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Saisei Itchi : the identity of religion and government in the early Meiji years 1867-1872 Brown, William Nimmo 1984

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SAISEI ITCHIt THE IDENTITY OP RELIGION AND GOVERNMENT IN THE EARLY MEIJI YEARS 1 8 6 7 - 1 8 7 2 by WILLIAM NJMMO BROWN B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 8 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE (Department  STUDIES  of History)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA October 1 9 8 4 (c) W i l l i a m Nimmo B r o w n , I98-+  >E-6  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department o r by h i s o r her  be granted by the head o f representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department of  Hl*To*y  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  (3/81)  OCT.  II  /IILf.  written  ii  ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s i s a study o f the i n t e r a c t i o n o f r e l i g i o n and  government i n the f i r s t f i v e years  o f the M e i j i  Restoration  (1868-1872).  I t d e a l s with the i d e o l o g i c a l premises as w e l l as  the p o l i t i c a l  a p p l i c a t i o n o f S h i n t o as an organ o f government.  The  paper d i s c u s s e s the e l e v a t i o n t o n a t i o n a l prominence o f  Shinto  i n the form o f R e s t o r a t i o n or R e v i v a l S h i n t o  (Fukko  S h i n t 5 ) a n d t r a c e s both the t h e o l o g i c a l antecedents as w e l l as the a n c i e n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r i g i n s o f the theory  religio-political  o f s t a t e espoused by the R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o  T h i s theory  found p o l i t i c a l  expression  movement.  i n the e a r l y M e i j i  years  through the government's r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n and promotion o f the religious p o l i c y of s a i s e i i t c h i ,  the i d e n t i t y o r u n i t y o f  r e l i g i o n and government. T h i s t h e s i s has t h r e e main o b j e c t i v e s : f i r s t ,  to examine  the S h i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mechanisms i n the c e n t r a l government and  thereby d e f i n e s a i s e i i t c h i as both an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  s t r u c t u r e and a r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l  ideology;  second, to i n v e s t i -  gate the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of, s a i s e i i t c h i as a r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y by l o o k i n g a t the l e g i s l a t i o n e f f e c t e d by Shinto i s t r a t i v e bodies;  admin-  and t h i r d , t o d e f i n e the p o s i t i o n and r o l e  of the s a i s e i i t c h i c o n s t r u c t w i t h i n the context  o f the g e n e r a l  pre-war a l l i a n c e o f S h i n t o and the Japanese s t a t e which i s c a t e g o r i z e d under the b l a n k e t  term S t a t e S h i n t o  (Kokka S h i n t o ) .  T h i s t h e s i s concludes t h a t the implementation o f s a i s e i  iii  i t c h i was a c o n s i s t e n t g o a l o f the e a r l y M e i j i government between 1868 and 1872.  The promotion o f the R e s t o r a t i o n  S h i n t o i d e o l o g y expressed  through the s a i s e i i t c h i  ideal  p r o v i d e d an i d e o l o g i c a l framework which a i d e d i n the c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f S h i n t o as a r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e and i n the acceptance o f the new I m p e r i a l government.  The paper argues  f u r t h e r t h a t s a i s e i i t c h i was t o a y s i g n i f i c a n t degree r e l i g i o u s i n i n t e n t , so much so t h a t i t can be viewed as b e i n g a d i s t i n c t e n t i t y w i t h i n the g e n e r a l c o n t e x t o f S t a t e S h i n t o with which i t i s u s u a l l y f u s e d or confused.  That i s ,  i n the work o f s e v e r a l modern h i s t o r i a n s , s a i s e i i t c h i has e i t h e r been t r e a t e d assan  i n t e g r a l component o f S t a t e  or mistaken f o r S t a t e S h i n t o i t s e l f .  By h i g h l i g h t i n g  Shinto saisei  i t c h i as the major f a c e t i n the e a r l y M e i j i s t a t e ' s i n v o l v e ment with S h i n t o , t h i s t h e s i s hopes to p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t i n t o t h i s o f t n e g l e c t e d aspect o f e a r l y M e i j i government.  iv  TABLE OP CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Preface. .  v  Chapter 1.  Introduction  2.  The L e g a c y o f A n c i e n t  3.  The S y s t e m a t i z a t i o n of Shinto  . 4.  10  Japan  and  Politicization  Thought  The E s t a b l i s h m e n t P a r t One:  1  24 of Saisei Itchi  41  The R e - i n s t a t e m e n t o f t h e  I m p e r i a l H o u s e , 1867-1868 P a r t Two: I n i t i a l Experimentation w i t h A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Forms. P a r t T h r e e : The J i n g i k a n P e r i o d ( A u g u s t 15, 1869 t o S e p t e m b e r 22, P a r t F o u r : S e n k y o s h i and t h e Propagation of Shinto Ideology P a r t F i v e : The D o w n f a l l  Conclusion  55 18?1)  71 °96  of the  J i n g i k a n and R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o 5.  42  103 114  Notes  121  Glossary  134  Bibliography  136  V  PREFACE  This study deals w i t h the p o l i t i c a l S h i n t o i n the f i r s t was  inspired  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  f i v e y e a r s of the M e i j i p e r i o d .  It  i n i t i a l l y by t h e w o r k o f M u r a k a m i S h i g e y o s h i  and D a n i e l H o l t o m .  Both  these  a u t h o r i t i e s and  others  in  the immediate post-war p e r i o d examined the r o l e of  in  the p o l i t i c i z e d  as b e g i n n i n g  By  the n i n e t e e n t h century,  the S h i n t o  had  spheres  independently  i n t o f i v e broad  I m p e r i a l House S h i n t o , S c h o o l o r S c h o l a r l y S h i n t o , S h i n t o , F o l k S h i n t o and S e c t S h i n t o .  world  -Shrine  i n the  main  t h e s e w e r e l i n k e d by a c e n t r a l c o n v i c t i o n t o  supremacy o f kami r e v e r e n c e .  To p l a c e t h e s e  of S h i n t o under the s i n g l e c a t e g o r y account  f o r t h e r o l e and  spheres  and  one  s h a p e d by  political  state. t h i s essay  the  d i v e r s e forms  of S t a t e S h i n t o f a i l s  development of each of the  c o m p r e s s e s them i n t o one  o v e r , was  In  Although  saw  however,  the m u l t i p l i c i t y of elements which comprise  separate,  Shinto  f o r m known a s S t a t e S h i n t o w h i c h t h e y  i n 1868.  developed  writing  mold.  the d i c t a t e s of the  to  Shinto  T h i s m o l d , moreideology of  the  I e x a m i n e t h e r o l e and p o s i t i o n w i t h i n  government o f R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o , the most p r e v a l e n t form of S c h o l a r l y S h i n t o a t the onset My  o f the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n .  r e s e a r c h showed t h a t R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o i s t s who  official  held  p o s i t i o n s i n the S h i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e departments  vi  of the e a r l y policy  M e i j i government f o r m u l a t e d  and enacted  religio-political  a religious  l e g i s l a t i o n to re-establish ideal of saisei itchi.  precedence over p o l i t i c a l  the ancient  Although  not given  c o n c e r n s b e t w e e n 1868 a n d 1872,  S h i n t o d i d , as p a r t o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework,  provide  t h e means f o r t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f S h i n t o a s a n i n d e p e n d e n t religious  entity.  T h i s e n t i t y , when c o m p a r e d t o S t a t e  showed a much s t r o n g e r religious  then,  draws a d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s a i s e i  f o r m u l a t i o n and t h e l a t e r S t a t e S h i n t o .  i t emphasizes a p r e v i o u s l y l i t t l e early  i d e o l o g y and  concerns.  This thesis, itchi  influence of religious  Shinto,  I n so doing  examined a s p e c t  M e i j i government's r e l a t i o n s h i p  of the  with Shinto.  Inherent  i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s g e n e r a l theme i s t h e c o g e n t question of the r o l e Shintoists  i n early  and p o s i t i o n  M e i j i government.  focus of t h i s paper l i e s  provides  To strate  a unique c o n t r i b u t i o n  to the study Meiji  underline the e f f i c a c y  I wish  of the t i e s  state.  o f s u c h a theme a n d t o demon-  here t o c l a r i f y  by such a study.  In  the thesis  t h e worth o f the arguments and c o n c l u s i o n s  presented, raised  Meiji religious policy.  of Shinto from t h i s viewpoint  between S h i n t o and t h e e a r l y  from  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and l e g i s l a t i o n  i n the formulation of early  the examination  Thus t h e p r i m a r y  i n an e v a l u a t i o n o f S h i n t o  the s t a n d p o i n t o f r e l i g i o u s and  o f R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o and  A primary  herein  some o f t h e p r o b l e m s p r o b l e m f a c e d by t h e  vii  s c h o l a r i s t h a t of o b t a i n i n g a c l e a r p i c t u r e of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework formed i n the years 1868  to  1872.  Numerous a d m i n i s t r a t i v e changes took p l a c e d u r i n g  these  years of the M e i j i t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d , an e r a of g e n e r a l political  insecurity.  The p o l i t i c a l events  i n these  years defy accurate assessment as does the exact of  the numerous a d m i n i s t r a t i v e bodies s e t up.  the response  of p o l i t i c a l  d i f f i c u l t to e v a l u a t e .  importance  Secondly,  l e a d e r s to S h i n t o reform  i s also  There i s i n f a c t a p a u c i t y of  mation on the a t t i t u d e s of the p o l i t i c a l Shinto.  five  infor-  l e a d e r s towards  I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, to address  directly  the  q u e s t i o n of the r o l e of S h i n t o i n government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by an e v a l u a t i o n of how  v a r i o u s Shinto o f f i c e s were formed,  t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework and the l e g i s l a t i o n they i s s u e d .  As a r e s u l t ,  the r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y of e a r l y M e i j i and  (1)  (2) the degree of  p r i o r i t y g i v e n to the e l e v a t i o n of S h i n t o . of  I focus on  The  acquiescence  the p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s to S h i n t o reform, while assumed,  i s a more d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n to assess. T h i s t h e s i s , then, emphasizes the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i s s u e s and achievements of e a r l y M e i j i Shinto by a p r e s e n t a t i o n of I m p e r i a l e d i c t s and other o r d e r s on r e l i g i o n which emanated from the Shinto a d m i n i s t r a t i v e bodies. to for of  Thus, i t i s p o s s i b l e  show the i n t e n t and goals of the Shinto r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of S h i n t o as w e l l as the d i r e c t the r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y .  S i n c e the primary  concern  of  effect  viii  S h i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t o r s was  t h e e l e v a t i o n and  re-estahlishment  of S h i n t o , the d i s c u s s i o n s of S h i n t o d o c t r i n e i n t h i s a r e c o n f i n e d t o t h o s e p o s t u l a t e s w h i c h were u t i l i z e d p r o v i d e a l e g i t i m a c y f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n of the l i n e to p o l i t i c a l The  (1)  Both  Imperial  c o n d i t i o n e d by  the  g e n e r a l b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n on (2)  o r i g i n o f s a i s e i i t c h i and doctrine.  to  prominence.  s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s t h e s i s was  needs t o p r e s e n t  paper  of these  the development of  concerns,  Shinto  i f not c r u c i a l to  arguments c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s paper, are n e c e s s a r y  the  the  to provide  t h e c o n t e x t f o r t h e s u b s e q u e n t r e l i g i o u s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e development.  2 and  Thus C h a p t e r s  3 present b r i e f  o f t h e a n c i e n t b o n d b e t w e e n S h i n t o and development of S h i n t o thought of R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o i s t s  accounts  g o v e r n m e n t and  which culminated  the  i n the works  i n the mid-nineteenth  century.  R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o r e p r e s e n t s the s c h o l a r l y or v e r b a l i z e d f o r m o f an e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - v e r b a l is,  intellectuals  c e n t u r y had  interested  type of worship.  i n S h i n t o by t h e  f o r m e d v a r i o u s s c h o o l s w h i c h had  d o c t r i n e s t h a t f o r the sake o f convenience as  " i n t e l l e c t u a l Shinto".  name f o r t h e i n d i g e n o u s  Shinto i t s e l f  nineteenth developed  are t r e a t e d h e r e i n i s the  collective  Japanese form of p i e t y towards  appeasement of the kami o r d e i t i e s o f the S h i n t o The  term  religion  phenomenon.  That  pantheon.  i s applied herein w i t h regard to  It i s , in fact,  a l e s s than accurate  and  this description  ix  o f S h i n t o r i t u a l p r a c t i c e s and w o r l d The  view.  i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s t h e s i s presents  h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c a l d e b a t e s on S t a t e S h i n t o . d u c e s my  the  major  I t also  approach to the s u b j e c t which d e a l s  intro-  primarily  w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f S h i n t o by R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o i s t s holding formal p o l i t i c a l added v a l i d i t y l e a d e r s and  due  office.  to the shared  T h i s a p p r o a c h has o b j e c t i v e s of the  the leaders of S h i n t o .  n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l cohesion  an political  That i s , the concern  c e n t r e d around the  Imperial  symbol c o i n c i d e d w i t h the r e l i g i o u s aims of S h i n t o emperor e l e v a t i o n .  What emerges f r o m a s t u d y  a c t i o n o f r e l i g i o n and  for  and  of the  government i n e a r l y M e i j i  r e l i g i o - i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y p r o v i d e d by S h i n t o  inter-  i s the throughout  this period. The  p o s i t i o n of S h i n t o , then,  examination trators  o f t h e l e g a l s t a t u t e s e f f e c t e d by S h i n t o  i n t h e i r reform  Thus, C h a p t e r k p r e s e n t s  adminis-  the c e n t r a l arguments o f  this  of the r o l e of R e s t o r a t i o n  i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework c o n s t r u c t e d i n the  f i r s t M e i j i years. degree of success was  an  of the S h i n t o r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e .  p a p e r and p r o v i d e s an e x a m i n a t i o n Shinto  i s i l l u s t r a t e d by  Furthermore, t h i s chapter i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of s a i s e i  measures  the  i t c h i as i t  applied i n early Meiji. S e v e r a l p r a c t i c a l f a c t o r s , however, i n h i b i t e d a complete  a p p r a i s a l o f t h e t i e s b e t w e e n S h i n t o and government.  First,  the e a r l y M e i j i  as s t a t e d above, t h e r e i s a l a c k o f  X  primary-source  evidence  i n t e n t i o n s of  on the p r e c i s e o p i n i o n s  and  the M e i j i p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s .  For  example, the d i a r y of Kido Koin, c o v e r i n g the p e r i o d to  1871,  i s s i l e n t on the s u b j e c t of S h i n t o .  of  Iwakura by Tokutomi I i c h i r o a l s o f a i l s to p r o v i d e  reader w i t h the P r i n c e ' s views on Shinto and reform.  The  1868  biography the  religious  Thus, any assessment on the degree of i n f l u e n c e  on r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n or support of S h i n t o must be measured c i r c u m s t a n t i a l l y by these l e a d e r s ' and  others'  l a i s s e z - f a i r e a t t i t u d e to the promotion and e l e v a t i o n of Shinto as d i r e c t government p o l i c y . of more s p e c i f i c ing  Because of t h i s l a c k  i n f o r m a t i o n , i n f a c t , the t a s k of  such views has been l i t t l e  graphy of the p e r i o d 1868  addressed  to 1872.  i n the  determin-  historio-  To a v o i d becoming  embroiled  i n such h y p o t h e t i c a l i s s u e s , t h i s t h e s i s c o n c e n t r a t e s on the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of S h i n t o i n t h i s p e r i o d . Secondly, to  because we  i t i s most  difficult  determine the p r e c i s e i n t e n t i o n s of the R e s t o r a t i o n  Shinto leaders. to  l a c k sources,  While there i s an abundance of m a t e r i a l as  the d o c t r i n a l e x t r a p o l a t i o n s of these s c h o l a r s , the  v a r i o u s schools they headed and the f a c t i o n a l d i s p u t e s over r e l i g i o u s i s s u e s , there i s l i t t l e  i n the way  of  evidence  r e g a r d i n g t h e i r d i r e c t l y expressed p o l i t i c a l g o a l s f o r Shinto. T h i r d l y , there are a l s o the u s u a l g e n e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the nature of the sources used, namely, the  xi  Japanese h i s t o r i e s I c o n s u l t e d i n Shinto's  status  which recount the  in early Meiji.  Two  h o w e v e r , were t o a d e g r e e u s e f u l . bunri shiryo  ( H i s t o r y of the S h i n t o  the M e i j i P e r i o d ) , w h i l e the v a g a r i e s  The  of these Meiji  changes works,  ishin  shinhutsu  Buddhist Separation  in  dealing almost e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h  of Buddhist a f f a i r s ,  d i d prove valuable  p r o v i d i n g primary-source m a t e r i a l which included m e n t a t i o n of s e v e r a l of the main l e g a l orders  in  the  docu-  relating  to  S h i n t o - i n s p i r e d changes i n the r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e .  The  I s h i n s h i ( H i s t o r y of the R e s t o r a t i o n ) , a l t h o u g h a  general  secondary source, provided and  ranks of the  a d e t a i l e d account of the  l e a d i n g f i g u r e s who  i n government departments.  The  h e l d the  determining  Hori  Ordinances)  as  McLaren, t h o u g h o f l i t t l e use  the background i s s u e s b e h i n d  c h a n g e and  positions  s e l e c t i o n s from the  z e n s h o ( C o m p l e t e C o l l e c t i o n o f Laws and t r a n s l a t e d by P r o f e s s o r  key  names  the r e a s o n f o r i t , do_.  administrative  provide  of the major a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f o r m u l a t i o n s  in  a broad  and  survey  their legal  enactment. This research  t h e s i s d r a w s e x t e n s i v e l y on more u p - t o - d a t e on S h i n t o  authorities i n the The by  i n the  by  l e a d i n g contemporary Japanese  field.  specialized articles  This  information  i n Japanese c i t e d  documentation of primary-source m a t e r i a l t h e s e a r t i c l e s e n a b l e d t h i s t h e s i s t o add  to the  is  contained  herein. provided new  material  d i s c u s s i o n i n E n g l i s h of e a r l y M e i j i Shinto  reforms.  xii  The a b o v e i n f o r m a t i o n t a k e n material to j u s t i f y of t h i s t h e s i s .  c o l l e c t i v e l y provided  the conclusions  S h i n t o i s t s i n government. p o s s i b l e t o measure t h e i r  activities  Utilizing this,  i t has been  i n f l u e n c e i n the r e l i g i o u s  sphere,  i n e f f e c t i n g the l e g i s l a t i o n to r e - e s t a b l i s h r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e b y 1872.  respect, this thesis,  then, provides  explored  In this  an o r i g i n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n  o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between S h i n t o  M e i j i government. little  on  of Restoration  an independent S h i n t o  to the study  k  drawn i n C h a p t e r  There i s a b r o a d body o f i n f o r m a t i o n  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and l e g i s l a t i v e  particularly  enough  and t h e e a r l y  F u r t h e r m o r e , by p r e s e n t i n g a h i t h e r t o  aspect  o f e a r l y M e i j i g o v e r n m e n t , i t demon-  s t r a t e s a v i e w o f t h e M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n a s more t h a n a secular revolution. In the task o f p r e s e n t i n g the m a t e r i a l used i n t h i s t h e s i s and o f c l a r i f y i n g t h e i s s u e s i n v o l v e d , I r e c e i v e d the c o n s i s t e n t a d v i c e Wray, t o whom I owe  o f my  supervisor, Professor William  a debt of g r a t i t u d e .  I also wish  to  thank P r o f e s s o r Leon H u r v i t z f o r h i s i l l u m i n a t i n g  comments  on t h e e t y m o l o g i c a l d e r i v a t i o n o f t h e t e r m s a i s e i  itchi.  1  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION  The  initial,  politically  c r u c i a l years  of the  R e s t o r a t i o n (1868-1872) were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  the  Meiji formation  o f a g o v e r n m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e , t h e k e y s t o n e o f w h i c h was reinstatement  of the Emperor t o the f o c a l p o s i t i o n as  of the p o l i t i c a l  state.  C o n c o m i t a n t t o t h i s move,  out a p o l i c y f o r the r e v i v a l of S h i n t o . aspects,  but p a r t i c u l a r l y  I m p e r i a l house, p r o v i d e d  Shinto  carried  i n a l li t s  i t s ancient t i e s with  the M e i j i l e a d e r s w i t h an  orthodox i d e o l o g i c a l foundation  head  the  M e i j i government, from the o n s e t of the R e s t o r a t i o n ,  manifold  the  f o r the  the  acceptable  legitimate reinstate-  ment t o p o l i t i c a l p r o m i n e n c e o f t h e E m p e r o r i n whose name t h e R e s t o r a t i o n and  i t s accompanying r e f o r m s were  T h u s , t h e e l e v a t i o n and M e i j i was  promotion of Shinto  i n early  undertaken w i t h the p r e c i s e g o a l of p r o v i d i n g a  r e l i g i o - i d e o l o g i c a l foundation structure. years, but  justified.  What was  f o r the modern I m p e r i a l s t a t e  developed, not only  throughout the M e i j i p e r i o d  i n the  (and  indeed,  modification until  19^5). was  p o l i t y t h a t had  i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s i n s p i r e d by  an  of Japan's c l a s s i c a l age. M e i j i theory  o f s t a t e and  1  early Meiji with  an E m p e r o r - c e n t r e d n a t i o n a l the  example  That i s , fundamental to the the r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y of the  early  first  2  M e i j i g o v e r n m e n t s was f r a m e w o r k and indigenous  the u t i l i z a t i o n of the r e l i g i o - s o c i a l  the p o l i t i c a l 2  kami worship  A t t h e same t i m e , religious  institutions  of the  ancient  of Japan. early M e i j i p o l i t i c a l theory  p o l i c y d r e w u p o n more r e c e n t  and  religio-ideological  d e v e l o p m e n t s p r o v i d e d by  the  ideas of a s u c c e s s i o n of  and C o n f u c i a n  The  work of t h e s e  scholars.  researchers,  p r o t r a c t e d p r o g r e s s i o n of b r o a d l y connected outpourings,  culminated  i n and  was  by  the  (Kokugaku)  and  o f f s h o o t , the s c h o o l of R e s t o r a t i o n or R e v i v a l of  Antiquity Shinto s a m u r a i who,  (Fukko S h i n t o ) .  by November, 1867.  Tokugawa K e i k i  and  r e s t o r e d the  p o l i t i c a l p r o m i n e n c e , was  The had  nistic  t h o s e who The  p r o t e c t i o n and rallied  the  Shogun  the  Shinto-based  s u p r e m a c y s u p p l i e d by  Thus, f r o m the  background  to break from the c o n f i n e s of  f e u d a l government, S h i n t o  symbolic  defeated  i n f l u e n c e d by  the R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o s c h o o l . of a n a t i o n s t r a i n i n g  movement o f d i s s e n t i n g  Imperial l i n e to n a t i o n a l  n o t i o n s o f I m p e r i a l l e g i t i m a c y and  emerged t o p r o v i d e  a r e l i g i o - i d e o l o g i c a l focus  anachroa for  a g a i n s t t h e outmoded b a k u h a n s y s t e m .  t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d f r o m Tokugawa r u l e t o t h e  l i d a t i o n of the M e i j i experimentation  s t a t e was  f r a u g h t w i t h change  i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e forms.  I n 1868  government, f a c e d w i t h the l a c k of a s u i t a b l e and  a  intellectual  systematized  s c h o l a r s of the s c h o o l of N a t i o n a l L e a r n i n g its  Shinto  i n f l u e n c e d by  consoand  the  Meiji  alternative  the d o c t r i n e s of R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o ,  formed  3  an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e b a s e d p r i m a r i l y on a political  theory of governance.  t h a t of s a i s e i i t c h i , ment.  Saisei  religio-  The m o d e l e m u l a t e d was  t h e i d e n t i t y o f r e l i g i o n and g o v e r n -  i t c h i had i t s f i r s t  c r a t i c p o l i t y of ancient Japan.  expression i n the theo-  In this period  Shinto  r i t e s had been paramount i n t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e a n c i e n t p o l i t i c a l state.  The f o r m a t i o n  i n 1869 o f a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  s t r u c t u r e b a s e d on t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y Y o r o Code, b y w h i c h t h e J i n g i k a n ( C o u n c i l o f S h i n t o A f f a i r s ) was p l a c e d a s t h e p r e - e m i n e n t department o f government, marked t h e r e i n s t a t e ment o f more t r a d i t i o n a l n o t i o n s o f I m p e r i a l g o v e r n m e n t . The p o s i t i o n o f b u r e a u c r a t i c s u p r e m a c y a c c o r d e d t h e J i n g i k a n also exemplified the influence of Restoration Shinto p r o m o t i o n o f the government p o l i c y At  on  i n the  religion.  the outset of the R e s t o r a t i o n , then,  the f i r s t  Meiji  government c a r r i e d o u t a r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y w h i c h e l e v a t e d and promoted S h i n t o as t h e p r i m a r y buttress to Imperial rule.  religio-ideological  This p o l i c y advocated the forma-  t i o n and p r o m o t i o n o f t h e a n c i e n t i d e a l o f t h e i d e n t i t y o r u n i t y o f t h e S h i n t o r e l i g i o n and government. initiated  Thus  was  t h e m a r r i a g e o f S h i n t o b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s t o  the p o l i t i c a l theory  o f modern i m p e r i a l government.  the r e i n t r o d u c t i o n of the s a i s e i  i t c h i model and t h e  r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i m e n t s of the e a r l y M e i j i government, a l l i a n c e became i n c r e a s i n g l y p o l i t i c i z e d .  After initial this  From t h e l a t e  1880's o n w a r d s , S h i n t o a s t h e r e l i g i o u s v o i c e o f t h e  4  kokutai  ( n a t i o n a l p o l i t y ) became c r y s t a l l i z e d  into the  f o r m w h i c h h a s come i n r e t r o s p e c t t o be known a s S t a t e Shinto until  (Kokka S h i n t o ) .  Shinto  i n t h i s form remained  intact  i t was d i s e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e Supreme Commander o f t h e  A l l i e d Powers i n State Shinto  19-+5.  i s t h e a l l - e m b r a c i n g a p p e l l a t i o n used  p r i m a r i l y by p o s t - w a r s c h o l a r s t o d e s c r i b e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of S h i n t o and t h e Japanese s t a t e . b y most h i s t o r i a n s ,  State Shinto, as defined  denotes t h e Japanese government's  u t i l i z a t i o n f o r p o l i t i c a l ends o f t h e numerous b o d i e s comprised the Shinto r e l i g i o n . has  Furthermore, State  that  Shinto  t e n d e d t o be t r e a t e d a s a v i r t u a l i n s t i t u t i o n , a n  unmalleable  "engine o f government"  fixed  oma  definite  t r a c k and f i r e d by t h e z e a l o f S h i n t o i s t s and p o l i t i c a l policy-makers  who s o u g h t t o u s e S h i n t o d o c t r i n e s a n d i n s t i -  t u t i o n s t o c o n t r o l and m o b i l i z e t h e populace behind t h e Imperial state.  The y e a r s  State Shinto period.  1 8 6 8  to  19-4-5  are designated the  However, a s P r o f e s s o r F r i d e l l  out, State Shinto, a general umbrella  term coined  s p e c t b y m o d e r n s c h o l a r s , i s somewhat i n a d e q u a t e the c o m p l e x i t y  points  i n retrot o describe  o f t h e r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l element formed by  the a l l i a n c e o f S h i n t o and t h e s t a t e . S t a t e S h i n t o , i s best viewed from t h e s t a n d p o i n t  o f t h o s e who f o r m u l a t e d  t h e r e l i g i o u s p o l i c i e s a n d must b e ~ a n a l y z e d mination  then,  o f i t s numerous component p a r t s .  a l s o by an exa-  5 A pre-eminent Western s c h o l a r of S h i n t o , D a n i e l Holtom, examines the r e l i g i o u s  development of  S h i n t o - s t a t e bond w i t h a v i e w t o d e t e r m i n i n g oppressive To  the p r i m a r y  ism.  The  causes  the r i s e of Japanese n a t i o n a l -  examines S t a t e S h i n t o b o t h t o the r e s t r i c t i o n s  i n p r e - w a r J a p a n and  Meiji period.  Using  on f r e e d o m o f  a prime e v i l ,  e c o n o m i c and  which underly  change.  religious  religious recurrence.  spawned i n t h e  a M a r x i s t - o r i e n t e d approach,  examines the p o l i t i c a l ,  Professor clarify  t o warn a g a i n s t t h e i r  M u r a k a m i , S t a t e S h i n t o was  social  he  determinants  However, by s t r e s s i n g  r e l i g i o n as a s o c i a l f o r c e , M u r a k a m i , t o an e x t e n t , the p r i m a r i l y r e l i g i o u s behind  (doctrinal  the r e i n t r o d u c t i o n of the  and  saisei  i t c h i construct  i n the f i r s t f i v e y e a r s  Both scholars, furthermore,  fail  of the s a i s e i  i t c h i phenomenon a s  early M e i j i years, heading State  neglects  p h i l o s o p h i c a l ) motives  the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of S h i n t o  to s t r e s s the i t was  Meiji.  importance  expressed  a p e r i o d c a t e g o r i z e d by  of  and  i n the  them u n d e r  the  Shinto.  Viewed i n the post-war experience indictment  of  conquest"^  l e a d i n g Japanese a u t h o r i t y i n t h i s f i e l d ,  the reasons behind  To  "Japan's r e l i g i o n of  f o r c e behind  Murakami S h i g e y o s h i  belief  the  the  S h i n t o - f o s t e r e d n a t i o n a l i s m i n pre-war Japan.  H o l t o m , S t a t e S h i n t o was  and  Professor  l i g h t o f t h e p r e - w a r and of the above a u t h o r i t i e s ,  of S t a t e S h i n t o  state's e x c l u s i v e support  i s understandable. o f one  immediate the The  r e l i g i o n d i d have  overall Japanese a  6  d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on t h e o t h e r r e l i g i o n s o f J a p a n . Emperor-centred m i l i t a r i s m and n a t i o n a l i s m Shinto-based  Imperial ideology also resulted i n p o l i t i c a l  r e p r e s s i o n and t h e excesses Yet  these  utilizing  o f t h e d i s a s t r o u s P a c i f i c war.  v i e w s m u s t be t e m p e r e d b y a n a n a l y s i s o f S t a t e  Shinto's v a r i o u s elements i n order t o c l a r i f y both the exact nature  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the p o l i t i c a l  w i t h the various Shinto r e l i g i o u s bodies  state  a s w e l l a s t o show  the e f f e c t o f t h e s t a t e ' s i n t r u s i o n i n t o t h e r e l i g i o u s In  an attempt t o e l u c i d a t e t h e exact nature  sphere.  of the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between S h i n t o and government i n t h e f i r s t M e i j i years,  t h i s t h e s i s examines the a l l i a n c e o f S h i n t o  w i t h government from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e then r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y of s a i s e i h e r e i n as a d i s t i n c t ment.  itchi.  This p o l i c y  contemporary i s viewed  i n t e g r a l facet of early M e i j i  govern-  T h i s t h e s i s a r g u e s t h a t t h e r e was a p e r i o d i n e a r l y  M e i j i when t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n S h i n t o a n d t h e J a p a n e s e s t a t e had a c o m p l e x i o n d i f f e r e n t from t h e l a t e r S t a t e formulation.  This period, l i t t l e  of the r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l  policy  analysed  from the viewpoint  of the e a r l y M e i j i  may be c a l l e d t h e s a i s e i i t c h i p e r i o d (186.7-1872). p e r i o d i s marked by t h e a t t e m p t s Shinto  intellectuals  Buddhist  Shinto  leaders, This  o f government l e a d e r s and  t o e l e v a t e and d i s a s s o c i a t e S h i n t o  d o c t r i n a l domination.  A t t h e same t i m e  from  efforts  w e r e made t o e s t a b l i s h a g o v e r n m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e f o u n d e d u p o n the r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e i d e a l s and model o f t h e a n c i e n t  Shinto-  7  based I m p e r i a l s t a t e . A f t e r 1 8 7 2 t h r e e f u r t h e r p e r i o d s ; c a n be e x e m p l i f y i n g the nature  and  degree of the s t a t e ' s  B e t w e e n 1 8 7 2 and  action with Shinto.  discerned  1 8 7 7 the  sponsored a j o i n t Shinto-Buddhist-Confucian  patriotism.  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a n  The  inter-  government  educational  programme f o r t h e p r o m o t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l g o a l s l o y a l t y and  as  of Emperor  p e r i o d 1 8 7 7 to around 1 8 9 8  i n f l u x of Western e n l i g h t e n e d  was  ideas  and  a c o n c o m i t a n t m a r k e d r e d u c t i o n o f t h e government's s t r e s s r e l i g i o n as a c o h e s i v e from the  1 8 8 0 ' s  factor in national life.  the network of S h i n t o  o f f i c i a l non-religious category. first  e x p r e s s i o n of the  the f o u r t h p e r i o d , the • c h a r a c t e r of the  subservient  i d e o l o g y and instrument of the  the  19^5,  i n t e r a c t i o n of  Shinto  In t h i s f i n a l period  to'; t h e d i c t a t e s o f t h e w i d e r  implementation  form  B e t w e e n 1 8 9 5 and  as s u c h c a n be v i e w e d as a v i r t u a l  f o r the  the  of State kokutai  political  of n a t i o n a l g o a l s .  In  light  i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n p r e - w a r J a p a n e s e governments''  support  and  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Shinto  of the r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l i t c h i period i s best and  into  t h e s t a t e became t h a t o f t h e c o m p l e t e d o m i n a t i o n  S h i n t o was  an  T h i s d e s i g n a t i o n was  State Shinto.  S h i n t o by p o l i t i c a l c o n c e r n s .  initiated  shrines into  e v o l u t i o n of S h i n t o  of p o l i t i c a l l y motivated  and  However,  o n w a r d s s e v e r a l p o l i t i c a l moves w e r e  w h i c h were t o p l a c e  on  not,  expressions  and  the d i v e r g e n t  of S h i n t o ,  e x a m i n e d s e p a r a t e l y on  as i s u s u a l , t r e a t e d as a n  the  i t s own  i n t e g r a l p a r t of  nature  saisei terms the  8  l a t e r State Shinto  formulation.  Under saisei i t c h i , the term used i n I m p e r i a l e d i c t s of  the day and by S h i n t o i s t s i n government, a d i r e c t  government p o l i c y was disseminated  by which the goals of  the e a r l y M e i j i s t a t e were i d e n t i f i e d with those Shinto r e l i g i o n .  Thiis u n i t y , with i t s r o o t s i n an i d e a l i z e d  p a s t and s t r o n g l y promoted by R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o had  of the  as i t s primary  schools,  i n t e n t the c r e a t i o n of a r e l i g i o - g o v e r n -  mental s t r u c t u r e i n which kami r i t e s and government s t r a t i o n were j o i n e d i n the s e r v i c e of the M e i j i state.  admini-  Imperial  Thus, the adoption of the s a i s e i i t c h i i d e a l between  1868 and 18?2, I argue, p r o v i d e d the e a r l y M e i j i government with a f i r m r e l i g i o - i d e o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n .  To  evaluate  the e s s e n t i a l d i s t i n c t i o n between s a i s e i i t c h i and S t a t e Shinto, and to r e a s s e s s the r o l e of s a i s e i i t c h i as an ancient r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l  i d e a l , a r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y and an  i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r the I m p e r i a l theory of government, it  i s necessary  to examine the nature  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between Shinto and the c e n t r a l government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the f i r s t f i v e years of the M e i j i p e r i o d . To t h i s end, t h e r e f o r e , Chapter 2 of t h i s t h e s i s o u t l i n e s the o r i g i n s of the s a i s e i i t c h i model which p r o v i d e d the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the government a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e t h a t was r e - e s t a b l i s h e d between 1869 and 1871. Chapter 3 t r a c e s the growth and development of Shinto thought which l e d to the r e v i v a l of Shinto as an independent  9  religious entity, and  the s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n of S h i n t o  the concomitant  r i s e and  ideology  i n f l u e n c e of R e s t o r a t i o n  Shinto  s c h o l a r s i n the years  tion.  Chapter 4 examines the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , r e l i g i o u s ,  i n s t i t u t i o n a l and f i v e years  surrounding  the M e i j i  l e g a l m e c h a n i s m s s e t up  of M e i j i t o promote s a i s e i  i n the  itchi.  It  Restora-  first will  f u r t h e r r a i s e the q u e s t i o n of the degree of i n f l u e n c e of Shinto  i d e o l o g y as w e l l as t h a t of t h e R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o  scholar-officials  i n the S h i n t o o f f i c e s of the  government.  t h e s i s concludes  The  o f t h e r o l e and p o l i c y and  broader  with a brief  value of s a i s e i i t c h i  i d e o l o g i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n and  a r e - a p p r a i s a l of s a i s e i  itchi  State Shinto construct.  central  both  as a  evaluation religious  i n so d o i n g  presents  which i s placed outside  the  10 CHAPTER 2 THE  Almost one  LEGACY OF ANCIENT JAPAN  thousand y e a r s b e f o r e the M e i j i  the Japanese adopted and of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  and  m o d i f i e d to t h e i r needs a s e r i e s  l e g a l codes ( R i t s u r y o ) , o r i g i n a l l y  (618-906).  based on the model of T'ang China codes were the  Restoration  source of and  the  These e a r l y  inspiration for  r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of e a r l y M e i j i and  the provided  the model f o r the c e n t r a l government a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e t up  the  throne, S h i n t o , and  established  the  between 1868  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  of e a r l y M e i j i , the  18?1  and  framework and  institutions  kami r i t u a l o f f i c e s systema-  n i n t h and  tenth  centuries). religio-adminis-  of e a r l y M e i j i government, t h i s chapter  w i l l o u t l i n e b r i e f l y the  f o r m a t i o n and  the  codes and  early administrative  i n s t i t u t i o n s were r e v i v e d  s a i s e i i t c h i model and  systematization  the p r o c e d u r a l  ( e n g i ) by which they were i n s t i t u t e d .  s h i p between the  t i e s between  were d i r e c t descendants of  To p r o v i d e an overview,of the o r i g i n s of the trative structures  The  central administrative  t i z e d i n e a r l y Japan ( e i g h t h ,  and  bodies  i n the f i r s t y e a r s of the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n .  g e n e r a l government s t r u c t u r e  t  of  instructions  I t w i l l show which laws  as f a c e t s of the  early Meiji  i n a d d i t i o n w i l l examine the r e l a t i o n -  throne and  r i t u a l s which p r o v i d e d the  the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of kami worship  s t a b i l i z i n g l i n k between  the  11 p o l i t i c a l centre  The  o r i g i n and  The  and  the populace.  f u n c t i o n o f the saisei i t c h i  construct  loose c o l l e c t i o n of d i f f u s e t r i b a l chiefdoms by  which the p r o t o - h i s t o r i c p e r i o d o f Japanese h i s t o r y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d had,  by the s i x t h century,  evolved  to form a  r e l a t i v e l y c e n t r a l i z e d s t a t e under a s i n g l e r u l e r .  This  r u l e r , the h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f of the l e a d i n g c l a n ( u . i i ) , owed h i s s t a t u s , t o a degree, by h i s c l a i m of descent from  the  l e a d i n g , most powerful kami of the n a t i v e r e l i g i o n . ginated  the. c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between S h i n t o  Imperial house. and  As the  complexity,"  1  r i t e s and  the  "task of government grew i n weight  the r e l i g i o u s element emerged as a f o r c e  i n the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the Japanese s t a t e . hand, there developed a s e p a r a t i o n d o t a l aspects of c e n t r a l r u l e . placed  Thus o r i -  On  the  other  of the s e c u l a r and  sacer-  R e l i g i o u s r i t u a l d u t i e s were  i n the hands of h e r e d i t a r y l i t u r g i s t s w h i l e the  t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s were g i v e n  to c i v i l f u n c t i o n a r i e s .  adminisThis  d i v i s i o n or d u a l nature o f the c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as i t evolved  from e a r l i e s t times became a r e c o g n i z a b l e  of Japanese bureaucracy even before  element  the i m p o r t a t i o n  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e forms i n the seventh century.  "The  of f o r e i g n earliest  Japanese word f o r government i s matsurigoto, which means r e l i g i o u s observances." administrators  T h i s term denotes t h a t the c e n t r a l  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n kami r i t e s and  p a r t of t h e i r d u t i e s .  festivals  Kami worship, p a r t i c u l a r l y the  as  rites  h e l d f o r the n a t i o n a l d e i t i e s , u n i f i e d the d u a l a s p e c t s of government and helped i n the p r o c e s s of p o l i t i c a l ization.  Thus, to f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e the h i s t o r i c a l  ment of Japanese  centraldevelop-  government, we must he g o g n i z a n t of "the 3  d u a l nature of i t s background"  J  as expressed by the s e c u l a r ,  c i v i l and l e g a l a s p e c t s and by the kami worship c u l t .  I t was  not, however, u n t i l the promulgation of the s y s t e m a t i z e d l e g a l codes of the seventh and e i g h t h c e n t u r i e s and, more c o n c r e t e l y , i n the t e n t h c e n t u r y E n g i s h i k i (Procedures of the E n g i Era) c o m p i l a t i o n t h a t "these two streams  [fully]  converge." In the seventh c e n t u r y , w i t h the aim of s t r e n g t h e n i n g the c e n t r a l bureaucracy v i s a v i s the influence?*of powerful landowning  f a m i l i e s , T'ang dynasty a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and  forms were imported by the Japanese i n f l u e n c e of the Chinese model was  rulers.  legal  In 6-4-6 the  r e f l e c t e d i n the reform  e d i c t of the second year of the "Great Change" ( T a i k a ) . T h i s reform;,; however, was  l a r g e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l as i t f a i l e d  to make accommodation f o r the p a r t i c u l a r d u a l i t y between the o f f i c i a l I m p e r i a l kami worship and the s e c u l a r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and l e g a l system which was Japanese  scene.  Consequently,  a f e a t u r e p e c u l i a r to the i n 702 the l e g a l r e - o r g a n i z a -  t i o n known as the Great Treasure P e n a l and C i v i l Law Code ( T a i h S r i t s u - r y o ) was  instituted.  Yoro Code drawn up i n 718,^  The Taiho Code, and the  p r o v i d e d the f o u n d a t i o n f o r a  b u r e a u c r a t i c and l e g i s l a t i v e framework t h a t was though m o d i f i e d , u n t i l modern times.  Indeed,  to remain,  the Yoro Code  provided  "the  t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s o f government u n t i l t h e 7  nineteenth  century."  have n o t s u r v i v e d .  Exact d e t a i l s o f the Taiho Code I t i s known, however, t h a t i n 702  t o r s of law were d i s p a t c h e d  "doc-  t o the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l p  g o v e r n m e n t s f t o s e x p l a i n i t and see t o i t s enforcement." As w i l l be shown l a t e r , t h i s type o f p r o s e l y t i z a t i o n was to be used i n e a r l y M e i j i by government teachers gators By  (senkyoshi). the mid-Nara P e r i o d  (710-794)  c r a t i c h i e r a r c h y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e s t a b l i s h e d and the theory was  u n i v e r s a l l y accepted.  a c e n t r a l i z e d bureau-  s t r u c t u r e had been  o f Emperor-centred kami worship This administrative  remain c o n s i s t e n t , though f o r long p e r i o d s Meiji.  o r propa-  system was t o  ineffective,  until  Indeed, P r o f e s s o r Robert H a l l argues t h a t these e a r l y  law codes c o n s t i t u t e d a v i r t u a l c o n s t i t u t i o n t h a t was n o t pre-empted u n t i l the M e i j i c o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1889.^ The  administrative  s t r u c t u r e s e t up by the r i t s u - r y o  From China, the Japanese imported two d i s t i n c t categor i e s o f law.  They were ryo, t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e code govern-  i n g the workings o f the v a r i o u s departments o f the bureauc r a c y and r i t s u , ryo exemplify and  the p e n a l codes.  The Taiho and Yoro r i t s u -  the advances made i n b u r e a u c r a t i c  a l s o mark the c u l m i n a t i o n  cohesion  o f Chinese i n f l u e n c e on e a r l y  Japanese a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and l e g a l forms.  The b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e  from the Chinese model was the d i v i s i o n o f Japanese bureau-  Ik c r a t i c o f f i c e s i n t o two branches! c i v i l and. r e l i g i o u s . By  the p r o v i s i o n s o f the Yoro Code, a system of two c o u n c i l s  (kan)  and e i g h t departments (sho) was s e t up.  The l a t e r  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Yoro Code l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t i t p r o v i d e d the ibasic model f o r the s a i s e i i t c h i s t r u c t u r e s e t up i n I869.  administrative  A l s o , to a degree, the f u n c t i o n s  of the e a r l y departmental d i v i s i o n s found a p a r a l l e l i n the early M e i j i administrative The  system.  Yoro Code s t r u c t u r e was headed by the p r e s t i g i o u s  J i n g i k a n ( C o u n c i l o f Shinto A f f a i r s ) which s u p e r v i s e d r i t e s and f e s t i v a l s , Shinto  kami  s h r i n e s and p r i e s t s as w e l l as 10  the maintenance o f the r e g i s t r y o f households.  The  Dajokan ( C o u n c i l o f S t a t e ) was the c h i e f s e c u l a r  administra-  t i v e organ.  Below these two b o d i e s were the e i g h t d e p a r t -  ments o f s t a t e ( h a c h i - s h o ) .  F i r s t i n the o M e r o f bureau-  c r a t i c rank came the Department of C e n t r a l A f f a i r s sa-sho) which was r e s p o n s i b l e  (nakatsuka-  f o r a d v i s i n g the r u l e r on  ceremonial matters and approving I m p e r i a l r e s c r i p t s .  Second,  the Department of Ceremonies (shikibu-sho)which  maintained  the r e g i s t e r s o f a l l o f f i c i a l s and c o u r t i e r s .  T h i r d i n the  bureaucratic  h i e r a r c h y was the Department o f C i v i l Adminis-  tration (jibu-sho).  The name of t h i s department, however,  b e l i e s i t s r o l e which was mainly concerned w i t h aad  ritual  " r e l i g i o u s observances...but these matters were among 11  the p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n s of government."  Fourth  was the  Department o f Home A f f a i r s (minbu-sho) which f u n c t i o n e d as  15  the Department of the I n t e r i o r and oversaw the of taxes.  A Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s  collection  (kazue-ryo) was  a sub-  d i v i s i o n of t h i s department.  F i f t h was  War  the Department of J u s t i c e  (hyohu-sho) and S i x t h was  the Department of  (gyobu-sho) i n charge of crime and punishment. the Department of the Treasury  Seventh  was  (okura-sho) r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  the s e t t i n g of taxes and e i g h t h was  the Department of the  I m p e r i a l Household (kunai-sho) which s u p e r v i s e d the  Imperial  12 palace and  landholdings.  W i t h i n the ranks of the above o f f i c e s the p r e s t i g e was  accorded  the kami r e l i g i o n and court.  those  departments which d e a l t with  the i n n e r workings of the  The J i n g i k a n "was  Imperial  ranked above the c i v i l branch i n 13  p o s i t i o n because of i t s p r e s t i g e and a n t i q u i t y " the body i n charge of a l l a s p e c t s its practitioners.  highest  J  and  was  of the kami r e l i g i o n  and  S e v e r a l h i s t o r i a n s s t r e s s the supreme  14 p o s i t i o n accorded t h i s model was  the J i n g i k a n .  Yet, as i n M e i j i , when  r e v i v e d , the p r a c t i c a l i t i e s of p o l i t i c a l  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r e v a i l e d , a l b e i t w i t h i n the a l l - p e r v a s i v e context  of kami r i t e s and f e s t i v a l s , and  the c h i e f o f f i c e r  of the J i n g i k a n ( j i n g i - h a k u ) , i n f a c t , h e l d a l e s s e r p o s i t i o n and rank than the Dajokan head ( d a j o d a i j i n ) . a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y , the two  J  To  effect  branches of government,  c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s , were kept b u r e a u c r a t i c a l l y separate, though there was two  sectors.  no t h e o r e t i c a l d i v i s i o n drawn between these  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s were f u s e d i n the  form of the Emperor, I m p e r i a l r i t e s and kami r e l i g i o u s  16 ceremonies.  Thus, a t t h i s l e v e l , there was a complete  i d e n t i t y of the two spheres of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The a n c i e n t emperors h e l d a d u a l r o l e i n government. As the d i r e c t descendants of the c h i e f n a t i o n a l kami (Amaterasu omikami), they were the l e a d i n g r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i t i o n e r s as w e l l as the p o l i t i c a l head o f the c e n t r a l 16  bureaucracy.  Thus, i n the Nara P e r i o d and i n the e a r l y 17  Heian (79^-897),  Shinto  o r more a c c u r a t e l y kami worship  maintained a s i n g u l a r bond w i t h government. a d e i t y (kami) system was s e t up whereby  Furthermore,  the kami of power-  f u l p r o v i n c i a l f a m i l i e s were ranked i n s t a t u s below t h a t of the I m p e r i a l kami and thus a degree o f homogeneity brought to both S h i n t o  was  r e l i g i o n and s t a t e governance.  By  s t r e s s i n g the l e g i t i m a c y o f the c l a i m to supremacy o f the a n c i e n t kami-descended I m p e r i a l  l i n e , the e a r l y M e i j i l e a d e r s  sought a l s o to c o n t r o l the d i v e r s e l o c a l daimyo  (feudal lords).  Arguably, the main achievement o f the e a r l y M e i j i Dajokan was the replacement of these l o c a l l o r d s w i t h a system of government-appointed p r o v i n c i a l governors. tive structure recreated  The  administra-  i n e a r l y M e i j i had c l o s e p a r a l l e l s  w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework c o n t r o l l e d by the a n c i e n t Dajokan which headed a " b u r e a u c r a t i c  pyramid made up of  m i n i s t r i e s (sho), important o f f i c e s ( s h i k i ) , bureaux ( r v o ) . headquarters ( f u ) , p r o v i n c i a l (kuni) and d i s t r i c t  (kori)  1 8  governments." The s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f the a n c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  struc-  ture c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the i d e n t i t y o f kami r i t e s and govern-  17  merit ( s a i s e i i t c h i ) can he  i d e n t i f i e d by the f a c t  the d i r e c t i o n of S h i n t o r i t e s and p r a c t i c e s and  that  the d u t i e s  of p o l i t i c a l government "were committed to the same hands, religion  (shukyo) was  ment (sei.ji)'.  regarded  Thus, c i v i l  as the same t h i n g as governgovernment became p l a c e d  f i r m l y i n the c o n t e x t of a r e l i g i o u s world-view. m y t h i c a l b a s i s of c i v i l l e g i s l a t i o n founded on  The  religious  concepts became p r e v a l e n t i n the I m p e r i a l e d i c t s of first  M e i j i y e a r s which harkened back to a  golden age.  The  primary  sources  eighth century.  of these b e l i e f s were the the Nihon s h o k i  i n the f i r s t  decades of the  These works p r o v i d e d the major  inspiration  for  the e i g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h century S h i n t o  and  s u p p l i e d the m y t h i c o - h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s f o r the  by R e v i v a l S h i n t o i s t s f o r the supremacy of the descended I m p e r i a l l i n e . there was  the  mythological  K o j i k i ( C h r o n i c l e s of A n c i e n t Matters) and ( C h r o n i c l e s of Japan) compiled  semi-  revival claims  divinely  Thus, i n the n i n e t e e n t h  century  a r e s t o r a t i o n of the r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l l e g i t i m a c y  of the I m p e r i a l i n s t i t u t i o n which roughly p r e v i o u s l y had reached ence accorded  ten c e n t u r i e s  the apex of. i t s i n f l u e n c e , an  by the l e g a l and  influ-  administrative formulations  of the r i t s u - r y o p e r i o d ( c . 645-C.1167).  The  E n g i s h i k i and  The  the S h i n t o s h r i n e system  Taiho and Yoro-ryo were e l a b o r a t e d on i n the  century by the f o r m u l a t i a n of a d d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s of  tenth law.  18  One  of these,  the s h i k i . d e t a i l e d the  supplementary  procedures and d e l i n e a t e d the implementation of the ryo.  The  Engi era of the  earlier  f i r s t t e n books of the s h i k i (Procedures) o f  (901-922)  d e a l t w i t h measures f o r the  j i n g i - r y o or the laws concerning  and f e s t i v a l s .  employment  kami worship,  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the u b i q u i t o u s network of  kan,  set  the c e n t r a l government a u t h o r i t i e s .  the i n p l e m e n t a t i o n  out i n the E n g i The  majority  the  The Jingi-,-- <•• Shinto,  of the expanded s h r i n e system  shiki. 3-132  Engi s h i k i recognized of which c o n t a i n e d  f a m i l i e s of the l a n d . one  the  Shinto  as the c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body governing  supervised  rites  These procedures were n e c e s s i t a t e d by  s p e c i a l d i c t a t e s o f the kami r e l i g i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y  s h r i n e s and  the  Two  of these d e i t i e s and  s e a t s of kami, the  the t u t e l a r y kami of the  leading  thousand e i g h t hundred and  sixty-  t h e i r sacred p r e c i n c t s were f o r -  20 mally designated Grand S h r i n e was  as o f f i c i a l l y  registered shrines.  The  of Ise, seat of the kami of the I m p e r i a l house,  p l a c e d a t the apex of what became a ranked h i e r a r c h y  of s h r i n e s , graded i n t o h i g h e r , middle and Thus was  lower c a t e g o r i e s .  e f f e c t e d the f i r s t major c o n s o l i d a t i o n of  highly diverse Shinto  the  shrinensystem.  Of s p e c i a l importance to the c e n t r a l government were the  twenty-two o f f i c i a l  kami.  s h r i n e s which housed the n a t i o n a l  These kansha (government or n a t i o n a l s h r i n e s ) were  s h r i n e s which r e c e i v e d favoured supported by the government.  s t a t u s and were d i r e c t l y  Kansha p r o v i d e d  a national  19  c h a r a c t e r to the kami r i t e s c a r r i e d out by the  Imperial  21 c o u r t government.  The  r i t e s and f e s t i v a l s performed i n  the government-sponsored kansha i n c l u d e d ceremonies f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the s t a t e (kokka no s o s h i ) as a g i o u s l y conceived  reli-  e n t i t y i n which a l l kami were l i n k e d  to the c e n t r a l kami of the I m p e r i a l l i n e a g e .  The  system-  a t i z a t i o n of s h r i n e Shinto, e s p e c i a l l y the r a n k i n g of the kami of the powerful  p r o v i n c i a l f a m i l i e s below t h a t of  the I m p e r i a l house as w e l l as the u n i v e r s a l acceptance of the e s s e n t i a l nature  of kami r i t e s , a c t e d as a f o r c e f o r  n a t i o n a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n and  stability.  In 1 8 6 8 with the o f f i c i a l e l e v a t i o n of S h i n t o which accompanied the r e s t o r a t i o n of the I m p e r i a l house to n a t i o n a l prominence, the s h r i n e system was tablished.  Using the E n g i s h i k i as the b a s i c model, s h r i n e s  were accorded  ranks and p l a c e d under the d i r e c t i o n of  c e n t r a l government S h i n t o b o d i e s . Jingikan-Dajokan and  again f o r m a l l y re-es-  In 1 8 6 9 the  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e was  ancient re-erected  the a n c i e n t concepts of kokka no s o s h i "and s a i s e i  became p r e v a l e n t i n I m p e r i a l e d i c t s .  The  itchi  e a r l y Mejyi  government a l s o became permeated with the ambience and  forms  of the a n c i e n t S h i n t o government s t r u c t u r e , which were expressed and  by a r e t u r n t o the c o u r t dress and o f f i c i a l ranks  t i t l e s as l a i d out i n the e a r l y law  codes.  I t must be s t r e s s e d , however, t h a t the r i t s u - r y o  and  the l a t e r E n g i s h i k i were i n e f f e c t attempts to c o n s o l i d a t e  20  a s o c i e t y which became i n c r e a s i n g l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d p o l i t i c a l and  economic fragmentation.  The  by  e a r l y law  although they e r e c t e d a remarkable p o l i t i c a l and  codes,  economic  s t r u c t u r e , were never e n t i r e l y s u c c e s s f u l when p r a c t i c a l l y applied.  From the end  competition  of the t e n t h century,  i n an e r a of  between l o c a l w a r r i o r c h i e f s ( b u s h i ) ,  there  was  a breakdown of the power of the c e n t r a l bureaucracy.  The  decentralized feudalism  saw  a l s o the weakening of t i e s to the I m p e r i a l  t h e i r replacement by Nevertheless,  of the succeeding s i x c e n t u r i e s and  local allegiances.  the b a s i c framework s e t out i n the  a n c i e n t codes, though superseded, was  never d e s t r o y e d  remained i n the form of the o f f i c e s and the  throne  Imperial court.  Shogun, up  to and  and  ranks which governed i n c l u d i n g those of  the Tokugawa f a m i l y , h e l d " q u i t e modest o f f i c e s i n the 22  Imperial  government."  1 8 6 8 ) , the  During the Tokugawa p e r i o d  I m p e r i a l house had  little political  (1600-  influence,  23  y e t "some shadow of a u t h o r i t y was of c o u r t - a p p o i n t e d  ranks and  preserved"  J  i n the form  t i t l e s which were p r i z e d f o r  t h e i r p r e s t i g e value by hakufu o f f i c i a l s .  Thus, to a degree,  the c e n t r a l i d e a of the c l o s e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p between throne, c i v i l and was  bureaucracy and  preserved  Imperial  intact and  court.  the etymology of the  From a n c i e n t  r i t e s remained  i n the form of the r i t u a l p r a c t i c e s  formal o f f i c e s of the Saisei itchit  Shinto  ideal  times u n t i l around the mid-Heian p e r i o d ,  21  Japanese government had evolved streams: r e l i g i o u s r i t e s and s h i p was  to embody the two  c i v i l law.  This  inter-relation-  a unique convergence of the sacred and  expressed inftthe r i t u a l s of the c o u r t and bureaucratic  administration.  The  emerging  the  secular  i n the form of  l e g a l and r i t u a l proce-  dures of the E n g i s h i k i show "the depth to which the  idea  2k of the s t a t e as [a] l i t u r g i c a l community had  gone."  sacred r e l i g i o u s b a s i s f o r b u r e a u c r a t i c  government  embodied i n the i d e a l of s a i s e i i t c h i .  Saisei  i n Japan u n t i l modern  in  the s o c i a l c o h e s i o n  d e i t i e s played  f e s t i v a l s and  times.  festivals  a significant  necessary i n a r i c e - g r o w i n g  A t t h i s l e v e l "there were no separate  can  village  At the l o c a l socio-economic l e v e l , kami r i t e s and c e n t r e d around t u t e l a r y  was  itchi  a l s o be used to d e s c r i b e the form of hamlet and s o c i a l organization prevalent  The  role  culture.  committees f o r s h r i n e  l o c a l government i s s u e s ; both these  things  were d e a l t with by the same people. The one  of the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p  worship. aspects, one  i d e a l of the s t a t e o u t l i n e d i n the r i t s u - r y o of government and  ritual  Although a d i s t i n c t i o n i s i m p l i e d by the c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s ,  central  was  dual  i d e a l l y they were fused  into  organism, the s t a t e , which embodied both.  The  e t y m o l o g i c a l d e r i v a t i o n of the term s a i s e i i t c h i u n d e r l i n e s t h i s concept. kami r i t e s and  The  c h a r a c t e r s a i (Sft  (^riEX— ) meaning  the c h a r a c t e r s e i (.iExl) meaning government  stem from the same c o n c e p t u a l  r o o t , matsuru which means  22  kami r i t e s or r e l i g i o u s f e s t i v a l s .  That i s , i n Japanese  the i d e a of r e l i g i o u s worship (matsuru) i s i d e n t i f i e d c i v i l government ( m a t s u r i g o t o ) .  with  What i s i m p l i c i t here i s  the i d e a l of s e r v i c e to an a u t h o r i t y i n which b o t h concepts are a s s i m i l a t e d .  I t c h i ( -— JEX  ) i s u s u a l l y rendered  "unity" hut s i n c e no d i s t i n c t i o n was  drawn between the  f a c e t s of r u l e , " i d e n t i t y " i s perhaps a more translation.  as  In the term s a i s e i i t c h i ,  two  appropriate  then, there  d i s t i n c t i o n made between s e c u l a r - c i v i l a f f a i r s and  i s no religious  26 observances. The  samurai, who  rose to overthrow the Tokugawa bakufu  and r e p l a c e i t with an I m p e r i a l government, found themselves i n 1868  with the problem of e r e c t i n g a new  trative structure.  n a t i o n a l adminis-  These l e a d e r s , a l b e i t f a c e d w i t h  l a c k of a d e f i n a b l e modern a l t e r n a t i v e , s a n c t i o n e d  the  r e s u r r e c t i o n of the r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mulation  of the r i t s u - r y o p e r i o d and  of s a i s e i i t c h i .  the  the accompanying  Once a g a i n Shinto became i d e n t i f i e d  forideal with  government and a c t e d as a f o r c e i n the i n t e g r a t i o n of  the  i d e a l s of the I m p e r i a l house, the c e n t r a l bureaucracy  and  the  nation. The  main impetus behind the movement to e l e v a t e  i n e a r l y M e i j i was or R e v i v a l S h i n t o .  provided  by the s c h o o l of  Restoration  The w r i t i n g s of t h i s s c h o o l  the a n c i e n t myths and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t h e o r i e s of Emperor-led s t a t e .  R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto  Shinto  contemporised the  t h e o r i e s , the  culmi-  23 n a t i o n of a long complex e v o l u t i o n of Shinto  thought i n t o  modern d o c t r i n a l form, advocated the r e v i v a l of the theocratic p o l i t y .  R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto  ancient  adherents were  h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l , both i n e f f e c t i n g -the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of Shinto and  i n modern times and  doctrinal  i n p r o v i d i n g the i d e o l o g i c a l  t h e o r i e s u t i l i z e d by the government i n the  f i r s t M e i j i y e a r s to b o l s t e r I m p e r i a l r u l e . chapter, Shinto  t h e r e f o r e , t r a c e s the growth and  thought as i t evolved  leaders.  The  next  development of  to i n f l u e n c e e a r l y M e i j i  24  CHAPTER 3 THE SYSTEMATIZATION AND  POLITICIZATION OF  SHINTO THOUGHT  With a view to e x p l i c a t i n g the b a s i c t e n e t s and assumptions  as w e l l as the r e l i g i o - i d e o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n  behind the e l e v a t i o n of S h i n t o i n e a r l y M e i j i , the r i s e of the R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o s c h o o l and the re-emergence of the a n c i e n t i d e a l of s a i s e i i t c h i ,  t h i s chapter p r e s e n t s  a b r i e f conspectus of the e v o l u t i o n of S h i n t o thought medieval times.  from  S h i n t o d o c t r i n e from the Nara p e r i o d s o n -  wards developed under the overwhelming i n f l u e n c e of Confuc i a n i s m and Buddhism.  T h i s development, c h a r a c t e r i z e d a t  f i r s t by a compromise and amalgamation w i t h these systems,  two  culminated i n a s t r o n g reaction to both Buddhism  and Confucianism which became viewed by S h i n t o i s t s as •foreign' r e l i g i o u s influences.  T h i s chapter argues  that  the emergence o f S h i n t o as a r e l i g i o - i d e o l o g i c a l f o r c e i n M e i j i was  the end product of an i n t e l l e c t u a l movement which  s t r o v e to formulate a d i s t i n c t and independent identity f o r Shinto.  religious  I t argues, f u r t h e r , t h a t the e v o l u t i o n  of S h i n t o d o c t r i n e s and the emergence of a r e l i g i o u s d e f i n i t i o n f o r S h i n t o i n c l u d e d the broad  self-  interpretation  of a n c i e n t myths and r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s to s u i t the necess i t a t e s of d o c t r i n a l and p o l i t i c a l  expediency.  25 The S h i n t o d o c t r i n e s which proved e s s e n t i a l as a religio-political  j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n o f  the M e i j i emperor which i n t u r n r e s u l t e d i n the e l e v a t i o n of S h i n t o i n the M e i j i p e r i o d were the p r o d u c t o f an a c c r e t i o n o f s u c c e s s i v e t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s , the unfoldment o f which spanned over e i g h t hundred y e a r s . primary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s development  Three  can be empha-  s i z e d as b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y conducive to the f o r m a t i o n o f S h i n t o i d e o l o g y i n i t s modern form.  The f i r s t was t h e  pre-emption o f the r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l : status o f S h i n t o by Buddhism.  T h i s took the form o f the Ryobu o r Dual S h i n t o  system c o n s o l i d a t e d from around the b e g i n n i n g o f the Kamakura p e r i o d  (1185-133?). The second was the cumulative  e f f e c t o f the d o c t r i n a l f o r m u l a t i o n s which developed as a r e a c t i o n t o the overwhelming fucianism.  i n f l u e n c e o f Buddhism and Con-  T h i r d was the work o f the h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r  Motoori Norinaga and the p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f S h i n t o based on an expansion o f h i s r e l i g i o u s t h e o r i e s by h i s i d e o l o g i c a l successor, H i r a t a Atsutani.  Ryobu S h i n t o (Dual Aspect S h i n t o )  The h i s t o r y o f S h i n t o from the Nara p e r i o d onward i s one o f i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h Buddhism.  S h i n t o was a  major f a c e t o f c e n t r a l government and the J i n g i - r y o p r e s c r i b i n g the form o f kami r i t u a l ) p l a c e d  (laws  "ceremonies  f o r the kami i n ? a d i f f e r e n t dimension from r e l i g i o n s such  26 as Buddhism."  1  Buddhism and Confucianism,  therefore,  as independent systems, were l e f t to " s a t i s f y the emotion-  2 a l and  i n t e l l e c t u a l appetites"  of those who  sought t o  explore the wider s p i r i t u a l p o s t u l a t e s not c o n t a i n e d i n the kami r e l i g i o n .  Under Buddhist reformers such as  ( 7 7 4 - 8 3 5 ) and Saicho  (767-822),  l a r g e Buddhist  Kukai  sects i n -  creased i n i n f l u e n c e and p r o v i d e d s o p h i s t i c a t e d d o c t r i n e s i n c l u d i n g the n o t i o n s of karma, s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n and v a t i o n through  f a i t h which were l a c k i n g i n S h i n t o .  salThe  f o r f e i t u r e of the r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e of S h i n t o from the t w e l f t h to the n i n e t e e n t h century, the r e s u l t of the l o s s of p o l i t i c a l power by the c o u r t , was by the spread of e s o t e r i c Buddhism.  paralleled  The r e s u l t was  a  v i r t u a l l y complete amalgamation of the magic r i t u a l s  and  fabulous f e s t i v a l s of Buddhism w i t h s h r i n e S h i n t o ceremonies. During the Kamakura p e r i o d the S h i n t o accommodation of Buddhism was  completely  systematized.  i s c a l l e d Ryobu S h i n t o or Dual Aspect  T h i s amalgamation Shinto.  Under the i n f l u e n c e of Ryobu Shinto the kami worship t r a d i t i o n c a r r i e d out i n the major S h i n t o s h r i n e s underwent a f u s i o n of i d e n t i t y w i t h the Buddhas of the pantheon of the Shingon s e c t . of these Buddhas.  S h i n t o kami thus became m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  In this, the h o n j i - s u i j a k u ( o r i g i n a l  sources and m a n i f e s t t r a c e s ) system, Shinto kami were r e l e gated to the p o s i t i o n of b e i n g mere o f f - s h o o t s of the o r i g i n a l t h i r t e e n Buddhas of Shingon.  Buddhist  doctrinal  27 e x p l i c a t i o n s , furthermore, context  of Buddhist  p l a c e d kami worship i n the  teachings whereby "the Buddha assumes  a s t a t e i n which kami and Buddha are not d i f f e r e n t but are a b s o l u t e l y i d e n t i c a l . " thereby  J  The  kami of S h i n t o  were i n c o r p o r a t e d as p a r t Shinto and p a r t  and a c q u i r e d a d u a l form and under the Ryobu S h i n t o  f u n c t i o n which was  consolidated  construct. shrines  temples were managed j o i n t l y by an amalgamated  priesthood (shaso).  The  boundaries between S h i n t o  Buddhism thus became i n c r e a s i n g l y obscured. drew l i t t l e  shrines  Buddhist  Under t h i s d u a l r e l i g i o u s system both S h i n t o and Buddhist  things  d i s t i n c t i o n between the two  and  Parishioners  religions.  The  i n f l u e n c e of Buddhism, however, imbued S h i n t o w i t h the added dimension of s p e c u l a t i v e metaphysics and,  importantly,  i n s p i r e d S h i n t o s c h o l a r s w i t h the m o t i v a t i o n to c o n s t r u c t independent d o c t r i n a l f o r m u l a t i o n s with the aim S h i n t o * s h i s t o r i c a l role.-'  of defining  I n d i v i d u a l Shinto shrines a l s o  i n c r e a s i n g l y "sought to emphasize the d i s t i n c t i v e c a p a c i t i e s and  l i n e a g e of t h e i r own  kami...as w e l l as the unique  teachings and p r a c t i c e s passed down i n t h e i r s h r i n e schools."^  and  Thus, w i t h i n the framework of the h o n j i - s u i j a k u  amalgam which remained i n t a c t u n t i l the dramatic  Shinto-  Buddhist  Shinto  S e p a r a t i o n of 1868,  v a r i o u s independent  r e l i g i o u s t h e o r i e s were developed.  T h i s development  be viewed as a movement which not only evinced the  can  resili-  ence of n a t i v e S h i n t o b e l i e f but a l s o e x e m p l i f i e d a growing  28  i n t e l l e c t u a l r e a c t i o n t o the Ryobu S h i n t o system.  The  end product o f t h i s movement was the f o r m a t i o n o f a d i s t i n c t , separate i d e n t i t y f o r S h i n t o , a l b e i t a S h i n t o now enhanced by the r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s o p h i e s o f C o n f u c i a n i s m and Buddhism.  The S h i n t o r e a c t i o n t o ' f o r e i g n ' religious i n f l u e n c e s The p r o g r e s s i v e development o f S h i n t o d o c t r i n e can be c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o f o u r broad  streams o f thought.  The f i r s t ,  i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , was an a n t i - B u d d h i s t r e a c t i o n which r e s u l t e d i n the emergence o f an independent viewpoint which c h a l l e n g e d the Ryobu S h i n t o system.  Most n o t a b l e among the  s c h o o l s o f t h i s movement were those o f Ise S h i n t o and the scholar Kitabatake Chikafusa  (1293-1354).  Ise Shinto o r Outer S h r i n e S h i n t o (Gegu S h i n t o ) i n the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y f a b r i c a t e d a s e t o f f o r g e r i e s which were p u r p o r t e d t o be the F i v e A n c i e n t C l a s s i c s o f S h i n t o (Shinto gobusho).  These works were regarded  "as a t r e a s u r y o f pure  n  S h i n t o t e a c h i n g s " ' and proved  extremely  i n f l u e n t i a l to later  S h i n t o s c h o l a r s as a source o f r e f e r e n c e and i n s p i r a t i o n . B u i l d i n g on e a r l i e r moral c o n s t r u c t s which were drawn from Buddhism, Watari Nobuyoshi  (1615-1690)  s t r e s s e d the primacy  of Amaterasu Omikami as the c e n t r a l kami o f the Shinto pantheon. was  Nobuyoshi, drawing h e a v i l y on C o n f u c i a n  an ardent advocate  concepts,  o f the Emperor-Shinto u n i t y as the  b a s i s o f good government.  29  The  i n f l u e n c e of the Ise s c h o o l and the F i v e C l a s s i c s  of S h i n t o i s e v i d e n t i n the work o f K i t a b a t a k e  Chikafusa.  K i t a b a t a k e i s renowned f o r h i s r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l  formula-  t i o n s w r i t t e n to p r o v i d e d o c t r i n a l l e g i t i m a c y f o r the claims to the throne o f the e x i l e d Emperor Go-Daigo ( r . 1 3 1 8 - 1 3 3 9 ) • In the Jinno s h o t o k i (Records of the L e g i t i m a t e Lineage of the Sacred Emperors) K i t a b a t a k e r e v i v e d the n o t i o n of the a n c i e n t i d e a l age of Emperor-kami worship u n i t y .  H i s work  o u t l i n e d s e v e r a l key themes which were to r e c u r i n the works of R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o .  Namely, he defended the l e g i t i m a c y  of the I m p e r i a l l i n e by t r a c i n g i t s o r i g i n to the kami Amaterasu.  The  emperors, he s t r e s s e d , were d e s t i n e d to r e i g n  over a d i v i n e l a n d which i n h e r e n t l y c o u l d c l a i m unique n a t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s and a g l o r i o u s a n c i e n t c i v i l i z a t i o n . l i k e h i s s u c c e s s o r s , however, Kitabatake d i d not r e j e c t Confucianism  and Buddhism.  Un-  outwardly  Instead, he h e l d t h a t o  these systems c o n t a i n e d the "same e s s e n t i a l p r i n c i p l e s " as S h i n t o . K i t a b a t a k e ' s researches u n d e r l i n e the u t i l i t y of the Shinto h e r i t a g e to b o l s t e r the I m p e r i a l cause and to p r o v i d e an e t h i c o - m o r a l and p o l i t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r I m p e r i a l c l a i m s to power.  Empeior Go-Daigo, f o r example, r e s t o r e d the s t a t e  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e and o system.  i n s t i t u t i o n s of the  ritsu-ryo  K i t a b a t a k e ' s c a u s a l e x p l a n a t i o n of Japanese h i s -  t o r y p r o v i d e d a r a t i o n a l e f o r I m p e r i a l r e s t o r a t i o n backed by S h i n t o t h e o r i e s .  T h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l approach was  by the Shinto r e v i v a l i s t s who  taken  sought to e l e v a t e the Emperor  30  M e i j i and o f whom Kitabatake Several of Kitabatake's  was a p r i n c i p a l  forerunner.  themes r e c u r i n the work o f  the S h i n t o s c h o l a r Yoshida Kanemoto  (1435-1511)  who advo-  cated a d o c t r i n e of pure and o r i g i n a l Shinto c a l l e d Y u l i t s u Shinto  (Only One or P r i m a l S h i n t o ) .  the a s s e r t i o n s o f Buddhist system o f hon.ji-suijaku.  Kanemoto r e v e r s e d  supremacy i n h e r e n t i n the Ryobu Thus, r a t h e r than the S h i n t o kami  b e i n g the m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f o r i g i n a l Buddhas, the kami were the o r i g i n a l s and the Buddhas the apparent  manifestations,,  as Kanemoto s t r e s s e d i n a t h e o l o g i c a l v o l t e f a c e .  The work  of Kanemoto, l i k e t h a t o f the Ise s c h o o l , o f f e r s a broad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r o l e and p o s i t i o n o f the kami i n the Buddhist  schema t o s u i t the d i c t a t e s o f h i s p a r t i c u l a r pos-  tulates. Kanemoto's work re-emphasizes a l s o the major concerns of K i t a b a t a k e  i n t h a t he s t r e s s e d the unique pre-eminence  of Japan, the d i v i n e l y descended I m p e r i a l l i n e and S h i n t o . He claimed t h a t " a l l f o r e i g n d o c t r i n e s are o f f - s h o o t s o f Shinto."  1 0  Kanemoto's p h i l o s o p h y ,  c r u c i b l e o f Confucianism  a l b e i t molded i n the  and Buddhism, was defended and  enhanced by l a t e r S h i n t o i s t s .  I t r e p r e s e n t s the end o f  "the l o n g p e r i o d o f Shinto a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t o a l i e n i d e o l o -  11 gies."  Henceforth,  Shinto  s c h o l a r s would attempt h o l d  t h e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s from a more independent point.  stand-  31  The C o n f u c i a n - S h i n t o  amalgamation  In the l a t e f i f t e e n t h century the second  broad  p h i l o s o p h i c a l stream emerged i n the form of the a d a p t a t i o n of S h i n t o t h e o r i e s by C o n f u c i a n s c h o l a r s who  "used Con-  f u c i a n i d e a s to e n r i c h the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the I m p e r i a l 12 symbols of s o v e r e i g n t y . "  U t i l i z i n g Confucian notions,  such as l o y a l t y to the v i r t u o u s r u l e r and the concept do (the way,  which was  i n t e r p r e t e d to mean the way  of  of the  11  kami "as a p o l i t i c a l or moral norm" ) , S h i n t o J  became t i e d more c l o s e l y to the p o l i t i c a l  thought  justifications  of the s t a t e . The S h i n t o s c h o l a r I c h i j o Kaneyoshi  (1402^-1481)  s t r e s s e d the C o n f u c i a n v i r t u e s were both i n h e r e n t i n S h i n t o and p r o v i d e d a sound b a s i s f o r I m p e r i a l government.  Kane-  y o s h i * s p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d the M e i j i 14 R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o movement.  The value of C o n f u c i a n  ty i n p r o v i d i n g s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y e x e m p l i f i e d by Tokugawa r u l e .  loyal-  i s thoroughly  The work of Hayashi Razan  (1583-1657)# l e a d e r of the s c h o o l o f government-sponsored orthodox attempt  Confucianism,  expanded upon Shinto d o c t r i n e i n an  to thwart the i n f l u e n c e of Buddhism i n government.  Although Hayashi's  i n f l u e n t i a l s c h o o l "destroyed the o l d  S h i n t o subservience to B u d d h i s m " , ^ S h i n t o remained d e f i n e d i n C o n f u c i a n terms.  With the w r i t i n g s of Yamazaki A n z a i  (1618-1682), C o n f u c i a n S h i n t o ( S u i k a Shinto) reaches i t s apogee.  H i s combination  of the u t i l i t a r i a n  socio-political  32 v a l u e s of C o n f u c i a n reverence and l o y a l t y to the w i t h the kami worship  i d e a l was  ruler  "expressed through  [the  concept o f ] d e v o t i o n to t h e i r l i v i n g embodiment, the 16 Emperor."  Yamazaki, however, f a i l e d to p r o v i d e an  adequate i n t e l l e c t u a l r e a s o n i n g f o r h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n 17 of the " d i s p a r a t e  elements"  ' i n S h i n t o and  Confucianism.  Thus, l i k e many s c h o l a r s i n the e a r l y development of S h i n t o thought,  he r e s o r t e d to r a t h e r a b s t r a c t j u s t i f i c a -  tions f o r his theories. the themes and  N e v e r t h e l e s s , h i s work u n d e r l i n e s  i s s u e s which were t o gather momentum i n the  hands of succeeding S h i n t o s c h o l a r s , s p e c i f i c a l l y , m u l a t i o n of independent  S h i n t o d o c t r i n e s based  the  for-  on the i d e a  of the u n i t y of Emperor reverence and kami worship. Of importance  a l s o i s the f a c t t h a t Japanese C o n f u c i a n  s c h o l a r s came to view the Emperor as b e i n g u n c o n s t r a i n e d by any Mandate from Heaven.  U n l i k e the Chinese emperor  remained a c h i e f p r i e s t i n the r e l i g i o u s sphere,  who  the  Japanese emperor a c q u i r e d the q u a l i t i e s of a d i v i n i t y  (kami).  I m p e r i a l communications i n the form of e d i c t s , which became so e s s e n t i a l to M e i j i governance, were to C o n f u c i a n S h i n t o i s t s more than a p o l i t i c a l mechanism; to them, "an I m p e r i a l 18 order was  the Mandate from Heaven."  The r e v i v a l of  n o t i o n s of I m p e r i a l d i v i n i t y gave an impetus to the work of l a t e r s c h o l a r s who  i n c r e a s i n g l y came to view the shogun !!as  of mere the bakufu with o l i t i c a landweapon t was a delegate to the the pthrone, so f uwrintihs hwhich e d the i enemies 19 u l t i m a t e l y dispatched."  33  Kokugaku ( N a t i o n a l Learning) and the S h i n t o R e v i v a l  The work o f the Shinto s c h o l a r s i n g e n e r a l  developed  a t r a d i t i o n of f o r m a l r e s e a r c h i n t o the r e c o r d s o f a n c i e n t Japan.  Drawing on t h i s methodology and r e c o g n i z i n g i t s  validity,  the Kokugaku movement rose to r e j e c t "the 20  s e c u l a r r a t i o n a l i s m o f Confucianism."  E x e m p l i f y i n g the  t h i r d g e n e r a l category of the development of S h i n t o thought,  Kokugaku t y p i f i e s the p r o c e s s whereby the p o l i t i c s  o f r e v o l u t i o n became imbued w i t h r e l i g i o u s concerns.  That  i s , the i n t e l l e c t u a l f o r m u l a t i o n s which p r o v i d e d the b r i d g e between s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l y accepted norms and r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i o n to change these norms became c o n s o l i dated i n the w r i t i n g s of the Kokugaku s c h o o l .  T h i s move-  ment a f t e r 1800 c o n t i n u e d to a m p l i f y the c h i e f found  concerns  i n the works o f p r e v i o u s Shinto s c h o l a r s .  That i s ,  they s t r e s s e d the e l e v a t i o n o f the Emperor, S h i n t o and the s t a t e as a ^ n a t i o n a l e n t i t y .  Kokugaku s c h o l a r s , however,  brought an added depth to these themes through of t h e i r highly respected scholarship.  the v a l i d i t y  In the hands of  these s c h o l a r s , S h i n t o "as Japan's indigenous  religion 21  f i n a l l y emerged complete both i n name and i n f a c t . " The d e c i s i v e d i f f e r e n c e between the Kokugaku p o s i t i o n and those of i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s  l a y i n the f a c t t h a t i t  sought to c o n s t r u c t t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s f o r S h i n t o which were f r e e o f the i n f l u e n c e of Confucianism Buddhism.  and  Kokugaku s c h o l a r s " r e j e c t e d a l l metaphysics as  34  f o r e i g n i m p o r t a t i o n s and i n s i s t e d on a l i t e r a l  belief  i n the a n c i e n t myths as c o n t a i n e d e s p e c i a l l y i n the 22 Kojiki."  They r e p u d i a t e d much o f the work o f the  C o n f u c i a n S h i n t o i s t s as i n a c c u r a t e , but n e v e r t h e l e s s expanded upon the a n c i e n t n o t i o n of the Emperor as a manifest kami (arahito-garni) and S h i n t o as kanagara no m i c h i (the way as i t i s with the gods). The most s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e o f Kokugaku s c h o l a r s h i p was i n t h e i r hermeneutic e x p l i c a t i o n s drawn from p h i l o l o g i c a l and l i t e r a r y r e s e a r c h e s .  The work o f Kada  Azumaru ( 1 6 6 9 - 1 7 3 6 ) and Kamo Mabuchi ( 1 6 9 7 - 1 7 6 9 )  expanded  upon Yoshida Kanemoto and K i t a b a t a k e * s c o n c e p t i o n s  o f the  p u r i t y o f S h i n t o , the d i v i n e l a n d and d i v i n e emperor. T h e i r work r e p r e s e n t s a d e f i n i t i v e r e v i v a l of S h i n t o . T h i s r e n a i s s a n c e o f S h i n t o thought the l i n g u i s t i c c l a r i f i c a t i o n s  a pinnacle with  ( o f a n c i e n t t e x t u a l sources)  (1730-1801).  of Motoori Norinaga  reached  H i s t r a n s l a t i o n of the  K o j i k i i n t o the Japanese language o f h i s day added to the canon o f R e v i v a l S h i n t o .  A c e n t r a l l y directed Shinto shrine  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (.jingi gvosei) under the I m p e r i a l house "was 23 a dream of Motoori"  J  who consequently  s t r e s s e d the primacy  of the unbroken I m p e r i a l l i n e and the goddess Amaterasu who, he claimed, had accorded  a s p e c i a l d e s t i n y upon a  i s much c r i t iand c i z ecdu l f s u p e r Motoori i o r Japanese people t uorre h . i s "fulsome which exaggerated h i s defense,  formulas"  the supremacy of Japanese t r a d i t i o n s .  i f one i s necessary,  i t must be p o i n t e d out  24  In  35  t h a t he was  an i n o r d i n a t e l y d e d i c a t e d s c h o l a r whose  i n t e l l e c t u a l response to the domination of thought,though exaggerated, was t i o n of a genius who  Confucian  due perhaps to the  sought to formulate  an  frustra-  intrinsically  pure Japanese l i t e r a r y and l i n g u i s t i c t r a d i t i o n hut had do so w i t h i n the context of "the dominion of Chinese  to  ideas  25  and forms of e x p r e s s i o n . " Kokugaku s c h o o l was  ^  The  main achievement of the  i n i t s p r o v i s i o n of the S h i n t o  revival  movement with an i d e o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n drawn from i n d i g e n ous Japanese sources.  This " i d e o l o g i c a l arsenal"  was  to  he used s u c c e s s f u l l y i n the cause of the r e s t o r a t i o n of the Emperor i n M e i j i . R e s t o r a t i o n or R e v i v a l S h i n t o  The  i n h e r i t o r of the mantle of Motoori was  Atsutane ( 1 7 7 6 - 1 8 4 3 )  who,  Hirata  though h i g h l y i n f l u e n c e d by  work of the Kokugaku r e s e a r c h e r s ,  developed i n the  Tokugawa p e r i o d the much more d i r e c t l y p o l i t i c i z e d of R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o  (Fukko S h i n t o ) .  the  late school  I f Motoori was  the  eminence g r i s of the e a r l i e r Shinto r e v i v a l , Atsutane  was  the enfant t e r E i b l e of the movement to r e s t o r e or r e v i v e the g l o r i e s of the a n c i e n t S h i n t o t r a d i t i o n .  He  advocated  S h i n t o * s r o l e as t h a t of the primary r e l i g i o n of Japan d e s t i n e d t o r e t u r n to a l e a d i n g p o s i t i o n i n the s t a t e governing  construct.  Government, he s t a t e d , should be  of r u l e by the I m p e r i a l c o u r t which headed the e a r t h l y m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the realm  o f the kami.  However, h i s  that  36  claims of Shinto supremacy and  "kami-descended emperors  as r u l e r s of the world" '' were a t times i r r a t i o n a l  and  2  contrived. a new  Atsutane's t h e o r i e s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , r e f l e c t e d  r e a l i s m and  a degree of i d e a l i s m and were expressed  i n r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y understood language. v a t i v e s t e p i n the  i n t e l l e c t u a l discourse  T h i s , an of the  day,  brought a much wider audience to the w r i t i n g s and of Atsutane and a l s o endowed h i s works w i t h the for  p r o j e c t i n g "the f e l t p e r c e p t i o n s  which had  not been r e p r e s e n t e d  ness of Tokugawa Japan."  inno-  lectures  capacity  of those s o c i a l groups  i n the f o r m a l i z e d  conscious-  These,groups, f o r example,  lower ranked samurai, r i c h commoners as w e l l as  Shinto  p r i e s t s , were i n s p i r e d by Atsutane's moral view t h a t  the  e v i l i n the world ( s p e c i f i c a l l y , the severe s t r i c t u r e s of Tokugawa l i f e ) was  r e c t i f i a b l e by the a c t i o n s of  man.  Furthermore, h i s complex t h e o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s  imbued  the t h e o r i e s of M o t o o r i w i t h a d i r e c t l y r e l i g i o u s aspect and p r o v i d e d  a more u n i v e r s a l l y a p p e a l i n g  dimension to S h i n t o .  His d o c t r i n e was  mise of both n a t i v e and  an e c l e c t i c  compro-  foreign religious traditions, a  f a c t t h a t engendered c o n s i d e r a b l e by those who  theological  1870's  c r i t i c i s m i n the  opposed the i n f l u e n c e of H i r a t a s c h o o l  teach-  29  ing  i n government e d u c a t i o n a l programmes.  7  In the atmosphere of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l t e n s i o n & caused by the i n t e r n a l and  e x t e r n a l t h r e a t s to shogunal  a u t h o r i t y t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d the bakumatsu p e r i o d  (1853-  37  1868), the teachings  of H i r a t a , e s p e c i a l l y h i s advocacy  of the s u p e r i o r i t y of S h i n t o , the I m p e r i a l l i n e and Japanese as a people, aspect.  a c q u i r e d a more immediate  the  political  H i s d o c t r i n e , promoted by h i s successor  Hirata  Kanetane (1799-1880), p l a c e d shogun and daimyo i n a position of e t h i c o - m o r a l  subservience  to the  Furthermore, many i n a l l walks of l i f e  saw  throne. k a the work of  the H i r a t a s c h o o l as a d i r e c t summons f o r s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l reform.  At the time of Atsutane's death there were  1,330  30 a c t i v e d i s c i p l e s w i t h i n the H i r a t a school-'  and from the  1860's onwards under Kanetane the number grew e x t e n s i v e l y . T h i s f o l l o w i n g , which by 1868 "produced some of the 31 Meiji Restoration"  'men who  J  numbered 4,000  of h i g h purpose*  adherents,  ( s h i s h i ) of the  sought the p o l i t i c a l r e v i v a l of  the Emperor and the d o w n f a l l of the bakufu.  The  s c h o o l became a prime f o r c e i n the g e n e r a l S h i n t o of the l a t e Tokugawa p e r i o d and became h i g h l y  Hirata revival  influential  when a l l i e d to the p o l i t i c a l movement which sought to r e p l a c e sh5gunal r u l e by a r e s t o r a t i o n of the house.  Imperial  Under l e a d e r s l i k e Kanetane, R e s t o r a t i o n  Shinto  formed a d i r e c t l i n k with the c o u r t and R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o i s t s v i g o r o u s l y p e t i t i o n e d I m p e r i a l o f f i c i a l s to promote the r e v i v a l of the s a i s e i i t c h i model of government the a n c i e n t J i n g i k a n . e f f e c t i v e and  These p e t i t i o n s were to prove  s a i s e i i t c h i was  mainstay of the new  and  adopted i n 1868  government's p o l i c y on  as  the  religion.  38  H i r a t a s c h o o l adherents a l s o were accorded  official  p o s i t i o n s i n the r e v i v e d S h i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s of the c e n t r a l government.  Thus, i n the f i r s t  of the e r a the M e i j i l e a d e r s upheld  years  a political  theory  based on the model of a n c i e n t Japan r e v i v i f i e d by ideas of R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o .  T h i s thought  the  incorporated  a C o n f u c i a n view of the s t a t e with the a n c i e n t  Shinto  based n o t i o n of the i d e n t i t y of p o l i t i c a l government and kami w o r s h i p . ( s a i s e i i t c h i ) . The  development of Shinto  i n the d o c t r i n a l f o r m u l a t i o n s around the b e g i n n i n g period, ted  i s one  thought, which was  expressed  of numerous s c h o l a r s from  of the Kamakura e r a to the bakumatsu  of amalgamation and compromise w i t h  r e l i g i o - e t h i c a l systems.  The  impor-  c o n c l u s i o n s drawn h e r e i n  aretthat t h i s evolution exemplifies a consistent e f f o r t to both r e - a p p r a i s e S h i n t o b e l i e f s i n terms of the g r e a t r e l i g i o n s of Buddhism and Confucianism  and  other  to  u t i l i z e the knowledge gained from t h i s r e - a p p r a i s a l i n order to formulate  a d i s t i n c t s e l f - i d e n t i t y f o r Shinto  an independent r e l i g i o u s system.  as  Shinto thought, t h e r e f o r e ,  evolved w i t h i n a p h i l o s o p h i c a l matrix of d i v e r s e  ideo-  l o g i e s which, though d i s t i n c t , became i n t e g r a t e d and were manipulated to f i t the framework of the broad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of a n c i e n t myths and r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s which comp r i s e the Shinto  religion.  Over a p e r i o d of e i g h t c e n t u r i e s the  theanthropic  kami worship of Japan a c q u i r e d a s e t of t h e o l o g i c a l con-  39  s t r u c t s which became r e l e v a n t when a p p l i e d i n the r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t .  That  i s , the f o u r  g e n e r a l streams o f S h i n t o thought  converged i n the r e -  surgence and s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n o f the ethos o f the Emperor worship-state itchi.  d u a l i t y expressed by the i d e a l o f s a i s e i  Furthermore, S h i n t o t h e o r i e s r e v i t a l i z e d ,  expanded and manufactured i n Tokugawa times became an i d e o l o g i c a l l e g i t i m i z i n g f a c t o r ^ f o r the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n . The  e t h i c o - m o r a l c o n s t r u c t s of S h i n t o p r o v i d e d the r a t i o n -  a l i z a t i o n s f o r superceding and b r e a k i n g e s t a b l i s h e d t i e s and  loyalties.  Thus, t h i s p o l i t i c i z e d S h i n t o became a  dynamic element i n s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . intellectuals,  Shinto  then, had formulated the i d e o l o g y by which  S h i n t o a l l i e d t o the I m p e r i a l cause ceased b e i n g dormant and a c q u i r e d a s t r o n g i d e n t i t y as the r e l i g i o n which made "more e x p l i c i t the moral b a s i s of [ p o l i t i c a l ] a c t i o n . •-^ The p o s i t i o n and r o l e o f S h i n t o h i s t o r i c a l l y was dependent upon the p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n of the I m p e r i a l house t o which i t was by d e f i n i t i o n i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d .  Thus, R e v i v a l  S h i n t o , e x a l t i n g the i d e a l s of the a n c i e n t  liturgical  s t a t e , became the instrument which p r o v i d e d the i d e o l o g i c a l u n i t y which l e n t an added impetus to the many-faceted r e s t o r a t i o n movement.  S h i n t o d o c t r i n e , then, became  u t i l i z e d on an i d e o l o g i c a l l e v e l by p o l i t i c a l  activists 14  as "the l i n k between a c t i o n and fundamental b e l i e f . " ^ The  i n f l u e n c e of S h i n t o ideology,  vOn  =  the p o l i t i c s o f  the I m p e r i a l r e s t o r a t i o n can be measured by the degree to  which the S h i n t o r e v i v a l i s t theory of the i d e n t i t y S h i n t o w i t h the I m p e r i a l s t a t e was M e i j i government.  adopted by the  The p o l i t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n  of new  of t h i s  i d e n t i t y as expressed by the i d e a l of s a i s e i i t c h i i s d i s c u s s e d i n the next  chapter.  41  CHAPTER 4  THE  The  ESTABLISHMENT OF SAISEI ITCHI  previous  two  chapters  have shown s a i s e i  itchi  hoth as the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e model of the a n c i e n t t h e o c r a t i c s t a t e c o n s t r u c t and as an e s s e n t i a l paradigm i n the development of Shinto as a modern i d e o l o g y .  These two  aspects  of s a i s e i i t c h i , t h a t i s , as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e model as a r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l theory i n the e a r l y M e i j i y e a r s .  of s t a t e , became p r e v a l e n t  S a i s e i i t c h i furthermore  promoted as the r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y of the government consequently became the  i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the  of the S h i n t o r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e . d e a l s with the p o l i t i c a l  model from an i n s t i t u t i o n a l and  therefore,  l e g a l standpoint.  chapter,  legislation applied  as p a r t of the e a r l y M e i j i  administrative construct.  Further,  this  by a n a l y z i n g the programmes and p e r s o n n e l  S h i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e bodies, R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto  e d i c t s and  of  examines the i n f l u e n c e of  groups i n the promotion of the e a r l y  Meiji religious policy. saisei itchi  itchi  That i s ,  whereby the i d e o l o g i c a l i d e a l of s a i s e i i t c h i was  and  and  of the s a i s e i  i t examines the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mechanisms and  political  was  revitalization  T h i s chapter,  establishment  as both a r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y and  and  T h i s chapter  argues t h a t  i d e a l as expressed i n contemporary  the  Imperial  other l e g i s l a t i v e measures formed a c o n s i s t e n t  r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y i n the f i r s t few years  of M e i j i .  the r e l i g i o u s goals of S h i n t o i s t s c o i n c i d e d with  Since the  aim  42  of n a t i o n a l s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l cohesion s t r e s s e d by p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s , S h i n t o as a r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e was  institutional  r e - e s t a b l i s h e d as the r e l i g i o u s arm  i d e n t i t y of r e l i g i o n and government. identity,  the  I p o s i t , which culminated  of the  The r e s u l t of t h i s i n the r e v i v a l of  a n c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e forms i n ,1869, p l a c e d e a r l y M e i j i government to a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree i n a thoroughgoing r e l i g i o u s context.  P a r t One:  The Re-instatement  of the I m p e r i a l House 1867  -  1868 By the 1860's the p r o - S h i n t o  i n t e l l e c t u a l movement  became d i r e c t l y a c t i v e i n the debate surrounding  the p r o -  blem posed by the i n c u r s i o n of f o r e i g n n a v i e s i n t o Japanese waters.  In the f i f t e e n years which had e l a p s e d s i n c e the  v i s i t of Commodore P e r r y ' s  'black s h i p s ' to Edo  Bay  in  1853» there had been a g r a d u a l d e c l i n e i n shSgunal power. The weaknesses of bakufu l e a d e r s became accentuated  by  i n a b i l i t y to f i n d an a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n to the demands of f o r e i g n powers.  The  I m p e r i a l c o u r t a l s o , as a t r a d i t i o n -  a l l e g i t i m i z i n g body f o r the c e n t r a l p o l i t i c a l became i n v o l v e d with the f a t e of a Japan now  ruler,  exposed to  J;he v a g a r i e s of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s of i m p e r i a l i s m . In an atmosphere of g e n e r a l S h i n t o r e v i v a l and moves to r e s t o r e the r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y of the throne, Emperor Komei ( r . 1 8 4 7 - 1 8 6 7 )  i n 1853  journeyed  tothe Grand S h r i n e  ^3  of Ise, s e a t of the a n c e s t r a l goddess of the line.  There he requested  Imperial  divine intervention against i  the t h r e a t posed by f o r e i g n 'barbarians'. Omikami, however, f a i l e d to i n t e r v e n e .  Amaterasu Nor  did  she  produce an e q u i v a l e n t of the kamikaze ( d i v i n e winds) which had  so e f f e c t i v e l y destroyed  six centuries e a r l i e r .  Instead,  the Mongol i n v a s i o n  the goddess and  I m p e r i a l symbol became the f i g u r e h e a d s anti-bakufu  forces r a l l i e d .  The  the  around which the  Shogun K e i k i i n t u r n  "sought c o u n c i l from the I m p e r i a l c o u r t and l o r d s on the momentous problem presented 2  the  feudal  by the demands  of Commodore Perry." By 1867  the bakufu was  i n serious trouble.  In  the  f a c e of modern change many of the socio-economic and t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s of the two system were crumbling. d i s i n t e g r a t i n g , was ted."^  hundred-year-old bakuhan  In s h o r t ,  "the shogun's r u l e  not s u f f i c i e n t l y n a t i o n a l , was  was  resen-  In t h i s atmosphere of n a t i o n a l i n s e c u r i t y , p o l i t i -  c a l t e n s i o n and,  to a degree, s o c i a l fragmentation,  v o i c e s rose to demand a p a r t i n the process.  poli-  decision-making  To the m a j o r i t y the n a t i o n a l dilemma was  as a " s t r u g g l e to determine the f u t u r e of the i n s t i t u t i o n and  the Tokugawa f a m i l y . " ^  however, p o l i t i c a l decision-making was hands of a narrow p o l i t i c a l e l i t e . many " d i d not even r e a l i z e there was  new  viewed  Imperial  At the same time, r e s t r i c t e d to  the  Among the masses an Emperor."-'  It  44  was  among the educated, e l i t i s t f a c t i o n s , then,  the anti-shogun  pro-Emperor s t r u g g l e was  that  carried  out.  I n j e c t e d i n t o the movement to r e a s s e r t I m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t y were two p r i m a r i l y r e l i g i o u s f a c t o r s which were to prove of c r u c i a l import  i n the  of the Emperor to n a t i o n a l prominence.  re-establishment The  first  was  Shinto which p r o v i d e d the i n h e r e n t l e g i t i m a c y f o r s t r e s s ing  the supremacy of the d i v i n e l y descended I m p e r i a l  as w e l l as the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the r e v i v a l of the  line  ancient  theory of S h i n t o government u n i t y ( s a i s e i i t c h i ) .  This  u n i t y was  han  deemed d e s i r a b l e by both c o u r t and r e b e l  l e a d e r s as a bulwark to the I m p e r i a l cause.  A unified  n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l system e x e m p l i f i e d by a S h i n t o - s t a t e Emperor c o n s t r u c t with throne  a t i t s apex was  f o r the  f i r s t f i v e y e a r s of M e i j i a c h i e f g o a l of government l e a d e r s i n the aftermath The  of p o l i t i c a l upheaval.  second f a c t o r was  the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  I m p e r i a l cause of R e s t o r a t i o n and R e v i v a l Shinto i n Kyoto i n the 1860's.  These men,  groups  c h i e f l y of the H i r a t a  s c h o o l , were to have an i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e i n the  formation  of the r e l i g i o u s p o l i c i e s adopted by the c o u r t .  The  r e l i g i o - i d e o l o g i c a l aspect proved to be of e s s e n t i a l worth to  the I m p e r i a l cause,  T h i s i d e o l o g y i n the main  promoted by R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o  was  schools, members of which  were i n f l u e n t i a l i n c o u r t c i r c l e s from the 1860's onwards.  45  H i r a t a s c h o o l s c h o l a r s t u t o r e d the c o u r t on R e v i v a l i s t Shinto doctrines.  These teachers  disseminated  of Emperor-Shinto i d e n t i t y t h a t had been an p a r t of a n c i e n t Japanese government.  the  theory  intrinsic  Restoration  Shinto  ideas, then, became p a r t of a planned programme by c o u r t i e r s and  i n t e l l e c t u a l s who  sought to r e s t o r e the  Emperor to p o l i t i c a l prominence. Shinto  Consequently, R e s t o r a t i o n  ideologues became i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the f o r m a t i o n  implementation of the r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y of s a i s e i In November 1867,  itchi.  Shogun K e i k i , having f a i l e d to q u e l l  the r i s i n g t i d e of r e f o r m i s t z e a l or g a i n the support the c o u r t , submitted l e t t e r expressed  and  h i s r e s i g n a t i o n to the throne.  of Reiki's  the need f o r a s t r o n g c e n t r a l i z e d a u t h o r i t y  to e f f e c t p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l and counter danger of " f o r e i g n i n t e r c o u r s e . " ^  The  the  impending  shogun proposed t h a t  i f the o l d order of t h i n g s be changed then a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y be r e s t o r e d to the I m p e r i a l c o u r t . ^ recognized  Keiki,  the I m p e r i a l symbol and c o u r t as a s t i l l  element i n n a t i o n a l governance.  vital  Under the l e a d e r s h i p of  the c o u r t , he s t a t e d , n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l cohesion u n i f i e d government c o u l d be achieved. the shogun's r e s i g n a t i o n was  thus,  accepted  and  On November 1 2 , by the  I867,  perfunctory  statement: "Tokugawa K e i k i ' s p r o p o s a l to r e s t o r e the admini s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y to the I m p e r i a l c o u r t i s accepted  by  o  the Emperor."  On January 3 ,  1968  the s i x t e e n y e a r - o l d  Emperor, the s i n g u l a r u n i f y i n g symbol i n the n a t i o n , claimed h i s r e s t o r a t i o n to power.  pro-  46  P o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s f a c t i o n s i n and behind the  first  Me i.i i government  The  events surrounding the I m p e r i a l r e s t o r a t i o n  from the e a r l y 1860's to the w i n t e r of I867 are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n t r i c a t e p o l i t i c a l maneuvring and complex machin a t i o n s by numerous p o l i t i c a l f i v e years of M e i j i ,  indeed, comprise  i n Japanese h i s t o r y , one complete  accuracy.  i n t e r e s t groups.  " d i f f i c u l t to c h a r t "  with  Three f a c t i o n s , however, can be  The f i r s t and m i l i t a r i l y  the young samurai a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who  first  a r a t h e r gray area o  cerned as emerging as predominant i n the new structure.  The  dis-  government  most important  was  made "the v i t a l  10 decisions"  i n t h e i r own  domains and who  l e d the  armies  of Choshu, Satsuma and Tosa a g a i n s t the Tokugawa house. Notably, Kido Koin, Skubo T o s h i m i c h i and Saigo Takamori h e l d a resentment  f o r the Tokugawa t h a t "was  pathological in i t s i n t e n s i t y . "  1 1  almost  Together with the  c o u r t i e r Iwakura Tomomi, they formed the to-baku  (anti-  bakufu) f a c t i o n which sought no compromise with the The samurai who  bakufu.  were the l e a d i n g p o l i t i c a l p o l i c y makers  in early Meiji u t i l i s e d  the I m p e r i a l personage as the  r a l l y i n g symbol f o r t h e i r cause.  Thus, p o l i t i c a l problems  became i n t e r m i n g l e d w i t h the s t a t u s of the Emperor and h i s ShintoThe h e rsecond i t a g e . predomiantly s u c c e s s f u l f a c t i o n was  com-  47  posed of those nobles who the p o l i t i c a l power and  supported the moves to  r e l i g i o u s p r e s t i g e of the  moves which brought them i n t o the c e n t r e scene.  increase  They thus f o s t e r e d the  of the  throne,  political  i d e a l s of Emperor-Shinto  — 12 e l e v a t i o n , were t a l l i e s of the to-baku f a c t i o n "  and  were g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the ambitious and f o r c e f u l Prince  Iwakura Tomomi (1825-1883).  Iwakura was  ardently  13 "priest-minded",  t h a t i s , he was  "strongly  by the Kokugaku s c h o l a r Tamamatsu Misao" s c h o o l and  was  desirous  influenced  of the  Hirata  of the r e t u r n of the r e l i g i o u s  a u t h o r i t y of the Emperor on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e .  Iwakura  with f e l l o w nobleman Sanjo Sanetomi (1837-1891) i s c r e d i t e d (and blamed) f o r the promotion of the a b s o l u t i s t proShinto r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y and c i r c l e s and  f o r h i s supports of the R e s t o r a t i o n  i d e a l of s a i s e i i t c h i . p o l i c y was  i t s acceptance i n c o u r t  due  The  i n i t i a l success of " t h i s  to Iwakura Tomomi and  Sanjo Sanetomi  were [ t o become] c e n t r a l f i g u r e s i n the new Iwakura "was  representative  —  r a t i o n [to-baku1 f a c t i o n " authority.  Iwakura had  1  f,  Shinto  government." ^ 1  of the [ i d e a l s ] of the which he  l e d with  the f o r e s i g h t and  who  resto-  considerable  i n s i g h t to  recognize  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of h a r n e s s i n g the  under the  Imperial  nation  symbol backed by a c e n t r a l l y d i r e c t e d  u n i t y of S h i n t o and  the s t a t e .  c h i e f l y responsible  f o r the s a i s e i i t c h i r e v i v a l i n the  f i r s t M e i j i years.  He was,  i f any  one  man  was,  48  The Shinto  t h i r d f a c t i o n was t h a t comprised o f R e s t o r a t i o n  s c h o l a r s , p r i m a r i l y those o f the H i r a t a s c h o o l .  Members o f t h i s group were c l o s e a d v i s o r s t o Iwakura and  to s e v e r a l strongly pro-Shinto  daimyo.  The daimyo  most prominent i n the promotion o f S h i n t o were Kamei  (1823-1885)  Koremi  of E c h i z e n .  o f Tsuwano han and Matsudaira Yoshinaga  Yoshinaga was a s t r o n g p r o - S h i n t o  advocate,  f a n a t i c a l l y a n t i - B i d d h i s t and a n t i - C o n f u c i a n i s t .  He was  among the f i r s t daimyo t o undermine the Tokugawa s a n k i n k o t a i system ( e n f o r c e d r e s i d e n c e toithe  i n Edo)  and h i s d e f e c t i o n  I m p e r i a l cause c o n s i d e r a b l y weakened the  As head of the e a r l y M e i j i U n i v e r s i t y (daigako 1869,  he wielded  considerable  influence i n  shogunate. Betto) i n  education.  Kamei Koremi h e l d high o f f i c e i n the major  Shinto  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the c e n t r a l government and had  as h i s c h i e f a d v i s o r Fukuba B i s e i  (1831-1907),  who was  an extremely i n f l u e n t i a l f o r c e i n the H i r a t a s c h o o l . From around the mid-nineteenth century out r e l i g i o u s reforms t o s t r e n g t h e n  Tsuwano had c a r r i e d  the han economy a t  the expense o f Buddhism and t o i n c r e a s e the i n f l u e n c e o f Shinto.  In the l a t e Tokugawa p e r i o d s i m i l a r  restrictions  on Buddhist i n f l u e n c e and moves t o e l e v a t e S h i n t o had been c a r r i e d out by p r o - S h i n t o  reformers  i n Satsuma under  Shimazu N a r i a k i r a , i n Okayama under I&eda Mitsumasa and i n Mito under Tokugawa M i t s u k u n i .  The reforms were  mainly i n the form o f the r e d u c t i o n o f the number o f  49  Buddhist temples, the t a k i n g over of temple to i n c r e a s e han  f i n a n c e s and  property  the u t i l i z a t i o n of  s h r i n e s to r e p l a c e Buddhist temples as c e n t r e s  Shinto of  family  registration.^ Fronr'rthe 1850's H i r a t a s c h o o l i n f l u e n c e a c q u i r e d  an  i n c r e a s i n g impact among i n t e l l e c t u a l s of the Kokugaku movement i n g e n e r a l .  Importantly, a l s o , they t u t o r e d  c o u r t and Emperor i n the a n c i e n t advisors  to p o l i t i c a l l y  s c h o o l and  t e x t s and  acted as  i n f l u e n t i a l daimyo.  i t s branches were c e n t r e d  spectrum of the w e l l - t o - d o "upper- and m i d d l e - c l a s s class warriors,  and  close  Hirata  around H i r a t a Kanetane  i n Kyoto d u r i n g the decade o f the 1860's. over f o u r thousand adherents who  The  the  Kanetane  had  were drawn from a broad  s e c t i o n s of s o c i e t y , i n c l u d i n g  merchants and  a r t i s a n s , lower-  i n farm v i l l a g e s r i c h farmers,  local  19 capitalistic  l a n d l o r d s , and  suggested e a r l i e r ,  Shinto p r i e s t s . "  the p o l i t i c i z e d aspect  Thus, as  7  of H i r a t a  school  d o c t r i n e g r e a t l y i n s p i r e d those c l a s s e s of Tokugawa s o c i e t y who  f e l t s t i f l e d by the s o c i a l c i r c u m s c r i p t i o n and  p o l i t i c a l m o b i l i t y inherent  i n bakufu r u l e .  l a c k of  However, by  the mid-1860's the ranks of the H i r a t a s c h o o l had  swollen  to i n c l u d e u p p e r - c l a s s  new  converts.  These men  samurai as the m a j o r i t y  found i n the teachings  of  of H i r a t a a  r e l i g i o - i n t e l l e c t u a l b u t t r e s s to the p o l i t i c a l movement 20 which sought to end bakufu domination. The  adherents of the H i r a t a s c h o o l , though not  the  only i n t e l l e c t u a l f o r c e behind the r e s t o r a t i o n of Emperor  50  M e i j i , became "without doubt the most important." In the l a t e Tokugawa p e r i o d ,  the Shinto  movement became h i g h l y p o l i t i c i z e d and  intellectual advocated a  r e t u r n to the s a i s e i i t c h i J i n g i k a n - D a j o k a n system of the a n c i e n t  l i t u r g i c a l state.  administrative  I t was  anti-  Buddhist and became c l o s e l y a l i g n e d w i t h the movement to r e t u r n the Emperor to p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y . By means of l e c t u r e s , p e t i t i o n s and p e r s o n a l the f o l l o w e r s of H i r a t a "found a h e a r i n g  presentations,  i n the c o u r t i n  Kyoto, about the Emperor, most i m p o r t a n t l y  i n Prince  22  Iwakura."  In due  course, i n the f i r s t years of M e i j i ,  from p o s i t i o n s i n h i g h - l e v e l government o f f i c e s , of the H i r a t a s c h o o l were to promote S h i n t o pro-Shinto  religious policies.  members  concerns  F u j i t a n i Toshio,  a  a u t h o r i t y ontthe Emperor system, s t a t e s t h a t H i r a t a  and  leading school  adherents were the people a t the h e a r t of the government's r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y , were c l o s e c o n f i d a n t s Sanjo who  i n t u r n were r e s p o n s i b l e  of Iwakura  f o r the p l a c i n g of  Kokugaku s c h o l a r s i n t o p o s i t i o n s of p o w e r . A s then, from around  1850  to  I 8 6 7  a whole,  H i r a t a s c h o o l members were  a c t i v e on the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l as a d v i s o r s makers and pro-Shinto  and  c o u r t i e r s and  to nan p o l i c y  from 1 8 6 8 to 1 8 7 2  h e l d government o f f i c e s from which they promoted the e l e v a t i o n of Shinto ence .  to i t s former p o s i t i o n of n a t i o n a l promin-  51  The J i n g i k a n r e v i v a l movement The v a r i o u s s c h o o l s of R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto which s t r e s s e d the n e c e s s i t y of a r e t u r n to the a n c i e n t  Jingi-  kan-Dajokan a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e thus promoted the r e l i g i o u s ideology and r e l i g i o u s p o l i c i e s o f R e v i v a l Shinto as a f i r m p o l i t i c a l g o a l .  Indeed, the p o l i t i c a l  moves by S h i n t o i s t s between 1840 and 1 8 6 9 can be viewed as a gradual process  f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n of the J i n g i k a n  to i t s former p o l i t i c a l prominence. August,  T h i s was achieved i n  I 8 6 9 .  As s t a t e d above the r e v i v a l of S h i n t o  took i t s f i r s t  p o l i t i c a l form i n the a c t i o n s of pro-Shinto  daimyo.  Shinto  a l s o , as a l l i e d to the r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y of the throne,  became more i n d i r e c t l y  i n v o l v e d i n the a n t i -  f o r e i g n movements from the 1840's onwards. 184? and i n 1849 Emperor Komei h e l d S h i n t o was proclaimed  t h a t t o achieve  ers should be e x p e l l e d .  In Kyoto i n rites  i n which i t  n a t i o n a l peace a l l f o r e i g n -  I m p e r i a l messengers were sent to  r e l a y t h i s message to the twenty-two major S h i n t o  shrines  24 of the n a t i o n .  In  I 8 6 3  having  achieved  a degree of  c o n s o l i d a t i o n , the anti-Tokugawa f o r c e s acted on a recommendation by the l e a d e r s of Choshu han which proposed the u t i l i z a t i o n of the Emperor and Shinto r i t e s i n the a n t i f o r e i g n cause.  The S h i n t o ceremonies which were c a r r i e d  out  the I m p e r i a l c o u r t and the twenty-two  Ise S h r i n e ,  52  n a t i o n a l s h r i n e s were those 1568).  of the Muromachi p e r i o d  (1392-  Late Muromachi S h i n t o was predominantly t h a t of the  Yoshida s c h o o l which f o l l o w e d the d o c t r i n a l f o r m u l a t i o n s of Yoshida Kanemoto.  Thus, i n I865 the Yoshida f a m i l y was  again  brought to prominence as p a r t of the Emperor Komei's p o l i c y f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n of major s h r i n e f e s t i v a l s .  The l e a d e r  of the Yoshida s c h o o l Y o s h i d a Ryogi (1821-1888)  was to h o l d  h i g h o f f i c e i n v a r i o u s S h i n t o o f f i c e s o f the M e i j i government. The r e v i v a l of the i n f l u e n c e of Yoshida Shinto brought back "an e r a of Shinto p r o s p e r i t y and was a p o s i t i v e development i n 25 the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f the i n f l u e n c e of the J i n g i k a n . "  The recommendation by Choshu t h a t Muromachi Shinto be promoted by the I m p e r i a l house met with o p p o s i t i o n from c o u r t nobles  Imperial  and R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o s c h o l a r s who proposed t h a t  the c o u r t r e s t o r e the r i t e s of the a n c i e n t J i n g i k a n as l a i d out i n the E n g i s h i k i .  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n o p i n i o n as to  the r e l i g i o u s model to be adopted was a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n arguments over the choice of p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e to be adopted to r e p l a c e the bakufu.  According  to one a u t h o r i t y , both the Choshu  and Satsuma daimyo h e l d t h a t the " i d e a l government was t h a t 27 of the end of the s i x t e e n t h century."  T h i s system was t h a t  of n a t i o n a l r u l e by a c o u n c i l of f i v e l e a d i n g daimyo. of the younger samurai of Choshu, Satsuma and Tosa, who  Many were  the mainstay o f the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n and whose primary g o a l was t h a t of n a t i o n a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n under a s t r o n g c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y , maintained  t h a t the b e s t government was t h a t of  53  the  C o n f u c i a n  c o m r p i s e  "a  c o n c e p t i o n  c o u n c i l  o f  o f  r u l e  e l d e r s  by  [ b u t  men i n  o f  v i r t u e  who  w o u l d  which]  p o p u l a r  o p i n i o n  l a t e  M u r o m a c h i  m o d e l  28 was  c o n s u l t e d  was  a l s o  E m p e r o r  v a r i o u s  o p p o s e d daimyo  I m p e r i a l b u t  i n  b y  who  T h e  R e s t o r a t i o n s o u g h t  b u r e a u c r a c y .  r e v o l u t i o n a r y  w a y s . "  i n  t h e  T h i s i t s  S h i n t o i s t s  r e v i v a l  p r o p o s a l  o f  a n d the  "was  p r o p o s i t i o n ,  s e v e r a l  p r o -  p r e - f e u d a l  n o t  o n l y  i n a s m u c h  as  r a d i c a l , i t  a i m e d  a t  29 the  a b o l i t i o n T h e r e  v a r i o u s the  was,  the  movement  M e i j i  the  s t r u c t u r e  i n  f o r  the  e a r l y  I n f r o m  t e r m  was  H i r a t a  u s e d  e v e n  to By  o f  the  1860's  the  s t r o n g l y  m o d e l  the  a n c i e n t  f r o m  M e i j i  w h i c h the  the  K a n e t a n e  the  the  the  J i n g i k a n  I m p e r i a l  as  i n the  f o r m  a  o f r e v i v a l  r e t u r n  to  b u r e a u c r a c y .  the  a n c i e n t  g e n e r a l  name  g o v e r n m e n t .  I w a k u r a  on  among  p r o m o t e d  o r i g i n a t e d  b e g i n n i n g  c e n t r a l  d a i m i a t e s . "  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  a n d  o f  the  d i s c u s s i o n  momentum  D a j o k a n  1867,  J u l y  as  g o v e r n m e n t .  g a i n e d  and  c o n s i d e r a b l e  f a c t i o n s  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Indeed,  s h o g u n a t e  t h e n ,  p o l i t i c a l  f i r s t  the  o f  t o - b a k u  s u b j e c t  o f  f a c t i o n  s o u g h t  r e l i g i o u s  a d v i c e  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  30 f o r m s . 'set  f o r t h  v i v a l o f  K a n e t a n e  a l l  o f  a n  the  t i e s  December  1867,  i n  a  e i g h t  " s e c r e t  c l a u s e  J i n g i k a n . b e t w e e n a  memorial"-^  p o l i t i c a l  K a n e t a n e  B u d d h i s m  d e t a i l e d  a l s o  a n d  p o l i c y  the f o r  to  the  programme  I w a k u r a  f o r  recommended I m p e r i a l the  the the  c o u r t .  " u n i t y  o f  g r o u p  r e r e m o v a l I n  w o r s h i p  31 and  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  ( s a i s e i  i t c h i ) ,  r  c e n t r e d  on  S h i n t o i s m "  (I823-I887).  was p r e s e n t e d to the c o u r t b y Yano Gendo a l e a d e r o f the H i r a t a s c h o o l , s t r o n g l y p r o m o t e d  the  Gendo, r e t u r n  5*  of the S h i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e bodies cracy.  of the a n c i e n t bureau-  Thus, the t h e o r i e s of Motoori  and H i r a t a Atsutane  found an i n f l u e n t i a l f o l l o w i n g a t the h i g h e s t l e v e l s of p o l i t i c a l power.  P a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n t i a l was  Iwakura's  p r i n c i p a l a d v i s o r Tamamatsu Misao (1810-1872) who H i r a t a s c h o o l advocate and 1871)  of Tsuwano.  student  was  an  of Okuni Takamasa ( 1 7 9 2 -  Okuni a l s o acted as a d v i s o r to the promi-  nent c o u r t i e r T o k u d a i j i Sanenori h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l posts Another pro-Shinto  (I838-I919) who  was  to h o l d  i n M e i j i departments of Home A f f a i r s , ; f i g u r e who  i n e a r l y M e i j i governments and who  was  to h o l d h i g h  office  p l a y e d a key r o l e i n the  f o r m a t i o n and enactment of S h i n t o r e l i g i o u s p o l i c i e s Maruyama Sakura ( 1 8 4 0 - 1 9 4 4 ) . of H i r a t a Kanetane, Sakura was r e v i v a l movement.  was  A Shimabara samurai and p u p i l a l e a d i n g f o r c e i n the J i n g i k a n  The r e s t o r a t i o n of the J i n g i k a n "was  a  32  l i f e - l o n g h e a r t d e s i r e of Sakura,."^  and one which he  strove  f o r long a f t e r the e a r l y M e i j i J i n g i k a n had come and He was  an ardent  exponent of the adoption  of a n c i e n t c o u r t  r i t u a l forms and ranks.  Sakura was  Iwakura i n the f o r m a t i o n  of e a r l y M e i j i Shinto  bodies  and,  as a R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto  gone.  closely associated  with  administrative  i n t e l l e c t u a l , he upheld 33  "the J i n g i k a n r e s t o r a t i o n as the s p i r i t u a l f u l c r u m " their  J J  of  ideas. On August 1 7 ,  of the new  I867 the f i r s t r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l  government was  conception  i n d i c a t e d by a statement i s s u e d by  the c o u r t which c a l l e d f o r a r e v i v a l of the a n c i e n t  Imperial  55  "bureaucracy.  T h i s statement read:  " I t i s our d e s i r e to  r e s t o r e the r e s p e c t i v e t r a d i t i o n a l [ S h i n t o ] ceremonies of 34 the Dajokan and r e s t o r e the J i n g i k a n . statement of the f o r m a l a d o p t i o n  T h i s was  a clear  i n c e n t r a l government  c i r c l e s of a p o l i c y to r e - i n s t a t e the J i n g i k a n and the establishment  of the J i n g i - k a (Shinto O f f i c e ) i n the  c e n t r a l government i n February 1868.  On December ?,  a group of l e a d i n g c o u r t i e r s presented  a n c i e n t Jingikan-Da.jokan  for  structure.  as c o u r t p o l i c y and  T h i s was  a  of the formally  the f i r s t I m p e r i a l e d i c t  a r e t u r n to the system of s a i s e i  P a r t Two:  186?  to the throne  d e f i n i t e p r o p o s a l f o r the o f f i c i a l establishment  accepted  l e d to  I n i t i a l Experimentation  called  itchi.  with A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Forms  1868-1869  The  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mechanisms by which S h i n t o  was  i n t r o d u c e d as p a r t of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the e a r l y M e i j i s t a t e were formed by a g r a d u a l process i z e d by a c o n s i s t e n t experimentation From the beginning faction, for  of 1868  and  character-  w i t h governmental forms.  the v i c t o r y of the  to-baku  the c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t i e s i s s u e d a stream of  s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s change.  of p o l i t i c a l experiment,, r e s u r r e c t i o n and  1868  was  orders a year  innovation.  Major  p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n n o v a t i o n s were announced by means of I m p e r i a l e d i c t s expressed ancient Imperial s t a t e .  The  i n the terminology  Imperial e d i c t s ,  of the  nevertheless,  56  however much couched i n n o s t a l g i c S h i n t o - s t a t e r h e t o r i c , d i d exemplify  the tenor of the time which was  t h a t of a  d e s i r e to r e c r e a t e the i d e a l of r i t u a l p u r i t y and  administra-  t i v e c l a r i t y of the i d e a l i z e d a n c i e n t s t r u c t u r e .  However,  the exact form t h i s c o n s t r u c t was was,  i n e a r l y 1868, uncertain.  theless,  to take  i n modern times  From 1868 to 1 8 7 2 , never-  " p u b l i c o p i n i o n conceived  of d i r e c t I m p e r i a l r u l e as  a going back to the a n c i e n t Japanese p a s t . " - ^ The supported  c o u r t l e a d e r s , e s p e c i a l l y Iwakura and by R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o groups upheld  p o l i c y which would advance the establishment In upholding  the p r o f o u n d l y  Sanjo, a religious  of s a i s e i  itchi.  r e l i g i o u s view of the throne  and  i t s p l a c e i n government, Iwakura s t a t e d t h a t the Emperor  was  i d e n t i c a l with heaven and descended from a continuous l y l i n e a g e ; "consequently,  heaven-  the path of s a i s e i i t c h i was  clearly  a 37  c e l e b r a t i o n of something which proceeded from a d i v i n e  source."'  In 1868 the samurai l e a d e r , Kido Koin, as h i s d i a r y a t t e s t s , was  a t f i r s t overawed by the p r o x i m i t y o f the  Imperial  personage with whom he formed a c l o s e and p r a c t i c a l f r i e n d s h i p . Kido a l s o understood and supported the I m p e r i a l symbol.  a l l e f f o r t s to elevate'  Both c o u r t and  samurai l e a d e r s  r e a l i z e d the advantage of promoting S h i n t o , both to b o l s t e r the s t a t u s of the c e n t r a l government and n a t i o n a l a l l e g i a n c e to the throne Shinto  ideology.  l a c k of a c c e p t a b l e  They a l s o saw  to i n c u l c a t e a  by means of a u n i v e r s a l  the u t i l i t y ,  i n f a c e of a  modern a l t e r n a t i v e s , of the r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n  57  of the l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e codes of the seventh  and  eighth c e n t u r i e s . S h i n t o r i t e s and f e s t i v a l s q u i c k l y predominated to become a hallmark reform.  of a l l major l e g i s l a t i v e and  institutional  These t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s were i n v a r i a b l y  presented  by means of I m p e r i a l e d i c t s h e r a l d e d amid the f a n f a r e of S h i n t o ceremonies p r e s i d e d over by the Emperor. p o l i t i c a l promulgation of r e l i g i o n .  of new  laws was  Thus, the  p l a c e d i n the  Shinto added the dimension  of d i v i n e a u t h o r i t y  and m y s t i c a l import to the r e g a l solemnity of these T h i s aspect of l e g i s l a t i v e pronouncements was to a l l forms of s e c u l a r reform.  context  occasions.  extended a l s o  The Emperor "spoke l e s s  l i k e a modern c h i e f of s t a t e than l i k e the a n c i e n t  sage-king."  S h i n t o , then, which p r o v i d e d the sacred a u t h o r i t y and p r e s t i g e to k i n g s h i p , a l s o p l a y e d a major r o l e i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n and acceptance  of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l as w e l l as r e l i g i o u s change.  The S h i c h i - k a (Seven O f f i c e s of S t a t e ) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reform and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the J i n g i - k a (Shinto O f f i c e ) On January  3, 1868  the anti-shogunate  (to-baku) f a c t i o n  took command of the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n c e n t r e d around the c o u r t i e r s , daimyo and samurai assembled a t the c o u r t i n Kyoto.  I t was  began to take c o n t r o l . to do and how  Imperial  a t t h i s juncture t h a t Iwakura He  "knew p r e c i s e l y what he wanted  he wanted to do i t . " * 2  0  Iwakura and h i s  £  58  advisors drafted a considerable and  administrative proposals  Restoration Edict. proclaiming  The  number of  as w e l l as the  Imperial  R e s t o r a t i o n E d i c t of January  the r e t u r n to power of the  composed a f t e r seeking  legislative  the advice  advocate of s a i s e i i t c h i .  The  I m p e r i a l house,  was  of Yano Gendo, a primary  r e s c r i p t was  p o l i t i c a l d e c l a r a t i o n of the new  3,  regime.  the  first  I t contained  the  f i r s t p u b l i c announcement of the importance to be  placed  on Shinto r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s by the new  government.  The  Emperor a l s o on January 3i f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s s e t 41  out by  Iwakura,  announced the establishment  of s e v e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s .  of the  first  T h i s , the San  shoku  (Three O f f i c e s of Government) system, was s o s a i ( P r e s i d e n t or c h i e f executive gijo  composed of a  o f f i c e r ) , a c o u n c i l of  ( s e n i o r or c o n c i l l o r s f i r s t c l a s s ) and under t h i s ,  j u n i o r executive second c l a s s ) .  a  body comprised of sanyo ( j u n i o r or c o u n c i l l o r s A t t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d , the f i n a l d e c i s i o n on  the form of government a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s l a y with Iwakura f a c t i o n which a l s o was  c l o s e s t to the c o u r t  the  and  the members of which, as g i j o , h e l d the e f f e c t i v e r e i n s of power.  As f a r as r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y was  group r e c e i v e d the d i r e c t support o f f i c e i n the San  shoku s t r u c t u r e .  concerned, the  Iwakura  of those S h i n t o i s t s given These i n c l u d e d the  Shirakawa Sukenori and Yoshida Ryogi of the  gijo  traditional  orthodox Shinto f a m i l i e s both of whom were a l s o of c o u r t rank.  59  The more p r o g r e s s i v e Shinto s c h o o l s were r e p r e s e n t e d among others, the sanyo H i r a t a Kanetane and Kamei Koremi and Shimazu Tadayoshi held gijo  by,  the daimyo  of Satsuma who  also  rank.  By February  1868,  with the d e f e a t of the Tokugawa  f o r c e s a t the B a t t l e of Toba-Fushimi, and thus i n an atmosphere of i n c r e a s e d s e c u r i t y and c o n f i d e n c e , the c o u n c i l was  Imperial  i n a p o s i t i o n to r e - o r g a n i z e the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  s t r u c t u r e a l o n g more systematic and e f f e c t i v e l i n e s . February  10,  1868  the San shoku system was  administrative o f f i c e s  (ka).  On  r e p l a c e d by s i x  These were a Home O f f i c e ,  F o r e i g n O f f i c e , O f f i c e s of the Army and Navy, F i n a n c e , 42 Justice and  Institutional Legislation.  ( Byogi ), however, decided i t was of (Shinto) d e i t i e s . "  J  The  "necessary  S h i n t o , then, was 44  i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s and the J i n g i - k a  cabinet council to add an  accorded  office  a voice  and the v a r i o u s  S h i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e bodies which succeeded i t would hencef o r t h be the c r u c i b l e f o r the d i r e c t f o r m u l a t i o n and ment of the r e l i g i o u s p o l i c i e s of the e a r l y M e i j i  enact-  state.  R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto i d e o l o g y would predominate i n these e a r l y o f f i c e s whose major l e g i s l a t i o n would be by the Dajokan and announced by the Emperor.  sanctioned The a d d i t i o n  of the J i n g i - k a r e p r e s e n t e d a v i c t o r y f o r the S h i n t o  revival  movement. The J i n g i - k a s i g n i f i e d the f i r s t move toward the r e s t o r a t i o n of the a n c i e n t Jingikan-Dajokan  state structure.  60  The  d u t i e s of the J i n g i - k a were those of the  t i o n of S h i n t o  administra-  " r i t e s , shrines, m i s s i o n a r i e s , f e s t i v a l s  those p a r i s h households which p r o v i d e d  s e r v i c e s to  and  the  45 shrine."  R e f l e c t i n g the g e n e r a l acceptance of  r o l e i n government was  the f a c t t h a t the Jingi-ka-was  accorded the s t a t u s of b e i n g p l a c e d f i r s t new  o f f i c e s of s t a t e .  administer  The  o f f i c e of r e l i g i o n u n d e r l i n e s  the age-old The  of an  all-embracing  and  the  throne.  i d e o l o g i c a l and r i t u a l importance of S h i n t o  officer  Konoe Tadafusa and  Prince A r i s u -  ( s o s a i ) of the  As f e l l o w f i r s t rank o f f i c i a l s  J i n g i - k a were the c o u r t i e r s and  these men,  is  the appointment of Arisugawa no Miya (1835-  the s e n i o r e x e c u t i v e  government.  Meiji  (sotoku) i n the  g i j o Nakayama Tadayasu, 46  the sanyo Shirakawa Sukenori.  Below  as second ranked a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s  were three Shinto p r i e s t s appointed knowledge of the d o c t r i n e and February 2,  by  ideas as w e l l as the s t r e s s p l a c e d upon  to a l e a d i n g p o s i t i o n i n the J i n g i - k a .  gawa was  seven  the g e n e r a l mood c r e a t e d  t i e s between Shinto  u n d e r l i n e d by 1895)  among the  absence of an o f f i c i a l body to  Buddhism or the establishment  R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto  Shinto's  1868  (kakari)  for their "technical 4?  r i t e s of the f a i t h . "  Iwakura and Sanjo were appointed  a s s i s t a n t s (fuku s o s a i ) to Arisugawa.  Thus, the  l e a d i n g p o s i t i o n s i n the s t a t e were h e l d by  '  On  as three  pro-Shinto  advocates. The  S h i c h i - k a s t r u c t u r e e x e m p l i f i e s the e a r l y e x p e r i -  mentation with u n t r i e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e bodies.  The i n c l u s i o n  61  of  a  J i n g i - k a , nevertheless,  of S h i n t o  i n the f o r m a t i o n  government.  a t t e s t s to the  importance  of e a r l y M e i j i t h e o r i e s of  P r o f e s s o r s Murakami and Holtom, who  the J i n g i - k a and  i t s successor  place  the J i n g i Jimukyoku w i t h i n  the S t a t e Shinto framework as organs of  socio-political  c o n t r o l , c r e d i t M e i j i p o l i c y makers a t t h i s e a r l y stage with a m o d e r n i s t i c  f o r e s i g h t which i s not r e f l e c t e d i n the  other s i x o f f i c e s of government s e t up at a time of and  e r r o r and  s h i f t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e forms.  hand of both c o u r t and R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto promotion of reverence and Emperor.  trial  However, the  i s obvious i n the  l o y a l t y to the k_ami-descended  These ideas were viewed as e s s e n t i a l enough f o r  the J i n g i k a n to be accorded high s t a t u s as a primary of s t a t e .  The  J i n g i k a n , i n f a c t , was  office  the b u r e a u c r a t i c  re-  placement f o r "the J i s h a bugyo (Board of Commissioners f o r Temples and S h r i n e s ) which had  s u p e r v i s e d c e n t r a l government  r e l a t i o n s with r e l i g i o u s b o d i e s s i n c e the days of Tokugawa UP, Iemitsu ( 1 6 2 3 - 1 6 5 0 ) . " Inexperience  on the p a r t of the e a r l y M e i j i l e a d e r s  with  n a t i o n a l s c a l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e forms l e d to the l a c k of d e f i n i t i o n as to the exact f u n c t i o n s and of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s .  On February 25,  attempt to consolidate and reform a gorernment r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n was offices and  responsibilities 1868,  i n an  the c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , c a r r i e d out.  The e x i s t i n g  (ka) were expanded to i n c l u d e a more developed s o s a i  "were h e n c e f o r t h  to be known as kyoku  [bureaus]."  62  The Hachi kyoku  ( E i g h t Bureaus of S t a t e ) and the e s t a b l i s h -  ment of the J i n g i Jimukyoku  (Bureau of S h i n t o A f f a i r s )  The e i g h t bureaus e s t a b l i s h e d on February 25 were, i n order o f rank, a P r e s i d e n t i a l Board e n l a r g e d to the s i z e of  the other kyoku w i t h Iwakura and Sanjo i n e f f e c t i v e  c o n t r o l ; under t h i s body, f o l l o w i n g the p r e v i o u s s t r u c t u r e , were p l a c e d the seven bureaus w i t h the J i n g i g i v e n precedence of rank over the o t h e r s .  Jimukyoku  While the e s t a b l i s h -  ment of the J i n g i - k a o f f i c e had denoted the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n of was  the government's r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y , the J i n g i  Jimukyoku  to enact d e f i n i t e l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n of  saisei itchi.  The r e s h u f f l e of p e r s o n n e l c a r r i e d out i n the  change to the J i n g i Jimukyoku  r e f l e c t s more o b v i o u s l y the  i n f l u e n c e of the H i r a t a s c h o o l .  Furthermore, as P r o f e s s o r  Reischauer p o i n t s out, the r a p i d i t y of change i n e a r l y government organs i s " l e s s important than the men who them."-  Meiji staffed  50  The sanyo Shirakawa Sukenori of the orthodox S h i n t o s c h o o l subsumed by Buddhism d u r i n g the c e n t u r i e s of Ryobu S h i n t o headed  the J i n g i Jimukyoku  (chief o f f i c i a l ) .  w i t h the rank of toku  Under him were Yoshida Ryogi of the l e a d i n g  orthodox S h i n t o f a m i l y which had a l s o s u f f e r e d a l o s s of i n f l u e n c e i n the Ryobu p e r i o d , and Kamei Koremi,  a gijo  and s t r o n g l y p r o - R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o advocate who  held  (official  second r a n k ) .  Given the rank of h a n j i  suke  (official  63  t h i r d rank) were H i r a t a Kanetane and Yano Gendo, of the H i r a t a s c h o o l .  leaders  T a n i m o r i Yoshiomi (1877-1911), a  s c h o l a r of the Motoori s c h o o l o f Kokugaku, was accorded han.ji rank.-*  1  On March 27, Tanimori was moved t o the  Bureau o f I n s t i t u t i o n s (Seido Jimukyoku).  He was r e p l a c e d  by two l e a d i n g H i r a t a s c h o l a r s Okuni Takamasa and h i s d i s c i p l e Fukuda B i s e i who h e l d the rank o f a s s i s t a n t han.ji. Okuni was a l s o a c l o s e a d v i s o r t o P r i n c e T o k u d a i j i Sanenori (1839-1919), head of the Bureau o f Home A f f a i r s .  Tokudaiji  i n January 1868 was asked by the government t o " e s t a b l i s h and  supervise"^  request daiji,  2  i n favour  the J i n g i k a n .  He o b v i o u s l y  of an appointment i n Home A f f a i r s .  nonetheless, was r e p r e s e n t e d  A f f a i r s by Okuni.  declined  this Toku-  i n the Bureau o f Shinto  Skuni furthermore was the teacher o f  Tamamatsu Misao who i n t u r n was an a d v i s o r  to Iwakura.  On March 27, 1868 H i r a t a Kanetane moved t o take up the post o f n a n j i i n the Bureau o f Home A f f a i r s .  A t around the  same time H i r a t a Nobutane (1801-1882), h e i r apparent t o the H i r a t a s c h o o l l e a d e r s h i p , was appointed a s s i s t a n t h a n j i i n the J i n g i Jimukyoku. represented  v  Thus, the H i r a t a s c h o o l was s t r o n g l y  i n the Bureau o f S h i n t o A f f a i r s .  i n f l u e n t i a l Restoration Shinto  leaders,  As w e l l as  the Bureau a l s o  i n c l u d e d the heads of the two main orthodox Shinto Shirakawa and Yoshida. g e n e r a l aim o f Shinto  lineages,  These s c h o o l s which shared the same r e v i v a l can a l s o be grouped as p a r t  of the R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto  and J i n g i k a n r e v i v a l movements.  64  I t was  from the J i n g i Jimukyoku t h a t the r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y  of s a i s e i i t c h i was years  Key  planned and  executed i n the  first  of M e i j i .  l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t o r i g i n a t e d from the J i n g i Jimukyoku As p a r t of the s a i s e i i t c h i p o l i c y , the J i n g i Jimukyoku  set  out to end  replace The  the Ryobu Dual Shinto-Buddhist  system  and  i t with an independent Shinto r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e .  Dajokan, a c t i n g on a p r o p o s a l drawn up by the  Jimukyoku, on March 13. This e d i c t  1868  Jingi  i s s u e d the s a i s e i i t c h i e d i c t .  proclaimed:  As regards the r e s t o r a t i o n of the country to the system of s a i s e i i t c h i and the u n d e r t a k i n g of a g e n e r a l reform based upon the r e s t o r a t i o n of Imperial r u l e f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d by Emperor Jimmu, the J i n g i k a n s h a l l be r e s t o r e d f i r s t of all. 54 T h i s pronouncement put  i n a more c o n c i s e form the i d e a l s  expressed by the R e s t o r a t i o n E d i c t of January 3» the March 13 e d i c t e x e m p l i f i e d  the p o l i t i c a l  the R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto p h i l o s o p h y was  on the advice  specifically,  r e a l i z a t i o n of  of Tamamatsu Misao.  It  of t h i s a d v i s o r t h a t Iwakura acted when  promoting t h i s e d i c t ' s acceptance by the government.^through the i n f l u e n c e of Iwakura, e a r l y M e i j i  5  Thus,  political  l e a d e r s adopted as a v a l i d precedent the r e l i g i o u s model of a n c i e n t Japanese government. while  Both these I m p e r i a l e d i c t s ,  to a degree couched i n t r a d i t i o n a l p a t r i o t i c r h e t o r i c ,  65  n o n e t h e l e s s expressed the p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y of the r e s t o r a t i o n o f the i d e n t i t y and u n i t y of Shinto w i t h the c e n t r a l government.  The r e t u r n t o the semi-mythological  expressed by r e f e r e n c e s  past  to the r e i g n o f Emperor Jimmu  was i n e f f e c t the u n d e r l i n i n g of the f a c t t h a t the Imperial l i n e a g e was now r e s t o r e d to f u l l s t a t u s on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . The d e s i r e to r e s t o r e s a i s e i i t c h i was both "a c a l c u l a t e d step  i n the c r e a t i o n of a r e l i g i o u s m o t i v a t i o n  Imperial  f o r the  i n s t i t u t i o n " - ^ and a " s i n c e r e e x p r e s s i o n  The March 13 e d i c t u n d e r l i n e s  of f a i t h .  the r e l i g i o u s i n t e n t i o n s  of the government coupled w i t h a pragmatic r e a l i z a t i o n o f the use of S h i n t o to the Imperial  cause.  The e d i c t a l s o  r e f l e c t s the acceptance i n government c i r c l e s of the i d e a l s the J i n g i k a n r e s t o r a t i o n movement.  I t i s questionable,  however, how f a r h i s t o r i a n s can i n t e r p r e t the p o l i t i c a l tions inherent Restoration  i n the s a i s e i i t c h i e d i c t .  inten-  That i s , d i d the  Shinto movement and Iwakura have, as Cabot  C o v i l l e suggests, "the i n s i g h t t o recognize  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  i n h a r n e s s i n g the n a t i o n w i t h a c e n t r a l i z e d  S h i n t o " P o l i -  t i c a l s t a b i l i t y was the c h i e f aim o f the I m p e r i a l  govern-  ment a t t h i s time and m o b i l i z i n g the c o l l e c t i v e Shinto consciousness i n support of the r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y of the Emperor made sound p o l i t i c a l t h i n k i n g .  Y e t there  i s an  equal case to be made f o r the r e l i g i o u s o b j e c t i v e s behind a u n i f i e d , c e n t r a l l y d i r e c t e d Shinto,  t h a t i s , i t was the  i n t e n t o f the S h i n t o i s t s to c o n s o l i d a t e  a systematic  shrine  66  s t r u c t u r e f r e e of Buddhist primary  influence.  As S h i n t o was  i d e o l o g i c a l f a c t o r i n the I m p e r i a l cause,  J i n g i Jimukyoku was  a  the  encouraged to c a r r y out a programme  of S h i n t o c o n s o l i d a t i o n . To t h i s end,  i n March 1868  the J i n g i Jimukyoku under-  took the s u p e r v i s i o n of the complicated process wherehy the s h r i n e s , p e r s o n n e l and kami of Shinto would be from Buddhist domination. order ( t a s s h i ) was  On March 17,  1868  an  separated  official  sent from the J i n g i Jimukyoku to the  n a t i o n ' s major s h r i n e s .  T h i s order read:  Whereas a t p r e s e n t I m p e r i a l r u l e i s b e i n g r e s t o r e d and the n a t i o n c l e a n s e d of a l l abuses, i t i s ordered t h a t i n l a r g e and s m a l l s h r i n e s i n the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s those 'intendants' who wear Buddhist garb, and those persons c a l l e d 'shrine monks' and the l i k e , s h a l l r e t u r n to s e c u l a r l i f e . 60 T h i s order i n i t i a t e d the process f o r the removal from Shinto s h r i n e s of b e t t o (Buddhist superintendents;0f d u a l S h i n t o Buddhist  s h r i n e s ) and shaso (Buddhist p r i e s t s who  Shinto shrines).  serve i n  These m o n k - o f f i c i a l s u s u a l l y h e l d the  managerial p o s t s i n the s h r i n e s . by S h i n t o - p r i e s t s as i n t r u d e r s .  top  They were i n g e n e r a l viewed By the above order,  they  were g i v e n the c h o i c e of becoming l a i c i z e d or b e i n g r e - o r d a i n e d 6l as S h i n t o p r i e s t s .  The March 17 order, then, was  the  f i r s t move towards the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the g e n e r a l i d e o l o g i c a l p r e c e p t s o u t l i n e d i n the March 13 e d i c t .  That i s ,  the order began the r e s t r u c t u r i n g of Shinto i n s t i t u t i o n s p e r s o n n e l to form a more u n i f i e d S h i n t o .  and  6?  As an adjunct  to the March 17 order,  the  Jingi  Jimukyoku on March 28 i s s u e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the c i a t i o n of Shinto the sane s h r i n e .  kami from Buddhist d e i t i e s which shared This i n s t r u c t i o n stated that:  t i t l e s . . .were no Buddhist s t a t u e s  disasso-  longer  "Buddhist  to he a p p l i e d to'.kami. . .and  that  and r i t u a l implements were to he removed 62  from s h r i n e p r e c i n c t s . " the s e p a r a t i o n March orders  of S h i n t o  The  kami from Buddhist d e i t i e s .  The  a l s o e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l t with the problem of  s h r i n e intendants saisei  T h i s order began the p r o c e s s of  who  formed a p o t e n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n  to  itchi. orders were i s s u e d d i r e c t l y by the J i n g i Jimukyoku  i n i t s c a p a c i t y as the chief Shinto  institution.  Thus,  there  began a p a t t e r n whereby those laws a f f e c t i n g S h i n t o r e l i g i o u s c o n s o l i d a t i o n were i s s u e d by Shinto  administrative  offices  while l e g i s l a t i o n on the broader government r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y was  i s s u e d through the Dajokan.  From 1867  to 1871  there  was  a c l o s e a l l i a n c e of religious and p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s of both institutions.  The  p o l i t i c a l power of the Dajokan was  utilized  to support the r e l i g i o u s o b j e c t i v e s of the R e s t o r a t i o n i s t s i n the v a r i o u s Shinto  administrative  Shinto-  bodies.  I n i t i a t i o n of the S h i n t o - B u d d h i s t separation(1868-18?2)  Following  the l e g i s l a t i v e moves o u t l i n e d i n the  orders  68  which removed Buddhist s t a t u e s from Shinto  shrines,  the  J i n g i Jimukyoku i s s u e d through the Dajokan the e d i c t of A p r i l 20,  1868  t i o n of S h i n t o  g e n e r a l l y known as the E d i c t f o r the Separafrom Buddhism ( s h i n b u t s u h a n z e n - r e i ) .  so many e a r l y o f f i c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n s , t h i s e d i c t was  Like mainly  a request  f o r d e t a i l s i n t o the e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s of  shrines.  Nevertheless,  i t demanded t h a t " s h r i n e s which are  u t i l i z i n g Buddhist s t a t u e s as s h i n t a i [ s a c r e d S h i n t o must c o r r e c t the usage and make r e p o r t . T h i s the March orders, brought to an end i n which S h i n t o Buddhist  Shinto  objects]  law,  like  the h o n j i - s u i j a k u system  kami had p l a y e d a s u b s e r v i e n t r o l e  to  deities.  Between 1868  and  1872  numerous orders  emanating from  the c e n t r a l government o f f i c e s attempted to e s t a b l i s h a more autonomous S h i n t o  s h r i n e network.  The  gious p o l i c y by which Ryobu S h i n t o c i s e d from S h i n t o  s h r i n e s was  tion Shintoists.  The  enactment of a  reli-  i n f l u e n c e s would be  of p r e s s i n g concern to  exor-  Restora-  r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t Buddhism, however,  though v a r y i n g a c c o r d i n g  to geographic l o c a t i o n and  sentiment, was  a t times f i e r c e .  Shinto-Buddhist  temples l e d by  P a r i s h i o n e r s of " l o c a l government  local  joint officials  6k and  such people as the s c h o l a r s of the H i r a t a s c h o o l "  vented their anger a t Buddhism as a symbol of r e l i g i o u s sion.  By an i n s t r u c t i o n ,  i s s u e d on A p r i l 10,  1868,5 and  to S h i n t o p r i e s t s and p a r i s h i o n e r s , the government  repressent  ordered  t h a t the removal of Buddhist o b j e c t s of worship from Dual  69  Shinto  shrines  theless,  the  pro-Shinto  "was  late  in  monkhood.  education.  the  by  T h e r e was  property.  had  lost  much o f i t s  a general  moribund d o c t r i n e s  Buddhist  Never-  J  zealots i n strongly  on B u d d h i s t  Tokugawa t i m e s ,  religious vitality.  corrupt  peaceably."  of Shinto  a r e a s wrought havoc  bankruptcy exemplified  local  c a r r i e d out  extreme a c t i o n s  Buddhism, by earlier  t o he  spiritual  and  a  venal,  t e m p l e s a l s o were c e n t r e s  H o u s e h o l d r e g i s t r a t i o n and  B u d d h i s t f a s h i o n were by  and  large  rites  of  of  passage  obligatory.  Buddhism, t h e n , became i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d t o t h e  bakuhan  system. Professor  Murakami s t r e s s e s t h e  become i d e n t i f i e d Buddhist  i n s t i t u t i o n s had  feudal control. required at  the  adversely  to be  with  come t o  symbolize  members o f a B u d d h i s t  b e t w e e n temple and  Buddhist  t h a t Buddhism  Tokugawa f e u d a l i s m  Under Tokugawa law,  appropriate  fact  temple.  had  and  repressive  a l l J a p a n e s e were s e c t and  be  registered  Thus, t h e " r e l a t i o n s h i p  parishioners...bound  a l l the  people  66  without exception possible, ism  and  however, c o n s i d e r i n g  syncretistic  t h a t few the  t o some t e m p l e a f f i l i a t i o n . " the  general  It i s  religious  nature of Japanese r e l i g i o u s  Japanese questioned  degree to which B u d d h i s t  plural-  beliefs,  this practice.  Furthermore,  temples  the  "served  function  67  of the  s m a l l e s t u n i t s of f e u d a l c o n t r o l " ' or acted  "observation  posts  measured a g a i n s t  as  f o r t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t " ^ must  the  fact  t h a t B u d d h i s m had  little  or  be no  70  p o l i t i c a l axe t o g r i n d i n l a t e Tokugawa i n general,  like  times.  Buddhism,  a l l o t h e r r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s , was  firmly  u n d e r t h e e x a c t i n g thumb o f t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t . Buddhism, n o n e t h e l e s s , p e r i o d and had a c c e p t e d quo.  had p r o s p e r e d  i t s role  during  i n the p o l i t i c a l  I t d i d n o t t h e r e f o r e develop as a  status  religio-ideological  f o r c e f o r s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l change and " c o u l d n o t the  the.Tokugawa  provide  s p i r i t u a l s t r e n g t h J a p a n needed i f i t were t o d e v e l o p 69  i n t o a modern n a t i o n . "  T h i s r o l e was t a k e n  7  o v e r by  Shinto,  which i n the form of R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto, f u r n i s h e d the ideology which helped  motivate  t h e s a m u r a i who  c a r r i e d out the  r e s t o r a t i o n o f I m p e r i a l r u l e and t h e s u b s e q u e n t t r a n s f o r mation o f Japanese s o c i e t y . From t h e b e g i n n i n g  of Meiji,  nevertheless,, S h i n t o i s t s  sought t o de-emphasize t h e r o l e o f Buddhism and t o e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p e r s o n o f the Emperor Meiji,  h i s Imperial ancestry  offices.  T h i s was a c h i e v e d  and t h e S h i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n three  i n t e l l e c t u a l s and b u r e a u c r a t s  stages.  First,  gave t h e i r s u p p o r t  Shinto'  t o t h e move-  ment f o r " t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f s a n r y o [ I m p e r i a l t o m b s ] a n d the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f some [ o t h e r ] I m p e r i a l t o m b s .  T h i s was a movement t h a t h a d e x i s t e d i n Tokugawa several pro-Shinto vain)  daimyo p e t i t i o n e d t h e b a k u f u  times  when  (usually i n  t o a l l o w t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and upkeep o f I m p e r i a l  tombs o n t h e d a i m y o ' s d o m a i n .  By e m p h a s i z i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e  o f t h e I m p e r i a l tombs a n d m a k i n g them s a c r e d p l a c e s ,  Shinto  71  i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n and behind  government attempted to  d i s a s s o c i a t e the I m p e r i a l f a m i l y from i t s Buddhist t i o n s and ceremonies, thus s t r e s s i n g I m p e r i a l veneration instead.  ancestor  T h i s o b j e c t i v e was achieved  the J i n g i Jimukyoku.  connec-  under  The s l o g a n was "to change from r e -  s p e c t i n g kami and worshipping  Buddha to r e s p e c t i n g the 71  kami and worshipping The  ancestors."'  second stage was the s e t t i n g up of the 'Three  Palace S h r i n e s ' a t which the Emperor worshipped i n s i d e the J i n g i Jimukyoku b u i l d i n g . ceremonies and f e s t i v a l s  By the p l a c i n g of a l l I m p e r i a l i n t h i s r e l i g i o u s environment, the  government became d i r e c t l y connected to Shinto and the Emperor.  The t h i r d step was the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t  Jingikan.  of the a n c i e n t  T h i s was achieed by the government r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n  of August 1869.  P a r t Three: The J i n g i k a n P e r i o d (August 15. 1869 to September 22, 1871)  The  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s formed d u r i n g the v o l a -  t i l e ,}ipolitically uncertain f i r s t  h a l f - y e a r of the R e s t o r a -  t i o n proved inadequate to the task of e f f e c t i n g e i t h e r p o l i t i c a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n or systematic 1868,  the Dajokan admitted  legislation.  I n June  " t h a t these arrangements, made  d u r i n g a time o f c i v i l commotion, were n e c e s s a r i l y h u r r i e d and  72 imperfect."'  Thus, on June 11, with I m p e r i a l f o r c e s  72  i n command of the key areas of the n a t i o n , ment s t r u c t u r e was s e t up.  a new govern-  By the s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n  p r e c i s e l y r e f i n e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e bodies,  of more  i t was hoped to  " e s t a b l i s h those laws and r e g u l a t i o n s which have h i t h e r t o remained u n d e t e r m i n e d . " ^ key  formulator  Fukuoka K o t e i (1835-1919).  o f the e a r l i e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  a  systems, was  again c a l l e d upon to formulate a new government s t r u c t u r e . He was a i d e d  i n t h i s task by the S h i n t o i s t sanyo Soejima  Taneomi (1828-1905) who l a t e r became an o f f i c i a l i n the Board of Shinto  P r o p a g a t i o n (Senkyoshi).  I t i s interesting  to note t h a t Soejima was one o f the few Japanese c o n s t i t u t i o n a l formulators little  a t t h i s e a r l y stage o f M e i j i who had a  experience w i t h f o r e i g n governmental forms and 7k  p o l i t i c a l t h e o r i e s of governance. remodelling others  P r i o r to the June  of the Japanese a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Fukuoka and  d i d undertake a l i m i t e d study by c o n s u l t i n g a few  volumes on the p o l i t i c a l systems of "China and the West, as w e l l as the a n c i e n t p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e of Japan. Furthermore, they d i d not take advantage o f the experience of former bakufu The Imperial  officials.  new government o r g a n i z a t i o n was accepted by the c o u n c i l and on June 11, 1868 the S e i t a i s h o  C o n s t i t u t i o n ) d e l i n e a t e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e now implemented.  Under the g e n e r a l  (June  structure  t i t l e of Dajokan  t h i s government c o n s i s t e d of seven s e c t i o n s now c a l l e d departments (kan).  There was a L e g i s l a t i v e Department  73  w i t h two houses w i t h the g i jo and sanyo i n the upper house which comprised  "most of the p e r s o n n e l who h e l d h i g h o f f i c e s 76  i n the p r e c e d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " '  Next i n order were the  E x e c u t i v e Department, and the Departments of S h i n t o , Finance, War, F o r e i g n A f f a i r s and J u s t i c e . The J i n g i k a n (Department of Shinto) was headed by the c o u r t nobles Takatsukasa yama Tadayasu.  Sukehiro, Konoe Tadafusa and Naka-  As assistants to these mainly c e r e m o n i a l p o s t s  were Kamei Koremi and Fukuba B i s e i of the H i r a t a s c h o o l . Appointed  a l s o was H i r a t a Nobutane who w i t h h i s f e l l o w a s s i s -  t a n t s c a r r i e d out the e f f e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Shinto affairs.^ The June 11 government r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n l i k e  i t s prede-  c e s s o r s h i g h l i g h t s the p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems f a c i n g the e a r l y M e i j i l e a d e r s .  Primary among these remained  the need to secure c e n t r a l c o n t r o l of the daimyo and consequently  domains  the v a r i o u s and complex p o l i t i c a l  t r a t i v e maneuverings were c a r r i e d out mainly w i t h o b j e c t i v e i n mind.  administhis  A t the same time, n a t i o n a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n  had y e t to be e f f e c t e d m i l i t a r i l y .  In t h i s atmosphere there  was a f e a r of p o t e n t i a l l y s u b v e r s i v e groups a r i s i n g i n I m p e r i a l government a d m i n i s t e r e d t e r r i t o r y .  In keeping  with the government's b e l i e f i n the u n i f y i n g f a c u l t i e s of S h i n t o and the important r o l e of S h i n t o i d e o l o g y to the n a t i o n a l p o l i t y , the Emperor on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s i n 1868 r e i t e r a t e d ? - through  Imperial edicts,  t h a t 'Shinto  "rites  74  s h a l l be i n i t i a t e d and r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s to govern the country s h a l l be f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , thus the way o f s a i s e i i t c h i . A t came under severe censure.  the same time,  Christianity  A problem p e r s i s t i n g s i n c e l a t e  Tokugawa times was the e x i s t e n c e o f 'hidden (kakure k i r i s h i t a n ) around  reviving  Nagasaki.  Christians'  In e a r l y 1868 Kido  Koin  had been sent t o d e a l with t h i s l a r g e group o f C a t h o l i c s and i n s t r u c t them on t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as good c i t i z e n s .  Faced w i t h their r e c a l c i t r a n c e ,  i t i s claimed 79  t h a t he had t h i r t e e n o f t h e i r l e a d e r s beheaded.  While  Kido's  d i a r y , which does n o t b e g i n u n t i l A p r i l 24, 1868, makes no mention o f these executions, the punishment s t a t e d b e i n g RO  seven y e a r s i n t e r n a l e x i l e ,  i t does u n d e r l i n e the f a c t t h a t  the M e i j i l e a d e r s were deeply d i s t u r b e d by the problem of C h r i s t i a n a c t i v i t y which was t r e a t e d as v i r t u a l open r e b e l l i o n . On June 16, 1868 a N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l (Jokyoku  k e i g i ) was  c a l l e d by I m p e r i a l e d i c t to d i s c u s s , among other t h i n g s , the above mentioned problems.  The q u e s t i o n of the implementation  of the n a t i o n a l p o l i c y 'on r e l i g i o n was decreed as an o b j e c t i v e of t h i s c o u n c i l .  The council decided " t o promote s a i s e i  itchi  as w e l l as the v e n e r a t i o n of the S h i n t o kami and ancestor 81  reverence."  S h i n t o , then, was n o t only to continue to be  e l e v a t e d , but the i d e a l s o f kami worship  and Emperor  loyalty  were to be g r e a t l y a m p l i f i e d . A t the same time, however, by mid-1869 the S e i t a i s h o s t r u c t u r e had f a i l e d t o b r i n g order to the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i v e c o n f u s i o n or to s o l v e the prob-  75  lems caused by the d e l i c a t e nature of the " r e l a t i o n s 82 between the I m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s and  the  clans."  A r e t u r n to the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e model of the r i t s u - r y o p e r i o d On August 15. s t r u c t u r e was  I869 the  e n t i r e S e i t a i s h o government  r e p l a c e d by a more c l e a r l y  systematized  model based on the  t r a d i t i o n a l religio-government  of a n c i e n t Japan.  Shinto was  structure  accorded a primary p o s i t i o n August 15.  and r o l e i n t h i s r e s u r r e c t e d c o n s t r u c t .  I869.  then, marks the b e g i n n i n g of the J i n g i k a n P e r i o d which l a s t e d u n t i l September I871.  I t i s a time c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by  a conscious r e t u r n to the governing model and r e l i g i o u s i d e a l s of a n c i e n t Japan which emphasized the Shinto r i t e s w i t h the c e n t r a l p o l i t i c a l The  administration.  r e t u r n to the s a i s e i i t c h i model was  systematize  i d e n t i t y of  an attempt to  the c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by u s i n g the precedent  of a workable model from the h i s t o r i c a l p a s t . the c e n t r a l government i n g e n e r a l had  e f f e c t e d only  attempts a t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . tive transformation the  The  1869  stopgap  administra-  of the summer of I869 e x e m p l i f i e s  both  " d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n of Japanese l e a d e r s w i t h the government  organs and p o l i t i c a l t h e o r i e s p r e v i o u s l y the  Before  i n f l u e n c e of Shinto  i n t e l l e c t u a l movements.  employed  i d e o l o g y promoted by the  and  Shinto  That i s , the R e s t o r a t i o n i s t (Fukko)  group which predominated a t t h i s juncture  looked  askance  76  at  the more modern views of government expressed by  t r a d i t i o n a l l y minded M e i j i l e a d e r s .  The  r e s u l t was  p o l i t i c a l retrenchment marked by a r e t u r n to the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e model. I 8 6 9  The  ancient  of the M e i j i  state.^  Soejima Taneomi, on August 1 6 i n a Shinto "informing  the gods t h a t harmony now  ceremony  p r e v a i l e d on  of n a t i o n a l p o l i c y , d e l i n e a t e d the form of the administrative bodies. kan  a  government s t r u c t u r e of August  i n f a c t marks the true establishment  Imperial  less  ( c o u n c i l s ) and  The  new  -  The  Jingikan  two 8 6  accorded the p o s i t i o n of  the h i g h e s t ranked a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  organ above even the  Dajokan ( C o u n c i l of S t a t e ) v w h i c h was c h i e f executive  new  s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t e d of  s i x sho(departments).  ( C o u n c i l of S h i n t o A f f a i r s ) was  questions  now  o f f i c e of government.  the t i t l e f o r the  Below these and  under  the c o n t r o l of the Dajokan were the Departments of C i v i l Affairs  (Minbusho), Finance (Okurasho), War  Justice  (Gyobusho), I m p e r i a l Household (Kunaisho) and  Affairs  (Gaimusho).  With the e x c e p t i o n  Department, the August 15 s t r u c t u r e was t h a t of the e i g h t h century  Yoro Code.  (Hyobusho).  of the F o r e i g n  of the new  Affairs  modelled e x a c t l y The  e l e v a t i o n of  J i n g i k a n denotes the r e s t o r a t i o n i s t t r a d i t i o n a l i s t and gious c h a r a c t e r  Foreign  on the  reli-  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n while the r e t e n t i o n  of the r e i n s of e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l power i n the hands of s e c u l a r p o l i c y makers i n the Dajokan r e f l e c t s a pragmatic modern approach to s t a t e government.  The  o l d ranks and names  77  o f o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s were r e v i v e d as was dress.  In the new  form of a theory p r a c t i c a l worth.  government s t r u c t u r e s a i s e i i t c h i  of s t a t e and  The J i n g i k a n  The  court i n the  i d e o l o g i c a l i d e a l proved i t s  Under the umbrella  of t h i s system,  c r u c i a l moves towards the d i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t r u c t u r e and  Nara p e r i o d  s t a t e c o n s o l i d a t i o n were  of the  the  feudal  achieved.  personnel  achievement of the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of the  Jingikan  marks the apex of the work of the R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o  scholars  and p o l i t i c o s who had been promoting the s a i s e i i t c h i s t r u c ture both i n government o f f i c e and as a d v i s o r s to government l e a d e r s s i n c e I867.  Due  to t h e i r e f f o r t s "the  of s a i s e i i t c h i were e s t a b l i s h e d and  foundations  the J i n g i k a n was 'f  set  [again]  On  up based on the o l d system [ o f government]." ' The  c o u r t i e r s Nakayama Tadayasu and Sanjo Sanetomi,  head of s t a t e ( u d a i j i n ) , h e l d the f i r s t rank ( j i n g i o f f i c e s i n the J i n g i k a n .  Shirakawa Sukenori and  Tadafusa were the second rank ( j i n g i  taifuku)  the  haku)  P r i n c e Konoe  officers.  Fukuba B i s e i headed the t h i r d ranked o f f i c i a l s  (jingi  shofuku).  Under B i s e i as a s s i s t a n t s were H i r a t a Nobutane and  Yoshida  Ryogi whose f o r e f a t h e r h e l d s i m i l a r o f f i c e s i n the  ancient  88 Jingikan.  The  absence of H i r a t a Kanetane and  Tamamatsu  Misao i s e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t they were g i v e n p o s i t i o n of l e c t u r e r s i n the Board of Chamberlains  the (Jijushoku)  78  which "was e s t a b l i s h e d to undertake the t u t e l a g e of the 89 young Emperor."  Nevertheless,  a c o n t i n u i t y o f admini-  s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l was p r e v a l e n t i n the Shinto tive  administra-  offices. As  i n the g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  formulation  where c o u r t and samurai i n t e r e s t s c o i n c i d e d to share an emphasis on Emperor-centred s t a t e u n i t y , i n the J i n g i k a n and i t s predecessor  Shinto o f f i c e s ,  orthodox Shinto and R e s t o r a -  t i o n S h i n t o groups found common cause i n the e l e v a t i o n of Shinto to n a t i o n a l prominence.  Furthermore, we can see the  commonality of p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i v e and r e l i g i o u s expressed  i n the o v e r - a l l acceptance o f the u t i l i t y of the  Shinto-Emperor bond. countered  goals  There was l i t t l e  or no o p p o s i t i o n en-  when the r e v i v a l o f the a n c i e n t S h i n t o - s t a t e s t r u c -  ture was accepted  by the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of June 1869. T h i s  c o u n c i l was composed of a l l groups i n government and v i r t u a l l y a l l acquiesced  to the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f the J i n g i k a n and  thus to R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto t h e o r i e s o f s t a t e government. F o r a time, i n f a c t , due to the i n f l u e n c e of "extremely cons e r v a t i v e a r i s t o c r a t s [who] were t e m p o r a r i l y  i n the [ p o l i t i c a l ]  ascendancy...Shinto was r e c e i v i n g more a t t e n t i o n than was 90 reform.  The p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e formed i n August 1869 p l a c e d  p o l i t i c s f i r m l y i n the context o f r e l i g i o n w h i l e a t the same time the adoption  of s a i s e i i t c h i was found s u i t a b l e to a l l  major p o l i t i c a l groups.  To the c o u r t i t c o n s o l i d a t e d the  I m p e r i a l p o s i t i o n v i s a v i s samurai m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s .  In  79  t u r n , Shinto  groups r e c e i v e d c o n s i s t e n t c o u r t  e s p e c i a l l y from Iwakura and  Sanjo.  George Sansom p o i n t s out, S h i n t o  support,  Most i m p o r t a n t l y ,  as  r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y was  not  91 opposed by the samurai l e a d e r s Okubo and Kido. Saisei itchi, then, r e p l a c e d  experimental a d m i n i s t r a t i v e forms w i t h a more  a u t h o r i t a t i v e and  systematic  c o n s t r u c t and  R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto  provided  model f o r I m p e r i a l  government.  an acceptable  government s t r u c t u r e , then, was religious in inspiration. the i d e o l o g y and  The  The  constructive  to a s i g n i f i c a n t degree s t a t e s t r u c t u r e was  model of s a i s e i i t c h i .  The  was  p o l i c y and  to enact the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of  the  and  of  f i r s t e f f e c t i v e Imperial  sequently,  Saisei itchi  the t h e o r i e s  united  Jingikan,  by  con-  g i v e n a f r e e r e i n to implement the r e l i g i o u s Shinto.  i n a c t i o n ; the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of S h i n t o  under  Jingikan The  l e g i s l a t i v e enactments of the J i n g i k a n to  the Shinto  r e l i g i o u s system were numerous and  were, however, two  complex.  s h r i n e s and  The  f i r s t was  to r e g a i n c o n t r o l of  shrine personnel.  The  second was  d i r e c t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a uniform s h r i n e system. t a n t to these was Shinto  the implementation of an ordered  d o c t r i n e and r i t u a l  The  There  o b j e c t i v e s uppermost i n the minds of  early Meiji Shintoists. a l l Shinto  consolidate  to  Concomisystematized  practice.  r u l e s d e l i n e a t i n g the d u t i e s of the J i n g i k a n were  drawn up on J u l y 8,  1869.  They s t a t e d t h a t t h i s o f f i c e  was  80  to oversee the  " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of r i t e s ,  I m p e r i a l tomhs, the p r o p a g a t i o n v a l s and  the  of Shinto  and  i n s p e c t i o n of shrine  festi-  the households of the p a r i s h which p r o v i d e d  v i c e s to the s h r i n e ( k a n b e ) . F o l l o w i n g  ser-  the procedures  s e t out i n the E n g i s h i k i . the J i n g i k a n undertook to superv i s e a l l f a c e t s of s h r i n e worship, both a t the l e v e l of major n a t i o n a l s h r i n e s and  the s m a l l e r l o c a l l e v e l s h r i n e s .  A c h i e f g o a l of Shinto o f f i c i a l s was system of i n t e r r e l a t e d and and  to r e - i n t r o d u c e  to r e c r e a t e the  standardized  ancient  kami ceremonials  the concept of c e r t a i n s h r i n e s  as  kokka no s o s h i , t h a t i s " i n s t i t u t i o n s i n which n a t i o n a l 93  worship took p l a c e or n a t i o n a l reverence was In t h i s way  s h r i n e f e s t i v a l s would he more c l o s e l y a l i g n e d  to the r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y and Shinto the J i n g i k a n .  "The  of the n a t i o n " w i t h and him,  7  d o c t r i n e espoused hy  s h r i n e s were to he the s p i r i t u a l model  hy which reverence f o r the kami was  i d e n t i f i e d with  l o y a l t y to the Emperor and  united through  the government. The  s h r i n e s , a l s o f o l l o w i n g the E n g i s h i k i code, were  to he accorded ranks or grades as were s h r i n e and  expressed."  indeed  intendants  t h i s p r a c t i c e extended to i n c l u d e a l l c e n t r a l  government p e r s o n n e l . institution,  The  J i n g i k a n i t s e l f became a r e l i g i o u s  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of which was  u n d e r l i n e d by  nature of the kami r i t e s h e l d i n the J i n g i k a n b u i l d i n g . June 28,  1869  the Emperor M e i j i p r e s i d e d over the  ment i n the J i n g i k a n of the  the On  enshrine-  'Eight Kami' p r o t e c t o r s of  the  81  Imperial ancestors.  The Emperor announced i n h i s  dedication  t h a t t h i s move was c a r r i e d o u t to f u r t h e r t h e cause o f saisei itchi.  The Shirito genealogy o f t h e I m p e r i a l house  was f u r t h e r s t r e s s e d and augmented by t h e Peace  Preservation  R i t e which was h e l d i n t h e J i n g i k a n on J a n u a r y 3. 1870. The  e d i c t r e s t o r i n g t h i s ceremony p a i d t r i b u t e t o t h e " a n c i e n t  o r i g i n o f t h e i d e n t i t y o f r e l i g i o n and government.' ^ The  Peace P r e s e r v a t i o n R i t e o r P a c i f y i n g F e s t i v a l  ( c h i n s a i ) " d e i f i e d t h e d i v i n e s p i r i t s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l emper o r s as t h e e n s h r i n e d kami w i t h i n t h e t h r e e t h r o n e s s e t up i n 96  the J i n g i k a n . "  7  I n t h i s way t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e I m p e r i a l  kami was e s t a b l i s h e d as was t h e c o n c o m i t a n t r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y o f Emperor M e i j i . J i n g i k a n thus p l a c e d  R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o i s t s i n the  g r e a t emphasis on t h e e l e v a t i o n o f those  kami which were c e n t r a l t o t h e r e l i g i o u s s t a t u s o f t h e Imperial l i n e . the  A t t h e same time, t h e o f f i c i a l enshrinement o f  ' E i g h t Kami' "was a u s e f u l d e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e l u s h  S h i n t o pantheon b r i n g i n g i t w i t h i n b o u n d s . " ^  The J i n g i k a n  a l s o t o t h e same end would c a r r y o u t r e f o r m s t o u n i t e t h e Shinto The  d e i t y system w i t h t h e s e c u l a r p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y .  i d e n t i t y o f t h e c e n t r a l government w i t h S h i n t o was a l s o  f u r t h e r e d by t h e w i d e s p r e a d p r o m o t i o n o f S h i n t o by government sponsored t e a c h e r s . Teaching E d i c t (daikyo  doctrine  To a c h i e v e t h i s t h e G r e a t  senpu) was p r o c l a i m e d on J a n u a r y 3, 1870.  T h i s e d i c t ushered i n t h e phase o f t h e i d e o l o g i c a l p r o s e l y t i z a t i o n o f s a i s e i i t c h i by s e n k y o s h i (government sponsored  82  S h i n t o p r o p a g a t o r s ) , the a c t i v i t i e s of whom were by the J i n g i k a n .  directed  The I m p e r i a l pronouncement of January  3  d e c l a r e d t h a t the o r i g i n a l i d e a l was government a c c o r d i n g to the p r i n c i p l e of s a i s e i i t c h i .  However,  i t stated this  way had been l o s t and had f a l l e n i n t o d i s u s e . i n n o v a t i o n s brought about by the r u l e of Emperor  With the Meiji,  however, once a g a i n the o l d i d e a l s had been r e s t o r e d .  Thus,  " a l l e f f o r t s must be d i r e c t e d to making c l e a r t h a t the great way of the kami r e l i g i o n s h a l l be promoted by the government through  education.  T h e r e f o r e , [ t o t h i s end] S h i n t o  teachers  (senkvoshi) are now appointed to spread the [kami] Way 98 the l a n d . " ^  throughout  Henceforth,  the 'way of the kami'  became without r e s e r v a t i o n t h e " g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e of the 99 nation.  7  To t h i s degree, then, the g o a l s of S h i n t o e l e v a -  t i o n sought by R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o i s t s had been a c h i e v e d . To implement the task o f b r o a d c a s t i n g the u n i t y of the aims of S h i n t o d o c t r i n e w i t h the I m p e r i a l s t a t e , the senkyoshi, who w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , were s e t up.  Of equal importance  to the s a i s e i i t c h i i d e a l was the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the Shinto s h r i n e network and the establishment of d i r e c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s h r i n e s by the J i n g i k a n . The Shinto s h r i n e system In 1871 s e v e r a l s u c c e s s f u l measures were c a r r i e d out to c o n s o l i d a t e S h i n t o s h r i n e s , p r i e s t s ,  shrine property  83  and p a r i s h i o n e r s more d i r e c t l y under the J i n g i k a n .  Under  the d i r e c t i o n of P r i n c e Konoe Tadafusa and Fukuba B i s e i , l e g i s l a t i o n was  passed to c o n s o l i d a t e the s h r i n e system  i n t o a more cohesive r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e .  Konoe, an  i n f l u e n t i a l member of the c o u r t and government as w e l l as a l e a d i n g J i n g i k a n o f f i c i a l , was  a l s o head of the Ise s c h o o l  of  the Grand S h r i n e of Ise  was  H i r a t a Shinto.  In J u l y 1871.  o f f i c i a l l y designated as the n a t i o n ' s l e a d i n g s h r i n e  and was  p l a c e d a t the apex of the n a t i o n a l l y ranked s h r i n e  system. Since the f i r s t year of M e i j i , under the J i n g i - k a , the primary  task of the c e n t r a l S h i n t o a u t h o r i t y had  to  a g r e a t degree one  of g e n e r a l r e s e a r c h and  of  the l a r g e r Shinto s h r i n e s .  attempt to systematize  been  classification  A t the same time,  i n an  s h r i n e r i t e s and s h r i n e r e g u l a t i o n s ,  o f f i c i a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent out to each s h r i n e . documents, which had  to be r e t u r n e d to the Home M i n i s t r y ,  p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on s h r i n e p o s s e s s i o n s From l a t e 1868  These  and  personnel.  onwards the government i n t e n s i f i e d i t s  o f f i c i a l research p o l i c y  ( t o r i s h i r a b e tesoku) which examined  the "present c o n d i t i o n s [ o f S h i n t o s h r i n e s ] i n order to formulate survey was  a p o l i c y of r e l i g i o u s l a w s . "  1 0 0  A  nation-wide  undertaken to determine the exact names,  l o c a t i o n s and the extent of the l a n d h o l d i n g s of S h i n t o s h r i n e s as w e l l as the nature festivals.  One  and number of t h e i r kami, r i t e s  s e t of r u l e s was  and  drawn up to ( l ) c a t e g o r i z e  84  and grade the s h r i n e s and (2) a l l o c a t e f i n a n c i a l to  support  them. From November 1 8 6 8 the J i n g i k a n had been c l a s s i f y i n g  the major Shinto s h r i n e s a c c o r d i n g to the d i c t a t e s o f the E n g i s h i k i as w e l l as c r e a t i n g c a t e g o r i e s not i n c l u d e d i n t h a t code.  The f i r s t  were ( l ) ancestor  c a t e g o r i e s drawn up, f o r example,  s h r i n e s ( s o r e i s h a ) , (2) s h r i n e s which  i n v i t e d the s o u l s of the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n c i v i l war dead (shokonsha) and (3) pray ( y o h a i s h o ) .  1 0 1  f a r - o f f s h r i n e s to which people c o u l d F u r t h e r c a t e g o r i e s were  worship s h r i n e s (chokusaisha),  Imperial  i n s i d e ceremony  shrines  — ( s h i k i n a i s h a ) and m i s c e l l a n e o u s  102  s h r i n e s (shosha).  b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n i n these c a t e g o r i e s was between  The Imperial  house connected s h r i n e s and p r e f e c t u r a l or han s h r i n e s . By the Dajokan e d i c t of May  1 4 , 1 8 7 1 the government  e s t a b l i s h e d the b a s i c system o f s h r i n e ranks which was to endure u n t i l the d i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of Shinto  in 1945.  By  the Dajokan order, the s h r i n e s o f the n a t i o n were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o the b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s of kansha, higher grade s h r i n e s , and minsha, lower grade or l o c a l s h r i n e s .  Kansha were  those s h r i n e s which had a r e l i g i o u s import on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l , were seen to have t i e s to the I m p e r i a l l i n e and were were now p l a c e d under the s u p e r v i s i o n of the J i n g i k a n . Kansha, f o l l o w i n g the d i s t i n c t i o n s s e t up i n the E n g i were d i v i d e d i n t o the f u r t h e r c a t e g o r i e s of kampeisha  shiki,  85  (governmental s h r i n e s ) and Both these c a t e g o r i e s  kokuheisha ( n a t i o n a l  were s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t a i s h a  grade), chusha (middle grade) and shrine  ranks.  shrines).  In I871  out  (upper  shosha (lower grade)  of an approximate 170,000  shrines  104 the number of kansha was The  ninety-seven.  v a s t m a j o r i t y of the n a t i o n ' s s h r i n e s  minsha, lower rank s h r i n e s . l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s and r e l a t e d to the  These were a d m i n i s t e r e d  Under the  i n J u l y 1871,  s p i r i t u a l needs of t h e i r  country d i s t r i c t s h r i n e  minsha were d i v i d e d  shrines).  Ungraded s h r i n e s  Consonant w i t h the the May  Shinto shrine  below the v i l l a g e l e v e l were  of s a i s e i i t c h i .  g e n e r a l r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y of s a i s e i a systematic The  a f f a i r s i n the hands of the J i n g i k a n  marks  implementation of the r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y  As w e l l as establishing the  of the S h i n t o s h r i n e  delimitations  network, the r e s e a r c h i n t o and  an attempt to e s t a b l i s h nation-wide  grading unity  of a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s as a c o h e s i v e f a c t o r  which l i n k e d the The  rank).  system unprecedented i n modern times.  a major success i n the  using shrines  w i t h no  14 e d i c t , then, e s t a b l i s h e d  c o n t r o l of s h r i n e  of s h r i n e s was  (prefectu-  go-sha ( d i s t r i c t s h r i n e s ) a n d son-sha ( v i l l a g e  a l l o c a t e d the rank of mukakusha ( s h r i n e s  itchi,  rules  into fu-sha  (town s h r i n e s ) , han-sha (domain s h r i n e s ) , ken-sha r a l shrines),  by  a religious significance directly  s o c i o l o g i c a l and  specific locale. established  had  t h i s were  l o c a l people to the  c e n t r a l l y directed s h r i n e  c e n t r a l government.  system thus e s t a b l i s h e d  expressed  86  f o r the f i r s t time i n e i g h t c e n t u r i e s an o v e r - a l l percept i o n of the e n t i r e s h r i n e network as a complete r e l i g i o u s e n t i t y , an e n t i t y , moreover, which would be  administered  from a c e n t r a l o f f i c e and u n i f i e d under the b r o a d l y acceptable  doctrines o f R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o .  The e s t a b l i s h -  ment of the shrine system a l s o r e p l a c e d the moribund and d i s organized  Buddhist temple system with a cohesive, c e n t r a l -  ized r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n a l structure.  T h i s was a laudable  f e a t i n a s t a t e s t i l l c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the d i r e need f o r national unity.  The  f i n a n c i n g of s a i s e i i t c h i :  Included  the s h r i n e f i s c a l p o l i c y  i n the g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s on s h r i n e  f i c a t i o n was a s e t of r e g u l a t i o n s governing s h r i n e Any  classioperation.  major change i n s h r i n e b u i l d i n g s , l a n d h o l d i n g s or  personnel  were to be r e p o r t e d to the J i n g i k a n .  The govern-  ment a l s o s e t out to r e b u i l d and r e - i n s t a t e defunct  shrines.  However, the s h r i n e f i s c a l p o l i c y , which was s e t up a t the same time as the g e n e r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s h r i n e s , o f f e r e d g u i d e l i n e s t h a t were complex and not s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . ^ 1 0  Nevertheless,  the process was s e t up whereby  suggestions  on the f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f the s h r i n e s c o u l d be forwarded to a l l l e v e l s of government.  What was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1871,  however, was a g e n e r a l p o l i c y o f government support f o r Shinto  shrines.  87  In January 1871, the M e i j i government "decreed the c o n f i s c a t i o n o f a l l s h r i n e s and temple l a n d h o l d i n g s  (shoen)  e x c l u d i n g the p r o p e r t y w i t h i n the s h r i n e o r temple complex." In r e t u r n the government undertook to p r o v i d e support  1  financial  f o r S h i n t o s h r i n e s and s h r i n e i n t e n d a n t s .  This  move brought the s h r i n e s (and temples) under the f i s c a l thumb of the c e n t r a l s h r i n e a u t h o r i t i e s and thus made r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e i r p e r s o n n e l purse f o r f i n a n c i a l support.  dependent on the p u b l i c  The system of allowances to  be a l l o t t e d s h r i n e s was worked out over a p e r i o d of years and  i t was not u n t i l 187k t h a t the system of remuneration  was f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l .  The decree thus had the e f f e c t o f  making s h r i n e p r i e s t s v i r t u a l s a l a r i e d government The  January decree a p p l i e d to s h r i n e s a t the kansha  l e v e l and i n v o l v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e t e r r i t o r y . and  officials.  The t o t a l s h r i n e  temple l a n d c o n f i s c a t e d was 140,000 h e c t a r e s  with 107  s h r i n e l a n d h o l d i n g s alone e q u a l l i n g 87,200 h e c t a r e s . The  e a r l y M e i j i government, c o n s i s t e n t l y f a c e d w i t h an un-  p r e d i c t a b l e f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n , had by t a k i n g c o n t r o l of the revenue o f s h r i n e lands p r o v i d e d an economic f o r the promotion o f the p o l i c y o f a a i s e i Reform o f the Shinto  The  foundation  itchi.  priesthood  move to c o n t r o l s h r i n e f i n a n c e s was f o l l o w e d by  major reform  o f the Shinto p r i e s t h o o d .  The e d i c t of  88  May  lk,  1871  abolished  hood whereby a son custom was and  the t r a d i t i o n of h e r e d i t a r y  inherited his father's position.  r e p l a c e d by a system of employment by  This  appointment  the s e t t i n g up of graded ranks of s h r i n e p r i e s t s .  importance o f the rank was the  priest-  The  to c o i n c i d e w i t h the grade of  shrine. The  May  e d i c t s t a t e d t h a t under the r e i n s t a t e m e n t  kokka no s o s h i [ n a t i o n a l worship;or r i t e s f o r the  of  state]  1 OR  Shinto  shrines  "should  reasons e l a b o r a t e d  not be  owned p r i v a t e l y . "  f o r t h i s change were t h a t there had  a r e g r e s s i o n i n the s p i r i t of Shinto  over a long  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l a c k of f o r m a l c e n t r a l s h r i n e T h i s d e c l i n e was p r i v i l e g e s by  The  accompanied by  s h r i n e personnel,  inheriting priest positions.  period organization.  the assumption of  personal  such as the p r a c t i c e of "Accordingly,  t h i s government  which b e l i e v e s s t r o n g l y i n the u n i t y of p o l i t i c s and service [ s a i s e i i t c h i ] ,  has  been  divine  decreed t h a t a l l S h i n t o p r i e s t s 109  must be newly appointed through a n a t i o n a l examination." T h i s examination was  h e l d i n 1872  and S h i n t o  l e a s t f o r a time, became r e l i g i o u s o f f i c i a l s Jingikan jurisdiction.  The  Jingikan,  7  priests, at (kanri)under  i n f a c t , now  took over  a r o l e h e l d p r i m a r i l y by the Yoshida f a m i l y of S h i n t o  who  i n Tokugawa times were the f o r m a l l y sponsored S h i n t o  school  and  as such were g i v e n the r i g h t of approving the  c r e d e n t i a l s of Shinto Shinto  priests.  The  official  systematization  of  under the J i n g i k a n sought to a b o l i s h the abuses  and  89  personal p r i v i l e g e inherent a r e s u l t , not only was  i n the o l d s h r i n e system.  the p r i v a t e ownership of  As  shrines  a b o l i s h e d a l o n g with h e r e d i t a r y p r i e s t p o s i t i o n s , but S h i n t o p r i e s t s now  became p a r t of the c e n t r a l bureaucracy.  F a m i l y r e g i s t r a t i o n under the The  establishment  of the modern s h r i n e system under  the d i r e c t i o n of the new the J i n g i k a n was  Jingikan  Shinto  r e l i g i o u s e l i t e who  staffed  accompanied by moves to change the e x i s t i n g  p r a c t i c e of n a t i o n a l f a m i l y r e g i s t r a t i o n . the government r e p l a c e d  1871,  In J u l y  the Tokugawa system of compulsory  f a m i l y r e g i s t r a t i o n a t Buddhist temples w i t h r e g i s t r a t i o n at  Shinto  shrines.  The  Dajokan e d i c t on "The  I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the P a r i s h i o n e r s set  out the seven a r t i c l e d  regulation*  Matter of  of Large and S m a l l  the  Shrines"  'parishioner i n v e s t i g a t i o n  (u.jiko t o r i s h i r a b e k i s o k u ) .  The  first  article  s t a t e d t h a t "a c i t i z e n on the b i r t h of a c h i l d must v i s i t a s h r i n e and  n o t i f y the f a m i l y r e g i s t r a t i o n o f f i c i a l  t h i s occurrence and  he must r e c e i v e the r e q u i r e d  of  amulet  111 (mamori) from the s h r i n e . "  The  sixth article  stated  t h a t "every s i x y e a r s t h e r e a f t e r changes i n f a m i l y  registra-  t i o n w i l l be checked by the r e g i s t r a t i o n o f f i c i a l and 112 amulet i s s u e d . "  Thus, i n 1871,  was  continued  a  new  the  S heilnitgoi osuhsr ii nnesst i ti unt ia o nr se v f i vo ar l n of pcensus r a c t i c epurposes. of u s i n g r a t i the onalfunction  90  l a i d down f o r them by the Yoro Code took over the r o l e o f census-keeper p r e v i o u s l y h e l d by Buddhist temples. I t has  to be noted, however, t h a t the use  i n s t i t u t i o n s t o f Shinto i n p a r t due  f o r f a m i l y r e g i s t r a t i o n purposes  to the f a c t t h a t e f f i c i e n t s e c u l a r  government o f f i c e s had y e t to be s e t up  Kokka no s o s h i ( r i t e s of the  The  of the r e l i g i o u s  reform of the Shinto  local  i n the  nation.  state)  r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e and  c e l e b r a t i o n of s a i s e i i t c h i a t the major Shinto was  accompanied by the r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n of the  e d i c t of May  14,  1871  i d e a l of s h r i n e worship. the s h r i n e s a c q u i r e d  stressed  soshi.  upheld kokka no s o s h i as  the  By the d i c t a t e s of kokka no  not only a more p u b l i c c h a r a c t e r  t h a t they were no longer  the  shrines  idea  i n the E n g i s h i k i t h a t the s h r i n e s were kokka no The  was  soshi in  the s o l e p r e s e r v e of i n d i v i d u a l  p r i e s t l y f a m i l i e s but a l s o wider n a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . These i n c l u d e d the o f f e r i n g of r i t e s f o r the of the s t a t e as a r e l i g i o u s realm which was  protection inextricably  l i n k e d to the trans-temporal realm of the kami. i n these r i t e s was  the r e a f f i r m a t i o n of the c l o s e bond  between kami worship and v e n e r a t i o n the s o v e r e i g n  and  Inherent  the  of the Imperial  kami,  state.  Under the banner of kokka no s o s h i , s h r i n e ceremonies began to stress the a l l i a n c e of kami worship and  the  91  r e l i g i o u s theory acquired  of the  Imperial  state.  The  shrines  thus  the f u n c t i o n of b e i n g p l a c e s which "provided  r i t e s which were i n t e g r a l to government w i t h i n the  those  context  113 of s a i s e i i t c h i . " and  However, i f the s a i s e i i t c h i model  J  i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n M e i j i i s not s t r e s s e d , then the  term kokka no  s o s h i taken more l i t e r a l l y comes to mean  "the f u n c t i o n of s h r i n e s i s to p r o v i d e for  a l l the people of Japan."  The  a p l a c e of worship former aspect  of  shrine  worship i s the most r e f l e c t i v e of the r e l i g i o u s themes promoted by the e a r l y M e i j i government.  Kokka no  soshi  exemplified  the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the  worship was  to be t h a t s t r e s s e d under the r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y  which i d e n t i f i e d S h i n t o The  of kokka no  i n the E n g i s h i k i which i n c l u d e d the  s o s h i as a key  reforms of the S h i n t o  between 1869  and  1871  shrine  r i t e s w i t h n a t i o n a l government.  e a r l y M e i j i government a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y the  format s e t out  The  i d e a l i z e d model of  shrine ideal  support of a r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e . r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e c a r r i e d out  under the d i r e c t i o n of the  had been necessary p r i m a r i l y i n order  to ( l ) end  Jingikan the  'old  115 abuses'  J  inherent  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l S h i n t o  (2) complete the s e p a r a t i o n of Shinto ences and  (3)  structure,  from Buddhist  e s t a b l i s h a c o n c r e t e l y systematized  influ-  religious  body which c o u l d uphold i t s p o s i t i o n as the r e l i g i o u s arm of the s a i s e i i t c h i model.  92  The  achievements o f S h i n t o under the d i r e c t i o n of the J i n g i k a n  The  enactment of the above s h r i n e l e g i s l a t i o n and  other r u l e s f o r s h r i n e government proved e f f e c t i v e i n the formation The  of an o v e r - a l l r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e f o r S h i n t o .  bureaucrats  of the H i r a t a s c h o o l , from t h e i r p o s i t i o n s  i n the e l i t e Shinto a d m i n i s t r a t i v e departments o f government, were s u c c e s s f u l i n promoting the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n i n law of the r e l i g i o u s aspect  of s a i s e i i t c h i .  Furthermore,  the r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y of s a i s e i i t c h i was endorsed through l e g i s l a t i o n by the same l e g i s l a t u r e which formulated the p o l i t i c a l p o l i c i e s of the e a r l y M e i j i s t a t e .  Although the  s h r i n e r e g u l a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d only the n a t i o n ' s major s h r i n e s a t kansha l e v e l ,  the r e s u l t of t h i s  l e g i s l a t i o n was t h a t these i m p e r i a l l y connected s h r i n e s now came under J i n g i k a n c o n t r o l . t h a t i s , as having  achieved  These aspects  o f modern Shinto,  a c e n t r a l l y directed shrine  network, a c l o s e I m p e r i a l bond with the s h r i n e s and the concomitant e l e v a t i o n of the r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y of the Emperor were the major goals of M e i j i Shinto i s t s and exemplify the success  o f the R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o i s t s i n government.  Under the J i n g i k a n , Shinto  'came of age' as a d i s t i n c t  r e l i g i o u s e n t i t y , an e n t i t y , moreover, which p r o v i d e d the i d e o l o g i c a l b u t t r e s s t o the I m p e r i a l s t a t e i n the t r a n s i t i o n from f e u d a l r u l e to a modern n a t i o n . flaws  i n the o l d Ryobu Shinto  The d i s p a r i t i e s and  system were e f f e c t i v e l y  93  removed.  The  the aspect was  a b o l i t i o n of the h e r e d i t a r y p r i e s t h o o d  of the s h r i n e s as f i n a n c i a l l y s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g  e l i m i n a t e d and  policy.  The  r i t u a l s and  s u b s t i t u t e d w i t h a uniform  problems caused by Dual  fiscal  Shinto-Buddhist  ceremonies :were a l s o s o l v e d by moves to r e - i n t r o -  duce uniform nected  ritual practices.  Furthermore, an i n t e r c o n -  and c o n s o l i d a t e d s h r i n e system was  constructed  p l a c e d under c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p e r v i s i o n . 1871,  and  and By  then, the main problems f a c i n g e a r l y M e i j i Shinto  as  a r e l i g i o u s e n t i t y had been e r a d i c a t e d . The  c e n t r a l l y d i r e c t e d reform  of the s h r i n e s i s viewed  by some h i s t o r i a n s as a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the use  of r e l i g i o u s  i n s t i t u t i o n s as mechanisms of f e u d a l c o n t r o l and  social re-  116 pression.  P r o f e s s o r s Oguehi and Takagi decry  t i o n of Shinto populace.  the  s h r i n e s as i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r c o n t r o l of  Nevertheless,  an amulet as p r o o f  of r e g i s t r a t i o n .  i n the work of Murakami S h i g e y o s h i , the o r i g i n and any  the  t h e i r s e v e r e s t censure i s t h a t under  the f a m i l y r e g i s t r a t i o n system each household was to buy  utiliza-  A c e n t r a l theme  the p o i n e e r  nature of S t a t e S h i n t o ,  required  s c h o l a r of  i s a warning a g a i n s t  i n t e r f e r e n c e by government i n r e l i g i o u s matters.  This  Murakami u n d e r l i n e s as c o n s t i t u t i n g a c h a l l e n g e  to freedom  of r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f and  Murakami,  who  a t h r e a t to democracy.  measures r e l i g i o u s change a g a i n s t socio-economic  political  and  f a c t o r s , views s a i s e i i t c h i as p a r t of the r e -  op-  p r e s s i v e S t a t e Shinto c o n s t r u c t .  While he concedes t h a t  s a i s e i i t c h i was a r e l i g i o u s l y conceived  i d e a l , he i g n o r e s  the r e l i g i o u s i n t e n t i n h e r e n t i n the search f o r r e l i g i o u s s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n c a r r i e d out by e a r l y M e i j i In e a r l y M e i j i the primary  Shintoists.  t a s k of the c e n t r a l S h i n t o  a u t h o r i t i e s was to a g r e a t degree one of r e s e a r c h and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the l a r g e r S h i n t o s h r i n e s .  T h i s was  c a r r i e d out to formulate a r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e w i t h which government c o u l d i d e n t i f y under the p o l i c y o f s a i s e i  itchi.  The Shinto r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e , moreover, was to be s t a f f e d by q u a l i f i e d r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i t i o n e r s l i c e n s e d by a c e n t r a l Shinto authority.  C o n t r o l o f the populace,  such as i t was,  took the form of the use of S h i n t o i d e o l o g y to promote a l l e g i a n c e to the I m p e r i a l cause.  National mobilization  behind the new government, when i t was achieved i n 1871, to modernization  and a more e n l i g h t e n e d s o c i e t y .  onwards, a c h i e f m o t i v a t i o n behind  led  From 1868  shrine c o n t r o l c a r r i e d  out by R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o i s t s was one o f r e l i g i o u s  institu-  t i o n a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n achieved through p o l i t i c a l means. such a d i v e r s e r e l i g i o n as S h i n t o wholesale  In  c o n f o r m i t y to a  s e t standard e i t h e r r e l i g i o u s or p o l i t i c a l was not achieved b e f o r e the t u r n o f the century when, under S t a t e S h i n t o , S h i n t o s h r i n e s were p l a c e d under the canopy of the p o l i t i cized kokutai (national p o l i t y ) i d e a l .  Only a f t e r 1900  d i d s h r i n e s become " c i v i l instruments f o r the 117  of n a t i o n a l g o a l s . "  '  implementation  95  The  e f f e c t of the changes t o Shinto s h r i n e s under the  r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y of s a i s e i i t c h i remained a t the l e v e l of p r i e s t s , bureaucrats and i n t e l l e c t u a l s of the S h i n t o s c h o o l s . In the main, the r e l i g i o u s l i f e o f the Japanese people little  a f f e c t e d by the government proclamations  s h r i n e governance.  was  concerning  Furthermore, Buddhist monks s e r v i n g i n  S h i n t o s h r i n e s who f a c e d removal with the d i s m a n t l i n g of the Ryobu system i n 1868 " c o u l d be r e h i r e d as Shinto f u n c t i o n a r i e s 118 i f they wanted to be." seem unduly  T h i s p o l i c y t h e r e f o r e does not  harsh or r e p r e s s i v e .  The i n c r e a s e i n the i n t e n -  s i t y of Shinto s e l f - r e f o r m d i d , however, l e a d to a change i n the c h a r a c t e r of the S h i n t o p r i e s t h o o d which now became an o f f i c i a l adjunct to\the c e n t r a l S h i n t o  office.  The reform of the S h i n t o r e l i g i o n c a r r i e d out between the b e g i n n i n g o f I869 and l a t e 1871 h e r a l d e d the main a c h i e v e ments of the s a i s e i i t c h i p o l i c y .  In the p o l i t i c a l  sphere  R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o i s t s had succeeded i n p l a c i n g e a r l y government f i r m l y w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of S h i n t o forms.  Meiji  religious  Furthermore, the government became s t r o n g l y i d e n t i f i e d  w i t h the c o u r t - S h i n t o i d e o l o g i c a l a l l i a n c e , a m a l l i a n c e which was u t i l i z e d t o promote the acceptance  of p o l i t i c a l  reform.  R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o i d e o l o g y p r o v i d e d a;*sound support f o r I m p e r i a l government.  I t was on the l e v e l of i d e o l o g y t h a t  e a r l y M e i j i Shinto p r o v e d ^ h i g h l y  effective.  r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l proselytization,  To e f f e c t wider  the government a u t h o r i z e d  96  the use of senkyoshi disseminated the  ( t e a c h e r s or propagators)  'new'  P a r t Fourt Senkyoshi  who  theory of s t a t e throughout  the l a n d .  and the P r o p a g a t i o n of S h i n t o  Ideology  J u s t as the c e n t r a l government had accepted S h i n t o i d e o l o g y as a b a s i s f o r I m p e r i a l r u l e , so i t was  hoped the  g e n e r a l populace would r a l l y behind the c e n t r a l r u l e r s by the wisespread  d i s s e m i n a t i o n , through e d u c a t i o n and  reli-  gious p r o s e l y t i z a t i o n , < ~ o f the i d e a l s of s a i s e i i t c h i . t h i s end,  i n e a r l y ±868.the I m p e r i a l C o u n c i l ordered  To the  l e a d e r s of the R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o s c h o o l to formulate e d u c a t i o n a l system.  an  Yano Gendo (1823-1887) of the H i r a t a  s c h o o l f o r c e f u l l y argued  f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c e n t r a l -  l y directed educational policy.  In March 1868  Gendo's  ideas were accepted and together with H i r a t a Kanetane he was  ordered to i n v e s t i g a t e the f o r m a t i o n of a n a t i o n a l  e d u c a t i o n system.  In the same month these  scholar-officials  were t r a n s f e r r e d from the J i n g i Jimukyoku and posted to f e l l o w S h i n t o i s t Tamamatsu Misao as c h i e f o f f i c i a l s  join  i n the  11Q  Bureau of Home A f f a i r s . The  7  end r e s u l t of t h e i r r e s e a r c h e s was  published i n their  P r o p o s a l s f o r E d u c a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n (Gakushasei).  This  work promoted the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of the i d e a l s of S h i n t o and s t r e s s e d the worship to  of the founding kami of Japan, Amaterasu,  r e p l a c e the accent on Buddhism p r e v a l e n t under the Tokugawa.  97  The  educational curriculum  espoused by the H i r a t a  school  s c h o l a r s s t r e s s e d the primacy of r e l i g i o - m o r a l and education  as w e l l as " p o l i t i c a l  ethical  economy, composition, a r t ,  120  and  foreign studies." Under the J i n g i k a n , a programme f o r the  the  i d e a l s of s a i s e i i t c h i and  was  undertaken.  up  Following  the goals of the  organs to examine  various  to uncover p o t e n t i a l problems i n h e r e n t  i n t r o d u c t i o n of l e g i s l a t i o n , the Teaching and Bureau (Kyodo t o r i s h i r a b e kyoku) was -  Dajokan on March 10, s c h o l a r and  Restoration  the g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e of s e t t i n g  i n v e s t i g a t i v e and r e s e a r c h  f a c e t s of and  dissemination  1869.  121  Ono  Research  e s t a b l i s h e d under  the  Shigenobu, a C o n f u c i a n  a c h i e f r e t a i n e r of Choshu han,  of t h i s bureau and  i n the  was  put  i n s t r u c t e d to c a r r y out r e s e a r c h  i n charge i n t o the  nature and methodology of the promotion of S h i n t o r e l i g i o u s instruction.  Ono  recommended t h a t the Teaching and  Bureau be expanded i n t o an o f f i c e of Shinto Ono  had  propagation.  the support of Okuma Shigenobu, a l e a d i n g  i n the Da.jokan and  Research  official  i n the Department of F i n a n c e , who  stressed  the need f o r the s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n  of Shinto  d o c t r i n e to  replace  those of a decadent Buddhism and  to o f f s e t the p o t e n t i a l l y 122  d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s of C h r i s t i a n i t y . of a l l ranks convened i n June, 1869, and  i n J u l y I869,  was  e s t a b l i s h e d and p l a c e d under the  The  Grand C o u n c i l  ratified  Ono's p r o p o s a l  the senkyoshi ( O f f i c e of Shinto Jingikan.  Propagation)  98  In November 1869, c h i e f , was  appointed  c h i e f a s s i s t a n t was considerable  Nakayama Tadayasu, the J i n g i k a n  to head the senkyoshi Fukuba B i s e i .  His  B i s e i , an o f f i c i a l  i n f l u e n c e i n the Shinto bureaucracy, was  l e a d i n g f o r c e i n the senkyoshi i n 1872.  office.  of a  u n t i l i t s disestablishment  Other l e a d i n g o f f i c e r s i n the department were  P r i n c e Sanjo Sanetomi and Soejima Taneomi, the H i r a t a s c h o o l f o l l o w e r who do kyoku).  headed the senkyoshi Ono  was  appointed  o f f i c i a l s and a l l men  instruction section  a s s i s t a n t to the above  f e l t the s t r o n g need f o r a c o n s o l i d a t e d  programme f o r the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of the i d e a l s of the new  religio-political  government.  On October 4, were approved and  (kyo-  I869. the r u l e s f o r the senkyoshi  teachers  the p r e s c r i b e d t e x t s were i s s u e d to the  f o r t y - s i x senkyoshi  who  were h i r e d from the ranks of  Shinto  124 p r i e s t s and Confucian by the senkyoshi was  scholars. intended  The programme undertaken  to a c t as a p o l i t i c a l l y  stabi-  l i z i n g f a c t o r by promoting the r e l i g i o - i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s of the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n .  A f u r t h e r o b j e c t i v e was  c a s t i n g of an understanding  of the g e n e r a l  programmes of the c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y . was  deemed necessary  and  samurai d i s c o n t e n t .  a l s o was  necessary  i n areas The  the broad-  socio-political  T h i s k i n d of  experiencing s o c i a l promotion of I m p e r i a l  instruction unrest loyalty  i n a d e c e n t r a l i z e d n a t i o n where n o t i o n s  of p a t r i o t i s m were o v e r r i d d e n by l o c a l t i e s and  loyalties.  99  An added reason f o r the senkyoshi f o r m a t i o n was the concern, v o i c e d a t the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l , over the t h r e a t of  ' a l i e n ' r e l i g i o u s systems such as C h r i s t i a n i t y .  This  danger was expressed most o b v i o u s l y by the d i s c o v e r y and a r r e s t of the more than f o u r thousand C a t h o l i c s a t Uragami near Nagasaki  i n 1868.  In March 1870, Ono Shigenobu was 125  appointed senkyoshi to Nagasaki. propagate  J  H i s c h i e f task was to  the r e l i g i o u s i d e a l s o f the I m p e r i a l s t a t e .  The senkyoshi programme was inaugurated f o r m a l l y by the I m p e r i a l e d i c t of January 3,  1870.  T h i s , the Great Teaching  E d i c t , ordered senkyoshi "to p r o s e l y t i z e the way the l a n d . "  throughout  In March 1870 the systematic p r o p a g a t i o n of  S h i n t o was extended by the establishment o f l o c a l o f f i c e s , under senkyogakari  senkyoshi  (administrators of o f f i c i a l  p r o p a g a t i o n ) , i n the newly e s t a b l i s h e d urban p r e f e c t u r e s ( f u ) , domains (han) and p r e f e c t u r e s (ken). became u b i q u i t o u s and extended  Senkyoshi  offices 127  "as f a r as Hiroshima."  '  Senkyoshi a c t e d to spread the c e n t r a l government i d e a l of n a t i o n a l u n i t y a t a time o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and p o t e n t i a l 1 ?8  han d i s a f f e c t i o n .  T h i s programme was a s i n c e r e  effort  to disseminate an understanding o f the aims of the R e s t o r a t i o n . There i s a tendency  i n immediate post-war S h i n t o scho-  l a r s h i p to a t t r i b u t e l a t e r a s p e c t s of the S h i n t o - s t a t e alliance  ( f o r example, thought c o n t r o l , v i r u l e n t n a t i o n a l i s m )  as having e x i s t e d b e f o r e i n the f i r s t M e i j i y e a r s i n the form  100  of the government use  of Shinto to enhance the acceptance  of the I m p e r i a l cause.  C r i t i c i s m i s l e v e l l e d a t the  k y o s h i programme as b e i n g of a c o e r c i v e nature Shinto p r o p a g a t i o n  and  sen-  using  as a means of " b u r e a u c r a t i c thought  129 control"  7  or, f o r b e i n g p a r t of a g e n e r a l e f f o r t 130  "aroused n a t i o n a l i s t s "  to d e s t r o y Buddhism.  by  Earlier  s c h o l a r s such as S i r E r n e s t Satow are more v i t u p e r a t i v e , s t a t i n g t h a t the e l e v a t i o n of S h i n t o reduced "the people to 131 a c o n d i t i o n of mental s l a v e r y . "  The Reverend S.R.  J  P r e s i d e n t of the A s i a t i c S o c i e t y of Japan i n 1874,  Brown,  offered  the mistaken p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n t h a t " e f f o r t s to r e v i v e t h i s 132 would-be r e l i g i o n must end The  c o e r c i o n and  in failure."  J  s o - c a l l e d thought c o n t r o l took the form  of the p e r i o d i c assembling of l o c a l people to hear l e c t u r e s on S h i n t o .  Given mainly by low-ranking  senkyoshi,  i t y of whom "were former C o n f u c i a n i s t s and 133 s i t y i n t h e i r propagation", degree i n e f f e c t i v e and  J J  these  l a c k e d an i n t e n -  l e c t u r e s were to a high  f e l l on a p a t h e t i c e a r s .  the t e a c h i n g r u l e s f o r senkyoshi  Furthermore,  show t h a t the J i n g i k a n  was  conscientious i n i t s guidelines f o r Shinto  The  senkyoshi  teachers.  had to ensure t h a t any r e f u t a t i o n of competing  d o c t r i n e s remained s t r i c t l y on a s c h o l a s t i c l e v e l . of t h e i r opponents and as a g r e a t hindrance and  the major-  even s l i g h t aggressiveness 134 -  to c o n v e r s i o n .  y  Okuma and  Calumny was  decried  Bisei  other p r o g r e s s i v e S h i n t o i s t s emphasized moderation i n  religious proselytization.  B i s e i also pressed  for lenient  101  treatment of C h r i s t i a n s and of s o c i a l reform.  the a d a p t a t i o n  of Western  ideas  Furthermore, the c l a i m t h a t senkyoshi  were p a r t of a scheme to promote ardent n a t i o n a l i s m  is  premature i n t h i s p e r i o d of r e l a t i v e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and p r e c a r i o u s l y balanced daimyo a l l i a n c e s .  The  nascent c e n t r a l  government had y e t to e f f e c t the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of a unified national entity. i t s goals  the two  policy —  t h a t of the  around the  s e n k y 5 s h i programme had  as  r e c u r r e n t themes of e a r l y M e i j i r e l i g i o u s  Imperial  of R e v i v a l S h i n t o  The  securely  i n c u l c a t i o n of n a t i o n a l u n i t y  symbol and  t h a t of the  centred  dissemination  ideas to enhance the r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y  of the throne.  Both these a s p e c t s were, i n the f i r s t  y e a r s of M e i j i ,  t r e a t e d as b e i n g  few  i d e o l o g i c a l l y inseparable.  As P r o f e s s o r Murakami s t a t e s , the senkyoshi programme 135 was  the p r o s e l y t i z a t i o n of an emperor-centred p o l i t y .  I t has  to be p o i n t e d  out,  however, t h a t a t t h i s e a r l y stage  i n the M e i j i p e r i o d , the r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r was  such t h a t p r o s e l y t i z a t i o n was  of the r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l  polity.  of the government  seen as an i n t r i n s i c  Furthermore, there was  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y designed p o l i t i c a l programme nor any l y worked out p o l i c y as to the numerous questions p o s i t i o n of the Emperor  J  and  on  no  seriousthe  other fundamental p o l i t i c a l  i s s u e s t h a t were l a t e r systematized period. The  part  d u r i n g the S t a t e  Shinto  main p o l i t i c a l task i n the f i r s t y e a r s of M e i j i  102  was  the e f f e c t i n g of the r e t u r n of the f e u d a l domains to  the Emperor and c e n t r a l government. in  t h i s endeavour was,  senkyoshi ideas  to smooth the t r a n s f e r e n c e of  l o c a l l o y a l t i e s from the han  to the c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t i e s .  task p l a c e d before senkyoshi was  They met  r o l e of  hy promoting e t h i c o - m o r a l  such as Emperor reverence,  The  The  a considerable  one.  with c o n f u s i o n and apathy from a populace g e n e r a l l y  uninformed as to the exact nature thermore, r e l i g i o n was  of the R e s t o r a t i o n .  only one p a r t of people's  o u t s i d e of the r e l i g i o u s e l i t e most found  little  lives  assuaged by l e c t u r e s on  'the kami  and  time f o r  the complex, a b s o l u t i s t t e n e t s of H i r a t a S h i n t o . p r e s s i n g problems f a c e d the populace,  Fur-  More  problems not  easily  way'.  At the same time two p e r v a s i v e f o r c e s began to undermine the c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t i e s ' e f f o r t s a t r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l cation'.  One  was  the growing s t r e n g t h of s e c t a r i a n Buddhism  which r e s e n t e d b e i n g excluded gious a f f a i r s and  'edu-  from a r o l e i n n a t i o n a l r e l i -  the other was  the growing acceptance of  Western ideas of ' c i v i l i z a t i o n and  enlightenment'.  The  f a i l u r e of the senkyoshi programme e x e m p l i f i e d the weakness of  the s o l e r e l i a n c e on s a i s e i i t c h i as a r e l i g i o u s  and as a cohesive f o r c e f o r n a t i o n a l u n i t y . the senkyoshi  policy  The work of  d i d , however, u n d e r l i n e the need f o r f u r t h e r  attempts a t the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of c e n t r a l government i d e o l o g y of  state.  T h i s , however, was  c a r r i e d out w i t h i n the atmosphere  of  an i n c r e a s i n g u t i l i z a t i o n of modern and Western ideas of  103  s t a t e government.  P a r t F i v e ; The  Downfall of the J i n g i k a n and R e s t o r a t i o n  By l a t e 1871  support  of the government both f o r the  p o l i c y of s a i s e i i t c h i and f o r the e l e v a t i o n of ended a b r u p t l y .  Shinto  Henceforth,  Shinto  p o l i t i c a l prerogatives  take precedence over r e l i g i o u s reform.  would  On September 22,  1871  the J i n g i k a n l o s t i t s p r e s t i g i o u s s t a t u s i n the government bureaucracy and was  demoted to a J i n g i s h o (Department of  S h i n t o ) , a body which had considerably l e s s i n f l u e n c e i n government.  In the f o l l o w i n g A p r i l  (I872),  the J i n g i s h o  was  r e p l a c e d by a Kyobusho (Department of R e l i g i o n s ) which i n c l u d e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of both Shinto and Buddhism. while  o f f i c i a l r e g u l a t i o n of Shinto  continued  to be a concern  of v a r i o u s government departments, the support ment f o r these bodies l a p s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y .  Furthermore,  of the  The  reasons f o r  the c u r t a i l m e n t of the d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n of s a i s e i and  an e x c l u s i v e pro-Shinto  r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y was  f a c t o r s which were both p o l i t i c a l and  govern-  itchi  a r e s u l t of  religious.  In the sphere of p o l i t i c s the M e i j i government had, mid-1871, achieved c o n s o l i d a t i o n and  a considerable  p o l i t i c a l maneuvering, achieved The  degree of n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l  administrative security.  t h a t year the M e i j i l e a d e r s had,  Imperial e d i c t of August 29,  by  In August of  a f t e r long negotiations  and  c o n t r o l of the daimyo domains. 1871  reads;  "We  now  completely  104  a b o l i s h the Clans with  (Han)  and  convert  them i n t o Domains (Ken),  the o b j e c t o f . . . a b o l i s h i n g the disease of government 137  proceeding  from multiform  independently  The  of been now  n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l and p o l i t i c a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n  the most o u t s t a n d i n g  government.  existence  b l o c k to n a t i o n a l u n i f i c a t i o n was  under I m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t y achieved han was  The  c o n t r o l l e d daimyo t e r r i t o r i e s which had  the major stumbling ended.  centres."  by the a b o l i t i o n of  the  achievement of the e a r l y M e i j i  Henceforth modern n a t i o n b u i l d i n g c o u l d commence  w i t h i n the framework of the modern p r e f e c t u r a l system which was  set up  i n 1871.  By l a t e I 8 7 I the government undertook a r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n of the central government. change of 1Q71"  was  T h i s r e s t r u c t u r i n g , "the  great  planned by a commission d i r e c t e d  by government l e a d e r s of a much more p r o g r e s s i v e bent. new,  more permanent government o r g a n i z a t i o n was  T h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n saw alist,  l e s s need to support  c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i c i e s favoured  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e was  planned.  traditional-  by r e a c t i o n a r y daimyo  On September 13,  and most members of the c o u r t . new  now  A  formed.  I871  this  I t c o n s i s t e d of  the d i v i s i o n of the Dajokan i n t o three chambers, S a - i n (Board of the L e f t ) , U - i n ( C e n t r a l Board).  (Board of the Right) and  Sei-in  A l l former government departments were  p l a c e d under the Dajokan.  The  S e i - i n , dominated by  the  young samurai l e a d e r s , h e l d the e f f e c t i v e r e i n s of power and  "with the exception  of Iwakura and Sanjo, the top  posts  105  i n the c e n t r a l government were swept c l e a n of nobles daimyo"  and  139 and  J  the government l e a d e r s commenced .the con-  s t r u c t i o n of a new  order.  Under t h i s new  r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n the J i n g i k a n was  to the l e v e l of an o r d i n a r y department.  The  reduced  reasons i n d i c a t e d  f o r the downgrading of the J i n g i k a n were f a r from s p e c i f i c . The  official  j u s t i f i c a t i o n s t a t e d t h a t the  " j u r i s d i c t i o n a l o f f i c e s were few 140 of the Dajokan."  Jingikan's  i n number compared t o t h a t  As a r e s u l t of the changes, the  Jingikan  ( l i k e the other a d m i n i s t r a t i v e departments) s u f f e r e d a c o n s i derable r e d u c t i o n i n s t a f f .  Most of the s e n i o r and a l l  lower-grade ranks were a b o l i s h e d .  To r e p l a c e the  bureaucrats  thus removed o r d i n a r y S h i n t o p r i e s t s were appointed  whose  d u t i e s were r e s t r i c t e d to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s h r i n e festivals. The  lowering  of the s t a t u s of the J i n g i k a n caused con-  siderable consternation S h i n t o r e v i v a l i s t s now o b j e c t i v e s as the new  i n R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto found they no  government.  ,to a degree an anachronism and  The  longer shared the same  Henceforth,  i n f l u e n c e would be much l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t . now  circles.  a new  The  their  political  Jingikan  government s t r u c t u r e  i n which p u r e l y s e c u l a r p o l i t i c a l p o l i c i e s would r e p l a c e s t r e s s on r e l i g i o n which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the p r e v i o u s trative structure. On May 22, 18?1»  was  the  adminis-  f o r example, Census R e g u l a t i o n s  (koseki  106  kisoku) were enacted are c r e a t e d ,  by a law which s t a t e d : "Census d i s t r i c t s  i n each of which, the Ko-cho [ D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r ]  and h i s a s s i s t a n t must procure  accurate  i n f o r m a t i o n as to  the number of houses, of i n h a b i t a n t s , or b i r t h s and and  the movement of the p o p u l a t i o n . "  r e g i s t r a t i o n was  [was]  Thus, Shinto  r e p l a c e d w i t h a modern and  On September 2, I87I,  deaths, shrine  s e c u l a r system.  "the Department of E d u c a t i o n  (Mombusho)  e s t a b l i s h e d i n p l a c e of the Daigaku [ N a t i o n a l U n i v e r 1/4,3  sity]."  The Daigaku, then, which had  J  of the H i r a t a s c h o o l was by the beginnings  now  abolished.  s t r e s s e d the I t was  tenets  replaced  of a modern and Western-style  education  system. F a c t i o n s i n the J i n g i k a n One  of the p r i m a r i l y r e l i g i o u s reasons f o r the down-  g r a d i n g of the J i n g i k a n was c r a t s , who  the f a c t t h a t the S h i n t o bureau-  were drawn from v a r i o u s schools of R e s t o r a t i o n  S h i n t o , became i n v o l v e d i n d o c t r i n a l d i s p u t e s . was  t h a t the S h i n t o bureaucracy became r e n t by  d i v i s i o n s which had a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  The  factional  a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on both J i n g i k a n the Shinto r e v i v a l movement.  cause of t h i s d i v i s i o n l a y i n the a b s o l u t i s t and nature  of the H i r a t a school t e a c h i n g s .  general undertaking p o s i t i o n accorded Hirata school.  result  of s a i s e i i t c h i was  both the members and  Therefore,  Included  The c h i e f radical i n the  the pre-eminent the doctrine;?of the  i n h e r e n t i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of  107  the S h i n t o r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y was a p p l i c a t i o n of the t e n e t s of one T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y unusual  the danger of the s c h o o l over the  accepted  The v a r i o u s branches of S h i n t o u n i t e d  by the g o a l of s a i s e i i t c h i , s e l f - i d e n t i t y and  others.  i n the case of S h i n t o which  b e f o r e M e i j i had seldom been h e l d to a g e n e r a l l y d o c t r i n a l orthodoxy.  wholesale  the achievement of a r e l i g i o u s  the need f o r a r e c o n s t r u c t e d s h r i n e  system began to a s s e r t t h e i r independent views once g o a l s had been achieved. of  H e r e i n l a y the i n t e r n a l weakness  e a r l y M e i j i S h i n t o , a weakness which would become  bated and  The  exacer-  l e a d to c o n f l i c t and u l t i m a t e d i v i s i o n of the  v a r i o u s groups t h a t comprised the S h i n t o  was  these  world.  d o c t r i n a l orthodoxy attempted under s a i s e i  t h a t of H i r a t a Atsutane  and t h i s met  itchi  with r e s i s t a n c e  from some Shinto p r i e s t s when a p p l i e d l o c a l l y , a t the of  g e n e r a l s h r i n e S h i n t o , by senkyoshi  teachers.  level  Thus  R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto which had  succeeded on an  l e v e l and which had"provided  the c h i e f i n t e l l e c t u a l motivai  ideological  L.L.  t i o n f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n of I m p e r i a l r u l e "  began to  f l o u n d e r when a p p l i e d l o c a l l y on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . l e a d e r s of the more t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l s , such as Ryogi and Shirakawa S e k e n o r i ,  Yoshida  found H i r a t a d o c t r i n e s too  e c l e c t i c and d e r i v a t i v e of Buddhism and systems.  The  other  H i r a t a ' s d o c t r i n e indeed expressed  religious a progressive  u n i v e r s a l i s m which i n c l u d e d unique i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of such n o t i o n s as a Supreme C r e a t o r Kami and an a f t e r w o r l d or  108  realm of the dead which were d e r i v e d from C h r i s t i a n and Buddhist  teachings.  Atsutane,  to meet the p h i l o s o p h i c a l  and t h e o l o g i c a l tenor of the day, i n t e g r a t e d these (and o t h e r s ) i n t o the Shinto schema.  Atsutane's  concepts  hold  i n n o v a t i o n s were expanded hy h i s successors Kanetane and Nohutane as w e l l as Yano Gendo, Senge Takatomi, Okuni Takamasa and Maruyama Sakura.  Many of these s c h o l a r s formed  independent branches of the H i r a t a s c h o o l . W i t h i n the s c h o o l of H i r a t a Shinto there a l s o b r o a d l y p r o g r e s s i v e and c o n s e r v a t i v e groups.  developed  Theological  p r o g r e s s i v e s such as Kanetane, Gendo and Okuni were opposed i n the J i n g i k a n by c o n s e r v a t i v e - t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s , Konoe Tadafusa,  head of the Ise s c h o o l of H i r a t a S h i n t o ,  and Shirakawa Sukenori  of the a n c i e n t S h i n t o l i n e a g e .  groups, however, were c r i t i c i z e d waki Shigeaya  Both  by Fukuba B i s e i and Kado-  who were among the p o l i t i c a l l y  Hirata school o f f i c i a l s senkyoshi  such as  i n the J i n g i k a n .  progressive  Bisei,  also a  c h i e f o f f i c i a l , advocated the i n c l u s i o n of more  modern r e f o r m i s t ideas and p r a i s e d the u s e f u l n e s s of f o r e i g n 'enlightened' ideas i n the promotion of S h i n t o .  Kubo Sueshige  (1830-1886), a p r o g r e s s i v e member and o f f i c i a l S h i n t o commentator, s t r e s s e d t h a t the r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l p o l i c i e s should not be mere i m i t a t i o n s of the p a s t but be made compatible  with the n e c e s s i t a t e s of a changing Japan.  T h i s view was c o n t r a r y to the s p i r i t of s a i s e i  itchi.  109  In the J i n g i k a n f a c t i o n a l wrangling i s s u e s became accentuated  over d o c t r i n a l  i n 1870 over the q u e s t i o n as to  which kami should be worshipped i n the Shinto  government  o f f i c e s and over the q u e s t i o n o f the senkyoshi These d i s p u t e s made the J i n g i k a n a prey  curriculum.  to s t r o n g  criticism  by s e v e r a l a u t h o r i t a t i v e government members, such as E t o Shimpei and Saigo source  of d o c t r i n a l confusion.  as the senkyoshi The  Takamori who saw the J i n g i k a n become a These c r i t i c i s m s  programme continued  increased  to make l i t t l e  progress.  demotion of the J i n g i k a n i n 1871 caused f u r t h e r r i f t s  i n the ranks of R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto and t h i s downgrading i n e f f e c t h a l t e d the momentum of R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o  achieve-  ments.  The J i n g i s h o (Department of S h i n t o )  The  c r i t i c i s m of the c o n s e r v a t i v e group became focused  on Fukuba B i s e i and Kadowaki Shigeaya. o f f i c i a l s had supported and  thus were accorded  These H i r a t a s c h o l a r -  the new government changes of 1871 l e a d i n g p o s i t i o n s i n the J i n g i s h o 146  e s t a b l i s h e d on September 22, 1871 to r e p l a c e the J i n g i k a n . E t o Shimpei and Saigo  Takamori, two dominant f i g u r e s i n the  new government, became the l e a d i n g o f f i c e r s i n the J i n g i s h o . With the government changes of I87I1 c o u r t ceremonies were removed to a separate (Ceremonial  office,  Shinto  the Sfaikiburyo  O f f i c e ) which was p l a c e d under Dajokan c o n t r o l  110  A l s o -in September 1871,  the  'Eight Kami' worshipped i n  the S h i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s were t r a n s f e r r e d to the Palace Sanctuary court.  (Kyuchu kashikodokoro) of the  Imperial  Thus, the r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r of the J i n g i s h o  altered considerably.  The  one of study and r e s e a r c h .  was  emphasis i n the J i n g i s h o became There was  l i t t l e achieved  the sphere of r e l i g i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  in  At the same time  the d o c t r i n a l d i s p u t e s and f a c t i o n a l schisms continued plague the department.  The  to  i n e f f e c t u a l i t y of the J i n g i s h o  r e f l e c t e d the g e n e r a l change i n the r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y of By 1872  the government.  reduced i t s support  the government had  considerably  of S h i n t o , and s h r i n e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  began to take an i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n i n the  priorities  of government, a s i t u a t i o n which l a s t e d u n t i l around the t u r n of the century.  '  At the same time, from the  begin-  n i n g of the I870's amid an i n t e l l e c t u a l c l i m a t e i n c r e a s i n g l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by much more p r o g r e s s i v e and  enlightened  ideas, p o l i t i c a l p o l i c i e s s t r e s s e d reform along modern and Western l i n e s . The J i n g i s h o , reduced i n s t a f f and  l a c k i n g the  ardent  commitment of the more c o n s e r v a t i v e H i r a t a s c h o l a r s , f a i l e d to make progress by senkyoshi.  i n the n a t i o n a l p r o s e l y t i z a t i o n of Shinto  Consequently, the J i n g i s h o became viewed as  a " u s e l e s s white elephant."  Arguments arose between  Eto and Saigo as to the u s e f u l n e s s of the department. c a l l e d the J i n g i s h o "a s i e s t a department"  1  ^  and  both  Saigo  Ill  o f f i c i a l s  p r o p o s e d  i t s  p r a g m a t i c  a p p r o a c h  to  t h e r e f o r e ,  1872, and  r e p l a c e d  i n c l u d e d to  the  by  a  the  r e l i g i o u s J i n g i s h o  K y o b u s h o  B u d d h i s t s  s u p e r v i s e  r e p l a c e m e n t  among  j o i n t  i t s  a  more  m o d e r n  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  a n d  o r  b y  s e n k y o s h i  D e p a r t m e n t o f f i c i a l s  I n  were  of  and  and A p r i l  a b o l i s h e d  R e l i g i o n s was  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  o f  b o t h  the  o f  the  w h i c h  a u t h o r i z e d S h i n t o  and  B u d d h i s m . A  m a j o r  f a c t o r  was  the  the  o r g a n i z e d  was  p a r t i c u l a r l y  was  s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  out  o f  the  p r e f e r e n t i a l  many the  o p p o s i t i o n  amalgamated  s e c t  among  o f  a  the  o t h e r s ,  r e l i g i o n s was  l e d  government  l e a d e r  the  i n  was  to  c a r r y  the  wanted  by  v o c a l  a c h i e v e  t h e i r  p r o p o s e d  the  B u d d h i s m  on  d i r e c t i o n g e n e r a l  o f  be  a t  the  the  b e c a u s e  i n c l u d e d  S h i m a j i  A s  p e t i t i o n e d  M o k u r a i ,  S h i n  o f  d e p a r t m e n t  1872  B u d d h i s m ,  The  r e l i g i o - i d e o l o g i c a l  E t o  of r e s u l t  w h i c h  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  p o l i t i c i a n  r e s u l t  B u d d h i s t  o f  21,  i n a  s e c t  i n c l u d e d .  A p r i l  a l s o  c a u s e .  a  a r o s e  a t m o s p h e r e ,  c o n s t a n t l y  a i m s .  w o u l d  c o n c e r n  movement  u n i f i e d  l e a d e r s ,  f o r m a t i o n  a m a l g a m a t i o n  a  a  H o n g a n j i  e s t a b l i s h e d  the  I m p e r i a l  b y  o p p o s i t i o n  m a i n  and  t e a c h i n g s  f o r m e d  s e c t  West  B u d d h i s t  S h i n t o  p o l i c y  T h i s  a n t i ^ B u d d h i s t  B u d d h i s t the  r e l i g i o u s  g o v e r n m e n t ' s  a c c o r d e d  o f  K y o b u s h o  B u d d h i s m .  The  g e n e r a l  p o w e r f u l  out  the  a s s o c i a t i o n s  w h i c h  u n d e r  as  up  M e i j i  s e c t a r i a n  t r e a t m e n t  S h i n t o - B u d d h i s t b o d y  e a r l y  s t a b i l i t y .  a t  to  Kyobusho  This  o f  p r o p a g a t i o n  f r o n t . / w h i c h , the  the  s e t t i n g  e f f e c t i v e  l e a d e r s  n a t i o n a l  to  f o r c e s  r e s e n t m e n t  s e c t  i n  e f f e c t e d l e v e l .  S h i m p e i  e d u c a t i o n  of  112  the populace.  The new s t r e s s was t o he on t h e p r o m o t i o n  of an e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y and t h e Kyobusho worked hand i n hand w i t h the Mombusho  (Department o f E d u c a t i o n ) .  From 18?2 onwards  the r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r o f t h e government s u p p l i e d by R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o and t h e J i n g i k a n was g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d by a more modern, p o l i t i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d and s y s t e m a t i c approach t o the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s i d e a s through n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . The  government r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n o f 1871. t h e n , was f o l l o w e d  by a sharp i n c r e a s e i n t h e momentum towards t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s p o l i c i e s more i n k e e p i n g w i t h the d i c t a t e s of modernization.  The s o l e p r o m o t i o n o f S h i n t o under  the o f f i c e s o f the c e n t r a l government q u i c k l y came t o be viewed as i m p r a c t i c a l f o r t h e advancement o f s o c i a l  reform.  Under t h e Kyobusho, s a i s e i i t c h i was r e p l a c e d by s a i s e i k y o i t c h i (the  u n i t y o f r e l i g i o n , e d u c a t i o n and g o v e r n m e n t ) .  1 5 0  From  I875 onwards u n t i l around 1900 t h e r e was a g e n e r a l t r e n d away from the s t r e s s on S h i n t o by government.  I n 1882 independent  S h i n t o s e c t s (Kyoha S h i n t o ) were f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d and a l l o w e d independence from t h e S h r i n e S h i n t o system. I m p e r i a l C o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1889 p r o v i d e d g u a r a n t e e s ,  The a l b e i t of  a c o n d i t i o n a l n a t u r e , o f freedom o f r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f f o r a l l . - ' 1  T h i s freedom, n o n e t h e l e s s , was accorded of an I m p e r i a l s t a t e which was decreed  w i t h i n t h e framework " s a c r e d and i n v i o l a b l e . "  Thus, i n M e i j i , Western p o l i t i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l i d e a s became incorporated with native a b s o l u t i s t notions of p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l and I m p e r i a l house dominance.  1  The r e s u l t was the f o r -  1  113  mulation porated  of the k o k u t a i i d e a l i n t o which Shinto was i n c o r i n the form of S t a t e S h i n t o .  Therefore,  though the  government of 1872 f o r c e d i n t o the background ideas of a r e t u r n t o the t h e o c r a t i c p o l i t y o f a n c i e n t Japan e x e m p l i f i e d by the r e l i g i o u s p o l i c y  of s a i s e i i t c h i , R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o  i d e o l o g y , i n the sense of having e l e v a t e d the r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y of the Emperor, p r o v i d e d a r e l i g i o - i d e o l o g i c a l legacy which was u t i l i z e d to c o n s i d e r a b l e p o l i t i c a l i n l a t e r years.  To paraphrase C l i f f o r d Geertz,  effect  the f i r s t  f i v e y e a r s of M e i j i proved t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n the r i t u a l potency of the head of the p o l i t i c a l s t a t e meant an i n c r e a s e i n the s t a t u s o f the r e l i g i o n p r o v i d i n g the r i t u a l  element.  1  In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , - i t seems t h a t the i d e o l o g y behind the religious policy  of the e a r l y p M e i j i s t a t e was more  than the mechanisms s e t up to disseminate  this  important  ideology.  114  CHAPTER 5  CONCLUSION  The  first  establishment  f i v e years of the M e i j i p e r i o d and  the  of the I m p e r i a l s t a t e are noted f o r the  promotion of Shinto  i n the form of the r e l i g i o u s  ideology  and p o l i c y of s a i s e i i t c h i which acted to b o l s t e r the I m p e r i a l cause.  The  implementation of s a i s e i i t c h i  out under the impetus of R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto  carried  scholar-officials  l e n t a d e f i n i t e r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r to e a r l y M e i j i government.  With the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t  Dajokan s t r u c t u r e i n I 8 6 9 i " » Shinto apogee. world  of the a n c i e n t J i n g i k a n i n f l u e n c e reached i t s  Under the J i n g i k a n order was  brought to the  i n t h a t Shinto became c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t o a  r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e and f o r the f i r s t  Shinto  systematized  time i n e i g h t c e n t u r i e s  a c q u i r e d an independent s e l f - i d e n t i t y f r e e from the i n f l u e n c e of i n s t i t u t i o n a l Buddhism. S a i s e i i t c h i represents s t r u c t u r e by p o l i t i c a l means.  the f o r m a t i o n  of a r e l i g i o u s  A t the same time, the  accept-  ance by the government of R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o t h e o r i e s of Imperial-.state s t r u c t u r e , p l a c e d the c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the c o n t e x t  of r e l i g i o n .  In the f i r s t years of M e i j i ,  a time of s h i f t i n g a l l e g i a n c e s , experimentation s t r a t i v e forms and p o l i t i c a l  with  admini-  i n s e c u r i t y , the government,  f a c e d with the l a c k of a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d modern a l t e r n a t i v e ,  115  turned to an indigenous  source  of government found i n  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e forms of the a n c i e n t p a s t .  The  govern-  ment thus became c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the i n f l u e n c e of and Shinto for  Shinto  i d e o l o g y which p r o v i d e d the r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y  the Emperor around whom the s t a t e was  consolidated.  In t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d there were few c l e a r - c u t p o l i t i c a l p o l i c i e s and v a r i o u s groups i n s i d e and o u t s i d e of government promoted t h e i r own  political  interests.  The  Emperor,  however, p r o v i d e d a f o c a l p o i n t around which d i v e r s e f o r c e s r a l l i e d and a l s o became u t i l i z e d as a l e g i t i m i z e r of p o l i t i c a l power.  i n h i s age-old  The  expansion  development of Shinto as a r e l i g i o u s system i n the f i v e years of M e i j i a t t e s t s to the f a c t t h a t l e a d e r s supported  the r e v i v a l of Shinto  p o s i t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e prominence. the p r o s e l y t i z a t i o n of Shinto  role  and first  political  to i t s former They a l s o  amidst a populace  supported  ignorant  of the v a l u e s both of the a n c i e n t Emperor s t a t e c o n s t r u c t and of the goals of the R e s t o r a t i o n .  The  identity  of  r e l i g i o n and p o l i t i c a l goals allowed S h i n t o f o r a time to dominate the r e l i g i o u s sphere and a l s o , by the promotion of the p o l i c y of s a i s e i i t c h i , government to a degree became imbued with a r e l i g i o u s i n t e n t . The  u t i l i t y of the s a i s e i i t c h i system l a y i n the  t h a t i t p r o v i d e d a r e l i g i o - i d e o l o g i c a l and framework which u n i f i e d the c o u r t and  administrative  samurai l e a d e r s  a i d e d them i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to c o n t r o l the  fact  divergent  and  116  i n t e r e s t s o f the f e u d a l daimyo. was  achieved,  throne,  h o w e v e r , and  t h e way  was  After political  unification  the domains r e t u r n e d t o  open f o r the  the  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f more  modern f o r m s o f government.  As  w r i t i n g i n 1885,  the r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n of  the  one  temporary  p o i n t e d out,  a n c i e n t g o v e r n m e n t m o d e l was expedient  Prime M i n i s t e r Sanjo Sanetomi,  w h i c h " s u i t e d as a  to the e x i g e n c i e s of the t i m e . "  saisei itchi,  t h e n , was  Jingikan-Dajokan  the f a i l u r e  1  The  to form  Furthermore,  a great deal of i t s goals  1871.  i t c h i h i g h l i g h t s the  success  of s a i s e i  a  although  Restoration Shinto achieved the f a i l u r e  of  of the r e - e s t a b l i s h e d  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m o d e l o f 1869  lasting administrative structure.  failure  by  l a c k of  of R e s t o r a t i o n Shinto d o c t r i n e s to s u s t a i n a  popular  f o l l o w i n g a m i d t h e g r o w i n g s o c i a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l movements of the  'enlightenment'.  of s a i s e i  i t c h i was  s t r u c t and  A n o t h e r key  t h a t i t was  a s s u c h was  f a c t o r i n the  downfall  primarily a religious  c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e r e l i g i o u s f a c t o r s  p r e v a l e n t i n the Japanese scene.  That i s , the p l u r a l i s m  i n h e r e n t i n Japanese r e l i g i o n as a whole a c t e d as an o b s t a c l e to the o v e r l o r d s h i p of In  i t i s necessary  b a c k g r o u n d o f w h a t has period.  The  t o measure i t a g a i n s t the  come t o be  q u e s t i o n i s how  effective  Shinto.  order to d e f i n e the parameters of the s a i s e i  construct,  con-  known a s t h e S t a t e  f a r c a n we  designate  itchi wider Shinto  saisei  itchi,  the p r e v a l e n t e x p r e s s i o n of the e a r l y M e i j i  Shinto-government  alliance,  contemporary  a s S t a t e S h i n t o , t h e t e r m u s e d by  s c h o l a r s to d e s c r i b e the i n t e r a c t i o n of the S h i n t o r e l i g i o n and the Japanese s t a t e between 1868 The beginnings  1945-  of S t a t e S h i n t o can be t r a c e d to the  pronouncement of 1882  official  which allowed the independence of  numerous S h i n t o s e c t s which had developed founders  and  with t h e i r  own  and d o c t r i n a l t r a d i t i o n s and a t the same time  p l a c e d S h r i n e Shinto i n t o a f o r m a l l y designated n o n - r e l i g i o u s category.  By t r e a t i n g Sect S h i n t o as a separate e n t i t y from  the more t r a d i t i o n a l Shinto s h r i n e s and "matters  in effect leaving  of r e l i g i o n and morals [mainly i n the hands o f ] . . . 2  the s e c t s , "  the government was  able to s i d e - s t e p the freedom  of r e l i g i o n p r o v i s i o n l a i d down l a t e r i n the I m p e r i a l C o n s t i t u t i o n of 1889.  The  government then began a g r a d u a l process  of the promotion of S h r i n e S h i n t o , devoid of such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as d o c t r i n a l development and  religious  theological  r e s e a r c h , as a symbol of p a t r i o t i c n a t i o n a l worship. from the f a i l u r e of s a i s e i i t c h i there developed  Thus,  a more  modern, p o l i t i c a l l y systematized and o r i e n t e d c o n s t r u c t . the k o k u t a i , u t i l i z e d S h i n t o t e n e t s and popular  This,  i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the  i n d o c t r i n a t i o n of the e t h i c o - p o l i t i c a l g o a l s of the  secular state.  From 1900  under the M i n i s t r y of Home A f f a i r s ,  S h r i n e S h i n t o became a v i r t u a l c i v i l body and was  regulated  w i t h i n a separate  bodies  j u r i s d i c t i o n from the r e l i g i o u s  of Japan. The year 1882, then, "marks the b e g i n n i n g of an e f f o r t by the government to d i f f e r e n t i a t e Shinto as a 3  n a t i o n a l c u l t from Shinto as a r e l i g i o n . "  J  118  Shrine role  Shinto  thus defined evolved  i n propagation  o f the k o k u t a i  i d e o l o g y which had i t s b e g i n n i n g s The  t o p l a y a major  (lit.  national entity)  i n the l a t e M e i j i  period.  k o k u t a i i d e a was t h e n o t i o n o f t h e s t a t e a s a u n i t e d  n a t i o n a l f a m i l y a n d was c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y n a t i o n a l i s t i c i n d o c t r i n a t i o n by a broad v a r i e t y o f p o l i t i c a l , and  r e l i g i o u s means.  F o r example, a p r i m a r y  educational  buttress to  t h e k o k u t a i was t h e e t h i c a l t r a i n i n g l a i d o u t i n t h e I m p e r i a l R e s c r i p t on Education ence and l o y a l t y . victories and  o f 1890 w h i c h p r o m o t e d E m p e r o r r e v e r -  By t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y  a t a time o f  i n f o r e i g n w a r s w i t h C h i n a (1895) a n d R u s s i a  i n an atmosphere o f v i r u l e n t n a t i o n a l i s m , S h i n t o  (1905)  came t o  t h e f o r e i n t h e f o r m o f S t a t e S h i n t o w h i c h was u t i l i z e d w i t h i n t h e k o k u t a i framework t o engender n a t i o n a l m o b i l i z a t i o n i n support  o f the war e f f o r t .  State Shinto,  then,  i s the  term used by post-war s c h o l a r s t o d e s c r i b e those  aspects of  Shinto u t i l i z e d as an i n t r i n s i c  nationalist  facet of kokutai  i d e o l o g y a n d t h u s more a c c u r a t e l y s h o u l d b e t e r m e d Shinto.  kokutai  Under t h e d i c t a t e s o f t h e k o k u t a i , s h r i n e worship  became t h o r o u g h l y by S t a t e S h i n t o beliefs.  politicized.  Shrine  reverence  as fostered  superceded p e r s o n a l r e l i g i o u s t i e s and  Furthermore, the manipulation  of Shinto  by p o l i t i -  c i a n s proved d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e t h e o l o g i c a l development o f Shinto  a s a r e l i g i o u s system.  State Shinto,  then,  a t l e a s t t h e o l o g i c a l l y , a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n terms. the p o l i t i c a l power o f t h e s t a t e g i v e n a r e l i g i o u s  became, I t was guise.  119  Some s c h o l a r s h o l d , h o w e v e r , t h a t S t a t e S h i n t o , the p o l i t i c a l a r t i f i c e religion,  o f i t s o f f i c i a l d e s i g n a t i o n as a non-  d i d possess "unmistakably  most o f t h e c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s o f a normal r e l i g i o u s cult"-* which t o a high utilized  the v i s i b l e  religion.  forms and t r a p p i n g s  the p o l i t i c a l  t h e r e l i g i o u s f a c a d e made S t a t e S h i n t o  gion which denied  a  reli-  i t s r e l i g i o s i t y a n d i t t h u s became a  " n a t i o n a l r i t u a l which had l i t t l e  religion."^  As P r o f e s s o r F r i d e l l p o i n t s o u t , S t a t e S h i n t o recognized  degree  of the Shinto  However, h y t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y ,  i n t e n t behind  despite  as an u m b r e l l a  term coined  must be  i n retrospect to describe  the m u l t i - f a c e t e d i n t e r a c t i o n o f Shinto  and government be-  n  t w e e n 1868 a n d 19^5.  As such, t h i s paper argues t h a t t h e  term i s inadequate t o d e f i n e t h e a l l i a n c e o f S h i n t o and government which took t h e f o r m o f s a i s e i f i v e years in  of Meiji.  Saisei  itchi  i n the f i r s t  i t c h i h e r e i n has been viewed  i t s own t e r m s a n d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t  o f both i t s i n t e l l e c -  t u a l antecedents and as t h e term used i n contemporary I m p e r i a l government pronouncements which h e r a l d e d foundations  o f t h e new s t a t e .  the Shinto  S a i s e i i t c h i was a r e l i g i o -  p o l i t i c a l d u a l i t y based on a r e l i g i o u s t h e o r y  i n which both  e l e m e n t s were i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n t h e framework o f r e l i g i o u s precepts.  This  identity differed substantively i n intent  from t h e subsequent S t a t e S h i n t o  formulation i n that the  r e l i g i o u s concerns o f R e s t o r a t i o n S h i n t o i s t s i n government were a c c e p t e d  and developed.  The f i r s t M e i j i  government  120  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s b e t w e e n I868and 1871 w e r e p l a c e d r e l i g i o u s context the  and a c q u i r e d  a religious  objectives of Revival Shinto  political  goals  Restoration supervised  Shinto  officials  institutions.  when  to the  Furthermore, the  i n the Jingikan formulated  the r e l i g i o u s policy  marked t h e achievement  character  became a l l i e d  of the secular leaders.  in a  of s a i s e i i t c h i  and  which  of t h e - r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of Shinto  In contrast  rather than the r e l i g i o u s  " i t was t h e p o l i t i c a l  authority,  e l i t e , which determined the o  p o l i c i e s and a c t i v i t i e s o f S t a t e Shinto  Shinto."  The i d e n t i t y o f  w i t h government i n t h e f i r s t M e i j i y e a r s  b y s a i s e i i t c h i , when v i e w e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t development,  e x h i b i t s enough o f a c o n t r a s t  exemplified o f i t s own  to State  Shinto  t h a t i t c a n be t r e a t e d a s a d i s t i n c t phenomenon w o r t h y o f consideration  o n i t s own t e r m s a s a n h i s t o r i c a l e n t i t y .  121  NOTES  Chapter 1 C l a s s i c a l or a n c i e n t p e r i o d of Japanese h i s t o r y r e f e r s approximately to the Nara P e r i o d ( 6 4 6 - 7 9 4 ) and to the e a r l y and mid-Heian P e r i o d ( 7 9 4 - C . 9 9 4 ) . 1  The term kami d e f i e s an exact e t y m o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n acceptable to a l l s c h o l a r s . In g e n e r a l , kami are the awei n s p i r i n g p r o t e c t i v e s p i r i t s and primary o b j e c t s of reverence around which a n c i e n t r i t e s and ceremonies were c a r r i e d out. The c o l l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e s of t h i s indigenous c u l t came l a t e r to be known as Shinto or the Way o f the Kami. ^ Bakuhan system: government by a c e n t r a l m i l i t a r y r u l e r (shogun) and m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t y (bakufu) over f e u d a l domains (han).  4 Cabot C o v i l l e , "Shinto, Engine of Government", Transa c t i o n s of the A s i a t i c S o c i e t y of Japan, T h i r d S e r i e s , V o l . 1 , December, 1 9 4 8 , pp. 1 - 2 3 . Wilbur M. F r i d e l l , "A F r e s h Look a t S t a t e S h i n t o " , J o u r n a l of the American Academy of R e l i g i o n s , V o l . 4 4 , No. 3 . 1 9 7 6 , p. 5 6 1 . 5  ^ D a n i e l C. Holtom, Modern Japan and S h i n t o U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s F j 1 9 4 7 , p. v i i .  Nationalism,  Chapter 2 i  George B. Sansom, Japan: A Short C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y , Appleton-Century-Crofts Inc., New York, 1962, p. 50. 2  Sansom, Japan, p.  51.  F e l i c i a G r e s s i t t Bock, t r . , E n g i S h i k i : Procedures of the E n g i E r a , Sophia U n i v e r s i t y , Tokyo, 1970,; p. v i . y  4  Bock, p. v i . Bock, p.  7.  6 Some a u t h o r i t i e s source o f e i g h t h century the main i n s p i r a t i o n f o r i n 1869. P r o f e s s o r Bock Yoro Code was a separate  c r e d i t the Taiho Code both as the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e forms and as b e i n g the M e i j i government s t r u c t u r e formed (1970), however, has shown t h a t the c o m p i l a t i o n from the Taiho Code and  122 not as most s c h o l a r s maintain, a s l i g h t r e v i s i o n of i t . Furthermore, as l i t t l e s u r v i v e s of the contents of the Taiho Code, the Yoro c o m p i l a t i o n may c l a i m t h e _ d i s t i n c t i o n of p r o v i d i n g the model f o r the Jingikan-Da.jokan s t r u c t u r e re-established i n early Meiji. ^ George B. Sansom, " E a r l y Japanese Law and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , P a r t One", T r a n s a c t i o n s of the A s i a t i c S o c i e t y of Japan, Second S e r i e s , V o l . IX, 1932, p. 72.  p  Sansom, Japan, p.  158.  Robert K i n g H a l l , Shushin: The E t h i c s of a Defeated Nation, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York, 194-9, p. 40. 9  George B. Sansom, " E a r l y Japanese Law and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , P a r t Two", T r a n s a c t i o n s of the A s i a t i c S o c i e t y o f Japan, Second S e r i e s , V o l . XI, 1934, p. 118. 1 0  11 Sansom, " E a r l y - P a r t One",  p.  12 Sansom, " E a r l y - P a r t One",  pp.  13 Bock, p.  84. 74-109.  10.  14  F o r example, George Sansom, Murakami S h i g e y o s h i , Yanaga C h i t o s h i . Bock, p.  10.  Robert K a r l Reischauer, E a r l y Japanese H i s t o r y , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937, P« 23. 17 ' There i s much debate as to the exact o r i g i n of the term S h i n t o and i t s use i n everyday language. The term does not appear i n the E n g i s h i k i and may not have seen widespread usage before the Kamakura P e r i o d (1185-1333). S h i n t o means the way of the gods and was used to d e f i n e the p r a c t i c e s of the n a t i v e kami r e l i g i o n i n the same way as the way of the Buddha and the way o f C o n f u c i u s . The word S h i n t o i s , however, of f o r e i g n o r i g i n and l i k e the term M e i j i i t may have been taken from the Chinese Book of Changes. In e a r l y Japan the term kamigoto d e f i n e d the a f f a i r s o f the kami r e l i g i o n and the term matsurigoto d e s c r i b e d the r u l e r ' s d u a l f u n c t i o n as head of government and c h i e f o f f i c i a t o r o f kami r i t e s . 18  R.K.  Reischauer,  p.  23.  19 Jan E. deBecker, "General D i s c u s s i o n on Japanese J u r i s p r u d e n c e " , The T r a n s a c t i o n s of the A s i a t i c S o c i e t y of Japan, V o l . XLIV, P a r t I I , 1916, pp. 61-62. 20 Harada T o s h i a k i , J i n j a : minzokugaku no t a c h i b a kara miru, Shibundo, Tokyo, 1961, p. 178.  123  Murakami S h i g e y o s h i , Kokka S h i n t o , Iwanami shoten, Tokyo, 1970, p. 29. 2 1  2  Sansom, " E a r l y - P a r t One",  2  p.  72.  -^ deBecker, p. 4.  2  A l a n L. M i l l e r , " R i t s u r y o Japan: The S t a t e as L i t u r g i c a l Community", H i s t o r y of R e l i g i o n s , V o l . 2, No. August 1971. P« 118. 2 h r  1,  ^ Yonechi Minoru, " M e i j i s h o g i n i okeru_sonrakushozai j i n j a to kokka t o s e i " , Ninon j o s h i daigaku k i y o . Nihon j o s h i daigaku, Tokyo, 1970, pp. 5*4—55. 2  Jean H e r b e r t , S h i n t o : At the Fountainhead of Japan, George A l l e n & Unwin, London, 1967. p. 168; p. 391. 2  6  Chapter 3 Kuroda Toshio, "Shinto i n the H i s t o r y o f Japanese R e l i g i o n " , J o u r n a l o f Japanese S t u d i e s , V o l . 7. No. 1, winter, 1981, p. 8. I  Sansom, Japan, p. ^ Kuroda, p.  184.  10.  Anesaki Masaharu, R e l i g i o u s L i f e of the Japanese People, Kokusai bunka s h i n k o k a i , Tokyo, 1961, p. 18. Joseph J . Spae, S h i n t o Man, O r i e n s I n s t i t u t e f o r R e l i g i o u s Research, Tokyo, 1972, p. 22. 5  - Kuroda, p.  12.  ^ Tsunoda Ryusaku e t . a l . , Sources of the Japanese T r a d i t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, New York, 1958, p. 271. o  Tsunoda, p. 282.  ^ H e r s c h e l Webb, The Japanese I m p e r i a l I n s t i t u t i o n i n the Tokugawa P e r i o d , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1968, p. 46. Yoshida Kanemoto, Y u i i t s u s h i n t o mvoho voshu quoted i n Tsunoda, p. 271. 1  0  I I  Tsunoda, p.  272.  124  Marius B. Jansen, "The M e i j i S t a t e : 1868-1912" i n Modern E a s t A s i a : Essays i n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , ed. James B. Crowley, Harcourt Brace & World, New York, 1970, p. 9 1 . 1  2  Kuroda, p. 19.  ^ 14  Muraoka Tsunetsuge, S t u d i e s i n S h i n t o Thought, t r . Delmar M. Brown and James T. A r a k i , M i n i s t r y of. E d u c a t i o n , Tokyo, 1964, p. 172. Muraoka, p. 8. 1 6  Tsunoda, p. 363. 1  1  7  Tsunoda, p. 363.  8 Muraoka, p. 16.  1 9  Sansom, Japan, p. 506.  20 Edwin 0. Reischauer and A l b e r t M. C r a i g , Japan; T r a d i t i o n and T r a n s f o r m a t i o n , Houghton MifflSn Co., Boston, 1978, p. 103. Kuroda, p. 19. 2 1  22 Robert N. B e l l a h , Tokugawa R e l i g i o n , The Free P r e s s , York, 1957, p. 101. 23 Sakamoto K e n i c h i , " M e i j i i s h i n t o s h i n t o " , S h i n t o s h i kenkyu. V o l . 13, No. 5-6, November, 1965, p. 77.  New  J  24 Spae, p. 22. E r n e s t Satow, "The R e v i v a l o f Pure Shin-Tau", T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the A s i a t i c S o c i e t y o f Japan, R e p r i n t s , V o l . I I , December, 1927. p. 201. 26 Joseph M. Kitagawa, R e l i g i o n i n Japanese H i s t o r y , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1966, p. 170. 2  5  2  7  Muraoka, pp.  I67-I68.  28 H.D. Harootunian, "The Consciousness o f A r c h a i c Form i n the New Realism o f Kokugaku" i n Japanese Thought i n the Tokugawa P e r i o d , eds. Tetsuo,, N a j i t a and I r w i n S c h e i n e r , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, 1978, pp. 63-104. 29 Tokushige A s a k i c h i , I s h i n s e i j i shukyo s h i kenkyu, Matsumura shoten, Tokyo, 1935. PP* 657-664. 30 Murakami, Kokka, p. 67.  125  Maruyama Masao, S t u d i e s i n the I n t e l l e c t u a l H i s t o r y of Tokugawa Japan, t r . M i k i s o Hane, P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 , p. 2 6 7 . 3  Muraoka, p. 2 0 3 .  3  2  33 David E. Apter, ed., "Ideology and D i s c o n t e n t " i n Ideology and D i s c o n t e n t , F r e e P r e s s of Glencoe, New York, 1 9 6 4 , p. 1 7 . 3^ Apter, p.  17.  4  Chapter  Kosaka Masaki, ed., Japanese Thought i n the M e i j i t r . David Abosch, Pan P a c i f i c P r e s s , Tokyo, 1 9 5 8 . P« 18. 1  Era,  Robert A. Wilson, "Genesis of the M e i j i Government i n Japan, I 8 6 8 - I 8 7 I " i n U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s i n H i s t o r y , v o l . 5 6 , 1 9 5 7 , p. 1 . 3 C o v i l l e , p. 3 . 4  1-2.  Wilson, pp.  ^ Marius B. Jansen, Sakamoto Ryoma and the M e i j i R e s t o r a t i o n , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 , p. 3 0 0 . H o r e i zensho I 8 6 7 - 8 i n T r a n s a c t i o n s of the A s i a t i c S o c i e t y of Japan, Japanese Government Documents, ed. W.W. Mclaren, V o l . XLII, P a r t I, 1 9 1 4 , p. 2 . 7  o  H o r e i zensho I 8 6 7 - 8 ,  TASJ. p.  2.  H o r e i zensho I 8 6 7 - 8 ,  TASJ, p.  2.  9  A l b e r t C r a i g , "The C e n t r a l Government i n the T r a n s i t i o n from Tokugawa to M e i j i Japan 1 8 5 3 - 1 8 7 1 " , unpublished, August, 1 9 8 1 , p. 1 9 . 1  0  C r a i g , p.  7.  11  Wilson, pp. 12 1  3  14  Wilson, p. C o v i l l e , p.  5-6. 5. 6.  F u j i t a n i Toshio, S h i n t o shinko to minshu t e n n o s e i , nks sha, ' " H o r i t s u bunlca Kyoto, 1 9 8 O , p. 16.  126  F u j i t a n i , p. 16.  1 5  Tokutomi I i c h i r o , Kyoto, 1932, p. 2. 1 6  Iwakura Tomomi ko, Hozonkai,  Wilson, p. 12.  1 7  M a r t i n C o l l c u t , "Buddhism i n the M e i j i T r a n s i t i o n " , unpublished, 1981, pp. 6 - 1 1 . 1 8  Murakami S h i g e y o s h i , Japanese R e l i g i o n i n the Modern Century, t r . H. Byron E a r h a r t , U n i v e r s i t y of Tokyo Press, 1980, p. 91 9  Murakami, Modern, p. 10.  2 0  Muraoka, p. 203.  2 1  C o v i l l e , p. 5«  2 2  2  %Eugitani,  2  ^  pv&*6, p. 175.  Murakami, Kokka. p. 8 1 . Murakami, Kokka. p. 82.  2 5  Murakami, Kokka, p. 82.  2 6  Okakura Kakuzo, The Awakening of Japan, Sanseido Co., Tokyo, 1939. P- H I . 2 7  2 8  2 9  3 0  3 1  Okakura, p. 113. Okakura, p. 111. Tokushige, p. 160. Muraoka, p. 203.  Sakamoto K e n i c h i , "Maruyama Sakura to Fukuzawa Y u k i c h i " , Kokugakuin z a s s h i , v o l . IV, May-June 1963. no. 5 & 6, p. 172. 3 2  3 3  3  ^  3 5  3 6  3 7  Sakamoto,  "Maruyama", p. 172.  Murakami, Kokka, p. 8 4 . Wilson, p. 21; f o o t n o t e 38, p. 131• Kosaka, p. 5 4 . Iwakura quoted i n Tokushige, pp. 660-661.  127  ^ Kido Takayoshi, The D i a r y of Kido Takayoshi, V o l . It 1868-1871. t r . Sidney DeVere Brown and Akiko H i r o t a , U n i v e r s i t y of Tokyo Press, 1983. p. x x v i i . 3  ?  Tsunoda, pp.  642-643.  40 41 k  Z  Wilson, p. 10. I s h i n s h i , v o l . 5.  Tokyo, 1941,  pp.  H o r e i zensho 1867-8, TASJ, pp.  4-5-  I s h i n s h i , p.  2 + 3  60-64.  377.  44 There i s a high degree of i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n the r e n d e r i n g i n t o E n g l i s h of the t i t l e s of the S h i n t o administ r a t i v e bodies of the M e i j i p e r i o d . Since no s t a n d a r d i z e d t r a n s l a t i o n e x i s t s , c o n f u s i o n i s b e s t avoided by r e t e n t i o n of the Japanese.  _  Lc.  sha,  -* S a k u r a i Masashi, M e i j i shukyo s h i kenkyu, Shunju Tokyo, 1971. pp. 13-14. 46 Sakurai,  p.  14.  47 ' Wilson, p.  23.  48 D a n i e l C. Holtom, "The P o l i t i c a l Philosophy of Modern S h i n t o " , TASJ. V o l . XLIX, P a r t Two, 1922, p. 11. Wilson, p. 23•5° John K. F a i r b a n k e t . a l . , E a s t A s i a The Modern Transformation, Houghton M i f f l i n Co., Boston, 1965, p. 230. 2 + 9  Murakami Senjo e t . a l . , eds., M e i j i i s h i n shinbutsu b u n r i s h i r y o , V o l . 1, Heibunsha, Tokyo, 1970, p. 70. J  52 H o r i I c h i r o and Toda Yoshio imply wrongly t h a t Tokud a i j i headed the J i n g i k a n which they mistakenly s t a t e as b e i n g s e t up i n February 1868. See H o r i and Toda, "Part One - S h i n t o " i n Japanese R e l i g i o n i n the M e i j i E r a , ed. Kishimoto Hideo, t r . John F. Howes, Obunsha, Tokyo, 1956, p. 44. However, as these a u t h o r i t i e s s t a t e , on January 19. 1868, T o k u d a i j i r e c e i v e d a s e c r e t memorial from the government a s k i n g him to organize the s e t t i n g up of the J i n g i k a n . T o k u d a i j i i n t u r n c o n s u l t e d h i s a d v i s o r Okuni Takamasa as to the e f f i c a c y of such an implementation. GkuniV'.inireply, o u t l i n e d the form the modern J i n g i k a n should take. He p u b l i s h e d t h i s i n h i s work J i n g i k a n hongi ( H i s t o r y of the C o u n c i l of Shinto A f f a i r s ) . 0kuni__s ideas r e c e i v e d widespread a t t e n t i o n . See M e i j i shukyo s h i kenkyu, pp. 1 4 - 1 5 . J  128  53 Shinbutsu b u n r i , p. 7 0 . 5^ Shinbutsu b u n r i , p. 8 1 . 55 Shinbutsu b u n r i , p. 6 . 5^ The Kokugaku i n v e s t i g a t o r s of the S h i n t o h e r i t a g e maintained t h a t the Emperor Jimmu ( 6 6 0 ? B . C . - 5 8 5 ? B . C . ) , the s e m i - m y t h o l o g i c a l f i r s t Emperor of Japan, was the o r i g i n a t o r of both the s a i s e i i t c h i c o n s t r u c t and the J i n g i k a n . The h i g h l y i d e a l i z e d r u l e of Jimmu was c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r r e d to i n I m p e r i a l pronouncements i n e a r l y M e i j i as an i n s p i r a t i o n a l model of government. See I s h i n s h i , p. 4 7 2 . 5  H a l l , p. 2 9 -  7  H a l l , p. 2 9 -  5  Q  5  9  6  0  6  1  C o v i l l e , p. 6 . E d i c t o f March 1 7 , 1 8 6 8 quoted i n Muraoka, p. 2 0 4 . C o l l c u t , p.  13.  J i n g i Jimukyoku o r d e r of March 2 8 , 1 8 6 8 quoted i n C o l l c u t , p. 1 4 . ^ Dajokan order of A p r i l 2 0 , 1 8 6 8 quoted i n Holtom " P o l i t i c a l Philosophy", p. 1 1 , f o o t n o t e 3« 64  Murakami, Modern, p. 2 5 .  ^5 Murakami, Kokka, p. 8 7 . 66  Murakami, Modern, pp. 5 - 6 .  ^  Murakami, Modern, p. 5 «  7  68  Kishimoto Hideo and Wakimoto Tsuneya, " R e l i g i o n During Tokugawa" i n Japanese R e l i g i o n i n the M e i j i E r a , p.  11.  69 7  7  0  13.  Kishimoto  and Wakimoto, p.  Sakamoto,  " M e i j i i s h i n " , p. 5 7 -  Sakamoto, " M e i j i i s h i n " , p. 5 7 S e i t a i s h o i n Japan H e r a l d , August 2 9 , 1 8 6 8 , p. 1 4 9 2 i n TASJ, V o l . XLII, p. 7 S e i t a i s h o , TASJ, V o l . XLII, p. 7 7 1  7  2  7  3  129  Soejima had s t u d i e d with the Rev. Guido Verbeck, an American P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a r y , i n Nagasaki i n the e a r l y 1860's. See Kido, D i a r y , p. 11, f o o t n o t e 35. 7  7 5  Wilson,  p. 35-  7 6  Wilson,  p. 40.  I s h i n s h i , p.  7 7  473.  I m p e r i a l E d i c t o f November 30, 1868 quoted by Kono Shozo i n "Kannagara no m i c h i " , Monumenta Nipponica, V o l . 3, No. 2, J u l y 19^0, p. 25. 7 8  H o r i and Toda, see f o o t n o t e k9,  7 9  RO  8  Kido, D i a r y , p. 5 3 « I s h i n s h i , p.  8 1  2  One. 1914, 3  84 8  ^  540.  W.W. McLaren, " I n t r o d u c t i o n " , TASJ, V o l . XLII, p. x l .  83 Wilson, 8  p. 52.  p. 66.  C r a i g , p. Wilson,  Part  13.  p. 66.  86  The term J i n g i k a n s u f f e r s from a l a c k o f c o n s i s t e n t translation. H i s t o r i a n s have tended towards i n d i v i d u a l r e n d e r i n g s of the term. Bock (1970) u n d e r l i n e s t h i s discrepancy and uses the t i t l e Department of S h i n t o . However, perhaps C o u n c i l of Shinto A f f a i r s i s more p r e c i s e as t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n r e f l e c t s the J i n g i k a n ' s p o s i t i o n i n the two kan e i g h t sho s t r u c t u r e as an equal i n s t a t u s to the C o u n c i l of S t a t e (Dajokan ). 1  8  7  I s h i n s h i , p.  475.  Murakami, Kokka, p. 82. 8  9  Wilson,  p. 58.  90 Jansen, Sakamoto, p.  7  363.  91 George Sansom, The Western World and Japan, A l f r e d A. Knopf, New York, 1950, p. kT<f. I s h i n s h i , p. 474. 9  2  Wilbur M. F r i d e l l , "The Establishment o f S h r i n e Shinto i n M e i j i Japan", Japanese J o u r n a l of R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s , V o l . 2, Nos. 2-3, June-September, 1975, p. 144. : 7 J  130  Tagawa D a i k i c h i , Kokka to shukyo, Kyobunkan, Tokyo,  9 i +  1943, P. 859  ^  9  6  9  7  Murakami, Kokka, p. 92. Murakami, Kokka, p. 148. C o v i l l e , p. 11.  I m p e r i a l E d i c t of January 3. b u n r i , p. 86. 9  8  9  9  1870 i n Shinbutsu  Kitagawa, p. 201.  Umeda Y o s h i h i k o , "Shukyo ho no hensen", S h i n t o s h i kenkyu, P a r t I I , V o l . 10, No. 4, J u l y 1962, p. 24. 1  0  0  1 0 1  Umeda, p. 28.  1  S a k u r a i , p. 18.  0  2  101  S h i n t o Committee f o r the IXth I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress f o r the H i s t o r y of R e l i g i o n s , B a s i c Terms of S h i n t o . Kokugakui n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Tokyo, 1958, PP« 5 3 - 5 4 . J  F u j i t a n i Toshio, "Kokka Shinto no h o n s h i t s u " , Bunka hyoron, No. 89, February 1967, p. 65. 5 Kamada J u n i c h i , " M e i j i s h i n t o g y o s e i j o no n i , san no mondai", Kogakkan ronson, V o l . 10, No. 3, June 1977, p. 2. In f a c t i t was not u n t i l the s h r i n e merger p o l i c y c a r r i e d out between 1906 and 1912 t h a t a c l e a r - c u t s e t o f r e g u l a t i o n s was l a i d down. 1 0  106  107  M u r a k a m i , Kokka, p. 94. Murakami,  Kokka. p. 94.  The E d i c t of May 1871 quoted i n Hagiwara Tatsuo, "The P o s i t i o n of the S h i n t o Priesthoods H i s t o r i c a l Changes and Developments", S t u d i e s i n Japanese F o l k l o r e , ed. R i c h a r d M. Dorson, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1963, p. 226. 1 0 8  P,  1  0  9  1  1  0  The E d i c t of May 1871 quoted i n Hagiwara, p. 226. The Dajokan E d i c t of J u l y 1871 i n Murakami, Kokka,  96. Ill  112  R e g u l a t i o n s quoted i n Murakami, Kokka, p, 96. R e g u l a t i o n s quoted i n Murakami, Kokka, p. 96.  131  Wilbur M . F r i d e l l , Japanese Shrine Mergers Sophia U n i v e r s i t y , Tokyo, 1 9 7 3 . P - 32. 1  1912,  1  3  1906-  E d i c t of May 1 8 ? 1 quoted i n H o r i and Toda, p. 4 5 . - The Charter Oath of 1 8 6 8 , arguably the main s e c u l a r l e g i s l a t i o n of the f i r s t M e i j i y e a r s , a l s o c a l l s f o r the need f o r a n a t i o n c l e a n s e d of o l d abuses. The C h a r t e r Oath took the form of a Shinto oath which by the recommendation of Kido K o i n was sworn by the e n t i r e government body b e f o r e the S h i n t o kami i n the I m p e r i a l p a l a c e . A r t i c l e 4 of t h i s document s t a t e s t h a t " e v i l customs of the p a s t be destroyed and a l l law be founded upon t h e _ j u s t i c e of_heaven and e a r t h . " See C h a r t e r Oath i n M e i j i shukyo s h i kenkyu, p. 10. It i s t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e to a t t r i b u t e r e l i g i o u s m o t i v a t i o n to t h i s c l a u s e and s t a t e t h a t the ' e v i l customs' and ' o l d abuses' may r e f e r to the abuses of S h i n t o under the Ryobu system. 1 1  5  11 f  Oguchi I i c h i and Takagi H i r o , " R e l i g i o n and S o c i a l Development", Japanese R e l i g i o n i n the M e i j i E r a , pp. 3 3 7 338; Murakami, Modern, p. 2 8 . 1  1  7  Fridell,  " E s t a b l i s h m e n t ' , p. 148.  1  1  8  Oguchi and T a k a g i , p.  1  1  9  W i l s o n , p.  1  2  0  W i l s o n , p. 6 0 .  59..  121  Sakurai,  122  H o r i and Toda, pp.  p.  335.  15. 54-55.  -  123  The term senkyoshi a p p l i e s a l s o to the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r - o f f i c i a l or m i s s i o n a r y - e m i s s a r y who a c t e d as propagator f o r the r e l i g i o - p o l i t i c a l i d e a s of the new government. J  1 Z h r  I s h i n s h i , p.  482.  1  I s h i n s h i , p.  483.  2  5  I m p e r i a l E d i c t of January 3 . 1870 i n Shinbutsu b u n r i , p. 8 6 . 1  2  7  128 129  Tokushige, p. Sakurai,  233.  p. 1 7 •  Matsutani Fumio and Undo Y o s h i m i c h i , " P a r t Two Buddhism", Japanese R e l i g i o n i n the M e i j i E r a , p. 130.  -  132  D a n i e l C. H o l t o m , The N a t i o n a l F a i t h o f J a p a n : A S t u d y i n M o d e r n S h i n t o , P a r a g o n Book R e p r i n t C o r p . , New Y o r k , 1965, P. 56. 1  3  0  1  3  1  Coville,  p. 13.  1  3  2  Coville,  p.  1  3  3  Murakami, Modern,  13. p. 24.  Rules f o r senkyoshi quoted i n Matsutani 13  -> M u r a k a m i , Modern,  1  3  6  I s h i n s h i , p.  1  3  7  Horei  a n d Undo, p . 1  p . 24.  540.  z e n s h o 1 8 7 1 , T A S J , p.  33-  W.W. M c L a r e n , A P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y o f J a p a n d u r i n g t h e M e i . i i E r a 1867-1912, G e o r g e A l l e n & U n w i n , L o n d o n , 1 9 1 6 , p. 94. 1  3  8  J  y  C r a i g , p. 22.  l Z + 0  M u r a k a m i , K o k k a , p.  l Z j 4  I s h i n s h i , p. 479.  li|  '  2  l / i 3  98.  Horei  z e n s h o 1 8 7 1 , T A S J , p. 18.  Horei  z e n s h o 1871,  T A S J , p. 2 0 .  144 M u r a o k a , p. ^5  233.  M u r a o k a , p. 220. Murakami,  K o k k a , p. 106.  ^ F r i d e l l , " E s t a b l i s h m e n t " , p. l 4 l . 1 48 M u r a k a m i , K o k k a , p. 106. 149 S h i n b u t s u b u n r i , p. 2 8 1 . T o k u s h i g e , p. 655. A r t i c l e 28 o f t h e M e i j i C o n s t i t u t i o n s t a t e s t h a t "Japanese s u b j e c t s s h a l l w i t h i n l i m i t s n o t p r e j u d i c i a l t o peace and o r d e r , and n o t a n t a g o n i s t i c t o t h e i r d u t i e s as s u b j e c t s , enjoy freedom o f r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f . " See W.W. M c L a r e n t r . , T A S J , V o l . X L I I , P a r t One, 1914, p . 138. 1  7  1  > 1  133  1  -^  2  Kishimoto  a n d W a k i m o t o , p . 32.  C l i f f o r d G e e r t z , Islam Observed, Y a l e P r e s s , New H a v e n , 1968, p. 57«  University  Chapter 5 S a n j o S a n e t o m i i n J a p a n W e e k l y M a i l , December PP- 618-619 i n T A S J , V o l . X L I I , p. 91. 1  1885,  2  Fridell,  26,  " E s t a b l i s h m e n t " , p. 1 4 7 .  3 H a r o l d S. Q u i g l e y , J a p a n e s e G o v e r n m e n t a n d P o l i t i c s , The C e n t u r y Company, New Y o r k , 1932, p. 78. ^ S h i n t o d a i . j i t e n , v o l . 2, 1937-1940, p . 47 q u o t e d i n W i l h e l m u s H.M. C r e e m e r s , S h r i n e S h i n t o a f t e r W o r l d War I I , E . J . B r i l l , L e i d e n , 1968, p . 11. 5 Holtom, N a t i o n a l F a i t h , Murakami, 7  Fridell,  p. 64.  Kokka, p. 224. " F r e s h Look", p.  Q  K i t a g a w a , p.  213.  561.  134  GLOSSARY  Bakufu  The Tokugawa g o v e r n m e n t , shogunate.  Bakuhan  R u l e by t h e s h o g u n a t e o v e r i n d i v i d u a l daimyo domains.  Daimyo  Feudal lords.  Dajokan  Council  Engi  The t e n t h c e n t u r y p r o c e d u r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the implementation o f the e a r l y Japanese law codes.  shiki  Fukko  Shinto  of  Restoration Shinto.  the  State.  or R e v i v a l of  Antiquity  Fuku-sosai  A s s i s t a n t to the  Gijo  C o u n c i l l o r Tfirst c l a s s i n the f i r s t senior l e g i s l a t i v e council.  Han  A daimyo domain.  Han  O f f i c i a l of the  ji  President.  third  .rank.  Honji-suijaku  The p r e - M e i j i r e l i g i o u s s y s t e m u n d e r w h i c h the kami o f S h i n t o were h e l d t o be m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e B u d d h a s o f s e c t a r i a n Buddhism.  Jingi  Bureau of Shinto A f f a i r s , F e b r u a r y 25, 1868.  Jimukyoku  Meiji  established  Shinto  Jingikan  C o u n c i l of Shinto A f f a i r s , e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e e a r l y e i g h t h c e n t u r y and r e v i v e d August, 1869.  Jingi-ryo  The a n c i e n t l a w s c o n c e r n e d k a m i r i t e s and f e s t i v a l s .  Jingisho  Department of S h i n t o , S e p t e m b e r 22, I87I.  Kami  The  1868.  O f f i c e , e s t a b l i s h e d December  7.  Jingi-ka  ubiquitous  with  established  d e i t i e s of  Shinto.  135  Government o r n a t i o n a l s h r i n e s .  Kansha K o k k a no  soshi  S h i n t o r i t e s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the s t a t e .  Kokugaku  School  Kokutai  N a t i o n a l p o l i t y or n a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e .  Kyobusho  Department of R e l i g i o n s , e s t a b l i s h e d April 1872.  Matsurigoto  Literally, religious observances, the o r i g i n a l term f o r Japanese government.  Ritsu-ryo  The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d of a n c i e n t Japan.  Ryobu  Dual Aspect S h i n t o , the amalgamation o f S h i n t o and B u d d h i s t c e r e m o n i e s .  Shinto  of N a t i o n a l  Learning.  legal  codes  Sanyo  C o u n c i l l o r second c l a s s i n the Meiji legislative council.  Senkyoshi  Office of Shinto Propagation, an o f f i c i a l - i n s t r u c t o r .  Shrine  The n e t w o r k o f S h i n t o s h r i n e s o f varying sizes. The o t h e r m a j o r f o r m s o f S h i n t o a r e s I m p e r i a l House S h i n t o , S e c t a r i a n S h i n t o , F o l k S h i n t o and Scholarly Shinto.  Shinto  Shichika  Seven o f f i c e s of s t a t e s e t J a n u a r y 3, 1868.  Sosai  President or c h i e f e x e c u t i v e of the s t a t e .  To-baku  R o y a l i s t anti-Tokugawa faction.  first also  up officer  political  136  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A n e s a k i , Masaharu. H i s t o r y o f Japanese R e l i g i o n . K e g a n P a u l , T r e n c h , T r u b n e r a n d Co., 193°-  London:  . R e l i g i o u s L i f e o f t h e Japanese People. 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