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A housing policy for single parent families : a proposal for Greater Vancouver Kanaar, Sandra 1984

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A HOUSING POLICY FOR SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES: A PROPOSAL FOR GREATER VANCOUVER By SANDRA KANAAR B . S c , The S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of New York, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES The S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1984 f c ) S a n d r a Kanaar, 198 4 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s fo r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or pub l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ^rJiosf 9/ /^rryisy* CLM^TV- /cjrs<rnas/ /'/oftrt/Ad The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT In 19 81 t h e r e were 35,990 s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ; 8 3.7% o f t h e s e were headed by f e m a l e s . T h i s s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e the n a t u r e and magnitude of the problems f a c i n g s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , and t o o f f e r recommendations which would a l l e v i a t e t h e s e problems. Housing i s the f o c a l p o i n t o f the s t u d y because where and how one l i v e s i n f l u e n c e s one's economic and s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , sense of i d e n t i t y , and m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h . The c o n c e p t o f a c c e s s was s e l e c t e d as a framework t h r o u g h which h o u s i n g f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s c o u l d be viewed. Access i s d e f i n e d i n Chapter I I as the a b i l i t y t o r e a c h o t h e r p e r s o n s , a c t i v i t i e s , r e s o u r c e s , i n f o r m a t i o n , o r p l a c e s . C h a p t e r s I I I and IV p r o v i d e a c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n of the s i n g l e p a r e n t ' s l i m i t a t i o n s t o a c c e s s w h i c h stem from p e r s o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s and the environment o f the GVRD. An a n a l y s i s o f the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n o f s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n the decade from 1971 t o 19 81 i s conducted i n Chapter V t o see i f r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s e x i s t e d and i f demographic t r e n d s were o c c u r r i n g . Chapter VI examines whether c u r r e n t government h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s a i d s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . M u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and f e d e r a l government h o u s i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o h e l p s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s overcome t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s a r e recommended. I n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d i n a number of ways. S t u d i e s and r e p o r t s from Canada, England, and the U n i t e d S t a t e s were examined t o d e v e l o p the complete p i c t u r e o f s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . L o c a l i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d from census d a t a , newspapers, and r e p o r t s by a g e n c i e s and government departments. i i i P e r s o n a l c o n t a c t was made w i t h a wide,range o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s and a g e n c i e s c o n n e c t e d w i t h s i n g l e p a r e n t s . F i n a l l y , s i n g l e mothers i n the GVRD were c o n t a c t e d t h r o u g h the YWCA spon-s o r e d S i n g l e Mothers' A c t i o n Committee. Many of t h e i r v i e w s , s t a t e m e n t s and o b j e c t i v e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s r e p o r t . I t was found t h a t s i n g l e p a r e n t s i n the GVRD have s e r i o u s h o u s i n g problems. P e r s o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s e problems i n c l u d e p o v e r t y , time c o n s t r a i n t s and e x h a u s t i o n , and hampered m o b i l i t y . E n v i r o n m e n t a l l i m i t a t i o n s i n c l u d e h i g h h o u s i n g c o s t s , low vacancy r a t e s , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , u n s u i t a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t s , bylaws which l i m i t a c c e s s t o s u i t e s i n s i n g l e f a m i l y zones, and poor p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . I n b o t h 1971 and 1981, the pe r c e n t a g e o f f a m i l i e s t h a t were headed by s i n g l e p a r e n t s was h i g h e r i n Vancouver than i n most of the p e r i p h e r a l communities. However, the pe r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e from 1971 t o 1981 i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f f a m i l i e s headed by s i n g l e p a r e n t s was g r e a t e r i n the o u t e r suburbs. I t was shown t h a t most s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s a r e not a s s i s t e d by e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s i n the GVRD and a p o s i t i v e government response i s now needed. T h i s t h e s i s makes recommenda-t i o n s t o m u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and f e d e r a l governments c o n c e r n i n g the i n t e r c o n n e c t e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s s u e s of r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n , a f f o r d a b i l i t y , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , b u i l d i n g f o r f a m i l i e s , h o u s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , - and h o u s i n g c h o i c e . I t i s the p r o v i n c i a l government t h a t ought t o ta k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c r e a t i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g a h o u s i n g p o l i c y f o r single,>parent f a m i l i e s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t L i s t o f T a b l e s L i s t o f F i g u r e s Chapter I . INTRODUCTION Purpose o f the st u d y I s s u e s , scope and methodology I I . THE CONCEPT OF ACCESS I I I . PROFILE OF THE SINGLE MOTHER: DISPELLING SOME OF THE MYTHS C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I m p l i c a t i o n s — L i m i t a t i o n s t o Access IV. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS A d e s c r i p t i o n o f the GVRD L i m i t a t i o n s f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s V. RESIDENTIAL PATTERNS AND DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS The Wolch model and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o the GVRD The case o f Maple Ridge V I . TOWARDS A HOUSING POLICY FOR SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES A h o u s i n g p o l i c y as an a p p r o p r i a t e Government response P r e s e n t Housing P o l i c i e s G u i d e l i n e s and Recommendations EPILOGUE: WHO IS RESPONSIBLE? APPENDIX: CONCERNING METHODOLOGY BIBLIOGRAPHY V LIST OF TABLES Page 1. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Access A c c o r d i n g t o F e a t u r e s , U s e r s , and D i s t a n c e T r a v e l e d 14 2. Average Incomes f o r Husband-Wife F a m i l i e s and S i n g l e P a r e n t F a m i l i e s i n the Lower M a i n l a n d , 23 1981 3. Average Monthly Rents f o r S u i t e s i n V a r i o u s Lower M a i n l a n d M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , 19 81 4 6 4. T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n , T o t a l Number o f F a m i l i e s and S i n g l e P a r e n t F a m i l i e s f o r V a r i o u s M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the GVRD, G i v i n g the P r o p o r t i o n o f S i n g l e P a r e n t F a m i l i e s as a Pe r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l F a m i l i e s (1971) 64 5. T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n , T o t a l Number o f F a m i l i e s and S i n g l e P a r e n t F a m i l i e s f o r V a r i o u s M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t he GVRD, G i v i n g the P r o p o r t i o n o f S i n g l e P a r e n t F a m i l i e s as a Pe r c e n t a g e of T o t a l F a m i l i e s , and the P e r c e n t Change S i n c e 1971 (1976) 65 6. T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n , T o t a l Number of F a m i l i e s and S i n g l e P a r e n t F a m i l i e s f o r V a r i o u s M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the GVRD, G i v i n g the P r o p o r t i o n o f S i n g l e P a r e n t F a m i l i e s as a Pe r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l F a m i l i e s , and the P e r c e n t Change from 1976 66 7. The Pe r c e n t a g e o f the GVRD T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n , Number o f F a m i l i e s and S i n g l e P a r e n t F a m i l i e s L i v i n g i n the V a r i o u s GVRD M u n i c i p a l i t i e s 67 8. T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n and Number of S i n g l e P a r e n t F a m i l i e s i n the GVRD M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , Showing P e r c e n t Change from 1971-1981 69 9. S i n g l e P a r e n t F a m i l i e s as a Pe r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l Number o f F a m i l i e s i n GVRD M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , 1971-1981 70 v i LIST OF FIGURES Page 1. Map of M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 5 2. Age Groups o f Female S i n g l e P a r e n t s i n the GVRD 20 3. E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l o f Female S i n g l e P a r e n t s i n the 20 GVRD 4. The Co r e - R i n g System Showing GVRD Neighbourhoods 39 5. S i n g l e P a r e n t F a m i l i e s as a Pe r c e n t a g e o f A l l F a m i l i e s i n GVRD Neighbourhoods 61 v i i f o r my c h i l d r e n C h r i s and L a u r a . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Purpose o f the Study The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o propose a h o u s i n g s t r a t e g y t o improve the q u a l i t y o f l i f e f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . The u n d e r l y i n g h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t because the absence of a male p a r e n t imposes v a r i o u s h a r d s h i p s and l i m i t a t i o n s on the day-to-day l i v i n g p a t t e r n s o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s , s t r a t e g i e s must be implemented w h i c h ensure the p h y s i c a l , economic, and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l b e i n g o f t h i s group o f p e o p l e . Because t h e s e f a m i l i e s seem t o be caught i n a downward s p i r a l o f h a r d s h i p and d e p r i v a t i o n f o r which no p r i v a t e o r p u b l i c s o l u t i o n e x i s t s , some s o r t o f s o c i a l p o l i c y must be d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r them. A h o u s i n g p o l i c y has been s e l e c t e d as an a p p r o p r i a t e t y p e o f p o l i c y because i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t adequate h o u s i n g i n a c c e s s i b l e a r e a s w i l l a l l e v i a t e many of the problems and c o n s t r a i n t s f a c i n g s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . A cosm o p o l i t a n . . c e n t r e such as t h e GVRD i s a complex e n t i t y whose components and o p e r a t i o n a r e n o t c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d by laymen, p o l i t i c i a n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l i k e . As a r e s u l t , p l a n n i n g w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e i s o f t e n c o n f u s e d and c o n t r o v e r s i a l , and p l a n s w h i c h s u i t the most p o w e r f u l groups o f p e o p l e a r e tho s e most l i k e l y t o be implemented. D i s a d v a n t a g e d groups l i k e the o l d , ha n d i c a p p e d , o r the poor, who spend most o f t h e i r e n e r g i e s on day-to-day s u r v i v a l , have n o t been w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A l a r g e and growing group of d i s a d v a n t a g e d p e o p l e are the f a m i l i e s c o n s i s t i n g o f a s i n g l e mother and her c h i l d r e n . 2 In 1981 t h e r e were 35,990 s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n the GVRD, 83.7% o f whi c h were headed by females."*" S i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s 2 c o n s t i t u t e 11.7% o f a l l f a m i l i e s i n the GVRD. These f a m i l i e s c o n t a i n not o n l y a d u l t s who a r e s t r u g g l i n g t o pay the b i l l s and n u r t u r e c h i l d r e n , b u t a l s o the l a r g e group of c h i l d r e n (one out 3 of s i x ) who w i l l be r a i s e d by one p a r e n t a l o n e . The p r e s e n t q u a l i t y o f t h e i r l i v e s and t h e i r f u t u r e c o n t r i b u t i o n s as Canadian c i t i z e n s a r e i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s . The f o r m a t i o n of s o c i a l p o l i c i e s , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n now t a k i n g p l a c e i n the r e g i o n , and the a l l o c a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and f e d e r a l budgets s h o u l d a d d r e s s the needs o f thes e f a m i l i e s . P i n p o i n t i n g the needs o f a subgroup i s in a d e q u a t e as a p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e . An a n a l y s i s o f the needs and problems o f a group l e a d s t o p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s , and t h e r e f o r e recommendations t o be e x e c u t e d i n o r d e r f o r the p l a n n i n g c y c l e t o be comp l e t e . P o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g h o u s i n g a re s e t by v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government and a l l l e v e l s may c o n t r i b u t e and c o o p e r a t e i n r e a l i z i n g v a r i o u s g o a l s . I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l be u s e f u l t o m u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments i n p l a n n i n g f o r the f u t u r e e n v i r onments o f s i n g l e mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . B. I s s u e s , Scope and Methodology Because 84% of s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n the GVRD a r e headed by f e m a l e s , t h i s paper w i l l f o c u s on them. The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n w i l l t h e r e f o r e be f a m i l i e s composed o f female s i n g l e p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n . The terms " s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l y " and " s i n g l e mother" w i l l b o t h be used i n t h i s s t u d y . The f i r s t term i s d e f i n e d as a f a m i l y i n w h i c h "a n a t u r a l mother o r f a t h e r i s 3 b r i n g i n g up c h i l d r e n a l o n e w i t h o u t the h e l p o f a p a r e n t s u b s t i t u t e 4 o f t he o p p o s i t e sex l i v i n g i n the same h o u s e h o l d . " The second term, " s i n g l e mother", w i l l mean a female s i n g l e p a r e n t , whether she comes by t h i s " s i n g l e " s t a t u s as a r e s u l t o f b e i n g unwed, s e p a r a t e d , d i v o r c e d , o r widowed. The s i t u a t i o n and problems o f the male s i n g l e p a r e n t i s beyond t h e scope o f t h i s s t u d y . A l t h o u g h he may e x p e r i e n c e some o f the same c o n s t r a i n t s and problems due t o l a c k o f time and energy, h i s f i n a n c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s d i f f e r m a rkedly. He i s a p t t o have an e s t a b l i s h e d j o b and a h i g h e r income. He p r o b a b l y owns a c a r . He may not s u f f e r from the same ty p e s o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n s e c u r i n g j o b s and h o u s i n g . Low income i s the c h i e f f a c t o r i n c r e a t i n g a l i f e o f d e p r i v a t i o n and s t r u g g l e f o r t he s i n g l e mother, and i t i s t h i s f a c t o r t h a t c h i e f l y s e t s her f a m i l y a p a r t from o t h e r f a m i l i e s . A p o r t r a i t o f the average s i n g l e mother i n the GVRD w i l l be drawn t o show the v a r i o u s problems and l i m i t a t i o n w hich a r i s e from a d v e r s e p e r s o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . However, t h i s s t u d y w i l l n o t c o n c e n t r a t e on the s i n g l e p a r e n t i n i s o l a t i o n , b u t i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the environment. The environment i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l be the e n t i r e G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , s i n c e a t f i r s t o b s e r v a t i o n i t seems t h a t the d i s t r i c t o p e r a t e s as a c u l t u r a l and economic whole. The s i z e and c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the l a n d and water masses, the r e s o u r c e based economy, the e x i s t i n g l a w s , the i n t e n t o f the p r e s e n t governments, the p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s towards s i n g l e mothers, and the o p e r a t i o n o f the h o u s i n g market a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o the c r e a t i o n o f a unique environment i n which the s i n g l e mother must manage. 4 S e v e r a l terms w i l l be used i n t h i s s t u d y t o r e f e r t o the g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a c o m p r i s e d o f the C i t y o f Vancouver and the v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and o t h e r p o p u l a t e d a r e a s w h i c h s u r r o u n d i t . O f f i c i a l l y , the GVRD i s comprised o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f Burnaby, C o q u i t l a m , D e l t a , New We s t m i n s t e r , N o r t h Vancouver, the D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver, P o r t C o q u i t l a m , P o r t Moody, Richmond, S u r r e y , Vancouver, West Vancouver, White Rock, and s e v e r a l o t h e r s m a l l e r p o p u l a t i o n u n i t s such as B a r n s t o n I s l a n d , B e l c a r r a , L i o n s Bay, the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Are a and a few I n d i a n R e s e r v e s , 5 such as Musqueam. The t o t a l 1981 GVRD p o p u l a t i o n was 1,169,831. The term "Lower M a i n l a n d " i s an u n o f f i c i a l one t h a t u s u a l l y c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e o f f i c i a l "Census M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a " w h i c h i n c l u d e s the GVRD p l u s L a n g l e y C i t y , L a n g l e y M u n i c i p a l i t y , P i t t Meadows, Maple Ridge and many o t h e r s m a l l e r u n i t s . The 1981 Census Metro A r e a p o p u l a t i o n was 1,26 8,18 3.^ M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver i s a l s o an u n o f f i c i a l term which u s u a l l y r e f e r s t o the a r e a c o v e r e d by the Census Metro A r e a . Because the GVRD i s a census d i v i s i o n f o r w h i c h s t a t i s t i c s a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , the term "GVRD" w i l l be the main one used i n t h i s s t u d y . F i g u r e 1 shows the e n t i r e Census M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a . The s t u d y w i l l compare the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l r e a l i t i e s o f the GVRD t o a t h e o r e t i c a l l y i d e a l environment f o r s i n g l e mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n — one whi c h would a l l o w t h e s e p e o p l e t o maximize t h e i r s o c i a l , economic and p e r s o n a l p o t e n t i a l . W h i l e the a u t h o r does n o t a c c e p t the i d e a t h a t c e r t a i n e nvironments cause c e r t a i n b e h a v i o u r s , i t w i l l be assumed t h a t the f e a t u r e s of t h e environment a l l o w f o r c e r t a i n b e h a v i o u r s and l i m i t o t h e r s . Some environments seem t o be more c o n d u c i v e t o the s u r v i v a l and s q u a l i t y o f l i f e o f the i n h a b i t a n t s t h a n o t h e r s . "The l o c a l community i s a s o i l t h a t can n o u r i s h and s u p p o r t human e f f o r t s 7 o r d i s c o u r a g e and dep r e s s them." Housing f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s has been chosen as the f o c a l p o i n t of t h i s s t u d y because i t seems l i k e l y t h a t the l o c a t i o n and c o n d i t i o n o f the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a i n f l u e n c e s o r l i m i t s a c c e s s t o most o f the o t h e r elements i n the environment -n e i g h b o u r s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , j o b s , s t o r e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s , s c h o o l s and d a y c a r e , p e r s o n a l and m e d i c a l c a r e . Because the wide v a r i e t y i n l i f e s t y l e s , incomes and age of s i n g l e mothers makes i t appear t h a t they have n o t h i n g i n common e x c e p t t h e i r l a c k o f a spouse, i t would appear a t f i r s t g l a n c e t h a t i t would be i m p o s s i b l e t o d e s i g n a h o u s i n g p o l i c y t o add r e s s the needs o f thes e f a m i l i e s as a group. The stu d y w i l l show t h a t t h e r e a r e g e n e r a l , l i m i t a t i o n a r i s i n g from p e r s o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s and the environment w h i c h must be ad d r e s s e d by h o u s i n g g u i d e l i n e s and s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s i n the GVRD. 7 ENDNOTES CHAPTER I " ' " S t a t i s t i c s Canada, S e l e c t e d P o p u l a t i o n , D w e l l i n g , Household and Census F a m i l y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f o r Census D i v i s i o n s  and S u b d i v i s i o n s , 1981, Cat. E-568, T a b l e 1. 2 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Census F a m i l i e s i n P r i v a t e Households  by F a m i l y S t r u c t u r e , Showing Number o f C h i l d r e n a t Home, 1981, M i c r o f i c h e # SDF 81A12, H 11, p. A-79. 3 I b i d . , M i c r o f i c h e # SDF 81A12, I 11, p. B-79. The t o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n 24 y e a r s and under i n t h e GVRD i s 337,095; 50,645 o f t h e s e have a s i n g l e p a r e n t . 4 E l s a F e r r i and H i l a r y R o b i n s o n , Coping A l o n e (Windsor, B e r k s , England; NFER Pub. Co., L t d . , 1976) p. 6.. 5 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, P o p u l a t i o n : Geographic D i s t r i b u t i o n s — B r i t i s h C o lumbia, T a b l e 4., P o p u l a t i o n and T o t a l Occupied  D w e l l i n g s , f o r Census D i v i s i o n s and S u b d i v i s i o n s , 1976 and 1981. Cat. 93-910, p. 4 - 8 . ^ S t a t i s t i c s Canada, P o p u l a t i o n : Geographic D i s t r i b u t i o n s — B r i t i s h C olumbia, T a b l e 5., P o p u l a t i o n f o r Census M e t r o p o l i t a n  A reas and Census A g g l o m e r a t i o n s , U r b a n i z e d Core and F r i n g e w i t h  Components, 197 6 and 1981. Cat. 93-910, p. 5 - 1. 7 Suzanne K e l l e r ( e d . ) , B u i l d i n g f o r Women ( L e x i n g t o n , Mass.: L e x i n g t o n Books — D.C. Heath and Co., 1981) p. 65. 8 CHAPTER I I THE CONCEPT OF ACCESS Because the p l i g h t o f the s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l y i s so complex and because so l i t t l e i s known about t h e i r l i v i n g p a t t e r n s , t o p r e s c r i b e p o l i c y t o h e l p t h e s e p e o p l e seems a h o p e l e s s t a s k . The i s s u e here i s how t o make d e c i s i o n s under c o n d i t i o n s of u n c e r t a i n t y . Donald Schon, the a u t h o r of The R e f l e c t i v e  P r a c t i t i o n e r , s u g g e s t s t h a t the b e s t way t o make sense o f a unique and unknown s i t u a t i o n i s t o d e v i s e a framework t h r o u g h w h i c h the s i t u a t i o n can be v i e w e d . ^ The framework p r o v i d e s a way of naming th o s e t h i n g s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o and t h o s e t o i g n o r e . The problem i s not t o s o l v e the problem b u t t o d e f i n e i t . The framework t h a t w i l l be used i n t h i s paper i s the c o n c e p t o f a c c e s s as d e f i n e d by K e v i n Lynch i n A Theory o f Good 2 C i t y Form. Access i s one o f the f i v e d i m e n s i o n s used by Lynch as measuring d e v i c e s t o a s s e s s the q u a l i t y o f the environment as e x p e r i e n c e d by the u s e r s . The o t h e r f o u r d i m e n s i o n s a r e v i t a l i t y , sense, f i t , and c o n t r o l . A "good c i t y " t o Lynch i s one w h i c h p r o v i d e s a c o n t i n u i t y o f form and f u n c t i o n w h i l e a l l o w i n g f o r and e n c o u r a g i n g change and growth. He sees the c i t y as a huge e c o l o g i c a l system encompassing a l l o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the n a t u r a l o r p h y s i c a l ecosystem p l u s a l l o f the human f e a t u r e s such as " v a l u e s , c u l t u r e , c o n s c i o u s n e s s , p r o g r e s s i v e o r r e g r e s s i v e change, i n v e n t i o n , the a b i l i t y t o l e a r n , and the c o n n e c t i o n of 3 i n n e r and o u t e r a c t i o n . " The c o n c e p t of "becoming" as d e v e l o p e d by the p s y c h o l o g i s t C a r l Rogers i s e v i d e n t i n L y n c h 1 s d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h i s "good c i t y " : .9 The good c i t y i s one i n which the c o n t i n u i t y of t h i s complex e c o l o g y i s m a i n t a i n e d w h i l e p r o g r e s s i v e change i s p e r m i t t e d . The fundamental good i s the c o n t i n u o u s development of the i n d i v i d u a l o r the s m a l l group and t h e i r c u l t u r e : a p r o c e s s o f becoming more complex, more r i c h l y c o n n e c t e d , more competent, a c q u i r i n g and r e a l i z i n g new powers — i n t e l l e c t u a l , e m o t i o n a l , s o c i a l , and p h y s i c a l . I f human l i f e i s a c o n t i n u e d s t a t e o f becoming, t h e n i t s c o n t i n u i t y i s founded on growth and development... I f development i s a p r o c e s s o f becoming more competent and more r i c h l y c o n n e c t e d , then an i n c r e a s i n g sense o f c o n n e c t i o n t o one's environment i n space and i n time i s one a s p e c t o f growth. So t h a t s e t t l e m e n t i s good which enhances the c o n t i n u i t y o f a c u l t u r e and the s u r v i v a l o f i t s p e o p l e , i n c r e a s e s a sense o f c o n n e c t i o n i n time and space a n d ^ p e r m i t s o r s p u r s i n d i v i d u a l growth. Lynch d e f i n e s a c c e s s as "the a b i l i t y t o r e a c h o t h e r p e r s o n s , a c t i v i t i e s , r e s o u r c e s , s e r v i c e s , i n f o r m a t i o n o r p l a c e s , i n c l u d i n g the q u a n t i t y and d i v e r s i t y o f the elements w h i c h can be 5 r e a c h e d . " The q u a n t i t y and d i v e r s i t y o f p e o p l e , j o b s , and o t h e r elements i n a m e t r o p o l i s i s what makes i t a s t i m u l a t i n g and d e s i r a b l e p l a c e t o l i v e . C h o i c e among the v a r i o u s elements p r o v i d e s the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o c r e a t e a l i f e s t y l e c o n g e n i a l t o him o r her and t o grow and d e v e l o p as a more competent and r i c h l y c o n n e c t e d p e r s o n . A d i v e r s e and r i c h e n vironment i s i m p o r t a n t f o r e x p l o r a t i o n and growth: A good environment i s a p l a c e which a f f o r d s o b v i o u s and easy a c c e s s t o a moderate v a r i e t y of p e o p l e , goods, and s e t t i n g s , w h i l e t h i s v a r i e t y can be expanded i f a p e r s o n w i s h e s t o expend f u r t h e r e n e r g y — an e x p l o r a b l e w o r l d , whose v a s t d i v e r s i t i e s , . c a n be sought o u t o r i g n o r e d a t w i l l . Lynch c l a s s i f i e s a c c e s s " a c c o r d i n g t o the f e a t u r e s t o which a c c e s s i s g i v e n and t o whom i t i s a f f o r d e d . " H i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : 10 ACCESS TO OTHER PEOPLE k i n f r i e n d s p o t e n t i a l mates c a s u a l a c q u a i n t a n c e s ACCESS TO CERTAIN HUMAN ACTIVITIES work r e s i d e n c e s e r v i c e s : f i n a n c i a l m e d i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s ACCESS TO CERTAIN MATERIAL RESOURCES fo o d water energy-goods , ACCESS TO PLACES s h e l t e r s open space c e n t r e s s y m b o l i c p l a c e s f i n e n a t u r a l e n v i ronments ACCESS TO INFORMATION I have t a k e n t h i s l i s t and expanded i t i n Table 1 t o i n c l u d e s p e c i f i c p e o p l e , p l a c e s and t h i n g s w h i c h a r e mentioned i n v a r i o u s books and r e p o r t s as b e i n g those f e a t u r e s i n the environment t o w h i c h s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s need a c c e s s . I n f a n t s , c h i l d r e n and t e e n a g e r s , as w e l l as female a d u l t s a r e i n c l u d e d as u s e r s , because the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n i s the e n t i r e f a m i l y and not j u s t t h e head o f the h o u s e h o l d . I t i s easy t o f o r g e t t h a t c h i l d r e n have needs w h i c h the community must meet, and t o w h i c h they must have a c c e s s . The d e v e l o p m e n t a l ages r e p r e s e n t e d here 11 a r e c omposite c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s suggested by v a r i o u s c h i l d h o o d and a d o l e s c e n t p s y c h o l o g i s t s . The t a b l e has been so a r r a n g e d as t o r e f l e c t t he i n c r e a s i n g competency and m o b i l i t y t h a t p e o p l e a c q u i r e as t hey mature. The model p r e s e n t e d here r e p r e s e n t s the wide range o f c h o i c e s which would i d e a l l y be p o s s i b l e f o r the a d u l t s , t e e n a g e r s , and c h i l d r e n i n the s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l y . The model assumes u n l i m i t e d a c c e s s . The environment i s assumed t o be f r e e of dangers and i n e f f i c i e n c i e s . C h i l d r e n as w e l l as a d u l t s would be f r e e t o walk i n t h e i r neighbourhoods w i t h o u t a t h r e a t from heavy t r a f f i c , and use p u b l i c s t r e e t s , p a r k s , and buses w i t h o u t f e a r o f a s s a u l t by s t r a n g e r s . Homes a r e s a f e p l a c e s o f r e s t and r e t r e a t w i t h enough space f o r each member o f the f a m i l y t o e n j o y p r i v a c y or some a c t i v i t y . Neighbourhoods would be p o p u l a t e d by f r i e n d l y p e o p l e of v a r y i n g ages and l i f e s t y l e s . A mix o f p e o p l e , w i t h t h e i r accompanying v a l u e s , g o a l s , and p e r s o n a l and a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n , would c r e a t e a v i t a l and v i g o r o u s s o c i a l environment. A l a r g e and v a r i e d group o f pe o p l e p e r m i t s a c h o i c e o f f r i e n d s and mates. Neighbours a r e f r i e n d l y , and o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e i n emergencies, l e n d i n g i t e m s and exc h a n g i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . I d e a l l y , one's c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s would l i v e nearby t o v i s i t w i t h , g i v e o r r e c e i v e a d v i c e , and c e l e b r a t e the i m p o r t a n t passages o f l i f e . I n i d e a l environment, the s i n g l e mother would have the c h o i c e of s t a y i n g a t home t o c a r e f o r young c h i l d r e n , o r o f t a k i n g a j o b and p l a c i n g the c h i l d i n a day c a r e c e n t r e t h a t would g i v e the same k i n d o f l o v i n g c a r e as the mother h e r s e l f . There would be a v a r i e t y o f j o b s a v a i l a b l e , so t h a t a d u l t s c o u l d 12 choose one t h a t matched t h e i r t a l e n t s and p e r s o n a l needs. Income would n o t be a problem, and a l l members of the f a m i l y would have a c c e s s t o not o n l y the n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e b u t a l s o the goods and s e r v i c e s t hey need t o engage i n p r i v a t e a c t i v i t i e s o r p a r t i c i p a t e i n group a c t i v i t i e s . I n t r a v e l i n g t o work, the s i n g l e mother would be a b l e t o e i t h e r d r i v e a c a r or board p u b l i c t r a n s i t a t a s t o p w i t h i n minutes from her door, and be a t her work p l a c e i n l e s s t h a n g f i f t e e n m i n u t e s . Buses or t r a i n s would have f a c i l i t i e s f o r the l o a d i n g o f prams and s t r o l l e r s . There would be s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e s e and o t h e r items such as packages on the c a r s . Buses 9 and t r a i n s would r u n f r e q u e n t l y (every t e n minutes) and r o u t e s would c o v e r e v e r y p a r t of town. Teenagers and c h i l d r e n as w e l l as a d u l t s would be a b l e t o q u i c k l y g e t t o the r e c r e a t i o n and c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s , s c h o o l s , l i b r a r i e s , s t o r e s and open spaces where they i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r s , d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l and s o c i a l s k i l l s . S t o r e s and vendors p r o v i d i n g low o r d e r goods and s e r v i c e s such as f o o d , b a n k i n g , c l e a n i n g , h a i r s t y l i n g , g e n e r a l merchandise, e t c . , would be w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e from a l l homes, so t h a t c h i l d r e n as w e l l as a d u l t s c o u l d shop. H i g h e r o r d e r and s p e c i a l t y shops would be c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d a t t r a n s i t s t o p s o r near p l a c e s o f work. Daycare c e n t r e s would be l o c a t e d r i g h t i n the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a so t h a t young c h i l d r e n c o u l d be dropped o f f b e f o r e the j o u r n e y t o work. The model assumes competent p e o p l e f u n c t i o n i n g i n an i d e a l environment. However, Lynch s t a t e s t h a t a c c e s s i s u n e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d based on a number of f a c t o r s : l i m i t a t i o n s w hich are 13 d e r i v e d from the p e r s o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f the u s e r such as p h y s i c a l impairment o r i n a b i l i t y t o pay f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and l i m i t a t i o n s w h i c h a r e g e n e r a t e d by the environment such as d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , s e a s o n a l o r n o c t u r n a l v a r i a n c e s , man-made laws l i m i t i n g a c c e s s , i n e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s and t h e a b s o l u t e l i m i t o f the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f the f e a t u r e s t h a t can be reached. I n the n e x t two c h a p t e r s the l i m i t a t i o n s of the s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l y and the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by the environment i n the GVRD w i l l be e x p l o r e d . A comparison o f r e a l i t y t o the model w i l l expose those gaps w h i c h s h o u l d be ad d r e s s e d i n a s o c i a l p o l i c y f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . 14 TABLE 1 - 1 CLASSIFICATION OF ACCESS ACCORDING TO FEATURES, USERS, AND DISTANCE TRAVELLED FAMILY MEMBER TRANSPORTATION A JOB INFANT aged 0 - 1 Must be taken everywhere by an adult PRESCHOOLER aged 1 - 5 Walks or cycles to l o c a l places Must be taken to distant places by an adult SCHOOL CHILD aged 5 - 1 2 Walks and cycles to l o c a l places. Can r i d e public t r a n s i t i f mature enough Jobs provided by neighbours — gardening, household help, etc. Delivering papers TEENAGER aged 13 - 18 ADULT FEMALE Walks and cycles to l o c a l places. Uses public t r a n s i t . May drive a car. Jobs provided by neighbours — babysitting, gardening, household help, etc. May hold a job outside of immediate neighbourhood i f t r a n s i t available. Walks and cycles to l o c a l places. Uses public t r a n s i t . May drive a car. The adult seeks out a job within a reasonable commute to match her in t e r e s t , job s k i l l s and salary desired. 15 TABLE 1 - 2 SHOPPING SERVICES AND PLACES, RECREATION, (MATERIAL GOODS) PROFESSIONAL AID ENTERTAINMENT An adult provides The infant i s c a r r i e d The infant explores his/her these for infant to these by the adult own home. See adult column for Is taken by adult to back p a r t i a l l i s t i n g yards, l o c a l parks Is taken by adult on family outings, vacations An adult provides these for preschooler The preschooler i s taken to these by the adult The preschooler plays i n the back yard, and immediate neighbourhood. Is taken by an adult to other places. An adult provides the bulk of these. Children may do some of t h e i r own at neighbourhood stores. They may t r a v e l to distant specialty shops such as comic book shops i f they can r i d e public t r a n s i t . The c h i l d i s usually taken to these by the adult, but the c h i l d can walk to these i f they are i n the immediate neighbour-hood, or can use public t r a n s i t i f mature enough The c h i l d uses l o c a l parks, streets, friends' hones, l o c a l movies, shops, cafes, l i b r a r i e s , recreational centres. Is usually taken by an adult to more distant places. An adult may provide some of these. Teenagers often shop for t h e i r own clothes, personal goods and g i f t s . A teenager may be taken to these, but can walk, cycle or r i d e to them by her/ himself. Local places are used but so are distant ones — skating r i n k s , movies, shopping malls used as meeting places, etc., s k i slopes, beaches. Is taken by adult to more distant places and on family outings. Shopping i s done l o c a l l y , a t places of work, or at a distant shopping centre Walks or cycles to l o c a l f a c i l i t i e s . Uses car or public t r a n s i t for distant f a c i l i t i e s : doctors, dentists, counsellors, lawyers, hospitals, c l i n i c s , govt, agencies includ-ing Welfare, and unem-ployment o f f i c e Local places such as recrea-t i o n centres are used but the adult seeks out places of i n t e r e s t a l l over town. A central downtown usually has restaurants, pubs and dance places that adults frequent. Adults t r a v e l f a r distances for weekend or annual vacations. 16 TABLE 1 - 3 DAYCARE, SCHOOLS, EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES NEIGHBOURS FRIENDS AND POSSIBLE MATES Infant i s cared f o r i n own home, a s i t t e r ' s home or a day care f a c i l i t y For a l l age groups neighbours w i l l be defined as people within one block or within the same enclave. Child may go to preschool, a day care centre or be cared for a t home or i n another home. Other children i n the neighbourhood or met at daycare, r e l a t i v e s i f available The nearest elementary school School friends, children met at l o c a l parks, recreation centres, etc. The nearest high school or a school or his/her choice. School friends, other teenagers met at entertain-ment centres, malls, etc. Job t r a i n i n g courses, colleges, u n i v e r s i t i e s , apprenticeship programs, self-help programs offered by the YWCA, various govt, agencies, etc. M : / Individuals met at church, workplace, special i n t e r e s t groups, bars, cafes, nightspots, etc. RELATIVES 17 TABLE 1 - 4 INFORMATION HOUSING Mother, father, siblings, two sets of grandparents, perhaps a great grand parent, aunts, uncles, cousins, great aunts, second cousins, etc. — the entire extended family. Accessed where they li v e or at another relative's home Verbal ccrarainication Housing i s used by a l l members of the family as safe places of rest and retreat with enough space for each member to enjoy privacy or some activity Verbal communication, TV, radio, movies Verbal ccmmunication, TV, radio, movies, books, magazines, telephone Verbal communication, TV, radio, movies, books, magazines, telephone, newspaper i Verbal i communication, i TV, radio, i movies, books, i i magazines, j i telephone, [ V newspaper, the V mail, door-to-door flyers, conferences, workshops, etc. 18 ENDNOTES CHAPTER I I "'"Donald Schon, " W i l l t h e P r o f e s s i o n s S u r v i v e ? : The Age of U n c e r t a i n t y , " a taped speech g i v e n a t the Vancouver I n s t i t u t e , Nov. 17, 1979. 2 K e v i n Lynch, A Theory o f Good C i t y Form (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT P r e s s , 1981), Chapter 10 — " A c c e s s " , pp. 187-204 3 I b i d . , p. 116. 4 I b i d . 5 I b i d . , p. 118. 6 I b i d . , p. 192. 7 I b i d . , p. 188. g T h i s f i g u r e i s based on the Fox s t u d y "The Ac c e s s o f Women t o Work and Community F a c i l i t i e s , " d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h i n Chapter I I I . The Fox st u d y showed t h a t the average round t r i p t o work f o r women w i t h c h i l d r e n was 37 m i n u t e s . 9 T h i s f i g u r e i s p a r t l y a r b i t r a r y and p a r t l y based on the average l e n g t h o f the t r i p t o work shown by the Fox s t u d y . I f t h e t r i p i s t o l a s t a t o t a l o f about 15 m i n u t e s , l e s s t h a n 10 minutes s h o u l d be devo t e d t o w a i t i n g f o r a bus. 19 CHAPTER I I I PROFILE OF THE SINGLE MOTHER DISPELLING SOME OF THE MYTHS For some peopl e the term " s i n g l e mother" may c o n j u r e up a p a r t i c u l a r image. I t i s l i k e l y t o be t h a t o f a young mother on w e l f a r e , perhaps uneducated and i n a r t i c u l a t e w i t h some bad h a b i t s such as d r i n k i n g , smoking o r h a v i n g a promiscuous sex l i f e . She i s n o t p i c t u r e d as h a v i n g a p e r s o n a l i t y , t a l e n t s , problems, o r a s p i r a t i o n s . I n s h o r t , she may e x i s t as a s t e r e o t y p e i n s t e a d o f a human b e i n g f o r tho s e p e o p l e who t h i n k about her a t a l l . The c h i l d r e n o f such a mother may be r e g a r d e d as b e i n g u n l o v e d o r uncared f o r , perhaps even n e g l e c t e d o r abused. The s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l y i s o f t e n c l a s s e d w i t h the " u n d e s e r v i n g poor" as opposed t o the " d e s e r v i n g poor" who a r e so by r e a s o n o f age or h a n d i c a p . What ar e the f a c t s b e h i n d t h e s e s t e r e o t y p e s ? Because o f the p a u c i t y of Vancouver s t u d i e s on s i n g l e mothers, her p r o f i l e w i l l have t o be b u i l t from i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t e d from a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s — 1981 and 1976 census f i g u r e , s t u d i e s from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , s u r v e y s conducted by v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s and st a t e m e n t s made by s i n g l e mothers i n the GVRD a t the p r e s e n t t i m e . Age The median age f o r s i n g l e mothers i n the GVRD i s about 40 y e a r s o l d . F i g u r e 2 shows the age d i s t r i b u t i o n . " * " Most s i n g l e mothers a r e between 25 and 5 4 y e a r s o f age w i t h v e r y few mothers i n t he under 25 age group. Only 1,470 out of a t o t a l o f 24,695 mothers were aged 15-24 i n 1976. Most s i n g l e mothers a re t h e r e f o r e n o t t h e young s t e r e o t y p e p i c t u r e d above; she has i n f a c t reached .the m i d - l i f e s t a g e . 20 FIGURE 2. AGE GROUPS OF FEMALE S/NG IE-PARENTS IN THE GVRp j /<?76. SOURCE- TABLE Z 6 -LONE PARENTS BY SEX AND A 6 E FOK CENSUS '-'D/V/S/tP/YS, /9.76. />• 26-9 CAT. 93-..? £57 5 — H: — 3 . — 2 — O — IS-XH 35- Vi HS-5V tt-<oi 65^ il,H70) (S,?t>d) (5,91*) (3,1-75-) (ZpiO) FIGURE 3. EDUC AVION LE VEL OF F E ft/rLE S/N.6LE PA/RE NTS IN TME . GVEiD t / 974>,.. S.O.UA6E.: TAB IE _ 3 / - .3 10/YE F#AFAIFS £V SF;X .LEVEl- OF FOR CAM AD/) ./ FSO.YK'NCES: , ^XBA/y B.C.. SAtfOO-L/N'G S/XFf> °GROOFS; CAT.. 93 - ^Z5~. S'Od; OoO FrHZ> OVfR. 5O0O A — 3 — X — O — C-G'A *f) 3 7 ? II /,<?—, a— WTHOUT VV ITJt SdjTHOUr. —SWfir*)r-.-MJ*ffi.rH~ • MO/?~ ' - J ~~PQST SECONPflfir \C£*riFlCATE ^ — - r — fjZIO 2^t5 .... uNiVEnsiry: -~ 2,^05 ' -y/o i. 150 M a r i t a l Status In the st e r e o t y p e o u t l i n e d above, the i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t there i s or was no man i n the s i n g l e mother's l i f e , t h a t somehow she alone i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her circumstances. B.C. census f i g u r e s show t h a t i n 1981, of the t o t a l of 30,125 s i n g l e mothers l i v i n g i n the GVRD, 8% were never married, 26% were widowed, 33% were separated, and 33% were d i v o r c e d . Most s i n g l e mothers were once married and have a r r i v e d a t t h e i r p r e s e n t s t a t u s through the death of t h e i r husbands or through s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e . Family S i z e The s i n g l e mother i n the GVRD has a s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r f a m i l y than the average husband-wife f a m i l y with c h i l d r e n . In 1981 s i n g l e mothers had an average of 1.6 c h i l d r e n , while husband-wife f a m i l i e s who have c h i l d r e n had an average of 1.96 3 c h i l d r e n per f a m i l y . Income While male s i n g l e parents i n B r i t i s h Columbia have an income of $32,410, female s i n g l e parents have a median income of 4 only $17,103 (52% of t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s ' income). Table 2 shows the average incomes f o r male and female s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s and f o r husband-wife f a m i l i e s f o r v a r i o u s GVRD m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Contrary to the ster e o t y p e d myth, 59% of s i n g l e mothers i n Canada h o l d e i t h e r a f u l l time or p a r t time job, 45% h o l d f u l l time jobs, and 41% d e r i v e t h e i r income from s o c i a l 5 a s s i s t a n c e alone. A f t e r s e p a r a t i o n or d i v o r c e , most s i n g l e mothers are f i n a n c i a l l y d e s e r t e d by the f a t h e r s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . F i g u r e s from the United S t a t e s show t h a t i n 1973 only 22% of c o u r t o r d e r e d payments t o AFDC f a m i l i e s ( A i d t o F a m i l i e s w i t h Dependent C h i l d r e n ) were b e i n g met i n f u l l and i n about h a l f the cases t h e r e was no c o m p l i a n c e a t a l l . * ' There was no r e l a t i o n s h i p between a f a t h e r ' s a b i l i t y t o pay and h i s d e l i v e r y . Men from e v e r y s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t r a t a do n o t s u p p o r t t h e i r former w i v e s and c h i l d r e n a f t e r a m a r i t a l breakdown. E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l S i n g l e mothers i n the GVRD a r e w e l l e d u c a t e d . More than h a l f of the s i n g l e mothers a r e h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s o r have a d d i t i o n a l p o s t secondary and u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g . 36% have had some p o s t secondary e d u c a t i o n . F i g u r e 3 shows t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n . Car Ownership Most s i n g l e p a r e n t s do not own c a r s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1976 r e p o r t o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f W e l f a r e o n l y 19.3% o f g s i n g l e p a r e n t s i n major c i t i e s were c a r owners. T h i s f i g u r e i s q u i t e low when compared t o the 75.6% o f husband-wife f a m i l i e s who own c a r s . T h i s f i g u r e does n ot ad d r e s s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the one s i n g l e p a r e n t i n 5 who does own a c a r may be a male, s i n c e t h e r e i s no gender breakdown f o r t h i s s t a t i s t i c . R e s i d e n t i a l M o b i l i t y T h i s f a c t o r can o n l y be deduced from the g e n e r a l 19 81 census d a t a . Roughly two o u t o f t h r e e p e o p l e i n B.C. were born 9 e i t h e r i n a n o t h e r p r o v i n c e o r o u t s i d e o f Canada. I f the m o b i l i t y o f s i n g l e mothers c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h i s f i g u r e , the s i n g l e mother i n the m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s has l e f t h e r home town and f a m i l y t o come t o the GVRD. 23 TABLE 2 AVERAGE INCOMES FOR HUSBAND-WIFE FAMILIES AND SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES IN VARIOUS MUNICIPALITIES IN THE LOWER MAINLAND M u n i c i p a l i t y Husband-Wife F a m i l i e s Lone Male P a r e n t Lone Female P a r e n t Burnaby 32,348 32,639 16,626 N o r t h Van. C. 29,224 32,881 14,600 N o r t h Van. D. 42,107 34,440 18,862 West Vancouver 55,491 48,024 18 ,801 Richmond 34,718 29,145 17,142 C o q u i t l a m 35,058 33,210 14,759 New Westminster 28,128 27,227 14,756 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 32,017 27,049 13,941 P o r t Moody 34,512 19,169 13,953 D e l t a 35,522 33,071 16,188 S u r r e y 29,787 25,111 12,774 White Rock 25,574 22,544 14,054 Vancouver C. 32,182 26,537 16,912 Maple Ridge 30,030 23,884 13,518 Source: S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. M i c r o f i c h e No. SPY818A3: Census  F a m i l i e s i n P r i v a t e Households by F a m i l y S t r u c t u r e ( 5 ) , age (7) o f Husband/Parent and 1980 F a m i l y Income Groups (26). Centus S u b d i v i s i o n s o f 5,000 P o p u l a t i o n and o v e r , 1981. 24 Home Ownership A c c o r d i n g t o the 1976 r e p o r t by the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e , i n 1974, o n l y 31.7% o f female s i n g l e p a r e n t s owned t h e i r h omes.^ For male s i n g l e p a r e n t s i t was about 50% and f o r two-p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i t was 74.5%. I m p l i c a t i o n s — L i m i t a t i o n s t o Access Many o f the problems w h i c h s i n g l e mothers f a c e a r i s e from p e r s o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s a l o n e . Because she i s a woman and a mother she e x p e r i e n c e s l i m i t a t i o n s w hich c h i l d l e s s p e o p l e and males do not f a c e . Almost a l l r e p o r t s and s u r v e y s c o n c l u d e t h a t low income i s the c h i e f problem o f s i n g l e mothers, f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by the l o n e l i n e s s and d i f f i c u l t y o f r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n alone."'""'" The i n t e r a c t i o n o f the above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c r e a t e a v i c i o u s c y c l e o f entrapment f o r the s i n g l e mother f o r which no c o r r e c t i v e program o r c o u r s e o f a c t i o n e x i s t s . The b a s i c problems w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . P o v e r t y Among c h i l d r e n i n two p a r e n t f a m i l i e s a c r o s s Canada, 21.2% were i n p o v e r t y ; among thos e i n male headed s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s 33.7% were i n p o v e r t y ; among thos e i n female headed s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s ^ a n i n c r e d i b l e 69.1% were i n p o v e r t y . The p o v e r t y under which the s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l y o p e r a t e s means t h a t t h e i r a c c e s s t o community r e s o u r c e s i s s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o a v e r y e l e m e n t a r y c r i t e r i o n — t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o pay. P a t r i c i a Marchak, a s o c i o l o g i s t a t U.B.C. argues t h a t the c h i e f r e s u l t o f p o v e r t y i n Canada i s the i n a b i l i t y o f the poor t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s o c i e t y . When t h e r e i s o n l y $395 a 25 month t o s u p p o r t a f a m i l y of t h r e e , e x c l u d i n g r e n t , t h e r e i s l i t t l e l e f t o v e r a f t e r f i x e d expenses have been t a k e n c a r e o f . Most t h i n g s i n l i f e i n c l u d i n g e d u c a t i o n a r e not f r e e . F o r example, gym s h o r t s , books, t r i p expenses, e t c . a r e out o f r e a c h f o r many poor p e o p l e . To be poor i s t o not be a b l e t o i n t e r a c t i n your s o c i e t y , n o t t o be a b l e t o t r a v e l , t o have no v o i c e i n your community. T h i s has pr o f o u n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s . You a r e c u t o f f from s o c i e t y and t h i n k o f y o u r s e l ^ a s poor. Your h o r i z o n s a r e l i m i t e d . B a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s a r e a c o n s t a n t s o u r c e o f a n x i e t y f o r the s i n g l e mother. A Vancouver mother on w e l f a r e s a y s , "What t h e s i n g l e mother must do i s choose between foo d and adequate l o d g i n g 14 — t h i n g s t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e t a k e f o r g r a n t e d . " The 41% o f s i n g l e mothers whose o n l y income i s w e l f a r e e x i s t w e l l below the p o v e r t y l i n e . The Canadian C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development has e s t a b l i s h e d t h e p o v e r t y l i n e f o r a f a m i l y o f two a t $13,292 and a 15 f a m i l y o f t h r e e a t $15,950. T h i s f i g u r e i s based on 50% o f the average f a m i l y income i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . B r i t i s h Columbia's w e l f a r e r a t e s under the Guaranteed A v a i l a b l e Income f o r Need A c t (GAIN) a r e $8,100 a y e a r f o r a f a m i l y of two and $9,660 a y e a r f o r a f a m i l y o f t h r e e . The i s s u e o f income i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia by e x t r e m e l y r e s t r i c t i v e w e l f a r e laws. Unearned income such as i n t e r e s t , p e n s i o n s , widows' o r orphans' a l l o w a n c e s , money g i f t s , e t c . a r e c o m p l e t e l y deducted from the GAIN monthly cheque. Earned income i s a l s o t a k e n o f f a f t e r a p a l t r y $100 a month 17 d e d u c t i o n . The s i n g l e mothers' group which has a r i s e n from the an n u a l Vancouver YWCA S i n g l e Mothers' Symposium wants the a l l o w a b l e e a r n i n g under the GAIN A c t r a i s e d so t h a t t h e t o t a l of e a r n i n g w i l l r e a c h a t l e a s t the p o v e r t y l e v e l . O t h e r w i s e i t i s not wor t h w h i l e f o r a mother on GAIN t o g e t a j o b . One Vancouver mother s a y s , "You l o s e money when you go back t o work. There a r e more expenses s t a r t i n g w i t h the money you have t o pay the s i t t e r . You c a n ' t spend a l l day i n the k i t c h e n making cheap meals from 18 s c r a t c h . And you need bus f a r e , c l o t h i n g and makeup f o r work." I t c o u l d be argued t h a t w i t h adequate income the problems o f the s i n g l e mother c o u l d be overcome. She c o u l d buy a house i n a d e s i r a b l e p a r t o f town, buy a c a r , h i r e a housekeeper and a gov e r n e s s . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h i s s o l u t i o n r e q u i r e s a l o t of money, more money than t h e average husband-wife f a m i l y has. Lack o f Job S k i l l s and E x p e r i e n c e A c o r o l l a r y t o the above problem i s the f a c t t h a t most women do not have the j o b s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n a j o b w i t h a s a l a r y h i g h enough t o m a i n t a i n a f a m i l y a t an a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g . Women i n g e n e r a l l a c k a c c e s s t o h i g h p a y i n g j o b s because of poor t r a i n i n g and guidance as y o u n g s t e r s . The N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f W e l f a r e m a i n t a i n s t h a t our e d u c a t i o n a l system p e r p e t u a t e s the n o t i o n t h a t women do not have t o t r a i n f o r h i g h p a y i n g j o b s because i t i s assumed t h a t they w i l l always be f i n a n c i a l l y t a k e n c a r e o f by a male. Because i t i s s t i l l t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d t h a t women w i l l assume the b u l k o f the r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r r a i s i n g t he c h i l d r e n and m a i n t a i n i n g the home, they a r e i m p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d f o r p a i d j o b s and a r e d e n i e d a c c e s s t o b e t t e r p o s i t i o n s w i t h advancement o p p o r t u n i t i e s . When the male p r o v i d e r f a i l s t o m a t e r i a l i z e , o r leaves,' o r d i e s , women are suddenly t o l d i t i s up t o them t o f i n d ^ ways t o s u p p o r t themselves and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . 27 The 1981 Census shows t h a t i n the GVRD, 10 9,855 out o f a t o t a l o f 269,850 women i n the l a b o u r f o r c e worked a t c l e r i c a l and 20 r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s — some o f the l o w e s t p a i d work t h e r e i s . Another N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f W e l f a r e r e p o r t g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s : ... t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s i n g j o b s e g r e g a t i o n by sex, w i t h women c l u s t e r e d i n l o w - p a y i n g p o s i t i o n s . More th a n 62% o f a l l women workers i n 197 2 were i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t , s a l e s and s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s and t h a t p r o p o r t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g . Only 17% o f a l l employed women i n Canada are i n p r o f e s s i o n a l o r t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s and2-76% o f th e s e a re i n t e a c h i n g and n u r s i n g . I f t he s i n g l e mother wants a b e t t e r p a y i n g j o b , . g o i n g back t o s c h o o l o r r e t r a i n i n g might be the o n l y r o u t e . T h i s means m a i n t a i n i n g a f a m i l y on a c u r r e n t l y i n a d e q u a t e income w i t h perhaps some p a r t time work, c o n t i n u i n g t o p e r f o r m a l l o f the t a s k s r e l a t e d t o the home and m o t h e r i n g , and u n d e r t a k i n g j o b t r a i n i n g a l l a t the same t i m e . A l o n e n e s s and E x h a u s t i o n Perhaps the most d e v a s t a t i n g a s p e c t o f s i n g l e motherhood i s the s t a t e of b e i n g p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y a l o n e . Not o n l y i s t h e r e no o t h e r a d u l t i n the house t o t a l k t o , t h e r e i s o f t e n no o t h e r a d u l t i n the s i n g l e mother's l i f e t o g i v e a i d , c o m f o r t and a d v i c e . There may be no one t o v i s i t and no one t o come t o the mother's home i n tim e s of s i c k n e s s o r emergency. She must p l a n and do e v e r y t h i n g h e r s e l f . I n more s t a b l e s o c i e t i e s t he extended f a m i l y formed a peer group w h i c h p r o v i d e d m utual s u p p o r t and a i d f o r two o r more 22 g e n e r a t i o n s . I n a stu d y done i n E a s t London, Young and W i l l m o n t 28 showed t h a t the mother-daughter l i n k was v i t a l t o the w e l l b e i n g of each g e n e r a t i o n . A d u l t d a u g h t e r s d i d the shopping f o r t h e i r "mums" and took c a r e of them i n tim e s of s i c k n e s s . Mothers l o o k e d a f t e r t h e i r d a u g h t e r s ' c h i l d r e n , gave them a d v i c e on c h i l d b i r t h and c h i l d c a r e , and h e l p e d w i t h d o m e s t i c c h o r e s a t the time o f c h i l d b i r t h . Mother and daughter shopped t o g e t h e r and c h a t t e d over t e a . They borrowed items and fo o d from each o t h e r and were a sou r c e o f a i d i n tim e s o f t r o u b l e o r emergency. Mums a l s o found a nearby f l a t f o r t h e i r newly m a r r i e d d a u g h t e r s t h r o u g h t h e i r i n f l u e n c e w i t h the r e n t c o l l e c t o r . Mum's p l a c e p r o v i d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y t o see s i b l i n g s , p a r t i c i p a t e i n the h o l i d a y s , ceremonies and r i t u a l s t h a t mark t u r n i n g p o i n t s i n p e o p l e ' s l i v e s o r r e a f f i r m r e l i g i o u s and c i v i c v a l u e s . There i s no i n s t i t u t i o n i n modern s o c i e t y t o tak e the p l a c e o f f a m i l y s u p p o r t . W i t h o u t f a m i l y t i e s , t he s i n g l e mother i s i s o l a t e d i n many r e s p e c t s . Most p e o p l e l i v i n g i n Vancouver were n ot born here and are u n l i k e l y t o have p a r e n t s l i v i n g h e r e . The s i n g l e mother, o f t e n moving from apartment t o apartment, i s l i k e l y t o be surrounded by s t r a n g e r s , and h o s t i l e ones a t t h a t . The problem o f h a v i n g no c l o s e r e l a t i v e s t o c a l l on f o r companion-s h i p and a i d i n tim e s o f t r o u b l e , a l t h o u g h c r e a t e d by a m o b i l e s o c i e t y , i s borne m a i n l y by the s i n g l e p a r e n t . There i s o f t e n no sense o f community o r peer s u p p o r t group w h i c h forms p a r t o f the s i n g l e mother's w o r l d . She o f t e n f e e l s q u i t e a l o n e . And because she i s a l o n e , the s i n g l e mother must do a l l the t a s k s and p l a y a l l the r o l e s which o t h e r members o f the t r a d i t i o n a l o r extended f a m i l y p l a y e d . She must p e r f o r m the d u t i e s o f b o t h mother and f a t h e r and be the bread w i n n e r a t the same tim e . Any i n p u t t h a t g r a n d p a r e n t s o r aunts o r u n c l e s give must be taken on by her a l s o . As a r e s u l t , most o f her time i s dev o t e d t o c h i l d c a r e , h o u s e h o l d t a s k s and s e c u r i n g an income. There i s l i t t l e time l e f t f o r s e l f maintenance o r development and e x h a u s t i o n i s u s u a l l y the end r e s u l t . B e i n g c r e a t i v e o r p u r s u i n g dreams i s j u s t about o u t o f r e a c h . The problem of l a c k of time i s so a c u t e t h a t s i n g l e mothers o f t e n do not know what i s happening i n t h e i r environment. Judy L i n d s a y , c o o r d i n a t o r o f the a n n u a l YWCA sponsored S i n g l e Mothers' Symposium says t h a t r e a c h i n g s i n g l e mothers t o l e t them know about the symposium i s a major problem: S i n g l e mothers do not have the t i m e , energy, and money t o keep on top o f the news. Even the mothers who o r g a n i z e d t h i s symposium were n o t aware o f key p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n the media and government. S i n g l e mothers do not l i s t e n t o the news and r e a d newspapers. They a r e not aware o f s e l f h e l p groups. A door t o door campaign^might be needed t o r e a c h t h i s a u d i e n c e . Many s i n g l e mothers do not know t h e i r l e g a l r i g h t s , and a r e unaware o f customary p r a c t i c e s . One Vancouver s i n g l e mother s a i d , " I d i d n ' t know about the t h r e e months' e v i c t i o n n o t i c e . When th e y 24 ask me t o move, I j u s t move." D u r i n g the l a s t y e a r she was g i v e n a one day n o t i c e , and moved out the n e x t day w i t h a baby i n hand. One of the major demands b e i n g made by the A c t i o n Group t h a t has grown o u t of the symposium i s t h e r i g h t t o be i n f o r m e d of t h e i r l e g a l r i g h t s , and become educated c o n c e r n i n g the law. Hampered M o b i l i t y In o r d e r t o l e a v e the c o n f i n e s o f her home, the s i n g l e mother i s f a c e d w i t h s e v e r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h r e s t r i c t her freedom t o t r a v e l t o the s e r v i c e s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s and p e o p l e she 30 needs. The f i r s t and most o b v i o u s problem i s the l a c k o f a c a r . Immediate, door t o door s e r v i c e w i t h room t o c a r r y p a r c e l s and c h i l d r e n a re forgon e advantages. I n s t e a d , the s i n g l e mother has to r e l y on p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h a l l the a t t e n d a n t d i f f i c u l t i e s and problems. Some of the s e problems stem from the inadequacy of the bus s e r v i c e i t s e l f and some stem from the s i n g l e mother's i d e n t i t y as woman and p a r e n t . Because no one e l s e i s a v a i l a b l e t o mind the c h i l d r e n i n e i t h e r a n o n - p a i d o r spontaneous c o n d i t i o n , the young s i n g l e mother o f t e n t a k e s her c h i l d w i t h h e r . There i s t h e n , no l o n g e r a q u i c k and f l e x i b l e a d u l t a b l e t o go anywhere a t a chosen pace, b u t a p a r e n t burdened down w i t h one or two c h i l d r e n , one o f whom may be s q u i r m i n g and ne e d i n g t o be l e d everywhere, and one who may need t o be c a r r i e d . There a r e a l s o daypacks and equipment t o be t a k e n , and a s t r o l l e r t o g e t up and down s t a i r s and i n t o buses. A ph o t o - e s s a y was done of a mother and c h i l d t r a v e l l i n g from the J a n e - F i n c h a r e a of T o r o n t o t o the Eaton C e n t r e . The mother w a i t e d 45 minutes f o r the bus. She got no a s s i s t a n c e when she had d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g the s t r o l l e r on the bus. Subway s t a t i o n e s c a l a t o r s were s t e e p and l o n g , and the s t r o l l e r was t i p p e d a t a dangerous a n g l e ; the ramps i n the Eaton C e n t r e were few and f a r a p a r t , e s c a l a t o r s and s t a i r s numerous; the s t o r e s were t o o crowded w i t h merchandise t o manoeuvre the s t r o l l e r o r p r e v e n t the c h i l d from g r a b b i n g t h i n g s . A c cess t o washrooms was poor, w i t h no p l a c e t o change the c h i l d ; t he mother changed the c h i l d on her knees i n the F i n c h subway s t a t i o n on her way home. The whole t r i p took s e v e r a l h o u r s ^ ^ h e bought a p r e s e n t and was exh a u s t e d . As any mother knows, t a k i n g s m a l l c h i l d r e n by any o t h e r means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e x c e p t a 20 minute c a r r i d e i s an e x h a u s t i n g endeavour. 31 F u r t h e r m o r e , the m o b i l i t y o f women o f any age or s t a t u s i s r e s t r i c t e d because of t h e i r v u l n e r a b i l i t y as the weaker sex. They cannot r u n as f a s t as a male from an a t t a c k e r and when caught ar e n o t a b l e t o f i g h t back w i t h much f o r c e . Females t h e r e f o r e a v o i d p l a c e s where they know they may be a t a r g e t f o r rape o r ro b b e r y . Women w i t h c a r s u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r v u l n e r a b i l i t y and d r i v e w i t h t h e i r windows up and t h e i r doors l o c k e d . Women w a i t i n g f o r buses have no such p r o t e c t i o n . Y e t , most s i n g l e mothers do not have a c a r and have t o r i d e the bus. The f e a r o f s t a n d i n g on s t r e e t c o r n e r s i n q u e s t i o n a b l e p l a c e s l i k e G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t i n Vancouver, a p l a c e where d i s h e v e l e d t r a n s i e n t men g a t h e r , r e s t r i c t s the f emale's freedom t o t r a v e l a t any time o f day. Some jo b s l i k e w a i t r e s s i n g end a t l a t e h o u r s , and th e s e women a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e harassment t h a t i s o f t e n imposed on them. While w a i t i n g f o r a bus one n i g h t on G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t , the au t h o r w i t n e s s e d an uncouth man o f f e r a p r o p o s i t i o n t o a woman who was s t a n d i n g t h e r e m i n d i n g her own b u s i n e s s . She r e f u s e d him and s a i d , "What an i d i o t ! I've been d e a l i n g w i t h t he p u b l i c . a l l day and I don't need t h i s . " She had j u s t f i n i s h e d _ h e r downtown w a i t r e s s i n g j o b a t 8:00 p.m. and was g o i n g home. N i g h t t r a v e l f o r some women i s not even c o n s i d e r e d as a p o s s i b i l i t y . L a s t l y , t h e s i n g l e mother's m o b i l i t y i s r e s t r i c t e d by l a c k o f time due t o her d u a l r o l e as mother and bre a d w i n n e r . There i s no time f o r l o n g r i d e s t o work o r any o t h e r a c t i v i t y . A r e c e n t s tudy showed t h a t employed women w i t h c h i l d r e n had s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w er time d u r a t i o n s f o r t r i p s t han employed men w i t h c h i l d r e n f o r weekday and weekend work and l e i s u r e t r i p s ; t h ey a l s o had s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower time a l l o c a t i o n t h a n nonemployed women f o r weekday and weekend t r i p s . Fox argues t h a t because employed women w i t h c h i l d r e n must use t h e i r f i n i t e s t o c k o f time f o r b o t h the s a l a r i e d j o b and ho u s e h o l d and c h i l d c a r e t a s k s , she must c u t down on the amount o f time a l l o c a t e d f o r t r i p s . Because t h e r e i s l i t t l e c h o i c e about the time t o be spent on t r a v e l , j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e narrowed. Women who work f u l l time and a l s o t a k e c a r e o f c h i l d r e n o p e r a t e w i t h a v e r y narrow time margin. The Fox s t u d y g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s : F o r employed women, o b l i g a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s c o n s t i t u t e s o v er e l e v e n hours o r 47 p e r c e n t of t he day. T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t t o o b l i g a t o r y time d u r a t i o n s of 39 p e r c e n t ^-j f o r men and 33 p e r c e n t f o r nonemployed women. When time f o r p e r s o n a l c a r e , w h i c h i n c l u d e s e a t i n g , s l e e p i n g , p e r s o n a l h y g i e n e i s added, o n l y 13 p e r c e n t (188 minutes) of t h e day 2 8 was l e f t f o r l e i s u r e and t r a v e l t i m e . Moreover, f o r w o r k i n g women, ho u s e h o l d t a s k s n o t done d u r i n g the week a r e d e f e r r e d t o the weekend u s i n g up 28 p e r c e n t o f weekend days. For the s i n g l e mother, w i t h no spouse t o share the c h i l d c a r e and h o u s e h o l d t a s k s , time a l l o c a t e d t o t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s would be even g r e a t e r , c u t t i n g down on the 13 p e r c e n t o f the day supp o s e d l y d e v o t e d t o l e i s u r e and t r a v e l . I t may be no s u r p r i s e t o anyone, t h e n , t h a t the s i n g l e mother may not want t o devote two hours a day t o the t r i p t o work. The Fox study showed t h a t t h e average round t r i p time t o work f o r women w i t h c h i l d r e n and a spouse was 37 minutes as compared t o 53 minutes f o r men. The s i n g l e mother, w i t h more r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h a n the w o r k i n g woman w i t h a spouse c o u l d p r o b a b l y a f f o r d l e s s time f o r the t r i p t o work. C o n c l u s i o n The p o r t r a i t t h a t can be drawn, t h e n , o f the s i n g l e mother i s a v e r y d i f f e r e n t one from the s t e r e o t y p e p r e s e n t e d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r . The s i n g l e mother i s l i k e l y t o be a h a r d w o r k i n g , o f t e n e xhausted p a r e n t whose main j o b i n l i f e i s t o e s t a b l i s h a s t a b l e l i f e f o r h e r s e l f and her c h i l d r e n . I f she had been p a r t o f a m i d d l e c l a s s c o u p l e , she now f i n d s h e r s e l f as a low e r income s i n g l e as a r e s u l t o f s e p a r a t i o n , d i v o r c e o r t h e de a t h o f her husband. She p r o b a b l y has a low p a y i n g , n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l j o b as a c l e r i c a l o r s e r v i c e worker such as a w a i t r e s s . She p r o b a b l y does n o t own a c a r and r e l i e s on the bus system f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . A t the age o f 40, her c h i l d r e n a r e p r o b a b l y i n s c h o o l u n t i l 3:30, a f t e r w h i c h d a y c a r e of some type must be p r o v i d e d u n l e s s t h e c h i l d r e n t a k e c a r e o f t h e m s e l v e s . The s i n g l e mother has v e r y l i t t l e money l e f t over a f t e r p a y i n g f o r r e n t , c l o t h i n g and f o o d , and has t o d i s t r i b u t e the money between h e r s e l f and the c h i l d r e n . To go o u t i n t o the community and f i n d f r i e n d s , p o s s i b l e mates, and p a r t i c i p a t e i n group a c t i v i t i e s , up-grade her s k i l l s , o r f i n d a j o b t a k e s t i m e , money and energy — t h i n g s the s i n g l e mother does not p o s s e s s i n abundance. When you a r e poor, the new d r e s s , the e n t r a n c e f e e , the cab f a r e , and the b a b y s i t t i n g f e e a r e a l l expenses which can h a r d l y be a f f o r d e d . The s i n g l e mother u s u a l l y f i n i s h e s the day exha u s t e d anyway, too t i r e d t o go o u t . When you have awakened a t s i x t o f e e d a s m a l l c h i l d , drop the c h i l d o f f a t a s i t t e r ' s home, work e i g h t h o u r s , do t h e g r o c e r y s h o p p i n g , l u g g i n g the bags on the bus, coming home t o cook supper, l i s t e n t o the c h i l d ' s a c c o u n t o f the day's a d v e n t u r e s , c l e a n up, g e t c l o t h i n g 34 ready f o r the nex t day, pack l u n c h e s and daybags, t h e r e i s no energy l e f t . M o t h e r i n g i n i t s e l f i s a f u l l t i m e , t w e n t y - f o u r hour a day j o b , e s p e c i a l l y when young c h i l d r e n a r e i n v o l v e d . When the burden o f a s a l a r i e d j o b i s added, the t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s o f t e n f a r too heavy f o r the s i n g l e mother t o c a r r y a l o n e . A s t u d y of s i n g l e p a r e n t s i n England summarizes the s i t u a t i o n : The p i c t u r e we have drawn so f a r o f the p a r e n t s i n our st u d y d e p i c t s a group o f mothers and f a t h e r s bombarded w i t h problems o f p r o v i d i n g b o t h the m a t e r i a l and e m o t i o n a l needs o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s . I n s u f f i c i e n t income, h o u s i n g problems, d i f f i c u l t y i n c o o r d i n a t i n g work and d o m e s t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and o f e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n were p r o p e r l y c a r e d f o r -- the s e were the c h i e f s o u r c e s of p o t e n t i a l s t r e s s w h i c h f a m i l y breakdown b r o u g h t t o p a r e n t s , and a t a time when the g r i e f and shock of t h e i r l o s s had l e f t them l e a s t w e l l equipped t o cope. B e i n g on t h e i r own had meant f o r most p a r e n t s a l i f e p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h making ends meet, k e e p i n g a j o b , r u n n i n g a home and meeting the needs o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . What t i m e , energy and i n c l i n a t i o n d i d t h i s l e a v e them f o r renew-i n g t h e i r own s o c i a l l i f e , o r b u i l d i n g up a d i f f e r e n t one,gin the l i g h t o f t h e i r changed s i t u a t i o n s ? The p l i g h t o f the s i n g l e mother i s much the same as t h a t of any lower income group -- " t o d e v e l o p a s t a b l e r o u t i n e i n the m i d s t o f p o v e r t y and d e p r i v a t i o n . " 3 ^ Because o f her new s t a t u s i n the community, the t a s k o f the s i n g l e mother i s t o o r d e r l i f e f o r h e r s e l f and her c h i l d r e n ; t o move from dependency, chaos, and a l i e n a t i o n t o f i n a n c i a l independence, o r d e r , and i n t e g r a t i o n . Because o f the c i r c u m s t a n c e s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , the s i n g l e mother i s l i k e l y t o be t r a p p e d i n a s i t u a t i o n i n which she cannot respond t o the o p p o r t u n i t i e s l i f e has t o o f f e r and t a k e p a r t i n the r i c h n e s s and c h o i c e t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e i n N o r t h American s o c i e t y . 35 ENDNOTES CHAPTER I I I " ^ S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Lone P a r e n t s by Sex and Age f o r  Census D i v i s i o n s , 1976. T a b l e 26, p. 26-9. C a t . 93-825. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P a r e n t s and Lone P a r e n t F a m i l i e s . 2 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, P o p u l a t i o n i n P r i v a t e Households by  Census F a m i l y S t a t u s and Age o f C h i l d r e n and N o n - f a m i l y P e r s o n s , Showing Sex and M a r i t a l S t a t u s , 1981. M i c r o f i c h e # SDF 81A12, F 18, p. 260. 3 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Census F a m i l i e s i n P r i v a t e Households  by F a m i l y S t r u c t u r e , Showing Number of C h i l d r e n a t Home, 1981. M i c r o f i c h e # SDF 81A12, H .11 p. A-79, I 11, p. B-79. A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a t o t a l o f 266,995 husband-wife f a m i l i e s , 115,605 f a m i l i e s have no c h i l d r e n . The r e m a i n i n g c o u p l e s — 151,390 — have a t o t a l o f 296,995 c h i l d r e n or 1.96 c h i l d r e n per f a m i l y . 4 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Income D i s t r i b u t i o n by S i z e i n  Canada, 19 81, T a b l e 7. "Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f F a m i l i e s By Income Groups, Regions and Sex o f Head, 1981." p. 56. 5 N a t i o n a l . C o u n c i l o f W e l f a r e , "One i n a World o f Two's," a r e p o r t on o n e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n Canada (Ottawa: N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f W e l f a r e , A p r i l , 1976) p. 5. ^Ross and S a w h i l l , p. 175. 7 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Lone P a r e n t s by Sex and L e v e l o f  S c h o o l i n g f o r Canada and P r o v i n c e s , Urban S i z e Groups, R u r a l Non- Farm and R u r a l Farm, 1976. T a b l e 31-3, B.C. 500000 and o v e r . g N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f W e l f a r e , Op. C i t . , p. 26. 9 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, B.C. S e l e c t e d S o c i a l and Economic  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , 1981, Cat. E-580, T a b l e 1 " S e l e c t e d P o p u l a t i o n , D w e l l i n g , Household and F a m i l y D i s t r i b u t i o n , Showing S e l e c t e d S o c i a l and Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , F o r Census D i v i s i o n s and S u b d i v i s i o n s , 1981." p. 1-177. Of 1,169,831 p e o p l e i n the GVRD o n l y 485,170 were bor n i n B.C. 353,445 p e o p l e were bor n o u t s i d e o f Canada, l e a v i n g 331,216 who were bor n e l s e w h e r e i n Canada. " ^ N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f W e l f a r e , Op. C i t . , p. 24. "''"''One such s t u d y i s a survey o f Canadian member of " P a r e n t s w i t h o u t P a r t n e r s " as r e p o r t e d i n Benjamin S c h l e s i n g e r ( e d . ) , One i n  Ten: The S i n g l e P a r e n t i n Canada (Tor o n t o : Guidance C e n t r e , F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v . o f T o r o n t o , 1979), pp. 107-111. 36 ENDNOTES CONTINUED CHAPTER I I I 12 S. June M e n z i e s , New D i r e c t i o n s f o r P u b l i c P o l i c y ; A  P o s i t i o n Paper on the One-Parent F a m i l y (Ottawa: Canadian A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on the S t a t u s o f Women, A p r i l 1976), p. 1. 13 L e c t u r e g i v e n a t U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, September 22, 1981. 14 Statement made d u r i n g a group d i s c u s s i o n , Housing Committee of S i n g l e Mothers' A c t i o n Committee, a Vancouver YWCA sponsored group, Nov. 5, 1983. 15 D a v i d Ross, Canadian F a c t Book on P o v e r t y (Toronto: The Canadian C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development, 198 3 ) , T a b l e on Metro A r e a s . " ^ M a r i l y n C a l l a h a n and M a r j o r i e M a r t i n ( e d s . ) , "Welfare R i g h t s and G a i n , 7 t h E d i t i o n F e b r u a r y 1983," ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Broughton Communications Group, 1983), p. 11. 17 I b i d . , p. 15. 18 Statement made d u r i n g a group d i s c u s s i o n , Housing Committee o f the S i n g l e Mothers' A c t i o n Committee, Vancouver, Nov. 5, 198 3. 19 N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of W e l f a r e , "Women and P o v e r t y , " (Ottawa, October 1979), p. 2. 20 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, S e l e c t e d P o p u l a t i o n , D w e l l i n g , Household and F a m i l y D i s t r i b u t i o n s , Showing S e l e c t e d S o c i a l and  Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f o r Census D i v i s i o n s and S u b d i v i s i o n s , 1981, C a t . E-580, p. 1-181. 21 S. June M e n z i e s , "New D i r e c t i o n s f o r P u b l i c P o l i c y : A P o s i t i o n Paper on t h e One-Parent F a m i l y , " (Ottawa: Canadian A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on the S t a t u s o f Women, A p r i l 1976), p. 5. 22 M i c h a e l Young and P e t e r W i l l m o n t , F a m i l y and K i n s h i p  i n E a s t London ( M i d d l e s e x , E n g l a n d : Penguin Books L t d . , 1971). 23 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Judy L i n d s a y , c o o r d i n a t o r and f a c i l i t a t o r o f the 1983 S i n g l e Mothers' Symposium, downtown Vancouver YWCA, Nov. 2, 1983. 37 ENDNOTES CONTINUED CHAPTER I I I 24 Statement made d u r i n g a group d i s c u s s i o n , Housing Committee o f the S i n g l e Mothers' A c t i o n Committee, Dec. 3, 1983. 25 Gerda Wekerle, " P l a n n i n g f o r Women's Needs i n the '80s," Women and P l a n n i n g , P r o c e e d i n g s o f a Conference (Toronto, May 1, 1982), p. 11. 2 6 M a r i o n B. Fox, "The Access o f Women t o Work and Community F a c i l i t i e s , " APA J o u r n a l , S p r i n g 1983, pp. 156-170. 27 I b i d . , p. 162. I b i d . 29 E l s a F e r r i and H i l a r y R o b i n s o n , Coping A l o n e (Windsor, B e r k s , E n g l a n d : NFER Pub. Co. L t d . , 1976), pp. 61, 65. 3 0 H e r b e r t J . Gans, The Urban V i l l a g e r s (updated and expanded e d i t i o n ) , (New York: The Fre e P r e s s , 1982) p. 258. 38 CHAPTER IV ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Lynch has suggested t h a t a c c e s s may be l i m i t e d by f a c t o r s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s stemming from the environment. Some of t h e s e a r e : d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , the time o f day and seasons, laws w h i c h l i m i t a c c e s s , i n e f f i c i e n c i e s i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems, and the sheer, q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f t h i n g s t h a t can be reached."'" I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n an o v e r v i e w o f the s p e c i f i c environment f e a t u r e d i n t h i s s t u d y , a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t w i l l be p r e s e n t e d h e r e . H i s t o r i c , g e o g r a p h i c , p o l i t i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l f a c t o r s w i l l be i n c l u d e d . G r e a t e r Vancouver, now the t h i r d l a r g e s t urban complex i n Canada, o r i g i n a t e d as a f r o n t i e r town p r o v i d i n g l a b o u r f o r the f o r e s t , f i s h i n g , and m i n i n g i n d u s t r i e s i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n t o l o c a t e the Western t e r m i n a l o f the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y a t the B u r r a r d I n l e t d e t e r m i n e d the f a t e o f the a r e a as Canada's w e s t e r n p o r t , which r e c e i v e d and s h i p p e d g r a i n from the p r a i r i e s and t i m b e r and c o a l from the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s . W a l t e r G. Hardwick, an urban geographer a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia uses the term " c o r e - r i n g " t o d e s c r i b e the GVRD as an urban system c o m p r i s e d o f downtown Vancouver and the 2 r a d i a l l y - o r g a n i z e d suburbs t h a t s u r r o u n d i t . ( F i g u r e 4 . ) The c o r e - r i n g system grew around the i n i t i a l f r o n t i e r s e t t l e m e n t c e n t r e d on t h e w a t e r f r o n t and r a i l r o a d f a c i l i t i e s a l o n g B u r r a r d I n l e t and F a l s e Creek. The c o r e , w i t h a r a d i u s o f about two m i l e s , i n c l u d e s t h e b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t , o l d i n d u s t r i a l and warehouse d i s t r i c t s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g r a z e d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial F I G U R E M G R E A T E R V A N C O U V E R REGIONAL DISTRICT CORE RING SYSTEM SHOWING NEIGHBORHOODS-RE P R I N T E D W I T H P E R M I S S I O N F R O M U M l T E D W A Y ' S O C l A u P O L I C Y A N D R E S E A R C H DE.PTT M I C H E L E L I O Y S O C I A L T R E N OS IN 6RE A T E f ? VAHCOOVER [°I1S p X ' v « A P A D A P T E D T O S.HOW C O R E - R l M - o S Y S T E M 40 redevelopment, the h i g h d e n s i t y West End, and the o l d s i n g l e f a m i l y neighbourhoods r a p i d l y becoming apartment d i s t r i c t s -- K i t s i l a n o , F a i r v i e w , Mount P l e a s a n t . Soon a f t e r Vancouver was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1886, an e l e c t r i c s t r e e t r a i l w a y system was extended i n t o the s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d i n a r a d i a l p a t t e r n , making i t easy f o r w o r kers t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own h o u s i n g on p r i v a t e p l o t s o f l a n d . T h i s f i r s t c o n c e n t r i c r i n g o f development c o n t a i n i n g the o l d suburbs was segmented from the o n s e t i n t o s o c i a l l y s e g r e g a t e d neighbourhoods, w i t h the l a r g e p a r c e l s of l a n d t o the s o u t h (Shaughnessy and K e r r i s d a l e ) b e i n g o c c u p i e d by the w e l l - t o - d o , medium s i z e d p a r c e l s t o the west (Dunbar and West P o i n t Grey) by the m i d d l e c l a s s , and s m a l l p a r c e l s t o the e a s t (Renfrew, Grandview, H a s t i n g s ) by the w o r k i n g c l a s s and v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups. N o r t h and West Vancouver r a p i d l y became p a r t o f the i n n e r suburb system a f t e r the c o m p l e t i o n o f the L i o n s Gate B r i d g e a c r o s s the B u r r a r d I n l e t i n 1938. T h i s i n i t i a l p a t t e r n o f a c c e s s i b l e , d i s t i n c t neighbourhoods s u r r o u n d i n g a v i t a l c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t c o n t i n u e s t o d a y , d e s p i t e y e a r s of development. The second or " p e r i p h e r a l r i n g " a t a d i s t a n c e of f i v e t o f i f t e e n m i l e s from the c o r e i s composed of p r e - e x i s t i n g c e n t r e s t h a t a r e b e i n g drawn i n t o the growing V a n c o u v e r - c e n t r e d r e g i o n . Among t h e s e a r e B r i d g e p o r t , Richmond, Ladner, D e l t a and S u r r e y t o the s o u t h on d e l t a l a n d s ; and Burnaby, C o q u i t l a m , P o r t C o q u i t l a m , P o r t Moody, and New Westminster, t o the e a s t . The o u t e r m o s t r i n g i s c o m p r i s e d of f a r m l a n d and w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s w h i c h a r e d e s i r a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l and s p e c u l a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s — the mountain a r e a s t o t h e n o r t h f o r w i n t e r s p o r t s , the G u l f I s l a n d s and t h e Sunshine C o a s t t o the west f o r b o a t i n g and f i s h i n g , and the F r a s e r V a l l e y 41 t o the e a s t . The GVRD i s o f f i c i a l l y c o m p r i s e d o f the c e n t r a l c i t y o f Vancouver w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 417,965, and 12 o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s 3 w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n of 751,865. R i g h t now t h e r e i s a p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o v e r s y c o n c e r n i n g the r o l e and l e g a l power of the GVRD as a p l a n n i n g agent. Recent l e g i s l a t i o n ( B i l l Nine) i n i t i a t e d by the S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y , the B r i t i s h Columbian p a r t y now i n power, e l i m i n a t e s the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n o f the r e g i o n a l government, a l t h o u g h i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s a r e s t i l l i n t a c t . The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d , however, have agreed t o u n o f f i c i a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g f o r the r e g i o n . Founded by the p r o v i n c i a l government i n 1967, by e a r l y 19 72 the GVRD p o s s e s s e d the f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s : c a p i t a l f i n a n c i n g , r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , community p l a n n i n g , c o n t r a c t u a l s e r v i c e s , b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n , p u b l i c h o u s i n g , h o s p i t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , water s u p p l y , s e w a g e ^ d i s p o s a l , r e g i o n a l p a r k s , and a i r p o l l u t i o n . However, the GVRD does n ot have powers of t a x a t i o n b u t r e l i e s on the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w h i c h b e n e f i t from the v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s t o bear the c o s t s . I n 1976 the GVRD d e s i g n a t e d s i t e s w i t h i n some o f the major m u n i c i p a l i t i e s — Burnaby, New We s t m i n s t e r , S u r r e y , and C o q u i t l a m — as r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e s . The g o a l o f the L i v a b l e Region P l a n 5 was t o encourage p o p u l a t i o n growth i n o u t l y i n g r e g i o n s t o r e l i e v e some o f the h o u s i n g and t r a f f i c p r e s s u r e s w i t h i n Vancouver. Each town c e n t r e was t o be an o r g a n i z e d , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t c o r e p r o v i d i n g j o b s , h o u s i n g , s h o p p i n g , and e n t e r t a i n m e n t i n a compact, e a s i l y a c c e s s e d a r e a . However, s i n c e t h i s p l a n was adopted, the town c e n t r e s have e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y a t t r a c t i n g 42 "anchors" — major i n s t i t u t i o n s o r b u s i n e s s e s -- w h i c h would a c t as n u c l e i around w h i c h mini-downtowns would form. B i g b u s i n e s s e s c o n t i n u e t o l o c a t e i n downtown Vancouver and the CBD s t i l l has a h i g h development c a p a c i t y . C i t y p l a n n e r s e s t i m a t e t h a t an a d d i t i o n a l 55 m i l l i o n square f e e t o f o f f i c e development i s p o s s i b l e i n the c o r e a r e a . ^ Downtown Vancouver s t i l l r e t a i n s the advantages o f a g g l o m e r a t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n economies, h i g h p r e s t i g e , o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f a c e -t o - f a c e c o n t a c t , and nearness t o the a i r p o r t . T e r t i a r y and q u a t e r n a r y i n d u s t r i e s i n c l u d i n g m a n a g e r i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , b a n k i n g , i n s u r a n c e , f i n a n c e , head and r e g i o n a l head-q u a r t e r s , the s t o c k exchange, t r a d e and s h i p p i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and a l l r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s i n c l u d i n g p r i n t i n g , a c c o u n t i n g , a d v e r t i s i n g , and l e g a l s e r v i c e s ; as w e l l as c u l t u r a l and e n t e r t a i n m e n t f a c i l i t i e s such as the symphony, c o n c e r t s , c l u b s , the new a r t museum, and the new domed s p o r t s t a d i u m a r e a l l t o be found i n the c o r e a r e a . Vancouver c o n t i n u e s t o be t h e c e n t r a l c i t y around which the o t h e r c i t i e s grow. A l t h o u g h the o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have t h e i r shopping m a l l s and o f f i c e b u i l d i n g w h i c h s e r v e l o c a l needs, Vancouver remains the economic and s y m b o l i c s e a t o f power f o r B r i t i s h Columbia on a p r o v i n c i a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l : The r o l e o f the downtown i n the r e g i o n i s c h a n g i n g because i t i s no l o n g e r the l o c a t i o n o f the m a j o r i t y o f j o b s . Those j o b s t h a t s t a y downtown have s p e c i a l r o l e s t o p l a y and t a k e on a s p e c i a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r . The v i s i o n o f downtown a t o t a l r a d i a l c i t y , t h e r e f o r e , s h o u l d be dead. The i d e a o f downtown as a c e n t r e o f power (economic and p o l i t i c a l ) and the s e r v i c e s t o power i s r e a l . I t remains the p r i m a t e c e n t r e ^ i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y d i s p e r s e d u rban r e g i o n . 43 The proposed l i g h t r a p i d t r a n s i t system which was o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d by the GVRD t o be a d e c e n t r a l i z i n g agent might i n f a c t enhance the dominance of downtown Vancouver. S i n c e the Advanced L i g h t R a p i d T r a n s i t (ALRT) i s p l a n n e d as a l i n e r u n n i n g t h r o u g h s e v e r a l o f the o u t l y i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t o downtown Vancouver, i t w i l l p r o b a b l y s e r v e t o b r i n g w o r kers i n t o downtown o f f i c e s and back t o t h e i r homes a t n i g h t , t h e r e b y r e i n f o r c i n g the s t a t u s o f Vancouver's CBD as the h e a r t o f the d i s t r i c t . The High C o s t o f Inner C i t y Land C e n t r a l Vancouver has not f o l l o w e d the p a t t e r n o f d e t e r i o r a t i o n w hich a f f l i c t s many o t h e r N o r t h American c i t i e s . The i n n e r suburbs a r e a l l i n good r e p a i r and downtown p r o p e r t i e s c o n t i n u e t o command the h i g h e s t r e n t s . Average r e n t s f o r o f f i c e space i n prime l o c a t i o n s a r e around $20.00 p e r square f o o t w h i l e 9 s i m i l a r spaces i n C o q u i t l a m a r e $10.00 p e r square f o o t . B.C. P l a c e L t d . , the p r o v i n c i a l c o r p o r a t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the redevelopment o f a 300 a c r e t r a c t o f l a n d i n the F a l s e Creek b a s i n , c r e d i t s i t s l a n d h o l d i n g s as h a v i n g t h e h i g h e s t p o t e n t i a l v a l u e o f any l a n d i n the p r o v i n c e : ... B.C. P l a c e i s the l a r g e s t u r b a n - r e d e v e l o p -ment p r o j e c t underway i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , and our s i t e has the p o t e n t i a l t o become one o f the m o s ^ v a l u a b l e l a n d h o l d i n g s i n the Western w o r l d . R e s i d e n t i a l r e n t d i f f e r e n t i a l s p a r a l l e l c o m m e r c i a l r a t e s . The beaches, harbour and mountain v i e w s , p a r k s , shopping d i s t r i c t s , t h e a t r e s and c l u b s make the c e n t r a l c o r e and s u r r o u n d i n g suburbs d e s i r a b l e p l a c e s t o l i v e . As a r e s u l t the i n n e r suburbs a r e e x p e n s i v e p l a c e s t o l i v e whether one i s b u y i n g o r r e n t i n g a home. 44 As of A p r i l 1, 198 4, average p r i c e s f o r a bungalow i n v a r i o u s i n n e r suburban a r e a s a r e as f o l l o w s : E a s t Vancouver: $129,000, N o r t h Vancouver: $127,000, West Vancouver: $168,000, K e r r i s d a l e : $193,000.'''"'" A f a m i l y w i t h one wage e a r n e r can h a r d l y a f f o r d a home i n the i n n e r suburbs. Even i n 1975, b e f o r e the huge 1979-1980 h o u s i n g booms, U n i t e d Way i s s u e d the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : P o t e n t i a l home owners e a r n i n g an average i n d u s t r i a l wage ($9,000 i n 1973) have been f o r c e d f u r t h e r o u t from the urban c o r e , u n t i l t h ey c o u l d b a r e l y a f f o r d t o purchase anywhere i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, o r more l i k e l y , have been f o r c e d o u ^ o f the house ownership market a l t o g e t h e r . D u r i n g the boom, h o u s i n g and l a n d p r i c e s d o u b l e d , and i n some ca s e s t r i p l e d , so t h a t what had once been a $150,000 home i n the p r e s t i g i o u s neighbourhoods o f the B r i t i s h P r o p e r t i e s and Shaughnessy became $350,000 homes. The average p r i c e of a s i n g l e f a m i l y home i n the GVRD do u b l e d from $87,500 t o $179,000 i n 1 9 8 0 . 1 3 H i g h mortgage r a t e s i n the s e v e n t i e s and e i g h t i e s ( a t one time up t o 19% f o r a t h r e e y e a r term, now about 12%) made t h e s e a l r e a d y e x p e n s i v e homes e x t r e m e l y e x p e n s i v e t o f i n a n c e . F a m i l i e s w i t h e q u i t y from a p r e v i o u s home or c o u p l e s w i t h two h i g h s a l a r i e s were i n the b e s t p o s i t i o n t o buy houses. The R e n t a l Market W i t h o u t e q u i t y f o r a down payment o r a h i g h enough wage t o c a r r y the mortgage, the r e n t a l market i s the o t h e r c h i e f a l t e r n a t i v e f o r low income p e o p l e . Here however, market f o r c e s have n o t o n l y produced an e x t r e m e l y low vacancy r a t e (1.7% as o f 14 Oct. 1, 1983) , they have a l s o reduced the number and s i z e o f apartments now b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d . Economic f a c t o r s make i n v e s t m e n t 45 i n apartments l e s s p r o f i t a b l e than condominiums, which a r e a t p r e s e n t the main type o f h o u s i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the c o r e a r e a . Housing f o r B.C. P l a c e , the major redevelopment p r o j e c t i n the c o r e , w i l l have 70% of i t s u n i t s d e s i g n a t e d f o r s i n g l e s and c o u p l e s , and 15% f o r the e l d e r l y , l e a v i n g o n l y 15% o f the u n i t s f o r f a m i l i e s 15 w i t h c h i l d r e n . S m a l l e r u n i t s a r e b e i n g p l a n n e d and b u i l t f o r the c o r e a r e a i n g e n e r a l . F a m i l i e s l o o k i n g f o r l a r g e r u n i t s t o house one o r more c h i l d r e n a r e h a r d p r e s s e d t o f i n d any s u i t a b l e accommodation, much l e s s a f f o r d a b l e , s u i t a b l e accommodation. S u i t e s w i t h more than one bedroom a r e h a r d t o f i n d : I n the r e g i o n as a whole i n 1972, 13.6 p e r c e n t o f the apartment d w e l l i n g s were b a c h e l o r s u i t e s , 62.3 p e r c e n t were one bedroom, 20.4 p e r c e n t were two b edroom^nd o n l y 3.7 p e r c e n t were t h r e e bedroom. S i n g l e mothers l o o k i n g f o r an apartment would p r o b a b l y c o n s u l t the newspapers t o see what was a v a i l a b l e and the r e n t s d i s c u s s e d below a r e p r e s e n t e d as one would f i n d them i n a Sunday newspaper. Even though they a r e t a k e n from a day p i c k e d a t random, the r e n t s match th e average r e n t s p u b l i s h e d by the U n i t e d Way. These f i g u r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 3. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the c l a s s i f i e d ads i n the P r o v i n c e o r The Sun, Vancouver's main newspapers r e v e a l s t h a t r e n t s f o r a v a i l a b l e apartments are e x t r e m e l y h i g h . I n the J a n . 8 t h P r o v i n c e i n the West End, t h e downtown apartment a r e a , t h e r e were t h r e e b a c h e l o r s u i t e s l i s t e d a t an average r e n t o f $315, s i x one bedroom s u i t e s a t an average of $465, two two bedroom a t an average of $1,175, and one t h r e e bedroom a t $750. In Vancouver's West S i d e (west o f Main St.) t h e r e were f i f t y - t h r e e apartments l i s t e d . Of t h e s e s i x (11.3%) were b a c h e l o r s u i t e s a t about $341, twenty (37.7%) TABLE 3 AVERAGE MONTHLY RENTS FOR SUITES IN VARIOUS LOWER MAINLAND MUNICIPALITIES, 1981 M u n i c i p a l i t y Bach 1 Bdm 2 Bdm 3+ B< Burnaby 250 385 474 529 N. Vancouver 299 382 486 593 West Vancouver 341 412 577 Richmond 315 409 481 555 C o q u i t l a m 288 341 408 507 New Westminster 249 339 439 591 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 356 357 P o r t Moody 288 325 381 420 D e l t a 275 341 434 500 S u r r e y 185 297 421 477 White Rock 233 336 457 601 Vancouver 285 394 537 708 L a n g l e y 307 340 353 Maple Ridge 305 357 Lower M a i n l a n d 382 493 540 Source: U n i t e d Way o f the Lower M a i n l a n d : "Low Income B a s i c F a m i l y Budgets," March 1982. p. 10: Table f u r n i s h e d by R e n t a l Housing C o u n c i l o f B.C. Oct., 1981. p. 11: Ta b l e f u r n i s h e d by B.C. Rent Review Commission, D e c , 1981. 47 were one bedroom s u i t e s a t about $460. There were t w e n t y - f o u r two bedroom s u i t e s (45.2%) a t an a v e r a g e ' r e n t o f $694. There were o n l y two t h r e e bedroom s u i t e s (3.7%) a t $650 and $939, and one f o u r bedroom s u i t e (1.8%) a t $850. Rents a r e cheaper i n the p e r i p h e r a l r i n g of suburbs. In the New Westminster a r e a t h e r e were t h i r t y apartments l i s t e d w i t h averages o f $282 f o r b a c h e l o r s u i t e s , and $350 f o r one bedroom s u i t e s . There were o n l y s i x two bedroom s u i t e s a t an average o f $394 and two t h r e e bedroom s u i t e s a t around $500. I n the C o q u i t l a m , P o r t Moody a r e a the averages were $366, $451, and $561 f o r one, two and t h r e e bedroom s u i t e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Vancouver's E a s t S i d e i s a l s o cheaper w i t h more s u i t e s t o choose from, a l t h o u g h 27% of the 8 5 s u i t e s l i s t e d i n the Sunday, J a n u a r y 15 P r o v i n c e were "basement s u i t e s " . The averages were $245, $359, $437, and $519 f o r b a c h e l o r , one-bedroom, two bedroom and t h r e e bedroom s u i t e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t seems much cheaper t o house a l a r g e r f a m i l y i n t h e s e a r e a s s i n c e the p r i c e o f the l a r g e r u n i t s does not r i s e as f a s t as i n the West End o r t h e West S i d e . Having t o l i v e i n a neighbourhood s p e c i f i c a l l y zoned f o r apartments c l e a r l y c u t s down on the range o f l o c a t i o n s the s i n g l e mother may choose from. One might not be a b l e t o f i n d an apartment near a chosen j o b because o f the s e g r e g a t i o n o f neighbourhoods a c c o r d i n g t o t e n u r e t y p e : Whether one wants t o o r has t o r e n t w i l l a l s o i n f l u e n c e g r e a t l y where one w i l l l i v e . I n N o r t h Vancouver C i t y , New Westminster and Vancouver C i t y , more than h a l f o f the o c c u p i e d d w e l l i n g s a r e r e n t a l s . W i t h i n Vancouver C i t y , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l a r e a s where r e n t a l s a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d . I n a n o t h e r group o f m u n i c i p a l i -t i e s , D e l t a , S u r r e y , P o r t C o q u i t l a m , N o r t h Vancouver D i s t r i c t , and C o q u i t l a m , 75 p e r c e n t o r more of the d w e l l i n g s a r e owned. 48 Rental u n i t s were h e a v i l y concentrated around False Creek where they accounted,-^or more than 80 percent of a l l the u n i t s . D i s c r i m i n a t i o n One important environmental f a c t o r l i m i t i n g access to the apartment stock i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n against s i n g l e mothers and c h i l d r e n . Many of the ads i n the Province s p e c i f i e d "no c h i l d r e n " or "adults only." About 20% of the ads i n the West Side s e c t i o n and 33% of the ads i n the New Westminster s e c t i o n had these clauses. Moreover, although l a n d l o r d s may not o v e r t l y s p e c i f y "no c h i l d r e n " i n t h e i r ads, they may u l t i m a t e l y choose the working couple, career s i n g l e s , or students as p r e f e r a b l e tenants to the s i n g l e mother w i t h c h i l d r e n . Although there are no s t a t i s t i c s i n Vancouver on reason f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i t can be assumed tha t s i n g l e mothers are viewed as the type of person who w i l l not keep up the property, and may not have enough money to pay the r e n t ; c h i l d r e n may be seen as d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e s . This type of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s l e g a l , since the B.C. Human Rights Act does not s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c l u d e age or source of income as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to be included along w i t h those of race, sex, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , r e l i g i o n , c o l o u r , ancestry, or places of o r i g i n i n i t s a n t i - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n chapter. (Chap. 119, S.P.C. 1973.) C h i l d r e n are not regarded by the law as i n d i v i d u a l s who have the r i g h t to a place to l i v e . They may be turned away from s h e l t e r on the grounds th a t they are c h i l d r e n . S i n g l e mothers may be turned away from s h e l t e r on the grounds th a t they are not working or on any other stereotyped idea that may e x i s t i n the minds of l a n d l o r d s . Landlords apparently do not put much f a i t h i n the a b i l i t y of former spouses or the government to provide the necessary 49 r e n t . The law i n t h i s case condones d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and i s by d e f a u l t a l l o w i n g l a n d l o r d s the o p t i o n o f w i t h h o l d i n g a huge p e r c e n t a g e of the r e n t a l u n i t s from s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . F o r f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n , and p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r s i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s headed by a woman on w e l f a r e , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n can be a major b a r r i e r t o o b t a i n i n g h o u s i n g . As t h e r e n t a l vacancy d r o p s , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r i s e s ; l a n d l o r d s have the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o choose the t e n a n t s they would l i k e t o have. There a r e l i m i t e d l e g a l r e s o u r c e s a g a i n s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the h o u s i n g f i e l d ( d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t c h i l d r e n , p e o p l e on w e l f a r e , and the handicapped i s l e g a l ) . T h i s r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n o f whether the B.C. Human R i g h t s Code s h o u l d be expanded t o i n c l u d e the r i g h t s o f c h i l d r e n , the h a n d i -capped,, and p e o p l e on w e l f a r e . An e q u a l l y , key problem i s t h a t p e o p l e ( p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s ) o f t e n do not have the r e s o u r c e s ( t i m e , energy, money, knowledge, c o n f i d e n c e ) t o be p e r s i s t e n ^ i n d e a l i n g w i t h c a s e s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . ( U n i t e d Way p. 18) U n s u i t a b l e Environments A n o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r w h i c h has been touched on b r i e f l y i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n i s t h a t o f the h o s t i l e environment i n t o w hich the s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s a r e f o r c e d because of economic c o n s t r a i n t s , b u t i n t o w h i c h they do n o t f i t . The West End, i d e a l i n b e i n g w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o f the CBD, s u f f e r s from a m y r i a d of s t r e e t problems i n c l u d i n g d r u g s , h o m o s e x u a l i t y and p r o s t i t u t i o n . Recent newspaper a r t i c l e s h i g h l i g h t the f e a r and h o r r o r many West End r e s i d e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d a i l y . A r e s i d e n t i s quoted as s a y i n g : I l o o k e d out my window and t h e r e below i n the p a r k i n g l o t was a young g i r l hooker g i v i n g o r a l sex t o a male a d u l t . P e o p l e g o i n g by i n a s t e a d y f l o w o f c a r s c o u l d see the p r o c e e d i n g s . Hundreds of apartment windows l o o k e d down on 50 t h a t w e l l - l i t p a r k i n g l o t . . . A young c h i l d , an e l d e r l y p e r s o n , someone's da u g h t e r , someone's w i f e , would have seen (and perhaps d i d ) e x a c t l y what I saw... The y o u n g s t e r s view i t i n amazement, the e l d e r l y v i e w i t i n h o r r o r and many p e o p l e ^ g l i k e m y s e l f v i e w i t w i t h u t t e r d i s g u s t . The c o l u m n i s t goes on t o say t h a t " A l l women on the s t r e e t s , i n c l u d i n g n u r s e s from S t . P a u l ' s , a r e c o n s i d e r e d f a i r game. So are young k i d s on t h e i r way from s c h o o l . " A l t h o u g h t h i s i s one of the main apartment a r e a s i n Vancouver, i t i s not a neighbourhood t h a t a f a m i l y would f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e o r s a f e i n . Moreover, most apartment a r e a s were p l a n n e d and b u i l t w i t h o u t the f e a t u r e s t h a t a r e r e q u i r e d by f a m i l i e s . Lack o f i n s i d e and o u t s i d e p l a y space, narrow and dark s t a i r s , l a c k o f communication between mother's who may be i n s i d e and. c h i l d r e n who go o u t t o p l a y a r e a l l c l a s s i c f a u l t s o f apartment b u i l d i n g s . Neighbours a r e a l s o p a r t o f the u n s u i t a b l e environment. One s i n g l e mother t a l k s about h er "environment" i n a West End apartment. " P a r t o f my environment i s my huge p i c t u r e window c o v e r e d w i t h a l m o s t t r a n s p a r e n t b l i n d s . I n t h e morning, we can see the man a c r o s s the way p a r a d i n g around i n the nude, and a t any time o f day, we may see homosexual lovemaking between him and h i s f r i e n d s . T h i s 19 i s t he environment where I am r a i s i n g my c h i l d . " Another s i n g l e mother says t h a t her male d o w n s t a i r s n e i g h b o u r d e l i b e r a t e l y t u r n s h i s s t e r e o up f u l l volume d u r i n g her baby's nap time i n r e t a l i a t i o n f o r t he baby c r y i n g a t n i g h t , d e s p i t e h er a t t e m p t s t o come t o some s o r t o f agreement. When she meets them i n the h a l l s , t h e s e t y p e s of n e i g h b o u r s s t a r e i n a l e e r i n g manner i n s t e a d o f o f f e r i n g a f r i e n d l y g r e e t i n g . She has s i n c e moved i n t o a house w i t h two o t h e r s i n g l e mothers. I l l e g a l S u i t e s Moving i n t o a q u i e t apartment i n a home might be the b e s t s o l u t i o n f o r the s i n g l e mother e x c e p t f o r the f a c t t h a t i n most o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the GVRD s u b d i v i d i n g a s i n g l e f a m i l y house i n t o s e v e r a l s u i t e s i s i l l e g a l . Zoning laws p r o h i b i t i n g s u b d i v i s i o n c a r r y a double edged b l a d e . On the one hand, they p r e v e n t the woman who owns a house i n the suburbs t o supplement her income by r e n t i n g o u t a p o r t i o n o f her home. N e t t e r and P r i c e c a l l s t h i s group o f women the "nouveau poor" because the l o s s of a husband and h i s income has r e s u l t e d i n a sudden and d r a m a t i c s h i f t 20 from m i d d l e t o low income s t a t u s . The heavy mortgage, o f t e n t oo much f o r the s i n g l e mother t o c a r r y a l o n e f o r c e s her t o s e l l the home and move t o a brand new l o c a t i o n , u s u a l l y as a r e n t e r . On the o t h e r hand s i n g l e mothers who would f i n d a r e n t e d s u i t e i n a s i n g l e f a m i l y home w i t h i t s p r i v a t e back garden an i d e a l p l a c e t o r a i s e c h i l d r e n a r e d e n i e d a c c e s s t o t h e s e s u i t a b l e s u i t e s . L e t t i n g o u t "basement s u i t e s " ( c o n v e r t e d s u i t e s on the ground f l o o r o r basement o f a two s t o r e y home).is a common p r a c t i c e i n the GVRD. An e s t i m a t e d 16,000 e x i s t i n Vancouver a l o n e . However, i t i s a v e r y r i s k y b u s i n e s s f o r the t e n a n t , who f a c e s p o s s i b l e l a n d l o r d n e g l e c t o r abuse, h i g h r e n t s f o r s u b s t a n d a r d u n i t s , u n c e r t a i n t e n u r e , and a b s o l u t e l y no p r o t e c t i o n under the law. I n some ar e a s n e i g h b o u r s do n o t l o o k k i n d l y on n e i g h b o u r s who a r e o f f e r i n g basement s u i t e s and w i l l c o m p l a i n t o the c i t y . I n the Dunbar a r e a a s i n g l e mother was v i s i t e d by a c i t y i n s p e c t o r because a neighbour s u s p e c t e d t h a t t h e r e were t h r e e o r f o u r i l l e g a l s u i t e s on h i s b l o c k . H i s s u s p i c i o n s were unfounded as the o t h e r q u e s t i o n a b l e s u i t e s were o c c u p i e d by n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l i e s such as t h r e e 52 young s i b l i n g s w i t h o u t . p a r e n t s i n the house.. The s i n g l e mother's apartment was found t o be the o n l y one on the b l o c k ; the l a n d l o r d soon r e c e i v e d a w r i t t e n n o t i c e from c i t y h a l l g i v i n g him one month to e v i c t h e r . Poor P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n I n the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n , the i s s u e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has n o t been i n t r o d u c e d . I t i s one t h i n g t o shop f o r an apartment knowing t h a t you can l e a v e each morning i n your c a r . I t i s q u i t e a n o t h e r t h i n g t o r e a l i z e t h a t you must f i n d an apartment near a bus l i n e . One of the c h i e f f a c t o r s l i m i t i n g a c c e s s a c c o r d i n g t o Lynch i s i n e f f i c i e n c i e s i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems. Buses a r e sometimes too crowded t o p i c k up new p a s s e n g e r s , runs a r e o f t e n too i n f r e q u e n t and some a r e a s o f the GVRD a r e not s e r v e d a t a l l . Moreover, i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e bus s e r v i c e i s h a r d t o g e t . Bus r o u t e s have been changed i n the l a s t y e a r b u t the " T r a n s i t Guide" p u t o u t by the Metro T r a n s i t O p e r a t i n g Co. has n o t been b r o u g h t up t o date s i n c e December, 1982. Moreover, the main o f f i c e does not even keep any on hand, and one must buy one from the b o o k s t o r e o r a few department s t o r e s . To a n a l y z e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system and make recommendations as t o i t s improvement i s beyond the scope o f t h i s paper. F o r the s i n g l e mother, what m a t t e r s i s t h a t her home be w i t h i n a few b l o c k s o f a bus s t o p w h i c h i s w e l l l i t so t h a t would-be muggers o r r a p i s t s a r e d i s c o u r a g e d from w a i t i n g f o r p a s s e n g e r s t o disembark a t n i g h t . The b a s i c i mportance o f s a f e t y f e a t u r e s such as w e l l l i t s t o p s , c o r r i d o r s and s t a i r s i s w e l l h i g h l i g h t e d by the s e r i e s o f rapes by the "bus-stop r a p i s t " who s t a l k s women r i d i n g buses i n Vancouver. 53 The Q u a n t i t y and Q u a l i t y o f Things That Can Be Reached The f i n a l type of l i m i t a t i o n t h a t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r stems from the "sheer q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f t h i n g s t h a t can be r e a c h e d . " A l t h o u g h e v e r y s e r v i c e and good c o u l d be d i s c u s s e d here s e p a r a t e l y , f o r the s i n g l e mother, the most i m p o r t a n t s e r v i c e the community p r o v i d e s i s some k i n d of c a r e f o r her c h i l d r e n w h i l e she i s away from th e home. For women w i t h s m a l l c h i l d r e n and no r e l a t i v e s t o t a k e them, t h i s means d a y c a r e . There a r e now 77,125 c h i l d r e n under f o u r i n the Lower M a i n l a n d , and 22 19,610 c h i l d r e n under f o u r i n Vancouver. A c c o r d i n g t o a 1982 s u r v e y t h e r e a r e o n l y 1,600 t o t a l group day c a r e spaces i n 23 Vancouver w i t h a 10% vacancy r a t e . A t any one t i m e , t h e n , t h e r e a r e o n l y 160 a v a i l a b l e spaces i n a l l o f Vancouver f o r the c h i l d who needs t o be p l a c e d . C l e a r l y t h e r e a r e not enough day c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . F o r most s i n g l e mothers i n Vancouver t h i s v i t a l s e r v i c e s i m p l y does n o t e x i s t . 54 ENDNOTES CHAPTER IV "''Kevin Lynch, A Theory o f Good C i t y Form (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT P r e s s , 1981), pp. 190-204. 2 The f o l l o w i n g summary o f Vancouver's development i s t a k e n from: W a l t e r G. Hardwick, Vancouver ( O n t a r i o : C o l l i e r M a c m i l l a n Canada, L t d . , 1974). 3 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, S e l e c t e d P o p u l a t i o n , D w e l l i n g ,  Household and Census F a m i l y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r Census D i v i s i o n s  and S u b d i v i s i o n s , 1981. Cat. E-568. 4. Hardwick, p. 174. 5 G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , The L i v a b l e Region  1976/1986, March 26, 1975. ^ C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Dept., " P r o j e c t e d Demand f o r Housing Vancouver," (an in-house document), 1980, p. 2. 7 Hardwick, p. 54. g The P r o v i n c e (Vancouver), " O f f i c e Space Rent Market T i g h t e n i n g , " J a n u a r y 22, 198 4, p. 31. L a s t y e a r ' s average r a t e s i n f i r s t c l a s s b u i l d i n g s were $18 t o $20 a square f o o t : r a t e s f o r new b u i l d i n g s under c o n s t r u c t i o n a r e b e i n g quoted a t $22 t o $27. 9 F i g u r e quoted over the phone, Feb. 1984, by A l Bergen o f MacCaulay, N i c o l l s , M a i t l a n d and Co., L t d . The f i g u r e i s an i n d u s t r y quoted norm. 1 0 B r i t i s h Columbia P l a c e L t d . "B.C. P l a c e Report #3: The B.C. P l a c e Concept P l a n , " Vancouver, 1982. "'"''"Figures quoted o v e r the phone by the Vancouver R e a l E s t a t e Board, A p r i l 13, 198 4. T h e i r s o u r c e was a R o y a l T r u s t s u r v e y . 12 M i c h e l e L i o y , S o c i a l Trends i n G r e a t e r Vancouver, A R e p o r t s p onsored by the S o c i a l P o l i c y and R e s e a r c h Department, U n i t e d Way o f G r e a t e r Vancouver (Vancouver: Gordon S o u l e s Economic and M a r k e t i n g R e s e a r c h , March 1975), p. 76. 13 Thomas Hopkins, "Hunger f o r Housing," M a c l e a n s , March 30, 1981. 55 ENDNOTES CONTINUED CHAPTER IV 14 F i g u r e quoted over the phone by R e n t a l Housing C o u n c i l o f B.C., J a n u a r y , 1984. Vacancy r a t e s f o r p r e v i o u s y e a r s a r e 3.0 i n Oct. 81, 0.2 i n Oct. 81 and 0.1 f o r Oct. 80. These f i g u r e s a r e f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. 15 C i t y o f Vancouver, "B.C. P l a c e I s s u e s Paper." A j o i n t p r e s e n t a t i o n by the C i t y o f Vancouver and B.C. P l a c e L t d . , June 16, 1982, p. 5. " ^ M i c h e l e L i o y , p. 70. 17 T, I b i d . 18 Mike T y t h e r l e i g h , " H o o k e r - l o o k e r s Cover O l d Ground," The P r o v i n c e , Vancouver, January 9, 198 4, p. 6. 19 Statement made by Vancouver s i n g l e mother i n a group d i s c u s s i o n , Housing Committee o f the S i n g l e Mothers' A c t i o n Committee, a Vancouver YWCA sponsored group, Dec. 3, 1983. 20 E d i t h N e t t e r and Ruth P r i c e , "Zoning and the Nouveau Poor," APA J o u r n a l , S p r i n g 1983, pp. 171-181. 21 M i c h e l e L i o y , p. 70. 22 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, S e l e c t e d P o p u l a t i o n , D w e l l i n g , Household and Census F a m i l y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r Census D i v i s i o n s  and S u b d i v i s i o n s , 1981. 23 I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d o v er the phone from E l i z a b e t h A i r d , Vancouver S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. Source: A November 1, 1982 Survey. CHAPTER V RESIDENTIAL PATTERNS AND DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS The p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e d the environment the s i n g l e p a r e n t i s f a c e d w i t h . Somewhere i n t h i s huge m e t r o p o l i s the s i n g l e mother must f i n d a home, a j o b ' o r s o u r c e of income, some f r i e n d s , a mate, s c h o o l s , daycare c e n t r e s and o t h e r s e r v i c e s which are p a r t o f normal N o r t h American l i f e . I f she does f i n d an a r e a where the above f e a t u r e s e x i s t , she must have a way o f g e t t i n g t o them — e i t h e r a c a r o r p u b l i c t r a n s i t . F i n d i n g such a p l a c e i s no s m a l l j o b . Many of the neighbourhoods i n the GVRD are s o c i a l l y o r e c o n o m i c a l l y u n s u i t a b l e . Many good ;neighbourhoods such as Dunbar, K e r r i s d a l e , Shaughnessy are e i t h e r p r e d o m i n a n t l y zoned f o r s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g w h i c h e l i m i n a t e s the s i n g l e p a r e n t r e n t e r s , o r o f f e r s u i t e s i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y zoned a r e a s a t a p r i c e f a r beyond t h a t which most s i n g l e mothers can a f f o r d . Some neighbourhoods w i t h e x c e l l e n t a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n such as the West End o r K i t s i l a n o c o n t a i n some u n d e s i r a b l e n e i g h b o u r s . O b v i o u s l y , the s i n g l e mother must c o n s i d e r a wide range of f a c t o r s — economic, s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l --b e f o r e she makes a c h o i c e o f r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n . The Wolch Model I n an a t t empt t o d i s c o v e r a p a t t e r n t o the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n o f s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n the GVRD, a model dev e l o p e d by J e n n i f e r Wolch, an urban p l a n n e r c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , w i l l be used."*" Wolch used a r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s t o show t h a t t h e r e a r e c l e a r s p a t i a l l i n k a g e s between human s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s and the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n of the p o o r , non-working households who used them. S u b j e c t s i n c l u d e the needy e l d e r l y , 57 the d i s a b l e d , the c h r o n i c a l l y unemployed, and needy females w i t h c h i l d r e n . The f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d p h y s i c a l and m ental h e a l t h s u p p o r t , v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , day c a r e and s o c i a l g u i d a n c e . S i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n the GVRD resemble the s u b j e c t s i n the Wolch s t u d y s i n c e t hey g e n e r a l l y have a low income and need a wide range o f s e r v i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s and day c a r e . The Wolch model e x p l a i n s why the poor c o n c e n t r a t e i n the urban c o r e : The model s t a t e s t h a t s e r v i c e dependents and t h e i r s u p p o r t f a c i l i t i e s a r e a t t r a c t e d t o each o t h e r , and t o zones o f low r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y v a l u e . S p a t i a l l i n k a g e s a r i s e because c l i e n t s need t o be c l o s e t o s u p p o r t f a c i l i t i e s . S e r v i c e p r o v i d -e r s seek t o l o c a t e f a c i l i t i e s i n a r e a s most a c c e s s i b l e t o p o t e n t i a l u s e r s . M i n i m a l cash incomes of s e r v i c e - d e p e n d e n t households and budget l i m i t a t i o n s of s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s c o n s t r a i n s e r v i c e - d e p e n d e n t s and . f a c i l i t i e s t o P h i l a d e l p h i a ' s oldest2and most d e t e r i o r a t i n g neighbourhoods. I n the Wolch model, s e r v i c e s a r e p r o v i d e d a t p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s c l u s t e r e d i n o r near the CBD. A l t h o u g h Wolch does n o t t h o r o u g h l y d i s c u s s the causes of i n n e r c i t y decay, her a r t i c l e makes i t c l e a r t h a t t h e r e a r e p o c k e t s of d e t e r i o r a t i n g n e i g h b o u r -hoods t h a t a t t r a c t b o t h low income r e s i d e n t s and a l s o the p r o v i d e r of s e r v i c e s because the r e n t s are cheap. These neighbourhoods have d e c l i n i n g p r o p e r t y v a l u e s r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r neighbourhoods. The d i s t i n c t i o n o f one i n n e r c i t y neighbourhood from a n o t h e r a c c o r d i n g t o s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the r e a d e r t o f o l l o w Wolch's a n a l y s i s o f the t r a d e o f f between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and h o u s i n g c o s t s . She s t a t e s : 58 S i n c e human s e r v i c e s a r e p r o v i d e d a t p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s c l u s t e r e d i n o r near C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t s (CBDs), s e r v i c e - d e p e n d e n t households t r a d e o f f h o u s i n g c o s t s (which on a p e r - u n i t b a s i s d e c l i n e w i t h d i s t a n c e from the CBD) a g a i n s t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s t o s e r v i c e s they need i n the CBD. Wolch shows a c l a s s i c d e c l i n i n g r e n t c u r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e t he p o i n t . The r e a d e r must assume, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t w i t h i n a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e from the CBD, b o t h s e r v i c e dependent p e o p l e and s e r v i c e p r o v i d e r s l o c a t e on the c h e a p e s t l a n d a v a i l a b l e . The e x i s t e n c e o f b o t h a c o n c e n t r i c r i n g p a t t e r n and a s e c t o r a l p a t t e r n o f l a n d v a l u e i n P h i l a d e l p h i a make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the r e a d e r t o d i s c e r n the c e n t r a l argument o f the a r t i c l e . The argument may be summarized as f o l l o w s : s e r v i c e s a re p r o v i d e d a t p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s c l u s t e r e d i n o r near the CBD. Because of income and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o n s t r a i n t s , c l i e n t s have t o be near t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s and t r a d e o f f h o u s i n g c o s t s a g a i n s t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s . Wolch p o i n t s o u t t h a t even though h o u s i n g c o s t s d e c l i n e w i t h d i s t a n c e from the CBD, h o u s i n g i n remote a r e a s i s not chosen by s e r v i c e dependents because many o f them have " p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l , o r p e r c e p t u a l h a n d i c a p s which i n c r e a s e s the e f f e c t i v e c o s t o f t r a v e l i n g t o s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s . " A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Wolch Model t o the GVRD When one t r i e s t o f i t the Wolch model t o G r e a t e r Vancouver, d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e . Vancouver does n ot have what may be c a l l e d a d e c l i n i n g c e n t r a l c i t y . There a r e no p o c k e t s o f d e t e r i o r a t i n g and i m p o v e r i s h e d r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s w i t h a l l o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Wolch m e n t i o n s : " d e c a y i n g h o u s i n g s t o c k s , i n f e r i o r neighbourhood s e r v i c e s and p e r s o n a l and p r o p e r t y v i c t i m i -z a t i o n common t o such g h e t t o a r e a s . " To the c o n t r a r y , as was d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , c o r e a r e a s command the h i g h e s t r e n t s i n the r e g i o n and undeveloped or u n d e r u t i l i z e d l a n d has the p o t e n t i a l of becoming some of the most v a l u a b l e l a n d i n N o r t h America. C o n t i n u e d o f f i c e development, p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t i n F a l s e Creek redevelopment, the coming o f Expo 86, and the p a r a l l e l demand f o r h o u s i n g , make i n n e r c i t y l a n d d e s i r a b l e and e x p e n s i v e . Core neighbourhoods i n c l u d i n g the West End, S t r a t h c o n a , K i t s i l a n o o f f e r a v a r i e t y o f shops, r e s t a u r a n t s and p a r k s which make these p l a c e s a t t r a c t i v e t o l i v e i n o r v i s i t , i n c o n t r a s t t o the d r e a r y neighbourhoods w h i c h Wolch r e f e r s t o . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f v i t a l i n n e r c i t y neighbourhoods o c c u r s i n w h i c h can be c a l l e d the s k i d r o a d s e c t i o n s o f Vancouver — Downtown N o r t h , Downtown South, and Downtown E a s t s i d e l i t t l e neighbourhoods d i r e c t l y e a s t o f the CBD. These neighbourhoods a r e composed of a m i x t u r e o f rundown l o d g i n g houses, p r i v a t e d w e l l i n g s , r e t a i l s t o r e s , beer p a r l o u r s , 9 r e s t a u r a n t s and c o f f e e shops. L o d g i n g houses w h i c h house 76% o f the households have an average r e n t o f $172 f o r a housekeeping u n i t , s i n g l e occupancy and $224 double o c c u p a n c y . ^ The r e s i d e n t s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y s i n g l e male C a u c a s i a n s over 35 y e a r s of age. Redevelopment has even t a k e n i t s t o l l on t h e s e neighbourhoods where twenty l o d g i n g houses a y e a r a r e e i t h e r c l o s e d , d e m o l i s h e d or 8 c o n v e r t e d t o n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s . A l t h o u g h the Wolch model i t s e l f and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o the GVRD pose c o n c e p t u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , some p a r a l l e l s may be drawn between the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n s of s e r v i c e dependents i n P h i l a d e l p h i a and the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n s of s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s 60 i n the GVRD. I n 1971 the h e a v i e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s o c c u r r e d i n Vancouver's c o r e and i n n e r suburbs and i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , an o l d e s t a b l i s h e d c i t y o f f e r i n g w e l l d e v e l o p e d p a r k s and s t r e e t s , low r e n t s and t a x e s , d i v e r s e c i t y s e r v i c e s and an 9 e x c e l l e n t a f t e r s c h o o l day c a r e program. The Vancouver n e i g h b o u r -hoods h a v i n g a h i g h e r t h a n average c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s are the c o r e neighbourhoods of K i t s i l a n o , F a i r v i e w , Mount P l e a s a n t , S t r a t h c o n a , p l u s the a d j o i n i n g i n n e r suburban n e i g h b o u r -hoods of Grandview-Woodland, Ken s i n g t o n - C e d a r C o t t a g e , R i l e y Park and Sunset. F i g u r e 5 shows the l o c a t i o n of t h e s e neighbourhoods and the p e r c e n t a g e of f a m i l i e s t h a t are s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n each neighbourhood."^ T h i s p a t t e r n of s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s c o n t i n u e d i n much the same form t h r o u g h 19 81 w i t h some m o d i f i c a t i o n w hich w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . A l t h o u g h the economic and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s o f P h i l a d e l p h i a and Vancouver a r e not t h e same, the Wolch model has been used i n t h i s s t u d y t o emphasize the c o n c e p t o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y . As i n the Wolch model, s e r v i c e dependents, i n t h i s c a s e , s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , a r e c l u s t e r e d near t h e CBD i n a r e a s o f c o n c e n t r a t e d shopping and s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s , good p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and r e n t a l h o u s i n g s t o c k . A l t h o u g h no c o n c l u s i v e p r o o f can be o f f e r e d t o show t h a t a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s the key d e t e r m i n e r o f r e s i d e n t i a l c h o i c e f o r many s i n g l e p a r e n t s , I am s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t o f f e r s a l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n o f why s i n g l e p a r e n t s c o n t i n u e t o occupy i n n e r c i t y apartments d e s p i t e e x o r b i t a n t r e n t s -- i f they can a f f o r d them. S i n g l e mothers are p a y i n g an average of 46% o f t h e i r income f o r a two bedroom apartment i n Vancouver. T h e i r average income was $16,912"'""'" and t h e average two bedroom apartment F l G U R E 5 Sing le Parent Famil ies as P e r c e n t a g e of Total N u m b e r of Famil ies GVRD 1971: 10.3 Under Average 7.9 or Less Average 8 - 1 1 . 9 Over Average 12 or More R E P R I N T E D W I T H P E R M I S S I O N f R O M U N I T E D W A V : S O C I A L P O L I C Y A N D R E S E A R C H D E P T . M I C H E L E L I O Y S O C I A L T R E N D S »N G R E A T E R V A N C O U V E R , p.5V 62 12 was $537 i n 1981. The CMHC s t a n d a r d o f income de v o t e d t o r e n t s i s 25-30%. S e v e r a l p l a n n e r s and s o c i a l workers i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y made the c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the b e s t p l a c e f o r s i n g l e 13 mothers t o l i v e may be the downtown c o r e . G i l Evans, o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver I n f o r m a t i o n and R e f e r r a l S e r v i c e , says t h a t the . r e a l c e n t r e of the GVRD i s the i n t e r s e c t i o n o f Broadway and G r a n v i l l e w h i c h has the h i g h e s t volume of t r a f f i c a p a r t from the downtown i n t e r s e c t i o n o f G e o r g i a and G r a n v i l l e . He i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Broadway c o r r i d o r r u n n i n g e a s t and west t h r o u g h the n e i g h b o u r -hoods l i s t e d above had the h i g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s and the b e s t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the GVRD (see F i g u r e 5 ) . I n c h o o s i n g an apartment i n an i n n e r c i t y neighbourhood, s i n g l e mothers must weigh the a c c e s s i b i l i t y f a c t o r a g a i n s t o t h e r f a c t o r s such as h i g h r e n t s and a neighbourhood atmosphere w h i c h may not be s u i t a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n . W i t h o u t c o n d u c t i n g a s u r v e y , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n c l u s i v e l y i d e n t i f y the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s t h a t s i n g l e mothers go th r o u g h when s e l e c t i n g a r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n . The a l t e r n a t i v e t o the i n n e r c i t y i s c h o o s i n g a r e s i d e n t -i a l l o c a t i o n i n t h e o u t e r suburbs which l a c k the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s , shops, j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t h a t t h e cor e a r e a h a s, even though c o s t s o f homes and r e n t s a r e cheaper. The problems t h a t low income s i n g l e mothers f a c e i n thes e communities w i l l be d i s c u s s e d a t the end o f t h i s c h a p t e r . A d e c i s i o n t o l o c a t e i n the o u t e r suburbs i s one which some S i n g l e p a r e n t s a r e making. I n the decade from 1971 t o 1981 t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s e i n the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s i n g l e p a r e n t 63 f a m i l i e s i n some o f the o u t e r suburbs.. I n b o t h 1971 and 1981, the p e r c e n t a g e of f a m i l i e s t h a t were headed by s i n g l e p a r e n t s was h i g h e r i n Vancouver than i n most o f the p e r i p h e r a l communities. However, the p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e from 1971 t o 1981 i n the p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s headed by s i n g l e p a r e n t s was g r e a t e r i n the o u t e r suburbs. T a b l e s 4 t o 9 p r e s e n t the r e l e v a n t d a t a i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t ways so t h a t a more complete p i c t u r e of p o s s i b l e t r e n d s can be shown. A l l o f my c a l c u l a t i o n s have been p r e s e n t e d so t h a t f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s can be pursued by i n t e r e s t e d r e a d e r s . A n a l y s i s of Data T a b l e 7 shows t h a t Vancouver C i t y which had 41.5% of the t o t a l GVRD p o p u l a t i o n i n 197.1 had o n l y 35.4% o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n 1981. T h i s i s a de c r e a s e of 14.7%. In 1971 Vancouver C i t y housed 48.1% o f the GVRD t o t a l o f s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . I n 1981 i t housed o n l y 37.9% o f the r e g i o n ' s s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . T h i s i s a d e c r e a s e o f 21.3%. Some p e r i p h e r a l a r e a s , however, g a i n e d a l a r g e r s hare o f the t o t a l GVRD p o p u l a t i o n and a s t i l l l a r g e r share of the r e g i o n ' s s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . These a r e a s a re D e l t a , Richmond, and S u r r e y . F o r example, S u r r e y housed 9.6% of the GVRD p o p u l a t i o n i n 1971 and 12.6% i n 1981. T h i s i s an i n c r e a s e o f 31.3%. I t housed 8.2% o f the GVRD s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n 1971 and 12.6% i n 1981. T h i s i s an i n c r e a s e of 53.7%. Ta b l e 8 shows t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n and the number o f s i n g l e p a r e n t s i n each of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n 1971 and 1981, and the p e r c e n t change from 1971 t o 1981. The d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s manner s u g g e s t s the same t r e n d s t h a t have been d i s c u s s e d above. A l t h o u g h t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n Richmond, D e l t a , and S u r r e y grew 64 TABLE 4 TOTAL POPULATION, TOTAL NUMBER OF FAMILIES AND SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES FOR VARIOUS MUNICIPALITIES IN THE GVRD, GIVING THE PROPORTION OF SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL FAMILIES 1981 S i n g l e T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n T o t a l No. F a m i l i e s P a r e n t F a m i l i e s % SPF Burnaby 125,660 32,855 3,335 10.2 N. Van. C. 31,847 8,580 995 11. 6 N. Van. D. 57,861 14,645 1,010 6.9 W. Van. 36,440 9,510 745 7.8 Richmond 62,121 15,665 1, 260 8.0 C o q u i t l a m 53,230 12,280 1,030 8.4 New West. 42,835 10,450 1,465 14.0 P o r t Coq. 19,560 4 ,840 345 7.1 P o r t Moody 10,778 2,710 245 9.0 D e l t a 45,860 11,345 600 5.3 S u r r e y 98,661 24,295 2,140 8.8 White Rock 10,349 2,920 265 9.1 Van. C i t y 426,298 101,650 12,610 12.4 GVRD 1,028,334 253,510 126,200* 10 . 3 * T h i s f i g u r e appears t o be a b s e n t from the 1976 census and was e s t i m a t e d by a d d i n g up the f i g u r e s f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and a d d i n g about 150 t o acc o u n t f o r the s m a l l e r p o p u l a t i o n u n i t s i n the GVRD. Sour c e s : S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1971. F a m i l i e s . C a t . 93-716, V o l . I I , P a r t 2. T a b l e 35: F a m i l i e s By M a r i t a l S t a t u s and Sex o f  Head f o r I n c o r p o r a t e d C i t i e s and Towns and Other M u n i c i p a l  S u b d i v i s i o n s o f 10,000 P o p u l a t i o n and Over. Table 30: F a m i l i e s By Age and Sex o f Head f o r Census D i v i s i o n s , 1971. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1976. P o p u l a t i o n : Geographic  D i s t r i b u t i o n s . C at. 92-805, ( B u l l e t i n 1.6). T a b l e 3: P o p u l a t i o n f o r Census D i v i s i o n s and S u b d i v i s i o n s , 1971 and 1976. 65 TABLE 5 TOTAL POPULATION, TOTAL NUMBER OF FAMILIES AND SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES FOR VARIOUS MUNICIPALITIES IN THE "GVRD, GIVING THE PROPORTION OF SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL FAMILIES, AND THE PERCENT CHANGE FROM 1971 1976 Single % Change Total No. % Change Parent % Change Total Pop, from 1971 Families from 1971 Families % SPF from 1971 Burnaby 131,599 4.7 34,812 6.0 3,700 10.6 10.9 N. Van. City 31,934 2.7 8,484 -1.1 1,080 12.7 8.5 N. Van. D. 63,760* 10.1 16,824 14.9 1,475 8.8 46.0 West Van. 35,754* -1.9 9,907 4.2 780 7.9 4.7 Richmond 80,034 28.8 21,446 36.9 1,865 8.7 48.0 Coquitlam 55,464 4.2 13,880 13.0 1,290 9.3 25.2 New West. 38,393 -10.4 9,651 -7.6 1,245 12.9 -15.0 Port Coq. 23,926 22.3 6,200 28.1 505 8.1 46.4 Port Moody 11,649 8.0 3,099 14.4 425 13.7 73.5 Delta 64,492 40.6 16,643 46.7 1,105 6.6 84.2 Surrey 116,497 18.1 30,977 27.5 3,066 9.9 42.8 White Rock 12,497 20.8 3,648 24.9 265 7.3 0.0 Vancouver 709,734* -3.9 96,250 -5.3 12,240 12.7 -2.9 GVRD 1,085,242 5.5 273,955 8.1 29,265 10.7 11.7 * Adjusted figures due to boundary changes Sources: S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1976. Families: Families by Family Structure and  Family Type. Cat. 93-822, B u l l e t i n 4.3. Table 8: Families by Family  Structure and Family Type for Census Divisions, 1976. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1976. Population: Geographic Distributions. Cat. 92-805, (Bu l l e t i n 1.6). Table 3: Population for Census Divisions and Subdivisions, 1971 and 1976. 66 TABLE 6 TOTAL POPULATION, TOTAL NUMBER OF FAMILIES AND SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES FOR VARIOUS MUNICIPALITIES IN THE GVRD, GIVING THE PROPORTION OF SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL FAMILIES, AND THE PERCENT CHANGE FROM 1976 1981 Single % Change Total No. % Change Parent % Change Total Pop, from 1976 Families from 1976 Families % SPF from 1976 Burnaby 136,494 3.7 36,685 5.4 4,370 11.9 18.1 N. Van. C i t y 33,952 1.3 8,755 3.2 1,280 14.6 18.5 N. Van. D. 65,367 2.5 18,235 8.4 1,885 *10.3 27.8 West Van. 35,728 -0.1 9,850 9.9 855 8.7 9.6 Richmond 96,154 20.1 26,765 24.8 2,680 *10.0 43.7 Coquitlam 61,077 10.1 16,470 18.7 1,695 *10.3 31.4 New West. 38,550 0.4 9,660 0.1 1,305 13.5 4.8 Port Coq. 27,535 15.1 7,495 20.9 830 11.1 64.4 Port Moody 14,917 28.1 4,215 36.0 675 16.0 58.8 Delta 74,692 15.8 20,205 12.4 1,505 7.4 36.2 Surrey 147,138 26.3 40,915 32.1 4,550 11.1 48.9 White Rock 13,550 8.4 3,835 5.1 370 9.6 39.6 Vancouver 414,281 1.1 98,040 1.9 13,655 13.9 11.6 GVRD 1,169,831 7.8 302,990 10.6 35,990 11.9 23.0 Sources: S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. Population: Geographic D i s t r i b u t i o n . Cat. 93-910. Table 4: Population and Total Occupied Dwellings for Census  Divisions and Subdivisions, 1976 and 1981. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. Selected Characteristics f o r Census Divisions  and Subdivisions: B r i t i s h Columbia. Table 1: Selected Population, Household and Census Family Characteristics f o r Census Divisions and  Subdivisions, 1981. 67 TABLE 7-1 THE PERCENTAGE OF THE GVRD TOTAL POPULATION, NO. OF FAMILIES, AND SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES LIVING IN THE VARIOUS GVRD MUNICIPALITIES Burnaby % of the GVRD t o t a l population % of the GVRD t o t a l no. families % of the GVRD t o t a l no. SPF 1971 12.2 13.0 12.7 1976 12.1 12.7 12.6 1981 11.7 12.1 12.1 North Vancouver City % of the GVRD t o t a l population % of the GVRD t o t a l no. families % of the GVRD t o t a l no. SPF 3.1 3.4 3.8 2.9 3.1 3.7 2.9 2.9 3.6 North Van. D i s t r i c t 11 5.6 5.8 3.6 5.9 6.1 5.0 5.6 6.0 5.2 West Vancouver II 3.5 3.7 2.8 3.3 3.6 2.7 3.1 3.3 2.4 Richmond M 6.0 6.2 4.8 7.4 7.8 6.4 8.2 8.8 7.4 Coquitlam •I 5.2 4.8 3.9 5.1 5.1 4.4 5.2 5.4 4.7 New Westminster II 4.2 4.1 5.6 3.5 3.5 4.3 3.3 3.2 3.6 Port Coquitlam 1.9 1.9 1.3 2.2 2.3 1.7 2.4 2.5 2.3 Port Moody 1.0 1.1 1.9 1.0 1.1 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.9 Delta 11 4.5 4.5 2.3 5.9 6.1 3.8 6.4 6.7 4.2 68 TABLE 7-2 1971 1976 1981 Surrey % of the GVRD t o t a l population % of the GVRD t o t a l no. families % of the GVRD t o t a l No. SPF 9.6 9.6 8.2 10.7 11.3 10.4 12.6 13.5 12.6 White Rock 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.3 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.0 Vancouver 41.5 40.1 48.1 37.8 35.1 41.8 35.4 32.4 37.9 69 TABLE 8 TOTAL POPULATION AND NUMBER OF SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES IN GVRD MUNICIPALITIES, SHOWING PERCENT CHANGE FROM 1971-1981 Single Total Population 1971 1981 % Change Parent Families 1971 1981 % Change Burnaby 125,660 136,494 8. 6 3,335 4,370 31. .0 N. Van. Ci t y 31,847 33,952 6. 6 995 1,280 28. .6 N. Van. D. 57,861 65,367 13. 0 1,010 1,885 86. .6 W. Van. 36,440 35,728 -2. 0 745 855 14. .8 Richmond 62,121 96,154 54. 8 1,260 2,680 112. .7 Coquitlam 53,230 61,077 14. 7 1,030 1,695 64. .6 New West. 42,835 38,550 -10. 0 1,465 1,305 -10. .9 P. Coq. 19,560 27,535 40. 8 345 830 140. .6 P. Moody 10,778 14,917 38. 4 245 675 175. .5 Delta 45,860 74,692 62. 7 600 1,505 150. .8 Surrey 98,661 147,138 49. 1 2,140 4,550 112. .6 White Rock 10,349 13,550 30. 9 265 370 39. .6 Vancouver C. 426,298 414,281 -2. 8 12,610 13,655 8. .3 GVRD 1,028,334 1,169,831 13. 8 26,200 35,990 37. .4 70 TABLE 9 SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL NUMBER OF FAMILIES IN GVRD MUNICIPALITIES, 1971-1981 % change i n the proportion of families 1971 1981 headed by single p GVRD AVG 10.3 11.9 15.5 Burnaby 10.2 11.9 16.7 N. Van. C. 11.6 14.6 25.9 N. Van. D. 6.9 10.3 49.3 W. Van. 7.8 8.7 11.5 Richmond 8.0 10.0 19.0 Coquitlam 8.4 10.3 22.6 New West. 14.0 13.5 -3.6 P. Coquitlam 7.1 11.1 56.3 P. Moody 9.0 16.0 77.8 Delta 5.3 7.4 39.6 Surrey 8.8 11.1 26.1 White Rock 9.1 9.6 5.5 Van. C. 12.4 13.9 12.1 Source: Figures derived from Tables 4, 5, 6 a t h i g h r a t e s , t he number o f s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s grew a t even r i g h e r r a t e s . The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f Richmond i n c r e a s e d 54.8% i n the decade, b u t the number o f s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n c r e a s e d by 112.7%. The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f D e l t a i n c r e a s e d 62.7% b u t the number o f s i n g l e p a r e n t ' f a m i l i e s i n c r e a s e d 150%. S u r r e y has f i g u r e s o f 49.1% and 112.7%. These communities a re mentioned f i r s t because they e x p e r i e n c e d an i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r share o f the t o t a l GVRD p o p u l a t i o n . Other communities w h i c h d i d n ot s i g n i f i c a n t l y e x p e r i e n c e an i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r share o f the t o t a l GVRD p o p u l a t i o n , b u t d i d e x p e r i e n c e a h i g h i n c r e a s e i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f f a m i l i e s headed by s i n g l e p a r e n t s were: N o r t h Vancouver D i s t r i c t (86.6% i n c r e a s e ) , P o r t C o q u i t l a m (140.6% i n c r e a s e ) , and P o r t Moody (175.5% i n c r e a s e ) . (See Ta b l e 8.) As a r e s u l t o f the demographic s h i f t s d i s c u s s e d above, the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n the v a r i o u s GVRD m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r e l a t i v e t o t h e GVRD average has changed o n l y s l i g h t l y from 1971 t o 1981. (Table 9) S i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l f a m i l i e s i n the GVRD i s now 11.9%. Vancouver, New We s t m i n s t e r , and N o r t h Vancouver C i t y s t i l l have an above average c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s w i t h p e r c e n t a g e s of 13.9, 13.5 and 14.6 r e s p e c t i v e l y . However, some of the o u t e r a r e a s e x p e r i e n c e d an i n c r e a s e i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f f a m i l i e s headed by s i n g l e p a r e n t s . P o r t Moody now has one o f the h i g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n the r e g i o n w i t h 16% of i t s f a m i l i e s headed by a s i n g l e p a r e n t . P o r t C o q u i t l a m (11.1%) and S u r r e y (11.1%) a re about avera g e , whereas i n 1971 they were w e l l below average. 72 As.a r e s u l t of t h i s a n a l y s i s , i t cannot be s a i d t h a t t h e r e i s now a major demographic s h i f t o f s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s from Vancouver t o p e r i p h e r a l a r e a s . What i s a p p a r e n t , however, i s t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s headed by a s i n g l e p a r e n t i n p e r i p h e r a l communities i s i n c r e a s i n g a t a f a s t e r r a t e t h a n the r a t e o f i n c r e a s e of t h e s e f a m i l i e s i n Vancouver. T a b l e 9 shows the r a t e s o f i n c r e a s e f o r v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the GVRD. I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n t o choose a home i n the o u t e r suburbs i s b e i n g made by many s i n g l e p a r e n t s . Whereas Vancouver g a i n e d o n l y 1,054 s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n the t e n y e a r p e r i o d , Richmond g a i n e d 1,420, S u r r e y g a i n e d 2,410, D e l t a g a i n e d 905, P o r t Moody g a i n e d 400. A d e c i s i o n t o l i v e i n the p e r i p h e r a l r i n g may o r may n o t be a w i s e one, depending on the p e r s o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the f a m i l y . Whether or not the mother has a j o b , owns a c a r , has f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s nearby a r e some of the f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e the f a m i l y ' s a b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n w e l l I n the community. W i t h o u t a c a r , a c c e s s t o a wide range of o p p o r t u n i t i e s may be s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d . The Maple Ridge Case I f u n s k i l l e d , low income s i n g l e p a r e n t s t a k e up r e s i d e n c e i n p e r i p h e r a l a r e a s they may f i n d themselves i n a community w h i c h o f f e r s j u s t enough s e r v i c e s f o r p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l , b u t l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f improvement and growth. One such community i s Maple R i d g e , l y i n g j u s t o u t s i d e the e a s t e r n edge of the p e r i p h e r a l r i n g . There the number o f s i n g l e p a r e n t s i n c r e a s e d from 565 i n 1971 t o 925 i n 1981. Susanne S t a c e y , a program f a c i l i t a t o r a t the Community S e r v i c e s C o u n c i l , the o n l y s e r v i c e 73 agency i n Maple Ridge, p a i n t s a v e r y s t a r t l i n g and d e p r e s s i n g p i c t u r e of l i f e f o r some s i n g l e mothers i n Maple Ridge. The f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t i s Ms. S t a c e y ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f the women i n her c l i e n t group. Ms. S t a c e y r e p o r t s t h a t a l l o f the s i n g l e mothers she d e a l s w i t h a r e i n t h e low income group. Only 15% o f t h e women have j o b s . Some a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l s such as n u r s e s o r t e a c h e r s w i t h p a r t time j o b s , some are c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , o r c l e r k s , maids, b a b y s i t t e r s , Avon o r Tupperware r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , and t e l e p h o n e s o l i c i t o r s . The average s a l a r y o f the s e w o r k i n g s i n g l e mothers i s $12,000. Those who a r e on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c o l l e c t about $9,000. The major dilemma t h a t t h e s e women e x p e r i e n c e i s g o i n g t o work f o r s l i g h t l y more money than they would have r e c e i v e d from s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and f i n d i n g t h a t they have more expenses i n terms o f t r a v e l and b a b y s i t t i n g . T e c h n i c a l l y t h e y a re t a k i n g home l e s s money f o r more e f f o r t . Some women attempt t o upgrade t h e i r s k i l l s w i t h M i n i s t r y o f Human Resources a s s i s t a n c e , o n l y t o f i n d no j o b s a v a i l a b l e a f t e r t h e i r c o u r s e s a r e completed. The, r e s u l t i s a d e f e a t i s t a t t i t u d e toward work. Most o f thes e women and c h i l d r e n form an i s o l a t e d n u c l e a r f a m i l y — o n l y 2% have f a m i l y s u p p o r t o r r e l a t i v e s i n the a r e a . Most have come from o t h e r a r e a s i n the Lower M a i n l a n d r u n n i n g from bad e x p e r i e n c e s . Ms. Stacey says t h a t many o f them come t o Maple Ridge t o escape the b i g c i t y p r e s s u r e s o f Vancouver. A s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e a r e e s t a b l i s h e d Maple Ridge r e s i d e n t s from broken m a r r i a g e s o r a r e s i n g l e p a r e n t s due t o i g n o r a n c e as t e e n a g e r s . Most o f them l i v e i n one of t h r e e s e p a r a t e a r e a s i n town where s i n g l e mothers c l u s t e r . Ms. Stacey c a l l s one o f thes e a r e a s 74 " s k i d r o a d " — a r u n down a r e a of two and t h r e e s t o r e y walk-ups between the highway and the F r a s e r R i v e r . These u n a t t r a c t i v e apartments have s u r p r i s i n g l y h i g h r e n t s — $350 t o $523 f o r two bedroom accommodations. (The average two bedroom apartment i n Maple Ridge i s $357 compared t o $537 i n Vancouver. See Ta b l e 3 . ) Ms. S t a c e y t h i n k s t h a t l a n d l o r d s know t h a t t h e s e women need a p l a c e t o l i v e and t a k e advantage of them, knowing t h a t MHR w i l l s u p p l y the r e n t . I n s t e a d o f b e i n g havens of mutual s u p p o r t , t h e s e g h e t t o s of s i n g l e women a r e d e p r e s s i n g p l a c e s t o l i v e . When one mother t r i e s t o g e t ahead, the o t h e r s p u l l them down. These women seem t o be c o n s t a n t l y on the move t r y i n g t o g e t away from f i n a n c i a l and p e r s o n a l problems. One o f t h e i r main problems i s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . A s h o c k i n g l y low 2% o f them own c a r s . The Maple Ridge bus system runs two buses a day — one i n the morning and one a t n i g h t . I t goes up the Dewdney Trunk Road and back i n t o the comm e r c i a l p a r t o f town. However, i t does n o t go i n t o the low income apartment a r e a . Buses i n t o Vancouver r u n o n l y e v e r y t h r e e o r f o u r h o u r s . There i s a s c h o o l i n the a r e a f o r u p g r a d i n g s k i l l s -- the P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e , b u t no bus s e r v i c e t o i t . "Aware," a c o u r s e t e a c h i n g j o b h u n t i n g s k i l l s i s o f f e r e d i n P o r t C o q u i t l a m , b u t t h e r e i s o n l y one bus a day. However, t h e s e mothers can g e t t o v i t a l s e r v i c e s , s i n c e the apartment a r e a s a r e a l l w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o f main s t r e e t where s t o r e s , day c a r e c e n t r e s , m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e the goods and s e r v i c e s they need t o s u r v i v e . There i s l i t t l e f o r m a l d a t i n g , but many o f th e s e women form r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h men they meet a t l o c a l b a r s . There they meet men w i t h l i t t l e e d u c a t i o n , low incomes, and no a m b i t i o n . These t y p e s o f l i a i s o n s do not c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r sense of s e l f esteem. I n g e n e r a l , t h e s e women have low e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r themselve T h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s i n c l u d e g e t t i n g a j o b , w i n n i n g the l o t t e r y , o r g e t t i n g a b o y f r i e n d o r husband i n o r d e r t o be t a k e n c a r e o f . T h e i r problems i n c l u d e l a c k o f b u d g e t i n g s k i l l s , low s e l f esteem, resentment, and a n x i e t y about t h e i r p r e s e n t c i r c u m -s t a n c e s . Those t h a t have moved from a r u r a l community e x p e r i e n c e an i d e n t i t y c r i s i s as they f a c e an u n c e r t a i n f u t u r e . Some of them are c h r o n i c c o m p l a i n e r s and f e e l t h a t someone owes them something. When they t a l k t o d o c t o r s o r p s y c h i a t r i s t s about t h e i r p r oblems, t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s p r e s c r i b e drugs f i r s t i n s t e a d o f a s k i n g them t o d e a l w i t h . t h e i r problems. Maple Ridge i s a p p a r e n t l y not a p l a c e i n w h i c h t o s t a y , once a s i n g l e mother e s t a b l i s h e s some s e l f esteem. Ms. S t a c e y says t h a t as soon as t h e s e women g e t back on t h e i r f e e t , t hey move t o Vancouver where more o p p o r t u n i t i e s l i e i n j o b s , h o u s i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and meeting s u i t a b l e men. The b e s t p l a c e f o r s i n g l e mothers t o be i s i n a community which o f f e r s a v a r i e t y o f goods, s e r v i c e s and p e o p l e from which t o choose, as i n the Lynch model. Choice i m p l i e s t h a t the i t e m e x i s t s , t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l knows about i t and can g e t t o i t . I n a community l i k e Maple Ridge, not o n l y i s v a r i e t y s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d , poor t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c r e a t e s a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h the low income s i n g l e mother f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o l e a v e her immediate neighbourhood. There, low income s i n g l e mothers have l i t t l e chance o f becoming s e l f s u f f i c i e n t a d u l t s i n charge o f t h e i r own l i v e s ; i n s t e a d they become f u l l y dependent on government a g e n c i e s which 76 g i v e them an income adequate f o r p h y s i c a l s u r v i v a l and h e l p i n emergency s i t u a t i o n s , b u t no r e a l way o f c h a n g i n g the b a s i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h e i r l i v e s . C o n c l u s i o n I n a sense, the premise t h a t s e r v i c e dependent peo p l e a r e r e l e g a t e d t o the most u n d e s i r a b l e l a n d i n a m e t r o p o l i s i s t r u e f o r the GVRD. I n t h i s c a s e , the most u n d e s i r a b l e l a n d l i e s a t the edge of the p e r i p h e r a l r i n g -- the o u t e r suburbs t h a t have the p o o r e s t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the l e a s t number of o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n terms of j o b s , h o u s i n g , and f i n d i n g c o n g e n i a l f r i e n d s and p o t e n t i a l mates. A p l a c e l i k e Maple Ridge may be the l a s t s t o p p i n g p o i n t f o r t h e most d e s p e r a t e and the l e a s t s k i l l e d -- the new " s k i d r o a d " f o r a growing number of s i n g l e mothers. Most s i n g l e mothers i n Maple. Ridge are poor. The average income f o r s i n g l e mothers i n Maple Ridge i s $13,518, which i s w e l l below the p o v e r t y l i n e o f $15,950 f o r a f a m i l y o f t h r e e s e t by the Canadian C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development. I n f a c t , 83.9% o f s i n g l e mothers i n Maple Ridge have an income under $15,000. T a b l e 2 i n Chapter I I I showed t h a t s i n g l e mothers i n most o u t e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have lower incomes than s i n g l e p a r e n t s i n Vancouver who have an average income of $16,912. S i n g l e p a r e n t s appear t o p r e f e r the i n n e r c i t y because they a r e s e r v i c e dependent and p o o r e r than o t h e r f a m i l i e s . The a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r showed t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e of f a m i l i e s t h a t i s headed by a s i n g l e p a r e n t was g r e a t e r i n Vancouver than i n the o u t e r suburbs. S e v e r a l hypotheses c o u l d be advanced t o e x p l a i n t h i s . The two most l i k e l y seem t o be: (1) l o c a t i o n p r e f e r e n c e because o f a c c e s s , and (2) cheaper h o u s i n g i n the c i t y o f Vancouver. However, i t has been shown t h a t h o u s i n g i s more e x p e n s i v e i n Vancouver. T h e r e f o r e I b e l i e v e t h a t a c c e s s t o Vancouver's j o b s , s e r v i c e s , p e o p l e , and a t t r a c t i o n s i s the key d e t e r m i n e r o f r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . But f o r the r e a l l y poor s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l y , c e n t r a l c i t y h o u s i n g may be u n a f f o r d a b l e . They may be f o r c e d t o move o u t t o a r e a s where r e n t s a r e cheaper and a c c e s s t o a wide range o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s l i m i t e d . I t seems i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t f o r many s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s t o f i n d h o u s i n g i n i n n e r c i t y a r e a s where i t appears they would l i k e t o be. 78 ENDNOTES CHAPTER V ^"J e n n i f e r R, Wolch, " R e s i d e n t i a l L o c a t i o n of the S e r v i c e Dependent Poor," A n n a l s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geography, September, 1980, pp. 330-342. 2 I b i d . , p. 330. 3 I b i d . , p. 331. 4 I b i d . , p. 41. 5 John J e s s u p , "Downtown L o d g i n g Houses and Tenant P r o f i l e , " a r e p o r t by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Dept. C i t y o f Vancouver, O c t o b e r , 1983, p. 15. ^ I b i d . , p. 32. 7 I b i d . , p. 19. ^ I b i d . , p. 38. 9 Robson and Queen E l i z a b e t h S c h o o l s have a day c a r e c e n t r e on the p r e m i s e s , w h i l e L o r d Tweedsmuir c o o p e r a t e s w i t h one a b l o c k away. The day c a r e c e n t r e a t Queen E l i z a b e t h o p e r a t e s from 7:00 a.m. t o 5:30 p.m. and t a k e s c h i l d r e n aged t h r e e and up. The c o s t i s $88 a month f o r b e f o r e and a f t e r s c h o o l c a r e and $235 a month f o r f u l l time c a r e . " ^ M i c h e l e L i o y , S o c i a l Trends i n G r e a t e r Vancouver", a study p r e p a r e d f o r the S o c i a l P o l i c y and Research Department, U n i t e d Way o f G r e a t e r Vancouver (Vancouver: Gordon So u l e s Economic and M a r k e t i n g R e s e a r c h , March 1975), p. 54, F i g . 5.10. i : LSee Ta b l e 2. 1 2 S e e Ta b l e 3. 13 The c a s u a l remarks c i t e d here were made d u r i n g i n t e r v i e w s c o n ducted by t h e a u t h o r t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on p o s s i b l e s t u d i e s o r r e p o r t s on s i n g l e p a r e n t s i n the GVRD. The comments were i n no way p a r t o f a f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s e t t i n g . F l o r a MacCleod and Ga v i n Perryman of the U n i t e d Way were among those i n t e r v i e w e d . 14 I n t e r v i e w w i t h G i l Evans, e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver I n f o r m a t i o n and R e f e r r a l S e r v i c e , a p r i v a t e non-p r o f i t s o c i e t y , Nov. 28, 1983. 79 ENDNOTES CONTINUED CHAPTER V 15 A l l o f the i n f o r m a t i o n about Maple Ridge was o b t a i n e d i n two i n t e r v i e w s (Dec. 6, 198 3, Feb. 6, 198 4) w i t h Susanne S t a c e y , Program F a c i l i t a t o r a t the Community S e r v i c e s C o u n c i l , a r e g i s t e r e d n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y p a r t l y funded by MHR and the U n i t e d Way. The agency i s open as a drop i n c e n t r e f o r s i n g l e mothers, runs some programs c o n c e r n i n g p a r e n t i n g and i n t e r v e n e s i n c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s i n the home. 80 CHAPTER VI TOWARDS A HOUSING POLICY FOR SINGLE PARENTS CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The complex problems and l i m i t a t i o n s c o n s t r i c t i n g s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n Canada r e q u i r e p r o f o u n d and s o c i a l r e f o r m . B a s i c f l a w s i n the e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g o f young women and t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l c h i l d - r e a r i n g r o l e s t h a t women have p l a y e d i n the p a s t a re the r o o t causes o f the income and time c o n s t r a i n t s f a c i n g s i n g l e mothers. A l l of our a t t i t u d e s about i n t r i n s i c a b i l i t i e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s of bo t h men and women w i l l have t o be c o m p l e t e l y examined and r e v i s e d b e f o r e women have any chance o f b e i n g a b l e t o pursue the t y p e s o f c a r e e r s t h a t men do. I n an e n l i g h t e n e d s o c i e t y , f e males would n o t have t o s i n g l e h a n d e d l y r a i s e c h i l d r e n and reap the l o w e s t of incomes f o r t h e i r many y e a r s o f s e r v i c e i n the home. In some c o u n t r i e s comprehensive s o c i a l p o l i c i e s ensure the w e l l b e i n g o f w o r k i n g mothers and c h i l d r e n . I n Sweden, a mother i s e n t i t l e d by law t o a y e a r ' s p a i d l e a v e a t 90% o f her s a l a r y , p l u s an a d d i t i o n a l s i x months of j o b - p r o t e c t e d b u t u n p a i d l e a v e when c h i l d r e n a r e bo r n . Mothers o f c h i l d r e n under e i g h t a r e e n t i t l e d t o work a t h i r t y hour week and b o t h p a r e n t s a r e p e r m i t t e d a t o t a l o f s i x t y days per ye a r a t 90% pay t o s t a y home to c a r e f o r a s i c k c h i l d . C h i l d r e n a r e t a k e n c a r e o f i n s u b s i d i z e d n u r s e r y programs w i t h income a d j u s t e d f e e s c h e d u l e s , and f a c i l i t i e s a r e l o c a t e d i n apartment complexes where they may be open from 7:00 a.m. t o 6:00 p.m."'" What i s needed t o b r i n g about th e s e t y p e s o f programs i n our s o c i e t y i s e i t h e r s t r o n g d e c i s i v e a c t i o n from government 81 l e a d e r s , o r y e a r s of s t r u g g l e from the r a n k s o f those who want r e f o r m . G i v e n the p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s o f the c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l governments, however, i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t comprehensive p o l i c i e s c o n c e r n i n g s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s w i l l be i n i t i a t e d by e l e c t e d l e a d e r s i n the n e x t few y e a r s . S o c i a l r e f o r m w i l l p r o b a b l y have t o o r i g i n a t e from the " g r a s s r o o t s " — i n t h i s case the s i n g l e mothers t h e m s e l v e s . A t the p r e s e n t moment they have no spokesman and a r e p o l i t i c a l l y i n v i s i b l e . However, t h e i r numbers a r e growing, and t h e b l a t a n t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the h o u s i n g and j o b markets and the d i r e c o n d i t i o n s under which some of t h e s e women and t h e i r c h i l d r e n l i v e cannot be f o r e v e r h i d d e n . W h i l e women's groups a r e w a i t i n g f o r a p r o p i t i o u s p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e and w o r k i n g t o o r g a n i z e themselves and make themselves h e a r d , p r a c t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s can be p u t i n p l a c e i m m e d i a t e l y t o h e l p s i n g l e mothers overcome the l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t stem from t h e i r p e r s o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s and the environment. A h o u s i n g p o l i c y a d d r e s s i n g the needs o f the s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l y i s an a p p r o p r i a t e response t o t h e problems f a c i n g t h e s e f a m i l i e s , because h o u s i n g i s a prime f a c t o r i n the s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and economic w e l l - b e i n g o f a f a m i l y . To a l a r g e e x t e n t , where and how you l i v e d e t e r m i n e s your o p p o r t u n i t i e s , sense o f i d e n t i t y , and m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h . A l t h o u g h e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r m i n i s t s have not proven t h e i r c a s e , i t seems c l e a r t o the s i n g l e mothers quoted i n t h i s s tudy t h a t l i v i n g i n a c l e a n , f r i e n d l y , a c c e s s i b l e , v i t a l , and s e c u r e neighbourhood i s p r e f e r a b l e to l i v i n g i n a d e t e r i o r a t i n g , h o s t i l e , i m p o v e r i s h e d , remote or dangerous one. Housing i s t h e r e f o r e more than j u s t a r o o f over your h e a d — i t i n c l u d e s s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e r v i c e s and 82 l o c a t i o n a l advantages o r d i s a d v a n t a g e s . A h o u s i n g p o l i c y t h a t e s t a b l i s h e s s t r a t e g i e s f o r a more e q u i t a b l e a l l o c a t i o n of h o u s i n g i s one way of r e d i s t r i b u t i n g a h o s t o f s o c i a l and economic s e r v i c e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s . O b v i o u s l y , a h o u s i n g p o l i c y w i l l n o t s o l v e a l l the problems o f the s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l y . A t r a d i t i o n a l extended f a m i l y cannot be c r e a t e d by an a c t o f l e g i s l a t i o n f o r t h o s e s i n g l e mothers who have no k i n i n the a r e a . Daycare f a c i l i t i e s and f u n d i n g w i l l n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y appear as a r e s u l t o f a h o u s i n g p o l i c y , a l t h o u g h the p r o v i s i o n of f a c i l i t i e s by apartment d e v e l o p e r s i s a p o s s i b i l i t y . Moreover, a h o u s i n g p o l i c y w i l l not c o r r e c t the b a s i c s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r e a s o n s why s i n g l e mothers f i n d t h e mselves i n such d e s p e r a t e f i n a n c i a l need. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a h o u s i n g p o l i c y agreed upon and managed by v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government i n the GVRD would be the b e s t way of a l l e v i a t i n g the p l i g h t o f the s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l y a t t h i s t i m e . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s based on s e v e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : I n the f i r s t p l a c e a comprehensive h o u s i n g p o l i c y would not o n l y be e f f e c t i v e i n p r o v i d i n g d e c e n t h o u s i n g i n s u i t a b l e environments b u t c o u l d a l s o p a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t the f i n a n c i a l problems o f most s i n g l e p a r e n t s ; s e c o n d l y , a h o u s i n g p o l i c y c o u l d be i n i t i a t e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d t h r o u g h p r e s e n t government departments w i t h o u t the c r e a t i o n o f more b u r e a u c r a c y ; l a s t l y , h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s and l a n d r e g u l a t i o n s a r e m a t t e r s w h i c h a r e f a m i l i a r t o most p e o p l e and t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l y more a c c e p t a b l e t h a n a c o m p l i c a t e d and unique s o c i a l package. The f o r m a t i o n and e x e c u t i o n o f a h o u s i n g p o l i c y f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s a t t h i s time would be a v a s t improvement 83 over c u r r e n t p o l i c i e s w h i c h a f f o r d v e r y l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e t o s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . P r e s e n t p o l i c i e s c o n c e r n i n g s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s e x i s t m a i n l y i n memos o r the minutes o f m e e t i n g s . When asked about p o l i c y c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e f a m i l i e s , many s t a f f members a t a l l l e v e l s o f governments do n o t know i f any w r i t t e n p o l i c y e x i s t s and have t o check t h e i r f i l e s o r ask c o l l e a g u e s . I am n o t i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e no h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s w h i c h g u i d e l a n d use i n the GVRD s i n c e a l l l e v e l s o f governments have b o t h w r i t t e n and u n w r i t t e n h o u s i n g g u i d e l i n e s w h i c h a f f e c t s i n g l e p a r e n t s . The p o i n t i s t h a t s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s have no h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s w r i t t e n e s p e c i a l l y f o r them. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s w i l l summarize the main h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s o f the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of governments and d e s c r i b e some o f the programs o r s t r a t e g i e s pursued. B. The C i t y o f Vancouver As s t a t e d i n the 198 3 Core P l a n , the C i t y has d e c i d e d t o a c c e p t c o n t i n u e d o f f i c e development and employment growth as a means o f p r e s e r v i n g i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a t u s as a major t r a d i n g 2 c e n t r e . I n a d d i t i o n t o the p r e s e n t twenty m i l l i o n square f e e t o f c o r e o f f i c e space, t h e r e i s a development c a p a c i t y of f i f t y m i l l i o n square f e e t , t h i r t y m i l l i o n o f which c o u l d be b u i l t i n downtown a l o n e . As a r e s u l t o f c o n t i n u e d o f f i c e growth and the need f o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s , the C i t y o f Vancouver i s e x p e r i e n c i n g a s e r i o u s mismatch between c o r e employment and i t s c a p a c i t y t o house t h i s wbrk f o r c e . The p o t e n t i a l f o r h o u s i n g i s a l m o s t a l l used up. As t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of c i t y l a n d i s zoned f o r s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g , t h e r e i s l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n c r e a s e h o u s i n g 84 p o t e n t i a l i n t h e c i t y . As o f 1980, the C i t y p l a n n i n g department e s t i m a t e d t h a t f o r e v e r y 100 j o b s i n the c i t y , t h e r e were o n l y 60 h o u s i n g u n i t s a v a i l a b l e , and t h a t t h i s r a t i o w i l l c o n t i n u e t o drop i f the j o b -h o u s i n g imbalance i s not a d d r e s s e d . To t h i s end the p l a n n i n g department recommends expanding the h o u s i n g s t o c k by i n c r e a s i n g d e n s i t i e s w i t h i n the c i t y r a t h e r than e n c o u r a g i n g commuting t o the o u t e r suburbs. T h i s w i l l be a c c o m p l i s h e d by r e z o n i n g s e l e c t e d low d e n s i t y a r e a s w i t h h i g h e x i s t i n g a m e n i t i e s and s e r v i c e s t o medium d e n s i t y s t a t u s . The Core p l a n s t a t e s t h a t the zoned p o t e n t i a l f o r h o u s i n g would i n c r e a s e by 50,000 u n i t s o v er the n e x t d e c a t e b r i n g i n g the t o t a l zoned p o t e n t i a l t o 260,000 u n i t s . Some of t h i s s t o c k would p r o b a b l y be d e s i g n a t e d f o r low income groups. One o f the C i t y ' s l o n g s t a n d i n g h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s i s t o : M i n i m i z e h a r d s h i p s caused by i n c r e a s e d h o u s i n g  c o s t s t h r o u g h p r o v i d i n g c i t y l a n d s f o r non market h o u s i n g (1972), bonus p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s t o p r o v i d e modest income h o u s i n g ( K i t s i l a n o 1976), r e q u i r e new developments t o i n c l u d e a p o r t i o n o f h o u s i n g f o r modest.,income u s e r s ( F a l s e Creek, D.T.E.S. 1982). I n the p a s t few decades the C i t y has a c t e d as f a c i l i t a t o r i n p r o v i d i n g s u i t a b l y zoned l a n d f o r non market h o u s i n g and s o l i c i t i n g s e n i o r l e v e l s of government f o r f u n d i n g . The d e s i g n and management of s o c i a l h o u s i n g i s c a r r i e d o u t by v a r i o u s non-p r o f i t s p o n s o r s and c o o p e r a t i v e groups. The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department has r e c e n t l y c o m p i l e d a l i s t o f 48 coops w i t h a t o t a l 4 of 2,044 u n i t s t h a t have been, b u i l t w i t h i n Vancouver s i n c e 1979. Of t h e s e , 1,153 were b u i l t on c i t y l a n d . R e n t a l u n i t s and s p e c i a l purpose p r o j e c t s t o t a l e d 1,360 u n i t s , 610 o f t h e s e b u i l t 85 on c i t y l a n d . Sponsors f o r p u b l i c and p r i v a t e r e n t a l accommodations i n c l u d e the YWCA, v a r i o u s c h u r c h e s , e t h n i c groups, s o c i a l c l u b s such as K i w a n i s and Odd F e l l o w s , the G r e a t e r Vancouver Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , the B.C. Housing F o u n d a t i o n and the B.C. Housing and Mortgage C o r p o r a t i o n . The C i t y proposes t h a t p a r t of the p r o v i n c i a l l y owned 300 a c r e t r a c t o f l a n d on the n o r t h shore of F a l s e Creek be dev o t e d t o non market h o u s i n g . S i n c e the C i t y b e l i e v e s t h a t many low income f a m i l i e s w i l l want t o work i n the c o r e a r e a , i t proposes t h a t a t l e a s t 2,000 h o u s i n g u n i t s -- about 25% o f the t o t a l — be b u i l t f o r f a m i l i e s w i t h young c h i l d r e n . Of t h e s e , 1,600 s h o u l d be non-market.^ B. The P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia As s t a t e d i n the b r o c h u r e "A Housing P o l i c y f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . i n the 1980's," the f i r s t h o u s i n g g o a l o f the P r o v i n c e i s " t o ensure an adequate s u p p l y and mix o f h o u s i n g w i t h a wide range o f t e n u r e o p t i o n s . " ^ The P r o v i n c e r e c o g n i z e s the f a c t t h a t most p e o p l e p r e f e r t o f i n d accommodations c l o s e t o de v e l o p e d a r e a s : The h i g h c o s t o f energy w i l l p r o v i d e an i n c e n t i v e f o r more p e o p l e t o seek h i g h e r d e n s i t y forms of h o u s i n g c l o s e r t o where they work and shop, so t h a t fewer h o u s e h o l d s ^ a r e l i k e l y t o l o c a t e i n the o u t e r suburbs. D e s p i t e the s t a t e d g o a l t o ensure a wide range o f t e n u r e o p t i o n s , emphasis i s p l a c e d on m a x i m i z i n g home ownership. The an n u a l r e p o r t shows t h a t i n 1981 most o f the P r o v i n c e ' s h o u s i n g g funds were used t o h e l p p e o p l e buy homes. A t o t a l o f $10,334,100 was s p e n t on home purch a s e a s s i s t a n c e , s e r v i n g 4,878 peopl e i n the Lower M a i n l a n d . I n c o n t r a s t , o n l y e i g h t l o a n s f o r r e n t a l 86 c o n v e r s i o n s were approved d u r i n g the same time p e r i o d . C a p i t a l G r a n t s f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n h o u s i n g t o t a l e d $6,922,000 f o r 408 u n i t s i n the Lower M a i n l a n d . There were a l s o 109 d i s a b l e d persons who r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e w i t h r e n t a l h o u s i n g . There was no s p e c i f i c program t o h e l p s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . The redevelopment p r o j e c t i n F a l s e Creek B.C. P l a c e p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the P r o v i n c e t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h the C i t y o f Vancouver i n meeting some o f i t s g o a l s t o house low income f a m i l i e s downtown. However, the p r o j e c t was d e s i g n e d by B.C. p o l i t i c i a n s t o p u t Vancouver on the map as one o f the w o r l d ' s 9 g r e a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l c i t i e s . B.C. P l a c e L t d . , the Crown C o r p o r a t i o n i n charge of t h i s e n t e r p r i s e , i s a c t i n g as a p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r i n c r e a t i n g a s p e c t a c u l a r urban environment w h i c h w i l l i n v i t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c c l a i m and e a r n a p r o f i t a t the same t i m e . To t h i s end, h i g h p a y i n g uses a re sought, i n c l u d i n g 7.7 m i l l i o n square f e e t o f o f f i c e space and market h o u s i n g f o r m a i n l y c o u p l e s and s i n g l e s . The r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s w i l l be d e s i g n a t e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g groups: 15% f a m i l y (market h o u s i n g ) , 70% s i n g l e s and c o u p l e s , 15% e l d e r l y ( p a r t l y s u b s i d i z e d ) . 1 0 A l t h o u g h a l a t e r brochure"'""'" d i s c u s s e s an i n n o v a t i v e p l a n t o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r w o r k i n g B r i t i s h Columbians o f below average o r m i d d l e incomes t o l i v e a t B.C. P l a c e , the h o u s i n g w i l l s t i l l be market h o u s i n g a f f o r d e d by. tho s e who can q u a l i f y f o r mortgage l o a n s and d e l i v e r a down-payment. No non-market h o u s i n g w i l l be proposed f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . I n an i s s u e s paper B.C. P l a c e p r e s e n t s the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s as re a s o n s f o r n o t d e v e l o p i n g much f a m i l y h o u s i n g , e s p e c i a l l y non-market f a m i l y h o u s i n g a t B.C. P l a c e . 87 . I t would be wrong, u n f a i r and e x p e n s i v e t o d i s p l a c e t h r e e o t h e r p o t e n t i a l households f o r each f a m i l y w i t h c h i l d r e n ; . M o s t f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n can be accommo-d a t e d , and would l i k e l y choose t o l i v e e l s e w h e r e e s p e c i a l l y i n the suburbs; . F a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g s u b s i d i z e d u n i t s can be housed l e s s e x p e n s i v e l y i n o t h e r a r e a s , as B.C. P l a c e i s amongst the most v a l u a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d i n the Region; and . Other a r e a s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the subur b s , a l r e a d y have the s c h o o l s and a m e n i t i e s ^ r e q u i r e d by f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n . The argument i s summed up t h i s way: E v e r y t i m e l a n d i s w r i t t e n down t o a l e s s t h a n f a i r market v a l u e , t h i s w r i t e down becomes a d i r e c t s u b s i d y and reduces the revenue t h a t would o t h e r w i s e f l o w t o a l l -taxpayers. T h i s h i g h l e v e l o f s u b s i d y would be u n f a i r t o o t h e r w o r k i n g p e o p l e s e e k i n g h o u s i n g a t B.C. P l a c e , would burden the t a x p a y e r , and c o u l d t h r e a t e n ^ the f i n a n c i a l v i a b i l i t y o f the p r o j e c t . A l t h o u g h t h i s argument speaks f o r i t s e l f , t he a u t h o r f i n d s the p h r a s e s " b u r d e n i n g the t a x p a y e r " so l a d e n w i t h e m o t i o n a l o v e r t o n e s as t o be u n a c c e p t a b l e i n a p u b l i c document. To suggest t h a t p e o p l e who need i n n e r c i t y s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g a r e somehow j e o p a r d i z i n g the w e l f a r e o f the " t a x p a y e r s " , i s a way o f c r e a t i n g d i v i s i o n s and j e a l o u s i e s among p e o p l e . The B.C. argument i n essence i s t h a t i t i s f a i r t o p r o v i d e h o u s i n g o n l y f o r tho s e who are a b l e t o purch a s e i t on the f r e e market. The P r o v i n c e i s i n f a c t v i o l a t i n g i t s own p o l i c y t o ensure an adequate s u p p l y and mix of h o u s i n g w i t h a range o f t e n u r e o p t i o n s . C. The F e d e r a l Government The f e d e r a l government makes a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o h o u s i n g i n the GVRD th r o u g h CMHC f u n d i n g programs. Two programs which 88 i h e l p c r e a t e new h o u s i n g i n the r e g i o n a r e The C o o p e r a t i v e Housing Program and the P r i v a t e N o n - p r o f i t Housing Program. I n b o t h programs CMHC o f f e r s f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o s u b s i d i z e mortgage 15 payment from the g o i n g market i n t e r e s t r a t e t o as low as 2%. Funds a r e a l s o made a v a i l a b l e under the S t a r t - u p Program f o r the p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n s t a g e s o f p r o j e c t development. Housing c o o p e r a t i v e s a r e i n i t i a t e d , d e s i g n e d and r u n by a group o f p e o p l e who w i s h t o p r o v i d e h o u s i n g f o r themselves on a c o l l e c t i v e , n o t an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . Each member owns a share o f the t o t a l p r o j e c t and c o n t r i b u t e s t o i t s upkeep and mortgage payments. However members do not own t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s and may n ot s e l l them f o r a p r o f i t when they l e a v e . Ownership and d e c i s i o n making c a p a c i t i e s remain w i t h the e n t i r e membership. CMHC r u l e s s t i p u l a t e t h a t t h e h o u s i n g be modest (the mortgage i s l i m i t e d t o a maximum u n i t p r i c e ) , and t h a t a c e r t a i n p o r t i o n o f the u n i t s be earmarked f o r low income occupants who pay a c e r t a i n p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e i r incomes toward c o s t s . Most o f the u n i t s would be o c c u p i e d by average o r above average occupants i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e the i n t e r n a l s u b s i d i z a t i o n needed t o meet the c o l l e c t i v e monthly mortgage payment. Coops a r e sometimes o r g a n i z e d around the needs o f s p e c i a l groups such as s e n i o r c i t i z e n s , and sometimes o r g a n i z e d around a l i f e s t y l e o r theme. C o o p e r a t i v e s seem t o p l e a s e t h o s e who e n j o y making group d e c i s i o n s and l i v i n g communally. N o n - p r o f i t r e n t a l h o u s i n g i s d e v e l o p e d and o p e r a t e d by p r i v a t e , n o n - p r o f i t c o r p o r a t i o n s f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t e n a n t s who have low incomes o r s p e c i a l h o u s i n g needs. As i n the coop program, the h o u s i n g must be modest and have an income mix t o ensure the f i n a n c i a l v i a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t . The sponsor r e t a i n s ownership 89 of the p r o j e c t and i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r maintenance c o s t s and o p e r a t i n g the p r o j e c t . D. The GVRD A l t h o u g h the GVRD has no w r i t t e n h o u s i n g p o l i c y , t he Housing Committee r e v i e w s p o l i c i e s and new p r o p o s a l s on a monthly b a s i s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t a c t u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r s the h o u s i n g program i s the G r e a t e r Vancouver Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , c r e a t e d by the B.C. c a b i n e t i n 1974."^ Under s e c t i o n 56.1 o f the N a t i o n a l Housing A c t t h e GVHC a c t s as a p u b l i c n o n - p r o f i t c o r p o r a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g s o c i a l h o u s i n g . CMHC l o a n s have been used t o s u b s i d i z e the c a p i t a l c o s t s and mortgages o f about 3,000 u n i t s t h a t w i l l have been b u i l t by the end of 198 4 i n the GVRD. These u n i t s r e p r e s e n t about 4% o f the h o u s i n g s t a r t s s i n c e 1976. I t i s the o p i n i o n o f the d i r e c t o r o f the c o r p o r a t i o n , B i l l Lane, t h a t the program was d e s i g n e d t o h e l p the w o r k i n g poor, not the 17 unemployed. The u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y i s t h a t i f new accommodations a r e p r o v i d e d f o r employed p e o p l e , some o f the e x i s t i n g apartments would be f r e e d up f o r occupancy by thos e w i t h the l o w e s t incomes -- the unemployed. Unemployed p e o p l e a re not a b l e t o tak e advantage o f the GVHC program because the c r i t e r i o n f o r a c c e p t a n c e i n t o t he p r o j e c t s i s the a b i l i t y t o pay the r e n t , and most unemployed p e o p l e do not have s u f f i c i e n t money t o make th e s e payments. I t i s Mr. Lane's o p i n i o n t h a t i f such a program were extended to- everyone w i t h low incomes, the amount o f money needed t o s u b s i d i z e payments would be g r e a t e r than the r e s p e c t i v e l e v e l s of government c o u l d f i n d . Most s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s a r e not a s s i s t e d i n any way 90 by the e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g programs i n the GVRD. I n the f i r s t p l a c e , a t a l l l e v e l s o f government t h e r e a re a b s o l u t e l y no p o l i c i e s d i r e c t e d toward t h e problems t h a t s i n g l e mothers f a c e i n o b t a i n i n g h o u s i n g . S e c o n d l y , c i t y , p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l programs d e s i g n e d t o promote non-market h o u s i n g c r e a t e n e i t h e r a s u f f i c i e n t a b s o l u t e number of u n i t s f o r low income groups, nor are most o f the u n i t s s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n a t e d f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . I n Vancouver p r o p e r , the t o t a l number of s o c i a l h o u s i n g u n i t s i s about 3,300, many o f them f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s and d i s a b l e d groups. There a r e about 14,000 s i n g l e p a r e n t s i n Vancouver alOne and i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e w i l l have t o f i n d t h e i r h o u s i n g i n the open market. There i s v e r y l i t t l e market r e n t a l h o u s i n g s u i t a b l e f o r f a m i l i e s c o n s i s t i n g o f an a d u l t female and one or two c h i l d r e n , and what does e x i s t i s e i t h e r h i g h p r i c e d o r o f f l i m i t s due t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , o r b o t h . A l t h o u g h Vancouver's e f f o r t s t o c r e a t e non-market h o u s i n g f o r low income p e o p l e has p r o v i d e d r e l i e f f o r some s i n g l e mothers, the v a s t m a j o r i t y have a v e r y d i f f i c u l t t a s k i n f i n d i n g and a f f o r d i n g s u i t a b l e h o u s i n g f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s . F o r s i n g l e mothers i n the GVRD t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e h o u s i n g c r i s i s . S i n c e s i n g l e mothers have been p u b l i c l y and p o l i t i c a l l y i n v i s i b l e , i t may seem t o the v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government t h a t the problems do not e x i s t and t h a t perhaps t h e s e women a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r l o t . There i s one group, however, t h a t i s s t a r t i n g t o t a k e a c t i o n and e x p r e s s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r e s e n t s o c i a l and l e g a l b a r r i e r s w h i c h s i n g l e mothers f a c e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a s t a b l e l i f e f o r themselves and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h i s group i s the S i n g l e Mothers' A c t i o n Committee (S.M.A.C.), an 91 o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t grew o ut o f the an n u a l S i n g l e Mothers' Symposium sponsored by the Vancouver YWCA. A l t h o u g h t h e s e women are o u t s t a n d i n g i n d i s p l a y i n g the d e d i c a t i o n and stami n a i t t a k e s t o r e g u l a r l y a t t e n d and s u p p o r t t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , t hey do r e p r e s e n t a c r o s s s e c t i o n of s i n g l e women. Some o f them have low incomes and t a k e i n sewing o r t y p i n g t o supplement s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . Some o f them have a f u l l time j o b . One woman w i t h a baby walked a l l the way from K i t s i l a n o t o the downtown YWCA where the meetings a r e h e l d because she d i d not have the bus f a r e . Most o f the mothers l i v e i n in a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g — one l i v e d i n an i n a c c e s s i b l e e a s t s i d e l o c a t i o n i n a basement s u i t e w i t h a s t a i r c a s e w i t h no r a i l i n g and a c o n s t a n t l y m a l f u n c t i o n -i n g and l e a k i n g water h e a t e r and f u r n a c e . Women i n apartments move f r e q u e n t l y because of i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h male n e i g h b o u r s . The S.M.A.C. o r g a n i z a t i o n i s about a y e a r o l d . There i s a g e n e r a l s t e e r i n g committee t o which f o u r independent committees r e p o r t — C h i l d c a r e , Housing,. W e l f a r e R i g h t s and Income, and Women and the Law. I n December, 1983, the h o u s i n g committee e s t a b l i s h e d the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s : 1. To ensure t h a t a l l s i n g l e mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n have d e c e n t , s a f e , a f f o r d a b l e , a c c e s s i b l e and se c u r e homes. 2. To ensure t h a t a l l s i n g l e mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e c o n s i d e r e d as i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h v a r y i n g needs and a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h c h o i c e s as t o g e o g r a p h i c a r e a , type of accommodation, and s u i t a b l e environment. 3. To ensure t h a t a l l s i n g l e mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e not d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t on the b a s i s o f age, o r so u r c e o f income, as w e l l as o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a l r e a d y i n c l u d e d i n the Canadian and B.C. Human R i g h t s A c t s . 4. To educate s i n g l e mothers as t o t h e i r l a w f u l r i g h t s and s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and a s s i s t -ance i n s e c u r i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y accommodation. 5 . To make the p u b l i c aware o f the h o u s i n g problems c o n f r o n t i n g the s i n g l e mother i n her t a s k of p r o v i d i n g s u i t a b l e h o u s i n g f o r her f a m i l y . The b a s i c i d e a s here a r e : . S h e l t e r i s a b a s i c human r i g h t ; . C h o i c e o f h o u s i n g l o c a t i o n and s u i t a b i l i t y a r e i m p o r t a n t ; . D i s c r i m i n a t i o n must be ended; . S i n g l e mothers need i n f o r m a t i o n and h e l p ; - . Support from t h e g e n e r a l community i s needed. How t o r e a l i z e t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s i s a c o m p l i c a t e d i s s u e . One way o f a p p r o a c h i n g the problem i s t o l i s t t he l i m i t a t i o n s examined i n the f i r s t few c h a p t e r s o f t h i s paper and s p e c u l a t e on the p o s s i b l e i m p a c t s o f v a r i o u s programs. The t a b l e below shows t h a t many o f the l i m i t a t i o n s stemming from p e r s o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s and from the environment can be c o u n t e r e d by programs i n v o l v i n g h o u s i n g . LIMITATION POSSIBLE PROGRAM IMPACT AND IMPLICATIONS Poverty Rent Control Shelter Allowance Lack of job s k i l l s and experience A co-op project Although rents are held down i n the short run, the supply of housing goes down i n the long run, because people are reluctant to invest i n an enterprise which loses money. Since many single mothers pay over 50% of th e i r income on shelter, a shelter allow-ance would help pay the rent, freeing up other income for other things. Shelter allowances also allow for freedom i n housing choice. Organizing, building and run-ning a co-op would enable the members to develop organ-i z a t i o n a l , interpersonal, and f i n a n c i a l s k i l l s . Aloneness and lack of time (a) Co-operative types of l i v i n g arrangements Single mothers l i v i n g together could share cooking and c h i l d r a i s i n g chores, cutting down on the work required by each i n d i v i d u a l . A substitute family i s also created i n which the i n d i v i d -ual gets emotional support and an opportunity to inter a c t s o c i a l l y . Children have sur-rogate aunts and cousins. I f the coop includes other types of families men are also present i n the community to act as r o l e models. (b) A housing agency to a s s i s t single parents with t h e i r housing problems A government can take the place of family members i n giving advice, finding vacan-cies and advertising f o r shared accommodations. Single parents would have some place to turn when problems ar i s e . LIMITATION POSSIBLE PROGRAM IMPACT AND IMPLICATIONS Hampered mobility CMHC rules should st i p u l a t e that subsidized housing be b u i l t i n accessible loca-tions , not skid road areas. Single mothers and t h e i r children would have access to the goods, services, and people they need without wasting time, money and energy. Women and children could come and go without fear of harassment or v i o -lence. Not enough family r e n t a l units Government tax incentives to b u i l d r e n t a l units. The creation of bylaws to ensure that a ce r t a i n per-centage of units i n new developments be large enough for families. The t o t a l number of units would increase. Because re n t a l units would be b u i l t throughout the GVRD, families would have a choice of location. Discrimination The immediate r e v i s i o n of the B.C. Human Rights Act to include prohibitions against discrimination because of age or source of income. The number of available apartments would probably double. Hostile environment I l l e g a l suites Provision of family hous-ing by government Revision of zoning bylaws allowing single mothers access to these suites A secure but segregated en-vironment would be created for those who need group support. There i s a danger of the withdrawal of single parent families into a closed c i r c l e and a tendency of these tenants to view t h i s solution as a permanent one. Sharing the cost of a home i s possible f o r those who own homes. Renters have a wide choice of location. Poor public transportation Rules making i t mandatory to locate non-market re n t a l units on trans-portation l i n e s . The 80% of single mothers who do not own cars would be able to more e a s i l y r i d e public t r a n s i t . Children and teen-agers would be able to t r a v e l outside t h e i r immediate neighbourhood. LIMITATION 95 POSSIBLE PROGRAM IMPACT AND IMPLICATIONS The sheer quantity and q u a l i t y of things that can be reached This has t r a d i t i o n a l l y depended on the public sector. However, a. program might make i t mandatory for a developer to provide c e r t a i n amenities — laundry, play space, community rooms, f a c i l i t i e s for day care, etc., on the premises. CMHC regulations should cover such amenities. The family would have immedi-ate access to these f a c i l i t i e s . Children would be able to reach them without going into a h o s t i l e environment. Mothers would be able to drop o f f children a t day care before leaving f o r work. Mun i c i p a l i t i e s can zone for mixed land use, so that services can be more e a s i l y reached by those who do not drive Daycare, and low order services and shops such as food stores could be located i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas where they are e a s i l y reached by children, teenagers and women who have no cars. 96 The g u i d e l i n e s and recommendations t h a t are d e r i v e d from t h i s t a b l e a r e o r g a n i z e d around b a s i c i s s u e s . These i s s u e s a r e c l e a r l y s t a t e d i n the "Housing O b j e c t i v e s " o f the S.M.A.C. Housing Committee. These i s s u e s a d d ress the fundamental l i m i t a t i o n s s i n g l e mothers f a c e i n f i n d i n g and a f f o r d i n g h o u s i n g i n t h e GVRD. The recommendations which f o l l o w the g u i d e l i n e s a r e a d d r e s s e d t o the t h r e e l e v e l s o f government, s i n c e i t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t p o s i t i v e government a c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o a l l e v i a t e the h o u s i n g problems of s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . The recommendations are n o t a l l e q u a l i n scope or i m p o r t a n c e . Some of the recommendations suggest s h o r t term s o l u t i o n s , some propose l o n g term s t r a t e g i e s . The recommendation c o n c e r n i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s e r v e s ., a t w o f o l d purpose: t o i n c r e a s e the number of u n i t s a v a i l a b l e t o s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s and t o b r i n g the i s s u e o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b e f o r e the p u b l i c . An amended a n t i - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c h a p t e r would a c t as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l b r a c e t o s i n g l e mothers who would be r e a s s u r e d t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l government was s a f e g u a r d i n g t h e i r r i g h t t o s h e l t e r . A l l of the recommendations, w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f the one c o n c e r n i n g i l l e g a l s u i t e s are i n a c c o r d w i t h p r e s e n t government h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s ; f o r the most p a r t they r e f l e c t and expand upon p r e s e n t p o l i c y a t a l l t h r e e l e v e l s . The recommendations a r e made, however, w i t h the prime purpose of d e s i g n a t i n g the s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l y as a group t h a t needs s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . G u i d e l i n e s and Recommendations A. A c c e s s i b i l i t y S i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s need t o be housed i n a r e a s o f maximum a c c e s s i b i l i t y because o f time and income c o n s t r a i n t s . 97 T h i s means h o u s i n g i n c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s — around Vancouver's c o r e p r i m a r i l y and around town c e n t r e s s e c o n d a r i l y . Under no c i r c u m s t a n c e s s h o u l d they be housed i n e i t h e r p e r i p h e r a l a r e a s w i t h poor t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , o r i n ar e a s i n the c i t y t h a t a r e dangerous and i n h o s p i t a b l e t o women and c h i l d r e n . . Recommendation F e d e r a l CMHC s h o u l d s t i p u l a t e t h a t h o u s i n g f i n a n c e d under the n o n - p r o f i t r e n t a l and coop programs be b u i l t on prime l a n d — ar e a s of e x c e l l e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , j o b s and s e r v i c e s . P r o v i n c i a l Having a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n , B.C. P l a c e i s an i d e a l l o c a t i o n f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . A t l e a s t 15% of the proposed r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s s h o u l d be d e s i g n a t e d f o r them. M u n i c i p a l P r e s e n t p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g d e n s i f i c a t i o n and z o n i n g f o r mixed l a n d use s h o u l d be c o n t i n u e d . Vancouver s h o u l d a l s o c r e a t e a bylaw g i v i n g s i n g l e mothers a c c e s s t o i l l e g a l s u i t e s . B. A f f o r d a b i l i t y S i n g l e mothers need h e l p p a y i n g the r e n t . Rents t h r o u g h o u t t h e GVRD a r e much too h i g h f o r the m a j o r i t y o f s i n g l e 18 p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . I f the average two bedroom apartment i s $500 19 a month and the average monthly t a k e home pay i s $1,150 , the n 98 r e n t a l o n e i s 43% o f the budget. F o r a f a m i l y n e eding a t h r e e 20 bedroom apartment a t $700 , t h i s f i g u r e goes up t o 60%. These p e r c e n t a g e s must be lowered t o the 25 - 30% range. . Recommendation F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a j o i n t s h e l t e r a l l o w a n c e program. W e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s would r e c e i v e t h e i r a l l o w a n c e s i n the u s u a l way; t a x p a y e r s would r e c e i v e t a x c r e d i t s on t h e i r r e n t a l o r mortgage payments. C. S h e l t e r as a B a s i c R i g h t S h e l t e r i s a b a s i c r i g h t , e s p e c i a l l y f o r c h i l d r e n who have no say as t o where and how they w i l l be housed. I n a c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t y c h i l d r e n a re not t u r n e d away from s h e l t e r s i m p l y because they a r e c h i l d r e n . Not o n l y must d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t c h i l d r e n be made i l l e g a l , s t i f f punishments must a l s o be r i g o r o u s l y e n f o r c e d a g a i n s t o f f e n d e r s . . Recommendation P r o v i n c i a l The new B.C. Human R i g h t s A c t s h o u l d s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c l u d e age and sour c e o f income a l o n g w i t h r a c e , sex, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , r e l i g i o n , c o l o u r , a n c e s t r y , o r p l a c e s o f o r i g i n i n i t s a n t i - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c h a p t e r . S i n c e the A c t i s c u r r e n t l y u n d e r g o i n g r e v i s i o n t h i s change c o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h a few s t r o k e s o f the pen. 99 D. B u i l d i n g f o r F a m i l i e s More f a m i l y h o u s i n g i s needed i n Vancouver's c o r e and i n o t h e r town c e n t r e s . Because o f time and income c o n s t r a i n t s most s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s w i l l want t o be near d e v e l o p e d a r e a s where t h e r e i s the h i g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n ' o f j o b s , shops, s e r v i c e s and o t h e r p e o p l e . . Recommendation F e d e r a l F a m i l y h o u s i n g s h o u l d r e c e i v e a t l e a s t 50% o f the funds CMHC budgets f o r n o n - p r o f i t r e n t a l and coop h o u s i n g . B u i l d e r s need t a x c r e d i t s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f a m i l y r e n t a l u n i t s on the open market. P r o v i n c i a l As s t a t e d above, the p r o v i s i o n of f a m i l y h o u s i n g a t B.C. P l a c e . M u n i c i p a l C i t i e s a r e urged t o c r e a t e bylaws r e q u i r i n g b u i l d e r s t o p r o v i d e f a m i l y h o u s i n g i n new developments. E. Housing I n f o r m a t i o n S i n g l e mothers need h e l p i n o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the h o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n i n the GVRD and t h e i r l e g a l r i g h t s . Some mothers a re i g n o r a n t about b a s i c l e g a l p r o c e d u r e s and do n o t know where t o t u r n f o r h e l p i n times o f c r i s i s . 10 0 . Recommendation P r o v i n c i a l An agency must be e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a -t i o n about h o u s i n g i n the GVRD. Areas of c o n c e r n i n c l u d e v a c a n c i e s , shared accommodations, a v a i l a b l e government programs, and l e g a l r i g h t s . F. Housing C h o i c e S i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s a r e unique w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n , income, l i f e s t y l e , r e s o u r c e s , and needs. Housing t y p e , t e n u r e , and l o c a t i o n a r e a l l m a t t e r s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y t o d e c i d e . . Recommendation A t each l e v e l o f government a v a r i e t y o f programs s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d so t h a t t h e r e i s the r i g h t t y p e of a s s i s t a n c e f o r each f a m i l y . No p a r t i c u l a r h o u s i n g arrangement s h o u l d be thought of as the f i n a l s o l u t i o n f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s and governments s h o u l d be open t o i n n o v a t i v e p r o p o s a l s . 101 ENDNOTES CHAPTER VI "'"Sylvia Ann H e w l e t t , " C h i l d C a r e l e s s n e s s , " H a r p e r s , November, 1983, pp. 20-25. 2 C i t y o f Vancouver, P l a n n i n g Dept. "The Core P l a n I s s u e , " Q u a r t e r l y Review, J u l y , 1983, p. 10. 3 Taken from a l i s t o f h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s m a i l e d t o me by Ann McAfee, P l a n n e r a t Vancouver's P l a n n i n g Department. J a n u a r y , 1984. 4 These a r e u n p u b l i s h e d f i g u r e s c o m p i l e d by the S o c x a l P l a n n i n g Department i n the l a s t few months. 5 ' C i t y o f Vancouver, "B.C. P l a c e I s s u e s Paper," a j o i n t p r e s e n t a t i o n by the C i t y o f Vancouver and B.C. P l a c e L t d . , June 16, 1982, p. 5. ^ P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C olumbia, M i n i s t r y o f Lands, P a r k s , and Housing, "A Housing P o l i c y f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i n t h e 1980's." Not d a t e d , p. 1. 7 I b i d . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s , and Housing, "Annual R e p o r t 1981-1982," p. 45. 9 B r i t i s h Columbia P l a c e L t d . , B.C. P l a c e R e p o r t s 1, 2 and 3: "The B.C. Concept P l a n , " Vancouver, 1982-1983. These a r e one s h e e t f l y e r s c i r c u l a t e d w i t h Vancouver newspapers. 1 0 B r i t i s h Columbia P l a c e L t d . , "B.C. P l a c e R e p o r t #2." 1 1 B r i t i s h Columbia P l a c e L t d . , "B.C. P l a c e Report #3." 12 C i t y o f Vancouver, "B.C. P l a c e I s s u e s Paper," p. 5. I b i d . , p. 6. 1 4 C a n a d a Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . "The P r i v a t e N o n - P r o f i t Housing Program," J a n u a r y , 1983. "The C o o p e r a t i v e Housing Program," J a n u a r y , 1983. 10 2 ENDNOTES CONTINUED CHAPTER VI 15 I b i d . A s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e i s e x p l a i n e d on page 2 o f b o t h b r o c h u r e s . 16 I n f o r m a t i o n about the h o u s i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f the GVRD o b t a i n e d by phone from F r e d M i n t y , House P r o p o s a l C a l l O f f i c e r a t the GVRD o f f i c e , J a n uary 25, 198 4. 17 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B i l l Lane, manager o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , F e b r u a r y 2, 1984. 18 U n i t e d Way o f the Lower M a i n l a n d , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Res e a r c h , Low Income B a s i c F a m i l y Budgets, The C o s t o f E s s e n t i a l  Goods and S e r v i c e s i n the Lower M a i n l a n d i n January 1982, Vancouver, March 198 2, p. 10. 19 F i g u r e i s based on the average s i n g l e mother's income of $17,000. A f t e r t a x e s t h i s would r o u g h l y be $1,150 a month. 20 U n i t e d Way of the Lower M a i n l a n d , p. 11. T h i s f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s the average r e n t f o r a d e c o n t r o l l e d u n i t i n Vancouver. 103 EPILOGUE WHO IS RESPONSIBLE In o r d e r t o make s u i t a b l e h o u s i n g a v a i l a b l e t o s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s some l e v e l of government must t a k e the r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y o f c r e a t i n g a comprehensive h o u s i n g p o l i c y and c o o r d i n a t i n g the v a r i o u s government departments. The government most a b l e t o ta k e up t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s the p r o v i n c i a l government, s i n c e i t manages a huge budget and can c r e a t e a g e n c i e s and programs f o r th o s e who need h e l p . Moreover, t h e p r o v i n c e i s c u r r e n t l y w r i t i n g a new human r i g h t s a c t and can make the n e c e s s a r y r e v i s i o n s t o s a f e g u a r d the r i g h t s of s i n g l e mothers and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I t a l s o has c o n t r o l over the massive p i e c e o f l a n d i n F a l s e Creek, and as the c h i e f d e t e r m i n e r o f what w i l l be b u i l t t h e r e , can make su r e t h a t some o f the h o u s i n g w i l l be d e s i g n a t e d f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . A h o u s i n g p o l i c y f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s c o u l d be i n i t i a t e d and managed by the M i n i s t r y o f Lands, P a r k s , and Housing. S i n g l e mothers i n G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a s k i n g f o r the n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e — an a f f o r d a b l e , s a f e home, and an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s o c i e t y and e s t a b l i s h a s t a b l e and s a t i s f a c t o r y l i f e f o r themselves and t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Because they f a c e so many p e r s o n a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l l i m i t a t i o n s , they have v e r y l i t t l e chance of a l t e r i n g t he c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e i r l i v e s by t h e m s e l v e s . They need h e l p , and i n the absence o f f a m i l y a s s i s t a n c e , a p o s i t i v e government response i s n e c e s s a r y . However, the p r e s e n t p r o v i n c i a l government i s not o n l y a v o i d i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f h e l p i n g these f a m i l i e s t h r o u g h the c r e a t i o n o f new p o l i c i e s , i t i s a l s o c u t t i n g back on the few s e r v i c e s t h a t poor p e o p l e now have. I n the name o f economic 10 4 " r e s t r a i n t " budgets o f s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s a re b e i n g c u t and workers f i r e d . Even emergency h e l p f o r s i n g l e mothers i n remote a r e a s l i k e Maple Ridge w i l l be a f f e c t e d . S i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n a sense form a new lower c l a s s , l a c k i n g t he j o b s k i l l s and p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s needed t o e a r n an adequate income and e s t a b l i s h a s t a b l e l i f e . Moreover, they a r e l i m i t e d on a l l s i d e s by d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and i n d i f f e r e n c e from the g e n e r a l p u b l i c -- l a n d l o r d s , c r e d i t o r s and employers a l i k e . W i t h o u t government h e l p t h i s new lower c l a s s , l i k e t hose b e f o r e i t , w i l l c o n t i n u e t o c l i n g t o the l o w e s t rungs o f the economic l a d d e r . F o r the m a j o r i t y o f s i n g l e p a r e n t s t h i s may mean c o n s t a n t d e p r i v a t i o n and i n s e c u r i t y ; t he l e a s t f o r t u n a t e w i l l become the o u t c a s t s of s o c i e t y l i v i n g meager l i v e s i n t he w o r s t h o u s i n g i n the r e g i o n . The c i t i z e n s of B r i t i s h Columbia have a c h o i c e about the q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n the p r o v i n c e and a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p o l i c i e s t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c r e a t e . H o p e f u l l y i n the n e x t few y e a r s major changes i n government h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s w i l l a l l o w s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s a c c e s s t o the o p p o r t u n i t i e s a c o s m o p o l i t a n c e n t r e such as G r e a t e r Vancouver has t o o f f e r . I n t he meantime, s i n g l e mothers i n S.M.A.C. c o n t i n u e t h e i r e f f o r t s t o r e a l i z e p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n s t o t h e i r h o u s i n g problems w h i l e d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t s i n g l e p a r e n t s can c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s t o h e l p t h e m s e l v e s . The S i n g l e Mothers' A c t i o n Committee has d e c i d e d t o c h a n n e l most o f i t s e f f o r t s toward the c r e a t i o n o f a p i l o t h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . On A p r i l 10, 1984, o n l y a few days b e f o r e the s u b m i s s i o n o f t h i s s t u d y , the Board o f D i r e c t o r s o f the YWCA approved a mot i o n which a l l o w s S.M.A.C. t o unde r t a k e a f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y f o r a h o u s i n g p r o j e c t and a p p l y f o r 105 CMHC f u n d i n g . I f the p r o j e c t i s completed, i t w i l l be the f i r s t p r o j e c t i n Canada o r g a n i z e d and b u i l t by s i n g l e p a r e n t s . Much c r e d i t s h o u l d be g i v e n t o the YWCA f o r i t s c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t o f s i n g l e mothers i n thes e times o f " r e s t r a i n t " and budget c u t backs. 106 APPENDIX CONCERNING METHODOLOGY W r i t i n g t h i s paper was d i f f i c u l t and f r u s t r a t i n g a t t i m e s f o r two d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s . I n the f i r s t p l a c e , w r i t i n g t h i s paper was a l m o s t an e x e r c i s e i n s e l f e x a m i n a t i o n , s i n c e I am a s i n g l e p a r e n t . I n r e s e a r c h i n g the._topic I t r i e d t o be o b j e c t i v e , but d e c i d e d t h a t I f i t i n t o the r o l e o f p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r . I c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d the a n x i e t i e s and problems o f t h e s e women because I was h a v i n g s i m i l a r ones. I c o u l d a l s o a t t e n d the S i n g l e M o t h e r s ! A c t i o n Committee as a member o f the group and a l s o as an o u t s i d e o b s e r v e r . A t f i r s t I thought t h a t i n c l u s i o n i n the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n might s e r v e as a d i s a d v a n t a g e by b i a s i n g the r e p o r t , b u t I f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t h a t I was advantaged i n b e i n g a b l e t o v iew the i s s u e s i n the l i g h t o f my own p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . S e c o n d l y , i t became ap p a r e n t v e r y e a r l y i n t h e s t u d y t h a t t h e r e was a l m o s t a t o t a l l a c k o f m a t e r i a l c o n c e r n i n g s i n g l e mothers i n t h e GVRD. Most government a g e n c i e s had p r a c t i c a l l y no i n f o r m a t i o n t o o f f e r . The M i n i s t r y of Human Resources had o n l y one s t u d y based on d a t a from B r i t i s h Columbia and t h a t was a comparison o f two communities i n V i c t o r i a as s u i t a b l e environments f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t s . I n l o o k i n g f o r m a t e r i a l f o r the GVRD, I was l e d i n a round about way t o Maple Ridge. As I went from one agency t o a n o t h e r , someone s a i d t h a t a study o f community f a c i l i t i e s i n Maple Ridge had been done a t Douglas C o l l e g e . The program c o o r d i n a t o r d i d not remember t h e stu d y b u t s a i d t o c a l l Susanne Stace y a t the Maple Ridge Community S e r v i c e s C o u n c i l . Susanne s a i d , "Oh, t h e r e i s no ..written s t u d y . They must mean the map t h a t ' s on my w a l l . " Desperate f o r m a t e r i a l , I s a i d , " W e l l , 10 7 maybe I'd b e t t e r come out and take a look at your map." Fortunate-l y t h i s l e d to the in t e r v i e w s concerning the c o n d i t i o n s there. Obviously t h i s t o p i c needs f u r t h e r research. P o s s i b l e areas of i n v e s t i g a t i o n are the d i f f e r e n c e s between working mothers and welfare r e c i p i e n t s , the d e c i s i o n making process i n r e s i d e n t i a l s e l e c t i o n and the importance of i l l e g a l s u i t e s i n the housing of s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s . 108 BIBLIOGRAPHY A n d e r s o n - K h l e i f , Susan. "Housing Needs of S i n g l e - P a r e n t Mothers," i n 3 . K e l l e r (ed. ) , B u i l d i n g f o r Women. L e x i n g t o n , Mass.: H e a l t h and Co., 1981. pp. 21-34. B r i t i s h Columbia, P r o v i n c e o f , M i n i s t r y o f Lands, P a r k s , and Housing. "Annual R e p o r t 1981-82." B r i t i s h C olumbia, P r o v i n c e o f , M i n i s t r y o f Lands, P a r k s , and Housing. "A Housing P o l i c y f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i n t h e 1980's." B r i t i s h Columbia P l a c e L t d . "The B.C. P l a c e Concept P l a n . " (B.C. P l a c e R e p o r t s No. 1, 2, and 3.) 1982, 1983. C a l l a h a n , M a r i l y n and M a r t i n , M a r j o r i e ( e d . ) . "Welfare R i g h t s and G a i n , 7 t h E d i t i o n F e b r u a r y 1983." V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Broughton Communications Group. 198 3. Canadian Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . "The C o o p e r a t i v e Housing Program." J a n u a r y , 198 3. . "The P r i v a t e N o n - P r o f i t Housing Program." January 1983. . " S t a r t - u p Program, The Development P r o c e s s . " Ottawa: A p r i l 1981. Canadian C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development. "The One-Parent F a m i l y . " A r e p o r t o f an I n q u i r y on one-pare n t f a m i l i e s i n Canada. Ottawa: October, 1971. F e r r i , E l s a , and Robinson, H i l a r y . Coping A l o n e . Windsor, B e r k s , E n g l a n d : NFER Pub. Co. L t d . , 1976. Fox, M a r i o n B. "The Acc e s s o f Women t o Work and Community F a c i l i t i e s , " APA J o u r n a l , S p r i n g 1983, 156-170. Gans, H e r b e r t J . The Urban V i l l a g e r s . (updated and expanded e d i t i o n . ) New York: The Free P r e s s , 198 2. G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . The L i v a b l e Region 1976-1986. March 26, 1975. Hardwick, W a l t e r G. Vancouver. O n t a r i o : C o l l i e r M a c m i l l a n Canada, L t d . , 1974. H e w l e t t , S y l v i a Ann. " C h i l d C a r e l e s s n e s s , " H a r p e r s , November 1983, 20-25. Hood, Nancy E l i z a b e t h . "One P a r e n t F a m i l i e s : T h e i r Housing Needs." U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976. H o p k i n s , Thomas. "Hunger f o r Housing," Macleans, March 30, 1981, 28 . 109 J e s s u p , John. "Downtown Lo d g i n g Houses and Tenant P r o f i l e , " a r e p o r t by t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, C i t y o f Vancouver, October, 198 3. K e l l e r , Suzanne ( e d . ) . B u i l d i n g f o r Women. L e x i n g t o n , Mass.: D.C. Heath and Co., 1981. L i o y , M i c h e l e . S o c i a l Trends i n G r e a t e r Vancouver. Vancouver: S o c i a l P o l i c y and Research Department, U n i t e d Way o f G r e a t e r Vancouver, Gordon S o u l e s Economic and M a r k e t i n g R e s e a r c h (Pub.), 1975. Luke, C a t h e r i n e . "Community and M o b i l i t y : A Comparative Study of S i n g l e P a r e n t s i n V i c t o r i a West and James Bay." A r e p o r t p r e p a r e d f o r the M i n i s t r y of Human Re s o u r c e s , September 21, 1979. Lynch, K e v i n . A Theory o f Good C i t y Form. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT P r e s s , 1981. Me n z i e s , June S. "New D i r e c t i o n s f o r P u b l i c P o l i c y : A P o s i t i o n Paper on the One-Parent F a m i l y . " Ottawa: Canadian A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on the S t a t u s o f Women, A p r i l , 1976. Nakaska, A l a n G. "Housing f o r S i n g l e P a r e n t F a m i l i e s . " U n p u b l i s h e d T h e s i s f o r the S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, A p r i l 30, 1981. N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f W e l f a r e . "One i n a World of Two's." A r e p o r t on one-parent f a m i l i e s i n Canada. Ottawa: N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f W e l f a r e , A p r i l , 1976. . "Women and P o v e r t y . " Ottawa: October, 1979. N e t t e r , E d i t h , M. and P r i c e , Ruth G. "Zoning and the Nouveau Poor," APA J o u r n a l , S p r i n g , 1983, 171-181. N o r r i s , G l o r i a , and M i l l e r , Jo Ann. The Working Mother's Complete  Handbook. New York: A S u n r i s e Book, E.P. D u t t o n , 1979. P r o v i n c e , The. " O f f i c e Space Rent Market T i g h t e n i n g . " Vancouver; J a n u a r y 22, 1984. Ross, D a v i d . Canadian F a c t Book on P o v e r t y . T o r o n t o : The Canadian C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development. 1983. Ross, Heather L. and S a w h i l l , I s a b e l V. Time of T r a n s i t i o n : The  Growth of F a m i l i e s Headed by Women. Washington, D.C: The Urban I n s t i t u t e . 1975. S c h l e s i n g e r , Benjamin ( e d . ) . One i n Ten: The S i n g l e P a r e n t i n Canada. T o r o n t o : Guidance C e n t r e , F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Tor o n t o . 1979. 110 Schon, Donald. " W i l l the P r o f e s s i o n s S u r v i v e ? : The Age o f U n c e r t a i n t y . " A taped speech g i v e n a t the Vancouver I n s t i t u t e . November 17, 1979. S i n g l e Mothers' A c t i o n Committee, A Vancouver YWCA sponsored group. "Housing O b j e c t i v e s . " From the minutes o f the Housing Committee, December 3, 198 3. S t a t i s t i c s Canada. B.C. S e l e c t e d S o c i a l and Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , 1981. Cat. E-580 . Census F a m i l i e s i n P r i v a t e Households by F a m i l y S t r u c t u r e , Showing Number of C h i l d r e n a t Home, 1981. M i c r o f i c h e No. SDF 81A12 H 11, p. A-79, I 11, p. B-79. . 1976. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P a r e n t s and Lone P a r e n t F a m i l i e s , Cat. 93-825. . P o p u l a t i o n by M a r i t a l S t a t u s , Age Groups and Sex, 1981. M i c r o f i c h e No. CTD 81A11 M 2, p. 27. . S e l e c t e d P o p u l a t i o n D w e l l i n g , Household and Census F a m i l y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f o r Census D i v i s i o n s and  S u b d i v i s i o n s , 1981. Cat. E-568. . S e l e c t e d P o p u l a t i o n , D w e l l i n g , Household and F a m i l y D i s t r i b u t i o n s , Showing S e l e c t e d S o c i a l and Economic  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f o r Census D i v i s i o n s and S u b d i v i s i o n s , 1981. Cat. E-580. T y t h e r l e i g h , Mike. "Hooker-Lookers Cover Old Ground." The P r o v i n c e . Vancouver, January 9, 198 4. U n i t e d Way of the Lower M a i n l a n d . "Access t o Housing, A R e g i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e . " A r e p o r t o f the S p e c i a l Needs Housing Study. P r e p a r e d by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Research Department, U n i t e d Way. Vancouver: March 1980. . 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T o r o n t o ! May 1, 1982. Wolch, J e n n i f e r R. " R e s i d e n t i a l L o c a t i o n o f the S e r v i c e Dependent Poor,"• A n n a l s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geography. September 198 0. Woodsworth, E l l e n . "Report f o r the Vancouver YWCA Board o f D i r e c t o r s on Housing Needs o f S i n g l e P a r e n t s i n Vancouver." J a n u a r y 1982. Young, M i c h a e l and W i l l m o n t , P e t e r . F a m i l y and K i n s h i p i n E a s t London. G r e a t B r i t a i n : R o u t l edge and Kegan P a u l . 1977. 112 PERSONAL CONTACTS MEETINGS, DISCUSSIONS, INTERVIEWS AND PHONE CALLS Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h Gary H i s c o x , Manager, S p e c i a l P r o j e c t s . January 17, 1984, G r e a t e r Vancouver Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h B i l l Lane, D i r e c t o r . F e b r u a r y 2, 198 4. G r e a t e r Vancouver I n f o r m a t i o n and R e f e r r a l S e r v i c e , a p r i v a t e n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y . P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h G i l Evan, e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r . November 28, 1983. G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . Phone c a l l t o F r e d M i n t y , House P r o p o s a l C a l l O f f i c e r . January 25, 1984. Maple Ridge Community S e r v i c e s C o u n c i l , a r e g i s t e r e d n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y p a r t l y funded by MHR and U n i t e d Way. P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h Susanne S t a c e y , Program F a c i l i t a t o r . December 6, 1983 and F e b r u a r y 6. S i n g l e Mothers' A c t i o n Committee, sponsored by th e Vancouver YWCA. Me e t i n g s h e l d on November 2, 198 3, November 5, 198 3, November 17, 198 3, December 3, 1983. S i n g l e Mothers' Symposium, sponsored by the Vancouver YWCA. P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h Judy L i n d s a y , c o o r d i n a t o r and f a c i l i t a t o r o f the 1983 symposium. November 2, 198 3. U n i t e d Way o f the Lower M a i n l a n d . P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h F l o r a MacLeod, P o l i c y P l a n n i n g C o n s u l t a n t , G a v i n Perryman, p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t , and E l s i e M a n l e y - C a s i m i r , A s s i s t a n t P l a n n i n g C o n s u l t a n t . Nov. 29, 1983. 

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