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Musica : an early twentieth-century French music journal Biberdorf, Carla E. 1984

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MUSICA: AN EARLY TWENTIETH-CENTURY FRENCH MUSIC  JOURNAL  by CARLA E . BIBERDORF B.A., U n i v e r s i t y Of S a s k a t c h e w a n , 1977 B.Mus., U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1980  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF ARTS in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Music  We a c c e p t to  THE  this  Department  t h e s i s as conforming  the r e q u i r e d  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH March  ©  Carla  COLUMBIA  1984  E. Biberdorf,  1984  In  presenting  this thesis  requirements  f o r an  Columbia,  I agree  available  for  permission  her  that  reference  the  be  granted  of  of  my  written  of  March 31,  1984  the  shall  i s understood for  Columbia  agree for  Department that  f i n a n c i a l gain  permission.  of  British  make i t f r e e l y  this thesis my  the  University  I further  Head of  Music  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date:  the  It  this thesis  without  Department  study.  by  f u l f i l m e n t of  degree at  Library  and  representatives.  publication allowed  advanced  for extensive copying  p u r p o s e s may or  in p a r t i a l  that scholarly or  copying shall  not  by or be  his  ii  Abstract Musica, Pierre for  a m o n t h l y music  Lafitte  from  journal,  1902 t o 1914.  i t s use o f i c o n o g r a p h y  which  was p u b l i s h e d i n P a r i s by  The j o u r n a l  supplemented  numerous c o m p o s e r s , p e r f o r m e r s , and c r i t i c s contains contributions  by s u c h  to contribute  cafe-concert harpists, and  and d a n c e r s .  professional  number o f music Gabriel  and  pianists,  Other  journalists, periodicals.  written  Carraud,  critics,  i t s original Musica  the h i s t o r i a n .  important  Charles Joly,  Georges P i o c h ,  by c o m p o s e r s , p e r f o r m e r s and source of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r  by p e r s o n a l  Adam, F r a n c k ,  Performance Opera  practises  lives,  friends,  t o chanson.  and i l l u s t r a t e d  d a t a on  Reyer, of the time  s i n g e r s f o c u s e d on c h a r a c t e r  and c a f e - c o n c e r t c e l e b r i t i e s  instrumentalists  was  Leroux.  such as R o s s i n i ,  approaches  Much c r i t i c i s m  of composers p r o v i d e f u r t h e r  a r e d e s c r i b e d by p e r f o r m e r s .  by  Emile V u i l l e r m o z ,  Jullien.  Accounts  M a s s e n e t , and S a i n t - S a e n s .  individual  critics  Curzon,  by c o m p o s e r s d e a l w i t h t h e i r  or r e l a t i v e s  interpretation,  by  t h e s e a r e H e n r i de  emerges a s a i m p o r t a n t  figures  were w r i t t e n  Among  editors  works, and c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . acquaintances  cellists,  to a  material  Articles  singers,  many o f whom c o n t r i b u t e d  the c o m p o s e r - c r i t i c Xavier With  famed o p e r a  violinists,  articles  and A d o l p h e  by M u s i c a ' s  of t h e d a y . I t  D e b u s s y , and M e s s a g e r .  included  Prod'homme, M. D. C a l v o c o r e s s i ,  Michel-Gaston also  articles  celebrities,  t h e w r i t i n g s by  well-known composers as S a i n t -  Saens, Massenet, Bruneau, d'Indy, F a u r e , Performers  was e x c e p t i o n a l  Proper  revealed  technique  i n numerous  their  i s discussed  photographs.  Musica's  iconography  costuming supply and  and  i s also  s t a g i n g i n opera  the h i s t o r i a n  concert  musical  useful and  in determining ballet.  with d e s c r i p t i o n s  locations.  p r e f e r e n c e s of  They a l s o  Critical  reviews  of p r o g r a m s ,  g i v e an  t h e e r a and  contemporary  public  performers,  indication response  of  to  the  new  compostions. This  thesis  follows. study format  of  The this  and  Musica's  is divided  first  chapter  periodical.  deals with  into  Chapter  two  the p u b l i s h e r .  performers.  It also  c o m p o s e r s and  relevant  iconography.  The  of M u s i c a  justifies  Chapter music  three  focuses  performers,  chapter  as a d o c u m e n t a r y  a  of  complemented  demonstrates  source  on  critics,  includes a discussion  w r i t t e n about  final  and  d e s c r i b e s the j o u r n a l ' s  editors,  articles  relevance  c h a p t e r s d e l i e n a t e d as  i n t r o d u c e s Musica  contributors including  c o m p o s e r s and  five  f o r the  the historian.  by  iv  Table  of C o n t e n t s  Abstract L i s t of F i g u r e s  i i v  Chapter I INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter II MUSICA'S FORMAT AND Chapter I I I CONTRIBUTORS A. B. C. D.  PUBLISHER  AND CONTRIBUTIONS EDITORS MUSIC CRITICS AND JOURNALISTS COMPOSERS PERFORMERS  5 18 18 33 45 62  C h a p t e r IV CONCLUSION  106  BIBLIOGRAPHY  109  V  List  1. August  1904  of F i g u r e s  cover-page  6  2. F i n g e r E x e r c i s e r (June 1905 back c o v e r p a g e )  9  3. A d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r a music s t a n d (August 1907 back c o v e r page) 4. 5. 6.  Advertisement ( J a n u a r y 1904  10  for a Bechstein piano back a d v e r t i s e m e n t page)  11  P u c c i n i , duck-hunting (November 1 903, p. 223) Bruneau, c a n o i n g (September 1903, p.  7. A l a s t (March  56  190)  57  p o r t r a i t - p h o t o g r a p h of 1909, p. 35)  Reyer 58  8. A l a s t p o r t r a i t - p h o t o g r a p h o f Gounod ( J u l y 1906, p. 102)  59  9. R e y e r i n h i s s a l o n ( F e b r u a r y 1907, p. 26)  60  10. M a s s e n e t a t E g r e v i l l e (November 190.6, p. 174)  ..61  11. E r n e s t Van Dyck i n t h e r o l e (June 1905, p. 89) 12.  Felia (July  L i t v i n n e i n the r o l e 1 904, p. 342)  of  Tristan 63  of  Isolde 64  13. Carmen i n t e r p r e t e r s ( F e b r u a r y 1905, p. 24) 14. 15.  66  Scene from A c t 1 of M e r i k a n t o ' s ( O c t o b e r 1908, p. 159) Scene (July  from Act 1909, p.  2 of I v a n 102)  16. Two s c e n e s from A c t 1 o f ( A u g u s t 1904, p. 360)  the  Pohjan  71  Terrible 72  Tannhauser  17. M a c h i n i s t s a t t h e Opera ( O c t o b e r 1904, p. 401) 18.  neito  P o s t e r from M a s s e n e t ' s Esclarmonde (November 1 906, p. 167)  73 74 75  vi  19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.  P i a n o hand p o s i t i o n a d v i s e d by (December 1907 , p. 183) J a c q u e s T h i b a u d and (May 1906, p. 75)  Edouard  Long 80  Risler 81  A r t u r R u b e n s t e i n i n 1905 ( J a n u a r y 1905, p. 9) Leon T o l s t o y and h i s d a u g h t e r (June 1908, p. 95) Landowska p e r f o r m i n g ( J a n u a r y 1909, p. 6) P a v l o v a and (June 1909,  Ni'jinsky p. 85)  83 Alexandra 85  f o r Rodin 86 98  vi i  Ac know1edgement  There  a r e many p e o p l e  project. Cohen,  I my  throughout his  wish  to  thesis this  assistance  ongoing given  me  advisor,  t o good  the  encouragement  guidance  this  thank  of  t o D r . H. he  this Robert  provided  t o D r . J . Evan K r e i d e r f o r  Karin  topic;  problems;  support. I e s p e c i a l l y  completion  Conomos f o r h i s  friends:  I pursue  the  my a p p r e c i a t i o n  Thanks a l s o  with t r a n s l a t i o n  sincere  for  for  and D r . D i m i t r i  suggestion that  assistance  express  project.  work. I am g r a t e f u l her  responsible  interest  in  my  Sandberg-Brennan, f o r F r a n c i n e Regaudie, f o r  and D i a n e  Loomer,  f o r her  my h u s b a n d , D o u g l a s ,  w i t h e v e r y a s p e c t o f my  who h a s  work.  1  I.  The  beginning  to as ' l a b e l l e and  musicians  world.  of t h i s  epoque.' From  impressionists  were w e l l  entrenched.  post-impressionists and  Derain;  Anatole  the  Verlaine  Saens, Massenet,  Set contrast an  excused  occuring during the of  this  New  were b e i n g  explored  Writers  such as  and M a l l a r m e , were p r o m i n e n t .  In m u s i c ,  by V i n c e n t  d'Indy,  Saint-  A new n a t i o n a l i s t i c  of Debussy, R a v e l , of r e l a t i v e  trend  S a t i e and F a u r e .  political  artistic  by  Matisse  poets  s t a b i l i t y , the  s o c i e t y and s t i r r i n g s o f  t e c h n o l o g i c a l age h a s c a u s e d h i s t o r i a n s t o this  lost  e r a . Such s e n t i m e n t a l i t y c a n 1  of the e x p l o s i o n  fertile  period  golden  time  provide  in artistic  in history.  glimpses  a r t s and i n s i g h t i n t o a s p e c t s colorful  ideas  B r u n e a u , and R e y e r .  in light  i n that  hub o f t h e w e s t e r n  and G i d e , as w e l l a s s y m b o l i s t  between a f l o u r i s h i n g  regard  writers  s u c h a s Manet, Monet, R e n o i r and  Braque and P i c a s s o .  i n an e n v i r o n m e n t  overwhelming  referred  1885 t o 1918, p a i n t e r s ,  was r e p r e s e n t e d  i n t h e music  wistfully be  Zola  establishment  appeared  i n F r a n c e h a s been  C e z a n n e , G a u g i n and Van Gogh; f a u v e s  and c u b i s t s  France,  Baudelaire,  century  f l o c k e d t o P a r i s , the c u l t u r a l  In a r t ,  Pisarro,  INTRODUCTION  endeavor  Journals  published  of the p r o d i g i o u s  of s o c i e t y .  Through  output i n t h e i r use  a d s , r e v i e w s o f p e r f o r m a n c e s and a r t i s t i c  commentary, one i s a b l e  to obtain  a s e n s e of t h e p e r i o d .  S e e Roger S h a t t u c k , The Banquet Y e a r s ; t h e A r t s i n F r a n c e 1885-1918. ( L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r L t d . , 1958); N i g e l G o s l i n g , The A d v e n t u r o u s W o r l d o f P a r i s 1900-1914. (New Y o r k : W i l l i a m Morrow & Co., I n c . , 1 9 7 8 ) . 1  2  Reviews supply the h i s t o r i a n with a s e q u e n t i a l r e c o r d of programs, performers, dates and l o c a t i o n s , as w e l l as f i r s t - h a n d o b s e r v a t i o n s on performances  of the time.  A r t i c l e s on composers  and performers give v a l u a b l e b i o g r a p h i c a l data that i s f r e q u e n t l y u n a v a i l a b l e i n contemporary provide a d d i t i o n a l  Music  T h i s glimpse of the l e s s - v i s i b l e personnel  industry i s d i f f i c u l t  t o o b t a i n elsewhere.  documenting events and a t t i t u d e s of the time p e r i o d , are an i n v a l u a b l e resource f o r the music The  By  journals  historian.  j o u r n a l Musica was p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g the l a t t e r h a l f of  ' l a b e l l e epoque.' The j o u r n a l i s t i c supervised i t s p u b l i c a t i o n  entrepreneur P i e r r e  from August  Lafitte  1902 u n t i l i t s  unfortunate demise with the outset of World War One. j o u r n a l was e x c e p t i o n a l f o r i t s use of iconography appeared  journals  i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e a t e r s , managers, d e s i g n e r s ,  and backstage crew. in the music  sources.  The  which  a l o n g s i d e the prose of numerous composers, performers  and w r i t e r s of the day.  With photographic advances,  large  q u a l i t y p r i n t s are found on almost every page i n Musica. E s p e c i a l l y prominent  are those of opera s i n g e r s e i t h e r posed i n  costume or on l o c a t i o n extremely  i n a c t u a l performances.  rare photographs  s o c i e t y and at l e i s u r e . and drawings,  of composers and performers i n  Reproductions of p a i n t i n g s ,  are a l s o u t i l i z e d  A study of Musica  There are some  lithographs  to i l l u s t r a t e the j o u r n a l .  i s important as w e l l when one c o n s i d e r s  i t s p o p u l a r i t y and appeal to both amateur and p r o f e s s i o n a l musicians d u r i n g i t s p u b l i c a t i o n . j u s t i f i a b l y proud that the f i r s t  The p u b l i s h e r of Musica was issue sold  180,000 c o p i e s i n  3  less  than  year,  eight  but  days.  Distribution  2  even a c i r c u l a t i o n  c o p i e s an  issue  was  Musica's  journal,  30,000,  and  5  Journal  des  d u r i n g the  the  journal  r e v e a l s much of the a t t e n t i o n the  first  examination  i n 1903.  55,000 i n 1904."  whose p r i n t  29,000 and  run  in  to  1908  F i g a r o and  Le  24,000 c o p i e s  6  in early  twentieth-  even a c a s u a l s t u d y of to h i s t o r i a n s ,  of m u s i c o l o g i s t s . to b r i n g  This  to l i g h t  r e s o u r c e f o r t h e music  a summary of the of m a t e r i a l  that  Even  3  established  run of  popularity  interest  effort  as a d o c u m e n t a r y  not m e r e l y  fact  at  year.  obvious  Paris,  Musica  and  same  50,000  i m p r e s s i v e when compared  journal,  which p r i n t e d  century  represents  a more  following  45,000 and  t h e more g e n e r a l n e w s p a p e r s , Le  Despite Musica's  attracted  a print  is especially literary  Debats,  respectively  w h i c h was  o n l y had  circulation  Comoedia, a p o p u l a r was  v a r y i n g between  i n the  a r e s p e c t a b l e accomplishment  t h e weekly L ' i l l u s t r a t i o n , illustrated  stabilized  Musica  the has  not  thesis  the  importance  historian.  7  of  It i s  j o u r n a l ' s c o n t e n t s but .more an  selected  t o emphasize  historically  " N o t r e 1er numero," M u s i c a 2 (November 1902): 30. M u s i c a , " L ' A n n i v e r s a i r e de M u s i c a , " M u s i c a 14 (November 1903). " C l a u d e B e l l a n g e r , H i s t o i r e de l a P r e s s e F r a n c a i s e , 5 v o l s . ( P a r i s : P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 197 2 ) , 2: 387. A l b e r t P i e r r e , G i l l e s F e y e l , and J e a n - F r a n c o i s P i c a r d , Documents pour l ' h i s t o i r e de l a P r e s s e N a t i o n a l e aux XIXe e t XXe S i e c l e s (Pari"i~l C e n t r e de D o c u m e n t a t i o n S c i e n c e s Humaines, 1980), p. 48. I b i d . , pp. 43, 51. I t i s a l s o my i n t e n t i o n t o p r e p a r e an e x t e n s i v e i n d e x of M u s i c a f o r t h e R e p e r t o i r e i n t e r n a t i o n a l de l a p r e s s e m u s i c a l e du dix-neuvieme s i e c l e (RIPMxix). The work s h a l l be u n d e r t a k e n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s C e n t e r f o r S t u d i e s i n N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y M u s i c / C e n t r e i n t e r n a t i o n a l de r e c h e r c h e s u r la presse musicale. 2 3  5  6 7  4  important  information.  major c o n t r i b u t o r s , important  in other  those prodigious and  recognized  number  For t h i s  exclusive respects.  i n output  historical  articles,  discussion  or v a l u a b l e  examined.  thesis will will  be on  deemed  are defined  i n terms o f  prominence d e s p i t e  focus  be s t r u c t u r e d on M u s i c a ' s  Contributors  critics,  iconography  reproductions will  will  and w r i t i n g s  Major c o n t r i b u t o r s  S u b s e q u e n t l y , major c o n t r i b u t o r s  of  the focus  as  originality  a relatively  small  of c o n t r i b u t i o n s .  This  music  reason,  deal  with  include  as f o l l o w s .  format  be d i s c u s s e d  of s e l e c t e d  Musica's e d i t o r s ,  will  be  contemporary  Mus i c a ' s n o t a b l e  use  and d e m o n s t r a t e d i n  illustrations.  the j o u r n a l ' s  publisher.  and s e l e c t e d w r i t i n g s  c o m p o s e r s and p e r f o r m e r s . will  and  Initial  stance  Concluding  and a e s t h e t i c  remarks  position.  5  II.  MUSICA'S FORMAT AND PUBLISHER  Format The  design  impression Life.  of M u s i c a  i t ressembles  i s strikingly a contemporary  I t s 11 by 14 i n c h d i m e n s i o n s  illustrations  attract  consisting  lithographs,  were r e p r o d u c e d  printed. printer  Often  a r t work and t i n t i n g  combined w i t h  journal's attractive publication. varies  with  describe, an  or a l l o y  drawings,  such a s  cover  p a i n t i n g s , and photogravure;  p l a t e s and s u b s e q u e n t l y techniques  subjects.  spacious geometric  were done by t h e  These  special  l a y - o u t s , enhance t h e  a p p e a r a n c e and a r e e v i d e n t t h r o u g h t t h e  The i n t e r i o r time,  first  (Figure 1).  by a p r o c e s s c a l l e d  t o r e t o u c h and h i g h l i g h t  effects,  and f u l l - p a g e  of photographs,  on m e t a l  On  p i c t u r e magazine  immediate a t t e n t i o n  Iconography,  images were e t c h e d  modern.  structure  and a l t h o u g h  i t i s important  of t h e j o u r n a l ,  i t is'somewhat  however,  complex t o  t o do so i n o r d e r t o o f f e r  the reader  overview. Initially  price  Mus i c a  was one f r a n c  subscription  both  was s i x t e e n  per i s s u e  i n France  publisher's  objective,  first  was t o c r e a t e :  issue  pages  in length.  The p u r c h a s e  and i t was a v a i l a b l e by  and i n n e i g h b o r i n g c o u n t r i e s .  stated  i n the introduction  The  t o Musica's  ...une p u b l i c a t i o n s ' a d r e s s a n t a t o u s l e s m u s i c i e n s e t a t o u t e s l e s personnes aimant l a musique, a u s s i b i e n a l ' e l i t e l a p l u s r a f f i n e e qu'aux s i m p l e s c u r i e u x d ' a r t , aux m a i t r e s comme a l e u r e l e v e s . 1  This was achieved by making Musica an i l l u s t r a t e d , Figure  e d u c a t i o n a l , monthly  1 - August  review.  2  1904 cover-page  A separate twenty-four page music  supplement, c a l l e d L'Album Musica, was p u b l i s h e d the j o u r n a l .  1 2  musical,  i n a d d i t i o n to  I t c o n t a i n e d v o c a l and i n s t r u m e n t a l p i e c e s and  was  Musica, "Notre programme," Musica no. 1 (October 1902): 1. Ibid.  7  intended  t o be  a practical  accompanying  volume  f o r the  amateur  musician. Usually  included  one-page e d i t o r i a l  i n each  review,  i s s u e , from  the  C h r o n i q u e du  which appeared  regularly after  the  i s s u e , was  p r i m a r i l y a review  was  followed  topics.  by  The  most  performers, historical and  The  two  near  of  the  end a  the  musical  music  subscribers. events  and  Basically, and  appeared,  Subsequently, a length,  appeared  benefit  of m u s i c i a n s ,  It  of  and  competitions, was collectively  and  and  by  a  This  was  November  1903,  that d i d  brief  reviews  competitons  and  dedications,  information  to  offered information  on  interest. column, o n l y  regularly after  money management and  events.  news i t e m s  n o t i c e s about  mois m u s i c a l  financial  this  after  T h e r e were o f t e n  reviews,  m a t t e r s of  and  mois m u s i c a l .  events,  Le  of  events,  feature  I t d e a l t with  book  beginning  a variety  were f o l l o w e d  announcements of c e n t e n a r i e s  obituaries,  on  Each  column,  of c o m p o s e r s  societies  a  issue.  Le  feature a r t i c l e .  less-important  current  issue.  the  on  theatrical  articles  i n l e n g t h and  at  was  This  i n l e n g t h , which  the  section entitled  of  on  pages  f e a t u r e column and  warrant  courses.,  and  1910,  current musical  instruments.  to three  pages  1902  were b i o g r a p h i e s  the main p o r t i o n of  two  of  to  mois.  feature a r t i c l e s  studies, information  miscellaneous usually  December  of c o n c e r t s  s t u d i e s of m u s i c a l  comprised  of  typical  reviews  approximately  not  a number  1902  April  column  investment  1906.  a half  Intended  offered practical advice.  page i n for  the  information  Initially  this  8  column was  c a l l e d Les economies d'un  changed to Revue f inane ie*~re. market report and  was  Later,  endorsed by  of a f i n a n c i a l c o n s u l t a n t .  The  t h i s was  soon  i t became more l i k e a  the bourse under the  title  changed to A t r a v e r s l a bourse and p r i n c i p l e s v a l e u r s de  a r t i s t e but  was  stock  signature  more a p p r o p r i a t e l y  l a t e r , P e t i t e s E t u d e s sur  les  l a bourse.  Musica's advertisements f r e q u e n t l y manage to a t t r a c t the a t t e n t i o n of the reader.  U n l i k e modern j o u r n a l s where they  are  o f t e n d i s t u r b i n g l y i n t e r s p e r s e d between pages of t e x t , Musica's advertisements are c o n f i n e d covers,  and  books and wine and  a few  musical  to the  successive  i n s i d e s of the  pages.  Their subjects  instruments to h e a l t h and  l i q u o r s , restaurants  and  musical  i n t e r e s t to the m u s i c o l o g i s t items.  range from products,  inventions  some of these seem  For example, a gadget was  l e s s o f f e n s i v e than the  Schumann's hand but  the  a v a i l a b l e to  famous device  f a c t that prototypes  that  were s t i l l Throat  for a i l i n g  to  opera s i n g e r s were another a r t i f i c e  g l a s s e s , and and by  Other paraphenalia hearing  recordings  aids  New  the  improve opera  music p u b l i c a t i o n s  were e s p e c i a l l y promoted and  famous v i r t u o s i .  on  lozenges  i n c l u d e music stands,  (Figure 3 ) .  It  ruined  market at t h i s time i s s u r p r i s i n g (Figure 2 ) .  performance.  like  are advertisments of  e x e r c i s e the p i a n i s t ' s f i n g e r s to improve s t r e t c h a b i 1 i t y . looked  back  automobile.  From today's p e r s p e c t i v e ,  rather outrageous.  beauty  boutiques, and  the camera, l i g h t b u l b , phonograph and Of  f r o n t and  frequently  endorsed  Many instruments were a l s o a v a i l a b l e  commercially: Bord, B e c h s t e i n ,  P l e y e l and  E r a r d pianos;  Gilbert  9  Figure 2 - Finger Exerciser ( J u n e 1905 back c o v e r p a g e )  'f— II' *J  :V2  — L E VR.AI  MOT EN  Etft  p o u r a a q u l r i r la M U R I M N  *>I r*ftlH4 dan D O I O T S , I  L'EXERCISOR • «  MMICIMI,  de mm  fair* U  ina.lt. s u r  i  1-diapeiuaMtqauel eidra m mtq u i..i.auplftCM Jolein«t-eniit Iti M M d r l t e * ilile*p M.ila tn iire u.e uq.ui fmilll,imc-inIIilat n n m -f d e T t M * laUItirm u nq n u i . c p e n d a n i n e p c u i t n i t n t u -In >''t pui e qd uuagH ill i nm n )raIitdct.minViutn i « « t c i l e « p e i un (•o.i-t.nhn nluppIrif.mepratin C nI ni i qui iqturWeu ni(imitirquI'autntutm*c.ntenI . M O S O R I t n M en unen.i'p iIin hmratri dten Limineit. entre dt tiip,i'f n »pliull, Sttiien •ld io ir iinnAmii pcrme t l.i> k t u t . tucrieBalaiulcnelrt It d erttacicniii.nnceirttM Wa , lo etif.uKi amqutaqpupil p e n i d i d i queletItm m a i n lJur la pltnc(hm ailie en eniK i nne m tAwta er ad*.dinftIIi d a n*mp len*«caM nt nelure * Id tu rm tcicrtrmxm t rtt, I i lne tJx tituciinct / j ( « n r j J i e a i d e a m d i n ee eoilm t ti pl om ee d. « futiIlIitewfd c cd e' iunapm plarcip te ineg*e*naiicuipiiu« litaimcunv pa ii cn .crtAuad te i inou u*ulin e aiuriuna (rap It r n .. m 'fHIredItcm lrim cti dt CO fmuuu( r n a l . f i l i l r n l i t e . La 'lnq X Fe RC SIO R m ipour la p ru uplneitcaetq clu uiiiieennd u Sa tltn tHu qln un *i duBeanuu* tfrequade*loumiainI*n- Cla>ranmten*ceicoentmaiMtiateeneimcnibienuniquQ uelantilm Id tf e m m e ilvrai nltiramtc le«indca miracle* en ( S c l f t l u R e t u d l . t o c t r n t I i el n ne pm nt aU i m iu n a . M anadunm m n ttemend.iondee**maciemqud'eitluneanI leuradoncnreererdL E 'XElR CS Io O R quialredtpond ad un Clceleuli-cihetu i n >n ourmu cl al no teie nieiarnu p rIlIa""tl f aaliq'u-ldtieu,p tram p l ra •B fii a u u t n t n r * i r a i e a a u p e l e a a I t ( M l i d a r e u n n . t i l p r lted i.de mm a n un cy ue r eapur* te* deU trtuieulmMournatle,Wati fetcnqeuii-*r.uutunmunicroenrtinuLeE'XE leRC irS it em.enttit*tn *H aiutia atv .enL E'X E R C S IO< R D ime e c uner i, ca*v d a p » a *aei/ la u S dtatn tilv lq-tui* e. ta la*r*a**u | in *> re ue I O R . m p r u r i n . c • • • a I m a n o u a n t p o u r a n e c e e * * * d o e Mmm di)tU Drlactrcla du Sctlntflqut Baaud t Kile voua enverra immediate m n eL E'XERCS IOR dan* un elegant ierin a.. omptujnii d'une method* qui vou*deper N l 4M cnmlllM.r  fin»|Miiit  CM  \l  t  (J'HKII  J I IUIIH IICI  frtimr* I  c-  Jn f-i*i  et  Mngi  ANI.CJ.  I  I.IUI  II  L'EXERCISOR  i fin caafn SO  I r i l C I mjruti* i  Madam* zV2 Drlactrcla du Sctlntflqut Beau* t. I*  and G e b h a r d t p o r t a b l e o r g a n s ; C a r e s s a a n d Cremone v i o l i n s ; a n d T h i b o u v i l l e mandolines.  Some o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n t  well-illustrated  4).  Other initially Modes.  (Figure  items are a l s o a d v e r t i s e d titled  in a short  designs  fashion  f o r women, t h i s  s e c t i o n was d e v o t e d  t o b e a u t y a n d f a s h i o n , g i v i n g a d v i c e on s k i n a n d h a i r  time i t  f a s h i o n of c o i f f u r e and c l o t h i n g .  treatments  For a short  was s i g n e d by a r e g u l a r c o n t r i b u t o r , F l o r i s e .  also a c l a s s i f i e d  column  L ' H y g i e n e de l a b e a u t e b u t soon c h a n g e d t o  Intended p r i m a r i l y  and t h e l a t e s t  are  T h e r e was  s e c t i o n c a l l e d L e s p e t i t e s a n n o n c e s de M u s i c a  w h i c h was i n c l u d e d t o meet p u b l i c demands f o r  advertising  private  instruction,  items.  New book p u b l i c a t i o n s were r e v i e w e d u n d e r L e s N o u v e a u t e s  Musicale.  sale of instruments and other  musical  T h i s s h o r t c o l u m n was u n s i g n e d a n d o n l y a p p e a r e d i n  10  Figure  3 - A d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r a music ( A u g u s t 1907 back c o v e r p a g e )  stand  OTi PEUFECTIONNEES  G. L A N C E L I N 24, Place des Uosges, Envoi franco  tin  r  mi Al c  r  PARIS  Catalogue  "MUSICA " H a u t e u r : 0,94 N o y e r mass i f e i n t . ' ;  .  U l r g t u r : 0,40 .  .  . . . .  .  70  francs  j  Puplire loumani drevete Haute u r a u p l u s n r a n d d e v c l o p p e m e n i . l.urueur Involution  i ,70 o»,5o o ,73 111  m  PRIX . Noyer ci a Acajou Acajou et c u i v r e . 1  .  .  12S francs 1 5 0 francs 2 0 0 francs  C.c p u p i i r e , , veritable i n n o v a t i o n et d'un fonctionnement pnrfait, s'eleveet s'abaisse par mn' simple pression de la main au i n o y t n de contrepoias circulunt a I'inierieur du Vut.  early Musica The  issues.  format  j u s t d e s c r i b e d was b a s i c a l l y  used  1910,  by e d i t o r s C h a r l e s J o l y a n d G e o r g e P i o c h .  1910,  a new e d i t o r X a v i e r L e r o u x  the  first  f r o m 1902 t o I n November  i n t r o d u c e d t h r e e new c o n c e p t s ,  b e i n g t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e Chronique  du mois.  Under a new r u b r i c , L e s c h r o n i q u e s e t c r i t i q u e s de M u s i c a , s e c t i o n was e x p a n d e d t o a v e r a g e  this  t h r e e pages i n l e n g t h and i t s  l o c a t i o n was c h a n g e d f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g t o t h e m i d d l e o f t h e journal.  I t maintained i t s o r i g i n a l  f u n c t i o n as an e d i t o r i a l  review but i n a d d i t i o n t o the e d i t o r ' s column, La m u s i q u e a u t h e a t r e ,  extra t i t l e d  c o l l a b o r a t o r s were a d d e d .  w h i c h was c a l l e d  c o l u m n s by j o u r n a l  F o r example,  Themes e t V a r i a t i o n s  11  Figure 4 - Advertisement for a Bechstein piano ( J a n u a r y 1904 back a d v e r t i s e m e n t p a g e )  C .  B E C H S T E I N Facteur de Pianos  PARIS  BERLIN  LONDRES (Bechstein Hall  LONDRES) PIANO A QUEUE LOUIS XV AVEC BRONZES DOR^S  Magasin  a P A R I S : 334, Rue Saint-Honor6  f o c u s e d on t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s i c s c e n e ; to  (Pres  u  Place  venddme)  S i l h o u e t t e s was d e v o t e d  t h e s t u d y o f c o m p o s e r s ; L a m u s i q u e a u c o n c e r t was a r e v i e w o f  the C o n c e r t s Lamoureux, Colonne and C o n s e r v a t o i r e ; and La musique dans l e s l i v r e s  and La musique des p a r t i t i o n s  were  r e v i e w s o f new p u b l i c a t i o n s . The  second  change o c c u r r e d  mois m u s i c a l , which expanded t o a t l e a s t  i n t h e m i s c e l l a n e o u s s e c t i o n , Le  was n e w l y t i t l e d  I n f o r m a t i o n s de M u s i c a a n d  t h r e e pages i n l e n g t h i n o r d e r  more news on m u s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s  to include  outside P a r i s and France.  Hence, s e c t i o n s were s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o I n f o r m a t i o n s de P a r i s a n d  1 2  I n f o r m a t i o n s de P r o v i n c e e t d ' E t r a n g e r , b e a r i n g r e s s e m b l a n c e t o Le M e n e s t r e l ' s m i s c e l l a n e o u s s e c t i o n . written  by c o r r e s p o n d a n t s from c i t i e s  Caen, C a m b r a i , and  Toulon.  countries letters, in  Lille,  Letters  from  were o f t e n  t h e s e were a c t u a l l y  "les entreprises  frontieres," The  third  presiding, pieces  rather  A l t h o u g h t h e y were  was i n t e r e s t e d  d'expansion  listed  still  music  under  piece  featured  au d e l a d e s  countries. With  Leroux  e r a s but i n  was p u b l i s h e d . Prior  Presumably  to Leroux's  i n t h e album were  page o f t h e j o u r n a l .  appeared  performed  A short  always  commentary on  a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o r end o f t h e i s s u e ,  Nos morceaux de m u s i q u e . With  changed with  usually  called  c o n t a i n e d a v a r i e t y of  g e n r e s and from d i f f e r e n t  t h e composers  on t h e t i t l e  francaise  of other  meant a r e c e n t l y - c o m p o s e d p i e c e . "  editorship,  Omer,  i n an i d e a w h i c h he  t o L'Album M u s i c a .  supplement  an ' a v a n t e - g a r d e '  Bayonne,  He wanted t o promote and  t h a n t h e music  t h e music  s u c h as A n g e r s ,  r e v i e w s of F r e n c h works  change a p p l i e d  in different  addition,  the  3  reviews  Germany, S p a i n and o t h e r  "musical d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . "  publicize  this  Italy,  Leroux  were  M o u l i n s , Nancy, O r l e o n s , S a i n t  published.  other c o u n t r i e s .  termed  Lyon,  There  these t h r e e i n n o v a t i o n s the format  considerably.  the p u b l i s h e r ' s  alterations.  Because  Leroux's original  objectives  and f o c u s of M u s i c a  remained  constant  g o a l s b u t t h e r e were some  of t h e e x p a n s i o n and c e n t r a l  major  positioning  X a v i e r L e r o u x , "La n o u v e l l e r e d a c t i o n de M u s i c a , " M u s i c a 98 (November 1910): 162. " S i n c e t h i s album was u n a v a i l a b l e f o r s t u d y , f u r t h e r comment a b o u t i t s c o n t e n t s c a n n o t be made. 3  1 3  of  the e d i t o r i a l  became t h e  focal  biographies restricted size  and  review, point  Les c h r o n i q u e s et c r i t i q u e s  of t h e  or h i s t o r i c a l in content.  t h e number  increased.  journal.  studies,  of d r a w i n g s  T h i s c o u l d be  to cost  mainly  i n number  were g e n e r a l l y  as o p p o s e d t o  related  Musica  Feature a r t i c l e s ,  were r e d u c e d  Illustrations  de  and  smaller in  photographs  or s i m p l y  reflect  text  emphasis. There still  were some minor c h a n g e s .  appeared  Musica  was  but  i t was  expanded  1913  and  also  i n c r e a s e d from As  1914,  an  appealing  called  t o twenty  to close  affordable  pages;  t o two  managed t o a c h i e v e a l a r g e availability countries,  of Musica  music  circulation  in France,  figures.  Perhaps  even more  important,  expansion  i n economy, p o p u l a t i o n , and  but  unfortunately figures  from  The  9 Avenue de  1905,  and  might  be  finally an  l'Opera  i n the  and  the g e n e r a l expansion  of  was  of  increased financial last  The  foreign  the g e n e r a l  circulation  11 Avenue de  i n the  noted.  I t would  1904  of  Musica  g r o w t h as a whole  relocation  t o 9 and  evidenced  in  circulation  however, was  Musica's  and  other  large  t o 90 Avenue C h a m p s - E l y s e e s  indication  and  w i t h t h e aim  as p r e v i o u s l y  f o r the y e a r s of  expansion  1911,  the p r i c e  musicians,  i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y .  t o know i f , i n f a c t ,  unobtainable.  journal  Belgium  factor  interesting  to t h i r t y ;  In 1913,  professional  important  industry  In  francs.  an  magazine  was  bulletin  financiere.  i n 1912,  pages.  illustrated  t o b o t h a m a t e u r s and  financial  Feuillets  to f o r t y  one  The  to  i n the  be increased  1914  were  the p r e s s l'Opera  office  i n June  i n December success.  As  t h r e e y e a r s of  1906 well, the  14  journal's There  o u t p u t c a n be c o n s t r u e d  i s every i n d i c a t i o n  publication war  were  that  as a t a c i t  the j o u r n a l  sign  would  i t n o t f o r Germany's o f f i c i a l  of p r o s p e r i t y . have  continued  d e c l a r a t i o n of  on F r a n c e i n August 1914.  P u b l i sher Pierre and d i e d cycling  Lafitte,  i n 1938.  5  He was c r i t i c  revues before  addition  the p u b l i s h e r  initiating  to Musica, L a f i t t e  illustrated magazine  o f M u s i c a , was b o r n  f o r L'Echo  a large  sportif  illustre;"  Femina  7  1939),  "une m a g a z i n e  La J o i e  illustree  1 0  8  des E n f a n t s  i n the f i r s t  (1905-1914),  life'  francais;"  tout  (1905-  i n which  Sarah  February  ( 1 9 0 4 - ? ) , "une magazine  Fermes e t C h a t e a u  sur l e 'country  "une r e v u e  Je s a i s  encyclopedique i l l u s t r e e , "  B e r n h a r d t ' s memoires were p u b l i s h e d  enfants;"  In  number o f  (1901-1954),  de l a femme e t de l a j e u n e f i l l e ; "  9  6  m a g a z i n e s : La V i e au G r a n d A i r (1898-1922), "un  ideale  issue;  de P a r i s a n d v a r i o u s  h i s own p u b l i c a t i o n s ,  published  i n 1872  pour l e s  "une p u b l i c a t i o n 1 1  Le P e t i t  Magazine  R e n e de L i v o i s , H i s t o i r e de l a P r e s s e F r a n c a i s e , 2 v o l s . ( L a u s a n n e : E d i t i o n s S p e s , 1965) , 2~1 633. B e l l a n g e r , H i s t o i r e G e n e r a l e de l a P r e s s e F r a n c a i s e , 3: 382. ' M u s i c a , no. 24 (September 1904). Ibid. M u s i c a , "Le P l u s beau m a g a z i n e de monde e n t i e r , " M u s i c a no. 30 (March 1905): 45. M u s i c a , "Une n o u v e l l e p u b l i c a t i o n P i e r r e L a f i t t e p o u r l e s e n f a n t s d e s l e c t r i c e s de M u s i c a , " M u s i c a no. 27 (December 1904): 432. ' M u s i c a , no 34 ( J u l y 1905). 5  6  7 8  9  1 0  1  15  (1905-1907) published  and  1 2  n o v e l s of w h i c h  mysteries.  To  t o by  Lafitte  Claude  (191 0-1 9 2 3 ) .  Lafitte  1 3  the most p o p u l a r  complement  medium, i n 1908 alluded  Excelsior  h i s apparent  were A r s e n e  interest  created "les films  Bellanger in H i s t o i r e  also Lupin  i n the  visual  d'art," a subject Generale  de  l a Presse  Francaise. ' 1  7"  Although in  France,  and  Le  such  Petit  successful  was  Paris,  contemporary  the  first  journals,  a l'origine  preface  1 2 1 3  was  to the  one first  Quotidien  publications  printed  on  " l a creation  of  illustre,  were t h e  de  since  newspapers.  larger  quality  most  last  worth mentioning  were numerous,  and  existed  Lafitte's  than  those  1 5  in  "papier glace."  ce q u o t i d i e n  transformations profoundes  page dans l a p r e s s e . " Musica  Lafitte's  magazines  extensively illustrated  source, des  1'Actualite,  is particularly  illustrations  t o one  illustrated  iconographic q u a l i t y .  Excelsior,  of  Excelsior's  est  l a Journee,  i n terms of  one  According  as  B l e u de  publication, it  other contemporary  de  illustre  l a mise  en  1 6  the  1902  few issue  illustrated notes:  music  j o u r n a l s as  the  1 7  M u s i c a , no. 53 ( F e b r u a r y 1907). B e l l a n g e r , H i s t o i r e Ge~nerale de l a P r e s s e  Francaise,  3:  633. "Ibid, 383. T w o o t h e r g r e a t P a r i s i a n n e w s p a p e r s , Le M a t i n and Le J o u r n a l , p r e v i o u s l y used i l l u s t r a t i o n s but t h e s e were r e s t r i c t e d b o t h i n number and s i z e . L i v o i s , H i s t o i r e de l a P r e s s e F r a n c a i s e , 2: 377. T h e r e were a r t - r e l a t e d j o u r n a l s , s u c h as L ' i l l u s t r a t i o n and Le Monde i l l u s t r e , but t h e s e d i d not d e a l e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h music. O t h e r s s u c h as L ' i l l u s t r a t i o n m u s i c a l e and La c h a n s o n i l l u s t r e e a p p e a r t o be m u s i c a n t h o l o g i e s r a t h e r t h a n r e v i e w s . Le t h e a t r e i s one of t h e o n l y i l l u s t r a t e d m u s i c j o u r n a l s contemporary with Musica. 1  15  1 6 1 7  1 6  I l m a n q u a i t j u s q u ' a c e j o u r , en F r a n c e , une p u b l i c a t i o n m u s i c a l e de c o n c e p t i o n a t t r a y a n t e , i l l u s t r e e , documentee, e t s u s c e p t i b l e de p l a i r e a l a masse sans c e s s e c r o i s s a n t e d e s p r o f e s s i o n n e l s e t des amateurs. M o r s que l e s a u t r e s a r t s , l e s s p o r t s e t l e s c o r p o r a t i o n s possedent d e p u i s longtemps l e u r s o r g a n e s s p e c i a u x i l l u s t r e s , n ' e s t - i l pas c u r i e u x de c o n s t a t e r que, s e u l e , l a musique n ' a i t pas e n c o r e l e sein. 1 8  It  i s further stated that  that  time e s p e c i a l l y  proliferating  warranted  musical  journalistic  developments at  attention:  E t c e p e n d a n t c h a c u n s a i t que l a musique a p r i s d e p u i s v i n g t ans un t e l e s s o r e t une t e l l e e x t e n s i o n q u ' e l l e e s t pour a i n s i d i r e e n t r e e d a n s nos moeurs au p o i n t de f a i r e p a r t i e i n t e g r a n t e de t o u t e d u c a t i o n m o d e r n e . 1 9  Lafitte's incredibly musical  astute.  interests,  readers.  majority  The o n l y  of L a f i t t e ' s  well-to-do  educated  one  states.  source  Excelsior,  2 1  In F e b r u a r y rights  , 8 1 9 2 0 2 1  382.  renaissance  on t h e p u b l i c ' s  he was p r o b a b l y  limiting  other  In f a c t ,  2 0  encountered  Lafitte  musical  able  to a t t r a c t  f a c t o r was t h a t M u s i c a , and  p u b l i c a t i o n s , were aimed a t  Lafitte's  financial alleviated  eventually  was  burgeoning  p e r s o n s of t a s t e , " l a c l i e n t e l e  w h i c h was t e m p o r a r i l y Zaharoff.  of t h i s  By c a p i t a l i z i n g  and v i s u a l  many new the  precognition  mondaine" a s  last publication  difficulty  for this  by arms d e a l e r  reason,  Basil  s o l d some of h i s p u b l i c a t i o n s .  1916, La M a i s o n H a c h e t t e p u r c h a s e d p u b l i c a t i o n  to Musica,  Je s a i s  tout,  Femina,  the Champs-Elysees  M u s i c a , " N o t r e programme," M u s i c a no. 1 ( O c t o b e r 1902): 1. Ibid. L i v o i s , H i s t o i r e de l a P r e s s e F r a n c a i s e , 2: 376. B e l l a n g e r , H i s t o i r e G e n S r a l e de l a P r e s s e F r a n c a i s e , 3:  17  library, Mme  and p o p u l a r  P a u l Dupuy, p u r c h a s e d  journals,  purchased  a standard Lafitte  illustrated world. are  Excelsior.  i n c l u d i n g Musica  competitors is  books o f A r s £ n e L u p i n .  them  never  these  r e - e m e r g e , i t i s assumed  in order  t o bury  their  titles.  t h e s u b j e c t s of h i s j o u r n a l s He  tried  to appeal  This  interested  those  special  aims of women and c h i l d r e n .  aimed a t a s p e c i f i c must  in l i t e r a t u r e  sector  Histoire  i n the p u b l i s h i n g  his diverse  and m u s i c ,  Although  of s o c i e t y ,  have had a t l e a s t  of t h e  interests  to sports e n t h u s i a s t s , nature  lovers,  Livois,  that  procedure.  m a g a z i n e and somewhat of a t y c o o n  apparent.  2 2  S i n c e some o f  2 2  publisher,  had o b v i o u s l y been a l e a d e r i n t h e f i e l d  From  iconography  Another  their  and t o t h e  his journals abundance o f  some p o p u l a r  appeal.  de l a P r e s s e F r a n fc a i s e , 2:  465.  were  18  III.  CONTRIBUTORS  AND  CONTRIBUTIONS  M u s i c a ' s c o n t r i b u t o r s c a n be g r o u p e d (a)  e d i t o r s ; (b) music c r i t i c s  and  (d) p e r f o r m e r s . parts  those  that  are either p r o l i f i c  small  number o f c r e d i t s ,  important  authors w i l l Special  i n c l u d e s a survey  discussed  The c r i t i c s  i n Musica  wrote m u s i c a l l y  i s given  t o the four  i d e n t i f i e d are  or t h o s e who d e s p i t e  Material  i n the f i n a l  of s e l e c t e d w r i t i n g s  a  and h i s t o r i c a l l y  to the w r i t i n g s  g r o u p s , and s o c i e t i e s .  about  with  certain  assessed. by f r i e n d s o r section  also  performers,  Complementary  iconography i s  where r e l e v a n t .  A.  EDITORS  The  success  distinguished  1905;  correspond  A r e a s of i n t e r e s t a s s o c i a t e d  of composers.  performing  chapter.  categories:  (c) composers;  be m e n t i o n e d and s e l e c t e d w r i t i n g s  consideration  relatives  Leroux.  of t h i s  criticism.  and j o u r n a l i s t s ;  These c a t e g o r i e s  successive  i n t o four  of Musica  c a n be l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d t o i t s  e d i t o r s , Charles  J o l y was t h e e d i t o r  Pioch  from  i n 1914.  With  talent  and t h e i r  attendant  established  from M u s i c a ' s  1905 t o 1910; and L e r o u x ,  demise  individualism  J o l y , Georges Pioch, inception from  s u c h an i n t e r e s t i n g a r r a y  i s apparent  and X a v i e r i n 1902 t o  1910 t o M u s i c a ' s of e d i t o r i a l  c o l l a b o r a t o r s , e v i d e n c e of i n e a c h of t h e s e e r a s .  The  format  by J o l y was more o r l e s s c a r r i e d on by P i o c h ,  who  1 9  was  identified  The  secretary  p o s i t i o n was  the  assistant  editor.  Pioch  writing  output.  criticism change  and  as  i n format  composer, E a c h of  he  Musica's  and  contributions Joly  was  probably  focus  tends to  these three  secretary  during what we  In  contrast,  f o c u s more on  editors  in turn  will  be  born  in  1860  in Neufmanil  (B.A.) i n p r e p a r a t i o n  d i d he  abandoned  teaching  for  years.  and  t h i s time that  he  he  other  receive to His  3  for  Fischbacher  Wagner  Other  'Musica,  As  a  French  discussed  music.  and  their  the  of  This  an  for a  Revue de of  September  It  1905  Illustre,  is also  his criticism  stated  i s the  a n a l y t i c a l pamphlet  c e r t a i n l y gives  a clue  to  of  no.  36  and  1898  Wagner's  Joly's  s u r p r i s i n g to d i s c o v e r  J o l y , " Musica  emerged  P a r i s , G r a n d Revue,  e a r l y y e a r s of M u s i c a ' s  "Charles  He  Conservatory  Quotidien  Figaro."  "sa  teaching  Paris  in Musica's  and  was  a p p e a r s t o have  1'Actualite,  i t i s not  He  2  after obtaining  the  a critic  evidence  p o s i t i o n and i n the  as  to P a r i s  publication  stand  to  with  only  harmony a t  career  1890,  MaTtres Chanteurs. aesthetic  prodigious  t r a i n i n g in music.  i t is stated  collaborated  journals.  formal  study  contributed  then around  that  as  i s a marked  (Ardennes).  lettres"  issue  there  to  a  pro-  publication.  (September  1905):  130. Ibid. Charles Ibid. "Ibid. 2  of  3  1  analysed.  license  around  his  contemporary  i n h i s y o u t h but  three  by  refer  with Leroux's d i r e c t i o n .  to music  profession,  editorship.  today  is distinguished  predisposed des  Joly's  An o b i t u a r y Joly.  in t h i s issue  offers a brief  biography  20  Joly twenty  wrote  about  were f e a t u r e  feature  column,  articles,  Bayreuth.  articles  articles.  the Chronique  the m a j o r i t y  1903 and A u g u s t  fifty  He was a l s o du m o i s .  conducted  Felix  Mottl  disciples, Messager  by J o l y  and F e l i x  Therein,  Weingartner  maintained that  of t h e  feature issues,  October  t o Wagner  Whether Wagner's  the c e n t r a l  i n 1902.  w h i l e Bruneau,  and  influence  f o r F r e n c h composers.  best  i n the f o l l o w i n g  influence  i n an  t h e German  Debussy, E r l a n g e r , Wagner's  issue  were n a t u r a l l y  repercussions revealed  Special  about  l i f e and works, and h i s i n f l u e n c e  on c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , a r e d i s c u s s e d .  poll  the author  1914, a r e d e d i c a t e d e x c l u s i v e l y  o r n e g a t i v e became  of which  Of J o l y ' s  f o c u s on Wagner.  A s p e c t s o f Wagner's  was p o s i t i v e  f o r Musica  Joly's  opinion  conductors  faithful  L e r o u x , and had some n e g a t i v e opinion  i s perhaps  passage:  R i c h a r d Wagner a r e n o v e l e drame l y r i q u e ; i l a d o t e l ' a r t d'une forme m u s i c a l e n o u v e l l e ; i l a e x e r c e e t e x e r c e e n c o r e une i n f l u e n c e p r e p o n d e r a n t e s u r l ' e s t h e t i q u e contemporaine; ses oeuvres ont f a i t l ' o b j e c t de v i n g t m i l l e v o l u m e s de b i o g r a p h i e , de c r i t i q u e ou d ' e x e g e s e , - t e l l e s l a B i b l e , 1 ' I l i a d e , 1'Odyss§e e t l e s i m m o r t e l l e s t r a g e d i e s g r e c q u e s ; - un t h e a t r e s p e c i a l , ou, pour mieux d i r e , un t e m p l e l u i f u t e l e v e a B a y r e u t h ou, de t o u s l e s c o i n s du g l o b e a c c o u r e n t en f o u l e l e s a d e p t e s de s a r e l i g i o n , comme a u t r e f o i s de t o u t e s l e s c i t e s h e l l e n e s a c c o u r a i e n t l e s p e u p l e s aux s o l e n n i t e s m i - r e l i g i e u s e s e t m i - t h e a t r a l e s de l ' a n c i e n n e G r e c e ; mieux e n c o r e , R i c h a r d Wagner e s t d e v e n u une s o u r c e de r e v e n u s p o u r son p a y s ; . . . 5  This  worship  i s w i t n e s s e d elsewhere.,  The  C h a r l e s J o l y , "Le monument de R i c h a r d Wagner," 13 ( O c t o b e r 1903): 194.  5  no.  hero  great  Musica  21  Wagnerian the  divas Ernestine  subjects  orchestra  and  articles. of  of  independant  attributed  to  studies.  Dutchman amd Joly.  Tristan  Bizet,  Opera-Comique, and  coverage.  Paris  Isolde  are  Wagner, t h e of o t h e r  performances  can a l s o  be  are apparent,  his compatriots.  S a i n t - S a e n s , Massenet Performances  music  There  activites  to J o l y  was and  tribute  by G a b r i e l  Faure  reveals  the c o m p o s e r ' s a d m i r a t i o n f o r him:  like  Faure, and  and  t o keep r e a d e r s  p e r f o r m e r s on  A short  and  a t t h e Opera  an a t t e m p t new  he  Composers  the C o n c e r t s C o n s e r v a t o i r e , Colonne  Lamoureux, were r e v i e w e d . of new  and  1905  sympathies  Gounod, d'Indy,  were g i v e n a d e q u a t e  informed  Litvinne  6  be a c c u s e d of n e g l e c t i n g  Berlioz,  Siegfried  reviews of the  A l t h o u g h J o l y ' s Wagnerian cannot  Felia  s t a g e s e t s a t B a y r e u t h a r e the s u b j e c t s  Enthusiastic  the F l y i n g  Schumann-Heink and  supports t h i s  the  scene.  point  and  I I [ J o l y ] e t a i t de n a t u r e e t de d o c t r i n e eclectique. Sa p r e d i l e c t i o n pour l a musique a l l e m a n d e ne l ' e m p e c h a i t pas d ' e t r e i n f i n i m e n t s e n s i b l e a d ' a u t r e s formes de l ' a r t , a t o u s l e s g e n r e s m u s i c a u x . I l a v a i t b e a u c o u p v o y a g e ; i l s ' e t a i t , en t o u s p a y s , i n f o r m e des p l u s d i f f e r e n t e s e s t h e t i q u e s . Son o r e i l l e complaisante a i m a i t t o u t e s l e s s o r t e s d'harmonies. B r e f , i l e u t l e gout de t o u t e l a musique; e t , s i son jugement t r e s s u r l u i p e r m e t t a i t de d i s c e r n e r l e s oeuvres l e s p l u s b e l l e s parmi c e l l e s q u ' i l a p p r e c i a i t , en meme temps on p e u t d i r e q u ' i l ne f u t j a m a i s  I d e m , " E r n e s t i n e Schumann-Heink," M u s i c a no. 15 (December 1903): 236; Idem, " F e l i a L i t v i n n e , " M u s i c a no. 22 ( J u l y 1904): 342; Idem, " S i e g f r i e d Wagner," M u s i c a no. 7 ( A p r i l 1903): 106; Idem, "Les o r c h e s t r e s i n v i s i b l e s , " M u s i c a no. 6 (March 1903): 90; Idem, "Les d e c o r s a B a y r e u t h , " M u s i c a no. 23 (August 1904): 360; Idem, "Le V a i s s e a u - F a n t f t m e a L ' O p e r a - C o m i q u e , " M u s i c a no. 29 ( F e b r u a r y 1905): 26; Idem, T r i s t a n e t I s o l d e a L ' O p e r a , " M u s i c a no. 29 ( F e b r u a r y 1905): 27. 6  22  the  negligent  de n u l l e  Following  Joly's  editorship  Pioch.  Born  reputation Early four  inspiration  sudden  of Musica  was assumed  appear  journalist,- orator  i n a number o f j o u r n a l s  him t o f r e e l a n c e  became an a c t i v e as Le J o u r n a l Le p e t i t  Bara.  1'Homme.  Pioch,  sans e c r i r e  un ou deux a r t i c l e s  until  1908 i s s u e  also  D u r i n g t h e war, he political  papers  8  such  he was a l s o  e t une semaine  after  sans  that  prononcer  8  one wonders why M u s i c a until  Joly's  many y e a r s  after  death Pioch continued  he was f i n a l l y  I t i s not c a l l e d the  G a b r i e l F a u r e ' s t r i b u t e , w h i c h a p p e a r s i n Le F i g a r o , " C h a r l e s J o l y , " M u s i c a no. 36 (September 190571 130. L i v o i s , H i s t o i r e de l a P r e s s e F r a n c a i s e , 2: 643. 7  in  by V a n i e r . F o r  t o readers as the " s e c r e t a i r e . "  t h e September  and 300  f o r "ne p a s p a s s e r un j o u r  s u c h an a c c o m p l i s h e d e d i t o r  t o be i n t r o d u c e d  Musica  1919, f o r Q u o t i d i e n , L'Oeuvre  i n N i c e , i n 1941.  F o r some t i m e even  Other  p r o o f - r e a d e r which  not acknowledge P i o c h ' s s u c c e s s i o n fact.  activist.  de l a L i g u e d e s D r o i t s de  who was c r e d i t e d  deux c o n f e r e n c e s , " d i e d  does  including  A sympathetic p a c i f i s t , central  Georges  i n L a Plume and  de F r a n c e .  for left-wing  du P e u p l e a n d a f t e r  of the Comite  the  and p o l i t i c a l  as a j o u r n a l i s t .  journalist  president  With  secretary  o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s " were p u b l i s h e d  a t i m e , P i o c h worked a s a p r i n t i n g enabled  i n A u g u s t 1905,  n a i s s a n c e , " Pioch earned a  v o l u m e s o f h i s v e r s e , i n Le M e r c u r e  "portraits  and  by f o r m e r  s y m b o l i s t poems by P i o c h were p u b l i s h e d  writings  7  and u n t i m e l y d e a t h  i n 1894, "de p e t i t e  as a poet,  meritoire.  quoted  23  "redacteur-en-chef" November the  1910 i s s u e a n o t h e r  editor  details. indeed  i n an i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l f o o t n o t e .  Because a secondary  the e d i t o r lapse  everything  i n 1905,  1 1  source  confirms  the only p l a u s i b l e  i s t h a t P i o c h was p r o b a b l y  b u t name, w o r k i n g  under  In t h e  t h a t he had been  " f o r many y e a r s " b u t n e g l e c t s t o g i v e  1 0  Musica's  reference confirms  9  specific  t h a t P i o c h was explanation f o r  the e d i t o r i n  the a u s p i c e s of the  publisher. During  Pioch's  editorship,  r e s e r v e d a s an e d i t o r i a l distinguished as  they  guest  were f i r s t  writers  by  writers,  In  1 2  eclectique"  journals. spite  du mois was  regularly  and i n 1909 and most o f 1910,  to preserve  and t o a l l o w  changes i n  the j o u r n a l ' s  Pioch to f u l f i l l  obligations  1 3  o f o t h e r e n t e r p r i s e s , P i o c h w r o t e an  number o f a r t i c l e s  guest  H e n r y B a u e r , and Henry  In 1908 t h e C h r o n i q u e  i n order  formerly  musicale"  Some o f t h e s e  A n o t i c e i n one i s s u e s t a t e s t h a t t h e s e  "caractere other  de l a c r i t i q u e  in 1906.  by t h e c o n t r i b u t o r N o z i e r e  Pioch.  du m o i s ,  was assumed by a number o f  "l'elite  introduced  a u t h o r s h i p were done  to  review,  include Camille Saint-Saens,  Gauthier-Viliars. signed  the Chronique  f o r Musica.  astounding  There a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y  seventy-  f o o t n o t e t o Andre M e s s a g e r , "Andre M e s s a g e r , " M u s i c a no. 72 (September 1908): 138. P i e r r e L a f i t t e , "Xavier Leroux: redacteur-en-chef," Musica no. 98 (November 1910): 162 L i v o i s , H i s t o i r e de l a P r e s s e F r a n c a i s e , 2: 643. P r e a m b u l e t o R a o u l G u n s b o u r g , "Le F a u s t de G o e t h e , " M u s i c a no. 40 ( J a n u a r y 1906): 2. G e o r g e s P i o c h , F o o t n o t e t o " C h r o n i q u e du m o i s , " by M a u r i c e L e f e v r e , M u s i c a no. 92 (May 1910): 66. 1 0  1 1 1 2  1 3  24  five  contributions,  of w h i c h a b o u t  C h r o n i q u e du mois  and  are h i s c h a r a c t e r  studies  Faust  1  celebrities. "  studies are Lina Salignac.  1 5  as  feature  of famed Don  Especially  Cavalieri,  A special  r e v i e w s of A r m i d e , Orphe'e.  sixty  fifteen  were w r i t t e n  articles.  Of  interest  Juan, F i g a r o ,  singled  out by  f o r the  Carmen,  and  independant  J . F . Delmas and E. Thomas-  interest  Iphigenie  i n o p e r a s by G l u c k a r e n o t e d i n  en A u l i d e ,  Hippolyte  et A r i c i e ,  and  1 6  Compared  to the j o u r n a l ' s  written  r e g a r d i n g Wagner.  absence  of any  special  works r e v i e w e d by P i o c h  earlier  years,  T h e r e a r e fewer a r t i c l e s  Wagner  issues.  received  of Wagner's w o r k s , "  1 7  favorable  and  1908  which and  and  covered.  included  In  1906  the j o u r n a l  also  and  Das  an  The  for Pioch 1909  less  Wagnerian  criticism.  p e r f o r m a n c e s of D i e Gotterdammerung 1 8  i s much  However, t h o s e  P a r i s p e r f o r m a n c e of D i e M e i s t e r s i n g e r , "greatest  there  1906  was  the  respective  Rheingold are a debate  about  " l d e m , "Les Don J u a n c e l e b r e s , " M u s i c a no. 26 (November 1904): 409-10; "Les F i g a r o c e l e b r e s , " M u s i c a no. 34 ( J u l y 1905): 99-100; Idem, "Les F a u s t c e l e b r e s , " M u s i c a no. 40 ( J a n u a r y 1906): 12. I d e m , " L i n a C a v a l e r i , " M u s i c a no. 64 ( J a n u a r y 1908): 8-9; Idem, " J . F . Delmas, de l ' O p e r a , " M u s i c a no. 38 (November 1905): 167-68; Idem, "E. T h o m a s - S a l i g n a c , " M u s i c a no. 76 ( J a n u a r y 1909): 7-8. I d e m , "Armide en 1905," M u s i c a no. 33 (June 1905): 86-87; Idem, " G l u c k e t I p h i g e n i e en A u l i d e , " M u s i c a no. 65 ( F e b r u a r y 1908): 19-20; Idem, " H i p p o l y t e e t A r i c i e a l ' O p e r a , " M u s i c a no. 85 (June 1908): 85; Idem, H i p p o l y t e e t A r i c i e , " M u s i c a no. 70 ( J u l y 1908): 109; Idem, "La r e p r i s e d'OrphSe a l ' O p e r a Comique," M u s i c a no. 77 ( F e b r u a r y 1909): 31. I d e m , "La r e p r i s e d e s M a i t r e s - C h a n t e u r s , " M u s i c a no. 44 (May 1906): 69. I d e m , "Le C r e p u s c u l e s des d i e u x a l ' O p e r a , " M u s i c a no. 75 (December 1908): 192-93; Idem, L'Or du R h i n a l ' O p e r a , " M u s i c a no. 87 (December 1909): 190-92. 1  1 5  1 6  1 7  1 8  25  "l'art the  du  chant"  forefront.  on Wagner's  divided give  public  notable  a c c l a i m and  review  negative  criticism of  Mozart  and  written  i n the  symbolist  with  standard  free  verse.  2 3  experience.  review  Salome.  this  the  For  2 0  and  local  prompted  1910  but  Pioch  and  to  i n o p p o s i t i o n to  issue.  employ  study  2 1  2 2  They  four-line  t h e more  the  are  stanzas  contemporary  included alongside a highly late  Beethoven  to describe h i s  language  is inflated  string  aural and  laden  images.  c o n t r i b u t i o n s are  journey  sights  the  work,  Pioch also did a  of a p e r f o r m a n c e of  expected,  1906  Of  i s of  t h e most p a r t ,  thus,  time.  in a  tradition  poem was  More s i g n i f i c a n t  Egreville  of  Salome  c o n v e n t i o n a l romantic  In a  to  thoughts  opera  press c r i t i c i s m  i t , Pioch attempted  As  the c u r r e n t  Schumann, P i o c h d e d i c a t e d p o e m s .  Another  In  anti-Wagnerites  of Germanic  ryhme schemes r a t h e r t h a n  complementary quartets.  and of  review  is positive  To  essays.  indication  of R i c h a r d S t r a u s s '  of M a r i o t t e ' s s e t t i n g  with  pro  appreciation impartiale."  however, t h i s general  both  1 9  only other  premiere  "une  rallied  I t g i v e s an  music.  Pioch's the P a r i s  which  Pioch's  descriptive  to Massenet's country  house a t  sounds a r e d e p i c t e d .  Massenet's  I d e m , e d . , "Enquete s u r l ' a r t du c h a n t , " M u s i c a nos. 47, ( A u g u s t , September, O c t o b e r 1906): 115-18, 131-33, 147-50. I d e m , "Salome a P a r i s , " M u s i c a no. 58 ( J u l y 1907): 107. ' I d e m , "La Salome de A. M a r i o t t e , " M u s i c a no. 92 (May 1910): 72. I d e m , " S t a n z a s a M o z a r t , " M u s i c a no. 43 ( A p r i l 1906): 50; Idem, "A R o b e r t Schumann," M u s i c a no. 59 (August 1907): 114. I d e m , "Le Q u a t u o r C a p e t au C o n s e r v a t o i r e , " M u s i c a no. 42 (March 1906): 42. 1 9  48,49  2 0 2  2 2  2 3  26  residence  i s described  Pioch are r e c a l l e d . " 2  to v i s i t found  Ernest  in a  Similarly,  Reyer.  1908  2 5  issue.  characteristics epitomized  i n some d e t a i l  of  "l'esprit  The  like  music.  increased  composers  reflects  issues devoted (no. 4 6 ) .  (no. 7 7 ) .  works.  performances: (reviewed 1906),  in February  bonhomme j a d i s (December 1908),  Salvayre's  1906),  (January  and  to  Victor  on  French  There  are  (no. 6 6 ) , Gounod  Faure  there are a r t i c l e s rather  the f o l l o w i n g  Les p£cheurs  and  J e a n Nougues' Quo  obscure  de S a i n t - J e a n  Jacques  L e r o u x ' s Le  (March  on  premiere  C a p o u l ' s Le c l o w n  Xavier  F e v r i e r ' s Monna Vanna  focusing  concerns.  H e n r i Rabaud's Le p r e m i e r  Solange  is  was  a return  many r e v i e w s of  reviewed  1907),  f o r him,  (no. 7 2 ) , and  issues,  Doret's Les a r m a i l l i s  1907),  Henry  to these  f o r example,  of M e s s a g e r  (no. 6 8 ) , S a i n t - S a e n s  (no. 5 0 ) , M e s s a g e r  C h a r l e s Widor's  Gustave  issues  (no. 7 9 ) , B e r l i o z  F r e n c h c o m p o s e r s and  Pioch,  which  Pioch's n a t i o n a l i s t i c  In a d d i t i o n  lesser-known  portrait  i s made  Faure.  (no. 5 3 ) , O f f e n b a c h  (no. 5 7 ) , M a s s e n e t  to Lavandou  explains h i s admiration for  number of s p e c i a l  to Gluck  Reyer  trip  Pioch advocated  2 6  also  S a i n t - S a e n s and  h i s conversations with  study Pioch d i s c u s s e d  francais"  the F r e n c h m u s i c a l past which composers  1907  A less-intimate In t h i s  i n Messager's  a  and  glaive 1909),  Vadis  (May  D a l c r o z e ' s Les chemineau (October Gaston  (April  1909),  " I d e m , "Massenet a E g r e v i l l e , " M u s i c a no. 50 (November 1906) : 174-76. I d e m , " E r n e s t Reyer campagnard," M u s i c a no. 53 ( F e b r u a r y 1907) : 27-30. I d e m , " L ' e s p r i t f r a n c a i s d a n s l ' o e u v r e Andre M e s s a g e r , " M u s i c a no. 72 (September 1908): 141. 2  2 5  2 6  27  E. G a r n i e r ' s M y r t i 1  (January  Moulin., A u g u s t i n S a v a r d ' s c h e z Th§re*se  (March  (April  1910),  1910),  And  1910).  Pierre  de  Reynaldo  Breville's  T e r r a s s e ' s Le m a r r i a g e de  since  P i e r n e ' s On  ne  been o v e r s h a d o w e d  b a d i n e pas  Hahn's La  du  fe'te  Eros vainqueur Telemaque  avec  (June  time,  by works c o n s i d e r e d of  1910,  after  five  y e a r s of e d i t i n g  In an announcement, P i e r r e  Lafitte  Musica,  stated  that  t o " p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s " but d i d n o t e l a b o r a t e .  immediately  replaced  Leroux,  of M u s i c a ' s (Italy).  2 8  who  by  was  the d i s t i n g u i s h e d the e d i t o r  publication. His father  amateur composer training  and  honorable mention  i n 1882  Prix  a return  composer  was  born  1863  in I t a l y .  later  2 9  studied  Conservatory. and  second  de. Rome i n 1885  to P a r i s ,  he  and  After  prize  was  critic,  leader  years  and  began h i s m u s i c a l  with Dubois, 3 0  this  in V e l l e t r i  band  Leroux  Pioch  Pioch  2 7  f o r the r e m a i n i n g four  a French m i l i t a r y  stationed  at Toulouse  the p r e s t i g i o u s  Leroux  was  F r a n c k , a t the P a r i s  Following  greater  value.  resigned.  and  and  S e v e r a c ' s Coeur  A l t h o u g h many o f t h e s e o p e r a s were p o p u l a r a t t h e  In November  Xavier  foret,  de  (July  historical  due  Deodat  1'amour  t h e y have  was  1910),  Claude  Gabriel  La  1910),  Massenet,  achieving  i n 1884,  an  Leroux  with h i s cantata  won  Endymion.  became p o p u l a r as a composer  of  P i e r r e L a f i t t e , "Xavier Leroux: redacteur-en-chef," Musica 98 (November 1910): 162. T h e New Grove D i c t i o n a r y o f M u s i c and M u s i c i a n s , s.v. " L e r o u x , X a v i e r , " by G u s t a v e F e r r a r i , M a r i e L o u i s e P e r e y r a , and B r u c e C a r r ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as The New G r o v e D i c t i o n a r y ) . L o u i s S c h n e i d e r , " X a v i e r L e r o u x , " La Revue M u s i c a l e 4 ( J a n u a r y 1, 1904): 2. L o u i s V u i l l e m i n , "Le c o m p o s i t e u r X a v i e r L e r o u x , " M u s i c a no. 85 ( O c t o b e r 1909): 145. 2 7  no.  28  2 9  3 0  28  verismo operas, with A s t a r t e William and  Ratcliff  ( 1 9 0 1 ) , La R e i n e Fiammette  (1906), Theodora  Le c a r i l l o n n e u r  and  performed a t the M e t r o p o l i t a n cities.  Opera-Comique of  ( 1 9 0 7 ) , Le chemineau  Le c h e m i n e a u  Opera  i n New  Premiere performances  received  essentially  and L e r o u x  was  York  positive  heralded  were  i n 1904  La R e i n e Riammette by H e n r i B a r b u s s e  complementary  as  r e v i e w s by L o u i s S c h n e i d e r and J u l e s  pensee." its  l a jeune e c o l e  3 3  qualities,  and  choice lack  The  libretto  by C a t u l l e  Mendes was  3 3  i n La  Reine  to Massenet's  for  orchestral  criticized  more  to these reviews, extremely negative reports  of La R e i n e Fiammette  Leroux  was  harshly  In r e s p o n s e t o a  i n 1907  criticized  of a p o p u l a r but m e d i o c r e  'Henri M u s i c a no. ^Louis ( J a n u a r y 1, Jules Musicale 4  3 1  setting.  of o r i g i n a l i t y ,  3  highly  Combarieu  changing  i n La Revue M u s i c a l e de L y o n .  performance Theatre,  compared L e r o u x ' s music  graceful  In c o n t r a s t found  A review  vigoureusement  and  than Leroux's  are  forte,  Paris  plus  francaise."  F o r S c h n e i d e r , La  oeuvre b r i l l a n t e ,  Combarieu  3 2  varied  effects.  "une  in other  at the  " l ' u n des  Likewise,  was  and  i n M u s i c a was  r e p r e s e n t a n t s de  Revue M u s i c a l e were f a v o r a b l e .  eventually  criticism.  brillants  Fiammette  (1907),  (1913).  B o t h La R e i n e Fiammette  foreign  (1903),  at Lyon's  by Leon  libretto  s i m p l e m e l o d i e s and  Grand  Vallas  for his  and m u s i c a l l y , harmonies,  later  and  for his banal  B a r b u s s e , " La R e i n e Fiammette a 1'Opera-Comique," 17 ( F e b r u a r y 1904): 259-61. S c h n e i d e r , " X a v i e r L e r o u x , " La Revue M u s i c a l e 4 1904): 3. C o m b a r i e u , "Notes s u r l a R e i n e F i a m m e t t e , " La Revue ( J a n u a r y 15, 1904): 59.  29  orchestral  effects. ' 3  chemineau. of  No  less  L e r o u x ' s music  "themes s a n s c a r a c t e r e ,  plastiques, plates;"  i n c a p a b l e s de  and  "rythmes  critical  was  severely  favorable He  On  3 6  1907  excellent  From t h e s e v a r i e d  Georges  before h i s appointment  was he was  retained director  institution, founded  until  setting  L e r o u x was  as a composer  appointed professor  3 5  was  of t h i s  a work.  that  3 7  i t is favorably in  t o the e d i t o r s h i p .  and  by  equally  and c l a i m e d  educator.  He  was  1896,  Leroux  of harmony a t t h e C o n s e r v a t o i r e ,  a post  3 8  In  In a d d i t i o n  of the C o n s e r v a t o i r e F e m i n a - M u s i c a .  by L a f i t t e  "harmonies  i n M u s i c a gave  always viewed  h i s death in 1919.  initially  nullement  A second o p i n i o n  r e s p o n s e s t o L e r o u x ' s music  Musica  admired  consisting  Pioch  dramaturge."  t o note that  especially  as  premiere performance  interesting even  described  same j o u r n a l  admired Leroux's t e x t  "un  Le  se d e v e l o p p e r e t de v i v r e ; "  hand,  r e v i e w of t h e  L e r o u x was  of  sans p e r s o n n a l i t e . "  the other  especially  Vallas  sans a c c e n t , sans c o u l e u r ,  an anonymous r e v i e w e r f o u n d i n t h i s caustic.  was  called  i n 1906. "  0  Conservatoire I t was  3 9  to this This  des A m a t e u r s ,  d e s i g n e d as an  he  was  educational  " L e o n V a l l a s , "La R e i n e F i a m m e t t e , " Revue M u s i c a l e de Lyon ( F e b r u a r y 3, 1907): 481-87. I d e m , "Le c h e m i n e a u , " Revue M u s i c a l e de Lyon 4 ( O c t o b e r 17, 1909): 34. C a m i l l e B e l l a i q u e , "Une o p i n i o n s u r l e Chemineau," Revue M u s i c a l e de Lyon 4 ( O c t o b e r 10, 1909): 47-49. G e o r g e s P i o c h , " X a v i e r L e r o u x e t Le c h e m i n e a u , " M u s i c a no. 63 (December 1907): 179-80. T h e New G r o v e D i c t i o n a r y , s . v . " L e r o u x , X a v i e r , " by G u s t a v e F e r r a r i , M a r i e L o u i s e P e r e y r a , and B r u c e C a r r . Ibid. *°Georges P i o c h , " X a v i e r L e r o u x e t Le c h e m i n e a u , " M u s i c a no. 63 (December 1907): 179. 3  4  3 5  3 6  37  3 8  3 9  30  alternative T h e r e was cello,  for unsuccessful  instruction  h a r p , and  distinguished  in piano,  other  teachers  On  s u c h as  the  composers P a u l Marty." even  1  taught  Leroux's  Conservatory competition 1911  issue  the  in  1909  Compared  was  Nadia  members,  as  and  the  there  the  Conservatoire 200  students."  is definitely  reports.  are  more  Recitals  Femina-Musica  2  reflected  A  and special  e x c l u s i v e l y to C o n s e r v a t o r i e s :  N a t i o n a u x and  and  Georges  were r e g u l a r l y p u b l i c i z e d .  i s dedicated  opera  Marie Heglon;  a t more than  years,  Lucien  i n c l u d i n g Leroux,  at  a educator  to e a r l i e r  Pugno,  F e m i n a - M u s i c a and  enrollment  cited  violin,  Boulanger;  A l b e r s , and  faculty  announcements and results  and  Raoul  Gabriel Grovlez,  The  candidates.  were many  pianists  Conservatoire  involvement  Conservatoires in  these  National.  Femina-Musica,  in Musica.  of  at both  Conservatoire  Henri  Hillemacher,  Several  faculty  Pierret,  Isnardon,  National  voice, composition,  areas.  Wurmser-Delcourt, August s i n g e r s Jacques  Conservatoire  August  the  i n P a r i s and  others  D i j o n , M o n t e p e l l i e r , L y o n , Bayonne, C a m b r a i , M a r s e i l l e ,  R o u b a i x , B o u l o g n e , B o r d e a u x , and October  1911  i s s u e s focus  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e articles  on  on  Caen.  Conservatory  issues, there  professors, especially  Femina-Musica.  Worthy of  The  note are  those  September  and  professors.  a r e many at  the  feature Conservatoire  a number on M a r i e  Heglon-  " F e l i c i e n G r e t r y , " L e s c o n c o u r s p u b l i c s du C o n s e r v a t o i r e F e m i n a - M u s i c a , " M u s i c a no. 83 ( A u g u s t 1909): 126. " Ibid. " S e e , f o r example, Rene D e l a n g e , "Mme Heglon," Musica no. 112 ( J a n u a r y 1912): 5. 1  2  3  31  Leroux,  the w i f e  Leroux's  of  the c o m p o s e r . "  o p e r a s but  interpretation  references  rticularly  of D a l i l a  the p r e d o m i n a n c e  She  3  played  roles in  famous f o r h e r  i n S a i n t - S a e n s ' Samson e t D a l i l a .  of C o n s e r v a t o r y a r t i c l e s ,  to personal  several  friends  use M u s i c a as an a d v e r t i s i n g  and  tool  as w e l l  associates, and  as  multiple  Leroux  to l a r g e l y  With  appears to his own  promote  interests. Of  Leroux's c r i t i c i s m ,  contributions.  Most  exception  of a b o u t  Critiques  de M u s i c a .  au t h e a t r e ,  Leroux  Ernest Don  t e n , were w r i t t e n Under  f o r Les C h r o n i q u e s et  the s u b - s e c t i o n  and  various  entitled  other  theaters.  r e v i e w s a r e of p r e m i e r e p e r f o r m a n c e s , George  Hue's Le M i r a c l e ,  Q u i c h o t t e (reviewed in Janaury  Gabriel  w i t h the  La  reviewed performances at the Opera,  Bloch's' Macbeth,  Luc i o l e s  twenty-five  of t h e s e a r e r e v i e w s w h i c h ,  Comique, G a i t e - L y r i q u e , interesting  t h e r e a r e only about  (March  1911),  Pierne's  Saint  d'Assise  Opera-  H i s more  including and  Massenet's  Claude T e r r a s s e ' s  1911),  R a o u l L a p a r r a ' s La J o t a Francois  musique  (June  (April  1911),  1912),  Alberic  Magnard's La B e r e n i c e ( F e b r u a r y 1912), G a b r i e l l e  Ferrai's  Cobzar  (March  (May  1912), Andre  Camille  Erlanger's  La V i d a  Breve  Gailhard's  La S o c i e r e  Le S o r t i l e g e  ( F e b r u a r y 1913), Manual  ( F e b r u a r y 1914), R a v e l ' s L'Heure  de  1911), and D e b u s s y ' s  Saint-Sebastien  (July  1911)  (August  respect  later  work, L e r o u x  1913).  critical saccades,  With  of N i j i n s k y ' s etriques,  to t h i s  choreography,  cassants"  and  finding  Le  1913), F'alla's  Espagnole and  Les  (July  Jeux was  very  the " g e s t e s sees,  i n c o n g r u o u s w i t h .Debussy's  32  subtile  and d e l i c a t e  Stravinsky's  Rite  music.""  of S p r i n g  majority  of L e r o u x ' s  response  stands  later  t o t h e norm.  by L e r o u x  on Wagner, as r e f l e c t e d  y e a r s , t h e r e were s t i l l  Paris at t h i s Wagner  Bizet  for this special  (January  1912),  Verdi  (August  incentive revealed  and B i z e t . "  i n Musica,  1914 i s s u e  in this  composer."  Leroux  issue  (August  (October  1913),  Gluck  issue  6  Although i n these  o f Wagner's o p e r a s i n some i n t e r e s t  i n the  i s dedicated to reflects his  1912),  (June  a special i s very  issue  (October  Massenet  1914),  and o d d l y enough, C z e c h music  for featuring  Massenet,  declines  issues are d e d i c a t e d to L i s z t Lecocq  but t h i s  that  7  1912),  1914),  negative  I t appears  performances  The J a n u a r y  Wagner, and L e r o u x ' s a r t i c l e  Other  this  t i m e , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , s t i l l  phenomenon.  admiration  S i n c e the  5  f o c u s on works by  Wagner, Schumann, M e n d e l s s o h n ,  criticism  disliked."  in his a r t i s t i c preferences.  Feature a r t i c l e s Verdi,  was a l s o  c h o r e o g r a p h y of  reviews are p o s i t i v e ,  in contrast  was c o n s e r v a t i v e  Nijinsky's  1911),  (September  Mendelssohn  (April  1913).  The  on C z e c h o s l o v a k i a i s not  informative.  It gives a brief  " " X a v i e r L e r o u x , "La s a i s o n r u s s e , " M u s i c a no. 131 (August 1913): 154. " Ibid. " I d e m , "La mort de J u l e s M a s s e n e t , " M u s i c a no. 120 (September 1912): 163; Idem, " L ' o e u v r e de V e r d i , " M u s i c a no. 133 ( O c t o b e r 1913): 190-92; Idem, " L ' o e u v r e de Wagner," M u s i c a no. 136 ( J a n u a r y 1914): 5-7; Idem, "Le l i e d de Schumann," M u s i c a no. 130 ( J u l y 1913): 128-29; Idem, " L ' o e u v r e symphonique de M e n d e l s s o h n , " M u s i c a no. 143 (August 1914): 150-51; Idem, "Georges B i z e t m u s i c i e n de t h e a t r e , " M u s i c a no. 117 (June 1912): 106-07. " I d e m , " L ' o e u v r e de Wagner," M u s i c a no. 136 ( J a n u a r y 1914): 5-7. 5  6  7  33  history  of n a t i o n a l  on major issues lied May  developments  Czechoslovakian  are c e r t a i n  (July  1913),  composers.  romance  (April  music  Also  several  p e r f o r m e r s which a r e v a l u a b l e developments  by  for providing  seen t h a t  critical loss his  of  he was  been  reflected  B.  not a p r o l i f i c  i n h i s music  writer.  composers  and  a s y n o p s i s of  i n M u s i c a , i t can  Controversial  as an e d u c a t o r .  today, r a i s e s  H i s most This  and even  some q u e s t i o n s  important r o l e  i s p e r h a p s most  the about  appears to  strongly  in Musica.  MUSIC CRITICS  AND  JOURNALISTS  Many of M u s i c a ' s c r i t i c s musicological known as e a r l y Henri  and  i n these a r t forms.  s u c c e s s as a composer.  have  1912  Included i n  r e s p o n s e s t o p e r f o r m a n c e s of h i s works, interest  special 1911),  (December  1913).  respected  by  (December  From t h e number of L e r o u x ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s be  features  highlighted  1914), dance  (February  i s s u e s a r e many a r t i c l e s  contemporary  includes  g e n r e s , such as the chanson  1913), and m i l i t a r y  these  and  studies,  w r o t e major  or t r a n s l a t i o n s ,  pioneers  de C u r z o n , G a b r i e l  and have  of F r e n c h m u s i c o l o g y . Prod'homme,  Calvocoressi,  Emile Vuillermoz,  Michel-Gaston  Carraud, J u l i e n  B o s c h o t , and A d o l p h e J u l l i e n . Raymond C h a r p e n t i e r ,  biographies  and  since  These  become  include  Michel-Dimitri  Julien  Tiersot,  Tiersot,  Pierre  J e a n Hure,  Interestingly,  and L o u i s V u i l l e m i n ,  Adolphe  Gabriel  three  Lalo,  of t h e  Grovlez, better  34  known w r i t e r s Important include  writers  that  d i d not c o n t r i b u t e  Jean C h a n t a v o i n e , L o u i s  Vaucaire, In  i n t h e j o u r n a l a r e known p r i m a r i l y a s  Albert  S c h w e i t z e r , and Andre  contrast,  prominance  other  because  critics  their  Such  Raoul Brevannes,  Brussel,  Robert  Bernard, Jacques  Bretigny.  Other  contributors  Georges  Bauer,  Maurice  Pirro.  include  historical  Felicien  reviews  Gretry,  G a s t o n Magny, Rene D e l a n g e , Edouard  S c h n e i d e r , and  t o be m e n t i o n e d  c o r r e s p o n d e n t s and e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t s : Cantarel,  Henry  to Musica  were more e n t h u s i a s t i c  critics  Frioux,  prolifically  d i d not a t t a i n  writings  than a c t u a l c r i t i q u e s .  Gabriel  Laloy,  composers.  are foreign  Gaston  Knosp,  Joseph  Manes, A l p h o n s e Moureaux, J . S i n a n , and Edmond  Bailly. Eminent were f e a t u r e d Henri  include Curzon's  volumes. that  Prod'homme, about  twenty  free-lance  articles  appear  are biographies  t o have been  some  or  later  reprinted. 1  These  a s w e l l as  of O f f e n b a c h , L e c o c q , P a u l i n e  " L ' o e u v r e de C h a r l e s 148-49.  Most  independent  Prod'homme's s t u d y o f L e c o c q ' s m u s i c , portraits  publication.  f o r Musica.  to precede  T h e r e a r e , however,  do n o t a p p e a r  journalists  and M i c h e l - D i m i t r i  o r Prod'homme  many o f w h i c h  J . G. Prod'homme, 119 ( A u g u s t 1912): 1  and p r i m a r i l y  times throughout Musica's  by C u r z o n  studies,  published articles  Gabriel  e a c h wrote  those w r i t t e n  composer  no.  at various  de C u r z o n ,  Calvocoressi of  musicologists  Viardot  and  Lecocq," Musica  35  other  performers. was  Curzon,  2  and  Mozart,  the e d i t o r  for  Le M e n e s t r e l and  noted  f o r h i s b i o g r a p h i e s of  of G u i d e  J o u r n a l des  M u s i c a l e and  Debats.  known f o r h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s  of  works and  Before h i s involvement  was  various operas.  the e d i t o r  co-founded Society  was  i t s secretary  Calvocoressi, principal majority Most  advisor  (April  Rimsky-Korsakov's f o c u s on L i s z t , of was  1902  famous champion from  reviews.  Erik  to  and  In  1902,  a s t u d e n t of X a v i e r L e r o u x ,  and 6  he  1910,  and  c e n t e r e d the music.  into  later  c o n s i d e r e d unique  G l i n k a ' s Rousslan  Satie,  he  the R u s s i a n s c h o o l  in February  La P s k o v i t a i n e (June  the c a r i c a t u r e ,  with Musica  of R u s s i a n music  include  influence  prose  1913."  or a s s i m i l a t e d  These  (reviewed  Goethe's  to  1907  on G l i n k a  reprinted  1903),  is well- -  on a s p e c t s o f R u s s i a n o r F r e n c h  articles  L'Etranger  Beatitudes  from  critic  International Musical  Calvorcoressi's writings  are mainly  d'Indy's  of t h e  to Diaghelev  t o have been  publications. Mus i c a  the  of h i s w r i t i n g s  of h i s e a r l y  appear  section  a  v o l u m e s of Wagner's  of D e u t s c h e - f r a n z o i s c h e R u n d s c h a u .  the French  and  thirteen  later,  Prod'homme  3  Schubert  to  r e v i e w s of V i n c e n t 1903),  Cesar  et Ludmila  1909).  Other  Franck's and  articles  on c o m p o s e r s ,  the  Opera d e c o r .  Calvocoressi  which  likely  5  importance  explains his  H e n r i de C u r z o n , " J a c q u e s O f f e n b a c h , " M u s i c a no. 68 (May 1908): 69-70; Idem, "La v i e de C h a r l e s L e c o c q , " M u s i c a no. 119 (August 1912): 142-43; Idem, " P a u l i n e V i a r d o t , " M u s i c a no. 94 ( J u l y 1910): 102-03. T h e New G r o v e D i c t i o n a r y , s. v . " C u r z o n , H e n r i , " by M a l c o l m Turner. "The New G r o v e D i c t i o n a r y , s. v . Prod'homme, G a b r i e l . " 2  3  36  connection  with  Musica.  Approximately Vuillermoz.  This  contributions contemporary 1'ficlair, le  Mercure  music.  de  a regular  which  selected  Debussy's  Sacre  and  of S I M . feature  Pelleas  he  from  wrote  1910  with f o r Comoedia,  1913)  to  1914,  the he  Included are  (reviewed in A p r i l  and  was  Themes e t V a r i a t i o n s  were r e v i e w e d .  et M e l i s a n d e  (August  Emile  prolific  La Revue m u s i c a l e , and  Magnard's B e r e n i c e ( F e b u r a r y 1912),  du p r i n t e m p s  by  l a Grande Revue, 1 ' I l l u s t r a t i o n ,  column e n t i t l e d  performances  of  h i s involvement  For Musica,  7  written  because  During h i s l i f e t i m e ,  France, Candide,  editor  were a l s o  i s well-known  to other j o u r n a l s  wrote  Alberic  critic  articles  l e Temps, E x c e l s i o r ,  principal  of  twenty  in  reviews  1911).  Stravinsky's  Wagner's P a r s i f a l  La  (January  1914). As  demonstrated  Vuillermoz than merely  attempted describe  i n h i s r e v i e w s o f D e b u s s y and to d e f i n e  argued basis  f o r the n e c e s s i t y  and  He  often  discussed  of m u s i c a l e v o l u t i o n music.  which  and  u s e s of  t h e S p a n i s h c o m p o s e r s Manuel de  He  became  In M u s i c a ,  works o f D e b u s s y , F a u r e , Magnard, L e c o c q ,  Boulanger,  rather  the changing a e s t h e t i c .  of h i s d e f e n s e of c o n t e m p o r a r y  defended Lili  compositional structure  performances.  d i s s o n a n c e v e r s u s consonance  Stravinsky,  the  he  Stravinsky, Falla,  M. D. C a l v o c o r e s s i , " L ' o e u v r e de L i s z t , " M u s i c a no. 109 ( O c t o b e r 1911): 197; Idem, "M. E r i k S a t i e , " M u s i c a no. 103 ( A p r i l 1911): 165-66; Idem, "Le d e c o r d ' o p e r a h i e r e t a u j o u r d ' h u i , " M u s i c a no. 88 ( J a n u a r y 1910): 14-15. T h e New G r o v e D i c t i o n a r y , s. v . " C a l v o c o r e s s i , M i c h e l D i m i t r i , " by G e r a l d Abraham. T h e New G r o v e D i c t i o n a r y , s. v. " V u i l l e r m o z , E m i l e , " by John T r e v i t t . 5  6  7  37  A l b e n i z and  Granados.  champion  Schoenberg,  Most  of  of V u i l l e r m o z ' s  Although in  the  his  on  Lili  recognized  Grovlez,  articles.  1910  Most i n the  partitions.  New  Samazeuilh.  by  to  composer.  of  Grovlez,  these  regular  were music  criticism,  reproduced  9  and  1 0  and  Louis Vuillemin,  of L e r o u x ' s  f e a t u r e column La  Satie  (reviewed  Reger and  coverage  S a t i e were r e c o g n i z e d and  of as  are  Cyrill  French  composers  Faure,  Ravel,  these an  Grovlez's  i n March Scott  S c r i a b i n ' s music  Debussy,  reviews  was  of  1914), S c r i a b i n 1911),  in Musica.  of  were  Gustave  (January  composers  expression  which  musique dans l a  G a b r i e l Dupont, R o g e r - D u c a s s e , and interesting  at  twenty  p u b l i c a t i o n reviews  i n c l u d i n g works by  sensibility;"  included  Vuillermoz's  a.colleague  music p u b l i c a t i o n s by  1912), Max  8  been r e p r i n t e d .  Stravinsky  been  a  c o m p o s e r s , were r e g u l a r c o n t r i b u t o r s t o  1914.  p u b l i c a t i o n s by  musical  not  j o u r n a l s were  Raymond C h a r p e n t i e r ,  Especially  is limited  this  was  Szymanowski.  Femina-Musica, wrote a p p r o x i m a t e l y  reviewed,  Dukas, R o u s s e l ,  (January  of  however, has of  o n l y as  Conservatoire  primarily  has  from o t h e r  anthology  Boulanger,  today  from  appeared  M a l i p i e r o , and  Mus i c a c r i t i c i s m  i n a biography  Gabriel  Musica  period, Vuillermoz  c o n t r i b u t i o n s have been o v e r l o o k e d .  translated  there  Bartok,  recently published  article  music  a later  some of h i s r e v i e w s  Musica  the  In  since  Pieces  "contemporary admired  for i t s  T h e New G r o v e D i c t i o n a r y , s. v. " V u i l l e r m o z , E m i l e , " by Trevitt. F r a n g o i s Lesure, ed. "Le S a c r e de p r i n t e m p s . " Anthologie de l a c r i t i q u e m u s i c a l e . (Geneve: E d i t i o n s M i n k o f f , 1980). Leonie Rosentiel. The L i f e and Works of L i l i B o u l a n g e r . ( L o n d o n : A s s o c i a t e d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s e s , 1978). 8  John  9  1 0  38  "originality, to p r o v i d i n g  colorful  and e x q u i s i t e  information  on how new p u b l i c a t i o n s  reviewed, G r o v l e z ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s interest  t o him, l e n d i n g  Charpentier articles.  reveal  an i n s i g h t  and V u i l l e m i n  Charpentier,  harmonies."  the e d i t o r  les livres.  musique  au c o n c e r t .  programs, during  performers,  this  established Beethoven  period  symphonies,  Handel.  Alfred  Strauss, Casella,  generally  invariably Popular  usually  Berlioz's  Combined  Richard  almost  repertoire.  Symphony, P r e l u d e s  give  of e v e n t s .  selections  performed  de F a u s t ,  Florent Alberic  were works  Schmitt, Magnard,  from an  included  Liszt's  t o Wagner's o p e r a s , and works these  Programs  t h e S e c o n d and t h e N i n t h ,  La Damnation  with  concerts  t h e column La  included  works  were  an i n d i c a t i o n o f  t i m e and l o c a t i o n  symphonies,  however,  w h i c h a p p e a r e d under usually  while  f o r t h e f e a t u r e column La  More v a l u a b l e ,  These  of p a r t i c u l a r  compositions.  of C h a n t e c l e r  musique  by V u i l l e m i n ,  t h e music  first  each wrote a p p r o x i m a t e l y twelve  t o M u s i c a , r e v i e w e d books  reviewed  were  i n t o h i s own  contributing dans  In a d d i t i o n  1 1  Schumann  Faust  by Bach and  by S a i n t - S a e n s ,  d'Indy,  L o u i s Dumas, G e o r g e s E n e s c o , and M a h l e r .  f a v o r a b l e when r e v i e w i n g  works  Vuillemin  was  by c o n t e m p o r a r y  composers. About Lalo,  ten a r t i c l e s  articles  nos.  by J u l i e n  Tiersot,  G a s t o n C a r r a u d , Henry M a l h e r b e , and J e a n H u r e .  the n o t e d f o l k l o r i s t  1 1  were w r i t t e n  on t h e s e  and B e r l i o z  subjects.  scholar,  wrote  Pierre  Tiersot,  s u r p r i s i n g l y few  H i s major c o n t r i b u t i o n  to Musica  G a b r i e l G r o v l e z , "La musique dans l a p a r t i t i o n s , " M u s i c a 138, 112 (March 1914 and J a n u a r y 1912): 51, 6-7.  39  was  a series  on  the o r i g i n s  eminent  critic  against  'Debussyism,'  Musica.  Credited  and W a g n e r . was  f o r Le  only  wrote  less  are studies  fjcho de  Paris  Berlioz  of which  articles  and  and  Berlioz  by J u l i e n ,  written  f o c u s e d on L e s Isolated Laloy, Andre  Henry Pirro.  Chantavoine  Reyer.  Troyens. articles  Bauer,  Boschot  1 5  i s one  for Journal  an  for  Beethoven,  Revue b l e u e ,  1914  a critic  the  and  issues.  Adolphe  studies  on  to  Malherbe  Jullien for  of  friendship  i s an a r t i c l e des D e b a t s ,  on which  1 6  by J e a n C h a n t a v o i n e , L o u i s  Maurice Vaucaire, Albert  Laloy,  and  Boschot,  Less v a l u a b l e  critic  and  contributed  were w r i t t e n  S t u d i e s on and  Adolphe  interesting  between B e r l i o z  and  B o t h Henry  c o n c e r t s i n 1913  scholar,  the most  criticism  H i s main c o n t r i b u t i o n  for Musica.  Berlioz  Lalo,  his diatribes  f o r La L i b e r t e  1  symphonic  1 2  of Gluck, L i s z t ,  a s t u d y on F a u r e . "  respected c r i t i c s a few  appeared  controversial  s u p p o r t e r of D e b u s s y .  J e a n Hure r e v i e w e d  wrote  i n which  t o him  M u s i c a , however, was  Other  temps  Carraud, a c r i t i c  1 3  an e a r l y  of t h e O p e r a - C o m i q u e .  the  S c h w e i t z e r , and  romance were c o n t r i b u t e d  editors  of L'anne'e m u s i c a l e and  by t h e Revue  J u l i e n T i e r s o t , "Les o r i g i n e s de 1'Opera-Comique," M u s i c a n o s . 101, 102, 105, 106, 108 ( F e b r u a r y , March, J u n e , J u l y , S e p t e m b e r ) : 28-29, 48, 108, 138-39, 182-83. P i e r r e L a l o , " C h r i s t o p h e G l u c k , " M u s i c a no. 119 ( A p r i l 1909): 51-52; Idem, " F r a n z L i s z t , " M u s i c a no. 52 ( J a n u a r y 1907): 3-5; Idem, " B e e t h o v e n p i a n i s t , " M u s i c a no. 32 (May 1905): 75-76; Idem, "Wagner: c h e f d ' o r c h e s t r e , " M u s i c a no. 23 (August 1904): 359. " G a s t o n C a r r a u d , "L'ame h a r m o n i q u e de G a b r i e l F a u r e , " M u s i c a no. 77 ( F e b r u a r y 1909): 19-20. ^ A d o l p h e B o s c h o t , " E r n e s t R e y e r e t H. B e r l i o z , " M u s i c a no. 78 (March 1909): 37. A d o l p h e J u l l i e n , " L e s T r o y e n s , " M u s i c a no. 66 (March 1908): 43. 1 2  1 3  1  1 6  40  musicale early play  respectively.  admirer  of A l f r e d  Ubu R o i , wrote  Further  about  1908 p i c t o r i a l  lists  some o f t h e major  Noted  scholars Albert  article  Jarry's  dealing  Raoul  Schneider.  with  Gretry.  controversial anti-bourgeois  the c a f e - c o n c e r t o f t h e Chat  Bach.  Bruant.  1 8  i s gained i n  Noir.  S c h w e i t z e r and Andre  Brevannes,  Over  f o r E c h o de P a r i s and  1 9  performers associated  Less notable c r i t i c s Gretry,  a critic  on t h e c h a n s o n n i e r A r i s t i d e  information  Vaucaire's  Bauer,  1 7  Vaucaire's a r t i c l e with t h i s cabaret.  Pirro  e a c h w r o t e an  2 0  from  1902 t o 1910 i n c l u d e  Bretigny,  seventy a r t i c l e s  Robert  Brussel,  were w r i t t e n  Most o f t h e s e were C o n s e r v a t o r y news  Felicien and L o u i s  by F e l i c i e n reports,  announcements o f m u s i c a l events,, r e v i e w s o f p e r f o r m a n c e s and performers.  In 1907 G r e t r y  Jacques-Dalcroze another Musica  seminar  review, a b r i e f is given.  directors  2 2  Other  an i n t e r e s t i n g  report  at the C o n s e r v a t o i r e N a t i o n a l . history  2 1  on a In  o f t h e C o n s e r v a t o i r e Femina-  articles  or c o - o r d i n a t o r s .  Operas  offered  f o c u s on  institutional  2 3  r e v i e w e d by G r e t r y  include Gabriel  Dupont's La  J e a n C h a n t a v o i n e , "La romance i n s t r u m e n t a l e , " M u s i c a no. 139 ( A p r i l 1914): 79-80; L o u i s L a l o y , "La romance moderne," M u s i c a no. 139 ( A p r i l 1914): 77-78. ^ H e n r y B a u e r , " B r u a n t e t s e s c h a n s o n s , " M u s i c a no. 74 (November 1908): 167. M a u r i c e V a u c a i r e , "Le C h a t - N o i r , " M u s i c a no. 74 (November 1908): 1 68-69. A l b e r t S c h w e i t z e r , "La p h y s i o n o m i e de J . S. Bach," M u s i c a no. 61 ( O c t o b e r 1907): 147-48; Andre P i r r o , " J . S. Bach e t l a musique f r a n g a i s e , " M u s i c a no. 61 ( O c t o b e r 1907): 149-50. F e l i c i e n G r e t r y , "La g y m n a s t i q u e r y t h m i q u e , " M u s i c a no. 60 (September 1907): 131-33. I d e m , " L e s c o n c o u r s p u b l i c du C o n s e r v a t o i r e FeminaM u s i c a , " M u s i c a no. 83 (August 1909): 126-27. 1 7  1 9  2 0  2 1  2 2  41  Cabrera Belle  (reviewed  Isle  1908), Leone  (Mary  i n June 1906),  1905),  Oskar  Andre B l o c h ' s M a i d e (April  1910),  1908),  Spiro  Samara's M a d e m o i s e l l e  Merikanto's  (October  Pohjan  1909),  Samuel  (December  1909) and Quo V a d i s  A l t h o u g h many of t h e s e r e v i e w s a r e s p a r s e b e i n g more a s y n o p s i s o f o p e r a  plots  in actual  and e n d o r s e m e n t  obscure  neito,  Over  Merikanto's  Finnish  fifty  opera  articles  Programs s p o n s o r e d in April  artistic  manager G a b r i e l  Alfred  Risler,  and J a c q u e s  of for  prominent  Cortot,  2 6  on more  i s noted  Brevannes.  1910.  were  The i l l u s t r i o u s  A s t r u c o r g a n i z e d t h e 1910 programs  Thibaud.  2 5  festivals.  Breval,  Other  Litvinne,  that  Raoul  Muratore,  Pugno,  over  the years.  C h a r l e s Bordes,  Pablo  Edouard  e v e n t s c o v e r e d by  One i m p o r t a n t a r t i c l e  spectators at Bayreuth  Chevillard,  Bayreuth.  f o r example,  by R a o u l  Georges Enesco,  example, we d i s c o v e r  Camille  details  2  were w r i t t e n  the performers  Bayreuth  of e v e n t s ,  in Paris. "  1909, March and A p r i l  Casals,  included  performed  1910).  criticism,  by t h e C o n s e r v a t o i r e F e m i n a - M u s i c a  reviewed  featured  Pohjan  (June  Jean  (January  for providing  as t h e f i r s t  Rousseau's  1910),  they a r e of v a l u e t o the h i s t o r i a n works.  (October  L o u i s Ganne's Hans l e j o u e u r de f l u t e  Deodat de S e v e r a c ' s H e l i o q a b a l e ( O c t o b e r  Nougues C h i q u i t o  which  neito  de  Brevannes  gives a  list  I n 1885,  L o u i s Diemer,  a n d P a u l Dukas made t h e p i l g r i m a g e t o  P a r i s premiere  performances  reviewed  by  Brevannes  S e e , f o r example, G r e t r y ' s " L e s d i r e c t e u r s du C o n s e r v a t o i r e , " i n M u s i c a no. 35 (August 1905): 126-27. " I d e m , "Le p r e m i e r o p e r a de l a n g u e F i n n o i s e , " M u s i c a no. 73 ( O c t o b e r 1908): 159. R a o u l B r e v a n n e s , " L e s f e s t i v a l s M u s i c a , " M u s i c a no. 90 (March 1910): 42. 2 3  2  2 5  42  i n c l u d e G a b r i e l Pierne's La Coupe enchantee February 1906), Charles S i l v e r ' s Le Clos Le Borne's La Catalane (July  (reviewed i n  (August 1906), Fernand  1907), Massenet's Espada  1908), and S t r a v i n s k y ' s F i r e b i r d  (August 1910).  reviews, these were e x c e p t i o n a l l y  (June  As in G r e t r y ' s  favorable.  B r e t i g n y wrote about t h i r t y a r t i c l e s ; Robert B r u s s e l and L o u i s Schneider, about twenty. c r i t i c s are t h e i r  Important c o n t r i b u t i o n s by these  s t u d i e s of performers and composers.  wrote b i o g r a p h i e s of the r e l a t i v e l y unknown s i n g e r s G r e n v i l l e and Marguerite C a r r e r e - X a n r o f .  2 7  Bretigny  Lillian  Brussel, a c r i t i c for  Le F i g a r o , focused on the h a r p s i c h o r d i s t Wanda Landowska and the l e s s known p i a n i s t Edouard R i s l e r .  2 8  Other a r t i c l e s by B r u s s e l  concentrate on the music of Messager, Faure, and  Chabrier.  Schneider wrote b i o g r a p h i e s of Massenet and G r i e g .  3 0  His  biography of Massenet, which preceeds a l a t e r p u b l i c a t i o n , somewhat exaggerated.  2 9  3 1  is  His G r i e g biography i n c l u d e s  r e c o l l e c t i o n s of P a r i s c o n c e r t s complemented with photographs of  Idem, "Types de Bayreuth," Musica no. 23 (August 1904): 364-66. B r e t i g n y , "Miss L i l l i a n G r e n v i l l e , " Musica no. 44 (May 1906): 79; Idem, "Mme M a r g u e r i t e C a r r e r e - X a n r o f , " Musica no. 21 (June 1904): 325-26. R o b e r t B r u s s e l , "Wanda Landowska ou l a renaissance du c l a v e c i n , " Musica no. 28 (January 1905): 7-8; Idem, "Edouard R i s l e r et l e s t h i r t y - t w o sonatas de Beethoven," Musica no. 41 (February 1906): 27. Idem, "L'oeuvre d'Andre Messager," Musica no. 72 (September 1908): 133-35; Idem, "Les l i e d e r de Faure," Musica no. 77 (February 1908): 21-22; Idem, "Emmanuel C h a b r i e r , " Musica no. 93 (June 1910): 93-95. L o u i s Schneider, "La jeunesse de Massenet," Musica no. 50 (November 1906): 163-64; Idem, "Edvard G r i e g , " Musica no. 62 (November 1907): 163-66. Idem, Massenet. ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e L. Conquet, 1908). 26  2 7  2 8  29  3 0  31  43  Grieg  a t the piano. Critics  prominence Frioux,  from  1910 t o 1914 t h a t  i n c l u d e Rene D e l a n g e ,  and E d o u a r d  Schneider.  have n o t a t t a i n e d  Gabriel  Bernard,  Approximately  historical  Jacques  twenty  articles  were w r i t t e n by Magny, o f w h i c h t h e most v a l u a b l e a r e h i s interviews. includes work. on  3 2  A review  a special  i n t e r v i e w with  In a n o t h e r  1912 a r t i c l e  of M a s s e n e t ' s Roma i n 1912  t h e composer  a discussion  t h e s u b j e c t of o p e r e t t a i s r e c a l l e d .  contributed Massenet discussed  approximately  subjects role  ten a r t i c l e s  regarding h i s  with Charles  Delange,  3 3  t o Mus i c a ,  Lecocq  who interviewed  and R i c h a r d S t r a u s s . " The c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h S t r a u s s i s 3  in detail  Bernard  also  i n the ensuing  o f music  from  regarding  ten a r t i c l e s . t h e norm.  i n Balzac's novels, the i n f l u e n c e literary  F r i o u x and S c h n e i d e r .  topics.  3 6  3 5  composers. The  He e x p l o r e s t h e of Spencer  Fewer a r t i c l e s  A 1911 a r t i c l e  d e s s i n a t e u r s and c o s t u m i e r s contribution.  section  wrote a p p r o x i m a t e l y  of these a r e d i f f e r e n t  Wagner, and o t h e r by  of the premiere  on  were w r i t t e n  on t h e Opera-Comique  i s F r i o u x ' s most v a l u a b l e  Of S c h n i e d e r ' s  writings,  a descriptive  article  G a s t o n Magny, "La p r e m i e r e de Roma a 1'Opera de MonteC a r l o " and "M. M a s s e n e t e s t h e u r e u x , " M u s i c a no. 115 ( A p r i l 1912): 78-79. I d e m , " C h a r l e s L e c o c q e t s e s i n t e r p r e t e s , " M u s i c a no. 119 (August 1912): 157. " R e n e D e l a n g e , "Le p e t i t royaume de M a s s e n e t , " M u s i c a no. 120 (September 1912): 189-90; Idem, "Une c o n v e r s a t i o n a v e c M. R i c h a r d S t r a u s s , " M u s i c a no. 112 ( J a n u a r y 1912): 9. G a b r i e l B e r n a r d , "La musique dans l e roman: B a l z a c m u s i c i e n , " M u s i c a no. 113 ( F e b r u a r y 1912): 38-39; Idem, "Wagner et S p e n c e r , " M u s i c a no. 138 (March 1914): 51-52. J a c q u e s F r i o u x , "Le costume a u t h e a t r e m u s i c a l e : d e s s i n a t e u r s e t c o s t u m i e r s , " M u s i c a no. 100 ( J a n u a r y 1911): 2-3. 3 2  3 3  3  3 5  3 6  44  on  vacationing  the  a t the B e r n i n a H o s p i t z i s i m p o r t a n t  names of m u s i c i a n s who  frequented i t .  Richard  Strauss,  Leroux,  Jacques  Thibaud,  and A l f r e d  There  a r e o n l y a few  c o r r e s p o n d e n t s and visit  Gustave  investigation missionary,  ethnomusicologists.  In  1906,  entourage  by  music.  3 9  orchestra  Manes, and  J . Sinan described in another  a typical  article,  I n d i a n m e l o d i c and h a r m o n i c  system.  h i s musical  by  Moureaux six-piece  Joseph  f o c u s on Turkish  p r e s e n t e d the  f o r Musica music  i s impressive  c r i t i c s of t h e  o f t h e a u t h o r s were g u e s t c o n t r i b u t o r s a l t h o u g h  varied from  w i t h changes  1902  to  1910,  in editorship. there are  few  Chinese  1 , 0  i t i n c l u d e s many of t h e p r o m i n e n t  Most  an  i s well-  Edmond B a i l l y  A s u r v e y of the p e o p l e w r i t i n g s for  This  Contributions  Alphonse  Sisowath's  Cambodian  described 3 8  King  prompted  A local  ensembles.  illustrations.  Georges  and  of d a n c e r s  Knosp, m e t i c u l o u s l y  complemented  are Faure,  3 7  foreign  i n s t r u m e n t s and  Cantarel,  Casella.  by  impressions,  including  Doret, Jacques D a l c o r z e ,  i n t o Cambodian m u s i c .  Gaston  Mentioned  contributions  t o F r a n c e w i t h an  for  day.  regularity  During the J o l y - P i o c h y e a r s ,  changes  in collaborators,  but  E d o u a r d S c h n e i d e r , "La musique a l a montagne," M u s i c a 113 ( F e b r u a r y 1912): 24. G a s t o n Knosp, "La musique Cambodgienne," Mus i c a no. 47 (August 1906): 125-26. J o s e p h C a n t a r e l , "La musique e t l a danse c h e z l e s L a o t i e n s , " M u s i c a no. 97 ( O c t o b e r 1910): 155-56; G e o r g e s Manes, "La musique en C h i n e , " M u s i c a no. 105 (June 1911): 120; A l p h o n s e Moureaux, "La musique C h i n o i s e , " M u s i c a n o s . 121 126 ( O c t o b e r 1912 and M a r c h 1913): 200, 48. J . S i n a n , " L ' o r c h e s t r e T u r c , " M u s i c a no. 49 ( O c t o b e r 1906): 158; Edmond B a i l l y , "La musique H i n d o u e , " M u s i c a no. 78 (March l 9 0 9 ) : 4 3 - 4 4 . 3 7  no.  3 8  3 9  a  o  45  with  Leroux's succession  emerge.  i n 1910,  Leroux's personal  years,  impression, i s that  optimistic. was  the  comments a r e  information  a timetable  what m u s i c was  artistic  present  of e v e n t s .  p e r f o r m e d , who  rather  By  was  disproportionately or  reporting  speculated  is valuable.  upon.  Reviews  them, one  can  learn  where.  performers,  "people b e h i n d the  scenes,"  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of m u s i c d e v e l o p m e n t s , where h i s t o r y the  "great  composers."  provide  Biographies  " m a s t e r p i e c e s " and data,  and  the  special  of c o m p o s e r s o r p e r f o r m e r s r e v e a l c o n t e m p o r a r y  thought.  COMPOSERS  Composer's c o n t r i b u t i o n s information artist  be  o b s c u r e w o r k s , c o m p o s e r s and  reduced t o knowning o n l y  C.  only  reading  i s not  studies  and  early  p e r f o r m i n g , when and  d i r e c t o r s , d e s i g n e r s and  e n h a n c e our  critics  W h e t h e r p o o r p e r f o r m a n c e s were i g n o r e d  Despite t h i s ,  R e v i e w s on  leading  publication's  g e a r e d t o w a r d a d v e r t i s i n g m u s i c can  s e r v e as  contributors  impetus f o r t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i o n .  e s p e c i a l l y i n the  r e v i e w s and  new  association with  c o m p o s e r s must h a v e been an The  several  was  f o r the  historian.  a l s o a "man journal's  of  The  letters"  time of  the  provide  a w e a l t h of d a t a and  Contributions  frequently  publication.  were i l l i c i t t e d  offer significant  notion was  that  still  the  complete  prominent at  In t h i s v e i n ,  the  composers  i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r l i v e s and  works.  from such well-known composers  S a i n t - S a e n s , Massenet, Messager, Faure, Debussy, Reyer,  as  Bruneau,  46  and  Richard Strauss.  be w r i t i n g s Others  not  The  later  most v a l u a b l e of t h e s e  published in collections  were e x c e r p t s from  Wagner's Une Beethoven,  visite  previously  a Beethoven,  Schumann, L i s z t  and  as v a l u a b l e m u s i c o l o g i c a l l y contemporary  with Musica.  those a r t i c l e s  that  from  as a r t i c l e s T h i s study t o be  by c l o s e  or  letters  Clearly written  will  by  such  these are by  and  as  Mozart, not  composers  t h e r e f o r e focus  unique  friends  course  memoires.  published writings,  Berlioz.  are thought  as o b s e r v a t i o n s w r i t t e n  and  1  would of  to Musica,  as  associates  of  on well  composers. Especially Saens.  In an  admired  early  as a composer  analysis  t o have  compliance  with renaissance i d e a l s .  Musica,  M a i t r e s de reprinted  " l e s ambitions  3  Outspoken  l a Musique.  2  5  a poetic  ode  He  wrote  Articles  that  studies  on  to B e r l i o z .  do  and  Saint-  complet" fifteen  reprinted 4  was  Saint-Saens  l'artiste  e s s a y s on M u s i c ,  are Saint-Saens'  Gounod, and  de  of w h i c h t h r e e were l a t e r  Buissonni^re,  critic  of h i s c r i t i c i s m ,  considered  for  and  in  articles  in Ecole i n Les  not a p p e a r  are a l s o  Grands  t o have  Ingres' v i o l i n , There  was  been  Liszt, two  T h e t h r e e s t o r i e s , E i n e P i l g e r f a h r t zu B e e t h o v e n , E i n g l u c k l i c h e r Abend and E i n Ende i n P a r i s , f i r s t a p p e a r e d i n F r e n c h t r a n s l a t i o n i n t h e Revue e t G a z e t t e M u s i c a l e de P a r i s i n 1840 and 1841. G e o r g e s P i o c h , "Saint-Saens e c r i v a i n et p o e t e , " Musica no. 57 (June 1907): 95. I d e m , E c o l e B u i s s o n n i e r e ( P a r i s : P i e r r e L a f i t t e and Co., 1913): pp. 261-67. "Idem, O u t s p o k e n e s s a y s on M u s i c , t r a n s . F r e d R o t h w e l l (London: P a u l , T r e n c h , T r u b n e r , and Co., L t d . , 1922): pp. 80-88. T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n was u n a v a i l a b l e t o me but i n M u s i c a i s s u e no. 62, page 175, S a i n t - S a e n s ' "Sur l a M u s i q u e " i s c i t e d as b e i n g r e p r i n t e d from t h i s c o l l e c t i o n . 1  2  3  5  47  articles the  about  Munich  inaugurated  h i s opera D e j a n i r e ,  exposition, i n 1906,  and  famous o u t d o o r t h e a t e r , polls  about  decline 1909,  the r i g h t s  of comic  1910  and  1911  Bruneau  contributions studies  on  concert  on t h e d e m o l i t i o n  L e s A r e n e s de B e z i e r s , o f composers  issues  room of a  i n 1912.  versus l i b r e t t i s t s ,  the q u e s t i o n  of t e x t  respectively,  including  Opinion  6  the  setting,  illicited  Saint-Saens.  and  by o t h e r  R e y n a l d o Hahn.  These  replies  have  7  Wagner's s t a t u s  o f Wagner and  A l t h o u g h much has been Bruneau's  at t h i s  time.  f o r Wagner had  composers:  Bruneau's  a r e a b i o g r a p h y of E r n e s t  influence,  enthusiasm  were w r i t t e n  the i n f l u e n c e s  French music. musical  new  at  also  in from not  elsewhere.  Fewer a r t i c l e s Alfred  on L a f i t t e ' s  an a r t i c l e  o p e r a , and  numerous composers appeared  a text  a r e v i e w of F r e n c h music  valuable  R e y e r , and  two  Berlioz  contemporary  written  comments g i v e He  most  on  regarding  circle.  important  Wagner's  some i n d i c a t i o n  o b s e r v e d , i n 1903,  come f u l l  n i n e by  that  Initially  of public  not  C a m i l l e S a i n t - S a e n s , "A p r o p o s du v i o l o n d ' I n g r e s , " M u s i c a no. 15 (December 1903): 228; Idem, " L i s z t p i a n i s t e , " M u s i c a no. 109 ( O c t o b e r 1911): 202; Idem, " C h a r l e s Gounod: S o u v e n i r s de C a m i l l e S a i n t - S a e n s , " M u s i c a no. 46 ( J u l y 1906): 98; Idem, "Ode a B e r l i o z , " M u s i c a no. 66 (March 1908): 35; Idem, "Deux l e t t r e s de S a i n t - S a e n s , " M u s i c a no. 104 (May 1911): 86-87; Idem, "Ce que pense M. C a m i l l e S a i n t - S a e n s du f e s t i v a l f r a n g a i s de l ' e x p o s i t i o n de M u n i c h , " M u s i c a no. 98 (November 1910): 173; Idem, " I l f a u t une s a l l e de c o n c e r t s a P a r i s , " M u s i c a no. 42 (March 1906): 35; C a s t e l b o n de B e a u x h o s t e s and C a m i l l e S a i n t Saens, " L e s A r e n e s des B e z i e r s , " M u s i c a no. 121 ( O c t o b e r 1912): 194-95. A l f r e d B r u n e a u , " E r n e s t R e y e r , " M u s i c a no. 53 ( F e b r u a r y 1907) : 19-21; Idem, " L ' i n f l u e n c e de Wagner s u r l a musique f r a n g a i s e , " M u s i c a no. 13 ( O c t o b e r 1903): 199; " L ' i n f l u e n c e de B e r l i o z s u r l a musique c o n t e m p o r a i n e , " M u s i c a no. 66 (March 1908) : 36. 6  7  48  accepted musical  i n F r a n c e , Wagner influence,  somewhat for  outdated.  Wagner  composers  and f i n a l l y Bruneau  and commented  Where once  fashionable and c r i t i c s  Wagner's m u s i c . excessivement  distingue  assessments  conductor,  and M a s s e n e t  critically  foresaw t h a t de se d i r e  by F a u r e  is his article  reprinted.  1 0  about  in  a recent  extracted  translated anthology.  for raving  by G a b r i e l  sera  An  One  Messager  as a  opinion  musical  music.  Faure, four  by C l a u d e  important c o n t r i b u t i o n which  has n o t been  poll,  have  by R i c h a r d  Souvenirs;  de  a l l been Langham  of t h e t h r e e M a s s e n e t  from h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h y , Mes  9  polls,  on C h a r l e s Gounod, t h e P r i x  and r e p r i n t e d 1 1  over  are noteworthy.  future  of L i s z t ' s  Rome, and a r e s p o n s e t o a 1902 o p i n i o n subsequently  he m a i n t a i n e d  "...il  to several  on A n d r e M e s s a g e r , writings,  attitudes.  8  by J u l e s M a s s e n e t .  Debussy's  admiration  a n t i w a g n e r i a n . " Of Hahn's  replied  were w r i t t e n  and t h r e e  soon  as h i s f o r m e r t e a c h e r  and a 1911 e v a l u a t i o n  Debussy,  enthusiast,  o f O f f e n b a c h a s a composer,  and Hahn a l s o  Five a r t i c l e s  on t h e c h a n g i n g  embarrassed  s u c h a s t h e 1902 and 1910 i n q u i r i e s directions,  of the c e n t u r y ,  e x p r e s s e d h i s unwavering  were l a t e r  Bruneau  became a d o m i n a t i n g  at the turn  t o be a Wagner  criticism,  Both Bruneau  eventually  1 2  Smith  articles  was  the others  I d e m , " L ' i n f l u e n c e de Wagner s u r l a musique francaise," M u s i c a no. 13 ( O c t o b e r 1903): 199. ^ e y n a l d o Hahn, "Notes s u r O f f e n b a c h , " M u s i c a no. 68 (May 1908): 71; Idem, "Andre M e s s a g e r c h e f d ' o r c h e s t r e , " M u s i c a no. 72 (September 1908): 136; Idem, " J u l e s M a s s e n e t p r o f e s s e u r , " M u s i c a no. 120 (September 1912): 182-83. ^ G a b r i e l F a u r e , "Andre M e s s a g e r , " M u s i c a no. 72 (September 1908): 131-32. ' R i c h a r d Langham S m i t h , t r a n s , and e d . , Debussy on M u s i c (New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1977). 8  1  49  are  responses t o o p i n i o n  polls.  S i n g l e a r t i c l e s were w r i t t e n by other noted composers,  such  as Ernest Reyer, C h a r l e s Lecocq, Claude T e r r a s s e , Deodat de Severac, Jean Poueigh, C a m i l l e M a u c l a i r , and V i t e z o l a v Novak. Reyer's f l a t t e r i n g a r t i c l e d e d i c a t e d t o the well-known Caron was e s p e c i a l l y w r i t t e n elsewhere. Fille  f o r Mus i c a ;  Rose  i t does not appear  L i k e w i s e , C h a r l e s Lecocq's d e t a i l e d h i s t o r y of La  13  de Madame Anqot was e s p e c i a l l y w r i t t e n a t the j o u r n a l ' s  r e q u e s t . " An a p p r e c i a t i o n of Offenbach's music was given by 1  Terrasse,  1 5  and the r e g i o n a l composers  about the chansons of Languedoc Severac l i s t s  Severac and Poueigh wrote  and Provence  some of the l e a d i n g composers  respectively. from h i s n a t i v e area  and the chanson p u b l i c a t i o n s then a v a i l a b l e .  1 6  Poueigh focuses  on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p r o v i n c i a l and dauphinois t u n e s . d i s t i n c t i o n between chanson and l i e d  1 7  A  i s made i n M a u c l a i r ' s  a r t i c l e , and Czechoslovakian music  i s examined  Novak's a r t i c l e  i n t o the intense n a t i o n a l i s m  felt  lends some i n s i g h t  i n C z e c h o s l o v a k i a a t t h i s time.  by N o v a k .  18  These a r t i c l e s as well  1 Mules Massenet, My R e c o l l e c t i o n s , t r a n s . H. V i l l a r s Barnett (New York: Books f o r L i b r a r i e s Press, 1970), pp. 1-16. E r n e s t Reyer, "Un a r t i c l e d'Ernest Reyer," Musica no. 53 (February 1907): 31. " C h a r l e s Lecocq, "La F i l l e de Madame Anqot," Musica no. 119 (August 1912): 158-59. C l a u d e T e r r a s s e , "L'oeuvre de Jacques Offenbach," Musica no. 68 (May 1908): 67-68. D . de Severac, "Chansons du Languedoc et du R o u s s i l l o n , " Musica no. 111 (December 1911): 241. ^ J e a n Poueigh, "Provence et Dauphine," Musica no. 111 (December 1911): 233. 1 3  1  15  16  50  appear  t o be u n i q u e  In a d d i t i o n  to the j o u r n a l .  t o these w r i t i n g s  there are i s o l a t e d  articles  that  t o have been  do n o t a p p e a r  on Wagner, Articles  f o r example,  by F r o m e n t h a l  Halevy  or n o t t h e y were e x t r a c t e d Some of t h e c r i t i c i s m letters  Saint-Saens,  There Liszt,  with  reprinted.  Offenbach's  "Un a r t i c l e  and C a r l  in this  earlier  writings  may a l s o  primarily,  contributed  Of c o n t r i b u t i o n s  article  on d'Indy  Roechlin,  Gabriel  a l t h o u g h whether  include excerpted  prove v a l u a b l e  to the  by B i z e t ,  i f not s o l e l y ,  seven  articles,  by P i e r r e  Reyer,  Erlanger,  f o r opinion of which a l l  are responses to  de B r e v i l l e ,  and t h e o t h e r , an o p i n i o n  contributions  can  2 1  and o t h e r s .  polls.  single  1 9  sources i s not c l e a r .  t h e e x c e p t i o n o f a s t u d y on l i b r e t t i s t s ,  by C a m i l l e  inedit..."  same g r o u p ,  times  critique  M a r i a von W e b e r  a r e a n a l y s e s of w r i t i n g s  V i n c e n t d'Indy  articles  composers,  by c o m p o s e r s o f f o r m e r  on c o m p o s e r s '  Some c o m p o s e r s wrote polls.  2 0  from  and documents w h i c h  musicologist.  written  is titled:  a l s o p r o b a b l y be c l a s s i f i e d  by c o n t e m p o r a r y  poll  one i s an reply.  Five  two by A l e x a n d r e G e o r g e s , and  by M a u r i c e R a v e l , H e n r i D u p a r c ,  Charles  Dupont, a n d P a u l Dukas a r e a l l o p i n i o n  poll  replies.  C a m i l l e M a u c l a i r , "Le l i e d f r a n c a i s c o n t e m p o r a i n , " M u s i c a no. 74 (November 1908): 163-64; V i t e z o l a v Novak, " L e s t e n d a n c e s a c t u e l l e de l a musique T c h e q u e , " M u s i c a no. 127 ( A p r i l 1913): 64. J a c q u e s O f f e n b a c h , "Un a r t i c l e i n e d i t : R i c h a r d Wagner p a r J a c q u e s O f f e n b a c h , " M u s i c a no. 68 (May 1908): 74. F . H a l e v y , " L e s v i o l o n s d ' I n g r e s : Un c o n t e de F. H a l e v y , " M u s i c a no. 122 (November 1912): 229-30. ^C.M. de Weber, "Un c o n t e de Ch. M. de Weber: L a L o c h e , " M u s i c a no. 12 ( J a n u a r y 1912): 20. 1 8  1 9  2 0  51  Polls  were c o n d u c t e d  publication  and  1909  "respective  for  on  the  are  interesting  example, d i s c l o s e s  including  rights an  M a u r i c e M a e t e r l i n c k on composers,  sporadically  t h r o u g h o u t Mus i c a ' s  inclusions.  o f c o m p o s e r s and  open d i s p u t e  on  Laparra,  this  the c o l l a b o r a t i o n  S a i n t - S a e n s , d'Indy,  H e n r i Rabaud, and  Other Musica Liszt.  opinion  polls  Contemporary  2 3  regarding decline  subject, while others,  the s t a t e  Xavier  I . de  of v o c a l  these p r i n t e d  replies  appear  Musica  was  faithful  Deserving  relatives.  These  music  and  a  in a  1910  to these p o l l s . t o be e x t r a c t s  of the  to the author's  intentions.  p r o v i d e much  Raoul  and  1906 on  poll the  and  actual  assumed  w i t h r e g a r d to composers  by p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s , often  an  S i n c e many of  i t i s only  mention  Many  restrained.  poll  the p u b l i c a t i o n ,  special  accounts written  less  and  and  l a Tour,  2  replied  by  de  o p e r a . " Numerous c o m p o s e r s  t h e day  received  felt  22  Camondo,  to express  Imbart  Leroux  Fevrier  f o c u s e d on Wagner, V e r d i ,  p e r f o r m e r s of  letters  librettists,"  of Monna V a n n a .  concerns are r e f l e c t e d  of F r e n c h comic  conducted in  between Henry  J e a n Nougues, were u n d e r s t a n d a b l y r e l u c t a n t opinion  A poll  that  are  a c q u a i n t a n c e s , or insight  i n t o a s p e c t s of a  M u s i c a , "Enquete s u r l e s d r o i t s r e s p e c t i f s des c o m p o s i t e u r s e t des 1 i b r e t t i s t e s , " M u s i c a n o s . 76, 77, 78 ( J a n u a r y , F e b r u a r y , March 1909): 10, 30, 46. C h a r l e s J o l y , " L ' o r i e n t a t i o n m u s i c a l e , " M u s i c a n o s . 1, 3 ( O c t o b e r and December 1902): 5-6, 39; " N o t r e e n q u e t e s u r V e r d i , " M u s i c a no. 133 ( O c t o b e r 1913): 205-07; " L i s z t j u g e p a r l e s m a i t r e s c o n t e m p o r a i n s , " M u s i c a no. 109 ( O c t o b e r 1911): 199-200. " G e o r g e s P i o c h , "Enquete s u r l ' a r t du c h a n t , " M u s i c a n o s . 47, 48, 49 ( A u g u s t , September, O c t o b e r 1906): 115-18, 13133, 147-50; Idem, "Enquete s u r l a d e c a d e n c e de 1 ' o p e r a - c o m i q u e f r a n g a i s e , " M u s i c a n o s . 96, 97 (September and O c t o b e r 1910): 131-33, 149-50. 2 2  2 3  2  52  composer's l i f e  or works.  example, a p o r t r a i t e s p e c i a l l y noted.  Of a r t i c l e s a b o u t S a i n t - S a e n s , f o r  by h i s c l o s e f r i e n d  V i a r d o t , who was a l m o s t  s o i r e e s as f o r her s i n g i n g , f i r s t y o u n g man. des  She d e s c r i b e d h i m a s " . . . g e n t i l ,  particularly  2 5  memorable, f o r S a i n t - S a e n s  fantaisie  even d e s c r i b e d  and  e t s i d r o l e , avec were  r e g u l a r l y e n t e r t a i n e d at One o f t h e s e  s u r l ' a c t e d e s nonnes de R o b e r t i n her a r t i c l e .  when he was a  Sunday e v e n i n g s  V i a r d o t ' s home w i t h a game o f c h a r a d e s .  Saint-Saens  a s famous f o r h e r  met S a i n t - S a e n s  idees s i e x t r a o r d i n a i r e s . . . "  "une  Pauline Viardot i s  l e Diable," i s  The p a r t o f R o b e r t  2 6  mimes,  was a c t e d by  a n d t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s , by B u s s i n e , G a b r i e l  Paul Joanne.  Faure,  Some o f t h e s p e c t a t o r s i n c l u d e d G e o r g e s Sand,  F l a u b e r t , T u r g e n e v , J u l e s S i n o n , Gounod, A m b r o i s e Thomas, and Cesar  Franck.  recorded Of  2 7  T h i s penchant  f o r a c t i n g i s i n t e r e s t i n g l y not  i n most b i o g r a p h i e s on  Saint-Saens.  a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n a b o u t M a s s e n e t , r e m i n i s c e n c e s by  c o l l a b o r a t o r Henri Cain, personal  friend J . Claretie,  pupil Charles S i l v e r are p a r t i c u l a r l y f a s t i d i o u s working Claretie discussed  revealing.  a n d former  Massenet's  habits are discussed i n Cain's a r t i c l e  r e p o r t s on c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h M a s s e n e t . in Claretie's article  is initial  M a s s e n e t ' s w o r k s , w h i c h was c o u n t e r a c t e d  2 9  2 8  and  Briefly  n e g a t i v e c r i t i c i s m of  by h i s  admirers  Mme P a u l i n e V i a r d o t , "La j e u n e s s e de S a i n t - S a e n s , " M u s i c a 57 ( J u n e 1 9 0 7 ) : 8 3 . Ibid. Ibid. H e n r i C a i n , "Comment t r a v a i l l e M a s s e n e t , " Mus i c a no. 120 (November 1 9 0 6 ) : 168. J u l e s C l a r e t i e , . "Souvenirs sur J . Massenet," Musica no. 120 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 1 2 ) : 185-86. 25  no.  2 6 2 7 2 8  2 9  53  Theodore Dubois at  the  agreed  time  expression  (2) a c l a s s i c a l romantic  interestingly cites  artist  of  movement  revival  movement  were a l s o  views.  affectionately  article  some of R e y e r ' s  Pyrenees, secluded region  L a v a n d o u , and farm  are  Cornubert. " 3  playing  Reyer  also  favorite  in another  article  principles written  3 1  French  The  the  Silver composer  differs  celebrated  pastimes,  frequently  friend  His  which  a game of  trips  i n the Vasages written  addressed  3 3  v a c a t i o n e d in the  His annual  article  the  by  to a  mountain Pierre  to Morel  in  of b e l c a n t o a r e summarized  by c l o s e  new  "general."  t h e p i a n o , and  Mouthiers.  It includes a letter  Rossini's unique  nicknamed  owned by Edmond M o r e l  recalled  l e d by D e b u s s y .  This position  and  (3) a  h i s f r i e n d s h i p with  composer, whom he  dominos or b i l l i a r d s .  d ' I n d y ; and  d e d i c a t e d to Reyer.  included cooking, hiking,  movements i n  l e d by M a s s e n e t  as a l e a d i n g  He  3 0  3 2  E m i l e H e n r i o t w r o t e about  discloses  by  influence,  Silver.  three d i s t i n c t  on Debussy..  w i t h modern  Articles  i s a s s e s s e d by  ranks Massenet  his influence  considerably  view  (1) a t h e a t r i c a l  of t h e  Massenet's m u s i c a l  i n 1912,  with a contemporary  Saint-Saens;  and  E r n e s t Reyer.  of h i s d e a t h  French music:  also  and  E. M i c h o t t e .  3 5  1881.  in a In  C h . S i l v e r , " L ' i n f l u e n c e de M a s s e n e t , " M u s i c a no. 120 (September 1912): 173-74. Ibid. S e e , f o r example, M a r t i n C o o p e r , F r e n c h M u s i c : from t h e d e a t h o f B e r l i o z t o t h e d e a t h of F a u r g . (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951), p~. Th\ H e n r i o t , " E r n e s t Reyer i n t i m e , " M u s i c a no. 53 ( F e b r u a r y 1907): 24-26. " P i e r r e C o r n u b e r t , " S o u v e n i r s s u r E. R e y e r , " M u s i c a no. 110 (November 1911): 216. 3 0  3 1  3 2  3 3  3  54  response  to public  conversation confuse three "le  o p i n i o n i n 1910 t h a t  w i t h the master  was r e c a l l e d .  b e l canto with v i r t u o s t i c  basic  b e l canto elements:  stradivarius;"  virtuosite;"  article as  (1) t h e v o i c e ,  o r " l e gout  i s an i m p o r t a n t  inclusion  absolument  Biographies written rare.  A biography  relative and  identified  which  i s called  inedit."  of t h e composer,  by R o b e r t reveals  3 6  preparatory  are stressed.  i n Musica  by r e l a t i v e s  written  et le sentiment."  and c e r t a i n  a s vowel v o c a l i z a t i o n ,  "...un e x p o s e ,  Rossini  (2) t e c h n i q u e , o r " l e s e x e r c i c e s de  a n d (3) s t y l e ,  such  e s t mort," a  In o r d e r n o t t o  display,  T h e s e a r e e x p l a i n e d i n some d e t a i l exercises,  "bel canto  This  and was i n t r o d u c e d  3 7  of composers a r e e x t r e m e l y Cesar-Franck,  Franck's  a presumed  predisposition  to a r t  i s complemented w i t h a r e p r o d u c t i o n o f one o f t h e c o m p o s e r ' s  early  drawings.  of h i s f a t h e r , Musica composers.  3 8  M a r c e l Adam's b i o g r a p h y  e x c e r p t s from  p u b l i s h e d many  recollections  and c r i t i c i s m .  3 9  i n t e r v i e w s or c o n v e r s a t i o n s with  Some o f t h e more o u t s t a n d i n g i n t e r v i e w s , e x c l u d i n g  those p r e v i o u s l y  mentioned, a r e " c o n v e r s a t i o n s " with R i c h a r d  S t r a u s s and R i m s k y - K o r s a k o v . journalists,  letters  includes  Strauss rarely  Due t o h i s d i s d a i n f o r granted  interviews, frequently  using  E . M i c h o t t e , "Une s o i r e e c h e z R o s s i n i , " M u s i c a no. 96 (September 1910): 138. Ibid. P r e a m b u l e t o "Une s o i r e e c h e z R o s s i n i , " by E . M i c h o t t e , M u s i c a no. 96 (September 1910): 138 ^ R o b e r t C e s a r - F r a n c k , "Cesar Franck d e s s i n a t e u r , " Musica no. 112 ( J a n u a r y 1912): 18. M a r c e l Adam, "Adolphe Adam," M u s i c a no. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 1904) 267-68. 3 5  3 6 3 7  3 9  55  the  e x c u s e of h a v i n g  grave."" several  contacted  approaches  t h e composer  qentilhomme.  expressed  admiration  Rimsky-Korsakov,  il  m'est  trop  when a s k e d  musique  compositional  and t h e c o m p l e t i o n  to French  composers,  by composer replied  pas b i e n  "qu'il  1  Strauss  Casella his admirait  Pelleas,  of Le  and D e b u s s y .  Alfred  et q u ' i l  Regarding  desagreable."  Saintignorait  Richard  Strauss'  2  i s a 1912 u n s i g n e d  article  a composer, a s s o c i a t e o f M a r i n e t t i , futurist  movement.  futuriste,"  philosophical  This a r t i c l e ,  i n c l u d e s an e x c e r p t  beneath a r e p r o d u c t i o n contemporary  of a c u b i s t  reaction to Pratella  pas l e u r  Balilla  and a d v o c a t e  from  of  "L'ame de  Pratella's  G. B e n d e r , who i s  futuriste.  A caption  p a i n t i n g by P i c a s s o and t h e f u t u r i s t s ,  " I l e s t a s o u h a i t e r que l e s m u s i c i e n s  n'envisagent  on  entitled  w r i t i n g s and an i n t e r v i e w w i t h  as the l e a d e r of l ' e c o l e musicale  that:  from  Charpentier,  l a musique de F a u r e . "  further interest  Italian  cited  regard  for Berlioz,  ne c o m p r e n a i t  toute  Pratella,  la  tres  he s t a t e d : " J e ne comprends p a s c e t t e musique v u l g a i r e ,  Of  the  With  of h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s ,  Saens, q u ' i l  music,  ranging  t o a performance of E l e k t r a  Bourgeois  presque  contagieuse  Rene D e l a n g e , however, was s u c c e s s f u l i n d i s c u s s i n g  0  t o p i c s with  opinion  "...une m a l a d i e  reveals a  by s t a t i n g  futuristes  a r t d'une f a e o n . . . a u s s i  geometrique."  3  "°Rene D e l a n g e , "Une c o n v e r s a t i o n a v e c M. R i c h a r d S t r a u s s , " M u s i c a no. 112 ( J a n u a r y 1912): 9. " ^ A l f r e d C a s e l l a , "Une v i s i t e a R i m s k y - K o r s a k o v , " M u s i c a no. 121 ( O c t o b e r 1912): 212. " Ibid. " "L'ame de l a musique f u t u r i s t e , " M u s i c a no. 116 (May 1912): 97. 2  3  56  Numerous photographs and Musica.  of composers appear i n  These augment p r i n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n by p r o v i d i n g a v i s u a l  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the a r t i s t representations  i n s o c i e t y and at l e i s u r e .  i n c l u d e photographs of P u c c i n i duck  Bruneau c a n o i n g , 6).  sketches  Unusual  hunting,  and C h e v i l l a r d m o u n t a i n e e r i n g ( F i g u r e s 5 and  Portrait-photographs  thought to be the l a s t a v a i l a b l e  Figure 5 - P u c c i n i , duck-hunting (November 1903, p. 223)  i n c l u d e 1909  and  1906  p o r t r a i t s of Reyer and  respectively  ( F i g u r e s 7 and  photograph of S a i n t - S a e n s '  8).  Gounod,  Other r a r i t i e s i n c l u d e a  at h i s l a s t piano c o n c e r t  given  1913 at  57  Figure 6 - Bruneau, c a n o i n g (September 1903, p. 190)  the  age  of  seventy-eight.  composers' h a b i t a t s . Paris  apartment  (Figures  and  Reyer,  10).  friends  provide  us  in  p h o t o g r a p h s of  The  popular  in Musica  f o r example,  with  i d e a s of the  not  and  caricatures  figures  Berlioz  established  were r e p r i n t e d  contemporary composers are distinctive  features  u s u a l comic  or  public  or  grotesque  rare.  at  the  time  opinion.  s u c h as  and evident  In  sketches are  Several  is  represented  some  insight  While  Wagner, L i s z t ,  journals,  peculiarities fashion.  is  his  house  family  This  These p r o v i d e  from e a r l i e r  in  of  Bayreuth.  caricatures  prominent.  views  country  including  association.  crowds a t  actual  is pictured  his Egreville  i n t o composer's c h a r a c t e r s of  i n t e r e s t are  Group photographs  usage of  although  of  Massenet, at  9 and  1904  Also  not  caricatures that  do  of  appear,  exaggerated  photographs  or  of  in  the  58  Figure  l-k  l a s t p o r t r a i t - p h o t o g r a p h of (March 1909, p. 35)  caricature-sculptures It for  i s apparent,  Musica  and  conservative composers  by Dantan a l s o on  covered  sector  i n the  journal,  of t h e music  The  that  scene.  they  More  sparse c o n t r i b u t i o n s  K o e c h l i n , and Dukas, must  popular  appeal. little  Schoenberg. competition  reflect  It i s understandable i n Musica  that  1  M  but  surprisingly  writing  r e p r e s e n t the  controversial in  of p e o p l e  like  editorial  policy  given t h i s  r e g a r d i n g composers  B a r t o k s h o n o r a b l e mention is noted,  journal.  r e v i e w i n g the names of c o m p o s e r s  Duparc,  reads  i n the  s u c h as Debussy a r e d e c i d e d l y l a c k i n g  correspondence.  one  appear  Reyer  at a  s u c h as  1905  Ravel, and  position Bartok  composition  h i s name does  not  or  59  appear a g a i n . Figure  publication's Although journal and  Figures l i k e  Satie are featured i n the  8 - A l a s t p o r t r a i t - p h o t o g r a p h o f Gounod ( J u l y 1906, p. 102)  later  years  when i t was more a c c e p t a b l e  t o do s o .  s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s a p p e a r on f o r e i g n c o m p o s e r s , t h e i s most e n t h u s i a s t i c i n i t s t r e a t m e n t  i t s composers, a r e f l e c t i o n  of French  perhaps of the p e r i o d ' s  nationalism.  * " B r e t i g n y , "Le c o n c o u r s R u b e n s t e i n , " ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 0 5 ) : 138.  M u s i c a no. 36  music  60  Figure 9 - Reyer i n h i s s a l o n ( F e b r u a r y 1907, p. 26)  61  F i g u r e 10 - M a s s e n e t a t (November 1906, p.  Egreville 174)  62  D.  PERFORMERS  As occupy  front-line interpreters a unique  writings  provide  interpretive violinists  articles  first.  chansonniers pianists,  insight  techniques.  most c o v e r a g e ,  discussed  i nthe musical  valuable  andother  pedagogical the  position  Many  into  Another  andcabaret  singers.  opera  pianists,  singers they  Less c r i t i c i s m  and c e l l i s t s ;  Somewhat more p r o m i n e n t  a n d some  or  receive w i l l be  i s w r i t t e n by  instrumental  guitarists or percussionists,  Reviews and a r t i c l e s  contributed  are contributions  written  about  by  performers  add t o  information. Articles focus  written  by s i n g e r s  on c h a r a c t e r  are generally  interpretation  photographs  of the a r t i s t s  comparisons  t o b e made t o p r e s e n t - d a y  articles and  practises and  s i g n i f i c a n t group of c o n t r i b u t o r s a r e  minimally.  Many  Their  autobiographical  photographically,  like  the  singers,  wrote  Since  performers,  dancers.  performers  heirarchy.  reknowned  f o r Musica.  works  performance  instrumentalists,  especially  violinists,  of musical  written  Felia Litvinne  give  These  photographs  practises.  Wagnerian  an i n s i g h t  informative.  a n d a r e enhanced by  i n costume.  by t h e g r e a t  very  into  singers an e a r l y  allow  F o r example, Ernest  Van Dyck  twentieth-  Ernest Van Dyck, "Les grands r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e p a r l e u r i l l u s t r e s i n t e r p r e t e s : T r i s t a n par E r n e s t Van Dyck," Musica no. 113 ( F e b r u a r y 1912): 23; F e l i a L i t v i n n e , " L e s g r a n d s r o l e s d u r e p e r t o i r e p a r l e u r i l l u s t r e s i n t e r p r e t e s : I s o l d e , p a r Mme F e l i a L i t v i n n e , " M u s i c a n o . 113 ( F e b r u a r y 1912): 22.  63  century were  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of T r i s t a n and I s o l d e .  fairly  elaborate  Figure  inflated  (Figures  rejected  approach  in favor  to these  of a s i m p l e  A l t h o u g h costumes  traditionally  11 - E r n e s t Van Dyck i n t h e r o l e (June 1905, p. 89)  r o m a n t i c and t r a g i c  surprisingly  11 and 1 2 ) , a  1  of T r i s t a n  roles  was  straight-forward  style. Other discussed Salignac  s i n g e r s , Eustase Thomas-Salignac their  and L u c i e n n e  Breval  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of Don J o s e and Carmen.  i n t e r p r e t e d Jose as a n e u r o t i c  character,  vascillating  64  between l o v e , Figure  Similarly,  tenderness, jealousy,  rage and  violence.  12 - F e l i a L i t v i n n e i n t h e r o l e o f ( J u l y 1904, p. 342)  Breval's  unconventional.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Carmen was  She b e l i e v e d  2  Isolde  rather  Carmen was c o n t r o l l e d  by f a t e , and  E . T h o m a s - S a l i g n a c , " L e s g r a n d s r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e p a r l e u r s c e l e b r e s i n t e r p r e t e s : l e r o l e de Don J o s e , p a r M. E. T h o m a s - S a l i g n a c , " M u s i c a no. 114 ( M a r c h 1 9 1 2 ) : 42-44. 2  65  interpreted This  her r o l e  interpretation  traditionally Marguerite 13).  as a l s o  essentially  de N u o v i n a , Emma C a l v e ,  thousandth  of t h i s  performance  opera,  p o r t r a y a l s by and M a r i e  from  i s found  and M e p h i s t o p h e l e s  between  the f i r s t  i n another  interpreters  Marguerite,  by H e n r i  Carvalho,  issue."  Miolan-Carvalho  Marguerite, comparisons  of G o e t h e ' s F a u s t .  son of t h e c r e a t r i c e  g i v e s some i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t i n t h e 1859 p r e m i e r e  5  s e t by  Her  interpretation  was  w h i c h t h e most  famous were Rose C a r o n a n d G e r a l d i n e F a r r a r .  Mephistopheles  interpreters  and  Fyodor  of F a u s t ,  Shalyapin. was  the d i f f e r e n t 'elegant, and  operas.  likeable,  Shalyapin,  i n c l u d e d J . Faure,  with  Faure,  such  Maurice  i m a g i n a t i o n and v a r i e t y i n  and c o m i c a l ' M e p h i s t o p h e l e s ;  i n the B e r l i o z  Renaud,  u n l i k e the c h a r a c t e r  i n Gounod's F a u s t ,  was an whereas Renaud  and B o i t o v e r s i o n s , were  unconventional  'malicious, s p i r i t u a l  in-depth  of t h i s  study  of other M a r g u e r i t e s , of  T h i s complex r o l e ,  interpreted  A  of Gounod's  the standards  performance.  f o l l o w e d by a h o s t  (Figure  t o t h e one-  facilitate  the v a r i o u s o p e r a t i c p r o d u c t i o n s  contribution  character  and p r o f o u n d '  i s provided  demons.  by S h a l y a p i n ,  An 6  who  L u c i e n n e B r e v a l , "De 1 ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n de Carmen," M u s i c a 87 (December 1909): 182. "Georges P i o c h , "De l a 1 r e a l a lOOOme de Carmen," M u s i c a no. 87 (December 1909): 182. H e n r i C a r v a l h o , "Le F a u s t de Gounod," M u s i c a no. 40 ( J a n u a r y 1906): 4. C h a l a p i n e , "Les g r a n d s r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e p a r l e u r c e l e b r e s i n t e r p r e t e s , " M u s i c a no. 118 ( J u l y 1912): 122-24. 3  no.  5  6  3  Galli-Marie,  de l ' I s l e  Numerous s t u d i e s and p h o t o g r a p h s of p o p u l a r Faust,  bizarre.  can be compared and c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e  s e d u c t i v e and e x o t i c  A history  n e u r o t i c and  66  F i g u r e 13 - Carmen i n t e r p r e t e r s ( F e b r u a r y 1905, p. 24)  QUEEQUEjS INTERPRETES  CELEBRES  67  was  perhaps  one  particularly other  famous as B o r i s  Russian  time.  The  Albert  Saleza;  studies  role 7  that  Francell; roles  8  and  H a m l e t , by A l i n e  Falstaff,  also 1 3  teaching her  not  by o t h e r s i n g e r s  Grieux  wrote  methods.  Salammbo  was  Vallandri,  Maurel,  about  he a r g u e d  of c o n t e m p o r a r y  1 1  the c r e a t o r  in vocal  by Maurel;  singers,  9  and  Henri  of  Verdi's  t e c h n i q u e s and  for standardization  t h i s opinion,  by  Thomas' Miqnon  Demellier,  n o t e d as  the  Manon,  by V i c t o r  Ambroise  Helene  variation  Challenging  be a u n i v e r s a l  1 0  of  i s discussed  i n Massenet's  i n Gounod's M i r e i l l e ,  In t h i s a r t i c l e ,  assessment  could  of Des  respectively.  1 2  He  for dramatizations in  Yago from V e r d i ' s O t e l l o ,  title  methods.  were w r i t t e n  of Matho from R e y e r ' s  and  Albers,  Godonov and  of h i s day.  operas.  Character  Fernand  of the most p o p u l a r s i n g e r s  Pauline  believed  that  in  Viardot,  in  there  method ammenable t o a l l l a n g u a g e s . " 1  A l b e r t S a l e z a , "Les g r a n d s r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e : l e r o l e de Matho p a r M. S a l e z a , " M u s i c a no. 126 (March 1913): 42-43. F e r n a n d F r a n c e l l , "Les g r a n d s r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e p a r l e u r c e l e b r e s i n t e r p r e t e s : l e r o l e de Des G r i e u x dans Manon p a r M. F e r n a n d F r a n c e l l , " M u s i c a no. 138 (March 1914): 46-47. V i c t o r M a u r e l , "Les g r a n d s r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e par l e u r s c e l e b r e s i n t e r p r e t e s : l e r o l e de Yago p a r M. V i c t o r M a u r e l , " M u s i c a no. 115 ( A p r i l 1912): 64. ^ A l i n e V a l l a n d r i , "Les g r a n d s r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e : l e r o l e de M i r e i l l e p a r Mme A l i n e V a l l a n d r i , " M u s i c a no. 132 (September 1913): 170-71." H e l e n e D e m e l l i e r , "Les g r a n d s r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e : l e r o l e de M i g n o n , " M u s i c a no. 137 ( F e b r u a r y 1914): 26-27. H e n r i A l b e r s , "Les g r a n d s r o l e s du r e p e r t o i r e : l e r o l e d'Hamlet p a r M. H e n r i A l b e r s , " M u s i c a no. 116 (May 1912): 82-83. V i c t o r M a u r e l , " F a u t - i l e d i f i e r un s c i e n c e du c h a n t , " M u s i c a no. 1 ( O c t o b e r 1902): 4. ^ P a u l i n e V i a r d o t , " Les c a n t a t r i c e s contemporaines," Musica no. 64 ( J a n u a r y 1908): 2. 7  B  9  1 1  1 2  1 3  68  Comments by s i n g e r s a b o u t provide  biographical information.  issue dedicated  to singers, there  Dyck, A l b e r t S a l e z a , these,  Saleza's  special this her  mention  singer career  since there  After  K a s s y a and i s c r e d i t e d w i t h  lyric  celebrities  the heroine  as E r n e s t  articles  Another  were w r i t t e n  written  Ambroise  Thomas a t t h e C o n s e r v a t o i r e ,  a  local  Wagnerian  reputation.  Rusticana.  Her v o i c e i s she c a p t u r e d  a r t i c l e by 1 6  by s u c h  Van Dyck a n d E n r i c o C a r u s o .  however, a r e t h o s e  role in  in Prosperine,  biography.  by somewhat  s i n g e r s J . F . Delmas and E . T h o m a s - S a l i g n a c .  role  p e r f o r m a n c e of  and s e d u c t i v e .  1 5  began  Victor  L e s H u g u e n o t s , and C a v a l l e r i a  complements S a l e z a ' s  Autobiographical  the  soprano,  a s " p u r e " and " c a r e f r e e " and f o r S a l e z a ,  Georges L a p l a c e  fairly  a v a i l a b l e on  with  parts  Of  deserves  information  created  e s s e n c e o f Carmen's f r e e s p i r i t .  valuable,  J a n u a r y 1908  Delmas.  in a Brussel's  De N u o v i n a  an i n t e r p r e t e r she was f e m i n i n e  the  and J . F .  studying  often  by E r n e s t Van  de N u o v i n a  is little  she made h e r d e b u t  W e r t h e r , La N a v a r r a i s e ,  described  are a r t i c l e s  De N u o v i n a , a Romanian  Massenet's Esclarmonde.  As  In t h e s p e c i a l  to Marguerite  in private salons.  Delibes'  fellow performers  E. T h o m a s - S a l i g n a c  tribute  today.  Maurel's wife,  Leo  their  famous More  lesser-known  As a s t u d e n t of  Delmas a p p e a r s t o have had  He made h i s debut  a t t h e Opera i n  o f S a i n t - B r i s i n L e s H u g u e n o t s , and was famous f o r h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of H o l l a n d a i s  i n The F l y i n g  Dutchman  A l b e r t S a l e z a , " M a r g u e r i t e de N u o v i n a , " M u s i c a no. 64 ( J a n u a r y 1908): 4. G e o r g e s L a p l a c e , " M a r g u e r i t e de N u o v i n a , " M u s i c a no. 92 (May 1910): 76. 1 5  1 6  69  and  Hans S a c h s  in Die  America,  he  Paris.  Unlike  1 7  abroad.  r e j e c t e d both  After  studying and  Salignac  travelled  debut  1896  and  remained  all  the  at  principal  his articles  in  the  States.  etoiles"  are  stagnation "rien  Since the  day,  the  t o the  1 9  plus  at  significant.  the  The as  false  i n the  Salignac  anti-artistique."  role  American of Don  repertory.  by  a  f o r the  his  1 8  "systeme  roles for s p e c i f i c  2 1  that  of  i n t e r p r e t e r s are f o r example, t h a t  "closely  of h i s d r e a m s . "  des  singers  G a r d e n was character  one  2 0  to d i s c o v e r ,  for  In  in  musical  were f r e q u e n t l y met.  Debussy  Jose  experiences  composer's performance e x p e c t a t i o n s commended by  known  p e r c e p t i v e l y comments  w r i t t e n comments a b o u t It i s interesting  made an  recalls  imposed  responsible  was  seasons, appearing  French  candidly  values  being  States;  he  leave  Opera-Comique,  Opera  i n the  tour  Paris  He  c o m p o s e r s o f t e n moulded  their  Thomas-Salignac  f o r seven c o n s e c u t i v e parts  to  r e f u s i n g to  States.  Metropolitan  tenor  cited  E.  offers  M a r s e i l l e s and  United  f o r Mus i c a ,  i n the  n'est  at  tenor  Despite  fortune  making a d e b u t  the  there  of  fame and  Delmas, t h e  Conservatoires,  in  Meistersinqer.  Lucienne Breval  capturing and  a  Mary the  J e a n n e Raunay  J . F . Delmas, " V i n g t - c i n q a n n e e s de c a r r i e r e , " M u s i c a no. ( J a n u a r y 1912): 4. T h e New E n c y c l o p e d i a of O p e r a , 1971 ed., s.v. " S a l i g n a c , E u s t a s e Thomas." E . T h o m a s - S a l i g n a c , "Les c h a n t e u r s en A m e r i q u e p a r E. T h o m a s - S a l i g n a c , " M u s i c a no. 92 (May 1910): 78-79. I b i d . , p. 78. C l a u d e D e b u s s y , "Mary G a r d e n , " M u s i c a no. 64 (January 1908): 5. T h i s a r t i c l e has been r e c e n t l y t r a n s l a t e d and r e p r i n t e d i n R i c h a r d Langham S m i t h ' s D e b u s s y on M u s i c (New York: A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1977). 1 7  112  1 8  1 9  2 0 2 1  70  were b o t h  admired  by  Faure,  interpretation  depended  expression  manner."  writings article  and  of on  other  and  dramatic  r o l e s she  similar  facial  qualities  p r e s e n c e and expression, to  vocal  2 2  he  upon a  T h i s was  "convincing  admired  her  which  became famous f o r . i n Rose C a r o n , ability.  acting s k i l l s ,  "noble  are  for  The  her  Farrar  was  a role  that  the  Carre,  2 2  2 3  10.  Alfred  1908):  7.  de  major  Ernest  classical  Reyer  praising  Today, b e a r i n g ,  2 5  her  stage  facial  usually considered  secondary  source  in performing to play  2 6  the  heroine  Entirely  director  biographies  for information  comic and  about  of  neglected  the  tragic  Farrar  roles."  i n Camondo's Le  in several  famous s i n g e r M a r g u e r i t e the  present-day  2 5  Clown,  contemporary  i n most b i o g r a p h i c a l  Carre.  As  the  Opera-Comique, t h i s  wife  of  singer  Faure, Bruneau,  "Jeanne Raunay," M u s i c a "Marie Delna,"  4.  Musica  d'Ernest  no. no.  64 64  (January (January  Reyer," Musica  F a r r a r , " Musica  no.  64  S e e , f o r example, The New G r o v e D i c t i o n a r y , s. v. G e r a l d i n e , " by Desmond S h a w e - T a y l o r . 2 6  and  reverred  Camondo complemented G e r a l d i n e  E r n e s t R e y e r , "Un a r t i c l e (February 1907): 31. I. de Camondo, " G e r a l d i n e 2 4  1908):  his  fame i n many works i n c l u d i n g G e o r g e Hue's T i t a n i a ,  Gabriel  1908):  the  a c c r e d i t e d her  sources.  i s the  acquired  first  i s not  biographical  Albert  I.  composer  "versatility  sources  In  virtuosity.  s i n g e r s or c o m p r i s e  them.  the  attitudes, serious  s u i t e d the  2 3  in  Bruneau.  especially 2 4  facial  a l s o emphasized  Some c o m p o s e r ' s w r i t i n g s s u p p l e m e n t of  that a s u c c e s s f u l  s u c h as A l f r e d  expressions"  theatrical and  maintained  largely  composers,  Marie Delna,  gestures  who  no.  53  (January "Farrar,  71  William  Chaumet's P e t i t e Maison, P i e r r e L a l o ' s Le Roi d'Y's,  Henri Rabaud's F i l l e de Roland, and Xavier Fiammette,  as w e l l as i n South American performances of P e l l e a s  et Melisande.  Alexandre Georges p r a i s e d her as the  heroine" in h i s M i a r k a . Figure  Leroux's La Reine  14 - Scene  "ideal  27  from Act 1 of Merikanto's Pohjan (October 1908, p. 159)  neito  Musica's iconography o f f e r s numerous and very i n t e r e s t i n g d e p i c t i o n s of performers and performance p r a c t i s e s . photographs of performers in costume,  staging,  With  s e t s and  t h e a t e r s , one can almost v i s u a l i z e a c t u a l performances of the time.  27  In 1908 and  1909 i s s u e s , f o r example,  A l e x a n d r e Georges,  (January  1908):  6.  crowd  scenes from  "Marguerite C a r r e , " Musica no. 64  72  Figure  15 - Scene f r o m A c t 2 o f I v a n t h e ( J u l y 1909, p. 1021  t h e o p e r a s P o h j a n n e i t o and respectively  (Figures  14 and  are scenes from E l e k t r a .  Ivan the T e r r i b l e 15).  In another  Terrible  appear 1909  issue, there  C o s t u m e s and d e c o r s f r o m t h e  ballets  Ma Mere l ' O y e and La f e t e c h e z T h e r e s e a r e p r e s e n t e d i n a i s s u e , and B a y r e u t h T a n n h a u s s e r 16).  A r a r e view  sets  i n a 1904  issue  1912  (Figure  " b e h i n d t h e s c e n e s " of m a c h i n i s t s a t the Opera  and O p e r a - c o m i q u e i s o b t a i n e d i n o t h e r i s s u e s  (Figure  17).  R e p r o d u c t i o n s o f i m a g i n a t i v e p o s t e r s p r e s e n t e d i n Mus i c a demonstrate advertising.  the b u r g e o n i n g p o p u l a r i t y of t h i s Examples  new  a r t form i n  of a r t n o u v e a u a r e o b t a i n e d f r o m p o s t e r s  73  Figure  advertising  works by M a s s e n e t  A glimpse contributions chanson.  and  regularly working  by  was  cafe-concert  one  casually  classes.  Tannhauser  18).  performers  i s secured in and  in a r t i c l e s  i n the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h  on  century,  of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s w h i c h a d d e d most  sociability and  (Figure  o f more p o p u l a r a r t forms  Becoming p o p u l a r  cafe-concert gaiety  16 - Two s c e n e s from A c t 1 of (August 1904, p. 360)  While  of P a r i s .  I t made e n t e r t a i n m e n t  available,  and  the to  the  more  p a r t i c u l a r l y appealed  l i s t e n i n g to e n t e r t a i n e r s ,  the  audiences  to  74  Figure  could  eat, drink,  17 - M a c h i n i s t s a t t h e O p e r a ( O c t o b e r 1904, p. 401)  and  f r e e l y shout a p p l a u s e , abuse  C a f e - c o n c e r t s o n g s , of an e a r l y p r o t o t y p e ,  and  were a b o u t  bureaucrats, love, drink,  duped s p o u s e s , w i t h  an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t .  Such  comments. politics,  o f f - c o l o r jokes  songs were a s s o c i a t e d  with  T h e r e s a and J u d i c , whose s t y l e s have been somewhat g l o r i f i e d a n o s t a l g i c Musica  critic.  F e l i c i e n Gretry, (November 1 9 0 8 ) : 173. 2 8  2 8  " T h e r e s a e t J u d i c , " M u s i c a no.  as  74  by  75  In  t h e 1880s a more l i t e r a r y Figure  and a v a n t e - g a r d e  cafe-concert  18 - P o s t e r from M a s s e n e t ' s E s c l a r m o n d e (November 1906, p. 167)  So KM*" U n i m o L t  became p o p u l a r . Artistide of H e n r i  I t was t h e c a f e - c o n c e r t  B r u a n t , w h i c h has been de T o u l o u s e - L a u t r e c .  p e r f o r m e r s was t h e Chat N o i r , Salis.  I t became  frequented its  of Y v e t t e  immortalized  The f a v o r i t e  G u i l b e r t and  i n the p a i n t i n g s  haunt  owned by p r o p r i e t o r  f o r these Rudolphe  famous f o r t h e p o e t s and p a i n t e r s  i t , b u t as r e c o r d e d  genuine c h a r a c t e r  by one h i s t o r i a n ,  and became a n i g h t - s p o t  that  "quickly  f o r the  lost  76  bourgeoise." commented on  T h i s change was  2 9  the  d e c l i n e of  recognized  the  by  cafe-concert  Guilbert, in a  1908  who Musica  i ssue:  A u j o u r d ' h u i quand, en promenade a P a r i s , j ' e n t r e dans un c a f e - c o n c e r t , j e ne l e v o i s p l u s , ce p u b l i c . . . I l n'y v i e n t p l u s ; ce n ' e s t p l u s l a meme clientele... Le p u b l i c du c a f e - c o n c e r t a c t u e l e s t ce q u ' i l e t a i t quand j e s.uis e n t r e e dans l a c a r r i e r e , i l y a d i x - h u i t a n s : de mon temps i l o c c u p a i t l e s s e c o n d e s g a l e r i e s ; a u j o u r d ' h u i , i l e s t dans l e s f a u t e u i l s e t l e s l o g e s , i l a r e p r i s son a p p e t i t de p l a t s bon marche e t de l a c u i s i n e g r o s s i e r e des g a r g o t e s . I l y a des a r t i s t e s de t a l e n t q u i a u j o u r d ' h u i , comme a u t r e f o i s , s u b i s s e n t 1 ' i n f l u e n c e v u l g a i r e de ce p u b l i c s p e c i a l du c a f e - c o n c e r t , e t l u i ' d e b i t e n t s e u l e m e n t ce q u i ' i l s s a v e n t d e v o i r 1'amuser!...On c r i e a l a p o r n o g r a p h i e des c h a n t e u r s ; non, non, c ' e s t au p u b l i c q u ' i l f a u t f a i r e hou! hou! de c o n s e n t i r a s ' e n c a n n a i l l e r de l a sorte...a Paris! a Paris! Ah! l a bonne v e i l l e g a u l o i s e r i e , l ' e p i c e c h e r e au X V I I e e t X V I I I e s i e c l e ! Le r i r e f r a n c de l ' e s p r i t de nos p e r e s , ou l a s a t i r e a c i d u l e e e t p r o f o n d e , sous forme p o p u l a i r e , des a n c i e n s du Chat N o i r , ou e t e s vous?... 3  0  O t h e r s b e l i e v e d a change necessarily n'est  pas  en  negative. decadence.  qu'autrefois." was  One  3 1  I t was  even p r o g r e s s i n g  as  i n s t a t u s and  critic  I l est thought an  art  affirmed:  autre that  - et  clientele "Le  form and  American  not  cafe-concert  ni pire  musically,  was  the  ni meilleur cafe-concert  j a z z was  cited  T h e o d o r e Z e l d i n , F r a n c e ( 1 8 4 8 - 1 9 4 5 ), v o l . 2: I n t e l l e c t , and A n x i e t y . ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1977), p. 701. Y v e t t e G u i l b e r t , " Y v e t t e G u i l b e r t , " M u s i c a no. 74 (November 1908): 171. R a o u l B r e v a n n e s , "Le c a f e - c o n c e r t d ' a u j o u r d ' h u i , " Musica no. 74 (November 1908): 173. 2 9  Taste  3 0  3 1  77  as  a positive influence.  regular  contributor  chansonniers n'aurait  popularity There  que  l a notre,  the  doubt  with  The  des  great  and  issue,  numerous c h a n s o n  romantic chanteur Mayol  wrote  on t h e "chanson p a r i s i e n n e , "  " c h a n s o n du  rosse;"  enfantine."  by  changed. types are an  Octave  Fursy,  Loree-Privas,  i n the  i n the  s o c i e t i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d , l a chanson"  Loree-Privas.  "bonte, beaute, g a i e t e , "  The was  such  f o u n d e d by  aim o f t h i s  group,  t o combat  "moral c h a n s o n s . " " For h i s e f f o r t s , 3  even made a C h e v a l i e r the f i r s t  vital  "chanson  et galante;"  f r a n c a i s e des amis de  and F r a n c i n e  a  r e s p e c t i v e l y ; Harry  and F r a n c i n e  Chanson  p o r n o g r a p h y and promote was  soldat"  sentimentale  bars.  w h i l e a s p e c t s of  f a u b o u r g s " were c h a r a c t e r i z e d  i n "chansons  Privas  w h i c h was  1913  continuing  o b s e r v e d , i t had  Dranem and P o l i n s p e c i a l i z e d i n t h e  the motto  Privas  the c a f e - c o n c e r t  t i m e , but a s G u i l b e r t  the " S o c i e t e  Xavier  the  was  "chanson  "chanson  chansons  that  fantaisiste"  risque  en  is little  "chanson  Fragson,  fertile  " . . . j a m a i s epoque  and  article  Pradels.  that  a  celebrated  the s t r e e t s , i n c a f e s  t h e s p e c i a l December  excellent  stated  of t h e most  of c h a n s o n s , on  identified.  as  t o M u s i c a and one  Maurice Lefevre,  Other c o l l a b o r a t o r s a l s o d e s c r i b e  3 3  medium a t t h i s In  In agreement,  of t h e Chat N o i r ,  ete plus  populaires...  3 2  time t h i s  de  l a Legion  distinction  d'honneur  had been  given  in  1906,  to a  Ibid. M a u r i c e L e f e v r e , "La c h a n s o n p o p u l a i r e , " M u s i c a no. 74 (November 1908): 165. " X a v i e r P r i v a s , " L e s t r a d i t i o n s de l a c h a n s o n , " M u s i c a no. 135 (December 1913): 240-41. 3 2 3 3  3  78  chansonnier.  3 5  Many i l l u s t r a t i o n s  t u x e d o s and  formal a t t i r e ,  approach  cafe-concerts.  to  which  Some of t h e more r e f i n e d in  Parisian  Anna J u d i c , Offenbach the  under  Jeanne  Granier,  was  article  performer  Figaro,  the  Father.  His a r t i c l e  and  supplies  valuable  Opera-Comique, fortune  and  3 7  i n 1914.  to lose  This association  Lucien  3 6  and  careers  comic  opera.  i n songs  Noir.  about  In h i s  Fugere, a  became w e l l - k n o w n He  was  sang  about  he c r e a t e d  Papageno,  first the r o l e  of  is entertaining  b a c k s t a g e crews  I m p r e s a r i o s of t h e famous even  at the  famous as  i n many  t h e Opera-Comique  Emile I s o l a ,  "...they l e f t  they proceeded  and  information  and  Folies  became d i r e c t o r s  of  the  A p p a r e n t l y t h e s e b r o t h e r s made a  out of the F o l i e s  commented  cabaret,  on  began  a t t h e Opera-Comique  L o u i s e i n which  work a t m o s p h e r e .  Bergere, Vincent  Hahn.  Sancho P a n z a ,  including  general  singing  of R e y n a l d o  performances  sophisticated  first  w i t h the Chat  and O p e r a - C o m i q u e .  Leporello,  wearing  Hortense Schneider performed i n  associated  a t the B a - t a - c l a n  Bouffes-Parisiens  who  fame i n o p e r e t t a  and  b o a s t s about  the d i r e c t i o n  a new  Harry Fragson, a s p e c i a l i s t  first  he  emphasizes  comedians,  acquired  operettas.  English,  Musica  cabarets,  show e n t e r t a i n e r s  B e r g e r e but a s one  French  historian  i t t o t a k e o v e r t h e O p e r a - C o m i q u e , where their  money  in search for c u l t u r e . "  of c a b a r e t p e r s o n a l i t i e s  with i n s t i t u t i o n s  M u s i c a no. 135 (December 1913): 242-43. H . F r a g s o n , "Chansons s e n t i m e n t a l e s e t g a l a n t e s , " no. 135 (December 1913): 252. L u c i e n F u g e r e , "La v i e du t h e a t r e , " M u s i c a no. 55 1907): 53-55. Z e l d i n , F r a n c e ( 1 8 4 8 - 1 9 4 5 ) , 2: 701.  3 8  like  3 5 3 6  Musica  3 7  (April  3 8  79  t h e Opera-Comique c e r t a i n l y the  level  studies period  of a r e s p e c t e d a r t form.  from  1900  been  to  1914,  reproduced  to Musica.  By  and  of p e r f o r m e r s  impressions.  With  surrounding m i l i e u  the domestic  triumph  twentieth centuries,  several  and  t h e home-music a t m o s p h e r e of  1902  the h e a d i n g  well-known p i a n i s t aspiring  teachers.  the  female  Mme  "Les  time  by  In an  positions  Roger-Miclos  du  by  time  chansonniers  knowledge  are better  and  account  solicited  good m u s i c a l b e h a v i o r .  under  for this  numerable  reader obtains a  of the p i a n o  Musica  respected p i a n i s t s  on  there are  t o t h e b e s t of my  r e a d i n g them, t h e  of t h e  advice  Although  the c a f e - c o n c e r t to  most o f t h e w r i t i n g s  understanding  and  to r a i s e  of t h e c a f e - c o n c e r t phenomenon, even  have not unique  helped  a first-hand  i n the n i n e t e e n t h  contributions We  from  o b t a i n a sense  of  r e a d i n g p i e c e s of article  published in  pianiste,"  a  supposedly  gives suggestions to  performers:  Le s e c r e t du bon d o i g t e r e s i d e dans l a t e n u e du c o r p s , dans sa r a i d e u r ou sa s o u p l e s s e . On ne d o i t j a m a i s d o n n e r de c o u p s s u r l e s n o t e s , - f o r c e ne v e u t pas d i r e b r u t a l i t e , - mais i l f a u t en q u e l q u e s o r t e " p e t r i r " son c l a v i e r . D'une m a n i e r e g e n e r a l e , on p e u t d i r e que l a bonne p o s i t i o n au p i a n o e s t l a s u i v a n t e ; l e b u s t e e s t d r o i t e t sans r a i d e u r , l e s e p a u l e s tombent n a t u r e l l e m e n t , 1'avant-bras, l e p o i g n e t et l e s premieres phalanges forment une l i g n e b i e n d r o i t e ; l e s d o i g t s s o n t a r r o n d i s e t l e pouce e s t ramene v e r s e u x . 3 5  Proper  technique  i s d i s c u s s e d i n another  Mme R o g e r - M i c o l o s , "Les 1 ( O c t o b e r 1902): 13.  39  no.  piano  positions  article  du p i a n i s t e , "  by a more  Musica  80  famous p i a n i s t , M a r g u e r i t e L o n g , a D e b u s s y termed  pupil."  I n what i s  0  "un p a s s a g e du p o u c e , " Long a d v i s e d p i a n i s t s  to p l a c e the  r e s t i n g hand, not p l a y i n g t h e s c a l e p a s s a g e , d i r e c t l y on t h e p i a n o ( F i g u r e Figure  19  19).  T h i s mannerism  looks very  - P i a n o hand p o s i t i o n a d v i s e d by (December 1907, p. 183)  M A L E ,  S A N S  E T H E  T O U R N E E  EN  i s either  in the p i a n i s t ' s practise  lap.  D E H O R S .  violinist  This seemingly unorthodox illustration  In t h i s  i t i s seen t h a t  w h i c h was  p r o b a b l y done i n  by p e r f o r m i n g a l l  thirty-two  by p e r f o r m i n g L i s z t ' s w o r k s .  Beethoven  He i s  M a r g u e r i t e L o n g , "Le t o u c h e r du p i a n o , " M u s i c a no. (December 1 9 0 7 ) : 182-83. a o  the  a distinguished French p i a n i s t , accentuated  i n 1906  S o n a t a s , and l a t e r  at  profiles.  Edouard R i s l e r , his reputation  performance  of Edouard R i s l e r  illustration  stands behind the p i a n i s t ,  order to photograph  where t h e  suspended, dropped t o the s i d e , or p l a c e d  i s a l s o n o t e d i n an  the p i a n o ( F i g u r e 2 0 ) .  different  Long  f r o m u s u a l p o s e s , a s c a n be s e e n i n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n , r e s t i n g hand  in front  63  81  Figure  surprisingly volumes,*  1  Thibaud and Edouard 1906, p. 75)  o v e r l o o k e d i n some c o n t e m p o r a r y  a s a r e some o t h e r p r o m i n e n t  biographical he  20 - J a c q u e s (May  article  was t h e f i r s t  dealing  to perform  Debussy, Dukas,  Chausson,  article,  Staub  Victor  Dukas, Debussy,  Risler  reference  pianists  w i t h August  Pierret  of the time.  A  i n f o r m s us  that  w o r k s by h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s  Albeniz,  i s also  and A l b e n i z . "  noted 3  and R a v e l . "  2  In another  f o r performances  Lazare-Levy  Faure,  started  o f w o r k s by  h i s career  " R i s l e r ' s name i s n o t l i s t e d i n T h e New G r o v e D i c t i o n a r y a l t h o u g h found i n both Baker's B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y and D i e Musik i n G e s c h i c h t e und Gegenwart. " R a o u l B r e v a n n e s , "Le p i a n i s t e A u g u s t P i e r r e t , " M u s i c a n o . 71 ( A u g u s t 1 9 0 8 ) : 1 2 7 . " F e l i c i e n G r e t r y , " V i c t o r S t a u b , " M u s i c a n o . 69 (May 1 9 0 8 ) : 79. 1  2  3  82  performing and  was  t h e music  later  of S c h u b e r t ,  credited  Schumann, C h o p i n  with performances  engagements a t t h e C o n c e r t s C o l o n n e Wurmser school.  i s best 4  virtuosi  Jan  Raoul  highly  performers  attained  Unlike  former  the  concertizing  Padrewski,  t o e x t e n s i v e and  group  Schumann, C h o p i n ,  the time.  In a d d i t i o n  c o n t a i n s numerous  artists.  is  Rubenstein  Included  Rubenstein,  rather  Paris  works,  and  of t h e  including  Alfred  abroad,  and  Due  these  in h i s t o r y .  p r o g r a m s by C o r t o t ,  Cezar  international recital  dealing  by  Franck,  musical  taste  programs,  with  these  of t h e young p r o d i g y  to h i s l a t e r  day  appearance  21).  reputed teachers include  series  on  Philipp, of  f o r amateurs.  those  ten a r t i c l e s  ballads,  Another  of  a p r o f e s s o r at  interpreting  the p r e l u d e s , e t u d e s ,  i s designed  include  Brahms and  illustrations  L o u i s Diemer.  His a n a l y t i c a l  waltzes,  piano  Antoine Rubenstein.  recital  to reviews  (Figure from  time  prominence  Liszt,  C o n s e r v a t o i r e , wrote a t o t a l  topics.  of a P a r i s  concertizing  and  whose r e s e m b l a n c e  startling  Philipp  at t h i s  i s even a p h o t o g r a p h  Contributions Isidore  and  Lucien  4  were c o n c e n t r a t e d w i t h works  g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n  Artur  founder  of p i a n i s t s ,  Beethoven,  Musica  Lamoureux.*  Pugno, and  recognition  and  of  of S a i n t - S a e n s  and  successful  Padrewski,  which  the  Liszt,  5  Other Cortot,  remembered as  and  on v a r i o u s  Chopin's  piano  impromptus  study  the  on  and  Bach's  " G u y A r e t , "Le p i a n i s t e L a z a r e - L e v y , " M u s i c a no. 101 ( F e b r u a r y 1911): 19. L e nevue de Rameau, "Une e c o l e de p i a n o , " M u s i c a no. (November 1905): 172. 4  4 5  38  83  Figure  Prelude  and  Philipp's played  not  Fugue No.  romantic  20  i n A minor g i v e s  approach.  t o o q u i c k l y and  Fugue s h o u l d note ayant  21 - A r t u r R u b e n s t e i n in ( J a n u a r y 1905, p. 9)  a l s o be  son  played  interet"  and  He  advised  " l e plus slowly "un  1905  some i n d i c a t i o n that  the  simplement and  tres  "tres  leger  Prelude  possible."  lie,"  with  of be The  "chaque  r i t e n u t o a l a f i n de  84  chaque p h r a s e . " " tempi  This d i f f e r s  are g e n e r a l l y  frequently usually the  6  employed  used  much f a s t e r  and  in conjunction  sparingly  and  interpretations  a portamento with pedal.  certainly  Ritards  not performed  phrase.'  The  eminent  Paris C o n s e r v a t o i r e piano professor  introduction  to Francois  attempted  to r e v i v e  of o t h e r s l i k e Rameau, he was  wrote  articles  Couperin's  S a i n t - S a e n s , who  set the stage  historical  studies,  "comment  describes  and  music.' and  Diemer  7  through  a complete  i n these e a r l y  the a i d  edition  which  do not  years  reappear  Some o f Landowska's a r t i c l e s  s u c h as  on d i r i g e a i t  Mozart,  8  Louis  of  f o r t h e famed v i r t u o s o Wanda Landowska.  f o r Mus i c a ,  of e s s a y s . "  at  of t h e s e i s an  music  published  an e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r f i g u r e  collection  One  keyboard  French harpsichord  seven a r t i c l e s  Bach,  for Musica.  are  regularly  of e a c h  two  where  touch i s  'end  Diemer w r o t e  She  from modern  "Les a n c e t r e s du p i a n o , "  l'orchestre  Chopin.  5 0  autrefois.""  9  the Russian n o v e l i s t  Tolstoy's  interest  i n her  are and  Others  Landowska's most u n u s u a l  and  f o c u s on  article  in piano  * I . P h i l i p p , "Le P r e l u d e e t Fugue No. 20 de B a c h , " M u s i c a no. 114 (March 1912): 57. " L o u i s Diemer, " F r a n c o i s C o u p e r i n , par L o u i s Diemer." M u s i c a no. 126 (March 1913): 57. ""^Wanda Landowska, M u s i c o f t h e P a s t , t r a n s . W i l l i a m Aspenwall Bradley. ( L o n d o n : G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1926). * I d e m , "Les a n c e t r e s du p i a n o , " M u s i c a no. 76 ( J a n u a r y 1909): 5-6; Idem, "Comment on d i r i g e a i t l ' o r c h e s t r e a u t r e f o i s , " M u s i c a no. 80 (May 1909): 69. ^ I d e m , "Les o e u v r e s de c l a v e c i n de J . S. Bach," M u s i c a no. 61 ( O c t o b e r 1907): 156-57; Idem, "Mozart c l a v e c i n i s t e e t p i a n i s t e , " M u s i c a no. 43 ( A p r i l 1906): 52; Idem, " L ' o e u v r e de C h o p i n e t son i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , " M u s i c a no. 70 ( J u l y 1908): 99100. ' I d e m , " T o l s t o y M u s i c i e n , " M u s i c a no. 69 ( J u n e 1908): 95. 6  7  9  5  85  music, piano  5 1  which  (Figure Figure  includes 22).  a p r i c e l e s s photograph  Another  i n t e r e s t i n g photograph  Although a r t i c l e s  one w i l l  Bachmann, A l b e r t  White  find  features  data.  i s credited  Of  (Figure  Spalding,  For example,  23).  in  articles  on P a b l o de S a r a s a t e ,  Jacques Thibaud, Georges  Some o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  biographical  Rodin  by t h e a c t u a l a r t i s t .  Eugene Y s a y e , J a n K u b e l i k ,  Joachim.  pictures  on o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s a p p e a r  few were w r i t t e n  about v i o l i n i s t s ,  Alberto  at the  22 - L e o n T o l s t o y and h i s d a u g h t e r A l e x a n d r a ( J u n e 1908, p. 95)  L a n d o w s k a p e r f o r m i n g f o r t h e famous s c u l p t o r  Musica,  of T o l s t o y  Bronislaw  Enesco,  Hubermann,  and  found i n these a r t i c l e s  offers  the l e s s d i s t i n g u i s h e d  Joseph  i n Musica f o r being the f i r s t t o p l a y  Saint-  86  Saens  violin  works.  Figure  sources.  5 3  5 2  He  i s not l i s t e d  findings.  offer  interesting  F o r example,  Paganini's medical condition, given  reference  23 - Landowska p e r f o r m i n g f o r R o d i n ( J a n u a r y 1909, p. 6)  Other a r t i c l e s  contemporary  i n the major  i n one M u s i c a a r t i c l e , " 5  derived but  comparisons with  a complete  description  from d o c t o r ' s  reports,  i t interestingly  contains  of is  F e l i c i e n G r e t r y , " J o s e p h W h i t e , " M u s i c a no. 19 ( A p r i l 1904): 303. S e e , The New G r o v e D i c t i o n a r y , D i e M u s i k i n G e s c h i c h t e und Gegenwart, and B a k e r ' s B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y o f M u s i c i a n s . " G a b r i e l B e r n a r d , " P a g a n i n i vu p a r son m e d e c i n , " M u s i c a no. 114 (March 112): 46-47. 5 2  5 3  5  87  some misconceptions. i n t e r p r e t e d as  "the  Paganini's  unusual appearance i s  sign of a genius," but  of Marfan's syndrome, a l s o known as described  in 1896.  tendency to great chest,  Today the height,  as w e l l as d e f e c t s  system.  fits  "spider  the d e s c r i p t i o n  fingers," f i r s t  syndrome i s known to i n c l u d e a  long and  t h i n hands and  in the eyes and  f e e t , pigeon  cardiovascular  55  Methods of v i o l i n p l a y i n g are d i s c u s s e d unknown teacher,  C h a r l o t t e Vormese.  which i s expressed in the interesting considering  Her  by a  relatively  feminist  viewpoint,  f o l l o w i n g passage, i s extremely  the  era:  Une remarque i n t e r e s s a n t e a f a i r e est que, parmi les e l e v e s , on trouve p l u s d ' a p t i t u d e s chez l e s jeunes f i l l e s que chez l e s jeunes gens. E l l e s ont l e s d o i g t s naturellement plus d e l i e s , l e u r corps est p l u s souple, e l l e s mettent de l a d e l i c a t e s s e l a ou l e s hommes mettent de l a f o r c e . De p l u s , e l l e s ont en general p l u s de perseverance a l'etude, s i bien que je n'hesite pas a a f f i r m e r j q u ' e n general et a e g a l i t e de d i s p o s i t i o n s 1'eleve-femme d o i t b a t t r e 1'eleve-homme. Comment se f a i t - i l ; a l o r s , q u ' i l n'y a i t pas d'artistes-femmes a u s s i i l l u s t r e s que l e s Sarasate l e s Jacques Thibaud? A c e l a , je repondra par un simple mot: m a r i a g e . . .  ou  56  Other a r t i c l e s that add:to our those on v i o l i n b u i l d e r s . F r a n c a i s are  f e a t u r e d and  The there  great  knowledge of v i o l i n i s t s  are  P a r i s i a n firms Cremone  and  i s even an a r t i c l e  on  W i l l i a m Boyd, A Textbook of Pathology, 8th ed. ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : Lea a n d F e b i g e r , 1970), pp. 1323-24. C h a r l o t t e Vormese, "Les p o s i t i o n s du v i o l i n i s t e , " Musica no. 3 (December 1902): 38. 5 5  5 6  88  Stradivarius  constuction  construction  details  written  are not g i v e n , t h i s  some v a l u e t o t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y illustrations. comparative  Different  also  given.  oldest 1713  violins  dating  and 1724 m o d e l .  50.000  francs.  Popular Thibaud, written  A list  Although  5 7  might for  be of  its  which  of S t r a d i v a r i u s  i n s t r u m e n t s , and p u r c h a s i n g p r i c e a r e that  J a n K u b e l i k owned one of t h e  1687; Ysaye  owned a 1731; and S a r a s a t e , a  The a v e r a g e  price,  performing  in Paris  quoted  i n 1905, was  5 8  cellists  Joseph  inclusion  instrument b u i l d e r  be made.  of t h e i r  I t i s noted  Caressa.  m o d e l s a r e shown from  studies could  owners, t h e d a t e  by A l b e r t  Hollmann,  by T h i b a u d ,  proper  included  and P a b l o C a s a l s .  Jacques  In an a r t i c l e  t e c h n i q u e s and p o s i t i o n i n g  f o r male  performers are explained:  On d o i t s ' a s s e o i r s u r l e b o r d de s a c h a i s e , p l a c e r l e v i o l o n c e l l e e n t r e s e s jambes, l e s p i e d s en a v a n t e t s u r une l i g n e p r e s q u e p a r a l l e l e , l e p i e d gauche l e g e r e m e n t p l u s a v a n c e . Le genou d r o i t se p l a c e dans l e c h a n c r u r e e t s u r l e r e b o r d de l a t a b l e du d e s s u s , d i t e " t a b l e d ' h a r m o n i e ; e t gauche s u r l e r e b o r d de l a t a b l e du d e s s o u s ; a p p u y e r l e g e r e m e n t s u r l a p o i t r i n e , se t e n i r d r o i t , m a i s sans aucune r a i d e u r . 5 9  Articles different  by Mme  C. B o u c h e r i t - L a r r o n d e and M. J . Loeb  positioning  f o r female  performers.  Rather  describe than  B r e t i g n y , "Une m a i s o n de l u t h e r i e F r a n g a i s , " M u s i c a no. 38 (November 1905): 175; A l b e r t C a r e s s a , "Le l u t h e r i e S t r a d i v a r i u s , " M u s i c a no. 30 (March 1905): 41-43. G e o r g e s L e f e v r e , "Comment on f a b r i q u e un v i o l o n de 50.000 f r a n c s , " M u s i c a no. 33 (June 1905): 95. F r a n c i s T h i b a u d , "Une l e g o n de v i o l o n c e l l e , " M u s i c a no. 11 ( A u g u s t 1903): 173. 5 7  5 8  5 9  89  straddle  the  dignified  instrument,  women were a d v i s e d t o s i t i n a more  way:  E l l e d o i t s ' a s s e o r r s u r l e b o r d de l a c h a i s e , a v a n c e r l e g e r e m e n t l e p i e d g a u c h e . e t i n c l i n e r l e genou v e r s l a gauche, t a n d i s que l a jambe d r o i t e se r e p l i e en a r r i e r e e t que l e p i e d d i s p a r a i t sous l a r o b e . La jambe d r o i t e s t a i n s i , en p a r t i e , c a c h e e . Le v i o l o n c e l l e e s t t e n u d r o i t d e v a n t s o i , on l ' a p p u i e s u r l a jambe gauche e t on l e m a i n t i e n t c o n t r e l e genou droit. L ' i n s t r u m e n t e s t , de c e t t e f a c o n , p a r f a i t e m e n t s o l i d e , e t l a pose n ' e s t pas l a i d e . 6 0  In d e f e n s e  of women c e l l i s t s ,  Boucherit-Larronde  further  states  that: C e t i n s t r u m e n t , t o u t de charme e t de m e l o d i e , c o n v i e n t au c o n t r a i r e a d m i r a b l e m e n t a l a n a t u r e de l a femme. I l e s t r e v e u r , i l e s t m e l a n c o l i q u e ; i l demande b e a u c o u p de n u a n c e s e t de s e n t i m e n t ; i l n ' e s t pas un s i m p l e i n s t r u m e n t de v i r t u o s i t e . L e s r e s u l t a t s des c o n c o u r s du C o n s e r v a t o i r e s o n t l a pour p r o u v e r l ' e x a c t i t u d e de ce que j ' a v a n c e . T r o i s des p r e m i e r s p r i x sur q u a t r e ont e t e r e m p o r t e s p a r des femmes, M i l e s R e b o u l , de l a B o u g l i s e e t B i t s c h , l a i s s a n t d e r r i e r e e l l e s b i e n des camarades hommes. 61  The Parisian  introduction Pleyel  invention.  In  Tassu-Spencer influenced  firm 1903,  of  the c h r o m a t i c  harp  prompted d i s c u s s i o n a chromatic  harp  about  class  this  was  other Conservatoires in B r u s e l l e s , to conduct  that  was  the harp  by  the  recent  offered  at the P a r i s C o n s e r v a t o i r e , which w i t h i n a  Saint-Etienne  similar  particularly  programs.  suited  to  Lille,  I t was  female  C . B o u c h e r i t - L a r r o n d e , "Le v i o l o n c e l l e M u s i c a no. 11 (September 1903): 191. ^Ibid. 6 0  i n 1897  by  Mme  year,  Nimes,  explained  performers:  chez  l a femme,"  and  90  La h a r p e , c e t i n s t r u m e n t de h a u t e p o e s i e , e s t s a n s e g a l e pour f a v o r i s e r l a b e a u t e de l ' a t t i t u d e , l e g a l b e du b r a s , l a s e d u c t i o n d'une nuque j o l i m e n t degagee ou d'une t a i l l e noblement d r a p e e . 6 2  In  1905, Mme  Wurmser-Delcourt,  two  Danses w r i t t e n  one  of t h e most  performers, Archard  especially  f o r chromatic harp,  i s h a i l e d as  of the double a c t i o n  and M. A l p h o n s e  Opera-Comique,  players.  of Debussy's  remarkable h a r p i s t s  A contribution the  with a performance  Eminent  of the t i m e .  Hasselmans.  includes composers  such as B e r l i o z ,  Emile Pessard, L o u i s Varney,  d'Indy,  surprisingly  at  played  percussionist at d a t a on k e t t l e - d r u m H e r o l d , Adam,  C h a b r i e r , Massenet, and  t h e k e t t l e - d r u m , a n d many  theaters.  a t t h e Odeon.  first  some h i s t o r i c a l  Sermet,  drum p l a y e r  Adam, f o r example,  Sermet,  f o r many y e a r s ,  t h e Opera-Comique and P e s s a r d a t t h e O p e r a .  post  a t the T h e a t r e des I t a l i e n s ,  and C o n c e r t s C o l o n n e , respectively. Berlioz  even  Other  h a r p , were M i l e M a r g u e r i t e  by J o e s p h B a g g e r s ,  performed a t l e a d i n g  6 3  Chabrier  was a was  Varney  and, a t the S o c i e t e  a n d d'Indy  frequently kettle-  engaged held a National  performed kettle-drum  In h i s Methode d e s I n s t r u m e n t s a p e r c u s s i o n , encouraged  composers  t o master  this  instrument:  I l semble que j o u e r d e s t i m b a l e s e s t c h o s e facile. C ' e s t une e r r e u r ! Toute personne q u i b l o u s e r a i t d e s t i m b a l e s s a n s en a v o i r v r a i m e n t a p p r i s  G e o r g e s R e g n a l , "La h a r p c h r o m a t i q u e en F r a n c e e t a l ' e t r a n g e r , " M u s i c a no. 21 (June 1904): 334. G a s t o n C a r r a u d , "La h a r p e c h r o m a t i q u e , " M u s i c a no. 28 ( J a n u a r y 1905): 14. 6 2  6 3  91  methodiquement timbalier. *  l e maniement, ne f e r a  jamais  un bon  6  It  seems t h a t F r e n c h  in  order  music.  to learn On t h i s  composers of t h i s  time  studied  kettle-drum  how t o i n c o r p o r a t e p e r c u s s i o n e f f e c t s  into  s u b j e c t , Baggers s t a t e d :  I l e x i s t e t r e s p e u de methodes c o m p l e t e s ayant t r a i t a tous l e s i n s t r u m e n t s a p e r c u s s i o n employes dans l e s o r c h e s t r e s , e t c e n ' e s t l e p l u s s o u v e n t que p a r h a b i t u d e , que 1'on se f a m i l i a r i s e avec l e s d i f f i c u l t e s d e s t i m b a l e s ou d e s a u t r e s a c c e s s o i r e s de b a t t e r i e u t i l i s e s dans l ' o r c h e s t r e . 6 5  The  fact  players  t h a t so many a c c o m p l i s h e d proved  timabalier,  i n Baggers'  i l faut  Kettle-drum National  composers were  opinion that  e t r e bon  instruction  musicien."  "...pour  kettle-drum etre  6 6  was i n t r o d u c e d a t t h e C o n s e r v a t o i r e  w i t h B a g g e r s a s p r o f e s s o r , and c o m p e t i t i o n s  established.  I n a 1911 Mus i c a  percussion  competition  this  i s evidenced  event  issue,  i s reviewed.  the f i r s t The p u b l i c  were even  Conservatoire enthusiasm f o r  i n the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n  of the  crowds:  Un p u b l i c e x t r a - c h i c , c e l u i des g r a n d s j o u r s , en un mot, se p r e s s a i t h i e r , d e s une h e u r e , s u r l e s m a r c h e s de n o t r e s e c o n d T h e a t r e - F r a n c a i s [ L ' O p e r a Comique]. L e s p l u s j o l i e s femmes c o u d o y a i e n t l e s a r t i s t e s l e s plus n o t o i r e s . . . L e s p l a c e s detenues par  " H e c t o r B e r l i o z , Methode d e s i n s t r u m e n t s a p e r c u s s i o n , q u o t e d i n J o s e p h B a g g e r s , " L e s t i m b a l i e r s , " M u s i c a no. 52 ( J a n u a r y 1907): 12. J o s e p h B a g g e r s , " L e s t i m a b a l i e r s , " M u s i c a no. 52 ( J a n u a r y 1907): 12. Ibid. 6  6 5  6 6  92  l e s c a f e s v o i s i n s s ' e n l e v a i e n t a des p r i x f o r t s : 100 f r a n c s un s t r a p o n t i n d ' o r c h e s t r e , s ' i l vous p l a i t ; e t d e s une h e u r e et demie l a s a l l e e t a i t comble. 6 7  A list  of d i s t i n g u i s h e d  not  insignificant  an  Gabriel Vidal,  Messager,  Vizentini,  and  Because  special  issues  Carlotta pantomine subject,  and  were w r i t t e n  Their  stated  this  was  president assistants  Paul  Dukas, C h e v i l l a r d , Grovlez,  by  writings  several  from d a n c e r s .  s u c h famous  Regina Badet, Marthe  termed  f a s c i n a t i o n with  Musica published  featuring contributions  or what was Badet  Paul  Ravel,  i n t e r e s t i n dance  as M a r i q u i t a ,  Zambelli.  as  that  6 8  " b a l l e t s russes,"  issue, a r t i c l e s  ballerinas  Pierne,  Schmitt, Hasselmans,  of p u b l i c  dance  It included  F e r n a n d B o u r g e a t , and  Rabaud, G a b r i e l  Lafitte.  captivating  1912  happening.  Faure, secretary  Ruhlmann, F l o r e n t  the  j u r y members d e m o n s t r a t e s  classical  C h e n a l , and  C o n f i r m the p o p u l a r i t y  " l a danse  In a  de c a r a c t e r e . "  On  of this  that:  . . . d e p u i s p l u s i e u r s a n n e e s , l a d a n s e de c a r a c t e r e a p r i s l e pas - c ' e s t l e mot - s u r l a danse c l a s s i q u e . Meme s u r l e s p l u s g r a n d e s s c e n e s l y r i q u e s on v o i t l e t u t u t r a d i t i o n n e l r e m p l a c e s o u v e n t p a r des c o s t u m e s e v o q u a n t un p a y s l o i n t a i n , une epoque a n c i e n n e . 6 9  The  costumes  Greek-style attempt  r e f e r r e d t o and togas.  to duplicate  This  was  seen  i n numerous p h o t o g r a p h s  the v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  the a n c i e n t  Greek  mime t r a d i t i o n .  were  o f an In a  J a c q u e s de B i r c o u x , " B a t t e r i e . . . F e u de t o u t e s p i e c e s . . . , " M u s i c a no. 110 (November 1911): 213. ^Ibid. R e g i n a B a d e t , "Danses g r e c q u e s e t d a n s e s modernes," M u s i c a no. 123 (December 1912): 242. 6 7  6 9  93  review  of a n o t h e r mime a r t i s t ,  illustrate Her  a visual  performance  esthetique  was  Mme  Magdeleine,  interpretation cited  curieuse."  i n 1904  of C h o p i n ' s F u n e r a l as a " s p e c t a c l e  acquired  danced  and Wagner. praised belief was  international  t o the music  of Bach,  In an a r t i c l e  for being  surprisingly  d'une  Gluck, Beethoven,  written  totality.  "danseuse  aux  pieds  fame f o r mime i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  " l e m u s i c i e n de  in a r t i s t i c  March.  7 0  I s a d o r a Duncan, t h e famous A m e r i c a n nus,"  photographs  7 1  Chopin, Schubert,  by h e r , Wagner was l a danse,"  because  Of c o n t e m p o r a r y  She  especially of h i s  composers,  Duncan  critical.  A p r e s beaucoup d'annees d ' e t u d e s , j e s u i s a r r i v e e a c e t t e c o n c l u s i o n que l e rhythme n a t u r e l du c o r p s e t l e rythme de l a musique c o n t e m p o r a i n e e t a i e n t en complet d i s a c c o r d . L e s c o m p o s i t e u r s ont p e r d u l e s e n t i m e n t de l ' h u m a n i t e en musique; i l s e c r i v e n t une musique a b s t r a i t e , s c i e n t i f i q u e , q u i a s e s q u a l i t e s p a r t i c u l i e r e s , mais r i e n d'humain. Le g e s t e l e p l u s s i m p l e ne t r o u v e pas dans l e u r s n o t e s une l i g n e ou i l puisse s ' i n s c r i r e . Meme, dans s e s mouvements r a p i d e s , l e c o r p s n'a pas l e temps d'un g e s t e , s u r l e u r mus i q u e . 7  It  2  is interesting  interpret  contemporary  musical  element  classic  and  An  to note t h a t  was  music  being  r o m a n t i c music  u n u s u a l dance  Duncan  and  that  exploited f o r dance  practise  found i t d i f f i c u l t  to  a t a t i m e when rhythm  i n c o m p o s i t i o n , she  reverred  purposes.  i n opera  i s discussed  by C h e n a l .  M a u r i c e G u i l l e m o t , " L ' e x t a s e m u s i c a l e , " M u s i c a no. 17 ( F e b r u a r y 1904): 263-65. ' I s a d o r a Duncan, "Ce que d e v r a i t e t r e l a d a n s e , " M u s i c a no. 123 (December 1912): 240. Ibid. 7 0  7  7 2  as a  94  In  1912,  she  stated  t o assume s i n g e r s '  that  i t was  roles  customary  when t h e y  i n Germany  required  for  dancers  dancing.  ...une e t o i l e de b a l l e t se s u b s t i t u e r a l a c a n t a t r i c e au moment de l a d a n s e de Salome p a r e x e m p l e . 7 3  T h i s was  not n e c e s s a r i l y  were t r a i n e d of  the  t o do  seguedille  The  Diaghilev. Pavlova,  C h a t e l e t i n 1909 Such  was  noted  under  K a r s a v i n a , and  and  Fokine  1910,  In  the group  L'Oiseau  de  f o l l o w e d in:1911  S a c r e du  printemps,  critics,  reviews  of t h e s e works i n M u s i c a  L'Oiseau  de  Raoul  respectively.  russes." " 7  Petrushka  was  dance p r o g r a m c o n s i s t i n g  de  not  by  the  of S e r g e i  to  as  Chopin's  Stravinsky),  and As  1913  cette  singled  by  noted  Stravinsky's Petrushka  i n the  and  section  Le on  are very p o s i t i v e . i t t o be  "...le  [1910] s a i s o n out  Adolphe  per  de  s e , but  R i m s k y - K o r s a k o v ' s Sadko,  N a r c i s s e , as w e l l  as o t h e r works, was  ballets the  entire  and highly  M a r t h e C h e n a l , "Du c h a n t e t de l a d a n s e , " M u s i c a no. 123 (December 1912): 246. " R a o u l Brevannes, "Les b a l l e t s r u s s e s a l ' O p e r a , " Musica no. 95 ( A u g u s t 1910): 119. 7 3  7  Of  plus  o f T h e o p h i l e G a u t i e r ' s S p e c t r e de l a  Rose, P a u l Dukas' La P e r i , Tcherepnine's  danced  performed  Brevannes thought  evenement a r t i s t i q u e  at  Schumann's C a r n a v a l and  Adam's G i s e l l e .  grands  dancers  interpretation  choreographers  Sylphides (orchestrated  Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade,  Feu,  f o r her  the d i r e c t i o n  legendary dancers  i n Les  Feu,  although  r u s s e s " were i n t r o d u c e d t o P a r i s  Nijinsky,  p i a n o music  Chenal  in France,  i n Carmen.  "ballets  T h e a t r e du  so.  the case  95  acclaimed. ballets notre  Emile  ou  judgement par  In a  remarked  d'operas organisees  trop elevee."  "les  Vuillermoz  7  jusqu'ici  du  saisons  Chatelet  p e r f e c t i o n anormale et  leur  de  ont  fausse  orientation  5  later  ballets  leur  t h a t : "Les  issue, Vuillermoz  r u s s e s " on  commented on  the  impact  of  French a e s t h e t i c s :  Apres l e s plus b r i l l a n t e s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n e t r a n g e r e s , en e f f e c t , l e p u b l i c f r a n g a i s r e v e n a i t t o u j o u r s a s s e z r a p i d e m e n t de son e m e r v e i l l e m e n t e t r e t r o u v a i t s a n s d e p l a i s e r l e s a r t i s t e s de s e s p r o p r e s t h e a t r e s ; m a i s , a p r e s l a r e v e l a t i o n des b a l l e t s r u s s e s , i l nous f u t i m p o s s i b l e de r e c o u v r e r l a p a i x h a b i t u e l l e de n o t r e c o n s c i e n c e a r t i s t i q u e . 7 6  "La  fougue,  Russian  l a turbulence,  troupe  excitement  i s admired.  about  has  a l w a y s had  new  s e t s and  l a sauvagerie  the  the  Vuillermoz  "danse m a s c u l i n e , "  effect  c o s t u m e s by  of a Leon  et  says  la frenesie" there  which  in French  ' v i s c o m i c a . ' The Bakst  are  is a  of  the  new ballet  revolutionary  also highly praised:  . . . l e s R u s s e s nous s t u p e f i e r e n t p a r l ' e l o q u e n c e de l e u r s s u g g e s t i o n s d e c o r a t i v e s o b t e n u e s par une s i m p l i c i t y de moyens p r e s q u e p a r a d o x a l e . Par l e s e u l e v e r t u d'une c o u l e u r b i e n c h o i s i e , d'une o p p o s i t i o n de t o n s i n t e l l i g e m m e n t c a l c u l e e , i l nous o u v r i r e n t l e s p o r t e s du r e v e . 7 7  Other recognized  critics t h a t the  i n Mus i c a ballets  were a l s o p o s i t i v e . russes  had  a profond  Robert effect  Brussel on  E m i l e V u i l l e r m o z , "Themes e t V a r i a t i o n s : La d o u b l e R u s s i e , " M u s i c a no. 105 (June 1911): 105. I d e m , "Les b a l l e t s r u s s e s , " M u s i c a no. 123 (December 1912): 255. I b i d . , p. 256. 7 5  7 6  7 7  96  French c o m p o s e r s .  Ravel, Debussy, and l a t e r ,  78  S t r a u s s , De  F a l l a , Milhaud, S a t i e , P r o k o f i e v , Honegger, Hindemith, and Bartok, wrote music Indeed,  the burgeoning  for this  by Henry  Malherbe.  i n f l u e n t i a l dance troupe.  p o p u l a r i t y of b a l l e t  to the Russian i n f l u e n c e .  Poulenc,  This topic  in general was  i s explored in an  due  article  79  The only negative reviews i n Musica  r e g a r d i n g the  "ballets  r u s s e s " d e a l t with Debussy's Jeux and S t r a v i n s k y ' s Sacre du Printemps,  both performed  i n 1913.  X a v i e r Leroux,  m a j o r i t y of c r i t i c s of h i s time, was N i j i n s k y ' s avante-garde  like  the  extremely c r i t i c a l of  choreography:  Cette annee [1913], h e l a s , j ' a i subi une c r u e l l e deception en entendant Jeux de Debussy et l e Sacre du printemps de S t r a v i n s k y . M. N i j i n s k y , qui r e g l a l a choregraphie de ces deux oeuvres, a t r a h i l e s musiciens, et c ' e s t l a une faute . impardonnable. Jeux est une des p a r t i t i o n s l e s p l u s d e l i c a t e s , l e p l u s s u b t i l e s , l e s p l u s e l e g a n t e s de l ' a u t e u r du Prglude a 1' Apre"s-midi d'un Faune. Pour c e t t e musique ondulante, modulante, fuyante, aux arabesques etranges et mollement a r r o n d i e s . M. N i j i n s k y a imagine des pas et des gestes sees, saccades, e t r i q u e s , c a s s a n t s . Nul d i s a c c o r d n'est p l u s s t u p i d e . :  8 0  In c o n t r a s t to Leroux, Emile V u i l l e r m o z defended performances dancer and  of these works.  He p r a i s e d N i j i n s k y both as a  choreographer:  R o b e r t B r u s s e l , "La musique des b a l l e t s r u s s e s , " Musica 123 (December 1912): 258. H e n r y Malherbe, "La r e n a i s s a n c e du b a l l e t f r a n c a i s , " Musica no. 140 (May 1914): 94-95. ^ X a v i e r Leroux, "La s a i s o n Russe," Musica no. 131 (August 1913): 154. 7 8  no.  79  97  D e p u i s longtemps l a c a u s e de l a t e l e g r a p h i e o p t i q u e en usage dans l e s c o r p s de b a l l e t n ' e s t p l u s defendue. On s ' e s t e n f i n b l a s e s u r 1 ' i n g e n i o s i t e du p e t i t vocabulaire conventionnel qui servait a traduire l e s s e n t i m e n t s de l ' h u m a n i t e d a n s a n t e . L e s deux paumes ramenees s o u s l e s e i n gauche pour a v o u e r l'amour n a i s s a n t , l e c e r c l e d e c r i t a u t o u r du v i s a g e p a r une main e x t a s i e e pour en e x a l t e r l e s a g r e m e n t s , l a gamme des i n f l e x i o n s de p o i g n e t q u i c o r r e s p o n d a l a c o n j u g a i s o n de c e r t a i n s v e r b e s , t o u t c e t a l p h a b e t de s o u r d s - m u e t s e s t devenu p r o f o n d e m e n t ridicule. P e r s o n n e ne p o u r r a s e r i e u s e m e n t r e p r o c h e r a N i j i n s k y d ' a v o i r v o u l u e l i m i n e r de l a danse t o u t ce f a t r a s de g e s t e s p u e r i l s e t d ' a v o i r c h e r c h e a t r a d u i r e p a r des moyens p l u s n o b l e s e t p l u s a r t i s t i q u e s l e s e m o t i o n s d'un h e r o s de b a l l e t . 8 1  In t h e p e r f o r m a n c e qualities, et  where e m o t i o n s  immobilisera  into  of Jeux, V u i l l e r m o z  a r e abandoned and  les reflets  de  "...marionnettes ideales,  impassible,  au s o u r i r e  recognized  fige,  1'ame."  aux  yeux d ' e m a i l  earlier  performances,  like  in rather  "ballets  conventional  tutu  i s abandoned  which  seen  i n double-page  c a n be  L ' O i s e a u de  feu  8 3  and  of s e t s and  photographs  costumes.  and K a r s a v i n a  (Figure  in Stravinsky's  dress in  24).  ballet  of s c e n e s  P e t r u s h k a . " Costumes f o r o t h e r 8  E m i l e V u i l l e r m o z , "Examen de c o n s c i e n c e , " M u s i c a (August 1913): 154. Ibid. M u s i c a no. 104 (May 1911): 9 0 - 9 1 . " M u s i c a no. 123 (December 1912): 248-49. 8 1  8 2 8 3 B  8 2  russes"  traditional  Les S y l p h i d e s  visage  glace."  of P a v l o v a and N i j i n s k y ,  show t h e p a i r s  idealisera  are transformed  en p o u p e e s d i v i n e s au  performances are innumerable photographs  and N i j i n s k y ,  " l a danse  These  E n h a n c i n g M u s i c a ' s c o v e r a g e of the  Impressive photographs  surrealistic  The trilogy, from ballets  no.  131  98  F i g u r e 24 - P a v l o v a and N i j i n s k y ( J u n e 1909, p. 85)  like  S a d k o , N a r c i s s e , and F o k i n e ' s S p e c t r e de l a Rose were e v e n  more i m a g i n a t i v e a n d u n u s u a l , d e m o n s t r a t e d stunning photograph  of N i j i n s k y  in this  i n yet another  latter  work.  8 5  Although  t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s s o p p o s i t i o n t o what was c a l l e d " l a g u e r r e du t u t u , " t h e F r e n c h were q u i c k l y  5  Ibid.,  p. 264.  i n f l u e n c e d by  new  99  concepts  in design.  The  1'Oye, f o r example, "tendences  include  treated  Of  most  the h i g h l y mentioned and  groups  featured  ensembles,  chamber music  frequently.  P a r e n t , Hayot,  program,  by B e e t h o v e n . performance consisted  Lefort  However,  and L u c i e n  Brussels  exclusively  in a  1903  of G r i e g  f o r P i a n o and V i o l o n  lieder  and p i a n o  quartets  were  Marcel C h a i l l e y ,  Briefly  Rime-Saintel Quartet Trios,  Schorglde Quartet. Quartet, included  r e v i e w of an E d v a r d  Wolff Q u a r t e t , the compositions.  i n C minor  and  8 7  The works  Grieg  concert  H i s Q u a r t e t and  were p e r f o r m e d ,  alongside  repetoire.  Other prominent  groups c i t e d  wind  and  pour  Instruments a Vent,  modern composers  instrumental  Capet Q u a r t e t s .  f o r the Capet  w i t h the Johannes  aimed  and  i n Musica  s u c h as t h e M e i n i n g e n and R o t t e r d a m  especially  string  degree  choral  Lederer-Liegeois,  Sonata  Taffanel,  bands,  groups, s t r i n g  the V i e n n a Rose Q u a r t e t , and usual  to a l e s s e r  i s the l e s s - p r o m i n e n t all-women's groups  for their  F e a t u r e d are the P a r i s i a n Q u a r t e t s  Sechiari,  respected  foreign  Mere  8 6  chamber music  societies.  f o r R a v e l ' s Ma  were d e s i g n e d by D r e s a and c i t e d  russes."  Performance  s e t s and c o s t u m e s  ensemble.  The  i n c l u d e a wind  ensemble,  S o c i e t e de M u s i q u e  founded  i n 1879  by  de  flautist  to revive  classical  wind m u s i c ,  and  to write  for their  performances.  8 8  and a  Chambre Paul inspire Works by  M u s i c a no. 123 (December 1912): 259. M.D. C a l v o c o r e s s i , "Edv. G r i e g e t l e Q u a t u o r J o h a n n e s W o l f f , " M u s i c a no. 9 (June 1903): 132. D o m i n i q u e B o u l a y , "La S o c i e t e de M u s i q u e de Chambre pour I n s t r u m e n t s a V e n t , " M u s i c a no. 19 ( A p r i l 1904): 301. 8 6 87  8 8  .100  Bach,  H a n d e l , M o z a r t , and  Beethoven  des C o n c e r t s du C o n s e r v a t o i r e , and O p e r a - C o m i q u e . they  were  Double Q u i n t e t t e  or S o c i e t e  I n s t r u m e n t s a Vent objectives to g i v e  Museum  they t r a v e l l e d Like  de M u s i q u e  de Chambre  similar  a new  particularly  aims.  Sousa's  I t gave In  Exhibition  and  Brooklyn, Montreal.  visit  the  pour  repetoire,  medium t o e x p l o r e .  i n Germany a t t h e  bands.  many l o c a l 1871,  t h e r e was  and This  8 9  Frankfort  a new  composers was  a new  most p r o m i n e n t band  emphasis  wave of French  established  band  since  t h e London  International  Baltimore,  repetoire.  were p e r f o r m e d , one  Pittsburg,  New  York,  P a r e s , from  Although arrangements  and  1892  to  P a r e s a r r a n g e d and of music  article  in h i s programs.  commented on by E m i l e V u i l l e r m o z  John  and s u r r o u n d i n g  of G a b r i e l on  With  in Paris  Philadelphia,  favored  time.  in Boston, Chicago,  the d i r e c t i o n  composed many works.  Wagner's m u s i c  concerts  at t h i s  therewas  a military  a year l a t e r ,  Under  The  i t played'at  Cincinnati,  contemporary  to P a r i s ,  Republicaine,  provinces.  1910,  1903  f o r marching  t h e Garde  1867.  where  Society.  enthusiasm was  group,  Opera  i n 1905, i t s  and modern  Bands seemed t o . r e g a i n , p o p u l a r i t y Philip  this  Founded  compositional favored  Societe  to B e r l i n  received.'  were t o p e r f o r m c l a s s i c a l  composers  g r o u p was  had  at the  t h e C o n c e r t s Lamoureux, t h e  In a d d i t i o n  'enthusiastically  were g i v e n  9 0  i n an a r t i c l e  This  by  states  that  i s later  appearing in a  R e m y F a s o l t , "Le D o u b l e Q u i n t e t t e , " M u s i c a no. 44 (May 1906): 76. J . L . I t h i e r , "La musique de l a G a r d e R e p u b l i c a i n e , " M u s i c a no. 22 ( J u l y 1904): 350. 89  9 0  /  101  1913  issue devoted  works by D e b u s s y of  independent  exploring  this  vast  instrumental  chansons  dating  Balay.  in this from  written  by  C h a r l e s Bordes object  highly  the  1910  also  f o r the  criticized  and  symphonic  include  necessity  composers  f o r not  medium.  Other  a survey of  91  military  to nineteenth c e n t u r i e s ,  Garde R e p u b l i c a i n e l e a d e r  d'Indy  de  L e s c h a n t e u r s de religious  r e s p e c t e d as  by J o s q u i n des Claudin  became i n c r e a s i n g l y  founded  indicate.  Vincent  reviews  Soloist  Sermisy,  Clement  9 2  Guillaume  Clotilde,  Indeed,  choral  i n 1904  music.  and  Raunay and  1908  This issues  1892,  Programs  with Alexandre Guilmant for a revival  group of  composer-conductor included  works  Costeley,  Jannequin, P a l e s t r i n a  press coverage  In  S a i n t - G e r v a i s w i t h the  the S c h o l a Cantorium,  as b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e 9  popular.  P r e s , R o l a n d de L a s s u s , G u i l l a u m e  collaboration  music. "  Jeanne  and  were f r e q u e n t a r t i s t s .  B o t h L e s c h a n t e u r s and  cited  issue  and  the s i x t e e n t h  of c u l t i v a t i n g  Musica  in  than a r r a n g i n g  9 3  C h o r a l music  was  Rather  or Wagner, V u i l l e r m o z a r g u e d literature,  articles  one  music.  band  notable  and  to m i l i t a r y  and  founded  Bach. by  Bordes  and V i n c e n t d ' I n d y , of F r e n c h  of c h u r c h c h o i r s  at  choral Saint-  Saint-Augustin, Saint-Vincent-de-Paul,Trinite,  Dame-des-Champs, and  Saint-Sever in,  Notre-  show the r e s s u r g e n c e o f  E m i l e V u i l l e r m o z , "Musique m i l i t a i r e , " M u s i c a no. 125 ( F e b r u a r y 1913): 26-27. G e n e r a l Noix, "Vieux a i r s et v i e i l l e s chansons," Musica no. 125 ( F e b r u a r y 1913): 36-39. G u i l l a u m e B a l a y , "La musique de l a Garde R e p u b l i c a i n e , " M u s i c a no. 125 ( F e b r u a r y 1913): 32. ^ G e o r g e s P i o c h , "Les c h a n t e u r s de S a i n t - G e r v a i s , " M u s i c a no. 71 (August 1908): 119. 9 1  9 2  9 3  are  102  music  in religious  establishments.  Even  L e s Amis des C a t h e d r a l e s , were formed performances.  the time  include  Strauss,  Hans R i c h t e r ,  about  Felix  and Andre  practises.  Weingartner, Gustave  themselves or t h e i r and  by C o l o n n e and O p e r a  the o n l y  Busser  were d i s c u s s e d  Colonne's  commented  9 8  be a b l e  music  by C o l o n n e , 9 6  Other  that  9 7  The  articles  who  of B e r l i o z ' s was  one  of  performances a  the  given  article  Opera  works f r o m d i f f e r e n t  La  composer-critic  conductor This  a good c o n d u c t o r must have  an a c c o u n t  Camille  Camille  a s p e c t s of c o n d u c t i n g .  t h e n o t e d composer and  C h a r l e s Lamoureux, p u b l i s h e d  Richard  about  T o r c h e t , whose  death i n 1910.  supply  Colonne,  Past performances  by J u l i e n  to d i r e c t  Chevillard,  Colonne,  by C h a r l e s M a l h e r b e ,  on v a r i o u s  his contention  arms" and periods.  and  Wagner,  ones t o w r i t e  c o n d u c t o r s of h i s t i m e .  after  included  Siegfried  work were E d o u a r d  Henri Busser.  librarian,  appeared  like  c o n d u c t o r s of  There are s e v e r a l  D a m n a t i o n de F a u s t were r e c a l l e d most a d m i r e d  Prominent  Mahler, Edouard  Messager.  t h e s e c o n d u c t o r s but  Chevillard,  t o promote r e l i g i o u s  on c o n d u c t o r s and c o n d u c t i n g o c a s s i o n a l l y  on p e r f o r m a n c e  Chevillard,  societies,  9 5  Articles information  secular  "long  style  s o n - i n - l a w of  of h i s e x p e r i e n c e s a t  G a b r i e l G r o v l e z , "Les Amis des C a t h e d r a l e s , " M u s i c a 142 ( J u l y 1914): 140-41. E d o u a r d Colonne, " B e r l i o z et l e s Concerts Colonne," Musica no. 66 (March 1908): 37. C h a r l e s Malherbe, "Edouard Colonne et ses c o n c e r t s , " M u s i c a no. 14 (November 1903): 215-16; J u l i e n T o r c h e t , " S o u v e n i r s s u r E d o u a r d C o l o n n e , " M u s i c a no. 92 (May 1910): 75. H e n r i B u s s e r , "Une c l a s s e de c h e f s d ' o r c h e s t r e , " M u s i c a no. 122 (November 1912): 231-32. 9 5  no.  9 6  9 7  9 8  1 03  Bayreuth Felix  which  included  M o t t l and  possessing which  Siegfried  in motion.  The  Deserving  Steiner  conductor  Wagner.  "qualites d'energie  is particularly  Gertrude  i m p r e s s i o n s of the Wagnerian  who  associations  was  in  mention as  1906.  of music  the  new  Bordeaux  Other  type of  works.  causes.  C u s t o t , aimed and  repetoire.  Saint-Cecile  contemporary other  societies  The  Litvinne,  surprising detailed  The  by  that  and  instrumental  of a c e r t a i n  composer.  societies These  M o z a r t - H a y d n , and  around  the  time  with performing  founded  atmosphere  Chopin  Musica  f o r example, u s u a l l y  Society,  a  and performed  were d e d i c a t e d t o i n 1903  for  by  Franz  professional  h o s t i n g m o n t h l y d i n n e r s and c o n c e r t s . performers  particular  press coverage  guest  Many  Wanda Landowska, F a u r e , this  conductor  conductor  Bourges P h i l h a r m o n i c  to provide a s o c i a l  Many r e s p e c t e d composers and Felia  female  Miscellaneous collectives  amateur m u s i c i a n s  this  obscure  were c o n c e r n e d  Societies,  Ut M i n e u r  of  phenomenon.  a l l of w h i c h were formed  flourished. certain  first  t h e Bach, C h e r u b i n i , R o s s i n i ,  societies,  i s an  societies  a relatively  in his c o n d u c t i n g , "  1 0 0  were c r e a t e d t o promote t h e music include  force"  d e s c r i b e d as  i n ink drawings  i s noted  i n Germany appearance  e t de  apparent special  Wagner was  conductors  than  were i n v i t e d , and  association  such  Chevillard. received  the S o c i e t e M u s i c a l e  1 0 1  as It i s  more  Independante,  " C a m i l l e C h e v i l l a r d , "Mes i m p r e s s i o n s s u r B a y r e u t h , " M u s i c a 2 (November 1902): 18. " L e m o i s m u s i c a l : Une femme c h e f d ' o r c h e s t r e , " M u s i c a no. 44 (May 1906): 80. ' D o m i n i q u e B o u l a y , "L'Ut M i n e u r , " M u s i c a no. 20 (May 1904): 310. no.  1 0 0  1 0  1 04  founded  i n 1910 under  the presidency  Mineur's d i s t i n g u i s h e d a r t i s t s Contesse G r e f f u h l e , D e c a z e s , gave The  only  i t more s o c i a l  other  orchestral  Princess  association  federation  d'Harcourt, position  soloists,  franc.  p r o m i n e n c e and p o l i t i c a l  i n 1901.  mention  services. five  influence.  i s an  Under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f  L e r o u x , C o l o n n e , C h e v i l l a r d , and t h e m o r a l and m o n i t a r y rates for  I t p r o p o s e d a f e e of s i x f r a n c s f o r  for first  section  i n 1903, w i t h  leaders., and f o u r  an a n n u a l  increase  f o r second o f one  1 0 2  expanse of a r t i c l e s  contributed  p e r f o r m e r s and c o m p o s e r s p r o v i d e musicologist. prominent  costuming  practises.  especially  data  and  comparison t o  indicate  t h e r e p e r t o i r e and c o m p o s e r s  reported  by M u s i c a .  dominate  F e l i c i e n G r e t r y , "Le s y n d i c a t 9 (June 1903): 138.  regarding  It i s  the c a f e -  Reviews of performances featured  Accepted masters,  unexplored  is available.  articles  in popularity.  Schumann, C h o p i n and L i s z t ,  direct  Much p r e v i o u s l y  and a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l  i t s height  allow  f o r the  i s especially applicable in  i n t e r e s t i n g t o read  near  by b o t h  a w e a l t h of i n f o r m a t i o n  illustrations This  to Musica  of i n t e r p r e t i v e techniques  f o r o p e r a and b a l l e t .  biographical  concert  Descriptions  photographic  present-day  no.  i n c l u d i n g the  Edmond de P l o g n a c , and t h e D u c h e s s  i t s o b j e c t i v e was t o improve  leaders,  The  1 0 2  P e r h a p s t h e Ut  o f m u s i c i a n s by e s t a b l i s h i n g f e d e r a t i o n  orchestral  section  and p a t r o n s ,  receiving brief  formed  Bruneau, C h a r p e n t i e r ,  of Faure.  i n programs  s u c h as Bach,  Beethoven,  these programs t o such a  des musiciens,"  Musica  105  large  degree  that  one wonders whether  appeal  or t h e j o u r n a l ' s  rather  c o n t r o v e r s i a l b a l l e t s and o p e r a s .  is  particularly  well-known  A l t h o u g h many o f t h e i r the  time,  remaining  bias.  this  the j o u r n a l guarded  In c o n t r a s t ,  there  this  performances created avoided  a r e r e v i e w s of  period..  quite  stance appears  Another  f o r women.  is  allowed  feminists  r e b u t t a l s by music  1  by  i n d i c a t i o n of  i n rather  d i f f e r e n t performance p r a c t i s e s  russes"  a furore at  some o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y  on  with  popular  The " b a l l e t s  i n Paris during  i n i t s statements.  Musica's conservative  reflects  amusing Some  articles  controversy  of t h e d a y .  106  IV. Set  CONCLUSION  i n the c u l t u r a l and economic p r o s p e r i t y of e a r l y  t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y P a r i s , Musica emerges as an a t t r a c t i v e h i g h l y i l l u s t r a t e d magazine f o r the p e r u s a l inclined.  Inspired  by i l l u s t r a t e d  of the a r t i s t i c a l l y  sports magazines and intended  to appeal to amateurs and p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l i k e , Pierre L a f i t t e journalism.  the p u b l i s h e r  f e l t t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n would f i l l  a void  He wished to' provide a v i s u a l and d i d a c t i c  interchange of information  between a r t i s t s and the p u b l i c  environment of p r o l i f e r a t i n g musical development. contained  i n music  o r i g i n a l material  composers and performers.  i n an  Musica  by prominent c r i t i c s , j o u r n a l i s t s , T h e i r w r i t i n g s complemented by high  q u a l i t y photographs, e t c h i n g s  and drawings, v i s u a l l y inform the  h i s t o r i a n on important aspects of l o c a l  s o c i e t y and a r t i s t i c  endeavor. The  journalism  biographies,  i n Musica c o n s i s t mainly of reviews,  and h i s t o r i c a l or s p e c i a l s t u d i e s .  Reviews supply  the h i s t o r i a n with d e s c r i p t i o n s of programs, performers and concert  locations.  optimistic  Musica's c r i t i c i s m  p o s i t i v e and  i n viewpoint, and i s often more of an e n t h u s i a s t i c  endorsement of a performance than true This  i s generally  reflective  criticism.  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y observed i n the j o u r n a l ' s e a r l y years under  the e d i t o r s h i p s of Charles  J o l y and Georges P i o c h .  Under  Leroux's d i r e c t i o n reviews became more c o n t r o v e r s i a l but s t i l l r e t a i n e d a sense of optimism.  Exceptions to t h i s p o s i t i v i s m are  found i n the w r i t i n g s of well-known c r i t i c s Henri de Curzon, G a b r i e l Prod'homme, M i c h e l - D i m i t r i  Calvocoressi,  Pierre  Lalo,  1 07  Michel-Gaston critics music  Carraud, Adolphe J u l l i e n ,  are recognized  j o u r n a l s and f o r t h e i r  publications. been  as w e l l  Many o f t h e i r  reprinted.  Vuillermoz, Vuillemin,  public  presented  Contributions  to Musica  i n regard  performance, information  of t h e i r  composers.  Biographical  not  a v a i l a b l e i n any o t h e r  of  contemporary  featured  musical  polls  controversial  or t h e then  There  such as Debussy, R a v e l , composers,  mentioned only Stravinsky, featured  Some o f t h i s m a t e r i a l i s  The v a r i o u s  interviews,  A s u r v e y o f t h e composers  i n Mus i c a d e m o n s t r a t e s b o t h a c o n s e r v a t i v e bias.  o f more  l e s s e s t a b l i s h e d younger  D u p a r c , and K o e c h l i n .  while  Strauss,  extensively.  enthusiastically  i s .less c o v e r a g e  and  composers,  More a v a n t e - g a r d e  S c r i a b i n , B a r t o k , and S c h o e n b e r g , a r e  briefly,  Richard  relatives  add g r e a t l y t o o u r a p p r e c i a t i o n  thought.  nationalistic  foreign  of  s o u r c e and i s t h e r e f o r e , o f  i n t e r e s t to the h i s t o r i a n . and o p i n i o n  either  from many well-known  i s s u p p l e m e n t e d b o t h by t h e w r i t i n g s  comment  with  work and i t s  f r i e n d s , and numerous p h o t o g r a p h s .  peer  become more  their  and  particular  years,  at variance  were i l l i c i t e d  as other  and L o u i s  contemporaries.  to themselves,  as w e l l  later  have not  Emile  Raymond C h a r p e n t i e r ,  often  to other  musicological  c o n t r i b u t i o n s to Musica  i n the j o u r n a l ' s  or that  These  contributions  more e x t e n s i v e  and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c  opinion  composers  for their  The r e v i e w s by c o m p o s e r - c r i t i c s  Gabriel Grovlez,  comprehensive  and o t h e r s .  others  like  Edvard G r i e g ,  The f a c t  that  i s understandable  Rimsky-Korsakov, and Wagner a r e  F r e n c h music  in relation  i s treated  to the p o l i t i c a l  108  and  economic  n a t i o n a l i s m of  Musica,  with  s u p p l e m e n t s our and  singers.  concert  time.  i t s numerous a r t i c l e s  knowledge of  interpretive  opera  the  Pedagogical  on q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g  cello  Most of  A different  kettle-drum. choirs  and  captures in  Articles  enlightened,  1  positive  As  thought.  tendency  press.  of p o l i t e  early  the p a s t .  the  of F r e n c h  t h i s may  In t h i s  contemporary musical of  Parisian  russes"  again than  general  position  i s found  with  in  stance  concern.  emerges a s a h i g h l y v a l u a b l e  Musica  French  giving  music  and  society.  and  musical  f o r iconography an  i s a unique  criticism.  thought  groups,  regard, Musica's  t o l e r a n c e touched  to l i f e , "  music  "ballets  the  the  Musica  Some c o n t r o v e r s y  twentieth-century  performers,  been  chamber music  C o n t a i n i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n s from  c o m p o s e r s and  violin,  favorable rather  I t i s e x c e p t i o n a l as a s o u r c e  perspective  of  While  t o be  feminists.  to bring "history  anthology  excitement  by  i n f e a t u r e s on  information.  fashion.  demonstrated, Musica  document on  of  one  by  piano,  have not  i t nevertheless c o n t r a s t s with  the contributions  tends  additional  i n the contemporary  seems t o be  inclusions  i n s t r u m e n t a l and  t h e c o n t r o v e r s y and  demonstrate Musica's  the  by  cafe-  were w r i t t e n  p e r s p e c t i v e i s gained  bands, s u p p l y  a surprisingly  stated  these  on  practises  the popular  articles  instrumentalists  reprinted.  artists,  Much d i s c u s s i o n i s o f f e r e d  Chansons a r e d e s c r i b e d by  harp.  performing  that era's performance  techniques.  performers.  and  by  immediate eminent and  It o f f e r s  attitudes,  and  which  awareness  critics,  valuable insight a  unique  into  109  BIBLIOGRAPHY B e l l a g e r , Claude e t . a l . Francaise. 5 vols. France, 1972.  H i s t o i r e G e n e r a l e de l a P r e s s e P a r i s : P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de  Blume, F r i e d r i c h , e d . D i e Musik i n G e s c h i c h t e und Gegenwart . 15 v o l s . K a s s e l : V e r l a g K a s s e l und B a s e l , 1949-51. B r o i d o , Lucy. F r e n c h O p e r a P o s t e r s 1868-1930. P u b l i c a t i o n s I n c . , 1976.  New  York:  Dover  C o o p e r , M a r t i n . F r e n c h M u s i c : From t h e d e a t h of B e r l i o z t o t h e d e a t h of F a u r e . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951. Cramner, James, ed. G r e a t Composers i n H i s t o r i c New Y o r k : Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1981. . York: New  The G r e a t Opera S t a r s i n H i s t o r i c Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1978.  Photographs.  Photographs.  . The G r e a t I n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s i n H i s t o r i c Y o r k : Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1980.  Ewen, D a v i d . The Wang, 1971.  New  E n c y c l o p e d i a of O p e r a .  Photographs.  New  York:  Hill  Gosling, Nigel. The A d v e n t u r o u s W o r l d o f P a r i s 1900-1914. Y o r k : W i l l i a m Morrow and Company, I n c . , 1978. H e r v e y , A r t h u r . M a s t e r s of F r e n c h M u s i c . M c l l v a i n e and Company, 1894. Honegger, M a r c , e d . P a r i s : Bordas,  Dictionnaire 1970.  K o l o d i n , I r v i n g , ed. The C r i t i c a l S o s k i n and Company, 1940. Landowska, Wanda. M u s i c Aspenwall Bradley. Lang,  de  New  and New  L o n d o n : Osgood,  l a Musique.  Composer.  New  2  vols.  York:  Howell,  of t h e P a s t . T r a n s l a t e d by W i l l i a m London: G e o f f r e y B l e s , 1926.  P a u l Henry and Bettmann, O t t o . A P i c t o r i a l H i s t o r y of Musica. New Y o r k : W. W. N o r t o n and Company, I n c . , 1960.  Lesure, la  F r a n g o i s , ed. "Le S a c r e Du P r i n t e m p s . " A n t h o l o g i e de c r i t i q u e musicale. Geneve: E d i t i o n s M i n k o f f , 1980.  L i v o i s , Rene d e . H i s t o i r e de Lausanne: E d i t i o n s Spes, Manevy, Raymond. La P r e s s e de J. Foret, 1955.  l a Presse Frangaise. 1965. l a 111e  Republique.  2 vols. Paris:  Massenet; J u l e s . My R e c o l l e c t i o n s . T r a n s l a t e d by H. V i l l i e r s Barnett. F r e e p o r t , New Y o r k : Books f o r L i b r a r i e s P r e s s , 1970.  1 10  Myers, R o l l o . Modern F r e n c h M u s i c : From F a u r e York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1971.  to Boulez.  Norman, G e r t r u d e and S h r i f t e , M i r i a m L u b e l l . , e d . C o m p o s e r s : An A n t h o l o g y 1603-1945. New Y o r k : A. K n o p f , Noske, F r i t z R u d o r f . Second e d . New  New  Letters Alfred  The F r e n c h Song from B e r l i o z t o Y o r k : Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1970.  of  Duparc.  P i e r r e , A l b e r t ; F e y e l , G i l l e s ; and P i c a r d , J e a n - F r a n c o i s . Documents pour l ' h i s t o i r e de l a P r e s s e N a t i o n a l e aux XIXe e t XXe S i d c l e s . P a r i s : C e n t r e de D o c u m e n t a t i o n Schience Humaines, 1980. Raynor, Henry, Music Jenkins, 1976.  and  Society  Since  1815.  London: B a r r i e  and  Rosentiel, Leonie. The L i f e and Works of L i l i Boulanger. L o n d o n : A s s o c i a t e d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s e s , 1978. R u d o r f f , Raymond. The B e l l e Epoque; P a r i s Y o r k : S a t u r d a y Review P r e s s , 1973. Saint-Saens, Lafitte New  Camille. Ecole Buissonniere. and Company, 1913.  . M u s i c a l Memoires. Y o r k : Da Capo P r e s s ,  Translated 1969.  i n the N i n e t i e s . Paris:  New  Pierre  by Edwin G i l e  Rich.  . 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V o l . 2: I n t e l l e c t , O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1977.  Taste  

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