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The perceptions of elderly residents toward the physical environment and planning Tufts, Stuart Earl 1984

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THE PERCEPTIONS OF ELDERLY RESIDENTS TOWARD THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AND PLANNING BY STUART EARL TUFTS B.A. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Community and Regional Planning) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the {required standard i THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1984 (Pi 1984 Stuart Earl Tufts In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of School of Community and Regional PLanning The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 15 October 1984 DE-6 (.3/81) ABSTRACT As t h e C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n a g e s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r u r b a n p l a n n i n g a r e b e c o m i n g an i m p o r t a n t c o n c e r n . T h i s c o n c e r n , t h u s f a r , h a s f o c u s s e d l a r g e l y u p o n s i n g l e i s s u e s s u c h a s " h o u s i n g and t h e e l d e r l y " o r u p o n t h e " i n s t i t u t i o n a -l i z e d " e l d e r l y . R e l a t i v e l y f e w i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e e x p l o r e d t h e l a r g e r i s s u e o f t h e r o l e o f u r b a n p l a n n i n g i n C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n o f e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s . T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e e l d e r l y p e r s o n ' s " q u a l i t y o f l i f e " i n W h i t e R o c k , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Mo re s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e o b j e c t i v e s a r e : (1) t o d e s c r i b e s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m a r e a s a n d i d e n t i f y w h e r e , when a n d how t h e y o c c u r . (2) t o i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s i n t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f W h i t e R o c k t h a t i n f l u e n c e an e l d e r l y p e r s o n ' s a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n p e r s o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e . (3) t o r e v i e w p r o p o s e d a l t e r n a t i v e m e t h o d s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n t h a t m i g h t o f f e r an i m p r o v e m e n t i n a c c o m m o d a t i n g t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f W h i t e R o c k ' s e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s . The a p p r o a c h t a k e n i n t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e s t e p s . The f i r s t s t e p s u m m a r i z e s t h e e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e on p a s t p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s i n C a n a d a a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s r e g a r d i n g t h e e l d e r l y t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e e l d e r l y . The s e c o n d r e s e a r c h t a s k i n v o l v e s t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n a t t h e m u n i c i p a l i i l e v e l to e s t a b l i s h a p r o f i l e of White Rock. The t h i r d step i n c l u d e s focussed group i n t e r v i e w s with three groups of f o u r e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s (and one p r e - t e s t group) to g a i n t h e i r views on the community's p h y s i c a l environment. As w e l l , focussed i n t e r v i e w s are conducted with the l o c a l mayor and planner to o b t a i n t h e i r responses to the group i n t e r v i e w f i n d i n g s . The major c o n c l u s i o n s a r e : ( 1 ) there i s a need f o r f u r t h e r study i n Canada of the n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d e l d e r l y t h a t s t r i k e s a balance between those s t u d i e s that examine s i n g l e environmental i s s u e s f a c i n g the e l d e r l y and those that pursue a more h o l i s t i c approach. (2) m a i n t a i n i n g maximum independence i n d a i l y l i v i n g i s v i t a l l y important to the e l d e r l y . .'(•3-) there i s a heightened e f f e c t of the p h y s i c a l environment upon the e l d e r l y . (4) there i s a need f o r changes i n the p r a c t i c e of community p l a n n i n g r e g a r d i n g the e l d e r l y . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Problem Statement p 1 1.2 Scope p 1 1.3 O b j e c t i v e s p 4 1.4 Study's Relevance p 4 1.5 Th e s i s O r g a n i z a t i o n p 5 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 H i s t o r y p 7 2.2 Housing p 17 2.3 R e s i d e n t i a l Environment p 20 2.4 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n p 29 CHAPTER 3 COMMUNITY PROFILE 3.1 H i s t o r i c a l Background p 39 3.2 P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p 41 3.3 Demographic P r o f i l e p 46 3.4 Economic Base p 53 CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY 4.1 Methodology p 55 4.2 R a t i o n a l e f o r Methodology p 57 i v 4.3 Study Findings p 67 (Group Interviews) 4.3.1 Residential Environment p 68 4.3.2 F a c i l i t i e s and Services p 70 4.3.3 Spatial Arrangement p 72 4.3.4 Role of Local Government p 74 4.4 Study Findings (Mayor and Planner) 4.4.1 Residential Environment p 77 4.4.2 F a c i l i t i e s and Services p 80 4.4.3 Spatial Arrangement p 84 4.4.4 Role of Local Government p 87 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS p 94 APPENDICES p 107 A. Cover l e t t e r and consent form p 108 B. Focussed interview questions p 109 FOOTNOTES p 111 BIBLIOGRAPHY p 122 TABLES 2.1 S e r v i c e importance and c r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e p 26 2.2 Household s i z e and type p 50 2.3 P o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p 51 v i FIGURES 2.1 Relative s a t i s f a c t i o n of the elderly with the distance from t h e i r building to nece-ssary f a c i l i t i e s p 22 2.2 Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t p 42 2.3 Land Use map - City of White Rock p 45 2.4 1976, 1981 Census Age of White Rock Popu-la t i o n P r o f i l e p 47 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g p e r s o n s who have h e l p e d me i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s . P r o f e s s o r s Henry H i g h t o w e r and Mary H i l l who as my a d v i s o r s p r o v i d e d me w i t h i n v a l u a b l e g u i d a n c e and c r i t i c i s m t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y . Many t h a n k s t o t h e e l d e r l y o f White Rock who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e g r o u p i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s and who t o o k t h e t i m e t o s h a r e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e community. I am g r a t e f u l t o J a n e A s k i n f o r a c t i n g as t h e m o d e r a t o r o f t h e grou p i n t e r v i e w s . I a l s o want t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Mayor Gordon Hogg and Mr. Dan J a n c z e w s k i f o r t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e grou p i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o P r o f e s s o r Brahm Wiesman f o r h i s i n t e r e s t i n t h e t o p i c and f o r h a v i n g g i v e n me t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u r s u e a M a s t e r ' s Degree a t U.B.C.'s S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o my p a r e n t s and g r a n d p a r e n t s who have p r o v i d e d me w i t h c o n t i n u o u s s u p p o r t and e n c o u r a g e m e n t . v i i i CHAPTER ONE P r o b l e m S t a t e m e n t T h i s t h e s i s examines t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s p e c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s a r e accommodated i n t h e C i t y o f White R o c k . f l ] Scope A community can be d e f i n e d as "a g r o u p o f p e o p l e who i n t e r a c t w i t h one a n o t h e r - even i f i n d i r e c t l y - t o f i l l t h e i r needs and who s h a r e an i d e n t i t y w i t h t h e p l a c e t h e y l i v e . " [ 2 ] W hite Rock, l i k e most c o m m u n i t i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p r o c l a i m s t h e enhancement o f " q u a l i t y o f l i f e " as one o f i t s m a j o r g o a l s . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e a p r i o r i , s i n c e i t depends on t h e s u b j e c t i v e judgments o f i n d i v i d u a l s . A p r i o r i d e c i s i o n s may be a v o i d e d i f t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e i s d e f i n e d by f i r s t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s u b j e c t i v e judgments o f i n d i v i d u a l s . [ 3] The p h r a s e most o f t e n u s e d t o r e p r e s e n t a p e r s o n ' s s u b j e c t i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e q u a l i t y o f h i s o r h e r l i f e i s " l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n " . L i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n can be d e f i n e d as "an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e o v e r a l l c o n d i t i o n s o f e x i s t e n c e as d e r i v e d f r o m a c o m p a r i s o n o f one's a s p i r a t i o n s t o one's a c t u a l a c h i e v e m e n t s . " [ 4 ] [George] G e r o n t o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s c o n s i s t e n t l y t h a t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , h e a l t h , c e r t a i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , d e g r e e o f i n d e p e n d e n t l i v i n g and a c t i v i t i e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n . [ 5 ] Page 1 S p e c i f i c a l l y , as one ages, the community takes on greater s i g n i f i c a n c e . For example, a lack of s o c i a l contact in the area, or nuisances such as t r a f f i c , excessive noise or lack of park space may become major stressors rather than minor inconveniences.[6] As well, the basic services provided in the l o c a l area become more important as age increases.[7] In order to l i v e independently, an el d e r l y person may need transportation , shopping, recreation, amenities and s o c i a l contacts near by. Spatial structure, therefore, affects the amount and kind of human contact which persons may enjoy. It also might affect one's sense of independence and feelings of individual worth. For the purpose of this study, an el d e r l y person i s defined as someone 65 years of age or over and able-bodied. The sample group d e f i n i t i o n of an elderly person i s someone (1) 65 years of age or over; (2) able-bodied; (3) l i v i n g in an apartment; and (4) a minimum 3 year White Rock resident. Among B r i t i s h Columbia communities, the City of White Rock has unique q u a l i t i e s . It is located in the extreme south-west corner of B r i t i s h Columbia, approximately 30 miles from downtown Vancouver and within 2 miles of' the Washington State U.S. border. White Rock has a high concentration of elderly residents. According to the 1981 census, 35% of White Rock's population is 65 years of age or over.[8] Page 2 In 1980, White Rock established an o f f i c i a l community plan. To measure whether White Rock i s attaining the above stated community goal requires c l a r i f i c a t i o n as to what indicators constitute health, safety, comfort and convenience. For the purpose of this study, the following d e f i n i t i o n w i l l be used: "improving the physical environments for persons 65 years of age or older."[9] In other words, i t is argued by this study that improvement in the present physical environment would enhance White Rock's role as a retirement community for the e l d e r l y . In summary, the main thrust of this study is an examination of the physical environment and the factors that influence the elderly population's a b i l i t y to function independently in that environment. The s p e c i f i c issues to be examined include: (1) r e s i d e n t i a l environment - housing design and location, landscaping, street l i g h t i n g ; (2) f a c i l i t i e s and services - transportation, health care, recreational, s o c i a l and commercial; (3) s p a t i a l arrangement - walking distances to f a c i l i t i e s and services, design of streets and sidewalks; and (4) the role of l o c a l government - attitude towards elderly residents, how and in what ways the environmental requirements of elderly residents are accommodated. Page 3 Objectives (1) To describe s p e c i f i c problem areas and ide n t i f y where, when and how they occur. (2) To identif y factors in the physical environment of White Rock that influence an eld e r l y person's a b i l i t y to maintain personal independence. (3) To review proposed alternative methods of intervention that might off e r an improvement in accommodating the special physical requirements of White Rock's elderly res idents. [10] The Study's Relevance A cursory look at the demographic s t a t i s t i c s reveals that, proportionately, Canadian society is aging. In 1951, 6.7% of the population was 65 years of age or over, and by 1981 i t was 9.7%.[11] Estimates indicate that 80% of Canadians over age 65 l i v e independently; 10% l i v e in senior c i t i z e n housing or sheltered housing of some form; and 9% are in sheltered care settings.[12] It i s only recently, however, that serious attention has focussed upon the issues facing the largely independent segment of the eld e r l y population. Professionals dealing with the eld e r l y have centred on s p e c i f i c issues such as housing (Mathieu; Lawton); health care (Gutman and Stark; Fox); and transportation (Golant; Wachs). Relatively few studies have explored the role of urban planning in Canadian communities with a substantial proportion of eld e r l y residents. Page 4 The c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e : (1) A l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w o f t h e s p e c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e e l d e r l y . (2) F o c u s s e d g r o u p i n t e r v i e w s w i t h e l d e r l y W hite Rock r e s i d e n t s . (3) F o c u s s e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h White Rock d e c i s i o n -makers (mayor and p l a n n e r ) . T h i s s t u d y may p r o v i d e C a n a d i a n p l a n n e r s , d e c i s i o n makers and t h e p u b l i c i n and beyond White Rock n o t o n l y w i t h i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l needs o f t h e e l d e r l y b u t a l s o w i t h ways by w h i c h t h e s e needs can be accommodated. T h e s i s O r g a n i z a t i o n C h a p t e r Two summarizes t h e l i t e r a t u r e on p a s t p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e e l d e r l y p l u s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e e l d e r l y . C h a p t e r T h r e e p r e s e n t s a b r i e f s k e t c h o f t h e c a s e s t u d y s i t e - White Rock, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T o p i c s d i s c u s s e d " i n c l u d e i t s h i s t o r y , p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , community s e r v i c e s , d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and e c o n o m i c b a s e . C h a p t e r F o u r r e v i e w s methods u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h f i r s t l y , what some e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s i n White Rock p e r c e i v e as f a c t o r s i n t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e i r Page 5 a b i l i t y to maintain their personal independence and secondly, in what ways the environmental requirements of the eld e r l y residents are accommodated in White Rock. This chapter also has an analysis of the group focussed interviews with elderly residents plus interviews with the mayor and planner. Chapter Five presents an analysis of the findings and conclusions of the study. Page 6 CHAPTER TWO Introduction This chapter provides the l i t e r a t u r e foundation for the study. It begins with a look at past practices of community planning in Canada and the United States regarding the el d e r l y and continues with an examination of such topics as housing, r e s i d e n t i a l environment, services and f a c i l i t i e s and transportation. Recommendations to enhance the el d e r l y person's quality of l i f e , are also made. H i s t o r y B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g any f u r t h e r i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f " p l a n n i n g " . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y " p l a n n i n g " i s d e f i n e d a s : F i r s t , the attempt to att a i n certain goals within a community... In democratic s o c i e t i e s , planners become advisors to those who make public policy decisions; systems of accountability to those who l i v e within the community are supposed to be developed. Second, "planning" i s intended to be a r a t i o n a l process. This assumption is based on the b e l i e f that s o c i a l change- requires intentional action. In other words, rather than leaving community development to chance or to those with p o l i t i c a l power, decision-making that is based on r a t i o n a l goals must be exercised.t13](Morgan) Of central concern to the question of planning is the nature of community goal selection and development. Page 7 Planners do not work in i s o l a t i o n from the people they serve. Herbert Gans argues that planners and other professionals do not monopolize knowledge about the goals and values of the community. "Diversity i s valuable", he writes, "and people are e n t i t l e d to l i v e in any way they choose, unless that way can be proved to be destructive to them or the i r fellowmen."[14] Gans i s a proponent of what he c a l l s goal-oriented planning. This planning approach begins with the assumption that each community retains certain desirable goals for i t s e l f . The task of the planner i s to a s s i s t the community in c l a r i f y i n g those goals and placing them in order of p r i o r i t y . Since resources are often limited and goals u n r e a l i s t i c , planners must also be able to help communities select p r i o r i t i e s . Gans contends that "the most important role of the planner i s , however, to t e l l the community and i t s decision-makers that i f they want to achieve goal x, they must i n s t i t u t e program y, requiring certain costs and resul t i n g in certain consequences."[15] In recent practices related to community planning and development, decisions frequently have ignored the elderly as a segment of society. For instance, Wilson in his study of the physical environment near rest homes and care f a c i l i t i e s in the Greater Vancouver area concluded that: Page 8 ... there had been a considerable degree of mislocation or mal-location of homes. Many were located where they are, either because of limited funds, or because the s i t e was donated. But what does not seem to have been given p a r t i c u l a r attention was the needs of the old people who would inhabit them.[16] One reason for this neglect by decision makers can be traced to the general fe e l i n g of unimportance that was attached to the elderly persons themselves. Other community issues, such as transportation or employment, were believed to be more urgent.[17] As well, elderly persons often appeared powerless. In the past other interest groups waged struggles to gain the attention of policy makers and the elderly c i t i z e n seemed r e l a t i v e l y "quiet and stable". Consequently, many general planning concepts have tended to discriminate against the el d e r l y in that lack of adequate provision for them is a decision to exclude them.[18](Langford) A s t r i k i n g example of planning with l i t t l e thought of the e l d e r l y is revealed in the neighbourhood unit theory. The neighbourhood has been planned largely for the family with children since those concerned with neighbourhood design have linked i t with c h i l d rearing. Clarence Perry, who developed many of the concepts associated with the neighbourhood theory, has stated: Of these various kinds of housing, that devoted to child-rearing families is p e c u l i a r l y and v i t a l l y dependent upon the Page 9 resources and character of the immediate v i c i n i t y . Parents require much more than a house and l o t . They need a school, a playground, groceries and drugstores, and perhaps a church. They want the i r children to associate with children from homes which hold standards similar to their own.[19] Although the needs of the el d e r l y are not basic to the theory, certain needs of the elderly are met in the conventional view of neighbourhood - for example, nearness to community f a c i l i t i e s and the protection from heavy t r a f f i c . Despite these similar requirements widowed or single individuals and families without children often have needs and a c t i v i t i e s which are not met in the conventional neighbourhood. Dean has stated that many types of families, among them the e l d e r l y , function quite well without being integrated into the t r a d i t i o n a l neighbourhood and might be best served by specialized neighbourhoods.[10] Langford further argues: Not only have neighbourhoods been developed with the needs of young families as c r i t e r i a , but in many communities land use plans have prevented new patterns from forming and have frozen ex i s t i n g patterns - in many cases discriminating against the elderly.[21] In the development of land use patterns, communities attempt to separate uses and to prevent one use from damaging another. Often this goes beyond the mere separation of business and commercial from r e s i d e n t i a l uses. Areas may be set aside for single-family houses, or Page 10 multiple-family structures. This, plus current building practice, tends to create neighbourhoods with houses of s i m i l a r type, s i z e , lot size and cost. Thus, as Langford notes, "the attempt to prevent an adverse mixture of land uses, in practice, prevents a mixture of d i f f e r e n t types of people."[22] Hoben has remarked that : Zoning ordinances and related land use controls should be examined c r i t i c a l l y to see whether they are creating a s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of population which not only freezes out the old people but also creates neighbourhoods suitable for use by a family during only a very short part of i t s l i f e cycle.[23] Another set of factors which r e f l e c t the community's view of the e l d e r l y and a f f e c t the ways in which needs of the e l d e r l y may be met consists of legal l i m i t a t i o n s . Within each community, laws are established which in t e n t i o n a l l y or unintentionally influence the e l d e r l y -housing f a c i l i t i e s r e lationship. Sometimes these laws r e f l e c t attitudes toward the e l d e r l y and create limitations by intent; sometimes they create impediments because of lack of concern with or insight into t h e i r repercussions.[24] Zoning is the device used to maintain or develop desired land use patterns. Langford stresses that three types of prohibitions in zoning law have e s p e c i a l l y affected the elderly population: the prevention of conversion; the prevention of special housing types; and the prevention of mixed land uses. [25] The conversion of large dwelling units Page 11 i n t o s e v e r a l s m a l l e r u n i t s i s both a means of a l l o w i n g the e l d e r l y t o remain i n t h e i r homes and a means of p r o v i d i n g s p e c i a l h o u s i n g f o r the e l d e r l y . E l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s o r c o u p l e s o f t e n own l a r g e r houses than they need - houses which may have s t r u c t u r a l d e f i c i e n c i e s , and t h a t tend t o be l o c a t e d i n d e t e r i o r a t i n g neighbourhoods. I f the p h y s i c a l and f i n a n c i a l burden of m a i n t a i n i n g such a s t r u c t u r e cannot be borne by the e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l , good a l t e r n a t i v e s are l i m i t e d . I f p r o h i b i t e d from c o n v e r t i n g the house, the e l d e r l y p e r s o n may be f o r c e d t o move. The p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n v e r t i n g l a r g e d w e l l i n g u n i t s i n t o s m a l l e r u n i t s t o meet the changing needs of the e l d e r l y i s o f t e n p r e v e n t e d by l o c a l z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s . T h i s was the c a s e , f o r . i n s t a n c e , i n Vancouver u n t i l the l a t e 1960's. [26] P r o h i b i t i o n of c o n v e r s i o n s i s u s u a l l y based both on a d e s i r e t o s e p a r a t e r e s i d e n t i a l uses from o t h e r uses and on a f e a r t h a t c o n v e r t e d h o u s i n g w i l l become s u b s t a n d a r d o r w i l l i n c r e a s e the d e n s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i t s r e s u l t i n g p r e s s u r e on e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . I t has been p o i n t e d o u t , however, t h a t c o n v e r s i o n f o r the e l d e r l y would tend t o be f r e e from some of the hazards t o neighbourhood s t a b i l i t y . E l d e r l y h o u s e h o l d s , f o r i n s t a n c e , are s m a l l and would not c r e a t e l a n d crowding and w i t h d e c r e a s e d c a r ownership they would r e q u i r e l e s s p a r k i n g space. [27] A l t h o u g h much has been w r i t t e n on p l a n n i n g s p e c i a l accommodations f o r the e l d e r l y , a b a s i c q u e s t i o n f r e q u e n t l y Page 12 not faced is where such housing, p a r t i c u l a r l y that involving group l i v i n g , can be located. Zoning provides d i f f e r e n t answers in d i f f e r e n t communities. In a survey of communities in Los Angeles County, variation was found between communities in the d i f f e r e n t kinds of group l i v i n g arrangements which were permitted. For the physically-well e l d e r l y , seven out of ten of the communities allowed for six or more persons per dwelling in one of the r e s i d e n t i a l zones. In some communities, however, group l i v i n g was not allowed in any zone.[28] The f i n a l problem which zoning creates in r e l a t i o n to the e l d e r l y is in respect to i t s purpose of separating uses. In an area zoned s t r i c t l y for r e s i d e n t i a l use, the development of any type of housing complex which has shopping or recreational f a c i l i t i e s would be impossible. It has been found that in small communities where neighbourhood shopping is not the pattern, neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s are seldom used by the eld e r l y even when more convenient than other f a c i l i t i e s . However, for the eld e r l y who are unable to t r a v e l to distant f a c i l i t i e s and have no one to take them, maintaining independent l i v i n g may well depend upon having shopping and recreational f a c i l i t i e s integrated with housing. [ 29] The individual's a b i l i t y to exercise control over his or her own destiny in the neighbourhood is limited because Page 13 most decisions regarding services belong to the public sector. It is extremely d i f f i c u l t for most eld e r l y persons to affect p o licy because group cohesiveness and age-consciousness i s essential to impact the p o l i t i c a l process.[30](Morgan) There are few avenues of influence open to the e l d e r l y . Advocacy groups such as the American Association of Retired Persons, the Gray Panthers, and Senior Power in the United States and New Horizons in Canada, are providing an organized structure for the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the el d e r l y in the decision-making process, but this influence is li m i t e d . Founder and National convener of the Gray Panthers, Margaret Kuhn, recently gave testimony to the United States House Select Committee on Aging c a l l i n g for new mechanisms to allow greater involvement of el d e r l y people in the decision-making that affects t h e i r l i v e s . According to Kuhn, the c r i t i c i s m must in part be directed at the planners whose "management style of planning is cast in the t r a d i t i o n a l mold of services for older people."[31] She noted that p a r t i c i p a t i o n does occur, but not seriously. Advisory councils "rubber stamp" agency s t a f f e r ' s plans. Her other c r i t i c i s m s addressed "a lack of t r a i n i n g for older people to allow for th e i r i n t e l l i g e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a fragmented assessment of needs which hinders individual involvement, and a lack of control in an o v e r a l l plan..."[32] Page 14 How does one assess the needs of the elderly resident? Here are four p o s s i b i l i t i e s : (1) Review existing information. In a l l pro b a b i l i t y the best source of information about the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of older adults w i l l be data from the [Canada] Census Bureau; this w i l l provide background on income, condition of housing and related information. Local agencies in the community also retain informat ion. (2) Conduct research studies. The most dir e c t way to assess needs and p r i o r i t i e s i s to ask questions d i r e c t l y of the persons to be served. (3) Interview older persons. Because many older persons are isolated, even within large c i t i e s , i t i s often necessary to find ways of reaching out. In some communities, door-to-door interviews are conducted; this not only provides information but also serves as contact with isolated persons. Some agencies w i l l use longitudinal panels to assess needs and evaluate programs. (4) Hold community meetings. It is important to provide informal forums where older persons can meet together to discuss needs and p r i o r i t i e s . Before holding such meetings, i t is best to r e c r u i t and t r a i n various persons as group moderators. In each session, records of the meeting should be taken. One interesting method to use in the meetings is to ask the participants to come up with a l i s t of needs and p r i o r i t i e s and then actually vote to rank each one in order of importance.[33] No method of need assessment can succeed unless those whose needs are being reviewed are closely involved in the process. As Morgan asserts, "The role of the planner is not deciding what i s best for persons, but a s s i s t i n g individuals Page 15 in deriving t h e i r own assessments. In most cases, plans established without broad community input and support end in failure."[34] The major concern beyond the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of needs and preferences i s the question of strategy. Where and how should the attempt to f u l f i l l needs for f a c i l i t i e s and services occur? One approach "reinforcement by r e d e f i n i t i o n " assumes that any concentration of eld e r l y residents within the c i t y possesses both an obvious and underlying s o c i a l and physical structure. Urban ecologists have known for years that most concentrations of elderly residents within c i t i e s are a result of the aging process of the city.[35] Areas that have a large e l d e r l y population have usually attracted r e t a i l stores and services focussed toward the needs of an elderly population. Often these neighbourhoods, because of the i r geographical proximity to central c i t y areas, are in need of protection from i n s t i t u t i o n a l and commercial expansion. Furthermore, their crime rates, t r a f f i c problems and f i r e safety needs are often much greater because of the condition of the housing stock.[36] Cognitive mapping methodologies measure c o l l e c t i v e patterns of neighbourhood cognition in order to id e n t i f y the key services and geographic areas within the neighbourhood that e l d e r l y individuals regard as essential (Regnier, Page 16 Eribes and Hanson; Regnier a). These methodologies are important and useful because they establish a geographical context within which needed services can be analysed. Regnier presents an example in the use of cognitive mapping methodologies: ...respondents were asked to outline the portion of a large-scale map that constituted the neighborhood area they used or f e l t was f a m i l i a r . Each individual response was coded, and a synagraphic computer process created an o v e r a l l consensus map that outlined the neighborhood areas selected by the greatest number of respondents. The f i n a l map highlighted areas that currently are used or seem very f a m i l i a r to respondents. The result of such an analysis can mean systematic improvements, such as rerouting bus l i n e s , or incremental improvements, such as selecting the best location for a needed senior center.[37] H O U S I N G C r i t i c a l to the physical welfare and to the elderly person's s o c i a l and psychological well being i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with one's housing s i t u a t i o n . The questions asked in this area must be centred not only around "How much housing is needed for the el d e r l y ? " and "Where is the ideal location to develop housing for elderly persons?" but also "Do eld e r l y persons prefer to l i v e in that location?" and "Does the housing of a certain elderly person match one's p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s t y l e ? " The f i r s t set of inq u i r i e s concerns the quantity of housing (number of units and most economical location) for Page 17 the elderly in general; the second set is focussed on the guality of l i f e of the s p e c i f i c elderly i n d i v i d u a l . Often times those people who plan for and study the housing of the e l d e r l y are more interested in dealing with the f i r s t set of factors, whereas the elderly people themselves are more sensitive to the l a t t e r set of concerns.[38](Mathieu) Do the e l d e r l y desire to be segregated or integrated? Studies of the e l d e r l y have often wrestled with the problem of age integration or age segregation in housing. Proponents of integration suggest that although most eld e r l y persons want the i r own accommodation, they would prefer to l i v e near th e i r f a m i l i e s . The integration of e l d e r l y persons with young ch i l d - f r e e and child-bearing persons also s a t i s f i e s a long-held desire among planners to produce balanced communities. Niebanck, for example, advocates s o c i a l and age integration, claiming that "physical integration of the generations fosters s o c i a l i z i n g , maintaining continuity in the l i v e s of older persons and prevents a narrowing of interests that w i l l cause them to age faster and withdraw more frequently."[39] To date, however, the weight of evidence and p r e v a i l i n g building practice has tended to promote age segregation. As elderly persons lose work and other roles, the importance of friends and neighbours in their l i v e s increases. Social interaction i s essential to mental health, and e l d e r l y Page 18 persons are better able to form friends with persons from the same s o c i a l class and age group. Several studies have concluded that where elderly persons l i v e among other elderly people, their levels of interaction increase drama-t i c a l l y .( Rosenberg ) The need for high concentrations of the elderly also occurs because the eld e r l y often r e j e c t , and are rejected by other l i f e - c y c l e groups.[40](Epstein) Much evidence, therefore, supports the view that elderly persons are most l i k e l y to benefit from a policy of segregation into a concentration of people at the same l i f e - c y c l e stage. This i s esp e c i a l l y true for people, often of lower socio-economic class, who have a history of r e s t r i c t e d a c t i v i t y space.(Rosow) It i s also important for persons who have l i v e d in neighbourhoods with l i t t l e neighbouring activity.(Michelson) In contrast, those with backgrounds involving a wide-ranging a c t i v i t y pattern with friends scattered throughout the c i t y , as well as those who are well-integrated into a neighbourhood with strong community f e e l i n g w i l l be less l i k e l y to benefit from age-segregated housing. Working class and ethnic d i s t r i c t s in which the extended family s t i l l survives w i l l also house elderly persons who derive most s a t i s f a c t i o n from integration.[41] The debate on the integration or segregation of the elder l y is s t i l l far from resolved. The White House Con-Page 19 ference on Aging concluded in 1971 that this concern i s inconclus ive: The l e v e l of our current knowledge indicates that the problem is not to decide whether age segregation or integration is better, but to establish p o l i c i e s which w i l l provide for as wide a choice as possible by the older person.[42] A policy of segregated housing while preferred by some elderly w i l l not be preferred by a l l elderly persons. It i s c r u c i a l , therefore, that decision makers recognize the variety in l i f e experiences of the elderly by providing a variety of choices in housing to sui t the p a r t i c u l a r needs of the eld e r l y i n d i v i d u a l . RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT Environmental planning for the eld e r l y often has a narrow focus upon housing i t s e l f . As Mathieu points out "Emphasis has frequently been centred on the personal l i f e space of the elderly rather than on the broader aspect of thei r s o c i a l l i f e space."[43] Birren adds that: C i t i e s are primarily s o c i a l organizations and secondarily c o l l e c t i o n s of concrete, steel and wooden structures. That structure follows function can be lost sight of, and the s o c i a l 'creaking and cracking', now heard in c i t i e s suggests that planners thought that function was determined by structure. The concept of l i f e space should be used in discussing the position of the aged in c i t i e s -since i t implies more of the functional relations of l i v i n g than does the more limited s t r u c t u r a l term housing. The c i t y Page 20 should provide the largest possible l i f e space for i t s residents, a l i f e space that contains many options and the opportunity to express individual differences in needs and desires.[44] The notion that our control over the manipulation of space varies with age has been expressed by other researchers. (Pastalan and Carson; Gelwicks) As energy and health declines and f i n a n c i a l resources shrink many elderly people l i m i t the physical space they occupy to the i r community. Hansen has estimated that persons over 65 years of age spend 80-90% of the i r l i v e s in the domestic (home) environment.[45] The quality of the community environment, thus becomes increasingly s i g n i f i c a n t in the l i v e s of many elder l y people. In addition, Gelwicks et a l note that the r e s i d e n t i a l environment can act either as a f a c i l i t a t o r or a constraint on the individual in his or her pursuit of d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . sBy providing a c c e s s i b i l i t y to needed f a c i l i t i e s and services, the environment can have important and direct influences on dai l y a c t i v i t y patterns, mobility and s o c i a l i nteraction, as well as indire c t effects on health and well-being. [46] The location decision for housing projects i s of primary importance. A location accessible to the community seems to promote maintenance of a high l e v e l of a c t i v i t y as well as to compensate for a gradual loss of mobility and for an increasing fear of isolation.[47](Malozemoff) Regnier Page 21 Distance from project Bar Legend No notice of dissatisfaction. Both satisfaction and dissatisfaction noted. No notice of satisfaction. Figure 2.1 contains c r i t i c a l distance formulations resulting from responses of 117 managers of public housing designed for the elderly ( N o l l ) . This figure i s the result of a reexamination of data o r i g i n a l l y compiled by the Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Pennsylvania under the di r e c t i o n of Paul Niebanck. Twelve services and f a c i l i t i e s were rated by the housing managers. The created scale categorizes responses from managers so as to create three bands of r e l a t i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n . For each f a c i l i t y or service, the f i r s t band is the distance from the f a c i l i t y that registered no d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n from managers. This varied from less than one block for a bus stop location to one-half mile for a h o s p i t a l , l i b r a r y or movie theatre. The second band represents the c r i t i c a l distance. Within this band, managers notice both s a t i s f a c t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . The t h i r d band outlines c l e a r l y unacceptable distances. (Adopted from Noll) Page 22 remarks t h a t s i t e s e l e c t i o n a i d s i n the form of " c r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e " f o r m u l a t i o n s have been d e v i s e d and the r e s u l t i n g g u i d e l i n e s have a i d e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e c i s i o n s about the most a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n s f o r h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . [ 4 8 ] ( N o l l , Newcomer; P h i l a d e l p h i a P l a n n i n g Commission, L a n g f o r d ) . Other r e s e a r c h e r s have a l s o d e a l t w i t h the problem of d e s c r i b i n g the e n v i r o n m e n t a l s u p p o r t system of e l d e r l y urban r e s i d e n t s . (Nahemov and Kogan; R e g n i e r a) These e f f e c t s have r e s u l t e d i n the n e a r l y c o n s i s t e n t s p e c i f i c a t i o n of a c o r e group of s e r v i c e s . In neighbourhood terms they would seem t o make up a " c r i t i c a l mass" t h a t must be p r e s e n t w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e (3-6 b l o c k s ) i n o r d e r f o r the neighbourhood s e l e c t e d t o be a v i a b l e s e t t i n g f o r e l d e r l y h o u s i n g . The l i t e r a t u r e would suggest t h a t the f o l l o w i n g s e r v i c e s be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c r i t i c a l mass: bus s t o p bank g r o c e r y s t o r e / s u p e r m a r k e t p o s t o f f i c e drug s t o r e / v a r i e t y s t o r e c h u r c h These few s e r v i c e s are indeed a minimum neighbourhood package and s h o u l d not be c o n s t r u e d as the optimum c o l l e c t i o n . [ 4 9 ] Other i m p o r t a n t s e r v i c e s , such as an o u t -p a t i e n t c l i n i c ( m e d i c a l ) , department s t o r e ( c l o t h i n g ) and s e n i o r c i t i z e n c e n t r e ( s o c i a l ) are a l s o n e c e s s a r y . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , though, t h a t t h e s e s e r v i c e s are o f t e n v i s i t e d l e s s than once per month and are n o r m a l l y l o c a t e d f u r t h e r t h a n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e . [ 5 0 ] T h i s f i n d i n g u n d e r s c o r e s Page 23 the need for accessible transportation l i n k i n g the s i t e with other areas of the c i t y . In c i t i e s where inexpensive public transportation is not available this l i s t of c r i t i c a l services must be expanded to include the following:[51] C r i t i c a l distances are useful indicators of where housing should be placed in the neighbourhood. In applying this average c r i t i c a l distance one must r e a l i z e that the surrounding environmental context varies s u b s t a n t i a l l y . For example, a six-block distance up a steep h i l l and into a high crime area is more d i f f i c u l t to navigate than the same six blocks on the f l a t , with several intervening benches on the route. Distance measurement i s often subjective, rather than a r e f l e c t i o n of actual cartographic distance. (Rivizzigno and Golledge) Although a hypothetical six-block distance can be measured, understood and applied, the actual six blocks under consideration is modified and distorted by a diverse set of s o c i a l and physical delimiters and incentives.[52](Regnier b) Some of these factors are easy to i d e n t i f y and have a universally p o s i t i v e and negative e f f e c t on the elderly person, while other factors may be perceived as hazardous or helpful only to a few individuals.[53] These incentives and medical hospital senior club/senior centre public park l i b r a r y dry cleaners luncheonette/snack bar Page 24 delimiters include: ethnic i d e n t i f i c a t i o n topography t r a f f i c patterns street crime percentage of elderly income/rent d i s t r i c t designations land-use bus routes/public transportation Regnier adds.that: Each of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s is part of a continuum which could p o t e n t i a l l y exert a posi t i v e or negative force on the use of neighbourhood resources. Therefore, in addition to c r i t i c a l distance c r i t e r i a i t is important to consider the actual c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the environment within which these distance c r i t e r i a are applied. Much of the ecological data available on a fine-grained block l e v e l can be used to evaluate the quality of a s i t e location. Coupled with c r i t i c a l distance c r i t e r i a , this type of analysis can allow for a better match between the c a p a b i l i t i e s of elderly residents and the neighbourhood s i t e location most appropriate for housing these residents.[55] Although systematically derived findings on the elderly who now l i v e in new communities are sparse, a few investigations do provide some knowledge about the features of ex i s t i n g new communities that the e l d e r l y find a t t r a c t i v e . The 1972-1974 project conducted by Weiss et'" a l draws together the most comprehensive set of information collected for new communities in the United States.[56] This i s also one of the f i r s t e f f o r t s to match household responses to objective c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the environment. An outstanding finding from th i s study is that e l d e r l y residents place highest value on the physical environment. Page 25 TABLE 2.1 CRITICAL RECOMMENDED SERVICE IMPORTANCE DISTANCE DISTANCE Bus stop 1 1 block adjacent s i t e Park/outdoor 2 1-3 blocks adjacent s i t e Grocery store 3 1-3 blocks 1 block Laundromat 4 on-site on-site Supermarket 5 4-10 blocks 3 blocks Post o f f i c e 6 4-10 blocks 3 blocks Bank 7 1-3 blocks 3 blocks Service center 8 1-3 blocks on-site Cleaners 9 4-10 blocks 3 blocks Department store 10 4-10 blocks 3 blocks Social centres 11 1-3 blocks 3 blocks Senior c i t i z e n club 12 on-site on-site Bingo, cards 13 1-3 blocks on-site Arts, c r a f t s , hobbies 14 1-3 blocks on-site Movies 15 indeterminate 3 blocks Parties, s o c i a l s 16 1-3 blocks on-site Lectures, discussions 17 indeterminate on-site Organized t r i p s 18 indeterminate indeterminate Church 19 indeterminate indeterminate Physician 20 indeterminate indeterminate Public l i b r a r y 21 indeterminate indeterminate Dentist 22 indeterminate indeterminate Luncheonette/snack bar 23 indeterminate indeterminate Bar 24 no importance no importance [54] Housing, community f a c i l i t i e s , s o c i a l environment, work and transportation opportunities and l i v i n g costs were less important as reasons for moving there. Such q u a l i t i e s as appearance of the neighbourhood, climate, nearness to natural surroundings, and o v e r a l l planning were most important reasons for moving and received the highest marks as appreciated community features in comparison to previous r e s i d e n t i a l locations.[57](Wylie) These data suggest that planning attention to the physical design of the new community, features over which Page 26 control can be exercised, is quite properly placed. In general, the elderly do not see amenities addressed to improved health services or s o c i a l and convenience needs to be compelling in the i r search for a new home, although they become highly valued once the elderly person has moved to the new community.[58](Wylie) Millas in his examination of South Beach F l o r i d a , a predominantly elderly neighbourhood, established the following c r i t e r i a for visu a l and physical ambience.[59] HOUSING TYPES Housing types which can be provided in medium density neighbourhoods should include hotels which provide for permanent as well as short term residents; retirement and apartment hotels, a broad range of rental apartments; condominium and co-operative ownership apartments; boarding and congregate housing f a c i l i t i e s ; some specialty housing such as nursing homes and pu b l i c l y assisted housing for the elderly poor; duplex and townhouses, as well as single family dwellings. Mixed land use provides for a richer v i s u a l and functional environment than r i g i d zoning does. The advantages to the elderly are closer proximity and greater choice of services and s o c i a l support systems. SCALE"OF BUILDINGS The scale of buildings i s an important consideration in the vis u a l and physical ambience of a neighbourhood. T a l l buildings create special problems in the spaces around and between them. T a l l buildings do not contribute to a human-scaled environment. Their size makes i t d i f f i c u l t to be compatible with smaller buildings. Page 27 T a l l buildings in high density areas have a tendency to int e r n a l i z e f a c i l i t i e s and to create unattractive and al i e n pedestrian environments around them. A homogeneity and continuity of building appearance should be provided at the "micro" neighbourhood l e v e l . This gives the elderly a basis for developing a perception and identity of the i r neighbourhood. VISTAS Vistas provide visual interest and extension of space throughout a neighbourhood. Vistas can be arranged along a c t i v i t y spaces as well as oriented to foc a l points and landmarks. They should be designed to provide for v i s u a l excitement in the environment. LANDMARKS Landmarks are very important reference points for the elder l y within t h e i r environment. They provide orientation and ide n t i t y which increases the understanding of the surroundings and potential u t i l i z a t i o n of the neighbourhood. BUILDING ARRANGEMENTS Building arrangements can provide for a variety of enclosed, semi-enclosed and suggested s p a t i a l enclosures. A typology of building arrangements would include p a r a l l e l , shallow and deep channel buildings, "H", "L" and "T" shaped buildings and th e i r variations. The spaces created by these arrangements can be a s k i l f u l l y arranged combination of active and passive landscaped areas. These spaces and a l l l i v i n g areas must maximize benefits from a healthy climate through proper orientation to prevai l i n g breezes and protection from the hot sun. Page 28 COURTYARDS The courtyard is fundamental to the creation of a successful l i v i n g environment within any building arrangement for the e l d e r l y . Successful courtyards must not be too enclosed, must have ample openings leading to larger spaces such as the street, and must have enough doors leading to and overlooking the space. Courtyards are enclaves of quietness and human scale. Courtyards can have a landscape emphasis or a primary a r c h i t e c t u r a l expression. The width of r e s i d e n t i a l courtyards should be between 20 and 40 feet, successful courtyards generally having a width to height r a t i o which varies between 2:1 and 1.1. The recognition of c l a s s i c a l proportions and scale creates v i s u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g , human spaces. The courtyard must function as an outdoor l i v i n g room and meeting place. Landscaped courtyards can function as a community garden. TRANSPORTATION Transportation is the mediator between the person and much of his or her environment. As Carp notes "It determines whether the community i s a useless facade or a dynamic s o c i a l system."[60] Obviously transportation is important for a l l age groups, but for the e l d e r l y , lack of adequate transportation can have a more deleterious e f f e c t than the value of the transportation service alone -Transportation has a . . . " m u l t i p l i e r " e f f e c t . With i t a couple or single person can more ea s i l y cope with adjustments or hardships that come with age. Without i t , they may enter into what has been described as a "syndrome of deprivation". [61](Golant) Page 29 In short, no other group suffers more from transportation b a r r i e r s . Although access to community services and f a c i l i t i e s can be ameliorated by transportation f a c i l i t i e s , in many cases these transportation f a c i l i t i e s may themselves present b a r r i e r s . Recommendations for improvements in the existing transportation network focus on automobile, bus, d i a l - a - r i d e and pedestrian t r a f f i c . A number of physiological changes impair the elderly person's a b i l i t y to operate an automobile s k i l f u l l y (Freeman;Libow). D i f f i c u l t i e s are accentuated by the use of the automobile in the c i t y where t r a f f i c patterns are more complex. Although an el d e r l y person may possess considerable driving experience, i f declines occur in th e i r sensory and perceptual processes and motor s k i l l s , t h e i r reaction times may be slowed, increasing the p r o b a b i l i t y of an accident. Due to a decline in vis u a l acuity and peripheral v i s i o n , the elderly driver has more d i f f i c u l t y interpreting t r a f f i c l i g h t s and signs and in seeing cars approaching from the side.[62] Despite the evidence that a majority of el d e r l y are auto-dependent and not transit-dependent (Wachs and G i l l a n ; Paaswell and Edelstein), e f f o r t s to improve the el d e r l y driving environment have been exceedingly li m i t e d . Gordon Page 30 and Shirasawa present the following suggestions[63]: Lighting, sign and lane improvements can make i t easier for the elderly to travel by automobile. T r a f f i c signs should have larger l e t t e r i n g , greater figure-to-ground contrast and be positioned to avoid other overhead signs. T r a f f i c l i g h t s should have greater colour contrast and should be placed in uniform pos i tions. Residential streets should be better l i t , e s p e c i a l l y around parked cars. T r a f f i c lanes should be marked with fluorescent paint and r e f l e c t o r s and l e f t -turn lane arrows added. The conventional 50 passenger bus is the most common means of public transportation and serves the largest number of e l d e r l y . [64] The majority of el d e r l y , however, do not ride the bus or are limited in th e i r use of buses. Elderly persons experience problems related to (1) the frequency, f l e x i b i l i t y and complexity of service, (2) the physical design and operating c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the system, (3) the completeness and accuracy of the elde r l y consumer's knowledge of bus system operation, and (4) the cost of service.[65] Improvements are required i f the bus is to re a l i z e i t s potential contribution to el d e r l y mobility. One recomendation to improve the public bus system i s increased frequency of service and expanded routes. It has been found, however, that the elde r l y do not increase Page 31 ridership when routing or frequency of service i s increased beyond a minimum level.[66] As well, increase in routing and frequency are expensive to implement. Another recommendation i s reduced fares. Most bus systems make senior discounts available. Several empirical studies have revealed, though, that elderly patronage i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y affected by fare reductions (Kemp; Mullen). Although patronage may not be increased, a rationale for fare reductions is as an income supplement for low-income elderly.[67] Changes in bus design are increasingly recognized as having a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on eld e r l y patronage. Trip surveys have documented eld e r l y d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with existing vehicles.[68] Elderly who ride the bus regularly and e l d e r l y who do not ride buses are d i s s a t i s f i e d with vehicle design. S p e c i f i c complaints concern the lack of storage space for packages, poor l i g h t i n g , steep and narrow steps, slippery f l o o r surfaces, poor access to the door and lack of provisions for the handicapped. Some changes are expensive to implement; many, such as easy access may require new vehicles - "kneeling buses". However, some changes, such as nonslip f l o o r s and improved l i g h t i n g , are easy to implement.[69] "Dial-a-ride" i s one type of a newly developed transportation option c a l l e d "paratransit". Paratransit Page 32 modes t y p i c a l l y provide specialized transportation supplements to the conventional public bus system. Dial-a-ride offers transportation in small to medium-sized vehicles ranging from automobiles to 15-passenger vans. This service often provides door-to-door convenience, thus avoiding the danger and inconvenience of walking in unfriendly neighbourhoods, waiting at bus stops, or driving in t r a f f i c . These vehicles of f e r a comfortable ride, ample storage space for packages, and easier access for the f r a i l or handicapped. But these systems are expensive because of high operating costs and often must be subsidized. If demand i s low, the subsidy required may be substantial.[70] Factors a f f e c t i n g demand include: population density, auto a v a i l a b i l i t y , c l i e n t income, number of f r a i l and handicapped users, and location of common t r i p destinations. Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t but overlooked alternative to improving mobility i s to f a c i l i t a t e and encourage pedestrian movement. While the elderly are not unique in th e i r reliance on walking for mobility, they constitute a disproportionately large number of the country's pedestrian f a t a l i t i e s . The elderly who represent about 10 percent of the Canadian population, accounted for 26 percent of the t o t a l number of pedestrian deaths in Canada during 1982. [71] Three major types of problems are experienced by elderly persons when walking is used as a means of Page 33 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n : (1) many d e s t i n a t i o n s are too f a r t o be r eached by w a l k i n g e s p e c i a l l y i f bundles o r packages must be c a r r i e d on the r e t u r n t r i p ; (2) t h e r e are r e a l i s t i c f e a r s t h a t w a l k i n g may r e s u l t i n i n j u r i e s , from f a l l i n g , v e h i c u l a r a c c i d e n t s , o r from b e i n g a t t a c k e d o r mugged; and (3) w a l k i n g can cause c o n s i d e r a b l e f a t i g u e , p h y s i c a l s o r e n e s s and g e n e r a l w e a r i n e s s . [ 7 2 ] (Carp) These p o t e n t i a l problems o r i g i n a t e p a r t l y as a r e s u l t of p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes accompanying a g i n g i n c l u d i n g , d e c r e a s i n g a g i l i t y , endurance, and s t r e n g t h , d e c l i n i n g v i s u a l a c u i t y and p e r i p h e r a l v i s i o n , reduced a b i l i t y t o see i n the d a r k , changes i n c o l o u r p e r c e p t i o n and d e c r e a s i n g h e a r i n g a c u i t y . ( L i b o w ) However, they are a l s o a f u n c t i o n of the q u a l i t y of the w a l k i n g environment, which from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the e l d e r l y p e r s o n may be l e s s than o p t i m u m . [ 7 3 ] ( G o l a n t ) A number of i n t e r v e n t i o n s can be employed t o improve the q u a l i t y of the p e d e s t r i a n environment f o r e l d e r l y community r e s i d e n t s . [ 7 4 ] ( M i l l a s ) Vehicular"Movement V e h i c u l a r movement i n p r e d o m i n a n t l y e l d e r l y neighbourhoods s h o u l d be slow moving f o r p e d e s t r i a n s a f e t y and c o m f o r t . T r a f f i c L i g h t s T r a f f i c l i g h t s s h o u l d be s t a g g e r e d t o d i s c o u r a g e f a s t t r a f f i c and f a s t e r moving t h r o u g h - t r a f f i c s t r e e t s s h o u l d be l o c a t e d a t the edges of the community. Page 34 P e d e s t r i a n C r o s s i n g s P e d e s t r i a n c r o s s i n g s s h o u l d be w e l l marked, w e l l l i t , have a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s u r f a c e and p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v a t e d s i g n a l s w i t h adequate c r o s s i n g t i m e . They can be l o c a t e d on c o r n e r s and i n m i d - b l o c k l o c a t i o n s which are u s u a l l y s a f e r . P e d e s t r i a n P a t h s P e d e s t r i a n p a t h s s h o u l d be at l e a s t wide enough f o r two persons t o walk a b r e a s t . They s h o u l d have f l a t g r a d e s , have a n o n s k i d , g l a r e - f r e e s u r f a c e , and not be o b s t r u c t e d by c u r b s , edges, o r uneven s u r f a c e s . They s h o u l d be w e l l l i t f o r both v i s i b i l i t y and s e c u r i t y and r e s t s t o p s s h o u l d be l o c a t e d a t l e a s t e v e r y 200 t o 300 f e e t . There s h o u l d be the e x i s t e n c e of paved s i d e w a l k s l e a d i n g t o the s e v e r a l c r i t i c a l neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s , e.g. g r o c e r y s t o r e , bank and p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n improvements u s u a l l y o c c u r c a t e g o r i c a l l y w i t h l i t t l e r e g a r d f o r comprehensive p l a n n i n g and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between modes.[75] T r i p - m a k i n g by e l d e r l y people i s complex and a l l f o u r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o p t i o n s ( p r i v a t e a u t o m o b i l e , p u b l i c bus, d i a l - a - r i d e bus, and w a l k i n g ) must be c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o one a n o t h e r . Wachs s t r e s s e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of implementing a v a r i e t y of t r a n s i t s e r v i c e s a c c o r d i n g t o the s p e c i f i c needs of the e l d e r l y l i f e s t y l e groups. T h i s he notes becomes e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t when one c o n s i d e r s the t r a v e l demands of f u t u r e e l d e r l y g e n e r a t i o n s . A r e c e n t s t u d y completed i n Los Angeles county showed t h a t t h e r e has been a s t r o n g and c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d toward s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n of the e l d e r l y Page 35 population since 1940.[76] If present trends continue, the eld e r l y in coming decades can be expected to be even more decentralized within urban areas and characterized by even more diverse l i f e s t y l e s than the elderly population of today. Wachs concludes that: To adequately serve the transportation needs of the elderly in the future is a challenge which cannot be met i f we assume that the eld e r l y w i l l be a homogeneous group with common transportation requirements.[77] In summary, this chapter has provided a b r i e f l i t e r a t u r e review of past and present practices of community planning in Canada and the United States regarding the el d e r l y . U n t i l recently the el d e r l y were often neglected by society and t h i s was re f l e c t e d in many community plans which were based upon the neighbourhood unit theory. Although the needs of the elderly are not basic to the theory, certain needs of the el d e r l y are met in the conventional view of neighbourhood such as nearness to community f a c i l i t i e s . Despite these similar requirements, el d e r l y individuals often have needs and a c t i v i t i e s which are not met in the conventional neighbourhood. Three types of prohibitions in zoning law have esp e c i a l l y affected the e l d e r l y population: prevention of conversion; prevention of special housing types; and prevention of mixed land uses. In order for the elderly to affect planning policy i t i s imperative that the planner, f i r s t , i d e n t i f y needs and preferences of the Page 36 elderly residents and second, establish a strategy of where and how the attempt to f u l f i l l needs for f a c i l i t i e s and services should occur. It has been further revealed that c r u c i a l to the physical welfare and to the elderly person's s o c i a l and psychological well being is s a t i s f a c t i o n with one's housing s i t u a t i o n . The debate on the integration or segregation of the e l d e r l y i s far from resolved. However, much evidence thus far supports the view that e l d e r l y persons are most l i k e l y to benefit from a policy of segregation into a concentration of people at the same l i f e - c y c l e stage. As well, environmental planning for the eld e r l y often has a narrow focus upon housing i t s e l f . Emphasis has frequently been centred on the "personal l i f e space" of the elderly rather than on the broader aspect of t h e i r " s o c i a l l i f e space". In addition, i t has been argued that the r e s i d e n t i a l environment can act either as a f a c i l i t a t o r or as a constraint on the elderly individual's pursuit of dai l y a c t i v i t i e s . The actual c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the environment, for instance, must be taken into consideration when distance c r i t e r i a are applied. The resu l t i n g guidelines have aided s i g n i f i c a n t l y decisions about the most appropriate locations for housing projects as well as the most important types of f a c i l i t i e s and services required by eld e r l y residents. Page 37 F i n a l l y , i t i s asserted that t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s the mediator between the e l d e r l y person and much of h i s or her environment. Although access to community f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s can be ameliorated by t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , i n many cases these t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s may themselves present b a r r i e r s . Recommendations f o r improvements i n the e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network center upon the automobile, bus, d i a l - a - r i d e and pedestrian t r a f f i c . Page 38 CHAPTER THREE I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s White Rock's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s -i t s h i s t o r y , p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s , community s e r v i c e s , p o p u l a t i o n and economic base. In o r d e r t o g a i n a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s p e c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s of White Rock's e l d e r l y i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t one have knowledge of the community's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As L a n g f o r d notes " i t i s the i n t e r a c t i o n of thes e l o c a l f a c t o r s which c r e a t e s unique problems and i n f l u e n c e s the s o l u t i o n s t o these problems."[78] H i s t o r i c a l Background Thousands of y e a r s ago the l a s t i c e age d e p o s i t e d on the beach a l a r g e w h i t e rock t h a t i n s p i r e d the C i t y ' s name. T h i s rock i s a l s o the s u b j e c t of a r o m a n t i c l e g e n d of the l o c a l I n d i a n p e o p l e . [ 7 9 ] The modern h i s t o r y of White Rock s t a r t e d about 1886-7 when the l a n d c o n s t i t u t i n g the o r i g i n a l t o w n s i t e was homesteaded. In Octo b e r , 1890, i t was s u b d i v i d e d and p l a c e d on the market. The community of White Rock, though, d i d not emerge u n t i l the b u i l d i n g , i n 1907, of the Great N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y l i n e . The R a i l w a y f o l l o w e d the c o a s t a l r o u t e from B l a i n e , Washington, around the Semiahmoo p e n i n s u l a t o the F r a s e r R i v e r where i t c r o s s e d i n t o New Westmi n s t e r . The new t r a c k s opened i n 1909 and the t r a i n s soon brought s e t t l e r s t o the community.[80] Page 39 In the summer of 1910 a s y n d i c a t e of New Westminster men took over the o r i g i n a l t o w n s i t e and promoted White Rock as a y e a r - r o u n d r e s i d e n c e as w e l l as a r e s o r t a r e a . With a permanent p o p u l a t i o n of about 200 people the f i r s t s c h o o l opened i n 1911.[81] One of the few i n d u s t r i e s a t t r a c t e d t o White Rock was the Campbell R i v e r Lumber M i l l . The M i l l , w hich opened i n 1913, c o n t i n u e d o p e r a t i n g u n t i l l a t e i n the 1920's when i t ceased b e i n g e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e . By 1915, the C i t y was connected t o e l e c t r i c i t y from the m i l l and the c o m b i n a t i o n of streams and n a t u r a l w e l l s p r o v i d e d enough water f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the White Rock Waterworks.[82] Throughout the 1920's and 1930's White Rock c o n t i n u e d to grow as a summer r e s o r t w i t h v a c a t i o n e r s commuting from New Westminster and Vancouver. By 1928 the v a c a t i o n e r s had l e f t b e h i n d enough r e f u s e t h a t a garbage by-law was passed f o r the White Rock a r e a by the S u r r e y m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l . There was a permanent p o p u l a t i o n of about 1,000 by 1937.[83] In 1940 the K i n g George Highway was opened t o B l a i n e making White Rock even more a c c e s s i b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y by c a r . Meanwhile, the m u n i c i p a l i t y of S u r r e y had grown such t h a t by 1947 i t was d e c i d e d t o i n c r e a s e the number of wards t o seven from f i v e , w i t h White Rock b e i n g ward seven. T h i s i n c r e a s e d a c a l l f o r s e c e s s i o n amongst White Rock r e s i d e n t s and r e f l e c t e d a l o n g s t a n d i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the Page 40 S u r r e y m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l . [ 8 4 ] A p l e b i s c i t e c a l l i n g f o r the s e c e s s i o n of White Rock, h e l d d u r i n g the 1948 S u r r e y m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n f a i l e d t o g a i n the r e q u i r e d m a j o r i t y . Under S u r r e y ' s new ward system, White Rock became i d e n t i f i e d as ward seven, w i t h i t s own c o u n c i l l o r and assessment v a l u e s . The y e a r 1954 saw the opening of a f o r t y - f i v e bed h o s p i t a l t o s e r v e White Rock.[85] The f i g h t f o r independence, n o n e t h e l e s s , c o n t i n u e d and on March 28, 1957, B i l l 58 ( a l l o w i n g f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of White Rock as a c i t y ) r e c e i v e d f i n a l r e a d i n g i n the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e . On i n c o r p o r a t i o n , A p r i l 15, 1957, a p r o v i s i o n a l c o u n c i l a p p o i n t e d C h a r l e s D e f i e u x the new C i t y ' s mayor. The purposes of the i n t e r i m c o u n c i l i n c l u d e d : the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; the maintenance of p u b l i c works; a d o p t i o n of S u r r e y by-laws; d r a f t i n g of z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s ; and a town p l a n n i n g program. With an e s t i m a t e d p o p u l a t i o n of. 5,000 and 3,808 e l i g i b l e v o t e r s , W i l l i a m Hodgson became White Rock's f i r s t e l e c t e d mayor a few months l a t e r . [ 8 6 ] W i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d of t i m e , t h e r e f o r e , White Rock had e v o l v e d from a r e s o r t town t o an i n c o r p o r a t e d c i t y . P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The C i t y of White Rock i s unique i n many ways i n comparison w i t h o t h e r c i t i e s i n the Lower M a i n l a n d of B r i t i s h C o lumbia. I t has, f o r i n s t a n c e , one o f the most Page 41 'CANADA U.S.A. moderate c l i m a t e s i n Canada with average summer temperatures of 70 F to 72 F and winter temperatures averaging 40 F to 42 F.[87] The average annual r a i n f a l l i s 41 inches.[88] R e l a t i v e l y small i n s i z e , about four k i l o m e t e r s across and one k i l o m e t e r i n depth, the community i s bounded by Semiahmoo Bay on the south and the m u n i c i p a l i t y of Surrey on three s i d e s . [ 8 9 ] The s l o p i n g topography i n many p a r t s of the C i t y p r o v i d e s s p e c t a c u l a r views of Semiahmoo Bay, Vancouver I s l a n d , the Gulf I s l a n d s and Mount Baker i n the United S t a t e s . The C i t y can be d i v i d e d i n t o three major areas: West, Centre and Eas t . With e l e v a t i o n s ranging from sea l e v e l to 275 f e e t , White Rock Centre i s bounded by Marine Drive and the s e a f r o n t ( south), 16th Avenue ( n o r t h ) , High S t r e e t (west) and Best S t r e e t (east).[90] White Rock Centre i n c l u d e s the C i t y ' s business core p l u s the Johnston Road shopping area from T h r i f t Avenue to P a c i f i c Avenue. T h i s area has goods and s e r v i c e s that are not a v a i l a b l e i n the town c e n t r e , such as automobile r e p a i r and t i r e s , b u i l d i n g supply and t o o l r e n t a l s . (See Land Use Map) An area c o n s i s t i n g l a r g e l y of s i n g l e f a m i l y detached housing surrounds that of apartment and m u l t i - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s . The apartment core area i n c l u d e s Blackwood S t r e e t (west), M e r k l i n S t r e e t ( e a s t ) , North B l u f f Road ( n o r t h ) , and Buena V i s t a Avenue ( s o u t h ) . I t i s i n t h i s Page 43 r e l a t i v e l y f l a t a r e a t h a t the m a j o r i t y of White Rock's e l d e r l y r e s i d e . T h i s a rea i n t u r n b o r d e r s the town c e n t r e and J o h n s t o n Road commercial a r e a . Medium d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g dominates the s l o p e a r e a t o Marine D r i v e where the main l a n d uses are commercial and a p a r t m e n t / m u l t i -f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l . P a r a l l e l i n g the w a t e r - f r o n t i s the B u r l i n g t o n N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y . White Rock C e n t r e a l s o i n c l u d e s such m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s as the M u n i c i p a l H a l l , the White Rock F i r e S t a t i o n , the White Rock Detachment of the R.C.M.P., Semiahmoo Elementary s c h o o l , the L e g i o n A u d i t o r i u m , C e n t e n n i a l P a r k , a l i b r a r y , a museum, a r t s t u d i o and g a l l e r y . E l e v a t i o n s from sea l e v e l t o 285 f e e t e x i s t i n White Rock West.[91] I t i s bounded by the s e a f r o n t and Marine D r i v e ( s o u t h ) , 1 6 t h Avenue ( n o r t h ) , High S t r e e t ( e a s t ) and B e rgstrom ( w e s t ) . T h i s i s the l a r g e s t s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a of the community. There i s some medium d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g but s i n g l e f a m i l y detached h o u s i n g dominates the a r e a . There are two p a r k s i n c l u d i n g C o l d i c u t t R a v i n e . One s m a l l commercial a r e a e x i s t s a t N o r t h B l u f f Road and N i c h o l Road. White Rock East i s bounded by 154th S t r e e t ( w e s t ) , 160th S t r e e t ( e a s t ) , 16th Avenue ( n o r t h ) , and the s e a f r o n t ( s o u t h ) . Here, e l e v a t i o n s range from sea l e v e l t o 250 f e e t . [ 9 2 ] Once a g a i n the dominant l a n d use i s s i n g l e f a m i l y Page 44 METRIC SCALE O 200m 400m lkm I NORTH L A N D U S E P L A N I 1 U S B LOW DENSITY DETACHED RESIDENTIAL MEDIUM DENSITY DETACHED OR ATTACHED RESIDENTIAL APARTMENT/MULTI-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL OPEN SPACE/RECREATION PUBLIC/ INSTITUTION/UTILITY COMMERCIAL TOWN CENTRE COMMERCIAL NOTE : Street end park locations shown on the Public Open Space and Recreation Plan Page 45 detached r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g . Near the w a t e r f r o n t the l a n d uses i n c l u d e medium d e n s i t y , a p a r t m e n t / m u l t i - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial development. M u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n of White Rock are the S e n i o r ' s A c t i v i t y C e n t r e ( a t Kent S t r e e t and R u s s e l l Avenue), Peace A r c h and D i s t r i c t H o s p i t a l , Peace A r c h S c h o o l , Buena V i s t a P a rk, Semiahmoo Park as w e l l as s e v e r a l s m a l l commercial a r e a s p o s s e s s i n g l o c a l l y o r i e n t e d s t o r e s . The nearby community s e r v i c e s of White Rock are many. They i n c l u d e the Semiahmoo shopping m a l l ( N o r t h B l u f f Road and 152nd S t r e e t ( J o h n s t o n R o a d ) ) , Ocean Park L i b r a r y , Ocean Pa r k , C r e s c e n t P a r k , C r e s c e n t Beach M a r i n a , the Glades (5 acr e woodland garden) Redwood Park, Sunnyside P a r k , Peace A r c h P r o v i n c i a l P a rk, Peace P o r t a l G o l f Course and Hazelmere G o l f and T e n n i s C l u b . In s h o r t , White Rock's unique p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p l u s i t s v a r i e t y of a m e n i t i e s make the community i n many ways a v i a b l e p l a c e t o l i v e . Demographic P r o f i l e White Rock has e x p e r i e n c e d c o n t i n o u s p o p u l a t i o n growth s i n c e i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n w i t h a community of 5,000 p e o p l e . I t i n c r e a s e d t o 13,551 people by 1981.[93] A documented t r e n d of o u t m i g r a t i o n of young f a m i l i e s from urban c e n t r e s t o the s u b u r b s , has not a f f e c t e d White Rock. T h i s i s due i n l a r g e e x t e n t t o i t s s m a l l s i z e and r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l of development. White Rock's p o p u l a t i o n i s skewed i n f a v o u r of Page 46 F i g . 2 .4 Female POPULATION PYRAMIDS 1976-81 the over 55 age group 48% of the p o p u l a t i o n was over 55 i n 1981 compared t o 43% i n 1971.[94] The age s t r u c t u r e has not changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y s i n c e 1960. S i n c e 1976 t h e r e has been a s t r i k i n g i n c r e a s e i n the over 70 age groups: males 22.2%; females 30.2%. [95] There has been a l s o a r a p i d i n c r e a s e s i n c e 1976 i n the 25-44 y e a r age group. T h i s t r e n d might suggest t h a t c o u p l e s who have both been i n the l a b o u r f o r c e f o r a few y e a r s are moving t o White Rock r e g a r d l e s s of extended commuting d i s t a n c e s i n o r d e r t o buy i n t o the o l d e r s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g market.[96] C o n v e r s e l y , t h e r e are few c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n White Rock p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e under 10 y e a r s of age. In f a c t , between 1976-1981 t h e r e was a d e c l i n e i n the number of c h i l d r e n between 0-14 y e a r s of age w h i l e t h e r e was o n l y a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n the number of secondary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . [ 9 7 ] Due t o the l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e of the p o p u l a t i o n which i s over 55, White Rock has a h i g h g e n e r a l i z e d m o r t a l i t y r a t e , one t h a t i s about t w i c e the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t average. However, the number of age s p e c i f i c deaths i s lower than the p r o v i n c i a l or r e g i o n a l r a t e s , p o s s i b l y due t o such f a c t o r s as b e t t e r a c c e s s t o h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s , m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s and more e x e r c i s e . [ 9 8 ] The m a r i t a l s t a t u s s t a t i s t i c s are s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the age s t r u c t u r e ; the l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n the number of widowed persons i s a r e s u l t of White Rock's l a r g e e l d e r l y Page 48 p o p u l a t i o n . The i n c r e a s e i n the number of s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s over 15 can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n between 25 and 44 and by the i n c r e a s e i n s i n g l e p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.[99] A c c o r d i n g t o the 1981 census the p r i m a r y e t h n i c group of the community i s B r i t i s h (75%) w i t h s m a l l e r numbers of German, S c a n d i n a v i a n and French o r i g i n . [100] From the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of 13,551 E n g l i s h i s the mother tongue amongst 11,355. [101] The p l a c e of b i r t h i s Canada f o r 9,095 w i t h 4,090 of t h i s number born i n B.C.. For the r e m a i n i n g r e s i d e n t s t h e i r p l a c e of b i r t h i s the U.K. f o r 2,040, o t h e r European c o u n t r i e s f o r 1,040 and the U.S. f o r 495. [102] The r e l i g i o u s background of the community i s dominated by P r o t e s t a n t s - 8,375 as compared t o 1,890 Roman C a t h o l i c s . [ 103] Of the p o p u l a t i o n 15 y e a r s and o l d e r (11,525) o n l y 1,615 have t h e i r h i g h e s t l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g as l e s s than grade n i n e . [ 1 0 4 ] The p a r t i c u l a r demographic p r o f i l e of White Rock i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the community's household and f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . The i n c r e a s e i n the number of r e n t e d u n i t s and the d e c r e a s e i n the p e r c e n t a g e of owned u n i t s may p r i m a r i l y be the r e s u l t of the i n c r e a s e i n the number of m u l t i p l e f a m i l y r e n t a l u n i t s . A l l forms of h o u s i n g have i n c r e a s e d i n numbers s i n c e 1976. As of 1981, s i n g l e - f a m i l y detached' h o u s i n g c o n t i n u e d t o be the predominant form of h o u s i n g . Page 49 TABLE 2.2 1976 1981 Change Number of Persons Per Household 1 2 3 4-5 6-9 10 + 1585 2500 655 615 120 2240 2800 635 605 70 655 800 20 10 50 +41.3% +12.0% - 3.1% - 1.7% -41.7% Average Persons per P r i v a t e Household 2.2 2.0 -0.2 -0.95 Housing Type s i n g l e detached s i n g l e a t t a c h e d apartment d u p l e x P e r c e n t of T o t a l ' s i n g l e detached s i n g l e a t t a c h e d apartment d u p l e x Occupied P r i v a t e D w e l l i n g s ' owned r e n t e d 3095 95 2080 200 56.6% 1 . 7% 38 . 0% 3.7% 3320 165 2655 230 52.1% 2.6% 41.7% 3.6% 225 70 575 30 + 7.3% +73.7% +27.7% +15.0% -4.5% + 0.9% + 3.7% -0.1% 3395 2065 3795 2575 400 510 +11.8% +24.7% owned 1976 - 62.2% owned 1981 - 59.6% M a r i t a l S t a t u s  s i n g l e 3450 (15 y e a r s and o l d e r ) s i n g l e 1790 (never m a r r i e d ) M a r r i e d 7255 Widowed 1475 D i v o r c e d 320 3685 2160 7595 1760 510 235 370 340 285 190 + 6.8% +20.7% + 4.7% +19.3% +59.4% Page 50 TABLE 2.3 Change 1976 1981 # Household Type Husband-wife f a m i l i e s 3380 3465 85 + 2.5% S i n g l e - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s 265 370 105 +39.6% The i n c r e a s e i n the number of s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s r e f l e c t s a general n a t i o n a l t r e n d . 1976 1981 Change Average Number of Chi l d r e n ' Per Family 0.7 0.6 -0.1 Age of Males ' 0-4 245 235 - 4.1% 5-9 275 240 -12.7% 10-14 325 305 — 6 . 2% 15-19 340 350 + 2.9% 20-24 430 405 - 5.9% 25-34 730 830 +13.7% 35-44 475 580 +22.1% 45-54 525 505 — 3.8% 55-64 725 715 - 1.4% 65-69 505 530 + 5.0% 70 + 1125 1375 +22.2% T o t a l 5695 6070 + 6.6% Age of Females 0-4 245 245 _ 5-9 235 230 - 2.1% 10-14 335 260 -22.4% 15-19 350 375 + 7.1% 20-24 465 450 -"• 3*2% 25-34 700 860 +22.9% 35-44 465 590 +26.9% 45-54 560 575 + 2.7% 55-64 1100 1065 - 3.2% 65-69 670 785 +17.2% 70 + 1575 2050 +30.2% T o t a l 6800 7485 +10.1% Page 51 However, i f the number of m u l t i p l e f a m i l y u n i t s t h a t have been approved s i n c e the 1981 census were b u i l t , the pe r c e n t a g e of s i n g l e f a m i l y detached u n i t s would f a l l below 50%. [105] The r e d u c t i o n i n number of persons p e r household (1976 - 2.2 t o 1981 - 2.0) r e f l e c t s a n a t i o n a l t r e n d toward s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s . In White Rock's c a s e , t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a r e s u l t of the l a r g e number of e l d e r l y . By comparison, the average household s i z e i n B.C. i s 2.7.[106] A l l c a t e g o r i e s of household s i z e t h a t can be c o n s i d e r e d as h a v i n g c h i l d r e n a t home d e c l i n e d s i n c e 1976. The major i n c r e a s e has been i n one pers o n households a g a i n r e f l e c t i n g the age of the p o p u l a t i o n and the number of m u l t i p l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g u n i t s . In 1981, 35% of White Rock's d w e l l i n g s were o c c u p i e d by s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s . [ 1 0 7 ] The s m a l l number of c h i l d r e n p e r f a m i l y (0.6) i s much more pronounced i n White Rock than i n o t h e r communities. For example, p r o v i n c i a l l y , the average number of c h i l d r e n p e r f a m i l y i s 1.2. [108] The 1981 census r e v e a l s a h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n of e l d e r l y i n White Rock's p o p u l a t i o n . There i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s t r e n d most l i k e l y w i l l c o n t i n u e i n the f u t u r e . T h i s t r e n d r e s u l t s from: (a) a g e n e r a l a g i n g of r e s i d e n t s who have l i v e d i n the C i t y f o r a l o n g p e r i o d of time and who w i l l c o n t i n u e t o d e s i r e t o l i v e t h e r e . Page 5 2 (b) the i n f l u x of e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s who w i l l c o n t i n u e t o p e r c e i v e White Rock as a d e s i r a b l e p l a c e of r e t i r e m e n t . (c) the a v a i l a b i l i t y of m u l t i p l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s t o s u i t the needs of many e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t , however, t h a t a n a l y s i s of 1976 census d a t a showed t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t number of r e t i r e e s who came to White Rock purchase t r a d i t i o n a l s i n g l e f a m i l y homes. I r r e s p e c t i v e of a v a i l a b l e h o u s i n g t y p e , i t would appear t h a t r e t i r e e s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o come.[109] The c o n t i n u e d a g i n g of White Rock's p o p u l a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t demands f o r f a c i l i t i e s and programs t h a t s e r v e the e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s w i l l i n c r e a s e . Economic Base In 1981, 2920 males and 2,455 females over the age of 15 were employed.[110] C o n v e r s e l y , 180 males and 180 females were unemployed w i t h the unemployment r a t e h i g h e s t between ages 15 t o 24 f o r both males and females (11.6% and 12.4% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . [ I l l ] The major o c c u p a t i o n a l groups f o r males i n c l u d e : c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s , s a l e s , m a n a g e r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , m a c h i n i n g , p r o d u c t f a b r i c a t i n g a s s e m b l i n g and r e p a i r i n g , and c l e r i c a l . For females the major o c c u p a t i o n a l groups a r e : c l e r i c a l , s e r v i c e , s a l e s , m e d i c i n e and h e a l t h , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , a r t i s t i c r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s . The average income i n 1980 f o r those 15 y e a r s and over was $16,365 f o r males and $8,747 f o r females.[112] In a d d i t i o n , the average income of those who worked was $17,743 f o r males and $10,029 f o r females.[113] The main d i v i s i o n s of the community's economy i n c l u d e : community b u s i n e s s and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e , t r a d e , Page 53 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communicat ion , and f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e and r e a l e s t a t e . Growing i n importance to the community's economic growth i s t o u r i s m . Awareness of White Rock as a summer r e s o r t area has he ightened s i n c e 1979 when i t became home of the Canadian Open S a n d c a s t l e c o m p e t i t i o n . There e x i s t s , however, a h i g h r a t e of n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l a b o u r f o r c e due to the h i g h percentage of r e t i r e d peop le . [114 ] T h i s c h a p t e r has o u t l i n e d White R o c k ' s unusua l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Of p a r t i c u l a r note are the C i t y ' s s m a l l g e o g r a p h i c a l s i z e , v a r y i n g topography , v a r i e t y of amen i t i e s and h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s . i Page 54 CHAPTER FOUR I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s t h e m e t h o d o l o g y employed i n t h e s t u d y . F u r t h e r , f i n d i n g s f r o m t h e g r o u p i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s w i t h e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s p l u s i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e l o c a l mayor and p l a n n e r a r e p r e s e n t e d . M e t h o d o l o g y The a p p r o a c h t a k e n i n t h i s ' s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e s t e p s . The f i r s t s t e p was an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e on t h e e l d e r l y w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o t h e s p e c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e e l d e r l y and t h e r o l e o f u r b a n p l a n n i n g i n c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n o f e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s . The s e c o n d r e s e a r c h t a s k i n c l u d e d t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n a t t h e m u n i c i p a l l e v e l t o e s t a b l i s h a p r o f i l e o f t h e s t u d y s i t e . The t h i r d and m a j o r s t e p i n v o l v e d f o c u s s e d g r o u p i n t e r v i e w s w i t h e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r s p e c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r i n d e p e n d e n t l i v i n g . T o p i c s i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s i n c l u d e d : r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t -h o u s i n g , l a n d s c a p i n g , s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s - t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , h e a l t h c a r e , r e c r e a t i o n a l , s o c i a l and c o m m e r c i a l ; s p a t i a l a r r a n g e m e n t - w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e s t o f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , d e s i g n o f s t r e e t s and s i d e w a l k s ; and t h e r o l e o f l o c a l government - a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s e l d e r l y Page 55 r e s i d e n t s , how and i n what ways the e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s of the e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s are accommodated. As w e l l , t h e r e were i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the l o c a l mayor and p l a n n e r t o o b t a i n t h e i r response t o the group i n t e r v i e w r e s u l t s . As e a r l i e r n o t e d , the f o c u s s e d group i n t e r v i e w w i t h e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s was the major r e s e a r c h t a s k . C o n s t r a i n t s of time and f i n a n c e s d i c t a t e d t h a t the f o c u s s e d i n t e r v i e w s i n c l u d e t h r e e groups of f o u r e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s p l u s one p r e -t e s t group. With the h e l p of Jane A s k i n , d i r e c t o r of White Rock's S e n i o r s ' A c t i v i t y C e n t r e , a l i s t was e s t a b l i s h e d of community groups concerned w i t h the e l d e r l y . These groups i n c l u d e d : a widows group, A c t i v e H e a l t h , D r o p - i n C e n t r e , S e n i o r s ' A c t i v i t y C e n t r e , C o u n c i l of Women and the Old Age P e n s i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n . The l e a d e r s of t h e s e groups were c o n t a c t e d by phone and t h e y , i n t u r n , p r o v i d e d me w i t h the phone numbers and a d d r e s s e s of p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . Each p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t was m a i l e d or p r e s e n t e d w i t h an o u t l i n e of my s t u d y , a l i s t of the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s and a consent form t o s i g n t h a t had been approved by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia's E t h i c s Committee. The p r e t e s t group was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h the h e l p of my g r a n d f a t h e r - Reg B i g g a r , a White Rock r e s i d e n t who c o n t a c t e d p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . There was an e q u a l number of female and male p a r t i c i p a n t s and the ages ranged from 65 t o 87. Page 56 The groups were not i n t e n d e d t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the whole e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n i n White Rock. In s h o r t , an e x p l o r a t o r y approach was taken and not a s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y . The i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s were h e l d i n the morning a t an apartment b u i l d i n g of one of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . To reduce i n t e r v i e w e r b i a s the f o c u s s e d group i n t e r v i e w s were l e d by Jane A s k i n . I was p r e s e n t d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s t o see t h a t they r a n smoothly. The i n t e r v i e w s were r e c o r d e d on tape t o m a i n t a i n an a c c u r a t e account of the p r o c e e d i n g s and a l l r e p l i e s were s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . [ 1 1 5 ] R e s u l t s of the stud y are t o be made a v a i l a b l e t o the responde n t s as a copy of the t h e s i s w i l l be a t C i t y H a l l , the L i b r a r y , and the S e n i o r s ' A c t i v i t y C e n t r e . RATIONALE FOR METHODOLOGY I w i l l now e x p l a i n the r a t i o n a l e f o r c h o o s i n g the f o c u s s e d i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e , i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , advantages and l i m i t a t i o n s . Where d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g i s n e c e s s a r y i n f i e l d work, t h r e e b a s i c i n s t r u m e n t s are used: the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e and the i n t e r v i e w g u i d e . Goode and Ha t t d e f i n e these as f o l l o w s : Q u e s t i o n a i r e r e f e r s t o a d e v i c e f o r s e c u r i n g answers t o q u e s t i o n s by u s i n g a form which the respondent f i l l s i n h i m s e l f . Schedule i s the name u s u a l l y a p p l i e d t o a s e t of q u e s t i o n s which are asked and f i l l e d i n by the i n t e r v i e w e r i n a f a c e - t o - f a c e s i t u a t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r p e r s o n . Page 57 An i n t e r v i e w guide i s a l i s t of p o i n t s o r t o p i c s which an i n t e r v i e w e r must c o v e r d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w . [ 1 1 6 ] While m e t h o d o l o g i s t s r e c o g n i z e more than t h r e e t y p e s of i n s t r u m e n t s a l o n g the continuum of r i g i d t o f l e x i b l e q u e s t i o n i n g , the above b a s i c t y p e s e x e m p l i f y , t h r o u g h the p o s t a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e , i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t are h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d and n o r m a l l y c o m p l e t e l y r i g i d . [117] U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e and sc h e d u l e cannot be made i n t o f a u l t l e s s i n s t r u m e n t s . Most of the s t e p s t h a t can be taken t o e l i m i n a t e many of the f a u l t s have the tendency t o make these i n s t r u m e n t s r i g i d . [118] They a r e , c o n s e q u e n t l y , most u s e f u l i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s which l o o k f o r q u a n t i f i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . Where one wants more q u a l i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n the i n t e r v i e w guide i s used. I t s g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y makes the i n t e r v i e w guide more s u i t e d f o r e l i c i t i n g such m a t e r i a l and f o r p r o b i n g more complex i s s u e s . The i n t e r v i e w guide i s the t o o l used w i t h the f o c u s s e d i n t e r v i e w . [ 1 1 9 ] The b a s i s of a l l i n t e r v i e w s i s the q u e s t i o n . Kahn and C a n n e l l have suggested t h a t the i n t e r v i e w must s e r v e two purp o s e s : (1) i t must t r a n s l a t e r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s i n t o s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s whose answers w i l l p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y d a t a f o r h y p o t h e s i s - t e s t i n g ; and (2) i t must a l s o a i d the i n t e r v i e w e r i n m o t i v a t i n g the respondent so t h a t the ne c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n i s o b t a i n e d . [ 1 2 0 ] I t i s t o these ends Page 58 t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n becomes the f o c u s a r o u n d w h i c h t h e i n t e r v i e w i s c o n s t r u c t e d . M a j o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c l u d e : w o r d i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n ; open-ended q u e s t i o n s ; and s e q u e n c e o f q u e s t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n must be worded so t h a t i t i s u n d e r s t o o d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t i n t h e way t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r means i t t o be. Words t h a t a r e ambiguous s h o u l d e i t h e r be a v o i d e d o r q u a l i f i e d by s p e c i f y i n g t h e i r frame o f r e f e r e n c e . In s h o r t , q u e s t i o n w o r d i n g r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t u n d e r s t a n d t h e q u e s t i o n and t h a t i t has one and t h e same meaning f o r e a c h r e s p o n d e n t u n l e s s t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e s i r e s t o a s s e s s d i f f e r e n t i a l s i n meaning.[121] Q u e s t i o n s i n a f o c u s s e d i n t e r v i e w a r e open-ended r a t h e r t h a n f i x e d a l t e r n a t i v e . In a f i x e d - a l t e r n a t i v e q u e s t i o n , r e s p o n d e n t s a r e o f f e r e d a s e t o f answers f r o m w h i c h t h e y a r e a s k e d t o c h o o s e t h e one t h a t most c l o s e l y r e p r e s e n t s t h e i r v i e w s . Open-ended q u e s t i o n s a r e not f o l l o w e d by any k i n d o f c h o i c e and t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s answers a r e r e c o r d e d i n f u l l . The v i r t u e o f t h e open-ended q u e s t i o n i s t h a t i t does n o t f o r c e t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o a d a p t t o p r e c o n c e i v e d a n s w e r s . As Nachmias e x p l a i n s " h a v i n g u n d e r s t o o d t h e i n t e n t o f t h e q u e s t i o n , one c a n e x p r e s s one's t h o u g h t s f r e e l y , s p o n t a n e o u s l y and i n one's own l a n g u a g e " . [ 1 2 2 ] In a d d i t i o n , " o p e n ended q u e s t i o n s a r e f l e x i b l e ; t h e y have Page 59 > p o s s i b i l i t i e s of depth; they enable the interviewer to c l a r i f y misunderstandings; and they encourage rapport".[123] In an interview, a series of questions i s presented to respondents. The questions may be presented at random or in a systematic manner. According to Machmias, one pattern of questioning that has been found to be appropriate for motivating respondents to cooperate and for e l i c i t i n g f r u i t f u l information is the funnel sequence.[124] In the funnel sequence, each successive question is related to the previous question and has a progressively narrower scope. When the objective of the interview i s to obtain detailed information and the respondent is motivated to supply the information, the funnel approach helps the respondent r e c a l l d e t a i l s more e f f i c i e n t l y . Furthermore, by asking the broadest questions f i r s t , the interviewer can avoid imposing a frame of reference before obtaining the respondent's perspective.[125] As Zeisel points out, focussed interviewing has the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : (1) Persons interviewed are known to have been involved in a p a r t i c u l a r concrete s i t u a t i o n . (2) The researcher has carried out a s i t u a t i o n a l analysis to p r o v i s i o n a l l y iden t i f y hypothetically s i g n i f i c a n t elements, patterns and processes of the s i t u a t i o n . The researcher has arrived at a set of hypotheses about what aspects of the si t u a t i o n are important Page 60 for those involved in i t , what meaning these aspects have, and what effects they have on pa r t i c i p a n t s . (3) On the basis of this analysis, the investigator develops an interview guide, setting forth major areas of inquiry and hypotheses. (4) The interview about subjective experiences of persons exposed to the already analysed s i t u a t i o n i s an e f f o r t to ascertain t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s of the situation.[126] Asking the questions, however, does not guarantee that one w i l l get any answers or that one w i l l get answers that are usable. Probing can be defined as "using a technique that leads the respondent to elaborate answers in areas that are not clear to the researcher".[127] In order to probe an answer, the researcher has several possible approaches available. One technique is to s i t and wait at the apparent end of an answer. By s i t t i n g and waiting (by acting as i f you expect additional information) you are inducing the respondent to add material that he or she might not add otherwise. Another probe would be to take the l a s t sentence of the respondent and turn i t into a question. Once again, the researcher is forcing the respondent to elaborate on his or her answers and thus one is receiving more information than i f the probe was not employed.[128] Another technique involves giving a noncommittal response at the end of the respondent's statement. Lastly, there is the "negative" probe. In an interview si t u a t i o n in which the researcher Page 61 feels tested by the respondent, one might want to respond in a negative manner after an outrageous statement. Such an approach may, i f not used c a r e f u l l y , e f f e c t i v e l y end the interview. Conversely, the negative probe may show the respondent that you "mean business" and that i t i s time to answer the questions. The decision to use a negative probe is made usually when a l l other techniques have f a i l e d . In br i e f , while i t i s essential to use probes c a r e f u l l y , i t is also important to probe when necessary.[129] In the execution of a focussed interview the researcher must remain objective. There are, of course, problems for the researcher even when an attempt is made to remain t o t a l l y objective. The problem area is called "unintentional" or "unconscious" bias. In the same way that one biases questionnaire research, one could bias an interview by asking questions in a certain way. [130] For example, the researcher could ask only the questions that w i l l e l i c i t answers on p a r t i c u l a r topics rather than asking questions on a l l relevant topics. By r e s t r i c t i n g the questions to certain areas one w i l l be able to successfully ( i f unconsciously) bias the r e s u l t s . As well, one can suggest answers to the respondent by the manner in which the question i s presented. In this instance, the interviewer asks a question and then adds, "you do agree, don't you?" In this s i t u a t i o n one is biasing the research because leading questions are being asked. The interviewer is Page 62 asking a question that leads the respondent to an answer, rather than allowing the respondent to find his or her own answer.[131] F i n a l l y , while an interviewer can be trained with a strong sense of purpose about the research, one can never prevent the interpretation of the answers in his or her own unique way. [132] What may seem a straightforward answer, may be changed into something completely d i f f e r e n t by the interviewer as he or she writes i t down during the interview s i t u a t i o n . An interviewer may - subconsciously - find an answer too embarassing or too d i f f i c u l t to accept and thus, unconsciously, change the answer as i t is being written down. An interviewer may on another l e v e l a l t e r the wording of an answer as i t i s being written not out of any malice but simply in error. [133] The interviewer might, for instance, have d i f f i c u l t y with a person's accent and misunderstand the words. Misunderstanding the words may lead to misrepresentation as notes are being taken. Whether the mistake i s made int e n t i o n a l l y or unintentionally, the mistake w i l l produce biased research. One imperative for the interviewer, therefore, is to be careful when recording answers. Not only must the researcher be careful when recording answers, he or she must also be certain that the probes used are neutral, except in the case of the negative probe. Page 63 Interviewing as Runcie explains " i s not simply l i s t e n i n g and recording the answers to guestions that are put to respondents."[134] As the researcher is recording the responses to the immediate guestion the interviewer must be interested enough in the answer to the present question to probe i f necessary. Simultaneously, the interviewer must r e c a l l previous answers to see i f there is information that has already been covered, or that requires deeper probing. In addition, the researcher must be thinking ahead to see i f the respondent is now answering questions that w i l l be dealt with l a t e r in the interview. In a group, interviewers use many of the same probes as they do with individuals. As Zeisel comments, "The researcher must keep the flow of discussion moving, remind people of s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s one is interested i n , and maintain s u f f i c i e n t range. Sometimes the fact that others are in the room makes an interviewer's task easier."[135] Group interviewing has the advantage of allowing people more time to r e f l e c t and to r e c a l l experiences. Something that one respondent mentions can spark memories and opinions in others. Moreover, group interviewing, in allowing moments of not having to talk and being able to l i s t e n to others, allow each person to rethink and change any i n i t i a l account that upon r e f l e c t i o n seems in need of amplification, q u a l i f i c a t i o n or r e v i s i o n . As well, respondents may not Page 64 agree with one another on matters of opinion, providing instances of interchange between contrasting perspectives.[136] Focussed group interviews also present p a r t i c u l a r problems. One major problem with group discussions is that they are not a t r u l y representative sample of the population under study. Even though care may be taken to include a member of a l l possible sub-groups, the small number of respondents increases the chance that a l l views w i l l not be heard. [137] A drawback for analytic purposes is that group interviews cannot be standardized. In other words, in no two groups w i l l issues be discussed in exactly the same way. This aspect of the variance between groups makes i t impossible to compare and contrast accurately various group opinions in a s c i e n t i f i c a l l y approved manner because they depend e n t i r e l y upon the subjective interpretation of the person writing the reports.[138] During the group interviews, problems stem from the "leader e f f e c t " - namely, that in most groups of people one or two persons w i l l inevitably emerge as more dominant, or more opinionated.[139] Such a person can e a s i l y take over an interview, divert i t from i t s focus and i n h i b i t others from t a l k i n g . The task of the interviewer i s to prevent this from happening without damaging the rapport with the group and interrupting the flow of the meeting. One remedy Page 65 is to appeal for equal time. When one person takes over an interview, that person and others usually know i t . It i s the interviewer's job to appeal to the person's sense of f a i r play in order to give others a chance to ta l k : Interviewer: Good point. Perhaps we should hear some other views now.[140] Another solution is to pay attention to body language. Reticent respondents in a group often remain guiet, leaving the f l o o r to the self-chosen leader. This does not, however, mean that quieter interviewees have nothing to say; they just do not create their own openings in the conversation. So i t i s up to the interviewer to create openings for them when he notices they want to say something. Cues that they have an opinion to express include: A respondent s i t t i n g forward on his chair, looking at you intensely. A respondent r a i s i n g her hand as in a classroom. Two respondents chatting quietly probably expressing minority opinions to each other.[141] A t h i r d remedy is to ask for a vote. When discussion has been limited to several respondents, or when more respondents have contributed but i t i s unclear who holds what opinion, the interviewer can ask for a vote on an issue. But f i r s t the interviewer must show that he or she has been l i s t e n i n g attentively by c l e a r l y stating the Page 66 o p i n i o n o r a l t e r n a t i v e o p i n i o n s t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e t o v o t e on: I n t e r v i e w e r : V a l e r i e has s t a t e d t h a t the most s e r i o u s problem i n White Rock i s i t s poor t r a n s i t system. Which of you agree w i t h t h i s and which d i s a g r e e ? ( T h i s type of q u e s t i o n i n p a r t c h a l l e n g e s r espondents t o c o n t r i b u t e ) [ 1 4 2 ] In s h o r t the approach t o be taken i n a f o c u s s e d i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n (whether one on one or i n a group) i s t h a t of b e i n g a good l i s t e n e r . As Runcie e x p l a i n s : The good l i s t e n e r i s one who can b r i n g the respondent out of h i s or her s h e l l and o b t a i n the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . At the same t i m e , the i n t e r v i e w e r must a n t i c i p a t e i n f o r m a t i o n t o come - as w e l l as q u e s t i o n s t o come - and must be t h i n k i n g about answers t o q u e s t i o n s a l r e a d y asked. The i n t e r v i e w e r must be a l e r t t o the s i t u a t i o n , t o changes i n the s i t u a t i o n , and t o changes t h a t must be made i n the s i t u a t i o n . By always b e i n g "on t o p " of the s i t u a t i o n the i n t e r v i e w e r has a b e t t e r chance of c o n d u c t i n g an e f f e c t i v e i n t e r v i e w . [ 1 4 3 ] S t u d y F i n d i n g s T h i s s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s f i n d i n g s f r o m t h e f o c u s s e d g r o u p i n t e r v i e w s w i t h e l d e r l y W h i t e Rock r e s i d e n t s p l u s t h e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e l o c a l mayor - Mr. Hogg and t h e p l a n n e r -Mr. J a n c z e w s k i . The i s s u e s and c o n c e r n s r a i s e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s c e n t r e d upon f o u r m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s : (1) r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t ; (2) f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s ; (3) s p a t i a l a r r a n g e m e n t ; and (4) r o l e o f l o c a l g o v e rnment. Page 67 GROUP INTERVIEW FINDINGS O p e n i n g Q u e s t i o n In answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n "What would you s a y were y o u r t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n s f o r moving t o W h i t e Rock?" t h e e l d e r l y i n t e r v i e w e d l i s t e d s c e n e r y , c l i m a t e , g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n v i s a v i s V a n c o u v e r and W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e , c l o s e n e s s t o f a m i l y , number o f p e o p l e i n t h e same age g r o u p , and t h e l a c k o f i n d u s t r y and a i r p o l l u t i o n . R e s i d e n t i a l E n v i r o n m e n t One c o n c e r n e x p r e s s e d r e g a r d i n g t h e r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t i s t h e amount o f l i t t e r p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e m a j o r c o m m e r c i a l s t r e e t s - J o h n s t o n Road and M a r i n e D r i v e p l u s t h e b e a c h a r e a . A s e c o n d c o n c e r n i s u n l e a s h e d dogs on th e b e a c h and i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . Loud m u s i c f r o m c a r s t e r e o s and r a d i o s i s a l s o n o t e d . As one e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s t a t e s : ...With t h e a d v e n t o f t h e 7 - E l e v e n i t a c c u m u l a t e s a l o t o f young p e o p l e who b l a s t t h e i r h i - f i s t o t h e s k y a t 2 o ' c l o c k i n t h e m o r n i n g . And you g e t t h a t on t h e b e a c h t o o on t h e weekends... I f t h e r e was a f i r e o r p o l i c e c a r t r y i n g t o g e t t h r o u g h t h e y w o u l d not h e a r i t . . . A n o t h e r i s s u e i s t h e l a c k o f c o n t r o l i n r e s i d e n t i a l p l a n n i n g . One r e s p o n d e n t m e n t i o n s t h a t " t h e r e a l w a y s seems t o be a f i g h t g o i n g on a t C i t y H a l l r e g a r d i n g t h e h e i g h t o f someone's house o r t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f someone's view o f t h e Page 68 water." The answer was overwhelmingly positive to the question "Do you f e e l comfortable l i v i n g in your neighbourhood at i t s present density l e v e l ? " As well, a l l respondents f e e l safe walking alone in th e i r neighbourhood during the day. After dark, however, most do not f e e l safe walking alone. This is markedly so amongst the elderly women. Several respondents are not s a t i s f i e d with the landscaping in the community. Vacant lots are viewed as an eyesore and as a loss of City tax revenue. One person explains that "we have been looking at that fence around White Rock Square for 2-1/2 years now and that should have been torn down long ago." It i s suggested that a clause in the building permit ought to provide that the developer must perform within a certain period of time. F i n a l l y , many respondents observe a lack of s u f f i c i e n t street l i g h t i n g in thei r neighbourhood. The elderly residents interviewed perceive that t h e i r community would be safer and vandalism would be reduced i f the streets were properly lighted. One respondent recounts the following incident: ...When you drive in at night ... I get out of that car, I get a l l my keys ready and run l i k e mad to the side door because i t i s open around the side. Anybody could be hanging about behind the trees. There is not a l i g h t down that back lane and i t i s so busy with a l l of those apartment blocks. Page 69 I t was a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e l a c k o f s t r e e t l i g h t i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y n e a r bus s t o p s d i s c o u r a g e s e l d e r l y p e o p l e f r o m u t i l i z i n g t h e bus i n t h e e v e n i n g . F a c i l i t i e s and S e r v i c e s In r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n " I f you had t o p i c k one p r o b l e m t h a t you c o n s i d e r t h e most s e r i o u s c o n c e r n i n g l o c a l f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , what p r o b l e m would t h a t b e ? " i t was s t a t e d t h a t : (1) "the a c t i v i t y c e n t r e does a good j o b b u t i t i s r e a l l y t o o c rowded... t h e y s h o u l d have some a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t y " , (2) t h e r e i s a " l a c k o f a r e a s f o r s o c i a l c o n t a c t p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e l a c k o f good h o t e l s f o r v i s i t o r s . . . and t h e l a c k o f p l a c e s t h a t s e r v e i n e x p e n s i v e and n u t r i t i o n a l l y sound m e a l s " , and (3) t h a t " t h e r e i s no home d e l i v e r y o f g r o c e r i e s . " The community f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s t h a t a r e u s e d on a r e g u l a r b a s i s i n c l u d e t h e S e n i o r ' s A c t i v i t y C e n t r e , b e a c h , l i b r a r y , lawn b o w l i n g f i e l d , c u r l i n g r i n k , swimming p o o l and a r t g a l l e r y . Much d i s c u s s i o n c e n t r e d upon t h e p u b l i c bus s y s t e m . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t e s a r e i l l u s t r a t i v e : The " h a n d i - d a r t " bus s y s t e m i s awkward and n o t c o n v e n i e n t t o u s e . T h e r e i s a l a d y w i t h p o o r e y e s g o i n g down t o t h e h o s p i t a l and r a t h e r t h a n make a d a t e w i t h t h e " h a n d i - d a r t " we j u s t d r o v e h e r o v e r . and Two b u s e s r u n t h e f u l l l e n g t h o f F i n l a y S t r e e t a l l up one b e h i n d t h e o t h e r . . . I t does Page 70 not make sense when you have o l d e r p e o p l e i n between who c o u l d use a bus. and The bus s t o p s are too h i g h f o r mounting and d e s c e n d i n g . . . A l s o the bus d r i v e r p u l l s up w i t h i n about two f e e t of the c u r b . When you get o f f you do not know whether t o s t e p on the s t r e e t o r make a jump f o r the s i d e w a l k and at our age... you are a s k i n g f o r a broken l e g . . . and once you are on the bus they [bus d r i v e r s ] do not w a i t u n t i l you are s e a t e d . and I t h i n k they are d o i n g a wrong job i n p u t t i n g those g r e a t b i g buses on. I f they had s m a l l e r buses w i t h 20-25 peopl e then I t h i n k maybe peopl e would use them more. But I t h i n k i t i s r i d i c u l o u s t o have those g r e a t b i g buses around the town. The s m a l l ones around the town would be ample. and The bus t o Vancouver i s o f t e n overcrowded t o the e x t e n t t h a t you s t a n d f o r a l o n g t i m e . . . There are not enough buses coming out t o White Rock from Vancouver and v i c e v e r s a . Most respondents find the l o c a l health care f a c i l i t i e s to be s u f f i c i e n t for t h e i r needs. A couple of respondents closer to the s i t u a t i o n , however, believe that the health care f a c i l i t i e s are i n s u f f i c i e n t . According to one respondent: In r e s p e c t t o the Lab and X-ray and p h y s i o s e r v i c e s they are p r e t t y awkward a t the h o s p i t a l because they are competing w i t h the i n - p a t i e n t s and r i g h t now t h e r e i s c e r t a i n l y a l a c k of w a i t i n g room space... the c a n c e r t r e a t m e n t f a c i l i t i e s are c e r t a i n l y markedly awkward of a c c e s s , i t i s d r e a d f u l r e a l l y . The p r o v i n c i a l speech and h e a r i n g f a c i l i t i e s are l i m i t e d so t h a t i t i s a y e a r and a h a l f Page 71 b e f o r e you can get an appointment. And homecare i s d i m i n i s h i n g and t h i s i s not good. There have been more cu t backs r e c e n t l y i n the number of nurses and n u r s i n g h o u r s . The e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d f i n d the commercial s e r v i c e s i n White Rock t o be s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e i r needs p a r t i c u l a r l y i f Semiahmoo m a l l i s i n c l u d e d . In answer t o the q u e s t i o n of whether the p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s are s u f f i c i e n t o r i n s u f f i c i e n t i t i s mentioned t h a t t h e r e are not enough s h e e t s of i c e t o meet the demand f o r c u r l i n g and not enough f i e l d s f o r lawn b o w l i n g . The i d e a of a boardwalk a l o n g the beach i s a l s o p r e s e n t e d : I t h i n k p e o p l e w i l l go out and walk around i f t h e r e i s somewhere t o walk but we don't have a n y t h i n g . A l s o I would l i k e t o see a walkway a l l a l o n g near the t r a c k s , the whole way of the beach so people c o u l d walk the beach... I t i s s u r p r i s i n g how many peopl e w i l l t a l k t o one a n o t h e r when they are w a l k i n g i n an a r e a l i k e t h a t . And t h a t c r e a t e s a f r i e n d l i n e s s and t h i s i s what a l l the more lonesome peo p l e need somewhere where they can have someone t o t a l k t o . For a l o t of people l i v i n g a l o n e t h i s i s the b i g g e s t t h i n g they have. They have no one t o communicate w i t h and so they are l o o k i n g f o r p l a c e s t o go t o f i n d t h i s . S p a t i a l Arrangement In g e n e r a l the e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d f i n d t h a t the v a r i o u s t y p e s of h o u s i n g i n White Rock c a t e r t o the needs of the e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s . In answer t o the q u e s t i o n "Are most of the community f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s t h a t you use w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e ? " the m a l - l o c a t i o n of the S e n i o r s ' A c t i v i t y C e n t r e i s noted s e v e r a l t i m e s . The Page 72 f o l l o w i n g a c c o u n t i s t y p i c a l : " U n f o r t u n a t e l y i t i s j u s t a l i t t l e f a r f r o m town. The C e n t r e s h o u l d be i n t h e town . c e n t r e h a l l l o c a t i o n - w i s e . " S e v e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s o b s e r v e t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k o f a d e q u a t e s i d e w a l k s i n t h e community. One e l d e r l y p e r s o n e x p l a i n s : i t i s a c a r o r i e n t e d town and t h i s i s wrong when t h e r e a r e so many p e d e s t r i a n s . And a n o t h e r s t a t e s : F o r me, a g a i n , p e r s o n a l l y b e c a u s e o f t h e a r e a I l i v e i n t h e r e a r e no s i d e w a l k s g o i n g up and down t h e h i l l . I c o u l d hack i t i f t h e r e was a s i d e w a l k b u t I j u s t c a n ' t do i t . So I do not go o u t I s t a y a t home. C o n c e r n i s a l s o e x p r e s s e d a b o u t t h e uneven g r a d e o f t h e s i d e w a l k s a l o n g J o h n s t o n Road as w e l l as c y c l i s t s r i d i n g on t h e s i d e w a l k s . A t T h r i f t Avenue and M a r t i n S t r e e t i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a t r a f f i c l i g h t be i n s t a l l e d b e c a u s e " t h a t i s where a l o t o f t r a f f i c t u r n s , b u t i t i s a n i g h t m a r e g e t t i n g a c r o s s s o m e t i m e s . " Much d i s c u s s i o n i n c l u d e d t h e d e c i s i o n t o narrow J o h n s t o n Road: P a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e good w e a t h e r t h e r e i s j u s t an o v e r l o a d o f t r a f f i c on J o h n s t o n h e a d i n g down t o w a r d t h e b e a c h . I t i s r e a l l y n ot W h i t e Rock t r a f f i c . Page 73 and The e q u i v a l e n t a r t e r i e s have n o t been e s t a b l i s h e d . . . t h e y may have been c r e a t e d but t h e y d o n ' t work. And so i t r e s u l t s i n J o h n s t o n b e i n g a b o t t l e n e c k . and The W h i t e Rock - S u r r e y b o r d e r seems t o p r e s e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s . , and c e r t a i n l y t h e r e i s n o t t h e same t h i n k i n g on t h e view o f t r a f f i c volume. In White Rock i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t o be a c e r t a i n volume on t h a t s t r e e t y e t on t h e o t h e r s i d e S u r r e y does not have t h e same v i e w . So t h e r e i s a c o l l i s i o n o f p l a n n i n g p o i n t o f view a l l a l o n g t h a t S u r r e y - W hite Rock b o u n d a r y . T h e r e i s a l s o t h e p r o b l e m o f r e c r e a t i o n v e h i c l e s p a r k e d on r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s . As one e l d e r l y r e - s i d e n t p o i n t s o u t : P a r k i n g o f r e c r e a t i o n v e h i c l e s on t h e s t r e e t i s a p r o b l e m . They c e r t a i n l y m i g h t c a u s e a c c i d e n t s and i t ' s most i n c o n v e n i e n t b e c a u s e you g e t one o f t h o s e b i g b u g g i e s b e h i n d you o r i n f r o n t o f y o u , you c a n n o t see - b l i n d s p o t s b o t h ways. T h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f t h a t i n t h i s community. P e o p l e w i l l l e a v e t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n v e h i c l e s on t h e s t r e e t f o r months a t P r o s p e c t and M a r t i n . . . I t i s u n f a i r . The C i t y s h o u l d have some o r d i n a n c e t h a t t h a t v e h i c l e c a n n o t s t a y l o n g e r t h a n two months. They a r e a l s o an o b s t a c l e f o r p e o p l e p a r k i n g . R o l e o f L o c a l Government The r e s p o n s e s t o t h e g u e s t i o n " I f you had t o p i c k one p r o b l e m t h a t you c o n s i d e r t h e most s e r i o u s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e l o c a l government what p r o b l e m would t h a t b e ? " i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : The i n t r u s i o n o f o t h e r government i n t e r e s t s i n t o t h o s e m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g W hite Rock Page 7 4 c i t i z e n s . White Rock being such a small town and the services are being created in Surrey and designed to serve a di f f e r e n t c l i e n t e l e than i f they were within three or four blocks further south in White Rock. and The City does not have the money. They do not have the income to do the things that are necessary and they don't get a big enough cut from the Province of B.C. to as s i s t them. We are such a small square acreage town. We are a legal c i t y but we are a l i t t l e small town in comparison to getting assistance from B.C. to help. And because this area is an area where people come from miles to the beach in the summer time we have an awful lot of daytime t o u r i s t s . . . But the City of White Rock does not have the money to take care of the damage that is getting done to our roads. and White Rock is a compact segment of t e r r i t o r y with a very modest tax base... and senior c i t i z e n s are pretty reluctant to see anything happen that w i l l increase taxes as has been demonstrated in respect of the proposal of the waterfront. Prospects for community development out of general revenue are not very good. Yet, the City is saddled with the obligations consequent on a recreation f a c i l i t y - this popular beach - which serves a great many people from a wide area and the i r contribution is limited to a few pennies earned by beach front businesses. And there is a tremendous load on White Rock to provide p o l i c i n g and a l l the rest of i t for that area in order to serve a bunch of people who d r i f t in from a l l over the country and they don't r e a l l y leave very much. They are not resident taxpayers. and Most governments are the same. They hear demands on them from a l l kinds of places and they are incl i n e d to want to f u l f i l l these demands but then the result i s that they have something that they have to spend money on to look a f t e r . They started the decoration of Johnston Road. So far they have kept i t up f a i r l y well but at the same time i t i s trapped for rubbish and must be maintained regularly. I think that the planning department see things that look nice but they forget that i t w i l l be a continual charge from then on. It i s easy to promote these things and then forget about them, and [City Council gets] into committee and they decide what they are going to do and i t i s a "Kangaroo" deal. There is not more input. I would c e r t a i n l y l i k e to see more reception to the input to the wishes of the e l d e r l y people. Most of those interviewed f e e l that the l o c a l government possesses a positive attitude toward White Rock's elderly residents. The respondents r e a l i z e that City council must be concerned with a l l l o c a l residents. The el d e r l y , therefore, do not expect to be just handed services and f a c i l i t i e s . "They go overboard. I think that they try to do too much for the senior c i t i z e n and don't leave them enough to do themselves. I think i t is time that senior c i t i z e n s r e a l i z e that they have a l i t t l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I do not agree with handing i t out to the senior c i t i z e n as they do." Simultaneously, there is a desire to have City Hall u t i l i z e the s k i l l s and experience of the e l d e r l y . The establishment of the Seniors' Advisory Committee is viewed as a positive step in this d i r e c t i o n . This action suggests that City Hall i s open to input from the e l d e r l y and that i t welcomes involvement of the elderly in City decisions. There i s , nonetheless, a fear that the committee w i l l consist of lobbyists. "As long as the Committee does not go Page 76 t h e r e w i t h t h e i d e a t h a t t h e y a r e g o i n g t o ask f o r a l o t more h a n d o u t s . I am l e e r y sometimes o f t h e s e g r o u p s b e c o m i n g more o r l e s s l o b b y i s t s r a t h e r t h a n o f f e r i n g s u g g e s t i o n s a b o u t how t h e y can improve t h i n g s t h e m s e l v e s . " The m a j o r i t y o f t h e e l d e r l y i n t e r v i e w e d t h i n k C i t y government i s t r y i n g t o p h y s i c a l l y improve t h e community. They r e a l i z e t h a t g i v e n t h e C i t y ' s s m a l l t a x b a s e t h e p r o c e s s i s a s l o w one. In answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n "what ought t o be t h e C i t y ' s r o l e i n accommodating t h e p h y s i c a l needs o f t h e e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t ? " one r e s p o n d e n t sums i t up b e s t : They [ C i t y C o u n c i l ] have t h e power t o e n c o u r a g e o r d i s c o u r a g e . The r o l e ought t o be i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h s e n i o r s and I t h i n k t h e y w i l l r e a l i z e t h a t s e n i o r s do have a g e n u i n e c o n c e r n and v a l u a b l e i n p u t t o make g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y and t h e A d v i s o r y Committee i s t h e way t o go. RESPONSES TO CROUP INTERVIEW FINDINGS BY MAYOR  HOGG AND MR. JANCZEWSKI R e s i d e n t i a l E n v i r o n m e n t In r e s p o n s e t o t h e comments r e g a r d i n g t h e r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t Mayor Hogg e m p h a s i z e s t h a t t h e c o n c e r n s o f l i t t e r , dogs and l o u d m u s i c a r e more s o c i a l t h a n l e g a l i n n a t u r e . The C i t y has e s t a b l i s h e d a p r o g r a m w i t h t h e l o c a l m e r c h a n t s t o p r o v i d e g a r b a g e c o n t a i n e r s i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s and t h e r e i s a m a i n t e n a n c e crew t h a t c l e a n s t h e b e ach d u r i n g t h e summer. As w e l l , t h e C i t y i s now w o r k i n g c l o s e l y Page 77 with the S.P.C.A. to control the dog problem and there i s a bylaw that can be enforced to deal with excessive noise. Mayor Hogg adds that these concerns are exacerbated by the influx of non-residents p a r t i c u l a r l y in the summer. Residential Planning - Views Mayor Hogg: Certainly in terms of r e s i d e n t i a l housing the zoning i s l a i d out very c l e a r l y in the community plan what i s allowed and where i t can go. The concern that has arisen and I believe you are alluding to i s the one of protection of views... Everytime somebody [constructs a new home] they want to go to th e i r maximum height 25" and they w i l l block a l o t of the small cottages that were there before them and that i s unfortunate but they also have some rights in terms of the property that they b u i l d . . . what we have t r i e d to do i s introduce some more d i s c r e t -ionary power saying that i f somebody wants to put a house into this piece of property that i f they are prepared to move i t over to a zero l o t l i n e we w i l l l e t them go 5' higher therefore protecting the view of somebody behind them.... There has to be a l i n e somewhere where we can say you can build i t to t h i s l e v e l or we would play considerable havoc with the property values on the h i l l s i d e . Vacant Lots Mayor Hogg: We have a performance bond and the plans that are approved are time limited. And at the end of that l i m i t a t i o n we can confiscate the bond and f i l l the holes i n . There are ce r t a i n l y more vacant lots around now and holes in the ground as a result of the economy. But there are also a number of other vacant lots in the community that are priv a t e l y owned and a number of street ends that are owned by the City . If [the private-ly owned lots] are an eyesore or a nuisance Page 78 then under our nuisance bylaw we can take some action. The street ends that are owned by the City, the Council reviewed about a month and a half ago and s t i l l believes we should hold on to them as street ends and keep the options open for the community in the future. Mr. J a n c z e w s k i : The developer has no money; the banks own the land. Even i f they were not bankrupt how do you force the guy to build something? What action do you take against him to say you have to build i t . There i s a provision in the Municipal Act that we can ask for f i n a n c i a l guarantees for completion. But what happens i f he does not do i t - the City is going to move in and build an apartment building? But, there is nothing you can do. When the economy was good no one came in maliciously.' Everybody had intentions of building and comparatively there is not much vacant land. Street Lighting Mayor Hogg: Our tax policy in terms of our budget and p r i o r i t i e s has been to provide... street l i g h t i n g in the town centre, the core areas, and to our high density areas. We have a fiv e year plan in terms of expanding and developing those and we put what money we see as appropriate towards that p r i o r i t y each year. There could be better l i g h t i n g . . . but that i s going to be a slow incremental process. Mr. J a n c z e w s k i : S t a t i s t i c s generally show that there is no c o r r e l a t i o n between l i g h t i n g and crime reduction. But i t i s important emotionally. I guess i f you f e e l threatened i t is as important as i f you are threatened... So yes, in f act, White Rock does not have a l o t of street l i g h t i n g . It doesn't have a program of a c h i e v i n g a c e r t a i n l e v e l of i l l u m i n a t i o n on the s t r e e t s over time t o e v e n t u a l l y r e a c h a c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d . I t i s b a s i c a l l y a f i n a n c i a l i s s u e . I t i s not an uncommon s i t u a t i o n f o r most o l d e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y the s m a l l e r ones where a t the time of the o r i g i n a l s u b d i v i s i o n they d i d n ' t demand s t r e e t l i g h t i n g . . . Now where we have new development i t i s b e i n g done. In the areas where the apartments a r e . . . t h e r e has been v e r y l i t t l e c o m p l a i n t on the s u b j e c t . I t h i n k a l s o one of the reasons i s t h a t a l o t of the e l d e r l y do not go out and I j u s t don't t h i n k i t i s j u s t because of s t r e e t l i g h t i n g . White Rock because of the age mix has i t s b u s i e s t p e r i o d of the day around noon. FACILITIES and SERVICES S e n i o r s ' A c t i v i t y C e n t r e Mayor Hogg: C l e a r l y t h e r e i s a need f o r a S e n i o r C e n t r e . One p r o p o s a l t h a t we p r e s e n t e d i n v o l v e d S u r r e y p a r t i c i p a t i n g f i n a n c i a l l y i n the e x p a n s i o n of our S e n i o r A c t i v i t y C e n t r e o r d e v e l o p i n g one of t h e i r own or c o o r d i n a t i o n of some k i n d . . . C e r t a i n l y , c l e a r l y , s e n i o r s have a s t r o n g i d e n t i t y w i t h what i s i n e x i s t e n c e and w i t h the c o - o r d i n a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t t a k e s p l a c e t h e r e , i t seems t h a t a t t h i s s tage i t would be b e s t t o expand t h a t C e n t r e . Mr. J a n c z e w s k i : There i s a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i t i s g o i n g t o have t o be expanded. I t i s j u s t a q u e s t i o n of when. I t i s a l r e a d y s t a r t i n g t o show o v e r c r o w d i n g and i t i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d i n what S u r r e y i s g o i n g t o do. L o g i c a l l y they s h o u l d be d o n a t i n g o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the C i t y of White Rock t o b u i l d a super c e n t r e because White Rock has the mass of the e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n whereas S u r r e y ' s i s more d i s t r i b u t e d . A place where the el d e r l y can go for an inexpensive, n u t r i t i o n a l l y sound meal and s o c i a l contact. Mr. Janczewski: The idea is great. A lot of them have very poor d i e t s . But again White Rock with i t s size - i t i s just not within i t s f i n a n c i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s to do i t . It means a Society or someone else doing i t . The City might contribute to i t but i t could not operate i t on i t s own. Local Bus routes Mayor Hogg comments that a l o c a l committee has been working with B.C. Transit to review bus routes and to determine need on those routes. A f u l l report i s to be submitted in mid-September to Transit. He adds that: The one major area that came to our attention was in front of the Peace Arch Senior Citizens home. They wanted the bus route to go in front of there... Council turned i t down based on the fact that the Senior Citizens home had been placed in a single family r e s i d e n t i a l area. The proponents of the home had said that they were not going to be an intrusion in the area and the single family homes in the area f e l t that i t was a dramatic intrusion to have buses running by there... There w i l l be as an a l t e r n a t i v e . . . a walkway from the Senior Citizens home down to Buena Vista Avenue through the park. Mr. Janczewski: We are trying to reroute i n t e n t i o n a l l y past that building (Peace Arch Manor). We have another one rerouting so i t w i l l go to the hospital from Johnston Road this f a l l . The major issue regarding buses that has surfaced recently is the fact that no public bus service is available because of the bus s t r i k e . Page 81 To reduce the n e g a t i v e impact of the summer bus s t r i k e , the S e n i o r s ' A d v i s o r y Committee has ta k e n two s t e p s . The Mayor e x p l a i n s : ...shopping was the main i s s u e w i t h p e o p l e not b e i n g a b l e t o get around t o get the s t a p l e s they need f o r d a i l y l i v i n g so we have been i n touch w i t h a c o u p l e of g r o c e r y s t o r e s t h a t are p r e p a r e d t o i n t r o d u c e a d e l i v e r y s e r v i c e f o r them. We are now a l s o w o r k i n g on an i n f o r m a t i o n l i n e f o r s e n i o r s t h a t w i l l be a v a i l a b l e 24 hours a day. Bus T r a n s p o r t a t i o n To and From Vancouver Mr. J a n c z e w s k i : The t r a n s i t f r a n k l y has t o l d us t h a t they have an i n t e n t i o n t o d i s c o u r a g e bus r i d e r s h i p . They have a f i x e d budget and they want nobody 'else on the buses. With r e g a r d t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of h a v i n g w i t h i n White Rock " k n e e l i n g buses", s m a l l e r s i z e d buses o r a " d i a l - a -r i d e " bus, Mr. J a n c z e w s k i p o i n t s out the s e d e c i s i o n s are a p r o v i n c i a l m a t t e r . The p r o v i n c i a l government has s a i d t h a t these changes i n bus t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a r e , thus f a r , not r e q u i r e d . Bus S h e l t e r s Mr. J a n c z e w s k i : There i s s t i l l a severe s h o r t a g e . . . we have got some up on Jo h n s t o n Road o n l y because we get them f r e e from the a d v e r t i s i n g company. I would l i k e t o see them a t l e a s t one per y e a r o r whatever, but money always g e t s t i g h t . Page 82 H e a l t h Care Mayor Hogg: I t h i n k t h a t the government made some good and s t r o n g moves toward home c a r e r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h e r e were some f i n a n c i a l g a i n s t o be had f o r them i n t h a t home care was f a r l e s s c o s t l y than acute h o s p i t a l c a r e . C e r t a i n l y anytime we have c u t b a c k s i n the h e a l t h c a r e area i t i s g o i n g t o a f f e c t our community more than a l o t of o t h e r communities t h a t have such a r e l i a n c e on our core s e r v i c e s and on h o s p i t a l s e r v i c e s . Boardwalk A l o n g the W a t e r f r o n t Mayor Hogg: I t would be g r e a t but i t sure would be c o s t l y t o b u i l d a boardwalk s o u t h of the t r a c k s . . . What I do t h i n k we need i s a promenade a l o n g the f u l l l e n g t h of the a r e a . I d e a l l y a promenade t h a t would go around t o C r e s c e n t Beach t h a t people c o u l d walk around o r r i d e a b i k e around, almost a s e a w a l l n o t i o n . . . What we are w o r k i n g on now i s . . . . a pathway n o r t h of the t r a c k s and e a s t of the p a r k . There w i l l be a pathway a l o n g t o the w h i t e rock and a p l a t f o r m out by the w h i t e rock so t h a t people can a c t u a l l y walk r i g h t up t o i t . . . From a s t r i c t l y a e s t h e t i c and a r e c r e a t i o n a l p o i n t of view a walkway a l o n g the w a t e r f r o n t would be g r e a t . Mr. J a n c z e w s k i : I t has been proposed but a g a i n i t g e t s i n t o the d o l l a r s . U t i l i t y - w i s e i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e t o o . I am not a f i r m s u p p o r t e r of i t . I t h i n k i t i s a ve r y n i c e i d e a but I r e a l l y wonder how o f t e n i t would be used i n the sense t h a t i t i s below the s t r e e t l e v e l . There i s no v i s i b i l i t y from i t t o the s t r e e t and what more are you g a i n i n g from w a l k i n g p a r a l l e l t o the shore than from w a l k i n g out to the p i e r and back a g a i n which a l o t of people do. I would much r a t h e r see i t r u n n i n g from the p i e r westward a l o n g t h a t whole commercial a r e a . Page 83 SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT Seniors' A c t i v i t y Centre Mr. Janczewski: It i s desirable within the town centre area. The p o s s i b i l i t y of the town centre h a l l either using some of i t or adding on to i t . But that i s going to be some time o f f . And possibly i f we could get some other land i t would be nice, behind the Safeway or any of those areas. SIDEWALKS Mayor Hogg: Every year the City designates or assigns a certain amount of money from i t s budget for the building and development of sidewalks. Those are placed on a p r i o r i t y basis and the money is expended. There is also a great number of sidewalks that go in with any new development. Mr. Janczewski: There was a big push a couple of years ago. The s i t u a t i o n is one hundred percent better in the apartment area than what i t was. But again, the money i s being allocated to other places. We know where they are needed and we know what type to put i n . It w i l l slowly improve over time but i t is going to be a block or two per year. Sidewalks of Johnston Road Mr. Janczewski: So many of the stores are b u i l t below the le v e l of the grade of the road. So trying to compensate for that you either slope the whole sidewalk from the street to the store which is not a good s i t u a t i o n . Or you make one portion of i t very steep and the rest f l a t so he [City Engineer] chose to have a portion very steep and the rest f l a t . He got c r i t i c i z e d f o r t h a t , i f he had done i t the o t h e r way he would have been c r i t i c i z e d f o r t h a t t o o . B i c y c l e s on the S i d e w a l k s Mayor Hogg: We now have more t r o u b l e w i t h p e d e s t r i a n s g e t t i n g h i t by b i c y c l e s on the s i d e w a l k s than we have on the roads by c a r s . We are b r i n g i n g i t f o r w a r d t o committee f o r more d i s c u s s i o n and I have asked t h a t the s t a f f look i n t o what i s happening i n o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s around t h a t i s s u e as w e l l . Mr. J a n c z e w s k i : There are s i g n s , s t e n c i l s on the s i d e w a l k s . I t i s a case of c i t i z e n s t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h e m s e l v e s . I n s t a l l a t i o n of a T r a f f i c L i g h t a t T h r i f t Avenue and M a r t i n S t r e e t Mayor Hogg: There are some f a i r l y b l a c k and w h i t e c r i t e r i a t h a t are used i n terms of making d e c i s i o n s as t o where l i g h t s go i n terms of t r a f f i c f l o w and volume and t i m i n g . I t may be t h a t those c r i t e r i a used by the Canadian T r a f f i c C o n t r o l l e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n have t o be m o d i f i e d f o r a community l i k e White Rock where the demographics of the community are s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t . That p a r t i c u l a r c o r n e r has not been brought t o my a t t e n t i o n as a p o i n t of need but I would t h i n k t h a t i f i t i s or c o n t i n u e s t o be and we get concerns about i t t h a t we would want t o l o o k a t those c r i t e r i a based on the need of s e n i o r s who are l i v i n g i n the c o r e a r e a . Mr. J a n c z e w s k i : T h r i f t i s d e s i g n a t e d as an a r t e r i a l and the' r e a son b e i n g t h a t i t i s the o n l y s t r e e t t h a t goes a l l the way from the west boundary of the C i t y as f a r as O x f o r d , C e n t e n n i a l Park a r e a t h a t i s b a s i c a l l y f l a t . As f a r as the Page 85 l i g h t , t h e way e n g i n e e r s o p e r a t e t h e y go by t h e i r w a r r a n t s . I t m i g h t be, compared t o t h e o t h e r s t r e e t s , b u s i e r but i t c e r t a i n l y i s n o t one where we a r e g e t t i n g p e o p l e k n o c k e d o v e r . A g a i n , I t h i n k i t i s a p e r c e p t u a l t h i n g t h a t you can g e t a c r o s s i t i n r e l a t i v e s a f e t y b u t compared t o t h e o t h e r s t r e e t s i t i s b u s y . So t h e r e i s no p l a n t o p u t one i n , t h e r e r i g h t now... t h e r e m i g h t be i f t h e o t h e r l e g o f t h e r i n g r o a d e v e r does g e t b u i l t . N a r r o w i n g o f J o h n s t o n Road Mayor Hogg: We d i d not want J o h n s t o n Road t o become a f r e e w a y and we d i d n o t want J o h n s t o n Road t o be an a r e a t h a t was g o i n g t o be f o r commuters d r i v i n g t o V a n c o u v e r t o work and back. H a b i t u a l l y t h a t had been t h e r o u t e t h e y f o l l o w e d . We wanted t o g e t them o f f t h a t r o a d and we wanted t o sl o w t h a t r o a d down t o make i t s a f e r f o r p e d e s t r i a n s and make i t more c o m m e r c i a l l y o r i e n t e d . C e r t a i n l y o u r s t a t i s t i c s show us t h a t we have d r a m a t i c a l l y r e d u c e d t h e number o f a c c i d e n t s , t h e number o f p e o p l e h u r t i n c r o s s w a l k s . I t i s much s a f e r and much n i c e r l o o k i n g a r e a now. P a r k i n g o f R e c r e a t i o n V e h i c l e s on R e s i d e n t i a l S t r e e t s Mayor Hogg: I b r o u g h t t h a t i s s u e f o r w a r d t o C o u n c i l p r o b a b l y a y e a r ago f o r r e v i e w . I t seemed t h a t t h e t r a d e o f f s i n terms o f d e a l i n g w i t h them were f a r more c o s t l y f r o m b o t h a s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c p o i n t o f view t h a n t h e p r o b l e m t h a t i s i n e x i s t e n c e w i t h them. Mr. J a n c z e w s k i n o t e d one c o n c e r n n o t r a i s e d d u r i n g t h e g r o u p i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s - p a r k s p a c e Mr. J a n c z e w s k i : T h e r e has been a b i a s o v e r t h e y e a r s t o have most o f t h e p a r k s p a c e o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l k i d s and young a d u l t s . . . we a r e Page 86 g o i n g t o have t o change o u r p r i o r i t i e s b e c a u s e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a g i n g . So we d o n ' t r e a l l y need a l o t o f new b i g p a r k s p a c e . What t h e r e needs t o be w i t h i n t h e town c e n t r e a r e a i s t o buy up some c h o i c e f i f t y t o one h u n d r e d f o o t l o t s and make them v i e w i n g , s i t t i n g , c o n v e r s a t i o n t y p e open s p a c e s . Mayor Hogg: W e l l c e r t a i n l y b a s e d on n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s I t h i n k we have enough p a r k - l a n d . We p a r t i c u l a r l y have t h e b e ach and t h e p i e r w h i c h a r e tremendous p a r k l a n d , open s p a c e a s s e t s t h a t a r e n o t even i n c l u d e d u n d e r t h e c r i t e r i a t h a t a r e b e i n g u s e d by t h e n a t i o n a l p a r k s t a n d a r d s o r t h e s t a n d a r d s t h a t a r e u s e d by community and l o c a l p a r k s . I t h i n k t h a t b a s e d on t h o s e s t a n d a r d s and t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e r e m a i n d e r o f Dupres R a v i n e and t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e Buena V i s t a P a r k , t h a t we a r e i n good shape i n terms o f p a r k s . ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT F i n a n c i a l A c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f C i t y H a l l Mayor Hogg: We have a p u b l i c and open b u d g e t and t h e r e i s a l o t o f d i s c u s s i o n t h a t t a k e s p l a c e . The b u dget i s d e v e l o p e d o v e r a f o u r month p e r i o d and i s r e v i e w e d t h r o u g h a t w e l v e month p e r i o d . T h e r e i s a f o r m a l r e v i e w t h a t happens i n l a t e September, e a r l y O c t o b e r i n terms o f how c l o s e i t i s t o coming i n w i t h t h e a c t u a l s o f t h e p r o j e c t e d e x p e n d i t u r e s . I t h i n k t h a t t h e r e i s a p e r c e p t i o n t h a t e x i s t s t h a t government and p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e n o t as d i l i g e n t and a c c o u n t a b l e w i t h money as t h e y s h o u l d be. C l e a r l y i t i s n o t r u n i n s t r i c t l y a b u s i n e s s f a s h i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e c l i e n t s t h a t a r e b e i n g a d h e r e d t o and t h e g o a l s t h a t a r e d i f f e r e n t . T h e r e a r e a l o t o f s o c i a l g o a l s and r e c r e a t i o n a l g o a l s t h a t do not pay o f f i n an e c o n o m i c f a s h i o n . But w h i l e s a y i n g t h a t I do t h i n k t h e r e i s some t r u t h t o t h e n o t i o n o f i n e f f i c i e n c y w i t h i n g o v e rnment. T h e r e i s c l e a r l y i n e f f i c i e n c y w i t h i n any b i g b u r e a u c r a c y and b i g o r g a n i z -a t i o n and we s h o u l d a l w a y s be w o r k i n g t o make i t more e f f e c t i v e and more e f f i c i e n t . Page 87 Why Seniors' Advisory Committee Established Mayor Hogg: P a r t i a l l y because looking at the a l l o c a t i o n within our parks and recreation budget and the focus and the directions that come out of the budget, because in a very real sense the way we spend our dollars r e f l e c t s the p r i o r i t i e s that the City has. I don't think that we have had the correct p r i o r i t y on seniors based on the population and based on need... It seemed l i k e a good format to provide that type of information and input to me and to Council as well as for Council and myself to provide information to the seniors in terms of their awareness of the directions that the City is going. How Seniors' Advisory Committee Founded Mayor Hogg: It was f i r s t established by me going to the administrator and saying that I was going to form a Seniors' Committee and I wanted him to p e t i t i o n people and get some representatives for that committee. He then got in touch with organizations and they appointed people. The structure has been evolving through the meetings. Two meetings ago they elected th e i r executive and they are now chairing the meetings and p r i o r to that I chaired them. I s i t on i t now as a member to provide information and input and assistance as possible. I think we e a r l i e r discussed the two tangible types of things [home delivery of groceries and a 24-hour information line] that have grown out of i t as well as a number of directions that they are s t a r t i n g to take and a couple of sub-committees that are involved. In response to the fear expressed in the group interview sessions that the Committee may consist largely of Page 88 l o b b y i s t s t h e Mayor n o t e s : I t h i n k t h a t c l e a r l y t h e r e i s t h a t p o s s i b i l i t y . I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t t h e c ommittee has become a s i n g l e i n t e r e s t g r o u p o r s i n g l e i s s u e g r o u p . I f somebody i s a l o b b y i s t and t h e y a r e l o b b y i n g f o r s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s a p p r o p r i a t e i n need and r e a s o n a b l e t h e n t h e y s h o u l d be l o b b y i n g f o r i t . So l o b b y i s t s a r e a v a l u a b l e p a r t o f o u r s y s t e m and I t h i n k i t i s when t h e y l o s e t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e community as a whole t h a t t h e y can be d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e o v e r a l l o p e r a t i o n o f t h e Committee and t h e C i t y . H o p e f u l l y we have enough p e o p l e t o e n s u r e t h a t i t does not happen. O v e r a l l R e a c t i o n t o Group I n t e r v i e w F i n d i n g s Mr. J a n c z e w s k i : I am a b i t s u r p r i s e d a b o u t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e d e n s i t y i n t h e a p a r t m e n t s . I f i n d i t a c t u a l l y q u i t e a c o m f o r t a b l e d e n s i t y . In f a c t I d i d some computer r u n s - t h a t i f you l o o k a t u n i t s p e r a c r e t h e a p a r t m e n t a r e a i s o b v i o u s l y h i g h e r i n d e n s i t y t h a n t h e s i n g l e f a m i l y a r e a s , b u t i f you l o o k a t p e o p l e p e r a c r e t h e s i n g l e f a m i l y a r e a s a r e h i g h e r t h a n t h e a p a r t m e n t a r e a . So what i s d e n s i t y ? I s i t h o u s i n g o r i s i t p e o p l e ? So r e a l l y t h e d e n s i t y i s n o t o v e r w h e l m i n g i n t h a t a r e a . . . The p u r e s i n g l e f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d e x c e p t i n r a r e c i r c u m s t a n c e s n o t o n l y i s i t g o i n g t o be i m p o s s i b l e i t i s j u s t not s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e . . . P e o p l e have t o have t h e a b i l i t y - not on t h e same b l o c k - b u t w i t h i n t h e i r g e n e r a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d - t o s t a y i f t h e y want. FUTURE OUTLOOK F i n a l l y , i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e Mayor Hogg a s s e r t s t h e need f o r l o c a l r e s i d e n t s t o d e f i n e t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e i r C i t y : I t h i n k we have t o work a t t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e C i t y . We a r e a s c h i z o i d C i t y a t t h i s s t a g e . T h e r e a r e p e o p l e t h a t t h i n k i t s h o u l d Page 8 9 not change at a l l and we have people who t h i n k i t s h o u l d d r a m a t i c a l l y change. I t i s time f o r us t o t r y and come t o g e t h e r w i t h some type of common sense of what the community i s . We have t o go through a p r o c e s s of b e i n g aware of what the meaning of each of those d i r e c t i o n s i s , so t h a t the people can make an i n t e l l i g e n t and r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n i n terms of the d i r e c t i o n t hey want i t t o move. We have t o get t h a t happening a t a base t h a t i s o u t s i d e the p o l i t i c a l arena so t h a t i t w i l l be something t h a t w i l l b i n d p o l i t i c i a n s t o t h a t d i r e c t i o n . . . We have a p p l i e d f o r a p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t t o a l l o w t h a t p r o c e s s t o take p l a c e t o get the peopl e i n the community i n v o l v e d i n d e f i n i n g what they want t h e i r community t o loo k l i k e and t o be. We have j u s t heard t h i s week t h a t t h a t g r a n t has been t u r n e d down... So i t i s something t h a t we w i l l t r y a g a i n next y e a r t o get the f u n d i n g t o do and we w i l l s t a r t d o i n g on a more l i m i t e d f a s h i o n w i t h i n our c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g budget. In c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s c h a p t e r has o u t l i n e d the methodology i n the s t u d y . I t has been argued t h a t the most a p p r o p r i a t e means of o b t a i n i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s of White Rock's e l d e r l y i s - through the f o c u s s e d group i n t e r v i e w . T h i s i s due l a r g e l y t o the method's g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y i n e l i c i t i n g q u a l i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , r e s u l t s of the group i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the l o c a l mayor and p l a n n e r have been p r e s e n t e d . T o p i c s d i s c u s s e d i n c l u d e d : r e s i d e n t i a l e nvironment; f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s ; s p a t i a l arrangement; and the r o l e of l o c a l government. I s s u e s r a i s e d r e g a r d i n g Page 90 the r e s i d e n t i a l environment involved l i t t e r , dogs, loud music, safety, landscaping, street l i g h t i n g and control in r e s i d e n t i a l planning with regard to the protection of views. The elderly respondents f e e l comfortable l i v i n g in the appartment core area at i t s present density l e v e l . Concerns about f a c i l i t i e s and services emphasized that the Seniors' A c t i v i t y Centre i s too small, that there are no places where the elderly can go for s o c i a l contact and a meal, and that there is no home delivery of groceries. Concern was also expressed about the inadequate public bus system (lack of bus driver courtesy and bus routes within White Rock), the reduction in l o c a l health services and the need for more public recreational f a c i l i t i e s (lawn bowling f i e l d , c u r ling r i n k ) . The elderly participants think that the commercial services in White Rock, including Semiahmoo Centre (at North Bluff Road and 152nd Street [Johnston Road]), are s u f f i c i e n t for t h e i r needs. With respect to the s p a t i a l arrangement of the City, the mal-location of the Seniors' A c t i v i t y Centre (at Kent Street and Russell Avenue) is noted since i t is beyond walking distance of many of the elderly respondents. Also pointed out is the lack of adequate sidewalks, auto t r a f f i c on Johnston Road and side streets plus the parking of recreation vehicles on side streets. Those interviewed also believe that the choice of housing types in White Page 91 Rock cater to the various housing needs of elderly residents and that most of the community f a c i l i t i e s and services used by them are within walking distance. F i n a l l y , discussion about the role of l o c a l government centred upon the City's modest tax base, government accountability, influx of non-residents and the Seniors' Advisory Committee. Most of the elderly respondents think that the l o c a l government has a positive attitude toward i t s e l derly c i t i z e n s and that physically the City government is trying to improve the s i t u a t i o n in the communi ty. Interviews with Mayor Hogg and planner Dan Janczewski revealed that they are aware of the issues raised in the group interview sessions and of the importance of addressing these concerns. In s t r i v i n g to improve the quality of l i f e of White Rock's eld e r l y a p o s i t i v e step in this d i r e c t i o n has been made with the recent establishment of the Seniors' Advisory Committee. This Committee provides a more formalized means by which el d e r l y residents can express to government o f f i c i a l s issues of p a r t i c u l a r importance. The Mayor and planner note, nonetheless, several constraints in enhancing the quality of l i f e of e l d e r l y residents. These constraints are: (1) The City's modest tax base due to i t s small geographic and population s i z e ; (2) the present sluggish economic si t u a t i o n which has c u r t a i l e d , for example, the Page 92 c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l h o u s i n g and t h u s a d d i t i o n a l C i t y t a x r e v e n u e ; and (3) t h e d i f f e r i n g p l a n n i n g g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s between White Rock and t h e a d j a c e n t m u n i c i p a l i t y o f S u r r e y t o g e t h e r w i t h t h o s e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s . T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e l a c k o f f u n d i n g made a v a i l a b l e t o W h i t e Rock by S u r r e y and t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s o f government. Improvements i n t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e r e f o r e , w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be a s l o w p r o c e s s . Page 93 CHAPTER FIVE Conclus ions This study has revealed four major themes about community planning and the e l d e r l y . F i r s t , the l i t e r a t u r e review shows that there i s a need for more studies in Canada regarding n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d e l d e r l y . As the proportion of e l d e r l y in the population increase, and as the number of Canadian communities possessing a substantial proportion of elderly residents increase, i t w i l l be imperative that there be an awareness and understanding of the p a r t i c u l a r environmental requirements of the e l d e r l y . This study has been an attempt not only to provide decision makers and the public with insights into this subject, but also to present ways by which the needs of the elderly can be accommodated. Further, this study has attempted to s t r i k e a balance between those studies that examine single environmental issues facing the elderly and those that pursue a more h o l i s t i c approach. Rowles and Ohta elaborate on t h i s research dilemma: . .. the research agenda has reached an impasse, and as we enter the 1980's, aging-environment research faces a fundamental dilemma. On the one hand, p a r t i c u l a r l y as policy imperatives become less i n s i s t e n t and research funding decreases, researchers are becoming more aware of the shortcomings of Page 94 s t u d i e s t h a t e x p l o r e s i n g l e a s p e c t s of the o l d person-environment t r a n s a c t i o n , such as the d e s i g n of the d w e l l i n g , or a r c h i t e c t u r a l b a r r i e r s t o m o b i l i t y , o r p a t t e r n s of shopping b e h a v i o u r . These s t u d i e s l a c k a sense of the t o t a l c o n t e x t . The f r a g m e n t a t i o n of r e s e a r c h , so n e c e s s a r y f o r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l reasons o b s c u r e s a s p e c t s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the u l t i m a t e wholeness of the phenomenon t h a t may be c r i t i c a l f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g i t . I t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent t h a t t o f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d the o l d person-environment t r a n s a c t i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o adopt a h o l i s t i c s t a n c e , u t i l i z i n g a b r oader d e f i n i t i o n of m i l i e u . . . I t i s d e s i r a b l e t o i n c o r p o r a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s o c i e t a l l y d e t ermined norms of " a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i v i t y " , c h a nging s e x - r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n and o t h e r s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l components of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s t o t a l m i l i e u , i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the o l d p e r s o n ' s e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t e x t . On the o t h e r hand, the quest f o r more h o l i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r a i s e s the s p e c t e r of s t e r i l e "grand t h e o r y " ( M i l l s , 1959) of d e v e l o p i n g f u z z y c o n c e p t u a l frameworks t h a t are so complex and a l l - e m b r a c i n g t h a t they cannot be e m p i r i c a l l y r e s e a r c h e d even w i t h the most advanced computer t e c h n o l o g y . The c o m p l e x i t y of some of the more r e c e n t a g i n g -environment t h e o r i e s r e f l e c t s t h i s tendency. The dilemma, t h e n , i s one of r e c o n c i l i n g the two l e v e l s of i n q u i r y . [ 1 4 4 ] The attempt t o s t r i k e a b a l a n c e between the two r e s e a r c h approaches has been a d d r e s s e d by f i r s t l o o k i n g a t s e v e r a l f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t the e l d e r l y p e r s o n ' s q u a l i t y of l i f e - r e s i d e n t i a l e nvironment, f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , s p a t i a l arrangement and l o c a l government, and s e c o n d l y by c e n t e r i n g a t t e n t i o n upon a s p e c i f i c community: White Rock, B r i t i s h C olumbia. The f o c u s s e d group i n t e r v i e w i s the major r e s e a r c h t e c h n i g u e t h a t was deemed most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the Page 95 s t u d y , v A s w i t h any r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e t h e r e are both advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s . One d i s a d v a n t a g e d i s c o v e r e d i n u s i n g the f o c u s s e d group i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e i s t h a t i t i s time consuming. The method i s time-consuming i n (1) f i n d i n g r e s p o n d e n t s who f i t the sample c r i t e r i a (65 y e a r s of age or o v e r , a b l e - b o d i e d , apartment d w e l l e r , minimum t h r e e y e a r White Rock r e s i d e n t ) , and who are i n t e r e s t e d and committed enough t o a t t e n d a s e s s i o n ; (2) e x e c u t i n g each s e s s i o n (which averaged one and a h a l f h o u r s ) ; (3) commuting between Vancouver and White Rock ( m y s e l f ) ; and (4) t r a n s c r i b i n g and a n a l y s i n g the r e s u l t s . A n o t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e i s the f i n a n c i a l c o s t i n v o l v e d such as the r e n t i n g of a tape r e c o r d e r , and the p u r c h a s i n g of q u a l i t y c a s s e t t e t a p e s . A t h i r d d i s a d v a n t a g e of the f o c u s s e d group i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e i s t h a t due t o time and c o s t o n l y a l i m i t e d number of persons may be i n t e r v i e w e d . In t h i s s t u d y , a l a r g e r sample s i z e than s i x t e e n would have been b e t t e r . I t i s i m p o r t a n t , n o n e t h e l e s s , t o remember t h a t the sample was not an attempt t o r e p r e s e n t the whole e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n of White Rock. The approach t a k e n was an e x p l o r a t o r y one and not a s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y . A f o u r t h d i s a d v a n t a g e was t h a t the s c h e d u l i n g of i n t e r v i e w s was o f t e n d i f f i c u l t . For example, the moderator, Jane A s k i n , was a v a i l a b l e t o conduct the i n t e r v i e w s o n l y on c e r t a i n days a t a c e r t a i n Page 96 t i m e . The s c h e d u l e was f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t many of the e l d e r l y p a r t i c i p a n t s had h e c t i c s c h e d u l e s of t h e i r own. L a s t l y , any time a s t u d y i n v o l v e s the use of a machine ( i n t h i s case a tape r e c o r d e r ) t h e r e i s a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a m e c h a n i c a l breakdown may o c c u r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , I e x p e r i e n c e d such a breakdown when I i n t e r v i e w e d the Mayor. F o r t u n a t e l y , the Mayor g r a n t e d me a second i n t e r v i e w . For the second i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n I a r r i v e d armed w i t h two tape r e c o r d e r s which was f o r t u n a t e because one of them m a l f u n c t i o n e d . D e s p i t e the above-mentioned d i s a d v a n t a g e s of the f o c u s s e d group i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e , they are outweighed i n importance by the advantages f o r the s t u d y . Group i n t e r v i e w i n g has the advantage of a l l o w i n g p e o p l e more time t o r e f l e c t and t o r e c a l l e x p e r i e n c e s . I t a l s o a l l o w s each p a r t i c i p a n t t o q u a l i f y o r r e v i s e h i s or her o p i n i o n o r t o argue a g a i n s t another p a r t i c i p a n t w i t h a c o n t r a s t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e . Each s e s s i o n i n the s t u d y ran smoothly f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . One reason was t h a t p r i o r t o the i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n each p a r t i c i p a n t r e c e i v e d a copy of the t o p i c s and q u e s t i o n s t o be d i s c u s s e d . T h i s a l l o w e d p a r t i c i p a n t s t o a r r i v e a t the s e s s i o n w i t h w e l l f o r m u l a t e d comments. As w e l l the s m a l l group s i z e a l l o w e d ample time f o r respondents t o p r e s e n t t h e i r views and made i t e a s i e r f o r the moderator t o e s t a b l i s h a good r a p p o r t w i t h the group. A t h i r d r e a son was t h a t the s e s s i o n s averaged one and a h a l f h o u r s . Any Page 97 time s i g n i f i c a n t l y beyond that would have tested severely the patience of the group members. Another reason why the sessions ran smoothly was because of the use of the tape recorder. Although the potential for a mechanical breakdown existed, the use of the tape recorder was invaluable in that (1) i t provided an accurate account of the proceedings; and (2) i t freed the moderator and myself from the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of recording responses and allowed us to concentrate on the execution of the interview. A f i f t h reason was that I was present to c l a r i f y the meaning of any question or term. In addition the moderator, Jane Askin, was well q u a l i f i e d due to her experience with group interview situations dealing p a r t i c u l a r l y with the el d e r l y . A f i n a l reason was that the elderly participants a r t i c u l a t e d well t h e i r interest in and concern about the issues examined. A second major theme of the study is that maintaining maximum independence in dai l y l i v i n g i s v i t a l l y important to the e l d e r l y . Growing old necessarily involves adaptation to various types of problems, such as lower income or poorer health. Consequently, the impact of inadequate transportation services may in combination with other problems prove to be far more serious for the eld e r l y person because of the cumulative e f f e c t . Conversely, i f adequate transportation services e x i s t , this can increase mobility Page 98 and make needed f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s more a c c e s s i b l e . The f o l l o w i n g f i n d i n g s a r e made: Buses (1) Bus s h e l t e r s w i t h s e a t s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d w i t h h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y g i v e n t o s t o p s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e a p a r t m e n t c o r e a r e a . (2) S i n c e t h e h e i g h t o f t h e s t e p i n t o t h e bus c a n n o t be a l t e r e d i n e x i s t i n g v e h i c l e s , s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be p a i d t o t h e s i d e w a l k o r p l a t f o r m a t bus s t o p s . E v e r y s t o p i n t h e a p a r t m e n t c o r e a r e a s h o u l d have a h i g h c u r b e d s i d e w a l k so t h a t t h e d r i v e r c an p u l l up t o t h e c u r b and t h e r e b y r e d u c e t h e h e i g h t o f t h e s t e p i n t o t h e b u s . (3) D r i v e r c o u r t e s y and s e n s i t i v i t y ( i n s u c h m a t t e r s as w a i t i n g f o r s e n i o r s who c a n n o t r u s h t o t h e s t o p , w a i t i n g f o r d i s e m b a r k i n g p a s s e n g e r s t o r e a c h a c o n n e c t o r bus, g i v i n g e l d e r l y p a s s e n g e r s a c h a n c e t o g e t s e a t e d b e f o r e s t a r t i n g , p u l l i n g i n c l o s e t o t h e c u r b ) make a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e as t o w h e t h e r o r not e l d e r l y p e o p l e a r e a b l e t o use t h e t r a n s i t s y s t e m . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o g i v e d r i v e r s o n - g o i n g r e m i n d e r s a b o u t t h e s p e c i a l needs and v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f t h i s g r o u p . The S e n i o r s ' A d v i s o r y Committee s h o u l d u n d e r t a k e t h e t a s k o f m e e t i n g w i t h d r i v e r s i n an a t t e m p t t o f o s t e r d r i v e r c o - o p e r a t i o n and a w a r e n e s s . (4) S c h e d u l i n g c h a n g e s and h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f s e r v i c e r e q u e s t e d by some r e s p o n d e n t s would be t o o c o s t l y . W h i l e s e r v i c e improvement i s n o t p r a c t i c a l , i n c r e a s e d a wareness and i n f o r m a t i o n may h e l p a l l e v i a t e t h e p r o b l e m o f l o n g w a i t s . Knowledge o f t h e bus s c h e d u l e and c a r e f u l t i m i n g can r e d u c e w a i t i n g p e r i o d s a t t h e s t o p o r between b u s e s . D r i v e r s c o u l d have s c h e d u l e s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o hand t o p a s s e n g e r s and c o p i e s s h o u l d be p o s t e d i n a p a r t m e n t l o b b i e s . Page 99 (5) The l o c a l bus s h o u l d be r e r o u t e d so t h a t i t s t o p s a l o n g more s t r e e t s w i t h i n t h e a p a r t m n e n t c o r e a r e a . (6) Some way o f more r a p i d l y r e g i s t e r i n g s h o r t - t e r m h a n d i - d a r t u s e r s s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e Urban T r a n s i t A u t h o r i t y S ystem. S i d e w a l k s The i n s t a l l a t i o n and u p g r a d i n g o f s i d e w a l k s s h o u l d be g i v e n p r i o r i t y i n t h e a p a r t m e n t c o r e a r e a . L i g h t i n g A d d i t i o n a l s t r e e t l i g h t i n g i s r e q u i r e d i n t h e a p a r t m e n t c o r e a r e a and n e a r b y bus s t o p s . T r a f f i c C o n t r o l P e d e s t r i a n c o n t r o l l e d t r a f f i c l i g h t s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a t h e a v i l y t r a v e l l e d i n t e r s e c t i o n s i n t h e a p a r t m e n t c o r e a r e a . The t h i r d m a j o r theme o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t t h e r e i s a h e i g h t e n e d e f f e c t o f t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t upon t h e e l d e r l y . The r o l e o f t h e community e n v i r o n m e n t i s c r u c i a l b e c a u s e o f t h e s u s t a i n e d c o n t a c t by t h e e l d e r l y w i t h a l i m i t e d e n v i r o n m e n t and t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e e l d e r l y t o c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f i t . T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n t h e r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r c h o o s i n g t o l i v e i n W hite Rock: i t s s c e n e r y , c l i m a t e and g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t i s f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e c o n c e r n e x p r e s s e d r e g a r d i n g i s s u e s r a i s e d d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g t h e e n v i r o n m e n t -l i t t e r , d o g s , l o u d m u s i c and v a c a n t l o t s . Page 100 Moreover, the environment can act either as a f a c i l i t a t o r or a constraint on the e l d e r l y individual in his or her pursuit of daily a c t i v i t i e s . For instance, the r e l a t i v e l y heavy and fast moving auto t r a f f i c along T h r i f t Avenue i s perceived by some elde r l y pedestrians as dangerous even though according to Canadian T r a f f i c Standards a t r a f f i c l i g h t i s not yet warranted at the intersection of T h r i f t Avenue and Martin Street. In addition, " c r i t i c a l distances" are useful indicators of where housing for the elderly should be located in r e l a t i o n to the neighbourhood's f a c i l i t i e s and services. It is necessary that certain essential f a c i l i t i e s and services ought to be located within a six block radius of the elderly person's home. In applying this average c r i t i c a l distance one must remember that the surrounding environmental context varies s u b s t a n t i a l l y . This is p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy in White Rock where the City's topography varies from sea l e v e l to 285 feet above sea l e v e l . Living in an apartment building, for example, located on the south slope fi v e blocks from Johnston Road would make i t more d i f f i c u l t for an e l d e r l y person to gain access to f a c i l i t i e s and services than i f the apartment was on the h i l l t o p where the same five blocks would be r e l a t i v e l y f l a t and thus easier to walk. Further findings include: (1) Expanding the zoning for apartment blocks in the h i l l t o p area near Johnston Page 101 Road. Convenience and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of that area is an argument for changing the zoning so that a maximum number of elderly can have the advantage of nearby f a c i l i t i e s and services. (2) Increase awareness among el d e r l y residents of f a c i l i t i e s and services. This could be accomplished in part by the establishment of a 24 hour information l i n e that can d i r e c t an elderly individual to required f a c i l i t i e s and services. As well t h i s awareness could be accomplished in part by having a monthly column in the l o c a l paper, the Peace Arch News, providing information about services and benefits available to the e l d e r l y . The exercise of l i s t i n g and d e t a i l i n g services available would also point out overlaps or gaps which may be useful to service providers in co-ordinating t h e i r e f f o r t s most e f f i c i e n t l y . The f i n a l major theme of t h i s study is the need for changes in the practice of community planning regarding the e l d e r l y . The basic philosophy of decision-makers at a l l levels tends to be one that "knows what i s best for old people". It was largely assumed in past planning practices that what was good for the community was good for the e l d e r l y . The e l d e r l y , l i k e other human beings, have basic common needs such as food, shelter, health care and opportunities for f u l l growth and interaction with others. However, because of the p h y s i o l o g i c a l , psychological and economic l i m i t a t i o n s , the elderly find some of these needs i n t e n s i f i e d and unmet. Any planning policy for the elderly must take these needs into consideration. In a housing policy, for example, the provision of shelter alone is not Page 102 s u f f i c i e n t . For an e l d e r l y p e r s o n t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s or her environment o t h e r needs must a l s o be met. An example of p l a n n i n g w i t h l i t t l e thought of the e l d e r l y i s r e v e a l e d i n the neighbourhood u n i t t h e o r y . The neighbourhood has been p l a n n e d l a r g e l y f o r the f a m i l y w i t h c h i l d r e n s i n c e those concerned w i t h neighbourhood d e s i g n have l i n k e d i t w i t h c h i l d r e a r i n g . A l t h o u g h the needs of the e l d e r l y are not b a s i c t o the t h e o r y , c e r t a i n needs of the e l d e r l y are met i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l view of neighbourhood such as, nearness t o community f a c i l i t i e s and the p r o t e c t i o n from heavy t r a f f i c . D e s p i t e t h e s e s i m i l a r r e q u i r e m e n t s e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s o f t e n have needs and a c t i v i t i e s which are not met i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l neighbourhood. T h i s s t u d y has noted t h a t t h r e e t y p e s of p r o h i b i t i o n s i n z o n i n g law have e s p e c i a l l y a f f e c t e d the e l d e r l y : the p r e v e n t i o n of c o n v e r s i o n ; the p r e v e n t i o n of s p e c i a l h o u s i n g t y p e s ; and the p r e v e n t i o n of mixed l a n d uses. In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e has been a tendency f o r d e c i s i o n -makers t o view the e l d e r l y as a homogeneous group d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the r e s t of s o c i e t y by v i r t u e of a s i n g l e d e t e r m i n a n t , age. But, e l d e r l y people are as d i v e r s e as, i f not more d i v e r s e than younger p e o p l e . The needs of the e l d e r l y v a r y s i n c e members of the group range from those w i t h s e r i o u s d i s a b i l i t i e s , c a u s i n g p h y s i c a l i m m o b i l i t y t o Page 103 h e a l t h y e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h o n l y minor p h y s i c a l f r a i l t i e s . The t a s k of the p l a n n e r i s not t o f i n d the b e s t s o l u t i o n f o r e l d e r l y people but t o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r each e l d e r l y p erson t o c r e a t e o r choose the type of environment t h a t i s most f u l f i l l i n g . In o r d e r f o r f u t u r e community p l a n s t o be e f f e c t i v e the e l d e r l y must have d i r e c t i n p u t i n t o the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n those communities t h a t p o s s e s s a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s . A l t h o u g h i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a c t now, d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s must do so always b e a r i n g i n mind the changing g o a l s , d e s i r e s and needs of the next g e n e r a t i o n , who w i l l be f a r d i f f e r e n t i n many r e s p e c t s from the c u r r e n t one. A l t h o u g h t h i s s t u d y s e r v e d more t o c o n f i r m than t o o v e r t u r n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , i t a l l o w e d s e l e c t e d e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s t h e i r views on the p h y s i c a l environment of White Rock. The C i t y has taken a p o s i t i v e s t e p w i t h the r e c e n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the S e n i o r s A d v i s o r y Committee. Undoubtedly, the f i n d i n g s produced by t h i s Committee w i l l i n c r e a s e awareness by C i t y o f f i c i a l s of the s p e c i a l concerns of e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s . I t i s hoped, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a d e c i s i o n such as l o c a t i n g the S e n i o r s A c t i v i t y C e n t r e away from the commercial and apartment cor e a r e a w i l l be a v o i d e d i n the f u t u r e . A l t h o u g h c e r t a i n l y t h e r e are improvements t h a t the C i t y can make t o enhance the q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r the e l d e r l y Page 104 r e s i d e n t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember two p o i n t s . One i s t h a t t h o s e e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d were g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r community. I t i s p o s s i b l e , o f c o u r s e , t h a t p e o p l e who were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e community have moved e l s e w h e r e . S e c o n d l y , due t o t h e p r e s e n t d e p r e s s e d e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n t h e C i t y s i m p l y does not have t h e money r e q u i r e d t o u n d e r t a k e many p r o j e c t s . The C i t y s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o s t r e n g t h e n i t s t i e s i n p l a n n i n g m a t t e r s w i t h t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g m u n i c i p a l i t y o f S u r r e y . Of p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e i s t h e need, f i r s t l y , t o r e d u c e d u p l i c a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s and s e c o n d l y , t o have S u r r e y pay i t s f a i r s h a r e o f t h e c o s t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , 95% o f t h e u s e r s ( f i g u r e s k a t e r s and h o c k e y p l a y e r s ) o f t h e C e n t e n n i a l Park I c e A r e n a a r e S u r r e y r e s i d e n t s , y e t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o f S u r r e y p a y s o n l y 40% o f t h e a r e n a ' s m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t s . [ 1 4 5 ] The l a c k o f f u n d s i s a l s o e v i d e n t a t t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s o f g o v ernment. A t t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l t h e r e have been c u t b a c k s i n u p g r a d i n g t h e w a t e r f r o n t a r e a w h i l e a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l t h e r e have been r e d u c t i o n s i n l o c a l h e a l t h c a r e s e r v i c e s . F o r t h e p r e s e n t t i m e improvement i n White Rock's p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be a s l o w and i n c r e m e n t a l one. I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d , n o n e t h e l e s s , t h a t C i t y C o u n c i l w i l l r e c o g n i z e and t a k e s t e p s t o a d d r e s s t h o s e i s s u e s a f f e c t i n g t h e e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t ' s q u a l i t y o f l i f e as f u n d s p e r m i t . Page 105 In b r i e f , the challenge of reinforcing communities with substantial proportions of elderly residents i s complex and requires action at many l e v e l s . Regnier cogently explains: Planners and decision-makers are beginning to understand that many of the problems that affect e l d e r l y people cannot be a l l e v i a t e d by wholesale destruction and renewal. Positive steps toward constructive intervention must be taken, but they should progress s e l e c t i v e l y by reinforcing positive environmental elements and providing needed community services in accessible locations.[146] Page 106 APPENDICES Page 107 FOCUSSED INTERVIEW - ELDERLY RESIDENT GROUPS Opening Q u e s t i o n s (1) What would you say were your t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t reasons f o r moving t o White Rock? (2) I f you had t o p i c k one problem t h a t you c o n s i d e r the most s e r i o u s i n the community, what problem would t h a t be? R e s i d e n t i a l Environment (1) I f you had t o p i c k one problem t h a t you c o n s i d e r the most s e r i o u s i n your r e s i d e n t i a l e n vironment, what problem would t h a t be? (2) Do you f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e l i v i n g i n y our neighbourhood a t i t s p r e s e n t d e n s i t y l e v e l ? (3) Do you f e e l s a f e w a l k i n g a l o n e i n your neighbourhood d u r i n g the day? A f t e r d a r k? (4) Are you s a t i s f i e d w i t h the l a n d s c a p i n g i n the community? (5) I s t h e r e s u f f i c i e n t s t r e e t l i g h t i n g i n your n e i g h b o u r -hood? F a c i l i t i e s and S e r v i c e s (1) I f you had t o p i c k one problem t h a t you c o n s i d e r the most s e r i o u s c o n c e r n i n g l o c a l f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , what problem would t h a t be? (2) What community f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s do you use on a r e g u l a r b a s i s ? (3) I f you use the p u b l i c bus system, do you have any problems? ( i . e . ) have t o w a i t too l o n g f o r a bus, unsafe bus s t o p . (4) Would you say the l o c a l h e a l t h c a r e f a c i l i t i e s are s u f f i c i e n t f o r your needs or i n s u f f i c i e n t ? (5) Are the commercial s e r v i c e s i n White Rock s u f f i c i e n t f o r your needs or i n s u f f i c i e n t ? (6) Now how about p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ? Are they s u f f i c i e n t o r i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r your needs? Page 109 S p a t i a l Arrangement (1) I f you had to p i c k one prob lem t h a t you c o n s i d e r the most s e r i o u s r e g a r d i n g the s p a t i a l arrangement of the community, what problem would tha t be? (2) In g e n e r a l do you f i n d tha t the v a r i o u s types of hous ing i n White Rock c a t e r to the needs of the e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t ? (3) Are most of the community f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s tha t you use w i t h i n wa lk ing d i s t a n c e ? (4) I f you r e g u l a r l y walk to do your e r r a n d s , do you encounter any problems? ( i . e . ) t r o u b l e g e t t i n g up and down the c u r b , improper l y ma in ta ined s i d e w a l k s . (5) I f you d r i v e , do you encounter any problems? ( i . e . ) s i gn s too s m a l l and d i f f i c u l t to r e a d , t r a f f i c moves too f a s t on sma l l s t r e e t s , l a ck of p a r k i n g spaces . Role of L o c a l Government (1) I f you had to p i ck one prob lem tha t you c o n s i d e r the most s e r i o u s w i th r e s p e c t to the l o c a l government, what problem would tha t be? (2) What do you f e e l i s the a t t i t u d e of the l o c a l government toward White Rock ' s e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s ? (3) P h y s i c a l l y , do you th ink the C i t y government i s t r y i n g to improve t h i n g s i n the community, keep th ing s as they a r e , or l e t them d e t e r i o r a t e ? (4) What ought t o be the C i t y ' s r o l e i n accommodating the env i ronmenta l needs of the e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t ? C l o s i n g Ques t i on (1) Do you have any f i n a l comments to make? Page 110 CHAPTER 1 FOOTNOTES 1. 'Special physical requirements' relates to the issues of housing, r e s i d e n t i a l environment, f a c i l i t i e s and services and transportation. An elderly resident is defined as someone 65 years of age or over, able-bodied, l i v i n g in an apartment and a minimum 3-year White Rock resident. An able-bodied person is someone who can walk a minimum distance ( i . e . 6 blocks) and who can walk up and down a minimum number of s t a i r s ( i . e . two f l i g h t s ) without the aid of another person. 2. R. Atchley, The Social Forces in Later L i f e , 3rd. ed. (Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1980), p.261. 3. F. Berghorn and D. Schafer, "The Quality of L i f e and Older People", in Berghorn and Schafer, eds. The  Dynamics of Aging (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, Inc. 1981), p.332. 4. L. George, "The Happiness Syndrome: Methodological and Substantive Issues in the Study of Social-Psychological Well-being in Adulthood", The Gerontologist 19 ( A p r i l 1979) p. 210. 5. Berghorn and Schafer, "The Quality of L i f e and Older People", p.335. 6. M. Langford, Community Aspects of Housing for the Aged, (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University, 1962), p . l 7. Langford, pp. 1-2. 8. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. 9. Richmond Planning Department, Senior C i t i z e n Survey, compiled by C. Morrison (Richmond, B.C.: Livingspace Research, 1982), p.100. 10. Morrison, p.103 11. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1951, 1981 12. P. C l u f f , "Neighbourhood Concepts and the E l d e r l y " . Response paper, conference "Toward a Mature Society", as quoted in C. Morrison, Senior C i t i z e n Survey (Richmond, B.C.: Livingspace Research, 1982), p.11. Page 111 CHAPTER TWO FOOTNOTES 13. J. Morgan, Becoming Old, (New York: Springer Publishing Company Inc., 1979), p.51. 14. H. Gans, People arid Plans, (New York: Basic books, 1968), p.9. 15. Ibid. 16. J. Wilson, in A Research Workshop on an Aging Population in Aging Communities, K. Butterdahl ed., (Vancouver: UBC, Centre for Human Settlements, 1981), I, p. 53. 17. Langford, p.33. 18. Ibid. 19. C. Perry, "The Neighburhood Unit", Monograph I in Neighbourhood and Community Planning, Vol. VII of Regional Survey of New York and Its Environs, (New York: Regional Plan of New York and i t s Environs, 1929), p.25. 20. J. Dean, "The Neighborhood and Social Relations", Forum  on Neighbofhoods', Today and Tomorrow, (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Housing Association, A p r i l 1958). 21. Langford, p.33. 22. Ibid. 23. E. Hoben, "Planning Considerations in Urban Com-munities", Housing the Aging, p.47. 24. Langford, p.34. 25. Ibid. 26. K. Huhtala, c i t y planner, personal interview on zoning in Vancouver, Vancouver, B.C. September, 1984. 27. Langford, p.34. 28. Langford, p.35. 29. Ibid. Page 112 30. Morgan, p.54. 31. B. Granger, " H e a l t h Care f o r Old P e o p l e : P l a n n e r Advocacy", P l a n n i n g Comment, V. 13, n. 112, ( J u l y 1978), p.91. 32. I b i d . 33. Morgan, P.54. 34. I b i d . 35. V. R e g n i e r , "Neighbourhood P l a n n i n g f o r the Urban E l d e r l y , i n D. Woodruff and J . B i r r e n , eds., A g i n g - S c i e n t i f i c P e r s p e c t i v e s and S o c i a l I s s u e s ( T o r o n t o : D. Van N o s t r a n d Company, 1975), p.304. 36. I b i d . 37. I b i d . 38. J . M a t h i e u , "Housing P r e f e r e n c e s and S a t i s f a c t i o n s " i n M. Lawton, R. Newcomer and T. B y e r t s , eds. Community  P l a n n i n g f o r an A g i n g S o c i e t y . ( S t r o u d s b u r y , P e n n s y l v a n i a : Dowden, H u t c h i s o n and Ross, I n c . , 1976), p.155. 39. P. Niebanck and J . Pope, The E l d e r l y i n O l d e r Urban  Areas ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1965), p. 61. 40. D. E p s t e i n , R e t i r e m e n t Housing i n Urban Neighbourhoods (Winnipeg, M a n i t o b a : I n s t i t u t e of Urban S t u d i e s -U n i v e r s i t y of Winnipeg, 1976), pp.46-47. 41 J . P o r t e o u s , Environment and B e h a v i o u r (Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o : Addison-Wesley, 1977), p.263. 42. White House Conference on A g i n g , Housing The E l d e r l y (Washington, D.C, 1971), p.38. 43. M a t h i e u , p.59. 44. J . B i r r e n , "The Aged i n C i t i e s " , G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 9 (1969), p.168. 45. G. Hansen, "Meeting Housing C h a l l e n g e s : Involvement -the E l d e r l y i n Housing I s s u e s " . P r o c e e d i n g s of the F i f t h Annual M e e t i n g , American A s s o c i a t i o n of Housing  E d u c a t o r s ( L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska P r e s s , 1971) Page 113 46. L. Gelwicks et. a l . , Report on Older Population: Needs,  Resources arid Services (Los Angeles: University of Southern C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1971), p.298. 47. I. Malozemoff et ' a l . , Housing for the Elderly: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Congregate  Res idences (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1978), p.132. 48. Regnier, P- 306. 49. Regnier, P- 308. 50. Ibid. 51. Ibid. 52. Regnier, P- 309 53. Ibid. 54. Regnier, P- 306-308 These distance formulations were refined more recently by Robert Newcomer (1975). In Newcomer's research, a questionnaire was taken d i r e c t l y to the housing tenant who was asked also to note the frequency of use associated with 24 goods and services. Newcomer's questionnaire was a follow-up to a more extensive survey conducted by M. Powell Lawton of the Philadelphia G e r i a t r i c Center. The responses of 600 housing residents were used to create table 2.1. In t h i s formulation the general conclusions of the Niebanck study were reinforced. However, the number of services included in the survey was greatly expanded. The service importance rankings from each study did vary. While Noll ranked church and physician near the top, Newcomer l i s t e d t h e i r importance to the bottom end of his scale. The distance c r i t e r i a , however, stayed reasonably constant. 55. Regnier, p.310 56'. M. Wylie, "New Communities" in Lawton, Newcomer and Byerts, eds., Community Planning for an Aging Society. (Stroudsbury, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc., 1976)pp.217-219. 57. Ibid. 58. Ibid. Page 114 59. A. M i l l a s , "Planning for the elderly within the context of a neighbourhood", E k i s t i c s , V. 47, n.283, (July/Aug. 1980), pp.271-272. 60. F. Carp, "The Mobility of Retired People", R. Kalish ed., in The Later Years (Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth Publishing Company Inc., 1977), p.271. 61. S. Golant, The Residential Location and Spatial  Behaviour of the Elderly (Chicago: University of Chicago Department of Geography, 1972), n.143, p.128. 62. S. Golant, "Intraurban Transportation Needs and Problems of the Elderly" in M. Lawton, R. Newcomer and T. Byerts, eds., Community Planning for an Aging  Society (Stroudsbury, Pennsylvania:Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc. 1976), p.298. 63. S. Gordon and K. Shirasawa, "Transportation System Analysis Techniques", in Regnier, ed. Planning for the  Elderly (Los Angeles: the University of Southern C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1979), pp.99-100. 64. Gordon and Shirasawa, p.97. 65. Golant, p.296. 66. Gordon and Shirasawa, p.98. 67. Ibid. 68. Ibid. 69. Gordon and Shirasawa, pp.98-99. 70. Gordon and Shirasawa, p.102. The authors point out that empirical evaluation of existing d i a l - a - r i d e systems suggest that ideal demand densities range between 4,000 and 8,000 individuals per square mile. Densities lower than 2,000 individuals per square mile w i l l not generate s u f f i c i e n t demand and densities of above 8,000 individuals per square mile may overload the system. 71. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1982. 72. Golant, p.295. 73. Ibid Page 115 74. Mi l i a s , p.271. 75. M. Wachs, " L i f e s t y l e s and Transportation Patterns of the Elderly" in K. Buttedahl ed., A Research Workshop  on An Aging Population in Aging Communities, Vancouver: UBC, Centre for Human Settlements, 1981), II, p.22. 76. Wachs, p.23. 77. Ibid. Page 116 CHAPTER THREE FOOTNOTES 78. Langford, p.30. 79. M. Hastings, Along the Way, 2nd. ed., (Cloverdale, B.C.: D.W. Friesen and Sons Ltd., 1981), pp.12-13. 80. Hastings, p.31. 81. Hastings, pp.59, 189. 82. Hastings, p.189. 83. Ibid. 84. Hastings, p.248. 85. Hastings, p.76 86. Hastings, p.262. 87. "White Rock and Area", Your Chamber of Commerce Presents, ed. P. Hrysko (Surrey, B.C.: Canadian West Coast Publishers Ltd., 1983), n. 1, IV, 8. 88. Ibid. 89. Hrysko, P- 6. 90. Hrysko, P- 10. 91. Hrysko, P- 11. 92. Ibid. 93. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. 94. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1971, 1981. 95. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1976, 1981. 96. White Rock Planning Department, Projection/Social P r o f i l e for the City of White Rock, compiled by A. Cowie (Vancouver, B.C.: The Eikos Group Inc., 1978), p.14. 97. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1976, 1981. Page 117 98. White Rock Planning Department, Memorandum - 1981 Census of Canada, compiled by D. Janczewski (Vancouver, B.C.: The Eikos Group Inc., 1982), p.2. 99. Janczewski, pp.2-3 100. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. 101. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. 102. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. 103. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. 104. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. 105. Janczewski, p. 4. 106. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. 107. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. 108. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. 109. Janczewski, p. 4. 110. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. 111. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. 112. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. 113. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. 114. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1981. Page 118 CHAPTER 4 FOOTNOTES 115. A l l r e p l i e s d u r i n g the group i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s have remained c o n f i d e n t i a l as no sp e a k e r ' s name i s p r e s e n t e d i n t he f i n d i n g s . 116. E. Krausz and S. M i l l e r , S o c i a l R e s e a r c h Design (London: Longman, 1974), p.48. 117. Krausz and M i l l e r , p.49. 118. Krausz and M i l l e r , p.52. 119. Krausz and M i l l e r , p.53. 120. R. Kahn and C. C a n n e l l , The Dynamics of I n t e r v i e w i n g (New York: W i l e y , 1957), p. 107. 121. C. Nachmias and D. Nachmias, Research Methods i n the  S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , 2nd ed., (London: E. A r n o l d , 1982), p.102. 122. Nachmias and Nachmias, p.103. 123. I b i d . 124. I b i d . 125. Nachmias and Nachmias, p.106. 126. J . Z e i s e l , I n q u i r y By Design (Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth, I n c . , 1981), p.139. 127. J . R u n c i e , E x p e r i e n c i n g S o c i a l Research (Homewood, 111.: Dorsey P r e s s , 1980), p.179. 128. R u n c i e , p.180. 129. I b i d . 130. R u n c i e , p.181. 131. I b i d . 132. I b i d . 133. I b i d . 134 R u n c i e , p.182. Page 119 135. Z e i s e l , p.154. 136. J. Lofland, Analysing Social Settings (Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth, Inc., 1981), p.88. 137. U.S. Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration - Ef f e c t i v e C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n in Transportation Planning (Washington, D.C: Socio-Economic Studies Division, 1976), p.232. 138. Ibid. , p. 233. 139. Z e i s e l , p.154. 140. Z e i s e l , p.155. 141. Ibid. 142. Ibid. 143. Runcie, p.184. Page 120 CHAPTER"5"FOOTNOTES 144. G. Rowles and R. Ohta, "Emergent Themes and New Directions: Reflections on Aging and Milieu Research", in G. Rowles and R. Ohta, eds. Aging and Milieu (New York: Academic Press Inc., 1983), p.234. 145. Mr. D. Stone, Director of Parks and Recreation, personal interview, White Rock, B.C.: September, 1984. 146. Regnier, V. "Neighbourhood Planning for the Urban Elderly", p.310. Page 121 BIBLIOGRAPHY Atchley, R. (1980) The Social Forces in Later L i f e , 3rd. Ed. Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth Publishing Co. Audain, M. et a l . (1973) Beyond Shelter: A Study of the National Housing Act. Financed Housing for the  Elde r l y . Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development. Berghorn, F. and Schafer, D. (1981) "The Quality of L i f e and Older People", in The Dynamics of Aging, Eds F. Berghorn and D. Schafer. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, Inc. Birren, J. (1969) "The Aged in C i t i e s " , The Gerontologist, 9. Blumenfeld, H. (1979) " C r i t e r i a for Judging the Quality of the Urban Environment" in Metropolis and Beyond, Ed. P. Spreiregen. Toronto: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Canada. S t a t i s t i c s Canada. (1951, 1971, 1976, 1981, 1982) Carp, F. (1977) "The Mobility of Retired People", in The  Later Years, Ed. R. Kalish, Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc. Epstein, D. (1976) Retirement Housing in Urban Neighbourhoods. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Institute of Urban Studies - University of Winnipeg. Fox, P. (1981) Longterm Care: Background and Future Directions. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing O f f i c e . Freeman, J. (1972) Elderly Drivers; Growing Number and Growing Problems, G e r i a t r i c s , 27. Gelwicks, L. (1970) "Home Range and Use of Space by our Aging Population", in Spatial Behaviour of Older  People. Ed. L. Pastalan and D. Carson. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Feldman, A. and Newcomer, R. (1971) Report on Older Population: Needs, Resources, Services. Los Angeles: Gerontology Center, University of Southern C a l i f o r n i a . Page 122 George, L. (1979) The"Gerontologi s t , 19, A p r i l . G i l l a n , J. and Wachs, M. (1976) L i f e s t y l e s and Transportation Needs of the Elderly in Los Angeles. Transportation, March, 5(11). Golant, S. (1972) The Residential Location and Spatial Behaviour of the Elderly, No. 143 Chicago: University of Chicago - Department of Geography. ' ( 1976) "Intraurban Transportation Needs and Problems of the Elderly" in Community Planning for an  Aging Society. Ed. M. Lawton, R. Newcomer, and T. Byerts. Stroudsbury, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc. Gordon, S. and Shirasawa, K. (1979) "Transportation System Analysis Techniques" in Planning For The E l d e r l y . Ed. V. Regnier. Los Angeles: The University of Southern C a l i f o r n i a Press. Granger, B. (1978) "Health Care for Old People: Planner Advocacy". Planning Comment, Vol. 13, n.112, July. Gutman, G. and Stark, A. (1978) Ah Analysis of Selected Longterm Care Data by Level of Care: Ori g i n a l and New C l i e n t s , Units"A +'B Report n. 5. Vancouver: Division of Health Services, Research and Development, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Hastings, M. (1981) Along the Way. 2nd ed. Cloverdale, B.C.: D.W. Friesen and Sons Ltd. Hogg, G. (1984) Personal interview with the Mayor on issues raised during group interview sessions with White Rock elde r l y residents. White Rock, B.C.: August. Howell, S. (1976) "Site Selection and the Elderly" in Community"Planning for an Aging Society. Ed. M. Lawton, R. Newcomer, and T. Byerts. Stroudsbury, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchison and Ross, Inc. Hrysko, P. ed. (1983) "White Rock and Area". Your Chamber of Commerce Presents Vol. 4, n.l Surrey, B.C.: Canadian West Coast Publishers Ltd. Huhtala, K. (1984) Personal interview on zoning in Vancouver with c i t y planner, Vancouver, B.C.: September. Huffman, E. (1977) Housing and Social Services'for the  Elde r l y . New York: Praeger Publishers, Inc. Page 123 Janczewski, D. (1984) Personal interview with c i t y planner on issues raised during group interview sessions with White Rock elderly residents, Vancouver, B.C.: July. Kraus, E. and M i l l e r S. (1974) Social Research Design. London: Longman. Langford, M. (1962) Community Aspects' of Housing for the  Aged. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Lawton, M. (1976) "Homogeneity and Heterogeneity in Housing for the Elderly" in Community Planning for an Aging  Society. Ed. M. Lawton, R. Newcomer and T. Byerts. Stroudsbury, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc. ' ' ' ' and Byerts T. (1977) "Planning Physical Space", in The Later' Years. Ed. R. Kalish, Belmont. C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc. Libow, L. (1971) "Older People's Medical and Physiological C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " , in Transportation and Aging. Ed. E. C a n t i l l i and J. Schmelzer, Washington, D.C: Government Printing O f f i c e . Lofland, J. (1971) Analysing Social Settings. Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc. Mathieu, J. (1976) "Housing Preferences and Sa t i s f a c t i o n s " , in Community Planning for An Aging Society. Ed. M. Lawton, R. Newcomer and T. Byerts. Stroudsbury, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc. Malozemoff I. et a l . (1978) Housing for the Eld e r l y :  Evaluation of' the Effectiveness'of Congregate • Residences. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. Markovitz, J. (1971) "Transportation Needs of the Elderly". T r a f f i c Quarterly, Vol. 25, N. 2. Messer, M. (1967) "The P o s s i b i l i t y of an Age-Concentrated Environment Becoming a Normative System", The Gerontologi st, 7. Michelson, W. (1970) Man and"His Urban Environment: A  Soci o l o g i c a l Approach. Reading: Addison-Wesley. M i l l a s , A. (1980) "Planning for the Elderly within the context of a Neighbourhood". E k l s t i e s , 47, July/August. Page 124 (1974b) "The Effects of Environmental Incentives and Delineators in the Use and Cognition of Neighbourhood Areas", paper presented at the 27th annual meeting of the Gerontological Society, Portland, Oregon. and Gonda, G. (1981) "Aging Households: Environmental and Psychological Factors Associated with Choosing a Residential Location", in An Aging Population in Aging Communities, v o l . 1, Ed. K. Buttedahl, Vancouver: UBC Centre for Human Settlements. Richmond Planning Department (1982) Senior C i t i z e n Survey. Compiled by C. Morrison, Richmond, B.C.: Livingspace Research. Rosenberg, G. (1970) The Worker Grows Old. San Francisco, C a l i f o r n i a : Gossey-Bass. Rosow, I. (1967) Social Integration of"the Aged. New York: Free Press. Rowles, G. and Ohta, R. (1983) "Emergent Themes and New Directions: Reflection on Aging and Milieu Research" in Aging and Milie u . Eds. Rowles and Ohta. New York: Academic Press, Inc. Runcie, J. (1980) Experiencing Social'Research. Homewood, I l l i n o i s : Dorsey Press. Segalowitz, E. (1981) Planning for an Aging Society, Toronto: Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Ryerson Poly-technical I n s t i t u t e . Shulman, Norman (1980) "Housing for the Elderly" in Research  Issues in Aging. Ed. R. Bayne, Toronto: Gerontology Research Council of Ontario. Stone, D. (1984) Personal interview with Director of Parks and Recreation on cost-sharing arrangement between the municipalities of White Rock and Surrey. White Rock, B.C.: September. U.S. Department of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration (1976) Ef f e c t i v e C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n  in Transportation Planning. Washington, D.C: S o c i a l -Economic Studies Division. Wachs, M. (1981) " L i f e s t y l e s and Transportation Patterns of the Elderly: An Empirical Study of Los Angeles", in Aging Population in Aging Communities, Vol. 11, Ed. K. Buttedahl, Vancouver: UBC Centre for Human Settlements. Page 126 White Rock Planning Department (1978) Population Projection/Social P r o f i l e for the City of White Rock. Compiled by A. Cowie, Vancouver, B.C.: The Eikos Group Inc. White Rock Planning Department (1982) Memorandum - 1981 Census of Canada. Compiled by D. Janczewski, Vancouver, B.C.: The Eikos Group Inc. White Rock Planning Department ( 1980) O f f i c i a l Community Plan. Compiled by D. Janczewski, Vancouver, B.C.: Eikos Planning and Environmental Design Group. Weiss, S. et a l . ( 197 4) Evaluation of New Communities, Selected Preliminary Findings. Chapel H i l l , NC: Center for Urban and Regional Studies. Wilson, J. (1981) Response to An Aging Population in Aging  Communities, Vol. 1, Ed. K. Buttedahl, Vancouver, B.C.: UBC Centre for Human Settlements. Wiseman, R. (1981) "Community Environments for the Elderly" in The Dynamics of Aging. Eds. F. Berghorn and D. Schafer. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, Inc. Wylie, M. (1976) "New Communities" in Community Planning  for an Aging Society. Ed. M. Lawton, R. Newcomer, and T. Byerts: Stroudsbury, Pennsylvania: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc. Yeates, M. (1978) "The Future Urban Requirements of Canada's Elderly". Plan Canada, V. 18, No. 1, June. Z e i s e l , J. (1981) inquiry by Design. Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth, Inc. Page 127 

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