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A dropout prediction study with work study/work experience programme students Kinaschuk, William Dale 1984

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A D r o p o u t P r e d i c t i o n S t u d y w i t h Work Study/Work E x p e r i e n c e Programme S t u d e n t s by W i l l i a m D a l e K i n a s c h u k B.Sc., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r a q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE © UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1984 W i l l i a m D a l e K i n a s c h u k , 1984 AUTHORIZATION In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head of my d e p a r t m e n t or by h i s or h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n ot be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D epartment of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 M a i n M a l l . V a n c o u v e r , B. C. Canada V6T 1Y3 March 1984 i ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e of t h i s , s»t.udy/ w.as»- d i r e c t e d , t o w a r d s i d e n t i . f yingj, v a r i a b l e s t h a t might be u s e f u l i n p r e d i c t i n g whether s t u d e n t s who e n r o l l e d i n a j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y Work Study/Work E x p e r i e n c e programme i n Kamloops d u r i n g t h e 1981-82 S c h o o l y e a r would e i t h e r c o m p l e t e t h e s c h o o l y e a r or d r o p o u t . I f i t was p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e p o t e n t i a l d r o p o u t s t h e n s t r a t e g i e s t o p r e p a r e them f o r t h e w o r k i n g w o r l d and t o d i s s u a d e them f r o m d r o p p i n g o u t c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d . A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e showed t h a t t h e t o p i c o f s p e c i a l needs s t u d e n t s d r o p p i n g o u t of Work Study/Work E x p e r i e n c e programmes had not been a d d r e s s e d . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h a t t h e c o l l e g e and h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l s d i d however h e l p t o i d e n t i f y v a r i a b l e s and m e t h o d o l o g i e s t h a t were u t i l i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y . D a t a were c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e s t u d e n t s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e s c h o o l y e a r w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u m e n t s : S t u d e n t  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , S t a n d a r d P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c s , C a n a d i a n T e s t s of  B a s i c S k i l l s , and S c h o o l S e n t i m e n t Index . A s e l f a d m i n i s t e r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a l s o c o m p l e t e d by t h e s t u d e n t s ' p a r e n t s a t t h e s t a r t of t h e s c h o o l y e a r . D a t a from t h e s t u d e n t s ' Permanent R e c o r d c a r d s and t h e i r s t a t u s as a p e r s i s t e r o r d r o p o u t were c o l l e c t e d a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e 1981-82 s c h o o l y e a r . The d a t a were a n a l y z e d w i t h subprogrammes from t h e S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , SPSS , V e r s i o n s 8 and 9 ( N i e , H u l l , J e n k i n s , S t e i n b r e n n e r , and B e n t , 1975). The c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e s were a n a l y z e d - w i t h the" C h i s q u a r e 5 t e s t o f i n d e p e n d a n c e and t h e measured v a r i a b l e s w i t h t h e t - t e s t , b o t h a t i i t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . The e q u a l l y of v a r i a n c e w i t h i n t h e two g r o u p s on t h e measured v a r i a b l e s was a n a l y z e d w i t h t h e F - t e s t . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s were f o u n d a t t h e .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e on f o u r v a r i a b l e s . T h e s e v a r i a b l e s were: i n t e l l i g e n c e , s c h o o l l e v e l f a i l e d , e x p e c t e d e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , and RCMP c o n t a c t s . I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e p e r s i s t e r s had a low e r mean i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l t h a n t h e d r o p o u t s . The m a j o r i t y o f p e r s i s t e r s t e n d e d t o have f a i l e d d u r i n g t h e i r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l y e a r s whereas t h e dr o p o u t s ^ were s p l i t between t h e i r e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l s . I t was r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e p e r s i s t e r s r e a l i s t i c a l l y e x p e c t e d t o a t t a i n a h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l t h a n d i d t h e d r o p o u t s . When t h e s t u d e n t s ' p a r e n t s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l t h e y r e a l i s t i c a l l y e x p e c t e d t h e i r s o n / d a u g h t e r t o a t t a i n , i t was shown t h a t t h e p e r s i s t e r s ' p a r e n t s e x p e c t e d a h i g h e r l e v e l t h a n t h e p a r e n t s o f d r o p o u t s . The a n a l y s i s a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e p e r s i s t e r s had fewer c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e RCMP t h a n d i d t h e d r o p o u t s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i L I S T OF TABLES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i x CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION 1 B a c k g r o u n d 2 P u r p o s e 4 J u s t i f i c a t i o n 5 CHAPTER I I : REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 6 M e t h o d o l o g i e s 6 Ex P o s t F a c t o V e r s u s L o n g i t u d i n a l 7 Ex P o s t F a c t o : S t r e n g t h s And Weaknesses 8 L o n g i t u d i n a l : S t r e n g t h s And Weaknesses 11 Common F a u l t s 14 S p e c i f i c R e v i e w s 16 Ex P o s t F a c t o S t u d i e s 16 L o n g i t u d i n a l S t u d i e s 21 Summary And V a r i a b l e s C o n s i d e r e d 25 CHAPTER I I I : METHODOLOGY 29 P o p u l a t i o n 30 V a r i a b l e s 33 I n s t r u m e n t s 33 P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e And S t u d e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 33 P s y c h o m e t r i c T e s t s 34 I n t e l l i g e n c e 34 A c h i e v e m e n t 36 A t t i t u d e Towards S c h o o l 39 P i l o t T e s t i n g 42 S p e c i a l P r o c e d u r e s 43 Data C o l l e c t i o n 44 Da t a P r e p a r a t i o n 44 D a t a A n a l y s e s 45 Agreement Of R e s p o n s e s Between P a r e n t s And S t u d e n t s ... 46 D r i v e r ' s L i c e n c e 48 Car O w n e r s h i p 48 S p e n d i n g Money 48 B r e a k f a s t E a t e n 49 Lu n c h E a t e n 49 Mode Of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n To S c h o o l 50 T r a v e l l i n g Time To S c h o o l 50 T r a v e l l i n g Time Home 51 CHAPTER IV: R e s u l t s And D i s c u s s i o n 53 Response R a t e s 55 Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 55 Gender 57 Age 57 Number Of S i b l i n g s 57 S i b l i n g O r d e r 58 P r e s e n t F a m i l y S i z e 58 T a b l e Language 58 F i r s t Language 58 Number Of Moves 59 N a t u r a l P a r e n t s A t Home 59 S o c i o - e c o n o m i c S t a t u s F a m i l y Head 59 Summary 61 C l u s t e r e d V a r i a b l e s 61 E d u c a t i o n 62 I n t e l l i g e n c e 62 Academic A c h i e v e m e n t 63 F a i l u r e And S c h o o l L e v e l F a i l e d 65 A t t i t u d e Towards S c h o o l 67 P a r e n t s ' E d u c a t i o n 69 P a r e n t s ' I d e a l i z e d And E x p e c t e d E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s .. 71 S t u d e n t s ' I d e a l i z e d And E x p e c t e d E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s . 75 S u b j e c t P r e f e r e n c e 77 Y e a r s In WS/WE 79 Number Of S c h o o l s A t t e n d e d 79 A b s e n c e s : L a s t F i v e Y e a r s 81 S o c i a l B e h a v i o u r 82 RCMP C o n t a c t s 82 S t e a d y G i r l / B o y F r i e n d 83 B e s t F r i e n d s In S c h o o l 84 I n v o l v e m e n t In Community And S c h o o l 85 F a m i l y 86 Economic 88 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e 89 S p e n d i n g Money 89 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 89 T r a v e l l i n g Time To S c h o o l And To R e t u r n Home 90 D r i v e r ' s L i c e n c e 90 v i C ar O w n e r s h i p 90 E a t i n g H a b i t s 90 CHAPTER V - SUMMARY 92 P u r p o s e And M e t h o d o l o g y 92 Summary Of F i n d i n g s 94 I n t e l l i g e n c e 94 S c h o o l L e v e l F a i l e d 94 E x p e c t e d E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l 94 RCMP C o n t a c t s 95 L i m i t a t i o n s 95 S m a l l D r o p o u t Sample 95 Da t a C o l l e c t i o n 96 La c k Of V a r i a n c e 97 C o n c l u s i o n s 98 S u g g e s t i o n s F o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 98 REFERENCES 101 APPENDIX A 104 APPENDIX B 125 v i i L I S T OF TABLES 2.1 D r o p o u t P r o n e n e s s S c a l e 18 2.2 V a r i a b l e s C o n s i d e r e d To D i s t i n g u i s h Between G r a d u a t e s And D r o p o u t s 23 2.3 V a r i a b l e s S e l e c t e d 27 3.1 I n t e r n a l C o n s i s t e n c y F o r The SSI 41 3.2 L e v e l Of C o n g r u e n c y By S t a t u s 47 4.1 Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Of The Sample By S t a t u s ... 56 4.2 Summary S t a t i s t i c s = SPM 63 4.3 Summary S t a t i s t i c s : CTBS S u b t e s t s 65 4.4 F a i l u r e By S t a t u s . 66 4.5 S c h o o l L e v e l s F a i l e d By S t a t u s 67 4.6 Summary S t a t i s t i c s : SSI S u b s c a l e s . . 69 4.7 P a r e n t s ' E d u c a t i o n By S t a t u s 71 4.8 P a r e n t s ' I d e a l i z e d And E x p e c t e d E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l By S t a t u s 73 4.9 S t u d e n t s ' I d e a l i z e d And E x p e c t e d E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s By S t a t u s 77 4.10 S u b j e c t P r e f e r e n c e By S t a t u s 78 4.11 Summary S t a t i s t i c s : Y e a r s In WS/WE 79 4.12 Summary S t a t i s t i c = Number Of S c h o o l s A t t e n d e d 80 4.13 Summary S t a t i s t i c s : A b s e n c e s , L a s t F i v e Y e a r s 82 4.14 RCMP C o n t a c t s By S t a t u s 83 4.15 S t e a d y G i r l Or B o y f r i e n d By S t a t u s 83 4.16 " S t e a d y " In S c h o o l By S t a t u s .. 84 v i i i 4.17 B e s t F r i e n d s In S c h o o l By S t a t u s 85 4.18 I n v o l v e m e n t In Community And S c h o o l By S t a t u s 86 4.19 I n f l u e n c e Of O l d e r S i b l i n g s By S t a t u s 88 4.20 O l d e r S i b l i n g s Who D r o p p e d Out By S t a t u s 88 B.1 P a r e n t s ' S e c o n d J o b By S t a t u s 125 B.2 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e By S t a t u s 125 B.3 S p e n d i n g Money By S t a t u s 126 B.4 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n To S c h o o l By S t a t u s 126 B.5 Summary S t a t i s t i c s : T r a v e l l i n g Time To S c h o o l 127 B.6 Summary S t a t i s t i c s : T r a v e l l i n g Time Home 127 B.7 D r i v e r ' s L i c e n c e By S t a t u s 128 B.8 Car O w n e r s h i p By S t a t u s ' 128 B.9 B r e a k f a s t E a t e n By S t a t u s 129 B.10 L u n c h E a t e n By S t a t u s 129 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w i t h t o thank my t h e s i s c o m m i t t e ; Dr. B r y a n C l a r k e , Dr. D a v i d K e n d a l l , and D r . Todd R o g e r s f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . My g r a t i t u d e t o my c o l l e a g u e s : L i z Cameron, Bob Chenoweth, B i l l Duncan, Wayne N o r t o n , D i c k Reimer, Dave S c o t t , John Watson, and J o h n Webb. S p e c i a l t h a n k s t o L i z Cameron and B i l l Duncan f o r e v e r y t h i n g , and t o Bob Chenoweth f o r h i s e n t h u s i a s m . The s u p p o r t and encouragement o f ' my f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , and e s p e c i a l l y my good buddy L i z Cameron were g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . I a l s o w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e and e x p r e s s my g r a d i t u d e t o Dr. Todd R o g e r s f o r t a k i n g me under h i s wing a c a d e m i c a l l y . A g a i n , thank you a l l . 1 A DROPOUT PREDICTION STUDY WITH WORK STUDY/WORK EXPERIENCE PROGRAMME STUDENTS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The use of t h e w o r k i n g w o r l d t o complement t h e e d u c a t i o n of s t u d e n t s has q u i t e l i k e l y been i n e x i s t e n c e s i n c e t h e n o t i o n o f work and e d u c a t i o n were f i r s t f o r m a l i z e d . I t s use p r e s e n t l y r a n g e s from t h e e d u c a t i o n of t h e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d i n work r e l a t e d s i t u a t i o n s t h r o u g h t o t h e e d u c a t i o n o f m e d i c a l s t u d e n t s d u r i n g t h e i r i n t e r n s h i p s . In t h e h i g h s c h o o l s t h e r e a r e a number of d i f f e r e n t programmes w h i c h use t h e w o r k i n g w o r l d . These programmes can be c l a s s i f i e d u nder v a r i o u s names, e a c h s p e c i f i c f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s t u d e n t s and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . The t h r e e names wh i c h most o f t e n o c c u r i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a r e : work e x p e r i e n c e , work s t u d y , and c o o p e r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n . The d e f i n i t i o n of t h e s e t e r m s , however, t e n d t o be somewhat "vague" i n t h a t t h e y v a r y from one a u t h o r t o a n o t h e r ( B u r c h i l l , 1962). I n an a t t e m p t t o c l a r i f y t h i s i s s u e , Mason and H a i n e s (1965) p r o v i d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s . Work e x p e r i e n c e : S t u d e n t p e r f o r m s t a s k s o f a c t u a l j o b . May o r may not be p a i d . T y p i c a l l y e n g a g e d i n f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s , i n c l u d i n g e x p l o r a t i o n . U s u a l l y one s e m e s t e r or l e s s . L i m i t e d s c h o o l s u p e r v i s i o n ; u s u a l l y no r e l a t e d c l a s s . Work s t u d y : S t u d e n t p e r f o r m s i n a p p r o v e d j o b s i t u a t i o n s . U s u a l l y p a i d and g i v e n c r e d i t . In s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n u s u a l l y b e f o r e work p e r i o d and s e l d o m t i e d d i r e c t l y w i t h j o b e x p e r i e n c e . T y p i c a l l y one s e m e s t e r o r more. C o o p e r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n : O c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l s b a s e d on s t u d e n t ' s c a r e e r o b j e c t i v e . The work s i t u a t i o n i n an o c c u p a t i o n a l l a b o r a t o r y f o r t h e c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n . 2 S e l e c t e d t r a i n i n g s t a t i o n s . C o r r e l a t e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c h o o l . Pay and c r e d i t . C o n s i s t e n t s c h o o l s u p e r v i s i o n . T y p i c a l l y a t l e a s t one y e a r . ( p . 1 2 ) . B a c k g r o u n d In Kamloops, t h e r e a r e a number of programmes c a l l e d Work Study/Work E x p e r i e n c e (WS/WE) a t t h e j u n i o r and s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l s . The d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y programmes i n Kamloops encompasses a l l t h r e e d e f i n i t i o n s s t a t e d by Mason and H a i n e s ( 1 9 6 5 ) . I t a l s o embodies t h e n e c e s s a r y components needed t o a t t a i n t h e programmes' b a s i c g o a l s . The b a s i c g o a l s o f t h e WS/WE programmes a r e : t o p r o v i d e e a c h s t u d e n t w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a s u c c e s s f u l j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , - t o d e v e l o p r e a d i n g , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , m a t h e m a t i c a l , and s o c i a l s k i l l s , - t o d e v e l o p t h e b a s i c s k i l l s and c o n f i d e n c e needed t o f i n d and keep a j o b , - t o p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o r e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f work,and - t o d e v e l o p i n d e p e n d e n t l i v i n g s k i l l s . The s p e c i f i e d o b j e c t i v e s a r e c o n s t i t u t e d i n t h e g o a l s t a t e m e n t s of s c h o o l s i n g e n e r a l . However, f o r t h e s t u d e n t s s e l e c t e d f o r th e WS/WE programmes, t h e b a s i c g o a l s a r e f u n d a m e n t a l and r e f l e c t t h e programmes' d e s i g n . The p r e s e n t WS/WE Programmes a t t h e j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y l e v e l i n t h e Kamloops a r e d e s i g n e d f o r two g e n e r a l t y p e s o f s t u d e n t s : t h e slow l e a r n e r and t h o s e who a r e l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d i n r e g a r d t o r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . These s t u d e n t s a l l have had a w i d e s p r e a d l a c k o f aca d e m i c s u c c e s s t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . They have u s u a l l y f a i l e d a t l e a s t one g r a d e and a r e u s u a l l y a t r i s k i n r e s p e c t t o f a i l i n g a n o t h e r . The s t u d e n t s 3 s e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4% of t h e s c h o o l s ' p o p u l a t i o n . They r a n g e i n age from 15 t o 17 y e a r s . The programme d e s i g n e d f o r t h e s e s t u d e n t s c o n s i d e r s t h e i r p r e v i o u s a c a d e m i c p r o b l e m s but a l s o p r o j e c t s f o r w a r d t o t h e i r f u t u r e n e e d s . The WS/WE programmes c o n s i s t o f two components: t h e work e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e e m p l o y e r s i n t h e b u s i n e s s and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s i n t h e community, and t h e ac a d e m i c p a r t i n t h e s c h o o l s . In t h e work e x p e r i e n c e p o r t i o n t h e s t u d e n t s a r e p l a c e d i n u n p a i d j o b s o f t h e i r c h o i c e f o r an a v e r a g e of two and one-h a l f h o u r s p e r day. They t e n d t o have d u t i e s s i m i l a r t o t h e r e g u l a r e m p l o y e e s , but t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d when t a s k s a r e a s s i g n e d . The s t u d e n t s a r e c h e c k e d weekly i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r work h a b i t s , p u n c t u a l i t y , and a t t e n d a n c e . T h e i r p l a c e m e n t s a r e i n e f f e c t f o r s i x weeks, a f t e r w h i c h t h e y move t o a n o t h e r work s i t u a t i o n t h e y have c h o s e n . D u r i n g a s c h o o l y e a r t h e s t u d e n t s have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e s i x d i f f e r e n t work p l a c e m e n t s . The ac a d e m i c p o r t i o n , w h i c h r a n g e s from two t o t h r e e h o u r s p e r day, i s c e n t e r e d a r o u n d t h e c o r e s u b j e c t s of E n g l i s h , M a t h e m a t i c s , and S o c i a l S t u d i e s . O t h e r s u b j e c t s s u c h a s S c i e n c e , I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n , Home E c o n o m i c s , and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n may a l s o be o f f e r e d , b u t t h i s d i f f e r s from s c h o o l t o s c h o o l . The m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i s m o d i f i e d s u c h t h a t i t i s a t t h e s t u d e n t s p r e s e n t a c a d e m i c l e v e l . The s t u d e n t s a r e i n a s t r u c t u r e d c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n w i t h a p u p i 1 : t e a c h e r r a t i o v a r y i n g from 12:1 t o 15:1. In a l l , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n i s v e r y f a v o u r a b l e f o r t h e s t u d e n t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h o u g h , t h e WS/WE programmes do n o t meet 4 t h e needs of a l l s t u d e n t s who a r e s e l e c t e d f o r i t . The d a t a a v a i l a b l e from 1978 t o 1981 i n d i c a t e t h a t of t h e 150 s t u d e n t s who e n r o l l e d i n WS/WE programmes a t t h e j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y l e v e l i n Kamloops d u r i n g e a c h o f t h o s e y e a r s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30% of t h e s t u d e n t s d r o p p e d o ut b e f o r e t h e end of th e s c h o o l y e a r . S t u d e n t s who d r o p p e d o ut were d e f i n e d a s t h o s e who n o t i f i e d t h e s c h o o l s ' main o f f i c e t h a t t h e y were no l o n g e r a t t e n d i n g . S t u d e n t s who t r a n s f e r r e d t o a n o t h e r s c h o o l ' s WS/WE programme or t o a d i f f e r e n t but more a p p r o p r i a t e programme were no t i n c l u d e d i n t h e d r o p o u t c a t e g o r y . P u r p o s e I t would seem t h a t t h e needs of ab o u t 30% o f t h e s t u d e n t s who i n i t i a l l y e n r o l l e d i n t h e programmes were n ot met. To h e l p p r e v e n t s t u d e n t s from d r o p p i n g out ch a n g e s or a d d i t i o n s t o t h e WS/WE programmes s h o u l d be im p l e m e n t e d . But wh a t e v e r t h e n a t u r e of t h e a l t e r a t i o n s i t would be v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e y a f f e c t t h e p o t e n t i a l d r o p o u t s p e c i f i c a l l y . To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s s e l e c t i v i t y , i t would be h e l p f u l i f t h e p o t e n t i a l d r o p o u t s c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d when t h e y f i r s t e n r o l l e d i n t h e programme. Hence, t h e p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h of a number of s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s t a k e n from t h e l i t e r a t u r e s e r v e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h o s e s t u d e n t s who e n r o l l e d i n a j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y WS/WE programme i n t h e C i t y of Kamloops and c o m p l e t e d t h e s c h o o l y e a r and t h o s e who d r o p p e d o u t . 5 J u s t i f i c a t i o n The a b i l i t y t o p r e d i c t whether o r not a s t u d e n t w i l l c o m p l e t e t h e s c h o o l y e a r has f a r r e a c h i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s . I f t h e h i g h r i s k d r o p o u t c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d a t t h e t i m e o f e n r o l l m e n t , t h e n s t e p s c o u l d be t a k e n t o d e a l w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m . The a c t i o n t a k e n c o u l d r e s u l t i n e i t h e r t h e e l i m i n a t i o n of t h e p o s s i b l e d r o p o u t b e h a v i o r , or a t l e a s t t h e b e t t e r p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e p o t e n t i a l d r o p o u t f o r t h e w o r k i n g w o r l d . P o s s i b l e s t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d e , an i n t e n s i f i e d c u r r i c u l u m d e a l i n g w i t h work r e l a t e d t o p i c s s u c h as resume w r i t i n g , i n t e r v i e w r o l e p l a y i n g , a p p l i c a t i o n form c o m p l e t i o n , and j o b s e a r c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s . T h i s c o u l d be c o u p l e d w i t h p l a c e m e n t on j o b s t h a t m i g h t . l e a d d i r e c t l y t o employment. As a r e s u l t , t h e p o t e n t i a l d r o p o u t s would be a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y p r e p a r e d . An a l t e r n a t e a p p r o a c h , but more g e n e r a l , would be t h e i n c l u s i o n o f c o u n s e l l i n g on a c o n t i n u o u s b a s i s . I t would aim s p e c i f i c a l l y a t h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s see t h e v a l u e of more e d u c a t i o n as i t r e l a t e s t o f u t u r e employment. The c o u n s e l l i n g might a l s o be e f f e c t i v e i n d e a l i n g w i t h h i g h r i s k s t u d e n t s who have a d d i t i o n a l e m o t i o n a l , b e h a v i o r a l , o r m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who d r o p o u t e v e r y y e a r , would be t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a new programme t o d e a l w i t h j u s t t h i s s u b g r o u p , u s i n g t h e f o r e m e n t i o n e d c o u n s e l l i n g and programme m o d i f i c a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . Whatever t h e s t r a t e g y u s e d , t h e i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s h e l p i n g t h e s t u d e n t . 6 C h a p t e r II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Much has been w r i t t e n on t h e t o p i c of d r o p o u t s and d r o p o u t p r e d i c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e g a r d t o h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s (Howard & A n d e r s o n , 1978) and c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s ( P a r t a g e s & C r e e d o n , 1978). R e s e a r c h has a l s o a d d r e s s e d t h e p r o b l e m s of t h e r a c i a l m i n o r i t i e s and t h e e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d ( R i c h a r d s o n & G u r l a c h , 1980). U n f o r t u n a t e l y l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g has been w r i t t e n a b o u t t h e s p e c i a l needs s t u d e n t d r o p p i n g out of a work st u d y / w o r k e x p e r i e n c e t y p e o f programme, o r any o t h e r t y p e of a l t e r n a t e programme. T h i s c h a p t e r r e v i e w s t h e p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e t h a t has been w r i t t e n a b o u t d r o p o u t s t u d i e s w i t h h i g h s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n s . The l i t e r a t u r e i s examined w i t h i n t h e framework of t h e two major r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g i e s u s e d : ex p o s t  f a c t o ( r e t r o s p e c t i v e ) and l o n g i t u d i n a l . A g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n of t h e m e r i t s and s h o r t c o m i n g s of t h e s e two a p p r o a c h e s a r e p r e s e n t e d , f o l l o w e d by r e v i e w s o f a number of p a p e r s t h a t i l l u s t r a t e t h e two m e t h o d o l o g i e s . The r e v i e w s n o t e t h e v a r i a b l e s examined and t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d . E a c h p a p e r ' s s p e c i f i c w eaknesses and s t r e n g t h s a r e a l s o i n d i c a t e d . METHODOLOGIES D r o p o u t s t u d i e s c a n be c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r ex p o s t f a c t o or l o n g i t u d i n a l . Ex p o s t f a c t o ( r e t r o s p e c t i v e ) r e s e a r c h compares a known g r o u p o f d r o p o u t s w i t h a known g r o u p of 7 g r a d u a t e s on s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s b a s e d on " h i s t o r i c a l " d a t a . In one v a r i a t i o n of t h i s method, t h e v a r i a b l e s e x amined came from d a t a t h a t were o b t a i n e d from s c h o o l f i l e s ( W a l t e r and K r a n z l e r , 1970; L l o y d , 1978). A n o t h e r v a r i a t i o n c ombined s c h o o l f i l e d a t a w i t h an i n t e r v i e w or q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e l a t e d t o i n f o r m a t i o n , e v e n t s , and a t t i t u d e s t h a t o c c u r e d when t h e s u b j e c t s were i n s c h o o l ( G e k o s k i and S c h w a r t z , 1961; Namenwirth, 1969; P o o l , 1978; S t r o u p and R o b i n s , 1972). In a t h i r d v a r i a t i o n S m i t h , T s e n g , and Mink (1971) o n l y u s e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e " D r o p o u t  P r o n e n e s s S c a l e ", t o t r y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between d r o p o u t s and g r a d u a t e s . The l o n g i t u d i n a l m e t h o d o l o g y r e q u i r e s t h a t a sample o f s t u d e n t s be f o l l o w e d o v e r a s p e c i f i c t i m e p e r i o d . D a t a a r e c o l l e c t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e s t u d y , and sometimes a t e q u a l i n t e r v a l s u n t i l t h e end of a s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d . The d a t a c o l l e c t e d from t h e d r o p o u t s and p e r s i s t e r s a r e t h e n a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h v a r i a b l e s d i s c r i m i n a t e between t h e two g r o u p s . R e s e a r c h e r s c an a l s o l o o k a t t r e n d s and p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n s between v a r i a b l e s ( B r y a n & E r i c k s o n , 1970; L l o y d , 1974). T h e r e a r e a l s o v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s u s e d by t h o s e who employ t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l methods. L l o y d (1974) u s e d d a t a a v a i l a b l e from c u r r e n t c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d c a r d s . B r y a n and E r i c k s o n (1970) a n a l y z e d d a t a c o l l e c t e d by a n o t h e r r e s e a r c h team. Ex P o s t F a c t o v e r s u s L o n g i t u d i n a l A m a j o r f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e c h o i c e of m e t h o d o l o g y i s 8 " c o s t " , b o t h i n t i m e and manpower. An ex p o s t f a c t o s t u d y u s i n g j u s t t h e s c h o o l r e c o r d s of known d r o p o u t s and g r a d u a t e s c o u l d be done q u i c k l y by a s i n g l e p e r s o n o r a s m a l l s t a f f . The c o s t s i n c r e a s e i f an i n t e r v i e w i s c o n d u c t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e e x t r a t i m e and l a b o u r i n v o l v e d . In c o n t r a s t , a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y r e q u i r e s much more t i m e t o c o m p l e t e , and t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f more p e o p l e , b o t h s u b j e c t s and r e s e a r c h s t a f f . A g r e a t e r number o f s u b j e c t s i s n e e d e d b e c a u s e of p o s s i b l e a t t r i t i o n d u r i n g t h e span o f t h e s t u d y . The l o g i s t i c s of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s a t s p e c i f i e d i n t e r v a l s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o i n c r e a s e d c o s t s . Time i s t h e m a j o r f a c t o r w o r k i n g a g a i n s t t h e p o p u l a r usage of t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l method. As an example, i f d a t a a r e c o l l e c t e d from Grade s i x s u b j e c t s , t h e n t h e r e s e a r c h e r must w a i t a t l e a s t seven t o n i n e y e a r s u n t i l a l l t h e s u b j e c t s have e i t h e r g r a d u a t e d from o r d r o p p e d o u t of s c h o o l b e f o r e t h e a n a l y s i s c a n b e g i n ( L l o y d , 1974). C o n s e q u e n t l y , l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s a r e more " e x p e n s i v e " , and t h e r e f o r e n o t as common as ex p o s t f a c t o r e s e a r c h . Ex P o s t F a c t o : S t r e n g t h s and Weaknesses R e t r o s p e c t i v e or ex p o s t f a c t o s t u d i e s a r e more p r e v a l e n t b e c a u s e of t h e " c o s t " a d v a n t a g e . However, t h e r e a r e o t h e r a d v a n t a g e s , and c e r t a i n l y a number of weaknesses i n h e r e n t i n t h e m e t h o d o l o g y t h a t must be examined, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t of t h e v a r i a t i o n s on t h e t e c h n i q u e t h a t have been u s e d . One v a r i a t i o n u s e s t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e f r o m permanent or c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d c a r d s and s c h o o l f i l e s o n l y . T h e r e a r e a number of m a j o r a d v a n t a g e s t o t h i s s t y l e . T h e r e a r e no t e s t s o r 9 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a t have t o be d e v e l o p e d , p i l o t t e s t e d , a d m i n i s t e r e d , o r m a i l e d . T h e r e a r e no i n t e r v i e w s t o do. The p r o b l e m s of n o n - r e t u r n of m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , l a c k of c o o p e r a t i o n f r o m s u b j e c t s , o r a t t r i t i o n a r e not f a c t o r s t o be c o n t e n d e d w i t h . The o n l y s e r i o u s drawback i s t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r has no knowledge o f t h e a c c u r a c y of t h e s c h o o l r e c o r d s d a t a b e c a u s e he/she was not i n v o l v e d w i t h , and had no c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i n i t i a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . A n o t h e r q u e s t i o n t o c o n s i d e r when u s i n g c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d c a r d s i s t h a t t h e number and t y p e of v a r i a b l e s f o r w h i c h d a t a have been c o l l e c t e d i s l i m i t e d t o t h e f o r m a t o f t h e c a r d . I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c h o o l or s e l f - e s t e e m f o r example would not l i k e l y be a v a i l a b l e . T h i s v a r i a t i o n however was u s e d by L l o y d (1978) i n h i s s t u d y of 1562 t h i r d g r a d e boys and g i r l s , and by W a l t e r s and K r a n g l e r ' s (1970) i n t h e i r s t u d y of 414 e i g h t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s . Two p o s s i b l e means of o v e r c o m i n g t h e l a c k of d a t a a c c u r a c y and t h e l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d c a r d s a r e t o a d m i n i s t e r a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d / o r c o n d u c t an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s . E i t h e r o f t h e s e methods would p r o v i d e a c u r r e n t v e r s i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s p a s t (Marks, 1967). T h e s e s o l u t i o n s have been u s e d by a number of r e s e a r c h e r s , i n c l u d i n g : G e k o s k i and S c h w a r t z , 1961; Namenwirth, 1969; P o o l , 1978; S m i t h , T s e n g , and Mink, 1971; S t r o u p and R o b i n s , 1972. A l t h o u g h u s i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r an i n t e r v i e w s o l v e s t h e c o n t r o l and a c c u r a c y p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d t o d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n t h e p a s t , i t a l s o c r e a t e s a number of d i f f i c u l t i e s . One p r o b l e m c r e a t e d i s t h e need t o 10 c o n t a c t t h e s u b j e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e d r o p o u t s . U n l i k e t h e p e r s i s t e r s who can be f o u n d i n t h e i r s c h o o l s , t h e d r o p o u t s have u s u a l l y been i n t h e w o r k i n g w o r l d f o r a number o f y e a r s and most l i k e l y have moved a r o u n d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , d i f f i c u l t i e s c o u l d be e n c o u n t e r e d i n l o c a t i n g and t h e n a r r a n g i n g f o r i n t e r v i e w s w i t h th e d r o p o u t s . The g r a d u a t e s would pose no p r o b l e m p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e y a r e s t i l l i n s c h o o l . I f a m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r m a t were c h o s e n , t h e n l o c a t i n g t h e d r o p o u t s would s t i l l be a p r o b l e m . An a d d i t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h i s f o r m a t r e l a t e s t o t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e . I f t h e r a t e i s low t h e n s t e p s must be t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e i s a s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e between t h e r e s p o n d e n t s and n o n - r e s p o n d e n t s . T h e r e i s however, a much more s e r i o u s c o n c e r n about t h e a c c u r a c y of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from t h e s u b j e c t s . The r e s e a r c h e r s who u s e d t h e i n t e r v i e w o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r m a t a s k e d t h e i r s u b j e c t s t o t h i n k back i n t o t h e p a s t . The d a t a r e q u e s t e d i n c l u d e d s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s , a t t i t u d e s , and p e r c e p t i o n s a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r f a m i l i e s , e n v i r o n m e n t , and s c h o o l . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t a t l e a s t some of t h e s u b j e c t s f o r g o t or c o n f u s e d f a c t s , d e v e l o p e d r o m a n t i c d e l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e i r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s , or had p a s t a t t i t u d e s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s a t t h e t i m e t h e r e s e a r c h was c o n d u c t e d . The s e v e r i t y of t h e d a t a a c c u r a c y p r o b l e m i s m a g n i f i e d as t h e t i m e d i f f e r e n t i a l between th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e i n t e r v i e w or q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e s p e c i f i c p o i n t i n t h e p a s t t h a t i s b e i n g r e c a l l e d i n c r e a s e s . S m i t h , T s e n g , and Mink (1971) and Namenwirth (1969) a s k e d t h e i r s u b j e c t s t o remember d e t a i l s t h a t 11 o c c u r r e d f i v e y e a r s i n t h e p a s t . P o o l e ' s (1978) s u b j e c t s r e c a l l e d d a t a from f o u r y e a r s i n t h e p a s t . The s u b j e c t s i n S t r o u p and R o b i n s ' (1972) s t u d y had been out of s c h o o l from 10 t o 19 y e a r s b e f o r e t h e y were i n t e r v i e w e d . The p r o b l e m of o b t a i n i n g a c c u r a t e d a t a w i t h t h e i n t e r v i e w o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r m a t i s much more s e r i o u s t h a n t h e d a t a p r o b l e m s w i t h c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d c a r d s . D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e f o r m e r c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y j e o p a r d i z e any c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d . The above i s s u e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e ex p o s t f a c t o m e t h o d o l o g y a r e r a i s e d t o s e n s i t i z e t h e r e a d e r t o p o t e n t i a l m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d e f i c i t s . However the r e a d e r must a l s o be aware t h a t ex p o s t f a c t o r e s e a r c h i s u s e f u l and v i a b l e as l o n g as t h e l i m i t a t i o n s a r e a c k n o w l e d g e d and s t e p s have been t a k e n t o s h o r e -up t h e w e a k n e s s e s . L o n g i t u d i n a l : S t r e n g t h s and Weaknesses A m a j o r a d v a n t a g e i n u s i n g a l o n g i t u d i n a l a p p r o a c h i s t h a t t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d more a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e s i t u a t i o n a t t h a t t i m e ( P a n t a g e s & C r e e d o n , 1978). The s u b j e c t s ' a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r f a m i l i e s , f r i e n d s , s c h o o l and e n v i r o n m e n t , and f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e same a r e b a s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t . The d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i s under t h e c o n t r o l of t h e r e s e a r c h e r , and can be c a r r i e d out i n a u n i f o r m c o n t r o l l e d manner w i t h a l l s u b j e c t s ( Y u d i n , R i n g , Nowakiwska, & Heineman, 1973). C o n s e q u e n t l y any c o n c e r n s r e l a t e d t o t h e a c c u r a c y of t h e d a t a a r e m i n i m a l or n o n - e x i s t e n t . T h e r e a r e o t h e r a d v a n t a g e s i n u s i n g t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l 1 2 m e t h o d o l o g y . One s u c h b e n e f i t i s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a d a t a b a s e l i n e . W i t h base l i n e d a t a i n p l a c e , s u b j e c t s can t h e n be f o l l o w e d f o r as l o n g as i t i s d e s i r a b l e . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e some of t h e d r o p o u t s may go back t o s c h o o l a f t e r a few y e a r s ( E c k l a n d , 1964). The base l i n e a l s o a l l o w s t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e l o n g t e r m e f f e c t s o f d r o p p i n g out w i t h i s s u e s s u c h as c a r e e r c h o i c e s , e a r n i n g s , l i f e s t y l e , and employment r a t e s ( P a n t a g e s & C r e e d o n , 1970). The a b i l i t y t o compare d a t a c o l l e c t e d a t a l a t e r t i m e w i t h t h e base l i n e a l l o w s t h e r e s e a r c h e r more f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between p e r f o r m a n c e a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s w i t h w h a t e v e r i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a r e b e i n g l o o k e d a t (Jex and M e r r i l l , 1962). I t i s q u i t e a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e a r e d i s t i n c t a d v a n t a g e s i n u s i n g t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l d e s i g n . However, t h i s method has i t s e d i s a d v a n t a g e s . A major drawback of t h e d e s i g n stems from t h e l e n g t h of t i m e between t h e i n i t i a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s . T h i s t i m e i s measured i n y e a r s . B r y a n and E r i c k s o n (1970) u s e d d a t a t h a t were c o l l e c t e d f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e t h e i r p a p e r was p u b l i s h e d . L l o y d (1974) u s e d d a t a t h a t had a s e v e n y e a r t i m e span between t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . The l o n g i t u d i n a l m e t h o d o l o g y r e q u i r e s a l o n g t e r m commitment. The e l e m e n t o f t i m e and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o c o s t has been a l l u d e d t o e a r l i e r i n t h e c h a p t e r . A n o t h e r m a j o r p r o b l e m i s t h a t of a t t r i t i o n . S i n c e l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h i s a l o n g t e r m p r o j e c t , t h e c h a n c e s of s u b j e c t s l e a v i n g t h e s t u d y must be c o n s i d e r e d . The r e s e a r c h e r m ight a l s o have t o c o n s i d e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between t h o s e who l e a v e 1 3 t h e s t u d y and t h o s e who r e m a i n . O t h e r p r o b l e m s , l o g i s t i c i n n a t u r e , a r e more d i f f i c u l t due t o t h e l a r g e numbers of s u b j e c t s . P r o b l e m s t h a t must be c o n s i d e r e d r e l a t e t o p r e p a r i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t s , p i l o t t e s t i n g , o b t a i n i n g t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s , and a r r a n g i n g t h e t e s t i n g or d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . The n e c e s s a r y s t a f f t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s and p r e p a r e t h e d a t a f o r a n a l y s i s must be t r a i n e d . The d i s a d v a n t a g e s of t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l d e s i g n c e n t r e a r o u n d t h e t i m e and t h e l a r g e number of s u b j e c t s needed, w h i c h i n t u r n b o t h r e l a t e t o t h e c o s t of c a r r y i n g out t h e r e s e a r c h ( Y u d i n , R i n g , Nowakiwska, & Heineman, 1973). A l t h o u g h t h e f a c t o r o f t i m e p r e s e n t s some d i f f i c u l t i e s , r e s e a r c h e r s have found methods t o m i n i m i z e t h e p r o b l e m . B y r a n and E r i c k s o n (1970) u t i l i z e d d a t a t h a t were c o l l e c t e d by a n o t h e r r e s e a r c h team: B r o o k o v e r , E r i c k s o n , and J o i n e r , ( 1 9 6 7 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , B r y a n and E r i c k s o n (1970) d i d n o t have t o go t h r o u g h t h e l a b o u r , c o s t , and t i m e u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l o n g i t u d i n a l d e s i g n . L l o y d , (1974) u s e d d a t a from t h e s t u d e n t s ' c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d c a r d s , but was not i n v o l v e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e d a t a . In t h i s c a s e , t h e a c c u r a c y of t h e o r i g i n a l d a t a c o u l d a l s o be an i s s u e b e c a u s e t h e r e s e a r c h e r d i d n o t have any c o n t r o l o v e r i t s i n i t i a l c o l l e c t i o n . The a d v a n t a g e i n u s i n g t h e c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d s was t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r d i d n o t have t o d e v e l o p , p i l o t t e s t , o r a d m i n i s t e r any i n s t r u m e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h e use o f c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d c a r d s has i t s l i m i t a t i o n , i t i s a u s e f u l method o f c o l l e c t i n g d a t a f r o m l a r g e numbers o f s u b j e c t s 1 4 (n=1562). The m a j o r d i s a d v a n t a g e t h a t b o t h L l o y d (1974) and B r y a n and E r i c k s o n (1970) had t o c o n f r o n t was t h a t t h e y were l i m i t e d i n t h e v a r i e t y of d a t a t h e y c o u l d use i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h . L l o y d (1974) was l i m i t e d t o t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e on t h e c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d c a r d s , and B r y a n and E r i c k s o n (1970) t o t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d by B r o o k o v e r , E r i c k s o n , and J o i n e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) . Common F a u l t s Many o f t h e p a p e r s w r i t t e n i n t h e f i e l d o f d r o p o u t r e s e a r c h have common f a u l t s t h a t a r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d . The f a u l t s r e l a t e t o t h e l a c k o f a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n f o r t h e terms " d r o p o u t " and " g r a d u a t e " , and t h e l a c k o f a s t a t e m e n t on a t t r i t i o n . S t a t e m e n t s of d e f i n i t i o n a r e n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e s t u d e n t s may be w r o n g l y c a t e g o r i z e d . T h i s may i n t u r n a f f e c t t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e d a t a , t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d and , p o s s i b l y , t h e use o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e p a p e r by o t h e r s ( P a n t a g e s & C r e e d o n , 1978). The most l i k e l y s i t u a t i o n would be t h e m i s t a k e n c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of a s t u d e n t a s a d r o p o u t b e c a u s e h i s / h e r c u m u l a t i v e o r permanent r e c o r d c a r d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y had l e f t s c h o o l b e f o r e a t r a d i t i o n a l h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n ( E c k l a n d , 1964). T h e r e a r e many i n s t a n c e s where a s t u d e n t c o u l d c o m p l e t e s c h o o l but not be r e c o g n i z e d as a g r a d u a t e . A s t u d e n t c o u l d t r a n s f e r t o an a l t e r n a t e programme where g r a d u a t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n o f s t u d e n t s ' age or t h e c o m p l e t i o n of a s p e c i f i c t i m e p e r i o d i n t h e programme. I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e f o r a s t u d e n t t o 1 5 q u i t s c h o o l b ut e v e n t u a l l y g r a d u a t e . T h i s c o u l d be done e i t h e r by t a k i n g n i g h t s c h o o l c l a s s e s , or by r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l l a t e r . T h e s e s t u d e n t s would be m i s t a k e n l y c l a s s i f i e d a s d r o p o u t s , ( J e x & M e r r i l l , 1962). A n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n d e v e l o p s when a s t u d e n t moves d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . I f t h e i r r e c o r d s a r e not t r a n s f e r r e d t h e n t h e y may be c o n s i d e r e d t o be d r o p o u t s . The s t u d e n t s who no l o n g e r a t t e n d s c h o o l b e c a u s e o f i l l n e s s o r d e a t h s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d as d r o p o u t s . The p r o b l e m of s t u d e n t s who no l o n g e r a t t e n d s c h o o l a f t e r a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t has s t a r t e d must be a d d r e s s e d i n a s t a t e m e n t d e a l i n g w i t h a t t r i t i o n ( S t r o u p & R o b i n s , 1972). The l a c k of a p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n f o r t h e t e r m d r o p o u t i s c r u c i a l t o t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e d a t a . The l i t e r a t u r e and e x p e r i e n c e i n d i c a t e t h e r e a r e fewer d r o p o u t s t h a n g r a d u a t e s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h o s e who a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s d r o p o u t s a r e t r u l y d r o p o u t s . The d a t a f o r g r a d u a t e s who were i n c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d c o u l d p o s s i b l y a f f e c t the. r e s u l t s of a t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e ( E c k l a n d , 1964). In a s m a l l s u b j e c t g r o u p , s u c h a s t h e d r o p o u t s , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s d a t a c o n t r i b u t e more t o t h e g r o u p ' s mean t h a n i n a l a r g e g r o u p . The p r o b l e m s m e n t i o n e d a r e e a s i l y a v o i d e d by a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of t h e terms " d r o p o u t " and " g r a d u a t e " , a l o n g w i t h a s t a t e m e n t d e a l i n g w i t h a t t r i t i o n o r programme c h a n g e s . 1 6 S P E C I F I C REVIEWS F i v e r e s e a r c h p a p e r s w h i c h u s e d t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d a r e examined i n t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h i s c h a p t e r . A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s were r e v i e w e d ( s e e p.25) t h e i r methods and f i n d i n g s d i d not d i f f e r s u b s t a n c a l l y from t h e f i v e s e l e c t e d p a p e r s . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e v i e w i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e f i v e s t u d i e s . The p o p u l a t i o n s s t u d i e d , p r e d i c t i v e v a r i a b l e s i s o l a t e d , and s p e c i f i c s t r e n g h t s and w e aknesses of t h e s e f i v e r e s e a r c h p a p e r s a r e h i g h l i g h t e d . Ex P o s t F a c t o W a l t e r s and K r a n z l e r (1970) g a t h e r e d Grade e i g h t and n i n e c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d c a r d d a t a on 414 s u b j e c t s e n r o l l e d i n a M i d w e s t e r n h i g h s c h o o l . The v a r i a b l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d were r e a d i n g and a r i t h m e t i c a c h i e v e m e n t on t h e S t a n f o r d A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t , an i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t from t h e O t i s Q u i c k S c o r i n g M e n t a l A b i l i t y T e s t , g r a d e p o i n t a v e r a g e , f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n as a measure of s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , a b s e n c e s , age, and r e t e n t i o n . A " D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s f o r Two G roup D e s i g n " ( D i x o n , 1964) was u s e d t o a n a l y z e t h e d a t a . I t was f o u n d t h a t a c o m b i n a t i o n of age, I,Q., a r i t h m e t i c a c h i e v e m e n t and f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n was t h e most e f f e c t i v e c o m b i n a t i o n of v a r i a b l e s f o r p r e d i c t i n g d r o p o u t s , w i t h a 91% a c c u r a c y r a t e . The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t , " i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t p o t e n t i a l 17 d r o p o u t s can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a h i g h d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y even b e f o r e t h e n i n t h g r a d e " ( p . 103). T h e r e were a number of s p e c i f i c s t r e n g t h s and w e aknesses i n t h i s s t u d y . One s t r e n g t h was t h e economy r e a l i z e d i n u s i n g d a t a from t h e c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d c a r d s o n l y . However, t h e major weakness r e l a t e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n a b l e a c c u r a c y of t h e d a t a from t h e c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d c a r d s . A n o t h e r p r o b l e m was t h e l a c k of a d e f i n i t i o n f o r e i t h e r t h e t e r m d r o p o u t o r t h e t e r m g r a d u a t e . A major drawback, a c k n o w l e d g e d by t h e a u t h o r s , was t h a t t h e r e s u l t s were not g e n e r a l i z a b l e beyond t h e h i g h s c h o o l t h e s t u d y was p e r f o r m e d i n b e c a u s e t h e y d i d not d e s c r i b e t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . In a s e c o n d s t u d y , S m i t h , T s e n g , and Mink (1971) t r i e d t o v a l i d a t e t h e s e l f r a t i n g D r o p o u t P r o n e n e s s S c a l e ' , d e v e l o p e d by M ink. The s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of 113 h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r s matched by age and IQ, w i t h 113 known d r o p o u t s . The s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d from f o u r A p p a l a c h i a n c o u n t i e s , t h e l a r g e s t w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 20,000 p e o p l e and t h r e e s m a l l e r c o u n t i e s e a c h w i t h l e s s t h a n 3000 p e o p l e . F i f t y s e n i o r s were s e l e c t e d f r o m e a c h of t h e f o u r c o u n t i e s . The s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r s a t t h e i r s c h o o l s . d r o p o u t s were randomly s e l e c t e d from t h e l a r g e s t c o u n t y w h i l e t h e e n t i r e d r o p o u t p o p u l a t i o n s from t h e o t h e r s m a l l c o u n t i e s were i n c l u d e d . The s c a l e was m a i l e d t o 375 d r o p o u t s , who were t h e n e x p e c t e d t o r e t u r n i t t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r s by m a i l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y o n l y a 33% r e s p o n s e r a t e was o b t a i n e d from t h e d r o p o u t s ( n = l 2 5 ) . A f t e r m a t c h i n g by age, IQ, and c o u n t y e a c h 18 g r o u p had 113 s u b j e c t s . A l l d a t a u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s e s came from t h e s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s t o t h e D r o p o u t P r o n e n e s s S a l e . The q u e s t i o n s i n t h e s c a l e r e l a t e d t o t h e v a r i a b l e s shown i n T a b l e 2.1. V a r i a b l e s on w h i c h s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d u s i n g C h i s q u a r e a n a l y s i s a r e marked w i t h a s i n g l e ( p < .05 ) o r d o u b l e ( p < .01 ) a s t e r i s k . T a b l e 2.1 D r o p o u t P r o n e n e s s S c a l e V a r i a b l e s (as of Grade s e v e n ) S i g n i f i c a n c e Age i n Grade s e v e n R e t e n t i o n b e f o r e Grade s e v e n S u b j e c t f a i l u r e s i n Grade s e v e n Time s p e n t r e a d i n g P r e f e r e n c e f o r math A t t i t u d e t o w a r d l e a r n i n g . A t t i t u d e t o w a r d s c h o o l i n g e n e r a l R e l a t i o n s w i t h p e e r s I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h t e a c h e r s A b s e n t e e i s m i n Grade s e v e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s c h o o l c l u b s and s p o r t s P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community c l u b s and s p o r t s Number of f r i e n d s i n s c h o o l F a t h e r ' s and m o t h e r ' s e d u c a t i o n P a r e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n L e v e l o f encouragement f r o m p a r e n t s Number of p a r e n t s a t home Town p o p u l a t i o n P a r t t i m e j o b s h e l d Number of s i b l i n g s G e n e r a l h e a l t h D e s i r e t o g r a d u a t e P e r c e i v e d a b i l i t y t o g r a d u a t e ** p<.01 * p<.05 T h e r e a r e a number of p r o b l e m s w i t h t h i s s t u d y , s u c h as t h e l a c k of g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s . No i n d i c a t i o n was made of t h e numbers o f m a l e s and f e m a l e s i n t h e d r o p o u t o r s e n i o r s s a m p l e s . The r e s e a r c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h e 375 d r o p o u t s were ** ** * * ** * ** ** ** ** * * ** ** 19 c o n t a c t e d by m a i l but o n l y 33% r e s p o n d e d . T h e r e was n o t h i n g t o s u g g e s t t h a t an a t t e m p t was made t o c o n t a c t a random sample of t h o s e who d i d not r e s p o n d . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e n o n r e s p o n d i n g d r o p o u t s were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e d r o p o u t s who r e s p o n d e d . P o s s i b l y t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y may have been much d i f f e r e n t i f t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e was h i g h e r . The most s e r i o u s p r o b l e m t h a t p o s s i b l y compromised t h e r e s u l t s was t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d . The p r o b l e m s of a s k i n g s u b j e c t s t o remember s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s , a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s and s c h o o l t h a t o c c u r r e d f i v e y e a r s i n t h e p a s t have been d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . The a u t h o r s a l s o f a i l e d t o d e f i n e t h e t e r m " d r o p o u t " . The p o s i t i v e a s p e c t of t h e p a p e r was t h e a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p a s c a l e t h a t c o u l d be u s e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e p o t e n t i a l d r o p o u t as e a r l y a s t h e s e v e n t h g r a d e . A s t u d y c a r r i e d o u t by S t r o u p and R o b i n s (1972) u s e d an i n t e r v i e w as p a r t of t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . O t h e r d a t a were c o l l e c t e d f r o m e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l r e c o r d s and p o l i c e r e c o r d s . The e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l r e c o r d s p r o v i d e d d a t a on a t t e n d a n c e , r e t e n t i o n , and IQ s c o r e s . The p o l i c e and j u v e n i l e c o u r t r e c o r d s gave i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a j u v e n i l e p o l i c e r e c o r d . The i n t e r v i e w s u p p l i e d d a t a on t h e number of s c h o o l s a t t e n d e d , s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e 15 y e a r s o f age, f a m i l y s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s as a f u n c t i o n of t h e f a t h e r ' s employment, a l c o h o l d r i n k i n g e x p e r i e n c e , f a m i l y l i f e s y t l e , p r e s e n c e of a f a t h e r , m o t h e r ' s e d u c a t i o n , and t h e number o f s i b l i n g s . A l l d a t a c o l l e c t e d c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o be p r e - h i g h s c h o o l i n n a t u r e . 20 The s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of 235 b l a c k m a l e s who a t t e n d e d t h e p u b l i c e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s i n S t . L o u i s f o r a t l e a s t s i x y e a r s , and who were b o r n w i t h i n a f i v e y e a r s p a n . The s u b j e c t s a l l had an IQ o f 85 or g r e a t e r and r a n g e d i n age from 30 t o 36 y e a r s . The r e s e a r c h e r s managed t o i n t e r v i e w 223 of t h e s u b j e c t s . They f o u n d t h a t 121 of t h e men had g r a d u a t e d f r o m h i g h s c h o o l . The a u t h o r s d e f i n e d a h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e as " a l l t h o s e who had c o m p l e t e d h i g h s c h o o l as f u l l t i m e s t u d e n t s b e f o r e age 21". Anyone e l s e was c o n s i d e r e d a d r o p o u t . The d a t a were a n a l y z e d u s i n g a z e r o o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n method. The v a r i a b l e s h a v i n g t h e l a r g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t w i t h t h e number of y e a r s o f h i g h s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d were t h e n f u r t h e r a n a l y z e d w i t h t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s method. S i x v a r i a b l e s were f o u n d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e d r o p o u t s and g r a d u a t e s a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . The v a r i a b l e s were: r e t e n t i o n , t r u a n c y , e a r l y d r i n k i n g , f a m i l y s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , and number of e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s a t t e n d e d . U n l i k e t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d , S t r o u p and R o b i n s p r o v i d e d a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of t h e t e r m " g r a d u a t e " . However, a major f l a w i n t h e i r s t u d y r e l a t e s t o t h e p r o b l e m o f a c c u r a t e l y r e c a l l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e p a s t . The mean age of t h e s u b j e c t s a t t h e t i m e of t h e i n t e r v i e w s was. 33 y e a r s . The t i m e e l a p s e d s i n c e l a s t a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l r a n g e d from 12 t o 19 y e a r s . S i n c e t h e r e s e a r c h e r s were c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r e - h i g h s c h o o l d a t a , i t would be r e a s o n a b l e t o s u s p e c t t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e d a t a , and p o s s i b l y t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t h e y r e a c h e d . 21 L o n g i t u d i n a l B r y a n and E r i c k s o n (1970) employed l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e s t o examine s t u d e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s and a s p i r a t i o n s as v a r i a b l e s p r e d i c t i v e of d r o p p i n g o u t . The d a t a u s e d were o r i g i n a l l y c o l l e c t e d by B r o o k o v e r , E r i c k s o n , and J o i n e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) . The f i r s t d a t a were c o l l e c t e d from 1500 w h i t e male Grade e i g h t s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n f o u r j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s o f a M i d w e s t e r n c i t y w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of 110,000. These s t u d e n t s were t h e n t e s t e d e v e r y y e a r u n t i l g r a d u a t i o n . S t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n s p e c i a l o r e x p e r i m e n t a l programmes and t h o s e who t r a n s f e r r e d t o or from o t h e r s c h o o l s were e x c l u d e d . The s t u d e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and p l a n s were d e t e r m i n e d by a s k i n g " I f you were f r e e t o go a s f a r as you wanted t o go i n s c h o o l , how f a r would you go?" The s t u d e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s were d e t e r m i n e d by a s k i n g "Sometimes what we would l i k e t o do i s n ' t t h e same as what we e x p e c t t o do. How f a r i n s c h o o l do you e x p e c t you w i l l r e a l l y go?" They were g i v e n s e v e n o p t i o n s r a n g i n g from " q u i t now" t o "go t o g r a d u a t e s c h o o l " . The d a t a were a n a l y z e d w i t h t h e "L t e s t " (Page,1963) an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e method. I t was f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s w i t h lower e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s and a s p i r a t i o n s had a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e of d r o p p i n g out t h a n t h o s e w i t h h i g h e r p l a n s and a s p i r a t i o n s . They a l s o d e t e r m i n e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s were more p r e d i c t i v e o f d r o p p i n g out t h a n e d u c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n . However t h e two c o n s t r u c t s combined were more p r e d i c t i v e t h a n e i t h e r one 22 s e p a r a t e l y . B r y a n and E r i c k s o n a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e p r e d i c t i v e powers were g r e a t e s t a t t h e Grade t e n l e v e l . The p a p e r ' s weakness c e n t r e s a r o u n d t h e l a c k of a d e f i n i t i o n f o r t h e te r m " d r o p o u t " . The a u t h o r s a l s o d i d not a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e o f a t t r i t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was o v e r a p e r i o d o f f o u r y e a r s . L l o y d (1974) c o l l e c t e d d a t a from t h e c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d c a r d s o f G r a d e s i x s t u d e n t s who were t h e n f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h s c h o o l u n t i l g r a d u a t i o n . The s u b j e c t s were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d from a p o p u l a t i o n of 4075 s i x t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n a c o u n t y s c h o o l s y s t e m i n a m i d d l e A t l a n t i c S t a t e . The s t a t e c o n s i s t e d of mixe d m e t r o p o l i t a n and r u r a l a r e a s . The sample c o n s i s t e d o f 2485 s t u d e n t s : 1853 g r a d u a t e s and 632 d r o p o u t s . S t u d e n t s were d e f i n e d as g r a d u a t e s o r d r o p o u t s on t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a . G r a d u a t e s were t h o s e who g r a d u a t e d from h i g h s c h o o l , n i g h t s c h o o l , and summer s c h o o l o v e r a two y e a r p e r i o d . S t u d e n t s who g o t an o f f i c i a l code f o r l e a v i n g , o t h e r t h a n t r a n s f e r r i n g t o a n o t h e r s c h o o l , were c l a s s i f i e d as d r o p o u t s . S t u d e n t s who l e f t s c h o o l b e c a u s e o f p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y , e conomic r e a s o n s , d e a t h , o r t r a n s f e r t o an i n s t i t u t i o n were not c o n s i d e r e d d r o p o u t s , and were removed from t h e a n a l y s i s . The v a r i a b l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 2.2. 23 T a b l e 2.2 V a r i a b l e s C o n s i d e r e d t o D i s t i n g u i s h Between G r a d u a t e s and D r o p o u t s V a r i a b l e s S i g n i f i c a n c e of Z e r o O r d e r C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t Age E d u c a t i o n of p a r e n t s O c c u p a t i o n l e v e l of F a t h e r ( H o l l i n g s h e a d and R e d l i c h , 1958) M o t h e r ' s Employment M a r i t a l S t a t u s o f P a r e n t s Number of S i b l i n g s A b s e n c e s i n G r a d e S i x R e t e n t i o n S c h o o l T r a n f e r s Marks i n C l a s s e s - R e a d i n g - Language - S p e l l i n g - A r i t h m e t i c - S o c i a l S t u d i e s - S c i e n c e G rade P o i n t A v e r a g e I.Q. ( C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f M e n t a l M a t u r i t y ) A c h i e v e m e n t ( C a l i f o r n i a A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t ) - R e a d i n g - A r i t h m e t i c - Language N o t e : Z e r o o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t a t p<.01 a r e i n d i c a t e d by an a s t e r i s k ( * ) . At s i m p l e d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d u s i n g t h e BMD 02R S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n Program ( D i x o n , 1967) i n w h i c h t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s l i s t e d above were i n c l u d e d as t h e p r e d i c t o r s and g r a d u a t i o n or d r o p p i n g o u t were t r e a t e d as t h e l e v e l s of t h e i n d e p e n d e n t f a c t o r . In a d d i t i o n t h e t o t a l sample was f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d w i t h i n e a c h o f t h e two g r o u p s by r a c e and 24 by g e n d e r , t h u s y i e l d i n g f o u r g r o u p s . M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n p r o c e d u r e s were t h e n f o l l o w e d . The a n a l y s i s of t h e t o t a l sample i n d i c a t e d t h a t o n l y two v a r i a b l e s , m o t h e r ' s employment and s c h o o l t r a n s f e r s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h g r a d u a t i o n . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l r a c e and g e n d e r c e l l s showed t h a t w h i t e males (n=1090) were b e s t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by "a c o m b i n a t i o n of age, a r i t h m e t i c and l a n g u a g e t e s t s c o r e s , number of s i b l i n g s , and o c c u p a t i o n l e v e l of t h e f a t h e r " ( p . 1 5 ) . White f e m a l e s (n=1l00) were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by GPA, a b s e n c e s , age, number of s i b l i n g s , and m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f p a r e n t s . The d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g v a r i a b l e s f o r N egro m a l e s (n=166) were, " t h e e d u c a t i o n l e v e l of mother, l a n g u a g e t e s t s c o r e s , number of a b s e n c e s , and a g e " ( p . 1 6 ) . Negro f e m a l e s (n=129) were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by I.Q., a b s e n c e s , m a r i t a l s t a t u s of p a r e n t s , e d u c a t i o n l e v e l of mother, age, and m o t h e r ' s j o b . A g e n e r a l c o m b i n a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g v a r i a b l e s f o r t h e whole sample was d e s c r i b e d a s , "one o r two measures of a c h i e v e m e n t or a b i l i t y , age i n t h e s i x t h g r a d e . . . . , a b s e n c e . . . . , and one o r two measures of f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d " ( p . 1 8 ) . As w i t h o t h e r r e s e a r c h , t h i s s t u d y a l s o has s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s . The n o t a b l e f e a t u r e s a r e t h e d e f i n i t i o n s of a g r a d u a t e and a d r o p o u t . T h e r e a r e w e aknesses i n t h e use o f c u m u l a t i v e r e c o r d c a r d d a t a , even f o r a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y . However t h e use of r e c o r d s was r e a s o n a b l e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e l a r g e number o f s u b j e c t s i n t h e sample. U t i l i z i n g t e s t s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , or i n t e r v i e w s would have made t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a f o r m i d a b l e t a s k . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , t h o u g h , t h a t 25 t h e r e were no m e asures of a t t i t u d e i n t h e r e c o r d s . SUMMARY AND VARIABLES CONSIDERED A r e v i e w o f t h e p a p e r s p r e s e n t e d and numerous o t h e r a r t i c l e s from t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e a number of v a r i a b l e s t h a t have been f o u n d t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between d r o p o u t s and g r a d u a t e s . The v a r i a b l e s i s o l a t e d a r e by no means c o n s i s t e n t f r o m one s t u d y t o a n o t h e r . The use of d i f f e r e n t methods and p o p u l a t i o n s has r e s u l t e d i n t h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . The d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s can g e n e r a l l y be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o s i x c l u s t e r s : e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r , f a m i l y , e c o n o m i c , e a t i n g h a b i t s , and t r a n s p o r t a i o n . The v a r i a b l e s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between t h e d r o p o u t s and g r a d u a t e s i n a t l e a s t one s t u d y a r e t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e 2.3, t h e y a r e s u b d i v i d e d as p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d ( B e a r d , M i t c h e l l , and S c o t t , 1978; Camp, G i b b s , and Morgan, 1980; D e l a n e y and T o v i a n , 1972; Howard and A n d e r s o n , 1978; J a b l o n s k y , 1974; K o w a l s k i and Congemi, 1974; L a r t e r and E a s o n , 1978; L l o y d , 1974; L l o y d , 1976; L l o y d , 1978; Namenwirth, 1969; P o o l e , 1.978; R i c h a r d s o n and G e r l a c h , 1980; Shaw, 1979; S m i t h , T s e n g , and Mink, 1971; S p e n c e r , 1977; T s e n g , 1972; W a l t e r s and K r a n z l e r , 1970; Watson, 1976; Young and R e i c h , 1974). I t would be t e m p t i n g t o i n v e s t i g a t e j u s t t h o s e v a r i a b l e s t h a t o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between d r o p o u t s and g r a d u a t e s . However, t h i s s t u d y d i f f e r s i n one major way from t h e r e s e a r c h d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , i n t h a t a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t g r o u p of s t u d e n t s , namely j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s 26 i n WS/WE programmes were t o be exam i n e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y i t was d e c i d e d t o i n c l u d e a s wide a range o f v a r i a b l e s as p r a c t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e . I n t h i s way f a c t o r s t h a t m i g h t d i s c r i m i n a t e between t h e d r o p o u t s and p e r s i s t e r s i n j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y WS/WE programmes but n ot s t u d e n t s i n r e g u l a r h i g h s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e s t r e a m s would not be o v e r l o o k e d . The v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e 2.3. The i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d t o c o l l e c t t h e d a t a on e a c h v a r i a b l e a r e a l s o i n d i c a t e d . T h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . T a b l e 2.3 V a r i a b l e s S e l e c t e d C l u s t e r V a r i a b l e I n s t r u m e n t Type E d u c a t i o n : I n t e l l i g e n c e PT M A c h i e v e m e n t i n Math and R e a d i n g PT M F a i l u e PQ C S c h o o l L e v e l F a i l e d PQ C S c h o o l S e n t i m e n t Index PT M P a r e n t s ' E d u c a t i o n PQ C P a r e n t s ' I d e a l i z e d and E x p e c t e d E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s PQ C S t u d e n t s ' I d e a l i z e d and E x p e c t E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s SQ C S u b j e c t P r e f e r n c e SQ C Y e a r s i n WS/WE SQ M Number of S c h o o l s A t t e n d e d PR M A b s e n c e s : L a s t F i v e Y e a r s PR M S o c i a l B e h a v i o u r : RCMP C o n t a c t s PQ C S t e a d y G i r l / B o y f r i e n d SQ C S t e a d y G i r l / B o y f r i e n d i n S c h o o l SQ C B e s t F r i e n d s i n S c h o o l SQ C I n v o l v e m e n t i n Community and S c h o o l : S p o r t s & C l u b s SQ C F a m i l y : Gender SQ C Age SQ M P r e s e n t F a m i l y S i z e PQ M Number o f C h i l d r e n PQ M S i b l i n g O r d e r SQ C O l d e r S i b l i n g s i n S c h o o l SQ C O l d e r S i b l i n g s Who D r o p p e d Out PQ C Number o f N a t u r a l P a r e n t s a t Home PQ C F i r s t Language L e a r n e d PQ C Language Commonly Spoken a t Home PQ C Number o f Moves PQ M E c o n o m i c : S o c i o - e c o n o m i c S t a t u s o f t h e F a m i l y P Q C P a r e n t s ' S e c o n d J o b s PQ C S o c i a l A s s s i t a n c e - PQ C S p e n d i n g Money PQ & SQ C T r a n s p o r t a t i o n : Mode of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o S c h o o l PQ & SQ C . D r i v e r ' s L i c e n c e PQ & SQ C C a r o w n e r s h i p PQ & SQ C T r a v e l l i n g Time t o S c h o o l PQ & SQ M T r a v e l l i n g Time Home PQ & SQ M E a t i n g H a b i t s : B r e a k f a s t E a t e n L u n c h E a t e n PQ & SQ PQ & SQ C C N o t e : PQ SQ PT PR C -M -- P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - S t u d e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - P s y c h o m e t r i c T e s t i n g - Permanent R e c o r d C a r d s C a t e g o r i c a l V a r i a b l e M e a s u r e d V a r i a b l e 29 C h a p t e r I I I METHODOLOGY The p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r f o c u s s e d upon t h e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e ex p o s t f a c t o and l o n g i t u d i n a l m e t h o d o l o g i e s u s e d i n d r o p o u t p r e d i c t i o n s t u d i e s . A number of p a p e r s were r e v i e w e d t o examine t h e m e t h o d o l o g i e s employed and t o i d e n t i f y v a r i a b l e s t h a t were f o u n d t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between d r o p o u t s and g r a d u a t e s . In t h i s c h a p t e r a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d i n t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y i s p r o v i d e d f i r s t . T h i s i s t h e n f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n of s t u d e n t s , v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d , i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d , p i l o t t e s t i n g , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , and t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s employed t o a n a l y z e t h e d a t a . L a s t l y , a d i s c u s s i o n on t h e agreement of r e s p o n s e between t h e p a r e n t s ' and s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s t o common q u e s t i o n s . The m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y r e q u i r e d t h a t d a t a be c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h r e e s o u r c e s : t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e i r p a r e n t s , and t h e i r Permanent R e c o r d c a r d s . The s t u d e n t s ' d a t a were o b t a i n e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e s t u d y v i a t h e S t u d e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and p s y c h r o m e t r i c t e s t s . The p a r e n t s ' d a t a were c o l l e c t e d w i t h t h e P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h was a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e s t u d y . D a t a from t h e Permanent R e c o r d s c a r d s were g a t h e r e d a t t h e end of s c h o o l y e a r a l o n g w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s ' s t a t u s of e i t h e r d r o p o u t or p e r s i s t e r . The a d v a n t a g e s of c o l l e c t i n g d a t a a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e s t u d y were t h a t t h e d a t a were c u r r e n t and o b t a i n e d i n a u n i f o r m manner. The d i s a d v a n t a g e r e l a t e s t o t h e l a r g e amounts of t i m e , 30 o r g a n i z a t i o n , and manpower r e q u i r e d . In c o n t r a s t , g a t h e r i n g d a t a from t h e Permanent R e c o r d c a r d s a t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y was done q u i c k l y by a s i n g l e p e r s o n . The d i s a d v a n t a g e s i n u s i n g t h e P.R. c a r d d a t a were t h a t t h e y were i n c o m p l e t e i n 51% o f t h e c a s e s and t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e d a t a were c o l l e c t e d o r i g i n a l l y was n o t under t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r . POPULATION The p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f 121 s t u d e n t s who were e n r o l l e d i n t h e f a l l , 1981 i n t h e Work Study/Work E x p e r i e n c e Programmes a t B r o c k l e h u r s t , John P e t e r s o n , M a c A r t h u r P a r k , and S a h a l i J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s i n Kamloops, and t h e i r p a r e n t s . Kamloops, a c i t y w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of 66,500 b u i l t a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e N o r t h and S o u t h Thompson R i v e r s i s l o c a t e d i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c c e n t r e of t h e s o u t h e r n h a l f of t h e P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The r e g i o n i s n o t e d f o r i t s d r y c o n t i n e n t a l c l i m a t e w i t h t h e v a l l e y s r e c e i v i n g l e s s t h a n 25.4 cm. o f r a i n p e r y e a r , w i t h an a v e r a g e (mean) y e a r l y t e m p e r a t u r e of 8.3 d e g r e e s C e l s i u s . ( C i t y of Kamloops Community P r o f i l e , 1981). The economy o f Kamloops i s b a s e d on a g r i c u l t u r e , m i n i n g , t o u r i s m , and f o r e s t r y . R a n c h i n g i s t h e major a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y i n t h e r e g i o n . The m i n i n g i n d u s t r y depends on c o p p e r and molybdenum o r e e x t r a c t e d from f o u r open p i t mines and p r o c e s s e d by one s m e l t e r . The f o r e s t i n d u s t r y i n c l u d e s not o n l y l o g g i n g but p r o c e s s i n g i n t o lumber, p l y w o o d , v e n e e r , and p u l p . S i x m a j o r s a w m i l l s , two p l y w o o d p l a n t s , and a p u l p m i l l a r e a c t i v e i n t h i s p r o c e s s i n g . — 31 The f a v o u r a b l e t o p o g r a p h y and g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n h a s e r e s u l t e d i n Kamloops d e v e l o p i n g i n t o a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c e n t r e . I t i s s e r v e d by t h e two n a t i o n a l r a i l w a y s , two m a j o r h i g h w a y s , and an a i r p o r t c a p a b l e of h a n d l i n g j e t s of t h e B o e i n g 727 s i z e . The s i z e , i n d u s t r y , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c i t y ' s d e v e l o p m e n t as a t r a d i n g , f i n a n c i a l , t r a v e l , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e f o r t h e s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r . The major h e a l t h and h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e r e g i o n , t h e R o y a l I n l a n d H o s p i t a l and C a r i b o o C o l l e g e a r e a l s o l o c a t e d i n t h e c i t y ( C i t y of Kamloops Community P r o f i l e , 1981). E n g l i s h was t h e mother to n g u e o f 87.2% of Kamloops' p o p u l a t i o n . German, I t a l i a n , F r e n c h , U k r a i n i a n , and P u n j a b i a r e o t h e r mother t o n g u e s spoken by t h e r e s i d e n t s . The m a j o r i t y , of t h e f a m i l i e s i n Kamloops had two p a r e n t s a t home. One o r two c h i l d r e n were p r e s e n t i n 77.8% o f t h e f a m i l i e s . T h e r e were an a v e r a g e o f 3.2 p e r s o n s p e r f a m i l y and an a v e r a g e o f 1.4 c h i l d r e n p e r f a m i l y . The median age g r o u p f o r b o t h m a l e s and f e m a l e s r a n g e d from 25 t o 34 y e a r s . The a v e r a g e f a m i l y income i n Kamloops was $ 29,335, w i t h a median o f $ 27,189. ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1982). The e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d w i t h i n t h e c i t y by S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #24 a t t h e t i m e o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n c l u d e d 29 e l e m e n t a r y , f i v e j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y , one j u n i o r / s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y , two s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y , and two s p e c i a l s c h o o l s f o r t h e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d . T h e r e a r e a l s o two p r i v a t e p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l s . Work Study/Work E x p e r i e n c e programmes a r e l o c a t e d i n f o u r o f t h e j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . Two of t h e s e s c h o o l s , 32 M a c A r t h u r P a r k and B r o c k l e h u r s t , a r e l o c a t e d on t h e N o r t h s h o r e of t h e Thompson R i v e r . The s t u d e n t s who a t t e n d t h e s e s c h o o l s l i v e i n t h e immediate n e i g h b o u r h o o d . The o t h e r two s c h o o l s , John P e t e r s o n and S a h a l i a r e l o c a t e d on t h e S o u t h s i d e o f t h e Thompson R i v e r and s e r v e n o t o n l y t h e immediate n e i g h b o u r h o o d s but a l s o s t u d e n t s from t h e s u b u r b a n and r u r a l a r e a s of t h e r e g i o n . Bus s t u d e n t s r e p r e s e n t e d 65% and 18% of t h e s e s c h o o l s ' t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The WS/WE programme a t M a c A r t h u r Park was s t a f f e d w i t h t h r e e f u l l t i m e t e a c h e r s f o r 45 s t u d e n t s . M a t h e m a t i c s , E n g l i s h , S o c i a l S t u d i e s , I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n , and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n were t h e s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d by t h e WS/WE t e a c h e r s . At B r o c k l e h u r s t t h e r e were 25 s t u d e n t s t a u g h t by 1.1 f u l l t i m e e q u i v a l e n t WS/WE t e a c h e r s . The s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n M a t h e m a t i c s , E n g l i s h , and L i f e S k i l l s from t h e i r WS/WE t e a c h e r s ; P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n s c o u r s e s were o f f e r e d a s i n t e g r a t e d e l e c t i v e s . The work e x p e r i e n c e component a t b o t h M a c A r t h u r P a r k and B r o c k l e h u r s t i n v o l v e d Grade 10 s t u d e n t s w o r k i n g f o r t h r e e h o u r s i n t h e m o r n i n g and Grade 9 s t u d e n t s w o r k i n g f o r two h o u r s i n t h e a f t e r n o o n . On t h e S o u t h s h o r e of t h e Thompson R i v e r , t h e WS/WE programme a t S a h a l i i n v o l v e d 0.5 of a f u l l t i m e e q u i v a l e n t t e a c h e r w i t h 14 s t u d e n t s i n a mixed G r a d e 9 and Grade 10 c l a s s . The s t u d e n t s were t a u g h t E n g l i s h , M a t h e m a t i c s , S o c i a l S t u d i e s , and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n by t h e i r t e a c h e r . The s t u d e n t s worked i n t h e m o r n i n g s f o r t h r e e h o u r s . At John P e t e r s o n , t h e programme was s t a f f e d by t h r e e f - u l l t i m e t e a c h e r s w i t h 48 s t u d e n t s . E n g l i s h , M a t h e m a t i c s , 33 S o c i a l S t u d i e s , and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n were t a u g h t by t h e WS/WE t e a c h e r s w i t h one b l o c k of B a c h e l o r L i v i n g o f f e r e d by t h e home e c o n o m i c s t e a c h e r . A l l s t u d e n t s worked f o r 2.75 h o u r s w i t h t h e Grad e 10 s t u d e n t s w o r k i n g i n t h e m o r n i n g and Grade 9 s t u d e n t s w o r k i n g i n t h e a f t e r n o o n . S t u d e n t s i n t h e j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y programmes worked f o r s i x weeks a t e a c h j o b t h e y s e l e c t e d w i t h t h e i r t e a c h e r s ' g u i d a n c e . D u r i n g t h e s c h o o l y e a r , e a c h s t u d e n t c o u l d e x p e c t t o e x p e r i e n c e s i x d i f f e r e n t work p l a c e m e n t s . VARIABLES The v a r i a b l e s examined i n t h i s s t u d y were p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d i n T a b l e 2.3. They were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h o s e i n v e s t i g a t e d by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s i n p r e v i o u s d r o p o u t s t u d i e s . They were g r o u p e d i n s i x c l u s t e r s : e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r , f a m i l y , e c o n o m i c , e a t i n g h a b i t s , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . INSTRUMENTS As was n o t e d e a r l i e r i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s c h a p t e r , d a t a were c o l l e c t e d from t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e i r p a r e n t s , and t h e i r s c h o o l r e c o r d s . The f o u r i n s t r u m e n t s u t i l i z e d i n t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n were t h e P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PQ), S t u d e n t  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (SQ), p s y c h r o m e t r i c t e s t s , and Permanent R e c o r d c a r d s . P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and S t u d e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d e s i g n e d t o be s e l f -a d m i n i s t e r e d , w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y of q u e s t i o n s on b o t h p r e s e n t e d u s i n g a m u l t i p l e c h o i c e f o r m a t . The r e m a i n i n g q u e s t i o n s u s e d a 34 s i m p l e s u p p l y f o r m a t ( e.g. p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e t r a v e l l i n g t i m e t o s c h o o l ; s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r a g e ) . C o p i e s o f t h e two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s can be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x A. A l o n g w i t h q u e s t i o n s t h a t were f o u n d o n l y on t h e p a r e n t s ' and s t u d e n t s ' q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , t h e two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a l s o c o n t a i n e d e i g h t i t e m s t h a t were common t o b o t h . The i n t e n t was t o p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e a c c u r a c y of r e s p o n s e s p r o v i d e d by t h e s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s t o a l l q u e s t i o n s a s k e d . I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t i f l i t t l e o r no d i s c r e p a n c i e s were n o t e d on t h e common i t e m s , t h e n i t would be r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n by s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s on t h e s e p a r a t e q u e s t i o n s were a c c u r a t e . These common q u e s t i o n s a s k e d o f b o t h p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s r e l a t e d t o t h e v a r i a b l e s : b r e a k f a s t e a t e n , l u n c h e a t e n , t r a v e l l i n g t i m e t o s c h o o l , t r a v e l l i n g t i m e from s c h o o l , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o s c h o o l , d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e , c a r o w n e r s h i p , and s p e n d i n g money. P s y c h o m e t r i c T e s t s T h r e e p s y c h o m e t r i c t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s . T h e s e t e s t s measured t h e s t u d e n t s ' i n t e l l i g e n c e , a c h i e v e m e n t , and a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s s c h o o l . I n t e l l i g e n c e The i n s t r u m e n t u t i l i z e d t o measure i n t e l l i g e n c e was t h e S t a n d a r d P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s , SPM, S e t s A, B, C, D, and E ( J . C . Raven, H.K. L e w i s and Co. L t d . . , London, 1958). T h i s p a r t i c u l a r t e s t was c h o s e n b e c a u s e i t c o u l d be g r o u p 35 a d m i n i s t e r e d by a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . I t has a l s o been s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s would e n j o y w r i t i n g t h e SPM b e c a u s e of t h e non v e r b a l n a t u r e of t h e t a s k s . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , i t would s e r v e as a u s e f u l b r e a k i n t h e t a s k o f w r i t i n g t h e b a t t e r y of p s y c h o m e t r i c t e s t s . The t e s t d e s i g n was b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t of Spearman's "g",. or g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g ( B o r t n e r , 1965). I t was i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e t e s t be " s u i t a b l e f o r c o m p a r i n g p e o p l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r immediate c a p a c i t i e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n and c l e a r t h i n k i n g " ( SPM Manual, 1977, p . 2 ) . S a t t l e r (1982) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t e s t measures " t h e a b i l i t y t o f o r m c o m p a r i s o n s , t o r e a s o n by a n a l o g y , and t o o r g a n i z e s p a t i a l p e r c e p t i o n s i n t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d w h o l e s " ( p . 2 4 7 ) . The SPM Manual (1977) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were n e a r l y t h i r t y s t u d i e s done on t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e SPM. The d a t a a v a i l a b l e i n t h e manual c o v e r e d a wide v a r i e t y of t e s t g r o u p s , a g e s , and methods of c a l c u l a t i n g r e l i a b i l i t y . An i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y e s t i m a t e o f .87, computed u s i n g t h e KR-20 f o r m u l a was r e p o r t e d . T e s t - r e t e s t e s t i m a t e s r a n g e d from r=.78 t o r=.90 w i t h t i m e i n t e r v a l s of one week t o t h r e e months. ( SPM M a n u al, p. 5) . R e g a r d i n g v a l i d i t y , t h e manual i n d i c a t e d t h a t , " f o r E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n , and a d o l e s c e n t s , r e l i a b l e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f SPM w i t h B i n e t and W e c h s l e r s c a l e s r a n g e d from .54 t o .86" ( p . 7 ) . The i n f o r m a t i o n on c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s showed t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s were " g e n e r a l l y l o w e r than c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , and even more v a r i a b l e , 36 r a n g i n g f r o m n e g l i g i b l e . . . t o v e r y high'' ( p . 7 ) . P r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s up t o .70 f o r E n g l i s h and n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g a d o l e s c e n t s were r e p o r t e d i n t h e manual. The c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y d a t a v a r i e d "when d i f f e r e n t t e s t i t e m s a r e c o n s i d e r e d " ( SPM M a n u a l , 1977, p . 9 ) . F o r a g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was "an a v e r a g e b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n between SPM i t e m s and t h e combined r e s u l t s o f t h r e e I.Q. t e s t s , of .45; f o r d i f f e r e n t t e s t i t e m s , c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g e d from 0.2 t o 0.8" ( p . 9 ) . S a t t l e r (1982) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were c o n f l i c t i n g r e p o r t s i n t h e f a c t o r a n a l y t i c s t u d i e s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e : "Some s t u d i e s r e p o r t t h a t t h e P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s c o n t a i n s p r i m a r i l y 'g' ( I n d u c t i v e or R e a s o n i n g ) f a c t o r , w h i l e o t h e r s i n d i c a t e t h a t i t c o n t a i n s more t h a n one f a c t o r , s u c h as (1) C o n c r e t e and A b s t r a c t M e a n i n g , (2) C o n t i n u o u s and D i s c r e t e P a t t e r n C o m p l e t i o n , and (3) P a t t e r n i n g T h r o u g h C l o s u r e " . (p.247) A c h i e v e m e n t S t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t was m e a s u r e d i n t h e two main c o g n i t i v e a r e a s t h a t t h e a c a d e m i c p o r t i o n of t h e WS/WE programmes c o n c e n t r a t e upon, r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n and m a t h e m a t i c s s k i l l s . The i n s t r u m e n t u s e d was t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s CTBS Form 3, L e v e l 12 ( Thomas N e l s o n & Sons, 1974 ). The i n s t r u m e n t was c h o s e n f o r a number of r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t h e CTBS i s commonly used i n t h e Kamloops s c h o o l d i s t r i c t as a v a l i d measure of a c h i e v e m e n t , and as a r e s u l t i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . I t i s a C a n a d i a n i z e d v e r s i o n o f t h e Iowa T e s t s of B a s i c S k i l l s w h i c h i s 37 c o n s i d e r e d t o be a sound t e s t ( B i r c h , 1972). T h e r e a r e r e l e v a n t C a n a d i a n norms f o r t h e CTBS. F i n a l l y i t c o u l d be g r o u p a d m i n i s t e r e d by a t r a i n e d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . L e v e l 12 o f t h e CTBS was c h o s e n by t h e WS/WE programme t e a c h e r s as t h e l e v e l t h a t was most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e s t u d e n t s . T h i s i s c o n t r a r y t o t h e CTBS Manual f o r A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , S u p e r v i s o r s , and C o u n s e l l o r s , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t L e v e l 12 be g i v e n t o Grade 6 r e g u l a r c l a s s e s . However t h e r e were two r e a s o n s f o r c h o o s i n g L e v e l 12. F i r s t , a g r e a t amount of r e a d i n g i s r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e even t h e m a t h e m a t i c s s u b t e s t s . The p r i m e r e a s o n f o r s t u d e n t s b e i n g on t h e WS/WE Programme i s t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d e f i c i t i n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a s compared w i t h t h e i r age g r o u p , u s u a l l y t h r e e o r more years." S e c o n d l y , t h e WS/WE s t u d e n t s g e n e r a l l y have n o t had much s u c c e s s w i t h t e s t s of any k i n d . As a r e s u l t , t h e y have d e v e l o p e d n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t e s t i n g b e c a u s e t h e t e s t s were a l w a y s t o o h a r d and t h e y f a i l e d . I t was i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s f e l t r e a s o n a b l y s u c c e s s f u l i n w r i t i n g t h e t e s t b a t t e r i e s . I f t h e y d i d n ot t h e n a poor a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e whole t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e c o u l d have d e v e l o p e d . The R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n s u b t e s t c o n t a i n s a s e r i e s of p a s s a g e s , w i t h a number of m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o them. "The p a s s a g e s were c h o s e n i n an a t t e m p t t o r e p r e s e n t many of t h e t y p e s of m a t e r i a l s e n c o u n t e r e d by t h e p u p i l s i n t h e i r e v e r y d a y r e a d i n g , " . . . , " t h e i t e m s i n a l l l e v e l s of t h e t e s t s p l a c e a premium on u n d e r s t a n d i n g and d r a w i n g i n f e r e n c e f r o m t h e r e a d i n g s e l e c t i o n s " ( CTBS M a n u a l , 1974, p . 4 3 ) . 38 The M a t h e m a t i c s s k i l l s s u b t e s t i s d i v i d e d i n t o two components, c o n c e p t s and p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . The s k i l l s t e s t e d i n b o t h components a r e b a s e d on t h e math c u r r i c u l a f o u n d i n t e x t b o o k s . The method of t e s t i n g t h e c o n c e p t s i s t o ask q u e s t i o n s and p ose n u m e r i c a l p r o b l e m s d e a l i n g w i t h c u r r e n c y , d e c i m a l s , e q u a t i o n s , f r a c t i o n s , g e o m e t r y , measurement, n u m e r a t i o n , p e r c e n t a g e , r a t i o s , r a t i o n a l p r o p o r t i o n , and whole numbers. The p r o b l e m s o l v i n g i s t e s t e d by a s k i n g a s e r i e s o f word p r o b l e m s ( CTBS M a n u a l , 1974). The r e l i a b i l i t y d a t a , e x p r e s s e d as s p l i t - h a l v e s r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s , were b a s e d on 12 p e r c e n t o f t h e answer s h e e t s from t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s t u d y . The c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e two s u b t e s t s u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e : R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n r=.93 and M a t h e m a t i c s S k i l l s r = . 9 l ( CTBS M a n u a l , 1974, p . 5 3 ) . The c o n t e n t of t h e s u b t e s t s was d e c i d e d upon by u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s . S a l v i a and Y s s e l d y k e (1978) d e s c r i b e t h e s e s o u r c e s f o r t h e Iowa T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s ( ITBS ). I t was b e l i e v e d t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s would be a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e CTBS s i n c e i t i s a C a n a d i a n i z e d v e r s i o n of t h e ITBS. ( i ) t h e use of m a t e r i a l i n c u r r e n t c u r r i c u l a and t h e e m p h a s i s p l a c e on t h e m a t e r i a l , ( i i ) r e c o mmendations by e x p e r t s i n methods and c u r r i c u l u m , ( i i i ) s t u d i e s o f t h e f r e q u e n c y o f c e r t a i n k i n d s of e r r o r s made by p u p i l s , ( i v ) i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n t e n t , (v) t e c h n i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of v a r i o u s k i n d s of i t e m s , 39 ( v i ) f e e d - b a c k from u s e r s of e a r l i e r e d i t i o n s , (p.137) The c o n t e n t of t h e s u b t e s t s was deemed t o be a c c e p t a b l e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h e r e s e a r c h by t h e WS/WE t e a c h e r s . The CTBS Manual a l l u d e s t o t h e p r o b l e m of p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y by s t a t i n g t h a t , "The C a n a d i a n T e s t s o f B a s i c S k i l l s were n o t d e s i g n e d as a p t i t u d e t e s t s not as p r e d i c t o r s o f f u t u r e a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s . " ... " E v i d e n c e o f t r u e ' p r e d i c t i v e ' power o f t h e t e s t s i s d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n b e c a u s e o f t h e s e l e c t i v e p r o c e s s e s o f e d u c a t i o n t e n d t o e l i m i n a t e from r e s e a r c h s a m p l e s a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of p u p i l s whose low l e v e l of p e r f o r m a n c e c o u l d be p r e d i c t e d w i t h a h i g h d e g r e e of c e r t a i n t y " (p.50) The CTBS Manual d o e s , however, a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t , " t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o f i c i e n c y i n t h e b a s i c s k i l l s i n d e t e r m i n i n g h i g h s c h o o l and c o l l e g e s u c c e s s has been d e m o n s t r a t e d r e p e a t e d l y " ( p . 5 0 ) , but no s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s a r e made t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e . A t t i t u d e Towards S c h o o l The s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s s c h o o l was measured w i t h t h e S c h o o l S e n t i m e n t Index ( SSI ), S e c o n d a r y L e v e l ( I n s t r u c t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s E x c h a n g e , 1972). A c o p y c a n be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x A. The SSI i s a component of t h e A t t i t u d e Toward S c h o o l , G r a d e K-12 ( I n s t r u c t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s E x c h a n g e , 1972 ). The S c h o o l Sent iment Index was c h o s e n b e c a u s e of i t s r e l i a b i l i t y and t h e was i n w h i c h th e i n d e x was c o n s t r u c t e d . I t can a l s o be g r o u p a d m i n i s t e r e d by a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . The c o n s t r u c t , a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s s c h o o l , as measured by t h e SSI i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e d i m e n s i o n s : 40 ( i ) T e a c h e r s , i e . , one's s u b j e c t i v e f e e l i n g s a b o u t t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r w i t h r e s p e c t t o mode of i n s t r u c t i o n , a u t h o r i t y and c o n t r o l , and t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t e a c h e r t o p u p i 1 . ( i i ) S c h o o l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and c l i m a t e , i e . , one's a t t i t u d e t o w a r d h i s s c h o o l as a s o c i a l c e n t e r , a r u l e - m a k i n g and r u l e - e n f o r c i n g e n t i t y , and as an e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r o p p o r t u n i t y s y s t e m . ( i i i ) L e a r n i n g , i e . , one's a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e , i n d e p e n d e n t of a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s c h o o l , t e a c h e r s , and s u b j e c t s , as r e f l e c t e d i n i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y , w i l l i n g n e s s t o s t u d y , v o l u n t a r i s m , i n t e r e s t i n p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . ( i v ) P e e r i e . , one'e f e e l i n g r e g a r d i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e and c l i m a t e of r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e p e e r g r o u p , r a t h e r t h a n t o w a r d p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h a t g r o u p . (v) G e n e r a l i e . , one's g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d s c h o o l i n g , i n d e p e n d e n t of a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l . ( ) U ATS M a n u a l , 1972, p.5) I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e d i m e n s i o n " T e a c h e r s " a s d e s c r i b e d above i s commonly s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e sub-d i m e n s i o n s ; T e a c h e r : I n s t r u c t i o n , T e a c h e r : A u t h o r i t y and C o n t r o l and T e a c h e r : I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s . B o t h i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s a r e r e p o r t e d i n t h e ATS Manual f o r t h e SSI s u b s c a l e s o r d i m e n s i o n s . O n l y t h o s e v a l u e s r e l e v a n t .to t h i s s t u d y a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 3.1. A l t h o u g h i t i s not s t a t e d , i-t i s assumed t h a t t h e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y i n d e x f o r t h e " T o t a l " SSI was c a l c u l a t e d as a C r o n b a c h ' s S t r a t i f i e d A l p h a . 41 T a b l e 3.1 I n t e r n a l C o n s i s t e n c y f o r t h e SSI SSI S u b s c a l e I n t e r n a l C o n s i s t e n c y Index TOTAL r = .88 T e a c h e r : I n s t r u c t i o n r = .73 T e a c h e r : A u t h o r i t y and C o n t r o l r = .71 T e a c h e r : I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s r = .76 S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e and C l i m a t e r = .77 L e a r n i n g r = .68 P e e r r = .71 G e n e r a l r = .79 ATS ( M a n u a l , 1972, p. 15) The ATS M a n u a l , 1972, a l s o e m p h a s i z e s t h a t , ... t h e measures i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n ( a r e ) a f f e c t i v e , n o t c o g n i t i v e , l e a r n e r g o a l s . T h o s e e d u c a t o r s who have been a c c u s t o m e d t o e x p e c t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of a p p r o x i m a t e l y .80 - .90 must r e c a l l t h a t one m i g h t a n t i c i p a t e more s t a b i l i t y and p e r h a p s more i n t e r n a l s t a b i l i t y f r o m a measure of m a t h e m a t i c a l c o m p e t e n c y o r i n t e l l e c t u a l a p t i t u d e t h a n from a measure o f o ne's more v a c i l l a t i n g a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s c h o o l ( p . 1 7 ) . E v i d e n c e o f v a l i d i t y was p r o v i d e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t i n t h e ATS M a n u a l , 1972. Not o n l y were measures t r i e d out on l e a r n e r s , but t h e v a l i d i t y of t h e g e n e r a l r e t i o n a l e , and t h e s c o r i n g of p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s , were c o n s t a n t l y c h e c k e d w i t h members of t h e I n s t r u c t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s Exchange (IOX) s t a f f as w e l l as e x t e r n a l c o n s u l t a n t s ( p . 7 ) . 42 PILOT TESTING The P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , S t u d e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and t h e S c h o o l S e n t i m e n t Index were p i l o t t e s t e d two weeks b e f o r e u s e d i n t h e a c t u a l r e s e a r c h . The P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was g i v e n t o 12 p a r e n t s , whose s o n / d a u g h t e r was i n t h e Grade 11 WS/WE Programme a t Kamloops S e n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l a t t h e t i m e , b u t who a t t e n d e d t h e G r a d e 10 WS/WE c l a s s e s a t John P e t e r s o n J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . The p a r e n t s were g i v e n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h t h e p u r p o s e of d e t e r m i n i n g i f t h e q u e s t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e v a r i a b l e s , RCMP C o n t a c t s , S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e , and M a r i t a l S t a t u s were p o s s i b l y c o n t e n t i o u s . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f one p a r e n t , a l l p a r e n t s a g r e e d t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n s were e a s y t o r e a d and u n d e r s t a n d , and were n ot o b j e c t i o n a b l e . The S t u d e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was g i v e n t o a l l t h e s t u d e n t s (n=25) who e n r o l l e d i n t h e Grade 11 WS/WE Programme a t Kamloops S e n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l . The i n t e n t was t o make s u r e t h a t t h e r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l was not t o o h i g h , and t h a t t h e p u r p o s e of e a c h q u e s t i o n w a s ' c l e a r . The s t u d e n t s were a l s o a s k e d i f any of t h e q u e s t i o n s were t o o p e r s o n a l . A l l s t u d e n t s a g r e e d t h a t t h e r e were no p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The S c h o o l Sent iment Index was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t e n s t u d e n t s who were i n t h e Grade 10 WS/WE Programme a t John P e t e r s o n J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l p r e v i o u s l y , but who d e c i d e d n ot t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n i n t h e f a l l . The s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o comment on t h e use o f a t a p e r e c o r d e d v o i c e r e a d i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s t o them, a l o n g w i t h t h e p r i n t e d q u e s t i o n s . They a l s o examined t h e 43 c l a r i t y of t h e q u e s t i o n s . The s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no p r o b l e m w i t h t h e use of t a p e d v o i c e , b u t t h a t t h e r e was some c o n f u s i o n on two q u e s t i o n s . Q u e s t i o n #48, " t o win an o f f i c e " , was c h a n g e d t o " t o be on S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l " , and q u e s t i o n #75, "be an i n d i v i d u a l i s t " , was c h a n g e d t o , "do t h i n g s y o u r own way". SPECIAL PROCEDURES The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e S S I , SPM, and P a r e n t  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e u t i l i z e d methods t h a t augmented t h e p r o c e d u r e s n o r m a l l y f o l l o w e d . To a v o i d p r o b l e m s w i t h r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , t h e SSI q u e s t i o n s were r e a d a l o u d u s i n g a t a p e r e c o r d e r . The i n t e n t of t h e t a p e was t o make c e r t a i n t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n s were r e a d c o n s i s t e n t l y t o e a c h s t u d e n t . The q u e s t i o n s were r e a d s i x s e c o n d s a p a r t so t h a t s u f f i c i e n t t i m e was p r o v i d e d t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n . The s t u d e n t s were a d v i s e d t o p ut up t h e i r hand i f t h e y needed more t i m e t o c o n s i d e r an answer and t h e t a p e w o u l d be s t o p p e d . The SPM was g r o u p a d m i n i s t e r e d . A copy of t h e e n t i r e m a t r i x , made from a s p i r i t m aster,was p r o v i d e d t o e a c h s t u d e n t . The P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e was m a i l e d t o t h e p a r e n t s w i t h t h e i n t e n t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s from t h e s c h o o l t h e i r s o n / d a u g h t e r a t t e n d e d would c o n t a c t them by t e l e p h o n e t o c o l l e c t t h e d a t a . However 56 (54.9%) of t h e p a r e n t s r e t u r n e d t h e c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i r e c t l y t o t h e s c h o o l s . 44 DATA COLLECTION The p r o c e d u r e s u s e d t o c o l l e c t t h e d a t a a r e i t e m i z e d as f o l l o w s : 1. D u r i n g t h e s e c o n d week of September 1981, t h e WS/WE s t u d e n t s in. t h e f o u r s c h o o l s i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h were a d d r e s s e d by t h e a u t h o r . The t o p i c s of d i s c u s s i o n were; p u r p o s e of t h e r e s e a r c h , t y p e s of i n s t r u m e n t s t h e y would e n c o u n t e r , t h e i r c o n s e n t , w i t h d r a w a l from t h e r e s e a r c h , t h e c o v e r i n g l e t t e r , c o n s e n t form a nd q u e s t i o n n a i r e b e i n g s e n t t o t h e i r p a r e n t s . 2. The c o v e r i n g l e t t e r , c o n s e n t form, and q u e s t i o n n a i r e were s e n t t o t h e p a r e n t s o f the WS/WE s t u d e n t s d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r p a r t of t h e t h i r d week. 3. D u r i n g t h e f i r s t week i n O c t o b e r 1981 t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was s t a r t e d w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s . I t was not p o s s i b l e t o s p e c i f y t h e e x a c t h o u r o r day a p a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u m e n t was t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d b e c a u s e o f t h e v a r y i n g t i m e t a b l e s and e v e n t s i n t h e f o u r s c h o o l s . However t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e i n s t r u m e n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d was a g r e e d t o by t h e WS/WE t e a c h e r s . T h i s o r d e r was;: SSI , S t u d e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , CTBS R e a d i n g , SPM, CTBS M a t h e m a t i c s . 4. The d a t a on t h e P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n n a i r e were a l s o c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t week i n O c t o b e r 1981. 5. D a t a c o l l e c t i o n c o n t i n u e d w i t h s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p a r e n t s who e n r o l l e d a f t e r t h e f i r s t week i n September, u n t i l t h e f i r s t week i n December 1981. 6. D a t a from t h e Permanent R e c o r d c a r d s were c o l l e c t e d i n June 1982. DATA PREPARATION The d a t a from t h e P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e S t u d e n t  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e were hand c o d e d o n t o F o r t r a n S h e e t s . The c o d i n g f o r a l l o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was r e c h e c k e d . P r e c i s e e r r o r r a t e 45 d a t a were not c o l l e c t e d , however t h e number of e r r o r s d e t e c t e d were v e r y s m a l l . F o r t r a n S h e e t s and t h e CTBS, S S I , and SPM d a t a were t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o a computer f i l e by t h e k e y p u n c h s e r v i c e of t h e UBC C o m p u t i n g C e n t r e . The a c c u r a c y of t h e k e y p u n c h i n g was v e r i f i e d by t h e keypunch s e r v i c e and a l s o by t h e a u t h o r on a random sample o f 50% of t h e computer r e c o r d s , no e r r o r s were d e t e c t e d . The CTBS, and S S I , and SPM were marked by computer u s i n g t h e LERTAP Programme ( N e l s o n , 1974). The s c o r e s were t h e n merged w i t h t h e d a t a from t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o form one m a s t e r d a t a f i l e . DATA ANALYSES A l l a n a l y s e s were c o m p l e t e d on t h e AMDAHL 470 C/8 computer m a i n t a i n e d by t h e UBC Computing C e n t r e , u s i n g subprogrammes from t h e S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( S P S S ) , V e r s i o n s 8 and 9 ( N i e , H u l l , J e n k i n s , S t e i n b r e n n e r , and B e n t , 1975). The d r o p o u t s and p e r s i s t e r s were compared on t h e m easured v a r i a b l e s ( s e e T a b l e 2 . 3 ) , a t t h e .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e , w i t h a t - t e s t . The F - t e s t was a l s o u t i l i z e d t o t e s t t h e e q u a l i t y of v a r i a n c e so t h a t t h e i s s u e s o f h o m o g e n e i t y of v a r i a n c e and t h e v a r i a n c e w i t h i n t h e p e r s i s t e r and d r o p o u t g r o u p s c o u l d be a d d r e s s e d . In i n s t a n c e s were t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r h o m o g e n e i t y of v a r i a n c e was not met f o r t h e u n d e r l y i n g t -t e s t , t h e u n p o o l e d v a r i a n c e was u s e d . The subprogramme T-TEST was u t i l i z e d f o r t h e s e c o m p u t a t i o n s . C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s and C h i s q u a r e a n a l y s e s on t h e c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e s ( s e e T a b l e 2 . 3 ) , a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , were p r o v i d e d by t h e subprogramme 46 CROSSTABS. Where 2x2 C h i s q u a r e c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s had e x p e c t e d c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s were below t h e minimum v a l u e s , t h e Y a t e ' s C o r r e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e was u t i l i z e d . S i n c e t h e r e i s no e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e Y a t e ' s C o r r e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e w i t h C h i s q u a r e c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s g r e a t e r t h a n 2xn, t h e C h i s q u a r e v a l u e was u s e d o n l y a s a g u i d e t o i n d i c a t e a l e v e l of i n d e p e n d a n c e i f t h e c e l l s i z e s were below t h e minimum e x p e c t e d c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s . Agreement of R e s p o n s e s Between P a r e n t s and S t u d e n t s P r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d on t h e e i g h t q u e s t i o n s common t o t h e b o t h P a r e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e S t u d e n t  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t o f agreement and t h e r e f o r e t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e p a r e n t s ' and s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s . The d a t a were a n a l y z e d s u c h t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s ' and p a r e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s were p a i r e d . I f d a t a f o r one member of t h e p a i r were i n c o m p l e t e t h e n t h e p a i r was d e l e t e d from t h e a n a l y s e s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a f i n a l sample s i z e o f 73 p a i r s o f s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p a r e n t s f o r t h e p e r s i s t e r s and 18 p a i r s f o r t h e d r o p o u t s . T h e r e were 11 i n c o m p l e t e p a i r s f o r t h e p e r s i s t e r s and t h r e e f o r t h e d r o p o u t s . The r e s p o n s e s of t h e f i n a l sample p a i r s t o t h e e i g h t common q u e s t i o n s a r e summarized i n T a b l e 3.2. F o r s i x o f t h e v a r i a b l e s t h e l e v e l of c o n g r u e n c y between t h e s t u d e n t - p a r e n t p a i r s i s e x p r e s s e d a s a p r o p o r t i o n e q u a l t o t h e number o f p a i r s t h a t a g r e e d on a q u e s t i o n d i v i d e d by t h e f i n a l number of sample p a i r s . F o r t h e r e m a i n i n g two v a r i a b l e s - - t r a v e l l i n g t i m e t o s c h o o l and t r a v e l l i n g t i m e home--the l e v e l o f agreement between t h e t i m e e s t i m a t e p r o v i d e d by t h e s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p a r e n t s was d e t e r m i n e d by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e p a r e n t s ' t i m e e s t i m a t e from t h e 47 s t u d e n t s ' t i m e e s t i m a t e and t h e n e x a m i n i n g t h e s i z e of t h e d i sc r e p a n c y . As shown i n T a b l e 3.2, t h e r e was good agreement between t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s on t h e v a r i a b l e s D r i v e r ' s L i c e n c e and Car O w n e r s h i p . On t h e r e m a i n i n g s i x v a r i a b l e s , t h e r e a p p e a r e d t o be l e s s a T a b l e 3.2 L e v e l of C o n g r u e n c y by S t a t u s S t a t u s V a r i a b l e P e r s i s t e r P a i r s D r o p o u t P a i r s D r i v e r s ' L i c e n c e .96 .89 Car O w n e r s h i p .95 .94 S p e n d i n g Money .74 .89 B r e a k f a s t E a t e n .36 .67 L u n c h E a t e n .58 .56 Mode o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o S c h o o l .85 .79 T r a v e l l i n g Time M - 1 2 . 2 ( m i n u t e s ) -6.4 t o S c h o o l SD 15.3 10.1 T r a v e l l i n g Time M - 1 2 . 9 ( m i n u t e s ) -5.3 Home SD 18.9 2 5.7 48 D r i v e r ' s L i c e n c e The d a t a i n T a b l e 3.2 show t h a t t h e r e was a h i g h l e v e l of agreement between t h e s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s f o r b o t h t h e p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n a b o u t d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e s . The l a c k of c o n g r u e n c y w i t h i n t h r e e p e r s i s t e r s and two d r o p o u t p a i r s c o u l d be a r e s u l t of t h e m i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a l e a r n e r ' s l i c e n c e f o r an a u t o m o b i l e o r a m o t o r c y c l e . Car O w n e r s h i p A v e r y h i g h l e v e l o f agreement e x i s t e d between t h e s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s f o r b o t h p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s when a s k e d a b o u t o w n e r s h i p . F o u r p e r s i s t e r s and one d r o p o u t p a i r s d i d n o t a g r e e ; i n e a c h of t h e s e c a s e s t h e s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y owned a c a r . I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s i s a f u n c t i o n of t h e s t u d e n t m i s i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e i r o w n e r s h i p of a c a r as o p p o s e d t o b e i n g t h e p r i n c i p a l o r s o l e d r i v e r o f a v e h i c l e owned by a p a r e n t . I t i s a l s o p l a u s i b l e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t may own a s m a l l p o r t i o n of t h e c a r and i s making payments t o t h e p a r e n t , when i n f a c t t h e p a r e n t i s t h e l e g a l owner. S e n d i n g Money As shown i n T a b l e 3.2 t h e r e was a f a i r l y h i g h l e v e l of agreement w i t h i n t h e s t u d e n t - p a r e n t p a i r f o r t h e p e r s i s t e r s , 74%, and a v e r y h i g h agreement w i t h i n t h e d r o p o u t p a i r s , 89%, when e a c h was a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e major s o u r c e o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s s p e n d i n g money. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e p e r s i s t e r and d r o p o u t p a i r s t h a t d i s a g r e e d d i d so b e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t s 49 r e c e i v e d b o t h an a l l o w a n c e and made money from odd j o b s . C o n s e q u e n t l y i t was not c l e a r t o e i t h e r t h e s t u d e n t s or p a r e n t s w h i c h s o u r c e p r o v i d e d t h e most s p e n d i n g money. B r e a k f a s t E a t e n The m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p a r e n t s d i s a g r e e d on whether o r not t h e s t u d e n t s a t e b r e a k f a s t . O n l y 36% o f t h e p e r s i s t e r s t u d e n t - p a r e n t p a i r s a g r e e d t h a t b r e a k f a s t was o r was n o t e a t e n . The f i g u r e f o r t h e d r o p o u t s was somewhat i m p r o v e d , 67% o f t h e s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s a g r e e d i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e b r e a k f a s t e a t e n q u e s t i o n . One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e a number o f p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s w h i c h may a c c o u n t f o r t h e l a c k of agreement o b s e r v e d . P a r e n t s may have c o n s i d e r e d t h a t a l w a y s s e r v i n g b r e a k f a s t , or a l w a y s making i t a v a i l a b l e meant t h a t t h e c h i l d a l w a y s a t e i t ' . S e c o n d l y , t h e p a r e n t s may have f e l t t h a t a n y t h i n g e a t e n i n t h e m o r n i n g c o n s t i t u t e d a b r e a k f a s t , whereas t h e s t u d e n t s may have u s e d t h e amount consumed as t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r whether or not b r e a k f a s t was e a t e n . A c q u i e s c e n c e on t h e p a r t o f t h e p a r e n t s i s a t h i r d f a c t o r t h a t c o u l d have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d i s c r e p a n c y - - " good p a r e n t s a l w a y s p r o v i d e b r e a k f a s t s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n " . L u n c h E a t e n I n s p e c t i o n of t h e d a t a i n T a b l e 3.2 r e v e a l s t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the p a r e n t s ' and t h e s t u d e n t s ' a n swers t o t h e b r e a k f a s t e a t e n q u e s t i o n was a l s o e v i d e n t w i t h t h e v a r i a b l e " l u n c h e a t e n " . The d a t a show t h a t t h e r e were o n l y moderate l e v e l s o f c o n g r u e n c y between t h e p e r s i s t e r and d r o p o u t s t u d e n t -50 p a r e n t p a i r s , 58% and 56% r e s p e c t i v e l y . The d i f f e r e n c e n o t e d c o u l d be a f u n c t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t s p r o v i d i n g e i t h e r money o r a bag l u n c h , but whether o r not t h e l u n c h was e a t e n o r t h e money s p e n t on l u n c h would n o t be known t o t h e p a r e n t s . In f a m i l i e s where t h e s u b j e c t s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making t h e i r own l u n c h e s , t h e p a r e n t s may have i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r s o n / d a u g h t e r a l w a y s a t e l u n c h b e c a u s e t h e p a r e n t s a l w a y s p r o v i d e d t h e n e c e s s a r y m a t e r i a l s . As w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s v a r i a b l e d i s c u s s e d , a c q u i e s c e n c e c o u l d a l s o have been a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r . Mode of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o S c h o o l E x a m i n a t i o n of t h e d a t a i n T a b l e 3.2 i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were minor d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p a r e n t s ' and s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n r e l a t i n g t h e mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t h e s t u d e n t s u s e d t o t r a v e l t o s c h o o l . The l e v e l s o f agreement between t h e p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s t u d e n t - p a r e n t p a i r s were 85% and 72% r e s p e c t i v e l y . T r a v e l l i n g Time t o S c h o o l The r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n about " t r a v e l l i n g t i m e t o s c h o o l " showed t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e agreement between s t u d e n t s ' and p a r e n t s ' e s t i m a t e s o f t r a v e l l i n g t i m e . As shown i n T a b l e 3.2, t h e p a r e n t s i n d i c a t e d a l o n g e r t i m e . The d i f f e r e n c e s n o t e d a r e i n a l a r g e p a r t l i k e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e q u e s t i o n s a s k e d of p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s . The p a r e n t s were a s k e d f o r t h e t i m e b e g i n n i n g when t h e s t u d e n t s l e f t home; t h e s t u d e n t s were a s k e d s i m p l y how l o n g i t too k t o g e t t o s c h o o l . The s t u d e n t s , who would know e x a c t l y t h e l e n g t h of t i m e 51 r e q u i r e d t o g e t t o s c h o o l , may not have t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t t h e t i m e t h e y s p e n t p i c k i n g up a f r i e n d , w a i t i n g a t t h e bus s t o p , g o i n g t o a f r i e n d s ' house t o c a t c h a r i d e , a n d / o r s t o p p i n g a t t h e s c h o o l smoking a r e a o r t h e l o c a l g r o c e r y s t o r e . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e s t u d e n t s ' t i m e e s t i m a t e would be s h o r t e r t h a n t h e p a r e n t s ' e s t i m a t e , w h i c h was l i k e l y c a l c u l a t e d by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e t i m e t h e s t u d e n t f i r s t l e f t home from t h e t i m e s c h o o l s t a r t e d . T r a v e l l i n g Time Home As w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s v a r i a b l e t h e r e was a d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e p a r e n t s ' and s t u d e n t s ' t r a v e l l i n g home t i m e e s t i m a t e s b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t form of t h e q u e s t i o n s a s k e d o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . P a r e n t s were a s k e d what t i m e t h e i r s o n / d a u g h t e r a r r i v e d home and t h e t r a v e l l i n g t i m e was c a l c u l a t e d by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e t i m e a t w h i c h s c h o o l ended from t h i s f i g u r e . The p a r e n t s t i m e e s t i m a t e would be l o n g e r t h a n t h e s t u d e n t s ' b e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t s w o u l d n o t i n c l u d e i n t h e i r e s t i m a t e s t h e t i m e t h e y s p e n t t a l k i n g , w a i t i n g o r l o i t e r i n g b e f o r e t h e y a c t u a l l y a r r i v e d home. The s t u d e n t s would know e x a c t l y how l o n g i t t a k e s t o go home. In summary t h e d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e some d i f f e r e n c e s e v i d e n t between t h e r e s p o n s e s p r o v i d e d by t h e s t u d e n t s and by t h e i r p a r e n t s when a s k e d a b o u t " b r e a k f a s t e a t e n " and " l u n c h e a t e n " . The i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s were most l i k e l y a c o n s e q u e n c e of some o f t h e p a r e n t s h a v i n g a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e q u e s t i o n s and o p t i o n s t h a n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The d i f f e r e n c e s n o t e d between t h e p a r e n t s ' and s t u d e n t s ' 52 r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s " t r a v e l l i n g t i m e t o s c h o o l " , and " t r a v e l l i n g t i m e home" were l i k e l y a f u n c t i o n of t h e d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n s a s k e d . F o r t h e r e m a i n i n g q u e s t i o n s - - d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e , c a r o w n e r s h i p , s p e n d i n g money, and mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o s c h o o l - - t h e use o f d i s t i n c t r e s p o n s e o p t i o n s p r o v i d e d l e s s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and as a r e s u l t , good t o e x c e l l e n t agreement was o b s e r v e d between t h e p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s . Thus, b a s e d upon t h e a g r e e m e n t s and p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n of d i s c r e p a n c i e s n o t e d , i t was assumed t h a t t h e r e m a i n i n g q u e s t i o n s on t h e SQ and PQ were a c c u r a t e l y a n swered by th e s t u d e n t s and t h e i r p a r e n t s . 53 CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r t h e m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d i n c o l l e c t i n g and a n a l y z i n g t h e d a t a was d e s c r i b e d . In a d d i t i o n , a s e r i e s o f p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s e s were p e r f o r m e d i n w h i c h t h e p a r e n t s ' and s t u d e n t s ' r e p o n s e s t o common q u e s t i o n s on t h e P a r e n t  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and S t u d e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e were compared t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n g r u e n c y between t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . The r e s u l t s of t h e s e a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s and p a r e n t s a g r e e d on q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e mode of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o s c h o o l , p o s s e s s i o n of a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e , c a r o w n e r s h i p , and s o u r c e s o f s p e n d i n g money. In c o n t r a s t , t h e r e was a l a c k of agreement on q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o go t o s c h o o l i n t h e m o r n i n g and t h e n t o r e t u r n i n t h e a f t e r n o o n , and on t h e f r e q u e n c y o f b r e a k f a s t s and l u n c h e s e a t e n . I t was s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h e d i s c r e p a n c y n o t e d between t h e p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s on t h e t r a v e l l i n g t i m e t o and s c h o o l was a r e s u l t of t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e q u e s t i o n s a s k e d o f t h e p a r e n t s and of t h e s t u d e n t s . The p a r e n t s ' t i m e e s t i m a t e s were c a l c u l a t e d f r o m t h e t i m e t h e s t u d e n t s l e f t home i n t h e m o r n i n g and a r r i v e d home i n t h e a f t e r n o o n . The p a r e n t s ' e s t i m a t e s were l o n g e r t h a n t h e s t u d e n t s b e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t s knew e x a c t l y how l o n g t h e y t o o k t o t r a v e l t o s c h o o l and back home. They d i d not i n c l u d e t h e t i m e t h e y s p e n t w a i t i n g f o r f r i e n d s or t h e bus, or l o i t e r i n g on t h e way t o s c h o o l o r home a f t e r w a r d s . The s t u d e n t s were more aware of how t h e y s p e n t t h e i r t i m e t h a n t h e p a r e n t s . The l a c k o f agreement on t h e b r e a k f a s t e a t e n v a r i a b l e was assumed t o be a r e s u l t of a 54 d i f f e r e n c e i n o p i n i o n between t h e p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s on what c o n s t i t u t e d t h e e a t i n g o f b r e a k f a s t . The l a c k o f agreement on th e l u n c h q u e s t i o n was t h o u g h t t o be due t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p a r e n t s p r o v i d i n g a l u n c h and o n l y t h e s t u d e n t s knowing i f i t was e a t e n . G i v e n t h a t t h e r e were good l e v e l s of agreement on f o u r o f t h e common q u e s t i o n s and p l a u s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s n o t e d on t h e o t h e r f o u r q u e s t i o n s , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s a n s w e r e d t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s v a l i d l y . Where a d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e p a r e n t s and s t u d e n t s on t h e common q u e s t i o n s was n o t e d , t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s were assumed t o r e f l e c t t h e s i t u a t i o n more a c c u r a t e l y t h a n t h o s e of t h e i r p a r e n t s . In t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e r e s p o n s e r a t e s f o r t h e s t u d e n t and p a r e n t samples a r e r e p o r t e d f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by a d e m o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e f i n a l s t u d e n t sample u t i l i z e d i n t h e a n a l y s e s . The r e s u l t s of t h e a n a l y s e s of t h e r e m a i n i n g c a t e g o r i c a l and measured v a r i a b l e s f r o m t h e PQ, SQ, Permanent R e c o r d c a r d s , and p s y c h o m e t r i c i n s t r u m e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d n e x t . The r e s u l t s a r e r e p o r t e d i n t e r m s of t h e major a s p e c t s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y : e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r , f a m i l y , e c o n o m i c , e a t i n g h a b i t s , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r c l u s t e r s f o r wh i c h a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p <.05) between t h e p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s was f o u n d on a t l e a s t one of t h e c l u s t e r r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d f i r s t w i t h t h e i r a c c o m p a n y i n g d a t a t a b l e s . They a r e t h e n f o l l o w e d by t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e r e m a i n i n g c l u s t e r s where no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t e d . The d a t a t a b l e s f o r t h e s e l a t t e r 55 c l u s t e r s a r e p r o v i d e d i n A p p e n d i x B. RESPONSE RATES A t o t a l of 121 s t u d e n t s , 98 p e r s i s t e r s and 23 d r o p o u t s , who e n r o l l e d i n t h e WS/WE programme d u r i n g t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d were a s k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . Of t h i s number, 14 s t u d e n t s e l e c t e d not t o c o o p e r a t e f u l l y , t h a t i s , t h e y e l e c t e d not t o c o m p l e t e a t e s t . I t was f e l t t h a t i n t h e i n t e r e s t of c l a r i t y , s t u d e n t s who f a i l e d t o c o m p l e t e one o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s s h o u l d be t r e a t e d a s n o n - c o o p e r a t i n g s u b j e c t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e o v e r a l l c o o p e r a t i o n r a t e was 88.4%. S u b s e q u e n t l y , two a d d i t i o n a l s t u d e n t s were e l i m i n a t e d p r i o r t o a n a l y s i s b e c a u s e t h e i r Permanent R e c o r d c a r d d a t a were u n a v a i l a b l e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e s u l t i n g u s e a b i l i t y r a t e was 98.1%. U s e a b l e d a t a were c o l l e c t e d from 95 of t h e 121 p a r e n t s / g u a r d i a n s c o n t a c t e d . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n an o v e r a l l c o o p e r a t i o n r a t e o f 78.5% f o r t h e p a r e n t s / g u a r d i a n s . SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS The d e m o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e sample of s u b j e c t s r e t a i n e d f o r t h e f i n a l d a t a a n a l y s e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4.1. TABLE 4.1 DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE BY STATUS S t a t u s V a r i a b l e P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s Gender Female 30(35.7) 5(23.8) M a l e 54(64.3) 16(76.2) Age 14 10(11.9) 1 (4.8) 1 5 38(45.3) 7(33.3) 1 6 29(34.5) 10(47.6) 1 7 7 (8.3) 2 (9.5) 18 0 (0.0) 1 (4.8) M 15.8 16.2 SD .72 .90 Number of S i b l i n g s None 1 (1.3) 2(10.5) One o r Two 39(52.0) 7(36.8) T h r e e o r more 35(46.7) 10(52.7) S i b l i n g O r d e r E l d e s t 17(22.7) 2(10.5) M i d d l e 28(37.3) 7(36,9) Y o u n g e s t • 29(38.7) 8 ( 4 2 . 1) O n l y 1 (1.3) 2(10.5) P r e s e n t F a m i l y S i z e F o u r o r l e s s 46(60.5) 12(63.2) More t h a n f o u r 30(39.5) 7(36.8) M 4.4 4.0 SD 1 .70 1 .76 T a b l e Language E n g l i s h 67(88.2) 16(84.2) O t h e r 9(11.8) 3(15.8) F i r s t Language E n g l i sh 67(88.2) 15(78.9) O t h e r 9(11.8) 4(21.1) Number o f Moves T h r e e o r l e s s 48(64.9) 10(52.6) F o u r t o n i n e 18(24.3) 6(31.6) More t h a n t e n 8(10.9) 3(15.8) M 3.5 4.5 SD 3.55 4.46 N a t u r a l P a r e n t s a t Home Z e r o 10(13.2) 2(10.5) one 27(35.5) 8(42.1) B o t h 39(51.3) 9(47.4) S o c i o - e c o n o m i c S t a t u s of F a m i l y Unemployed 4 (5.3) 1 (5.3) H o u s e w i v e s 5 (6.6) 3(15.8) I n t e r v a l One 37(48.7) 10(52.6) I n t e r v a l Two 13(17.1) 2(10.5) I n t e r v a l T h r e e 9(11.8) 2(10.5) I n t e r v a l F o u r 7 (9.2) 0 (0.0) I n t e r v a l F i v e 1 (1.3) 1 (5.3) I n t e r v a l S i x 0 (0.0) 0 (0-.-Q) 57 N o t e : The t o t a l number o f s u b j e c t s f o r a g i v e n q u e s t i o n may n o t e q u a l n=l05 b e c a u s e of n o n r e s p o n s e t o t h a t p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n . C h i s q u a r e a n a l y s e s f o r g e n d e r , number of s i b l i n g s , s i b l i n g o r d e r , t a b l e l a n g u a g e , f i r s t l a n g u a g e , n a t u r a l p a r e n t s a t home, and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s of f a m i l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s a t t h e .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . T - t e s t a n a l y s e s f o r age, p r e s e n t f a m i l y s i z e and number of moves i n d i c a t e d t h a t , l i k e w i s e , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . Gender The sample was c o m p r i s e d o f 35 f e m a l e s of whom 30 were p e r s i s t e r s and f i v e were d r o p o u t s . F o r t h e 70 m a l e s , t h e numbers of p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s were 54 and 16 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Age The s t u d e n t s ' a g e s as of September 1981 r a n g e d from 14 t o 18 y e a r s . The mean age f o r t h o s e who c o m p l e t e d t h e s c h o o l y e a r was 15.8 (SD=.72) y e a r s , w h i l e f o r t h e d r o p o u t s t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g mean was 16.2 (SD=.90) y e a r s . Number o f S i b l i n g s One (1.3%) of t h e p e r s i s t e r s was from a s i n g l e c h i l d f a m i l y ; o f t h e o t h e r s , 39 (52%) had one o r two b r o t h e r s a n d / o r s i s t e r s and 35 (46.7%) had more t h a n two s i b l i n g s . F o r t h e d r o p o u t s t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e s were two ( 1 0 . 5 % ) , s e v e n ( 3 6 . 9 % ) , and 10 ( 5 2 . 7 % ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 58 S i b l i n q O r d e r The d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t of t h o s e who c o m p l e t e d t h e s c h o o l y e a r , 29 (38.7%) were t h e y o u n g e s t i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s , 28 (37.3%) were m i d d l e c h i l d r e n , 17 (22.7%) were t h e e l d e s t , and one was an " o n l y " c h i l d . Of t h o s e who d r o p p e d o u t , e i g h t (42.1%) s t u d e n t s were t h e y o u n g e s t i n t h e f a m i l i e s , s e v e n (36.9%) were m i d d l e c h i l d r e n , two (10.5%) were t h e e l d e s t , and two (10.5%) were " o n l y " c h i l d r e n . P r e s e n t F a m i l y S i z e The m a j o r i t y of t h e s t u d e n t s i n b o t h g r o u p s came from f a m i l i e s who, a t t h e t i m e t h e d a t a were c o l l e c t e d , c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r or l e s s m e m b e r s — 4 6 (60.5%) of t h e p e r s i s t e r s and 12 (63.2%) of t h e d r o p o u t s . The a v e r a g e p e r s i s t e r s ' f a m i l y s i z e was 4.4 members, w i t h a modal v a l u e of f o u r members. The a v e r a g e s i z e of t h e d r o p o u t s ' f a m i l y s i z e was 4.0 members, w i t h a modal v a l u e of f o u r members. T a b l e Language „Table Language r e f e r s t o t h e l a n g u a g e commonly spoken a t home. E n g l i s h was spoken i n 67 (88.2%) t h e p e r s i s t e r s ' homes and i n 16 (84.2%) of t h e d r o p o u t s ' homes. F i r s t Language S i m i l a r t o t h e d a t a f o r t a b l e l a n g u a g e , E n g l i s h was t h e f i r s t l a n g u a g e l e a r n e d by 67 (88.2%) of t h e p e r s i s t e r s and 15 (78.9%) o f t h e d r o p o u t s . 59 Number o f Moves The number o f t i m e s t h e f a m i l y moved was u s e d as a measure of f a m i l y t r a n s i e n c e . The d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t most f a m i l i e s moved t h r e e o r l e s s t i m e s a f t e r t h e s t u d e n t i n q u e s t i o n s t a r t e d s c h o o l . F o r t y - e i g h t (64.9%) o f t h e p e r s i s t e r s ' f a m i l i e s moved t h r e e o r l e s s t i m e s ; 18 (24.3%) moved from f o u r t o n i n e t i m e s ; and e i g h t (10.9%) moved more t h a n 10 t i m e s . F o r t h e d r o p o u t s 10 (52.6%) moved t h r e e or l e s s t i m e s ; s i x (31.6%) moved from f o u r t o n i n e t i m e s , and 3 (15.8%) moved more t h a n 10 t i m e s a f t e r t h e s t u d e n t s t a r t e d s c h o o l . N a t u r a l P a r e n t s a t Home B o t h n a t u r a l p a r e n t s were a t home f o r 39 (51.3%) of t h e p e r s i s t e r s and n i n e (47.4%) of t h e d r o p o u t s . One n a t u r a l p a r e n t was p r e s e n t f o r 27 (35.5%) of t h e p e r s i s t e r s and e i g h t (42.1%) of t h e d r o p o u t s . The r e m a i n i n g s t u d e n t s , 10 p e r s i s t e r s and two d r o p o u t s , l i v e d i n homes where none of t h e n a t u r a l p a r e n t s were p r e s e n t . S o c i o - e c o n o m i c S t a t u s F a m i l y Head The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s i n d e x s u g g e s t e d by B l i s h e n and M c R o b e r t s (1976) was u s e d t o a s s i g n e a c h f a m i l y t o a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n t e r v a l b a s e d on t h e f a m i l y h e a d ' s o c c u p a t i o n . The i n t e r v a l s s u g g e s t e d by B l i s h e n (1967) g r o u p th e n u m e r i c a l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n d e x v a l u e s c a l c u l a t e d f o r v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s i n t o s i x c a t e g o r i e s . The f i r s t i n t e r v a l , g r o u p e d w o r k e r s w i t h t h e l o w e s t combined income a n d ' e d u c a t i o n , and t h e l a s t o r s i x t h i n t e r v a l g r o u p e d w o r k e r s w i t h t h e h i g h e s t combined e d u c a t i o n and 60 income. The r e m a i n i n g i n t e r v a l s were e q u a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r g r o u p s b a s e d on, " t h e use of t h e t e n s d i g i t of t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n d e x v a l u e s " ( B l i s h e n and M c R o b e r t s , 1976). J o b s d e s i g n a t e d t o t h e l o w e s t o r f i r s t i n t e r v a l were ones s u c h a s l a b o u r e r s , w a i t r e s s e s , t r u c k d r i v e r s , and s a w m i l l w o r k e r s . The s e c o n d i n t e r v a l , c o n t a i n e d , f o r e x a m p l e - - f o r e m e n i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o r f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s , m e c h a n i c s , m i n e r s , p u l p m i l l w o r k e r s , and s a l e s c l e r k s . The t h i r d i n t e r v a l was c o m p r i s e d o f j o b s s u c h as foremen i n p u l p m i l l s and m i n e s , e l e c t r i c i a n s , and heavy d u t y m e c h a n i c s . The f o u r t h i n t e r v a l c o n t a i n e d j o b s s u c h as b o o k k e e p e r s , e l e c t r o n i c equipment r e p a i r m e n and i n s t a l l e r s , i n s u r a n c e s a l e s m e n , and s u r v e y o r s . The f i f t h i n t e r v a l was made up o f a c c o u n t a n t s , e n g i n e e r s , e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , managers, p o l i c e m e n . The s i x t h and h i g h e s t i n t e r v a l c o n t a i n e d o c c u p a t i o n s s u c h as a r c h i t e c t s , d e n t i s t s , l a w y e r s , s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , m e t e o r o l o g i s t s , o p t o m e t r i s t s , p h a r m a c i s t s , d o c t o r s , and u n i v e r s i t y t e a c h e r s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t B l i s h e n and M c R o b e r t s d i d n o t d e a l w i t h h o u s e w i v e s and t h e unemployed i n t h e i r s c a l e . T h e r e f o r e , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s s t u d y , two new c a t e g o r i e s , one f o r h o u s e w i v e s and t h e o t h e r f o r t h e unemployed, were e s t a b l i s h e d . As shown i n T a b l e 4 . 1 , f o u r (5.3%) heads of p e r s i s t e r s ' f a m i l i e s were unemployed, whereas one (5.3%) d r o p o u t f a m i l y head was unemployed. H o u s e w i v e s were heads of h o u s e h o l d s i n f i v e (6.6%) p e r s i s t e r f a m i l i e s and t h r e e (15.8%) d r o p o u t f a m i l i e s . T h i r t y -s e v e n (48.7%) o f t h e p e r s i s t e r s ' f a m i l y heads were i n t h e l o w e s t o r f i r s t i n t e r v a l , as were 10 (52.6%) o f t h e d r o p o u t s ' f a m i l y 61 h e a d s . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e s f o r t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d i n t e r v a l s were 13 (17.1%) and two ( 1 0 . 5 % ) , and n i n e (11.8%) and two ( 1 0 . 5 % ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e r e were seven (9.2%) p e r s i s t e r s ' f a m i l y h e a d s i n t h e f o u r t h i n t e r v a l but none f o r t h e d r o p o u t . The f i f t h i n t e r v a l c o n t a i n e d one f a m i l y head from b o t h g r o u p s . T h e r e were no f a m i l y heads i n t h e h i g h e s t or s i x t h i n t e r v a l i n e i t h e r g r o u p . SUMMARY The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p e r s i s t e r and d r o p o u t were 15.8 and 16.2 y e a r s o f age r e s p e c t i v e l y . E n g l i s h was t y p i c a l l y t h e f i r s t l a n g u a g e l e a r n e d and commonly spoken a t home by p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s a l i k e . B o t h were e i t h e r t h e y o u n g e s t o r t h e m i d d l e c h i l d i n a f a m i l y o f two or t h r e e c h i l d r e n . The p e r s i s t e r s ' f a m i l i e s t e n d e d t o have b o t h n a t u r a l p a r e n t s a t home w i t h a mean f a m i l y s i z e of 4.4 members. The d r o p o u t s ' f a m i l i e s e i t h e r had one o r b o t h n a t u r a l p a r e n t s a t home, and t h e mean f a m i l y s i z e was 4.0 members. The p e r s i s t e r s ' and d r o p o u t s ' f a m i l i e s moved an a v e r a g e (mean) of 3.5 and 4.5 t i m e s r e s p e c t i v e l y s i n c e t h e s t u d e n t i n q u e s t i o n s t a r t e d s c h o o l . More t h a n h a l f of t h e f a m i l i e s were i n t h e f i r s t o r l o w e s t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n t e r v a l f o r p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s a l i k e . T h e r e were no f a m i l i e s r a n k e d i n t h e s i x t h or h i g h e s t i n t e r v a l . CLUSTERED VARIABLES S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e between t h e p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s were f o u n d on f o u r v a r i a b l e s e x a m i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h r e e of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s — i n t e l l i g e n c e , 62 s c h o o l l e v e l f a i l e d and e x p e c t e d e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l - - a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e c l u s t e r of v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o e d u c a t i o n . The f o u r t h , RCMP C o n t a c t s , i s f o u n d i n t h e " s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r " c l u s t e r . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were o b s e r v e d between t h e two g r o u p s on t h e r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e m a i n i n g f o u r c l u s t e r s . E d u c a t i o n D a t a f o r e a c h of t h e v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l c l u s t e r were o b t a i n e d from t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e s t u d e n t and p a r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , and t h e Permanent R e c o r d c a r d s . I n t e l l i g e n c e The mean, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , and i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of th e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by t h e p e r s i s t e r s and t h e d r o p o u t s on t h e S t a n d a r d P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s ( SPM ) a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 4.2. The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c e s : .92 and .80, compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h o s e r e p o r t e d i n t h e SPM t e s t manual ( SPM M a n u a l , p . 6 ) . A n a l y s i s of t h e e q u a l i t y o f v a r i a n c e r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e v a r i a n c e o f t h e d r o p o u t s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y below t h a t f o r t h e p e r s i s t e r s ( F ( 8 3 , 2 0 ) = 2.60 ; p < . 0 5 ) . U s i n g t h e u n p o o l e d v a r i a n c e f o r m o f t h e t - t e s t f o r i n d e p e n d e n t means, i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e mean f o r t h e d r o p o u t s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e mean f o r t h e p e r s i s t e r s ( t (49.3) = -2.15 ; p < . 0 5 ) . Thus, a c c e p t i n g t h e SPM as a measure of i n t e l l i g e n c e , t h e d r o p o u t s had a h i g h e r mean i n t e l l i g e n c e , w i t h l e s s v a r i a b i l i t y , t h a n t h a t o b s e r v e d f o r t h e p e r s i s t e r s . 63 T a b l e 4.2 Summary S t a t i s t i c s = SPM S t a t i s t i c s S t a t u s n i t e m s M SD P e r s i s t e r s 84 60 36.80 9.84 D r o p o u t s 21 60 40.48 6.11 t=-2.15 df=49.31 p<.037 N o t e : F t e s t on h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e bewtween t h e two s a m p l e s , F=2.59 p < . 0 l 9 Academic A c h i e v e m e n t The C a n a d i a n T e s t s of B a s i c S k i l l s ( CTBS ) were used t o p r o v i d e m e asures of s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t . Two s u b t e s t s were s e l e c t e d . The M a t h e m a t i c s S k i l l s s u b t e s t p r o v i d e d a measure of t h e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e p r o c e s s e s of m a t h e m a t i c s and t o s o l v e p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s . The R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n s u b t e s t m e asured t h e a b i l i t y of t h e s t u d e n t s t o u n d e r s t a n d l i t e r a l f a c t s and t o draw i n f e r e n c e s from t h e i r r e a d i n g . Shown i n T a b l e 4.3 a r e t h e summary r e s u l t s f o r t h e s e two s u b t e s t s . The s u b t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s ( i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ) e x c e e d e d .80 f o r b o t h g r o u p s . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s of b o t h g r o u p s d i d not d i f f e r a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . To g a i n a f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e g e n e r a l l e v e l of a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s i n c o m p a r i s o n t o a Grade 8 c o h o r t , t h e mean s c o r e s were c o n v e r t e d t o p e r c e n t i l e r a n k s u s i n g t h e G r a d e 8 f a l l - g r o u p norms (CTBS M a n u a l , 1975, p. 7 9 ) . F o r 64 m a t h e m a t i c s , t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r c e n t i l e r a n k s were 30 and 26, f o r r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , t h e l e v e l of p e r f o r m a n c e c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e f i r s t p e r c e n t i l e . C l e a r l y s u b j e c t s i n t h e WS/WE have poor m a t h e m a t i c s s k i l l s and s e r i o u s r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n p r o b l e m s . 65 T a b l e 4.3 Summary S t a t i s t i c s : CTBS S u b t e s t s S t a t i s t i c S u b t e s t S t a t u s n i terns M SD r Math S k i l l s P e r s i s t e r s 84 76 29.00 9.21 .81 D r o p o u t s 21 76 28.38 10.23 .86 R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n P e r s i s t e r s 84 76 31 .05 10.70 .86 D r o p o u t s 21 76 29. 19 10.17 .84 N o t e : t - t e s t a n a l y s e s a t p<.05 r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e d r o p o u t s and p e r s i s t e r s on any of t h e s u b t e s t s . S i m i l a r F - t e s t a n a l y s i s a t p<.05 r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a r i a n c e . F a i l u r e and S c h o o l L e v e l F a i l e d The m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s f a i l e d a t l e a s t one g r a d e s i n c e s t a r t i n g s c h o o l . O n l y f i v e s t u d e n t s , two p e r s i s t e r s and t h r e e d r o p o u t s , had not f a i l e d a t l e a s t one p r e v i o u s g r a d e ( s e e T a b l e 4 . 4 ) . 66 T a b l e 4.4 F a i l u r e by S t a t u s S t a t u s P e r s i s t e r s d r o p o u t s No 2 (2.6) 3 (15.8) Yes 74 (97.4) 16 (84.2) C o r r e c t e d C h i S q u a r e = 2.96875 d£ = 1 g < .0849 Of t h e 74 p e r s i s t e r s t h a t d i d f a i l , t h e m a j o r i t y , 79.7%, f a i l e d d u r i n g t h e i r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l y e a r s . In c o n t r a s t , t h e s c h o o l l e v e l s f a i l e d by t h e d r o p o u t s were more e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d between t h e e l e m e n t a r y , 43.8%, and s e c o n d a r y , 56.7%, s c h o o l l e v e l s . The c o r r e c t e d C h i s q u a r e t e s t of i n d e p e n d e n c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t ( p < . 0 l ) ( s e e T a b l e 4 . 5 ) . T h i s would seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t f a i l u r e i n s e c o n d a r y g r a d e s i s somewhat r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of d r o p p i n g out o f a programme l i k e WS/WE. 67 T a b l e 4.5 S c h o o l L e v e l s F a i l e d by S t a t u s S t a t u s P e r s i s t e r s d r o p o u t s E l e m e n t a r y 59 (79.7) 7 (43.8) S e c o n d a r y 15 (20.3) 9 (56.3) C o r r e c t e d C h i S q u a r e = 6.96603 df = 1 p_ < .0083 A t t i t u d e Towards S c h o o l The s u b s c a l e s T e a c h e r : I n s t r u c t i o n , T e a c h e r : A u t h o r i t y and C o n t r o l , and T e a c h e r : I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s a l l measured t h e s t u d e n t s ' s u b j e c t i v e f e e l i n g s a b o u t t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r . The s u b s c a l e L e a r n i n g measured t h e s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s th e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e as r e f l e c t e d i n i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y , w i l l i n g n e s s t o s t u d y , v o l u n t a r i s m , and i n t e r e s t i n p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , but i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s s c h o o l and t e a c h e r s . The s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s c h o o l as a s o c i a l c e n t r e , r u l e making and e n f o r c i n g e n t i t y , and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s was measured by t h e S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e and C l i m a t e s u b s c a l e . The s t u d e n t s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e e r s as a g r o u p was measured by t h e s u b s c a l e P e e r s . The f i n a l s u b s c a l e G e n e r a l , measured t h e s t u d e n t s ' o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d s c h o o l i n g i n g e n e r a l . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (p<.05) were f o u n d between the v a r i a n c e s o f t h e p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s on t h e T e a c h e r s : I n s t r u c t i o n , T e a c h e r : A u t h o r i t y and C o n t r o l , T e a c h e r : 68 I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s , and L e a r n i n g s u b s c a l e s ( s e e T a b l e 4 . 6 ) . However, t - t e s t a n a l y s e s a t p<.05 r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between d r o p o u t s and p e r s i s t e r s on any o f t h e s u b s c a l e s o r on t h e c o m p o s i t e . The s u b s c a l e r e l i a b i l i t i e s ( i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ) a r e e x p r e s s e d as Hoyt E s t i m a t e s w i t h t h e t o t a l t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y e x p r e s s e d as C r o n b a c h ' s S t r a t i f i e d A l p h a . I n s p e c t i o n of T a b l e 4.6 r e v e a l s t h a t p e r s i s t e r and d r o p o u t s u b s c a l e r e l i a b i l i t i e s were not e q u i v a l e n t i n a l l c a s e s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e n o t e d between t h e r e l i a b i l i t i e s ( i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ) i s l i k e l y due t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n v a r i a b i l i t y n o t e d and as r e f l e c t e d by t h e n e a r l y e q u a l s t a n d a r d e r r o r s of measurement. 69 T a b l e 4.6 Summary S t a t i s t i c s : SSI S u b s c a l e s S t a t i s t i c S u b s c a l e S t a t u s n i terns M SD r SEM T e a c h e r : I n s t r u c t i o n P e r s i s t e r s 84 1 5 39.21 3.62 .30 2.93 D r o p o u t s 21 15 38.24 5.48* .72 2.81 T e a c h e r : A u t h o r i t y and C o n t r o l P e r s i s t e r s 84 10 25.51 3.22 .41 2.35 D r o p o u t s 21 10 26. 1 0 4.50* .65 2.51 T e a c h e r : I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s P e r s i s t e r s 84 1 2 30. 1 1 4.46 .56 2.82 D r o p o u t s 21 12 28.57 6.03* .76 2.83 L e a r n i n g P e r s i s t e r s 84 10 24.76 4.14 .57" 2.58 D r o p o u t s 21 1 0 24.38 2.89* 0.0 2.76 Soc i a l S t r u c t u r e and C l i m a t e P e r s i s t e r s 84 1 5 36.96 5.38 .59 3.31 D r o p o u t s 21 1 5 35.90 4.96 .59 3.06 P e e r s P e r s i s t e r s 84 8 22.55 2.96 .45 2.05 D r o p o u t s 21 8 21 .62 3.49 .67 1 .87 G e n e r a l P e r s i s t e r s 84 10 28.02 4.87 .72 2.47 D r o p o u t s 21 10 26.05 5.45 .78 2.44 T o t a l C o m p o s i t e P e r s i s t e r s 84 80 207.15 19.22 .78 7.49 D r o p o u t s 21 80 200.86 24.46 .85 7.43 N o t e : * p<.05 P a r e n t s ' E d u c a t i o n The e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s a t t a i n e d by t h e p a r e n t s a r e t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e 4.7. F o r b o t h t h e m o t h e r s and f a t h e r s , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p a r e n t s of t h e p e r s i s t e r s and t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e d r o p o u t s . The d a t a show t h a t 70 47.2% and 47.4% o f t h e p e r s i s t e r s ' m o t h e r s and f a t h e r s , and 55.5% and 64.3% of t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g d r o p o u t s ' p a r e n t s a t t a i n e d l e s s t h a n a s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . 71 T a b l e 4.7 P a r e n t s ' E d u c a t i o n by S t a t u s S t a t u s P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s P a r e n t L e v e l M o t h e r E l e m e n t a r y 8 (11.1) 4 (22.2) J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y 26 (36.1) 6 (33.3) S e n i o r S e c o n d a r y 23 (31.9) 6 (33.3) V o c a t i o n a l o r A p p r e n t i c e s h i p 8 (11.1) 1 (5.6) C o l l e g e o r U n i v e r s i t y 7 (9.7) 1 (5.6) E l e m e n t a r y 7 (12.3) 2 (14.3) J u n i o r S e c o n d a r y 20 (35.1) 7 (50.0) Sen i o r S e c o n d a r y 1 3 (22.8) 2 (14.3) V o c a t i o n a l o r A p p r e n t i c e s h i p 1 3 (22.8) 2 (14.3) C o l l e g e or U n i v e r s i t y 4 (5.6) 1 (1 .4) M o t h e r : C h i S q u a r e = 2.0989 df = 4 p_ < .7176 F a t h e r : C h i S q u a r e = 1.46573 df = 4 p < .8327 P a r e n t s ' I d e a l i z e d and E x p e c t e d E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s The l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n t h e p a r e n t s i d e a l l y d e s i r e d and r e a l i s t i c a l l y e x p e c t e d t h e i r s o n / d a u g h t e r t o a t t a i n a r e summarized i n T a b l e 4.8 s e p a r a t e l y f o r m o t h e r s and f a t h e r s . The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s emerge from an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h i s d a t a . F i r s t , r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s e x i s t ( s e e T a b l e 4.1) and as a c o n s e q u e n c e t h e r e i s n o t a one t o one 72 c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between m o t h e r s and f a t h e r s , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e p a r e n t s t a k e n as two g r o u p s h o l d s i m i l a r v i e w s r e g a r d i n g d e s i r e d and e x p e c t e d l e v e l s o f s c h o o l c o m p l e t i o n by t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Second, i n c o n t r a s t t o i d e a l l y d e s i r e d l e v e l s , f o r w h i c h non s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s (p<.05) were o b s e r v e d between t h e p a r e n t s (mother, f a t h e r ) o f p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s , p e r s i s t e r p a r e n t s and d r o p o u t p a r e n t s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.05) i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s . W h i l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80% o f t h e p e r s i s t e r s ' p a r e n t s (mother, f a t h e r ) e x p e c t e d t h e i r s o n / d a u g h t e r t o c o m p l e t e a t l e a s t a Grade 12, l e s s t h a n h a l f of t h e d r o p o u t s ' m o t h e r s and f a t h e r s (43.7%, 46.2%) e x p e c t e d t h e same. The l o w e r e x p e c t a t i o n l e v e l t h a t t h e d r o p o u t s ' p a r e n t s e x p r e s s e d may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y were aware t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n were a t r i s k i n so f a r as o b t a i n i n g a t l e a s t a Grade 12 s t a n d i n g . T h i s lower p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n m i g h t be a u s e f u l i n d i c a t o r of a p o t e n t i a l d r o p o u t . 73 T a b l e 4.8 P a r e n t s ' I d e a l i z e d and E x p e c t e d E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l by S t a t u s L e v e l M o ther Get a j o b A G r a d e 10 A Grade 12 V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l or A p p r e n t i c e s h i p C o l l e g e o r U n i v e r s i t y E x p e c t e d : E q u a l s I d e a l i z e d One I n t e r v a l Lower Two I n t e r v a l s Lower I d e a l i z e d P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s E x p e c t e d P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s 1 (1.4) 4 (5.5) 39 (53.4) 24 (32.9) 5 (6.8) 0 (0.0) 3 (18.8) 8 (50.0) 4 (25.0) 1 (6.2) P e r s i s t e r s 50 (70.4) 18 (25.4) 3 (4.2) 2 (2.8) 13 (18.1) 36 (50.0) 19 (26.4) 2 (2.8) 0 (0.0) 9 (56.3) 5 (31.3) 2 (12.5) 0 (0.0) D i s c r e p a n c y D r o p o u t s 9 (56.3) 4 (25.0) 3 (18.8) L e v e l F a t h e r Get a j o b A Grade 10 A Grade 12 V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l or A p p r e n t i c e s h i p C o l l e g e o r U n i v e s i t y E x p e c t e d : E q u a l s I d e a l i z e d One I n t e r v a l Lower Two I n t e r v a l s Lower I d e a l i z e d P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s E x p e c t e d P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s 0 (0.0) 3 (5.4) 33 (58.9) 19 (33.9) 1 (1.8) 0 (0.0) 2 (15.4) 6 (46.2) 1 (1.9) 9 (16.7) 27 (50.0) 4 (30.8) 1 (7.7) D i s c r e p a n c y 16 (29.5) 1 (1.9) P e r s i s t e r s 39 (75.0) 12 (23.1 ) 1 (1.9) 0 (0.0) 7 (53.8) 3 (23.1) 2 (15.4) 1 (7.7) D r o p o u t s 8 (61.5) 3 (23. 1 ) 2 (15.4) 74 N o t e : The t o t a l number o f m o t h e r s ' r e p o n s e s does not e q u a l t h e t o t a l number of f a t h e r s ' r e s p o n s e s b e c a u s e of s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s and non r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n s . M o t h e r : I d e a l i z e d - C h i S q u a r e = 3.45260 df = 4 p_ < .4851 E x p e c t e d - C h i S q u a r e = 10.57378 d f = 4 p_ < .0318 D i s c r e p a n c y - C h i S q u a r e = 4.38166 d_f = 2 p_ < .1118 F a t h e r : I d e a l i z e d - C h i S q u a r e = 3.07015 d f = 3 p_ < .3809 E x p e c t e d - C h i S q u a r e = 9.99048 df = 4 p_ < .0406 D i s c r e p a n c y - C h i S q u a r e = 4.34397 d f = 2 p_ < .1140 The d i s c r e p a n c y between what t h e p a r e n t s i d e a l i z e d and e x p e c t e d t h e i r s o n / d a u g h t e r t o a t t a i n e d u c a t i o n a l l y was a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d . The d i s c r e p a n c y was d e t e r m i n e d by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e q u a s i - i n t e r v a l rank a s s i g n e d t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l s of t h e e x p e c t e d and i d e a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l s t r a t a f r o m e a c h o t h e r . The d a t a i n T a b l e 4.8 i n d i c a t e t h a t 70.4% o f t h e p e r s i s t e r s ' and 56.3% of d r o p o u t s ' m o t h e r s i d e a l i z e d and e x p e c t e d t h e same e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g d a t a f o r t h e f a t h e r s a r e 75.0% and 61.5%. I t c a n a l s o be seen t h a t 25.4% and 25.0% o f t h e p e r s i s t e r s ' and d r o p o u t s ' m o t h e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , had an e x p e c t e d e d u c a t i o n l e v e l one i n t e r v a l l o w e r t h a n t h e i d e a l i z e d l e v e l . The f a t h e r s ' c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e s f o r b o t h g r o u p s were 23.1%. C h i s q u a r e a n a l y s e s a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p e r s i s t e r s ' and d r o p o u t s ' p a r e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c r e p a n c y . 75 S t u d e n t s ' I d e a l i z e d and E x p e c t e d E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s The s t u d e n t s were a l s o a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e i d e a l l y d e s i r e d and r e a l i s t i c a l l y e x p e c t e d l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n t h a t t h e y h e l d f o r t h e m s e l v e s . T h e i r r e s p o n s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s h e l d s i m i l a r v i e w s on t h e d e s i r e d l e v e l s . The m a j o r i t y o f b o t h g r o u p s , 82.4% of t h e p e r s i s t e r s and 80.9% o f t h e d r o p o u t s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y would i d e a l l y d e s i r e t o a t t a i n a t l e a s t a Grade 12 s t a n d i n g ( s e e T a b l e 4 . 9 ) . In c o n t r a s t , a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was o b s e r v e d between t h e two s t u d e n t g r o u p s ' e x p e c t e d l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n (p<.05). As shown i n T a b l e 4.8, o n l y 4.9% of t h e p e r s i s t e r s b ut 23.8% of t h e d r o p o u t s r e a l i s t i c a l l y e x p e c t e d t o d r o p o u t of s c h o o l and g e t a j o b . In c o n t r a s t , 25.6% o f t h e p e r s i s t e r s and o n l y 9.6% o f t h e d r o p o u t s e x p e c t e d t o e n t e r v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l , an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y . A g a i n , as w i t h t h e p a r e n t s ' d a t a , t h e l o w e r e x p e c t e d e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f t h e d r o p o u t s as compared t o t h e p e r s i s t e r s seems t o be i n d i c a t i v e of t h e t y p i c a l d r o p o u t . The d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e s t u d e n t s ' i d e a l i z e d and e x p e c t e d e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e same manner a t f o r t h e p a r e n t s . The r e s u l t s d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 4.8 r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e were no d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i d e a l i z e d and e x p e c t e d e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f b o t h g r o u p s , 64.9% and 52.4% of t h e p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . As i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d 11.7% of t h e p e r s i s t e r s and 28.6% of t h e d r o p o u t s e x p e c t e d an e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s a r e an i n t e r v a l lower t h a n t h e i d e a l i z e d , w i t h 11.7% and 14.3% of t h e s t u d e n t s 76 r e s p e c t i v e l y , e x p e c t i n g an e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l two i n t e r v a l s l o w e r t h a n t h e i d e a l i z e d . T h e r e were a l s o f i v e p e r s i s t e r s who e x p e c t e d an e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l two i n t e r v a l s h i g h e r t h a n t h e i d e a l i z e d . C h i s q u a r e a n a l y s e s o f t h e d i s c r e p a n c y d a t a (p<.05) r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p e r s i s t e r s ' and d r o p o u t s ' i d e a l i z e d and e x p e c t e d e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s . 77 T a b l e 4.9 S t u d e n t s ' I d e a l i z e d and E x p e c t e d E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l s by S t a t u s I d e a l i z e d P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s E x p e c t e d P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s Get a j o b 3 (3.8) i (4.8) G r a d e 10 11 (13.8) 3 (14.3) G r a d e 12 35 (43.8) 9 (42.9) V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l or A p p r e n t i c e s h i p 12 (15.0) C o l l e g e or U n i v e r s i t y 19 (23.8) 4 (19.0) 4 (4.9) 5 (23.8) 15 (18.3) 2 (9.5) 42 (51.2) 12 (57.1) 4 ( 1 9 . 0 ) 12 (14.6) 1 (4.8) 9 ( 1 1 . 0 ) 1 (4.8) E x p e c t e d : Two I n t e r v a l s H i g h e r 5 (6.5) E q u a l s I d e a l i z e d 50 (64.9) One I n t e r v a l Lower 9 (11.7) Two I n t e r v a l s . L o w e r 9 (11.7) T h r e e I n t e r v a l s Lower 4 (5.2) F o u r I n t e r v a l s Lower 0 (0.0) D i s c r e p a n c y P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s 0 (0.0) 11 (52.4) (28.6) (14.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.8) 6 3 I d e a l i z e d : C h i S q u a r e E x p e c t e d : C h i S q u a r e D i s c r e p a n c y : C h i S quare 38303 d f = 4 p < .9838 = 9.70401 d f = 4 p < .0457 9.70263 df - 4 2 < -0841 S u b j e c t P r e f e r e n c e The s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e whether t h e y l i k e d o r d i s l i k e d e a c h of 10 s u b j e c t s commonly t a u g h t i n s c h o o l . T h e i r r e s p o n s e s a r e summarized i n T a b l e 4.10. C h i s q u a r e a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t t h e .05 l e v e l between t h e p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s . The two g r o u p s of s t u d e n t s e i t h e r l i k e d o r d i s l i k e d a s u b j e c t i n t h e same way. 78 T a b l e 4.10 S u b j e c t P r e f e r e n c e by S t a t u s S u b j e c t S t a t u s P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s E n g l i sh D i s l i k e L i k e Math D i s l i k e L i k e Sc i e n c e D i s l i k e L i k e S o c i a l S t u d i e s D i s l i k e L i k e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n D i s l i k e L i k e A r t D i s l i k e L i k e C o o k i n g D i s l i k e L i k e M e t a l Work D i s l i k e L i k e Sewing D i s l i k e L i k e Woodwork D i s l i k e L i k e 23 59 37 45 51 30 40 43 1 1 68 28 51 1 8 61 29 50 49 24 23 57 28.0) 72.0) 45. 1 ) 54.9) 63.0) 37.0) 48.2) 51.8) 13.9) 86.1) 35.4) 64.6) 22.8) 77.2) 36.7) 63.3) 67. 1 ) 32.9) 28.8) 71.3) 3 (15.8) 16 (84.2) 8 (44.4) 10 (55.6) 13 (81.3) 3 (18.2) 5 (26.3) 14 (73.7) 3 (17.6) 14 (82.4) 7 (43.8) 9 (56.2) 3 (18.8) 13 (81.2) 5 (29.4) 12 (70.6) 12 (75.0) 4 (25.0) 6 (35.3) 11 (64.7) 79 Y e a r s i n WS/WE The d a t a show t h a t t h e p e r s i s t e r s had been on t h e programme f o r an a v e r a g e (mean) of .29 y e a r s and t h e d r o p o u t s f o r an a v e r a g e (mean) of .36 y e a r s a t t h e t i m e of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n ( s e e T a b l e 4 . 1 1). T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p < . 0 5 ) . T a b l e 4.11 Summary S t a t i s t i c s : Y e a r s i n WS/WE S t a t i s t i c s P e r s i s t e r s S t a t u s d r o p o u t s M .29 .36 SD .49 .57 n 80 21 t = -0.57 df = 99 p_ < .572 Number o f S c h o o l s A t t e n d e d The p e r s i s t e r s a t t e n d e d an a v e r a g e (mean) of 4.7 s c h o o l s s i n c e Grade 1; t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e f o r t h e d r o p o u t s was 5.7 s c h o o l s ( T a b l e 4.12). A g a i n , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t (p < . 0 5 ) . However, t h e F - t e s t a t p<.05 r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two g r o u p s ' v a r i a n c e . 80 T a b l e 4.12 Summary S t a t i s t i c s : Number of S c h o o l s A t t e n d e d S t a t i s t i c P e r s i s t e r s S t a t u s D r o p o u t s M 4.7 SD 1.97 n 83 5.7 2.81 1 9 t = -1.52 d f = 22.2 £ < .143 T e s t f o r h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two g r o u p s . r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t (F (82,18) = 2.04 ; p < .05 ) 81 A b s e n c e s : L a s t F i v e Y e a r s The s t u d e n t s ' a b s e n c e s f o r t h e f i v e y e a r s p r i o r t o t h e s t a r t o f t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d y a r e summarized i n T a b l e 4.13. t h e f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r f o r w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s were a b s e n t . A n a l y s e s a t t h e .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p e r s i s t e r s ' and d r o p o u t s ' a b s e n c e s ( s e e T a b l e 4.13). E x a m i n a t i o n of t h e d r o p o u t d i s t r i b u t i o n r e v e a l e d an o u t l y e r i n t h e 1979 - 1980 s c h o o l y e a r who was a b s e n t 35.8% o f t h e t i m e . I n c l u s i o n o f t h i s o u t l y e r gave a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of 9.87, d e l e t i o n of t h i s p e r s o n gave a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of 7.76 w h i c h was c l o s e r t o t h e p a t t e r n o f v a r i a b i l i t y n o t e d i n p r e v i o u s s c h o o l y e a r s ' a b s e n c e s . An o u t l y e r who was a b s e n t 81% o f t h e t i m e was a l s o d r o p p e d from t h e d r o p o u t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e 1980-1981 s c h o o l y e a r . The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n d r o p p e d from 18.98 t o 8.54, a g a i n i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e p a t t e r n of v a r i a b i l i t y from o t h e r s c h o o l y e a r s . 82 T a b l e 4.13 Summary S t a t i s t i c s : A b s e n c e s , L a s t F i v e Y e a r s S t a t i s t i c S c h o o l Y e a r n M SD 1976- '77 1977- '78 1978- '79 1979- *80 1980- * 81 P e r s i s t e r s 59 5.4% 4.72% D r o p o u t s 1 2 7.4 5.47 P e r s i s t e r s 62 5.9 5.50 D r o p o u t s 1 2 7.5 5.80 P e r s i s t e r s 61 6.4 5.81 D r o p o u t s 1 4 7.7 5.62 P e r s i s t e r s 67 6.8 7.60 D r o p o u t s 1 4 10.9 7.76 P e r s i s t e r s 73 8.0 8.17 D r o p o u t s 1 6 10.5 8.54 N o t e : The t o t a l numbers of p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s a r e not e q u i v a l e n t f r o m one y e a r t o a n o t h e r y e a r b e c a u s e of m i s s i n g d a t a . t - t e s t a n a l y s e s a t t h e .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e d r o p o u t s and p e r s i s t e r s . S o c i a l B e h a v i o u r The v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s c l u s t e r r e f e r t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r i n s c h o o l and i n t h e community. RCMP C o n t a c t s C h i s q u a r e a n a l y s i s of t h e d a t a summarized i n T a b l e 4.14 r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p<.05) between t h e p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s . The d a t a s u g g e s t t h a t w h i l e 76% o f t h e p e r s i s t e r s had no c o n t a c t w i t h t h e RCMP, s l i g h t l y more t h a n h a l f , 52.6%, of 83 t h e d r o p o u t s d i d . T h e s e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t s t u d e n t s who have had c o n t a c t w i t h t h e law a r e more l i k e l y t o d r o p o u t of s c h o o l s u b s e q u e n t t o e n t e r i n g a WS/WE programme t h a n t h o s e who have not been so i n v o l v e d . T a b l e 4.14 RCMP C o n t a c t s by S t a t u s S t a t u s P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s No 57 (76.0) Yes 18 (24.0) 9 (47.4) 10 (52.6) C o r r e c t e d C h i S q u a r e = 4.65184 d f = 1 p < .0310 S t e a d y G i r l / B o y F r i e n d A p p r o x i m a t e l y one t h i r d of t h e p e r s i s t e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y had a s t e a d y g i r l o r b o y f r i e n d . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r c e n t a g e f o r t h e d r o p o u t s was 47.4% ( s e e T a b l e 4.15). The p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n of " s t e a d i e s " i n and o u t of s c h o o l were q u i t e s i m i l a r ( s e e T a b l e 4.16). T a b l e 4.15 S t e a d y G i r l o r B o y f r i e n d by S t a t u s S t a t u s P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s No 55 (67.9) Yes 26 (32.1) 10 (52.6) 9 (47.4) C o r r e c t e d C h i s q u a r e = .97751 df = 1 £ < .3228 84 T a b l e 4.16 " S t e a d y " i n S c h o o l by S t a t u s S t a t u s P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s In S c h o o l 7 (26.9) 2 (22.2) In S c h o o l 19 (73.1) 7 (77.8) C o r r e c t e d C h i Square = 0.0 df = 1 p < 1.0 B e s t F r i e n d s i n S c h o o l The f r e q u e n c y of t h e s u b j e c t s ' t h r e e b e s t f r i e n d s i n s c h o o l i s d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 4.17. The d a t a shows t h a t 66.7% o f t h e p e r s i s t e r s and 52.4% o f t h e d r o p o u t s have a l l t h r e e o f t h e i r b e s t f r i e n d s i n s c h o o l . A s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e of p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s had none of t h e i r b e s t f r i e n d s i n s c h o o l , 6.0% and 9.5% r e s p e c t i v e l y . 85 T a b l e 4.17 B e s t F r i e n d s ' i n S c h o o l by S t a t u s S t a t u s Number of F r i e n d s i n S c h o o l P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s None One Two T h r e e 5 (6.0) 10 (11.9) 13 (15.5) 56 (66.7) 2 (9.5) 1 (4.8) 7 (33.3) 11 (52.4) C o r r e c t e d C h i S q u a r e = 4.48942 d f = 3 jo < 0.2132 I n v o l v e m e n t i n Community and S c h o o l : S p o r t s and C l u b s The s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d i n v o l v e m e n t i n community and s c h o o l : s p o r t s and c l u b s was d e t e r m i n e d f o r t h e l 9 7 9 - ' 8 0 and 1980-'81 s c h o o l y e a r s . The C h i S q u a r e a n a l y s e s a t t h e .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between of p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s . The m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r s t a t u s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n any s p o r t s and c l u b s a t t h e s c h o o l o r i n t h e community ( s e e T a b l e 4 . 1 8 ) . 86 T a b l e 4.18 I n v o l v e m e n t i n Community and S c h o o l by S t a t u s Community S c h o o l Y e a r P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s 1 979-80 • No 53 (63. 1 ) 16 (76 .2) 69 (82. 1 ) 1 9 (80.5) Yes 31 (36. 9) 5 (23 .8) 1 5 (17. 9) 2 (9.6) 1 980-81 No 58 (69. 0) 1 3 (61 .9) ' 67 (79. 8) 18 (85.7) Yes 26 (31 . 0) 8 (38 .1 ) 1 7 (20. 2) 3 (14.3) F a m i l y The v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c l u s t e r were r e l a t e d t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f a m i l y and i t s p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e on t h e s t u d e n t s . The p r e s e n t s i z e of t h e f a m i l i e s , number of c h i l d r e n , s i b l i n g o r d e r , number of n a t u r a l p a r e n t s a t home, f i r s t l a n g u a g e l e a r n e d , l a n g u a g e commonly spoken, and t h e number of moves made by t h e f a m i l y were d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r a s p a r t o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n ( s e e T a b l e 4 . 1 ) . As r e p o r t e d t h e r e , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s n o t e d between t h e two g r o u p s of s t u d e n t s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e f a m i l y v a r i a b l e s , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f o l d e r s i b l i n g s i n s c h o o l o r n o t i n s c h o o l and t h e i n f l u e n c e of o l d e r s i b l i n g s who had d r o p p e d out of s c h o o l were a l s o e x a mined. S t u d e n t s were a s k e d whether or not t h e y had an o l d e r b r o t h e r a n d / o r s i s t e r , and i f so, whether or n o t t h e o l d e r s i b l i n g s were s t i l l i n s c h o o l . As shown i n T a b l e 4.19, 41.7% of t h e p e r s i s t e r s and 38.1% o f t h e d r o p o u t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y had o l d e r s i b l i n g s who were not i n s c h o o l . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g 87 f i g u r e s f o r o l d e r s i b l i n g s i n s c h o o l were 33.3% and 42.9%. P a r e n t s were a s k e d a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e number of o l d e r s i b l i n g s t h a t had d r o p p e d out o f s c h o o l . T w e n t y - f o u r p e r c e n t of t h e p e r s i s t e r s ' p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t i n q u e s t i o n was an o n l y c h i l d , as d i d 21.1% of t h e p a r e n t s of d r o p o u t s . Of t h o s e f a m i l i e s t h a t had o l d e r s i b l i n g s , 32.0% and 15.7% o f t h e samples of p e r s i s t e r s ' and d r o p o u t s ' p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t none o f t h e o l d e r s i b l i n g s had d r o p p e d o u t . P a r e n t s who r e p o r t e d one o r more o l d e r s i b l i n g s had d r o p p e d o u t c o m p r i s e d 44% and 43.2% o f t h e p e r s i s t e r and d r o p o u t samples r e s p e c t i v e l y ( s e e T a b l e 4 . 2 0). 88 T a b l e 4.19 I n f l u e n c e of O l d e r S i b l i n g s by S t a t u s P e r s i s t e r s S t a t u s D r o p o u t s No O l d e r S i b l i n g s O l d e r S i b l i n g s n o t i n S c h o o l O l d e r S i b l i n g s i n S c h o o l 21 (25.0) 35 (41.7) 28 (33.3) 4 (19.0) 8 (38.1) 9 (42.9) T a b l e 4.20 O l d e r S i b l i n g s Who D r o p p e d Out by S t a t u s P e r s i s t e r s S t a t u s D r o p o u t s No O l d e r S i b l i n g s No d r o p o u t s One or More D r o p o u t s 18 (24.0) 24 (32.0) 33 (44.0) 4 (21.1) 3 (15.7) 12 (43.2) N o t e : C h i s q u a r e a n a l y s e s of t h e d a t a i n T a b l e s 4 . 1 9 and 4.20 a t t h e .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e d r o p o u t s and p e r s i s t e r s . E c o n o m i c The q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n t h e e conomic c l u s t e r of v a r i a b l e s i n q u i r e d a b o u t t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s (SES) of t h e f a m i l y and t h e f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n of t h e s t u d e n t . The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f t h e f a m i l y as a f u n c t i o n of t h e f a m i l y heads' o c c u p a t i o n was p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r ( s e e T a b l e 4 . 1 ) . As r e p o r t e d t h e r e , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e SES o f t h e f a m i l i e s o f p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s . 89 F u r t h e r , t h e m a j o r i t y o f b o t h t h e p e r s i s t e r s ' and d r o p o u t s ' f a m i l i e s were i n t h e l o w e s t two SES i n t e r v a l s , and t h e r e were no f a m i l i e s i n t h e h i g h e s t or s i x t h SES i n t e r v a l . A l s o summarized i n T a b l e 4.1 were d a t a d e s c r i p t i v e o f t h e number of f a m i l y heads who had a j o b . Of i n t e r e s t h e r e i s t h e p e r c e n t a g e of p a r e n t s who r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y h e l d a s e c o n d j o b . T h e s e d a t a a r e d i s p l a y e d i n A p p e n d i x B, T a b l e B.1. As shown t h e r e , 11% o f t h e p e r s i s t e r s ' m o t h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y h e l d a s e c o n d j o b w h i l e no m o t h e r s of t h e d r o p o u t s h e l d a s e c o n d j o b . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r c e n t a g e s f o r t h e f a t h e r s were 18.3% and 26.7%. S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e As shown i n T a b l e B.2, A p p e n d i x B, an e q u a l p e r c e n t a g e (84%) of t h e p e r s i s t e r s ' and d r o p o u t s ' p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y were n o t r e c e i v i n g any form of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . S p e n d i n g Money I t was r e p o r t e d by 39.8% of t h e p e r s i s t e r s and 50.0% of t h e d r o p o u t s t h a t t h e i r s i n g l e g r e a t e s t s o u r c e of s p e n d i n g money was an a l l o w a n c e . The o t h e r s o u r c e s were v a r i o u s odd, p a r t - t i m e , o r summer j o b s ( s e e T a b l e B.3, A p p e n d i x B ) . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d ; t h e method of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o s c h o o l , t r a v e l l i n g t i m e t o and from s c h o o l , t h e p o s s e s s i o n of a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e , and c a r o w n e r s h i p . The two most common methods of t r a v e l l i n g t o s c h o o l were w a l k i n g o r t r a v e l l i n g by s c h o o l - b u s . An e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n of 90 b o t h s t u d e n t g r o u p s , 33.3%, to o k t h e s c h o o l bus w h i l e 35.7% o f th e p e r s i s t e r s and 33.3% of t h e d r o p o u t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y w a l k e d . The r e m a i n i n g one t h i r d of t h e sample t r a v e l l e d by e i t h e r b i c y c l e , c a r , or c i t y bus ( s e e T a b l e B.4, A p p e n d i x B ) . T r a v e l l i n g Time To S c h o o l and To R e t u r n Home The s t u d e n t s ' e s t i m a t e s of t h e t i m e i t too k them t o g e t t o s c h o o l i n t h e m o r n i n g and t h e n t o r e t u r n home i n t h e a f t e r n o o n a r e d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e s B.5 and B.6, A p p e n d i x B. The p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y t o o k an a v e r a g e (mean) o f 21.6 m i n u t e s and 25.7 m i n u t e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , t o g e t t o s c h o o l . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g t i m e s f o r t h e t r i p home a f t e r s c h o o l were 25.2 m i n u t e s and 30.3 m i n u t e s . D r i v e r ' s L i c e n c e As shown i n T a b l e B.7, A p p e n d i x B, l e s s t h a n one q u a r t e r of th e s t u d e n t s i n b o t h g r o u p s (15.5% p e r s i s t e r s , 23.8% d r o p o u t s ) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y had a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e . C a r O w n e r s h i p The g r e a t e r m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r s t a t u s d i d n ot own a c a r a t t h e t i m e o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . O n l y 15.5% of t h e p e r s i s t e r s and 4.8% o f t h e d r o p o u t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y owned t h e i r own a u t o m o b i l e s ( s e e T a b l e B.8, A p p e n d i x B ) . E a t i n q H a b i t s I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s ' e a t i n g h a b i t s may a f f e c t t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e a t s c h o o l . Thus, t h e f r e q u e n c y of b r e a k f a s t s and l u n c h e s e a t e n was i n v e s t i g a t e d t o d e t e r m i n e , i f 91 t h e m e a l s e x e r t e d an i n f l u e n c e upon t h e s t a t u s . The r e s u l t i n g d a t a a r e d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e B.9, A p p e n d i x B f o r b r e a k f a s t s and i n T a b l e B.10, A p p e n d i x B f o r l u n c h e s . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g C h i s q u a r e a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s (p<.05) between t h e s t u d e n t s g r o u p s on t h e q u e s t i o n s o f b r e a k f a s t or l u n c h b e i n g e a t e n . As shown i n T a b l e B.9, A p p e n d i x B, 13.1% o f t h e p e r s i s t e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y n e v e r a t e b r e a k f a s t , 48.8% r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y a t e b r e a k f a s t sometimes, and 38.1% r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y a l w a y s a t e b r e a k f a s t . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r c e n t a g e s f o r t h e d r o p o u t s a r e 23.8%, 42.9%, and 33.3%. In r e g a r d t o l u n c h e s e a t e n , t h e p e r s i s t e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t 11.9% n e v e r a t e l u n c h , 41.7% r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y a t e l u n c h sometimes, and 46.4% r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y a l w a y s a t e l u n c h . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r c e n t a g e s f o r t h e d r o p o u t s were 4.8%, 57.1%, and 38.1% ( s e e T a b l e B.10, A p p e n d i x B) . 92 C h a p t e r V SUMMARY In t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r t h e r e s u l t s of t h e d a t a a n a l y s e s were r e p o r t e d and d i s c u s s e d . In t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e r e s e a r c h i s summarized and d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e l i m i t a t i o n s , c o n c l u s i o n s , i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e , and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h a r e p r e s e n t e d . PURPOSE,AND METHODOLOGY The p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y was d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s i d e n t i f y i n g v a r i a b l e s t h a t might be u s e f u l i n p r e d i c t i n g f u t u r e d r o p o u t s from t h e Work Study/Work E x p e r i e n c e (WS/WE) programmes i n t h e j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s o f Kamloops, B.C. To be of any use t h e s e v a r i a b l e s had t o be e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e e a r l y i n a s t u d e n t s ' p l a c e m e n t i n t h e WS/WE programme, i f n o t b e f o r e . The d a t a f o r t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a l s o had t o be eas y t o c o l l e c t . A r e v i e w of t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d t h a t p r i o r s t u d i e s had not been done on d r o p p i n g o ut f r o m WS/WE programmes b u t t h a t t h e r e were many s t u d i e s done on d r o p p i n g out from h i g h s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s . These . s t u d i e s , however, were u s e d t o i d e n t i f y v a r i a b l e s and me t h o d o l o g y t h a t were u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . S i x c l u s t e r s of v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d f o r e x a m i n a t i o n : e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r , f a m i l y , e c o n o m i c s , e a t i n g h a b i t s , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The d a t a f o r ea c h o f t h e v a r i a b l e s were o b t a i n e d u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u m e n t s ; S t u d e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( S Q ) , P a r e n t  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PQ), S t a n d a r d P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c s (SPM), C a n a d i a n 93 T e s t s of B a s i c S k i l l s ( CTBS), t h e S c h o o l S e n t i m e n t Index ( S S I ) and t h e Permanent R e c o r d c a r d s ( P R ) . The s t u d e n t s p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r p e e r s , f a m i l y , and s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r by c o m p l e t i n g t h e SQ. The SPM was u s e d t o o b t a i n a measure o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' i n t e l l i g e n c e . A c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e c o g n i t i v e a r e a s of r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n and m a t h e m a t i c s s k i l l s was measured w i t h t h e two c o r r e s p o n d i n g s u b t e s t s from t h e CTBS . The s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s s c h o o l was guaged w i t h t h e SSI . The p a r e n t s p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r s o n / d a u g h t e r , and f a m i l y t h r o u g h t h e s e l f a d m i n i s t e r e d PQ. The f o r e m e n t i o n e d i n s t r u m e n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e s t a r t of t h e s t u d y i n O c t o b e r of t h e 1981-1982 S c h o o l y e a r . The d a t a from t h e Permanent R e c o r d c a r d s were c o l l e c t e d a t t h e end of t h e s c h o o l y e a r i n June 1982. A t o t a l of 121 s t u d e n t s , 98 p e r s i s t e r s and 23 d r o p o u t s were a s k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . F o u r t e e n s t u d e n t s e l e c t e d n o t t o c o m p l e t e one of t h e i n s t r u m e n t s , c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e y were t r e a t e d as non c o o p e r a t i n g s u b j e c t s and removed from t h e a n a l y s e s a l o n g w i t h two a d d i t i o n a l s t u d e n t s f o r whom PR c a r d s d a t a was u n a v a i l a b l e . Thus d a t a from 105 s t u d e n t s , 84 p e r s i s t e r s and 21 d r o p o u t s were e n t e r e d i n t o t h e f i n a l a n a l y s e s . D a t a were a n a l y z e d w i t h subprogrammes from t h e S t a t i s t i c a l  P ackage f o r t h e Soc i a l Sc i e n c e s ( SPSS ) , V e r s i o n s 8 and 9 ( N i e , H u l l , J e n k i n s , S t e i n b r e n n e r , and B e s t , 1975). The c a t e g o r i c a l v a r i a b l e s were a n a l y z e d w i t h t h e C h i s q u a r e t e s t o f i n d e p e n d e n c e (subprogramme CROSSTABS) and t h e m easured v a r i a b l e s were a n a l y z e d w i t h t h e t - t e s t and t h e F - t e s t (subprogramme T-94 T E S T ) . A l l d a t a were a n a l y z e d a t t h e .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e by t h e AMDAHL 470 C/8 computer m a i n t a i n e d by t h e UBC Computing C e n t r e . SUMMARY OF FINDINGS S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e between t h e p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s were f o u n d on f o u r v a r i a b l e s examined i n t h i s s t u d y . T h r e e of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s - - i n t e l l i g e n c e , s c h o o l l e v e l f a i l e d , and e x p e c t e d e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l — w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e c l u s t e r o f v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o e d u c a t i o n . The f o u r t h v a r i a b l e , RCMP c o n t a c t s was f o u n d i n t h e s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r c l u s t e r . I n t e l l i q e n c e I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e mean i n t e l l i g e n c e s c o r e f o r t h e d r o p o u t s , 40.48, was s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e mean f o r t h e p e r s i s t e r s , 36.80, (p<.037). I t was a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e d r o p o u t s had l e s s v a r i a b i l i t y among t h e s c o r e s t h a n what was o b s e r v e d f o r t h e p e r s i s t e r s . S c h o o l L e v e l F a i l e d The m a j o r i t y of p e r s i s t e r s , 79.7%, f a i l e d d u r i n g t h e i r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l g r a d e s . In c o n t r a s t , t h e s c h o o l l e v e l s f a i l e d by t h e d r o p o u t s were more e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d between t h e e l e m e n t a r y , 43.8%, and s e c o n d a r y , 56.2%, s c h o o l l e v e l s (p < .0083). E x p e c t e d E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l The p a r e n t s of p e r s i s t e r s ( m o t h e r s , f a t h e r s ) were f o u n d t o 95 be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p<„05) from t h e p a r e n t s o f d r o p o u t s i n r e g a r d t o t h e l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n t h e y e x p e c t e d t h e i r s o n / d a u g h t e r t o a t t a i n . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 80% of t h e p e r s i s t e r s p a r e n t s e x p e c t e d t h e i r s o n / d a u g h t e r t o c o m p l e t e a t l e a s t a Grade 12, w h i l e l e s s t h a n h a l f o f t h e d r o p o u t s ' m o t h e r s and f a t h e r s (43.7%, 46.2%) e x p e c t e d t h e same (p<.05). S i m i l a r l y , t h e two s t u d e n t g r o u p s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p<.05) from e a c h o t h e r i n t h a t o n l y 4.9% o f t h e p e r s i s t e r s but 23.8% of t h e d r o p o u t s e x p e c t e d t o d r o p o u t of s c h o o l and g e t a j o b . In c o n t r a s t 25.6% o f t h e p e r s i s t e r s and o n l y 9.6% o f t h e d r o p o u t s e x p e c t e d t o e n t e r a v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l , a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y . RCMP C o n t a c t s The a n a l y s i s of t h e d a t a r e v e a l e d t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e of p e r s i s t e r s , 76%, had no c o n t a c t w i t h t h e RCMP, as compared w i t h t h e d r o p o u t s , 47.4% , (p<.03!0). LIMITATIONS The l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e s t u d y a r e b a s e d on t h r e e f a c t o r s ; t h e s m a l l d r o p o u t sample s i z e , t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , and t h e l a c k of v a r i a n c e i n t h e WS/WE s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . S m a l l D r o p o u t Sample The main l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y was t h e s m a l l s i z e o f t h e d r o p o u t sample ( n = 2 l ) . I t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e d r o p o u t r a t e would be i n t h e v i c i n i t y of 29% o f t h e s t u d e n t s who e n r o l l e d i n th e programmes. T h i s e s t i m a t e was b a s e d on d a t a a v a i l a b l e f r o m p r e v i o u s s c h o o l y e a r s . 96 In t h e s c h o o l y e a r t h e r e s e a r c h was c o n d u c t e d , 1981-82, t h e d r o p o u t r a t e was o n l y 19%. The d e c l i n e i n t h e r a t e i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e w e l l p u b l i c i z e d and s e v e r e e conomic downturn e x p e r i e n c e d i n Kamloops w h i c h s t a r t e d i n t h e l a s t q u a r t e r of 1981. In t h e 1981-82 s c h o o l y e a r t h e unemployment r a t e i n t h e Kamloops r e g i o n was 14.7% as compared t o a 9.3% a v e r a g e unemployment r a t e f o r t h e t h r e e p r e v i o u s y e a r s ( S t a t i s t i c s C anada, 1982). The h i g h unemployment r a t e i n t u r n l e a d t o t h e o b v i o u s i m p r e s s i o n t h a t j o b s were d i f f i c u l t f o r a d u l t s t o f i n d and p r o b a b l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . T h i s l e d t o t h e s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e c o n d i t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e s t u d e n t t h a t do n o t l e a d t o d r o p p i n g o u t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e y d i c t a t e whether o r not t h e s t u d e n t w i l l d r o p o u t . T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a p p e a r t o be e c o n o m i c , s u c h t h a t some s t u d e n t s w i l l not d r o p o u t u n l e s s i t a p p e a r s e c o n o m i c a l l y sound. The s m a l l d r o p o u t sample l e d t o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e a n a l y s e s , and e v e n t u a l l y t o t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i 1 i t y of t h e r e s u l t s . As an example, i n t h e C h i s q u a r e d a n a l y s i s some v a r i a b l e s had more t h a n t h r e e l e v e l s . As a r e s u l t t h e r e were a number of s i t u a t i o n s where t h e r e were i n v a l i d r e s u l t s b e c a u s e o f low c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s . D a t a C o l l e c t i o n D i f f i c u l t i e s were e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . F o u r t e e n s t u d e n t s e l e c t e d not t o c o m p l e t e t h e M a t h e m a t i c s S k i l l s s u b t e s t of t h e CTBS w h i c h was a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e end of t h e t e s t i n g s c h e d u l e . Once t h a t p o i n t had been r e a c h e d i t was q u i t e 97 a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s were not p r e p a r e d t o w r i t e a n o t h e r t e s t . P a r t of t h e p r o b l e m may have been t h e use of t h e CTBS s u b t e s t s as measures o f a c h i e v e m e n t . The s t u d e n t s had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e CTBS i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l where i t was u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y . I t would seem t h a t f a m i l i a r i t y had b r e d c o n t e m p t . In c o n t r a s t , t h e s u b j e c t s were q u i t e w i l l i n g t o w r i t e t h e S S I , SPM, and c o m p l e t e t h e SQ b e c a u s e t h e i n s t r u m e n t s were n o v e l t o them. I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e t i m e t o c o l l e c t d a t a from t h e s t u d e n t s was t o o l o n g . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e m a t h e m a t i c s s u b t e s t may have gone beyond t h e l i m i t s of some of t h e s t u d e n t s ' t o l e r a n c e f o r t e s t i n g . P r o b l e m s were e n c o u n t e r e d w i t h o b t a i n i n g c o m p l e t e a b s e n t e e d a t a f r o m t h e permanent r e c o r d c a r d s o v e r t h e f i v e y e a r p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g t h e s t a r t of t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . Q u i t e o f t e n t h e r e was a y e a r or two f o r w h i c h t h e s e d a t a were n o t e n t e r e d on t h e c a r d s . As a r e s u l t , o n l y 57.2% of t h e p e r s i s t e r s and 33.3% d r o p o u t s had c o m p l e t e d a t a . L a c k o f V a r i a n c e The r e v i e w of t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were a number o f v a r i a b l e s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d h i g h s c h o o l d r o p o u t s and g r a d u a t e s . The samples s t u d i e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e were a l w a y s from t h e t o t a l r e g u l a r s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s r e s u l t s i n a g r e a t d e a l of v a r i a n c e w i t h i n t h e sample a c r o s s t h e v a r i a b l e s s t u d i e d , and as a c o n s e q u e n c e t h e i s o l a t i o n of a number of d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s . The s t u d e n t s i n t h e WS/WE programmes on t h e o t h e r hand r e p r e s e n t a b o u t 4% o f t h e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . 98 They were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e programmes b e c a u s e of common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A l l of t h e s t u d e n t s e x h i b i t e d weak a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e , w i t h r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n l e v e l s l o w e r t h a n t h e i r p e e r g r o u p s . I t would be u n r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t v a r i a b l e s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e between d r o p o u t s and p e r s i s t e r s a t t h e t o t a l s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n l e v e l t o f u n c t i o n as w e l l w i t h a s m a l l p r e s e l e c t e d g r o u p t h a t d i d not have t h e same v a r i a n c e a c r o s s t h e v a r i a b l e s e x a m i n e d . CONCLUSIONS The f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t p o t e n t i a l d r o p o u t s c a n not be i d e n t i f i e d i n a p o p u l a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e WS/WE programmes. F o u r v a r i a b l e s - - i n t e l l i g e n c e , s c h o o l l e v e l f a i l e d , e x p e c t e d e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , and RCMP c o n t a c t s — w e r e f o u n d t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s a t t h e .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t must a l s o be remembered t h a t t h e r e s u l t s f o r th e e x p e c t e d e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l were i n v a l i d b e c a u s e t h e c e l l s i z e s were below t h e e x p e c t e d c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s . T h e r e a r e no e q u i v a l e n t Y a t e s ' C o r r e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s f o r 2xn C h i s q u a r e c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s . A l s o t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y of t e s t s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e and s i g n i f i c a n c e p e r f o r m e d (n=77) r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether or not t h e v a r i a b l e s f o u n d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e two g r o u p s were n o t j u s t t h e r e s u l t of Type I e r r o r s . SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 1. The most i m p o r t a n t s u g g e s t i o n f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h would be a r e p l i c a t i o n of t h i s s t u d y . T h i s would s e r v e t o c o n f i r m o r r e p u d i a t e t h e v a r i a b l e s f o u n d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e two 99 g r o u p s a n d / o r a l s o p o s s i b l y f i n d o t h e r s . A c o n c e r n would be t h e a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e s i z e of t h e d r o p o u t sample would be much g r e a t e r t h a n 21. Two p o s s i b l e methods of o b t a i n i n g a l a r g e number o f d r o p o u t s would be t o c o l l e c t d a t a o v e r a two y e a r p e r i o d , or t o c o n d u c t t h e r e s e a r c h i n a g r e a t e r number of s c h o o l s o r d i s t r i c t s . I f t h e r e s e a r c h was c o n d u c t e d o v e r two y e a r s i t would be a d v a n t a g e o u s t o m a i n t a i n t h e same c o u r s e s , s t a f f , and p r o c e d u r e s . T h i s would h e l p t o e n s u r e t h a t c h a n g e s i n t h e programme were not a f f e c t i n g t h e d r o p o u t r a t e . C o n d u c t i n g t h e r e s e a r c h i n a g r e a t e r number of s c h o o l s would r e q u i r e t h a t t h e f o r m a t o f t h e programmes i n t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o l s were s i m i l a r . 2. A n o t h e r t y p e of r e p l i c a t i o n would a t t e m p t t o c o n t r o l o r e l i m i n a t e t h e e f f e c t s of t h e economic c l i m a t e i n g e n e r a l and t h e unemployment s i t u a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r . One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t i f t h e r e had been a 100% employment r a t e , t h e n t h e r e would be a much h i g h e r d r o p o u t r a t e t h a n t h a t o b s e r v e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . T h i s method would r e q u i r e t h e use o f an a l t e r n a t e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , f o r example: t h e r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n , " I f t h e r e was a j o b o f f e r e d t o you r i g h t now t h a t would a l l o w you t o e a r n enough money t o l i v e o r y o u r own and buy a c a r , would you q u i t s c h o o l r i g h t now? The j o b o f f e r e d may n o t be t h e b e s t j o b i n t h e w o r l d and i t m ight n o t be t h e one you would r e a l l y l i k e t o h a v e " . 3. E n t r y l e v e l d a t a on 105 s t u d e n t s who e n r o l l e d i n t h e j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y WS/WE programmes i n Kamloops i n t h e 1981-82 1 00 s c h o o l y e a r a r e a v a i l a b l e . I t ' i s now p o s s i b l e t o examine o t h e r q u e s t i o n s t h a t r e l a t e t o t h e WS/WE s t u d e n t s . ( i ) I s i t p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t w h i c h s t u d e n t s w i l l e n t e r t h e s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y WS/WE Programmes? At t h e p r e s e n t t i m e l e s s t h a n 50% o f t h e Grade 10 WS/WE s t u d e n t s do s o . S h o u l d programme c h a n g e s be made f o r t h o s e who go on t o G r a d e s 11 and 12 and f o r t h o s e who e n t e r t h e work f o r c e a f t e r G rade 10? ( i i ) I f i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t w h i c h s t u d e n t s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y g r a d u a t e from t h e s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y programmes? S h o u l d programme c h a n g e s be made f o r t h e s e s t u d e n t s a t t h e j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y l e v e l ? ( i i i ) B a s e d on t h e e n t r y l e v e l d a t a c a n any c o n c l u s i o n s be drawn i n r e g a r d t o t h e l i f e s t y l e s and employment p a t t e r n s e x h i b i t e d by the WS/WE s t u d e n t s ? ( i v ) Once t h e d r o p o u t s and c o m p l e t e r s a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , what s t r a t e g i e s a r e most e f f e c t i v e i n r e d u c i n g t h e d r o p o u t r a t e ? 101 REFERENCES B e a r d , S. P., M i t c h e l l , S. S., & S c o t t , W. H. The d e s i g n and  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a programme t o r e d u c e t h e number o f  d r o p o u t s i n i n n e r c i t y s c h o o l s . 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S t a t i s t i c s Canada. Census t r a c t s : P o p u l a t i o n , o c c u p i e d p r i v a t e d w e l l i n g s , p r i v a t e h o u s e h o l d s , c e n s u s f a m i l i e s i n p r i v a t e h o u s e h o l d s , Kamloops. 1981 C e n s u s of Canada, November 1982, 95-912, T a b l e 1. S t a t i s t i c s Canada. Census t r a c t s : S e l e c t e d s o c i a l and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r K amloops. 1981 C e n s u s o f Canada, September 1983, 95-953, T a b l e 1. S t r o u p , A. L., & R o b i n s , L. N. E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p r e d i c t o r s of h i g h s c h o o l d r o p o u t s among b l a c k m a l e s . S o c i o l o g y of  E d u c a t i o n , S p r i n g 1982, 45, 2, 212-222. T s e n g , M. S. C o m p a r i s o n s of s e l e c t e d f a m i l i a l , p e r s o n a l i t y , and v o c a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s pf h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s and d r o p o u t s . The J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , J u l y - A u g u s t 1972, 65, 10, 462-465. Young, v . , & R e i c h , C. P a t t e r n s o f d r o p p i n g o u t T o r o n t o : B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , R e s e r a c h D e p a r t m e n t , December 1974. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 106 7 2 0 ) . Y u d i n , L. W., R i n g , S. I . , Nowakiwska, M. & Heinemann, S. H. S c h o o l d r o p o u t or c o l l e g e bound: S t u d y i n c o n t r a s t . The  J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , O c t o b e r 1973, 67, 2, 87-93. W a l t e r s , H. E., & K r a n s l e r , G. D. E a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e s c h o o l d r o p o u t . The S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r , November 1970, 18, 2, 97-104. Watson, C. F o c u s on d r o p o u t s • T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , 1976. (ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. Ed 168 123). 1 04 APPENDIX A PARENT QUESTIONNAIRE A l l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t you w i l l p r o v i d e i s CONFIDENTIAL . Q u e s t i o n s t h a t have " s o n / d a u g h t e r " i n them, r e f e r t o y o u r son o r d a u g h t e r i n t h e Work Study/Work E x p e r i e n c e Programme (WS/WE). Code number 1. How many t i m e s d u r i n g a s c h o o l week does y o u r son o r d a u g h t e r e a t b r e a k f a s t ? Check one. A l l t h e t i m e Sometimes Never 2. How many t i m e s d u r i n g a s c h o o l week does y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r e a t l u n c h or t a k e a l u n c h t o s c h o o l ? Check one. A l l t h e t i m e Sometimes Never 3. At what t i m e does y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r l e a v e home f o r s c h o o l i n t h e m o r n i n g ? W r i t e y o u r answer i n t h e s p a c e below. 4. A t what t i m e does y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r r e t u r n home a f t e r s c h o o l ? 105 5. How does y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r g e t t o s c h o o l i n t h e m o r n i n g ? Check one. Walk B i c y c l e C a r C i t y Bus S c h o o l Bus 6. Does you r s o n / d a u g h t e r have a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e ? C i r c l e y o u r answer. Yes No Does yo u r s o n / d a u g h t e r own t h e i r h i s / h e r own c a r ? Yes No 7. Where does y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r g e t MOST of h i s / h e r s p e n d i n g money d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l y e a r ? Check one. A l l o w a n c e o r from p a r e n t s . Odd j o b s . S t e a d y p a r t -t i m e j o b . Money made d u r i n g t h e summer. 8. D i d y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r f a i l any g r a d e s , o r was h e l d back i n any g r a d e s ? 1 06 Yes No In what g r a d e s was he/she f a i l e d o r h e l d b a c k ? What l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n do you WANT yo u r s o n / d a u g h t e r t o c o m p l e t e ? P l e a s e w r i t e down t h e number s e p a r a t e l y f o r t h e mother and t h e f a t h e r . M other F a t h e r 1. Get a j o b , f i n i s h i n g s c h o o l i s n ' t i m p o r t a n t . 2. WS/WE 10. 3. WS/WE 12. 4. R e g u l a r 10. 5. R e g u l a r 12. 6. V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . 7. A p p r e n t i c e s h i p . 8. R e g u l a r c o l l e g e . 9. U n i v e r s i t y . What l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n do you REALLY THINK y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r w i l l g e t ? P l e a s e w r i t e down t h e number s e p a r a t e l y f o r t h e mother and t h e f a t h e r . M o ther F a t h e r 107 1. G et a j o b , f i n i s h i n g s c h o o l i s n ' t i m p o r t a n t . 2. WS/WE 10. 3. WS/WE 12. 4. R e g u l a r 10. 5. R e g u l a r 12. 6. V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . 7. A p p r e n t i c e s h i p . 8. R e g u l a r c o l l e g e . 9. U n i v e r s i t y . 11. D i d y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r l e a r n t o speak E n g l i s h f i r s t ? Yes No 12. P l e a s e c h e c k t h e l a n g u a g e w h i c h y o u r f a m i l y s p e a k s a t home most o f t h e t i m e . C a n a d i a n N a t i v e I n d i a n l a n g u a g e E a s t I n d i a n l a n g u a g e E n g l i s h F r e n c h German I t a l i a n . U k r a i n i a n O t h e r ( w h i c h one) 1 08 13. How many c h i l d r e n do you have? 14. W r i t e down y o u r c h i l d r e n ' s f i r s t i n i t i a l and age i n t h e b l a n s p a c e s , s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e o l d e s t on t h e l e f t . C i r c l e t h e i r g e n d e r ( s e x ) , and c h e c k - o f f what t h e y a r e now d o i n g . C i r c l e t h e s t u d e n t i n WS/WE. M o r F M or F M o r F In s c h o o l f u l l - t i m e . Not i n s c h o l ; w o r k i n g f u l l - t i m e . Not i n s c h o o l ; w o r k i n g p a r t - t i m e . Not i n s c h o o l ; n o t 1 w o r k i n g but l o o k i n g f o r work. Not i n s c h o o l ; not w o r k i n g . I f you need more s p a c e , do t h e same on t h e back of t h i s page. 15. D i d any of y o u r c h i l d r e n d r o p o u t of s c h o o l b e f o r e f i n i s h i n g G r ade 12? Yes No W r i t e t h e i r i n i t i a l s i n t h e b l a n k s p a c e s and t h e h i g h e s t g r a d e c o m p l e t e d . 1 09 16. How many p e o p l e a r e l i v i n g a t home a t t h i s t i m e ? 17. How may t i m e s has y o u r f a m i l y moved t o a d i f f e r e n t house o r a p a r t m e n t s i n c e y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r s t a r t e d s c h o o l i n Grad e 1? 18. What i s t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t y ou c o m p l e t e d . P l e a s e w r i t e down t h e number s e p a r a t e l y f o r t h e mother and t h e f a t h e r . M other F a t h e r 1. Some j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l ( G r . 8 - 10). 2. C o m p l e t e d j u n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . 3. Some s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y g r a d e s ( G r . 11 o r 1 2 ) . 4. C o m p l e t e d s e n i o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . 5. Some v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . 6. C o m p l e t e d v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . 7. Some a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t r a i n i n g . 8. C o m p l e t e d a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t r a i n i n g . 9. Some r e g u l a r c o l l e g e . 10. C o m p l e t e d r e g u l a r c o l l e g e . 11. Some u n i v e r s i t y . 12. C o m p l e t e d u n i v e r s i t y . 1 10 19. What i s y o u r main o c c u p a t i o n ? W r i t e y o u r answer i n t h e s p a c e p r o v i d e d M o t h e r : F a t h e r : 20. B r i e f l y d e s c r i b e what you do a t y o u r j o b . M o t h e r : F a t h e r : 21. Do you have a s e c o n d j o b ? C i r c l e y o u r answer. M o t h e r : Yes No F a t h e r : Yes No Has t h e RCMP e v e r c o n t a c t e d y ou due t o p o s s i b l e m i s b e h a v i o r by y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r ? P l e a s e c i r c l e y o u r answer. Yes No Does y o u r f a m i l y p r e s e n t l y r e c e i v e any form o f s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e (GAIN) ? Yes No 24. How many o f you r s o n ' s / d a u g h t e r ' s n a t u r a l p a r e n t s a r e l i v i n g t h e home a d d r e s s ? P l e a s e c h e c k one. F o s t e r or g r o u p home. 22. 23. 111 One n a t u r a l p a r e n t . Two n a t u r a l p a r e n t s . Thank you v e r y much f o r a l l y o u r h e l p . I t i s g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d P l e a s e remember t o s i g n and r e t u r n t h e y e l l o w c o n s e n t form, and i n d i c a t e t h e t i m e and d a t e when a WS/WE t e a c h e r f r o m y o u r s o n ' s / d a u g h t e r ' s s c h o o l s h o u l d t e l e p h o n e t o g e t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE Code number _ A l l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t you w i l l p r o v i d e i s CONFIDENTIAL, 1. Gender ( s e x ) : Male Female 2. B i r t h d a t e : day month y e a r 3. How many t i m e s d u r i n g a s c h o o l week do you e a t b r e a k f a s t ? Check one. A l l t h e t i m e Sometimes Never 4. How many t i m e s d u r i n g a s c h o o l week do you e a t l u n c h ? Check one. A l l t h e t i m e Sometimes Never 5. How l o n g does i t t a k e y ou t o g e t t o s c h o o l i n t h e m o r n i n g minute-s 6. How l o n g d o e s i t t a k e y ou t o g e t back home a f t e r s c h o o l ? m i n u t e s 1 1 3 7. How do you u s u a l l y g e t t o s c h o o l i n t h e m o r n i n g ? Check one. Walk B i c y c l e Car C i t y bus S c h o o l bus 8. Do you l i k e o r f i n d e a s y , t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t s ? Check an answer f o r e a c h s u b j e c t . Yes No E n g l i s h Math. S o c i a l S t u d i e s S c i e n c e P.E. Woodwork M e t a l w o r k Sewing C o o k i n g A r t 9. What l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n would y o u L I K E t o g e t i f you c o u l d ? Check one. Get a j o b , f i n i s h i n g s c h o o l i s n ' t i m p o r t a n t . WS/WE 10 1 14 WS/WE 12 R e g u l a r 10 R e g u l a r 12 V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g A p p r e n t i c e s h i p R e g u l a r c o l l e g e U n i v e r s i t y 10. What l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n do you REALLY THINK y ou w i l l g e t ? Check one. Get a j o b , f i n i s h i n g s c h o o l i s n ' t i m p o r t a n t WS/WE 10 WS/WE 12 R e g u l a r 10 R e g u l a r 12 V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g A p p r e n t i c e s h i p R e g u l a r c o l l e g e U n i v e r s i t y 11. What month and y e a r d i d y ou f i r s t s t a r t t h e WS/WE Programme? month y e a r 12. T h i n k of y o u r t h r e e b e s t f r e i n d s . W r i t e down t h e i r i n i t i a l s i n t h e b l a n k s p a c e s . C i r c l e t h e i r g e n d e r ( s e x ) , and i n d i c a t 1 1 5 w i t h a c h e c k what t h e y a r e now d o i n g . M or F M o r F M o r F In s c h o o l f u l l - t i m e . Not i n s c h o o l ; w o r k i n g f u l l - t i m e . Not i n s c h o o l ; w o r k i n g p a r t - t i m e . Not i n s c h o o l ; not w o r k i n g but l o o k i n g f o r work. Not i n s c h o o l ; not w o r k i n g . 13. Do you have any o l d e r b r o t h e r s a n d / o r s i s t e r s ? C i r c l e y o u r answer. Yes No W r i t e down y o u r o l d e r b r o t h e r ' s a n d / o r s i s t e r ' s i n i t i a l s and ages i n t h e b l a n k s p a c e s . C i r c l e t h e i r g ender and c h e c k - o f f what t h e y a r e now d o i n g . M o r F M or F M o r F In s c h o o l f u l l - t i m e . Not i n s c h o o l ; w o r k i n g f u l l - t i m e . Not i n s c h o o l ; w o r k i n g p a r t - t i m e . Not i n s c h o o l ; not 1 16 w o r k i n g but l o o k i n g f o r work. Not i n s c h o o l ; n ot w o r k i n g . I f you need more s p a c e , do t h e same on t h e back of t h i s page. 14. Do you have a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e ? C i r c l e y o u r answer. Yes No Do you own y o u r own c a r ? Yes No 15. Do you have a s t e a d y g i r l f r i e n d or b o y f r i e n d ? C i r c l e y o u r answer. Yes No I s y o u r " s t e a d y " g o i n g t o s c h o o l ? C i r c l e y o u r answer. Yes No 16. Where do you g e t most of y o u r s p e n d i n g money d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l y e a r ? Check one. A l l o w a n c e o r from p a r e n t s . 1 17 Odd j o b s . S t e a d y p a r t -t i m e j o b . Money made d u r i n g t h e summer. 17. D i d you p l a y any o r g a n i z e d community l e a g u e s p o r t s or were you i n v o l v e d i n any community c l u b s l a s t y e a r , o r th e y e a r b e f o r e ? Yes No W r i t e down t h e names of t h e s p o r t s and c l u b s y o u r were i n v o l v e d i n . L a s t y e a r Y ear b e f o r e l a s t 1980-1981 1979-1980 S p o r t s : C l u b s : 1 18 I f y ou need more s p a c e , do t h e same on t h e back o f t h i s p age. 18. D i d you p l a y on any s c h o o l teams o r were you i n v o l v e d i n any s c h o o l c l u b s l a s t y e a r , o r t h e y e a r b e f o r e ? Yes No 19. W r i t e down t h e names of t h e s c h o o l s p o r t s and c l u b s you were i n v o l v e d i n . L a s t y e a r Y e a r b e f o r e l a s t 1980-81 1979-80 S p o r t s : C l u b s : 1 1 9 S c h o o l Sent iment Index S e c o n d a r y L e v e l D i r e c t i o n s : F o r e a c h s t a t e m e n t , i n d i c a t e how much you a g r e e or d i s a g r e e by m a r k i n g t h e answer s h e e t : (A) i f you s t r o n g l y a g r e e (B) i f you a g r e e (C) i f you d i s a g r e e (D) i f you s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e FOR EXAMPLE: 1 . My c l a s s e s a r e t o o e a s y . I f y o u d s a g r e e w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t you s h o u l d mark C on t h e answer s h e e t as f o l l o w s : A B C D 1 . I I I I I I I I I f y o u s t r o n g l y a g r e e w i t h t h e above s t a t e m e n t you s h o u l d mark A on t h e answer s h e e t as f o l l o w s : A B C D 1 . I I I I I I I I T h e r e a r e no r i g h t or wrong answers , so r e s p o n d t o e a c h i t e m as h o n e s t l y as you c a n . Do not w r i t e y o u r name on your answer s h e e t , but make s u r e y o u r code number i s on t h e answer s h e e t . 120 ALL YOUR ANSWERS ARE CONFIDENTIAL! 1. Most of my t e a c h e r s t r y t o e x p l a i n t o me why I d e s e r v e t h e g r a d e s I e a r n on a s s i g n m e n t s and t e s t s . 2. I do my b e s t i n s c h o o l b e c a u s e I c a n g e t ahea d i n t h e w o r l d w i t h a good e d u c a t i o n . 3. Most of my t e a c h e r s seem i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e t h i n g s I do o u t s i d e of s c h o o l . 4. E a c h m o r n i n g I l o o k f o r w a r d t o coming t o s c h o o l . 5. My s c h o o l has t o o many r u l e s . 6. Most of my t e a c h e r s do n o t a l l o w s t u d e n t s much c h o i c e i n what t h e y s t u d y i n c l a s s . 7. I o f t e n f e e l r u s h e d and n e r v o u s a t s c h o o l . 8. Most o f my t e a c h e r s g i v e a s s i g n m e n t s t h a t a r e t o o d i f i c u l t . 9. S t u d e n t s h e r e a r e not as f r i e n d l y a s i n o t h e r s c h o o l s . 10. Most of my t e a c h e r s t r y t o make t h e i r s u b j e c t s i n t e r e s t i n g t o me. 11. I h a t e h a v i n g t o do homework. 12. My t e a c h e r s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n what I have t o s a y . 13. I t i s c l e a r t o me why I s h o u l d n ' t d r o p o u t o f s c h o o l . 14. T h i s s c h o o l i s r u n l i k e a p r i s o n . 15. In most of my c l a s s e s , I have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o c h o o s e a s s i g n m e n t s w h i c h a r e most i n t e r e s t i n g t o me. 16. I have s i g n e d up f o r a s u b j e c t j u s t b e c a u s e i t seemed l i k e i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g . 17. Most o f my t e a c h e r s g i v e a s s i g n m e n t s t h a t a r e j u s t busy-work. 18. I e n j o y w o r k i n g on c l a s s p r o j e c t s w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s . 19. Most o f my t e a c h e r s r e a l l y l i k e t h e i r s u b j e c t s . 20. I would r a t h e r p l a y a game t h a t I a l r e a d y know t h a n l e a r n a new one. 121 21. Most of my t e a c h e r s seem p e r s o n a l l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t me. 22. I e n j o y l e a r n i n g i n s c h o o l more t h a n l e a r n i n g on my own. 23. I d o n ' t u s u a l l y e n j o y w o r k i n g on p u z z l e s and t r y i n g t o s o l v e d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m s . 24. I t h i n k t h e r e i s t o o much p r e s s u r e i n s c h o o l . 25. Most of my t e a c h e r s w i l l a c c e p t s u g g e s t i o n s from t h e i r s t u d e n t s . 26. S c h o o l i s a good p l a c e f o r making f i r e n d s . 27. I l i k e t h e c h a l l e n g e of a d i f f i c u l t a s s i g n m e n t . 28. Most of my t e a c h e r s d o n ' t t r y v e r y h a r d t o u n d e r s t a n d young p e o p l e . 29. S k i p p i n g s c h o o l whenever I can d o e s n ' t r e a l l y b o t h e r me. 30. I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o s t a r t w o r k i n g on my a s s i g n m e n t s u n t i l t h e y a r e a l m o s t due. 31. I'm v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n what goes on a t t h i s s c h o o l . 32. Most of t h e d e c i s i o n s i n my c l a s s e s a r e made by t h e t e a c h e r s . 33. My t e a c h e r s ask me t o memorize t o o many f a c t s . 34. T h e r e a r e o t h e r r e a s o n s f o r g o i n g t o s c h o o l b e s i d e s j u s t l e a r n i n g . 35. T h e r e a r e i m p o r t a n t s u b j e c t s n o t t a u g h t i n s c h o o l now w h i c h I would be i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g i f t h e y were o f f e r e d . 36. S t u d e n t s have a v o i c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g how t h i s s c h o o l i s r u n . 37. Most of my t e a c h e r s have e n c o u r a g e d me t o t h i n k f o r m y s e l f . 38. I t h i n k most o f my t e a c h e r s a r e f a i r t o me. 39. I g e n e r a l l y t r y t o g e t i n v o l v e d i n many s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s . 40. Most of my t e a c h e r s g i v e me some i d e a of what w i l l be on t h e i r t e s t s . 1 22 41. I r e a l l y l i k e most of t h e k i d s a t t h i s s c h o o l . 42. My t e a c h e r s d o n ' t a l l o w me t o be as c r e a t i v e as I am a b l e t o be. 43. Most of my t e a c h e r s do not r e c o g n i z e my r i g h t t o a d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n . 44. I t would be d i f i c u l t t o g e t t h e most p o p u l a r k i d s i n s c h o o l t o i n c l u d e t h o s e who a r e n ' t a s p o p u l a r i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . 45. Even i f I wanted t o j o i n c e r t a i n g r o u p s h e r e a t s c h o o l , I j u s t w o u l d n ' t be a c c e p t e d . 46. I e n j o y t a l k i n g t o many o f my t e a c h e r s a f t e r c l a s s . 47. Most of my t e a c h e r s a r e c r i t i c a l of t h e way young p e o p l e d r e s s o r t a l k . 48. In o r d e r t o be on t h e S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l a t t h i s s c h o o l you've got t o be i n t h e r i g h t crowd. 49. Many of my t e a c h e r s f r e q u e n t l y show a l a c k of p r e p a r a t i o n . 50. I t i s n ' t d i f f i c u l t f o r a new s t u d e n t t o f i n d f r i e n d s h e r e . 51. Many of my t e a c h e r s c o u l d be t r u s t e d i f I d i s c u s s e d a p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m w i t h them. 52. My f a v o r i t e c l a s s e s , r e g a r d l e s s of s u b j e c t , a r e t h o s e i n w h i c h I l e a r n t h e most. , 53. S c h o o l i s i m p o r t a n t t o me b e c a u s e I f i n d many o f t h e t h i n g s I l e a r n a r e u s e f u l o u t s i d e of s c h o o l . 54. S c h o o l i s j u s t a p l a c e t o keep k i d s o f f t h e s t r e e t . 55. Our s c h o o l i s so l a r g e , I o f t e n f e e l l o s t i n t h e crow d . 56. I u s u a l l y g e t t h e g r a d e I d e s e r v e i n a c l a s s . 57. T e a c h e r s a r e u s u a l l y t h e f r i e n d l i e s t w i t h t h e b r i g h t s t u d e n t s . 58. I t r y t o do good work i n may c l a s s e s , b e c a u s e you n e v e r know when t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be u s e f u l . 59. Most of my t e a c h e r s a r e s t i l l f a i r w i t h me as a p e r s o n even when I've done p o o r l y on my s c h o o l work. 123 60. T h e r e a r e enough d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s h e r e a t s c h o o l f o r any t y p e of s t u d e n t t o f i n d f r i e n d s . 61. Most o f my t e a c h e r s make i t c l e a r a b o u t how much t h e s t u d e n t s c a " g e t away w i t h " i n c l a s s . 62. I e n j o y t h e s o c i a l l i f e h e r e . 63. E v e r y o n e knows who t h e r e a l A L l o s e r s i n t h i s s c h o o l a r e . 64. T h e r e a r e many c l o s e d g r o u p s of s t u d e n t s h e r e . 65. Most of my t e a c h e r s l i k e w o r k i n g w i t h young p e o p l e . 66. Sometimes I j u s t c a n ' t p u t a book down u n t i l I'm f i n i s h e d w i t h i t . 67. Most of my t e a c h e r s a r e t o o c o n c e r n e d w i t h d i s c i p l i n e s o m e times. 68. I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r me t o see my e d u c a t i o n as a s t e p p i n g s t o n e t o f u t u r e s u c c e s s . 69. At s c h o o l , o t h e r p e o p l e r e a l l y c a r e a b o u t me. 70. I f I t h o u g h t I c o u l d win, I ' d l i k e t o r u n f o r an e l e c t e d s t u d e n t body o f f i c e . 71. Most of my t e a c h e r s w i l l d i s c u s s any c h a n g e s made t o my g r a d e . 72. Most of my t e a c h e r s j u s t d o n ' t c a r e a b o u t s t u d e n t s i f t h e y ' r e n ot g o i n g t o c o l l e g e . 73. I u s u a l l y n e v e r do more s c h o o l work t h a n j u s t what i s a s s i g n e d . 74. Most of t h e t e a c h e r s a t my s c h o o l c a n n o t c o n t r o l t h e i r c l a s s e s . 75. I t i s p o s s i b l e t o be p o p u l a r i n s c h o o l and a l s o do t h i n g s y o u r own way. 76. L u n c h t i m e a t s c h o o l i s n o t f u n . 77. Many of my t e a c h e r s a r e o f t e n i m p a t i e n t . 78. I f I had t h e c h o i c e , I w o u l d n ' t go t o s c h o o l a t a l l . 79. Many of my t e a c h e r s have " p e t s " . 80. Most of my t e a c h e r s o f t e n waste t o o much t i m e e x p l a i n i n g t h i n g s . 1 24 81. O c c a s i o n a l l y I have d i s c o v e r e d t h i n g s on my own t h a t were r e l a t e d t o some o f my s c h o o l s u b j e c t s . 82. I f s c h o o l were most r e l a t e d t o t h e s k i l l s I ' l l ne a f t e r I g r a d u a t e , I might be more i n t e r e s t e d . 125 A p p e n d i x B T a b l e B.1 P a r e n t s ' S e c o n d J o b by S t a t u s S t a t u s P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s M o t h e r No 65 (89. .0) 19 (100.0) Yes 8 (11. .0) 0 (0.0) F a t h e r No 49 (81 . .7) 1 1 (73.3) Yes 1 1 (18. .3) 4 (26.7) C o r r e c t e d C h i S q u a r e = = 1.10906 d f = = 1 p_ < -2923 C o r r e c t e d C h i S q u a r e = = .13021 d f = 1 E < .7182 T a b l e B.2 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e by S t a t u s S t a t u s • P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s No 63 (84.0) 16 (84.2) Yes 12 (16.0) 3 (15.8) C o r r e c t e d C h i s q u a r e = 0.0 d f = 1 p < 1.0 126 T a b l e B.3 S p e n d i n g Money by S t a t u s S t a t u s P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s A l l o w a n c e 33 (39.8) 1 0 (50.0) Odd J o b s 15 (18.1) 2 (10.0) P a r t Time J o b s 16 (19.3) 7 (35.0) Summer J o b s 19 (22.9) 1 (5.0) C h i S q u a r e = 5.48226 df = = 3 p_ < -1397 T a b l e B.4 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o S c h o o l by S t a t u s S t a t u s Count P e r s i s t e r s D r o p o u t s Row P e t . Walk 30 (35.7) 7 (33.3) B i c y c l e 10 (11.9) 3 (14.3) Car 9 (10.7) 4 (19.0) C i t y Bus 7 (8.3) 0 (0.0) S c h o o l Bus 28 (33.3) 7 (33.3) C h i S q u a r e = 2.79626 df = 4 £ < .5925 127 T a b l e B.5 Summary S t a t i s t i c s : T r a v e l l i n g Time t o S c h o o l S t a t u s S t a t i s t i c P e r s i s t e r D r o p o u t M 21.6 25.7 SD 17.854 21.854 n 83 21 t=-.89 df = 102 p_ < .375 T a b l e B.6 Summary S t a t i s t i c s : T r a v e l l i n g Time Home S t a t u s S t a t i s t i c P e r s i s t e r D r o p o u t M 25.2 30.3 SD 18.888 25.878 n 83 20 t=-1.00 df = 101 2 < - 3 2 2 1 28 T a b l e B.7 D r i v e r ' s L i c e n c e by S t a t u s S t a t u s Count P e r s i s t e r D r o p o u t Row P e t . No 71 (84.5) 16 (76.2) Yes 13 (15.5) 5 (23.8) C o r r e c t e d C h i Squ a r e = .33944 df = 1 p < .5602 T a b l e B.8 Car O w n e r s h i p by S t a t u s S t a t u s Count P e r s i s t e r D r o p o u t Row P e t . No 71 (84.5) 20 (95.2) Yes 13 (15.5) 1 (4.8) C o r r e c t e d C h i Square = .87053 d f = 1 p_ < .3508 1 29 T a b l e B.9 B r e a k f a s t E a t e n by S t a t u s S t a t u s Count P e r s i s t e r D r o p o u t Row P e t . Never 11 (13.1) 5 (23.8) Somet imes 41 (48.8) 9 (42.9) A l w a y s 32 (38.1 ) 7 (33.3) C h i S q u a r e = 1.49319 df = 2 p < .4740 T a b l e B.10 Lu n c h E a t e n by S t a t u s S t a t u s . Count P e r s i s t e r „Dropout Row P e t . Never 10 (11.9) 1 (4.8) Somet imes 35 (41.7) 12 (57.1) A l w a y s 39 (46.4) 8 (38. 1 ) C h i S q u a r e = 1.97775 df = 2 p < .3720 

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