UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The impact of computer-mediated office technology on the labour requirements of office organizations Thompson, Robert Bruce Douglas 1984

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1984_A8 T46.pdf [ 6.18MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0096356.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0096356-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0096356-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0096356-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0096356-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0096356-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0096356-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0096356-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0096356.ris

Full Text

THE IMPACT OF COMPUTER-MEDIATED OFFICE TECHNOLOGY ON THE LABOUR REQUIREMENTS OF OFFICE ORGANIZATIONS by ROBERT BRUCE DOUGLAS THOMPSON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Schoo l Of Community And Reg iona l P l a n n i n g We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1984 © Robert Bruce Douglas Thompson, 1984 1 r In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requ i rements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree that pe rm i s s i on f o r e x t e n s i v e copy ing of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g ranted by the Head of my Department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s unders tood that copy ing or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l l owed wi thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Schoo l Of Community And Reg iona l P l ann ing The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver , Canada V6T 1W5 Date: October 4, 1984 i i A b s t r a c t T h i s t h e s i s c h a l l e n g e s the common b e l i e f tha t the use of e x i s t i n g and n e a r - f u t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n s of computer techno logy r e s u l t s in o v e r a l l decreases in requ i rements f o r c l e r i c a l and management l a b o u r . Three a d d i t i v e and one nega t i ve forms of l abour impact have been i d e n t i f i e d . They a r e : System development and imp lementa t ion , Equipment o p e r a t i o n , I n fo rmat ion use and management, and Labour replacement and enhancement. F i v e d i s t i n c t a reas of a p p l i c a t i o n have a l s o been i d e n t i f i e d . They a r e : Large s c a l e data p r o c e s s i n g , Smal l s c a l e data p r o c e s s i n g , C l e r i c a l document p r o d u c t i o n , Management d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and E l e c t r o n i c o f f i c e networks. For each area of a p p l i c a t i o n , the forms of l abour impact which occur in a s s o c i a t i o n w i th the techno logy a re d i s c u s s e d , and changes in employment and p r o d u c t i v i t y l e v e l s c l a imed or documented in the l i t e r a t u r e a re a l s o examined. T e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g s a re then t e s t e d u s ing s u b s t a n t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n , conce rn ing l abour impacts tha t have o c c u r r e d in s e v e r a l Vancouver o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s which have implemented computer t echno logy . The f o l l o w i n g i s conc luded from the r e s e a r c h p re sen ted in t h i s t h e s i s . F i r s t , in most i n s t a n c e s , l ong - te rm i n c r e a s e s in l abour requ i rements a s s o c i a t e d w i th the use of computer -mediated o f f i c e techno logy outweigh the nega t i ve l abour impacts which a l s o o c c u r . Second, the techno logy i s seldom implemented w i th the pr imary i n t e n t i o n of reduc ing l abour r equ i rement s . I n s tead , f a r g r e a t e r weight i s g iven in implementat ion d e c i s i o n s to such concerns as c o r p o r a t e p r e s t i g e , document q u a l i t y , and d e v e l o p i n g new areas of i n f o r m a t i o n management. As a r e s u l t , s u b s t a n t i a l nega t i ve l abour impacts se ldomly o c c u r . T h i r d , on ly a p o r t i o n of nega t i ve impacts which do occur i s the r e s u l t of the labour replacement and enhancement c a p a b i l i t y of the t echno logy . A l a r ge but i nde te rm ina te p o r t i o n i s the r e s u l t of the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , s y s t e m i z a t i o n , s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of o f f i c e p r a c t i s e s , p rocedures and employees. F o u r t h , h i s t o r i c changes in employment l e v e l s and labour p r o d u c t i v i t y a re not a c c u r a t e measures of the l abour impact of computer use . As a r e s u l t , i t i s ex t remely d i f f i c u l t to q u a n t i t a t i v e l y a s ses s the labour impact of e x i s t i n g or f u t u r e areas of a p p l i c a t i o n . F i f t h , the implementat ion of e l e c t r o n i c o f f i c e networks w i l l be extremely d i f f i c u l t and c o s t l y , and w i l l r e q u i r e such l a r g e i n c r e a s e s in o f f i c e l abour and o f f e r s such sma l l l abour sav ings that few w i l l be implemented in the near f u t u r e . i v Tab le of Contents A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tab le s v i i Acknowledgement v i i i Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 1 . DISCUSSION 1 2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4 3. RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS 5 Chapter II METHODOLOGY 7 1 . INTRODUCTION 7 2. AREAS OF APPLICATION 7 3. FORMS OF LABOUR IMPACTS 11 3.1 System Development And Implementat ion 13 3.2 Equipment O p e r a t i o n 16 3.3 In fo rmat ion Use And Management 17 3.4 Labour Replacement And Enhancement 18 3.4.1 A l t e r a t i o n s In In format ion Management Procedures 19 3.5 Summary 24 Chapter III AREAS OF APPLICATION 25 1. CHAPTER INTRODUCTION 25 2. LARGE SCALE DATA PROCESSING 25 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 25 2.2 Reasons For Implementat ion 27 2.3 System Development And Implementat ion 33 2.4 Equipment Opera t i on 37 2.5 In fo rmat ion Use And Management 37 2.6 Labour Replacement And Enhancement . . . . 4 2 2.7 O v e r a l l Labour Impact 46 3. SMALL SCALE CLERICAL DATA PROCESSING 49 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 49 3.2 Reasons For Implementat ion 50 3.3 System Development And Implementat ion 51 3.4 Equipment Opera t i on 52 3.5 In format ion Use And Management 52 3.6 Replacement And Enhancement 53 3.7 O v e r a l l Labour Impact 54 V 4. CLERICAL DOCUMENT PRODUCTION 55 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 55 4.2 Reasons For Implementat ion 56 4.3 System I n t e g r a t i o n 59 4.4 Equipment Opera t i on 60 4.5 In fo rmat ion Use And Management 61 4.6 Labour Replacement And Enhancement 62 4.7 O v e r a l l Labour Impacts 65 5. MANAGEMENT DECISION-MAKING 66 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 66 5.2 Reasons For Equipment Implementat ion 67 5.3 System Development And Implementat ion 72 5.4 Equipment Opera t i on 75 5.5 In fo rmat ion Use And Management 76 5.6 Labour Replacement And Enhancement 77 5.7 O v e r a l l Labour Impacts 80 6. ELECTRONIC OFFICE NETWORKS 81 6.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 81 6.2 Reasons For Implementat ion 82 6.3 System Development And Implementat ion 85 6.4 Equipment Opera t i on 87 6.5 In format ion Use And Management 88 6.6 Labour Replacement And Enhancement 90 6.7 O v e r a l l Labour Impacts 91 7. CHAPTER CONCLUSION 92 Chapter IV LABOUR IMPACTS IN VANCOUVER ORGANIZATIONS 94 1. INTRODUCTION 94 2. METHOD ADOPTED AND PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED 94 3. REASONS FOR EQUIPMENT IMPLEMENTATION 96 4. OVERALL LABOUR IMPACT 96 5. ALTERATION OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES 97 6 . EMPLOYMENT DATA 98 6.1 A - L e g a l F i rm 99 6.2 B - L e g a l F i rm 100 6.3 C - L e g a l F i rm 102 7. CHAPTER CONCLUSION 104 Chapter V CONCLUSION 106 1. RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS 106 v i 2. POLICY IMPLICATIONS 108 3. FURTHER AREAS OF RESEARCH 109 BIBLIOGRAPHY 111 v i i L i s t of Tab le s I. P e r c e i v e d E f f e c t s of Computer 29 I I. A p p l i c a t i o n of Computer Time 34 I I I . Employment L e v e l s - L e g a l F i rm A 99 IV. Employment L e v e l s - L e g a l F i rm B 102 V. Employment L e v e l s - L e g a l F i rm C 103 v i i i Acknowledgement T h i s t h e s i s c o u l d not have been completed without a g rea t d e a l of a s s i s t a n c e from a number of p e o p l e . P r o f e s s o r s C r a i g Dav i s and Wal ter Hardwick d i s p l a y e d an amazing and very welcome w i l l i n g n e s s over a p e r i o d of th ree y e a r s , to examine, e d i t and c r i t i c i z e the innumerable d r a f t s tha t were submit ted to them. Mike Gunder was e q u a l l y w i l l i n g to hound and g r i n d me, at every o p p o r t u n i t y , to "get the b loody t h i n g done R o b e r t " . H i s e f f o r t s were d i f f i c u l t to a p p r e c i a t e at t i m e s , but I v a lue the f r i e n d s h i p from which they a r o s e . My f a t h e r , Dan Thompson, p r o v i d e d i n v a l u a b l e moral and f i n a n c i a l support over the decade in which I have a t tended u n i v e r s i t y . L a s t l y , Wanda Cree lman, by be ing h e r s e l f , gave me the s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and b e l i e f tha t I c o u l d complete " i t " , d u r i n g the numerous and l eng thy p e r i o d s in which I had l o s t b o t h . 1 I. INTRODUCTION 1. DISCUSSION T h i s t h e s i s examines the impact of computer-mediated o f f i c e techno logy on the l ong - te rm l abour requ i rements of o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . An impact i s d e f i n e d as an i n c r e a s e , or a r e d u c t i o n or containment i n the amount of l abour r e q u i r e d . The t e c h n o l o g i c a l rep lacement and enhancement 1 of o f f i c e l abour has been a sub jec t of s e r i o u s concern s i n c e the e a r l y 1950 ' s , when computers were f i r s t implemented in o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A s u b s t a n t i a l body of l i t e r a t u r e has deve loped on t h i s s u b j e c t , as w e l l as on o ther i s s ue s r e l a t e d to the use of computer t echno logy . And y e t , over the cour se of t h i r t y year s t h e r e has deve loped n e i t h e r a consensus of o p i n i o n nor unequ i voca l e m p i r i c a l ev idence as to the p r e c i s e l abour impacts which have and w i l l o c c u r . I n s tead , the l i t e r a t u r e i s a maze of v iews comments and a n a l y s e s , much of which can be h e l d to be s u b j e c t i v e or s e l f - s e r v i n g , a c c o r d i n g to the p e r s o n a l p o s i t i o n , and p o l i t i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n of the a u t h o r s . On one hand f o r example, a re the s h r i l l a larms r a i s e d w i th each new development in computer t echno logy , p r e d i c t i n g a r a p i d l y impending, who lesa le replacement of o f f i c e employees by t e c h n o l o g y . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s v iew, the r e s u l t w i l l be Labour enhancement i s d e f i n e d as an i n c r e a s e in l abour p r o d u c t i v i t y which i s not the r e s u l t of an i n c r e a s e in the amount of l abour 2 "Automat ic Unemployment" 2 and the " C o l l a p s e of W o r k " . 3 The f a c t tha t these a larms have been r a i s e d s i n ce the 1950 ' s , wi thout n o t i c e a b l e employment r e d u c t i o n s or conta inments o c c u r r i n g shou ld have been enough to d i s p e l such a v iew. But i t has no t . The m a j o r i t y of authors examining t h i s s ub jec t c o n t i n u e to r e v e a l i n t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s a deepseated c o n v i c t i o n that the use of the techno logy has and w i l l cause a r e d u c t i o n in the numbers of o f f i c e employees. E s t ima te s of the l abour r e p l a c i n g e f f e c t of the techno logy range form 2%fl to 3%5 per year of a l l o f f i c e l a b o u r . Others have s t a t e d that o f f i c e automat ion equipment w i l l i n c r e a s e o f f i c e p r o d u c t i v i t y by up to 50%. 6 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , they n e g l e c t to mention the time p e r i o d over which t h i s w i l l o c c u r , or the p r e c i s e manner in which i t w i l l be a c h i e v e d . These e s t ima te s have been s t a t e d in the f ace of r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n that b e l i e s such a v iew. Dur ing the p e r i o d 1970-1980, the e s t imated number of computers of a l l s i z e s in o p e r a t i o n i n Canada i n c r e a s e d by over 1700%. 7 I f one were to accept the popu la r v iew, i t c o u l d reasonab ly be expected that a s u b s t a n t i a l decrease in the numbers of o f f i c e employees, or at l e a s t a n o t i c e a b l e r e d u c t i o n in t h e i r r a t e of 2 H i ne s , C , S e a r l e , G . , Automat ic Unemployment, E a r t h Resources Research L t d . , London, 1979 3 growth had o c c u r r e d . I n s tead , wh i le the numbers of employees of a l l o c cupa t i on s in Canada grew by 29% from 1970-1980, the number of employees in c l e r i c a l o ccupa t i on s i n c r e a s e d by 39%, and the number of managers i n c r e a s e d by an amazing 222%. In a d d i t i o n , the numbers of systems a n a l y s t s and computer programmers i n c r e a s e d by 154%, and the numbers of computer equipment o p e r a t o r s by 166%. 8 S o l e l y on the b a s i s of these s t a t i s t i c s , i t i s ev i den t t h a t , even i f computer techno logy reduces requ i rements f o r some types of o f f i c e l abou r , i t i n c r e a s e s requ i rements f o r o t h e r s . The pr imary reason f o r t h i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y nature of the l i t e r a t u r e i s tha t the m a j o r i t y of authors emphasize the c a p a b i l i t y of the techno logy to reduce or c o n t a i n o f f i c e labour requ i rement s . They then seek q u a n t i t a t i v e ev idence of t h i s c a p a b i l i t y . I t i s l a r g e l y i gnored that l abour d i sp l a cement s can be the r e s u l t of many f a c t o r s , tha t the equipment has been implemented f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons other than i t s l abour sav ing p o t e n t i a l , and that a d d i t i v e labour impacts a re a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i th i t s use. A second reason i s tha t i n a t tempt ing to deve lop q u a n t i t a t i v e e s t ima te s of o v e r a l l l abour e f f e c t s , 3 . Jenk ins , C , Sherman, B., The C o l l a p s e of Work, London, Eyre Methuen, 1979 * V y s s o t s k y , V . A . , "The Use of Computers fo r Bus iness F u n c t i o n s " , i n De r touzo s , M.L . , Moses, J . , ( e d s . ) , The Computer Age: A  Twenty - Year View, MIT P r e s s , Cambridge Mass. , 1980, pg 145 5 Nora, S., Mine, A . , The Compute r i za t i on of S o c i e t y A Report to the P r e s i d e n t of F r a n c e , MIT P r e s s , 1980 , pg 35 6 J acobs , B.A., "Can E l e c t r o n i c s Perk Up O f f i c e P r o d u c t i v i t y " , I ndus t ry Week, 7 J u l y 1980 , pg 54 7 Canadian In format ion P r o c e s s i n g S o c i e t y , Canadian Computer Census, Toronto O n t a r i o , Annual , Tab le 2, pg. 8 8 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, computer p r i n t o u t , Exper i enced Labour Force by D e t a i l e d Occupa t i on , Male and Female, 1971 and 1981 4 many a u t h o r s e x a m i n e t h e t h e t e c h n o l o g y i n a g g r e g a t e f o r m , a n d f a i l t o c o n s i d e r t h a t d i f f e r e n t l a b o u r e f f e c t s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t a r e a s o f a p p l i c a t i o n . 2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A m e t h o d o l o g y h a s been d e v e l o p e d w h i c h p e r m i t s a r i g o r o u s e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r i m p a c t s w h i c h o c c u r i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h c o m p u t e r - m e d i a t e d o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y , a n d t h e r e a s o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e . T h i s m e t h o d o l o g y i s b a s e d upon a d i s a g g r e g a t i o n o f a p p l i c a t i o n s o f c o m p u t e r t e c h n o l o g y i n t o f i v e d i s t i n c t a r e a s , a n d a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a d d i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e l a b o u r i m p a c t s i n t o f o u r f o r m s o f i m p a c t . An a r e a o f a p p l i c a t i o n i s d e f i n e d a s a d i s t i n c t o f f i c e a c t i v i t y o r o p e r a t i o n t o w h i c h t h e t e c h n o l o g y c a n be a p p l i e d . F o r e a c h a r e a o f a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e f o r m s o f l a b o u r i m p a c t s w h i c h o c c u r i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e t e c h n o l o g y a r e d i s c u s s e d , a n d e m p l o y m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i v i t y i m p a c t s c l a i m e d o r d o c u m e n t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a r e a l s o e x a m i n e d . T e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g s a r e t h e n t e s t e d u s i n g s u b s t a n t i v e a n d q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e u s e o f c o m p u t e r - m e d i a t e d o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a , a n d t h e l a b o u r i m p a c t s w h i c h h a v e b e e n e x p e r i e n c e d . T h i s t h e s i s c o n s i s t s o f f o u r c h a p t e r s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r . C h a p t e r Two e s t a b l i s h e s t h e m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e t o e x a m i n e t h e l a b o u r i m p a c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h o f t h e f i v e a r e a s o f a p p l i c a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d . C h a p t e r F o u r r e p o r t s on t h e u s e o f c o m p u t e r t e c h n o l o g y by o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s c o n d u c t e d w i t h 5 m a n a g e r i a l , s u p e r v i s o r y and c l e r i c a l p e r s o n n e l . C o n c l u s i o n s reached in Chapter Three are re-examined on the b a s i s of t h i s q u a n t i t a t i v e and s u b s t a n t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . Chapter F i v e summarizes the main f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the impact of computer -mediated o f f i c e techno logy on the labour requ i rements of o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 3. RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS The f o l l o w i n g i s conc luded from the r e s e a r c h p re sen ted in t h i s t h e s i s . F i r s t , in most i n s t a n c e s , l ong - te rm i n c r e a s e s in l abour requ i rements a s s o c i a t e d w i th the use of computer -mediated o f f i c e techno logy outweigh the nega t i ve l abour impacts which a l s o o c c u r . Second, the techno logy i s seldom implemented w i th the pr imary i n t e n t i o n of reduc ing l abour requ i rement s . I n s tead , f a r g r e a t e r weight i s g i ven in implementat ion d e c i s i o n s to such concerns as c o r p o r a t e p r e s t i g e , document q u a l i t y , and deve l op ing new areas of i n f o r m a t i o n management. As a r e s u l t , a p p r e c i a b l e nega t i ve labour impacts se ldomly o c c u r . T h i r d , on l y a p o r t i o n of nega t i ve impacts i s due to the labour replacement and enhancement c a p a b i l i t y of the t echno logy . A l a r g e but i nde te rm ina te p o r t i o n of t h i s form of impact i s the r e s u l t of the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , s y s t e m i z a t i o n , s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of o f f i c e p r a c t i s e s , p rocedures and employees. F o u r t h , h i s t o r i c changes in employment l e v e l s and l abour p r o d u c t i v i t y a re not a c c u r a t e measures of the l abour impact of computer use. As a r e s u l t , i t i s ext remely d i f f i c u l t to q u a n t i t a t i v e l y a s ses s the labour impact of e x i s t i n g or f u t u r e areas of a p p l i c a t i o n . F i f t h , the s u c c e s s f u l implementat ion of 6 computer-mediated o f f i c e technology needed to achieve the " e l e c t r o n i c o f f i c e " or the " o f f i c e of the f u t u r e " w i l l be extremely d i f f i c u l t to implement, and w i l l r e q u i r e such l a r g e i n c r e a s e s i n o f f i c e labour and o f f e r s such small labour savings that few o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l be w i l l i n g to commit themselves to such a g o a l . 7 I I. METHODOLOGY 1. INTRODUCTION T h i s chapter p r e s e n t s a methodology to examine changes in l abour requ i rements a s s o c i a t e d w i th the use of computer-mediated o f f i c e techno logy . S e c t i o n 2 examines v a r i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of computer techno logy found in the l i t e r a t u r e . These are used to deve lop a t ypo logy of the a reas of o f f i c e a c t i v i t y to which the techno logy i s a p p l i e d . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a reas of a p p l i c a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as a system of groupings of computer techno logy , which a re d i s t i n g u i s h e d on the b a s i s of the d i s t i n c t i n f o rma t i on management a c t i v i t i e s or f u n c t i o n s of o f f i c e employees to which the techno logy i s a p p l i e d . S e c t i o n 3 e s t a b l i s h e s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of l abour impacts that are a s s o c i a t e d w i th the use of the t echno l o gy . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of labour impacts i s d e f i n e d as a system of g roup ings of a l t e r a t i o n s in l abour requ i rement s , which are d i s t i n g u i s h e d on the b a s i s of the replacement and c r e a t i o n of l abour a s s o c i a t e d wi th the use of the t echno l ogy , and i t s o p e r a t i n g requ i rements and e f f e c t on i n f o r m a t i o n management. 2. AREAS OF APPLICATION Almost from the date at which computer techno logy was f i r s t used in o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , au thor s have been p r e s e n t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the techno logy and i t s use . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , none of them have been s p e c i f i c a l l y deve loped to examine a l t e r a t i o n s in l abour requ i rement s , and most l eave something to be d e s i r e d , because of t h e i r vagueness, emphasis on 8 technology and f u t u r e developments, or the date at which they were developed. T h i s precludes the ready adoption of any of the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s found i n the l i t e r a t u r e . But examined together, they do r e v e a l a r e c o g n i t i o n of f i v e d i s t i n c t areas of a p p l i c a t i o n of computer-mediated o f f i c e technology to the a c t i v i t i e s and f u n c t i o n s of o f f i c e employees. Four c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were developed p r i o r to 1975. Because of t h i s , they give g i v e l i t t l e i f any c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the most prominent use of computers today, that of t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n management. The e a r l i e s t , p r esented i n a 1959 document, 1 i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with o f f i c e mechanization. Van Weeman merely repeats t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , but does serve t o emphasize that one of the main areas of a p p l i c a t i o n i s l a r g e s c a l e , c e n t r a l i z e d data p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s . 2 Two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were pre s e n t e d i n 1974, both of which emphasize data p r o c e s s i n g and data management. Gibson and No l a n 3 were mainly i n t e r e s t e d i n i d e n t i f y i n g the four stages o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s proceed through i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c e n t r a l i z e d e l e c t r o n i c data p r o c e s s i n g (EDP) departments. Although they i d e n t i f y four stages of growth, and focus on the o p e r a t i o n a l concerns of i n t e g r a t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g an EDP department, t h e i r taxonomy does r e f l e c t an acknowledgement of two d i s t i n c t areas 1 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n , E f f e c t s of Mechanization and Automation i n O f f i c e s , Geneva, 1959 , pg 19 2 Van Weeman, B., "The Impact of Computers on O f f i c e Work", i n B e r t i n g , J . , M i l l s , S.C., Winterberger, H., The S o c i o - Economic Impact of M i c r o - e l e c t r o n i c s , Pergamon Press, Toronto, 1980 , pg 149 3 Gibson, C , Nolan, R., "Managing the Four Stages of EDP Growth", Harvard Business Review, January-February, 1974 9 of a p p l i c a t i o n . T h e i r f i r s t s tage i s concerned w i th l a r g e s c a l e data p r o c e s s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s , and the f o u r t h stage wi th i n f o r m a t i o n use f o r management d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . That p re sen ted by Wi th ing ton i s even more e x p l i c i t , i n i t s r e c o g n i t i o n of f i v e g e n e r a t i o n s of computers, each a s s o c i a t e d w i th p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f e c t s and types of a p p l i c a t i o n . " The f i r s t t h ree g e n e r a t i o n s are concerned w i th data p r o c e s s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s . W i th in t h e s e , a d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between l a r ge s c a l e , c e n t r a l i z e d a p p l i c a t i o n s , and more recent a p p l i c a t i o n s d i r e c t e d at d i s t r i b u t e d , sma l l s c a l e data p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The pr imary b a s i s fo r the d i s t i n c t i o n i s that l a r g e a p p l i c a t i o n s a re based on mainframe computers and r e q u i r e s e v e r a l employees f o r t h e i r o p e r a t i o n , wh i le sma l l a p p l i c a t i o n s a re based on micro -computers and r e q u i r e on l y one or two c l e r i c a l employees. H i s f o u r t h and f i f t h g e n e r a t i o n s d e a l w i th the a p p l i c a t i o n of computer techno logy to management d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r e s e n t e d in 1976 by S t ra s sman 5 i s u s e f u l on ly in tha t i t se rves to i n d i c a t e a t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d in which, i n r e c o g n i t i o n of developments in communicat ions and t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n management techno logy and so f twa re , there i s a s h i f t of a t t e n t i o n from data p r o c e s s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s to o f f i c e communicat ion networks and c l e r i c a l document p r o d u c t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s . S i nce 1976, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s have c o n c e n t r a t e d on the stages * W i t h i n g t o n , F . G . , " F i v e G e n e r a t i o n s of Computers " , Harvard Bus ines s Review, J u l y - A u g u s t 1974 5 S trassman, P.A., "Stages of Growth" , Datamat ion, October 1976 10 an o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l , or ought to proceed through to a c h i e v e the automated e l e c t r o n i c o f f i c e , the " o f f i c e of the f u t u r e " . As such, they l a r g e l y i gnore c l e r i c a l data p r o c e s s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s . There i s some v a r i a t i o n among authors in the number of s t ages , and in the key words used fo r each s tage . Z i sman 6 has somewhat u n i m a g i n a t i v e l y and u n s u c c e s s f u l l y imposed the four s tages of growth i d e n t i f i e d by Gibson and Nolan in r e l a t i o n to EDP departments , onto a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s of o f f i c e i n f o r m a t i o n t echno logy . But those p re sen ted by Mumby and H a r r i s o n 7 , P r i c e 8 , and Rhodes 9 a re s i m i l a r in t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of th ree d i s t i n c t a reas of a p p l i c a t i o n . One area i s t ha t of c l e r i c a l document p r o d u c t i o n . A second concerns the use of computer techno logy to enhance management d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g l abour p r o d u c t i v i t y . A t h i r d concerns the i n t e g r a t i o n of a l l o f f i c e i n f o r m a t i o n management a c t i v i t i e s and equipment i n t o an e l e c t r o n i c network. Based upon the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s found in the l i t e r a t u r e , the f o l l o w i n g typo logy has been chosen to examine the labour impacts a s s o c i a t e d wi th the use of computer-mediated o f f i c e t echno logy . Large s c a l e data p r o c e s s i n g , Smal l s c a l e data p r o c e s s i n g , Zisman, M., " O f f i c e Automat ion: R e v o l u t i o n or E v o l u t i o n " , S loan Management Review, v o l . 1 9 , no. 3, 1978 Mumby, S., H a r r i s o n , N., "A Methodology f o r the Development of O f f i c e Systems" , 1982 O f f i c e Automation Conference D i g e s t , A p r i l 5-7, 1982, San F r a n c i s c o , C a l . P r i c e , S .G. , I n t roduc ing the E l e c t r o n i c O f f i c e , Manchester , Eng land , NCC P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1979 Rhodes, J . , " O f f i c e Automat ion: At Which Stage Are You? " , Computerworld, 28 September 1981 11 C l e r i c a l document p r o d u c t i o n , Management d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and E l e c t r o n i c o f f i c e networks. The advantage of t h i s taxonomy over o the r s found in the l i t e r a t u r e l i e s p redominant ly in i t s comprehens iveness . It c ove r s a l l a reas of a p p l i c a t i o n of computer -mediated o f f i c e t e chno l o gy . A l l o the r s d e a l w i th e i t h e r data p r o c e s s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s , or document p r o d u c t i o n and e l e c t r o n i c networks. A second advantage i s that i t has been deve loped s p e c i f i c a l l y to examine labour impacts . Those found in the l i t e r a t u r e emphasize t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s , and l a r g e l y i gnore l abour impacts a s s o c i a t e d wi th each a rea of a p p l i c a t i o n . 3. FORMS OF LABOUR IMPACTS The l i t e r a t u r e i s not immediate ly h e l p f u l i n d e v e l o p i n g a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the forms of l abour impacts which occur i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i th the use of computer -mediated o f f i c e techno logy . The form of l abour impact emphasized by the m a j o r i t y of authors i s tha t which occur s through the replacement and enhancement of o f f i c e l a b o u r . 1 0 1 1 T h i s has been focused on and repeated to such an ex tent tha t i t would not be too much of an exaggera t i on to say that i t has been e l e v a t e d to the s t a t u s of dogma; a s t a t e which has a p p a r e n t l y p r e c l u d e d any s e r i o u s a t tempts to c l a s s i f y a d d i t i v e forms of labour impacts which a l s o occur i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i th the use of computer techno logy . 1 0 D u f f y , J . , " C o s t - A n a l y s i s " , Computerworld, 29 Sept 1982 , pg 48 1 1 O ' C o n n e l l , D., "The In format ion Resource C e n t e r " , Computerworld v o l . 16, no.39a, 29 September 1982 , pg 48 1 2 It seems q u i t e obv ious that a d d i t i v e forms of labour impacts o c c u r , f o r i n s t a n c e , when an o r g a n i z a t i o n r e t r a i n s c l e r i c a l workers to opera te newly i n s t a l l e d word p r o c e s s o r s , when systems a n a l y s t s and computer programmers are h i r e d to i n t e g r a t e a computer system i n t o an o f f i c e ' s i n f o r m a t i o n management system, and when c l e r i c a l l abour i s r e q u i r e d to t r a n s c r i b e da ta from a paper format i n f o r m a t i o n s torage system to an e l e c t r o n i c one. However, i t i s e q u a l l y obv ious tha t many au thor s examining the use of computer -mediated o f f i c e t echno logy , l a r g e l y because of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s , p e r c e i v e l i t t l e b e n e f i t i n e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t . a n y forms of a d d i t i v e l abour impacts o c c u r . Spokespersons f o r l abour or f e m i n i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s and movements would c l e a r l y l o s e much of the f o r c e beh ind t h e i r arguments, and much of t h e i r aud i ence , i f they were to g i ve equa l weight to both a d d i t i v e and nega t i ve l abour impacts which they can c l a i m are " cau sed " by computer use . And spokespersons f o r the equipment vendors see l i t t l e b e n e f i t , f o r i n c r e a s i n g equipment s a l e s , i n d i s c u s s i n g any th ing but the ease of imp lementat ion and the l abour sav ing a s p e c t s of the equipment once in o p e r a t i o n . There i s an even more t e l l i n g l i m i t a t i o n on the o b j e c t i v i t y of many authors whose l i v i n g depends on the computer i n d u s t r y . Few e d i t o r s of computer magaz ines, whose o p e r a t i n g budgets depend s o l e l y on the a d v e r t i s i n g of computer equipment and sof tware vendor s , would c o n s i d e r fo r p u b l i c a t i o n an a r t i c l e that p re sen ted a ba lanced d i s c u s s i o n of a l l the d i f f e r e n t forms of l abour impacts , both • 1 3 a d d i t i v e and n e g a t i v e , which do o c c u r . 1 2 F o r t u n a t e l y , even w i th these b i a s e s , there i s s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e from which a u s e f u l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n can be deve loped . Three a d d i t i v e forms of l abour impacts have been i d e n t i f i e d . They are the impacts o f : System development and imp lementa t i on , Equipment o p e r a t i o n , and In fo rmat ion use and management. One n e g a t i v e form of l abour impact has been i d e n t i f i e d , which occur s through labour Replacement and enhancement. The reasons f o r the occu r rence of each of these forms of l abour impact w i l l be d i s c u s s e d in g e n e r a l terms in the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . The o p p o r t u n i t y i s a l s o taken to d i s c u s s f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e the magnitude of the impacts , and which make the q u a n t i t a t i v e assessment of each form of impact very d i f f i c u l t . 3.1 System Development And Implementat ion Once the d e c i s i o n has been made to implement some form of computer t echno logy , a d d i t i o n a l l abour i s needed f o r system development and imp lementa t ion . In some i n s t a n c e s , t h i s r e q u i r e s the l abour of systems a n a l y s t s and computer programmers. In o ther i n s t a n c e s t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n work r e q u i r e s the labour of o f f i c e managers and s u p e r v i s o r s . S u r p r i s i n g l y , 1 2 J e n k i n s , C . , Sherman, B., The C o l l a p s e of Work, London, Eyre Methuen, 1979 , pg 102 1 4 few authors recogn i ze that system implementat ion r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l l a b o u r . They seem to assume tha t most a p p l i c a t i o n s are s imply p lugged i n t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n management system. But even spokespersons f o r the equipment vendors admit tha t most a p p l i c a t i o n s r a r e l y d i r e c t l y r e p l a c e an i s o l a t e d p o r t i o n of an i n f o r m a t i o n management system. I n s tead , they combine a number of f u n c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s of o f f i c e employees and machinery, and u s u a l l y b r i n g w i th them new f u n c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s tha t a re not pa r t of the i n f o r m a t i o n management system they a re to be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o . 1 3 T h i s r e s u l t s i n a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of an o f f i c e ' s i n f o r m a t i o n management o p e r a t i o n s , and r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l l abour tha t would not have been needed i f the equipment had not been i n s t a l l e d . There a re a number of f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e to the magnitude of t h i s form of impact. Whenever an a p p l i c a t i o n i s implemented there i s a renewed emphasis on a systems approach and the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n f lows and management a c t i v i t i e s . 1 " T h i s i s e i t h e r adopted by e x i s t i n g p e r s o n n e l , or brought w i th the computer programmers, system a n a l y s t s and o f f i c e s u p e r v i s o r s h i r e d to i n t e g r a t e the new equipment. The a p p l i c a t i o n of systems a n a l y s i s to i n f o r m a t i o n management, and the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the i n f o rma t i on management a c t i v i t i e s of o f f i c e employees unques t i onab l y makes the o p e r a t i o n of the new 1 3 U t t a l , B., "What 's D e t a i n i n g the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e ? " , F o r t u n e , 3 May 1982 , pg 178 1 " Robey, D., "Computers and Management S t r u c t u r e : Some E m p i r i c a l F i n d i n g s Re-examined" , Human R e l a t i o n s , volume 30, number 11, 1977 , pg 63 1 5 equipment more e f f e c t i v e , and improves the p r o d u c t i v i t y of o f f i c e p e r s o n n e l . However, t h i s e f f o r t at s y s t e m i z a t i o n and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s i n v a r i a b l y c a r r i e d beyond the immediate o p e r a t i n g requ i rements of the equipment. T h i s i s . b e c a u s e improvements in one area h i g h l i g h t i n e f f i c i e n c e s and i n c o n g r u i t i e s in a s s o c i a t e d a r e a s , or because they w i l l improve the e f f e c t i v e n e s s even f u r t h e r of the newly i n s t a l l e d e q u i p m e n t . 1 5 Another problem i s tha t the s y s t e m i z a t i o n and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of o f f i c e work has been o c c u r r i n g f o r most of the p resent c e n t u r y , 1 6 u s u a l l y in the absence of the t echno logy . These p roce s se s c o n t i n u e a l o n g s i d e and o f t e n complement the e f f o r t s to i n t e g r a t e the newly a c q u i r e d system. The r e s u l t i s tha t i t i s ex t reme ly d i f f i c u l t to determine the p r o p o r t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l implementat ion l abour tha t i s s t r i c t l y neces sa ry f o r an a p p l i c a t i o n , and what p r o p o r t i o n on l y se rves to make i t more e f f i c i e n t . I t i s a l s o very d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h the amount of a d d i t i o n a l l abour devoted to the s y s t e m i z a t i o n and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of an o f f i c e i n f o r m a t i o n management system which would not have been needed i f the a p p l i c a t i o n had not been i n s t a l l e d . With recen t developments in u s e r - f r i e n d l y , t u r n - k e y computer systems, and the p r o v i s i o n of implementat ion labour by equipment vendors and computer c o n s u l t i n g f i r m s , t he re has 1 5 Van Weeman, B., "The Impact of Computers on O f f i c e Work", i n B e r t i n g , J . , M i l l s , S .C . , W i n t e r b e r g e r , H., The S o c i o - Economic Impact of M i c r o - e l e c t r o n i c s , Pergamon P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1980 , pg 152 1 6 G i u l i a n o , V . E . , "The Mechan i za t i on of O f f i c e Work", S c i e n t i f i c Amer ican , September 1982, volume 247 no. 3. , pg 160 16 o c c u r r e d a r e d u c t i o n in the amount of t h i s form of l abour tha t o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s f i n d themselves r e q u i r i n g . Ins tead of i n c u r r i n g a l ong - te rm labour c o s t , most of the c o s t s of system development and implementat ion a re added onto the c o s t s of the computer package. 3.2 Equipment Opera t i on A second form of a d d i t i v e impact occur s because of the need f o r equipment o p e r a t i o n . Most a p p l i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e a new set of s k i l l s of employees whose d u t i e s i n v o l v e the o p e r a t i o n of the techno logy . T h i s r e q u i r e s the r e t r a i n i n g , and o f t e n the h i r i n g of a d d i t i o n a l employees w i th the necessary s k i l l s . The r e t r a i n i n g of e x i s t i n g employees i s a common occur rence w i th a p p l i c a t i o n s such as word p r o c e s s i n g , and i s unavo idab le w i th a p p l i c a t i o n s such as e l e c t r o n i c m a i l , where equipment use c o n s t i t u t e s on ly a p o r t i o n of c e r t a i n o f f i c e employees d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . For t h i s t r a i n i n g to o c c u r , the l abour of employees must be d i v e r t e d from e x i s t i n g o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , d u r i n g the p e r i o d in which the r e t r a i n i n g takes p l a c e . But f o r some a p p l i c a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r i l y those which a re l a r g e and complex, a d d i t i o n a l employees are needed to opera te the t echno logy , because equipment use c o n s t i t u t e s the pr imary f u n c t i o n of the equipment u s e r . For r e l a t i v e l y r o u t i n e a c t i v i t i e s such as data e n t r y c l e r k , the t r a i n i n g i s not t ha t e x t e n s i v e , and per sonne l who may have been d i s p l a c e d when the techno logy was i n s t a l l e d can be r e t r a i n e d in a r e l a t i v e l y shor t t ime. In f a c t , even in the examinat ions of authors who s t r e s s 1 7 the labour d i s p l a c i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s of computer-mediated o f f i c e techno logy , i t i s a common element tha t most d i s p l a c e d pe r sonne l are g iven the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e t r a i n i n g in equipment o p e r a t i o n , or are found p o s i t i o n s e l sewhere in the o r g a n i z a t i o n . 1 7 3.3 In fo rmat ion Use And Management Most a p p l i c a t i o n s have been implemented to a l l ow the development of new areas of i n f o r m a t i o n management, and to d e a l w i th i n c r e a s e s in i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g requ i rement s . For these changes to o c c u r , t he re must be an i n c r e a s e in the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n d e l i v e r e d to the p r o c e s s i n g l o c a t i o n . For most a p p l i c a t i o n s , i n f o r m a t i o n input i s a v a i l a b l e on ly in paper document fo rmat . To d e a l w i th the i n c r e a s e in paper documents, more pe r sonne l are needed f o r document t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , s t o r a ge , and data p r e p a r a t i o n . 1 8 Another reason f o r the occu r rence of t h i s form of impact i s the mass ive i n c r e a s e in i n f o r m a t i o n ou tpu t . One of the most n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t s of computer-mediated o f f i c e techno logy i s tha t i t has made i t much e a s i e r to produce paper documents. I t has been e s t ima ted that computer techno logy has reduced the co s t of p roduc ing a paper document by 5 0 % . 1 9 And Xerox e s t ima ted in 1977 tha t U.S. bus ines s ma in ta in s four f i l e drawers (18,000 documents) fo r each of i t s w h i t e - c o l l a r employees, and t h i s amount i s i n c r e a s i n g at the r a t e of one f i l e 1 7 Menz ies , H. , Women and the C h i p , M o n t r e a l , I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1981 , pg 28 1 8 McDonald, J . C , Impact and I m p l i c a t i o n s of O f f i c e Automat ion, Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour, Ottawa, O c c a s i o n a l Paper No. 1, Queens P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1964 , pg 13 1 9 The Economis t , " O f f i c e of the F u t u r e " , 30 January 1982 , pg 81 18 drawer (4,000 documents) per employee every y e a r . 2 0 Even w i th recen t developments i n communication and data cap tu re t e c h n o l o g y , a d d i t i o n a l labour i s s t i l l r e q u i r e d to ma in ta in the new i n f o r m a t i o n in e l e c t r o n i c f i l i n g systems. Much of the i n c r e a s e in the amount and a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d to p r o v i d e managers w i th more i n f o r m a t i o n to be used in d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The u sua l assumption i s t h a t t h i s w i l l improve the p r o d u c t i v i t y of managers, and thus c o n t a i n the need f o r f u t u r e i n c r e a s e s in t h e i r n u m b e r s . 2 1 But i t i s q u i t e e v i d e n t tha t a d d i t i o n a l l abour i s r e q u i r e d of managers to examine t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , even i f the d e c i s i o n i s that i t need not have been examined and that no d e c i s i o n i s n e c e s s a r y . 2 2 3.4 Labour Replacement And Enhancement Nega t i ve l abour impacts occur when the mental or p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s of o f f i c e employees are r e p l a c e d or enhanced by computer -mediated o f f i c e t echno logy . The mental a c t i v i t i e s which can be r e p l a c e d are numer i ca l computa t i on , and very s imple d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g f o r which the events needed to d r i v e that d e c i s i o n a re r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d , 2 3 as w e l l as the d e c i s i o n -making p roces s i t s e l f . 2 4 The p h y s i c a l o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s which 2 0 L e s t e r , T . , "The O f f i c e Conundrum", Management Today, November 1978 , pg 120 2 1 Sanders , D.H., B i r k i n , S . J . , Computers and Management in a Changing S o c i e t y , M c G r a w - H i l l , 1980 , pg 234 2 2 L e s t e r , T . , "The O f f i c e Conundrum", Management Today, November 1978 , pg 120 2 3 Z isman, M., " O f f i c e Automat ion: R e v o l u t i o n or E v o l u t i o n " , S loan Management Review, v o l . 1 9 , no. 3, 1978 , pg 8 2 4 Simon, H. , The Shape of Automation f o r Men and Management, New York, Harper and Row, 1965 , pg 58 19 can be r e p l a c e d are the t r a n s f e r r i n g or a c c e s s i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n from one l o c a t i o n to a n o t h e r , 2 5 which occur s when t r a n s f e r r i n g numbers from one account to ano ther , or when moving a f i l e from a f i l i n g c a b i n e t to the o f f i c e of a u se r , and the t r a n s f e r of i n f o r m a t i o n from one i n f o r m a t i o n format to a n o t h e r . Computer techno logy can enhance the p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t e s of i n f o r m a t i o n c a p t u r e , a c c e s s , and t r a n s f e r . 2 6 I t i s u s u a l l y assumed tha t i t can enhance the p r o d u c t i v i t y of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g by p r o v i d i n g improved acce s s to more t i m e l y i n f o r m a t i o n . 2 7 3.4.1 A l t e r a t i o n s In I n fo rmat ion Management Procedures I t i s u s u a l l y assumed that when l abour r e d u c t i o n s or p r o d u c t i v i t y enhancements occur in a s s o c i a t i o n w i th an a p p l i c a t i o n of computer -mediated o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y , they a re the r e s u l t of the c a p a b i l i t y of the techno logy to r e p l a c e and enhance the l abour of o f f i c e employees. However, i t i s e v i d e n t tha t a number of p roces se s o c c u r r i n g in o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , both d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i th the use of computer t echno logy , a l s o c o n t r i b u t e to l abour enhancement and rep lacement . As a l r e a d y mentioned in connec t i on w i th implementat ion l abour impact s , the s y s t e m i z a t i o n and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of 2 5 Simon, H., The Shape of Automation f o r Men and Management, New York, Harper and Row, 1965 , pg 38 2 6 Bessant , J . R . , Bowen, J . A . , D i ck son , K .E . , Marsh, J . , The Impact of M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s - A Review of the L i t e r a t u r e , U n i v e r s i t y of Ashton, F rances P i n t e r L t d . , 1981 , pgs 83-93 2 7 Ba r ron , I., Curnow, R., The Fu ture with M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s . F o r e c a s t i n g the E f f e c t s of In format ion Techno logy , New York, N i c h o l s P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1979 , pg 127 20 i n f o r m a t i o n management has been o c c u r r i n g both in the absence and in a s s o c i a t i o n w i th the t e c h n o l o g y . 2 8 The r e s u l t of these e f f o r t s i s that o f f i c e l abour i s r e p l a c e d and enhanced. I t i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t , in a s s o c i a t i o n w i th computer -mediated o f f i c e t echno logy , c l e r i c a l and manager ia l o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s a re more f o r m a l i z e d , 2 9 r o u t i n i z e d , and s t a n d a r d i z e d , 3 0 a l l o w i n g a g r e a t e r degree of improvement in e f f i c i e n c y and p r o d u c t i v i t y than would have been the case i f these changes had not been made. Q u i t e o f t e n , e f f o r t s at s y s t e m i z a t i o n and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n are d i r e c t e d at o v e r a l l p roce s se s of i n f o r m a t i o n management, which are not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the use of the t e c h n o l o g y . 3 1 R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of e x e c u t i v e p e r s o n n e l have been r e - a l i g n e d , 3 2 and changes or r e d u c t i o n s have been made in the r a t i o of s e c r e t a r i e s to m a n a g e r s . 3 3 In any o r g a n i z a t i o n , p rocedures and p r a c t i s e s become e s t a b i s h e d that w i th t ime, are no longer necessary but c o n t i n u e s imply because t h a t ' s the way t h i n g s have always been done. With i n c r e a s e d e f f o r t s a t s y s t e m i z a t i o n and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , many of these a re e l i m i n a t e d , and i n c r e a s e d G i u l i a n o , V . E . , "The Mechan i za t i on of O f f i c e Work", S c i e n t i f i c  Amer ican , September 1982, volume 247 no. 3. , pg 160 B j o r n - A n d e r s o n , N., Hedberg, B., Mercer , D., Mumford, E . , S o l e , A . , ( e d s . ) , The Impact of Systems Change in O r g a n i z a t i o n s , Germantown, Mary land , S i j t h o f f & Noordho f f , 1979 , pg 272 McDonald, J . C . , Impact and I m p l i c a t i o n s of O f f i c e Automat ion, Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour , Ottawa, O c c a s i o n a l Paper No. 1, Queens P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1964 , pg 4 Rhodes, J . , " O f f i c e Automat ion: At Which Stage Are You? " , Computerwor ld, 28 September 1981 , pg 16 O l s o n , M.H., Lucas , H.C. , "The Impact of O f f i c e Automation on the O r g a n i z a t i o n : Some I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r R e s e a r c h " , Communications of the ACM, v o l . 25, no. 1, 1982 , pg 838 EDP A n a l y s e r , "The Coming Impact of New Techno l ogy " , January 1981, v o l . 1 9 , no.1 , pg 6 21 p r o d u c t i v i t y a c h i e v e d . 3 " Even w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d pe r sonne l management p r a c t i s e s are s u b j e c t e d to c l o s e s c r u t i n y . In most o f f i c e s , peop le are promoted because of s e n i o r i t y to job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s tha t are r e a l l y beyond the l e v e l of a c t i v i t i e s they pe r fo rm, or g i ven make-work p o s i t i o n s because they have been w i th the f i r m fo r a number of year s and are too sen io r to l ay o f f when no longer needed. As the pe r sonne l manager of an o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n implementing a computer system put i t : People w i th degrees are h i r e d f o r jobs tha t a re in f a c t c l e r i c a l . T e c h n i c i a n s who have been wi th the company f o r many year s and deserve a promot ion are made managers. Aga in , t h e i r work i s most ly c l e r i c a l . If we were to make a l l management l e g i t i m a t e then we'd reduce our management s t a f f by 3 0 % . 3 5 With the i n c r e a s e d emphasis on s y s t e m i z a t i o n and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n that i n v a r i a b l y accompanies the techno logy , the o p p o r t u n i t y i s o f t e n taken to downgrade and e l i m i n a t e many p o s i t i o n s and employees in the p u r s u i t of g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y . Another p roces s tha t has been o c c u r r i n g almost s i n ce o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s came i n t o e x i s t e n c e i s the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s . 3 6 S p e c i a l i z a t i o n most o f t e n occur s in 3 " Simon, H., The Shape of Automation f o r Men and Management, New York, Harper and Row, 1965 , pg 37 3 5 Nova S c o t i a Departments of Labour and Manpower, Educa t i on and Development, and the Canada Employment and Immigrat ion Commission, Survey of the Computer and E l e c t r o n i c s  I n d u s t r i e s and Impact of New Technology on Three Companies  in Nova S c o t i a , 1981 , pg 95 3 6 G i u l i a n o , V . E . , "The Mechan iza t ion of O f f i c e Work", S c i e n t i f i c Amer ican, September 1982, volume 247 no. 3. , pg 160 3 7 E a r l , M. J . , "What M i c ro s Mean fo r Managers" , i n F o r e s t e r , T . , ( e d . ) , The M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s R e v o l u t i o n , MIT P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass. , 1980 , pg 362 3 8 P e i t c h i n i s , S .G. , The Employment Impacts of Computers and Te lecommunicat ions Techno logy, C a l g a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , 1981 , pg 91 22 response to u n c e r t a i n t y 3 7 and i n c r e a s e d w o r k l o a d s , 3 8 but a l s o o c c u r s in a s s o c i a t i o n wi th many a p p l i c a t i o n s of computer-mediated o f f i c e t echno logy . In some i n s t a n c e s i t i s nece s sa ry , because new employees are needed f o r f u l l - t i m e equipment o p e r a t i o n . But in o ther i n s t a n c e s , the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of o f f i c e t a sk s merely serves to make the use of the equipment that much more p r o d u c t i v e , and the management of i n f o r m a t i o n more e f f e c t i v e . Even be fo re the i n t r o d u c t i o n of computers in o f f i c e s , s e c r e t a r i a l a c t i v i t i e s were be ing separa ted i n t o the d i s t i n c t o f f i c e o ccupa t i on s of t y p i s t , s tenographer and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t , 3 9 and s i m i l a r task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n was t a k i n g p l a c e f o r c l e r i c a l data p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s . * 0 With recent developments in o f f i c e automat ion techno logy , i t has been observed that the s e c r e t a r y / t y p i s t o ccupa t i on i s be ing d i v i d e d i n t o the occupa t i on s of word p roce s so r o p e r a t o r , t e x t e d i t o r , da ta en t r y c l e r k , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t and p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y . 4 1 Manager i a l task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n has been o c c u r r i n g as w e l l , i n the s e p a r a t i o n of l i n e and s t a f f management f u n c t i o n s . 4 2 C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i th task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of o f f i c e pe r sonne l to ach ieve economies of s c a l e 9 Menz ies , H., Women and the Ch ip , M o n t r e a l , I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1981 , pg 26 0 G i u l i a n o , V . E . , "The Mechan i za t i on of O f f i c e Work", S c i e n t i f i c Amer ican , September 1982, volume 247 no. 3. , pg 160 1 P e i t c h i n i s , S .G. , The Employment Impacts of Computers and Te lecommunicat ions Techno logy , C a l g a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , 1981 , pg 91 2 Sanders , D.H., B i r k i n , S . J . , Computers and Management in a Changing S o c i e t y , M c G r a w - H i l l , 1980 , pg 221 23 and agg lomerat ion economies. T h i s too has been o c c u r r i n g i n the absence of computer -mediated o f f i c e t echno logy . C e n t r a l i z e d c o r p o r a t e p l a n n i n g s t a f f s have been f o r m e d , 4 3 as w e l l as c e n t r a l i z e d data p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s and c e n t r a l i z e d t y p i n g p o o l s . 4 4 With the advent of computers , c e n t r a l i z e d EDP departments have been formed to take advantage of economies of s c a l e f o r c l e r i c a l employees and programming p e r s o n n e l , 4 5 and word p r o c e s s i n g poo l s have been formed to improve the p r o d u c t i v i t y of document p r o d u c t i o n . 4 6 Taken t o g e t h e r , the s y s t e m i z a t i o n , r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s and pe r sonne l account f o r much of the labour replacement and enhancement that i s u s u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to the c a p a b i l i t y of the t echno logy . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t he re i s l i m i t e d q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n to a i d in de te rm in ing what p r o p o r t i o n these p roce s se s c o n t r i b u t e to l abour impacts that have been documented. But wi thout doubt , i f these p roce s se s do not occur p r i o r to and d u r i n g the implementat ion of most a p p l i c a t i o n s of computer -mediated o f f i c e techno logy , very l i t t l e i f any l abour replacement or enhancement can be a c h i e v e d . 4 3 Sanders , D.H., B i r k i n , S . J . , Computers and Management in a Changing S o c i e t y , M c G r a w - H i l l , 1980 , pg 221 4 4 Menz ies , H., Women and the C h i p , M o n t r e a l , I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1981 , pg 26 4 5 Champine, G.A. , D i s t r i b u t e d Computer Systems. Impact on Management,Design and A n a l y s i s , New York, N o r t h - H o l l a n d , 1980 , pg 3 4 6 S t r a u s s , S., "Word P r o c e s s o r s " , The Toronto Globe and M a i l , 17 J u l y 1980 pg. T1 , pg 1 24 3.5 Summary To summarize t h i s s e c t i o n , th ree forms of a d d i t i v e impacts have been i d e n t i f i e d . They a r e : System development and imp lementa t ion , Equipment o p e r a t i o n , and In format ion use and management. One nega t i ve form of impact has a l s o been i d e n t i f i e d . I t occur s through the : Replacement and enhancement of l a b o u r . The p r i n c i p a l advantage of t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s tha t i t a l l o w s an o b j e c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n of the reasons u n d e r l y i n g the occurence of d i s t i n c t a d d i t i v e and nega t i ve l abour impacts . There i s one u n f o r t u n a t e e f f e c t of i t s use however. I t demands a d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of u n d e r l y i n g causes of l abour impacts that at t imes exceeds the l e v e l of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of much of the l i t e r a t u r e . But the b e n e f i t s of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n more than compensate f o r t h i s l i m i t a t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e . In the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l be used to d i s c u s s the labour impacts which have and w i l l occur in a s s o c i a t i o n wi th the f i v e a reas of a p p l i c a t i o n . 25 I I I . AREAS OF APPLICATION 1. CHAPTER INTRODUCTION T h i s chapter p r e s e n t s an examinat ion of the labour impacts a s s o c i a t e d w i th each of the f i v e a reas of a p p l i c a t i o n . The d i s c u s s i o n p re sen ted f o r each area of a p p l i c a t i o n i s separa ted i n t o seven s e c t i o n s . An i n t r o d u c t o r y s e c t i o n b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e s the a rea of a p p l i c a t i o n and the techno logy i n v o l v e d . A second s e c t i o n then p r e s e n t s a c r i t i c a l examinat ion of the common assumpt ions made in the l i t e r a t u r e , as to the reasons why the equipment has been or w i l l be implemented. The next four s e c t i o n s p resent an examinat ion of the four forms of l abour impacts . The emphasis in each s e c t i o n i s on the reasons why the labour impacts o c c u r . Where a v a i l a b l e , q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on a c t u a l l abour impacts i s a l s o p re sen ted and examined. The seventh s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a d i s c u s s i o n of the o v e r a l l l abour impacts which have o c c u r r e d , and tha t can be expected to o c c u r . The f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter summarizes the main c o n c l u s i o n s . 2. LARGE SCALE DATA PROCESSING 2. 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s a rea of a p p l i c a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as c o n s i s t i n g of a number of c l e r i c a l and s u p e r v i s o r y pe r sonne l r o u t i n e l y and r e p e t i t i v e l y p r o c e s s i n g l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of numer i ca l i n f o r m a t i o n . The raw data i s d e l i v e r e d to the p r o c e s s i n g c e n t e r , p r o c e s s e d , and then output in paper document or e l e c t r o n i c format . It i s i n f a c t , the area of o f f i c e work that 26 most c l o s e l y resembles a p r o d u c t i o n l i n e . There i s a h i gh degree of task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , 1 and c o n t i n u i n g e f f o r t s are made to r o u t i n i z e , 2 sy s temize and f o r m a l i z e 3 the a c t i v i t i e s of the pe r sonne l and the o v e r a l l data p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n . The employees have a l s o been c e n t r a l i z e d to a ch ieve l abour economies of s c a l e and agg lomerat ion economies . " With the i n s t a l l a t i o n of computer t e chno l ogy , s u b s t a n t i a l numbers of t e c h n i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l are added to the data p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n , as w e l l as c l e r i c a l pe r sonne l to operate the new equipment. The equipment i n v o l v e d i s based on a mainframe computer. E a r l y a p p l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e d p e r i p h e r a l equipment to prepare and s o r t punchedcards f o r data i n p u t / o u t p u t and s t o r a g e , tape s torage d e v i c e s , and paper p r i n t e r s . More recent systems i n c l u d e d i s c s to rage d e v i c e s and mu l t i - page document p r i n t e r s , o p t i c a l c h a r a c t e r r e a d e r s , and data en t ry t e r m i n a l s . For many a p p l i c a t i o n s , modern communication techno logy has r e p l a c e d much of the f low of paper documents i n t o and out of the EDP c e n t e r . 1 G i u l i a n o , V . E . , "The Mechan iza t i on of O f f i c e Work", S c i e n t i f i c Amer ican, September 1982, volume 247 no. 3. , pg 160 2 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n , E f f e c t s of Mechan i za t i on and Automation in O f f i c e s , Geneva, 1959 , pg 30 3 W i th i n g ton , F . G . , " F i v e Genera t i on s of Computers " , Harvard Bus iness Review, J u l y - A u g u s t 1974 , pg 100 " Champine, G.A. , D i s t r i b u t e d Computer Systems. Impact on Management,Design and A n a l y s i s , New York, N o r t h - H o l l a n d , 1980 , pg 3 27 2.2 Reasons For Implementat ion P r i o r to the implementat ion of computer t echno logy , a g rea t d e a l of c l e r i c a l l abour i s r e q u i r e d f o r manual and mechan ica l numer i ca l c a l c u l a t i o n , the maintenance of paper document f i l e s , and the p r o d u c t i o n of paper documents. It i s these three a c t i v i t i e s at which computer techno logy g r e a t l y outper forms human and mechan ica l c a p a b i l i t i e s , once the data has been t r a n s c r i b e d i n t o e l e c t r o n i c f o r m a t . 5 Because of t h i s c a p a b i l i t y , the g e n e r a l assumption has deve loped that computer techno logy i s a p p l i e d to t h i s a rea of o f f i c e work e i t h e r to r e p l a c e c l e r i c a l l a b o u r , 6 or to c o n t a i n f u t u r e i n c r e a s e s in l abour that would be needed to meet i n c r e a s e d DP r e q u i r e m e n t s . 7 T h i s assumption i s the b a s i s f o r the b e l i e f tha t l a r g e s c a l e c l e r i c a l l abour replacement r e s u l t s from the use of computers f o r t h i s area of a p p l i c a t i o n . 8 And in a few i n s t a n c e s t h i s b e l i e f has proven to be c o r r e c t . But in most i n s t a n c e s , the techno logy i s implemented p r i m a r i l y f o r reasons o ther than i t s l abour r e p l a c i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s . Because of t h i s , the p r e d i c t e d labour d i sp l acement s have s imply not o c c u r r e d . The f i r s t i n s t a l l a t i o n s f o r t h i s area of a p p l i c a t i o n were implemented in the e a r l y 1950 ' s , and in f a c t r e p r e s e n t e d the 5 Simon, H., The Shape of Automation f o r Men and Management, New York, Harper and Row, 1965 , pg 38 6 D u f f y , J . , " C o s t - A n a l y s i s " , Computerworld, 29 Sept 1982 , pg 48 7 R i c e , R.E. , "The Impacts of Computer-Mediated O r g a n i z a t i o n a l and I n t e r p e r s o n a l Communicat ion" , in American S o c i e t y f o r In format ion S c i e n c e , Annual Review of In format ion Sc ience  and Techno logy , v o l . 1 5 , 1980 8 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n , E f f e c t s of Mechan i za t i on and Automation in O f f i c e s , Geneva, 1959 , pg 51 28 advent of computer -mediated o f f i c e techno logy in o f f i c e s . Compared to t o d a y ' s t e chno l ogy , these e a r l y computer systems were ex t reme ly expens i ve . In a d d i t i o n to the very h i gh equipment c o s t s , s u b s t a n t i a l c o s t s had to be i n c u r r e d to c r e a t e and ma in t a i n the neces sa ry o p e r a t i n g env i ronments . S p e c i a l r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e f l o o r s were needed to support the bulky equipment, and temperature , humid i ty and a i r p u r i t y had to be reg imented to w i t h i n very narrow l i m i t s to ensure the c o r r e c t o p e r a t i o n of the computer. Faced w i th such h i gh c a p i t a l and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s , i t might be expected that the o f f i c e s implement ing the techno logy based t h e i r purchase d e c i s i o n s s t r i c t l y on the c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s of r e p l a c i n g mechan ica l and l abour c o s t s w i th the new t e c h n o l o g y . However, Wi th ing ton r e p o r t s tha t few o r g a n i z a t i o n s tha t i n s t a l l e d l a r g e mainframe computers between 1953 and 1958 had c l e a r c o s t - b a s e d j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r do ing so . I n s tead , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l image and p r e s t i g e were the pr imary r e a s o n s . 9 A p p a r e n t l y , to appear p r o g r e s s i v e , an o r g a n i z a t i o n had to have a mainframe computer i n s t a l l e d i n t h e i r DP department. Whi le t h i s may have been t rue f o r some of these i n i t i a l i n s t a l l a t i o n s , one cannot h e l p but q u e s t i o n the gene ra l a p p l i c a b i l i t y of t h i s s ta tement . A d m i t t e d l y , i t would be very d i f f i c u l t to a r r i v e at d e f i n i t e l a b o u r - t e c h n o l o g y cos t compar i sons f o r such newly deve loped techno logy . But one cannot h e l p but f e e l that the o f f i c e s which i n s t a l l e d these e a r l y computers must have had more j u s t i f i c a t i o n 9 W i th i n g ton , F . G . , " F i v e G e n e r a t i o n s of Computers " , Harvard  Bus iness Review, J u l y - A u g u s t 1974 , pg 100 29 fo r the mass ive c a p i t a l and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s r e q u i r e d , o ther than s imply an improvement in c o r p o r a t e image. Other i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s e a r l y genera t i on of computers i s more r e v e a l i n g on t h i s q u e s t i o n . The ILO repo r ted in a 1959 document t h a t , a f t e r su rvey ing a number of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , l abour economies had not been of importance in implementat ion d e c i s i o n s . I n s tead , the sav ings a c c r u i n g from g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y and the i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s of b e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n were c i t e d as the pr imary r e a s o n s . 1 0 I n fo rmat ion on a l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n of computers a p p l i e d to t h i s a rea of o f f i c e work con f i rms the l ack of concern g i ven to the l abour s av ing c a p a b i l i t y of the techno logy . In a survey conducted in I nd i a in March 1974, over 100 o r g a n i z a t i o n s were c o n t a c t e d that had implemented a mainframe computer in t h e i r DP department. Respondents i n d i c a t e d the b e n e f i t s they had a c h i e v e d w i th the t echno logy . The r e s u l t s are p re sen ted in Tab le I.11 Tab le I - P e r c e i v e d E f f e c t s of Computer % of o r g a n i z a t i o n s say ing yes p r i v a t e p u b l i c improved accu racy of i n f o r m a t i o n 97 92 speed ie r bu s ine s s r e t u r n s 71 69 b e t t e r manager i a l c o n t r o l 89 38 r e d u c t i o n i n i n v e n t o r i e s 66 46 1 0 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n , E f f e c t s of Mechan i za t i on and Automation in O f f i c e s , Geneva, 1959 , pg 114 1 1 P rasad , K., Verma, P., Impact of Computers on Employment, Macmi l l an Book Co. of I n d i a , Madras, 1977 , pg 100 30 i nc rea se in b u s i n e s s / output 34 46 improvement in q u a l i t y of output 40 69 r e d u c t i o n in u n i t c o s t s 34 8 Once a g a i n , the responses i n d i c a t e that the o r g a n i z a t i o n s that i n s t a l l e d the equipment were not i n t e r e s t e d i n reduc ing or c o n t a i n i n g l abour c o s t s . Rather , they were a b l e to ach ieve th ing s tha t c o u l d not be a t t a i n e d in the absence of the techno logy . In f u r t h e r support of t h i s , respondents were asked to e s t imate the number of employees r e q u i r e d to complete an a c t i v i t y manual ly and then compare i t w i th the number needed to do i t w i th the c o m p u t e r . 1 2 Almost a l l respondents r e fu sed to answer t h i s q u e s t i o n , because i t was f e l t the work done on the computer c o u l d not p o s s i b l y be done manua l l y . And f i n a l l y , when asked f o r reasons f o r f u r t h e r c o m p u t e r i z a t i o n , on ly 11% gave labour conta inment as a rea son . The reason g iven most o f t e n was to undertake more work on the computer tha t c o u l d not be done m a n u a l l y . 1 3 Case study i n f o r m a t i o n from Canada p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r ev idence on the l ack of i n t e r e s t in l abour sav ings as a reason f o r equipment use . The M u n i c i p a l i t y of Oshawa O n t a r i o implemented a mainframe computer in t h e i r p r o p e r t y tax accoun t ing o p e r a t i o n s . P r i o r to the implementat ion of the computer, 16 c l e r i c a l employees were r e q u i r e d to p roces s 23,000 1 2 P rasad, K., Verma, P., Impact of Computers on Employment, Macmi l lan Book Co. of I n d i a , Madras, 1977 , pg 76 1 3 P rasad, K., Verma, P., Impact of Computers on Employment, Macmi l lan Book Co. of I n d i a , Madras, 1977 , pg 114 31 p r o p e r t y tax a c c o u n t s . Ten year s a f t e r i t was i n s t a l l e d , 40,000 tax accounts were be ing p roce s sed by 12 c l e r i c a l employees. The computer a l s o r e q u i r e d the h i r i n g of one a n a l y s t and one programmer to i n t e g r a t e the computer i n t o the tax account p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s . But the m u n i c i p a l i t y d i d not look on the net r e d u c t i o n in c l e r i c a l employment as a sav ing of the computer system. I n s tead , the dec rease was viewed as an o p p o r t u n i t y to upgrade the o r g a n i z a t i o n by add ing f u n c t i o n s and s e r v i c e s p r e v i o u s l y unknown to the c i t y . To meet these g o a l s , 5 a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l a n a l y s t s were h i r e d over ten y e a r s . So wh i le the computer was a s s o c i a t e d w i th a r e d u c t i o n of four c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s , i t d i r e c t l y caused an i n c r e a s e of seven p o s i t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g i s on l y a p a r t i a l l i s t of p lanned f u t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n s : urban i n f o r m a t i o n system, s t r e e t i n ven to ry system, tax cash system, l e a s e d p a r k i n g system, bu s i ne s s l i c e n s i n g , t r a f f i c m o n i t o r i n g , f l e e t maintenance, p e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s , o n - l i n e i n q u i r i e s , l o c a l improvements,and m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s . 1 " Without doubt , these new a p p l i c a t i o n s w i l l r e q u i r e even more pe r sonne l f o r system development, and data management and use . The most s t r i k i n g ev idence of the lack of emphasis p l a c e d on the l abour sav ing c a p a b i l i t i e s of the techno logy i s the 1 " W i l k i n s , R., M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s and Employment i n P u b l i c  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : A Case Study in Three O n t a r i o M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , Ont Min of Labour , 1982 , pg 10 32 response of o r g a n i z a t i o n s to d i sp l acement s that do o c c u r . In s tead of c o n v e r t i n g these d i sp l a cement s i n t o a c t u a l employment r e d u c t i o n s , as would s u r e l y be the case i f the o r g a n i z a t i o n s were a t tempt ing to reduce l abour c o s t s , most o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r e f e r to a s s i g n d i s p l a c e d workers to o ther areas w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . From the Ind ian survey of .over 40 EDP i n s t a l l a t i o n s , i t was found that a t o t a l of 918 employees were rendered s u p e r f l u o u s because of the use of the t echno l o gy . Of t he se , 41% were r e t r a i n e d and then employed in the new EDP o p e r a t i o n s . Another 59% were t r a n s f e r r e d to o ther a reas of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Only 0.2% r e t i r e d , and none were f i r e d or l a i d o f f . 1 5 Even Menz ies , h a r d l y an o b j e c t i v e o b s e r v e r , notes tha t i n a Canadian o r g a n i z a t i o n , when 130 c l e r i c a l employees were d i s p l a c e d over a ten year p e r i o d in a s s o c i a t i o n wi th the i n s t a l l a t i o n of computer equipment, not one was l a i d o f f or f i r e d . A l l were found p o s i t i o n s e l sewhere in the o r g a n i z a t i o n . 1 6 I t i s e v i den t that most i n s t a l l a t i o n s f o r t h i s a rea of a p p l i c a t i o n a re not implemented to r e p l a c e or c o n t a i n l abour requ i rement s . I n s tead , the use of the techno logy permi t s the achievement of goa l s tha t a re not a t t a i n a b l e in the absence of the t e c h n o l g y . O r g a n i z a t i o n s a re w i l l i n g to i n cu r s u b s t a n t i a l a d d i t i o n a l l abour and c a p i t a l c o s t s in the p r o c e s s . 1 5 P rasad, K., Verma, P., Impact of Computers on Employment, Macmi l lan Book Co. of I n d i a , Madras, 1977 , pg 75 1 6 Menz ies , H., Women and the C h i p , M o n t r e a l , I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1981 , pg 28 33 2.3 System Development And Implementat ion Once the d e c i s i o n has been made to purchase or l ea se a computer system, systems a n a l y s t s and programmers are needed to deve lop the systems and i n t e g r a t e them i n t o the e x i s t i n g data p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s . A d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l l abour i s needed to t r a n s c r i b e data be fo re the system can be o p e r a t i o n a l . To ma in ta in e x i s t i n g l e v e l s of data p r o c e s s i n g , i n c r e a s e d numbers of c l e r i c a l employees must be h i r e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . 1 7 A d d i t i o n a l s u p e r v i s o r y l abour i s a l s o needed d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d to ach ieve the s y s t e m i z a t i o n and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of DP o p e r a t i o n s i n v a r i a b l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th the i n s t a l l a t i o n of mainframe c o m p u t e r s . 1 8 T h i s requirement i s r e f l e c t e d in the i n c r e a s e in the numbers of s u p e r v i s o r s and managers which has been observed in o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n s t a l l i n g l a r g e computer s y s t e m s . 1 9 A f t e r the implementat ion has been comp le ted , very few of the programmers and a n a l y s t s a re needed f o r the d a i l y o p e r a t i o n of the system, o ther than f o r minor debugging and system maintenance. But in most i n s t a n c e s , once these pe r sonne l are 1 7 McDonald, J . C , Impact and I m p l i c a t i o n s of O f f i c e Automat ion, Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour, Ottawa, O c c a s i o n a l Paper No. 1, Queens P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1964 , pg 13 1 8 Van Weeman, B., "The Impact of Computers on O f f i c e Work", i n B e r t i n g , J . , M i l l s , S . C , W i n t e r b e r g e r , H. , The S o c i o - Economic Impact of M i c r o - e l e c t r o n i c s , Pergamon P r e s s , To ron to , 1980 , pg 152 1 9 R i c e , R.E. , "The Impacts of Computer-Mediated O r g a n i z a t i o n a l and I n t e r p e r s o n a l Communicat ion" , in American S o c i e t y f o r In format ion S c i e n c e , Annual Review of I n fo rmat ion Sc ience  and Techno logy , v o l . 1 5 , 1980 34 h i r e d , there i s seldom a decrease in t h e i r numbers. T h i s i s because new, more complex a p p l i c a t i o n s are i n v a r i a b l y deve loped that r e q u i r e t h e i r a t t e n t i o n . Tab le II p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n of the t y p i c a l types of a p p l i c a t i o n s tha t are implemented, based upon a survey of over 40 EDP departments in I nd i a in 1 9 7 4 . 2 0 There i s o b v i o u s l y a wide range in the number of system development and i n t e g r a t i o n pe r sonne l h i r e d by o r g a n i z a t i o n s implementing a mainframe computer system. It depends on a number of f a c t o r s , such as the s i z e and comp lex i t y of the system to be i n t e g r a t e d , p lanned f u t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n s , and more r e c e n t l y , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of packaged so f tware and custom programming c o n s u l t i n g s e r v i c e s . But there i s some r e p r e s e n t a t i v e survey data a v a i l a b l e . However, i t must be emphasized tha t the f i g u r e s rep re sen t on ly programmers and a n a l y s t s , and do not i n c l u d e the a d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l and T a b l e II - A p p l i c a t i o n of Computer Time % of computer time used p a y r o l l r e s e a r c h and development s t o r e s a c c o u n t i n g f i n a n c i a l a c c o u n t i n g p r o d u c t i o n s c h e d u l i n g and c o n t r o l i n ven to ry c o n t r o l co s t a c c o u n t i n g program t e s t i n g b i l l i n g / i n v o i c ing s a l e s a n a l y s i s educa t i on and t r a i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s r e s e a r c h o the r s 15.53 12.49 10.79 9.75 9.1 5 5.71 4.05 3.95 3.91 3.45 2.69 1 .43 16.76 2 0 P rasad, K., Verma, P., Impact of Computers on Employment, Macmi l l an Book Co. of I n d i a , Madras, 1977 , pg 43 35 s u p e r v i s o r y employees a l s o needed fo r system imp lementa t i on . The Canadian Computer Census (CCC) e s t imated in 1980 that w i th every computer i n s t a l l a t i o n w i th a purchase va lue of $40,000 or more (equal to or g r e a t e r in s i z e than a m i n i - c o m p u t e r ) , 9 systems pe r sonne l were employed in 1978 and 12 in 1 9 8 0 . 2 1 These f i g u r e s are markedly s i m i l a r to the f i g u r e s o b t a i n e d in 1974 in the Indian su rvey , from which i t i s e s t ima ted that an average of 8 a n a l y s t s and programmers were employed wi th each EDP f a c i l i t y . 2 2 Somewhat sma l l e r f i g u r e s a re a v a i l a b l e f o r Canadian f e d e r a l government EDP o p e r a t i o n s . In 1977-78, 2632 s t a f f - y e a r s were devoted to systems and programming f o r 566 computers of a s i z e equa l or g r e a t e r than a m i n i - c o m p u t e r . 2 3 T h i s averages to 5 s t a f f year s per computer. However, a major p o r t i o n of t h e i r system and development labour c o s t s i s c o n t r a c t e d ou t , as ev idenced by the $14,000,000 EDP c o n s u l t a n t c o s t s in 1977-78. $1,531,000 worth of so f tware was a l s o purchased in t h i s y e a r . 2 * For many o r g a n i z a t i o n s , an i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n of system development and i n t e g r a t i o n i s c o n t r a c t e d out to c o n s u l t i n g f i r m s , r a t h e r than be ing performed by in -house p e r s o n n e l . I t i s p o s s i b l e tha t t h i s w i l l l i m i t the growth of t h i s form of a d d i t i v e l abour f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s which a l r e a d y have t h e i r own 1 Canadian I n fo rmat ion P r o c e s s i n g S o c i e t y , Canadian Computer Census, Toronto O n t a r i o , Annual , pg 13 2 P rasad, K., Verma, P., Impact of Computers on Employment, Macmi l l an Book Co. of I n d i a , Madras, 1977 , pg 51 3 T reasury Board , In format ion Systems D i v i s i o n , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c y Branch, Review of EDP and Te lecommunicat ions in the  Government of Canada, Ottawa, 1980 , Tab le s 3, 16 4 T reasury Board, In format ion Systems D i v i s i o n , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c y B ranch , Review of EDP and Te lecommunicat ions in the  Government of Canada, Ottawa, 1980 , Tab le 1 36 system development and i n t e g r a t i o n p e r s o n n e l . And f o r new i n s t a l l a t i o n s , i t i s p o s s i b l e tha t a much s m a l l e r number of f u l l - t i m e employees of t h i s type w i l l be h i r e d . Whi le i t i s p o s s i b l e tha t these f a c t o r s may have an i n f l u e n c e on f u t u r e growth l e v e l s f o r t h i s type of o f f i c e l a b o u r , i t does not appear to be suppor ted by the n umer i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . I n s tead , as ev idenced by the CCC i n f o r m a t i o n , the average number of systems peop le f o r l a r g e computer i n s t a l l a t i o n s i n c r e a s e d in j u s t two yea r s from 9 to 12, between 1978 and 1980. And t h i s was d u r i n g a p e r i o d when there was a g reat improvement in the a v a i l a b i l i t y of systems c o n s u l t i n g s e r v i c e s and package so f tware . For f e d e r a l government EDP o p e r a t i o n s , between 1974 and 1978 EDP c o n s u l t i n g c o s t s i n c r e a s e d by over 105%, and so f tware a c q u i s i t i o n c o s t s by 8 4 % . 2 5 But d u r i n g the same p e r i o d , systems and programming s t a f f - y e a r s i n c r e a s e d by 23%. For most l a r g e i n s t a l l a t i o n s , i t would appear tha t the c o n t i n u e d expans ion i n the number of computer a p p l i c a t i o n s w i l l at l e a s t ma in ta in e x i s t i n g employment l e v e l s , and more l i k e l y cause an i n c r e a s e beyond the average numbers of system development and implementat ion pe r sonne l than have been p r e s e n t e d in t h i s s e c t i o n . 2 5 T reasury Board , I n fo rmat ion Systems D i v i s i o n , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c y Branch, Review of EDP and Te lecommunicat ions in the  Government of Canada, Ottawa, 1980 , Tab le 1 37 2.4 Equipment Opera t i on A second form of a d d i t i v e l abour impact occur s through the need f o r c l e r i c a l employees to operate data i n p u t / o u t p u t equipment such as keypunchers, o p t i c a l c h a r a c t e r reader s and data en t r y t e r m i n a l s . Other c l e r i c a l workers are needed f o r data p r e p a r a t i o n and paper document management a c t i v i t i e s . S u p e r v i s o r y and manager ia l pe r sonne l a re needed as w e l l , to oversee the a c t i v i t i e s of these workers and to manage the data p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s . C e n t r a l i z e d EDP o p e r a t i o n s a l s o r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l support s t a f f f o r equipment maintenance and r o u t i n e o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , there i s no r e p r e s e n t a t i v e data on labour impacts a s s o c i a t e d s o l e l y wi th equipment use. Equipment o p e r a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n management pe r sonne l numbers fo r EDP o p e r a t i o n s a re u s u a l l y combined i n t o " o p e r a t i o n s " p e r s o n n e l . T h e r e f o r e , survey i n f o r m a t i o n on a c t u a l employment l e v e l s f o r equipment o p e r a t i o n w i l l be examined i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . 2.5 I n fo rmat ion Use And Management Most a p p l i c a t i o n s produce output and r e q u i r e input from other a reas of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l and s u p e r v i s o r y l abour i s needed at an EDP c e n t e r to d e a l w i th these i n c r e a s e d i n p u t / o u t p u t requ i rement s . A d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l l abour i s a l s o needed beyond the l i m i t s of the EDP c e n t e r f o r i n f o rma t i on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and f i l e system maintenance. I t i s p o s s i b l e tha t the t r a n s f e r r i n g of d i s p l a c e d c l e r i c a l pe r sonne l to other areas of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i th the 38 use of the t echno logy , has p a r t i a l l y been in response to these i n c r e a s e d i n f o r m a t i o n management requ i rement s . A d d i t i o n a l manager i a l l abour i s a l s o needed to examine the newly a v a i l a b l e d a t a , and to make d e c i s i o n s on i t s b a s i s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the l i t e r a t u r e does not c o n t a i n any q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s form of impact, beyond the c o n f i n e s of EDP c e n t e r s . The q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n p re sen ted below concerns on ly l abour impacts l o c a l i z e d to EDP o p e r a t i o n s , and does not r e f l e c t the s u b s t a n t i a l a d d i t i v e l abour impacts which occur e l sewhere in the o r g a n i z a t i o n in response to i n c r e a s e d i n f o r m a t i o n management r equ i rement s . As was the case w i th system development and i n t e g r a t i o n p e r s o n n e l , the numbers of o p e r a t i o n s employees w i l l va ry w i th the s i z e and type of a p p l i c a t i o n , and the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the techno logy . The Canadian Computer Census e s t ima ted tha t an average of 16 o p e r a t i o n s pe r sonne l were employed i n 1978 in computer i n s t a l l a t i o n s w i th a purchase va lue of $40,000 or more, and 12 were employed in 1 9 8 0 . 2 6 I n fo rmat ion on t h i s form of a d d i t i v e impact f o r Canadian f e d e r a l government EDP o p e r a t i o n s i n d i c a t e s tha t an average of of 9 o p e r a t i o n s p e r s o n n e l were needed in 1977-78 f o r each of t h e i r mainframe c o m p u t e r s . 2 7 Much l a r g e r numbers were e s t imated fo r EDP i n s t a l l a t i o n s surveyed in Ind ia in 1974. An average of 32 p e r s o n n e l were employed in t h i s 2 6 Canadian I n fo rmat ion P r o c e s s i n g S o c i e t y , Canadian Computer Census, Toronto O n t a r i o , Annual , pg 13 2 7 T reasury Board, In format ion Systems D i v i s i o n , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c y Branch, Review of EDP and Te lecommunicat ions in the  Government of Canada, Ottawa, 1980 , Tab le 3 39 c a p a c i t y , based on the employment l e v e l s in over 40 l a r g e EDP i n s t a l l a t i o n s . 2 8 On the b a s i s of these f i g u r e s i t appears tha t an average of 9 to 32 a d d i t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l are needed. However, these f i g u r e s do not take account of the s u b s t a n t i a l amount of l abour that i s d i v e r t e d f o r the educa t i on of these employees p r i o r to and d u r i n g the i n s t a l l a t i o n of the equipment. I t i s a common p r a c t i s e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s to g i ve d i s p l a c e d pe r sonne l the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e t r a i n i n g and then employment in the new EDP c e n t e r . From the Ind ian survey d a t a , of the 918 employees rendered s u p e r f l u o u s because of the equipment, 41% were r e t r a i n e d and then found p o s i t i o n s in the new o p e r a t i o n s . 2 9 And even when in o p e r a t i o n , the t r a i n i n g of e x i s t i n g s t a f f must be updated and new employees t r a i n e d . For example, f o r Canadian f e d e r a l government EDP o p e r a t i o n s , t r a i n i n g c o s t s amounted to $3,957,000 i n 1 9 7 7 - 7 8 . 3 0 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , there i s no i n f o r m a t i o n on the a c t u a l amount of l abour d i v e r t e d f o r these e d u c a t i o n a l needs. On the b a s i s of the survey a v a i l a b l e d a t a , t h e r e does appear to be a downward t rend in the numbers of o p e r a t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l needed f o r l a r g e computer i n s t a l l a t i o n s . The data a v a i l a b l e from the CCC i n d i c a t e s a decrease in the numbers of 2 8 P rasad , K., Verma, P., Impact of Computers on Employment, Macmi l lan Book Co. of I n d i a , Madras, 1977 , pg 51 2 9 P ra sad , K., Verma, P., Impact of Computers on Employment, Macmi l lan Book Co. of I n d i a , Madras, 1977 , pg 74 3 0 T rea su ry Board, In format ion Systems D i v i s i o n , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c y Branch, Review of EDP and Te lecommunicat ions in the  Government of Canada, Ottawa, 1980 , Tab le 4 40 o p e r a t i o n s p e r s o n n e l from an average of 16 in 1978 down to 12 in 1 9 8 0 . 3 1 T h i s t r e n d i s most pronounced in very l a r ge computer i n s t a l l a t i o n s , where the average number of o p e r a t i o n s p e r s o n n e l decreased from 38 to 28 between 1978 and 1980. It was a l s o in t h i s s i z e of i n s t a l l a t i o n that there was the g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e in systems p e r s o n n e l d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , wi th an i n c r e a s e from 23 to 29. For most l a r ge systems, a d d i t i o n a l systems pe r sonne l a re h i r e d to deve lop and i n t e g r a t e more complex computer a p p l i c a t i o n s , and most r e c e n t l y , d i s t r i b u t e d data p r o c e s s i n g s y s t e m s . 3 2 These decreases in o p e r a t i o n s pe r sonne l l e v e l s c o u l d p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t tha t the d i s t r i b u t e d systems are s u p p l y i n g data input d i r e c t to the computer in e l e c t r o n i c format, thus removing the need f o r some data input equipment o p e r a t o r s and data p r e p a r a t i o n c l e r k s at the computer i n s t a l l a t i o n . However, t h i s merely r e p r e s e n t s a d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the data en t r y f u n c t i o n . 3 3 There i s no i n f o r m a t i o n to i n d i c a t e that t h i s d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n r e s u l t s in any changes in o v e r a l l l abour requ i rement s . Other recen t t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments promise to have even more n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t s on the numbers of c l e r i c a l employees needed f o r data e n t r y . O p t i c a l c h a r a c t e r reader s (OCR's) remove the need f o r the key ing in of numer i ca l 3 1 Canadian I n fo rmat ion P r o c e s s i n g S o c i e t y , Canadian Computer Census, Toronto O n t a r i o , Annual , pg 13 3 2 B j o rn -Ander son , N., Hedberg, B., Mercer , D., Mumford, E . , S o l e , A . , ( e d s . ) , The Impact of Systems Change in O r g a n i z a t i o n s , Germantown, Mary land, S i j t h o f f & Noordhof f , 1979 , pg 323 3 3 B j o rn -Ander son , N., Hedberg, B., Mercer , D., Mumford, E . , S o l e , A . , ( e d s . ) , The Impact of Systems Change in O r g a n i z a t i o n s , Germantown, Mary land, S i j t h o f f & Noordhof f , 1979 , pg 272 41 i n f o r m a t i o n v i a punch ca rd s or computer data t e r m i n a l s . 3 " At p re sen t t h e i r use i s very l i m i t e d , because of t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y h i gh co s t and i n a c c u r a c y . But once t h i s problem i s s o l v e d , and the equipment i s produced at s u f f i c i e n t l y reduced c o s t s , OCR's may have a dramat ic e f f e c t on the numbers of o p e r a t i o n s pe r sonne l r e q u i r e d fo r data e n t r y . However, t he re i s no i n f o r m a t i o n on labour e f f e c t s a s s o c i a t e d w i th t h i s type of t echno logy . I t i s not p o s s i b l e to determine what p r o p o r t i o n of average o p e r a t i o n s employment l e v e l s i s a c t u a l l y due to the use of the t echno l o gy . For c e n t r a l i z e d DP o p e r a t i o n s which e x i s t e d p r i o r to the i n s t a l l a t i o n of the equipment, s u b s t a n t i a l numbers of o p e r a t i o n a l employees would a l r e a d y be employed. When the computer equipment i s i n s t a l l e d , many of the e x i s t i n g p e r s o n n e l a re r e t r a i n e d and then employed in the EDP o p e r a t i o n . But in many i n s t a n c e s , the c e n t r a l i z e d data p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n i s on ly e s t a b l i s h e d wi th the i n s t a l l a t i o n of the computer e q u i p m e n t . 3 5 So there i s no q u e s t i o n of the t r a n s f e r r i n g or r e t r a i n i n g of e x i s t i n g p e r s o n n e l . I n s tead , c o n s i d e r a b l e numbers of new employees must be h i r e d . 3 6 In these i n s t a n c e s , the average of 9 to 32 o p e r a t i o n s pe r sonne l p re sen ted above r e p r e s e n t s a net a d d i t i v e labour impact . It can t h e r e f o r e on l y be conc luded that the o p e r a t i o n a l requ i rements f o r EDP c e n t e r s 3 " The Economis t , " W r i t i n g to Computers " , 12 June 1982 3 5 P ra sad , K., Verma, P., Impact of Computers on Employment, Macmi l l an Book Co. of I nd i a , Madras, 1977 , pg 79 3 6 W i t h i n g t o n , F . G . , " F i v e Genera t i on s of Computers " , Harvard Bus iness Review, J u l y - A u g u s t 1974 , pg 102 42 r e s u l t s in an a d d i t i v e l abour impact of u n c e r t a i n magnitude. 2.6 Labour Replacement And Enhancement Between 1965 and 1981, the e s t imated number of mainframe computers in o p e r a t i o n in Canada, w i th a purchase p r i c e of $40,000 or more, i n c r e a s e d from 1034 to 23,860, an i n c r e a s e of over 2 2 0 0 % . 3 7 And y e t , t h e r e i s s u r p r i s i n g l y l i t t l e q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on a c t u a l l abour d i sp l acement s and r e d u c t i o n s that have o c c u r r e d w i th l a r g e EDP i n s t a l l a t i o n s . What l i t t l e there i s does i n d i c a t e tha t nega t i ve labour impacts have indeed o c c u r r e d , a l though c e r t a i n l y not to the ex tent p r e d i c t e d . The c l e r i c a l a c t i v i t i e s of numer i ca l c a l c u l a t i o n and v e r i f i c a t i o n can be r e p l a c e d , as w e l l as the movement of numer i ca l i n f o r m a t i o n from one f i l e l o c a t i o n to ano ther , once the i n f o r m a t i o n has been t r a n s c r i b e d i n t o e l e c t r o n i c format . More r e c e n t l y , w i th improvements in data cap tu re and te lecommunica t ions t echno logy , l abour needed f o r data en t r y and movement can a l s o be r e p l a c e d , 3 8 as can c l e r i c a l p r o d u c t i o n of paper d o c u m e n t s . 3 9 Containment of l abour i n c r e a s e s occur s because of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of excess s to rage and p r o c e s s i n g c a p a c i t y of the computer equipment. T h i s a l l ows an i n c r e a s e in the amount of numer i ca l i n f o r m a t i o n m a n i p u l a t i o n , s to rage and ou tpu t , wi thout accompanying i n c r e a s e s in c l e r i c a l l a b o u r . 3 7 Canadian I n fo rmat i on P r o c e s s i n g S o c i e t y , Canadian Computer Census, To ron to O n t a r i o , Annual , Tab le 2, pg 8 3 8 B j o rn -Ander son , N., Hedberg, B., Mercer , D., Mumford, E . , S o l e , A . , ( e d s . ) , The Impact of Systems Change in O r g a n i z a t i o n s , Germantown, Mary land , S i j t h o f f & Noordho f f , 1979 , pg 270 3 9 Simon, H., The Shape of Automation f o r Men and Management, New York, Harper and Row, 1965 , pg 38 43 It has been assumed that the replacement and conta inment of c l e r i c a l l abour would be accompanied by s i m i l a r e f f e c t s in the numbers of s u p e r v i s o r y and mid-management p e r s o n n e l . T h i s would be due p a r t l y to the replacement of minor r o u t i n e d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g . " 0 Another p o r t i o n would occur because i t was expected the re would be fewer c l e r i c a l p e r s o n n e l to s u p e r v i s e , " 1 and because c l e r i c a l a c t i v i t y m o n i t o r i n g would be e n h a n c e d . " 2 As was the case wi th the a d d i t i v e forms of l abour impacts d i s c u s s e d above, the numbers of d i s p l a c e d employees depends on s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . These i n c l u d e the type of a p p l i c a t i o n , the s i z e of DP o p e r a t i o n s , the span of t ime over which the d i sp l acement s a re c a l c u l a t e d , and the techno logy a v a i l a b l e at the time at which EDP o p e r a t i o n s a re su rveyed . Menzies r e p o r t s a d i sp lacement (but not a r e d u c t i o n ) of 130 c l e r i c a l employees over a 10 year p e r i o d . " 3 In a 1959 ILO document, two examples are c i t e d . An in surance company reduced the number of c l e r i c a l s t a f f i n t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s e c t i o n from 198 to 85, and an e l e c t r i c a l company reduced the number of c l e r i c a l pe r sonne l in t h e i r DP o p e r a t i o n s from 30 to 20. A time p e r i o d i s not g i ven "° Simon, H., The Shape of Automation f o r Men and Management, New York, Harper and Row, 1965 , pg 47 4 1 Van Weeman, B., "The Impact of Computers on O f f i c e Work", i n B e r t i n g , J . , M i l l s , S .C . , W i n t e r b e r g e r , H., The S o c i o -Economic Impact of M i c r o - e l e c t r o n i c s , Pergamon P r e s s , To ron to , 1980 , pg 156 " 2 McDonald, J . C , Impact and I m p l i c a t i o n s of O f f i c e Automat ion, Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour , Ottawa, O c c a s i o n a l Paper No. 1, Queens P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1964 , pg 28 " 3 Menzies , H., Supplementary M a t e r i a l to "Women and the C h i p " , I n f o rma t i c s Case S t u d i e s , Labour Market Development Task F o r c e , Canada Employment and Immigrat ion , pg 4 44 f o r e i t h e r of these examples . * * For the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Oshawa, a f t e r the . i n s t a l l a t i o n of a mainframe computer in t h e i r tax a c c o u n t i n g department, c l e r i c a l s t a f f were reduced from 16 to 12 over a 10 year p e r i o d , wh i l e the number of p r o p e r t y tax forms p roces sed i n c r e a s e d from 23,000 to 40,000. For the M u n i c i p a l i t y of To ron to , over a 20 year p e r i o d , the numbers of p a r t - t i m e c l e r k s and s u p e r v i s o r s needed to p repare annual tax b i l l s decreased from 60 to 2. T h i s was accompanied by a l a r g e i n c r e a s e in data p r o c e s s i n g requ i rement s . However, no a c t u a l employment r e d u c t i o n s o c c u r r e d , because of an i n c r e a s e in data p r e p a r a t i o n and en t r y r e q u i r e m e n t s . " 5 The most comprehensive data a v a i l a b l e on the d i sp l acement e f f e c t of EDP techno logy i s p r o v i d e d by Prased and V e r m a . " 6 On the b a s i s of t h e i r 1974 survey data on over 40 EDP o p e r a t i o n s i n I n d i a , i t can be e s t imated that an average of 21 c l e r i c a l and other employees were d i s p l a c e d w i th the i n s t a l l a t i o n of EDP equipment. No attempt was made to determine the average p e r i o d of time over which these d i sp l acement s o c c u r r e d or the amount of labour conta inment tha t was a c h i e v e d . It must be emphasized that fo r a l l EDP o p e r a t i o n s surveyed by Prasas and Verma, no d i s p l a c e d pe r sonne l were f i r e d or l a i d - o f f . E q u a l l y impor tant , even though an average of 21 c l e r i c a l employees were d i s p l a c e d , an " " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n , E f f e c t s of Mechan iza t i on and  Automation in O f f i c e s , Geneva, 1959 , pg 42,57 " 5 W i l k i n s , R., M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s and Employment in P u b l i c  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : A Case Study in Three O n t a r i o  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , Ont Min of Labour, 1982 , pgs 10 to 16 " 6 P ra sad , K., Verma, P., Impact of Computers on Employment, Macmi l l an Book Co. of I n d i a , Madras, 1977 , pg 73 45 average of 7 employees were h i r e d in t h e i r p l a c e . T h i s reduces the average c l e r i c a l d i sp l acement to 14. Whi le some of the c l e r i c a l d i sp lacement p re sen ted above i s undoubtably the r e s u l t of the labour r e p l a c i n g c a p a b i l i t y of the techno logy , a l a r g e p o r t i o n of i t i s due to l abour sav ings brought about by o v e r a l l improvements in DP p r o c e d u r e s . A f t e r the equipment i s i n s t a l l e d , d e f i n i t e r u l e s and procedures have been deve loped f o r c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s . " 7 There i s a l s o i n c r e a s e d task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n f o r c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , " 8 and DP p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s have been ana l y sed and i m p r o v e d . " 9 C l e a r l y , i f these improvements were brought about in the absence of the t echno l ogy , a c e r t a i n amount of l abour sav ings would be a c h i e v e d . Even though there are i n s t a n c e s of c l e r i c a l l abour d i s p l a c e m e n t , net c l e r i c a l employment r e d u c t i o n s appear to be more the e x c e p t i o n than the r u l e . There have been r e d i s t r i b u t i o n s of c l e r i c a l a c t i v i t y w i t h i n o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , 5 0 as ev idenced by the data p re sen ted by Menz ies , and Prasad and Verma. But when r e d u c t i o n s in c l e r i c a l l abour requ i rements have o c c u r r e d , they have u s u a l l y been more than 7 Van Weeman, B., "The Impact of Computers on O f f i c e Work", i n B e r t i n g , J . , M i l l s , S .C . , W i n t e r b e r g e r , H., The S o c i o - Economic Impact of M i c r o - e l e c t r o n i c s , Pergamon P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1980 , pgs 152,156 8 B j o rn -Ander son , N., Hedberg, B., Mercer , D., Mumford, E . , S o l e , A . , ( e d s . ) , The Impact of Systems Change in O r g a n i z a t i o n s , Germantown, Mary land, S i j t h o f f & Noordhof f , 1979 , pg 272 9 G i u l i a n o , V . E . , "The Mechan i za t i on of O f f i c e Work", S c i e n t i f i c Amer ican, September 1982, volume 247 no. 3. , pg 160 0 W i th i n g ton , F . G . , " F i v e Genera t i on s of Computers " , Harvard  Bus iness Review, J u l y - A u g u s t 1974 , pg 100 46 o f f - s e t by i n c r e a s e d demand fo r c l e r i c a l l abour r e s u l t i n g from i n c r e a s e d data p r o c e s s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s . 5 1 The g e n e r a l expe r i ence has been tha t s u b s t a n t i a l economies in c l e r i c a l l abour requ i rements have not taken p l a c e . 5 2 The p r e d i c t e d d i sappearence of s u p e r v i s o r y and mid-management pe r sonne l has not o ccu r red e i t h e r . 5 3 I n s tead , an o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e in t h i s type of pe r sonne l has been noted in o r g a n i z a t i o n s adopt ing computer s y s t e m s . 5 4 The most obv ious reason f o r t h i s i s tha t l e v e l s of c l e r i c a l employment have not d e c r e a s e d . In a d d i t i o n , the new employees needed fo r such a c t i v i t i e s as equipment o p e r a t i o n a l s o r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l s u p e r v i s o r s and managers. 2.7 O v e r a l l Labour Impact It i s not p o s s i b l e , on the b a s i s of the i n f o r m a t i o n p re sen ted in the p reced ing s e c t i o n s , to a r r i v e at a q u a n t i t a t i v e e s t imate of the o v e r a l l l abour impact f o r t h i s a rea of a p p l i c a t i o n . Most sources p r o v i d e e i t h e r employment l e v e l s in EDP o p e r a t i o n s , or the numbers of d i s p l a c e d p e r s o n n e l , but seldom bo th . Nor i s i t p o s s i b l e to e s t imate the amount of 1 P ra sad , K., Verma, P., Impact of Computers on Employment, Macmi l l an Book Co. of I n d i a , Madras, 1977 , pg 66 2 McDonald, J . C . , Impact and I m p l i c a t i o n s of O f f i c e Automat ion, Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour , Ottawa, O c c a s i o n a l Paper No. 1, Queens P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1964 , pg 27 3 Van Weeman, B., "The Impact of Computers on O f f i c e Work", i n B e r t i n g , J . , M i l l s , S .C . , W i n t e r b e r g e r , H., The S o c i o - Economic Impact of M i c r o - e l e c t r o n i c s , Pergamon P r e s s , To ron to , 1980 , pg 156 4 R i c e , R.E. , "The Impacts of Computer-Mediated O r g a n i z a t i o n a l and I n t e r p e r s o n a l Communicat ion" , in American S o c i e t y f o r I n fo rmat ion S c i e n c e , Annual Review of I n fo rmat ion Sc ience  and Techno logy , v o l . 1 5 , 1980 47 l abour that would not be needed in the f u t u r e because of the use of the t echno l o gy . And f i n a l l y , a l l of the q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n p re sen ted concerns on ly employment l e v e l s and d i sp l acement s tha t a re l o c a l i z e d to EDP o p e r a t i o n s . No q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e on changes in o v e r a l l l abour requ i rements tha t have been a s s o c i a t e d w i th the use of the techno logy . I t i s ve ry u n l i k e l y that t h i s s o r t of data w i l l ever be a v a i l a b l e . Changes in an o f f i c e ' s t o t a l employment f i g u r e s can be in response to a number of f a c t o r s , such as c o r p o r a t e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , bu s ine s s expans ion , v a r i a t i o n s in volumes of work, and changes in systems and methods, as w e l l as the use of the t e c h n o l o g y . 5 5 However, t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n to conc lude that h i s t o r i c a l l y , a d d i t i v e l abour impacts have equa led or outweighed any nega t i ve impacts tha t have a l s o o c c u r r e d . Survey r e s u l t s of a l a r g e number of o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i th EDP equipment i n d i c a t e e i t h e r tha t o v e r a l l l abour requ i rements have not been a p p r e c i a b l y a f f e c t e d , 5 6 or have i n c r e a s e d . 5 7 5 8 These survey r e s u l t s concur w i th the case study i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e in the l i t e r a t u r e . 5 9 5 5 P ra sad , K., Verma, P., Impact of Computers on Employment, Macmi l l an Book Co. of I n d i a , Madras, 1977 , pg 68 5 6 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n , E f f e c t s of Mechan i za t i on and Automation in O f f i c e s , Geneva, 1959 , pg 46 5 7 P rasad , K., Verma, P., Impact of Computers on Employment, Macmi l lan Book Co. of I n d i a , Madras, 1977 , pg 98 5 8 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n , Labour and Automat ion, B u l l e t i n number 5, "Automat ion and Non-Manual Workers " , 1967 , pg 46 5 9 W i l k i n s , R., M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s and Employment in P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : A Case Study in Three O n t a r i o  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , Ont Min of Labour, 1982 , pgs 10,16 48 It i s much more d i f f i c u l t to conc lude what the f u t u r e l abour impact f o r t h i s a rea of a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l be. Recent improvements in communication techno logy have made p o s s i b l e the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the data e n t r y f u n c t i o n . 6 0 It i s not p o s s i b l e at t h i s time to say whether t h i s w i l l have on ly a r e d i s t r i b u t i v e e f f e c t or whether l abour r e d u c t i o n s w i l l o c c u r . Improvements in data cap ture t echno logy , such as OCR 's , appear to have the p o t e n t i a l to s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduce the amount of c l e r i c a l l abour needed f o r data en t r y a c t i v i t i e s . But p r e d i c t i o n s have been made f o r the l a s t 30 year s tha t each new development in computer techno logy w i l l d r a s t i c a l l y reduce c l e r i c a l l abour requ i rement s , wi thout n o t i c e a b l e r e d u c t i o n s a c t u a l l y t a k i n g p l a c e . The improvement in the a v a i l a b i l i t y of o u t s i d e system development and i n t e g r a t i o n s e r v i c e s , and packaged programming a l s o appear to h o l d the p o t e n t i a l to c o n t a i n i n c r e a s e s in the numbers of in -house systems a n a l y s t s and p rog rammer s . 6 1 However, r e c e n t survey data c o n t r a d i c t s t h i s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r very l a r ge i n s t a l l a t i o n s . I n s tead , the growing emphasis on d i s t r i b u t e d systems, w i th t h e i r accompanying c o m p l i c a t i o n s of systems d e s i g n , implementat ion and o p e r a t i o n , promise to r e s u l t in f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s in the numbers of i n -6 0 B j o rn -Ander son , N., Hedberg, B., Mercer , D., Mumford, E . , S o l e , A . , ( e d s . ) , The Impact of Systems Change in O r g a n i z a t i o n s , Germantown, Mary land, S i j t h o f f & Noordhof f , 1979 , pg 270 6 1 Hough, R .F . , An Overview of the Canadian Computer S e r v i c e s I ndus t ry , Dept of N a t i o n a l Defence, Ottawa, 1981 , pg 28 6 2 Champine, G.A. , D i s t r i b u t e d Computer Systems. Impact on Management,Design and A n a l y s i s , New York, N o r t h - H o l l a n d , 1980 , pg 4 49 house systems p e r s o n n e l , not d e c r e a s e s . 6 2 I t t h e r e f o r e appears tha t f u t u r e developments in computer techno logy f o r t h i s area of a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l have a v a r i a b l e e f f e c t on o f f i c e employment. But on the b a s i s of h i s t o r i c e x p e r i e n c e , i t i s most l i k e l y tha t any nega t i ve labour impacts which do occur w i l l be e q u a l l e d or outweighed by the a d d i t i v e impacts which w i l l be a s s o c i a t e d w i th the use of the t echno logy . 3. SMALL SCALE CLERICAL DATA PROCESSING 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n S ince the l a t e 1960 ' s , t he re have been l a r g e p r i c e decreases in computer l o g i c and p r o c e s s i n g hardware c o s t s . 6 3 These have r e s u l t e d in the development of f i r s t sma l l min icomputers in the e a r l y 1970 ' s , and then microcomputers in the m i d - 1 9 7 0 ' s . 6 4 I t was a l s o d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d that improvements in i n t e r f a c e and communicat ion t e c h n o l o g y , and system sof tware have a l l owed the c o n n e c t i o n of o n - l i n e computer t e r m i n a l s to mainframe c o m p u t e r s . 6 5 Because the c o s t of communication techno logy has not f a l l e n , the use of o n - l i n e t e r m i n a l s has in most i n s t a n c e s been r e s t r i c t e d to the immediate 6 3 Ba r ron , I., Curnow, R., The Fu tu re w i th M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s . F o r e c a s t i n g the E f f e c t s of I n fo rmat ion Techno logy , New York, N i c h o l s P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1979 , pg 66 6 4 Hough, R .F . , An Overview of the Canadian Computer S e r v i c e s I ndus t r y , Dept of N a t i o n a l De fence , Ottawa, 1981 , pg 23 6 5 Simon, H.A., "The Consequences of Computers f o r C e n t r a l i z a t i o n and D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n " , in F o r e s t e r , T . , ( e d . ) , The  M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s R e v o l u t i o n , MIT P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass, 1980 , pg 220 50 v i c i n i t y of the mainframe to which they are c o n n e c t e d . 6 6 These developments have a l l owed the a p p l i c a t i o n of computer techno logy to sma l l s c a l e data p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s employing on ly a few c l e r i c a l workers . The e s t ima ted number of sma l l m in i - computers in o p e r a t i o n in Canada i n c r e a s e d from 640 in 1969 to 22,000 in 1981, and the e s t imated number of microcomputers or desk top computers i n o p e r a t i o n i n c r e a s e d from 100 to 62,000 between 1974 and 1 9 8 1 . 6 7 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , there i s no i n f o r m a t i o n on the e s t ima ted number of o n - l i n e t e r m i n a l s i n use . I t i s c l e a r that the widespread use of computers fo r t h i s a rea of a p p l i c a t i o n must have some impact on l abour r equ i rement s . Yet t he re i s a p a u c i t y of d i s c u s s i o n in the l i t e r a t u r e of these e f f e c t s , and of a c t u a l changes in labour requ i rements tha t have o c c u r r e d . Because of these l i m i t a t i o n s , the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s p re sen t on ly a b r i e f examinat ion of the l abour impacts of t h i s a rea of a p p l i c a t i o n . 3.2 Reasons For Implementat ion The low co s t and ease of implementat ion of the techno logy has made i t a t t r a c t i v e to app ly i t to e x i s t i n g sma l l s c a l e DP o p e r a t i o n s . 6 8 One reason f o r i t s implementat ion t h e r e f o r e , i s to enhance the p r o d u c t i v i t y of manual and mechan ica l methods of m a i n t a i n i n g sma l l bookkeeping and customer account maintenance o p e r a t i o n s . But i t s low co s t g r e a t l y reduces the need to 6 6 Champine, G.A. , D i s t r i b u t e d Computer Systems. Impact on Management,Design and A n a l y s i s , New York, N o r t h - H o l l a n d , 1980 , pg 4 6 7 Canadian In format ion P r o c e s s i n g S o c i e t y , Canadian Computer Census, Toronto O n t a r i o , Annual , pg 8 6 8 W i t h i n g t o n , F . G . , " F i v e Genera t i on s of Computers " , Harvard Bus ines s Review, J u l y - A u g u s t 1974 , pg 106 51 j u s t i f y i t s purchase s o l e l y on a c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s b a s i s . The r e s u l t i s tha t the equipment i s o f t e n implemented to deve lop new data p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s that were not c o n s i d e r e d p o s s i b l e p r i o r to i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y . 6 9 In these i n s t a n c e s , the use of the techno logy c l e a r l y r e s u l t s in i n c r e a s e s in labour requ i rement s . 3.3 System Development And Implementat ion With the i n c r e a s e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of packaged so f tware , the implementat ion of most sma l l computers u s u a l l y does not r e q u i r e f u l l - t i m e systems a n a l y s t s and p rog rammer s . 7 0 A l though a sma l l amount of a d d i t i o n a l l abour i s neces sa ry fo r minor system d e -bugging and adap t i on to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , the c o s t of t h i s l abour i s u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d in the purchase p r i c e of the system. But some a p p l i c a t i o n s are deve loped to meet unique data requ i rements of i n d i v i d u a l departments and o f f i c e s , and a d d i t i o n a l l abour must be i n c u r r e d f o r the development and implementat ion of such systems. More s u p e r v i s o r y l abour i s a l s o r e q u i r e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , f o r the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and f o r m a l i z a t i o n of work ta sks which accompanies the t e c h n o l o g y . 7 1 Some of t h i s i s necessary fo r the o p e r a t i o n of the equipment, but a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of i t on ly se rves to make i t s use tha t much mote p r o d u c t i v e . But whether the system i s deve loped i n -house or purchased pre -packaged, a d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l l abour i s 6 9 Sanders , D.H., B i r k i n , S . J . , Computers and Management in a Changing S o c i e t y , M c G r a w - H i l l , 1980 , pg 241 7 0 Hough, R .F . , An Overview of the Canadian Computer S e r v i c e s I ndu s t r y , Dept of N a t i o n a l De fence , Ottawa, 1981 , pg 28 7 1 B j o rn -Ander son , N., Hedberg, B., Mercer , D., Mumford, E . , S o l e , A . , ( e d s . ) , The Impact of Systems Change in O r g a n i z a t i o n s , Germantown, Mary land, S i j t h o f f & Noordhof f , 1979 , pg 272 52 necessary to input data be fo re the system i s o p e r a t i o n a l . If e x i s t i n g l e v e l s of data p r o c e s s i n g are to be ma in ta ined wh i le t h i s i s be ing a ccomp l i shed , then a d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l employees must be h i r e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . 3.4 Equipment Opera t i on Once the system has been implemented, a d d i t i o n a l l abour i s needed to opera te the equipment. Most sma l l systems are r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e , and on l y a sma l l amount of a d d i t i o n a l l abour i s neces sa ry f o r opera to r e d u c a t i o n . If the equipment r e p l a c e s manual and mechan ica l methods of p r o c e s s i n g d a t a , then e x i s t i n g c l e r i c a l employees can be r e t r a i n e d . But f o r new a p p l i c a t i o n s , a d d i t i o n a l employees must be h i r e d . 3.5 In format ion Use And Management When the equipment i s a p p l i e d to e x i s t i n g DP o p e r a t i o n s , i t s use does not r e s u l t i n a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . But when new systems are implemented, a d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l l abour i s needed to a c q u i r e the data to be i n p u t , and a d d i t i o n a l management l abour i s neces sa ry to make use of the new i n f o r m a t i o n . It has been suggested that the use of sma l l systems in p e r i p h e r a l or branch l o c a t i o n s has r e s u l t e d in an i n c r e a s e in the amount of t a c t i c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g made at such l o c a t i o n s . 7 2 P r i o r to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the i n f o r m a t i o n , t i m e - p r e s s u r e d d e c i s i o n s had to be made i n t u i t i v e l y by the most e x p e r i e n c e d managers, who were u s u a l l y l o c a t e d at the head o f f i c e . But wi th the newly 7 2 W i th ing ton , F . G . , " F i v e Genera t i on s of Computers " , Harvard  Bus iness Review, J u l y - A u g u s t 1974 , pg 103 53 a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , t a c t i c a l d e c i s i o n s are now made immediate ly at the branch or p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n s . However, examinat ions of the e f f e c t of computer equipment on the l o c a t i o n of employment have not found any d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of d e c i s i o n -making tha t can be a t t r i b u t e d to the use of computer t e c h n o l o g y . 7 3 Ra ther , the degree to which d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s c e n t r a l i z e d or d e c e n t r a l i z e d i s dependent on ly on an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s management p h i l o s o p h y . 7 " 3.6 Replacement And Enhancement The techno logy can r e p l a c e the c l e r i c a l l abour needed f o r numer i ca l m a n i p u l a t i o n , the p r o d u c t i o n of paper documents, the movement of i n f o r m a t i o n and the e n t r y of the same data in more than one a ccoun t . It can enhance the a c c e s s i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n from s to rage d e v i c e s , because l e s s l abour i s needed to acces s e l e c t r o n i c a l l y s t o r e d i n f o r m a t i o n than to o b t a i n paper f i l e s from f i l i n g systems. The use of a keyboard and t e r m i n a l does not reduce the labour devoted to data e n t r y . The same amount of l abour i s neces sa ry to w r i t e a number in a l e d g e r , type i t on paper , or keys t roke i t on a computer keyboard. There i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n on the p r o p o r t i o n of c l e r i c a l l abour devoted to the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s in sma l l s c a l e DP o p e r a t i o n s . But i t i s e v i d e n t tha t most of the labour i s i n v o l v e d in the data en t ry f u n c t i o n . Because of t h i s , and the 7 3 B j o r n - A n d e r s o n , N., Hedberg, B., Mercer , D., Mumford, E . , S o l e , A . , ( e d s . ) , The Impact of Systems Change in O r g a n i z a t i o n s , Germantown, Mary land, S i j t h o f f & Noordhof f , 1979 , pg 270 7 " Sanders , D.H., B i r k i n , S . J . , Computers and Management in a  Changing S o c i e t y , M c G r a w - H i l l , 1980 , pg 241 54 sma l l number of employees i n v o l v e d , i t i s very u n l i k e l y tha t a c t u a l employment decreases occur because of the l abour r e p l a c i n g and enhancing c a p a b i l i t y of the t echno l o gy . And any s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s in p r o c e s s i n g requ i rements w i l l r e q u i r e more employees to enter the d a t a . The p r o d u c t i v i t y of the o p e r a t i o n i s i n c r e a s e d however. But a l a r g e p o r t i o n of t h i s i s due to the f o r m a l i z a t i o n and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of work t a sk s a c h i e v e d in implementing the system, and not to the l abour replacement and enhancement c a p a b i l i t y of the t e c h n o l o g y . 7 5 3.7 O v e r a l l Labour Impact The o v e r a l l l abour impact f o r t h i s a rea of a p p l i c a t i o n i s dependent on how many sma l l systems are a p p l i e d to e x i s t i n g manual and mechan ica l DP p r o c e d u r e s , and to p r o c e s s i n g new i n f o r m a t i o n not done p r i o r to i t s i n s t a l l a t i o n . For e x i s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s , i t s use does r e s u l t i n r e l a t i v e l y sma l l i n c r e a s e s in l abour p r o d u c t i v i t y . But some a d d i t i o n a l l abour i s neces sa ry to a ch ieve t h i s i n c r e a s e , and a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the p r o d u c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e s i s due to task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and f o r m a l i z a t i o n , and not to the techno logy i t s e l f . When i t i s implemented f o r new a p p l i c a t i o n s i t r e s u l t s in i n c r e a s e s in the requ i rements f o r c l e r i c a l and management l a b o u r . The recent p r o l i f e r a t i o n of o n - l i n e t e r m i n a l s and sma l l computer systems makes i t very d i f f i c u l t to determine the o v e r a l l l abour impact of t h i s a rea of a p p l i c a t i o n . Much of the 7 5 B j o r n - A n d e r s o n , N., Hedberg, B., Mercer , D., Mumford, E . , S o l e , A . , ( e d s . ) , The Impact of Systems Change i n O r g a n i z a t i o n s , Germantown, Mary land, S i j t h o f f & Noordhof f , 1979 , pg 272 55 equipment i s f i n a n c e d through g e n e r a l expense accounts of i n d i v i d u a l departments r a t h e r than c a p i t a l a c c o u n t s , 7 6 to meet the s p e c i a l needs of i n d i v i d u a l d e p a r t m e n t s . 7 7 The r e s u l t i n most l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i s that t he re i s no one person who knows how many sma l l computers are in o p e r a t i o n , how many on -l i n e t e r m i n a l s a re connec ted , where they are l o c a t e d , or what they are be ing used f o r . 7 8 Without t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , the on ly measure a v a i l a b l e to a s ses s l abour impacts i s changes in o v e r a l l employment l e v e l s . But as a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d , such changes can be in response to a l a r g e number of f a c t o r s , o ther than the use of an i nde te rm ina te amount of computer equipment. Thus i t i s very u n l i k e l y tha t a c c u r a t e e s t ima te s can ever be deve loped of the o v e r a l l l abour impact of t h i s a rea of a p p l i c a t i o n , except p o s s i b l y f o r ve ry sma l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 4. CLERICAL DOCUMENT PRODUCTION 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The p r o d u c t i o n of t e x t u a l documents by c l e r i c a l employees has r e c e i v e d much of the a t t e n t i o n in the l i t e r a t u r e s i n c e the l a t e 1970 ' s . The equipment a p p l i e d to these a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of s t and - a l one and s h a r e d - l o g i c word p r o c e s s i n g systems, i n t e l l i g e n t p h o t o - c o p i e r s and p r i n t e r s , and e l e c t r o n i c t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n s torage systems. Authors examining the 7 6 U t t a l , B., "What ' s D e t a i n i n g the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e ? " , Fo r tune , 3 May 1982 , pg 178 7 7 Hough, R .F . , An Overview of the Canadian Computer S e r v i c e s I ndus t ry , Dept of N a t i o n a l Defence, Ottawa, 1981 , pg 28 7 8 Wohl, A . , "We ' re not r e a l l y sure how many we have " , Datamat ion, v o l . 28, no .5 , 1982 56 t e c h n o l o g i c a l impacts on l abour requirements fo r t h i s a rea of a p p l i c a t i o n a lmost e x c l u s i v e l y concen t r a te on the labour e f f e c t s of word p r o c e s s i n g equipment. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s r e f l e c t t h i s emphas is . 4.2 Reasons For Implementat ion The g e n e r a l b e l i e f in the l i t e r a t u r e i s that word p r o c e s s i n g equipment i s implemented to reduce or c o n t a i n c l e r i c a l l abour c o s t s . T h i s b e l i e f i s deve loped through the f o l l o w i n g p r o c e s s . F i r s t , word p r o c e s s i n g equipment has the p o t e n t i a l to i n c r e a s e the p r o d u c t i v i t y of document g e n e r a t i o n . Some e s t ima te s of t h i s p o t e n t i a l i n c r e a s e a r e : 1 0 0 % , 7 9 200-2 5 0 % , 8 0 and 2 0 0 - 4 0 0 % . 8 1 And these e s t imate s are in f a c t supported by a c t u a l i n c r e a s e s in the p r o d u c t i v i t y of document genera t i on of 4 5 0 % 8 2 and 1 0 0 - 7 0 0 % . 8 3 Second, o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a re a c t i v e l y s e a r c h i n g f o r methods of c o n t a i n i n g r i s i n g c l e r i c a l c o s t s . 8 " T h i r d , equipment c o s t s are f a l l i n g r a p i d l y , making the techno logy much more a t t r a c t i v e as an 9 S t u r s b e r g , R., Automation and Employment: A Review of the  Debate on the I m p l i c a t i o n s of I n format ion Techno logy , Ottawa, March, 1981 , pg 24 0 H i ne s , C , S e a r l e , G . , Automat ic Unemployment, E a r t h Resources Research L t d . , London, 1979 , pg 13 1 Abraham, S.M., "Is O f f i c e Automation the Best Darned Th ing You 've Ever Seen. Maybe", Computerworld, 28 September 1981, S p e c i a l Repor t , v o l . 15, no.39 , pg 23 2 J e c c h i n i s , C . A . , The Impact of M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c Technology on Employment: A Survey of Cur ren t Research S t u d i e s in  S e l e c t e d West European C o u n t r i e s , Labour Market Research U n i t , O n t a r i o Manpower Commission, To ron to , 1980 , pg 30 3 W i l k i n s , R., M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s and Employment in P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : A Case Study in Three O n t a r i o  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , Ont Min of Labour, 1982 , pg 13 " Robey, D., "Computers and Management S t r u c t u r e : Some E m p i r i c a l F i n d i n g s Re-examined" , Human R e l a t i o n s , volume 30, number 11, 1977 , pg 31 57 economic s u b s t i t u t e f o r c l e r i c a l l a b o u r . F o u r t h , the o f f i c e s e c t o r i s u n d e r c a p i t a l i z e d , in comparison to o ther s e c t o r s . One e s t imate i s tha t there i s on l y $2000 of c a p i t a l i n v e s t e d in o f f i c e equipment per o f f i c e employee, in comparison to $25,000 per U.S. f a c t o r y w o r k e r . 8 5 T h e r e f o r e , word p r o c e s s o r s are implemented to reduce or c o n t a i n c l e r i c a l l abour c o s t s . However, there are s e v e r a l f laws in t h i s argument. F i r s t l y , the s e c t o r i s not u n d e r c a p i t a l i z e d . The author of the f i g u r e of $2000, M. Zisman, has s i n c e 1978 r e v i s e d h i s e s t imate of the l e v e l of c a p i t a l i z a t i o n to $15,000 to $20,000, which in h i s words " i s p r e t t y damned h i g h " . 8 6 Second ly , most o r g a n i z a t i o n s are j u s t not tha t concerned about r i s i n g c l e r i c a l l abour c o s t s . Ra ther , they a re ma in ly concerned about r i s i n g management l abour c o s t s . 8 7 But most i m p o r t a n t l y , o f f i c e s do not want more paper documents. They are a l r e a d y hav ing enough problems cop ing w i th the numbers of paper documents. It has been e s t ima ted that U.S. bus ines s ma in ta in s an average of 4 f i l e drawers c o n t a i n i n g 18,000 documents per o f f i c e employee, and that these numbers a re r i s i n g by 4000 documents per employee each y e a r . 8 8 Because a l a r g e p o r t i o n of documents are produced f o r use w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h i s problem can on ly be exacerba ted by i n s t a l l i n g word p r o c e s s o r s tha t have the 5 Menz ies , H., Women and the C h i p , M o n t r e a l , I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1981 , pg 15 6 U t t a l , B., "What ' s D e t a i n i n g the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e ? " , F o r t u n e , 3 May 1982 , pg 178 7 N o r r i s , C . I . , " O f f i c e Au tomat i on " , Computer D e c i s i o n s , A p r i l 1981 , pg 56 8 L e s t e r , T . , "The O f f i c e Conundrum", Management Today, November 1978 , pg 120 58 p o t e n t i a l to i n c r e a s e document p r o d u c t i o n by up to 700%. The on ly o r g a n i z a t i o n s , or departments of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , which can b e n e f i t from i n s t a l l i n g the equipment are those in which s tandard documents a re r o u t i n e l y produced f o r use o u t s i d e the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Examples of these are l e g a l f i r m s , in surance companies, t y p i n g poo l s and c e r t a i n government a g e n c i e s . But f o r the m a j o r i t y of u s e r s , the re i s no d i r e c t economic b e n e f i t . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d by the l a ck of i n t e r e s t in the techno logy d i s p l a y e d by o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In a survey of the 100 l a r g e s t companies in the U.S., l e s s than h a l f had any i n t e n t i o n of i n s t a l l i n g word p r o c e s s i n g e q u i p m e n t . 8 9 And in s p i t e of annual p r e d i c t i o n s tha t the use of word p r o c e s s o r s i s about to take o f f , s a l e s c o n t i n u e to be r e l a t i v e l y low. In 1982 the e s t ima ted consumption of word p r o c e s s i n g systems in the U n i t e d S t a te s was on ly 179,224. Whi le t he re a re no comparable f i g u r e s fo r the t o t a l consumption of t y p e w r i t e r s , 1,840,657 t y p e w r i t e r s a lone were imported i n t o the U.S. in 1 9 8 2 . 9 0 Even when the equipment i s i n s t a l l e d , i t i s not i n s t a l l e d because of i t s c a p a b i l i t y t o reduce or c o n t a i n c l e r i c a l l abour c o s t s , nor i s any a t t e n t i o n g iven to i t s p o t e n t i a l impact on p r o d u c t i v i t y . 9 1 But when the equipment i s i n s t a l l e d fo r reasons o ther than improv ing p r o d u c t i v i t y , i t cannot be expected that 8 9 S t r a u s s , S., "Word P r o c e s s o r s " , The Toronto Globe and M a i l , 17 J u l y 1980 pg. T1 , pg 1 9 0 U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Computers and O f f i c e and Accoun t i ng Machines 1982 9 1 P e i t c h i n i s , S .G. , The Employment Impacts of Computers and Te lecommunicat ions Techno logy , C a l g a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , 1981 , pg 92 59 i t s use w i l l r e s u l t i n a nega t i ve impact on c l e r i c a l l abour requ i rements. 4.3 System I n t e g r a t i o n Text p r o c e s s i n g sof tware was f i r s t deve loped by programmers employed in l a r g e EDP o p e r a t i o n s . But i t was not long be fo re word p r o c e s s i n g equipment was be ing marketed w i th i t s own sof tware package. The r e s u l t i s that fo r most i n s t a l l a t i o n s , l i t t l e or no a d d i t i o n a l labour i s r e q u i r e d f o r program development. But a d d i t i o n a l l abour i s r e q u i r e d to i n t e g r a t e the equipment i n to e x i s t i n g document p r o d u c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y the case w i th s h a r e d - l o g i c systems, which r e q u i r e a c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of c l e r i c a l employees f o r equipment o p e r a t i o n . 9 2 To ach ieve t h i s c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , i t has u s u a l l y been necessary to r e d i s t r i b u t e a c t i v i t i e s amongst e x i s t i n g and newly h i r e d employees. The t y p i n g f u n c t i o n has been taken away from s e c r e t a r i e s , and new procedures deve loped f o r the d e l i v e r y and p i ckup of copy at the word p r o c e s s i n g p o o l s . 9 3 The a d d i t i o n a l l abour needed f o r system i n t e g r a t i o n i s most e v i d e n t when o f f i c e managers or word p r o c e s s i n g c o o r d i n a t o r s are h i r e d . 9 4 But the e x t e n s i v e nature of the adjustments in document p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and p rocedures a l s o r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l l abour beyond the immediate l i m i t s of word p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s . The 9 2 F r i e d r i c h s , G . , M i c r o - e l e c t r o n i c s - a New Dimension of T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change and Automat ion, C lub of Rome Con fe rence , West B e r l i n , 1979 , pg 54 9 3 U t t a l , B., "What ' s D e t a i n i n g the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e ? " , Fo r tune , 3 May 1982 , pg 182 9 * W i l k i n s , R., M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s and Employment in P u b l i c  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : A Case Study in Three O n t a r i o  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , Ont Min of Labour, 1982 , pg 13 60 a d d i t i v e e f f e c t of t h i s requirement on o v e r a l l l abour requ i rements i s seldom taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 4.4 Equipment Opera t i on The requirement f o r equipment o p e r a t i o n u s u a l l y r e s u l t s in an i n c r e a s e in c l e r i c a l l abour r e q u i r e m e n t s . In those i n s t a n c e s where s t and - a l one word p r o c e s s o r s s imp ly r e p l a c e e l e c t r i c t y p e w r i t e r s , then e x i s t i n g t y p i s t or s e c r e t a r i a l pe r sonne l can be r e t r a i n e d . But when new word p r o c e s s i n g poo l s are formed, or when the t y p i n g f u n c t i o n i s removed from s e c r e t a r i a l s t a f f and g iven to equipment o p e r a t o r s , then a d d i t i o n a l employees must be h i r e d . 9 5 The t r a i n i n g of o p e r a t o r s a l s o adds to the amount of a d d i t i o n a l l abour needed f o r equipment o p e r a t i o n . O b v i o u s l y t h i s does not happen when t r a i n e d o p e r a t o r s are h i r e d . But when e x i s t i n g s t a f f a re r e t r a i n e d or u n t r a i n e d pe r sonne l a re h i r e d , then a d d i t i o n a l l abour c o s t s must be i n c u r r e d . With the h i gh tu rnover r a t e s common among c l e r i c a l workers , the a d d i t i v e labour c o s t s of ope ra to r t r a i n i n g can become q u i t e s u b s t a n t i a l . One e s t imate i s tha t 30% of a l l c l e r i c a l workers have been at the same job f o r l e s s than one y e a r . 9 6 The e f f e c t of t h i s can be seen in the a d d i t i o n a l l abour c o s t s i n c u r r e d by the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Toronto f o r opera to r t r a i n i n g . Of the 320 employees whose labour was d i v e r t e d f o r a word p r o c e s s i n g course c o n s i s t i n g of 9 5 R u s s e l l , R.A., The E l e c t r o n i c B r i e f c a s e : The O f f i c e of the F u t u r e , O c c a s s i o n a l Paper n o . 3 , M o n t r e a l , I n s t i t u t e f o r Research on P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1978 , pg 15 9 6 Menz ies , H., Women and the C h i p , M o n t r e a l , I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1981 , pg 60 61 two weeks of h a l f day s e s s i o n s , on l y 190 were s t i l l employed at the t ime the word p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s were e x a m i n e d . 9 7 4.5 In fo rmat ion Use And Management The most obv ious e f f e c t of the use of word p r o c e s s i n g i s a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e in the number of paper documents produced. In o p e r a t i o n s where documents are produced p r i m a r i l y f o r use o u t s i d e the o r g a n i z a t i o n , t he re i s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n c r e a s e in the amount of l abour needed f o r the use and management of the newly a v a i l a b l e documents. But even in these i n s t a n c e s , i f word p r o c e s s i n g p o o l s have been formed, a d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l l abour i s needed f o r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of documents to and from the c e n t r a l i z e d word p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s . In f a c t , i t has been found that t h i s a d d i t i o n a l l abour equa l s or outweighs any enhancement i n . p r o d u c t i v i t y tha t i s a c h i e v e d . 9 8 But in most o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the m a j o r i t y of documents are d e s t i n e d fo r use e l sewhere w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n or c o r p o r a t e network. One e s t ima te of t h i s i n t e r n a l f low of documents puts i t at 70% of a l l documents p r o d u c e d . 9 9 If the use of the techno logy can r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e of up to 700% in the number of pages p roduced , then a d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l l abour i s c l e a r l y needed f o r the management of paper f i l i n g systems and the movement of documents. And i t -mus t not be f o r g o t t e n that most of these 9 7 W i l k i n s , R., M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s and Employment in P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : A Case Study in Three O n t a r i o  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , Ont Min of Labour , 1982 , pg 16 9 8 U t t a l , B., "What ' s D e t a i n i n g the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e ? " , F o r t u n e , 3 May 1982 , pg 182 9 9 Menz ies , H., Women and the C h i p , M o n t r e a l , I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1981 , pg 26 62 documents are d e s t i n e d f o r use by manager ia l employees. With an i n c r e a s e in the number of documents, a d d i t i o n a l management l abour i s necessary to absorb the i n f o r m a t i o n they c o n t a i n , even i f the d e c i s i o n i s that no th ing need be done about i t . 1 0 0 4.6 Labour Replacement And Enhancement The on ly c l e r i c a l a c t i v i t y tha t can be r e p l a c e d by the techno logy i s the t yp ing or k e y s t r o k i n g of u n a l t e r e d p o r t i o n s of s tandard documents and l e t t e r s , once these p o r t i o n s have been t r a n s c r i b e d and s t o r e d in e l e c t r o n i c format . I t enhances the p r o d u c t i o n of paper documents, by a l l o w i n g the e d i t i n g of l e s s s tandard p o r t i o n s of l e t t e r s or documents. The t ex t en t ry f u n c t i o n i s not enhanced. I t has been found that wh i l e the speed of k e y s t r o k i n g i s f a s t e r w i th word p r o c e s s o r s , more t y p i n g e r r o r s are made than wi th e l e c t r i c t y p e w r i t e r s . T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s tha t more time be spent on tex t e d i t i n g fo r e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n . In f a c t , i t has been e s t ima ted tha t i f r e v i s i o n s are g r e a t e r than 40%, i t i s f a s t e r to re type the whole document. Because of t h i s , the use of word p r o c e s s i n g equipment f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of nonstandard documents has been e s t ima ted to be 9 to 18% l e s s p r o d u c t i v e than e l e c t r i c t y p e w r i t e r s . 1 0 1 A number of i n s t ances have been documented where a c t u a l employment r e d u c t i o n s have been a s s o c i a t e d wi th the use of the techno logy . And some q u i t e amazing i n c r e a s e s in the numbers of 1 0 0 L e s t e r , T . , "The O f f i c e Conundrum", Management Today, November 1978 , pg 120 1 0 1 Poon, A . L . , O f f i c e Automation F e a s i b i l i t y S t u d i e s , P r e s e n t a t i o n made at B.C. Computer and O f f i c e Automation Show, 10 February 1982 63 documents generated have a l s o been c i t e d , a l l o w i n g a containment in the numbers of employees needed f o r document p r e p a r a t i o n . Employment dec reases of 50% to 60% in the number of t y p i s t s in t y p i n g poo l s have been c i t e d , 1 0 2 and a c t u a l i n c r e a s e s in document g e n e r a t i o n of 148%, 1 0 3 4 5 0 % 1 0 l t and 7 0 0 % 1 0 5 have a l s o been no ted . Most i f not a l l of these have o c c u r r e d in o p e r a t i o n s where the g e n e r a t i o n of s t andard form l e t t e r s or documents i s the predominant f u n c t i o n . But a number of f a c t o r s , o ther than the l abour replacement or enhancement c a p a b i l i t y of the techno logy , account f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of these i n c r e a s e s in document g e n e r a t i o n , and dec reases in l abour requ i rement s . The use of word p r o c e s s i n g equipment i s i n v a r i a b l y a s s o c i a t e d w i th task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , employee c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , and the r o u t i n i z a t i o n and s y s t e m i z a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n management a c t i v i t i e s . In many i n s t a n c e s , the t y p i n g f u n c t i o n has been taken away from s e c r e t a r i e s , and in o t h e r s s e c r e t a r i a l a c t i v i t i e s have been d i v i d e d i n t o the separa te f u n c t i o n s of 1 0 2 F o r e s t e r , T . , ( e d . ) , The M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s R e v o l u t i o n , MIT P re s s , Cambridge, Mass. , 1981 , pg 276 1 0 3 Robey, D., "Computers and Management S t r u c t u r e : Some E m p i r i c a l F i n d i n g s Re-examined" , Human R e l a t i o n s , volume 30, number 11, 1977 , pg 32 1 0 a J e c c h i n i s , C .A . , The Impact of M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c Technology on  Employment: A Survey of Cur rent Research S t u d i e s in  S e l e c t e d West European C o u n t r i e s , Labour Market Research U n i t , O n t a r i o Manpower Commiss ion, T o r o n t o , 1980 , pg 30 1 0 5 W i l k i n s , R., M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s and Employment in P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : A Case Study in Three O n t a r i o  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , Ont Min of Labour , 1982 , pg 13 1 0 6 Bessant, J . R . , Bowen, J . A . , D i c k s o n , K .E . , Marsh, J . , The Impact of M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s - A Review of the L i t e r a t u r e , U n i v e r s i t y of A sh ton , F rances P i n t e r L t d . , 1981 , pg 91 64 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and correspondence s e c r e t a r i e s . 1 0 6 Even g rea te r task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n has been obse rved , wi th the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of the s e c r e t a r i a l / t y p i s t o ccupa t i on i n t o the f i v e occupa t i on s o f : word p r o c e s s o r o p e r a t o r , t ex t e d i t o r , data e n t r y c l e r k , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t and p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y . 1 0 7 And a f t e r the i n s t a l l a t i o n of the equipment, tex t p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s a re more f o r m a l i z e d and the a c t i v i t i e s of o p e r a t o r s more r o u t i n e . 1 0 8 But most i m p o r t a n t l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i th s h a r e d - l o g i c systems, t he re i s a c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of pe r sonne l i n t o word p r o c e s s i n g p o o l s . 1 0 9 1 1 0 1 1 1 A l l of these improve the p r o d u c t i v i t y of t e x t p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s , and undoubtably are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r most of the p r o d u c t i v i t y improvements tha t have been documented. But much of the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and r o u t i n i z a t i o n i s not s t r i c t l y necessary f o r the o p e r a t i o n of the equipment. I t on l y serves to make i t s use that much more p r o d u c t i v e . I f these p roce s se s had o c c u r r e d in the absence of the t echno logy , s i m i l a r improvements in t ex t p r o d u c t i o n would have been a c h i e v e d . 1 0 7 P e i t c h i n i s , S .G . , The Employment Impacts of Computers and Te lecommunicat ions Techno logy , C a l g a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , 1981 , pg 91 1 0 8 Van Weeman, B., "The Impact of Computers on O f f i c e Work", in B e r t i n g , J . , M i l l s , S .C . , W in te rbe r ge r , H., The S o c i o - Economic Impact of M i c r o - e l e c t r o n i c s , Pergamon P r e s s , To ron to , 1980 , pg 156 1 0 9 F r i e d r i c h s , G . , M i c r o - e l e c t r o n i c s - a New Dimension of T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change and Automat ion, C lub of Rome Con ference , West B e r l i n , 1979 , pg 54 1 1 0 S t r a u s s , S., "Word P r o c e s s o r s " , The Toronto Globe and M a i l , 17 J u l y 1980 pg. T1 , pg1 1 1 1 EDP A n a l y s e r , "The Coming Impact of New T e c h n o l o g y " , January 1981, v o l . 1 9 , no.1 65 4.7 O v e r a l l Labour Impacts The m a j o r i t y of authors examining the labour impact of word p r o c e s s i n g equipment c o n c e n t r a t e on the nega t i ve impacts which can occur through the replacement of l abour by t echno logy . In t h e i r sea rch f o r proof of t e c h n o l o g i c a l l abour rep lacement , they l a r g e l y i gnore the u n d e r l y i n g reasons f o r any nega t i ve impacts a s s o c i a t e d w i th the use of the equipment. They a l s o l a r g e l y i gnore the s u b s t a n t i a l a d d i t i v e l abour impacts tha t a re a l s o a s s o c i a t e d wi th i t s use. I t i s not p o s s i b l e to d e r i v e an e s t imate of the o v e r a l l l abour e f f e c t of the t echno l o gy . But i t i s c l e a r tha t the a d d i t i v e l abour impacts outweigh any nega t i ve impacts tha t a l s o o c c u r . In a r ecen t survey of 4000 U.S. o f f i c e s , i t was found that in a l l but s p e c i a l c a s e s , such as l e g a l depar tments , few d i r e c t c o s t sav ings r e s u l t from the use of word p r o c e s s i n g e q u i p m e n t . 1 1 2 And in Canada, the i n s t a l l a t i o n of the equipment has been accompanied by o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e s in the numbers of o f f i c e s t a f f . 1 1 3 The c o n t i n u e d use of word p r o c e s s o r s can on ly be expected to have s i m i l a r o v e r a l l l abour impacts in the f u t u r e . 1 1 2 U t t a l , B., "What 's D e t a i n i n g the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e ? " , F o r t u n e , 3 May 1982 , pg 182 1 1 3 R u s s e l l , R.A., The E l e c t r o n i c B r i e f c a s e : The O f f i c e of the F u t u r e , O c c a s s i o n a l Paper no .3 , M o n t r e a l , I n s t i t u t e f o r Research on P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1978 , pg 15 66 5. MANAGEMENT DECISION-MAKING 5.1 In t roduc t ion S ince the e a r l i e s t a p p l i c a t i o n s of computer techno logy , c l a i m s have been made tha t the use of the techno logy r e s u l t s i n dec reases in the numbers of managers. Par t of t h i s decrease i s assumed to occur because fewer c l e r i c a l workers are needed a f t e r computer equipment i s i n s t a l l e d in DP o p e r a t i o n s , thus reduc ing the need f o r managers to s u p e r v i s e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . As d i s c u s s e d in S e c t i o n 2 , t h i s in f a c t has not o c c u r r e d . But much g r e a t e r s t r e s s i s p l a c e d on the r e d u c t i o n in the numbers of managers, which i s assumed to occur through the t e c h n o l o g i c a l replacement of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a c t i v i t y , 1 1 4 and by the enhancement of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g l abour p r o d u c t i v i t y through the p r o v i s i o n of g r e a t e r amounts of more t i m e l y i n f o r m a t i o n . 1 1 5 1 1 6 The a p p l i c a t i o n s of computer -mediated o f f i c e techno logy s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d at management d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s are of th ree forms. E l e c t r o n i c M a i l and Messaging Systems (EMS) permi t the e l e c t r o n i c t r a n s m i s s i o n and s torage of t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n between d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n . Management In fo rmat ion Systems (MIS) may i n c l u d e t h i s 1 1 4 Abraham, S.M., "Is O f f i c e Automation the Best Darned Th ing You 've Ever Seen. Maybe", Computerworld, 28 September 1981, S p e c i a l Repor t , v o l . 15, no.39 , pg 33 1 1 5 Ba r ron , I., Curnow, R., The Future with M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s . F o r e c a s t i n g the E f f e c t s of In format ion Techno logy , New York, N i c h o l s P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1979 , pg 127 1 1 6 Vy s so t sky , V . A . , "The Use of Computers f o r Bus ines s F u n c t i o n s " , in Der touzos , M.L . , Moses, J . , ( e d s . ) , The  Computer Age: A Twenty - Year View, MIT P r e s s , Cambridge Mass., 1980 , pg 136 67 c o m m u n i c a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y . B u t t h e p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e i n d i v i d u a l a c c e s s v i a c o m p u t e r t e r m i n a l s t o l o c a l a n d r e m o t e e l e c t r o n i c i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r a g e s y s t e m s . The i n f o r m a t i o n a c c e s s e d i s b o t h t e x t u a l a n d n u m e r i c a l i n n a t u r e . L a s t l y , much o f t h e d a t a p r o c e s s i n g w h i c h o c c u r s i n b o t h l a r g e a n d s m a l l s c a l e DP o p e r a t i o n s i s c o n d u c t e d t o p r o v i d e d a t a f o r u s e i n o p e r a t i o n a l a n d s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . A t t h i s d a t e , v e r y few MIS o r EMS a r e i n o p e r a t i o n , o t h e r t h a n i n d e m o n s t r a t i o n o r t r i a l p r o j e c t s . 5 .2 R e a s o n s F o r E q u i p m e n t I m p l e m e n t a t i o n I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f c o m p u t e r t e c h n o l o g y s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d a t management d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , i t i s f i r s t n e c e s s a r y t o c r i t i c a l l y e x a m i n e two w i d e l y h e l d b e l i e f s . T o g e t h e r , t h e y f o r m t h e b a s i s f o r t h e p o p u l a r c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e u s e o f c o m p u t e r - m e d i a t e d o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y h a s a n d w i l l s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e d u c e t h e amount o f l a b o u r r e q u i r e d f o r management d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . H o w e v e r , b o t h b e l i e f s a r e l a r g e l y u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d , a n d b a s e d on e r r o n e o u s a s s u m p t i o n s . The f i r s t b e l i e f i s t h a t c o m p u t e r t e c h n o l o g y h a s a n d w i l l be i m p l e m e n t e d w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c i n t e n t o f r e p l a c i n g d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g . Two s t a t e m e n t s e x e m p l i f y i n g t h i s b e l i e f a r e : " T h e wo r k o f m a n a g e r s i s b e i n g r o u t i n i z e d , s t a n d a r d i z e d a n d t h e n g i v e n t o m a c h i n e s " , 1 1 7 a n d , t h e r e w i l l be a " s h r i n k a g e i n m i d - m a n a g e r 1 1 7 A b r a h a m , S . M . , " I s O f f i c e A u t o m a t i o n t h e B e s t D a r n e d T h i n g Y o u ' v e E v e r S e e n . M a y b e " , C o m p u t e r w o r l d , 28 S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 1 , S p e c i a l R e p o r t , v o l . 15, n o . 3 9 , pg 33 68 ranks as the procedures and p roces se s that form the backbone of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n are a u t o m a t e d " . 1 1 8 H i s t o r i c a l l y , very l i t t l e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g has been a u t o m a t e d , 1 1 9 and there i s no ev idence that computer techno logy has ever been implemented w i th the s p e c i f i c i n t e n t of r e p l a c i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . A d m i t t e d l y , some very f o r m a l i z e d and s imple d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s r e p l a c e d wi th l a r g e EDP o p e r a t i o n s . But these d e c i s i o n s are automated on ly because they a re pa r t of a h i g h l y f o r m a l i z e d and sy s temized data management o p e r a t i o n , and not because of any s p e c i f i c i n t e n t to automate d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Fur thermore , the automated d e c i s i o n s a re themselves h i g h l y f o r m a l i z e d , and are of such a s imp le and r e p e t i t i v e na ture that they are r e l a t i v e l y easy and i nexpens i ve to automate. But these a re not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x e m p l i f i e d by most d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Most of the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t a k i n g p l a c e in o f f i c e s i s h i g h l y complex, has not been f o r m a l i z e d and made r o u t i n e , and i s not r e p e t i t i v e . 1 2 0 And much of the i n f o r m a t i o n used f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s t e x t u a l or v e r b a l , not n u m e r i c a l , and u s u a l l y i s not acces sed from the i n f o r m a t i o n f i l e s of the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n . 1 2 1 To automate even the very s imple d e c i s i o n s made by a few managers would r e q u i r e an 1 1 8 Menz ies , H., Supplementary M a t e r i a l to "Women and the C h i p " , I n f o r m a t i c s Case S t u d i e s , Labour Market Development Task F o r c e , Canada Employment and Immigrat ion , pg 10 1 1 9 Van Weeman, B., "The Impact of Computers on O f f i c e Work", in B e r t i n g , J . , M i l l s , S .C . , W i n t e r b e r g e r , H., The S o c i o - Economic Impact of M i c r o - e l e c t r o n i c s , Pergamon P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1980 , pg 153 1 2 0 K o t t e r , J . P . , "What E f f e c t i v e Genera l Managers R e a l l y Do" , Harvard Bus ines s Review, v o l . 60, no. 6, November-December 1982 1 2 1 Simpson, A . , ( e d . ) , O f f i c e of the F u t u r e : No.1. P l ann ing fo r the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e , not dated , pg 99 69 enormous investment in a d d i t i o n a l l abour and c a p i t a l over an e x t e n s i v e p e r i o d of t i m e . 1 2 2 It i s very d o u b t f u l tha t the sma l l amount of l abour tha t a c t u a l l y c o u l d be automated would warrant such an inves tment . I t i s t h e r e f o r e very u n l i k e l y tha t o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l implement computer techno logy in the f u tu re w i th the s p e c i f i c i n t e n t of r e p l a c i n g management d e c i s i o n -making. The second b e l i e f i s that MIS and EMS w i l l be implemented because they can enhance d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y , through t h e i r a b i l i t y to p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l and more t i m e l y i n f o r m a t i o n to l i n e managers than e x i s t i n g means of a c c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . 1 2 3 A c c o r d i n g to t h i s b e l i e f , t h i s a p p a r e n t l y demonstrab le improvement in l abour p r o d u c t i v i t y w i l l a l l ow o r g a n i z a t i o n s to reduce or c o n t a i n the numbers of managers. The b a s i s f o r t h i s b e l i e f l i e s in the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n a b l e or e r roneous as sumpt ions . F i r s t l y , i t i s assumed that managers want more i n f o r m a t i o n than they p r e s e n t l y have acces s t o , and tha t they are hav ing problems a c c e s s i n g i t . 1 2 * But most managers a l r e a d y have to d e a l w i th too much i n f o r m a t i o n , and they have on l y t o ask to r e c e i v e a g reat d e a l more. Nor a re they 122 v y s s o t s k y , V . A . , "The Use of Computers f o r Bus iness F u n c t i o n s " , i n De r touzo s , M.L . , Moses, J . , ( e d s . ) , The  Computer Age: A Twenty - Year View, MIT P r e s s , Cambridge Mass., 1980 , pg 133 1 2 3 Vy s so t s ky , V . A . , "The Use of Computers fo r Bus iness F u n c t i o n s " , in De r touzos , M .L . , Moses, J . , ( e d s . ) , The  Computer Age: A Twenty - Year View, MIT P r e s s , Cambridge Mass. , 1980 , pg 136 1 2 4 Vy s so t sky , V . A . , "The Use of Computers fo r Bus iness F u n c t i o n s " , i n De r touzos , M.L . , Moses, J . , ( e d s . ) , The  Computer Age: A Twenty - Year View, MIT P r e s s , Cambridge Mass., 1980 , pg 136 70 i n t e r e s t e d in the aggregate summarized data which an MIS can p r o v i d e . 1 2 5 And the u n t i m e l i n e s s or u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n in most i n s t a n c e s cannot be s o l ved s imply by i n s t a l l i n g an EMS or M I S . 1 2 6 Second ly , i t i s assumed that the i n c r e a s e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by an MIS or EMS i n c r e a s e s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g l abour p r o d u c t i v i t y . 1 2 7 But i f a manager expends more t ime, examining more i n f o r m a t i o n , to reach the same or perhaps more e f f e c t i v e d e c i s i o n , h i s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g l abour p r o d u c t i v i t y must of n e c e s s i t y d e c r e a s e , not i n c r e a s e . A f i n a l a s sumpt ion, and l a r g e l y an i m p l i c i t one, i s tha t an EMS or MIS i s demonstrab ly of economic b e n e f i t to an o r g a n i z a t i o n . Yet the re i s no q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on improvements in management p r o d u c t i v i t y r e s u l t i n g from the use of an EMS or MIS. Nor are there any measures of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y , 1 2 8 1 2 9 and i t i s very u n l i k e l y tha t there ever w i l l be. Most dec i s i on -make r s do not f o l l o w an i d e n t i f i a b l e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , and are not themselves aware of how they a r r i v e at d e c i s i o n s , l e t a lone the amount of t ime devoted 1 2 5 M i n t z b e r g , H, "The Managers Job : F o l k l o r e and F a c t " , Harvard Bus iness Review, Ju l y /Augus t 1975 , pg 2 1 2 6 V y s s o t s k y , V . A . , "The Use of Computers f o r Bus iness F u n c t i o n s " , in Der touzos , M.L . , Moses, J . , ( e d s . ) , The  Computer Age: A Twenty - Year View, MIT P r e s s , Cambridge Mass. , 1980 , pg 137 1 2 7 V y s s o t s k y , V . A . , "The Use of Computers f o r Bus iness F u n c t i o n s " , i n Der touzos , M.L . , Moses, J . , ( e d s . ) , The  Computer Age: A Twenty - Year View, MIT P r e s s , Cambridge Mass., 1980 , pg 136 1 2 8 Doo ley , A . , "Report on 1981 O f f i c e Automation Conference in Houston, T e x a s " , ComputerworId, 30 March 1981, v o l . 1 5 , no.13 , pg 13 1 2 9 G o l d f i e l d , R . J . , "The Automated O f f i c e in the 1980 ' s " , Dun's Review, March 1980 , pg 138 71 to each d e c i s i o n . 1 3 0 But without some means of measur ing the economic b e n e f i t of a computer system a l l e g e d to improve d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y , t he re i s l i t t l e economic i n c e n t i v e fo r o r g a n i z a t i o n s to implement the t echno logy . What reasons then c o u l d o r g a n i z a t i o n s have f o r implementing a computer system which i s ve ry expens ive and w i l l take an i nde te rm ina te amount of t ime to implement, i s of l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l u se , can on ly i n c r e a s e o v e r a l l l abour requ i rement s , and whose economic b e n e f i t cannot be as sessed? The absence of economic reasons f o r equipment implementat ion has never comp le te l y r e s t r a i n e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s from i n s t a l l i n g expens ive computer systems. Many of the extremely expens i ve mainframe computers i n s t a l l e d in the 1950's were implemented not f o r economic rea sons , but r a t h e r because of concerns f o r c o r p o r a t e p r e s t i g e . To be p r o g r e s s i v e , an o r g a n i z a t i o n had to have a mainframe computer. And many of the MIS i n s t a l l e d in the 1960's appear to have been implemented more f o r the u s e r ' s p r e s t i g e d e r i v e d from p o s s e s s i n g an impre s s i ve oaken MIS s t a t i o n , r a t h e r than from any economic j u s t i f i c a t i o n s . It i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e tha t a few MIS and EMS w i l l be implemented in the f u t u r e , because of the n o v e l t y of communicating v i a computer t e r m i n a l s , and the p e r s o n a l and c o r p o r a t e p r e s t i g e a s s o c i a t e d w i th the presence of o f f i c e computer t echno logy . But when the equipment i s i n s t a l l e d f o r these rea sons , i t i s u n l i k e l y tha t any s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n w i l l be p a i d to the p o s s i b i l i t y of improv ing l abour 1 3 0 M i n t z b e r g , H, "The Managers Job : F o l k l o r e and F a c t " , Harvard  Bus iness Review, J u l y / A u g u s t 1975 , pg 2 72 p r o d u c t i v i t y . H i s t o r i c a l l y , most computer systems implemented to a s s i s t management d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a c t i v i t i e s have not been implemented to enhance l abour p r o d u c t i v i t y . I n s tead , i n ven to ry c o n t r o l , cash accoun t ing and c o r p o r a t e m o d e l l i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n s t a n c e , have been implemented to p r o v i d e more i n f o r m a t i o n f o r c o r p o r a t e p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , which was not p o s s i b l e in the absence of the i n f o r m a t i o n . 1 3 1 A d d i t i o n a l l abour i s r e q u i r e d to make use of the i n f o r m a t i o n , and t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d in the growth in the numbers of c o r p o r a t e o p e r a t i o n a l and s t r a t e g i c p l a n n i n g p e r s o n n e l . 1 3 2 P l ann ing d e c i s i o n s may be more e f f e c t i v e , but the i n c r e a s e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s a c h i e v e d by i n c r e a s i n g management l abour requ i rement s . T h i s i s i n d i c a t i v e of what may be expected of any computer system which p r o v i d e s more i n f o r m a t i o n f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and which i s implemented f o r reasons o ther than to reduce labour requ i rement s . 5.3 System Development And Implementat ion For the s u c c e s s f u l implementat ion of any computer system, a d d i t i o n a l l abour i s r e q u i r e d . Even such a r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a p p l i c a t i o n as a prepackaged EMS r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l l abour to i d e n t i f y the l o c a t i o n of management equipment u s e r s , and f o r the sma l l amount of custom programming r e q u i r e d fo r adap t i on to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . More complex 1 3 1 Sanders, D.H., B i r k i n , S . J . , Computers and Management in a Changing S o c i e t y , M c G r a w - H i l l , 1980 , pg 233 1 3 2 Simon, H., The Shape of Automation f o r Men and Management, New York, Harper and Row, 1965 , pg 221 73 a p p l i c a t i o n s d i r e c t e d at p l ann ing a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r amounts of implementat ion l a b o u r . Systems a n a l y s t s and programmers are needed to deve lop the systems, and to e s t a b l i s h the procedures to ensure that the necessary data i s e n t e r e d i n t o the computer system. A d d i t i o n a l l abour i s a l s o r e q u i r e d of e x i s t i n g s u p e r v i s o r y and management employees who are f a m i l i a r w i th the e x i s t i n g manual systems, and c o r p o r a t e p l a n n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n requ i rement s . But even these a d d i t i o n a l l abour requ i rements are minor compared to those needed to s u c c e s s f u l l y implement an MIS. E a r l y attempts at d e v e l o p i n g MIS in the 1960's are w ide ly acknowledged as f a i l u r e s , because they were on ly capab le of p r o v i d i n g a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e aggregate d a t a . 1 3 3 But most managers make use of unprocessed data from a v a r i e t y of sources in t h e i r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . For an MIS to be of any use i t must t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e the user w i th easy access to raw data s t o r e d in both l o c a l and remote i n f o r m a t i o n s torage l o c a t i o n s . 1 3 " And t h i s must be a c h i e v e d fo r the unique data requ i rements of every user of the MIS. Futhermore, most MIS are e n v i s i o n e d as be ing on ly pa r t of a complete e l e c t r o n i c o f f i c e i n f o r m a t i o n system, which w i l l r e q u i r e that managers use the MIS to acces s t e x t u a l f i l e s as w e l l as d a t a . T h i s c a p a b i l i t y w i l l r e q u i r e a very s o p h i s t i c a t e d user i n t e r f a c e language, which of n e c e s s i t y must be deve loped f o r the unique i n f o r m a t i o n 1 3 3 M i n t z b e r g , H, "The Managers Job : F o l k l o r e and F a c t " , Harvard Bus iness Review, Ju l y /Augus t 1975 , pg 52 1 3 " Vy s so t sky , V . A . , "The Use of Computers fo r Bus iness F u n c t i o n s " , in Der touzos , M.L . , Moses, J . , ( e d s . ) , The Computer Age: A Twenty - Year View, MIT P r e s s , Cambridge Mass., 1980 pg 137 74 a v a i l a b i l i t y , and i n f o r m a t i o n requ i rements of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . To a ch ieve t h i s w i l l r e q u i r e a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e in the numbers of programmers and a n a l y s t s employed by an o r g a n i z a t i o n , f o r a lengthy but i nde te rm ina te amount of t ime. I t w i l l a l s o r e q u i r e the d i v e r s i o n of e x i s t i n g management, s u p e r v i s o r y and c l e r i c a l employees, to e x p l a i n i n f o r m a t i o n requ i rement s , management p r a c t i s e s and i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s . If an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s to ma in ta in e x i s t i n g l e v e l s of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g d u r i n g t h i s l eng thy p e r i o d , i t i s c l e a r tha t a d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l , s u p e r v i s o r y and management employees must be h i r e d . I t i s ve ry d i f f i c u l t to determine the o v e r a l l magnitude of t h i s form of labour impact . The l abour needed to implement an EMS i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , and most l i k e l y w i l l be p r o v i d e d by the company market ing the computer system. Some p l a n n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s a re a l s o a v a i l a b l e prepackaged. But many are deve loped by the programmers and a n a l y s t s a l r e a d y employed by o r g a n i z a t i o n s in t h e i r l a r g e s c a l e DP o p e r a t i o n s . Thus i t i s not p o s s i b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h what p r o p o r t i o n of t h e i r l abour i s i n v o l v e d in d e v e l o p i n g p l a n n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s such as cash a c c o u n t i n g or p r o d u c t i o n s c h e d u l i n g systems, and what p r o p o r t i o n i s devoted to c l e r i c a l DP a p p l i c a t i o n s such as customer b i l l i n g systems. I t i s even more d i f f i c u l t to determine the magnitude of the a d d i t i o n a l labour tha t w i l l be r e q u i r e d to implement an MIS. In a d d i t i o n to the programmers and a n a l y s t s that w i l l need to be h i r e d , l abour w i l l have to be d i v e r t e d from e x i s t i n g employees throughout an o r g a n i z a t i o n . New c l e r i c a l , s u p e r v i s o r y 75 and management employees w i l l a l s o be needed throughout the o r g a n i z a t i o n d u r i n g the p e r i o d in which the MIS i s be ing d e v e l o p e d . The most tha t can be s a i d i s that the development of an MIS w i l l be very expens ive in terms of a d d i t i o n a l labour c o s t s . 1 3 5 5.4 Equipment Opera t i on MIS and EMS are i n tended f o r the use of management employees. U n l i k e o ther a reas of a p p l i c a t i o n , equipment use i s not the pr imary f u n c t i o n of managers. And because the systems w i l l be i n s t a l l e d to a s s i s t e x i s t i n g managers, a d d i t i o n a l employees cannot be h i r e d to opera te the equipment. Labour of e x i s t i n g management employees must t h e r e f o r e be d i v e r t e d from other a c t i v i t i e s , to l e a r n how to use the equipment e f f e c t i v e l y , and then to use i t i n t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . EMS are r e l a t i v e l y s imple to o p e r a t e , and do not r e q u i r e a g reat dea l of time b e f o r e they can be opera ted e f f e c t i v e l y . But f o r an MIS to be of use, i t must p r o v i d e acces s to t e x t u a l and numer i ca l i n f o r m a t i o n in a v a r i e t y of l o c a t i o n s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s r e q u i r e s a complex user i n t e r f a c e language, which in tu rn w i l l r e q u i r e s u b s t a n t i a l a d d i t i o n a l l abour of p o t e n t i a l u ser s to l e a r n how to opera te the system e f f e c t i v e l y . Once t h i s has been a c h i e v e d , a d d i t i o n a l l abour w i l l then be neces sa ry f o r the o p e r a t i o n of the equipment f o r d a i l y i n f o r m a t i o n a c c e s s i n g 1 3 5 V y s s o t s k y , V . A . , "The Use of Computers f o r Bus ines s F u n c t i o n s " , in De r touzos , M.L . , Moses, J . , ( e d s . ) , The  Computer Age: A Twenty - Year View, MIT P r e s s , Cambridge Mass. , 1980 , pg 134 76 purposes. At t h i s date there are few EMS and MIS i n o p e r a t i o n , and no i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e on the amount of a d d i t i o n a l labour r e q u i r e d of managers to l e a r n how to use the systems, or of the amount of time devoted to equipment o p e r a t i o n . The magnitude of t h i s form of labour impact i s dependent on the degree to which equipment use r e p l a c e s e x i s t i n g methods of a c c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , and to a l e s s e r extent on the a c c e s s i n g of p r e v i o u s l y u n a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . But because an MIS or EMS r e q u i r e s that a manager devote h i s own labour to i n f o r m a t i o n a c c e s s i n g , r a t h e r than r e l y i n g on the labour of support s t a f f to p r o v i d e d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n , i t can be concluded that the o p e r a t i o n of e i t h e r type of system w i l l have an indeterminate, but a d d i t i v e impact on management labour requirements. 5.5 Information Use And Management Any computer system that improves the a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n can be expected to have an a d d i t i v e impact on the amount of labour r e q u i r e d of management p e r s o n n e l . Corporate p l a n n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s , such as cash accounting and i n v e n t o r y c o n t r o l systems are implemented to provide i n f o r m a t i o n that was not p r e v i o u s l y a v a i l a b l e . 1 3 6 New decision-making o p p o r t u n i t i e s are c r e a t e d , r e q u i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l management l a b o u r . The r e s u l t i s an i n c r e a s e i n the numbers of managers i n v o l v e d i n c o r p o r a t e 1 3 6 Sanders, D.H., B i r k i n , S . J . , Computers and Management i n a  Changing S o c i e t y , McGraw-Hill, 1980 , pg 233 77 p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . 1 3 7 The same e f f e c t can be expected wi th the use of EMS and MIS. Both a l low the a c c e s s i n g of p r e v i o u s l y u n a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , which w i l l r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l labour f o r i t s examina t i on . A d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l l abour w i l l a l s o be needed wi th an MIS or EMS, to c a p t u r e and manage the new i n f o r m a t i o n the system i s to p r o v i d e . It i s t h e r e f o r e c l e a r that the use and management of the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by a p p l i c a t i o n s d i r e c t e d at management d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a c t i v i t y r e s u l t s in o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e s in the requ i rements f o r c l e r i c a l and management l a b o u r . 5.6 Labour Replacement And Enhancement Many author s encountered i n the l i t e r a t u r e s t r e s s the nega t i ve l abour impacts that have and w i l l occur through the t e c h n o l o g i c a l replacement of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g l a b o u r . To t h i s date very l i t t l e of t h i s has o c c u r r e d . 1 3 8 The emphasis in t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l t h e r e f o r e be on whether any s i g n i f i c a n t replacement of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g labour w i l l occur in the f u t u r e . For d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g to be r e p l a c e d by computer techno logy , the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p roces s f o l l o w e d by managers must be a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d and then programmed. The i n f o r m a t i o n used in the d e c i s i o n must a l s o be i d e n t i f i e d and then c a p t u r e d in the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s e l e c t r o n i c i n f o r m a t i o n bases . F i n a l l y , and t h i s po in t i s u s u a l l y i gnored by most a u t h o r s , the economic b e n e f i t s 3 7 Simon, H.A., "The Consequences of Computers f o r C e n t r a l i z a t i o n and D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n " , in F o r e s t e r , T . , ( e d . ) , The  M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s R e v o l u t i o n , MIT P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass, 1980 , pg 220 3 8 Van Weeman, B., "The Impact of Computers on O f f i c e Work", in B e r t i n g , J . , M i l l s , S .C. , W i n t e r b e r g e r , H., The S o c i o - Economic Impact of M i c r o - e l e c t r o n i c s , Pergamon P re s s , To ron to , 1980 , pg 153 78 of automat ing the d e c i s i o n w i l l need to outweigh the a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s of a c h i e v i n g i t , be fo re the labour rep lacement w i l l be a t tempted . Examinat ions of the d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s of managers have found that t h e i r a c t i o n s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b r e v i t y , v a r i e t y and d i s c o n t i n u i t y . 1 3 9 It was not p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y when they were i n v o l v e d in d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , how much l abour they devoted to each d e c i s i o n , or even the p roces s they f o l l o w e d in r e a c h i n g a p a r t i c u l a r d e c i s i o n . Nor were they themse lves aware of how they reached a d e c i s i o n , or a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n used to reached a d e c i s i o n . 1 4 0 Most managers s t r o n g l y favour a c c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n v e r b a l l y , and devote as much as 37% of t h e i r labour to f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t s and 9% in te lephone c o n v e r s a t i o n s . 1 4 1 Many of these c o n t a c t s are wi th peop le o u t s i d e t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . 1 4 2 Only 8% of t h e i r l abour i s expended in examining documents, and 8% a n a l y s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e that a f t e r a great d e a l of e f f o r t , the method used by a manager to reach a s imple d e c i s i o n c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d and programmed. But the i n f o r m a t i o n needed f o r tha t d e c i s i o n would s t i l l have to be acces sed and input i n t o the computer system. T h i s would r e q u i r e that an o f f i c e employee c o n t a c t the p e r s o n , who i s o f t e n o u t s i d e the o r g a n i z a t i o n , and then en te r the 1 3 9 M i n t z b e r g , H, "The Managers Job : F o l k l o r e and F a c t " , Harvard Bus iness Review, Ju l y /Augus t 1975 , pg 52 1 4 0 K o t t e r , J . P . , "What E f f e c t i v e Genera l Managers R e a l l y Do" , Harvard Bus iness Review, v o l . 60, no. 6, November-December 1982 1 4 1 Rhodes, W.L., "How to Boost Your O f f i c e P r o d u c t i v i t y " , In fosys tems, October 1980 , pg 38 1 4 2 Simpson, A . , Ted.), O f f i c e of the F u t u r e : No.1. P l ann ing fo r the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e , not dated , pg 99 79 i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o the computer. But there i s l i t t l e va lue in do ing any of t h i s because most managers do not make the same d e c i s i o n s p e r i o d i c a l l y , u s ing the same i n f o r m a t i o n . I n s tead , each day r e q u i r e s new d e c i s i o n s , and r e q u i r e s the a c c e s s i n g of new i n f o r m a t i o n from sources of which on ly the manager i s a w a r e . 1 4 3 G iven these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of management d e c i s i o n -making, there does not appear to be any economic b e n e f i t i n a t tempt ing i t s au tomat ion . I t i s t h e r e f o r e very u n l i k e l y tha t any d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g replacement w i l l occur in the near f u t u r e . Another common b e l i e f i s tha t an MIS or EMS can enhance the labour p r o d u c t i v i t y of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . An EMS a l l o w s a t e r m i n a l user to acces s i n f o r m a t i o n from any o ther user connected to the system. But as a l r e a d y ment ioned, many of the d a i l y c o n t a c t s made by managers are w i th persons o u t s i d e the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Un les s these persons a l s o use a compat ib le EMS, they must s t i l l be c o n t a c t e d in person or v i a the t e l e p h o n e . But even i f more c o n t a c t s c o u l d be made w i th an EMS, more labour would then be r e q u i r e d , not l e s s , to make use of the i n f o r m a t i o n in a d e c i s i o n . The use of an MIS w i l l a l l ow the user to acce s s l o c a l and remote t e x t u a l and numer i ca l i n f o r m a t i o n s to rage f i l e s . I t i s u s u a l l y assumed that the use of an MIS w i l l improve p r o d u c t i v i t y by p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l and more t i m e l y i n f o r m a t i o n , and by reduc ing the amount of l abour devoted to a c c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f i l e s . But as a l r e a d y ment ioned, most managers a l r e a d y have to 1 4 3 M i n t z b e r g , H, "The Managers Job : F o l k l o r e and F a c t " , Harvard  Bus iness Review, Ju l y /Augus t 1975 , pgs 50-52 80 d e a l w i th too much i n f o r m a t i o n , and can e a s i l y o b t a i n more i f d e s i r e d , wi thout r e s o r t i n g to the use of an MIS. And many of the problems of the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n cannot be s o l v e d by i n s t a l l i n g an MIS. 1 * " But even i f managers d i d want more i n f o r m a t i o n , a d d i t i o n a l l abour would be r e q u i r e d fo r i t s examina t i on . T h i s can on ly decrease the labour p r o d u c t i v i t y of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , even though the f i n a l d e c i s i o n might be more e f f e c t i v e . Nor can the use of an MIS reduce the amount of l abour r e q u i r e d of managers f o r a c c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f i l e s . In the absence of an MIS, a manager can make use of h i s support s t a f f to o b t a i n the needed i n f o r m a t i o n . But w i th an MIS, the manager must expend h i s own labour in u s ing the MIS to o b t a i n the i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s can on ly f u r t h e r decrease management p r o d u c t i v i t y . 5.7 O v e r a l l Labour Impacts The h i s t o r i c expe r i ence of the use of computer systems d i r e c t e d at management d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g has been an i n c r e a s e i n o v e r a l l l abour requ i rement s . The implementat ion of c o r p o r a t e p l a n n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s has r e s u l t e d in i n c r e a s e d numbers of managers, and has a l s o r e q u i r e d a d d i t i o n a l programmers a n a l y s t s as w e l l as c l e r i c a l employees. The use of computer techno logy has not been a s s o c i a t e d w i th the replacement of management d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and i t i s very u n l i k e l y that t h i s w i l l a l t e r in " u Vy s so t sky , V . A . , "The Use of Computers fo r Bus ines s F u n c t i o n s " , in Der touzos , M.L . , Moses, J . , ( e d s . ) , The  Computer Age: A Twenty - Year View, MIT P r e s s , Cambridge Mass., 1980 , pg 136 81 the f u t u r e . On c l o s e examina t i on , recent developments in computer systems, such as EMS and MIS, which a re a l l e g e d to improve management p r o d u c t i v i t y , do not have the c a p a b i l i t y to do so. MIS in p a r t i c u l a r are very expens ive and d i f f i c u l t to implement, and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t cannot be a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s e d . I t i s t h e r e f o r e very u n l i k e l y that t h e i r use w i l l become widespread in the near f u t u r e . O r g a n i z a t i o n s have found that the most e f f e c t i v e way to improve the p r o d u c t i v i t y of managers i s by removing as many a n c i l l a r y a c t i v i t i e s as p o s s i b l e from managers, and g i v i n g them to support s t a f f such as s e c r e t a r i e s and f i l e c l e r k s . But the use of an EMS or MIS r e q u i r e s tha t managers themselves per form c l e r i c a l t a sk s such as f i l e a c c e s s i n g , which can on l y decrease t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y . In those few i n s t a n c e s where EMS and MIS are implemented, the r e s u l t can on ly be an i n c r e a s e in o v e r a l l requ i rements f o r management, c l e r i c a l and system a n a l y s i s and programming l a b o u r . 6. ELECTRONIC OFFICE NETWORKS 6.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n S ince the l a t e 1970's t h i s a rea of a p p l i c a t i o n has r e c e i v e d most of the a t t e n t i o n in the l i t e r a t u r e . The p r i n c i p a l e f f e c t of the techno logy i s the replacement of the s torage and movement of paper documents w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n . 1 " 5 An e l e c t r o n i c o f f i c e network has been d e s c r i b e d as "an i n t e g r a t e d e l e c t r o n i c 1 4 5 Zisman, M., " O f f i c e Automat ion: R e v o l u t i o n or E v o l u t i o n " , S loan Management Review, v o l . 1 9 , no. 3, 1978 , pg 4 82 system which l i n k s toge ther in an i n t e g r a t e d whole computers , word p r o c e s s o r s , i n t e l l i g e n t c o p i e r s , i n f o r m a t i o n bases , f a c s i m i l e t r a n s m i t t e r s , t e l e p r i n t e r s and v i d e o - c o n f e r e n c i n g " . 1 " 6 The popu lar b e l i e f i s tha t the use of such systems w i l l d r a m a t i c a l l y reduce o f f i c e l abour requ i rement s . E s t imates of the o v e r a l l n e g a t i v e impact range from 2 0 % 1 " 7 to 5 0 % 1 " 8 f o r c l e r i c a l l abour and 30% fo r management l a b o u r . 1 " 9 At t h i s da te , there are no f u l l - s c a l e e l e c t r o n i c o f f i c e networks i n everyday o p e r a t i o n . However, there are a number of very sma l l demons t ra t ion p r o j e c t s funded by computer manu fac tu re r s , and a sma l l number of t r i a l p r o j e c t s i n government o f f i c e s . 1 5 0 6.2 Reasons For Implementat ion A prominant author has s t a t e d tha t the " o f f i c e of the f u t u r e " w i l l be thorough ly en t renched in Canadian bus ines s by 1 9 9 5 . 1 5 1 O ther s have been even more emphat ic , s t a t i n g tha t paper -based i n f o r m a t i o n systems w i l l be comp le te l y r e p l a c e d by 1 " 6 P e i t c h i n i s , S .G . , The Employment Impacts of Computers and  Te lecommunicat ions Techno logy , C a l g a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , 1981 , pg 67 1 4 7 V y s s o t s k y , V . A . , "The Use of Computers f o r Bus ines s F u n c t i o n s " , i n Der touzos , M .L . , Moses, J . , ( e d s . ) , The  Computer Age; A Twenty - Year View, MIT P r e s s , Cambridge Mass., 1980 , pg 130 1 a B Menz ies , H. , Women and the C h i p , M o n t r e a l , I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1981 , p66 1 4 9 Poppe l , H . L . , "Who Needs the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e ? " , Harvard Bus iness Review, v o l . 60, no. 6, 1982 , pg 151 1 5 0 Canada Department of Communicat ions, T r y i n g Out The F u t u r e . O f f i c e Communications Systems In The F e d e r a l Government, not da ted , pg 3 1 5 1 Menz ies , H. , Supplementary M a t e r i a l to "Women and the C h i p " , I n f o r m a t i c s Case S t u d i e s , Labour Market Development Task F o r c e , Canada Employment and Immigrat ion , pg 25 83 the same d a t e . 1 5 2 For t h i s dramat ic changeover to occur w i t h i n such a shor t p e r i o d of t ime, i t c o u l d be expected that t he re are c l e a r economic i n c e n t i v e s to implement such systems. I n s tead , there a re on l y reasons not t o . The most obv ious d e t e r r e n t i s the enormous c o s t r e q u i r e d f o r system imp lementa t i on . It has been assumed tha t the widespread use of word p r o c e s s o r s and desktop computers w i l l p r o v i d e the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e on which an e l e c t r o n i c network can be b a s e d . 1 5 3 But most computer equipment i s not p h y s i c a l l y capab le of communicating w i th any o ther computer equipment. Nor a re t h e i r so f tware systems c o m p a t i b l e . To e s t a b l i s h an e l e c t r o n i c network, an o r g a n i z a t i o n would have to d i s c a r d most of i t s e x i s t i n g computer equipment and paper f i l i n g systems, and then purchase new compat ib le equipment. And wh i le t he re have been l a r g e decreases in memory and p r o c e s s i n g hardware c o s t s in recent y e a r s , the c o s t of communication techno logy has i n c r e a s e d and i s expected to c o n t i n u e do ing s o . 1 5 " T h i s can on ly make e l e c t r o n i c networks tha t much more e c o n o m i c a l l y u n a t t r a c t i v e in the f u t u r e . In a d d i t i o n to these very l a r g e c a p i t a l c o s t s , an o r g a n i z a t i o n would have to h i r e l a r g e numbers of employees f o r the long p e r i o d of t ime i t would take to implement the system. Rather than be ing a s imple matter of p r o v i d i n g every o f f i c e employee w i th t h e i r own t e r m i n a l , i t i s g e n e r a l l y acknowledged 1 5 2 Ba r ron , I., Curnow, R., The Future wi th M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s . F o r e c a s t i n g the E f f e c t s of I n format ion Techno logy , New York, N i c h o l s P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1979 , pg 32 1 5 3 Ba r ron , I., Curnow, R., The Fu ture wi th M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s . F o r e c a s t i n g the E f f e c t s of I n format ion Techno logy , New York, N i c h o l s P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1979 , pg 17 1 5 4 Champine, G.A. , D i s t r i b u t e d Computer Systems. Impact on Management,Design and A n a l y s i s , New York, 1980, pg 4 84 that a fundamental change i s r e q u i r e d in how o f f i c e s o p e r a t e . 1 5 5 To a c h i e v e t h i s change, a g reat d e a l of a d d i t i o n a l labour w i l l be r e q u i r e d to r a t i o n a l i z e and sys temize o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s and i n f o r m a t i o n f l ows , be fo re the equipment can be i n s t a l l e d . 1 5 6 It i s expected that the co s t of t h i s a d d i t i o n a l labour w i l l equa l or exceed the cos t of the techno logy i t s e l f . 1 5 7 But even a f t e r a system has been implemented, few labour sav ings can be a c h i e v e d . The on l y d i r e c t labour s av ing can occur through the replacement of the c l e r i c a l l abour needed f o r the i n t e r n a l movement of paper documents and the maintenance of paper f i l i n g systems. But un le s s a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s implement compat ib le e l e c t r o n i c networks, which i s very u n l i k e l y , a l a r ge number of paper documents w i l l s t i l l be coming i n t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l l abour w i l l be needed to t r a n s c r i b e these documents i n t o e l e c t r o n i c format, and d i r e c t the i n f o r m a t i o n to the proper l o c a t i o n . 1 5 8 T h i s a d d i t i o n a l l abour requirement c o u l d e a s i l y outweigh any c l e r i c a l l abour replacement that might a l s o be a c h i e v e d . Faced w i th such enormous implementat ion c o s t s , and such n e g l i g i b l e l abour s av i n g s , few o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l implement 1 5 5 Simpson, A . , ( e d . ) , O f f i c e of the F u t u r e : No.1. P l ann ing fo r the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e , not dated , pg 10 1 5 6 V y s s o t s k y , V . A . , "The Use of Computers f o r Bus iness F u n c t i o n s " , in Der touzos , M.L . , Moses, J . , ( e d s . ) , The  Computer Age: A Twenty - Year View, MIT P re s s , Cambridge Mass. , 1980 , pg 130 1 5 7 U t t a l , B., "What 's D e t a i n i n g the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e ? " , F o r t u n e , 3 May 1982 , pg 178 1 5 8 R u s s e l l , R.A., The E l e c t r o n i c B r i e f c a s e : The O f f i c e of the F u t u r e , O c c a s s i o n a l Paper no .3 , M o n t r e a l , I n s t i t u t e f o r Research on P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1978 , pg 20 85 e l e c t r o n i c networks in the near f u t u r e . 1 5 9 However, there have been i n s t a n c e s in the past where very expens ive computer systems have been implemented p r i m a r i l y f o r reasons o ther than p o t e n t i a l l abour s av ing s . I t i s p o s s i b l e tha t a few e l e c t r o n i c o f f i c e networks w i l l a l s o be implemented f o r no o ther reason than to improve c o r p o r a t e p r e s t i g e . If so , t h e i r use w i l l r e s u l t in o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e s in l abour r equ i rement s . 6.3 System Development And Implementat ion In most o f f i c e s , the a c t i v i t i e s of employees and the s torage and movement of i n f o r m a t i o n a re very unsys temat ic and u n r a t i o n a l i z e d . 1 6 0 P r i o r to the i n s t a l l a t i o n of an e l e c t r o n i c network, a d d i t i o n a l l abour w i l l be needed to examine the a c t i v i t i e s of every employee, and the manner in which i n f o rma t i on i s s t o r e d , u t i l i z e d and moved w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . A very s o p h i s t i c a t e d user i n t e r f a c e language w i l l a l s o have to be deve l oped , r e f l e c t i n g the unique i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b i l i t y and management requ i rements of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . 1 6 1 T h i s p r e l i m i n a r y work w i l l take a number of y e a r s , and w i l l r e q u i r e a l a r g e number of f u l l - t i m e system and work a c t i v i t y 1 5 9 P e i t c h i n i s , S .G . , The Employment Impacts of Computers and Te lecommunicat ions Techno logy , C a l g a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , 1981 , pg 68 160 E l l i s , C .A . , N u t t , G . J . , " O f f i c e Automation Systems and Computer S c i e n c e " , Computing Surveys , v o l . 1 2 , no .1 , March 1980 , pg 54 1 6 1 S p i na rd , R.J., " O f f i c e Au tomat i on " , S c i e n c e , 12 February 1982, v o l . 215, no. 4534 , pg 808 1 6 2 Vy s so t sky , V . A . , "The Use of Computers fo r Bus iness F u n c t i o n s " , i n De r touzos , M.L., Moses, J., ( e d s . ) , The  Computer Age: A Twenty - Year View, MIT P re s s , Cambridge Mass., 1980 , pg 130 86 a n a l y s t s , programmers and i n f o r m a t i o n management s p e c i a l i s t s . 1 6 2 A s u b s t a n t i a l amount of l abour of e x i s t i n g managers and c l e r i c a l employees w i l l a l s o be needed to a s s i s t in these p r o c e s s e s . To ma in t a i n e x i s t i n g l e v e l s of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g dur ing t h i s l ong p e r i o d , a d d i t i o n a l managers and c l e r i c a l workers w i l l have to be h i r e d . F u r t h e r amounts of l abour w i l l then be needed to i n s t a l l the equipment and to d e a l w i th d i s c r e p a n c i e s that become apparent as i n f o r m a t i o n bases a re i n t e r c o n n e c t e d . 1 6 3 F i n a l l y , a d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l l abour w i l l be r e q u i r e d to t r a n s c r i b e e x i s t i n g paper f i l i n g systems i n t o e l e c t r o n i c fo rmat . It has been e s t imated tha t o f f i c e s ma in ta in an average of 18,000 paper documents per o f f i c e e m p l o y e e . 1 6 " Even i f o p t i c a l c h a r a c t e r reader s are used, a number of a d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l workers w i l l be needed to operate the equipment and d i r e c t the t r a n s c r i b e d i n f o r m a t i o n to the a p p r o p r i a t e s to rage l o c a t i o n . As a l r e a d y ment ioned, i t i s expected that the c o s t of a l l t h i s a d d i t i o n a l l abour w i l l equa l or exceed the co s t of the equipment i t s e l f . 1 6 5 1 6 3 Vy s so t s ky , V . A . , "The Use of Computers fo r Bus ines s F u n c t i o n s " , i n Der touzos , M.L . , Moses, J . , ( e d s . ) , The  Computer Age: A Twenty - Year View, MIT P r e s s , Cambridge Mass., 1980 , pg 140 1 6 " L e s t e r , T . , "The O f f i c e Conundrum", Management Today, November 1978 , pg 120 1 6 5 U t t a l , B., "What ' s D e t a i n i n g the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e ? " , F o r t u n e , 3 May 1982 , pg 178 87 6.4 Equipment Opera t i on Once an e l e c t r o n i c network has been s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented, a d d i t i o n a l l abour w i l l be needed f o r the o p e r a t i o n of the new equipment. I t has been e s t imated that 70% of a l l i n t e r n a l m a i l o r i g i n a t e s i n o ther o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 1 6 6 And in an examinat ion of a l a r ge Canadian o f f i c e , i t was found that at l e a s t 45% of incoming m a i l o r i g i n a t e d from beyond the co rpo ra te n e t w o r k . 1 6 7 Un le s s a l l o f f i c e s implement compat ib le e l e c t r o n i c networks, which i s very u n l i k e l y , a d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l l abour w i l l be neces sa ry to opera te equipment to t r a n s c r i b e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o e l e c t r o n i c format on a d a i l y b a s i s . Most proposed networks emphasize the o p e r a t i o n of m u l t i -f u n c t i o n work s t a t i o n s by s e c r e t a r i e s and m a n a g e r s . 1 6 8 A d d i t i o n a l l abour w i l l be r e q u i r e d of such employees to l e a r n how to opera te the equipment and the complex i n t e r f a c e language. Once t h i s has been a c h i e v e d , a d d i t i o n a l l abour w i l l then be needed f o r the d a i l y o p e r a t i o n of the equipment. I t has been suggested tha t the use of the techno logy w i l l reduce the dependency of managers on t h e i r support s t a f f f o r the a c t i v i t i e s of document f i l e a c c e s s i n g and document p r o d u c t i o n . 1 6 9 But 1 6 6 B a r ron , I., Curnow, R., The Fu tu re w i th M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s . F o r e c a s t i n g the E f f e c t s of I n fo rmat ion Techno logy , New York, N i c h o l s P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1979 , pg 150 1 6 7 Menz ies , H. , Women and the C h i p , M o n t r e a l , I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1981 , pg 26 1 6 8 Simpson, A . , ( e d . ) , O f f i c e of the F u t u r e : No.1. P l ann ing f o r the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e , not dated , pg 1 1 1 6 9 P e i t c h i n i s , S .G. , T e c h n o l o g i c a l Changes and the Demand fo r S k i l l e d Labour, S t u d i e s on the Employment E f f e c t s of Techno logy , Department of Economics, U n i v e r s i t y of Ca l g a r y , A l b e r t a , 1979 , pg 46 88 support s t a f f are employed so that managers need not expend labour on a n c i l l a r y t a s k s . If managers, u n s k i l l e d in keyboard use, must acces s f i l e s and key in t e x t u a l documents themse lves , then a d d i t i o n a l l abour w i l l be r e q u i r e d of them. A d d i t i o n a l l abour w i l l a l s o be demanded of s e c r e t a r i e s to access f i l e s and d i s t r i b u t e i n f o r m a t i o n e l e c t r o n i c a l l y . It i s noteworthy that much of the task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n that has been o c c u r r i n g in o f f i c e s , has been a c h i e v e d to remove a n c i l l a r y a c t i v i t i e s from the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of managers and s e c r e t a r i e s . 1 7 0 The task d e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n that i s neces sa ry f o r equipment o p e r a t i o n can on ly r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e s in the numbers of s e c r e t a r i e s and managers, i f e x i s t i n g l e v e l s of p r o d u c t i v i t y are to be ma in t a i ned . 6.5 In format ion Use And Management U n l i k e o ther areas of a p p l i c a t i o n , the use of e l e c t r o n i c networks w i l l not r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e s in the amount of l abour needed to make use of and manage a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Whi le other types of computer techno logy a re capab le of p roduc ing more d a t a , or in c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s more t e x t u a l documents, communication techno logy on ly p r o v i d e s an a l t e r n a t e means by which i n f o r m a t i o n may be t r a n s m i t t e d and a c c e s s e d . I t has been s t a t e d that " s t u d i e s have shown a net i n c r e a s e in the volume of 1 7 0 P e i t c h i n i s , S .G. , The Employment Impacts of Computers and Te lecommunicat ions Techno logy , C a l g a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , 1981 , pg 91 1 7 1 O l son , M.H., Lucas , H.C. , "The Impact of O f f i c e Automation on the O r g a n i z a t i o n : Some I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r R e s e a r c h " , Communications of the ACM, v o l . 25, no. 1, 1982 , pg 843 89 communications as a r e s u l t of automated s y s t e m s " . 1 7 1 It i s d i f f i c u l t to unders tand how such a statement c o u l d be made w i th on ly a sma l l number of demonst ra t ion and t r i a l p r o j e c t s in o p e r a t i o n at t h i s t ime. But i t i s even more d i f f i c u l t to unders tand why such an i n c r e a s e shou ld o c c u r . I t i s not an unreasonab le assumption tha t i f i n f o r m a t i o n i s worth a c c e s s i n g or convey ing , i t w i l l be, whether v e r b a l l y , i n paper format or even e l e c t r o n i c a l l y . The on ly p o s s i b l e reason f o r an i n c r e a s e in the volume of communication i s tha t managers would make use of the techno logy to acce s s p r e v i o u s l y u n a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . 1 7 2 But as a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d in S e c t i o n 5, most managers a l r e a d y have acce s s to enough i n f o r m a t i o n , and can e a s i l y o b t a i n more i f d e s i r e d . And most of the problems of the u n t i m e l i n e s s or n o n a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n cannot be s o l ved s imply by i n s t a l l i n g communication t e c h n o l o g y . 1 7 3 The use of an e l e c t r o n i c network w i l l not r e s u l t in i n c r e a s e d volumes of i n f o r m a t i o n communicat ion, beyond the l e v e l s a t t a i n a b l e wi th f a c e - t o - f a c e and te lephone c o n t a c t s , and the movement of paper documents. 1 7 2 Simpson, A . , ( e d . ) , O f f i c e of the F u t u r e : No.1. P l ann ing f o r the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e , not dated , pg 10 1 7 3 V y s s o t s k y , V . A . , "The Use of Computers f o r Bus iness F u n c t i o n s " , in De r touzos , M.L . , Moses, J . , ( e d s . ) , The  Computer Age: A Twenty - Year View, MIT P r e s s , Cambridge Mass. , 1980 , pg 137 90 6.6 Labour Replacement And Enhancement The on ly l abour that can be r e p l a c e d w i th the i n s t a l l a t i o n of an e l e c t r o n i c network i s the c l e r i c a l l abour needed f o r the i n t e r n a l movement of paper documents, the maintenance of paper f i l i n g systems, and the o p e r a t i o n of equipment to produce m u l t i p l e c o p i e s of documents. But any decrease i n the numbers of o f f i c e c l e r k s i n v o l v e d in these ta sks w i l l not be an a c c u r a t e measure of the labour replacement tha t a c t u a l l y o c c u r s . T h i s i s because a d d i t i o n a l l abour w i l l be r e q u i r e d of managers and s e c r e t a r i e s to t r an sm i t and a c c c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n in e l e c t r o n i c fo rmat ; t a sk s which were p r e v i o u s l y performed by the d i s p l a c e d employees. I t i s u n l i k e l y tha t any c l e r i c a l l abour replacement that does occur w i l l be conve r ted i n t o a c t u a l employment d e c r e a s e s . The n e c e s s i t y to t r a n s c r i b e paper documents d u r i n g the system implementat ion p e r i o d and a f t e r the system i s o p e r a t i o n a l w i l l most l i k e l y r e q u i r e at l e a s t as many a d d i t i o n a l employees as are d i s p l a c e d . As has been the case w i th o ther a reas of a p p l i c a t i o n , i t can be expected that d i s p l a c e d pe r sonne l w i l l be g i ven the o p p o r t u n i t y fo r r e t r a i n i n g and then employment in the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of paper documents i n t o e l e c t r o n i c format . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of v i d e o - c o n f e r e n c i n g does have the p o t e n t i a l to r e p l a c e the labour expended in t r a v e l l i n g to and from f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t s , a l though some labour w i l l s t i l l be necessary to make the con tac t v i a a computer t e r m i n a l . I f i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s f e r i s the on ly reason fo r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s , i t c o u l d c l e a r l y be done much e a s i e r through the exchange of 91 paper documents or telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n s . But i t i s evident that p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s are made more for s o c i a l reasons than f o r the t r a n s f e r r i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n . The p r o j e c t i o n of a person's image on a computer t e r m i n a l cannot r e p l a c e the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n of p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s . I t i s not expected that the a v a i l a b i l i t y of v i d e o - c o n f e r e n c i n g w i l l n o t i c e a b l y reduce the amount of management labour expended in t r a v e l l i n g to and from f a c e - t o -face c o n t a c t s . The use of the technology w i l l not i n i t s e l f enhance labour p r o d u c t i v i t y . However, the i n s t a l l a t i o n of an e l e c t r o n i c network can be expected to be a s s o c i a t e d with an enhancement in o v e r a l l p r o d u c t i v i t y . T h i s w i l l be the r e s u l t of the s y s t e m i z a t i o n , r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and r o u t i n i z a t i o n of o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s and i n f o r m a t i o n flows, that i s r e q u i r e d before the equipment can be implemented. O b v i o u s l y , i f these improvements are c a r r i e d out i n the absence of the technology, s i m i l a r enhancements of o v e r a l l p r o d u c t i v i t y would be achieved. 6 . 7 O v e r a l l Labour Impacts Few e l e c t r o n i c networks w i l l be implemented i n the near f u t u r e . They are extremely d i f f i c u l t to implement, and the small amount of labour savings that may be achieved w i l l be f a r outweighed by the l a r g e amounts of a d d i t i o n a l labour r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i r implementation and o p e r a t i o n , and the e q u a l l y l a r g e c a p i t a l c o s t s necessary f o r equipment purchase. In the few instances where they are implemented, o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e s i n c l e r i c a l , management, p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l labour requirements w i l l occur. Any improvements i n o v e r a l l o f f i c e 92 p r o d u c t i v i t y tha t might be ach ieved w i l l be the r e s u l t of the s y s t e m i z a t i o n , r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and r o u t i n i z a t i o n of o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s and i n f o r m a t i o n f lows r e q u i r e d f o r the implementat ion of the techno logy , and not the r e s u l t of the techno logy i t s e l f . 7. CHAPTER CONCLUSION The f o l l o w i n g i s conc luded concern ing the impact of computer techno logy on the labour requ i rements of o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F i r s t , i n most i n s t a n c e s computer systems are not implemented to r e p l a c e or enhance l a b o u r . Ra ther , they a re implemented p a r t l y because they permit the p r o c e s s i n g and gene ra t i on of i n f o r m a t i o n that was not c o n s i d e r e d p o s s i b l e in the absence of the equipment, and p a r t l y in response to non-economic c o n c e r n s . O r g a n i z a t i o n s are w i l l i n g to i n cu r s u b s t a n t i a l c a p i t a l and labour c o s t s in the p r o c e s s , and l i t t l e importance i s g i ven to the c a p a b i l i t y of the techno logy to r e p l a c e or enhance l a b o u r . Second, both a d d i t i v e and nega t i ve l abour impacts are a s s o c i a t e d wi th the use of computer t echno logy . L a r g e l y because of the reasons f o r equipment i n s t a l l a t i o n , in most i n s t a n c e s a d d i t i v e impacts outweigh any nega t i ve impacts tha t may a l s o o c c u r . T h i r d , a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the nega t i ve impacts a t t r i b u t e d to the c a p a b i l i t y of the techno logy to r e p l a c e and enhance l a b o u r , are in f a c t the r e s u l t of the s y s t e m i z a t i o n , r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and r o u t i n i z a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g p rocedure s . 93 F o u r t h , new and near f u t u r e a reas of a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l not have the s u b s t a n t i a l nega t i ve l abour impacts commonly p r e d i c t e d . Word p r o c e s s o r s are of economic b e n e f i t on ly in the p r o d u c t i o n of s t anda rd documents. Because of t h i s , t h e i r use w i l l not become widespread. And even when i n s t a l l e d , t h e i r use r e s u l t s in i n c r e a s e s in o v e r a l l l abour requ i rement s . Very few management i n f o r m a t i o n systems and e l e c t r o n i c o f f i c e networks w i l l be implemented in the near f u t u r e . They are very d i f f i c u l t and expens i ve to implement, and of l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l b e n e f i t . In the few i n s t a n c e s where they a re i n s t a l l e d , i n c r e a s e s w i l l occur in o v e r a l l requ i rements f o r c l e r i c a l , management and p r o f e s s i o n a l l a b o u r . F i f t h , i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to q u a n t i t a t i v e l y a s ses s the l abour impact of computer t e c h n o l o g y . Whi le nega t i ve impacts are u s u a l l y c o n f i n e d to the immediate o p e r a t i n g e n v i r o n s of the equipment, a d d i t i v e impacts occur throughout an o r g a n i z a t i o n . And changes i n i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g p rocedures i n v a r i a b l y accompany the techno logy , which a l s o a f f e c t l abour requ i rement s . These f a c t o r s p r e c l u d e the use of changes in l abour p r o d u c t i v i t y and employment l e v e l s as a c c u r a t e measures of o v e r a l l l abour impacts r e s u l t i n g from computer use . 94 IV. LABOUR IMPACTS IN VANCOUVER ORGANIZATIONS 1. INTRODUCTION A number of o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s in the Vancouver a rea were c o n t a c t e d to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of the c o n c l u s i o n s reached through the examinat ion of the l i t e r a t u r e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n f o r m a t i o n was sought to answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . 1) Why i s computer techno logy implemented? Is i t to reduce labour c o s t s , or f o r o ther reasons? 2) What i s the impact of computer use on o v e r a l l l abour requ i rements? Does i t r e s u l t in i n c r e a s e s or decreases ? 3) Are changes in p r o d u c t i v i t y and in l abour requ i rements in response to improvements in i n f o r m a t i o n management p r o c e d u r e s , as w e l l as computer techno logy? 4) Are h i s t o r i c changes in an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s employment l e v e l s an a c c u r a t e measure of the l abour impact of computer techno logy? 2. METHOD ADOPTED AND PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED In fo rmat ion was c o l l e c t e d through p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s , r a t h e r than through the a d m i n i s t e r i n g of a s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h i s method was adopted, p a r t l y because of the na ture of the d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n , and p a r t l y because i t was necessary to c o n t a c t s e v e r a l persons i n each o r g a n i z a t i o n . That t h i s was the more s u i t a b l e method i s man i fe s t in the problems encountered in o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . A l though over 80 o r g a n i z a t i o n s were c o n t a c t e d , i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d from on ly 12. Part of t h i s d i f f i c u l t y r e s u l t s from the f a c t tha t the 95 l e v e l of computer use in Vancouver i s f a r below the l e v e l in o ther major c i t i e s in Canada . 1 But the pr imary reason l i e s in the i n f o r m a t i o n sources w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A l though l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a re the major u ser s of computer t e chno l ogy , t h e r e i s seldom one person who can p rov ide the d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n . For example, the person r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o v e r a l l computer use in the head o f f i c e of a major u t i l i t y company was c o n t a c t e d . Whi le he was aware that a number of home computers had been brought to work by employees, he had no idea how many word p r o c e s s o r s or sma l l computers were in use , or how many o n - l i n e t e r m i n a l s were connected to the main computer. Nor d i d he know the purpose f o r which the techno logy was be ing used, or i t s e f f e c t on labour requ i rement s . For sma l l e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the o f f i c e manager was the pr imary source of i n f o r m a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t he re i s a h i gh tu rnover r a t e amongst t h i s type of o f f i c e employee. Very few of those c o n t a c t e d were employed wi th t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n when computer equipment had been purchased . Nor d i d they know why i t had been implemented, how much was in use, and o f t e n were unaware of e x i s t i n g employment l e v e l s . F i n a l l y , i n no i n s t a n c e were f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e on e s t imated or a c t u a l changes in l abour p r o d u c t i v i t y . Nor was any i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on a d d i t i o n a l l abour r e q u i r e d d u r i n g the p e r i o d when computer systems were being implemented. I n fo rmat ion was o b t a i n e d on the use of word and data p r o c e s s i n g systems i n : f i v e l e g a l f i r m s , one a c c o u n t i n g f i r m , 1 S i l l e r , F . , Warren, J . , A Study of Automated O f f i c e Systems, November 1982 , pg 17 96 one board of t r ade o f f i c e , one s choo l board , one word p r o c e s s i n g c e n t e r , one min ing company head o f f i c e , and two e n g i n e e r i n g f i rms. 3. REASONS FOR EQUIPMENT IMPLEMENTATION Of the 12 o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , on ly the s choo l board i n s t a l l e d computer techno logy wi th the s p e c i f i c i n t e n t to reduce c l e r i c a l l abour c o s t s . A l l o t h e r s i n s t a l l e d the equipment because i t a l l owed improvements in document p r o d u c t i o n and data p r o c e s s i n g tha t were not a t t a i n a b l e s o l e l y wi th manual and mechan ica l methods. The pr imary reason g iven fo r the i n s t a l l a t i o n of word p r o c e s s o r s was improved document q u a l i t y . S u r p r i s i n g l y , even l e g a l f i rms emphasized improved document q u a l i t y as be ing more important than i n c r e a s e d speed of s tandard l e g a l document, p r o d u c t i o n . Data p r o c e s s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s were i n s t a l l e d in l e g a l and e n g i n e e r i n g f i rms p r i m a r i l y to improve the accuracy and promptness of customer b i l l i n g , which c o u l d not be a ch ieved s o l e l y by h i r i n g more a c c o u n t i n g c l e r k s . The equipment a l s o a l l owed the development of data m a n i p u l a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s in a c c o u n t i n g , min ing and e n g i n e e r i n g f i r m s , which were not c o n s i d e r e d p o s s i b l e p r i o r to i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y . 4. OVERALL LABOUR IMPACT Only the s choo l board i n d i c a t e d tha t computer use had reduced i t s l abour requ i rement s . One o r g a n i z a t i o n i n d i c a t e d that the techno logy had had no n o t i c e a b l e l abour e f f e c t . A l l o the r s p e r c e i v e d the use of computer techno logy as i n c r e a s i n g 97 t h e i r o v e r a l l l abour requ i rement s . The most common reason g i ven was that a d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l employees were r e q u i r e d fo r equipment o p e r a t i o n . T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y the case wi th word p r o c e s s o r s , where word p r o c e s s i n g poo l s had been formed wi th new employees, or the t y p i n g f u n c t i o n removed from l e g a l s e c r e t a r i e s and g i ven to newly h i r e d o p e r a t o r s . A d d i t i o n a l c l e r i c a l l abour was a l s o r e q u i r e d , because once i n s t a l l e d , new uses were found f o r the word p r o c e s s o r s , and the e d i t i n g c a p a b i l i t y r e s u l t e d i n more t ime be ing spent on r e v i s i n g document con ten t and c o r r e c t i n g t y p i n g e r r o r s . Most l e g a l f i rms i n d i c a t e d tha t t h e i r numbers of lawyers i n c r e a s e d as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of c l i e n t b i l l i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s . Such systems i n c r e a s e cash f l ow, thereby a l l o w i n g the f i r m to expand i t s bus ines s and h i r e more l awyer s . The e n g i n e e r i n g and min ing f i rms a l s o i n d i c a t e d that t h e i r numbers of p r o f e s s i o n a l employees i n c r e a s e d , because the techno logy a l l owed the development of new, more complex data management a c t i v i t i e s . 5 . ALTERATION OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES A l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a l t e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n management p rocedures d u r i n g and a f t e r the i n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e i r computer equipment. Word p r o c e s s i n g poo l s were formed wi th e x i s t i n g and newly h i r e d employees, and d i s p e r s e d data en t ry r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c e n t r a l i z e d in one employee. The on ly o r g a n i z a t i o n r e p o r t i n g a r e d u c t i o n in labour requ i rements was the schoo l board , which i n s t a l l e d a 20 t e r m i n a l mainframe computer. E i g h t c l e r i c a l employees were l a i d - o f f in the p u r c h a s i n g , accounts payab le and accounts r e c e i v a b l e departments 98 w i t h i n one year of the i n s t a l l a t i o n of the mainframe. Par t of t h i s r e d u c t i o n was ach ieved by removing the t y p i n g f u n c t i o n from employees and g i v i n g i t to four newly h i r e d word p roce s so r o p e r a t o r s . Another p o r t i o n was a c h i e v e d by d e c e n t r a l i z i n g much of the data en t r y f u n c t i o n to h i gh s choo l o f f i c e s , where e i gh t da ta en t r y t e r m i n a l s were i n s t a l l e d . But many of the changes in i n f o r m a t i o n management p rocedures were not neces sa ry f o r the use of the equipment. In a l l the l e g a l f i rms c o n t a c t e d , c o n t i n u e d e f f o r t s were be ing made to reduce the r a t i o of l e g a l s e c r e t a r i e s to l awyer s , and many of the a n c i l l a r y ta sks of both these types of employees were be ing removed and g iven to o ther employees. T h i s task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n was most e v i d e n t in the removal of c l i e n t b i l l i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s from l awyer s , and the t y p i n g f u n c t i o n from s e c r e t a r i e s . E f f o r t s were a l s o be ing made to improve the s y s t e m i z a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n management p r o c e d u r e s . S e v e r a l l e g a l o f f i c e managers emphasized tha t improvements in task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and s y s t e m i z a t i o n , and not the t echno logy , were the pr imary reason fo r i n c r e a s e s i n the number of lawyers not be ing accompanied by e q u i v a l e n t i n c r e a s e s in the numbers of support s t a f f . 6. EMPLOYMENT DATA D e t a i l e d employment f i g u r e s were ob ta i ned from th ree l e g a l f i r m s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , none of the f i rms were ab le to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on changes in p r o d u c t i v i t y , or volume of work per fo rmed. 99 6.1 A - Lega l F i rm Th i s f i r m had been u s ing word p r o c e s s i n g equipment fo r over 10 y e a r s . When c o n t a c t e d , they had two s tanda lone word p roce s so r s and a s i x t e r m i n a l s h a r e d - l o g i c system. The sha red -l o g i c system was used f o r a c c o u n t i n g , customer b i l l i n g and word p r o c e s s i n g . The equipment was i n s t a l l e d p r i m a r i l y to improve the q u a l i t y of documents, and to i n c r e a s e the p r o f i t a b i l i t y of the f i r m by improv ing the accuracy and promptness of customer b i l l i n g . I t was i n s t a l l e d in August 1979, and was a s s o c i a t e d wi th task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , in the removal of the p r e p a r a t i o n of s tandard l e g a l document from the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of l e g a l s e c r e t a r i e s . There had a l s o been . con t i nued e f f o r t s to reduce the r a t i o of l e g a l s e c r e t a r i e s to l awyer s . Accoun t ing and customer b i l l i n g p rocedures a l s o were improved. The o f f i c e manager i n d i c a t e d that t h i s i n c r e a s e d task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and improved p r o f i t a b i l i t y a l l owed the f i r m to i n c r e a s e i t s number of lawyers by 54%, wh i le i n c r e a s i n g the number of support s t a f f by on ly 20%. Tab le III - Employment L e v e l s - Lega l F i r m A 1 979 1 982 % change l e g a l s e c r e t a r i e s 60 74 + 23 word p roce s so r opera to r s 2 8 + 300 r e c e p t i o n i s t s 1 1 1 1 0 account ing c l e r k s 1 2 1 2 0 1 00 o t h e r s ( l i b r a r i a n s photocopy c l e r k s , f i l i n g and message c l e r k s ) 1 5 1 5 0 t o t a l support s t a f f 100 1 20 + 20 lawyers 50 77 + 54 t o t a l employees 150 197 + 3 1 6.2 B - L e g a l F i rm T h i s f i r m had two s tanda lone word p r o c e s s o r s and a s i x t e r m i n a l s h a r e d - l o g i c system. The s tanda lones were used to p repare non - s tandard co r re spondence . They were i n s t a l l e d a number of year s ago, to improve the q u a l i t y of document appearance. I t had been found that t h e i r use reduced the p r o d u c t i v i t y of cor respondence p r o d u c t i o n , because of the e d i t i n g c a p a b i l i t y . The s h a r e d - l o g i c system was used f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of s tandard l e g a l documents, and customer account maintenance and b i l l i n g . I t was i n s t a l l e d to improve the p r o f i t a b i l i t y of the f i r m by a l l o w i n g more a c c u r a t e and prompt customer b i l l i n g . I t was a l s o implemented because i t a l l owed an improvement in document appearance, and enhanced the p r o d u c t i o n of s tandard documents. But the o f f i c e manager emphasized that the equipment was a l s o implemented to enhance the image of the f i r m . The system was i n s t a l l e d as p a r t of a complete r e d e c o r a t i o n of the head o f f i c e , and the computer t e r m i n a l s were a very v i s i b l e element in the r e c e p t i o n area f o r c l i e n t s . The o f f i c e manager was h i r e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , to improve the 101 a c t i v i t i e s of c l e r i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l employees. She d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f as a "systems p e r s o n " , and had reduced the r a t i o of l e g a l s e c r e t a r i e s to l awyer s , and removed many of the a n c i l l a r y data management r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s from the l awyer s . She a l s o reduced the number of r e c e p t i o n i s t s , and removed the p r e p a r a t i o n of s tandard documents from the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of many of the l e g a l s e c r e t a r i e s . The a c t i v i t i e s of a c c o u n t i n g c l e r k s and t y p i s t s were a l s o sy s temized and s p e c i a l i z e d . The o f f i c e manager f e l t tha t the i n c r e a s e d p r o f i t a b i l i t y a c h i e v e d w i th the a c c o u n t i n g a p p l i c a t i o n was one of the main reasons f o r the expans ion in the numbers of l awyer s . But she was emphatic tha t i t was the task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and s y s t e m i z a t i o n , and not the techno logy , that a l l owed t h i s i n c r e a s e to occur without a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e in the numbers of support s t a f f . 1 02 Tab le IV - Employment L e v e l s - Lega l F i rm B February J u l y % 1981 1982 change l e g a l s e c r e t a r i e s 29 25.5 - 12 word p roce s so r o p e r a t o r s 2 10 + 400 account ing c l e r k s 4 4 0 l i b r a r i a n s 2 1 - 50 p a r a l e g a l s 1 1 10 - 9 r e c e p t i o n i s t s 6 3.5 - 42 o the r s 1 3 15 + 15 t o t a l support s t a f f 67 69 + 3 lawyers 38 48 + 26 t o t a l employees 105 1 1 7 + 1 1 6.3 C - Lega l F i rm T h i s f i r m was the on ly o r g a n i z a t i o n that had ma in ta ined a d e t a i l e d t i m e - s e r i e s r e c o r d of employment l e v e l s and equipment i n s t a l l a t i o n s . The s tanda lone u n i t s were purchased to improve document q u a l i t y . The l e a s e d and then in -house computer was i n i t i a l l y i n s t a l l e d to improve the accuracy and promptness of customer b i l l i n g . The computer was then used to support a s h a r e d - l o g i c word p r o c e s s i n g system. T h i s was implemented p a r t l y to enhance the p r o d u c t i o n of s tandard l e g a l documents and p a r t l y to improve document appearance. Throughout the p e r i o d 103 covered by the employment da ta , the o f f i c e manager had been reduc ing the r a t i o of l e g a l s e c r e t a r i e s to l awyer s , s y s t e m i z i n g and s p e c i a l i z i n g the ta sks of c l e r i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l employees. Tab le V - Employment L e v e l s - Lega l F i rm C p e r s o n n e l c a t e g o r i e s Feb/81 stand a lone W.P. A p r i l / 8 1 l e a s e d t i m e -s h a r i n g f o r a c c t J u l y / 8 2 in -house computer Sept/82 Dec/82 shared OCR l o g i c W.P. Feb/83 % Change Feb/81 to Feb/83 s e c r e t a r i e s ; 67 64.5 71 76 75.5 71 + 6 word p r o c e s s o r o p e r a t o r s 3 3 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 + 183 r e c e p t i o n i s t s 7 6 8 8 8 8.5 + 21 a ccoun t i n g c l e r k s 9 10 13 1 1 14.5 13.5 + 50 f i l i n g c l e r k s , messengers 6 6 7.5 6 7 7 + 17 photocopy, mic ro f i lm o p e r a t o r s 5.5 5 5 3 5.5 5.5 0 l i b r a r y pe r sonne l 2 2 2.5 2.5 2.5 2 0 admin. pe r sonne l 4 3 4 4 3 3 - 25 t o t a l support 103.5 99.5 116.5 1 1 7 123.5 1 19 + 15 lawyers 75 75 91 92 92 94 + 25 t o t a l employees 178.5 174.5 207.5 209 215.5 213 + 19 Even wi th the d e t a i l e d employment data p re sen ted above, i t i s not p o s s i b l e to a s ses s q u a n t i t a t i v e l y the l abour impact of 104 computer t e c h n o l o g y . Task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and s y s t e m i z a t i o n , and not the t e c h n o l o g y , are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the conta inment in c l e r i c a l support s t a f f , d u r i n g the p e r i o d when the numbers of p r o f e s s i o n a l employees i n c r e a s e d . These improvements o b v i o u s l y have an e f f e c t on t o t a l employment l e v e l s as w e l l . Because of t h i s , even i f i n f o r m a t i o n were a v a i l a b l e on changes in volume of work performed and labour p r o d u c t i v i t y , i t would not be p o s s i b l e to determine the q u a n t i t a t i v e e f f e c t of computer use on o v e r a l l l abour r equ i rement s . 7. CHAPTER CONCLUSION The c o n c l u s i o n s reached through an examinat ion of the l i t e r a t u r e a re s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g computer use i n Vancouver o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The use of computer technology r e s u l t s in o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e s in l abour requ i rement s , and i s not implemented to reduce l abour c o s t s . I n s tead , o r g a n i z a t i o n s a re w i l l i n g to i n cu r a d d i t i o n a l l abour and c a p i t a l c o s t s to a c h i e v e other b e n e f i t s of computer use . Document q u a l i t y i s the pr imary reason f o r the i n s t a l l a t i o n of word p r o c e s s o r s , and improved speed of s tandard document p r o d u c t i o n i s of on ly secondary importance. I nc reased c o r p o r a t e p r o f i t and new areas of da ta management, a re the main reasons f o r the i n s t a l l a t i o n of data p r o c e s s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s . Task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and s y s t e m i z a t i o n have both a d d i t i v e and nega t i ve impacts on s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s of o f f i c e employees. But o v e r a l l , such improvements a re the cause of most of the containment of c l e r i c a l l abour c o s t s u s u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to computer t e c h n o l o g y . These improvements have a s u b s t a n t i a l 105 e f f e c t on o v e r a l l employment l e v e l s . T h i s negates the use of employment data as a means of a s s e s s i n g q u a n t i t a t i v e l y l abour impacts r e s u l t i n g from computer use. 106 V. CONCLUSION 1. RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS To t h i s d a t e , there has been a f a i l u r e to examine o b j e c t i v e l y the labour e f f e c t of the use of computer techno logy i n o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Most authors r e v e a l in t h e i r approach to the sub jec t a s i m p l i s t i c b e l i e f tha t because computer techno logy i s capab le of r e p l a c i n g and enhanc ing l a b o u r , i t i s implemented f o r j u s t such reasons . T h i s b e l i e f then becomes a f i l t e r through which they examine the l abour e f f e c t of e x i s t i n g and f u t u r e areas of computer a p p l i c a t i o n . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g tha t they are ab le to f i n d ev idence tha t computers have and w i l l r e s u l t in s u b s t a n t i a l decreases in c l e r i c a l and management labour requ i rement s . But i t has not and w i l l no t . H i s t o r i c a l l y , o r g a n i z a t i o n s have d i s p l a y e d a remarkable l a ck of i n t e r e s t in the labour sav ing c a p a b i l i t i e s of the t echno l o gy . Many authors a t t r i b u t e t h i s t o a g e n e r a l i gnorance on the pa r t of managers to the supposedly r e a d i l y apparent l abour sav ing b e n e f i t s of computers. That t h i s l ack of awareness shou ld c o n t i n u e , a f t e r over 30 year s of widespread computer use, and u n s t i n t i n g e f f o r t s of equipment vendors to market t h e i r equipment, i s very d i f f i c u l t to a c c e p t . A much more p l a u s i b l e reason i s tha t managers a re q u i t e aware that computer a p p l i c a t i o n s almost i n v a r i a b l y r e q u i r e at l e a s t as much a d d i t i o n a l l abour to implement and o p e r a t e , as they are capab le of r e p l a c i n g . As a r e s u l t , o r g a n i z a t i o n s have tu rned to the equipment p r i m a r i l y to deve lop new areas of numer i ca l and 1 07 t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n management, tha t c o u l d not be a c h i e v e d s o l e l y wi th mechan ica l and l abour i n p u t s . In the p r o c e s s , they have w i l l i n g l y i n c u r r e d a d d i t i o n a l l abour and c a p i t a l c o s t s . Most of these i n c r e a s e s in l abour requ i rements would not have o c c u r r e d in the absence of the t echno logy . When o r g a n i z a t i o n s have at tempted to reduce l abour c o s t s , task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , s y s t e m i z a t i o n and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n have been the proven means of a t t a i n i n g such r e s u l t s . These p roce s se s are o f t e n neces sa ry f o r the e f f e c t i v e implementat ion and use of computer systems. But they a re u s u a l l y c a r r i e d beyond immediate o p e r a t i n g requ i rement s . A g rea t d e a l , p robab ly the m a j o r i t y , of r e d u c t i o n s in l abour requ i rements commonly a t t r i b u t e d to the t echno l ogy , a re in f a c t the r e s u l t of these p r o c e s s e s . Because of t h i s , even i f q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n were a v a i l a b l e on changes in p r o d u c t i v i t y and work l o a d s , o v e r a l l employment f i g u r e s a re not u s e f u l as a measure of the l abour impact of computer t e chno l o gy . The b e l i e f in the l abour s av ing c a p a b i l i t y of the techno logy has a l s o been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the er roneous p e r c e p t i o n of the labour impacts of f u t u r e a reas of a p p l i c a t i o n . Both management i n f o r m a t i o n systems and e l e c t r o n i c o f f i c e networks w i l l be extremely d i f f i c u l t and c o s t l y to implement. They w i l l r e q u i r e s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s in l abour requ i rement s d u r i n g the l ong p e r i o d s needed f o r t h e i r imp lementa t i on . And once in o p e r a t i o n t h e i r use can on l y f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e requ i rements f o r both c l e r i c a l and management l a b o u r . These i n c r e a s e s w i l l f a r outweigh any labour sav ings that may a l s o be 108 a c h i e v e d . As a r e s u l t , the use of such systems w i l l not become widespread in the near f u t u r e . 2. POLICY IMPLICATIONS Most e f f o r t s at p o l i c y development have been d i r e c t e d at f i n d i n g p o s s i b l e responses to a slowdown in the r a t e of o f f i c e employment growth, r e s u l t i n g from t e c h n o l o g i c a l l abour rep lacement . These e f f o r t s have been m i s d i r e c t e d . E x i s t i n g a reas of a p p l i c a t i o n a re a s s o c i a t e d w i th i n c r e a s e s in o v e r a l l l abour requ i rement s . Thus computer use has had a major p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on h i s t o r i c growth r a t e s of o f f i c e employment. The most important p o l i c y q u e s t i o n then becomes, w i l l t h i s p o s i t i v e e f f e c t c o n t i n u e to the same degree in the near f u tu re ? At l e a s t one author has. suggested that the use of computer equipment in l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r i l y l a r g e p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i s nea r i n g a l e v e l of s a t u r a t i o n . 1 And t h i s appears to be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by d e c r e a s i n g r a te s of growth in the e s t ima ted number of l a r g e computers i n o p e r a t i o n in Canada . 2 If t h i s assessment i s a c c u r a t e , then f u t u r e r a t e s of o f f i c e employment growth w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d p r i m a r i l y by the implementat ion of what are today f u t u r e a reas of a p p l i c a t i o n , and the use of e x i s t i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s in sma l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . However, even though e l e c t r o n i c o f f i c e networks w i l l i n c r e a s e o v e r a l l l abour requ i rement s , t h e i r use w i l l not become widespread. The 1 S i l l e r , F . , Warren, J . , A Study of Automated O f f i c e Systems, November 1982 , pg 15 2 Canadian In fo rmat ion P r o c e s s i n g S o c i e t y , Canadian Computer Census, Toronto O n t a r i o , Annual , 1982, pg 8 109 c o n t i n u e d p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e appears t h e r e f o r e to depend on the i n c r e a s i n g use of computer equipment in sma l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s has r e c e i v e d almost no a t t e n t i o n in the l i t e r a t u r e . U n t i l t h i s changes, the i n f l u e n c e of computer use on f u t u r e employment growth r a t e s w i l l remain unknown. 3. FURTHER AREAS OF RESEARCH The l ack of i n f o r m a t i o n on the use of computer techno logy i n sma l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the s t a t e of the l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g a l l a spec t s of computer use in o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Any o b j e c t i v e r e s e a r c h cannot h e l p but c o n t r i b u t e to the g e n e r a l l e v e l of under s tand ing of t h i s s u b j e c t . But there a re th ree a reas tha t warrant c l o s e exam ina t i on . I t cannot be expected that the pr imary c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s r e s e a r c h , tha t computer use i s a s s o c i a t e d wi th i n c r e a s e s in o v e r a l l l abour requ i rement s , w i l l n o t i c e a b l y weaken the commonly h e l d b e l i e f that the techno logy on l y decreases l abour r equ i rement s . T h i s can on ly be a c h i e v e d through a d e t a i l e d survey of a l a r ge number of o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n fo rmat ion should be sought to determine why s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n s have been implemented, and what t h e i r e f f e c t has been on l abour r e q u i r e m e n t s . The survey conducted by Prasad and Verma in I nd ia in 1974 se rves as an example that such a survey i s p o s s i b l e and would p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . 3 3 P ra sad , K., Verma, P., Impact of Computers on Employment, Macmi l l an Book Co. of I n d i a , Madras, 1977 110 Much more e x a c t i n g r e s e a r c h i s needed to q u a n t i f y the l abour e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t areas of a p p l i c a t i o n . T h i s w i l l r e q u i r e a very c l o s e examinat ion of the labour requ i rements of s e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p r i o r t o , d u r i n g , and a f t e r a computer system i s implemented. It w i l l a l s o r e q u i r e the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and e x c l u s i o n of l abour e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g from task s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and s y s t e m i z a t i o n , not s t r i c t l y necessary f o r the implemention and o p e r a t i o n of the equipment. T h i s r e s e a r c h has c o n c e n t r a t e d on l abour impacts w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . But the a c c u r a t e assessment of the impact of computer techno logy on n a t i o n a l o f f i c e employment l e v e l s r e q u i r e s an under s tand ing of the employment s t r u c t u r e of the o f f i c e s e c t o r . Some p r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h has been conducted on the Canadian o f f i c e s e c t o r . " But much more i s needed, to determine the s i z e and type of o r g a n i z a t i o n s which implement d i f f e r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s of computer t echno logy , and the number and c a t e g o r i e s of employees w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I f these r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s are o b j e c t i v e l y addres sed , most of the u n c e r t a i n t i e s of the l abour impact of computer-mediated o f f i c e techno logy w i l l be d i s p e l l e d . " Hough, R .F . , An Overview of the Canadian Computer S e r v i c e s  I ndu s t r y , Dept of N a t i o n a l Defence, Ottawa, 1981 111 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abraham, S.M., "Is O f f i c e Automation the Best Darned Th ing You 've Ever Seen. Maybe", Computerworld, 28 September 1981, S p e c i a l Repor t , v o l . 15, no.39 A d j e r y , R., "The Revo l v ing Door Syndrome", CIPS Review, January /Februa ry 1980, v o l . 4 , I ssue 1 Akoka, J . , P l ann ing Change from C e n t r a l i z e d to D e c e n t r a l i z e d  Management I n fo rmat i on , A .P . S loan School of Management I n d u s t r i a l L i a son Program, MIT, 1977 A l d r i c h , H .E . , O r g a n i z a t i o n s and Env i ronments , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I nc . , Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , 1979 A s s o c i a t i o n of P r o f e s s i o n a l , E x e c u t i v e , C l e r i c a l and Computer S t a f f ( A P E X ) , Automation and the O f f i c e Worker, Report of O f f i c e Technology Working P a r t y , Graph ic L i t h o L t d . , Welwyn Garden C i t y , H e r t f o r d s h i r e , 1980 Bar ron , I., Curnow, R., The Fu tu re w i th M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s . F o r e c a s t i n g the E f f e c t s of I n fo rmat ion Techno logy , New York, N i c h o l s P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1979 Beausejour , G . , "New Wave Developments and I n f o r m a t i c i a n s " , CIPS  Review, Janua ry /Februa ry 1980, v o l . 4 , I ssue 1 B e l l , K., "New Computers Threa ten J o b s " , Vancouver P r o v i n c e , S e c t i o n E, 20 January 1983 Bennet t , P., T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change and C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g , an A s s o c i a t i o n of S c i e n t i f i c , T e c h n i c a l and Manager i a l S t a f f s d i s c u s s i o n paper , not da ted B e r t i n g , J . , M i l l s , S .C. , W i n t e r s b e r g e r , H. , The Soc io -economic  Impact of M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s , Pergamon P r e s s , To ron to , 1980 Bessant , J . R . , Bowen, J . A . , D i c k s o n , K .E . , Marsh, J . , The Impact  of M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s - A Review of the L i t e r a t u r e , Technology P o l i c y U n i t , U n i v e r s i t y of A sh ton , Birmingham, London, Frances P i n t e r L t d . , 1981 B i r d , E . , I n format ion Technology in the O f f i c e : The Impact on  Women's Job s , rev iewed in Per sonne l Management, December 1980, v o l . 1 2 , no.12 B i r d , E . , The Impact of Te lecommunicat ions and In format ion Technology on Equa l O p p o r t u n i t i e s , London, Communications and P l ann ing L t d . , 1980 B jo rn -Ander son , N., Hedberg, B., Mercer , D., Mumford, E . , S o l e , A . , ( e d s . ) , The Impact of Systems Change in O r g a n i z a t i o n s , Germantown, Mary land, S i j t h o f f & Noordhof f , 1979 B lumentha l , M., " O f f i c e Automation Market : too new to c a l l " , 1 1 2 Computer-world, 28 September 1981, S p e c i a l Repor t , v o l . 15, no. 39 B r a c c h i , G . , Lockemann, P . C , I n fo rmat ion Systems Methodology, P roceed ing s , 2nd Conference of the European Coopera t i on in I n f o r m a t i c s , V e n i c e , October 10-12, 1978, New York, S p r i n g e r - V e r l a g , 1978 Braden, J . H . , O f f i c e S t a t i s t i c s Research Paper , w i th S p e c i a l  Emphasis on the I n fo rmat ion Economy, the O f f i c e of the  F u t u r e , and the Impacts of the New Techno logy , Department of Communicat ions, Ottawa, 1980, Bureau of Management C o n s u l t i n g , The E l e c t r o n i c O f f i c e : O r g a n i z a t i o n a l and Human F a c t o r s , Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1981 Burns, A . , The M i c r o c h i p : A p p r o p r i a t e or I n a p p r o p r i a t e  Techno logy? , To ron to , John Wi ley and Sons, 1981 Burns, J . C . , "The E v o l u t i o n of O f f i c e I n fo rmat ion Systems" , Datamat ion, A p r i l 1977 Canada Department of Communicat ions, T r y i n g Out The F u t u r e . O f f i c e Comunicat ions Systems In The F e d e r a l Government, not dated Canadian In fo rmat ion P r o c e s s i n g S o c i e t y , Canadian Computer  Census, Toronto O n t a r i o , Annua l , 1970 - 1983 C a w k e l l , A . E . , " I n fo rmat i on Technology and Communicat ions " , i n American S o c i e t y f o r I n fo rmat ion S c i e n c e , Annual Review of  I n fo rmat ion Sc ience and Techno logy , v o l . 1 5 , 1980 Champine, G.A. , D i s t r i b u t e d Computer Systems. Impact on Management,Design and A n a l y s i s , New York , N o r t h - H o l l a n d , 1980 Coa tes , S., The O f f i c e of the F u t u r e , Ottawa, Department of Communicat ions, not da ted C o c k r o f t , D., "New O f f i c e Technology and Employment", I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Review, 119(6), 1980 Committee of I nqu i r y i n t o T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change i n A u t r a l i a , T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change in A u t r a l i a , 4 v o l s . , Canber ra , A u s t r a l i a n Government P u b l i s h i n g S e r v i c e , 1980 Computerworld, "Automated O f f i c e Seen I r r e l e v a n t to E x e c u t i v e s " , v o l . 1 4 , no.22, 1980 C o n n e l l , J . J . , "IRM vs the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e " , J o u r n a l of  Systems Management, may 1981 C o n n e l l , J . J . , " O f f i c e of the 80 ' s - P r o d u c t i v i t y Impact", BusinessWeek, 18 February 1980 113 Countryman, J . , "Law O f f i c e Automat ion: What Does It R e a l l y Mean?", T r i a l , v o l . 19, no. 4, A p r i l 1983 C r e a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , O f f i c e Automat ion, Rep.no. 27804, San J o s e , 1978 Darwin, E.S. , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Communicat ion, Volume I, T ran spor t Canada, Intermodal Passenger Branch, Systems P l ann ing D i r e c t o r a t e , 1982 Datamat ion, "The Shor ter Catachism of S t a f f o r d B e e r " , February 1982 De Vos, D., Governments and M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s . The European  E x p e r i e n c e , Sc ience C o u n c i l of Canada, Ottawa, 1983 Deavours , K., Bu rkho lde r , A . , M i l l e r , L . , Y r i s a n n y , D., Word P r o c e s s i n g Technology Impact on Management, U n i v e r s i t y of M inneso ta , MIS Department Paper, 1979 Der touzos , M.L . , Moses, J . , The Computer Age: A Twenty-year View , MIT P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass. , 1980 Doo ley , A . , "Report on 1981 O f f i c e Automation Conference i n Houston, T e x a s " , Computerworld, 30 March 1981, v o l . 1 5 , no.13 D r i s c o l l , J .W. , "Is O f f i c e Automation the Best Darned Th ing You 've Ever Seen. No" , Computerworld, 28 September 1981, S p e c i a l Repor t , v o l . 15, no.39 D r i s c o l l , J .W. , "Peop le and the Automated O f f i c e " , Datamat ion, November 1979, v o l . 25 D u f f y , J . , " C o s t - A n a l y s i s " , Computerworld, 29 September 1982 EDP A n a l y s e r , "The Coming Impact of New Techno l ogy " , January 1981, v o l . 1 9 , no.1 EDP A n a l y s e r , "The Automated O f f i c e : Par t I", September, 1978, v o l . 1 6 , no.9 E l l i s , C .A . , Nu t t , G . J . , " O f f i c e Automation Systems and Computer S c i e n c e " , Computing Surveys , v o l . 1 2 , no .1 , March 1980 Evans, C , The M ic ro M i l l e n i u m , New York, V i k i n g P r e s s , 1979 F i c k , R., ( e d . ) , The Manager ia l and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Consequences  of Smal l S ca l e Computer Systems, Laxenburg, A u s t r i a , CP-79-2, I IASA, A-2361 F o r e s t e r , T . , ( e d . ) , The M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s R e v o l u t i o n , MIT P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass., 1981 Frances Kinsman A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , The Impact of M i c r o p r o c e s s o r s on B r i t i s h Bus ine s s , Manchester, Eng land, NCC P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 1 4 1979 F r i e d r i c h s , G . , M i c r o - e l e c t r o n i c s - a New Dimension of  T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change and Automat ion, C lub of Rome Con fe rence , West B e r l i n , 1979 Gand, H., "An MIS Model f o r Change", Datamat ion, v o l . 28, no. 5, 1982 Gar son , B., "Scanning the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e " , Mother Jones , J u l y 1981 G ib son , E . , Hand ley, T . , O f f i c e In fo rmat ion Systems S t r a t e g y , B. C. Hydro I n t e r n a l Document, 29 January 1981 G i b s o n , C , No lan , R., "Managing the Four Stages of EDP Growth" , Harvard Bus iness Review, J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1974 G i n z b e r g , E . , "The Mechan i za t i on of Work", S c i e n t i f i c Amer ican, September 1982, volume 247 no. 3. G i u l i a n o , V . E . , "The Mechan i za t i on of O f f i c e Work", S c i e n t i f i c  Amer ican, September 1982, volume 247 no. 3. Globerman, S., The Adopt ion of Computer Technology in S e l e c t e d  Canadian S e r v i c e I n d u s t r i e s , 1981 G o l d f i e l d , R . J . , "The Automated O f f i c e in the 1 9 8 0 ' s " , Dun 's  Review, March 1980 G o t l i e b , C , B o r o d i n , A . , S o c i a l I s sues in Computing, Academic P r e s s , New York, 1973 Green , H., Smi th, T . , Man-Computer Research , London, Academic P r e s s , 1980 G r o c h l a , E . , S z y p e r s k i , N., I n fo rmat ion Systems and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e , B e r l i n , W. De G ruy te r & C o . , 1975 H a l e , J . , The Changing In fo rmat ion Env i ronment, Westview P re s s , B o u l d e r , C o l o r a d o , 1978 Henderson, M.M., MacNaughton, M.S., ( e d s . ) , E l e c t r o n i c Communicat ion: Technology and Impacts, B o u l d e r , Co l o r ado , Westview P r e s s , 1980 H ines , C , S e a r l e , G . , Automat ic Unemployment, E a r t h Resources Research L t d . , London, 1979 Hough, R .F . , An Overview of the Canadian Computer S e r v i c e s  I ndus t ry , Department of N a t i o n a l Defence, Ottawa, 1981 Hunt, J . C . , N e w e l l , P . F . , "Management in the 1980's r e v i s i t e d " , Per sonne l J o u r n a l , January 1971 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n , E f f e c t s of Mechan i za t i on and 1 1 5 Automation in O f f i c e s , Geneva, 1959 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n , Labour and Automat ion , B u l l e t i n no. 5, "Automat ion and Non-Manual Worker s " , 1967 Jacob s , B.A., "Can E l e c t r o n i c s Perk Up O f f i c e P r o d u c t i v i t y " , I ndus t ry Week, 7 J u l y 1980 J e c c h i n i s , C .A . , The Impact of M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c Technology on  Employment: A Survey of Cur ren t Research S t u d i e s in  S e l e c t e d West European C o u n t r i e s , Labour Market Research U n i t , O n t a r i o Manpower Commiss ion, To ron to , 1980 J e n k i n s , C , Sherman, B., The C o l l a p s e of Work, London, Eyre Methuen, 1979 Ka tes , J . , M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , RTAC, 1981 K i r c h n e r , E . , "At the Mercy of Mach ine s " , Datamat ion, September 1 982 K i r c h n e r , J . , " Impacts of " O f f i c e of the F u t u r e " " , Computerworld, 17 March 1980 K o t t e r , J . P . , "What E f f e c t i v e Genera l Managers R e a l l y Do" , Harvard Bus iness Review, v o l . 60, no. 6, November-December 1 982 Kreps , J . , Automation and Employment, H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Wins ton, New York, 1964 Labour Canada, Women's Bureau, P roceed ings of a Con ference on  the Impact of M i c r o - E l e c t r o n i c Technology on the Work  Env i ronment , Ottawa, Labour Canada, Women's Bureau, 1981 L e s t e r , T . , "The O f f i c e Conundrum", Management Today, November 1 978 L insenmayer, G . , L i gomenides , P., " Job A l l o c a t i o n In A D i s t r i b u t e d Computer Network" , in Compcon'77, 1977 Lucas , H.C. , "The E v o l u t i o n of an In format ion System: From Key-man to Every P e r s o n " , S loan Management Review, Winter 1978 M a r t i n , J . , " S u c c e s s f u l O f f i c e Au tomat i on " , Computer D e c i s i o n s , June 1981 Mather, B., Compute r i za t i on and Employment: A Labour View, Ottawa, Communication Workers of Canada, 1980 McDonald, J . C , Impact and I m p l i c a t i o n s of O f f i c e Automat ion , Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour , Ottawa, O c c a s i o n a l Paper No. 1, Queens P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1 964 McLean, J . M . , Rush, H . J . , The Impact of M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s on the 116 UK: Suggested C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and I l l u s t r a t i v e Case S t u d i e s , SPRU O c c a s i o n a l Paper S e r i e s no .7 , Sc ience P o l i c y Research U n i t , U n i v e r s i t y of Sussex, 1978 Menz ie s , H., Supplementary M a t e r i a l to "Women and the C h i p " , T e c h n i c a l Study 23, I n f o r m a t i c s Case S t u d i e s , Labour Market Development Task F o r c e , Canada Employment and Immigrat ion Menz ies , H., Women and the C h i p , M o n t r e a l , I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1981 M i n t z b e r g , H, "The Managers Job : F o l k l o r e and F a c t " , Harvard  Bus ines s Review, Ju l y /Augus t 1975 Morgan, H., The I n te r connec ted F u t u r e : Data P r o c e s s i n g , O f f i c e  Automat ion , P e r s o n n e l , Wharton Schoo l Working Paper 78 -07-04, 1978 Mumby, S., H a r r i s o n , N., "A Methodology fo r the Development of O f f i c e Sys tems" , 1982 O f f i c e Automation Conference D i g e s t , A p r i l 5-7, 1982, San F r a n c i s c o , C a l . Myers, C .A . , The Impact of Computers on Management, MIT P r e s s , Cambridge Mass. , 1967 Ness, D., O f f i c e Automation P r o j e c t : Manager i a l Overv iew, Wharton Schoo l Working Paper 77-07-02 J u l y 1977 Neuman, P., "What Speed of Communication i s do ing to Span of C o n t r o l " , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Management, 39 November 1978 Nora, S., Mine, A . , The C o m p u t e r i z a t i o n of S o c i e t y A Report to  the P r e s i d e n t of F r a n c e , Cambridge, Mass. , MIT P r e s s , 1980 N o r r i s , C . I . , " O f f i c e Au tomat i on " , Computer D e c i s i o n s , A p r i l 1981 Nova S c o t i a Departments of Labour and Manpower, Educa t i on and Development, and the Canada Employment and Immigrat ion Commiss ion, Survey of the Computer and E l e c t r o n i c s  I n d u s t r i e s and Impact of New Technology on Three Companies  i n Nova S c o t i a , 1981 Nussbaum, K., "Women O f f i c e Workers in a Race Aga in s t Time as Automat ion Impacts the Work P l a c e " , Computerworld, 28 September 1981, S p e c i a l Repor t , v o l . 1 5 , no.39 OECD, Report on Economic A n a l y s i s of I n fo rmat ion A c t i v i t i e s and  the Role of E l e c t r o n i c s and Te lecommunica t ions , OECD, P a r i s , 1980 O ' C o n n e l l , D., "The In format ion Resource C e n t e r " , ComputerworId, v o l . 16, no.39a, 29 September 1982 O l s o n , M.H., Lucas , H.C., "The Impact of O f f i c e Automation on the O r g a n i z a t i o n : Some I m p l i c a t i o n s fo r R e s e a r c h " , 1 1 7 Communications of the ACM, v o l . 25, no. 1, November 1982 O l s o n , M.H., White, N.H., "Impact of O f f i c e Automat ion on S o c i e t y " , P roceed ings of 1980 O f f i c e Automation Con fe rence , March 3-5, 1980, A t l a n t a , Georg i a P a t e r s o n , T . T . , Job E v a l u a t i o n V o l 1. A New Method, London, Bus ines s Books L t d . , 1972 P e i t c h i n i s , S .G. , The Employment Impacts of Computers and  Te lecommunicat ions Techno logy , C a l g a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , 1981 P e i t c h i n i s , S .G. , T e c h n o l o g i c a l Changes and the Demand fo r  S k i l l e d Labour, S t u d i e s on the Employment E f f e c t s of Techno logy , Department of Economics , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a , 1979 Poon, L . , O f f i c e Automation - F e a s i b i l i t y S t u d i e s , p r e s e n t a t i o n made at B.C. Computer and O f f i c e Automation Show, 10 F e b r u a r y , 1982 Poppe l , H .L . , "The Automated O f f i c e Moves i n " , Datamat ion, November 1979, v o l . 25 Poppe l , H .L . , "The I n fo rmat ion R e v o l u t i o n : Winners and L o s e r s " , Harvard Bus iness Review, J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y 1978 Poppe l , H .L . , "Who Needs the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e ? " , Harvard  Bus ines s Review, v o l . 60, no. 6, November-December, 1982 P ra sad , K., Verma, P., Impact of Computers on Employment, Macmi l l an Book Company of I nd i a L t d . , Madras, 1977 P r i c e , S .G. , I n t r o d u c i n g the E l e c t r o n i c O f f i c e , Manchester , Eng l and , NCC P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1979 Pye, R., " O f f i c e L o c a t i o n : The Role of Communications and T e c h n o l o g y " , i n D a n i e l s , P.W., ( e d . ) , S p a t i a l P a t t e r n s of  O f f i c e Growth and L o c a t i o n , T o r o n t o , John W i l ey & Sons, 1 979 Rada, J . , The Impact of M i c r o - e l e c t r o n i c s . A T e n t a t i v e A p p r a i s a l  of I n fo rmat ion Techno logy , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O f f i c e , Geneva, S w i t z e r l a n d , 1980 Rad fo rd , K . J . , I n fo rmat ion Systems f o r S t r a t e g i c D e c i s i o n s , Res ton, V a . , Reston P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1978 Rhodes, J . , " O f f i c e Automat ion: At Which Stage Are You? " , Computerworld, 28 September 1981 Rhodes, W.L., "How to Boost Your O f f i c e P r o d u c t i v i t y " , In fosys tems, October 1980 R i c e , R.E. , "The Impacts of Computer-Mediated O r g a n i z a t i o n a l and 1 18 I n t e r p e r s o n a l Communicat ion" , in American S o c i e t y f o r I n fo rmat ion S c i e n c e , Annual Review of In format ion S c i ence  and Techno logy , v o l . 1 5 , 1980 Robey, D., "Computers and Management S t r u c t u r e : Some E m p i r i c a l F i n d i n g s Re-examined" , Human R e l a t i o n s , v o l . 3 0 , n o . 1 1 , 1977 Rothman, S., Mossman, C , Computers and S o c i e t y The Technology  and i t s S o c i a l I m p l i c a t i o n s , 2nd e d . , Sc ience Research A s s o c i a t e s , i n c . , 1976 R o t h w e l l , R., Z e g f e l d , W., T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change and Unemployment , London, Frances P i n t e r , 1979 Rowland, T . , " T e c h n o l o g y ' s T h r e a t e n i n g P romi se " , Management  Today, March 1979 Ruddick, E . , A F e a s i b i l i t y Study f o r A s se s s i n g the Macroeconomic  Impact of New In format ion T e c h n o l o g i e s , Department of Communicat ions, Ottawa, 1981 R u s s e l l , R.A., The E l e c t r o n i c B r i e f c a s e : The O f f i c e of the F u t u r e , O c c a s s i o n a l Paper no .3 , M o n t r e a l , I n s t i t u t e f o r Research on P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1978 Sanders , D.H., Computers in S o c i e t y : An I n t r o d u c t i o n to  I n fo rmat ion P r o c e s s i n g , New York, M c G r a w - H i l l , 1973 Sanders , D.H., B i r k i n , S . J . , Computers and Management in a  Changing S o c i e t y , McGraw-H i l l Book Company, 1980 Sc ience C o u n c i l of Canada, P l ann ing Now for an In format ion  S o c i e t y , H u l l , Quebec, 1982 Sc ience C o u n c i l of Canada, The Impact of the M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s R e v o l u t i o n on Working and L i v i n g , Proceed ings of a Workshop sponsored by the S c i ence C o u n c i l of Canada, Committee on Computers and Communicat ions, 1981 S c o t t , J .W., "The Mechan iza t i on of Women's Work", S c i e n t i f i c  Amer ican, September 1982, volume 247 no. 3. S e r a f i n i , S., A n d r i e u , M., The In fo rmat ion R e v o l u t i o n and i t s  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Canada, Ottawa, Communications Economics Branch, Department of Communicat ions, 1980 S i l l e r , F . , Warren, J . , A Study of Automated O f f i c e Systems, November 1982 S i l ve rman , A . , Keane, J . , "A Decade of Law O f f i c e Automat ion: 1977-1987", American Bar A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , v o l . 68, August 1982 Simon, H., The New Sc ience of Management, P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1977 Simon, H., The Shape of Automation f o r Men and Management, New 119 York, Harper and Row, 1965 Simpson, A . , ( e d . ) , O f f i c e of the F u t u r e : No.1. P l ann ing f o r the  O f f i c e of the F u t u r e , not dated S l e i g h , J . , Boa twr i gh t , B., I rw in , P., Stangon, R., The Manpower  I m p l i c a t i o n s of M i c r o - e l e c t r o n i c Techno logy , HMSO, not dated Smi th, D.H., "A New Approach to DP Cost J u s t i f i c a t i o n " , Canadian  Datasystems, v o l . 15, no. 10, October 1983 Spang le , C.W., "Impact of D i s t r i b u t e d Systems" , D i s t r i b u t e d  Management, January 1978 S p i n a r d , R . J . , " O f f i c e Au tomat i on " , S c i e n c e , 12 February 1982, v o l . 215, no. 4534 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, computer p r i n t o u t , E x p e r i e n c e d Labour Force  by D e t a i l e d O c c u p a t i o n , Male and Female, 1971 and 1981 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Computer S e r v i c e I ndus t r y , 1981, Cata logue 63-222, Annual S t i e b e r , J . , ( e d . ) , Employment Problems of Automation and Advanced Techno logy , S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , New York, 1966 Strassman, P.A. , "Stages of Growth" , Datamat ion, October 1976 Strassman, P.A. , "The O f f i c e of the F u t u r e : In format ion Management f o r the New Age" , Technology Review, v o l . 8 2 ( 3 ) December 1979/January 1980, pg 54-65 Strassman, P .A. , "The Speedup i n Au tomat i on " , BusinessWeek, 3 August 1981 S t r a u s s , S., "Word P r o c e s s o r s " , The Toronto Globe and M a i l , 17 J u l y 1980 pg. T1 S t u r s b e r g , R., Automation and Employment: A Review of the Debate  on the I m p l i c a t i o n s of I n format ion Techno logy, Ottawa, March, 1981 Task Force on M i c r o - e l e c t r o n i c s and Employment, In the C h i p s :  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , peop le , p a r t n e r s h i p , Ottawa, 1982 T a v e r n i e r , G . , "The E x e c u t i v e s tu rn to be Automated" , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Management, September 1979 T a y l o r , J . R . , "The O f f i c e of the F u t u r e : Weber and I nn i s r e v i s i t e d " , I n sea r ch , The Canadian Communication Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . V I I I , no .3 , 1980 Terborgh , G . , The Automation H y s t e r i a , Norton and Company, New York, 1966 1 20 The Economis t , "Bus ines s B r i e f . Death Sentence f o r Paper S h u f f l e r s " , 27 December 1980 The Economis t , "Bus ines s B r i e f . The G i an t s in Japanese E l e c t r o n i c s " , 20 February 1982 The Economis t , "Can AT&T r e a l l y beat IBM at i t s own game?", 16 January 1982 The Economis t , "Data P r o c e s s i n g . H a r d - s e l l i n g S o f t w a r e " , 16 January 1982 The Economis t , " O f f i c e A u t o m a t i o n " , 7 November 1981 The Economis t , " O f f i c e of the F u t u r e " , 30 January 1982 The Economis t , " S c i e n c e B r i e f . Ch ips that Speak and H e a r " , 22 August 1981 The Economis t , "Te lecommun ica t i on s . The Born -aga in Techno logy, a Su rvey " , 22 August 1981 The Economis t , " V i d e o c o n f e r e n c i n g " , 5 June 1982 The Economis t , "W i r i ng up the O f f i c e Begins to Look Cheap and E a s y " , 30 October 1982 The Economis t , " W r i t i n g to Computers " , 12 June 1982 The O f f i c e , " Insurance Company Develops an " O f f i c e of the F u t u r e " " , September 1982 T o f f l e r , A . , The T h i r d Wave, T o r o n t o , Bantam Books, 1981 Trade Union Congress of the U.K. (TUC) , Employment and Technology , A TUC I n te r im Repor t , London, 1979 T rea su ry Board, I n fo rmat ion Systems D i v i s i o n , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c y Branch, Review of EDP and Te lecommunicat ions in the  Government of Canada, Ottawa, 1980 T r i c k e r , R.I., G i l c h r i s t , B., "The Impact of I n fo rmat ion Systems on O r g a n i z a t i o n a l T h i n k i n g " , in I n fo rmat ion P r o c e s s i n g 77, N o r t h - H o l l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , 1977 T y l e r , M., "Te lecommunicat ions and P r o d u c t i v i t y : the Need and the O p p o r t u n i t y " , Conference on Te lecommunicat ion and  P r o d u c t i v i t y , Centre f o r S c i ence and Technology P o l i c y , New York U n i v e r s i t y , 1980 U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Machinery and  Equipment. Computers and O f f i c e and Accoun t ing Machines.  S p e c i a l Repor t s , 1982 U h l i g , R.P., F a r b e r , D., B a i r , J . H . , The O f f i c e of the F u t u r e :  Communications and Computers, 1979 121 U t t a l , B., "What ' s D e t a i n i n g the O f f i c e of the F u t u r e ? " , For tune , 3 May 1982 Wes t l ey , A . E . , ( e d . ) , Convergence: Computers, Communications and  O f f i c e Automat ion, v o l . 2 W i l k , E . , " V i d e o - C o n f e r e n c i n g " , Computerworld, 29 September 1982 W i l k i n s , R., M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s and Employment in P u b l i c  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : A Case Study in Three O n t a r i o  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y of Labour, 1982 Wi l l oughby , A.W., "Law O f f i c e Automation Gains Momentum", American Bar A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , vo l . ' 68, March 1982 W i l l s , R. , Computer-based S chedu l i n g and B i l l i n g in the Canadian  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n I ndus t r y , submi t ted to the Task Force on M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s and Employment, Department of Labour, Canada, J u l y , 1982 W i t h i n g t o n , F . G . , " F i v e Genera t i on s of Computers " , Harvard  Bus iness Review, J u l y - A u g u s t 1974 Wohl, A . , " O f f i c e of Tomorrow: What to E x p e c t " , Computerworld, 28 September 1981, S p e c i a l Repo r t , v o l . 1 5 , no.39 Wohl, A . , "We ' re not r e a l l y sure how many we have " , Datamat ion, v o l . 28, no .5 , 1982 Woods, L .D . , G i l c h r i s t , B., "The Impact of In format ion Systems on O r g a n i z a t i o n a l T h i n k i n g " , i n I n fo rmat ion P r o c e s s i n g 77, N o r t h - H o l l a n d P u b l i s h i n g 1977 Working Women, Race Aga ins t Time: Automation of the O f f i c e , N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of O f f i c e Workers, C l e v e l a n d Oh io , 1 980 Zeman, Z., The Impact of Computer/Communication on Employment i n  Canada: an Overview of Cur ren t OECD Debates , I n s t i t u t e f o r Research on P u b l i c P o l i c y , M o n t r e a l , 1979 Zeman,Z, Rahn, R . J . , Labour Force Impact of M i c r o e l e c t r o n i c s , M o n t r e a l , I n s t i t u t e f o r Research on P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1980 Zisman, M., "Ease of Use. What Does It Mean", Computerworld, 29 September 1982 Zisman, M., " O f f i c e Automat ion: R e v o l u t i o n or E v o l u t i o n " , S loan  Management Review, Sp r ing 1978, v o l . 1 9 , no. 3 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0096356/manifest

Comment

Related Items