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The effect of auditory subliminal stimulation on spelling Graham, Hedley Cameron 1984

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THE EFFECT OF AUDITORY SUBLIMINAL STIMULATION ON SPELLING by HEDLEY CAMERON GRAHAM B. Ed., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1984 © Hedley Cameron Graham, 1984 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date R4 - 10 - 04 DE-6 (3/81) - i -Abstract The experiment investigated whether i t was possible to increase the number of words spelled correctly by exposing students to those words embedded sublirainally i n music. One hundred and f i f t y s p e l l i n g words were randomly divided into f i f t e e n l i s t s of ten words, and each l i s t was then rated for d i f f i c u l t y to obtain a d i f f i c u l t y factor. The students were tested on the f i r s t f i v e l i s t s (A-E) to establish their baseline performance. For the intervention phase, seven l i s t s of ten words (F-L) were subliminally embedded i n music which was played to the class twice during the school day. The taped music was of f i f t e e n minutes duration and during the f i r s t day of the intervention period contained a l l seven l i s t s of s p e l l i n g words. After l i s t e n i n g to the tape twice the students were tested on the words i n L i s t F. The tape for the second intervention day had the same f i f t e e n minutes of recorded music with the remaining s i x l i s t s of ten words subliminally embedded. After two exposures to this tape the class was then tested on L i s t G. S i m i l a r l y , each succeeding tape had the previous day's l i s t of words upon which the children had been tested removed u n t i l the seventh day's l i s t completed the intervention period with only one l i s t , ( L i s t L) played. F i n a l l y , a second baseline measurement was made using L i s t s M to 0. The results indicate that the number of words spelled correctly was increased. The results also showed there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the average number of words spelled correctly by students i n regular class when compared with students i n - i i -special class. The greatest gain i n learning new words to s p e l l by subliminal means were made by regular class students. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between boys' and g i r l s ' r e s u l t s . The f i r s t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n s p e l l i n g scores occured after 82 subliminal stimulations. i - i i a -Table of Contents Page Abstract i L i s t of Tables i i i L i s t of Figures i v Acknowledgement i x Chapter 1 1 Chapter 2 Survey of the Literature 5 Chapter 3 Method - 10 Subjects t 10 Apparatus 10 Design 13 Frequency of Exposure 15 Duration of Experiment 16 Analysis of Results 16 Chapter 4 Results 18 Chapter 5 Interpretation of Results 49 Summary and Conclusion 50 Implications for Further Investigation - Limitations of the Study 51 References . , 54 - i i i -L i s t of Tables Table Page 1 D i f f i c u l t y Factor Produced by Dividing the Deviation by the Spelling L i s t Raw Score for D i f f i c u l t y . 12 2; Frequency of Presentation of Spelling L i s t s Per Day for the Intervention Phase. 15 3 i Individual Student Means for Each Phase 48 - i v -L i s t of Figures Figure 1 Number and label of sp e l l i n g l i s t s presented to stuc and l i s t s tested per day and per phase. 2 Number of words spelled correctly by a l l students fq > three phases and the dates on which each of the spe] l i s t s were tested. 3 Percentage of l e t t e r s placed correctly i n each l i s t a l l students for a l l phases. 4 Adjusted scores for number of words spelled correct] students each day, and means for baseline (A^), intervention, and baseline (A2) phases 5 Total adjusted scores for number of words spelled correctly by special class students and regular clas students for the three phases. 6 Average daily s p e l l i n g scores for regular class g i r l and regular class boys, for baseline and interventio phases. - v -Figure Page 7 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 01 during baseline ( A i ) , intervention (B), and baseline (A2) phases. 25 8 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 02 during baseline (A^), intervention (B), and baseline (A2) phases. 26 9 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 03 during baseline ( A i ) , intervention (B), and baseline (A2) phases. 27 10 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 04 during baseline ( A i ) , intervention (B), and baseline (A2) phases. 28 11 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 05 during baseline (A^), intervention (B), and baseline (A2) phases. 29 12 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 06 during baseline (A^), intervention (B), and baseline (A2) phases. 30 - v i -Figure Page 13 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 07 during baseline (A^), intervention (B), and baseline (A2) phases. 31 14 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 08 during baseline (A^), intervention (B), and baseline (A*$/lpbases. 32 15 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 09 during baseline (A^), intervention (B), and baseline (A2) phases. 33 16 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 10 during baseline (A^), intervention (B), and baseline (A2) phases. 34 17 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 11 during baseline (A^), intervention (B), and baseline (A2) phases. 35 18 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 12 during baseline (A^), intervention (B), and baseline (A2) phases. 36 - v i i -Figure Page 19 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 13 during baseline ( A i ) , intervention (B), and baseline (A2) phases. 37 20 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 14 during baseline ( A i ) , intervention (B), and baseline (A2) phases. 38 21 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 15 during baseline ( A i ) , intervention (B), and baseline (A2) phases. 39 22 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 16 during baseline ( A i ) , intervention (B), and baseline (A2) phases. 40 23 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 17 during baseline (A^), intervention (B), and baseline (A2) phases. 41 24 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 18 during baseline (A^), intervention (B), and baseline (A2) phases. 42 - v i i i -Figure Page 25 Number of words s p e l l e d c o r r e c t l y by p u p i l 19 during b a s e l i n e ( A j ) , i n t e r v e n t i o n (B), and b a s e l i n e (A2) phases. 43 26 Number of words s p e l l e d c o r r e c t l y by p u p i l 20 during b a s e l i n e ( A ^ ) , i n t e r v e n t i o n (B), and b a s e l i n e (A2) phases. 44 27 Number of words s p e l l e d c o r r e c t l y by p u p i l 21 during ba s e l i n e ( A ^ ) , i n t e r v e n t i o n (B), and b a s e l i n e (A2) phases. 45 28 Number of words s p e l l e d c o r r e c t l y by p u p i l 22 during b a s e l i n e ( A ^ ) , i n t e r v e n t i o n (B), and b a s e l i n e (A2) phases. 46 29 Number of words s p e l l e d c o r r e c t l y by p u p i l 23 during b a s e l i n e ( A ^ ) , i n t e r v e n t i o n (B), and b a s e l i n e (A2) phases. 47 Acknowledgement My sincere thanks to my committee, Dr. Marg Csapo, Dr. Walter Boldt, and Dr. Bryan Clarke, for their assistance during the formulation and execution of this thesis. - 1 -THE EFFECT OF AUDITORY SUBLIMINAL STIMULATION ON SPELLING CHAPTER I We do not attend to many of the hundreds of stimuli with which we are constantly bombarded. There i s ample evidence that our brain i s aware of much more than what we consciously experience, and this subliminal sensory inflow i s important to our brain for monitoring the external world by detecting change. Through access to previously stored information we appraise the subliminal sensory inflow for meaning (Dixon, 1981). Subliminal, as defined by Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1970), means, "existing or functioning outside the area of conscious awareness", and recent l i t e r a t u r e (Key, 1973, 1976', 1980) indicates that techniques of subliminal persuasion are perhaps widespread i n our society. These techniques generally consist of v i s u a l subliminal stimuli which are embedded i n p i c t o r i a l advertise-ments. A word such as SEX i s etched l i g h t l y on a photoengraving plate containing an i l l u s t r a t i o n , or sometimes airbrushed very l i g h t l y into a drawing or photograph which i s then reproduced i n the advertisement. Key, (1973, 1976, 1980) claimed i n his three books that i n the Western World the buyer i s bombarded constantly i n the mass media, both v i s u a l l y and aurally, by subliminal messages, which stimulate him to buy, or make use of particular merchandise. Many examples of v i s u a l subliminal messages are given, but he quoted few which concern auditory subliminal use. - 2 -Key demonstrated how some advertisers try to manipulate and direct the public's buying behaviour through the use of v i s u a l subliminal implants i n advertisements. Each book contains samples of i l l u s t r a t i o n s used i n advertisements with the v i s u a l subliminal embedments enlarged for easier recognition. While his work i s descriptive, Key has gathered data from many sources. Besides the examples of v i s u a l subliminal implants, Key cited how i n the f i l m The  Exorcist, while subliminal deathmask apparitions were flashed upon the screen, frightening sounds were added to the soundtrack to increase the film's frightening effect. Brief mention i s also made of auditory subliminal messages placed i n musical recordings to heighten the emotional content. Probably the most interesting exam-ple of auditory subliminal use i s Key's (1980) claim that a Dr. Hal Becker has reduced s h o p l i f t i n g i n s i x large stores 37 percent simply by inserting subliminal messages such as, "I am honest, I w i l l not s t e a l . Stealing i s dishonest," masked by the music which was played through the stores' public address system, and recorded 30 to 40 decibels lower than the music (Key, 1980, p. 98). It would appear that auditory subliminal messages have an effect, and i t would be feasible to investigate the use of auditory subliminal stimuli i n routine learning such as when spe l l i n g i s taught. Students i n the elementary school system customarily spend about 15 minutes daily on spelling instruction (Thomas, 1974). Researchers (Thomas, 1974, Personke & Yee, 1971) stressed the importance of the - 3 -sound-symbol or phoneme-grapheme relationship when students learn to s p e l l new words, and Thomas i n p a r t i c u l a r , emphasized that correct pronunciation of the new word i s essential. While new words to be learned are customarily presented v i s u a l l y , an equally important part of the learning-to-spell process i s auditory. This study i s designed to determine whether a learner w i l l increase the number of words spelled correctly after being exposed to those words embedded subliminally i n recorded music. Spelling was selected for this study for two reasons. F i r s t l y , the results could be easily determined by assessing whether or not the words were reproduced by the students exactly as they were pre-sented subliminally. It w i l l , however, be necessary to ensure that the sp e l l i n g l i s t s used for measuring are approximately equivalent in d i f f i c u l t y . Secondly, i f the study was successful i t could result in a substantial saving of time. For students i n the elementary school the time involved i n the learning of sp e l l i n g words i s approximately 15 minutes per day (Thomas, 1974). If sp e l l i n g words could be learned by embedding auditory subliminal stim u l i i n music, then perhaps much of the time spent i n learning to s p e l l new words could be u t i l i z e d for conscious learning i n other subject areas. The saving i n time would be a major advantage to those children who experience d i f f i c u l t y i n learning. Typically, these would be the children who are considered to be either learning disabled or - 4 -moderately mentally handicapped. The l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d i s defined i n the B.C. M i n i s t r y of Education S p e c i a l Program P o l i c i e s (1981), as that c h i l d who shows a s i g n i f i c a n t discrepancy between t h e i r estimated l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l and a c t u a l performance, and the moderately mentally handicapped c h i l d i s that c h i l d who g e n e r a l l y f u n c t i o n s two to three years below t h e i r a c t u a l age l e v e l . I t i s hoped then, that these c h i l d r e n would b e n e f i t from a new or supplementary method of i n s t r u c t i o n . Thus, the questions to be answered are: 1. Is i t p o s s i b l e to increase the number of new words a student can s p e l l c o r r e c t l y by embedding those words s u b l i m i n a l l y i n music? 2. Is there a d i f f e r e n c e i n the number of words s p e l l e d c o r r e c t l y between c h i l d r e n assigned to r e g u l a r c l a s s e s and c h i l d r e n assigned to s p e c i a l c l a s s e s and l a b e l l e d l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d and mentally handicapped, when both are exposed to the same au d i t o r y s u b l i m i n a l messages i n s p e l l i n g ? 3. Is there a d i f f e r e n c e i n the number of words s p e l l e d c o r r e c t l y between g i r l s and boys who were exposed to a u d i t o r y s u b l i m i n a l s t i m u l i of s p e l l i n g ? 4. What number of s u b l i m i n a l exposures are required to be e f f e c t i v e f o r l e a r n i n g to s p e l l words? CHAPTER I I Survey of the Literature While there has been considerable research on the effects of subliminal s t i m u l i , the majority of this research has focussed on vi s u a l subliminal messages. Studies on the use of auditory subliminal messages are few. Moore (1982), for example, referred to the " t o t a l absence of published studies investigating possible effects of subaudible messages" (p. 44). Si m i l a r l y , Borgeat and Goulet (1983) observed: " U n t i l now, most studies i n this f i e l d have concerned visual subliminal perception, while the auditory modality has not yet been much investigated" (p. 760). Key (1973, 1976, 1980) has surveyed subliminal techniques involving mainly v i s u a l s t i m u l i . In Media Sexploitation, this author devoted a chapter to 'Subliminal Rock' and focussed on the hidden meanings of the words used i n 'rock songs'. Reference was made to a Beatles' recording of a song t i t l e d 'Strawberry Fields' where " i n the las t few grooves...A voice inexplicably appeared at low volume and said, 'I buried Paul'" (p. 210). While acknowledging the existence of subliminal techniques, Key, however, f a i l e d to support his theories with empirical evidence. Even when he was asked whether he had clear, s p e c i f i c proof that subliminals affected behaviour, he responded, "My answer (often unsettling to those who read my books) i s that I do not. Nor do I know anyone else who has clear, s p e c i f i c , s i m p l i s t i c , demon-strable data to settle the questions once and for a l l " (p. 28). - 6 -S i m i l a r l y , Dixon (1981) i n reviewing evidence of unconscious perception, wrote, "Taken together the data from these various sources attest to the r e a l i t y of unconscious perception and preconscious processing. They provide strong support for the notion of two systems - one for information transmission, the other for conscious experience. They suggest that sensory inflow may be subjected to succes-sive levels of analysis and have si g n i f i c a n t effects upon many sorts of psychological func-tioning without ever i t s e l f being consciously represented" (p. 19). Dixon did not categorically state that the data d e f i n i t e l y indicated two systems within the brain, but rather they "indicate strong support", "suggest that", and "may be...". I t i s generally understood that we learn mostly through our fiv e senses, but research i n recent years has shown that our brain i s aware of s t i m u l i which f a l l outside the range of our conscious perception. For example, Dixon (1981) reported that Greer, (1977) "found i n his research on motor movements that his subjects performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y better when receiving subliminal vis u a l information as to the extent of the movement being made" (p. 15). Dixon (1981) argued that within the ranges of our perception there are probably two systems operating. F i r s t l y , there i s the system of conscious experience which can operate independently, and secondly, another system which operates when "the l e v e l of stimulus energy ( i s ) s u f f i c i e n t l y great to activate peripheral receptors and c o r t i c a l reception areas, but i n s u f f i c i e n t l y intense to produce an effect In consciousness" (p. 11). In support of this statement he - 7 -cit e d findings from several researchers, (Lehmann, Beeler, and Fender, 1967; Cobb, E t t l i n g e r , and Morton, 1967), involving experiments on binocular r i v a l r y . In this area i t has been found that although r i v a l r y i s characterized by the fact that information from only one eye i s consciously represented at any one time, both eyes continue to provide the brain with information which i s registered and analyzed. Any stimulus change available only to the non-dominant eye causes binocular r i v a l r y and a corresponding temporary change i n dominance. S i m i l a r l y , other researchers, (Poepel, 1973; Ikeda and Wright, 1974) have stated that i n "blindness due to damage of the central v i s u a l pathways and i n cases of amblyopia, the suppressed eye has been shown responsive to a moving stimulus i n that part of the visua l f i e l d for which the patients were t o t a l l y b l i n d " (p. 14). In the area of dichotic or separate ear l i s t e n i n g i t has been found that the properties of the memory store i n which unattended items were kept were those of long term memory (Martin, 1978). Martin found that unattended s t i m u l i were not rapidly forgotten as had previously been thought, but unlike the attended stimuli were stored i n long term memory. The Poetzl effect (Dixon, 1981) further supports the notion of subliminal stim u l i being stored i n long term memory. "Poetzl, (1971) found that patients with lesions involving the visual areas showed a tendency towards a breakdown of what he called the normal 'abstracting process', with the result that non-consciously perceived stim u l i became 'released'" (p. 21). Another researcher, Fiss (1961) found that relaxation f a c i l i t a t e d the emergence of previous stimulus material. - 8 -Henley (1975), i n examining cross-modal effects of subliminal verbal s t i m u l i found that material i n the unattended auditory channel "was analysed for meaning and was integrated with material i n the attended channel when i t was relevant..." (p. 30). She also found support for the delaying effect of the Poetzl phenomenon. Surprisingly, Henley (1976) was unable to show that subliminal cue words presented to one ear would influence responses to homophones presented to the other ear. However, examination of the results did show that response times were s i g n i f i c a n t l y faster for those words which were correctly matched, and again, when written responses were la t e r required the delayed effect of the subliminal cues was again noted. Research i n the area of hearing (Martin, Hawryluk and Guse, 1974) has shown that when subjects were exposed to tones of high frequency which were beyond the awareness threshold, the subjects could be conditioned to show a galvanic skin response and c o r t i c a l evoked potentials which signaled the a r r i v a l of the information at the cortex. In the second part of their experiment the subjects were required to move a lever to the l e f t when the upper of two l i g h t s flashed on, and to the right when the bottom l i g h t flashed. Unknown to the subjects, ultrasound (sound at 16,000 to 20,000 cycles per second) was paired with the top l i g h t just prior to flashing for the experimental group. The control group received no exposure to ultrasound. During this conditioning phase there was no difference i n response times between the groups. However, when the reversal procedure took place - 9 -and the ultrasound was paired with the bottom l i g h t , reaction time for the experimental group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y faster than for the control group. This suggested that the ultrasound stimulus could "serve as a cue that has some effect on instrumental behaviour" (p. 603). Borgeat and Goulet (1983) also attempted "to measure eventual psychophysiological changes resulting from auditory subliminal a c t i v a t i o n or deactivation suggestions" (p. 759). These suggestions were recorded at the 25 decibel l e v e l and masked with white noise recorded at the 40 d ecibel l e v e l . Their results showed a s i g n i f i c a n t effect for a c t i v a t i o n , but not for deactivation. The suggested reason for a lack of s i g n i f i c a n t deactivation was that as the subjects were already relaxed while l i s t e n i n g to the recorded subliminal messages further s i g n i f i c a n t relaxation or deactivation was not possible. Thus i t appears there i s some evidence that the brain does respond to auditory s t i m u l i of which the conscious mind i s unaware. - 10 -CHAPTER I I I Method Subjects A class of twenty-three grade f i v e students, consisting of fourteen boys and nine g i r l s , ranging i n age from ten to thirteen years, was selected from a small town elementary school. This pa r t i c u l a r school was chosen because i t contained the majority of the d i s t r i c t ' s special education students and these students were integrated into the regular classes. In the class selected, there were s i x male students who were assigned to special class placement on a part-time basis. Apparatus The sp e l l i n g words were selected from the l e v e l seven l i s t compiled by Arvidson (1963). Arvidson's l i s t i n g contains 2,700 words i n seven levels of frequency of usage, with l e v e l seven being the words least frequently used by students i n the elementary school. Arvidson's 2,700 words were selected from a l i s t of 5,000 words compiled by the Bureau of Curriculum Research of the Board of Education of the c i t y of New York between 1946 and 1953. Arvidson, who prepared his l i s t s i n i t i a l l y for New Zealand students although they are now also used by teachers i n England comments, "The frequency levels of the chosen words, based though they were on overseas research, required very few changes to conform to the usage of New Zealand children, and indeed, this was to be expected" (p. 8). - 11 -Each of the 476 words i n l e v e l seven was numbered, and then 150 were assigned to one of f i f t e e n l i s t s of ten words using randomization tables constructed by Kendall and Smith, (1938). The f i f t e e n l i s t s were then labelled L i s t A through to L i s t 0. Following the random assignment of words to the f i f t e e n l i s t s , a subsequent v i s u a l examination showed that some of the l i s t s contained a seemingly unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of d i f f i c u l t s pelling words. To r e c t i f y t h i s , each word i n each l i s t was assigned a given number of points for the following ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s . i a. the number of s y l l a b l e s (1 point for each) b. the number of digraphs (sh-ch-wh, etc.) (1 point for each) c. the number of diphthongs (ea-ai-oa, etc.) (1 point for each) d. the number of double l e t t e r s (1 point for each) e. the number of s i l e n t l e t t e r s (1 point for each) f. irregular l e t t e r to phoneme sounds (tion for shon, gh for f) (1 point for each) By t o t a l l i n g the points for each l i s t i t was possible to make a comparison of the re l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y of each l i s t and to produce an equalizing factor for each l i s t . The factor was derived by taking the t o t a l points (the score for d i f f i c u l t y ) for each l i s t , determining the average, and finding the deviation. The deviation divided by the score for each l i s t then produced the d i f f i c u l t y factor. (See Table 1) A l l student raw scores for each l i s t were then multiplied by the corresponding d i f f i c u l t y factor to obtain adjusted scores. - 12 -Table 1 D i f f i c u l t y Factor Produced by Dividing the Deviation From Average Score by the Spelling L i s t Score for D i f f i c u l t y L i s t Score on D i f f i c u l t y Deviation Factor A 33 +5.334 +.1616 B 23 -4.666 -.2028 C 27 -0.666 -.0246 D 22 -5.666 -.2575 E 25 -2.666 -.1066 F 35 +7.334 +.2095 G 22 -5.666 -.2575 H 27 -0.666 -.0246 I 31 +3.334 +.1075 J 28 +0.334 +.0119 K 28 +0.334 +.0119 L 27 -0.666 -.0246 M 31 +3.334 +.1075 N 25 -2.666 -.1066 0 31 +3.334 +.1075 The preparation of the experimental tapes was done i n the following manner. A f i f t e e n minute selection of music from Encore  (Fiedler's Greatest Hits) (Polydor, Stereo 24-5005) was recorded from a Technics SL D303 turntable, through a R e a l i s t i c Stereo Disco Mixer onto a tape using a Technics RS M225 tape recorder. The spelling words were recorded monaurally on a R e a l i s t i c Minisette IV recorder and played back on the same machine through a second channel of the Mixer. The volume level of the Minisette recorder was set at #.5 and - 13 -the volume lever on the Mixer was set at #0.5. The mixer channel through which the music was recorded was set at #10.0. Successive attempts at c a l i b r a t i n g indicated that these settings e f f e c t i v e l y allowed the high points on the tape containing the spelling words to be recorded at a l e v e l 30 to 40 decibels lower than the music, i n accordance with Key's (1980) suggestion. The tapes were played on a Califone tape recorder Model #3430 with the volume adjusted to #6 l e v e l , which was considered by the classroom teacher and the writer to be a comfortable l e v e l of l i s t e n i n g . This procedure replicated the conditions under which shoppers heard background music i n stores and which Key (1980) claimed to be successful i n reducing s h o p l i f t i n g . Design The design of the experiment i s a basic A1-B-A2 design (Herson and Barlow, 1976). To establish a baseline (Ai) the students were tested on the f i r s t f i v e l i s t s (A - E) consisting of ten s p e l l i n g words each. For the intervention (B), seven l i s t s of ten words (Lists F - L) were subliminally embedded i n music which were played to the class twice during the school day. The taped music was of f i f t e e n minutes duration, and during the f i r s t day of the intervention period contained a l l seven l i s t s of spe l l i n g words. After l i s t e n i n g to the tape twice the students were tested on the words i n L i s t F. The tape for the second intervention day had the same f i f t e e n minutes of recorded music with the remaining s i x l i s t s of ten words subliminally embedded. After two exposures to this tape the class was then tested on L i s t G. S i m i l a r l y , each succeeding tape had the previous day's l i s t of words, upon which the children had been tested, removed u n t i l the seventh day's l i s t completed the intervention•period with only one l i s t ( L i s t L) played. F i n a l l y a second baseline measurement (A£) was made, using L i s t s M - 0. So that the students would be unaware of the change to baseline2 conditions, the same musical excerpt without any subliminal implants was played twice each day before L i s t s M, N and 0 were tested. Schematically, the design i s shown i n Figure 1. Baselines- Intervention Baseline -' 7 6 L . K L J K . I J L H I K . G H J L F G I K . H J L I K . J L K 1 2 3 4 5 H K M N 0 Legend • L i s t s Tested -Number of Li s t s Presented Subliminally 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Figure 1 Number and label of spelling l i s t s presented to students and l i s t s tested per day and per phase. - 15 -Frequency of Exposure The selected s p e l l i n g words were recorded at an average rate of 24.5 words per minute, with the whole word being stated, followed by the word spelled l e t t e r by l e t t e r . Each tape was played twice during the day while the students were engaged i n reading or writing a c t i v i t i e s at their desks. After a tape has been played to the class the second time, the teacher then tested the class on the l i s t of words assigned for the day. (Figure 1). Students were exposed to tapes at varying degrees of frequency as noted i n Table 2. Table 2 Frequency of Presentation of Spelling L i s t s Per Day for the Intervention Phase Name of Spelling L i s t Number of Days Presented Frequency of Exposure for Each Spelling L i s t . Total Frequency of Exposure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 F 1 8 8 G 2 8 12 20 H 3 8 12 16 36 I 4 8 12 16 20 56 J 5 8 12 16 20 26 82 K 6 8 12 16 20 26 38 120 L 7 8 12 16 20 26 38 76 196 Intervention Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 - 16 -Duration of Experiment I t was o r i g i n a l l y planned that the experiment would take place over a period of 15 school days, but due to the r e a l i t i e s of school o p e r a t i o n there were many delays caused by p u p i l i l l n e s s , sports days, school v i s i t o r s , Easter h o l i d a y s , unexpected school assemblies, teacher i n - s e r v i c e days, and changes i n s p e c i a l c l a s s t i m e t a b l i n g . This extended the o r i g i n a l period of three school weeks to almost eig h t school weeks. Thus the f i r s t phase ( A i ) took place over a p e r i o d of seven days, the second phase (B) over a period of t h i r t y -seven days, and the t h i r d phase (A2) over a period of seven days. A n a l y s i s of Results The words s p e l l e d by each c h i l d were checked f o r correctness by the experimenter. Words were not considered c o r r e c t unless w r i t t e n e x a c t l y as s p e l l e d i n Arvidson's l i s t s . To examine whether there had been any e f f e c t by the i n t e r v e n t i o n on the number of l e t t e r s c o r r e c t l y placed, a count f o r each l e t t e r c o r r e c t l y placed i n each word was done f o r a l l l i s t s . C l a s s , group, and i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s were graphed f o r easy v i s u a l p resentation. Small group r e s u l t s were graphed f o r v i s u a l comparison. D i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n of the graphed r e s u l t s gave a v i s u a l i n d i c a t i o n of whether the treatment was s u c c e s s f u l i n i n c r e a s i n g the c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y to s p e l l the words which were presented to them s u b l i m i n a l l y . Herson and Barlow (1976), i n a chapter w r i t t e n by Kazdin, pre-sented s e v e r a l relevant statements concerning the use of graphing the r e s u l t s of experimental designs. Kazdin s t a t e d f i r s t l y , that the r e l i a b i l i t y of a f i n d i n g i n the experimental sense, can be achieved - 17 -by r e p l i c a t i n g the baseline l e v e l of performance during the interven-t i o n , and secondly, that the t y p i c a l c r i t e r i o n for experimental evaluation i s related to the divergent slopes of baseline and treat-ment phases, where the emphasis i s on the trends or slopes in each phase. When a baseline condition i s reinstated the trend i s l i k e l y to be i n the opposite direction of the intervention. Lastly, he makes the point that intra-subject r e p l i c a t i o n of treatment and base-l i n e results s a t i s f i e s the experimental c r i t e r i o n of r e p l i c a t i o n without having to use the " s t a t i s t i c a l comparisons characteristic of between-group research" (p. 268). For these reasons, Kazdin rejected s t a t i s t i c a l evaluation as a (necessary) " c r i t e r i o n for establishing the effect of an intervention" (p. 269). The twenty-three individual student graphs give a visua l indication of the effect of the intervention phase compared with the two baseline performances. However, to determine the s t a t i s t i c a l effectiveness of the intervention phase " t " tests were calculated for the whole class between baseline^ and intervention; intervention and baseline2 5 and baseline^ and baseline2« Si m i l a r l y , further " t " tests (between groups) were used to compare performance between regular class boys and g i r l s ; and between regular class students and special class students; for baseline^, intervention, and baseline2 phases. - 18 -CHAPTER IV Results The results of the class achievement i n raw scores for a l l three phases and the dates on which each of the spelling l i s t s were tested, i s shown i n Figure 2. Figure 3 shows the percentage of l e t t e r s correctly placed i n each l i s t for a l l students and also uses raw scores. A l l following figures contain results expressed as adjusted scores, obtained by multiplying the raw score by the d i f f i c u l t y factor for each spe l l i n g l i s t (Table 1). Class achievement using adjusted scores i s shown i n Figure 4, with Figure 5 showing the comparison between Special Class students and the regular class students, and Figure 6 showing the comparison between boys, g i r l s , and Special Class students. - 61 -- 20 -iCTLY 94 -A l B A 2 ID CORFU 9 2 - / ID CORFU 9 0 - / (_> < i 8 8 -LETTERS PI EACH WORD 8 6 -8 4 -u. z o — 8 2 -/ :ENTAGE 8 0 -7 8 -i \ cc * L U oT LISTS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 0 Figure 3 Percentage of l e t t e r s placed correctly i n each l i s t for a l l students for a l l phases. - 21 -o w 2 ' CO o u co Q £ w co SPELLING LISTS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 4 Adjusted scores for number of words spelled correctly by students each day, and means for basellne(A^) intervention and baseline (A2) phases. Examination of Figure 3 shows the means for each phase as base-l i n e (A^) 109.12, intervention (B) 122.53, and baseline (A2), as 103.5. By comparing the means for each phase a highly s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found between k\ and B (t = 4.0749, p > .001) and between B and A2 (t = 4.7339, p > .001). There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between A^ and A2 (t = 1.4501, p < .1). Analysis of the intervention phase for Figure 4 showed an increase i n scores between L i s t I and L i s t s J, K, and L. The increase from L i s t I to J was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the p > .1 - 22 -l e v e l , while the change between the L i s t I score to the L i s t K score was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at p > .05. The increase between L i s t I and L i s t L was s i g n i f i c a n t at P > .001. As there was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n the scores f o r L i s t s F to I , these scores were averaged f o r comparison with the average of the scores f o r L i s t s J , K, and L. This y i e l d e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t increase (t = 5.8514, p> .001). - 23 -to CO I-co z < LU CO _ l O Q O 13 CC I— O I CO 3 < 140-130-120-110-100-90-80-70-60-50-40-30-20-10-0-B A 2 — CO CC O (/) O LU < u. a i Legend co o CO LU >- CC CC CO <£ O —I O >- =5 CO _1 o Special « Class Students \- LU Q O CC LU LU Q CO < Q t-I— CC Q in B: z ^ o < —> o 4r Regular •A Class Students LU Z _ l _J LU < _J Q J— LU ZD O 0- I— I— CO CO SPELLING LISTS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 5 Total adjusted scores for number of words spelled correctly by special class students and regular class students for the three phases. S t a t i s t i c a l calculation shows there i s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the special class students' results and the remainder of the class. When comparing the two groups on baseline Ai , t = 5.9374, with p > .001. Comparison of the intervention phases showed t = 5.7745, p> .001, and the comparison of baseline A 2 gave t = 6.0198, p > .001. - 24 -CC H-o o O LU CO CC CC Q O LU <_> I-CO Q Q —1 < LU Q-LU CO < CO •£ Q LU 0£ > O < 3 9.0-8.0-7.0-6.0 5.0-4.0-3.0-2.0-1.0-0.0 LISTS A l A 2 Legend © 0 G i r l s • • Boys A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 6 Average daily s p e l l i n g scores for regular class g i r l s , and regular class boys, for baseline and intervention phases. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the boys' and g i r l s ' scores. Comparison of baseline (A^) gave t = 0.4058, p< .1, intervention phase (B) gave t = 0.6083, p < .1, and baseline (A2) gave t = 0.3564, p< .1. - 25 -The following graphs, Figures 7 to 29 i l l u s t r a t e individual achieve-ment on a l l s p e l l i n g l i s t s throughout the three phases. o o Q. CO CO Q CC O 3 o co A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 7 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 01 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A2) phases. Pupil 01 was a male special class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 3.70, for intervention phase, 3.37, and for baseline (A2), 3.66. - 26 ->< H U § orf o o o Cd i J • J w Cfl to O b O PS w pa 2 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 8 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 02 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A 2) phases. Pupil 02 was a female regular class student. The mean achieved for baseline (Ai) was 6.72, for intervention phase, 6.45, and for baseline ( A 2 ) , 5.80. - 27 -A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 9 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 03 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A2) phases. Pupil 03 was a male regular class student. The mean achieved for baseline (Aj) was 8.24, for intervention phase, 9.08, and for baseline (A2), 5.20. - 28 -A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 10 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 04 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A2) phases. Pupil 04 was a female regular class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 5.08, for intervention phase, 5.48, and for baseline ( A 2 ) , 4.83. - 29 -CC CC o o 0_ io LO o o o CC LU CQ LISTS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 11 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 05 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A2) phases. Pu p i l 05 was a female regular class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 6.86, for intervention phase, 8.20, and for baseline (A2), 4.83. - 30 -A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 12 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 06 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A 2) phases. Pupil 06 was a male regular class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 2.38, for intervention phase, 4.07, and for baseline ( A 2 ) , 3.66. - 31 -LISTS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 13 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 07 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A 2) phases. Pupil 07 was a male special class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 0.56, for intervention phase, 1.74, and for baseline (A 2), 0.26. - 32 -CC CC o Q-co CO Q CC O LU CO A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 14 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 08 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A 2) phases. Pupil 08 was a male regular class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 6.12, for Intervention phase, 7.32, and for baseline ( A 2 ) , 5.50. - 33 -oc cc o <_> o LU 0_ CO CO Q CC O 3 oc LU CQ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 15 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 09 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A 2) phases. Pupil 09 was a female regular class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 3.30, for intervention phase, 4.47, and for baseline (A2), 3.36. - 34 -o LU CC CC O O CO CO Q CC O O CC cn LISTS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 16 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 10 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A 2) phases. Pupil 10 was a male special class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 0.50, for intervention phase, 0.92, and for baseline ( A 2 ) , 0.26. - 35 -CC cc o <_> Q LU U1 to Q a: o CC LU ca A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 17 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 11 during baseline (Aj) intervention and baseline (A 2) phases. Pupil 11 was a male regular class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 4.42, for intervention phase, 4.70, and for baseline ( A 2 ) , 4.03. - 36 -cc cc o a. to to o cc o o cc LU CQ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 18 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 12 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A 2) phases. Pupil 12 was a female regular class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 5.00, for intervention phase, 5.34, and for baseline (A2), 4.40. - 37 -o LU CC CC o o 0_ to to Q CC O LU CQ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 19 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 13 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A 2) phases. Pupil 13 was a male special class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 2.98, for intervention phase, 2.85, and for baseline (A2), 2.63. - 38 -cc cc o LU o_ to to Q CC o cc LU 03 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 20 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 14 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A 2) phases. Pupil 14 was a female regular class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 7.60, for intervention phase, 8.05, and for baseline ( A 2 ) , 7.56. - 39 -0£ or: o o a a. to to Q a: o o cc LU CD LISTS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 21 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil,15 during baseline (Ai) intervention and baseline (A 2) phases. Pupil 15 was a female regular class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 5.64, for intervention phase, 6.55, and for baseline ( A 2 ) , 5.80 - 40 -A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 22 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 16 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A 2) phases. Pupil 16 was a male regular class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 6.98, for intervention phase, 6.45, and for baseline ( A 2 ) , 6.10. - 41 -10.0 Al B A 2 :D CORRECTLY 9.0-8.0-7.0-_J _ i 6.0-WORDS SPE 5.0-4.0-u_ o 3.0-JMBER 2.0Z i z O.O^ T LISTS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N 0 Figure 23 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 17 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline ( A 2 ) phases. Pupil 17 was a male regular class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 7.36, for intervention phase, 7.68, and for baseline (A2), 7.86 - 42 -cc cc o 0-co CO o cc o LU CD LISTS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 24 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil, 18 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A 2) phases. Pupil 18 was a female regular class student. The mean achieved for baseline (Ai) was 7.84, for intervention phase, 7.14, and for baseline ( A 2 ) , 7.20 - 43 -cc cc o o CO CO Q CC O O CC U l CO A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 25 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 19 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A 2) phases. Pu p i l 19 was a female regular class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 3.44, for intervention phase, 5.14, and for baseline ( A 2 ) , 4.10. - 44 -cc CC o <_> LU Q-tO to o cc o 3 o DC m 2: 8.0-7.0-6.0-5.0-4.0-3.0-2.0-1.0-0.0-A 2 LISTS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 26 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 20 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A 2) phases. Pupil 20 was a male special class student. The mean achieved for baseline (Ai) was 0.56, for intervention phase, 0.88, and for baseline ( A 2 ) , 0.00. - 45 -0 -O^j^ j LISTS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 27 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 21 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A 2) phases. Pupil 21 was a male regular class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 8.50, for intervention phase, 9.42, and for baseline ( A 2 ) , 8.90. - 46 -Pupil 22 was a male regular class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was .4.78, for intervention phase, 6.01, and for baseline (A2), 5.43. - 47 -LISTS A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Figure 29 Number of words spelled correctly by pupil 23 during baseline (A^) intervention and baseline (A 2) phases. Pupil 23 was a male special class student. The mean achieved for baseline (A^) was 0.56, for intervention phase, 1.12, and for baseline ( A 2 ) , 0.00. - 48 -Table 3 I n d i v i d u a l Student Means f o r Each Phase Average Average Average Adjusted Adjusted Adjusted Student Score f o r A 1 Score f o r B Score f o r A ? 01 3.70 3.37 3.66 02 6.72 6.45 5.80 03 8.24 9.08 5.20 04 5.08 5.48 4.83 05 6.86 8.20 6.90 06 2.38 4.07 3.66 07 0.56 1.74 0.26 08 6.12 7.32 5.50 09 3.30 4.47 3.36 10 0.50 0.92 0.26 11 4.42 4.70 4.03 12 5.00 5.34 4.40 13 2.98 2.85 2.63 14 7.60 8.05 7.56 15 5.64 6.55 5.80 16 6.98 6.45 6.10 17 7.36 7.68 7.86 18 7.84 7.14 7.20 19 3.44 5.14 4.10 20 0.56 0.88 0.00 21 8.50 9.42 8.90 22 4.78 6.01 5.43 23 0.56 1.12 0.00 - 49 -CHAPTER V Interpretation of Results, Summary and Conclusion The f i r s t question raised i n this study was whether It was possible to increase the number of new words spelled correctly by exposing the students to those words embedded subliminally i n music. The results indicate that the number of words spelled correctly was increased. S i m i l a r l y , the results showed there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant difference i n the average number of words spelled correctly by students i n the regular class when compared with students i n the special class. The increase i n the number of words spelled correctly during baseline (Aj) and intervention (B) for the class was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , (t = 3.9323, p> .01); but for students i n the special class, the comparison did not show s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t results, (t = 1.5417, p< .1). When comparing the number of words spelled correctly during intervention (B) and second baseline (A2), both groups showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t decreases, (regular students, t = 3.5048, p > .01, and special class students, t = 2.6099, P> .05). Thus i t would appear that the greatest gains i n learning new words to s p e l l by subliminal means are made by students of the regular class. Comparison of scores between the boys and g i r l s of the regular class showed no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g nificant differences. When comparing boys' with g i r l s ' baselines (A^) (t = .4058, p < .1), comparing intervention (B), (t = .6083, p< .1), and comparing baselines ( A 2), (t = .3564, p< .1). Obviously subliminal stimulation as used in this investigation equally affects both sexes. - 50 -Since the f i r s t test i n the intervention phase to show a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n the number of words correctly spelled was L i s t J , one may assume that the subliminal stimulation had a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t effect after the students had been exposed to 82 subliminal stimulations. The project was modelled on Key's (1980) suggestion that the subliminal s t i m u l i were effective i n reducing s h o p l i f t i n g when recorded 30 to 40 decibels below the l e v e l of recorded music. Because the recording l e v e l of the music varies, one cannot be certain that the intensity of the music may not have obliterated some of the subliminal s t i m u l i . Perhaps only a certain percentage of the subliminal s t i m u l i were ef f e c t i v e . It i s not possible to provide a d e f i n i t i v e answer using the results obtained i n this experiment. A l l that can be stated i s that the f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t effect i n the intervention phase took place after the students were exposed to 82 subliminal stimulations. Summary and Conclusion During the baseline, a class of twenty-three grade f i v e students, including s i x special class students were given l i s t s of words to s p e l l . During intervention, following auditory subliminal exposure to word l i s t s equalized i n d i f f i c u l t y , they were tested. There was a progressive increase i n the number of words spelled correctly. Following the intervention phase, during a second baseline phase, the number of words spelled correctly f e l l to within the range covered by the f i r s t baseline. - 51 -The results showed that auditory subliminal stimulation can be used to increase the number of words spelled correctly. This method was found to be more effective with students i n regular class than with students i n special class, and equally effective with boys and g i r l s . F i n a l l y , a minimum of 82 subliminal stimulations appear to be necessary to produce the f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t increase. Implications for Further Investigation - Limitations of the Study No attempt was made to determine the reasons why subliminal stimulation was more effective with some students than with others. Since the stimulation was auditory, i t seems reasonable to conjecture that those students who are stronger auditory learners may benefit most from the auditory subliminal stimulation. Also,, since the stimulation ceased after 196 exposures, a further area of investigation should concern an increase i n the number of exposures to sti m u l i to see i f a maximum or c e i l i n g effect occurs. Instead of using music to mask the subliminal words, perhaps a better method would have been to use white noise, thus possibly ensuring a more stable presentation of words. Another aspect not covered i n this investigation was the effect of, delay i n testing words which had already been exposed many times several days previously. Would the results have been different i f a l l the exposures had taken place immediately preceeding the test? While i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to construct word l i s t s with equivalent s p e l l i n g d i f f i c u l t y due to the many variables within each child's a b i l i t y , i t may have been more appropriate to have taken words - 52 -from the same frequency l e v e l and matched them for the number of s y l l a b l e s , diphthongs, digraphs, double l e t t e r s , s i l e n t l e t t e r s , and ir r e g u l a r phonemes rather than using the d i f f i c u l t y factor method used i n this research. Perhaps completely irrelevant t r i v i a should be embedded as subliminal implants and exposed several hundred times to the students to see i f any new learning had taken place, as this would e f f e c t i v e l y l i m i t confounding the results with the students' prior knowledge. S i m i l a r l y , another experimental design where the students were f i r s t pretested on the spelling words may have shown more c l e a r l y individual gains between regular and special class students, although any previous exposure to words included i n the intervention phase would introduce a practice effect. A design involving a pretest would also have determined whether or not the students had previous knowledge of how to s p e l l the words selected. In the design used i n this study, conditions between A^ and A 2 differed because music without subliminal stimulation was played to the class on the days that words were tested to establish the second baseline, ( A 2 ) , but this can be considered inconsequential. While the s p e l l i n g words used were compiled over twenty years ago, Arvidson (1963) found that the o r i g i n a l l i s t s , which had been collected seventeen years before his research, "required very few changes...and indeed this was to be expected" (p. 8). Language changes are very gradual. F i n a l l y , the question can be raised whether the subliminal learning could be more effective i f the student were to relax (Fiss, 1961) l i s t e n i n g to music - 53 -through headsets rather than the gener a l i z e d exposure of an open speaker u n i t i n an a c t i v e classroom. The areas of i n v e s t i g a t i o n suggested are numerous. We need to know at what l e v e l below the l e v e l of recorded music s u b l i m i n a l implants remain e f f e c t i v e . Does frequent exposure to s u b l i m i n a l messages make subsequent s u b l i m i n a l exposure more e f f e c -t i v e ? Can s u b l i m i n a l s t i m u l i be used to change aberrant behaviour? Could a new language be taught using s u b l i m i n a l s t i m u l i only? The questions seem l i m i t l e s s , but perhaps the most important i s the one r a i s e d by Key (1973, 1976, 1980) when he asks i f human behaviour i s already being manipulated by the media using s u b l i m i n a l procedures to induce people to buy products which they may not want. - 54 -REFERENCES Arvidson, G.L. (1963) Learning To Spell . Exeter, U.K., A. Wheaton & Co. Borgeat, F. and Goulet, J. (1983) Psychophysiological changes f o l -lowing auditory subliminal suggestions for activation and deactivation, Perceptual and Motor S k i l l s 56, 759-766. Cobb, W.A. E t t l i n g e r , G. and Morton, H.B. (1967) Visual evoked poten-t i a l s i n binocular r i v a l r y , E.E.G. and C l i n i c a l Neurophysiology, Suppl. 26. Dixon, N.F. (1981) Preconscious Processing. Toronto, John Wiley & Sons. F i s s , H. (1961) State of consciousness and the subliminal ef f e c t , Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, New York University. Greer, C.L. (1977) Role of muscle receptors i n the control of move-ment. Ph. D. Thesis, University of London, p. 128. Henley, S.H.A. (1974) Responses to homophones as a function of cue words on the unattended channel, B r i t i s h Journal of Psychology, 65, 529-536. Hersen, M., and Barlow, D.H. (1976) Single Case Experimental Designs, New York. Peramon Press. Ikeda, H. and Wright, M.J. (1974) Is amblyopia due to inappropriate stimulation of the "sustained" pathway during development? B r i t i s h Journal of Opthalmology, 58, 165-75. Kendall, M.G. and Smith, B.B. (1938) Randomness and random sampling numbers, Journal of the Royal S t a t i s t i c a l Society, 101, 164-166. Key, W.B. (1973) Subliminal Seduction. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, Prentice-Hall Inc. Key, W.B. (1976) Media Sexploitation. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, Prentice-Hall Inc. Key, W.B. (1980) Clam-Plate Orgy. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, Prentice-Hall Inc. - 55 -Lehmann, D., Beeler, G.W. and Fender, D.H. (1965) Changes i n p a t t e r n of the human electro-encephalogram during f l u c t u a t i o n s of perception of s t a b l i z e d r e t i n a l images. E.E.G. and C l i n i c a l  Neurophysiology, 19, 336-43. M a r t i n , M. (1978) Retention of attended and unattended a u d i t o r i l y and v i s u a l l y presented m a t e r i a l , Q u a r terly J o u r n a l of E x p e r i - mental psychology, 30, 187-200. M a r t i n , D.G., Hawryluk, G.A., and Guse, L.L. (1974) Experimental study of unconscious i n f l u e n c e s : ultrasound as a s t i m u l u s , J o u r n a l of Abnormal Psychology, 57, 373-376. Merriam-Webster (1970) Webster's Seventh New C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n a r y , Toronto, Ontario, Thomas A l l e n & Son L t d . P o e t z l , 0. (1917) The r e l a t i o n s h i p between experimentally induced dream images and i n d i r e c t v i s i o n , Monograph No. 7, P s y c h o l o g i c a l Issues, 2, 41-120, (1960). Poppel, E., Held, R., and F r o s t , D. (1973) Resi d u a l v i s u a l f u n c t i o n s a f t e r b r a i n wounds i n v o l v i n g the c e n t r a l v i s u a l pathways i n man, Nature, 243, 295-296. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, M i n i s t r y of Education, S p e c i a l pro-grams, (1981) A Manual of P o l i c i e s , Procedures and G u i d e l i n e s . Riggs, L.A. and W h i t t l e , P. (1967) Human o c c i p i t a l and r e t i n a l poten-t i a l s evoked by s u b j e c t i v e l y faded v i s u a l s t i m u l i , . V i s i o n  Research, 7, 441-451. 

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