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Musica : an early twentieth-century French music journal Biberdorf, Carla E. 1984

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MUSICA: AN EARLY TWENTIETH-CENTURY FRENCH MUSIC JOURNAL by CARLA E. BIBERDORF B.A., U n i v e r s i t y Of Saskatchewan, 1977 B.Mus., U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Music Department We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1984 © C a r l a E. B i b e r d o r f , 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree that p e r m i s s i o n fo r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Music The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: March 31, 1984 i i A b s t r a c t Musica, a monthly music j o u r n a l , was p u b l i s h e d i n P a r i s by P i e r r e L a f i t t e from 1902 to 1914. The j o u r n a l was e x c e p t i o n a l f o r i t s use of iconography which supplemented the w r i t i n g s by numerous composers, performers, and c r i t i c s of the day. I t c o n t a i n s c o n t r i b u t i o n s by such well-known composers as S a i n t -Saens, Massenet, Bruneau, d'Indy, Faure, Debussy, and Messager. Performers to c o n t r i b u t e a r t i c l e s i n c l u d e d famed opera s i n g e r s , c a f e - c o n c e r t c e l e b r i t i e s , p i a n i s t s , v i o l i n i s t s , c e l l i s t s , h a r p i s t s , and dancers. Other a r t i c l e s were w r i t t e n by c r i t i c s and p r o f e s s i o n a l j o u r n a l i s t s , many of whom c o n t r i b u t e d to a number of music p e r i o d i c a l s . Among these are Henri de Curzon, G a b r i e l Prod'homme, M. D. C a l v o c o r e s s i , Emile V u i l l e r m o z , Michel-Gaston Carraud, and Adolphe J u l l i e n . Much c r i t i c i s m was a l s o w r i t t e n by Musica's e d i t o r s C h a r l e s J o l y , Georges Pioch, and the c o m p o s e r - c r i t i c X a v i e r Leroux. With i t s o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l by composers, performers and c r i t i c s , Musica emerges as a important source of in f o r m a t i o n f o r the h i s t o r i a n . A r t i c l e s by composers deal with t h e i r l i v e s , works, and contemporaries. Accounts by per s o n a l f r i e n d s , acquaintances or r e l a t i v e s of composers provide f u r t h e r data on important f i g u r e s such as R o s s i n i , Adam, Franck, Reyer, Massenet, and Saint-Saens. Performance p r a c t i s e s of the time are d e s c r i b e d by performers. Opera s i n g e r s focused on c h a r a c t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and c a f e - c o n c e r t c e l e b r i t i e s r e v e a l e d t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l approaches to chanson. Proper technique i s d i s c u s s e d by i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s and i l l u s t r a t e d i n numerous photographs. Musica's iconography i s a l s o u s e f u l i n determining contemporary costuming and s t a g i n g i n opera and b a l l e t . C r i t i c a l reviews supply the h i s t o r i a n with d e s c r i p t i o n s of programs, performers, and concert l o c a t i o n s . They a l s o g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n of the m u s i c a l p r e f e r e n c e s of the era and p u b l i c response to new compostions. T h i s t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e chapters d e l i e n a t e d as f o l l o w s . The f i r s t chapter i n t r o d u c e s Musica and j u s t i f i e s a study of t h i s p e r i o d i c a l . Chapter two d e s c r i b e s the j o u r n a l ' s format and d e a l s with the p u b l i s h e r . Chapter three focuses on Musica's c o n t r i b u t o r s i n c l u d i n g e d i t o r s , music c r i t i c s , composers and performers. I t a l s o i n c l u d e s a d i s c u s s i o n of a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n about composers and performers, complemented by r e l e v a n t iconography. The f i n a l chapter demonstrates the relevance of Musica as a documentary source f o r the h i s t o r i a n . i v Table of Contents A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of F i g u r e s v Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 Chapter II MUSICA'S FORMAT AND PUBLISHER 5 Chapter III CONTRIBUTORS AND CONTRIBUTIONS 18 A. EDITORS 18 B. MUSIC CRITICS AND JOURNALISTS 3 3 C. COMPOSERS 45 D. PERFORMERS 62 Chapter IV CONCLUSION 106 BIBLIOGRAPHY 109 V L i s t of F i g u r e s 1. August 1904 cover-page 6 2. F i n g e r E x e r c i s e r (June 1905 back cover page) 9 3. Advertisement f o r a music stand (August 1907 back cover page) 10 4. Advertisement f o r a B e c h s t e i n piano (January 1904 back advertisement page) 11 5. P u c c i n i , duck-hunting (November 1 903, p. 223) 56 6. Bruneau, canoing (September 1903, p. 190) 57 7. A l a s t p o r t r a i t - p h o t o g r a p h of Reyer (March 1909, p. 35) 58 8. A l a s t p o r t r a i t - p h o t o g r a p h of Gounod (J u l y 1906, p. 102) 59 9. Reyer i n h i s salon (February 1907, p. 26) 60 10. Massenet at E g r e v i l l e (November 190.6, p. 174) ..61 11. Ernest Van Dyck in the r o l e of T r i s t a n (June 1905, p. 89) 63 12. F e l i a L i t v i n n e i n the r o l e of I s o l d e ( J u l y 1 904, p. 342) 64 13. Carmen i n t e r p r e t e r s (February 1905, p. 24) 66 14. Scene from Act 1 of Merikanto's Pohjan n e i t o (October 1908, p. 159) 71 15. Scene from Act 2 of Ivan the T e r r i b l e ( J u l y 1909, p. 102) 72 16. Two scenes from Act 1 of Tannhauser (August 1904, p. 360) 73 17. M a c h i n i s t s at the Opera (October 1904, p. 401) 74 18. Poster from Massenet's Esclarmonde (November 1 906, p. 167) 75 v i 19. Piano hand p o s i t i o n a d vised by Long (December 1907 , p. 183) 80 20. Jacques Thibaud and Edouard R i s l e r (May 1906, p. 75) 81 21. A r t u r Rubenstein in 1905 (January 1905, p. 9) 83 22. Leon T o l s t o y and h i s daughter Alexandra (June 1908, p. 95) 85 23. Landowska performing f o r Rodin (January 1909, p. 6) 86 24. Pavlova and Ni'jinsky (June 1909, p. 85) 98 v i i Ac know1edgement There are many people r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the completion of t h i s p r o j e c t . I wish to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to Dr. H. Robert Cohen, my t h e s i s a d v i s o r , f o r the guidance he pr o v i d e d throughout t h i s p r o j e c t . Thanks a l s o to Dr. J . Evan K r e i d e r f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e and Dr. D i m i t r i Conomos f o r h i s i n t e r e s t i n my work. I am g r a t e f u l to good f r i e n d s : K a r i n Sandberg-Brennan, f o r her suggestion that I pursue t h i s t o p i c ; F r a n c i n e Regaudie, f o r a s s i s t a n c e with t r a n s l a t i o n problems; and Diane Loomer, f o r her ongoing support. I e s p e c i a l l y thank my husband, Douglas, who has given me s i n c e r e encouragement with every aspect of my work. 1 I. INTRODUCTION The beginning of t h i s century i n France has been r e f e r r e d to as ' l a b e l l e epoque.' From 1885 to 1918, p a i n t e r s , w r i t e r s and musicians f l o c k e d to P a r i s , the c u l t u r a l hub of the western world. In a r t , i m p r e s s i o n i s t s such as Manet, Monet, Renoir and P i s a r r o , were w e l l entrenched. New ideas were being e x p l o r e d by p o s t - i m p r e s s i o n i s t s Cezanne, Gaugin and Van Gogh; fauves Matisse and Derain; and c u b i s t s Braque and P i c a s s o . W r i t e r s such as Anatole France, Zola and Gide, as w e l l as symbolist poets B a u d e l a i r e , V e r l a i n e and Mallarme, were prominent. In music, the establishment was represented by Vincent d'Indy, S a i n t -Saens, Massenet, Bruneau, and Reyer. A new n a t i o n a l i s t i c t r e n d appeared i n the music of Debussy, Ravel, S a t i e and Faure. Set i n an environment of r e l a t i v e p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y , the c o n t r a s t between a f l o u r i s h i n g a r t i s t i c s o c i e t y and s t i r r i n g s of an overwhelming t e c h n o l o g i c a l age has caused h i s t o r i a n s to w i s t f u l l y regard t h i s l o s t golden e r a . 1 Such s e n t i m e n t a l i t y can be excused i n l i g h t of the e x p l o s i o n i n a r t i s t i c endeavor o c c u r i n g i n that f e r t i l e time i n h i s t o r y . J o u r n a l s p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d provide glimpses of the p r o d i g i o u s output i n the a r t s and i n s i g h t i n t o aspects of s o c i e t y . Through t h e i r use of c o l o r f u l ads, reviews of performances and a r t i s t i c commentary, one i s able to obt a i n a sense of the p e r i o d . 1See Roger Shattuck, The Banquet Years; the A r t s i n France  1885-1918. (London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1958); N i g e l G o s l i n g , The Adventurous World of P a r i s 1900-1914. (New York: W i l l i a m Morrow & Co., Inc., 1978). 2 Reviews supply the hi s t o r i a n with a sequential record of programs, performers, dates and locations, as well as first-hand observations on performances of the time. A r t i c l e s on composers and performers give valuable biographical data that i s frequently unavailable in contemporary sources. Music journals provide additional information on theaters, managers, designers, and backstage crew. This glimpse of the l e s s - v i s i b l e personnel in the music industry is d i f f i c u l t to obtain elsewhere. By documenting events and attitudes of the time period, journals are an invaluable resource for the music h i s t o r i a n . The journal Musica was published during the l a t t e r half of 'la belle epoque.' The j o u r n a l i s t i c entrepreneur Pierre L a f i t t e supervised i t s publication from August 1902 u n t i l i t s unfortunate demise with the outset of World War One. The journal was exceptional for i t s use of iconography which appeared alongside the prose of numerous composers, performers and writers of the day. With photographic advances, large quality prints are found on almost every page in Musica. Espe c i a l l y prominent are those of opera singers either posed in costume or on location in actual performances. There are some extremely rare photographs of composers and performers in society and at l e i s u r e . Reproductions of paintings, lithographs and drawings, are also u t i l i z e d to i l l u s t r a t e the journal. A study of Musica is important as well when one considers i t s popularity and appeal to both amateur and professional musicians during i t s publication. The publisher of Musica was j u s t i f i a b l y proud that the f i r s t issue sold 180,000 copies in 3 l e s s than e i g h t d ays. 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n s t a b i l i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g year, but even a c i r c u l a t i o n v a r y i n g between 45,000 and 50,000 c o p i e s an issue was a r e s p e c t a b l e accomplishment in 1903. 3 Even the weekly L ' i l l u s t r a t i o n , which was a more e s t a b l i s h e d i l l u s t r a t e d j o u r n a l , only had a p r i n t run of 55,000 in 1904." Musica's c i r c u l a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y impressive when compared to Comoedia, a popular l i t e r a r y j o u r n a l , whose p r i n t run in 1908 was 30,000, 5 and the more gen e r a l newspapers, Le F i g a r o and Le  J o u r n a l des Debats, which p r i n t e d at 29,000 and 24,000 co p i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y d u r i n g the same y e a r . 6 Despite Musica's obvious p o p u l a r i t y i n e a r l y t w e n t i e t h -century P a r i s , and the f a c t that even a c a s u a l study of the j o u r n a l r e v e a l s much of i n t e r e s t to h i s t o r i a n s , Musica has not a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of m u s i c o l o g i s t s . T h i s t h e s i s r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t e f f o r t to b r i n g to l i g h t the importance of Musica as a documentary resource f o r the music h i s t o r i a n . 7 It i s not merely a summary of the j o u r n a l ' s contents but .more an examination of m a t e r i a l s e l e c t e d to emphasize h i s t o r i c a l l y 2"Notre 1er numero," Musica 2 (November 1902): 30. 3Musica, " L ' A n n i v e r s a i r e de Musica," Musica 14 (November 1903). "Claude B e l l a n g e r , H i s t o i r e de l a Presse F r a n c a i s e , 5 v o l s . ( P a r i s : Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France, 197 2), 2: 387. 5 A l b e r t P i e r r e , G i l l e s F e y e l , and J e a n - F r a n c o i s P i c a r d , Documents pour l ' h i s t o i r e de l a Presse N a t i o n a l e aux XIXe et XXe  S i e c l e s (Pari"i~l Centre de Documentation Sciences Humaines, 1980), p. 48. 6 I b i d . , pp. 43, 51. 7 I t i s a l s o my i n t e n t i o n to prepare an e x t e n s i v e index of Musica f o r the R e p e r t o i r e i n t e r n a t i o n a l de l a presse musicale du dix-neuvieme s i e c l e (RIPMxix). The work s h a l l be undertaken at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia's Center f o r S t u d i e s i n Nineteenth-Century Music /Centre i n t e r n a t i o n a l de recherche sur l a presse musicale. 4 important i n f o r m a t i o n . For t h i s reason, the focus w i l l be on major c o n t r i b u t o r s , e x c l u s i v e a r t i c l e s , and w r i t i n g s deemed important in other r e s p e c t s . Major c o n t r i b u t o r s are d e f i n e d as those p r o d i g i o u s i n output or v a l u a b l e in terms of o r i g i n a l i t y and recognized h i s t o r i c a l prominence d e s p i t e a r e l a t i v e l y small number of c o n t r i b u t i o n s . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l be s t r u c t u r e d as f o l l o w s . I n i t i a l d i s c u s s i o n w i l l focus on Musica's format and p u b l i s h e r . Subsequently, major c o n t r i b u t o r s and s e l e c t e d w r i t i n g s w i l l be examined. C o n t r i b u t o r s i n c l u d e Musica's e d i t o r s , contemporary music c r i t i c s , composers and performers. Mus i c a ' s notable use of iconography w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and demonstrated i n re p r o d u c t i o n s of s e l e c t e d i l l u s t r a t i o n s . Concluding remarks w i l l d e al with the j o u r n a l ' s stance and a e s t h e t i c p o s i t i o n . 5 I I . MUSICA'S FORMAT AND PUBLISHER Format The design of Musica i s s t r i k i n g l y modern. On f i r s t impression i t ressembles a contemporary p i c t u r e magazine such as L i f e . I t s 11 by 14 inch dimensions and f u l l - p a g e cover i l l u s t r a t i o n s a t t r a c t immediate a t t e n t i o n ( F i g u r e 1). Iconography, c o n s i s t i n g of photographs, drawings, p a i n t i n g s , and l i t h o g r a p h s , were reproduced by a process c a l l e d photogravure; images were etched on metal or a l l o y p l a t e s and subsequently p r i n t e d . Often a r t work and t i n t i n g techniques were done by the p r i n t e r to retouch and h i g h l i g h t s u b j e c t s . These s p e c i a l e f f e c t s , combined with spacious geometric l a y - o u t s , enhance the j o u r n a l ' s a t t r a c t i v e appearance and are evident throught the p u b l i c a t i o n . The i n t e r i o r s t r u c t u r e of the j o u r n a l , however, v a r i e s with time, and although i t is'somewhat complex to d e s c r i b e , i t i s important to do so i n order to o f f e r the reader an overview. I n i t i a l l y Mus i c a was s i x t e e n pages in l e n g t h . The purchase p r i c e was one franc per i s s u e and i t was a v a i l a b l e by s u b s c r i p t i o n both i n France and i n neighboring c o u n t r i e s . The p u b l i s h e r ' s o b j e c t i v e , s t a t e d in the i n t r o d u c t i o n to Musica's f i r s t i s s u e was to c r e a t e : ...une p u b l i c a t i o n s'adressant a tous l e s musiciens et a toutes l e s personnes aimant l a musique, a u s s i bien a l ' e l i t e l a p l u s r a f f i n e e qu'aux simples c u r i e u x d ' a r t , aux maitres comme a l e u r e l e v e s . 1 This was achieved by making Musica an i l l u s t r a t e d , musical, Figure 1 - August 1904 cover-page educational, monthly review. 2 A separate twenty-four page music supplement, c a l l e d L'Album Musica, was published in addition to the journal. It contained vocal and instrumental pieces and was 1Musica, "Notre programme," Musica no. 1 (October 1902): 1. 2 I b i d . 7 intended to be a p r a c t i c a l accompanying volume f o r the amateur musician. U s u a l l y i n c l u d e d in each i s s u e , from 1902 to 1910, was a one-page e d i t o r i a l review, the Chronique du mois. T h i s column, which appeared r e g u l a r l y a f t e r December 1902 at the beginning of the i s s u e , was p r i m a r i l y a review of c u r r e n t musical events. I t was followed by a number of f e a t u r e a r t i c l e s on a v a r i e t y of t o p i c s . The most t y p i c a l were b i o g r a p h i e s of composers and performers, reviews of c o n c e r t s and t h e a t r i c a l events, h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s , i n f o r m a t i o n on s o c i e t i e s and c o m p e t i t i o n s , and s t u d i e s of musical instruments. Each f e a t u r e was approximately two to three pages in l e n g t h , which c o l l e c t i v e l y comprised the main p o r t i o n of the i s s u e . The f e a t u r e column and a r t i c l e s were fo l l o w e d by a m i s c e l l a n e o u s s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d Le mois m u s i c a l . T h i s was u s u a l l y two pages in l e n g t h and appeared, a f t e r November 1903, near the end of the i s s u e . I t d e a l t with news items that d i d not warrant a f e a t u r e a r t i c l e . There were o f t e n b r i e f reviews of l e s s - i m p o r t a n t musical events, n o t i c e s about competitons and courses., announcements of c e n t e n a r i e s and d e d i c a t i o n s , o b i t u a r i e s , music and book reviews, and i n f o r m a t i o n to s u b s c r i b e r s . B a s i c a l l y , Le mois musical o f f e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n on c u r r e n t events and matters of i n t e r e s t . Subsequently, a f i n a n c i a l column, only a h a l f page in l e n g t h , appeared r e g u l a r l y a f t e r A p r i l 1906. Intended fo r the b e n e f i t of musicians, t h i s column o f f e r e d p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on money management and investment a d v i c e . I n i t i a l l y t h i s 8 column was c a l l e d Les economies d'un a r t i s t e but t h i s was soon changed to Revue f inane ie*~re. Later, i t became more l i k e a stock market report and was endorsed by the bourse under the signature of a f i n a n c i a l consultant. The t i t l e was more appropriately changed to A travers la bourse and l a t e r , Petites E t u d e s sur les  p r i n c i p l e s valeurs de l a bourse. Musica's advertisements frequently manage to at t r a c t the attention of the reader. Unlike modern journals where they are often disturbingly interspersed between pages of text, Musica's advertisements are confined to the insides of the front and back covers, and a few successive pages. Their subjects range from books and musical instruments to health and beauty products, wine and liquors, restaurants and boutiques, and inventions l i k e the camera, lightbulb, phonograph and automobile. Of interest to the musicologist are advertisments of musical items. From today's perspective, some of these seem rather outrageous. For example, a gadget was available to exercise the p i a n i s t ' s fingers to improve s t r e t c h a b i 1 i t y . It looked less offensive than the famous device that ruined Schumann's hand but the fact that prototypes were s t i l l on the market at this time is surprising (Figure 2 ) . Throat lozenges for a i l i n g opera singers were another a r t i f i c e to improve performance. Other paraphenalia include music stands, opera glasses, and hearing aids (Figure 3 ) . New music publications and recordings were especially promoted and frequently endorsed by famous v i r t u o s i . Many instruments were also available commercially: Bord, Bechstein, Pleyel and Erard pianos; Gilbert 9 F i g u r e 2 - F i n g e r E x e r c i s e r (June 1905 back cover page) :V2 ' f— — II' L E V R . 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I eai mpn« Mt de dumam rtr dint el tpoed f red mem tucinct mu(« futilite dc cei aparcit ingenicui «l aim pic. Auati nu* ne aiuriuna (rap It re.oinm.mile' HI Itclricti dt CO furnal. I wfil d'un limple e*ai piur it cunvaincrt de ion ulilite. L'l XFRCISOR mi la prupneit etcluiiie du StlantHlqu* Beaut* qua loui In Carmen* conmitaeni bien Quell  til It feme vraimtnt cle«in Sclantlfque Retuld. pour toul ca qui enctrnt Iti unni du nufre et de* main*- l>ant cei etaMitemcni unique an monde un lail pnailiramt'-t dca miracle* en (ail dt iranafor-miiuna. Man d mmnt done * ce qu'il an Mngi a crer L'EXERCISOR qui re pond a un lel hetuin l>our can tinea per ""tl Ufa lieu, tram demplnyer L'EXERCISOR, dt •f autntnr* a un iraiteme.ni de* maim detune I leur doner de la aoupleaa al dt It (Mild Cclui-ci dare un mull eniirnn. I  til praliqud par lei manucurea du Sclentlflqua Beaut* U ttiulm unt Wa ecqui*. un continue le ir itement *t*H aui a.tv L'EXERCISOR Dime I ecu ica* da A N I . C J. p»a*e/ au Sdantillque tlaautd. |i*> rue Stini-llunorv. I.IUI pre* de II rue Morale, ti ftnei-rut munirer L'EXERCISOR. tit n. it am en prurin.-c <•• a I manner, voua nt pourai lane cete v-ti*. **** done de ta pan de Mm*k* 4 Mmdimt) U Dlractrlca du Scltntlfqut Baautd Kile voua envera imediate men L'EXERCISOR dan* un elegant ierin a.. omptujni d'une method* qui vou* permeira dt L'EXERCISOR i fin cafn SO IrilCI mjruti* i Madam* I* Dlractrlca du Scltntlfqut Beaut*. zV2 and Gebhardt p o r t a b l e organs; C a r e s s a and Cremone v i o l i n s ; and T h i b o u v i l l e m a n d o l i n e s . Some of these d i f f e r e n t d e s i g n s a r e w e l l - i l l u s t r a t e d ( F i g u r e 4 ) . Other items a r e a l s o a d v e r t i s e d i n a s h o r t f a s h i o n column i n i t i a l l y t i t l e d L'Hygiene de l a beaute but soon changed t o Modes. In t e n d e d p r i m a r i l y f o r women, t h i s s e c t i o n was devot e d t o beauty and f a s h i o n , g i v i n g a d v i c e on s k i n and h a i r t r e a t m e n t s and the l a t e s t f a s h i o n of c o i f f u r e and c l o t h i n g . For a s h o r t time i t was s i g n e d by a r e g u l a r c o n t r i b u t o r , F l o r i s e . There was a l s o a c l a s s i f i e d s e c t i o n c a l l e d Les p e t i t e s annonces de M u s i c a which was i n c l u d e d t o meet p u b l i c demands f o r a d v e r t i s i n g p r i v a t e i n s t r u c t i o n , s a l e of i n s t r u m e n t s and o t h e r m u s i c a l items. New book p u b l i c a t i o n s were r e v i e w e d under Les Nouveautes  M u s i c a l e . T h i s s h o r t column was unsi g n e d and o n l y appeared i n 10 F i g u r e 3 - Ad v e r t i s e m e n t f o r a music s t a n d (August 1907 back c o v e r page) OTi P E U F E C T I O N N E E S G. L A N C E L I N rmicAlr 24, Place des Uosges, PARIS Envoi franco tin Catalogue "MUSICA " Hauteur : 0,94 U l r g t u r : 0,40 Noyer mass i f e int . ' ; . . . . . . . . 70 francs j Puplire loumani drevete Haute u r a u p l u s n r a n d d e v c l o p p e m e n i . i 1 1 1,70 l.urueur o » , 5 o Involution o m ,73 P R I X . Noyer ci a 1 12S francs Acajou 150 francs Acajou et cuivre. . . 2 0 0 francs C.c pupi ire , , veritable innovation et d'un fonctionnement pnrfait, s'eleveet s'abaisse par mn' simple pression de la main au inoytn de contrepoias circulunt a I'inierieur du Vut. e a r l y M u s i c a i s s u e s . The format j u s t d e s c r i b e d was b a s i c a l l y used from 1902 t o 1910, by e d i t o r s C h a r l e s J o l y and George P i o c h . In November 1910, a new e d i t o r X a v i e r Leroux i n t r o d u c e d t h r e e new c o n c e p t s , the f i r s t b e i n g the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Chronique du mois. Under a new r u b r i c , Les c h r o n i q u e s et c r i t i q u e s de M u s i c a , t h i s s e c t i o n was expanded t o average t h r e e pages i n l e n g t h and i t s l o c a t i o n was changed from the b e g i n n i n g t o the m i d d l e of the j o u r n a l . I t m a i n t a i n e d i t s o r i g i n a l f u n c t i o n as an e d i t o r i a l r eview but i n a d d i t i o n t o the e d i t o r ' s column, which was c a l l e d La musique au t h e a t r e , e x t r a t i t l e d columns by j o u r n a l c o l l a b o r a t o r s were added. For example, Themes e t V a r i a t i o n s 11 F i g u r e 4 - A d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r a B e c h s t e i n p i a n o (January 1904 back a d v e r t i s e m e n t page) C . B E C H S T E I N Facteur de Pianos PARIS BERLIN LONDRES (Bechstein Hall LONDRES) PIANO A QUEUE LOUIS XV AVEC BRONZES DOR^S Magasin a P A R I S : 334, Rue Saint-Honor6 (Pres u Place venddme) f o c u s e d on the contemporary music scene; S i l h o u e t t e s was dev o t e d to the study of composers; La musique au c o n c e r t was a rev i e w of the C o n c e r t s Lamoureux, Colonne and C o n s e r v a t o i r e ; and La  musique dans l e s l i v r e s and La musique des p a r t i t i o n s were r e v i e w s of new p u b l i c a t i o n s . The second change o c c u r r e d i n the m i s c e l l a n e o u s s e c t i o n , Le  mois m u s i c a l , which was newly t i t l e d I n f o r m a t i o n s de Mu s i c a and expanded t o at l e a s t t h r e e pages i n l e n g t h i n o r d e r t o i n c l u d e more news on m u s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e P a r i s and F r a n c e . Hence, s e c t i o n s were s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o I n f o r m a t i o n s de P a r i s and 1 2 Informations de Province et d'Etranger, bearing ressemblance to Le Menestrel's m i s c e l l a n e o u s s e c t i o n . There were reviews w r i t t e n by correspondants from c i t i e s such as Angers, Bayonne, Caen, Cambrai, L i l l e , Lyon, Moulins, Nancy, Orleons, Saint Omer, and Toulon. L e t t e r s from I t a l y , Germany, Spain and other c o u n t r i e s were o f t e n p u b l i s h e d . Although they were c a l l e d l e t t e r s , these were a c t u a l l y reviews of French works performed in other c o u n t r i e s . Leroux was i n t e r e s t e d i n an idea which he termed "musical d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . " He wanted to promote and p u b l i c i z e " l e s e n t r e p r i s e s d'expansion f r a n c a i s e au d e l a des f r o n t i e r e s , " 3 r a t h e r than the music of other c o u n t r i e s . The t h i r d change a p p l i e d to L'Album Musica. With Leroux p r e s i d i n g , the music supplement s t i l l c o n t ained a v a r i e t y of p i e c e s i n d i f f e r e n t genres and from d i f f e r e n t eras but i n a d d i t i o n , an 'avante-garde' p i e c e was p u b l i s h e d . Presumably t h i s meant a recently-composed p i e c e . " P r i o r to Leroux's e d i t o r s h i p , the composers f e a t u r e d i n the album were always l i s t e d on the t i t l e page of the j o u r n a l . A short commentary on the music u s u a l l y appeared at the beginning or end of the i s s u e , under Nos morceaux de musique. With these three i n n o v a t i o n s the format and focus of Musica changed c o n s i d e r a b l y . Leroux's o b j e c t i v e s remained constant with the p u b l i s h e r ' s o r i g i n a l g o a ls but there were some major a l t e r a t i o n s . Because of the expansion and c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n g 3 X a v i e r Leroux, "La n o u v e l l e r e d a c t i o n de Musica," Musica 98 (November 1910): 162. "Since t h i s album was u n a v a i l a b l e f o r study, f u r t h e r comment about i t s contents cannot be made. 1 3 of the e d i t o r i a l review, Les chroniques et c r i t i q u e s de Musica became the f o c a l p o i n t of the j o u r n a l . Feature a r t i c l e s , mainly b i o g r a p h i e s or h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s , were reduced i n number and r e s t r i c t e d in content. I l l u s t r a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y smaller in s i z e and the number of drawings as opposed to photographs i n c r e a s e d . T h i s c o u l d be r e l a t e d to cost or simply r e f l e c t t e x t emphasis. There were some minor changes. The f i n a n c i a l b u l l e t i n s t i l l appeared but i t was c a l l e d F e u i l l e t s f i n a n c i e r e . In 1911, Musica was expanded to twenty pages; i n 1912, to t h i r t y ; and i n 1913 and 1914, to c l o s e to f o r t y pages. In 1913, the p r i c e was a l s o i n c r e a s e d from one to two f r a n c s . As an a f f o r d a b l e i l l u s t r a t e d music j o u r n a l with the aim of a p p e a l i n g to both amateurs and p r o f e s s i o n a l musicians, Musica managed to achieve a l a r g e c i r c u l a t i o n as p r e v i o u s l y noted. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of Musica in France, Belgium and other f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s , was an important f a c t o r i n the l a r g e c i r c u l a t i o n f i g u r e s . Perhaps even more important, however, was the general expansion i n economy, p o p u l a t i o n , and growth as a whole in the magazine i n d u s t r y i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to know i f , i n f a c t , Musica's c i r c u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d but u n f o r t u n a t e l y f i g u r e s f o r the years of 1904 to 1914 were unob t a i n a b l e . The expansion and r e l o c a t i o n of the press o f f i c e from 9 Avenue de l'Opera to 9 and 11 Avenue de l'Opera i n June 1905, and f i n a l l y to 90 Avenue Champs-Elysees in December 1906 might be an i n d i c a t i o n of i n c r e a s e d f i n a n c i a l s uccess. As w e l l , the g e n e r a l expansion evidenced i n the l a s t three years of the 14 j o u r n a l ' s output can be construed as a t a c i t s i g n of p r o s p e r i t y . There i s every i n d i c a t i o n that the j o u r n a l would have continued p u b l i c a t i o n were i t not f o r Germany's o f f i c i a l d e c l a r a t i o n of war on France i n August 1914. P u b l i sher P i e r r e L a f i t t e , the p u b l i s h e r of Musica, was born i n 1872 and d i e d in 1938. 5 He was c r i t i c f o r L'Echo de P a r i s and v a r i o u s c y c l i n g revues before i n i t i a t i n g h i s own p u b l i c a t i o n s , 6 In a d d i t i o n to Musica, L a f i t t e p u b l i s h e d a l a r g e number of i l l u s t r a t e d magazines: La V i e au Grand A i r (1898-1922), "un magazine s p o r t i f i l l u s t r e ; " 7 Femina (1901-1954), "une revue i d e a l e de l a femme et de l a jeune f i l l e ; " 8 Je s a i s tout (1905-1939), "une magazine encyclopedique i l l u s t r e e , " in which Sarah Bernhardt's memoires were p u b l i s h e d i n the f i r s t February i s s u e ; 9 La J o i e des Enfants (1904-?), "une magazine pour l e s e n f a n t s ; " 1 0 Fermes et Chateau (1905-1914), "une p u b l i c a t i o n i l l u s t r e e sur l e 'country l i f e ' f r a n c a i s ; " 1 1 Le P e t i t Magazine 5Rene de L i v o i s , H i s t o i r e de l a Presse F r a n c a i s e , 2 v o l s . (Lausanne: E d i t i o n s Spes, 1965) , 2~1 633. 6 B e l l a n g e r , H i s t o i r e Generale de l a Presse F r a n c a i s e , 3: 382. ' 7Musica, no. 24 (September 1904). 8 I b i d . 9Musica, "Le Plus beau magazine de monde e n t i e r , " Musica no. 30 (March 1905): 45. 1 0 M u s i c a , "Une n o u v e l l e p u b l i c a t i o n P i e r r e L a f i t t e pour l e s enfants des l e c t r i c e s de Musica," Musica no. 27 (December 1904): 432. 1'Musica, no 34 ( J u l y 1905). 1 5 (1905-1907) 1 2 and E x c e l s i o r (191 0-1 9 2 3 ) . 1 3 L a f i t t e a l s o p u b l i s h e d novels of which the most popular were Arsene Lupin m y s t e r i e s . To complement h i s apparent i n t e r e s t in the v i s u a l medium, in 1908 L a f i t t e c r e a t e d " l e s f i l m s d ' a r t , " a s u b j e c t a l l u d e d to by Claude B e l l a n g e r i n H i s t o i r e Generale de l a Presse F r a n c a i s e . 1 ' 7" Although other contemporary i l l u s t r a t e d magazines e x i s t e d in France, such as l a Journee, 1 ' A c t u a l i t e , Q u o t i d i e n i l l u s t r e , and Le P e t i t Bleu de P a r i s , L a f i t t e ' s p u b l i c a t i o n s were the most s u c c e s s f u l i n terms of iconographic q u a l i t y . L a f i t t e ' s l a s t p u b l i c a t i o n , E x c e l s i o r , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y worth mentioning s i n c e i t was one of the f i r s t e x t e n s i v e l y i l l u s t r a t e d newspapers. 1 5  E x c e l s i o r ' s i l l u s t r a t i o n s were numerous, l a r g e r than those i n contemporary j o u r n a l s , and p r i n t e d on q u a l i t y "papier g l a c e . " A c c o r d i n g to one source, " l a c r e a t i o n de ce q u o t i d i e n i l l u s t r e est a l ' o r i g i n e des t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s profoundes de l a mise en page dans l a p r e s s e . " 1 6 Musica was one of the few i l l u s t r a t e d music j o u r n a l s as the p r e f a c e to the f i r s t 1902 issue n o t e s : 1 7 1 2 M u s i c a , no. 53 (February 1907). 1 3 B e l l a n g e r , H i s t o i r e Ge~nerale de l a Presse F r a n c a i s e , 3: 633. 1 " I b i d , 383. 1 5Two other great P a r i s i a n newspapers, Le Matin and Le  J o u r n a l , p r e v i o u s l y used i l l u s t r a t i o n s but these were r e s t r i c t e d both i n number and s i z e . 1 6 L i v o i s , H i s t o i r e de l a Presse F r a n c a i s e , 2: 377. 1 7 T h e r e were a r t - r e l a t e d j o u r n a l s , such as L ' i l l u s t r a t i o n and Le Monde i l l u s t r e , but these d i d not deal e x c l u s i v e l y with music. Others such as L ' i l l u s t r a t i o n musicale and La chanson  i l l u s t r e e appear to be music a n t h o l o g i e s r a t h e r than reviews. Le t h e a t r e i s one of the only i l l u s t r a t e d music j o u r n a l s contemporary with Musica. 1 6 I l manquait jusqu'a ce j o u r , en France, une p u b l i c a t i o n musicale de conception a t t r a y a n t e , i l l u s t r e e , documentee, et s u s c e p t i b l e de p l a i r e a l a masse sans cesse c r o i s s a n t e des p r o f e s s i o n n e l s et des amateurs. M o r s que l e s a u t r e s a r t s , l e s s p o r t s et l e s c o r p o r a t i o n s possedent depuis longtemps l e u r s organes speciaux i l l u s t r e s , n ' e s t - i l pas cu r i e u x de c o n s t a t e r que, s e u l e , l a musique n ' a i t pas encore l e s e i n . 1 8 I t i s f u r t h e r s t a t e d that p r o l i f e r a t i n g m u s i c a l developments at that time e s p e c i a l l y warranted j o u r n a l i s t i c a t t e n t i o n : Et cependant chacun s a i t que l a musique a p r i s depuis v i n g t ans un t e l essor et une t e l l e e x tension q u ' e l l e est pour a i n s i d i r e entree dans nos moeurs au p o i n t de f a i r e p a r t i e i n t e g r a n t e de tout education moderne. 1 9 L a f i t t e ' s p r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s musical renaissance was i n c r e d i b l y a s t u t e . By c a p i t a l i z i n g on the p u b l i c ' s burgeoning musical and v i s u a l i n t e r e s t s , he was probably a b l e to a t t r a c t many new readers. The only l i m i t i n g f a c t o r was that Musica, and the m a j o r i t y of L a f i t t e ' s other p u b l i c a t i o n s , were aimed at well - t o - d o educated persons of t a s t e , " l a c l i e n t e l e mondaine" as one source s t a t e s . 2 0 In f a c t , L a f i t t e ' s l a s t p u b l i c a t i o n E x c e l s i o r , encountered f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t y f o r t h i s reason, which was t e m p o r a r i l y a l l e v i a t e d by arms d e a l e r B a s i l Z a h a r o f f . 2 1 L a f i t t e e v e n t u a l l y s o l d some of h i s p u b l i c a t i o n s . In February 1916, La Maison Hachette purchased p u b l i c a t i o n r i g h t s to Musica, Je s a i s tout, Femina, the Champs-Elysees , 8 M u s i c a , "Notre programme," Musica no. 1 (October 1902): 1. 1 9 I b i d . 2 0 L i v o i s , H i s t o i r e de l a Presse F r a n c a i s e , 2: 376. 2 1 B e l l a n g e r , H i s t o i r e GenSrale de l a Presse F r a n c a i s e , 3: 382. 1 7 l i b r a r y , and popular books of Ars£ne Lupin. Another p u b l i s h e r , Mme Paul Dupuy, purchased E x c e l s i o r . 2 2 Since some of these j o u r n a l s , i n c l u d i n g Musica never re-emerge, i t i s assumed that competitors purchased them i n order to bury t h e i r t i t l e s . T h i s i s a standard procedure. L a f i t t e had o b v i o u s l y been a leader i n the f i e l d of the i l l u s t r a t e d magazine and somewhat of a tycoon i n the p u b l i s h i n g world. From the s u b j e c t s of h i s j o u r n a l s h i s d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s are apparent. He t r i e d to appeal to s p o r t s e n t h u s i a s t s , nature l o v e r s , those i n t e r e s t e d in l i t e r a t u r e and music, and to the s p e c i a l aims of women and c h i l d r e n . Although h i s j o u r n a l s were aimed at a s p e c i f i c s e c t o r of s o c i e t y , t h e i r abundance of iconography must have had at l e a s t some popular appeal. 2 2 L i v o i s , H i s t o i r e de l a Presse F r a n c a i s e , 2: 465. f 18 I I I . CONTRIBUTORS AND CONTRIBUTIONS Musica's c o n t r i b u t o r s can be grouped i n t o four c a t e g o r i e s : (a) e d i t o r s ; (b) music c r i t i c s and j o u r n a l i s t s ; (c) composers; and (d) performers. These c a t e g o r i e s correspond to the four s u c c e s s i v e p a r t s of t h i s chapter. The c r i t i c s i d e n t i f i e d are those that are e i t h e r p r o l i f i c i n Musica or those who d e s p i t e a small number of c r e d i t s , wrote m u s i c a l l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y important c r i t i c i s m . Areas of i n t e r e s t a s s o c i a t e d with c e r t a i n authors w i l l be mentioned and s e l e c t e d w r i t i n g s assessed. S p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s given to the w r i t i n g s by f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s of composers. M a t e r i a l i n the f i n a l s e c t i o n a l s o i n c l u d e s a survey of s e l e c t e d w r i t i n g s about performers, performing groups, and s o c i e t i e s . Complementary iconography i s d i s c u s s e d where r e l e v a n t . A. EDITORS The success of Musica can be l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d to i t s d i s t i n g u i s h e d e d i t o r s , C h a r l e s J o l y , Georges Pioch, and Xa v i e r Leroux. J o l y was the e d i t o r from Musica's i n c e p t i o n in 1902 to 1905; Pioch from 1905 to 1910; and Leroux, from 1910 to Musica's demise in 1914. With such an i n t e r e s t i n g a r r a y of e d i t o r i a l t a l e n t and t h e i r attendant c o l l a b o r a t o r s , evidence of i n d i v i d u a l i s m i s apparent i n each of these e r a s . The format e s t a b l i s h e d by J o l y was more or l e s s c a r r i e d on by Pioch, who 1 9 was i d e n t i f i e d as Musica's s e c r e t a r y d u r i n g J o l y ' s e d i t o r s h i p . 1 The s e c r e t a r y p o s i t i o n was probably what we today r e f e r to as the a s s i s t a n t e d i t o r . Pioch i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by h i s p r o d i g i o u s c r i t i c i s m and w r i t i n g output. In c o n t r a s t , there i s a marked change in format and focus with Leroux's d i r e c t i o n . As a composer, he tends to focus more on contemporary French music. Each of these three e d i t o r s in turn w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s a n a l y s e d . J o l y was born i n 1860 i n Neufmanil (Ardennes). 2 He was p r e d i sposed to music in h i s youth but only a f t e r o b t a i n i n g "sa l i c e n s e des l e t t r e s " (B.A.) in p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n , d i d he r e c e i v e formal t r a i n i n g in music. He abandoned teaching to study harmony at the P a r i s Conservatory f o r three y e a r s . 3 His c a r e e r as a c r i t i c appears to have emerged around t h i s time f o r i t i s s t a t e d i n Musica's September 1905 i s s u e that he c o n t r i b u t e d to 1 ' A c t u a l i t e , Q u o t i d i e n I l l u s t r e , and then around 1890, to P a r i s and F i g a r o . " I t i s a l s o s t a t e d that he c o l l a b o r a t e d with the Revue de P a r i s , Grand Revue, and other j o u r n a l s . Other evidence of h i s c r i t i c i s m i s the 1898 F ischbacher p u b l i c a t i o n of an a n a l y t i c a l pamphlet of Wagner's MaTtres Chanteurs. T h i s c e r t a i n l y g i v e s a c l u e to J o l y ' s a e s t h e t i c p o s i t i o n and i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to d i s c o v e r a pro-Wagner stand in the e a r l y years of Musica's p u b l i c a t i o n . 'Musica, "Charles J o l y , " Musica no. 36 (September 1905): 130. 2 I b i d . An o b i t u a r y i n t h i s i s s u e o f f e r s a b r i e f biography of C h a r l e s J o l y . 3 I b i d . " I b i d . 20 J o l y wrote about f i f t y a r t i c l e s f o r Musica of which about twenty were f e a t u r e a r t i c l e s . He was a l s o the author of the f e a t u r e column, the Chronique du mois. Of J o l y ' s f e a t u r e a r t i c l e s , the m a j o r i t y focus on Wagner. S p e c i a l i s s u e s , October 1903 and August 1914, are d e d i c a t e d e x c l u s i v e l y to Wagner and Bayreuth. Aspects of Wagner's l i f e and works, and h i s i n f l u e n c e on contemporaries, are d i s c u s s e d . Whether Wagner's i n f l u e n c e was p o s i t i v e or negative became the c e n t r a l i s s u e i n an o p i n i o n p o l l conducted by J o l y i n 1902. T h e r e i n , the German conductors F e l i x M o t t l and F e l i x Weingartner were n a t u r a l l y f a i t h f u l d i s c i p l e s , while Bruneau, Debussy, E r l a n g e r , Leroux, and Messager maintained that Wagner's i n f l u e n c e had some negative r e p e r c u s s i o n s f o r French composers. J o l y ' s o p i n i o n i s perhaps best r e v e a l e d i n the f o l l o w i n g passage: Richard Wagner a renove l e drame l y r i q u e ; i l a dote l ' a r t d'une forme musicale n o u v e l l e ; i l a exerce et exerce encore une i n f l u e n c e preponderante sur l ' e s t h e t i q u e contemporaine; ses oeuvres ont f a i t l ' o b j e c t de v i n g t m i l l e volumes de b i o g r a p h i e , de c r i t i q u e ou d'exegese, - t e l l e s l a B i b l e , 1 ' I l i a d e , 1'Odyss§e et l e s immortelles t r a g e d i e s grecques; - un t h e a t r e s p e c i a l , ou, pour mieux d i r e , un temple l u i fut e l e v e a Bayreuth ou, de tous l e s c o i n s du globe accourent en f o u l e l e s adeptes de sa r e l i g i o n , comme a u t r e f o i s de toutes l e s c i t e s h e l l e n e s a c c o u r a i e n t l e s peuples aux s o l e n n i t e s m i - r e l i g i e u s e s et m i - t h e a t r a l e s de l'ancienne Grece; mieux encore, Richard Wagner est devenu une source de revenus pour son pays;... 5 T h i s hero worship i s witnessed elsewhere., The great 5 C h a r l e s J o l y , "Le monument de R i c h a r d Wagner," Musica no. 13 (October 1903): 194. 21 Wagnerian d i v a s E r n e s t i n e Schumann-Heink and F e l i a L i t v i n n e are the s u b j e c t s of independant s t u d i e s . S i e g f r i e d Wagner, the o r c h e s t r a and stage s e t s at Bayreuth are the s u b j e c t s of other a r t i c l e s . E n t h u s i a s t i c reviews of the 1905 P a r i s performances of the F l y i n g Dutchman amd T r i s t a n and I s o l d e can a l s o be a t t r i b u t e d to J o l y . 6 Although J o l y ' s Wagnerian sympathies are apparent, he cannot be accused of n e g l e c t i n g h i s compatriots. Composers l i k e B e r l i o z , B i z e t , Gounod, d'Indy, Saint-Saens, Massenet and Faure, were given adequate coverage. Performances at the Opera and Opera-Comique, and the Concerts C o n s e r v a t o i r e , Colonne and Lamoureux, were reviewed. There was an attempt to keep readers informed of new music a c t i v i t e s and new performers on the scene. A short t r i b u t e to J o l y by G a b r i e l Faure supports t h i s p o i n t and r e v e a l s the composer's admiration f o r him: II [ J o l y ] e t a i t de nature et de d o c t r i n e e c l e c t i q u e . Sa p r e d i l e c t i o n pour l a musique allemande ne l'empechait pas d'etre i n f i n i m e n t s e n s i b l e a d'autres formes de l ' a r t , a tous l e s genres musicaux. I l a v a i t beaucoup voyage; i l s ' e t a i t , en tous pays, informe des p l u s d i f f e r e n t e s e s t h e t i q u e s . Son o r e i l l e complaisante a i m a i t toutes l e s s o r t e s d'harmonies. Bref, i l eut l e gout de toute l a musique; e t , s i son jugement t r e s sur l u i p e r m e t t a i t de d i s c e r n e r l e s oeuvres l e s p l u s b e l l e s parmi c e l l e s q u ' i l a p p r e c i a i t , en meme temps on peut d i r e q u ' i l ne fut jamais 6Idem, " E r n e s t i n e Schumann-Heink," Musica no. 15 (December 1903): 236; Idem, " F e l i a L i t v i n n e , " Musica no. 22 ( J u l y 1904): 342; Idem, " S i e g f r i e d Wagner," Musica no. 7 ( A p r i l 1903): 106; Idem, "Les o r c h e s t r e s i n v i s i b l e s , " Musica no. 6 (March 1903): 90; Idem, "Les decors a Bayreuth," Musica no. 23 (August 1904): 360; Idem, "Le Vaisseau-Fantftme a L'Opera-Comique," Musica no. 29 (February 1905): 26; Idem, T r i s t a n et I s o l d e a L'Opera," Musica no. 29 (February 1905): 27. 22 n e g l i g e n t de n u l l e i n s p i r a t i o n m e r i t o i r e . 7 F o l l o w i n g J o l y ' s sudden and untimely death i n August 1905, the e d i t o r s h i p of Musica was assumed by former s e c r e t a r y Georges P i o c h . Born in 1894, "de p e t i t e n a i s s a n c e , " Pioch earned a r e p u t a t i o n as a poet, j o u r n a l i s t , - o r a t o r and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t . E a r l y symbolist poems by Pioch were p u b l i s h e d i n La Plume and four volumes of h i s verse, in Le Mercure de France. Other w r i t i n g s appear i n a number of j o u r n a l s i n c l u d i n g Musica and 300 " p o r t r a i t s of h i s contemporaries" were p u b l i s h e d by Va n i e r . For a time, Pioch worked as a p r i n t i n g p roof-reader which a l s o enabled him to f r e e l a n c e as a j o u r n a l i s t . During the war, he became an a c t i v e j o u r n a l i s t f o r l e f t - w i n g p o l i t i c a l papers such as Le J o u r n a l du Peuple and a f t e r 1919, f o r Q u o t i d i e n , L'Oeuvre and Le pet i t Bara. A sympathetic p a c i f i s t , he was a l s o p r e s i d e n t of the Comite c e n t r a l de l a Ligue des D r o i t s de  1'Homme. Pioch, who was c r e d i t e d f o r "ne pas passer un jour sans e c r i r e un ou deux a r t i c l e s et une semaine sans prononcer deux conferences," d i e d i n Nice, i n 1941. 8 With such an accomplished e d i t o r one wonders why Musica does not acknowledge Pioch's s u c c e s s i o n u n t i l many years a f t e r the f a c t . For some time even a f t e r J o l y ' s death Pioch continued to be introduced to readers as the " s e c r e t a i r e . " I t i s not u n t i l the September 1908 iss u e that he was f i n a l l y c a l l e d the 7 G a b r i e l Faure's t r i b u t e , which appears i n Le F i g a r o , quoted in "Charles J o l y , " Musica no. 36 (September 190571 130. 8 L i v o i s , H i s t o i r e de l a Presse F r a n c a i s e , 2: 643. 23 "redacteur-en-chef" in an i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l f o o t n o t e . 9 In the November 1910 is s u e another r e f e r e n c e confirms that he had been the e d i t o r " f o r many year s " but n e g l e c t s to give s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s . 1 0 Because a secondary source confirms that Pioch was indeed the e d i t o r in 1905, 1 1 the only p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r Musica's lapse i s that Pioch was probably the e d i t o r in e v e r y t h i n g but name, working under the au s p i c e s of the p u b l i s h e r . During Pioch's e d i t o r s h i p , the Chronique du mois, formerly reserved as an e d i t o r i a l review, was assumed by a number of d i s t i n g u i s h e d guest w r i t e r s , " l ' e l i t e de l a c r i t i q u e musicale" as they were f i r s t i n t roduced in 1906. 1 2 Some of these guest w r i t e r s i n c l u d e C a m i l l e Saint-Saens, Henry Bauer, and Henry G a u t h i e r - V i l i a r s . In 1908 the Chronique du mois was r e g u l a r l y signed by the c o n t r i b u t o r Noziere and i n 1909 and most of 1910, by P i o c h . A n o t i c e in one issue s t a t e s that these changes i n au t h o r s h i p were done in order to preserve the j o u r n a l ' s " c a r a c t e r e e c l e c t i q u e " and to allow Pioch to f u l f i l l o b l i g a t i o n s to other j o u r n a l s . 1 3 In s p i t e of other e n t e r p r i s e s , P i o c h wrote an astounding number of a r t i c l e s f o r Musica. There are approximately seventy-f o o t n o t e to Andre Messager, "Andre Messager," Musica no. 72 (September 1908): 138. 1 0 P i e r r e L a f i t t e , "Xavier Leroux: redacteur-en-chef," Musica no. 98 (November 1910): 162 1 1 L i v o i s , H i s t o i r e de l a Presse F r a n c a i s e , 2: 643. 1 2Preambule to Raoul Gunsbourg, "Le Faust de Goethe," Musica no. 40 (January 1906): 2. 1 3Georges Pioch, Footnote to "Chronique du mois," by Maurice L e f e v r e , Musica no. 92 (May 1910): 66. 24 f i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s , of which about f i f t e e n were w r i t t e n f o r the Chronique du mois and s i x t y as f e a t u r e a r t i c l e s . Of i n t e r e s t are h i s c h a r a c t e r s t u d i e s of famed Don Juan, F i g a r o , Carmen, and Faust c e l e b r i t i e s . 1 " E s p e c i a l l y s i n g l e d out by independant s t u d i e s are L i n a C a v a l i e r i , J.F. Delmas and E. Thomas-S a l i g n a c . 1 5 A s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n operas by Gluck are noted in reviews of Armide, I p h i g e n i e en A u l i d e , H i p p o l y t e et A r i c i e , and Orphe'e. 1 6 Compared to the j o u r n a l ' s e a r l i e r years, there i s much l e s s w r i t t e n r e g a r d i n g Wagner. There are fewer a r t i c l e s and an absence of any s p e c i a l Wagner i s s u e s . However, those Wagnerian works reviewed by Pioch r e c e i v e d f a v o r a b l e c r i t i c i s m . The 1906 P a r i s performance of Die M e i s t e r s i n g e r , which f o r Pioch was the "gre a t e s t of Wagner's works," 1 7 and 1908 and 1909 r e s p e c t i v e performances of Die Gotterdammerung and Das Rheingold are c o v e r e d . 1 8 In 1906 the j o u r n a l a l s o i n c l u d e d a debate about 1"ldem, "Les Don Juan c e l e b r e s , " Musica no. 26 (November 1904): 409-10; "Les F i g a r o c e l e b r e s , " Musica no. 34 ( J u l y 1905): 99-100; Idem, "Les Faust c e l e b r e s , " Musica no. 40 (January 1906): 12. 1 5Idem, "Lina C a v a l e r i , " Musica no. 64 (January 1908): 8-9; Idem, "J.F. Delmas, de l'Opera," Musica no. 38 (November 1905): 167-68; Idem, "E. Thomas-Salignac," Musica no. 76 (January 1909): 7-8. 1 6Idem, "Armide en 1905," Musica no. 33 (June 1905): 86-87; Idem, "Gluck et I p h i g e n i e en A u l i d e , " Musica no. 65 (February 1908): 19-20; Idem, "Hippolyte et A r i c i e a l'Opera," Musica no. 85 (June 1908): 85; Idem, H i p p o l y t e et A r i c i e , " Musica no. 70 ( J u l y 1908): 109; Idem, "La r e p r i s e d'OrphSe a l'Opera-Comique," Musica no. 77 (February 1909): 31. 1 7Idem, "La r e p r i s e des Maitres-Chanteurs," Musica no. 44 (May 1906): 69. 1 8Idem, "Le Crepuscules des dieux a l'Opera," Musica no. 75 (December 1908): 192-93; Idem, L'Or du Rhin a l'Opera," Musica no. 87 (December 1909): 190-92. 25 " l ' a r t du chant" which r a l l i e d both pro and anti-Wagnerites to the f o r e f r o n t . I t g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n of the c u r r e n t thoughts on Wagner's m u s i c . 1 9 Pioch's only other notable review of Germanic opera i s of the P a r i s premiere of R i c h a r d S t r a u s s ' Salome. Of t h i s work, d i v i d e d p u b l i c a c c l a i m and press c r i t i c i s m prompted Pioch to give "une a p p r e c i a t i o n i m p a r t i a l e . " 2 0 For the most p a r t , however, t h i s review i s p o s i t i v e and thus, i n o p p o s i t i o n to the general negative c r i t i c i s m of the time. Pioch a l s o d i d a study of M a r i o t t e ' s s e t t i n g of Salome in a 1910 i s s u e . 2 1 To Mozart and Schumann, Pioch d e d i c a t e d poems. 2 2 They are w r i t t e n i n the symbolist t r a d i t i o n but employ f o u r - l i n e stanzas with standard ryhme schemes r a t h e r than the more contemporary free v e r s e . Another poem was i n c l u d e d a l o n g s i d e a h i g h l y complementary review of a performance of l a t e Beethoven s t r i n g q u a r t e t s . 2 3 In i t , Pioch attempted to d e s c r i b e h i s a u r a l experience. As expected, the language i s i n f l a t e d and laden with c o n v e n t i o n a l romantic images. More s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s are Pioch's d e s c r i p t i v e essays. In a 1906 journey to Massenet's country house at E g r e v i l l e l o c a l s i g h t s and sounds are d e p i c t e d . Massenet's 1 9Idem, ed., "Enquete sur l ' a r t du chant," Musica nos. 47, 48,49 (August, September, October 1906): 115-18, 131-33, 147-50. 2 0Idem, "Salome a P a r i s , " Musica no. 58 ( J u l y 1907): 107. 2'Idem, "La Salome de A. M a r i o t t e , " Musica no. 92 (May 1910): 72. 2 2Idem, "Stanzas a Mozart," Musica no. 43 ( A p r i l 1906): 50; Idem, "A Robert Schumann," Musica no. 59 (August 1907): 114. 2 3Idem, "Le Quatuor Capet au C o n s e r v a t o i r e , " Musica no. 42 (March 1906): 42. 26 residence i s d e s c r i b e d i n some d e t a i l and h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n s with Pioch are r e c a l l e d . 2 " S i m i l a r l y , a 1907 t r i p to Lavandou i s made to v i s i t Ernest R e y e r . 2 5 A l e s s - i n t i m a t e p o r t r a i t of Messager i s found i n a 1908 i s s u e . In t h i s study Pioch d i s c u s s e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of " l ' e s p r i t f r a n c a i s " which f o r him, was epitomized i n Messager's m u s i c . 2 6 Pioch advocated a r e t u r n to the French musical past which a l s o e x p l a i n s h i s admiration f o r composers l i k e Saint-Saens and Faure. The i n c r e a s e d number of s p e c i a l i s s u e s f o c u s i n g on French composers r e f l e c t s Pioch's n a t i o n a l i s t i c concerns. There are i s s u e s devoted to Gluck (no. 79), B e r l i o z (no. 66), Gounod (no. 46). Reyer (no. 53), Offenbach (no. 68), Saint-Saens (no. 57), Massenet (no. 50), Messager (no. 72), and Faure (no. 77). In a d d i t i o n to these i s s u e s , there are a r t i c l e s on lesser-known French composers and many reviews of rather obscure works. Pioch, f o r example, reviewed the f o l l o w i n g premiere performances: C h a r l e s Widor's Les p£cheurs de Saint-Jean (reviewed i n February 1906), V i c t o r Capoul's Le clown (May 1906), Gustave Doret's Les a r m a i l l i s and Jacques D a l c r o z e ' s Les  bonhomme j a d i s (January 1907), X a v i e r Leroux's Le chemineau (December 1907), Henri Rabaud's Le premier g l a i v e (October 1908), Henry F e v r i e r ' s Monna Vanna (March 1909), Gaston S a l v a y r e ' s Solange and Jean Nougues' Quo Vadis ( A p r i l 1909), 2"Idem, "Massenet a E g r e v i l l e , " Musica no. 50 (November 1906) : 174-76. 2 5Idem, "Ernest Reyer campagnard," Musica no. 53 (February 1907) : 27-30. 2 6Idem, " L ' e s p r i t f r a n c a i s dans l'oeuvre Andre Messager," Musica no. 72 (September 1908): 141. 27 E. G a r n i e r ' s Myrti1 (January 1910), Deodat de Severac's Coeur du Moulin., Augustin Savard's La f o r e t , and Reynaldo Hahn's La fe'te  chez Th§re*se (March 1910), P i e r r e de B r e v i l l e ' s Eros vainqueur ( A p r i l 1910), Claude T e r r a s s e ' s Le marriage de Telemaque (June 1910), And G a b r i e l P i e r n e ' s On ne badine pas avec 1'amour ( J u l y 1910). Although many of these operas were popular at the time, they have s i n c e been overshadowed by works c o n s i d e r e d of g r e a t e r h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e . In November 1910, a f t e r f i v e years of e d i t i n g Musica, Pioch r e s i g n e d . In an announcement, P i e r r e L a f i t t e s t a t e d that t h i s was due to "personal reasons" but d i d not e l a b o r a t e . 2 7 Pioch was immediately r e p l a c e d by the d i s t i n g u i s h e d composer and c r i t i c , X a v i er Leroux, who was the e d i t o r f o r the remaining four years of Musica's p u b l i c a t i o n . Leroux was born 1863 in V e l l e t r i ( I t a l y ) . 2 8 His f a t h e r was a French m i l i t a r y band leader and amateur composer s t a t i o n e d i n I t a l y . 2 9 Leroux began h i s musical t r a i n i n g at Toulouse and l a t e r s t u d i e d with Dubois, Massenet, and Franck, at the P a r i s C o n s e r v a t o r y . 3 0 A f t e r a c h i e v i n g an honorable mention in 1882 and second p r i z e i n 1884, Leroux won the p r e s t i g i o u s P r i x de. Rome in 1885 with h i s c a n t a t a Endymion. F o l l o w i n g a r e t u r n to P a r i s , he became popular as a composer of 2 7 P i e r r e L a f i t t e , "Xavier Leroux: redacteur-en-chef," Musica no. 98 (November 1910): 162. 2 8The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Music and M u s i c i a n s , s.v. "Leroux, X a v i e r , " by Gustave F e r r a r i , Marie Louise Pereyra, and Bruce Carr ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y ) . 2 9 L o u i s Schneider, "Xavier Leroux," La Revue Mus i c a l e 4 (January 1, 1904): 2. 3 0 L o u i s V u i l l e m i n , "Le compositeur X a v i e r Leroux," Musica no. 85 (October 1909): 145. 28 verismo operas, with A s t a r t e (1901), La Reine Fiammette (1903), W i l l i a m R a t c l i f f (1906), Theodora (1907), Le chemineau (1907), and Le c a r i l l o n n e u r (1913). Both La Reine Fiammette and Le chemineau were e v e n t u a l l y performed at the M e t r o p o l i t a n Opera i n New York and in other f o r e i g n c i t i e s . Premiere performances i n 1904 at the P a r i s Opera-Comique r e c e i v e d e s s e n t i a l l y p o s i t i v e c r i t i c i s m . A review of La Reine Riammette by Henri Barbusse in Musica was h i g h l y complementary and Leroux was he r a l d e d as "l'un des plu s b r i l l a n t s r e p r e s e n t a n t s de l a jeune e c o l e f r a n c a i s e . " 3 1 L i k e w i s e , reviews by L o u i s Schneider and J u l e s Combarieu i n La  Revue Musicale were f a v o r a b l e . For Schneider, La Reine  Fiammette was "une oeuvre b r i l l a n t e , f o r t e , vigoureusement p e n s e e . " 3 2 Combarieu compared Leroux's music to Massenet's f o r i t s v a r i e d and g r a c e f u l q u a l i t i e s , and changing o r c h e s t r a l e f f e c t s . 3 3 The l i b r e t t o by C a t u l l e Mendes was c r i t i c i z e d more than Leroux's s e t t i n g . In c o n t r a s t to these reviews, extremely negative r e p o r t s are found i n La Revue Musicale de Lyon. In response to a l a t e r performance of La Reine Fiammette i n 1907 at Lyon's Grand Theatre, Leroux was h a r s h l y c r i t i c i z e d by Leon V a l l a s f o r h i s c h o i c e of a popular but mediocre l i b r e t t o and m u s i c a l l y , f o r h i s lack of o r i g i n a l i t y , simple melodies and harmonies, and banal 3 ' H e n r i Barbusse, " La Reine Fiammette a 1'Opera-Comique," Musica no. 17 (February 1904): 259-61. ^ L o u i s Schneider, "Xavier Leroux," La Revue Mus i c a l e 4 (January 1, 1904): 3. 3 3 J u l e s Combarieu, "Notes sur l a Reine Fiammette," La Revue  Music a l e 4 (January 15, 1904): 59. 29 o r c h e s t r a l e f f e c t s . 3 ' No l e s s c r i t i c a l was V a l l a s of Le  chemineau. Leroux's music was s e v e r e l y d e s c r i b e d as c o n s i s t i n g of "themes sans c a r a c t e r e , sans accent, sans c o u l e u r , nullement p l a s t i q u e s , incapables de se developper et de v i v r e ; " "harmonies p l a t e s ; " and "rythmes sans p e r s o n n a l i t e . " 3 5 A second o p i n i o n by an anonymous reviewer found i n t h i s same j o u r n a l was e q u a l l y c a u s t i c . 3 6 On the other hand, Georges Pioch in Musica gave a f a v o r a b l e review of the 1907 premiere performance of t h i s work. He e s p e c i a l l y admired Leroux's tex t s e t t i n g and claimed that Leroux was "un e x c e l l e n t dramaturge." 3 7 From these v a r i e d responses to Leroux's music i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that Leroux was always viewed f a v o r a b l y in Musica even before h i s appointment to the e d i t o r s h i p . He was e s p e c i a l l y admired as a composer and educator. In 1896, Leroux was appointed p r o f e s s o r of harmony at the C o n s e r v a t o i r e , a post he r e t a i n e d u n t i l h i s death i n 1919. 3 8 In a d d i t i o n to t h i s he was d i r e c t o r of the C o n s e r v a t o i r e Femina-Musica. 3 9 T h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , i n i t i a l l y c a l l e d C o n s e r v a t o i r e des Amateurs, was founded by L a f i t t e i n 1906. " 0 It was designed as an e d u c a t i o n a l 3"Leon V a l l a s , "La Reine Fiammette," Revue Musicale de Lyon 4 (February 3, 1907): 481-87. 3 5Idem, "Le chemineau," Revue Mus i c a l e de Lyon 4 (October 17, 1909): 34. 3 6 C a m i l l e B e l l a i q u e , "Une o p i n i o n sur l e Chemineau," Revue  Musicale de Lyon 4 (October 10, 1909): 47-49. 3 7Georges Pioch, "Xavier Leroux et Le chemineau," Musica no. 63 (December 1907): 179-80. 3 8 T h e New Grove D i c t i o n a r y , s.v. "Leroux, X a v i e r , " by Gustave F e r r a r i , Marie Lou i s e Pereyra, and Bruce C a r r . 3 9 I b i d . *°Georges Pioch, "Xavier Leroux et Le chemineau," Musica no. 63 (December 1907): 179. 30 a l t e r n a t i v e f o r u n s u c c e s s f u l C o n s e r v a t o i r e N a t i o n a l c a n d i d a t e s . There was i n s t r u c t i o n i n piano, v o i c e , composition, v i o l i n , c e l l o , harp, and other areas. On f a c u l t y were many d i s t i n g u i s h e d teachers such as the p i a n i s t s Raoul Pugno, Lucien Wurmser-Delcourt, August P i e r r e t , and Nadia Boulanger; opera s i n g e r s Jacques Isnardon, Henri A l b e r s , and Marie Heglon; and composers Paul H i l l e m a c h e r , G a b r i e l G r o v l e z , and Georges Marty." 1 S e v e r a l of these f a c u l t y members, i n c l u d i n g Leroux, even taught at both the C o n s e r v a t o i r e Femina-Musica and the C o n s e r v a t o i r e N a t i o n a l . The enrollment at the C o n s e r v a t o i r e Femina-Musica, in 1909 was c i t e d at more than 200 s t u d e n t s . " 2 Leroux's involvement as a educator i s d e f i n i t e l y r e f l e c t e d in Musica. Compared to e a r l i e r y ears, there are more Conservatory announcements and r e p o r t s . R e c i t a l s and competition r e s u l t s were r e g u l a r l y p u b l i c i z e d . A s p e c i a l August 1911 i s s u e i s d e d i c a t e d e x c l u s i v e l y to C o n s e r v a t o r i e s : the C o n s e r v a t o i r e s Nationaux and Femina-Musica in P a r i s and others in D i j o n , M o n t e p e l l i e r , Lyon, Bayonne, Cambrai, M a r s e i l l e , Roubaix, Boulogne, Bordeaux, and Caen. The September and October 1911 i s s u e s focus on Conservatory p r o f e s s o r s . In a d d i t i o n to these i s s u e s , there are many f e a t u r e a r t i c l e s on p r o f e s s o r s , e s p e c i a l l y those at the C o n s e r v a t o i r e Femina-Musica. Worthy of note are a number on Marie Heglon-" 1 F e l i c i e n G r e t r y , " Les concours p u b l i c s du C o n s e r v a t o i r e Femina-Musica," Musica no. 83 (August 1909): 126. " 2 I b i d . " 3See, f o r example, Rene Delange, "Mme Heglon," Musica no. 112 (January 1912): 5. 31 Leroux, the wife o f the composer." 3 She played s e v e r a l r o l e s in Leroux's operas but r t i c u l a r l y famous fo r her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of D a l i l a in Saint-Saens' Samson et D a l i l a . With the predominance of Conservatory a r t i c l e s , as w e l l as m u l t i p l e r e f e r e n c e s to personal f r i e n d s and a s s o c i a t e s , Leroux appears to use Musica as an a d v e r t i s i n g t o o l and to l a r g e l y promote h i s o w n i n t e r e s t s . Of Leroux's c r i t i c i s m , there are only about t w e n t y - f i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s . Most of these are reviews which, with the exception of about ten, were w r i t t e n f o r Les Chroniques et  C r i t i q u e s de Musica. Under the s u b - s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d La musique  au t h e a t r e , Leroux reviewed performances at the Opera, Opera-Comique, G a i t e - L y r i q u e , and v a r i o u s other t h e a t e r s . His more i n t e r e s t i n g reviews are of premiere performances, i n c l u d i n g Ernest Bloch's' Macbeth, George Hue's Le M i r a c l e , and Massenet's Don Quichotte (reviewed in Janaury 1 9 1 1 ) , Claude T e r r a s s e ' s Les  Luc i o l e s (March 1911), Raoul Laparra's La Jota (June 1911), G a b r i e l P i e r n e ' s Saint F r a n c o i s d ' A s s i s e ( A p r i l 1912), A l b e r i c Magnard's La Berenice (February 1912), G a b r i e l l e F e r r a i ' s Le Cobzar (May 1912), Andre G a i l h a r d ' s Le S o r t i l e g e (March 1913), C a m i l l e E r l a n g e r ' s La S o c i e r e (February 1913), Manual de F'alla's La Vida Breve (February 1914), Ravel's L'Heure Espagnole (July 1911), and Debussy's S a i n t - S e b a s t i e n ( J u l y 1911) and Jeux (August 1913). With respect to t h i s l a t e r work, Leroux was very c r i t i c a l of N i j i n s k y ' s choreography, f i n d i n g the "gestes sees, saccades, e t r i q u e s , c a s s a n t s " and incongruous with .Debussy's 32 s u b t i l e and d e l i c a t e music."" N i j i n s k y ' s choreography of S t r a v i n s k y ' s R i t e of Spring was a l s o d i s l i k e d . " 5 Since the m a j o r i t y of Leroux's reviews are p o s i t i v e , t h i s negative response stands i n c o n t r a s t to the norm. I t appears that Leroux was c o n s e r v a t i v e in h i s a r t i s t i c p r e f e r e n c e s . Feature a r t i c l e s by Leroux focus on works by Massenet, V e r d i , Wagner, Schumann, Mendelssohn, and B i z e t . " 6 Although c r i t i c i s m on Wagner, as r e f l e c t e d i n Musica, d e c l i n e s i n these l a t e r years, there were s t i l l performances of Wagner's operas in P a r i s at t h i s time, and consequently, s t i l l some i n t e r e s t in the Wagner phenomenon. The January 1914 issue i s d e d i c a t e d to Wagner, and Leroux's a r t i c l e i n t h i s i s s u e r e f l e c t s h i s admiration f o r t h i s composer." 7 Other s p e c i a l i s s u e s are d e d i c a t e d to L i s z t (October 1911), B i z e t (January 1912), Lecocq (August 1912), Massenet (September 1912), V e r d i (October 1913), Gluck (June 1914), Mendelssohn (August 1914), and oddly enough, Czech music ( A p r i l 1913). The i n c e n t i v e f o r f e a t u r i n g a s p e c i a l i s s u e on C z e c h o s l o v a k i a i s not re v e a l e d but t h i s issue i s very i n f o r m a t i v e . I t g i v e s a b r i e f ""Xavier Leroux, "La s a i s o n r u s s e , " Musica no. 131 (August 1913): 154. " 5 I b i d . " 6Idem, "La mort de J u l e s Massenet," Musica no. 120 (September 1912): 163; Idem, "L'oeuvre de V e r d i , " Musica no. 133 (October 1913): 190-92; Idem, "L'oeuvre de Wagner," Musica no. 136 (January 1914): 5-7; Idem, "Le l i e d de Schumann," Musica no. 130 ( J u l y 1913): 128-29; Idem, "L'oeuvre symphonique de Mendelssohn," Musica no. 143 (August 1914): 150-51; Idem, "Georges B i z e t musicien de t h e a t r e , " Musica no. 117 (June 1912): 106-07. " 7Idem, "L'oeuvre de Wagner," Musica no. 136 (January 1914): 5-7. 33 h i s t o r y of n a t i o n a l developments and i n c l u d e s s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s on major Czechoslovakian composers. Als o h i g h l i g h t e d by s p e c i a l i s s u e s are c e r t a i n genres, such as the chanson (December 1911), l i e d ( J u l y 1913), romance ( A p r i l 1914), dance (December 1912 and May 1913), and m i l i t a r y music (February 1913). Included i n these i s s u e s are many a r t i c l e s by respected composers and performers which are v a l u a b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g a synopsis of contemporary developments i n these a r t forms. From the number of Leroux's c o n t r i b u t i o n s in Musica, i t can be seen that he was not a p r o l i f i c w r i t e r . C o n t r o v e r s i a l c r i t i c a l responses to performances of h i s works, and even the l o s s of i n t e r e s t in h i s music today, r a i s e s some q u e s t i o n s about h i s success as a composer. His most important r o l e appears to have been as an educator. T h i s i s perhaps most s t r o n g l y r e f l e c t e d i n Musica. B. MUSIC CRITICS AND JOURNALISTS Many of Musica's c r i t i c s wrote major b i o g r a p h i e s and m u s i c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s , or t r a n s l a t i o n s , and have s i n c e become known as e a r l y p i oneers of French musicology. These i n c l u d e Henri de Curzon, G a b r i e l Prod'homme, M i c h e l - D i m i t r i C a l v o c o r e s s i , Emile V u i l l e r m o z , J u l i e n T i e r s o t , P i e r r e L a l o , Michel-Gaston Carraud, J u l i e n T i e r s o t , Jean Hure, Adolphe Boschot, and Adolphe J u l l i e n . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , G a b r i e l G r o v l e z , Raymond C h a r p e n t i e r , and Louis V u i l l e m i n , three of the b e t t e r 34 known w r i t e r s in the j o u r n a l are known p r i m a r i l y as composers. Important w r i t e r s that d i d not c o n t r i b u t e p r o l i f i c a l l y to Musica i n c l u d e Jean Chantavoine, L o u i s L a l o y , Henry Bauer, Maurice Va u c a i r e , A l b e r t Schweitzer, and Andre P i r r o . In c o n t r a s t , other c r i t i c s d i d not a t t a i n h i s t o r i c a l prominance because t h e i r w r i t i n g s were more e n t h u s i a s t i c reviews than a c t u a l c r i t i q u e s . Such c r i t i c s i n c l u d e F e l i c i e n G r e t r y , Raoul Brevannes, Robert B r u s s e l , Gaston Magny, Rene Delange, G a b r i e l Bernard, Jacques F r i o u x , Edouard Schneider, and B r e t i g n y . Other c o n t r i b u t o r s to be mentioned are f o r e i g n correspondents and e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t s : Gaston Knosp, Joseph C a n t a r e l , Georges Manes, Alphonse Moureaux, J . Sinan, and Edmond B a i l l y . Eminent m u s i c o l o g i s t s and p r i m a r i l y f r e e - l a n c e j o u r n a l i s t s were f e a t u r e d at v a r i o u s times throughout Musica's p u b l i c a t i o n . Henri de Curzon, G a b r i e l Prod'homme, and M i c h e l - D i m i t r i C a l v o c o r e s s i each wrote about twenty a r t i c l e s f o r Musica. Most of those w r i t t e n by Curzon or Prod'homme are b i o g r a p h i e s or composer s t u d i e s , many of which appear to precede l a t e r p u b l i s h e d volumes. There are, however, some independent a r t i c l e s that do not appear to have been r e p r i n t e d . These i n c l u d e Prod'homme's study of Lecocq's music, 1 as we l l as Curzon's p o r t r a i t s of Offenbach, Lecocq, P a u l i n e V i a r d o t and 1 J . G. Prod'homme, "L'oeuvre de Ch a r l e s Lecocq," Musica no. 119 (August 1912): 148-49. 35 other p e r f o r m e r s . 2 Curzon, noted f o r h i s b i o g r a p h i e s of Schubert and Mozart, was the e d i t o r of Guide Musicale and l a t e r , a c r i t i c f o r Le Menestrel and J o u r n a l des Debats. 3 Prod'homme i s w e l l - -known for h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s of t h i r t e e n volumes of Wagner's prose works and v a r i o u s operas. Before h i s involvement with Musica he was the e d i t o r of D e u t s c h e - f r a n z o i s c h e Rundschau. In 1902, he co-founded the French s e c t i o n of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l M u s i c a l S o c i e t y and was i t s s e c r e t a r y from 1902 to 1913." C a l v o c o r e s s i , the famous champion of Russian music and p r i n c i p a l a d v i s o r to Diaghelev from 1907 to 1910, centered the m a j o r i t y of h i s w r i t i n g s on aspects of Russian or French music. Most of h i s e a r l y a r t i c l e s on G l i n k a and the Russian school appear to have been r e p r i n t e d or a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o l a t e r p u b l i c a t i o n s . C a l v o r c o r e s s i ' s w r i t i n g s c o n s i d e r e d unique to Mus i c a are mainly reviews. These i n c l u d e reviews of Vincent d'Indy's L'Etranger (reviewed i n February 1903), Cesar Franck's B e a t i t u d e s ( A p r i l 1903), G l i n k a ' s Rousslan et Ludmila and Rimsky-Korsakov's La P s k o v i t a i n e (June 1909). Other a r t i c l e s focus on L i s z t , Goethe's i n f l u e n c e on composers, the importance of the c a r i c a t u r e , E r i k S a t i e , and Opera d e c o r . 5 C a l v o c o r e s s i was a student of X a v i e r Leroux, 6 which l i k e l y e x p l a i n s h i s 2 H e n r i de Curzon, "Jacques Offenbach," Musica no. 68 (May 1908): 69-70; Idem, "La v i e de C h a r l e s Lecocq," Musica no. 119 (August 1912): 142-43; Idem, "Pauline V i a r d o t , " Musica no. 94 ( J u l y 1910): 102-03. 3The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y , s. v. "Curzon, H e n r i , " by Malcolm Turner. "The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y , s. v. Prod'homme, G a b r i e l . " 36 connection with Musica. Approximately twenty a r t i c l e s were a l s o w r i t t e n by Emile V u i l l e r m o z . T h i s c r i t i c i s well-known because of p r o l i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s to other j o u r n a l s and h i s involvement with contemporary music. During h i s l i f e t i m e , he wrote f o r Comoedia, 1 ' f i c l a i r , l e Temps, E x c e l s i o r , l a Grande Revue, 1 ' I l l u s t r a t ion, l e Mercure de France, Candide, La Revue musicale, and was the p r i n c i p a l e d i t o r of SIM. 7 For Musica, from 1910 to 1914, he wrote a r e g u l a r f e a t u r e column e n t i t l e d Themes et V a r i a t i o n s i n which s e l e c t e d performances were reviewed. Included are reviews of Debussy's P e l l e a s et Melisande (reviewed i n A p r i l 1911). A l b e r i c Magnard's Berenice (Feburary 1912), S t r a v i n s k y ' s La  Sacre du printemps (August 1913) and Wagner's P a r s i f a l (January 1914). As demonstrated i n h i s reviews of Debussy and S t r a v i n s k y , V u i l l e r m o z attempted to d e f i n e c o m p o s i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e r a t h e r than merely d e s c r i b e performances. He o f t e n d i s c u s s e d uses of dissonance versus consonance and the changing a e s t h e t i c . He argued f o r the n e c e s s i t y of musical e v o l u t i o n which became the b a s i s of h i s defense of contemporary music. In Musica, he defended works of Debussy, Faure, Magnard, Lecocq, S t r a v i n s k y , L i l i Boulanger, and the Spanish composers Manuel de F a l l a , 5M. D. C a l v o c o r e s s i , "L'oeuvre de L i s z t , " Musica no. 109 (October 1911): 197; Idem, "M. E r i k S a t i e , " Musica no. 103 ( A p r i l 1911): 165-66; Idem, "Le decor d'opera h i e r et a u j o u r d ' h u i , " Musica no. 88 (January 1910): 14-15. 6The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y , s. v. " C a l v o c o r e s s i , M i c h e l -D i m i t r i , " by G e r a l d Abraham. 7The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y , s. v. " V u i l l e r m o z , Emile," by John T r e v i t t . 37 A l b e n i z and Granados. In a l a t e r p e r i o d , V u i l l e r m o z was a champion of Schoenberg, Bartok, M a l i p i e r o , and Szymanowski. 8 Most of V u i l l e r m o z ' s Mus i c a c r i t i c i s m has not been r e p r i n t e d . Although some of h i s reviews from other j o u r n a l s were i n c l u d e d in the r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d anthology of S t r a v i n s k y c r i t i c i s m , 9 h i s Musica c o n t r i b u t i o n s have been overlooked. V u i l l e r m o z ' s a r t i c l e on L i l i Boulanger, however, has been reproduced and t r a n s l a t e d i n a biography of t h i s composer. 1 0 G a b r i e l G r o v l e z , Raymond C h a r p e n t i e r , and L o u i s V u i l l e m i n , recognized today only as composers, were r e g u l a r c o n t r i b u t o r s to Musica from 1910 to 1914. G r o v l e z , a . c o l l e a g u e of Leroux's at the C o n s e r v a t o i r e Femina-Musica, wrote approximately twenty a r t i c l e s . Most of these were music p u b l i c a t i o n reviews which appeared in the r e g u l a r f e a t u r e column La musique dans l a  p a r t i t i o n s . New music p u b l i c a t i o n s by French composers were p r i m a r i l y reviewed, i n c l u d i n g works by Faure, Ravel, Debussy, Dukas, Roussel, G a b r i e l Dupont, Roger-Ducasse, and Gustave Samazeuilh. E s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g are G r o v l e z ' s reviews of music p u b l i c a t i o n s by S a t i e (reviewed i n March 1914), S c r i a b i n (January 1912), Max Reger and C y r i l l S c o t t (January 1911), s i n c e there i s l i m i t e d coverage of these composers in Musica. P i e c e s by S a t i e were recog n i z e d as an e x p r e s s i o n of "contemporary musical s e n s i b i l i t y ; " and S c r i a b i n ' s music was admired f o r i t s 8The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y , s. v. " V u i l l e r m o z , Emile," by John T r e v i t t . 9 F r a n g o i s Lesure, ed. "Le Sacre de printemps." A n t h o l o g i e de l a c r i t i q u e musicale. (Geneve: E d i t i o n s Minkoff, 1980). 1 0 L e o n i e R o s e n t i e l . The L i f e and Works of L i l i Boulanger. (London: A s s o c i a t e d U n i v e r s i t y Presses, 1978). 38 " o r i g i n a l i t y , c o l o r f u l and e x q u i s i t e harmonies." 1 1 In a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on how new p u b l i c a t i o n s were f i r s t reviewed, G r o v l e z ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s r e v e a l the music of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to him, le n d i n g an i n s i g h t i n t o h i s own compositions. C h a r p e n t i e r and V u i l l e m i n each wrote approximately twelve a r t i c l e s . C h a r p e n t i e r , the e d i t o r of Chantecler while c o n t r i b u t i n g to Musica, reviewed books for the f e a t u r e column La  musique dans l e s l i v r e s . More v a l u a b l e , however, were co n c e r t s reviewed by V u i l l e m i n , which appeared under the column La  musique au c o n c e r t . These u s u a l l y give an i n d i c a t i o n of programs, performers, time and l o c a t i o n of events. Programs during t h i s p e r i o d almost i n v a r i a b l y i n c l u d e d s e l e c t i o n s from an e s t a b l i s h e d r e p e r t o i r e . Popular works performed i n c l u d e d Beethoven symphonies, u s u a l l y the Second and the Ninth, Schumann symphonies, B e r l i o z ' s La Damnation de Faust, L i s z t ' s Faust  Symphony, Preludes to Wagner's operas, and works by Bach and Handel. Combined with these were works by Saint-Saens, d'Indy, Ri c h a r d S t r a u s s , F l o r e n t Schmitt, L o u i s Dumas, Georges Enesco, A l f r e d C a s e l l a , A l b e r i c Magnard, and Mahler. V u i l l e m i n was g e n e r a l l y f a v o r a b l e when reviewing works by contemporary composers. About ten a r t i c l e s were w r i t t e n by J u l i e n T i e r s o t , P i e r r e L a l o , Gaston Carraud, Henry Malherbe, and Jean Hure. T i e r s o t , the noted f o l k l o r i s t and B e r l i o z s c h o l a r , wrote s u r p r i s i n g l y few a r t i c l e s on these s u b j e c t s . H is major c o n t r i b u t i o n to Musica 1 1 G a b r i e l G r o v l e z , "La musique dans l a p a r t i t i o n s , " Musica nos. 138, 112 (March 1914 and January 1912): 51, 6-7. 39 was a s e r i e s on the o r i g i n s of the Opera-Comique. 1 2 L a l o , an eminent c r i t i c f o r Le temps in which appeared h i s d i a t r i b e s a g a i n s t 'Debussyism,' wrote l e s s c o n t r o v e r s i a l c r i t i c i s m f o r Musica. C r e d i t e d to him are s t u d i e s of Gluck, L i s z t , Beethoven, and Wagner. 1 3 Carraud, a c r i t i c f o r La L i b e r t e and Revue bleue, was an e a r l y supporter of Debussy. His main c o n t r i b u t i o n to Musica, however, was a study on F a u r e . 1 " Both Henry Malherbe and Jean Hure reviewed symphonic c o n c e r t s i n 1913 and 1914 i s s u e s . Other respected c r i t i c s Adolphe Boschot and Adolphe J u l l i e n wrote only a few a r t i c l e s f o r Musica. Boschot, a c r i t i c f o r fjcho de P a r i s and B e r l i o z s c h o l a r , c o n t r i b u t e d s t u d i e s of B e r l i o z of which the most i n t e r e s t i n g i s one on the f r i e n d s h i p between B e r l i o z and R e y e r . 1 5 Less v a l u a b l e i s an a r t i c l e on B e r l i o z w r i t t e n by J u l i e n , c r i t i c f o r J o u r n a l des Debats, which focused on Les T r o y e n s . 1 6 I s o l a t e d a r t i c l e s were w r i t t e n by Jean Chantavoine, L o u i s La l o y , Henry Bauer, Maurice V a u c a i r e , A l b e r t Schweitzer, and Andre P i r r o . S t u d i e s on the romance were c o n t r i b u t e d by Chantavoine and Laloy, e d i t o r s of L'anne'e musicale and the Revue 1 2 J u l i e n T i e r s o t , "Les o r i g i n e s de 1'Opera-Comique," Musica nos. 101, 102, 105, 106, 108 (February, March, June, J u l y , September): 28-29, 48, 108, 138-39, 182-83. 1 3 P i e r r e L a l o , "Christophe Gluck," Musica no. 119 ( A p r i l 1909): 51-52; Idem, "Franz L i s z t , " Musica no. 52 (January 1907): 3-5; Idem, "Beethoven p i a n i s t , " Musica no. 32 (May 1905): 75-76; Idem, "Wagner: chef d ' o r c h e s t r e , " Musica no. 23 (August 1904): 359. 1"Gaston Carraud, "L'ame harmonique de G a b r i e l Faure," Musica no. 77 (February 1909): 19-20. ^ A d o l p h e Boschot, "Ernest Reyer et H. B e r l i o z , " Musica no. 78 (March 1909): 37. 1 6 A d o l p h e J u l l i e n , " Les Troyens," Musica no. 66 (March 1908): 43. 40 musicale r e s p e c t i v e l y . 1 7 Bauer, a c r i t i c f o r Echo de P a r i s and e a r l y admirer of A l f r e d J a r r y ' s c o n t r o v e r s i a l a n t i - b o u r g e o i s p l a y Ubu Roi, wrote on the chansonnier A r i s t i d e B r u a n t . 1 8 F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about the c a f e - c o n c e r t i s gained i n V a u c a i r e ' s 1908 p i c t o r i a l of the Chat N o i r . 1 9 V a u c a i r e ' s a r t i c l e l i s t s some of the major performers a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s c a b a r e t . Noted s c h o l a r s A l b e r t Schweitzer and Andre P i r r o each wrote an a r t i c l e d e a l i n g with B a c h . 2 0 Less notable c r i t i c s from 1902 to 1910 i n c l u d e F e l i c i e n G r e t r y , Raoul Brevannes, B r e t i g n y , Robert B r u s s e l , and Louis Schneider. Over seventy a r t i c l e s were w r i t t e n by F e l i c i e n G r e t r y . Most of these were Conservatory news r e p o r t s , announcements of musical events,, reviews of performances and performers. In 1907 G r e t r y o f f e r e d an i n t e r e s t i n g report on a Jacques-Dalcroze seminar at the C o n s e r v a t o i r e N a t i o n a l . 2 1 In another review, a b r i e f h i s t o r y of the C o n s e r v a t o i r e Femina-Musica i s g i v e n . 2 2 Other a r t i c l e s focus on i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i r e c t o r s or c o - o r d i n a t o r s . 2 3 Operas reviewed by G r e t r y i n c l u d e G a b r i e l Dupont's La 1 7 J e a n Chantavoine, "La romance i n s t r u m e n t a l e , " Musica no. 139 ( A p r i l 1914): 79-80; L o u i s L a l o y , "La romance moderne," Musica no. 139 ( A p r i l 1914): 77-78. ^He n r y Bauer, "Bruant et ses chansons," Musica no. 74 (November 1908): 167. 1 9 M a u r i c e V a u c a i r e , "Le Chat-Noir," Musica no. 74 (November 1908): 1 68-69. 2 0 A l b e r t Schweitzer, "La physionomie de J . S. Bach," Musica no. 61 (October 1907): 147-48; Andre P i r r o , " J . S. Bach et l a musique f r a n g a i s e , " Musica no. 61 (October 1907): 149-50. 2 1 F e l i c i e n G r e t r y , "La gymnastique rythmique," Musica no. 60 (September 1907): 131-33. 2 2Idem, "Les concours p u b l i c du C o n s e r v a t o i r e Femina-Musica," Musica no. 83 (August 1909): 126-27. 41 Cabrera (reviewed in June 1905), S p i r o Samara's Mademoiselle de  B e l l e I s l e (Mary 1906), Oskar Merikanto's Pohjan n e i t o (October 1908), Andre Bloch's Maide (October 1909), Samuel Rousseau's Leone ( A p r i l 1908), Louis Ganne's Hans l e joueur de f l u t e (June 1910), Deodat de Severac's H e l i o q a b a l e (October 1910), Jean Nougues C h i q u i t o (December 1909) and Quo Vadis (January 1910). Although many of these reviews are sparse in a c t u a l c r i t i c i s m , being more a synopsis of opera p l o t s and endorsement of events, they are of value to the h i s t o r i a n f o r p r o v i d i n g d e t a i l s on more obscure works. Merikanto's Pohjan n e i t o , f o r example, i s noted as the f i r s t F i n n i s h opera performed in P a r i s . 2 " Over f i f t y a r t i c l e s were w r i t t e n by Raoul Brevannes. Programs sponsored by the C o n s e r v a t o i r e Femina-Musica were reviewed i n A p r i l 1909, March and A p r i l 1910. The i l l u s t r i o u s a r t i s t i c manager G a b r i e l A s t r u c organized the 1910 programs which f e a t u r e d the performers B r e v a l , L i t v i n n e , Muratore, Pablo C a s a l s , A l f r e d C o r t o t , Georges Enesco, Raoul Pugno, Edouard R i s l e r , and Jacques T h i b a u d . 2 5 Other events covered by Brevannes i n c l u d e d Bayreuth f e s t i v a l s . One important a r t i c l e g i v e s a l i s t of prominent s p e c t a t o r s at Bayreuth over the y e a r s . In 1885, for example, we d i s c o v e r that C h a r l e s Bordes, L o u i s Diemer, C a m i l l e C h e v i l l a r d , and Paul Dukas made the p i l g r i m a g e to B a y r e u t h . 2 6 P a r i s premiere performances reviewed by Brevannes 2 3 S e e , f o r example, G r e t r y ' s "Les d i r e c t e u r s du C o n s e r v a t o i r e , " i n Musica no. 35 (August 1905): 126-27. 2"Idem, "Le premier opera de langue F i n n o i s e , " Musica no. 73 (October 1908): 159. 2 5 R a o u l Brevannes, "Les f e s t i v a l s Musica," Musica no. 90 (March 1910): 42. 42 include Gabriel Pierne's La Coupe enchantee (reviewed in February 1906), Charles S i l v e r ' s Le Clos (August 1906), Fernand Le Borne's La Catalane (July 1907), Massenet's Espada (June 1908), and Stravinsky's F i r e b i r d (August 1910). As in Gretry's reviews, these were exceptionally favorable. Bretigny wrote about t h i r t y a r t i c l e s ; Robert Brussel and Louis Schneider, about twenty. Important contributions by these c r i t i c s are their studies of performers and composers. Bretigny wrote biographies of the r e l a t i v e l y unknown singers L i l l i a n G renville and Marguerite Carrere-Xanrof. 2 7 Brussel, a c r i t i c for Le Figaro, focused on the harpsichordist Wanda Landowska and the less known p i a n i s t Edouard R i s l e r . 2 8 Other a r t i c l e s by Brussel concentrate on the music of Messager, Faure, and C h a b r i e r . 2 9 Schneider wrote biographies of Massenet and G r i e g . 3 0 His biography of Massenet, which preceeds a later p u b l i c a t i o n , 3 1 is somewhat exaggerated. His Grieg biography includes r e c o l l e c t i o n s of Paris concerts complemented with photographs of 2 6Idem, "Types de Bayreuth," Musica no. 23 (August 1904): 364-66. 2 7 B r e t i g n y , "Miss L i l l i a n G r e n v i l l e , " Musica no. 44 (May 1906): 79; Idem, "Mme Marguerite Carrere-Xanrof," Musica no. 21 (June 1904): 325-26. 2 8Robert Brussel, "Wanda Landowska ou la renaissance du clavecin," Musica no. 28 (January 1905): 7-8; Idem, "Edouard Ri s l e r et les thirty-two sonatas de Beethoven," Musica no. 41 (February 1906): 27. 2 9Idem, "L'oeuvre d'Andre Messager," Musica no. 72 (September 1908): 133-35; Idem, "Les lieder de Faure," Musica no. 77 (February 1908): 21-22; Idem, "Emmanuel Chabrier," Musica no. 93 (June 1910): 93-95. 3 0 L o u i s Schneider, "La jeunesse de Massenet," Musica no. 50 (November 1906): 163-64; Idem, "Edvard Grieg," Musica no. 62 (November 1907): 163-66. 3 1Idem, Massenet. (Paris: L i b r a i r i e L. Conquet, 1908). 43 G r i e g at the piano. C r i t i c s from 1910 to 1914 that have not a t t a i n e d h i s t o r i c a l prominence i n c l u d e Rene Delange, G a b r i e l Bernard, Jacques F r i o u x , and Edouard Schneider. Approximately twenty a r t i c l e s were w r i t t e n by Magny, of which the most v a l u a b l e are h i s i n t e r v i e w s . A review of the premiere of Massenet's Roma i n 1912 in c l u d e s a s p e c i a l i n t e r v i e w with the composer regarding h i s work. 3 2 In another 1912 a r t i c l e a d i s c u s s i o n with C h a r l e s Lecocq on the subject of op e r e t t a i s r e c a l l e d . 3 3 Delange, who c o n t r i b u t e d approximately ten a r t i c l e s to Mus i c a , i n t e r v i e w e d Massenet and Richard S t r a u s s . 3 " The c o n v e r s a t i o n with Strauss i s d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n the ensuing s e c t i o n r e g a r d i n g composers. Bernard a l s o wrote approximately ten a r t i c l e s . The su b j e c t s of these are d i f f e r e n t from the norm. He exp l o r e s the r o l e of music i n Balz a c ' s novels, the i n f l u e n c e of Spencer on Wagner, and other l i t e r a r y t o p i c s . 3 5 Fewer a r t i c l e s were w r i t t e n by F r i o u x and Schneider. A 1911 a r t i c l e on the Opera-Comique d e s s i n a t e u r s and costumiers i s F r i o u x ' s most v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n . 3 6 Of Schnieder's w r i t i n g s , a d e s c r i p t i v e a r t i c l e 3 2 G a s t o n Magny, "La premiere de Roma a 1'Opera de Monte-C a r l o " and "M. Massenet est heureux," Musica no. 115 ( A p r i l 1912): 78-79. 3 3Idem, "Charles Lecocq et ses i n t e r p r e t e s , " Musica no. 119 (August 1912): 157. 3"Rene Delange, "Le p e t i t royaume de Massenet," Musica no. 120 (September 1912): 189-90; Idem, "Une c o n v e r s a t i o n avec M. Ri c h a r d S t r a u s s , " Musica no. 112 (January 1912): 9. 3 5 G a b r i e l Bernard, "La musique dans l e roman: Balzac musicien," Musica no. 113 (February 1912): 38-39; Idem, "Wagner et Spencer," Musica no. 138 (March 1914): 51-52. 3 6 J a c q u e s F r i o u x , "Le costume au t h e a t r e musicale: d e s s i n a t e u r s et costumiers," Musica no. 100 (January 1911): 2-3. 44 on v a c a t i o n i n g at the Bernina H o s p i t z i s important for i n c l u d i n g the names of musicians who frequented i t . Mentioned are Faure, R i c h a r d S t r a u s s , Leroux, Gustave Doret, Jacques D a l c o r z e , Jacques Thibaud, and A l f r e d C a s e l l a . 3 7 There are only a few c o n t r i b u t i o n s by f o r e i g n correspondents and e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t s . In 1906, King Sisowath's v i s i t to France with an entourage of dancers prompted an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o Cambodian music. A l o c a l Cambodian mi s s i o n a r y , Gaston Knosp, m e t i c u l o u s l y d e s c r i b e d h i s musical impressions, instruments and ensembles. 3 8 T h i s i s w e l l -complemented by i l l u s t r a t i o n s . C o n t r i b u t i o n s by Joseph C a n t a r e l , Georges Manes, and Alphonse Moureaux focus on Chinese m u s i c . 3 9 J . Sinan d e s c r i b e d a t y p i c a l s i x - p i e c e T u r k i s h o r c h e s t r a and in another a r t i c l e , Edmond B a i l l y presented the Indian melodic and harmonic system. 1 , 0 A survey of the people w r i t i n g s f o r Musica i s impressive fo r i t i n c l u d e s many of the prominent music c r i t i c s of the day. Most of the authors were guest c o n t r i b u t o r s although r e g u l a r i t y v a r i e d with changes i n e d i t o r s h i p . During the J o l y - P i o c h years, from 1902 to 1910, there are few changes i n c o l l a b o r a t o r s , but 3 7 E d o u a r d Schneider, "La musique a l a montagne," Musica no. 113 (February 1912): 24. 3 8 G a s t o n Knosp, "La musique Cambodgienne," Mus i c a no. 47 (August 1906): 125-26. 3 9 J o s e p h C a n t a r e l , "La musique et l a danse chez l e s L a o t i e n s , " Musica no. 97 (October 1910): 155-56; Georges Manes, "La musique en Chine," Musica no. 105 (June 1911): 120; Alphonse Moureaux, "La musique C h i n o i s e , " Musica nos. 121 126 (October 1912 and March 1913): 200, 48. a o J . Sinan, " L ' o r c h e s t r e Turc," Musica no. 49 (October 1906): 158; Edmond B a i l l y , "La musique Hindoue," Musica no. 78 (March l909):43-44. 45 w i t h L e r o u x ' s s u c c e s s i o n i n 1910, s e v e r a l new c o n t r i b u t o r s emerge. L e r o u x ' s p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h l e a d i n g c r i t i c s and composers must have been an impetus f o r t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i o n . The i m p r e s s i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the p u b l i c a t i o n ' s e a r l y y e a r s , i s t h a t r e v i e w s and comments ar e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y o p t i m i s t i c . Whether poor performances were i g n o r e d or r e p o r t i n g was geared toward a d v e r t i s i n g music can o n l y be s p e c u l a t e d upon. D e s p i t e t h i s , the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t i s v a l u a b l e . Reviews ser v e as a t i m e t a b l e of e v e n t s . By r e a d i n g them, one can l e a r n what music was performed, who was p e r f o r m i n g , when and where. Reviews on r a t h e r obscure works, composers and p e r f o r m e r s , a r t i s t i c d i r e c t o r s , d e s i g n e r s and "people b e h i n d the s c e n e s , " enhance our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of music developments, where h i s t o r y i s not reduced t o knowning o n l y the " m a s t e r p i e c e s " and the " g r e a t composers." B i o g r a p h i e s p r o v i d e d a t a , and s p e c i a l s t u d i e s of composers or p e r f o r m e r s r e v e a l contemporary t h o u g h t . C. COMPOSERS Composer's c o n t r i b u t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y o f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the h i s t o r i a n . The n o t i o n t h a t the complete a r t i s t was a l s o a "man of l e t t e r s " was s t i l l prominent a t the time of the j o u r n a l ' s p u b l i c a t i o n . In t h i s v e i n , composers p r o v i d e a w e a l t h of d a t a and i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r l i v e s and works. C o n t r i b u t i o n s were i l l i c i t t e d from such well-known composers as S a i n t - S a e n s , Massenet, Messager, Fa u r e , Debussy, Reyer, Bruneau, 46 and R i c h a r d S t r a u s s . The most v a l u a b l e of these would of course be w r i t i n g s not l a t e r p u b l i s h e d i n c o l l e c t i o n s or memoires. Others were excerpts from p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d w r i t i n g s , such as Wagner's Une v i s i t e a Beethoven, 1 and from l e t t e r s by Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann, L i s z t and B e r l i o z . C l e a r l y these are not as v a l u a b l e m u s i c o l o g i c a l l y as a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n by composers contemporary with Musica. T h i s study w i l l t h e r e f o r e focus on those a r t i c l e s that are thought to be unique to Musica, as w e l l as o b s e r v a t i o n s w r i t t e n by c l o s e f r i e n d s and a s s o c i a t e s of composers. E s p e c i a l l y admired as a composer and c r i t i c was S a i n t -Saens. In an e a r l y a n a l y s i s of h i s c r i t i c i s m , Saint-Saens was c o n s i d e r e d to have " l e s ambitions de l ' a r t i s t e complet" i n compliance with renaissance i d e a l s . 2 He wrote f i f t e e n a r t i c l e s for Musica, of which three were l a t e r r e p r i n t e d i n Ecole  B u i s s o n n i ^ r e , 3 Outspoken essays on M u s i c , 4 and i n Les Grands  M a i t r e s de l a Musique. 5 A r t i c l e s that do not appear to have been r e p r i n t e d are Saint-Saens' s t u d i e s on Ingres' v i o l i n , L i s z t , Gounod, and a p o e t i c ode to B e r l i o z . There are a l s o two 1The three s t o r i e s , Eine P i l g e r f a h r t zu Beethoven, E i n  g l u c k l i c h e r Abend and E i n Ende in P a r i s , f i r s t appeared i n French t r a n s l a t i o n i n the Revue et Gazette M u s i c a l e de P a r i s in 1840 and 1841. 2Georges Pioch, "Saint-Saens e c r i v a i n et poete," Musica no. 57 (June 1907): 95. 3Idem, Ecole B u i s s o n n i e r e ( P a r i s : P i e r r e L a f i t t e and Co., 1913): pp. 261-67. "Idem, Outspoken essays on Music, t r a n s . Fred Rothwell (London: Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Co., L t d . , 1922): pp. 80-88. 5 T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n was u n a v a i l a b l e to me but i n Musica i s s u e no. 62, page 175, Saint-Saens' "Sur l a Musique" i s c i t e d as being r e p r i n t e d from t h i s c o l l e c t i o n . 47 a r t i c l e s about h i s opera D e j a n i r e , a review of French music at the Munich e x p o s i t i o n , a tex t on L a f i t t e ' s new concert room inaugurated in 1906, and an a r t i c l e on the d e m o l i t i o n of a famous outdoor t h e a t e r , Les Arenes de B e z i e r s , i n 1912. 6 Opinion p o l l s about the r i g h t s of composers versus l i b r e t t i s t s , the d e c l i n e of comic opera, and the q u e s t i o n of t e x t s e t t i n g , i n 1909, 1910 and 1911 i s s u e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , i l l i c i t e d r e p l i e s from numerous composers i n c l u d i n g Saint-Saens. These have a l s o not appeared elsewhere. Fewer a r t i c l e s were w r i t t e n by other composers: nine by A l f r e d Bruneau and Reynaldo Hahn. Bruneau's most v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s are a biography of Ernest Reyer, and two important s t u d i e s on the i n f l u e n c e s of Wagner and B e r l i o z on contemporary French music. 7 Although much has been w r i t t e n r e g a r d i n g Wagner's musical i n f l u e n c e , Bruneau's comments give some i n d i c a t i o n of Wagner's s t a t u s at t h i s time. He observed, i n 1903, that p u b l i c enthusiasm f o r Wagner had come f u l l c i r c l e . I n i t i a l l y not 6 C a m i l l e Saint-Saens, "A propos du v i o l o n d'Ingres," Musica no. 15 (December 1903): 228; Idem, " L i s z t p i a n i s t e , " Musica no. 109 (October 1911): 202; Idem, "Charles Gounod: Souvenirs de C a m i l l e Saint-Saens," Musica no. 46 ( J u l y 1906): 98; Idem, "Ode a B e r l i o z , " Musica no. 66 (March 1908): 35; Idem, "Deux l e t t r e s de Saint-Saens," Musica no. 104 (May 1911): 86-87; Idem, "Ce que pense M. C a m i l l e Saint-Saens du f e s t i v a l f r a n g a i s de l ' e x p o s i t i o n de Munich," Musica no. 98 (November 1910): 173; Idem, " I l faut une s a l l e de c o n c e r t s a P a r i s , " Musica no. 42 (March 1906): 35; Castelbon de Beauxhostes and C a m i l l e S a i n t -Saens, "Les Arenes des B e z i e r s , " Musica no. 121 (October 1912): 194-95. 7 A l f r e d Bruneau, "Ernest Reyer," Musica no. 53 (February 1907) : 19-21; Idem, " L ' i n f l u e n c e de Wagner sur l a musique f r a n g a i s e , " Musica no. 13 (October 1903): 199; " L ' i n f l u e n c e de B e r l i o z sur l a musique contemporaine," Musica no. 66 (March 1908) : 36. 48 accepted i n France, Wagner e v e n t u a l l y became a dominating musical i n f l u e n c e , and f i n a l l y at the turn of the century, somewhat outdated. Bruneau expressed h i s unwavering admiration for Wagner and commented c r i t i c a l l y on the changing a t t i t u d e s . Where once f a s h i o n a b l e to be a Wagner e n t h u s i a s t , he maintained composers and c r i t i c s were l a t e r embarrassed f o r r a v i n g over Wagner's music. Bruneau foresaw that soon " . . . i l sera excessivement d i s t i n g u e de se d i r e a n t i w a g n e r i a n . " 8 Of Hahn's c r i t i c i s m , assessments of Offenbach as a composer, Messager as a conductor, and Massenet as h i s former teacher are noteworthy. 9 Both Bruneau and Hahn a l s o r e p l i e d to s e v e r a l o p i n i o n p o l l s , such as the 1902 and 1910 i n q u i r i e s about f u t u r e musical d i r e c t i o n s , and a 1911 e v a l u a t i o n of L i s z t ' s music. F i v e a r t i c l e s were w r i t t e n by G a b r i e l Faure, four by Claude Debussy, and three by J u l e s Massenet. An important c o n t r i b u t i o n by Faure i s h i s a r t i c l e on Andre Messager, which has not been r e p r i n t e d . 1 0 Debussy's w r i t i n g s , on C h a r l e s Gounod, the P r i x de Rome, and a response to a 1902 o p i n i o n p o l l , have a l l been subsequently t r a n s l a t e d and r e p r i n t e d by Ri c h a r d Langham Smith in a recent a n t h o l o g y . 1 1 One of the three Massenet a r t i c l e s was e x t r a c t e d from h i s autobiography, Mes S o u v e n i r s ; 1 2 the others 8Idem, " L ' i n f l u e n c e de Wagner sur l a musique f r a n c a i s e , " Musica no. 13 (October 1903): 199. ^ e y n a l d o Hahn, "Notes sur Offenbach," Musica no. 68 (May 1908): 71; Idem, "Andre Messager chef d ' o r c h e s t r e , " Musica no. 72 (September 1908): 136; Idem, " J u l e s Massenet p r o f e s s e u r , " Musica no. 120 (September 1912): 182-83. ^ G a b r i e l Faure, "Andre Messager," Musica no. 72 (September 1908): 131-32. 1 ' R i c h a r d Langham Smith, t r a n s , and ed. , Debussy on Music (New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1977). 49 are responses to opinion p o l l s . Single a r t i c l e s were written by other noted composers, such as Ernest Reyer, Charles Lecocq, Claude Terrasse, Deodat de Severac, Jean Poueigh, Camille Mauclair, and Vitezolav Novak. Reyer's f l a t t e r i n g a r t i c l e dedicated to the well-known Rose Caron was especially written for Mus ica; i t does not appear elsewhere. 1 3 Likewise, Charles Lecocq's detailed history of La F i l l e de Madame Anqot was espe c i a l l y written at the journal's request. 1" An appreciation of Offenbach's music was given by Te r r a s s e , 1 5 and the regional composers Severac and Poueigh wrote about the chansons of Languedoc and Provence respectively. Severac l i s t s some of the leading composers from his native area and the chanson publications then a v a i l a b l e . 1 6 Poueigh focuses on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p r o v i n c i a l and dauphinois tunes. 1 7 A d i s t i n c t i o n between chanson and l i e d i s made in Mauclair's a r t i c l e , and Czechoslovakian music i s examined by Novak. 1 8 Novak's a r t i c l e lends some insight into the intense nationalism f e l t in Czechoslovakia at thi s time. These a r t i c l e s as well 1 Mules Massenet, My Recollections, trans. H. V i l l a r s Barnett (New York: Books for L i b r a r i e s Press, 1970), pp. 1-16. 1 3 E r n e s t Reyer, "Un a r t i c l e d'Ernest Reyer," Musica no. 53 (February 1907): 31. 1"Charles Lecocq, "La F i l l e de Madame Anqot," Musica no. 119 (August 1912): 158-59. 1 5Claude Terrasse, "L'oeuvre de Jacques Offenbach," Musica no. 68 (May 1908): 67-68. 1 6D. de Severac, "Chansons du Languedoc et du Roussillon," Musica no. 111 (December 1911): 241. ^Jean Poueigh, "Provence et Dauphine," Musica no. 111 (December 1911): 233. 50 appear to be unique to the j o u r n a l . In a d d i t i o n to these w r i t i n g s by contemporary composers, there are i s o l a t e d a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n by composers of former times that do not appear to have been r e p r i n t e d . Offenbach's c r i t i q u e on Wagner, f o r example, i s t i t l e d : "Un a r t i c l e i n e d i t . . . " 1 9 A r t i c l e s by Fromenthal H a l e v y 2 0 and C a r l Maria von Weber 2 1 can a l s o probably be c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s same group, although whether or not they were e x t r a c t e d from e a r l i e r sources i s not c l e a r . Some of the c r i t i c i s m on composers' w r i t i n g s i n c l u d e excerpted l e t t e r s and documents which may a l s o prove v a l u a b l e to the m u s i c o l o g i s t . There are analyses of w r i t i n g s by B i z e t , Reyer, Saint-Saens, L i s z t , and o t h e r s . Some composers wrote p r i m a r i l y , i f not s o l e l y , f o r op i n i o n p o l l s . Vincent d'Indy c o n t r i b u t e d seven a r t i c l e s , of which a l l with the exce p t i o n of a study on l i b r e t t i s t s , are responses to p o l l s . Of c o n t r i b u t i o n s by P i e r r e de B r e v i l l e , one i s an a r t i c l e on d'Indy and the other, an o p i n i o n p o l l r e p l y . F i v e a r t i c l e s by C a m i l l e E r l a n g e r , two by Alexandre Georges, and s i n g l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s by Maurice Ravel, Henri Duparc, C h a r l e s R o e c h l i n , G a b r i e l Dupont, and Paul Dukas are a l l o p i n i o n p o l l r e p l i e s . 1 8 C a m i l l e M a u c l a i r , "Le l i e d f r a n c a i s contemporain," Musica no. 74 (November 1908): 163-64; V i t e z o l a v Novak, "Les tendances a c t u e l l e de l a musique Tcheque," Musica no. 127 ( A p r i l 1913): 64. 1 9 J a c q u e s Offenbach, "Un a r t i c l e i n e d i t : R i chard Wagner par Jacques Offenbach," Musica no. 68 (May 1908): 74. 2 0 F . Halevy, "Les v i o l o n s d'Ingres: Un conte de F. Halevy," Musica no. 122 (November 1912): 229-30. ^C.M. de Weber, "Un conte de Ch. M. de Weber: La Loche," Musica no. 12 (January 1912): 20. 51 P o l l s were conducted s p o r a d i c a l l y throughout Mus i c a ' s p u b l i c a t i o n and are i n t e r e s t i n g i n c l u s i o n s . A p o l l conducted i n 1909 on the " r e s p e c t i v e r i g h t s of composers and l i b r e t t i s t s , " f o r example, d i s c l o s e s an open d i s p u t e between Henry F e v r i e r and Maurice M a e t e r l i n c k on the c o l l a b o r a t i o n of Monna Vanna. 2 2 Many composers, i n c l u d i n g Saint-Saens, d'Indy, I. de Camondo, and Jean Nougues, were understandably r e l u c t a n t to express an o p i n i o n on t h i s s u b j e c t , while o t h e r s , Imbart de l a Tour, Raoul Laparra, Henri Rabaud, and X a v i e r Leroux f e l t l e s s r e s t r a i n e d . Other Musica o p i n i o n p o l l s focused on Wagner, V e r d i , and L i s z t . 2 3 Contemporary concerns are r e f l e c t e d i n a 1906 p o l l r e g arding the s t a t e of v o c a l music and a 1910 p o l l on the d e c l i n e of French comic o p e r a . 2 " Numerous composers and performers of the day r e p l i e d to these p o l l s . Since many of these p r i n t e d r e p l i e s appear to be e x t r a c t s of the a c t u a l l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d by the p u b l i c a t i o n , i t i s only assumed that Musica was f a i t h f u l to the author's i n t e n t i o n s . Deserving s p e c i a l mention with regard to composers are accounts w r i t t e n by p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s , acquaintances, or r e l a t i v e s . These o f t e n provide much i n s i g h t i n t o a spects of a 2 2 M u s i c a , "Enquete sur l e s d r o i t s r e s p e c t i f s des compositeurs et des 1 i b r e t t i s t e s , " Musica nos. 76, 77, 78 (January, February, March 1909): 10, 30, 46. 2 3 C h a r l e s J o l y , " L ' o r i e n t a t i o n musicale," Musica nos. 1, 3 (October and December 1902): 5-6, 39; "Notre enquete sur V e r d i , " Musica no. 133 (October 1913): 205-07; " L i s z t juge par l e s maitres contemporains," Musica no. 109 (October 1911): 199-200. 2"Georges Pioch, "Enquete sur l ' a r t du chant," Musica nos. 47, 48, 49 (August, September, October 1906): 115-18, 131-33, 147-50; Idem, "Enquete sur l a decadence de 1'opera-comique f r a n g a i s e , " Musica nos. 96, 97 (September and October 1910): 131-33, 149-50. 52 composer's l i f e or works. Of a r t i c l e s about S a i n t - S a e n s , f o r example, a p o r t r a i t by h i s c l o s e f r i e n d P a u l i n e V i a r d o t i s e s p e c i a l l y n o t e d . V i a r d o t , who was almost as famous f o r her s o i r e e s as f o r her s i n g i n g , f i r s t met S a i n t - S a e n s when he was a young man. She d e s c r i b e d him as " . . . g e n t i l , et s i d r o l e , avec des i d e e s s i e x t r a o r d i n a i r e s . . . " 2 5 Sunday ev e n i n g s were p a r t i c u l a r l y memorable, f o r S a i n t - S a e n s r e g u l a r l y e n t e r t a i n e d at V i a r d o t ' s home w i t h a game of c h a r a d e s . One of these mimes, "une f a n t a i s i e sur l ' a c t e des nonnes de Robert l e D i a b l e , " i s even d e s c r i b e d i n her a r t i c l e . 2 6 The p a r t of Robert was a c t e d by S a i n t - S a e n s and the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s , by B u s s i n e , G a b r i e l Faure, and P a u l Joanne. Some of the s p e c t a t o r s i n c l u d e d Georges Sand, F l a u b e r t , Turgenev, J u l e s S i n o n , Gounod, Ambroise Thomas, and Cesar F r a n c k . 2 7 T h i s penchant f o r a c t i n g i s i n t e r e s t i n g l y not r e c o r d e d i n most b i o g r a p h i e s on S a i n t - S a e n s . Of a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n about Massenet, r e m i n i s c e n c e s by c o l l a b o r a t o r H e n r i C a i n , p e r s o n a l f r i e n d J . C l a r e t i e , and former p u p i l C h a r l e s S i l v e r a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y r e v e a l i n g . Massenet's f a s t i d i o u s w o r k i n g h a b i t s a re d i s c u s s e d i n C a i n ' s a r t i c l e 2 8 and C l a r e t i e r e p o r t s on c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h M a s s e n e t . 2 9 B r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d i n C l a r e t i e ' s a r t i c l e i s i n i t i a l n e g a t i v e c r i t i c i s m of Massenet's works, which was c o u n t e r a c t e d by h i s a d m i r e r s 2 5Mme P a u l i n e V i a r d o t , "La je u n e s s e de S a i n t - S a e n s , " Musica no. 57 (June 1907): 83. 2 6 I b i d . 2 7 I b i d . 2 8 H e n r i C a i n , "Comment t r a v a i l l e Massenet," Mus i c a no. 120 (November 1906): 168. 2 9 J u l e s C l a r e t i e , . " S o u v e n i r s sur J . Massenet," Musica no. 120 (September 1912): 185-86. 53 Theodore Dubois and Ernest Reyer. Massenet's musical i n f l u e n c e , at the time of h i s death in 1912, i s assessed by S i l v e r . 3 0 He agreed with a contemporary view of three d i s t i n c t movements in French music: (1) a t h e a t r i c a l movement l e d by Massenet and Saint-Saens; (2) a c l a s s i c a l r e v i v a l by d'Indy; and (3) a new e x p r e s s i o n of the romantic movement l e d by Debussy. 3 1 S i l v e r a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g l y ranks Massenet as a l e a d i n g French composer and c i t e s h i s i n f l u e n c e on Debussy.. T h i s p o s i t i o n d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y with modern v i e w s . 3 2 A r t i c l e s were a l s o d e d i c a t e d to Reyer. The c e l e b r a t e d a r t i s t Emile Henriot wrote about h i s f r i e n d s h i p with the composer, whom he a f f e c t i o n a t e l y nicknamed the " g e n e r a l . " 3 3 His a r t i c l e d i s c l o s e s some of Reyer's f a v o r i t e pastimes, which i n c l u d e d cooking, h i k i n g , p l a y i n g the piano, and a game of dominos or b i l l i a r d s . Reyer a l s o f r e q u e n t l y v a c a t i o n e d in the Pyrenees, Lavandou, and Mouthiers. His annual t r i p s to a secluded farm owned by Edmond Morel in the Vasages mountain region are r e c a l l e d in another a r t i c l e w r i t t e n by P i e r r e C o r n u b e r t . 3 " I t i n c l u d e s a l e t t e r addressed to Morel in 1881. R o s s i n i ' s p r i n c i p l e s of b e l canto are summarized in a unique a r t i c l e w r i t t e n by c l o s e f r i e n d E. M i c h o t t e . 3 5 In 3 0 C h . S i l v e r , " L ' i n f l u e n c e de Massenet," Musica no. 120 (September 1912): 173-74. 3 1 I b i d . 3 2 S e e , f o r example, Mar t i n Cooper, French Music: from the  death of B e r l i o z to the death of Faurg. (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1951), p~. Th\ 3 3 H e n r i o t , "Ernest Reyer i n t i m e , " Musica no. 53 (February 1907): 24-26. 3 " P i e r r e Cornubert, "Souvenirs sur E. Reyer," Musica no. 110 (November 1911): 216. 54 response to p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n 1910 that "bel canto est mort," a co n v e r s a t i o n with the master was r e c a l l e d . In order not to confuse b e l canto with v i r t u o s t i c d i s p l a y , R o s s i n i i d e n t i f i e d three b a s i c b e l canto elements: (1) the v o i c e , which i s c a l l e d " l e s t r a d i v a r i u s ; " (2) technique, or " l e s e x e r c i c e s de v i r t u o s i t e ; " and (3) s t y l e , or " l e gout et l e s e n t i m e n t . " 3 6 These are e x p l a i n e d in some d e t a i l and c e r t a i n p r e p a r a t o r y e x e r c i s e s , such as vowel v o c a l i z a t i o n , are s t r e s s e d . T h i s a r t i c l e i s an important i n c l u s i o n i n Musica and was introduced as "...un expose, absolument i n e d i t . " 3 7 B i o g r a p h i e s w r i t t e n by r e l a t i v e s of composers are extremely r a r e . A biography w r i t t e n by Robert Cesar-Franck, a presumed r e l a t i v e of the composer, r e v e a l s Franck's p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to a r t and i s complemented with a r e p r o d u c t i o n of one of the composer's e a r l y d r a w i n g s . 3 8 Marcel Adam's biography i n c l u d e s r e c o l l e c t i o n s of h i s f a t h e r , excerpts from l e t t e r s and c r i t i c i s m . 3 9 Musica p u b l i s h e d many i n t e r v i e w s or c o n v e r s a t i o n s with composers. Some of the more outst a n d i n g i n t e r v i e w s , e x c l u d i n g those p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, are " c o n v e r s a t i o n s " with Richard Strauss and Rimsky-Korsakov. Due to h i s d i s d a i n f o r j o u r n a l i s t s , S t r auss r a r e l y granted i n t e r v i e w s , f r e q u e n t l y using 3 5 E . M i c h o t t e , "Une s o i r e e chez R o s s i n i , " Musica no. 96 (September 1910): 138. 3 6 I b i d . 3 7Preambule to "Une s o i r e e chez R o s s i n i , " by E. Michot t e , Musica no. 96 (September 1910): 138 ^ R o b e r t Cesar-Franck, "Cesar Franck d e s s i n a t e u r , " Musica no. 112 (January 1912): 18. 3 9 M a r c e l Adam, "Adolphe Adam," Musica no. 17 (February 1904) 267-68. 55 the excuse of having c o n t a c t e d "...une maladie contagieuse t r e s g r a v e . " " 0 Rene Delange, however, was s u c c e s s f u l i n d i s c u s s i n g s e v e r a l t o p i c s with the composer ranging from c o m p o s i t i o n a l approaches to a performance of E l e k t r a and the completion of Le Bourgeois qentilhomme. With regard to French composers, Strauss expressed admiration f o r B e r l i o z , C h a r p e n t i e r , and Debussy. Rimsky-Korsakov, when asked by composer A l f r e d C a s e l l a h i s op i n i o n of h i s contemporaries, r e p l i e d " q u ' i l a d m i r a i t S a i n t -Saens, q u ' i l ne comprenait pas bien P e l l e a s , et q u ' i l i g n o r a i t presque toute l a musique de Faure." 1 Regarding Richard S t r a u s s ' music, he s t a t e d : "Je ne comprends pas c e t t e musique v u l g a i r e , i l m'est t r o p d e s a g r e a b l e . " 2 Of f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t i s a 1912 unsigned a r t i c l e on B a l i l l a P r a t e l l a , a composer, a s s o c i a t e of M a r i n e t t i , and advocate of the I t a l i a n f u t u r i s t movement. T h i s a r t i c l e , e n t i t l e d "L'ame de l a musique f u t u r i s t e , " i n c l u d e s an excerpt from P r a t e l l a ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l w r i t i n g s and an i n t e r v i e w with G. Bender, who i s c i t e d as the leader of l ' e c o l e musicale f u t u r i s t e . A c a p t i o n beneath a r e p r o d u c t i o n of a c u b i s t p a i n t i n g by P i c a s s o r e v e a l s a contemporary r e a c t i o n to P r a t e l l a and the f u t u r i s t s , by s t a t i n g t h a t : " I l e st a s o u h a i t e r que l e s musiciens f u t u r i s t e s n'envisagent pas l e u r a r t d'une faeon...aussi geometrique." 3 "°Rene Delange, "Une c o n v e r s a t i o n avec M. Ri c h a r d S t r a u s s , " Musica no. 112 (January 1912): 9. " ^ A l f r e d C a s e l l a , "Une v i s i t e a Rimsky-Korsakov," Musica no. 121 (October 1912): 212. " 2 I b i d . " 3"L'ame de l a musique f u t u r i s t e , " Musica no. 116 (May 1912): 97. 56 Numerous photographs and sketches of composers appear i n Musica. These augment p r i n t e d information by p r o v i d i n g a v i s u a l r epresentation of the a r t i s t i n s o c i e t y and at l e i s u r e . Unusual representations include photographs of P u c c i n i duck hunting, Bruneau canoing, and C h e v i l l a r d mountaineering (Figures 5 and 6). Portrait-photographs thought to be the l a s t a v a i l a b l e Figure 5 - P u c c i n i , duck-hunting (November 1903, p. 223) include 1909 and 1906 p o r t r a i t s of Reyer and Gounod, r e s p e c t i v e l y (Figures 7 and 8). Other r a r i t i e s i n c l u d e a 1913 photograph of Saint-Saens' at h i s l a s t piano concert given at 57 F i g u r e 6 - Bruneau, canoing (September 1903, p. 190) the age of s e v e n t y - e i g h t . A l s o of i n t e r e s t are a c t u a l views of composers' h a b i t a t s . Reyer, for example, i s p i c t u r e d i n h i s P a r i s apartment and Massenet, at h i s E g r e v i l l e c ountry house (F i g u r e s 9 and 10). Group photographs i n c l u d i n g f a m i l y and f r i e n d s provide us with ideas of a s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s i s evident in 1904 photographs of the crowds at Bayreuth. The popular usage of c a r i c a t u r e s at the time i s represented in Musica although not prominent. These p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t i n t o composer's c h a r a c t e r s and p u b l i c o p i n i o n . While c a r i c a t u r e s of e s t a b l i s h e d f i g u r e s such as Wagner, L i s z t , or B e r l i o z were r e p r i n t e d from e a r l i e r j o u r n a l s , c a r i c a t u r e s of contemporary composers are r a r e . In sketches that do appear, d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s or p e c u l i a r i t i e s are not exaggerated in the usual comic or grotesque f a s h i o n . S e v e r a l photographs of 58 F i g u r e l-k l a s t p o r t r a i t - p h o t o g r a p h of Reyer (March 1909, p. 35) c a r i c a t u r e - s c u l p t u r e s by Dantan a l s o appear i n the j o u r n a l . I t i s apparent, on reviewing the names of composers w r i t i n g for Musica and covered in the j o u r n a l , that they represent the c o n s e r v a t i v e s e c t o r of the music scene. More c o n t r o v e r s i a l composers such as Debussy are d e c i d e d l y l a c k i n g i n correspondence. The sparse c o n t r i b u t i o n s of people l i k e Ravel, Duparc, K o e c h l i n , and Dukas, must r e f l e c t e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y and popular appeal. I t i s understandable that given t h i s p o s i t i o n one reads l i t t l e i n Musica regarding composers such as Bartok or Schoenberg. B a r t o k 1 s honorable mention at a 1905 composition competition i s n o t e d , M but s u r p r i s i n g l y h i s name does not 59 appear a g a i n . F i g u r e s l i k e S a t i e a re f e a t u r e d i n the F i g u r e 8 - A l a s t p o r t r a i t - p h o t o g r a p h of Gounod ( J u l y 1906, p. 102) p u b l i c a t i o n ' s l a t e r y e a r s when i t was more a c c e p t a b l e t o do so. A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s appear on f o r e i g n composers, the j o u r n a l i s most e n t h u s i a s t i c i n i t s t r e a t m e n t of F r e n c h music and i t s composers, a r e f l e c t i o n perhaps of the p e r i o d ' s n a t i o n a l i s m . * " B r e t i g n y , "Le concours R u b e n s t e i n , " M u s ica no. 36 (September 1905): 138. 60 F i g u r e 9 - Reyer i n h i s s a l o n ( F e b r u a r y 1907, p. 26) 61 F i g u r e 10 - Massenet at E g r e v i l l e (November 1906, p. 174) 62 D. PERFORMERS As f r o n t - l i n e i n t e r p r e t e r s o f m u s i c a l w o r k s p e r f o r m e r s o c c u p y a u n i q u e p o s i t i o n i n t h e m u s i c a l h e i r a r c h y . T h e i r w r i t i n g s p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o p e r f o r m a n c e p r a c t i s e s and i n t e r p r e t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . Many r e k n o w n e d s i n g e r s , p i a n i s t s , v i o l i n i s t s a n d o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s , w r o t e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l o r p e d a g o g i c a l a r t i c l e s f o r M u s i c a . S i n c e o p e r a s i n g e r s r e c e i v e t h e most c o v e r a g e , e s p e c i a l l y p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y , t h e y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f i r s t . A n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p o f c o n t r i b u t o r s a r e c h a n s o n n i e r s a n d c a b a r e t s i n g e r s . L e s s c r i t i c i s m i s w r i t t e n by p i a n i s t s , v i o l i n i s t s , and c e l l i s t s ; a n d some i n s t r u m e n t a l p e r f o r m e r s , l i k e g u i t a r i s t s o r p e r c u s s i o n i s t s , c o n t r i b u t e d m i n i m a l l y . Somewhat more p r o m i n e n t a r e c o n t r i b u t i o n s by d a n c e r s . R e v i e w s a n d a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n a b o u t p e r f o r m e r s a d d t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . A r t i c l e s w r i t t e n by s i n g e r s a r e g e n e r a l l y v e r y i n f o r m a t i v e . Many f o c u s on c h a r a c t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d a r e e n h a n c e d by p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e a r t i s t s i n c o s t u m e . T h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s a l l o w c o m p a r i s o n s t o be made t o p r e s e n t - d a y p r a c t i s e s . F o r e x a m p l e , a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n by t h e g r e a t W a g n e r i a n s i n g e r s E r n e s t Van Dyck an d F e l i a L i t v i n n e g i v e an i n s i g h t i n t o an e a r l y t w e n t i e t h -E r n e s t Van Dyck , " L e s g r a n d s r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e p a r l e u r i l l u s t r e s i n t e r p r e t e s : T r i s t a n p a r E r n e s t Van D y c k , " M u s i c a no. 113 ( F e b r u a r y 1912): 23; F e l i a L i t v i n n e , " L e s g r a n d s r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e p a r l e u r i l l u s t r e s i n t e r p r e t e s : I s o l d e , p a r Mme F e l i a L i t v i n n e , " M u s i c a no. 113 ( F e b r u a r y 1912): 22. 63 century i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of T r i s t a n and I s o l d e . 1 Although costumes were f a i r l y e l a b o r a t e ( F i g u r e s 11 and 12), a t r a d i t i o n a l l y F i g u r e 11 - Ernest Van Dyck in the r o l e of T r i s t a n (June 1905, p. 89) i n f l a t e d romantic and t r a g i c approach to these r o l e s was s u r p r i s i n g l y r e j e c t e d in favor of a simple s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d s t y l e . Other s i n g e r s , Eustase Thomas-Salignac and Lucienne Breval d i s c u s s e d t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of Don Jose and Carmen. S a l i g n a c i n t e r p r e t e d Jose as a n e u r o t i c c h a r a c t e r , v a s c i l l a t i n g 64 between l o v e , t e n d e r n e s s , j e a l o u s y , rage and v i o l e n c e . 2 F i g u r e 12 - F e l i a L i t v i n n e i n the r o l e of I s o l d e ( J u l y 1904, p. 342) S i m i l a r l y , B r e v a l ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Carmen was r a t h e r u n c o n v e n t i o n a l . She b e l i e v e d Carmen was c o n t r o l l e d by f a t e , and 2 E . Thomas-Salignac, "Les grands r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e par l e u r s c e l e b r e s i n t e r p r e t e s : l e r o l e de Don J o s e , par M. E. Thomas-Salignac," M u s i c a no. 114 (March 1912): 42-44. 65 i n t e r p r e t e d her r o l e as a l s o e s s e n t i a l l y n e u r o t i c and b i z a r r e . 3 T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can be compared and c o n t r a s t e d with the t r a d i t i o n a l l y s e d u c t i v e and e x o t i c p o r t r a y a l s by G a l l i - M a r i e , Marguerite de Nuovina, Emma Calve, and Marie de l ' I s l e ( F i g u r e 13). A h i s t o r y of t h i s opera, from the f i r s t to the one-thousandth performance i s found i n another i s s u e . " Numerous s t u d i e s and photographs of popular Marguerite, Faust, and Mephistopheles i n t e r p r e t e r s f a c i l i t a t e comparisons between the v a r i o u s o p e r a t i c p r o d u c t i o n s of Goethe's Faust. A c o n t r i b u t i o n by Henri Carvalho, son of the c r e a t r i c e of Gounod's Marguerite, g i v e s some i n f o r m a t i o n about the standards set by Miolan-Carvalho i n the 1859 premiere performance. 5 Her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was followed by a host of other Marguerites, of which the most famous were Rose Caron and G e r a l d i n e F a r r a r . Mephistopheles i n t e r p r e t e r s i n c l u d e d J . Faure, Maurice Renaud, and Fyodor S h a l y a p i n . T h i s complex r o l e , u n l i k e the c h a r a c t e r of Faust, was i n t e r p r e t e d with such imagination and v a r i e t y i n the d i f f e r e n t operas. Faure, i n Gounod's Faust, was an 'elegant, l i k e a b l e , and co m i c a l ' Mephistopheles; whereas Renaud and S h a l y a p i n , i n the B e r l i o z and B o i t o v e r s i o n s , were unconventional ' m a l i c i o u s , s p i r i t u a l and profound' demons. An in-depth study of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s pr o v i d e d by S h a l y a p i n , 6 who 3Lucienne B r e v a l , "De 1 ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n de Carmen," Musica no. 87 (December 1909): 182. "Georges Pioch, "De l a 1 re a l a lOOOme de Carmen," Musica no. 87 (December 1909): 182. 5 H e n r i Carvalho, "Le Faust de Gounod," Musica no. 40 (January 1906): 4. 6 C h a l a p i n e , "Les grands r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e par l e u r c e l e b r e s i n t e r p r e t e s , " Musica no. 118 ( J u l y 1912): 122-24. 66 F i g u r e 13 - Carmen i n t e r p r e t e r s ( F e b r u a r y 1905, p. 24) QUEEQUEjS INTERPRETES CELEBRES 67 was perhaps one of the most popular s i n g e r s of h i s day. He was p a r t i c u l a r l y famous as B o r i s Godonov and for d r a m a t i z a t i o n s in other Russian operas. Character s t u d i e s were w r i t t e n by other s i n g e r s of the time. The r o l e of Matho from Reyer's Salammbo i s d i s c u s s e d by A l b e r t S a l e z a ; 7 that of Des Grieux i n Massenet's Manon, by Fernand F r a n c e l l ; 8 Yago from V e r d i ' s O t e l l o , by V i c t o r M a u rel; 9 and t i t l e r o l e s i n Gounod's M i r e i l l e , Ambroise Thomas' Miqnon and Hamlet, by A l i n e V a l l a n d r i , 1 0 Helene D e m e l l i e r , 1 1 and Henri A l b e r s , 1 2 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Maurel, noted as the c r e a t o r of V e r d i ' s F a l s t a f f , a l s o wrote about v a r i a t i o n in v o c a l techniques and methods. 1 3 In t h i s a r t i c l e , he argued f o r s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n in teaching methods. C h a l l e n g i n g t h i s o p i n i o n , P a u l i n e V i a r d o t , in her assessment of contemporary s i n g e r s , b e l i e v e d that there c o u l d not be a u n i v e r s a l method ammenable to a l l languages. 1" 7 A l b e r t S a l e z a , "Les grands r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e : l e r o l e de Matho par M. S a l e z a , " Musica no. 126 (March 1913): 42-43. BFernand F r a n c e l l , "Les grands r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e par leur c e l e b r e s i n t e r p r e t e s : l e r o l e de Des Grieux dans Manon par M. Fernand F r a n c e l l , " Musica no. 138 (March 1914): 46-47. 9 V i c t o r Maurel, "Les grands r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e par l e u r s c e l e b r e s i n t e r p r e t e s : l e r o l e de Yago par M. V i c t o r Maurel," Musica no. 115 ( A p r i l 1912): 64. ^ A l i n e V a l l a n d r i , "Les grands r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e : l e r o l e de M i r e i l l e par Mme A l i n e V a l l a n d r i , " Musica no. 132 (September 1913): 170-71." 1 1 H e l e n e D e m e l l i e r , "Les grands r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e : l e r o l e de Mignon," Musica no. 137 (February 1914): 26-27. 1 2 H e n r i A l b e r s , "Les grands r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e : l e r o l e d'Hamlet par M. Henri A l b e r s , " Musica no. 116 (May 1912): 82-83. 1 3 V i c t o r Maurel, " F a u t - i l e d i f i e r un s c i e n c e du chant," Musica no. 1 (October 1902): 4. ^ P a u l i n e V i a r d o t , " Les c a n t a t r i c e s contemporaines," Musica no. 64 (January 1908): 2. 68 Comments by s i n g e r s about t h e i r f e l l o w performers o f t e n provide b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . In the s p e c i a l January 1908 issue d e d i c a t e d to s i n g e r s , there are a r t i c l e s by Ernest Van Dyck, A l b e r t S a l e z a , E. Thomas-Salignac and J.F. Delmas. Of these, Saleza's t r i b u t e to Marguerite de Nuovina deserves s p e c i a l mention since there i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on t h i s s i n g e r today. De Nuovina, a Romanian l y r i c soprano, began her c a r e e r i n p r i v a t e s a l o n s . A f t e r studying with V i c t o r Maurel's wife, she made her debut in a B r u s s e l ' s performance of Massenet's Esclarmonde. De Nuovina c r e a t e d the heroine r o l e i n Leo D e l i b e s ' Kassya and i s c r e d i t e d with p a r t s i n Pr o s p e r i n e , Werther, La Na v a r r a i s e , Les Huguenots, and C a v a l l e r i a R u s t i c a n a . As an i n t e r p r e t e r she was feminine and s e d u c t i v e . Her v o i c e i s d e s c r i b e d as "pure" and " c a r e f r e e " and f o r Sa l e z a , she captured the essence of Carmen's f r e e s p i r i t . 1 5 Another a r t i c l e by Georges Laplace complements S a l e z a ' s b i o g r a p h y . 1 6 A u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l a r t i c l e s were w r i t t e n by such famous c e l e b r i t i e s as Ernest Van Dyck and E n r i c o Caruso. More v a l u a b l e , however, are those w r i t t e n by somewhat lesser-known s i n g e r s J.F. Delmas and E. Thomas-Salignac. As a student of Ambroise Thomas at the C o n s e r v a t o i r e , Delmas appears to have had a f a i r l y l o c a l r e p u t a t i o n . He made h i s debut at the Opera in the r o l e of S a i n t - B r i s i n Les Huguenots, and was famous f o r h i s Wagnerian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of H o l l a n d a i s i n The F l y i n g Dutchman 1 5 A l b e r t S a l e z a , "Marguerite de Nuovina," Musica no. 64 (January 1908): 4. 1 6 Georges Laplace, "Marguerite de Nuovina," Musica no. 92 (May 1910): 76. 69 and Hans Sachs in Die M e i s t e r s i n q e r . Despite o f f e r s to tour America, he r e j e c t e d both fame and fortune r e f u s i n g to leave P a r i s . 1 7 U n l i k e Delmas, the tenor E. Thomas-Salignac was known abroad. A f t e r studying at the M a r s e i l l e s and P a r i s C o n s e r v a t o i r e s , and making a debut at the Opera-Comique, S a l i g n a c t r a v e l l e d to the United S t a t e s . He made an American debut in 1896 at the M e t r o p o l i t a n Opera in the r o l e of Don Jose and remained there f o r seven c o n s e c u t i v e seasons, appearing i n a l l the p r i n c i p a l tenor p a r t s in the French r e p e r t o r y . 1 8 In one of h i s a r t i c l e s f o r Mus i c a , he c a n d i d l y r e c a l l s h i s experiences in the S t a t e s . 1 9 The f a l s e v a l u e s imposed by a "systeme des e t o i l e s " are c i t e d as being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the musical s t a g n a t i o n i n the S t a t e s ; S a l i g n a c p e r c e p t i v e l y comments that " r i e n n'est p l u s a n t i - a r t i s t i q u e . " 2 0 Since composers o f t e n moulded r o l e s f o r s p e c i f i c s i n g e r s of the day, t h e i r w r i t t e n comments about i n t e r p r e t e r s are s i g n i f i c a n t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to d i s c o v e r , f o r example, that a composer's performance e x p e c t a t i o n s were f r e q u e n t l y met. Mary Garden was commended by Debussy f o r " c l o s e l y c a p t u r i n g the c h a r a c t e r of h i s dreams." 2 1 Lucienne B r e v a l and Jeanne Raunay 1 7 J . F . Delmas, " V i n g t - c i n q annees de c a r r i e r e , " Musica no. 112 (January 1912): 4. 1 8 T h e New E n c y c l o p e d i a of Opera, 1971 ed., s.v. " S a l i g n a c , Eustase Thomas." 1 9 E . Thomas-Salignac, "Les chanteurs en Amerique par E. Thomas-Salignac," Musica no. 92 (May 1910): 78-79. 2 0 I b i d . , p. 78. 2 1 C l a u d e Debussy, "Mary Garden," Musica no. 64 (January 1908): 5. T h i s a r t i c l e has been r e c e n t l y t r a n s l a t e d and r e p r i n t e d i n R i c h a r d Langham Smith's Debussy on Music (New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1977). 70 were both admired by Faure, who maintained that a s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n depended l a r g e l y upon a " c o n v i n c i n g f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n and manner." 2 2 T h i s was a l s o emphasized in the w r i t i n g s of other composers, such as A l f r e d Bruneau. In h i s a r t i c l e on Marie Delna, he admired her "noble a t t i t u d e s , s e r i o u s gestures and f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s " which s u i t e d the c l a s s i c a l and dramatic r o l e s she became famous f o r . 2 3 E r n e s t Reyer r e v e r r e d s i m i l a r q u a l i t i e s i n Rose Caron, e s p e c i a l l y p r a i s i n g her stage presence and t h e a t r i c a l a b i l i t y . 2 4 Today, b e a r i n g , f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , and a c t i n g s k i l l s , are u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d secondary to v o c a l v i r t u o s i t y . Some composer's w r i t i n g s supplement present-day b i o g r a p h i e s of s i n g e r s or comprise the major source f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about them. The composer I. de Camondo complemented G e r a l d i n e F a r r a r for her " v e r s a t i l i t y in performing comic and t r a g i c r o l e s . " 2 5 F a r r a r was the f i r s t to play the heroine i n Camondo's Le Clown, a r o l e that i s not a c c r e d i t e d her i n s e v e r a l contemporary b i o g r a p h i c a l s o u r c e s . 2 6 E n t i r e l y n e g l e c t e d i n most b i o g r a p h i c a l sources i s the famous s i n g e r Marguerite C a r r e . As the wife of A l b e r t C a r r e , the d i r e c t o r of the Opera-Comique, t h i s s i n g e r a c q u i r e d fame in many works i n c l u d i n g George Hue's T i tan i a , 2 2 G a b r i e l Faure, "Jeanne Raunay," Musica no. 64 (January 1908): 10. 2 3 A l f r e d Bruneau, "Marie Delna," Musica no. 64 (January 1908): 7. 2 4 E r n e s t Reyer, "Un a r t i c l e d'Ernest Reyer," Musica no. 53 (February 1907) : 31 . 2 5 I . de Camondo, "Geraldine F a r r a r , " Musica no. 64 (January 1908) : 4. 2 6 S e e , f o r example, The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y , s. v. " F a r r a r , G e r a l d i n e , " by Desmond Shawe-Taylor. 71 William Chaumet's Petite Maison, Pierre Lalo's Le Roi d'Y's, Henri Rabaud's F i l l e de Roland, and Xavier Leroux's La Reine Fiammette, as well as in South American performances of Pelleas et Melisande. Alexandre Georges praised her as the "ideal heroine" in his Miarka. 2 7 Figure 14 - Scene from Act 1 of Merikanto's Pohjan neito (October 1908, p. 159) Musica's iconography offers numerous and very interesting depictions of performers and performance practises. With photographs of performers in costume, staging, sets and theaters, one can almost v i s u a l i z e actual performances of the time. In 1908 and 1909 issues, for example, crowd scenes from 2 7Alexandre Georges, "Marguerite Carre," Musica no. 64 (January 1 9 0 8 ) : 6. 72 F i g u r e 15 - Scene from Act 2 of Ivan the T e r r i b l e ( J u l y 1909, p. 1021 the operas Pohjan n e i t o and Ivan the T e r r i b l e appear r e s p e c t i v e l y ( F i g u r e s 14 and 15). In a n o t h e r 1909 i s s u e , t h e r e are scenes from E l e k t r a . Costumes and d e c o r s from the b a l l e t s Ma Mere l'Oye and La f e t e chez Therese are p r e s e n t e d i n a 1912 i s s u e , and B a y r e u t h Tannhausser s e t s i n a 1904 i s s u e ( F i g u r e 16). A r a r e view "behind the scenes" of m a c h i n i s t s a t the Opera and Opera-comique i s o b t a i n e d i n o t h e r i s s u e s ( F i g u r e 17). R e p r o d u c t i o n s of i m a g i n a t i v e p o s t e r s p r e s e n t e d i n Mus i c a demonstrate the b u r g e o n i n g p o p u l a r i t y of t h i s new a r t form i n a d v e r t i s i n g . Examples of a r t nouveau a r e o b t a i n e d from p o s t e r s 73 Fig u r e 16 - Two scenes from Act 1 of Tannhauser (August 1904, p. 360) a d v e r t i s i n g works by Massenet (Figure 18). A glimpse of more popular a r t forms i s secured i n c o n t r i b u t i o n s by c a f e - c o n c e r t performers and in a r t i c l e s on the chanson. Becoming popular in the mid-nineteenth c e n t u r y , the c a f e - c o n c e r t was one of the developments which added most to the g a i e t y and s o c i a b i l i t y of P a r i s . It made entertainment more r e g u l a r l y and c a s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y appealed to working c l a s s e s . While l i s t e n i n g to e n t e r t a i n e r s , audiences 74 F i g u r e 17 - M a c h i n i s t s at the Opera (October 1904, p. 401) c o u l d e a t , d r i n k , and f r e e l y shout a p p l a u s e , abuse and comments. C a f e - c o n c e r t songs, of an e a r l y p r o t o t y p e , were about p o l i t i c s , b u r e a u c r a t s , l o v e , d r i n k , duped spouses, w i t h o f f - c o l o r j o k e s as an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t . Such songs were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Theresa and J u d i c , whose s t y l e s have been somewhat g l o r i f i e d by a n o s t a l g i c M u s i ca c r i t i c . 2 8 2 8 F e l i c i e n G r e t r y , "Theresa et J u d i c , " M u s i c a no. 74 (November 1908): 173. 75 In the 1880s a more l i t e r a r y and avante-garde c a f e - c o n c e r t F i g u r e 18 - Poster from Massenet's Esclarmonde (November 1906, p. 167) So KM*" U n i m o L t became popular. I t was the c a f e - c o n c e r t of Yvette G u i l b e r t and A r t i s t i d e Bruant, which has been immortalized i n the p a i n t i n g s of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. The f a v o r i t e haunt f o r these performers was the Chat N o i r , owned by p r o p r i e t o r Rudolphe S a l i s . I t became famous f o r the poets and p a i n t e r s that frequented i t , but as recorded by one h i s t o r i a n , " q u i c k l y l o s t i t s genuine c h a r a c t e r and became a n i g h t - s p o t f o r the 76 b o u r g e o i s e . " 2 9 T h i s change was recognized by G u i l b e r t , who commented on the d e c l i n e of the c a f e - c o n c e r t i n a 1908 Musica i ssue: Aujourd'hui quand, en promenade a P a r i s , j ' e n t r e dans un c a f e - c o n c e r t , je ne l e v o i s p l u s , ce p u b l i c . . . I l n'y v i e n t p l u s ; ce n'est p l u s l a meme c l i e n t e l e . . . Le p u b l i c du c a f e - c o n c e r t a c t u e l est ce q u ' i l e t a i t quand je s.uis entree dans l a c a r r i e r e , i l y a d i x - h u i t ans: de mon temps i l o c c u p a i t l e s secondes g a l e r i e s ; a u j o u r d ' h u i , i l est dans l e s f a u t e u i l s et l e s loges, i l a r e p r i s son a p p e t i t de p l a t s bon marche et de l a c u i s i n e g r o s s i e r e des gargotes. I l y a des a r t i s t e s de t a l e n t qui a u j o u r d ' h u i , comme a u t r e f o i s , s u b i s s e n t 1 ' i n f l u e n c e v u l g a i r e de ce p u b l i c s p e c i a l du c a f e - c o n c e r t , et l u i ' d e b i t e n t seulement ce q u i ' i l s savent d e v o i r 1'amuser!...On c r i e a l a pornographie des chanteurs; non, non, c'est au p u b l i c q u ' i l faut f a i r e hou! hou! de c o n s e n t i r a s ' e n c a n n a i l l e r de l a s o r t e . . . a P a r i s ! a P a r i s ! Ah! l a bonne v e i l l e g a u l o i s e r i e , l ' e p i c e chere au XVIIe et XVIIIe s i e c l e ! Le r i r e franc de l ' e s p r i t de nos peres, ou l a s a t i r e a c i d u l e e et profonde, sous forme p o p u l a i r e , des anciens du Chat N o i r , ou e t e s -vous?... 3 0 Others b e l i e v e d a change in s t a t u s and c l i e n t e l e was not n e c e s s a r i l y n e g a t i v e . One c r i t i c a f f i r m e d : "Le c a f e - c o n c e r t n'est pas en decadence. I l est autre - et ni p i r e ni m e i l l e u r q u ' a u t r e f o i s . " 3 1 I t was thought that m u s i c a l l y , the c a f e - c o n c e r t was even p r o g r e s s i n g as an a r t form and American ja z z was c i t e d 2 9Theodore Z e l d i n , France (1848-1945), v o l . 2: I n t e l l e c t ,  Taste and A n x i e t y . (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977), p. 701. 3 0 Y v e t t e G u i l b e r t , "Yvette G u i l b e r t , " Musica no. 74 (November 1908): 171. 3 1 R a o u l Brevannes, "Le c a f e - c o n c e r t d'aujourd'hui," Musica no. 74 (November 1908): 173. 77 as a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e . 3 2 In agreement, Maurice L e f e v r e , a r e g u l a r c o n t r i b u t o r to Musica and one of the most c e l e b r a t e d chansonniers of the Chat N o i r , s t a t e d that "...jamais epoque n ' a u r a i t ete plus que l a notre, f e r t i l e en chansons p o p u l a i r e s . . . 3 3 Other c o l l a b o r a t o r s a l s o d e s c r i b e the c o n t i n u i n g p o p u l a r i t y of chansons, on the s t r e e t s , i n c a f e s and bars. There i s l i t t l e doubt that the c a f e - c o n c e r t was a v i t a l medium at t h i s time, but as G u i l b e r t observed, i t had changed. In the s p e c i a l December 1913 i s s u e , numerous chanson types are i d e n t i f i e d . The great romantic chanteur Mayol wrote an e x c e l l e n t a r t i c l e on the "chanson p a r i s i e n n e , " while aspects of the "chanson des faubourgs" were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Octave P r a d e l s . Dranem and P o l i n s p e c i a l i z e d i n the "chanson f a n t a i s i s t e " and "chanson du s o l d a t " r e s p e c t i v e l y ; Harry Fragson, i n "chansons sentimentale et g a l a n t e ; " Fursy, i n the r i s q u e "chanson r o s s e ; " and Fr a n c i n e L o r e e - P r i v a s , i n the "chanson e n f a n t i n e . " Chanson s o c i e t i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d , such as the " S o c i e t e f r a n c a i s e des amis de l a chanson" founded by X a v i e r P r i v a s and F r a n c i n e L o r e e - P r i v a s . The aim of t h i s group, with the motto "bonte, beaute, g a i e t e , " was to combat pornography and promote "moral chansons." 3" For h i s e f f o r t s , P r i v a s was even made a C h e v a l i e r de l a Legion d'honneur i n 1906, which was the f i r s t time t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n had been given to a 3 2 I b i d . 3 3 M a u r i c e L e f e v r e , "La chanson p o p u l a i r e , " Musica no. 74 (November 1908): 165. 3 " X a v i e r P r i v a s , "Les t r a d i t i o n s de l a chanson," Musica no. 135 (December 1913): 240-41. 78 c h a n s o n n i e r . 3 5 Many i l l u s t r a t i o n s show e n t e r t a i n e r s wearing tuxedos and formal a t t i r e , which emphasizes a new s o p h i s t i c a t e d approach to c a f e - c o n c e r t s . Some of the more r e f i n e d comedians, who f i r s t began c a r e e r s in P a r i s i a n c a b a r e t s , a c q u i r e d fame in o p e r e t t a and comic opera. Anna J u d i c , Jeanne G r a n i e r , and Hortense Schneider performed i n Offenbach o p e r e t t a s . Harry Fragson, a s p e c i a l i s t i n songs about the E n g l i s h , was f i r s t a s s o c i a t e d with the Chat N o i r . In h i s Musica a r t i c l e he boasts about s i n g i n g at the Opera-Comique under the d i r e c t i o n of Reynaldo Hahn. 3 6 Lucien Fugere, a performer at the B a - t a - c l a n c a b a r e t , became well-known at the B o u f f e s - P a r i s i e n s and Opera-Comique. He was famous as Papageno, F i g a r o , L e p o r e l l o , Sancho Panza, and sang in many f i r s t performances i n c l u d i n g Louise in which he c r e a t e d the r o l e of the F a t h e r . His a r t i c l e on the Opera-Comique i s e n t e r t a i n i n g and s u p p l i e s v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about backstage crews and general work atmosphere. 3 7 Impresarios of the famous F o l i e s Bergere, Vincent and Emile I s o l a , even became d i r e c t o r s of the Opera-Comique, i n 1914. Apparently these b r o t h e r s made a fortune out of the F o l i e s Bergere but as one French h i s t o r i a n commented "...they l e f t i t to take over the Opera-Comique, where they proceeded to lose t h e i r money i n search f o r c u l t u r e . " 3 8 T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n of cabaret p e r s o n a l i t i e s with i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e 3 5 Musica no. 135 (December 1913): 242-43. 3 6H. Fragson, "Chansons sentimentales et g a l a n t e s , " Musica no. 135 (December 1913): 252. 3 7 L u c i e n Fugere, "La v i e du t h e a t r e , " Musica no. 55 ( A p r i l 1907): 53-55. 3 8 Z e l d i n , France (1848-1945), 2: 701. 79 the Opera-Comique c e r t a i n l y helped to r a i s e the c a f e - c o n c e r t to the l e v e l of a r e s p e c t e d a r t form. Although there are numerable s t u d i e s of the c a f e - c o n c e r t phenomenon, even fo r t h i s time p e r i o d from 1900 to 1914, most of the w r i t i n g s by chansonniers have not been reproduced and to the best of my knowledge are unique to Musica. By reading them, the reader o b t a i n s a b e t t e r understanding of the surrounding m i l i e u and a f i r s t - h a n d account of performers impressions. With the domestic triumph of the piano i n the n i n e t e e n t h and twentieth c e n t u r i e s , Musica s o l i c i t e d c o n t r i b u t i o n s from s e v e r a l respected p i a n i s t s and t e a c h e r s . We o b t a i n a sense of the home-music atmosphere of the time by reading p i e c e s of advice on good musical behavior. In an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n 1902 under the heading "Les p o s i t i o n s du p i a n i s t e , " a supposedly well-known p i a n i s t Mme Roger-Miclos g i v e s suggestions to a s p i r i n g female performers: Le s e c r e t du bon d o i g t e r e s i d e dans l a tenue du corps, dans sa r a i d e u r ou sa s o u p l e s s e . On ne d o i t jamais donner de coups sur l e s notes, - f o r c e ne veut pas d i r e b r u t a l i t e , - mais i l faut en quelque s o r t e " p e t r i r " son c l a v i e r . D'une maniere generale, on peut d i r e que l a bonne p o s i t i o n au piano est l a s u i v a n t e ; l e buste est d r o i t et sans r a i d e u r , l e s epaules tombent naturellement, 1'avant-bras, l e poignet et l e s premieres phalanges forment une l i g n e bien d r o i t e ; l e s d o i g t s sont a r r o n d i s et l e pouce est ramene vers e u x . 3 5 Proper piano technique i s d i s c u s s e d i n another a r t i c l e by a more 39Mme Roger-Micolos, "Les p o s i t i o n s du p i a n i s t e , " Musica no. 1 (October 1902): 13. 80 famous p i a n i s t , M a r g u e r i t e Long, a Debussy p u p i l . " 0 In what i s termed "un passage du pouce," Long a d v i s e d p i a n i s t s t o p l a c e the r e s t i n g hand, not p l a y i n g the s c a l e passage, d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t on the p i a n o ( F i g u r e 19). T h i s mannerism l o o k s v e r y d i f f e r e n t F i g u r e 19 - P i a n o hand p o s i t i o n a d v i s e d by Long (December 1907, p. 183) M A L E , S A N S E T H E T O U R N E E E N D E H O R S . from u s u a l poses, as can be seen i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n , where the r e s t i n g hand i s e i t h e r suspended, dropped t o the s i d e , or p l a c e d i n the p i a n i s t ' s l a p . T h i s seemingly unorthodox performance p r a c t i s e i s a l s o n o t e d i n an i l l u s t r a t i o n of Edouard R i s l e r a t the p i a n o ( F i g u r e 2 0 ) . In t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n i t i s seen t h a t the v i o l i n i s t s t a n d s b e h i n d the p i a n i s t , which was p r o b a b l y done i n o r d e r t o photograph p r o f i l e s . Edouard R i s l e r , a d i s t i n g u i s h e d F r e n c h p i a n i s t , a c c e n t u a t e d h i s r e p u t a t i o n i n 1906 by p e r f o r m i n g a l l t h i r t y - t w o Beethoven Sonatas, and l a t e r by p e r f o r m i n g L i s z t ' s works. He i s a o M a r g u e r i t e Long, "Le t o u c h e r du p i a n o , " M u s i c a no. 63 (December 1907): 182-83. 81 F i g u r e 20 - J a c q u e s T h i b a u d a nd E d o u a r d R i s l e r (May 1906, p. 75) s u r p r i s i n g l y o v e r l o o k e d i n some c o n t e m p o r a r y r e f e r e n c e v o l u m e s , * 1 a s a r e some o t h e r p r o m i n e n t p i a n i s t s o f t h e t i m e . A b i o g r a p h i c a l a r t i c l e d e a l i n g w i t h A u g u s t P i e r r e t i n f o r m s us t h a t he was t h e f i r s t t o p e r f o r m w o r k s by h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s F a u r e , D e b u s s y , D u k a s , C h a u s s o n , A l b e n i z , a n d R a v e l . " 2 I n a n o t h e r a r t i c l e , V i c t o r S t a u b i s a l s o n o t e d f o r p e r f o r m a n c e s o f w o r k s by Du k a s , D e b u s s y , a n d A l b e n i z . " 3 L a z a r e - L e v y s t a r t e d h i s c a r e e r " 1 R i s l e r ' s name i s n o t l i s t e d i n The New G r o v e D i c t i o n a r y a l t h o u g h f o u n d i n b o t h B a k e r ' s B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y a n d D i e  M u s i k i n G e s c h i c h t e und G e g e n w a r t . " 2 R a o u l B r e v a n n e s , "Le p i a n i s t e A u g u s t P i e r r e t , " M u s i c a no. 71 ( A u g u s t 1 9 0 8 ) : 127. " 3 F e l i c i e n G r e t r y , " V i c t o r S t a u b , " M u s i c a no. 69 (May 1 9 0 8 ) : 79. 82 performing the music of Schubert, Schumann, Chopin and L i s z t , and was l a t e r c r e d i t e d with performances of Saint-Saens and engagements at the Concerts Colonne and Lamoureux.* 4 Lucien Wurmser i s best remembered as the founder of a P a r i s piano s c h o o l . 4 5 Other v i r t u o s i c o n c e r t i z i n g at t h i s time i n c l u d e A l f r e d C o r t o t , Jan Padrewski, Raoul Pugno, and Antoine Rubenstein. Due to e x t e n s i v e and h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l c o n c e r t i z i n g abroad, these performers a t t a i n e d r e c o g n i t i o n and prominence in h i s t o r y . U n l i k e the former group of p i a n i s t s , r e c i t a l programs by C o r t o t , Padrewski, and Rubenstein were con c e n t r a t e d with works by Beethoven, Schumann, Chopin, L i s z t , Brahms and Cezar Franck, which g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l musical t a s t e of the time. In a d d i t i o n to reviews and r e c i t a l programs, Musica c o n t a i n s numerous i l l u s t r a t i o n s d e a l i n g with these a r t i s t s . Included i s even a photograph of the young prodigy A r t u r Rubenstein, whose resemblance to h i s l a t e r day appearance i s r a t h e r s t a r t l i n g ( F i g u r e 21). C o n t r i b u t i o n s from reputed teachers i n c l u d e those of I s i d o r e P h i l i p p and L o u i s Diemer. P h i l i p p , a p r o f e s s o r at the P a r i s C o n s e r v a t o i r e , wrote a t o t a l of ten a r t i c l e s on v a r i o u s t o p i c s . His a n a l y t i c a l s e r i e s on i n t e r p r e t i n g Chopin's piano works, i n c l u d i n g the p r e l u d e s , etudes, b a l l a d s , impromptus and waltzes, i s designed f o r amateurs. Another study on Bach's 4"Guy Aret , "Le p i a n i s t e Lazare-Levy," Musica no. 101 (February 1911): 19. 4 5 L e nevue de Rameau, "Une e c o l e de piano," Musica no. 38 (November 1905): 172. 83 F i g u r e 21 - A r t u r Rubenstein i n 1905 (January 1905, p. 9) Prelude and Fugue No. 20 in A minor giv e s some i n d i c a t i o n of P h i l i p p ' s romantic approach. He advised that the Prelude be played not too q u i c k l y and " l e plus simplement p o s s i b l e . " The Fugue should a l s o be played slowly and " t r e s l i e , " with "chaque note ayant son i n t e r e t " and "un t r e s l e g e r r i t e n u t o a l a f i n de 84 chaque phrase."" 6 T h i s d i f f e r s from modern i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s where tempi are g e n e r a l l y much f a s t e r and a portamento touch i s f r e q u e n t l y employed i n c o n j u n c t i o n with p e d a l . R i t a r d s are u s u a l l y used s p a r i n g l y and c e r t a i n l y not performed r e g u l a r l y at the 'end of each phrase.' The eminent P a r i s C o n s e r v a t o i r e piano p r o f e s s o r L o u i s Diemer wrote two a r t i c l e s f o r Musica. One of these i s an i n t r o d u c t i o n to F r a n c o i s Couperin's keyboard music.' 7 Diemer attempted to r e v i v e French h a r p s i c h o r d music and through the a i d of o t hers l i k e Saint-Saens, who p u b l i s h e d a complete e d i t i o n of Rameau, he set the stage f o r the famed v i r t u o s o Wanda Landowska. She was an extremely popular f i g u r e i n these e a r l y years and wrote seven a r t i c l e s f o r Mus i c a , which do not reappear i n her c o l l e c t i o n of e s s a y s . " 8 Some of Landowska's a r t i c l e s are h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s , such as "Les a n c e t r e s du piano," and "comment on d i r i g e a i t l ' o r c h e s t r e a u t r e f o i s . " " 9 Others focus on Bach, Mozart, and C h o p i n . 5 0 Landowska's most unusual a r t i c l e d e s c r i b e s the Russian n o v e l i s t T o l s t o y ' s i n t e r e s t i n piano * 6 I . P h i l i p p , "Le Prelude et Fugue No. 20 de Bach," Musica no. 114 (March 1912): 57. " 7 L o u i s Diemer, " F r a n c o i s Couperin, par L o u i s Diemer." Musica no. 126 (March 1913): 57. ""^Wanda Landowska, Music of the Past, t r a n s . W i l l i a m Aspenwall Bradley. (London: G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1926). * 9Idem, "Les a n c e t r e s du piano," Musica no. 76 (January 1909): 5-6; Idem, "Comment on d i r i g e a i t l ' o r c h e s t r e a u t r e f o i s , " Musica no. 80 (May 1909): 69. ^Idem, "Les oeuvres de c l a v e c i n de J . S. Bach," Musica no. 61 (October 1907): 156-57; Idem, "Mozart c l a v e c i n i s t e et p i a n i s t e , " Musica no. 43 ( A p r i l 1906): 52; Idem, "L'oeuvre de Chopin et son i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , " Musica no. 70 ( J u l y 1908): 99-100. 5'Idem, " T o l s t o y M u s i c i e n , " Musica no. 69 (June 1908): 95. 85 m u s i c , 5 1 which i n c l u d e s a p r i c e l e s s photograph of T o l s t o y a t the p i a n o ( F i g u r e 2 2 ) . Another i n t e r e s t i n g photograph p i c t u r e s F i g u r e 22 - Leon T o l s t o y and h i s daughter A l e x a n d r a (June 1908, p. 95) Landowska p e r f o r m i n g f o r the famous s c u l p t o r Rodin ( F i g u r e 2 3 ) . A l t h o u g h a r t i c l e s on o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s appear i n M u s i c a , few were w r i t t e n by the a c t u a l a r t i s t . Of a r t i c l e s about v i o l i n i s t s , one w i l l f i n d f e a t u r e s on P a b l o de S a r a s a t e , Eugene Ysaye, Jan K u b e l i k , Jacques T h i b a u d , Georges Enesco, A l b e r t o Bachmann, A l b e r t S p a l d i n g , B r o n i s l a w Hubermann, and Joachim. Some of the i n f o r m a t i o n found i n t h e s e a r t i c l e s o f f e r s b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a . For example, the l e s s d i s t i n g u i s h e d Joseph White i s c r e d i t e d i n M u s i c a f o r b e i n g the f i r s t t o p l a y S a i n t -86 Saens v i o l i n w o r k s . 5 2 He i s not l i s t e d in the major r e f e r e n c e F i g u r e 23 - Landowska performing f o r Rodin (January 1909, p. 6) s o u r c e s . 5 3 Other a r t i c l e s o f f e r i n t e r e s t i n g comparisons with contemporary f i n d i n g s . For example, a complete d e s c r i p t i o n of Paganini's medical c o n d i t i o n , d e r i v e d from d o c t o r ' s r e p o r t s , i s given i n one Musica a r t i c l e , 5 " but i t i n t e r e s t i n g l y c o n t a i n s 5 2 F e l i c i e n G r e t r y , "Joseph White," Musica no. 19 ( A p r i l 1904): 303. 5 3 S e e , The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y , Die Musik i n G e s c h i c h t e und  Gegenwart, and Baker's B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y of M u s i c i a n s . 5 " G a b r i e l Bernard, "Paganini vu par son medecin," Musica no. 114 (March 112): 46-47. 87 some misconceptions. Paganini's unusual appearance is interpreted as "the sign of a genius," but f i t s the description of Marfan's syndrome, also known as "spider fingers," f i r s t described in 1896. Today the syndrome is known to include a tendency to great height, long and thin hands and feet, pigeon chest, as well as defects in the eyes and cardiovascular system. 5 5 Methods of v i o l i n playing are discussed by a r e l a t i v e l y unknown teacher, Charlotte Vormese. Her feminist viewpoint, which is expressed in the following passage, i s extremely interesting considering the era: Une remarque interessante a f a i r e est que, parmi les eleves, on trouve plus d'aptitudes chez les jeunes f i l l e s que chez les jeunes gens. E l l e s ont les doigts naturellement plus d e l i e s , leur corps est plus souple, e l l e s mettent de la delicatesse la ou les hommes mettent de la force. De plus, e l l e s ont en general plus de perseverance a l'etude, s i bien que je n'hesite pas a affirmerjqu'en general et a e g a l i t e de dispositions 1'eleve-femme doit battre 1'eleve-homme. Comment se f a i t - i l ; a l o r s, q u ' i l n'y a i t pas d'artistes-femmes aussi i l l u s t r e s que les Sarasate ou les Jacques Thibaud? A cela, je repondra par un simple mot: mariage... 5 6 Other a r t i c l e s that add:to our knowledge of v i o l i n i s t s are those on v i o l i n builders. The great Parisian firms Cremone and Francais are featured and there i s even an a r t i c l e on 5 5 W i l l i a m Boyd, A Textbook of Pathology, 8th ed. (Philadelphia: Lea andFebiger, 1970), pp. 1323-24. 5 6 C h a r l o t t e Vormese, "Les positions du v i o l i n i s t e , " Musica no. 3 (December 1902): 38. 88 S t r a d i v a r i u s c o n s t u c t i o n w r i t t e n by A l b e r t C a r e s s a . 5 7 Although c o n s t r u c t i o n d e t a i l s are not given, t h i s i n c l u s i o n might be of some value to the contemporary instrument b u i l d e r f o r i t s i l l u s t r a t i o n s . D i f f e r e n t models are shown from which comparative s t u d i e s c o u l d be made. A l i s t of S t r a d i v a r i u s owners, the date of t h e i r instruments, and purchasing p r i c e are a l s o g i v e n . I t i s noted that Jan Kubelik owned one of the o l d e s t v i o l i n s d a t i n g 1687; Ysaye owned a 1731; and Sarasate, a 1713 and 1724 model. The average p r i c e , quoted i n 1905, was 50.000 f r a n c s . 5 8 Popular c e l l i s t s performing i n P a r i s i n c l u d e d Jacques Thibaud, Joseph Hollmann, and Pablo C a s a l s . In an a r t i c l e w r i t t e n by Thibaud, proper techniques and p o s i t i o n i n g f o r male performers are e x p l a i n e d : On d o i t s ' a s s e o i r sur l e bord de sa c h a i s e , p l a c e r l e v i o l o n c e l l e entre ses jambes, l e s pieds en avant et sur une l i g n e presque p a r a l l e l e , l e p i e d gauche legerement p l u s avance. Le genou d r o i t se pla c e dans le c h a n c r u r e et sur l e rebord de l a t a b l e du dessus, d i t e " t a b l e d'harmonie; et gauche sur l e rebord de l a t a b l e du dessous; appuyer legerement sur l a p o i t r i n e , se t e n i r d r o i t , mais sans aucune r a i d e u r . 5 9 A r t i c l e s by Mme C. Boucherit-Larronde and M. J . Loeb d e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n i n g f o r female performers. Rather than 5 7 B r e t i g n y , "Une maison de l u t h e r i e F r a n g a i s , " Musica no. 38 (November 1905): 175; A l b e r t Caressa, "Le l u t h e r i e S t r a d i v a r i u s , " Musica no. 30 (March 1905): 41-43. 5 8 G e o r g e s L e f e v r e , "Comment on f a b r i q u e un v i o l o n de 50.000 f r a n c s , " Musica no. 33 (June 1905): 95. 5 9 F r a n c i s Thibaud, "Une legon de v i o l o n c e l l e , " Musica no. 11 (August 1903): 173. 89 s t r a d d l e the instrument, women were advised to s i t i n a more d i g n i f i e d way: E l l e d o i t s'asseorr sur l e bord de l a c h a i s e , avancer legerement l e p i e d gauche.et i n c l i n e r l e genou vers l a gauche, t a n d i s que l a jambe d r o i t e se r e p l i e en a r r i e r e et que l e p i e d d i s p a r a i t sous l a robe. La jambe d r o i t est a i n s i , en p a r t i e , cachee. Le v i o l o n c e l l e est tenu d r o i t devant s o i , on l ' a p p u i e sur l a jambe gauche et on l e m a i n t i e n t contre l e genou d r o i t . L'instrument e s t , de c e t t e facon, parfaitement s o l i d e , et l a pose n'est pas l a i d e . 6 0 In defense of women c e l l i s t s , B oucherit-Larronde f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t : Cet instrument, tout de charme et de melodie, convient au c o n t r a i r e admirablement a l a nature de l a femme. I l est reveur, i l est melancolique; i l demande beaucoup de nuances et de sentiment; i l n'est pas un simple instrument de v i r t u o s i t e . Les r e s u l t a t s des concours du C o n s e r v a t o i r e sont l a pour prouver l ' e x a c t i t u d e de ce que j'avance. T r o i s des premiers p r i x sur quatre ont ete remportes par des femmes, M i l e s Reboul, de l a B o u g l i s e et B i t s c h , l a i s s a n t d e r r i e r e e l l e s bien des camarades hommes.6 1 The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the chromatic harp i n 1897 by the P a r i s i a n P l e y e l f i r m prompted d i s c u s s i o n about t h i s recent i n v e n t i o n . In 1903, a chromatic harp c l a s s was o f f e r e d by Mme Tassu-Spencer at the P a r i s C o n s e r v a t o i r e , which w i t h i n a year, i n f l u e n c e d other C o n s e r v a t o i r e s i n B r u s e l l e s , L i l l e , Nimes, and S a i n t - E t i e n n e to conduct s i m i l a r programs. I t was e x p l a i n e d that the harp was p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d to female performers: 6 0 C . Boucherit-Larronde, "Le v i o l o n c e l l e chez l a femme," Musica no. 11 (September 1903): 191. ^ I b i d . 90 La harpe, cet instrument de haute p o e s i e , e st sans egale pour f a v o r i s e r l a beaute de l ' a t t i t u d e , l e galbe du bras, l a seduction d'une nuque j o l i m e n t degagee ou d'une t a i l l e noblement d r a p e e . 6 2 In 1905, Mme Wurmser-Delcourt, with a performance of Debussy's two Danses w r i t t e n e s p e c i a l l y f o r chromatic harp, i s h a i l e d as one of the most remarkable h a r p i s t s of the t i m e . 6 3 Other performers, of the double a c t i o n harp, were M i l e Marguerite Archard and M. Alphonse Hasselmans. A c o n t r i b u t i o n by Joesph Baggers, f i r s t p e r c u s s i o n i s t at the Opera-Comique, i n c l u d e s some h i s t o r i c a l data on kettle-drum p l a y e r s . Eminent composers such as B e r l i o z , H erold, Adam, Sermet, Emile Pessard, L o u i s Varney, C h a b r i e r , Massenet, and d'Indy, s u r p r i s i n g l y played the kettle-drum, and many f r e q u e n t l y performed at l e a d i n g t h e a t e r s . Adam, f o r example, was a k e t t l e -drum p l a y e r at the Odeon. Sermet, f o r many years, was engaged at the Opera-Comique and Pessard at the Opera. Varney h e l d a post at the Theatre des I t a l i e n s , and, at the S o c i e t e N a t i o n a l and Concerts Colonne, Chabrier and d'Indy performed kettle-drum r e s p e c t i v e l y . In h i s Methode des Instruments a p e r c u s s i o n , B e r l i o z even encouraged composers to master t h i s instrument: I l semble que jouer des timbales est chose f a c i l e . C'est une e r r e u r ! Toute personne qui b l o u s e r a i t des timbales sans en a v o i r vraiment a p p r i s 6 2 G e o r g e s Regnal, "La harp chromatique en France et a l ' e t r a n g e r , " Musica no. 21 (June 1904): 334. 6 3 G a s t o n Carraud, "La harpe chromatique," Musica no. 28 (January 1905): 14. 91 methodiquement l e maniement, ne f e r a jamais un bon t i m b a l i e r . 6 * It seems that French composers of t h i s time s t u d i e d kettle-drum in order to l e a r n how to i n c o r p o r a t e p e r c u s s i o n e f f e c t s i n t o music. On t h i s s u b j e c t , Baggers s t a t e d : I l e x i s t e t r e s peu de methodes completes ayant t r a i t a tous l e s instruments a p e r c u s s i o n employes dans l e s o r c h e s t r e s , et ce n'est l e plus souvent que par habitude, que 1'on se f a m i l i a r i s e avec l e s d i f f i c u l t e s des timbales ou des au t r e s a c c e s s o i r e s de b a t t e r i e u t i l i s e s dans l ' o r c h e s t r e . 6 5 The f a c t that so many accomplished composers were kettle-drum p l a y e r s proved i n Baggers' o p i n i o n that "...pour e t r e t i m a b a l i e r , i l faut e t r e bon m u s i c i e n . " 6 6 Kettle-drum i n s t r u c t i o n was introduced at the C o n s e r v a t o i r e N a t i o n a l with Baggers as p r o f e s s o r , and com p e t i t i o n s were even e s t a b l i s h e d . In a 1911 Mus i c a i s s u e , the f i r s t C o n s e r v a t o i r e p e r c u s s i o n competition i s reviewed. The p u b l i c enthusiasm f o r t h i s event i s evidenced i n the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of the crowds: Un p u b l i c e x t r a - c h i c , c e l u i des grands j o u r s , en un mot, se p r e s s a i t h i e r , des une heure, sur l e s marches de notre second T h e a t r e - F r a n c a i s [L'Opera-Comique]. Les p l u s j o l i e s femmes coudoyaient l e s a r t i s t e s l e s plus n o t o i r e s . . . L e s p l a c e s detenues par 6 " H e c t o r B e r l i o z , Methode des instruments a p e r c u s s i o n , quoted i n Joseph Baggers, "Les t i m b a l i e r s , " Musica no. 52 (January 1907): 12. 6 5 J o s e p h Baggers, "Les t i m a b a l i e r s , " Musica no. 52 (January 1907): 12. 6 6 I b i d . 92 l e s c a f e s v o i s i n s s ' e n l e v a i e n t a des p r i x f o r t s : 100 f r a n c s un s t r a p o n t i n d ' o r c h e s t r e , s ' i l vous p l a i t ; et des une heure et demie l a s a l l e e t a i t c o mble. 6 7 A l i s t of d i s t i n g u i s h e d j u r y members demonstrates that t h i s was not an i n s i g n i f i c a n t happening. I t i n c l u d e d as p r e s i d e n t G a b r i e l Faure, s e c r e t a r y Fernand Bourgeat, and a s s i s t a n t s Paul V i d a l , Messager, Rabaud, G a b r i e l P i e r n e , Paul Dukas, C h e v i l l a r d , Ruhlmann, F l o r e n t Schmitt, Hasselmans, Ravel, G r o v l e z , V i z e n t i n i , and L a f i t t e . 6 8 Because of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n dance and f a s c i n a t i o n with the c a p t i v a t i n g " b a l l e t s r u s s e s , " Musica p u b l i s h e d s e v e r a l s p e c i a l dance i s s u e s f e a t u r i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n s from dancers. In a 1912 i s s u e , a r t i c l e s were w r i t t e n by such famous c l a s s i c a l b a l l e r i n a s as M a r i q u i t a , Regina Badet, Marthe Chenal, and C a r l o t t a Z a m b e l l i . T h e i r w r i t i n g s Confirm the p o p u l a r i t y of pantomine or what was termed " l a danse de c a r a c t e r e . " On t h i s s u b j e c t , Badet s t a t e d t h a t : ...depuis p l u s i e u r s annees, l a danse de c a r a c t e r e a p r i s l e pas - c'est l e mot - sur l a danse c l a s s i q u e . Meme sur l e s plus grandes scenes l y r i q u e s on v o i t l e t u t u t r a d i t i o n n e l remplace souvent par des costumes evoquant un pays l o i n t a i n , une epoque a n c i e n n e . 6 9 The costumes r e f e r r e d to and seen i n numerous photographs were G r e e k - s t y l e togas. T h i s was the v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of an attempt to d u p l i c a t e the a n c i e n t Greek mime t r a d i t i o n . In a 6 7 J a c q u e s de Bircoux, " B a t t e r i e . . . F e u de toutes p i e c e s . . . , " Musica no. 110 (November 1911): 213. ^ I b i d . 6 9 R e g i n a Badet, "Danses grecques et danses modernes," Musica no. 123 (December 1912): 242. 93 review of another mime a r t i s t , Mme Magdeleine, photographs i l l u s t r a t e a v i s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Chopin's F u n e r a l March. Her performance was c i t e d i n 1904 as a " s p e c t a c l e d'une es t h e t i q u e c u r i e u s e . " 7 0 Isadora Duncan, the famous American "danseuse aux pieds nus," a c q u i r e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l fame f o r mime i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . She danced to the music of Bach, Gluck, Beethoven, Chopin, Schubert, and Wagner. In an a r t i c l e w r i t t e n by her, Wagner was e s p e c i a l l y p r a i s e d for being " l e musicien de l a danse," because of h i s b e l i e f i n a r t i s t i c t o t a l i t y . 7 1 Of contemporary composers, Duncan was s u r p r i s i n g l y c r i t i c a l . Apres beaucoup d'annees d'etudes, je s u i s a r r i v e e a c e t t e c o n c l u s i o n que l e rhythme n a t u r e l du corps et l e rythme de l a musique contemporaine e t a i e n t en complet d i s a c c o r d . Les compositeurs ont perdu l e sentiment de l'humanite en musique; i l s e c r i v e n t une musique a b s t r a i t e , s c i e n t i f i q u e , qui a ses q u a l i t e s p a r t i c u l i e r e s , mais r i e n d'humain. Le geste l e p l u s simple ne trouve pas dans l e u r s notes une l i g n e ou i l p u i s s e s ' i n s c r i r e . Meme, dans ses mouvements r a p i d e s , l e corps n'a pas l e temps d'un geste, sur l e u r mus i q u e . 7 2 It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that Duncan found i t d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t contemporary music and that at a time when rhythm as a musical element was being e x p l o i t e d i n composition, she r e v e r r e d c l a s s i c and romantic music f o r dance purposes. An unusual dance p r a c t i s e i n opera i s d i s c u s s e d by Chenal. 7 0 M a u r i c e G u i l l e m o t , "L'extase musicale," Musica no. 17 (February 1904): 263-65. 7 ' I s a d o r a Duncan, "Ce que d e v r a i t e t r e l a danse," Musica no. 123 (December 1912): 240. 7 2 I b i d . 94 In 1912, she s t a t e d that i t was customary i n Germany for dancers to assume s i n g e r s ' r o l e s when they r e q u i r e d dancing. ...une e t o i l e de b a l l e t se s u b s t i t u e r a l a c a n t a t r i c e au moment de l a danse de Salome par exemple. 7 3 T h i s was not n e c e s s a r i l y the case i n France, although dancers were t r a i n e d to do so. Chenal was noted f o r her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s e g u e d i l l e in Carmen. The " b a l l e t s r u s ses" were i n t r o d u c e d to P a r i s at the Theatre du C h a t e l e t in 1909 under the d i r e c t i o n of Sergei D i a g h i l e v . Such legendary dancers and choreographers as Pavlova, N i j i n s k y , K a r s a v i n a , and Fokine danced to Chopin's piano music i n Les S y l p h i d e s ( o r c h e s t r a t e d by S t r a v i n s k y ) , Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade, Schumann's Carnaval and Adolphe Adam's Gi s e l l e . In 1910, the group performed S t r a v i n s k y ' s L'Oiseau de Feu, followed in:1911 and 1913 by Petrushka and Le Sacre du printemps, r e s p e c t i v e l y . As noted i n the s e c t i o n on c r i t i c s , reviews of these works in Musica are very p o s i t i v e . Of L'Oiseau de Feu, Raoul Brevannes thought i t to be " . . . l e p l u s grands evenement a r t i s t i q u e de c e t t e [1910] s a i s o n de b a l l e t s r u s s e s . " 7 " Petrushka was not s i n g l e d out per se, but the e n t i r e dance program c o n s i s t i n g of Theophile G a u t i e r ' s Spectre de l a  Rose, Paul Dukas' La P e r i , Rimsky-Korsakov's Sadko, and Tcherepnine's N a r c i s s e , as w e l l as other works, was h i g h l y 7 3 M a r t h e Chenal, "Du chant et de l a danse," Musica no. 123 (December 1912): 246. 7"Raoul Brevannes, "Les b a l l e t s russes a l'Opera," Musica no. 95 (August 1910): 119. 95 acclaimed. Emile V u i l l e r m o z remarked t h a t : "Les s a i s o n s de b a l l e t s ou d'operas organisees j u s q u ' i c i du C h a t e l e t ont fausse notre judgement par l e u r p e r f e c t i o n anormale et l e u r o r i e n t a t i o n t r o p e l e v e e . " 7 5 In a l a t e r i s s u e , V u i l l e r m o z commented on the impact of " l e s b a l l e t s r u s s e s " on French a e s t h e t i c s : Apres l e s plus b r i l l a n t e s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n e t r a n g e r e s , en e f f e c t , l e p u b l i c f r a n g a i s r e v e n a i t t o u j o u r s assez rapidement de son emerveillement et r e t r o u v a i t sans d e p l a i s e r l e s a r t i s t e s de ses propres t h e a t r e s ; mais, apres l a r e v e l a t i o n des b a l l e t s r u s s e s, i l nous f u t impossible de recouvrer l a paix h a b i t u e l l e de notre conscience a r t i s t i q u e . 7 6 "La fougue, l a t u r b u l e n c e , l a sauvagerie et l a f r e n e s i e " of the Russian troupe i s admired. V u i l l e r m o z says there i s a new excitement about the "danse masculine," which in French b a l l e t has always had the e f f e c t of a ' v i s comica.' The r e v o l u t i o n a r y new sets and costumes by Leon Bakst are a l s o h i g h l y p r a i s e d : . . . l e s Russes nous s t u p e f i e r e n t par l'eloquence de l e u r s suggestions d e c o r a t i v e s obtenues par une s i m p l i c i t y de moyens presque paradoxale. Par l e seule v e r t u d'une couleur bien c h o i s i e , d'une o p p o s i t i o n de tons intelligemment c a l c u l e e , i l nous o u v r i r e n t l e s p o r t e s du r e v e . 7 7 Other c r i t i c s i n Mus i c a were a l s o p o s i t i v e . Robert B r u s s e l recognized that the b a l l e t s russes had a profond e f f e c t on 7 5 E m i l e V u i l l e r m o z , "Themes et V a r i a t i o n s : La double Russie," Musica no. 105 (June 1911): 105. 7 6Idem, "Les b a l l e t s r u s s e s , " Musica no. 123 (December 1912): 255. 7 7 I b i d . , p. 256. 96 French composers. 7 8 Ravel, Debussy, and l a t e r , Strauss, De F a l l a , Milhaud, Satie, Prokofiev, Honegger, Hindemith, Poulenc, and Bartok, wrote music for this i n f l u e n t i a l dance troupe. Indeed, the burgeoning popularity of b a l l e t in general was due to the Russian influence. This topic is explored in an a r t i c l e by Henry Malherbe. 7 9 The only negative reviews in Musica regarding the "ballets russes" dealt with Debussy's Jeux and Stravinsky's Sacre du  Printemps, both performed in 1913. Xavier Leroux, l i k e the majority of c r i t i c s of his time, was extremely c r i t i c a l of Nijinsky's avante-garde choreography: Cette annee [1913], helas, j ' a i subi une c r u e l l e deception en entendant Jeux de Debussy et le Sacre du  printemps de Stravinsky. M. Nijinsky, qui regla la choregraphie de ces deux oeuvres, a trahi les musiciens, et c'est la une faute . impardonnable. Jeux est une des p a r t i t i o n s les plus delicates, le plus su b t i l e s , les plus elegantes de l'auteur du Prglude a  1' Apre"s-midi d'un Faune. Pour cette musique ondulante, modulante, fuyante, aux arabesques etranges et mollement arrondies. : M. Nijinsky a imagine des pas et des gestes sees, saccades, etriques, cassants. Nul disaccord n'est plus s t u p i d e . 8 0 In contrast to Leroux, Emile Vuillermoz defended performances of these works. He praised Nijinsky both as a dancer and choreographer: 7 8Robert Brussel, "La musique des b a l l e t s russes," Musica no. 123 (December 1912): 258. 7 9Henry Malherbe, "La renaissance du b a l l e t francais," Musica no. 140 (May 1914): 94-95. ^ X a v i e r Leroux, "La saison Russe," Musica no. 131 (August 1913): 154. 97 Depuis longtemps l a cause de l a t e l e g r a p h i e optique en usage dans l e s corps de b a l l e t n'est plu s defendue. On s'est e n f i n b l a s e sur 1 ' i n g e n i o s i t e du p e t i t v o c a b u l a i r e c o n ventionnel qui s e r v a i t a t r a d u i r e l e s sentiments de l'humanite dansante. Les deux paumes ramenees sous l e s e i n gauche pour avouer l'amour n a i s s a n t , l e c e r c l e d e c r i t autour du v i s a g e par une main e x t a s i e e pour en e x a l t e r l e s agrements, l a gamme des i n f l e x i o n s de poignet qui correspond a l a conjugaison de c e r t a i n s verbes, tout cet alphabet de sourds-muets est devenu profondement r i d i c u l e . Personne ne pourra serieusement reprocher a N i j i n s k y d ' a v o i r voulu e l i m i n e r de l a danse tout ce f a t r a s de gestes p u e r i l s et d ' a v o i r cherche a t r a d u i r e par des moyens plus nobles et plus a r t i s t i q u e s l e s emotions d'un heros de b a l l e t . 8 1 In the performance of Jeux, V u i l l e r m o z recognized s u r r e a l i s t i c q u a l i t i e s , where emotions are abandoned and " l a danse i d e a l i s e r a et immobilisera l e s r e f l e t s de 1'ame." These are transformed i n t o "...marionnettes i d e a l e s , en poupees d i v i n e s au visage i m p a s s i b l e , au s o u r i r e f i g e , aux yeux d'email g l a c e . " 8 2 Enhancing Musica's coverage of the " b a l l e t s r u s s e s " performances are innumerable photographs of s e t s and costumes. Impressive photographs of Pavlova and N i j i n s k y , and Karsavina and N i j i n s k y , show the p a i r s i n r a t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l dress in e a r l i e r performances, l i k e Les S y l p h i d e s (Figure 24). The c o n v e n t i o n a l t u t u i s abandoned i n S t r a v i n s k y ' s b a l l e t t r i l o g y , which can be seen i n double-page photographs of scenes from L'Oiseau de feu 8 3 and P e t r u s h k a . 8 " Costumes f o r other b a l l e t s 8 1 E m i l e V u i l l e r m o z , "Examen de c o n s c i e n c e , " Musica no. 131 (August 1913): 154. 8 2 I b i d . 8 3 M u s i c a no. 104 (May 1911): 90 - 9 1 . B"Musica no. 123 (December 1912): 248-49. 98 F i g u r e 24 - P a v l o v a and N i j i n s k y (June 1909, p. 85) l i k e Sadko, N a r c i s s e , and F o k i n e ' s S p e c t r e de l a Rose were even more i m a g i n a t i v e and u n u s u a l , demonstrated i n y e t a n o t h e r s t u n n i n g photograph of N i j i n s k y i n t h i s l a t t e r w o r k . 8 5 A l t h o u g h t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s s o p p o s i t i o n t o what was c a l l e d " l a guerre du t u t u , " the Fr e n c h were q u i c k l y i n f l u e n c e d by new 5 I b i d . , p. 264. 99 concepts i n des i g n . The s e t s and costumes f o r Ravel's Ma Mere  1'Oye, f o r example, were designed by Dresa and c i t e d f o r t h e i r "tendences r u s s e s . " 8 6 Performance groups f e a t u r e d to a l e s s e r degree i n Musica i n c l u d e chamber music ensembles, bands, c h o r a l and ins t r u m e n t a l s o c i e t i e s . Of chamber music groups, s t r i n g q u a r t e t s were t r e a t e d most f r e q u e n t l y . Featured are the P a r i s i a n Quartets Parent, Hayot, S e c h i a r i , L e d e r e r - L i e g e o i s , Marcel C h a i l l e y , and the h i g h l y respected L e f o r t and Lucien Capet Q u a r t e t s . B r i e f l y mentioned i s the less-prominent all-women's Rime-Saintel Quartet and f o r e i g n groups such as the Meiningen and Rotterdam T r i o s , the Vienna Rose Quartet, and B r u s s e l s Schorglde Quartet. The usual program, e s p e c i a l l y f o r the Capet Quartet, i n c l u d e d works by Beethoven. However, in a 1903 review of an Edvard G r i e g performance with the Johannes Wolff Quartet, the concert c o n s i s t e d e x c l u s i v e l y of G r i e g c o m p o s i t i o n s . 8 7 His Quartet and Sonata f o r Piano and V i o l o n i n C minor were performed, a l o n g s i d e l i e d e r and piano r e p e t o i r e . Other prominent groups c i t e d i n c l u d e a wind ensemble, and a wind and s t r i n g ensemble. The S o c i e t e de Musique de Chambre pour Instruments a Vent, founded i n 1879 by f l a u t i s t Paul T a f f a n e l , aimed to r e v i v e c l a s s i c a l wind music, and i n s p i r e modern composers to w r i t e f o r t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e s . 8 8 Works by 8 6 Musica no. 123 (December 1912): 259. 87M.D. C a l v o c o r e s s i , "Edv. G r i e g et l e Quatuor Johannes W o l f f , " Musica no. 9 (June 1903): 132. 8 8Dominique Boulay, "La S o c i e t e de Musique de Chambre pour Instruments a Vent," Musica no. 19 ( A p r i l 1904): 301. . 1 0 0 Bach, Handel, Mozart, and Beethoven were given at the S o c i e t e des Concerts du C o n s e r v a t o i r e , the Concerts Lamoureux, the Opera and Opera-Comique. In a d d i t i o n they t r a v e l l e d to B e r l i n where they were ' e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y r e c e i v e d . ' L i k e t h i s group, the Double Q u i n t e t t e or S o c i e t e de Musique de Chambre pour Instruments a Vent had s i m i l a r aims. Founded i n 1905, i t s o b j e c t i v e s were to perform c l a s s i c a l and modern r e p e t o i r e , and to give composers a new c o m p o s i t i o n a l medium to e x p l o r e . 8 9 T h i s group was p a r t i c u l a r l y favored i n Germany at the F r a n k f o r t Museum S o c i e t y . Bands seemed to. regain, p o p u l a r i t y at t h i s time. With John P h i l i p Sousa's 1903 v i s i t to P a r i s , t h e r e w a s a new wave of enthusiasm f o r marching bands. The most prominent French band was the Garde R e p u b l i c a i n e , a m i l i t a r y band e s t a b l i s h e d since 1867. I t gave many l o c a l c o n c e r t s in P a r i s and surrounding p r o v i n c e s . In 1871, i t p l a y e d ' a t the London I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n and a year l a t e r , in Boston, Chicago, P i t t s b u r g , Brooklyn, C i n c i n n a t i , P h i l a d e l p h i a , B a l t i m o r e , New York, and Montreal. Under the d i r e c t i o n of G a b r i e l Pares, from 1892 to 1910, there was a new emphasis on r e p e t o i r e . Pares arranged and / composed many works. Although arrangements of music by contemporary composers were performed, one a r t i c l e s t a t e s that Wagner's music was favored i n h i s programs. 9 0 T h i s i s l a t e r commented on by Emile V u i l l e r m o z i n an a r t i c l e appearing in a 8 9Remy F a s o l t , "Le Double Q u i n t e t t e , " Musica no. 44 (May 1906): 76. 9 0 J . L . I t h i e r , "La musique de l a Garde R e p u b l i c a i n e , " Musica no. 22 ( J u l y 1904): 350. 101 1913 issue devoted to m i l i t a r y music. Rather than a r r a n g i n g works by Debussy or Wagner, V u i l l e r m o z argued for the n e c e s s i t y of independent band l i t e r a t u r e , and c r i t i c i z e d composers f o r not e x p l o r i n g t h i s vast instrumental and symphonic medium. 9 1 Other notable a r t i c l e s in t h i s issue i n c l u d e a survey of m i l i t a r y chansons d a t i n g from the s i x t e e n t h to n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , 9 2 and one w r i t t e n by the 1910 Garde R e p u b l i c a i n e leader Guillaume B a l a y . 9 3 Choral music a l s o became i n c r e a s i n g l y popular. In 1892, C h a r l e s Bordes founded Les chanteurs de S a i n t - G e r v a i s with the o b j e c t of c u l t i v a t i n g r e l i g i o u s and c h o r a l music. T h i s group was h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d as reviews in 1904 and 1908 i s s u e s of Musica i n d i c a t e . S o l o i s t Jeanne Raunay and composer-conductor V i n c e n t d'Indy were frequent a r t i s t s . Programs i n c l u d e d works by Josquin des Pres, Roland de Lassus, Guillaume C o s t e l e y , C l a u d i n de Sermisy, Clement Jannequin, P a l e s t r i n a and Bach. Both Les chanteurs and the Schola Cantorium, founded by Bordes in c o l l a b o r a t i o n with Alexandre Guilmant and Vincent d'Indy, are c i t e d as being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a r e v i v a l of French c h o r a l music. 9" Indeed, press coverage of church c h o i r s at S a i n t -C l o t i l d e , S a i n t - A u g u s t i n , S a i n t - V i n c e n t - d e - P a u l , T r i n i t e , Notre-Dame-des-Champs, and Saint-Sever i n , show the ressurgence of 9 1 E m i l e V u i l l e r m o z , "Musique m i l i t a i r e , " Musica no. 125 (February 1913): 26-27. 9 2 G e n e r a l Noix, "Vieux a i r s et v i e i l l e s chansons," Musica no. 125 (February 1913): 36-39. 9 3 G u i l l a u m e Balay, "La musique de l a Garde R e p u b l i c a i n e , " Musica no. 125 (February 1913): 32. ^ G e o r g e s P i o c h , "Les chanteurs de S a i n t - G e r v a i s , " Musica no. 71 (August 1908): 119. 102 music i n r e l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . Even s e c u l a r s o c i e t i e s , l i k e Les Amis des C a t h e d r a l e s , were formed to promote r e l i g i o u s music performances. 9 5 A r t i c l e s on conductors and conducting o c a s s i o n a l l y supply i n f o r m a t i o n on performance p r a c t i s e s . Prominent conductors of the time i n c l u d e F e l i x Weingartner, S i e g f r i e d Wagner, Ri c h a r d S t r a u s s , Hans R i c h t e r , Gustave Mahler, Edouard Colonne, C a m i l l e C h e v i l l a r d , and Andre Messager. There are s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s about these conductors but the only ones to w r i t e about themselves or t h e i r work were Edouard Colonne, C a m i l l e C h e v i l l a r d , and Henri Busser. Past performances of B e r l i o z ' s La  Damnation de Faust were r e c a l l e d by Colonne, who was one of the most admired conductors of h i s t i m e . 9 6 Other performances given by Colonne were d i s c u s s e d by C h a r l e s Malherbe, a c o m p o s e r - c r i t i c and Opera l i b r a r i a n , and by J u l i e n Torchet, whose a r t i c l e appeared a f t e r Colonne's death i n 1910. 9 7 The Opera conductor Busser commented on v a r i o u s aspects of conducting. T h i s i n c l u d e d h i s c o n t e n t i o n that a good conductor must have "long arms" and be a b l e to d i r e c t works from d i f f e r e n t s t y l e p e r i o d s . 9 8 C h e v i l l a r d , the noted composer and son-in-law of C h a r l e s Lamoureux, p u b l i s h e d an account of h i s experiences at 9 5 G a b r i e l G r o v l e z , "Les Amis des C a t h e d r a l e s , " Musica no. 142 ( J u l y 1914): 140-41. 9 6 E d o u a r d Colonne, " B e r l i o z et l e s Concerts Colonne," Musica no. 66 (March 1908): 37. 9 7 C h a r l e s Malherbe, "Edouard Colonne et ses c o n c e r t s , " Musica no. 14 (November 1903): 215-16; J u l i e n Torchet, "Souvenirs sur Edouard Colonne," Musica no. 92 (May 1910): 75. 9 8 H e n r i Busser, "Une c l a s s e de c h e f s d ' o r c h e s t r e , " Musica no. 122 (November 1912): 231-32. 1 03 Bayreuth which in c l u d e d impressions of the Wagnerian conductors F e l i x M o t t l and S i e g f r i e d Wagner. Wagner was d e s c r i b e d as p o s s e s s i n g " q u a l i t e s d'energie et de f o r c e " i n h i s c o n d u c t i n g , " which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y apparent in ink drawings of t h i s conductor in motion. Deserving s p e c i a l mention i s an obscure conductor Gertrude S t e i n e r who i s noted as the f i r s t female guest conductor i n Germany in 1 9 0 6 . 1 0 0 The appearance of music s o c i e t i e s and i n s t r u m e n t a l a s s o c i a t i o n s was a r e l a t i v e l y new phenomenon. Many s o c i e t i e s were c r e a t e d to promote the music of a c e r t a i n composer. These i n c l u d e the Bach, C h e r u b i n i , R o s s i n i , Mozart-Haydn, and Chopin s o c i e t i e s , a l l of which were formed around the time Musica f l o u r i s h e d . Other s o c i e t i e s were concerned with performing a c e r t a i n type of r e p e t o i r e . The Bourges Philharmonic and Bordeaux S a i n t - C e c i l e S o c i e t i e s , f o r example, u s u a l l y performed contemporary works. M i s c e l l a n e o u s c o l l e c t i v e s were d e d i c a t e d to other causes. The Ut Mineur S o c i e t y , founded i n 1903 by Franz Custot, aimed to provide a s o c i a l atmosphere f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l and amateur musicians by h o s t i n g monthly d i n n e r s and c o n c e r t s . Many res p e c t e d composers and performers were i n v i t e d , such as F e l i a L i t v i n n e , Wanda Landowska, Faure, and C h e v i l l a r d . 1 0 1 I t i s s u r p r i s i n g that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n r e c e i v e d more d e t a i l e d press coverage than the S o c i e t e M u s i c a l e Independante, " C a m i l l e C h e v i l l a r d , "Mes impressions sur Bayreuth," Musica no. 2 (November 1902): 18. 1 0 0 " L e mois m u s i c a l : Une femme chef d ' o r c h e s t r e , " Musica no. 44 (May 1906): 80. 1 0'Dominique Boulay, "L'Ut Mineur," Musica no. 20 (May 1904): 310. 1 04 founded i n 1910 under the presi d e n c y of Faure. Perhaps the Ut Mineur's d i s t i n g u i s h e d a r t i s t s and patrons, i n c l u d i n g the Contesse G r e f f u h l e , P r i n c e s s Edmond de Plognac, and the Duchess Decazes, gave i t more s o c i a l prominence and p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e . The only other a s s o c i a t i o n r e c e i v i n g b r i e f mention i s an o r c h e s t r a l f e d e r a t i o n formed i n 1901. Under the d i r e c t i o n of Bruneau, C h a r p e n t i e r , Leroux, Colonne, C h e v i l l a r d , and d'Harcourt, i t s o b j e c t i v e was to improve the moral and monitary p o s i t i o n of musicians by e s t a b l i s h i n g f e d e r a t i o n r a t e s f o r o r c h e s t r a l s e r v i c e s . I t proposed a fee of s i x f r a n c s f o r s o l o i s t s , f i v e f o r f i r s t s e c t i o n leaders., and four f o r second s e c t i o n l e a d e r s , i n 1903, with an annual i n c r e a s e of one f r a n c . 1 0 2 The expanse of a r t i c l e s c o n t r i b u t e d to Musica by both performers and composers provide a wealth of in f o r m a t i o n f o r the m u s i c o l o g i s t . D e s c r i p t i o n s of i n t e r p r e t i v e techniques and prominent photographic i l l u s t r a t i o n s allow d i r e c t comparison to present-day p r a c t i s e s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y a p p l i c a b l e in costuming f o r opera and b a l l e t . Much p r e v i o u s l y unexplored b i o g r a p h i c a l and a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l data i s a v a i l a b l e . I t i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g to read a r t i c l e s r egarding the c a f e -concert near i t s height i n p o p u l a r i t y . Reviews of performances i n d i c a t e the r e p e r t o i r e and composers f e a t u r e d i n programs re p o r t e d by Musica. Accepted masters, such as Bach, Beethoven, Schumann, Chopin and L i s z t , dominate these programs to such a 1 0 2 F e l i c i e n G r e t r y , "Le sy n d i c a t des musiciens," Musica no. 9 (June 1903): 138. 105 l a r g e degree that one wonders whether t h i s r e f l e c t s popular appeal or the j o u r n a l ' s b i a s . In c o n t r a s t , there are reviews of ra t h e r c o n t r o v e r s i a l b a l l e t s and operas. The " b a l l e t s russes" i s p a r t i c u l a r l y well-known i n P a r i s d u r i n g t h i s period.. 1 Although many of t h e i r performances c r e a t e d q u i t e a f u r o r e at the time, the j o u r n a l avoided some of the co n t r o v e r s y by remaining guarded i n i t s statements. Another i n d i c a t i o n of Musica's c o n s e r v a t i v e stance appears i n rather amusing a r t i c l e s on d i f f e r e n t performance p r a c t i s e s f o r women. Some cont r o v e r s y i s allowed with r e b u t t a l s by music f e m i n i s t s of the day. 106 IV. CONCLUSION Set in the c u l t u r a l and economic prosperity of early twentieth-century Paris, Musica emerges as an a t t r a c t i v e highly i l l u s t r a t e d magazine for the perusal of the a r t i s t i c a l l y i n c l i n e d . Inspired by i l l u s t r a t e d sports magazines and intended to appeal to amateurs and professionals a l i k e , the publisher Pierre L a f i t t e f e l t t his publication would f i l l a void in music journalism. He wished to' provide a visu a l and didactic interchange of information between a r t i s t s and the public in an environment of p r o l i f e r a t i n g musical development. Musica contained o r i g i n a l material by prominent c r i t i c s , j o u r n a l i s t s , composers and performers. Their writings complemented by high quality photographs, etchings and drawings, v i s u a l l y inform the his t o r i a n on important aspects of l o c a l society and a r t i s t i c endeavor. The journalism in Musica consist mainly of reviews, biographies, and h i s t o r i c a l or special studies. Reviews supply the h i s t o r i a n with descriptions of programs, performers and concert locations. Musica's c r i t i c i s m i s generally positive and optimistic in viewpoint, and i s often more of an enthusiastic endorsement of a performance than true r e f l e c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y observed in the journal's early years under the editorships of Charles Joly and Georges Pioch. Under Leroux's d i r e c t i o n reviews became more controversial but s t i l l retained a sense of optimism. Exceptions to t h i s positivism are found in the writings of well-known c r i t i c s Henri de Curzon, Gabriel Prod'homme, Michel-Dimitri Calvocoressi, Pierre Lalo, 1 07 Michel-Gaston Carraud, Adolphe J u l l i e n , and o t h e r s . These c r i t i c s are recognized as w e l l for t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to other music j o u r n a l s and f o r t h e i r more ex t e n s i v e m u s i c o l o g i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . Many of t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to Musica have not been r e p r i n t e d . The reviews by c o m p o s e r - c r i t i c s Emile V u i l l e r m o z , G a b r i e l G r o v l e z , Raymond C h a r p e n t i e r , and Louis V u i l l e m i n , presented in the j o u r n a l ' s l a t e r years, become more comprehensive and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c o f t e n at v a r i a n c e with e i t h e r p u b l i c o p i n i o n or that of t h e i r contemporaries. C o n t r i b u t i o n s to Musica were i l l i c i t e d from many well-known composers i n regard to themselves, t h e i r work and i t s performance, as w e l l as other composers. B i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s supplemented both by the w r i t i n g s of r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s , and numerous photographs. Some of t h i s m a t e r i a l i s not a v a i l a b l e i n any other source and i s t h e r e f o r e , of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to the h i s t o r i a n . The v a r i o u s i n t e r v i e w s , peer comment and o p i n i o n p o l l s add g r e a t l y to our a p p r e c i a t i o n of contemporary musical thought. A survey of the composers f e a t u r e d i n Mus i c a demonstrates both a c o n s e r v a t i v e and n a t i o n a l i s t i c b i a s . There i s .less coverage of more c o n t r o v e r s i a l or the then l e s s e s t a b l i s h e d younger composers, such as Debussy, Ravel, Duparc, and K o e c h l i n . More avante-garde f o r e i g n composers, S c r i a b i n , Bartok, and Schoenberg, are mentioned only b r i e f l y , while others l i k e Rimsky-Korsakov, S t r a v i n s k y , R i c h a r d S t r a u s s , Edvard G r i e g , and Wagner are fe a t u r e d e x t e n s i v e l y . The f a c t that French music i s t r e a t e d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y i s understandable i n r e l a t i o n to the p o l i t i c a l 108 and economic n a t i o n a l i s m of the time. Musica, with i t s numerous a r t i c l e s by performing a r t i s t s , supplements our knowledge of that era's performance p r a c t i s e s and i n t e r p r e t i v e techniques. Much d i s c u s s i o n i s o f f e r e d by opera s i n g e r s . Chansons are d e s c r i b e d by the popular c a f e -concert performers. Pedagogical a r t i c l e s were w r i t t e n by i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s on q u e s t i o n s concerning the piano, v i o l i n , c e l l o and harp. Most of these i n c l u s i o n s have not been r e p r i n t e d . A d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e i s gained i n f e a t u r e s on the kettle-drum. A r t i c l e s on i n s t r u m e n t a l and chamber music groups, c h o i r s and bands, supply a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Musica captures the c o n t r o v e r s y and excitement of the " b a l l e t s r u sses" in a s u r p r i s i n g l y p o s i t i v e f a s h i o n . While t h i s may again demonstrate Musica's tendency to be f a v o r a b l e rather than e n l i g h t e n e d , i t n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n t r a s t s with the general p o s i t i o n s t a t e d i n the contemporary p r e s s . Some c o n t r o v e r s y i s found in t h e 1 c o n t r i b u t i o n s by f e m i n i s t s . In t h i s regard, Musica's stance seems to be one of p o l i t e t o l e r a n c e touched with concern. As demonstrated, Musica emerges as a h i g h l y v a l u a b l e document on e a r l y t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y French music and musical thought. I t i s e x c e p t i o n a l as a source f o r iconography which tends to b r i n g " h i s t o r y to l i f e , " g i v i n g an immediate awareness of the p a s t . C o n t a i n i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n s from eminent c r i t i c s , composers and performers, Musica i s a unique and v a l u a b l e anthology of French music c r i t i c i s m . It o f f e r s i n s i g h t i n t o contemporary musical thought and a t t i t u d e s , and a unique p e r s p e c t i v e of P a r i s i a n s o c i e t y . 109 BIBLIOGRAPHY B e l l a g e r , Claude e t . a l . H i s t o i r e Generale de l a Presse F r a n c a i s e . 5 v o l s . P a r i s : Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France, 1972. Blume, F r i e d r i c h , ed. Die Musik i n Geschichte und Gegenwart. 15 v o l s . K a s s e l : V e r l a g K a s s e l und B a s e l , 1949-51. Broido, Lucy. French Opera Post e r s 1868-1930. New York: Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s Inc., 1976. Cooper, M a r t i n . French Music: From the death of B e r l i o z to the  death of Faure. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1951. Cramner, James, ed. Great Composers in H i s t o r i c Photographs. New York: Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , Inc., 1981. . The Great Opera S t a r s i n H i s t o r i c Photographs. New York: Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , Inc., 1978. . The Great I n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s i n H i s t o r i c Photographs. New York: Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , Inc., 1980. Ewen, David. The New E n c y c l o p e d i a of Opera. New York: H i l l and Wang, 1971. G o s l i n g , N i g e l . The Adventurous World of P a r i s 1900-1914. New York: W i l l i a m Morrow and Company, Inc., 1978. Hervey, A r t h u r . Masters of French Music. London: Osgood, M c l l v a i n e and Company, 1894. Honegger, Marc, ed. D i c t i o n n a i r e de l a Musique. 2 v o l s . P a r i s : Bordas, 1970. K o l o d i n , I r v i n g , ed. The C r i t i c a l Composer. New York: Howell, Soskin and Company, 1940. Landowska, Wanda. Music of the Past. T r a n s l a t e d by W i l l i a m Aspenwall Bradley. London: G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1926. Lang, Paul Henry and Bettmann, Otto. A P i c t o r i a l H i s t o r y of  Musica. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1960. Lesure, F r a n g o i s , ed. "Le Sacre Du Printemps." A n t h o l o g i e de  l a c r i t i q u e musicale. Geneve: E d i t i o n s M i nkoff, 1980. L i v o i s , Rene de. H i s t o i r e de l a Presse F r a n g a i s e . 2 v o l s . Lausanne: E d i t i o n s Spes, 1965. Manevy, Raymond. La Presse de l a 111e Republique. P a r i s : J . F o r e t , 1955. Massenet; J u l e s . My R e c o l l e c t i o n s . T r a n s l a t e d by H. V i l l i e r s B a r n e t t . F r e e p o r t , New York: Books f o r L i b r a r i e s Press, 1970. 1 1 0 Myers, R o l l o . Modern French Music: From Faure to Boulez. New York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1971. Norman, Gertrude and S h r i f t e , Miriam L u b e l l . , ed. L e t t e r s of  Composers: An Anthology 1603-1945. New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, Noske, F r i t z Rudorf. The French Song from B e r l i o z to Duparc. Second ed. New York: Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1970. P i e r r e , A l b e r t ; F e y e l , G i l l e s ; and P i c a r d , J e a n - F r a n c o i s . Documents pour l ' h i s t o i r e de l a Presse N a t i o n a l e aux XIXe  et XXe S i d c l e s . P a r i s : Centre de Documentation Schience Humaines, 1980. Raynor, Henry, Music and S o c i e t y Since 1815. London: B a r r i e and J e n k i n s , 1976. R o s e n t i e l , Leonie. The L i f e and Works of L i l i Boulanger. London: A s s o c i a t e d U n i v e r s i t y Presses, 1978. Rudorff, Raymond. The B e l l e Epoque; P a r i s in the N i n e t i e s . New York: Saturday Review Press, 1973. Saint-Saens, C a m i l l e . E c o l e B u i s s o n n i e r e . P a r i s : P i e r r e L a f i t t e and Company, 1913. . M u s i c a l Memoires. T r a n s l a t e d by Edwin G i l e R i c h . New York: Da Capo Press, 1969. . Outspoken essays on Music. T r a n s l a t e d by Fred Rothwell. London: Paul, Trench, Trubner and Company, L t d . , 1 922. . P o r t r a i t s et Souvenirs. P a r i s : S o c i e t e d ' e d i t i o n A r t i s t i q u e , 1900. Sadie, S t a n l e y , ed. The New Grove D i c t i o n a r y of Music and M u s i c i a n s . 20 v o l s . London: M a c m i l l i a n P u b l i s h e r s L t d . , 1 980. Schneider, L o u i s . Massenet. P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e L. Conquet, 1908. Shattuck, Roger. The Banquet Years; The A r t s in France 1885- 1918. London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1958. Slonimsky, N i c o l a s , ed. Baker's B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y of  M u s i c i a n s . 6th ed. New York: Shirmer Books, 1978. Smith, R i c h a r d Langham. Debussy on Music. New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1977. Z e l d i n , Theodore. France (1848-1945). V o l . 2: I n t e l l e c t , Taste  and A n x i e t y . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977. 

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