILD LONE PARENT FAM NON-FAM STRATHCONA Q. "O 26 O, "6 15 O, 11 Q. "O 48 OAKRIDGE 30 34 7 29 FAIRVIEW 5 20 5 70 DUNBAR S.L. 41 28 9 22 SUNSET 40 25 10 25 KILLARNEY 43 25 11 21 RENFREW 44 25 10 21 COLLINGWOOD GRANDVIEW 21 20 10 49 WOODLAND SHAUGHNESSY 43 23 6 28 WEST PT.GREY 28 25 9 38 KITSILANO 11 22 6 61 CBD 2 17 3 78 HASTINGS SUNRISE 39 24 10 27 KENSINGTON 38 23 11 27 CEDAR COTTAGE VICTORIA 49 27 1 23 FRASERVIEW MARPOLE 16 26 6 52 RI L E Y PARK 33 24 11 32 SOUTH CAMBIE 29 24 9 38 ARBUTUS RIDGE 22 31 7 40 KERRISDALE 30 29 6 35 MT. PLEASANT 11 22 8 59 WEST END 3 18 3 76 FALSE CREEK SOUTH 22 20 16 42 CHAMPLAIN HEIGHTS 46 22 18 14 CITY 24 24 8 44 GVRD 34 26 8 32 Page 119 APPENDIX C-3 3: HOUSEHOLD S I Z E DISTRIBUTION IN NEIGHBOURHOODS NBR 1 2 3 + STRATHCONA % 43 o. "o 19 O, o 38 OAKRIDGE 26 38 36 FAIRVIEW 63 29 8 DUNBAR SOUTH LANDS 16 33 51 SUNSET 20 28 52 KILLARNEY 18 29 53 RENFREW COLLINGWOOD 16 28 56 GRANDVIEW WOODLAND 42 29 29 SHAUGHNESSY 23 26 51 WEST POINT GREY 30 32 38 KITSILANO 50 33 17 CBD 70 26 4 HASTINGS SUNRISE 22 28 50 KENSIGNTON 21 29 50 CEDAR COTTAGE VICTORIA FRASERVIEW 19 30 51 MARPOLE 45 34 21 R I L E Y PARK 24 32 44 SOUTH CAMBIE 29 32 39 ARBUTUS RIDGE 35 37 28 KERRISDALE 30 33 37 MT. PLEASANT 51 32 18 WEST END 68 27 5 FALSE CREEK SOUTH 38 32 30 CHAMPLAIN HEIGHTS 12 29 59 CITY 38 30 32 GVRD 27 31 42 Page 120 APPENDIX C-4 4: INCOME DISTRIBUTION I N NEIGHBOURHOODS NBR 0 -9999 10000- 20000- 25000- 350 19999 24999 34999 STRATHCONA % 62 o, "O 16 o, "o 8 g, "o 8 o, "o 6 OAKRIDGE 16 18 9 19 38 FAIRVIEW 26 33 13 15 13 DUNBAR SOUTH LANDS 12 15 9 16 48 SUNSET 19 23 12 20 26 KILLARNEY 16 17 11 22 34 RENFREW COLLINGWOOD 20 21 11 23 25 GRANDVIEW WOODLAND 41 29 10 12 8 SHAUGHNESSY 11 14 6 13 56 WEST PT.GREY 18 21 9 15 37 KITSILANO 24 31 14 15 16 CBD 42 34 7 10 7 HASTINGS SUNRISE 25 23 12 20 20 KENSINGTON 22 25 13 19 21 CEDAR COTTAGE VICTORIA FRASERVIEW 22 19 11 22 26 MARPOLE 20 30 13 19 18 R I L E Y PARK 23 24 13 18 22 SOUTH CAMBIE 17 29 11 17 26 ARBUTUS RIDGE 12 23 9 17 39 KERRISDALE 17 19 8 15 41 MT. PLEASANT 33 33 12 14 8 WEST END 31 35 12 12 10 FALSE CREEK SOUTH 22 26 11 17 24 CHAMPLAIN HEIGHTS 14 18 11 22 35 CITY 24 26 11 16 23 GVRD 19 22 11 20 28 Page 121 APPENDIX C-5 5: AVERAGE INCOME DISTRIBUTION I N NEIGHBOURHOODS NBR AVERAGE INCOME + OR - CITY AVE. STRATHCONA 12 , 180 - 5 1 % OAKRIDGE 35, 431 + 4 3 % FAIRVIEW 20, 688 -17% DUNBAR SOUTH LANDS 40, 070 + 6 1 % SUNSET 26, 253 + 6% KILLARNEY 29, 313 + 18% RENFREW COLLINGWOOD 25, 508 + 3% GRANDVIEW WOODLAND 15, 864 -36% SHAUGHNESSY 62, 058 + 150% WEST PT. GREY 35, 210 + 42 % KITSILANO 22 , 133 - 1 1 % CBD 15, 566 - 3 7 % HASTINGS SUNRISE 22, 605 - 9 % KENSINGTON CEDAR COTTAGE 23, 329 - 6 % VICTORIA FRASERVIEW 25 , 734 +4% MARPOLE 23, 254 - 6 % R I L E Y PARK 24 , 182 - 3 % SOUTH CAMBIE 27, 515 + 11% ARBUTUS RIDGE 35 , 204 + 42 % KERRISDALE 38, 729 + 56% MT. PLEASANT 16 , 804 - 3 2 % WEST END 18, 296 -26% FALSE CREEK SOUTH 25, 883 + 4% CHAMPLAIN HEIGHTS 30 , 571 + 23% CITY 24, 856 GVRD 27, 688 Page 122 APPENDIX C-6 APPENDIX 8 TENURE NBR OWN RENT o, o, "o -5 STRATHCONA 19 81 OAKRIDGE 66 34 FAIRVIEW 16 84 DUNBAR SOUTHLANDS 8 7 13 SUNSET 70 30 KILLARNEY 67 33 RENFREW COLLINWOOD 77 23 GRANDVIEW WOODLAND 28 72 SHAUGHNESSY 77 23 WEST POINT GREY 61 39 KITSIL A N O 30 70 CBD 5 95 HASTINGS SUNRISE 69 31 KENSINGTON CEDAR COTTAGE 63 37 VICTORIA-FRASERVIEW 95 5 MARPOLE 34 66 RIL E Y PARK 61 39 SOUTH CAMBIE 60 40 ARBUTUS RIDGE 58 4 2 KERRISDALE 66 34 MOUNT PLEASANT 16 84 WEST END 7 93 FALSE CREEK SOUTH 35 65 CHAMPLAIN HEIGHTS 58 4 2 CITY 45 55 GVRD 58 42 Page 123 APPENDIX C-7 7: TENURE AND LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY YEARS OF OCCUPANCY NBR UNDEE : l 1--2 3 -5 6 -10 OVER H 0 R 0 R O R O R O R O, o Q, "O O, "5 Q, O o, o g, "o o "o Q. O o, "o o, "o STRATHCONA 2 13 2 17 4 27 3 14 8 10 OAKRIDGE 3 9 5 9 9 7 12 5 38 3 FAIRVIEW 3 23 5 23 5 19 2 8 2 10 DUNBAR S.L. 5 5 7 3 13 3 14 2 46 2 SUNSET 4 9 8 6 11 7 15 2 36 2 KILLARNEY 10 9 12 8 10 8 16 4 22 1 RENFREW COLLINGWOOD 5 9 9 7 13 5 13 2 36 1 GRANDVIEW WOODLAND 3 27 3 23 3 16 3 8 9 5 SHAUGHNESSY 6 6 9 6 13 5 11 2 39 3 WEST PT.GREY 3 10 6 10 10 10 10 4 33 4 KITSILANO 2 23 3 19 6 16 5 8 11 7 CBD - 28 1 25 - 25 2 9 - 10 HASTINGS SUNRISE 4 13 6 11 9 10 8 3 33 3 KENSINGTON 4 13 8 11 11 7 10 3 30 3 CEDAR COTTAGE VICTORIA FRASERVIEW 4 8 6 7 10 8 10 5 39 3 MARPOLE 2 18 5 17 7 13 5 6 21 6 RIL E Y PARK 5 13 6 10 8 9 9 4 33 3 SOUTH CAMBIE 3 15 7 13 8 7 8 5 29 5 ARBUTUS RIDGE 4 9 5 10 8 12 10 8 25 9 KERRISDALE 3 7 6 7 11 9 11 6 32 8 MT.PLEASANT 2 26 3 24 4 19 3 9 4 6 WEST END 1 22 1 27 2 21 2 13 1 10 Page 124 REFERENCES A r m o u r , D.J. ( 1 9 7 6 ) "The D a n g e r s o f F o r c e d I n t e g r a t i o n " , S o c i e t y , V o l . 14, M a y / J u n e . B e l l , L. a n d S c h u l t z , L . ( 1 9 7 4 ) S o c i a l A s p e c t s o f D e v e l o p m e n t f o r F a l s e C r e e k D e v e l o p m e n t G r o u p : U n i t e d S e r v i c e s o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A r e a S o c i a l P o l i c y a n d R e s e a r c h D e p t . B l a u , P.M. ( 1 9 7 7 ) I n e q u a l i t y a n d H e t e r o g e n e i t y : A P r i m i t i v e  T h e o r y o f S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , New Y o r k , F r e e P r e s s . B o e s c h e n s t e i n , W. (1 9 7 1 ) " D e s i g n o f S o c i a l l y M i x e d H o u s i n g " A I P J o u r n a l , S e p t . , p p . 3 1 1 - 3 1 8 . B r y a n , J . ( 1 9 7 4 ) "Can E c o n o m i c M i x i n H o u s i n g W o r k ? " , J o u r n a l o f H o u s i n g , #8 S e p t . C.M.H.C. ( 1 9 8 1 ) B a c k g r o u n d document on S o c i a l H o u s i n g . ( 1 9 8 1 ) H o u s i n g A f f o r d a b i l i t y P r o b l e m s a n d H o u s i n g Need i n C a n a d a a nd t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y . ( 1 9 8 1 ) Co-op P r o g r a m G u i d e l i n e s a n d S o c i a l H o u s i n g A p p r a i s a l G u i d e . ( 1 9 8 3 ) N o n - P r o f i t a n d C o - o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g P r o g r a m E v a l u a t i o n , November. Campleman, G. ( 1 9 5 1 ) "Some S o c i o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s o f M i x e d -C l a s s N e i g h b o u r h o o d P l a n n i n g " , S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , V o l . 4 3 , p p . 1 9 1 - 2 0 0 . C l a p p , J.A. ( 1 9 7 3 ) B a l a n c e d Community P o l i c y : An E v a l u a t i o n  o f t h e C o n c e p t , i t s F e a s i b i l i t y a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  R e q u i r e m e n t f o r t h e C i t y o f San D i e g o : U r b a n O b s e r v a t o r y o f San D i e g o . C u l l i n g w o r t h , B. (1 9 8 0 ) C a n a d i a n H o u s i n g P o l i c y R e s e a r c h -Some I n i t i a l I m p r e s s i o n s , T o r o n t o : C e n t r e f o r U r b a n and Community S t u d i e s . Duncan, O. ( 1 9 6 9 ) " I n e q u a l i t y a n d O p p o r t u n i t y " , P o p u l a t i o n  I n d e x , V o l . 35, p p . 3 6 1 - 3 6 5 . D u r a n d , R. and E c k a r t , D. ( 1 9 7 3 ) " S o c i a l Rank, R e s i d e n t i a l E f f e c t s a n d Community S a t i s f a c t i o n " , S o c i a l F o r c e s , V o l . 52: N o . l ( S e p t . ) , p p . 7 4 - 8 5 . Page 125 E t h e r i n g t o n , W. ( 1 9 7 4 ) The I d e a o f S o c i a l M i x : a C r i t i c a l B i b l i o g r a p h y : C e n t r e f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t u d i e s . E v a n s , A. ( 1 9 7 4 ) " E c o n o m i c I n f l u e n c e s on S o c i a l M i x " , U r b a n  S t u d i e s ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 13, p p . 2 4 7 - 2 6 0 . Form, W. ( 1 9 5 1 ) " S t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n Low a n d M i d d l e Income H o u s i n g A r e a s " , J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s , 7, 1951-52, p p . 1 0 9 - 1 3 1 . G a n s , H. ( 1 9 6 1 ) "The B a l a n c e d Community: H o m o g e n e i t y o r H e t e r o g e n e i t y i n R e s i d e n t a i l A r e a s ? " , A m e r i c a n  I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s J o u r n a l , V o l . 2 7 , No.3 ( A u g . ) , p p . 1 7 6 - 1 8 4 . ( 1 9 6 1 ) " P l a n n i n g a n d S o c i a l L i f e : F r i e n d s h i p a n d N e i g h b o u r R e l a t i o n s i n S u b u r b a n C o m m u n i t i e s " , A I P  J o u r n a l , V o l . 2 7 , No.2 ( M a y ) , p p . 1 3 4 - 1 4 0 . ( 1 9 6 8 ) P e o p l e a n d P l a n s : E s s a y s on U r b a n P r o b l e m s a n d S o l u t i o n s , New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s . ( 1 9 7 3 ) "The P o s s i b i l i t i e s o f C l a s s a n d R a c i a l I n t e g r a t i o n i n A m e r i c a n New Towns: A P o l i c y -O r i e n t e d A n a l y s i s " , New Towns: Why and F o r Whom?, P e r l o f f , H.S. and S a u n d e r s , New Y o r k : P r a e g e r . G r e e n b i e , B. ( 1 9 7 4 ) " S o c i a l T e r r i t o r y , Community H e a l t h & U r b a n P l a n n i n g " , A I P J o u r n a l , M a r . , V o l . 4 0 , No.2, p p . 7 4 - 8 1 . G r i s s o m , L. ( 1 9 7 1 ) "Toward B a l a n c e d S u b u r b s : The San D i e g o E x p e r i e n c e " , p a p e r p r e s e n t e d t o t h e A I P , San F r a n c i s c o , O c t . G u e s t , A. ( 1 9 7 7 ) " R e s i d e n t i a l S e g r e g a t i o n i n U r b a n A r e a s " , C o n t e m p o r a r y T o p i c s i n U r b a n S o c i o l o g y , S c h w i r i a n , K.P. e d . , M o r r i s t o w n , New J e r s e y : G e n e r a l L e a r n i n g P r e s s , p p . 2 6 8 - 3 2 7 . H u l c h a n s k i , D. ( 1 9 8 4 ) S t . L a w r e n c e a nd F a l s e C r e e k : A R e v i e w o f t h e P l a n n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t o f Two New I n n e r C i t y N e i g h b o u r h o o d s , Mar. d r a f t . L e v i n e , D. ( 1 9 6 9 ) "The S e g r e g a t e d S o c i e t y : What M u s t be D o n e " , P h i D e l t a K a p p a n , V o l . 5 0 , No.2, p p . 2 6 4 - 2 6 9 . Mann, P. ( 1 9 5 8 ) "The S o c i a l l y B a l a n c e d N e i g h b o u r h o o d " , Town  P l a n n i n g R e v i e w , V o l . 2 4 , p p . 9 1 - 9 8 . Page 126 M a s s a c h u s e t t s H o u s i n g F i n a n c e A g e n c y ( 1 9 7 5 ) "A S o c i a l A u d i t o f M i x e d - I n c o m e H o u s i n g " , U r b a n L a n d , Mar., p p . 4 -13 .. Mumford, L. ( 1 9 3 8 ) The C u l t u r e o f C i t i e s , L o n d o n : S e e k e r and W a r b u r g . P i v e n , F.F. and C l o w a r d , R. ( 1 9 6 7 ) "The C a s e A g a i n s t U r b a n D e s e g r a t i o n " , S o c i a l Work, J a n . , p p . 1 2 - 2 1 . Rosow, I . ( 1 9 6 1 ) " S o c i a l E f f e c t s o f P h y s i c a l E n v i r o n m e n t " , A I P J o u r n a l , V o l . 2 7 , p p . 1 2 7 - 1 3 3 . S a r k i s s i a n , W. ( 1 9 7 6 ) "The I d e a o f S o c i a l M i x i n Town P l a n n i n g : An H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w " , U r b a n S t u d i e s , V o l . 1 3 , p p . 2 3 1 - 2 4 6 . S t a r r , R. (1 9 7 1 ) "Which o f t h e P o o r S h a l l L i v e i n P u b l i c H o u s i n g " , The P u b l i c I n t e r e s t , s p r i n g . V a n c o u v e r , C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p t . ( 1 9 8 2 ) A P e r s p e c t i v e on  H o u s i n g f r o m a V a n c o u v e r V i e w p o i n t . ( 1 9 7 9 ) C h a m p l a i n H e i g h t s Community P r o f i l e . ( 1 9 8 1 ) " D e f i n i n g a H o u s i n g P o l i c y " , U n d e r s t a n d i n g V a n c o u v e r ' s H o u s i n g , P a r t 1. (1 9 8 3 ) E v a l u a t i o n o f F a l s e C r e e k P h a s e 1 S o c i a l O b j e c t i v e s . ( 1 9 7 3 ) F a l s e C r e e k P o l i c i e s , Nov. (1 9 7 1 ) F a l s e C r e e k P r o p o s a l s , S e p t . , R e p o r t 3. ' ( 1982) F o u r o f E x a m p l e G o v e r n m e n t Fu n d e d H o u s i n g P r o j e c t s . V i s c h e r , J . ( 1 9 8 0 ) F a l s e C r e e k A r e a 6 P h a s e 1: P o s t  O c c u p a n c e E v a l u a t i o n , O t t a w a : C.M.H.C. West, M. ( 1 9 7 3 ) A S t u d y o f Two Forms o f Low Income H o u s i n g  T e n u r e , O t t a w a , C.M.H.C. Page 127 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096373/manifest

Comment

Related Items